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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

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"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.'-WEBSTER. 



The Liancaster Farmer, 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

AND GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME XII-1880. 






LANCASTER, PA.: 
JOHN A. HIESTAND, PUBLISHER. 
1880. 



"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.'-WEBSTER. 



The Ziancaster Farmer, 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

AND GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME XIL-1880. 



L3.HSt 



LANCASTER, PA.: 
JOHN A. HlESTAND, PUBLISHER. 

i88o. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWELVE. 



il 



A Word in Time, 1 

A Card in The Interests of Quail, 8 

Are Ants Civilized? 9 

A Wasteful Interest Paid by Farmers, 

14 
Apple Dumplings Boiled, 14 
A Superior Omelet, 14 
About Roosters, 15 
A New Insecticide, 17 
About Graham Bread, IS, 36 
American Cheese in Eng:laud, 25 
Annual Meeting of the Fruit Growers, 

26 
A Good Farm Stock Food, 29 
A New Nut, 29 
Apple Jelly, 30 
Almond Pastry, 30 
About Rotten Manure, 45 
Apples, 46 
Apple Sauce, 46 
Apple Pie, 46 
Apple Dumplings, 46 
Apple Custard, 47 
Apple Fritters, 47 
Agricultural Department, 50 
Another Peach Tree Enemy, 50 
A New Myriapod, 51 
A Magnificent Gift, 51 
A Good Egg, 51 
Agricultural Items, 61 
Abortion in Cows, 63 
A Horse's Foot, 04 
An Acre in Onions, 70 
American Merino Sheep, 70 
Agriculture in the Schools, 74 
About Cut Worms, 77 
Asparagus and Celery, 78 
A Jersey Cow's Record, 79 
A Household Pest, 86 
A Successful Sheep Raiser, 96 

A Reply from Secretary Edge, of the 
State Board of Agriculiure, 99 

Animal Intelligence, 104 

A Fierce Combat Between a Cat and a 

Rattlesnake, lOU 
A Great Waste, 109 

A Mare that Nursed a Calf, 111 

A Supplement to the Army Worm, 
114 

A Thistle, 116 

A Curious Bird, 117 

Agricultural Products — Eastern States 
of America, 120 

Antiquity of Wheat, 121 

A Mountain Fruit Farm, 121 

Angora Goats, 122 

Agriculture, 124 

A Good Drink for the Lungs, 126 

A Knowing Sheep, 127 

A Beautiful Fungus Resembling White 
Coral, 139 

Apologetic, 129 

A Juvenile Column, 129 

A Butterfly, 133 

Answer to Andrew T. 6. Apple, 134 

Answer to Dr. C. A. G., 134 

Answer to Mr. G., Lititz, 134 

Answer to S. P. E., Esq., 134 

Answer to Mrs. P. E. G., 134 

Answer to Mr. L. L. D., 134 

Autumn Work in the Garden, 138 

Autumn Seeding to Grass, 140 

A Chapter on Rose Culture, 141 

A Stuifed Beefsteak, 143 

A Hint, 143 

A New Horse Distemper in Boston, 
143 

Autumn Management, 144 

Answer to J. H. P., 147 

Answer to J. H., 147 

Answer to H. G. D., 147 

Apples, Apple Juice, Cider, Vinegar, 
162 

Absorbents for Stable Manures, 152 

A Great Apple Jack Crop, 154 

American Tobacco, 156 

Amount of Seed, 156 

Apple Culture, 157 

A " Handy " Application for Pain 158 

Apples in Jelly, 159^ 

A Big Liver, 161 

Agricultural Chemistry, 163 

Arabian Mode for Taming Horses, 166 

A New Idea of Hedge Culture, 168 

^ Mexican Market, 170 



A Great Orchard, 170 

American and Italian Sumac, 170 

Agriculture Advancing, 172 

A Wet Cellar for Apples, 173 

A Great Oak, 173 

A Cheap Well, 174 

About Tobacco, 183 

A Wonderful Jersey Cow, 184 

A Notable Pigeon Koost, 185 

Apple Custard Pie, 190 

An Equine Monster, 191 

A Remedy Against Worms in Pigs, 

191 
Botany, 3 

Bogus Havana Tobacco, 8 
Baker's Gingerbread, 14 
Brine for Corn Beef, 14 
Banish Every Dairy Pauper, 15 
Bone Dust, 29 
Bloody Milk, 29 
Boston Jumbles, 30 
Bonner's Horses, 31, 
Brown Betty, 47 
Bran for Cows, 47 
"Bleeding Kansas," 49 
Beef Like Game, 62 
Baked Fish, 63 
Baked Calf's head, 63 
Beef Cakes, 63 
Black Leg in Calves, 64 
Breed Rather Than Purchase, 64 
Beef and Mutton, 73 

Breeding for Shape and Style, 80 

Burned Bones for Hens, 80 

Brown Windsor Soap, 95 

Boiling Fish, 95 

Baked Indian Pudding, 95 

Breed for a Purpose, 96 

Balky Horses, 96 

Bats, 100 

Black Walnut for England, 103 

Boston Baked Beans, 104 

Baked Halibut, Creole Style, 110 

Brioche, 110 

Be Careful with Carbolic Acid, 119 

Beet Root Culture for Sugar, 130 

Bone Dust as a Fertilizer, 124 

Barbed Fences, 124 

Butter Making, 125 

Beef Rolls, 126 

Breeds of Pigs, 127 

Bees do not Attack Sound Fruit, 135 

Blacking Stoves, 143 

Barley Pudding, 143 

Blight of Fruit Trees, 1.52 

Beef Stew, 158 

Beefsteak Omelette, 158 

Boiling Vegetables, 159 

Big Horses, 159 

Bartels Made from Pulp, 164 

Bare Pastures in Autumn, 168 

Beautifying Bedrooms, 174 

Butter Making in Denmark and Swe- 
den, 185 

Business Habits for Farmers, 187 

Barbers' Shampoo Mixture, 190 

Blonde or Flaxen Hair Dye, 190 

Bouquet de Millefleurs, 191 

Bouquet de Rondeletia, 191 

Bran for Cows, 191 

Coal Ashes and Tobacco, 3 

Cuzco Corn from Peru, 13 

Cornmeal Muffins, 14 

Currant Pudding, Plain, 14 

Cattle on the Plains, 15 

Candlemas, 18 

Coming Events for 1880, 19 

Can we Plant too Many Fruit Trees, 
21 

Comparative Value of Food, 26 

Custard Pie, 30 

Calf's Liver Broiled, 30 

Catarrh in Sheep, 31 

Country Road Making, 40 

Chicken Entozooty, 47 

Chemistry of Soils, 53 

Cheese Fritters, 63 

Cerealia Californica, 65 

Crabs and Their Habits, 7-3 

Colic in Horses, 79 

Cows, 79 

Chicken Cholera, 80 

Cedar Bird, S3 

Curing Fruit by Cold, 94 

Cocoanuts for Hanging Baskets, 94 



125, 
126 



137 



Chilblain Liniment, 95 

Cure for Soft Corns, 95 

Cure for Earache. 95 

Children's Pudding, 95 

Chloride of Lime as a Disinfectant, 95 

Chrysochus Auratus, 98 

cultivation of Tobacco in Cuba, 108 

Cultivating the Raspberry, 109 

consumption Cured, 109 

Cattle on tlie Range, 111 

CooijS, 111 

Charcoal for Fowls. Ill 

care of Early Broods, 112 

Caterpillars, 117 

Crop Reports, 118 

Changing Seed, 134 

Cultivating Peach Orchards, 125, 141 

Cisterns for Farm Buildings, 

Cold Tea, 126 

Cultivating Basket Willow, 

Cultivation of Celery, 137 

Col. Scott's Model Barn, 138 

California Fruit Crop, 141 

Coffee Custard, 143 

Cork Soled Boots, 143 

Carolina Corn Worm, 145 

Cultivation of Tea, 157 

Carotte au Pot, 158 

Cinnamon Cookies, 158 

Chonfleur au Gratin, 1.58 

Celery Salad, 158 

Carottes a la Flamaude, 158 

Cattle at the Fair, 159 

Cincinnati's Consumption of Beer, 169 

Changing the Crop, 173 

Cold Slaw, 174 

Cream, 174 

Chow-Chow, 175 

Cure for the Epizooty, 176 

Complimentary, 177 

Codling Moth, The 178 

Cat Lice, 181 

Cold Weather, 185 

Champagne, 186 

Cooking Potatoes, 190 

Camphor Ice, 190 

Cheap Bay Rum, 191 

"Dairy Farming," 1 

Delicate Cake, 14 

Don't Give Preventives, 16 

Domestic Progress, 19 

Don't Crowd the Fruit Trees, 29 

Destruction of Weevil, 31 

Dried Fruit, 49 

Death of Jacob Stauffer, 49 

Dung Heap Liquor, .52 

Destroyers of Carpets, 61 

Don't Pare away the Frog, 96 

Durable Fence Posts, 101 

Do not Neglect your Wells, 102, 142 

Destroying Weeds, 108 

Durability of Timber, 113 

Dogs and Sheep, 127 

Do Bees Injure Fruit, 1.31 

Dusting Caps, 142 

Drying Apples, 174 

Do we Eat too Much, 186 

Draughts of Cold Air in the Stable, 

191 
Does it Pay to Winter Turkeys, 192 
Egg Eating by Pullets, 15 
Extra Good Sausage, 46 
Entomological Notes, 61 
Egg Soup, 63 

Ephrata Publications, 6.5, 67 
Excellent Glycerine Ointment, 75 
Elizabeth Stock Farm Jerseys, 84 
Essay on General Farming, 102 
Experience with Canada Thistle, 108 
Economic Entomology in the Common 

Schools, 117 
Experience with the Imported Cabbage 

Worm, 117 
Enriching Orchards, 157, 173 
Egg-Plant Baked, 158 
Eel Pot-Pie, 174 
Essay on Wheat Culture, 182 
English and American Wheat, 185 
English and American Implements, 

189 
Enriching Orchards, 189 
Epizooty, 191 

Ewes for Breeding Early Lambs, 191 
Eggs for Hatching, 192 
Figs, 7 



Farm Food, 13 

Fruit in Cellars, 14 

Fish Pie, 14 

Florida Manufacturers, 18 

Farm Life vs. Town Life, 23 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 28, 60, 77, 171 

Forest Leaves for Stable and Yard, 29 

Fattening Sheep, 31 

Feeding Poultry, 4S 

Fencing and Fences, 54, 70, 167 

Flowers and Perfumes, 58 

Flowers and Insects, 60 

French Rarebit, 62 

Feeding Bran, 63 

Farmer and Gardener, 71 

Farmers Who Are Not Farmers, 73 

Farmers' Returns to Census Takers, 

74 
Flowers and Shrubbery, 78 
Fattened Poultry, 80 
Facts and Opinions, 87 
Fruit and Grain Prospects in Berks, 9S 
Farm and Garden Notes, 108, 164 
Fish Fritters, 109 
For Rats, 110 

Feeding Horses — Sore Shoulders, lU 
First tear of Heifers, 110 
Fowls in Orchards, 111 
Flour Manufacture, 119 
Fish Pudding, 126 
Free Martin, 127 
Facts About Shoeing Horses, 127 
Forgetfulness of Benefits, 1.J4 
Farm Life, 142 
Food for Fat People, 142 
Fig Pudding, 143 
Feather Pillows, 143 
Frigadel or Veal Loaf, 158 
For Pickled Butter, 158 
Fried Mush, 158 

French Mode of Cooking Beans, 15S 
Feed Calves Liberally, 160 
Farm Notes, 160 
Fattening Poultry for Market, 162 
•French Reports on Diseases of Vinet 

and Remedies, 165 
Fall Turning Up of Garden Soil, 17( 
Fall Plowing, 172 
Fall Transplanting, 173 
Fattening Hogs, 176 
For the Farmer, 186 
Frying Oysters, 190 
For Stewing Oysters, 190 
French Rolls, 190 
French Lip Salve, 190 
Fair Tests for Draught Horses, 191 
Glue and Glueing, 7 
Glue for Polished Steel, 14 
Graham Bread Again, 35 
Ground Hog Philosophy, 35 
Garberia, 50 
Grafting Wax, 78 
Garden Herbs, 94 
Gooseberry Fool, 110 
Gooseberry Trifle, 110 
Ginger Beer, 126 
Gravy for Potatoes, 126 
Guinea Fowls, 128 
Green Worm with Horns, 133 
Goldfinches ve. Grapes, 1.35 
Growing Flowers in the Shade, 14 
Good Kye Bread, 143 
Governor Hoyt's Speech at the Open 

ing of the State Fair, 149 
Grading Sheep, 159 
Grasses for Decoration, 167 
Grafting in the Winter, 174 
Green Manuring, . 183 
Girls, go Marketing, 190 
Golden Brown Hair Dye, 190 
" Happy New Tear," 1 
Height of Storms, 10 
Horse Shoeing Again, 16 
Had to Give a Pig Medicine, 15 
Hickory Nut Macaroons, 30 
How to Get Rid of the Pests, 31 
Hints for March Work, 40 
How to Cook Cod Fish, 46 
How to Cook Poultry, 46 
How to Water Horses, 47 
Hair Worms, 51 
Have Tou a Strawberry Bed, 54 
Have Clean Beds, 62 
How to Dissolve Bones, 78 ^^ 

How we Ought to House Our Fowls, 1 



INDEX. 



III. 



Ill 

ii;i; 



Kich 



154 



17S 
190 



193 
14 



74 



m 



! Haying, 93 

^ Hints on Household Matters, 94 
i Honey Soap, 95 
' Hamburg Bitters, 95 
j Hew to Feed Shelled Corn, 9ii 
I How the Army Worm was Clrcum- 
I vented in Hartford^tlounty, 99 

How to Destroy Army Worms, 99 
How the Oceans were Made, 104 
Home Bread and Imported Jerseys, 

105 
Handling Sheep, 106 
How to Cure Toothaehe, 109 
How to Cook Beans, 110 
How Mueh wlH'Keep a Horse, 
How to Make Tea go Further, 
Hoji Yeast, I'JT 
Hard Yeast, 1^7 
Hydrophobia or Kahies, I'S 
How to Cook Green Corn, 142 
How to Find Buyers, 142 
How to Get a Large Yield of 

Milk, 144 
Health of Horses, 144 
Harness Sores on Horses, 144 
Hints for Oetober Work, i49 
How a Famous Cheese is Made, 
Harvesting Broom Corn 15(5 
Hen Manure, 157 
How to Harvest Apples, 157 
Hectic Fever in the Cows, 159 
How the Woodman's Axe is Decimat- 
ing the Michigan Pineries, IflO 
Harvesting and Storing Turnips, llJ9 
Horned Fungus Eaters, 17S 
Honey Bees and Grapes, 
How to Carve a Turkey, 
Hot Cakes, 190 
How to Test Cows, 191 
Horseback Riding, 191 
Hen Lice and Kerosene, 
Indian Meal Pancakes 
Indian Turnips, (iti 
Information for all who Breathe, 
Insects, 78 

Insects and How to Fight JThem, 
Improved Method, 93,100 
Isn't it Hard on Trees, 94 
Intermittent Fever Mixture, 95 
Indian Meal Pudding, 109, 174 
Iron for Fruit Trees," 141, 15S 
International Potato Society, 187 
Imitation Bay Rum, 191 
July Rains, 115 
Jealousy of Birds, 187 
Jockev Club Bouquet, 191 
Keep Pure Bred Fowls, 48 
Keeping old Sheep, 64 
Kentucky Mules, 64 
Keep the Good Calves, 79 
Keeping Cider Sweet, 142 
Kansas Fair and Travels to the Rocky 

Mountains, 147 
Keeping Celery, 157 
Keep Sheep, lt;0 
Kindness to Cows, 
Lancaster County 
Horticultural 
42, 58. 75, 91 
171, 187 
Linn.T?an Society, 13, 28, 44, 77, 92 

107, 12;^, 140, 155, 172, 188 
Lemon Cake, 14 
Lemon Pie, 14, 30 
Look After your Hen Houses, 
Literary and Personal, lH, 32, 
80, 9(i, 112, 128, 144, 100, 
Letter from North Carolina, 
Lice on Cattle, 31 
Local Agricultural Fair, 34 
Long Legged Centipede, 50 
Land Wearing Out, 84 
Lightning and Trees, 102 
Lemon Ginger Cakes, 109, 174 
Lobster Murphy, 110 
Lobster Soup, 110 
Lemon Sauce, 12tJ 
Lime as a Fertilizer, 13U 
Lemon Syrup, 14S 
Light upon Light, 153 
Liquid Manure, 1.5(5 
Large Roots, 1.57 
Lunch for the Team, 160 
Leoline at the Late Fair, 161 
Learn the value of Money, 174 
Lice on Stock, 175 
Meeting of Board of Agriculture, 2 
Measuring the Height of a Tree, 30 
Mince Meat, 30 
More about Sorghum Sugar, 41 
Milk— What is it? 46 
Milk for Fowls, 48 
Milk Rolls, 63 
Mixed Farming, 78, 108 
Mixed Pickles, 79 
Merinos Improved, 79 
Milk as a Poultry Food, 80 
MUk and Lime Water, 109 



175 

Agricultural and 

Society, 10, 37, 
107, 132, 139, 154, 



15 

48, 64, 
192 
24, 85 



Marlborough Pudding, 109, 174 

Milk Fever, 111 

Mixed Milk, 126 

Make the Lunch Attractive, 126 

Management of Cream, HH 

Meat Bread, 158 

Minced Mutton ;with Poached Eggs, 

1.59 
.Milking Three Times a Day, 159 
Manuring Fruit Trees, 165 
Mice anil Rats Gnawing Trees, 170 
Mulching Newly Set Trees, 173 
Meal and Grain for Breeding Stock, 

175 
New Process of Butter and Cheese 

Making, 38 
Notes for the Farmer, 45 
Nitrate of Soda, 45 
Neatne.s at the Barn, 73 
New Fruit, 98 
New Mexico, 118 
Normal Length of Life, 121 
National Bee-Keepers' Convention, 

145 
New Early Peaches, 148 
New Mexican Items, 161 
New York Tobacco Market, 166 
Night Air, 174 
Our Tobacco Crop, 5 
Obituary, 34 

Our Revised Fruit List, 39 
Ox-Tail Soup, 47 
Our Home Crops, 86 
Offensive Smell in the Feet, 95 
Orange Bitters, 95 
Our Domestic Progress, 97 
Our Local Fair, 97 
Observations and Exceptions. 101 
Odds and Ends, 109 
Oyster Pie, 109 
Omelet and Sardines, 110 
Old Time Agricultural Implements, 

124 
Old Hens, 128 
Our County Fair, 129 
Our Big Wheat Crop, 140 
Our late Fair, 145 
Oats with Wheat, 157 
Over-big Horses a Mistake, 160 
Orchard Products, 169, 189 
Own a Home, 174 
Our Holiday Greetings, 177 
Our Contributors, 177 
Our Game Food, 187 
Our Agricultural Progress, 189 
Norman Stallions for Illinois, 191 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, 1 

'36, 51 
Poultry Exhibition, 2 

Prof. Blount's White Prolific Corn, 3 
Plum Pudding at Sea, 7 

Poultry Association, 11, 28, 43, 59, 
76,91, 139, 155, 171, 18S 

Pierre Lorillard's Farm, 13 

Pennsylvania Sponge Cake, 14 

Plain Talk About Stock, 15 

Pumpkin Pie, 15, 143 

Pedigree of Homers, 16 

Preserving Food I'or Stock, 31 

Popular Breeds for Pork and Lard, 34 

Plant Apple Trees, 29 

Polishing Furniture, 29 

Pound Cake, 30 

Potato Pie, 30 

Pearl Barley Pudding- 30 

Pistachio Diplomatic Pudding, 30 

Plain Pastry, 30 

Poultry Interest of America, 31 

Pickings from the Poultry Yard, 31 

Peas in Plenty, 45 

Peach Culture, 45 

Pan-Dowdy or Apple Slump, 47 

Pure Bred or Common Fowls, 47 

Practical Hints for April, 53 

Pleuro-Pneumonia, 55 

Potted Beef, 63 

Poudrette, 72 

Plants and Plant Food, 78 

Piccalilli, 78 

Patent Yeast, 79 

Pure Milk, 79 

Put Bells on Your Sheep, 79 

Premium List, 88, 89, 90, 91 

Powell's Cough Ralsam, -95 

Precaution Against Nightmare, 95 

Pudding Without Milk or Eggs, 95 

Precautions to be Observed in Entering 
a Sick Room, 95 

Protection Against Moths, 98 

Pests Along the Sound, 100 

Pleuro-Pneumonia in this State, 102 

Preserving Timber, 108 

Percheron Horses, 110 

Poultry Notes, 111 

Pennsylvania Peaches, 125 

Protection Against Mosquitos, 126, 
142 

Pickled Mutton Hams, 126 



Potato Yeast, 127 
Parliament Gingerbread, 127 
Poultry Raisint; in France, 128 
Personal Acknowledgement, 129 
Potato Weevil, 1,34 
Petroleum for Rustic Work, 142 

Potato Croquet, 143 

Pot-au-feu, 143 

Parthenia PuiMing, 113 

Pomology, 151 

Planting, 1.57 

Painted Ladies, 159 

Pot-pie Crust, 1-59 

Preparing and Seeding Ground for 
Meadows, 166 

Pruning Dwarf Trees, 167 

Present (iarden Hints, 167 

Panned Oysters, 175 

Pigs for Next Year, 175 

Poultry Exhibilion, 177 

Propagating (ierman Carp, 186 

Primeval Forest Trees, 182 

Protecting Plants and Shrutjs, 189 

Productinn of Basket Willow in Berks, 
190 

Perelierons for Small Farms, 191 

Quarantine New Stock, 16 

Queries and Answers, 66 

Quince .Marmalade, 1.58 

Recent Advances in Archaeology, 4 

Relief for Croup, 14 

Rice Pudding Boiled, 30 

Roup with Pigeons, 31 

Rearing and Value of Ducks, .33 

Reclaiming Swampy Land,' 41 

Resources of the South, .5(1 

Robert Bonner's Large Sale of Fine 
Blooded Stock, " 64 

Report of the Present Crops, 67 

Ravages of the Army Worm in New 
Jersey, 93 

Root Pruning, 93 

Raspberry and Currant Sponge, 110 

Remedies for Gapes in Fowls, 112 

Raising Wheat, 140 

Raising Wheat in Kansas, 141 

Rag Carpets, 142 

Rice Cakes, 143 

Raising Calves, 143 

Raising New Peaches, 1.57 

Removing Small Stones, 173 

Receipt for Curine Meat, 175 

Rice Bread, for Breakfastor Tea, 190 

Shrinkage in Killing Hogs, 2 

Seasonable Hints, 13 

Suet Pudding, 14 

Semi-Annuai Convention of the Mil- 
lers' Association, 26 

Spring Cultivation of Strawberries, 29 

Should we Abolished Oxen, 43 

Sugar in America — Its Introduction, 
45 

Some Corn in Illinois, 45 

Strange Taste in the Butter, 46 

Selling Eggs by Weight, 47 

Sugar— A Great Problem Solved, .55 

Selecting Seed Potatoes, 62 

Scrambled Eggs with Dried Beef, 63 

Stewed Chicken, 62 

Stewed Beef, 62 

Savory Eggs, 63 

Scrambled Eggs with Cheese, 63 

Scalloped Fish, 63 

Scotch Oat Meal Cakes, (',3 

Stellar Inllueuce, 69 

Sugar and its Production, 69 

System on the Farm, 78 

Sowing Orchard (irass, 78 

Simple Method of Removing Grease 
Spots from Silk, 79 

Sweet Apples, 81 

Swallows, 81 

Something New for Tobacco Growers, 
82" 

Still Harping on the Moon, 85 

Sugar vs. Corn, 86 

Something a Farmer Should Know, 
93 

Salt the Garden, 94 

Sheep Raising — The Best Way of Do- 
ing So, 95 

Seasonable Items of Importance to the 
Farmer, 96 

Sheep Sheering, 96 

Swallows as Farmers' Friends, 97 

Scientific, 97 

Swine Industry, 105 

Stone Boats', 108 

Small Fruits, 108 

Summer Drinks, 109 

Soap, 109 

Schislih, 109 

Southern Mode of Cooking Rice, 110 

Scotch Potato Scones, 110 

Stock for Soup, 110 

Spike Fences, 124 

Salt and Ashes, 134 

Salt for Plum Trees, 125 



Sawdust for Bedding, 127 

Saddle Moth, 132 

Sowing Grain, 140 

Salt on Wheat, 140 

Scrajie the Feet, 142 

Sour Milk Cheese (Smear Case), 143 

Scours In Calves, 144 

Strawberry Culture— Fall Planting, 

1.50 ^' 

Severely Dry Times, 1.53 
Sorghum as a Forage Crop, 186 
.Sowing Wheat, 1.56 
Small Compost Heaps, 1.56 
.Simple .Method of Sharpening Razors, 

1.58 
Scalloped Oysters, 1.59 
Shorthorn Cattle, 160 
Savini; Seed, 164 
Sensilile \'iewR of Farming, 165 
Small Potatoes, lliO 
Storing Potatoes, 174 
Spirits of Ammonia, 174 
Sausages, 174 
Saddle Horses, 175 
Swine, 176 

Some Items in Farm Economy, 189 ° 
Swamp .Muck as a Fertilizer, 189 
Seed Corn, 189 

Success in Wheat Growing, 189 
Scabby Potatoes, 189 
Setting the Table, 190 
Sauer Kraut, 190 
Slaughtering Swine," 190 
Sheep in Winter, 191 
The Coming State Fair, 2 
The Lung Plague, 5 
Traits of Animals, 6 
The New Era in Farming, 6 
The Profit of Farming, 9 
The Science of Agriculture, 9 
The Poultry Exhibition, U 
The Judges' Award of Premiums, 12 
The Best Tim^to Plant Trees, 13 
The Baby Plant, 14 
Timely Hints About Furnaces, 14 
Tender Poultry, 16 
The Economy of a Garden, 24 
The Making and Preservation of 

Manure, 25 
The Menhaden Fishery, 25 
Treatment of Frozen Plants, 30 
To Preserve Shingles, .30 
Tar for Warts, 30 
Teething in the Horse— Wolf Teeth 

30 
The War on Insects, 31 
" Too Scientific," 33 
The Weather, 34 
The Chinch Bug, 35,61 
The State Fair, 36 
Tobacco Culture, .37 
The Chatham Creamery, .39 
The Manufacture of Beet Sugar, 41 
Transplanting of Trees, 42 
Think About the Garden Now, 45 
To Cure Hams or Beef, 46 
To Boil a Ham, 46 
Testing a .Milch Cow, 47 
The Position of Windows in Horse 

Stables, 47 
The Question of Fruit Culture, .56 
The Linn;ean's Tribute, 60 
The Grain Blockade, 61 
The Best Location for Fruit Trees, 62 
The Best Fruit to Plant, 62 
To Spice a Round of Corned Beef, 6^1 
The Vilhiger's Pig— How to Keep It, 

6:i 
The State and County Fairs, 65 
The Brown Thrush, 65 
The Coming Fair, 79 
The Origin of the Potato, 71 
The Wages of Farm Labor, 72 
The Beekeepers' Association, 76, 133 
Tobacco Plants — Depredations by Bugs 

77 
To Prevent Powder Post, 78 
To Remove Grease from Cloth or Silk, 

79 
To Remove Grease from Silk or Velvet, 

79 
Tomato Catsup, 79 
The Fattening Process, 80 
The Premium List, 81 
Tobacco Pests, 82, 130, 145, 163, 180 
The Plow, 85 

The Hygiene of the Eyes, 85 
The Fruit Trade, 87 
The Army Worm in Lancaster County, 

93 
The Tobacco Worm, 93 
The Sewage Waste of the Family, 94 
To Clean Waste Pipe, 94 
To Clean Varuished Paint, 95 
To Relieve Vomiting During Pregnancy 

95 
To Relieve Hard Corns, 95 
To Remove Warts, 95 



IV. 



INDEX. 



Tincture of Musk, 95 
To Keep Oil Cloths Looking Well, 95 
To Cleau Soiled Kibbons and Silks, 95 
To Remove Stains from Kid Gloves, 

95 
To Allay Temporary Irritation or 

Weakness in the Eye, 95 
To Cure Habitual Drunkenness, 95 
Treatment of an Attack of Apoplexy, 

95 
The Elm-leaf Beetle, 98 
The Wiley Plow, 103 
The Coming Industry, 103 
The Snail and Shell, 10:> 
The Lumber Trade. 100 
Thinning Fruit, lOS, 125 
Tomatoes, 109 
The Home, 109 
To Preserve Carpets, 109 
To Keep Bread Moist, 109 
To Tell Good E^gs, 109 
To Clean Paint, 109 
To Cure Foot Kot in Sheep, 111 
The Care of Sheep, 111 
The Horse's Punishment, 111 
The Lancaster Farmer and its 

Editor, 113 
The "Goldsmith," 115 
The Sugar Beet Question, 115 
The "Worm Snake," 116 
The Heliothus Armigera, 116 
The Gortyna Nitela, 117 
The Deadly Houej Bee, 117, 138 
The Deadly Fluke Worm, 117, 139 
The Carp and its Culture, US 
The Destruction of Game Food, 119 
The Pennsylvania Census, 120 
The English Sparrow, 120 



The Early Richmond Cherry, 125 

The Tomato, 135 

Things That Pay, 125 

To Prevent Sneezing, 126 

To Drive Ants Away, 126 

To .Meud Broken Crockery, 126 

The Messina Quail, 127 

To Break up a Broody Hen, 128 

Trifles , 129 

The Bi-Centennial of Pennsylvania, 

131 
The Flee-Beetle, 133 
Tobacco Culture — Reasons for Top 

Plowing, 135 
The Crops—The Outlook Over the 

Country, 136 
The Principles of Pruning 



167 
137 



136, 
The Largest Tree in the World, 
Thorough Preparation for Wheat, 

140 
The Apple Crop this Year, 141 
Tree Pruning, 141 
The Useful Sunflower, 141 
To Cook Turnips, 143 
To Bleach, 143 
To Make Good Stock, 143 
The Long-Stinged Ichneumon, 146 
The Wheat cr5p for 1880, 1881, 150 
The Wheat Crop, 153 
The Willows at St. Helena, 153 
Tobacco, 1.53 
The Peach, 1.57 

The White Willow as a Hedge, 157 
The Original Seekel Pear Tree, 158 
The New way of Preserving, 158 
To Keep Apples in Winter, 158 
The Ideal Sandwich, 1.58 
The Yorkshire Swine, 160 



Trade at Home, 161 
he Silk Worm, 169 
The Crop and Cornfodder, 173 
To Keep Fresh Meat Sweet, 174 
To Tell Good Eggs, 174 
To Broil Tomamatoes, 174 
To Pickle Red Cabbage, 175 
To Fry Oysters, 175 
Training a Heifer to Milk, 176 
Thanks, 177 
The Catalpa, 181 
Tobacco Stems vs. Fruit Trees, 181 
To Test Eggs, 181 
The Proper Care of Live Stock and 
Poultry in Cold Weather, 184 
The Demand for one Wheat, 184 
The Wheat Crop of 1880, 1S9 
To Bake Fish, 190 
To Cure Hams, 190 
To Cure Beef and Pork, 191 
To Keep Meat Fresh, 191 
Unlucky Fruit Growers, 14 
Use Onions, 94 
Use of Guano for Grape Phylloxera, 

117 
Uses for Old Cans, 126 
Uncle Sam's Crops, 138 
Use for CofTee Grounds, 142 
Under Tribute, 145 
Uses of Manure, 172 
Useful Hints, 174 
Ventilation of Bedrooms, 30 
Ventilating Stables, 30 
Ventilation of Sleeping Rooms, 43 
Veal Pie, 63 

Value of Butter Package, 73 
Veal Curvy, 110 
Vegetable Curry, 126 



Veal Cheese, 143 

Winter Walks About the Premises, 13 

Why Belgian Farming Pays, 13 

Wearing Flannel, 14 

White Mountain Cake, 14 

Western National Fair, 17 

What Fertilizers Shall we Use, 23, 37 

Wonders of Broom Corn, 29 j 

What to Put in the Garden, 46 ! 

What Every House Needs, 62 

What Shall We Raise? 71 

Watering in a Dry Time, 78 

Worcestershire Sauce, 78 | 

Washing of Hillsides, 93 i 

Wash for Inflamed Eyesj 95 

Water Beetle, 98 

What a Western Man Knows About 

It, 93 
Water Filter, 109 
Wash for Fruit Trees, 125, 141 
Washing Fluid, 126 
Water and Food for Horses, 137 
Winter Calves, 143 
Watering Plants in Pots, 151 
Woodcock, 1.58 
Winter Care of Stock, 159 
Warmed-over Biscuit, 174 
Wolf Teeth in Horses, 176 
Weeds, 189 

When to Transplant, 189 
Wash to Cleanse the Hair and Scalp, 

190 
Yeast Dumplings, 14 
Yellow Root, HI 

Teast from Grape Leaves, 126, 143 
Yeast from Peas, 126 
Young Chickens and Insects, 192 




ONE DOLLAR FEE ANNUH. SINGLE COFZES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S. RATHVON. Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. JANUARY, 18«0 



JCHi: A. HIESTAND. Fublisher. 



Kniorrti n( tlir PoHt OHiri- »t l.itnraNlpr rn 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL, 

"niippy New Year," ... - - 1 

I'ennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, - - - 1 

A Worrl in Tiini', - - - - - - 1 

"Dairy Farming," - ..... i 

Coal Ashes and Tobacco, - - - . 2 

Poultry Exhibition, - - .... 2 

Meetintr of Hoard of Ag^ricultiire, - . 2 

The ComiuiT Stale Fair, - .... a 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

8hrinl<age ii) KilliiitrTTo^'s— .1. J?. A'., - - 2 

Prof. Blouiil's While Prolific Cnrn—Canper ffiller, S 

ESSAYS. 

Botany, - - - H 

Recent Advances in Arcliaeoloey, . - - 4 

SELECTIONS. 

The Lung Plague, ...... ,5 

Our Tobacco Crop, ...... 5 

Traits of Animals, ...... t; 

The New Era in Farming, - . - - - 6 

Figs, -.--..... 7 

Plum Pudding at Sea, --..._ 7 

Glue and (ilueing, .-..-. 7 

Bogus Havana Tobacco, 8 

A Card in the Interest of Quail, ... 8 

Are Aula Civilized, ------ 9 

The Profit of Farming, - - - - 9 

The Science of Agriculture, .... 9 

Height of Storms, 10 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral Society, "..-... 10 

New Membem— Reports of t'ommiltees— The Presi- 
dent'B A«MrOBS— Quei^tion!) for DKouRsion — Does 
it Pay lo HaiBe Tnis lor Feucing?— UeiTeeenta- 
tlve to tiic State Board of .\griciiltHrc— New 
Bliplnene— Election of Officers. 
Poultry Association, ..... n 

The Poultry Exhibition, U 

. The Entries. 

The .Judges' .\wanl of i'remiums, - . . 12 
OhickB mid KovvIb— PiReoiis— TnrhoyB, OeeKe and 
DuclCH — MiBccllaneoUB — Piguou Fly. 

Linna>an Society, - IS 

AdilitioiiB to the T.iliriiry — Historioal Section 

Papers Bead — Anoual Reports of OillcerB — Elec. 
tloii of OHieeii.. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Seasonable Hints, . - - - 1:! 

Winter Walks About the Pr.niises, - - - 13 

Farm Food, -..--.. 13 

Pierre Lorillard's Farm, ----- 13 

Cuzco Corn I'rom Peru, - - . - .13 

Why Belgian Farming Pays, - - - - IS 

HORTICULTURE. 

The Best Time to Plant Trees, - . - - l.S 

The Baby Plant, -..-.. 14 

Unlucky Fruit-Growers, - - - - 14 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 
Timely Hints About Furnaces, - 
Wearing Flannel, - . - 
Glue for Polislicd Steel, 
A Wasteful Interest Paid hy Farmers, - 
Fruit in Cellars, - - - - 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 
Lemon Cake, 



Baker's Gingerbread, -...-- 14 



Brine for Corn Beef, 

Suet Pudding, .... 

Indian Meal Pancakes, 

.^|i|j|e Duinplinirs, Boiled, - 

Ciirnnieal Miillins, . 

Yeast Uumplings, ... 

Currant Pudding, I'hiin, - 

Delicate Cake, . . . - 

Fish Pie, 

Relief for Croup, . 

Dried Peach Pudding, 

White Mountain Cake, 

Lemon Pic, .... 

Pennsylvania Sponge Cake, 

A Superior Ointlett, 

Pum[)kin Pie, . . - - 

LIVE STOCK. 

Horseshoeing .\gain, • 
Banish Every Dairy Pauper, - 
Plain Talk About Stock, 
Cattle on the Plains, 
Had to Give a Pig Medicine, 

POULTRY. 
Look After Your Hen Houses, 
About Roosters, 
Egg-Eating by Pullets, . 
Quarantine New Slock, 
Tender Poultry, - - - 
Pedigree of Homers, - 
Don't Cilve Preventives, - 
Literary and Personal, 




THE 



ME Ail) mm 



14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
1.5 

15 
1.5 
1.5 
15 
1.5 

15 
15 
15 
16 
Hi 
Ki 
10 
10 



\ 



OFFICtL, 

No, 9 North Oueen Street 

LANCASTER, PA.. 
THE WEEKLY 

EXAMINER AND EXPRESS, 

Piil»lish(Hl Evory >VcdiM*s(laj Morning, 

T»:in old, well-ostabliRhed ucwsj'Hiier, bthI ryinrniuB jtint the 
news detiirnhU- to make it an intercsiiiiK mid vuluable 
Family Newsiuj'cr. The poslftgo to Bubi'nberB residlug 
ontHidc of Ijam'aBter ooiinty is prild by the i^nblitiher. 
Soud ft»r a (j^cciineu coi y. 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

LANCASTER, fA., 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 

All iiiaft.iH api-ortuiRinp to UNlTKIt STATKS or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TUAUK MAUKS, imd COl'YlilCiUTS. 
prumi.tly attciidfil to. His cxpiTii'iice, siu-cems n d faithful 
atfentioii to tlie intt'reBlB of thopc-who ejigiigp hie services 
arc fully acknowledged :iud ajutieciuted. 

PreliiniiKiry rx:iTiihi;»tioiiM ii-.jidi- tor him by ii rfilinblP Af- 
niKtniii ;it \\'uhhiiit{toii. wiihoiit extra clirtrge for drawing 
ui dcfcrit'tioii. fT'J-l-t, 

SEND FOR 

Ou Coycord Oralicviiie*., Tral:,*l)laated Evergreens. Tulii., 
Pojilur. Lniclen Miillc. etc. Tre- SeedlinRH and Tre< •» for 
timber iiI»iitati<>llK hv rhc lOO.UOd. 

J. J»:\KI.\K< .^I'RSF.KT. 



THE DAILY 

EXAMINER AND EXPRESS. 

Published Kvery Day in the Year, 

The daily is iiulilipbed ev«ry ev*niiig diiriBg iho week' 
and on Suuduy niorntup. It i« delivered in tnoCity ;iurt 
to Nurroundiug T". wnn MCi.'<'.'»»ihle by railroad nnd duly 
etaijp linrt*, fer tlie nftcrooon wt*flk-<luy edition. 10 ocntn 
R woek anil, including th«Snud»/ raoniiiig ptiper 13 

Mrtll Hubf-cription. fr^'e of post agw— One mouth, rtO 
oentM; one year. HS.OO. Inrlndifiu the HntidHy paper. 
out- ni©u:h. fi5 mits; one \»;ir, S4*..'iO. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 

Tbtt job rooTuft of Thk Examiner asd KxrKf>t aro 
flllod with l>if* lutONt fityleip of prc<<Ke(>. ninteriHl, etc.. Atid 
wf' jie ]irfparrd to do all kinds uf Book and fob Frintin 
at nn low pAtea Hnd ^bort uoticw* hr any Pf)t«ViliRhnienC i 
the 9mtr. 

SALE BILLS A SI'E( I.VLTY. 



3-2-79 



WINONA. COl TMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort 1 Queen St.. 

LANCA.SXKR, PA. 



11. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PEKNKYLVAXIA RAII.ROAO 
Trains lkavk tho Depot iu ihis city, 

Leuve 

WE TWARI>, Lancaster. 

Pacific Exprees* -J-Att n. iq. 

Way PitsHengert 5:M0a. m. 

Niagara Kxi'ifss 10:Ur> a. m. 

Hanover Accommodation.. Hi:Ui p. ni. 

Mail train via Mt. Jo.v | 11:05 a. m. 

No. 2 via <*olumbia | 11:07 a. m. 

Sunday Mail I lU:5na. m. 

Past Line*. j 2:10 p. m 

Frederick .Vccommodation. I 2:15 p. m. 

Hurrieburg Accom I o:J5 ji, m. 

C^olumbia Accommodation., T:2fl p. m. 

Harrisburg Express 7:2np. m. 

PittBbnig Express 8:50 p. m. 

Cincinnati Expre-ss' 11:30 p.m. 



■AH f'illow.1 : 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Hxpres^s' 

Philadelpbju E.xpreast 

Fast Line* 

HaiTisburg Express 

ColHrobia Accommodation,. 

Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail , 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express' 

Harrisburg Accom 



Arrive 

Harrisbiir^. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

11:20 a. m. 

Col. 10:40 H. m. 

la:4u p. m. 

12:55 p, m. 

12:40 p. m. 

B:'25p. m. 

Col. 2:45 p. m. 

7:40 p. m. 

Col, 8:20 p. m. 

S:40 p. lu. 

10:10 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 



Tjiiiicaater. 


PUUatleliihia 


12:25 a. m. 


.?:00 a. m. 


4:10 a. m. 


T:00 a. lu. 


5:211 ». m. 


T:40 a. m. 


7:35 a. m. 


10:110 a. m. 


0.10 p. ni. 


12:0 p. m. 


1:25 p. in. 


;-i:40 p. m. 


2:00 ).. IU. 


5:00 ]i. u>. 


'MUT' p. m. 


5:30 p. m. 


5:20 p. m. 


7:20 p. ni. 


0:25 p. m. 


9:30 p. ni. 



The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:85 a. ui., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, counoctsat Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, went, at 2:10 }>. m.. and ruu.s to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy and Landis- 
TiUe. 

*The only trains whicli run daily. 

tlluus daily, except Monday. 

norbeckHiley; 




PRACTICAL 



^ 



Carriage Builders 

cox & CO'S 0L» STA«ft. 

Corner of Oub and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST I.MPKOVEI) 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PH^^TONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 



EDW. J. ZAH\4, 

DEALUIt IN 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS. 

JEWELRYITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole .4geut foi- the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Ufpairing strictly attfuded to. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



ATI.OWEVr POS.SIBI.E PKK'KS. 

Fnlly pliaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-l-li!] Opposite LKopnrd Hotel. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 



l4^tl#w^^ 




tf ' 



P¥^^A 




tfOrji i 00 A HTVIIJ 



iliJOUlilill 
Prices to Suit tlie Times- 

KEPAIKING promptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 
T9-2- 



s. 



i. oox:. 



G. SENTEtl & SONS, 

Manufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 
finished 

The betit Sawed SHI.\<;j.ES in the counlry. Also Hanb, 
Doors, Blindg, Monlding.i, &c, 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

aud PATKN'T BLIND.S. wbicU are far nuxjerior to any 
otbf^r. Alsti best C'<»A1. conwtantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YAllD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts., 

LANCASTKB, FA. 

79-1-12] 

PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Emln-acing tlit- history aud habita of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 




Manufacturer of 



Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA, 

Large Stock Of New and Second-hand Work on hand, 
Tery cheap. Carriages Mode to Order. Work Warranted 
lor one year. [79-1-12 



INSECTS, 



and the best rciTi'^dies lor thpir expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

ThiB work will be Highly IHuatrated, and will be pHt in 
presH (as soon after a sufficient number of BUbacribers can 
be obtained to cover the coBt) as the work can possibly be 
accompli shod. 
79-2- 



$77 



a month aud expenses guaranteed to Agents. 
Outfit free. SHAW tt 00., Augusta, Maine. 




Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trees raised in this county and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C.LYTE. | 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.. Pa. 

Nursery at Smoketowu, six miles east uf LancastiT 
79-1-12 

WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 

WARKROOM.S: 

102 East King St. , Oor. of Duke St . 

LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1 -li] 

Special Inducemanls at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

OF 

NA/. A. HEINITSH 

(over Bursk's Grocery .Store), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assortment of fiir7utnreol all kinds constantly 
on hand. Don't forget the nninber. 

X5 1-2 :E:a,mt ZEizxs Sltr-oet, 

Nov-ly] (over Bnrsk's Grooer.v Store.) 

For Good and Cheap Work go to 

r. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITUKL WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST.. 

(Opposite Northern Market), 
Also, all kinils of picture iraoies. nov-ly 

GREAT BARGAINS. 

A large assortment of all kinds of Carpets are still sold at 
b.'wer rates than ever :ir the 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No. iO-> nest King St. 

('all and examine our slock :iud saUBfy yourself that we 
can show the largest assortraeut of tbewe Brussels, threa 
plies aud iugralu at aii prices— at the iowast Philadelphia 
prices. 

Also on baud a large and complete assortment of Rag 
Caryoi. 

Satisfaction guaranteed bath as to price aud quality. 

You are invited to call and see my gootls. No trouble m 
showing thorn even if you do not want to purchase. 

Don't forget this notice. You eau save money here if you 
want to buy. 

Particular attention given to customer 9ork, 

AIho on baud a full assortment of Counterpanes, Oil 
Cloths and Blankets of every vnriety [nov-lyr. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON Sc CO.. 

38 and 40 West King Strett. 

We keep on lianil uf our own uianuiartnre, 

QUILTS, COVERLETS, 

COUNTERPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau :ind Tidy Covers. Ladiea' Furnishing Goods, No- 
tions, etc. 

Parricular atteution paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
Bcowering and dyeing of all kinds. 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO. 



Nov-ly 



Lancaster, Pa. 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD ' 

Cures by absorption witbont mertiriue. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will dn 
for you what nothing else on earth chu. Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Lancaster s-iy so. Get the gr-uuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lyr 

C. R. KLINE, ■ 
5\ttoi^ney-at-^AW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

LA.NC-A.STKR. FA.. 

NoT-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER. PA., JANUARY, 1880. 



Vol. xn. Mo. 1. 



Editorial. 



"HAPPY NEW YEAR." 

We commence this, the twelfth volume of 
the Lani'astek Faumeh. iimler auspices 
that seem to foreshadow a iin)Si)eroiis future 
to our common country, and especially to 

(those wliose fortunes are cast amongst the 
ranks of its studry yeomanry, who (ind their 
compensations in its generous soil. Prosper- 
ity fosters new wants, liiglier aspirations, a 
wider range and a more expanihd henevo- 
lence, and tliis perliajis is "all right" and 
I)roiier, provided these inipul.ses are judgmat- 
ically guided and kept under rational control. 
We would sincerely tleplore a repetition of 
the trying ordeal througli which the toiling 
millions of our country liave been passing for 
more than half a decade of years, hut if we 
cainiot l)ring tlie e.xperiences of the past to 
guide our footsteps in the future our liistory 
may repeat itself J t as certainly as a comet 
returns. Now, tliat prosperity seem.s to be 
dawning upon our country witii •■Jicaling in 
its wings'' we would congratulate our friends 
and patrons on the auspicious issue. As a 
legitimate means to a worthy end, we may be 
indulged when we desire to become an un- 
selfi.sh participant in wliatever degree of 
success a bountiful Providence may vouch- 
safe to our fellow men, or as nnicli of it as they 
in the plentitude of tlicir feelings may bestow. 
We hope our function is one of 'disinter- 
ested usefulness, and in that capacity we 
desire to serve the community, hoping for a 
reciprocation of the sentiment by extending to 
us their generous aid. We w.ant the people, 
and especially the farmers, of our county and 
our State to regard the Lanca.ster Farmer 
as one of their locally "lixed institutions," 
entitled to their permanent support, materi- 
ally, morally and intellectually. Eleven years 
of uuremitfiug and almost unrequited labor 
in the ranks of agricultural journalism ought 
to entitle the spon.sers of The Farmer to a 
more than mere temporary consideration, and 
our ambition is to make it a realization of the 
wish and will of the farming public; for we 
feel that we can be mutually beneficial to each 
other. We have no desire to occupy the status 
of a lounging interloper, a fawning mendi- 
cant, or an importunate trmnp, but to be one 
of the people, working far tlie people and 
patronized 6// the people. "Wc aspire to be a 
worthy representative of the interests of the 
farming puljlic, and a literary exponent of 
the agricultural lore of our county, as well as 
the grand old commonwealth of wliich she has 
worthily been styled the -'garden spot," and 
so endowed by tlie God of nature. We are 
sensibly aware that we cannot be this, and 
our patrons sliould also be aware of it— with- 
out tlie earnest co-operation of the honest 
tillers of tlie soil, and we tlierefore confidently 
look to tliem for moral, mental and pecuni- 
ary support, and our chief ambition is to make 
our journal wortliy of such support. The 
number of those ■ who feel tliat tlie great 
county of Lancaster occupies too conspicuous 
a )iosition in the agricultural world to be 
without a local literarv representative, is 
increasing daily, not only in quantity, but 
also in qwdity, and we desire for this feeling 
wider and more lucrative sphere. Whether 
weal or woe betide, we have turned the prow 
of our bark "outward bound" for another 
annual voyage, and we ask our friends and 
patrons to 'i)ag its sails" with a generous 
breeze, and we trust that the result of our 
cruise— among other things— may culminate 
in "lumps of gold" tor them and us. Under 
any circumstances, however, may health, 
long life and prosperity be theirs, may 1880 
be at least as fruitful' as 1879, may smiling 



peace <'ontinue on earth, and "good will 
toward men." We are "to the manor born," 
we breathe a common atmosphere, and we 
tread a common soil, and there is no reason 
why we sliould not participate in a common 
interest. With this exposition ofourattitude, 
allow us to wish one and all a thrice '■'■Ilapjnj 
.\«« Year.'' 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS- 
SOCIETY. 

This association will hold its twenty-first 
annual meeting at IJetlilehem, Pa., com- 
mencing Wednesday, .lanuary -Jlst, 1880, at 
3 o'clock, p. m., and continuing over the 22nd. 
A cordial invitation is extended to all inter- 
ested in horticulture, floriculture and kindred 
pursuits, and those who can make it conve- 
nient to attend, we doubt not, will not only 
be interested but also edified and instructed. 
The association is particularly desirous that 
tho.se having fine specimens of fruits, flowers 
or vegetables, should send them to the meet- 
ing for exhibition if they are debarred from 
attending themselves. The following pro- 
gramme of exercises will illustrate the 
general scope of the society's operations. We 
will give a synopsis of the proceedings in our 
February number, and also as many of the 
essays as we may be able to secure; in the 
mean time we would admonish all that they 
cannot "kill time" more appropiiately than 
by attending this meeting. 

Essays and Addresses. 

"Fruit culture in the Cumberland valley," 
by A. E. Longsdorf, of Mechanicsburg, Cum- 
berland county, Pa. 

"The dark side of fruit culture," by Casper 
Ililler, Conestoga, Lancaster county, Pa. 

"Plant life," by one of the members of the 
Society. 

"Can we plant too many fruit trees," by 
Cyrus T. Fox, Secretary of the Berks county 
Agricultural Society, Heading, Pa. 

"Science in the garden," by Prof. S. B. 
Heiges, York, York county. Pa. 

"The management of an orchard," by Dr. 
J. IL Funk, Boyertown, Berks county. Pa. 

"Some experience in strawberry culture," 
by F. F. Merceron, Catawissa, Columbia 
county, Pa. 

"Uses and abuses of pruning," by Jas. 
Calder, President State College, Centre Co., 
Pa. 

"Window Gardening," by Thos. Meehen, 
Editor Gardner's Monthly, Germantown, Pa. 

Other papers and addresses may be expected 
in addition to the following questions which 
have been suggested for consideration and 
di.scussion: 

1st. Are birds really the fruit growers' 
friends? 

2d. Should the tree agent be encouraged? 

3rd. Can the bearing of apple trees be 
changed to the off year ? 

4th. Can we introduce too many seedling 
fruits ? 

