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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

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Received ;.U/..i:.^l<t/>^/..C.y^/.ii>.. 

Title, — :Lj.xs^\ ,^.6tfc:*^*..T«r:it.rr:s>.., 

Binding,..^ ^^l^lff^.*^ Z^fifa(r:..^T 

Owner, Jil^...^..Ji/.f:xi>t,S^S%<Xt..1^rt- 

Residence, „ 

Cost, 

1 





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/To BUbHcribers in 
( the county. 



f CITY U9T 

Lane Agri & Ilorlioiiltural 

3^i'fJ -w-i-i^^'io CENTS. 



To BubBoribern out of > dri OC5 
the county. (' Cpl.^O. 




Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, JANUARY 15, 1877. 



LINNiEUS EATHVON, PuMisher. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 




imir 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Hade a promiiient feature, with special reference to the 
wants of the Farmer, the Gardener and Fruit-Grower. 



Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited Tjy Trof. S. S. EATHVON. 



The Lancastrh Farmer having completed its eighth 
year under various viciseitudes, now commences its ninth 
volume' under, it is hoped, more favorable auspiceB than 
attended its former volumcB. When the publishers of the 
last two volumes assumed the responsibilities of its publi- 
cation, it WU8 with a determinatiou to make such iinprove- 
meuts HS would place the farmer's organ of tins gieat iipri- 
cnltural county in the very front rank of agricultural jour- 
nalism. That this has been accompliBlied wo think our 
readers will bear cheerful teetimony. If reason bly sus- 
tained, our aim is to make it stiD more interesting and iu- 
Btructive under te new proprietorship. In this, however, 
we need the co-operation of every friend of the enterprise. 

The contributions of our able editor, Prof. Uathvon, on 
subjects connected with the science of farming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he is bo thoroughly a master — 
entomological science— some knowledge of which has become 
a necessity to the successful farmer, are alone worth much 
more than the price of this publication. 

The Farmer will be published on the 15th of every 
month, printed on good paper with clear type, in con- 
venient form for reiuling and binding, and mailed to sub- 
Bcribers on the following 

TERMS : 

To Bubscribers residing within the county — 
One Copy, one year, ---.-. $i.oo 

Six Copies, one year, - - , . . _ 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year. -----_. 7.50 

To subscribers outside of Lancaster county, including 
postage pre-paid by the publishers : 
One Copy, one year, - ----- $1.25 

Five Copies, one year, - . . - . . 5.00 

All subscriptions will commence with the January num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All cuminunications intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
in his hands by the first of the month of publication. 

All business letters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tisements, should be addressed to the pubUsher. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



LINNiEUS RATHVON, 

32 South Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



RATES OF ADTERTISING — Ten Cents « 
line for each Insertion. TweWe lines to the inoh. 



To the Public, 1 

To our Readers, .-.--- 1 

After Thoughts, 1 

Sparrows, .---•-- 2 
Parsnips, ...-----2 

Green Manuriug. A. B. K., - - - - 2 

Essay on Tobacco Culture. Pbter 8. Rbist. - 3 

The Care of Hogs. John B. Ebb. . . 3 

The Tarn— Sweet Potato. Old Cultivator. - 4 

AreForests aBenefittoFruit-Growing. L.S.R. - 4 

Egypt, ..--.-.. 4 

Twenty Millions in Beef, .... 5 

Blackberries, --.....6 

Choice Winter Flowers, ..... 7 

French Land Owners, -.---- 8 

A Model Farm, ....... 9 

Clearing Land by Dynamite, .... 9 

Farming vs. Profession, - . . . . 9 

Pennsylvania State AgricuU.ural Society, - - 9 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Association, - 10 

Our Local Organizations, ----- 11 

Proceedinge of the Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticnltnral Society. 

Tobacco Growers' Association, ... 13 

The Linnasan Society, ------ lH 

Recipe for Cleaning Wool, - - - . 12 

Poetry— To My Friend Lena. MaryL.Groff. - 13 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Bread Making, ..13 

A Word to Housewives, ..... 13 

How to Pour Tea, - 13 

Origin of Dessert, ...... 13 

Valuable Recipes, -.-... 13 

LIVE STOCK. 

Hens in Winter, - - ..... 13 

Raise Your own Cows, ----- 14 

Ayrshire Cows, - .--... 14 

The Leghorn Fowls, .... - 14 

Facilitating Draught of Horses, - - - - 14 

How to Buy a Horse, . - ... 14 
Farm Horses, -------14 

Balky Horses ------- 14 

Management of Geese, - - - - .14 

Rats and Mice, ------ 14 

Salt for Chickens, - 15 

Feed Horses Regularly, . - ... 15 

Make Feed Raeks, ...... 15 

To Keep Chickens Clean, - - - - 15 

Safeguards Against Rats, - - - . . 15 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Lime as a Fertilizer, 15 

A Broadway Farm, -....- 15 

Sowing Clover on Grass, .... - 15 

Good Yield of Corn, --.... 16 

HORTICULTURAL. 

8orae Hints on Grafting, ..... 15 

Snecession of Fruits, --.... 15 

Heat for House Plants, ..... 16 

Thinning Fru t, 16 

Tar on Fruit Trees, 16 

Grafting Currants, ...... 16 

Apples in England, ------ 16 

Literary Notices, ...... 16 

Advertisements. - - - - - ii, iii, iv 



THE PUBLISHER TO THE PEOPLE. 

Having assumed the publication of the Lan- 
caster Farmer in obedience to the wishes of 
many of its former friends and patrons, I 
confidently look to the agricultural com- 
munity in general, and to Lancaster county in 
particular ,f or those supports, in subscriptions, 
contributions, advertisements, and moral in- 
fluence, which are the essential elements to 
success in any enterprise. I have undertaken 
the task before me at a period of great busi- 
ness depression thi-oughout our wide extended 
country, and my main object in doing so — 
aside from the moral necessity of having a 
local journal as a representative of the farm- 
ing interest of our great county— is to fur- 
nish just so much more labor to a mechanical 
interest which is acknowledged as — " the art 
preservative of all arts" — and which hasteen 
sorely aft'ected by the present stringency of the 
times. 

The friends of progressive agriculture in 
tlie county and elsewhere feel confident that 
a local journal devoted to their calling, con, 
and owg^t. to be sustained; and whatever ef- 
fort of mine may be necessary in making it 
creditable to the profession, to the people, and 
to our rich agricultural domain, will be faith- 
fully and unstintingly accorded. I am sure I 
have the loill and I believe I have the ftbilily 
to meet the expectations of its friends and 
patrons, if I am sustained by those material 
means through which alone eitlier will or 
ability can be successfully mainfested. The 
Farmer has already attained an advanced 
position in the ranks of agricultiu-al journal- 
ism, and I propose to improve it as a rapidly 
as the sustaining means will possibly allow. 
Therefore, if it fails to meet the requirements 
of its patrons and the community, it will not 
be for a lack of effort on the part of either its 
editor or its publisher. All communication 
and contributions should be addressed to the 
editor. No. 101 North Queen Street, Lancas- 
ter, Pa; and subscriptions and advertisements 
may be sent, either to the same address, or to 
the publisher, No. 22, South Queen street, 
office of the Examiner and Express. 

LiNN.«;us Rathvon. 



We call the attention of our readers to 
our scale of adtxrtisiwj in another column of 
this issue of our journal ; and also to the ad- 
ditional fact that our subscription list has 
been greatly enlarged ; and con.sequently, our 
efficiency as an advertising medium has cor- 
respondingly increased. All having articles 
for sale, and that they wish brought to the 
notice of the public, will find that through 
our columns, they will reach as staunch a 
class of people as any in the country ; and 
therefore it will be to their interest to make 
use of them in making their wants known, 
either in buying or in selling. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Tr>EI«i>i«TI.V.4NIA H 

1 Traius LEAVE the Dep 

WE TWAUD. 
Pacific Eipreas" 


.AII,R0.40 

ot in this city, 

Leave 

Lancaster. 

2:40 a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 

9:40 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:20 a.m. 
11:29 a.m. 

1:55 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

6:10 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

9:25 p. m. 
11:30 p. m. 

Lancaster. 
12:40 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 

9.28 a. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

3:05 p.m. 

5:50 p. m. 


SCIIEDVI.K 

18 follows : 
Arrive 
Harrisburg. 








10-40 a m 


York Accommodation. ... 
Mail train via Mt. Joy 


Col. 10:10 a, m 

1:00 p. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

1:.30 p. m. 

3:10 p. m. 
Col. 2:35 p. m 

8:10 p. m. 

8:00 p. m. 

8:40 p. m. 
10:.50 p. m. 
12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 
3:10 a m 


Sunday Mail 


Fast Line' 

Frederick Accommodation. 


Columbia .Accommodation.. 
Earriebuig Express 


Cincinnati Express* 

EASTWARD. 


Philadelphia ExpresBt 

Harrieburg ExpresB 

Columbia Accommodation.. 
Pacific Exijress* 


7:00 a. m. 
10:00 a. m. 
12:30 p. m. 

3:45 p.m. 

5:00 p. m. 

6:00 p. m. 

9:00 p. m. 




Johnstown Express 

Harrisburg Accom 



The York Accommodation, west, conuects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connectsat Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 1:55 p. m., and runs through to 
Frederick without change of cars. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabetbtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
ville. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuna daily, except Monday. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Vinea, Plants, Bulbs, Roses, Honey Locust »nd Osage 
Orange, very fine 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR AND CHERRY TREES, 

A splendid lot of 
SIL,TEK AIKB i^VeAR BIAPIL,E9 

for shade trees. Fine Eterqrben and 8hbi7BBERT. 
Address B.. M. BltGLJS S: SO:y, 

»-l-2m. Marietta, Pa. 

SIGN OP THE 

BOOKS, STATIOBTERT, 

Gold Pens, Fancy Goods, School, College, Law, Theological, 
Medical and Miscellaneous Books. Subecriptions for all 

PERIODICALS, MAGAZINES AND PAPERS 

at Publishers prices. 

J. M. WEKTHAEFFER, 

V-l-2m 57 North Queen Street. 



A. N. BRENEMAN, Jr., 

MANUFACTUBEE OF 



FRENCH CALF BOOTS 

FOR 

OENTl.EMESr. 



FRENCH KID BOOTS 

FOR 

L,AI>IES. 



No. 36 West King Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



DUNBAR'S CHILD'S SHOES 
9-l-ly 



A SPECIALTY. 



TO CONSUMPTIVES. 

The adverti4er having been permanently cured of that 
dread dinease, Consumption, by a Bimjile remedy, is anxious 
to make known to his fellow suffereis the means of cure. 
To all who desire it. he will send a copy of the prescription 
used, (free of charge), with the directions for preparing and 
using the same, which they will find a sure Cure for Con- 
sumption, Asthma, Bronchitis, Aic. 

Parties wishing the prescription will please address, 

Rev. E. A. WILSON, 194 Peun St.. Williamsburg, N. Y. 
9-l~fim] 

e'^e^^g**^e\?n Broom -Corn. 

A new variety, never gets red. Long, straight, and free 
from curl. Ripens early, yields better, and will bring \^ 
more than any other kind. Bv mail, 50c per qt.; by express, 
$1.50 per peck; $4 per bushel.' Address SAMUEL WILSON. 
Mechanicsville, Bucks Co., Pa. [9-1-^t 



NOKPARETL FARM MILLS 



For criudiog CORN and COB CORN-MEAL. OATS. 
ornnv kind of Grain, eoarte OT firu ; 10 SIZES, forHAi^D 
or POWI^R. V :utlrnlfii Pam.ph''t Frf. 

Ij. J. MliLER. 181 E. Front St.. Cindnnatl, O. 

BRRORS OF YOUTH. 

A GENTLEMAN who suffered for years from Nervous 
Debility, Premature Decay, and all tbe effects of youth- 
ful indiscietiou will, far the sake of suffering humanity, 
send free to all who need it, the receipt and direction for 
making the simple jemedy by which he wiis cured. Sufl'er- 
ers wishing to profit by the advertiser's experience can do 
80 by addressing in perfect contidence, 
9-l-6m] JOHN B. OODEN, 42 Cedar St., New York. 

CTTTTrp T?T3T?PT ^^^ you mention this 

uJulN i r XbJZjiJ ! P^/^-ER, a circular of ANEEE'S 

KiNQ OATS. Address J. H. ANDRI, BiDglam's, Tioga CO.. N. Y. 

9-1 

SEND 25c. to G. P. ROWELL & CO., New York, for Pam- 
phlet of 100 pages, containing lists of 3,000 newspapers, 
and estimates showing cost of advertising. 



BEST HOLIDAY GIFT. 

Of Constant and Permanent Value. 
THE BEST ENGLISH DICTIONARY. 






"iSlTlONAFX. 

WEBSTER'S Unabridged. 

" Every farmer should give hie soi 8 two or three square 
rods of ground, well prepared, with the avails ot which 
they may buy it. Every in<>c9ianic should put a receiving 
box In some conspicuous place iu the house, to catch the 
stray pennies for the like purpose . 

"Lay it upon your table by the side of the Bible -it is a 
better expounder than many which cliiim to be expounders. 
It is a great labor-saver — it has saved bs time enough iu 
one year's use to pay for itself; and that must be good 
property which will clear itself once a ye?LY."— Massachusetts 
Life Boat. 

Four Pages Colored Plates. 

M ERRIA9IS, Publishers. Sold everywhere. 




PATENTS 

OBTAIKEB BEST AM CHEAPEST BY 

LOUIS BAGGER & CO. 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS. 



itW Address aU letters to P. O. Box 444. 



7-3-12m 



THOS. M. HARVEY, 

WEST GROVE, CHESTER CO., PA., 

Rreedor and Shipper of 

GnEEMSEYISaBDTTER STOCK, 

Yorkshire and Berkshire Pigs. 

Dark Brahma Chickens from the best imported 
blood. Also Bronze Turkeys. 



PUBLIC SALE BILLS 
FOR REAL ESTATE OR PERSONAL PROKERTY, 
Printed expeditiously and cheap at the ofBce of 

THE LANCASTER FABMER. 



Rates »f Advertisings in the Farmer. S 

8 in. 



1 mo.... 
3 mo.... 

3 mo 

4 ino 

6 mo 

5 mo 

1 year. 



1 iu. 1 '2 iu. 


3iu. 


4 in. 


5iu. 


$1.00l$ 2.00 


$ 3.00 


% 4.00 


$ 6.00 


2 00 


4.00 


6.00 


.3.00 


12. Oo 


2.60 


4.50 


6.76 


10.00 


13.50 


3.00 


6.00 


9.00 


12.00 


18.00 


4.50 


9.00 


13.60 


IS. 00 


27.00 


6.00 


12.00 


18.00 


24.00 


36.0) 


9,00 


18.00 


2T.C0 


30.00 


54.00 



$ 8.00 
16.00 
18.00 
24.00 
36.00 
48.00 
72 00 



II^~Siiiecial and^buBiness notices 15 cents per line. 



* i 
% = 

|b 

a 

a 



"automatic 
Knitter 




3 

- ? 

' » 
5 I 



A Family Knitting Machine. 

Now attracting universal attention by its astoriBhing per- 
formancea and its great practical value for every-day family 
use. It knita every poBsible variety of plain or fancy work 

■WITH ALMOST MAGICAL SPEED, 

and gives perfect shape and finish to all garments. \\ will 

knit a pair of socks in fifteen minutes 1 Every machiuA 

WARKANTED perfect, and to do Just what ia represeTited^ 

A complete instruction book accompanies each machine. 

No. 1 Family Machine. 1 cylinder, 72 needles, $30. 

No. 3 '* -'2 " 72 & 100 •' 40. 

A sample machine will be sent to any part of the United 

States or Canada, (where we have no agent) express chargM 

prepaid, on receipt of the price. 

AoKNTS wanted in every State, County, City and Toim, 
to whom very liberal discounts will be made. Address, 
BICKFORD KNITTING MACHINE MFG. CO., 
7-11-tf] Sole Manufacturers, Brattleboro, T*. 



DBAXBBS IN ALL KINDS OP 

FAMILT and I.I91E-B17RNINO COAI.1 

Orders received at 

Office, No. 15 East King street, ?nd at the 
8-l-12m] Yard, No. 618 NORTH PRINCE STREET. 



GEORGE D. SPRECHER, 

DEALER IN ALL KINDS OF 

OFFICE : 

No. 15 EAST KING STREET, 

8-l-12m LANCASTER, PA. 



ROOT'S 

fl- arden JVf anual. 

Is filled with topics of interest to every owner of a garden — 
is POINTED, PRACTICAL and THOROUGH, and contains 
one-half as much as $1.50 books on the subject. GARDEN- 
EKS throughout the couutry commend its practical labor- 
saviug methods as invaluable to them. 

C^^^Sent for lU cents, which will be allowed on the first 
order for seeds. Address, 

J. B. ROOT, Seed Grower, 

ROCKFORD, Illinois 



Peabody House 

COR, OF LOCUST AND NINTH 8TS., 

PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



Convenient to all places of amusement and car lines in 
the city. No changes to and from the Centennial grounds. 

Col. Watson, proprietor of the Henry House, Cinciimati, 
for the past twenty years, and present proprietor, has leased 
the house for a term of years, aud has newly furnished and 
fitted it throughout. He will keep a strictly first-class house, 
and has accommodation for 300 guests. Terms, only $3 
per day. 

No bar has ever been kept in the Henby HotrsE, nor will 
any be kept at the Peabody. 8-6-5 

GOOD SEEDS, GROWN WITH CARE, FROM Se- 
lected Stocks, always pay. Try mine. Catalogue free. 
J. B. V. HAWKINS, Goshen, N. Y. 



" THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION."— WEBSTER. 






A MONTHLY JOURNAL: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTO- 
MOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND GENERAL 

MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME IX.-1877, 



i_aMt>f 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

LINN,<EUS RATHVON, PUBLISHER. 

1877, 



CONTENTS! OF VOLUME NINE. 



AfleiTlioiifchte, 1 

Are Forests a Beuetit to Fruit Grow- 
in;; ? -t 

A Moelel Farm, 9 
A WorJ to Ilousewifes, 13 
Ayrceliire Cows, 14, 58, 79 
A Broadway Farm, 15 

Apples iu Eiislaud, 10 

A Special Ajipeal, 17 

A Successful Farm Operation, ^9 

A Momentous Question, 33 

Ants ami Ant-eaters, o5 

A Queer Calf, 48 

April, 49 

Answers to Correspondents, 53 

Annual Address, 54 

A Xew A^frieultural Plant, 63 

A Kemiiider, <J3 

American Vomological Society, 60 

A Voice from the South, 65 

Aijrieultural and Horticultural Socie- 
ty, 73, <)l), WO, 187 

A Farm that Kuined the Owner, 77 

A Wonderful Book, 81 

A Xew Insecticide, 82 

A Lcssou AVorth Learning, 83 

A Cholera Cure, 83 

Aliout Froffs, 84 

Archaeological Communication, 87 

At the Head of His Class, 89 

A Hood Fertilizer, 92 

About Milk, 94 

Against the World, 95 

A Word of Caution, 95 

A Bettor Civilization, 97 

Abiix — Spruce Fir, 102 

A Farm Roller, 108 

Apples and the WayTto Keep Them, 
109 

American Fruit iu F.urope, 109, 141, 
UK) 

A Milk Diet, 110 

A Good Mare, 110 

All 81 vies of Chicken Coops, 112 

A Muddled Tolwcco Leaf, 114 

Apple-tree Insects, 116 

Adulteration of the Necessaries of 
Life, 119 

A Bountiful Harvest, 127 

A SiUKUlar Potato, 132 

Artiticial Butter, 133 

Around the Farm, 134, 153, 16S 

A Propagating Secret, 140 

A Lanih with a Cow Mother, 142 

Age of Sheep, 142 

A Beet Hard to Beat, 146 

American Pomological Convention, 
165 

Autumnal Coloration of Leaves, 169 

A Root Cellar or House, 175 

A Cheap Smokehouse, 175 

Advice to Drivers, 79 

Au Admiralilc School Book, 177 

Around the Farm, 180 

Address, 181 

Age of Nursery Trees, 190 

A Cure for Diptherla, 191 

Blackberries, 6 

Bread^Iakidg, 13 

Balky Horses, 14 

Hy Uail to Frederick, Md., 21 

Build Bird-houses, 21 

Baked Corn and Eggs, 26 

Boiled Dinners, tO 

Blue Glass. 33 

Bottle Grafting, 45 

Bitter Cream, 47 

Better Prices for Seed-Leaf, 60 

Book-Keeping by Farmers, 70 

Bee Keepers' Association, 75 

Beef Extract, 78 

Barn Wash, 78 

Birds vs. Hopijers, 85 

Blackberry Culture, 93, 109 

Black Teeth in Hogs, 110 

Bees-Wax, 111 " 

Budding, 117 

Black Bass and Bass-Bait, 131 



Bafand Bot-Flies, 142 

Bees Stinging Fruit, 145 

Buy Your Trees at Home, 163 

Blue Glass, 41 

Breeding of Silk- Worms, 25 

Buckeye Grain Drill, 133 

Bark-Lice, 178 

Budding, 190 

Choice Winter Flowers, 7 

Clearing Land by Dynamite, 9 

Cultivation of Clilckory, 29, .36 

Covering of Strawberries, 29 

Coldslaw, 33 

"Collier," 37 

Corn Fodder, 45 

Celery, 40 

Care of Dairy Cows, 48, 79 

Crowded Out, 50 

Corn Cultivation, 57 

Culture of Broom Corn, 77 

Clean Out the Weeds, 77 

Cherries, 77 

Cleaning Silk, 78 

Chickens Fit to Eat, 79 

Cure for Chicken Cholera, 80 

Cress, 82 

Correction, 85 

Compost for Corn, 93 

Changing the Bearing Year, 93 

Correspondence, 100 

Crops iu North Carolina, 102 

Cutting and Curing Tobacco, 105 

Culture of Tobacco, 105 

Carting Out Manure, 108 

Cut the Weeds While Small, 108 

Catching H.iwks, 113 

Colorado Beetle in England, 116 

Cultivating Wheat, 127 

Culinary Contributions, 132 

Compost, 140 

Coal Ashes, 140 

Cracking Pears, 140 

Cleaning Feathers, 141 

Cleanse the Manger, 142 

Codling Moth, 143 

Change of Color or Moult, 143 

Caponizing, 144 

Chicken Cholera, 144 

Cattle Disease, 148 

Convenience, 1.59 

Charcoal and Lime, 100 

Continental Strawberry, 149 

Cinderella Strawberry, 166 

Care of Slock, 176 

Cooked Meat for Poultry, 176 

Cleaning the Hen-house, 176 

Clubbing, 177 

Curing Meats, 187 

Cracked Pears, 190 

Caring for Stock, 191 

Canada Cheese, 191 

Domesticating the Buffalo, 48 

Does the Water Strike Through? 70 

Does Buckwheat Poison Sheep? 79 

Durham Cows, 79 

Don't Omit the Turnips, 93 

Dried Potatoes, 94 

Dried Eggs, 110 

Dead-Shot onlPoultry Lice, 112 

Does it Rain Toads? 115 

Does the Shad Bite, or Take a Bait? 117 

Ducks— Setting Eggs and Rearing 

Young, 123 
Description of a Roman Coin, 134 
Dew and its Cause, 136 
Do Swallows Emigrate? 140 
Do Bees Cut the Skins of Fruit? 161 
Domestic Recipes, 175 
Devon Cattle, 176 
Essay on Tobacco Culture, 3 
Egypt, 4 
Experiments on Nutrition of Domestic 

Animals, SI 
Early Spring Salads, 45 
Exports of Tobacco from New York, 

76 
Essay on Wheat, 86 
Effects of Climate on Soil, 93 



Extcrmiu.ation of Parasites, 95 

Explanation, 98 

Echoes from the Public Press, 100 

Extracted Honey, 111 

Effects of Cold Storms on Poultry, 111, 

143 
Eggs and Ways of Using Them, 143 
Errors in Poultry Keeping, 144 
Efl'ect of Tea on the Skin, 159 
"England's Imports, 174 
Eggs fur Export, 176 
Early Prolific Raspberry, 181 
Economy in the Use of Fuel, 191 
Extravagance, 191 
French Land Owners, 8 
Farming vs. Profession, 9 
Facilitating Draught of Horses, 14 
Farm Horses, 14 
Feed Horses Regularly, 15 
Fish, Flesh and Fowl, ilO 
Farmers vs. Sportsmen, 32 
Fruits of Kansas, 30 
Farm Sacks 00 Years Old, 46 
Facts Worth Remembering, 40 
Fruit as a Medicine, 47 
Food for Fowls, 47 
Feeding Fowls, 47 
Fattening Poultry, 47 
Fine Test Potatoes, 50 
Fertilization, Preventive and Cure, 50 
Florida and its Oranges, 04 
Farm Profits in America, 77 
Fruit Prospects, 78 
Fencing and Soiling, 38 
Farmers Grindstone, 94 
From Nebraska, 102 
Floating Melon Gardens, 109 
Flemish Beauty Pear, 135 
Fall Plowing, 140 
Full Feeding, 142 
Farmers and the Country, 145 
Fine Tobacco Leaves, 146 
Forests, Their Destruction, &c., 152 
Forests and Kain-fall, 170 
Freshman vS Brothers, 110 
From North Carolina, 179 
Facts not Generally Known, 186 
Forest Planting in France, 190 
Green Manuring, 2 
Good Yield of Corn, 15 
Grafting Currants, 16, 30 
General Readers, 17 
Golden Rules for Bee-Keeping, 32, 43 
Garget iu Cows, 95 
Gapes in Chickens, 90 
Good Cows, 110 
Grammar in a Nutshell, 115 
Gapes, 144 

Gravenatein Apple, 151 
Grafting and Its Effects, 15S 
Good Farming, 174 
Grapes and Bees, ISO 
Gypsum, 183 
Grape Yield in Ohio, 190 
How to Pour Tea, 13 
Hens in Winter, 13 
How to Buy a Horse, 14 
Heat for House-plants, 16 
Hog Cholera, 25 
How to Make a Hot-bed, SO 
Handy Men, 30 
Healthful Beds, 31 
Horse-Growers, 31 
Hell's Ten Acres, 33 
Hay for Hens, 39 
Harrowing Wheat in Spring, 45 
How Much Lime to an Acre, 56 
Hints to Farmers, 63 
How Shall we Know How to Plant? 69 
How Lancaster County Forced to the 

Front , 76 
Haying, 77 
Horse Hay-fork, 83 
How to Ease a Cough, 53 
Hungarian Millet, 93 
Hot Beds, 93 
Household Recipes, 78, 94, 109, 127, 

141, 159, 191 



Hanging au A.vc, 94 

Healthy Cattle, 94 

Half-bred Buffaloes iu the Dairy, 95 

How to Keeji Our Boys at Home, 100 

How to Begin Bee-Keeping, 111 

Have No Lights in the Barn, 128 

Humbugs, Swindles, Frauds, 6ci;., 135 

How to Have Healthy Pigs, 142 

How to Fit Horse-Collars, 14i 

How the Price of Cows has Risen, 142 

Hard Times, 1.53 

Home Manures, 158 

Hungarian (irass, 158 

Hints to Tobaccd-Growers, 158 

How to Break Colts, 159 

How to (irow Pi^rs, 1.59 

How to Make a Well, 1G3 

How to Make Paris Green, 165 

Horticulture and Education, 107 

Hubbardston Non-Such, 163 

How to Keep Cabbage, 175 

Hay Tea for Calves, 175 

How Long Will the Forests Last ? 18:« 

How Jacob Taylor Grows Plums, 190 

Influence of Reading, 23 

Ink for Horticultural Labels, 30 

Insects as Food, 40 

Incidental Suggestions, 71 

Is Wheat Culture Declining.' 70 

Intelligence of Cows, 110 

Italian and Native Bees, 111 

Industry of Ants, 143 

Italian vs. Black Bees, 152 

Improvement in Cultivating Wheat, 

104 
Improvement in Farming, 168 
Is Hungarian Grass Safe Feed for 

Horses? 190 
Interesting Facts, 190 
Jottings Suggested by a Circular, 41 
Japanese Persimmon, 77 
Keep Good Cows, 48 
Kerosene Lamps, 110 
Keep Horses' Feet Clean, 110 
Knowing Horses, 192 
Lime as a Fertilizer, 15 
Literary and Personal, 16, 32, 48, 64, 

80, 96, 112, 128, 14-t, 160, 170, 192 
Leak — Allium pornm, 20 
Lice on Currant Bushes, 22 
Letter from Daniel Webster, '24 
Lumps on Udders, 31 
Lettuce — Ladnva Saliva, 35 
Leading a Colt, 48 
Large or Small Potatoes, 51 
Lime and Bark-Lice, 6(5 
Lancaster County Peaches, 68 
Landscape Gardening, 73 
Liquid Mamire, 77, 108, 189 
Look at Your Orchards, 77 
Large Strawberries, 78 
Lemonade for Invalids, 78 
Look to the Chicks iu May, 79 
Lice on Poultry, SO 
Late Potato Planting, 97 
Large Farms vs. Small Farms, 102 
Legal Rates of Interest, 104 
Letter from Florida, 119 
Letter from North Carolina, 119, 153 
Lancaster Countv Agricultural and 

Horticultural' Society, U, 27, 43, 

137, 61, 73, 90, 106, 134, 155, 171 
Lime Dust, 144 
Liquid Excrement, 158 
Lancaster County Tobacco, 167 
Lancaster County Cotton, 174 
Letter from Cockej-sviUe, Md., 177 
Management of Geese, 14 
JIake Feed Racks, 15 
Managing Queens, 32 
Minnesota Wheat and Flour, 44 
Monthly Reminders, 65, 81, 147, 165 
Manuring Lands, 66 
Millions for Middlemen, 71 
Measuring Corn in Bulk, 77 
-Manure on Frozen Ground, 77 
JlUd Diet for Cattle, 79 
More about the Lociuts, 82 



IV-: 



INDEX. 



More Pollen Needed, 93 

Milk Diet, 110 

Manure for Fruit Trees, 126 

Management of Fruit Trees, 140 

Mice and Young Trees, 190 

Mr. Kurtz's Pumpkin, 178 

More about Bees, 178 

Newspaper Making, 19 

New Yoak Tobacco Trade, 76 

Nebraska Notes, 86, I'H 

New Feed — Buckeye Grain Drill, 133 

Non-Sitters, 143 

Number of Hens to a Cock, 144 

Notice Extraordinary, 161 

Nafonal Bee Keepers' Association, 

178 
Our Local Organizations, 11, 27, 43, 

61, 15.5 
Origin of Dessert, 13 
Otter of Roses, 23 
Oyster-shell Bark-louse, 67 
Origin of Prairies, 105 
Oliver Dalrymple's Farm. 131 
Our Local Organization and Ourself, 

131 
Original Seckel Pear Tree, 158 
0:a Frames, 159 
Our Delinquent Subscribers, 161 
ObUuary, 164 
Opposition to Potatoes, 189 
Our Prospects, 180 
Oleomargarine Butter, 183 
Parsnips, 2 

Penn'a State Agricultural Society, 9 
Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers' Society, 

10, 161, 177 
Poetry— To My Friend Lena, 13 
Planting and Care of Trees, 46 
Perfected Butter Color, 46 
T'itris Rapa, .53 
Pennsylvania Wheat Crop, 76 
Profit in Good Soil, 77 
Potatoes, 78 
Peas in Missouri, 78 
Profits in Almonds, 78 
Preserving Figs, 78 
Pa'nting Buildings, 78 
Pay Attention to Live Stock, 79 
Protection of Useful Animals, 83 
Prospects for Farmers, 89 
Potatoes a Profitable Crop, 93 
Poultry-Keeping by Boys, 95 
Plymouth Rock Fowls, 95, 160 
Patrons of Husbandry, 99 
Purification of Hen-houses, 111 
Potatoes Without Paris Green, 121 
Proceedings of Society, 124, 171 
Propagating Secret, 140 
Potomac Fruit-Growers' Association, 

154 
Packing Poultry for Market, 160 
Pruning Roses, 175 
Preparing Poultry for Market, 176 
Propagating Rabbits, 192 
Queen Bees, 32 
Queer Calf, 48 
Queries and Answers, 85, 101, 117, 

132, 149 
Questiins and Answers, 92 
Recipe for Cleaning Wool, 12 



Rats and Mice, 14 

Repairing Leaky Cellar Walls, 80 

Rearing Lambs by Hand, 48 

Reminder, 65 

Raising Onion Sets, 77 

Re-cooking Meat, 94 

Raising Geese, 96 

Reminder for July, 98, 115 

Report of Agricultural Department, 

108 
Raspberries from Cuttings, 109 
Refrigerators, &c., 110 
Royal Cow, 110 
Red Pepper and Poultry, 112 
Recipe for Butter, 128 
Recipe for Decorating Eggs, 147 
Rest Before Eating, 159 
Root Cellar or House, 175 
Raise Your Own Cows, 14 
Reminder for December, 178 
Sparrows, 2 
Salt for Chickens, 15 
Safeguards Against Rats, 15 
Sowing Clover on Grass, 15 
Some Hints on Grafting, 15 
Strange Substance in a Horse, 19 
Symptoms of Rabies in Dogs, 31 
Sentimentalisms, 33 
Saving Manure, 45 
Sap and Plant-Life, 56 
Shipment of Apples, 64 
Six Months for an Owl, 66 
State Board of Agriculture, 66, 92 
Shite-Poke, (Butorides Viresceus') 68 
Seed Wheat, 69 
South-west Missouri, 70, 150 
Small Fruits in Gardens, 77 
Safety From Rats and Mice, 79 
Strawberry Culture, 85 
Strawberries, 67 
Stocking and Feeding, 96 
Sweet Potatoes for Hogs, 94 
Soft Eggs, 112 

Supply Your Chickens with Milk, 112 
Strikes and Riots, 113 
State and District Fairs, 117 
State Fair, 131 
Singular Potato, 132 
Sugar Corn vs. Hungai'ian Grass, 140 
Shall Old Orchards be Plowed? 141 
Soot as a Garden Fertilizer, 141 
Setting Milk for Cream, 141 
Simple Cure for Earache, 141 
Shaker Pickles, 141 
Stumbling Horses, 142 
Smcych's Seedling Peach, 147 
Splenetic Fever, 148 
Salt as a Fertilizer, 158 
Synopsis of Crops of 1877, 104 
Special Premiums for 187S, 165 
Sour Bread, 175 
Special Premiums for 1878, 177 
Splenetic Fever of Cattle, 182 
Something About Dragon-flies, 186 
Saving Sweet Potatoes, 1K9 
Silver Hull Buckwheat, 190 
Setting Trees, 190 
To the Public, 1 
To our Readers, 1 
The Care of Hogs, 8 



The Yam Sweet Potato, 4 

Twenty Millions in Beef, 5 

Tobacco Growers' Association, 12, 27, 
62, 74, 90, 107, 173, 125, 138, 150, 
188 

The Liunsan Society, 12, 28, 63, 75, 
91, 108, 120, 139, 1.58, 173, 189 

The Leghorn Fowls, 14 

To Keep Chickens Clean, 15 

Thinning Fruit, 16 

Tar on Fruit Trees, 16 

To Subscribers, 17 

The Ayrault Cattle, 17 

The Fire-fly, 18 

The Guava, 18, 51 

Table Costumes, 18 

The Dangerous Quail, 19 

Tobacco,' 24, 46 

The Fodder Value of Apples, 29 

The English Hop Trade, 30 

The Horse-Growers, 31 

The Country, 33 

The TobEcco Worm, .37 

The Thurber Peach, 45 

Tree Planting in Minnesota, 46 

The Pekin Ducks as Layers, 47 

The Colorado Bug Abroad, 50 

The Park Association, 50 

The Weather and Grouud-Hog, 50 

The Lancaster Tobacco Crop, 60 

Transplanting Large Trees, 64 

To Advertisers, 65 

The European War, 65 

Tobacco Stems, 65 

The Seuer Apples, 68 

The Lancaster Farmer, 68 

The Exchange List, 68 

The Permanent Exhibition, 69 

The Time to Spread Manure, 77 

The Peach Crop, 78, 127 

Twenty-Ounce Apple, 78 

To Keep a Fowl House, 79 

The Moving Season, 80 

This Paragraph, 81 

The Hopper, 81 

The Seventeen- Year Locust, SI, 90 

Tobacco Pests, 85 

Toulouse Geese, 87 

The Best Method to Destroy Cut- 
worms, 87 

The Garden of Pennsylvania, 89 

Tobacco Culture, 92 

The Egg Plant, 93 

To Exterminate Parasites, 95 

The First Food for Chickens, 96 

Trees Killed liy Salt, 98 

The Elm Tree Beetle. 98 

The Horse, 103 

Thoroughbred Southdowns, 104 

Tobacco— A New Pest, 104 

The Turnip Crop, 105 

Tree Planting in Minnesota, 190 

Take Care of the Horses, 192 

To our Patrons, 177 

The Celebrated Horse, Jenifer Ara- 
bian, 177 

The Omnivorous Caterpillar, 184 

The Cherry, 185 

Ten Rules for Farmers, 186 

To Make Butter Hard, 110 



The Royal Cow, 110 

Turkeys, 112 

The Ichneumon Fly, 114 

The Locust, 115 

The Turbine Wind Engine, 118 

The Crops We Raise, "121 

Tobacco Fertilizers, 122 

The Tobacco Fly, 123 

The Grape Leaf Folder, 123, 130 

Transplanting Evergreens, 123 

Treating Manure with Lime, 127 

The Spare Bed, 128 

The Tobacco Bug, 129 

The Cucumber, 129 

The Stings of Insects, 129 

The Codling Moth, 130 

The Grape Procris, 130 

The Flemish Beauty Pear, 1.35 

The Potato-bug Abroad, 142 

The Cattle Disease, 148 

The Gravenstein Apple, 151 

The Bee-Keepers' Society, 1.57 

The Cow for Small Farms, 1.59 

To Preserve Eggs, 160 

To Our Delinquent Subscribers, 161 

The Application of Fertilizers, 166 

The Tobacco Trade, 174 

To Keep Cabbage, 175 

Unpublished Letter of Henry Clay, 53 

Utilizing Coal Dust, 63 

United States Commissioner of Agri- 

culture, 98 
Valuable Recipes, 13, 31 
"Varmints," 24 
Very Curious Experiments, 41 
Valuable Cows, 45 
Vienna Bread and CoflTee, 47 
Value of Roots for Stalks, 48 
Valuable Formulas, 63 
Value of Salt, 94 
Varieties of Celery, 109 
Vermin on Poultry, 111 
Value of Early Apples, 127 
Varieties of L.ate Turnips, 129 
Ventilation of Closets, 141 
Vii-ginia Tobacco, 190 
Wholesale Death of Honey Bees, 32 
Words of Cheer, .50 
Written Receipts by Mail, 50 
What Soil Consists Of, 63 
What the Birds Accomplish, 65 
Wheat and Chess, 77 
Water Your Cattle, 79 
Wonderful Book, 81 
Working Crops Early, 92 
Words of Caution, 95 
What is a Practical Farmer? 99 
AVar LTpon Insects, 113 
What Causes Rust in Wheat, 120 
Wheat Crop of 1877, 132 
Working Land on Shares, 140 
Watering Trees, 141 
Wax for Cans, 141 
Wheat and Its Culture, 151 
Wheat-growing in America, 1.5S 
Weight of Milk, 1.59 
Worms in Flower-pots, 175 
Water ng Horses, 191 
What Shall We Teach Our Girls? 185 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Imported Berkshire "Collier," 
Ayreshire Bull "Casper," 58 
Toulouse Geese, 87 
Southdown Sheep, 104 



37 



Apple Tree Borer, a. b. and c, 116 
Buckeye Grain Drill, 1.33 
Flemish Beauty Pe.ar, 135 
Continental Strawberry, 149 



Griivenstein ^Ppl'^i 151 
Cinderella Strawberry, 166 
Hubbardston Nonsuch Apple, 168 
Turbine Wind Engine, 118 



Game Fowls, 39 
Early Prolific Raspberry, 



181 







^ 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1877. 



Vol. K. No. L 



TO THE PUBLIC. 
The fanneis of Laiic;islfi- county, to tlieir 
own iiuiun-ishable credit, have .seemhifjly felt 
that they could not afl'oril to let their- local 
joui'ual die, without making a manly ellb.-t to 
resuscitate and sustain it ; and hence it be- 
comes our pleasing duty to announce to the 
public that their noble resolve has beeu 
crowned with a larger degree of success than 
could have been expected in the present 
peculiar and unsettled state of ihe times ; and 
hence, also, we extend to them these our 
friendly greetings. 

How often does it hap]ien that we bave a 
friend, a relative, perchance a wife or mother, 
who is quietly, perseveringly, and it may be, 
arduously laboring for our moral and phj'sieal 
comfort, but whose lalwrs we seeniijigly 
uurecjuite or unappreciate until we suddenly 
become conscious that they are about to die. 
Then they immediately are accorded a recog- 
nition that liad never been vouchsafed before ; 
then we begin to realize the vacuum in our 
social life that their absence would create ; 
then we make a frantic ellbrt to recall, restore 
and sustain them, that we had never made 
before, and which, had it been timely made 
along their rugged pathway in life, their 
health might not have become impaired, and 
their usefulness might have continued on to 
the evening of a yretn oVd wje. 

Analogous to ihis had been the life and 
pecuniary condition of the Lancaster Farmer. 
It had exhausted its constitution, and for the 
past year had been "running on the by-laws ;" 
and therefore when it became manifest that it 
was about to die, its fi'iends and patrons — the 
friends of agricultural, social and domestic 
progress — became solicitous about its appar- 
ently approaching demise. They therefore, in 
solemn conclave, vowed that it should not 
pass away from the things that ore, if their 
united ellorts could prevent it. There is a 
wonderful potency in the human will, which, 
if rightly conceived and intelligently and per- 
severingly carried out, must .avail ; and when 
tliese elements constitute its substratum, if it 
does not avail, we may clearly actpiit our- 
selves, and interpret the result as an indi- 
cation that our elVorts in the matter ought to 
submit to the dictates of astill "higher law." 
Under- these circumstances, and with a deep 
sense of our responsibilities, we again launch 
our craft upon the sea of journalism. We do 
not ask for much — we do not expect much — 
but we should greatly underestimate the far- 
■ mers of the great county of Lancaster, if we 
concluded that they could not, or would not, 
sustain a local agricultural journal among 
them. Such a conclusion, we feel, would do 
them great injustice at home, and misrepre- 
sent them al)road. 

Having then signalized the beginning of the 
second century of oiu" political being, by a 
worthy determination to sustain a local journal 
amongst them, we trust this worthy intention 
may be more than realized ; but to assure such 
a result, we look for a liberal support in the 
way of pecuniary i).atronage, Agricultural and 
Horticultural contributions, essays, communi- 
cations, and judicious selections. In short, 
we wish to reflect the moral, physical, finan- 
cial, domestic and agricultural condition of 
our growing county. We do not claim to be 
an oracle, nor a dictator in matters of rural 
industry and economy ; hence, our situation 
must necessarily be that of a Medium between 
the farmers and the public. We therefore need 
their thoughts and experiences to stamp our 
journal with that <lpgree of interest to them, 
which is so much desired by a progressive 
people. Having this support, we will see that 
their ideas are clothed in such language as will 
make them intelligible and useful, as well as 
a credit to their authors. Judging from the 



past we feel assured that they possess the in- 
tellectual and physical power to make their 
representative journal a lirst-class publication. 
It is true, that our country at this time, is de- 
piessed, and that all ourdomestic, mechanical, 
agricultural and connnercial interests are in 
travail ; but then we must remember, that the 
greatest blessings to the human family are 
often secured only tiirougli travail. It wan 
through travail a hundred years ago that our 
.s((((!(.v as a free and independent people was 
secured ; and it was through the direst travail 
that nearly nineteen hundred years ago the 
Christian religion was established on earth. 
We have reason to believe that the present 
unpropitions times are only a transition period 
that sooner or later must. pass away, and that 
a "good time is coming." The self-denial 
that each farmer will becalled upou to exercise 
will be small indeed, when it is compared with 
the good which may be done in sustaining the 
Lancaster Farmer, at so small an outlay. This 
good will live after us, and its influence will 
be felt among our children and our children's 
children down along the stream of time, and 
they will rise up and call us blessed. With 
these sentiments as our support and guide, 
and a desire to merit your favor, we emerge 
forth, hoping tliat you all may experience a 
prosperous and ^^ Happy New Year." 

TO OUR READERS. 

We are obliged to throw ourselves upon the 
kind indulgence of our friends and patrons for 
the late apperauce of our journal. Adverse 
and almost uncontrollable circumstances pre- 
vented its issue at the regular period, in the 
beginning of the year ; and then, we thought 
that the next be.st thing we could do, was to 
issue a double number, covering the months 
of January and February. But this was over- 
ruled by our friends, and the more practical 
suggestions of the publislier and his friends. 
Inorder, therefore, to cover the whole ground, 
and prevent a historical vacuujn in its .series, 
we have concluded to issue the January 
number separate, under its proper date, and 
immediately follow it with tlie February 
number. The March number will be issued 
at its regular period, and from tlience for- 
ward we expect to be regularly "on time." 

We feel that long before the end of the year, 
our patrons will have forgotten these un- 
pleasant irregularities, and that in ten or a 
lumdred years hereafter (but for this necessary 
record) "no body will be the wiser of it." We 
have received many verbal and written com- 
mendations from our brethren of the agricul- 
tural press, which it will give us pleasure to 
notice in due time ; but for the present, we 
cannot resist the impulse to express our 
hearty thanks for the kind words we have 
received from the editor of the American 
Farmer, puVilished at Xo. North street, 
Baltimore, ]Md., one of the best and most ably 
conducted agricultural jounials in the Union. 

Baltimore, 1877. 
Prof. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

Dear .Sir : I take the liberty of sayinsr that I wae 
sorry not to have the opportunity, wlien in Lancaster, 
of exprcssinsr to you, in person, the rettrot 1 feci at 
your withdraw! IViiin llie control of a journal so 
etliciently workinsr in the licld of airricultural litera- 
ture, as did the one under your editorial manage- 
ment. That important cause can ill afford to lose 
the services of nun so intellitcent, so active, and so 
disintercsted^and while no douhl it is to you, in- 
dividually, a relief, it is, to my mind, no less a dis- 
aster to the true interest of agricultural journalism ; 
in the ranks of which are too many who take up the 
work only as an expedient, or to subserve personal 
aims. Assurini; you of my great respect, I beg to 
subscribe mvseJf, very truly your friend, 

W. B. Sands. 

In conclusion, we admonish our friends who 
have subscription lists or advertisements, to 
send them in without delay. — Ed. 



AFTER THOUGHTS. 

And now, here turns up before us a postal 
card, bearing date June 1, 187.5, whicli we 
do not remember having seen before, buried 
as it has been among a multitude of letters 
and promiscuous papers, containing the fol- 
lowing : 

"The young duck swims at once, the 
young snajiping turtle bites when taken from 
the egg, and a harmless serpent, without fang 
or rattle, will vibrate its tail like a rattle 
snake, producing a similar soinid among dry 
leaves." — IIaldejian, in the Jcono'jruphic 
Fiicychpcedia, New York, 185U-zoology, p. G. 

"The Latin adjective 'exilis' means slender, 
but 'exile' is akin to 'exilium,' banishment, 
'exul,' one bayxished." 

"The Pennsylvania canal from Chickies to 
Bainbridge, and perhaps farther, has many 
dead and dying lisli, such as chubs, minnows, 
suckers, black bass; also cattish and eels, 
which seem to be hardier than the others. 
The caii.se is probably due to i)umping out 
the Lykens Valley coal mines, after the long 
strike, which allowed the waters to take up 
an unusual amount of deleterious salts and 
acids. I have been told that frogs are dying 
with the fish I" 

"The article in the Intelligencer, May 31, 
1875, does not state distinctly whether the 
ground-hog plugs his hole or not." 

None of the above paragraphs are too tran- 
sient to go on permanent record; because 
they all relate to those facts which may be 
consulted with profit at any time; notwith- 
standing they have been inhuiued for nearly 
two years. The first paragraph illustrates 
that instinctive mimicry, which also dis- 
tinguishes so luany of the the tiny subjects 
of tlie insect realm, in which they exhibit all 
the activity and intelligence of adults, the 
very moment they evolve from their pupal 
sleep. The little MirriKjaster comjregata, 
which is parasitic on the bodies of the "Giape 
Sphinxes," the moment its head protrudes 
from the upper end of its little rice-sh.Tped 
cocoon (which stands erect on the body of the 
Sphinx) begins to maniptilate its antenna as 
deftly as a "fiddler's elbow," and looks as 
briglitly and as cunningly at you as if it an- 
ticipated some sinister intent towards it; and, 
as soon as the whole body is extricated it will 
run or fly with all the agility it ever aeepiires. 
And that is not all; if the slightest drop of 
honey or treacle is placed upon a fresh leaf, 
by the aid of those same little antennte it will 
find it and appropriate it as dexterously as 
if it had been specially educated to it. And 
when its nuptials are accomplished, it knows 
exactly where to go to oviposit. 

Thesfcodd paragraph involves a philological 
(piestion that is altogether unquestionable. 

The third paragraph involves a historical 
fact, that was patent at the time, and sug- 
gests a rational conjecture as to the cause. 
Such mortalities in the animal world are fre- 
quent; and doubtless are the effects of differ- 
ent causes. During the "heated term" of 
1870 we heard of one or two such cases, as 
occurring in lakes or other large bodies of 
water, but we cannot now specifically recall 
them. 

In regard to i\\e fourth paragraph, we have 
not easy access to the record alluded to; we 
therefore, cannot recall what was said there, 
in regard to the habit of the ground-hog, in 
plugging the hole of his den during the win- 
ter season; but, in a paper of prior date, we 
made the statement (on the authority of Dr. 
John Godraau) that the ground-hog did retire 
to his winter sleep, and plug up the door of 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



entrance to his lair. Tliis was questioned 
by Mr. W. B., who states that he had explor- 
ed the burrows of one of these animals, and 
that he did not recognize anything in the 
form of a plug, by which its burrow was 
closed. This statement, to our mind, did not 
involve a question of veracity between these 
two men, both of whom were intelligent and 
also reliable. The fact is, they were both 
right. We subsequently learned that Mr. B. 
meant the hole at the outer end of the burrow, 
and doubtless Dr. Godman meant the hole at 
the inner end, and there the matter since has 
rested. Of course it would be folly to at- 
tempt to set an arljitrarj^ limit to the knowl- 
edge that is every day being developed on all 
subjects relating to natural and physical sci- 
ence, and therefore many cases must provis- 
ionally remain open subjects. 



SPARROWS. 



A man — or a simpleton — named Henry 
Euth, in Reading, Pa., professes to have dis- 
covered that the highly useful little bird — the 
English sparrow — whose almost incessant 
vocal strains impart life in our gardens, 
groves and forests, summer and winter alike, 
destroys the buds of the trees and the embryo 
fruit. He says that he has noticed the birds 
pecking the blossoms on peach trees, and that 
they have pecked the buds off other trees, so 
that they did not bear any fruit. Last year 
he had no currants, and he charges the spar- 
rows with pecking out the eyes of the bushes. 
He has no doubt they destroy the buds of 
grape vines, and he is convinced that the 
little sparrows do a great deal of harm and 
very little good, and he thinks it was a great 
mistake to import them. Having put up 
boxes for them to house in, he has torn them 
down, and now stones the sparrows whenever 
they come upon his premises. Mr. Ruth is 
entirely mistaken in his theory. He must 
have seen them pecking about the buds for 
the larvaj secreted there, and the bird may 
have injured a few buds in its efforts, but 
they do not thus subsist in winter, as he as- 
serts, on buds, but upon the larvse and insects 
secreted on the bark of trees, and feed on the 
seeds of plants and such food as may be given 
them, because they seek the haunts of civiliza- 
tion, and are great lovers of good society. In 
summer their principal fijod is insects, of 
which one will devour avast number in a day. 
One of these useful birds may be heard any 
day along the hillside in Saltsburg, uttering 
the most lively notes, the coldest morning 
never being cold enough to check the utterance 
of his ever-changing song. — Salisbury Press. 

There appear to be much " fuss and feath- 
ers" developed throughout the country in re- 
lation to the "English sparrows," but we 
opine that the people would have a more 
practical and powerful illustration of their 
benefits to the vegetable kingdom by their ab- 
sence, than by their presence. More things in 
this world are M?idfir-estimated than are over- 
estimated, and one of the former are the 
English sparrows. We distinctly remember 
the time when the small "woodpecker," 
known under the name of "sap-sucker," was 
universally and unquestionably voted a great 
enemy to the apple tree, because everybody 
professed to have seen them peck holes into 
the trunk or branshes and suck out the sap, 
and it must be confessed that there were ajj- 
pearauces which seemed to corroborate this 
opinion. But it transpired, in the course of 
time, that these little birds were in pursuit of 
insect grubs that were boring under the bark 
of the trees, to their great injury. This, we 
believe, will also become manifest in relation 
to the sparrows. Whatever the adult birds 
themselves — under a stress of circumstances — 
may be compelled to eat, still sparrows, and 
many other graniferousand frugivorous birds, 
almost invariably feed their young on slugs, 
grubs, worms, larvae, and the softer-bodied 
insects, and during a season, too, when no 
other food is accessible, and when tlie founda- 
tions of the future colonies of destructive in- 
sects are laid. In this field of use, the benefits 



of insectivorous birds are inestimable, and, if 
there never had been a bird of this character 
at all, there would not have long remained 
either fruit or vegetation. Insects are almost 
infinitely more prolific than the estimate of 
qiiails, as exhibited in another article in this 

paper. 

^ 

PARSNIP. 

Pastlnfica Stltivfl* 

According to Johnson, the botanic name 
Pastinaca, is derived from the Latin word for 
a dibble, pastinum, in allusion to the long, 
tapering shape of the root. This is a very 
hardy biennial, of which the original is prob- 
ably the common wild parsnip of southern 
Europe. In its natural state, it is of small 
size, woody and poisonous. It has been 
greatly improved by cultivation, and is at the 
present time much esteemed for culinary pur- 
poses, being found nutritious as well as whole- 
some. It is particularly valuable on account 
of its power of standing severe frost without 
injury, and continuing good for use until the 
latter part of spring. The varieties are not 
niunerous, and the IloUowed-crowned is un- 
doubtedly the best adapted to the wants of the 
family gardener. 

Culture. In regard to soil, the parsnip 
has a preference for one that is dry and 
mellow, rich and of considerable depth. A 
good sandy loam seems to be most suitable ; 
while only poor crops can be expected from a 
gravel or tenacious clay. Depth and fertility 
are particularly necessary, because thereon 
depend the length and size of the roots. In the 
latter part of autumn, or the very commenc- 
ment of spring, the ground selected for the 
bed should be spaded or trenched two spits 
deep, and if it be not sufficiently rich, some 
well decomposed manure ought to be dug in 
with the lower spit. Sea-weed, decayed forest 
leaves and bird's-dung have been highly re- 
commended as fertilizers, as being less liable 
to affect the quality of the roots, than common 
stable dung. In spading, care is to be taken 
to break up all the clods or large lumps of 
dirt, and to remove the largest stones. 

Sow in drills, twelve inches apart, in April 
or May, according to the forwardness of the 
season. One ounce of seed is sufficient for 
rather more than a rod of ground. Drop the 
seed thinly, and cover it nearly an inch deep. 
In dry weather vegetation will be hastened 
by rolling the surface of the bed, or by tread- 
ing down the drills with the feet. When the 
plants have taken a good start, they are to be 
weeded and thinned out in the drills ; but, it 
is not until they become firmly established, 
tliat they should receive their final thinning. 
To ensure the formation of large roots, they 
ought to have plenty of room, and stand not 
nearer together than six inches. It is a bad 
plan to crowd vegetables like the carrot and 
parsnip. Make frequent use of the hoe, as 
well to keep the ground free from weeds, as 
to prevent its becoming hard or baked. 

Parsnips do not attain maturity until cold 
weather is near at hand. They will be found 
fit for use as soon as the leaves decay, in the 
month of October, but their sweetness and 
agreeable flavor are much improved by frost. 
This fact is so well understood, that many 
cultivators are accustomed to let the roots re- 
main in bed through the winter ; or, at least, 
to take up only a number sufficient for the 
wants of the family while the ground is 
closed, and to harvest the balance of the crop 
in the spring. They ought to be dug very 
carefully, without being cut or bruised by the 
spade any more than is unavoidable ; and, 
for preservation, must be packed in layers of 
sand, in a shed or cool cellar. 

For seed. Some of the best plants should 
be left in the bed where grown ; or else set out 
in a border, some time during the earlj' part 
of spring. They ought to be in rows, about 
two feet apart each way. In continued dry 
weather, it will be found of advantage to 
apply water every three or four days. Lay 
the tlower-heads upon a cloth, and suffer them 
to get fully dry, before you attempt to thresh 
out the seed. 



Use. The parsnip has many valuable 
qualities, which commend it to Ijoth the 
farmer and gardener. It is thought highly of 
for feeding to domestic animals. Hogs and 
bullocks are fattened upon it in a very short 
space of time, and the flesh is considered of 
superior flavor ; while in cows it produces an 
extraordinary yield of milk, having a rich 
color, and affording butter of an excellent 
quality. Its cliaracter in the kitchen is well 
established. Although disliked by some per- 
sons on account of its peculiar sweetish taste, 
it is certainly wholesome, and proves very ac- 
ceptable at that season of the year when in 
perfection, and when other vegetables are so 
few in number. It excites appetite, and 
physicians think it wholesome for convales- 
cents. It is sometimes manufactiu'ed into 
ardent spirits, wine and marmalade ; while in 
Ireland, it is used with hops for brewing a 
kind of beer much liked by the peasantry. 
The seeds are occasionally employed in in- 
termittent fevers. 

To BOIL. Wash and split the roots, lay 
them in a stew-pan with the flat sides down, 
and just cover them with boiling water, into 
which a little salt has been thrown. When 
they are quite tender, pare and butter them, 
and carry immediately to the table. Cold 
boiled parsnips are good when cut into thin 
slices, dipped into butter, and fried brown. — 
ScheiicVs Oardener's Text-Book. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
GREEN MANURING. 

This is a term that is now applied to the 
plowing under of any green vegetable sub- 
stance for the .pm-pose of adding fertility to 
the soil. 

The common red clover is considered tlie 
best of all farm crops for this purpose, and it 
is so undoubtedly from two very different 
causes. In the first place it must be borne in 
mind that clover is very rich in nitrogen, 
which it is said to appropriate not only from 
the soil, but also from the air to a very great 
extent, while all other plants available for 
this purpose derive very little, if any, from 
that source. In the second place, clover has 
very long tap-roots, which penetrate through 
the soil directly into the sub-soil and drawing 
on whatever fertilizing materials such sub-soil 
may contain, carries them up into the stems 
and leaves, and the upper part of the root 
itself, the latter becoming very thick near the 
surface and containing a large amount of 
vegetable substance to the acre. I do not 
believe, however, that the amount thus drawn 
from tlie sub-soil is as gr^t as some would 
make it appear, as the root is not very thick 
at eight or ten inches below the surface, what- 
ever its length may be. It must still be given 
its proper credit in this case, for all, or mostly 
all other crops used for green manures, have 
only surface-roots, and draw very little of the 
materials requisite for plant-growth from the 
sub-soil. 

Clover, however, is a very unhandy crop 
for this purpose, as it must be sowed one 
spring and cannot be plowed under before the 
next spring, and, as in common rotation, this 
would not work very well, some other, easily- 
raised crop must be looked for, and among 
the handiest are rye, oats, buckwheat and 
corn. 

Eye is for some purposes the handiest of all 
crops for this purpose, as it- can be used 
where no other kind could be, except wheat, 
and in this the price of the seed is much great- 
er, and no better result obtained. The rye 
can be sowed on corn stubbles, where it is in- 
tended to plant some crop that is put out late 
like tobacco, or perhaps a second time in corn, 
as is done in some places. For the two crops 
mentioned, the rye need not be put out very 
early if other work is pressing, as it has time 
to grow in the spring until the middle of May 
or the beginning of June, but when it is sow- 
ed very late a larger quantity of seed is need- 
ed to the acre. I have seen lye that was 
sowed in the beginning of December do very 
fair, but it would not do good every year 
sowed so late as this. The late J. B. Root, a 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



seedsman of Uockfm-d, Illinois, said that one 
of tlie best crops of set'il (Mulon, I liclicvi') he 
ever raised was a field of rye ho rented and 
turned down in the hi jjinnins of June, this 
U'iui; all tlie manure the lield received. 

If in the fall, work is too pressint;, .so that 
rye cannot be got out, oats would probably do 
very well for croi)s that are put out late, such 
as tobacco, which is sometimes not planted 
until the middle of June, or a cpiick growing 
corn, like Kaily t^anada or One Hundred Day 
Deut, which can also be delayed until the 
Idlh or l."ilh of June. 

In place of letting a piece of ground intend- 
ed for wheat, lie tallow, buekwiieat is some- 
times sowed and [ilowed under twice before 
seeding time, and is found to be very good 
for the purpose, as it keeps the ground mellow 
and free from weeds, the buckwheat being of 
very rapid growth and smolheriug all weeds. 
There is objection made against it, that in a 
dry .season it makes the soil so dry that unless 
a rain comet on at seeding time, the wheat 
will not germinate very readily. 

I have never seen corn tried, or heard of 
its being tried, but I think thatan oat-.slubble 
])lowed up and seeded very thick, broad-cast, 
to coru, would make a suilicient growth and 
prove very good for wheat. There are but 
few crops "for which corn could be used, but I 
have no doubt that in such ca.ses it would do 
nearly as well as anything else, with the ex- 
eeiition of clover. 

Any green vegetable substance j)lowed un- 
der is good for this purpose, even if it be only- 
weeds, but with these it is very important to 
plow under by blos.soming time or before, as 
if the seed is allowed to ripen, the harme done 
will more than overbalance the good resulting 
from the decaying vegetable matter. 

Green manuring, with the exception of 
clover, does not really a^d any fcrtlizing mate- 
rial to the soil, as with the exception men- 
tioned, they draw none or so very little from 
the air as to be inappreciable, and all the ma- 
terials that the soil receives from the plants, 
had been taken by the plants from the soil, and 
so the soil is neither richer nor poorer tliau be- 
fore, but the green vegetable mat ter plow-ed 
under decays m a short time and leaves the 
fertilizing materials contained therein in the 
very best condition for them to be taken up by 
the crop which is now put in. It also makes 
the soil loose and mellow, the very condition 
for the roots of most plants, which have thus 
all opportunity for penetrating to every part 
and appropriating the materials which have 
been made ready for them beforehand. — A. 
B. K., Safe Harbor. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Fakmer 
THE CARE OF HOGS. 
Hogs are animals that require more than 
coru and slop to satisfy them. They have 
cravings when they are penned up that can't 
be .satisfied unless \Ye give them the material 
to do it with. You will notice how they root 
and work down throui^h dung and everything 
else to get at the dirt, and they will have it if 
it is in their power to get it. And again, we 
sometiiues hear and see them scraping the 
boards and pen to pieces. We should try to 
give them something to satisfy this desire and 
craving. But not like the man that took his 
club, and every time the hogs scraped the pen 
or boards he would pound the hogs for doing 
so. I knew an old colored wonum who did 
not be so cruel. Whenever her hogs tore at 
the pen, she would throw in a rotten log to 
satisfy them. Again, we often notice the 
hogs chewing leaves, husks, fodder, and some 
of their bedding, if they have any. This 
shows us that they need something to mix 
in with their corn and slsp for wadding, &c. 
Now we claim that tlie domesticated hog de- 
serves a more generous treatment than it 
usually gets. The hogs should be treated with 
some luxuries to mix with their food and quiet 
those cravings and uneasiness which is caused 
by their being shut awav from dirt and 
various kinds of herbage 'that they would 
otherwise get,if running at large, according to 
nature, as of old. When the Prodigal was 



sent into the fields to feed sw'inc, lie '• would 
fain have filled his belly with the husks that 
the swine did eat," &c. Now I will mention 
some things that will lu-li) to satisfy them (but 
not without the cory and slop, also). Give 
them ev(>ry few days S(Uiie wood or coal 
ashes, with bits of coal in it ; sods when you 
can get them ; husks, fodder, tree leaves, or 
any other kind of lierbag<', green or dry ; weeds 
and rubbish, chij) dirt, rotten wood, straw or 
hay; a few raw or sweet )iotaloes, squashes 
or other veiretables. A little soajisiids some- 
times, is good for them, but sometimes the 
slop has enough soap in the dish water 
to answer the imrpose. I don't mean that 
my plan is the best, but I think it is none of 
the worst. It has given entire satisfaction .so 
far, and I have not had a hog butchered for a 
number of years, with a diseased liver. When 
they are small I use the fine white shorts, or 
middlings, scalded for slop. When they get 
a little older I use some corn-choii along with 
it. Next, bran and chop, and some whole 
corn, but not much at first, but increase the 
quantity as they grow up, but not as much in 
hot weather as in cold winter. I use two 
slop barrels in summer for shoats, always put- 
ting the clio() and bran to soak and sour a lit- 
tle while before filling up, using the slop in 
the other barrel first. For shoats, or large 
hogs, 1 use a little salt in a barrel of slop, and 
all the milk and dish slojis I can get. When 
the weather is set iu very cold I change to 
scalding the chop, &c., for a warm slo]). 
Keep them well sheltered from the cold winds 
and rain or snow, &c. Have their pen clean 
and a dry nest. Look if they have lice; you 
can soon tell if they have any; take a little 
lard and a bit of tar mixed with it, rub some 
back of their ears. Fix a rail slanting across 
the out pen, for them to scratch at. Card 
them .sometimes and see how they like it, and 
if they are very scruffy along their backs, 
■ swab them with buttermilk right well along 
the back, and it will loosen and come off 
without much trouble. If any look sickly 
use some good cattle powder in their slop. 
Now, I take it for granted that nearly every- 
body knows something about feeding and fat- 
tening hogs; yet for the benefit of those that 
are anxious to learn, I have thrown out these 
hints, and still hope others may give us more 
information on the suliject. I would like to 
know whether ground bone or ground hay 
would be any benefit for feeding hogs, &c. — 
John B. Erb, Lime Valley. 



ESSAY ON TOBACCO CULTURE.* 

It is an encouraging sight, aiKl it affords me 
a peculiar pleasure, to see the husbandmen of 
our great county assendiled together for the 
purpose of elaborating and discussing jilans 
for growing tobacco, which is becoming — if it 
has not already become — one of the most pro- 
fitable crops of Lancaster county. But in 
order to "make it pay" in the entl, we must 
manage to grow it without impoverishing the 
soil — yea, even increasing the fertility of our 
land. 

We should remember that tobacco leaves 
nothing in the soil for manure, and therefore, 
under ordinary circumstiuices, it is not profit- 
able to the land, and should be grown with 
considerations having reference to this fact. 
Those farmers who are not making and using 
more than an ordinary amount of maiuue, 
noraiiplying any nioretlian an ordinaiy quan- 
tity of lime, should limit themselves "accord- 
ingly, or they may eventually lose in other 
crops what they gain iu tobacco. Without an 
effective forearming in obedience to this fore- 
warning, a time will surely couic when far- 
mers will realize that iu their anxiety to ob- 
tain the "golden egg," they have destroyed 
the prolific "goose." Nor should any farmer 
put out more tobacco than he can well attend 
to, as one good acre is worth more than two 
bad ones, and one good leaf is worth as much 
as five bad ones. 

Out of the 320,000,000 pounds gi'own on 

• Read before the Tob-icco Growera' Afisocjation of Lan- 
caster Couuty, November 20, 1S76, by Peter 8. Keist. 



427,000 acres of land, and realizing S1(),IKI0,- 
(K)0, which was the tobacco ))roduct of the 
United States for one year, I'ennsylvania pro- 
duced comparatively a small (piantity ; Vir- 
ginia very largely taking the lead. "Locally 
considered, Lancaster county takes tiie lead 
of any other similar district in the United 
.States iu its production of tobacco. The 
Miami Valley, in t)hio, produced 12,000,000 
pounds, worth more than S2, 000, 000. Coun- 
ties in smaller tobacco-growing localities, as 
In Connecticut, Virginia and A^irtli Carolina, 
are increasing very rapidly. Brazil, South 
America, exports over 100,000,000 pounds 
annually. 

A iiamphlet written by a gentleman in Vir- 
ginia, on the culture and curing of tobacco, 
describes a steaming process to fix the color 
of the plant, which increases its value nearly 
one hundred jier cent. An article on the 
subject from .lapan .states that in that country 
they raise 4,000 pounds on an acre, which 
sells at four cents a pound, realizing $100. 
They use twenty dollars' worth of manure to 
the acre, subsoiling their land, and picking it 
three times. 

In the successful cultivation of tobacco, the 
three leading essentials are,fr.flh/, good land ; 
seronill;/, good tillage ; and thirdly, a good 
season. The proper prei)aration of our tobacco 
land retpiires good barnyard manure, or almost 
any other good kind of fertilizer, and lime ; 
barnyard manure being the cheapest, and is 
one of the greatest advantages of our Lancas- 
tes couuty farmers, who feed their grain into 
their stock, and thus keep up the fertility of 
their lands. Those who can burn their own 
lime with coal at $2.50 per ton, have an ad- 
ditional advantage. 

Hauling the manure on the land in the fall, 
and jilowing it under, and about one hundred 
bushels of lime to the acre in the spring, also 
ploughed under, is now advocated veiy 
strongly, as a ueces.sary preparation of the 
soil. About two weeks before planting time, 
the ground should be cultivated and rolled, as 
the saying is, "like a garden." It should 
then be ridged and marked off — as each one 
may think best— about 3i feet by 30 inches to 
be ready by the first of June. 

Plant at such times when the sun is not too 
hot ; and should a "dry spell" take place, I 
would recommend covers made ol small 
boards. I would here mention that some of 
my farmer neighbors have about 2,000, what 
they call "little houses," made of thin boards, 
with the use of which, they were very success- 
ful. When the plants are jiroperly started, 
keep the weeds down with hoe cultivation, or 
any other implement. to make the ground loose 
and mellow. Top your tobacci* from the tenth 
to the twentieth leaf, according to the season 
and growth, so that the top leaves may be the 
largest. When ripe, cut it with a hatchet or 
a cutter, as a knife will be very apt to make 
your hand sore. The precise ripening period 
1 will not attempt to instruct you in ; but I 
judge, l)y the yellowish spots, and the yellow- 
ish tinge of the whole leaf. 

After the plants are wilted, we string them 
up on inch by half-inch laths, and hang 
them on a scaffold in the fields for about two 
days, when we haul them home on a scaffold 
w'agon that will hold about one hundred laths. 
I prefer to sort it into three qualitiesorkinds, 
and pile it up in a proper place, when in my 
estimation the yrower''s work terminates, ex- 
cept to sell it to the packer, and to deliver it 
as soon as it is sold. It is perhaps, unnecessaiy 
to say that, as a general thing, tobacco should 
not lie handled in very dry weather, or at 
least, not when the idant becomes dry, crispy, 
or brittle ; as much of it may become lost or 
damaged. 

Much might be said yet in regard to seed- 
beds ; the best kinds of fertilizers; preparing 
the land ; jilanting and cultivating ; sncker- 
ingand topping; cutting and curing; shipping, 
selling, etc., which I will leave to the special 
experience of the grower. I may suggest, 
however, in conclusion, that Lancaster 
county and Pennsylvania have advantages 
not possessed by any other locality in the 



4 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ januai'y, 



Union, on account of their lime and barn- 
yard manure facilities, and wliich are made 
and abound to a greater extent here than 
elsewhere. 

Of course, every tobacco grower will have 
his own individual experiences to guide him 
as to the best plan to pursue in reference to 
his own particular locality ; for, like growing 
any other crop, different situations may sug- 
gest some variations in culture and general 
treatment. Thanking you for your attention, 
I will bring my remarks to a close. 



THE YAM- 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
-SWEET POTATO. 



They seem to be too large for some people. 
We have been raising the white, or yellow 
and red yams — both yellow when cooked — and 
dry and sweet, if raised in sandy soil that 
lays not too low, a great many from one to 
five pounds in weight; we can manage them; 
but some of our good housewives in the city 
seem to be afraid of them. I have sent seve- 
ral barrels of them to the city, and I must 
always sort out all the large ones to keep at 
home. They say it takes too long to cook 
them. Well, perhaps it does, if they leave 
them whole; but try our plan once. Pare 
them raw, slice them thin, as you do the com- 
mon potato when you fry them raw stew or 
fi-y them about tlie same way, season to suit, 
and if done about right you will say they 
don't eat bad. Xow this is one of the quick- 
est ways to cook big sweet potatoes; but, as 
I am no cook, I will leave others to tell how 
to do it, so dont be backward, but give us 
your plan. Sweet potatoes should not be 
planted in heavy clay or wet land; this is one 
reason why many of the country sweet pota- 
toes brought to market are not good, and 
townspeople don't trust to buy them. I don't 
blame them, for I have tried both, and find a 
great difference in the quality. Sweet pota- 
toes aud other potatoes are much better if 
raised in middling dry, sandy soil. The 
yams should not be planted as close as 
the others. I set the plants from 1.5 to 18 
inches apart in the row. When making the 
rows I make them a little heavier than I want 
them, so that the hoe can be used freely to 
scrape the grass before the vines are too long; 
I keep them clean aud let theiij run. Per- 
haps there is a better way, and some one will 
tell us how to do it. One thing more — never 
take diseased potatoes for sprouting, it affects 
the new tubers, and although they may look 
well, it can be detected in the quality. — Old 
Cultivator, Lime Valley. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Fariiek. 
ARE FORESTS A BENEFIT TO FRUIT- 
GROWING? 

This question presented itself to my mind, 
■when Mr. Hiller and others, at the last meet- 
ing of the " Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' 
Society," spoke of how fruit could be 
raised forty years ago, when fruit-trees were 
healthy. Now, even cherries won't do as well 
as they did formerly— the trees dying in low 
localities. 

Forty or fifty years ago our country was not 
so denuded of its forests, aud our fruit-trees 
were more or less protected by forests, or 
shelter belts, as a screen for fruit-trees. 

The climate lias not changed as much, if 
any, as some suppose, but the cold and freez- 
ing north-west winds are more severe in the 
absence of wind breaks. There is a difference 
of from five to ten degrees between the north 
and the south side of a forest. It was that 
protection, which made fruit growing more 
successful then than now. Then, the pear, 
and all kinds of stone fruit became more per- 
fect in the towns than in the open country. 
The "Reading-Pear" comes to perfection in 
the City of Reading, but outside of it, it is a 
failure. Pears and Plums do very well in 
Lancaster City, all of which is due to the pro- 
tection afforded by the buildings. Grapes do 
much better when sheltered, especially the 
Catawba, which will succeed almost every- 
where, on a trellis close to the south side of a 
house. Why not then speak a good word for 



forest-culture ? Ten percentum of all arable 
lands ought to remain in forests. The inordi- 
nate and almost universal demand for more 
clear land, has been the greatest injury to 
farmers and orchardiste. Ten acres out of 
every hundred now cleared, ought to be given 
back to forests. The ninety acres left should 
be improved, and can be made fertile enough 
to grow as much as a hundred now yield, and 
forty-five to grow as much as fifty, or twenty- 
two as much as twenty-five, and so on down 
to lesser quantities proportionately. Farmers, 
by planting a slielter-belt, or a screen on the 
northern borders of their farms would be- 
vastly benefited. It would protect their crops 
from" the piercing north-west winds, and the 
freezing out of their young clover. 

It would protect their trees from freezing 
in their trunks and branches — from freezing 
during their blo.ssoming periods. The apple 
and pear tree borers would be apt to more 
readily find a natural nidics in the forests, in 
which to deposit their eggs, instead of* apple 
wood. The curculios and the apple tree 
borers might find some tender place or some 
congenial growth in which to deposit their 
eggs, instead of in the apple or the locust 
trees. 

It is for this reason that the -'borers" de- 
stroy all the locust trees in the west— they 
have nothing else to attack. I have thrifty 
young locust trees, that are free from borers 
and other insects. I have }roung second 
growth timber lands, which I find occasional- 
ly attacked by borers, and the branches bro- 
ken off them as the natural effects, but they 
do not do any very material damage, and I 
beheve they save my locust trees and my 
fruit trees. Forests'would also be beneficial, 
in inducing birds to harbor in them and mul- 
tiply, and then come forth on foraging excur- 
sions among our fruit trees in pursuit of in- 
sects. It would afford a convenient cover 
for the birds, and decrease the insects, while 
it would increase the number of birds. It 
would improve the farm, and become a 
pleasure park for the farmer's family during 
the hot summer months. It would also con- 
duce to the health of the people, and it would 
facilitate rain falls. It would eventually re- 
turn us two-fold on what we planted, and 
would make our lands more valuable. It 
would make our homes more attractive, and 
would afford more home enjoyment, and more 
home entertainment, and make country life 
far more pleasant than town life. — L. S. R. 
Oregon, 1877. 



EGYPT. 



Alexandria, .Ian. 1, 1877. 

Egypt is a very old country, dating back 
far beyond history. It possesses some natural 
advantages, but owes all its prosperity to the 
grand old Nile river, which has never failed 
for at least nearly seven thousand years, or as 
long as we have any record, to bring down a 
flood of warm water every year from tlie south, 
overflowing the land, making the heart of the 
husbandman glad with bountiful crops, and all 
the people rejoice, for they are entirely depend- 
ent on the Nile river for the water so necessary 
to sustain life. The Arabs say this water 
comes from heaven. 

They never have any rain in Egypt, of any 
consequence, except along the sea-coast. At 
Alexandria they may have six or eight rainy 
days, while at Cairo, they will only have three 
or four light showers during the year, and once 
in eight or ten years having a heavy rain storm. 



* The striped "apple tree borer," (Saperda bioittata) 
originally bred in the hawthorn, aud there is every reason 
to believe that an apple orchard surrounded by a Hawthorn 
hedge would be greatly protected by such a hedge. Or, if 
this was not desirable, then clusters of hawthorn planted 
at suitable points in the orchard, or in proximity to it, 
would no doubt have a beneficial efiect. The first specimen 
of this borer we ever obtained (about thirty years ago) we 
captured on a hawthorn hedge, and there is the place we 
usually- looked for them. We also believe that wild cherry 
trees and gum trees would attract curculios and birds to 
feed upon them, and thus afford protection to our domestic 
fruits. We have often seen the wild cherry fourfold more 
infested by the curculio than we ever did the cultivated 
kinds. Such trees would, at least, atl'ord these insects a 
place of resort if we molested them by the application of 
domestic remedies, and prevented them from returning and 
resumiug the attack. — Ed. 



They have many canals intersecting the coun- 
try, and depend entirely on the Nile to supply 
the water for irrigation, to protluce the crops. 

I was up the country in Egypt during high 
Nile. It was a great novelty to me to see a 
great flood covering nearly the whole country, 
where it seldom rains. Tlie Nile begins to rise 
the last of .Tune, attains its height about the 
middle of September, when it slowly falls dur- 
ing three months. The difference between 
high and low Nile is aljout twenty-eight feet. 
It was a singular sight to see many large vil- 
lages entirely surrounded with water ten or 
twelve feet deep for three or four months. 
When the water retires it leaves the land very 
rich, and the hu.sbandnian is sure of a good 
crop if he half works, for the sky is always 
bright, and the sunshine warm all the year 
round. In most sections of the delta of the 
Nile the water covers the land about two feet, 
for a short period during high Nile. After the 
water retires, during the month of November, 
they put in their wheat, which grows all winter, 
and is ready to harvest in April or May. They 
sometimes grow two or three crops on the 
same land, during the season. If it were not 
for the noble Nile river this whole coimtry 
would be one vast drifting, sandy desert, desti- 
tute of vegetation or inhabitants, for the only 
land that can be cultivated is along the bottom 
land of this river. 

Cotton, corn, wheat, barley and sugar, with 
dates, oranges and bananas, are the chief 
products. Cotton is perhaps the most valuable 
product ; has only been cultivated in this 
country some fifty years, and yet there is a large 
amount grown, and mostly shipped to Eng- 
land. Some good cotton is raised, but the 
large portion I should say is not equal to our 
Arnerican cotton, but they can grow first-class 
cotton here ; the stalk is used for fuel. They 
do not know how to grow corn. They "rough" 
it in by sowing, do not generally cultivate it 
and work among it as we do ; consequently 
they have very small ears, and they cultivate 
only the smair,hard flinty variety. Their wheat 
is splendid, with a fine plump kernel, always 
producing a good crop, and strange to say, I 
never have seen a good, bright, clean lot in 
market. It is always mixed, more or less, 
with dirt, owing to threshing the grain on the 
ground, and cleaning it by throwing it up 
against the wind, which leaves more or less 
lumps of dirt among the grain. These people 
have not money to buy a fanning mill, nor 
have they sense enough to use one if it was 
given to them. No threshing machines, no 
mowers and reapers, nor any barns to put 
tliem in if they had them. They have a thing 
they call a plow, which is enough to scare the 
cows. It is constructed as follows : A straight 
piece of timber some eight inches square and 
about three and a half feet long, with a kind 
of a shovel on the end, about six or eight 
inches broad ; the beam is a crooked-stick 
framed iii, extending and fastened to the yoke 
of the cattle or buffaloes, which are always 
used in plowing. A straight stick with a pin 
stuck through and standing perpendicular 
almft the beam, finishes the plow. With this 
thing they plow backward and forward on one 
side of the land, rooting up the ground some, 
about two or three inches deep. A few of our 
enterprising western hogs would do a far bet- 
ter job of rooting up the land. Well, no mat- 
ter about the plowing, the Nile water will 
bring them a crop anyhow. It would be of no 
use to give these people good agricultural 
machinery, for they have not sense enough to 
use it. 

After the Nile has fallen and the crops put 
in, the land must be irrigated with water at 
once. All through the delta of the Nile they 
have canals and ditches convenient for water- 
ing the crops, which is generally drawn up 
with a bucket aud sweep into a small ditch 
about one foot higher than the land. Then 
water is let on, enough to soak the land well, 
which must be repeated several times for each 
crop during the season. This takes time and 
labor, but makes a sure thing of a good crop, 
for the sun shines warm every day the year 
round, with no cold, soiu- weather to trouble 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the husbandman. These Ejjjiitians do about 
the .saiiu- kind of fainiinj; at the present day 
that was (Uine by their forefathers four or five 
tlioiisand yeans aj;o Manure is used for fuel 
-not put an llie land. 

The eaniel is the most valuable donie.stic 
animal ; in faet, the cmly one whieh ean suc- 
cessfully cress these vast deserts. They are 
healthy, re<iuire no shoeing; their feet are 
very elastic, spreading right out when they 
come to the ground. They are faithful, ready 
and willing io go anywliere at all times ; will 
carry about seven Imndrcd pounds ; will easily 
travel from twenty to thirty miles a day, and 
more it neees.saj^' ; a homely, good animal, 
always obedient to their Arab masters. A 
little donkey generally leads the head camel 
of a caravan. This honesl, intelligent little 
animal will go straight ahead, and never turn 
to tlie right or left. They are the principal 
riding animal in the cities, and quite pleas;uit 
to jog along on ; besides, they will carry a 
good load. 

Of the horned cattle, tlu^ bntl'alo, native 
lireedjis the most valuable. Heavy built, with 
scarcely any hair on his black hide, black 
liorns, sloping back, they make very good, 
hardy oxen. They like to go into the water 
durimr the middle of the day and lay a long 
time with only their nose and eyes out of the 
water. When in the herd they do not asso- 
ciate with other cattle. This breed is quite 
healthy, while other cattle die with the mur- 
rain. " This is not a good cattle-growing sec- 
tion. The market beef is of poor quality. 
Tliey have a few large, coarse wool, black 
sheep, which make fair mutton. Poultry is 
easily gi-own in this warm, dry climate, but I 
think the}' have more^poultr}' than corn, for 
they are generally quite poor. The Egyptians 
are surrounded with live stock, counting in 
fleas, mosquitoes, lice, bugs, and other insects 
of this kind too niunerous to mention. 

The agricultural class of the delta of the 
Nile live in comiiact villages of mud hovels, 
which are very tiirht, with .scarcely any light, 
built on a bit of land raised a few feet above 
high Xile. While living in a very rich 
country of land, they are tlie poorest and most 
ignorant class I have yet seen. The Arab 
Egyptians are a tall, well built people, who 
have never been hampered by the rules of 
civilized society. These iVrab women in their 
loose flowing dresses, which are tight only 
around the neck, have nothing to prevent that 
round, full development of figure .which is so 
much admired in civilized life and so rarely 
seen. It is wonderful to see these tall, straight 
Arab women carry a heavy water jar full of 
water on their heads, whitdi they carry a long 
distance, barefooted, with that easy, graceful 
motion which cannot be imitated by tlie high- 
heeled beauties of our own country. 

The finances of Egypt are worth the study 
of our pcoi)le. The present Khedive of Egypt, 
Ismail Pasha, succeeded to this title in 1863. 
He was educated in P.aris with lofty ideas, 
and his will is the supreme law of tile laud. 
Egypt nominally owes allegiance to Turkey, 
but is practicallv independent by paying the 
heavy sum of $UOO,OU(J per year. 

Upon assuming the title of Khedive he em- 
barked in all the grand enterprises of the day, 
by constructing raihvays and canals, running 
steam vesseLs, the Grand Hotel at Cairo, sugar 
plantations, etc. All this business done on 
foreign capital, borrowed at a heavy rate of 
hiterest, some of it at 10 and 12 percent; the 
English contractors securing fat jobs ; the 
flood tide of prosperity running high; every- 
body making money ; never was such times 
known in Egypt before. Foreigners embark- 
ed largely in the business of the country when 
business was so good ; rents advanced rapidly, 
and livins: was high. But pay-day came at 
last, and the Khedive could not pay his in- 
terest, nor could lie get any more money, for 
it was soon ascertained that he had swamped 
the country iu a hopeless indebtedness. Then 
came the cra.sh.with many failures, and Egypt 
is now suffering sorely from misnianageraent. 
It will never recover its former prosperity. 
The population of this country is only 7,000,- 



000, and the richness of the country has been 
overrated. There is only a strip of land along 
the Nile, not very wide — excepting the delta 
of the Nile, which is from M to l.'id miles wide 
— that is rich. All the rest of the country is 
a howling desert. 

I have been on the top of .several of the 
highest cathedrals of Eurojic, ami in some low 
places too, yet have never had such a splendid 
view as wlien standing on the top of the great 
jiyramid of Cheops, the highest in the world, 
vvith fully ten miles of water in front ; many 
large villages surrounded with deep water ; 
the date palm seen all around, with some speci- 
mens nearly KM) feet high. The grand old 
Nile, with its i.slands, coidd be seen a long 
distance iu the clear atmosphere ; some 
twenty-five pyramids in full view, and here I 
saw the great howling desert wilderness for 
the first time, which was a great curiosity to 
me ; the blowing sand was drifting all around 
below us— a solitary, dismal looking place in- 
deed. 

These pyramids are old settlers, according 
to the estimate of M. Mariette, who has de- 
voted a lifetime to the- study of Egyptian 
antiquities, in the emplo}' of the Khedive. 
He has collected and arranged the museiun at 
Cairo, the most valuable collection of Egyp- 
tian antiquities in the world. The Engli.sh 
residents and all other clas.ses consider him 
the best authority. According to his calcula- 
tion the great Cheops pyramid was built 4'i.3.5 
years B. C. The first known king of Egypt 
lived .5004 years B. C. In addition to other 
evidence, recent discoveries appear to confirm 
these figures. This pyramid covers twelve 
acres of land, and is 460 feet high; construct- 
ed solid, of heavy block stone, some of which 
are thirty feet long, three feet thick, and six 
feet wide, of a beautiful white limestone. 
The inside chamber is constructed of heavy 
blocks, each weighing several tons, of red 
granite, and fitted together as closely as i)os- 
sible. They were brought from the Upper 
Nile, over .500 miles. There are about 100 
])yramids scattered along the banks of the 
Nile, inside of fifty miles. Two or three 
others are nearly as large as this one, but 
many are small. One hundred thousand men 
Were occupied ten years in getting ready, and 
;560,000 men spent twenty years in building 
the great Cheops pyramid. The mind can 
scarcely comprehend the magnitude of this 
great heathen temple. 

According to the hieroglyphics, in the days 
of the pyramids, Egypt conquered all the sur- 
rounding nations, and placed her frontier 
wherever she pleased. Slie has since been 
conquered seven or eight times, and at the 
present day is hardly capable of self-govern- 
ment. These people are not wanting in intel- 
lect. The whole secret of the matter is, the 
masses of the people are not educated. This 
is a lesson that our American jieople should 
leant over and over again — to educate the 
working classes. 

After living among these dark-skitmed 
Turks and Arabst over four mouths, I long to 
once more get among the white Christian na- 
tions, and my course now will be in that di- 
rection. 

A happy New Years to the readers of The 
F All M Eli. They may all thank God that 
they live in our own blessed country. — D. C. 
Michmond- 



TWENTY MILLIONS IN BEEF. 



The Ups and Downs of Cattle Raising on the 
Plains. 

A special correspondent of the New York 
World writes from Denver, Col.: 

A good share of the best beef in the western 
markets comes from the plains of Colorado 
and Wyoming. The supply is increasing 
overy year, ;is the shipments from the cattle 
yards at Cheyenne, Denver. Deer Trail, Las 
Animas, and "other points show. The best 
ranges are now largely occupied, and the val- 
leys of the Platte, Republican and Upper Ar- 
kansas fairly swarm with cattle. Some of the 
best known Texas drovers have removed their 



herds from the Bed Biver country to the 
Platte. John Hittson's great ranch on the 
Bijou, a tributary of the Platte, where his 
herd of 40,000 are grazing, and the ranches of 
.John W. Ilili; .1. P. Farmer and other "cattle 
kings," now located in Colorado, are ex- 
amples. The .State auditor's books show that 
there are a half million head of cattle witiiin 
our borders, and over 200,000 in Wyoming. 
As large numbers escape assessment l")y being 
transferred over the line, back and forth, at 
the proper season, it woidd be a fair estimate 
to say that tliere are around million of cattle 
grazing in the two territories. They are 
worth from SlO,000,000 to $12,000,000, and 
when marketed at Kansas City or Omaha, 
twice that sum. Last year's shipments from 
( 'olorado were estimated at 00,000 head, worth 
in market $2,700,000 ; and the shipments 
from the Laramie plains in AVyoming over 
25,000— showing in round numbers a jjroduct 
of about $.'i, 500,000 in beef raised for market 
on the western borders of the " Great Ameri- 
can Desert." 

The shipping season is generally from Au- 
gust to November. Sometimes the drovers 
hold back, as they did this sea.sou, for better 
prices, resulting in a great rush for the mar- 
ket the latter half of October and the first 
two weeks in November, taxing the railroads 
beyond their cai)aeity. There are now await- 
ing shipment, between Denver and Kit Car- 
son, on the Kansas Pacific, from Pueblo to 
Las Animas, on the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe, and from Cheyenne to .Julesburg, 
on tiie LTnion Pacific, thirty or forty thousand 
head of cattle, wliicli will be got into market 
as rapidlv as cars can be provided. During 
October there were 460 car loads taken east- 
ward from points on the Uiuon Pacific rail- 
road, most of them being loaded at Cheyenne 
aud .Julesburg, and coming from the herds on 
the Laramie plains and Platte valley. For 
the four months ending with October, 1,.561 
car loads had been shipi)ed from these points. 
The shipments by the Kansas Pacific from 
Denver, Box Elder, Biver Bend, Deer Trail, 
Kit Carson and Las Animas during the past 
two months have been very large. One hun- 
dred and fifty-three ear loads were shipped 
from Las Animas alone during October. The 
total .shipments for the sea.son from the above 
stations have probably been 20,000 head. The 
Atchison, Toi)eka and Santa Fe line has stock 
yards at Pueblo, West Las Animas, Granada 
and one or two other points within Colorado. 
Their slijpments have been considerable, but I 
could not obtain the figures. Last season they 
took 8,043 head from Las Animas and 8,074 
from Granada. Large numbers bound for 
the eastern markets were driven out of the 
State, feeding leisurely along, and finally 
loaded on the cars at Dodge City, Great 
Bend or AVichita, from which stations there 
were forwarded in four months .17,875 head. 
It seems probable that there will have been 
shipped out of Colorado and Wyoming during 
this season over one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand fat beeves for the markets of the 
Missouri and Jilississippi valleys. Had better 
prices prevailed, especially the past month, 
the exports would have been much greater. 
Shipping dressed beef to market is carried on 
at two or three points, and is a business of 
some magnitude. The slaughter houses at 
West Las Animas put up and sent into east- 
ern markets over twenty thousand head in 
this way last winter. The prospects are that 
very large shipments will be made during the 
next tluree months. It will depend on the 
markets. Beef is now low, and all who are 
not obliged to tinn their beeves into money, 
will hold on for better times. Good steers 
bring 2.} cents per imund on the hoof, from 
one-half to one per cent, less than last sea- 
son. Ordinary Texans rule so low that 
neither buyer nor drover cares to market 
them. The drovers on the i)lains are giving 
a good deal of attention to "breeding up." 
Large numbers of thoroughbred bulls have 
been introduced. The old Texas stock is fast 
disappearing, and the young improved half- 
breeds, which make choicest beef and are far 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



more marketable, take their place. As a re- 
sult, there is an increasing demand for the 
plains cattle. The Texas herders see this, 
and out of last season's " drives" from the 
Red Elver country, numbering: about 350,000 
head of cattle, about one-third, instead of 
being marketed, were driven westward to 
feed until another season, and then to be 
shipped east as Colorado or Laramie plains 
beef. 

While five or six 3'ears ago cattle in this 
section were herded in sufficient quantities 
only for the limited local demand, such as 
comes from the scattering settlements and 
military posts, and the business did not at- 
tract much attention, it is now grown to such 
importance that it seems likely in a few years 
to be more extensive and profitable than gold 
or silver mining. The returns are large, and 
it is noticeable that a greater share of the cap- 
ital that has come this way during the last 
year has been put into stock as the safest 
and best investment. There are large num- 
bers of moneyed men, out of health, who have 
their cattle ranch on the plains or in the parks 
and are getting the double returns of restored 
health and multiplied ducats. 

The tendency to go into the cattle business 
in a large way seems to be growing. The 
amount of capital represented in some of the 
herds is sufficient to run a national bank. 
Five hundred or a thousand cattle are looked 
upon as of verv small account, although from 
$10,000 to $-20^000 is represented. The aver- 
age herds run from 1,000 to 3,000 head. 
There are manv having from 8,000 to 10,000, 
and several from 20,000 to 40,000. At only 
SIO through and through here is from .$200,"- 
000 to S400,000 in a single herd, to say noth- 
ing of the corrals, the hundreds of ponies, the 
hired "cow-boys," the grain and feed in store, 
and the reserve fund necessary in handling 
such a "bunch" of cattle. While most of the 
herds are owned by individuals and firms, the 
capital invested is larger than that actually 
employed bv companies in working some of 
the most extensive gold and silver mines of 
the Rocky mountains. 

It is estimated that there are 40,000 square 
miles of grazing lands, fit for herding and 
nothing else, west of the Kansas borders, be- 
tween the Union Pacific and Atchison, To- 
peka and Santa Fe railfoads. Owing to the 
rapid increase of cattle, many of the best 
ranges have been eaten off, so that new 
ranches, bandy to water, are at all times 
sought for. The sheep men have baen grad- 
ually invading this field. Grazing as they 
both do upon the public domain, the only 
right one has over the other is priority of 
settlement. The states and territories cannot 
legislate upon the matter. Quarrels have at 
times come up, and at one time, two years 
ago, there was such a bitter feeling that con- 
siderable numbers of sheep were killed by the 
cattle men, followed by retaliation in kind. 
The two interests seem to be antagonistic, 
and, as if by common consent, the sheepmen, 
at least those doing business on the largest 
scale, are operating south of the Arkansas 
and in the San Luis valley. Northern New 
Mexico is a kind of paradise for them, though 
there is occasionally trouble from the fact 
that cattle men are also carrying on a large 
business in some parts of tliat territory. It 
may not be generally known that stock rais- 
ing is an extensive and profitable business in 
the slow territory of New Mexico. The 
largest herds are to be found there. One 
man owns forty-two townships, which he has 
stocked with 60,000 head of cattle. New 
Mexico cattle are of an inferior grade, as no 
attention has been paid to breeding up. This 
is also the case with sheep, wliich in some 
districts seem to cover the country for miles. 
A limited number of families, mostly pure 
Castilians, have absorbed and own nearly all 
the flocks, prominent among whom may be 
named the Armijo family, who have 2.50.000 
sheep. They drive to Denver every spring 
from 10,000 to 20,000 for market. 

To return, however, to our subject — a talk 
about cattle. It seems as if the next few 



years were to lai'gely change the beef supply 
of the East. Instead of coming from Texas, 
as novf, the best and most will come from the 
old buffalo ranges in Western Kansas, Color- 
ado and Wyoming. 

There are now more cattle on the plains 
than ever before. Large numbers from the 
Texas "drives" instead of being marketed at 
once are driven westerly over the ranges to 
feed a few months before being sold. Generally 
cattle winter well, without shelter or much if 
any feed beyond what they get by grazing. 
Last winter was open and mild, without any 
hard storms or severe weather. But the 
winter before that was unprecedentedly cold 
and thousands of cattle perished. On the 
average the stockmen take chances and come 
out without much loss from exposure ; but it 
is found best to be prepared for storms and 
extreme weather, and it is now customary 
among tho most experienced herders to have 
shelter and feed for their flocks during the 
winter. 

The plains cattle men are not wholly de- 
pendent upon the ups and downs of eastern 
markets. Some of them have a regular de- 
mand for their beeves from the markets of 
Denver, Cheyenne and the large towns of 
Colorado and Wyoming, and large numbers 
are driven into the mountains to supply the 
miners' camps. The sales to butchers in 
Denver last season amounted to $15.(J00, and 
to the mountain trade $165,000. During the 
past summer there has been a brisk demand 
from the San Juan country and from the new 
towns in the Black Hills. There has been a 
good deal of risk and much loss in trying to 
drive cattle into the latter region, owing to 
the frequent Indian raids and stampeding ; 
but where a man could get through safely he 
had no trouble in disposing of his beeves at a 
high price. Fat cattle are worth 8. cents per 
pound on the hoof at Deadwood. At the 
older settled towns along the line of the rail- 
ways in Colorado and Wyoming the price of 
beef is moderate, but high enough to give a 
good profit to the drover. At Denver the 
price is from 2^ to 3 cents. It retails in the 
butcher-shops at 10 cents for round steaks, 
and 15 for sirloin. The market is easily af- 
fected, in an upward direction, by an over- 
shipment to the East, leaving a supply of 
marketable beeves short, or by a stampede in 
the winter. Very often a cold, windy snow 
storm will be followed by an advance, as for 
instance, last spring, when beeves advanced 
to 5 cents per pound on the hoof, and for 
some weeks retailed at the butcher-shops at 
20 to 25 cents jier pound. 

But at the low prices for beef cattle now 
prevailing the plains drovers have no very 
discouraging outlook. What deiiresses the 
Texas drover and entails upon him heavy 
losses has very little effect upon the Colorado 
drover. The cost of raising beeves, and the 
losses by stampede, thieving and Indians, are 
not nearly so great as in the Red River 
country. The Colorado drover can at any 
time get his beef, fat and sleek, into the 
Kansas City market, right off the range, in 
flye days' time, and thus take advantage of a 
rise. On the other hand the method of 
marketing Texas cattle is to drive them 
across the country, north, to the Kansas 
Pacific and Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
railroads, taking generally two months' time, 
and then holding them at considerable ex- 
pense for feed, at the shipping points until 
prices are favorable. A hurried glance at 
how the Texas drover has fared in this way 
ma^' be taken. He is always more or less at 
the mercy of the si)eculators, wlio every 
spring go down early into the cattle districts 
and spread the most doleful accoiuits of the 
prosi)ects for the coming season's ti'ade. If 
the times are dull and the drover hard up 
they have all the better chance to frighten 
and sipieeze him. The result is< large 
contracts for beeves, to be delivered at 
such a time to certain shipping points. 
:: Whole herds have, during the past few sea- 
sons, often been bought up at $3 per head, or 
culled out at $5 per head. This is from 25 to 



.30 cents per 100 pounds gross. From the year 
I860, when what is known as the annual 
Texas cattle "drives" began, until this year, 
the business has been a series of ups and downs, 
more particularly the latter. Take, for in- 
stance, the experience of 1866, when the 
Southwest was undergoing the pinch of hard 
times. Everybody was anxious to sell. Money 
was scarce. Some who could count their long 
horns by the tens of thousands could hardly 
raise cash enough for their ordinary wants. In 
fact, a man's poverty was almost according to 
the size of his herd. The " drive" of 1866 into 
western Kansas numbered 260,000 head. 
The drover went forward with visions of betr 
ber times and big pay for his beef but was des- 
tined to meet with unlocked for difficulties. 
Bands of outlaws infested the "trail," and if 
they could not by some nieans make away 
with the drover and steal the whole herd, 
would at night time stampede the cattle in 
every direction, and seize the opportunity to 
gather up and hniiy off what they could. 
His lo.sses were fearful, and many of the ris- 
ing cattle kings were " .snuffed out." In later 
years the Texas drover has been put to great 
annoyance and loss by the laws of Kansas 
legislature establishing "dead lines, "and com- 
pelling shipments each year to be made at 
points much further west, lengthening the 
drives and turning them into sections where 
food is short and dear. 

During the past eight years about 3,000,000 
Texas beeves were put upon the mai'ket. In 
1874 450,000 head were handled, the cost value 
of which at the shipping points in Kansas was 
only §5,000,000 ; and when finally sold to 
butchers and packers, $2,000,000. This was a 
poor year for the business. The grasshopper 
plague depressed everything. There was no 
feed, and so the drovers hurried to market, 
the supply being so great and the quality so 
poor that prices were down, down. 

The cattle-men of the plains sutler none of 
these drawbacks. Stock is easily raised, mul- 
tiplies fiist, and is of better quality and gen- 
eralty in better condition for market than the 
Texans; the drovers and old hands at the 
trade give a good deal of attention to impro- 
ving the breeds and are carrying on their 
business in a methodical, business-like way, 
and have good markets at their command, all 
of which seems to point to the "Great Ameri- 
can Desert" as the Texas of tlie future. 



BLACKBERRIES. 



Price of Berries. 

Blackberries have sold readily for several 
years past at from 12} to 15 cents per quart. 
They will be likely to sell well for many years 
to come, as they can be used in so many ways, 
and the demand will increase with the supply. 
Some patches will be planted on unsuitable 
soil, and will not pay cost ; others, in the 
most favorable locations, will be suffered to 
grow at random, becoming large and rank 
and producing but little fruit. 

How to Raise Bountiful Crops. 

To insure good crops requires close atten- 
tion ; the canes should be kept thin and well 
headed back ; and on jioor land an occasional 
dressing of manure, muck, or fertilizer of 
some kind, adds to the quantity and quality of 
the fruit. 

There is no necessity for the market to be 
overstocked with the fruit, as it pays well to 
make it into wine. Three quarts of black- 
berries and three pounds of sugar, with the 
addition of a little water, will make a gallon 
of excellent wine, highly recouunended for its 
medicinal properties, and worth $2.00 per 
gallon, while new ; and its value increases 
with age. All the poorer berries, those that 
are too ripe to ship to market, may be pro- 
perly converted into wine at home ; and only 
the finest and most perfect fruit sent to mar- 
ket, which will always command a fair price. 
What Kinds to Plant. 

Having tested over thirty varieties of black- 
berries, besides many seedlings of our own 
growing, we would name as those which axe 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



best estalilished : Wilson's Early, Dorchester, 
Kittatiuiiv aud New Unohelle. 

The Siiythn-, more ro(3eiUly introduced, is 
remarkably hardy, a stron;;, vigorous grower, 
very productive," though rather small, com- 
jiared with several of the preeediug varieties, 
yet beiug hardy and productive may always be 
relied on for a full crop of fruit. 

The llnosac Thoruless, so highly recom- 
mended on account of having no thorns, may 
be rated with Dodge's Thornless, Newman's 
Tliornless, and all others of that class, which 
have no other merit, their fruit being too in- 
signilicant to claim attention. The white, red, 
and puriile blackberries, such as Crystal 
White, Col. 'Wilder and Dr. Warder, all 
novelties iu their way, but of no iiractical 
value in point of profit to fruit growers, have 
been discarded. 

Clarkson's Early, of vrhich we received a 
box of ripe fruit on the 'J7th of June, a few- 
days before ^\'ilson's were ripe, may prove 
to be a valuable variety. 15ush and upright 
grower of medium size and very productive. 
Berries fair si/.e, being three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter, or over two inches in circum- 
ference ; ripens uniformly, the whole crop 
comingoff ina short time. Like the Amsden, 
Alexander, and Beatrice Peaches, their great 
value consists iu their carliness. Being first 
in market gives an increased value to any 
good fruit. 

Wilson Jr., is a seedling from the Early 
Wilson, raised in 1S72, which has fruited two 
years. Being so well pleased with its great 
productiveness, large, early and luscious fruit, 
we had the plant taken up in the latter part of 
November, ISiVti, the roots cut into pieces and 
bedded oiii, and now have over 1,000 strong 
plants growing, which are from one to three 
inches in height, and from which, in thecour.se 
of another year we hope to plant a field of 
them. The fruit is quite equalKo its parent in 
earliness, size, and other good qualities, and 
being at leasi 25 years younger, or a quarter 
of a century later since it started from the 
seed, w'ill be likely, by having a more vigorous 
constitution, to resi.st the attacks of insects, 
winch probe the canes of the Wilson's Early, 
causing enlargements and obstructing the flow 
of sap, and to escape the fruitless double blos- 
soms so abundant on the old and weakly Wil- 
son bushes. 

The California blackberry, with its long, 
mulberry-shaped fruit, very early, sweet and 
delicious, would be a great favorite if the 
canes would endure our climate, but being 
only half hardy they must be protected 
through the winter, which will be a serious 
drawback to its extensive cultivation in this 
vicinity. It sends up no suckers, but propa- 
gates by tips, same as Doolittle raspberry. 

The Dehiware, a seedling from the New 
Rochelle, is very large, and an excellent black- 
berry; ripens with the Kittatinny; bush a very 
strong, vigorous grower of the largest class, 
and appears to be perfectly hardy. 

The Sable Queen, Sinclair, Ilolcomb, Cum- 
berland, and many others tluit we have fully 
tested here, were not found to be equal to the 
four varieties first named, and were dis- 
carded. 

Origin of the most Valuable Varieties. 

It is worthy of notice that all the most 
valuable varieties in cultivation have been 
found growing wild, and were selected and 
saved on accoimt of their superiority over 
others, and from the thousands of seedlings 
raised, none have yet proved superior to their 
pareids. May it not be attributed to the fact 
that sullicient care has not been taken to mix 
the pollen of difierent varieties ? 

Having growni seedlings for many years 
without favorable results, we have now 
adopted the plan of planting some of the be.st 
varieties near each other, and drawing the 
branches of diff<Tent kinds together and tying 
them with tarred rope yarn, so as to insure 
the admixture of the pollen of many flowers, 
thereby combining qualities in their seedlings 
which could in no other way be found in the 
same fruit. 

If as much care and attention were bestowed 



in selecting and propagating new seedling 
blackberries as have been with the strawberry 
and grape, we might yet obtain varieties even 
superior to those that are now cultivated. 

Yield and Profit. 
The yield and juice of blackberries vary, 
like other fruit crops, with the surrounding 
circumstances. We have known some i)lanta- 
tions to yield aninially ^400 per acre, and up- 
wards, for several years in succession, while 
others did not pay more than lialf that 
amount. Having kept a record of the yield 
and sale of our blackberries for fourteen 
years past, we find the average to be about as 
follows, viz: Price fourteen cents per ipiart, 
and yiehl 2,200 <iuarts per acre; which gives 
the following results : 

Commission .it 10 per cent g'lO.SO 

Piekiiig 2,200 quarts at 11.^ cents 33.00 

Use of boxes 10.00 

Frunins;, cultivating, &c .34.20 

Net profit per acre 200.00 

Gross sales 3,200 qts. per acre, at He §308.00 

Sometimes we hear of extravagant reports, 
calculated from the product of a small lot up 
to what ten or twenty acres under similar cir- 
cumstances woidd yield. A safer rule is to 
take the acres and see what they have jiro- 
duced. By refererencc to tlie report of tiie 
West Jersey Fruit Growers' Association, who 
appointed committees to collect the returns 
from all tlie fruit growers in the neighbor- 
hood, it will be found that 770 acres of land, 
in strawberries, raspberries and blackberries 
produced the sum of nearly 8200,000, or about 
$2.50 per acre. 

The cultivation of blacliberries should al- 
ways have strawberries and raspberries to 
precede them, as the same pickers, crates and 
baskets will serve for all, and there is less dif- 
ficulty in keeping the pickers to finish up the 
raspberries where there is a field of blackber- 
ries ready to enter when the others are done. 
— Wm. Parry. 

CHOICE WINTER FLOWERS. 



A Ramble through the Newport Greenhouses. 

Tons of Blossoms — How they are Grown, 

and the Prices Paid for Them. 

Newport, R. I., Jan. 0, 1877. 
We hear much of Newport in summer, but 
of Newport in winter little; and yet the at- 
tractions of one season are quite equaled by 
those of the other. The flowes uo longer 
bloom on the lawn or around the doorstep, 
but they are still liere in the greatest abund- 
ance. The conservatories are all full, many 
of them to repletion. Those that are owned 
by florists are well patronized, and the con- 
servatories of non-residents are taxed to meet 
the owners' wants in town. From tlie latter 
boxes of flowers are sent to the city mansions 
on regular days the winter through — superb 
boxes of roses, carnations, lilies of the valley, 
violets, heliotropes and other flowers, valued 
alike for their fragrance and their color ; and 
like boxes are daily sent by florists to their 
customers — dealers in the larger cities. The 
quantity of flowers raised is marvelous, and 
the deniand is never .slack till the advent of 
spring and the return of blossoms in the 
garden. 

The Newport Greenhouees. 

In these conservatories will be found all 
that is rare and beautiful in horticulture. 
From the rafters hang orchids from tlie 
jungles of Asia and the swamps of South 
America ; and in the shady spots will be 
found the most delicate ferns. Here is a 
banana rejoicing in a wealth of broad leaves 
and a pendant bunch of fruit that will be slow 
to ripen ; tubs of azaleas not yet in bloom, 
for they will be kept back till Easter ; a 
scarlet passion flower hanging in festoons 
overhead, heliotropes trained to run on a wall 
like a vine, and orange and lemon trees, in 
fruit or flower at one and the same time ; with 
thousands and tens of thousands of other 
plants that are equally beautiful and are sure 
to attract attention. But there are uo 



flowers more admired than the orchids when 
they are in bloom. 

(Jrchids are supposed to require a great de- 
gree of heat — so great that it has been found 
necessary by persons who would cultivate 
them to any extent to build houses for tlie 
express purpose, the heat required being too 
great for otlier plants .save the iiiucapple and 
banana. But a fmv years ago the idea was 
broached in I'higland that the thing was over- 
done, and that while orchids from the hot, 
damp jungles of Asia might need excessive 
heat, those from Brazil and the Andes, on the 
contrary, did better with a cool treatment, 
and bloomed mor(; freely in a temperature of 
40 degrees. Experience has not confirmed 
this, but it has been found that tliey will do 
well in the atmosphere of an ordinary green- 
house. 

Some Statistics of Flower Selling. 

But the florists who raise flowers only for 
the market give little heed to the culture of 
other than jiaying plants — ]ilants that yield 
a direct return for the time and trouble ex- 
pended on them ; and so large has the busi- 
ness become that men engaged in it find it to 
their interest to take u)) one or two varieties 
to the exclusion of all others. One florist, for 
example, makes a specialty of lilies of the 
valley, raising them in the greatest quantities, 
while others only raise enough to meet a local 
demand. Another, who is also a great grape 
grower, devotes himself iiarticularly to roses, 
and has si)ared no expense to jjcifect his col- 
lection, having made repeated visits to Europe 
to secure all that is desirable in his depart- 
ment. A third divides his time between 
violets and roses. Some notion of the business 
may be formed from the number of flowers 
sent from here to market in Boston, Provi- 
dence, New York and Philadelphia, but 
chiefly New York, between the first of Novem- 
ber and the first of May. In 1871 there were 
.shipped about flfty-six hundred dozen rose 
buds at an average wholesale price of one 
dollar twelve and a half cents per dozen ; in 
1872 about eighty-five hundred dozen at an 
average of one dollar a dozen ; in 1873 about 
twelve thousand dozen at an average of 
eighty-seven and a half cents ; in 1874 about 
seventeen thousand dozen at an average of 
seventy-five cents; in 1875 about twenty thou- 
.sand dozen at an average of sixty-two and a 
half cents, and during the present season about 
twenty-five thousand dozen at an average of 
fifty cents per dozen. Thus, with a constant 
decline in the price, there has been a rapid in- 
crease in the quantity raised. Of violets 
there are a hundred thousand raised and for- 
warded, one florist supplying one-half that 
number ; of carnations fifty thousand ; of 
lilies of the valley more than one hundred 
tiiousand ; and of mixed flowers from fifty 
thousand to one hundred thousand. This is 
exclusive of flowers raised for this market, and 
exclusive also of theyield of private conserva- 
tories, which are sent to the owners as often 
as once a week, and frequently at shorter in- 
tervals. 

The Flowers that are Sold. 

It is the bud of the tea rose that attracts 
most attention. Formerly it was the jajionica 
that stood the -highest, but the latter is now 
only cultivated to form a variety, for it has no 
market value. One house iu England has 
been engaged in raising camellias for fifty 
years, having for that purpose a house two 
hundred feet long, eighteen feet wide and 
fourteen feet high, stocked with Chandlerii, 
Elajnns Formosa and other leading varieties, 
some of them ten and twelve feet high and 
producing two thou.sand buds hi the course of 
a season. 

The Rose Tree Jungles. 

One who has not seen these beds of roses 
can have no idea of their size and beauty. 
There are long liouses — liousc after house — 
filled with bushes. In some of these houses 
the bushes are so massed together as to seem 
almost like a jungle— tea roses, as high as one 
can reach, and covered with the greatest pro- 
fusion of buds all fresh and vigorous and free 



8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



from blemishes and insects, the roots fed with 
a rich compost, and the water witli wliich they 
are showered warmed by steam to the proper 
temperature. Tliere is not only art in culti- 
vating the rose, but also skill and experience 
in bringing the buds into market in a salable 
condition. A full-blown or even a half-blown 
rose has no market value. It is only the bud, 
just ready to open, that finds many admirers. 
We may well imagine, then, that the plant is 
carefully watehed, and the bud cut the mo- 
ment it is sufficiently developed. When cut, 
it is put into a chest, where it can be kept 
moist and at a low temperature till it is time 
to pack the daily yield in moss and cotton and 
forward it to its destination. Treated in this 
way the buds will appear on the dealer's 
counter in a distant city as fresh as when cut 
from the parent stem. 

Some of the Favorite Roses. 
Additions are made every year to.the list of 
popular roses, which soon give way to others. 
Comparatively few run through a succession 
of years. Here and there one comes into no- 
tice with qualities that enables it to hold its 
own against all competitors; the Noisette 
roses, Marechal Niel and the Gloire de Dijon, 
for example; the one yellow and the other 
buff', which, though they have been known 
for a number of years, are in such demand 
that they readily sell at twenty five dollars 
per hundred at wholesale. Some of the old 
favorites that are still marketable at fifty or 
sixty cents per dozen, are the Bon Silpne, a 
pink bud; Pauline Labout, flesh color; Isabella 
Sprunt, orange yellow; Madame Falcot, or- 
ange, and Niphetos, pale lemon to white. 
Some of the choicest new varieties are the 
Prince Camille de Rvkan, a rich dark maroon; 
Monsieur Paul Venin, a pale soft rose, of 
great size and very full; Madame Lacharme, 
the most popular white hybrid, and CajJtain 
Christy, tlie best blush hybrid. These all sell 
readily at twenty-five dollars a hundred. Of 
tea roses, the favorites are the Duchens of Ed- 
inburg, very pale flower, and quite new; Em- 
press of Russia, pule pink; Perk, de Lyon, so 
large and fine that it requires a good judge to 
distinguish it from the Marechal JSiel, Corne- 
lia Cook, a large white rose, and Jean Ducher, 
a large and fine salmon, inclining to yellow. 
These command twenty dollars per hundred. 
The Rose in History and Tradition. 
In certain districts in Italy the red rose is 
looked upon as emblem of early death, and to 
scatter its leaves on the ground is tliought to 
be an evil omen. In the reign of Henry 
VIIL, "to smell the Redde rose and to washe 
the temples with the water of the Redde rose" 
was accounted "an evell to the brayne;" 
which superstition probably grew out of the 
belief that the oil of the red rose was an as- 
tringent and that of the white rose a laxative. 
On the 10th of June the Jacobites wore a 
white rose in their button holes to mark the 
birthday of the Pretender — a custom that was 
continued down to a very late date. The 
rose was once used as a token of office, and 
as such was worn by ambassadors, as ap- 
pears from the state papers of Edward VI. 
Violets. 
There are many varieties of the violet 
known to the fiorists, but the Neapolitan is 
the favorite for winter culture. It is a 
strong, healthy grower, very prolific, and of- 
fers a full double flower, highly scented. Its 
treatment is very simple, but withal it is ex- 
acting, and if its requirements are not met 
the returns will be small. It needs light, 
some warmth (bottom heat is best) and a dry 
air. Dampness is fatal to it. When coming 
forward, preparatory to blooming, it should 
be watered, but when in flower it does better 
if the surface of the soil is kept dry. Air it 
needs, and it is usual to give it an ample sup- 
ply when the temperature will allow. At no 
time after it begins to bloom should the light 
be shut off. Wlien, in the spring, the rays of 
the sun become so powerful as to fade out the 
color, .some judgment must be used in screen- 
ing it at midday. If violets are left immers- 
ed in water for a time, they will throw off 



their fragrance and impart it to the water; 
and an ancient Gaelic receipt makes the vio- 
let even more potent: "Anoint thy face with 
goat's milk in which violets have been infus- 
ed, and there is not a young prince upon earth 
who will not be charmed with thy beauty." 
Athens was called the "violet-crowned city," 
and Napoleon was known not only as "the 
Little Corporal," but also as "Papa la Vio- 
lette." Violet is the flower of the Napoleon 
family, and is worn by its supporters. So 
great was the demand for violets at Chisel- 
hurst at the time of the death of the late Em- 
peror that the ordinary penny bunch sold 
readily for six pence and even a shilhng. Of 
native violets there are eight or ten varieties 
in this country, and while they are more or 
less fragrant their odor is not to be compared 
with that of tlie cultivated plant. One has 
little difficulty in finding in the moist places 
in the woods in early spring the spade leaf, 
the hood leaf, the arrow leaf, the white and 
other varieties with which we have been fa- 
miliar from childhood. 

Carnations and other Flowers. 
Mrs. Quickly said of the dead Falstaff that 
he did not like carnation ; possibly he felt that 
it did not suit his complexion. There are 
many varieties of carnations, but they may all 
be classed under three heads — Flalce, Bizarre 
and Picotee. The Plal-es are striped in two 
colors on a white ground ; as, for example, 
the Attila, which is scarlet and white. The 
Bizzarre has irregular stripes on a plain 
ground, and the Picotecs have a border with a 
narrow margin of a darker color, or one pro- 
fusely dotted with small spots. Its edge is 
serrated, or cut. In colors we have the Bella 
Zora, or salmon pink, striped and mottled 
with crimson ; the Cassandra, a bright cerise ; 
the Union, a crimson and white, and many 
others. To have the carnation in perfection 
the petals must be symmetrically arranged, 
the colors bright and clear, the contrasts 
strong and marked, and no blending of color 
with another. The white, wherever it ap- 
pears, must be of spotless purity, and there 
must be no splitting of the full and well-de- 
veloped pod. This last is difficult to manage. 
Cultivators who raise but a few may tie the 
pod to prevent the splitting when it is ready 
to bloom ; but this cannot be done where car- 
nations are raised in considerable quantities. 
The lily of the valley blooms readily in 
winter under proper treatment. The bulbs 
are kept in a dark place till wanted, and 
when brought out they must be gradually 
accustomed to the light, for a sudden exposure 
injures them, A week is required to bring 
them from the darkness of a cellar to the 
strong light of the forcing house. When they 
are wanted they are subjected to a bottom 
heat of sixty or seventy degrees. The art of 
raising lilies for market in winter is so well 
understood that a florist can take an order for 
a given day with the certainty that he can fill 
it, for he knows exactly how long it will take 
for the bulbs to blossom. It is only the 
flower that we get in forcing lilies of the 
valley, for the leaf does not come forward 
when the jilant is subjected to this treat- 
ment. 