')t\\. Pear blight and yellows in the peach. 
What new facts concerning their cause and 
prevention ? 



A WORD IN TIME. 
If the winter continues to be an open one, 
or as lonij as it continues .an open one, farmers, 
gardeners and fruit growers, and indeed, 
housekeepers in general, who have shrubbery, 
trees, vines and plants on their premi.ses 
would do well to give them freciuent "over- 
haulings" during tlie winter, in search of 
grubs, beetles, bugs, worms,|larva' and puiiie, 
inordertobe "forehanded" next spring. \o 
man can tell the prolific results accruing from 
the neglected follicles, cases or sacks, brace- 
lets of eggs, and egg-masses*in general left 



dangling from or as hanging to the branches 
of trees and shrubbery during a single winter 
— they amount to many million. Some of 
these are very conspicuous, others require to 
be looked for, even closely searched for, but 
conspicuous as they are they are still neglect- 
ed. Birds, if we had enough of them, might 
do as mucli of this work as is coasisteut with 
the ordinary balances of nature, but our birds 
are too few and too progressively fastidious 
in their tastes to be depended on. No doubt 
there are many who deem it too small a busi- 
ness to be hunting these minute objects in 
detail ; but, tobacco growers at least, when 
the time comes to cultivate their crops think 
it essential to the value of the same to devote 
their special attention to the tobacco worms 
and other enemies that infest them, however 
laborious or unpleasant it may be. That 
same vigilance should be extended to other 
crops, and especially when such labors may 
act as a prevention rather than a cure. 
Watch the female moths of tlie "canker 
worm, as they come up out of tlie ground, and 
prevent them from a.scending the aiiple trees 
to deposit their eggs. Cut off and destroy all 
the follicles of the "sack worm" which liave 
been left of last year. The.se you may find on 
many trees, but especially on the arbor vittv. 
Remove all clusters of webs from the trees 
and gather all the pupaj of the green "cab- 
bage worms wherever they may be. Sma.sh 
all potato beetles wherever you may find them 
hidden. By attending to these labors thor- 
oughly during fine days in winter you will 
save a great amount of labor next summer, 

and be otherwise rewarded. 

^ 

"DAIRY FARMING," 

Being the theory, practice and methods of 
dairying, by .). B. Sheldon, assisted by leading 
authorities in various countries. Published 
by Cassell, Better, Galpin & Co., Loudon, 
Paris and New York, in monthly parts, 'at 
furty cents per part. 

This is a new and original 24 page quarto, 
in paper covers, embellished with beautiful 
illustrative plates, prepared specially for this 
work, besides numerous original wood en- 
gravings, explanatory of the various pro- 
cesses employed in dairying. We have pa- 
tronized ,somc of the best illustrated quarto 
publications of this or any other country, but 
none have sm'passed or equaled the (juality 
of the paper and letter-press in this. Every 
sheet is fit to receive the finest copperplate or 
steel impression. The simple title of ''Dairy 
FitcHiuiy," by no means expresses the quality 
and scope of the work, nor yet its coniiirehen- 
sive, practical and trustworthy character; it 
must be seen, and its pages carefully scanned, 
to form a proper estimate of its intrinsic 
value. Perhaps no industrial interest in our 
entire country has made greater or more 
healthy advances than that of dairying; and 
the wonderful and increasing demand forfre.sh 
milk, cream, butter and cheese has worked 
such a revolution in this department of our 
domestic productions that it would be im- 
possible to return to the ancient order of 
things, even if we desired to do so. The old 
prejudices aL'ainst "Book farming," and 
"Book dairying" are giving way to more 
liberal and progressive views on these sub- 
jects. The best, the most practical and the 
most economical ideas are now Ijeing embodied 
in serials and books, for the benefit of near 
and remote contemporaries, as well as pos- 
terity. All these considerations beget the 
necessity of such publications as the one under 
review as the proper representative of an 
industrial interest which promises to increase 
in the future far more rapidly than it has in 
the past, and also to enlist in its aid 'A 
greater amount of intelligence. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



To systemize and popularize the develop- 
ments of dairy farming on a comprehensive 
basis, it requires an ably conducted literary 
exponent, such, for instance as the one under 
consideration, which we believe will fully 
realize the anticipations of its patrons. 

The following is a summary of some of the 
subjects which will be comprehensively and 
thorougly treated in dairy farming. 

1. The breeds, breeding and selection of 
cows for dairy purposes, with their feeding 
and treatment through different parts of the 
year. 

2. Milking, the rearing and breeding of 
calves, and the general treatment of stock, 
both young and old. 

3. The various and most recently improved 
methods employed in the production of cheese, 
butter and other dairy products in the best 
dairying districts of England, in the leading 
countries on the continent of Europe, and 
in America and Canada. 

4. The various purposes to which dairy 
products are devoted, the ways in which they 
are disposed of, and the commercial aspects 
of dairy farming in its diflereut branches. 

5. The supplementary stock appertaining 
more or less specially to dairy farming. 

6. The various cultivated crops found in 
the best dairying districts, including roots, 
artificial grasses, leguminous plants, cereals, 
&c., and also weeds and worthless grasses, &c. 

7. Dairy homesteads, farm buildings, fences, 
shelter, the supply of water, &c. 

8. The origin of soils, their formation and 
distribution, explaining the soils and climates 
that are best adapted to dairying, and the 
methods of increasing their adaptation. 

0. Manures, natural and artificial, showing 
the necessary treatment in regard to different 
soils. 

10. Drainage. Explaining the effects of 
drainage on various soils, and the systems 
adopted for securing the best results. 

Subscriptions will be received for a part or 
the entire work, and sample copies sent on 
receipt of price. Cassell, Fetter & Galpin, 
London, Paris, and 596 Broadway, New 
York. 



COAL ASHES AND TOBACCO. 

Preferring to submit the queries of our 
Mai'ticville subscriber to a practical farmer 
for a practical solution, rather than our own 
theoretical views, we are enabled to present 
the following as his answer to said qxieries: 

Dr. S. S. Ratiivon. — "Your postal card 
to hand, lily experience in the use of coal 
ashes on land is very limited. When left in 
a heap exposed to the elements to decom)Jose, 
they may be used to advantage on potato 
ground at the rate of 150 bushels to the acre, 
thoroughly worked in the soil, or 1-5 that 
amount when put in the row. Whether it is 
the plant food they contain, or the mechan- 
ical action on the soil, I am not prepared to 
say. I have never tried them on any of the 
cereal crops or tobacco, but would advise sub- 
criber of Marticville to use part of his two 
cords in that way, also some on meadow or 
grass land, and report the result to The 
FAR3IEU. Being generally considered refuse, 
all the advantage derived from their use will 
be clear gain. 

I would not depend much upon gi-ound 
bone for tobacco, unless some other active 
fertilizing matter, such as good barnyard 
manure was added. It is too slow to decom- 
pose or change to prepared plant food for 
immediate effect. Applied a year previous to 
putting in the crop might be attended with 
better results. "—Jf. D. K., Creswell, Pa. 



Experienced poultry exhibitors said that 
they never saw an exhibition of the kind so 
liberally patronized, from first to last, as the 
one held in Locher's building on this occa- 
sion. 

Possibly all may not have been entirely 
satisfied witli the result, especially those who 
may have entertained personal aspirations, 
but that is a contingency that can never be 
avoided, from the very nature of the case. 

Messrs. W. T. Rogers, of Doylestown, Pa., 
and .John E. Diehl, of Beverly, N. J., two 
acknowledged experts in the business, were 
the judges, having been selected by a congress 
of poultrymen, and, therefore, it is presumed 
that their judgment was fully reliable and 
reasonably satisfactory to the exhibitors. In 
another place in this number of The 
Farsier we have inserted lists of entries and 
the awards of premiums as a permanent 
record that may be referred to with becoming 
pride by the members of the association and 
their friends. The event inaugurates a new 
era in the domestic enterprise of Lancaster 
county, and impressively illustrates that 
"some things can be done as well as others." 
Of course, whatever defects may have become 
apparent in this initiatory occasion, may be 
remedied in future efforts of the kind. As it 
is, the society has covered itself all over with 
glory." 



POULTRY EXHIBITION. 

The first fair of the Lancaster County 
Poultry Association closed at 10 o'clock, on 
Wednesday evening,the7thinst., and in every 
respect was an entire success as it deserved 
to be — indeed, if such energy, perseverance 
and tact, as the managers of it manifested 
from begining to end, had not met with its 
proper reward, no reproacli would have at- 
tached to the yociety. 



MEETING 



OF BOARD OF 
TURE. 



AGRICUL- 



The annual meeting of the Pennsylvania 
State Board of Agriculture will commence at 
Ilarrisburg on .January 28, at 2 o'clock, p. m. 
The programme issued by the Secretary con- 
tains the following subjects for essays and 
discussion : 

Wheat — the best variety from the miller's 
standpoint; the most economical farm fence; 
how can a farmer most economically maintain 
or increase the fertility of his farm V Is stock 
raising profitable in Pennsylvania ? Farm 
fences and ways over the farm from a legal 
standpoint; the adornment of farm liouses; 
are investments in land for renting profitable? 
What is the most profitable crop to succeed 
corn ? Why is the apple not as extensively 
grown in Pennsylvania as in some other 
States ? In addition there will be discus- 
sions upon any subject tha t may be introduced 
by members of the Board. The meeting will 
be held in tlie office of the Board, and an in- 
vitation is extended to all persons interested. 



THE COMING STATE FAIR. 
It can be definitely announced that the next 
State fair will be lield iu the Permanent Ex- 
hibition Building. This course was decided 
upon at a conference held at the Permanent 
Exhibition Building on Friday last. Those 
present were Dr. Egle, D. W. Seller and 
Elbridge McConkey, of Harrisburg; W. S. 
Bissell, of Pittsburg; W. McDowell, of Union 
county — all representing the Pennsylvania 
State Agricultural Society, and Dr. J. A. 
Paxson, representing the Permanent Exhibi- 
tion Company by authority of the Board of 
Directors. The fair will commence on Sep- 
tember 6 and continue for two full weeks. A 
sum vailing from $30,000 to $35,000 will be 
offered in cash premiums. This will be the 
largest sum ever appropriated for this purpose 
by the Society. 



Contributions. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 



ing. Years ago the popular opinion was that 
fat hogs lost about twenty pounds per hun- 
dred of live weight, and you hear the same 
opinion expressed very often even now. That 
the loss in dressing may have been thus large 
a generation or more ago I have not the least 
doubt but the "march of improvement" has| 
also affected the offal of the porkers. 

Having platform scales quite handy we^ 
determined this season to find out the per- 
centage of waste and give it in the table J 
below : 



SHRINKAGE IN KILLING HOGS. 

The I'aising and killing of hogs is so general 
that few families miss having at least one or 
two up to half a dozen or more, especially 
families living in the country, and as regular 
as "butchering day" comes, just so regular is 
the desire to weigh the hogs, and it is gener- 
ally done. 

But of the many persons who weigh their 
hogs, few have the means of determining the 
loss per hundred of live weight in the dress- 





r 




GO 


s-S* 






a" 

a 








1=1 




tn 


r" c- 


K 


(n ■ 


















c* 






-^ 




1 


.3.5.5 


308 


47 


13.2 


13 


2 


3.50 


303 


47 


13.4 


14 


:? 


3.i0 


279 


51 


15.6 


14 


4 


i79 


323 


57 


15.0 


11 


5 


363 


310 


53 


14.6 


11 


6 


328 


278 


.50 


15.2 


11 


av. 


351 


300 


51 


14.5 




a 


407 


3.54 


.53 


13.0 




b 


394 


331 


fi3 


15.9 




c 


387 


380 


57 


14.7 




(1 


i;30 


56fi 


64 


10.2 


27 


e 


574 


.540 


.34 


6.0 


I 22 



It is a little unfortunate that in preparing 
the above table I can give the Essex breed 
only, or their grades. The live weight, or 
the dressed weight could have been given in 
numberless cases, but no data was at hand on 
which to determine the shrinkage. 

Pigs Nos. 1 to 3 were regular grade Essex 
from a white sow of good quality ; the first 
showed most Essex blood, being entirely bla k 
and difticult to distinguish from a pure bred; 
the second was black and white; Nos. 4 to 6 
had also a dash of Essex blood, and as in the 
case of the others the one with the most black, 
No. 5, showed the least shrinkage. The 
average shrinkage of the whole six was only 
14A pounds per hundred of live weight. 

a and h are those with the least and the 
greatest, and c the average shrinkage of a lot 
of ten hogs slaughtered, as given in American 
Agriculturist, by Mr. Joseph Harris, a noted 
breeder of pure Essex stock, and I have no 
doubt the whole ten were pure stock, but it is 
not stated so. The average of these ten is 
very close to the average of the six grades 
in the table so that we may infer that in this 
particular breed the average shrinkage is 
somewhere in the neighborhood of 14^ per 
cent, when the hogs are fat. 

At d \Ve have a well matured hog, twenty- 
seven months, being plenty long enough to 
feed any pig, and probably a longer time than 
is profitable to the feeder. The hog lost only 
ten and one-fifth pounds to every hundred of] 
live weight, and is certainly less than can be [ 
expected, except in some special case, as in 
this, where the object is less the making of 
money than that of making a prize pig to show | 
at some agricultural fair. 

But if we think the above something won- ] 
derful as to the small amount of shrinkage, ' 
what have we to say to e that weighed 574 I 
pounds alive, and slaughtered 540 pounds, the 
shrinkage being only 34 pounds, all told, or 
less than six pounds per hundred of livej 
weight. As far as I am concerned it wouldj 
require an affidavit before a "squire,'! 
strengthed by a certificate from some reliable 
minister, to keep me from doubting the man'^ 
statement 

We may now inquire as to what really conj 
stitutes offal. Shall we designate as offa 
only that which is never used under any com^ 
mon circumstances by any one ? We knor^ 
that the heart, liver and lungs are generally 
cut up into pudding meat, and so this would 
not be offal, though in our weighing this wa3 
not included; then we have further the 
stomach and the intestines which are made 
use of as casings for sausage and pudding 
meats; some also use the blood for bloodi 
puddings. If all these are weighed it wil] 
make a considerable reduction in the shrink^ 
age, but not down to six per cent. 
^In an experiment made by two EnglishmenJ 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Messrs. Lawes and Gill)ert, in fattening pig.s, 
the average weight of the "offal parts" in 
fifty-nine, modei-ately fat, was as follows, per 
hundred pounds of live wciirlit : 

Stomach, intestines, bladder and their con- 
tents, 7 lbs. '.H oz. ; liearl, lungs, liver and 
sweet-bread, 2"lbs. 14 o/. ; caul and intestinal 
fats, 1 lb. iU 07,. ; blood, :i lbs. 10 oz. ; other 
parts and evaporation, 1 lb. l'2i oz. This 
makes a total of about 17.4 pounds, and as the 
pigs were only nioderately fat we would 
probably have to alnite the weight a lil'th, or, 
even a fourth in those tliat were <iuitc fat. 

The percentage of shrinkage is also much 
influenced as to the time Ihe liogs are weighed 
when alive. The th-st six in tlie table were 
weighed just before feeding time,all the others 
had been fasted, I think, perliaps, for as long 
a time as .twenty-four hours. .Sncli a course 
of fasting of course lessens the gross shrinkage 
a great deal, and if now innjlhimj thai xci// or 
canbe UKed be w^Mghed we have no doulit tliat 
the shrinkage might be reduced to something 
like six per cent. 

The usual published statement of the 
shrinkage of hogs is of little value on account 
of the vagueness of the term "offal." The 
customary practice in buying and selling live 
and dressed hogs weald serve as an excellent 
standard, and would be something like the 
following ; 

1. Weigh the hog just before feeding time. 

2. Weigh the dressed carcass only. 

This is fair for iill, for we know that the 
carcass is used by all; in the other parts there 
is this or that rejected as the fancy or the 
taste of the person dictates. — A. £. K. 




For The Lancaster Farmer. 
PROF. BLOUNT'S WHITE PROLIFIC 
CORN. 

lu a late farm journal the announcement 
was made that Prof. Blount's white prolific 
corn should properly be named Blount's folly. 
If such a notice had met my eye before I in- 
vested fifty cents for a quarter of a pound of 
said seed I probably would have left it alone. 
But I have a turn for experimenting with 
new varieties of seed, and where the "folly" 
comes in in this experiment I am unable to 
see. In order that the corn might be as much 
as possible out of the reach of poUeu of other 
varieties 1 was under the necessity of taking 
a patch that was poor and otherwise unsnited 
for a corn crop. The manure given the patch 
was from 000 to 800 pounds of Acid South 
Carolina Rock to the acre, and a handful of 
hen manure to each stalk at hoeing time. 
The ground was marked out three feet apart 
about the middle of May, and the seed drop- 
ped simply about two feet ai'iart. Owing to 
the rough condition of the ^niund nearly one 
third of the seed failed to grow, and after re- 
planting there was still about one sixth of a 
failure. 

The cultivation was thorough — deep 
enough to satisfy the most radical root 
pruner. 

Size of plot one-twelfth acre ; yield thirteen 
bushels of ears which shelled .32 pounds to 
the bushel, making at the rate of over eighty 
five bushels per acre. If the set had been full 
the yield would have been nearly one hundred 
bushels per acre. Many of the plants had 
from 2 to .5 and even more ears, eipiivalent to 
ears from 20 to 40 inches long. There is 
nothing extraordinaiy in the yield. One 
hundred bushels of corn have often been 
grown on an acre, and should much oftener 
be grown. But m this case, taking into con- 
sideration the quality of the land, fifty bushels 
of our common varieties of corn would have 
been an extra crop. 

In very rich soil this corn will have a ten- 
dency to make immense stalks, and in this 
probably the farm journal's "folly" lays. 

But, surely, the intelligent cultivator 
knows that this exuberant plant growth can 
by proper cultivation be checked, or I should 
rather .say changed into a seed forming power. 
If it should ever be practicable to doul)le om- 
present yield of corn per acre, the result will 
be attained by Blount's prolific, or by an im- 
provement on it. 



A good sot, with .'50 inches of corn to each 
stalk will make a yield of over l.'iO bushels 
per acre. Who will be the first to accom- 
l>lish it ? — Cnsifrr lliUer. 



BOTANY.* 

\Ve unquestionably live in an age of pro- 
gress and improvement in the arts and 
sciences, and wo are striving to effect a cor- 
responding imiirovement in all that relates to 
agriculture. We are inquiring how to in- 
crease the products of the soil, and especially 
our cereals. 

We meet on this occasion, however, more 
particularly to discuss questions relating to 
the improvement and increase in the quantity 
and quality of our fruit; an occupation that 
yields its pleasures, and at the same time its 
compensations, not only to ourselves, but also 
to the communities in which we live. It will 
be generally admitted that the work in which 
we are engaged is a praiseworthy one, an 
object of pursuit in which more of our rising 
generation ougnt to be engaged. The ques- 
ti(jn arises, how to induce our boys and girls to 
take an interest in tlie production of fruit, 
and in general what may be termed the "■Staff 
of Life." I am of the opinion that the study 
of liotany in our public sch(X)ls would go very 
far in familiarizing our children with plant- 
life, and engender an interest in horticulture 
and fioriculture at least. I would exalt botany 
to a conspicuous position in the ciincuban of 
the school, even if I were compelled to have a 
little less astronomy, geography and geology. 
A knowledge of the length of the River Nile, 
or the Amazon; the height of the Himalayas, 
or the Andes ; the depth of the Polar Sea, or 
the German Ocean ; the distance from the 
earth to the sun or moon ; the nature of 
Saturn's rings, or the composition of Venus, 
are all well enough in their way, and useful 
as elements of knowledge, but it is a poor 
compliment to knowledge to know all these 
things and yet be totally ignorant of the 
name, the habits and the development of the 
commonest plant beneath your feet. The 
first step to get the young folks interested in 
liotany is to give them practical lessons on 
dowers, plants, shrubs and trees. A small 
garden should be attached to every play- 
ground wherever it may be, and the.se .should 
also occupy the campu.'i of every school. If 
the scholars were to engage understandingly 
in the cultivation of flowers, plants and 
shrubbery, a majority of them, no doubt, 
would become more or less interested in these 
pleasant labors, which would ultimately re- 
sult in a love for the occupation, and beget, as 
it were, a "second nature," for 

"T'is education that forms the common miud, 
Just as the twig is bent tlie tree's inclined." 

One of our greatest florists in the United 
States was professionally a druggist. He 
commenced the cultivation of a few flowers 
as a first essay in floriculture, and from that 
small- beginning he pressed onward and 
upward until he attained the highest floral 
fame. A German professor on the continent 
of Europe commenced the cultivation of a few 
flowers as a recreation and apleasuie, and 
from that little beginning he continueii on step 
by step increasing his knowledge of plant-life 
and agricultural products until he became 
famous. He made a special studj' of how to 
improve poor and unproductive land.s. He 
offered to start an agricultural school with a 
special understanding that its canqms should 
consist of 200 acres of what was considered 
"wornout" land. He went to work on it, 
and made it a fertile plantation, and that too 
from fertilizing material which he found on 
the place. He did not rely upon buying fer- 
tilizers in order to enrich his soil. We are 
not only not advancing in botany, but on the 
contrary we .seem to be going backward in the 
knowledge of plants and the nature and culti- 

•Re*d before the PennaylT*ia Fruit Orower*' Socist;, tt 
Betblohem, Pa. 



vation of onr American forests. The reason 
we are behind our German and English 
cousins on the other side of the Atlantic is 
that we have all imbibed too much of the 
.spirit of "Young America'' — merely pecuni- 
ary interests — or in plain English, making 
money has almost absorbed our entire 
thoughts and puiposes. The first question 
asked is, "does it pay V" So I apprehend it 
will be in regard to botany. Tlie question 
will be asked "■does it paij ' not so much will 
it pay lurenfter, but will it pay here and noic — 
we want the golden eggs without waiting on 
them — ^just iiour. 

As oni! of the evidences that we are going 
backward — at least not forward — in botany, 
I may mention that 1 know of a German 
work on botany, published in Germany in 
17:!1; it is well preserved, has 1200 pages 
and ;5000 illustrations of the plants of Europe. 
It is indexed in nine dill'erent languages, and 
is a botanical and medical work combined. I 
saw another work on the same subject, and 
of the same size, in the librai^ of Abraham 
Cassel, of Montgomery county, also indMced 
in difl'erent languagesj which treats of vege- 
tables, plants and fruit and forest trees, 
published in 1741. I may also mention Philip 
Miller's "Gardener's Dictionary," published 
in Eondon in 1732. It is a folio of about 1,000 
pages, without an index, but the subjects are 
arranged alphabetically, and when compared 
with modern works of the same character it 
is difiicult to determine the amount and char- 
acter of the progress we have made in 148 
years, if any. Such valuable books were 
never, to my knowledge, published in Ameri- 
ca. If some of those old books were translat- 
ed into the English Language, or the most 
valuable extracts from them published in 
volumes of smaller size, or were condensed 
into common handbooks with the English 
names attached to all the plants, shrubbery 
and forest trees, it would be a benefit to the 
agricultural community. 

Although the Latin names in botany, as a 
general thing, are distasteful to those who 
have received only a common school educa- 
tion, and are not easily kept in memory, yet 
I would not entirely discard them. They 
might be so pareuthecised in italics that the 
composition could be read without pronoun- 
cing them, and still the sense be preserved; 
because, however, objectionable they may be 
they still perform an important use where 
there is a different common name in different 
localities for the same object. Ko doubt 
these technical names have kept many young 
folks from taking up botany as a study. I 
have a variety of trees and shrubbery in my 
enclosures, and veiy few would comprehend 
such classical names as Conifer, Quercus, 
ropuhm or lietnta, but the familiar names of 
Pines, Oaks, Poplars or Birches, they would 
readily luiderstand. These difliculties would, 
however, in time be overcome if the study of 
plants, shrubbery and fruit and forest trees 
was introduced into our common, or public 
schools. It would introduce a new era in our 
system of education, in the engagements of 
domestic life, and at the same time result in a 
pecuniary benefit to the community and the 
country. It would be the advent, as it were, 
of a new creative power, and scripturally 
assist the earth tn "bringing forth its 
increase." It doubtless would also have a 
tendency to keep our rising generation from 
leaving their country homes and hankering 
after the uncertain and im.satisfying bland- 
ishments of city life, those homes where they 
spent their earliest, their healthiest and their 
happiest days, and where, instead of being 
mere dependents, they could continue to be 
local producers of the needed stufl" to feed a 
hungry world. To benefit himself and supply 
his city cousins with the "staff of life," 
would "in all probability secure the country- 
man the enjoyment of better health, and a 
green old age," make December as pleasant 
as May. " It might also eftect beneficially the 
young folks who have been raised in cities and 
towns; it might induce them to remove to and 
settle in the country, where cheap lands could 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January 



be purchased, and become cultivators of the 
soil, to become producers instead of mere 
consumers, to raise vegetables, plants, fruit, 
trees and shrubbery, as well as wheat, corn 
and other products to feed those in the towns. 
It would employ and remove the floating pop- 
ulation of the towns into the rural districts, 
break up selfish trades-combinations, and 
restore peace and prosperity over the whole 
country. It would cause two blades of grass 
to grow where but. one, or none, is growing 
now, and strengthen the bulwarks of the 
nation. 

These views may seem Utopian, but a time 
will surely come in the experimental history 
of our country when their realization will be a 
necessity. Men have need to see and appre- 
ciate the handiwork of their Creator, that 
unseen power which animates them, that 
invisible operation which invites their visible 
co-openition, and is ultimated in the useful 
and beautiful products of the soil. These are 
far superior to anything that can be produced 
by science or art. Indeed the}' constitute the 
essei»tial material basis upon which alone 
science and art can be manifested. All that 
is useful and beautiful in science and art, is 
but the type, of which nature is the antetype ; 
when a man is indifferent to, or scorns, 
neglects, or contemns the bounteous produc- 
tions of nature he becomes a moral suicide, 
if not a willful malefactor. Amateur botany 
is extending itself; we see it in the green- 
house, the conservatory, tUie garden, in the 
yard, on the lawns and in the windows of 
mansions to an immensely greater extent than 
it was noticed only ten years ago, and every 
where its influence is refining; but we need to 
have its elementary principles taught in oiu- 
public and private schools, as a centre from 
whence its rays may diverge until they reach 
and vivify the very circumference of social 
humanity. — L. S. R. 



RECENT ADVANCES IN ARCHAEOL- 
OGY.* 

Aj-chaeology has been generally defined as 
the acience of antiquities. The subject has, 
however, grown beyond its title, and archae- 
ology must now be regarded as a generic 
term, including a number of sciences — some 
natural and others artificial, but each of them 
sutlicieutly comprehensive to demand the 
labor of a life time from him who desires to 
become familiar with all its various details. 
With all this division and subdivision, the 
whole subject is, however, pervaded by one 
general idea, and archaeology, therefore, de- 
serves to be called a science, in the liighest 
sense of the term. 

Among all the sciences there is not one 
which has of late years progressed so rapidly. 
Its relations to ethnology and anthropology 
have been fixed; the order of the subordinate 
sciences has been established ; and under each 
one of these, discoveries have been made of 
which the world had never dreamed. It seems 
hardly credible that not ten years ago the 
President of the Board of one of our colleges 
should have remarked, in answer to a query 
concerning the duties of a professor of 
history and archaeology : "The duties of a 
professor of archaeology involve at most a 
little instruction in flrecian and Roman 
antiquities. It is a meaningless term, 
expressive of history in one of its aspects. It 
is used to round a sentence and nothing 
more." 

It seems'strange that anyone should under- 
value the importance of archaeologic study. 
Apart from the fact that it furnishes a great 
part of the materials of history, it "is a 
constant pleasure to those who understand 
its signs and symbols. There would bo few 
Inducements for an American to visit the 
old world if it were not for the remains of 
that ancient civilization to which we can 
trace link by link the origin of all that is 
graceful, ornamental and beautiful in our 
architecture, .sculpture and the arts of design. 

The archaeologic .sciences may conveniently 

"Read before the Lancaster Linnsean Society by Re?. J. 
H. DBbbe, D. D., December 2T, 1879. 



be regarded as consisting of three widely 
contrasted departments ; 1. Prehistoric arch- 
aeology ; 2. Historic archaeology ; 3. The 
minor archaeologic sciences. Unfortunately, 
so far as I know, these separate branches are 
nowhere treated in a single volume, so that it 
is difficult for a beginner to obtain that com- 
prehensive view of the whole field which is 
necessary for the intelligent study of any one 
of its departments. 

It is said, by some writers, that archaeology 
naturally begins with that branch of geology 
which is'known as paleontology, and wliich is 
properly the natural histoi'y of the primeval 
world. This, however, is not strictly speaking 
correct. Paleontology is not .so much a part 
of archaeology as a condition for its intelligent 
stud\'. It is also very desirable to havi; some 
knowledge of comparative anatomy, and the 
principle of the correlation of forms, but as 
archaeology is principally concerned with the 
beginnings of art, it is not necessary to give 
our attention to any period earlier tlian those 
in whicli we first find evidences of human 
skill. There has been much difference of 
opinion as to the time when man ajipeared 
on the stage. It is however, generally con- 
ceded that he has existed in Jiuri)i)e during 
all the past tertiary periods ; and though the 
facts of prehistoric archaeology Ijy no means 
indicate so extreme an antiquity for the 
human race as was at first supposed, it is 
also true that they cannot be made to agree 
with the chronology ofPetavius and Arch- 
bishop Usher. 

If, however, there is some difference of 
opinion among archaeologists concerning the 
antiquity of man, it must be acknowledged 
that they have labored with reasonalile una- 
nimity in combating the arguments of the 
philosophers who hold that man was manifold 
in his creation. Ihey have shown that 
mankind consists of a single species, which 
wherever its migrations can be traced, can be 
derived from a single locality — they have 
shown us that, in its earliest developments, 
humanity was the same all over the world — 
that in the old world and the new, primitive 
man was in possession of weapons, imple- 
ments and ornaments, which were at least 
closely similar, if not precisely identical. In 
short, all these researches go to sustain the 
truth, asserted long ago in the sacred Scrip- 
tures, that "God has made of one blood all 
the nations of men. " 

A few years ago archaeologists were in- 
clined to hold that the course of civilization 
had everywhere been precisely the same; that 
there had been everywhere the same succes- 
sion of epochs, or ages, to be distinguished by 
the kind of weapons and implements employed ; 
and these ages, it was popularly believed, were 
separated by a hard and fast line, so that the 
one never encroached on the territory of the 
other. Thus, for instance, it was supposed 
that the rough-stone, or Palaeolithic period, 
always jireceded tlie polished stone, or Neo- 
lithic; and that men everywhere used bronze 
implements for many centuries before they 
discovered the use of iron. Recent investi- 
gations have rendered it evident that these 
statements must be received with consider- 
able limitations. In this country it has been 
found that rough and polished stone imple- 
ments were employed contemporaneously, 
and that where a difference in age must be 
recognized, it is found that the polished 
implement is older than the "palaeolith" — 
thus indicating that the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of America were more skillful and 
cultured thousands of years ago than at a 
more recent period. So too, in Europe, it is 
found that in some places rude methods of 
producing iron were employed before the 
people had learned the art of making weapons 
of bronze. It is proliable that archaeologists 
will continue to distinguish between the age 
of stone and the age of metal, and that the 
various subdivisions will be noted as a mat- 
ter of convenience; but it has come to be 
recognized that no such distinctions can be of 
universal application. 
In every department of archaeology earnest 



students are at work, and have recently 
made gigantic progress. It is not necessary 
that we should consider at length the recent 
discoveries of extensive palafittes in Switzer- 
land and Lombardy, which have added tens 
of thousands of specimens to the great col- 
lections of prehistoric art, and especially to 
those which illustrate the bronze period. 
Having enjoyed an opportunity of examining 
tlie extensive museum of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries at Edinburgh, and the immense 
collection of Dr. Ferdinand Keller, "the 
father of prehistoric archaeology," at Zurich. 
I venture to say that the artistic skill mani- 
fested by these mysterious races was far in 
advance of anything which I had ever antici- 
pated. Engravings give us but an imperfect 
idea of ihe beauty of many prehistoric weapons 
and ornaments. There are -specimens of 
bangles and orooches, representing forms of 
animal and vegetable life, which would have 
been no discredit to the earliest artists of 
Greece and Rome. 

In the various departments of historic 
archaeology progress is constant and rapid. 
Dr. Schlieman astonishes us with a series of 
discoveries, each one more wonderful than the 
preceding, which will require years of study 
before they can be assigned their proper place 
in the domain of knowledge. George Smith, 
just before his death, announced thiat he had 
discovered the ruins of CarchemLsh, the 
ancient capital of the Hittites, and prophe- 
sied that they would prove even more inter- 
esting than those of Nineveh and Babylon. 
There they remain awaiting investigation, 
and soon, no doubt, another page will be 
added to the history of our race. 

In palaeography the recent advances have 
been especially wondeiful. One by one the enig- 
matic inscriptions of the orient have yielded 
to the patient toil of European scholars. lu 
canse(iuence of the labors of such men as 
Champollion, and at a later period, Rawlinson, 
Oppert, Lassen, Spiegel and others; the 
history of the East has been entirely rewritten. 
The Cypriote inscriptions, which were re- 
garded as an unfathomable mystery, were 
read by George Smith, with a degree of 
facility which is, in a certain sense, more 
incomprehensible than the inscriptions them- 
selves. Recently especial attention has been 
given to the inscriptions of Central America, 
and they are beginning to tell their secrets. 
In the proceedings of the Ethnographic 
Society of France, which I have the lionor to 
present to the Society, there is an article 
by the great Assyriologist, Dr. Oppert, in 
which he expresses his delight that the key to 
the hieratic characters of Yucatan has at last 
been discovered ' by Count Leon de Rosny. 
Tlien follows a discourse by Count de Rosny, 
giving an account of the process by which he 
discovered the phonetic meaning of a number 
of these hieroglyphics. These articles are 
very interesting, but we cannot enter into 
particulars. It is. not too much to say that 
the most diiiicult part of the work is accom- ■ 
plished, and that we may soon expect new 
light to be thrown on the prehistoric races of 
America. When John L. Stephens nuised on 
the ruins of Uxmal and Copau he exclaimed, 
"O, that some Champollion would arise to re- 
veal the mysteries of these ancient cities, where 
all is doubly night." The Champollion is on | 
his way, and future generations will no doubt ' 
study the history of nations of which we do 
not even know the name. There is nothing 
hidden which shall not be revealed. History 
is approaching its final consummation, but 
before it is reached its accounts must be 
made up — the most remote recesses must be 
investigated. It must be seen that human 
history is not the blind working of unconscious 
forces ; that nothing has occurred in vain; , 
but that all things have conduced to the ]< 
development of a "prehistoric" plan that will "• 
at last stand revealed in all its symmetry and 
beauty. Considered from this point of view, 
every" discovery, however apparently insig- 
nificant, acquires a new meaning and throws 
light on the greatest of mysteries— the devel- 
opment of the Providence of Almighty God; 



1880.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Selections. 



THE LUNG PLAGUE. 

Pleuro-Pneumonia Contagiosa, 
Tliroii^li the I'iivoi- of Secretary Thomas .1. 
Ed-^e, of the State Boanl of Agriculture, we 
have lieeii favored willi advanced proof slieets 
of ail able and exliuutstive article on the 
"I>un.i; Plague, or I'leuro-pneiimonia," wliicli 
will aiipear in the forthcoming annual volume 
issued by tlie State Agricultural Society. It 
is of general interest to stockmen and farmers, 
and we avail ourselves of the o|i|)ortunity of 
quoting from it liberally, as this fatal disease 
lias to a limited extent secured a foothold 
anionic the herds of lliis county, uiid threatens 
lo prove most destructive unless our cattle 
owners are prepared to sound tlie note of 
warning at tlie (irst njipearance of the disease 
and tlius keep il witliin bounds (u- exterminate 
it entirely. 

What the Disease has Cost. 
The immense loss which must result from 
the infection of the large herds of tlie West 
and Soutliwi si has been pointed out. It has 
been shown that Kuglaiid, with only six 
million animals, has lost more than SoOO.OOU,- 
000 by this disease since its introduction from 
Holland, and that in the samt' ratio the intro- 
duction of the disea.se among twenty-eight 
million cattle wonld cause a loss of .'|2,()U0,- 
000,0011 in an equal time. That in our own 
State the loss would be in a short time seri- 
ously imjiair an important interest, and would 
prove eminently more fatal in the West, where 
all interests are more or less intimately con- 
nected with that of stock raising, and where 
all interests thrive or languish in synipathy 
with it. 

Massachusetts, by prompt and vigorous 
action, eradicatcil the disease from iier 
borders, and last year ex[ieiided less than lifty 
dollars for this purpose. It is true that the 
struggle cost her nearly ftiS.dllO, but herstoek- 
owners well knew that an immnnily from the 
disease was cheaply imrcliased at this price. 
The disease had insidiously crept from dairy 
to dairy, from farm to farm, and from stack- 
yard to another, until four of the leading 
dairv counties of the eastern portion of the 
State were infected. In these counties the 
entrance of the di.sease inio a herd was con- 
sidered as tantamount to a loss of from 
twenty to lifty jier cent., and soiiietimes ex- 
ceeded even the latter rale. Dairies were 
broken up, the business abandoned, and, in 
many cases, the surviving animals sold and 
scattered, thus forming centers of further 
contagion. 

Spread of the Disease. 

Agents of the British Government, accom- 
panied by competent veterinary surgeons, 
who were familiar willi the disease during its 
lavages in England, starting from Canada, 
fonnd it in all tlie Atlantic States, from 
Alassachusetts to Carolina, and, reporting its 
presence to the home tiovernmeut, a (piaran- 
tine was ordered on all American cattle. 
They failed to recognize tlie fact that the 
«ittle thus imported did not come from 
infected districts, and that they did not come 
in contact with infected cattle; but, tinding 
mpjKised cases of contagious lung plague 
(pleuro-pnenmonia) in the cargo of the Onta- 
rio, at once issued the edict which practically 
stopped the importation of live American 
cattle, at least for a time. 

The farmers of our State were aroused to 
tlie imminent danger resulting from the per- 
manent location ofthedisease in this country. 
Several States, formutual help and protection, 
had joined in an endi^avor to stay the pest, 
and the assistance of our State was asked. 
Our past losses were estimated at from S.500,- 
000 to S7.')0.n(K>, and good judges places the 
amount even liigher, and it was impossible to 
estimate the loss, if nothing wa.s done to 
prevent its further siire.ad. 

The result was that all the facts in the case 
were laid before the Joint Committee of Agri- 



culture of both Houses of the State Legisla- 
ture. A draft of an act was offered, and 
after being amended, jiassed both branches 
and became a law on May 1, 1879. The fol- 
lowing is the text of this law ; 

An Act 

To prevent the spread of rontngious or infectious 
pleuro-pneumoniu amomj the rattle in this 
State. 

? 1. /{( it enacted, <tc.. That whenever it 
.shall be brought to the notice of the (Governor 
of this State that the disease known as conta- 
gious or infectious pleuro-pneumonia exists 
among the cattle in any of the counties in 
this State, it shall be his duty to take meas- 
ures to promptly sujipress the disease and 
prevent it from spreading. 

i 2. That for such purpose, the (Jovevnor 
shall have power and he is hereby authorized 
to issue his proclamation, stating that the 
said infectious or contagious disease exists in 
any county or counties of the State, and 
warning all persons to seclude all animals in 
their possession that are affected witli such 
disease or have been expo.sed to the infection 
or contagion thereof, and ordering all persons 
to take such precautions against tlie spreading 
of such disease as the nature thereof may in 
his judgment render necessary or expedient; 
to order that any premises, farm, or farms 
where such disease exists or has existed to be 
put in quarantine, so that no domestic animal 
be removed from said iilacc so (luarantined, 
and to prescribe such regulations as he may 
judge necessary or expedient to prevent infec- 
tion or contagion being communicated in any 
way from the places .so quarantined: to call 
upon all sheriffs and deputy slieritls to carry 
out and enforcj the provisions of such [iroela- 
mations, orders and regulations, and it shall 
bo the duty of all the sheriffs and deputy 
slieritls to obey and observe all orders and in- 
structions which they may receive from the 
Governor in tlie premises; to employ such and 
so many medical and veterinary practitioners, 
and such other persons, as he may from time 
to time deem necessary to assist him in per- 
forming his duty as set forth in the first 
section of this act, and to fix their etjinpensa- 
tion;to order all or any animals coming into 
the State to be detained at any place or places 
for the purpose of inspection and examination; 
to prescribe regulations for the destruction of 
animals affected with the said infectious or 
contagious disease, and for the proper disjiosi- 
tion of their hides and carcasses, and of all 
objects wliieh might convey infection or con- 
tagion, (provided that no animal shall be 
destroyed unless first examined by a medical 
or veterinary practiticmer in the employ of 
the Governor as aforesaid;) to prescribe regu^ 
lations for the disinfection of all premises, 
buildings and railway cars, and of objects 
from or by which infection or contagion may 
take iilace or be conveyed; to alter and modify; 
from lime to time, as he may deem expedient, 
the terms of all such proclamations, orders 
and regulations, and to cancel or withdraw 
the same at any time. 

S 3. That all the necessary expenses incuri 
red under the direction or by authority of the 
(Joverijor in carrying out the iirovisions of 
this act. shall be paid by the treasurer upon 
the warrant of the Auditor General, on being 
certified as correct by the Governor: Providtd, 
That animals coming from a neighboring 
State that have passed a veterinary examina- 
tion in said State, and have been quarantined 
and discharged, shall not be subject to the 
provisions of this act. 

The Governor Appoints an Agent. 
Immediately after the passage of the above 
act Governor Iloyt appointed an agent, who 
was authorized to prohibit the movement of 
cattle in infected districts without license 
granted after examination. All owners and 
employees were ordered to report all cases of 
disease to him. Cattle infected were to be 
quarantined or slaughtered, at the agent's 
discretion. He was also authorized to disin- 
fect premises and the clothing of persons 
owning infected herds. He was required to 



certify to the vfilne of all diseased cattle 
slaughtered, giving the owners such certifi- 
cates, but where owners willfully withheld 
information, no such certificates were to be 
granted. A number of other minor regula- 
tions were also provided for his guidance. 

In consequence of the above, the agent 
issued a circular, requesting a cordial co-oper- 
ation on the part of farmers and other owners 
of cattle, and dwelt witli mucli emphasis on 
the danger and loss wliich would result from 
the concealment of diseased ca.ses, not only to 
the individual owners, but to the State at 
larire. He expressed the hope, that if all 
parties would iieartily act in concert witli him, 
the ravages of the disease could be controlled. 
Action of the State Authorities. 
Under the commi.ssiou before quoted the 
agent of the Governor has, (up to November 
I,) quarantined twenty-seven herds, including 
four hundred and eight animals, liable lo in- 
fection, and distributed in the following 
counties : Adams, one; Lancaster, four; 
York, one; Bucks, one; Delaware, four; 
Montgomery, five, and Chester eleven. Of 
these herds eight, (one in York, three in 
Montgomery, and four in Cli(?ster,) have since 
been released from the (luarantine and pro- 
nounced safe from another outlireak, except 
from a fresh infection from outside sources. 

As soon as the supposed existence of the 
disease is reported, each animal in tlie herd 
is iuspect'ed by a veterinary surgeon in 'the 
emjiloy of the" State, and if the disease is 
found to exist, is promptly quarantined to 
prevent its spread to adjoining herds, in 
order, if possiljle, to prevent further contagion 
in the same herd, all diseased animals are ap- 
praised and killed. 

The history of all the above herds is given 
in detail, but we have room only for the 
particulars of a single one given as herd No. 
•2, containing 20 cows, 2 bulls and 10 calves, 
which was quarantined .June 12. Previous to 
quarantine four head had died, and after the 
enforcement of tlie (luarantine, fourteen head 
were killed. With one possible exception, all 
the animals were afl'ected, and a nuint)er of 
them are now in a condition in which the^ 
are worse than useless to the owner. In this 
case the evidence is strongly in favor of the 
theory that the owner conveyed the disease to 
his herd by assisting in the care of another 
infected dairy. No spread of the disease to 
adjoining farms; but it is quite probable that 
the disease was carried from this herd to herd 
No. 2 in the clothing or on the person of the 
owner, who administered medicine to both 
herds This herd has furnished an illustra- 
tion of the disease in one of its worst forms, 
but is now believed to be clear, but not 
beyond the danger of infecting other stock. 

Wc may find room for another installment 
of this article, as the most interesting partic- 
ulars, relative to the name, history, nature 
and svmptoras of the disease, remain to be 
enumerated. These, when properly under- 
stood and carefully watched for, may save the 
farmers the choicest members of their herds, 
and much money besides. 

OUR TOBACCO CROP. 

One of the most important and profitable 
crops DOW grown in Pennsylvania is that of 
tobacco, and every year the area of ground in 
which it is planted is extended. In 1849, it 
is stated, the crop of seed leaf in Connecticut, 
t)hio and Pennsylvania was set down at 6,000 
cases, one-third Of which was exported and 
the rest sold at from 14 to Iti cts. per pound to 
speculators. In 18o0 Pennsylvania grew 
3,.'jOO cases, the largest crop grown in the 
state up to that time. Since that time there 
has been an annual increase, the crop of 
of 1S70 being the largest vet reported. 

At the commencement" of the tobacco sea- 
son this year the farmers in the counties of 
Lancaster, Y'ork, Lebanon and Chester were 
greatly troulilcd with the cut worm, and in 
some instances it Ijecame necessary to replant 
two or three times. Then came the dry spell 
which lasted until nearly the middle of July, 
and during all this time it was thought by 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



many that the crop would be a faihire, but the 
rains which came near the close of July had 
the effect of giving new life to the plants, and 
at the end of the season the crop was found 
to be one of the best yet produced. 

The good quality of the tobacco here, it is 
said, is owing to the fact that stable manure 
is used, instead of guano and other fertilizers, 
as is the practice in Connecticut and other 
states. It is estimated that the crop of 1879 
in Lancaster, York and Lebanon, will amount 
to 60,000 cases of 400 pounds each, being one 
of the largest crops ever grown in these coun- 
ties. Half of this amount has already been 
purchased by dealers, principally tliose in 
Lancaster, and the other half is fast coming 
into market. The price for this crop ranges 
from 15 to 30 cents per pound for tobacco 
suitable for wrappers; 8 to 10 cents for seconds 
and about 5 cents for fillers. A large quan- 
tity of the tobacco is used in the county for 
the manufacture of cheap cigars, this being 
one of the largest revenue districts, so fiir as 
this article is concerned, in the country. 
The entire production this year, according to 
the estimate made by those most familiar 
with the business, is over 24,000,000 pounds, 
which will yield in the neighborhood of 
83,000,000. 

The farmers engaged in the business plant 
from 1 to 40 acres, and, in a good season they 
expect to gather from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds 
from each acre, which yields them, from $200 
to $400, according to the quality of the tobac- 
co. The tobacco, when growing, looks like a 
hardy weed, and not at all a nasty one, but it 
is subject to many mishaps if not nursed and 
watched with great care. In the the first 
place the land must be rich, and if planted in 
tobacco eVgry year, heavily manured after 
each crop. The seed is planted early in the 
spring, generally in forcing beds, and the 
young plant is set out from the last of May 
until late in July, in rows 3i feet apart, the 
planting from 12 to 18 inches apart. The 
work of caring for the tobacco commences 
soon after planting and continues almost 
without intermission until delivered into the 
warehouses of the purchaser. The ground 
must not only be kept clear of weeds and well 
cultivated, but the worm, the worst enemy of 
the plant, must be watched for and killed as 
soon as found. If these pests to the tobacco 
growers are allowed to remain until they 
attain any size they would ruin the leaf by 
eating holes in it and thus destroy it for use 
as wrappers for cigars. In some places tur- 
keys are used to destroy the worm. The 
turkey not only seems to have a quick eye for 
the worm, but a voracious appetite for them, 
swallowing them as if the ugly green things 
were of the most dainty character. The 
tobacco IS cut about the last of August, and 
then hung in buildings to dry. These 
buildings are thoroughly ventilated, having 
generally slatted openings that can he closed 
or opened as the weather is favorable or un- 
favorable for drying purposes. The tobacco 
is carefully watched until ready foi- stripping. 

The tobacco barn Is now one of the most 
important features connected with the busi- 
ness. The old style of using wagon sheds, 
garrets or any old building has nearly passed 
away. The barns that have been or" are now 
being erected are large and costly. All these 
barns have cellars, which are indispensable 
for preparing the leaf for market, for it per- 
mits the removal of the tobacco from the 
laths, when in stripping condition, and its 
remaining in that condition until the grower 
has time to prepare for its sale. 

The farmers before selling assort the to- 
bacco, so as to have the same size and color, 
but when the dealer gets it he re-assorts the 
leaf before packing. Each bundle of a half 
dozen leaves is shaken up and examined, and 
if all the leaves are of the same color, size 
and quality it is allowed to pass, The defi- 
cient leaves are taken'out and graded after- 
wards separately. Every pound is thus 
handled, the lower grades, of course, not with 
the same care, and each grade is put in a case 
to itself, a sample of it being kept out, the 



sales being made by the sample during the 
summer, before the sweating process|has been 
completed. But if he holds on to his tobacco 
until the fall or winter, it lias to be re-inspect-' 
ed by regular inspectors who are recognized 
by the trade, and the samples selected by 
them are used for selling purposes. 

In the counties, York, Cumberland, and 
Perry there are a great many hands employed 
in the manufacture of cigars, and in Lancas- 
ter alone $86,000 worth of cigar stamps were 
used in September last, which is equivalent to 
a sale of 15,000,000 cigars. The total amount 
of revenue collected from the cigar industry 
of this district for the fiscal year ending June 
30th, 1879, was $700,866, show a i)roductiou 
of cigars amounting to one luuidred and 
sixteen million eight hinidred and eleven 
thousand. 

Mr. F. R. Dittenderffer, of Lancaster, in 
a recent report to the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, states thao tobacco can be growu suc- 
cessfully wherever Indian corn will mature. 

As a rule, wherever the mean temperature 
during the month of July is as much as sixty- 
eight degrees Fahrenheit tobacco can be 
grown. From this it will be seen that among 
the Northern states, nearly, if not all New 
England, central New York, Ohio, southern 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and part of Iowa 
and Wisconsin are adapted to its cultivation, 
perhaps quite as well as Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia, unless in seasons of unusually early 
frosts. But even this disadvantage can be 
overcome by a careful selection of the jiroper 
varieties, and acclimatization. Southward, of 
course, there is no limit, as it is able to bear 
any degree of heat or humidity the tropics 
have to offer. Were it not for our more 
variable climate, there exists no known 
reason why brands as choice as any grown in 
Cuba might not be grown in Pennsylvania. 
The readiness with which Cuban varieties 
adapt themselves to our more northern 
climate is another evidence nf the remarkable 
degree of adaptability possessed iiy Ihisiilant. 
Temperature is the gre;il regulalor, and we 
may set it down as a pretty .safe rule, that 
wherever frosts do not occur bct^veen the 
middle of May and the middle of September, 
say a period of one hundred and twenty days, 
tobacco growing cau be successfully carried on. 
He also states that the area of tobacco cultiva- 
tion is gradually extending to portions of the 
state where its culture was unknown hitherto. 
Lycoming and Clinton counties now boast of 
a very fair acreage, and some of the fields 
compare very favorable with those of Lancas- 
ter and York. Its cultivation has also been 
commenced in W^estmoreland county. 

There is still in Lancaster from" 7,000 to 
8,000 cases of the crop of 1878. — Hanieloc in 
Philadelphia Lcdyer. 

^ 

TRAITS OF ANIMALS. 



Dogs, Birds, a Parrot, a Monl<ey, a Spider and 
a Bullfrog. 

A bullfrog recently caught at West Chester 
when opened was found tn have swallowed a 
i full grown mouse. 

A cat was sent by express, cai-Ll'ully boxed, 
from Dansville to Bochester, a distance of 
fifty miles. Not many days afterward, tabby 
came walking into her old lionie. 

When a good housewit'r of Kirkaldy went 
for a ham that had hung (rum the rafters, it 
had a fair exterior, but was a perfect shell, 
skin and bones only remaining to show its 
form, while the rat, after living so sumptu- 
ously, had built a nest in the centre, and was 
easily captured. 

A parrot belonging to Cajjt. Eichelberger, 
of Baltimore, was always present at family 
prayers. One morning, when in the garden, 
a hawk flew down and seized the parrot, when 
it shrieked : "Oli, Lord, save us ! Oh, Lord, 
save us!" which so frightened the hawk 
that he dropped his prize. 

At Priest's hotel, on the road from Cala- 
veras Grove to the Yosemite, is a dog who one 
hour before the arrival of the stage goes 
leisurely down the road to meet it, then 



bounds back to the poultry yard, catches 
chickens, bites their heads off, and takes 
them to the cook. He takes one chicken for 
each gentleman in the stage, never making a ] 
mistake. 

An expert in antique coins in Paris is a ' 
poodle. The money being placed upon a 
table the dog being introduced, and after 
nosing among them will knock off tlie table 
all the bad pieces with his paw. After ac- 
quiring great fame it was found the whole 
thing was a trick. His master took care to 
handle only the bogus coins, and the poodle's 
decisions were arrived at by faculty of scent. 

A wandering "chippy" was picked up by a J 
St. Louis lady and placed in the cage with | 
her canary. In the morning it was released, 
when the canary mourned as if it had lost its 
mate. In the evening the chippy returned, 
and was allowed to nestle on the cage, when 
the canary struck up one of the liveliest notes 
and seemed gratified. This was repeated for 
three days. Then chippy failed to return. 
The canary drooped and soon died. 

A monkey belonging to a gentleman of the 
south of France often helps the cook. Being 
given a pair of partridges to pick one day, he 
seated himself in an open window. A hawk 
flew down and snatched one of the birds, 
wlieu the monkey tricked the hawk by secret- 1 
ing himself, and, waiting, soon saw him come i 
for the other, when the monkey caught the 
thief. Plucking both the hawk and the re- 
maining partridge, he took them to the cook, I 
and the change was not discovered until the ] 
game (?) was served at table. 

A couple of seals, the property of Major 
Urch, of Portsmouth, N. H., were kept in a 
tank, and were as tame as dogs. One of them 
died recently, and Major Urch concluded to , 
give the other its liberty, it seemed to grieve 
so much at its loss. He took the tank to the 1 
river bank and released the seal, thinking it 
would swim out to sea. It swam all around 
the river, but soon returned crying in distress 
and flapped into its old quarters on the bank, 
and stubbornly refuses to be ejected. 

An enormous eagle in Georgia swept down 
upon two little girls, aged 3 and 5 years, 
throwing them to the ground. It buried its 
talons in the face and arm of the elder and 
attempted to cary off the child, but was pre- 
vented by her struggles. A little brother 7 
years of age came to her assistance with a 
carving knife, slashing the eagle's legs, when 
it turned upon the boy, who was soon released j 
by the appearance of Joe Betzler a neighbor, 
upon the scene, who shot and killed the bird. 
It measured seven feet from tip to tip of wing. 

A spider is a glutton, as was evidenced by 
an experiment recently made. A gentleman 
arose at daybreak and supplied a spider who 
had an extensive web, with a fly. This was 
at 5:50 o'clock, a. m., in September. The 
spider was then feeding on an earwig. He 
came for the fly, rolled him up and returned 
to his first course. At 7 o'clock his earwig 
had been demolished, and the fly at 8 o'clock. 
At 9 o'clock he gave it a daddy-long-legs, 
which he ate at noon. At 1 he irreedily 
seized a blow-fly and during the day he 
counted 120 green flies, or midgets, all dead ^ 
and fast in his net. 

THE NEW ERA IN FARMING. 

A very interesting glimpse of the immense 
wheat fields of the Northwest, and the pro- 
cesses by which wheat raising will be made 
unprofitable at the East and in England, is 
afforded in the following paragraphs from the 
letter of a traveler who knows well how to 
tell what he sees : 

"Twenty miles due west of Fargo, Dakota, 
you strike the wonder of America — those 
colossal wheat farms, winch in extent and 
productiveness, surpass anything in the 
world. There is nothing to break the view 
on either hand, but as far as tlie eye is capa- 
ble of seeing, stretches a breezy sea of wheat. 
The .sight is one so novel, so wonderful, that 
you gaze in speechless amazement. The 
varied tints of the ripening grain, the im- 
mense expanse of the prairie, level almost as 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



the floor, the busy groiiiis of harvesters, and 
tlie scattered clusters of houses and barns 
make up a picture the like of which has never 
been seen boforc. Hero before you, from an 
outlook on one of the buildinj;s near the rail- 
road which runs throujih these fields, are 
20,000 acres covered with most luxuriant 
grain. The bright golden hue of tlie wheat 
and barley, the darker tints of the oats, 
blending witli the rich green of the grass, 
which forms a fringe to the grain lields, 
entrance the beholder. Harvesting having 
commenced, the scene is all the more strange 
and interesting; for round tlicsc iinmeuse 
acres of grain (Irive llo machini'S, which cut 
and bnul into bundles, and throw it off on one 
side witli a precision and constancy that 
seems suj)erlunuan. Thcu .scattered alwut 
are twenty steam threshers, to which the 
wagons bear the gatliered bundles ofwlieat, 
and by wliich the grain is rapidly separated 
from the chaff, and poured out, clean and 
ready for market, througli a funnel into the 
meiisures set to receive it. The^ latter are 
emptied into bags, wliich in turn are tied up 
and carried away to the ears, twenty of wliich 
are loaded every day. Six hundred men 
make up the force at work in the liarvest 
field. The overseers are mounted, and watch 
the proceedings of the gangs they severally 
superintend. Twelve days sees 20,000 acres 
of wheat cut, bound up in bundles, and gath- 
ered into shocks then threshed, carried to the 
cars, and Ijorne away to the elevators for 
storage or shipment. 

"This makes a brief story of what is really 
a most marvelous occurrence; for until these 
mammoth farms were opened, nothing like 
this had ever been known in the annals of 
agriculture. Until tliese machines, doing 
their work with sucli tirelessue.ss and intelli- 
gence, liad been invented, farming on sucli a 
scale was simply impossible. But this is a 
scene which increasing nuniljers of visitors 
from all parts of our country love to look 
upon every harvest. Xo one realizes what 
the possibilities of this laud are, until he has 
seen with his own eyes this which has now 
been descril)ed. Moreover these farms are 
not yet wholly under cultivation. There are 
09,000 acres in one of them, only a small 
portion of which has been In-oken up. There 
are two others of gigantic, though not (luite 
equal area, tlie whole of which is under the 
supervision of one man, Mr. Dalrymple. 
Over one of the farms a telephone has been 
constructed, so that cominiiuiealiou may be 
held with tlie difierenl points where the 
threshers are at work, or where the men and 
horses are housed. "—JVeM; York Mercantile 
Journal. 

FIGS. 



Gathering the Fruit in Italy. 
Although indigenous to Asia and liarbary, 
the fig has been so long and so extensively 
cultivated in Italy that it may be considered 
native, on the ground of the Irishman's 
remark that he had been a native of a certain 
county for ten years ! The season, just at its 
height, joins hands in October with the 
vendemmiu, or vintage ; but it begins in 
August, owing to a curious system of culture. 
Early in that month as you sit gasping under 
t!ie noonday sun you hear a wild, eerie strain 
in minor-key which goes echoing up and 
down the slopes with intense mournfulness. 
It is the .song of the lig-gatherers, tossing 
back and forth from hillside to hillside, and 
from treetop to treetop, as they s(iuirm 
through the twisted branches and "oil the 
fruit."' The tribe is nomadic, and aiipears 
and disappears like the wandering harvesters 
of France, no one knowing whence tliey come 
or whither they go. Late in .July the mussurie 
are rented to tliem, they paying a given sum 
to the proprietor, and taking possession of all 
the fruit, beginning with the ligs and ending 
with the last waxen clusters of grapes. Rude 
huts thatched with straw are built by the 
proprietor in all his orchards, and there the 
gypsy-like creatures live with their families- 



stalwart, fierce looking men, swarthy, dark- 
eyed women and active, lithe young rascals of 
children. Sometimes they supplement their 
narrow quartei-s witli a ragged tent — three 
sticks crosswise and the kettle in the crotch 
constitute the kitchen. Beds are an unknown 
luxury. Indeed, they .seem never to lay 
aside their clothing and day and night they 
patrol the orchards with long guns and a 
tierce dog, the very sight of which is enough to 
destroy one's appetite for those particular 
ligs. 

The process of forcing the fruit is at once 
begun, and for many days that wild, sweet 
song, into whose weird melody the spirit of 
their homeless life seems to have entered, is 
heard from tree to tree, in call and response, 
as far as the faintest adumbration of sound 
can reach. The methods of forcing the 
ripening are curious. In one a wad of cotton 
is dipped in oil and gently rubbed on the lower 
end of the lig. Fig by lig is thus treated, and 
eight days tliereafter the fruit is ready for 
market, when it commands a high price as a 
jirimeur. Another method consists ingather- 
ing in the spring the half-formed rniit, which 
is strung on ropes as we .string dried fruits. 
These rojies or garlands are thrown over the 
branches of the tree and allowed to decay 
under the burning sun. Life out of death. 
An insect is born from tliis decay which 
pierces the growing fig and induces the rapid 
maturity — or, shall we call it, early decay V 
maturity being only that precious zenith of 
existence wliicli must inevitably be followed 
by decline. Leaving such premature sweet- 
ness to the epicure, one may well be content 
to wait the result of nature's uidiurried pro- 
cess. The lig, when perfectly ripe, exudes a 
slow drop of honey-sweet juice at the nether 
end, which never falls, but hangs there, a 
standing temptation to bees and men. Wlien 
fresh picked, at this stage, the tig is inde- 
scriljably luscious, with a rich flavor entirely 
lost in the dried fruit. 



PLUM PUDDING AT SEA. 

The pride and glory of an English Christ- 
mas is the plum pudding — supposed lo be the 
lineal descend.ant of plum porridge. In olden 
times in England plum pottage was always 
served with the first course of a Christmas 
dinner. It was made by boiling beef or mut- 
ton with broth thickened with brown bread ; 
when half-boiled, raisins, currants, prunes, 
cloves, mace and ginger were added, and 
when the mess had been thoroughly boiled, 
it was sent to table with the best meats. Sir 
Roger de Coverly thought there was some 
hope of a Dissenter when he saw him enjoy 
his porridge at the hall on Christmas day. 
Plum-broth figures in Poor Robin's almanac 
for 17.50 among the items of Christmas fare ; 
and Mrs. Frazer, "sole teacher of the art of 
cookery in Edinburgh, and several years 
colleague and afterward successor to Mrs. 
M'lver," who published a cookery book in 
1701, thought it necessary to include plum- 
pottage among her soups. Brand partook of a 
tureenful of "lu.scious i)lum-porridge" at the 
table of the royal chaplain in 1801, but that is 
the latest appearance of this once indispensa- 
ble dish of which we have any record. 

As to plum-pudding, we are thoroughly at 
fault. Rabisha gives a recipe, in his Whole 
Body of Cookery Dissected (1<)7.'),) for a pud- 
ding to be boiled in a basin, which bears a 
great resemblance to the modern Christmas 
favorite, but does not include it in his bills of 
fare for winter, although "a dish of stewed 
broth, if at Christmas," figures therein. It 
shared honors with the porridge in Addison's 
time, however, for the Taller tells us : "No 
man of the most rigid virtue gives ofience by 
an excess in plum-pudding or plum-porridge, 
because they are the first partsof thedinner;" 
but Mrs. Krazer above mentioned is the 
earliest culinary authority we find describing 
its concoction. ' 

In the time of the commonwealth plum- 
pudding and Christmas pie (as mince-pies 
were then sometimes called) both fell under 
censure. The enjoying of these dishes seems 



to have been peculiarly obnoxious to Puritan 
taste. An old verse reads : 

"All plums the prophet's sons deuy, 

And splou broths are too hot ; 
Treason's lu a December pie, 
And death within the f>ot." 

Or, as another satii'ical rbycmster of the same 
period has it : 

"The hi;,'h-8lioc lords of Crotuwell's making 
Were not lor dainties — roasliuf;, baking ; 
The chiefest food they found most good In 
Was rusty bacon and bag pviddinj; , 
Plum broth was popish, and mince-pie — 
Ob, that was flat Idolatry !" 

The ship's cook when at sea has evidently 
exhausted all the resotirces of his art in the 
preparation of the great Christmas disli. lie 
always does his part well, and for the sake of 
those who are eating their Christma.s dinner 
ainid.st all the discomforts of an ocean iiassage 
in winter, let us trust that the toothsome 
concoction may find its way in safety from the 
galley to the table. 



GLUE AND GLUING. 

A Practical Paper of Interest to Professional 
and Amateur Joiners. 

There are few persons who cannot tell a 
piece of glue when they see it, but how much 
depends upon it in the practice of the cabinet- 
maker's and joiner's trades is only known to 
those whu are fully initiated into the mys- 
teries of modern construction. 

There is no department in the cabinet fac- 
tory or joiner's workshop that is so little 
understood or more slighted than the gluing 
department — not slighted with the deliberate 
intention of doing bad work, but from a 
habitual carelessness in the proper prepara- 
tion and application of this abused and, at 
times, useful cement. 

The following are some of the requisites 
and tests of good glue : Glue is adhesive and 
to a certain extent elastic. It should present 
a clear appearance when held between the eye 
and the light; color is of minor importance, so 
that it is neither spotted nor streaked. When 
broken it should present a whitish edge where 
it is com)iresscd in the break; it should not be 
too brittle, neither should it be too tough, 
but should break clean. Another lest is to 
allow it to absorb all the water it will, then 
dry in a cool place. If the piece returns to 
the size it was in the first instance it is good. 

In the preparation or, as the trade term it, 
"making the glue" (I am not alluding to the 
manufacture of glue, but the making as un- 
derstood by the cabinet makers,) wliat is re- 
ipiired is to preserve its elasticity and adhe- 
siveness in the fidlest extent, to destroy 
either of which is to render the glue worth- 
less, and its worthlessness will be in exact 
proportion to the destruction of either of 
these properties. 

If a cabinet maker be asked why he puts 
water into his glue, in nine cases'out of ten 
his answer will be, "It is too thick, and will 
not spread as it should unless you thin it with 
water." All glue as received from the fac- 
tory requires the addition of water before it 
will melt properly, and every addition of 
water (while the glue is fresh made) will, up 
to a certain point, increase the adhesiveness 
and elasticity ; and it is the duty of every 
man who uses glue to find out just where that 
point lies, as it is possible to melt glue and 
have it so thick that after it is dry or set it 
will be so brittle as not to adhere to the wood. 
Some glues will bear more water than others, 
but all will bear more water than usually 
falls to their sliare, and that too, with a great 
increase in the quality of the work. 

For glue to be properly effective it requires 
to penetrate the pores of the wood, and the 
more a body of glue penetrates the wood the 
more substantial the joint will remain. I 
have always found that glues that take the 
longest to dry are to be preferred to those 
that dry quick, the slow-drying glues being 
always "the strongest, other things being equal. 

I have made glue in many different ways, 
but as yet have not found a" way that gives so 



8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



good results for general use as the waj' I was 
taught wlien I first went to be apprentice. 
The method was as follows : Break the glue 
up small, put into an iron keetle, cover the 
glue with water and allow it to soak twelve 
hours; after soaking boil until done, which 
will be when some is raised upon a stick and 
allowed to fall back into the keetle it falls 
without rattling. After the glue is boiled 
surticieiitly jiour into an air tight box; leave 
the cover off until cold, then cover iip tight. 
As glue is required, cut out a portion and 
melt in the usual way. E.xpose no more of 
the made glue to the atmosphere for any 
length of time than is necessary, as the atmos- 
phere is very destructive to made glues. We 
used to make a quantity sultieient to last 
about a week. Never heat made glue in a 
pot that is subjected to the direct heat of the 
fire or a lamp. All such methods of heating 
glue cannot be condemnc^d in terms too 
severe. 

Do not use thick glue for joints or veneer- 
ing. In all cases work it well into the wood 
in a similar manner to what painters do with 
paint. Glue both surfaces of your work, 
excepting in the case of veneering. Never 
glue upon hot wood or use hot cauls to veneer 
with, as the hot wood will absorb all the 
water in the glue too suddenly, and leave 
only one very little residue with no nature in 
it whatever. The following extract is made 
from Mr. L. D. Gould's "Carpenters' and 
Builders' Assistant and Wood-Workers' 
Guide," published in 1874. Under the article 
"Adhesion of Glue, " he says : "Mr. Bevan 
glued together by the ends two cylinders of 
dry a.sh wood, one-fifth of an inch in diameter 
and about 8 inches long. After they had 
been glued together twenty-four hours they 
required a force of 1,260 pounds to separate 
them, and, as the area of the cylinders was 
1.75 inches, it follows that the force of 715 
pounds would be required to seimrate 1 square 
inch. In remarking further, Mr. Bevan tried 
the lateral cohesion of some dry Scotch fire- 
wood. The force required to separate the 
wood was 562 pounds to the square inch; con- 
sequently, if two pieces of tliis wood had 
T)een well-glued together the wood would have 
yielded in its substance liefore the glue. For, 
in a subsequent experiment, made on solid 
glue, flie cohesive force was found to be 4,000 
pounds per square inch, from which it may be 
inferred that thea]iplication of this substance 
as a cement is susceptible to improvement." 

I quite agree with Mr. Bevan about it being 
susceptible to improvement. 

Pattern-makers in foundries usually under- 
stand and use their glue to better advantage 
than cabinet-makers. Pattern-makers re- 
quire their glue joints to stand the efiects of 
the damp .sand, and not to draw out at the 
joints and leave a mark in the sand, or fall to 
l)ieccs. They use the same kind of glue as 
cabinet-makers, but the general run of the 
cabinet-maker's joints will hardly bear a 
damp alm>3splierc, much less being placed in 
damp sand. 

Oil or otlier like ingredients are not re- 
quired in thegluc toeftectthe end, but simply 
water. What a mine of wealth for the dairy- 
man if milk was afiectcd by water the same 
as glue is ! There would be no danger of our 
receiving our milk too tliick if water made it 
stronger. Why, then, sliould cabiuet-makers 
be so blind to their best interests and pcrsi.st 
in using their glue thick. The only way I 
can account for it is that they have' become 
liabitually carele.ss. 

A short time since I required a board five- 
sixteenths thick for an experinieut I was 
trying with some cement. At the time I 
required it I was unable to obtain a ))iece 
wide enough, so I glued two pieces together. 
At the time of doing it I had grave apprehen- 
sions about it standing the severe ordeal 1 
wLshed to subject it to. That piece of board 
(wliite wood) was covered on one side with 
stucco and the other side was covered with a 
composition; the stucco and composition 
were alternately .saturated with water, frozen 
thawed out, and tlien dried before a hot stove' 



The board was subjected to this process for 
two weeks, during which time it required to 
be frequently handled. There were no battens 
or any cross pieces whatever used, merely the 
board itself, with the joint square and glued 
with very thin glue. It went through all 
that was required, and to-day the joint is as 
solid as when it was first glued. 

In conclusion, let me earnestly request 
every man who uses glue and who has read 
my remarks, to give water a fair trial and of 
the results I have no fear whatever. 



BOGUS HAVANA TOBACCO. 

The consumers of high jiriced Havana 
cigars will be interested in the following ex- 
posure of the kind of stuff of whicli some of 
them are made. Some time ago a revenue 
oHicer accompanied by a reporter of the U. S. 
Tobacrn Journal, ascended the rickety stairs 
of the dilapidated building at No. 5 (Jold 
street, New York. This street is one of the 
dark narrow down-town thoroughfares, lined 
with half tumbledown and begrimed build- 
ings, in which the scum of the mercantile 
community^ takes up its abode and throws 
out nets for victims. Arriving at the second 
floor, the revenue officer and the reporter 
halted and listened before a door apparently 
leading to an apartment. Inside there was a 
noise resembling that produced by the shaking 
and rustling of tobacco leaves. A strong 
smell of Valerian root and deer-tongue leaves 
permeated the building. The officer suddenly 
caught the knob of the door and tried to ojien 
it. It was locked and the noise inside cea.sed 
at once. After several unsuccessful efforts, 
the officer threatened to sliatter the door, 
when, finally, it was unlocked by a seedy and 
hungry looking individual, whose face and 
hands seemed to have been steeped in a brown 
liquid. Without paying any attention to the 
seemingly frightened inilividual. a thorough 
examination of the place was made. The 
justification for this proceeding rested it the 
fact that information had been given to tlie 
revenue oflicer that an Illicit tobacco factory 
was situated in the building in question. 
This proved to have been fallacious, as noth- 
was found that went to show the correctness 
of the report. But, however, a discovery 
was made which will eventually bring to light 
the band of couniverswho palm off California 
tobacco for Havana to unsuspecting cigar 
manufacturers. 

A large niunber of cases filled the apart- 
ment. Here and there were huge piles of leaf 
tobacco, all dripping wet, and from which 
flowed little .streams of a nasty brown hue 
and penetrating smell. A ]ionderous vat in 
the rear was filled with the same liquid. 
Around the place on shelves and screens was 
strewn a mass of the tobacco to dry. A large 
tobacco press was also there. Numerous 
empty Havana bales, with and wiihonl the 
cloth bearing the trademarks of renowned 
importers, were hanging about the room. So 
were little heaps of bast with which the 
carots of Havana tobacco arr always tied 
together. In a corner were several full bales, 
which upon examination, revealed tobacco 
pressed in carots exactly similar to the genu- 
ine Havana. The tobacco, which had only 
been recently packed into that shape, was 
still damp and the corots were tied with the 
bast in a somewhat bungling manner. The 
huge piles of tobacco showed, beyond any 
doubt, that it was of California origin, dark, 
heavy and mostly short, though some large 
leaves resembling Pennsylvania were found. 
The cases were common seed leaf cases. Some 
of them still contained leaf, but perfectly dry 
and of lighter color than that in the wet con- 
dition in the i>iles. 

From certain facts it could be inferred that 
one G. Reis-sman, who does a leaf business 
and other certain kinds of business at 228 
Pearl street, is the .seller of this tobacco to 
various parties, who are repacking this .stuff 
in Havana shape and sdl it for the genuine 
article. The real value of this tobacco is but 
four or five cents a pound. But as in an 
artificially colorec} and flavored state it re- 



sembles Havana, the swindling repackers pay 
from 20 to 80 cents per pound for it, and 
dispose of it at from 90 cents to SI. 10. This, 
last figure has actually been paid by a Toledo 
cigar manufacturer, who, though, in time dis- 
covered the fiaud and returned the tobacco. 
The individual in charge of the establish- 
ment at 5 Gold street preserved utter silence 
during the examination of the place, notwith- 
standing several attempts to olitain some clue 
as to the owner of the tobacco. The landlord 
of the building also refuses to divulge the 
name of the lessee of the second floor, but 
other steps will be taken which very soon 
will break up this and other establishments 
of the kind and bring the guilty parties to 
light. 



A CARD IN THE INTEREST OF QWAIL. 

; Tlie winter, though an unusually severe 
I one for quail, has not been of a character to 
I exterminate them. A large number (thou- 
i sands) were caught and housed before the 
! snow-falls, and those not caught were gener- 
j ally lo ke4 after and fed by the farmers. 
Reports from a number of sources show that 
about three-fourths of the birds not housed 
have l)een saved, the remainder falling victims 
! chiefly to hawks. Sportsmen very generally 
! have taken the interest of quail in hand, and 
I few of them but have birds enough to turn 
[ out to more than replenish what have fallen 
before their aim through the hunting season. 
It is to these, and to farmers that have housed 
quail, that we wish to say a few words, as to 
the manner of turning them out to secure the 
best results. The best methods are simple 
and not new, yet failure to apply them is apt 
to defeat the end desired — the maximum in- 
crease of the stock. When the spring is fairly 
ojien, say in April, they should be loosed in 
liairs, one pair, or not more than two pairs, 
in a place, at the same time. Tills is to 
avoid "packing," or the habit these birds are 
liable to, when several of them are together 
and not mating aud breeding, either from 
uneven distribution of the sexes, or from the 
cocks quarreling. The best place is where 
there is bog meadow and brush, either or 
both, or the best available cover. It is very- 
important to place some food where they are 
turned out, else they will surely "run" or 
migrate several miles. If these directions 
are observed, each pair will turn out two 
broods of about a dozen each, if the season be 
ordinarily favorable. A full or unevenly 
mated bevy, for the reasons given, would 
be liable not to multiply. As hawks are 
the greatest enemy of the quail, and have 
no recognized utility, their destruction will 
be a strong protective measure. But tlii.s Is 
easier said than done, as many a hawk 
hunter has found out. They sometimes can 
be got within gunshot if on horseback, but as 
a rule they are .slirewder than the crow, who 
cannot separate the rider from the hor.se. 
A certain plan, and one not generally known, 
is to note where the hawk settles toward 
evening. It will be either in some isolated 
tree or a wood. Let him be until dark. 
Then, with a coal-oil torch, he can readily be 
discovei'ed, and shot. 

Farmers, we regret to say, through the 
depredations of irresponsible hunters, have 
come to look upon all sportsmen with enmity, 
whereas the farmer and the sportsmen are 
natural allies. The latter will join with the 
farmer against any depredator, any shooting 
out of the regular season and against any 
unlawful methods of destruction. He will 
join with him in any plan to increase and 
"protect birds. When localities through mis- 
fortune become depleted of quail, it is sports- 
men or their association that import new 
stock and put up their giuis until the locali- 
ties recover. Hence, we say that farmers 
should discriminate. It may not seem ea.sy 
to do this, Init it can be approached to. Let 
them join together and prosecute all that 
shoot (and there are enough of them) before 
the lawful season opens. The penalty is now 
SIO for each bird so shot or had in possession. 
Let them exact that a sportsman shall ask 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



permission before he shoots. All reputable 
sportsmen would prefer this course, and a 
farmer can readily satisfy liim.self as to an 
applicant's rcspoctability. 

The past stiason has shown that not all the 
regular shooting, nor all Ihcir regular and 
unseasonable destruction, can so reduce as to 
prejudice a well-stocked locality. And all 
exiicrience has .sliown that certain forms of 
severe winters arc the great exterminators. 
So, if a few pairs of birds for each farm are 
lioused in advance of winter, the problem of 
the continuance of the (juail stock is solved; 
and a few pairs nfcpiails will almost invaria- 
bly increase and multiply more than a few 
bevies, because of the "packini;" or keeping 
together tendency of bevies, which is simply 
nature's law to inevent too rapid increase. 
If the suggestions we make are fairly applied, 
the stock of this fine game bird can be kept 
up to any desired point; the farmer can get 
whatever benefit they are to him as insect 
destroyers during the insect season, and the 
hunter can get his sport through the hunting 
season. — Eaglon Express. 

ARE ANTS CIVILIZED ? 

The October ninnber of the Quartirli/ Jour- 
nal rif isdence contains an article on '"Our 
Six-footed Rivals," the ants, which may well 
cause us to believe that we are not the only 
rational and civilized beings on this globe. 

Let us suppose that v^'e were suddenly in- 
formed, on good authority, that there existed 
a race of beings who lived in domed habita- 
tions, aggregated together so as form vast and 
populous cities, that they exercised jurisdic- 
tion over the adjoining territory, laid out 
i-egular roads, executed tunnels underneath 
the beds of rivers, stationed guards at the 
entrance of their towns, carefully removed 
any offensive matter, maintained a rural 
police, organized extensive buuting expedi- 
tions, at times even waged war upon neigh- 
boring communities, took prisoners and re- 
duced them to a state of slavery ; that they 
not merely stored up provisions with due care 
but that they kept cattle and even cultivated 
the soil and gathered in the harvest. We 
sliould unciuestionably regard these creatures 
as human beings wiio had made no small 
progress in civilization, and should ascribe 
their actions to reason. 

Among the hi/menoptera the lead is un- 
doubtedly taken by the ants, which, like man, 
have a brain much more highly developed 
than that of the neighboring infciior groups. 
Perhaps the most elevated of the fohnicide 
family is the agricultural ant of western 
Texas. This species is, save man, the only 
creature which does not depend for its suste- 
nance on the products of tlie chase or the 
spontaneous fruits of the earth. A colon}' of 
* these ants will clear a tract of ground, some 
four feet in width, around their city, and re- 
move all plants, stone and rubbisli. A species 
of minute grain, resembling rice, is sown 
therein and the field is carefully tended, kept 
free from weeds, and guarded against ma- 
rauding insects. When mature, the crop is« 
reaped and the seeds dried and carried into 
the nest. If this is done near a large city the 
latter regard it as an intrusion, and a fierce 
warfare results, which ends in the total de- 
struction of one or the other side. The queens 
arc treated with great attention and installed 
in royal apartments. 

The ant government is communi.stic. In a 
formicary there is no trace of priviite proper- 
ty ; the territory, the buildings, the stores, 
the booty, exist e(iually for the benefit of all. 
The family among them .scarcely exists. 
Rarely is the union of the male and female 
extended beyond the actual intercourse, all 
provision for the future young devolving ni)on 
the latter alone, the former being speedily 
killed, as he is no longer of any use. The 
females are the larger, stronger, and more 
long lived. The wor'Kers and fighters are 
sexless ; to them belong the government of 
the ant-hill, and they provide for its enlarge- 
ment, well being, and defense. 

Ants are sometimes very stupid in regard 



to small things, Init in many instances they 
display remarkable sagacity. Mr. Belt, in his 
"Naturalist in Nicaragua," tells of a column 
of ants who were crossing a watercourse by 
a small branch not thicker than a goose quill. 
Xliey widened this naiural l)ridge to three 
times its width by a number of ants clinging 
to it and to eacii other on each side, over 
which the column passed four deep, thus 
effecting a great saving of time. Again, the 
cfilon Icdionis, when attacking the hill of 
another species, digs mines and passes the 
pellets of earth from ant to ant until placed 
at a sulVu'ient distance outside to prevent its 
rolling back into tlu' hole. Their errors and 
stuiiidily are not more conspicuou.s, however, 
than among the human beings. 

Tlu'se tiny creatures have a language by 
which they can imi)art to each other informa- 
tion of a very definite character, and not 
merely general signals, such as those of alarm. 
It has been founcl that ants fetched by a mes- 
senger seem, when they arrive at the .spot, 
to have some knowledge of the task whicli is 
awaiting them. Their principal organs of 
speech are doubtless the antenna^ ; with 
these, when seeking to comminiicate intelli- 
gence, they touch eaeh other in a variety of 
ways. There is a possibility that they may 
^Jiave a language of odors, for the various 
scents given off by them are easilv percepti- 
ble. Under the infiucnces of anger it becomes 
very intense. In battles how, save by scent, 
can they distinguish friend from foe V After 
a lapse of .several months a former companion 
will be received kindly into the nest, but a 
stranger is killed. 

More wonderful than their intelligence is 
their organization. If separate they would 
be helpless and probably soon become extinct. 
Mr. Helt observed a marching column of 
crilons in the primeval forests of Nicaragua. 
A dense body of ants, four yards wide, moved 
rapidly in one direction, examining every 
cranny and fallen leaf. At intervals larger 
and lighter colored individuals would often 
stop nnd run a little Ijackward, apparently 
giving orders. On the flanks and in advance 
of tlie main body, smaller columns would 
push out, which " pursued the cockroaches, 
grasshoppers and spiders in the neighborhood. 
A gra.ssliopper seeking to escape would often 
leap into the midst of the ants. After a few 
ineffectual jumps, with ants clinging to its 
body, it would soon be torn to pieces. Spiders 
and bugs which climbed to the tops of trees 
were folU)wed and shared a like fate. In 
Nicaragua the vegetarian ants eat up trees 
and carry otf the leaves to use as a manure, 
in which grows a minute species of fungus, 
on which they feed. They evince a mutual 
sympathy and helpfulness, which can be 
traced in man alone. Mr. IJelt placed a little 
stone on one to secure it. The next ant that 
ai>proachcd ran back in an agitated manner 
and communicated the intelligence to others. 
They rushed to the rescue ; .some bit at the 
stone, and tried to move it, others seized the 
prisoner by the legs and pulled. They perse- 
vered until they got the captive free. 

In Australia they have been known to bury 
their dead with some degree of formality. 
The Texan ant removes any offensive matter 
l)laced near its city and carries it away. 
Ants who refuse to work are put to death. 
Prisoners are In-onght in by a fellow-citizen, 
handed over in a very rough manner to the 
guards, who carry off the offenders into the 
underground passages. The slave-making 
propeiisity and the reliance upon slaves occur 
in several species, but not to the same degree. 
The jiolyergus rufcsrcns is absolutely depen- 
dent on its slaves, and would rather die than 
work. Eormica mwjuineu, on the other hand, 
has much fewer slaves, being it.self capable of 
working as well as fighting. No less varia- 
tion may be traced in the habits of the cattle- 
keeping ants. Of the honey-secreting apliuhs 
and coiTi that serve them as milch kine, some 
have large herds, whilst others have none at 
all, and if they encounter an njiliia straight- 
way kill and eat it. These apliides arc ex- 
tremely destructive to fruits and trees, as 



they live by sucking the sap. The ants watch 
them with wonderful care, and defend them 
from all enemies. 

Instances of .sjigacity and design might be 
easily multiplied. Careful observation has 
shown that the ants arc evoluting as fast as 
their short terms of life will permit them. 
They are becoming more wise and more 
civilized yearly. Each century marks an 
advanc(\ Who knows but that perhaps in 
the dim future they may a.sBert rights which 
human beings shall be bound to respect?— 
Scicnti/ic Amcrim n . 

THE PROFIT OF FARMING. 

The Maine Funitcr thinks there is, or ought 
to he, more profit in farming tliaii people sup- 
pose. In a recent issue it says : "The ques- 
tion is repeatedly asked by those interested in 
farming, as well as by farmers themselves: 
'Why cannot our fanners, who own the land 
they occupy, and in most cases have the same 
well stocked and well supplied with iinple- 
inents and machines, make fanning pay ?' 
And this is the question before the meeting — 
the readers of tiar Fanner being assembled in 
convention. Why not ? is asked again. 
Throughout Knglimd and .Scotland farmers 
pay from eleven dollars to thirty-live dol- 
lars an acre rental, yearly," for the land used 
for ordinary agricultural crops and agricultu- 
ral purpose ; yi'i tUey live like |)rinces, have 
])lcnty of lei.sure, keep good teams, read the 
pai>ers, and make money. AVhy not make 
money here where there are no land rents, as 
such, to pay, and where fanners own the land 
in feesiini)ie ':* Throughout Holland, wet land 
is reclaimed for agricultural purposes at a cost 
per acre greater than our land is worth, and 
yet the work of reclaiming goes on, and it is 
trom these reclaimed lands that Holland de- 
rives its great wealth and prosperity. The 
cost of draining the Zuyder Zee, now under 
contemplation, is estimated at $l.">it per acre, 
and yet the land will pay for farming pur- 
poses after Ibis great expense is pn( uiioii il. 
Why will not farming pay in Maine, where 
farmers own the land, and can bring it to a 
high state of culture at a comparatively small 
cost ? It will. 

And yet it is well known that the Ameri- 
can farmer is rarely on a level with the Eng- 
lish or Scotch farmer, and this is as true of 
the farmers of the United States as of Maine. 
As a general rule the English or Scotch 
farmer does little on his farm, but keeps books 
and rides round his ground superintending 
operations. His chief business is tending 
market and selling his crops. This usually 
receives his personal attention. All the 
manual labor, or nearly all,, is done by hired 
hands. If an American farmer were to work 
in this way he would soon have a friendly 
call fiom the .Sheriff. There must he more jit 
the bottom than the Maine Farmer perceives. 



THE SCIENCE OF AGRICULTURE. 

The meeting held in \ew York recently 
for the purpose of reorganizing the Ameri- 
can Agricultural Association elected Hon. 
-John Merrynian, of Baltimore county, presi- 
dent. Mr. Merrynian was chosen unanimous- 
ly, at the suggestion of a gentleman who had 
previously nominated Hon. George 15. Loriiig, 
of Ma.ssachusetts. Jlr. Merrynian has long 
been known as one of the most enterprising 
and progressive farmers in Maryland, as well 
as an instructive writer on agricultural topics. 
In accepting the position be took occasion to 
call attention to the Smithficld and Hirming- 
liam (England) Fat Stock Exhibitions, which 
are held respectively in the first and .second 
weeks in De'cmber! The latter has, in addi- 
tion, a poultry and bird show, conducted 
under the auspices of the club, a feature 
which the president recommendeil .should be 
adopted by the association. He thought that 
an exhibition combining the.se features, to 1)6 
held in New York, sav in the .second week in 
December, coulil be made the greatest show 
of the kind ever held. The as.sociation re- 
ferred the president's address to the executive 
committee of the board of directors. Letters 



iO 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



comraeiKliiig the project were received from 
President Hayes, Geu. Grant, Mr. Jefferson 
Davis, Gov. Hendricks, Marshall P. Wilder 
and some fifteen hnndred others. The mem- 
bers of the a.ssociation present at the meeting 
represented twenty States— all of the New 
England, most of the AVestern and manv 
Southern States, including four west of the 
Mississippi. Among them were some of the 
largest grain and stock growers of the coun- 
try. One of the most important subjects 
under discussion was a i»roposition for the es- 
tablishment of a professonsliiii and sub-profes- 
sorship of vcrterinary science at the Maryland 
Agricultural College. The demand for veteri- 
nary surgeons is known to be constantly in- 
creasing in all i)arts of the country. It is 
proposed to apply to Congress for an appro- 
priation of .SlOOjOtiO to establish these profes- 
sorships, or raise that sum by appropriations 
from the various States, and to combine with 
them a course of clinical instruction, in the 
event of the establishment of an abattoir in 
New York. The board of directors consists 
of twenty-one members, exclusive of the 
president and vice president. Mr. A. M. Ful- 
ford, of Maryland, is a member of the board 
of directors, and Mr. Ezra Witmau is the 
vice president for Xew York. 

HEIGHT OF STORMS. 
Professor Loomi.s, in his investigations of 
the phenomena of storms, has ascertained 
that atmosplieric disturbances during storms 
do not generally extend more than about a 
mile above the sea-level as they pass over 
New England. From observation made at 
the .sea-level, as at Portland, simultaneously 
with observations at the summit of Mount 
Washington, it is found that during the pas- 
sage of storms the usual system of circulating 
winds does not in the majority of instances 
extend to a height of six thousand feet. The 
more violent the movement, however, the 
greater is the height attained by the disturb- 
ance. Another fact of interest is that the 
disturbance on the approach of a storm is 
felt at the surface sooner than at considerable 
elevations. Professor Loomis says that, 
"when, during the progress of an area of low 
pressure, the system of circulating winds 
reaches the summit of Mount Washington, 
the change of wind to the east quarter usually 
begins at the surface stations eleven hours 
sooner than it does on the summit of that 
mountain. " It thus appears that onl v in the 
lower portions of the atmosphere do the great 
storm movements occur, and that they are 
fii-st felt at er near th'e earth's surface. 



Our Local Organizations. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTU- 
RAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
SOCIETY. 

The stated meeting; ol the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural aud Hoiticultuial Society was held in their 
rooms, in City Hall, Monday afternoon, January 5. 

The society was called to order liy the President. 

The readini.'(if the minutes of the previous meetinif 
was on motion dispensed with. 

The following members were present : 

Calvin Cooper, President, Bird-in-Hand; Henry M 
Engle, Marietta; Casper Ililler, Conestosa- Joseph 
IT. Witmer, Paradise: Dr. S. S. liathvon, city: John- 
son Miller, Warwick; John H. Landis, Manor- F 
K. DiffcnderlTer, city; J. M.Johnston, city; M. D. 
Kendig, Creswell; Levi S.Keist, Manheim; Washini'- 
lon L. Hershey, West Ilemptield; W. \V. Griesl 
city; C. A. Gast, city; W. H. Brosius, Drumore- j! 
C. I.uiville, Salisbury; Peter Hershey, city; Ephraim 
S. Hoover, Manheim; .S. P. Eljy, city; A. M. Hostet- 
t_er, city; C. L. Hunsecker, Manlieim; Isaac L. Lan- 
dis, city: A. B. Grofi; West Earl. 

New Members. 

Edwin B. Brubaker, of Elizabeth twp., Henry 
Kurtz, of Safe Harbor, aud Daniel W. firaybill, of 
East Hempfleld, were nominated and elected' to 
membership. 

Reports of Committees. 

M. D. Kendig reported that quite a number of 
farm. IS in Manor lost hogs by cholera; some forty 
have been lost so far. The hogs won't cat, become 
emaciated, tender to the touch, dropping down when 
handled. No treatment so far practised has proved [ 



availing, except in one case, where part recovered. 
Shoats seem most aftected, although full grown 
hogs are also attacked. 

Johnson Miller said wheat looks well. The to- 
bacco is nearly all stripped and much of it scjd. 
Domestic animals are all doing well. 

H. M. Engle thought there was little variation 
from the reports of a month ago. Rainfall for 
November was 2t 14-16 inches, aud for December 
."1 11-16 inches. 

The President's Annual Address. 
Once moie, gentleman, it becomes ray duty — 
under established precedents— to address you at 
this, the first meeting in the year, now just in its 
infancy, and which admonishes us, we should renew 
our t'rateful acknowledgements to the ruler of the 
universe for the blessings of the year through which 
we have passed, for the bountiful crops that are 
stored in our garners, for the peace and goodwill 
that pervades over our land and reminds us that it 
is to be a beneficent Providence to which we are in- 
debted, and to whom all the gratitude is due. 

The year just closed has been one long to be re- 
membered. The unprecedented drouth in the early 
part of the season was fraught with much anxiety 
on the part of the husbandman for the success of his 
crops and the remuneration for the labor and 
expense incurred in the preparation of the soil, all of 
which for a time seemed threatened with destruction 
by the burning rays of the midsummer's sun. The 
parched earth itself seemed to yearn Ibr the refresh- 
ing showers that came at long intervals until the 
season was more than half over. But what a spoiu 
taneous growth followed the delightful rains after 
harvest ! Vegetable matter sprang up, as it were, 
by magic. Every countenance beamed with grate- 
fulness, and vegetation itself, of every kind, appa- 
rently raised its leaves heavenward, as if to tender 
homage to the Great Ruler above. 

The great interest of the farmer at this late date 
is centred in his tobacco patch. All who had their 
plants started had little to do but cultivate well, 
and make room for the rapidly spreading leaves, 
while others who were not so successful took hold 
with renewed energy, nursed their sickly plants, and 
replanted for the fourth, fifth or probably more 
limes the vacancies made by the scorching atmos- 
phere and the depredations of insects, in the hope 
that they, too, might yet reap some reward for the 
extra pains taken to get their plants established. 
Doubtless many of them little dreamed of the rich 
reward that awaited their labors, and yet how many 
there are that abhor the use of it, but have become 
addicted to the detestable habit that they imagine 
indispensable for their comfort, aud continue to roll 
up a liatch of the noxious stuff, and with a coal of 
fire at one end, and themselves at the other, with 
distorted countenance, draw and puff (bellows like,) 
blowing the smoke in a neighbor's face, very much 
to his or her discomfort, without as much as asking 
by your leave, or, if not unpleasant, I will indulge in 
a cigar; thoroughly fumigating the apparel of every 
one who happens near with the obnoxious odors 
from a half smoked, and sometimes that which is 
much worse, an old stump relighted, or with tire 
extinguished. But, this is not the worst of it. How 
many do we see with a great chunk (half the size 
and thickness of a man's hand,) from the pockets to 
the mouth, and with a twist and pull manage, after 
considerable exertion, to detach a piece, and then, 
like ruminating animals, the process of mastication 
begins. With the discolored saliva leaking from the 
corners of the mouth, the great stream is spurted on 
the carpet floor or elsewhere, disfiguring and soiling 
the clothes aud furniture, when the tidy, overworked 
wife, mother, or sister, must get down upon her 
knees and scrub her finger ends sore, if she wishes 
to have her house presentable in anticipation of a 
visit from some dear friend, and indeed absolutely 
necessary for the comfort of herself and family. If 
I have digressed, and drawn too strong a picture, I 
beg to be excused for expressing mv cont 'inpt of 
what to me seems a very filthy, and, "indeed, a very 
expensive and unnecessary habit. But such is the 
weakness of human nature, that having aciiuired a 
habit from having seen a friend indulging therein, 
we are too apt to fall, without for a moment stop 
ping to weigh in the balance the cost of an unnatural 
appetite. Alight I say to the young man with his 
chew or cigar iu hand, halt ? observe aud consider 
before you soil or wound a mother's pride in her son 
just blooming into manhood. 

But to the other side : Having created a market, 
mau will o,-ow that which brinss the most (as it is 
called) of the "filthy lucre," liftle caring whether 
the article produced is a necessary commodity for 
the comlbrt or happiness of mankind, or a deadly 
poison to all animal life inhabiting the globe. 

The crop of tobacco grown the past season is, 
beyond doubt, the greatest this county has ever pro- 
duced. The prices being realized are among the 
best, if not the very highest, that have ever been 
paid for the article here. I trust the extravagant 
returns received from the growth of the weed will 
not lead you to neglect other less remunerative 
crops that are so essential for our comlbrt, and 
indeed absolutely necessary for our existence and 
the health of the whole human race. I have many 



forbodings, that the country of our choice may 
some day suflfer from too great a production of the 
plant, which, if it continues to increase, will soon be 
worth more than all other crops combined. The 
barrens of Virginia and North Carolina bear testi- 
mony that we, too, might suffer the penalties, and 
our now fertile become a barren and unproductive 
soil. I am well aware that many of you will take 
exceptions to the little hints thrown out, but trust 
you will pardon me for expressing my convictions of 
what might be the result of too great a percentage 
of your farm being devoted to the growth of a 
poisonous weed. 

The incorporation of our society during the past 
year should also remind us that the beginning of a 
new year is a good time to commence some new 
work. By the reorganization and the election to- 
day you assume a new position and standing in the 
business world ; you are recognized as a legal body, 
aud prepared to battle with the world, as it were, for 
a sphere of usefulness, and enjoy the praise and con- 
gratulalion of many friends in sympathy, though 
not members of the society. The good works that 
some of you have been doing in experimenting with 
various seeds and fertilizers, and so generously giv- 
ing the results of your care, labor and expense, is 
one of the most convincing proofs that the advance- 
ment of agriculture and horticulture is the prime 
object in view. These might be carried on on a larger 
scale and of greater diversity, a wider field 
might be opened, and we might acquire such infor- 
mation as would be sure to produce better paying 
crops. 

The press, in their unflagging zeal in gathering 
the reports of your deliberations, has done much to 
further the interests of the society. Having scattered 
to the four winds of the earth full reports of the 
proceedings, it has created an interest in many sym- 
pathetic minds, which will some day bring its re- 
ward, and assist in establishing an organization 
from a lew itinerent members second to none in 
the State. 

As a corporation, there is a new sea opened on 
which to float our ship. But not being experienced 
seamen, we should not sail out of sicht of land, lest 
we lose our reckonings and encounter storms, that 
older mariners might use to speed them on their 
way. 

Our late exhibition, though not financiallv a great 
success, will have its benefit, should you conclude to 
try it again on a larger scale. As has been said by 
a member, the experience of a little fall fair would 
be a great help should the society conclude to 
branch out upon a regular agricultural exhibition, as 
are held by some of our adjoining counties. Since 
passing the gulf ou which we floated our new ship, I 
see many small leaks that could be averted on the 
next trip, and also many cargoes that might be car- 
ried at a less cost. I cannot but advert here to the 
apathy of some of the members, who never came 
near us to see whether we sank or swam over the 
terrible sea of selfishness on which they cast our 
bark. Others, too, who had repeatedly asked, 
"Why don't you hold an exhibition?" when we did 
make an effort stood aloft, as it were, to look down 
at the modest display as beneath their recognition, 
and cast a smile of contempt upon it, because they 
could not gratify some selfish propensity by which 
they might individually reap some benefit. The in- 
sinuation was repeatedly thrown out that we would 
fail in getting up a creditable display, which had a 
tendency to deter mauy who otherwise would have 
assisted with their contributions and would have i 
filled the building from pit to dome, all of which, I 
can assure you, was exceedingly discouraging to tlie 
management. On the other hand, I wish to con- 
gratulate and extend ray sincere thanks to those 
who bravely stood by the helm, notwithstanding the 
adverse winds we eucount-'red, and assisted in pilot- 
ing our vessel over the stream that threatened to 
swallow us forever. With the experience of the 
past and the knowledge that this county can hold a 
successful exhibition, together with the proof already 
established that you will go through with it, there is 
little doubt in my mind that it would be safe to 
launch out into open waters, where the foul atmos- 
phere of selfishness could not taint nor pollute this 
new organization. Upon your assurance to the 
manufacturing interests of the country that you 
will hold, annually, exhibitions in the interests of 
agriculture and industry, I doubt not they will fill 
all the space you could provide witli the new and 
improved machinery of the day, aud themselves lend 
a lively interest to make it a success. But it is all 
important to begin early in the season, that any one 
contemplating making a display can prepare iu time. 
In soliciting exhibits I encountered this difliculty on 
every side at our late fair. One gentleman alone 
said he would have filled half an aisle in the market 
house if he had been notified iu time, and many 
others knew nothing of it until it was too late. The 
liberal use of printers' ink, judicious advertising, by 
conspicuous posters, and otherwise, that will attract 
attention, will do more to spread the news abroad 
than all the discussions you can contrive at the 
meetings of the society. 

One of the growing features in farm economy is 
the displacement of middle fences aud the adoption 



1880. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



il 



of the Boiliuir syetim, thereby saving a ixrcAt annual 
cxpenec, ol both labor and money, anil other un- 
neeeseary outlay, which with the reclaimea ground 
brought under eultivatiou will move than eompeii- 
6Hte for the labor of feeding the etoik in the yard. 
Picture, if you will, the herd enclosed in a Held 
without shade or water, eagerly seeking eoine spot 
to shelter them from the nconhing rays of a .July or 
August sun, and then wonder why the fence is so 
often broken, and herd doing untold mischief to the 
corn and other crops in adjacent fields. I am in 
hopes that the dav is not far distant when we can 
dispense with all fences, except what are necessary 
to enclose the stock yard. 

Auother growing Interest is the encouragement 
of home attract! ink. It is now no unusual thing to 
see around the farmer's house a well kept lawn, 
handsomely fitted with a few specimens of selected 
shrubbery, and the beautifully arranged flower 
lieds, that would compare favorably with those of 
greater magnitude and kept up at a heavy expense, 
while the former in their simplicity and unltiue 
ilesign cannot but command the admiration of all. 
The refining influences connected therewith has a 
teudeucy to bring out the finer feelings of our 
natures, and kindly associations around the house, 
that are ever pleasant through our walks of life. 
Picture, if you will, the tidy mother, having finished 
the arduous routine of her day's labors, plucking 
here and there a few choice noisettes and tea roses 
with an occasional sprig of mignonette and helio- 
trope, and many others indispensable for her pur- 
pose. A» stie wanders to and fro about the home of 
her choice, having inhaled the delicious fragrance of 
the flowers she so teuderly nursed, she goes to the 
verandah, and in h r easy chair gracefully arranges 
her boquet, while the plaintive notes from her lips 
mingle In harmony with the soft, sweet music of her 
daughter at the organ or piano in the parlor. All 
Intermingle with the songs of the feathered tribe, as 
from the branches of the graceful birch, or willow, 
they sing their praises of gratitude for the beauties 
of nature. 

The farmer, too, with the improved machinery of 
some genius of wit and mechanical skill, finds time 
in his declining years to seek some shady dell by the 
brook, where the plaintive notes from his happy 
home inspires his soul to gratefully acknowledge 
that his bed has not been cast among thorns. 

In couclusion, I desire to express my sincere 
thanks to you all for the unilbrm courtesy you have 
extended me during the four years I have ijad the 
pleasure to preside as your chairman, and ask a 
continuance of the same for my successor. 

It now only remains for me to thank you heartily 
for your kind attention to my remarks, and tliat my 
warmest wishes are that your brightest anticipations 
may be realized In your dally avocations, not only In 
the several departments of Agricultural or horticul- 
tural life, but in the various other duties, which to a 
greater or less extent are incumbent on us all. 

President Cooper's address was applauded at the 
clpse. 