But something green is wanted to bind up 
with flowers, whether lilies, roses or carna- 
tions. To this end the rose geranium is cul- 
tivated, for its leaves attbrd a delicious per- 
fume with the desired color. Smilax is also 
highly esteemed, for it is very graceful and 
has a bright, fresh color. At one time there 
was a great demand for smila.x, not only for 
ordinary use, but also to loop up dresses, 
wreath the hair, and add to the charm and 
grace of baskets of cut flowers. It will not 
easily go out of fashion, for its place cannot 
be filled, but it is not so much called for as it 
once was. The culture requires care and at- 
tention, for every shoot must have a string 
on which to clhnb, otherwise the vines .would 
soon become hopelessly tangled. Attention 
is also paid to forcing lilies, callas and azaleas 
— all white flowers — for wliich there is at 
Easter a great demand. They are all beauti- 
ful and fragrant, particularly the white Uly, 



which will fill a house with its perfume. — 
Champlin. 



Christmas Blossoms. 

In the interesting letter concerning the 
flower trade between Newport and this city, 
which we iirint to-day, the writer says that 
"it is only the flower that we get in forcuig 
lilies of the valley, for the leaf does not come 
forward when the plant is subjected to this 
treatment." This reminds us of the result of 
a recent experiment in floriculture in thiscily. 
About two weeks before Christmas one of our 
German fellow citizens cut one or two branch- 
es from a lilac bush growing in the neighbor- 
hood of the High Bridge. These branches he 
brought home with him and placed them in 
his living room, in water, which was made 
warm tlu'ee or four times a day. Under this 
treatment the lilac branches put forth several 
bunches of blossoms, and by Christmas day 
these had assumed all the characteristics of 
the familiar lilac fiower except tlie color — the 
purple was lacking, the flowers being wholly 
white. No leaves, however, strange to say, 
had appeared — the forcing process in this 
case, as in the case mentioned by our corres- 
pondent, aft'ecting the flower sooner than the 
leaf. 

By the same method our friend also pro- 
duced cherry blossoms, thus adding the 
charm of nature to the artificial devices by 
which our German fellow-citizens add so 
much to their celebration of the day of 
"Christ Kindel."— -Editor Post. 



FRENCH LAND OWNERS. 

In France, an area about half as large again 
as the United Kingdom is owned by nearly 
5,500,000 proprietors of agricultural land, of 
whom 5,000,000 of peasant farmers own one- 
third of the whole area, with what result is 
every day becoming better known and more 
fully recognized in this country. The indus- 
try and thrift of these peasant owners are 
marvelous, and spread their effect through 
the whole society of France. The gross farm- 
ing ]iroduce of France may not be so great as 
in England, but this is equally observable 
when comparing the large farms of France, 
of which there are more than 130,000, with 
the large farms of this country. As compar- 
ed with the small farmers of France, hiring 
the lands of others, the small owners unques- 
tionably are vastly better in every i-espect, 
and they hold their own even beside the large 
farmers. There may be some defects in the 
system of small owners; the process may be 
carried too far in France; but at least it has 
raised the status of the lower classes there, 
has almost abolished pauperism in the rural 
districts, and has endowed the people with 
such universal habits of thrift as are almost 
unknown in the people of the same class in 
this country. It is not the fact, as commonly 
stated, that the peasant proi)rietors of France 
are loaded with debt ; the average mortgages 
on these farms are known to be no more than 
10 per cent, on their value ; while the best 
evidence that they are able to accumulate 
money, is to be found in the fact that the 
peasants have been the main subscribers to 
the great loans which have been raised in 
France, and that at the present time the 
French debt to the amount £1,000,000,000 of 
our money, is held by 4,000,000 of persons, 
while British consols to the amount of £700,- 
000,000, are held by not more than 250,000 
persons. It will be said, of course, that the 
climate and soil of France differ from Eng- 
land so much that no comparison can be 
drawn between them. This may be admitted 
as regards the central and southern parts of 
France, where the cultivation of the vine and 
olive is specially suited to peasant owners ; 
but its northern and western provinces are in 
no way different from the greater part of Eng- 
land. The garden of France is unquestion- 
ably Normandy, the climate and soil of which 
differ in no essential quality from those of the 
south of England, and which especially resemble 
such counties as Kent and Somersetshire. In 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



9 



Noimaiidy there is a greater variety in the 
ownership of projicrty than in any other part 
of France ; larpe estates with resident owners 
an' nnnierous, but still more so are small 
properties ; there are an innnense number of 
peasant proprietors, but tliey do not monopo- 
lize the land as in some par{s of France. "If 
1 had to point out the happiest part of 
France," says Monsieur de Lavergne, "I 
sliould not hesitate to select Normandy." 
Population there increases slowly in proiwr- 
tion to wealth ; wliile its wealth has increased 
four-fold since ITS'.t, its population has in- 
creased by one-third only. In many rural 
commmies there is not a single pauiier. The 
writer adds : "Lu pliqiurt dif yonuands 
n'ont }>us ?u Maltliun, miiis ils pratique in- 
stinctivnnent scs cniisrih.^^ The case of Nor- 
mandy is especially instructive, as it shows 
what "is the result of a happy coml)ination of 
every variety of large owners and small 
owners, of land farmed by tenants, and of 
peasants farming their own land. In the 
more northern provinces of France property 
is even more divided, and gives admirable re- 
sults, though perhaps the net produce aft(!r 
taking into account the number of cultiva- 
tors is not so great. — Fiirtnujhtly Bcview. 

A MODEL FARM. 

In taking a sleigh ride a few days ago, we 
passed through a portion of Manor township. 
If there is anything that will make a I.ancaster 
countian feel proud of his county, it is to dri\c 
through such portions of it as Manor-twp. and 
notice tlie unmistakable evidences of thrift and 
prosperity that greets the eye on all sides. 

Our drive took us into the neighliorhood of 
Washington borough; from Lancaster to the 
Sus(iuehaniia, over the Manor turnpike to 
Millersville, and from thence to Washington 
borough by the direct road. AVe cannot recall 
a single farm or residence which did not bear 
evidence of the thrifty habits of our Lancas- 
ter county peopk',- no tundile-down buildings 
or fences," that are the rule rather than the ex- 
ception in some sections of the country. 

The mild damp weather of Friday and Sat- 
urday promised to i)ut the tobacco hanging in 
sheds into condition to handle, and as a natu- 
ral consequence, tobacco was the prevailing 
theme of conver.sation, which is not a matter 
of surprise when we reflect that we are in the 
midst of a small area (less than half of Lancas- 
ter county) that furnishesthe markets of the 
world with about one-fourth of all the leaf 
tobacco grown in the United States. 

Prominent among the large and successful 
tobacco growers in this district, we might 
mention Mr. .lohn S. Mann, whose tine farm 
lies about li miles from the river. Mr. Mann 
produces annually froni fifteen to twenty 
acres of the weed, and as an example of the 
quality and quantity per acre, we might say 
that from a lot sold by Mr. Mann to a New 
York lirm, this season, through their agent, 
Mr. Isaac Kaullman, of Miumtville, he real- 
ized at the rate of if (iSO per acre, strict measure. 

It must be remembered, however, that in 
order to continue the successful culture of to- 
bacco, the farmer must employ means to 
counteract the exhaustive influence of tobacco 
cropping on the soil. This can only be done 
by the liberal use of stable manure, "and since 
this article cannot be purchased here in large 
quantities for love or money, the farmer must 
resort to means for producing it on the farm. 

A visit to Mr. Mann's stable convinced us 
that he is a man (n) " that don't do things on 
a small scale. " Thirteen milk cows furnish 
the dairy products for the family, the surplus 
going to tlie Columbia market. Twenty-five 
head of fattening steers that will rival, in 
point of size, the Centennial prize cattle by 
the time Mr. M. puts them on the market, 
grace his stable. Among his horses, which 
are all of the best, we noticed a promising 
looking Percheron stallion, three years old, and 
weighing 1,1500 pounds, having been exhibited 
by Mr. M, at the late State fair held in this 
city. Proceeding to the pig-stables we find 
them stocked with improved Berkshires, whose 
clean, sleek appearance is suthcient evidence 
that they receive all the care and attention the 



most fastidious pig could desire. In short, all 
that came under our observation in a brief visit 
of a few hours gave evidence of lirst-cla.ss farm- 
ing combined with good business nianagt- ment. 

Returning to the hou.se from which wc 
started on our tour of observations, and which 
we have allowed, rather inadvertently, to oc- 
cupy the last, but not least place in our re- 
marks, we find it presided over by Mrs. M., 
ably assisted by her accomplished daughters, 
whose reputation tor hospitality is so well 
known as to require no comment. 

There are other faims and farmers that 
may be the subjects of further commmiica- 
tituis ; the example of Mr. Mann as a model 
farmer ami business man, is one deserving of 
notice and worthy of emulation by young men 
and others engaged in the same line of busi- 
ness. If there are other tobacco farmers who 
can show a better yield per acre than that re- 
ferred to by us, we will be glad to hear from 
them. — Intelligencer. 

CLEARING LAND BY DYNAMITE. 

Experience at clearing lands, both in re- 
moving stumps and large boulders with dyna- 
mite in .Scotland has been a success. The 
following account is given of a late trial in an 
Edinburgh paper : 

"A spadefiU of earth was removed from the 
side of a stum]) and a hole driven into the 
stump with a crowbar. Into this hole a cart- 
ridge of dynamite was pressed by means of a 
wooden ramrod, then a detonating percussion 
cap, with a fuse attached, was scpieezed into a 
small cartridge or primer of dynamite, and 
inserted into the hole in the stump in contact 
with the charge. The hole was tilled up with 
loose earth, about a foot length of the fuse 
being left bare. A match was next apjjlied 
to the fuse, and suflicient time was taken for 
the powder to reach the percussion cap to 
allow the operatives to retire a safe distance. 
When the explosion occurred the trunk was 
literally blown out of the ground, some of the 
fragments, weighing nearly twenty pounds, 
being thrown to a distance of over a hundred 
yards. The destruction of the stump was 
complete. In breaking up big boulder stones^ 
the dynamite was simply placed on top of the 
stone, covered with wet sand, and fired with 
the fuse in the ordinary way. The result was 
the reduction of the boulders to fragments the 
size of a walnut. It was effectually proved 
by the experiments that land can be speedily 
cleared of formidable obstructions to good 
cultivation by the use of dynamite, and the 
committee of the society who watched the 
operations expressed themselves as highly 
satisfied with the results. 

FARMING VS. PROFESSION. 

The Maine Mirror gives the testimony of a 
New Hampshire boy, now a resident of Wis- 
consin, a fine scholar, a graduate of Dart- 
mouth, and a law student in Merriniac coun- 
ty, who just previous to his admi.ssion to the 
bar, took a cold which rendered him very 
deaf, and no medical skill wan able to restore 
his hearing. The affliction compelled him to 
give up his chosen profession and lie went 
west very much broken down in spirits. For 
ten years he has been farming, cultivating 
about 'iOO acres of prairie land, and, as he ex- 
pressed it, making a good living and salting 
down something every year. And he declares 
that if, knowing what he now knows, he was 
to begin his active life over again, he would 
do just as he was compelled to do .so unwill- 
ingly ten years ago ; that is, he would throw 
aside his profession and settle down upon a 
farm. Said he, " There isn't nnich glory on 
a farm, Imt you get a good, sure living. You 
are your own master ; you can't starve or be 
turned out of business ; and as far as the 
work is concerned in these days of horse 
power, a man needn't kill himself farming 
any more than at any other business. It is 
brains that win on a farm as well as every- 
where else, and the smart man is going to 
ride, while the stuivid one goes a-foot in the 
corn-field as well as in the bar or pidpit. I 
should like to have my hearing again, but I 
wouldn't leave my farm if I had it." 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE AGRICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

Tliis snoicly lioUi its regular mecthip at Hurrls- 
btirK, on January 171 li. Dr. .1. A. M'Crea, of I'liila- 
(U'lphia, was cliosen Presidcnl ;>ro tcm.^ on account, 
of tlic (loath of Hon. ttcorijo .Scott, llic late preslJing 
ofBccr. .\fter a report relative to the appointment of 
a eoniinittec to nieniorialize the Lefrislutun; for the 
passage of an act lor the protection of sheep from 
(loKB, ami some oilier routine buKiuess, the committee 
appointeil to ilraft resolutions relative to deceased 
colleatrues, rejiortcd as follows : 

"The Kxecutive Committee of the Pennsylvania 
Slate Aftricultural Society, in Jxhall of the whole 
society, is callcil upon to express profound regret at 
the loss, liy death, of three of its members — one of 
whom was its highest ollicer— all of them active, 
prominent and intelligent memhcrs of this commit- 
tee ; all called away from the pursuits of life since 
our last meeting. It is, therefore, our duty, ujjon 
this occasion, to express the sincere sorrow we feel 
at this unusual bereavement. 

" .Mr. (leorge Scott, of Columbia county, previous 
to his election as president of the society In IsT."), had 
filled with credit many important pogitlons. During 
his administration of our affairs, no word of com- 
plaint was heard. Often these are troublesome, and 
happy the incumbent who escapes them. The duty 
imposed upon our late colleaiL'ue was so prudently 
performed and so efliciently discharged as to win the 
praise of all with whom he came in contact. He gave 
his time and means with liberality to further the 
success of this society. 

" Mr. Alexander Speer, of -Allegheuy county, was 
chosen a vice i>residentin ls74. A gentleman largely 
engaged in manufactures, modest in the expression 
of Ills unusually correct views, ])opular and courteous 
in intercourse with his colleagues, and attentive and 
correct in the performance of his duties, the loss of a 
gentleman of his high character is greatly to be de- 
plored. 

" Mr. Benjamin G. Peters, of Dauphin county, was 
for a long period a member of the Kxecutive Com- 
mittee Always prompt and energetic in the dis- 
charge of every trust assigned to him, a decided yet 
courteous counselor, he was called away in the midst 
of an aciive and prosperous business career, by a 
sudden and shocking accident. His death is most 
regretted by those that knew him best— a tribute of 
tlie highest character. This Executive Committee 
therefore, 

liinolve, That this expression of regret at our loss 
be entered upon the minutes of the society, and that 
copies of it, under the seal of the society, signed by 
I he president and secretary, be transmitted to the 
representatives of the families of Messrs. Scott, Speer 
and Peters." 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The committee appointed to offer premiums at the 
Centennial Exhibition, reported that as the awards 
had not yet been reported to them, no money had 
yet been paid. 

.Mr. Smcli. offered the following: 

'' llcxolved, That a committee of three be appointed 
whose dutv it shall l)c to examine what legislation 
exists in o'ther States, not found in ours, upon the 
subject of agriculture — such as fences, roads, etc., 
and other matters interesting to farmers, and make 
report to this society." 

Jlessrs. Snnill, Kennedy and Eglc were appointed 
as such committee. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

" Resolved, That the tender made by The rrnetical 
Farmer, a publication issued in Philadelphia in the 
interest of agriculture, to publish the proceedings of 
this society, and other matters of interest, in a con- 
densed form, is thankfully accepted, and that the 
secretary be requested to furnish the same." 

At the evening session the act creating the State 
Board of Agriculture was read before the Executive 
Committee, and a committee was appointed to con- 
sider the matter, and to devise ways by which this 
society can best aid the new State Board in its efforts 
to promote the cause of agriculture and the interests 
of the farmers of the State, and Mr. Khey read a pa- 
per relalive io the productive interests of the country. 

On Thursday morning, after the discussion of 
some miscellaneous matters, the anuual election of 
officers was held, with the following result: 

President — .Jno. \V. Hammond. 

Vice Presidents— Jas. A. M'Crea, Geo. Blight, A. 
L. Kennedy, \Vm. S. Bissell, A. D. Levering, D. U. 
Bran.son, Wni. S. Holstein, Tobias Barlo, S. S. 
Spencer, Daniel H. Neiman, Joseph P. Conner, Ira 
Tripp, J. S. Keller, John A. Smull, James E. Car- 
nialt, J. B. Potter, S. Baker, John S. .Miller, Daniel 
O. (uhr, L. A. .Mackey, Geo. Khey, John Murdoch, 
Jr., \Vm. Speer, John .M'Dowell, J. B. Lawson, J. 
D. Kirkpatrick, Thos. J. Edge. 

Additional .Members Executive Committee — A. 
\Vilhelm, Abner Kutherford, John H. Ziegler, 
William Taylor, K. S. Allen. 

Ex-Presidents .Members of the Board — Frederick 
Walts, D. Taggart, .Jacob S. Haldeman, Thomas P. 
Knox, A. Boyd Hamilton, Amos E. Kapp, John C. 
Morris, J. K. Eby. 

Treasurer — John B. Ruthcrlord. 

Corresponding Sec'y — Elbrldge M'Conkey. 



iO 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



Recording Secretary — D. W. Seller. 

Chemist aud Geologist — S. S. HaWeman. 

Assistant Chemist'and Geologist — Hugh Hamil- 
ton. 

Librarian— W. H. Egle. 

The following was then adopted : 

"Resolved, That a committee of seven (including 
the President and two .Secretaries) be appointed by 
the President, to whom shall be intrusted the general 
charge of the society during the interval between 
the stated meetings of the Executive Committee, in- 
cluding the invitation of proposals for holding the 
next annual fair of the society — the selection of loca- 
tion, inclusive of the dates thereof, the issuing of 
premium list and general arr.angemeut6 for said ex- 
hibition. Also, that when this committee adjourns 
it adjourn to meet on the third day of the next 
annual exhibition, at such hour and place as may be 
designated by the official head of the society." 

A circular from the National Agricultural Con- 
gress, which is to meet in Chicago in September 
next, was read, aud Messrs. Smull, Kennedy and 
Knox were appointed delegates to attend the meet- 
ing. 

Dr. Kennedy offered the following, which was 
adopted : 

"Resob'ed, That we regard the instruction in theo- 
retical and practical agriculture allbrded by the 
Pennsylvania State College, as the distinguishing 
feature of the institution. 

"Jiesohed, That we cull upon the authorities of the 
college to perfect said institution t« its fullest extent, 
and that a committee be appointed to correspond 
with them on the subject, and report to the Exe- 
cutive Committee." 

Messrs. Kennedy, Rhey and Kirkpatrick were ap- 
pointed as a committee on the subject. 

After the passage of a resolution authorizing the 
Executive Committee to employ a competent person 
to canvass the State to secure exhibits at the annual 
exhibition, and some other miscellaneous business, 
the society adjourned. 



PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The eighteenth annual meeting of the Pennsylva- 
nia Fruit Growers' Association was held at Lancas- 
ter on January 17th and 18th , in the Board of Trade 
room. Tables reach ine the ent re length of the 
room were well covered with fine apples, several of 
which were comparatively unknown and attracted 
great attention, particularly the "Ewalt," from H. 
M. Engle, and the ".Major" from A. S. Sheller. 
The meeting was called to order at two o'clock, p. 
m., by the President, Mr. E. Satterthwait, of Jen- 
kintown. H. M. Engle, of the general fruit com- 
mittee, read a very iiileresting report, in which he 
noted the fact that the first meeting of the socety 
was held in Lancaster seventeen years ago, and 
some extracts were given from the inaugural address 
of the first President, in which the work to be done 
was outlined. 

Mr. Engle reported the apple crop of 1S76 as be- 
ing one of the largest for many years, Kambo, York, 
Imperial and Smith's Cider having been among the 
best varieties; but that notwithstanding the large 
crop, apples are now being shipped into the State in 
large quantities. The pear crop was reported as 
badly injured by blight; peaches were good in some 
sections, and their cultivation should be encouraged, 
especially in the valley of the Susquehanna river; 
Mixon, Stump, Early and Late Crawford and 
Smock, are among tlie'best varieties. Plum culture 
was reported as on the increase, but the curculio 
manages to have his "trade mark" in almost every 
orchard. Grapes were abundant, with Concord as 
the most popular variety, and Martha, Telegraph 
and Ives constantly growing in favor; other small 
fruits were generally abundant. 

The greatest enemy to the fruit crop is the apple 
tree borer, for the destruction of which the knife and 
wire were recommended. But little has been done 
to cheek the codling moth, which is a grave mistake. 
After the reading of the report, the best method of 
destroying the moth was pretty fully discussed, and 
the general opinion seemed to be that almost the 
only eflTectual method of killing the insect is to trap 
it while in the pupa state, by placing bands around 
the trunk of the tree, and killing the insects found 
under them. 

The subject of changing the name of society from 
the "Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society" to "The 
General Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania," was 
then taken up, and after an animated discussion was 
decidedly negatived. 

Mr. W. P.Brinton, of Christiana, then read a 
very interesting and exhaustive essay on " Peach 
Culture" In "the discussion which followed, Mr. 
Briuton said that he would always plant his tree? 
on high ground, and plant shallow. Mr. Brady said 
he would dig a hole two and a-half feet square, and 
one and a-half feet deep, so the roots would have an 
abundance of mellow soil ; he would not plant the 
tree deep, and would prune off all the branches. 

Mr. Engle said a verv common reason for plant- 
ing deep was to keep the tree from being blown 
over, but that the roots would hold the tree more 
firmly if planted in their natural position. 



Mr. Gkover said that in fixing upon the depth at 
which to plant, we should follow nature as seen in 
the seedling, and plant the trees at about the same 
depth at which they had grown. 

Mr. Meehan objected to the cultivation of the 
peach orchard. His own orchard is in grass, which 
is mowed twice during the year, and receives an an- 
nual top-dressing, and always bears well. 

For the best varieties, Mr. Brinton recommended 
Crawford's Early, Old Mixon, Stump and Crawford's 
Late. 

Mr. Killer had found Old Mixon and Crawford's 
Late the most profitable ; Crawford's Early, Ward's 
Late, Troth's Early, Hale's Early aud Susquehanna 
had all done very poorly with him. 

After some further discussion, the society adjourned 
until evening, when the subject of pruning peach 
trees was taken up and pretty thoroughly discussed, 
the general opinion being that about one-third of the 
previous year's growth should be taken off. 

Mr. Meeh.in advocated close pruning on weak 
trees, but less upon stronger growers. 

Mr. Satterthwait pruned histrees to make them 
grow fan-shaped, so that he could cultivate between 
the rows, but shortened in the branches but little. 

After some further talk during which the "yellows" 
and the effects of frost were touched upon, the sub- 
ject of " Blackberry Culture" was introduced, and 
an essay ou the subject by Wm. Parry was read, and 
will soon be published in the Farmer. The essay was 
so complete and exhaustive that little remained to be 
said on the subject, and Mr. Meehan proceed to give 
a report on " Fruits at the Centennial." Although 
Pennsylvania is one of the best fruit growing States in 
the Union, she made almost no display at the Cen- 
tennial, but Lancaster county made the finest display 
from the State. The speaker then gave a very in- 
teresting outline of the work which had been accom- 
plished in improving our fruits during the past cen- 
tury. One hundred years ago we had no strawberries 
excepting a few inferior English varieties. 

Among the first of the improved varieties was 
Ilovey's Seedling, introduced about fifty years ago. 
Longworth did much for the improvement of the 
strawberry by the discovery of the pistillate and 
staminate varieties, and caused almost a strawberry 
mania — but the later discovery of the Wilson's 
-\lbany, a hermaphrodite variety, caused a great re- 
volution. Many excellent varieties have been in- 
troduced recently, but the Wilson still holds its 
place. Among currants the Ked Dutch, although it 
has been propagated by cuttings for more than 3,000 
years, is still the best. One hundred years ago we 
had none but wild blackberries, and even thirty years 
ago few were noted in the nurserymen's catalogues. 
The present fine varieties have been developed entirely 
within the last century, and much the same may be 
said of the raspberry. Gooseberries and peaches 
have been impioved but little, though some advance 
has been made in peach culture by the introduction 
of earlier and later varieties. Pears have been im- 
proved more than any other fruit ; the varieties of 
1776 having almost entirely disappeared. American 
grapes are the product of the century, and varieties 
now in cultivation equal any of the foreign ones. In 
cherries but little improvement has been made, and 
plum culture has been abandoned in many part of the 
country on ticcount of the curculio. Apples have im- 
proved but little in quality, but many new varieties 
have been produced, which, by their adaptation to 
particular localities, are of great value. Crab apples 
are due to American cultivation, and chiefly to the 
.attention given them in the Northwestern States, 
where many valuable varieties have been produced. 

On Thursday morning. President Calder, of the 
State College, gave an interesting account of the 
present condition and work of the college, and Mr. 
Carter of the work done on the Experimental Farm 
at West Grove. 

Mr.Stauffer then read an essay on "Noxious 
Weeds," which elicited considerable discussion. 

The report of the Centennial Committee was then 
presented. The committee held several meetings, 
and applied to the Legislature and to the State Cen- 
tennial Board for a small appropriation, to pay 
freight on such fruits as should be sent, the com- 
mittee offering to give their time, aud to defray their 
own expenses while making the display, but no aid 
was granted them and consequently no display was 
made. The report concluded as follows : "We at- 
tribute our failure to the usual indifference of our 
State Legislature as a body, in regard to all agricul- 
tural and horticultural Interests" — words which 
should make every member of the Legislature blush 
with shame. 

A letter was read by Mr. Hoopes, asking the society 
to state what legislative action should he taken to 
encourage the planting of forest trees, but the mem- 
bers differed so widely in their ideas on the subject 
that the matter was dropped, with the understand- 
ing that at the next meeting Mr. Meehan should 
read a paper against legislative action, and Presi- 
dent Calder one in favor of it. ' 

The "Apple Tree Borer" was then talked of at 
some length, the general experience being that the 
knife was the only remedy, though Mr. Bissell said 
he had succeeded in protecting his trees by the use 
of a thick wash made with soap suds, clay and lin- 
seed oil, applied each spring. 



At the opening of the afternoon session, Mr. 
Sands, Secretary of the MaryLand Horticultu-al So- 
ciety, on behalf of his society, invited the Pennsyl- 
vania society to meet with them at the next meeting 
of the American Pomological Society, to be held in 
Baltimore, on September 12, 13 and 14. The invita- 
tion was accepted, and a committee was appointed 
to collect fruits for an exhibition at the time. The 
following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President — .Josiah Hoopes, of West Chester. 

Vice Presidents — H. M. Engle, of Marietta; Geo. 
H. Small, of Harrisburg ; John I. Carter, of West 
Grove. 

Recording Sec. — E. B. Engle, of Marietta. 

Cor. Sec. — W. P. Brinton, of Christiana. 

Treasurer — Geo. B. Thomas, of West Chester ; and 
the place for the next annual meeting was fixed at 
Williamsport. 

"Cheap Fruit Houses" were then discussed and 
several plans for their construction were proposed, 
but all agreed in the necessity for having ice to keep 
the temperature low. Mr. Lint aud others had suc- 
ceeded in keeping fruit well in a common spring 
house. 

On the subject of "Trees for Windbreaks," the 
society was pretty evenly divided, some members 
valuing them highly, while others thought them a 
disadvantage. 

After some talk on the best methods of keeping 
winter vegetables, the potato question was taken up, 
most of those taking part in the discussion regarding 
the Early Rose and Peerless as the best varieties. 

At the evening session Prof. Rathvon read a very 
interesting essay on "Insect Longevity" and Mr. 
Miller one on "Fruit Culture," both of which we 
shall give to our readers soon. The remainder of the 
session was occupied by a miscellaneous discussion. 
The meeting was one of the most interesting ever 
held by thesociety, the attendance being large, aud 
the essays and discussions unusually interesting. 

Mr. Hiller, of the Committee on Fruit, submitted 
the following report : 

Apples : H. M. Engle & Son, 20 varieties ; Prof. 
I. S. Geist, 1 ; Levi S. Reist, 22 ; all from Canada, 
and 11 varieties of his own growing; Peter Lint, 1 ; 
A. S. Sheller, 3 ; Hiller & Son, 0; John Brady, 3 ; 
James Huber, 2 ; Dr. J. P. Eshlemau, 6 ; J. Frank 
Landis, plate of fine home-raised lemons; Thomas 
Harvey, 1 variety, for a name ; Geo. D. Stitzel, 
pound pear ; Reuben Weaver, 4 varieties apples ; ,J. 
N. Engle, 2 varieties for name. The Rome Beauty 
is a very showy, desirable fruit. Ewalt is the finest 
apple in apperance on exhibition, and is worthy of 
planting. The York Imperial has no superior in 
this section, in bearing and keeping cjualities. The 
".Millport Sheep-Noses," from Mr. Reist, are a 
beautiful apple of medium size, and are extra- 
ordinary yearly bearers. The "Major" fully retains 
its reputation as to quality of fruit and annual bear- 
ing ; it is especially worthy of further trial. 

Casper Hiller, 
Alf. S. Sheller, 
Henry M. Engle. 

The report was unanimously adopted and the com- 
mittee discharged. 

Mr. Hoopes oflTered the following resolution 
which was unanimously adopted. 

Resolved, Th.at the thanks of the society are due 
and are hereby tendered to the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society for their 
kindness and hospit.ality, not only to the individual 
members of our .association, but to the Society at 
large, for furnishing us with a commodious and com- 
fortable room to meet in, aud every convenience for 
displaying our fruits. Also, to the press of Lancas- 
ter city for so kindly noticing our meetings and the 
very tliorough and courteous manuer in which they 
have reported our discussions. 

President Satterthwait ca,lled upon Professor 
Rathvon to give a history of the codling moth saying 
that there was no subject of deeper interest to pom- 
ologists than the destruction of this moth. The 
Professor, in response, spoke at length as to the ori- 
gin and habits of the moth, saying that he believed 
it difficult to catch them when fully matured. I 
will briefly relate its history. Those that survive 
the winter are in the pupa or quiescent state, spun in 
a sort of cocoon under the loose scales of bark on the 
trunks of trees, or any other cover that is accessible. 
These evolve in early summer, as soon as the fruit 
is as large as a common "marble," in the form of a 
small moth. When the femalt becomes fertilized, 
she seeks the young apple and deposits one or more 
eggs in the lower end of the fruit. There they 
hatch, and one, sometimes two, enters the apple 
from that point and feeds therein until its larval 
condition is-fully matured. At first it is a minute 
white worm, but as it approaches its pupal period 
it becomes of a pinkish color. It then cuts its way 
out of the apple, whether it is hanging on the tree 
or lying on the ground, and seeks a shelter under 
which to pupate. Then is the time to set a trap for 
it. whatsoever the form may be. A straw band 
around the trunk of the tree affords a good shelter 
for pupation. This is renewed about every ten days, 
and the old one, containing the pupw, is burned. 

For this straw-band some have substituted a band 
made of any kind of old woolen, linen, or cotton 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



id 



cloth, wrapped nroumi tlie tree in such a way as to 
form a frood artificial shelter, and this is taken ofF 
pi^riodieally and passed throni^h a elolhes' wrine:er, 
which crushes the pupse. (.Not a saturated cloth 
by any means, they like a dry jilacc.) There are 
successive Inoods of these ''codlinKs," but not so 
many as there appear to be. The lemales do not 
deposit their e^i;s all at, the sanu' time, nor in the 
same place; and, therefore, the same brood will be 
found in ditl'erent staues of development. Surround- 
ing circumstances will materially alter the normal 
process of development, hence, we may tind the 
worm in tlie apple sometimes in mid-winter, and we 
may also find the moth emerijinir from the jiupa 
long; before there is even a flower or leaf on an ajiple 
tree. The temperature of the surrounding atmos- 
phere, either out in the open air or in a warm cellar 
or chamlier, will produce this ettect. These moths 
often spin and pupate in bins, barrels and t)oxes 
containing; apples, and I have seen them come forth 
from such places, in the moth form, in the spring of 
the year, or in early summer. 

It is not certain that they may easily be caught In 
a sugar trap of any kind. I have never caught any 
by such means. They belong to a family allied to 
the house moths, many of which never partake of 
food of any kind in the moth state. Some years ago, 
Mr.Shaell'er,thcn president of the Pcnn.sylvania Hor- 
ticultural Society, of Philadelphia, sent me about one 
tfiousand of miscellaneous insects which he had 
caught in wide-mouthed bottles containing sweetened 
water, which he had hung on his trees, and out of the 
whole number there were none that I could distinctly 
recognize as a "coddling." There were various species 
of flies, hornets, wasps, bees, yellow jackets, beetles, 
lace wings and nocturnal moths ; but, I remarked at 
the time, that there were no curculios, and only a 
very few that might possibly have been coddlings, 
but these were so completely washed with the liquid 
that they could not be recognized. But the genera 
Ari:tiay Aygtttis^ Xuctita, Sjtilot^otita and Any^opteryy 
were well represented. I have known them, how- 
ever, to hover around and dash against a brilliant 
light, fended by a glass globe or chimney. The 
remedy above alluded to is about as good as any in 
use, although there are other forms of it. Anterior 
to this, however, is gathering the fruit as fast as it 
falls, and scalding it or feeding it to swine. 

The foregoing very brief and imperfect synopsis of 
the Pennsylvania Fruil Cirowers' Society is taken 
partly from the Practical Farmer, of Philadelphia, 
and partly from the Examiner and Express, and the 
InleUificncer, of Lancaster. Our journal was in a 
state of "suspended animation" at the time, and 
therelbre our intentions to publish the proceedings 
in full could not possibly be carried into eflect. As 
the proceedings will be published in book or pam- 
phlet form, wcdo not deem it essential to publish any 
morcof it inourpaper, except, perhaps, the essays, as 
soon as we find space and opportunity to do 6o.-^Eu 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

The regular meeting of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society was held on 
Monday afternoon, .Jan. 1st, in the Athenaeum rooms. 
The following members were present : 

President Calvin Cooper, Secretary Alex. Harris; 
P. S. Keist, Henry M. Engle, D. s! Smeych, S. P. 
Eaby, Jacob Bollinger, \Vm. McComscy, Ephraim 
Hoover, John C. Linville, Casper Hiller.I. L. Lan- 
dis, J. B. Erb, .Martin Kendig, Prof. S. S. Rathvon, 
E. K. Hershey, .John (iingrich, Elias Hershey, Levi 
Pownall, Peter C.Hiller, J. Frank Landis, Christian 
Espcnshade, Henry Buckwalter, .John Huber. 

No report was made by the committee on crops. 

John C. LiNvii,LB,read an essayon "Tobacco and 
its abuses." He gave a history of the introduction 
of tobacco into England ; of the unavailing eflbrts of 
the king and others to prevent the spread of the use 
of the weed; of the almost universal adoption and use 
of it among moderns ; of the filth attending smoking 
and chewing; of theelTect it has in blunting the finer 
senses, and causing a taste for coarser food and more 
stimulating drinks. He regarded it as a great curse, 
causing the user a greater expense thau that for 
food. Although it is the most profitable crop that 
can be grow n in Lancaster county he discouraged its 
cultivation and hoped there was a sulHcienlly high 
sense of morals among our farmers to eventually 
bring about its extirpation from the soil. It was 
generally admitted that it exhausted the soil, and a 
continuance of its growth would no doubt render 
farm land almost worthless. He urged smokers and 
chewers to give up the habit they had contracted as 
tobacco was neither food, drink nor clothing. 

Mr. Pownall spoke of the excuse made by those 
who use tobacco that when the habit is once acquired 
it is almost impossible to discontinue it. He said he 
had living with him an old colored woman, who had 
used tobacco more than 40 years. She quit smoking 
six years ago. He thought if she could reform so 
sad a habit at her great age, that younger white men 
could do the same. 



Mr. J. S. EitB knew that when the habit of using 
tobacco was once ac((uired, it was very hard to break 
otf. One of his own tenants had vainly tried to dis- 
continue the use of if, and found it impossible to do 
so without greatly alfecting his health. 

Mr. I. L. Landis, thought tobacco was like almost 
everything else. It might be used advantageously or 
it might be abused. It is the same way with food or 
beverages — those who use them to excess suffer for 
their indiscretion. He was interested in the growth 
of tobacco because of its great commercial value to 
the county. The revenue derived from its sale in 
Ibis county exceeds that of any other crop. It tends 
to keep the balance of trade in our favor. While 
many other sections of the country were sulfering 
fro[n stagnation of business, Lancaster county was 
comparatively prosperous, and this prosperity was 
largely owing to the value of the tobacco crop. 

Sir. KiiNino thought the Iiabit of chewing a very 
disgusting one ; though he did not think moderate 
smoking to be of any great harm. He raised tobacco 
because he made money by it ; as soon as people 
ceased buying it he wo\dd ceasing raising it. He be- 
lieved the raising of tobacco impoverished the soil, 
and that our farmers, unless they were careful, 
might ruin their farms, as has been done in the 
.^outh, though our farmers were much more practi- 
cal and scientific in their farming than the Southern 
planter, and the danger was therefore not so great. 

.Mr. Engle could not agree with .some of the 
speakers. From a moral stand[)oint tobacco was an 
evil and nothing but an evil, and from a moral stand- 
point akme we should view all such matters. The 
abuses of tobacco are patent to all, and he had never 
yet been able to see any of its uses. It is a virulent 
jjoison, and if a large dose will kill, a small one can 
do no good. All will concede that the (irst chew or 
smoke will m.ake a boy or man sick ; the appetite is 
then in a normal condition, and that is the time at 
which a person is most competent to judge of it. It 
is only after the appetite has become perverted that 
tobacco will be endured and finally craved. It bene- 
fits nobody except the grower, manufacturer and 
tralficker. But how many families have been brought 
to want by the use of it, and how many others have 
had their health impaired or mined ? As to the 
argument that large revenues are derived from 
tobacco, it may be replied that a still larger revenue 
is derived from intoxicating liciuors, and yet there 
are none that will advocate the manufacture and use 
of these from a moral standpoint . 

Mr. LiNVlLLE said there could be no doubt that 
tobacco growing exhausted the soil. He further 
argued that chewers and smokers interfered with 
the rights of others, particularly in halls, cars and 
other indoor places. He said a railroad conductor 
once attempted to put him in a smoking car, telling 
him it was a first-class car, when, in reality, it was 
not a first-class pig pen. 

Other members argued that tobacco exhausted 
the soil, and the discussion was dropped. 

Mr. Enc;le stated that the rainfall for the past 
month was i 1-lG inches. The lowest point of the 
mercury was zero, the coldest average day lO'i de- 
grees above zero, and the average temperature for 
the month oO degrees above zero. 

The question of flesh vs. vegetable diet, postponed 
from last meeting, was resumed. 

.Mr Ekb believed in meat-eating. He recited the 
story of Cain and Abel, and referred to AbeTs sacri- 
fices of animals as being acceptable, and Cain's veg- 
etable sacrifices unacceptable to the Lord. 

Mr. Epn. Hoover said he was last month report- 
ed as saying that he would banish pork from tlie 
earth. What he meant to say was that he would 
banish it from his own table. Ho would even quali- 
fy this statement by saying a good word for well 
made and well cooked sausage. He thought that 
persons engaged in indoor work never needed nor 
would be benefited by the use of pork as a part of 
their food. 

Mr. I. L. Landis presented a sample of hickory 
nuts of a superior quality grown on a farm in .Mau- 
heim township. He asked members to take some of 
the nuts and perhaps they could cultivate them. 
The tree on which they grew was very prolific and 
seldom failed to bear. 

Mr P. S. Heist presented seven different kinds of 
grasshoppers, from Kansas; or rather grasshoijpers 
in seven different states of development. 

Mr. E. K. Heksubt presented a gavel for the use 
of the president. 

President Cooper read a short address, this meet- 
ing being the last of the year for which he was elect- 
ed. He recounted the .action of the society and the 
general events of the Centennial year, so far as they 
related to agriculture and horticulture. 

The address was received with applause, and Mr. 
Engle followed with some further reiHarks, recom- 
mending among other things that a course of lec- 
tures be added to the proceedings of tlie society. 

A brief discussion took place as to the best day of 
the week on which to hold the stated meetings of tlie 
society and the best means of increasing the mem- 
bership. 

Mr. Euu said as the Lancaster county Farmer was 
about to be discontinued, he thought the society 
should take some measures to have their proceed- 
ings published. 



Mn. Heist proposed the appointment of a com- 
mittee to wait upon Prof. Hathvon, editor, and Mr. 
John .\ Hiestand, publisher of the Fauur, and ascer- 
tain if some means cannot he devised to continue the 
publication. He understood that the subscripton list 
was about six hundred, and the publishers wanted 
not less than a thousand to make it pay expenses. 

Mk. Kendio endorsed what .Mr. Heist had said. 

Mii. Exoi.E said he would obligate himself to re- 
ceive fifteen new subscribers to the Farmer for 1877. 
He would like to know how many others would labor 
to secure subscribers. 

Pnor. Hatiivon' said that financially considered 
he would not have cared if tin; Farmer had gone 
down seven years ago. He had never received one 
cent for his editorial services, but his local pride and 
love of labor had induced him to stick to the work. 
The late publishers had not made any money out of 
the Farmer, but had continued to jxiblish it in hope 
that it would pay hereafter. The present owner of 
the Farmer was willing to continue the publication 
if one thousand hona ./irfc subscribers were secured. 

Mn. EuY again urged the ap|Mjintmcnt of a com- 
mittee to wait upon the publisher to see if the con- 
tinuance of the publication could not be secured. 

Mn. Enole had no objection to the committee, but 
thought the only way to accomplish the end in view 
was to pour in upon the publisher new subscribers. 

Mk. Ek» suggested that this society guarantee 
the publishers one thousand subscribers, and then go 
to work and get them. 

Mn. Lan'dis, Pkof. Kathvon, Mr. Erb, Mb. 
Pownall, Mk. Heist and several others spoke in 
favor of sustaining the paper.' 

Mu. Hbist said that a person cannot judge of the 
value of a paper by the number of subscribers it has. 
The very worst paper in Pennsylvania, a papar whose 
editor has no less thau twenty- five libel suits pending 
against him, has a larger circulation in Lancaster 
than any other paper in the stale. 

[This unexpected hit at the Philadelphia Timet 
caused quite a titter among the members who did not 
seem to share Mr. Heist's opinion of the merits of 
of that great daily.] 

The motion of .Mr. Keist to appoint a committee to 
wait upon the publishers of the Farmer and as- 
certain if it cannot be continued, and if not, whether 
some other publisher will not undertake its publi- 
cation, was adopted, and the chair appointed Peter S., 
Heist, I. S. Landis and H. M. Engle, said committee. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year being 
in oriler, tlie society proceeded to make nominations. 

Mk. Engle moved that Calvin Cooper bo re- 
elected by acclamation. 

Mr. Cooper hoped the motion would not be 
pressed but that he would be excused, and some 
other member chosen. 

Mk. Cooper was not excused, and was re-elected 
by acclamation. 

A committee of five was appointed to select can- 
didates for the other offices. 

The committee reported the following : 

Vice Presidents — Henry M. Engle, Levi S. Heist, 
Israel L. Landis, Casper Hiller, Levi I'ownall. 

Hecording Secretary— Johnson Miller. 

Corresponding Secretary — Alexander Harris. 

Treasurer — Levi Groft'. 

Executive Committee — M. D. Kendig, Ephraim 
Hoover, John C. Linville. 

Librarian — Simon P. Eby. 

Botanist — J Stautfer. 

Entomologist — S. S. Hathvon. 

The selections made by the committee were con- 
firmed, and the gentlemen named unanimously 
elected. 

President Cooper announced that the Pennsyl- 
vania fru t growers' society would meet in the board 
of trade rooms, this city, on the 17th of this month. 

Casper Hiller asked whether hickory nuts can 
be propagated by grafts or buds. He knew they 
would not grow true from the nut. He had never 
had success in grafting. The chestnut tree, how- 
ever, is very easily grafted. 

Mr. ExGLE had never tried grafting or budding, 
but he h.ad heard of its being successfully done. He 
read an article, cut from a newspaper, on the value 
of the chestnut tree and the manner of transplanting 
them. 

A bill of Jacob Heline, janitor, for J:i, ordered to 
be paid ; also a bill from Alexander Harris for $12 
for one year's services as recording secretary. 

As .Mr. S. P. Eby refused to receive any compensa- 
tion for a very considerable amount of writing done 
for the society by him, he was, on motion of Mr. 
Engle, elected an honorary member of the society. 

Several specimens of apples presented by Henry 
M. Engle and Jacob Bollinger were tested. 

H. .St. Engle, Jacob SlaulTer and Israel Landis 
having contributed books to the library of the so- 
ciety of greater value than $10, were in accordance 
with the rules, elected life members. 

The following questions were proposed by Mr. M. 
D. Kendig : 

What per cent profit of theii; market value, do our 
farms pay ? 

Is any certain color of a cow indicative of superior 
milking qualities ? Referred to II- M. Engle. 



12 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



The Tobacco Growers. 



The monthly meeting of the Lancaster County To- 
bacco Growers' Association was held iuthe Athenaeum 
on Monday afternoon, January 15. 

In the "absence of President Kendig, Mr. John 
Brady, of Millersville, was called to the chair. 

The following members were present : John Brady, 
W. L. Hershey, I. L. I.andis, Peter S. Heist, J. F. 
Landis, John M. Stehman, Harry Keist, Andrew 

Lane. j, , , 

The following new members were elected : Jacob 
S. Witmer, A. H. Teager, J. M. Johnston, A. L. 
Andes, Owen Bricker. 

A large number of visitors, most of them tobacco 
growers, were present. Among them we noticed 15. 
L. Hershey, J. Frank Landis, Andrew Landis, 
Samuel Leupold, Christian Eshenshade, Henry Erb, 
Michael Landis, Harry Hostetter, Philip Dotesman, 
Jacob Hyland, George Hyland, Daniel Forry, Henry 
Keneagy, Jacob Fuhrman, Jacob Snavely, Jacob 
Freeman, and Andrew K. Peters, of Chester county. 
The minutes of the last meeting having been read, 
the secretary read the constitution and by-laws for 
the information of those present. 

The condition and prospects of the crop being 
called for, Mr. I. L. Landis, East Hempfield, said 
there had been no change in his neighborhood since 
last month. Little or no tobacco had been prepared 
for market, and he knew of no sales. The farmers 
were anxiously waiting for a season of dampweather 
that they could prepare the crop for market. 

Mr. John Bkady, of Millersville, stated that a few 
sales had been made in his neighborhood. He had 
heard of one lot that had been sold at HO cents round, 
another for '.;•-', and another for '.6 round, and another 
at 20 for wrappers and 5 for tillers. All of these lots 
were good tobacco and were well prepared, and there- 
fore sold at good prices. Growers and packers were 
alike waiting for good weather to prepare the leaf 
for market, and he thought from the present appear- 
ance of the weather that they would not have long to 
wait. 

Mr. A. Lane, of Manheim, said the severity of the 
winter had kept back the work of preparing for mar- 
ket. He had heard of no sales since last meeting. 

Mr. W. L. HERSHET,of Landisville,knewof a few 
lots that had been sold— one at -2%, and another at 
23% round. The growers were waiting for damp 
weather to strip and prepare their stock for market. 
The tobacco in his neighborhood was of fine quality. 
Mr. I. L. Landis suggested that as the essayist 
(Mr. Groff) was not present, the subject of his essay, 
" How should tobacco be stripped, and in how many 
grades should it be assorted," might be informally 
discussed at the present meeting. 

The suggestion being agreed to, Mr. Brady said 
that he thought it unnecessary to assort tobacco in 
more than two grades, if the crop was good and of 
uniform growth, but where the growth and quality 
were irregular, it had better be sorted in three 
grades, wrappers, seconds and fillers. In handling 
the tobacco great care should be exercised to avoid 
tearing or in any way damaging the leaf, and in 
tying it up care should be taken to sort it in hands of 
equal weight and length . More money can be got 
out of it in this way. The dealer that purchased one 
or two crops from a farmer and found liis tobacco to 
be properly put up and of good quality, would never 
afterwards have any trouble in selling it at good 
prices. Dealers can seldom be deceived, and if de- 
ceived once, they will have nothing further to do 
with the deceiver. Mr. Brady said he knew a to- 
bacco grower (and a preacher at that) who had 
sorted his tobacco and put all the short and bad 
hands out of sight in i-anks against the wall, 
and when the buyer came showed him the good 
tobacco, which was in the front rank, but the buyer 
immediatelv reached back and pulled out the bad 
tobacco by handfuls, to the groat discomfiture of the 
seller. If there's a bad hand of tobacco in a bale, 
that is the very one the buyer is apt to pull out, and 
then, of course, he has no faith in the man that 
baled it, and will not buy except at a figure so low 
as to assure him against being cheated. In sorting 
tobacco honesty is the best policy. In the neighbor- 
hood of Washington there are growers who are so 
careful in growing, curing and sorting their tobacco 
that dealers have entire confidence in them, and buy 
their tobacco at the highest prices— sometimes with- 
out even seeing it. 

Mr. Lee agreed with what had been said as to 
the importance of using great care in stripping and 
sorting the leaf. He had been growing tobacco 
seven years and never separated it in more than two 
sorts, wrappers and fillers. 

Mr. I. L. LANDrs read an article on stripping and 
packing tobacco, (recently published in tlie Intelli- 
gencer,) and commended the rules there laid down 
to the careful consideration of the members. 

Mr Brady said a neighbor of his, Jacob Warfel, a 
noted tobacco grower, always planted, cut off, strip- 
ped and marketed his tobacco at the earliest possible 
period, and always got good prices. He said he put 
no less than 200 bushels of lime per acre on his to- 
bacco lands, and wherever the lime was most plenti- 
ful the tobacco was the largest. He plowed down 
the lime with barnyard manure. Other farmers had 
derived equal advantages from heavy liming. 



John M. Stehman said he thought he had one of 
the best tobacco farms in the county and he was 
sure he had one of the best tobacco farmers (E. M. 
Bricker.) Each succeeding crop was better than the 
preceding. He thought he was doing pretty well 
when he got 1.5 and 5 for his crop, but he could 
now get 30, 15 and 5. He manured heavily; say 
fifteen four-horse loads of barnyard manure to the 
acre. His farmer was not only careful in planting, 
but in cultivating, in cutting, in stripping and in 
sorting. In cutting and hanging up the leaf, care 
was taken that it should not be bruised; and in 
stripping great deliberation was used, not more than 
four hundred stalks being stripped in a day, and 
every leaf being carefully examined and sorted, and 
all defective and worm-eaten leaves being placed by 
themselvesi 

Mr. Stehman had no reason to doubt that Lan- 
caster county tobacco would soon rank higher than 
Connecticut. We have a richer and a deeper soil 
and we have plenty of manure behind it, while the 
worn out soil of Connecticut has to depend largely 
on manufactured fertilizers. 

Mr. Bkadv made mention of a farmer that kept 
his men at work in the harvest field while he neg- 
lected his tobacco, and the result was his tobacco 
was almost worthless. Tobacco should never be 
laid down after it is cut oflf; it should at once be 
carefully put upon the scaffold. He had heard that 
extreme cold weather injured-tobacco, and had been 
told by a buyer that the present crop would suffer 
on this account. He thought all tobacco houses 
should be furnished with a deep and damp cellar, 
with some water in it, if possible, so that by opening 
the trap door the tobacco in the shed above would 
become damp enough to strip at almost any time, 
without waiting for damp weather. 

Mr. Witmer agreed that great care should be 
exercised in the growing and curing of tobacco. He 
had suffered by entrusting to "the girls" the strip- 
ping of a small lot, and they had made a bad mess of 
it ; they did not properly assort it ; tied good and 
bad leaves together and the result was it was not 
marketable. A neighbor of his, who had tried to 
raise a little tobacco, neglected it and it was almost 
eaten up with worms. Mr. Witmer suggested that 
a local company should be organized to sell the 
tobacco raised in the county, and thus avoid the 
great waste of time and money resulting from the 
employment of eastern buyers. 

Mr. a. H. Yeager, of East Lampeter, had grown 
a little tobacco, but was well aware that he could 
not compete with the western townships. Manor 
and Hempfield could get 10 or 15 cents a pound 
more than Lampeter, though the soil of Lampeter 
was in no respect inferior. He believed it was be- 
cause the western townships had learned better how 
to grow and handle the crop. He was pleased with 
this association, believing that it would accomplish 
good work. 

Mr. I. L. Landis recommended great care and 
strict honesty in assorting and putting up tobacco. 
He believed our soil was unsurpassed for its growth 
and all that was now necessary was to attract buy- 
ers by fair dealing. He had spoken at a former 
meeting of the advantages which would result from 
having a fine display of tobacco at the Centennial 
Exhibition, and he had used his best endeavors to 
secure such display. He had collected such speci- 
mens and had at his own expense procured a show 
case to display them in ; but the exhibit fell far 
short of what Lancaster county should have shown. 
And now the question arises, liow shall we bring our 
tobacco to the attention of the world 1 We may talk 
about it among ourselves, but there are no buyers 
here to hear us Very full reports of our proceed- 
ings are made in the newspapers, but even this is 
not enough. Having missed the grand chance of 
making a fine display at the Centennial, should we 
not make application for sufficient space in the per- 
manent exhibition soon to open at Philadelphia? 
Kentucky, with her coarse tobacco, made a display 
at the exhibition which cost $15,000 or $.0,000. By 
concert of action Lancaster county can, at a very 
small cost, make a fine display at the permanent ex- 
hibition. The space will cost nothing ; there will be 
no expense except the furnishing the tobacco and 
the proper cases in which to display it. He pro- 
posed the appointment of a committee to inquire into 
the expediency of making the exhibit. 

The chair appointed Messrs. I. L. Landis, John M. 
Stehman and Peter S. Keist, as said committee. 

Mu. W. L. Hershet presented a hand of very fine 

tobacco leaf, which was much admired by members. 

On motion members were requested to bring 

samples of their tobacco to the next meeting of the 

society. 

On motion the question of stripping and assorting 
tobacco was Continued for discussion at next meet- 
ing. 

The chair appointed Mr. Jacob M. Frantz to de- 
liver an essay before the society at its next staled 
meeting. ' 

Adjourned. 



The Linnaean Society. 

A state meeting of the Linnaean Society was held on 
Saturday, the 37th of January, President, Rev. J. S. 
Stahr, in the chair. Six members present. The 
minutes of the prexious meeting were read and ap- 
proved and dues collected. The few donations to 
the museum were examined. In one bottle a 
common mouse {Mus musculns) differing from 
others simply in the absence , of all signs of 
a tail ; also a beetle allied to the meal-worm 
beetle, {IphlMnus Pensylvanicnss) , per Mrs. Gibbons. 
A long and stout specimen of a sugar cane, {Sae- 
charum Offlcinarmn L) from Mr. Wm.Blickenderfer, 
grocer, North Queen street, taken from a hogshead 
of New Orleans sugar. A fine bunch of the heads of ■• 
the "Clawson White Wheat," and a bottle of the 
cleaned seed, by the Lancaster County Horticultural 
Society. A fine fossil ( Terrain-alula risca) from the 
Miami Valley, per Kev. J. H. Dubbs. 

The American Almanac for 1830, No. 7 of Field and 
Forest, Patent Office Gazette, an account of the 
"Buck-shot war" of 1830. Part II of the proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia 
up to September, 1870 ; the 3d annual report of the 
Zoological Society, of Cincinnati. 

To the historical department five envelopes, con- 
taining 56 scraps from papers ; also, (omitted in last 
month's report,) two genuine bank-bills of_^ the 
Southern Confederacy, one of §20, the other $100, 
per Mr. Blickenderfer. 

The following papers were read : On the sugar 
cane and its botanical relations and history, per S. S. 
Rathvon, No. 5.56 ; Mr. D. McN. Stauffer gave a de- 
scription of the mode of cutting the cane, boiling, 
crushing, and the evaporating process, as witnessed 
by him in Louisiana. Mr. Rathvon read a paper on 
tlie locust leaf mining beetle, with a natural locust 
leaf glued to the paperto illustrate the effects of the 
insecl— the Europlata S^i.turalis, No. 557. A com- 
munication of some length, with illustrations (and 
very interesting) , from Mr. A. F. Berlin, of Reading, 
Pa., in which he refers to the finding of two kinds of 
" stone pestles," among ancient tribes of Europe and 
America, and mentions certain customs, that lead 
him to think the one kind were only used for crush- 
ing corn, the other in a species of religious ceremony, 
wiiich was new to the members present. Rev. Prof. 
Dubbs also read a letter from Mr. Berlin, in which 
illustrations are given of the similarity of fishinur im- 
plements used by the early Scandinavians and North 
American Indians, as well as other things relating to 
the stone age, in which he called the attention of the 
Society to several interesting facts. An illustrated 
Paper, showing the remarkable delineations of frame 
work— of agricultural arrangement, surrounded with 
immense plumes of fern like crystals and scrolls, the 
skillful work of Jack Frost, on the large plate glass 
window of Messrs. Rathvon & Fisher's clothing 
store, northeast corner of North Queen and Orange 
streets, as witnessed on the morning of January 4, 
1S77. The straight (or slightly curved) long hori- 
zontal lines, shaded perspectively, and beset at right 
angles, like windows or door frames, between them, 
was a new feature in frost-work, which is often 
highly ornamental in fern-like leaves ; but this, for 
its" peculiarity, was truly remarkable, and deemed 
worthy to be put upon record by a description and 
drawing, per J. Staufler. 

Mrs. P. E. Gibbons gave a verbal statement of how 
tho tailless mouse was caught, and how it suggested 
Darwinian ideas, as it seems to never have had a 
tail. This led to the mention of other malforma- 
tions, which had nothing to do with Darwin's no- 
tions. She also stated that she had arisen early m 
the morning to notice the late conjunction of the 
planets. The members present having indulged in 
their morning naps, confessed to not having wituess- 

A motion was made that Dr. Walter J. Hoffman, 
of Reading, Pa., be elected a corresponding member 
of the society. His zeal in natural science and high 
standing in several societies, was well known, and 
on motion he was unanimously elected, and notified 
of the same. The recording secretary was remind- 
ed to notify members of the arrearages of dues. No 
further business offering, on motion adjourned to 
Saturday, February 2i. 



Renew your subscription for The Farmer for 
1877, as we intend to make it one of the best agricul- 
tural papers in the comUry. 



Recipe to Cleanse Wool.— Hunt Bros., of the 
"North Bloomfield custom woolen mill," New York, 
once gave the following recipe for cleansing wool : 

To two pailfuls of water, add a quart of soft-soap 
and half a pint of common salt. Heat from 150 to 
180 degrees— or a little warmer than the hand can 
bear. Put in all the wool that will stir conveniently, 
and let it remain fifteen minutes, moving it in the 
kettle occasionally. Then take it out ; let it drain ; 
return the drained liquor to the kettle, and add all 
the water needed. Repeat the process, and occasion- 
ally add a little soap and salt. After the wool is 
sufficiently drained, simply rinse it out in cold water, 
and you will have it white and soft. Never let wool 
boil in the liquid, as that will fix the gum, render 
the fibre stiff and gray, and unfit to make soft, flex- 
ible yarn. Fine wool needs more time in the kettle 
than coarse. Taggings may be cleansed in the same 
manner, by clipping off all the hard matter that can- 
not readily be compressed between the thumb and 
linger,— .fiwrai New Yorker. 



1877.1 



TH£ LANCASTER FARMER. 



13 



Fur Trk I.ANi'AsrER Fabmeb. 
TO MY FRIEND LENA. 

"Deaipst friend," callest thou mc; 
Would that I misht enrol free 
Notes, that all unuttereil dwell 
In my heart's deep inner cell, 
I would warble unto thee 
Strains of sweetest melody. 

But the ehoieest gcu^s of thoufflit, 
Stay within the mind unwroui,'ht, 
For their lustre, holy lirifjht 
Shrinketli from the crimson light, 
As the gentle violets hide 
Far away from pomp and pride. 

"nearest friend," thou namest me, 
Listen while I sinp to thee, 
For thy words of friendly cheer. 
Spokei'i kindly in mine ear. 
Wake sweet music iu my heart. 
Courage to the lay impart. 

Ilence what e"er my lot may be, 
Sailing o'er life's changeful sea, 
'Twill my lonely hours engage. 
Turning to sweet memory's page, 
There to trace those words of thine, 
Breathed in eloquence divine. 
■Mary L. Groff, Orecnwood I'arl,-, Jan. 1, 1877. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Bread Making. 

I do not generally have " luck" making yeast 
bread in cold weather. If I set the sponge the night 
before, it chills, and the bread is only tolerable, not 
heavy nor sour, but dark, and soon dries out. For a 
few times I have made salt rising bread, and find it 
a delightful substitute — fine and white and light, 
quite as good as hop yeast, only for the insipid, in- 
nocent taste. 

One of my neighbors says, "Salt rising' who told 
youhctw toniake it ?" just as if I had not always 
known how it was made. I wrote down my recipe 
for her, and I append it here, hoping that some 
woman may be benefited. 

Put a pint of lukewarm water into a large earthen 
bowl, then add half a teacupful of new milk, a good 
pinch of salt, an even teaspoonful of soda and a 
large spoonful of sugar. When dissolved stir iu su- 
gar enough to make a thick batter, beat it well and 
place the bowl iu a pot of warm water, cover it up 
and let it stand in a warm place. Be watchful that 
the water is kept at the same temperature. Stir it 
occasionally for a couple of hours, then let it stand. 
If this is done early in the morning, say five or six 
o'clock, it will be up to the brim of the bowl about 
noon — if not set until seven, or later, it may not rise 
till two or three o'clock. 

If water comes on top of the rising, stir in a little 
flour. Let it ferment until it reaches the very top of 
the bowl, then have your pan of flour warmed ready, 
and wet it up with lukewarm milk and water. Do 
not make the dough too stiff; if you do the bread will 
incline to dry out soon. 

Set the loaves in a warm place to rise. I mix and 
mould out Into loaves immedialely. Do not hurry 
too fa«t; let the pans rise full before putting the 
loaves in the oven bake with a moderate fire and 
you will be delighted with your nice loaves and their 
delicate brown color. 

This is a pleasurable change from yeast bread, es- 
pecially if your yeast has not stood the cold weather 
and was touched with the chill that has been so mer- 
ciless and so cruel . 1 do not say that my way of 
making salt rising is the only and best way— nearly 
every woman has a plan of her own; any of them is 
good if it will make good lively yeast and good bread . 
My mother used to make e.vcellent bread, and I re- 
member very distinctly that she made the yeast of 
barely lukewarm water, flour, and a pinch of salt. 
I think the soda and sugar hasten or assist fermenl.a- 
tion; it looks reasonable that it should. 

If one's patience is tired by a sack of poor flour, a 
very good quality of breail may be obtained by the 
use of salt rising when hop yeast would fail. Or, 
try bran rising — made by stirring up clean bran 
and warm water at night, the same as for cow feed; 
set it in a warm place, and in the morning, or 
soon after, it will putl' uji with very lightness; then 
strain through a coarse cloth, and use the bran wa- 
ter to wet up your Hour; proceed as with salt rising 
bread, and you will be delighted with a very fine- 
grained, sweet, nutritious bread. The elements of 
Graham bread are all in it. It is well to experi- 
ment in bread making and just see what gratifying 
results will follow your efforts. You will find a 
great many new new things. 



A Word to Housewives. 
My symjiathy for all who are compelled to bear 
the burden of the management of ' servants" is very 
great, indeed ; but how few housekeepers there are 
who take the course so necessary to interest the 
" hired girl" In doing the work of the kitchen thor- 
oughly and well ! My experience has compelled me 



to learn the important lesson of personal supervision; 
especially in the preparation of the pastry, as most 
girls, if left to this work unaided, are either incom- 
[letent or become careless and negligent. There are 
few who will do it well. Not only is the cake heavy 
and the pies hard and indigestible, Imt extravagance 
and waste is often the case in this department of the 
culinary art, if left to the girl. I do all my pastry 
cooking, anil enjoy it . Some time ago a friend of 
mine called my attention to a new invention which 
has aided me very much in my work, being tired of 
the drudgery incident to the inconvenience of having 
any materials stored away in storerooms and pan- 
tries. .\fter having seen this, I saiil to myself 
" F.nreka," and decided to have one. It is now a 
pleasant task for rne to stand beside this ingenious 
kitchen storehouse, which occupies no more room 
than a kitchen table, and contains all the implements 
and materials used in doing my work, without mov- 
ing one step, and with little fatigue I accomplish my 
task. Bridget sees me enjoy these daily duties, anil 
is inspired by my jiresence to make extra exertions to 
do her work ; and the result is, we get along 
pleasantly, and I have everything as I desire it. — 
Chicago Tribune. 



How to Pour Tea. 

There is more to he learned about pouring out tea, 
and coffee than most ladies are willing to believe. 
If those decoctions are made at the table, which is 
by far the best way, they re<iuire experience, judg- 
ment and exactness ; if they are brought on the 
table ready made, it still requires judgnu-nt so to ap- 
portion them that they shall prove sufllcient in 
quantity for the family party, and that the elder 
members shall have the stronger cups. Often per- 
sons pour out tea who, not being at all aware that 
the first cup is the weakest, and the tea grows 
stronger as you proceed, bestow the poorest cup 
upon the greatest stranger and give the strongest to 
a very young member of the family who would have 
been better without any. Where several cups of 
equal strength are wanted you- should pour a little 
into each, and then go back, inverting the order as 
you fill them up, and then the strength will be ap- 
portioned properly. This is so well understood in 
England that an experienced pourer of tea waits till 
all the cups of the company are returned to her be- 
fore she fills any a second time, that all may share 
alike. — Housekeeper. 



Origin of Dessert. 

The service of sweets and fruits at banquets origi- 
nated in Milan in tho fifteenth century. It was un- 
known in France under Louis XIV. No dessert at 
all appears in Moliere's picturesque descriptions of 
the banquets given by the Grand Monarque in 1604 
and 16fiti, and so far as we know the first dessert ever 
put upon a great table in France was at the marriage 
festival of Louis XV., when his poor little Polish 
bride, Marie Lecszinka, was brought from her simple 
home at Weissombourg to share the first throne in 
Europe. Under the first Napoleonic empire the 
dessert, as we now know it, was developed and estab- 
lished by three great artists whose names should not 
be suffered to die, Desforges, Delorme and Dutfoy. 
It was by the last-named of these that the pyramids 
of iced-cream, then known as '^ froinaqen (jtacci<,*^ 
were first served ; but he was careful always to serve 
with these and the other confectioneries, puddings 
and sweets of all sorts, genuine cheeses, " for the 
benefit," as he tells us candidly, " of those who 
need a second thirst." 



Valuable Recipes. 

Worms on Ti-rnips. — Ashes scattered over old 
soils will commonly operate against the inroads of 
worms upon turnips planted in them. 

Renderixg Lari).— We, at the suggestion of a 
neighbor, took the "sugaring oft' pan" to try our 
lard in, and found it more expeditious than kettles. 

Bkide Cake. — Whites often eggs beaten till hard 
2 cups of pulverized sugar ; 1 cup of Hour ; 1 tea 
spoonful cream tartar ; put all except the eggs into 
a sieve and sift them on the eggs. 

Fruit Cake— Superior.— 1 lb. flour ; 1 lb. sugar ; 
1 lb. butter ; I'i eggs ; 4 lbs. raisins ; 4 lbs. currants ; 
1 lb. citron ; 2 wine glasses brandy ; 2 wine glasses 
wine ; 1 nutmeg ; 1 tablespoon cloves ; I tablespoon 
cinnamon ; 1 lables|X)on molasses ; will make ten or 
twelve loaves of good size. 

To Ekadicate Dandri;fk.— Wet tlie head with 
lukewarm water, then rub on enough good castile 
soap to make a stift" foam; rnb it in well with the 
ends of the fingers, then wash out in two waters. 
Do this at least twice a week until a cure is effected. 
You should never touch the head with a fine comb, 
and should bear on very lightly with a coarse one. 

Sore Tiihoat. — Soak a small piece of bread, about 
the size of a hazel-nut, and then take a pinch of 
Cayenne pepper ; mix and roll up in the form of a 
pill, which the patient must swallow, when in about 
three hours he will be relieved from all pain. In a 
severe case a second dose may be requisite, which has 
never been known to fall. 



Iron DrKiNii Moii.tino.— A good article to use 
in the water given your mounting fowls to drink Is 
the tincture of iron. It is very handy and cheap, and 
sliould be accessible constantly cluring the critical 
time when old fowls are elianiring their plumage. It 
is strengthening, palatable, and works like a charm 
in its way as a stomach tonic. A tablespoonful of 
the tincture to a quart of water is sutHeient. To be 
had at any drug store. 

Veoetahi.e Sol r. — Take four potatoes, three tur- 
nips, one carrot and three onions ; cut them into 
small pieces and put them into a slew pan, with a 
cjuarter of a pound each of butter and ham, and a 
bunch of parsley ; let them remain ten minutes over 
a brisk fire, a<ld a large teaspoonful of flour ; mix 
well in, moisten with two 'jtiarts (jf broth and a pint 
of boiling milk ; bnil u|i, season with salt and sugar, 
run through a hair sieve, put into another stewpan, 
boil again. .Skim and serve with fried bread in it. 

Indian Hui'.An. — Kosella gave us a receipt "as 
our graMdmcithrrs made it," but it isn't as rny 
grandmother makes it, and I don't believe it is near 
as good. Here is my grandmother's recipe : One 
quart of corn meal and one teacui)ful of molasses or 
sugar, .scalded together; cool with water until milk 
warm, and then add one pint of rye meal or Hour, 
and one cup of yeast; mix and let it rise three 
hours, then stir it well and put in a small pan. 
Bake tliree hours. If you use milk risings it will not 
need to stand more than half an hour before baking. 
If it gets too light it will fall. 

Couoii Svuci'. — This is the season for coughs and 
colils, and 1 feel as though anyone knowing a good 
cough medicine should make it known. Cough 
syrups are plentiful, but they soon wear out ; and you 
don't always know what you are taking. We know 
the following is good : White pine gum and lard 
equal (|uaritities; disolve or melt ; strain if any bark ; 
then a<ld three times as nuudi sale sugar ; simmer 
twenty minutes, sliriug frequently ; take it off and 
stir till cool. Take a pill of it after coughing spells. 
White pine gum can be purchased at any drug store. 
Now don't think your cough is so slight it will cure 
it.self, or so bad this won't relieve it. But people of 
weak stomachs can't all keep it down. 

Freckles. — The following is cli[)ped from an ex- 
change. We recommend caution in using any 
mjiterial on the face or skin as more harm than good 
may result : In many females of a sanguine tem- 
perament, freckles, even if removed for a time, will 
be sure to return, and, therefore, may be said to be 
incurable. But in nine out of ten cases the following 
will effect a cure r In the morning on rising, take a 
teaspoonful of lac-Euli)hur in a few teaspoonfuls of 
milk. Then, for external use, apply the following : 
Corrosive sublimate, four grains; alcohol, one ounce. 
Mix. Kemember, ladies, that the latter mixture 
ought not to come in contact with the lips. After a 
few days' using the skin will begin to very slowly 
peel off, and the freckles disappear. Twice daily is 
sullicient to apply it. .\ French dermatologist re- 
commends the following for the same purpose : Take 
muriatic acid, one-half ounce; alcohol, one ounce ; 
rain water seven ounces. .Mix, and apply well with 
a sponge three times daily. When in England, a 
gipsy woman informed me tliat she used horseradish, 
boiled in milk, for removing freckles. She cured a 
number of young girls, but whether or not she told 
me the real secret of the means employed 1 am un- 
able to say, having never given the preparation a 
trial. 



LIVE STOCK. 



Hens in Winter. 

Every personwho keeps hens for profit is exceed- 
ingly anxious that they should furnish eggs during 
the winter, for the reason that they are then more 
scarce, insullieient to supply the demand, and conse- 
quently high priced. 

There are several conditions necessary to attain 
these desirable ends; the first is to obtain a desirable 
variety or breed of fowls. This is a ditlieult matter, 
for many of the breeders of fowls are profuse in their 
recommendation of the i>erpctual or winter laying 
qualities of the particular breed in which they are 
interested, all of which is exceedingly confusing to 
the innocent farmer who has no time or opportunity 
to study the good qualities of any breed. If possible, 
it is safe to get a hardy breed; the White Leghorns 
are a good fowl and reasonably good layers, but are 
a little inclined to be tender. A poultry breeder of 
careful observation considers, for farmers' use, a 
cross between the White and Brown Leghorn pre- 
ferable to any other variety. There are those, how- 
ever, who believe the Partridge Cochins arc the best 
breed, for the reason that they are said to be good 
winter lavers. 

But aside from breeds, another essential to suc- 
cess in winter keeping is, that the fowls have warm 
quarters. This is absolutely necessary, for there is 
no breed of hens that can be expected to furnish eggs 
if allowed to shift for themselves, and secure such 
quarters as an open shed or old barn affords. They 
are exceedingly averse to severe cold weather and 
also continuous moisture ; for this reason they should 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



be provided with a warm and protected shelter for 
winter where they may be contined except upon ex- 
ceedingly pleasant and warm days. Their houses 
should have a southern aspect so that, being supplied 
with windows, it may receive the heat and light of 
the sun. It miirht not be an unprofitable thing to 
have a fire-place and chimney, that in extremely 
cold and damp or frosty days a tire may be built for 
the additional comfort of the fowls. At all events 
the room should be reasonably warm, if possible, 
above the freezing point, not only for the safety of 
such eggs as might be laid, but also to admit of the 
introduction of dry gravel and lime, plaster, ashes, 
etc., in which the fowls can dust themselves or 
obtain substance for shellingtheireggs. Thisshould 
be away from the roost, where it would become 
mixed with the droppings of the roost, and after be- 
ing used a time may be used to sprinkle with the 
manure to preserve all its good qualities as well as 
to serve as a deodorizer. The saving of the manure 
of fowls is no small item, and will go far toward 
payment for the keeping. 

Finally, very much of the laying qualities of hens 
depends upon the keeping. In the first place, es- 
pecially if hens are allowed to run at large in the 
summer, it must be remembered that they are de- 
prived of such share of animal food as they are able 
to secure during summer; then to meet this demand, 
they should be provided, occasionally, with scraps, 
pieces of meat or something of that nature. Then 
there should be a variety fo food, such as scalded 
meal, perhaps wet up with milk, buckwheat, 
oats, corn, chopped cabbage, apples, boiled potatoes, 
and in fact anything that will give a relish ; and oc- 
casionally, to warm up the system, in using the wet 
up Indianjmeal, stir in a little ginger or ground pep- 
per or mustard ; it is also a good thing to give, oc- 
casionally, a little sulphur in order to insure the good 
health of the fowls. Old scraps of grease will have a 
very happy effect upon the confined animals, as their 
music after eating will fully demonstrate. The prin- 
cipal secret of success in keeping hens in winter is 
contained in four letters combined in the word cure. — 
WilUam M. Yeomaits. 



Raise Your Own Cows. 

A writer in the Berks and Schuylkill Journal says' 
Many dairymen sell their calves, and buy cows when 
wanted, but that is not a good practice, as I claim 
that cows can be raised cheaper than they can be 
bought — that is, really good cows, which have a large 
flow of milk, and are a breed or grade valuable for 
beef. Dairymen should breed from stock that is 
extra valuable for milk. Such cows are obtained by 
degrees. They may be grades of pure bloods ; but 
■when obtained it is very unwise to sell the calves of 
such cows to the butchers, because in a few years 
one runs out of such good stock if he sells his calves, 
and then he is compelled to take cows of an inferior 
grade, as first-class cows are seldom offered for sale. 
It does not follow that when good cows are obtained 
their calves will always make equally good milkers ; 
but like generally produces like, and farmers can 
keep up the good qualities of their dairy stock better 
by raising than by purchasing their cows. For milk, 
and also for beef, a short-horn and Ayrshire grade, or 
a short-horn grade crossed on Ayrshire cows make a 
very valuable dairy stock. An old and feeble cow 
should never be bred, if her calves are to be raised, as 
disease is hereditary. In regard to the points of a 
good cow, in order to perpetuate a healthy constitu- 
tion in her offspring, I annex the following from the 
journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England: 
"The head small; muzzle fine and tapering ; nos- 
trils large and open ; tho eyes full and lustrous ; the 
ears small and not too thick ; the head well set on 
the neck ; the distance between the ear and the angle 
of the jaw short, but the width behind the ears con- 
siderable (no dairy cow should have a short thick 
neck); the chest wide and deep ; the girth, taken 
immediately behind the shoulder, should correspond 
with the length from behind the ears to the rise of 
the tail ; the carcass of a barrel shape, for a thin, 
flat-ribbed animal eats largely, thrives badlj , and is 
usually liable to diarrhoea ; there should be but little 
space between the prominence of the hip and the last 
rib ; the quarter large ; the measurement from the 
prominence of the haunch backward to the rise of 
the tail and downward to the hock as great as possi- 
ble ; the lower part of the haunch thick and broad ; 
the hide thick and pliant ; smallness of bone is a sure 
indication of early maturity and aptitude for fat- 
tening." 

^ 

Ayrshire Cows. 

The report of the Ayrshire agricultural association 
gives the following points as the standing of superi- 
ority in Ayrshire dairy cows : 

Head short, forehead wide, nose fine between the 
mnzzle and eyes, muzzle moderately large, eyes full 
and lively, horns wide set on, inclining upward and 
curving slightly inward. 

Neck long and straight from the head to the top 
of the shoulders, free from loose skin on the under 
side, fine at its junction with the head, and the mus- 
cles symmetrically enlarging toward the shoulders. 

Shoulders thin at the top, brisket light, the whole 



forequartcrs thin in front and gradually increasing 
in depth and width backward. 

Back short and straight, spine well defined, espec- 
ially at the shoulder, the short ribs arched, the body 
deep at the fianks and the milk veins well developed. 

Pelvis long, broad and straight, hock bones (illium) 
wide apart and not much overlaid with fat, thighs 
deep and broad, tail long and slender, and set on level 
with the back. 

Milk vessels capacious and extending well forward, 
hinder part broad and firmly attached to the body, 
the sole or under surface nearly level, the teats from 
two to two and a-half inches in length, equal in thick- 
ness, and hanging perpendicularly ; their distance 
apart at the sides should be equal to about one-third 
of the length of the vessel, and across to about one- 
half of the breadth. 

Legs short, the bones fine and the joints firm. 

Skin soft and elastic, and covered with soft, close 
woolly hair. 

The colors preferred are brown, or brown and 
white, the colors being di&tinctly defined. 

Great value is attached to the above form and 
points by the dairy farmer, and he quickly takes them 
in when effecting a purchase, so that a mistake is 
rarely made. 

^ 

The Leghorn Fowls. 

Undoubtedly this breed produces the most prolific 
layers known ; and as the sale of eggs at the prices 
they have been bringing is far more remunerative than 
that of chickens, it follows that the Leghorn stock is 
the most profitable to keep. The" White Leghorns," 
however, are to my mind the most desirable ; in 
beauty of form and plumage they far excel all others. 
The purity of their plumage, contrasting so strikingly 
with the large and brilliant combs and wattles, and 
thir proud and graceful creatures . There can be no 
mistaking the points of a pure White Leghorn, while 
the brown is open to doubt as to its purity, ibr the 
latter resembles in many points common fowls so 
closely as to require the judgment of an expert to 
detect the difference. As egg-producers, the white 
are even superior to the brown, numerous instances 
being shown where accurate account has been kept 
of hens exceeding the production of two hundred and 
fifty eggs in one year. 

As to the crowing of the young cockerels at the age 
of six weeks, I am not prepared to vouch, for I think 
that is putting it rather strong ; but I am satisfied 
the white mature quite as early as the brown. 

There is no investment, either for pleasure or pro- 
fit, that yields a larger percentage than this ; and 
the wonder is, that so many persons who possess all 
the facilities for raising fowls, are content to buy the 
stale and too often spoiled barrel eggs at the store, 
when by a little outlay of time and means they could 
at all times have an abundant supply of good, fresh 
eggs ; and the pleasure derived from raising and at- 
tending fowls would more than compensate for 
the trouble. — White Leghorn, in Oermantomn Tele- 
graph. 

^ 

Facilitating Draught of Horses, 

A number of careful experiments have been made 
on this subject during the bast summer in Switzer- 
land and Germany. It has long been known that a 
"dead pull," that is, the drawing of an inelastic and 
rigid body, was harder than were the body was elas- 
tic. In the experiments just mentioned an iron 
tube was filled with circular pieces of rubber, alter- 
nating with discs of sheet iron. The circles of rubber 
and those of iron were perforated in the centre, ad- 
mitting the passage of an iron rod attached to a cap 
at one end. These tubes were interposed at the at- 
tachment of the shafts or else were placed between 
the collar and the tugs, with the effect that the 
horse, instead ofieing obliged to "throw himself 
into the collar," starts the vehicle by a gradual ef- 
fort. 

The force required to start and also that required 
to pull a vehicle were carefully measured by a dy- 
namometor, both with and without the elastic tubes. 
It was found that, for steady traction, the gain with 
the tubes amounted to seventeen per cent; whilst 
for stai'ting, the necessary effort was diminished by 
over twenty per cent. Similar experiments, in 
which cooled spriners were used, gave analogous re- 
sults. In view of the great advantage obtained by 
this simple means, it should come into general use. 
One object of this publication is to diffuse the infor- 
mation and prevent this useful principle from being 
hampered by a patent — J'hiladelphia Ledger. 



How to Buy a Horse. 

It is recommended that in purchasing a horse it 
should be borne in mind that there is a direct relation 
between the horse's forehead and his disposition and 
qualities. The face must be very broad between the 
eves, but it should taper a little as it approaches the 
ears. If the breadth is carried all the upwards, the 
top of the head will be too wide, the ears ill set, and 
the horse probably sulky. As in the human being, 
so in th9 horse, a great "deal of the expression of the 
countenance depends on the eye. It is a most mar- 
velous index to the working of the mind within. A 
glance at it will often reveal the benevolent ,feei- 



ing, the surly disposition, or the vicious propensity 
that is about fo manifest itself. The reason of all 
this must be most obvious, when we remember that 
it is in direct communication with the brain — the 
material instrument through which the mind ope- 
rates. The eye of the horse should be kindly, strong, 
bold and fiery, yet gentle-looking. It should not 
show much white, as that often indicates a vicious 
disposition. A horse that is looking back so far as to 
expose the white of his eye, is generally on the alert 
for mischief, and is not to be trusted with his heels. 
The eye gives a strong indication both of the temper 
and temperament of the animal ; and it is easy to 
judge from it whether activity or sluggishness pre- 
vails most. 

^ 

Farm Horses. 

Perhaps there is no animal on the farm more in- 
dispensable than the horse of all work — to plough, 
to mow, to rake, to go to the mill, or meeting on 
Sunday, orthedoingof other things quite too numer- 
ous to mention — when Dobbin must be harnessed, 
notwithstanding we have the declaration of Holy 
Writ, that "A horse is a vain thing for safety." 
How to breed horses that combine good work qual- 
ities with good road qualities, is a question that 
deeply concerns farmers, and one that should be 
more thoroughly and skilfully discussed in our 
agricultural journals. While columns are filled 
with the art of breeding trotters and runners, little 
is said of the art of breeding such horses as we have 
described above, or in other words, the horse of all 
work, the kind of horses that all farmers want, 
must and will have, if there be skill enough de- 
veloped in the art of breeding to produce them ; and 
if not, to demand it forthwith, for them it will be 
forthcoming ; for that demand creates supply, is law 
in the world of commerce. Shall we hear from our 
numerous readers and contributors on this very im- 
portant subject — something that is practical and 
shall tend to diffuse light where darkness now so 
universally prevails ? 



Balky Horses. 
There is a great deal said just now about the balk- 
ing of horses, the causes of it and the remedies. As 
long as we can remember, this singular fit of obstin- 
acy of the horse has been discussed, and all sorts of 
plans for overcoming it given. But what will answer 
for one horse may not for another. The cause of it 
is doubtless neglect and ill-treatment of the colt or 
when and after it is broken to harness. Sometimes 
stopping a few moments will be sufficient to start the 
animal again freely of his own accord. Kind words, 
pattihg, a handful of grass, an apple, or a little pep- 
per put upon the tongue will induce him to go ahead 
as if nothing had been the matter. Whipping at all 
times, and especially in this case, is the worst resort. 
We have ourselves induced balky horses to start by 
some of the means above recorded. Sometimes the 
mere turning of the head and letting the animal look 
in a different direction, then rubbing the nose with 
ths hand, has answered ; so has tying a string around 
his foreleg, below the knee, and drawing it very 
tight. Various resorts of this kind should be tried, 
but never force. — Germantown Telegraph. 



Management of Geese. 

Three or four geese to one gander are all that are 
advisable, and a less number, even, is perferable. 
They commence laying in -\pril, though sometimes 
not until May, and require for a nest a box about 
three feet square, with a few inches of soil on the 
bottom. Soft meadow hay forms a good lining for 
it. Each goose requires a nest, otherwise the eggs 
must be gathered daily. 

After the goose has laid her litter (from ten to 
fifteen) , she will arrange her nest in sitting order and 
line it with feathers. If the eggs have been taken 
from her, they should now be returned and she al- 
lowed to cover them. As the process of incubation 
is of considerable length — from twenty-eight tothirty 
days — she must be encouraged to leave the nest often 
for food and exercise. A supply of clean water and 
vegetable food, raw and cooked, should be given, to 
keep her in a healthy state. An occasional visit to a 
pond of water can do no harm, provided it is not 
prolonged till the eggs become chiWei.— Poultry 
Journal. 



Rats and Mice. 

The invasion of rats and mice is really getting to 
be a serious infliction. Walls are undermined, drains 
are converted into channels or thoroughfares to gain 
admittance into cellars, and so into the house ; 
granaries heretofore considered rat-proof are sud- 
denly invaded and their contents confiscated with- 
out leave or license. There seems to be little use in 
waging war upon them, as their numbe rs only in- 
dicate an increase after each assault. Should there 
be a heavy fall of snow with prospect of staying 
long, it would be well for fruit-growers living where 
these pests abound to protect the bodies of young 
trees by stamping the snow about them. This will 
prevent the mice from gaining access to the trees, 
and break up their run-ways under the snow. 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



i5 



Salt for Chickens. 
A writer in llie Cultivator and Cuiintry Qentleman. 
strongly recommendB salt us a remedy for chickens 
suirerinir ft'oni ffaps. He asks wliat ilo we use salt 
for in almost everytliing we eiit ? It not only fur- 
nishes no nutriment, pleasure, or anything else, liul 
Is absolutely a poison ; and that the reason we take 
it is to prevent undue germination of worms within 
us. The old-time Hollanders used lo punish their 
criminals by giving them unsalted food, and they were 
thus soon literally devoured by the worms which 
engendered in their own stomachs. Now, what 
causes gapes in chickens ? ^\'orms. What is given 
to animals to prevent Ibis? Salt. Hut all the 
books, etc., say salt will kill ehiekens. So it would 
ifyou took too much, as they often do through the 
habit of bolting their food without mastication anil 
tasting. In brief, and in fact when the weather is 
damp and eool, always put about as much salt in 
chick's feed as you would in your own liread, and I 
will answer for the life of every one. 



Feed Horses Regularly. 
Almost of more importance than the form in 
which food is given to horses ar(^ the frequency and 
regularity of their meals. The horse's digestive or- 
gans arc not constructed for long fasts. Long inter- 
vals witliout food produce hunger, and hunger he- 
gets voracity; food is boiled, and indigestion and 
colic follow 1 This is doubly true and dangerous 
with horses doing hard work. They come to their 
long deferred meal not only hungry but exhausted; 
not only is the food bolted, but the stomach is in 
such a state as to be incapable of thoroughly active 
digestion, and is overpowered by half the amount 
of food it would otherwise digest. 

Make Feed Racks. 

A stormy day improved by making a few racks to 
hold hay and fodder I'or cattle, sheep and horses, will 
return "large profits before suiunier comes, in saving 
the feed from being trampled under foot and in the 
mud, and thus wasted and destroyed. Plenty of 
feedins; racks about the barnyard is an evidence of a 
careful, painstaking farmer — and only such can make 
anything now-a-days. It is not those who make the 
most that thrive best, but it is those who save the 
most of what they do make. The secret of success 
Is in saving all that can economically and wisely be 
saved. 



To Keep Chickens Clean. 

Powdered or broken charcoal is invaluable in the 
poultry house in keeping it wholesome for fowls, 
and making a most valuable manure. The fowls 
will consume a part of it, and are not so liable to 
disease as where the premises are limited and con- 
fined. Wash your roosts occasionally with kerosene. 
This prevents the accumulation of lice in the poultry 
houses, and fumes of this pungent oil permeate the 
feathers of your fowls at night and drive the vermin 
from their bodies. Or sprinkle a little carbolic pow- 
der on the roosts. 



Safeguards Against Rats. 

Rats are accomplished rope-walkers, and are able 
to make their way even along very small cords. 
Conseijuently so long as they eau mount upon the line 
nothing edible susjiended therefrom is safe from their 
attacks. A correspondent of the Jloston. Jourual of 
Cfiemistnj use wires, upon which circular pieces of 
tin are strung, and hangs his meat, grain etc., be- 
tween the tin pieces. "The rats cannot pass the tin 
circles, because as they attemjit to climb over them 
after walking out ou the wire, the pieces revolve. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Lime as a Fertilizer. 
Lime is a necessity in agrieulttu-e, and if the soil is 
destitute of it, it must be supplied, or the ground be- 
comes hard atul lumpy, and ceases to produce. Some 
writers claim that lime, of itself, gives no fertility, 
but this is a mistake, for I have seen good results 
from its use where it has been applied on old roads 
and worn-out fields where there was almost no 
vegetable matter in the soil. A neighbor had a piece 
of land which was a high chestnut ridge, and so 
poor that it would not produce mullein stalks or rag- 
weed. He first applied fifty bushels of lime per acre, 
and sowed in wheat and seeded with clover. The 
wheat crop was not very good, but the clover did 
well, and when it was full grown, it was plowed 
down and the land sown in w heat. That was six 
years ago, and the field has produced good crops 
ever since. Last winter, about the first of February, 
I commenced to haul slaked lime on to an old 
meadow sod , for corn. On the first acre I put one 
hundred and twenty-five bushels ; then I thought 
that too thick, and on the rest of the field I put 
eighty bushels per acre. I planted the field in corn 
in May, and where the lime was the thickest the 
corn came up of a better color, and kept ahead all 
through the summer, and when I came to husk it, I 



could tell the very row where the hundred and 
twenty-fiye busbies were spread ; the fodder was 
heavier, and the grain deeper on the col) than where 
only eighty busbies were applied. I have seen wheat 
fields where only one-half of the field was limed, 
and the other half manureil with barn-yard manure, 
without lime, and lould tell to the very drill row on 
that part of the field that was limed ; the straw was 
stiffer and the grain larger than on the part where 
no lime was applied. I could give many instances 
in favor of lime as a manure, and when the farmers 
of this country u.si' as much lime as tli<'y do barn- 
yard manure, there will be less complaining about 
poor crops. I hope that some of your many readers 
will give their views and e.Kperienee with lime. — J. 
y. 7>., SUj)])eyy Rock, l*a. 

^^ 

"A Broadway Farm." 

Stewart, Astor and Vanderliilt are goue, and now 
the richest representative of the old families of New- 
York is Peter Goelet, an eccentric old l)achelor who 
lives on the corner of Broadway and Nineteenth 
street, in the most expensive section of the street, 
r.oclet's wealth is estimated at from twenty to thir- 
ty millions, the most of it having been made by his 
great-grandfather and grandfatlier in the hardware 
trade. It is the old story. \ French emigrant com- 
menced the hardware trade before the revolution, 
and by hard work m,a<le monc'y. Every dollar made 
was invested in farming land's a mile or more from 
the store down town, and for three generations this 
has been the rule. What were farming land then 
is covered with six story buildings now, and what 
the first Goelet bought for twenty dollars an acre is 
worth to-day hundreds of thousands. There are 
two left of them, Peter, the bachelor, being the best 
known. He occupies several lots on the corner of 
Nineteenth street and Broadway for a residence; 
the property being worth, probably, two 
hundred thousand dollars, and he keeps 
it that he may have room for a 
cow, a dozen guinea hens, a stork or two and a fine 
lot of chickens. " Uncle Peter," as he is called, has 
a passion for this kind of farming, and he keeps this 
splendid property idle that he may indulge his whim. 
He dosen't put a dollar into pictures or books ; he 
has't a single piece of sculpture , he never takes 
part in any public enterjirise ; but the money that 
other men put into such things he squanders on his 
cow and chickens. Counting interest, it costs him 
twenty thousand dollars per year to keep that cow, 
which makes the milk come, I should supjiose, at 
about a dollar a drop. It is a queer sight — a cow 
feeding quietly in the busiest part of New York. But 
this is (ioelet's whim, and perhaps it is as sensible as 
many other men's whims. lie is over seventy, and 
has not a child to leave his vast estate to. His ne- 
phews and niece are all very ricli,but as they have not 
" Uncle Peter's" quiet tastes, they will not object to 
adding his millions to their own. 

^ 

Sowing Clover on Grass. 
The agricultural editor of the Reading Timea and 
Dcspatcli says : Farmers may succeed in making 
clover grow on grass land, if the sod is not thickly 
covered with grass, open in places between the tufts, 
so as to adroit of harrowing in the seed. Sow the 
seed quite thick as early in the spring as the ground 
will admit, and be dry. Then run a fine tooth har- 
row over the land till the seed is covored, or the most 
of it mixed with the loosened earth; then roll the 
land, and in due time a crop of clover will appear ; 
but it will be in danger of being smothered by the 
grass, perhajis ; and if it lie, when the grass has 
grown high enough to be cut by a mower, it should 
be cut and fed green to stock : and if plaster be sown 
on the land, as soon as the clover appears, it will get 
such a growth in a few weeks that the grass cannot 
check it. Fields that are not wellcovered with grass, 
may be improved in this manner, or other grass seed 
may be sown instead of clover, and several kinds of 
grass seed would be better than one kind. Perhaps 
it would be better to pasture such lands till the new 
seeding gets a good growth, ratherthan cut the grass 
when it is but a few inches high. There is no good 
reason why farmers should not experiment in this 
way sometimes. Then let them seed down a ijlowed 
field to grass next spring, without the usual grain 
crop. I have known a good crop of hay to be cut 
the first season on fields thus seeded ; and be sure 
that you seed with several kinds of grasses, which 
produce a firmer sward, and one that will stand the 
frosts of winter better than one kind will. 



Good Yield of Corn. 

Wm. Lambie, Ypsilanti, Mich., reports a yield of 
900 bushels of ears of corn on ten acres, at a cost per 
bushel of 7 cents in the car. The interesting feature 
is the cost per bushel, rather than the yielil per acre. 
As the land was a reclaimed marsh, and was quad- 
rupled in value in the process of producing corn at 
7 cents per bushel, it may be considered a sample of 
first-class farming. 



Subscribe for The Farmer, the cheapest Agricul- 
tural Paper published. See terms on first page. 



HURTICULTURE. 

Some Hints on Grafting. 

Sometimes disease will fasten itself on to a tree 
and jjcrvade its whole system; and when grafts are 
taken from such a tree the trouble goes with It. In 
this way a diseased condition is often distributed 
quite unconscioiisly by the propagator. Sometimes 
this peculiar condition <loes not produce actual dis- 
ease, but there is a sort of lack of vigor wliich leads 
to inferior results. For instance, we often find 
people with .Seekel pear trees that have hut moderale 
sized or small fruit; and other people who are aide 
to boast ol their large Seekel pears. If grafts are 
taken from these they generally continue to produce 
large or snmll pears as the case may be. Yet we 
know that all these came from one original Seekel 
pear tree and that in some way the degeneracy or 
improvement came about witliout any seminal agen- 
cy whatever. The whole ditlerence has been made 
general by propagation. Now, some people say 
when a person has a large or fine Seekel pear, the 
land or the culture just suited it: and if the grafts 
are taken to other trees undi'r other circumstances 
the excellence fails and the fruit reverts to Its origin 
nal inferior condition. But it is not always so. In- 
deed, it is but seldom that the large and perfect 
form fails to carry its excellence with it, when the 
graft goes to a distant stock. 

Now this fact shows how very careful we should be 
in selecting grafts, to take them only from the best 
known specimens of the kind we can get. It may 
also be a question whether it will not pay sotnetimcs 
to graft over again with the suine kind, when it is 
approved, but a tuttertree exists. For instance, with 
the Seekel pear. .Supposing one has atree that gives 
but a small fruit, and a neighbor has one which Is 
large and fine, gi-afts from that will give the large 
kind ; and it may be worth while to sacrifice a year 
or two of poor fruit in order in time to get much 
belter ones. 

Independently of all this, there are often fruit 
trees on one's place that arc so |>oor as to be better 
to have the whole character of the tree changed, and 
this is the blessing which the art of grafting confers. 

It may be as well to say at this season that graft- 
ing is generally more successful when the grafts are 
taken off early. As the season progresses the sap 
accumulates in vessels, as every one knows who has 
pruned a grape vine. If cut late in the spring the 
vine bleeds ; but it does not if cut now. Pear trees do 
not exactly ''bleed" if cut late, Imt there is much 
more sap in the branches in spring than there is now. 
We cut early to avoid this, and bury the scions in the 
earth or anywhere where they will be absolutely at 
rest without being absolutely frozen. — GermaiUoivn 
Telegraph. 

^ 

Succession of Fruits. 

The so-called small fruits, occupy quite a large 
place in the general list of fruits for every month. 
Those wlio have never enjoyed the luxury of a dish 
of fully ripe strawberries of such varieties as the 
Charles Downing, Boydens' No. .'W, or even the 
Wilson— which may be, and should be, on every 
man's table in .May and June, with the usual ac- 
companiments of cream and sugar — are to be 
pitied, especially if it is not by their own negligence 
that they lose one of the most delightful exercises of 
a well furnished table. In natural succession the 
strawberries are followed by the various sorts of 
raspberries, red, black and yellow, all very 
"pleasant to the eye and good to the taste," and 
these in turn are followed by the blackberries ; and 
although these fruits ripen through the summer 
months, and are best relished when fresh from the 
vines or hushes, we can have them almost as good 
during the late and all the winter mouths, even 
uniil they are supplanted by crops of the succeed- 
ing year." The old system" of preserving fruits in 
sui/ar, pound for pound, as the old rule had it, has 
been entirely superseded by a process of canning, 
which preserves much more of the real flavor and 
quality, costs less, and is, therefore, superior to the 
fiiriner Uiode. 

In addition, and for variety, we have during the 
summer months the delicious cherry. Who, that 
has tieen favored as jour humble servant has, on 
more than one occasion, to visit when the fruit was 
at its iirinie, orchards like those of the late Dr. Hull, 
of well-merited horticultural fame, and to have the 
choice without limit of nearly or quite twenty 
varieties of sweet cherries, can ever forget such an 
event? And who can deny the exquisite flavor aud 
gratefulness to the palate, of a dish of Karly Rich- 
mond pitted cherries, as we have them for side 
dishes at Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Years' 
dinners or supjwrs ? Indeed, I like them and have 
them home-grown much oftener than on such festive 
occasions . 

As the months roll on we have the apricot, the 
nectaTine, the peach and the plum in varieties for 
the mouths of August and September, and with these 
and for the balance ol the year, the pear and the king 
of fruits, the apple, and the last named in almost in- 
finite variety and of various flavors, sweet, acid, sub- 
acid, and mild sub-acid, etc., to suit the differeut 



i6 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 1877. 



tastes of men, women and children. If varieties of 
apples are well chosen, we may have them from 
July to the succeedina; July, for it i.s a very common 
thing to see on our fruit stands the Golden Russet 
of the preeedinfj year with the Early Harvest or 
Carolina Red June of the present season. — C. W. 

MUBTFELDT, BEFORE THE K.\NS.\S HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETT. 



Heat for House Plants. 

Most of our plants are injured by too much heat. 
For a general collection of house plants, it is not best 
to allow the thermometer to be above seventy, and if 
they could be kept in a room where the thermometer 
would usually range much above sixty-five it would 
be much better. In the night time fifty is enough. 
Give a little fresh air every fine day, and all the sun- 
light attainable. An effort should be made to give 
moisture to the atmosphere, for our own good, as 
well as the health of the plants. This can be done 
in various ways by evaporating water : but when 
plants are In a separate apartment, likealittle green- 
house, it can be done more conveniently and effectu- 
ally, although this separate apartment be only a bay 
window, with glass doors, separating it from the liv- 
ing room. In this, water can be used freely, by 
sprinkling, etc., and a moist atmosphere preserved. 
The temperature, with this arrangement, can be kept 
lower than would be comfortable in the living room, 
and the plants are saved from dust and many evils 
which we manage to endure and live, but which 
generally prove too much for the plants. — Vick's 
Guide. 

Thinning Fruit. 

Additional facts come before us every day, showing 
the importance of thinning fruit on the trees early in 
the season. E. Mood,ofLockport, New York, stated 
Bome years ago that while the large, handsome 
peaches on his thinned trees brought a dollar and 
a half per basket, the same sort on crowded branches 
sold for only half a dollar. More recently, Mr. Dyck- 
man, of White Haven, New York, has cited instances 
where his thinned crop readily brought two dollars 
and a-half per basket, and unthinned only one dollar 
and a quarter. There is less difference when the 
trees are young and bear large specimens, but as 
they become older and more productive, the differ- 
ence becomes very distinct. But the increased price 
is not the only advantage. An overloaded tree is 
soon exhausted. A large orchardist in Ohio lost 
3,000 trees by the cold of winter, after a very heavy 
crop ; while trees which had not borne were unin- 
jured. It is much easier to thin out poor specimens 
early, than to hand-pick all, and then assort them. 



Tar on Fruit Trees. 

According to the experience of Mr. Henry Rey- 
nolds, of Montgomery county, N. Y., tar is a perfect 
remedy for scarred and sun-cracked ajiple trees. 
He says that by coating with new tar the trunk of a 
favorite fruit bearer that was cracked and so de- 
cayed that the bark was dead and would peel o9', he 
has restored it fully. He applies it to all the 
branches that show signs of decay. Since practic- 
ing this cheap remedy, he has not been troubled 
with insects. By applying tar to the trunk, and 
clearing away the surface at the roots so as to let it 
run down on them, peach trees badly damaged by 
borers are fully restored. Replace the dirt, and you 
will have no more trouble with the tree for two years 
or more. If the tar is applied to young trees, the 
borers will not trouble them at all. He states that 
the coating should be applied in the winter, or early 
in the spring. 



Grafting Currants. 

The Rural New Yorker says : Lovers of the cur- 
rant and gooseberry have reason to feel jolly over the 
success which seems to attend grafting them upon 
the Missouri currant (Ribus aurcum), which is not 
liable to the attacks of the borer. Besides, they are 
exempt from mildew. And thus by a single happy 
hit the two great drawbacks to currant .and goose- 
berry cultivation have been overcome. The beauty 
of these little trees when loaded with their pretty 
berries, as displayed at the Centennial, is of itself 
enough to secure their general cultivation. It would 
be well for those who iutend experimenting with 
grafting currants to bear in mind that there is a 
great difference in the varieties of the Missouri cur- 
rant, some making better stocks than others. 



Apples in England. 
The London Garden says that Convent Garden 
market is piled high with barrels of American ap- 
ples, which are more abundant now than ever 
known before. The English apple crop was 
small the past season and apples being 
very abundant here, they have poured into the Lon- 
don market. There are large supplies also from 
France and from Holland, the former be ng sold at a 
dollar per bushel, and the latter lower. American 
apples, if good, sell much higher. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

Oakland Stud of Peroheron-Normam Horses. 
M. W. Dunham, importer and breeder, Wayne, Dn 
Page county, Illinois, thirty-five miles west of 
Chicago, on the Freeport division C. & N. W. R. R. 
This is simply a royal octavo pamphlet of thirty-two 
pages, being an illustrated catalogue of the horse- 
stock of Mr. Dunham, the enterprising and widely 
known importer and breeder of the famous Percheron 
Normans, which are becoming so popular in this 
country. The pamphlet, which is beautifully gotten 
up, opens with a splendid illustration of "Success," 
the first Percheron-Norman stallion imported to 
Illinois from France, by Mr. Dunham, which is fol- 
lowed by "Mignonette," "Jean Bart," "Cardinal," 
" Tempest," " Primate," " Duke of Perche," 
"Apollo," "Napoleon III.," "Viola and "Adelaide," 
all of whom, with descriptive notices, will appear in 
our journal during the course of the coming year. 
This stud consi.sts of seventy-eight individuals, in- 
cluding stallions and mares, of foreign and American 
breeds. We must confess that we are not a con- 
noisseur in horse flesh, but to our eye there is some- 
thing beautifully grand in the apperance of N'a- 
lioleon III. After the first outlay, it perhaps costs 
as little to keep a good horse as a bad one, save the 
ditlerence between efflcient grooming, and absolute 
neglect. Eighty-six of these horses have been sold 
since August, 1S74, at prices, the lowest of which 
was Si50.00 and the hiahest ?.5,.5OO.O0, but seventy 
were from S1,000 to 4,.500. This is a fair exhibit of 
their value, and illustrates their appreciation by the 
stock owners of our country, from Maine to Wis- 
consin and Iowa. If our farmers desire good work- 
ing and pleasure stock, we commend them to the 
stud of Mr. Dunham. 

Tub NEW Guide to Rose Culture. The cata- 
logue of the Dingee and Conard Company of Rose 
Growers, West Grove, Chester county. Pa., is a 
royal octavo pamphlet of 47 pages, and many illus- 
trations, on fine cerulean tinted paper, and excellent 
type, and Is now before us. The catalogues of the 
various floi'ists, seedsmen and nurserymen of our 
country, constitute the cheapest, most practical 
and accessible treatises on flower garden, lawn, field, 
forest and vegetable garden botany, of anything that 
is published on that subject, and the one before us, 
on its specialty, is not inferior to the best of them. 
The study of these, aided by a Botanical Text Book, 
is sufficient to impart as much popular knowledge 
of the subject as is of interest to the masses. Here 
we have lists of 37.5 roses, alphabetically arranged, 
including ever-blooming, hybrid, perpetual, moss 
and climbing; 40 of which are entirely new; with 
short descriptions and modes of culture. 

The Naturalist's Directory, containing the 
names of naturalists, chemists, physicists and mete- 
orologists, arranged alphabetically, with an index 
arranged according to departments. By .Samuel E. 
Cassino, and published by the Naturalists' Agency, 
at Salem, Mass. This is an exceedingly well exe- 
cuted pamphlet of 75 pages, interspersed with about 
the same number of blank pages, for the purpose of 
making additions and corrections. It is a demi 8vo. 
in form, and printed on fine calendered paper, with 
tinted covers. It is, perhaps, as perfect as such a 
work could possibly be made, under all the circum- 
stances, in a first edition, and in order to make future 
issues more complete, the author and compiler re- 
spectfully solicits notices of omi.?sions that occur in 
the present issue. Also notices of scientific societies 
wherever they may exist in North America, to add to 
a new edition which will be published in December, 
1877. 

"Report of the Geographical and Geological Ex- 
plorations and Surveys west of the one hundredth 
meridian, in charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler, 
corps of engineers, U. S. A. Under the direction of 
Gen. Humphreys, Chief of EngineersU. S. A. Pub- 
lished by the War Department, in six volumes. 

Our acknowledgments are due to our distinguished 
fellow-citizen and Congressional Representative, 
Hon. A. Herr Smith, lor a copy of the fifth volume 
of this admirable work, the contents, material, and 
execution of which reflects as much credit upon the 
government, its officer and employees, as any work 
ever published by Congress. This volume is a solid 
quarto of 1,0-0 pages; it is devoted exclusively to 
zoology, and includes mammalogy, ornithology, her- 
petology, ichthyology, entomology, conchology, &c., 
properly and beautifully illustrated. 

An Essay on Pear Blight, read before the Poto- 
tnac Fruit Growers' Association, W^ashington, D. C, 
by John Brainard, together with an introductory 
note by J. P. Kirtland, M. D. This is a royal octavo 
pamphlet of IB pages, on a most interesting subject, 
and one that has exercised the minds of fruitgrowers 
for a century, at least. This little work is well 
gotten up, and is illustrated by six wood-cuts, in- 
cluding fourteen figures, representing healthy parts 
of the pear tree and also those infected by " blight." 
It bears date September .5th, ls7(i, and therefore con- 
tains the latest views upon a most intricate subject. 
If it does not contain all the truth, it at least makes 
a nearer approximation to it than anything we have 
yet seen on blight. 



Potato Pests. Being an illustrated account of 
the Colorado potato-beetle, and the other insect foes 
of the potato in North America, with suggestions for 
their repression and methods for their destruction. 
By Charles V. Riley, M. A., Ph. D. State Entomolo- 
gist of Missouri. 

Published by the Orange Judd Co., 245 Broadway. 
New York. 

Price .50 cts. in paper, 7.5 cts. in boards. This is a 
handsomely printed little 12 mo. of IDS pages, con- 
taining also a map of North America, illustrating the 
original home, the territory occupied, the territory 
invaded, and the most direct line of march of this 
notorious pest; with 40 figures, illustatlng this and 
others insects injurious to the potato, as well as those 
carnivorous and parasitic species which iufest and 
prey upon the Colorado Beetle. It should be in the 
hands of every farmer and gardener in the country. 
And now here we have before us, No. 1, volume 
1 — January 1877, of the Xebraska Farmer, Me- 
Bridc <fc Clarkson editors and propi'ietors, published 
monthly at Lincoln, Nebraska, at $3.00 in advance 
per annum. This is a remarkably well gotten up 
quarto of 24 pages, not iucluding four extra pages 
of advertisements, and additional covers. It is 
printed on fine calendered paper, faintly tinted, and 
everything looks fresh and new. Its literary quali- 
ties are unexceptionable, and located as it is in the 
vicinity of the State Agricultural College, it 
must IP necessarily be the reflector of the best 
agricultural thoughts of the.State. We cor- 
dially welcome it to the ranks of agricultural 
journalism, and heartily wish for it a long and 
successful career. This first number impresses 
us very favorably, and we have already appropriated 
a valuable paper from its columns. Communica- 
tions of all kinds to be addressed to The Xebraska 
Farmer, Lock Box 41, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Potter's American Monthly, an illustrated 
magazine of history, literature, science and art; 
1877. John E. Potter & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., S-i.OO 
a year; 25 cents a number. This is a demi-quarto of 
SO pages, and is an exceedingly interesting work in 
all that relates to American history especially. Its 
material and typographical execution are unexcep- 
tionable. The February number is before us, but it is 
slightly mutilated, having lost the 147th and 14''th 
pages (department of "notes and queries." We 
understand one of the pages contained a paragraph 
inquiring about the "Old Barracks" of Lancaster, 
and we presume it was appropriated for the purpose 
of answering it. We are writing not 100 yards from 
the ground on which the Old Barracks stood. Oc- 
casionally an old bvttoH of the British soldier's uni- 
form is found on or near the spot — one in 1873. 

Descriptive seed catalogue, for 1877, William 
Rennie, Toronto, Can. A beautifully illustrated 
octavo pamphlet of SO pages in tinted calendered 
paper, ahd finely embellished covers. Containing a 
description of the managment of hot-beds and cold- 
beds, together with introductory and explanatory re- 
marks for the information of his patrons, price lists, 
ete., and an index. This little work contains a vast 
amount of botanical agricultural, horticultural, and 
general information relating to fruits, fiowers, field 
crops and garden vegetables, condensed in a small 
space, together with fine illustrations of fields, lawn 
and garden implements of all kinds, with the name 
and the prices of each attached. Since we have 
been to the Centennial we have great faith in Canada, 
and Mr. Rennie seems to be a fair representative. 

R. H. Allen & Co's descriptive catalogue, con- 
taining complete lists of vegetable, fiower and field 
seeds, roots, plants, and garden requisites, 189 and 
191 Water Street New York. This is a demi-octavo 
pamphlet of 64 pages on fine calendered paper and 
tinted cover. The few illustrations it contains are 
implemental and finely executed, and moreover of the 
latest, most improved and useful kinds. Nothing 
can more forcibly exhibit the progress that is being 
made in the agricultural world, than the full and 
splendid catalogues that the nurserymen and seeds- 
men send out annually to their customers; and more 
can be learned of them about practical botany (ex- 
cept scientific classification) than can be from most 
works on that special subject unillustated. 

We call the attention of those of our readers who 
contemplate purchasing seeds or plants, to the ad- 
vertisement of Peter Henderson & Co., of New York. 
The greenhouse establishment of this firm covers 
two acres of greenhouses, and employs upward of 
fifty hands. Millions of plants are shipped, by ex- 
press and mail, every year, to every State and Ter- 
ritory in the Union. Their Seed warehouse is the 
most extensive in the city of New York, and every 
order received is certain to be filled promptly, with 
the very best quality of seeds or plants, and as they 
are producers as well as dealers, everything for 
the garden will t5e sold at low rates. 

We respectfully call the attention of our readers 
to the advertisements in this number of the Farmer, 
.and would admonish them that our journal is now 
the best and most widely extended advertising med- 
ium published in Lancaster county, and comes into 
the hands of the most moral and financially substan- 
tial citizens of our commonwealth, as well as of the 
country at large. 



THE LANCASTER FARMERS 



HI. 




My annuat Cntuht{ftie *»/' Veg'-tahffi and Vlotcr 

M'-^it for lS7it, rich in eueriiviiiRa, will In- ready in Janu- 

nrv, ;iud 8Put FKEK to all who Hpply. C'ustounTs of lii8t 

-■ ;isoQ nred not write for it. I offer mio of the larpeHtcol- 

1 ' ti-'iiaof VfRcttiblf eec(! evi-rweTit on( by uiiy seed houHC 

■ V'liericrt, u larjjo j^ortion of which wore growu on my six 

i furiiiH. /tinted directions /or ntHicafion on rach pack- 

All sped tvarrnn(,^d to W both frenh and true to nam*-; 

ir, that Hhould it i-rove otherwise. / xrill refill the order 

v. ThooriKinal iiitmduefr of tht» Uubburd Squash, 

hiiey'B Me'On, Miirbleheart CiibbaEPH, Mexican C'orn, and 

ri ■ of otlier vej-fetnbh'fl, I Invite the iiatrrjuii^je of at/ who 

n- <uixiou-s fo have thetr need directly /rom (he grower, freshf 

' ' \ and i\f the verxj heMs Kfrain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

JAMKS .1. n OKKflORY. 
U'-10-4n)] Mnrbleliead. MaPS. 

on trial for three months. The Home 
(JuKST is deelared the best family paper 
now published. Each number coutdius nn 
illustrated Fashion Department, a depart- 
ment on Writing aud PeninauBUip. edited 
by Prof. Gu«kfll. aUo a column of Chat 
with Ueaderfl, Puzzle Department, Letters 
il.li.ii. UomuBtic Keeeiptr", History. Poetry, Hiogra- 
\, :;nd a hoMt of reiidlnff to interest and instruct. The 
le, iucludiiiK a copy of the most beiutiful chromo of 
i!:iy. on trial three months for only yO cents. 
\ idress the i ublishcrs, 

J. LATHAM & CO., 
419 Wishington Street, Boetou. Mass. 




E. R O. 



r EURErtA It V i)!^, lis /orli/ ili-firer.-i lu'(jfirr fire fc.st than 
•11** taxo reijttires', c-'.f\ be liurneil lu auy LAM t* where the 
.chiniiiey Imnier i8 used, is warranted nut to exptode, iiucler 
forfeiture of $1110. 

t2r"F.Xl"'I.I'SIVE COUNTY RIGTITS fnr sale by 
P. J. FITZUEHALD, Solo I'nipiletor and Itauufacturer, 

103 ami 1115 >J Fi)Ur:h at., I'hilad'a. 

AIbo, WHOI.ESAI.K DKALEU IN UEAD LIGHT, COAL 
OILj.iid IllUiXINU r'LUID. 

N. B. A laiKC afisnrlinout Intent Mvleso! CHANDELIERS, 
BKACKKTS. imoNZE LAMl'S. BilUNKHS, &c.. .to., cou- 
gtantly on h:MKl. lii-;i-Om 

WEST jliRSm NURSERIES! 

GIBSON & BENNET. . 

100,0011 Fel'on's Early Prolific aud Reliance Rasiiljerry, 
■200,0<)0 C'indrella alid Ouulitiemal Strawberry I'l.AXT.S 
■direct from the oviglual stock. Millions of other Plants, 
Trees, &u., &c. 

rBr~New descriptive Circulars now ready. 

10-9-3m 

PATENTS 

Obtained for luventitors, in the United States. Canada and 
Europe, at reduced rates. With our principal office located 
at WaeUinKton, directly opposite the United Slates Patent 
Office, we arc able to attend to all Patent Busincfia 
with greatev proniptuesB aud des'/atch and less cost than 
otlier patent .ittorufys, who are at a distance fiom WasU- 
iugtou, and who have, therefore, to employ ** associate at - 
torneys," We make preliminary examinatioua and furnish 
.-opiiiious "Slo pateu*ability, free of charge, and all who 
are interested in new inventions aud Patents are in%'ited to 
send lor a copy of our **Unido lor Obiaiuing Patents," 
which is sent iree to auy address, and contains complete iu- 
structions how to obtam Pateuts, and other vahiabie matter. 
We refer to the German-American National Bank, Wash- 
ington, D. C; the Itoyal S ved:sh, Norwegian and Danish 
Legations, at Wii«hmg'..ou ; Hon. Joseph Casey, lute Chief 
Justice U. S. C JUrt of Claims ; to the Offieials of the U. S 
Patent Office, aud to Senators and Members of Cougress 
from every State. 

Addiess: roriS RifJORR A Co., Solicitors of 
Patents and Attorneys at Law, Le Droit Buildiu^^, Wash- 
ington. D. C. 

<|Jpr X - (IJOn P"^^ '^^y *^' home. Samples worth So free, 
WU UU u)^U Address Stinson & Co., Portland, Maine. 



LISTEN TO THE MOCKING BIRD.-The 

Prairie Whistle and Animal Imitator can be uwed l)y a child. 
It iM made to imitate the song of every bird, the ncigU of a 
horse, the bray of an as", the grunt of a. hog; biids, beasts 
and snakes are enchanted and entrapped by it. Is used by 
Billy Birch, Charley White, and all the Minstrels and Warb- 
lers. Ver.triloqulsm c-n be learned iji three days by its aid. 
Sent upon receipt of 10 cts., :j for ys cts., 7 for .Ml cts. 15 for 
$1. Address, J. W. COTTRELL & CO., 218 Fulton Street, 
New York. 10-5-lm 



TRINITY HALL. 



BEVERI.Y, 

.\KM JKKSEY. 

Established 1867 English and French Home-School for 
Young Ladies. Valied advantages of the highest otTler. 
Number of impils limited. Fall term begins Sept. 19. 
For circular address Miss R. 0. HUNT, Principal. 

10-S-l!m] 



uo«»oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

006000000000000000000900000000000 

go A $5.00 PREMIUM GIFT ! 
g| SOLID SZLVBH PLATESD 

oS -^ ■■ ^^ 

OO 
OO 

ss 

OO 

8^ Consisting of an Elegant Set of Solitl Silver riated SpooilN, retail price S4.00, 

%r and an Elc;',ant Holifl Kilvcr FUied Kutter-Kuiro, rci.iil price 6^&.00, making a 
^^ most valuable and useful l*reinitliii C«ift to every subscriber. 
^^2% Arrangements have been made with the old established and reliable I>OU$;1aN Hilver ^^ 

^M^0 P]atin«; Company to supply every subscriber of this paper with this valuable Silver ^P' 
n A Tableware as a Premium Gift. Tills JBlC£;ant Set of OO 

lO SOLID SILVER PLATED SPOONS AND BDTTER-OIFE JO 

P^y Is of the latest "Rose** pattern, making the most useful and beautiful Gift ever offereJ to ^P^^ 

©subscribers. To secure ttiis valualilc Premium, you have merely to cut out the following J%^% 
. _ uremium order, and send it to the WoUKlas Silver Platiiic <'OiiinafiV. C'liioago. jf jf 
til., for redemption, together with amount necessary to pay actual cost of packing, post.tyc or ^^f^ 

0~ expressare, etc. Under our contract this SilverAVar© is to co.^t you nothing ^a 
except the actual cose of packing, postage or cxpressagc, cic-i which you are required to send ^m\m 
\^% with the premium order, and the Silverware is th:n - ^^^% 




FOR £VERT SUBSCRIBER OF THIS PAPER I 



8 



WiPREMM ORDER! 



i-/'(.LT OUT ■>.! 