Questions for Discussion. 
E. S. Hoover discussed the question r "Who is the 
best farmer — he who makes most manure, or tie who 
buys most ? " Do we gain most by making or buying 
manure? That is the question. Can we get full 
price for the grain we feed our stock ? is a question 
that enters Into this discussion. If we can, wc save 
the expense of hauling our grain away. We also 
save the expense of hauling manure from abroad. 
Then, too, manure from stall-fed cattle Is superior 
to all other, telling heavily on the crops later on. 
More cattle are now fed than formerly. Tobacco 
land requires much manure, and provision must be 
made to that end. Tlien, again, manure cannot be 
had in suflieient quantities. It It pays some one else 
to make and sell manure, it pays the fanner who 
needs it to make II also. Good crops of tobacco are 
grown where rye has been turned down. The farmer 
can make manure cheaper than he can buy it. 
Generally, also, he can get full value for his grain by 
feeding it. He believed the best farmer was he who 
made the most manure. 

Casper Hlller thought Mr. Hoover's remarks were 
sound, but he believed after all the opposite course 
was best. He believed no animal should be kept on 
a farm but those alisolutely needed. A hundred 
acre farm can be profitably farmed with no animals 
but the horses to work it. All the grain and hay can 
be sold off a farm, and yet its fertility be fully kept 
up. All cannot do this, but some farmers can, while 
the work would be much less. Artificial fertilizers 
will do it, aided by ploughing under green crops. If 
we think this matter over we must come to this con- 
clusion. 

,Ioseph F. WItmer believed as Mr. Hlller does, but 
would be afraid to try his plan. It has been stated 
there is in most soils enough plant food to last a 
thousand years, but the dilHculty is to make it avail- 
able. To keep and feed much stock involves much 
hard labor, ani to put the manure on the field is 
equally laborious, .^^rtllicial fertilizers can be put 
out much more easily. 

E. S. Hoover held manure would produce so much 
greater crops than artificial f«rtilizers as repaid the 
trouble of making it. Farms on which the latter Is 



used invariably produce larger crops. Those on 
which the former are u.sed do not hold out so well. 

W. II. Rrosius said the commercial fertilizer theo- 
ries are all very well, and produce largely on paper, 
liut we are constantly deceived in the (lualities of the 
articles we buy. If It pays the manufacturers to 
make it, it will alio pay us to make manure. The 
man who would keep up the fertility of his farm 
must make his manure. 

M. D. Kendig favored barnyard manure. The best 
tobacco Is from land which is manured with stable 
manure. If it Is best for this croii if will also be best 
for others. Kec|) few cattle In summer, and all you 
can feed in winter. 

.Tohnson Miller was surprised to hear that we can 
keep up our farms with commercial fertilizers. He 
agreed with Mr. Kendig. 

IT. M. Engle thought Mr. ITiller was not so far 
wrong after all. He didn't care how a farmer got 
manure, so tliat he had it to put on his land. Can 
we not put a productive farm in still better order by 
using aitificial fertilizers along with barnyard ma- 
nure ? I'lant food is what we need. Huge piles of 
manure are not enough. We must have wliat the 
plants need. Make all the manure you can, but 
don't decry commercial fertilizers before thoroughly 
testing them. We do not know enough about these 
manures to condemn them. 

J. C. LInvillc said sometimes manure costs more 
than it is worth. Money Is often lost in feeding cat- 
tle. If we can make our manure cheaper than we 
can buy it, then let us do it. He has lately, how- 
ever, had good results from artificial fertilizers, and 
begins to like them better. Farmers are much preju- 
diced on this point. Still he would not like to rely 
entirely on commercial fertilizers. 

Does it Pay to Raise Trees for Fencing ? 
M. D. Kendig did not think it does, unless on sonic 
farms that have bad places which cannot be proflta- 
l)ly cultivated. Along the roadsides it will pay us, 
biit average land Is too valuable to be put to this use. 
He gave liirures to show what could be realized by 
jilanting locusts on the farm along the roadside. On 
hilly land chestnut might be grown profitably. 

.liilin H. Landis said he desired to have the ques- 
tion whether It was not well to encourage the grow- 
ing of limber by legislative enactment take» up at 
some future day. 

S. P. Eby said growing trees has always been oue 
of his hobbies. Grow trees of all sorts, except the 
Ailaulhus. On many farms there are places fit only 
to Slav/ trees. Where there is woodland on a farm, 
dependence should not be put on that supply alone. 
Don't depend on the birds ; plant seeds yourself. 
Sow acorn and chestimts. We want trees for beauty, 
lor the feul and for protection. 

E. S. Hoover said the question had reference to 
this county alone. He wanted trees of all kinds 
planted. 'The tobacco fever is cutting down our 
forests ; the desire to have new ground on which to 
plant the weed is becoming a mania, and timber is 
now cut down which a dozen years ago the owners 
could not have been Induced to lay low. 

Levi S. Heist thought the timber question inex- 
haustible. How shalTwe protect our trees after they 
are plantcil ? One of his finest ornamental trees was 
cut down for a Cbristmas tree and carried off. 

Tlic further discussion of this question was defer- 
red until the next meeting. Several other questions 
set down for discussion at this mectiug were also de- 
ferred until next meeting. 

Representative to the State Board of Agricul- 
ture. 
The Secretary read a letter from Secretary Edge, 
of the State Board of Agriculture, about electing a 
new member to the State Board in place of H.M. 
En^-le, whose term Is about tran6|)irlng. 

11. M. Engle was unanimously re-elected, and ex- 
pressed his thanks in an appropriate speech. 
New Businens. 
Tlic Secretary read a letter from a gentleman In 
Kansas on the comparative cost of raising and keep- 
ing cattle in that State and the East. 

A. .M. llostetter suggested tlie appointment of a 
committee to corrcsixjnd with tobacco dealers and 
tobacco growers in regard to fertilizers for tobacco 
lands, and how the impoverishment of the soil from 
the culture of the weed can best be prevented. 
Election of Officers. 
.Joseph F. WItmer was nominated for President : 
Henry M. Engle and Calvin Cooper were nominated 
as Vice Presidents; for Recording Secretary M. 0. 
Kendig was nominated; for Corresponding Secretary, 
John II. Landis was nominated; for Treasurer, .\I. 
D. Kendig was nominated; for Managers, E. S. 
Hoover, J. C. Linvillc, W. H. Brosius, Israel L. Lan- 
dis and Casper Hiller were nominated, all of whom 
were elected. 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were extend- 
ed to tlie retiring president. 

Henry M. Engle said the Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tiou had its origin in this county, and ought therefore 
not to be overlooked at Its next meeting at Bethle- 
hem on the third Wednesday of this month. Excur- 
sion tickets over the Heading road can be procured. 
Joseph F. WItmer, the newly elected president, 



then asstimcd the chair and addressed the Society, 
thanking the mcmt)ers for their partiality in select- 
ing him as their presiding ofllcer. 

Calvin Cooper sugirested that some salary should 
lie attached to I he ofllce of Recording Secretary, as 
his iluties are at times onerous. 

On motion, the matter was left to the Board of 
Managers, to report at the next nu'cfing. 

A motion was also carried to leave the preparation 
of questions for discussion to llic Board of Managers. 

The followlnL' question was sulimilled : By what 
means and in wliat way can the growing of forest 
trees be most encouraged and the timber lands of 
the State behest protected? Referred to Levi 8. 
Heist. 

Does the stock have any influence on the graft f 
Referred to J. Stautler. 

Why docs the second crop of clover produce more 
seed tlian the lirst? Referred to Calvin Cooper. 

On motion the Society adjourned. 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the Lancaster County 
Poultry Association was held In City Hall, Monday 
morning, January .5tli, 18S0. 

The following members were present : Rev. I). C. 
Tobias, President, Litiz ; J. B. Liclily, Secretary ; 
city; T. F. Evans, Treasurer, Litiz ; H. H. Tshudy, 
Litiz : Charles Li|)pold, city; William Schoeiiberger, 
city ; .John .\. Stolier, Scliocneek ; (leorge A. (icyer, 
Spring Garden : .loscpli E. WItmer, Paradise ; Chas. 
E. Long, city ; J. B. Long, city ; Harry G. Hirsh, 
city; F. K. DIflcndcrtler, city ; C. A. Gast, city; 
Henry Wissler, ('olunibia ; J. M. .lolmston, city; 
T. B. .Martin, Litiz ; John F. Evans, Litiz; J. II. 
Miller, .Marietta ; J. H. Menaugh, Spring Garden ; 
J. II. Habeckcr, Spring (Jarden ; Ferdinand Schacf- 
fer, city: L. G. .Martin, Spring (iarden ; Martin 
Bowman, .Mount Joy ; Addison Kiowors, Mount 
Joy; -Morris Bacliman, Strasburg ; PMward Brack- 
bill, Strasburg : Samuel Engle, Marietta; J. W. 
Bruckhart, Salunga ; II. H. Myers, Spring (;ardcn. 
Tlie Treasurer and Executive Conimlttcc made 
verbal reports, showing the condition of the treasury 
to be In a healthy condition, and that the poultry 
exhibition had been so lllieially patronized there was 
no doulit that all the premiums offered would be 
paid and a handsome lialance left over. 

Mr. J. -A. Stober, from the I'onimlttee appointed 
for the purpose, reported tlic following ollicers of 
the society for the ensuini,' year : 

President — Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz. 
Vice Presidents— (ico. A. Geyer, Spring (iardeu, 
and W. J. Kafroth, West Earl. 
Corresponding .Secretary — Joliu F. Reed, city. 
Ueconling Secretary— .1. B. Lichty, city. 
Treasurer- T. F. Evans, Litiz. 
Executive Committee— H. H. Tshudy, Litiz ; J. 
A. Stober, Schoeneck ; Joseph R. Trisslcr, city ; 
J. B. Long, city ; S. N. Warfel, Strasburg. 

The report of the committee was received, and the 
olfieers proposed were elected by acclamation. 

A discussion ensued as to the propriety of having 
a sub-conimlltec of city members appointed to act 
in conjunctiim with the Executive Committee, and 
to perform their duties, as alternates during their 
absence. Wit hmU arriving at final action the mat- 
ter was postponed. 

The society adjourned to attend the poultry exhi- 
bition iu Locher's building. 



THE POULTRY EXHIBITION. 

The late sliow of iioultrv and pet .stock in 
Locher's bniUlini;, Laiiraster city, Pa, was a 
striking novtlty in tlic donieslic liistci y of tlie 
county of Lancaster. It was one of the most 
imposing and meritorious pageantries of the 
kind ever presented to the gaze of onr people. 
We do not propose to give the details of this 
lirst exhibition of the "Lancaster Coiinly 
Poultry Association," for they were amply 
ventilated by the daily press during the 
continuance of the show. 13ut as a standing 
record for the benelit of ftitiire exhibitions of 
the kind, and for the .satisfaction of our 
readers, below will be found the list ofnUries, 
the awards of the judges and a list ol the 
premiums paid to those who fairly won them. 
For the same reason we refrain from tiaming 
the birds placed on exhibition, nor yet the 
quality of the stock exhibited, because the 
examination of the lists aforesaid will lie a 
suftieieut reference to those who may desire 
to intike use of them in the future. It is 
suflieient to say that those whom the as.socia- 
tion delegated to discharge the various 
duties a.ssigued them worked with a nill, and 
seized old time by the forelock and made the 
occasion a deserved success. We may learn 
from this that sleepless vigilance and perse- 
vering eflbrt in the proper direction can 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



achieve a woiulerful work wlien they are 
intelligently and lovingly operated. 

It may "point a moral" that should be 
heeded by older organizations under similar 
circumstances, teaching them what to do and 
how to do it, and above all, to be aforetime 
and avoid procrastinations. 

The Entries. 

Sherman Dielil, Beverly, N. .T. ; 1 pair Silver Sea- 
britrlit Bantams; 1 pair Andalnsians. 

Haydn H. TBliudy, Litiz; I'lynioulli Hocks; Brown 
Lctcliorn; Colored IJorkinjjs; White Holland Turkevs. 

John E. Dielil, Beverly, N. J.; 1 pair B. Bed 
Malay . 

A. 8. Flowers, Mount Joy; 1 pair White Cochins; 
1 pair Bnfl' Cochins. 

Jos. It. Trisslcr, Lan<',ister; Black Leffliorns; Brown 
Lccrhorns Andalnsians; American Seabrights. 

John M. Hagans, Straslmrir; 1 pair Kcd Jacobins 
pigeons; 1 pair Yellow Jacobins pigeons; 1 pair Black 
Jacobins pigeons; 1 pair Black Carrier pigeons. 

Jacob B. Long, Lancaster; Plymouth Bocks. 

Samuel (i. Engle, Marietta; 4 pair Black Coshins ; 
1 coop Black Cochins, six specimens. 

J. A. Stobcr, Schoeneck; Bronze turkeys; Silver 
Spangled Hamburgs. 

John Cole, Clinton, N. J.; 1 cock and 1 hen, part 
Cochin; 1 cockerel and 1 pullet, part Cochin; 1 cock 
and 1 hen Butl'Co'hin. 

Rev. D. C. Tobias, LiMz; Malay Games. 

.\mos Ringwalt, Lancaster; 1 pair White Leghorns; 
1 jiair Golden Spangled Haui'mrgs; 1 pair Silver 
Penciled Hamburgs. 

8. N. Warlel, Strasburg; Light Brahmas. 

John C. Burrowes, Lancaster; Brown Leghorns. 

Jos. Windolph, .Marietta; 4 pair Light Brahmas. 

Geo. G. Keefer, Chambersburg; Plymouth Rocks. 

H. 8. Garber, Mount Joy; 3 pairs Partrid<>-e 
Cochins. " 

.M. L. Greider, Rapho; 1 pair W. F. B. Spanish; 3 
pair Plymouth Rocks; 1 pair Brown Leghorns. 

John Grosh, Landis Valley; 1 pair Pekin ducks- 2 
pair Plymouth Rocks. ' 

Peter C. Hiller, Conestoga; Plymouth Rocks. 

H. H. Myers, Spring Garden; 2 pair Partridge 
Cochins; 1 pair White Leghorns; 1 pair B. B. R. G. 
Bantams. 

Charles Lippold, Lancaster; 1 pair G. D. W. G. 
Bantams; 1 pairB. B.R.G. Bantams; 1 pair B. B. 
K. Games; 1 pair Blue Antwerps; 1 pair Silver 
Antwerps; 1 pair Red Checkered Antwerps; 1 pair 
White Trumpeters; 1 pair Black Trumpeters; 1 pair 
White AlViean owls; 1 pair Blue African Owls; 1 pair 
Blue Baldhead Tumblers, L. F.: 1 pair Inside Tum- 
blers, L. F.; 1 pair Red Tumblers, L. F.; 1 pair 
White Fantails: li German Canaries. 

Chas. E. Long, Lancaster: U pair Golden D. W. 
Game Bantams; 3 pair Black B. Red Game Bantams; 
1 pair Silver D. VV. Game Bantams; 1 pair Golden 
.Seabright Bantams: 1 pair Black African Bantams; 
1 pair Red Pyle (ianje Bantams:! breeding pen g'. 
D. W. Game Bantam^; I breeding pen Light Brah- 
mas; 1 pair Silver D, VV.CJame Bantam pullets- 1 
Black Red Bantam, pullet; 1 Golden D. W. G. Ban- 
tam, (-ockerebl pair Black Leghorns;! pair W. 
Calcutta Fantails, in breeding pen; ! pair White 
Calcutta Fantails; 1 pair Black Fantails; 3 pair 
Yellow Fantails; 2 pair White African Owls; ! pair 
BbK-k Fantails; 1 pen, six White Calcutta Fantails. 

Clias. E. Long, Jr., Lancaster; ! pair Silver D. W. 
Game Bantams; 1 pair Golden Seabright Bantams. 

L. R. Rote, Lancaster; 1 coop breecling pen Ply- 
mouth Rocks. 

L. Rathvon, Lancaster; Light Brahmas. 

W. Sherman Edgerly, Lancaster; ! pair S. S. 
Hamburgs. 

George R. Erisman, Lancaster;! pair B. B. Red 
Games. 

J.B. Lichty, Lancaster; 1 coop Light Brahmas- 
Capon. 

Frank K. Howell, Lancaster; 1 pair Silver Dun 
Antwerps: 1 pair Light Blue Antwerps. 
Harry C. Miller, Strasburg; Colored Dorkings. 

J. A. Buch & Bro, Litiz; :i pair Plymouth Rocks- 
1 pair G. Seabright Bantams; 2 pair B. Tartar 
Games: 1 pair White Georgians. 

Morris Bachman, Strasburg; Dark Brahmas. 
J. W. Bruckhart, Salunga; White Crested Black 
Polish. 

L.G. .Martin, Spring Garden; ! pair White Leg- 
horns. ° 

John E. Schum, Lancaster; 1 pair Blue Swallows- 
1 iiair Black Swallows: 1 Yellow Winged Turhitts' 

1 Yellow Jacobins:! pair Blue A. Owls: 1 pair White 
A. Owls. 

Harry G. Hirsh, Lancaster; 2 pair Blue Antwerps- 

2 pan- Silver: 2 pair Red Checkers; 1 pair Silver Sea- 
brights: 1 pair Ducks; 1 pair Blue Pied Pouters- ! 
pair Blue .\ntwerps. 

Jno. L. .Metzger, Lancaster; ! pair Black Spanislr 
! pair W. C. B. Polish; ! pair \V. C. B. Polish; ! pair 
W Inte Leghorns; 1 pair Creoles. 

Henry Neater, York: 3 pair White Leghorns- 
Brown Legliorns; Black B. Red Games; Golden Sea- 
bright Bantams. 

W. A. Myers, York; 3 pair Light Brahmas; 2 pair 



Dark Brahmas; 2 pair Partridge Cochins; 1 pair 
Black Cochins. 

T. Frank Evans, Litiz: 1 pair Black B. Red Games; 
1 pair Black Cochins; 1 pairLangshans; 4 pair Black 
B. Red Games. 

Christian Greider, Rapho; 1 pair Moorheads; 1 
pair M.agpies: 1 pair Black Trumpeters. 

T. D. Martin, Litiz; 1 pair Hong Kong geese; ! 
pair Muscovy ducks; ! pair B. B. R.' Games. 

C. G. Landis, Lancaster; ! pair White Pouters; ! 
pair Jacobins; ! pair Yellow Winged Turbitts. 

Jos. H. Habecker, Spring Garden; Partridge 
Cochins; Silver Spangled Hamburgs; Gold Laeed 
Seabright Bantam; Blue Pied Pouters; Yellow Nuns; 
Black Fantails Crested; Blue Antw-erps; Black Jaco- 
bin; White Jacobin; BLick Trumpeters; Booted 
Tumblers; Red Magpies; White Calcutta Fantails. 

Ferdinand SchaefTer, Lancaster; I pair G. S. Ham- 
burgs: 1 pair S. P. Hamburgs; 1 pair Black Barbs; 2 
pair Blue Antwerps. 

Geo. C. Liller, Lancaster; ! pair Silver Spangled 
Polish: ! pair Black Hamburgs. 

I. H. Mayer, M. D., Willow Street; Light Brah- 
mas, ten specimens; 1 pair White Booted Bantams. 

J. H. Mei.augh, Spring Garden; 2 pair Partridge 
Cochins; ! pair S. D. G. Bantams: 1 pair Booted 
Tumblers. 

Chas. Eden, Lancaster: 1 pair Brazilian ducks; 1 
pair G. S. Hamburgs. 

Wm. A. Schoenberger, Lancaster; ! pair G 
Polands; 1 pair W. C. B. Polish; 1 pair S. S. Ban- 
tams; ! pair G. S. Bantams; 1 pair Blue Antwerps- 1 
pair White Fantails. 

John F. Reed, Lancaster; 2 pair Plymouth Rocks. 

E. C. Brinser, Middletown; 3 coops Plymouth 
Rocks. 

Mrs. Ellen H. Hager, Lancaster; ! Gray Parrot. 

Miss Winnie Breneman, Strasburg; I pair Pekin 
ducks. 

Jacob Leep, Lancaster; Dark Brahmas. 

George H. Smith, Smithville; Pekin Ducks. 

Wm . J. Cooper, Lancaster; 1 pair Plj mouth Rocks . 

George A. Geyer, Spring Garden; I pair Toulouse 
geese. 

Chas. Lippold, Lancaster; 1 pair Mottled Trump, 
eters; 1 pair White Fantails. 

Isaac L. Bauman, Lancaster; ! pair S. T. Ham- 
burgs; 1 pair Partridge Cochins. 

C. G. Landi6,Lancast.er:! pair Yellow Trumpeters 

Elam E. Snyder, Lancaster; 1 pair Irish Games. 

Chas. Lippold, Lancaster; ! pair White Carriers- 
1 pair Black Fantails; 1 pair White English Fantails' 

Fred. Herman, Erie; ! pair B. B. Red Games- 1 
pair White Leghorns. ' 

Wm. H. Amer, Lancaster; ! pair Brown Leghorn.s 

F. R. Diffenderfler, Lancaster;! pair Dark Brah- 
mas. 

Mrs. Colin Cameron, Brickerville; Embden o-eese 
J. A. Roberts, Malvern; Light Brahmas. 
W. J. Cooper, Lancaster; G. S. Bantams 
George A. Geyer, Spring Garden; White Leghorns- 
Partridge Cochin; Pekin ducks; Roman ducks- Tou- 
louse geese. 
William Henderson, Lancaster: Light Brahmas 
Jno. P. Weise, Lancaster; Plymouth Rock. 



THE JUDGES' AWARD OF PREMIUMS. 

Chicks and Fowls. 

S. N. Warfcl, Strasburg, Pa.: First and special 
premiums for Light Brahma chicks; score— cockerel 
94; pullet, 9fi. Also, Association's special premium' 
for best pair Light Brahmas. 

Dr. Mayer, Willow Street, Pa. : Second and 

special premiums for Light Brahma chicks- score- 
cockerel, 9.5?,; pullet, S7^; special premium for 
heaviest fowl . 

Samuel G. Engle, Marietta, Pa. : First and special 
premiums for Black Cochin chicks; score— cockerel 
97.'i; pullet, 9.". 

t. Frank Evans, Litiz, Pa..- First and special 
premium for Black Breasted Red Game fowls- second 
for Langsban chicks; and second for Black Cochin 
chicks; score on latter— cockerel, 9.i^i, pullet 93 

.John Cole, Clinton, N. J.: First premium 'for 
Par- ridge Cochin fowls. Score— Cock, 90- hen 9l)i - 
First for Buff Cochin fowls, and special fo'r best pair 
of Cochins. ' 

W. A. Myer, York, Pa. : First premium for Dark 
Brahma fowls; second and special for Dark Brahma 
Clucks; second for Partridge Cochin fowls. Score- 
cock, 87;^; hen, gS':,'^. 

George A. Geyer, Spring Garden, Pa.: Special 
premium for Pea-comb Partridge Cochin fowls 

Q *''™', ?V,^!'l'"'' ^'^y- ^"^^ premium for Sliver 
Spangled Polish. 

Wm.A. Schoenberger, city: First premium for 
Golden Spangled Polish fowls; second for Silver 
Seabright Bantams. 

Wm. J Cooper, city : Special premium for best 
June hatched chicks (Plymouth Rocks, i 
wk".''" ''• ,^'etzler, city : Second premium for 
White-crested Black Polish chicks; second for Wbitc- 
crested White Polish chicks. 

J. W. Bruckhart, Salunga, Pa. : First and second 
special premium* for White-crested Black Polish 
chicKs. 



Joseph R. Trissler, city: First and second special 
premiums for Black Leghorn chicks; first and second 
specials for Brown Leghorn chicks; second and 
special for American Seabright chicks. 

Charles E. Long, city: First, second and special 
premiums for Black Breasted Red Game Bantams- 
first and second specials for Black Rose Comb 
Bantams; first and second specials for Red Pile Game 
Bantams; first and second specials for Golden Duck- 
wing Game Bantams; first and special lor Golden 
Seabright Bantams; second for Silver Duckwino- 
Game Bantams; second for Black Leghorn chicks" 
and Association's special premium of $10 for the 
best coop of si.-s: on exhibition. [The contest for this 
premium was between Mr. Long's Golden Duckwing 
Bantams and S. N. Warfel's Light Brahmas. The 
score on the Bantams stood : Cockerel, 94 and five 
pullets, 94, 9!,ii,, 94i<, 9.5'4 and 94 respectively- 
total, .563',^. Mr. Warfel's coop scored : cockerel' 
93 S', two hens, 9«',2 and 96, respectively; and three 
pullets 93%, 92^4 and 90',, respectively ; total, 563 
The weight of Mr. Warfel's coop was : Cockerel 13 
pounds 9 ounces; hen, 123^ pounds; hen, llw' 
pounds: pullet, 11 pounds; pullet, !0 pounds 15 
ounces; pullet, 8 pounds; total, 6ii pounds, 8 ounces 1 
Mr. Long's pair of Black Breasted Red Game 
Bantams, "Tom" and "Jenny," took the special $5 
premium offered for the most perfect pair of birds 
in the exhibition, the united score of the two 
running up to 194' j. 

Sherman Diehl Beverly, N. J. : first and special 
premiums for Audalusian chicks. 

M. L. Greider, Mouut Joy, Pa. : Second and 
special premiums for Plymouth Rock chicks; second 
for Brown Leghorn chicks; second for White-faced 
Black Spanish chicks. 

I. G. Martin, .Spring Garden, Pa.: First and special 
premiums for White Leghorn chicks. 

Amos Ringwalt, city .- Second and special premi- 
ums for White Leghorn chicks. 

Ferd. Schaeffer, city: First premium for Golden 
Spangled Hamburg chicks; second and two specials 
for Silver Penciled Hamburg cliicks. 

Hon. J. A. Stober, Schoeneck, Pa.: First premium 
for Silver Spangled Hamburg chicks. 

Joseph H. Habecker, Spring Garden, Pa. : Second 
premium for Silver Spangled Hamburg chicks. 

J. A. Buch it Bro., Litiz, Pa.: First premium for 
Black Game chicks ; secoud for Black Game fowls. 
Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz ; First and special premi- 
ums for Malay Game chicks. 

John E. Diehl, Beverly, N. J. : Secoud and special 
premiums for Black Breasted Red .Malay Game 
chicks. 

George R. Erisman, city : Second premium for 
Black Breasted Red Game fowls. 

John Grosh, Landis Valley, Pa. : First and second 
special premiums for White Faced Black Spanish 
chicks. 

George G. Keefer, Chambersburg, Pa. : Fifst and 
special premiums for Plymouth Rock fowls. [This 
pair is said to have cost $100.] 

A. S. Flowers, Mount Joy, Pa. : Second and special 
premiums for White Cochin Chicks; second for Buff 
Cochin chicks. 

Jacob B. Long, city : Special premium for best 
display Plymouth Rock chicks. 

Charles Lippold, city : Second premium for Golden 
Duck Wing (Jame Bantams. 

Pigeons. 

Charles Lippold, city : First and special premiums 
for White Fantails; first for White Trumpeters; first 
for Black Trumpeters; first for Inside Tumblers; first 
for Bald-head Tumblers; first for Silver Antwerps- 
second for Red-checkered Antwerjjs; second for Blue- 
Antwerps; second for White Owls; second for Blue 
Owls; second for Red Tumblers; second for Black 
Carriers, and special for best collection. 

John E. Schum, city : First premium for Blue 
African Owls; first for Blue Swallows; first for Black 
Swallows; first for Yellow-winged Turbitts; second 
for Yellow Jacobins. 

C. G. Landis, city : First premium for Yellow- 
Trumpeters; first for White Pouters; second for 
Yellow-winged Turbitts; second for White Jacobins. 
Christian Greider, ,\It. Joy, Pa. : Second premium 
for Moorheads. 

Fei-d. .Schaeffer, city : First Premium for Black 
Barbs. 

Frank R. Howell, city : First and special premiums 
for Blue Antwerps. 

Chas. E. Long, city : First and second premiums 
for Yellow- Fantails; first and special for Bliick Fan- 
tails; first for White African Owls; second for White 
Fantails; and a sjiecial premium of ?5 for best coop 
of six in exhibition. 

John .M. Hagens, Strasburg, Pa. ; First premium 
for Yellow Jacobins; first for Red Jacobins; first for 
Black Cariiers; first for Black Jacobins. 

Joseph H. Habecker, Spring Garden, Pa. : First 
premium for Red Magpies; first for White Jacobins: 
first for Booted Tumblers; second for Blue Pied 
Pouters; second for Black Fantails; second for Black 
Jacobins; second for Black Trumpeters. 

Harry G. Hirsh, city: First inemium for Blue Pied 
Pouters; First for Red-eheckeicd Antwerps; second 
for Silver Antwerps, and special for Blue Antwerps. 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



-13 



Turkeys, Geese and Ducks. 

Hon. A. J.Stolier, 8cli(ienook, Pa. : Special premi- 
um for large bronze turkeys. 

Mrs. Colin Cameron, BriokervlUe, Pa. : First pre- 
mium for Embilcn geese; second for Hong Kong 
geese. 

T. D. Martin, Litiz, Pa ; First premium for Hong 
Kong geese; tirsl for .Muscovy ducks. 

Miss Winnie Brcnenum, SIrasburg, Pa.: First and 
special premiums for Pekin ducks. 

George A. ((ever Spring Garden, Pa. : First and 
special premiums for Koueu ducks; second for Pekin 
ducks. 

Miscellaneous. 

Charles Lippold, city : First and second premiums 
for German canaries. 

Mrs. Ellen H. Flager, city: First prcniiuiu for 
Talking Parrot. 

Pigeon Fly, 

The carrier pigeon race took place the 71 h, having 
been postponed from the 6lh on account of the in- 
clement weather. The jiri/.e was a silver cup offered 
by the association, and to be awarded to the owner 
of the bird lirst brought back to the Exhibition. 

There were eight entries, by the following named 
persons: Ferd. Schacll'er, \Vm. Schoeuberger, 
Thomas lluniphreyville, John E. Sebum, .T. .M. iiulh, 
Frank U. Howell, Harry (i. llirsli and Charles Lip- 
pold. The birds were taken to Mount Joy in the 
morning by Wm. Schoenhergcr, but at what hour 
they were let lly is not known. The tirst bird 
brought back to the exiiibition was Mr. Schaelfer's, 
at 1:25 p. m., and the cup was awarded to him. 
Mr. Schoenbergcr's bird was brought in second, 
about live minutes later. The other bin':* ar- 
rived at their cots, but were not returned to the ex- 
hibition. 

The winning bird is a Blue Antwerp hen, tivc 
months old, and was bred by Charles Lippold. 



Agriculture. 



LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 
The Linnaean Society held their stated meeting on 
Saturday, December a7th, 1879, in the comfortable 
rooms of the Y. M. C. A. Kcv. Dr. J. H. Dubbs 
was in the chair. The monthly dues were paid in 
and the minutes disposed of. The donations to the 
museum were only two jars — one containing three 
gold ash, among whicli the curious triple-tailed 
specimen owned by Master C. F. Long, son of Chas. 
E. Long, and after its death donated by him to the 
Linnasan ; one that was in an aquarium among 
others of Mr. George Hensel's collection. This mani- 
fested a phosphorescent oblong spot, in the dorsal 
region, near its head, when seen in a dark room, 
prior to its death. The other was from Mr. Kalh- 
von's aquarium. A bottle of miscellaneous insects 
collected during the summer. 

Additions to the Library. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of 
Philadelphia, part II., April and October, 1876; 
Proceedings of the American and Oriental Section of 
the Ethnographic Society of France, per Dr. Dubbs ; 
Second Annual Report of the Agricultural Society of 
Pennsylvania, 1878; IT. S. Patent Office Gazette to 
December 33,1879; The Lancasteu F.MLMiiii for 
the month of December, 1879. 

Historical Section. 

Four envelopes containing fifty historical scraps, 
perS. S. Rathvon, Ph.D. 

Papers Read. 

A highly interesting paper was read, No. 533, by 
Rev. Dr. Dubbs, on Archisology. — (See page 4.) It 
was listened to with much interest. J. Staufler read 
an illustrated paper, No. 5.3-1, on gold tish in general, 
and the triple-tailed specimen in particular. Like 
specimens have been seen before. 

Annual Reports of Officers. 

The Recording Secretary read his annual report, 
and found the dues received to tally with the 
amounts in the Treasurer's report. Notwithstanding 
the finance is small, and many of the active members 
fail to attend the stated meetings, the Curator's full 
report shows lUrge and valuable additions to the 
museum and fixtures ; forty vQjumes added to the 
lilirary, besides pamphlets and serials ; twenty-three 
original papers read, and one thousand five hundred 
and thirty objects added to the collections. In 
short, much that deserves encouragement has been 
performed by the Society, weak as it is, in means 
and numbers. Those who come short in doing their 
duty, no doubt are aware of it. 

Election of Officers. 

It being the time for electing the officers for the 
ensuing year, on casting the ballot it resulted as 
follows : President, Rev. J. S. Stahr ; Vice Presi- 
dents, Rev. Dr. J. H. Dubbs, Prof. T. H. Baker ; 
Recording Secretary, Jacob Staufler ; Assistant 
Recording Secretary, W. P. Bolton ; Corresponding 
Secretary, M. L. Davis, M. D. ; Treasurer, S. S. 
Rathvon; Librarian, Mrs. L. A. Zell ; Curators, 
Cbas. A. Heinitsh, Phar., S. S. Rathvon, Ph. D., 
W. P. Bolton, Esq. ; Microscopist, Dr. .M. L. Davis. 



Seasonable Hints, 

Among the hints most seasonable on either the 
garden or the farm, few things are more serviceable 
than those relating III the sharpening of tools. Too 
often these things arc thought of until the articles 
are wanted, when niuib valuable lime is lost In put- 
ting in order what might as well have been done 
during the dull winter days. Even the smartest of 
us do not think enough of these things, and iinloed 
hardly know bow much we lose by having dull tools 
to work with. It has been tolerably acccurately 
computed that the same man can do as much In two 
days with a sharp scythe, as with one but compara- 
tively dull and with the same expenditure of force, 
could do in three. .\nd it is just the same in regard 
to all other tools or implcnients, whether operated 
by hand, steam or horse-power. The engineer, con- 
tinually oils the machinery, and a good saw or file is 
oil to h;inil implements. We know one who has a 
great deal of hand hoeing to do by hired labor, and 
he believes that the continued use of the flic on the 
hoes makes a diflercnce of nearly one-half in the 
labor. His calculation is that every ten-cent tile he 
buys save him ten dollars in his laborers' bills. Now 
is the time to look after spades, scythes, hoes, 
chisels, saws, etc. 

A good grindstone and a set of files are among the 
best of farm investments, especially at this season. 
It is always nice to be forehanded, to get things well 
ahead ; but the best of all forehandeduess is that 
which prepares in advance a full set of good and 
well-repaired tools to work with.- — Oertnnnfnwn 

Winter AValks About the Premises. 

As the storm-king may soon be expected to visit us 
to stay for some months, we are inclined to repeat 
the advice we have hitherto given at this period, 
when so many farmers in all sections are in the habit 
of neglecting matters that cost but little lime and 
money about their dwellings and out-buildings, but 
which impart in themselves great comfort and pro- 
tection to their families. Among them there is 
nothing that adds more, not merely to the comfort 
and convenience, but to the health of the family, 
than qood inalkv. We have known these in many 
instances to be utterly neglected. They are i-cganied 
as good eniiugh when the weather is dry, and when 
the weather is wet they cannot be made better. 
And thus year after year the members of the family 
:ire left to wade through mud to the cow stables, 
hog pens, wood or coal shed, to the pump or spring- 
house, to the place of drying the wash, and so on. 
Now, the little labor it would cost to make hard dry 
paths to all these points is not worth mentioning. 
About every place there are stones, old mortar, 
bricks, Ac, which could be laid down at an excava- 
tion of six inches and covered with coal ashes. This 
would last for a dozen years, and would always be 
dry in five minutes after a rain. Or, in lieu of this, 
lay down boai-d walks, which, if taken up in the 
spring after the weather is settled and carefully 
piled up, will last from eight to ten years. 

Try it. It will save in shoe leather and doctors' 
bills four times as much as the cost, leaving out of 
the question the great convenience and comfort en- 
joyed. 

Farm Food. 

Where we make one load of manure now we ought 
to make at least three, says an exchange; These 
are some of the multitude of ways : The liquid waste 
is as valuable for manure as the solid portions, and 
yet on seven-eighths of the farms it is nearly all 
lost. It can be saved by storing a supply of muck 
or common loam under the stable where the oxen 
and cows and horses are to stand, and putting a 
fresh coating upon the pile often enough to keep it 
from lis foul odors ; or is much better still — for few 
men can be trusted to manage a barn basement — 
make a shed or pit for the compost, and convey the 
liquids away from the stable by suitable drains, 
which should be provided in every decent barn. One 
hundred loads of saturated earth will be worth to 
any farmer one hundred and fifty dollars, putting it 
at the least. Put the absorbents where they will do 
the most good. One other thing, leaves of the forest 
are wasted when they should be saved. They make 
excellent bedding and most excellent manure, and a 
few days given to transporting them from the woods, 
where they are not wanted, to the bam, where they 
are, will pay. 

Pierre Lorillard's Farm. 

A committee of the Burlington Agricultural So- 
ciety recently visited the farm of Mr. Lorillard at 
.lobstown, New Jersey. We give the following from- 
their report : 

F'or the most profitably cultivated crop, the profits 
of which shall exceed JlOO per acre, they award the 
premium of 510 to D. E. Howatt, farmer for P. 
Lorillard, for 6?j' acres of carrots, yielding liy esti- 
mate (after pulling a few) 400 bushels per acre, 
making 2700 bushels, which, at forty cents per 



bushel, is 81,0S0; expense of seed, drilling, hoeing, 
cultivating, thinning and six per cent, interest on the 
land rated at 51.50 per acre, $213 ; leaving net profit 
on li^; acres, ?8(i8. 

The attention of the committee was called to a 
Held of thirty-live acres of good corn reiently cut 
and stackcil up, and the ground (a sandy loam) was 
then being seeded with wheat. Tlu-y estimated the 
crop at fifty bushels to the acre, making 17.5(1 bush- 
els, which, at fifty cents per liuslii-l, gives $.S75 ; the 
whole cost of ploughing, plantinc and cultlvaliug, 
i-ating the terms at?3.50 perday, laboring men ?1.18 
per day, boys seventy-five cents, amounting in all lo 
$242, which, taken from the value of the crop, leaves 
a profit of $fi"3 on thirty-five acres, being an average 
of $18 per acre. Tlu-y thought the above crop 
worthy of notice, as showing that farming when 
properly managed will pay, even In these dull, hard 
times. 

Cuzco Corn from Peru. 

A consigiunent of 1 ,.100 [lounds of this corn, which 
is produced in the province of Cuzco, in Peru, atiout 
41)0 miles inland frotn Lima, was recently received 
in San Francisco, and is described as follows: "The 
Cuzco corn is as large as a butter bean, has a thin 
white skin and is all flour or meal. II is as wonder- 
ful in quality as it is in size, resembling a well-baked 
cracker and being two or three times larger than our 
"large yellow" variety. When simply boiled, the 
grain breaks into the finest, largest and whitest 
hominy ever seen, and this without grinding or 
crushing. It is said by corn experts to be admira- 
bly adapted for the manufactdre •' '.ilsky, and 
also of starch, and very valuable In its green Hate 
for I'odder. It will also form, as green corn, a new 
vegetable for the table. The weight of Cuzco corn 
is forty-three to forty-four pounds to the bushel." 
The consignment is lo be sold for seed at one dollar 
per pound. 



Why Belgian Farming Pays. 
The fact that Flemish farming derives such abun- 
dant returns from a soil naturally [loor is due to the 
following reasons : The perfection of the work of 
cultivation, whether performed by the plow or spade; 
the perfection of shape given lo each field, whereby 
cultivation and drainage are facilitated ; the most 
careful husbanding of all the manures ; the great 
variety of crops grown, especially of industrial 
plants, which yield large returns and admit of large 
exportation to distant countries ; the abundance of 
lood for cattle ; the house feeding of cattle, by which 
cows give both more milk and more manure; and 
the system of minute weeding, or the most careful 
and thoroughly clean culture. The capital in use 
in farming operations in Flandres amounts to tl20 
per acre. 



Horticulture. 



The Best Time to Plant Trees. 

There is nothing perhaps on which most of us are 
more prone to dogmatize than on the subject of tree- 
planting. If we plant in spring and the tree dies 
we are very likely to attribute the loss to the season, 
and decide never to plant in spring iigain. Or, if we 
plant in fall and have no succe.«8, then we arc quite 
as decided against fall-planting. 

There is no doubt but that fall-planting has risks 
from which the spring is free. Trees which have 
not been transplanted, but have grown well in the 
one place for twenty years, have been destroyed by 
the dry cold winds of winter. Not only evergreens, 
such as arborvita's, balsam Ifrs, hemlock spruce, 
and even Norway spruces, but deciduous trees, as 
cherries, tulip-trees, oaks, and many others wilt) 
the best established reputation for hardiness. And 
then small things besides the risks 'of those frosty 
winds to dry up the little sap in them, are usually so 
much drawn out as to be seriously injured. The one 
great argument in favor of fall planting is that 
where the trees escape all these risks it generally 
grows much stronger and more vigorous in spring 
than one planted at that time, as the bruised roots 
seem to heal, and the tree is ready to push out in the 
spring almost as well as many not transplanted. It 
saves a year. 

But, after all, spring with most people will ever 
be the favored time. The hoi dry summer may come 
and destroy, just as the cold dry winds of winter 
may, and thus in some measure equalize the risk, 
but yet it is at this season that planting will be the 
most popular. 

But there is one thing on which people need cau- 
tioning. A large number of persons start to plant 
as soon as the first bright sun shines through a 
snow cloud, and before the earth is dry enough to 
powder about the roots. No matter how fine over- 
head, the earth should not he wet or frosty at the 
lime of planting. 

As a general thing the best time to plant trees In 
the spring season is just before the buds push, or 
even after they have started. This implies an active 
condition of the root, and it generally occurs at a 



i4 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



time when the earth is in the best condition for 
working: in about the roots. As evergreens fush 
later tlian deciduous trees their removal may be ex- 
tended lone into May. — Gerinnnlo'i'ii Telegraph. 

The Baby Plant. 

No curiosity exhibited in this city for years has 
attracted such fceneral attention as that wonderful 
plant at Shannahan's art gallery. Fully 3,000 
people have visited the place to look upon this 
botanical wonder. It is said to be indigenous to 
Japan. Its technical term has not been ascertained, 
but it is known, and appropriately so, as the " Baby 
Plant." It is of the genus lily, sometimes attaining 
a height of four feet and blossoming semi-annually. 
The one of which we write is, however, not more 
than twelve inches in heitrht, with leaves about six 
inches long and two inches wide. The flower is 
star-shaped, having live petals of a handsome brown 
and yellow color. The calyx encircles and protects 
a tiny little figure that bears an exact resemblance 
to a nude baby, its little arms and legs outstretched, 
and the eyes distinctly marked. Hovering over this 
diminutive form is a small canopy, anirel-shaped, 
having extended arms and wings, aiid peering closely 
into the face of the infant. The family of plants of 
which the " baby " is a member, produced not only 
the specimen now on exhibition, but also give per- 
fect imitations, if such they can be designated, of 
different animals, insects and birds. Mrs. Mark 
Hopkins, of San Francisco, has one of the latter 
varieties, for which $:;no was paid. The plant 
grows to be about three feet in height when fully 
matured, and when in full bloom the one now in 
this city will look like a shipwrecked foundling 
hospital.— /'o)//o;i(; (Om/o«) Slumlard. 

Unlucky Fruit-Growers. 
It is very common to hear people say that it is no 
use for ihem to plant fruit trees. They have no 
luck with them. But in truth luck never did any- 
thing of any importance. We don't trust our farm 
or general garden crops to this person. Luck ; but 
we empluy good, careful hands and direct their 
work by long experience, and the teeming harvest 
field and luxuriant vegetable garden attest to their 
wisdom and industry. There" is no luck about it, 
but a careful measuring to the end to be accom- 
plished with the means at hand to gain it. When- 
ever the same means have been adopted with fruit 
trees good results have followed. In our own dis- 
trict there are " loads" of people who have wonder- 
ful success with certain things that they set their 
hearts on, and the growing of fruit is among these 
successes. But these men, we repeat, do not trust 
to luck. The trees are pruned as they ought to be 
and manured with what they need; precautious, are 
taken against injury to all from the curculio and 
borer, and thus industry and not luck meets with its 
due reward. Try it, as fruit raising and every other 
crop raising ought to be tried, and see how ea'sy it is 
to get good fruit and plenty of it, by going thus 
about it in the right viay.—Geriaantouin Teleqraph. 



t January, 



latter temperature is unsupportable outside of Rus- 
sia. The perfection of a house in wintej, where the 
means will allow it, is to have the halls heated by a 
furnace, while dining and drawing rooms have still 
their grate for coal or their fireplace for wood, and 
where ventilation has not been forgotten. 

Wearing Flannel. 

Put it on at once. Winter or summer, nothing 
better can be worn next the skin than a loose, red 
woolen flannel shirt; " loose," for it has room to 
move on the skin, thus causing a titillation which 
draws the blood to the surface and keeps it tin re ; 
and, when that is the case, no one can take cold ; 
" red," for white flannel fills up, mats together and 
becomes tight, stiff, heavy and impervious ; 
" woolen," the product of a sheep and not a gentle- 
man of color, not of cotton wool, because that 
merely absorbs the moisture from the surface while 
woolen flannel conveys it from the skin and deposits 
it in drops upon the outside of the shirt, from which 
the ordinary cotton shirt absorbs it, and, by its 
nearer exterior air, it is soon dried without injury to 
the body. Having these properties, red woolen 
flannel is worn by sailors even in the midsummer of 
the hottest countries. Wear a thinner material in 
summer. 



the cavities with sugar, apricot-jam and a clove ; join 
the halves and inclose them in suet paste, boil them 
in cloths for about three-quarters of an hour and 
serve them with melted butter, plain sauce. 

CoRNMEAL Muffins.— Three cups of cornmeal, 
one-half cup of sifted wheat flour, three eggs well 
beaten, two large spoonsful of butter and one tea- 
spoonful of soda dissolved in one pint of buttermilk 
and a little salt. Beat these well together, pour 
into rings and bake a nice brown in the oven. 

Yeast Dumplings.— Make a light dough of two 
pounds of flour, one and one-half ounces of German 
yeast, a pinch of salt and some milk ; let it rise in a 
warm place. In about an hour the dough will be 
ready to use ; mold them round as for buns, and 
boil fast for about fifteen minutes in a good deal of 
water ; serve with melted butter plain sauce. 



Glue for Polished Steel. 

The Turks glue diamonds and other jewels to 
their metal setting with the following mixture : 
Five or six bits of gum mastic, each of the size of a 
large pea, are dissolved in as much spirits of wine as 
will sulllcc to render it liquid. In another vessel as 
much isinglass as will make a two ounce phial of 
strong glue, previously softened in water, should be 
dissolved in braudy, adding two small bits of gum 
ammoniac, which must be rubbed until dissolved. 
These must be mixed by heat, and kept in a phial 
closely corked. When it is to be used, set the phial 
in boiling water. This cement perfectly resists 
moisture, and it is said to be able to unite etTectively 
two surfaces of polished steel. 



A Wasteful Interest Paid by Farmers. 
There is no disputing the fact thae any farm im- 
plement, be it wagon, plow, harrow, reaper, rake, 
or what not, if left exposed to rain and sun for ten 
years, will be practically good for nothing. We 
might say in five years, but if any choose to cavil at 
five we will say ten. This is ten per cent, per au- 
nma. At a cost of less than one per cent, these 
tools can be kept always housed, or under cover of 
some kind, even if but rough boards, that will shut 
out sun and rain. Because we do not see the silent, 
slow but steady waste, we are apt to forget that it is 
ever going on. It is unnecessary to suggest the 
" application " of this short sermon. Nine per cent, 
interest saved is not to be despised, even if better 
times are at hand. 



Domestic Economy. 



Timely Hints About Furnaces. 
In heating a house with furnace-heat, suys the 
New York Tiines, the great thing is to maintain an 
equal temperature in the rooms. Now, it is well 
known that, as the heated air rises and cold air de- 
scends, the upper regions are hot, while the lower 
are cold. In rooms where the furnace-air is stag- 
nant, an absolutely dillcrent stratum of air is found. 
It is better then to giv? ch-culation and movement to 
the air in every way. This cannot, of course, be 
done by taking cold air from a window, but by oc- 
casionally opcninn: doors which lead to the entries of 
the house. A door swung to and fro sometimes does 
this. It looks as if it were a very simple thing to do 
but few seem to know that, by liaving the heat to 
enter freely into lowest stories of the house during 
the winter nights ancl allowing the doors below to 
be wide open, the heat ascending will quickly warm 
the walls of the house and save a notable 'amount 
of fuel for the next cold day. There can be no doubt 
that although a furnace is one if the necessary evils 
of our present condition of American civilization 
that it is, nevertheless, deleterious to health and the 
most expensive method of warming which can be 
found. The great diflTerence between a direct fire 
and warmed air or indirect heat arises from the man- 
ner in which the objects, such as the walls of a 
house, are warmed. One of the most troublesome 
effects of furnace-heat is that it abstracts more 
moisture from the human body than docs a direct 
fire, and the consequence is that at high tempera- 
tures evaporation from the body apparently cools the 
inmate of a furnace-heated room. As to the use of 
artificial moisture in the room, its advantages are 
well known, but it is somethine can never be reeu- 
lated with accuracy, for, if in excess, such saturated 
atmosphere tends to become oppressive. Somewhere 
between 70°, and never higher than 74^, are about 
the limits of heating a room, though to many the 



Fruit in Cellars. 
Fruit in cellars is likely to sufl'er from heat rather 
that cold. In the slow operation of ripening, heat 
and carbonic acid are given off. Whenever the 
temperature approaches 40 degrees, the outer air, if 
colder, should be let in to reduce it. In the house 
cellar the accumulation of carbonic acid would be 
injurious to the health of the family, and it is highly 
important that this be removed by ventilation. In 
fruit cellars apart from the house, this is not neces- 
sary, as the presence of this gas, so injurious to 
animal, as it excludes the atmospheric air. 



Household Recipes. 



Lemon Cake.— One cup of sugar, four eggs 
three tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, three tablespoon- 
fuls of melted butter, three tablespoonfuls of baking 
powder and one cup of flour. 

Bakek's Ginoekhhead.— Three-quarters of a 
pound of flour, one quart of molasses, one-fourth of 
a pound of butter, one ounce of saleratus and one 
ounce of ginger. 

Brine FOR Corn Beef.— Five gallons of water 
one gallon of salt, one-half pound of saltpetre, one 
and one-half pounds of brown sugar. Boil this mix- 
ture fifteen minutes. When cold pour over the 
beef. 

Suet Pudding.— Make a rather thick batter of 
one pound of flour, one-half pound of chopped suet 
three eggs, one teaspoonful of baking powder, some 
grated nutmeg, sugar, salt and water ; boil in a cloth 
three h ours; serve with sauce. 

Indian Meal Pancakes.— Beat four eggs, add a 
little milk and form into a paste with ten spoonsful 
of Indian meal ; and nearly a pint of milk and one 
teaspoonful of baking powder ; work smooth and 
fry, rolling them up with butter, sugar, nutmeg and 
lemon juice. 

Apple Dumplings, Boiled.— Use russet apples, 
pare and cut them in half, take out the core and fill 



Currant Pudding, Plain.— One pound of 
chopped suet, one pound of flour, three-quarters of a 
pound of currants, four eggs, a little cinnamon pow- 
dered, a pinch of salt, and one teaspoonful of bakino- 
powder; beat the eggs, add as much milk as will 
mix the whole together, tie in a cloth, boil about 
three hours and serve with melted butter plain in a 
boat. 

Delicate Cake.— Take half a pound of butter, 
one pound of sugar, one pound of flour, half a pint 
of sweet milk or water, four eggs. Beat the butter 
and sugar to a cream, then add the beaten eggs 
then the milk or water, then the flour ; mix thor- 
oughly and put the batter into your pan ; sia fine 
sugar over the top and bake immediately in a mod- 
erate oven. 

Fisn Pie.— Three pounds of fish, one onion, and 
water enough to boil them both together. When 
done, pick from the bones, mash the onion with it in 
the dish it is to be baked in, add pepper and salt 
scald one quart of milk, thicken it with one table- 
spoonful of flour dissolved in cold water, pour over 
the flsh, cover with pieces of butter and cover thick 
with cracker crumbs; bake until brown. 