DOUGLAS 



IS O'l'if U. iS IT IS WOUTI! $5.00.. 



SILVER PLATING- CO., 

II I ^1 S8 Randolph Street, Chicago, 111. 

Enclosed find $i.oo to pay actual cost of packing, postage, or expressage, etc., upon a 
I full set of your Solid Silver Plated Spoonsand Liittcr-Knife* and 1 agree, upon receipt of 
" e same, to show them to my friends and argitajnt.Tnces in my neighborhood. 



•i 



Ik^^ Cut out the above premium orde." to show that you are a subscriber of ihis p.ipcr, and 

w9 enclose it, with $i.oo, to DOUGLAS SILVER PLATING CO., 88 Randolph St., Chioafto. And ' =^ 
^^A you vvill receive a handsome set of solid Silver Plated Spoons and Butler-Knife by return ouul. ^9^9 

oooooo@oooooooooooooooooooooooooo I 

000000@©0000000000000800000000000 



lent for HI cents. 



-1 /^ pictures of actresses and pingers 

Ivy Nation.^l MoNTHiv, Wa^hiuijfou. D. (', 



PATENTS 



procured. 
K.)\ve h <•■" 



A<lviee irt-c. AddrcHS, 
Box 174 Wushiiit'ton, D. r.. 



1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 

GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO., 

26 and 28 West King-st. 



A NEW BOOK. 



How to Raise 

FRUITS. 



A IIAND-HOOK OF 



HARDWARE fruit culture, 



BUILDII^G HAEDWAEE, 

GL,AS.«i, 

PAINTS, OILS, FUMPS, 

TERRA com. IRON aiiiLEAB PIPE, 

LEATHER BELTING, 
SEEDS, 

PHOSPHATES & FARM IMPLEMENTS. 



Agrents for tlie 

*' Ohio " Reaper and Mo^o^er, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
Fairbank*s Scales, 
Dupont's Po^wder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &c., &c. 



We have the largest stock of Reneral Hardware In the 
Ktate, and our prices are as low aud terms as liberal as can 
be found elatwbere, 9-1-tf. 



BCINO A OriDE TO THE PROPER 

Culilvation and Mann'jemenl of Fndt Trees, and 
of Grapes and Small FruitSj 

with condeusetl depcriptions of many of the l>e8t and moat 
po]tular varjetien, with upwards of one hundred eugravinga. 
IJy Thomas Gri- oo. Price $1 00. 

"a bLiok wt)ich should be owned by every pereon who owna 
a rod of available laud, and it will serve to secure success 
whe'-e now there in nothing but failuv. It overs the 
ground fully, without teehnicaliiioH, aud is a work ou 

Fruit Culture for the Miilion. 

It t^lls of the roH*, how to plant, how to trim, how to 
traimi lant, loc.iiion, soil, selection, diseaws, insects, borers, 
hiightt*. cultivation, how to prune, mauuhng, layering, 
budding, graft uig, etc., including ftiU description aud man- 
agement of Orchard Fruit, such as Apples, Peaches, Pears, 
Plums, Cherries, Quinces, Apricots, Nectarines, etc. It la 
a most complete 

Guide to Small-Fruit Culture. 

with many illustrations and descriptions of the latest vari- 
eties of Orapes, Sirawbt^rries, lilackbcrries, llaspberries, 
Gooseberries, Cuirants. etc. 

Thoworkshows the value of Fntit, and how lo use it. 
Seut by mail, post-paid, price $1 ; or The Farmer and How 
to raise Fruits, will be furnished at $1,(1>. Address 

I., It iTIIV<»V. 
22 Soiitli <)iie<*ii Ml . I.)iii<-:isti*r, I'n. 

Scribner's Lumber and Log-Book. 

OVER HALF A MILL'ON SOLD. The most complete 
book of ilH kind ever laiiilinhtd. (iives correct meas- 
niemeut of all kinds of lumber, I'gM and plank by Doyle's 
Eule, cuhical contents of square and round tJinbrr. slave 
and heading bolt tables, wages, rent, board, capacity of 
cisterns, cord-wood tables, interest, etc. Standard Book 
throughout United Hiates and Canada. 

Ask your bookseller for it, or I will send oue for 35 cents, 
post-paid. 

<;. M-. FISHER, 

10-2-3m] P. O. Box 238, Kochcsler, N. T. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTR FARMER. 



[December, 1878 



1878 



SPRING AND SLWMEB. 



878 



RATHVON & FISHER'S 

CHEAP CLOTHING STORE, 

Cormr Sorth (|iieon and Orange Sts., 

LANCASTER., PA. 

Good all wool Business Suits from $12 to $20 
Fine Cloth or Worsted Dress Suits, 15 to 20 
Fine Cassimere Pants, - - 4 to 10 

Fine Vests, - - - - -3 to 6 

CUSTOM WORK A SPECIALTY, 

and salisfuctiuu guaranteed. 

READY MADE CLOT^jING 

And Furnishing Goods 

of all kindfl, very cheap. Cottonades as low as $2.50 a suit. 
Cloths, Cassimeref, W'oi pficgs, Suitings, Coatiuge aud 
VeBtings in a full liue, and made prompily to order. 

KATHVON & FISHER, 

3.878 PRACTICAL TATLORS. XS'78 

ESTABLISHED 1832. 




a. SEXEK & SONS, 

Mauufacturers and dealers iu all kinds of rough and 
fiuished 

Ttiebest Sawed SHI^GT.KKiu fbe country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Bliude, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, wbieh are far superior to any 
other. Also best i'OAI. coustautly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts., 

LANCASTKR, PA. 



ART OF PROPAGATION. 

A consise practical work on the rapid increase and mul- 
tiplication of stock — amply illuslrated. 

Price pre-paiti by mail. 50 cents. 

PUBLISHED BY 

Winona, Columbiana Co., Ohio. 
SEND FOR IT, AND FOR FREE CATALOGUE. 
By a Bpecial arrangement with the piiblisherB, we offer 
tiie above work at 40 cts. per copy. It has teceived the fa- 
vorable notice of over 1000 leading pax eis of the country, 
be sent to this office. 
9-10 L. liATHVON. 

AND 

Thoroughbred Short-Horn Cattle; 

Bred and For Sale by the undersigned. 

OF THE BEST MILKING STRAINS, 

and at prices to suit the times. Herd cnen to i-ispection by 
strangers at all times (Sundays excepted.) I will be ple;i8ed 
to show my herd to visitors, aud any informntion iu regard 
to the cattle will cheerfully be given, by letter, as desired. 



10-2-ly] 



A. M. RANK, 

Bird-in-Hand, Lancaster co., Pa, 



J. STAUFFER, 



LANCASTER, f ENN'A. 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 



All matters appertaining to UNITED STATES or CJ^NA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, aud COPYRIGHTS, 
promptly attended to. His experience, success ad faithful 
atention to the interests of those who eng^.ge his services 
are fully acknowledged aud appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations made for him by a reliable As 
sistant at Washington, without extra charge for drawing 
or descrijjtiou. [9-1-tf 

prtT T^ Any worker can make $12 a day at home. Costly 



1 0-2-1 y* 



( Outfit free. Address True & Co., Augusta, Me. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 



DEALKB IN 



AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE. 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY! TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly attended to. 

$66''Ta1r^s/THr.Irx?-&crPo\trd,°Ml^^^^^^^ ! North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster. Pa. 

lU-2-ly» I 9-4-ly 



MINERALS, SCIENTIFIC AND MEDICAL BOOKS, 
SHELLS, FOSSILS, BIRDS' EGGS, 

And all objects of NATURAL HISTORY are bought, sold and exchanged 

By A. E. FOOTE, M .D., 

1223 Belmont Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Specimens sent to any part of the world bj mail Specimen copy of an illustrated monthly bulletiu of IG pages sent 
free. Subscription 50 cents a year; for club rates see each monthly Issue. 

I received the highest award given to any one at ihe Centennial Exposition for 1876, and the only award aud medal 
given to any American for " Collection of Minerals." 

My Mineralogical Catalogue of 50 pages is distributed free to all customers, to others on receipt of 10 cents. It i» 
profusely illustrated, aud the printer and engraver charged me about $900.00 before a copy was struck off. By means of 
the table of species and accomi auyiug tables most species may be verified. The price list is an excellent checklist, 
containing the uames of all the species and the more common varietiee, arranged alphabetically aud 7ireceded by th& 
species number. The speHes number iudicates the place of any mineral in the table of species; after it will be found 
the" specie^ name, composition, streak or lustre, cleavape or fracture, hardness, specific gravity, fusibility and crystal- 
lization. I have very many species not on the price list, and some that I had in 1876 are no longer in stock. 

COLLECTIONS OF MINERALS 

Tor Students, Amateurs, Profossers, Pbysiclans, and other Professional Hen. 

The collectioiis of 100 illustrate all the principal speciea and all the grand subdivisions in Dana and other works on 
Mineralogy; every Crystalline System; all the principal Ores and Minerala iu which have been found every known 
Element. The colUections are labeled with printed label that can only be removed by soaking. The labelp of the $5.00 
and higher pi-iced collections give Dana's sjecies number, the uame, locality, and in most cases, the composition of the 
Mineral. All collections accompanied by my lUustrated Catalogue and table of species. The sizes given are average ; 
some small -r, many larger. 



Number of Specimens. 



Cryet als and fragments 

Student's size, larger 

Amateur's size. 2i^ in. x IJ^ 

High Schooler Academy size, 2^x3)^ in., Shelf Specimens. 
College size, 3>(;'x6 in.. Shelf .Specimens 



25 
iu box 



$ 50 
1 60 



50 
in box 



$1 00 
3 00 



100 
in box 



$1 60 
6 00 



100 



200 



$1 00 12 00 

6 00 10 00 

10 00 26 no 

25 00 50 00 

50 00 1 150 00 



300 



$3 00 

25 00 

50 00 

100 00 

300 00 



I have now over thirty-tive tons, and over $40,000 worth of Minerals, mostly crystaUized, in stock. It is well recog- 
nized that my prices are lower and my specimens moie accurately labeled thau those of any other dealer in the country. 
This is mainly due to the immeuse stock I carry (the largest iu minerals of any in the country) and my system of printed 
labels attached tDthe s/ecimeue. I can refer to the following Gentlemeu aud Colleges, all of whom, with th nisands of 
others, have bought specimens of me; most of them have given me especial permission to use their names as reference. 

Prof. S. F. Baird. Prof. F. V. Harden; Dr. Joseph Leidy, Prof. F. A. Genth, Prof. J. D. and E. S. Dana, Prof. G. J. 
Brush, Prof.J.P. Cooke, Prof N. H. Wiiicbell, Prof. S. F. Peckham, Prof. T. Eggleston, Prof. J. S. Newberry, Prot. C. F. 
Chandler, Prof. K. H. Richards, Mrs. Prof. Ellen S. Kiehards, Prof. Maria 8. Eaton, Prof. T. Sterry Hunt, Prof Henry 
How, \Vm. S. Vaux, C. S. Bemeuf, N. Spang, T. A. Greeu, Prof. J. W. Mallett, Prof. E. A. Smith, Prof. .J. Lawrence 
Smith, Prof. G. A. Koenig, Dr. T, M. Chatard, Ph. D„ Prof. H. B. Cornwall, Prof. P. T. Austen, Laurence Malheiro, Lis- 
bon, Portugal ; Prof. Orton, Prof. Ira Reniseu, General A. Gadoliu, Imp. School of Miijes St. Petersburg, Russia ; 
Prof. A. E. Nordenschiold. Koyul Museum. Stockholm, Sweden ; Dr. Nic »lo Moreira, Imjierial Museum, Rio de .Janeiro, 
Brazil ; British Museum, Royal Museum, Berlin ; Dr. P. E. Defferari, Italy ; Harvard Unibersily, University of Minne- 
sota, Yale College, Wisconsin University, Columbia College, Michigan University, Wellesley College, Illiuois Industrial 
Uuiversity, Massachuattts Institute of Technology, Col. School of Mines, University of Virgiuia, University of Missouri, 
Eutger's College, University of Notre Dame, Princeton College, University of Nashville. Johns Hopkins University, 
Uuiversity jf Georgia, Waco University, Texas ; University of Oho, and many others iu Missisaippi, Alabama, Oregon, 
Washingtou Territory, California, Iowa, Canada, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Indiana, Kentucky, Chili, England, 
Brazil, Germany, Australia, &c., &c. 

Catalogue of 2,600 species of Shells, made for me by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., who has labeled nearly all my shells, 3 ots., 
printed on heavy paper with genns label list 10 cts. I have purchased one or two of the most celebrated ooHections 
ki own, aud have now over 2,000 lbs.. 3,1100 species, and 30,000 specimens of Shells and Corals iu stock. Catalogue of 
Birds, Eggs, Eyes, Skins, &c., &c.. 3 cents. Catalogue of Books, Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, Agricnl- 
ture. Horticulture, &c.. 10 pp., 3 cts. Medicines, &c., 10 pp., 3 cts. Geolog.v, Mineralogy, Mining aud Metallurgy, Stiite 
Surveys, Travels, &c., 16 pji., 3 cts. Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Meteorology, &c., 16 pp,, 3 cts. A large stock of 
Fossils and Rocks, Plants, Ferns and .Ugee on hand. While I hive made Mineralogy a specialty, as is evtnred by the 
hundreds of thousands of specimens of Amazon Stoue, Rulile, Brookite. Perofskite, Amethyst, Smoky Quartz, Green 
Wavellite, Gothlte, Variscite, &c , &c., that I have sent all oveFthc world at from one-half to one-tenth the price they 
were ever sold at before.I furnish collections of Shells. Rocks, &c., at nearly as low rates. The Society for the Encourage- 
ment ol Studies at Home has for a long time recommended their corsespoudents to get their collections of Rocks and 
Minerals of me. As the correct naiuiug of the specimeus will be the important point to most persons, I feel justified iu 
mentioning that I have be n a collector of Minerals for fifteen years ; that I was a student under Prof. Wolcott Gibbe, at 
Cambridge, aud Prof. A. Hoffman, at Berlin, I was also Instructor at Michigan University, aud Professor iu the Iowa 
S. A- College iu Chemistry and Mineralogy for six yeaas. 

Send for the ''Naturalist's Leisure Hour," giving full particulars. Specimen copy free. You will confer a double 
favor by handing this to some physician, or other person interested in science. 

A. E. FOOTE, M. D , 

1228 BELMONT AVE., PHILADELPHIA, PA., 

Professor of Chemistry and MIneralogry, 

Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science ; Life Member of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, and of the American Museum 
10-10-3m] of Natural History, Central Park, Hew York. 



$1 a Year 



(To anbBcriberB in 
\ the county. 



SIITGLS COFZSS 10 CENTS. 



To subscribern out of ) 
the county. j" 



$1.26. 




Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, FEBRUARY 15, 1877. 



UNNSUS EATHVON, Publisher. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Hade a prominent feature, with Bpecial reference to the 
wants of the Farmer, the Gardener and Fruit-Grower. 



Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited by Prof. S. S. EATHVON. 



The Lanoabtbb Fakmfb havius completed its eighth 
year under various viciBsitudes, now commences its ninth 
volume under, it is hoj^ed, more favorable auspices than 
attended its former volumes. When the publishers of the 
last two voImncB assumed the responsibilities of its publi- 
calion, it wiis with a deteiminatiou to make such improve- 
ments as* would place the fuimer's organ of th s great agri- 
cultural county in the very front rank of agricuUural jour- 
nabam That this has been accomplished we think our 
readers will bear cheerful teslimony. If reason bly sus- 
tained, our aim is to mako it still more iu'eresting and in- 
Btniclive under te new pioprietorshij*. In this, however, 
we need the co-operation of every friend of the enterprise. 

The contributions of our able editor. Prof, Rathvon, on 
Bubjecle connected with the science of faiming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he in so thoroughly a master- 
entomological science— some know ledge of wlUcU has become 
a necessity to thesuccessful farmer, are alone worth much 
more than the price of this \ ublication. 

Thk Farmer will be published on the l-iith of every 
month, i>rinted on good paper with clear tyjie, in con- 
venient form for reading and binding, and mailed to sub- 
■cribers on the following 

TERMS: 

To subscribers residing withiu the county- 
One Copy, one year, -.--__ $1.00 
Six Copies, one year, - - - - . . c.qo 
Ten Copies, one year. ------_ jcq 

To subscribers outside of Lancaster ooonty, including 
postage pre-paid by the publiaUers: 

One Copy, one year, - . - - . , $1.25 

Five Copies, one year, - - . . . . 5.00 

AU subscriptions will commence with the Janoftry num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All cwramunic^itious intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
in his hands by the first of the month of publication. 

All business letters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tisements, should be addressed to the publisher. 



LINN^US RATHVON, 

32 South Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



RATE.S OF ADVERTISINO—Ten Cents n 
line Tor each Insertion. Twelve liuea to the inoh 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



General Readers, ------ 17 

A Special Appeal, ----- 17 

To Subscribers, 17 

To Our Canvassing Friends, - - - - 17 

The Ayrault Cattle, ------ 17 

The Fire Fly, ------- 18 

The Guava, -------- IS 

Table Customs, ------ 18 

Newspaper Makiug, ---... 19 

Strani^e Substances in a Horse's Stomach, - 19 

The Dangerous and Terrible Quail, - - - 19 

Fish, Flesh and Fowl, ----- 20 

Leek. Allium rorum, - - - - - 20 

Gleanings, A. B. A'., ----- 21 

By Rail to Frederick, Md. H. M. Englb - 21 

Build Bird Houses. J. B. Erb. - - - 21 

Lice on Currant Bushes. Old CuLtlvATOB. - 22 

Otter of Roses, 22 

Farmers vs. Sportsmen. F.R.Diffenderffr - 22 

Influence of Reading, ----- 23 

Tobacco, - - - 24 

Letter from Daniel Webster to the Farmer in 

Charge of his Marshfield Plantation, - 24 

The Breeding of Silk Worms, . - - - 25 

Hog Cholera, ------- 25 

The Arabian Horse, ------ 26 

Baked Corn and Eggs, ----- 26 

Our Local Organizations, ----- 27 

ProceediDgs of the Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticultviral Society. 

Tobacco Growers' Association, . - - 87 

The Linnoean Society, -28 

AGRICULTURAL. 

A Successful Farm Operation, - - - 29 
Deerport Farm — The Virst EBsay — About the 
PeUH — CharacteriBticH of the Busiuess — The 
Market Suiiplied— Other Details— The Dairy. 

The Fodder Value of Apples, - - - - 29 

HORTICULTURAL. 

Cultivation of Chiccory, - ... 09 

Covering of Strawberries, - - . . . 19 

Fruits oi^ Kansas, ------ SO 

How to Malic a Hot Bed, SO 

Ink for Horticultural Labels, - - - - • SO 

The English Hop Trade, SO 

Grafting Currants, --.... 30 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Boiled Dinners, ----.. 30 

Repairing Leaky Cellar Walls, ... .30 
Handy Men, .-.-...30 

Hpiiliiiful Beds, 31 

Valuable Recipes, .---.. 31 

LIVE STOCK. 
Experiments on the Nutrition of Domestic Ani- 
mals ------ -31 

The Hcrse Growers, ------ 31 

Symptoms of Rabies in Dogs, ... 31 

Lumps on Udders, 31 

BEE CULTURE. 

Queen Bees, - - 32 

Managing Queens, ------ 3;i 

Golden Rules for Bee-Keeping, - - - 32 

Wholesale Death of Honey Bees, - - - Si 

Literary Notices, ------ 32 



S. H. ZAHM.&CO., 

SECOND-HAND BOOK STORE. 

33 South Queen-st., 
LANCASTER, PENNA. 

Buyers of all kinds of Boukt^, new or Be«ond hand. Also, 

for sale a large stock of Books very low. 

OIVE U8 A CALL. 



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DRY GOODS AND GROCERIES, 

I'Ifap unil no'iil GItT GOODS 

GROCERIES, GL^SS AND QUEENSWARE, 

Cakes aud Couficlioiis, TriBamiiiRS. fcc, at 

KLEIHS' FA MILY STORE, 

on the Northwest Corner of North Queen and Janic»-ets . 
LANCA8TFK, PA. 
9-2-It] All fresh uid new, good and cheap. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Rntes 


»f Advertising In the Farmer. 




1 iu. 1 


3iu. 


4 in. 


Sin. 


8 in. 




$1.00 t 2.00 


t 3.00 
6.00 
6.75 
9.00 
13.50 
18.00 
■27 (0 


$4.00 
8.00 
10.00 
12.00 
18.00 
24.00 
30.00 


$ 6.00 
12.00 
13.. nO 
18,00 
27.00 
36 01 
54.00 


$ 8.00 




2 00 
2.50 
3.00 

j.-.n 

6.00 
9.00 


4.1)0 
4.60 
6.00 
9.00 
1! 00 
18.00 


16.00 




13.00 




•24.00 




36.00 


S mo 

I yenr 


48.00 
72 00 


J3?~S^ecial 


and^bUBinesB notices 15 cents per Hue. 



PENNSYLVANIA RA 

Traina leave the Depot 



WE TWARD, 

Pacific Ex^iress" 

"Way PaBBeijgert 

Niagara Express 

Toik Accommodation. ... 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Aecommodatiou. 

Harrieburg Accom 

Columbia Accon-modation.. 

Harrisburg Expiess 

Pittsburg ExpresB 

Cincinnati Express* 



EASTWARD, 

Atlantic txpress" 

Philadelphia Expresst 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Pacific Exp) ess* 

Sundiiy Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Harrisburg Accom. 



NCIIKUIJJLE. 

as follows : 

Arrive 

Harrisburg. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

10:40 a. m. 

Col. 10:10 a. m. 

1:00 p. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

1:30 p. m. 

3:10 p. m. 

Col. 2:35 p. m. 

8:10 p. m. 

8:00 p. m. 

6:40 p. m. 

10:50 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 
3:10 a. m. 
7:00 a. m. 
10:M0 a. m, 
12:30 p. ra. 
3:45 p.m. 
5:00 p. m. 
6:00 p. m. 
9:00 p, m. 

The Yoik Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a.m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connectsat Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 1:55 p. m., and runs through to 
Frederick without change of cais. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flogged, will 
fltop at Miildletowii, Ebzabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
ville. 

•The only trains which run daily. 
tRuns daily, except Monday. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Vines, Plants, Bulbs, Roses, Honey Locust and Osage 
Orange, very line 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR AND CHERRY TREES, 

A 81 leudid lot of 
STI.VER AJfD .'»lieAR IWAPtES 

for ehuAe trees. Fine Evzrgbeen and Shrubbery. 
Address H. 31. El\OhEi: SON, 

9-t-2m, Marietta, Pa. 

SIGN OF THE 



ii.ieoA» 

iu this city, 

Leave 
Lancaster. 

2:40 a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 

9:40 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:89 a.m. 

1:55 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

6:10 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. ra. 

9:25 p. m, 
11:30 p.m. 

Lancaster. 
12:40 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 

9.28 a. m. 

1:20 p. m. 

2:00 p. 111. 

3:05 p. m. 

5:50 p. na. 



BSIS B^^ B-OOK 



» 

BOOKS. STATIOXEKT, 

Oold Pens, Fancy Gonds. School, College, Lnw, Theological, 
Medicul and Miscellaneous Books. SubscriptiouB for all 

PERIODICALS, MAGAZINES AND PAPERS 

at Publishers prices. 

J. M. WESTIIAEFFEH, 

9-l-2m 57 North Queen Street. 



A. N. BRENEMAN, Jr., 

MANUFACTUIIER OF 

FRENCH CALF BOOTS FRENCH KID BOOTS 

FOR FOU 

GENn.EMEX. I,ADIES. 

No. 36 West King Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

DUNBAR'S CHILD' sYuOEti A SrECIALTY. 

9-l-ly 

TO CONSUMPTIVES. 

The advertiser having been permanently cured of that 
dread diBtase, Consumption, by a simple remedy, is anxious 
to miike known to his ffllow sufferers the me ms of cure. 
To all who dpsire it. he ^vill send !i copy of the pie.scription 
■nscd, ifree of ch-irg.>). with the direclions for preparing and 
\i8ing the same, wliich they will find a sure Cdke for Con- 
sumption, Asthma, BRf>NGHiTis, &c. 

Partjea wishing tJie prescription will please address. 

Rev. B. A. WILSON. 194 Penu St.. Williamsburg, N. T. 
9-1 -'^m] 

i^IiS^i^^ Broom -Corn. 

A new vaiiely, never gels i(d. I ' ■ p, Btrnight, and free 
from ruil. Hi] ins early, jields 1 tter, -m.A will Ining X 
inoie than any other kind. By mr 1, 6Du ler qt.; by express, 
$1.60 jer leck; $4 perbushel. Adcraia SAMUEL WILSON. 
Mechauicsville, Bucks Co., Pa. [9-l-3t 



ERRORS or YOUTH. 

A GENTLEMAN who sufifeied for years from Nervous 
Debility. Premiiture Deciiy, and all the effects of youth- 
ful indiscretion will, for (he sake of sufferinR humanity, 
«endfreeto all who ueed it, the receipt and direction for 
making the simi le lemedy by which he was cured. Suffer- 
ers wishing to profit by the adve tiser's experience can do 
BO by addressing iu perfect conf\deuce, 
«-l-6m] JOHN B. OGDKN, 42 Cedar St., New York, 



CANVASSERS WANTED 



TO TAKE SUBSCRIBERS 



FOR THE 





Farmers' Sons and other Young Men 
during their leisure hours 



CAN MAKE GOOD WAGES. 



We want a thorough canvass of every district, and will 
pay good canvassers liberally. Address 



LINN^US RATHVON, Publisher. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1877. 



Vol. IX. No. 2. 



GENERAL READERS. 

It does not follow as a matter of course that 
the general reader, or those i)ersoiis not in any- 
way ensaKeil in agricultural jnirsuits, will lind 
nothing to interest or benefit them in the col- 
umns of au agricultural paper. Indeed, it 
may be truly said that the entire community 
has a direct "iuterest in the success of agricul- 
ture. It is the basis of all the other interests 
of any district, .State or nation ; and where 
agriculture cannot be successfully pursued— 
save in a very exceptioual case— no other iu- 
terest will prosi>er. Therefore, all have a 
moral or material interest in it, whether they 
are mechanics, merchants, commercialists, 
professionalists, or retired gentlemen. Daniel 
Webster lias truly said, " Tlie farmer is the 
founder <if civilization ,•" for if no tarming were 
done in the world, it would truly be an incom- 
parably poor and impoverished place for any 
humaii being to sojourn in, under the present 
constitution of human society, and would 
carry us back to that primitive age when men 
lived in huis and caves. Coeval with the 
very creation of man, he was commanded to 
" dress the garden of Eden and keep it," and 
when he fell from his original integrity, the 
injunction to " eat his bread by the sweat of 
his brow" was wisely imposed upon him, all 
of which involved the occuiiatiou of agricul- 
tural labor. 

Had our forefathers, when they first settled 
in this country, confined themselves to the 
building of cities, towns and villages, and con- 
ducting all their affairs therein, and had not 
gone forth and scattered over the laud, felling 
forests and tilling the soil, and had continued 
thus to the present time, our country would 
have made a meagre show at the "Great Cen- 
tennial Exposition," if it would have been 
able to survive the wreck of time at all. 

True, a few fishing towns on a barren coast, 
or a Venice " built in the sea" may occasion- 
ally tlourish for a time, but even these could 
not long exist if it were not for the agricul- 
tural productions which they receive from else- 
where in exchange for their own local produc- 
tions. All the material which supports com- 
merce, manufactures, mechanics, and what- 
ever other interest that is necessary for the 
development and progress of the human fam- 
ily, comes out of the soil, and is directly or 
indirectly related to agriculture ; and- surely 
an occupation wliich is so intimately connected 
with the welfare of human soc'iety, must be of 
sufficient interest to human beings to elicit 
some recognition of its liter.ature that is more 
than merely passive — a literature that is prac- 
tical, useful, beautifying, ennobling and hap- 
pifying. 

There are fruit, floral, vegetable, domestic 
and economical questions discussed in agri- 
cultural papers, which reach into every house- 
hold, whether in town or country, and wheth- 
er the occupant cultivates a farm, a garden, 
or only a single flower-pot in the window; 
and it may well be regarded as an indolent, 
a selfish, or a shiftless family, where these 
things are entirely ignored. There is no 
"hub," or general centre where all the know- 
ledge on any subject is monopolized. Knowl- 
edge is ditVusive, and although in its ditl'usion 
much may get abroad that is trivial, or even 
worthless, yet, it all may contain more or less 
grains thai are useful to some one; and, if 
people will bestow a reasonable degree of 
culture u])on their minds, they will soon be 
able to sift the subjects brought before them 
in reading — be al)le to gather and ai>propriate 
the wheat and blow the chatf away. The 
earth produces nothing that does not contain 
more or less dross - nothing, a portion of 
which is not rejected as useless. This seems 
to be a condition of the things incidental to 
fallen humanity, and therefore it is not sur- 



l)rising that many useless things should get 
into print. But, oven under these circum- 
stances, it often transpires that what is not 
useful or interesting to one, may be not only 
usefid, but of great importance to another. 

Many important enterprises, sublime ideas, 
great events, and useful inventions have been 
suggested and subsequently elaborated, 
through some small hint received in reading 
a newspaper, a magazine, or a book— .some 
practical thought that was in harmony with 
the experincc of the reader, but which he 
felt too diffident to make known, and might 
have abandoned, but for such sui)port. It is 
even so in domestic economy; in the different 
professional callings; in matters relating to 
popular science; in agricultural affairs, and in 
mechanics, manufactures and in commerce. 

Many long years ago we heard of a yovnig 
man learning the first rudiments of a profes- 
sion — which he subsequently applied himself 
to and followed during his whole life — in an 
occupation which, as a whole, had no relation 
to it whatever. It is thus that the readers of 
an agricultural journal may find something 
in its columns that may be useful to them, no 
matter what their secular occupation may be. 
On the platform of domestic economy, at 
least, the whole civilized portion of the hu- 
man family is in sympathy, and fii;ds a com- 
mon ground. This is so because of the ho- 
mogeneity of their physical wants, and their 
mutual dependence upon each other. Think 
of this and subscribe for the Farmer. 



A SPECIAL APPEAL. 

From the very peculiar situation in which 
we have been placed for the last month or 
two, we are compelled to make an apology to 
our readers for not only our late appearance, 
but also for the absence of our usual 
quantumo of original matter and contri- 
butions from our friends. Being now 
fairly on our feet again, we shall en- 
deavor hereafter to be "up to time" with our 
readers. And here we woidd respectfully ask 
our contributors to lend us their generous aid 
in making the Farmer the reflex of the senti- 
ment of the practical men of the county — in- 
cluding agriculturists, horticulturists, flori- 
culturists, gardeners, tobacco growers, bee 
keepers, millers, mechanics, machinists, cheese 
manufacturers, dairymen, miners, lime- 
burners and industrial pursuits in general. 
We entertain a becoming pride of our name, 
our locality, our resources, our wealth, and 
our productions, and we desire to have them 
properly represented abroad; and if we can 
succeed in doiuir so, we feel that they will not 
be to our discredit. That has heretofore been 
our aim, and we will endeavor, with the aid 
of our friends, to continue it so. Then, gen- 
tle patrons, please "bear a hand," and help 
us on. And we would respectfully desire to 
impress the fact ujion the farmers of Lancas- 
ter county, and our readers in particular, 
that in order to sustain their local journal as 
it ought to be sustained, as their rejiresenta- 
tive in the agricultutal interests of the county 
and the country, they ought to continue their 
efforts to increase our suKscription list. 
There is no reason why Lancaster county 
should not be a leading county in agricultural 
literature, as well as she is in her public and 
private .schools; her iron, zinc and nickel 
mines; her tobacco culture; her dairy produc- 
tions; her fanning mills and other imple- 
ments of husbandry; her flour mills, and in 
her general domestic produce. She is an em- 
pire in herself, and she ought to aspire to the 
literary dignity of an empire. She need not 
necessarily withhold her patronage from other 
worthy journals; but, under any circumstan- 
ces, she sliould extend a liberal patronage to 
her own home jouiiial. We disclaim egotism, 



or we could satisfactorily illustrate that the 
whole county, as an agricultural district, has 
been enhanced in general esteem abroad by 
the existence of the Farmer. 

TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

As the publisher of the Farmer has com- 
menced the enterprise without any surplus of 
pecuniary means, and as material and lalior 
are tilings that demand ra.s/i, he respectfully 
admoni.shes his ]iatrons that their subscrip- 
tions will be thankfully received; therefore, 
they will confer a sjiecial favor by calling 
upon the editor, corner of North (^ueen and 
Orange streets or at the Examiner and Ex- 
press odice. No. 22 Soutli Ciueen street. Money 
liy mail should only be sent hy a post-office 
order, but where this medium is not accessi- 
ble, they can avail themselves of the visits of 
their resiionsible friends. 

Those outside of a jirinting office have a 
very imi)erfect conception of the difficulties of 
"making both ends meet'-' in conducting a 
journal on a limited subscription list. Where 
the issues are comited by tens, twenties, and 
thirties of thousands, there is "plain sailing." 



TO OUR CANVASSING FRIENDS 

We feel a sperial thankfulness to our fiiends 
Messrs. Henry M. Engle, Israel E. Eaudis, 
Peter S. Reist, Levi S. Reist, Calvin 
Cooper, Martin, D. Kendig, A. B. Kise 
and D. Resh, for the zeal and the 
persevering industry they have exhibited 
in procuring subscriptions for the Farmer. 
The efforts of twenty— in Lancaster county — 
of such men, would put our journal on s\ich a 
footing as would be a pleasure in conducting 
and improvini: it, and place its pecuniary con- 
dition beyond the reach of financial di.saster. 
We hope those good friends and others who 
take an interest in the moral and material 
progress of our county, will continue their la- 
bors, as opportunity may ofier. Everyone 
can do a little; if it is only the obtaining of a 
single subscriber, and these "little things" 
will ultimately become the aggregate of an 
efticient sustaining power. 



THE AYRAULT CATTLE. 
Some of our readers may be able to recall 
these fine animals, which were on exhibition 
fora short jieriod at the Sorrel Horse hotel, 
West King street, Lancaster, in the early 
part of the jnesent year, and which were rep- 
resented as "the two heaviest and Ijest cattle 
ever exhibited in America." The " Queen" 
was a heifer seven years old, and weighing 
.■!,700 pounds, and the "Champion," an ox 
four years old, and weighing 3,300 pounds. 
These cattle were owned and raised and fat- 
tened by Mr. Geo. Ayrault, well known as a 
cattle grower and breeder, of New York 
State, and had been on the return from the 
Centennial Exhibition, where the proprietor 
had offered $500 to any one who could excel 
them, or either of them. To our view the ox 
was a fine and symmetrically formed animal, 
but the heifer seemed imwieldy, as all she 
things are when they attain gigantic propor- 
tions. If excessive larire size is an es.sential 
qualification in the estimate of catte, these 
certainly possessed tliat merit; and with all 
our fine stock, we dont think anybody in Lan- 
caster county, j!(st nnw, can take uptliat$.500; 
and perhaps they don't care about doing so. 
Large as they are, there is probably more 
profit, as a general rule, in cattle of lighter 
weight. 

Tf every subscriber of The Farmer would 
just try and make an effort to add a new one 
to our" list, it would soon put us on a sound 
footing. 



i8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



THE FIRE FLY. 

Newport, Perry co., Pa., Jan. 31, 1877. 
Dear Sir : We have found a " Firefly" in our fern- 
ery, which is covered by a glass shade, and it 
UlumiDates very nicely in the evenings. Please tell 
me if it was likely to have been lying dormant when 
the ferns were removed in the fall, or if it has been 
hatched from eggs laid on the plants last summer. I 
think it quite a curiosity, and would like to increase 
the stock next summer, if it is possible. M. B. E. 

You may liave taken into your fernery last 
fall either a dormant (cM-i'a, impa, or an imago 
of this insect, but hardly its eggs. The time 
would have been too short for the develop- 
ment of the beetle, even if you had taken in 
the eggs^ which are not likely to be extant in 
the fall. It is well known that these insects 
normally appear during the month of June, 
which is their nuptial season, and before the 
end of July they have all disappeared. After 
the females are fertilized, they lay their eggs 
on the ground, fastened to some object, as 
moss, roots, grass, and protected from the sun. 
Both the laixw and the mature insects are 
carniverous, feeding on other soft- bodied in- 
sects, and especially on small* snails ; and 
here would come in the difficulty in attempting 
to raise them. By the time fall comes, the 
larvm are well advanced, if not mature, or 
changed to impa ; so that you may have taken 
your subject into your fernery in one of those 
forms. The development of insects depends 
more upon the surrounding temperatm^e than 
upon the season of the year. 

Many species which we only find in the 
spring and summer, will evolve in mid-winter 
when the normal conditions are favorable. 

In passing up North Queen street on the 
3d of February, we found a group of men 
standing opposite the Keystone Hotel, look- 
ing at a swarm of bees, which three or four 
years ago located itself under the eaves of 
the roof. They were out and on the wing in 
thousands, and as lively as they are in sum- 
mer; but as the weather has changed to ex- 
treme cold, you might look in vain for them 
to-day {17th. ) In their vital energies they are 
governed by lieat, and not by days, or mouths 
or seasons. 

A distinguished foreign entomologist dis- 
covered that some species of "Plant-lice" 
[Ajohids) would produce fourteen generations 
in a season, and then deposit the necessary 
eggs to carry them over to the next season ; 
and hence the books told us that this was the 
limit of their viviparous producing power. 
But another foreign entomologist removed a 
colonv to a green-house, before they had pro- 
duced their oviparous brood, and found that 
they continued to produce viviparously as 
long as the normal temperature was supplied, 
even up to the twenty-sixth or thirtieth gen- 
eration. Of course, not having seen your in- 
sect, we cannot tell exactly what species you 
refer to, (for we liave more than one lumin- 
ous species) but we presume it is the "com- 
mon firefly," Photinui scintillans, Say, of which 
our meadows, wardens, lawns,fields and woods, 
become so luminously gemmed during early 
summer; and the larvcB of which must neces- 
sarily destroy millions of minute noxious ani- 
mals. 



THE GUAVA. 



" This tropical fruit is now becoming quite 
extensively disseminated over the Gulf States, 
with the prospect of proving quite remunera- 
tive to its owners. The genus Psidium of 
Linnaeus contains several species very dif- 
ferent in their characters and flavors. The 
fruit varies in size from a plum to an orange, 
and ripens continuously for nine mouths in 
the year. Considering, among other good 
qualities, the rapid growth of the tree, its early 
fruiting and large crops, I presume there will 
be little difficulty in .supplying the demand. A 
correspondent in Florida states that the best 
four varieties for cultivation are P. pyriferum, 
L. ; P. aromaticum, Aubl. ; P. pomiferum, L. ; 
and P. lineatifolium, Pers. Surely the time 

* On one occaeion Mr. Geo. Hensel, of this city, found 
about two hundred of the common firefliee banqueting on a 
large suail, in his garden, and we found about fifty so oc- 
cupied, on our owu premises. 



is rapidly approaching when our northern 
markets 'will be supplied with all manner of 
tropical productions from our own shores." — 
JV. T. IVihxme. 

Bring them along ; but until they arrive, let 
us have a little more talk about them, to see 
whether we shall like them or not when they 
do come. 

" This genus of tropical fruits belongs to 
the natural family Jf?/rfacce and the Isosandria 
Monngynia of Lin." 

"There are seven or eight species of the 
guava known to botanists— some natives of 
Asia and others of tropical America." (Rind 
367.) 

" The White Guava — '■'■ Psidium pyriferum— 
is the best, and also the most abundant in the 
West Indies. When wild, the white guava is 
a shrub, rather than a tree, as it seldom ex- 
ceeds eight or nine feet in height ; but when 
introduced into gardens, it attains the size of 
an ordinary apple tree, with a trunk about six 
feet high and six inches in diameter. The wood 
isveryhard and tough; the leaves are from two 
to three inches long, and grow in pairs oppo- 
site each other ; the flower is white, and has a 
very agreeable flavor ; the fruit is rather larger 
than a hen's egg, of a sulphurous yellow, very 
smooth, and has a peculiar smell ; it is cov- 
ered with a rind of some thickness, witliin 
which are seeds, contained in a pulp without 
a shell. The pulp is flesh-colored, sweet, aro- 
matic, and very grateful to the palate. It is 
used as a desert fruit, and also preserved with 
sugar ; and guava jelly is esteemed one of the 
finest conserves that come from the West 
Indies. By proper culture it may be brought 
to be a large and handsome tree ; but when 
wild, it remains shrubby, and overruns the 
land. 

"The Red Gna,va,— Psidium pomiferum— is 
a much larger tree than the white ; tlie trunk 
often attaining the height of twenty feet. On 
])oor soils, however, it is apt to be rugged and 
shrubby. The leaves are of a light green ; 
the flovsrers, white ; and the fruit shaped like 
a pomegranate, and having an agreeable odor 
when ripe. As a fruit, however, many of 
the authorities represent it as very inferior to 
the white guava ; but it is probable that they 
have found it in the wild state, for it appeared 
to be much improved by culture." 

"The mountain guava, found in the woods 
of Jamaica, is not luuch esteemed as a fruit 
tree, but it grows to a large size ; the wood 
is of a beautiful dark color, finely curled, 
easily worked, susceptible of a high polish, 
and therefore much valued as a timber tree." 
In a paper read to the Horticultural Society 
(England) Mr. Cattley, of Barnet, gives an 
account of a previously undescribed species of 
guava. The fruit is nearly spherical, of a fine 
deep claret color, grovv'ing at the insertion of 
the leaves, and contains from twenty to thirty 
seeds, inclosed in a pulp, which is sweet, and 
slightly acid. Independently of the value 
and beauty of the fruit, this is a highly orna- 
mental plant, may be propagated freely by 
cuttings, and bears at the age af eighteen 
months. It is understood to have come from 
South America, and has an external texture 
resembling the fig: its internal consistence and 
flavor bear a considerable resemblance to those 
of the strawberiy. With proper treatment, it 
is one of the most free growing of all tropical 
fruits." 

"This guava which has received the name 
of 'Cattley 's "guava,' {Psidium cattleyanum) 
promises to become a very valuable addition 
to stone-fruit both for its appearance, 
and its flavor, merits attention. There 
is a specimen in one of the hothoiuses 
belonging to the Horticultural society, 
which is a thriving and elegant tree. It is 
about ten feet high, and trained something 
in the shape of a fan, till the outside branches 
have a width of sixteen feet. The bark is 
a soft ash color, with a very slight trace of 
brown, and smooth, but not glossy. ' Tlie 
leaves are beautiful, the blossoms abundant. 
That the fruit would, properly managed, come 
to the same maturity in the average of sit- 
uations of this country, as in those places of 



which it is a native, there caimot be the least 
doubt: and it has this advantage over most 
other fruit trees, whether indigenous or ex- 
otic, that it produces two crops in a 3fear." 

From all we have read upon the subject, 
the fruit of the guava is destined to become 
as plentiful in this country as oranges, hence 
we admonish our readers in advance. 



TABLE CUSTOMS. 



I want to add just a few words upon this 
subject, which I think worthy of more con- 
sideration than is generally accorded to it. 
How well I enjoy being with a family where 
the dining table is made a place of pleasant 
social enjoyment. In looking back to my 
"childhood home," there is no time remem- 
bered with more pleasure, than the bright 
happy faces and social good times around oiu: 
family board. A pleasant meal, enjoyed by a 
cheerful company — how much life and health 
there is iu it ! But an untidy meal, eaten in 
silence, how much dyspepsia and bad temper 
in it ! It is not so much what is put upon the 
table, as the way in which it is prepared and 
arranged. 

This, m}- dear sister, depends upon us. Do 
not try to get a great variety. A few dishes, 
nicely prepared, so as to cultivate a fine taste, 
aud not thrown together and seasoned until the 
condiments are all you can discriminate. The 
farmers eat too much fried food. It is con- 
ducive to dyspepsia, which has a great train 
of evils. So let me beg of you to use the 
kettle and oven more, and the griddle less. 
There is no finer art than cooking, and not 
one that is so terribly murdered. But I am 
getting too far from the case in point. 

Give, if possible, the table a festive look — a 
few flowers, if you have them cultivate the 
finer feelings — a dish of nice ripe fruit, clean 
linen, bright glass and silver, with a few 
dishes nicely prepared, are within the reach 
of all. So many think it makes little differ- 
ence how things come up, if the family only 
are present ; but when "company" comes, 
work themselves tired trying to have things 
nice, and do not enjoy the society of their 
company from being out so much. This is 
not as it should be, If we want only some- 
thing good to eat, let us go to work and get 
it at home. If we want a good social 
visit with a friend, let us have her spend the 
time with us, instead of in the kitchen and 
dining-room. "But," says one si.ster, "it is 
too much work and trouble to have things in 
trim all the time, I wouldn't get anything else 
done." Not .so. There is nothing that saves 
time so much as order and regularity. Learn 
to economize time, by keeping ahead of yoiu- 
work. This can be done by proper manage- 
ment, aud saves confusion, hurry, and many 
steps. You will have time for thought, then, 
which is necessary in order to do anything as 
it should be done. We want to live ; but the 
mere animal necessity is lifted up and glori- 
fied when the charms of pleasant conversa- 
tion and mutual courtesy surround the custom. 
There is a spiritual life that is to be fed and 
sustained ; and it is starved where there is no 
grace, not only before, but during a meal. 

One great trouble with the farmer is, he is 
in too much of a hurry. If there is any place 
where he should leave cares, and the press- 
ure of business behind, it is when he enters 
the dining room. When there, he should 
take his time, and feci at rest. "But," says 
one, "we cannot." Let me whisper, it is 
habit, make your arrangement, both in work 
and mind, to spend at least one-half hour at 
your meals , in bright, genial, sparkling talk; 
while you refresh the "physical man," 
vou can do it better by also refreshing the 
"spiritual man." Let the children join in 
the conversation. There is no sense in com- 
pelling an intelligent child to sit like a deaf 
mute at a table, though, on the other hand, 
they should not monopolize the conversation, 
and be allowed to ask strings of questions. 
Teach them, bv example as well as precept, 
to make their appearance at table, neat and 
tidy. Smooth hair, clean hands and nails, 
the general appearance inviting; and each try 



1877. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



19 



to be as agreeable as jiossiblo to each otlier. 
Fathers and motliers, this will do more than 
you dreain, in inakinr; your children "rciw up 
real gentlemen and ladies. Sisters, let us 
hear from yon on these home subjects more. 
They arc ot vital iniportanee to us. We can 
learn niueh, if we only will, from each other, 
thron^h this "Home Circle Department." 
We can make it worth a great deal to us, if 
we will only use it. Let lis all write for it, 
and give free e.^pressiou to our views. — M. L. 
Mart/. 

We lieartily endorse every line of the above 
able paper— on a most inipm-tant moral and 
domestic subject- -which we find in a recent 
number of Co/ma/i's i^(m/ Worhl; and, al- 
though we have entertained similar senti- 
ments for many years, yet, we confess we have 
never yet been "fortunate enough to realize 
them in ultimates; for the reason that they 
occui)y a hiijher and more cultivated plane 
than that which ol)taiiis among the masses of 
our people, even where they are "well to do 
in the world."' The God-appointed meal— 
whether at morning, noon or evening, or at 
any other orderly and convenient period — is not 
made the occasion that it ought to lie, either 
morally, socially, or physically, and probably 
never will be, until a race of refined and prac- 
tically educated women assume the absolute 
control of the domestic ariangements of the 
household. Never until the meal is more or 
less characterized by a spiritual realization of 
that presence, which nearly nineteen centur- 
iesago enunciated the divine injunction — "Eat 
this in reinenibrance of Me." Not merely 
eaten thus on special or set occasions, but, 
"As oflen as ye eat it." The maternal head 
of a house who is only solicitous about setting 
an orilerly and tastefully arranged table for 
occasional or transient visitors, and not hab- 
itually lor her own family, notwith.standing 
all her slavish labor and her morbid anxiety, 
may be doing less to tit her fen- that beatitic 
realm where "order is the first law," than 
she thinks she is. And even if she is doing 
lier very best, so far as she knows how, and 
she is cursed with a profane or perverse fam- 
ily who severally drop down into iheir seats at 
irregular periods — from sheer habits of self- 
indulgence — and then irreverently "bolt" 
their food and hasten away again, without a 
recognition of the wants of anybody outside 
of themselves, if she possesses those refined 
sc nsibilities which are so essentially the dis- 
1 iiiguishing characteristics of a true woman, 
sill' must regret that she diil not cultivate and 
inculcate these iiriueiples when her children 
were young. 

It is true, that many women — perhaps most 
of them — are constantly burdened with do- 
mestic labors, and so constantly "behind 
time" with their work; that they have little 
opportunity to practice tidiness, and there- 
fore they ""rough it" through in the most 
"shilly shally" kind of way, and pay little at- 
tention to doniestic order, and especially ta- 
ble order. But, this state of things is more 
the result of misconception, shiftlessness and 
illiteracy, than of fwt. They fail to make a 
proper discrimination between essentials and 
non-essentials. The meal is often deferred, 
half an hour perhaps; without any compunc- 
tion whatever, merely because it is fancied 
that there is something else that ought to 
claim their first attention. Nothing would 
disgust a family of lioarders more — esjiecially 
if tliey were eini)loyed by tht^ day, and had a 
specific period allowed for the consumption of 
their meals— than such a wanton delay. Are 
our obligations to our families less imperative 
than they are to those wlio are total stran- 
gers 'i—Ed. 

NEWSPAPER-MAKING. 

It isn't boy's play, reader, to make a news- 
paper. Everyl)()dy can't do it, although most 
people think they "can. Jlore excellent quali- 
ties of head and heart are recpiired in an edi- 
tor than in any other calling or profession in 
the world. lie talks to more people than the 
pulpit does, and talks to peojile of all grades 
of life and of all shades of belief. If con- 



scientious — and no man who is not has any 
business in the editorial chair— be feels the 
responsibility of his jiosition as if it were a 
inonntain on his soul. He knows that the 
welfare, moral growth and peace of the com- 
munity deiiend largely upon his daily or weekly 
utterances. Many times does he draw his pen 
through lines which express his sentiments, 
but which he fears may be misunderstood, and 
do harm to some of those whom he desires to 
make better, and not wor.se. 11 is not an easy 
position — it is scarcely a desirable one ; and 
yet, if he happens to express a sentiment which 
iloes not suit the reader, the latter is uncharit- 
able enough to lose no time in censuring him. 
The editiu- does not always think as the reader 
does ; he can't. If he did, and never expressed 
a sentiment except such as the reader cher- 
ished, what would be the object of taking his 
paper y It is certainly foolish to pay for a 
journal which simply contains a rehash of what 
we have long before thought of ourselves. 
But, reader, when you are induced to find 
fault with the editor" because he says something 
that doesn't suit you, remember that you can't 
get a paper under the sun, if it amounts to 
anything, that will not sometimes say things 
that you cannot agree with. — Weslern Rural. 
The above, from the Rural, is so well and 
.so appropriately said, that we can find but 
little to add ; and yet it does not recount one- 
half of the responsibilities which rest upon the 
head and heart of an editor. Even if hi^ did 
not write a line of original matter, there are 
onerous laliors attached to his function, of 
which the outside world has very little know- 
ledge or appreciation. The labor of looking 
ove'r two or three scores of exchanges and 
culling therefrom what may be best adapted 
to the localities of the greatest numlier of his 
readers, involves more time and research, by 
far, than is occupied in writing original papers ; 
and when he thinks he has catered to the high- 
est and most substantial interests of his pat- 
rons, some trivial objection will be made by 
the superficial or morbidly critical reader. 
Somebody has said, " the man who attempts 
to please" everybody is a fool"— and perhaps 
there is no sphere in which the folly of such an 
attempt would become more manifest than in 
that of an editor, however desirable such an 
end might be. — Ed. 



STRANGE SUBSTANCES IN A HORSE'S 
STOMACH. 

Sonn^what over a year ago Mr. Henry Ben- 
ncthuni, stove dealer, of Reading, was com- 
pelled to kill a horse, which had been under 
medical treatment for some time, suffering 
with an unknown disease. A post-mortem 
examination was made, and there was found 
in the stomach and intestines of the animal a 
number of stones of different shapes, of a cal- 
careous nature, and exceedingly hard, which 
had been worn smooth and become highly 
polished by constant attrition. How the 
stones came there was a subject of much con- 
jecture. By manv it was sujiposed that they 
had been mixed "with the hay or feed and 
swallowed by the animal accidentally. The 
composition of the stones, however, exploded 
that theory and the matter remained as mucli 
of a mystery as ever 

More recently about a peck of stones, of the 
size of turnips, bearing a close resemblance to 
that vegetable, were found in the intestines of 
a horse by Mr. Daniel Levan, city scavenger, 
of Reading. These were supposed by some to 
have been petrified turnips, although a subse- 
(luent examination of them showed, that they 
must have formed inside of the stomach in 
small lumi)s which gradually increased, hard- 
ened, and finally found their way into the in- 
testines causing death. To show that these 
phenomena are not the only ones of the kind 
that have been discovered in this country, we 
reproduce the following taken from the Troy 
(iV". Y.) Press: 

.John Brown, superintendent of the Troy 
and Lansingburg horse railroad, has in his 
possession two specimens of natural phenome- 
na which our scientists would do well to ex- 



amine, and, if possible, render some lucid ex- 
planation of. 

One is a large round stone liaving the apjiear- 
anee of a highly polished piece of marble mot- 
tled in a))p(tarance and b(,'autiful in color. It 
is as hard as Hint, and exceedingly dillicult to 
scratch or mar in any wav, and weighs one 
and one-half pounds, 'fhis was taken 
from the intestines of a horse that died some 
time ago, and is probably formed from secre- 
tions of dirt and dust that had gathered in 
the stomach of the animal and which by tlie 
process of time had become formed and hard- 
I'lied into this beautiful seinhlance of i)olished 
marble. It had jias.sed from the stomach, and 
in itsfiassage through the intestinal channels 
had lodged an<l caused the animal's death. 
Another, more singular still in its shape and 
formation, was taken from the intestines of a 
horse that (lied at Cohoeslast week. This cu- 
riosity is as large as a man's clenched fist, and 
has the appearance of a calcerous substance. 
In size, shape, and general appearance it re- 
sembles a i)etritied sponge. This also caused 
the aninial's death in the .same manner as the 
preceding. The only theory advanced thus 
far in the explanation of this stone is, that at 
some time the horse had swallowed a piece of 
sponge, and it had laid in His stomach and in 
time had petrified. 

We are sometimes surprised, when we read 
such notices as the above— not at the phenom- 
ena, however, but at the great wonder mani- 
fested at them, just "for all the world" as if 
such things had never occurred before. As 
early as 18:!8 we had the half of one of these 
concretions in our coUectiim of curiosities, 
which had been taken out of the .stomach or 
intestines of a horse. A horse had died in 
Donegal township, out of which three or four 
were taken, about the size of goose eggs, and 
tw-o of them came into the posse.ssion of an 
intimate friend, who sawed one of them trans- 
versely through and presented us with one- 
half of it. These were almost spherical in 
form, and the outer surface was quite smooth. 
The face of the transverse section exhibited a 
series of concentric layers, something like 
would be the appearance of an onion, cut 
horizontally through. In the centre was a 
hollow cavity which contained several crushed 
oat grains. ' These seemed to be a nucleus 
arouiid which the substance that composed 
them seemed to be deposited in concentric 
layers, the result, probably, of a number of 
years. They were almost as hard as a marble 
when they became perfectly dry; and they ef- 
fervesced" very freely, as 'if they were com- 
posed of a large proportion of the carbonate of 
lime; and I think this was the baseof thesub- 
stance. In color, they were something like 
clay, faintly tinged w"ith blue. AVe gave it 
away many years Ago.— Editor. 

THE DANGEROUS AND TERRIBLE 

QUAIL.* 
Each pair of quails produce an average of 
ten chicks per year— many, in favorable sea- 
sons, hatch out "sixteen in a brood, and then 
hatch a second brood. If we estimate only 
the small number of 500,000 quails in Indiana 
to start with (though there are probably ten 
times that number), and take ten per year as 
the produce of each pair, the figures will 
sinifily be stupendous, and we present them to 
the Indiana Legislature for consideration : 

First year, total S,00n,000 

•Second year, total 1S,0<IO,000 

Third year, total '^^'2?2'^ 

Fourth year, total ?***' „?'??? 

Fifth ye'ar, total 3R,8*«,000,000 

We would have to station an army along the 
Ohio river to prevent an invasion of Kentucky 
after these birds had eaten everything visible 
in Indiana. There wouldn"t be a bug left in 
that state, and the birds would require grain to 
five upon. Estimating a gill of irrain per day 
for each bird, it would require 1.->,00U,(IU0 bush- 
els per day to feed them. We enter our protest 
in advance, and shall demand, if Indiana does 
not pass the law, that the state shall raise the 

•From a Speech by Senator Harris in the Senate of lo- 
diana. 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



grain to feed the birds, and shiill put up a bird 
net 300 feet high along the Ohio, to keep their 
inhabitants from invading Kentucky. 

The bill was defeated. 

Some people in Indiana seem to have -'quail 
on the brain ;" at any rate, the state seems to 
have "too much quail." When the children 
of Israel were in need of flesh, as they traveled 
through the wilderness, the Almighty sent 
them quails as a needed blessing. AVhat a 
pity that Indiana could not be invaded by an 
army of flesh-hungry Israelites, to consume 
her surplus quails, and thus save the time and 
wind of her legislators. Fifty-flve thousand 
laboring men, in New York alone, are now 
out of employment, and no doubt would 
be glad to receive daily consignments of 
Indiana quails. AVhy cannot these quails 
be utilized ? Why not organize a quail- 
line as they some years ago did an "oyster 
line ? or, why not send them packed in ice to 
Europe, or to such parts of the United States 
as have no quails ? Texas is sending mil- 
lions of pounds of fresh beef to Europe, and 
we are of the opinion that it would be as easy 
to send cargoes of quails. If quails are as 
abundant, and as prolific as the above state- 
ment indicates, we should think it as good a 
crop as any that could be raised in any State. 
Here in the State of Pennsylvania, we are 
constantly regretting that our laws are not 
stringent enough to [irotect our quails, whilst 
in Indiana they appear to have too much of 
that "sort of thing." Send on your surplus 
quails. We have not had a quail on ourtable 
for more than twenty years. — £d. 



FISH, FLESH AND FOWL. 

The following from a Baltimore paper, may 
help to illuminate the minds of the people of 
Indiana as to what disposition to make of 
their "terrible quails," in order to diminish 
their numbers profitahly : 

" The exportation of fresh meats, fish, game 
and oysters has during the last ten years be- 
come an important element in the trade of the 
coast cities. The experience gained in this 
time in preparing these perishable commodi- 
ties for transportation has been very valuable, 
and has converted what was once a doubtful 
venture into an assured success. The market 
abroad is rapidly becoming a very desirable 
one, especially in England and France. Some 
small trade is done with Germany, but the in- 
habitants of the fatherland do not take eagerly 
to this class of American delicacies. In the 
exportation of fish, all the principal cities of 
the coast jiarticipate in varying amounts, 
Baltimore is the largest market for fine-grained, 
delicately-flavored fish, though she does not 
send du-ectly abroad so manj' as New York. 
Salmon, shad, bay mackerel and salmon trout 
flourish in the waters of her bay and its rivers, 
which seem admirably adapted to produce the 
finesf varieties of these flsh. The fish are pre- 
pared for transportation by being frozen. 
Barrels or other suitable vessels are filled with 
the fish, and are then placed in a refrigerator 
until thoroughly frozen. When shipped, they 
are placed in similar refrigerators on board. 
The freezing does not appear fo injure the 
flavor of the flsh, though some have claimed 
that it does. One of the largest dealers in 
Baltimore has a very neat refrigerator barrel, 
in which he puts up all the fish he sends any 
distance. The barrel is lined with zinc, and 
between the lining and the wood there is a 
narrow air space, as well as a layer of hair 
packing. This arrangement very effectually 
prevents great changes to temperature in the 
inside of the barrel when closed up. Inside 
of the metal-lined barrel is a galvanized iron 
can in which the fish are placed. Around 
this can a freezing mixture of ice and salt is 
placed, which is renewed as fast as the ice 
melts. The water runs off by a pipe at the 
bottom of the barrel. Fish packed in this 
manner can be shipped with the greatest 
ease to any clime, and kept any length of time. 
"In the shipping of oysters in the shell 
great care is exercised in packing. A layer 
of the oysters is placed in the barrel with their 



mouths up. They are then packed with sea 
grass which is very jjorous and holds large 
quantities of sea water, which provides par- 
tial nourishment for them. Over this layer 
of oysters corn meal is sprinkled. On the 
corn meal another layer of the oysters, packed 
in tlie same manner is placed, and so on until 
the barrel is filled. By this arrangement the 
oyster can feed nearly as well as if he were on 
his bed on the river or bay bottom. The 
grass will hold its nourishment from a 
month to six weeks, a sufficient time to 
make the longest voyages. Tlie extent of 
this trade is difficult to estimate, as it is 
wholly retail. No house abroad has yet 
entered into the trade, receiving regular 
consignments from Baltimore, but negoti- 
ations are now pending to effect such a result. 
Caterers in London and Paris, and American 
residents abroad are large consumers, and 
they order directly from Baltimore, or indi- 
rectly through New York. An attempt 
to plant American oysters in foreign waters 
jiroved a complete failure. Some Ave years 
ago, through the influence of the Turkish 
consul residing in Baltimore, a number of 
gentlemen were induced to try the experiment. 
A vessel was loaded with them, packed in the 
same manner as they are on the pungies 
which bring them to the market — that is not 
packed at all — aud of course nearly all died 
on the way. Satisfied with what they lield to 
be a proof of the impossibility of transporting 
them, these parties did not repeat the experi- 
ment. In the face of the fact that oysters are 
being sent across every day, which arrive in 
the best condition, it would be ridiculous to 
deny the feasibility of the project. Whether 
the oysters will thrive in those waters is an- 
other question, only to be determined by ex- 
periment. 

Terrapin are shipped from Baltimore both 
alive and canned. When sent alive they are 
simply packed in boxes or barrels, without 
food, ice, or any other accompaniments. Be- 
tween the months of September and March 
they do not eat anything, and this is tlie time 
during which they are shipped. Those put 
up in cans are boiled and then hermetically 
sealed, the same as other canned meats. Those 
sent abroad go exclusively to England and 
France, where they are highly prized. Soft 
crabs, fried and put up in oil cans, are quite 
largely sent to foreign markets. In game 
the principal export is canvas-back ducks. A 
common way of i)acking them is to tie them 
by the feet around the edge of a circular bas- 
ket. This keeps the birds separated, and 
leaves a space in the centre for ice, if neces- 
sary. The basket of ducks is generally placed 
in a refrigerator and frozen before they are 
shipped. This method of packing them has 
proved remarkably successful. One dealer 
affirms that he has not lost'a single basket in 
five years." 

LEEK. 
Allium Porntm. 

The leek is a member of the onion family, 
and has been cultivated from time immemo- 
rial. It has always been regarded with par- 
ticular favor by the Egyptians, who eat it raw 
with their bread, or as sauce for meats. It is 
frequently associated with the name of St. 
David, the patron saint of Wales, for the rea- 
son that Welshman are accustomed to sport 
leeks in their hats upon his festival, the first 
of March. This is a very ancient custom, and 
we find frequent mention of it in the old 
writers. Some persons have thought that it 
commemorates the introduction of the plant 
into that country by St. David ; but more 
probably, as Sliakspeare says, in liis Henry 
the Fifth, it is "worn as a memorable trophy 
of pre-deceased valor. " According to "ancient 
tradition," in a celebrated victory of the 
Welsh over the Saxons, in the sixth century, 
the former imder the prelate's directions, were 
distinguished by leeks^which they gathered 
near the battle ground. As he was supposed 
to have power to work miracles, it is not 
strange that their glorious success should have 
been attributed to this cause. Whatever may 



be the origin of the custom, it would be quite 
as remrakable to find a Welshman without 
his leek on the first of March, as it would to 
discover a genuine Hibernian without a sham- 
rock in his button-hole on St. Patrick's day. 
For certain purposes the leek is preferred to 
the onion. The varieties most worthy of cul- 
tivation, and perhaps of equal excellence, are 
the London and the Scotch. 

Culture. — Sow the seed in March or 
April, as soon as the ground becomes open, 
and the weather settled. One ounce of seed 
will yield between two and three thousand 
plants. Select for the bed a warm sheltered 
border, and sow in drills, three quarters of an 
inch deep, and eight inches apart. When the 
plants have become established, they ought to 
be thinned out to distances of about two 
inches in the drill. Frequent and thorough 
hoeing is of the first importance, while an oc- 
casional application of water during a dry 
time, proves of great benefit. As soon as the 
seedlings acquire a height of eight or nine 
inches, they are fit for transplanting. 

The leek is best suited with a mellow loam, 
which has been deeply dug, and made rich by 
the application of old dung or compost. The 
sub-soil should be dry, and the exposure 
rather open. Make shallow trenches across 
the bed, one foot distant from each other, for 
the reception of the plants, which are to be 
drawn from the seed bed, either during 
showery weather, or after the soil has been 
rendered yielding by the application of water. 
Some should be allowed to remain at the dis- 
tances of six inches asunder in the drill. 
Shorten the extremities of the tops and roots 
of those which are taken up, and insert them 
in the trenches, by means of the dibble, eight 
inches apart. They ought to be inserted just 
so deep, that the centre leaves and buds shall 
not be covered with earth. 

In dry weather, give water freely ; and, at 
all times, during the season of their growth, 
make good use of the hoe. The soil must be 
kept mellow, and, every now and then, a little 
should be drawn up around the stems. Some 
gardeners cut oft' the tops of the leaves, at in- 
tervals perhaps of tliree weeks or a month, in 
order to increase the size of the roots. A 
portion of the crop can be raised as wanted 
for use, by the beginning or middle of autumn. 
The plants will stand the winter well ; but, 
on the approach of hard frost, it is customary 
to store in sand a quantity sufficient for the 
wants of the family until the ground opens. 

For seed. — Remove some of the best 
plants, in spring, to a warm sheltered border. 
The flower-stems should be supported by 
stakes, or tied to the fence, to prevent their be- 
ing broken down by the wind. Cut the heads 
when they turn brown, with a portion of the 
stems attaclied, by which they are to be tied 
together in bundles of three or four, for con- 
venience in hanging them up to dry. When 
the seed becomes perfectly hardened, it can 
be beaten out at any convenient time. 

Use. — From its mild, agreeable taste, as 
well as on account of its liardiness. the leek is 
by many preferred to the onion. The whole 
plant is used in various ways, such as being 
boiled plain to be eaten with meat, in soups, 
stews, etc. — Schenck''s Gardenerl'i Text-Book. 

It is nearly forty-five years since we first 
saw the le(k in the Philadelphia markets, or 
knew it to be used in soups, or in dressing for 
"Fish, Flesh aud Fowl ;" and yet, in propor- 
tion to other vegetables used for the same or 
a similar purpose, it cannot be considered 
common, in the markets, nor in the culinary 
preparations, of Lancaster county. Stewed 
leeks are certainly as healthful, and to many 
as toothsome us stewed asparayus, and never 
subject to that objection to the latter which 
grows out of its stringy or woody and bitter 
toughness; and which sometimes so deceitful- 
ly distinguishes the very finest specimens of it, 
to the great disappointment of the un- 
sojiliisticated purchaser, or the patrons of the 
hostelry. 

^ 

Can't you induce your neighbor to subscribe 
for The Farmer? Try it f 



i 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



For Thk Lancawter FAUMEn. 
GLEANINGS. 



$56.50 
5G.00 
61.50 



Prices of Fertilizers. 

No. 1 Peruvian Guano 10 per cunt, am- 
monia standarJ per ton 

No. 1 Peruvian Guano 10 per cent, (guar- 
antee, per ton 

No. 1 Peruvian Guano, 10 per cent, rec- 

titied, per ton 

Mapee' Nitrogenizcd Supcrphoepliate, 

perton 40.00@50.00 

Mapes' Bone Superphosphate, perton .. 40.00@45.00 
Fisli Guano (crude in barrels) per ton.. 18.00 

Bone Flour per ton 40.00@45.00 

Ka>v Bones, Ground (pure), perton .'J3.00@40.U0 

German Potash Salts (.;5@;)5per cent.) 

perton 25.00@30.no 

Gypsum, Nova Scotia, ground, per ton.. 8.00(5j!).O0 
Nitrate of I'otash (li.'j per cent.) jier lb. Q^O'ic 

Sulphate of Potash (^0 per cent.) per lb. o'j(sii4c 

Chloride of Potass (Muriate of Potash, 

80 percent.) per lb ^%®^c 

Nitrate of Soda per lb 4J^(gl5c 

Sulphate of Ammonia (25 per cent.) 

per lb 5@5}^c 

— American Agricidturi.il. 

Rye turned under is the cheapest manure. 
It comes in ju<t timely so as to leave the 
ground nut an hour idle. 

Use your lime on old, rich ground ahiiost 
sodden with its repeated manuring. It sweet- 
ens and enlivens it, releases all unassimilated 
fertility — cuts it as alcohol does oil. 

If clouds are noticed coming up against the 
wind, in drought or other times, it is a pretty 
certain indication of rain, and my observation 
is that by such storms are our long droughts 
usually first broken. — liooVs Gardtn IlamaiL 

Our position that cultivating and stirring 
the soil as being the best kind of mulching, is in 
answer to those who enquire about mulching 
entire surface. We have always advocated 
mulch close to and under plants and bushes, 
and cultivate between. Some persons suppose 
that heavy mulching over the entire surface 
will keep down the weeds, and make abun- 
dance of fruit. No doubt but what a suffi- 
cient depth of such would, but it is better to 
use the mulch usually put on close to and un- 
der the plants and bushes, and cultivate be- 
tween the rows. Strawberries, if not thus heavi- 
ly mulched between the rows, may be run 
through between the rows, with a light drag- 
tooth harrow, just to stir up the suttace until 
fruit begins to turn. You made a mistake in 
spading ground between the rows, for by so 
doing you cut off innumerable small roots.— 
Fruit Recorder. 

[The above in reply to a correspondent 
whose crop failed after spading in place of a 
mulch. When cultivating the soil to act as a 
mulch, it should not be stirred deeper than 
about an inch, and less will do. When the 
soil is thus stirred up in summer time, the 
earth so loosened up will dry out and act as a 
mulch. Should it be stirred to the depth of 
three inches there will be three inches of dry 
soil and be vety close to the roots of many 
plants.] 

Do Plants Poison the Air we Breathe. 

There is a notion prevalent that the presence 
of growing plants in the sleeping or living 
room is detrimental to a lualtby atmosphere 
by their giving out poisonous carl)onic acid gas 
in the night time. The investigation of 
chemists demonstrate that growing plants do 
exhale an almost imperceptible ciuantity of 
carbonic acid gas, w^hich, in very small pro- 
portions, is necessary in the air we breathe. 
They also show that the quanity exhaled at 
night is but one-sixteenth part of what the 
same plants absorb from the atmosphere during 
the day, and convert into nearly its own 
weight of oxygen, thus rendering a poisonous 
gas, that derives its origin from various 
sources, into one of the principal elements of 
pure air. 

If carbonic acid gas is emitted from plants 
in dangerous quantities, it certainly would 
exist largely in the night atmosphere of a 
close greenhouse, heated to a tropical tempera- 
ture and crowded from tioor to rafter with 
rank vegetation. Yet, in my experience, I 
have never known the slightest ill effects to 
be realized from night work iu greenhouses, 



neither in cases that have frequently occurred 
of workmen making the warm greenhouses 
their sleeping quarters of a night, aiul evrn 
for an entire winter, which, to my satisfac- 
tion, affords practi(;al proof that the notion is 
a fallacy ; and the fact that perhaps no 
liealthier class of men can be found than 
greenhouse operators, who work constantly in 
an atmosphere where plants are growing, 
would prove, instead, that living plants exert 
a beneficial influence upon the air we breathe. 
— Home Florisl.~By A. B. K. 

For Thk Lanoabteu Farm Kn. 
BY RAIL TO FREDERICK CITY, MD. 

Scenes by the Way— The Tillers of the Soil. 
Immigration Southward and Westward. 

To get away from home lor a brief period, 
far enough not to see your own chimney 
smoke does one good once in a while. At 
least it changes the monotony which fixes it- 
self ujion us by contiimous routine. To take 
a seat in a railroad coach at (Jolurabia, and 
be in Frederick City in three hours and fifteen 
minutes, with as little jolting as if you rode 
on the main stem of the Pennsylvania rail- 
road, is a satisfaction hardly thouglit of ten 
years ago. Whether equal accommod;itions 
would be afforded, if the Hanover Junction 
and Susquehanna, or any other railroad com- 
pany had control of said line, is not in the 
province of this article to discuss. Suffice it 
to say, the Pennsylvania railroad company 
is not in the habit of doing things by halves. 
Traveling at the rate of twenty to twenty- 
five miles an hour does not attbrd opportunity 
for close observation; yet sufficient to say that 
the crop of winter wheat has emerged from 
under its covering of snow in good coadition. 
except on low and wet lands where there has 
been considerable heaving up by tie recent 
freezing and thawing, which, should it continue 
until spring fairly opens would put a less 
promising appearance upon the prospects of 
the coming crop, which may be considered 
fair, by way of the line of said railroad. The 
soil and geological formations through said 
section is somewhat varied, but the greater 
part is red shale, embracing southern York 
county, the entire width of Adams, thence 
through Maryland to within about fifteen 
miles of Frederick city; the latter being sur- 
rounded by a beautiful and naturally as fer- 
tile a section of limestone laud as can be 
found in the Keystone State. Throughout 
the red shale region many of the farmers are 
no doubt land poor, i. f., they cultivate more 
land than they can do with profit. 

Horace Greeley's advice will emphatically 
apply to the farmers of said region, i. e., to 
apply their labor and expenses to half the area 
they now skim OTe^vand fertilize their soil to 
twice its presen^^Pfitli. It has often been a 
query with the w'riter, why in that, as also iu 
other sections of only partially fertile soil, we 
see so many large and complete barns, in 
many cases superior to those of much more 
fertile regions. Another matter is observable, 
and which is of too general application,! e., 
the large number of barns devoid of spouting. 
The prevalent custom of building bank barns 
is no doubt admitted to be equal, if not su- 
perior, to any otiier plan, but with the man- 
ure bed in front, declining from the barn, and 
in addition to the rain and snow falling on 
the manure, all the rain falling upon tlie half 
of the roof in addition is drained through the 
manure pile, a drain that no larmer can af- 
ford imless his land is too rich. We may 
safely calculate tliat 2.5 per cent of the rich- 
est fertilizing ingredients of the manure pile 
is in many cases annually carried into the 
nearest stream. 

The various methods of farming in the diff- 
erent sections of country are not always ob- 
servable at sight. Several visits to Frederick 
City ami its surroundings, and also throuwli 
Shenandoah Valley, conversations on farm 
and other topics, with a number of intelligent 
citizens, has satisfied the writer that there is 
much room for progress in agriculture and 
horticulture in that section. 



It is doubtful whether there is an equal 
area to thu Monocacy valley in Lancaster 
county that would bear the exhaustive sys- 
tem of farming so long, and continue to yield 
such crops. 

The custom almost without exception is. to 
sell all they can pos.sibly spare from the farm, 
i. e., "rain, hay, straw, and even manure. 
The Tatter is not a general custom, but a 
Penn.sylvanian who moved there after the war, 
purchased lot) loads of manure from a neigh- 
bor farmer, an old resitUnil, which the new 
comer liberally applied to save his own land, 
part of which he double cropped. The re- 
sult was the second crop paid for all the ma- 
nurt. besides leaving the land in very fertile 
condition. He could however buy no more 
manure from that neighbor. In order to 
continue cropping, large quantities of com- 
mercial fertilizers are annually applied, gen- 
erally from .flUO to %oW worth, according to 
size of farm. By this method fair crops are 
grown, but the general difficulty is, that each 
successive crop requires heavier doses, to give 
satisfaction. AVliere the continuation of 
such a course of tillage will lead to. some in- 
dividuals who have been using patent medi- 
cines for a succession of years, might per- 
haps solve the problem in advance. If there 
is a single and cheap remedy for the ills to 
which such lauds have fallen heir to, that 
remedy is clover. 

A Pennsylvanian who moved southward 
since the war, conceded to the writer that he 
had to some extent adopted the practice of 
his neighbors, but seceded a few years ago by 
plowing down a heavy crop of clover, which 
seemed peculiarly suicidal at the time, but in 
pointing out the field, said, "the soil seems to 
have changed, no failure of crops since the 
clover was plowed down, besides, she soil has 
lost its former tenacity and is now much more 
friable; can plow it when the other fields will 
clog." That similar effects would result in 
all soils by plowing in clover, is hardly proba- 
ble, but we may safely say, four-fifths of the 
lands in anv section of our country, that have 
been run down by the above exhaustive meth- 
od, would be benefited by the same cheap rem- 
edy, at least where clover will grow at all. 

The question is still, which way, with many 
who wish to move on cheaper lauds. These 
can be had either west or south. If the laws 
and customs of caste could be wiped out of 
existence, the south would have advantages 
not to be found elsewhere in the Union. But 
since the settlement of the colonies, but es- 
pecially since the enactment of Mason and 
Dixon's line, the affiliation between the north- 
ern and southern people of the country has at 
no time been of that fraternal nature, like 
that of east and west. 

Some time after the war the tide of immi- 
gration seemed to preponderate southward, 
but h.as changed into its former westward 
current as formerly, and until the south will 
exhibit a progressive spirit similar to that of 
the west, the latter will retain the lead in the 
race for population. However, until a spirit 
will be inaugurated toward less land and bet- 
ter tillage, instead of more acres and closer 
skimming, the process of impoverishing our 
best lands will continue. Sometime, how- 
ever, a change will be inevitable. — U. M. E., 
Marietta, Pa., Feb. 24, 1877. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Fabmxb. 
BUILD BIRD HOUSES. 

This is one of the little odd jobs that should 
be attended to about evervbody's dwellings. 
We all like to see plenty of nice fruit and 
vegetables, &c., now 1 am confident that if 
we would give them (the birds) more care and 
protection, they would help us in a very great 
measure to protect it from the ravages of in- 
sects, and also be a considerable pleasure to 
us in other ways. I wont .say what shape 
you shall make the boxes. Any Imix about 
from .5 to 8 inches will do for "small birds. 
They need not be very neat, but shold be well 
made, and put up so that they don't tumble 
down, and so that the cats don't disturb the 
birds. The hole for the entrance should not 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[Februarj', 



be too near the bottom, and not too large 
either; there should be a stick below the hole 
for the birds to light on and look in. The 
roof should extend out over the hole so as to 
keep out the rain, &c. Don't be afraid that 
you will have too many birds about the prem- 
ises; they are the greatest :little bug and in- 
sect catchers to be found, and it will pay to 
encourage them to stay about the premises. 
Better do without dogs and cats than without 
birds. There are plenty of dogs and cats 
kept that cost more in a year to feed them 
than it would cost to have a few bird houses 
and the Lancaster Farmer besides. Money 
expended for either of these objects is not 
lost; the birds will reward you for the trou- 
ble and expense, so will the Farmer tell you 
how to live better, and make more money. 
It keeps you well posted in every improve- 
ment pertaining to horticulture, agriculture, 
the garden and farm, aud of general import- 
ance to your prosperity or welfare. But I 
have wandered off from my subject, and I 
will refer to it again by saying : Be kind to 
the birds.— Jo/ui B. Frh, Lime Valley. 



For The LancAsteb Fakmkr. 
LICE ON CURRANT BUSHES. 

What shall I do with them ? I want to set 
out a new lot, and I find most of the bushes 
infested with the bark lice. I did not exam- 
ine the roots, but I notice the lice or scales 
along the stems and down close to the ground; 
some stems have only a few, while others are 
nearly covered with them. Could a liquor or lye 
be made to dip the sprouts in before planting, 
so as to kill the lice and yet not injure the 
sprouts ? I mean to dig out a lot of the old 
bushes, and part them aud only save the best 
young sprouts that have a little root, for 
planting. I cut the tops off about a foot 
from the root, and if plants are scarce I use 
the young canes without roots to make plants. 
In setting out cuttings of any kind, I always 
pack the "soil very tight for a few inches at 
the bottom; setting them about six inches 
deep; leaving one or two eyes above ground. 
Last season my currant bushes looked miser- 
able; the tops were nearly all half dead or 
very "scrnnty," and not much fruit on them. 
This was not caused by the lice, (they might 
have been frozen in the wood;) other seasons 
my bushes looked well and were full of fruit, 
and even the lousy bushes were full, but not so 
large. But I generally thin or cut out in the 
spnng all the scrubby old wood, and all that 
are vrormy or very lousy, and give them a 
top dressing of manure scrapings, or compost 
of hen dung. I intend, if I live to plant 
fruit, to be more careful about planting bush- 
es and trees or vines, so as to have them free 
from vermin or mildew. I have seen a 
great many pear and apple trees ruined with 
lice. Last spring I cut the tops off several 
young apple trees that were full of lice, and 
grafted clean grafts on again, and rubbed 
lard from the grafts down, to keep the lice 
from getting on the new wood. Xow the tops 
are as clean as they need be, and if I had 
used the same care in years gone by, I 
might have saved a good many trees to bear 
good fruit.— 0;d Cultivator, Lime Valley. 

[Just as you treated your trees, so treat 
your currant bushes, aud they will also be- 
come "as clean as thev need be." Nothing 
is better for these "Bark-hce" or "Scale-in- 
sects" than lard-oil— applied in a liquid state, 
and when the temperature is not low enough 
to congeal it. It will not injure the plants, 
and by the time it is washed off, the Ucewill 
go with it. — Ed. 



OTTAR OF ROSES. 

Where the Most Delicate of all Perfumed Es- 
sences is Obtained— When the Rose 
Leaves are Gathered— The Yield. 



Among the many exhibits at the Centennial, 
which, no doubt, attracted a large share of at- 
tention and proved especially interesting to the 
ladies, was the perfumery. Of course that 
princeliest of perfumes, "Ottar of Roses," was 



much sought after. Everybody who could 
afford it purchased a vial as a souvenir of the 
great exhibition. This perfume was sold in 
oblong vials containing about four drops of 
the essence at SI. 2.5 per vial. The vial isnev- 
er opened, but intended to be laid away in a 
bureau drawer, where it will perfume the 
whole room in a short time. 

Home Versus Foreign. 
The most delicious of all perfumed essences 
is obtained by the simple distillation of rose 
leaves. In our chmate, roses are not sufficient- 
ly highly scented to produce the properly odor- 
iferous essence or oil; and all the druggists 
can produce from rose leaves is rose water, 
which in fact is water slightly impregnated 
with the essence or oil, which is, to a small 
degree, soluble in it. The most favorable 
country for the production of the most high- 
ly scented roses is the middle portion of Eu- 
ropean Turkey, at the base of the southern 
slope of the Balkan Mountains, where the 
roses are protected against all winds except 
those from the south, and the flowers thus at- 
tain a luxuriance in perfume and in growth, 
as well as in size, of which those who have 
not visited these regions can hardly form any 
idea. 

The Centre of the Trade. 
The town of Kezenlik, situated in the pro- 
vince of that name, is the centre of the field 
of cultivation and distillation of the rose 
leaves. The leaves are gathered all over the 
province, which is 40 miles long, and is water- 
ed by the river Thungha and the many moun- 
tain streams which discharge into the same, 
furnishing the water necessary for the distilla- 
tion. To give an idea of the extent which 
this industry has attained, we need only say 
that there are in that province 128 different 
villages of which the inhabitants are all em- 
ployed in the culture of the beautiful flowers. 
These all live in peace together, Turks and 
Christians, and they prosper, having become 
wise by experience, finding that it is better to 
work than to waste tkne in religious and po- 
litical quarrels. 

Plantations of Roses. 
Almost all the country is occupied in rose 
plantation and only a comparatively small 
portions is devoted to raising rye and barley, 
for the subsistence of the inhabitants and their 
cattle. The rose grows best on those parts of 
the slopes where the sun shines most, and 
which is the least northern in exposure. A 
litrht soil is best, and the planting is done 
during the spring and summer, in parallel 
ditches three inches deep and five feet apart. 
In these ditches shoots from old rose trees 
are laid ; they must, however, not be cut from 
the tree, but torn off, so that each shoot has 
some portion of the root or bark of the root 
adherent. They are then covered with earth 
mixed with a little manure. 

How They are Cultivated. 
If the laud is horizontal, and a mountain 
stream can be diverted so as to inundate it, 
this is done to hasten the growth ; at the end 
of six months shoots are seen coming up all 
along the furrows, and at the end of a year 
these shoots are three or four feet high, form- 
ing regular hedges ; at the end of the second 
year, "roses appear, but not in suflicient 
abundance for them to be gathered. The 
gathering is commenced in the third year, 
after wh'rch they produce largely, the hedges 
being, at the end of five years, six feet high. 
The bushes produce flowers until fifteen years 
old when the field is worn out, and must be 
plowed up. They do not prune the rose 
bushes at all, as we do ; but they cut off every 
year in the late fall or winter the dead 
branches. 

The Great Harvest Time. 
The great harvest commences about May 
1.5th, and lasts until June 2d or 10th; the 
gathering is done daily in the morning before 
sunrise, and the distillation is done before 12 
noon, so as to have the benefit of all the fresh- 
ness of the flowers, which is at once driven off 
by the heat of the day. In hot seasons the 



roses open more rapidly, and the crop may 
last but for ten days; but in wet, cooler sea- 
sons, the progress is slower and the crop may 
last for twenty-five days; but then the daily 
harvest is smaller in proportion, so that the 
final result is about the same. However, cool, 
slow weather is preferred, as it eases the daily 

labor. 

About the Distillation. 

The stills used are of the roughest kind, 
and small ; they hold from 200 to 240 
pints of water, and are carried to the rose 
bushes to be filled. To twenty pounds rose 
leaves, 200 pints of water are added, and the 
whole is distilled at a gentle heat until twen- 
ty pints of water are distilled off. This quan- 
tity contains nearly all the perfume of the 
leaves, which are then thiwvn away with tlie 
remaining water, and the still is again filled 
with 20 pounds leaves and 1(50 pints of water. 
This operation is repeated until all the leaves 
have been used. The water thus distilled off 
is a strong rose water; and the result of eight 
or ten distillations is put into a still and sub- 
mitted to a second distillation, when a strong- 
rose water is obtained; so strong, indeed, that 
it is unable to contain the essence in solution, 
and the latter floats on the top of the water. 
Experieuce has shown that, for every ounce 
of ottar of roses, 3,000 pounds of rose leaves 

are required. 

The Annual Production. 

The total yearly production of eight districts 
into which the IGO villages of the province of 
Kezeulik are divided, is on an average of 3,500 
pounds of ottar of roses, of which the district 
in which the Capital is situated produces 
half. Some years ago, however, the bushes 
were exceptionally prolific. Thus, in 1806 
6,000 pounds were produced, but in 1872 only 
1 700 pounds could be obtained. We ought 
to add that every rose farmer has his own 
stills for producing ottar of roses immediately 
after picking the flowers; and thousands of 
industrious workers are thus occupied, earn- 
incr in a single short period of twenty days 
the products of a year's labor in preparing the 
soil, planting, and taking care of the grow- 
ing plants. 

Ready for the Market. 

When the distillation is over the farmers 
come from all parts of the province to the 
Capital to sell their products, those who have 
larse quantities selling directly in the great 
commercial centers, such as Constantinople 
and Adrianople. At present, however, an 
enterprising firm in Kezenlik, considering the 
delay to which the trade with the last named 
cities is subject, and the chances of adultera- 
tion, have established a depot in Paris, France, 
from which this delicate and expensive per- 
fume is now distributed over Europe and all 

the world. 

^ 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
FARMERS VS. SPORTSMEN. 
The lack of harmony between fiirmers and 
sportsmen is so well known to every one, and 
the points of difference that have sprung up 
between them so wide, that it would seem 
almost like a piece of impertinence either to 
state them or offer any plan of conciliation. 
There was a time when this was not so, nor is 
that period such a very distant one, but latterly 
this antagonism— for such it may be correctly 
termed— has grown with much rapidity, and 
has now reached a stage of open and undis- 
guised hostility. 

Although not personally a sportsman, I had 
frequent opportunity of witnessing the dis- 
atrreements between these two classes of the 
community during the past season ; they were 
neither pleasant nor agreeable to either party, 
and will continue to become more so with each 
succeeding season, unless an attempt is made 
to arrive at some mutual understanding. 

It will hardly be denied that nearly every 
farmer upon whose plantation game is to be 
found has been more or less annoyed by the 
intrusion of so-called sportsmen. Fences have 
been throwm down, rails broken, gates left 
open cattle scared, and, what is worse, some- 
times shot, through carelessness. This is no 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



light catiilo^ue of evils registered against the 
gunners, ami when, in adiUtion, the gan)e-bag 
of tlie pot-lumtur, as is too often tlie case, is 
fillc'ci witli a miscellaneous assortment of barn- 
yard poultry, the cup of the farmer's wrath is 
justly filled to overtlowing. And when he 
uiidertakes to stem the tide of accumulating 
evils, he has not oidy the sympathy and co- 
operation of his fellows, but of all other rea- 
sonable men, whether they be farmers or not. 
As a legitimate conseiinence of these annoy- 
ances, he comes to look with suspicion upon 
every man who approaches his premises with 
a gun upon his shoulder. He no longer wails 
to draw distinctions between these obnoxious 
visitors, but regards them one and all as 
nuisances — as a pest and an enemy whom he 
desires to see as rarely as possible, and to get 
rid of whom becomes for the time being the 
chief object of his wishes. 

The result of all this is the imiumerable 
series of hand-boards and warnings which 
ornament every prominent tree on his prem- 
ises, and oftentimes e-xceed the number of 
quail that lind shelter on his acres. And when 
even these notices to trespassers are ineffec- 
tual, a disgraceful bout of words, and oftimes 
a personal collision is the result, lean hardly 
be wrong in saying these things are not desired 
by either party. The farmer bears with him, 
as a conse([uence, a rulHed temper, while the 
gunner has oft to mourn the loss of a favorite 
dog, and goes away full of wrath and breath- 
ing vengeance. 

Perhaps in a majority of cases the farmer is 
not so much impelled to take the course he 
does from his desire to protect the game which 
finds shelter in his fields : that I believe is fre- 
quently a secondary consideration, (juail, 
rabbits, woodcock, squirrels, and other game, 
are not such important things in his eyes as 
they are in those of the hunter. A desire to 
protect his premises from this undesired intru- 
sion, and his property from unnecessary de- 
struction, are generally the objects he has 
most at heart. If he has pleasure in hearing 
Bob White's pleasing pipe, and is aware that 
the songster is insectiverous, as well as gran- 
iverous, and in this way capable of rendering 
very important services during the spring and 
summer, he may feel like affording him pro- 
tection for the good he is able to do. I hardly 
think, however, this utilitarian view of the 
case very often influences the farmer ; oftener 
he regards the upland minstrel in the light of 
a dainty morsel for his table, and therefore 
worthy of his protection. If, liowever, this 
opinion does not guide him, and he is swayed 
solely by the desire to see this handsome game 
bird increase without any hindrance what- 
ever, he might in the course of time, if his 
views could be carried out, see them Ijecome a 
pest requiring abatement, just as the hare 
sometimes becomes in Nevada and the adjoin- 
ing territories. There is a possible danger 
that under certain contingencies we might have 
too much Bob White, instead of too little, as 
seems likely at present, in consequence of con- 
flicting interests. 

So much for the farmer. The sportsman 
also claims a hearing. When confronted with 
the long list of grievances the farmer brings 
forward, he says in reply, they are general and 
sweeping, instead of being limited to a class 
insignificant in numbers. The sport.sman wor- 
thy of the name deserves no such reproach ; 
he alarms no household and maims no cattle 
with his random shooting ; he does not wan- 
tonly destroy the husbandman's property ; 
neither does "he commit theft upon any stray- 
ing poultry. Should he through accident in- 
jure anything belonging to the granger, he 
does not endeavor to cover np the fault, but 
honorably pays tlie damage that has been un- 
willingly inflicted. That the pot-hunter is 
sometimes guilty of the excesses previously 
mentioned, he admits, but he himself, as much 
as anyone, is the enemy of this class of offend- 
ers, wlio shoot game in season and out of it, 
and whom he is as anxious to suppress as the 
farmer can possibly be. 

He claims to be more interested in the pre- 
servation and increase of game than the far- 



mer. He has been instrumental in procuring 
the passage of game laws and theorgiiniz;ition 
of siiorting clubs, which have for their object 
the protection of game during the period of 
nidilieation and reproduction, against the as- 
.saults of hunter outlaws, who would as soon 
shoot ilrs. Bob Wliite while engaged in the 
pleasing cares of the nursery, as on a frosty 
morning in December. He does not call the 
farmer ignorant, churlish and exacting, who 
sees fit to deny him the right to kill game on 
his premises ; he oftener asks permission to do 
so than attempts it without license ; and when 
refused, does not pau.se to bandy words with 
the proprietor. Under these circumstances, 
he thinks the farmer's refusal not warranted 
by the stale of the case, but seeks efsewhere to 
find that pleasure which has here been denied 
him. 

He joins issue, also, with the farmer upon 
the question wliich the latter very generally 
claims as of right — the ownership and exclu- 
sive proprietary rights in all game that may be 
found on the latter's domain. On this point 1 
believe the farmers, as a rule, are mistaken. 
How can they substantiate their claim to the 
covey of quail tliat may to-day be feeding 
ai'ound their grain stacks 'i* Did he breed or 
raise them V Can he identify them if they are 
with any others ? Do they bear any peculiar 
marks that may serve to establish ownership'i' 
(Jan he take and dispose of them at will, like 
any other property'i' And when they, in 
search of fresh feeding-ground, fly over his 
fence into his neighbor's field, are they still 
his 'i* If he went to bring them back, would 
he not be as much of a trespasser as the veriest 
l)ot-hunter that bags his spring chickensV Be- 
yond all doubt he would. As well might the 
riparian owner claim the fish in the navigalile 
water course that flows by his broad acres. 
Game in this State that is not pieserved in 
enclosed parks, or is not in some other way 
directly, constantly and continuously under 
control, is in law devoid of ownership. An 
enclosed and preserved trout pond implies 
ownership and proprietary rights, but to whom 
belongs the flock of wild ducks that, in their 
semi-annual voyage, either from hunger or 
weariness alight and pass an hour or two on 
its quiet surface? All game, whether of fur 
or feather, is governed in the matter of habitat 
entirely and exclusively by the question of 
food supply. So long as that is plentiful, they 
perhaps remain when unmolested, but when a 
time of scarcity comes, migration comes with 
it, and what then becomes of your exclusive 
ownership? Your property takes wings like 
the riches in the parable, and flees, you know 
not where ! I have not inquired into the law 
on this point, but it is very evident to me it 
does not pretend to confer ownership iu pro- 
perty that is not identifiable and which no 
number of statutes can secure to him. Such a 
law would carry signs of absurdity all over it, 
and while our State legislators have never im- 
pressed the community deeply by the brilliancy 
of their lecislative capacities, I am neverthe- 
less persuaded nothing so illogical or fallacious 
has ever emanated from that collective body 
of wisdom. 

So stands the case, then, between these two 
classes of the community. Instead of healing, 
the breach widens yearly. The point that re- 
mains to be considered is, whether there are 
no means whereby these diflferences can be 
satisfactorily adjusted. I believe such a thing 
possible in most cases. Farmers are, as a 
rule, very honorable men — none more so. 
When met in the proper spirit, they are not 
the unreasonabh^ lieings hunters suppose ; and 
when approached in the proper manner, mis- 
understandings soon give way. Hunters 
must understand, in the first place, that the 
right of every man to control and enjoy his 
own is absolute and indisputable, and when- 
ever any one attempts without permission or 
purchase to enjoy this right ahmg with the 
rightful owner, he becomes a trespas.ser. What 
shadow of right has the sportsman on the far- 
mer's acres 'i AVhere does he get such a right? 
A man's land is a.s much his property as his 
house, and the law calls that his castle. If he 



may defend that he certainly can the former. 
Both farmers and sportsmen are agreed upon 
one point, and that is the ot'cessity and strict 
enforcement of the game law ; they canjneet 
upon this common ground of agreement, and 
unless they co-operate heartily in enforcing 
such laws, no amount of legistation'willjpre- 
servo tlie game in any district : unrestricted 
shooting soon clears a country of ita|feral 
occupants. 

Of late, sportmcn's clubs have sprung up in 
every State. They cannot become too numer- 
our, and if they are as choice and careful iu 
their membership as many other associations 
are, they will be composed of gentlemen. 
There is no reason why they should not be 
such in reality as well as in name. I believe 
it would not be a diflicull matter for such an 
as.socialion, known to be compo.sed of honor- 
able men, to come to an agreement with simi- 
lar associations of farmers living near each 
other, securing the right to hunt during the 
proper .season, under certain restrictions, and 
for a fixed renumeration. The farmers would 
not be loth to increase their revenue from this 
source, if it could be done without damage to 
their property. Suppose a sportsmen's club 
was to secure by purchase the right to hunt 
game over a tract of 2,000 or ;j,(JOO acres ; 
would it not then be to the interest of the far- 
mers, no less than that of the hunters, to afford 
the game on the land thus rented or lea.sed all 
the protection possible? If the game was not 
preserved, but wantonly destroyed, the sports- 
men would decline to rent again, and the reve- 
nue of the farmers be consequently curtailed ; 
but if it became more abundant from year to 
year, as it no doubt would with proper care, 
the proprietors would be justified in asking in- 
creaseti compensation, and might in time de- 
rive a handsome reveime from a source hitherto 
unprofitable and the cause of innumerable vex- 
ations. While I hold the farmer can no more 
lay exclusive claim to the game on his farm than 
he can to the moon or stars that shine down 
upon it. Justice demands that he be compen- 
sated for all the care and supervision he may 
bestow upon it. 

To many it may seem to be carrying the 
thing too far to pay for what they have always 
had for the taking. Granted ;" but the time 
will surely come when, without .some such ar- 
rangement, the sportsman will be compelled 
to forego his pleasure and pastime in the set- 
tled districts, and betake himself elsewhere in 
search of sport, and that, too, at a far greater 
expenditure of money .and time than the plan 
I have proposed would cost. It seems to me 
the only fair, reasonable and jwssible solution 
of this vexed question. The conflicting in- 
terests of both sides would be merged into a 
mutual one ; game would be better preserved, 
and the game laws better observed, because 
both parties would unite their efforts to that 
end. At all events, the plan is worthy of trial ; 
it can certainly not make matters worse than 
they are, and may perhaps furnish a solution 
to the existing difficulties. — J^. R. D., Lancas- 
ter, Feb. 22, 1877^ 

INFLUENCE OF READING. 

In our last i.ssue we mentioned the necessi- 
ty of having a certain amount of good reading 
form a part of the occupation and pleasure of 
well-spent winter evenings. But it is not 
merely for the "fim of the thing" that we de- 
sire all people to make a point of reading 
sometliing each day; on the contrary, the 
main reason for so doing is found in the direct 
and powerful influence which reading will 
have ui)on your per.sonal character and life. 

We suppose and will venture the assertion, 
that all minds are moulded and guided more 
by what they read than by what they hear. 
There are only two principal methods of influ- 
encing our own or other minds; one is by 
means of oral speech, and the other by writ- 
ten language. And no less a person than 
President Porter, of Yale College, has said, 
that in this view, ''a good book is of more val- 
ue than a good man." We think this opin- 
ion can be justified by good and sufficient rea- 
sons. One or two occur to us now. 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



First, when a man speaks to another upon 
any topic wliich has not received a great deal 
of previous thought at his hands, his talk or 
speech will he very likely to have in it a con- 
siderahle quantity of crude, undigested, hast- 
ily-prepared substance. With some grains of 
good wheat there will, and must be, necessa- 
rily, more or less chaff. And sometimes the 
proportion of the chaft' to the wheat is very 
large. The man, perchance, is on his feet be- 
fore an audience. He is compelled to think 
rapidly and speak correctly. What time has 
he then to weigh matters or canvass probabil- 
ities, or look upon different sides of any sub- 
ject? None whatever. He must speak the 
thoughts that come first to him, whether val- 
uable or worthless. 

But when a man sits down to write, on the 
other hand, he has time and opportimity for 
the most careful reflection and consideration. 
He must think before he can write to any ad- 
vantage or profit to himself or others. Be- 
sides, in writing, the mind seems to be raised 
to its highest power of productiveness. It 
condenses and intensifies itself. Consequent- 
ly, whatever is good in writing is doubly 
good, whatever is bad is doubly bad. And, 
furthermore, what is written can be changed, 
if necessary, befor.^ being sent out, but spoken 
words can never be recalled. 

A second reason for this judgment lies in 
the fact that when a man sits down to listen 
to a speaker, the speaker's personality and 
his own come into collision with each 
other. The hearer is either moved to sym- 
pathy and admiration for the speaker person- 
ally, or else aroused to secret or open antag- 
onism. In both cases, the presence of theman 
himself detracts from the force of his words, con- 
sidered per se. 

Quite frequently, the influence of the man 
is much greater than that of his words ; in 
which case we are sure to remember the per- 
son, and equally sure to forget what he said. 
But, on the contrary, when a person sits dowu 
to read, the attitude of his mind is more pas- 
sive than active, more receptive than ener- 
getic. He feels the need of information or 
guidance. He longs for principles and ideas 
on which to build. And so he throws open 
the doors and windows of his nature to what- 
ever book or paper is before him, aud says 
practically, "Come in and occupy." Hence 
the contents of a book or paper fall into the 
soul, as seeds into the soil ; and after the pro- 
per time they germinate, spring up, bear fruit 
and cover the ground, and the result is that 
indestructible thing we call character, 
which consists in part of mental thrift and 
healthy growth. So much for the mere in- 
fluence of reading. 

^ 

TOBACCO. 



A Legend Concerning its Introduction in 

Europe— What the \A^eed Has Been 

Known to Do. 



An Irishman who had a termagant wife, 
quieted an outbreak of ill-humor by presenting 
the lady with a short pipe, of which the cost 
was one half-penny ; and as he did so he re- 
marked, with Quaker-like simplicity, that 
peace was a good thing at any price. There is 
much peace in tobacco. A legend even relates 
that it was introduced into Europe by a man 
whose profe.?sional business was peace-seeking. 
It was, or was not— for doctors difl'er— a cer- 
tain M. de Nicot, French Embassador at the 
Court of Portugal, who brought tobacco under 
the notice of Catharine de Medicis, in the year 
1560, or thereabouts ; whereas, it was proba- 
bly known in London 1585. In France tobacco 
was therefore called nicotiane, or " the Queen's 
weed ;" in England it got its more enduring 
title, because, says tradition, Francis Drake 
carried away the first samples from Tobago. 
It was the wild man who taught his civihzed 
brother the calm delights of smoke. 

The Best Tobacco 
in the world for cigars is, perhaps, that found 
in Cuba, and the best tobacco in Cuba is grown 
at Yuelta de Abajo. The best snufi' comes 



from Macouba, a village at Martinique, where 
the Empress Josephine was born. The best 
Turkish tobacco is that raised in Macedonia. 
Tombeki, which is exclusively smoked in 
narghilehs. comes from Persia. When good, 
it looks like new shoe leather used for soles. 
Tombeki should be washed at least three times 
before smoking. It is diflicult to understand 
the source of pleasure derived from tobacco. 
If it came from the sense of smell, we might 
engage servants to smoke for us and preserve 
the vvhiteness of our teeth, as well as the inof- 
fensiveness of our hair and clothes. If it de- 
pended on taste, we should get more joy out 
of a quid than out of a cigar. It cannot be- 
long to the touch, because chocolate pastiles 
and some needle-cases feel like cigars in hand. 
The sight seems to have part in our delec- 
tation, because tobacco is almost deprived of 
its perfume by darkness ; yet if its savor de- 
pended wholly on light, suggests a sage who 
has lost all mental coherence of smoky thoughts, 
tobacco would give more pleasure in the sun- 
shine than in the shadow, and no true smoker 
has ever piped assent to such a statement. 

Von Helmont, traveling in desert places, 
avers that tobacco protected huu for long 
periods 

Against Hunger or Fatigue, 

and he declares that he could make immense 
journeys on foot with no other sustenance. 
Dr. Stephenson, an American physician, ob- 
served that tobacco may be almost counted on 
as a specific in certain forms of inflammatory 
erysipelas. He covers the iuflamed surface 
with wet tobacco leaves, and keeps them there 
till nausea supervenes. A member of the 
College of Medicine at Stockholm avers that 
the dried leaves of the potato plant would 
answer the same purpose, and that far better 
smoking ingredients may be made from them 
than from the coarser kinds of tobacco in 
common use. Much of the tobacco sold at 
Hamburg and Bremen is mixed with potato 
leaves. The tobacco which comes from Mary- 
laud is the only sort which can be smoked in 
short pipes without danger to the mucous 
membrane of the mouth. It mingles imper- 
ceptibly with the potato leaf,and the adultera- 
tion can hardly be detected. A learned man 
declares that we are grievously in error who 

talk of 

"Meerschaum" Pipes, 

we should say "Kummer" pipes, and com- 
memorate perpetually our obligations to the 
discoverer of a compound which has nothing 
to do with the sea nor with its foam. Anselm, 
who has written a profound work on pipes, in- 
structs mankind that they should be of the 
simplest forms, so as to be easily cleaned, and 
that there never should be any wood, metal, 
caoutchouc, or horn connected with them. 
Kummer pipes may be discreetly cleansed by 
pouring streams of boiling coffee through 
them. It is a wise course to bake clay pipes 
in a hot oven— after the dinner has been taken 
out of it. Pipes have their names, hke swords 
—names born of love or glory ; and one is 
known to history as "Ahastasia;" one as 
"Paradise." The first belonging to a poet, 
the other to Omar Pasha, who had a name to 
conjure with among the Turks. Tobacco is 
believed to have destroyed the art of conver- 
sation ; but perhaps it has only improved it. 
Smoking 

does not render talk impossible, or even diffi- 
cult; but it condenses it and makes it senten- 
tious. Tobacco compresses a long winded 
discourse into an epigram. It is at the bottom 
of the diflerence between the Welchman's 
prayer and that of Mawworm. "Good night, 
sir," he remarked to his patron saint, "few 
words are best," whereas Mawworm has nev- 
er done with words, and would let his pipe out 
in more ways than <me, while that of the more 
ancient and acute Briton would keep alight. 
The smoker wants no other furniture than 
some German tinder. If he begins to burden 
himself with amber mouthpieces, clips, and 
pincers, he ceases to be a man, and becomes a 
cupboard. Directly the first ashes falls oft' it, 
the flavor is impaired, and the smoke becomes 



hot, acrid, and unwholesome. Smoking, 
which has greatly increased in recent years, 
is, at all events, much better than 

Taking Snuff, 
which disgraced the very waistcoats of our 
forefathers. "Had our noses," mused a phi- 
losopher, "been intended tor dustholes they 
would have been turned the other way." 
Possibly. And it is by no means clear to logi- 
cal intellects that our mouths were intended 
for chimneys, or could with more fitness have 
been opened at the top of our heads, and every 
man might have served as a barometer to his 
neighbor, who could have forseen the state of 
the weather by noting whether his neighbor 
was blinded by his own smoke or otherwise. 
Youth and love depart from us. Tobacco re- 
mains, and perhaps it consoles us. It is the 
only form of happiness which is left to some 
whom the world has treated unkindly. Je te 
laise mofemmeet mapipe; jeterecommande 
bien ma pipe," were the last words of Gavar- 
ni's vagabond. 



1 



LETTER FROM DANIEL WEBSTER TO 

THE FARMER IN CHARGE OF HIS 

MARSHFIELD PLANTATION. 

This fine letter of Daniel Webster, writ- 
ten 44 years ago, and just now in season, will 
be welcomed as a most agreeable and instruc- 
tive lesson by city as well as country 
TP3,d.Grs * 

Washington, March 13, 1822. 
John Taylor : I am glad to hear from you 
again, and to learn that you are all well, and 
that your teams and tools are ready for 
spring's work, whenever the weather will al- 
low you to begin. I sotnetimes read books on 
farming, and I remember that a sensible old 
author advises farmers "to plow naked and 
to sow naked." By this he means there is no 
use in beginning the spring's work till the 
weather is warm, that a farmer may throw 
aside his winter clothes and roll up his sleeves. 
Yet he says we ought to begin as early in the 
year as possible. He wrote some very pretty 
verses on this subject, which, as far as I re- 
member, run thus : 

"While yet the spring is young, while earth unbinds 
The frozen hosom to the western winds; 
While mountain snows dissolve against the sun, 
And streams yet new from precipices run — 
E'en in this early dawning of the year, 
Produce the plow and poke the sturdy eteer, 
And goad him till he smokes beneath his toil, 
And the bright share is buried in the soil." 

John Taylor, when you read these lines, do 
you not see the snow melting and the little 
streams beginning to run down the southern 
slopes of your Punchbrook pasture, and the 
new grass starting and growing in the trick- 
ling water, all green, bright and beautiful ? 
And do you not see your Durham oxen smok- 
ing from heat and perspiration as they draw 
along your great breaking-up plow, cutting 
and turning over the tough sward in your 
meadow in the great field ? The name of 
this sensible author is Virgil, and he gives 
farmers much other advice, some of which 
you have been following all this winter with- 
out even knowing that he had given it. 
"But when cold weather, heavy snows and rain 
The laboring farmer in his home restrain, 
Let him forecast his work with timely care, 
Which else is huddled when the skies are fair ; 
Then let him mark the sheep, and whet the shining 

share. 
Or hollow trees for boats, or number o er 
Hie sacks, or measure his increasing store ; 
Or sharpen stakes, and mend each rake and fork, 
So to be ready in good time to work ; 
Visit his crowded barns at early morn ; 
Look to his granary, and shell his corn ; 
Give a good breakfast to his numerous kine, ^^ 
His shivering poultry and his fat'ning swine." 

And Mr. Virgil says some other things 
which you understand up at Franklin as well 
as ever he did : 

"In chilling winter swains enjoy their store, 
Forget their hardships, and recruit for more ; 
The farmer to full feasts invites his friends. 
And what he got with pains, with pleasure spends, 
Draws chairs around the fire, and tells once more 
Stories which often have been told before ; 
Spreads a clean table with things good to eat, 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



And adds some iiioisteniuij to his fruit and meat. 

They praise his liospitality and feel 

They shall sleep better after such a meal." 

Jolui Taylor, by tin- time you have got 
through this, you will have read cnouf,'!!. The 
sum ofall is, be ready for your siiriiif; work a.s 
soon a.s tlie weather becomes warm enough, 
and then jiut your liaud to the plow and look 
not back. Daniel Wkhstei;. 

— Philadelpliia Lnhjcr. 



THE BREEDING OF SILK WORMS. 



Large Shipment of Eggs from Japan to Eu- 
rope via America — The Trade Increas- 
ing Yearly — Peculiarities of the Worm, 
and How it is Cared For. 
A large cargo of silk worms' eggs was ship- 
ped from Vokohama on the steamship City of 
Peking, and reached San Francisco on tlie 
14th instant ; thence they were sent by rail 
across the Continent, and airived last Friday 
at the Union Line Dock, Jersey City. About 
half the cargo was shipped by the City of 
Berlin, via Liverpool, for Havre and Paris. 
Tlie remaining portion \s'\\\ be forwarded ne.xt 
Saturday by the steamship Labrador direct to 
Paris and Havre, where the eggs will be dis- 
tributed through different parts of France, 
Italy and Switzerland. The eggs, which are 
placed in 1,872 bales or cases, occupy seven 
cars and their value is estimated at |.3,0I10,- 
000. The agent of the Union Pacific Hail- 
road, Mr. Nolan, says that the cargo arrived 
in good condition, and that the eggs are 
healthy, and have not been injured by their 
long journey to this city. A regular trade in 
the trau.sportation of silk worms has been 
established for several years between Yoko- 
hama and Europe. The steamer Gaelic, 
which arrived at San Francisco from Yoko- 
hama on the 6th in.stant, had on board a cargo 
of 287 bales of the silk-worms' eggs, en route 
to Europe. Large as these consignments are, 
the trade is increasing daily, and the supply 
of silk-worms shipped this year exceeds that 
ot any previous year. This is owing to the 
fact that there has been a great shortness of 
the crop in the silk-worm producing countries 
of Europe. The decrease in France within 
the present year has been at least one-half, 
and the supply in Italy has fallen off fully one- 
tenth, making a short crop of .30,0(X) bales of 
silk in Europe this year. This failure is at- 
tributable to frosts and wet weather, and lias 
increased the value of the raw material fully 
one hundred per cent. What is known as 
"the silk worm disease'' broke out in Europe 
with great virulence last year and destroyed 
a large number of the worms. The silk-worm 
seed shipped from Yokohama for the European 
niafket is round, slightly flattened, and 
as small as a turnip seed. The .seeds will 
stick wherever they have been laid by the 
female moth as if glued on pasteboard, paper, 
cloth, or even the very cocoon. But the seed 
of other breeds will not adhere, such as 
those that come from the Caucasus, Persia, 
and European Tmkcy, among which are the 
white of Adrianople and the yellow of Cau- 
casus, from Nouka. The eggs are by natural 
law submitted to a period of seemingly life- 
less inaction, and so, during the whole sum- 
mer, they will stand a degree of heat much 
greater than the one needeed to hatch them 
in the spring. But after December it becomes 
possible, by giving them the same amount of 
heat, to secure nearly perfect hatching. Theie- 
fore, if silk worms were kept in winter in a 
heated room, there is no doubt that they 
would hatch or spoil. In shipping them by 
railroad or steamboat, care must be taken that 
they are not placed in heated cars or too near 
the boiler. The most intense cold does not 
hurt them, and there would be less danger in 
having them buried in ice than in exposing 
them to a high degree of heat after the month 
of Octol)er. 

Mr. Franklin Allen, Secretary of the Silk 
Association of America, related to a reporter 
some curious facts connected with the habits 
and peculiarities of the silk worm. He ex- 
plained that there are five diflerent ages in the 



life of the silk worm, from the hatching, accor- 
ding to the number of tinu'sthey changi' their 
skin. These ages arc al.so termed inoulliMg 
or sleep. Nature gave the worm the liicully 
ofspimiing the .sulld cocoon in which it wraps 
itself, secure ai:ainst all dangers that might 
hurt it as .soon as it is transl'orined into a chrys- 
alis — a state of insensibility which it preserves 
from eight to twenty days, according to breed 
and climate, before it emerges as a moth. The 
age of silk worms is counted by the number of 
meals they have eaten and not by the days 
spent from their birth. At each moulting the 
worm changes the whole of itsouter envelope. 
When just hatched, it is not one-twelfth of an 
inch long, but from the instant of its birth, 
even before its lirst meal, it begins to s[)in. 
When the eggs are on the point of hatching, 
they undergo a marked change of color; they 
pass from dark lilac to ashy lilac, and become 
(piite while when the worm is out. They eat 
more or less, in proportion to the degree of 
activity imparted to them by the beat. At 
a cold temperature they are benumbed, and 
eat little or nothing. Hence it is ueces.sary in 
warm weather to feed them frequently. 

Some leading breeders maintain that tire, air 
and leaf are the three e.ssential requisites to 
sustain the silk worm. Great care, as well as 
punctuality, should be observed in feeding 
them. The mulberry leaves should l)e spread 
very evenly, so that one worm cannot eat more 
than another. After eighteen meals most of 
them will be buried beneath the leaves. The 
others, as many as can be seen, will have short, 
thick-set bodies and large heads. By and by 
the worms begin to thicken, and in eighteen 
hours they will all come out if the temperatm-e 
be warm. At every moulting the color of the 
worm grows dimmer and wliitens gradually. 
At the fourth and last age, the worm is lean 
and feeble. As .soon as it is well o\it it is 
necessary to give them a light meal with wild 
leaves. Later on, plenty of leaves should be 
supplied them three times a day. When this 
is done, a noise similar to a heavy shower tail- 
ing on foliage is heard, which is produced by 
their chewing the leaf, which they gnaw close 
to the wood. For eight days they require 
constant attention. Six days after the last 
silk worms have come up, the collecting of the 
cocoons may be commenced. The first thing 
is to take ai)art the bushy cabins where the 
worms first climbed up. The most important 
points necessary to breeding and to prevent 
disease, are attention to cleanliness, proper 
ventilation, regularity in feeding, and care 
against cold draughts of air or sudden changes 
of temperature. The mull)erry silk worm 
being partially domestic in its habits, requires 
greater care than the hardy race of worms that 
arc independent. During their torpor the 
worms require no food ; but their appetite in- 
creases after each moulting, and in the fiftll 
age it may be called voracious. As they ap- 
proach their torpor they raise their heads" with 
a waving motion, and their ap|)etite ceases. 
The worm, arrived at matmity, diminishes in 
size by discharging its excrementitious matter, 
and becomes transparent. As soon as the 
worms begin to give out the silky fibre, they 
should be put on the bush or branches pro- 
vided for them to spin their cocoons. In three 
days the worm completes ifs cocoon, which is 
left ujKin the bush about five days longer, to 
season it. Twelve or thirteen "ounces of co- 
coons will produce one ounce of seed or eggs, 
unless the males be too many in proijortion' to 
the females, or the moths liot all very robust 
(stout). Finally, lOU females can give 40,000 
eggs, whicli, if they all come out well, would 
produce VM pounds of silk, and more for .some 
breeds, in which 200 cocoons make a pound; it 
would then be 200 poiuids. It is to be undei-stood 
that these figures can only \m approximative, 
still they often prove to be correct in small 
breeding. The moths live for about twelve 
days from the breaking out of the cocoons. If 
the seed has not been impregtiated, it remains 
ever yellow and after a while dries up, while 
that which has acquired the lilac color stays 
round, slightly flattened, but always full till 
the next spring. It is left to dry where it 



was laid, for .some days, when it is removed to 
a place cool and dry. 

The series of transformations or changes of 
skin which the ijilk-w<irm undergoes are like 
those of any other caterpillar; it inclo.ses it- 
self in the most admirable tissue, and becomes 
a chry.salis aiul then a butterfiy. Examined 
with a niagnil'ying glass, the insect's head, 
its mandibles, its thread-s))inning apparatus, 
legs, skin, and all its organs, external and in- 
ternal, are curiously and wonderfully fashion- 
ed. A marked swelling, covered with wrin- 
kles, at the fore part of the body looks like 
the woiiu's head, but has only the appear- 
ance of it, and contains a greitsy liquid. The 
hanl part, which forms the snout, i.s the true 
liead; it is composed of indented mandibles, 
.set side by side, hard, strong, movable, very 
lit to take hold of the leaf every way, making 
the lii-st cut on the sides as well as in the mid- 
dle, fi-oni their veiy birth; the other i)art of 
the head is the liliere or threader, a kind of 
membranous apparatus, set with muscles, 
which Dresses as they pass, and strongly joins 
together, by means of a gummy substance, 
two silk threads .so adherent that they can 
be severed only by means of powerful chemi- 
cal ageiiLs. These two silk threads are slip- 
ped out of two inner reservoirs, full of a trans- 
parent liquid, which hardens in the air and 
becomes thread liy a i)hase of natme, easier 
recorded than explained. Two black points 
adorn the head of the silk worm; some [teople 
think they are eyes, some say they are not. 
The feet are articulate, membranous and 
fitted with hooks, who.se princijial use is to fix 
the insect in any position. There are six of 
them in front, artiinilate, used for motion; 
and eight at the back, membranous, whose 
principal u.se istofixthe insect in any position; 
they are called false feet, and are lengthened, 
taken in and expanded, according to the in- 
sect's wants. Twelve ringsalternately widen- 
ing or Hearing each other,"are used tor loco- 
motion; last of it, upon the extreme back, is 
a protuberanc'e, a kind of tail, the use of 
which is unknown. At each side of the body 
there a/e nine black points. They are aper- 
tures which supply constantly to the larvae 
the large amount of air which it needs so 
much. Inside nearly o.oou nniscles have been 
counted, used for locomotion. The intestinal 
tube extends in straight line along the whole 
length of the body; it presents many inside 
divisions, and is "externally surrounded with 
many small channels, used for digestion. On 
each side of that tube are the two long reser- 
voirs which contain the silky liquid; they ex- 
tend to the head, where they unite with th« 
threader or filiere, thus forming two threads 
that join on the outlet, as we have before said. 
It was an error, very generally received, that 
the silk thread was already formed inside of 
the worm, but it is now proved that it is 
nothing but a liquid, which hardens as soon 
as it comes in contact with the outer air. 