Relief fob Croup.— Croup can be cured in one 
minute, and the remedy is simply alum and sugar 
The way to accomplish the deed is to take a knife 
or grater, and shave ofl" in small particles about a 
teaspoonful of alum; then mix it with twice its 
quantity of sugar, to make it palatable, and adminis- 
ter It as quick as possible. Almost instantaneous 
relief will follow. 

Dried Peach Pudding.— Take one pint of dried 
peaches and scald and stew until done, and have 
plenty of juice ; sweeten with one cup of sugar • 
make a batter of a small teacupful of buttermilk 
and one-half teaspoonful of soda, and salt to taste ■ 
thicken with flour very stiff, drop this in small 
lumps in the peaches, which must be boiling ; cook 
about twenty minutes, and serve with cream and 
sugar or sauce. 

White Mountain Cake.— Six eggs, six cups of 
flour, three cups of sugar, two cups of butter, one 
cup of milk, teaspoonful of soda, nutmeg. Beat the 
butter and sugar ; then add the yolks of the eggs, 
part of the flour and half of the milk, then the 
whites of the eggs beaten to a froth, then the rest of 
the milk with the soda dissolved in it, then flour 
and spice. Bake in deep pans in a moderate, but 
not cool, oven. 

Lemon Pies.— Beat four eggs very light, add to 
them, gradually, a quarter of a pound of fine sugar 
whisk these together for a few minutes, strewing 
lightly in one ounce of corn-starch flour ; then stir 
in by degrees three ounces of melted butter • beat 
the whole well together and stir in the juice and 
grated yellow rind of one large lemon. Line your 
pie dish with a good puff paste rolled thin, fill them 
two-thuds full of the mixture and bake for twenty 
minutes in a moderate oven. 

Pennsylvania Sponge Cake.- Seven eggs one 
pound of white sugar, three-quarter pounds of flour 
one gill of warm water; put the sugar in a vessel 
and pour the water over it ; stand it where it will 
get warm, not hot; break the eggs in a tin bucket 
and pour the heated sugar on it, beating with the 
egg beater as you pour it ; keep the bucket contain- 
ing the sugar and eggs over a vessel of hot water all 
the time you beat. Continue this for half an hour 
then stir in very lightly the flavoring and flour and 
bake immediately. This makes a large cake and 
very nice for dessert, with either custard or sauce. 

A Superior Omelett. — Beat six eggs very light 
the whites to a stiff froth, that will stand alone, the 
yolks to a smooth, thick batter; add to the yolks a 
small cupful of milk, then the pepper and salt to 
season j<ioperly; lastly, stir in the whites lightly. 
Have ready in a hot frying pan a good lump of but- 
ter. When it hisses pour in your mixture gently 
and set over a clear fire. It should cook in eight or 
ten minutes at most. Do not stir, but contrive as 
tlic eggs "set" to slip a broad-bladed knife under 
the omelett to guard against burning at the bottom. 
When done, lay a hot dish, bottom upward, on top 
of the pan, and upset it and bring the browned side 
up. Eat soon or it will not be so light. A grand 
dish for breakfast. 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



^5 



Pumpkin Pie. — Cut the pumpkin in half, put it in 
a dripping-pan, skin side down (al'tiT the 6ee<ls arc 
removed), in a slow oven; hake until all the good 
can be easily serapcd from ihe rind with a spoon ; if 
it is as hrown ae nicely baked bread, all the better : 
mash finely, and to one quart add a quarter of a 
pound of initter while hot : when cool, sweeten to 
the taste; one pint of milk or cream (ifereambe 
used three eggs will be suflicient, if milk four will be 
better), heat them separately, stir in the yolks, two 
teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, one of nutmeg, a wine- 
glass of wine or brandy; lastly, add the white of 
the eggs, stirring but little after they are added to 
the mixture ; bake in a quick oven . 



Live Stock. 



Horseshoeing Again. 

We revert to this subject, because it is one of 
great importance, and daily growing more so in 
consequence of the eonslanlly-inereasing number of 
these most valuable of all animals. A shoer should 
not only know how to make a shoe and to fasten il 
upon the hoof .so as to look nicely, but he should 
understand the anatomy of a horse's hoof — and how 
many do — as well as how much the shoeing must 
vary to suit the formation of the hoof? This is a 
knowledge that should be thoroughly possessed. 
Some hoofs are flat, the shell thin and grows slowly. 
These should not be pared at all except sinijily to 
smooth the surface to receive the shoe evenly. The 
tip ends of the hoof should be cliiiped ofi' slightly .so 
as to prevent tripping. There should be next to urr 
rasping of the hoof, in some cases none at all. Ouee 
injure a hoof by paring it away, and it may produce 
lameness for months ; indeed we know of eases in 
which this was not got over for live, six and even 
twelve months. In such eases, however, we think 
that the horse should remain carefully shod, but 
the shoes should not be removed or changed in some 
cases for two months, and in most cases for from 
six to seven weeks. 

The hoofs of some horses naturally become very 
brittle and even powdery. In such eases they should 
be frequently moistened with wet cloths tied around 
them until brought to a proper condition. Common 
moss is excellent, and should be kept constantly on 
hand and moistened when used. Frequent driving 
in wet weather on muddy roads will have the same 
effect. In shoeing such horses the utmost care 
must be taken, so that while giving the nails a se- 
cure hold to avoid pricking, as little paring as possi- 
ble should be done. 

As to the frog, the shoer who cuts this away 
farther than merely to trim otf the rough edges, 
should be imprisoned. We have no mercy for the 
unpardonable ignorance that would destroy this 
main reliance for the comfortable support of the 
horse. It acts as a "buft'er" to mitigate the solid 
jarring of the horse's hoofs and legs, and protects, 
when it is left in its natural condition, those attri- 
butes of an animal upon which all its usefulness Ae- 
pends.-^G'erHiuJi/OJeJt Telegraph. 

Banish Every Dairy Pauper. 

One-third of all the cows kept by dairymen in the 
United States produce less nnlk than will pay their 
keep. These are simply a clog upon the business and 
are better given away than kept. So says a live 
stock journal, which very sensibly appeals to dairy- 
men everywhere that they set about weeding out 
their poor cows, so that they will be able to reap v 
harvest with a good market and protect themselves 
against loss with low prices. 

The value of a cow, measured for factory cheese 
production, is determined by pounds of milk she 
yields, and may be looked at wholly from this stand 
point in case nothing less than il,OllL) pounds should 
be satisfactory. The cheese dairymen has then a 
sample standard of selection — merely the yield of 
milk — and the sale milk dairyman has the same 
standard. This is very easily determined with a pair 
of spring scales hung in ihe stable, with a book 
haviug a name or numtter for each cow ; and by 
weighing and entering the milk of each cow in the 
book one day in a week the average of these weigh- 
ings will give the average yield per day near enough 
for all practical purposes. Can't dairyman all'ord 
to take this small trouble to learn the individual 
character of his cows when [>rotit or loss depends 
upon Itf A cow that yields only S,000 pounds at five 
or six years old should be got rid of as a pauper that 
lives on your charity and refuses to work. Only heifers 
with the first calf can be tolerated with so low a 
yield, and the prospect is not favorable even with 
the heifer. She should yield 4,000 pounds the first 
season to offer much encouragement to keei) her. A 
heifer whose udder does not reach back and well up 
had better be discarded at once. If the udder is 
round and hangs down in front of her legs like a 
four-quart pall she ii: not worth an experiment. It 
becomes necessary for dairymen to study all the sub- 
stantial points of a good eow, that they may avoid 
throwing away food upon an animal not designed to 
yield milk in paying quantity. 



Plain Talk About Stock. 

Our calves and yearlings are led on hay and grain 
alone, what hay they eat, and about one quart of 
corn and oatmeal to each calf per day. Our year- 
lings get from two to three quarts of clear cornmeal 
according to their size, which usually fattens them 
SHflicicnt for market in about three months. From 
experiments that \\c have made we know that a 
])ortion (■)f turnips aiid tieets would be a great help 
and pay well in the wintering of stall-fed cattle or 
cows, especially the latter. Farmers who winter a 
variely of cattle like the above, usually calculate in 
this section to make their cows eat more or less 
coarse feed, and if thi're is any scrimping to be done 
it usually falls on the poor cows, whose exhausted 
vitality after a summer's milking, ill-fits them for 
the course pursued. Cows, in order to winter well, 
should go into winterqnarters in good condition, and 
when in this shape we have I'ounii by repeated trials 
that they will hold their own if milked to within si.v 
weeks oi" calving, on the following feed and treat- 
ment : Free access to salt and water at all times, 
with cornstalks in the morning ; at night one quart 
of cornmeal and a feed of oats straw, with an occa- 
sional feed of hay. 

About the first of March discontinue the straw 
and feed clover or timothy hay In its stead. You 
may inttrcase the ration of grain now if you wish, 
but not to too great an extent, lest you induce garget 
in tlic udder, to which cows are less subject when 
kept in uniibrm fiesh and not fed too high. Asa 
remedy use bone-meal or saltpetre, either of which 
is good, but the former best. We have found it best 
to commence milking all cows that show much ex- 
tension of the uddar, especially heifers, for some 
time before calviug, which as a preventive for the 
above disease is worth many pounds of cure. 



Cattle on the Plains. 

The season for marketing western cattle is now 
over, and ranchmen are all busy in preparing winter 
camjjs. The past year, notwithstanding the severe 
drought in Southwest Kansas, Southern Colorado 
and New Mexico, has been a fairly profitable one 
with these cattle men. If anything- the pereenjage 
of good or fat cattle has been greater this year than 
any previous one in the history of the trade. This, 
perhaps, was largely due to the infusion of new and 
pure blood into Westei-n herds the past few yea rs ; 
there being this fall a number of droves of really 
good, smooth, straight and blocky cattle in from 
Colorado. Prices, while not high, have ruled fully 
as good as in 187S, and in some instances better. As 
a whole ranchmen seem satisfied with their year's 
work, and the Western cattle interest was never in a 
more healthy condition than now. 



Had to Give a Pig Medicine. 

At a recent meeting of an English Farmers' Club 
Professor McBride spoke of the dillieulty of adminis- 
tering medicine to a pig. He said ; " To "dose a pig, 
which you are sure to choke if you attempt to make 
him drink while squealing, halter him as you would 
for execution and tie the rope end to a stake. He 
will pull back until the rope is tightly strained. 
When he has ceased his uproar and begins to rellect 
approach him, and between the back part of his 
jaws insert an old shoe from which you have cut the 
toe leather. This he will at once begin to suck and 
chew. Through it pour medieiue and he will swal- 
low any quantity you please." 

Poultry. 



Look After Your Hen Houses. 

Now is the time for farmers to look after their 
hen-houses and yards and put them in the most 
perfect order. The nest boxes should not only have 
tho nests removed, but they should be thoroughly 
whitewashed, as well as the entire house, after 
being cleaned out, fumigated, etc. No one can 
raise fowls and eggs profitably unless the hens have 
an inviting place to lay when the season arrives, and 
a yard to run in where there is, in season, plenty of 
grass to eat ; and when this is scarce, short grass 
should be cut and fed to them. Scraps of meat of 
all kinds, potato parings, corn-pudding, whole 
grains, and once a week or in two weeks they should 
have some parched or rather burned corn, in place 
of charcoal; sand, fresh water daily and pounded 
oyster shells must be regularly supplied. The best 
success cannot be expected in raising chickens un- 
less the proper way is adopted. 

The plan of raising chickens by "incubators" is 
an ohl one. We know of no person in this city or 
vicinity who uses them, although in some sections 
they are said to be employed successfully. The 
Delaware county Jlccord says that Col. F. M. 
Etting, a resident of Concord township, is erecting a 
number of poultry-houses and is making every pre- 
paration that may be necessary to insure success In 
breeding chickens by incubators, and intends at 
least to give tho experiment a thorough trial. But 
they have often been tried during the last fifty years 
and not found proStable. 



The French perhaps understand the fattening of 
chickens more thoroughly than any other people. 
Millions of idump fowls are sent by them to both 
the English and French markets. When the fowls 
are fattening they are fed almost entirely on crushed 
unWfX or barley, and sometimes a mixture of the 
two kneaded into a tough dough, to which a little 
butter or lard Is addeil. They give them to drink 
fresh or sour milk, slightly sweetened with sugar. 
Thus fed the fowls are said to acquire a delicate, 
white and well-llavored meat, and often arc ready 
for market In ten days. 

In shipping fowls to purchasers, or to present to 
friends, care must be taken to have the boxes hijjh 
enough ; also water-cups and feeding troughs, so 
that Ihey can help Ihenrselves as they may need. 
Cut straw, not too line, or hay, should be placed 111 
the bottom to reat upon. We have sent fowls hun- 
dred of miles In this way, which were In perfect 
order when landed. They were a present to a 
friend. — fwrrniiaUon'n Telrgraph. 



About Roosters. 

In breeding for shape and style, I always look to 
the hen ; adumiiy hen may breed fair pullets, but It 
is a hundred to one against their throwing reachcy 
cocks; the hen has also most infinence on the color 
of the stags and the breast and body of the pullets. 
The cock has most influence on the color of the pul- 
let's hackle; Ihat is to say, a cock that was well 
striped of his chicken feathers will have a tendency 
to throw heavily striped pullets; do not Imagine 
that I advise breeding from a coekstr^ • '■ in hackle; 
when he has got his adult pluiifage, the brighter he 
is then the better, but if you want heavily marked 
pullets, be sure that your cock was striped as a 
chicken. I have proven this lots of times in black 
reds, piles and brown reds, but have never had a 
chance of trying it on duekwings. I first got the 
idea from noticing two yards of brown reds ; one 
yard had hens with copper-colored hackles, and the 
other the brass hackles. I noticed that in both 
yards the majority of cockerels were like the hens In 
their immature jfiumage, though they both turned 
out much alike in the end. I do not put any faith 
in the adult plumage; it is the ehicken plumage 1 
want to see in a cock to breed pullets. 

When you have got your birds, let them run to- 
gether till the hens show signs of laving, and then 
take away the cock and feed him well — cayenne, 
meat, bread, all in turns — ami let him with the hens 
for half an hour every morning, you will then have 
very few clear eggs. One of my cocks is certainly 
an old one— I don't know quite how old, but not 
under four years — and, treated like this, there was 
not a clear egg from fair hens, while other people 
were complaining of their bad luck. I give no corn, 
but meal mixed with the stimulant. When the 
season for breeding is over he must be well phy- 
sicked and kept low for some time, or he will most 
likely die of apoplexy. If one is attacked, souse him 
into a pail of cold water for a minute, and then hold 
his head under a running tap of cold water, give him 
a dose of castor oil, and put him iu a cool place; 
this will seldom fail in elfecting a cure, if taken in 
time. — Fancierx' Journal. 

Egg-Eating by Pullets. 
A corresimndeut of the American roultry Yaril 
writes as follows : As a general thing this habit is 
introduced by the accidental breaking of an egg. It 
may be induced by throwing egg-shells from the 
kitchen into the poultry yard ; they should be 
broken into small pieces before giving them to 
fowls. Sometimes eggs crack by freezing in cold 
weather, and thus expose a portion of their con- 
tents. Eggs are very delicious morsels to hens. If 
one fowl acquires this habit all the others iu the 
same flock will soon learn it too, if confined where 
they see it going on ; and they always make a rush 
at whatever one of their fellows is eating.) The habit 
is one very hard to break ; killing the whole flock 
seems to be a desperate resort, but if the brood is 
not especially valuable, and the flock a small one, It 
is really the best possible method saving time and 
money in the end. The following method may be 
tried first, however : Let the fowls have free range 
iu summer, or draw them olf to a locality at some 
little distance from nests in winter, and let the nests 
be so covered as to be quite dark, and prevent the 
laying hens from seeing the eggs. Hens will not 
stay in a dark nook to .scratch and peck, although 
they prefer a rather dark place to lay in. Scatter 
wheal screenings and pounded chandler's scraps, or 
other attractive food among straw, or some such 
light stuff, to induce them to spend their time 
scratching for it. Their visits to the nests will then 
be oidy on the Icgillrnate business of laying. If 
fowls have an unrestricted range, the insects and 
other attractions of fields will answer the purpose of 
an artificial scratching-place in summer ; but in 
rough, wet weather, or in winter, the fowls must be 
employed in-doors to prevent forming bad habits, or 
to cure them if already formed. .\\\ the grain re- 
maining at the scratching-place at night very likely 
will be devoured by rats and mice. However, by ex- 
ercising a moderate degree of circulation one will 



16 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 1880. 



contrive to throw doffn just enough in the morning 
to last till the middle of the afternoon, and the re- 
mainder of the dav'S allowance can be given before 
dark. 

Quarantine New Stock. 

The fancier has evils enough to contend with at 
home, without liaTiiig disease brought among his 
stock from outside. Vet there is haVdly one of us 
but has suffered in this way. There is only one 
remedj-, and that is to quarantine all new stock until 
satisfied that it is perfectly healthy. To preserve 
human health, the jrovernment has made wise pro- 
vision, and no vessel can land cargo or passengers 
from a foreign port until a health officer has made a 
suitable examination ; is satisfied that the general 
health of the community will not suffer, and gives a 
certificate to that effect. Until this bit of red tape is 
all right, that other bit — the custom house permit — 
is not issued. We will n.H carry our grievance into 
the halls of government, but, through the widely 
and wisely circulated pages of the Journal, ask 
brother fanciers to quarantine all stock from an- 
other yard, if that other yard be only a hundred 
rods distant, that no disease gain foothold among 
those in good health. It is also just to those who 
ship fowls or other stock. An incipient disease may 
be lurking among them which, aggravated by a 
journey, will assume a maliifnaiit form much sooner 
than it will appear among those which remain at 
home. The shipper, if apprised of the fact, can 
treat those remaining in time so save much trouble. 

It is but a small matter to attend to. Let every 
breeder of poultry or pigeons have a separate home 
and yard, away from other stock, and on the arrival 
of a new purchase, keep them in i; a week and 
watch them closely ; then, if they appear all right, 
allow themlto make themselve.sjat home.— jf)oinis,'in 
J''a)n'it)':i' Journal. 



Tender Poultry. 
'The reason poultry killed at home, though youno- 
IS not tender as that bought at the market is thit 
the former is generally not killed until wanted and 
when v..:vn is stil! rigid with death, while that 
bought at the poulterer's has been killed at least 
hours, more often days. Poultry ought to be killed 
several days before being eaten, dressed at once 
and, with few a bits of charcoal in it, hung a eooi 
place. If poultry arc kept from food and drink at 

east twelve hours before killing the crop and intes- 
tines wdl he emptied, and any superfluity of secre- 
tions exhausted. The flesh will be juicy and the fat 
firm. If left three days without food or drink, 

hough HI good condition previously, the flesh will 
be d ry and tasteless and the fat soft. Never buy an 
undrawn fowl The grass from crop and intestines 
will taint the flesh, even though retained but a short 
time. — J'imeter's Journal. 



Pedigree of Homers. 

A late number of the Buauur, one of the most 
valuable English papers, contained the followiuff ■ 

We notice in the -Fanciers' Journal,' that a pedi- 
gree list has been opened for the register of cele- 
brated birds, at a charire of about Is. per bird The 
first column gives the bird's number, followed hv 
the name, sex, color, date of hatch, names o'f 
parents and particulars of same, and lastly the 
owner s name. It is somewhat remarkable how the 
flying fancy has srrown in America, and how, as in 
in everylhing else there taken up, it has gone ahead. 
Far beyond us in 'starting the idea,' the Americans 
have gone beyond us, and carry out the whole sys- 
tem in a much more complete and enthusiastic man- 
ner than do the EugUsh."— Fanciers' Journal. 

« — -» 

Don't Give Preventives 
Except in the form of ventilation, clean rpiarteis 
good food, pure water, and exercise. Too many 
times diseases exist only in the imagination of the 
owner. Wait until some symptoms make a disorder 
apparent ; then, if the bird is a valuable one, and 
there is the least uncertainty as to the cause and 
remedy, take the case to an homiepathie physician, 
state those symptoms carefully, remembering that 
it is the symptoms that indicate to him the remedy, 
and in all probability lie will give the remedy at 
once. — FuncUrx' .lour nut. 



Literary and Personal. 



Rules, regulations, itc, of , the first annual exhi- 
bition of the Franklin County Poultry and Pet Stock 
Association, held January i:!, 14, 15, IbSO, in Re- 
pository Hall, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Dr. 
A. M. Dickie, Doylestown, Pa., Jud"ge; 40 pages, 
royal, 1'2 mo. containing premium list, constitution, 
by-laws, &c. Very liberal. 

How TO Study Phrexoloot— With hints on co- 
operation, observation and study ; containing also 
directions for the formation of jihrenological socie- 
ties, with constitution, by laws, beet books to study, 
&c., including the first principles or outlines of 
phrenology, by H. S. Drayton, A. M., editor J'hre- 



nological Journal, S. R. Wells & Co., publishers, 737 
Broadway, N. Y., 40 pages, 16 mo., with 42 charac- 
teristic illustrations. 

"An Address of the representatives of the religious 
Society of Friends of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 
Delaware, to their fellow citizens, on the use of in- 
toxicating drinks, Philadelphia, to be had at Friends' 
book store, 304 Arch street : 16 pages octavo, replete 
with charitable warning and healthful advice ; but 
in this mad, impulsive age, will it be sufficiently 
heeded to arrest the reckless, downward stream of 
fallen humanity? 

Sixth Quarterlt Report of the "Pennsylvania 
Board of Agriculture," from September to Novem- 
ber, inclusive, 1879, 48 pages, royal octavo, with two 
full page colored illustrations »f diseased lungs of 
cattle infected with pleuro-pneumonia. Containing 
official list, and list of members, tabulated statistics 
of crops; stock, products, and especially reports on 
the lung plague: Reports of the veterinary surgeon ; 
abortion among dairy stock ; a synopsis of the laws 
of trespass, as they relate to agriculture, and the 
proceedings of the Board. Material and letter-press 
first quality. 

The Chester Valley Farmer .-" kfire-sMe jo\irna.\," 
This is a neat monthly folio of four pages, about one 
column less in length and breadth than the daily 
Examiner, to be published monthly at Coatesville, 
Chester county, by Joseph C. Kaurt'man, at 25 cents 
subscription per annum; 20 copies to one post office, 
S3.00. A very clean and sharp typographical im- 
pression, and on good paper, dented mainly to 
agricultural literature. No, 1. Vol. 1. for Decem- 
ber, 1879, has been laid on our table, and w-e are 
glad to say, is very prepossessing, both in general 
and in particular, and we welcome it to the great 
literary omnibus of our country, feeling that it 
always has the capacity of accomodating "one more 
passenger." We feel assured that Chester county 
possesses the mind and matter to secure the success 
of a good agricultural journal, and doubtless its 
yeomanry will put their shoulders to the wheel and 
sustain this clever and hopeful beginning. 

A New Health Almanac— We havejust received 
from the publishers the Illustrated Annual of Phre- 
nology and Health Almanac for 1880, 73 octavo 
pages, price 10 cents. This publication has become 
a necessity in many well-regulated families, and 
well it should, for it is tilled with reading- matter 
containing valuable information relating to Phre- 
nology, Physiognomy, Health, Hygiene, Diet, etc. 
The number before us, in addition to the usual 
astronomical note6,monthly calendars, etc., contains 
a Monthly Sanitarium, with special hints for each 
month in the year ; the Principles of Phrenology, 
with illustrations, showing the location of the 
organs, together with the definition of the mental 
faculties; Phrenology vs. Bumpology sets to right 
some erroneous opinions ; Phrenology in Scotland, 
as seen in .the Edinburgh museum"; Tree Ferns, 
illustrated ; The portraits' with sketch of Mrs. Lydia 
F. Fowler and Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes; How to 
Teach, illustrated; Fat and Lean People; Instruc- 
tion in Phrenology ; Natural Teachers ; Plurality of 
the Faculties, and a great amount of information in 
email paragraphs, with notices of recent publica- 
tions, and a full and complete catalogue of phren- 
ological works published by this house, and all sent 
by mail for only 10 cents. It is handsomely publish- 
ed, and will have a large cireulation. We will say 
to our readers, send 10 cents in stamps at once to 
the publishers, S. R. Wells & Co., 737 Broadway, 
New York. 

Butterflies and Moths in their connection 
with Agricultural and Horticulture. A paper pre- 
pared for the "Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society," 
January, 1879, by Herman Strecker, Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, published by the State, Lane & Hart 
printers and binders, Harrisburg, Pa. 

This is a royal octavo pamphlet of 22 pages, aud 
is prepared by the best practical authority on those 
specialties in the country, and backed by the most 
ample material resources. This work will be em- 
bodied in the forthcoming volume of the proceedings 
of the various societies relating to agriculture and 
kindred objects, of the State of Pennsylvania ; but 
we have been favored with an advance copy in 
pamphlet form, and we have read it with unabated 
interest from beginning to end, and reirard it as an 
able and useful synoptic view of the order of insects 
of which it treats. If, from this outline of the sub- 
ject, farmers and fruit growers could be induced to 
commence a systematic study of the insects it com- 
prehends — their histories and habits, their transfor- 
mations, their jieriodical appearances and disappear- 
ances, their forms under thi; different stages of their 
development, and the injuriesthey sustain from their 
depredations, the remedies for their extinction would 
naturally follow, for after all an entomologist can 
do, this experimental work comes directly wllhin the 
sphere of the farmers own daily occupations, aud im- 
mediately affects their own material interests, and 
therefore ought to elicit their special attention. 

The A.meriuan Entomologist— An illustrated 
magazine, devoted to Practical and Popular Ento- 
mology, edited by Charles V. Rilev, Washington, 
D. C, and A. S. Fuller, Ridgewood, N. J. Terms 



of subscription, $2.00 per annum, in advance ; pub- 
lished by Max Jaegerhuber, No. 323 Pearl street. 
New York; Vol. 1. No. 1. new series, for January, 
1880. This is a double columned royal octavo of 24 
pages, exclusive of embellished, tinted covers. After 
an interval of nine years this excellent journal has 
been revived, seemingly under auspices that promise 
a longer lease of a useful life, than was realized 
during its publication at St. Louis, Mo. It is so 
familiar to us— pictures, title-head, letter-press and 
all— that we rather regret it is not called Vol. III. 
of the same series as the former publication. Prof. 
Riley, who is a host within himself, will not only be 
assisted by Mr. Fuller iu his editorial labors, but 
also by a distinguished list of able entomological 
writers, scattered over a large portion of the Ameri- 
can IFnion, and presumably by scores of amateur 
querists, and smaller fry ; so that the journal cannot 
fail of success, and ought to find a welcome recep- 
tion wherever noxious insects abound. We commend 
it to the patrons and readers of The Farmer, be- 
cause we feel confident that from the experiences of 
the tifody-sir who have volunteered to contribute to 
its columns, sufficient will be developed to cover any 
case that may come under their observation. Single 
number 20 cents. Six copies, $10.00; ten copies, 
S15.00 per annum, in advance. 

Eighth Report of the State Entomologist, on 
the Noxious and Beneficial insects of the State of 
Illinois. Being the third annual report by 
Cyrus Thomas, Ph. D., Springfield, 1879, 213 
pages octavo, in paper covers, with ten pages of in- 
dexing, botanical and general, and 47 illustrations. 
This work is gotten up in a creditable manner, both 
in quality and mechanical execution, and is almost 
exclusively devoted to the history, the habits, the 
development, and the classification of the Aphididae, 
or plant-louse families and species. It would be 
safe to say that every tree, shrub and plant has at 
least 0)16 species of plant-louse that preys upon it, at 
some season of the year . Many have more than one, 
and some species feed indiscriminately upon almost 
any kind of plant, to the sap of which they can possi- 
bly gain access. A distinguishing merit in this work, 
is the bringing together in one volume, classifying, 
and succinctly describing so large a number of insect 
pests, whose histories heretofore have been distribu- 
ted through many different publications. Therefore, 
whatever may be thought of it at home, students of 
practical entomology abroad will thank Professor 
Thomas for boldly "striking out" on this line of 
duty. The Aphids are so numerous, so destructive, 
and so peculiar in their habits, that it is absolutely 
necessary that more should be known about them in 
order to counteract their depleting and destroying 
propensities. They are so very fragile iu their struc- 
ture, that it is almost impossible to make a durable 
collection of them, and therefore the State or the 
National goverment ought to publish a separate 
treatise on them alone, and illustrate it with colored 
plates of all the known species, and this attempt of 
the State entomologist of Illinois is a step in the 
right direction. It is difficult to bring governments 
— and sometimes also people — to see the utility of 
these -things. But when the "dear people" are 
threatened with the destruction of the results of 
their toil, only they begin to cry for entomologica 



aid. 



1 



Phrenology. — The time is passed when people 
question the utility of Phrenology, and men are now 
applying its principles to an extent that is hardly 
appreciated, both in self-culture, and in their deal- 
ings with others. 

The ritrcnological Journal of New York is the 
only periodical devoted to the subject, and it includes 
with this all that relates to human nature and the 
improvement of men physically, mentally and mo- 
rally. In the prospectus for 1880, the publishers 
make liberal propositions to subscribers. The price 
has been reduced to two dollars a year, and to each 
subscriber is offered a phrenological bust. This bust 
is a model head, made nearly life size, of plaster of 
Paris, and so labeled as to show the exact location 
of all the phrenological organs. It is a handsome 
ornament, well adajited to the centre-table, mantle- 
piece, library or otflce. With the aid of this, and the 
illustrated key which accompanies it, together with 
the articles published in the Phrenological Journal 
on Practical Phreuology, each person may become 
quite familiar with the location of the different 
phrenological organs, and a good judge of human 
nature. The bust is sent by express, carefully pack- 
ed, to every subscriber who sends iu addition to the 
subscription price (two dollars) twenty-five cents 
extra for the boxing and packing; or. No. 2, a 
smaller size, will be sent by mail, post-paid, on the 
same terms, to those who have the bust, or prefer 
the new book premium, will be sent "How to Edu- 
cate the Feelings aud Affections," worth $1.50. .Our 
readers cannot do better than to subscribe at once 
i'ov Ihe I'hrciiological Journal; it will be found the 
best possible investment for the money. 

Those who desire a more explicit description, to- 
gether with prospectus of the journal, should send 
their address on a postal card, or accept the pub- 
lishers' ofl'er, and send 10 cents iu stamps for sample 
copy of the Journal to S. R. Wells tt Co., 737 Broad- 
way, New York. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER^ 



III 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Prof. Tice's Almanac. 
The annual isBue of Prof. Tioc's " Wiather Fore- 
eattii and AmericaH Almnnucfor 1S80." is out, and 
we Iciirn lliat the Hist eilition of over 20,000 copies 
was callcil for witliiu i-iKlit days of its publication, 
and a second lartrcr one put to press. It is fuller 
and more spei'ifie in its wcatlier protrnostications for 
IbSO than formerly, and a variety of sulijects of 
Interest, such as plagues and tlie astronomical rela- 
tions thereto, heal and sunstroken, cyclojies, facts 
for foretelling tlie weather, etc., are discussed. Copy 
can be ol)lained Ijy inclosing -0 cents to Thompson, 
Tlce & Lillingston, .St. Louis, Mo. 




JfV nnntiat Cttlnhtgiie «/ Veg<tabl» nntt llotv^-r 
Set'd for IHKO* ricli in eiigrsiviugs, from pliotnxrai>ll8, of 
thcoriKinals. will lie siMit FREI'? to nil who npply. My old 
oUHtomers need not write lor it I ofi'er one of the largest col- 
leotions of vepetublo seed everHeut out by any need house 
in America, a larjfe vortiou of which were grown on luy six 
seed farms. Full ih'rt'i'fwn.s /nr ctdtii)ali(ni nn eaeh jMick- 
age .\11 seed warranted to be buth /resh and true to natne; 
BO far, that should it i>rovp otherwise, / wilt refdf the order 
gratiA. The original introducer of the nnbtiani Squash, 
Phinney'B Melon. Marblehead (Cabbages. Mexican Corn, and 
scores of other vegetables, I invite the jiatrouiige of all who 
a/re anxiojn io have their t<eed directly frmn the ^rntrer,/reiih, 
true, aTUt >'/ the veri/ be^t Mtrain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

J.VMES .1. H. (iKKOOliY, 
dec-fim] Marblehead. Mass. 

KHOItT H»nX» 4T I'l'BI.IC XA I.E.- COWS, 
BULLS, AND nKlFKRS. to be sold at putilic, 
tnctioD on M.IKOIt 1. 18S0, at Bird in-Hand by, 
thtt wnderslgBed. t^atalogues on application 
to 

A.M. R.\NCK. 
Jau-lm] Bird-iD.Uand. 

IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 

I will furuisU *ggB for hatching from ray flnelv brert 
stock of Light BrahniHB, on cotidi ion th:it I will he ii. lowed 
to B«lect at the «g*^ of aix ni^utha OTi»-half of the nhicke 
raiBt*d. This is nn ^xopllejit opportunity fer farmers to 
Improve thei» stock, as Licjht Brahm;iH are tbe henvieat awtl 
largewt of all tae VHrieties of fowl*, ure the best of winter 
4ayerR, HTiii ha -c no pqual for crocftinp iivich the common 
•lock. Karmerfi dcsiviug to avail themselvee of tbia offer 
oan addresB J B. UCHTY, 

LiuiCftstcr. Pa. 
jnn'-Bm' 

A GOOD PLAN. 

Anybody ctm learu to m;ik« moaey rapidly ojierating !n 
Stocks, by the "Two Unerriua Ituleafor Success"* in Messrs. 
Lawrcuce k Co.'s new circular. The conibiD;*tlon method, 
which this firm has maile ho successful, enables people with 
Urge or small means toreap all thebenefitsof largest capital 
and best skill. Thousands of orders, in variovis sums, are 
pooled into one vast amount and co-operated as a mighty 
whole, thus securiun to »^ach shareholder all the advantages 
of thelargestoperafor. Trnmeusc-i-rontflaredivided monthly. 
Any amount from $.1 to ^,0011, or moit\ call be used success- 
fully. N. Y. BaptXHi Weekly, SepteinbiT 'itith. 187S, says, 
*'By Che combiuation system j n wouUl mak«? $7i), or 5 per 
•ent ; $50 i)ay8 *3:i0, or T per cent.; 1100 makes $l.ilO0, 
or 10 per cent, on the slock, during the month, according 
to the market," Frank Lexlic'H litvAtrated Xewnpuper, Jiiu© 
29th|: The combination method of operating stot-ka is the 
most successful ever adopted.*' A>ic York Indi'pendent 
September I2th: Tinr combination tiyxtem is founded upon 
correct business principles, and no person need be witliout 
an income while it is k^-pt working by Messrs. L'lwrence & 
Co.' lirof'lctt/n Journal, April '20th: "Our rditor made a net 
profit ol $101. 2r> from $a0 in one of Mesaip. Lavrcuce & 
Co.'s combinations.** New circular ^mailed free) explains 
everything. Stocks and bonds wanted. Gowmment bonds 
supplied, La'vreuce k Co Bankern, 57 Exchanj^e Place, 
N. Y. [79-'^-'.-'" 

ATTENTION ! FARMERS 

THE BEST AM) MOST ECONOMICAL 

OK 

rATTI.K FO<»l>S. 

^t is worthy of your imm*'diate attenf Inn. Write to u-t /or 
Chart ijiinn^} value of the difh rent foods. 

GROVE & BRO., 
Sie Ka<-e Stt-ept, Plilla<l<>l|>li-«i| 

NOT-2ni 

^3 Printing Press 

f PrlnU cards Ubcls Ac. CSrlf-(ril.-r |M 1 ft Ivp-r •!»«■ 
For bufiineu or pleai.ure, yoim^; urold. IVi vcur own ttd- 

f&c^iOc8»fauu(a. Kelaey&Co. Merlden, Cor>« 

dec-It] 



FARMERS, 

Look to Your Inteests, 

IMPORT .\NT TO FARMERS, TRUCKERS 
AND GARDENERS. 

A NATURAL FERTILIZER! 




RICH IN DISSOL VED BONES. 
PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

POTASH. SILICIC ACID. &C. 



I permanently Knriches Kvery Variety of Soil. 
It Doubles the Yield of Grass. 

It Insures Good drops of Wheat, Corn, Potatoes Vegeta* 
bles and Frnlt. 



An excellent ohange for land after the continued use of 
Lime. 

In successful use here over loo yearH, and more than two 
thirds of the cropped land of Europe'improvud with Marl. 

It is not a stimulant, as patent manures are, bat Its eflects 
are lasting. 

FarmerSj why then pay from $30 to $40 per ton for Phos- 
phates, when you can buy a Nhtural Fertilizer at the low 
rate of 



$10 PER TON, 



that will yield yon a rich return and he a laeting beneflt 
to your soil. 

Its History, Analysis, Application to different Soils, 
Crops, Testimonials, and further information regarding its 
uses, will be given on application to 



D. P. BITNER 

General Ag-eut for 

LANCASTER COUNtY. 




Agencies nhere MARL in kept constantly on 
hand : 

B. k B. V. Walter, Christiana, Pouneylvania Railroad. 

Joseph C. Walker, Gap, '• " 

Henry H. Rohrer, t.eaman Place, ** " 

.1. B. Mt'whanser, Bird-in-Iland, •* •' 

Jacob Mnuck, Ilohrerstown, ** *' 

M. G, Shiudle, Muuntville, " " 

H. r. Bmner. Columbia, '* •' 

Miller h Musser, Upper Marietta, " •' 

Groff & Rull, Landisville, *• " 

B. G. Gruff, Kli/.abefhtown. " " 

(3as8cl ,^ Ktlng, Mount Joy, " •* 

Shultz a: llro., Washington Bor..Oolum'a h Port Deposit R. 

Samuel tiarnish, Peqnea Station, *■ " 

Kirk Brown, Haines Station, '* " 

W. G. Mellinger, West Widow, Quarryvllle Railroad. 

James A. Mi'ck, Refton Station, " " 

Acheson k. Swarr. Mechanics Grove, *' " 

H. W. Graybill, Petersburg. Reading k. Colombia Railroad. 

Hershey k Danner, Manhelm, *' •• 

Wm. Evans k Son, Litiz, " " 

P, S. Brubaker, Millway, •* " 

Sener k Bro.. Ephrata, " " 

Brubaker k Co.. Union, " " 

Diller k Sutton, New Holland, Waynesburg Railroad. 

D. P. BITNER, Lancaster, Pa. 



7»-ia-Im. 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

s.Kuni.v.f*. 

COLLARS, "WHIPS. PLY NETS, &o., 

ALSO DUALKIt IS 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

liUl'AI.O UilBii.s. 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, <fec., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

-1-12] I.ANOASTKU, PA. 



rCHAs; A. loche;r. 

,.v;^h6lesaue>'^o retail 
: "^?SD;R U G G I s T^ ^ 

•NO 9. EAST KING S"1"R. 1 
^^L. AN CASTER, PA. 

H A f'll' i-^ C T.U RE R O FX3r 

LOQHER^^REMOWNEDpUGH 

'And'65eb^teB'horsE 

^CATTLE POWDER 

)»~SEND F0R-PU0TATI0t^S.*,3si^, 



dec-ly] 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. Iw 

I— I 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 

AND WAKRANTKD TO HT. 

£. J. ERISMAN. 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster. Pa. 

7'.1-M'2] 

PHAKES W. FKY, 

Wholesale and Retnil Dealer in 

WftLi PftPER& WINDOW SH/IQE8, 

IlolliindN. plain SliHcle Clotli. 

FixtureB. FriugfH, THKSt-lB :iiirt :<11 goodn perttiiiiiug to ft 
Piipor rtfitl Shadu Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 

1879 FALL AND WIMTER 1880 

Clotljs, Cassinjeres, Coalings, Suiliijgs, 
Vesliijgs, and 

FURNISHING GOODS, 

Including the UHual fafihinuablo varietten of the HCaBon, 

PLAIN, STRIPED AND FIGURED. 

ALSO, 

ftEADY-M^E CLOTIJING, 

of " all sorts i-.nd rtizcs." 

ATTHRVERY BOTFOM PRICES. 

Bou't Forget tbe olUeflt aud lougest establisbed staod tn 
the Cilyof 

LANCASTER. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

JJerchant Tailors, Drapers and Clolljiers, 

Corner N, Quetn and Oranr/e .SYj». 

" .\ jieiiiiy Havfd jH Kixi'Cnce eanifd.*' 

(tjC Tr\ (tjnnper day at lio ne. .Saiitplrn worttl $5 frea. 
iJ)J I U ^^UAddri'iis Stcbkom fc Co., Portland, Maine, 
juu-lyr* 

FARM ACCOUNTS I 

Kvcry FjirnnT should know how ty kcf-p thf^-ni. An Milirely 
new and complete nysteui Jnttt devised. Si iid postal for 
freo CiicuhiTH to the Br.vnnt A Htrnttou BiiNlnenii 
<"rtll<»S«». lus 8. Tenth Street, Philadt'phia. [7y-IO-:im 

A GENTS I READ THIS ! 
We will pay Afc«iilN a Nnlary of $IOO per 
iiioiilh aiKl exppnNOM, or allow a Tari^o roninils- 
Nlon, to fell our ni*w and wanderfnl invcnttlnnn. We 
mean what we Jtau. Sample Free AddresH 

KlIKRMAAi S: I'O.. .Ilaraball, Mich. 
Nov-6m. 



lY. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER! 



January, 1880. 





GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE MARK.TIu'lireal Kii^IinIi TRADE MARK, 
KfiiK'd.v will I'tc'iiii't- 
^ ly and radically cure 
iiiid every case of 
inrvoiiR Pobili y and &SF '^ ^ 
W'M k nf'SS, result or ^Sm ^' 
IiidL-crHtioii. exctHH ot 
ov( rwork of the liraiii 
uiui uervoUB syntem, is ^ 
I)t rfpftly hain»lc-i«6. acts ' 

Before Takin^^'"**' >"•'«*<=• ■•'"<y'«8 bt-^u at. TakiTifr 

OpxteiiHively used forover -o-iLar xtuuug. 
thirty years with Kreat siitcePH. Fuli particulars in our 
pamphlet, which w*' desire lo wend free by mail to every one. 
The specific iiifdieiiu- iH Hold by all dru^^^RlP at $1 per pack- 
age, or Hix jiackasfH f»»r $'', or will be neiit free by raiiil on 
receipt of the luoiirv by nddresRliij^ 

THKfJKAV MEDICIN'K COMPANY. 

No. 10 MechaaicB' Block. Dttroit, MichiKau. 

O^Sold iu Lanc^Mler by H. It. Cociitian. 1S7 arid 139 N. 
Queen St , find by iiniL't-'iBiS trvtiywhi '\ | 79-3-1 "2 

inn APDCC PLANTED WITH BEKRIES. 

II II I AwnLO 1<M> varieties of .sv/«cird iruitg. 
■ WW PlantM fci'ovio fur trunNplantiuKv and 
Pruit for the market- t*^SLeNew C'atalosutf 
for what eorta Uji'lant. Sent free. Address 

JOHN 8. COLLINS, Moorestown. New Jersey. 

rv Also J£K!SK V IlEO FlG&st aU pure etock. 

7g-10-6m 

ELASTIC TRUSS 

HasaPaddif 
fering from 
all others, u 
oup>shaped, 
I with SELF- 
ADJUST'NG 
BALL, in the 
center, adapta 
itself to all 
positions of the hody, 
, while the BALL in the 
I Cap PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
JUST AS A PERSON 
WOULD WITH THE 
FINGER. With light 
pressure the Hernia is 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
ical cure is certain. It is easy, durahlc 
and cheap. Sent by mail, postage paid. 
Circulars free. 
Address, Eggleston Truss Co., Manfirs. 

^ C. H. EGGLESTON CO., Chicago.lil. 

1»-7-lyl 



THE BEST PAPER! TRY IT!! 



BEA UTIFULLY I LLUSTR ATKD. 





4n Enlaroco View of 
THE Pad. 



antli YKAK. 



The gcientifio American. 

The SciEMTiFic Amkuican in a large Firnt-CliiBR Weekly 
NewBpaper of Sixteen Pages, printed iu the moht beautiful 
style, pro/uaeli/ illustrated with .tfiUmlid *«^raw»(;j, repre- 
ieutmg the newest Inveiitiout? and the most recent Advances 
In the ArtB and Hcteuces; inchidiug New and Interesting 
FactH iu Agriculture, Horticulture, the Home, Health, 
Medical Progress, Social Science, Natural Hintory. Geology, 
Aetronomy. The mont valuable practical i)apers. by emi- 
nent writers in all departments of Science, will bo found iu 
the Scientific American. 

TermH, $.^.20 per year, $1.60 half year, which includes 
postage. Discount to Agents. Single copies, teu cents, 
Sold by a'l Newwdeah-rs. Remit by powlal order to MUNN 
& CO., Publishera, 37 I'ark Row, New York. 
T> A nnX'TWn^C ^" connection with the 

JTA^JLJUIJA Xi9* KrionlilUr Ainoricaii, 
MensrH. Mcnn a: i'o ;ir<- SolicltoT>< of American and Foreign 
Patents, li.iv.> li:id jr> yt-ius' experience, md now have the 
larjroHt estjibljshnieut in the world. Patents are obtuined on 
the best terruw. A apt-o al notice is made in the Ncinitlfic 
Ain<>rieaiB of all Inventions patented through this 
Agency, with the name and residence oi the Patantec. By 
the iiutnense circulation thuu given, public attention je di- 
reeled lo the nierit.s of the new i>ateiit, and sales or intro- 
duction ollen easily eflfectetl. 

Any jierson who has made a new di^coven," or invoution, 
can aHcertain./rrf ofclutr'je, whether a latent can probably 
bo obtained, by writing t() Munn k Co. We alsO send /rf*' 
our H.'ind-Bock abo\it the I'atent Laws, Putents, Caveats. 
Trade-Markfl, their costs, iiud how iirocure<l, with hints for 
procuring advauues on inventioiiH. Address for the Paijer. 
or conceruinc Patents, 

MUNN & CO.. 37 Park Bow, New York. 

Bi:v irh Oflice, cor. F & 7th St8., Washlugtou, D. C. 
nov iui 

(tj/^Pn week iu voiirown town. Terms au<I S5outIit free. 
S)DUAi1dre6s H. Hil.i.KTV & ('(I , Portlaiul, Muiiie, 
jilu-lyr* 



Sawing off a Log, 
Easy ac^ Vi&i, 




A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



K miCASmFiEii 



Our Litest improved sawing macliine cuts 
off a 2-foot lo^ in 2 minutes. A $100 
PRESENT vill be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the old way, as one man 
can with this machine. Circulars sent free. 

U. S. MANUFACTURING CO., 

IIU Clark St., C.hicagro, III. 

A. H. Frank, Buffalo, N. Y., Owns and controls Eastern 
and Middle Stateu. 

<'AlTTIOX. — Anv aawiug machine having a seat for 
the operator, or treadles for hie feet, ie an infringement 
on our {latent e and'we are prosecuting all iufriupers. 8o 
BEWARE WHO YOU BUY OF. jan-^m 

WFI I ■AllCrO Ouraie guaranteed to be ths 
nLLL nUuClli cheaDest and best in the 

world. Also nothing can beat nnr .«.4.WTNG M A- 
CHLNK. It saws off a 2-foot log in 2 minutes. 
Pictorial books tree. W. 'j-iL,KS. Ckicaeo, Ul. 

dec- 6m] 

NOTICE. 

\ VALUABLE WORK. 

A TREATISE 

—ON THK— 

HORSE AND HIS DISEASES, 

By DR. B. J. KENDALL, of Enosburgh Falls. Vermont. 

It iR nicely illustrated with thirry-five engravings, and JB 
full of Tieeful horse knowledge. Kvery horse owner should 
aave a copy of it. 

SEND 25 CENTS FOR A COPY. 

jun-tf 

THE DEAF HEAR 



I 



THROUGH THE TEETH 

rKUIKtTLV. all Ordinary Conversation, 
Lectures. Concerts, etc., by NEW ('Uhuiu-Li, 
to rrie Pier*es of HoiirhiL:. h\- a wnnierfu! Ni-w Sfi- 

cntinri.Moniiu«.THE DENTAPHONE. 

For remarkable iiul.Iic- leiD t>n Hie J>eill— ^i^o on 
ttie Oeuf Btid Oiimb— See AVir York Herald, 
Sept. 118. Clir,ilU>i Standard, ^ept. 27. eio. It 



I 



^^^ diMplnceM all Ear-trunin«>tn. Size of un or* 
dlnary Wutrli. Soml fnrour KtiER |»iuii|>Ulrt. Aildress 

AHEBICAN OENTAPHONE CO.. 2S7 vine St., ('iDcinMU,OU<; 



fmm 



20 to 50 t'lish.ls : Corn 
-HH.ilOONii-h.i.pi iuT-. 
So.Msiniire iiccmIihI. 

fji>i)(l i_lrrM;»ti', )iiii.- Wil. ; 
fin,. HclinoU, (?liurcli...., 
iitMi good society. Kailion.t j.oi 
l.iil. M»ra and fnll infoinn 
K. UILrltlOBIi^ Laud C'omm 



On tlie Kansas Pacific 
Railway. 3,000,000 
Aores for Sale in the 

GOLDEN BELT. 

Siitog? I'.r a.i.-. 11 



iMES. 



iii;ii li. 1 ruililu-s cxivl- 
1..1. FREE. A.idi.-ss 
siuiier, Saliua, Kniisas. 



79-9-3meom] 



(hYOA. ^^'EFK. $12 a day at horae easily made. Costly 
(pi ^Outfit free. Address True & Co., Augusta, Maine, 
juii-lyr" 



FREE GIFT ! 

Hon iitllii'ted with 4'oiiHiiikipt joii. 
ANttiiiia, Norp Throat, or Afa; 

iH elegjintly printed and iiluetrated. ]•« imges. izuio, lo.y. 
It ha« been tb.- meaiiH in the providence of God of ssiviPg 
many valuable lives Send name arid post ollico address, 
with six cents I'ostagefor mailing. The book is valuable to 
por8<>ns sutTeriiijr with any dii^ease of the Noso, Throat 
or laiii;;:s. Address, Ur. :W. B. W4»I.FE, f incin- 



A copy of my Med- 
ionl 4'<k lai ni n ii 
KriiHc* Kook wilt 
B V s ^^ ^^ 'w« mm w H be Hpnt to liny ) ui'- 
son iitllii'ted with 4'oiiHiiikipt ion. R roii o h i f i.s, 
ANthiiia, Norp Throat, or Afasal 4'a(arrh. It 
is elegjintly printed and iiluetrated. 144 imges. 12nio. I8.'9. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoied to Agriculture, Horticulture, Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas 
tcr County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONE DOLL/^R PER ANNUIf, 

POSTACi; PREPAID BV THE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



nali. 4»liio. 



17<i-lo-L>m. 



KENDALL'S 



This rpEnarkwble medi 

. _ cine will cure Spavins,- 

r^j.lint. Curb. ( :illiMiH. .*£.'., ur .liiy enlargement, AND WILL 
KKMOVE Tin-: HCNCH WITHOUT BLISTERING or 
C^T^ A TJTT fWr t'lu^lng a sore. No remeuy ever 
l3£^JC3L V JLl^ di»^ciivered etpials it for certainty 
of action lu slopping the lameness and removing the bunch, 
Price $l.f)i). Rend for (■irciilar giving POSITIVE PROOF. 
^TTfJ T t" 'LD BY DRUGGISTS or sent by the ia- 
X^ W X%J!-J veutor, R. .1. Kendall, M. D.. Enosburgh 
Falls, Vt. JobiiBton, Holloway tt Co., Agte., 60'J Arth St., 
Philadelphia. Ph., 79-^ . 



Dr. 8. S- RathvoL. who has so ably managed the editorial 
department in tlie past, will continue in the position of 
editor. His coutribxitions on subjects conuected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is 80 thorouhly a master — entomological science— eorae 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the success- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He is determined to make "The Farmer'* 
a necessity to all households. , 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster 
county for its agricultural products, should certainly be 
able to support au agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers Interested iu this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporatiou of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Tiy and 
induce them to sttbscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but It will greatly assist us. 

All communications In regard to the editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all b^uiuess letters in regard to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rates of 
advertising can be had on application at the office. 



JOHN A. HIESTANJ). 

No. 9 North Queen Sf., Lancaster, I*a. 