HOG CHOLERA. 



The disease so-called is really a kind of ty- 
phoid fever, characterized by great heat of 
bowels and rectmn— cosliveliess or dian'hoea, 
either one. The symjitoms vary with the 
creater or less poison the animal h.as absorbed. 
This article is an abstract ofall that has been 
learned on the subject in Europe and America 
bytenyearsofclo.se observation by scientific 
and practical men. The disease is the very 
one now prevailing in Holt. It is caused 
by an intense poison evolved from the body of 
the hog where large ntmibers are confined to- 
gether in tilth. It is the mosteontagious pois- 
on known, and is carried in a thousand unsus- 
pected ways, by chickens, birrls, wind, streams, 
of water, feathers and straws l)lown, old lum- 
ber or troughs carried, hogs running at large 
and smelling around pens where others are 
confined. A bird or chicken may alight where 
a diseased hog has been, and carry the infec- 
tion on its feet or wings great distances. 
Crows and blackbirds have carried it fifty 
miles. Occasionally some animals can remit 
it, just as some people can remit small-pox 



26 



THE LANCASTER -FARMER. 



[February, 



and measles. The poison may remain for 
mouths, even years, in some dry dirt or filth, 
whicli, when touclied by the hog, conveys the 
disease. So no animal can be safe e.xcept by 
the same means as are used to ward off dis- 
eases among human beings. Remember the 
symptoms vary in proportion to the amount of 
poison in the system, so that we may be mis- 
led if we do not consider this. The ordinary 
symptoms are slight dullness, wrinkling of 
the skin of the face, shivering chilliness, loath- 
ing of food, thirst, heat and redness of skin in- 
side of fore and hind thighs, and along the 
belly. Red mottled spots, slightly raised, on 
breast, belly and ham, which fade on pressure 
of the finger. Sometimes dark or black spots. 
Tongue covered with a brownish fur. The 
animal is sore, and sensitive to the touch. It 
moves feebly, stitHy, unsteadily, and grunts. 
There is sometimes a watery mucous flow, and 
after a cough. Bowels confined at first, become 
ofteu very loose, and discharges very offensive 
at the last. Post mortem examination shows 
various appearances, too many to mention 
here. A few are specified. Bluish color of 
skin, which grows deeper in a few hours; fat 
colored snout blue, with spots; tongue furred, 
but deep red at base; stomach pink or red; in- 
testines congested, a deep red or black, ulcers 
or scales. Spots are common over tlie various 
internal organs, lilood or mucus in the cavi- 
ties, spleen, large and dark. 

As to prevention : Knowing how contagious 
is the disease, such means should be taken as are 
used in cases where epidemics prevail among 
human beings. I will just say here that more 
wealth has been destroyed within the past ten 
years from letting animals run at large than 
it would cost to fence up in forty-acre fields 
the whole United States. That poor man's 
hog we used to hear so much about some years 
ago, when it was proposed to have a stock 
law, has come near to makmg poor devils of 
all of us. He is a poor man indeed who can- 
not take care of the few pigs and the cows he 
has got. It is about time the men who are 
men in energy and ambition, shall take hold 
of this thing in earnest, and either have a 
stock law adopted in Missouri, or else emi- 
grate to Nebraska, where brains, and not 
whining, move the law-making power. Hav- 
ing done this, if you would keep this disease 
from being introduced, act so in regard to- 
every movement connected with your hogs — 
buying, selling, breeding and feeding, as if 
you feared every other hog about had the dis- 
ease, and as if the least filth would generate 
it anew. Consult the nature of the animal ; 
give it an opportunity to rub itself by having 
rough parts and corners accessible. Let it have 
variety in its food, and access to lime ashes, 
coals, copperas, salt, and a little aloes oc- 
casionally. Change your pens or yards ofteu. 
Pure well water, for you know not where sick 
hogs have been at the stream above. High 
ground, for you know what deadly effluvia or 
poison is sucked down the hollows ; keep but 
few together, and none where that "poor 
man's" wandering pig may whisper death in 
a pig's whisper through the rails. At the 
first sign of sickness in a hog, away with it 
from possibility of contact with any others. 
"When sick give it a tablespoonful or less 
twice a week of the following mixture, viz : 
Two-thirds nitrate potash, one-third chlorate 
potash, and a very slight pinch of jalap, twice 
a week. But if you do as told above, you 
will not likely ever be troubled. This is a 
great deal of trouble, but show me a man that 
ever made money without a world of trouble. 



THE ARABIAN HORSE. 

The first thing that strikes one in the true 
Arabian, setting aside what may be termed 
his personal beauty, is great general length. 
What reach, what stride these horses must 
have 1 They are born racei\s ! were the thoughts 
that flashed across our mind. Next to the 
length, a general appearance of character and 
of blood, or high breeding, is conspicuous. 
The head is not particularly small or short in 
proportion to the size or height of the horse ; 
it is not a small, neat, pretty, meaningless 



head. The frontal bones and the parietal 
bones or walls of the skull above are large, 
bold, often prominent, and the brain cavity is 
capacious and well developed, giving an ap- 
pearance and power almost human. The 
nasal bones, on the other hand, are fine and 
subservient to the frontal, and of a delicate 
and graceful outline. The orbits of the eye 
are large and prominent. The eye is full, 
large and lustrous ; it is very beautiful ; the 
beauty is not so much dependent upon the 
size of the eye as derived from its depth and 
expression ; and when the animal is excited it 
displays much fire. The lids are particularly 
fine, and the lashes long and silky. The lace 
is lean and full of fine drawing. The muzzle 
is particularly flue, the lips long and thin, the 
upper lip well cut, the lower lip small, com- 
pressed and terse. The nostril in a state of 
repose, very long, beautifully curled, delicate 
and thin ; when the horse is in action or ex- 
cited the nostril opens very wide, and gives a 
bold, square appearance to that part of the 
face. The lower jaws are fine and clean, the 
upper part of the lower jaw toward the neck 
is very deep, and the jaws are set wide apart. 
The cheek bones are sharply cut. The ears 
are well cut, pointed, and well placed, and 
when pricked point inward in a peculiar man- 
ner which is considered a mark of great beauty 
and a great sign of high breeding. The neck 
is of moderate length and of a graceful curve 
or gentle arch from the poll to the withers ; it 
is a muscular, light neck, and the splenius 
muscle is well developed. The junction of the 
head and neck is very graceful. The head is 
well set on. The withers are sufficiently high 
and run well back, but are not too thin. The 
back is short, the loins are powerful, the croup 
high, the haunch very fine, the tail well set 
on, and the dock short. The quarters are 
both long and deep ; the gaskins are sufficiently 
full and muscular without being heavy, pon- 
derous or vulgar ; the thighs are well let down, 
the hocks are clean, well-formed, well-placed, 
large, and near the ground. The shoulders 
well-placed, long, and of a good slope, and the 
base of the scapulae broad and well developed; 
the arms are long, lean and muscular ; the 
elbow is well developed ; the trapezium or 
bone behind the knees is prominent. The legs 
are short, deep, and of fair bone, tendons and 
ligaments large and well strung ; the fetlock- 
joint is large and bold ; the pasterns are large, 
long, sloping and elastic ; the feet wide and 
open, and low rather than high at the heels ; 
the chest is deep and capacious ; the ribs are 
arched (and in this point the Arabian differs 
considerably from any other horse) ; he has a 
fine barrel ; he is short above but long below ; 
he stands over a deal of ground. Thejine 
shown from the withers to the setting ofthe 
tail is short as compared with the ground-line. 
The skin is fine, soft and delicate ; the hair 
short, soft and silky ; and the skin is seen 
through the hair to a greater degree than is 
seen in other horses of high blood. The mane 
and tail are long and fine. The whole of the 
hinder parts, from the haunch to the heels, taken 
collectively or in detail, display great length. 
His general appearance indicates the highest 
breeding and nobility. He is of high courage, 
easily excited, and of a nervous temperament, 
but his fire and courage Ave tempered by his sa- 
gacity. The Arabs are very particular about 
three points in connection with the head of 
their horse. The djebheh, which is a forma- 
tion of the frontal and parietal bones, if not 
pecidiar to, is most marked in, the Arabian 
horse; it can scarcely be too large or too bold. 
The shape and size of the djebheh gives a 
large brain cavity. It adds also to the beauty 
and nobility of expression; and here, as in 
other points of the Arabian, usefulness and 
beauty are combined. It is usually somewhat 
different in the horse and mare; in the latter 
it is rounder and more prominent, often strik- 
ingly so, and descends in a graceful and easy 
line to the nasal bones. The mitbth is the 
graceful curl of the windpipe (which is toler- 
ably detached from tlie neck) as it rufis in lie- 
tween the jaws, which gives a fine carriage to 
the head, allows it to be brought in, and 'Will 



enable the horse to extend the head almost to 
the same line with the neck and the ears, 
which, to be perfect, should turn inward in 
the manner already described. lathe mares 
the ears are longer and more open, in the 
horse smaller and more pricked. There are 
a few other points that struck us as worthy 
of observation. As a rule, the point of the 
hock (os calcis) is large, well defined and pro- 
minent, often to such an extent as to lead 
many at first sight, to suppose it was enlarged 
from accident. The tendon runs down in a 
well-defined way, and, as it were free from 
the hock and giving a particularly clean look 
to that joint. This formation, I venture to 
submit, acts in the horse with an advantage 
similar to that gained by a well formed heel 
and arched instep in the human subject. 

We were struck by the general development 
of the fetlock joint, pasterns, and feet, all of 
which are pre-eminently good; it is not suf- 
ficient to say the pasterns are long and 
elastic; all these points appear larger and 
stronger and more adapted for use than those 
of other horses; the feet are strong and open, 
and placed more in advance ofthe leg than is 
usually seen in other horses, and the upper 
and lower pastern bones by their direction 
and conjunction with the foot (os pedis) ap- 
pear to act with greater advantage; there is 
great depth of leg at the sessamoid bone, and 
the head of the shank bone is also large. 
There is a marked combination of strength 
and elasticity in all these complicated joints 
which is peculiar to the Arabian horse, which 
gives great freedom besides more easiness in 
his paces, which enables him to grasp the 
ground and to gallop down hill as easily as on 
the flat, and moreover, we thought, accounts 
for his tjeing so sound. Again, although the ■ 
hind leg of the Arabian may be deeper below 
the hock than the fore one is below the knee, 
we noticed that there was not so great a diff- 
erence in size between the hind and fore legs 
as is often to be seen among our race horses. 
On reflection, this struck us as an admirable 
adaptation of parts to the respective and dis- 
tinctive kinds of work they have to perform; 
for strength and depth in the fore legs are evi- 
dently required to receive the weight of the 
horse and the force thrown upon them by the 
impetus given by the hind extremities when 
the horse is in rapid action. And if any part 
of the Arabian horse could he said to be ex- 
aggerated, it would be the length of his 
haunch and hinder parts generally (necessary 
for high speed), but which we thought is am- 
ply provided for and counterbalanced by the 
formation of the various parts of the fore 
legs, as I have endeavored to describe; indeed 
throughout his whole form it is the natural 
appearance of the horse, the beautiful balance 
of power and symmetrical adaptation of parts 
that cause the Arabian to be so perfect an an- 
imal. It must not, however, be supposed 
thai in every true Arabian all these points 
are to be seen to perfection, but in some they 
are to be found, and these must be considered 
perfect animals; yet in all these points they 
are to be recognized in a greater or less degree, 
and beyond those in other horses. — Fraser''s 

Magazine, 

^ 

BAKED CORN AND EGGS. 

B. r. J., the Illinois correspondent of the 
Cmintry Oentleman, writes to that paper as 
follows : The steady cold weather since the 
middle of November, and some tasks begun 
and finished, have kept me so constantly at 
home that I have been able to give an hour or 
two every day to observing the effects of some 
kind of food for the winter production of eggs. 
I had heard it repeatedly said that for produc- 
ing eggs, for stimulating the appetite of horses, 
swine and cattle, "olf their feed," and for 
other unmentioned purposes, there was noth- 
ing like a daily ration of parched corn. Hav- 
ing been so much of the time absent during 
October and November, my fowls had little 
else but corn; and the time having come for 
winter-laying, and they not responding, about 
the first of December I began giving a daily 
ration of baked com, and with the happiest 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



results: for I call llioso results liap()y ones 
when hens will lay with the uu-iciny at zero, 
and one can have fresh egi,'sto eat and to sell, 
when epgs are 40 cents per. doz., as they art 
at the present time. 

But what puzzled nie in the business was, 
why baked corn— that is, corn put in a stove 
oven and subjected to beat enough to brown 
and <'arbonize it, say -IHI def;. to ■J.Vjdeg.C'ent.. 
or :i',Cj ileg. to 4S-J deg. Fah. (the temperature 
for bakin;; bread)— stimulates egg production, 
or the animal economy otherwise, more than 
raw corn or corn cooked in the usual manner. 
I remend)er to be sure, I wanted 
my mush cooked two hours certainly, and 
longer if possible; that the New Knglanil deli- 
cacy, for I will call it such, of baked Indian 
pudding owes a great deal of its merit to 
standing from 10 to V2 hours in the old fash- 
ioned bi'ick oven; and tliat the same is true of 
Boston brown bread, which is never seen in 
perfection beyond the broad basis of the Berk- 
shire hills. But how the improvement pro- 
duced in these dishes by prolonged subjection 
to heat could possibly change the eonslitnent 
element in corn or cornmeal, I could not see 
or understand. The ternary or qnarternary 
compomids are so hxed in corn .and all similar 
substances, that an attempt to change one in- 
to another results in the destruction of both. 
Gluten can never be changed into starch or 
sugar or oil, or the reverse; but sugar, starch, 
and oil are nearly identical in composition, 
and so are albumen, gluten, and libriue. All 
this I knew, and became more and more puz- 
zled over the problem , when I slumliled on a 
solution, whicli 1 ran across in the concluding 
paragraphs of a paper on Le Jlle, la Farinc ft 
le Fttiu (wheat. Hour, and bread), by J. A. 
Barral, the propietor and publisher of the 
Journal dc V AgrkuHure, of Paris, a gentleman 
who stands in the same relation to the farm- 
ers of France, as the late Luther Tucker did 
to those of North America. 

Says M. Barral : "In course of ascertaining 
the comparative amountof nitrogen in bread 
crusts, and the crumb or soft part, we arrived 
at unexpected results ; always that the crust 
is the richer in nitrogenous matter than 
the crumb of the same loaf, and that these 
nitrogenous matters have a much greater de- 
gree of solubility. One might say that those 
persons who eat hard crust in preference to 
the soft, take, in the same weight, food doubly 
nitrogenous, more easily soluble, digestible, 
or assimilable, and very probably twice as 
nourishing. This explains the preference we 
should give to hard-baked bread over that less 
thorougldy done ; why physicians recommend 
a pa]) to be made of bread crusts ; why toasted 
bieadso much better satisfies the appetite, 
and why toast water is so grateful and nourish- 
ing ^o invalids and convalescents. One sees, 
indeed, that the loss of organic matter accom- 
plished in cooking consist in the carbonaceous 
constituents of flour— starch, sugar and the 
. like — and the result is a concentration of the 
nitrogenous matters in the crusts. 

"It is a very important fact to be able to state 
that bread crusts are more soluble in water than 
the crumbs ; and a more important one to be 
aVile to afhrm that the nitrogen in the crust is 
much more soluble than the cooking of the 
crust, under the double inlluence of a tempera- 
ture of 200 to -220 deg. C. (882 to 4r)8 deg. Fah ), 
produced in the ovens and from the vapor issu- 
ing from the body of the loaf, transforms the 
gluten of the flour into a soluble substance." 

Now, apply these singular facts to the 
whole grain of Indian corn, and the culinary 
compounds of cornmeal, and we see how it is 
that parched or baked corn is quite a different 
thing from tlie raw article, and why the long 
boiling of mush and the protracted cooking of 
baked Indian pudding and Boston brown 
bread have their reason to be. In the case of 
egg production, it seems baked or parched 
corn is not only more soluble — that is, more 
digestible than raw corn — but it also contains 
a greater proportion of the egg-makinu sub- 
stance, gluten, for the reason that the baking or 
roasting has carbonized and diminished the nou- 
«gg-making constituents, sugar, oil, and starch. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

Tlie resrular iiioijtlily meetiner of the Lanoastcr 
County Airricultural niiil Horticultural Sooicly was 
held on MomUiy aflprnoon, Keliniary ."itli, in tlie 
.VMu'iKiMMu room, I'rcsitlent Coo[)(-r in the chair. 

Tlic (bUowinir nuMiihi'rs wore prcBOiit ; McsBrs. 
Calvin Coo|«t, Henry .\I. Eniflc, JolniBon Miller, I.,fvi 
.■<. Itei.st, \Vni. MoCoinBOV, Mr. Ilershcv, .Martin D. 
Konilis-, S. S. Hallivon. jl. Hcnpilict, Israel I,. I.an- 
ili.s, C I.. Uuni'i'ckiT, l.cvi I'ownall, .loliii H. Krip, .1. 
Frank bandis, I'olcr S. Keist, J. W. Hess, Mr, Miller, 
Simon P. Kliy, Henry Krb, John Gingrich, Harry F. 
Hosletter, David (J. Swartz. 

Kohert Crane, of Columbia, and Samuel HeBS, of 
I^plii-ata, were elected mendxTB of the Bociely. 

The eonimillee on revisiuf; the eonetitution and by- 
laws of the society were di^eharjred. 

.Mr. Enoi.k reported the amount, of rain-fall for 
tlie nionlh of .January as H .5-10 inches. 

Mr. KKNDiii, of .Manor, said the wheat looks 
healthy. Tobacco was very good. Some sold for 1!0 
and oO cents per poiuiil. 

The committee ap|)ointed at the last meeting; to 
consult with the [mblislier of 77« Latwayfcr Farinci- 
ill regard to its conlinuatioii and to canvass for sub- 
scribers for the same, was called upon to report. .Mr. 
Israel L. Landis said he succeeded pretty well, havinj^ 
reci'ivcd between tift.v and .sixty subscribers in ten 
days, but when he discovered that none of the rest of 
the committee were making' any elforts, lie droj^ped 
the matter, and has dime nothing' since. If the mem- 
bers would take hold of the matter, he felt sure the 
necessary subscribers could be secured. 

Mr. ENiiLEsaid al tlic last meeting he pledged him- 
self to secure twenty-live subscribers. He liad got 
twenty-eight, and would further pledge himself to 
raise the list to forty. He hoped the members would 
not lot r/i*: /ar//itr die from starvation. Every niem- 
ber should pledge himself to raise a list of at least 
eight or ten subscribers. 

I'ETEK S. Keist reported twenty-live subscribers, 
most of which he got while attending sales. He 
would pledge himself to raise the list to lifty. If a 
Hrf man would take hold of The Farrnt^r and make a 
thoroutih canvass of this county, he felt sure .5,000 
subscribers could be secured without much clfort. 

After considerable discussion in regard to the con- 
tinued publication of The Fanner, Mr. llathvon 
arose, and said, on account of the seeming embar- 
rassment it caused, he would ofl'er the following reso- 
lution, which, on motion of Mr. Engle, wns ordered 
to be laid on the table : 

liesolvcd, That the consideration of the publication 
of The Laitctisfer Fartiier be withdrawn, and that all 
committees relating thereto be discharged. 

.\lr. McCoMSEV thought the only way to secure 
the requisite number of subscribers was to employ a 
suitable person to canvass the county. He suggested 
that the society pay such canvasser one mouth's pay, 
and that be go to work at once. 

The question was further discussed by several 
other members, when it was moved by Mr. Engle to 
oHcr a premium to those receiving subscribers, to re- 
port iu eight or ten days, when, if a sullii-ieut num- 
ber could not be secured, the matter should be 
dropped. 

H. M. Eno.i.e, Israel L. Landis and Wm. Mc- 
CoMSEY were appointed to prepare a premium list for 
the canvassers. 

The following bills were ordered to be paid : John 
H. Barnes, printing constitution and rules of order of 
the society, together with directory of Lancaster 
county, 8jo ; rent of room for meeting of Fruit (i row- 
ers' Society and janitor's services at same, 5^12.0.5. 
The list submitted by the Coinuiittee on Premiums 
is as follows : For the largest list of subscribers to 
The Fanner, not less than thirty copies, $.5, or life 
membership; second largest list, S-i ; third largest 
list, $'.; ; lists of lifteen subscribers or upwards, one 
copy of Farmer for 1S77. Adopted. 

Mr. Engle made the following answerto the ques- 
tion, " Is any certain color of a cow indicative of su- 
perior milking qualities :" The tfuestion was re- 
garded by Mr. Engle as not being deliuite; the answer 
must necessarily be conditional. Some cows are 
copious milkers, but their milk is of poor quality ; 
others, that yield half the quantity of milk, produce 
more butter. Again, a few produce a large quantity 
of both milk and butter, while far too great a number 
produce neither milk nor butter sullicient to pay for 
their keeping. Copious milkers are found among all 
colors of cattle, but very rich milkers are very seldom 
lound amongeitherwhiteor black. The intermediate 
colors furnish, as a rule, the best milkers. A good 
.iudge will relv upon other marks, among which is a 
rich yellow skin without much regard to color of 
hair. The Uuenon system well understood is pro- 
bably the most reliable method by which to judge the 
milking qualities of a cow. 

Mr. Enole staled that the Board of Agriculture 
of this State met at Harrisburg last week, to which 
he was delegated by this society. He said that the i 
society will some day make its mark, as some of the j 
best and ablest men of the State are members. There i 



I is now in the Senate a bill for the repeal of the liounty 
allowed local societies. He would like the opiuionof 
I the members of the society on this subject. 
I Israel b. I.andis hoped prompt measures would 
j be taken at once by the society to defeat the bill. 
I Mr. ,MeCoM.SEV moved that our representative at 
Harrisburg be reiiuesled to use all fair and honorable 
j means to prevent the repeal of the bill. 

.Mr. Mii.i.EH moved to amend, that a copy of the 
resolution be sent to each Senator and liepresenta- 
tive. .Adopted. 

J. W. Hess presented some York Imperial apples 
and three yellow apples for a name, nitfercnt other 
varieties of apples were also placed upon the table 
for inspection. H. M. Engle, bevi I'ownall and J. B. 
Erb, were appointed as a committee to lest the fruit 
and report to the Society. 

The following questions were offered for discussion 
at the next meeting ; 

By E. K. Hekshey, "How much lime ought to bo 
applied to the acre to secure the best possible re- 
sult ?" 

By John B. Eitn, "How shall we bnild a good and 
cheappump-hou.se, with fruit cellar undenu-ath." 

By I'ETEH Heist, "In selei'ting seed corn, is it ad- 
visable to take only the middle grains on tlie ear?" 

By Johnson Milleh, "When is Hie best lime to 
sow clover seed ?" 

The following jiroposed by M. D. Kendig, was re- 
ferred to S. S. Hathvon, to answer at the next meet- 
ing : 

"Will the unusually large crop of tobacco worms 
the past year be likely to produce a comparatively 
abundant progeny the coining season?" 

Several bags of seeds from the aL'ricultural dc. 
partmcnt at Washington were distr buted among the 
members. 

Adjourned. 

The Tobacco Growers. 

The Lancastar County Tobacco (irowers' Society 
met in the rooms of the Athenieum, City Hall build- 
ing, on Monday afternoon, February 1:^. 

The following members were present : Messrs. M. 
D. Kendig, president; Jacob M. Frantz, I. L. Landis, 
A. Lane, John Brady, Washington Hershey, P. 8. 
Keist, H. Yeager, W. L. HerBhey, Colin Cameron, J. 
M. Stchman, Henry .M. Mayer, J. M. Johnston, 
Harry Hostetter, A. H. .Summy, A. H. Landis. 

The following-named visitors were also present: 
Henry L. Landis, Joseph Milton, Levi (iross, Peter 
Esbenshade, Samuel Weidler, Adam Bear, Jacob 
Bear, Michael Landis, David Hess, Benjamin Kittcr, 
Adam Shoenberger, Henry F.rb, .Martin Miller, .M. 
Shitluer, John .VI . Suavely, F. U. Feustermacher, 
John Diireiibaeh. 

After the minutes had been read and approved, I. 
L. Landis, from the committee to inquire Into the 
matter of having the soi'iety properly represented In 
the permanent exhibition at Pbiladeljibla, reported 
that it was very desirable that the society should 
make a jiroper display of Lancaster tobacco. He 
urged memliers to make contributions of choice leaf 
for tins ]iurpo8e, and described the kind of cases that 
he thoutrht best suited for displaying the tobacco. 
The cost of the proposed exhibit would be compara- 
tively small, and he thought great good would result 
to the growers of the county if they made a credit- 
able display. 

Colin Cameron offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted : 

Jfexuhied, That we now go into an election of an 
executive committee, to consist of five members, 
whose duties shall be hereinafter described in the 
laws of this association. 

Messrs. I. L. Landis, J. N. Frantz, P. 8. Relst, 
Harry .M. Mayer and Colin Cameron were nominated 
as members of said committee, aud on motion of John 
.M. Stebmau, who was nominated but declined to 
serve, they were unanimously elected. 

Crop reports being in order, Hakrt Myeks, of 
East llem[)ficld, reported the crop in his section as 
being very satisfactory. It averaged from 1,^00 to 
2,0tK) pounds per acre ; the grenter part of it was 
sold at good prices, and a good part of it had been 
delivered to the buyers. 

1. L. Landis, of .Manheim township, reported about 
one-third of last year's crop sold, the lowest figure 
being three cents for tillers, and the highest HO cents 
for wrappers. Nearly all that has been sold has 
been delivered. Perhaps one-fourlh of the crops re- 
main on the poles to be stripped. 

P. S. Keist, of .Manheim, said that five cents for 
tillers and L'o cents for w-appere were the outside 
figures iu his neighborhood. He knew of one acre 
that had produced '.^,'JI)U {>ounds, and some others 
that did not produce more than 1,000 pounds. The 
average product he estimated at from 1,.500 to 1,800 
pounds per acre. 

President Kendig, of Manors, re|)orted the flguras 
about the same in his neighborhood. The crop was 
fully 1,.500 |K)unds to the acre, and he thought about 
one-half the crop was yet upon the poles. 

Mr. Yeaoeu, of East Lampeter, estimated the 
crop in that township at l,fiUO pounds per acre. The 
highest price paid for wrappers was 21'^ cents, the 
lowest 12 cents, while fillers brought five cents. 

J. M. Fbantz, of Lancaster township, reported 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



that Mr. Bausman's crop had been sold at 25 cents 
round. Another crop had brought 2332, 14 and 5, 
and others 20, 10 and 5. About one-half of the crop 
in his township had been sold. 

Mr. Hershet, of East Hempfleld, said that aliout 
one-fourth of the crop in his neishborhood was yet on 
the poles; about one-third had been sold, at good 
prices; some of it at 30, 10 and .5. Some farms 
yielded 2,000 pounds per acre; the average was per- 
haps 1,700 pounds. 

Mr. M. ShiFFNER, a dealer from Leaenck, said the 
average price for wrappers was from 18 to 'jS cents.- 
Much of the tobacco in that section was very poor, 
being of short growth and much cut up by the worms. 
Many of the farmers didn't understand their business 
and handled the tobacco very badly. They had yet 
a great deal to learn about tobacco growing, and the 
sooner they applied tliemselves to a regular appren- 
ticeship the better. At least one-fourth the crop was 
yet on the poles. 

Mr. A. H. SuMMT reported a fair crop, most of it 
already stripped, and some of it sold at 20, 10 and 5. 

Mr. A. H. Landis reported the highest prices at 
25, 10 and 5. 

Mr. W. L. Hershet, of Rapho, had seen sales 
made in three grades; at 25, 10 and 5, and 20, 12 and 
5. One-third of the crop sold in his vicinity. 

Mr. Jacob M. Fhantz next read a very interest- 
ing essay on tobacco growing and the importance of 
the tobacco interest. After a few prefatory remarks 
the essayist gave an illustration of the important 
part tobacco plays in maintaining our foreign ex- 
changes. The agricultural and commercial statistics 
of our country show that during 1875 the crop 
exclusive of seed leaf aggregated -75,000 hogsheads, 
valued at $29,400,000. Of seed leaf the stock on 
hand, January, 1875, was 180,000 cases,'grown eh efly 
in New England and Pennsylvania. After describ- 
ing some of the varieties of seed leaf tobacco, he 
proceded as follows : 

I believe in big leaves and therefore usually get 
seed from the largest plant in the field. If I happen 
to be somewhat Icnirthy on this part of the treatment 
you must be charitable ; thirty years experience has 
perhaps made me somewhat of an enthusiast on the 
subj.ct of raising plants. But you cannot raise 
tobacco without having plants, and to raise 
them in proper time and of proper quality is not only 
the first, but the most difficult and uncertain feature 
in the business of tobacco growing. I often found 
parties having their ground well selected and well 
prepared, but, failing to raise their own plants, failed 
in securing a good crop. It is almost impossible to 
describe on paper or convey orally, how to prepare 
and treat a plant bed properly. You must "see it 
to believe," and to do it right an apprenticeship is 
almost indispensable. But let me try to tell you. 
Select a spot, and not a small one either, of the 
richest ground, one previously used for hoed crops 
preferable ; ground exempt from weeds ; cultivate it 
thoroughly late in the fall ; and again as early in the 
spring as the ground will admit of, say from March 
20 to April 1 ; sow the seed, a tablespoonful to 50 
square yards. I usually mix seed with plaster paris 
or ashes, to make bulk, to enable a more even dis- 
tribution; rake in light and roll or pad with back of 
spade, to thoroughly incorporate the seed with the 
soil. I find that a covering of the bed with the 
bristles of the hog promotes the protection and ger- 
mination of seed and the young plants against frosts 
and drought to an extent that is marvelous. Indeed 
I would go so far as to say that you cannot grow 
plants with certainty in any other way that is at all 
desirable. Hot house plants seldom do well. After 
the plants are started the applicat on of light manure 
frequently is of the highest importance ; then observe 
a proper location. A south exposure is profitable 
and if skirted by a close fence will benefit the grow- 
ing plants. By proceeding thus you may have your 
plants ready to transplant by the 20th of May, and 
be ready to plant at any seasonable weather that fol- 
lows that period. I realize from a plant bed of the 
size I named, $'i0 for plants, from men that don't be- 
lieve in going to the trouble of raising their own, or, 
going to a great deal of trouble, but in default of 
having the knowledge of the little details, fail to suc- 
ceed. 

Having the plants we get the tobacco ground 
ready. To get ready means not merely plowing, 
harrowing and ridging, but heavy manuring early in 
the season, the previous fall if possible, and not 
later than April 10th. Plow down the manure, cul- 
tivate the ground, and after the space of six or eight 
weeks plow again, harrow and pulverize the soil 
thoroughly ; ridge rows 3Ji to i feet apart, plant 
twenty-six to thirty inches apart in the row. This is 
done from the 25th of May to the 15th of June, de- 
pending upon the condition of the weather. I prefer 
planting about June 1st, if the weather is adapted. 
After this you have plain sailing for about six weeks ; 
cultivating the ground and destroying the weeds are 
the only requisites demanding your attention. While 
this requires physical effort, there is no particular 
skill necessary. Top when the plant attains a proper 
size, leaving from twelve to sixteen leaves, depend- 
ing upon the season as too wet or too dry. From 
this period suckering and worming claim attention, 
and just in proportion as you attend to the latter will 
the crop pan out. 



The product may be increased or diminished in 
value from ten to fifty per cent, by inattention to 
this part of the business. About three weeks from 
the time of topping, the plant witl mature. At this 
stage of the growth good judgment is required, to 
know just when to cut it. My observation and ex- 
periences would lead to the opinion that it is better 
to cut a little too soon than too late, for good wrap- 
pers. Curing is the next process. In removing from 
the field to the shed the ereatest care should be ex- 
ercised not to bruise the leaf; various means are em- 
ployed ; when convenient to shed, a sled covered 
with carpet to protect the leaf will answer a good 
purpose. A frame arranged on the running gears of 
a wagon, so as to receive the plants strung on laths, 
betweenframesof light timber, is a more modern plan 
and is popular with those using it. Any way that will 
deliver the plant to the shed without bruising and 
will do it speedily is a good way. I have not time to 
speak of the different or even the most approved 
plans of shed or curing house, but would recommend 
to all who intend to build to avail themselves of the 
opportunity of seeing some of the best arranged 
houses. C. B. Herr, king of Manor, and his son, 
Bachman Herr, have probably the most complete as 
well as artistic arrangements in the county. Means 
of ventilation and ease in regulating it are the great 
requisites. Properly cured, and your labors are 
nearly ended. The process of stripping is one that 
wants care and attention, but as this is the subject to 
be discussed by Mr. Cameron, I will not encroach 
upon his theme. I can hardly close after all this 
talk about the attention necessarily bestowed upon 
an article to develop its best qualities, without saying 
a few things about the result in store for those who 
work diligently all through the campaign, and the 
importance of the crop in a local interest point of 
view. 

With reference to the first I would only say that 
the product of an acre varies from 1,000 pounds, the 
yield being from 1,000 all the way up to 2,400 pounds, 
those being perhaps the extremes, and the value in 
money from |_00 to $600 per acre. I have no doubt 
that the nominal value can be raised to $800, and 
perhaps $1,000. Now, as to the local influence of a 
crop that amounts in the aggregate in this county to 
from ?.', 000,000 to $3,000,000 a year and all labor, 
and labor, too, that employs everybody from 10 years 
upward. No raw material, imported and to be paid 
fsr in gold, enters into the business. In the tobacco 
areas of Lancaster county, you find no poor people ; 
all make money and are happy. 

The area of lands adapted to the growth of fine 
tobacco is so small that an overproduction is almost 
impossible, and while, perhaps, some wild adventur- 
ers attempt to get rich all of a sudden by putting out 
ioo much, the experience awaiting them in their ne- 
gotiations with the keen-eyed, tender-fingered tobacco 
buyer will usually bring them not only within proper 
limits, but often drives them out of the business in 
disgust after a single season's practice. 

Would time allow, I would for the benefit of those 
not so familiar with the resources involved in this 
subject give them an idea of the contrast between 
this county and others in the State and elsewhere, 
where they have not the advantage of soil, etc. The 
farmers of the tobacco areas of Lancaster county 
know of panicx only by name, and are utilizing the 
fruits of their toil not only in supplying the demands 
of the physical man, but the home comfort, the im- 
proved school house, the patronageof our institutions 
of learning, all bear testimony that while they don't 
encourage the indulgence in costly luxuries, they are 
not unmindful of this attention to the cultivation and 
development of the higher faculties. 

Mr. I. L. Landis thoroughly endorsed the views 
of the essayist, and moved that a vote of thanks be 
tendered Mr. Frantz for his valuable paper. The 
motion was unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. J. M. Stehman asked Mr. Frantz to state 
whether his experience showed that there was any 
advantage in planting tobacco in ridges four feet 
apart rather than three and a half feet. 

Mr. Frantz said it made very little difference. If 
the rows were only three and a half feet apart the 
plants should be set rather farther apart in the rows. 
He believed that twenty-two inches was the proper 
distance between the plants if the rows were four 
feet apart. 

Mr. John Brady, of Millersville, said that Mr. 
Shuman, who farmed for Mr. Bausmanthe fine crop 
already referred to, laid out his rows four feet apart, 
and set the plants twenty-eight or thirty inches 
apart, in good strong land the plants grow vigorous- 
ly and the leaves have room to expand and become 
very large. He named another farmer who put his 
rows five feet apart and raised immense tobacco. 

Mr. Kendig believed the leaf would be finer and 
better if not so large, if it were planted closer. 

Mr. I. L. Landis said he would like to hear the 
views of some of the growers as to the variety of to- 
bacco they preferred for planting. 

Mr. Kendig thought it difficult to determine the 
several varieties. They have been SQ much hybri- 
dized it is almost impossible to distinguish them. 

Mr. Lane presented specimens of the broad-leaf 
Connecticut and also of Connecticut seed leaf. He 
preferred the latter, as the leaves obtained a greater 



length, and were equally fine. In planting he 
marked out his rows Sl^ feet apart, and run them 
north or south, so that the sun can better get at the 
plants, which he has heretofore set 24 inches apart. 
This year he will set his plants from 18 to 20 inches 
apart. He believes he will thus get finer tobacco. 

Harrt Mater presented some fine specimens of 
broad-leaf Connecticut, which he preferred to any 
other variety. 

Mr. P. S. Reist asked the essayist whether hay 
would not do as well as bristles to cover and protect 
the young plants in the seed beds; whether there waB 
any difference in the quality of tobacco, cured in dif- 
ferent states of the weather. 

Mr. Fkantz answered that neither hay nor straw 
were fit to use in tobacco beds. He had found noth- 
ing so good as hog bristles. They protect the young 
plants from both frost and snow, prevent the ground 
from dying out, and yet allow the plants sufficient 
air to encourage their growth. The bristles can be 
used for four or five years in succession. His plan is, 
after he takes them from the bed in spring, to stow 
them away in barrels, and before he again uses them, 
he loosens them up by running them through a 
threshing machine. In answer to Mr. Reist's second 
question he would say that tobacco cured much bet- 
ter where there were frequent changes of the weather 
than when there were few changes. 

The manner of preparing tobacco beds was fur- 
ther discussed by Messrs. John Bhadt, M. D. Ken- 
dig, A. H. SuMMT and I. L. Landis. 

Messrs. Levi 'UrosS, Mr. Shiffneb and Peter 
S. Keist endorsed the broad-leafed Connecticut as 
the best variety. The last named gentleman was 
glad to see the interest that was beginning to be 
manifested in the proper modes of growing tobacco. 
He wished that every grower in the country would 
make it a point to attend these meetings, and learn 
how to grow tobacco. He would recommend new 
beginners to commence with a very small crop, not 
more than half an acre, so that if they failed their 
loss would not be serious. It is a dangerous under- 
taking to commence with a large crop, to the exclusion 
of other staples and then perhaps lose it all for want 
of knowledge, or from the ravages of worms or hail 
storms. Let growers first learn just how to do it, 
and that one good leaf is worth more than half a 
dozen poor ones, and then they can safely go more 
largely into its culture. In conclusion he thought 
the meeting of the society should adjourn as early as 
4 o'clock BO as to allow members from the country 
ample time to get home. 

Mr. Cameron oflered the following amendment to 
the by-laws : 

"The duties of the executive committee shall be 
as follows : To take charge of all the business of the 
association that is entrusted to their care, and report 
in full and in detail at the meeting following. The 
committee shall incur no expense without the ap- 
proval of the association at its regular meetings." 

The amendment was agreed to, when on motion 
the society adjourned. 



The Linnaean Society. 

On Saturday, February 24, the society met with 
President Kev. J. S. Stahr in the chair. Five mem- 
bers were present. Opened in due form. 

The donations to the museum consisted of an im- 
perfect stone axe, from William McKeown. 

The additions of the historical collections were five 
envelopes, containing about forty clippings from 
sundry papers, referring to historical events. Also 
an impression from both sides of a coin — deemed a 
curiosity by the owner. This was submitted to the 
inspection of Prof. J. H. Dubbs, who from the date, 
"1560," and letter N, and its resemblance to German 
coin of that period, supposed it a coin of Nuremberg. 

The additions to the library were volume xv and 
the missing portion of volume xvi of the proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society of Philadel- 
phia ; the report of the Commissioner of Education 
for the year 1875, and a copy of the Public Libraries 
of the U.S. of America; Special report, 1876; a 
bound copy of the "Three Earls," per F. R. Diffen- 
derffer, esq ; number of pamphlets embracing "Fi- 
nance of Lancaster city to June, 1876," catalogues 
of Books and Papers and sundry publications, both 
in Europe and America. 

S. S. Kathvon read a lengthy and interesting paper 
on "Insects as Food." J. Stauffer made some verbal 
remarks on the Cunila and the Russian and Cali- 
fornia 80-called Frost Plants — and referred to his 
article on the subject published in No. 8, for Feb- 
ruary 24, 1877, in the Sciejttijic Americait . 

Under the head of scientific miscellany, Mrs. Gib- 
bons referred to the late lecture and labor saving ma- 
chinery A letter was then read from the correspon- 
dent member elected at last meeting, M. I. Hoffman, 
of Reading, thankfully accepting the same. 

As there are about forty volumes at the binder's, 
the finance question loomed up — and as no act on was 
had by delinquent members, from the hints thrown 
out, it is persumed they wait for the notice — which 
it is always a task to give and by no means pleasant. 
No further business offering, adjourned to meet on 
Saturday, the 31st day of March, 1877, at two o'clock, 
p. m. 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



AGRICULTURE. 



A Successful Farm Operation — Deerfoot Farm. 

Mr. Edward Burnett Is proprietor of :i furm in 
Southhoro', Mass., with tlie above fanciful name. It 
contains '■W^ acres, and is like the averufre of farms 
In Massachusetts. Mr. Burnett Is a vounfr man, just 
started in life, as one might say, and a few years ai;o 
seriously entertained the idea of eniiirratinL' to some 
point West, to emhark in some sort of farming there. 
Other counsels prevailed, ami instead he iiroceeded to 
occupy " Deerfoot," makinir its possession and work- 
in?, however, second in the line of operations he 
adopted. Mr. Burnett had a likiiis for and believed 
In fine stock, particularly tlioroUL''hbred pl^rsand cows. 
Moreover, he had such insiirhl Into the principles of 
trade that he thoui^ht he saw plainly the fact that in 
an article so " uncertain," in a particular sense, as 
pork, combiniuij under this head all the various 
forme which piff takes in marketinir, much was to be 
gained by huildinc up a trade which should have for 
its first element the establishment of thorough eonti- 
denee, sustained by the very best article possible to 
produce. The idea was a definite supply for a definite 
want, prices to take care of themselves. 
The First Essay. 

So, with his farm and a stock of six pigs, Mr. Bur- 
nett commenced business five years ago. By show- 
ing the iKtsition this year the two exiremes will be 
contrasted. Mr. Burnett has now on hand 400 pigs; 
will kill iJOO the present year, and bis commodities 
are already famous. 

The pigs raised and killed at Deerfoot are of the 
Berkshire, Essex and small Yorkshire breeds. Mr. 
Burnett believes in thoroughbreds for pork, because 
such fat more quickly, have smaller stomachs, and 
do not eat so much as coarser varieties, have a thin, 
clear skin and make better looking pork, which is a 
recommendation if they had no other good qualities. 
In the Berkshire a larger streak of lean meat is 
found in the bacon than in other varieties; the Essex 
is peculiarly adapted for thick pork at seven or 
eight months old, cutting five or sx inches on the 
back, and three inches on the helly, the meat being 
also very firm. The xniall Yorkshire has the princi- 
pal characteristics of both the above breeds, besides 
being white and more attractive, the fresh pork be- 
ing unusually fine. 

About the Pens. 

At Deerfoot the pig liecomes a handsome creature, 
and there is a pleasure in looking at him wliich 
forms part of a surprise at the contrast he offers with 
the animal as usually seen. The largest piggery 
here is a succession of pens under one roof, ranged 
on either side of a long passageway, the building 
warm, neatly painted, and as clean as a corn crib. 
By the way, cleanliness is the great desideratum at 
Deerfoot. From beginning to end, in every depart- 
ment, absolute and immaculate freedom from nasti- 
ness is insisted upon and enforced far beyond 
the bounds generally thought possible. Five pigs 
occupy a pen, usually, though sometimes more are 
allowed. The whole are fed three times a day regu- 
larly, one feed being cracked corn, and the other 
two of warm hasty pudding, with a few oats thrown 
in. For the big piggery mentioned above, JiOO gal- 
lons of this mush is given out every day, and about 
600 gallons in all. The inevitable consequences of 
such feed and such feeding as this will be seen at 
the slaughter house. The pork is as hard and as 
clear and fine-grained as can be accomplished by the 
Ingenuity of man, working with and assisting nature. 
The commodity thus produced is as distinct from 
that usually seen as is the fine-Heshed, melting, lus- 
cious pear of the grafts from the scrub swamps. 
Here the first requisite is compassed; the pork is 
made desirable, the perfection of meat. 

Characteristics of the Business. 
These pigs are all killed young, seven or eight 
mont'.is being extreme old age with them. The pork 
is all "pig pork," no specimens killed weighing over 
2.50 ]K>unds alive, put all being in thorough con- 
dition when brought to the knife. The pork 
house contains a slaughtering room, in which the 
pigs are bled and dressed, and in various rooms and 
apartments the work of curing and packing the pork 
in every part is accomplished. About >00 pounds of 
lard arc made weekly, and packed in tins, weighing 
5, 10, and iS pounds. Like all good lard this is not 
perfectly white, the latter being a production often 
resulting from the addition of mutton tallow; but the 
excellent quality is incontestable. The hams aud 
sides are cured, the latter dry-salted and packed in 
cloths. The jowls are smoked and are very much 
in demand. Four hundred pounds of sausages are 
made daily, the meat chopped, not ground. The 
feet are nicely pickled. Every part of the creature 
In fact, is utilized hi the manner with which all are 
familiar. A peculiarity of the thoroughbred pigs 
thus raised is the almost entire absence of bristles, 
so that by a careful scalding, performed just right as 
It is, not a vestige of hair is left in the rind of the 
pork, which is clear as parchment. The .'arae re- 
gard for cleanliness is observable in the |K)rk house 
as elsewhere, and the most fastidious ladies may 
and do witness the operation of pork-packing here, 



in all its departmente, without the slightest repug- 
nance. 

The Market Supplied . 

Now for the practical result of this plan of opera- 
tion. It must be fairly understood at the outset that 
.Mr. Burnett receives lor every pound of his pork thus 
raised, in no case li'ss than 3.5 per cent in advance on 
market prices for the articles as usually sold. His 
sales are made without solicitation, and iic has never 
been able to supply the demand. The Astor House 
and Fifth .\ venue Iioti^ls order largely of hs sausa- 
ges and smoked jowls weekly, and will have no 
other. Parker's and Young's hotels, in Boston, use 
his products everyday, to the extent of several tons 
in a year. His lard is in such demanil — the prices 
must be borne in mind— that it Is ordered from as 
far away as Detroit, .Michigan, parlies having seen 
his articles at the great hotels becoming customers. 
Numerous visitors who have heard of his establish- 
ment, call al Deerlbot to satisfy curiosity and verify 
reports. The whole enterprise is as successful as 
success can make it, antl proves the position alluded 
to at the commencement of this writing. Pork must 
always lie had, and such pork as this will always sell, 
no matter what the state of the market, whether 
glutted or otherw se, and retain an independent place 
as regards prices, at the control and option of the 
producer. Is there no incentive to productive in- 
dustry in these facts ? 

Other Details. 

Only about 200 of the pigs here are raised at Deer- 
foot. From a stock sent sometime ago into Vermont, 
Mr. Burnett now obtains a supply of grade breeds, 
having a man to watch their growth and feeding, 
aud transfer them to Deerfoot for the finishing of 
their pork. Nothing but the best ever arrives here, 
and the pigs' last days in life are spent in reveling, 
according to a pig's ideas, whatever may have been 
his former life. No deterioration or variation from 
the strict rules is ever allowed. Everything is meas- 
ured by the standard, and nothing found wanting is 
passed. 

The Dairy 

But thus far no mention has been made of another 
principal feature at Deerfoot. The dairy is as im- 
portant and as characteristically managed as any of 
the departments shown. 

At Deerfoot, a herd of 35 Jerseys are milked the 
year round, and from the milk from 100 to 175 
pounds of butter are made weekly. These cows are 
well worth looking at. One of them gave '-0 quarts 
daily during June last; and a half dozen others give 
from IB to is quarts daily. These are valued at 
from $400 to $800 each. Their heifer calves bring 
from 8100 to $ 00 each, at one year old. They are 
bred on the farm. The degree of excellence is in- 
infiexibly applied here as in the pork establishment, 
and the results are apparent in this ; not a pound of 
I'Utter brings less than 75 cents to the farm at any 
season of the year, and during the winter not less 
than HO cents. Fifty pounds of butter at 90 cents 
for every pound, was lately ordered from Detroit by 
one man. In the liarnyard stand a herd of grades 
from Vermont; which are for sale rather than home 
use. 

So the enterprise has become established and grows 
stronger. It is no longer alone, finding imitators in 
sundry places throughout the State. Is there not a 
hint in it of possibilities for hundreds of young men 
of the present generation ? It cannot be accomplish- 
ed without work, nor can anything, excepting, per- 
haps, speculation, and the prefeent state of things 
does not illustrate that as being a very satisfactory 
occupation. Mr. Burnett works. The farm has 75 
acres under cultivation, though no fancy crops 
are raised. Only such things as contribute to the 
departments we have mentioned receive attention. 
Four thousand bushels of roots are harvested, and 
1-5 tons of English hay. But the round of work is 
unceasing, though it brings its reward, and gives as 
substantial and decided a social position to its direc- 
tor as any man could wish, since it is both honorable 
and lucrative, and besides, it will stand every test of 
commcm sense, morals and economy. — Cor. Boston 
Herald. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Cultivation of Chiccory. 
During 1K75 we imported 818,000,000 worth of 
chiccory. We have land in every Stale In the Union 
on which it may be profitably cultivated. If our far- 
mers in Illinois and Iowa and other States would each 
devote annually a few acres of gooil, rich soil to the 

! cultivation of chiccory, they would not oulv find It a 
profitable crop, but save the lountrv millions that 

j now go to (iermany, France and other countries for 
an article of everyday use. 

The Stockton, Cal., Independent has the following 
interesting observations on chiccory, its character and 
uses : 

" The production and manufacture of chiccory for 
Its use as an ailulteration of cofl'ee Is carried on quite 
extensively in this country, the factory where it is 
ground and put into marketable shape being located 
on the bank side ol the San Joaquin river, a few 
miles southeast of Stockton. A large area of land in 
that vicinity is yearly devoted to the growth of chic- 
cory, and the rich alluvial soil seems to be particularly 
well adapted to its luxuriant growth. The chiccory 
grows in wild profusion along the lanes and byways 
in England and most parts of Europe. It is a species 
of dandelion, or rather it beloiigs to the same Ijotan- 
ical family as the dandelion, and there is a great re- 
semblance in the shape of the leaves of the two, al- 
though those of the chiccory are much the larger, 
coarser and darker color. The root of the chiccory Is 
fleshy and milky, and grows about the size of a pars- 
nip or carrot. They mature in October, when they 
are taken Irom the ground and spread out to dry on 
raised platforms. A few days' exposure to the hot 
sun makes thcni suflicicntly dry for the roasting fur- 
nace, w hich is made in the shape of a cylinder sus- 
pended over a hot fire and kept revolving until the 
roots are parched to a crisp. This and the drying 
process reduces them about one-fourth in bulk. After 
roasting, the roots are put through a mill and ground 
like cotfee, then barreled anil sent to market. There 
seems to be a good demand for all the products of 
the factory of which we speak, and it is no doubt a 
profitable and remunerative speculation. The bever- 
age made from pure chiccory is unpleasant to t he taste 
a though chemical analysis proves it to possess few 
of the elements in common with collee and very little 
of the nutritive properties commonly ascribed to It. 
In cases where it is used for a long lime itsetfects are 
often deleterious, especially upon the nervous sys- 
tem. One variety of the chiccory is cultivated In 
England as a salad, the tops having a pleasant, pun- 
gent Havor, and even the common variety is some- 
times eaten here when other salads are scarce, but is 
\'<:ry coarse and strong, and :ather too suggestive of 
the diet upon which Nebucdiadnezzar was for a time 
compelled to feed." — CUicitijo Jonrnat of Commerce. 



The Fodder Value of Apples. 

In his investigation of the fodder value of apples 
Professor Storer confirms the observation of other 
chemists, to the effect that apples are very poor in ni- 
trogen. The flesh of Baldwins and Russets yielded 
15.7-17.5 per cent, of dry organic matter (the rest be- 
ing water and mineral matters), and only 0. •.'1-0.37 
per cent, of albuminoids; apple pomaced 23.3 per 
cent, of dry organic matter, 0.98 per cent, of account 
the dry matter of the flesh of apples, while the dry 
matter of potatoes has 8.54 and the pumpkin 17.:i2 
per cent, of albuminoids. From these facts two in- 
teresting conclusions are to be drawn. First the 
small amount of nitrogen explains at least one rea- 
son for the low value of apples for food and for ma- 
nure; and to make economical fodder from apples 
or pumace, food rich in nitrogen should be added. 
In this way not only the sugar, but also the peetoe, 
of which apples are largely composed, may be econ- 
omlcall; utilized as feed. 



Covering Strawberries. 

It is hardly necessary to inform our readers that al 
strawberries, no matter how hardy they are reported 
to be, winter better by being covered before the se- 
vere weather of winter fairly sets in, or even after- 
wards, if before the first thaw. Evergreen branches 
have one important advantage— they may be put on 
before winter begins without any danger of smother- 
ing the green plants. We have found a very thin 
covering, if only enough to hide the ground below, of 
decided licnent, the plants coming out a fresh, bright 
I green in spring, instead of the dull green or brown 
when exposed. The crop is earlier, the plant begin- 
ning to grow vigorously at the first warm weatliftr. 
The evergreen branches may be placed in regular, 
even lines, lapping like shingles the branches length- 
wise with the rows, giving the beds a |>osiJively orna- 
mental appearance, instead of the rouj;h look caused 
by the use of straw, litter or coarse manure. (Jn large 
plantations, evergreens cannot often be used to advan- 
tage, and straw must be employed. In wbiih case rye 
straw Is the best, on account of Its stiffness, wlill* 
soft, flexible straw, as of oats, is ol>jeetionalile, as it 
settles compactly when wet, and tends to smother 
the plants. Even corn stalks efl'ect a valuable ser- 
vice, if spread so thinly that half the surface Is sure, 
by shielding from sun and wind, and holding the sur- 
face snow. In providing any kind of eoverin(;,il 
must be borne in miml that a green growth of leaves, 
like those of the strawberry, are easily injured by 
smothering, and that whatever protection is employed, 
it must be pervious to air. Farmers understand this, 
as a(iplied to green wheat plants, which are killed by 
deep drifts of snow. This precaution is not so neces- 
sary in case of shrubs which have dropped their 
leaves or of herbaceous perennials or bulbs, the 
leaves and stems of which ilie down before winter. 

Country residents often have a number of evergreen 
trees planted about their dwellings that are either 
extending their limbs too far and interfering with 
other growth, or else becoming distorted as they in- 
crease in size. Cutting off portions of these limbs at 
a fork (so as not to leave a dead stump) will improve 
them, and afford a quantity of ** brush" which is just 
the thing forthe straw berry beds. Evergreen screens 
often receive more or less cutting back, in which case 
an abundant supply of protecting material may be 
obtained. 



30 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 






Fruits in Kansas. 

The following varieties of fruits were recommend- 
ed by the KansaB Stirte Horticultural Society, at its 
recent meeting : 

The committee on condensed fruit list, omitting 
the apple, Dr. William W. Howsley, chairman, re- 
ported the following : 

Pears. — Bartlctt, No. 1; White Doyenne, 1; Flem- 
ish Beauty, 1; Duchesse de Augouleme, 1; Winter 
Nelis, 1; Seckel, 2. 

Peaches. — Hale's Early, No. 1; Crawford's Early, 
1; Stump the World, 1; Heath Cling, 1; Yellow Al- 
berge, 'J; President, 'I. 

Plums — Uinkley or Minor, No. 2; Wild Goose, 2. 

Cherries. — Early Richmond, No. 1; Maj Duke, 1; 
English Morello, No. 2. 

Apricots. — Breda, No. 1. 

Grapes. — Concord,!; Dracut, 2; Clinton, 2. 
Kaspberries, — Miami, No. 4; Doolittle, 2; Philadel- 
phia, 2. 

Blabkberries. — Kattatinny, No. 1; Lawton, 2. 

Gooseberries. — Houghton, No. 1. 

Strawberries. — Wilson's Albany, No. 1; Chas. 
Downing, 1; Downer's, 1. 

Committee for the southern fruit district, D. B. 
Skeels, assisted by J. S. Williams, reported the fol- 
lowing: 

Apples. — Early Harvest, Red June, Red Astrachan, 
Cooper's Early White, Lowell, Maiden's Blush, 
Chenango Strawberry, Fall AVine, Buckingham 
Wine (synonym Pennsylvania Red Streak), Jona- 
than, Winesap, Rawles' Janet, Ben Davis, Missouri 
Pippin, Willow Twig. 

Pears. — Bartlett, Duchesse de Angouleme. 

Cherries. — Early Richmond, Belle Magnifique, 
English Morello. 

Grapes. — Concord, Delaware, Dracut, Amber. 

Blackberries. — Lawtou, Kittatinny. 

Raspberries. — Miami Black Cap," Doolittle Black 
Cap. 

Gooseberries. — Houghton. 

Additional varieties by J. S. Williams. 

Apples — Summer — Summer Rose, Early Pennock. 
Autumn — Fameuse. Winter — Wagoner, Yellow 
Bellflower, Dominie. 

Crab. — Hysop and Transcendent. 

Peaches. — Hale's Early, Large Early York, Stump 
the World, Old Mixon (free and cling), Crawford's 
Late, Smock, Heath Cling. 

Pears. — Flemish Beauty, Belle Lucrative, Seckel. 

Plums. — Hinkley or Minor, Wild Goose. 

Apricot. — Breda . 

Grapes — Delaware, Clinton. 

Strawberries. — Chas. Downing, Wilson's Albany. 

Mr. Shinn endorsed the report. 



druggist will put up a small quantity of this mix- 
ture for a few cents, as all the ingredients are inex- 
pensive. Labels written with this ink, and bearing 
the date l>>.5fi, can be seen in the orchard of one of 
my neighbors, as legible as the day they were writ- 
ten. This is proof enough of the value of the ink. 
Ztnc labels are now advertised for sale, but any one 
can make them with the aid of a pair of tinner's 
shears — a tool that every farmer should possess. 
From a strip of zinc four inches in width, cut off 
labels half an inch broad at one end, and tapering 
to a point at the other. By cutting the broad end of 
the label at each edge alternately of the zinc strip, 
nothing is wasted, and each cut gives a label. The 
name and date (and the latter should never be omit- 
ted) are writteu on the broad end of the label, and 
the other end twisted loosely around a twig 
of the tree to be marked. This is some trouble, but 
not too much when the work is to last a lifetime. — 
^1. H. Chi'^terj in Country Ge?Uletnan. 



How to Make a Hot Bed. 

A good hot bed may be made upon the surface of 
the ground, piling up the manure from two feet six 
inches to three feet high, and at least six inches 
wider all around than the frame. This extra width 
tends to preserve the heat within the frame ; and if 
it be a foot wider than the frame it would be better 
than six inches. The situation should be where the 
soil is dry ; and the bed should front to the south, 
or as nearly south as the location will permit. The 
sashes should either he procured before the bed is 
made, or their exact size should be known when the 
frame is made ; and the frame may be made to hook 
closely together, so as to he removed and easily stored 
away when not in use. Fresh horse duns is the best 
manure to produce heat. It should be thrown into a 
heap and wetslightlv aluuit a week before it is placed 
on the bed and turned over once or twice before 
using it to increase the heat. When put on the bed, 
tread it down tirnily, and cover it about six inches 
deep with light, rich soil, and ascertain the degrees 
of heat when you desire to sow your seeds, by plung- 
ing a thermometer into the soil ; and if too warm, 
wait a day or two for the bed to cool. Seeds will 
stand a heat of 90 degrees very well. Sometimes 
seeds are sown in jjots and jians, which are plunged 
into the manure without any covering of soil ; but in 
such a case, it should be covered three or four inches 
deep with sand or ashes to retain the heat. Wooden 
boxes six inches deep, made of very thin boards, 
about two feet lonsr, and one foot wide, would be 
better than pans and pots for some kinds of plants. 
The bottom might be zinc, or galvanized sheet iron, 
perforated with small holes to allow water to pass 
through them, if the watering should be too copious. 
Such boxes could be packed in without any waste of 
room ; and they could be easily removed to fork up 
the bed anew to increase the heat, or to allow a new 
bed to be made, when the heat of the old one is too 
much exhausted. 

Ink for Horticultural Labels. 

There is so much inquiry lately for ink for writing 
on zinc labels, that a good receipt for such an article 
may benefit some one. It is an old one, and has 
probably appeared in your columns long ago, but it 
is worth repeating. It is as follows : Powdered ver- 
digris, 2 parts; sal ammoniac, 2 parts; lampblack, 
1 part; water, 20 parts. A quill pen will be neces- 
Bary, as it will corrode a steel pen very quickly. Any 



The English Hop Trade. 

A correspondent of the Mark Lane Bxprexs esti- 
mates the English production as follows: Mid Kent- 
district, 17,000 acres and 119,000 cwt.; East Kent, 
12,000 acres and 78,000 cwt.; West and North Kent, 
4,000 acres and 12,000 cwt.; Weald of Kent, 10,000 
acres and 60,000 cwt.; Sussex 11,000 acres and .5.5,- 
000 cwt.; Worcester and Hereford, 9,000 acres and 
i;!,. 500 cwt.; Surrey and Hants, 5, .500 acres and 33,- 
000 cwt. The total area is given at 68,500 acres, and 
the aggregate product .S70,.5O0 cwt., or 5.41 cwt. per 
acre." The writer quotes a recent circular of a lead- 
ing firm of brewers, stating that crops on the conti- 
nent are everywhere short; in-Bohemia, especially, 
tliere is a general failure. An average crop on the 
whole continent would produce from 1,000,000 lo 
1,200,000 cwt., whereas the actual yield is supposed 
not to exceed from 260,000 to 300,000 cwt., while the 
actual consumption is between .5.50,000 and 600,000 
cw^., and the stocks, remaining over is supposed to 
be between 150,000 and lS0,O0O'cwt. In England old 
stocks are remarkably low. 



Grafting Currants. 



The Rm-id Nem Yorker says : Lovers of the cur- 
rant and gooseberry have reason to feel- .jolly over 
the success, which seems to attend grafting them 
upon the Missouri currant (Hibes a-iircvui), which is 
not liable to the attacks of the borer. Besides, they 
are exempt from mildew. And thus by a single, 
happy hit the two great drawbacks to currant and 
gooseberry cultivation have been over come. The 
beauty of these littletre.es, when loaded with their 
pretty berries, as displayed at the Centennial, is 
of itself enough to insure their general cultivation. 
It would be well for those who intend experiment- 
inir with grafting currants to bear in mind that 
there is a great ditl'crence in the varieties of theMissouri 
currant, some making better stocks) than others. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Boiled Dinners. 

The degeneracy of the modern stomach spoils the 
application of some of the best of our series of gas- 
tronomic essays. To write of pies, or puddings, or 
hot buckwlieat cakes, or boiled dinners, or any other 
hearty and generous food, for this generation of dys- 
]-)eptics and in-doors men, is like descanting upon 
skating and rowing in ahospital forcripples, or dilat- 
ing upon music and oratory in a deaf and dumb 
asylum. There are so many "tea and toast" chaps, 
.and oatmeat and bran-bread lunatics, and gastric- 
juiceless individuals who devote their time to finding 
out what "doesn't agree with them," that one can- 
not count upon the sympathy of his readers when re- 
viving one recollections of good living. 

Nevertheless, we deem it a duty to do our part to 
prevent the abolition of the old-time "sutiptantials." 
Chief among these we must ever rank the boiled 
dinner, which, if the cooks keep on refining it, will 
soon be "though lost to sight, to memory dear." 
For a boiled dinner, like baked beans, cannot survive 
"style." A genteel boiled dinner is to the real article 
what a gas fire in a gilded cast-iron back log is to the 
old glowing brick fireplace. As the first innova- 
tion, the potatoes were mashed ; then the beets were 
omitted ; then sweet, juicy, home-made corned beef 
was supplanted by a leathery "remnant" from the 
butcher's; then each article was cooked separately ; 
;in<l finally the cabbage was banished, because it 
"scented up the house" in cooking — though a boiled 
dinner without cabbage is like a "roast turkey with- 
out stullhig, or the play of ham and eggs with the 
ham left out. A piece of boiled salt beef, flanked 
with a few regulation vegetables, cooked as they are 
for any other meal, doesn't constitute a boiled dinner 
any more than a fricasseed fighting cock makes a 
game supper. 

For the genuine boiled dinner, such as did good to 
the stomachs and souls of the sturdy men who "made 
and preserved us a nation," you want, first, a good 
piece of corned beef — not the lean, brown, bony slabs 
that are commonly set apart for that purpose, and 



eventually go to the hash-bowl, but a thick, tender 
cut, with liberal streaks of fat and lean. We confess 
to a preference to the home-pickled meat ; but if you 
can't have that, select a piece fresh and have it put 
in your butcher's barrel with a pinch of saltpetre 
added to give it color. Then take Savoy cabbages — 
about one more than you think you will want ; some 
white French turnips — to be boiled with the beef, 
cabbage and potatoes, and served hot, in slices. 
Select potatoes that will boil dry and tender without 
falling to p eces. Beets boiled separately, and served 
in hot vinegar and butter, complete the list. The 
condiments are not a slight matter — nothing is, 
about a good dinner. To some people any colored 
fluid that is a trifle sour is vinegar ; but the instructed 
taste knows better, and craves the genuine article on 
its boiled dinner. The mustard should be mixed 
fresh, for those wdio like it ; an ancient pot of mus- 
tard is as bad as salt that has lost its savor. There 
should be no dessert after a boiled dinner, unless it 
be fresh fruit. Nothing is more incongruous or un- 
necessary than a lot of pastry or sweetmeats after 
such a repast. 

Of course, everybody can't safely eat such a meal. 
But let none such imagine it is the dinner, r.ather 
than their stomach, or mode of life, that is at fault. 
A man who huddles into a crowded street car and 
hurries to his business, bends over his desk, or perch- 
es on his stool, or stands at his counter, all day, with 
not a breath of fresh air in his lungs, or exercise 
enough to stir his slugish blood — who dashes out 
for ten minutes to swallow a hasty lunch, and brings 
a fagged mind and listless body to his hearty meal 
late in the day — who robs himself of sleep only to 
continue his w-ork, or seeks recreation in the vitiated 
air of a crowded theatre or hall — such a man cannot 
be expected to really relish any hearty food. But he 
should not, in justice, berate the articles that others 
find wholesome. "Because thou hast suddenly be- 
come virtuous, shall there be no more cakes and 
ale?" or, to paraphrase the quotation to meet the 
case. Because you have not the stomach of a man, 
shall there be no more boiled dinners? — Golden Rule 



Repairing Leaky Cellar \A^alls. 
The season now at hand is the one most important 
for making cellars dry and cleanly. In fact, the re- 
liairing of leaky cellar walls should never be delayed, 
since the crevices are continually widened b.v the 
water soaking through. Cement, tar and water-glass 
are the best materials for the purpose, but the last 
two can only be used as a time when the cellar is dry, 
as iu wiuter, perhaps even in September, or after 
drying and airing it in winter by artificial means. 
When nearly dry, the leaky portions of the wall can 
be readily recognized, and should be marked with 
charcoal. Holes and cracks should first be filled with 
hydraulic cement. The marked places, when dry, 
should be coated three or four times w ith a solution 
of one volume of commercial water-glass in two of 
water, and finally, after becoming perfectly dry, with 
a solution of one volume of water-glass in one-half 
volume of water. Instead of the solution of water- 
glass, tar, kept quite liquid by heating, may be laid 
on a number of times. If cement is to be employed, 
the marked portions of the wall should be cut out 
wedge-shaped, and carefully filled with a cement, 
rather thickly made up, with one-half sand. If the 
cellar cannot bedried, the moist places should be cut 
out somewhat deeper (4 to 6 inches), and filled with 
cement by placing a tube of material, about as thick 
as a finger, in the middle, and packing the cement in 
tightly around it, and, if necessary, holding it in 
place with a board until it hardens, while the water 
escapes through the tube without exerting any pres- 
sure upon it. After 20 or 30 days the opening may 
be plugged up. 

^ 

Handy Men. 

Next to a good mousing cat, a faithful watch-dog, 
and a good family chestnut-colored horse, is a handy 
man. Now don't misunderstand me, and say that I 
compare a man with either of my favorites in the 
speechless world, not at all. Man is the noblest 
work of God, except a woman; but really a handy 
one 1 am un.able to class. Conceive of anything 
about a home more desirable, when circumstances 
have compelled you to neglect home duties, or rather 
postpone them, than for a man to fill the surcease 
by being able to wash dishes, make beds, sweep, 
make bread, and in straightened times darn his own 
stockings, sew on his buttons, and preserve his hab- 
itual good humor. If so, there is no rufHe or splash 
in the home life in consequence of the inability to 
maintain the order and comfort of the household. 
Of course the season of the year favors the demon- 
strations of handy men. We should not expect him 
to leave his plough, harrow, or mowing machine, to 
help iu the kitchen, but if he came to eat, and had a 
mind to place the chairs, fill the ice-pitcher, or pare 
the potatoes, it might contribute wonderfully to the 
comfort of the tired housewife; not only by saving 
steps, but the feeling of appreciation that cheers up 
many a tired worker, and braces them up for the 
numtierless duties about a home. Handy men are 
generally fortunate in getting good wives, and any 
woman is fortunate who has a handy husband. — 
Misa Ruby, in Maine Farmer . 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



Healthful Beds. 

Germany excels any country with which I am fa- 
miliar in the cleanliness of its l>e<ls. It seems as much 
A part of yearly house-eleanintr with them lohavellie 
hair renioveil from the mattress, to have it well hcut- 
en and sunned, and the cover washed, as it is u iili us 
to hare the carpets whijipod and freed from their dis* 
eaee-be^ettinc dust. 1 i^rant that it would l>e a dilli- 
eult and expensive undertakiiii^ for an Aincriean 
housekeeper, for skilled laborers are rare, and when 
I found must be well paid, as they should lie. Knowinir 
the obstacle, then, in tlie way of thorou^'li renovalicin 
j of our beds, we shouUl take all the nit>recare to protect 
and air them. Kvery bed should have especially 
' made for it, tlie size of a tick, a widte, lacked coin- 
I forter, not too thick so as to be unmanacfeable in 
I washinp ; over this the sheet is spread. Every bed in 
j daily use should be subjected to the purifyini;- rays of 
I the sun at least once a week, and should be left open 
I for the reception of air and litrht some time hel'dre 
beinp made up. Beds not frequently used are often 
found very musty and disajjrceable to guests. The 
parlor beds that swallow their own contents by a 
masric touch, are fair witliout, but in time, for the 
lack of proper airinp, they become foul within. 



LIVE STOCK. 



Valuable Recipes. 

Cramp. — Take of water of ammoida or of spirits 
of hartshorn, one ounce : olive oil, two ounces. 
Shake them toirether till they unite, and use as a lin- 
iment to rub well on the afllicted part. 

SrET Pudding. — Three quarters of a pint of chop- 
ped suet, one pint of milk or water, one eirir beaten, 
one-ha!fteas|)Oonsalt,andenouirli flour to make a stitT 
batter but thin cnouijh to pour from a spoon. Put in a 
bowl, cover with a cloth and boil three hours. The 
same, a little thinner, with a few raisins added and 
baked in a well jireascd dish, is excellent. 

Sauck for Stkaks and Stews. — For one quart, 
cut into dice one carrot, two onions, one head of cel- 
ery, and two turnips, fry lijrhtly in a small quantity 
of butter; stir to prevent burning; aild sullicient of 
browti sauce to make the required quantity; boil 
slowly until thevctjctables are done; put in a pinch of 
sugar, a little pepper and salt, and it is fit to serve. 

Mince Pie. — Seven pounds round beef, lean, two 
pounds stoned raisins, two pounds currants, two 
pounds beef suet, one peck apples, four pounds pow- 
dered sutrar, one-half pound citron, one-half ounce 
of powdered cloves, one-half ounce powdered mace, 
one-half dozen nutme^rs, one ounce of cinnamon, 
scant, three teasi>oonful6 salt, one pint brandy. 
Chop all tine tojrether; when makinif pies mix a little 
cider. This will make fifteen good-sized pies. 

Spiced Beef. — X^ke some nice suet, or three or 
four slices of pork; fry in a pot until it is a light 
brown; then lay in a piece of raw beef; brown it on 
both sides; tliencover it with water and let it stew over 
moderate fire five or six hours, according to the size 
of the beef; add an onion, two hay-leaves, lialf a tea- 
spoonful of mace, a teaspoonful of whole cloves and 
allspice mixed; pepper, salt, and vinegar to taste; add 
water as it boils away, so that there may be enough 
to make gravy when the meat is done. 

RcBT Cake. — Beat to a cream one pound of su- 
gar and one pound of butter; add eight well-bcatcn 
yolks of eggs and one grated nutmeg, and stir in the 
coloring matter, made as follows, (irate a beet root 
to fine shreds, with a very little water; let it stand 
one day and squeeze through a linen cloth. One 
wineglassful of this essence should be added to the 
other ingredients. Then stir in one pound of flour; 
lastly the whites of the eight eggs, beaten to a still' 
froth. 

QnEEN Pudding. — Take one pint of fine bread 
crumbs, (or their equivalent in bread soaked and 
rubbed through. a colander,) one quart of milk, one 
cup of sugar, the yolks of four eggs beaten, a piece 
of butter the size of an egg, and the grated rind of 
one lemon; beat the bread, milk, and eggs light, then 
beat in the other ingredients, and bake until done, but 
not watery; whip the whiles of the eggs to a still 
froth with a cup of sugar and the juice of one lemon, 
on top of the pudding spread a layer of jelly or jam, 
then the whites of the eggs: brown slightly and serve 
hot. It may be made without jelly, and eaten with 
hard sauce. 

Making Cider Vineoar. -A correspondent of 
the Country GenlUmaii gives directions as follows : 
".Make the cider as early in the season as possible. 
When the barrel is filled let it remain where the sun 
can shine on it part of the day. Leave the bung 
out and insert the neck end of a bottle. This will 
let the air in, while it will keep the flies out. Put 
into each barrel one sheet of foolscap pa|)er, a half 
pint of white beans, and a half pint 
of good brewers' yeast, or other yeast that is as 
good. Also, if you choose, put in a pint of molasses. 
.Manage in this way and you will have vinegar in six 
weeks. Remember that good eider will make good 
vinegar. 

^ 

Wanted— 500 subscribers to The Fau.mer ; the 
cheapest and best.agricultnral paper in the country. 
See terms on the 1st page of cover. 



Experiments on the Nutrition of Domestic 
Animals. . 

In conducting the feeding trials at the German sta- 
tions, where nearly all of the later experimenting in 
this line has been done, neat cattle, sheep, goats, 
horses anil swine receive dilferent foods in varying 
proportions and mixtures, and the etfccts are accurate- 
ly noted. Among the questions whose solution has 
been sought are, the cliemical composition of different 
I'ciod materials, and the proportions of food ingredi- 
ents in each, as albuminoids, carlioliydratcs, and fats, 
which are digested by dilfeiVnt animals; the parts 
they play in the animal economy, which elements 
are the " flesh formers" and wliicti the " fat form- 
ers ; which make the fa.l (butter), and which the 
casein (curd) of the milk ; wliicli produce heat and 
muscular force, i^:e.; in what proportions and mix- 
tures the animal will digest most fully and use most 
economically the food ingredients, and, finally, what 
amounts of each will be needed and utilized to the 
best advantage by differenl animals and for difl'crent 
purposes. 

The care and patience and thoroughness with 
which these experimcuts arc conducted, the amount 
of labor and lime and money they cost, and the 
ways that their results are applied, would be quite 
astonishing to most American farmers. Careful 
weighings and analyses are iliade of the food the 
animals consume, the milk they produce, the excre- 
ment and urini' they voiil, and even the air they 
breathe. A single experiment often requires the 
hard and unremitting work of several chemists day 
and night for .several weeks or months. "The ac- 
counts of the experimental iuveslig.ition on the sub- 
ject cif animal nutrition that have been published 
during the last fifteen years in the (ierman language 
alone would make what most peojde woiil* call a 
good size library. The experiments thus described 
are luimbcred by hundreds and even thousands, each 
one of which has cost the labor of days, weeks, or 
montlis. They have called in requisition the service 
the ablest scientific men and the most successful 
farmers. They have involved an incalculable aiuount 
of thought, care, and toil in the laboratory, the 
stable, and the study. The latjor, much of it of a 
mental sort, has been performed willingly, even en- 
thusiastically, by those to whom it has brought not 
wealth, but only meager support. Nor has the work 
been in vain. These investigations have done a vast 
deal to settle the (|uest.ions about stock-feeding, 
which occupy so much space in the papers, and 
>vhieh are as perplexing as they are important to 
millions of farmers on both sides of the .\tlautic. 
Combined with the results of daily farm experience, 
they have shown for what purposes different kinils 
of fodder-materials are best fitted, and how much 
each is worth. They have taught the farmers how 
to make valuable fodder out of poor hay and straw ; 
how to employ lucerne, seradella, clover, and other 
forage-crops to the best advantage; how to utilize 
waste products such as flaxseed and cotton-seed and 
the oil-cake made from them, also the refuse from 
the manufacture of sugar from beets, and of alco- 
holic spirits and starch from potatoes and grains. 
They have shown in what proportitms these and 
other fodder-materials should be mixed and useii, so 
as to get the greatest benefit at the least cost." In 
brief, this sort of work is supplying (Jerman farmers 
with just the information they need in order to keep 
their stock, and produce meat, dairy-products, and 
whatever else comes from the maintaining of domes- 
tic animals, most rationally and with the largest 
profit. 

^ 

The Horse Growers. 

Going into Orange county, New York, j-ou find on 
every hunilred acres, a neat and ca[)aci<ius white 
house, with well kept fence, a few rose bushes, a 
convenient garden, ample barns. Inside these houses 
you will be apt to find a wliolesome, handsome wo- 
man and four good children — that is theaverage. If 
this woman docs hot know what good butler is, and 
how to make It, good bread and how to make it; if 
she does not know a good horse or cow when she sees 
it, a good farmer as soon as she puts her eye on his 
land, It will be surprising. If every woman in every 
house does not own and wear a good silk dress, if 
there is not in every house a newspaper or two, a 
magazine or two, and twenty good books, it will be 
more surprising still. These houses are furnished 
with good carpets and good beds, and in manv of 
them stands a piano, which some daughter can use 
passably well. On Sumlays and on fair days, these 
men and women and cliililren have a good carriage 
and a horse or two, with which they can ride. They 
are as well olT as mankind can be, and they ought to 
be content. 

For myself, I should like to see introduced here 
the English fa.shion of fortnightly market days, 
where at the central town on a particular day, buy- 
ers and sellers should meet, the one with productions 
the other with money, for mutual exchange. I be- 
lieve this would promote and satisfy the social feel- 
ing, which now may sometimes go hungry, and I am 
sure it would be pecuniarily beneficial. Five good 
farmers can start it in an; district, and I trust they 



will In Orange county. The ^^lnclpal products of 
this rich county are butter, cheese, milk, cattle, hay 
and horses. It is with the last that we have to do. 
Three great stud farms are to he seen tlierc; and, be- 
sides these, good horses, in ones anil twos, are bred 
on nearly every farm. This, indeed, lias been the 
usual method until within a few years, when capital 
lirain and experienie comliined, have organized great 
businesses, as to which I only propose to report 
progress. 

On these great farms are to be seen, running loose 
on the snow-covercd fields, henis of yearlings and 
two-year olds, rough, uidieked, hmg-lialred. It la 
not easy for the uninitiated to believe that some of 
these unkempt creatures are worth morethana thou- 
sand dollars as they stand. But, with singular con- 
fidence, they come up to you, they put their noses 
into your hand, they wish to nip at your coat, they 
have no other idea than that you arc their friend. 
Then you begin to see that they have brood faces, 
great, intelligent eyes, quick, flexible ears, and con- 
lidenee. You arc pointed to the depth of chest, which 
indicates lung-power and large hearts. You sec that 
they are even now strongly developed behind, where 
the great propelling power of the trotter lies. You 
see, too, that the stifles are wide, and that the mus- 
cles <reep well down toward the hock-joint, which is 
low on the leg. Very soon you begin to lielievc that 
these uncondicd, wild-looking, but gentle colts are, 
indeed, worth money, and that they are the stock 
from which is to be "developed the gentlemen's road 
horse of eastern .Vmcriea in the coming time. You 
go into the open yards and find in groups of Ave or 
six, the brood mares, as rough-looking, as unpromis- 
ing as their children; but you learn that most of 
them have racing blood in their veins : are descend- 
ants of Mambrino or At>dallah or Clay or .Star, or 
some ether of the noted horses ; anil nearly all have 
made their mark, have done their nu'le in 'Ji.'iO, •J:40 
or 'J.i\0, and so have won their places as mothers of 
noted olfspring.— Ot(r Great Fartnerf, lnj C. W. 
Elliott ^ in Galaxy. 

Symptoms of Rabies in Dogs. 

A dog previously of lively disposition, shows sul- 
leuness. His eyes change from a dull to a sharp, 
glaring expression. He walks most of the time with 
the tail hanging down. If he has the privilege of 
the house, he will walk around and sniflT at different 
objects of furniture, raise his hind leg, and allow 
him.^elf privileges which he never did before. If he 
has a rug to lie on, he will scratch it in a heap, and 
lie on it with his chest, and not on his side. His 
mouth is hot and dry, his pulse beats hard and 
quick; he is always thirsty, and drinks a good deal 
of water. He will sometimes come up to his master, 
look him in the face with glaring eyes, as if he 
wishes to tell him, "There is something the matter 
with me." -\ dog like this should be securely chain- 
ed, and closely watched. Within eight days he will 
commence to chew with his mouth, froth will issue 
from it, spasms set in, during which he will lie on 
his side and roll around in a circle, yelping and 
frothing from the mouth. After the spiisms subside 
he will stagger away, as much as possible in a 
straight line, till his head strikes an object, when he 
will liite and turn in a diHerent direction, till he 
strikes again and dies. 

The two senses of hearing and vision are gone, 
only the sense of feeling is unimpaired. He will walk 
into fire as well as into water till he touches it and 
turns. He will attempt to bite into stone or any 
other object, as well as into living beings. If not 
killed quickly, tetanus (lockjaw) will soon set in and 
end his trouble, and danger to man and beast. The 
bite of any dog is dangerous, as he only bites under 
nervous excitement, which bite may produce hydro- 
phobia in a nervous person, but the bite of a dog as 
above described is always fatal sooneror later, accord- 
ing to the nervous condition of the person so bitten. 
After a person has been bitten by a dog or cat, the 
first thing to do is to quiet the nervous system with 
ether or other an;estheties. put them to sleep and 
keep all excitement from them. (Jet the root Tetut 
foeted (skunk cabbage) if it can be had fresh, grate 
it or iTOund it to the soft consiatency of a poultice, 
incise the punctured wound if not lacerated and put 
the poultice on it and renew it every three hours. 
If fresh roots cannot be had obtain the pulverized 
preparation from the druggist and moisten with water 
to a poultice consistency. This remedy has been 
employed in eases of snake bites, especially rattle- 
snakes and vipers, with good results, as I am credit- 
ably informed by men who had been bitten and 
could show the marks of the bites plainly. As the 
eft'eet produced by the bites of rabid dogs and rep- 
tiles is the same, except in type and time, and the 
root grows in all our swamps, the remedy may easily 
be employed In Iroth cases. Yours truly. — Dr. H. A. 
Rotenthal, V. S., in Turf, Field and Farm. 



Lumps in Udders. 

Take poke root and chop it up fine and beat it 
into pumice; take a teacupful and put in a quart of 
meal, and feed to a cow whose udder has lumps init, 
and they are removed at once. The remedy Is infal- 
lible. 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 1877. 



BEE CULTURE. 



Queen Bees. 

We find in the London Journal of Horticulture the 
following entertaining speculations respecting queen 
bees : 

The more I learn about bees the more conviction 
forces itself on me, that many statements recorded 
and repeated acaiu and again about them are falla- 
cious. I do not accuse observers of willfully dece v- 
iug, but some new or wonderful occurrence is seen, 
or believed to be seen, when it is at once recorded as 
a habit of the bee. Mrs. Tupper has said "bees do 
nothing invariably;" nothing could be more true, and 
sometimes they do things which at the time are to us 
wholly unaccountable. To exchange a queen is a 
common operation with me, and my experience is, 
that, as a rule, to release one six or seven hours after 
caging, would be found a dangerous proceeding. 
Last month, when the weather was very cold and 
likely to continue so, I risked the introduction of two 
queens without any caging, simply because I did not 
want the stock chilled. The first stock, which had 
been queenless some time, killed theirown sovereign; 
the second, where I merely took out their own queen 
and dropped the other in her place, accepted her all 
right, and she lives still. Now, had my opinion been 
asked as to what would occur I should just have re- 
versed the events. 

The introduction of a strange queen into a hive 
where one already reigns, I do not believe troubles 
the latter whatever. I have put in scores and find 
the result as follows: The first bee which discovers 
the intruder seizes her by the leg or wing and holds 
on, and then comes another and another until she is 
covered; stili the bees crowd on, holding to one an- 
other until a solid ball as big as a bantam's egg is 
formed with the queen in the midst. A vigorous 
hissing is kept up, and so intent are the bees on their 
attack that the ball of bees may be taken up into the 
hand without any fear of stinging. At the Alexan- 
der Palace Bee Show, I several times caused the for- 
mation of such a bee ball, which was handed a7nong 
the spectators from hand to hand. I find the work- 
ers rarely sting a strauire queen; they will keep her 
encased until she dies or their fury abates, and then 
release her. I have known one confined in, this man- 
ner for a fortnight, when she dies; it is certain they 
must at least sometimes feed the prisoner, for a queen 
will die of starvation in twelve hours. So eager are 
they to encase a new queen, that if the latter be 
held by the wings with the thumb and finger, the 
bees will gather there in a ball. I have said work- 
ers rarely sting a queen, but they do sometimes. I 
have seen almost the first bee that perceived her, 
jump on her back and sting her in an instant when 
she would quickly die — not always however, for twice 
have I seen a queen stung and the sting left in her, 
and yet no fatal result occur. 

Managing Queens. 

Remembering the old tale of how the reigning 
queen would seek oul an intruder, some two or three 
years ago it occurred to me what an easy way it 
would be to extract the old queen from a skep to sub- 
stitute a new one if I first caged the latter in the 
hive. I tried it several times, hut in no instance did 
I ever find the old queen come to my bate. Several 
times when wishing to pre.serve a queen for a few 
days I have caged her in the midst of a populous 
hive, where she obtained food and warmth. I never 
found a reigning queen trouble herself, although the 
cage would be sure to be tliickly covered with the 
excited workers. I am also skeptical as to the in- 
variableness of fighting to the death between queens 
which meet. If we jtut two queens under a wine- 
glass, and watch the result, we see them seize each 
other, wrestle and fitrbt like two gladiators, and 
sometimes one receives a sting and dies, but more 
often they separate, again eomc together for another 
battle with still a negative result." This is repeated 
until they get tired of fighting and let each other 
alone. 

Twice this year I came across instances of two 
queens in a hive, but I do not think in either case 
they were both fertile. In the first instance the old 
queen was evidently worn out. She had bred an 
inordinate number of drones — no hope of a swarm; 
yet instinct guided the bees to raise a young queen, 
which soon took the place of the old one, which I 
found thrown out of the hive. I once divided a hive 
by a diaphragm of perforated zinc, filled each half 
with combs and a swarm, gave entrance to one col- 
ony in front, and to the other at the back of the 
hive. It was no use. One queen went on with her 
maternal duties, the other was encased by her own 
bees. I caged and released her several times, but in 
vain, the bees had evidently made up their minds it 
was one hive, and therefore they would not have two 
queens. 

^ 

Golden Rules for Bee-Keeping. 

Rev. J. W. Shearer furnishes the Jice-Keeper's 
3Iagazine with the following rules : 

1st. For success. Thesuccessful bee-keeper should 
be firm, fearless, prompt, provident, persevering, 
systematic and self-reliant. 

2d. For situation. The apiary should be in a 



sheltered position, near a small stream, and where 
a variety of honey plants, some of which yield abun- 
dant and others constant supplies of the nectar. 

3d. For removing bees. Allow for abundant ven- 
tilation, close up firmly, invert and place in a spring 
wagon so that combs run with and not across the 
wagon. Unless removed a mile or more hives should 
he moved by degrees, only a foot or two at a time, 
or many bees will be lost, 

4th. Forhives. The general advantages of manu- 
facture, simplicity, capacity, wintering and adapta- 
tion to the requirements of the particular apiarian 
are to be considered. It is essential that every hive, 
frame, box, and movable part be of the same size so 
that each will fit with all. 

5th. For handling. Move gently and without sud- 
den or violent motions in all work about the apiary. 

6th. For subduing. "Bees filled with liquid sweets 
do not volunteer an attack." Hence cause them to 
fill themselves witH honey by smoking or drumming. 

7th. For smoking. Use dried buffalo chip from 
the cow pen. It costs nothing, is the best material 
and when lighted lasts a long time. 

8th. For protection. Use a bobinet vail sewed 
up at both ends, one fastened with rubber around the 
hat, the other secured under the coat collar. 

9th. For sweeping bees. Use a green twig or 
bunch of asparagus, never a feather. 

loth. For stings. Do not flinch if stung. Scrape 
the sting out with a knife or finger nail, pinch the 
wound and apply soda, hartshorn, or whatever 
alkali is found best by the particular party. 



^VholesaIe Death of Honey Bees. 

R. F. Criley, residing at Isabella station, Wil- 
mington and Reading railroad, was the owner of 
six large hives of bees that stored a great deal of 
honey last year, but at present he is fearful he will 
lose his entire bee family. Those in two hives are 
already dead, and all the others are in a dying con- 
dition. Hesaysthathe had not taken any honey 
from them since last spring, and the hives are full 
of honey, showing that tliey are not starving. He 
took the combs out of one hive and examined them, 
without finding a single worm or indications of any- 
thing else being wronir. There were 18 combs 11 
inches wide, filled with honey, but all the bees were 
dead. The bees are in patent hives against the 
southern side of a board fence and protected from 
the northern winds, occupying the same location 
they did a year ago and flourished exceedingly well. 
The cause of the death of the bee is unknown. 



LITERARY NOTICES. 

Thirty-two impekial quarto pages weekly, (8 
of which are BU|iplemeutary) constitute the super- 
ficies of the Af/ricultural Gazette, "an illustrated 
journal for land-owners and tenant farmers," publish- 
ed at No. 7 Catharine street, Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, England, by Alexander K. Bruce. Printed on 
faintly buff tinted paper of superior quality, and re- 
markably well finished and plainly impressed type. 
Its "make up" is very x-ompact, its contents of a 
superior quality and of a diversified scope ; in short, 
it is a perfect vadc raecum to the agriculturist and 
rural economist. It contains valuable weekly market 
reports ; discussions of farmers' clubs and societies ; 
weather diagrams; tabulated statistics; synoptic par- 
liamentary proceedings, in addition to the usual 
matter found in agricultural papers ; and last , not 
least, each number contains nearly one hundred ad- 
verlisemeuts from five lines to a whole column. We 
are intensely American — ftom the heels of our boots 
to the crown of our hat — and we have always reposed 
the greatest faith in "Yankee Doodle;" but such 
spectacular manifestations as The Agricultural Ga- 
zette, The London Times, and especially our visits to 
our late Centennial and Internat onal Exposition, ad- 
monish us that our country does not occupy — either 
physically or intellectually — the whole of the largest 
circle which can be drawn within a square, and all 
other parts of the world only the outside corners. 
And in the spirit of this metaphor we are in sympathy 
with the editor of the Gazette in his strictures on the 
Queen's speech, which practically includes all other 
interests of her realm within a similar circle, and 
pushes the interests of agriculture out into the corn- 
ers, if she recognizes them at all. We are much in 
the same category on this side of the water. 

The following from the supplement of the Gazette, 
taken from the Irish Favnier, on "American Beef," 
will be good news to our countrymen who are inter- 
ested in the exportation of that article of commerce: 

"The first supply of American beef, 60 quarters, 
equal to 1.5 live beasts, direct from shippers, Messrs. 
Bell t& Sons, Glasgow, arrived in Dublin, per Duke of 
Argyle, on 'Tuesday, at the North Wall, and was im- 
mediately conveyed to the appointed agents, Messrs. 
Tieman & Hogan, 41 Talbot street, Dublin, and was 
at once disposed of by this eminent firm by public 
auction to the vitualing trade. The following were 
the principal purchasers : Messrs. Case,' Bruton, 
Dunne, Byrne, Moouey, Daly, Lawler, O'Loughlin, 
and others. Competition was spirited — forcquarters 
realizing from 5% to 6!,id. per ft.; hindquarters 8 to 
S%i. per lb. The quality was rich and good, the 



meat in good preservation, remarkably well killed, 
and perfectly free from discoloration and smell." 

The farming population that can sustain such a 
journal as the Agricultural Gazette, must be more 
than ordinarily a reading people; therefore, what- 
ever progress we may be making on this side of the 
Atlantic, in the establishment of public schools, and 
the diffusion of knowledge, we may find that they 
are keeping pace with us in the old world. They 
probably have not as 7iany readers as we have, in 
proportion to the population, but there may be more 
of that practical "John Bull" solidity about their 
reading than we possess. If we permitted ourselves 
to descend to selfishness, we might envy the Gazette 
its liberal advertising patronage. If any of our read- 
ers desire to patronize a foreign journal, in addition 
to their own local paper, we commend to them the 
Agricultural Gazette, as one that would be likely to 
realize all their expectations, and would cost them 
less than $3.00 per year. 

Arithmetic made east. Ropp's Easy Calcula- 
tor is a new publication that must prove of incalcu- 
lablebenefit to farmers, mechanics and business men. 
It is so rapid and origiyial as to startle the most schol- 
arly, and yet so simple and practical that the most 
illiterate in figures can instantaneously become his 
own accountant. It enables thousands to accom2}lish 
in a minute what they could not learn to calculate 
in many months. 

The first part contains an entirely neiv system of 
tables which show at a glance the exact value of all 
kinds of grain, stock, hay, coal, lumber, merchan- 
dise, etc., from one pound to a ear load, and for any 
price that the market is likely to reach; the interest 
on any sura for any time at 6, 7, 8 and 10 per cent.; 
correct measurement of all kinds of lumber, saw 
logs, cisterns, tanks, granaries, bins, wagon beds, 
corn cribs, time, wages and many other valuable 
tables. 

The second part is a practical arithmetic and em- 
bodies a simple mathematical principle which ena- 
bles any one familiar with the fundamental rules to 
become a lightnin.g calculator; and by which over 
tieo-thirds of the figures and labor required by the 
ordinary methods, and fractious with their intrica- 
cies, are entirely avoided. 

The work is nicely printed on fine tinted paper, 
is well and elegantly bound in pocket-book shape and 
is accompanied by a silicate slate, memorandum and 
pocket for papers. It is by far the most complete, 
comprehensive and convenient pocket manual ever 
published. Prices : bound in Russia leather, gilded, 
¥-.00; morocco, §1.50; fine English cloth, |1.00 

The American Farmer for February, 1877, a royal 
octavo of 32 pages, published by Samuel Sands & 
Son, No. 9 North street, Baltimore, Md., at $1..50 a 
year. This excellent agricultural journal was estab- 
lished in 1819, hence it is now in its 58th year, ripe in 
years, ripe in agricultural literature, and ripe in gen- 
eral usefulness ; and from the fact that the number 
before us has '1\ pages of advertising matter in it, we 
may infer that its status as a circulating medium, 
and a diffuser of useful knowledge is appreciated and 
fully recognized. We in Lancaster county shake 
hands with "My Marj'land" across ".Mason and 
Dixon's line," and also, because personally those dear 
to us by the ties of blood are domiciled within its bor- 
ders, it seems nearer than other States. This jour- 
nal is exceedingly well conducted, able in its com- 
position and compact in its " make up," containing 
more that s really useful, and condensed n a smaller 
space, than is given by any of our exchanges. 

Our Exchanges, among which are such standard 
pub ications as the American Agriculturist, the Na- 
tional Line Stock Journal, the Gardeuer^s ^funthly, 
the Catiada Farmer, the Sanitarian, the Penn Month- 
ly, the Lau'S of Life, the Herald of Health, the Kansas 
Farmer, l\\Q Semi- Tropical, the Bee-Keepers' Maga- 
zine, the Practical Farmer, Wallace's Monthly, and a 
number of others for 1877 — and all entitled to a more 
special notice — regularly appear on our table, and to 
whom we can now only extend a general greeting. 
Here they are all around us, and seem like old friends. 
They are all well known to the reading public — all 
worthy of support, and none of them need our com- 
mendations to entitle them to recognition. Of them 
in detail anon. 

An Essay on New South Wales, the mother- 
colony of the Australia, by G. H. Reid, Honorary 
Member of the Cobden Club. A royal octavo of 171 
pages, with many maps and charts. Those intending 
to visit New South Wales, Sidney City, or any of its 
settlements, would do well to consult both of these 
volumes, especially as recent inducements have been 
held out to those who desire to migrate to that 
country, on account of the demand for laborers. 

We call the attention of the readers of the 
"Farmer" to the the advertisement of "Bufi'alo Ferti- 
lizer Co., in another column. Their claim to make 
" Honest Fertilizers" is well established, and no one 
who deals with them or gives their article a fair 
trial will be disappointed or dissatisfied. 

Hepoetof the Railways of New South Wales, 
their construction and working from 1^73 to 1875 ; a 
fine volume of 1^8 pages, full of statisticals and maps, 
and 8'j by 19'^ in size, by John Rea, A. .M., Com- 
missioner of Kailways, presented to Parliament by. 
command, Sidney, i»76. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Ill 



1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 

GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO, 

26 and 28 West King-st. 

HARDWARE, 



BUILDING HARDWARE, 

tH.AHS, 

PAINTS, OILS, PUMPS, 

TEREA com, IRON and LEABPIPE, 

LEATHER BELTING, 

SEEDS, 

PHOSPHATES & FARM IMPLEMENTS. 



Agents Tor tbe 

^' Ohio " Reaper and Mo'wer, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
I Fairbank's Scales. 
Dupont's Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &c., &o. 



We have the Inrgeet stock of general Hardware Id the 
State, ntid our prices ar« as loir and terms aa liberal as can 
"be found el8( where. 9-1-tf. 

Half Dozen for - - - $6.00! 

SHIRT FRONTS, 

Stockiflp, SflspeMers, HaaflkercMefs, 

liftnpn and Pnper I'ollHrs an'l CnfiH 

SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER 

E. J. EEISHAH'S. 
No.- no North Queen Street, 

Second door from Shober's Hotel. 

i 9-i-iy 



J. STAUFFER, 



T » t f t » t- 



I. 



1877 POST-CENTENNIAL 1877 
CI-OXHS, 

CASSIMERES, 

COATINOS, ■WOnSTERDS, 

VESTINGS, SUITINGS, 

Meltons, Ohiviots and Tweeds, 

Plain, barred, aliiped and diiiRonal.for Spring and Summer, 
at the Merchant Tailorlntf and ClotUlnR Stoioof 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

(Established in the year 1840), 

Corner of North Queen and Orange-Sts., 
LANCASTER, PA. 

Extra fluiahcd and trimmed. Ready-made Clothing, for 

MEN AND BOTS, 

and clothing out or made to order in the moat eatiafactory 
manner. 

A fine line of GENTS' KURNISHINQ GOODS, and 
goods sold by the yard or piece. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 
9-l-ly PracUcnl Tailors. 

M. HABERBUSH, 

MAMUKACTHRER OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

N.ADDLKK. 

COLLARS, WHIPS, <fec., 

ALSO DKAI.EU IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFALO KOBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

9-t-ly LANCASTER, PA. 



LANCASTER, fENN'A. 
235 EAST ORANGE ST 

All matters HrrertaininR to UNITED STATES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS. TUADE MARKS, and COPYUIOHTH. 

pronivtly attended to. Ilia exjerience, Buccefis ii d faithful 
ateiition to the interests of those who engage bis servicea 
are fully i:cknowledgod and appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations niude for him by & reliable Ab 
cistnnt at »v'iiBhingtoti, without extra charge for drawing 
i.r dtj-criiitioii. [9-1-tf 

WANTED IMMEDIATELY 

y y ~1 Young Men nnd Women to learn Ti^LE- X 
GUAPHY. Situations guaranteed. Salary while 
practicing, AddresR. with stam]'. Nhorinnn 
TolHcrni*!! <"<».. Ohcrlin. Ohio. 8 9-6t 

E. IT. FEESKMAN &. BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 

186 W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Are aathorizi*(l lo ronCract Tor ndvertislnic 
iu this paper. 

Estimates fnmlslied free. Send (or a Cucnlar. 



H. Z. RHOADS. 



CHAS. O. RH0AD3. 



ECONOMY I HI FERTILIZERS I 

HOMHAEE CHl^MICAL MANHRES, 

The uio»t Effective nnd ChoapeHt. 

Buy reliable Chemicals and make your own Fertilizers 
AT HOME. Write for circular, giving full information on 
thi8 subject. 

We make, or import, all kinds of Eertiliziug Chemicals, 
Including : 
Oil »f VHrol, DisHolved Bones, 

<Jrniin<l Bones, I.and J»l«ster, 

HnlpliHte or Polasli, Nisrute of so<ln, 
Attrirnltural Snll, SulpSiale of Ammonia, 
Muriutool Potiisii, Bonv « liareoul, 
SulpliHte of Soda, Snlplmtc of ina^ncsla. 

Address HARRISON BROS. & CO., 

105 South Front Street, rJtitnttrlphia. 

Established as M luufaoturers of Fertilizing Chemicals 
In 1793. 9-l-'2m 




My annual Cataln^nio of Vegetable and Flower Seed for 
1877 will tii* reridy by Janu;iry,and pent /rre to all who ap- 
l>ly. CustomoiH of last ae;:fl.;u need not write for it. I offer 
one of the 1 irgeRt collection/i of vegetable seed ever sent out 
by any seed house In America, a large portion of which 
were gr-wn on my six ceed farms. Printed direction* /or 
cultivation on ever;/ package. Ail seed sold from my catab- 
liahment warranted to be both fresh and true to name; so 
far, that should it prove otherwise. I will jeflU the order 
gratis. As the original introducer of the Hubbard and 
Marblehead Sqnushep, the Marblehead Cabbages, and a 
score of oitier new veKOtsbles, I invite the patronage of alt 
who are anxious to have their sced/t freth, true, and of the 
T-cry beat strain. Nfw vkoktadleb a Specialty. 
8-U 5t] JAMKS J. H. OUEGORY, Marblehead. Mass. 

n day at Home. Agents wanted. Outfit and 
terms free. TBUK 4 CO., Augusta, Maine. [8-3-ly 



$12 



H.Z. RHOADS &BRO., 

38 West King Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealera Id 

EUMONDS, WATCHES, JEf ELRY, 

SILVEEWAEE, SFECTACLES, 

EroBses. Clocks and Watcliniakers' Material:. 



Jobbers in Amei^ican Watches. 



ORDERS RECEIVED FOR 
Special Injporlations iij -Foreign Goods. 



9-1 -ly] 



REPAIRING BY SKILLFUL WORKMEN. 




ABE PLANTED BY A MILLION PKOPLE IN AMKBXCA. 8«« 

Vick's Catalogue— 300 Illuilrationa, only 2 ceata. 
7 Viclis Floral Guide, Quniterly, 25 ceuta a year. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, 60 cents; with 
elegant cloth love.ip, $1.00. 

All my I ublications are pi-inted in Enplish and German, 
Adarcss, JAMES VICK, Rocbestor, N. Y. 

9-2-lt 

SPOONS and FORKS. 

BUY DIRECT 

OfMannfacturers, at Wliol«>snlo I'rlces. Made 

of Steel, jilatcd with while Alabala Metal. They will wear 
like silver and list ton years. Six Tcoai ooua, 4«P. ; Six 
Tablespoons, 60c,: Sii Table Fork.^, 7«c. By mail on 
receipt of price. Olive, Oval and Tipped patterns. Sample* 
and terms to Grangers or Pi-.troiis. 5nc. 
8-12-2t) ELECTRO PLATE CO., Northford, Conn. 

FARMS 

For Sale Knn^•inl,- frnni 2<> to r,UU Aere». 
Apply to t. MAI..OniE, Salisbury, Md- 

9-1 -at 



■ SEEDS. 



Our 
Combined 



CATALOGUE .sn. 



EVERYTHING 

l-OU THE 

e ABBE If 

Nnmberiog 175 pages, with Colored Plate, 

SENT FREE 

ZZ To our customeraof past ye;iie. aij.l to all parchaaer* 
H of ottr books, (-ilhor 

W Gardening for Profit, Practical Floriculture, 
W Qj. Gardening for Pleasure, 

(Price $1.50 each, prepaid by mail,) 

To others on recei]>t of 26c. 
IMaln Plant or Seed Catalogues without pl«t«, free 

to all. 

Sfedamrn, Market (innlnu-r.i ami Fluri.ils, 

35 Cortiandt St , Ne w York. 

i^i^^^Bl PLANTS. I 

»-l-3t 



IV. 



THE LANCASTR FARMER, 



[ February, 1877. 



LADIES! 

WE HAVE JUST OPENED 



GUN BAKER'S 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING 

I4TORE, 

A NEW LOT QF 

HAMBDEGEMBROIDEEEI) EDGINGS 

AND 

INSERTINGS, 

AT TEE VERT LOWEST PRICES. Also, 

SILK & WORSTED FRINGES, 

Corsets, Kid GIoTes, 

:E3:osiE3:E=L^sr, 

Linen Collars and Cuffs, Neckties in all shades 
and styles, 

CRA.PB VKIX.S. 



CEAPE BONNETS & HATS, 

KUCHINGS, 
all etjrlea and widths, and cTerythiDg elae in 

LADIES' AND CHILDREN'S WSAS, 
that ia good, deairable and cheap. 
Give ns a call at 

los. 142 & 144 North Qnfen-st, Lancaster., Fa. 

9-1 -ly 



DON'T FAIL TO 

USE THE 

Buffalo Honest Fertilizers 

ON ALL SPBING CKOPS. 
Ammoniated Bone Super Phosphate,' 

AND 

PURE GROUND BONES. 

The purity of these goods ib griarauteed, and their stand- 
ard proved by regular aui,ly6J8 of Prof. G. A. Liebig of 
Baltimore, and other emiijeut chemi8*'8. 

Highest Premium and Medal of Honor 
awarded by tlie <'enfeiiuiat <'oinmi«»Kfon of 
Ihe International Ksposition. I'liiia., 1876. 

Send for new Spring Circular, containing full directions 
and Testimonials. 
9-2-3t.] Office 252 Washington St., Buffalo, N Y, 

RATHVON & STAIR, 

DEALEKS IN 

DRY ■ GOODS 



NOTIONS, 
Ko. 163 LOCUST STEEET, 

COLUMBIA, "PA. 



(JJCf" ± . C^n^ ^ Wiek to Agdit^. $10 OutAt Free. 



P. O. VICKERY, Augusta, Maine, 



AMOSMILEY, 
108 North Queen-st., Lancaster, Pa., 

MAKUFACTUBBE OF AND DEALER IN 

Saddles, Harness, Collars, 

Bridles, Whips, &c. Alec a fine lot of Ti units. Valises, 
Carpet Bags, Buffalo Kobes, 

Harness and Trunks neatly repaired. 

»-l-ly 



FRESH AND RELIABLE 




-pjlLOWli:!* SEEDS— all imported from the best and most celebrated 
f i French Gro'wers. 

"VT^EGETABLE SEEDS — the best and most desirable varieties — 
V both imported and grow^n. 

■ jlIELD SEEDS— 6 packages free as samples for two 3-cent stamfiB. i 
Jji Trees, Plants, Implements, &c. 

OUR NEW CATALOGUE of the above, ready January Ist, will be mailed iiost free .o all applicants. 



ibjmOOImEU IaIvk stock. 

Our elegant new Catalogue is just out— Prioe, «0 coixts. It contains 48 large 
octavo double column pages, besides separate pages of cuts from life of ->ur finest imported 
and prize stock. Every farmer should have it. 



Addbesb 



BENSON & BURP££, 

223 Church St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



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- ill be 

...ailed 

to all Hpplj- 

. .,nt8 oti re- 

r i-rjpt of 25 ct8. 

This is one of the 

.nrgest CAT1L0€IJEB 

piibl itched, contnitiH 

Ml>out 2.W pu^es, over 

fine engravings, two 

^ ...^BTint colored plates, and 

■ gives full descriptiona, prices 

r and directioDB for pliuiting 

over ISW v:»ri»'tieB of Vegetalile 

' and Flower Seeds, Bedding PluntB, 

UoRe», Slz., and te invaluahte to 

.rnier. Gardener & Florist. Address, 

D. M. FERBY & CO., Detroit, Uich. 
Our AbriJjfJ Priced Calalofni FREE to ill AppIianU. 



FZMFZiBS. 



I will mail (Free) the receipt for preparing a simple Veg- 
etable Balm (bat will remove Tan, Freckles, PIMl LES 
and BLOTCHES, leaving the siin soft, clear and beautiful- 
also instructions for producing a luxurijnt growth of hair 
on a bald head or smooth face. Address Ben. Vaudelf & 
Co., Box 5P.il, No. 6 Wooster St., N. Y. ,[9-l-6m 



FOUR BRAND PRIZE MEDALS AWARDED DDR 
EXHIBIT AT THE CENTENNIAL. 




Bliss's Illustrated Seed CnialoBue and 
Aiiiatenr's Guide to the Flower and Kitchen 

Garden. 200 pasres, including: several hundred 
finely executed enKrav-inps, and a beantiialiy 
colored Litlioernph. 33 Cents. 

Bliss's Illnstrated Gnrdenei-'s Almanac 
and Abridueil Cntnlosnie. ISBi.aws. Embraces 
a Monthly Calendar f.f Oierat'oiis. and a Price List 
of all the leading Gnrden, Field and Flower 
Seeds, profusely illustrated, with brief directions 
for their culture. 10 Cents. 

Bliss's llliistrnted Potato Catalotiie con- 
tains alist of SOO Varieties, and niudi useful infor- 
mation upon their cultivation, 1 Cents. 

Regular ctt»tcmers supplied gratis. Address 
P. O. Box. B. K. BLISS At SONS, 
No. 5712. 54 Barclay St., New York. 
9-1 -2t 

ESTABLISHED 18S2. 




G. yKNlHjK & SOISTS, 

Mauufaciurere and dealers in all kiuds of rough and 
fitiisbed 

The best Sawed SIII ^ <JI..ES iu the country. Also Sash, 
D'loip, Bliiide, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, wh'ch are far superior to any 
other. Also btet 4'OAI. constantly on hand. 

OFFirE AND YARD : 

Northeast Comer of Prince and Walniit-8ts.t 

9-l-ly 



I 



Q 'V/aQT' /To mibscrlbera in 
cl I Cal \ the county. 



SZITGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 



To BQbioiibera 

tb« coum 



',;°""} $1.28. 




Prot S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, MARCH 15, 1877. 



LI1T1T2;U3 BATHVOH, Publisher. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 



{l|e ^umin 



fmm 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Hftde a proruiiieut feature, with special reference to the 
wante of the Farmer, the Qardeuer and Kruit-Grower. 



Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited ty Prof. S. S. EATHYON. 



The Lanoahtbu Farmkb haviug completed its eighth 
year uuder variouD vicifieitudee, now cjramences its Dinth 
Tolome under, it ie hoped, more favorable auHpicee thuu 
atteuded itB former voluniea. Wheu the publiehere of the 
last two volumes assumed the respoueibilitiea of its publi- 
oatlon, it was with a determiuatiou to make such improve- 
ments as would pluce the farmer's organ of this great agri- 
Goltural county In the very front rouk of agric\iltural jour- 
nabsm. That this has been accumpliehed we think our 
readers will bear cheerful testimony. If reason, bly siis- 
tained, our aim is to make it still more interesting and in- 
structive under Is new pioprietorsbip. In this, however, 
. we need the co-operation of every friend of the enterprise. 

The contributions of our able editor, Prof. Rath von, on 
■ubjectB connected with the science of farming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he is so thoroughly a master — 
entomologicil 8cience--Bomo knowledge of which has become 
a necessity to the Kuccessful fanner, are alone worth much 
more than the price of thiH publicatiou. 

Ths Farmeb will be pubWehed on the 15th of every 
month, printed ou good i)aper with clear type, in con- 
venient form for reading and binding, and mailed to sub- 
scribers on the foj^wing 

TERMS: 

To subscribers revidlng within the county — 
One Copy, one year, ------ $i.oo 

Six Copies, one year, - - - - . _ 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year. ------- ^,50 

To subscrilrijrs otitside of Lancaster county, including 
postage pre-paid by the publishers: 

One Copy, one year, - - - - . . $1.35 

Five Copies, one year, - - - - _ . 5.00 

All subscriptions will commenoe with the January num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All commuuicatiuuB iuteuded for pnblioation should be 
addressed to the F.ditor, and, to secure iusortiou, should be 
in his hands by the first of the month of publication. 

All business letters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tiseuieuts, should be addressed to the publisher. 



LINN^US RATHVON, 

32 South Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



RATES OF AnVERTISING — Ten Cents n 
line for eacb insertion. Twelve line* to the Inoh 



The Country, - 33 

Blue Glass, .33 

Hell's Ten Acres, 33 

Sentimentalism, ---.-. .S3 

Coldslaw, 33 

A Momentous Question, - - ... 33 

" Varmints," 84 

Lettuce. Lactuca Sativa, .... 35 

Ants and Ant-Eaters, - - - - . - 35 

Cultivation of Chiccory. J. Stauppbb. . 36 

"Collier," - . - 37 

The Tobacco Worm, 37 

"Game Fowls," 39 

The Wild Turkey, 89 

Hay for Hens, ------- 39 

Insects as Food, --.-.. 40 

Jottings Suggested by a Circular. A. B. K. - 41 

Very Curious Experiments, . - - - 41 
The Sick aud ttic Alllictcd (;ured— A Great Bless- 
ing Conferred u]jou the fiumiiu Family without 
Cost— Blue and Sun LighU — Cast a Blue Ray of 
Light — Blue LighL uiuin Animals — Various Sick 
Persons — Wife of a Philadeliihia Physician — 
Two Major Generals — Violent Hemorrhage of 
the Luugs-'SaviDgthe D^inghter's Life— Hope for 
the Bald-Headed — Gen. Pleasonton's Explana- 
tion — Newtoniun Theory of Gravitation — Who- 
ever Desires to Eii-erimeut — A Step in Advance. 

Golden Rules for Bee-Keeping, - - - . 43 

Our Local Organizations, - - - - 43 
Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society. 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Minnesota Wheat and Flour, - - - - 44 

Harrowing Wheat in Spring, - - - . 45 
Corn Fodder, -.---.-45 

Saving Manure, --...- 45 
Valuable Cows, --.-..-45 

HORTICULTURAL. 

Early Spring Salads, - .... 45 

Bottle Grafting, - 45 

The Thurber Peach, ..... 45 

Celery, --46 

Tobacco, --------46 

Planting and Care of Trees, - - - - 4<i 

Tree Planting in Minnesota, - - - - 4(3 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 
Farm Sacks over Sixty Years Old and in Constant 

Use Still Doing Good Service. E. L. K. - 46 

Facts Worth Hemembering, - - - - 46 
Perfected Butter Color, - - - - -Hi 

Vienna Bread and ColTee, - - . - 47 

Fruit ae a Medicine, ----.. 47 

Bitter Cream, - - . ... - 47 

THE POULTRY YARD. 

Food for Fowls, 47 

Feeding Fowls, ...... 47 

The Pekin Ducks as Layers, - . - .47 

Fattening Poultry, 47 

LIVE STOCK. 

Care of Dairy Cows, - - - . - - 48 

Leading a Colt, ---... 48 

Value of Roots for Stalks, 4s 

A Queer Calf, 48 

Domesticating the Buffalo, - . - - 4S 

Rearing Lambs by Hand, .... 48 

Keep Good Cows, -.--.. 48 

Literary and Personal, ----- 48 



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RATHVON & STAIR, 

DEALERS IN 

DRY GOODS 



NOTIONS, 
No. 163 LOCUST STREET, 

COLUMBIA, PA. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Rat«a «»f Advertising: In the Farmer. 



1 mo.... 

2 mo.... 

3 mo 

4 mo.... 
e mo.... 

5 mo.... 
1 year . 



1 iu. [ 


Sin. 


4iu. 


5 in. 


$1.00'$ 2.00 


$ 3.00 


$ 4.00 


$ 6.00 


2 00 4.00 


6.00 


8.00 


12.00 


2.50 


4.51) 


6.75 


10.00 


13. ,".0 


3.00 


6.00 


9.00 


12.00 


18 00 


4.50 


9.00 


13.60 


18.00 


27.00 


6.00 


li.OO 


18.00 


24.00 


36 01 


9.00 


18.00 


27 CO 


36.00 


64.00 



iiu. 

S 8.00 
16.00 
IS. 00 
24.00 
36.00 
48.00 
72 00 



tt^~S>»ecial and^busineea notices 15 cents per line. 



lENNSYLVANIA RA 

Trains leave the Depot 



WE TWAHD. 

Pacific ExpresB" 

"Way Passengert 

Niagara Esprees 

York Accommodation, ... 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail *. . . 

Fast Line* . 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Acconjmodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express" 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express* 

Philadelphia Expresst 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation,. 

Pacific Express* 

SuDd:iy Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Harrisburg Accom 



II.ROAD SCHEDUJLi:. 

in this city, as follows : 

Leave Arrive 

Lancaster. Harrisburg. 

2:40 a. m. * 4:0S a. m. 

4:50 a. m. 7:50 a. m. 

9.35 a. m. 10:40 a. m. 

9:40 a. m. Col. 10:10 a. m. 

11:20 a. m. 1:00 p. m. 

11:20 a. m. 1:20 p. m. 

11:29 a.m. 1:30 p. m. 

1:55 p. m. 3:10 p. m. 

2:00 p.m. Col. 2:35 p.m. 

6:10 p. m. 8:10 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 8:00 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 8:40 p. m. 

9:25 p. m. 10:.'i0 p. m. 

11:30 p.m. 12:45 a. m. 

Lancaster. Philadelphia. 
12:40 a. m. 3:10 a. m. 

4:10 a. m. 7:00 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 10:00 a. m. 
9.2S a. m. 12:30 p. m. 

1:20 p. m. 3:45 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 5:00 p. m. 

3:05 p.m. 6:00 p.m. 

5:50 p. m. 9:00 p. m. 

The York Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
■with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 1:55 p. m., and runs through to 
Frederick without change of cars. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, will 
Stop at Middletowii, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
ville. 
*The only trains which run daily, 
tRuns daily, except Monday. 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Tines, Plants, Bulbs, Roses, Honey Locust and Osage 
Orange, very fine 

APPLE, PEACH, PEAR AND CHERRY TREES, 

A splendid lot of 
SILVER AND J»II«AR MAPI.ES 

for shade trees. Fiue Eveegbeen and Shrubbebt. 
Address H. M. ElyGLE •& SON, 

9-l-2m. Marietta, Pa. 

SIGN OF THE 

BOOKS, i^TATIONKRY, 

Gold Pens, Fancy Goods, School, College, Law, Theological, 
Medical and Miscellaneous Boohs. Subscriptions for all 

PERIODICALS, MAGAZINES AND PAPERS 

at Publishers prices. 

J. M. WK.STHAFFFER, 

9-l-2m 57 North Queen Street. 

A. N. BRENEMAN, Jr., 

MANUFACTUBEtt OF 

FRENCH CALF BOOTS FRENCH KID BOOTS 

FOR FOU 

©ENTI^EMEN. LADIES. 

No. 36 West King Street, 
LANCASTER, PA. 

DUNBAR'S CHILD'S SHOES A SPECIALTY. 
9-l-ly 

TO COlTSrMPTIVES. 

The advertiser having been permanently cured of that 
dread disease, Coiisuni] tiou, by a fimjile remedy, is anxious 
to make linowu to his fellow sufferers tUc menuH of cure. 
To all who de.sire it, he will send a copy of the prescription 
need, (free of charge), with the directions for preparing and 
tisitig the same, which they will find a bube Cuke for Con- 
sumption, Asthma, Br(inchitik, &c. 

Parties wishing the preBcri]itiou will please address, 

Rev. E. A. WILSON, 194 Peiiu St., Williamsburg, N. Y, 
9-1 -'Im ] 



i^ilS^iF^ Broom -Corn, 

A uew vaiiety, ijcver pete red. l.oiit,', straighf, aud free 
frcm curl. Kireiis early, yields better, and will bring ;j 
more thau any utberkiud. By mail. 5^0 per qt.; by exfiress, 
11.50 1 er lef-k; S4 lier bushel. Address SAMDEL WILSON. 
Mechanicsville, Bucks Co., Pa. [9-l-3t 



BRRORS OF YOUTH. 

A GENTLEMAN who suffeied for years from Nervous 
Debility. Premature Decay, and all the effects of youth- 
ful indiscretion will, for the sake of suffering humanity, 
send free to all who need it, the rrceipt and direction for 
making the simple remedy by which he was cured. Suffer- 
ers wishing to profit by the adveitiser's experience can do 
BO by addressing in perfect contidence, 
«-l-€mj JOHN B. OQDEN, 42 Cedar St., New York. 



1760. ESTABL'iiSHED 1760. 



GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO., 

26 and 28 West King-st. 

HARDWARE, 

BUILDIl^G HARDWAEE, 

M'LXHS, 

PAINTS, OILS, PUMPS, 

TEEEA com, ISONaM LEAD PIPE, 

LEATHER BELTING, 

SEEDS, 

PHOSPHATES & FARM IMPLEMENTS. 





Ag^ents for tbc 

" Ohio " Reaper and Mo"wer, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
Fairbank's Scales, 
Dupont's Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails. &c., &o. 



We have the largest stock of general Hardware in the 
State, and our prices ar*; as !ow and terms as liberal as can 
be found elsewhere. 9-1-tf . 



S £2 



D S 



FIELD, GARDEN, FLOWER 

EAND BIRD SEEDS, Bf 

Herd, Orchard, Green and Blue Grass, Flax, g^^ 
HuuKarian, 



CLOVER and TIMOTHY. 

Also, GRASS SEED MIXTURE, for Lawns and 
I Grass Plots, 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, 
BT 



E 



2D W. D. SPRECHER&SOn. 23 

No. 31 East Kiiig-st., I.nncastei', Fa. 

9-S-2m 

S £2 E D S 



FOOR GRAND PRIZE MEDALS AV^ARDED OUR 
EXHIBIT AT THE CENTENNIAL. 




Bliss's Illnstrnted Sn-<"d Cnlnlosiie and 
AinHteur'a Guide to the Flower and Kitchen 
Garden. 200 imj.'es, includinif several hiindrpa 
finely exoentcd euf.-ravinK^. and a beautilully 
colored Litliocrnpli. 33 Cents. 

niias's Illii'lrnted Gardener's Alinnnnc 
and Abrlileed Cnlnloirne. ISUiaKec Enibracoa 
aM'inthly Calendar 'f Oi erat'TP. nnda Prire LiEl 
nf all the leadinp Gnrilen, Field and Flower 
Heeds, profusely illustrated, with brief directions 
for their culture. 10 Cents. * 

niixs's lllnstrnted Potnto Cntnloene con- 
tains aliet of nOO Varieties, and mii'h useful infor- 
mation upon tlieir cultivation, 10 <!ents, 

licoular customers suvplicd oralis. AddresB 
P. O. Box, B, K. BI,1SS & SONS, 

No. S713. S4 Barclay Ht., New Vork. 

9-l-2t 



Great Stock- Breeder's Monthly. 

,THE NATIONAL 

LIVE-STOCK 
JOURNAL, 

Publisbcd at 
CHICAGO, ILLS 

THIS GREAT MONTHLYis univereallyaoknowl- 
ledged to be without a rival in its department of 
Journahem. Each number contains 48 large pages, 
three columns to the page, itith a handsome cover, 
and is Beautilully Illustrated with elegant double- 
plate engravings. It is the only paper in the world 
devoted exclusively to live-stock and the dairy. It 
discusses the science of breeding, the merits of the 
various breeds, the most ai3i>roved methods of feed- 
ing and handling, and everything j attaining to the 
successful management of livestock on the farm. 
During the year 1877, Prof. James Law, the eminent 
veterinary of Cirnell University, ^^-ill contribute a 
series of articles upon llie lnwsof health aud disease 
as applied to Domestic Animals, that cannot fail to 
be of great value to Fanners aud Stock Breeders 
every where. It contains separate Departmenta, 
devoted to HOUSES, CATTLE, SHEEP,SWINE and 
the DAIUT, sud its corps of editors are recognized 
throughout the entire country as the Most Thor- 
ough, Able and Practical writers in the separate 
departments, that ciii be found in America. No ex- 
pense is ST ared ou the ]>art of its publishers, to 
make it a hiijh-ton^d , reliable, practical and iustrjic- 
tive Journal, just such as every intelligent farmer 
aud stock breeder will find worth ten times its cost 
each year. 

TERMS. — Single copies, one year, postage paid, 
$2.15; Clubs of five, postage paid, .*Jl-00 ; Clubs • 
of ten, with au extra copy free to person making up 
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A CpVASSER WpTED 



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Address, 

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I 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. MARCH, 1877. 



W.. IX. No. 3. 



THE COUNTRY. 

The "lonpt ngonj" tliat lias a;;itateJ the po- 
litical inti'icsts of this cipuntiy ever since tlie 
Presitleiilial noiiiiiiatioiis, is now over, and 
although the result may not be satisfactory 
to all of the people — anil perhajis never will 
I be— yet, under all the eileunistances, events 
I may have been permitted ti> transiiire, that in 
I the end will be overruled for good. Indeed, 
j the seeming end that has been Ihially altain- 
I ed, attests that, aside from all bombast or na- 
I tional egotism, ours is an extraordinary coun- 
try, and we an extraordinary people; and 
forcibly illustrates that ''the race is not al- 
ways to theswift, nor the battle to the strong. " 
Peradventure. it is written, that ''Evil shall 
slay the wicked;" tlierefore let those who 
have done the evil "stand from under," for 
surely in all that relates to the moial welfare of 
the human family, llure is One whose will will 
ultimately "brinn ii to pass." The nation 
requires and desires tran(iuillity, and whether 
or not that is too dearly iiurchasid, is not onrs 
to judge, but must now be committed to the 
wisdom of i/mi who alone can see the end 
from the beginning, and under whose benign 
government it is almost daily demonstrated 
among men, that "thus far shalt thou go but 
no farther." 

We must be an extraordinary people, for in 
no nation on earth, where the people are politi- 
cally so nearly equally'divided in numbers, in 
power, in wealth, and in intelligence, couUi 
such a transition have been effected as that 
which has recently characterized our people, 
without a terrible and bloody war. 

Through our centennial exultation and our 
political fervor, we have been in somi- measure 
divertedfromthesuffering interests which have 
surrounded us for the past two years or more, 
and which can never prosper, save under the 
auspices of peace, conlidence and tranquillity. 
Farming interests have not been aliected to 
the same extent as mechanics, day-laborers, 
professionals, and those who depend upon the 
patronage of these classes ; but still, to a 
greater or less extent, their prices and their 
profits have diminished, whilst their labors 
have been the same as in prosperous times. 
This is ii further illustration of the importance 
of farming as a fundamental factor in the 
constitution of society. Men, by stringent 
necessity, may effect a sort of compromise with 
their heads, their bodies, their feet, and even 
with their minds, but it is impossible for them 
to do so, except to a very limited extent, with 
their stomachs, withoutsubjecting themselves 
to disease, to sutlering and to sorrow, if not to 
absolute starvation. 

The farmers are the feeders of the civilized 
world, and in a country where " general peace, 
general iilenty, and general satisfaction" 
reign, there is little danger of "war, jiesti- 
lence and famine. " These are all more or less 
within the province of the farmer's occupa- 
tion, and he could entirely control them for 
good, if he made the same effort to enlarge 
his mind that many other professions do. 
Still, take him as he is, he is none the less 
" the bone and sinew of the country," as well 
as the great civilizer of the race, the hope of 
the State, and " the bulwark of the nation." 
In carrying out his mission on earth, all he 
asks is, "itf us /uirf peace." 



BLUE GLASS. 
We publish on i age 41. a paper on the 
theories and experiments with "Hlue Glass," 
which is going the " rounds" of the public 
press, not because we endor-se it, for in good 
"troth" we know little or nothing about it— 
but because the attention of the public is more 
or less directed towards it, and because the 
author or discoverer of this phenomenon 



nuikes his statements with so much confidence, 
and the Source of the doctrine is so intelligent 
and respectable, that we feel compelled to i;ive 
him a hearing. Jloreover, we sincerely be- 
lieve that there are occasions when there is 
wisdiim in "going behind the returns, " and 
deciding the merits of the case upon fviWoi'f, 
whatevermay bi; the linal result. If the thing 
is based on J'wt, that fict will be linally ulii- 
niated ; if upon /'iHcy, that fancy will be 
eventually di.ssipaied. Already a deniaud for 
bliie glass has been excited, and the trade in 
it so far stimulated as to encourage the manu- 
facture of it in this country ; and our manu- 
facturers are already able to successfully com- 
pete with those of France and England, where 
it had been heretofore suppo.sed it ccmld only 
be produced. But su|)pose it does (inally turn 
out to be imaginary, the objects subjected to it 
as a remedy for tliecure of existing evils, can- 
[lot be worse off than the horse whose owner 
placed green spectacles over his eyes and fed 
him pine shavings, which he ate and imagined 
to be corn-fodder, and throve upon it just, the 
same as if it had been real tbdder, and in 
which he by no means stood alone, but had 
his sympathizers in the human family. 



HELL'S TEN ACRES. 

There is a locality in Breckinridge county, 
near the Hardin line, containing some eight 
or ten acres, in which no animal can live any 
length of time, owing to the strong miasma. 
A short time since, the owner of the ground 
undertook to clear it, and with his son pro- 
ceeded to the work. The sun was overcome, 
and it was with dilficulty that the father, af- 
fected as he was, could get himself and son 
out. A calf was turned into the place, and 
soon after he died. There is nothing in the 
looks of the place or the smell of the atmos- 
phere to indicate the deadly miasma hover- 
ing over it. All the above is amply vouched 
for in every particular.— £h'2ai/e£/ilou;n (Ky.) 
JSTcws. 

"Is that so ?" "We would like to hear some- 
body from "Breckinridge," or the "Hardin 
line," speak up on the Subject. In our boy- 
hood we had read— and lor many years there- 
after believed— the wonderi'ul account of the 
celebrated "Bohon Upas" tree, in a certain 
valley in the Island of Java, which had a fatal 
effect upon any living thing that ventured 
into it ; but sub.sequent accounts have gone 
very far towards exploding the theory of that 
story altogether. That Breckinridge tract, not 
only illustrates that "ten acres are enough," 
but that it is entirely too much, to be whole- 
some to calves and their owners. If ever the 
"Colorado Potato-beetles," and the "Rocky 
Momitain Locusts," get near that region, we 
would suggest the driving of them within the 
territorial limits of those ten acres, as the 
grandest insect trai)on the continent of North 
America. We cannot say that we are very 
seriously affected with incredulity, but at the 
some time, before we come to fixed conclusions 
on the subject, we would like to examine the 
"vouchers." We n.ay be just a little demoral- 
ized on this subject ; but, we still could be 
more fiee in the affirmative of the question, if 
we had a more satisfactory demonstration. 



SENTIMENTALISMS. 

A while ago a farmer in Virginia lost his 
wife, and out of love for her memoiy called 
his estate "Glenniary." A neighbor having 
met with the same affliction, and eqlially de- 
sirous of keeping before him the image of his 
dear departed, followed his example, and his 
farm is known by the name of "Glenhetsy." 

If such an exhibition of scntimentalisin had 
occurred in Lancaster county, we might have 



attributed it to a waut of poetical discrimin- 
ation ; but coming up from the classic ground 
of the "Old Dominion," we hardly know what 
ought to be said abonf il. Under any circum- 
stances, we quesiinn whether the latter indi- 
vidu;il was a thorougbbred /aimer— a fancy 
farmer, perhaps, who had no very definite 
concejition of the fitness of thinus. He may 
possibly have been a relati\e of tlie famous 
Mrs. Partington, if not her hopeful son 
" Isaac" himself. He evidently seems to have 
been affected with "romance on the brain ;" 
soinelhing like the man, not versed in Scrip- 
ture, who, nevertheli ss, was determined his 
son should have a .Sriplure name, and there- 
fore called him BcehOiub. Althnugh our text 
does not .Say he was a farmer, yet, from the 
fact that he iiosscssed a farm, we may legiti- 
mately infer he was. "Gienmary" is a very 
pretty name, but " Glenhetsy" is simply shock- 
ing, and does iKjt sound halt so euphoneous as 
"Betsy Glen." Afterall, "what'sin a name," 
since we know "a lose by any other name 
would smell as sweet," and in a trial before a 
coetic tribunal, with that precedent in evi- 
dence, OlaihcUij might take a verdict without 
the jury leaving the box; therefore. Hurrah 
for "Gleubetsy." 



COLDSLAW. 



Yolks of two eggs; a tablespoonful of cream; 
a small teaspoontui of mustard; a little salt; 
two tables])oonfuls of vinegar. If cream is 
not used, put in a small lump of butter rubbed 
in a little tlour. Cut the cabbage very fine; 
heat the mixture, and pour it on hot. 

No doubt the foregoing would result in a 
capital condiment— indeed, we knoxcil would, 
for we have often tried it— all except the cold- 
slaw, when it is served up hot! Why not at 
once call it /lofslaw? Let shiw be its eeneric 
designation, and cold or /lot its specific name. 
If we must blunder on in our names of things, 
let our blundering be suflicienily systematic to 
leave, at least, the appearance that we are 
consistent, and have a thorough knowledge of 
our meaning. In fact, the term "coldslaw" 
is a corruption; and although wc believe there 
are a great many people who may know from 
what root or roots, il has been corrupted, we 
also believe there are many more who have 
not that knowledge. 

CnhhiKje, is said to have been first introduced 
into (iermaiiy and England by the Romans, 
under the name of kale, ca/f orco/e;and known 
by other similar names, by different nations, 
as kahl or cmcl, aial. kohl, etc., etc., and all 
the varieties of Brassica now cultivated are 
from that original stock, which did not pro- 
duce the solid head that is now produced. 

In short, our .Saxon ancestors made a salad 
of it, which was called knle-solladt, and in 
time perhaps by the Anglo-Saxons kohl-salladt 
ovcole-saludt, which was gradually contracted 
into c/)?(:-.<sa'«fJ and finally coW-s/aiJ. OfcouiBe 
these names would have been the same, and 
Would have had the same meaning — with their 
know edge of the original composition of the 
dish — whether it was hot or cold. 



A MOMENTOUS QUESTION, 

Whether we regard the question involvintr 
the insect world in reference to the bcneJUs it 
confers upon the human family— as in the pro- 
duction of silk, honey, wax, galls, lac, dye 
stuffs, and medicines— or in reference to the 
i}ijnrifs which man directly and indirectly 
sustains from the pre.sence of these pests in 
preponderating numbers, as in the destruction 
of our potato, tobacco, grain, fruit, tield and 
garden crojis, our trees and shrubberies, we 
find, on looking intelligently into the face of 
it, that it is a most momentous question, and 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



that no amount of apathy, indifference or ridi- 
cule can divest it of its importance in the 
sphere of domestic and rural economy. It is 
the province of many people to "pooh-pooh'' 
the subject as one beneath their special con- 
sideration. Few people are in the habit of 
viewing things in their aggregates, and hence 
they never form an adequate conception of 
the gains or the losses which may accrue to 
society through the presence or the absence of 
insects. The following essay by Prof. Aughey, 
of the State University of Nebraska, first pub- 
lished by the State Journal, and afterwards in 
the Nebraska Farmer (from the latter of which 
we copy it), is so much to the point on this 
subject, and so experimentally practical in its 
details, that we give it entire— especially as it 
also involves the question of birds and bird- 
destroying agencies, in their remedial relations 
to the insect world — and we ask for it a care- 
ful perusal by our readers : 

Our Danger and Our Remedy from Insects. 
I wish to add some facts and suggestions to 
what the press has been saying on the subject 
of our danger from insects, and the remedy. 
There can be no question about the increase 
of our insect enemies. Even the chinch bug 
has been increasing on the whole during the 
last ten years. I saw more butterflies of the 
army worm during the last summer than ever 
before in our history. It only requires a 
favorable season and conditions for this insect 
to become a formidable foe to our agriculture. 
Tree-borers are also alarmingly on the increase. 
I noticed them in large numbers in ihe groves 
during the last season where they were never 
seen before. Many more instances of the 
same kind could be given. Tlie vast numbers 
of grasshoppers that occasionally sweep down 
on our jilains are too familiar to need discus- 
sion. It should be recollected, also, that the 
amount of damages done in a year throughout 
the United States by insects is not less than 
four hundred miUions of dollars. IlUnois 
aUme has suffered to the amount of seventy- 
three millions in a single year. The poverty 
and retardation of settlement in Nebraska, 
produced by grasshoppers, is familiar to all. 
In fact, these insect plagues bear heavily on 
every one. 

We do not need to go far to ascertain the 
cause of this general increase of insects. The 
balance of nature has been interrupted in Ne- 
braska. Insects arc increasing with the de- 
crease of our insectivorous^birds. This de- 
crease of birds is iraced directly to the agency 
of man. As a few persons deny the agency of 
birds in keeping down insects, I will give a 
few examples from my note book. In May 
and June, 1875, I examined the stomachs of a 
great many prairie chickens, which I had shot 
for that purpose, to ascertain definitely the 
nature of their food. No. 1 had 58 grass- 
hoppers and 13 other insects in its stomach. 
No. 2 had til grasshoppers and 16 other insects 
and worms. No. 3 had 75 grasshoppers and 
9 other insects. Besides these insects, there- 
was a large mass of the same kind of 
materials that was too much macerated 
to be counted. The stomachs of quails 
contained 40 to 50 grasshoppers and other 
insects, besides a large m:iss that could 
not be distinguished. In previous years, when 
the migrating grasshoppers were not in the 
State, the contents ot the stomachs of these 
birds were still largely made up of various 
kinds of insects. 

No families of birds are so little appreciated 
for their insectivorous qualities as plovers and 
snipe. They are represented in Nebraska by 
at least sixteen species. The number of in- 
sects which they destroy is enormous. I liave 
found tbirly to thirty-five insects and worms 
in the stomachs of one small species {^gialUis 
semipahnatt(s). Many of these plovers and 
snipe spend tbe cold months in the Gulf 
States, and come north in the spring to hatch. 
Formerly they were exceedingly abundant in 
the State, but they are now becoming reduced 
very fast by murderous hunters. 

Our thrushes, blue birds, wrens, swallows, 
etc., all feed almost entirely on insects. The 
blackbirds and orioles, that are charged with 



confiscating so many grains, will be found on 
examination to make insects at least nine- 
tenlhs of their food. 

Now, suppose the insectivorous birds were 
left to increase until there were 1,000 lo a 
square mile ; each bird, at a low calculation, 
vv-ould require 100 insects for food each day ; 
this would destroy 100,000 insects per day on 
each square mile, and in a month 3,000,000, 
and in five months, 15,000,000. But insectiv- 
orous birds really consume nearer 200 than 100 
insects each day, and at this rate 500 such 
birds to a square mile would accomplish the 
same result. If birds are increased to the 
number proposed, there will be insects enough 
to furnish them food for many years. When 
once the insects are properly reduced in num- 
bers, the birds will of their own accord, if left 
alone, betake themselves to other regions. If 
they must be killed by carnivorous man, let 
the point of over-supply be first reached. But 
let it be remembered that our forests and 
cultivated trees in Nebra.ska alone are preyed 
on by about 140 siiecies of inserts. Apple, 
pear and plum trees have about ILIO species of 
insect enemies. Fifty species of insects inter- 
fere with grape culture. There are at least 
35 insect eiiemies of our gardens. Most spe- 
cies of insec's have a marvelous fecundity : 
one pair of grain weevils will produce 6,0li0 
young between Apiil and August. Accord- 
ing to Reaumer, one aphide, or plant-louse 
(these aphide are found on almost all kinds of 
plants), may become the progenitor in a single 
season of six thousand millions. The female 
Wiisp produces in one season 30,000 (Packard.) 
The white ant deposits eggs at the average 
rate of sixty to a minute. Our ovi'n wild silk- 
worm {Attaciis cecropi(t), v/hich feeds so largely 
on our wild plums, produces from 6C0 to 1,000 
eggs per season. But I need not multiply 
these common instances of the enormous in- 
crease of insects. The entomologist, whose 
eye is accustomed to look for insects, sees 
almost every foot ot ground swarm in summer 
time with insect life. If the naked eye does 
not perceive them, the microscope brings them 
to view. No one need, therefore, to fear that 
such an increase ot insectivorous birds as is 
proposed would produce a famine among 
them. The fact is. we must get them or suffer 
immeasurably more in the near future from 
insect depredations than we have ever yet done 
in the i^ast. But what liinders such an in- 
crease of insectivorous birds as would save us 
from insect depredations? The hindering 
cause, as every one knows, is the barbarous 
custom of killing birds. No agent of destruc- 
tion is so potent as bird dogs ; they do im- 
measurably more damage than traps. When 
trapping was made illegal, hunting birds with 
dogs should also have been forbidden. The 
farmer is seldom able to hunt during thebu.sy 
summer, and when he can go gunning on his 
own fields the young game has been so reduced 
in numbers and made so wild by men and dogs 
that little can be obtained. Better forbid by 
statute the killing of birds by any method 
for at least three years, and after that permit 
it only for a month, by shooting without the 
aid of dogs. The use of dogs in hunting and 
traps should be prohibited forever. This 
would make all equal before the law on this 
subject, and work unspeakable good to the 
State. Surely,sporting men will, for the sake 
of the public good, be willing to abandon their 
favorite amusement. 

The objection is sometimes made that a 
large increase of prairie chickens and quails 
would endanger the crops of the farmers. I 
believe that this is a mistaken view. In ex- 
amining the stomachs of these birds that 
were killed on wheat stubble after harvest, I 
almost invariably found more insects than 
grains of wheat. Tbe only exception to this 
experience was the occasional finding of an 
almost exclusive meal made on prairie grass 
seeds and berries. But surely the few seeds 
and grains that they confiscate wjll not be 
grudged to them, in view of the many insect 
enemies which they destroy. 

[This also bears heavily upon the "Quail 
question" of Ohio and Indiana, and equally 



upon the "Partridge question" of Pennsyl- 
vania, and their grauiverous propensities. 
Our wheat harvests occur in July, and before 
the wheat is ripe, we believe no complaints 
against partridges as destroyers of that crop 
have been made. Nor yet are they seriously 
charued as destroyers of the corn. They are 
not climbing birds, and therefore whatever 
grain food they appropriate must be that 
which has been left by the gleaner, and is 
lying on the ground. These birds pass the 
whole year with us, and between one wheat 
or corn harvest and another, nearly a whole 
year elapses, and during that period the 
partridges must eat something, and until winter 
sets in, that something is largely composed of 
insects ; and their habits bring them nearer 
to certain species of these, than climbing or 
perching birds. 

^ 

"VARMINTS." 

A rather curious "varmint" was killed on 
the farm of J. B. Boyce, in New Madrid 
county, several days ago. It is a snake, some 
thirty-two inches long and four inches in cir- 
cumference, of a dark color and smooth skin. 
It has four very small feet, two iu front about 
three inches from its nose, and two about eight 
inches from the tip of its tail. In its upper 
jaw are four rows of teeth. 

Whenever an animal is found, out of the 
ordinary occurrence, and people in general 
have "never seen the like before," and there- 
fore do not know what it is, they forthwith 
call it a "va7-»/(Mit,-" a "thingumbob;" a 
"Gosh curious thing ;" a "queer animal," or 
something of that 'kind, according to the pe- 
culiar phraseology ot the special locality ; and, 
without some casual remark in its description, 
the reader can scarcely tell what animal it was 
between a mouse and an elephant. But, in 
the above description the writer says, un- 
quahfiedly, "It is a snake." If then his cap- 
tion had been "a queer snake," or a "queer 
reptile," he would atonce have so far classified 
the animal, as to have assisted in determining 
what it was. Varmint, is a "Davy Crocket- 
ism," a general term which that distinguished 
backwoodsman applied to a variety of animals, 
including bears, wolves, "coons," panthers, 
badgers, "catamounts," &c., whatever the 
last named may be. The term "varmint," is 
not defined in any of the dictionaries, and 
probably is derived from "vermin," a term 
which ill itself is very uudeterrainate, and is 
applied to many animals that are noxious in 
their character, from a minute insect, up to 
an alligator, not excluding mammals and 
fishes ; it is, however, generally applied as a 
plural [rermine,] and generally means charac- 
ter rather than kinds— numbers, rather than 
single individuals- as rats, mice, cockroaches, 
lice and maggots. 

This animal seems to have been killed on 
the farm of a Mr. Boyce, in New Madrid 
county, and although the state is not men- 
tioned, we presume it means the south-east 
corner of the State of Missouri, but it is not 
said, whether it was killed on land or in water. 
But no matter about that; the smooth skin 
removes it from the snakes, (Ophidians,) and 
also from the lizards, (Sauri.^ns) and locates 
it among the irogs and newts, (Batra- 
CHIANS, j in close proximity to the Proteans. 
Of course, from a brief newspaper description, 
it would be almost impossible to name an 
animal specifically, unless we had previously 
seen a similar animal ourselves ; but, from the 
size, texture, and structure of this reptile, we 
may inferentially set it down as.a specimen of 
Amphiuma tridactyhan, of which there are 
two species known to inhabit the stagnant 
pools "and ditches of Louisiana, Florida, 
Georgia and South Carolina; and that it should 
have been found as far north-west as New 
Madrid, is not more remarkable than that its 
congener, Menopoma allcghaniensis, (Hell Ben- 
der) which sixty years ago was not known to 
exist east of the Allegheny mountains, should 
have been found in the waters of Lancaster 
county in 1870. 

It is said that the species we have mention- 
ed sometimes attains to three feet in length, 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



ind tliat great minibers of them arc often 
fouivi in cleaiiiiif; out ponds, buried dei;p in 
the mud at the bottom, and also tliat tliey 
have been known to come (lut on marshy 
|ands, in dark, cloudy or rainy days. 

The "Proteans," to whicli Ihey are allied 
)y family, Pro(d(s sa»(7ia)iti.>i,for iiis(ance,have 

flattened tail, only two toes on the hinder 
feet, and a kind of external j^ills on each side 

Ef the neck ; and arc said to have been a deli- 
ious edible. When Cortez invaded i^Iexico 
I — according to Air. ]$iillock, an Enirlish 
author— the lakes surrounding the city of 
Mexico were full of an alhed genus, (Siredon 
nisrlforme,) and were esteemed such a great 
luxury, that for some time that renowned in- 
\ ;uler fed his army upon tliem ; and that long 
■ifterwards, when the city of Mexico came 
under Spanish rule, thousands of them were 
icxposed for sale in the imblic markets. 
\Meuobranrhux lateralis, found in the great 
lakes of North America, is said to attain a 
lengtli of three feet. The "Sirens." an allied 
family, have two feet in front and none behind. 
I Thisissayingagreatdeal about a "varmint" 
but such newspaper paragraphs, usually treat 
ixn interesting subject so flippantly, that in 
many instances, and to the mas.ses of the peo- 
ple, they do not afford the least enlightenment, 
in consequence of their very indefinite no- 
menclature. 



LETTUCE, 

Litctttru Sitliva. 

' Lettuce is a hardy annual, of which the 
original country seems to be unknown. It has 
been found wild in many different parts of the 
Ift'orld, and was first cultivated in England 
^bout the year 1.5tJ2. It is divided into two 
families, called the Cos and the cabbage lettuce. 
The first — distinguished by an upright 
^rowth — was introduced from the island of 
;Uos ; and the second, — the habits of which are 
pomewhat indicated by its name, — from Egyi>t. 
pur climate is not altogether favorable to the 
Cos family ; or, at least, we find the other one 
much more thrifty and worthy of cultivation. 
For the information of tlie curious reader ; 
\t is well to stale, that the botanical term 
\Lactucn is derived from Iw. the Latin word 
for milk, in allusion to the milky juice which 
exudes from the stem when broken. This 
tuice, when the plants are young, contains but 
B. small quantity of the narcotic principle ; but 
It gradually acquires a strong, bitter taste, 
and becomes notably sedative. " This property 
feeems to have been known at a very early 
period, and a lettuce supper was thought 
fiighly conducive to repose. The varieties 
and sub-varieties are numerous, and, as is 

fisual in such cases, a very few include the 
eading merits of the whole. 
The best soil for lettuce is, undoubtedly, a 
I jmellow loam, deep, rich, and founded upon a 
■ "ry substratum. It should be fertile, and it 
pt so naturally, must be supplied with a good 
uantity of old dung, some time previous to 
he sowing of the seed. This is better done 
n autumn, than in the spring. 

CuLTuuE. . By the exerci.se of a little fore- 
jtbought, the family gardener can keep his 
liable supplied with lettuce throughout the 
kear, at a very trifling expense. To have 
fearly plants for sprhig use, the first sowing 
must be made either in the nrevious autumn, 
Drelse in the latter part of winter, ujion a hot- 
bed. The first plan we consider decidedly the 
best, as the plants are hardier, and better able 
to bear removal to the open ground, than those 
Dbtaiaed by artificial heat. 

This sowing may be between the first and 
the middle of^ September, upon a bed of liglit, 
rich soil, having the benefit of shade at mid- 
day. The best varieties are, the Large Green- 
head, the Brown Dutch, and the Early Cab- 
bage, together with such others as are capable 
of standing severe winter weather. From 
nine to twelve thousand plants have been 
raised from a single ounce of seed. Sow rather 
thinly in drills eiyht inches apart ; cover the 
seed lightly, and, in a dry time, press the 
surface of the bed, by patting it with the 
spade, or by walking upon a board. When 



the plants crowd one another in the drill, thin 
tlieni out to distances of two or three inches, 
allowing them just suflicient 8i)acc ti> secure a 
good .stocky growth before cold weather sets 
in. Such as arc inilled, can be set out in 
another |ilace, perhajis on the sjiot to be en- 
closed by the cold frame. The soil should be 
kept light and clean. 

In the latter part of October the plants are 
to be furnished with their winter i)rolection. 
Some of the hardy varieties, which are intend- 
ed for early crops can be set out one foot 
apart, upon the south side of ridges, that will 
be covered with straw during severe weather. 
The princijial iiart, however, should be re- 
removed to the cold frame or box, and there 
dibbled as closely as they will stand without 
interfering with one another. The covering, 
lie it of glass or plain boards, must be often 
ojiened in mild, pleasant days, for the admis- 
sion of fresh air. Look out for the attack.s of 
earth-worms and slugs ; dusting the leaves 
with soot is somewhat of a preventive. Or, 
instead of using a cold frame, the seed bed 
can be covered with mats ])laced over bent 
hoops. Whatever may be the jilan adopted, 
do not omit regular ventilation in all pleasant 
weather. 

Where the sowing was not made in autumn, 
according to the above directions, and early 
plants are wanted, they must be obtained 
from a small hot bed, built in the latter part 
of winter. No great amount of heat is re- 
quired, but care should be taken to prevent 
any bad consequences from the want of jiure 
air. For general directions upon the forma- 
tion and management of hot-beds, the reader 
must refer to an article on "Forcing Vegeta- 
tion." 

Taking it for granted that the gardener is 
supplied with plants, which have been safely 
kept through the inclement season, let us fol- 
low their subsequent growth. At the mo- 
ment that frost leaves the ground, a small 
nimiber ought to be transplanted to a very 
warm border, liaving the full benefit of the 
sun's rays, and protected from cold winds on 
the north side. They will for some length of 
time require the friendly shelter of hand- 
glasses, until they become "gradually accustom- 
ed to the change of quarters, and until the 
progress of tl)e season permits their exposure 
with imi)unity. A second, third, or fourth 
removal of these jjlants can be made in the 
same way, at intervals of seven or eight days. 
By such a course, a great advantage will be 
obtained in the regular maturity of the crop. 

The first spring sowing in the open com- 
partment, should take place as soon as the 
weather and ground will permit — perhaps be- 
tween the middle and beginning of March. 
For the bed select a warm border in a shelter- 
ed situation, and mark out the drills twelve 
inches apart. The varieties well adapted f(n- 
this sowing, are the Brown Dutch, the Early 
Cabbage, and the Drumhead. Sow thinly, 
and in dry weather, press the earth in close 
contact with the seed. When the plants are 
two inches high, they are to be thinned out to 
distances of four inches in the drill, and those 
wliich are pulled can be easily inserted in 
another bed. At this time transplanting can 
be practiced successfully, but when the sea- 
son is further advanced, they seldom head 
well if removed from the seed bed. When 
tliey are four or five inches high, they should 
be so thinned as to stand one foot apart each 
way. Water ought to be given freely at 
evei'j' removal performed in a dry day, and 
regularly afterwards until the roots are estab- 
lished. The hoe must be used frequently be- 
tween the drills, not only for the purpose of 
eradicating weeds, but also for the sake of 
keeping the surface soil light and porous. 

Another sowing can be made about a month 
later, and a third in August for the late sum- 
mer croi). The best varieties are the Indian, 
the Royal Cabbage, and such others as are 
able to withstand the intense heat of summer. 
Sow in drills, at the same distance apart as 
before, and thinly, so as to avoid transplant- 
ing. It will be recollected that lettuce sel- 



dom does well when transplanted in warm 
weather. 

Tlie winter crop is to be sown in the latter 
part of Septendjer. Tlie Early Cabbage is an 
excellent kind for this purpose. In the fol- 
lowing month, when the weather becomes 
cold, the plants are to be removed to a hot- 
bed, or the forcing-pit. The mould should be 
some eight or ten inches below the gla.ss. 
Take the roots up very carefully by means of 
the trowel, and set the halls of earth iu rows, 
nine inches ajiart eacli way. Water ought to 
be given in muderate quantities from time to 
time through the winter, and the siishes shad- 
ed at midday until the roots have taken hold. 
Air is to be admitted freely m all pleasant 
weather, while in a severe frost the i)rotection 
of mats upon the gla.s.s, as well as of a bank of 
earth around the frame, will be necessary. 
Decayed leaves must be removed as soon as 
they are discovered, (iood heads for eating 
may be obtained in December, and through 
the remainder of the winter. 

In this elinuite, the Cos lettuces are far from 
being as succes.sf'ul as in Europe. They can 
be sown in autumn, and protected through 
the inclement season, to l)e transplanted into 
the open ground in spring. They are blanch- 
ed by being tied up like the endive, a week or 
ten days before wanted for use. 

Foil SEEU. Select some of the best plants 
of the autumn or spring sowings. Put them 
in rows, eighteen incheji apart each way, and 
do not omit to keep the varieties separate. 
When two or more kinds are suftiered to 
bloi^som in the vicinity of each other, a mon- 
grel will surely be the result. Sujiport the 
flower-stems by .stakes,and izather the branches 
as the seed ripens, instead of wailing for a 
large portion to be wasled on the ground. 
That borne by stalks which have run up pre- 
maturely, cannot be depended upon. Place 
the branches on a cloth or a large newspaper, 
spread in the shade, and then let them get 
perfectly dry before you attempt to thresh out 
the seed. 

Use. — Lettuce may be considered as be- 
longing to the very best class of salads, and 
perhaps it is superior to all others. It posses- 
ses a mild, agreeable taste, while it is wliole- 
some and easy of digestion. It is also some- 
times used in soups. It is largely cultivated 
for the extraction of its narcotic properties, 
which are somewhat similar to those of opium, 
but have not the constipating effects of that 
drug. The stalk is cut just before the flower 
is ready to open, and the crust which forms 
upon the top is carefully gathered. The stalk 
is cut again and again, until the milky juice 
ceases to exude. 

To Dkess a Salad.— This seems to be a 
convenient iilace for giving directions how to 
dress a salad, which is a general name for 
certain vegetables, such as lettuce, endive and 
mustard, prepared so as to be eaten raw. They 
should be well washed and cut into small 
pieces. An egg is boiled hard, and, when it 
becomes cold, the yolk is to be taken out and 
broken on a plate. Then put with it a large 
teaspoonful of cold water and near a teaspoon- 
ful of salt. Rub all this together, by means 
of a spoon or fork, till the egg is a thick paste, 
free from lumps. Next, add and mix a table- 
spoonful of salad oil or cold melted butler ; and 
after this, add at least a tables) >oonful of good 
vinegar. When these are all well mixed, the 
dressing is made, and is either to be put im- 
mediately with the salad, or be sent to the 
table in a separate dish. The top of the salad 
may be ornamented with small pieces of the 
while of the egg and slices of pickled beet. 



ANTS AND ANT-EATERS. 

Having read the following account in a 
book about ants and ant -eaters, I thought it 
would interest the readers of tiie Lancaster 
Farmer. A traveler in South America says: 
"We rode over hills used as pasture-ground, 
which were literally dotted with the upright 
and fallen columns that had hocn erected by 
the Termites, or white ants. These curious 
edifices, and their still more curious archi- 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



tects, have always had a great attraction for 
the naturalist. Tliu hillocks are coniwil in 
their shape, but not with a broad base and 
tapering point as those built by the termites 
of Africa. E.'iposure to the sun has rendered 
them exceedingly hard, and doubtless many 
that are iu the ujilands of San Paulo and Mi- 
nas-Geraes are more than a century old; for 
houses whose walls have been built from the 
same earth are still in existence were built 
by early settlers in the seventeentli century. 
Sometiuies the termites' dwelling is overturn- 
ed by tbu slaves, the hollow scooped out and 
made wider, and is then used as a bake-oven 
to parch Indian corn. In my ride over (Sol- 
dade I saw a number of very large vultures, 
who during the rain had taken refuge in the 
houses tlmt had been vacated by ihe white 
ant. These insects do not, however, always 
dwell in columnar edifices of three and six 
feet high. 1 have seen in some portions of 
Brazil the ground ploughed up to the extent ot 
lUO feet in circumference by one nest of white 
ants. Again, they will climb trees, carrying 
building material with them, and erecting a 
small archway (resembling what carpenters 
call an inch beail.) over them for protection 
against their sworn enemy, the black and 
brown ant; and on the loftiest branches they 
will construct their nests. My introduction 
to the cupim, or wliite ant, was in the house 
O our former Consul, ex-Governor Kent. A 
box of books sent out by the American Tract 
Society was placed in a lower room, and the 
next morning it was announced to me that the 
cupim had entered my property. I liasten- 
ed to the room, and turning over the box, 
beheld a little black hole at the bottom, and 
white, gelatiuous-lookiug ants pouring out as 
though very much disturbed in their occupa- 
tion. I opened the box, and found that a 
colony of cupim had eaten through the pine 
wood, and had pierced through "Baxter's 
Call,' 'Doddridge's Rise and Progress,' un- 
til they had reaceed the place where "Bun- 
yan's Pilgrim" lay, when they were rudely de- 
ranged in their literary pursuits. On another 
occasion, I saw a Brussels carpet, under which 
cupim had insinuated themselves, and had 
eaten on I nearly all the canvas before the 
proprietor had made the sad discovery. The 
writer, at Campinus, witnessed the depreda- 
tions of the white ants iu the taipa houses. 
They insinuate themselves into the mud 
walls, and destroy the entire side of a house 
by perforations. Anon, they commence work- 
ing in the soil and extend their operations be- 
neath the foundations of houses, and under- 
mine them. The people dig large pits in var- 
ious places, with the intent of exterminating 
tribesofanls wliich have been discovered on 
their march of destruction. Mr. Suuthy 
states, on the authority of Manod Felix, that 
some of these insects at one time devoured the 
cloth on the altar in the convent of St. An- 
tonio, at Marasham, aud also brought up into 
the church pieces of shrouds from graves be- 
neath tlie floor; whereupon the friars prosecu- 
ted them according to due form of law eccle- 
siastical. What the punishment or sentence 
was in this case, we are unable to learn. 

"The white, and other ants, have, however, 
enemies far more tangible than bulls of ex- 
communic.ition in the Mernyomecojihaya, or 
the great 'Ant-eater,' the Taiuandua and 
the iittle Ant-eater, ' of which the last two 
have a prehensile tail. 

"The great aut-eater is a most curious ani- 
mal, but well a<lapted to the purposes for 
which he was designed by the Creator. Its 
short legs and long claws (the latter doubled 
up when in motion) do not hinder it from run- 
ning at a good pace; and wheu the Indians 
wish to calcli it, they make a pattering noise 
upon the leaves as if they were falling; upon 
which the Myniitcophaya cocks his huge 
bushy tail over his body, and, standmg per- 
fectly still, soon falls a prey. In tlie northern 
part of Minas-Geraes, a naturalist once came 
suddenly upon the great ant-eater, and know- 
ing the harmless nature of its mouth, seized 
it by the long snout, by which he tried to 
holdit, wheu it immediately rose upon its hind 



legs, and clasping him around the middle with 
its fore paws, it would not release its hold, till 
a pistol ball was lodged in its breast. When 
the great ant-eater sleeps, it lies on one side, 
rolls itself up together and covers itself witli 
its bushy tail. In this way it may be easily 
taken for a lieap of hay. The Indians of the 
upper Amazon positively assert that the great 
ant-eater sometimes kills the jaguar by tightly 
embracing the latter, and tlirusting its enor- 
mous claws into the Jaguar's sides. The abor- 
igines also declare (hat these animals are all 
females, and believe that the male is the 'cu- 
rui)ira' or the demon of the forest. The pe- 
culiar organization of this animal has proba- 
bly led to this error."— P. W. Mee. 

The foregoing interesting paper we copy 
from tlie February number of IIarclw!cke''s 
Sdcnre Gosaip, where it appears in the dejiart- 
ment of "Notes and Queries," in which is re- 
corded the current questions and answers on 
scientific subjects that occur among its readers. 

We have also in the United States, insects 
allied to the "ants" alluded to in the above 
paper, and also "ant-eaters"; but they very 
materially differ from the Brazilian animals. 
As these insects have been so long and so 
widely designated ants, and white ants, it per- 
haps would be folly to attempt to give them 
any other popular name now; but iu reality 
they are not ants at all, and have no generic 
or family relation to what are generally rec- 
ognized as ants in North America. The most 
proper name for them is Termites, and they 
are so-called by most authors of ability. The 
insects we popularly call ants belong to the 
order Hymenoptera- (a Greek compound 
signifying insects furnished with four mem- 
braneous wings) and the family Formicid^, 
from the Latin Formica, which simply means 
an ant; and of which we have many species. 

But the ants we have been writing about in 
our extract from "Science Gossip," belong to 
the order Neuroptera, section PsEUDO-NEU- 
OPTERA (nerve winged insects) and the tam- 
ily TepvMITIdvE from the Latin Termis, which 
means a wood-borer, and of which we have 
at least two species iu Pennsylvania. For 
fully twenty-five years we have noticed one 
of these species (Termes frontalis, Hald.) issu- 
ing from two frame (or log) houses, on the 
east and west sides of North Queen street, 
about midway between Lemon and James 
streets, in tlie city of Lancaster, about the 
end of May or the beginning of June. They 
contiuuedto come forth from small aiiertures 
under the door and window sills, and along 
the overlapping of the weather boarding, for 
several days in'succession — say from three to 
five days, according to the temperature of the 
weather, which also influenced their time of 
appearing. 

At each succeeding return of these periods, 
we also notice the "ant-eater," the liveliest 
throng of eaters to be seen during the year. 
These, however, were not of the class mamma- 
lia, no ignoble and unwieldy earth -grovelors — 
they belonged to the dainty ''feathered tribes" 
— they Were swallows (chimney birds)— C/i'ie- 
tura pdasyin, iinri— that gathered in from 
their domicils in the surrounding blocks of 
buildings by hundreds. They were honora- 
ble sportsmen that took their quarry on the 
wing, one at a time,, and did not envelop 
them in a viscid secretion, and take them in 
by scores with their snaky tongues. They 
swooped around in a vertical circle the lower 
arc of which was low down where the "Ter- 
mites" emerged forth, while numbers of them 
were gyrating through the air in pursuit of 
those insects that had reached a higher alti- 
tude, and had scattered. These insects have 
been so long located in these two old houses, 
that we would like to be piesent if they should 
ever be torn down, just to see what progress 
they had made in tiie work of destruction in 
twenty-five years. 

Mr. Geo. Hensel informs us that he bad a 
small colony of Termites a year ago, in his 
green house. He had inverted a plant pot on 
the earthen floor, and set another pot, 
containing a plant, upon it, so that they'were 
bottom to bottom, the holes iu the bottoms 



opposite each other. In one night a colony of 
Termites came up out of the ground under 
the inverted jiot; built a gallery up the inner 
side, across the bottom to the hole and up 
through both holes and into the pot above; 
from thence across the bottom and up the 
inner side, and through the earth in the upper 
pot, and scattered over the vegetation, after 
the manner of the foreign species, without 
having done much harm otherwise, however. 
We were not fortunate enough to see the in- 
sect, but Mr. Stanffer says it difl'ers irom fron- 
talis, and probably isflavipes. — JEd. 

Foi' The Lancaster Fabmek. 
CULTIVATION OF CHICCORY. 

The article in the February number for 
1877, on iiage 20, copied from the Ckicago 
Journal of Omimerce, stating that "during 
187.T we imported #18,UU0,00U worth of chic- 
cory," is certainly a startling piece of in- 
formation. Then follows a statement from 
the Stockton, Cal., Indcpendeni. on "the pro- 
duction and manufacture of chiccory for its 
use as an adulteration of coffee." This led 
me to inquire more particularly into the 
nature and character of the plant. The 
Cichorium Intijhas, L. is the wild succory or 
chiccory in question ; the Germans call it 
Wcyiwart. Being considered a coarse weed, 
and common in numerous localities iu our 
county, I need not describe it here. Dr. 
Darlington in his agricultural botany, (publish- 
ed in 1847,) on piige 98, observes that "This 
foreigner is becoming extensively naturalized. 
Some European agriculturists recounnend 
it as a valuable forage plant, though they 
admit that it gives a bad taste to .the milk of 
cows which feed upon it. In this country, it 
is generally, and I believe justly, regarded as 
an objectionable wecrf, Avhich ought to be ex- 
pelled from our pastures. The roasted root 
has been used on the continent of Europe, as 
a substitute for the coffee-hrry ; but those who 
delight in the aromatic beverage, are not likely 
to tiike much interest in this or any other sub- 
stitute for the genuine article." Thecicliorium 
endivia,[vi\\d) thesatira, D. C. is called Endive 
or garden succory, Oerman—Die, Mndivie — 
currupfed into ''andifte," cultivated for the 
young radical leaves, which are etiolated or 
blanched, like celery, by the exclusion of light, 
and used as a salad. Theophrastes; lib 7, 
chap. 7, and Pliny, have written upou it long 
before the time of Linnteus. In lieese's old 
American encyclopedia, I find it stated that 
the whole plant is bitter, and "when cultivated 
it is much more branched and rises to the 
height of 5 orb feet, with longer leaves, less 
deeply cut and almost smooth. "i< is then 
cichorium sativum ; Bauh. Pin. 125, Tourn. 
479, Lob. Ic, l-.ii). 

Lewis says it is a "very useful aperient, 
acting mildly and without irritation, lending 
rather to abate than increase heat, and which 
may therefore be given with safety iu hectic 
and inflammatory cases. Taken freely, they 
keep the body open or produce a gentle diar- 
rhoea, and when thuscontuiued for s me time, 
have often proved salutary in beginning ob- 
structions of the viscera, in jaundices, cachexies 
(this latter term simply means a bad slate or 
habit of the body), and other chronical dis- 
eases." "The expressed juice taken in large 
quantities," Dr. Woodward says, " his experi- 
ence warrants him in recommending as an 
efficacious remedy in phthisisand pulmonalis." 
"The juicemixed with rhubarb," according to 
Du Tour (Nouveau Dictionaire), " is an excel- 
lent vermifuge syrup for children." This 
much is, and much more might be, quoted 
from medical authorities. 

It was commonly eaten by the Romans, and 
when blanched is still used in France in soups 
or as a salad. Wc learn that "in Italy it has 
long been cultivated on a large scale, and es- 
teemed, either green or dry, as an excellent 
fodder for horses, kiue and sheep." It was 
first introduced into France by Crette de 
Tallael, and into England by the well-known 
Arthur Young, but the moist atmosphere of 
England is less favorable to its being made 
into hay. " The wild succory," says Du Tour, 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



37 



"will grow in any kind of soil, but tlirives 
best in a j;ood one well manured, and is culti- 
vated at a small expense." It sustains droiiglit, 
excessive rains and severe cold, and as it rises 
early in the year, affords an excellent sprini; 
supply. Its growtli is so rapid tliat it may be 
cut tliree or four times every year, or more 
frequently. Its produce in bulk and in weight 
is superior to tliat of trefoil and even of lu- 
cerne. Tliere is no need of preparing cattle to 
use it as food. It is as wholesome as it is 
abundant, sweetens their blood, and preserves 
tliem from disease. In particular, it causes 
cows to give more milk without communicat- 
ing any of its bitterness, and furnishes, eight 
months in the year, an excellent resource for 
the farmer, affording the lirst lierbagc for cut- 
ting in the spring and the last in autumn." 
Tills is conied verbatim from Du Tour, who 
was deemed good authority. I give it because 
it conflicts with Dr. Darlington's opinion. 
Hence, if a xcccd, its growing qualities make 
it the more objectionable ; but if Du Tour is 
correct, it may deserve some attention from 
our formers, who will make an experiment 
and test the matter, apart from its adulteration 
in coffee. Very respectfully submitted for 
further examination, by J. Stauffer. 



other part of the body does not argue im- 
purity of blood, yet, it is to be discouraged, 
in oi'clerthat a luiiformity of color may be at- 
tained by the breeders. White upon one ear, 
or a bronze or copper spot on some other part 
of the body, indicates no impurity, but rather 
a reappearing of original colors, but wliite mark- 
ings other tlian those aforenamed are suspic- 
ious, and a pig so marked should be rejected, 
i^ace— short, line and well dished, broad be- 
tween the eyes. Ears — generally almost erect, 
but sometimes inclining forward with advanc- 
ing age ; small, thin, soft and showing veins. 
Jowl — full. iVt'cA;— short and thick. !:ShoHlilc,- 
— short from neck to middling, deep from back 
down. Back — broad and straight, or very 
little archc<l. liibs—loug and well sprung, 
giving rotundity of body, short-ribs of good 
length, giving breadth and Icvelness of loin, 
j'f/p.s — of good length from point of hips to 
rump Hamx — thick, round and deep, hold- 
ing their thickness well back and down to the 
hocks. Tail— fine and small, set on liisih up. 
Lrgs — short and fine, but straight and very 
strong, with hoofs erect, legs set wide apart, 
size medium, length medium ; extremes are to 
be avoided. Bone— fine and compact. Offal 
—very light. Hair — fine and sol't, no bristles. 
iSiii!— pliable. 



which can be marketed in from f> to 18 months. 
They are very liardy, with higli vital powers, 
but guard against those with lomj snouts. 



For The LAKOtsTEB Fabhxb. 
THE TOBACCO WORM.* 

"Will the unusually large crop of 'Tobacco- 
worms' the past year, be likely to jiroducc a 
correspondingly abundant progeny the com- 
ing season V" 

This question was referred to me for answer, 
at the February meeting of this society ; and, 
as tobacco growing is becoming one of the 
leading agricultural interests of Lancaster 
county, it is very natural that those engaged 
in it shoidd manifest a reasonable solicitude in 
all that relates to its success or failure. 

In reply, permit me to say that a redundancy 
of noxious insects in one season, may po.tsihhj 
be the iirogenitors of the same or an increas- 
ed number the season next following ; yet, it 
is not always jirohable, nor is it by any means 
a matter of course. 

There are jirior conditions ; intermediate 
casualties ; and subsequent contingencies, 
which are more or less related to the case, ana 
which ex< icisc a modifying influence over it. 
If there had been ten thousand tobacco-worms 




IMPORTED BERKSHIRE. THE COLLIER. Owned by BENSON & BURPEE, Philadslpha. 



"COLLIER." 

This fine Berkshire is two year.'! old, and 
Wiis the winner of six honors and first prizes 
in England Inst year, previous to his importa- 
tion in August. ISTfi. 

Bred by B. St. J(>nN AcivER.s, Esq. Pink- 
mar.sh Paik, Gloucester, Ensland, and is now 
owned by Benson L. Burpee, Philadelphia, 
Pa., (see our advertising columns). Aeeord- 
intrto a report of a committee of the "Nation- 
al Swine Breeder's Convention," the first im- 
portation of Berkshire pigs, of which they 
could find any record, was made in the year 
182.'?, by Mr. Frenfnall, an English farmer, 
who settled in New .Tersnv. The second im- 
portation was made in 1832. bv Mr. Hawes. 
another English farmer who lived in Albany. N 
T. and others in the United Slatesand Canada 
soon followed with Inrser importations. All 
those eai'ly imported Berkshires were substan- 
tially the same in size, quality, .style and 
niarkinir. as the best of the present day. 

According to the same report the following 
standard characteristics and marks were re- 
cognized as belonginsTto the pure Berkshires. 
Color — black, with white feet, face, and tip 
of tail, and an occasional splash of white on 
the arm. While a small spot of white on some 



The committee further says, that in one re- 
spect, the Berkshires may be said to excel all 
other breeds with which they are acquainted, 
and that is in the superior weight and quality 
of hams and shoulders, these yielding a much 
greater proportion of tender, lean, .juicy, well 
marbled meat, in comparison to the fat, than 
can be found elsewhere. The sides all par- 
take of the same admirable qualities and are 
therefore of superior excellence for bacon. 
Considering these, it is to be hoped that we 
Americans, at least, will never attempt to 
alter the breed by crossing other swine upon 
it. for the only result will be deterioration. 
The Berkshires can improve most other breeds, 
but none can improve them. 

The experience and observation of Messrs. 
Benson and Bupee, corroborate the views of 
the committee alluded to, and they also say 
that as the Berkshires are exceedingly active, 
and will readily shift for themselves, yet when 
it is desired to fatten them they will necessari- 
ly consume, projiortionally, more food than a 
quiet, lazy hog-enthusiastic, but prejudiced 
fanciers, to the contrary notwithstanding, who 
claims more flesh for the -same amount of 
feed, than any other hogs. The sows are 
good Bucklers and bring forth large litters, 



in an enclosure last year, and every one of 
them had been destroyed, and had not been 
permitted to burrow into the ground, you 
would have much less reason to ai)prehend an 
increased, or even the same number this year, 
than you would have, had you onlv had ten 
worms, all of which you had permitted to go 
into thegroimd and pupate there ; for, it is in 
this manner that the broods are carried over 
from one season to another. There are per- 
haps few insects that fall an easier prey to 
careful, vigilant, and persevering "hand-pick- 
ing," than the tob.acco-worm ; and this, under 
any circumstances, is i)erhaps, the best remedy 
that can be adopted for their extinction ; but, 
this course .should be pursued by all growers, 
for one indolent or indifferent cultivator may 
permit a sulficient ninnbertoi)erpetuate them- 
selves, to stock a whole neighborhood, no 
matter how industriously his co-cidtivators 
may be employed in destroying them. AVhile 
this insect is in the larva or caterpillar state, 
it is a slow and .sluggish traveler, and makes 
no effort whatever to effect its escape ; more- 
over, when it is a little advanced in its 
growth, it is sufliciently conspicious to attract 

•Read before the AKricullnral »nd HortlciiHuroI Soolatj 
of Lancaster county, Much 6, 1877, by S. S. BatbvoD, 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



the attention of any ordinary observer. To 
many people they are more or less repugnant, 
but this repugnance is soon overcome by tliose 
accustomed to them ; especially when they have 
a direct interest in their destruction. No 
fears need be entertained as to their stinging 
or biting, for this they nevermake any attempt 
to do, notwithstanding their formidable as- 
pect ; and here, allow ine to mention one -or 
two examples of carelessness in tobacco cul- 
ture, which are important factors relating to 
the increase or decrease of the tobacco-worm, 
and are more or less related to the injury 
■which is the subject of this pajjer. Some 
tobacco-growers, when the time comes to cut 
off the crop, merely shake off what worms 
may be on the plants, and pay no other atten- 
tion to them. ■ Tliey may perhaps have had a 
surfeit of worms, and now rejoice that they 
are to have a surcease of tliat disagreeable 
labor, and therefore their whole energies are 
devoted to harvesting and curing. Now, such 
a course may be absolutely suicidal ; because, 
the mature worms, thus .shaken off will bur- 
row into the ground, and change to impa ; 
and the immature ones, will finish their larval 
career on the young "suckers ;" and finally 
will also disapjjear "under ground. Another 
careless habit is, to let the stump stand in the 
field, which sometimes realizes what is termed 
a "second crop." If this crop is left growing 
without paying the same care to it that was 
paid to the first crop, it may be the prolific 
source of an increased "crop of worms" the 
following year. Of course, you all must know 
better than I do, how far you may have per- 
mitted this state of things to exist, and this 
may afford some light upon the possibility or 
probability, of an increased or diminished 
number of worms the coming season. Their 
general immolation, and hence the prevention 
of their pupal transformations, are mainly the 
prior conditions to which I have alluded. But 
they are also subject to parasitic infestations 
to a limited extent, and the more eft'ectively 
these conditions are brought to bear upon 
them in any season, the less number will be 
transmitted to the following season. 

These parasitic infestations are caused as 
far as known at present, by two little "clear- 
winged flies," and one or two species of "two- 
winged flies," not much unlike some of onr 
common "horse-flies." The little clearwings, 
so far as they go, I consider the best friends of 
the tobacco and grape grower.s. They are 
very bright and active little insects, not more 
than a tenth of an inch in length, and one 
female will deposit from fifty to one hundred 
eggs on the body of a single tobacco-worm. 
As soon as the eggs are hatched the tiny 
little larva bury themselves in the fleshy parts 
of their host, and these feed on its substance, 
until their larva period is completed. They 
then work their way out to the surface of the 
tobacco-worm, and there spin each a little 
white or yellowish cocoon, one end of which 
is attached to the skin of the worm, and 
crowded together, like so many grains of rice 
standing on end. In two or three days, some 
times a longer period, these little grubs will 
have passed through their pupal period, when 
they will cut off a little lid from the upper end 
of the cocoon, and emerge forth a fly, like 
the one that laid the eggs. 

Doubtless some of yoii may have noticed 
tobacco-worms, tomato-worms and grape- 
worms, covered with the cocoons of these little 
parasites, and when you do see them, don't 
disturb that worm, lest you also destroy your 
little friends. You need entertain no fears 
about a worm so infested, for he will never eat 
any more tobacco after he is so microgaftfr- 
ized. A few days thereafter you may find him 
adhering with a death-grasp to the old spot, 
and his body hanging flabbily down, either 
dead or dying. The maggots, however, of the 
Tachinized worms, or two-winged flies, re- 
main in their bodies, and are carried with 
them under ground and destroj' them in their 
pupal form, so that the imago or moth of such 
a worm never is developed nor sees the light 
of day. These are some of those "intermedi- 
ate casualties" to which I have alluded. 



But, should the worm, through neglect, in- 
advertence, or ignorance, be allowed to per- 
fect its larval development and so into the 
ground to pupate, it will come forth the fol- 
lowing season about the time the "Jimson- 
weed" is in bloom, in the form of a large grey 
moth, and these moths may be noticed in the 
evening hovering around these plants, draw- 
ing the nectar out of their trumpet shaped 
flowers ; and when they are so engaged, they 
may be struck down with a wooden bat or 
paddle, or be caught in a bag-net with a 
handle attached to it, and thus be prevented 
from depositing their eggs on the plants. 

Another mode of destroying these moths, is 
by poisoning them. It is well known that the 
tobacco moths are partial to the nectar in the 
flowers of the jimson-weed, and visit these 
plants in the evening twilight, for the purpose 
of drawing it out of their flowers with their 
long tongues, which are coiled up like the 
mainspring of a watch, below the forpeart of 
Ihe head, between their marillce.. Now, if a 
strong solution of arsenic, or corosive sublimate, 
which are almost tasteless, is mixed with 
honey and a drop or two is introduced into 
each flower of this plant during the after- 
noon, when the moths suck it out in the even- 
ing, they cannot survive it long, but will die 
sometime during the night, or wherever tliey 
may secrete themselves, after they leave the 
tobacco field. If I have been correctly inform- 
ed, this plan has been successfully tried by 
several tobacco growers in the state of New 
York and also in Virginia. and the Caroliuas. 
Indeed I am informed from an intelligent and 
practical soiu'ce, that this remedy has been 
tested, to a limited extent, in this county 
with entire success. 

Although this poison remedy could have no 
possible effect upon the eggs that had been 
deposited by the moth before it had partaken 
of the poison, yet after that event, it would 
deposit its eggs "never more," unless there 
had been some radical defect in the adminis- 
tration of the remedy. 

These pupa are greedily devoured by pigs, 
skunks, chickens, crows, "and birds in general 
— when they can get at them. Plowing tlie 
ground late in the fall or early in the spring, 
will bring them to the surface and expose 
them, not only to the animals which feed 
upon them, but also to the vicissitudes of the 
weather; for although insects generally can 
withstand almost any degree of continuous 
cold — under conditions of their own instinct- 
ive selection — yet, alternations of heat and 
cold, wet and dry, freeze and thaw, js very 
generally destructive to them. I have often 
duj them up in the spring of the year within 
the" depth of a common garden spade, but it 
is probable that they bury themselves deeper 
than that when they first pupate. They have 
the power to wriggle themselves upward to- 
ward the surfiice of the ground, by the flexi- 
ble hind ends of the body, but I do not think 
they could work themselves downward again, 
and as the moth appears late in the season, it 
might be advisable to plow the tobacco ground 
late in the season at about a spade's depth, 
which would give crows, blackbirds, chickens 
and other animals an opportunity to feed upon 
them. It might also furnish an opportunity 
to pick them by hand. Insects naturally in- 
crease in proportion to the increase of their 
natural food-plant, although they sometimes 
■decrease, from contingencies of which we have 
not a clear knowledge. 

The "Tobacco worm" belongs to the 
Sphinx family. It was so named by Lin- 
naeus, because of a remote, or i)erhaps fan- 
cied resemblance to the Egyptian Sphinx, 
when the worm is in a state of repose. All 
the larvae, or worms of this family, when they 
are not feeding, support themselves by the 
feet on the hinder part of the body, and raise 
up the front part, and thus remain for hours 
lierfectly motionless; unless they are annoyed 
by their pigmy persecutors— the little para- 
sites tliat approach them to deposit upon 
their bodies their tiny little eggs, and^ the 
presence of which they instinctively ackn'owl- 
edge by the rapid turning of the front part of 



their bodies from side to side with a sudden 
jerk. But it is all in vain, for the little per- 
severing creatures never relinquish their task 
until it is accomplished. 

There are two prominent species of Sphinxes 
that attack the tobacco crop, named Sphinx 
Carolina and Sphinx quinque-maculata, respect- 
ively. In the imago, or moth state, to 'which 
I have already alluded, they are called "Hawk 
moths," and, somewhat indiscriminately also 
"Humming-bird moths," from their habit of 
poising themselves on the wing, like a hum- 
ming-bird, while they are in the act of suck- 
ing the nectar out of the flowers. These two 
species of Sp/u')ix may properly be called the 
"Southern Sphinx," and the "Northeastern 
"pliinx." In the southern States the Sphinx 
Carolina or "Carolina Sphinx" prevails, and 
the northern species is almost unknown; 
whilst in the northeastern States the S. 5 
macidata, or "five-spotted Sphinx" prevails, 
and the southern species is almost unknown. 
But here in the intermediate region, or Mid- 
dle States, we have both species. Although 
the distribution of insects is more or less local, 
yet their limitations are not distinguished by 
a fixed, or abrupt line; but on the contrary 
there is an overlapping of one district upon 
another, and hence such an overlapping belt 
will produce species that respectively belong 
to either, or both. In districts where no to- 
bacco is cultivated, and often, even where it 
is cultivated, the "Five-spotted Sphinx" at- 
tacks the potato vines, and the "Carolina 
Sphinx," the tomatoes. I have a knowledge 
of these insects existing in the county of Lan- 
caster long before the tobacco plant became 
an object of cultivation in it. I had dug the 
chrysalids out of the ground, even in my boy- 
hood, more than fifty years ago; and, as 
neither tobacco nor tomatoes were cultivated 
then, they must have fed upon the potato 
vines. There is something about the form of 
these chrvsalids that is very peculiar, and is 
calculated to make an impression upon the 
minds uf those who are given to habits of ob- 
servation, that is not easily erased. They are 
large, smooth, spindle-shaped objects, J that 
have an appendage at the anterior end, which 
is turned around, like the handleof a jug, and 
hence we bovs locally called them "brown 
pitchers," or""brown jugs." This handle is 
merely a tube in which the long spiral sucking 
tongue lies concealed in the pupa state. 

The moths of the tobacco worms are crepus- 
cularioiis in their habits; that is, they fly 
forth, feed, and deposit their eggs during the 
evening twihght, and on moonhght evenings 
perhaps later into the night. During the day 
they are perfectly quiet and lie concealed, and 
from their plain and inconspicious coloration, 
they are often jiassed over without being 
perceived. Although there appears to be sev- 
eral broods of them during the season, yet, in 
reality, there is only one in this latitude. 
This appearance arises from the/act, that like 
the "Colorado Potato beetles"— the females 
do not deposit all their eggs at one time, or in 
one day, nor yet in one week; but very prob- 
ably occupy several weeks, depositing them 
"here and there," in small patches upon the 
plants. These eggs being deposited at differ- 
ent times, are hatched out at different times, 
and hence there appears to be dift'erent broods, 
but they are all of the same. Each female 
moth will deposit from three to five hundred 
eggs during her life, and may exceed that 
number. On one occasion I took out of a fe- 
male over three hundred; but she may have 
already deposited some, as she flew into a 
window and was struck down and captured 
in the evening, when she was perhaps on the 
way to, or was returning/rojn, a tobacco field. 
Thanking you for your attention, I with these 
remarks close this essay. 



Those of our subscribers who do not reside 
in Lancaster city, but who have given that as 
their address, will please designate some place 
at which to send their papers, as we have to 
pay postage at transient rates on those sent 
to the post-oflice, which we can ill afford. 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



"GAME FOWLS." 

In the freneral demand foi- novelties in the 
"poultry line," the nuwer and more fashion- 
able varieties liad for a time occupied the fore- 
ground, and had pushed tlie (tAMIcs of our 
boyhood, to a jzreat extent, in tlie bickuround. 
These biids, liowever, the noble pluek of which 
had been the adinir.itiou of our youth, as con- 
tradisthiETuislied from the|)usillaniniily of the 
"dunirhills," have always had their admirers 
aside fronj those who bred and reared them 
solely to gratify their love for the cruel sport 
of the " pit ;" and now, again, tlie game fowls 
are looming up and receiving a new appre- 
ciation of those excellencies of character wliicli 
had been nearly eclipsed by their newer rivals. 
Of these excellent birds Afessrs. Benson & 
Burpee thus discourse in their catalogue for 
1877 : " Tlie thoroughbred game hen is an 
excellent layer of tlie very richest and most 
delicately flavored eggs. As a mother none 
can equal her. The game cock is vigorous, 
watchful, and a sure getter of stock. They 
are comparatively small eaters, and if allowed 
tlieir liberty, are excellent foragers. As a 
table fowl "tliey are ne ;jf'M icHra, beincr un- 
eqiialed in the rich, gain'i II ivor of their llesh. 
All in all, they are worthy of general culti- 
vation as a fowl for 
beauty, utility and 
profit, even by those 
who would, and right- 
ly, most strongly con- 
dcmu the pit and its 
uses. We are breed- 
ing DEAD GAME, that 

for courage, brave and 
noble carriage, beauty 
and compactness of 
pUiniage and general 
good qualities, cannot 
be excelled." 

Among the varieties 
imported and bred by 
this enteri)rising lirrii 
are '"Brown Hed 
Games," -Black Red 
Games," "Sumatra 
Games," "Duck wing 
Games" and "Game 
Bantams." 

It is not distinctly 
clear when or whence 
the game fowls orig- 
inated. Some writers 
allege that they are 
descendantsfroin Son- 
nerat's common jun- 
gle fowl {GaUus Son- 
nera(ti) of continental 
India, where it in- 
habits the woods ; it 
exceeds in size the 

" Bankiva" [GaUus Bankiva), from which our 
" Bantam" is supposed to have sprung, and is 
very beautiful, both in symmetry and plumage. 
The Mussulman natives of India, wlio eairerly 
engage in the barbarous sport of cock-fighting, 
highly prize this bird for its great courage and 
determination. It is, however, easily domes- 
ticated. Two strongly marki^d varieties are 
found. In the valleys, about 2.000 feet above 
the sea, Sonnerat's species is found, "stand- 
ing higli on its legs ;" and in belts of woods 
on the sides of mountains, at an elevation of 
4,000 feet above the sea, a short-legged variety 
is found, and who knows but our " Crcepies" 
have come from thi:; stock. Captain Skinner 
records the curious fact that, in their native 
wilds, these birds have the same habits as our 
domestic poultry, in their sexual relations. "A 
cock struts at the head of a bevy of hens and 
keeps a strict watch over their safety," so 
that this ])olygainous habit, after all, does not 
Seem to be tlie result of domestication. 



instinct of their own. In the fall they direct 
their course in great numbn'S to the rich 
b ittoin lands of the Ohio and Mississipi)i. 
Their food consists of grains, grasses, acorns, 
bi'rries, fruit and insects ; neitherarc tadimles, 
young frogs and lizards despised. When there 
is an abundant crop of acorns, flocks of turkeys 
may be expected. It often occurs that rivers 
are to be crossed during 'these migrations. 
When arrived at tlie banks they assemble on tlie 
highest eminences and there remain for hours, 
and even days, as if in consultation, or perhaps 
to recruit tlieir strength for the undertaking. 
While thus waiting, the miles employ their 
time in gobbling and strutting about with ex- 
panded tails ami lowered wings, in iking with 
the latter a drumming or booming sound. 
Even the females often imitate these raove- 
mentss. At last, mounting the trees and .high- 
est eminences, at a given signal from the 
cliosen leader they wing their way to the 
opposite shore. The old birds easily cross, 
but, should the stream be wide, the young anil 
feeble frequently miss the goal desired and fall 
into the scream wlien they swim ashore. They 
swim with no litMe dext'M-itv by closing their 
wings and expan ling their tails for support, 
striking out rapidly with their long and 




THE WILD TURKEY. 

This noble bird may be considered as both 
migratory and gregarious, migrations arising 
mainly from scarcity of food or of greater 
abundance elsewhere, to which they are 
gradually led by finding the supply increase as 
they advance, rather than from any particular 



"GAME FOWLS." 
powerful legs. When the banks are steep, as 
is frequently the case, many are unable to 
ascend, and falling back from their repeated 
and unsuccessful attempts, are overpowered 
by fatigue and perish in the water. 

The nest is a very rude structure, being a 
straight hollow scraped in the ground in some 
dry and sheltered place, and filled with with- 
ered leaves or dry grass. These are usually 
found in rising ground at the edge of marshes, 
slushes or thickets, evidently for the security 
the latter give the young. In one case 1 knew 
of a wild turkey building her nest in the top 
of a stub some eight feet from the ground, the 
stub being protected by a thick top of a fallen 
tree. The nest contained only six eggs. These 
were carefully removed and placed under a 
sitting hen, which hatched them all seven 
days later. As the nest of a wild turkey 
usually contains from ten to eighteen eggs, Tam 
led to believe that this unusual selection of a site 
for a nest was due to former ones having been 
destroyed. The females alone incubate, care- 
fully "concealing the nest, apiiroaching it 
always with great caution and from a differ- 
ent point, and covering the eggs with dry 
leaves when leaving in search of food, and 
bravely defending them against all depredators. 

It is said that three or four females will lay 
in one nest, one always remaining as a guard 



while the others seek food. This I am inclined 
to doubt ; and unless the turkey is far more 
astute than supiiosed, there would be some 
dithculty in dividing the progeny, particularly 
it one or two eggs failed to hatch, and would 
cause no small amnunt of tin key talk, to bo 
settled by some grave old gobbler capable of 
acting tiie Solomon. P.jssibly tliey may pool 
progeny as well as eggs. 'I'he eggs arc of a 
dull cream color, splotched with red. The 
young mil as soon as liatched. and are covered 
with a delicate hairy down. They are very 
tender and easily killed by cold or wet. To 
guard against the latter catastroplie, the first 
night of the brood is usually passed In the nest, 
after which the hen lea<lstliein to dry, elevated 
places, carefully shielding them at night be- 
neath her outspread wings until they ar(! two 
weeks old, when they roost upon the broad 
branches of trees, still ])rotecU'd by the wings 
of the parent. The fetnile calls her young by 
the well-known cluck. They run very fiust, 
and when pursued trust more to their legs 
than their wings for escape. 

HAY FOR HENS. 

T/ie Poultry World advises the use of hay in 
the diet of fowls in winter, as they eat gra.ssto 
advantage in sum- 
mer. " Bulk in food 
is required for health 
^ as well for poultry as 

'manor animals. Rich 
and concentrated food 
is not readilydigested 
and invites disease. 
Some think a craving 
for bulky food is one 
chief cause of feather 
eating in winter, or 
among fowls confined. 
Now, just try and se- 
cure a good supply of 
second crop hay, short 
and, if possible, con- 
taining clover. Cure 
only enough to pre- 
serve, and your fowls 
will eat a portion of 
it all winter when 
they would turn away 
from stale cabbage. 
What is not eaten will 
furnish untold amuse- 
ment in scratching 
over. Remember in 
winter, if poultry 
stand on one leg, un- 
employed all day, they 
are disposed to have 
tlie blues. Idle medi- 
tations lead always to 
bad habits ; while a 
healthy mind, in a vigorous b xly, suggests 
business, which, with fowls, means winter eggs 
and early chickens. Secure your rowen in 
September, or early in October of each year, 
or before frost, if possible, for it is injured in 
quality by being frost biten." 

The above advice is good, although few sup- 
pose hens would eat hay if given them, but this 
is because they have not watched the habits of 
their poultry. We have noticed them often 
picking short bits of cut hay of almost any 
variety, and hay cooked for cattle is eaten 
greedily by them. We advise short clover 
well boiled for them. Clover is better than 
anyollierhay, because it possesses egg-making 
nutriment, besides fibre to separate the particles 
of grain. It is not bulk, as mere quantity, 
that is needed, but coarse fibre to .separate the 
concentrated food in the stomach, so that the 
gastric juice can circulate through the mass. 
The stomach cannot well manage solid food. 
Only a few minutes will be required to prepare 
this hav for a large number of poultry. — Na- 
tional Live Sliock Journal. 



One hundred canvassers wanted, to so- 
licit snb.scriptions for The Farmer. Good 
inducements offered. Send for prospectus and 
specimeu copies. 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



For The Lancaster Fabmeb. 
INSECTS AS FOOD.* 

Perhaps it iiiiRht be shocking to your gastro- 
nomic sensibilities if I were to assert tliat by 
the time we celebrate the second centennial of 
anniversary of American independence, the 
bills of fare at the most frequented restaurants 
may contain such edibles as ws(cts, dressed in 
various forms— including the soup, the stew, 
the roast, the fry, the friccassee, and the pie — 
and why not V Especially such as feed on 
fresh, sweet and healthy vegetation. If, then, 
it should ever become necessary to compro- 
mise the question between vegetarians and 
"carnivarians," it seems to nie that insect 
diet would be the only platform they could 
possibly meet upon. Again, I ask, why not V 
Insects, spiders, centipedes, crabs, lobsters, 
shrimps, prawns, and hundreds of other simi- 
lar iinimals, all belong to the great class 
Ariicidata, and, as a class, are infinitely more 
clean in their feeding habits than the great 
class Vertebrala, at the head of which stands 
man, the crown of the animal creation — taken 
as a whole. Take, fur instance, pigs, chick- 
ens, ducks, and many of the fishes caught at 
the outlets of the sewers, along the wharves 
of all large cities. So, also, we might mention 
the frog, the snappinLj-turtle (Uliehjdra serpen- 
tina), which derives its specific name from its 
resemblance to a serpent, the Iguanns of South 
America — a large species of lizard — all of 
which are vertebrates, and the latter belong to 
the sub-class REPTiLiA.f Now, although 
these animals are all more or less preferred to 
other animals that seem more clean, I do not 
mean to saj- that they are ])Osltive!y unclean ; 
for, fundamentally considered, the maxim may 
be true that " there is no such thing as dirt" 
— that all such substances are merely chemical 
combinations of miiterial elements having 
affinities for each other ; and we may also 
infer that neither plants nor animals will 
normally absorb or appropriate any other sub- 
stance than that which is clean and is neces- 
sary in the formation and development of its 
physical tissues. It is true that many of the 
substances which animals feed on impart a 
peculiar flavor to their secretions or their 
flesh, ye^ if they ore ill-favored, or even poi- 
sons, they are, notwithstanding, clean. 

When naturalists first began to classify ani- 
mals, they included crustaceans, insectans, 
arachnidans and myriapodans all in the one 
great class called Articulata, from the in- 
sected or articidated structure of their bodies; 
but the simplest and most marked distinction 
between vertebrates and articulates is, that 
the former have their skeletons inside and 
their muscular, adipose and cutaneous tissues 
outside; whilst the latter have their skeletons 
outside and their muscular and adipose tissues 
inside. We may, therefore, rationally infer 
that there is no great difference in the ele- 
mentary substances which compose the differ- 
ent tribes of articulates. There may be a 
difference in flavor, in texture and nutrition, 
owing to locality, habit and food ; but in their 
elementary substances they may be all the 
same. A dish of boiled shrimps and a dish of 
boiled grasshoppers, divested of their external 
members, will present nearly the same appear- 
ance, and, if seasoned alike, will have nearly 
the same flavor ; and if people could so far 
overcome their prejudices as to make a trial, 
they would nearly taste alike, perhaps. 

In the month of July, 1875, I made a small 
collection of crustaceans along the shores of 
Delaware Bay, consisting of crabs, shrimps, 
prawns, sand-fleas and others, which I im- 
mersed in alcohol. I also made a collection 
of grasshoppers (locusts) on the sand flats 
some distance in from the beach, which I also 
immersed in alcohol. About twenty-four 
hours after their immersion, all these animals 
turned red, just as crabs and lobsters do when 
they are boiled, and on looking at them I 
could not but reflect that these animals were 
all very similar in substance, and tliat the 
chemical affinities which produced this uni- 

•Read before the Liunwan Society, February 24, 1877, by 
S. S. RathTon. 
tTo wUcli alao belong tlis snakes and toads. 



form discoloration musthaveheen substantially 
the same. Indeed, I have it directly from the 
mouth of an intimate friend, who on several 
occasions visited the '"Digger Indians" dur- 
ing liis residence in California, and who ate 
of gras.shoppers as they were prepared by these 
Indians, that they were pleasantly flavored and 
palatable, even in the simple manner in which 
these children of nature prepared them — not 
much unlike shrimps, and quite as agreeable to 
the sight, and, if properly prepared by civilized 
hands, might have been »s good as shrimps. 

Many long years ago I had a youthful friend 
who went as cabiu boy in a trading-vessel to 
the West India Islands, and when he returned, 
boy-like, he had many things to say, espec'ially 
about the fruits and other edibles he found in 
the markets ; and amongst them was a certain 
delicacy called (jrugrus, which, compared with 
other articles, whs expensive, and highly es- 
teemed, but he did not seem to know exactly 
whether they were animal or vegetable. Long 
years afterward, when I began to read works 
on entomology, I learned that gruyru was the 
name applied to the larva of the "palm-wee- 
vil" — Calandra pahnarim — which was eaten 
by those who could alford to buy them, and 
that some of the English officers became ex- 
ceedingly fond of them and esteemed them 
great luxuries ; and also, that the early ex- 
l)anding buds of the " cabbage-palm" — Areca 
oleracea — or rather within the leaves which 
constitute the summit of the trunk, a solid 
head lies concealed, which is white, soft and 
about two feet in length, and this is eaten 
either raw or cooked. The trunk of this palm 
is infested by the palm-weevil, as thick as a 
man's thumb, and three inches long, so that it 
affords a dish, perhaps more savory than our 
" beef and cabbage." Now, the practical les- 
son I desire to suggest by this paper is to this 
effect. We are often injured in our crops of 
diflerent kinds by the infestation of hordes of 
destructive insects, in some instances so nu- 
merous and so gormandizing in their appetites 
as to destroy all vegetation, and leave nothing 
but barrenness and squalid want in their 
train, and, but for legislative provision and 
the general dictates of charity, would often 
result in famine. With the return of almost 
every summer season our vastly expanded ter- 
ritory sufiers from the infestations of some 
one or more kinds of destructive insects ; and 
these are frequently so sudden in their advent, 
and so voracious in their demands, that a 
whole crop may be destroyed before a remedy 
can be applied, even if a certain lemedy were 
known ; and this is especially the ca.se with 
tiie incursions of the " Rocky Mountain lo- 
cust," or "rascal grasshopper" (Caloplinus 
spretus), to say nothing about those so destruct- 
ive to special crops— such, for instance, as the 
"chinch bugs," the "Colorado potato beetles," 
the "white earth-grubs," the "curculios," 
and others, that infest wheat, corn, potatoes, 
grasses, fruits and other species of vegetation. 

Waiving all speculation as to the oriyin of 
insects, I think we may safely concede that 
their existence has been permitted in the 
universal economy of the Creator, for some 
use, for the punishment of some abuse, or for 
the prevention of a greater rejZ. We probably 
would have a dull, monotonous and pestilential 
world, it tliere were no insects, and it is very 
certain that the presence of certain species 
have always been regarded as a special blessing 
to mankind ; and even those noxious species, 
in some countries, have been utilized or con- 
verted into blessings, which in other countries, 
have been only esteemed as a curse. Can any 
one doubt that the versatile and gastro- 
noniically fertile French would have esteemed 
a daily shower of locusts during the late "siege 
of Paris" as less a blessing than did the childreu 
of Israel the manna in the wilderness ; or that 
they would not have preferred them to cat- 
stews, dog-pies, and monkey-hash. Nor 
would they have been at all singular in this, 
for these and other insects have been used as 
food from very ancient times, and are still so 
used in many parts of the world, and this, too. 
not from necessity, but from choice, ^-n'l 
wherever they have been tested by intelligent 



and unprejudiced moderns, the almost univer- 
sal verdict has been that their taste and flavor 
have been far preferable to many of the culinary 
preparations brought to the tables of modern 
civilization— Limberger cheese, for instance. 
Many of you, no doubt, have read tliC recent 
accounts going the rounds of the newspapers, 
of the banquet of Rocky Mountain locusts, 
served up under the auspices of Prof. Riley 
and a cordon of scientific gentlemen in the 
west, the details of which were very interest- 
ing and to the point. I am not suggesting a 
resort to insect food in a time and in a land of 
plenty, and yet a period in our domestic his- 
tory may come, when we will make use of 
them as a matter of choice. But, when they 
make their advent in vast clouds, and destroy 
every green thing upon the face of the 
earth, I think we should so far overcome our 
prejudices, and compensate ourselves by feed- 
ing upon them, rather than suffer from starva- 
tion and pinching want ; and herein may also 
be found a practical remedy. It is wonderful 
how the price advances and how scant the 
supply, when the taste becomes cultivated to 
the appropriation of certain articles as human 
food. Less than fifty years ago tomatoes 
were regarded with disgust or repugnance, if 
not as poisonous ; but how does the matter 
stand in regard to this popular edible to-day ? 
Tomatoes instead of remaining a mere or- 
nament, became a subject of use, and hence 
the supply was provided through careful cul- 
tivation. Not so, however, with some other 
things. When I was a mere lad, some five 
and fifty years ago, the ponds, the creeks, the 
dams, and even tlie rivers, were all pretty 
well stocked with frogs, and they often made 
night hideous with their cries of "More rum" 
and "Blood and nouns," to the great terror 
of juvenile night walker.s. Nobody then 
dreamed of using them as food. At length 
an instructed epicure located in the town, 
who soon commenced a war upon the frogs, 
and oflfered to purchase all that were brought 
to him at a penny a piece — sometimes as low 
as eight and ten cents per dozen. For awhile 
his table was well supplied and he and his 
guests fairly rioted in the luxury. Finally 
other citizens liegan to relish frogs, and be- 
fore mail}' years the race became almost ex- 
tinct. Frogs have very little brain, but what 
little they have, we boys soon tliscovered, 
they so far cultivated as to serve the purpose 
of self-preservation. To capture them, we 
used a fishing rod with a short piece of line at 
the end, to which was attached a hook baited 
with a "bit" of red flannel, and at first they 
were just stupid enough to greedily snap at 
the flannel, and allow themselves to be hooked; 
but they soon found out the nature of the de- 
coy, and refused to bite at it. They would sit 
and look at us, and allow us to dangle the de- 
coy about their heads, or across their mouths, 
but they would bite no more. Then we tied 
two or three hooks together — back to back — 
like a miniature anchor, and hooked them 
with a quick upward jc^rk, whether they bit 
or not; but they soon learned to evade this 
dodge by increasing the distance between us 
and them. Their advance in scholarship was 
remarkable. If they were just an inch or two 
beyond the length of our rods, and we tied a 
foot or two to the lower end, by the time we 
were ready to use it, the frogs were just that 
much farther out in the stream. Then we 
were compelled to resort to powder and shot, 
and then too the frogs began to dive under 
the water at our approach. Claiming your 
indulgence for this digression, allow me to 
say, that it was the fashion of eating frogs 
that occasioned their depletion and almost 
extinction. A similar use of insects would go 
very far toward diminishing their numbers, 
and who knows how soon the time may come 
when such a use will be made of them, both 
as a remedy against their incursions, and as 
an article of commerce. Even if it should be 
made manifest that insects are a nutritious, 
healthful and pleasant food, there would ne- 
cessarily be exceptions, just as there are ex- 
ceptions among vertebrated animals; for, not 
many people hanker much after owls, crows 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



and buzzards, .Tiiy more tliaii they do after 
wild cats, wolverines ami skunks, but there 
niiglit be those who would prefer them to 
more delicately constituted animals. Nor 
could the use of insects as food be claimed as 
a modern discovery, for, without j^oiu^j biek 
to the iii'ehistorie ages of the human family, 
and s|>eculatinK upon their Kiislrouoniic hab- 
its, we have numberless instances rec'orded 
npon the paijes of ancient, mediievaland mod- 
ern history that they were used as Iniman 
food. The Greek ai'ul K'lman epicures of the 
2d century. —and both <'arlier and later than 
that period— were in the habit of eating the 
larvce of several coleopterous insect:;, and 
highly relished tlieui, according to iElian, 
Pliny and others; which were probably those 
of palm-weevils, and certain large species of 
Lotiyi-corniaus. Pliny's coasus probably was a 
Prionus. AVliat we know of cossiis now, is, 
that it is very offensive, and would liardly be 
used as food"; but the two edible species 
named, as well as the white grubs of certain 
Laniellicornian insects, were eaten, and re- 
garded as great luxuries by the people ;)f Suri- 
nam, South America, and the West Indies, 
and are very probably eaten liy those people to- 
day. The larvie of a large species of Ceram- 
liiClD^E {Prionus duiiilcnnns) was in great re- 
quest at the principal tables in J unaica, and 
a similar one in Mauritius, and also allied 
species in various parts of Africa. The whites 
as well as the negroes, in the latter country, 
are said to be greedily fond of the laritr. of 
Cock-chafers and Rhinoceros Beetles (Oi-yctcs 
naskomls). Among the OitTHOi'TEHA, lo- 
custs have been considered almost a staple 
food ainone various nations. St. John the 
Ba))tist made a repast of "locusts and wild 
honey" in the wilderness, and among the 
Ethiopian tribes, and the Parthians, as well 
as the Arabians, locusts were a common arti- 
cle of food, and from this circiunstance some 
of these trilies were called Acrilnphagi (locust 
eaters) from Acridum, a genus to which some 
of the largest species belong. Tlie larijest 
species of locust in our laiitude is tlie Acrid- 
ivm Americaiuini, and is common in Lancaster 
county. 

1 might (ill many pages in quoting the in- 
stances throughout the world where insects 
have been resorted to as an article of human 
food, and this not from necessity alone, but 
from choice. Not only the orders Col&ipUiu 
and Orthapter", hut also the Lipidoptera, the 
Honwptera, the Hijmcnoptcra, the Diptern and 
the ^;3t' rn, have furnislied subjects for tlie 
sustenance of tlie human family. The Greeks, 
the Romans, the Parthians, tlie American 
Indians, the East Indians, the Hindoos, the 
Egyptians, the Mahrattans, the Brazilians, 
the'Swedcs, the Hottentots, the New Caledon- 
ians, the French, the Ceylonese, theilarguer- 
itans, and even others of the most polished 
among the European nations, have at various 
times been more or less given to the use of 
insect food, and these instances have been co- 
piously set forth by such authorities as Aris- 
totle, Pliny, Piso, Homer, Aristophanes, /El- 
ian, Raumer, Scopoli, Lattreille, Humboldt, 
Rose], and many others, anl to lead the de- 
scriptions of the relish with which many indi- 
viduals, both male and female, refined as well 
as vulgar, partook of them, is almost sutlieient 
to excite an apjietite in those who have 
'•never been there." 



to the amounts of such fertilizing materials 
removed from the soil (as per tal)le by Prof. 
Atwater in American AgricuHnrist) it costs in 
these materials to produce one bushel of wheat, 
:i3{c. ; one bushel rye, '2Tic. ; one bushel oats, 
llic. ; one bushel corn, ^.i^c. ; one bushel buck- 
wheat, 18c.; one bushel jiotatoes, 7_tc.; one 
ton meadow hay, $8.75; i)\u: ton timothy hay, 
.•51-2.l:i; red clover hay would seem to remove 
•Sl'i.Sl, but as the clover ajipropriates the 
greater |)art of the nitrogen from ihe air, the 
materials removed are probably not worth over 
fti.oO per ton of hay; wheat stniw per ton, 
82.70; rye straw per ton, 82. .')7; oats straw 
per ton, $3.37; corn fodder per ton, $4.43; 
taliaceo iier 101) lbs., 81.20. 

Now if by applying a certain amount of fer- 
tilizers, a certain increase is the result, and 
that increase costs less for fertilizers and extra 
laV)or involved than the market value of the 
increase, it is surely to the interest of the far- 
mer to use them. The i)reparation of the land 
is the same, the tilhige liardly ever more, 
sometimes less, on account of the luxuriant 
growth of crop that smothers any late weeds 
that may start, and the only increase in cx- 
pen.sc may be that the harvesting will cost 
more, on account of the larger crop ; but har- 
vesting usually is but a small part of the ex- 
pense. 

Unfortunately, the result from the appli- 
cation of fertilizers (stable manure being no 
exception) will not always be satisfactory, for 
if the sea.son is very dry there will be little ap- 
liarent benelit, and even in some cases, where 
they were not applied in a jiroper manner, 
may be a positive injury. But as in most 
cases the cost of the increase is only from one- 
half to one-sixth of the market value of such 
crops, we believe it wcudd pay to use the fer- 
tilizi rs more, iiroviding it was made a regular 
practice ; for if used only semi-occasionally, 
the result would iirobably be about as .satis- 
factory as if stable manure was applied in the 
same manner. 

The crops wliicli would seem to pay best by 
an ai)|)lication of fertilizers in the order from 
the best paying to those that pay less for the 
expense involved are tobacco, potatoes, wheat, 
rye, oats and corn. In these the ratio between 
the value of the materials removed and the 
market value of the crop is the greatest. 

Timothy is probably the crop that is least 
able to sland an application, for one ton of hay 
removes 44i lbs. ammonia (30.0 lbs. nitrogen), 
14;,^ lbs. phosphoric aciii and 41 lbs. jxitasli. 
costing over 812 at the warehouse, to which, 
if freight, expense of applying, interest and 
taxes on land, and labor of making hay be 
added, it would ruu Uf* the cost of the hay to 
about S21 per ton. 

From the circular mentioned we glean that 
in beets, carrots, tobacco, timothy, and all the 
srains except buckwheat, ammonia is most 
required, phosphoric acid next, and potash 
last. 

In turnips, ruta bagas, sorghum, sugar cane, 
cotton and buckwheat, phosphoric acid is most 
required, pot.ash next, ammonia last. 

In Irish potatoes, clover, peas, beans and 
lucern, potash and phosphoric acid are most 
required, ammonia last. — A. B. K. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
JOTTINGSSUGGESTED BY ACIRCULAR 

One of the prominent dealers in fertilizers 
has put out a circular which it might be well 
to study. As he is generally recognized as a 
fair dealer, and the figures that are iriven of 
the composition of crops and fertilizers are 
ttiken in nearly all cases from standard works 
on chemistry, the calctdations that may be 
reduced will be in the main reliable. 

In making the prices of chemical manures, 
he gives the following rates for the fertilizing 
materials contained in the same : 

Ammonia, 17ic. per lb.; (nitrocren, 2H;) 
phosphoric acid, 9c. per lb ; potash, 7^c. per lb. 

If we now take these figures and apply them 



VERY CURIOUS EXPERIMENTS. 

The Sick and the Afflicted Cured— A Great 

Blessing Conferred upon the Human 

Family without Cost. 

Some months ago, a number of the i»ipers 
in the country criticised, generally with some 
degree of facetiousncss, a book written by 
Gen. A. J. Pleasontou of Philadelphia, en- 
titled "Blue and Sun Li^zbt; their inlhience 
npon Life, Disease, etc." Some of the ideas 
set forth by Gen. Pleasonton are calculated to 
-startle reading and thoushtfid persons, and 
failing to comprehend his theories, it is no 
wonder that the critics poked considerable fun 
at them. My attention was recently directed 
to the "blue glass" treatment by an old friend 
who recommended its use in case of sickness 
in my family. Having confidence in ray friend 
I wrote to Gen. Pleasouton regarding it, and 



in reply received a copy of his liook, and in- 
strudions regarding the application of the 
blue light in the case I recited to him. Hav- 
ing practical evidence before me of the bene- 
fits to be derived from the application of the 
"blue light," I propose in thi.s letter to give 
some general Idea of Gen. Pleasonton 's the- 
ory regarding the 

Blue and Sun Lights. 
To promise, then. Gen. Pleasonton, the au- 
thor of the book in question, was not the fa- 
mous ciivalry leader during the war, as has 
b^en quite generally supposed, but hit< elder 
brother. The cavalry leader is (im. Alfred 
Pleasonton, while the discoverer of the blue 
lii;ht theory is Gen. Augustus J. Pleasonton. 
He is agraduiite of West Point, was in tlie 
reguliir army for .some time, from which he 
resigned; during the war he was a Brigadier 
General of Pennsylvania militia, and was se- 
lected to organiz(f a body of 10,(J00 men with- 
in the Stat(! for use in emergencies. He is a 
lawyep>f iirominence in Philadelphia, a gen- 
tletnan of culture, wealth and refinement. 
Owning a farm outside of the city, he in 1800 
commenced to ex|)evinient upon his theory re- 
garding the different colors in the sun's rays, 
and their ellects upon vegetable and animal 
life. Experiments made in Eiu-ope had al- 
ready demonstrated that the blue rays of the 
sun's light had greater chemical powers than 
any of the others, developed a greater 
amount of heat, and were espt^cially stimulat- 
ing to vegetation. But these ex])criments 
had been barren of practical results, and Gen. 
Pleasonton was left to his own resources to 
carry out his own ideas. He built a large 
grapery, covered with gla.ss. every eighth row 
of which was blue. By this arrangement, the 
sun ill making its rouiids, 

Cast a Blue Ray of Light 
upon every plant and leaf within the jrrapery. 
In April, 1801, he set out twenty varieties of 
grape-vines in his grapery, all of the cuttings 
being one year old, the size of a pipe stem, 
and cut close to the ground. The vines soon 
began to show a most vigorous growth, and 
in a few weeks the urai'cry was filled with 
vines and foliase. By September— or tivc 
months after setting -the secdman who had 
furnished the cuttings made measurements, 
and found that the vines had grown forty-five 
feet in length, and were an inch in diameter 
a foot aliove the ground. These vines at- 
tracted great attention in the neighborhood, 
but it was predicted that, owing to this un- 
usual growth, they would not bear fruit. Next 
year, liowever, the vines displayed the same 
vigor )us growth, and in addii ion bore over 
1,2(K) ])ounds of luscious gnipes of unusual size. 
This was more astonishing to horticultur- 
ists than the grow'th of the vines, but from that 
day to this, the vines have kept up the same 
vigorous growth, beini: entirely free from dis- 
ea.se and destructive in.'^ecls, and b.'aring with 
I>roportioiiate iirolificness. How remarkable 
this result is will be appreciated when it is 
known that in gra|ie-growing countries the 
vines do not bear fruit until the fifth or sixth 
year. Having been so successful in his first 
experiment with vesretable life. Gen. Pleason- 
ton next tried the effect of 

Blue Light upon Animals. 
His first experiment was with a litter of 
pigs, which he placed in a pen which was 
placed in a pen which was lighted by blue and 
plain glass inserted in the roof in equal pro- 
portions. This litter gained wonderfully in 
weight, size and strength, and, at the end of 
a few months, were found to weiLrh very much 
mora than a similar litter raised in the usual 
way. He next experimented witli an Alder- 
nev bull-calf, which was so puny and weak at 
its" birth that the manager of tlie farm said it 
could not live. It was put under blue glass, 
and in twenty-four hours it was able to stand 
ui>, and was taught to drink milk; in four 
months it was a perfectly-devc-loped bull, 
strong and vigorous, and was turned in with 
the lurd of cows, and has since fulfilled every 
exiiectation regarding him. Subsequently 
other experiments gave him confidence, and 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



now all his cattle are raised under blue glass, 
showing great vigor and the most surprising 
precocity. A heifer beeonies a mother wlien 
14 months old, and the cow.s and their proge- 
ny are healthy and strong, and the former 
are great milkers. It is generally held that 
heifers should not bear young before they are 
four years old, but under the influence of blue 
glass, they do so without injury when 18 
months old, thus saving the expense of keep- 
ing them tlirough two and a half years. The 
beneficial efft'Ct of the associated plain and 
blue rays of the sun's light upon vegetable and 
animal life having been demonstrated, to the 
wonder and amazement of all who had ob- 
served the experiments, their eftect was tried 
upon 

Various Sick Persons. 

The most astonishing results have been ob- 
tained, which are certified to in such a man- 
ner as to leave no doubtregarding them. Com- 
modore Goldsborough, who had read some- 
thing regarding Gen. Pleasonton's di.scovery, 
relates the case of a lady who prematurely 
gave birth to a child, which was weak and 
puny, weighing but three and a half pounds 
at birth. There were blue curtains to the 
windows of the room in which the cliild was 
reared, and those were arranged so that the 
light entering the room came about equally 
through tlie blue curtains and tlie glass of the 
windows. Tlie child began to thrive, devel- 
oped a tremendous appetite, while the lacteal 
system of the mother was greaily excited, and 
her supply of milk greatly increased. The 
child grew rapidly in health, strength and size, 
and at the end of four months weighed twen- 
ty-two pounds. Commodore Goldsborough ex- 
perimented with two broods of chickens, plac- 
ing one under blue glass and the other in an 
ordinary coop. The former soon showed the 
stimulating effects of the blue glass, their 
growth being almost visible from day to day, 
and their strength, size and vigor far exceeden 
that of the chickens in the ordinary coop. This 
is testimony f i ora a gentleman of high stand- 
ing who is in the habit of carefully weighing 
his words. The 

Wife of a Philadelphia Physician 

was suffering from a complication of disorders, 
and the medical fraternity of New York and 
Philadelphia could do nothing for her. Her 
husband. Dr. Beckwith, writes that she was 
suffering from nervous irritation and exhaus- 
tion, wiiicli resulted in severe neuralgic, and 
rheumatic pains, depriving her of sleep and 
appetite for food, producing great debility and 
a wasting away of the body. The lady and 
her husband had abandoned hope of her re- 
covery. Gen. Pleasonton recommended the 
trial of the blue glass, and accordingly Dr. 
Beckwith arranged one sash of a window with 
alternate panes of blue and common glass. 
His wife then exposed to the effect of the as- 
sociated rays of blue and plain light those por- 
tions of her body which were affected by neu- 
ralgia. In three minutes she experienced re- 
lief, and in ten minutes the pains disappeared. 
With each application of the associated lights, 
her pains became less,herappetite and strength 
returned and in three weeks she was restored 
to h'^r normal, healthful condition. This lady 
had been losing her hair in consequence of her 
sickness, there being several bald places on 
her head. Under the stimulating effects of 
the blue glass, the hair began to grow vigor- 
ously, and tlie bald places were soon covered 
with a luxuriant growth of hair. Dr. Beck- 
with, in relating this case, says: "From my 
observations, of the blue and sunlight upon 
my wife, I regard it as the greatest stimulant 
and most powerful tonic that I know of in 
medicine. It will be invaluable in typhoid 
cases, cases of debility, nervous depression, 
and the like." 

Two Major Generals, 
old friends of Gen. Pleasonton. were afllicted 
with rheumatism in their forearms, from 
their elbow-joints to their finger-ends, so se- 
vere at times that they were unable to hold 
pens. They determined to try "Pleasonton's 
blue glass," and accordingly obtained a piece 



of blue glass and set it up loosely in one of 
their windows. For three days they bared 
tlieir arms and held them in the associated 
blue and sun light for thirty minutes. Each 
day brought them relief, and at the end of 
three days the rheumatism had disappeared. 
Two years later they both informed Gen. 
Pleasonton that they had not had a return of 
rheumatism in any form. A little child that 
had, from its birth, scarcely any use of its legs 
was taken to play daily in a room where blue 
glass formed a portion of one of the windows. 
In a very short time it obtained the use of its 
legs and learned to walk and run without 
ditliculty. Numerous other cases are men- 
tioned in Gen. Pleasonton's book showing 
that there can be no question of the stinmlat- 
ing and curative effects of the as.sociated blue 
and sunlight. But I prefer to give my own 
experience, and then follow with Gen. 
Pleasonton's explanation. A lady of my 
family, about si.x weeks ago, had a 

Violent Hemorrhage of the Lungs, 
and for ten days raised more or less blood dai- 
ly. She was very much weakened by the loss 
of blood, and considerably frightened withal. 
I obtained some blue glass and placed it in 
the window where she was in the habit of sit- 
ting, the blue glass constituting one-half the 
lower sash of the window. The lady sat dai- 
ly in the associated lights, allowing the blue 
rays especially to fall upon the nerves of the 
back of the neck for about an hour a day. 
The second day, the sun's rays being unusu- 
ally strong, she got "too much blue glass," 
and at night felt peculiar sensations in the 
back of the neck, among the nerves, and an 
unpleasant fullness in the head. Tliese sen- 
si" tions wore off next day, and since then she 
has not remained so long at a time under the 
blue glass. But from the first she began to 
grow stronger, her face soon gained its natur- 
al fullness, and in a week she was, to all ap- 
pearance, as well as ever. Of course she was 
not cured of the trouble in her lungs in so 
short a time, but the soreness in her chest has 
passed away, and she begins to feel well again. 
After sitting in the associated light a week, 
a large number of red pimples came out on 
her neck and shoulders, an indication that the 
treatment was bringing to the surface the hu- 
mors of the blood. In a letter to me Gen. 
Pleasonton says: "I am satisfied that if this 
treatment shall be continued through the winter 
and spring, any tuberculous development that 
may exist in the lungs will be arrested, its pus 
absorbed into the circulation, and then thrown 
off from the blood in the e.xcretion (as has oc- 
curred already in the spots on the body), the 
wounds of the tubercles will be cicatrized 
and the lady restored to a condition of good 
health." InthesaineletterGen. Pleasonton re- 
lates an agreeable incident whicli occurred to 
him but a few weeks since. A lady and her 
daughter called to see him, and announced 
that they had come from Corning, N. Y., to 
Philadelphia,for the express purpose of thank- 
ing him for 

Saving the Daughter's Life. 

Four years ago she was afflicted with a vio- 
lent attack of spinal meningitis. Her sufferings 
were indescribable, but continuous. Every 
conceivable remedy had been resorted to diu'- 
ing these four years, but the patient received 
no benefit. Her nervous system at last be- 
came so disordered that the slightest sound or 
the most gentle agitation of the air threw hi'r 
into the most agonizing sufferinsr. vShe was 
wasted away in flesh, could not sleep at night, 
had no appetite, and her life was despaired of 
Hearing of Gen. Pleasonton's discovery in 
associated lights, her parents determiiwd to 
try it. A bay window was fitted with alter- 
nate panes of blue and plain slass, and the 
young lady sat daily in the light which stream- 
ed tliDUgh them. Her physicians, of course, 
laughed at the idea, pronounc -d the whole 
thing a humbug, etc., as is the habit of pro- 
fessional gentlemen whenever any new idea is 
broached. The physician was dismissed, and 
the young lady relied wholly upon the blueglass 
treatment for her restoration to health. The 



lady says that on entering the room thus 
lighted, the pains from which she was suffer- 
ing almost immediately ceased. They would 
return in a modified form on leaving the room, 
but grew less from day to day. Very soon 
her condition began to improve, her appetite 
returned, and with it her strength; she be- 
gan to gain tiesh, her sleeplessness disappeared, 
and in short, she was speedily restored to 
health. 

Hope for the Bald-Headed. 
A singular feature of this young lady's case 
was that her hair all came out and she became 
as bald-headed as an egg. Her physician ex- 
amined the scalp with a microscope, and de- 
clared that there were no roots of hair remain- 
ing, and that, consequently, she would never 
again have a natural head of hair. This au- 
noimcement to a young lady was worse than 
wotild have been the reading of her death war- 
rant. Better the cold grave and its attendant 
worm than to go through life with a wig. Under 
the blue glass treatment, the hair did begin 
to grow, the young lady discarded her wig, 
and when she called upon Gen. Pleasonton 
she showed him a luxuriant growth of hair 
which any young lady might envy. She was 
profusely gratefid to the General for having 
restored her hair, and incidentally saved her 
life. So much for examples and illustrations. 
These and numerous others which I might 
cile if you had space to print them, show that 
the blue associated with the sunlight have a 
wonderfully stimulating effect upon both veg- 
etable and animal life, and have cured some 
diseases with which the human family is af- 
rticted. If they will do this, everybody ought 
to know it, for the treatment costs nothing, 
and is a great saving of doctors' bills. Now 
for 

Gen. Pleasonton's Explanation 

of the curative effects of the associated lights. 
In his letter to me he puts it thus tersely: 
"Sunlight passes through plain, transparent 
glass with very slight obstruction, as it does 
through the atmosphere and ether of space; it 
produces no heat, for the glass remains as cold 
as the outside atmosphere while the sunlight 
passes through it. When, however, the ad- 
joining sunlight, moving with the same veloc- 
ity as the first mentioned, viz.: 186,000 miles 
per second, falls upon the blue panes of glass,six 
of the seven primary rays of sunlight are sud- 
denly arrested by it, only the blue rays being 
permitted to pass through it into the apart- 
ment. The sudden stoppage of these six raj's 
of light, with its enormous velocity, produces 
friction; this friction evolves negative electri- 
city, which is the electricity of sunlight pass- 
ing throtigh the ether of space and our cold 
atmosphere, both of which being negatively 
electrified impart their electricity by induc- 
tion to the rays of sunlight as they pass. The 
blue glass is oppositely electrified. When the 
opposite electricities, thus brought together, 
meet at the surface of the glass, their con- 
junction evolves heat and magnetism; the 
heat expands the molecules of the glass, and 
a current of electro-magnetism jiasses into 
the room, imparting vitality and strength to 
any animal or vegetable life within it. When 
the atmosphere of the room becomes thus 
electro-magnetized, its inhabitants i-aunot fail 
to derive the greatest benefit from being in 
it." Gen. Pleasonton's book is devoted to 
the scientific discussion of bis theory, and to 
the recital of proof to sustain him. He bold- 
ly combats many theories which have been 
acceiited as established principles, and atily 
puts forward his own as a substitute. For 
instances lie denies the 

Newtonian Theory of Gravitation, 
affirming that there is no such thing. He 
holds that electricity is the all-controlling- 
force of nature, and by and through it we live 
and have our being, the earth revolves, the 
planets are sustained in their several places, 
and all that. He further denies the accepted 
theory that the sun is an incandescent body, 
throwing off heated rays, and that there is any 
heat in the sunlight. He argues that the earth 
is siu:rouaded by an envelope of atmosphere 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



and ether which has been provcc] to be of a 
temperature minus one liuiiuied and forty-two 
degrees centigrade, and tliat it would he ali.so- 
solutelv iniiiossiblc for the sun's rays to pene- 
trate tiiis cold envelope for a distance of il2-, 
000,000 of miles and preserve any portion of 
heat whatever. According to Pleasonton, 
all our heat is evolved from the earth, and 
the heat and cold of our atmosphere are regu- 
lated by the dislance of this cold envelope 
from the earth, Not being a scientist, and 
not having much time or space at my disposal 
I shall not pretend to explain Gen. Ploason- 
ton's ideas. Let those who wish to read his 
book send to Scribner for it, inclosing S'J, and 
they will get it. Hut "the iiroof of the pud- 
ding is in the eating." While I cannot ex- 
plain scientilically the operation, I know that 
the blue light, in conjunction with the ])lain 
light, has i)roduce(l wonderful effects, both in 
curing disease and otherwise. It costs noth- 
ing to try it, for, although a patent has been 
issued to Gen. Pleasonton for his discovery, 
he has not sought to profit by it. Let 

Whoever Desires to Experiment 

with it, whether upon vegetable or animal 
life, go ahead. If upon vegetable life, the 
proportion of blue glass to transparent should 
be about one-eighth; if upon animal life, let it 
be about equal— one-half blue and one-half 
transparent. The glass used is a dark pur- 
plish blue, and can be obtained almost any- 
where. Get a few panes cut to the size of 
your window panes, and insert them alter- 
nately in the sash, and then let the lame, the 
halt, and the blind sit within its influence. 
It is soon tested, and at a trifling cost. The 
results already obtained and certified to by 
men of known character and standing are sntli- 
cient to make ridiculous the one who would 
cry '■humbug." Facts are facts, and cannot 
be wiped out. Whatever one may think of 
Gen. Pleasonton's theories, or his explanations 
of the results obtained by his cx]ierinients, no 
one who reads his book can doubt but these 
results have been obtained. In France, his 
book attracted the attention of the best scien- 
tists, who are now experimenting with the 
blue glass. What results have been obtained 
is not known. All scientists admit that elec- 
tricity is a force regarding which very little is 
known. They are all striving to learn more 
regarding it, and to make it more subservient 
to the will of man. Perhaps Geu. Pleasonton 
has got 

A Step in Advance 

of all of them, and holds the key of the»pnzzle 
in his grasp. I should add, however, that he 
is.exceedingly'niodest regarding hisdiscovery, 
and says: "I do not profess to teach any one; 
but, as a human atom among the masses of 
mankind, for whom all knowledge should be 
"disseminated, I venture to imi)art to the pub- 
lic the conclusions to which I have arrived on 
these subjects, and that the public may attach 
to them whatever value they please." When 
I see a near and dear relative daily advancinc 
from sickness to health, gaining strength and 
vigor from the application of his theory, I for 
one attach very considerable weight to it. In 
the hope that others may be induced to exper- 
iment in this dir8f;lion, where no possible 
harm can follow and raueh good may result, 
I have written this letter. — Qhicago Tribune. 



GOLDEN RULES FOR BEE-KEEPING. 

1. For success. The successful bee-keeper 
should be firm, fearless, promjit, provident, 
persevering, systematic and self-reliant. 

2. For situation. The apiary should be in 
a sheltered position, near a small stream, and 
where a variet}' of honey -plants, some of which 
yield abmidani, and others constant supplies of 
the nectar. 

3. For removing bees. Allow for abund- 
ant ventilation, close up firmly, invert and 
place in a spring wagon, so that combs run 
with, and not across the wagon. Unless re- 
moved a mile or more, hives should be moved 
by degrees, only a foot or two at a time, or 
many" bees will be lost. 



4. For hives. Tlie general advantages of 
manuf.acture, simplicity, capacity, wintering 
anil adaptation to the requirements of the 
particular apiarian are to be considered. It 
is essential that every hive, frame, box, and 
movable part be of the same size so that each 
will lit with all. 

5. For handling. Move gently and with- 
out sudden or violent motions in all work 
about the apiary. 

C. For subduing. "Bees filled with liquid 
sweets do not volunteer an attack." Hence, 
cause thcin to fill themselves with honey by 
smoking or fii^hting. 

7. For smoking. Use dried buffalo chip 
from the cow pen. It costs notliii>g. is the 
best material, and when lighted lasts a long 
time. 

8. For protection. U.se a bobinet vail 
sewed up and open at the both ends, one 
fastened with rubber around the hat, the other 
secured under the coat collar. 

9. For sweeping bees. U.se a green twig 
or a bunch of asparagus, never a feather. 

10. For stings. Do dot flinch if stung. 
Scrape the sting out with a knife or finger- 
nail, pinch the wound and apply soda, liarts- 
horn, or whatever alkali is found best by the 
particular party. 

11. For increase. Rear queens, or have 
queen cells ready from nuclei before the swarms 
are made. Make but few swarms if honey is 
desired. 

12. For nuclei. Use the regular frames 
and hive with division hoards to diminish or 
increase at pleasure. No extra, useless comb 
is then needed, and they are easily increased 
to stands. 

18. For inserting queens. She should be 
fertile, the bees aware of their loss, no queen 
cells started, the same scent given, and the 
bees quiet, when she is released. 

14. For strength. Keep only prolific queens, 
feed in times of honey drought, check undue 
swarming by destroying queen cells, and if 
neces.sary, by inserting combs of capped brood 
or uniting stocks. 

15. For honey. Keep the hives very strong 
if much is desired. The neater the box, or 
jar. the better the price. 

1(1 For a queenless colony. Give it a 
qui'en, queen cell or eggs at once, or unite it 
with another colony. 

17. For queens. Raise queens from select 
stocks. Keep only prolific ones, and supersede 
the third year after the close of the spring 
honey harvest. 

18. For record. Keep a record of the age 
of each queen, all examinations and condi- 
tions of the hive, on a card or tablet fastened 
conveniently in the top of each hive. 

19. For using extractors. Use sparingly 
except in the midst of a honey harvest, or 
directly thereafter, to give the qiieen room for 
laying. 

20. For comb guides. Use sharp angles, 
or strips of comb in the centre of the frames, 
and tip the hive forward at an angle of 25 
deg. 

21. For worker comb. Have combs built 
in colonies which have young queens, and 
always near the centre of the hive, or use 
artificial foundations. 

22. For raising drones. A square inch or 
two of drone comb is sufficient in a hive to 
prevent the rearing of useless drones. 

23. For cleansing comb. If dry, first soak 
and then direct a stream of water from a 
syringe iqion the comb so inchned that tiie 
water carries away the filth. 

24. For feeding. Time— after sunset, with 
tepid syrup if cool. Season— liquid food in 
sununcr and fall, and solid candy in winter. 
The syrup should vary from eijual part.s, by 
measure, of .sugar and water, for summer, to 
two of suijar to one of water, for fall feeding. 
Alittle vinegar may be added in summer to 
prevent storage, and a little cream of tartar 
in autumn to prevent crystallization. Freshly 
ground oat.s and rye for pollen, fed in a diy, 
sunny i)lace in spring. 

25. For removing propolis. Alcohol cleanses 
it from glass, benzine dissolves it, but the best 



way to remove it from quilts is by rubbing iu 
colil weather. 

For wintering. Stocks should be strong in 
bees, heavy with stores, prottcled from sud- 
den changes and depredators, with veutilation 
according to temperature. 

27. Against moths. Strong colonics with 
fertile queens. 

28. Against robbers. Contract the en- 
trinces — entirely if necessary. Leave no 
sweets exposed. 

29. Against ants. Pour coal oil, or car- 
bolic acid into their haunts. Seal honey in 
jars or jjlace it on a bench or swinging shelf, 
with a good wiile chalk mark around the sup- 
ports. Ants cannot cross a fresh chalk mark 
if wide and continuous. 

30. I-'or general success in all points. 
Keep your stocks strong I Stuong I I 

Four things to lie learned : 

1. How to succeed in artificial fertilization. 

2. How to coax bees to use old comb in 
constructing new. 

3. How to prepare pollen for use in the 
cells. 

4. How to make comb foundations that 
will not stretch. 

Yea and 

5. How to winter successfully without 
comb. — Bee-Kecper''s Magazine. 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

A stalcii moetine of Hie Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural ami horticultural .Society, was held in tlie 
rooms of tlic Linn;pau Society, on Monday afternoon, 
March .5, the following named gentlemen being pres- 
ent : 

Calvin Cooper, president; Johnson Miller, eccre- 
tarv; D. \V. f{ancl<, Henry ,M. En;rle, Reuben Wea- 
ver, Martin D. Kendip, John C. Linvillc, Levi W. 
firotf, Mr. Hitler, Levi Pownall, E. K. Hershey, 
John B. Erti, Jacob B. (iarber, Simon P. Eliy, C. L. 
Hunsccker, Prof. S. S. Hathvon, Peter S. Heist, John 
Buslions;-, Christian Coble, Georse W.Sehroycr, John 
.Miller, Adam Shreiner, Levi S. Relet, Jacob R. WIU 
mer, Klias Hershey. 

Crop reports bcin? called for, Mr. Esole stated 
that there was very little to report; frequent frecz- 
inir and thawinp had browned the wiuter wheat 
somewhat, but had not hurt it. Some of the peach 
buds had been liilled by the severity of the winter, 
hut there were enouerh unhurt to insure a i;ood 
yield. The lowest temperature during the season, 
at tiis place, was C decrees below zero. The lowest 
during the past month was is above zero, and the 
highest fi.5. Tlie rain fall during the past monlb 
was 2'.c inches. 

Mr. HiLi.EK, of Conestoga, said the fruit in his 
neightiorhood was unhurt. The thermometer at no 
time marked a lower temperature than 2 degrees 
atxjve zero. 

Mr. J. B. Err had noticed that the winter wheat 
was in some places injured by repeated freezing and 
thawing. 

President Cooper had examined a great many 
peach buds and found them all kilted. The lowest 
temperature was 6 decrees lielow zero. 

Mr. E. K. Hersiiet read an Interesting paper 
on the question referred to him at last meetinEr: 
"How much lime should be used toanacreof landf" 
He said agticullural chemists greatly dilTeiecl as to 
the utility of lime on laud. Some say that the con- 
stitueiilsof lime, if they at'; not already in the soil, 
must be put there by the farmer. Others regard 
lime as of very little account under the best circum- 
stances, while sometimes it did alisolute harm. Mr. 
Hershey thought that its chief utility is its quality as 
an alkaline re-agent. He thought many farmers 
used entirely loo much of it. He recommended 
from 15 to 30 bushels per acre, according to the na- 
ture of the soil, and to lie employed annually as a 
top dressing, in as line panicles as possible, after be- 
ing slaked. As the application ol lime as a fertil- 
izer was a question on w hicli farmers greatly differ- 
ed, he urged members of Ihc society to make experi- 
ments and lay the r res-jlts lielbre the society. 