02TE DOLLAR PER ANNUM-SIITGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




EIESTAND, Pcblisher. 



£nl('r«Ml a1 tlw I'oHt <>lli<*o nt l^niicastor nn 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL. 

A New Inse cticirtc, --.... 17 

Western National Fair, 17 

About Graham Bread, ----- 18 

Candlemas, --------18 

The day that Brings the Oroundbog Out. 

Florida Manufactures, ----- 18 

The State Board of Agriculture, - - - 19 

Coming Evente for 1880, - - - - 19 

ESSAYS. 

Domestic Progress — C. L. ITimsecker, - - 19 

Errors of Great Meu in Respect to Agriculture, 

Preserving Food for Stock — Jos. F. Witmer,- 21 

Can we Plant too Many Fruit Trees-C T. ii^oj:, - 21 

An Im ortaut Era iu Fruit Growing — The Granary 

of the World — The Cauuing Business — The Profit 

of Fruit Growing — Market Cannot be t>ver8tocked 

— What was Done in Berks — The Effect of Pre- 

mituQS — The Progress Made iu Fruit Growing — 

A Profitable Branch of busiuesa — The Uses to 

Which Fruit can be put. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Farm-life vs. Town-life— £■., - - - - 23 

What Fertilizer Shall we Use— ^. B. A., • 23 

Letter from North Carolina — M. R., - - 24 

SELECTIONS. 

The Economy of a Garden, - ... 24 

Popular Breeds for Pork and Lard, - - 24 

American Cheese in England, - - - - 35 

The Making and Preservation of Manure, - lo 

The Menhaden Fishery. ----- 25 

Comparative Value of Foods, - - - 26 

STATE ORGANIZATIONS. 

Annual Meeting of the Fruit Growers, - - 26 

Semi-Annual Convention of the Millers'Association 2G 
Evening Session. 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society, .--..--^7 

Large Trees- Fruit Growing on City Lota— Domestic 
Progress — Discussions— Does the Stock have any 
Influence on the Graft— Ref«rred Questions. 
Poultry Association, ------ 28 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 28 

Linnsean Society, -------28 

Additions to the Library— Paper* Bea«— Soientific 

Miscellany. 

AGRICULTURE. 
A Good Farm Stockfood, - - . . og 
Bone Dust, -.---...29 
Forest Leaves for Stable and Yard, - . 29 
Wonders of Broom Corn, - - - - - 29 

HORTICULTURE. 
Spring Cultivation of Strawberries, - . 29 

A New Nut, -.28 

Don't Crowd the Fruit Trees, - . - 29 
Plant Apple Trees, 26 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Polishing Furniture, 29 

Bloody Milk, 29 

Measuring the Height of a Tree, - - - 30 

Treatment of Frozen Plants, - - - - 30 

To Preserve Shingles, ----- 30 

Ventilation of Bed Rooms, - - - - 30 

Tar for Warts, ---..- 30 
HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

Mince Meat, 30 

Custard Pic, 30 

Lemon Pie, --.-----30 

Apple Jellj, 30 

Pound Cake, - . --.-.' SO 

Boston Jumbles, ----- . 30 

Rice Pudding Boiled, 30 

Almond Pastry, ------ 30 

Call's Liver Broiled, --...- 30 

Potato Pie, 30 

Pearl Barley Pudding, 30 

Pistachio Diplomatic Pudding, - - - 30 

Hickory Nut Macaroons, - . . - . 30 

Plain Pastry, 30 

LIVE STOCK. 

Teething in the Horse— Wolf Teeth, - - 30 

Ventilating Stables, 30 

Fattening Sheep, ------ 31 

Catarrh in Sheep, ..-..- 31 

Bonner's Horses, .---.. 31 

tNTOMOLOGICAL. 

The War on Insects, ----- 31 

How to Gel rid of the Pests, - - - - 31 

Lice on Cattle, ------ 31 

Destruction of Weevil, - - - - - 31 

POULTRY. 

Poultry Interest of America, - - - 31 

Pickings From the Poultry Yard, - . - 31 

Roup with Pigeons, ----- 31 

Rearing and Value of Ducks, - - - - 32 

Literary and Personal, 32 

SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

LANCASTER, ir'A., 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 

All ujiitters appertainiuK to UNITKU STATES or CANA- 
DIAN PATENTS, TUADE MAKKS, uml COPYKIGUTS. 
promiJtly atteuded to. Hih expcrieuce, success and laithful 
atteutiou to the iiiteremta of thoBe who engage hig eervices 
are fully aokuowledgt-d and appreciated. 

Preliminary examinations made for bim by a reliable Ap- 
sietant at WaBliiugtou, without extra charge for drawing 
ur deecriptiun. [T9-l-t 

SEND FOR 

On Concord Grapevines, Transplanted Evergreens, Tnlip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, etc. Tree Seedlings and Trees for 
timber plantations by the 100,0410. 

J. JENKINS' NCRSERT, 



THE 



S-2-T9 



WIKONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHie. 



Eliim ilD EXPffi 

OFFICE, 

No. North Oueen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA.. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 
THE WEEKLY 

EXAMINER AND EXPRESS, 

Published Every Wednesday MorniDg, 

Isau old, well-established newspaper, and contains just the 
news desirable to make it an interesting and valuable 
Family Newspaper. The postage to subcribers residing 
outside of Lancaster county is paid by the pubUsher. 
Send for a specimen copy. 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



EXAMINER AND EXPRESS. 

Published Daily Except Sunday. 

The daily is imblisbed every evening duriDg the week. 
It is delivered in the City and to surrounding Towns ac- 
cessible by railroad and d.ily stage lines, for 10 cents 
» week. 

Mall Subscription, free of postage— One monib, SO 
cents; one year, 85.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 

The job rooms of Thi: Examisku and Expkesb are 
filled with the latest styles of presses, luaterlal. etc., and 
we are prepand to do all kiude of Book and lob PrintJa 
at as low rbtee and bhort notice as any eatabUahmeDC 1 i 
the State. 

SALE BILLS A SPECIALTY. 

With a !full BBBOHmeut ofne.; cats that we bare Just 
purchased, we are prepared to print the finest and most 
attractive sale bills in the state. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Proprietor, 

No. 9 XortU Queen St., 

L-A-NCASXEK, FA.. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PENKNYI.VANIA RAILROAD 
Trains leave the Depot in thia city, 

Leave 
WE TWAED. 

Pacific Express' 

Way Pasfeiigert 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommodation,. 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia .\ccommoclatiou.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express" 



Lancaster. 

2:40 a. m. 

5:00 a. m. 
10:05 a. m. 
lUllOp. m. 
11:0.') a. m. 
11:07 a. m. 
10:50 a. m. 

2:10 p. m. 

2:15 p. m. 

5:45 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

8:50 p. m. 
11:30 p. m. 



EASTWARD. Laucaster. 

Atlantic Express" ] 1 2:25 a. m. 



Philadelphia Expreest. 

Past Line* 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Pacific Express* 

Bunday Mail 

Johnstowu Express 

Day Express" 

Harrisburg Accom. 



4:10 a. m. 
5:20 a. m. 
7:35 a. m. 
9.10 p. m. 
1:25 p. m. 
2:00 p. m. 
3:0.^^ p. m. 
5:20 p. m. 
fi:23 p. m. 



SCHEDITI.K. 

as follows : 

Arrive 

Harrisburg. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 

11:20 a. m. 

Col. 10:40 a. m. 

12:40 p. m. 

12:55 p. m. 

12:40 p. m. 

3:25 p. m. 

Col. 2:45 p. m. 

7:40 p. m. 

Col. 8:20 p. m. 

8:40 p. m. 

10:10 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 

3:00 a. m. 

7:00 a. m. 

7:40 a. m. 
10:00 a. m. 
12:0 p. m. 

3:40 p.m. 

5:00 p.m. 

5:30 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

9:30 p. m. 



The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., ami will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Suuday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtowu, Mount .Joy and Laudia- 
ville. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuns daily, except Jlonday. 

NORBECK fmW, 




PRACTICAL 



^^ 



Carriage Builder 

('(IX & (lO'S m STA I), 

Cornef of Duke and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHAETONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 



Prices to Suit the Times. 

REPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 

79-2- ' 

S. IB. 003^, 

Manufacturer of 

Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc, 

CHURCH ST„ NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Large Stock of New aud Second-hand Work on hand, 
▼ery cheap. Carriagea Made to Order. Work Warranted 
lor one year, [79-1-1 2 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

OGALUR iN 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS. 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

spectacl.es. 

Repairing Btricllj' attended to. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



AT l,OWEST POSSIBLE I'KIOES, 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] O/Jp'fiff f.eopiifd Hottl. 

ESTABLISHED 1832. 





a. SENER & SONS. 

Manufacture! 8 and dealers in all kinds of rough and 
finished 



i.ui^s]e:fi. 



Also Sash, 



The beet Sawed SHI \«I,ES in the country. 
Doore, Blinds. MouidingB, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

aud PATENT BLINDS, which are far HUperior to any 
other. Also best CO.\I.* constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YAKD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince aud Walnnt-sts., 

LANCASTKR, PA. 

79-1-12] 




PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history aud habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS. 

and the best remedies for their expuleion or exterraiuatiou. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

ThiB work will be Highly Illustrated, and will be put in 
press (as Roon after a sufficient number of subscribers can 
be obtained to cover the cost) us the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 
79-2- 




Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trees raised in this county and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C.LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co., Pa. 

Nursery at Sinoketown, six miles east of Lancaster. 
79-1-12 

WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS. 

WAREROOM.S: 

102 East King St., Oor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-12) 



Special Inducemenis at the 
NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 

(over Burst's Grocery Store), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assor'ment of furniture of all kinds constantlj 
on hand. Don't forget the number. 

IS X-2 X:a.st ZSxzis S(tx-eet, 

Nov-ly] (over Bursk's Giocery Store.) 

For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOLLMER'S 

FURNrrURE WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST., 

(Opposite Northern Market), 
Also, all kinds of picture frames. nov-ly 

GREAT BARGAINS. 

A large assortment of all kinds of Carpets are still sold at 
lower rates thiiu ever at the 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No. 202 Went Kiiiff St. 

Call and txamine our stock and satisfy yourself that we 
can show the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
plies and ingrain at all pi-ices — at the lowdst Philadelphia 
prices. 

Also on hand a large and oomplete assortment of Rag 
Carpet. 

Satisfaction guaranteed bath as to price aud quality. 

You are invited to call and see my goods. No trouble in 
showing them even if you do not want to purchase. 

Don't forget this notice. You can save motley here if yoa 
want to buy. 

Particular attention given to customer « ork. 

Also on hand a full assortment of Counterpanes, Oil 
Cloths and Blankets of every variety [nov-Iyr. 



$77 

79-a-ia 



a month and expenses puarauteed to Agents. 
Outflt free. SHAW k CO., Augusta, Maine. 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 

38 and 40 "West King Street. 

We beep on hand of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COVERLETS, 

COUNTERPAIVES, CARPETS, 

Bureau aud Tidy Covers. Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 
tions, etc. 

Particular attention paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
scowering and dyeineof all kinds. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 

Nov-ly Lancaster, Pa. 

THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption without medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will do 
for you what nothing else on earth can. Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Laucaster sny so. Get the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lvr ^^^ 

C. R. KLINE, 
jAttoi^ney-at-IjAW, 

OFFICE: 16 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

LA-lSrCA-STKR, FA.. 

NoT-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1880. 



Vol. SU. No. 2. 



Editorial. 



A NEW INSECTICIDE. 

I Dr. Ilcrinaii A. Hatrfii. I't'ol'i-ssor of Eiito- 

' inology at Harvard iriiiversity, ('amhridf,'e, 
Massaclmsi'tts, iiroposes to elTcct the df- 
stniction of all "obnoxious insects" — in- 
cluding pliylloxera, jiolato beetles, cotton 
worms, grassliopiiers and greenhouse pests — 
by the apiilication of the ijkisI fmiytis, and 
lias written and published an octavo pamphlet 
of twelve pages on the subject, citing the 
observations and experiments of Dr Hail, of 
Prussia; Mr. Trouvelot, of Medford, Mas.sa- 
<;busetts ; Mr. Siewers, of Newport, Keu- 
lucy ; Profs. Kiley and Com.st .ck, of Wash- 
ington city : Mr. .lames il. Burns, of Shelter 
Island, New York ; Prof. Ilor.sford, of Cam- 
liridge, Massachusetts ; Dr. John L. Leconte, 
of Philadelphia, auil others. The following 
is .1 resume of the system, and from it our 
readers may get an idea of its lu-iueiples and 
their niodii.i iiperaudi : 

Firxt. The common house-tly is often killed 
by nftDKjus, .and in epizootics a large nmnlier 
of insects which live in the same locality are 
killed l)y the same fungus. 

Seriind. The fungus of the house-fly works 
as well as yeast for baking and brewing pur- 
l)Oses. 

Thii-tl. The application of yeast on insects 
produces in them a fungus w'hich becomes 
fatal to the insects. 

Fourth. In the experiments made by Mr. 
.J. H. JJurns, all [lotato beetles sprinkled with 
dilut(!d yeast died from the eighth to the 
twelfth day, and the fungus was found in the 
vessels of "the wings." 

The term fpiznulk means the same thing 
among insects, and other subjects of the ani- 
mal kingdom, that epiihmic does among liu- 
nian beings, namely : a generally prevailing 
infection, wliich is more or less fatal to those 
attacked by it. whether it is contagions or 
not. Some of the exi)eriments have been 
ve.ry successful, but others have been unsatis- 
factory or total failures. 

These are contingencies, however, that 
must be expected in the development of new 
principles and the applications of new ele- 
ments as remedies lor the destruction of 
insects. Even if we liave all the necessary 
materials to make a new kind of bread or 
cake, and know nothing .about their propor- 
tions, assimilations anil affinities, we shall 
probably fail a dozen times before we learn 
how to so combine them as to secure a suc- 
cessful result. The remedj' seems to be a 
very simple one, and is not so apt to prove 
injurious to those who apply it as ParU 
gr<cn and other vindent iioisons. It is 
simply beer mash or diluted yeast applied 
either with a .syringe or a sprinkler; and its 
operation is facilitated by the infected insects 
communictating it to other insects with which 
they come in contact. Mr. Burns used 
"Fleisehman's compressed yeast," and the 
"National Dry Hop Yeast Cake," dissolved 
in warm water with apparently similar effect. 
Another important consideration is the cheap- 
ness, and at the same time the safeness of the 
remedy. What to us seems a serious draw- 
back is the long time it requires to kill the 
insects. If they are not immediately ener- 
* vated or sickened in eight or ten days they 
might destroy a whole croi), but even this 
would be cimipensated by the n rtainty of the 
remedy. Our readers must often have ob- 
served an epizootic among house-flies and 
other insects in this locality. We have often 
witnessed it, and two notable ooca.sions we 
can distinctly recall. In oiu' rural rambles 
during the later part of the summer of 185(i, 
(as near as we cau recollect,) the grasshop- 



pers, crickets, bumblebees, butterflies, 
njoths and caterpillars were infested by fungi, 
and scores of them could be found at any 
time and place, adhering by a death grip to 
fences. Weeds, shrubbery, &c., and these were 
dead, and on ojieuing them they were gener- 
ally liollow, and contained more or less fungi. 

This was so conspictuously the case that it 
was observed by those who were not [larticu- 
larly noted for minute observations. Some of 
these grasshoi)iiers were also infested by gor- 
diansand other insect [larasites, but all hail 
fiuigi. The following year grasshoppers were 
fewer in number than they had previously 
been, or have since been. The other occasion 
we allude to w.as in the early part of the sum- 
mer of 1868, during the advent of the seven- 
teen-year locust {Cinula n-dfcimo,\ and 
continued to the end of .luue. Many of these 
locusts became infested with a peculiar fungus, 
especially in the cavity of the abdomen, and 
we think the species was described and named 
by Dr. Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia. So 
far as our recollection goes it was mainly 
conlined to the male sex, but not to them 
exclusively. In many instances the abdomen 
of the insects would drop off, whilst vitality 
was continued for a time in the other portion 
of the body, which in that condition would 
fre(iuently take wing and fly from one tree to 
another. It was through this that the dis- 
covery was made here in the city of Lancas- 
ter. Many siieciraens were captured that on 
examination were found to be minus the ab- 
domen, but they did not survive as long as 
those that were perfect. On canvassing the 
ground beneath the trees the abdomens were 
found and proved to be empty, and the inner 
walls thickly covered with fungi. Some spe- 
cimens were found dead that were entire, and 
these were also infested. We think we imb- 
lished some observations on this subject 
during the advent of the locusts, and that 
Prof. Kiley al.so did in the Arncrkan Ento- 
molocjiat, or in one of his annual Missouri 
reports. Under any circumstances, however, 
the life of the seveideen-year locust in its 
adult or iniui/n state is a brief one, rarely con- 
tinuing beyond the 1st of .July, except in a 
few cases, i)ut the infested individuals began 
to occur at least two weeks before their 
normal period had eea.sed, and at that lime the 
fungus was generally considered more as a 
consequence of their deaths than as the cause 
of it. But when we reflect that depletion, 
enervation or death follows, sooner or later, 
both animal and vegetable subjects of the 
n.atural world when infested with fmigi we 
need not be surprisi)ed if it should be demon- 
strated that fungi was the c(«(.s€ of their 
death and decay. 

For forty or fifty years very few Morella 
cherries have been grown in Lancastt^r county. 
The trees were weakened and finally died by 
an infestation known as " /j/«rA- knot,''' whicli 
has been demonstrated to be caused by a 
fungus, and not at all by an insect. We only 
mention these things here because they seem 
to have — however remotely — some relation to 
the subject under consideration. Fungi 
being fatal to health, and often to the life of 
anything they infest, if we can contrive by 
some simi)le and inexpensive means to com- 
municate "sickness unto death " to all our 
insect pests, we shall have made a great stride 
in arresting their inerea,se, and do something 
towards restoring the equilibrium of nature. 
But before the ha|i|)y means is attained, it is 
very i)robable there will be many failures, for 
no matter how simple a remedy is, anything 
that stops short of, or advances beyond that 
simplicity, may defeat the desired end. 
Doubtless many remedies for the destruction 
of no.xious insects have failed for lack of in- 
telligeuce iu their application. A knowledge 



of the history and character of the subjects we 
war against, and the elementary principles of 
the weapons we use against them, are essential 
to a successful result, and this knowledge can 
only be obtained through skillful and con- 
tinued experiment. It therefore behooves 
thoiie who are interested most in these mat- 
ters to continue patiently and perseveringly. 
Analagous to the foregoing is the case of the 
mice of Lancaster city. For the p;ist ten 
years or more specimens of mice have been 
captured infested about the head with a white, 
apparently scrofulous incrustation ; from two 
to a half dozen having been captured during 
every single year. In some specimens it only 
occurred on the one side of the head, but in 
the larger number it covered the whole dorsal 
portion, destnjyiug the eyes. This may be 
common among mice everywhere, for aught 
we know to the contrary, but we have never 
seen it, or heard of it any\vhere save in Lan- 
caster city, and we feel conlideut that mice so 
infesteil could not long survive. Dr. M. L. 
Davis, of Millersville, exhibiteii at the meet- 
ing of the Linn;ean Society, held on the IJlst 
lilt., one of these mice, sent to him from 
L;incaster city. Having examined it, he 
gave it as his opinion that the animal was in- 
fested with J'orriyofnucoso, a well known fun- 
gus analogous to the "yeast plant." The 
theory is that mice contract it by coming in 
contact with "mouldy " bread, cheese, meats 
or other substances, and that it is on record 
that this fungus has been communicated to 
cats, dogs, and even to children. We may 
feel very certain that the presence of fungi 
on any living organism does not increase its 
vitality, but that it facilitates the premature 
decay or death of any substance upon which 
it is permitted to germinate and grow. Of 
another thing we may be equally certain, 
namely : that farmers cannot expect to de- 
stroy grasshoppers, potato-beetles or any 
other noxious insects by merely opening the 
gate and throwing a iiill into the enclosure, 
and then shutting it again .and go whistling 
aljout some other business with the ;issurauce 
that they have acted llteir part in the matter. 
Whatever the remedy may be, as we have 
before intimated, it must be administered 
systematically and judgematically, with many 
reiietitions, perhaps, before they can reason- 
ably expect to succeed ; and they must also 
endeavor to find out the reasons of either 
their success or their failures before they 
aliandon their efforts. 



WESTERN NATIONAL FAIR. 

The "Western N.ational Fair Association" 
have decided to hold their first grand exhi- 
bition at Bismarck Grove, near Lawrence, 
Kansas, from the llith to the 18th of Septem- 
ber, 188U. All entries must be made on the 
9th, lOtli and lltli of September, and all 
articles for exhibition, excepting live stock, 
must be in place on the grounds by the 11th. 
Live stock must be in place on the grounds on 
or before the 13lh. Cash premiums, larger 
than have ever been offered in the West, will 
be paid for the best county exhibits of the 
products of the field, garden and orchard. 
County exhibits may be made by individuals, 
agricultural or other organizations. Over 
tiiirty thousand dollars in premiums are offer- 
ed for the best cxiiibits of the products of the 
field, garden or orchard, live stock of all 
kinds, poultry, dairy products, machinery of 
all kiiid.s, agricultural or farm machinery 
manufactured in Kansas, textile fabri(;s of all 
kinds, floral products, works of art of all 
kinds, confections,^ canned or preserved fruits, 
meats, &c., <.tc. There will be other magnifi- 
cent attractions which will be announced in 
due time. This grand enterprise is to be es- 
pecially under thie auspices of Kansas and 



18 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



tFebruary, 



Colorado, with the anticipated participation 
of the whole "great west" at least, but the 
invitation is extended to all the world. 

Our young sister States of the West have 
taken time by the forelock, announcing their 
programme almost with the incoming of the 
new year, and have already sent their bulle- 
tins (sec our literary columns,) throughout 
the country. Tliis is an approximation to our 
suggestion made during the centennial exhihi- 
tion : namely, that our vast territory should 
be divided into four, six or eight districts, 
each holding an annual, biennial, triennial or 
quadrennial exhibition, instead of only one, 
and thus draining the whole country of time, 
money and laborfor its support, and concen- 
trating it all in one locality to the disadvan- 
tage of all the other places. 

These district fairs held at intervals of two, 
three, four or more years might exist without 
at all interfering with the successful opera- 
tions of county fairs, except, perhaps, the 
single counties in which they are held for the 
current year, and would also receive a larger 
patronage, for the reason that the expense of 
attending would be far less than when held 
in a single locality. 

From the proceedings of our local society 
it will be seen that at the meeting on the first 
Monday in March it proposes to discuss the 
propriety of holding a fair next autumn in 
Lancaster county, and it will not be too soon 
to inaugurate a movement of that kind befoi e 
the opening of spring, and following it up 
with an energetic effort to make it a success, 
the State fair at Philadelphia notwithstanding. 
Lancaster county, in this respect, has been 
acting an inferior part for many years, and the 
time has fully arrived when she should act a 
part commensurate with the position she occu- 
pies in her relations agriculturally, mechanic- 
ally and commercially with other portions of 
the country. Her tobacco industry alone, 
either independently or as an auxiliary, is 
capable of making an imposing display. 
There are no means by which she can more 
practically advertise her products than 
through an energetic and well ordered county 
exhibition. The result of the poultry sliow 
in January last is sufficient to illu.strate what 
can be done when the effort is backed by the 
energetic will of those who are delegated to 
carry it through. Of course the enterprise 
ought to be iniYiated imderstangingly and in- 
telligently in order to secure a successful 
termination. An early start, a judiciously 
elaborated premium list, and a good set of 
judges appointed long enough in advance to 
ascertain whether they can or vill serve or 
not, are very essential to the information and 
the confidence of the people, and when they 
are assured of this their is little doubt they 
will do their part as a whole. 

ABOUT GRAHAM BREAD. 

If by Graliam bread, that made from unbolted 
flour is meant, it is only ri!,'ht to understand its value 
as an artiele of diet, as tliere are several very fjen- 
eral errors eoneeruing it. One is, its superior nutri- 
tive properties; tlie bolted out parts, as aseertained 
by the chemist, eontain important nerve and bone 
making m.alerial — but then it requires the chemist 
to extract It, for the gastric juice of neither man nor 
animal will do it, not even in the healthy subject. 

Young children and feeble or irritable stomachs 
will be injured by its use. Those who like it "just 
for a change," should be advised never to employ 
soda, saleratus or baking powder in the manufacture 
of it, and any alkali, when used for baking bread or 
cake, pic or pudding, seriously interferes with 
healthy digestion by neutralizing the gastric fluid. 

Bread made from unbolted flour may be of use in 
scouring radical reformers, but won't do as a substi- 
tute for that made in the best manner at home from 
flne flour; and the addition of soda, molasses, or 
making a slap-jack of it, to do away with fermenta- 
tion, are so many degrading processes. 

It is only superior to fine flour in one condition; 
that of habitual constipation, unattended with difli- 
cult digestion or soreness of the stomach. The per- 
fectly healthy can make the same use of it they do 
of grape seeds, cherrystones, apple parings, etc. — L. 
J). Z., Xew Era. 

We never saw or tasted any tUaham bread 
that we did not feel we would get "sick and 
tired of" in le.ss than a fortnight. There is no 
use in saying that we would "become used to 



it in a short time," for we dont think we eve 
would. But for all that, we are far from con- 
demning that kind of bread; we only say that 
the old rule — "what's good for the goose is 
good for the gander," will not apply ^jer .se to 
the human family in its relation to Graham 
bread. From our earliest childhood uji to our 
sixteenth year we had always been fond of 
pies and doughimts, even when they were not 
of the very best quality. About in our six- 
teenth year it so transpired that during the 
winter season our boarding "boss" dispensed 
with dinners, and instead thereof we were 
served with a lunch, which we daily took 
along to our place of work. One entire win- 
ter this Umcli consisted of doughnuts, and the 
following winter of "half-moon" or "lay-over" 
pies, which at first awhile we relished, goon 
we became indifferent, then we appropriated 
them[stoically, or mechanically, with about the 
same gratification an ostrich enjoys when it 
swallows an iron wedge. Then followed 
periods of aversion, repulsion and disgust, 
which finally terminated in unqualified hate; 
and, O how grateful \ye. were at the return of 
the long days and square dinners of spring 
and summer again. Now, we have been eat- 
ing white wheat bread for full sixty years, 
and we have never seen the period that we 
could not return to it three or four times a 
day with the same relish that a fish does to 
wholesome oxygenated water. Still we are 
not condemning Graham liread, but we feel 
morally certain that if we were compelled to 
use it for a single month we should loath it 
as intensely as we once did lay-over pies and 
doughnuts. When cold or stale, Graham 
bread is about as repulsive to us as cold pot- 
pie. Have any of our readers noticed the ex- 
crelal voidings of a horse or a pig exposed for 
a time to wind, rain and sun ? how it disen- 
tegrates and all the substance bleaches out of 
it, leaving nothing but a residue of dry chaff 
or bran-like scales remaining. The stoniaciis 
of these healthy and strong animals having 
been powerless in digesting and assimilating 
it, so we imagine it is with the human stom- 
ach in regard to bread made of unbolted floiu-. 
But for all that we are far from an indiscrim- 
inate condemnation of it. There may be 
human stomachs that need that kind of ali- 
ment. We once dined with a noted vegeta- 
rian and Graharaite. Of course, there was 
no animal food served, but we would not 
have stowed into our stomach the amount 
that individual did, (a thiii cadaverous man 
too,) on that occasion, for fifty dollars. We 
should have feared an expansion of our stom- 
ach beyond the power of contraction again. 
True, he only took two meals a day, but in 
those two he could "put himself outside of" 
more than we could in five or six. This does 
not seem natural. Few animals feed in that 
fashion, except serpents. As serpents are 
supposed to be generally healthy, perhaps 
this system is based on their habits. Doubt- 
less there is much unwholesome bread made 
out of bolted flour, but so are there also many 
miwholesome meals cooked out of wholesome 

material. 

^ 

CANDLEMAS. 



The Day that Brings the Groundhog Out. 

To-day is Candlemas Day, or as it is more 
commonly called Groundhog Day. This fes- 
tival is very strictly kept by the Roman Cath- 
olic Church, there being a procession with 
many lighted candles, and those required for 
the service of the ensuing year being also on 
that occasion consecrated; hence the name 
Candlemas Day. In Scotland, this day is one 
of the four-term days appointed for periodical 
payments of money, interest, taxes, etc., and 
of entry of premises. 

An old document of the time of Henry 
VIII. concerning the rites and ceremonies of 
the English (Jliurch, speaks thus of the cus- 
tom of carrying candles: "On Candlemas 
Daye it shall be declared that the bearingeof 
candles is done in the memorie of Christie, 
the spiritual lyghte whom Simeon dyd proph- 
ecye ("a light to lighten the Gentiles,) as it is 



redde iu the ch\u-che that daye." The can- 
dles were suiiposed by the liomans to have 
the effect of frightening the devil and all evil 
spirits away from the persons who carried 
them, or from the houses in which they were 
placed. 

In Scotland the prognostication is expressed 
in the following distich : 

If Candlemas is fair and clear, 
There'll be twa winter in the year. 

There is a tradition in most parts of Europe 
to the effect that a fine Candlemas portends a 
severe winter. We have the groundhog tra- 
dition. If on the 2d of February, on leaving 
his hole he sees his shadow in the sun.shine, 
he retiu-ns, and for six weeks thereafter the 
weather will be rough; but if he does not see 
his shadow, owing to a clouded sky, he re- 
mains out and the'weather will be propitious 
of an early spring. He saw his shadow to- 
day; we shall see. — Examiner and Exprcn!!, 
Fchruary, 2. 

.Just as often as the second day of February 
comes, just , so often will the pai>ers of the 
German localities in Pennsylvania have some- 
thhig to say about the "Groundhog." This 
year we forgot the "old joker" entirely until 
the very morning of the '2nd., and our con- 
temporaries seemed to have forgotten him too, 
for he was not "trotted out" until the issue of 
the Monday evening papers. The little 
Scotch'couplet in the above extract trom the 
Examiner emd Express may be literally true, 
for every year we have "twa winters," or 
parts of winters, beginning the year with a 
winter month, and ending it with the same. 
Of course, so far as the groundhog is person- 
ally concerned, the whole story is an allegory 
— a symbol or figure of speech; for stupid as 
he may be, he is still too cunning to venture 
out in'the open air on such a cold morning as 
wc had on the 2nd of February the present 
year. If he was even smart enough to ven- 
ture out he would not have done so, simply 
because he could not. He would have been 
too torpid to move one foot before another. 
It is, therefore, said very cautiously and 
wisely "i/'the groundhog, &c., &c." But, 
suppose he don't come out at all, what then V 
The answer would probably he that it would 
not make the slightest diflerence in the world 
whether he comes out or stays in, for the 
animus of the question rests on the sliadoio of 
the animal, and not on the animal itself, and 
the meteorological significance would be the 
same, whether the sun reflected the shadow 
of a dog, a goat or a guineapig. At any rate, 
"may his shadow never grow less." 

•^ 

FLORIDA MANUFACTURES. 
Of course, manufactures iu Florida are still 
only prospective, but peculiarly situated as the 
country is geographically, it must possess im- 
mense resources that only require time for 
their development. If we look at the map we 
will observe that Florida is a peninsula almost 
suiroiuided by water, and that it extends 
farther southward than some of the Bahama 
Islands, its extreme southern point being on 
a line with Matamoras iu Mexico, and that 
it must be capable of producing much of the 
tropical vegetation; and from its peculiar 
locality, oranges, pineapples and bananas, 
lemons, citrons and other tropical fruits and 
vegetation ought to and probably would 
abound if it had more of the live Yankee in 
its social and domestic composition. Florida 
is a very okl territory, possessing wholly or in 
part many buildings erected before it came into 
the American Union. But all these things have 
more intimate relation to agriculture and 
horticulture than to manufactures. Recently, 
however, it has been "opening up" to manu- 
factures, and possesses material elements 
and climate for the development of its re- 
sources superior to any other State in the 
Amerlrnn Uyxion. A time Is fast approaching 
when its vast material resources will be 
made available for manufacturing purposes. 
Some of these material resources together 
with their abundance and their uses will be 
found in the following extract from a contem- 
porary journal, for the benefit of those of our 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



19 



readers who may be contemplating a change 
of local base: 

The Palmetto furnishes tlie material for 
l)a|)cr from banU-wite down lo the cheapest 
grade; also, for bmoins and brushes, stulliiif,' 
for mattresses, chau's, carriages, etc., which 
lias no ecjual, and will come into st^ueral use 
on account of its healthy (iiialities, and free- 
dom from vermin of every description. 

The Castor Hean, which has a prolilie 
growtli, will soon become an imiiortant arti- 
cle of cultivation. From it can be made llie 
(ini-st quality of tallow' or sterine, and soaps of 
varioii.s grades, which in price will more Mian 
compete with tliese arlii-les manufactured 
from otiier material. It will soon be manu- 
factured laigely. A party are aliout purclias- 
ing 2,0110 acres to be devoted exclusively to 
this interest. 

Fibre materials are growing wild in our 
forests in endless quantities, and will soon 
become a great resounu; to the Stale, as they 
are being looked after by the niauufactiu-ers 
of the Now England States at tliis lime. 

We have samples of bank-note and common 
grades of paper, sterine, soaj) and samples of 
libre, and tibre plants at our ollice, which' we 
will be happy to show to any one calling. 

Florida should snpi ly paper, sterine, soaps 
and tibre to an inn., use amount. Yankee 
enterprise will soon develoji them. 

Manufactures in connection witli agricul- 
tiu'e solves the problem of prosperity. Labor 
is the cornerstone. tiive work to your 
newcomer. Give dim the means of a living 
on his arrival, and then they will tlock to the 
State by tlie thou.sands. There is no State in 
the Union liaving more natural advantages. 
They will soon attract the attention of busi- 
ness men, and the fact will come in the near 
future. 



THE STATE BOARD OF AGRICUL- 
TURE, 

At the aimual meeting of the Board of Ag- 
riculture, held .January '2Sth, 1S8U, the follow- 
ing resolution was unanimously adopted : 

WiiERE.vs, The Secretary of the Common- 
wealth and State Treasurer have iiotitied the 
Secretary of this Board that certain parties 
have not complied with the provisions of the 
act to regulate the manufacture and sale of 
fertilizers, and 

Whereas, The proper enforcement of 
said act is of vital importance to the agricul- 
tural interests of the Stale. Therefore, 

Hesolvid, That the E.Kcculive Committee is 
hereby directed to furnish tlie Attorney Gen- 
eral with the names of the parties, a copy of 
the notices furnLshed by the Secretary of the 
Commonwealth and State Treasurer, and 
with information that said jiarties have not 
deposited in the oilice of this Board the anal- 
ysis required by law. 

At a subsequent meeting of the Executive 
Committee a resolution was adc^ited desiring 
that proper notice be given the Attorney 
General. 

At the same meeting the following was 
also unanimously adopted : 

licsoh-rd, That the prompt and etiicient 
measures taken by his E.xcellency, Gov. Iloyt, 
through his agent, the Secretary of this 
Board, in so promptly meeting and suppres- 
sing the alarming spread of the cattle |)lague 
as it appeared in several counties of tliis 
State, and with so small an outlay of the 
funds of the State as compared with the 
results in other States, deserves and hereby 
receives the warmest approval of the Board. 

In urging the passage of the resolution. 
Governor Iloyt, after requesting that his 
name be withdrawn from it, paid a high com- 
pliment to the manner in which Secretary 
Edge has enforced the law, stating that 
while the results have been much more evi- 
dent than in other .States, the expense was 
only one-tenth as great. 

A resolution was also adopted to appoint 
commissioners, (whose expenses will be jiaid 
from the funds of tlie Board,) to examine 
into and report uiiou the availability of the 
cleared pine lands of the State for settlement 
and cultivation. 



Oleomargarine vs. Butter. 

At the same meeting of the Board, Secre- 
tary Edge, cxliibitcd samples of oleomar- 
garine from I'hiladclpliia. 

Two samples in particular were the subject 
of sonic dispute, a noted I'hiladelphia dealer 
having a.ssertcd that no member of the Board 
could tell which was butter and which was 
"oleo." 

The lu'st sample was iilacied upon tlie table 
of a liist-class boarding housi^ in Ilarrisburg, 
and no one made any remarks or objected to 
its use as butter, but when at a subsequent 
meal "cow butter"of good quality was jilaced 
upon tlie table as "oleo" they were able to 
detect "a decided tallowy taste" in it ; and 
this, too, alter tlu^y hafl partaken freely of the 
genuine "tub Inittcr. " 

Alter a careful but cautious examination 
the Board decided that "If either was genuine 
butter it was number one. and tliat if either 
was oleomargarine, it was numlier two," 
showing (•oiiclusivcly that a sell was suspected. 

.Mlcr the adjournment of the Board, known 
samiiles of genuine liutter were procured and 
a test insllituted, showing conclusively that 
both samples were "oleo," and that no genu- 
ine butter had been sent. 

When heated in an iron spoon all the sam- 
ples of "Pliiladclphia butter" gave out a de- 
cided tallowy smell, which increa.sed with the 
heat, while genuine butter when so treated 
gave out its usual fragrant smell. 

Tlie universal opinion seemed to be that 
such samples would not interfere with the 
sale of firni-dass butter. 

COMING EVENTS FOR i88o. 
The present new year of 1880 will have .'iOO 
days, the extra day being lacked on February. 
Oil .Tanuary 11 there will be a total eclipse of 
the sun, visible in the western part of North 
America and the Pacific ocean. Washing- 
ton's birthday will come on Sunday, Febru- 
ary 22; Good Friday, March 2(5; EastiU" 
Monday, March 28; Decoration Day, May 30, 
will fall on Sunday; the Fourth of .July will 
also come on Sunday; Thanksgiving Day will 
be Thursday, November 25, and Christmas 
will fall due on Saturday. There will be a 
total eclipse of the moon .June 22, invisible 
here; an annular eclipse of the sun, .luly 7, 
visible in South America and Southern At- 
lantic Ocean; Decemlier 1, partial eclip.se of 
the sun, visible in Southern Atlantic Ocean; 
December Ki, total eclipse of the moon, invis- 
ible here; Simday, December 31, partial 
eclipse of the sun, partly visible here. Sun 
rises ecliiised. A^'enus will be morning star 
until July i:i; Mars after October 2."): Jupiter 
after March 15, until July Pi; Saturn after 
April 8 until July '.). Venus will be evening 
star after July 14; Mars, until October 25; 
Jupiter, until March 1.5, after July 12; Saturn, 
until April 8, after July '.). 



Essays. 



DOMESTIC PROGRESS.* 

Give tnc the plow .^ud the man wlioian hold it, 

A lig for yoiir lord and his soft silken hand ; 
Let the man wlio has atrenglli never sloop to abuse 
it, 

Give it baoU to tlie tdvor— tlie land, boys the land, 
There's no bank like the earth to deposit your 
labor, 

The more you deposit the more you shall have ; 
If there's more than you want you can {jive to your 
neiijhbor. 

And your name shall be dear to the true and Uie 
brave. 
' The rise and progress of nations in agricul- 
ture, manufactures and commerce present the 
most astonishing results in our day and gen- 
eration. To trace the onward and upward 
progress of some favored sjiot on earth is ever 
a theme of great interest to the people of this 
and every other country whose inhabitants 
are capabk; of a due appreciation of the 
blessings which attend national indu.stry. 

*Read before the A^ncultural and Ilertidultural Societ}' 
by C. L. Hunsecker, Manb«5ini, Pa. 



The power and wealth, the coraforts and 
conveniences and enjoyments of a people, de- 
pend upon a great variety of cause.s — Geo- 
graphical situation, soil and climate ; the 
nature of the productions, the virtue, indus- 
try and skill of the inhabitants; freedom of 
industry, security of property, good system 
of laws, and judicious administration of the 
government ; genius and public .spirit in the 
citizens to project public imiirovements and 
promote inlercour.se with foreign nations. 

When we compare our country with the 
great nations of Europe and Asia, in wealth 
and iiower, in agriculture, commerce and 
manufactures, we are limited to a [leriod of 
only several hundred years ; but although 
that we are thus circum.scriljed within nar- 
row limits, measured in years, we have dis- 
tanced in the race of luogress, and excel 
to-day some of the oldest and proudest nations 
of the Old World in the excellence and inge- 
nuity (jfour mechanical inventions, and the 
abundance and superiority of our cereal 
crops. 

Americans produced the steamboat, the 
cotton gin, the telegraph, the reaper and 
mower, the cast steel plough and many other 
ingenious and valuable inventions. J.,ook at 
our internal improvements, our domestic and 
foreign trade ! what strides we have made in 
a hundred years ! Could the pilgrim fathers 
again start into mortal existence they would 
be paralyzed with wonder at the greatness of 
our name, the extent of our domain, and the 
magnificence of our agriculture, our manufac- 
tures and our commerce. 

In this as in every other country, agriculture 
is of paramount importance, inasmuch as it 
multiplies the fruits of the earth. The skillful 
handling of the farmer's acres is of vast im- 
portance to the government and people of a 
country. 

It is the producer of the materials for man- 
factures, aud furnishes a large proportion of 
the tonnage of commerce and the food of man. 
Three-fourths of the people and at least one- 
half of the fixed capital of the habitable globe 
are embarked in this great pursuit. In our 
country we see wide extended fields laden 
with the products of the husbandman, seeking 
a market on the .seaboard, and shipment to 
foreign countries, to feed the superabundant 
population of the Old World, whose crops 
have failed to supply sufhcient food for the 
people. 

The swallow travels, the bee builds and the 
beaver constructs his habitation as these 
creatures of instinct traveled and built hun- 
dreds of years ago ; but man, exercising his 
reasoning powers, has tran.sformed the best 
portion of the ea,ith's surface to admiuister to 
his wants. 

At the time Columbus made his way to 
America the common people of Europe were 
in a condition little better than slaves. Their 
condition, notwithstanding that it has Ijeeu 
much improved since, is still vastly inferior to 
the respectability and standing of the Ameri- 
can farmer. 

"Here prodigious aetions may as well be done 

By farmer's issue as by Prince's son." 

It is here deep in the valleys of our country 
that immense crops of wheat and corn are 
raised, and by the ingenuity and enterprise of 
commercial men transported to the remotest 
corners of the world for purposes of traffic 
and of gain. 

Very great changes have taken place 
within a period of a hundred years in the in- 
tercourse of nations, facilitated by the cou- 
struclion of canals, railroads, sailing vessels, 
steamshiiis, etc., so that our surplus of produce 
can lie carried great distances at low rates to 
lilaces of consumption, that formerly rotted on 
the ground for want of an opening to market. 
To illustrate the great advantages of our inter- 
nal improvements over the extensive territory 
of the United States, wheat, tluvmost valuable 
of our cereal products, will not licar transpor- 
tation over ordinary earth roads more than 
three hundred and" fifty miles ; on our rail- 
roads it will bear transportation three thou- 
sand five hundred miles. The tonnage 



20 



The LANCASTER PARMEf^. 



i Pebfoafy, 



moved in 1870 equalled 150,000,000 tons, 
now probably much greater, while in 
1851 it did not exceed 5,000,000 tons. The 
wheat grown within live hundred miles of tide 
water is mostly consumed on the spot; the 
wheat for export comes from the west. The 
volume of wheat of to-day is more than tliree- 
fold greater than thirty years ago, but the 
increa.se of that of it grown beyond the Mis- 
sissippi is gieaterthan the entire crop of 1849, 
and live per cent, only was tiien produced 
west of the father of waters. 

How many states and clustering towns and 
monuments of fame and .scenes of gloriouS 
deeds have rewarded the industry of our 
people in the last lifty years. There is New 
York with a population of ;i million of human 
beings; what an amount of produce it takes 
daily to feed this population, including its 
dogs and cats and horses ! 

Hunger is a god to whom all men render 
homage; life is a ,strifc for bread. The de- 
mand for food is ccmstant and unremitting ; 
but the agricultural population is ever equal 
to the emergency; they dig and delve in 
mother earth, spread to the west, and in- 
crease the acreage of production to meet the 
demand of tlie great metropolis. To such an 
extent have the cities increased their popula- 
tion, that the rural districts needed greater 
facilities to move the produce from the pro- 
ducer to the consummer; hence the railroad 
and the steamer lend a helping hand to all 
interested. To the farmer to get his products 
to a distant market, but for the railroad and 
steamship, the western crops would not be 
raised, because the old modes of conveyance 
by wagon and sailing vessels could not have 
transported one-tenth of the quantity of the 
breadstuffs needed by England, France and 
other countries. 

The wonderful improvement in the means 
of travel and the transportation of goods in 
the last one hundred years is truly marvelous. 
When Gov. Dinwiddle sent Washington, in 
1753, with a message to the French com- 
mandant at the fort on the Ohio, it took hi m 
going ahd returning, although he made it as 
quick as possible, more than one month. 
When California was opened to the first set- 
tlers from the Eastern States, they took pas- 
sage in whale ships and merchanlmen whose 
average passage was six mouths; steamers to 
the Isthmus brought the journey to one month, 
and now the railroad across the continent has 
diminished it to six or eight days. What a 
time and i)atience the overland emigrants 
uuist have endured with their immense ox 
teams, struggling along to reach the land of 
gold. It is a matter of history, although 
California in some years produces large 
amounts of produce, "and that Gen. Sutter 
cultivated heavy crops of wheat when .still 
under the Spanish flag and traded it oil with 
Alaska for iron, that tlie first gold hunter who 
came there from the East had to pay enormous 
prices for the necessaries of life ; and a New 
Vork paper in 1855 had the following, seven 
years after the gold fever had so completely 
ab.sorbed attention all over the world: "The 
ship Adelaide arrived at the port of New 
York, on tlie 14th of (October, 1855, from San 
Francisco, bringing a cargo of California 
wheat, barley, &e., which paid a profit to the 
shipper of nearly fifty per cent clear of ex- 
penses, the wheal selling at an average of 
about $2.00 per bushel. The same vessel 
returned to the same port from which the 
wheat was brought with 1,500 barrels of 
flour. Some would think that 19,000 miles 
was a long way to come to mill !" 

The projectjentertained by the Ptolomies, 
of cutting a ship canal across the Isthmus of 
Suez, was thought impossible by many 
until the present century. The distance is not 
great, but the fact is that tine ground consists 
almost wholly of movable parched .sand. 
But notwithstanding tliese almost insuperable 
difficulties the Suez canal lias been constructed 
at a cost of ninety-five millions of dollars, 
twenty-three millions more than the Eric 
canal of New York State. 
This valuable impvovement is highly bene- 



ficial to the commerce of the world, and is an ' 
indicati(m of the value of the pi'oposed ship | 
canal across the Istlimus of Darien. Our 
minister to China in 1872 reported the United 
States trade to tliat country at 37 per cent, of 
the vv'hole foreign trade of China. In that i 
year tea was brought from China to Boston ! 
via the Suez Canal at a cost of 4 cents per 
pound; via steamship to California and thence 
by railroad, at 7 cents per pound. Here is an 
exemplification of the great benefit to all 
branches of industry, and to all classes of 
jieople in shortening distances iind expenses 
in the transportation of goods. In 1822 flour 
sold in Western Peinisylvauia at one dollar 
and twenty-five cents per barrel, and wheat 
in Ohio at twenty cents a bushel. There 
were then no facilities to distant markets, 
canals were few and railroads unknown, the 
pack-saddle, the lumbering stage coach and 
Conestoga teams carried the mails, passengers 
and freight. Pittsburg was a small town, 
and even as late as 1848 before the construc- 
tiouofthe Pennsylvania railroad across the 
Allegheny Mountain, avoiding the inclined 
planes, it took eight days to make the trip 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and cost from 
00 to 100 cents per hundred freight on mer- 
chandise going west. Before the construction 
of the Columbia railroad, or fifty years ago it 
cost seventy-five cents to carry a barrel oftlour 
from Lancaster to Philadelphia, now it is 
transported on the railway for less than one- 
third that amount. 

Errors of Great Men in Respect to Agriculture. 
Lewis Cass, of Michigan, in an elaborate 
address that contained much valuable infor- 
mation on agriculture, believed in the absurd 
notion that wheat taken from Egyptian 
mummies that had remained dormant for two 
thousand, years still had vitality enough to 
germinate. A year ago Gen. B. F. Butler de- 
livered an address at the international Dairy 
Fair in New York which dealt heavy blows at 
the shortcomings, as he represented it, of our 
farmers. His comparison between American 
and French agriculture in a statistical point of 
view, preponderated vastly in favor of France, 
but his statistics were not very freslr, as they 
extended back to 1800 and 1868, and he put 
the crop of wheat, oats barley and buckwheat 
of France at 657,000,000 bushels against our 
wheat, oats, barley and buckwheat 434,000,- 
000. But never a word had this eloquent 
champion of French agriculture to say of our 
immense crop of over a billion of bushels of 
Indian corn we produce, nor a word about 
our great crops of hay, tobacco and cotton. 
Why, our annual crop of corn alone overpeers 
the cereal crops of France. 

The population in France has remained 
nearly stationary for many years, and in 1860 
exceeded the population of the United 
States. The area of France exceeds the area of 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana 
combined. Much of the soil in France is very 
Iiroductive, Paris is one of the finest cities in 
the world. But there are in France 7,000,000 
landed proprietors, most of whom are too 
poor to ever taste of meat, and live mostly on 
coarse bread and vegetables. The land fit for 
tillage is cut up in parcels of a few acres, and 
occupied and cultivated liy the owners, who 
are mostly miserably poor, overloaded witli 
debt and strongly attached to routine prac- 
tices. Although the small proprietors are 
industrious and economical, they have not 
the means with which to buy improved ma- 
chinery. It is customary to associate wealth 
.and respectability with the possession of 
landed property, and we are apt to conclude 
that a country where tibout every second 
person you meet is the proprietor of land 
must be in a prosperous condition. But the 
very reverse is the fact. In some districts 
the plows in use are said to be the same as 
tliose described by Virgil; and Wendell 
I'hillips says in many parts of France and 
Italy the plow is unknown. It does not 
follow as a necessary sequence tliat because 
France exports large quantities of agricultural 
products, that her farming system is the best, 
or that her working people are in comforta- 



ble circumstanced. The reverse is the fact, 
and Ireland and India are not the only coun- 
tries in which the most abiect poverty and 
wretchedness on the part of the inhabitants 
are found combined with great fertility of 
soil and a large exportation of food. 

The small farm business which Butler so 
much extolled in France, can never succeed 
in a country that lias such tin abundance of 
good unoccupied land as the United States. 

Near large towns the small farm business 
liays well enough the milk dealer and truck 
raiser. In the interior the farms of a 10() 
acres or more pay best, because the success- 
ful fanner needs implements, horses, cattle 
and help to cultivate the land, which the 
occupier of a few acres cannot use on his lot, 
and he is therefore the slave of the spade and 
the hoe. 

In England the great evil prevails that the 
land is owned by the aristocracy and that 
the tenants are subjected to such hard bargains 
or heavy rents that they are mere slaves to 
the huidlords. But even in Great Britain 
things have changed, sometimes one way 
and at other times another. In the twelfth 
century the feudal system, during Ste- 
phen's reign, presented deplorable evils. 
"The nobles burnt all the towns. Thou 
mightest go a whole day's journey and not 
find a man sitting in a town, nor an acre of 
land tilled. Wretched men starved of hun- 
ger; to till the ground was to plough the sand 
of the sea." Again, during two hundred 
years from 1620 to 1820 the land was largely 
owned and occupied by the men called 
yeomen, and never before nor since were the 
fiirmers as a cltiss in England more respected. 

But to-day the farmer, the actual farmer 
in England and eveiywhere in the old world 
has a hard situation to combat with. 

In 1870 France produced 102,454,038 
bushels of wheat, whilst the United States 
produced in 1870 425,000,000. 

Butler says we are too much given to mag- 
nify our greatness, as if it were not sufficient 
of itself. Indeed we have great reason to be 
proud of our agriculture in furnishing an 
abundance for home consumption and a large 
surplus annually for exportation. He further 
says everywhere all over America there is the 
same spectacle of large farms unproductive 
and unprofitable. Now this is true of the 
very large farms in the West, but not true of 
the 100 acre farms, for no where in the world 
do you find more retil prosperity tuncing the 
occupiers of the land than among the rural 
population of the United States wlio cultivate 
their own farms. 