Mr. H. M. Ej)«i,E lliouiht too much lime was 
generally used; smaller quantities more freqliently 
applied will do more cood than the large quantities 
sometimes used; some farmers use from 100 to 15o 
liuslicls per acre; this is too much. 

.Mr. J. C. I.ixviLi.E said some soils would hear 
from 100 to .00 bushels per acre, while others would 
not bear M bushels. Where the soil is not more 
than six inches deep and one-half gravel, it will not 
fake up much lime; it should therefore be put on 
sparingly. In clay soil it may be put on more heav- 
ily. Where there is not much vegetable matter In 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



[ March, 



the soil, lime will do more harm than good. As a 
manure it is of very little value. 

Mr. HiLLER paid the tobacco growers in his 
neighborhood limed very heavily — from 100 to lOO 
bushels jjer acre — and in addition added large quan- 
tities of barnyard manure, and plowed both in to- 
gether. In this way they raised immense crops of 
tobacco. 

Mr. Levi W. Groff did not have much faith in 
lime. Some years ago he bought a quantity, and 
spread it on a strip of ground through the centre of 
a field, at the rate of EOO bushels per acre. He sow- 
ed his seed, and when the crop ripened it was im- 
possible to see any difference in the yield. It was 
neither better nor woi-se than in the parts of the field 
that were not limed. The whole field was manured 
heavily with barnyard manure. Mr. Groff said he 
would like to know whether a useful kind of phos- 
phate might not be made by adding lime to green 
sawdust. Would not the lime deprive the sawdust 
of its acid and assist in rotting it? 

Mr S. P. Eby thought not. The lime would have a 
tendency to preserve rather than destroy the sawdust. 
We whitewash fences and buildings to preserve them. 
Mr. Eby gave an illustration of the value of lime on 
gravel soil— instancing a farm that was compara- 
tively valueless until lime was liberally applied. 

Mr. H. M. Engle thought the action of lime when 
mixed with the soil might be very diflerent from its 
action when applied to wood. 

Mr. E. K. Hershey suggested that gypsum would 
be better than lime to mix with the sawdust spoken 
of by Mr. Urolf. 

Mr. J. C. LiNViLLE had not much faith in either 
plan, but would use lime in preference to gypsum to 
compost the sawdust, and would then use the saw. 
dust very sparingly. It is well known that lime will 
preserve wood when it is kept dry, but will not pre- 
serve it when it is in a moist soil, as may be seen by 
the rotting of whitewashed posts and fences at or 
under the surface of the ground. 

Mr. HiLLEK said if he had a pile of sawdust such 
as Mr. Grotl's, he would rot it with liquid manure — 
with the draiuage from the manure pile in the barn- 
yard. 

President Cooper said he had successfully used 
gypsum by spreading it over the manure pile, es- 
pecially when there were a great many cornstalks in 
it. 

Mr. Maktin D. Ken-diS, referring to Mr. Groff's 
statement, that he could see no diSerence in a limed 
strip of land from the land that was not limed, said 
he knew of a strip of land that was limed ten years 
ago, at the rate of 100 or 150 bushels to the acre, 
and that the good re.<iults of liming can yet be seen 
by the increased crops grown on that strip. 

Mr. E. K. Heksuey, in answer to a question, said 
that air-slaked lime is not as good as water-slaked 
lime, because the former contains more carbonic 
acid than the latter. 

Mr. J. C. Lixvii^LE thought the best time to ap- 
ply lime was after the wheat has been harvested, 
and the best niode was to distribute it in as small 
particles as possible. Phosphates he thought were 
of little or no value. He had covered strips of land 
with them and failed to see any advantage resulting 
therefrom. 

In applying lime, Mr. Engle favored putting it in 
small heaps covered with earth before spreading it. 
The various propeities of the lime are thus preserved 
and absorbed by the soil. 

Mr. Levi Pow.\all believed that crops might be 
doubled by the judicious use of lime. He believes 
that it loses i.(me of its virtues by lying unused; in- 
deed the lime in old mortar seems to be better than 
fresh slaked lime. As an illustration of the value 
of lime he spoke of what used to be known as the 
"barrens," in the southeastern part of the county, 
which have been made fruitful farms by the liberal 
use of lime. These barrens were partly slate, partly 
gravel, and partly limestone land, and all these soils 
had been equally benefited by lime. He had used 
phosphates and thought he had in some cases re- 
ceived benefit from tliem, but as a general rule he 
had been cheated in them. 

Mr. Christian Coble said before he commenced 
liming h s land he could raise only 12 or 15 bushels 
of corn to the acre; now he raises from 75 to 100 
bushels. He uses on clay sod from 100 to 1.50 bush- 
els per acre, every four years, and is certain he de- 
rives great benefit from this method. 

Mr. Peter S. Reist said that L5 or 30 years ago 
his father applied from ICO to 100 bushels of lime 
per acre to part of his land. Scarcely any difference 
could be seen at the time in the crops on the limed 
and unlimed parts of the farm. But a great ditter- 
ence can be seen now; where all was sterility then, 
all is'fertility now. Those who use lime have good 
crops and those who don't have not. All good farm- 
ers now use lime and their farms have advanced in 
value from .00 to oOO per cent. 

The question, " VVheu is the best time to plant clo- 
verseed" gave rise to a long discussion and almost 
every month in the yearwas recommended, and half- 
a-dozen different modes of putting in the seed were 
advocated. 

President Cooper would sow the seed on top of 
the snow. 



Christian Coble would sow it on the ground 
when it was hard and dry and cracked open by bak- 
ing. 

Levi W. Groff would sow on wheat stubble and 
trust to wet weather for crop. 

Levi S. HeIst sowed in April and failed ; some of 
his neighbors sowed in the spring with no better re- 
sult and some did well by sowing on wheat stubble. 

John B. Erb sowed during harvest and failed. 

M. D. Kendig sowed after harvest with good re- 
sult. 

Mr. H. M. Engle thought spring was the best time 
to sow, but the weather had much to do with the re- 
sult. He believed the ground should be as well pre- 
pared for cloverseed as for any other crop. The best 
clover he had was when he sowed the seed with 
his oats. 

Mr. Levi PowNALL had sown seed in well culti- 
vated ground and also in wheat stubble, and the one 
turned out just as well as the other. Spring sowing 
might be done from the middle of March to the last 
of April. 

Mr. Levi S. Reist in sowing seed used about four 
quarts to the acre. 

Mr. E. K. Hershey suggested as an experiment, 
first, that the seed should be sown and harrowed in; 
and second, on another plot, the ground should be 
harrowed the seed sown afterwards. The harrow 
should be made of a piece of plank with 20-peuuy 
spikes driven through it. 

Mr. Levi W. Groff said he intended to experi- 
ment by sowing cloverseed on young wheat, and fol- 
low the seeding with a drag, a kind of sled without 
teeth. He feared that teeth would injure the roots 
of the wheat. 

"How shall we build agood and cheap pump house 
with a fruit cellar under it?" was a question proposed 
by Mr. John B. Erb. 

A debate followed in which several gentlemen 
agreed that a pump house would not be a fit place for 
a fruit cellar, as the dampness from the well would 
injuriously affect the fruit. Mr. Erb was of a d ffer- 
ent opinion. The cellar under his house was too dry 
lor fruit, and as a consequence the fruit shrank. He 
thought the dampnefs of a properly constructed 
pump house would not injure the fruit. He had fre- 
quently buried apples in the ground covered with 
straw, and they kept very well. 

Mr. Hershey had done the same last fall, and had 
examined his buried apples a few days a^o and found 
them in good condition, while those in his cellarwere 
rotten. 

Mr. Engle would not hnild such a fruit cellar as 
that proposed by Mr. Erb, nor bury his apples as 
pnpposed by Mr. Hershey, as buried apples are apt 
to have an earthy flavor. The common plan of pack- 
ing winter apples in barrels, and keeping them as 
near the freezing point as possible, is a good plan. 
Barreled apples will stand several deerecs below the 
freezing point without material injury. 

Prof. S. S. Rathton read a very interestin? paper 
in answer to the question: "Will the unusually 
large crop of tobacco worms, of the last season be 
likely to produce a correspondingly large crop of 
worms next season?" See page 37 in this number of 
the Farmer. 

Mr. P. S. Reist read a paper in answer to the 
question as to whether it was an advantage to select 
seed corn from the middle of large and well devel- 
oped ears. He said it had been his custom to select 
the largest and best grains for seed, but some of his 
neighbors, who were not so particular in this respect 
raised just as good corn as he did, and as much of it. 

Mr. H. M. Engle made a stronsr argument in fa- 
vor of selecting the best seed for corn, as well as all 
other crops. He exhibited .'e.'er,nl very fine ears of 
corn, and advised that in selecting seed the lai-gist 
and most fully-developed grains should be chosen, 
and the grains near both ends of the cob rejected. 
He also exhibited some fine specimens of pe.-re ^, 
snowllake, and Brownell's beauty potatoes, and re- 
commended that the largest and best potatoes should 
be selected for seed, on the same principle that the 
largest and best cattle and'horses are selected for the 
propagation of fine stock. 

Mr. P. S. Reist reported that he had obtained 75 
subscribers to the Lancaster FARiitR and hoped to 
increase his list to 100. He spoke a good word for 
allou' local newspapers and hoped his fellow mem- 
bers would subscrilje for as many as they could read 
and pay for, without regard to sect o\ politics. 

Mr. Geo. H. Becutel, by permission called the 
attention of the society to the merits of a patent seed 
cleaner and separator. 

The following questions were proposed for discus- 
sion at next meeting; 

„ What is the best method of exterminating the 
peach tree borer? Referred to H. M. Engle. 

Is there any advantage in selecting the larger 
grains of wheat for seed ? Referred to P. S. Reist. 

Is it not dangerous and criminal to use Paris green 
on cabbages and vegetables or fruits for market ? 
Referred to Johnson Miller. 

"Corn culture and its best varieties" was selected 
for discussion at the next meetins:. 

Levi Pownall was selected for essayist at the 
next meeting, * 

Mr. Levi W . Gboff presented samples of "mam 



moth rye," the grains of which are unusually large 
and of a fine amber color. 

The librarian was, on motion, directed to have the 
library brought from the court house to the rooms 
of the Linnsean society. 

On motion the society adjourned to meet on the 
last Wednesd.ay in March. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Minnesota Wheat and Flour. 

The American Miller, an able periodical of Chica- 
go, devoted to the milling interest, contains an article 
on the great staple of Minnesota, which is of consid- 
erable interest. The superiority of the flour manu- 
factured in this State is acknowledged, as is also 
the fact that the lime is not remote when all the ex- 
ports of breadstuffs from Minnesota will be in the 
shape of flour, instead of in the raw material as here- 
tofore. The American Miller then continues its com- 
ments, which are particularly commended to the at- 
tention of the agriculturists of .Minnesota, as follows: 

The rapid growth of Minnesota as a wheat pro- 
ducing State, and the building up within her bound- 
aries of a milling interest scarcely less than that of 
Hunu'ary, has naturally given rise to much gratuitous 
prophecy and criticism on the part of competing sec- 
tions of the country. In their zeal to disprove that 
Minnesota can ever become the milling center of the 
country, many have even asserted that the flour 
made in her mills is of a really inferior quality, and 
only needs time to demonstrate its unfitness for gen- 
eral use in the culinary department of home." A 
statement so erroneous hardly needs to be disproved, 
for it is well known that th.at Minnesota flour is un- 
usually strong and possesses all the elements of nu- 
trition to a superior degree. But there is one declar- 
ation which has been uttcr.'d which really seems to 
have a foundation in fact. It has frequently been as- 
ser ed tha'- the soil of .Minnesota is too light to stand 
the continuous production of wheat as a remunera- 
tive crop, and that she would soon go the way of 
her older sister States, and adopt some other gr.ain 
as her staple. This statement and prophesy have in 
a measuie been verified, if it is fair to take a single 
year as a ciiterion. We find it stated on standard 
atiricultural authorities that, the soil of Minnesota 
alriady shows signs of exhaustion, and that the aver- 
aire crop in most sections of the State last year was 
only a little over eight bushels to the acre. Much 
of this decline in her crop is directly attributable to 
other causes, but there can hardly be a doubt that 
the best days of wheat raising have passed away in 
many sections of the State. If it is true, as assert- 
ed, tliat the soil of Minnesota is already becoming 
weak, a steady decline in the average production of 
wheot per acre may be expcc'ed, though the supply 
may be quite as lar^ic as heretofore owing to the in- 
creased numberof. acres which may be putinto wheat. 

In view of the fact that scientific farming would 
hardly pay in a State so youn r as iSIinnesota, the in- 
quiry naturally su'isests itself, "What will become 
of her SDlcndid milling industry if her supply of 
wheat fails? ' We do not anticipate that any disas- 
trous r^sul's would accrue to the millers of Minne- 
sota, even if the supply sh.ould become inadequate. 
It must be remembered that a c'ood share of Minne- 
so'a's annual wheat crop is shipped out of the State 
to be maniifiiclured at other mills. This margin 
clearly would be available to the millers nearest the 
wheal field, and all the more so since these fields are 
at a distance from our exporting centres, and only 
sent there because i's superior excellence commands 
a superior price. Moreover it must be remembered 
that wheat was first planted in Minnesota as an ex- 
periment, and it has not yet been satisfactorily de- 
i.erniined how far north the limit of the sprinr wheat 
section may extend. The millers of Minnesota may 
yet render the future wheat fields of Dakota and 
Manitoba tributary to their mills. One point, how- 
ever, has more force than all o-hers looking to the 
perpetuity of the millinT industry of Minnesota, and 
that is the superior enterprise and skill of her mill- 
ers. Raw material always seeks those places of 
manufacture where these two qualities are displayed. 
Great Britain and Mew Enirland do not raise a pound 
of cotton, and yet they manufacture cotton itoods 
for half of the world. The superior skill manifested 
in these two localities has naturally made them the 
factories of the two continents, and Minnesota mill- 
ers would supply themselves with wheat from Texas 
or Oregon if nece.'^sary to the existence of their mills. 
Manufacturing centres do not change so easily as 
those of airriculture, \vliich change their location nat- 
urally as the soil becomes poorer. Costly apparatus 
arc not abandoned in the first struggle; and having 
already made a world-wide reputation, the millers 
of Minnesota will stand for years to come in the van- 
guard of the niillins industry of our country. It is 
not likely, however, that any perceptible diminu- 
tion of the wheat supply will occur for some time to 
come from the exhaustion of the soil. Minnesota is 
yet a young and undeveloped State, and we see no 
cause for dark prophecies respecting the future of 
her grain supoly until the unwelcome fact is demon- 
strated by the failure of more than one crop. 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



45 



Harrowing Wheat in Spring. 

The advantafreof harrowinj wheat laii'ls thorouffli- 
ly in the spi- n;r, as the srroiind Ix-conics dry eiioueh 
to preven' the horses 'roin sinkiiv.;' into it, is known 
to many farmers wlio have praclieed it, liut is un- 
known to tlie majority. Wheat is usually -sown in 
September, upon well prepared land. This land is 
left there snlijeet to all the slornis of rain ami snow, 
and the weather in sueecedinLr spring, until after the 
wheat is harvested. In eonsequenee, the land be- 
comes in .May and June nearly as hard as a meadow. 
At a sca^on of the year, svben the plants are in the 
greatest vicor of irrowtli. the land is so hard as not 
to give one half the nour sliment it would if kept 
mellow by any process. Suppose for inslanee, eorn 
should he planted intlie fall, undersiniilareondilions 
with wheal, and that the winter did not injure it : 
and that it were left without eultivalion of any sort 
uniil harvesting' ; it is evident that the yield would 
be diminished over one-half ; n fact the yield would 
probably be so light and poor as to be almost worth- 
less. 

Now, wheat, from many experiments in itecultiva- 
tion by hand in Enirland, shows as irreat sensitive- 
ness as eorn ; the yield, by. careful hand cultivation, 
beina; increased to fiO, and in some instances, SO 
bushels per acre. Now, a thorough liarrowinGf of 
wheat in the spring, in a very inexpensive manner, 
performs the cultivation nearl}' as well as when done 
by hand. If the crust formed by the winter snows 
and sprin? rains is thorouuhly broken, and eround 
to the depth of two or more inches well pulverized, 
the effect upou the wheat is almost like inagie. It 
starts in!o the most vigorous srrowth, and in a few- 
weeks lias nearly or quite doubled in size the wheat 
not harrowed. In pieces of wheat which have come 
under the writer's observation, which was harrowed 
in strips, that is, one strip not harrowed at all, and 
the other strips on each side I hoi-oni;hly harrowed, 
in the early part of June, tlie harrowed wheat stood 
fully one foot higher than the unharrowed at each 
side, and in every way was strikingly ranker aud more 
vigorous. 

Mr. Robert J. Swan, of Ilose Hill Farm, Geneva, 
N. Y., who has heavy clod land, says he has harrow- 
ed his wheat for four years with the Thomas harrow 
and finds the yield to be increased fully ten bushels 
per acre. Byram Moulton, of Alexander, Genesee 
county, N. Y., haivested from fifty acres 1,000 
bushels of wheat. His neighhors only obtained about 
ten bushels per acre. The only difference in land or 
treatment was that Moulton's wheat was thoroughly 
harrowed with the same implement in the spring, and 
his neighbor's was not. 

The efteet produced by harrowing barley and oats, 
after they have obtained a growth of four or five 
inches is equally as marked. 1 have observed many 
instances where fully twenty bushels per acre increase 
in consequence of thorough harrowing was obtained. 

These facts and many others of similar character 
show clearly the great profit which farmers may de- 
rive from a thorough cultivation by harrowing of 
wheat, oats, barley and other sown crops. 



Corn Fodder. 



A correspondent of the Chiciign Tribune, in a letter 
on steam-feeding, gives the- following directions in 
regard to raisin^:: — 

Last winter, owing to the failure of the hay-crop, I 
kept over my entire stock, consisting of twenty 
horses, about twenty head of cattle, and between 
•1,600 and 1,700 sheep, without a pound of hay, and 
they came into spring in better condition tbau they 
have ever done on dry feed. 

The sheet anchor of steam-feeding is the fodder of 
Bowed corn or, in short, fodder-eorn. Perhaps your 
readers will be interested in the plans followed here 
in sowiuL', harvesting, and curing this crop, as they 
differ in some respects Irom Ihose pursued and re- 
commended by other practical farmers. 

The ground is prepared the last week in May by 
ploushing, and a sufficient number of harrowings 
and rollings to brim it into good tilth. The corn is 
sowed the first week in June with a Bilckeye wheat 
drill all the hoes down and working — at the rate of 
two bushels per acre. Nothing more can be done to 
the crop till the latter part of August o'r first of Sep- 
tember, when it is ready for harvesting. 

This is done with a Champion table-rake reaper, 
riffged as lor cutting wheat. The reaper is driven 
around the field as in cutting wheat, and delivers the 
fodder in gavels at the side. Eight mtn follow the 
machine, arranged in four pairs, each pair havin.r, of 
course, onc-lburlh of the circuit of the field for a 
" station," and a light two-legged corn " horse," like 
those in common use lor shocking corn. Each pair 
after taking its station, carries its "horse" past two 
gavels, sets down the "horse," stands four gavels 
into the four angles formed by the "horse" and its 
cross-pin, brings the tops ofthe shock neatly together, 
and ties them with wool twine, draws out the cross- 
pin, and is ready for another shock. For the eight 
followers, the team, driver, and machine, eight acres 
Is a fair day's work. The stalks themselves may be 
used for tying the tops, but twine is lound to be suf- 
ficiently mure expeditious to compensate lor the cost. 



.^fter standin? ten to fifteen days, till the fodder is 
nearly cured, and is in a lough stale, the shocks are 
taken down, and each tied into four or five sheavcsor 
bundles, the stalks them.'elves, in this condilion, 
making excellent bands, and twelve or more bundles 
made into a largo shock, the topsbelngsecured either 
with fodder bands, or with the twine used In the first 
instance. The shocks stand in the Held till they are 
wanted for use. 

Just here comes the most serious objection to the 
feeding of fodder corn. There arefimesin the winter 
when both weather and roads are bad ; when a 
deeply-ploughed cornfield is anything l)ut an agree- 
able road beil f)r the hauling of heavy loads ; when 
the fodder itself is wet, or covered with sleet, ice, or 
snow, or its lower end perhaps tiirhtly glued to the 
ground by frost. But the fodder is so cliartred with 
rich saccharine matter that howeverdry itmayseem, 
and however cold the weather may be, there is 
danger that if stored in bulk in a mow. or even In 
stacks, it will ferment, heat and spoil. Atsuch times 
it is well to have other feed under cover to depend 
upon. 

An experience covering three years, and the growth 
of over 700 tons of fodder, seems to warrant the fol- 
lowing conclusions : 

1. The fodder grows from five to twelve feet In 
heiffht, and averages from seven to Dine feet, de- 
pendinir on soils and seasons. 

2. Fodder grown on land of good average fertility 
stands better feed than on soil too rich, "where the 
growth is too fall, rank and coarse. 

o. The pi'oper time for cutting is before frost, of 
course, and when the lower six or eight inches of the 
stalk assumes a yellow tinire. It is then ripe. If cut 
sooner, there is danger of its moulding in the shock : 
if later, the fibre is more woody, and there is risk of 
frost. 

4. It is vastly less dependent upon the weather for 
its curing than hay. The idea that fine weather is 
absolutely necessary for its curing, and the fear that 
a little rain would spoil all, was expressed by others, 
and felt by myself at first, hut turned out to be a 
"bugaboo." During the cutting and curing of the 
two largest crops, very rainy weather was encoun- 
tered; yet not one-fif, h of 1 per cent, of the fodder 
that slood in the shock, and was kept from lying on 
the ground, moulded. After it is well secured in the 
small shocks, neither rain nor frost seems to damage 
if; as indeed they do not usually do the large fodder 
that has matured corn. 

5. A ton of bright fodder-eorn is worth more than 
ihree Ions o( corn fodder that has matured grain, 
and as much as an equal weight of good hay 

fi. An average crop of fodder-corn on good land is 
stifoii.S' per acre. 

7. It may be grown at a cost — not including Inter- 
est on price of land, nor expense of carrying from 
the Held to the barn — including expense of prepar- 
ing the ground, seed, sowing, cutting, binding and 
shocking, of about §1.30 per Ion. 



HORTICULTURAL 



Saving Manure. 

In speaking ofthe above subject, an exchange says: 
Probably but few farmers exist who have not read 
articles in the papers advising them to keep their 
stable manure under cover in a cellar under the 
stalls, or under a shed; but in both places dung is 
liable to become too dry, and the straw among it 
will not decompose as rapidly as it will when it is 
exposed to rains; or if it be all horse dung, it will 
"fire fang," and will be greatly injured. A cellar 
under the stable stalls, into which all the manure 
and urine of the stocK is received, is a good thing, 
but it would be a good deal better if the manure 
could be thoroughly wet once a month from a pump 
adjoining or near the cellar. The same can be said 
of manure under a shed when piled in deep, it must 
be kept moist or it had better be kept in the open 
barnyard. Indeed, we are of the opinion that when 
a barnyard is made concave, with no drain to it, 
manure can be kept in it from fall to spring: without 
anv loss. Some farmers think that much of the 
virtue of manure in open yards pass down into the 
soil and are lost; but such is not the case, and it 
will be found on removing it in the spring that the 
soil under it has become colored but two or three 
inches deep. Now we claim that if an abundance of 
litter be used upon the surface of the manure to re- 
fain moisture and to prevent evaporation, all that a 
farmer makes i-au be as well preserved in his open 
barnyard as under cover; and we would prefer to 
have our manu'c spread over the yard occasionally, 
and covered with straw, than to have it thrown into 
heaps by the stable door and through windows back 
of the stalls, and to remain all winter, with much of 
its virtue washed away and lost. 

^ 

Valuable Cows. 
The history ofthe Shorthorn cow, Duchess (56th, 
which sold in IS.^S, at Earl Ducie's sale, in England, 
to Col. Morris, of Fordham, for 700 guineas, or $!,- 
67.5, is remarkable as showing the actual value of a 
good breeding animal. Fiom this cow, which was 
calved in November, 18.50, there may be traced, in 
direct descent, a number of animals which have sold 
lor about $500,000. 



Early Spring Salads. 
As a nation we do not utilize the great resources 
or the small blesslnte that are spread so lavishly 
around us. And while spring is some months away, 
and we feel no nee.l of appetizers in the luxury of 
fruits and veeetables around us, still providence 
would suggest that we prepare for the days when 
we shall wish for soniethintr fresh and green. The 
autumn days are the ones in which to prepare some 
fine and choice salads, such as our neighbors over 
the water never fail to have. When dandelions ap- 
Dcar in the spring, and before they arc a half linger 
long, these tiny leaves — carefully picked or the 
crown cut just below the surface of the ground — 
washed and cut up sll.'htly, and dressed with a 
dressing of vinegar, half a cup; butter, tablespoon- 
ful; cream, lablespounlul, or more if wlshuil; salt, 
pepper, and a bit of mustard, heated and poured over 
the salad as it is sent to the table. This will be 
found a S|ilendid and healthy appetizer. To do this 
you must co to the pastures In the fall, before frost, 
and take up the rcots and make a bed of t-ood rich 
loam and leaf mould. Your dandelions will tie finer 
and earlier than in the pastures, and you can gather 
them without wandering a mile or two in the early 
spring mud. The only caution is, do not let the bed 
be neglected and no to seed; this is easily attended 
to, when the blossoms only come In the lime when 
you will be often in your earden, and the briu'ht yel- 
low blossom can be easily picked off. And there ore 
the oUtcabbai;estumi)K usually throw tothejiiirs. Ah! 
how many a L'arnish for a dinner of early spring rests 
in their undeveloped eyes. In the fall put a barrel of 
good garden earth in the corner of the vegetable cel- 
lar, and in March spread it against the cellar wall, 
set the cabbage stunii»s in this, cover the roots only, 
and, no matter aliout the liiiht, in a few days the 
pale yellow or white shoots will come out, and are as 
tender and as crisp as any celery or salad you ever 
saw. And to tho.se fond of "greens" a little care in 
the autumn will insure that very healthful potagc, 
while yet the snow lingers by the fences, and tlie gar- 
dens are yet brown and icy. Take a box two feet 
deep and cover eight or ten Inches with horse manure, 
over this put six or eight inches of good earth, and 
plant the box full of beets, place It where some light 
comes ill at the cellar window, and you can have beet 
greens while your neighbors look In vain for the first 
"eowsli|)s as large as a half dollar." There are 
many other cheap and easy ways of having spring 
salads which ingenuity may suggest, but perhaps 
here are enough to try experiments on, and success 
will come without severe labor, in either of these 
suggestions. — WcKteni titock Journal. 

Bottle Grafting. 

This modification of inarchinj or grafting by ap- 
proach may often be successfully employed when 
other methods fail. In inarching, properly socalled, 
two branches or stems on their own roots are spliced 
together and kept in contact uniil a union is efiectcd, 
and if the plants be in pots, or otherwise [lortable, 
this method is practicable enough. It often happens, 
however, that subjects to be grafted are planted out, 
and that the scion must be severed from the parent 
plant. It is in cases like this that bottle grafting be- 
comes useful. The scion with two-shoots Is cut from 
tne plant and splice-grafted on to the stock, where 
it is bound firmly in the usual manner. The base of 
the scion is then inserted in a bottle of rain water, 
which is ke|)t at the required height by a forked sup- 
port, but sometimes, when the stick is stout enough, 
the bottle is supported by it. The stock headed back 
to a shoot, which is left to draw the sap up past the 
point of union between stock and scion. 

Oleanders, camellias, myrtles, and many other 
plants may be grafted successfully in this way, and 
iu some cases the scion not only unites with the stock, 
but also pushes out roots into the water ; in that ease 
the part below the union may be removed and planted 
as a cutting. 

There are one or two modifications of this method 
grafting ; the Japanese, for instance, who employ it 
of largely, use a bag of wet earth or earth and moss, 
instead of the water bottle, and propagators often 
obtain the same results by pushing the base of the 
scion into a potato or turnip. 



The Thurber Peach. 

This is a new variety, to which the attention of 
cultivators is directed by F. J. Berckmans, of Augus- 
ta, (ia., by an article to the Xovemhcr AgricullurM. 
The Thuiber peach is the result of an attempt to 
improve the Chinese cling, and is a seedling of that 
variety, the result of a series of experiments by Dr. 
L. E. Berckmans. It is described as follows : 

Fruit large to very large, often measuringtcn Inch- 
es In circumference: round or slightly oblong. Skin 
creamy white, beautifully mottled or marked with 
carmine on a faint cheek. Flesh white, extremely 
juicy, dissolving, sweet and highly perfumed; quality 
exquisite. Unlike the Persian strain of cllng-stono 
peaches, the flesh ofthe Chinese type is of a (wcullar 
tine-grained texture, which dissolves without leav- 
ing any sediment, and the Tliurbcr peach possesses 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



this quality in a high degree. Maturity from July 
15th to August 1st, in fieors'ia. Although this va 
riety matures at a season when peaches are in great 
abundance, its transcendent quality and appearance 
will always give it the front rank among the best 
varieties of its freestone period of maturity, and it 
will at no distant day become one of our best known 
sorts, whether for market or amateur culture. 

Nearly four hundred seedling peaches have been 
submitted to the writer of this uotice during the 
past three years. Many of these were of excellent 
quality, but either reproductions of our well-known 
varieties, or lacking some slight requisite to compete 
with those already known. Out of this large num- 
ber of selected seedlings three only have been re- 
tained. Foremost among these we rank the Thur- 
ber. In bringing this new peach before the public, 
we have no hesitation as regards its ultimate popu- 
larity. We have fully tested its merits, as we did 
those of the Piquet, now recognized as the best yellow 
freestone peach of its season, and which has super- 
seded all the older varieties of its class when grown 
together with them. 



Celery. 

Success in growing celery depends much upon 
what variety is grown and when it is wanted for use. 
Any good loamy or rich sandy soil will grow good 
celery. It should be plowed very deep at first, then 
the rows furrowed out deeply and two inches of well 
rotted manure mingled with the bottom soil. Cover 
with soil two or three inches deep, and set the plants 
about eight inches apart in the row, and rows two or 
three feet apart. If the dwarf varieties are grown, 
two feet is enough, but if tiio giant white is grown, 
three feet. The Boston market and Henderson's 
dwarf white are, perhaps, the best early dwarf vari- 
eties, and these will need no earthing up until nearly 
full grown. When the earthing up is done for the 
purpose of bleaching, care should be taken that it be 
perfectly dry, and let the heads be so carefully held 
together that no dirt can get between the stalks. 
The giant white is most generally used for winter, 
but the dwarf is equally good, though not of as 
long growth. For early crop the plants should be 
set early in May, but the w nter beds need not be 
planted till July. Plants can be bought cheap, or 
they are easily grown in a gently heated frame. 
They should be once transplanted in the frame be- 
fore going to the field or garden. — Practical Fartner. 



Tobacco. 
Of the new crop of 1876, Messrs. Gans & Co., say : 
The new crop which we had estimated in our issue 

of the 1st of November last at ICO, 000 cases, may, 

accoVding to the latest informatioii, fall shortof that. 

The following are the corrected estimates: 

New EiiRlaud 30,000 ciiseB, beluw ;iv. qu lity. 

PeiiUBjlvauia 40.000 " An excellent crop. 

NewYoik 15.000 ■' FuUy up to uv. 

Ohio 31,000 " 

Wiscoiiein. etc 20,000 '* 

140.0i'0 " 
To which add old stock 60,000 " 

Total ;9O,CO0 " 

The above figures show that Lancaster county fur- 
nished more seed leaf tobacco than any State in the 
Union, and more than one-fourth of all that is grown 
in all the States. Quotations of prices show that our 
tobacco brings as high prices if not higher on an av- 
erage than New England tobacco, the figures for 
PennsyWania selections being ."5@45 and for assorted 
lots licoi.S. 

^ 

Planting and Care of Trees. 

The following condensed rules are given by F. K. 
Phoenix, of Bloomiugton, 111.: 

Most planters are so careless ! Friends, if you want 
trees to thrive, plant early, in dry, deeply plowed 
ground. Keep roots from the sun, air and frost, 
burying in the ground again as soon as possible. If 
shriveled, bury tops and all in moist ground for ten 
days. Thin out and shorten in tops before planting, 
to balance the loss of roots in digging. Dig large 
holes, three feet across and two deep, or better still, 
plow out a very deep furrow, filling up with the best 
soil, so that trees shall stand only as deep as in the 
nursery. Stiaighten out p.ll roots in natural order, 
fill in with best, fine, moist earth, and then tread 
down thoroughly, watering well if dry, before filling 
up. Then mulch — that is, cover with earth two feet 
each way from stems with coarse manure or straw 
six inches deep. 

^ 

Tree Planting in Minnesota. 
There is one State in the Union, at least, which 
Las taken to tree planting with a vigor that promises 
the best results. The farmers of Minnesota set out 
during the past year over ten millions of cuttings, 
most of which, it is reported, are doing well. The 
young trees consist largely of cottonwoods and white 
willows, but there is also a liberal sprinkling of ma- 
ple, larch and white oak. Minnesota does not need 
planting nearly so much as California. It is not 
subject to drouths. But planting for all that is a 
wise policy. It beautifies the waste places. The 



main effect to be expected from the movement in the 
State in question is a reduction of the temperature 
in summer and an elev.ation in winter — changes 
generally conceded to be very necessary. If our 
farmers could be induced to begin tree p anting on 
a large scale there is not much doubt but that we 
should hereafter have fewer drouths. — Jjiilletia. 



The cultivation of peanuts appears to be on the in- 
crease in those States where this plant succeeded best. 
The crop in North Carolina, Virginia and Tennessee 
for 1S7.5-76 is reported to have reached nerrly 800,000 
bushels, and it promises to be still larger for ls77. 



The Massachusetts Agricultural Society hasofiered 
several prizes, the highest of which is $1,000, for the 
best five acres of trees, to be planted in the spring of 
1877 and awarded in 1887. 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 



Farm Sacks over Sixty Years Old and in Con- 
stant Use Still Doing Good Service. 

Mr. E, L. Resh, of East Lampeter, one of our 
most intelligent farmers, has a number of grain bags 
in use, which ajrtly illustrate the kind of material 
and workmanship our fathers and mothers put into 
goods of home manufacture, as well as their careful 
and economical habits in the use of perishatjle arti- 
cles. Among the earliest recollections of the writer 
are the "flaxbreak," the "scutching machine," and 
the "heckle" on which the flax, grown on the farm, 
was prepared for spinning and weaving, and the 
spinning wheel, and the loom itself in theold kitchen 
on which the elder sister wove the stuff for our sum- 
mer trousers, which even the wayward "Boy," so 
graphically described by Col. Arms, might outgrow 
but could not wear out. Then everything the "Boys" 
wore was made at home except, perhaps, his head- 
gear. The shoemaker went round in the fall mak- 
ing the shoes for each family out of leather manu- 
factured from the hides of beeves killed on the place. 
Many a "Boy" had to suffer with cold feet on the 
frosty ground because the shoemaker was late in 
journeying his way. In going to bring in the cows 
in the morning, it was not unusual for him to chase 
up a cow and stand on the place where she had lain 
until he got his feet warm; and if he was a pious 
boy of the goodey-coodey kind, he would improve the 
occasion by invoking a "blessing" upon the tardy 
shoemaker. 

But we are digressing. Old-time memories are 
running away with the diamonds on the point of our 
gold pen, and we must beg our friend, Mrs. GiLi- 
bons' pardon for not sooner introducing herself and 
neighbor, with his old-time farm sacks, to our read- 
ers. 

^Well Preserved Farm Sacks. 

To the Editor of the Examiner and Express : 

Having heard mention of some well preserved farm 
sacks at the place of a worthy neighbor, I requested 
information upon this and kindred subjects, from a 
younger branch of the family, and received the fol- 
lowing excellent letter, which you may publish if 
you wish. 

I can scarcely agree with my young friend, that 
the most remarkable occurrence is the adaptation of 
means to ends in the first manufacture; for it is won- 
derful that anything so perishable should have been 
preserved through so many hands; that they were 
not allowed to lie in the stable entries to be nibbled 
by rats and mice; hung over the doors and chewed 
by cows; left lying on the ground and partly devour- 
ed by hogs; or half buried and rotted in the manure 
of a farm yard. 

In the elements of wor'dly success, enumerated by 
Franklin, (is it not?) as industry, economy and in- 
tegrity, our "Pennsylvania Dutch" farmers may be 
considered to excel. 

We know that they are not Dutch, but so long as 
they continue to use the language of their ancestors, 
we cannot consider them entirely Americanized. 

Tours truly, p. E. G. 
Bird-in-Hand, Jan, 131877, 

Mrs, P, E, Gibbons Dear Madam: We have in 
use some six or eight grain bags marked with the 
name of the owner in lsi;6, also about the same 
number marked in 181,5, and a few evidently older 
than these but without date. These last bear a close 
likeness in quality of material and other respects to 
some we had until a short time ago — now worn out 
— which were marked in 1S07, and without doubt, 
made about that time. They have all been in con- 
stant use s nee they were manufactured, which was 
about the dates they respecti%'ely bear. By constant 
I do not mean daily use, but such use as bags are 
put to on a farm in carrying the yearly product of 
grain, potatoes and apples to market, making the 
journey to .and from the mill, and such other uses 
as those familiar with the life of a farmer's grain bag 
can readily imagine. 

Those of 1M5, though bearing the marks of an oc- 
casional mishap, from protecting splinter or obtru- 
sive nail, and worn thin in places by the pressure of 
overgrown tubers or refractory ears of corn, can with 
ordinary care last twenty-five years longer. I need 



hardly say they were literally manw-factured; that is 
hand made, at home, from flax and hemp grown on 
the farm where they have always been in iise. The 
fact that they were home-made, accounts for their 
existence at the present time. Though they are but 
grain-bags, their pi-eservation through so many years 
of use aflbrds not only, as you remarked, a good il- 
lustration of the economical habits of farmers in 
some of the older settled sections of our country, but 
it impresses me more with the proofs it furnishes of 
the good judgment shown by those who made them 
sixty years ago, in the selection of material for their 
purpose and the thorough manner in which they did 
their work. 

All these characteristics were, I think, possessed, 
in full measure, by the people. Somehow and some- 
where misnamed Dutch, iu whose hands the largest 
part of Lancaster county has become what it is. 

I am quite sure that plenty of instances could be 
found, did we make a point of looking for them, tend- 
ing to show this yet more fully than these grain-bags 
of ours — about which I have, I believe, given all the 
facts vou desired. 

Very Respectfully, E.L.R. 



Facts Worth Remembering. 

Gout. — An English medical writer states that 
rheumatism and gout can be cured by the free use 
of asparagus. 

To Bend Glass. — Fill glass tubes with fine dry 
sand, close at both ends, and they will bend easily 
alter heating. 

Warm Feet. — The New York S«« says that a 
handful of sawdust worn in each stocking will keep 
the feet as warm as toast. 

Warts. — Apply creosote freely, and cover over 
with a piece of sticking plaster. Follow this treat- 
ment every two or three days until the wart disap- 
pears. 

Frosted Feet. — They may be cured as follows: 
White oak bark, taken fresh and boiled in water for 
a stronsr liquor. Bathe the feet in the liquor. It is 
pronounced the best of all remedies. 

To Polish Tins, — First rub your tins with a damp 
cloth; then take dry flour and rub it on with your 
hands; afterward take an old newspaper and rub 
the flour Wf, and the tins will shine as well as if half 
an hour had been spent rubbing them with brick 
dust or powder, which spoils the bauds, 

Windows, — Ventilation would be more eas ly ac- 
complished and more certainly performed, and 
rooms kept with purer and healthier air, if windows 
were made to slide easily. If not hung by pulleys 
and weights, let a carpenter add good freely-working 
catches. Never permit a broken pane in the house. 

Cellars. — Cellars should be kept constantly 
clean, as much so as your parlor. It is the easiest 
thing in the world, if you attend to it daily, and only 
becomes a heavy task when you allow a month's ac- 
cumulations to remain undisturbed. It is hardly 
necessary to add that fevers have been contracted by 
breathing the miasma created in an ill kept cellar. 

Colds, — Hot lemonade is one of the best remedies 
in the world for a cold. It acts promptly and effect- 
ively, and has no unpleasant after effects. One 
lemon properly squeezed, cut in slices, put with su- 
gar, aud covered with half a pint of bo ling water. 
Drink just before going to bed, and do not expose 
yourself on the following day. This remedy will 
ward off an attack of the chills and fever, if used 
promptly. 

Doors. — Never allow a door to creak for want of 
oil, or to shut so hard as to require slamming to 
make it latch. For this purpose pass round once a 
week at some regular time, say Saturday evening 
or Monday morning, with a drop of oil on a feather, 
or on the tip of the finger, and give every rubbing 
part, latch, hinge, etc., a touch. Scissors, which are 
inclined to work hard, can also be greatly improved 
in this way. 

Exercise. — Friction of the body is one of the gen- 
tlest and most useful kind of exercise, either by the 
hand, a piece of flannel, a tolerably coarse towel, or 
a flesh-brush. Friction cleans the skin, promotes 
perspiration, and increases the warmth and energy 
of the body. In rubbing the stomach, perform the 
operation in a circular direction, as that is the most 
favorable to the course of the intestines and their 
natural actions. 

Chilblains, — Bathe the feet for half an hour 
in water hot as can be borne; add hot water after 
the feet have been in a few moments, as they will 
bear more than the first. Let the water be as hot 
when the feet are removed as when put in. This 
draws the inflammation out and allays the itching 
which is so very painful. Dry with a cloth; then 
bathe well with hemlock oil, (which can be got at 
any druggist's at a trifling cost); dry it by the fire. 
Repeat the application three or f^our nights if needed. 
Care should be taken not to chill the feet immedi- 
ately. 

Perfected Butter Color. 

Occasionally, during the past two years, we have 
received for trial, samples of butter coloring prepa- 
rations from Messrs. Wells, Richardson & Co., of 
Burlington, Vt., with the request that they should 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



47 



be tliorousbly tested and criticised as to the merits 
and demerits. Knowins the firm wtre strivins to 
make tlie best preparation possible, and tliat they 
intended to stop at notbini; short of porrcrtion, we 
have been free to find all the fault tliat could pos- 
sibly be detected. 

Tlie first sample received, however, was quite su- 
perior to any other preparation of aniiatio that we 
had ever used. It was perfectly clear of sediment, 
free from odor, and gave a bright, clean color to the 
butter, while it was sold cheaper according to its 
strength, than aiiythiiiij we had previously bo«s;ht. 
But it was not warranted to keep throuirh the whole 
year, without beins injured by freezing in winter, or 
moulding in summer. A later sample proved 
equal to these tests, and showed greatly increased 
strength of the coloring principle. Having tested it 
for several weeks, we Informed the proprietors that 
we could find no fault with it whatever. As now 
made, it is the strongest, cleanest, purest ami cheap- 
est butter and cheecse coloring substance we have 
ever found, and for all we can see, ia is absolutely 
perfect. It will bear heat or cold, and does not fade 
when exposed to the light. It should entirely super- 
sede carrots for coloring butter, and also all the 
crude preparations of annatto, as formerly put up 
by drugeists. 

Since Wells, Richardson <fc Co., commenced the 
manufacture of their "Perfected Butter Color," the 
prejudice against the use of artificial coloring in but- 
ter has been swept away at a rapid rate, not only 
among butter niakerf, but also, among the dealers 
and iheir consumers. Being perfectly harndets, 
simple, cheap, and easily used, it has become one ot 
the staple articles of the dairy room, as much as salt 
or rennet. For ten cents the proprietors will send 
any one a sample. Let all the butter makers try it. 



Vienna Bread and Coffee. 

These were general favorites during our Centennial 
Exhibition, aud the bread is now supplied to all who 
desire it in our cities by bakers who do an extensive 
business. Louis Fleischman, of New York, describes 
bis preparations and process thus : 

On the baseuient tloor are six large Dutch ovens, 
twelve feet each in diameter, with a baking capacity 
of ten barrels of Hour each day. These ovens, when 
once thoroughly heated, retain sufficient warmth for 
baking purposes for eighteen hours. On the same 
floor are immense troughs for kneading dough, and 
wonderlul little machines for cutting it to the proper 
size. "1 use nothing in making my liread," he said, 
"but the purest and'whitest flour, milk, mixed with 
water and salt. In bakinir, the oval shape of the top 
of the oven brings an equal heal to bear on all parts 
of the bread, so that a crisp crust is alike on top, 
bottom, and sides." 

"Now, let me show you how I prepare my coffee," 
he said. "We toast it according to the general prac- 
tice, but in grinding we use stones instead of iron. 
The stones are arranged in the same way as mill- 
stones. Where iron is used in grinding the coffee it 
becomes heated, and in this state robs the cotfee of 
Its aroma while imparting a smack of its own flavor. 
The ground coffee is placed on top of a tight, fitting, 
finely perforated piston head at the Lortomof a large 
cylinder. Boiling water is then poured upon it, and 
by means of a screw the piston is slowly drawn tothe 
topofthecylindcr. This aetioucreates a vacuum at the 
bottom of the cylinoer, which the clear cotlee rushes 
In to fill throuah the infinitesimal holes in the piston 
head. In this way we get pure, undulterated coffee. 
The cream we use is all whipped into a light, frothy 
Blate. There is no reason for having anything 
adulterated when it is so easy to have it pure." 



Fruit as a Medicine. 

The irregular eating of unripe fruit is well known 
to be unwholesome. The regular and moderate use 
of well-ripened fruit is not so widely appreciated as 
contributing to health. Residents in regions where 
more or less malaria prevails, have discovered that 
nothing is a more sure preventive of its deleterious 
efiects than a regular supply of fruit. 

But fruit will not only prevent disease, but in some 
Instances it has proved one of the best medicines to 
cure it. Many years ago a chronic cough, which had 
excited a good deal of uneasiness, was cured by daily 
eating ripe raspberries, recommended by a medical 
writer of high authority as an excellent expectorant. 
Severe colds are more apt to occur on the first cool 
and damp days of autumn than at other seasons. 
We have often cured these diseases on their first at- 
tack, by eating copiously of ripe watermelons. The 
beneficial efTects ot drinking freely of cold water on 
such occasions, are well known. Watermelons sup- 
ply a larger quantity than one could easily swallow 
in any other way. — Country Oentleman. 



count of the small quantity of cream accumulatlnir. 
The summer practice is reversed in the winter. 
There being too little milk to require frequent churn- 
ing then — say one, and sonn'tlmes two churnlh'.'S a 
week — we account readily for the evils comphiined 
of. The fore part of the season when milk is in 
greater quantity, necessitating more frequent churn- 
ing, I bear of but little complaint. It matters not 
how good the feed is— if the tenderest hay and roots 
are added, makinir an approach to summer feed ; nor 
how clean the milk is kept, the most perfect milk if 
set beyond three days will be hurt. The writer of 
this has filled the vessel, leaving barely space enough 
for a cloth to be stretched over without touching the 
milk, and a snug lid put on, keeping the air out, but 
all to no purpose. So, in the purest air, in all the 
temperatures, it is the same." 



THE POULTRY YARD. 



Bitter C.eam. 
Cream becomes bitter by keeping it too long before 
It is churned. A butter maker says : "In summer 
there is little bitter milk or cream, because the 
cream is churned sooner than in winter, seldom reach- 
ing the third day. Sometimes, where tliere is a single 
cow kept, I have known the bitter to show on ac- 



Food for Fowls. 

As to food, and several queries for the "best," we 
repeat once more, there is no best. The great ex- 
hibitors do not owe success to any particular food. 
All good meal and all good grain is good in its place. 
The only ceneral rules we would lay down are, that 
on the whole it is better to mix with raw meal some 
portion of one or other of the excellent cooked meals 
now so largelv advertised, which is both liked and 
prevents the food hecomina: clogged; and secondly, 
that much grain should not be used for the young 
ones, but pretty much reserved for the last feed at 
nisht, when it will tempt a hearty meal which will 
remaiti in the crop and give support through the 
niiiht. Kspeciully should care be taken not to give 
wheat or other tempting grain just after soft food, 
which olten causes a eorging that is most injurious, 
and will even kill delicate breeds without any ap- 
parent cause. 

For the staple we would take half of any good 
cooked meal, and mix in turn with barley-meal, oat- 
meal, ground oats, or even now and then maize- 
meal, though this is too fattening to be freely used. 
The meal can be mixed with minced grass with ad. 
vantaL'e, as this enables a quantitv to be kept fresh 
and cool longer through the day. Barley-meal mix- 
ed with sharps makes a good food also, and so does 
porride-e; and a variety of plain, wholesome food 
like this pushes the birds on faster and better than 
all the nostrums in the world. Bone-dust, which is 
very valuable for lar>re breeds that have not excel- 
lent range, should be added to the soft food in the 
proportion of, say about one-tenth to one-twentieth 
of the dry meal, or it may be first boiled and the 
meal mixed with the soup. A little meat or greaves 
minced and soaked may be added with advantage, 
and the great breeders, many of them, use meat 
largely to get the immense size of their largest birds. 
But tliis both coarsens the comb and head, and— 
well, these immense birds are very seldom chosen to 
breed from. 

In grain we have barley, wheat, buckwheat, dari, 
and 40-pound white oats. A little hemp seed and 
canary seed help the very young ones; but hemp is 
too heating and canary too dear to keep on with. 
Grits are srrand food, but expensive, and we use little 
since we tried dari. We repeat that this is, as we 
find it, one of the most useful articles one can have, 
both for fowls and pigeons. Barley is good, but tlie 
chicks will not eat it, at least not enough to do them 
good ; but we find them eat up dari and buck- 
wheat as eagerly and very nearly as early as they 
will grits, while it is about the cheapest grain there 
is. As a rule, we generally feed for about a week 
with bread-crumbs, oatmeal, a hard-boiled chopped 
egg and some cut grass, mixed together and moisten- 
ed with milk ; add with grits lor a change — after 
that they come down to plain mixed meal, as above, 
and dari or buckwheat. We use cut grass — cut in 
small chaff with large scissors— even when there is a 
grass run ; the chicks eat more and rarely get di- 
arrhoea. But we repeat again, it really matters much 
less what they eat, than that they get some change 
to tempt the r appetites, and aie fed regularly aud 
with judgment. 

This last is perhaps the great point. It istoo com- 
mon to feed all alike, and this is wrong. As they 
get older the times of feeding should be carefully 
graduated, coming down from six or seven times a 
day to four, and by-and-by to three. This is very 
important, lor without it the chickens gradually lose 
appetite, and are very apt to get liver complaint, 
which anuually carries off many. Another cause of 
this is giving loo much. All ought to be cleared 
clean away in ten minutes ; and till experience is 
gained to guess the quantity, it is best logo round at 
that time, after feeding, and clear all remains of the 
feed away. Then by the next visit they will be ready ; 
whereas, if it be left to them to "mess with," they 
never get any real appetite at all. Cool, clean water 
is the only thing that should be left by them. This 
is very simple, but this is the only "secret" in rear- 
ing ; it is the one particular patent process which, 
joined with wholesome food and reasonable change of 
diet now and then, makes line birds. — London Live 
Stock Journal. 



Feeding Fowls. 
A correspondent of the Poultry .Va/ion, says OD 
this point ; ".My experience In feeding fowls. Is that 
medium sized hens will consume about one and 
three-fifth gills of grain and vegetable matter each, 
daily, in winter, when In active laying condition; and 
also that it makes no dilfercncc as to the amount con- 
sumed, whether food is kept constantly before them, 
or whether they are fed twice or thrice daily pro- 
viiU'd they are allowed all they will eat up clean. 
For the past two years circumstances have com|«'lled 
me to feed but twice a day — morninirand afternoon — 
but I find that the fowls get very hungry before the 
afternoon meal, and will bolt their food like hogs, 
and, if allowed all they will eat np clean, are liable 
to overeat, and become diseased in consequence. 
Then it sometimes happens that hens are on the nests 
to lay at the time of feeding, and cannot be coaxed 
off to eat, and they must either be fed on the nest or 
go hungry until the next meal, which in cold weath- 
er seems a little unmerciful. Heretofore I have be- 
lieved in and advocated regular feeding— twice or 
three times a day— far all breeds, but my experience 
during the past two years Inclines mc to the opinion 
that unless the smaller varieties can be fed thrcq 
times a day, it Is better to keep food constantly by 
thcin. 



The Pekin Ducks as Layers. 

The sensation made last fall among the fanciers at 
the jioultry exhibitions, by the extraordinary size of 
these new ducks, is likely io be equaled this season by 
their remarkable record as layers. Two of the im- 
ported birds last year laid respectively l.H and V>1 
eggs. They have done much better the present season. 
One of the old birds commenced laying on the .7th of 
Februrary and laid 17.S eggs In 18J day.i, missing but 
tour days. The other did nearly as well. This is 
three or'four times as many eggs as we ordinarily 
get from Kouens or Aylesburys. What is more re- 
markable, one of the young ducks, hatched in April, 
began to lay in August, and laid seven eggs by 
the first of September. Such early laying Is all that 
we expect of the best varieties of gallinaeeoMs fowls. 
The Pekins as much excel in fecundity all other va- 
rieties of ducks with which weare acquainted, as they 
do in size. They have had the advantageoftborough 
breeding for centuries for their Hesb and eggs, and 
we predict for them in this country the front rank 
among our useful aquatic fowls. — Agrieulttirisl. 



Fakmehs frequently have occasion to sell turkeys 
by live weight, and wish to know what is the fair 
relative price between live and dead weight. In tur- 
keys dressed for the New York market, where the 
blond and feathers only are removed, the loss s very 
small. For the eastern markets the heads are taken 
off and the entrails are taken out. This makes a 
loss of nearly one-tenth in the weight. A large gob- 
bler was recently killed weighing ol'S pounds. Af- 
ter bleeiling and picking he weighed -.yVi pounds, a 
loss of two pounds, or about one-fifteenth. When 
ready for the spit he wei^jhed -iS'X pounds, a loss of 
;?><^ pounds which is nearly one-tenth of the weight. 
When the market requires the New York style of 
dressing, and the price is fifteen cents a pound, live 
weight, or less, if he counted the labor of dressing 
anything. In the other style of dressing, if the price 
we're -0 Cf nts, he could sell for !.■< cents, or less, live 
weight, without loss. Farmers who nevertestcd the 
loss of weight in dressing sometimes submit to de- 
duction of three or four cents a pound for the middle- 
men, who are interested in making this large differ- 
ence. 

^ 

Fattening Poultry. 

The London Field says poultry properly fed will 
acquire all the fatness needed for marketing pur- 
poses in a fortnight or three weeks at most. Their 
diet should be Indian, oat, or barley meal, scalded in 
milk or water; the former is the best, as it will ex- 
pedite the fattening process. They should be fed 
early in the morning, at noon, and also in the even- 
ing, just before going to roost, and given a plentiful 
supply of pure, fresh water, and plenty of gravel, 
sliced cabbage or turnip lops. If the fowls arc re- 
quired to be very fat, some trimmings of fresh mut- 
ton suet mav bechopped up and scalded with their 
other feed, or they may be boiled in milk alone and 
poured to the meal. This renders the flesh firmer 
than it otherwise would be. When fit to kill, feed- 
ing must be slopped for twelve hours or more, so 
that the intestines may becomecomparatively empty. 
♦ 

The Poultry World says the Influence of the food 
of poultry upon the quality and flavor of their flesh 
and eggs has not been taken into consideration ; but 
it is now well ascertained that great care should be 
exercised in regard to this matter. In some instances 
it has been attempted to feed poultry on a large scale 
in France on horse-flesh, and although they devour 
this substance very greedily, it has been found to 
give them a very unpleasant flavor. The best fatten- 
ing for chickens is said to be Indian cornmeal and 
mUk ; and certain large poultry establishments in 
France use this entirely, to the advantage both of the 
fiesh and the eggs. 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 1877. 



LIVE STOCK. 



Care of Dairy Cows. 

John B. Tomlinson, of Fountain farm, near New- 
town, writes as Ibllons: "I have seen in your paper 
a eooil d^al about irilt-efiseJ butter and cleanliness 
anJ other things connected with the dairying, but 
nothins: about lieepin^: tlie cows clean. Mv method 
is to grade the stable floor a little back from the 
manger; put one plank lengthwise under the hind 
feet of the cows, one foot wide, and fill with clay up 
to the manger, having a drop of five inches at tlie 
plank. Then plank the remainder to the back wall, 
having tlie rear a little the highest so as to throw all 
the wet toward the drop plank. Then you have a 
dry walk behind the cows, and the stables are easily 
cleaned. My cattle in the yard do not look as if they 
had been stabled at all. In very cold weather I do 
not let them out at all, hut, water them in the stable. 
In the monn'ng as soon as ^ve can see we give all, 
milkers and dry cows, a little meal; a little hay and a 
sheaf of corn-fodder after breakfast; toward noon, 
two bushels of chaff and more corn-foJdcr, and at 
ni^ht hav and meal again. The milkers have four 
quarts of meal twice a day. When the weather is 
mild they pick the chaff, straw and fodder in the 
barn yard, and go into the stable as full as ticks. I 
stable all my stock and think it pays." 



Leading a Colt. 

Put on the war-bridle, and place yourself at the 
point against his hips, but six or eight feet out, and 
say, "Come here !" so as to be distinctly understood. 
Give a sharp pull on the ox war-bridle which will 
cause him tn step towards you. Then say, "Whoa !" 
and caress him, which is the same as saying to him 
that he did all you desired of him. Change from 
side toside, repeating the movements until he answers 
the word of command without the pull on the cord ; 
he will soon learn your desire and act accordingly, 
and you must bo satisfied with even a step towards 
you, and be sure to pet him evey time he answers 
your call. Repeat this from side to side until he will 
follow anywhere you desire, punishing his mouth at 
any lime with a light yank of the war-bridle, if he 
stops or refuses to follow you when you start off and 
say, "Come on, sir !" 

In this way, if patience, carefulness and persever- 
ance are practiced a colt may be taught to follow any- 
where the same as a dog and to mind your word of 
command the same as an ox or a yoke of oxen. — 
Jo/m M. Tuttle. 



Value of Roots for Stalks. 

The following views of Mr. Willard, of the Rural 
New Yorker, on this subject, are sound ones. He 
says : 

"In comparing roots with other kinds of cattle 
food, like corn, bran, etc., we get better results, 
practically, from the roots than analysis would seem 
to show. That is to say, a bushel of roots— though 
containing a lower percentage of nutritive elements 
than a bushel of corn — may be so fed in connec- 
tion with the corn as to give as good results as when 
the same quantity of corn is fed in place of the roots; 
but from numerous experiments at the manger, the 
roots always show a better result than their analy- 
sis would indicate. Roots assist digestion and pro- 
mote a more thorough assimilation of other food. 
They improve the health of stock in winter whendrv 
food is the chief dependence; and as the improved 
health of stock is an important element in dairy man- 
agement, the dairyman will find it of advantage to 
grow roots for his stock." 



A Queer Calf. 

Mr. James McManus.a resident of Fool's Hill, Ne- 
vada, who is engaged in mining, owns a cow, which 
eight months ago gave birth to a calf. The calf was 
kept up so as to induce the mother to return home 
in the evening to be milked and suckle it. About six 
months after she gave birth to the calf, failing to 
come home as usual, Mr. McManus instituted search 
and found her, she having just given birth to an- 
other calf of a queer species, not being larger than a 
young fawn. With the exception of its ears being 
small, its head, legs, and tail are those of a deer, 
the body and hair covering it like that of a calf. It 
was quite spry, and the mother seemed to be very 
fond of it. There has been no trouble so far in rais- 
ing it, and it is now two months old and thriving 
splendidly. It is beginning to show signs of horns, 
which are covered with velvet, like a deer's. A good 
many persons have been to see this really remarkable 
cur.osity, and it presents a problem for the scien- 
tists to solve. 



A connESPOXDENT of the Lv'e Slock and Farm 
Journal, mentioning that a Jersey heifer fifieen 
months and eighteen days old, had just dropped a 
handsome calf— the ediicr remarks that this early 
maturity is not unusual with the Jerseys, and says ; 
"In this community, the Jersey heifer, Nellie Curtis 
(3,371) has been in the dairy since she was 1-t 
months of age, although she calved a little prema- 



turely. If properly cared for, early maternity ap- 
pears favorable to the development of the lacteal or- 
gans." The following is a statement made by Mr. 
J. Milton .\Jackie, president of the American .lersey 
Cattle Club, in 1-70 : ".My yearling, Hebe 4th, out 
of Hebe 1st, dropped a calf last month, when she 
was only 14 months and J days old. She calved 
without trouble, l)ehaved well in every respect; has 
given six quarts of milk per day. She is thrifty, and 
I don't think the labors and duties of maternily, so 
early imposed upon her, will injure her giowih in 
the least. The calf is of fair size, thrifty and hand- 
some." 



Domesticating the Buffalo. 

A correspondent of the Tjirf, Fiehl and Farm 
sends some interesting facts regarding the domesticat- 
ing of the buffalo in Nebraska. He began with two 
cows and a bull, which he kept with his tame stock. 
In the spring the cows calved, and in three years the 
calves became mothers, yielding an average of 14 
quarts of the richest milk daily, for an average of 
five months. The buffalo strain now extends through 
a large part of Howard county, in the above State, 
and of the half and quarter beef animals are found 
to be very hardy. 

Our contemporary adds, that sufficient experiments 
have been made in crossing the buffalo with native 
and grade short horned cattle, and have been at 
tended with such successful results that the most 
skeptical people cannot fail to be satisfied as to the 
advantages and value of the intermingling of breeds. 



Rearing Lambs by Hand. 

S. M. T. writes to the Pradicnl Farmer : As I 
have raised numbers and had good success, I give my 
plan of feeding them. If old cow's milk, I dilute one 
pint of milk with half a pint of water and teaspoon- 
ful of West India molasses ; but if new cow's milk I 
give it just as it comes from tne cow, and feed two 
tablespoonfuls once an hour through a patent nurs- 
ing bottle, or a common bottle with rubber nipple. 
As the lamb increases in strength, I give a larger 
quantity and not so often. I have in this way raised 
lambs that at three months weighed fifty pounds. 
At two or three weeks old I have taught them to 
drink. 



Keep Good Cows. 

There is no use in trying to disguise the fact that 
there is no profit in the dairy without good cows. 
Look at the difference. One cow will make 150 
pounds of butter during the year, worth 8.5 cts., 
$36. .50. Another will make -SOO pounds, worth §7 i. 
The first yields no profit whatever, and all that you 
make comes from the good cow. It would be much 
better to keep one cow, and keep her well. It is the 
same loose method which makes all our farming 
operations so fruitless. As a general rule, two acres 
are tilled to get a crop that ought to grow on one. — 
Practical Farmer. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 

At the last meeting of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences; a resolution was adopted authorizing the 
officers of the Academy to sign a memorial to his Ex- 
cellency the President of the United States, recom- 
mending Dr. John L. Le Conte as Commissioner of 
Agriculture, on account of his eminent scientific at- 
tainments and executive ability. 

We clip the above from the Public Ledger of the 
8th inst. This is as it ought to be. We feel that this 
appointment would reflect credit upon any admistra- 
tion that made it, and any country that sustained it ; 
and, would also be a practical recognition of those 
claims of natural science which are so often ignored 
in public appointments. Dr. Le Conte's executive 
abilities would bring to the support of the depart- 
ment, as aids, the elaborations of the best minds of 
the country, and secure it from imposition. We 
know whereof we speak. 

Benson & Burpee's illustrated manual and de- 
scriptive catalogue of imported and thoroughbred 
live stock; also, Benson & Burpee's priced catalogue 
of reliable seeds — including field, garden and flower 
seeds, trees, plants, implements and. fertilizers, for 
1^77, are on our table. This enterprising firm of im- 
porters and dealers, are the successors to W. Atlee 
Burpee, and their agricultural warehouse and live 
stock office, is located at 2,B Church street, Phila- 
delphia. We call the attention of our readers to 
their advertisemenl in the columns of this journal; 
and for full particulars in relation to the details of 
the articles they deal in, we would recommend them 
to send at once for their catalogues, and consult them 
thoroughly belorethcy look elsewhere. Illus'rations 
and specific descriptions ol the finest of this slotk 
will appear in the columns of the Lancaster Fanner. 

OuK FOLIOS.— Among the folio exchanges which 
have regularly reached our table are many that are a 
credit to the country, the age, and to agricultural 
journalism, many of them being of such a high order 
and such essential institutions, that uo progressive 



farmer will consent to be without one or more of 
them, and therefore they may be considered as estab- 
lished in their affections, and their continuance and 
and prosperity assured. What farmer having fairly 
tried them, can dispense with the Ofrtnantuien Tele- 
graph; the Prairie Farmer ; the Farmers' Uuion ; 
the i\>iti York Rural; the Country Gentleman; the 
Massachusetts Ploughman ; and a number of others 
which will receive attention as the months move on- 
ward. Besides the claims of agr culture are recog- 
nized more or less by all the folios in our own county : 
the Examiner and Fx/ire-'s ; the In/iuircr ; the Man- 
hei/n .Sentinel ; the A't-/" Holland Clarion; the Colum- 
bia fferalii ; the Jllarietta Register ; the Lancaster 
Intelligencsr, and others, of which more anon. 

Catalosue of one hundred and seventy p^ire Jer- 
sey cattle, imported and bred by William B. Dins- 
MOiiE, Of Staatsburg, Duchess county, N. Y. number- 
ed to correspond with those in the American Jersey- 
Cattle Club Herd Register; issued Jan. 1, 1877. All 
communications in reference to the herd should bead- 
<ires6ed to Timothy Hcrrick, atthc aLovenamed place. 
This is a 12 mo. pamphlet of .3 pages, but between 
its covers is a record of stock as valuable as a gold 
mine. Some of these cattle are not now for sale, but 
one hundred and fourteen are marked for sale, of 
which a few are already sold or were sold a few 
weeks ago; and the prices range from §75 00 up to 
§.500.00, but fully two-thirds are" from $200. to $i00; 
short descriptions, as well as pedigrees and names, 
are given of each animal. Therefore if any of our 
patrons desire good Jersey stock, they should avail 
themselves of the opportunity immediately. 

Swine. — Notwithstanding the adverse views of the 
physiologists, hygeists, and sanitarians, in regard to 
the use of swine as human food, perhaps there has 
not been a period in the domestic history of our 
country, in which more money has been invested in 
swine breeding and swine slaughtering and packing, 
than at the present time; and never before has it 
produced finer stock of that animal. The Berk- 
shires, the Yorkshires,, the Chester Whites, the Po- 
land Chinas, and the ISssex, are prominently brought 
before the public through the various agricultural 
journals of the country. The first prizes at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of Swine, were awarded to T. S. 
Cooper, "Linden Grove," Coopersberg, Lehigh 
county. Pa., for a Berkshire sow and boar. Between 
the 20ch of November 1875 and the 1.0th of Novem- 
ber 1-7H, that distinguished breeder sold two hun- 
dred and three Berkshire pigs, which netted, in the 
aggregate, ^i0,70-', averaging g 00 .-50 per head. 
In several instances he realized 81,000, lor a single 
pig. The lowest price was 5-5.00— the largest num- 
ber from .$100 to S500. 

We call the attention of our readers, and especi- 
ally those out of employment in our community who 
dt'sire to make an honest livelihood, to the advertise- 
ment of Geo. Stinson & Co., art publishers, Port- 
laud, Maine, which they will find in another column 
in this issue of the Lancastek Fakmek. It aflords 
us pleasure in being able to say, from occular de- 
monstration, that the works putjlished by this com- 
pany are of the highest artistic order, and such as 
would be likely to find a ready sale among people of 
any appreciative intelligence and refineraeut what- 
ever. 

Mnsic CHART. — We admonish professors of vocal 
and instrumental music, and also school boards and 
school teachers, that Prof. J. B. Harry, of Chambers- 
burg, Pa., has invemed a chart which he recently 
exhiijited to us, embracing the fundamental principles 
of vocal and instrumental music, in a very compre- 
hensive and yet simple manner; and which seems 
destined to atlurd a greater aid in imparting a tho- 
rough kuowledge of the scientific priuciples of this 
accomplished art to pupils, than anything that has 
yet appeared before the public. This chart is over 
four feet by over five feet in size — intended to be 
hung up in the school or class room— and embraces 
the whole musical "score," from the highest alto 
to the lowest bass, illustrating the scales of the 
human voice and tlie different kinds of musical in- 
struments, and the relations they bear to each other. 
Teachers, keep an eye on this chart. 

We invite the attention of our readers— farmers 
and housekeepers especially— to the announcement 
made this week in our columns by Mr. J. G. 
Koehler, of 50 J North Second Street, Philadelphia. 
Air. Koehler is the patentee and manufacturer of an 
improved Butter Tub, with Cooler attached to each 
end, the latter consisting of removable tin chambers, 
thus f.icilitatiiig the removal of ice, water, etc. 
These tubs vary in carrying capacity from to 200 
pounds. Constructed of white cedar— well seasoned 
—and bound in galvanized iron and brass hoops, 
their whoic appearance indicates that they have been 
substantially constructed, as well as neatly finished. 
They are guaranteed to keep or carry butter in the 
hoitcst weather, in prime condition. For particulars 
send for circular as above. 

We wish to call the attention of our readers to 
the prospectus of that valuable monthly, The Ka- 
riojAa/.ii/'c .Siyc'i: /o'(rj/«/, which appears in this is- 
sue of our paper. We will furnish The Journal with 
our paper lor $..50 per year. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



III. 



E. F. Kunkel's Bitter Wine of Iron. 

Has uov«r been known to fail in the cure of weakncBB, at- 
tended with BvinptoniB, iudiRpositiou to exortion, loss of 
meraorv, dimculty ol breathing, general weiikueaH, horror of 
diseHRp^ weuk, nervous trembling, dreadful horror of death, 
night sweats, cold feet, wcaknesH, djumesHof vision, languor, 
universal laesitudo of the niuioulur Ryateni, cnormouH np- 
potite, with dysppptic system. |hot huudH, flushing of the 
bodv dryness of the skin, piiUid countenance and eruptions 
on the face, purilying the blood, pain in the b.iok, heaviuosa 
of the eyelids, frequent black spola flying; before the eyes, 
with t-'uipcr.iryaufl'uaioii and loss of sight, want of atteulion, 
etc. These syniptome all arise from u weckneas, and to 
reinedy that, use E. F. Kunkel's Bitter Wine of Iron. It 
never fails. Thousands are now enjoying health who have 
used it. Get the genuine. Sold only in $1 bottles. Take 
only E. F. Kunkel's. 

Ask for Kunkel's Bitter Wine of Iron. This truly vnlunblo 
tonic has been so t horoughly tested by all cliist^es of the com- 
munity that it is now deemed indisHpnaable as a Tonic raed- 
Iciue. It costs but lutle, purifies the blood and gives lone 
to thestonmch, renovateethosystem and j-roluugslife. 

I now only "sk a trial of this valuable tonic. Price $1 per 
bottle. E. F. KITNKEL, Sole Proprietor, No. 2r.9 North 
Ninth Street, below Vine, Philadelphia, Pa. Ask for Kun- 
kel'B Bitter Wine of Iron, and take no other. A photograph 
of the proprietor on each wrapper, all others are countorieit. 

Beware of couuterfeits. Do not let your druggist sell you 
any but Kunkel's, frhich is put up only as above iei>reBeut- 
ed. You can get six bottles for five doll.. ra. All I ask is 
one eimjile trial. 

Tapeworm Removed Alive. 

Head and all complete in two hours. No ffe till head 
pnBses. Seat, Pin and Stomach worniB lemovi.d by Dr. 
Kunkel, 259 Noi-th Ninth Street. Advice free. No fee until 
head and all passes in one, and alive. Dr. Kunkel is the 
only Buccessfu) )ihysiciau in this country for th^ removal of 
Worms, and his Worm Syrup is pleasant and safe for chil- 
dren or grown persons. Send for circular, or ask lor a 
bottle of Knnfcpl's HV/rm Si^rup. Price one dollar per bottle. 
Get it of your Diuggist. It never fiiila. 9-H-Ini 



To the "WorUiiisr Cla^w. — ^^Ve are now prepared to 
fnrniBU all cheseB with constant empljymeut at home, the 
whole of the time, or for their spare moniei'lB. Business 
new, light and pi ofltable. Persons of either sex paaily earn 
from 50 cents to $5 per eveniug, and a proportional sum by 
devoting their whole time to t)ie business. Boyi andgiils 
earn nearly as much as men. That all who nee this notice 
may send their adkresB, and test the business we make this 
tjuparaUeled offer : To such as are not well siitiBfind we will 
eend one dollar to pay lor the trouble of wiiting. Full par- 
ticulars, samples worth several dollars to communce work 
on, and a copy of Home and Fireside, one of the largest and 
best Illustrated Publications, all sent free by mail. Header, 
if you want permanent, profitable work, address, 

9^;!— Im Gkorgk Stinson k Co., Poitland, Maine 

not easily (arued :u Ih' 6 ^ tiniO' ,'iut U cuu bo 
made in three moutlis by any one ot either 
sex, in any part of the country who is v.'illing 
to work steadily at the emjiloyment that we 
furnish. $66 jier week in your owu town. You 
need not be away from home over night. You can give your 
whole time to the work, or only your spare moments. It 
costs nothing to try the business. Terms and 55 Outfit free. 
Address at once, H. Hallett & Co., Portland, Maine. 
9-::-ly 



$7771 



s:b3:i:f\.ts i 

Half Dozen for - - - $6.00! 

SHIRT FRONTS, 

Sloclinp, Siispenfers, HafldtercMefs, 

Itiiipii aud I'nper Collars anri CiiCTh 

SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER 

AT 

E. J. ehishan'S, 

No. llO North Queen Street, 
Second door from Shober's Hotel. 



J. STAUFFER, 

mimt i mm, 

LANCASTEE, i'ENN'A. 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 



All matters appertaining to UNITED STATES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TRADE M.\PKS, and Cf »PYIUGIITS. 
proniptly attended to. His experituro, sncccHs a d faithful 
atontion to the interests of those who engage his Bcrvicea 
are fully ackuowledged and appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations made for him by a reliable As 
sistant at Wushiugton, without extra charge for drawing 
or dencniifion. ffl-l-tf 



E. IT. FRESHMAIT & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 

186 W, Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Are antborlzvcl to rontract Tor advcrlising 
In tbls paper. 



1877 POST-CENTENNIAL 1877 

CI-OTHS, 

CASSIMERES, 

COATINGS, :WORK'I-ERDS, 

TESTINGS, SUITINGS, 

Meltons, Chiviota and Tweeds, 

Plain, barred, striped and diagonal, for Spring and Summer, 
at the Merchant Tailoring and CMothlng Store of 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

(Eetsblisbed Id the year 1840), 

Corner of A'ortli Queen and OrauKC-Sts., 

LANCASTER, PA. 
Extra flaiahed aud trimmed, Uocdy-made Clothing, for 

MEK A'NJ) BOYS, 

and clothing cut or made to order iu the most satisfactory 
manner. 

A fiuo line of GENT.S' FUItNISUING GOODS, and 
goods sold by the yard oi i lece. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

9-l-ly Priiclioal Tftilors. 

M. HABERBUSH, 

MANUI-ACTUREIS OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

SA]>I>I.RS. 

COLLARS, 'WHIPS, &c., 

ALSO DEALER IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFALO R0BE9, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

9-l_ly LANCASTER, PA. 



H. Z. RH0AD3. 



CHAS. Q. RHOADS. 



Eslimates furuisM Iree. 



Seul lor a Circular. 



ECONOMY I IV FERTILIZERS ! 

HOME-MADE CHEMICAL MANURES, 

The most Effective and C'lieapeNt. 

Buy reliable Chemicals and make your own Fertilizers 
AT HOME. Write for circular, giving lull information on 
this subject. 

We make, or import, all kinds of Fertilizing Chemicals, 
including : 
Oil of Vilrol, niswolvfU BoncM, 

^-rikiiixl ISoiies, lijiiid l*la*4tcr. 

Sulpliut*' oT B'olnMli, Nitralc of soda, 
A;;rir-iilliirHl Sii!(, S)il|itiii«c of Ammonia, 
Muriat<-'Ol I'ofit.sli, Itoii*- « linrcoiil, 
Sulpliiiio of Soda, Kiil|»li;tte of Magnesia. 

Address HARRISON BROS. & CO., 

/05 .South I'rottt Strtrt, J'JiHafitlp/iia. 

Established as Manufacturers of Fertilizing Chemicals 
in i7o:^. if-i-':;m 




My annual Catalagno cf Vegetable nnd Flower Seed for 
1877 will be re.idy by January, and sent frt-f to nil who (ip- 
ply. CuBtomers of last Heasjii need not write for it. I offer 
one of the Urge-^t coUectionR of vegetable seed ever sent out 
by any seed house in America, a lurco jiortion of which 
were gr wn on my b'x seed fnrms. I*rinffd direction.t/or 
cuKivationon eocrt/ packane. All seed Bold from my estab- 
lishment warriinted to be bo'h fresh and true to name; so 
far, that should it prove otherwise, I will aefiU the order 
gratis. As the original introducer of (he Hubbard and 
Marblehfad Pqnaahep, the Marblehead Cabbages, and a 
score of other now veiietablea, I invite the patronage of all 
who are anxious to bar-e their xeedn fresh, true, and of the 
t^ry bent Strain. New vkoktableb a Specialtt. 
&-r2 51] JAMES 1. H. OREQORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



R day at Home. Agents wanted. Outfit and 
terms free. TBUK k CO., Augusta, Maine. [S-Z-lj 



H.Z. RHOADS &BRO., 

38 West King Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

Wholesulo and Retail DealerB In 

fflAMOK, WATCHES, JEWELRY, 

SILVESWARE, SFZOTACLES, 

Bronzes, Clocks and Watckakers' Uiteriah. 



JOCBKI\S IN A^IEI\IGAN WaTCI^^ES. 



ORDERS RECEIVED FOR 
Special Injportations iij Foreign Goods, 



REPAIRING BY SKILLFUL WORKMEN. 



9-1 -I y] 



Tvarietiea of either Flowor or Vegetable NF.Kn.S for 25 
centB, post paid. " rlorsl TributB" 16 cenlR. 

E. E. JOItn.W. 
9-3-2m 29 Savamiah-Ht., Ilocbewlor, N. T. 



$12 




ABE PLANTKD BY A MILLION PEOPLK IN AMEBIOA. SEB 

Vick's Catalogue— 300 lUustratioue, only 2 cents. 
; Vick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, 25 ceute a y©»r, 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, 60 cent e; with 
elegant cloth coveip, $1 00. 

All my I ublications are printM in English and Oerman. 
B!| Adaress, JaMF.S VK'K. Uochoster, N. Y. 

FARMS 

For Sale K;inffinf fr.<m a<> 1" ."iOO Acri-1. 
Apply to I.. MALiOIVE, Sallabury, Nd. 



IS EEDS. 

co^L'La CATALOGUE /«". 



EVERYTHING 

VOK THE 




Numbering 175 rages, with Colored Plate, 

SENT FREE « 

To our costomerBof past years, and to all purchaBors f' 
of our books, either ^ 

Gardening for Profit, Practical Floriculture, 4] 

or Gardening for Pleasure. >J 

(Price $1.50 each, prepaid by mail,) ^ 

To otbers ou receipt of 25c. 

Plain Plant or Seed Catalogues, without pUte, free 

to all. 

Seedsmen, Market (hirdnierx and Florists, 

35 Cortlandt St., N ew York. 
^■■■■■B PL ANTS. Hi^HBBi^H 

9-l-3t „ 

WANTED IMMEDIATELY 

Y T 77 YounR Men and Women to learn Ti Lhj- X 



YounR Men aUL 
GRAPHY. SituatiouB (fuaranteed. Halary while 
practicing. Address, with etatnp. Sherman 
Teleffrapb Co., Oberlio. Ohio. 8 



9-M 



IV. 



THE LANCASTR FARMER. 



[ March, 1877. 



LADIES ! 

WE HAVE JUST OPENED 



GUNDAKER'S 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING 



STORE, 

A KEW LOT OF 

HAMBUBG EMBROIDERED EBGIBGS 

AND 

INSERTINGS, 

AT TEE VERY LOWEST PRICES. AIk), 

SILK & WORSTED FRINGES, 

Corsets, Ktd GIOTea, 

Linen Collars and Cuffs, Neckties in all shades 
and styles, 

CRAPE -V-KXX.S. 

OEAPE BONI^ETS & HATS, 

BUCH1K38, 

all styles and widths, and everything else in 

LADIES' AND CHILDBEN'S WEAB, 

that is good, deBirable and cheap. 

OiTC nB a call at 

K08.I42 &, 144 North Qneen-st, Lancaster., Pa. 

9-l-ly 

DON'T FAIL TO 

USE TBE 

Buffalo Honest Fertilizers 

ON ALL SPKING CE0P8. 
Ammoniated Bone Super Phosphate,' 

AITD 

PURE GROUND BONES. 

The purity of these goods is guaranteed, and their stand- 
ard proved by regular analysis of Prof. G. A. Liebig of 
Baltimore, and other eminent chemiate. 

Hlgrtaest Premium and Medal of Honor 
swarded by tbe <'entciiiiinl Commission of 
tbe International JExpoKition. Phila., 1876. 

Send for new Spring Circular, containing full directions 
and testimonials. 
9-2-3t.] Office SBSWashington St., Buffalo, H. Y. 



FROM ONE TO SIX-HORSE 




FARM & FREIGHT WAGONS. 

The beet proportioned, best ironed, lightest running and 
cbeapeBt Wagons in the market. 

W. D. SPRECHER A NOW, 

9-3-2m 31 East King-Bt., Lancaster, Pa. 

♦ CCT +« <t^^ a Week to AgfntB. $10 Outfit Free. 
wOO X<0 4> I I f • O- VICKERY, Augusta, Maine, 

8-8-ly 

AMOS MILEY, 
108 North Queen-st., Lancaster, Pa., 

MANDFACTURBR OF AND DEALER IN 

Saddles, Harness, Collars 

Bridles, Whips, &c. Also a fine lot of Truuke, Valises, 
Carpet Bags, Buffalo Robes. 

Harness and Trunks neatly repaired. 
»-l-ly 




SEEDS 



^^isriD :Fi.:E]i_,i.i^^LEi 

For the FI.OWER and TEOETABLE GARDEN and the FARM. 

Our 1877 Combined priced Catalogue of Seeds, Plants and Blooded Live Stock and Fancy 
Poultry Free to all. 

BFtE:E:D£:Fi'S -NLA-VSTJ aji^. 

The Philadelphia Practical Farmer of Dec. 30, notices our Catalogue as follows: "We have received an illustrated man- 
ual and descriptive catalogue of imported and thoroughbred live stock, Aldecney, Ayrshire and Short horned Cattle, Ches- 
ter White, Yorkshire, Berkshire, Essex and Poland China Hogs, Cotewold and South^wn Sheep, land and water Fowls, 
fancy Pigeons and Dogs, owned, bred and for sale by Benson & Burpee, of Philadelpma. 

This is emphatically the best and most complete live stock Catalogue we have received. It contains not only illustrationa 
and price lists of stock, but gives in addition a large amount of valuable practical information on the breeding and man- 
agement of different varieties and is very useful as a reference book. Messrs, Benson Jc Burpee have now on band a very 
fine lot of breeding stock, and we feel confident that customers will be well pleased with purchases made from them. 

Price 20 cents. 



JITST OUT I THE POULTRY YARD. How to Fubnibh and Manage It. By W. Atlee Burpe<t. A new and prac- 
tical treatise, at a popular price, for every farmer and amateur in poultry breeding. It treats of Poultry Houses an d 
fixtures, nests, yards, &c., poultry at liberty and in confinement, the best breeds for various purposes, selection of stock, 
mating for breeding, feeding of adult fowls and young chicks, condiments and general care and atteution^requisite to suo- 
cess in this often neglected branch of rural industry. 
It also contains practical hints on the raising and management of Tuikeys, Geese, Ducks and Quineas. 

Beautifnl Colored Frontispiece of a trio of Fowls. Price 50 ots., post free. 



EGOS FOR HATCHING of all choice varieties. LAND AND WATER FOWLS. Also very fine Chester White, 
Yorkshire, Berkshire, Essex and Poland China Pigs; Cotawold and Southdown Sheep, Alderney and Ayrshire OattU 
and calves now for sale. 

A'>'>«-" BENSON & BURP££, 

Seed 'Warehouse, 223 Chvirch St., Philadelphia, Fa. 




MAMMOTH CORN. 

Every farmer send for package of Mammoth Corn, whlob 
in ordinary ground will yield 125 bushel per acre, besides 
ripens much sooner. It is perfect flour com, grows thre» 
ears on each stalk. Club together and send for one dozea. 
packages. It is put up in packages at the following price: 

One package 35 cts. 

Two " 50 

Six " 1.40 

One dozen packag'cs 2.30 

Two " ** 3.70 

Send at once to 

CASEY'S SEED CO., 

9-3-3in HarrisonvilM, Meigs co., Ohio, 




YOUR NAME PRI!«TEn on 40 Mixed Cards for 
lOo. STEVENS BROS., Northford. Conn. 
9-3-lm. 

ESTABLISHED 18S2. 



Prize Medal Awarded by the C'entcnHlal 
Coniini»!4ion to 

IMPROVED BUTTER TOBS AND COOLERS. 

With movable Ice Cham- 
bers, Patented Jan. 12, 
1ST5. Best in the market. 
Are made of white cedar, 
buuud with galvanized 
iron or brass hooj s. 
Within thetub ia fitted a 
tin Cooler, having a 
movable Chamber for 
ice at each end. On the 
till is constructed a se- 
rieH of ledges, on which 
rest the shelves for sup- 
porting the butter (Print 
Butier); are used without shelves for Roll Butter. Can be 
locked for shipping. Hinges, Hasps, and Fixtui es. are tinned 
to render the^ rust proof. J. G. *-■ OEII1.ER, 

9-3-3m Msnufacturer, No. 503 N, 8econd-st., Phila. 




FXMPZiSS. 



I will mail (Free) the receipt for preparing a simple Veg- 
KTABLE Balm that will remove Tan, Freckles, PiMi LES 
and BLOTCHES, leaving the skin soft, cltar and beantilul; 
also instructions for producing a luxuriant growth of hair 
on a bald head or smooth face. Address Ben. Vandelf & 
Co., Box 5121, No. 5 Wooster St., N. Y. .[9-1-Gm 




SENEK & SONS, 



Manufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 

finished 



r.x7]y[B£:fi, 



Also Sash, 



The best Sawed SHI^'GLEM iu the country. 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &o. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best COA I. constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YAKD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-stg., 

9-l-ly 



$1 a Year 



'To (iHhRcriberB tn 
'l the county. 



SINGLE C0PI3S 10 CENTS 



To flubBcriberii out of | 
tUf cnuiity, ( 



$1.23. 




Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, APRIL 15, 1877. 



UNNSnS BATEVOK, FabUsher. 



THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 




A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 



PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Made a prominent feature, with special reference to the 
wautB of the Farmer, the Gardener and Fruit-Grower, 



Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited by Prof. S. S. EATHVON. 



The Lanoastkk Farmer having completed its eighth 
year under VHrious viciseitudeB, now commences its ninth 
volume under, it ik hoped, more favorable auspices than 
attended its tormer volumt'H. When the publisiiers of the 
last two volumes HHSumed the reBpousibilitieB of its publi- 
cation, it WHB with ii delerrainatiou to make ench iniprove- 
ments as would place the farmer'e organ of this great agri- 
cultural county in the very front rank of agricnltural jour- 
naliBm, That this hsB been accompliehed we think our 
readers will bear cheerful testimony. If rejison.bly bub- 
taiued, our aim is to make it Btill more interesting and iu- 
Btructivo under ts new proprietorship. In thip, however, 
we need the co-operation of every friend of the enterprise. 

The contributions of our able editor, Prof. Rathvon, on 
BUbjectB connected with the science of farming, and partic- 
ularly that specialty of which he iB so thoronghly a master — 
entomological science— some knowledge of which has become 
a necessity to the fluccessful farmer, are alone worth much 
more than the price of this publication. 

The Farmer will be published on the 15th of every 
month, printed on good paper with clear tyjie, in con- 
venient form for reading and bimUng, and mailed to sub- 
Rcribers ou the following 

TERMS: 

To subscribers residing within the county — 
One Copy, one year, -----_ $i.oo 

Six Copies, one year, - - - - . . 5.00 

Ten Copies, one year, ------- 7.50 

To subscribers outside of LAUcaster county, including 
postage pre-paid by the publishers: 

One Copy, one year, - . - - . . $1.25 

Five Copies, one year, . - . . . . 5.00 

All Bubscriptions will commence with the January num- 
ber unless otherwise ordered. 

All communications intended for publication should be 
addressed to the Editor, and, to secure insertion, should be 
In his hands by the first of the month of publication. 

All business letters, containing subscriptions and adver- 
tisements, should be addressed to the publisher. 



LINNyEUS RATHVON, 

aa South Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



KATF,S OF ADVERTI8IXO — Ten Cents a 
line Tor eikeb Insertion. Twelve liae« to the mob 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



April, 49 

Fine Test Potatoee, . - ... 49 

Words of Cheer, - - 50 

The Colorado Bug Abroad, .... 50 

Written Receipts by Mail, ----- 50 

Crowded Out, 50 

Fertilization, Preventive and Cure, - - .50 

The Park Association, ..... 50 

The Weather— The Ground Hog, ... 50 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The Guava, 51 

Pieris Rapae, .......5.3 

Unpublished Letter of Henry Clay, - . 53 
Answers to Correspondents, . . . . 5S 

Annual Address, ...... 54 

Reud before the '•Lancaeter County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society," Jaiuary let, 1877. by ihe Pres. 
fdeut, Ciilviu Coojer. 

Largeor SmallPotatoe8,F.R.DiFFENDEBPER, . 54 

Essay ........55 

Head before the "Lancaster County Agricnltural and 
Horticultural Society,*" March 2G, 1877, by Levi Pow- 
uaU. 

How Much Lime to the Acre, . - . - 5G 
ltf;id before the "Laucaeter County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society," IrlKrcb 2d, 1877, by E. K. Her. 
ehey. 

Sap, Etc. — Plant Life and Molecular Force, 

J. Stauffeh, 50 

Corn Cultivation, J. G. . - - . - 57 
Ayrshires, ...... .58 

Gardening for Farmers, J. S. Harris. . - 58 
Location of the Garden — Soil — Hot.Bede — Staaon or 
time for Planting — Fruits. 

Better Prices lor Seed Leaf, .... 60 

The Lancaster Tobacco Crop, - - - . 60 

Our Local Organizations, .... 01 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricnltural and 

Horticultural Society — Crop Keporte — Agriculture of 

the Country — Growing Potatoes. 

Tobacco Growers' Association, . - - C2 
The Linnaian Society, ...... 03 

Additions to the Library — Pai>ors Head. 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Valuable Formulas, 63 

Utilizing Coal Eust, 63 

What Soil Consists of, 63 

A New Agricultural Plant, . . - .63 
Hints to Farmers, - fti 

HORTICULTURAL. 

Florida and its Oranges, ----- C4 

Transplanting Large Trees, - - - . 64 

Shipments of Apples, ...... 64 

Literary and Personal, ..... 64 



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ELIZABETH STOCK FARMS. 



To the getter up of a club of 5 subscribers, at $1 .00 
a year, we will mail a copy of The Faruer, for one 
year free. 



Registered Pure-Bred and High Grade 

Jersey Bull^ Cows and Calves^ 

<'on»laiitlj on Hnnd and 
l-'or Nalp. 

BERKSHIRES BRFD WITH CARE. 
COLIN CAMERON, 

»-*-lyl Briekerville, Lanra-iter co., Pa. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



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COIM==SILVER 

— Aim 

Gold Premiums 

GIVEN AWAY 

^^ To Every Subscriber of This Paper!! 

CONSISTING OF 

Elpgant «s:<ra-plate<l TAKLK SirVERWARE, 

surh as 87.00 ('aslorM, Knives S6.00 per set. 

Forks $3.00, Spoons $4.S0 per set, Xapklii- 

llingrs 82.ao a pair, Su^ar-Kowls, goia- 

lined, all of latest style of pattern, 

TO EVERY SUBSCRIBER FREE. 



SiIvrrandGoMgoorls furnished underthis Premium Proposition are from the well known 
and reliable Kasle Gold and Silver Plating Company, Cineinnati, uliio. Undt-r a very favor- 
able proposition from the above well known house, all regular patrons of this paper can se- 
cure a useful and beautiful, a-s well as a verv valuable Premium, in the shape of a hand- 
some set of EXTRA PLATED SILVER SPOONS, equal to the iwst artiele of 
the kind sold in this counlry lor fl.Sll per set. And, in addition, EACH SPOON 
^^Va?^ '^i^'!(P^°'"^,>7,^?NCRAyED WITH YOUR MONOCRAWl 
INITIAL. AH who are entitled to receive this elegant and uselul Premium can do 
so on compliance with the following conditions: Send your name and post-offlce address, 
with your express office, to the EaEle Gold and Silver Plating Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
together with the following Premium Order, and inclose with your order 75 cents to pav cost 
ot engraving your initials, express charges, boxing, and packing, and vou will receive by 
return express ior mail, if youliave no express office) a full set of extra plated Silver Spoons 
FREE OF ANY CHARGE. All express and packing charges are covered by the 75 
cents, and the Spoons will be delivered to you FREE. H you do not desire to have the 
Spoons engraved, you are only required to send 60 cents, to pay cxpressage and boxing. 
I Ihe order must in all cases be .sent, to indicate that you are entitled to this Premium as this 
very liberal oiler is not extended to any who is not a patron of this paper. The retail price 
of this set of spoons is S-J.50, as the following letter will show : 

-, „ u ,v . . Opfics of Eagle Gold and Silver Plating Company. Cincinnati. Omo. 

wo As.ure all aabscHbers that the poods C£.ntr^lcd for are flrat-clasg in eren respect, aud thai our retail price for 
ine S[)ooa9 IS S4.o0 per .set. We will in no case retail them at a less price or send them in slDgle sets 10 anT one who 
does not send the required •' Order," showing thai the sender is a patron of thi, paper. ^ 

Cj^ All orders must be sent to above flrm. Eaolb Gold and Silvbb Platinq Compant. 

! J^EAn «'AREFI7I.I.Y.— If you prefer as n Premium our 87.00 CASTOR, or S5.00 I 
st-t of SIX FORKSi we will furnish you with the Castor on receipt of SI..'*, and the 

l-orks upon receiptor Sl.OO; this includes the cost of packing, boxing, postage, aud express 
churL:es; or we will furnish you any of the other goods named on .sixme terms. Tliusde- I 
livenng to you the goods free of any expense, as a Premium, at cost of packing and ex- 
press charges, etc. 



^ PREMIUM SILVER ORDER. 

fi^'Premium Silverware: Warranted Extra Silver Plate, "^^ 

T > Ihe Eaele Oolcl and Silver I»latinar Co., Cincinnata, O.: Thi9 is to certify 
iMat . .imasubscri^i-Tof lUe [cper liMin wlirch I have cut tfiia Order, amJ :im entitled, under vour 
pr.-nuiim aiTan';emenl, to a full set of extr-i-plated Pilver Si-oona, with my initials engraved 
ih*-ieon, or other Silverware which I may order herewith. I inclose herewith 75 cents, to pav 
expr^- sia, packin g, boxing, and engravinj^ charges. ' 



fl®-On receiptor tl.is Order, we hereby agree to return to the sender, expreM or niailinir 
ohars-es prrpaaU in fulJ, a full set of six of our extra-plated .Silver spoons with the initials "f 

i^T^,'"' "'■=\''y*".'\^5''"'''-^l5deaired. engraved thereon or onr$7.i>n(-a,^tnr on receipt Of SI .50. 
-» ^V ^^ V,\ ^'"" ^^ hon-^red by us for ninetv daya from the date of this paper after which 
It Will be null uiulvnrd. [Siiinedl Eiri.k Gold and Su.veh Pi.ATlNfs Co., Cinrinnati. O. 



At no time in tl 

. fiimili'-.v ThU 

I to [homseKes the imtin^ 



ilver Platx-d Ware atuined so hii;h a porfectiun an at the present I 
IT aa pcioil 13 Koliil Silverware, ami much preferred by niaiif 

[ :"■■■■■■ "■■ , ""■-,' -" '■ '""* "= ""'"' "I";"- "insB whu desire them are urgird to immediaielv .send and secure 

to [hemsehes the immt^Uve ndvantdgoa olT-rert bj- thi-* company f^r s,>ciiring Ih.- h^-n Silver Plot-d W-.r^ yi ofr»red ' 
on 8iich ravor:»hle term*. CCT Address kll ordera to Eagle tJold and Silver I'lutlne Co , Clnolnnoti. Ohio. 



ory '-r iiiaiiuri>-ttire'< bus Sil 
[■■■aruii..'e iitid foi- prrv-.-tical \ 
not k.n({ be held ope 



Kntett Mf Advertising: in ihe Farmer. 



l^mo 

2 mo.... 

3 mo.... 

4 mo 

6 mo 

8 mo 

1 year. 



1 m. 




a in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


$1.00 


$ 2.00 


$ 3.00 


$ 4.00 


$ 6.00 


2 00 


4.00 


6.00 


3.00 


12.00 


2.50 


4.5!) 


6.75 


10.00 


13.50 


3.00 


fi.OO 


9.00 


12.00 


18 on 


4.50 


9.00 


13.50 


18.00 


27.00 


6.00 


1-2.00 


18.00 


24.00 


36 0) 


9.00 


18.00 


27 ( 


36.00 


64.00 



$ 8.00 
16.00 
IS. 00 
24.00 
36.00 
48.00 
72 00 



»JP apecial and business uoticefl 15 cents jter line. 

S E B D S 

FIELD, GARDEN, FLOWER 

E AND BIRD SEEDS, Mq 

Herd, Orchiird, Greeu and Blue Grass, Flax. JC^ 
Huiigiirian, 

CLOYER and TIMOTHY. 

EAlso, GRASS SEED MIXTURE, for Lawns and tt\ 
Grass Plots, *■ 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, 

33 W. D. SPRECHER&SON, 13 

So. 31 East King-st., Lancaster, Pa. 



S S E 



A. N. BRENEMAN, Jr., 

MANUFACTDftEB OF 

FRENCH CALF BOOTS \ FRENCH KID BOOTS 

5-OK FOU 

GENTLEHEiy. I I.ADIF.8. 

No. 36 West King Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



DUNBAR'S 
9-1-ly 



CHILD'S SHOES A SPECIALTY. 



TO CONSUMPTIVES. 

The advertiBer having been permaoeutly cured of that 
d read diaeaHe, CoTisuniptioii, by a flimj 1p remedy, is anxious 
to make kuowTi to his t'ellow sufforets the me:tiiB of cure. 
To all who deifire it. he will seud a coxiy of the prescription 
used, (free of charge), with the directions foi' preparing and 
using the same, which Ihey will find a sure Cube for Con- 
sumption, Asthma, BRoNCWiTis, &c. 

Parties wishiug the prescription will please address, 

Rev. E. A. WILSON, 394 Peun St.. Wiillameburg, N. Y. 
9-1 -flm] 

ERRORS OF rOUTH. 

A GENTLEMAN who suffeied for years from Nervous 
Debility, Prematvire Decay, and all the effects of youth- 
ful indiscretion will, for the sake of suffering humanity, 
send free to all who need it, the receipt aud direction for 
making the simple remedy by which he was cured. Suflfor- 
ers wishing to profit by the advertiser'a experience can do 
80 by addresaing in perfect confidence, 
9-l-6m] JOHN B. OODKN, 43 Cedar St., New York. 



Great Stock- Breeder's Monthly. 

~ ^THE NATIONAL 

LIVE-STOCK 





JOURNAL, 

Published at 
CHICAGO, ILLS 

THIS GREAT MONTHLY is univereally acknowl- 
ledged to be wi hout a rival in its department of 
Journalism. Each number contains 4S large pages, 
three columns to the page, with a handsome cover, 
aud is BeaLititully Illustrated with elegant double- 
plate engravings. It is the only pa] er in tUe world 
devoted exclusively to live-stack and the d.tiry. It 
dirfcueses the s<^ieuce of breeding, the merits of the 
various breeds, the most aitprnved methods of feed- 
ing aud handling, and everything perlaiuiug to the 
Bucceesful management of livestock on the farm. 
During the year 18T7, Prof, James Law, the eminent 
veterinary of O'^rneU University, will contriliule a 
series of articles iijiou the l.iws of health and disease 
as applied to Domestic Animals, that cannot fail to 
be of great value to Farmers aud Stuck Breeders 
every where. It contains separate Dei artments, 
devoted to HOUSES, CATTLE. SHEEP,SWINE and 
the DAtKY, end its corps of editors are recognized 
thruughnut the entire country « a the Most Thoe- 
ouGH. Able and Practical writers in the separate 
departments, that cm be found in America. No ex- 
pense is siared on the jiart of its publishers, to 
mrtke it a high-toned, reliable, practical and instruc- 
tive Journal, just such i.s every intelligent farmer 
and stock breeder will find worth ten times its coat 
each year. 

TERMS, — Single copies, one year, postage paid, 
H2.15: Clubs of five, postage paid, 81'9«; Cuba 
of ten, with ati extra copy free to person making up 
club, postage pre-i^aid, $1.(>5. UamiAomelfi lilun- 
t rated posters mailed to all who will get up club.t. Ad- 
dress letters, registering those containing money, 
unless in shape of Postal Order or Draft, to 

STOCK JOURNAL COMPANY, Publiahera. 

L.keside Building, CHICAGO, ILLS. 
tySEND 20 Cents for Sprcimkh Copt. [9-3-3m 




My annual Catalague of Vegetable and Flower Seed for 
18T7 will be ready by January, and sent free to all who ap- 
ply. Customers of last seasin need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest collections of vegetable seed ever sent out 
by any seed house in America, a large portion of which 
were gr- wn on my six seed farms. Jointed* directions for 
cultivation on every -package. All seed sold from my estab- 
lishment warranted to be both fresh and true to name; bo 
far, that should it prove otherwise, I will jetiU the order 
gratis. As the original introducer of Ihe Hubbard and 
Marblehead Squashes, the Marblebead Cabbages, and a 
score of othn- new veuetnbles, I invite the patronage of all 
who are ajixious to ha^e Iheir neeiU frenh, true, ami of the 
very bent strain. New Vegetables a Specialty. 
8-12-51] JAMES J. H. OREGOKY, \<arblehead, MaSB. 









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E. N. FUESHMAN & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 

186 W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Are autborizcd to rontract for advertislnc 
In tttia paper. 

Estmates fumisM free. Seid loi a Ciicnlar. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1877. 



Vol. IX. No. i. 



APRIL. 

Had the lot fallen to us — in the nineteenth 
century, and in tin- niiiklle of tlio noitli-tora- 
perute zone — to anauRi' the festivals, the sec- 
ular periods, the nionths and the seasons, 
doubtless we would have oiiened the year witli 
its vernal period, on or about the first of 
April; for, really, as a general tiling, there is 
no openini'; Unit ^can be much depended on 
before thai jieriod; and even then we often 
realize, intervals of "winter HnKering in llu; 
lap of spriiiL;. " March — "in like a lion and 
out like a lanili"-- is always more litful, and 
often meteorologically more unfriendly, than 
February; and, under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, is lint a snow-heavcu' and an ice- 
breaker for the month of April- a sort of pre- 
cursor to s])rini;, without exhibiting any of 
the nncpialilied elements of spring. 

And yet the month of March, when divest- 
ed of its lickleness, and its oi^posite extremes, 
js charged with very essential functions in the 
economy of the season's su<'Cessions. It 
"breaks the back bone" of winter, and "lets 
down" more easily the thrall of Kebruary upon 
the plane of April. Its furious, moist-absorb- 
ing winds dry up the long and excessively 
satmated soil of winter, and jirepares it foi' 
the ploughshare of the thrifty husbandman; 
and if it rested here, its benign ollice would 
tic universally acknowledged and extolled; but 
not content with tliis, it is ever changing to 
and from all the climatic points of midwinter 
and advanced spring. One day a blustering 
"borean railer," the next an Oriental zephyi', 
if not sandwiched by a day or two of cold, 
drivinu rain between, anon indulging in a 
succession of "blows, " with a violence that 
not only divests the soil of its superabun<hint 
moisture, but blows away the soil itself and 
all it ciiiiiaiiis. 

But, this untowardncss of March is eventu- 
ally succeeded by "showery, flowery, bowery" 
April; and although we are always pri-tty 
sure of the sJiOwcr;/, yet it often occurs that 
the flnu-er>i, and especially the hntceri/ do not 
come until after the first of May. The name 
of AriuL is derived from the Latin njiTilis 
which itself is a contraction of Aperilis, from 
uperinr, which means to open, as the month 
in which the earth opens foi' new fruit; when 
the trees and plants generally unfold their 
foliage, and the womb of nature opens with 
yoimg life; and, as it is physicnlly and often 
nieteorologi.ially the opening of the .year, in 
our latitude of the temperate zone, it easily 
could be made so civilly and conventionally, 
if it were not for a great nonconlorniity in the 
climate, and that makes all the difference. 
We could not expect much of an opening up 
about Beliring's Straits on the first of April, 
and down in Central America it woidd be 
quite too late, in a physical point of view. 

The first of ^Vpri! has been long and very 
widely considered "All Fools Day" — longer 
and wider, perhaps, than we "in our philoso- 
phy dream of." The allusion is to the cus- 
toin of making fools of each other on the 1st 
of April; and among some peojile "J/;/ April 
mnrii was eiiuivalcnt to my tccddhuj day, for 
on that d.ay I w^as made a fool of." In Ilin- 
dustan similar tricks were played at the Ilnli 
festival, which occurred on the .'ilst of March, 
or on "April eve." From this it would ap- 
pear that ",\pril fool" cannot refer to the un- 
certainly of the weather, nor yet to the mock 
trial of oin- Saviour, in one of which events 
the custom is said to have had its origin. 
Rev. Cobham Brewer says : "I am inclined 
to think it refers to traditions about the flood, 
when the fcifilifh were left to the jiitiless pelt- 
ing of the forty days rain," a eonclMsiouqiute 
as abstu-d, and fully as irrational as either of 
the other two. in fact we cannot tell 
from what or from whence this custom origi- 



nated; and, it is a matter of no importance to 
us now, from whence it sprung or what its 
object was. 

Still, with few or no contingencies, April is 
the genial season of the year — taking it all 
tlu-ougii, from beginning to cn<l — and among 
that contingent few is the general "Hitting 
day — a day in the liurri/skurry of wliich, sn- 
per-ollicions 'helps' often carry out a i)illow 
and gently lay it down, and perhaps the next 
moment toss a looking-glass out of the win- 
dow, from a mere love of making themselves 
usrful. Meteorologically as well as domesti- 
cally our 1st of April, in Lancaster county at 
least, corres])ond8 to New York "May day," 
on which occasion every family in Gothain 
seems to be "on the move," and Franklin's 
maxim that "three removes arc as bad as a 
burn," has no appreciation whatever. Indeed 
with us, there are .some-people who are just 
"ninnies" enough to believe that they inusi, 
and of right iiuijhl to "move" on the 1st of 
A|n'il — would be unhappy if they did not 
move, and who would coniiilain and grumble 
half tlie year if they had not moved. Well, 
if that kind of variety constitutes their "spice 
of life," it is their concern alone, and perhaps 
they ought to be let "alone in tliidr glory." 

April bc'ing then, practically, the upcning of 
the New Year, in all that relates to human 
husbandry ; the farmer, the gardener, the 
orchardist or the nurseryman will find enough 
for his toiling hands to do. Then he will be 
engaged in a multitude of occupations that 
will have no end until he nuu'kets his crops, 
and gathers with his I'aniilyaround his Christ- 
mas fire. Then the country s(Miool-liouse is 
closed for the season, and his children eschew 
their nursery rhymes of 

" Rain, rain, go away, 
Come attain, 
April ilay, 
Little Jolniuy wants to play." 

for, uidikc the pinched and idle denizens of 
the town, big and little, old and young, al- 
ways find something for willing hands to do, 
and consequently can eat freely, sleep soundly 
and be happy. 

An old and well-informed cotemiwrary, in 
his calendar of the months, writes in regard 
to this month, as follows : 

"There is no period of the year of greater 
activil-y, nidess it be high harvest, than the 
month of April. Every farmer knows the 
importance of being well np with the season, 
and he who lags behilid at this important 
juncture, may as well withdraw from the 
"strife of life " — he has mistaken his profes- 
sion. The farmer is now busy breaking up 
his corn ground, if he has not broken it up 
before." 

In our latitude, now is the time to plant 
and sow, if we would expect to reap. But 
the exact time when these things should be 
done, nmst be left to the judgment of the 
farmer and gardener, for they are more or less 
inider the influences of the nature of the soil, 
the temiicratme of the weather, and the al- 
titude of the particular locality — its protec- 
tions and exjiosures, as soon as practicable. 
The roots and seeds that should be planted 
and sown, during this month, are artichoke, 
asparagus, beans, beets, broccoli, cabbage, 
carrots, cauliflower, celery, cress, horse- 
radish; hot beds may be made; and leeks, 
lettuce, majorum, mustard, nasturtions, 
onions, parsley, jiarsnips, peas, jiotatoes, rad- 
ishes, sage, salsify, spinnaeh, thyme, toma- 
toes, turnips, &c. , put in the ground, because 
this is the season for the main planting and 
sowing. 

The particidar variety of pljints and seeds 
selected must be left to the discretion of the 
farmer or gardeuer, for soil and situation 
have much to do in their success, So, also, 



in relation to the times and modes of culture. 
In fact, cultivating the soil is analogous to cul- 
tivating the mind; tlu; results of eillier or 
both are niadi' manifest through tiie products 
of rultuie. When these do not become visi- 
ble to rational recognition, we may infer that 
there has been no real culture, but only the 
semblance of it. Tln^ powers and functions 
of nature as nltimated through the ollices of 
April have not been iixcd, but a6u,«d. 



FINE TEST POTATOES. 

After the adjournment of the February 
meeting of our local Agricidlural Society, the 
potatoes which Mr. II. M. Engle had on ex- 
hibition, he kindly donated to us, and desired 
us to test thiir relative (jualities. Without 
laying any special claim to sujierior judgment 
in such a matter, we nevertheless cheerfully 
assented ; for, if nothing else resulted, we 
could sec at least three " square meals" of 
good potatoes in it, which promised a teni- 
IHirary relief from the inferior articles we 
iiad been consuming all winter, with only a 
few e.xceptions, and those were foreign to the 
County. Three varieties were submitted to 
us, namely : the Pccrltss, the Imperial Beauty 
and the Snoirflake. AVe venture no opinion 
vipon their modes of culture, or their iirolific 
qualities, but simply upon their culinary ii.se, 
and their alhliations with the human palate. 
The first we had preiiared was the " Peerless," 
(three fine solid tubers, aggregating three and 
a half pounds) and compared with the general 
" run" of jicitatoes of last season, their quality 
was very sujierior. From their large size and 
lateness of the season, we had supposc-d they 
might have been strong and hollow in the 
centre, liiit the residt was quite otherwise ; 
they wert^ finely flavored all through, and 
reasonably dry and mealy. We consider the.se, 
in comiiarison, VEUV good. The next in 
([uality — Init not in trial — w.as the " Imperial 
Beauty," (three tubers weighing two pounds.) 
These in color and flavor were very similar to 
the Peerless, but more yielding and easier re- 
duced to a "mash," and perhaps somewhat 
drier and more granular. These we voted 
HETTEI!. After tliese, in point of excellence 
— to our mind — was the " Snowflake," (four 
tubers weighing two pounds.) Tliese were 
very white, very mellow, aixl very mild, 
faintly recalling our remembrance of the "old 
fiercer," before its degeneracy. These, with- 
out qualification, we deemed Bkst, notwith- 
standing we have«named them last. The 
difference in size may jio.ssibly have had .some 
influence uiion the quality — the Snowflakcs 
being the smallest, the Peerless the largest, 
and the Imperial Beauty, intermediate. Per- 
haps the fairest test would be to take tubers 
all of the same size. 

Whatever may be the personal opinions of 
others in regard to these three varieties of po- 
tatoes, like the Irishman and "Mrs. Mull- 



rooney's pig. 



' we ate thiin and Shot's the 



ind of it ;" and we would further suggest that 
we have no objection to be considered a com- 
mittee of one to test potatoes for the balance 
of the season, and we will make no charges 
for our services, only suggesting that the 
ijiinntnm itiffirit, of each variety, to reach an 
intelligent verdict, is about two poimds. 

If we arc correct in our impressions, these 
three varieties of the jiotato originated in 
New York State, and if so, they are an im- 
mense improvement on the potatoes brought 
down the Su.sfpiehamia from that State some 
twetity-five years .ago, and also at a later date. 
We can pretty distinctly recall some varieties 
brought down from that State, in our Ixiyhood, 
tliat were almost as black as charcoal, as 
strong as cotlfish, and as rough as sandstone, 
but of very large size, and externally smooth 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



■ — especially by the time they reached us in 
early spring ; but their, fine large size always 
commanded for them a market in comparison 
■with the " poor things" Vve then cultivated in 
Lancaster county. 

One remarkable "glut" in the market we 
well remember, when these fine potatoes 
would not bring ten cents per bushel, and one 
large dealer shoveled three hundred bushels 
out into the river rather than sell tliem at less 
than that price. Some people thought that 
when the river fell, they could get potatoes 
for nothing, but when that time came, most 
of the tubers liad been carried down the 
stream, and those that remained were wortli- 

less. 

•^ 

WORDS OF CHEER. 

Friend Editnr. — Yours of the 27th ult., and 
a copy of the Farmer, were duly received. 
It was like taking an old friend liy the hand, 
for I began to think it was "all over" with 
our local journal, and should have thought it 
a great pity that this great county of Lancas- 
ter, the acknowledged " Garden of tlie Key- 
stone State," could not as much as support 
one farmers' paper in it. 

I am very glad it has not "gone down" yet ; 
and I hope it will live long yet, and do a great 
deal of good. The amount of the subscrip- 
tion, as you say, will lie little felt by the 
thrifty farmers of our county ; for they often 
spend more than one dollar within a week or 
two, for things useless, and which often do 
them more harm than good. Then why n(5t 
deny the body a little, and bestow something 
on that mind which is immortal V Some 
people are very foolish in this respect, and 
labor only for " that meat which perisheth." 

Country people generally have a very im- 
perfect conception of city life. They think 
that most of those who live in cities and 
towns, live entirely in "clover and honey," 
whilst it is more often " briers and thistles." 
I have experienced both. 

I will do the best T can for the Farmer, 
with what success you soon shall liear, though 
I trust I may have good success ; and I will 
try and contribute sometliing to your columns 
during the approaching summer. 

Hoping you may long live and enjoy the 
fruit of your labor. 1 remain as ever your 
friend, Leolin", EUz'tlKthtmon, March,, 1877. 

We thank our fair correspondent for her 
high appreciation of our journal, and her sym- 
pathies in our behalf, and would tliat others 
would do "likewise." — Ed. 



THE COLORADO BUG ABROAD. 

London, March 13. — The British customs 
commissioners announce that the Colorado 
potato beetle has been discovered alive at Bre- 
men on goods brought from Xew York. The 
commissioners have issued a circular to the 
collectors of customs in the United Kingdom 
directing that the instructions already given 
for detecting the beetle be ajiplied to potatoes 
imported from Bremen or any German port. 

The above paragi"aph we clip from a copy 
of The Sun, (Bait.) issued March 14th, 1S77. 
Aside from tlie extraordinary feature of mak- 
ing such announcements, one day in London 
and the next day in Baltimore, there is noth- 
ing in the /act, in relation to the bug, that has 
not been for some time anticipated; and the 
measures adopted to circumvent it are of that 
short-sighted policy — in relation to the impor- 
tation of potatoes — that has been characteris- 
tic of the precautions of our transatlantic 
brethren ever since the advent of the "Color- 
ado potato beetle" in those States lying on 
the eastern borders of our Union. The "bug" 
seems to have "been discovered alive at Bre- 
men on r/nods brouglit from New York," and 
the "wisdom-chests" of Great Britain, as a 
preventive, recommend the non-importation 
ofpotapies from Bremen. There is usually a 
commercial distinctiim made between goods 
and produce. If the insect reached tlie conti- 
nent on "goods," why not interdict the im- 
portation of goods instead of only potatoes ? 

The insect in question has no particular 
partiality for potato tubers — never deposits 



its eggs ujwn them — and is never found eat- 
ing them, unless it can get nothing else ; 
therefore for one beetle that would be likely 
to reach the continent of Europe or England, 
on or among potatoes, fifty would be just as 
likely to reach those localities in, or on, some 
other article of bulky commerce, so that its 
circumvention would involve total non-impor- 
tation. The best plan, in our view, would 
be not to trouble themselves about commercial 
n(m-intercourse, but to institute a strict quar- 
antine, for a limited period on all vessels com- 
ing from infested countries; but even this 
might be obviated liy the institution of a 
thorough examination of vessels during the 
voyage, and this should be extended to all 
packet vessels, with as much vigilance as 
to trading vessels. About the period when 
imtatoes are usually shipped from the Uniteil 
States or Canada, ihe most dangerous brood 
of tliese insects will be in a state of winter 
hibernation, and therefore, not likely to be 
among them at all. 



WRITTEN RECEIPTS BY MAIL. 

We hope our patrons will not require us to 
send them written recei])ts by mail for sub- 
scriptions, except to clubs of six or more. 
The Httle labels pasted on their papers will 
indicate to them whether their money has 
been received or not. For instance, those 
marked "Jan. 77," or simply "77," show 
that their suliscriptions are paid up to the 
first of January, 1877, and that they owe us 
for the present year. Those marked "Jan. 
7S," or simply " 78," indicate that their sub- 
scriptions are paid up to the first of January, 
1878. We cannot send them a loose receipt 
without an expenditure of tlirce cents postage, 
besides the cost of envelope, paper, and the 
labor of writing, unless we resorted to a iios- 
tal card, to which man}' people object. We 
hope, too, that they will exonerate us from 
answering letters by mail, except such as can- 
not be answered through, the columns of the 
Farmer. We will cheerfully make any reason- 
alile concession in cxcejitional cases, but as a 
general rule, it involves more labor and ex- 
pense than we are able to undergo. 

Remittances for advertisements are of a 
quite different character, and are governed 
by a quite dillerent rule. 



If some of our contributors do not find 
their productions in the present number of 
The FAKMEn, it will be because they have 
been unavoidably crowded out. Having more 
manuscript on hand than we could accommo- 
date with space, we were obliged to give the 
preference to priority of date, excejit in cases 
where postponement would invalidate the 
usefulness of the article; moreover several pa- 
]iers which should have appeared in our January 
and February numbers, only "turned up" a 
month ago, and we, therefore, publish them 
in this number as the next best thing we could 
do. They will be duly attended to. 



FERTI,LIZATION, PREVENTIVE AND 
CURE. 

The following has been clipped from the 
editorial columns of the Philadephia Press, 
by a correspondent, and sent to us for inser- 
tion in the Farmer. If any of our suli- 
scribers, in their reading, meet an article 
relating to Agriculture or a kindred subject, 
that they wish to have more permanently re- 
corded — and also more conveniently — than it 
would be in a large folio which, perhaps, they 
do not file, if they cut them out and .send 
them to us, we will, in due time, give them 
pulilicity in the Farmer. In the matter of 
recuperating the soil, or forestalling or de- 
stroying noxious insects, any remedy within 
the bonds of probabilit}' is worthy of consid- 
eration and trial. — Ed. 

Experiment is constantly making inven- 
tions and applications of the greatest value to 
agriculture, which is itself a science, and the 
very earliest, of no small importance. ' He 
who makes two blades of grass grow where 



there was only one before is a public lienefac- 
tur, according to the well-known proverb. The 
substance called paratln oil is well know for 
its value when used to lubricate machinery, 
owing to its power of resisting the oxydiziiig 
action of the atmospliere, and by its very 
slow evaporation. There now is the an- 
nouncement that parafin oil is a substitute for 
the b- st guano, becoming a clean and fructi- 
fying manure when poured over dry earth or 
sand, which should be used as guano is. More 
important still is the announcement that 
grain — corn, wheat, oats, barley, beans, peas, 
&c. — when steeped for a short time in a pre- 
paration of parafin liecomes repulsive to rats, 
mice, and the various insects that prey upon 
these seeds in the earth. The plan is to mix 
4 oz. of parafin oil through six gallons of rain 
water, and sprinkle it on the soil before sow- 
ing or planting, and. at a later period, wlien 
germination has pal]>ably begun, water be- 
tween the rows, with the above solution. 
Seeds of all sorts should be steeiied in or 
sprinkled with the parafin. It is reported as 
the result of eight years' experience that this 
substitute for guano is a remedy for wire- 
worm, grul), and all garden, field "and vinery 
jiests. Bii'ds avoid ground thus treated, and 
Hies, wasps, and other disagreeable winged 
pests equally avoid it. As a hydro-carbon 
paratin oil thus acts, and being chemically 
inert', will not injure the seed, though it gives 
it temporary flavor which drives away the in- 
.sectsand other pests that prey uiion the grow- 
ing produce. Possibly it might successfully 
deal with the Colorado beetle, which has lately 
caused so much alarm and done so much in- 
jury. It is somewhat singular that the e.xper- 
imeiits whose results are here stated were 
made in Australia, where cereal jiroduce is 
wondrously large — where, as Douglas Jerrold 
says, "you have but to tickle the eartli with 
a ploughshare, and it smiles into a harvest." 
— Press. 

THE PARK ASSOCIATION. 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Lco^caster County AgriruHwal Park As- 
sociation, held at the Stevens House, the re- 
ports of the Dii'ectors and Treasurer were pre- 
sented and adopted, and tlie following Board 
of Directors was elected for the jjresent year : 
Robert A. Evans, H. Z. Rhoads, A. C. Kep- 
ler, R. J. McGrann, George Youtz, Abram 
Hiestand, Levi Sensenig, W. S. Shirk, Jno. 
Murphy, George Styer and James Stewart. 



THE WEATHER— THE GROUND HOG. 

A correspondent writing over tlie name 
"Doubting Thomas," and who says he has 
read our "exhaustive and almost exhanstless 
panegyrics on the weatlier-wisse woodchuck," 
asks us to " account for the difference be- 
tweenSthe mild weather promised by the wood 
chuck and the hyperborean lilasts that have 
been chilling us to the marrow for the past 
few days, with the mercury at zero." The 
answer is easy : the ground hog iiromiscd us 
six weeks of warm and pleasant weather, 
commencing February 1. Tlie six weeks ex- 
Iiired on Thursdaj* last. The ground hog's 
contract was then fulfilled to the letter, and 
like a nolile beast, as he is, he gracefvdly slid 
into his hole to give Sts. Patrick and Sheelah 
a chance. You see it, Thomas ? " Blessed 
are they that have not seen and yet have 
believed." 

The above paragrajih we clip from the 
columns of the Intelligencer of March 19, 1877, 
as one among the many that have ajipeared 
on the same subject, in various journals the 
jirescnt season, and especially in the e(junty 
of Lancaster, where it is somehow supposed 
that there are more believers in the ground 
lioij, as a weather prognosticator, than else- 
where. Anioi>g all these paragraphs, there 
has been a want of entire harmony, something 
of a departure from the original theory — in- 
deed, we may say that the matter has gotten 
somewhat "mixed up," if not absolutely de- 
miualized ; and, in order to get it righted we 
must go back to the " doctrine of the fathers. " 



1S77.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



And even the doctrine of the fathers was 
capable of a two-fold construction, and there- 
fore had two schools of believers amont; its 
adherents ; so that evini among tlieni, tliere 
■was by no means a unity upon ils fundamental 
principles. Five and lifty years a^jo— and 
jicrliaps nnieh lonj;er — it was said, " If the 
Ground liog conies out from his winter lair 
on the niRht of the second of February, or 
' ('andUinas,' and sees his shadow rellccted 
by the light of the moon, he innnediately re- 
turns to it, niul does not come forth again for 
six weeks ;" whicli is taken as a certain indi- 
cation that we shall have a six weeks con- 
tinuation of winter weather ; Imt whether 
seven or eight weeks was a litenil verilication 
of the iirophecy, never was clearly established. 

Per Coiilnt — '"If he comes out, as liefore 
related, and decs nal see his shadow, then he 
will remain out, and from that time forward 
the weather will moderate, and we shall iiave 
an early and a pleasant Sjiring. Six weeks of 
niil<l weather succeeding the I'd of February, 
and then changing to "cold as (Greenland," 
would not have been regarded as a litrrul 
veritieatinn of the prophecy, live and lifty 
years ago, by any means. That is a modern 
perversion— very re('ent, and very local. Hut, 
among the fathers there was a "hitch," out 
of which grew the two schools we have ad- 
verted to. It was not clear what was tw be 
regarded as " the night of the second of Feb- 
ruary," because, a whole day was sandwiched 
betw'een the two halves of that night. When 
the clock struck V2 at midnight, on the 1st of 
February, the next moment thereafter the 2d 
of February began. At o'clock 58 minutes 
A. ^I., the sun rose, and as the moon sets 
about 7 o'clock A. M., at that period, there- 
fore the Ground hog would have six hours 
and lifty-eight minutes in which to come out 
and s(C, or mil «(, his shadow, according to 
pending meteorological cimtingeneies. The 
moon rises on that day about 10 o'clock F. II. 
and the sun sets about 5 o'clock, so that the 
animal woidd have two hours in which to 
mak(^ his ap|iearance, and see or not see his 
shadow. 

^."ow, it will be perceived that thediflerence 
between these schools was as between Omand 
nearly scrot. The liberal constructionists 
contended that he came out between 12 and 7 
A. M.,as the most likely, because at that time 
he would be less liable to casual interruption 
of any kind ; but the strict constructionists 
contended that he came out between 10 and 
12 F. M. mainly for the reason that the 
Ground hog never was remarkable as an early 
riser. 

That was the ^talm; of the question fifty, 
sixty, or perhaps a hundred years ago, if not 
longer, although there were then ali'cady in- 
novations upon the ancient doctrine, especially 
in local districts. 15ut in later years the old 
doctrinal landmarks became almo.st obliterat- 
ed, and now it is almost universally stated 
thus: " If the Gromid hog comes forth from 
his winter (piurlers on 'Candlemas' (Feb. 
2nd), and sees his shadow, he will innnedia- 
tely return to them, and will not come forth 
again for six weeks ;" and this is an indica- 
tion that w'e shall have a continuan<-e of cold 
winter weather for that length of time. Lax 
constructionists give him from sunrise to high 
noon, but the rigid constructionists contend 
that he immediately returns, and that the 
cold weather continues six weeks, and by no 
means any longer. 

Per Coiitru. — "If he comes forth on theday 
afore-named and docf: not. see his shadow, he 
remains abroad, and we shall have an early 
and genial Sjiring." 

The 2nd of I'ebruary, 187(i — in the morning 
— was cold, bright and sunny, although before 
night it became cloudy. Of course, it was said, 
''the Ground hog saw bis shadow," and re- 
turned to his winter (piarters to remain there 
six weeks longer. Although the weather 
which followed February 2nd, 1870, was not 
intensely cold, yet the seven or eiiilit weeks 
which followed, were not such, we think, as 
would invite forth the Ground hog ; therefore, 
to the literal constructionist, a prophecy that 



is more than verified, is not verilied at all. 
The morning of the 2nd of February, 1S77| 
was cloudy, and hence ''Old Monax" could 
not see his shadow, but the weather which 
has since followed has not been such as can 
be fairly construed into a verilication of his 
prophecy. Even if six weeks of inilil weather 
iiad followed the 2ncl of Februaiy, and then a 
period of cold, foul and dreary weather had 
succeeded it, it would not have been a fullill- 
ment of the (iround hog proi;nostication, be- 
cause that prediction means the advent of a 
mild and early Spring ; and that the month of 
March will, in /(trt, as well as in name, be a 
Spring month, whereas it has been much more 
winterish than the month of Februaiy, the 
Iiresent year. 

Hut, viewing the whole subject from a prac- 
tical standpoint, there seems to be a primal 
qualification in tlu^ whole theory which en- 
velope's it in doubt. It is .said — "7/" the 
ground hog," iS:c., &c., which fairly implies — 
"maybe he iciH, and maybe he mou'i " most 
likely he UKinH. 

Dr. (iodinan, one of Pennsylvania's dis- 
tinguished naturalists, who kept these ani- 
mals as pets, on several occasions, and who 
in a very interesting maimer tells "what he 
knew about (Jround liogs," says : "At 
the coininencement of cold weather, the 
"marmont" (ground hog) goes into his win- 
ter quarters; liaving blocked up the door from 
within, he there remains until the return of 
the warm season revives him again to reiunv 
his accustomed mode of life; " and we be- 
lieve he would remain there until the first of 
May, or longer, if the weather remained cold 
so long ; and also that he might come out on 
the first of .January, or earlier, if the temper- 
ature was high enough to revive him to renew 
his accustomed mode of lil'e" — candlemas or 
no candlemas. His accustomed mode of life 
is to excavate a burrow of from six to ten feet 
or mon^ in the ground, in such a situation as 
will leave the entrance im-liniiig downward in 
order to prevent the ingress of water during 
a rain, and making an ample nest for himself, 
his mate, and his family of from four to six 
or more youngsters, periodically. 

Futhcrmore, his habit is to feed voraciously 
on vegetation, and especially on young clover, 
and it. is said that a score of them can cut a 
swartli through a field as clean as a patent 
mower, and devour it as they go forward, 
lie is not distinguished as an early riser, and 
l>refers midday as the period of his foraging 
operations; for so cunning' is he. that he 
knows that the farmers have retired from the 
fields, and are then taking their midday meals 
and rest. On such occasions — like the 
''Prairie dogs" — one or more will keep watch, 
while the others are feeding, and at the 
slightest distiibance he gives the alarm .squeak, 
and they all make a precipitate retreat to 
their holes. They also, sometimes, come 
forth to feed on bright moonlight nights, and 
under varying circumstances, at other times 
also. Jy'ow, if by some diversion in the reg- 
ular revolution of the planets it should trans- 
l)ire that winter should be displaced by sum- 
mer, can any one suppose that the (iround hog 
would lie dormant until candlemas before he 
ventured forth from his winter (piarters in 
.Search of food ? Not he. The demands of 
his stomach would become too pressing to long 
resist them. Or, if suniiner, or any portion 
of it, was displaced l)y Arctic cold, that he 
would not hie him to his winter den, and be- 
come semi-torpid V Heat is the medium 
through which the living power of the uni- 
ve.se is exercised, and its vital energies are , 
manifested. Without heat, everything would 
be cold, and chill, and liarren, and inert, 
and so would be "old ?»0)iax" for ever and 
ever. 

If the sunshine or clouds of candlemas 
have any meteorological significance at all, it 
must be Zodiacal, and has, in our opinion, no 
relation whatever to the habits of the (rround 
hog. 1870 was in contradiction to the ancient 
traditions, and so was 1S77, in this locality 
at least. If the tradition is now niisstatedand 
misinterprated, and night is the time when he 



o.stensil)ly comes forth and sees, or does not 
see his shadow, it involves the question with 
additional difficiiltiea, because of the barriers 
it would interpose to personal ob.servalions on 
the subject ; and perhaps it is the existence of 
these difficulties, which has kept the (lucs- 
tion so long an o|)en one. Under any cir- 
cumstances, however, a belief or disbelief of 
the doctrine can wr)rk no material harm at 
the present day, for the light fif intelligence is 
becoming so widely and so thoroughly (liflused 
that no one of ordinary intelligence would 
base the chances of success or failure of an 
enterprise upon the 8ui)p08ed habits of the 
Ground hog, and if there are yet any such, we 
would resiiect fully recommend them seriously 
to pray for '^Light, rtvire light slilU'' — Ed. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Guava. 

Prnf. S. S. liutlirem: Seeing an article in the 
February numberof Tli?; Fakmkk in relation 
to the G'l/HVK, but as you give no credit from 
where you copied it, some readers might sup- 
|iose this tree ct)uld be grown as a fruit tree 
in our climate— as some have already made 
enquiries, where the fever tree, Ewalyptus 
(Ih'ljulosa could be i)rocnred, with the inten- 
tion of idanting it as a tVnest tree. Now 
neither the (iuava or Knealt/jitus will live in a 
climate where there is the least degree of frost. 
Kven in our most Southern States, both these 
trees occasionally are injured, or kille<l, by a 
more then ordinary cold spell. In Galifornia 
th(!}' are ))lanting largely of the Eucalyptus. 
They are both very interesting when grown in 
(ireen-honses, where the trees are dwarfed in 
pot culture, out of the reach of frost. Mr. 
Ileusel has the Ewaluptiis growing finely in 
his (Jreeu-house. This tree is said to be of 
great value as a medicinal plant. By making a 
tea of the leaves will cure many of the "ills 
that llesh is heir to." l?y its vigorous growth 
it digs up the swanqis, thus destroying the 
malaria, and making the climate more healthy. 

The Guava — Psidium Catleijanimi — I have 
fruited for many years; it is a ideivsant sweet 
and acid fruit, and some people are very fond 
of the fruit, size of a large cherrj'. Another 
species of the Guava, called "sour sop," from 
Florida, I have not yet fruited. This is 
said to be a larger fruit. 

Both these trees grown in pots, so as to 
dwarf them; could be grown in an ordinary 
sitting room, where no frost enters, and are 
very ornamental and interesting. J. 
B. G., Crilmnhia. March 2S, 1877. 

By referring to the article in our February 
number again, our friend will find that the 
text is from the New Yeirk 'JViltmie, and the 
context from RincVs Vegetable Kingdom, page 
:!()7. W^e inserted the article in order to draw 
out something practical in regard to its out- 
door cultivation in this and more southern 
latitudes, as we found it going the rounds of 
both Agricultural and secular papers. We 
thank our friend for his .suggestions. 



Editor of The L.vncaster F.mjmer. — 
Dear Sir : You asked me some days ago why 
I don't attend the meetings of the Agricultu- 
ral and JJortlrultural S'leiettj anymore. Well, 
I was a member at one time, and pretty regu- 
larly attended the meetings, but was com- 
pelled to discontinue attending them. The 
reason for iloing so was not owing tfi a want 
of interest in tliem, or in the cause of agricul- 
ture, but because of my inability to lose so 
much time. The fact is, I attend regularly 
the Wednesday morning market, and when 
the market is over, I transact what business 
1 have in the city, and, if at all, I then could 
also attend a meeting of a society; but I can- 
not afford to leave my work and go to town 
exprcs.sly for that purpose on Monday. No 
man who himself cultivates his farm, cares 
about losing double time, and incurring dou- 
lile expenses to attend a town meeting, espe- 
<ially when he participates in no fancy specu- 
lations, by means of whicli he expe<'ts tocom- 
liensate hiin.S(df for loss of time. I entertain 
the greatest respect for all who claim to be 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



farmers, whether that claim is real or assum- 
ed, and I also feel an interest in all that re- 
lates to the real success of farming, but, what- 
ever may be the status of the society tvoio, it 
seemed to me that those who exercised a con- 
trolling influence in its proceedings when I at- 
tended, were not what I considered practical, 
or working farmers. Except perliaps in a few 
cases, they were not the men who follow the 
plow; and therefore, although honorable men, 
they were not at all congenial to me, and I 
didnot feel at home among them. Some of 
them have farm.s, and good farms too; nice 
and clean, and well cultivated perhaps, but 
they do not cultivate them themselves. They 
get hired men to do the work, and they are 
out on some speculation; and the society 
meeting on Monday, it just suits that class of 
farmers; but I am not in that line of business, 
and therefore it would be inconvenient for me 
to attend. I have nothing against them, how- 
ever, for as I said before, they are honorable 
and respectable; but formers like I am, want 
to be at home as much as possible, and ought 
to be. They can not leave home and farm, 
and spend an additional day, and money also, 
to attend the monthly agricultural meetings. 
—Yours, &c. — J. G. 

[Our correspondent is a plain, unobtrusive, 
industrious, and withal an intelligent farmer, 
and has been a constant subscriber to our 
journal, and also a reader of it, from its ori- 
gin. We well remember, when he attended 
the meetings of our local society some years 
ago, that he usually sat from their opening to 
their close, without once leaving the room, all 
the while manifesting au interest in the pro- 
ceedings, without any divided thought outside. 
And when he rose to speak, which he fre- 
quently did, he was always listened to with 
profound respect, by the most intelligent and 
practical mernbers. Situated as he is, his rea- 
sons for not attending now, seem conclusive. 
We knoio he is not alone in these sentiments 
in respect to the day of meeting, and we know 
also that other members of the society have 
suggested a change, but it seemed questiona- 
ble whether any other day would not be 
equally objectionable to other members, and 
finally the matter was dropped. As to the 
rest, time may eventually develop some 
ground upon which all can meet in harmony. 
—Ed. 

BiRD-rN-HAND, Pa., March 8th, 1877. 

Mr. S. S. RATnvON — Dear Sir : I found 
the accompanying insects yesterday while 
cleaning a bedroom upon the first floor. I 
lifted out tlie fireboard and laid it upon its 
face on the front porch. Beginning to sweep 
off some of the adhering matter, I foimd a 
cluster of tliose insects gathered, I think at 
one of the crevices in the board. Are they 
the Galerucce, which feed upon the elm V 
Respectfully yours. — P. E. Gibbons. 

Although the insects alluded to in the above 
comnaunication are somewhat darker in color 
than those that infested the elm tree last sum- 
mer in Lancaster city, yet they are of the 
same size, and are otherwise marked exactly 
like them. The diflerence in color is no doubt 
due to the fact that we bred all our specimens 
last summer from larvce and piqxe that we 
secured as they were coming down the 
trunks of the elms, and killed them within a 
day or so after their final evolution, and be- 
fore they had partaken of any food, or had 
acquired their full coloration; and therefore 
we have little hesitancy in saying that they 
are the genuine dm-leaf beetle ; and which 
Harris, and Fitch, and Emmons, and Morris, 
and even Prof. Riley in his late little work on 
"potato pests," liave alluded to as Galeruca 
calmariensis, but which we — according to Ste- 
• phens — could not identify with that species, 
and hence referred it to xanthomrelena, Schon. 
in which we were sustained by Dr. Le Conte. 
(See Lancaster Farmer, page 131, Vol. 
VIII.) According to Stephens, calmariensts 
feeds on aquatic plants in London district, 
Bottisham, Weston, Bristol and Swansea. 

When received, the insects were all alive, 
and must have souglit the place you found 
them in, as a convenient cover for their hi- 



bernation. If J' on have any elm trees on j'our 
premises there is wliere they came from, and 
"there is wliere they wiU go to as soon as they 
are in foliage this spring, therefore destroy 
them wherever you may find them. — Ed. 



Safe Harbor, Pa., March 24, 1877. 

Prof. S. S. Ratiivon — Bear Sir: Am glad 
to see The Farmer on its feet again, and 
sorrv I could not do more toextend its circula- 
tion" My name should have been omitted as 
one of those specially named. 

In looking over some of the numbers I am 
struck with the amount of labor it devolves on 
you. In fact I think you do entirely too much, 
and if in yoiu^ place you would dun some of 
the patrons personally, or by post, as conve- 
nient, for articles that are suitable for the 
coming season, they might assist you. Cer- 
tainly such persons as Casper Hiller, 11. M. 
Engle, L. S. Reist, Johnson Miller and many 
others, have a little time to spare for the 
preparation of articles which would do some- 
body good to read. 

In current (March) number I find that you 
prepared or culled all but two and a quarter 
rohmins. This is too liad, and you sliould, at 
the "peint of the pen" make somebody "toe 
the mark." Tell that "somebody," in plain 
words that by the first of each month, you ex- 
pect an article, and if not received in three 
days thereafter you will Ije under the painful 
necessity of reminding them that they did not 
come up to the "chalk." 

Hoping that you will be able to lighten your 
laboi's; I remain yours respectfully ^1. B. K. 

We appreciate our correspondent's senti- 
raentsjof sympat]iy,and feel thankful for them, 
and furthermore we commend his suggestions 
to all those "whom it may concern." As to 
labor, it has become a kind of "Second Na- 
ture" to us, and we feel a reward in being 
able to labor; nevertlieless as we are getting 
old, we would not object to a little more of 
the Substantial. 



Pittsburg, March 21, 1877. 

Ed. Lancaster Farmer — Bcur Sir : I 
having offered a premium of your paper, for 
one year, at our last Poultry Exliibition, viz.: 
The Weslern Pennsylvania Poullrij Socicti/, 
and it having been won by D. B. McLean, 
Mansfield Valley P. O., Allegheny county. 
Pa., you will, therefore, please forward the 
same to his address for the term above stated, 
.and inclosed please find SI. 25 in paynient 
thereof. Yours truly, C. B. E. 

We publish the above, not merely to show 
the appreciation of our journal outside of Lan- 
caster county, but as a suggestion of what 
might be properly and conveniently done 
— during the approaching Exhiliition season — 
by the State Society, by county Societies, and 
especially by our own local Society — when 
they make up tbeir own premium lists — to- 
wards encouraging the Agricultural journals 
t)f the State, and elsewhere. Doubtless there 
are many exhibitors wlio would by far ratlicr 
receive such a journal, than to receive a .SI. 00 
or .f2.00 premium, as the case may be, es- 
pecially, since under the present postage laws 
the mail expenses thereof are paid by the 
imblishers, and in no case by the subscril)ers. 
Committees on j'remiums, will please "stick a 
pin in this." — Ed. 



Mr. Editor. — Allow me to offer the 
following as my report on canvassing for The 
Lancaster Farmer, and the number of 
subscribers I have obtained. The members of 
the Society are aware, that at first I made no 
])roraise as to what I umuld do, or could do. 
Upon a second thought, however, and finding 
that some of our more liberal and energetic 
memliers were quite successful, and that it 
was either " life or death" to our representa- 
tive journal, I iiromised (wenti/, and these I 
soon obtained. I then promised fifti/, l)ut now 
have obtained seventy-Jive, and expect to in- 
crease the number to one hundred. 

I take this opportunity to tender my sincere 
thanks to all those who have so liberally, and 
with such good motives given me their names 



and influence, and I ask to be excused, for my 
apparent importunity, by those who could not 
see the propriety of giving me their names, or 
who could see no benefits accruing from a 
subscription to the Farmer ; assuring all 
that we are receiving no pecuniary comjiensa- 
tion for the labor we have been performing, 
hut have been doing all for the advancement 
of Agricultural literature, and the good of the 
conmiunity. 

I would also respectfully beg leave to state, 
that a number of our good people declined to 
subscribe, because they already received a 
newspaper. This I invariably urged them to 
continue ; but if they could add another 
thereto, let that one be The Farmer. I 
also admonished them to patronize the local 
papers of our county, without regard to sect 
or politics. 

My experience in canvassing has been simi- 
lar to that of some other members, in that, 
as a general thing, I have less difliculty in ob- 
taing subscribers from among those who were 
already taking one or more papers, tlian 
among those who do not take any. 

In conchision allow me to say, that we may 
consistently feel, tliat The Faiimer is the 
" farmer's paper " — that it stands or falls 
upon its own merits — and that it offers no 
tempting premiums for subscriptions, but 
relies upon the moral intelligence, and the 
good will of the people, for its support. In 
literary composition and mechanical execu- 
tion, it compares favorably with any in the 
country; and any farmer who takes a copy, 
preserves it, and has it bound, will refer to 
it with pleasure in after years. — P. S. B. 



LiNN^us Rath VON, Esq.— Dear Sir: I 
am really glad that The Lancaster Faiwier 
has been resumed, and is to be continued. 
And as a native of the county, and living ou 
a fine farm in this " garden of the State," 
I sometimes feel ashamed that my fellow- 
farmers are so slack in sustaining so valuable, 
a journal — and one so essential to their in- 
terests, and their reputation abroad. And I 
blame myself, too, for not attempting to do 
the little that I can, in contributing memo- 
randums of my observations, experiences and 
experiments — in planting, pruning, and culti- 
vating — to its columns. 

This, however, is little to my present piu'- 
pose, which is toacknowledge my remissness in 
attending to another and paramount duty — 
namely, paying up for my last year's and the 
present year's subscriptions. Assuming that 
I owe you this much (for I can find no "slip" 
to indicate that point definitely) I enclose 
S3.. 50, and the additional name of Robt. II. 
Gamble, Bridgewater, York county, as a new 
subscriber, beginning with 1877, and will re- 
mit any balance I may yet be in arrears, on 
being made known to me. 

And here I would respectfully suggest, to 
my fellow-farmers, that they would do well 
in" sustaining their Home journal — at least 
every subscriber should feel it incumbent upon 
himto send at least one name in addition to 
his own, for the volume of 1877. One dollar 
seems a small sum for the matter it contains 
during the year. 

Wishing abundant success to The Farmer, 
I aril yours truly /. H. M., Columbia, March 
1.5, 1877. 

We feel grateful towards all for the efforts 
that have recently been made in behalf of the 
Farmer, but when their eftbrts are accom- 
jianicd by sucli words of appreciation and en- 
couriigemeut as the above (backed up by the 
material) we feel doubly grateful. Our 
journal has now fairly started upon its 9th 
volume (a longer period than that of any 
former enterprise of the kind in the county), 
and we are determined to carry it tbrougli the 
year, whether we are pecuniarily sustained or 
not. Having been born and brought up in 
the county of lianeaster, with an ancestry in 
it dating back to 1740, we are a descendant of 
a pre-Rcvolutionary, and claim a Inrthright to 
its jirivileges of citizenship. Having spent 
five or six years of our early boyhood delving 
on a farm (without professuig to be a farmer). 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



53 



aiifl liaviiift now obtained tlu! a^i! of sixtii-five, 
with syniiiatlicticiiroclivitics town ids faiining 
inton-sls, wc do not dwni it at all |)risuiiip- 
tuoiis in us to asl< tlie I'arinfi-s ot I>ancast('i- 
county to su.stain a local journal amongst 
tliein. Taking a birds-cyp, view of I.ancastei- 
county, fioni almost any t'livalion in it, the 
beiioldcr is struck with llic idea nf untold 
wealth that must still lie undiVfloi"d in her 
soil, and in the bowels of the earth beneath 
it. Whatever wc may be able to do towards 
the develo]iment of that weallh, and to ex- 
pand and elevate the minds of tlmse who arc 
its Ictiititnate custodians, will (iiid a ready vx.- 
position in the columns of our journal. Ed. 



Our scntimentsareentirely in harmony with 
our friend S. I'. K., Esii.. who has \Ai\rri\ the 
following in our hands for insertion in the 
Fa KM nit. 

Mii/roM Gnovic, Mardi 12, 1S77. 

Mi;. E.— /)f((i- .Sic; WhiU^ looking over 
the pa^jes of the Lanrastcr liKjitircr, I 
saw the i)roeeedings of llie Lnxi-anter At/rind- 
tural and IhirticulUoyd Societi/, in which I 
find the members of that society diller very 
mucli on tlie (juestion of lime as a fertilizer. 
1 tiKiUiiht I ouf^ht to write yon, notmy r.rjKri- 
tncr, but my olisirvatiniis from my childhood 
up to the jii-esent day, on my father's farm. I 
stiall begin with what the farm had previously 
been. Sly father bought the I'arni alioiit forty- 
eight years ago, and the lanil was very poor. 
He coiunienced burning lime, not only for his 
own use. but also for saU'; and coutinueU ap- 
plying some of it to our farm until within 
about twelve or lifteen years ago. Since that 
time no lime has been applied to the farm. 
I can very well recollect that about thirty-six 
years ago we had a lield of 19 acres, which, 
for three years in succession only yelded frr 
loads of hay in iu a season. Now it will yield 
thill;/ loads, or more, iu a season, and ibis is 
the result of the aijplication of lime. 1 also 
recollect, that about the same period we had 
a Held of rye, which we only cut in some of 
the best iilaces, because it would not pay to 
go over the whole lield, bnt for the last twenty 
years we did not sow rye in it, because it 
grows too ranlv — no grains, bnt an abundance 
of rank half rotten straw, so that it don't i)ay 
in rye. In applying lime we generally put it 
on the sod in the latter part of summer, or in 
autumn, and plowed it down for corn. We 
hardly ever put any lime on for wheat now, 
only occasionally for experimenting, but it 
does not jiay. In putting on lime, in order 
to realize tlie speediest and largest return of 
profit, put your lime on gi'ass or sod, at least 
one year before planting in corn. On hilly 
land, the rain will not draw as much lime 
from the gra.ss or sod as it will from a txire or 
plpwed lield. In imtting lime on grass, in 
either winter or spring, or at any time, it will 
pay the lime in grass the first year, and yon 
will have a stronger sod to plow under for 
corn, and it will also plow so nnich the easier. 
Wc apply lime to the same field every six 
years, about one hundred bushels to an acre. 
Yours very truly. — A. II. G. 

We commend the above to the attention of 
the members of oiu- local Society ; because, it 
seems to be the practical result of many long 
years of experience and local observatioTi. 
As Tun Lancaster Fakmeii now imlili.shes 
the full proceedings of the AfiriruHund mul 
HortkuUural Socicti/ ; the Tnhac.ro Groirers' 
Socvtij ; the Bee-Kteptrs'' Society; the MilUrs^ 
Socktij and the Limxran Society, and also the 
Essays read before those societies ; it is a per- 
fect vade mecmn to the progressive cultivators 
of the soil in our county, and ought to be in 
their hands, and read by then\. It has many 
advantages over large unwieldly folios, in this, 
that it is printed on better jiaper and iu clearer 
type ; is more compact and easier referred to ; 
is not so li.able to be destroyed, and is annual- 
ly accomiianied by a copious alphabetical in- 
dex. At the end of the year it can be divested 
of its transient advertising pages without in- 
terrupting its numerical order, and then lie 
bound into an interesting volume, for futu.e 
reference. ($1 a year postage paid.) 



We ho)ie soon to .see A. II. G's name among 
the list of our subscribers, and to occasionally 
receive from him such practical contributions 
as tlie above. 



Gei!mant()\v,\ NuitsEitiKs, March 21, lf<77. 

I'l.'oi'EssoH liATiiVdN.- - 7>fi)- Sir: (Jan 
you tell me the name of tlie enclo.sed (ly i* I 
am anxious to know, in connectl(»ii with my 
studies in relation to insect fertilizatinn of 
llowers. It makes a pretty little oval outline 
whenat rest, or, pcu'liajis, 1 may say spathulate 
—the head giving it the narrowest end of the 
oval. Tli(;re were two other species in IIk; 
woods with it ; all iu large numbers, which I 
could not catch — one with antinmr, the Jiair 
being as long as (he body, (lerhaps not a I)ll'- 
Tsnors insect. It was too active to catch, and 
)ierhai)S one-half smaller th;in the one 1 send. 
The other a yellowish bronze lly, similar to 
tlie one which always seems to come, as if by 
instinct, to fri'sh/ccii deposits, but apparent- 
ly narrow. I am particularly interested in 
these dies, because the theinionuter has been 
very much below Uw. freezing point, up to 
vvitiiin four hours of the time tiiese dies were 
so nuinerons, wlu^n it was 45 '. Very truly 
yours, T. M. 

AVe regret to state that wc are unable to 
give our correspondent the information he de- 
sires ; /irst, because the specimen he sent us 
was so biully crushed in impaling a small sub- 
ject on a larger jiiii (like impaling amoiisc- on a 
(u-owbar) that we could not get a good idea of 
its form; and .svcomZ, because we i)arted with 
our collection of Diptercv before tiie Kebid- 
lion, and have not had time or opportunity 
since then to make another ; moreover, our 
literature in local species of Dipterous insects 
has always been exceedingly scant. W(!, 
however, do not think this species would as- 
sist him much in the study of the " fertili/a- 
tion of tlowers " by insects. The mouth and 
feeding organs seems to be "ob.solele," but 
w(! lost the head before we had completed our 
observations. The wings were hyaline and 
beautifully iridescent. It is not unusual for 
dies to evolve in winter, even when there is 
snow on the ground. The larva is probably 
stereoraceous in its lial)ils, and pupates in the 
ground. Send a specimen to Osten Sacken, 
Russian Legation, N. Y., or to Prof. Kiley. 



Pieris Rapae. 

A friend has called my attention to a copy 
of a Michigan newspaper, in which is a eom- 
muuication from -'Prof. A. J. C'o(di, of the 
Agricultural College.'" The conununication 
is headed "Imported Cabbage Bulterlly, I'icn.i 
I{up((C,'''' &c. 

The writer says that in 1875 he had slated 
that this latest arrival from England was fast 
nearing their own beloved State, Michigan. 
He now reports that it is sorely vexing the 
gardens along the eastern and soutli eastern 
conlines. 

This foe, he adds, lias few if any equals. One 
of the many princii)les, he continues, estab- 
lished by the adherence to the doctrine of 
natural selection, is the fact that plants and an- 
imals when introduced into anew country, find 
the "struggle for life" less severe, and as the 
fittest survive, usually thrive, even at the ex- 
pense, and freiiucnlly to the utter extermina- 
tion of the natives. "This fact, so amply sus- 
tained by our experience with the Hessian (ly, 
wheat midge, codling moth, currant saw-(ly, 
etc., is no pleasing one in view of our 
subject. I can only answer in the lan- 
guage of one Patrick Henry, "ice iiiiu<t 
fight,''^ nor can we hope to vanquish our 
foe, even in eight years. This imported 
species, when scarcely half a dozen years on 
tins side the ocean, was .said to destroy an- 
nually, about the single city of Quebec, $240,- 
000 worth of cabbages. 

It was first observed and taken by a. Cana- 
dian entomologist, in 185'.), at Quebec. From 
this it has spread rapidly to the West, and 
more rapidly to the south. 

The remedies .suggested are the catching of 
butterflies— which are lazy— in a net ; children 



should always liave these. He says they will 
do the work cheaply and greatly enjoy it. 

As the insect propagates, or goes into the 
chrysalis form, under some projection of 
building, fence or tree, keep the garden free 
from ridibish, and place? boards horizontally 
about three or four inches from the ground, 
between the cabbage rows, and the insects 
suspended beneath may Ik- collected. He 
also says " Paris (ireen and AVliite Hellebone 
will kiil the caterpillar, but they will also kill 
any oni? who eats the cabl)age ; esiiecially as 
th(? Paris Green cannot be washed off .so as to 
remove the danger." In re|)ly to this, I may 
refer to my experiments of last year with 
Paris (Jreen, as reported to yon, fellow-mem- 
liers of the Liimaan Society. If ajjplied early 
it will nip the insects iu the biiil, and lie 
washed off by the rains before the cabbage 
matures ; at least it injured no one in our 
family, although it was aiiplied a number of 
times. Still, I recoinmeiid caution. — I'liebe 
I'J. Gibbons, March 2:i. 1877. 

Lanca.stkr, March 14th, 1877. 

Professou MKTUSOS. — Diur Sir: 1 en- 
close a copy of a letter of Henry Clay, the 
original of which is in my possi-ssion. It has 
occurred to ine that you miglit be plea.sed to 
publish it in TliE FAit.MEit, as illustrative of 
the great interest which the great statesman 
continued to take in his farm and cattle while 
engaged in important affairs of the State. It 
is also somewhat curious that Mr. (-'lay .should 
write from Wasliingtoii to his son in Ken- 
lucky without saying anything about his own 
health, or making inquiries aliout that of his 
family. Yours truly, ./. If. D. 

Unpublished Letter of Henry Clay. 

Wasiiinotox, Jan. 2, 183(5. 

'^jifi/lMu- Thonins: I received your letter of 
Ihe 2otli ultimo. You may say to Mr. Head- 
ley that I have no wish to rent the house at 
Mansfield. I could get no price for it that 
would compensate me for the iiiconvenience 
of having tenants there. 

"1 have two Durham bulls; one that is gone 
out is an imported bull, and he is an uncom- 
monly line animal, showing high blood, and 
good at all points. His pedigree I have not 
yet received. His name is Orozimbo. The 
other, nearly white, named Hector, was got 
by Malcolm out of Delight, an imported cow 
purchased iu England by Mr. Wliitaker and 
selected by the "editor of the Herdsbook. 
Hector was raised by Col. Powell and pre- 
seiiled to me. 

"They are both fine bulls.and each would be 
preferred by different people. Hector having 
got his feet very tender in traveling from 
Philadi Iphia to "Shepherdstown, I have de- 
tained him until February or March, by which 
time he will, I hope, recover. 

"I wish if, as I lequestAl, you offer to Major 
Smith one-half of l)on Manuel, you would 
say to him that the price at which I offer the 
half must be regarded as confidential between 
us. I have a prospect, if he declines, of get- 
ting more for liim. 

"You will tell iMr. Ileadley to let you have 
one of the stacks ot oats, if he thinks we 
can spare it. 

"I wish you would inform me how Magnum 
Uomim is attended to by Aaron. Your affec- 
tionate father, H. Clay. 

"Mh. Thomas H. Clay." 



Answers to Correspondents. 
IL M. E.^Mnriettn, Pa. The little green 
"hoiiiier" which you say you caught on the 
nth of February' last, is a juvenile specimen 
u( Tragocejihida'ciridij'aciata, or the "green- 
faced, goat-headed locust," and is very com- 
mon in pa.sture lands, from June to Septem- 
ber, but never to our kiuiwledge, numerous 
enough to be jiarticularly destructive. This 
individual is still in that developmental con- 
dition which corresponds to the larrtrof other 
orders of insects— beetles and butterflies for 
instance— and is one of those late broods 
which are overtiiken by cold weather Ijefore 
they have had time to complete their full 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



growth, and which go into their winter hiber- 
nation immature, and finish their develop- 
ment the following spring. During the cold 
weather they are in a state of suspended ani- 
mation, but are capapble of being revived at 
any moment of supervening heat, and during 
such periods they will come forth and feed — if 
they can find anything to feed upon — no mat- 
ter what particular mouth it may be in. We 
have known cateri)illars and cut-worms to do 
the same thing in mid-winter. To-day the 
thermometer was nearly down to zero (March 
10) and "hoppers" quiet." 

/. W. M. Adams Hxpress Office. The large 
Spider you found in llie Express wagon, from 
which you were delivering IJaltimore oysters, 
seems to be a species of Dolomedes, although 
it differs from any figured or described by 
Prof. Hentz, whose work on spiders is all to 
which we liave access. Prof. Hentz considered 
it allied to Lijcosa, the genus which contains 
the famous "Tarantulas." It is represented 
as a wanderer, biding under stones, and some- 
times diving under water. The mother 
spiders of this genus construct an orbicular 
cocoon, which contains her eggs or young, 
and which is usually attached to the posterior 
portion of her body, or is carried on her back, 
and which she often bravely defends. We 
have allied species in Pennsylvania, but we 
have seen none so large as this, which was 
likely brought from Maryland in a cargo of 
oysters. It is a very handsome specimen. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS.* 

To the vieinhers of the Lancaster County Ag- 
ricultural and Horticultural Society — Gentle- 
men : As has been the custom of my prede- 
cessors, it becomes my duty to address you, at 
this, the last meeting of the year to which I 
was elected as your Chairman. The duty I 
assure you is not a pleasant one to me. It is not 
my forte to speak in public, nor to make an 
address, therefore I trust you will accept thefew 
remarks I shall make, with due allowance for 
my inexperience. 

Our society has passed through another year 
of its history, the many valualale hints, and 
the observations and experiments so freely 
given by the practical men enrolled, have been 
sought and digested by others, who as yet have 
not taken interest in the public good, to join 
our roll, and assist us in disseminating Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural knowledge. Our 
existence as a society now is only due to a few 
who have labored earnestly and well for the 
perpetuation of our little band of workers. Let 
the unbiased judgment of those who have 
observed the records, pass upon our merits or 
demerits. 

The year just closed is one long to be re- 
membered as the great Centennial of our na- 
tion. Is it not a fitting time at this, the open- 
ing of the new, to look back upon the past, 
with thankful hearts to an all-ruling Provi- 
dence, for the bounteous provisions of his 
goodness, for tbe great success of our country 
as a nation, for the peace existing between us 
and all other nations, for the bountiful crops 
that have VAcssed the labor of the husband- 
man, and encourage us to renewed energy in 
pursuing our respective callings. 

The great success of our country as a nation 
has struck wonder and admiration in the 
hearts of many foreigners who have visited us 
the season just passed, seen the great show at 
Philadelphia, and were amazed at its 
magnitude. It becornes us as Americans to 
begin now anew, as the great anniversary has 
but just passed intobistory ; and we have just 
ushered in the new 5 ear, like the new-born 
haVje in its mother's arms, unable to foretell its 
destiny. Therefore, let us start afresli on the 
broad track of honor and integrity, that our 
posterity may revere in memory dear the 
foundation laid for the next National Jubilee. 

I have the pleasure of congratulating you 
through the information of Mr. H. M. Engle, 
and the research o£ Simon P. Eby, esq., the 

"Head before the "Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society," January 1st, 1877, by the President, 
Calvin Cooper. 



discovery of an Act of Assembly, granting an 
annuity from the county in amount equal to 
the annual contributions to the society, pro- 
vided the sum does not exceed one hundred 
dollars. The necessary papers having been 
prepared by Mr. Eby, and filed in the Com- 
missioners' Office, the sum of thirty-two dol- 
lars was realized, that being the amount 
voluntarily contributed the past year. Since 
we have some accessions to our treasury from 
the county, it seems to me some action might 
he taken by this society, by which the greatest 
good may result to Agriculture and Horti- 
culture, for instance, the aualyzation of soils 
and fertilizers, with a view to supply the cx- 
liausted field, with ingredients necessary for 
certain crops. The examination of seed, to 
discover, if possible, its freshness and puritj', 
and prevent the sale of millet and other un- 
desirable, and even mineral matter, in clover 
and othei- seeds, offered by unprincipled 
dealers, who are ever ready to take the ad- 
vantage of the unwary, as the fine crops of 
" fox-tail" and other fall grasses give abun- 
dant testimony of the adulteration. Science 
is one of the farmer's most valuable servants, 
and is ever ready to do detective service for 
the watchful luusbandman. By a statement 
from the State of Connecticut, a fertilizer 
was sold for $55 per ton ; the analyzation at 
the State Experimental Station proved it to 
be nearly one-half sand, and to have a com- 
mercial value of S8 per ton. 

In the same journal I see that detective busi- 
ness is carried on to discover false and impure 
seeds. Numerous and ingenious adulterations 
liave been found in the common seeds sold to 
farmers. Among them have been found old 
seeds that have lost their power of germinat- 
ing, seeds of useless and injurious plants, and 
pieces of quartz rock, ground, colored and 
sifted, to imitate genuine seeds. 

Can the soil withstand the persistent tillage 
as followed in our section, and not become 
exhausted ? The falling oft' and irregular 
crops of wheat and other cereals, have been a 
source of anxiety to the farmer. The consu- 
mer, too, begins to enquire from whence come 
the supply to satisfy the hunger of a rapidly 
increasing population. Many cast a wistfiil 
look over the blasted field and wonder why 
we are not blessed with a yield as of vore. 
Let science answer. I therefore recommend 
for your consideration the appointment of a 
committee with authority to take such action 
as may secure and result in the greatest good 
to the community. 

There is also much room for improving the 
common "slip-shod" way of wintering stock. 
The thin, gaunt form, with hair on end, and 
back elevated 15 or 20 degrees above its natu- 
ral level, ever on the outlook for some luscious 
bit to gratify the craving appetite created by 
the piercing blasts of our northeastern winter 
storms, remind us there is something wanted 
to compete with the well-rounded form and 
sleek, glossy coats of the herds of our modern 
fiirmers and stock breeder of the day, who, 
with his improved labor-saving machinery, 
cuts, steams and uses such means as scientific 
experiments and observation have convinced 
him are as necessary to prepare and cook 
food for his stock as for himself. And in the 
spring, after having wintered 20 to 30 per 
cent, more stock from the same number of 
acres, than his old fogy neighbor, and hay to 
sell besides, while "slip-shod" has been saving 
all winter, and in the end has to buy to keep 
his hungry herd from starving. 

In Horticulture we have the gratifying in- 
dications that the many enemies to our fruits 
are gradually diminishing, and encouraged us 
to hope, by the vigilant protection of all in- 
sectivorous birds, that we may, ere long, 
I)luck bountiful crops of luscious fruits from 
our own vineyards and orchards, and furnish 
a supply for the incoming demands of a rap- 
idly increasing population. The well-filled 
orchards of a))i)les and peaches give the dis- 
heartened fruit grower such encouragement as 
to hope for abundant remuneration for, the 
labor and money expended on his fruit garden. 
Had it not been for the great storm from the 



east last fall, our markets now would be sup- 
lilied with luscious home grown apples. Even 
plums and gages, that have so long been 
strangers on our markets, are beginning to 
make their appearance on the stall to tempt 
the palate of all lovers of the delicious pulp 
that underlies the skin of a well ripened 
" Green Gage," or a Washington Plum. The 
little hard-shelled "curculio," with its crooked 
proboscis, (the great destroyer of all smooth- 
skinned fruits) is slowly disappearing from our 
midst, and I trust, ere long, will be among 
the things that were. 

The revised constitution and by-laws, re- 
commended by j'our committee and adopted 
by the society, otter a broad platform for use- 
fulness, which, I trust, the members will em- 
brace, and create an organization that every 
on« interested in Agriculture, Horticulture 
and Floriculture will feel that they cannot 
afford to be absent. I find, as your chairman 
for the last year, that, at times, there is a 
great want of interest in the proceedings. A 
little more promtness on your part in disposing 
of the different topics under consideration 
would greatly assist in making the meetings 
both interesting and instructive, and facilitate 
the chair in carrying out the routine, laid down 
by the rules of order, with the dispatch that 
is' always advisable in public meetings. 
Another matter I will take the lil)erty of 
calling your attention to here is the habit of 
some of the members of waiting to be called 
on to express their views on the various sub- 
jects under discussion. I find it impossible 
to iiifuse spirit or life in a meeting while there 
is a tendency to withhold opinions and obser- 
vations ; and a little more free expres- 
sion would ofttimes bring about a spirited 
and instructive debate. 

In conclusion allow me to return my kind- 
est acknowledgments for the courtesy and 
respect you have shown me during our meet- 
ings, and, if aught has been done or said on 
my part to wound the feelings of any one, I 
humbly ask pardon. Hoping you will believe 
that it has been my endeavor to be impar- 
tial in my rulings of all subjects under my 
control, and ever cherishing the very best 
interests -of the society and its memliers, I 
have the pleasure of wishing you a very happy 
new year. Most respectfully submitted. — Cal- 
vin Cooper. 

[An apology is certainly due from some 
one, that the foregoing excellent annual ad- 
dress of the worthy President of the Ayricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society should have 
met with such an unjustifiable delay in its pub- 
lication ; but, the fact is, that, notwithstand- 
ing our frequent inquiries about it, it was not 
placed into our possession until the 26th ulti- 
mo, ten days subsequent to the issue of the 
March number of The FAESiEn, whereas it 
should have api)eared in our January number. 
Without indulging for a moment in any kind 
of censure, and willing to regard it as a mere 
act of inadvertence, we cheerfully do the next 
best thing, by inserting it in our April num- 
ber, and in making this explanatory record, as 
the only compensation we can make for a de- 
reliction that was entirely beyond our control. 

—Ed.] 

^ 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
LARGE OR SMALL POTATOES.' 

The oldest business in the world is farming. 
Exactly how old it is, it would be unwise to 
say in these daj's when geologists are settling 
and unsettling things regulary every 
twelvemonth. But even they let us go back 
over 5,000 years, and that is sufficient for the 
purposes of any argument. Agriculture is a 
science as truly as chemistry, astronomy or 
mathematics ; and as more good, common 
sense individuals have been at work on it than 
on all the rest put together half a dozen times 
over, we have a right to expect that it ought 
to be so systematized and understood, that 
its canons and princiiiles should rest on such 
sure and immovable foundations, that acqui- 
esence therein should be universal and not 
excepti(mal. In the wide world of Art and 
Literature, we recognize certain unchangeable 



1877.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



55 



conditions wliicli govern and rt'iiulate tht'lr 
in-odiK-tions, aiul which fix llicir de^iivc of 
iiu'i-it or dcuicril. 15ut whon we cnuie down 
to farniini,', at wliicli (■(Hintless niilHons liavc 
tuiU'd, we ol'tontinn'S liiid that I lie divuriifncu 
of opinions on jioints so often and so re^^nlarly 
lironi,'lil to tlie 1'arnier's attention, i.s as wiile 
as it well can he, and I lie real issue as unde- 
ciih'd as when Adam delved and Eve spun. 

To one of these disputed i)oints I jiropose 
to call attention. The question whether 
farinevs shall plant larije or small jiotatoes is 
an old one, and as hmi; as it is old, and will 
no dmht continue to a.ijitatc tlie agricultural 
mind for a long time to come. If every the- 
orist on this queslion would convert liitnscW 
into an experimentalist, the ease would not 
he long in doul)t, hut nnfoitnnately, the more 
(un- favorite theories are assailed, the more 
we feel disposed to stick to them. Farmers 
are |ierh.aps the most conservative jieople as a 
rule, in the connninuty, and lids a|iplies to 
things within (he liiK^ of their calling even 
more than to outside maltei's. They are apt 
to hold on to that which experience lias 
taught them produces satisfactory results, 
and too infrequently refu.se to better what 
seems to them already good enough. 

Every reader knuws farmers who jilaiit only 
small potatoes, not from necessity but from 
choice, and others who select the choicest of 
their crop for planting purim.ses. If the former 
succeeds in gathering a large crop of line 
tuhers, he is confirnu-d in his theory that .size 
has notlnng whatever to do with the matter, 
and if his crop i)roves short in (piantity and 
interior in (piality, an abnndan(x> of reasons 
drawn from the season, cfindition of the soil 
and what not, are always at hand to sustain 
his original view. Paradoxical as it may 
seem, the man who has iilanted the very hest 
article in his cellar, aiiplies this identical line 
of argument to his own system, no matter 
W'lu'tlier failure or success has attended it. 
The result is nothing is proved, and each 
party is as strongly wedded to his theory as 
ever. 

My father invariably planted small-sized po- 
tatoes, and was careful, when nonesuch were 
to be had, to cut the large ones imtil no ]>iece 
contained more than a single eye. He had a 
neighbor, a brother, whose rule through life 
in this matter was the exact opposite. The 
fields adjoined, and in so far as anything 
could be discovered, there was no difference 
whatever in either the quality of the .soil or 
method of cultivation. Vet tliere were fail- 
ures and successes on both sides, as often on 
the one as on the other, and an experience of 
50 years' potato growing left both satisfied as 
to the soundness of their individual views, 
without any other perceptible difference ex- 
cept that my father had the satisfaction of 
eating his finest iiotatoes, while my uncle 
dined on small ones. This is but a single in- 
stance by way of example, and everyone will 
remember plenty of others in his own expe- 
rience. . 

Last year a somewhat similar experience 
fell to my own share. I had about half an 
acre of ground to plant. I imt down Peerless 
and Early Rose, mostly small ones, freely cut- 
ting the large ones. Finding several rowsun- 
planted when night came and being anxious 
to finish, these were planted with very large 
Peerless, whole, for I would not lake the time 
to cut them. The result was that this last lot 
was the most uu.satisfactory of the whoU;, al- 
though I atn not luepared to say this was in 
consequence of having iilanted entire potatoes. 
Several years ago a lot of mere parings, 
planted in the rich, mellow soil of the gar- 
den, gave unusually line results. 

If there remains attached to the eye, mere- 
ly sufficient of the substance of the potato to 
sustain its vitality until it has had time by its 
contact with the soil to throw out rootlets, 
which it quickly does, everything has been at- 
tained which need be asked for; the .soil, with 
all its component parts, must do the rest. 
The old potato furinshes sustenance merely 
until the growing eye makes arrangements, 
so to speak, to find other and more substan- 



tial nourishment to support its growth. 
What is drawn from the potato is at most 
only a matter of a few days, while on what 
is taken up out of the soil, and that oidy, de- 
pend our ex|)ectations of a vigorous growth 
and a prolilahlc crop. 

Is not this view, in all its bearings, abun- 
dantly confirmed l)y thi; inamier of planting 
resorted to by those who have planted small 
lots of potatoes in conqietitiou tor iirizes. If 
Mr. II. (J. Pearson had |)lanled his single 
jMiund of the '"Alpha" variety, without cut- 
ting the tubers, how nnuiy would he have 
obtained by the experiment V Most likely his 
crop would have lieen 17 pounds instead of 
171)7, and his lilW jiounds from a single pound 
of " Huby" would, in all probability, have 
dwindled down to a figure which half a dozen 
hungry farm hands could have demoli.shed at 
a single meal. When a single eye of a potato 
can he divided and subdivided until ten or 
more parts have been obtained, and these 
]ilaided and cultivated until the result is ai\ 
increase of nearly •iOOl) per cent., I aiiprehend 
the advocates of whole i)otato planting have 
very little ground left in the way of argument, 
to stand upon. 

Instead of being beneficial, planting whole 
potatoes can hardly fiul to result in direct 
injin-y. Some potatoes have more eyes, some 
less, but the avei-age is anywhere from six to 
a dozen. Were all these to grow and thrive, it 
would of itself elfectually demolish the 
" whole" planting theory ; for that number of 
plants or shoots, all drawing nourishment 
from so limited and eircuinscribed a space, 
would literally star\'fc and the expected crop 
prove a failure. 

There can bo little room for doubt but that 
sound healthy potatoes;, when iirojierly cut 
into pieces and planted, will yield the best 
results. That being done, other most essen- 
tial factors step into the foreground, and con- 
trol the size of the croj), and its quality. The 
soil must be rich, light and jiroductive : 
thorough and constant cultivation nnist be 
liracti<'ed, and when all this has been done, 
one thing more remains to do, and unless.that 
is done in season, and elfectually, neither rich 
soil, careful cultivation, whole potatoes, or 
anything else will liring good results — you 
must exercise eternal vigilance against the as- 
saults of the Colorado beetle, for at that price 
the potato croi> nuist now be purchased. — F. 
It. I)., Lancaster, Pa. 

^ 

ESSAY * 

The year just closed ended the first century 
since the indeiiendence of the country, ami 
the second, since the first settlers landed on 
the banks of the Delaware, for the purpose of 
making this State tlieir home. 

They found the valleys of Eastern Penn- 
sylvania wooded, and the hills clear of timber. 

These they called barren, and considered 
them unfit for cultivation. 

Their rude houses were built by springs 
and running streams, everywhere found in 
abundance, and the work of opening farms in 
the wooded timber connnenccd. 

Those who have no exiierience in clearing 
land for cultivation, have but little idea of 
the labor re([uired. But the early settlers had 
been inured to toil, and year after year saw 
the tindier disappear and fresh acres of thi' 
virgin soil added to their farms, to take the 
place of those that ha<l become exhausted by 
continued croi>ping. During this time the 
old Indian custom of hiniting the scanty veg- 
etation on the hills had been di.scontinu<'d, 
and they had grown up with a vigorous 
growth of yoimg timber ; and when the cen- 
tury closed the order was reverse<l. The 
valleys were cleared and the hills were 
wooded. 

At the opening of the second century there 
were causes oiierating to, in a nu^asure, 
change the habits of the lieople, which led to 
.some improvement in their agriculture. Many 
of the first settlers, in all our new Slates, 

* lEead before the ** T.snca8ter County Agricultural ftud 
Horticultural Society," Murcli 26, 1877, by Levi Powuall. 



have been nomadic in character, and those of 
the* old were no exceptitm to this rule. 
From 1725 to the close of llie century, Vir- 
ginia and North ('arolina fin-iiishcd an out- 
let to the wanderers from this State. When 
the hmds in those Slates were occupied, their 
attention was turned to the Northwest Terri- 
tory; hut the Indians had beconur jealous of 
the encroachments of the pale-faces, and dis- 
posed to dispute their right to extend their 
.settlements. 

This, for a time, checked cinigralion, and 
turned tlu; attention of the peoph' to the im- 
jirovement of their buildings and the land 
already occupied and under cultivation. 

In making thesi' improvements, the people 
for the first time discovered their mistake in 
destroying their hest timlMjr. To remedy 
their error the land covered by the growing 
timber on the hills was taken up and added 
to tlieii' farms, and from this time till the in- 
troduction of coal, the tindx r was carefully 
pre.servetl. After th(' introduction of coal a 
large ixirtion of the remaining timber land 
was cleared and brought under cultivation, 
llow far this action was wise, this and future 
generations will have to settle. Independent 
of the <iuestions of rain fall and the failure of 
springs now being di.scus.sed, there are othera 
that in the end may prove of greater import- 
ance : Timber belts for .screens or wind 
brakes, their infiueuce in regulating the tem- 
])erature of our climate, and their elfect on 
the cultivation of fruit. Their attention was 
also directi;d to the use of water for the pur- 
poses of irrigation. They had depended on 
the grass growing on the meadow land, for 
hay and pa.-ture. To enlarge the area and 
increa.se the supply, ditches were made to 
convey the water from a higher level, and the 
marks indicating th(^ lines of those oldditches 
still remaining on our farms, attest the indus- 
try and perseverance of our ancestors to ac- 
complish their purpose. Farms with water 
rights for purposes of irrigation were in de- 
mand at a premium, while those without were 
a drug in the market. In 17ilS cloverseed 
was introduced and .sown in this section of 
the State. 

Greeley's Saying, "that the man who makes 
two blades of grow where one grew before, is 
a public benefactor" if true, would entitle 
the man who first introduced cloverseedin a ten- 
fold sense, to til IS appellation. At the lime of its 
introduction the farm land had gradually de- 
teriorated. The cultivation of many acres 
that had once been fiatileaiul productive, had 
been abandoned. The growing of this plant, 
and the practice commenced near the same 
time, of using lime, made the turning ))oint 
in our agriculture. Clover, in connection 
with timothy, grew so well on our uplands 
that they took the place of the meadow grass 
fiir hay, anil the ditches that were dug with 
so much lalior and expense, were in a few 
years abandoned. 

After the defeat of the Indians in 1794, the 
Xorthwest Territory was open for settlement; 
the (ioverninenl («fferiug inducements, not 
only to our own citizens, but also to those 
of Europe, to occupy the laud at a nominal 
price. 

The i)opulation rapidly increa.sed, and the 
surplus lu-oducts harvested fnmi the fertile 
soil of the Mississippi Valley waited for the 
means of transportatitm to a distant market. 

The eastern cities siiw the importance of 
this trade, and their capital and energies 
were directed to secure it. But the distance 
was great. The ways and means of over- 
coming the ditliculties to be encountered were 
not yet devised. 

In those days civilization and settlement 
were in advance of the means of transi)orta- 
lion. In the meantime the now crude |)ro- 
ilucts of the vegetable kingdom walked to 
our eastern markets in the shape of cattle 
and swine, and for the first time wo had a 
competitor from a distance in our markets for 
those liroducts. I need not enumerate the 
different enterprises contemplated by our 
commercial cities of the cast to control and 
direct the course of the internal commerce 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



between the States. How eastern and foreign 
capital was largely expended. How a canal 
leading to the lakes, and railroads over the 
mountains were constrncted. How, when 
extended and completed to all portions of the 
west, the rival lines carried western products 
for less than cost of transjjortation, and made 
up the deficiency on their eastern traffic. 
How farmer.s in the eastern section of the 
State had to change their farming operations 
to meet the altered circumstances under 
which those improvements in transportation 
bad place them. 

These are matters of history, and for us to 
examine and see if we, as eastern farmers, 
have been the gainers or losers by our public 
improvements. 

Looking fi'om the standpoint of an old- 
time farmer, when all the profits of the farm 
■were derived from the sale of beef and grain, 
we would constantly be the losers. But, 
looking from another standpoint, we may be 
able to see some compensating features. 

The construction of lines leading to the 
coal regions of the State ; the organization of 
companies to develop the other mineral re- 
sources and of our various manufacturing 
interests— made possible by cheap coal— and 
whose extensive works now line all our high- 
ways of public improvements— paying into 
our State Treasury a sufficient amount in 
taxes to relieve our farmers from State 
taxation. 

The increased trade brought to our cities — 
causing a rapid increase in population and 
making the last twenty years an era of city 
building, east and west— creating a market 
for perishable articles and dairy products. 

In the souiliern part of the county we 
have fonnd our compensation in the increased 
demand for the products of the dairy. A 
few years ago raising grain and feeding cattle 
were the rule with fanners, and the dairy in- 
terest was of small importance. It has now 
grown to be the main reliance to make both 
ends meet at the end of the year. 

Here, in the northern part of the county, 
growing tobacco appears to be the paying 
business. Either dairying or raising tobacco 
will prove more exhausting to the soil than 
the old .system of grain raising and feeding 
cattle ; and in making the change we should 
be careful that we bring no discredit to the 
reputation our county has gained of being the 
"Garden County of the State." 

We have now entered the third century of 
our history. In taking a review of the past, 
we cannot claim that the agriculture of our 
country has been a success. It is true, we 
have always had a surplus of agricultural 
products to export, but this has been accom- 
plished by bringing new laud under cultiva- 
tion, not by increasing the productive power 
of that already occupied. Our statistics show 
that the average yield per acre of the different 
grains raised, has decreased in nearly all the 
States. The reason for this decline, I think, 
can be traced to the natural fertility of the 
soil, and the abundance of unoccupied land 
that could be obtained at a mere nominal cost; 
and those causes have been operating to the 
injury of our agriculture, all through our 
histoi-y. The policy of the Government of 
holding out inducements for the settlement of 
new ten-itory, has been an injury to the older 
States, and no advantage to the new. 

As remarked, many of the first settlers of a 
State are nomadic in character. This class 
make no permanent improvements and leave 
the land less productive than they found it. 
They rob the soil of the elements of its fertility 
and making no return, move on, finding fresh 
fields to repeat the same process. You can 
trace their progress through the States like a 
tidal wave from the east to the west — im- 
pairing the productive power of the country 
to an extent that will require years of careful 
tillage to restore. They committed the wrong 
through ignorance of the truth that the pro- 
ducts of the soil are the basis of our national 
wealth, and the foundations of our mutual 
advancement. By im]iairiug its productive 
power they were striking a blow at their 
country's prosperity. 



HOW MUCH LIME TO THE ACRE.'- 

The practice of liming laud has been pur- 
sued for many years in Lancaster county, and 
the question is, did we apply it in a scientific 
manner or not ? The question also ari.ses, 
whether the fertility of this section of the 
State is owing to this practice. 

Farmers are not all agreed as to the way 
in which lime acts on the soil. Some argue 
that it is a direct fertilizer, while others con- 
tend that its fertilizing qualities depend on 
its chemical action on the soil. 

If the first argument is correct, we may at- 
tribute the present generally ricli condition of 
our fields to the free use of lime. 

However, agricultural chemists are not 
agreed as to the manner in which lime acts. 
Some have claimed that as lime is found in 
the ashes of most crops, it is one of the essen- 
tial constituents and must therefore be found 
in the soil naturally, or applied, in order to 
supply the proper elements to the plants. 

But does this explain its action '} A single 
illustration will give a conclusive argument 
on this point. The neighborhood where we 
were brought up, though a diluvial, or loam 
soil on the surface, rests on limestone rocks 
which often protrude through the surface. 
The well and spring water is so saturated 
with lime as to yield a thick coat of it in the 
tea kettle in a brief time. Yet lime applied 
in the usual way seemed to benefit that soil 
as much, if not more, than clay or slate land. 
On this point we also wish to add, that chem- 
ists tell us that in analyses of samples of 
water from different localities and qualities of 
soils they found lime enough to supply the 
wants of any crop, in every one of them. 

With these and other facts in view, we 
rather favor the doctrine that the chief utility 
of calcined lime is in its action as an alkaline 
re-agent to neutralize the acidity of the soil 
and to decompose organic or vegetable sub- 
stances and fit them for food for growing 
plants. 

Those who are familiar with chemi.stry will 
remember the fact that a compound is more 
readily decomposed if there is a substance 
present which has a sti-ong affinity for one of 
the elements liberated. Thus all vegetable 
substances in rotting produce a considerable 
amount of carbonic acid, and this has a strong 
affinity for lime. Hence the presence of lime 
in a soil hastens the destruction of dead grass, 
roots, manure, etc., and sets the elements at 
liberty to act in direct or indirect nourish- 
ment to the growing crops. 

May not lime also extract ammonia from 
the atmosphere ? We think it does, for its 
sulphate (gypsum) does so in a remarkable 
degree. 

With the above theory of the action as an 
alkaline reagent we may conclude, viz.: 

That on new soils where there is an abun- 
dance of vegetable matter, and some sourness, 
an application of lime will hasten the pre- 
paration of the natural manure, and should 
not be applied in greater quantities than 1.5 
to .30 bushels per acre, but every year. 

On dry, sandy soils lime is beneficial in re- 
taining the moisture by compacting the soil. 
In this case lime acts mechanically by cemen- 
ting the soil. 

On heavy clay soils lime is often beneficial 
in the same way, but care is necessary not to 
apply it largely, as it sometimes cements the 
clay and is deleterious. 

The best form of application is in a freshly 
slaked state, in the^»jfst condition possible, and 
immediately stir it with the soil. The farmers 
in our section of the county (Manor township) 
have a practice of hauling their lime on large 
heaps of from .50 to 200 bushels, during the 
winter. This we do not favor as a general 
thing for the following reason: 

If the spring is wet it will be apt to drown 
and in this condition it benefits the land very 
little as it can not be mixed as intimately with 
the soil, as it is lumjiy ; covering the heaps after 
they are slaked with straw or boards will be 
better. 

■Read before the LancaBier County Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society, March 2d, 1877, by E. K. Herebey. 



We have always marked out land after it is 
plowed in the spring, in squares of six steps 
and put one-half bushel on the intersection, 
and as soon as slacked, spread and mixed with 
the soil immediately, with good results. 

As per quantity per acre soil must be taken 
into consideration, some soils taking more 
than others, but we are inclined to believe too 
much is applied at a time and not often enough. 
One hundred busliels applied on a light soil 
may deconipo.se all the vegetable matter in it, 
and be used the first year and render it sterile, 
while a less quantity might just decompose 
enough to benefit the first cro'p and the roots, 
leaves,&c.,of this crop may benefit a succeeding 
crop. We do not fitvor plowing it down, as 
lime, as every observant man knows, has a 
tendency to sink. It should always, in our 
opinion, be applied as a top dressing. 

And now a word to the fiirmers of Lan- 
caster county : There is large room for ex- 
periment in regard to this lime question, and 
I hope you will not let the matter rest, but 
try it on your land in every possible way — 
twenty-five, fifty, seventy-five, one hundred, 
and even one hundred and twenty-five bushels 
to the acre, and determine which is best; also, 
befoj'e and after planting a crop, plowed 
down or top dressed, and let each one make a 
record and bring it before the society, and 
theu we may arrive at more definite conclu- 
sions. 

[The same inadvertence wliich delayed the 
publication of the President's annual address, 
has been instrumental in withholding this 
paper from our March number, namely, it was 
closed up between the lids of the Secretary's 
records. We would suggest that hereafter Es- 
sayists keep their papers in their own posses- 
sion, afterthey have been read, and hand them 
directly over to the editor of The Farmer. 
If it is desired to publish a synopsis of them 
in the body of the proceedings, Eeporters 
can obtain that privilege from him. We have 
lao desire to enjoy a monopoly of these things, 
but we do desire to obviate uuneccessary in- 
advertence, indifference, delay or neglect, 
wherever and whenever we can. — Ed. 



SAP.ETC- 



For The Lancastek Faemeb. 
-PLANT LIFEAND MOLECU- 
LAR FORCE. 
What a wonderful labyrinth we find in seek- 
ing knowledge tlirough what is termed scien- 
tific investigations. The things we learned at 
one time or period of our lives we have to un- 
learn ; as subsequent enquiries have brought 
new facts to light, tlie old theories would no 
longer explain the phenomena, and new ones 
had to be devi.sed, onlj' to give place to modi- 
fication and changes as other investigators 
made new discoveries. The trouble is, men 
see in part, as through a glass, darkly, then 
jump at conclusions, and advance their theo- 
ries, and being an F. R. S. or M. D., or the 
like, of course minor lights must reflect the 
brilliancy of these luminaries, and laud them 
for their effulgence. It is nevertheless true 
the varied experiments lead to new discovery 
and new truths are brought to light and made 
available, although the theories founded are 
often delusive and too hastily arrived at. 

I am led to those reflections on reading an 
abstract of a paper read by Mr. Andrew Mur- 
ray at the last meeting of the Scientific Com- 
mittee of the Royal Horticultural Society, in 
which he combats the theory of a descending 
current of sap at any period or under any cir- 
cumstances. He maintained that absolutely 
no proof whatever has hitherto been adduced 
of a descent of sap, nor would he admit of an 
assimilating process in the leaves and a trans- 
ference of food thus prepared to where growth 
is taking place, or where under certain condi- 
tions growth would take place. His views 
are based upon the experiments of Herbert 
Spencer (Linna'an Society's Transactions, vol. 
XXV. ) and since repeated and extended by 
Prof. W. R. McNab. It is essentially declar- 
ed that the ascending sap deposits the wood 
as it rises, and the surplus water is evaporat- 
ed through the leaves into the air. Now re- 
fer to "Gray's school and field book of Bot- 



187?.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



any, 1870," ]iaa;e 168, .section 4S5. Of the .sap 
he say.s : "Altjiougli containeil in cells with 
closed walls, nevertheless the Ihiitls taken in 
l)y tlie roots are carried np thron^li tiii! stem 
to the leaves even of the to|iinost hciuph of 
the lallist tree. And the sap, after its assim- 
ilation liy the leaves, is carried down in the 
liarkof the canibinm-layer, and distributed 
IhroULrliont the plant, or else, is conveyed to 
llu^ points where growth is taking jjlacc, or is 
accumulated in roots, stems, or wherever a 
deposit is being stored u|) for future use." 
This is wliat Messrs. Murray, McXab and 
.Si)encer tlatly contradict. Dr. Gray's tlieory 
is the one accejited l)y all the most eminent 
vegetabU' i)liysiologists, and yet it cainiot be 
denied that there exists a difference of opin- 
ion as to the functions of the tulmlar vessels, 
which liermeate vegetable tissue, from the tiji 
of the roots to the petals and pistils. Some 
allirni that they contain air, others tluids, 
other gases, etc. I liiid that Herbert Spencer 
has .shown that these vessels are not only 
charged at certain seasons of the year with 
lluid, but that they are intimately connected 
with the formation of wocid; ai\d from exper- 
iments with colored tluids ca]iable of entering 
the tissues without impairing vittility, not 
only in cuttings of pl.ants, but in individuals 
in which the roots were uninjured, that th(! 
sap not only ascends Ijy the vascular tissue, 
but that the same tissue acts in its turn as 
absorbents, returning and distributing the sap 
which has been moditied in the leaves. This 
view of Spencer certainly gives no foundation 
for the broad assumption of Itlr. Murray. 
That the tissue acts some important jiart is 
clear from the constancy with which it is pro- 
duced at a very early stage in adventitious 
buds, establishing a connection between the 
tissue of the old and new parts. According 
to M. I)c Monchy,"Comptes Kendus," March, 
18t)8, the sap of vegetables contains large 
numbers of grannies haviiiir an oscillating 
motion, called by botanists "movable glob- 
ules." The same granules iiave been noticed 
in the pollen-bearing utricles, in the liquids 
of insects, especially in the eggs and larv;B of 
lei)idoptera, and in the posterior part of the 
body of spiders, also in the pigment layer of 
the choroid coat of the eye. His experiments 
there detailed, show that these o.scillating 
granules, from all the above sources, are or- 
ganisms acting powerfully, like ferments, on 
the matters with which they are naturally in 
contact. They act on cane-sugar, starch, 
and gelatine as ferments, transforming them 
more or less quckly and completely into glu- 
cose. 

TJie function of these granules is to assist 
the ripening of fruits, and in both the ani- 
mal and vegetable kingdom to elaborate cer- 
tain matters for the nourishment of germs 
and the incessant regeneration of organs. 
Leydig says : " We may state absolutely that 
what we call 'elements of iforniation.' are 
preceded by a series of creations." These 
experiments are important, and the results 
furnish much desirable materials for the study 
of cellular physiology. 

Much is said about 'Molecular force.' Prof. 
Tyndall in his address on the subject bef(U'e 
the Physical Section of the Briti.sh Associa- 
tion, says many good things, and some rather 
equivocal, — when he says, comparing a grain 
of corn with a crystal—" the architecture of 
the grain resembles, in some degree, the arch- 
itecture of the crystal. In the corn the mole- 
cules are also .set in definite positions, from 
which they act upon light. But what has 
built together the molecules of tlie corn i* I 
have said," he continues, "regarding crystal- 
line architecture that yon may, if you please, 
consider the atoms and molecules to be placed 
in position by a iwwer extenial to themselves. 
The same hypothesis is open to you now. 
But if, in the case of crystals, you have re- 
jected this notion of an external architect, 
you are boimd to reject it now, and to con- 
clude that the molecidcs of the corn are self- 
posited by the forces with which they act 
upon each" other,"adding — " It would be poor 
philosophy to invoke an external agent in the 



one case, and to reject it in the other." We 
would infer, from his notion, that there is no 
architect or creator wanted in any depari- 
ment of nature, - that, like the school-boy's 
excu.se for whistling, saying it "whistled it- 
.self " — as if he had no purl in it. Furtlier 
on he, Mr. Tynilall, says, "Mow tlu're is no- 
thing in this |)rocess winch neccs-sarily eludes 
the (lower of mind as we know it. An intel- 
lect the same in kind as our own would, if 
ONLY suFFiciKNTLY KX I'.VNDKU, " (The Un- 
derscoring is mine. He continues) " be able 
to follow the whole process from beginning to 
end. The duly exiianded mind would see the 
process and its consummation, an instance of 
the play of molecular force. It would see 
every molecule plaeed in its position by the 
specific attractions and reiudsions exerted be- 
tween it and other molecules." * * * "A 
nrcisxitii rides here similar to that which rules 
the |ilauets in their circuits round the sun." 

But Mr. Tyndall continues : "But I must 
go still further, and atlirm that in the eye of 
science the animal body is just as nuicii the 
product of molecular force as the stalk and 
ear of corn, or the crystal of salt or sugar. 
Many of the parts are obviously mechanical." 
Well, if innnij of the parts are, what of tiie 
tillur parts that are not mechanical ? — he re- 
fers to Trevethyck's walking engine, that de- 
rives motion, like the aiumal from its food, 
from the fuel in the furnace of the engine — 
declaring, "As regards matter, the animal 
body creates nothing ; as regards force, it 
creates nothing," and yet man, plants, etc., 
grow and live. 

Prof. Tyndall actually saj'S : " I think the 
materialist will be able finallj' to maintain 
this position against all attacks ; but I do 
not think, as the human mind is at present 
constituted, that he can pass beyond it. I do 
not think he is entitled to say that his mole- 
cular groupings and his molecular motions 
explain everything. In rpditi/ it cxp'aius 
?io</n'H;/." Just the conclusion we had arrived 
at. Finally lie sums up the matter thus: 
" The utmost he can atlirm is the association 
of two classes of iihenomena, of whose real 
bond of union he is in absolute ignorance. 
The problem of the connection of body and 
soul is as insoluble in its modern form as it 
was in the )ire-scientific ages. " Just so. But 
what is a molecule ? in a chemical sense, it 
means the smallest quantity of an element or 
of a compound that can exist in the free state, 
pei'haps a single atom ; for instance ammonia 
(N". lis.) is, chemically considered, both a 
molecule ami an atom ; but the molecule of 
elements is said to consist of two atoms. Now 
what is an atom ? The definition is: "Apart 
so small as not to be divisible;" that is, if 
you can conceive that there is an upside or a 
downside, it must be divisible, and not an 
atom. This Atomic and ^folccular f<irce 
theory is as vague as that of the monadic 
theory of Leibnitz and his school. A monad 
(nomosa unit) is exiilained as " a simple sub- 
stance which has no parts ; a compound sub- 
.stance is an aggregate of simple substances, 
or of monads ! Monads having no iiarts, are 
neither extended, figured, nor divisible. They 
are the real atoms of nature ; in other words, 
the elements of things." Every monad is a 
living mirror, rejiresenting the Univer.se, ac- 
cording to its jiarticular iioint of view, and 
subject to no regular laws, as the univer.sc 
itself ! Every monad with a particular body 
makes a living substance ! Such we find is 
the ground work of the monadic theory or 
systems of philo.sophy of Zeiio, Leucippus, 
Democritus and Epicurus ; but Leibnitz was 
the first who reduced it to a system. 

Thus alas, we find ourselves quite incom- 
petent to annex any precise idea to siK'h sys- 
tems of ])hilosopliy. And in spite of such 
profound teachers as Huxley, Tyndall, Dar- 
vin, Leibnitz, et. al., we prefer to hold on to 
revelation, and the inductive or inspirational 
intuitions of a spiritual clement outside of 
and acting upon matter, to a purpose founded 
in wisdom and ]irompted by love, and bound- 
less in power. This All-wise and All-power- 
ful, we call God, who, hke an independent 



.sovereign, governs the mighty univer.sc, an my 
miiiil, in a limited sense, governs the motion 
of my pen in setting forth what arises in my 
mind, so that my thoughts become visible. 
That God-given <-[ement of mind or soul uses 
the brain through the nerves, to operate the 
muscles of my arm and lingers— but the brain 
in itself no mon; thinks tlian the eyes s<!e — 
ajiart from an indwelling, immortal element, 
nor does it signify whether that cloneul is 
composed of nuitcriili a, at'imx or mrmwlii, since 
we have as clear a conception of the one as of 
the other; and the spiritual in us and outside 
of us, when rightly understood, links us with 
the great first cause in a more intimate and 
loving relation. This is ItcichUian, if not 
(Science. — ./. tilauffur. 

CORN CULTIVATION. 

Now is the time to (ilow and make ready 
for corn plantin.: ; a good many farmers plow 
their corn ground in the lall. 

Tliere is an argument sometimes, as to 
which is the be.st time to plow for corn. This 
depends a great deal upon the soil, and the 
season of the year. A still clay soil ougiit to 
be plowed in the fall, so as to have the action 
of the frost. The fall plowing should not be 
too early; if jilowed so early it settles too 
much, by the heavy rains Ixfore winter sets 
in. A loo.se .soil, such as gravel or band, or 
sandy loam, is best plowed in spring. If a 
farmer has too much on his hands, that he 
can do it in time, I prefer winter plowing ; 
but we cannot dejiend on that ; it is very often 
impossible. 

This last winter I visited a farmer in Leba- 
non county; he said Ue i)lowe(l no com ground 
in the fall ; he also .said he gets more wheat, 
if the corn gi-ound w;is plowed in the spring, 
than if it was plowed in the fall : — that is, he 
plows the sod and puts in the corn ; the next 
year be plows the corn-.stubble and puts oats 
in ; after the oats, he puts wheat in, and he 
gets more wheat where he jilows in the spring 
than where he plows in the fall. Only trv it. 
Plow the half of the held in the fall, and" the 
other half in the spring. Now, about the 
cultivation of the corn : I plant with acorn- 
planter that throws the dirt on ijoth sides and 
makes a deep furrow, which is regulated by a 
wheel under the lieam ; the tube where tiie 
corn drops through is a foot behind the plow ; 
some loose soil rolls into the furrow before 
the corn leaches the ground; then a small har- 
row behind to cover it. The furrow is left 
open a few inches deep : after ))lanting I roll 
the field lengthwi.se, over tht rows, if nice 
and f"ry ; then, in about eight days, or just 
before it comes nj), if dry enough, I harrow it 
with a common spike harrow once over each 
row ; those spikes on the row only .should 
touch the sround a little; if they run too deep, 
they may be raised a little. This breaks the 
crust, loosens the soil and destroys weeds that 
are germinating. 

Three years ago I went out one morning 
with one of the boys to start him to harrow 
corn. While he was driving around I walked 
over the field and saw a good many corn 
plants out. When the boy came round I 
stopped him and said, "this wont do. There 
is a good deal out already, and tliis covers it, 
and smothers that which is out." The soil 
was very fine and loose. We took the haiTow 
and went home. It was raining and was too 
wet to harrow any sooner. 
■ But that row got ahead of the others all 
summer, and couhl iie seen from a half-mile 
off until the whole field had the tops out. It 
would be well if all the farmers would experi- 
ment about tho.se cultivations, and a good 
many others. — J. G. 



An experiment was recently made in Sidney, 
New South Wales, by way of utilizing the blood 
from an abattoir outside of tlie town. A five- 
acre lot adjoining the abattoir was prepared 
for a crop of barley, the waste blood being 
used instead of manure. In eight weeks the|ljar- 
ley was four feet in height, remarkably heavy, 
and giving promise of an extraordinary crop. 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



t April, 



AYRSHIRES. 

Ayrshires are justly famous for their supe- 
rior milking qualities. For a milk dairy no 
other kuown breed of cattle can equal them. 
They give the largest quantity of milk of 
very flue quality. For butter, while an Ayr- 
shire will not make as much from the same 
quantity of milk as an Alderney, yet an 
Aryshire cow giring so much more milk will 
make per week fully as m;iny poiuids of but- 
ter as a first-class Jersey or Guernsey. They 
keep in fine condition on a comparatively 
small amount of food. They are unsurpassed 
as family cows, being more than any other 
breed, naturally very (|uiet and docile. As to 
quantity of milk, a writer quoted by Youatts 
says : "To sum up into one sentence, I now 
repeat that hundreds and thousands of the 
best Scotch dairy cows, when they are in 
their best condition and well fed, yield at the 
rate ol 2000 Scotch pints (equivalent to 1000 
gallons) in one year ; that in general, 7i to 8 
pints (3J to 4 gallons) of their milk will yield 
a pound of butter, county weiglit (H pounds 
avoidupois) ; that 55 pints (27i gallons) of 
their milk will produce one stone and a half 
(3G pounds) imperial weight of full milk- 
cheese." 

Ayrshires have been bred in America for 
over forty years, and have proved well adapted 
to the soil and 
climate. On the 
Kew Jer.sey Ag- 
ricultural Col- 
lege farm, the 
greatest yield of 
milk reported 
from one Ayr- 
shire cow in a 
year was 4558 
quarts, another 
cow of only 
medium excel- 
lence yielded 
2957 quarts. 
There are nu- 
merous in- 
stances on re- 
cord where the 
milk of an Ayr- 
shire cow an- 
nually exceeded 
the entire live 
weight of the 



cow. 

The follow- 
ing facts speak 
for themselves : 

Daisy (No. 
3.30), in 1870 
weighed 970ft, 
and gave dur- 
ing the year 
6953fc of milk. 

Beauty (No. 240) the same year, weighed 
9551b, and gave 8011tti of milk. 

The ordinary yield of Ayrshire cows is 30 
to 50ft of milk per day, but a committee un- 
der oath testified that one Ayrshire cow of a 
New York herd, gave 85ft of milk per day, 
for several days in succession. 

Ayrshires are also superior for beef. 

Sufficient facts have already been given to 
fully demonstrate that for milk all the year 
round none are so profitable as the thorough- 
bred Ayrshire ; but, in order to more fully 
demonstrate their adaptability to this country, 
we quote the lollowing trial, made during the 
year 1875 with a thoroughbred Ayrshire cow, 
belonging to the Roadside Herd of this city : 

Hensie (213 N. A. A. K., Vol. 1), height, 
4 ft. 10 in., weight, 830ft, girth, 5 ft. 7^ in. 
In the year 1875, by weight reduced to meas- 
ure, gave 3000 quarts or 7745ft of milk— more 
than nine times her weight. Too much can 
scarcely be said in praise of the Ayrshires. 
Kindly in disposition, beautiful and attractive 
in appearance, they are agreeably diversified 
in color. " In general they have large lus- 
trous eyes, symmetrical head, well-developed 
chest, deep fiauk, broad across the hips, bag 
reaching well forward, milk veins large and 
of handsome curvature and neck graceful, 



to which may be added a straight spine, whip- 
like tail, bushy at end, full, convex rump, and 
well defined milk mirror " 

We give herewith illustration from life of 
our first prize Ayrshire Bull Casper, 4th vol. 
American and Canadian Herd Register. He 
won first in strong competition at tlie Bur- 
lington Comity, N. J., Fairs, 1875 and 1870. 
In concluding our remarks on this variety 
we append the recognized standard of points 
of excellence for judging an Ayrshire Cow or 
Bull : 

. 80 
. 40 
. 10 
. 30 
. 120 
. 00 
. 40 
. 10 
. 10 
. 10 

1000 



Now is the latest time to destroy the co- 
coons of the "Drop-worm," hanging on the 
naked branches of the trees, in a few days it 
will be too late. 



Head, 


. 40 


Ribs, 


Nose, 


. 20 


Rumps, 


Eye, 


. 20 


Tail, 


Ear, 


. 40 


Legs, 


Horns, 


. 20 


Udder, 


Neck, 


. 40 


Handling 


Shoulder, . 


. 60 


Hair, 


Chest, 


. 120 


Color, 


Crops, 


. 40 


Carriagr, 


Brisket, . 


. 40 


Quality, 


Back, 


. 80 




Pelvis, . 


. 40 




Quarters, . 


. 60 






YOUNG AYRSHIRE BULL, CASPER. Owned by Benson & Burpee, Philadelphia.'Pa. 

GARDENING FOR FARMERS. 



Paper by J. S. Harris, of La Crescent at Meet- 
ing of the State Agricultural Society, 
February 6th and 7th, 1877. 

There are but few thinking farmers who 
will not concede that a good vegetable garden 
is both convenient and profitable, and it would 
seem that people possessing all the conveniences 
that they have, as regards land, and leisure to 
take care of a garden, would consume the 
largest amount of vegetable food, but tl-.e truth 
is that more is used in villages and cities than 
by the same number of land owners. Take a 
look among the farmers and it will be found 
that one-half of them have no garden at all, 
or, at most, only a little corner in some grain 
field which is over-run with weeds. Some have 
a place set apart for the purpose, but put off 
planting it until the bulk of the form crops are 
put in, thereby making it too late to secure 
any early vegetables on those that require 
early planting. The reason usually given for 
being without one is, that they have no 
time to attend to it. With many the truth 
is that it requires a little attention , al- 
most daily, and demands thought, pa- 
tience and system in order to secure 



success and profit ; and they would much 
rather attend the larger crops where the horse 
furnishes the muscular power, and machinery 
enables them to get over acres of ground in 
a da}'. It is a well established fact that a 
single half acre devoted to garden culture, and 
which may be planted and attended without 
encroaching very much upon the farm work, 
economizing odd spells while waiting for teams 
to feed, &c., aside from health, comfort and re- 
finement, would annually produce more profit 
than four or five acres in any other crop on 
the farm. 

Without a garden, the winter diet of a 
farmer must be mainly confined to bread, 
meat, and potatoes, or a large draught must 
be made upon the profits from tlie sale of 
farm crops to purchase the extras that are 
essential to good living. This kind of living 
may be tolerated in winter, but when the 
warm weather returns the system requires 
less stimulating food, and the appetite craves 
cooling and juicy vegetables and fruits fresh 
from the garden, and the stomach of the 
weary and hungry farmer is apt to revolt 
against salt pork and soggy old potatoes in 
the season for green peas, string beans, early 
potatoes, radishes, cucumbers. &c., and when 
company is expected how it taxes the inge- 
nuity of the good wife to ggt up a passable 

meal. These 
early vegeta- 
bles are luxu- 
ries within the 
reach of every 
farmer's family 
at a very' trif- 
ling outlay of 
time and mon- 
ey, and if he 
must procure 
the suiiport of 
his family from 
his farm, wliy 
not give them 
the most health 
ful support as 
long as it is the 
cheapest. 
Location of the 
Garden. 

The garden 
should be near 
the house, so 
that it may be 
readily accessi- 
ble and and un- 
der theconstant 
supervision of 
the household. 
H o use-keepers 
do not always 
have time to 
go to a distant 
corner of the farm to gather its products 
for the dinner, and if it is near by, 
a great many leism'e moments may \i& 
spent in weeding and taking care of it. 
It should be so enclosed with hedge or 
fence that neither fowls or stock can enter it. 
It is not reasonable to expect success if cattle 
occasionally break in and the poultry are al- 
lowed a free range in it at all times, as their in- 
stinct leads them to the freshly moved soil for 
some of their most essential food. They are 
always ready to scratch where the gardener 
has formed his new beds and planted his 
choicest seeds. A garden is better for con- 
taining a variety of soils and if it can be so 
located that it will embrace high and dry soil 
and that \which is more moist, it will beau ad- 
vantage, as early vegetables need a warm and 
dry situation, while some that are later, as 
cabbage, cauliflower and celery, thrive in 
moister locations. For early vegetables a 
gentle southern slope is desirable on account 
of its getting the more direct rays of the 
sun ; and if it is sheltered on the north by a 
hill, blutt', grove of trees, or a high close 
board fence, it is afforded a protection which 
most early vegetables will appreciate in their 
early stages of growth. 



1877.1 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



Soil. 

It is a mistake to sii|)])Osc that somo specific 
soil is iiidispensaljlc to success. Good i^anlciis 
liave been made on i-ocky liillsides, on arid 
sand banks, and on lieavy clay s(tils, but 
neillier of tlie.se are desirable, and there are 
very few farms in Minnesota Unit cannot 
furnish us a lietter. Tlie very hest soil is a 
sandy loam which will work easy, dry ofl' 
(piieklv after a rain, and yet ri'tain sullieieiit 
moisture to withstand drouth, and the soil 
should be brought into a liiL;h state of fertili- 
ty by deep plowiiiij and the incorporation of 
animal manures. If sand predoininates to 
excess, it will he benefited hy the addition of 
lime, ashes, clay and muck. If too still' a 
clay it will become more arable by suh-soiliu!.; 
and the application of ashes, sand and man- 
ure. On clay soils jjood drain.Mt;e must be 
secured or it will t)ecome sour and sodden, 
and seciu'c hut little benelit from fertilizers. 
Every fall after the cro|) is gathered in, all 
rubbish should be cleared off, and a liberal 
coat of well rotten manure spread over, and 
Iilowed under. Plow again in the springwhen 
dry enough to work well. During the sum- 
mer no weeds should he allowed to grow and 
mature (heir seeds and afford lierbs.for nox- 
ious insects. 

We will now sujipose that we have located, 
fenced, and manured a spot for a garden. 
What shall we plant in it, and how sliall we 
manage it V I would lay oil a border all 
around next the fence, six or eight feet wide, 
separate from the rest of the garden by a 
walk three or four feet wide, and u|ion this 
bonier I would make permaneut plantation 
of fruits, etc., as follows : 

First, on the north side commencing at the 
end nearest the dwelling. leave room for hot 
beds, cold frame, and early lettuce and rad- 
ishes, plant a few roots of horseradish, rhu- 
barb or pie-plant, and occupy the rest of the 
border with grape vines, set three feet from 
the fence and ten feet apart in the row, finish- 
ing out the border with an asparagus bed. 
East and west borders I would plant to cur- 
rants and strawberries, and the south to 
strawberries and ra.spberries. Through the 
centre one way leading from the house I 
would have a road or walk six or eight feet 
wide, and this walk I would have bordered 
with shrubs and flowers, always keeping it a 
straight and narrow and flowery way, so in- 
viting that it would tend to lead my children 
to virtue and peace, and also tempt the feet 
of visitors. This arrangement will leave an 
amijle plat on each side hetween the borders 
ami the walk for the raising of the supply of 
vegetables. These plats after each spring's 
plowing may be laid off according as fancy or 
convenience dictates, and planted with such 
vegetables, and in such quantities as the 
wants of the family may ie(piire; and always 
bear in mind that it is more pleasure to cul- 
tivate a tasty, well laid out garden than one 
where things are mi.\ed up and hap-hazard. 
The essential vegetables for the farmer to 
grow are, string beans, Lima beans, beets, 
cabbage, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, 
sweet corn, lettuce, radishes, early potatoes, 
onions, tomatoes, turnips, etc., in some of 
their varieties. 

Hot-Beds. 

It is aggravating to know that one's neighbor 
has radishes, lettuce, cucumliers, tomatoes, 
etc., before us. Market gardeners fully ap- 
preciate the importance of being the tirst in 
the market with these things, and use every 
available means to hasten tliem forward, and 
resort to artificial shelter and iirotection as 
atlbrded by liot beds, cold frames and hand 
glasses. But few farmers are able or willing 
to incur the expense and use the time that is 
necessary for their construction and success- 
ful management; but even a cheap and rude 
hot-bed, that could be watched and attended 
by the younger members of the faniih', would 
bring forward a supply of lettuce, cucumbers, 
cabbage and tomato plants several days in ad- 
vance of those started in the open ground. 
Sashes about two and one-half by five feet are 
a convenient size to use for covering the bed, 



and they can be made by any ordinary car- 
Iienter, or purcliased at a sash factory, and 
ought not to cost, gla/.ed and painted, more 
than $l.M each, and if housed when not in 
use, will last many years. Four of them will 
cover a bed of sullicient size to start all the 
plants that will lie reipiired for a half acre 
garden, and furnish a few messes of lettuce, 
besides starting a few flowers for the wife and 
daughters. A frame of inch-hoards is re- 
(piiied which the sash will just cover— the 
front side to he twelve inches high and the 
back eighteen, to give slant for carrying off 
water and admit the more direct rays of the 
sun. The frame being ready, dig out a i>it 
(which should always face the south) six or 
<ight inches larger eveiy way tlian the frame 
and about mw foot deep. Fill this pit wilh 
fresh litter and manure from tiie horse stable, 
that has commenced heating and has been 
lireviously forked over, shaking it on evenly 
to the depth of twenty iiiclu'S or two feel, 
tramp the whole down (irmly with the feet, 
put on the fr;inie and sash, and hank \i]i the 
outside with c<iarse manure. After tlu' heat 
is up, which will be in a day or two, cover 
the bed inside the frame at least six inches 
deej) with good mellow soil, and after raking 
out the lumps put on the sash again, and in a 
day or two more it will be warmed tlirou<:h 
and ready to receive the seed, which should 
be sowed in rows about three inches ajiart, 
scattering a littk! lettuce seed along the lower 
edge of the bed where other iflanls would be 
spoiled from the shade and drip of the sash. 
The fermenting manure will kec]) the soil 
warm at the bottom and the sun will warm 
the surface, furnishing a congenial iilace 
where the seeds will come u|i quickly and the 
plants will grow strong and thrifty, an<l be 
ready to transplant by the time they could be 
brought uj) if planted in the open ground. 

In this lattitude about the first of Ajiril is 
early enough to start a hot bed. The bed will 
need watering whenever it begins to get dry, 
and the water should be applied through the 
fine nose of a watering pot, and should be as 
warm as it would get by standing in the sun 
during the day. The sash must be opened or 
taken off upon bright, clear days, and replaced 
at night. Keep the bed closed in cold, stormy 
weather, unless the bottom heat is greater than 
the iilants will bear. About a week before 
the time to take the plants out for transplant- 
ing, keev> the bed open night and day, to 
harden up the plants. If sash and glass are 
not available, a few days' time may be gained 
in raising plants, by making a bed of fine rich 
soil well filled with warm compost, under the 
shelter of a close board fence, wall or huililing, 
covering it nights and during cold storms with 
boards or matting. Another method which 
may be adopted to get plants of early toma- 
toes and, where hot beds are out of the ques- 
tion, is to sow the seed about the 20tli of 
March, in good soil in .shallow boxes, keejiing 
tliem in a warm jilace near the stove until thej- 
come up, and then set them on a bench or 
table inside, and close to a. south window, giv- 
ing them air whenever the weather w-ill iier- 
mit, transplanting the plants about two or 
three inches apart into other boxes of fresh 
soil, before they begin to get crowded and 
spindling, and if when they are large enough 
for the garilen, the weather is not favorable 
for planting them out, another transplanting 
will be found beneficial. They should be 
transplanted at evening, or shaded for a few 
hours, to allow the roots to take hold of the 
soil. Such plants if properly hardened off, are 
sniicrior to hot-bed plants, and if carefully 
taken up with the soil adhering to the roftts, 
can be transfered to the garden and scarcely 
feel the change. 

Season or time for Planting. 

Peas, onions, beets, lettuce, and radishes 
for the earliest crop, should be jilanted as ear- 
ly in the spring as the gnmml can be worked, 
and they will come forward faster if under 
the .shelter of a fence or wall. The fall crop 
of onions will do better if sowed early and a 
few early potatoes should be planted as soon 
as the frost is out of the ground; 



It is useless to plant beans, corn, cucum- 
bers, s<pi;ishes, and tomatoes in tlie oi>en 
ground until about the first week in May, or 
until the ground beconies somewliat warm 
and dry. ('ncmnbers may be hastened a few 
days hy in'otecting them with hand gla-s-ses or 
a box without top or bottom, ten or twelve 
inches scpian^ and six inches deep, covered 
with a light of glass for each hill. (.'ucuin- 
bers, melons, and Lima beans for early use 
may be started hy taking quart Iwrry boxes, 
filling them with .soil and planting in each 
four or five seeds, and setting them in the 
hot bed, and afterwards transplanting 
them ill the open ground, cutting the l)ot- 
toms of boxes away to allow the roots to run 
out in search of nourishment. Carrots and 
Jiarsuips do the best when planted early in May. 

Ueets, peas, string or snap beans, sweet 
corn, radishes and lettuce, should Ik- jilanted 
at intervals of two or three weeks until the 
first of .July. 

('abbage and caulillower for early use may 
usually be transplanted as early as the plants 
are ready, and lor late and winter use, about 
the -JOIh of .lune. Celery from 1.1th of .lune 
to l.">tli of .Inly. Tomatoes from loth of May 
to lidth of .June. Turnips may be sown in 
July after ]ieas and early potatoes. 

The following according to my experience, 
which extends over thirty years as a market 
gardener, are the best varieties to grow for 
family use. 

y>'c((.v. — Egyptian Turniit Rooted, Dewey's, 
Early Hed and I.oiig Blood. 

Biaus for snaps. Early Valentine, Hlack 
Wax, and .Striped Cranberry. For shell 
beans.— Large Wliite Lima, Dutch Case 
Knife. 

Cabbmie. — Early Jessie, Wakefield, rol- 
ler's Improved Drundiead, I'remluin Flat 
Dutch, Silver-leaf Drumhead. 

Carrol. — Early Horn, Improved Long 
Orange. 

Cauh'Jliwcr.—VMr\y Dwarf. Erfurt, and Le- 
norniand's Short Stem. 

Celery. — Sandriiigham, Dwarf White. 

Corn. — Early Minnesota, or Campbell's 
Sixty Days, an<l Stowell's Evergreen. 

CttCKmhcrs. — Early White Spine, Short 
Green, and (iieeti Prolific. 

Leidftc— Early Curled Simp.son, and Large 
India. 

Musk Melons. — Green Citron, Casaba, and 
Yellow Canteloupe. 

Waltr Melon. — Mountain Sweet, Phinncy's 
Early, and Black Spanish. 

O/u'ox.v. — Top Sets, Extra Early Bed, 
Large Bed AVethei-sfield and Yellow Danvers. 

Parsnips. — Student and Guernsey. 

Peppers. — Sweet Mountain, Long Red Cay- 
enne. 

Peas. — Carter's First Croi>, Champion of 
England, and Marrowfat. 

Potatoes. — Extra Early Vermont and Early 
Rose. 

Eadish. — Early Short Top, Long Scarlet, 
and French Breakfast. 

.SV;»a.s/i.— Yellow Bush, Scallop, Boston 
Marrow and Hubbard or Marblchead. 

Tomatoes. — Canada, A'ictor, Trophy and 
Green Gage. 

3iinii'/<.s-.— Early Red-Top, Strap Leaf, and 
Yellow Scotch. 

Asa garden is not comjilete without sweet 
and pot herbs, .sage, caraway, fennel, dill, 
sweet marjorum, summer savery, tanzy, and 
thyme will be found among the most useful. 

The tools used to the best advantage in 
garden work are the usual ])low and harrow 
of the farm, a bright Ames spade, a spade 
fork, a manure fork, steel rake, .steel hoe, 
wheelbarrow, garden trowel and a line and 
ten foot pole and a few stakes. 
Fruits. 

If a few varieties of fruit are to havea place 
in the iHirder the following are recommended 
as most likely to prove the liest : Concord and 
Delaware (Jrapes ; Red Dutch and White 
Grape currants; Doolittle or Seneca Blai-k Cap 
and Turner's or Philadelphia R<-d Raspberries; 
Wilson's Albany, and Charles Downing 
Strawberries. 



60 



THE LANCASTER EARMER. 



t April, 



To insure Rood returns from small fruits 
they must be cultivated and kept free from 
weeds. Strawberiy beds are not profitable to 
stand more tlian thi-ee years, therefore, a bed 
should be planted every year, and after the 
third year, a bed may be 'dug up, or plowed 
under each year. Sprhii; is the safest and best 
time to set them. To piepare the ground for 
a strawberry bed it should be liberally en- 
riched, and plowed, and hairowed, and 
smootlied over with a rake. Set the jilants in 
rows two and one half feet apart and two feet 
in the row. No fruit should be allowed to 
mature on them the first season, and by fall 
they will mostly cover the ground. Keep a 
space between the rows -just^wide enough to 
step in clear of plants and allow no weeds 
among them. Grapes will require pruning 
and laying do-mi every fall any tying up to 
stakes or trellis every spring and cultivation 
sufficient to keep gra.ss and weeds down. 

Currants appreciate cultivation, liberal 
manuring, and mulching, and if some of the 
old wood is removed occasionally to give place 
for new, and too many sprouts are not allowed 
to come from the roots, a plantation of them 
will last for a great numlier of years. 

Raspberries are greatly Ijenefited by mulch- 
ing. The young canes" should be pinched 
back about the first of July to induce them to 
throw out side branches, and the old canes 
sliould be removed each year after the first 
has all ripened, as they have fulfilled their 
mission, and will not live to bear again. I 
had intended to give detailed instructions for 
the growing of Asparagus, as I hold it to be 
■a valuable article of food that can be grown 
with vei-y little trouble or expense, hut as the 
paper is already too lengthy, I will leave it 
for some other occasion. Respectfully, 

John S. Harris. 



BETTER PRICES FOR SEED LEAF. 

Excepting in a few favored localities, and for a 
few favorite growth.?, growers of seed leaf tobacco 
express dissatisfaction with the prices that are offer- 
ed, or are likely to be offered, for their crops, old 
and new. Between the prices which they are now 
receiving and those which they have been accustom- 
ed for a few years past to receive, tl'.ere is in many 
instances a marked diflerence, and it is accordingly 
not surprising that they do not take kindly to the 
altered circumstances by which their profits have 
been and are being gradually diminished— reduced, 
in fact, here and there, below the point at which 
any profit at all enures to them. But if they have 
reason for dissatisfaction , so, too, have dealers in 
that variety of leaf. With them, as with the growers 
retrospection conjures up other than delightful emo- 
tions, for they also have tasted and are tasting the 
bitterness of declining profits, the draught "being 
made all the more unpalatable by the many losses 
which they have patiently endured. 

Seed leaf, like all other kinds of tobacco, and all 
other commodities, has declined in value in con- 
formity with a general law of trade which is teudinjr 
toward an adjustment of prices upon a legitimate 
basis. Fictitious values are yielding to the necessi- 
ties of the times and the logic of events, and tobacco 
growers, tobacco dealers and tobacco buyers have to 
accept for the time being the inevitable as they find 
It. In the existing condition of business it is vain for 
growers to expect the prices for their tobacco that 
w-ere formerly paid, for though the demand is un- 
abated, other circumstances combine to render their 
payment impracticable and impossible. These cir- 
cumstances might be enumerated here in detail, but 
It is unnecessary to do so as they will be readily 
recalled by every one. Growers, however, though 
they can not wholly recover the past, yet have it in 
their power to materially increase the prospective 
gains not only of themselves, but of dealers as well. 
A review of some of the statistics of the .Seed leaf 
trade discloses the fact, as will presently be seen, 
that by a moderate decrease in the amount of plant- 
ing, growers can exercise a vei-y great influence upon 
the prices of the stock now available, and every year 
hereafter they may do as much if thev see fit. How 
necessary or even desirable it may be to diminish the 
aggregate annual volume of tobacco we do not 
undertake to volunteer an opinion, and if we assumed 
that to do 60 would in all ways be better, it is not 
likely our assumption would be greatly regarded. 
So long as farmers can turn a dollar more readily by 
raising tobacco than by raising corn or other farm 
products, they will continue to produce it, despite 
suggestions to the contrarj , whether they realize as 
mTjch as they hope from it or not. This is only 
natural, and there can be no objection to their free- 
dom of choice in the premises, unless, possibly, it 
can be clearly demonstrated that by producing less 



they might produce better tobacco than, on the 
average, is now obtained— a consummation, all will 
agree, much to be desired. Our purpose here is not 
to debate atiitract propositions, but to draw con- 
clusions from statistical data at hand, deferring to 
other occasions the consideration of other phases of 
our subject. 

The estimated production of Seed leaf tobacco for 
the years 1871 to 1875, both years inclusive, was as 
follows : 

1871 180,000 cases. 

1S72 173,1100 cases. 

18i3 1411.000 cases. 

1874 80,000 oases. 

ISio 10.5,000 cases; 

an annual average of 135,600 cases. The domestic 
comsuniption for 1S72 to 1876, the first and last year 
inclusive, was : — 

|f72 71,785 cases 

18i3 80,059 eases 

l?i* 89.140 cases 

J^'j; 71,785 cases 

1'''° 68,789 cases; 

averaging 76,431 cases annually. The exports for 
the same period were : — 

1*72 96,349 cases 

18.3 3.3,617 cases 

1874 81,301 cases 

1875 35,015 o:i8es 

1876 61,426 cases ; 

showing a a yearly average of 59, .541 cases. Com- 
bining the tables of domestic consumption and ex- 
port, and comparing them with the production of 
the five years oreviously shown, the following re- 
markable result is revealed : — 

1871 to 1S75. 1872 to 1876. 

Production Consumption and 

Cases. Export. Cases. 

180,000 -168,134 

173,000 114,276 

140,000 170 441 

80,0110 106,800 

105,0''C -....120,215 

678,000 ~67936C; 

the total appropriation, it appears, having exceeded 
tlie total production for the period by 1,866 cases. 
The average annual -appropriation for the years 1872 
to 1876 seems to have been 135,973 cases, while the 
average annual production from 1871 to 1875, as be- 
fore indicated, was 135,600 cases, an apparent deficit 
by an average or 373 cases per annnm. 

As previously observed, these figures disclose a re 
markable result, and might very well tend to recon- 
cile tradesmen to the surplus volume of stockusually 
deemed a dead weight— carried to each January in- 
ventory. As compared with the period from 1860 to 
1870— five years— the production of Seed leaf in- 
creased in the five years beginning with 1871 and 
ending with 1875, one hundred and thirteen per cent, 
plus ; and during the same two periods the increase 
in the exports of the same material was one hun- 
dred and twelve per ceunt. plus. That there was a 
still greater increase within those ten years, as di- 
vided, in the domestic consumption of Seed leaf 
tobacco no one familiar with the matter will doubt. 
It follows from all that has been shown that our 
own and the rest of the world's needs of this tobacco 
keep pace, and are likely to keep pace, if good and 
reasonable in price, with our capacity to produce it 
even if we extend the area of its growth. The availa- 
ble home supply, old and new, on hand on January 1 
was estimated at 190,000 cases, andif to this estimate 
we apply the average annual requirement as above 
deduced, namely, 135,97:1 cases, it will be seen that 
the apparent surplus stock for the calander year is 
.54,027 cases. On this surplus, and this alone, the 
influence of growers can be impressed, and as they 
elect to plant, so will be the degree of the influence 
imparted by them. The NewlEngland States are be- 
lieved to have iiroduced in 1876 about 30,000 cases, 
Pennsylvania 40,000, New York 15,000, Ohio 35,000, 
Wisconsin and other States L'0,000; total 140,000. In 
1875 they respectively produced : New England 40,- 
000 cases, Pennsylvania 30,000, New York 10,000, 
Ohio 15,000, Wisconsin and other States 10,000 : 
total 105,000 ; and if in 1877 the production 
should be made equal to that of 1875 the 
existing surplus would be practically reduced thereby 
to 19,000 cases above actual necessities. Prices, it 
will thus be perceived, are entirely at growers' option 
if they can agree to avail themselves of their privi- 
lege. But they can not, and this probably is well. 
As a rule, it will pay them best in the end to raise 
all the tobacco they can so long as it is of desirable 
quality, remembering meanwhile, that though ap- 
propriation follows, as seen above, closely upon pro- 
duction, what we do not use at home m?(s( go abroad, 
and to get it abroad buyers must have to be allowed 
the option. Assuming our figures as here collated to 
be approxim.ately correct, llie strong position of the 
Seed leaf interest everywhere at this moment is made 
strikingly manifest. 



THE LANCASTER TOBACCO CROP. 



Names of the Principal Buyers. 

The Lancaster correspondent of the U. S. Tobicco 
Journal, a gossipy and decidedly long-winded fellow, 
writes a rattlin^g letter of three and a-half columns, 



to that journal, wherein he tells all that he has seen, 
heard tell of, or imagined during his visit to our in- 
land city. We make room for the following ex- 
tracts from his letter : 

A great many of the transient tobacco buyers are 
quartered in the Cadwell house, Stevens house and 
Franke's hotel. Especially the latter is crowded 
with tobacco operators. Before the first glimmer of 
the day appears, the tobacco buyers are up and hur- 
riedly take their breakfast, after which their driver 
with a horse and buggy whirl them away into the 
country— a hunt for the almighty dollar. Some 
stay away for several d.ays, but as a rule they return 
to the hotel when nightfall comes. 

The reporter of the United Stales Tobacco Journal 
visited several of the tobacco raisers, and the ware- 
houses of most of the local as well as the transient 
tobacco packers in Lancaster. These packers are 
all happy, no care, no fear of ultimate unprofitable 
result is expressed by their language, action or look 
And why should they ? 

The tobacco has not been bought at such extreme- 
ly high figures ; the tobacco in general is fine, silky, 
spongy ,without any white or heavy veins; no frost or 
poleburn is perceptible in the leaves, the burning is 
excellent and when in bulk, it is easily heated, an 
undeceiving sign of early and successful fermenta- 
tion. With the exception of a portion of the '76 Con- 
necticut crop there are hardly any competitors to the 
new Pennsylvania in the market; the stock of old 
and useful tobaccos in the markets of the United 
States is small; business and consumption, even if 
it does not increase, will certainly not decrease. The 
quantity of this new Pennsvlvania crop does not ex- 
ceed 40,000 cases; from 8,(J00 to 10,000 of these wilt 
go to the Pacific coast and New Orleans without 
touching and therefore influencing other markets. 

A few thousand cases will certainly be sold for ex- 
port ; therefore the deluge of Pennsylvania tobacco, 
so much talked about early in the season, will be but 
a light shower— just sufficient to make business in 
this article grow. Of the 40,000 eases raised, over 
:;0,000 are already sold. 

Lancaster county is the most popular tobacco 
raising district in Pennsylvania. Bucks county also 
produces a very desirable plant, but the great central 
point for tobacco packers to congregate is Lancaster 
city. A stately old place, with a mass of two-story 
red brick buildings with marble steps and marble 
trimmings, so characteristic with most Pennsylvania 
towns. In the business portion of the place are 
many elegant stores and imposing warehouses ; an 
air of solid wealth hovers over the town, and the 
flush of health, prosperity and contentment is de- 
picted in almost every fiice. 

In her most happy days Hartford, Conn., has not 
seen such an .astonishingly large number of transient 
tobacco buyers assembled at one time as Lancaster 
counts within her walls at present. New York 
city, though, has contributed the largest quantum, as 
will be seen in the list of firms below : 

NEW YORK. 

Fatman & Co., represented by Mr. Strasser. 

Emanuel Hoffman & Son, by Mr. J. Hoffman. 

H. Shubart & Co., by Mr. Aaron Shubart and Mr. 
Friedman. 

N. Lachenbruch & Bros., by M. and N. Lachen- 
bruch. 

Chas. F. Tag & Son, by Mr. S. Moore, jr. 

Kerbs & Spiess, by Mr. Spiess, Mr. Meyer and Mr. 
Reblas. 

Rosenwald Bros., by Mr. Sig. Rosenwald and Mr. 
Schultze. 

Havemeyer & Vigelius, by Mr. Levy and Mr. 
Rohrer. 

Hirshhorn & Co., by Mr. Feldman. 

Gerschel Bros., by Mr. M. Gerschel. 

A. S. Kosenbaum & Co., by Mr. Rosenmeyer. 

Jos. Mayer's Sons, by Mr. M. Davis. 

Lemon <& Ottenberg, by Mr. Ottenberg. 

Schroeber & Bonbon, by Mr. Hilke. 

E. ct L. Wertheimer (New York and San Fran 
Cisco), by Mr. Frank Baer. 

M. H. Levin, by Mr. Cahn and Mr. Lederman. 

Arckenburg & Co., by Mr. Conklin. 

N. Spitzner, by Mr. Charles Schuberth. 

Strohn & Keitzenstein, by Mr. Reitzenstein. 

Bunzel 6i Dormitzer, by Messrs. Fridy and Mosser. 

S. Rossin, by Mr. Altshul. 

Levy & Newgrass, by W. G. Schinder. 

Mr. Ruppel. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Teller Bros, by Messrs. R. .and D. and L. Teller. 

L. Bamberger by Mr. McCloughlin. 

Moore & Hay by Mr. J. De Haven. 

Samuel Moore, jr. 

N. Sterner. 

J. Mayer. 

BALTIMORE. 

Becker Brothers, represented by special buyers. 
Barker ct Waggner, by Mr. Waggner. 
Parlett & Co., by Mr. Owens. 

NEW ORLEANS. 

Hernsheim & Co., by Mr. Fink. 

ST. Lonis. 
Mr. Benson. 

CHICAGO. 

Rothschild, Schroeder & EUiel, by Mr. Rothschild. 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



POTTSVILLE. 

Mr. Wetzel. 

PAN FRANCISCO. 

E. & L. Wcrllilieimcr by Mr. Knink Baor. 

Eeberg, Bacliman & Co. by Mr. Ehrmau and J. 
Shirk. 

Falkcnstein & Co. [also N. Y.] by Mr. Falken- 
stcin. 

Scbocnfcid Bros, by Mr. Alleluil. 

A. S. Hoscnbaum & Co. [also N. Y.J by Mr. Ro- 
scuniayer. 

PITTSBlinC, TA. 

Prctzfeillcr \- Bros., roprrsrnU'il by variciiis partiee. 

LOCAL KIHMS. 

Skllee & Frey, Frey it Weidlcr, and various small 
operators. 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society. 

Tlio rcirulnr stated mectinfr of the Agrirultural 
and Ilorlioiiltural Socioly was held on .Monilay, 
March -fi, at tlie Atliemvum room, the President, 
Calvin Cooper, in I lie chair. 

Tlie followinu: members were present : Messrs. 
Calvin Cooper, H. .M. En^'Ic, M. D. Kendis:, Cas|K'r 
Hiller, Levi I'ownall, John llvitier, Levi W. (irolf, 
Levi S. lieist, Simon P. Eljy, Ephraim Hcjover, Isrrcl 
L. Lanilis, Peter .S. lieist, I'rol. S. S. Ilatlivon, 
Johnson Miller, .Tolin M. Stclunan, Wm. McComscy, 
Peter Hiller, David G. Swarlz, L. C. Lyte. . 

In the absence of the Secretary, .M. D. Kcndig was 
called to the chair ; the reading of the minutes were 
dispensed with. 

Crop Reports. 

Levi PownAi.i i of Sadshury, reported g:rain im- 
provinjr, and that it looks very good. Prospects 
jjood. Clover and timothy not so good, but hopas 
for a good crop. 

Casi'Ek Hiller, of Conestoga, said crops was 
about the same .as in the above neiirhborhood. Mr. 
Ensle said that the crops in his vicinity were also 
about the same. Nothing important to report. 

Levi S. Keist, of Manhcim township; Latewheat 
looks better than that early sown. 

Johnson .Millek, of Warwick, reported the con- 
dition of crops as pretty fair. The late sowing 
looked the best. This was the case last fall, when 
the wheat was attacked by the Hessian Fly. His 
fields have a poor appearance this spring. Grass 
fields look remarkably well, altliouffh in some cases 
it has been frozen. Clover is better than last year. 
The old crops are generally all sold. More tobacco 
will be raised this year than last. He recommended 
the rolling of grass and wheat fields. Fruit, such as 
apples, peaches, and some smaller fruits he thought 
were injured by the intense cold of the winter. 

Levi Pow.nall read an essay on the 

"Agriculture of the Country." 

The essay was a very interesting one and was a 
general review of the Agricultural history of the 
country. He first gave an account of the early set- 
tlers and the hardships they endured in clearim; 
lands and emigrating, which was followed with an 
account of the first experiments of irrigation and 
the raising of tiraotliy and clover, the timothy beinsr 
principally grown on the uplands. The eflects of 
commercial enterprise was commented upon. In 
those early days the chief sources of profit to the 
farmer were derived from the sale of 1 eef and grain. 
The dairy interests was then of small importance, 
but now it is a source of great income in the south- 
ern sections of this county. In this district the 
raising of i;rain and the feeding of cattle are now 
the main reliance to make both ends meet. In the 
northern districts, tobacco seems to be the paying 
product. These two systems were regarded by the 
essayist as more exhau.sting to the soil, than the old 
system of raising wheat and feeding cattle. In 
making this sudden change, great care should be 
taken, for our reputation m.ay not always be known 
as the garden spot of the country. In reviewing the 
past, the agriculture of our country cannot be 
claimed as a success. The reason we have always a 
surplus of agricultural products, was because new- 
land was always being brought into cultivation, and 
not by the increased cultivation of that already cul- 
tivated. Statistics showed that the average yield 
of dilferent grains raised has decreased in nearly all 
the States. The policy of the government of hold- 
ing out inducements for the settlement of new terri- 
tory, was attributed as an injury to the older States 
and a benefit to the new. The essayist closed by ad- 
vocating that an earnest feeling should be taken in 
the restoration of our lands, and that it could only 
be done bv careful tillage. 

A vote of thanks wa.s tendered the essayist. 

The essay was discussed both pro and con by 
Messrs. Simon P. Eby, Levi S. Keist, Casper Hiller, 
H. M. Engle, Israel L. Landis and others. 

H. M. Enule read an essay on 

"Growing Potatoes." 

In opening his essay, Mr. Engle read the following 
paragraph ; 

"Among the anecdotes related of Sir Walter Ra- 



leigh, (who is supposed tohave introduced the potato 
into Ireland in l.'">>4) is, that when his gardener at 
Yout^hall, in the county of Cork, had reared to the 
full maturity of "apples," the potatoes which he had 
received from the Knii;ht, as a fine fruit from Amer- 
ica, the man brou^i^hl to his master one of the apples, 
and aski'd if that were the "fine fruit." Sir Walter 
having examined it was so dissatisfied that he or- 
dered the weed to be rooted out. The gardener 
obeyed, and in rooting out the weeds found a bushel 
of potatoes." 

In concluding the above, tlio essayist continued by 
reading the following : 

Ever since Sir Walter Raleigh made a wry face 
over his first bite of potato, the tuber has risen in 
importance and its area of cultivation extended. 
AUIioukIi originally found in South America, near 
the tropics, experience has proven that it is most 
successfully grown in the lii;i:hcr latitudes. From 
its insignificant debut as an esculent it has become 
one of the most important of crops, over a large ex- 
tent of the earth. 

In the United Slates the crop of 187-") was over IfiO,- 
000,000 of bushels, valued at (W.dOO.OOO of dollars; 
and now we arc importing of the surplus crop of 
Ireland, a country whose citizens we helped to save 
from starvation some years airo, when their crop 
had failed. Alllujuirh not of so much importance in 
our, as in some otln-r countries, it is over half that 
of our wheat crop, in bushels. .Should, therefore, 
the jmtato crop at any time fail in the Ignited States, 
we would no iloubl cxpcrienc« an ordeal similar to 
that whicli Ireland passed. tliruuL'"h in l'S4't. The 
country being so rapidly overrun with the C'ohtrailo 
beetle, it has made the crop a feeble one. Now for 
a judicious antidote, Paris green is no doubt the 
cheapest remedy. That the potato bug came anionic 
us to remain is evident, bill the indications are now 
that he has enemies that will help to keep him with- 
in bounds; but will not likely exti^rminate him. It 
is therefore conclusive that the potatato can hence- 
forth not be grown with (he same labor and expense 
as formerly. The demand, even at the high prices, 
is evidence that few are willing to disi)ense with it 
altogether; consequently the im])Ortance of the crop. 