In India, China, Japan, and generally in 
Europe, the population is dense, and the peo- 
ple, out of necessity are thrifty, industrious 
ami economical. But would he either in 
France or in the East have found anything 
like the same comforts and conveniences that 
prevail in the United States among the 
farmers. Certiiiiily not. It is a remarkable 
fact that nearly all the great ;ind valuable 
inventions of modern times in agriculture, 
and manufactures, have been brought into 
use finly after every artifice of the people had 
failed to ignore them. The absurd notion 
prevailed that tliey diminish labor and take 
away the means of working men making a liv- 
ing;' that times were better for till classes than 
;it the present day, notwithstanding all 
the improvements made in agriculture, 
manufactures, commerce, mining, education 
and government, and there are still 
many who talk of the good old times, of the 
old-f^ashioncd ways of our immediate progen- 
itors. Respect for those to whom we owe our 
existence is praiseworthy in a nation, as well 
as in an individual. But would we wish to go 
back to the spinning wheel, Hax brake, the 
grass scythe, grain cradle, spade and harrow, 
the slow stage, &c., when we have the cotton 
and woolen mills, the reapers and mowers, the 
plow, harrow and cultivator, the locomotive 
and steamboat ? They throw in the back 
ground the good old times, the better way, as 
the son did the sire in the play: 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



To leac'li his sramlBon clicss llicn, 

His IiMSuie he'd employ, 
Until at Inst the old iiian 

Was beaten by the boy I 

History and exiitnii'iicc coiilli-ins Ihf liclicf 
Ihat we have not <xo\w liackward, bill forward 
to a belter state of prosperity, to jjreater 
comforts and coiweineMci'S tliaii nges wbii'li 
have lapsed into eternity; and in no class of 
people be they learned in lh(^ professions of 
relif^ion, law, medicine or other human inir- 
suits. has there been sreater pronress than in 
the eomforls and respectability of the Ameri- 
can farmer; anil this is uenerally true of all 
classes in the various pnrsuils of life in the 
United States, broin;ht about by the inf»entl- 
ily and sUill of the mechanical inventions and 
improvements in inachineiy. What would 
the Xew Knjjland States be to-day withotit 
llieir niannfaetures aiul commerce V but their 
public s|>irited citizens foresaw years ajjo 
what makes a pros|)erons country, and bravely 
went to Work to build factories and coiistrtK't 
railroads. They ilid not fold their hands, or 
use llieni only to hold the jiloni;!! with, but 
took bold at ibe right end and ('reated mar- 
kets at home in the nianufacturinp: towns for 
llieir agrienll oral producls. Thus by enter- 
prise and industry the Eastern States liavc 
arrived at a hii,di degree of i>rnsperity; and 
trener.ally the wealth, an<l especially so in 
.America, has been creatiMl by the labor of 
the citizens in the various branches of indus- 
t ry. 

The Xew Einjland Statis furnish us an 
example of what can be aceompli.shed by in- 
dustry. Their Reotfraphical position is such 
that llie climate one-half of the year is liansh, 
the soil f^eneially stony and poor, but their 
water-power and commercial facilities and 
skilled operatives in the factories give tliein 
superior advantages. They work wealth out 
of their water and tlieir stones; their ice and 
their granite aniuially bi'ing them vast 
amounts of wealth. — C. L. Hanserter, Mon- 
heim totimtshij). 

PRESERVING FOOD FOR STOCK.* 

Is there sufficient evidence that ^'Ensilaijc" 
is a succofsfid method of preserving food for 
stock? That our method of feeding stock, 
especially during the winter, is very wasteful 
there is .scart^ely a d(nilit; and any metlmd 
t.hat will tend to lessen the cost of feed and 
iiicrea.se its value will be. bailed with joy by 
all praclii"il farmers. By some it is claimed 
that this can be done by preserving gi'een 
fddiler crops in silos, by the method known as 
"A'D.si/of/p.'' This method has been ))ractised 
for some years by some French, Belgian and 
(ierniau farmers with favorable results. The 
plan usually adoiited is as follows : Pits 
about 7.") feet long. 9 feet wide at top and fi 
feet wide at the bottom, and (5 feet deep. The 
sides and ends of the pits are built tip of 
masoniy laid in cement. In these pits cait 
coiustalks are laid in layers about S inches 
thick and sprinkled with .salt at „be rate of lUi 
pounds to the pit and tramped as .solid as 
may be. The stalks are e.xpo.sed to the sun 
for two or three days after they are cut olf 
and before they are challV-d and put into the 
pits. In that time they lose about two-lifths 
of their weiglit. A pit holds about Si) tons. 
The fodder is heaped up about (i feet aliove 
the surface of the ground and covered with 
earth lo the thickness of two or three feet. 
As th(> fodder fermeids it shrinks, and !>}' the 
lime the pits are opened it_ has lo.st about 
one-half of its bulk. One account says that 
the |iits were finished on the 14th of .Siiptem- 
ber. ls7-i. and the first pit was opened April 
l-'itli, IST:!. The fodder was found in perfect 
condition, except for an inch or two upon the 
snrfaci' and sides wliere it was blackened and 
decayed. The color was yellow', the odor 
agreeable, but the stalks had lost their sweet- 
ness and were somewhat ac'd. Tlie fodder 
was eaten with great n^lisb and only some 
jiorlionsof the harder stalks left. Tbcsecond 
jiit was opened .July .'Jd, 187)i and was in as 

*Ke.ia before the Agricultural uud Hgrticultur»l Society' 
by Joseph F, Witnier. 



good condition as the first. The third (lit was 
opened April -iUtli, IS74, 18 mouths after 
covering. It was in as good condition as the 
two, e.xcept that tlie discolored and decayed 
layer was thicker than in the others. This 
was attributed to the gravelly and porous 
character of the covering. The preservation 
of the fodder tieingdue solely to the exclusion 
of the air. 

In some instances the silos are luiilt above 
ground and the walks banked up with earth. 
They are, I believe, generally consi<lered more 
convenient. Some have covered the fodder 
with only a layer of <day nine inches to a foot 
thick, well tramped down. This would have 
to be watched cand'ully so that no cracks occur. 
The cost of tliti process here described is rep- 
reseuti'd as being about three dollars per ton, 
including cutting, hauling, curingaud feeding; 
the daily ratimi for ordinary stock being 
about 40 pounds. 

A process similar to this has been in use in 
this country for some time for preserving 
brewers' grain, a substance containing about 
as much water as cornfodder. The jirincipal 
difference being that the "brewers' grain" 
being finer than the corn-fodder, it will iiack 
much closer and exclude the air more thor- 
onghlj', so that a covering of jointed ]dank 
and a foot of straw on toji of them is all that 
is reipiired. So far as I know this process of 
saving fodder has not been attempted by any 
one in this country, except Ijy Mr. .1. W. Bai- 
ley, of Belleric, Mass., and a Mr. Morris, of 
Maryland. The opening of Mr. Bailey's silo 
is described in the January number of the 
Amfrkiin AffriruJturist as follows : 

'■•The first silo in America, built on the 
French ])lan of M. A. Goflart, was opened at 
Winning Farm," J. W. Bailey, proprietor, 
Belleric, Mass. on December ;5d last. This 
silo or fodder pit is 40 feet long, 12 feet wide 
and 10 feet deep, roofed, and having a capa- 
city of 500 tons. It was partly filled with 
green cornstalks, cut by an "Ensilage cutter, 
the pieces being 4i inches in length. After 
this (ait fodder had been thorouizhly tramped 
down by men, a layer of straw 12 inches thick 
was spread over it all, and the whole covered 
closely with planks upon which about TjO tons 
of stones were placed. This was done early 
in October. At the opening of tlie silo the 
fodder was found to be in an excellent state 
of preservation; at first a little sour, but in a 
sbo'rt time the .sourness passed away, and 
when fed to cattle or sheep was eaten with a 
relish. A number of agriculturists and mem- 
bers of the press were jiresent; in fact, the 
"opening" of the silo was well attended and 
voted a success. Mr. ]5ai!ey was so well 
lileased with his experiment that he will 
pr.actice this method of preserving green fod- 
der in a green .state to a large extent the 
coming .season. Others have also expressed 
their intention to erect silos at an early date. 
This is one of the most important of recent 
improvements in agriculture, and one which 
every one who raises cornfodder should inves- 
tigate before the next crop is harvested. I 
wrote to Mr. Win. Crosier, of Northport, L. 
I., a leading agriculturist, and here iswimthe 
says, after acknowledging the receipt |of my 
letter and apologising for not answering 
sooner. lie says, 1 am sorry I cannot give 
you any information on the subject you re- 
quire. I am well satisfied with my own way 
of feeding. Cut or pulped roots, cut corn- 
stalks mixed with bran and ground oats and 
fermented a little. I find it does better than 
steaming food for cattle. We have in this 
country too much laud lying waste to go and 
make pits to bury our green fodder. And it 
will never, in my opinion, become a success: 
for instance, we cannot give it the time at the 
period to cut our hay and green corn to put it 
into snbpits, and put on 10 or 15 loads of 
stones for every 4 or 5 feet of said pit. 
Although you have my heartfelt thanks for 
seeking of knowledge in getting food for 
cattle, &c. 

From the reports of the very few experi- 
ments- which have been made, I scarcely know 
how to answer the question referred to me. 



That fodder can be kept in this way I do not 
think tluae is any doubt, but whether it will 
pay (on farms of ordinary size) for the trouble 
and risk, I have very serious doubts. In the 
first place the pits must necessarily be very 
expensive, and secondly I think they would 
reijuire very close attentir)u, and unless the 
fodder be taken out with great care there 
would be danger that what remained in tlie 
pit would spoil. But if as they claim that 25 
to 41) tons (and in one instani^e as liigli as 75 
tons) of fodder can be grown on an acre, and 
tliat the ration of a cow is from (iO to 80 
pounds |ier day. With the least yield and 
the geatest consumption here named, one acre 
will keep a cow 025 days,or nearly two years. 
Half an acre of fodder will keep a cow a year 
in stable or yard, and no other food is more 
productive of milk or more healthful thau 
this. It is plain then that if this matter can 
be introduced into our farm practice, a great 
economy will result. There would be less 
trouble and risk in keeping cattle during the 
summer on food pre.served in this way than 
by the soiling system. Because the rotation 
which is so necessary in soiling would be done 
away with, and the uniileasantness of gather- 
ing i'ood during storms would be avoided. 

I shall watch any fuither dcTelopments 
with great interest, believing that where 
large herds are kept and where men of more 
than ordinary intelligence have the direct 
management of them, it will pay. But 
whether it will pay belter than roots, cut 
fodder and chopped grain fermented, as Mr. 
Crosier suggests, I am not prepared to say. 
.Since writing the foregoing I received a letter 
from Mr. ,1. W. Bailey. lie says, "Ensilage" 
is a perfect success. 00 pounds daily of corn- 
fodder prepared by "Ensilage" is sufficient to 
keep a cow in as good condition as good hay 
"ad libitum," or good pasture will do. The 
cost of the silo will be not far from one dollar 
per ton capacity, and the cost of the ensilage 
will not exceed two dollars per ton. 40 to 50 
tons can easily be raised u|ion one acre of 
good land." Now, gentlemen, you have the 
results f)f iny research and must decide the 
question for yourselves. 



CAN WE PLANT TOO MANY FRUIT 
TREES.* 

It is unuecess.ary to inipiire into the anti- 
(juity of fruit-growing. Some kinds of fruits 
have been cultivated from the earliest historic 
ages. In all times the value of fruit as an 
article of diet has been recognized. In warm 
climates the inhabitants exist to a great 
extent upon fruit, and there appears to be a 
necessity for fruit acid, as a corrrctive of the 
tendency to bilious attacks and an antidote 
to the insidious efircts of hot weather. Hence 
it is, that during the summer season in tem- 
perate latitudes, nature has provided a great 
variety of fruits, commencing early in the 
summer with the strawberry and extending 
until late in the season with a constant suc- 
cession of palatable productions. The neces- 
sity of fruit acids in the dietetic regime is 
shown by the outbreak of scurvy among 
sailors and others who are forced to subsist 
for long periods upon a diet of meat and 
nitrogenous food, without the addition of 
vegetables and fruits. It is apparent, there- 
fore, that fruit was intended by an all-wise 
ProTidence to occupy a prominent i>lace in 
the liuman economy, and too much attention 
cannot be bestowed upon the subject. 

An Important Era in Fruit Growing. 
We have undoubtedly entered upon a most 
important era in the history of fruit growing 
in this contnry. In sections supposed to be 
utterly nnfavoVable to the production of crops 
of fruit, certain varieties of apples and other 
fruits are now grown with great success. 
During the year 1879, thousands of fruit 
trees were planted in Iowa, Minnesota, and 
the great' region of the Northwest, hardy 
varieties of fruit having been discovered 
which are proof to the most severe storms 

•Reed before the PcTmsylvanU Fruit Qrawen' SocUtj by 
Cyrus T. Fox, of Bending, P», 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



and extremes of temperature. The United 
States, with a great diversity of climate, and 
soils of the most fertile to be fonnd upon the 
face of the globe, presents but few regions in 
which fruit-growing i.s at present prosecuted 
to any considerable extent. Mucli greater 
interest is manifested in fruit culture in tlie 
countries of Europe, and the importations of 
foreign fruits lo this country amount annually 
to millions of dollars. "Fruit is too much of 
a luxury" is the cry to-day among the labor- 
ing classes who are unable to ]>ay the higli 
prices usually asked in the household markets 
of thediflerent cities of this coimtry. Pears 
at ten cents apiece, or the first arrivals of 
strawberries at tifty cents per box, while they 
may tempt the eye of the workingman, are 
too expensive to enter largely into his daily 
diet. Increa.se the production of fruit in this 
country, and with lower prices the consump- 
tion will increase to such an extent that the 
fruit-grower will realize a greater profit than 
he would upon a contracted base of opera- 
tions. Too many fruit trees cannot, there- 
fore, he planted. Let "fruit for the million" 
be the battle cry of the fruit growers of Penn- 
sylvania for tlie decade upon which we have 
just entered. 

The Granary of the World. 
The great valley of the Mississijjpi must 
become the granary of the world. The tide 
of emigration flowing armually into Kansas 
and other sections of the Union beyond the 
Mississippi will reclaim the western prairies, 
and the golden harvest of wheat produced 
upon the great wheat lands of this country, 
the plains ot Kansas and Nebraska, the 
valley of the Red River of the North, the 
fertile lands of Iowa and Minnesota, and other 
portions of our great and glorious country, 
will provide sufficientlv for the wants not only 
of the i)eop!e of the United States. Imt as 
well for the over-populated countries of 
Europe and other sections of the globe. 
With the great production of cereals through- 
out the western country, the cheap tvansiKir- 
tation of freight, and the discrimination in 
freight rates by the various carrying- lines 
against the East, it will be impossible for the 
agriculturists east of the Allecheny mountains 
to contend with their Western brethren in the 
cultivation of grain crops. Attention must 
therefore be directed by the farmers of the 
East to more remunerative products of the 
soil, and of all departments of agriculture and 
horticulture, nothing can be engaged in to 
greater advantage, with less liability of over- 
stocking the market, than fruit-o-rowing 
During the most prolitic fruit seasons that 
this country has ever experienced nobody has 
ever heard of the market being overstocked, 
except in a few rare cases in some of the cities 
when the more perishable varieties, as for 
instance peaches, have arrived late in the 
week and encountered a Saturday night glut. 
Decaying and imperfect fruit, delayed for 
lack of proper transportation facilities, have 
also arrived in bad condition and been sold at 
a sacrifice, but fruit in lirst-class condition 
has invariably found a remunerative market. 
Besideii, fruit-growing has become a regular 
business, so that those engaged therein know 
how to take advantage of the market in order 
to realize the liest prices and largest profits. 
Refrigerator houses, for the preservation of 
fruit for long period*, are constructed ui)on 
new plans, and the markets can be, supplied 
with certain varieties of fruit in all seasons 
of the year. 

The Canning Business 
has also assumed immense proportions and 
instead of the varieties of fruit which are 
canned being limited to a few kinds, the 
scope includes almost every variety now 
grown. Apples and pears in cans are lam-ely 
m demand for export, and (ind as read'y a 
market at home as canned peaches. Dry'int^ 
establishments upon improved jirinciples, also 
throw upon the market large quantities of 
fruit m a shape that they can be successfully 
handled and shipjied to almost every clime 
American fruit finds a ready sale in European 
countries, and of late years a growing trade 



has been developed. Immense cargoes of 
apples are consigned every fall to England, 
France and Germany, and this foreign busi- 
ness in fruit is destined to largely increase, 
particularly if an effort is made to supply the 
demand. As to 

The Profits of Fruit Growing, 
a few instances in Berks county, which have 
come under the writer's notice may be cited. 
Mr. Christopher Shearer, the heading fruit- 
grower of this county, who was formerly en- 
gaged in business in Reading as a car|)eiiter 
and master-builder, removed some years ago 
to Tuckerton, five miles north of Reading, 
where he established several fruit orchards 
on a farm of 100 acres. lie has met with 
great success, and annually realizes much 
larger profits than could be" obtained in any 
other department of agriculture. The pro- 
ducts of his fiirm amounted during the year 
1870 to .'S12,000. Thomas M. Coleman, Esq., 
of the Philadelphia Ledger, recently visited 
this farm, and wrote an interesting article in 
regard to it. 

Henry Wagner, of Brecknock township, 
Berks county, turned his attention ten years 
ago to fruit-growing, and now has forty-five 
acres in cultivation in fruit trees— apples, 
pears, grapes, plums, cherries and peaches, 
the last mentioned being the principal crop. 
Following is given as the yield of a iieach 
orchard of sixteen acres on his premises. 
The orchard was planted in IKfJO, and in 1872 
yielded some peaches. In 1873 about 160 
baskets were sold. In 1874 the yield was 1,600 
baskets of peaches which were sold in the city 
of Reading, eight miles from the orchai d , at 
an average pri£e of SI. 60 per basket. In 1875, 
.3,000 baskets were disposed of at an average 
price of 85 cents per basket; in 1876 (the best 
season,) 4,300 baskets were sold at an average 
of 75 cents per basket; in 1877 the crop was a 
failure, and the yield was only some 300 
baskets. In 1878, 1,200 baskets were sold at 
fl to $1.20 per basket; in 1870, 1,100 baskets 
were .sold at an average price of 70 cents per 
basket, some remarkably Hue Late Crawford 
peaches having brought'.'iil.25 per basket. It 
will thus be seen that in six years — from 1874 
to 1879, both years inclusive— the sum of 
$10,755 was reaUzed from sixteen acres of 
land, or .fl,792..50 per annum being at the 
rate of $112 per acre per annum for six con- 
secutive years. What other crops would have 
produced the same returns V Mr. AVagner 
could not have succeeded with grain crops 
upon his farm, as the soil is light, but at the 
same time peculiarly adapted for fruit grow- 
ing. He is of the opinion that the 

Market Cannot be Overstocked 
with fruit. On account of his success other 
farmers in his neighborhood have established 
fruit orchards, until they can be counted by 
the scor:', and hundreds of baskets are thrown 
upon the Reading market every season, and 
are sold at handsome profits to the growers. 
Although car-loads of peaches from Maryland 
and Delaware arrive in Readinsr durint; the 
season, the prices for the superior fruit niised 
within a few miles of the city areinaiiilaiiied, 
and are unaffected by the southern crop. 
What was Done in Berks. 
For the purpose of stimulating fruit-grow- 
ing in Berks county, the Berks Couiitv .-Vgri- 
cultural and Horticullural Society, a"t llieir 
annual meeting in Januiir\-, 1876 unaiiiiridusly 
ado|)ted resolutions offering $300 for the 
planting of choice fruit trees, divided as 
follows: S200 to the per.son planting the 
great(!st number, and $100 lo the person 
planting the next greatest number. At a 
subsequent meeting, in order to encourage the 
smaller class of friilt'growers, .$100 additional 
was offered, $60 of which was to be given to 
the person having the be.st regulated orchard 
of not less than fifty trees, and .'ii;40 to the 
person having the next best. The time al- 
lowed for persons to notify the Committee of 
their desire to compete was until November 
1st, 1877. Due notice was given of the offer 
of premiums by advertisements in the differ- 
ent papers of the county, and a carefully 



jirepared list of the different fruits adapted to 
this locality was published for the information 
of fruit-growers, but the competitors were 
not obliged to adhere strictly to the list The 
following standard of value was adopted ■ 
The apple and pear were considered of like 
value and accepting either as the standard 
the Committee required the planting of two 
cherry trees, three trees of plum or quince or 
four peach trees, respectively, to equal the 
standard. The awards were reported at the 
annual meeting in January, 1879, as follows: 
Christoplier Shearer, the first premium of $200 



liavine" 



av- 
ni, 



,,, §■ Pl'^'led 2,1)00 peach, 1,049 apple, ,576 pear, 
43l> plum anil 22ci cherry trees. 

Ilc-nry Wagner, tlie second premium of 8100 hi 
ini;- planted :1 li).5 peach, .525 apple, 28 pear, 25 j'jlu 
10 riuince and () cherry treee. 

Dr. J. H. Funk, of Boyertown, was awarded the 
first premium of |60 for the best regulated orchard 
No award was made of the second premium for best 
regulated orchard, as those who might have been 
entitled to it failed to notify the Committee in time. 
The premiums were ordered by the Society 
to be paid immediately after the fall fair 
which was done on the 18th of October 1879' 
The Effect of Premiums. ' 

'ihe effect of ofteriug these premiums was 
most marked, and since January, 1876, more 
fruit trees, it is estimated, were planted in the 
county than during the previous ten years 
In tlie vicinity of Reading is is believed that 
fully 50,000 fruit trees were planted. Instead 
of the market being affected, however by an 
overproduction of fruit, all the fruit tliat has 
been offered has fi)iind ready purchasers at 
profitable prices. Peaches .sold last season in 
Reading at 60 cents to $l.r,0 per basket. Ap- 
ples now retail in our markets at 20 cents per 
half peck, and pears at 25 cents per half peck 
The townships of Robeson and Brecknock 
Berks county, adjoin each other. The soil is 
of a sandy character, and unadapted to the 
cereal crops. A portion of the district is 
known as "The Forest" in consequence of its 
uncultivated state. Within the past four 
years, forty-four peach orchards have been 
established in Robeson township, by as many 
nidividuals, who have under cultivation a 
total of 22,090 trees. The orchards oontain 
from 100 to 1,400 trees each. In Brecknock 
township there are fourteen peach orchards 
with a total of 13,375 trees. The two town- 
.ships have thus a total of 35,465 peach trees 
The orchards are from six to ten miles froni 
Reading. 

The Progress Made in Fruit Growing. 
The committee by whom the fruit premi- 
ums of the Berks County Agricultural Society 
were awarded, consisted of IMessrs. Jacob G 
Zerr, Henry Eppihimer, George D. Stitzel' 
(:Jeorge K. Levan, John B. Holloway and 
Henry B. Rlioads. Mr. Eppihimer, the 
chairman of the committee, rendered efficient 
service, and was ably aided by his colleagues 
The cause of fruit-growing in Berks county 
has been greatly advanced throudi the efforts 
of lion. Charles Kes,sler, General Georee M 
Keira, Isaac Eekert, John S. Ricliards~'John 
Fehr and Daniel B. Lorah, all of whom are 
deceased, and Hon. George D. Stitzel Hon 
Frederick Lauer, Ezra High, William Yonno-" 
and other gentlemen still living amongst us' 
As to the iirogre.ssmade in fruit-growing in 
this county, we would refer to the remarks of 
Peter D. Wanner, Esq., of Reading, at the 
monthly meeting of the Berks Comity Agri- 
cultural Society held in Reading on -lanuary 
3rd, 1880. In 1868, when a candidate for 
District Attorney, he made a thorough can- 
vass of the comity, and HEraiii in 1878 as a 
candidate tor Congress, "the improvement 
in the way of fruit-growing in ten years," he 
said, "was simply wonderful. I cain'e to 
places heretofore familiar, and was unable to 
recognize the surroundings. Fruit trees in 
yards and gardens, of all the most improved 
specimens, with beautiful .shade trees, vines 
and shrubbery, had a marvelous effect and my 
delight knew no bounds. This was not only 
the case in one section, but was a general ex- 
perience throughout the county. 

A Profitable Branch of Business. 
At the same meeting, Hon. Frederick 



1880. J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



Lauer, of Reading, referred to fruit-f^rowiuf; 
as a iirnfitablc hranoh of business, and related 
the result of his visit as a dele<;ato to the 
incetins of the .\meriean Tomological Society 
in Soiitenibor, IST'.I, at Ivochcster, X. Y. In 
the course of his remarks he said : "Fruit 
liays belter than anyl iiing else, nor can the 
raising of fruit he overdone in this country. 
From less than one-quarter of an acre of my 
garden I annually sell pears and cherries to 
the amount of $IW. No dcpartuieut of the 
farm should receive greater attention." In 
the course of a subse(iiunl interview, Mr. 
T>auer stated to the writer, that foi' the pur- 
pose of protecting fruit-growers in this coun- 
try some stringent laws should be adopted, 
such as are in force, for instance, in parts of 
Eiu'oiie whicli he visited several years ago. 
A heavy line is imposed tor neglecting fruit 
trees and allowing injurious insects to spread. 
No tent cateriiillarsare seen on trees there as 
in this country. In Hohemia, a country with 
hills and valleys much like Berks county, 
there arc a great many jiruues grown, and 
the crop is an important one of export. In 
many sections of (Tcrmauy the public high- 
ways are lined with fruit trees. In Siiain it 
is tile custom of the traveler who partakes of 
fruit on his journey to plant the seed along 
the road.side, in order that it may grow and 
produce fruit and shade for others. The 
German, or English walnut is much used as a 
.shade tree in portions of Germany, where 
avenues miles in length shaded on both sides 
with trees of this in'olitabh^ variety of nut, 
may be found. The English walnut has been 
grown successfully in Berks county, and 
should be planted more generally for shade 
and jirolit. In connection with fruit-growing 
attention should be given to the cultivation 
of nut bearing trees. 

The Uses to Which Fruit Can be Put. 
There are so many uses to which fruit can 
be put, that the (piestion : "Can we plant 
too many fruit trees ?"' answers itself. So 
long as there is a demand for fruit, fruit- 
growing caiuiot be overdone, and it is not 
likely that the dem.and will ever cease, at 
least not with the present generation. As 
our country liecomes more populous, the con- 
sumption of fruit will increase. The time 
will come when the millions of dollars which 
annually flow out of this country for foreign 
fruits and wines will be kejit at home, for 
with the proper encouragement of fruit-grow- 
ing we slionld he alile to svipply our own 
wants, and have a large surplus of fruit for 
exjjort. The wine industry is destined to 
assume greater projiortions in this count. y, 
and the production of grapes and other fruits 
is yet in jts infancy. Commenting on the 
great deficiency in the French vintage of 
1879, the London Slanddvd thinks that more 
attention should be paid by Euijland to Amer- 
ican and Australian wines. "It is far from 
unlikely,'' .says that journal, "that the time 
is coming when we shall be corai)elled to look 
for a large portion of (uir regular wine sui)ply 
outside the limits of those regions whence we 
have hitherto exclusively derived it, to the 
fertile soil of that new world which lies 
beyond the Atlantic." Vov the purpose of 
obtaining the views of one of our most experi- 
enced and successful fruit -Lrrowers. tin- writer 
addressed a note to (Christopher Shearer, of 
Berks county, reference to whose e.xtensive 
operations have already been made in this 
article, and received a reply of so much prac- 
tical value that it isherewiih submitted in the 
liojie that the information which it contains 
will prove profitable to the members of the 
Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' .Society. 

Contributions. 

ForTlIK i.ANCASTEH FAKMER. 

FARM-LIFE vs TOWN-LIFE. 
How to keep our boys on the farm ? is a 
question of very great imiiortancc, and not as 
readily answered as asked. That in a coun- 
try like our own where three-fourtlis nearly of 
the population are engaged in agiicultural 



pursuits, a very large proportion of tlio young 
men are born and rercd in the rural districts, 
but the inviting temptation of the learned 
professions, manufactures and commercial 
operations, lures away from the field and 
stimulates the ambitious to seek the college, 
the marts of trade and the social habits of 
city life. Formerly, and even now in some 
of the old or Furopean countries, the farmer's 
life is a hard, sad, slavish pursuit, attended 
with very little of tlie comforts an<l conveni- 
ences of life. But in our country the case at 
the i>resent time is greatly improved, and the 
farmer's sons hav(! here every inducement to 
respectability and standing in society with 
the professionals and the merchants. 

Farming here is no longer the isolated, 
menial task which burdened the tillers of the 
soil in the early settlements. This is owing 
in a great measure to the improved macliinery 
in agricultural labor. Farming is a surer bus- 
iness than manufactures or merchandising. It 
is safer than the professions in a pecuniary 
jioint of view. True, a very few in the i)ro- 
fessions, as well as in manufactures and com- 
merce amass wealth, but the number of fail- 
ures is legion, while the farming interest 
.accumulates slowly but surely, and there are 
comparatively few who don't succeed. 

A f^xrmer having several sons, healthy, 
athletic fellows, but one of them is considered 
a little stupid, and he stays on the farm; the 
others, more bright, seek other occupations. 
The farm is too dull for them, the labor too 
monotonous. They start off for the town, go 
into business, and when the lirothers are all 
old men the chances are that the gifted city 
traders are so poor that their less ambitious 
brother has to provide and take care of them 
in old age. This is no idle picture, but a 
reality, as we can can see every day. — II. 
— '^ 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
WHfiLT FERTILIZER SHALL WE USE. 

Somewhat more than a year ago I wrote a 
few articles for The F.\rmer on "artificial 
fertilizers," trying to present the known and 
supposed facts and theories with regard to its 
action and the benefits resulting from its u.se. 
I have seen nothing brought forward since 
tliat time to change my views as then ex- 
pressed. 

To bring a full crop the soil must contain 
quite a number of certain ingredients and the 
lack of one of these is sufhcient to debar the 
earth from "bringing forth its fruit." There 
are however only three of these ingredients 
that are in danger of being exhausted by crop- 
ping, all the others are present in practically 
inexhaustible cpiantities. either from the large 
quantity stored in the soil, or from the small 
amount needed for plant-growtli. 

At the risk of being tedious by repetition, I 
give the three elements of plant-food that are 
in danger of being exhau.sted, with'such facts 
as I can glean : they are nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash. 

.2V)7rof/c)i is the most costly of all the plant- 
foods that have to be supplied. It is found 
in immense (luantities in the atmosphere con- 
stituting about four-fifths of the bulk of the 
air. It is here not in an available state for 
plant-growtli, unless the pl.ants ab.sorb it by 
their leaves, as is advocated by some. To he 
used as a plant-food it must be combined with 
something else, such <is potash or soda, and is 
then called a nitrate, as nitrate of potash, 
nitrate of .soda. &c. 

Nitrogen and hydrogen combined in the 
proportion of fourteen parts of the former to 
three jiarts of the latter (by weight) form 
nmmoTim. This is a gas liberated in large 
quantities in the manufacture of burning (illu- 
minating) gas, and by proper manipulation 
becomes sulphate of ammonia. 

The nitrate of soda and the sulphate of am- 
monia are our most important fertilizers when 
nitrogen or ammonia only are wanted. They 
are very quick in their action, and should be 
ajiplied in not greater quantity than l.")0 to 
200 pounds iier acre. The nitrate of soda, in 
particular, is very soluble, and is in many 
places applied in the spring to winter wheat, 



just before a gentle rain, if possible. The 
effect is to start an immediate and dark green 
growth. It should always be ai)plied to pre- 
pared ground at the last moment. 

Pkosphiric (((id is the ni'xt most im])ortant 
element of plant-food, and if the action oftlic 
majority of those who u.se fertilizers is evi- 
dence, then in this section it is considered the 
most important, as you hear only the term 
"phosphate" used. This may arise from a 
habit some have of calling all fertilizers 
"phosphate." A i)hosphate is a compound 
of phos|ihoric acid and some base, such as 
lime, .soda, m.agnesia. 

The phosphate of lime chielly concerns the 
farmer, and until within some years was 
mostly derived from hones. It is very impor- 
tant that it be understood that phosphoric 
acid may be in three ditfenmt combinations 
with the lime, and that their immediate use- 
fulness depends much upon in which of these 
combinations it is furnished. 

In the raw bone it exists as bone phosplMte, 
so called. The phosphate in this use is not 
.soluble in water, ifiid the hones must be re- 
duced to a very fine state or their action will 
1)6 slow. The average amount of phosphoric 
acid in bones is a little over 2'.i jier i;ent. , or 
not quite one-fourth the w-eight of the bones; 
some dealers state it at ')2 jier cent. lOiosphate 
of lime which amounts to the same thing. 

AVhen raw bones are treated with sulphuric 
acid (oil of vitriol)the bone phosphate becomes 
soluble jihosphate of lime; some makers use 
the term .soluble phosphoric acid. This prep- 
aration is what is usually called "phosphate" 
though the real name is super-phosphate. 
"G(!nuine super-phosphate when made from 
liones contains about 1.5 per cent, of .soluble 
phosphoric acid, equal to about 20 per cent, 
soluble phosphate of lime. Very often they 
contain only 10 per cent, phosphoric acid, or 
even less; cases have been known where a so 
called super-phosphate had no soluble i)hos- 
phorio acid at all, and le.ss than :5 per cent, of 
the insoluble acid. This article was a fraud, 
and under our iiresent laws payment of it 
could not be enforced unless a note had been 
given that passed into the hands of a second 
innocent party. 

There is still another form of phosphate 
of lime. Among manufacturers and dealers 
it is known under the various titles of "revert- 
ed," "precipitated" and "available" phos- 
phoric acid. The best superjihosphates con- 
tain .some of this reverted form, and some 
very good ones also I'ontain more or less of 
the insoluble "bout phosphate" of lime. 

In chemical language the molecular weight 
of lime is 2S and of phosphoric acid 71. Now 
the "bone phosphate" of lime contains three 
molecules of lime and one of phosphoric acid, 
making the molecular weight of this phosphate 
84x71 or l.'i.j, thus a little over 4.5 per cent, of 
the iihosphate is iihosphoric acid in an insolu- 
ble form. In the soluble, sometimes called 
acid phosphate of lime there is only one mole- 
cule of lime to one of phosphoric acid, and 
hence the molecular weight of this phosphate 
is 28x71 or Oit, the phosphoric acid, in a solu- 
ble state, being nearly 72 per cent, of the 
phosphate of lime contained. The reverted 
chielly happens from the soluble phosphate 
taking up another molecule of lime, and con- 
sequently the molecular weight of this form 
of phosphate of lime is .50x71 or 127, the 
phosphoric acid representing .56 per cent, of 
the phosph.ato of lime; it soon becomes avail- 
able to pl.ant-growth, and the phosi)horic acid 
is rated at about two-thirds of the value of the 
soluble acid, the insoluble is rated at about 
one-third such value. The latter applies only 
to that tbund in bones. When made from 
South Carolina rock, it, the insoluble, should 
have no value, as it becomes available very 
slowly. 

■\Vhether made ("rom bone or from rock, 
always insist that your superphosphate, or as 
it is more generally called, "phosphate," con- 
tains a high percentage of sohible phosphoric 
acid. 

Potash is the last element of plant-food to 
he considered. It is the one to which least 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February,, 



attention has heretofore been given, but its 
merits and the necessity of restoring it to soils 
that have Iiad it voinoved by imiirudent farm- 
ing will insure its being kept before the farm- 
ing iniblic. The sources of supply are the 
potash, salts and wood ashes. These will be 
discussed further on, with remraks as to their 
special uses. 

Stable manure contains all three of the ele- 
ments of plant-food discussed, and is there- 
fore a complete manure. A fertilizer to be 
complete must also contain all of them to 
make it a perfect fertilizer, and one contain- 
ing only one, or at[most two of these elements, 
is an incomplete fertilizer. 

There may be said to be two schools of the 
advocates of fertilizers: the one uses fertilzers 
in which all three of the prominent elements 
of plant-food are present, the other aims only 
at supplying that which the soil lacks. 

In a theoretical sense the latter school is 
right, but they work under such a disadvan- 
tage that in practice their theories are not 
often carried out by the cimmion farmer. If 
soils could 1)6 analyzed fairly so as to show 
what is lacking the practical application 
would be plain, but unfortunately this cannot 
be done. So they have recourse to "soil 
tests," as they are called. By this it is meant 
that known incomiiiete fertilizers are applied 
to small plots of ground. As it must be de- 
termined which one or which two of the ele- 
ments of plant-food are wanting, it takes no 
less than seven tests, and an additional test 
te see if they may not be all wanting. 

Below is given a scheme of these tests. 
The X represents what ingredient the ferti- 
lizer contains and what the soil is tested for; 
the O would then represent what the soil 
would contain in sufficient quantity, and also 
represent the the ingredients that are not con- 
tained in that fertilizer. 





Ingredient in the Iter- 






tilizer. 






s' 


^ 


■t) 






D* 


o 


The soil 16 tested for lacking. 


-1 


>S 


9s 






as- 


cr 




a 


• o 




Nitrogen, 


X 





O 


Phosphoric acid. 





X 


^ 


Potash, 








X 


Nitrogen and phosphoric acid, 


X 


X 





Nitrogen and potash, 


X 





X 


Phosphoric acid and potash. 





X 


X 


All three. 


X 


X 


X 



The scheme looks very pretty, and doubt- 
lessly will work on tracts of level or genly 
rolling lands, but I think they will be worth- 
less in all places that may be termed billy. 
In the latter kinds of land you will often find 
the soil in the same field to be of three kinds, 
or of three degrees of fertility ; on the top of 
the hill medium to good; at the brow poor to 
medium; at the foot good to very good. To 
tc^st such soils is well nigh impossible. — 
A.B.K. 

( To be continued. ) 



LETTER FROM NORTH CAROLINA. 
S.VLISBURY, X. C, January 20, ISSO. 
Editor L.vnc aster Farjiek.— Your.Ian- 
uary number forlSSO is to hand and contents 
noticed. In it we find much useful and need- 
ed information, always a welcome visitor in 
our household. Long and pro.sperous may it 
and its editor and publisher live, hoiiing that 
the people, especially those of your great ag- 
ricultural county, will sub.scrihe for it and 
contribute to its valuable columns and make 
it second to no paper in its line published on 
this continent at least. Every native born 
Lancaster countian, whether living there or 
elsewhere, ought to feel proud of their birth- 
place. Look at your fine stock of all kinds, 
your grains, grasses, fruits and well cultivat- 
ed lands, and say, who there cannot allbrd to 
aid in building up The Farmer, both in 
money and words. Hope all will put their 
shoulders to the wheel and roll it on and 
upward. If they will do so I have no doubt 
but that they and their children and chil- 



dren's children will be benefited by it. The 
farmers here, in 1879, made in quality and 
quanity fair crops of wheat, corn, oats, Irish 
and sweet potatoes, cotton and tobacco; less 
rainfall here this winter than for years past, 
and no snow so far; weather unusually fine; 
wheat and oats looks well; ground in good 
order for snow, and I would like to see snow 
fall and lay for si.\ or eight weeks, believing 
it would benefit both wheat and oats, and also 
keep fruit trees, grape and other vines from 
putting forth too early. Planting trees or 
vines, at whatever time planted, fall or 
spring, depends much upon climate, soil and 
manner in which they are managed; such is 
my experience, whether it is worth' any- 
thing to others or not. I have seen soot from 
chimneys and stovepipes applied to irrajie 
vines and rose bushes, around (he bodies on 
the ground, and prove beneficial. 

As regards fertilizers, I have seen none 
prove better than liarnyard manure and 
clover well put on and in. They will improve 
land, and it will hold out longer in pnxlucing 
tlian any other I have yet seen applied and 
experimf nted with, and not so expensive to 
make. This world, to me, means work, 
management and perseverance. .1 know 
farmers wlio baled and shipped hay, straw, 
cornfodder and shucks, leaving in some 
instances barely enough, if enough, on their 
farms to supply the need of their horses, cat- 
tle and sheep with roughage, made but little 
homemade manure of course, but tried patent 
manureB, believing them to be cheaper and 
better, but time proved it otherwise. No 
artificial manures of any kind, of whatever 
name called, would I allow to be put on my 
land gratuitously without any cash or expense 
to me whatever, unless it was- on an old worn 
out field, to raise a crop of grass or weeds to 
turn under in a green state and then stop ap- 
plying it, and go for barnyard manure and red 
clover. — M. B. 



Selections. 



THE ECONOMY OF A GARDEN. 

It is a common opinion among farmers that 
a garden for vegetables and small fruits is a 
costly luxury. It is a luxury which they 
would like to possess.bnt the cou.stant thought 
that they can make money faster by working 
in the field prevents them from giving more 
than a secondary attention to the garden. It 
is neglected as a matter of course, becomes 
infested with largo weeds, wliich are diflicult 
to clear out and the whole thing results as a 
failure. The owner is discouraged; he has 
found the garden a source of cost and diffi- 
culty, and he concludes that it is neces.sarily a 
very troublesome piece of ground to manage. 

There are two causes for this unfavorable 
result. t)ne is that the garden is left unfilled 
and unhoed in the press of other work until 
the weeds become so large that a ten-fold 
increase of labor is re(juired to work it. Had 
it been promptly taken in hand, and the 
weeds destroyed before they came up, quickly 
passing the hoe or steel rake over the surface, 
the labor would have been comparatively 
trifling and the growing crops would have 
been clean and vigorous in growth. The 
twenty-acre field of corn and jiotatoes should 
have given way to the half-acre of peas and 
leftuce, parsnips and siiinacb, cauliflower and 
asparagus, beets and onions, cabbages and 
cucumbers, tomatoes and squashes, melons 
and berries. The small half-acre would have 
been readily attended to; the twenty-acre 
field coidd liave taken the second chance. 

The other cause of failure is in haying out 
the garden so as to require much hand labor 
instead of doing nearly all with a hors(\ Tlie 
ground selected should be long and naiTow, 
so that when the long drills of vegetables are 
planted they are worked by running length- 
wise with the garden and thus obvigating fre- 
quent turning. A strip of ground in grass, 
ten or twelve feet wide at the ends, admits 
the easy turning of the horse. Or the kitchen 
garden may occupy a portion of an open field 



with limited room at the ends for that pur- 
pose. 

Having arranged the ground in this man- 
ner, plow deeply and repeatedly and manure 
highly and in advance. This, with modern 
annual apidications late in autumn or in 
winter, will keep the ground always in good 
condition. Sow seeds or set out plants in 
lines extending lengthwise about two and a 
half feet apart. Smaller kinds may be in 
doul)!e drills. With narrow cultivators and 
one-hor.se harrows a few inches less may 
answi'r; but a distance of thirty inches will 
not be a waste of ground for most vegetables, 
fur the rich soil, frequent and clean horse 
culture and greater room, will give the plants 
such luxuriant growth as they never could 
have in a more crowded sjiace and with occa- 
sional and feeble liand hoeing. 

Now, examine the expense of such a gar- 
den by a fair estimate. Begin with the small 
fruits and take raspberries as an example.. 
We may make the estimate for an acre, and 
then reduce it to a family supply. The plants 
may be secured by a little care in advance, 
and tlie small rooted ones be set out in 
autumn, each protected through winter with 
a forkful of manure; or they may be taken up 
if near at hand, when green and growing, 
early the next season — and in either case will 
attbrd crops of berries in a year or two. The 
cost of planting will be scarcely more than 
for an ecjual area of potatoes; and as this 
plantiug will not be repeated for several j'ears, 
it will be fair to offset any additional labor on 
the raspberries until well in bearing, against 
the annual work of plantiug the potatoes. 
The yearly culture by a horse will be quite 
as easy as to cultivate potatoes or corn. A 
moderate estimate of the raspberry crop is 
fifty bushels per acre — say one-third' tlie pota- 
to crop, and equal to the corn crop. Let us 
ask any farmer if a liushel of raspberries, 
distributed at the rate of two or three quarts 
a day on the table, would not be really worth, 
in money value, in providing for his family, 
more than a bushel of corii ? Again, take 
the strawberry croji. By horse culture, a 
bushel of straw Ijerries may be raised about as 
cheaply as a bushel of 4)otatoes. Would not 
the roots and the berries combined be worth 
more as daily food than nothing but a dish of 
potatoes to eat V The same reasoning will 
apply to many of the vegetables. The full 
supply of these, in connection with other 
food, would save the cost of many grocers' 
bills. 

But there is still another way in which 
these supplies would prove of positive finan- 
cial economy. A daily portion of fresh fruit, 
witli other food, contributes to Jiealtb, and 
often prevents formidable disease. We liave 
known a number of instances where the dis- 
eases of malarial regions have been entirely 
excluded from families by a regular provision 
of fresh fruit, while its absence in other 
families had resulted in long-continued sick- 
ness, lu one ca.se a family moving into a 
newly-settl d region took witli them enough 
dried fruit for daily use through the season. 
All the members continued in health. The 
next year, their supply being gone, several 
were taken down with interuiittent fevers. 
The loss of time in sickness is a serious mat- 
ter; the fatigue of waiting on the sick is 
undesirable; costly doctors' bills cut sharply 
into the farmer's revenue. 

lu conclusion, tlien, for the sake of saving 
expense, iireserving the health of the family, 
and providing a full share of the comforts and 
luxuries of the table, prepare aud plant a 
ganleii that may be cultivated with a horse 
as often as once a week the sea.son through, 
and let the small needed care be first and not 
the last thing on the list of farm operations. 



POPULAR BREEDS FOR PORK AND 
LARD. 

The hog the fanner derives his profits from 
is the one that converts his surplus corn into 
meat and makes the largest number of pounds 
for tlie bushel of corn consumed. It has been 
demonstrated over and over again that some 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



pigs fatten readily, while others can only be 
made fit for the i>ork barrel with great ditli- 
culty and expense. In order to lay on fat 
(jiiickly, the pii; must b(! a jjood eater and 
have plenty of substantial food. I'lach farmer 
with stock on luuul will soon learn from a 
"lad or sorry experience if he has a breed 
capable of being economically prepared for 
the slaughter-house or not, and each farmer 
can consei|neully profit by the result of the 
next two months. If the present lot prove to 
be of the kind that cat voraciously without 
giving paying returns in meat and lard, the 
owner will be wise only if he change the 
grade, at least, if not tlie breed of his new 
stock. 

No one of the domestic animals is so easily 
moulded as the hog. Much may be done by 
the swine-grower in perpetuating desirable 
qualities by simply observiTig individual ex- 
cellence, whatever the breed may be. In 
every litter one or more pigs can be selected 
that Will prove very much better tlian the 
others, with the same care and keeping. The 
breed known as the Poland-China possesses 
all the constituents of hardiness with won- 
derful powers of a.ssimilation. These hogs 
may be bred in any size desired, and can be 
fatted readily for market at any age ; they 
are also proliiic and are looked upon by many 
feeders of the west as among the very best of 
"pork-making machines. " 

The Berkshires, which have become so 
numerous and which are constantly im- 
proving, combine many good qualities favor- 
able to their popularity. Crossed with Po- 
lan<l-China they maki^ excellent feeding hogs, 
fattening readily and quickly attaining rea- 
sonable size. The sows are unequaled for 
prolificacy and as careful nurses, while the 
pig's are strong and active. 

In Georgia where pork-packing for home 
consum\)tion has largely increased within the 
past few years, forty-one per cent, of the 
growers rei)ort the Berkshire breed n)ost pro- 
fitable. The Berkshire is also reported as 
the favorite breed to cross upon the common 
stock. The Poland-China is regarded highly 
by the few who have experimented with this 
breed. In Virginia, where grades are em- 
ployed ior pork over pure breeds, the Berk- 
shires are also preferred for crossing on ordi- 
nary stock. 

The Suffolks, a popular breed in England, 
and there known as '• the English nobleman's 
hog," from tlie fact that it is always in condi- 
tion to kill and gives meat of fine quality and 
llavor, is not popular among the majority of 
the farmers here. The objections to hogs of 
this breed are. their comparatively small size 
and tender jskin, in addition to which may be 
said they are unsatisfactory breeders and 
nurses. 

Essex swine are bred in a limited way in 
some localities, being perhaps better known 
in Kentucky than elsewhere. They seem to 
be essentially the same as the Suffolk except 
in their black color ; they arc also less liable 
to skin diseases. While a valuable standard 
breed, there is small probability that the 
Essex will ever become a prevailing one, its 
small size among other things being against 
it. — iVf!" Yorl- World. 



AMERICAN CHEESE IN ENGLAND. 

The Live Stock Journcil, an English period- 
ical, in a notice of a fair in England, has the 
following in regard to English and American 
cheeses : 

"Our regret is on the score of quality — of 
mellowness of texture; cleanness of flavor and 
of general richness; for in these points the 
American cheese is better on the average 
' than it was last year, while our own is wor.se, 
and the judges declare that without excep- 
tion the American cheese is lietter than ours. 
We have on previous occasions pointed out 
that we in England were losing ground in the 
race, and that America was gaining it, and 
that the difference was owing to the improved 
methods and ajipliances that are in general 
use in the latter country; and the disparity is 
only less marked because tljp soil, the herb- 



age and the climate in this country are each 
and all belter than those in America for 
cheese making purposes. Ft is puicly a ipK^s- 
tion, then, of practical ability; superior man- 
agement, and we say so advisedly. Ten nr a 
dozen years ago the quality of American 
cheese .sent to this country was such as to 
cause our own cheese-makers to smile; but 
now the smile is on l\w other side of the face. 
At that period, iu<leed, no one thought for a 
moment that we had anything to fear from 
the ([uality, whatever we might have from the 
volume, of American competition in cheese; 
but now we are beaten all along the line. 
And this is not so much because the (luality 
of English cheese, on the average. Is lower 
than it used to be, as that the ((uality of 
American is so greatly im|)roved. Careful 
in(iuiry into scientific principles, and scrupu- 
lous attention to details of management, are 
the means by which our American friends 
have so greatly improved theirdairy products. 
.\s the mattci now stands, we have American 
cheese on the one hand, and Continental but- 
ter on the other, prominent and pojiular in 
our best markets, and we have to content 
our.selveswith inferior prices. IIow long this 
state of tlmigs is to continue depends entirely 
on British cheese and butter makers. That 
there is a si)lendid market open and a rising 
industry to be cultivated is iiatent to all; but 
one thing is certain— our competitors will not 
easily be made to relin(inish the position they 
have gained. Increased knowledge, (piick- 
ened energies and incessant activity in adopt- 
ing and adapting every improvement in ap- 
pliances and modes of management, will aloiu; 
enable us to compete with success; but given 
these, we will back the British dairy farnuu- 
against the world." 

THE MAKING AND PRESERVATION 
OF MANURE. 

No part of the fai'mer's vocation requires 
more knowledge and care than the best 
method of making manure, and its subse- 
quent preservation and judicious application 
to the soil, and no doubt liis success and thrift 
depend almost entirely upon his skillful man- 
agement in these jiarticulars. The whole 
contents of the barn pass through the stable 
between fall and the advent of the pasturing 
season. The first re(iuisite in the comfort 
and good condition of farm stock, at any sea- 
sou of the year, is judicious feeding ; and the 
sicond a good sujiply of pure, wholesome 
water at or near the barn. The cattle or 
other stock will thrive as well when they have 
to travel a considerable distance, regardless 
of the weather, for their supply of water, is 
now hardly conceded. But the great waste 
of valuable manure in long watering luues is 
a serious argument against their use. 'Tis 
true that the location of some farms is u(jt 
favorable to a plentiful supply of water at 
either barn or house, but whei-c wells of 
moderate depth camiot be had, then cisterns 
must be resorted to, for they are available! 
\ipon the highest hills as well as upon the 
lowest meadows. 

That manure when once made, should be 
kept in layers or piles of considerable thick- 
ness and kept tramped or made solid by stock 
constantlv passing over it is now perhaps re- 
garded as good management of it. However, 
if the stock is to be kejit stabled the whok^ 
time— not let out to iiasture at all — then the 
manure as it accumulates can, perhaps, not 
be better preserved than to apply it imme- 
diately, or as soon as possible to the land. 
But if this application is impossible then it 
shcnild be put in ricks or piles of considerable 
size, there to ferment and decay until tln^ 
.season arrives fsr its application to the soil. 
And in every case a sujiply of water to fer- 
menting manure is indispensable. The es- 
cape of annnoni;i and many valuable gases in 
the process of fermentation and disintegration 
that takes iilaee in all decaying vegetable 
matter, is allayed and the volatile elements 
arrested and fixed by a timely and regular 
application of water, either from the barn- 
ytird trough or of rain from the clouds. 