It is not the olijeet of the essayist to enter into 
details of planting, inanui-iriLT, cultivating, varieties, 
itc, which the importance of the subject deserves, 
but more especially tt) point out one fundamental 
principle which is generally overlooked by many 
planters. Farmers in this section generally plant a 
few as early as the ground will permit, but "the main 
crop is put out about corn-i)lanting season, and 
although the early crop is almost invariably the 
lietter, the common custom has been contimicd 
withal. Tlie Colorado Beetle, however, has caused 
a change which, after all, may prove him a blessing 
in disguise. His ravages have brought about the 
disposition of early plaiitinic in order to liirhl him 
more effectually. This will likely cause the main 
crop to be planted early, when it will grow while 
the soil is moist and cool, and before the greatest 
heat will set in. 

These conditions are always more congenial to the 
potato, and will produce a larger crop and of better 
quality, than when grown in midsummer, when heat 
and drouth are generally greatest. Our best success, 
however, has been with the other extreme, viz.: to 
plant as late as is safe, on account of frosts. The 
main crop is put out from the middle of June to Kith 
of July, according to variety. Those requiring the 
longest season we plant first and vice versa. By 
this method the crop will mature during the cool 
weather of autumn, at which time the ground is 
generally moist. In short, it is the season most con- 
genial to the growth of the potato. Some of our 
largest crops and of best (piality have been produced 
by such late planting ; bcsiiles they will retain their 
quality much later in spring than the early crops. 
In planting potatoes in midsummer, the seed shoulit 
not be exposed to the hot sun, and must be well 
covered, as extreme heal and dry ground will injure 
the germ when covered shallow. 

It is however not to be inferred that any other 
necessary means pertaining to potato culture should 
be dispensed with, but by taking advantage of the 
season, in connection with the best method of cult i- 
uation, we need hardly ever fail of producing a full 
crop of best quality. In order to prove the futility 
of attempting to grow a good crop of potatoes in dry, 
hot weather, we have only to observe where and 
uudei' what conditions the best and poorest crops are 
grown. 

" For instance : In England, Ireland, Canada and 
our northern tier of States and Territories, this escu- 
lent is grown to its greatest perfection, while in our 
Southern States the crop is insignificant, as well as 
inferior, aS a rule. It seems somewhat strange that 
in the country where the potato originated it is of 
so much less importance that in its iMcscnt doniaiii, 
but on the table lands of the Andes .Mounlains it 
will grow to probably as great perfection as any- 
where. There is also no question in the mind of the 
writer, that, even in our Southern States, on the 
high lands, bv taking advantage of the coolest part 
of the scasonit may he made a crop of much greater 
utility and importance than at the present. There 
are comparatively few in the Southern States, as 



well as In our section, who are aware, at how low a 
temperature the potato will flourish. Ourexpcrlence 
is that tuliers will grow rapidly and of best quality 
at a temperature a little aliovc freezinir, and that 
mat iiriiu.' in extreme heat It Is impossible to obtain 
the most favorable results. It may therefore l)e 
easily inferred, what are the essenlhils to obtain the 
best results, and by whatever methods these may bo 
obtained, whether by mulcliiiii;, partially shading, 
or by taxing advantage of the season, so that It ha« 
moist earth and a cool at niosplieri', In connection 
with all other requisites, the potato) crop need seldom 
be a failure. 

The essay led to an animated discutsion of the 
subject by several mem\)er8. 

.^ilt. McC'oMSEY was glad allenllon had been di- 
rected to the import aiice of the |K>lalo crop and 
hoped the present tendency to linrease the (;rowth 
of tobacco would not engross the altenlloii of the 
farmer so much as to cause him to nei,'lect the po- 
tato. .Mr. .McCoiusey gave his experience In growing 
the potato, which was in brief that small seed pro- 
iluecd small potatoes and large seed large ones. He 
planted early in April. 

Casi'KK iiiLLi'.it rcirnrdcd late planting as danger- 
ous. He had lost several late planted crops by wet 
viather setliiu.' in while the vines were growing. 
They grew as ra|)idly as hot -house plants, and when 
tin; sun shone out upon them the liillage was 
scorched and withered, lie believed in (planting 
early. With good seed, good ground, and a favor- 
able season, he believed 701) bushels of potatoes 
inii;hl III' raised |)er acre. He had raised by actual 
measure 40 bushels to one-twelfth of an acre, which 
is WO bushels per acre. He used large peerless 
potatoes for seed, so cut that only a slncle eye re- 
mainid to each cutting. Scid trouml is no doubt the 
test Inr jiotatoes, but tanners cannot allord to turn 
it down fcir that pur|io8c— ihey must keep it for their 
corn. His own plan was to thoroughly manure the 
cornstubble in the fall ; no matter how niueh man- 
ure is ap[iiied-;,M) lonu' asthcrv|is enou,'h— plow it in 
the fall. Ill t'hc spring plow the ground ajraln. 
Plant early in furrows, not too deep, and ridge up 
more deeply afterwards. Cultivate carelully to ex- 
termimite weeds, and with good weather anl other 
favoiiiiic cinumstances tlicru is no reason why a 
yield of .500 bushels of potatoes to the acre should 
not follow. 

EiMiiiAiM Hoover said he reganled good seed as 
necessary in (irowiui; potatoes as in mowing » heat, 
eornoroals. (iood seed will yield g<M>d fruit, and 
poor sicd poor I'ruit. The seed shoulil lie frequently 
changed or procured from a dillcrent locality from 
that on which the potatoes are to be grown. 

.VI. D. Kendio said that farmers were apt to defer 
the cultivation of their potato fields too long. He 
believed in commencing to cultivate as soon as the 
young plants show themselves above gr<»und, or 
even sooner. By this plan the grass and weeds arc 
more; easily killed and the potatoes iret abetter start. 

Johii.son Miller, secretary, having entered the 
room cxiilaiiied the cause of his absence. The train 
on whicli he came in was delayed by an accident. 
He was excused. 

L. C. Lie. HT differed with most of the speakers. 
He planted small potatoes for seed, Ixdng careful 
not to leave in them too many eyes. He had raised 
by this kind of scedinir as iniich as 400 bushels to 
the acre. His crop had sonielimes suffered by the 
ravages of a small insect that bored into the vines 
and killed them. 

Priu--. liATiivoN explained that the Insect was the 
potato weevil. The parent insect lays its eirgs on 
the vine; when they hatch, the young worm eats 
into the centre of the stock, and works downward 
enervating or killini: the plant. Here the worm be- 
comes traiislbrmcd and lives in the vine all winter. 
The best reincdv to exterminate it it to burn the 
vines. Prof. Kalhvon exhibited a sjicclracn of the 
potato weevil. 

P. S. Keist believed in planting potatoes early, 
ridging u|i the rows and then before the young 
plants come up, harrowing the ground thoroughly. 
This will kill the grass and weeds before the potato 
plant appears. 

I. L. Landis suggested that farmers should put 
in a irood crop of potatoes this year. They are 
bringing good prices and as the tobacco crop will en- 
gross much attention, those who plant iiotaloes will 
probably be well jiaid for them. 

IlE.SRV M. Enole hoped members would make 
careful experiments with large and small seed for 
IKilatoes. He believed in using the best, but ac- 
knowledged that results had sometimes staggered 
his failii. 

Casi'ER Hili.eb thought a principal objection to 
the use of small [xitatoes for seed was that there 
were too many eyes and consequently loo many 
s]inmls. lie had frequently p-lled off the sprouts 
and from them got excellent | latoes, but not In 
such great (luantily as from the seed. 

Bills for removing the library and for freight on 
exhibits sent to the Centennial were presented and 
ordered to be paid. 

"Corn culture and what arc Its best varieties," 
was postponed for discussion until next meeting. 

"What is the best method of destroying the jwach- 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



tree borer '■" a question referred to Mr. H. M. Engle, 
was answered by that gentleman, who said that lie 
knew of no more effective remedy than the knife. 
Search for the borer twice a year, sprinsr and fall, 
and when found kill him. Another but not so re- 
liable a plan, is to hank up the butt of the tree with 
ashes. It is important to attend to the borer during 
the first and second year of the tree's growth ; after 
that they caimot seriously injure the tree. 

Caspek Hili,er said "an ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure." There are two waj-s of 
preventing the borer from getting into the tree : 
First, tie the butt of the tree seeurely with paper, 
early in the spring, and take it otf in the fall. Sec- 
cond, make a mixture of cow dung and lime and apply 
it to the tree as a paint. It soon hardens and is proof 
against the borer. 

Peter S. Reist read an intereresting essay on 
the selection of seed wheat. He recommended that 
the best portion of the best field be selected for 
gathering the seed; that any stalks of rye, cheat, 
or other plants be removed before Iiarvesting ; that 
the grain he then carefully cleaned from smut and 
all other imperfectious. It would always pay to be 
particular in this respect. 

Messrs. Engle, McComsey and others followed in 
elat>oration of Mr. Keist's suggestions. 

Levi W. Groff presented a sample of the "main- 
stay" wheat — a new variety received from Europe. 
The grains are very large and plump. Mr. GroB' was 
requested to experiment with it, and let the society 
know the result of his experiment. 

Mr. Groff said be did not know whether it was a 
spring or winter wheat, but he would plant half of 
it in the spring and the other half in the fall to find 
out. 

Mr. Enole predicted it would be bearded, tall 
and coarse, and would not make good Hour. He 
hoped, however, his prediction miglit jiroved untrue. 

Mr. L.wdis presented a small bag full of very 
large shell barks or hickory-nuts grown in Missouri 
from seed from California. 

Prof. Kathvon explained that the reason the 
annual address of the president of the society and 
some other papers had not appeared in The Farmer 
was because he had not received the maunscript 
until to-day. 

Leai S. Keist presented a fine specimen of the 
York imperial apple. 

The following questions were proposed for discus- 
sion at next meeting : 

"How can the fertility and productiveness of our 
farms be maintained under our present system of 
croi»iiing ?" 

" How can we best secure farm help ?" — Picferred 
to E. Hoover. 

"Is the growth of Hungarian grass for hay a de- 
sirable crop for farmers to engage in?" — lieferrcd to 
Levi Pownall. 

Adjourned. 

Tobacco Growers' Association. 

A stated meeting of the Tobacco Growers' Asso- 
ciation was held on Monday, .March 19th, in the 
rooms of the Athenaeum. 

The following members and visitors were present : 
Martin D. Kenditr, Manor ; ColinCameron, Elizabeth; 
I. L. Landis, Manheim ; John M. Stehman, East 
HempHeld ; Peter S. Keist, Manheim ; Levi S. Keist, 
Manheim ; A. L. Lane, Manor; I. W. Uroh, Lebanon; 
W. L. Hershey, Rapho ; J. H. Yeager, East Lam- 
peter; A. K. Landis, Manheim; Isaac Leaman, 
Upper Leacock ; Samuel Bushoug, Ui>per Leacock ; 
Michael B. Landis, city ; John Bo.'isler, Manheim ; 
Harry Shifl'er, Manheim ; Silas K. Eshleman, Para- 
dise ; Sylvester Kennedy, Salisbui'y ; B. H. Hershey, 
Penn ; Abraham Hostelter, Penn ; A. H. Y^eager, 
East Lampeter; H. Bomberger, Manheim; Martin 
Miller, Manor. 

President M. D. Kendig occupied the chair, 
and in the absence of the secretary, Colin Cameron 
acted in that capacity. 

Crop reports being called for, Mr. I. L. Landis, 
of Maniieim, said that thegreaterpart of the tobacco 
in liis neighborhood had been sold at good prices. 
Buyers were as active as ever, but were endeavoring 
to reduce the figures, and in some instances they 
■were buying lower tlian they did at the opening of 
the season, as some farmers found it necessary to 
realize on their crops before the first of Api-il. Two- 
thirds of the crop has been sold, among it being the 
bulk of the first-cla.ss leaf. 

Mr. Hersiiet reported fifty cases sold to a local 
buyer in West Hempfield, at good prices. 

Mr. Yeager, of West Lampeter, said nearly all the 
crop in his neighborhood had been bought. 

Mr. Eshleman, of Paradise, said that not much 
tobacco was grown in his township, and very little of 
that sold. The prices asked for wrappers ranges 
from IK to 20 cents. 

Mr. Kennedy, of Salisbury, said there was a con- 
siderable quantity raised in his townsliip; not one- 
third of which had yet been sold. Some of it is of 
• good quality and some considerably injured by the 
worm. Prices have ranged from '^0 cents down — 
some selling very cheap. He thought the reason so 
little of the crop had been sold was because there 
had been but little heretofore grown ; the growers 



generally have not learned how to handle it and the 
township is distant from the tobacco centre. 

Mr. Bear, of Leacock, said nearly all the tobacco 
in his neighborhood was sold. A good deal was 
raised about Enterprise. The crop was a fair one 
and brought fair prices — say 1.5 to 'M cents. 

Mr. John M. Stehman, East Hempfield, offered 
for inspection several very fine hands of tobacco 
grown by E. M. Bricker, of Manheim, on li farm 
owned by Henry Hostetter. Mr. Bricker had sold 
his crop at .'!0 for wrappers, 20 for seconds and 5 for 
fillers. The samples were of Connecticut seed leaf. 
Chestnut seed leaf, Bastard and Florida seed leaf. 
The preference was given by Mr. Bricker to the 
Chestnut and Bastard. The Florida was only grown 
as an experiment. Mr. Stehman said that about 
two-thirds of the crop in his neighborhood was sold. 

A vote of thanks was returned to Mr. Bricker for 
his fine specimens. 

On motion of J. M. Stehman, the secretary read 
from The Lancanffir Fanner an article copied from 
the bilctllffd'cer showing that in the New York mar- 
ket Lancaster tobacco had the call over Connecticut. 

Mr. I. L. Landis urged erowers to use the greatest 
possible care in growing and handling their tobacco. 
He had no doubt that a great deal of good Pennsyl- 
vania tobacco had been sold for Connecticut when 
Connecticut was considered the best ; and now that 
Pennsylvania was in demand, western tobacco is 
being shipped in this Stale and palmed off as Penn- 
sylvania. He knew of one large lot of Wisconsin 
that had been broturbt to this county, and he sup- 
posed it would be palmed off as Pennsylvania, to the 
injury of the Pennsylvania staple. 

President Kendig, of Manor, said the interest of 
buyers in his district had heretofore centered in 
fancy grades; there were a good many buyers yet in 
the field ; about two-thirds of the crop has been sold. 

Mr. p. S. Keist, Manheim, said two-thirds of tlie 
crop in that township is sold ; the choice lots were 
first bought ; liuycrs are now picking up second 
quality. The farmers are considering the advan- 
tages to be obtained in raising first-class tobacco, 
and many of them have resolved to plant less next 
year, and give more attention to its growth and 
handling. 

Mr. Cameron read a letter from Mr. C. P. 
Hughes, of West Chester, asking for information on 
the following points : " What is the average weight 
of dry tobacco pci- acre raised in Lancaster county i 
Do you find highly ammoniated fertilizers an advan- 
tage ? If fish guano is used could it afl'ect the taste 
of the tobacco? In the use of different salts of 
potash, is there any difference in the burning of the 
tobacco or in the yield ?" 

In answer to the first interrogatory the average 
yield was variously estimated at i,'JOO tol,fiOO]ioundR 
per acre. In answer to the second some of the 
members thought there was and some thought there 
was not much advantage in the use of highly ammo- 
niated fertilizers. The other questions were briefly 
discussed but no result agreed upon. 

Mr. Cameron also read a communication from 
Hiram E. Lutz, calling attention to a poudrette 
manufactured by him which he claimed to be pecu- 
liarly adapted to the growth of tobacco. 

On motion of Mr. P. S. Reist, Mr. Lutz and other 
manufacturers were requested to send samples of 
their fertilizers to the president of the society to 
have it tested. 

On motion of Mr. Johnston, Mr. Cameron was 
requested to prepare answers to the questions asked 
by Mr Hughes, and read them before the society at 
the next meeting. 

In further discussing the question of the best fer- 
tilizer for tobacco, pig manure, sheep manure, hen 
manure and horse manure were each recommended. 

Colin Cameron read an essay on tobacco and its 
cultivation, of which the following contains the prin- 
cipal points : 

Every one that has attempted to grow this plant 
fancies that he has learned enough from his own ex- 
perience to not only govern him in all future opera- 
tions, but enough to supply all the neighbors and 
friends from what he looks ujjon as an endless quan- 
tity of valuable knowledge. The less the time one 
has been engaged in the business the more garrulous 
be will be, and the local savants tliat on every occa- 
sion offer gratis from their store of stuff, almost in- 
variably make him who hearkens to them repent 
his folly. I believe with the other essayists before 
me that there are certain fixed facts that it is well to 
ever keep in view, and that there are certain condi- 
tions of soil and j>laut-foud necessary to 
the growth of a full crop, but I differ 
with them in regard to the manner of pre- 
paring the .soil. I hold to what I consider 
should be a settled principle among advanced agri- 
culturists, that no crop save grass should be made 
to feed directly of the manure. And I fancy that I 
have noticed enough in my own fields and in my 
neighbors' to know this to be the ease; especially in 
tobacco. I know very well that I bring down the 
unfavorable judgment of a vast majority of tobacco- 
growers for the utterance of this statement, but I 
am so well convinced of its truth that I think I can 
well bear this judgment and wait for the future 'to 
prove its correctness We all are aware and ac- 
knowledge that the plant in its growth is necessarily 



rapid, and that it absorbs from the manures some- 
thing scarcely definable, that, to say the least, af- 
fects the structure if not the flavor of the plant, and 
these keen-eyed, tender-fingered buyers that Mr. 
Frantz speaks of are the first to know it. I could 
not dwell upon the reasons entire that cause me to 
come to this conclusion; they are many and long, and 
so interwoven that to speak of one necessarily "intro- 
duces all. Nor do I consider heavy manuring in it- 
self essential; it might be a desirable requisite, but I 
could not allow it to be considered any more than 
that. Before either plant-bed, plants or soil, I 
would place the farmer — a perfect tobacco farmer. 

I have seen tobacco grown side by side where the 
soil was necessarily alike, and yet there was as much 
difl'erence in the yield per acre as Mr. Frantz named 
in his essay. I well know that a poor farmer with 
good soil and plenty of manures may with the 
stimulus of a good growing crop get more per acre 
th.an the best farmer under unfavorable conditions; 
but this proves nothing, and I ask each one present, 
thinkers in the field of practical agricultural experi- 
ment, if we ought to sustain any statement, without 
qualification, that tends to bear one into any channel 
of thought that may break up the idea of personal 
responsibility. 

I would like to know something more about the 
statement made Ijy Mr. Frantz — of hog bristles being 
a superior covering for the germinating seed and 
growing plants. How many have thought of this, 
and what has been the general conclusion ? Theories 
advanced here, or facts stated, if not investigated 
are only as shadows. We all well know that as a 
class, in the production of tobacco, we are not above 
mediocrity, and until the false is separated from the 
correct, and true principles only promulgated, can we 
hope to advance to a better kuowledge of the wants 
of this plant. Many never use the bristle ; some use 
glass ; others condemn all and sow the seed and 
grow the plant unassisted ; and each one for himself 
claims to have the plan whereby the best results are 
attained. If the after-growth of a crop depends on 
the manner of its first start, let us know it and the 
reason as well. 

I would always grow tobacco on sod, fall plowed, 
and plowed again as often in the spring previous to 
planting as the weed seeds germinate and sprout. 
Set the plants in rows not closer than four feet apart 
and twenty inches apart on the row. Allow no 
wecil to grow nor the ground to become so much 
settled after a rain as to even approach a state of 
being baked. I think I know that tobacco once re- 
tarded in its growth by the compactness of the earth 
never again regains its wonted rapid, hut natural 
growth. While speaking of ground in its dilferent 
conditiims afl'ecting the plant, I wish to refer to the 
manner of planting. I believe all will agree that 
there is but one correct way to set a plant ; that is 
to place it in tlie ground that every root shall tend 
towai'ds the bottom of the hole. I have known each 
alternate row of tobacco in a field to vary a very 
great deal, and could find no solution of the cause, 
except attributing it to the manner of sticking the 
young plant. I would insist on this mode of plant- 
ing as a prime necessity; its real or imaginary effect 
is within the reach of all, and a few well tried and 
reported experiments would determine this in the 
minds of all. 

In stripping there are several things to be consid- 
ered at once; first, I should never take tobacco from 
the nails or lath until it could be handled in almost 
any manner without breakage. If it is taken down 
bclbre thoroushly damp and conditioned you will 
lose almost beyond belief in weight ; and no other 
process, to my knowledge, can make up for this. 
The leaf stripped and bulked dry will ahvaj's present 
a dry and rough appearance, and will never have the 
soft, silky feel that those "tender-fingered bu^'crs" 
look for. I would strip tobacco into three grades 
always, and would never sort the filler for seconds, 
but rather the wrappers, and each hand should be 
perfect in itself. I mean by this that it should con- 
tain leaves exactly alike in shape, size, color and 
condition. This is easy to do. The leaves should be 
pulled down in the hands till the tips are even, and 
bound at the butts so as to hide the uneveuness. 
This done by the grower, saves the sprigging by the 
buyer and makes it worth fi'om one to five cents 
more jier pound. Then no one can grade .as well as 
the grower. Having his tobacco in the shed as it 
grew, each kind alone, he can take it down, exer- 
cising due care, and strip it, again using an extra 
amount of vigilance to make it perfect. The great 
trouble with many parties is the desire to he done, 
not to be well done. A day or a week's additional 
care in this part of the work may add half the value 
to the whole crop. The stripper should know the 
exact condition of every leaf that goes into each 
hand, and those miserable shriveled, short and 
frizzed leaves should be thrown away; it will pay 
much better than to |iut them with any other than a 
lot l)y themselves. Once stripped, each kind should 
be bulked down by itself. I would prefer a cool but 
not over moist cellar, and should always leave the 
butts of the hands exposed, covering with boards 
and enough weight to keep it in position, and to give 
it something of a pressed look. 

Care should be exercised to have each kind by 
itself. For I assure you if you put a second with the 



1S-7.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



wrapper, or a filler with the eceoml, the "tcniler- 
(ingered follow" will pull it out certain. 

After you have raised a good plant, stick it proper- 
ly, grow it to maturity, harvest it without hums or 
bruises, talic it down and assort it jiroperly, then 
study to know its value, and resolve never to deal 
with men whose honor is as <'heap as their words. 

I saw in Durham, N. C, the planter hauling his 
tobacco ink) town without the shadow of a fear, 
well knowing that he would get its full market value. 
Why can we not do the same ? Are all the men in 
the Iradc banded against the growers, or is our 
knowledge of its value so slight as to enable them to 
take it at will? Or is the sale of this crop a matter 
of chance rat lier than one of square business dealing? 

I hope to see this organization prosper and attract 
to itself the best practical thinkers and growers in 
the county, and as we educate each other and our- 
selves, bring to a higher level all engaged in the 
same avocation. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered the es- 
sayist. 

The several points of the ess.ay were discussed at 
some length liy the society. Mr. Heist said there 
was an old maxim that "every man should be con- 
sidered a rascal till he was proved to be an honest 
man ;" both tobacco buyers anil growers had too 
long acted on this principle. Mr. Reist believed the 
maxim should be reversed, and that if growers and 
buyers should deal honestly and fairly with each 
other they would be mutually benefited. 

The best mode of preparing the gi'ound, selecting 
the best variety of plants, the proper mode of grow- 
ing plants and other questions of interest were dis- 
cussed, but nothing new was clicteil, except that .Mr. 
I. L. Landis rather jocularly suggesled that toliacco 
plants should be grown by (!en. Pleaisoulon's blue 
glass process ; to whie.h Mr. Cameron replied that 
he would rather have an acre of blue (/rasx sod than 
two acres of blue t/!axs cover. 

The question selected for iliseussion at next meet- 
ing was: "How to construct the most convenient 
tobacco house for curing, stripping and sorting 
tobacco." 

Notice was given that the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural .Society will meet next 
Monday, instead of the Ist Monday in April. 

On motion adjourned. 



The Linnaean Society. 

This society held theirstated meeting on Saturday, 
March 'My C'. A. TIeinitsb in the chair ; si.x members 
present. After the preliminary duties, the donations 
to the museum were examined, and found to consist 
of a very tine specimen of star lish (astcrias) from 
the Pacific coast, California, presented to S. S. 
Kathvon liy .Mr. Kinzer, of East Walnut street, this 
city. This, wlien taken out of the water by Mr. K., 
while on a visit to California, was of a deep red- 
searlet color. A large brown spider, found in the 
Adams Express wagon, supposed to have come 
among oysters, from "down the B.ay," which were 
delivered — presented by Mr. J. W. M. of the Express 
office. It may be a species of Dobnalex, a stranger at 
least with us. "Elm-leaf beetles," found behind a 
fire-board in the dwelling house on the 7th of Marcli, 
1877, by Mrs. P. E. Gibbons ; a queer place to hide 
for the Galcrnca. A small . green grasshopper, 
found by Mr. Engle, on the llih of February last , 
curious, chieliy for being out so early. Some good- 
sized shellbarks, introduced originally from Cali- 
fornia; these nuts were raised in Missouri, presented 
bjr Israel L. Landis. Five fossils, collected near 
Pa.ii6, Edgar county, Illinois, and given by E. G. 
Reist, of Mount Joy ; Spirifer Tcrdiralula, and por- 
tions of the articulated stems of the stone lily — 
Crinoidcans. 

Additions to the Library. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, Part III. October, November and 
December, lS7fi. An essay with illustrations on 
New South Wales, by G. H. Reid, 187fi. Report of 
the Life Saving .Service of the Cnited States and its 
operations, 187.5 and lS7(i. Copy of Firlil and Forcul, 
February number, per C. R. Dodge. The title page, 
etc., to vol. X of the Patent Office (Inzeltc. Patnph- 
lets from our correspondent, Dr. AV. .1. Hoffman, 
read by him before the Philadelphia societies, viz. J 
Pah-ute Cremation, December, 1S74. Ancient 
Hearths and Modern Indian Remains. List of Birds 
observed by him in Dakota while surgeon of the 
United States army. One in pure French, by .M. 
Fernand Latasta, on " Lk tetard Du. nominator 
Igneus," about the Branchia of " Frogs and Polli- 
wogs." Mrs. Gibbons readily translated it to 
English. (We, like Pat, understand French very 
well when spoken in English.) Tin: Book Erchanqe 
Monllihj. The " American Palieozooic Fossils," by 
S. A. .Miller, about being published. The " Medical 
Intelligencer." List of new publications. The Lcin- 
eaxter Farmer for February and March, ls77. From 
our Representative, J. L. Steinmctz, esq., copy of 
Industrial statistics, Part III. Vol. HI. Report of 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 1870. 
Annual report of the Superintendent of SoMiers' 
Orphans of Pennsylvania, 1870. A report of State 
Treasurer, November, 1870. Message of Gov. John 



F. Hartranft, January 3, 1S77. Reprints from papers 
published in 177l>, and of later date. Six envelopes 
containing sixty-three historical scraps, cut out of 
the various papers. Several containing specimens of 
colonial bills and continental money — among them 
lottery tickets for church benefits, so common in 
those days. 

Papers Read. 

J. Stanffer read a paper — showing the divers opin- 
ions among men of science, at)out the sap in plants- 
quoting Dr. tiray's theory so dally contradi<'ted by 
.Mr. Andrew .Murray in a paper read at the last 
meeting of the Scientific Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. He also presented a flnedraw- 
ing taken groni what seemed to be a double calla, 
grown and given liirn by Ex-Mayor Zimmerman, of 
this city, .March 1."). The white spatlie with. its gol- 
den yellow spadix was like the common Afri<'an 
lily, only the ordinary green leaf in this case assum- 
ed tlie texture and shape of the fiower, close to it, eo 
as to appear like two lilies on one stem, close to- 
gether. 

Mrs. Zcll read a paper on certain observations in a 
Zonale Geranium under cultivation in the window, 
which manifested a change of tlu^ perfect stamens 
intd petals; in one llower she found a single jierfect 
stamen, and the lilaments of other petaloid. This is 
not a very rare case; it occurs in the water lily, and 
other plants under cultivation, especially if iiielined 
to become double. 

Mr. S. S. Rathvon read a paper on the several 
donations made, in which he speaks in high praise 
of .Mr. Kinzer, and his valuable colleclion of objects 
of Natural Science; his skill in mounting bii'ds, iV:c., 
aud his labors in this field, so little known to the 
general public; his collection with that of ours 
would form a truly valuable museum. 

Mrs. Gil)bon6 read notes and observations on the 
Cabbage butterfiy^hirv^, and Paris green. 

The following resolution was presented by S. S. 
Rathvon and adopted, viz : 

"Resolved, That the Secretary be instrneted to 
examine the records and see wlio (under the origi- 
nal resolutions, authorizing the same) are entitled 
to additional certificates of the stock of the museum, 
and to issue the same on the e(»nditions named in 
said resolutions and report the same at the next 
stated tneeting of the Society." 

On motion the Secretary was authorized to set up 
a form of notice to dcliufpients, and have blanks 
printed, to fill out and distribute. 

No further business offering. Society adjourned to 
meet on Saturday, April 1^8. 



AGRICULTURAL. 

Valuable Formulas. 

Professor Stockbridge, of the Massachusetts Ag- 
cultural College, Amherst, issues the following for- 
mulas for compounding phosphates, which it might 
be well for Granges to paste in their book of [uinulcs. 

To produce fifty bushels of corn to the acre more 
than the natural proiluet of the land use : 

Nitrogen, 04 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
ammonia; 

Potash, 77 pounds, in the form of muriate of pot- 
ash ; 

Phosphoric acid, 31 pounds, in the form of muriate 
of superphosphates. 

To produce one ton of hay per acre more than the 
natural product of the land use : 

Nitrogen, 30 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
ammonia ; 

I'otash, 31 pounds, in the form of miu'iate of pot- 
ash ; 

Phosphoric acid, 12 pounds, in the form of super- 
phosphate. 

To produce 25 bushels of oats and the usual pro- 
portion of straw per acre more than the natural 
product of the soil, and in proportion for other quan- 
tities, use : 

Nitrogen, 10 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
ammonia ; 

Potash, 31 pounds, in the form of muriate of pot- 
ash ; 

Phosphoric acid, 8 pounds, in the form of super- 
phosphate. 

To produce 1,500 pounds of dried leaf tobacco, 
with the usual proportion of stalk, more than the 
natural yield per acre of land, use : 

Nitrogen, Hi) pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
ammonia ; 

Potash, 172 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
potash : 

Phosphoric acid, 16 pounds, in the form of super 
phoBjihate ; 

Lime, 100 pounds, in the form of sulphate of lime 
(land plaster); 

Magnesia, 38 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
magnesia. 

To produce 100 bushels of potatoes per acre, and 
their usual proportion of tops, more than the natu- 
ral proiluetion of the land, and other quantities pro- 
portionally, use : 

Nitrogen, 31 pounds, in the form of sulphate of 
ammonia ; 

Potash, 34 pounds, in the form of sulphate of pot- 
ash ; 



PhoRphorle acid, 11 pounds, In the form of super- 
phosphate. 

By the use of these formulas, upon any ordinary 
level lands, with a good elav subsoil, corn can be 
raised at about T2 cents per bushel ; oats, ^0 cents ; 
potatoes, 10 cents, and tobacco about 84 per hund- 
red pounds (all of superior quality), couutingln the 
cost of farm labor. 

These mixtures should be sown over the land 
broadcast when the ground is well prepared, before 
planting. an<l not put in the hills, so that the roots 
may seek the food and not concentrate and thereby 
cause the plants " to burn up." 

Utilizing Coal Dust, 
.^n invention has been made by .Mr. G. K. Steven- 
son, of Valparaiso, for a furnace for burning coal 
dust, which is made In the shape of a retort, of lire 
brick, open at both emls, and provided with radical 
or inclined discharge channels at the upper parts. 
This is placed in posillon on the walls, and Is partly 
charged with a quantity of wood and coal, and 
lightid. The apparatus by which the jjowdercd 
fuel is inlroduied is then placed in [msition, and the 
fuel fell to the furnace, after the coarse fuel is 
I liorowghly ignited by the blast from a blower used 
ill connection tlierenlth. The piiwdi-red fuel Is then 
continually introduced, care being taken to remove 
the ashes from beyond the mouth of the iiuier end of 
the retort, which can be done in a few minutes. 
The apparatus may be detached and replaced, and 
the operation proceeded with, without a great de- 
crease in teiiiiicralnre, as the llrebriik retort retains 
some of the heat from previous firing. The fuel Is 
said to be completely consumed by the addition of 
air injected willi the same into the retort, and there- 
by a high and unilorm dcgrej^ of temperature Is kept 
lip, while the fire may be instantly interrupted wllh- 
oul the loss of large quantities of fuel, and also be 
started again with great rapidity, so as to facilitate 
the getting up of bteain in boilers. 



What Soil Consists of. 

The bulk of all fertile soil consists of three earths, 
to wit : silica, alumina and lime. Unmixed with 
<-lay, sand, or ot her organic or inorganic substances, 
lime c(uisisls of the oxide of the metallic element 
calcium, and as it enters into the composition of all 
plants, it necessarily occupies a large place in 
Nature's laboratory. Chemistry tells us that it has 
an allinity for water and ear!«>nic acid ; when apj 
plied to tile land it absorbs water, forming hydrate 
of lime; this hydrate then absorbs carbonic acid, so 
th.at lime, although applied to the land in the caustic 
state, really exists, shortly after its application. In 
the form of carbonate, along with a little sulphate 
and phosphate as previously mentioned. Lime has 
for a long time been used as a fertilizer, when land 
previously unworked is brought into cultivation, or 
when worn-out pasture land is broken up, lime is 
Efcnerally applied. It affects chieliy the vegetable 
matter contained in the soil, promoting its decompo- 
sition, and thus rendering it available as plant food. 



A New Agricultural Plant. 

A new agricultural plant for cattle-feeding and 
paper-making has been introduced to public notice 
by Mr. William Gorrie. Rai Lodge, Edinburg. It is 
a variety of a tree-mallow, " Lavatera arlorea," 
the natural habitats of wliich, in Scotland, are the 
Ba.i's Hock, with other islets in the Firth of Forth, 
and Ailsa Craig. Its ordinary heights vary from 6 
to 10 feet, liiit it can be grown to twelve feet. It ll 
bienmal, but the first year it may he planted after 
the removal of any early crops and matures the 
following year. Chemical analysis of its seeds 
shows them to he equal in feeding properties to oil- 
cake, which is niiw worth in Scotland about 8'"'0 per 
ton, and pa[ier-m:ikers ollereil the same price for the 
bark that they now pay for esparto grass, which Is 
also about g.^O per ton. This shows a return of 
about .?J0O per acre, for the '.cv.il and bark, and it 
is expected that the excess of fibre in the latter will 
allow the heart wood being mixed up with it, which 
will add very considerably to the value of the crop. 
^ _ 

Hints to Farmers. 

A bare pasture enriches not the soil, nor fattens 
the animals, nor increases the wealth of the owner. 

One animal well fed is of more use than two 
poorly kept. 

The belter animals can be fed, and the more com- 
fortalde they can be kept, the more profitable they 
are— and all farmers work for profit. 

Ground once well ploughed is better than tbrlcc 
poorly. 

Bountiful crops are more profitable than poor ones. 
Make the soil rich, pulverize well and keep clean, 
and it will will generally he productive. 

When you see the fence down, put it up. If It re- 
mains until to-morrow, the cattle get over. 

What ought to be done to-day, do ft — for to-mor- 
row it might rain. 

A strong horse will work all day without food ; 
but keep him at it, aud he will not last long. 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 1877. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



Florida and Its Oranges. 

A correspondent of the Tribune thus writes to 
that paper in regard to Florida : 

About half of the orange crop this year has been 
destroyed by the lonarest spell of cold weather ever 
known in Florida. The history of the orange culture 
shows that at long intervals the crop is cutoff or 
injured by frost something below oO°. What other 
crop is not injured at shorter intervals ? The trees 
have never been killed but ouce (183.5.) They are 
not injured this year, except the young ones in ex- 
posed localities. So this cold snap need not deter 
those who are wishing to make an orange grove in 
Florida. There are places on Lake George, for 
instance, and other very \vide openinirs of the river 
where nel'her orange buds, nor pineapples, nor early 
vegetables have tjcen hurt. 

One word more. When an orange is frozen it does 
not rot or show any external signs of decay, or does 
not, for a long time drop from the tree. It is, there- 
fore, difficult to tell a bad one from a good one. It 
is likely, then, that perfectly honest p.ackers will 
send a good many bad oranges to the North, or 
rather have done so. But money is so scarce that 
others will not be so honest, and will purchase bad 
fruit at low prices and ship them, and they will get 
into the hands of street venders, and all this will 
damage the reputation of the Florida orange, which 
last year won such high favor as to command about 
double the price of any other orange. 



Transplanting Large Trees. 

The London Oarden gives the details of some ex- 
periments in the removal of trees of the Cedar of 
Lebanon upwards of twenty feet high, which had 
been prepared by root pruning the previous year. A 
timlier wagon was backed up with a wheel on each 
side of thetree,the pole (tongue) placed upright, with 
a bundle of straw on the axle to prevent barking ; 
ropps were passed under the ball of earth and se- 
cured it to the axle, and the stem of the tree was 
lashed to the upright pole, a rope at the top of which 
pulled the tree down in a horizontal position. The 
tree was then carried to its destination. A heavy 
mulching of leaves kept the ground moist during the 
heat of the summer, and it succeeded well. A better 
mode for removal is figured and and described on 
page 210 of the third volume of Rural Affairs. The 
removal of trees of such size is not to be recom- 
rnended in this country of hot and dry summers; but 
if previously prepared by transplanting or cutting 
the roots, the tree may lie made to succeed if not too 
large. Jn the cooler and more moist climate of 
Britain, the operation does better, but even there 
some of the best cultivators have learned to prefer 
smaller size. Sir Henry Stewart's famous park, 
made at ouce by the removal of large trees, never 
became luxuriant and satisfactory in growth. Lou- 
don said he would uuilcrtake lo give larger and better 
trees from small ones in five years, by deep trench- 
ing and good cultivation, than could be obtained in 
the same time by transplanting large ones. 



Shipments of Apples. 

About 250,000 barrels of apples raised in this coun- 
try last year, were shipped to Europe. More than 
half went to England ; 11,000 were taken to St. Pe- 
tersburg. The trade will doubtless increase largely, 
if shippers are careful to send only the best selected 
specimens, which will at the same time afford the 
best profits. Semling goor apples there will be the 
very worst thing that could happen to the business, 
and be as bad as shipping poison to taint the whole. 
Those who are interested in the success of the trade 
should devise some way to protect themselves from 
such injury and imposition. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 

To THE LiBEKAL AND PATRIOTIC CITIZENS OF 

THE Unitki) States op A.mehica : — The under- 
signed have procured a charter, granted December 
22, ISTO, by the Court of Common Pleas of Lancas- 
ter county, Pennsylvania, authorizing them to 
organize " The Robert Fulton Monumental Park 
Associalion of Lancaster County," having for its 
object the acquiring of a piece of ground, not less 
than ten acres, to improve and emtjcllish the same, 
and to erect thereon a coUosal st.atuc of Robert 
Fulton, not only to perpetuate the world-wide fame 
of a distin2uished American citizen in the county 
that gave him birth, but also as a Centennial me- 
mento of one of the world's most ingenious and 
beneficent inventors. 

They therefore appeal to the patriotic spirit of the 
country for the pecuniary means to carry a laudable 
and most praiseworthy enterprise into efl'ect, by 
gifts, bequests, subscriptions and purchases, in be- 
half of said Association. 

Robert Fulton, from the best records extant, is 
said to have been born in that part of Little Britain 
now called Fulton Township, Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, in the year A. D. 17B.5, where the 
house in which he was born is still pointed out with 



local pride to the historical wayfarer ; but his genius 
and his fame are not limited to a district, a county, 
a state or a nation, for it belongs to universal civili- 
zation. Although honor is due to other inventors 
and experimenters, yet wherever inland lake, or 
ocean navigation is effected by means of steam, the 
name and genius of Fulton is unequivocally reeog- 
nized. No event that has occurred in the last half 
of our first century as a nation has given a greater 
impulse to progress throughout the civilized world, 
than the application of steam as a propelling power, 
and most especially in its relation to river and ocean 
navigation; and, therefore, the successful adoption 
of it is entitled to rank the inventor among the 
world's most useful and greatest benefactors. 

Ofticers : President, Francis Shroder ; Vice Presi- 
dent, ThOm.as Baumgardner ; Secretary, Charles M. 
Howell; Treasurer, A. C.Kepler; Solicitor, C. M. 
Hostetter, esq. 

All communications should be directed to C. M. 
Hostetter, Lanea.ster, Pa. 

The Poultry Yard and[ Market. — A practical 
Treatise on Galiinoculture, and description of a new 
process for hatching eggs and raising poultry, by 
means of horse manure, by Prof. A. Corbett, inven- 
tor, ls77. Published by the Orange Judd Company, 
No. 245 Broadway, New York. Price .50 cents. 

This is a handsome letter 12 mo. volume of 100 
pp., including paper covers, mechanically executed 
and on good paper, and embellished by a fine por- 
trait of tlie author, and illustrations representing 
the inculcating apparatus. Neither the author, his 
inventions, nor his book are new things to us, and 
the significant fact that several gold medals and di- 
plomas have been awarded to him, is an evidence of 
the merits of his invention, the perfection it has at- 
tained, and also, that he has overcome the ditHcuIties 
which he encountered in the early part of his exper- 
imental career. 

As an illustration of the magnitude of the poultry 
trade of France, a country that is content to draw 
large incomes from small things, we quote the fol- 
lowing paragraph on page 23 of the work before us. 

" Poultry has always been a source of revenue to 
the French people, as the following figures will prove; 
In France there are 40,000,000 hens valued at -520,- 
000,000. One-fifth are marketed yearly for the 
table, bringing about $4,000,000; the annual produc- 
tions of chickens ."-O.OOO.OOO, worth in the city mar- 
kets §24,000,000, and §2,000,000 are added for the 
extra value of capons and fatted hens. The pro- 
duction of eggs is estimated at 40,000,000, making 
the total value of eggs, capons, chickens and hens 
annually sold about .?SO,000,000, or $2.22 to every 
man, wcminn and child in France. The eggs im- 
ported from France to England in 1874 represented a 
value of SI, 200,000 and from Belgium $oOO,000." 
[See p. 50, vol. 7, Lancaster Farmer, April, 1875,] 
Prof. A. Corbett, Ofliee, No. 7 Warren street. Post- 
OIHce Box .5470, New York. 

Twenty-seventh Annual Wholesale Catalogue of 
Nursery Stock, for Spring of 1877, for sale by 
Tiios. Jackson, Portland, Maine, (formerly of 
Vesey street. New York.) This is a demi-octavo 
pamphlet of a dozen pages devoted exclusively to 
trees, vines and .shrubbery, including Fruit Trees, 
Fruit Tree Stocks, Small Fruits, Grape Vines, Forest 
Trees, Nursery-grown Evergreens, Deciduous Trees, 
Weeping Trees, Hedge Plants, Shrubs, Climbing 
Shrubs and Roses. Also, illustrations and price 
lists of " Beecroft's Wheel Hoe," and bis " Hand 
Weeder." Of course, we could not attempt to give 
the contents of this catalogue in detail, nor" the 
prices of the separate articles, and therefore we would 
recommend our readers to send a postal card to the 
above address and obtain one for themselves, for 
they will find the varieties extensive, the prices 
moderate, and the terms accommodating. 

The Evening at Home : A Royal 8 vo. monthly 
devoted to social life, morals, and instruction ; pub- 
lished by 11. A. .MuMAW, Orrville, Ohio. Terms, 
$1.00 a year. The March number of this publica- 
tion is on our table, and in moral and material it is 
not inferior to the best extant, and seems to fulfill its 
mission as fully and as clearly as those of a high 
pretension. There is much in it to induce young 
people to remain at home, unless they are of that 
class who cannot be entertained, except by those 
things in accord with the morbid and sensational, 
which are deplorably on the increase in this genera- 
tion. 

The Young Folks Monthly : Good sound food 
for tlie mind is just as essential to its moral health 
and vigor as healthy for the stomach and pure air 
for the lungs arc to the health and vigorof the body. 
In view of this fact it is the duty of every parent to 
be careful what kind of mind food his or her childreu 
are feeding upoli, for impressions made in youth are 
lasting and can never be entirely elfaced. As the 
twig is ijcnt so the tree stands. If the mind is allow- 
ed to feed upon the vile "yellow back" novels and 
sensational publications which are having such a 
wide-spread circulation among our youth to-day, 
just so surely will the mind of the man follow the 
bent of the impressions acquired therefrom. There 
is plenty of good healthy reading to be had. We 
have on our table now a young folks' publication 
called the Young t'olks' Monthly, published by Mil- 



ton George, Chicago, 111., which, while it is highly 
interesting and instructive, and is read alike by old 
and young, yet is of a high moral tone, always avoid- 
ing the sensational and low. Send ten cents for one 
month's trial and see for yourselves. The terms are 
only 81.00 per year, 5 copies for §4.00. Address the 
Young Folkx' Monthly, Chicago, III. The Farmer 
and YoHufi Folks, in the county, §1.75 a year, out of 
the county, S2.00. 

Jersey Cattle. — We learn that Colin Cameron, 
agent for G. Dawson Coleman, has purchased the 
prize winning Jersey bull "Commodore Roxbury," 
Herd Register 1.586. It is intended to use this ani- 
mal in the herd of Registered Jerseys now owned 
by Mr. Coleman, which is a large herd, of both im- 
ported and native bred, and comprises some of the 
best specimens of Jersey cows in the United States. 
Commodore Roxbury was owned by Mr. C. B. Moore 
of "Glen Dale" stock-farm, and, in 1874, won 
eleven First Prizes, in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland 
and Virginia. From this cross great results are an- 
ticipated. The imported horse, favorably known as 
Jenifer's Arabian, has also been recently purchased 
by Colin Cameron, and is now kept at Marietta in 
this county. We have seen Jenifer, and regard him 
as a specimen of almost matchless beauty, and, we 
doubt not, his mettle will correspond with his ap- 
pearance. We expect to publish illustrations and 
pedigi'CPB of the above two animals, in future num- 
bers of The Farmer. 

"He Holds the Fort cf Heaven." We thatik- 
fully acknowledge the receipt of a complimentary 
copy of this piece of sheet music, published by F. W. 
Helmick, No. 50 West Fourth street, Cincinnati, O. 
It is embellished with a beautiful lithographic title 
page, and i.s intended as a tribute to the memory of 
the late Prof. P. P. Bliss, one of the victims of the 
Ashtabula disaster. The bust of Mr. Bliss is the 
central and most prominent figure (apparently in 
the early prime of life) , and two angels are hovering 
above him bearing a crown, which they are about 
placing upon his head ; with a number of cherubs, 
bearing floral wreaths, floating in thedivcrgingrays 
above. The words are by Mrs. D. M. Jordan, and 
the music by Charlie Baker. Both the words and 
the music are very touching, and an appropriate 
tribute to a most worthy subject ; and it is sad to 
reflect that so much excellence should have been 
sacrificed to 

" Man's inhumanity to man." 

Thanks : In addition to the names of the active 
canvassers of the Farmer, mentioned on the first page 
of our February number, we take pleasure in men- 
tioningour worthy friend LeviPownall, of Christiana. 
Mr. Pownall not only reaps his wheat, but he also 
rakes and binds, and "brings his sheaves with him," 
lelieving us of all anxieties in relation to contiiigent 
delinquencies. There are many districts yet in Lan- 
caster county in which we desire responsible cau- 
vassers, on the terms published in our prospectus. 

We are poor yet, but that much we will engage to 
do at least, and hope that we may be sufliciently 
sustained before the incoming of 1878 to offer desira- 
ble premiums for that year, since it seems to be "the 
fashion." 

Don't all speak at once ; but still, we would like 
to know who will be the "next customer." 

The Southern Husbandman — An Orga:n of 
THE Tennessee Grangers to be published in 
Nashville : We h,ave before us the initial number 
of the So'Uficni Iluabandinan, published in Nashville, 
Tennessee, by authority of the Executive Committee 
of the State Grange, as the organ of the Patrons of 
Husbandry in Tennessee. It will appear monthly, 
and oftener, should the subscription and advertising- 
patronage justify it. Each Grange, through its 
lecturer, will receive one copy gratuitously, and the 
paper will contain the reports of the Executive Com- 
mittee of State Grange officers and of the National 
Grange, "Suggestions for the good of the Order," 
and all other official matters of interest to the Pa- 
trons. 75 cents a year, in advance. 

George Francis Train's Paper is an eight- 
paged lloyal-Quarto, the use of which is exceedingly 
doubtful, although it may fill a vacum in the social 
circle of those who delight in the atmosphere of ex- 
tremes. We do not think it will be a very efficient 
help to any cause it may advocate, because of its 
ultra, or overwrought political seutiments. 

The Real Estate Bkokek, an eight page month- 
ly, S. H. Peirsol, editor, Parkersburg, West Virginia, 
at 50 cents a year, circulation 2,500. 

"By the way. West Virginia received the award 
against the world, at the Centennial, for the finest, 
heaviest, and best quality of wheat." 

The North American Ayrshire Register, 
wherein every animal is traced to importation; Vol. 
H., 1S77, by E. Lewis and Jas. N. Sturtevant, South 
Farmington, Mass. Historical and critical. 

The Wonders op Blue Glass, as Seen Through 
a Glass Bluely," a burlesque, by Sam C. Upham, 
Philadelphia, No. 25 S. Eighth street, 1877. Price 
10 cents. 15 illustrations. 

The Naturalist's Agency, publishers .and im ■ 
porters of standard scientific books, S. E. Cassins, 
Salera, Mass. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



HI. 



E. F- Kunkel's Bitter Win© of Iron. 

E. F Kunkel's celebrated Hitter wiue of Iron will effectu- 
lUy cure liver comv laint, jaudice, dy'«pei>Ri:i. r^ironic or iier- 
vouB debility, cbronic diaratioea, diueimc of the kiduoya aud 
ftU dlBi*;iBeB urmiTig from a disordered livrr, utomuch or iii- 
tostincH. Hiicb !in cunatijintion, flatulenct*. inwiird piles, full- 
ness of b:ood t<) the he. d, nridity of ih:* alo'nach, nauee:i 
beartburti, diHguBt for fuod, fnltueMH or weiKht In the 
Btomaoh, eiuctutioiif, Bitiking or flutteriu^lat the pit of the 
Btoniach. HWiminiiiK of the he;id. hurried or ilitVicult breath- 
ing, flurtoiiiiK at the heart, ehukinp or HufTticnting aoiiKa- 
tiou when in a lying posture, diuiuess of vision, dots or 
webs h.'fojo the Bit;ht, dull imiu in the heud, detioiency i>f 
perspirHtion, yriluwiiehH of the Hkiu and cyi-H, pain in the 
side, back, he;id. chest, linibfl, etc, »Hddi-u flutthea of boat, 
burning in the flOHh, ctuiHtHnl iniaginingH of evil aud great 
depression of spirits. Price $1 j er bottle. B^-wareof couu- 
terfeitH. Do not let your druggist palm off some other pre- 
paration ol iron; he nuiy nay it is us good, but iisk for Kiin- 
kol's Biit»-r Wine of Iron. Take no other. Kunkel's Bitier 
Wine of Iron is not sold in bulk— only iu $1 bottles. K F. 
Kuukel, Proprietor, No. 259 North Nii.th .Street, Philadel- 
phia, Va. Sold by all druggists imd doalei's everywhere. 

Tape Worm Reinoved Alive. 

Head and all complete, in two hours. No fee till bend pasB- 
es. Sent, Piu atid Stomach Worms removed l)y Dr. Kunkel, 
y59 North Ninth Street, Philadelphia, Pa, Siti< for circu- 
lar. For removing Seat, Pin or Htumach Worms call on 
your druggist and usk for u bottle of Kunkel's Worm Syrup, 
price fl. It never fails. Common aenao teichrs if Tape 
Worm be removed, all other wormB can be rfadilv destroyed. 



Totlio WorkliiKT i'lnxH. — We are now pn-pared to 
furnisu all cIhshos with couatant empljymeut at home, the 
whole of the time, or for their spare moments. BuaineHB 
new, light iind piofltable. Persons of either sex ciisjly earn 
from 60 cents to $5 per evening, and a proportional sum by 
devotiug their whole time to the business. Boys aud girls 
earu nearly as much as men. That all who see ttiis noijce 
may send their adkress, and teat the business we make this 
unparalleled offer : To such its are not well aatiHfi.'d we will 
send oue dollar to pay for the trouble of writing. Full i>ar- 
ticulars. samples worth several dollars to commence work 
on, and a copy of Home aud Fireside, oueof the hTgest and 
best Illustrated Publications, all seut free by mail. Reader, 
if you want permanent, iirotilable work, address, 

»-3— tm Georgk Stinson & .Co., PortUnd, Maine 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 



DBALBB IN 



AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE. 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly attendedHo. 

ZiFklini'S COTlNlElTt., 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 



Half Dozen for - - - $6.00! 

SHIRT FRONTS, 



Linen and Paper Collars and CufiBi 

SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER 

E. J. EEiWaN'S, 

No. llO North Queen Street, 

Second door from Shober's Hotel. 



Genuine Peruvian Guano. 



N?l. 
PERUVIAN 

GUANO. 

.WARRANTED! 



As received direct from Pcruvlin Got- 
ernmeiit ARcute. 

RuHsEi. h Cos. AMMONIATKD 8U- 
PEKl'HOSPHATE OF LIMK, the bent in 
the murket. GROUND BONE— the pur- 
est and best. FARM IMRLKMENT8— 
the lateet improved. 
The above sold at very low prices, to 
meet the demands of Hard Times. 
Send for 2M Annual Pamphlet. 

H. B QRIFFINO, 
60 Cortlandt 8'.., New York City. 



1877 POST-CENTENNIAL 1877 

CASSIMERES, 

C'OATINUH, .WORNTERDS, 

YESTINGS, SUITINGS, 

Meltons, Chiviots and Tweeds, 

Plain, barred, etriiiotl auil difiRonal^for HijrijiR mid Summer, 
at the Merchant Tailoring and ClotbiiiK Store of 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

(EstabliNhed in the year 1840), 

Corner of North Qiiecn and OrauKe-Sts., 
LANCASTER, PA. 

Extra fluiflhed and trimmed, Ueady-made Clothing, for 

MEN AND BOTS, 

and clothing cat or made to order in the raoat aatisfactory 
macuer. 

A fiue line of GENTS' FUUNISHINa GOODS, and 
goods sold by the yitrd or i<iece, 

RATHVON & FISHER, 
»-l-lr Pr»c»ic»l Tailora. 

M. HABERBUSH, 

MANOFACTUKER OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

NADDI.RN. 

COLLARS, "WHIPS, <fec., 

ALSO DKALER IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFALO ROBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Qlovee, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

»-l-ly LANCASTER, PA. 



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IMPROVE YOUR POULTRY, 

Dark Brahma, Brown Leghorn, Plymouth. Rock, S. S. 
Hamburg and Uoudan 

EGOS FOR .SALE. 

My fowls are of the best and egKS warranted fresh. 

Address HAYON H. TSHUUY, 

9-4-2T1 Litit/.. I'K. 

FOR DINTKIC'T ATTOR.>'EY. 

th:oma.s j. d^vis, 

6tk WASH, LAHCASTES CIT7, 
Subject to Kepubllcan Rulea. 



H. Z. RHOADS. 



CHAS. G. RHOADS. 



H.Z. RHOADS &BRO, 

38 West King Street, Lancaster, Pa., 

Wbolesila and Retail Dealer* In 

DIAMONDS, WATCHES, JEWELRY, 

SILVEEWARE, SFECTACLES, 

Bronzes. Clocb and Watckakers' Materials, 



JOBBKI\S IN AmEIIICAN WaTCH^ES. 



ORDERS RECEIVED FOR 
Special Injportations ii] Foreign Goods. 



9-1 -ly] 



REPAIRING BY SKILLFUL WORKMEN. 



7 varieties of either Klowor or Vegotable NKkOA for W 
cente, poHt paid. " Floral Tribute " 15 ceritn. 

E. E. JORDAN. 
9-3-2m 29 Savaunahnt., Itocbtmer, N. T. 

1760. ESTABLISHED 1760. 



GEO. M. STEINMAN & CO., 

26 and 28 West King-st. 

HARDWARE, 

BUILDING HARDWARE. 

PAINTS, OILS, PUMPS, 

TERRA com, IRON aiS LEAD PIPE, 

LEATHER BELTING, 
8E£D§, 

PHOSPHATES & FARM IMPLEMENTS. 



Agenta for the 

'■ Ohio " Reaper and Mo'wer, 
Whann's Phosphate, 
Fairbank'a Scales, 
Duponf 8 Powder, 
Harrisburg Nails, &o., <tec. 



We bare the largest stock of general Hardware In the 
State, and our prices are as low aud terms an llt>eral as can 
bo found elstwbere. 9-l-tf. 



FOR UINTRK'T ATT4»I(.>' KY. 

B. W. ESHLEM^N, 

Hnbjert to Republican Rale*. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTR FARMER. 



[ March, 1877. 



LADIES ! 

WB HAVE JUST OPENED 

GUN BAKER'S 

MILLINERY AND TRIMMING 

NTORE, 

A SEW LOT OP 

HAMBURG EMBROIEEREDEBGINGS 

AND 

INSERTINGS. 

AT THE VEBT LOWEST PRICES. A!«o, 

SILK & WORSTED FRINGES, 

Corseta, Kid Gloves, 

:Ea:osi:Ej:E=L''^, 

Linen Collars and Cuffs, Keckties in all shades 
and styles, 

CEAPE BOXNETS & HATS, 

B0CHIKG8, 
an Biylea and wldtbi, and everTthmg elie in 

LADIES' AND CHILDREN'S WEAR, 
that is good, desirable and cheap. 
0lTe na a call at 

Ko8. 142 & 144 North Qapen-gt,LancaBter., Pa. 

»-l-1y 

DON'T FAIL TO 

USE THE 

Buffalo Honest Fertilizers 

ON ALL SPEING CBOPS. 
Ammoiiiated Bone Snper Phosphate,' 

PURE GROUND BONES. 

The purity of these goods ib guaranteed, and their stand- 
ard proved by regular aniilyttie uf Prof, G. A. Liebig of 
Baltimore, aud other eminent chemiBts. 

Hi;;lieHt Premium and Medal of Honor 
awarded by llae t'euteuuial t'omntisslou of 
the Internnlioual J-'xpoNJlion. Phila., 1S76. 

Send for new Spring Circular, containing full directions 
snd leBtimouialB. 
9-2-3t.] Office 252 Washington St., Buffalo, N. Y. 



FROM ONE TO SIX-HORSE 




FARM & FREIGHT WAGONS. 

The befit proportioned, bept ironed, lightest running and 
beapeBt Wagons in the market. 

W. D. SPRECHCn <1- SOV, 

9-3-2m 31 Eaet King-st., Lancaster, Pa, 

flJCC +« ^^17 " ^^'^ek to Agfuts. $10 Outfit Fret. 
VUU LU vt> / / P. O. VICKERY, Augusta, Maine, 
8-S-ly ' 

AMOSMILEY, 
108 North Queen-st., Lancaster, Pa., 

MANUFACTURKU OF AND DEALER IN 

Saddles, Harness, Collars 

Bridles, Whips, tc. Also a fine lot of Trunks, Valises, 
Carpet Bags, ButTalo Robes. 

Harness and Trvinks neatly repaired. 

S-l-ly 




SE 



EDS 






For the FI.OWEK »nd TE«F.TARI.E GARMEK and ttae FARM. 

Our 1877 Combined priced Catalogue of Seeds, Plants and Blooded Live Stock and Fancy 

Poultry Free to all. 



The Philadelphia Practical Farmer of Dtc. 30, notices our Catalogue as follows : "We have received an illustrated man- 
ual and descriptive catalogue of imported aud thoroughbred live stock, Alderney, Ayrshire and Short horned ('attle, Chea- 
ter White, Yorkshire, Berkshire, Essex and Poland ihiim Uogs. Cotswold and Southdown Sheep, land and water Fowls, 
fancy Pigeons an-l Dogfi, owiied, bred and for sale by Eensoii & Burpee, of Philadelphia. 

This is emphatically the best and most complete live etocK Catalogue we have received. It contains not only illustrationa 
and price lists of stock, but gives in addition a large amount of valuable practical information on the breeding and mau- 
ngement of diflerent varieties and is very useful as a reference book. Mesgrs, Benson <k Burj^ee have now on hand a very 
fine lot of breeding stock, and we feel confident that customers will be well pleased with purchasee made from them. 

Price 20 cents. 



JUST OUT ! THE POTILTRY YARD. How to Fubnibh and Manage It. By W, Atlee Burpee. A new and prac- 
tical treatise, at a popular price, for every farmer and amateur in poultry breeding. It treats of Poultry Houses an d 
fiituren nests, yards, &c., poultry at liberty and in confinement, the best breeds for various purposes, selection of stock, 
mating for breeding, feeding of adult fowls aud young chicks, condiments and general care and attention^requisite to suc- 
cesB in this often neglected branch of rural industry. 
It also contains practical hints on the raisingand management of Turkeys, Geese, Ducks and Guineas. 

Beautiful Colored Frontispiece of a trio of Fo^wls. Price 50 cts., post free. 



EGGS FOR HATCHING of all choice varieties. LAND AND WATER FOWLS. Also very flue Chester White, 
Yorkshire, Berkshire, Essex and Poland China Pigs; Cotswold and Southdown Sheep, Alderney and Ayrshire Oattle 
and calves now for sale. 

ADDBE.. BENSON & BURPEE, 

Seed Warehouse, 223 Church St., Philadelphia, Fa. 




Prize Medal Awarded by tbe CenlcimiaJ 
Comiiiission to 

IMPROVED BUTTER TDBS AND COOLERS. 

With movable Ice Cham- 
bers, Patented Jan. 12, 
1875, Best in the market. 
Are made of white cedar, 
bound with jjiilvanized 
iron or braee hoops. 
Within the tub is fitted a 
tin Cooler, having a 
movable Chamber for 
ice at each end. On the 
tiu is constructed a se- 
ries of ledges, on which 
rest the shelves for sup- 
porting the butter (Print 
Butier); are used without shelves for Roll Butter. Can be 
locked lor shipping. Hinges, Hasps, and Fixtures, are tinned 
to render theii rust proof. J. G. H OKUJMCK, 

9-3-3ra Msnufacturer, No. 603 N, Second-st., Phila. 




PIMFZ.SS. 



I will mail (Free) the receipt for preparing a simple Veg- 
etable Balm that will remove Tah, Fbeceleb, PIMi LES 
and BLOTCHES, leaving the skin soft, clear and beautiful; 
also instructions for producing a luxuriant growth of hair 
on a bald head or smooth face. Address Ben. Vandelf k 
Co., Box 5121, No. 6 Wooster St., N. Y. .[9-l-6m 



MAMMOTH CORN. 

Bvery farmer send for package of Mammoth Corn, which 
in ordinary ground will yield 125 bushel per acre, besides 
ripens much sooner. It is perfect flour com, grows thre» 
ears on each stalk. Club together and send for one dozen 
packages. It is put up in packages at the following price : 

One package 35 cts. 

Two *' 50 

Six *• 1.40 

One dozen packag-cs 2.30 

Two •* " 3.70 

Send at once to 

CASEY'S SEED CO., 

9-3-3m Harrifl'^TiAnllw, Meigs co., Ohio, 

EZRA F. BOWMAN, 

Practical Watchmaker, 

(formerly with H. Z. Rhoads & Bro,) has opened at 106 
E(%Mt Kins' Ntreel, a new aud well selected stock of 

WATCHES, CLOCKS, WATCHMAKERS' TOOLS, 

Amejican Watches from the different Factories of good rep- 
utation. Imjiorted Watches of different grades, in Gold and 
Silver Cases, in weights to suit jjurchasers. American and 
imported Clocks in over fifty differeiit styles, which are of- 
fered at reasonable prices, and warranted according to their 
quality. Watches and Clocks carefully repaired and war- 
ranted. A cordial invitation to examine stock extended to 
aU, 9^-6m 

ESTABLISHED 1832. 






a. SENEK <fe SONS, 

Mauufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 
finished 

The beet Sawed SHIl*'GI>EKiu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best I'OAI^ constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnat-8t8., 

9-1-ly 



$1 a Year 



(To 8nb«crn>pr8 io 
■( the couuty. 



SZ1T6LE COFZES 10 CEITTS. 



To tTibBcribrrF ont of > 
the county. ( 



$1.2B. 




Prof. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTEPx, MAY 15, 1877. 



LINNa:t7S EATEVON, PuMiaher. 



CONTENTS OrmiS NUMBER. 

To AilTcrtiscrs, .----.. 65 

The European War, ... - . 65 

A Reminder, 65 

What the Birds Accomplish, - - - - 65 

Monthly Reminder — May, - - - - - 65 

Tobacco Stems, ...-.- 65 
Manuring Lands, -------66 

American Pomoloijical Society, - - - 66 

Six Montlis for an Owl, - - . - 60 

State Board of Agriculture, - • - - 66 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

A Voice From the South, - - - - 66 

Lime and Oyster Shell Bark Louse, - - - 66 

Oyster Shell Bark Louse, - - - - 67 

The Sener Apple, 67 

Shitepoke (liutoriiks viresccits), - - - 68 

The Lancaster Farmer, - - - - 68 

The Exchange List, ----- 68 

Lancaster County Peaches — Sener's Favorite, - 6H 

The IVrmancnl Exhibition, - - - - 69 

Seed Wheat— 7Wfr S. Heist, - - - - 69 

How Shall we Know how to Plant Fruit Trees 

—Jo/m B. f.'rh, ----- 69 

Book Keeping by Farmers — ,4. B. K., - - 70 

Docs the Water Strike Through— -I. - - 70 

Southwest ilissouri — SUhtaj A. Gaylvr. - - 70 

Incidental Suggestion — J. - - - - 71 

Millions for Middlemen — Pennies for Producers - 71 

Landscape Gardening lor Farmers, - - 7- 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society, - - 73 

Tobacco Growers' Association, - - - 74 

Crop Reports — Essay hj Mr. Landis — Tobacco 

Hou8f8 — Refarre(i vieBtious, 

Bee Keepers' Association, - - - - - 75 

The Linmeau Society, ----- 75 

THE TOBACCO TRADE. 

How Lancaster County Forced to the Front, - 76 

The New York Tobacco Trade, - - - 76 

Exports of Tobacco from New York, - - - 76 

AGRICULTURAL. 

Pennsylvania Wheat Crop, - - . . 70 

Is Wheat Culture Decliningf - - - - 70 

Culture of Broom Corn, ----- 77 

A Farm that Ruined the Owner and made his 

Fortune Afterwards, - - - - - 77 

Measuring .Corn iu Bulk, - - - - 77 

Haying, -.------77 

Farm Profits in America, - - - - 77 

The time to Spread Manure, - - - - 77 

Manure on Frozen Ground, - - - - 77 

Profit in a Good Soil, 77 

Wheat and Chess, ------ 77 

Oats and Peas, -------77 

Clean out the Weeds, ----- 77 

Liquid Manure, -------77 

HORTICULTURAL. 

Raising Onion Sets, ----- 77 

Cherries, --------77 

Small Fruits in Gardens, ----- 77 

Look at Your Orchards, ----- 77 

Japanese Persimmon, ----- 77 

The Peach Crop, - 78 

Potatoes, --------78 

Peas in Missouri, ------ 78 

Profits in Almonds, ----- Jj 

Twenty Ounce Apples, 7S 

Large Strawberries, ----- 78 

Fruit Prospects, -------78 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Preserving Fggs, - 7S 

Lemonade for an Invalid, ----- 78 



Beef Extract, ------- 78 

Barn Wash, 78 

Painting Buildings, ----- 78 

Cleaning Silk, -------78 

Household Recipes, ----- 78 

LIVE STOCK. 

Ayrshire Cows, ------- 79 

Does Buckwheat Poison Sheep, - ■ - 79 

Care of Dairy Cows, ------ 79 

Mild Diet for Cattle, ----- 79 

Water Your Cattle, ------ 79 

Safety for Rats and Mice, . - - - 79 

Advice to Drivers, .-..-. 79 

Pay Attention to Live Stock, - - - 79 

Durham Cows, ------- 79 

THE POULTRY YARD. 

Look to the Chicks in May, - - - - 79 

To Keep a Fowl House, - - - - 79 

Chickens Fit to Eat, ----- 79 

Lice on Poultry, ------- i-0 

Cure for Chicken Cholera, - - - - 80 

The .Moulting Season, ------ 80 

Literary and Personal, ----- 80 

THE FARMERS HOME ORGAN. 




A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER, 

DEVOTED TO AGRICULTURE, HORTI- 
CULTURE, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
AND MISCELLANY. 

PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY 

Hade a i»rommfiit leuturc, with ejiecial reU-rtnce lo the 
wauts of the Farmer, the Gardener and Fruit -Qrovrer. 

Founded under the auspices of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society. 

Edited ty Prof. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS: 

To BubBcribers residing within the couuty — 
One Copy, one year, ------ $i.oo 

Six Copies, one year, - - _ _ . _ 5,00 

Ten Copies, one year. ------- 7.50 

To Bubscribera outnide of Laucawter county, including 
postage prc-r*!**! by the publJBborB; 

One Copy, one year, - . - . . - $1.25 

Five Copic-^, one year, . - - - - - 5.0c 

All HUbecriptione will commence wlh the January num- 
ber unlePB other'wiBe ordered. 

All coiuiiHUiicutionB intended for publicatiuu ehontd be 
addrcBBCil tu the Editor, iiud, to secure iuKt-rtion, tthould be 
in hiB hands \>y the llrtit of the month of publication. 

All buHiness letters, containing KubBcriptious and adver- 
tieementB, should be addresMcd to the publisher. 



LINNvEUS RATHVON, 

a2 South Queen Street. Lancaster, Pa. 



RATES OF ADTKKTISING — Ten <'<-iil>. m 
line for ench Innertlon. Twelve buea lo tbv ujota 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

DRAI.hlt IK 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE. 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY! TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing Btrictly attended^lo 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

9-1- ly 









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ELIZABETH STOCK FARMS. 

Registered Pure-Bred and High Grade 

Jersey Bull, Cows and Calves, 

t'onNt-iintly on llnii<l niKt 
I or SbIo. 

BERKSHIRES BRFD WITH CARE. 
COLIN CAMERON, 

9~4-ly] Brt<>k<>rTlll«>. I>finrn«iie'r ro., PH. 



II. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



A VALUABLE PREEVilUM GIFT 

TO ETERT PATRON OF THIS PAPER! 



On receipt of this Coupon, together with Fifty Ceuts to pay for Ex- 
press or Mailing charges, we will send FREE, an elegant 



Cat out this Coupon and send to the Stnart Importing Co. for redemption. 

PREMIUM COUPON.- 

RUSSIA LEATHER POCKET-BOOK, 

and with ANY INITIAL LETTER DESIRED, neatly etampea in Gold. (Retail price, 
Tliia Coupon ia good only ninett bays from the date of ihis paper. 
(Signed) STUART IMPORTING CO., 509 Broadway, New York. 



WITH 
PATENT LOCK, 



$1.50.) 



AMERICAN JEWELRY COMPANY'S 



AMETHYST CASKET S: 



FREE 



lENT 

to nnr ndflresK, with oMr >Je\v IIIasErated Catalogue 'in hoot forna)t 
cotHHining over 5U0 full size enj,'ravins.< ol the lulp^t «[ylfs of Jewelry 
and Walchc's (of our owu manufacture ), with valuable inlormatioa 
HOW TO BKCOMB AGENTS. 




Our Amethyst Casket oootaina one eleKantly engraved Lady's Brooch, Amethyst settinfr; one pair 
elegantly eugrnved I.adv's Ear Drops, amethvst Kettings; one eleijant .\niPthyst Ring inlaid with Pearls, 
one elegant pair of Amethvst Sleeve Buttons; one elesant Amethyst lient'a Pin; Three (3) elegant 
Amethyst Studs; one elegant engraved Cross; one elegant engraved Collar Button; one elegant Band King, 
engraved " Friendship;" one elegant heavy Wedding Ring; all of which are the Hiiest gold-plate, ana tua 
exact size of the engravings in this announcement, and arranged in a beautiful white pink-lined casket. 

On receipt of Seventy-Five (T.'Sl Cents, to pay cost of postage and packing, the above Amethysl 
Casket and Cataloane will be SENT FREE by mail, postpaid. Thia auuounceoient is mads In 
introduce the elegant stvlea of Jewelry manufactured by us. Address. 

AMERICAN JEWELRY COMPANT.— CINCINNATI, OHIO 

(I TC't, li 1 vc <av ftni I ■• ~ ' Ji. .. ™^..-l r.!».<Vi.-. A r^^r.thtrc* Ciclrat f\f t}-ia Ai>iOT-ii,<iii.Iu\tm1w('niiiii"iii\" mill li' 

Idem to tj« iu evtT> 



Uli** goods in the Amethyst Casket of the Anierit-an -lewplrv Cnnipany, and M: 
;ty as iviireseuttd.''— .SuuTiiKRN" Agkicultukist. LouisvilK-. K-. . 



RateN «*f Adverlisiitg: in the Farmer. 



1 mo.... 

2 mo.... 

3 mo .... 

4 mo.... 
f» mo.... 

5 mo.... 
1 year , 



1 i... 




H It). 


4 m. 


5 iu. 








J 4.011 


$ 6.00 






•2 OU, 4.UII 


6.110 


S.OO 


12.00 


2.50; 4.50 


0.7.) 


10.00 


13.50 


3.00 


COO 


9.00 


12.00 


18.00 


4.50 


9.00 


1.S.60 


IS. 00 


27.00 


6.00 


1-2.00 


18.00 


24.00 


36.01 


9.00 


18.00 


•2T fO 


36.00 


64.00 



{ 8.00 
16.00 
18.00 
24.00 
36.00 
48.00 
T2 00 



J^"S>eciiil a- .1 hu = 



GOOD BOOKS 

1(11; THK 

Farm, Garden, and Household. 

The foUowlLs is a list of V:ilual..le Books, which will be 
supplied by the Editor of the 'Lancvstek Fakmeb, N.j. 
101 North Queeu St. Auy one or more uf ibese books will 
be sent post paid to auy of our readers ou receipt of the 
regular i>rice which ia uiiuicd i:gaiust eich book 

Allen's (R. L. t L. F,] New American Farm Bool! .?2 50 

Allen's (L. F.) .\mericnii Cattle.* 2 .'>u 

Atwood's Country and Subiiibuu HiiuBes 1 M 

Bommer's method of Milking MnuuieB '25 

Breck'a New Book of t lowers ITS 

Brill's Favm-Qardeuing and Seed-Growing 1 ou 

Dadd's Modern Horse Doctor, ]3ino I 60 

Dadd's Americmi Cattle Doctor, I'i mo 1 :>n 

Flax Culture, (Seven Prize Essays by practical growers,) 30 

Fuller's Grape CuUurist 150 

Fuller's Small Fruit Culturist 1 •'jO 

Fulton's Peach Culture 1 SO 

Gregory on Squashes pajier.. 30 

Harris ou the Pig 1 60 

Henderson's Gardening for Pleasure 1 50 

Henderson's Gardening tor Profit 1 50 

Heuderson's Practic.il Floriculture 1 50 

Herbert's Hiuts 10 Horse-Keni ers , ITS 

Bop Culture. By nine experienced cultivators 30 

Hunter and Trapper 1 "0 

Onions— How to Raise them Profitably 20 

Our Farm of Four Acras. Pa., 30c.; Clo., 60c., Ex. clo. 1 00 

Parsons ou the Rose 1 •'>" 

Quinby's Mysleiies of Bee-Keepiug 1 wi 

Quincy (Hon. Joslah) on Soiling Cattle 1 25 

Quin n's Money in the Garden 1 50 

Quiun's Pear Culture for Profit, 1 00 

Eilev's Potato I'ests Pauer 50 cts.; oloth., 75 

Boe's Play and Profit iu my Garden 1 50 

Stewart's Irrigaton for the Farm, Garden snd Orchard I dO 

Stewart's Stable Book 1 50 

Stewart's Shepherd's Manual 1 5ii 

Stoddard's Ann Egg Farm paper, 50 cts.; cloth 75 

Thomas's Farm Implements and Machinery 1 ^0 

Tim Bunker Papers, or, Yankee Farming 150 

Tobacco Culture, By fourteeu experienced cultivators. 25 

Waring'a Draining for Profit and Health 1 50 

"Wariug's Elements of Agriculture 1 OO 

■White's Cranberry Culture 1 25 

■VN'right's Practical Poultry-Keeper* 2 00 



A. N. BRENEMAN, Jr., 

MANUFACTURER OP 

FREfi/CH CALF BOOTS FREfl/CH KID BOOTS 

r-OR FOtt 

«E!S'ri>EMK5*. LADIES. 

No 36 West King Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

HVNBAR'S CHILD'S SHOES A SPECIALTY. 

9-1-ly 

TO COITSrMPTIVES. 

The advertiser having beeu jiernianeutly cured of that 
dread dise;i8e. CousumptioTi], by a siint>le remedy, ia anxious 
to m:ike kuuwu to his fellow sufferers the ineaiiB of cure. 
To all who de-sire it, he will eeud a copy of the prescription 
used, (free of charge), with the directinim for prepariuK and 
usiug the si.ijie, ftbicli they will hud ;i suitE Cukk for Oon- 
suMPTicy, Asthma. Bbonchitis, &c. 

Parties wishing i be prescriptiou will please addrCBS, 

Rev. E. A. "WILSON, if-l Peuu St.. Williiimsburg, N. Y. 
9-1 -(>ni] 

HRRQRS OF YOUTH. 

AGKNTLEMAN who suffered for yearn from Nervous 
Debility, Prcumture Decay, and all the efi'ects of youth- 
ful indiscretion will, for the sake of sufleriug humanity, 
send free to nil who ueed it, the receij't and direction for 
making tlie simile :imedy by which be vr^is cured. SufTer- 
ers wishing to profit by the adve'tiser'a experience can do 
Ro by addressing iu i)erfect confidence, 
9-l-6ni] JOHN B. OGDEN, 42 Cedar St., New York. 

AMOSMILEY, 
108 North Queen-st., Lancaster, Pa., 

MANUFACTURKU OF AND DEALER IN 

Saddles, Harness, Collars 

Bridles, Whiis, &c. Also a fine lot of Truuks, 'Valises, 
Carjjet Bags, Bufl'alo Robes. 

Harness and Trunks neatly repaired. 

9-l-ly 

E. H. FRESHMAH & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 



186 W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0. 



• I 



Are anthorlzed to contract for advertising 
in tbis paper. 

Esimates [waM. free. Senil for a Cucolar. 



Great Stock-Breeder's Monthly. 

^THE NATIONAL 

LIVE-STOCK 




JOURNAL, 

Published at 
CHICAGO, ILLS 




THI8 GREAT MONTHLY in universally acknowl- 
ledged to bewi hout a rival iu its department of 
Journalism. Each number contains 4S large pages, 
three columns to the page, with a handsome cover, 
and is Beautifully lUustrattd with elegant double- 
plate engravings. It is the only i-aper in the world 
devoted exclusively to iive-siock and the dairy. It 
discusses the science of breeding, the nierits of the 
various breeds, the most approved methods of feed- 
ing and handling, and everything j-ertaiuing to the 
Buccetsful management of live stock on the farm. 
During the year 1ST7, Prof. Jamep L.\w, the emiuent 
veterinary of C-^rnell University, will cuutribute a 
series of articles upon the laws of health ;aid disease 
as applied to Domestic Animals, that canuot fail to 
be of great value to Farmers and Stock Breeders 
every where. It contains separate DejjjirtmeutH, 
devo'ed to HOUSES, CATTLK, SHEEP.SWINE and 
the DAIRY, end its corjis of editors are recognized 
throughout the entire country bs the Most Thor- 
ough, Able and Pr.^ctical writers in the seuarate 
departments, that Ciii be found in America. No ex- 
pense is s; ared on the I'ait of its X'tiblishers, to 
make it a hiyh-toned, reliable, practical and inatriif:- 
(iw Ji'urnal. just STich as every intelligent fanner 
and stock breeder will find worth ten times its cost 
each year. 

TEE^IS. — Single copies, one year, postage raid, 
S2.1o: Clubs of five, postage ].;iid, ^I-*>0; Club* 
of ten, with au extra copy free to person ranking up 
club, postage pre-ii:iid, 91. 65. Handmmely IUuh- 
trated posters mailed to all who irill get up clubs. Ad- 
dress letters, registering thos*' containing niouey, 
unless iu sunpe of Postal Order or Draft, to 

STOCK JOUKNAL COMPA^Y, Publishers. 
Lakeside Building, CHICAGO, ILLS. 
C:S^Sknd '20 Cents for Spkcimkn Copt. [9-3-3m 



FITS AND ^ EPILEPSY, 
FALLING SICKNESS 

Perma!i»^ii<I.V Cured— n<> hniiiSnijj— l>y one 
nioiitSi's iiSR.^4> of ikr. Goiilai'tr.H I'clebratcd 
IiitalMlbo Fil Powders. Tu convince suiierers that 
these jiowders will do yll we claim for them, we will wend 
them by mail, post paid, a free Trial l>ox. As Dr. 
Goulard is the only iihysician that has ever made this dis- 
ease a specinl study, and as to our kuowledge thousands 
have been parnianeiitBy cured by the use of these 
Pou'derH, ne Mill ^laHrniilee a permanent 
cure iu every case, or refund you all money ex- 
pended. All sufferers should give these Powders au 
aarly trial, and be convinced of their curative powers. 

Price for large box S3,< 0, or 4 boxes lor $10, 0(^, sent by 
mail to any part of United States or Canada on mceipt of 
price, or by express, C. O. D. Address, 



9-5-ly 



ASH & ROBBINS, 

?.CAi FunXON STBEET. BitOOULTN. N. Y. 



CONSUMPTION 

All sufferers from this disease that are anxious to 1)b 
cured should try Sir. 8i.is**ner"s <Vlebrated Con- 
sumptive Powders. These Powders are the only 
prepaiatiou known tlnit will euro CVnsiiniplion and all 
diseases of the Throat aeid Ijiin^.^ — indeed, so strong 
is our faith in them, and also to convince you that they are 
no humbug, we will forward to eveiy sufferer, by mail, post 
paid, a free Triafi Hox. 

We don't want your money until you are perfectly satis- 
fied o! their curative i ower.s. If your life is worth saving, 
don't delay in giving these Pow^ler** a trial, as they will 
surely cure you. 

Price, for large bos. 5.",00, sent to any part of the United 
States or Canada by mail on receipt of price. 

Address, ^ 

ASK Sc ROBBINS, 

9-'i-lv acil Fulton Streei, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

TflSlTEyunraiR 

M'lll enable you to 
market your but- 
ter in the best pos- 
8 i b le couditiou. 
Competent judges 
who have handled 
butter shipped Iu 
it to the Philadel- 
phia market, pro- 
nounce it the beat 
irraugement for 
•:irryiugpriDt but- 
<■: they ever SiiW. 
\v.\ru. print or pat 
- curried in a sep- 
i ;ite cup that can- 
Mi)t be broken, vip- 
s^t, nor get out of 
]ilace. 

All sizes and 
forms of cups and 
box will be made. 
Circulars with 
full description 
and price list free. 

E. L. R"BSH, 
U9 North Queen-st., Lancaster, Pa. 




9.5-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Prof: S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1877. 



Vol. IX. No. 5. 



TO ADVERTISERS. 

The Lancaster Farmer with its greatly 
iiuTcased subscriiition list, .and its widely ox- 
tended circulation, i.s claimed to he the best 
adverli.sin;; niedimn now in the county of 
Ijancaster — copie.s of it iioins to neaiiy every 
.State in the Union, as well as to Canada and 
Europe — es|M'Cially as it hrintrs to the notice 
of tlie faruiin'; public such objects, articles and 
implements, as tlioy are ininiediately interested 
in, in their occupations. This is apparent from 
the fact that it may be at any time more con- 
veniently referreil to than a large folio, which 
is usually either torn uii, used for other pur- 
poses, or folded up and laid away, anil often 
lost. 

All who patronize it are householders or are 
members of a household, where every number 
Iiermanently occupies the literary shelf or 
table, is always accessible, and is frequently 
referred to from the beginning to the end of 
the intervening months. 

At the end of each volume a copious index 
accompanies the December nundjer, and when 
hound, it becomes a handsome volume of read- 
ing m.atter that is always available and inte- 
resting. 

■ But chiefly, as an advertising medium, it 
reaches that sid)stantial class of reliable 
citizens whose patronage is the most desirable 
to those who have anytliing to sell — who pur- 
chase what they want, and who pay for what 
they purchase. 

Our rates are low, and a reasonable deduc- 
tion will be made for increased space, and 
length of time. — J'lih. 



THE EUROPEAN WAR. 

It is just )iossil)le that before the end of the 
year it may be demonstrated in Lancaster 
county an<i elsewhere, that a larger acreage 
should have been devoted to wheat, corn, po- 
tatoes and oats, and less to toliacco. Not that 
the demand for tobacco will be less, but that 
the demand for wheat, corn, potatoes and 
oats, is likely to be more, in consequence of 
the war. Note the present market of these 
products, and sec which is making the heaviest 
advances. It is true, that through the deft 
intrigues of diplom.acy, a long and devastating 
war may be averted ; but this is not likely; 
the cards have been too long " shullling,"and 
as they now seem to be " stocked," it is likely 
th;it the "game" will be played o>it to its 
Ijitter end. The extra costs for breadstuffs 
and horse feed, exorbitant as it may become, 
is nothing in comparison with the human 
suffering, the fearful carnage, the death, de- 
vastation and general demoralization which 
will follow in the wake of the contending 
armies. 

Any one who has ohseiTed closely the po- 
litical history of Europe for the last twenty 
years or more, must have be.eu impressed with 
the idea that the "Powers" were jealous of 
each other, and that in all their adroitly con- 
structed treaties, there was ,a mental reserva- 
tion that contemplated the ultimate absorp- 
tion of Tiirkry, by one or the other of them, if 
no amicable division could be made of its 
tempting domain. This war may not lead to 
its ostensible dismemberment ,as a nation, but 
if there is no cffi dive interference by an allied 
l)ower .against Russia, it is likely to dwindle 
down to a tributary province — .so far as 
" Turkey in Europe" is concerned, at least. 

I?ut, if the w;ir is long, general, and de- 
structive, we perhaps will l)e llnancially bene- 
fited ; l)ut we hope no Christian nation will 
desire to prosper at such a fearful sacritice of 
the human family. If prosperity comes, we of 
course will not reject it, for in its rejection we 
may but increase the distress of the afflicted 
countries. 



A REMINDER. 

Those of our rciulers who have not attended 
to the removal of the cocoons of the "drop- 
worms," the pupu'of the "cabbage but terlly," 
the eggs of the "lent cateri>illar," or the caji- 
lure of (he jiarents of the "canker-worm," 
will now lind it too late to contend succi^ss- 
fully with those insects, as some will be se- 
creted by the foliage of the trees, and others 
will have already evolvi'd from their pujiii', or 
have deposited their eggs. lint, from this 
time forward, a war of extermination should 
be w.aged against the "Colorado potato bee- 
tle," wherever or whenever it may make its 
iijipearance. One impregnated female, de- 
stroyed before .she has oviposited, is e(iual to 
destroying one thousand later in the season, 
and will save much Paris (ireen or other rem- 
edies, besides .a great .amount of weary and 
vexatious lal)or. Now also, and the coming 
month, is the most prolilic period of insei-t 
evolution in the whole year— quite as much so 
with some siiecies as all the rest of the year 
I)ut together. The "striped apjile tree borer," 
the "tlat-headed aiiple tree borer," the "linden 
tree borer," the "rasiiberry boi-er," the "cur- 
rant borer," the "iieach tree Vwrer," the "po- 
tato stock borer," and a host of otlier noxious 
insect borers, will all elTect their linal trans- 
formations during the perio<l indicated above, 
evolve from their long pupal sleep, and j;o 
forth on their destructive mission. Peach, 
pear, apple and <iuince trees slundd have the 
surface borers cut out. and thos(^ buried deep- 
er in the wood should be gouged or poisoned 
out, and the bases of the trees should be pro- 
tected against the attacks of matured in.sects 
of the present season, when their ovipositing 
period arrives. 



WHAT THE BIRDS ACCOMPLISH. 

"The swallow, swift and night-hawk are 
the guardians of the atmosphere. They check 
the increase of insects that otherwise would 
overload it. Woodpeckers, creejiers and 
chickadees are the guardians of the trunks of 
trees. Warblers and lly-catchers protect the 
foliage. I51ackl)irds, crows, thrushes anil 
larks protect the surface of the soil. Sniiie 
and woodcock protect the soil under the sur- 
face. Each tribe has its resiiective duties to 
perform in the economy of nature. It is an 
undoubted fact that if the birds were .all swept 
x)fl: the face of the earth, man could not live 
upon it. Vegetation would wither and die. 
Insects would become so numerous that no 
living thing could withstand their att.acks. 
The wholesale destruction occasioned by 
grasshoppers, which have lately devastated 
the west, is undoubtedly cau.sed by the thin- 
ning out of grouse, prairie hens, &c., which 
feed u\)c)n them. The great and inestimable 
service done to the farmer, gardener and tlor- 
ist by the birds, is only becoming known liy 
sad exi)erience. Spare the liirds, and save 
your fruit. The little corn .and fruit taken 
by them is more than compensated for by the 
quantities of noxious insects they destroy. 
The l(uig persecuted crow has been found by 
actual experience to do far more good by the 
vast (piantities of grubs and insects he de- 
vours than the little harm he does in the few 
grains of corn he pulls up. He is one of the 
farmer's best friends." 

We respectfully connnend the above to the 
calm consideration of those of our readers 
who may feel themselves injured or annoyc<l 
by th(^ iiugnacious little English sparrow, that 
is now becoming so lunnerous in this country. 
A conq>laint comes ui> against him from .sev- 
eral quarters, that during the latter jiart of 
winter, and the earlj' part of spring, he has 
been guilty of destroying the leaf and Howcr 
buds of trees, and especially fruit trees. Now 



this may be all very true, but tlien taking the 
whole (|uestion in its entire economical 8en.so, 
it does not make a case against these sparrows 
by any means. Thty no doidit ha<l eat(Uj all 
the insects, their eggs and their jiuikp, tiiat 
were accessible, and linding nolhing else eata- 
ble, arul moreover being active little creat- 
ures, and bound to live through tlie wniter, 
they must nec<'Rsarily have eaten snnictliinij, 
or have starved before the opening of spring. 
Starving to death nmst be a hard death to 
die, and that .animals, or even men, should 
clandestinely appropriate the property of 
otheis rather than pass through such a trying 
ordeal, is not at all surprising. Is not this 
suggestive V Should we not be able to con- 
clude that this is only another way of a.sking 
to be fed. We feed inaTiy animals through 
the wilder in order thai we may have the 
benelit of their lalMirs during the 8i>ring and 
summer, and why not e.xten<l the same provi- 
dence to our little feathered friends? .Some- 
times insects become so. numerous that the 
birds cannot eat them all, and then fault is 
found with them again. Nobody pretends 
that birds will destroy in.sects for tlie mere 
puri)ose of di!stroying thrm, and in obedience 
to the comfort and convenience of the human 
family. They eat just the quaidily that 
their natural instincts dictate they should 
eat in order to sustain themselves; and if all 
creatures gifted with a higher intelligence 
would do the same, we should have a lical- 
thier, a wealthier and a hapiiier world. 



MONTHLY REMINDER-MAY. 

"Thin out the early sown crojis of beets, 
parsnips, carrots, etc. Transplant cabbage, 
lettuce, egg plants, tomatoes, peppers, etc., 
from the hot-beds, frames and warm border- 
seed beds. The sowing of any seeds that were 
neglected last month should now he attended 
to without del.ay. 

"Sow borecole, brussels sprouts, broccoli, 
cauhtlower, cabb.age, beans, endive, c.amot, 
cucumber, cre.ss, melon, water-mel^, squash, 
nasturtion, *martynia, okra, jieas, sweet corn, 
liumjikin, tomato, radish and sweet herbs. 
Plant ])olatocs, sweet jiotatoes, and any plants 
still remaining in the frames or hot beds. 

"Water all newly transivliinted jilants at the 
time of transplanting, and two or three times 
afterward, if the weather is dry, or until the 
plants are established. 

"Keep the boo going in order to destroy the 
weeds, which will now begin to be trouble- 
some." 

Of course, latitude, elevation, exposure, and 
the temperature of the season — its forward- 
ness or backwardness — its drought or humidity 
— will h.ave a corresponding eftect ui)on these 
vegetable productions, but under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, in the middle States, this work 
should now be done, without delay. The 
price of good crops in almost any contingency, 
is " eternal vigilance." 



TOBACCO STEMS. 



It is almost universally conceded tliat to- 
bacco growing exliausts the land beyond any 
other crop that is usually planted, and there- 
fore it is a matter of constant solicitude how 
to keep up the necessary fertility of the soil ; 
although it is generally conceded that this can 
be best accomi>lished by jilwral manuring; hut 
there is still .some difference of opinion in 
regard to the kind of manure. Good bam- 

•The Ioii(f. liorii-t*liaiic<l ^oed-j-odB of MiirtyiiU aro UBfd 
for pickliiift when in Ihelr yuunp Krean fllale, and liy nmny 
pprttons are vref^rrcd to ciictiml)«ra. Tho wed vbould be 
BOwu in HD opon border in April or May, and in Jnnc ahould 
be l.-aiit»i-liinted into tho pernianent t*d at a diHtal.co of two 
and a-half fcpt apart Mcli way. It will tbrlve in any Rood 
garden Koil, but does uot need to be bearily niaQurad.— McX;'« 



66 



THE LANCASTER .FARMER. 



[May, 



i 



yard manure seems to be most in favor, but 
there are many places where tobacco is grown 
that this kind of manure caimot be obtained. 
Recently, on several occasions, we have noticed 
that tobacco stems have been highly recom- 
mended as a fertilizing manure. 

The stems are broken up, or are laid down 
whole, and plowed under. This is supposed — 
as in the case of mulching with forest leaves, 
around the trees from which the leaves have 
fallen — to return to the soil the elementary 
substances which had been drawn from it by 
the previous crop. 

This has suggested to our mind that if these 
stems, as well as the " runts," were all gather- 
ed, dried, broken into pieces, and then run 
through a mill constructed for the pm-pose, so 
as to be reduced to a powder, it would make a 
capital fertilizer, and would return to the soil 
what the previous crop had drawn from it. 
There is a probability that the county of Lan- 
caster will, in the near future, become a vast 
tobacco garden, and therefore there should Ije 
some good and cheap manure ready at hand. 
This would also furnish occupation during the 
''weary waitings" on a market, and would be 
the next job after the stripping season. We 
merely call the attention of tobacco cultivators 
to it, as a subject, for the purpose of experi- 
menting on it. — Secor. 

^ 

MANURING LAND. 

The quantities of each kind of manures to 
be applied to an acre are given below. They 
vary much in their range, as the present con- 
dition of the .soil as to fertility must be taken 
into consideration, and this must be left to the 
judgment of the cultivator. 

Barn-yard manure : Five to twenty tons, or 
thirty to fifty cubic yards. 

Bone-dust : Sixteen to twenty bushels, or 
from seven hundred to twelve himdred pounds. 

Fresh fish : Twenty-five to forty bushels. 

Fish guano : Four to six hundred pounds. 

Guano : Three to eight hundred pounds. 

Gypsum : Five to six hundred pounds. 

Horn-shavings : Twenty-five to forty bushels. 

Hops : Thirty to forty tons. 

Lime : Fiftytoone hundred andflfty bushels. 

Night-soil : Twenty bushels. 

Poudrette : Twenty-five to thirty bushels. 

Salt : Two to six bushels. 

Soot : Twenty to fifty bushels. 

Sulphur : Six to eight pounds. 

SulpMu-ic acid : Thirty to forty pounds. 

Super-phosphate : Five hundred to a thou- 
sand pounds. 

Farmers' refuse : Five to eight hundred 
pounds. 

*Wood ashes : Twenty to forty bushels. 

If there is anything in which amateur culti- 
vators are lacking, it is in having a liberal 
supply of manure, the very corner stone of all 
gardening and field operations. It is there- 
fore of the first importance to know how to 
make the most of it. 



SIX MONTHS FOR AN OWL. 

The Osborne county (Kas.) JVii-ma- says: 
"We have taken wood, potatoes, corn, eggs, 
bulter, onions, cabbages, chickens, stone, 
lumber, labor, sand, calico, sauerkraut, sec- 
ond-hand clothing, coon-skins aod bug-juice 
on subscriptions, in our time, and now a man 
writes to us to know if we would send the 
paiier six niontlis for a large owl. There are 
few things an editor would refuse on subscrip- 
tion, and if we come across any fellow who is 
out of owl, and is in need of one, we'll do it." 

That is a little more liberal than is the case 
with srmie peojilc about this "neck of woods," 
who, when they capture an owl or any other 
kind of wild fowl, exjiect to be handsomely 
compensated for it in sometliing more conver- 
tible and sulistautial than the copy of a news- 
paper. We have, tried live owl, as a gift, and 
our experience is, that a live owl on our hands 
is only exceeded by having a "live elephant." 
Judging from the above paragraph we should 

•If the ashes are leached, from one hundred to one hund- 
red aud fifty bushels may be used to advantage. — Dick'a 
Girrden, 



conclude that the "circulating medium" 
about Osborne is something like it was in 
North Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana some 
years ago; when the Indians and tlie whites 
had their social gatherings at the country 
taverns, where, when a man called for a single 
drink, he would ofter a "coon-skin" at the 
bar, and get his drink and three rabl)it skins 
in change. In tlie lunilier regions, shingles, 
staves and hoop poles were the "current cur- 
rency," and when the "vendee" returned to 
his home in the evening he carried quite as 
heavy a"load" as he did with his currency in 
the morning. 



"AMERICAN POMOLOGICAL SOCIETY." 

Our readers will bear in mind that this dis- 
tinguished association — at the invitation of 
the Maryland Horticultural Society — will hold 
its sixteenth annual session in Baltimore, to 
commence on Wednesday the I'ith of Septem- 
ber next, at 10 o'clock a. m., to continue 
three days. All horticultural, pomological, 
agricultural and other kindred associations in 
the Ujiited States and the British Provinces, 
are invited to send delegations as large as 
they deem expedient; and all persons interest- 
ed in the cultivation of fruits, are invited to 
be present, and to take seats in the conven- 
tion. Specimens of all kinds of fruit will be 
exhibited, and a large meeting is anticipated. 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

Programme of meeting of the Penn'a State 
Board of Agriculture, at Harrisburg, commen- 
cing Tuesday, May 22, 1877, at 2 p. m. 
Meeting for business; report of the Secretary 
of the Board; Report of the Chemist of the 
Board. 

Essay — Fertilizer Laws, by E. L. Sturte- 
vant; Essay — Valuation of Fertilizers, by 
Secretary ; Essay — Fertilizers on the Eastern 
Experimental Farm, by John I. Carter, Sup't; 
Essay — On the Choice of Fertilizers, by Secre- 
tary ; Essay — The Future of our Board of 
Agriculture, by Hon. Jno. P. Edge ; Address 
— Influence of Forest on Rainfall, by Thos. 
Meehan ; Essay — Tree Planting for Shade, 
Shelter and Profit, by Prof. S. B. Heiges ; 
Essay — Forest Area of the State, by Secretary ; 
Essay— Pleura Pneumonia, by Chas. B. Mich- 
ener, V. S. 

The report of the Secretary will include a 
draft of a iiroiiosed law regulating the manu- 
facture and sale of commercial fertilizers in 
the State. 

Tlie report of the chemist will embrace an 
analysis of each of the principal fertilizers used 
in the State. 

Essays and addresses are expected on other 
important subjects. 

The meetings are public and all are invited 
to participate in the discussions. — Thos. J. 
Edge, Secrciarij. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



A Voice from the South. 

To those who are in the habit of reading — 
and we regret to say there are many yet who 
have n<it formed this liahit — we have no fears 
that the Laxcastek Farmer will not be 
ultimately appreciated ; and that, like our 
correspondent below, tliey will turn their 
attention to our journal as a matter of choice: 



Salisbury, North Carolina, 1 
April 27th, 1877. ) 
Lancaster Farmer : — You are always a 
welcome visitor to our d(jinieile— perliaps we 
.should have more iiroperly said, to the place 
where we dat/ at — for truly speaking, we have 
no permanent home on this earth, seem this 
as it may to others. But to the point. We 
regard tiie Fa iniKR as one amongst the best 
Agricultural pajters in our whole country, and 
have little fear of contradiction, if any. In 
saying tliat, to our aiiprehension, you a^re the 
best household journal, and if we believe, ex- 
press,feel and take an interest in your wflf ire, 
living at so remote a distance — we cannot sec 



why your own people, the citizens of Lancas- 
ter county, the best cultivated county in 
America (so far as we have seen and are able 
to judge), do not stand by you en nia^sc, and 
help to build you up, and keep you as a shin- 
ing light before the Agricultural community, 
as well as to other matters relating to domestic 
economy. 

^Ve last visited your great county in 1876 ; 
took special notice of j'our lands, productions, 
manufactories, live stock, poultry, &c. ; ex- 
amined your markets, and concluded you ought 
to be the most independent, liai>piest, and 
according to your opportunities, the most in- 
telligent people on this continent. 

Here, we in a measure tread in tlie steps 
our fathers trod — that is to say, when we go to 
mill, we put the corn into one end of the bag 
and a stone in the other to make it balance on 
the horse's back. Old haljits and old associa- 
tions are hard to get rid of, but we are trying 
to surmount them. 

Thus far, this year, the season has been 
rather backward. Much rainfall and unfavor- 
able weather has kept good housewives and 
farmers from planting garden and field crops ; 
much of neither of which has so far yet been 
done this spring. The season being backward 
for this latitude, however, does not seem to 
have an injurious effect upon wheat, oats and 
grass, all of which make a fine appearance, as 
far as we have seen and heard. Judging from 
present prospects, there will be a bountiful 
crop of grain, grass, fruits, &c. 

For forty, or more, years past we have 
traveled in diflerent States ; read difl'erent 
papers — home and transatlantic — tried to be a 
close observer of men and things — mineral, 
vegetable and animal — but nowhere have we 
seen as good a neUured country as this is. 
Nature has done much for it, man but little. 

With all good wishes for your prosperity, 
and a long and happy life, we are truly yours 
and the Farmer's friend.— JI/. E. 

[We thank our correspondent, not so much 
for the high compliment he pays to our paper 
as for that which he pays to our comity, and 
which, if we are riglit in our conjecturers, is 
the old home of him or his ancestors. We 
hope our people may eventually realize that 
our county can produce as good an Agricul- 
tural paper, as it can produce good crops of 
corn, wheat, tobacco and fruit, as well as 
stock and implements.] 



Lime and Oyster Shell Bark Louse. 

LiTiz, March ?>!, 1877. 

Simon P. Eby, Esq. — Dear Friend.— I 
cannot refrain (even in these few last busy 
hour's of scrivening) to call your attention to 
a few articles that appeared in the American 
Aejricidturist, of April nuiutier. The first on 
page 12"5, on the bottom of the middle column, 
lieaded "Manuring Old Trees." Tlie .second 
on page 143, middle column, headed tlie 
"Oysfer Shell Bark Louse." Iliave practiced 
what those articles suggest, for years past, 
with much success; the only difference, in ar- 
ticle fir.st, I do not turn the manure under. 
If you recollect, we hud a talk aliout manur- 
ing orchards and whitewashing trees some 
time ago. Foi; over eight years 1 have been 
guided principally by my own judgment and 
experience, and often found that much to the 
contrary of my own practice was said, but I 
was not discouraged, because I found that I 
was right, and now the same results are seen 
l)y some of our cliief fruit growers, with simi- 
l;ir aiiplieations. Please look up the articles 
and see more fully what they contain. Yours 
in haste. — Israel G. Erh. 

"Manuring cild trees, or those that have 
come into bearing, should have been cared 
for last month, or earlier. If they need man- 
ure, give it at once. Ni-arly all the "running 
out," bitter rot, and other troubles not due to 
insects, are merely cries I'or niauure. Stable 
manure rarely comes amiss; this may be ap- 
plied over the whole surface, except close to 
the trees, and turned under with a furrow so 
shallow as not to cut the roots. On orchards 
already fully manured in previous years, or 



1877.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



67 



naturally rich in vegetable matter, a dressing 
of lime will often iiroduce gratifying results, 
and wodd ashes scarcely ever come amiss on 
any soils." 

[Tl\e foregoing is the first article alluded to 
by Mr. E.'s corres]iouili'nt, and no doubt will 
be generally accniiesced in, althongh \vc are 
aware that some very good orchardists are oji- 
poscd to cultivating arouml trees. As to ma- 
nure, the vc are other kinds tlian stable ma- 
nure that liaveagood effect upon tree culture, 
one of which is right at hand, if altenlion is 
given to its collection in time, and which re- 
turns to the .soil again what the tree had drawn 
from it. Two years ago a scientific connnis- 
sicm was appointed in tlie city of J.,ondon, to 
report on the causes of the (lepletion of the 
trees in Jli/dc and oilier /VtrA-.s of that great 
city, whilst they were healthy elsewhere. 
Tliey made microscopic and chemical analy- 
ses of the leaves, and discovered that they con- 
tained large quaidities of fertilizing sails, and 
tliey came to the conclusion that the trees 
were depleted through the constant swec^ping 
up and removal of the leaves, instead of 
mulching them into the soil. Look at our 
great oaks — look at the gigantic trees of Cali- 
fornia tliat have stood thousands of years, 
perhaps, without ever having bad any ma- 
nure,savc what yearly fell from their branches.] 
Oyster Shell Bark Louse. 

"Crude Petuoleum.— 'B. L. B.,' Proc- 
tor's Creek, Va., was six years ago living in 
the oil regions of Pennsylvania, and went on 
a visit to his father in Central New York, tak- 
ing with him a can of crude petroleum, fresh 
from the well. His father had two young 
apple trees in the garden, which, in spite of 
all that could be done for them, were going to 
decay, and he requested the son to cut them 
down. Mr. B. suggested that he would first 
kill the trees, so tliat there should be no trou- 
ble from sprouts, and to do this he, in Fel)ru- 
ary, took a broom and completely washed the 
trunks and larger limbs with tlie crude petro- 
leum, noticing at the same time that they 
were thickly covered with bark lice. In the 
following spring, to the astonishment of all, 
the trees starte(l out with renewed vigor, made 
a greater growth than they ever did before, 
'and the bark was as smooth and as healthy 
as that of a one year old .seedling.' Since 
then the trees have flourished and borne abun- 
dantly. Mr. B. suggests that the application 
should be made before the buds swell at all, 
as petroleum will kill the foliage. We would 
add to tho.se dis|iosed to exiieriment in that 
direction, that neither kerosene nor any other 
preparation from petrol um should be used as 
a substitute for the crude article, just as it is 
drawn from the wells." 

[We should hesitate to recommend petro- 
letmiin any of its forms; but instead of it, oil, 
or grease of almost any kind, has been endors- 
ed by the highest authority, and we ktiov it 
to be effectual, fijr we have tried it on various 
occasions. ] 

Lime OK Whitewash.— "W. E., "of North 
Haven, Conn., takes tlie best fresli-burned 
stone-lime, slakes it with hot water, and thins 
with cold water to the i)roper consistency to 
apply readily, and with a common broom — a 
round one preferable — Jiaints over the trunks 
and large branches. Thinking that we liad 
somewhere seen the statement that lime had 
been tried by < it liens without effect, we wrote 
to Mr. E. to make sure that it was the Oyster- 
iShell lou.se that he had in mind, and be replied 
that it was, and finds lime perfectly ellicacioiis. 
Though nut now troubled by tlie insect, he 
would apply lime wheiu'ver lie discovered it. 
Mr. E. I'egards ;i coating of lime-wash as 
highly u.seful in other respects, and wonders 
why its use is ojijiosed by some. Upon young 
trees, in which the bark is still active, we jire- 
fer not to clog it with a coat of lime, but if 
any wash is needed, use a more soluble one of 
lye or soap ; in older trees, when the outer 
bark is ih^ad and begins to scale oil', it makes 
no dilTerence, except as a question of looks. 
In treating this bark louse, as well as in all 
contests with insects, success will depend 
hugely upon proinpt action, and attacking the 



enemy as soon asjiossible after it is discovered. 
Young trees e8i)ecially should be watched, for 
it is an easy matter to treat a tree, all parts of 
which are within reach, compared with an- 
other two or three times tlie si/e. We have 
no idea that washing the trunk, merely, of a 
tree, witli whitewash, )ietroleum, or other 
ap)ilica(ion, will rid it of the (iyster-Shell 
bark louse. 'Wiese are situated upon the 
newer growth and small limbs, and any ai)]ili- 
cation that fails to reach these, can be of little 
or any service, .so far as this particular insect 
is concerned. It is very im]iortaiit to avoid 
introducing this pest, and every new tree from 
a nursery and el.sewhero should be examined 
for bark lice, before jilauting." 

[Really, it seems that the question invol- 
ving the utility of whitcnvashing trees, is never 
to lie definitely .settled. When we were a boy 
and worked upon a farm, fifty years ago, it 
was rather a conmion thing to whitewash 
trees, especially those that were growing in 
the yard or the garden. This process usually 
followed the whitewashing of fences and out- 
hoiKses, and was done with the same material, 
and with no particular reference to the bark- 
louse, or any other iii.sect, if anything had 
ever been known or heard of then. It some- 
how was thought to produce thrift in the 
growth of the trees, or perhaps more lik('ly 
was a mere matter of taste. In after years, 
according to the exiierience of some persons, 
whose opinions were entitled to respect, it 
was alleged that whitewa.shiiig was absolutely 
injurious to tlu' trees. Now, how could e(iual- 
ly intelligent peojile differ so much in the re- 
■s'ults of their individual experiences ? We 
apprehend that the difference is just in this 
wise. The difference in the kind and the 
quality of the limo and the wash, and the dif- 
ference in the .ages and conditions of the trees. 
The opposers of whitewashing, said it closed 
up the pores and arrested respiration, a func- 
tion as important to the healthy development 
of the tree, as "insensible perspiration " is to 
the human liody. In order to increase the 
adhesiveness of whitewash, peoiile are in the 
habit of putting a greater or lesser quantity 
of alum, salt, sugar or glue into it; and if 
these ingredients increase its adhesiveness 
when applied to fences and frame buildings, it 
would adhere too clo.sely to trees to allow free 
respiiation and thus injure them, and especial- 
ly young, smooth-liarked trees. If the lime 
was too acrid, hot, or strong, it would have 
the same effect. The whitewashing of large, 
old, and rough-barked trees, does not afford a 
proper test of the utility of the operation, and 
especiall}' when it is done to kill bark-lice; 
because, as "W. E." above, trnly says, there 
is not the place where these insects locate 
themselves. And secondly, because the sur- 
face of a rough-barked tree cannot be covered 
as com|)letely and as imperviously as a smooth 
one can, and there will always he fissures in 
the liark that have not been reached by the 
brush, and tlirough which res]iiiation is car- 
ried on, and could only be effected there, 
whether the tree was whitewashed or not. 
Some years ago a neighbor of ours had two 
young jie.ar trees badly infested with hark 
lice, and on the recommendation of a friend, 
he used strong fish brine, ajiplied with a hand- 
scrub on the one, and sharp lime wash on the 
other, but they bolli eventually died. AVe had 
the same kind of a tree, similarly infested, and 
wc used lard oil with entire success; and in 
every instance where we liave recommended 
it, it has been effectual. The late Mr. Walsh, 
State I'^ntoiuologist of Illinois, exiierimented 
with everything, and finally recorded his tes- 
timony in favor of oil. | 



The Sener Apple. 
By M. J. Si'AVMAN. Leavenworth, Kansas. 
— Dear Sir. — Yours of September '20th was 
received yesterday on my return here, also 
the apple, although it was entirely rotten, 
but in fair shape, so that I could take a cut 
and inside outline of the fruit. I am .sorry I 
did not get it in time to give a more satisfiic- 
tory outline and description. The scions were 
eutirely dried ui), past recovery, which I very 



much regi-et, as I wished to graft tliem at my 
homeplace, I^eavenworlh, Kansas. The busi- 
ness at the Centennial continued to 
increase in number , of varieties so that I 
found it impossible to leave until it was over, 
and with what I had on hand, and some other 
business, detained me until the Titli of this 
month (Dec. ) before I left the city. I send 
with this the outline and descriiition. The 
color and iiuahty I had to Judge f^rom memory 
and what you wrote, which may both he in- 
correct, if so, jilease state in what respect, 
and also add about the vigor and any otlier 
part omitted. 1 am very thankful for your 
kindness in sending the specimens and your 
interesting letter, and am very sorry that 1 
have been unable to answer sooner. 

I took, while at the Centennial, .seven hun- 
dred and eighty (7^0) cuts and descriptions of 
fruit I had not taken before, making my en- 
tire collection over 1,700; in everv respect 
comiilete and taken by my.self, embracing 
many new and valuable varieties. 

I w^iuld h(^ much obliged, if it is not too 
much trouble. to send me a few more scions fit 
to graft, and direct tliem to Leavenworth, 
Kansas. Two or three grafts will he sulficient 
to test the variety, as I expect to be tiierc in 
ten days and remain tliere, from where I should 
like to hear fiom you when convenient. 

1 think the Seiier a valuable variety, and 
worth being more generally cultivated. Pruit 
large ; form oblate, slightly conic ; color light 
yellow ; dots small, di.stinct, scattered, grey ; 
stem medium, rather thick ; cavity wide, deep 
green, or russeted ; calyx very large, open ; 
segments large, rellexed ; basin rather wide, 
deep, abrupt, slightly furrowed ; core large, 
wide, closed ; carpels medium, hollow ; seeds 
rather large, ovate, angular, light chestnut 
brown ; fiesh white, tender, juicy, siirightly, 
pleasant sub-acid; quality good, excellent for ' 
kitchen ; tree, rather drooping, a regular and 
generous bearer. Brought from Cermantown 
some lifty years ago. (irown by Mr. Sener, 
Lancaster, I'a. Specimen received from Mr. 
S. S. Kathvon, Lancaster, Pa. 

[This apple having originated about Gcr- 
mantown, Mr. Stayuiau's paper has been very 
kindly placed at our disposal by I'rof. Bathvon, 
instead of using it in his own Lancaster 
Parmer— a courtesy we highly apineciatc. 
We may lake occasion to say that the Lan- 
CASTEU Fahmek, though unfartwuttelii with 
the local name of " Lancaster" appended to it, 
is not a merely local ]>aper, but is at least e<iual 
in general value to an v Agricultural paper that 
coines to our table.-£(J. G(udi)i( r's MnnlMi/.] 

Some time in March last we sent by mail 
to Mr. Stayman a number of scions of the ap- 
lile .above referred to, and also to Mes,srs. 
Casper Ililler and H. JL Englc. From what 
we know practically of the quality of the 
fruit, we feel Justified in recommending it, 
and hope more of our fruit growers will make 
apiilicatiou to Mr. Sener for scions, who kind- 
ly offers them with no other motive than its 
perpetuation, as the tree is growing old. In 
addition to all of the foregoing we refer our 
readers to an article on the subject, on page 
14.") Vol. VI I L of tlie Farmer, where the his- 
tory of the apple, and our own experience is 
more particularly detailed. 

AVe cannot conclude without th.anking the 
editor of the G. M. for liis complimentary no- 
tice of our journal, even including what he 
seems to think an "unfortunate apiicndage." 
We know what he says is not intended to lie 
disrespectful, but merely suggestive, and as- 
sure him that he is not alone in this senti- 
ment, for such a view was entertained when 
the present name of the paper was adoiitcd, 
and still exists among some of its most intelli- 
gent patrons, on the ground that a more gen- 
eral title might elicit more general contribu- 
tions to ilscolunins, and a more general pat- 
ronage from abroad. W<' however feel reluct- 
ant to change the title now, especially as it 
was never intended to circumscribe, or limit 
its scoi>e; but should it lie deemed advisiiblc 
to do so at a future time, we will give the 
matter a respectful consideration, if our con- 
nection with it still coutinueB. — Jid. 



68 



THE LANCASTER -FARMER 



[May, 



CoLTTMBiA, May 1, 1877. 

Frof. S. S. Rath von.— Dear Sir. — En- 
closed in box please find a "Slutepoke" with 
a bass in its mouth. The two struggled for 
supremacy upon the dam iu the river for a 
mile, and both died in battle. I sent a de- 
scription to the Era. — S. E. 

The box containing the bird and fish came 
safely to hand, for which we tender thanks to 
the thoughtful Squire. The fish was wedged 
so tightly in the bird's mouth and throat, 
that wc did not wish to disturb them ; so, 
instead of skinning and mounting the former, 
with the probability of destroying the inter- 
esting tableau, we cut oft' the head as it was, 
and also the feet, and "embalmed" them in 
alcohol, with a view of preserving their statu 
quo. Of course, our readers are well acquain- 
ted with this bird {Butorides vircscens) which, 
in addition to the common name given above, 
is also known under the jiopular names of 
"Green Heron," and "Fly-up-the-creek." 
However correct buds may be in their general 
instincts, this subject made a woful mistake 
in its calculation, for it attempted to swallow 
a fish beyond its swallowing capacity, and 
died in tliat bootless attempt. It is all well 
enough to exliibit "grit," energy, or determi- 
nation, in accomplishing individual ends; but 
it is the sheerest folly to overmeasure our abil- 
ity and then be brought to disastrous "grief." 
2 his is OUT moral, aside from violating the fish- 
laws.— £(t. 



Mount Holly Springs, 1 
April 20th, 1877. j 
Mr. Editor : — I saw a copy of the Lan- 
caster Farmer and was very much pleased 
with the reading matter which it contained, 
so much so tliat I have come to the couclusion 
to subscribe for it for one year. I consider 
the paper is good enough to be iu any family. 
Please send me the back numbers, starting 
with the January number, 1877. Send me a 
receipt for the same. I can perhaps get you a 
small club in my neighborhood. Address, 
Enos Staufter, Mount Iloily Springs, Cumber- 
land county, Pennsylvania. 



Office of "Western Farmer, ] 
Dixon, III., April 30, 1877. j 

Dear Sir : Please place us again on your 
"Ex" list. The Lancaster Farmer "used 
to be one of our most valued exchanges, and 
w8 are glad to be able to notice its revival. 

Yoiu's truly, W. M. Kennedy. 

We cheerfully comply ; and feel specially 
complimented in being solicited to do so ; and 
also reciprocate the sentiment pervading the 
above. — Ed. 



LANCASTER COUNTY PEACHES— 
" SENER'S FAVORITE." 

International Exhibition, 1 
Philadelphia, 1877. ] 
The United States Centennial Commission 
has examined the report of the Judges, and 
accepted the following reasons, and decreed 
an award in conformity therewith : 

Philadelphia, February 27, 1876. 
Report on Aw Auon—Produet, Peaches: 
Name and address of exhibitor, J. Frederick 
Sener, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

The undersigned, having examined the pro- 
duct herein described, respectfully recom- 
mends the same to the United States Centen- 
nial Commission for award, for the following 
reasons, viz.: Two plates of yellow peaches 
called " Sener's Favorite," freestone, very 
large, 10 inches in circumference ; rich, sweet, 
and delicious. 

Wii. Parry, Judyr. 

APPROVAL OF group JUDGES. 

"W. L. ScH