This at once brings up the question of 
manure sheds as appendages to barns. The 
writer is fully aware that it is claimed that 
shed manure is much more valuable than that 
made outside which is not under cover, but 
this argument is ipiallfied in .several particu- 
lars ; first, if the shed is large and so ar- 
ranged as to keep the contents ilrt/ during the 
decaying process, little or no proper manure- 
making will take place, but only a sourin)^ 
and burning of the entire mass, and such 
generally comes out little In ipninlity and 
poor In quality ; but if the .shelter is narrow 
and open under, very nm('h moisture will 
reach the manure by blowing rains and in- 
clement weather, and in that ca.se slieltered 
manure may come out in excellent condition. 
But if the shed Is large, plentiful and fre- 
quent application of water from some source 
should be <'ondncted to the decaying mass ; it 
should always 1)0 kei)t moist to insure best 
results. 

There is no d(jubt that as our farm lands 
become cut u)! into smaller subdivisions that 
more attention will aTid must he given to this 
subject. Manure will lie husbanded with the 
utmost economv — our yards and even the 
public roads will be gleaned of their rich agri- 
cultmal treasure to swell, the cro|)s and fill 
the barns of the thrifty farmer. 

In the olden countries rif the world this 
manure-saving is the most valuable economy 
the American slght-.^eer beholds— .scraping 
and sweei)ing and securing in piles this de- 
cayed produce of the land oidy to be re- 
a|)plied to successive crops ; it is. as a new 
principal put to interest every year, which 
coin|)ounding with the principal constantly 
enriches the farmer by his steadily augment- 
ing crops. As this manure saving principle 
is the success of the farmers where popidathm 
is dense, so it. in time, will be the greatest 
economy the farmers of the.se older Eastern 
States can jiractice. Let not our farmers de- 
pend on high-priced commercial fertilizers of 
long-soundini; and learned chemical names. 80 
much as the pi'oper and iirndent management 
of the suiiplics that a bouHtifid nature has 
l)laced within the reach and often upon the 
very farm of the cultivator. — T. B., in Lan- 
caster Liquirer. 

THE MENHADEN FISHERY. 

The commercial inqiortance of the Ameri- 
ican Menhaden is shown by Prof. Baird, 
Connnissioner of Fish and Fisheries, in his 
report just i.ssued. The greatest value of the 
Menhaden is in its oil, the annual vield of 
which now exceeding that of the American 
whale fisheries by 2("),(i("i gallons, and In 1R74, 
nearly e(iualing the yield of whale, seal and 
cod oil combined. Besids this, the value of 
the refuse of the oil factories for fertilizing 
purposes is very great, and the amount de- 
rived from this source in 1S7.") was estimated 
to be e(pial to that contained in Cll.(H10,(KM) 
liounds of Peruvian guano, valued at nearly 
two million dollars. In lS7(i the yield of the 
Menhaden Fishery was more than twice that 
of any other carried on by the fishermen of 
the I'nited States, and In value of its imidncts 
it was surpassed only by the cod and mack- 
erel fisheries. In that year the catch of .Men- 
haden was 4()2.tM)0.()ll() pounds, valued at 
S1,<'>.",7,7W) while the catch of cod, •2I.".,000. 
(JOO, was valued at S4,82.').r)4(l, and of mack- 
erel, 4',»,0UO,<HXi pounds, was valued at S2,.357,- 
2(12. 

The Menhaden has a wide range, appear- 
ing, at various times of the year in all watera 
of the Atlantic coast from Maine to Florida, 
while it has not been known at a distance of 
more than forty miles from the land, .•ilthough 
a species resembling it has been found on the 
coasts of Brazil and West Africa. Menhaden 
have been plentiful on our coasts from the 
earliest times; schools forty miles long an<l 
two miles wide have been seen, while single 
hauls of .•!0(»,000 and 4liil,n(M) fish have been 
made. It is still the abundant fish on tlie 
Eastern coast of the United States, and as 
there has been no sensible diminution in its 
numbers during the fifteen years of extensive 



26 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



fisheries, there is tliouf^ht to be no danger of 
its decrease for many years to come. The 
Menhaden has many parasites and enemies, 
among tlie most prominent of which is tlie 
bhiefish. Prof. TJaird estimates tliat the 
annual destruction of Menhaden by its ene- 
mies upon the entire Atlantic coast will not 
fall below 6,000,000,000,000 of pounds. This 
estimate is based, not upon guess-work, but 
upon careful examination, and although the 
figures are almost beyond comprehension they 
are not published without care. In view of 
this prodigious destruction of Menhaden by 
its natural enemies, it must be allowed that 
the few million pounds annually taken by 
man are quite insignificant, and that there 
need be little fear that, even with the destruc- 
tive appliances at his command, he will be 
able to exterminate these fish, or even to 
make them scarce. — New York Mercantile 
Journal. 

COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FOODS. 

In a recent lecture on the chemistry of food, 
by Professor Church, some suggestive points 
of dietetics were well brought out. Of all the 
cereals, says Mr. Church, wheat yields the 
best bread. This is believed to be due prin- 
cipally to the character of the nitrogenous 
matter of wheat. The main constituent is a 
fibrine, and it can be readily obtained for ex- 
amination by making a little flour into a 
dough with water; and then washing the 
starch out by means of a stream of water. 
There is then left a grayish-yellow, tough, 
elastic mass, which is gluten. Speaking of 
peas, beans, and various kinds of pul.se, it 
was pointed out how much more nearly the 
different kinds agree in composition than the 
cereals do. The great drawback to the use of 
various kinds of pulse is that they are so 
difficult to dige.st. They are an excellent 
theoretical food, according to analysis, but 
they arc a severe tax on digestion. Of all the 
beans, none presents abetter typical food than 
the Soy bean. Lentils have been much spoken 
of lately as a good food, and they undoubtedly 
ajjproach to a good typical food, but they are 
bitter, astringent, and not easy of digestion. 
It has now come to be pretty well recognized 
that the food of a man doing hard work 
should have flesh-formers to heat-givers in 
proiiortion of 1 to 4^, and that the food of a 
child should have 1 to 7. Bread gives 1 to 7^, 
where the heat-givers are more than even a 
child wants; so it is not a good food by itself. 
Pulse gives (taking an average) 1 to 2|, which 
is far too small. In these calculations heat- 
givers are reckoned as starch. Potatoes give 
1 to Ifi, according to the latest analyses, the 
old 1 to 8 being evidently an error. Onion is 
1 to 4, an excellent proportion, though onions 
are not much in favor as food. In looking at 
the relative values of flesh-formers and heat- 
givers in foods the actual amount of water 
must not be forgotten. 



State Organizations. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE FRUIT- 
GROWERS. 

The annual convention of tbis society, iield this 
year in the borough of Bethlehem, ojiened at 
■J:30 P. .M. on Wednesday, January '3!, under very 
favorable auspices. Never in the history of this 
society have more (if as many) prominent liorticul- 
turisls asBcmblcd at its regular meetings as on this 
occasion. The hall of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, where the society met, was most ad- 
mirably arranged with llowers and evergreens. The 
very excellent mottoes and fine chromes on the walls 
of the hall made it doubly attractive. 

President Iloopes having declined, on account of 
ill health, the meeting was opened by H. M. Engle, 
one of the Vice Presidents. 

The customary routine of reading of minutes, re- 
ceiving Treasurer's report, as also that of several of 
the minor committees, having been gone through, 
the report of the general fruit committee, by its 
chairman, E. Satterthwait, was read and was quite 
interesting. 

A paper from Casper Hiller, of Lancaster county, 
on the dark side of fruit culture, was read by the 
Secretary. It was discussed by Mr. Meebau and 
others. Mr. Meehan argued that although fruit 



culture has its dark side, it is not near 60 dark as 
pictured by Mr. Hiller. 

A paper prepared by C. F. Fox, of Reading, en- 
titled, "Can we plant too many fruit trees?" and 
also one by Mr. Shearer, relating to the same sub- 
ject, were read by the Secretary. Both gentlemen 
tooh the position that too many fruit trees cannot 
easily be planted duriug this generation, that in- 
creased production will induce increased consump- 
tion, in consequence of reduced prices, which, would 
still pay the producer reasonably well. 

A paper from Levi S. Heist was also read by the 
Secretary, relating to botany. The writer claims 
that botany, as all other branches of interest to the 
tiller of the soil, should be taught in the common 
schools. 

The evening session opened with Judge Stitzel, 
one of the Vice Presidents, in the chair. He having 
been solicited to prepare the annual address, he de- 
livered the same, and it abounded in many excellent 
and instructive ideas. Remarks were made by sev- 
eral gentlemen, but the address was geherally ap- 
proved. The committee on nominations reported 
the following, who were unanimously elected : 
President, J. D. Stitzel; Vice Presidents, H. M. 
Engle, Josiah Hoopes, Wm. Bissel; Recording 
Secretary, E. B. Engle; Corresponding Secretary, 
W. P. Brinton; Treasurer, G. B. Thomas. 

A paper on strawberry culture was read bj F. F, 
Mereeron, of Catawissa, which elicited considerable 
discussion. As to varieties, the Sliarpless, Cumber- 
land, Chas. Downing and Wilson received general 
commendation, but the former is strongly endorsed 
by those who have fully tested it. The question, 
" Are birds really the fruitgrower's friends?" was 
warmly discussed, pro and eon, by a number of the 
most prominent men in the society, and I must con- 
fess that the result appeared to be a drawn game, 
with the benefit of doubt in favor of the birds. With 
the closing of this discussion the meeting adjourned 
until Friday morning. 

The morning session opened at 8:30, President 
Stitzel in the chair. The first subject taken up was 
a discussion on a question of the best varieties of 
grapes to plant for home use, market and wine, 
which elicited- remarks from several members and 
resulted in leaving the field to the Concord as the 
fruit for the million, except the sentiment of Mr. 
Farley, a prominent grape grower of New York, 
who declared that he would plant no black grape 
for market, as the white and amber-colored grapes 
outsell the former in the market by 50 per cent. 

The question. Should the tree agent be encour- 
aged? came in for consideration sharp shooting, 
winch resulted in drawing a distinction between 
honest and dishonest tree dealers, as well as of other 
occupations. 

Extracts from a very interesting document were 
read, prepared by John Rutter, of West Chester, on 
peach culture. He is a veteran peach grower, he 
liaving planted and fruited peach orchards in Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware and Maryland by thousands. 

He has settled down to the honest conviction that 
peaches can be grown as successfully in this State 
as in either of those named, and that there is no oc- 
casion whatever for our State to look to other States 
for peaches, if she attends properly to her own 
resources. ' This is indeed gratifying evidence, com- 
ing from such authority. Let us hope it will be 
improved. 

Mr. Rutter was one of the leading men who 
organized this society twenty years ago. His papers 
are to be published in book ibrni soon, and will no 
doubt be an excellent guide to the peach grower, 
the most important part of which will be the preven- 
tion of yellows, so detrimental to peach culture 
almost everywhere. It will also contain many prac- 
tical and instructive matters of interest to tillers of 
the soil generally. 

The afternoon session opened with numerous 
questions put to Mr. Rutter in reference to his sub- 
ject, which he answered freely. Next in order was 
a lecture on window gardening, of which quite a 
number of the ladies of Bethlehem availed them- 
selves. The lecture was a rich treat, not only to 
the ladies but to all gentlemen present. 

A very pleasant episode oecured at the close of the 
lecture by the presentation of a beautiful bouquet 
from the ladies, passed to the lecturer by Mr. Har- 
rison, with a few very approjiriate remarks, who re- 
ceived it with surprise, but soon recovered his equi- 
librium and responded with much grace in equally 
apjiroitriate words. 

A paper o;i entomology, prepared by Mr. High, of 
Berks county, was read, which was quite good, but 
was passed over without discussion. 

Mr. Stevenson, of Lackawanna county, read a 
very interesting paper on mixed orcharding, giving 
his method of preparing the ground, )ilanting, culti- 
vating, etc., also both his successes and failures, 
pointing out what he should have done to achieve 
success, all of vvhieli was quite instructive. 

A paper from Mr. Barnett, of Reading, on the 
subject of awakening a more general interest in the 
work of horticulture in our State, was very pointed 
and excellent. 

A very interesting paper was read on the follow- 
ing subject : "Can we plant too many fruit trees," 



by C. F. Fox, of Reading. The writer recapitulated 
the inducements which the Berks County Agricultu- 
ral Society held out to planters a few years ago. and 
summed up the resuUes, showing the additional 
prospects that tlie county now has, to what it would 
have, had there been no stimulus applied. It sums 
up with the conclusion that we cannot plant too 
many fruit trees. 

A paper of similar import from Christopher 
Shearer, of Berks county, was read, which arrived at 
similar conclusions to that of Mr. Fox. Mr. Shearer 
is the gentlemen whose name went the rounds of 
newspapers recently as having made ?S,000 profit 
off his farm of 100 acres in 1879. 

Several other papers and questions were read and 
discussed, all of which were instructive matter, but 
time and space does not permit to describe them. 
Among them were, non-productive fruit trees, what 
are the causes? by H. M. Engle. Questions — Are 
birds really the fruit grower's friend ? Can we in- 
troduce too many new seedlings? Does the root 
exert an inuflence upon the graft ? Should our so- 
ciety offer prizes for essays ? It was agreed upon 
the latter, that so long as the society can procure a 
supply, as at present, there is no occasion. 

Some discussion was had upon what are the best 
varieties of apples and pears. The former were not 
extensively discussed, but York Imperial and Smith's 
Cider were considered 'at the head, as good keeping 
winter fruits. On pears there was a general agree- 
ment on BartlettjSeckel, Lawrence, D'Anjou, Howell 
and a few others. 

Quite an interest is felt in the prospect of a new 
race of pears, in sonsequence of several new seed- 
lings, supposed to have resulted from a cross between 
the Chinese Sand pear and some common kind, the 
most prominent of which is Kieffer's Hybrid, a very 
showy, large pear of good quality. What is especi- 
ally expected are varieties of vigorous growth and 
free from blight, which is the character of the Sand 
pear. 

There were samples of apples and peaches placed 
on the table from B. L. Ryder, of Cbambersburg, 
evaporated by the American Dryer, which were very 
much admired. In color and flavor they came as 
near the natural fruit as probably they can be made, 
and if generally a success they must come fairly in 
comi)etition with canned fruit, and possibly super- 
sede it. 

The next annual convention will be held in Gettys- 
burg, on the third Wednesday of January, 1881. 



SEMI-ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE 
MILLERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Harrisburg Telegraph gives the following ac- 
count of the above convention, which met in Harris- 
burg recently : 

The Pennsylvania Millers' State Association held 
its semi-annual convention in the parlors of the 
Loehiel hotel. The convention was called to order 
by the President, Charles A. Miner, of Wilkesbarre, 
who made a few opening remarks, as follows : 

Gctitlctnen of the Peniisylvania Millers' As.svciation : 
I have no lengthy formal address to inflict upon you 
at tbis hour of the day, and I do not intend to 
occupy your time with any extended remarks, as 
there are doubtless many among you better prepared 
to instruct the convention and impart information 
upon the various subjects connected with our busi- 
ness. Sol will only use a moment of your time, 
which, at the late hour of our meeting, must be 
used economically, and can be employed to much 
better advantage. When about a dozen of us met in 
these rooms a little less than two years ago to 
organize this associ.^tion it seemed iike a very small 
beginning, and the outlook was not at all cheerful, 
and if any one had told me that in less than two 
ysars we should have such an organization as we 
have now, with one hundred active members on the 
roll, and our meetings often attended by that num- 
ber, I should have thought him over-sanguine. But 
such arc the facts, and such is our condition to-day; 
and our membership is rapidly increasing at every 
meeting, and I venture to say there is not a State 
association in the Union with better prospects than 
ours. That Pennsylvania should have a successful 
Millers' Association is not strange, for I think I am 
safe in saying that there arc more mills within her 
borders and more money invested in the business 
than in any other State. To be sure we have not 
many very large mills, but we have some very good 
ones, and when our friend and fellow member, John 
Hofter, gets the elegant and immense establishment, 
with its fourteen run of stones, completed, which he 
is now building in this city, he will have one of the 
best, if not the very best. New Process mills to be 
found in all the States. 

I am very sorry I could not be with you at Altoona 
in July last, but my private business required all 
my attention at that time, and 1 know you will 
kindly excuse my unavoidaljle absence, as it is the 
only meeting I have missed since our organization. 

As this is probably the last time I shall preside 
over your deliberations I desire to thank you for the 
uniform courtesy and kindness with which I have 
been treated as your President, and to ask at your 
hands during the present session the same indul- 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



Kcnce and kindly assistance you have heretofore 
favored mc with in furthcriii? the ImsinoBS before 
Ihi' convention. licfore I sit <lo\vn I will take this 
opportunity to extend a cordial invitation to this 
association to hold its next nicetini,' in the city of 
( Wilkesbarre. Col. Hancock, one of our memliers, 
and a townsman of mine, who has heretofore rei;u- 
larly attended our mcctinirs, hut is unable to be 
present to-day, unites with me in tliis invitation, and 
desired me to say to the conventi<in that he would 
use his best endeavors to make the visit a pleasant 
one. Our city is located in about the centre of the 
far-famed VVyomiui;- valley, in the heart of the best 
and riclicst anthracite coal Held, and to those who 
have never been there the occasion could be made a 
most interesting one. Tile thriving and busy city of 
Scranton, with its numerous furnaces and rolling 
mills, factories and mines, is only eighteen miles to 
the north of us and would well repay a visit. The 
scenery of our valley is unsurpassed in this country, 
anil is every year visited by hundreds of persons 
with the sole object of enjoying it, and last, but not 
least, our hotels will carefully consider this question 
before deeiiling lo decline our invitation. 

We will now proceed with the business of the 
convention in its regular order. 

The minutes of the last meeting held in .Tuly, 
1879, at Altoona, were then read by the Seerctarv, 
A. /.. Schoch, of Selinsgrove, and approved. 

The Secretary, Mr. Schoch, next read his report, 
which is as follows : 

Since our last meeting little has been brought to 
my notice affecting our interests to which to call 
your attention, or that requires your eonsideratiofl. 
We have added to our membership nineteen names, 
making lOG to date. During the interval our mem- 
bership in tlie National Association has also been 
increased by 7'.^ run, a total of .5!;,' for the State. I 
would be pleased to have our representation in that 
organization largely increased, as I do not think our 
obligation thereto has been fully discharged. Under 
its auspices will be held the Millers' International 
Exposition at Cincinnati, in June next, which occa- 
sion will doubtless prove a rare opportunity for 
observation. As many as can should avail them- 
selves of that extraordinary privilege. I would re- 
spectfully call your attention to the propriety of 
taking some action to secure a creditable representa- 
tion from our State. 

Mr. Schoch read the Treasurer's report, showing 
that something over 81,000 had bieu received and 
expended during the year, leaving a small balance in 
the Tre.isury. He requested that a committee be 
appointed to inspect the amount and report on its 
correctness. On motion, a committee was then 
appointed. 

A calling of the roll revealed about sixty delegates 
present. 

The reception of new members was next in order. 
The list of membership was increased by nine dur- 
ing the session. 

The varions committees were then called. The 
committee on patents was excused until evening. 
The committee on insurance was also excused until 
evening. The committee on grain for drilling re- 
ported. The report of Mr. John Hoffer, of Harris- 
burg, chairman of the committee on grading and 
preparation Ibllowed. 

This being the time for the election of oflicers for 
the ensuing year, a motion that the old oflicers hold 
over for the ensuing year was adopted, and the old 
oflicers re-elected vim voce. A resolution of thanks 
to the oflicers for services during the past year were 
unanimously adopted. Mr. John Hofl'er extended a 
cordial invitation to the association to inspect his 
new mill on the southern part of this city, and on 
motion the convention adjourned until seven o'clock 
P. M., to enable the delegates to accept the invita- 
tion . 

Evening Session. 
The convention was called to order at a quarter to 
eight o'clock by President Miner. The first business 
in order was the reading of tlie report of the commit- 
tee on grain for milling which had been read in the 
aiternoon but had not been acted upon. The report 
rejected the " Fuliz or Clawson" wheat, giving pre- 
ference to red wheat. The report was adopted with- 
out discussion. 

Tlie committee on insurance ofl'ered a resolution 
for the continuaneeof the committee who are author- 
ized to organize the Pennsylvania State Millers' 
Mutual Insurance Company. The resolution was 
adopted. 

Mr. H. B. Horton, of the National Millers' Insur- 
ance Association of Chicago, by request addressed 
the convention on the subject of insurance. He 
stated the condition of his company, and showed the 
great benefits of the mutual system and the great 
saving to millers which was its result. Alillers who 
take policies in many States are saved one-half the 
rates they Iiave been paying. At present the asso- 
ciation is carrying about »2,.500,000 worth of property . 
The report on grading and inspection was re-read 
m which as there is no regular rule for grading a 
number of suggestions were made. The report also 
recommended that a committee of one from each 
county be appointed for the purfose of setting forth 
the importance ofthis subject to millers. A discus- 



sion followed which was participated in by Messrs. 
Small of York, Creswell of Huntingdon, Elsenberger 
of Huntingdon, Wengerof Lancaster, Blalrof Wayne, 
and others. The endeavor of the association is to 
establish throughout the .State a uniform grade of 
prices for dilVcrent grades of wheat . The discussion 
developed that the dilliculty in the way of this is the 
competition among the millers, which tends to run 
up high prices for poor wheat. 

The report of the committee was adopted and the 
executive committee of the association ordered lo 
carry out the suggestions contained therein. 

Two new members were admitted to the assocla 
tion. Tlic committee appointed to audit the trea- 
surer's account reported that account correct. 

The following preamble and resolution were then 
offered : 

Whekeas, It has come to the knowledge of the 
millers of Pennsylvania that but a small port!(m of 
the Hour sold in Philadelphia is inspected, wliib'tliey 
are at all times made to pay at the rate of one cent 
per barrel on all forwarded ; therefore be it 

Iit\ioli'vcl,ny the State Millers' Association of Penn- 
sylvania in convention assembled, that in the future 
we will demand a rc(lueti<in of i>l per hundred bar- 
rels, if tlour is not inspected ; if it is inspected, wc 
will require to accompany our settlement an Inspec- 
tor's certiticate stating the number of barrels and 
brand and the grade passed. 

The resolution elicited considerable discussion, 
and, on motion, was laid on the table. 

The next resolution was as follows : 

liesolved, That it is the desire of the association 
that the Senators and members from Pennsylvania in 
Congress be requested to support and urge the pas- 
sage of the joint resolution now pending admitting 
foreign mill machinery intended for exhibition at the 
coming international exposition at Cincinnati, in 
June next, free of duty, and that every member of 
the association be requested to write to his represen- 
tative in Congress, calling attention to the impor- 
tance of immediate action thereon. Adopted. 

It was moved that a commission of live be ap- 
pointed to look after the interests of Pennsylvania 
millers at the international exhibition, and that the 
president and secretary be members of the commis- 
sion. Agreed to. 

A motion was made that an assessment of $2.00 
each be made to carry on the association, and be 
paid at once, and the motion was agreed to. 

A recess of ten minutes was taken to receive the 
assessment. 

On re-convening the following resolution was 
offered : 

Resolved, That the convention recommend to the 
various railroad companies of Pennsylvania that they 
give to receivers of flour facilities for inspection o"f 
same while in their depots, and that the secretary be 
instructed to inform each company of this action. 
Not agreed to. 

It was moved that the meetings of the convention 
be held hereafter annually instead of semi-annually, 
and that the time be the first Tuesday of October of 
each year. Agreed to. 

.Mr. Schock moved, and it was agreed to, that a 
member of the executive committee Ijc appointed to 
represent the association in the national association. 
President appointed W. L. Small, of Vork. 

The motion that the MiUing H'ocfrf, of Bufl'alo, be 
the olticial organ of the association was laid on the 
table. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the committee on transportation 
request of the railroad companies the privilege of 
flouring wheat in transit with a reasonable charge 
for demurrage and switching. 

It was moved and adopted that the next meeting 
of the association be held in Wilkesbarre, in October 
next. Messrs. D. M. Bacr, of Huntingdon, and W. 
P. Duncan,of Phillpsburs:, were unanimously elected 
first and second vice presidents respectively. 

The standing committees for theensuing yearwere 
then announced. 

The thanks of the convention were tendered to 
Mr. Hunter for the use of his parlors, to Mr. Hofl'er 
for the invitation to visit his mill, and to the news- 
paper reporters present. 

On motion, the convention then adjourned. 




LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTU- 
RAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
SOCIETY. 

The society met on .Monday afternoon, Februarv 
2, at the usual hour, and was called to order by the 
President, Joseph F. Witmer. 
The following members and visitors were present : 
.Toseph F. Witmer, Paradise; Henry .M. F.ngle, 
Marietta; M. D. Kcndig, Manor; Calvin Cooper, 
Bird-in-Hand; Simon P. Eby, city; John H. Landis, 
Manor; Casper Hiller, Conestoga; Johnson Miller, 
Warwick; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheini; ex-Shcrill 
Adam Bare, city; J. M. Johnston, city: Dr. C. A. 
Greene, city; C. A. Oast, city; F. H. DiA'cnderlfer, 
city; Dr. Williaoi Compton, city; W. W. Grlest, 



city; Henry Kurtz, Mt. Joy; Peter 8. Heist, Lltlz; 
Albert P. Mcllvalne, Paradise; Ephraim .S. Hoover, 
Manheim; William McComsey, city; Israel L. Lan- 
dis, city; Dr. S. S. Itathvon, city; Mr. Wolf, Mill, 
way; D. W. Oraybill, East HeinpHeld; Levi 8. Relet, 
Manheim. 

(Jn motion, the reading of the minutes was dls- 
[lensed with. 

Dr: Compton, of Lancaster, was nominated and 
elected to membership. Dr. C. A. Cireene was also 
elected . 

On motion the usual crop reports were dispensed 
with for the present meeting. 

Large Trees. 

Simon P. Eby gave the following dimensions of 
trees— the oak and walnut were recently cut down, 
the chestnut is still standing : 

•On the farm of A. Carpenter, In Warwick' town- 
ship, a chestnut tree, tlie circumference at foot of 
trunk, 'Si feet; clrcumferfiiec of trunk three feet up, 
19 feet; cireumfcreiiee around oui at extremities of 
branches, 90 yards. Grain and grass grow under 
the tree up to trunk as well as In other parts of the 
field. 

Two white oak trees, cut cm same farm, respec- 
tively aged 2.">1 years and 24! years. 

A walnut tree aged 180 years on Israel G. Erb'g 
farm, Penn township. 

A chestnut tree with a circumference at foot of 
trunk of yn feet; circumference of trunk 7 feet above 
ground, 19 feet 4 inches; circumference around ex- 
tremities of branches, .59 yards. 

Fruit Growing on City Lots. 
Casper Hillcr read the following : 
Fruit growing In city yards and gardens has, 
owing to the frequent failure of fruit In the open 
country, become interesting and profitable. The 
su]ieriorily in city grown fruit in dry, unfavorable 
seasons, like t he lasf , could be seen at the fair of the 
Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society. And iliis superiority is not only to be 
found in a few specially favored gardens, but applies 
generally, as the fine fruit raised by John K. P.eed, 
Samuel Benelict, William Weidle, Harry Shultz, 
Benjamin Miller, Samuel W. Taylor, Daniel Smcych, 
.John Shaum, and many others who arc located In 
various parts of the town, abundantly proves. 

Pears and grapes appear to be the kinds of fruit 
best adapted to city gardens. With a little atten- 
tion, these could be raised in suflicient quantities to 
supply the home demand for fine table fruit. 

The causes of this superiority of city over country 
fruit are probably three-fold. The principal one, I 
presume, is in the condition of the soil. This does 
not become heated by the sun, like in the open 
country; is shaded by buildings and fences, which do 
not drink up the moisture in the ground, but help to 
retain it. 

The roots dij) under the buildings, fences, under 
pavements, and often reach into drains, where plant 
food in unlimited quantities abounds. The second 
cause is wind protection. This causes a more even 
temperature. The buildings break the force of the 
wind, and this prevents that sudden and excessive 
evaporation from leaf and soil that is so injurious lo 
fruit growth. In the open country, where there Is 
no rain in July and August, the soil becomes dry to 
the depth of .several feet, the fruit stops growing, be- 
comes stunted or ripens prematurely, and then is of 
little value. 

The soil in town lots from the two given causes, is 
not so easily affected, and hence the better ripening 
of the fruit. The third cause of flne fruit in town is 
also to some extent due to less insect depredations, 
the cultivators having those pests more under their 
control. Grapes do best in close yards, where strong 
winds arc completely cut ofl" by the surrounding 
buildings. In these, with a little extra care, the 
finer grapes, such asJCatawba, lona, Allan's Hybrid, 
and perhaps even Black Hamburg, could be suc- 
cessfully rijiened. 

The vines to do best should be trained on upright 
trellises, built a few inches ofl" south or cast side of 
the wall. In some of the most delicate varieties It 
may, jierhaps, be necessary lo use " coping," as the 
English call It. This is made of glass, two or three 
feet wide, and juts out from the wall like a porch 
roof. Another form of coping may also be used over 
upright trellises, away from buildings. The vines In 
both forms must be trained horizontally, and the 
fruit should be near the glass. This coping, in these 
wind-proiccted enclosures, acts almost as well as 
elaborate glass structures in the open ground. 

H. M. Kngle thonu'lit the essay excellent. There 
was little doubt the fruit grown in towns was better 
than that grown In the open country. Trees in cities 
have many advantages, •annot country fruit trees 
also have some of these advantages? Shade and 
mulching will do much. It Is high time that screens 
should be jireparcd by country growers. 

S. P. Eliy said the tcmiiorature in cities was always 
several degrees higher than In the open country, 
which is another advantage, but still he thought the 
country was the place to grow the best fruit. 

Dr. Greene believed the first requirement of grow- 
sng flne fruit was the necessary constituents in the 
soil. Moisture is another condition. Too much 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



water is not good. He alluded to a substance lately 
found in Scliuylkill county which draws the mois- 
ture from the atmosphere and retains it around the 
roo'.s liver which it is |)laced. It has all the consti- 
tuents of ordinary liarnyard manure, with the addi- 
tion of gypsum. Alum shale is what it is called. lie 
related an experiment which proved prolific of frood 
results. He also directed attention to the ucccesity 
of destroying insects on fruit trees. 

Domestic Progress. 

C. L. Ilunseckcr read a very lengthy essay on the 
above subject. Prices, transjxirtation and [progress 
in travel and in a thousand other directions were al- 
luded to. Many statistics of many kinds were given, 
all of which were very interesting, but which would 
require too ntuch of our space to reproduce in detail. 
It was listened to with close attention, and afi'ordt'd 
many hints of which those pres nt will no doubt 
avail themselves. Theeontrast between tlic methods 
of to-day and those of one or two hundred years ago 
was as forcible as it was truthful. 

On motion, a vole of thanks was extended to 
Mctsrs. Hiller and Hunsecker, for their productions. 

Discussions. 

Levi S. Reist, to whom the question of planting 
forest trees had been referred, not being present, on 
motion, the question was continued until next 
meeting. 

Does the Stock have any Influence on the 
Graft ? 

Calvin Cooper s:iid the question has two .sides. 
Certain stocks influence the size of trees; in some 
cases even the fruit is a little changed. It has, and 
it has not. The question is not ddiuite enough to be 
answered definitely. The stock rarely aiJ'ects the 
fruit. 

H. .M. Engle thought we had not the time to-day 
to discuss this matter. He referred to a Massachu- 
setts report where there is an exhaustive discussion 
of the subject. It has been shown incontesfably that 
stocks do affect the grafts somewhat. He believed 
when grafts were put on old or bearing trees, the 
tree affects the graft. 

Casper Uiller has had much experience in graft- 
ing, but with all his knowledge he was not prepared 
to discuss this question. He related some iiersoual 
experiences going to show the stock has a consider- 
nble influence on the graft. 

H. M. Engle thought there is a difl'erence in the 
sap of trees: where the sap in the tree preponder- 
ates too largely over that in the graft it maybe 
sufficient to work an influence. 

Ephraim S. Hoover grafted a harvest pear on a 
wild stock ; the fruit was like that of the graft in 
appearance, but the flavor seemed to be a mixture 
of the two kinds. 

Dr. Greene said that as salt can be forced into a 
graft through the roots of the parent stock, if you 
force into the tree certain elements, you will also 
tind them in the graft. 

Calvin Cooper differed from some of the other 
siiciikers. He believes the leaves impart more of 
the flavor than the stock. You can put twenty 
kinds of apples on one stock, and they will all be 
different. If the stock had any influence, would 
they not all be alike.' He believed the moving cause 
was tiie foliage. 

H. M. Engle believed .Mr. Cooper's theory was 
eorreet as a rule, but there are certainly exceptions 
to it. 

John H. Landis said he had written to the Secre- 
taries of all the various Slate Agricultural Societies 
for copies and had the pleasure of presenting those 
of North Carolina and Virginia. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Landis for 
his efforts to procure the society these books. 

.Joseph F. Witmcr, to whcm was referred the 
question, " Is there sullicicnt evidence that ensilage 
is a successful method of preserving food for stock ?" 
read a very lengthy essay, giving the results of the 
few experiments on this question that have hitherto 
been made in tills county. IL' knew nothing of the 
matter himself. The o|>iuion of some members of 
the society was, that for the present this method of 
feeding stock would not find much favor among our 
farmers. 

The President said that if we mean to hold an ex- 
liibition next fall, it was time to announce the fact, 
BO that we can make thi^ necessary preparations. 

Calvin Cooper also thought this matter should not 
be put off longer than next meeting. 

M. D. Kendig made a motion thai at the next 
meeting this matter be taken up. il. .M. Engle 
amended it by iustruetiiig the Board of .Managers to 
look about for a place to hold au exhibition so that 
they may report at the next meeting. Agreed to. 

Referred Questions. 

Root crops, are they profitable f was referred to 
H. M. Engle for discussion at the next meeting. 

The rain fall, as reported by II. M. Engle, was 
2 1.5-16 inches for the month of January. 

The society on motion then adjourned. 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

A stated meeting of the Lancaster County Poultry 

Association, was held in the Agricultural .Society's 

Room, City Hall, Monday morning, F' bruary 2nd . 

The following members were present : 

J. B. Lichty, Secretary, city ; tieorgc A. Geyer, 

Spring Garden ; Frank R . Difl'enderffer, city ; Charles 

E. Long, city ; John F. Kced, city ; Win. A. Schoen- 
berger, city; J. M. Johnston, city; Henry Wisler, 
Columbia ; H. H. Tshudy, Litiz ; C. A. Gast, city ; 
Frank Griest, city; S. F. En^le, Marietta; Henry 
Greider, .Mount .Toy; John Bruckhart, Salunga; T. 

F. Evans, Lititz; Johnson Miller, Warwick; .Jacob. B. 
Long, city; Joseph F. Witmer, . Paradise; Charles 
Lippold, city. 

President Tobias being absent, Vice President 
Geyer was called to the chair. 

Kccording Secretary Lichty presented his annual 
report which was read, received and entered on the 
minutes. The report shows that the society, which 
was organized January U, 1879, had held regular 
monthly meetings since that date, and two adjourned 
meetings, making 14 meetings in all; the aggregate 
of attendance at these meetings was 2.5:i; four- 
teen questions relating to the poultry interests were 
discussed; l:i7 members were elected of whom 93 
paid their dues; receipts from all sources during the 
present year, ^'^18.4:5. 

Treasurer Evans presented his annual report 
which was read. That part of it referring to the 
late poultry exhibition shows the receipts from all 
sources to have been $•'517.49, and the balance in the 
hands of the treasurer $1.5.5.4(1. 

Messrs. H. H. Tshudy, Jacob B. Long and John 
F. Keed were appointed a committee to audit the 
accounts of the secretary and treasurer. 

The report of the executive committee of the late 
exhibition was read. It contains a detailed state- 
ment of the number and kind of fowls exhibited, the 
amount of premiums paid and other information. 

The following propositions for membership were 
made and the nominees elected : John Grosh, Landis 
Valley; Dr. J. C. Brobst, Litiz; H. S. Garher, .Mount 
.Joy; Wm. I). Snyder, city; John H. Baumgardner, 
city; Liuna3us Rathvon, city; Frank Griest, city; 
Jeremiah Kohrer, city. 

The secretary read a eommunicatiou from Rev. D. 
C. Tobias, returning thanks for th« honor done him 
in his re-election a.» president of the society but re- 
spectfully declining the same. 

The declination was accepted and the following 
nominations for preiident were made ; S. S. Spencer, 
city; S. N. Warfel, Strasburg; B. J. McGrann, Man- 
heim township; Chas. E. Long, city. 

Under the rules these nominations lie over until 
next meeting. 

Mr. Lippold made inquiry as to the donation pre- 
miums oflered at the late exhibition; some of them 
have not yet been received by the exhibitors to whom 
they were awarded. 

The secretary replied that he had notified all those 
who had oflered premiums to forward them to those 
to whom they were awarded. He will again notify 
those who have not responded. 

On motion an order was drawn on the treasurer 
for 75 cents in favor of -Master Garber on payment 
for a pigeon belonging to him that escaped from its 
coop. 

The especial thanks of the society were tendered 
to Secretary Lichty, the members of the executive 
committee, and several members outside the com- 
mittee, for their disinterested efforts to make the 
exhibition a success. 

Tlie following questions were proposed for discus- 
sion at next meeting. 

"How e;u-ly in the season should we set hens ?" 

"Did the larger fowls receive enough premiums, 
compared with the awards to the smaller varieties, 
at the lute rxliibition." 



FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The Fulton Farmers' Club met at the residence of 
J. R. Blackburn on January ii, and the meeting was 
called to order by the President, all the families of 
the members being re|jresent.ed except one. Visitors, 
Joseph Lincoln, Thomas P. King, Levi B. Kirk, 
Edwin Stubbs, Mr. Speiiee, .John Evans, Ed. Brogan, 
La'nion Blackburn. 

F. ToUinger exhibited one ear of corn, containing 
1,6S0 grains, raised by a neighbor, Amoa Smith ; J. 
R.Blackburn, a very fine pumpkin, weighing 33Vi 
pounds, rais3d on the .Meadow Island. 

1. How many members will raise tobacco next 
year? Answer: Only one. 

'■i. What kind of treatment should young orchards 
receive ! Answer : Work well while young, and 
manure, but not so heavily as to force too rapid a 
growth. Hogs cultivate an orchard better than 
ploughing. Wash the young trees with lime mixed 
with strong soap-suds. Keep the bark smooth. 

The club was now invited to dinner, and therefore 
adjourned until afternoon. 

The gentlemen, as is their custom, took a walk 
to view the farm, stock, etc., of Jthe host, -\fter re- 
turning to the house, an article, entitled "Churn- 
ing," by Prof. J. B. Arnold, was read by the host, 
showing how every step requires care and skill, •r 



the product will be injured. Also, that more in- 
jury is done by failing in churning than by any 
other one thing. Jersey, with large globules, will 
churn as easily at 5SO as native cows at (1(1°, or ihe 
Holstein at fi2°. Not one in one hundred stops 
when he has churned enough, which is wlien the 
granules are hard enough to be handled without 
sticking together when washing, either in or out of 
the churn. 

One of the members had difficulty in getting the 
butter separated from the milk. 

3. Can any one give an instance when Jersey 
marl did good? Answer: Some of the (pembeis 
knew instances, and one had tried it without any 
good result. I 

4. Did any one use Powell's prepared chemical ? 
Answer : An instance was related where enough to 
make a ton had been bought. 

A recitation by Carrie Blaekbnrn, entitled "O 
Sunny May, O Blue-Eyed May;" also, a communi- 
cation from "The Old Woman," explaining how 
she and the old man have been annoyed with people 
talking about unnice folks, showing how some people 
will talk and slander their neighbors, and how some 
people borrow what every one ought to have. She, 
on one occasion, loaned her wash-tub and had to do 
her washing in a barrel. The old woman thinks she 
is hard to arouse, but judging from what has hap- 
pened in the times that are passed, when the cat 
peeped around the corner of the himse and then left 
without a farewell, we should say her disposition was 
not of the best. 

Has the cutting away of the timber had any effect 
upon the rainfall of the country ? 

Great ditferenee of opinion was exjjressed upon 
this question, and dates were given going to show 
that although many claim last season to have been 
the dryest, there have been other years when a 
longer time elapsed between the rainfalls than last, 
and streams that no one now living had ever seen 
dry, had been entirely so wheu there was an abun- 
dance of timber in the vicinity. Yet in Egypt they 
have rain where trees have been planted, and in 
Gi^riuany the rainfall is regulated in a measure by 
planting trees. One argued that countries where 
there were no trees were more subject to drouth and 
floods. One member gave 1792 as the date when 
there were 128 days without one drop of rain, and 
that two hundred years ago there were between SO 
and 90 days without any rain. 

Question for discussion next time : 

Rtsob'e<}, That women take more interest in agri- 
cultural aflairs than men. 

The club were appointed to bring literary exer- 
cises for the next time, to meet at Lindley King's, 
7th of February. 

LINN.EAN SOCIETY. 

The Liniuvan society held their stated meeting, 
Saturday, January 31, 18^0, President J. S. Stahr in 
the chair. The preliminary buriness being attended 
to, the donations to the museum were examined and 
found to consist of six bottles of specimens in alco- 
hol. One was a common house mouse, infested 
with a scurvy, disease involving the tissues of the 
head, this being at least one of a-half dozen similar 
cases found during the last few years past in this 
city, and had been submitted to Dr. M. L. Davis, of 
MiilcrsTille, for .xamination. This mouse was given 
by E. J. Zuhni, of this city. Two Batrachiau speci- 
mens of the salamander family, the Soto/>t/iaii/ius 
tnimiutas, p r Prof. Stahr. The Kotoplilhaluius 
tiiiUepunctatux, per J. Staulfer; bottle larvae of the 
lomoih. Two goldfish; a small, rather peculiar 
sun fish; a package. No. 40, of prepared corundum 
from Chester county, per Mr. Rathvon; a fine sjieei- 
men of brown oxide ol iron (Hematite,) jier Mr. C. 
.M. Ilesb, of Quanyville; a large sized stone Indian 
implement of the stone age, found in the grounds of 
the Wiiodward Hill eemelcry, this city, jjcr Mr, Wm. 
Dcverter, a kindof wedge or pick-axe; a number of 
very large chestnuts, grown by .Mr. David ilerr, 
from specimens I'eceived from France. These are on 
an average three times as large as our native elicst- 
nuts. 

Additions to the Library. 

Proeeeilings of the American Pliiiosoj)hieal society 
of Philadelphia, vol. XVIII., .\o. 104, July and De- 
cember, 1879. Pamphlets, one on buttei-fiies and 
moths, per Mr. H. Strecker, Heading, Pa. Reports 
upon the condition of crop.s, Deeemlier 1st, 1879. U. 
S. Patent Ottiec (hizeltc u[i to January 27tli. 1^80. 
Specimen papers of the NciriiHflc AiiiirU;m and con- 
tents of supplement, as also a small band-hook. 
The Laxiastkk Faiiubk for January, 18 0, besides 
books, catalogues and circulars. Historical section, 
4 envelopes coutaining i>2 scraps of historical interest, 
per S. S. R. 

Papers Read. 

Dr. M. L. Davis simply read from a slip notes and 
observations on the diseased mouse. An the matter 
was of interest the docior was urged to write them 
out at full length and dejiosit the copy among the 
archives of the society. The disease is known as the 
Porrif/o fnnvosa, well known as asjiecies of fungus, 
analogous to the fungus, called yeast plant. Mice, 
in snutling around breweries or larders, may come 



is«0.] 



tHE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



111 contact with the sponiles and hecomc inoculalpd, 
iiul they limy Impart it tn cats, tii> cuts, (lni;s and 
rliildreu are occasionally sulijecl to tliif fungufl 
frrowth. 

Dr. RathTon rend a paper entitled, "Zoolotjical 
Notes," No. .WO; descriptive oftlje saliimanders and 
their relationfi, and some personal observations of 
his own at "Hunter's Luke," in I,ycomiuit county, 
Pa., in 1S47. 

Scientific Miscellany. 
Kev. J. S. stahr. Rev. Dr. J. H. Dubhs, M. L. 
Davis, \l . D., Wilmcr Bolton and J. .StaufFer diacus- 
»ed tuiiKoids and their prollhc firowth. Dr. KathTon 
rel'errcd to a late author, who proposes to destroy 
noxious insects by iiioruhitimj them with a kind of 
I'ung:us, such US is known to kill Hies, ffrasshoppers, 
,S:c., inducing fatal epizootic disease anion^^ tliem. 
A word of caution might be seasonalile on this suli- 
jecl. Mrs. /ell presented a flower for a name. It 
evidently belonjxs to tlic natural order Acanthaeece, 
and no doubt one of the 1;17 species of lusticea, now 
divided into dilTereiit genera. 



A Good Farm Stockfood. 

Corufodder, as we lerin it, is a very s^ood food for 
larin stock, when cut at the proper time and well 
prepared for the barn. I do not think this fodiler 
lias been appreciated at its true value, though there 
has been much thouirht and writina; on the subject. 
Wheu 1 was a boy 1 never saw an acre of corn 
treated iu the same manner that every farmer prac- 
tices now in Vermont, as far us I know. 

It was not uncommon in my younsj days in New 
Hampshire for farmers to let the bulk of their corn- 
fodder stand until it was thoroughly ripened or 
killed by snccessive frosts. The top stalks were re- 
meved about September — first of the month in 
average years. When the corn commnnced to hard- 
en these stalks were tiound iu small bundles and 
stocked on the adjacent ^rass land, and when cured 
were very nice fodder. But the bulk of the fodder 
still remained, and by exposure and ripenina; was 
ruined. When the coru was harvested cattle would 
eat it, and so they will dry corn-cobs, where not one 
per cent, of nourishment can be found. One man 
says he plants a small kind of corn, that the fodder 
may also be of a fine quality. I think I can suggest 
an improvement on his plan. 

I have a kind of eight-rowed corn which is as 
large as any of the kind I 'have seen. I get over a 
hundred bushels of ears per acre with ordinary cul- 
ture. But the stalks are small, not growing much 
if any more than si.v I'eet high. A year or two since 
I hail very good luck in curing them iu our way and 
fed them to my oxen aud cows, and I could easily 
carry in my arms at once every stalk they left. 

My usual way of preparing this fodder is as fol- 
lows : Cut the corn at tlie ground when about half- 
glazed or hardened; while the stalks are yet green 
bind about seven or eisrht hills in a bundle, and put 
from three to five bundles in a shock; set them 
firmly on the ground and put a band arouud the top 
of the shock. After a short rain or two will not 
injure them. When sulliciently cured husk them in 
the field, or cart to the barn and husk there. Vou 
will be pleased with the corn, which will be well 
ripened and ready for the crib. 

I usually cut my oats when the straw is about 
half-turued, and it I have good luck in curing it 
makes very palatable food. "After threshing, I take 
of straw aud corufodder and with alternate layers 
mow them in some convenient place, and feed out in 
November and December. There will be but little 
waste, and corufodder must be very dry if this mow- 
does not mould, as it probably will in most eases. 
But the cattle do not mind the mould, and eat this 
prepared fodder readily and do as well as on good 
hay. Farmer can feed from a mow of corufodder as 
above, and from a mow of hay alternately if they 
prefer. — Gcnnantowii Tdctirajih. 



Bone Dust. 
Bone dust, like barn yard manure, does not imme- 
diately yield up its nitrogen or phosphate acid to 
plants. The bone phosphate of lime is iusolutile in 
water containing carbolic acid. The gelatine of the 
bones would soon decompose iu a moist, porous, 
warm soil, provided it was not protected by the oil 
and hard matter of the bones. Steaming removes 
the oil, and reducing the bones to as fine a condition 
as possible is another means of increasing their 
availaliility. Another good method is to mix the 
bone dust with barn yard manure and let both fer- 
ment together, and I am inclined to think this is the 
simplest and most economical method of rendering 
bones available. The bone dust causes the heap of 
manure to ferment more rapidly, and the fermenta- 
tion of the manure softens the bones. Both the 
manure aud hones are improved and rendered richer 
and more available by the process. One ton of good 
bone dust contains about as much nitrogen as 8'a 
tons of fresh stable mauu-e. But one ton of manure 
contains more potash tUap five tone of tionc dust. 




Forest Leaves for Stable and Yards. 
We don't think that tarmers set as much value 
upon forest leaves as thev should do. They possess 
many good (|ualilies. They have a pleasant smell, 
absorb the moisture, and through the winter are 
converteil into excellent manure. They can be most 
conveniently gathereil after the first snow, or at 
least before the winter blasts have scattered them. 
They then lay compid ly, and being moist can be 
handled with great lacility. A cart with a few 
standards stuck iu the sidcswill hold a considerable 
quantity ; anil the best thing to gather them or load 
thcin with is a wooden hand-rake ; a wooden four- 
tined straw-fork is al.>,o \cry handy when the leaves 
are moist. They can be gathered, too, when other 
labor about the i'arm is slack. There are leaves, 
also, about the garden yard, and orchards, that 
should be gathered and useil. They are good for 
covering vines, calibage, and half-hardy shrubbery 
after being laid down. They do not admit mucli 
moisture and are an excellent protection against 
frost . 

Wonders of Broom Corn. 

Broom corn is likely at no distant day to revolu- 
tionize the breadstulf supply of the world. A pro- 
cess has Ijeeu discovered by which the finest and 
most nutritious flour can be made from the seed to 
the extent of one half its weight, and leave the 
other half a valuable food for making beef aud milk. 
The average yield per acre is three hundred bushels, 
and in many instances five hundred bushels, or 
thirty thousand pounds have been secured. 

Nor does it exhaust the soil as Indian corn, from 
the fact that it feeds from the deeper soil, and assim- 
ilates its food Trom a cruder stale. 

It belongs to the same genus as the sorghum sac- 
charatuin, or sweet cane, commonly known as sor- 
ghum, which as an article of food is growing 
rapidly iu public esteem, and from the seed of which 
a most nutritious fiour can be made. — Wc^tem 
Grocer. 



Horticulture. 



Spring Cultivation of Strawberries. 

Mr. E. P. Koe, the horticulturist, in his Scritynei- 
series on small fruits, writes as follows of a mooted 
question in the culture of strawberries : I hare now 
reached a point at which I differ from most horticul- 
tural writers. As a rule it is advised that there be 
no spring cultivation of bearing plants. It has been 
said that merely pushing the winter mulch aside 
sufficiently to let the new growth come through is 
all that is needful. I admit that the results" are 
often satisfactory under this method, especially if 
there has been deep, thorough culture iu the fall, 
and if the mulch between and around the plants is 
very abundant. At the same time I have so often 
seen unsatisfactory results that I take a decided 
stand in favor of spring cultivation, if done properly 
and sufliciently early. I think my reasons will 
commend themselves to practical men. Etcu where 
the soil has been left mellow by fall cultivation, 
the beating rains and the weight of melting snows 
pack the earth. All loamy laud settles and tends 
to grow hard after the frost leaves it. While the 
mulch cheeks this tendency, it can not wholly pre- 
vent it. As a matter of fact, the spaces between 
the rows are seldom thoroughly loosened late iu the 
fall. The mulch too often is scattered over a com- 
paratively hard surface, which by the folio /ping 
June has become so solid as to sutfcr disastrously 
from drought in the blossoming aud bearing season. 
1 have seen well mulched fields with their plants 
faltering and wilting, unable to mature the crop be- 
cause the ground had become so hard that an ordi- 
nary shower could make but little impression. 
Moreover, even if kept moist by the mulch, land 
long shielded from sun and air tend to become sour, 
heavy and devoid of that life which gives vitality 
and vigor to the plant. The winter mulch need not 
be laboriously raked from the garden bed or field 
and then carted back again. Begin on one side of a 
plot and rake toward the other until three or four 
rows and speecs between them are bare; then fork 
the spaces or run the cultivator— often the subs.Ml 
plow — deeply through them, and then immediatelv, 
before the moist, newly-made surface dries, rake 
the winter mulch back into its place as a summer 
mulch. Then take another strip and treat it iu like 
manner until the generous impulse of spring air and 
sunshine has been given to the soil of the entire 
plantation. 

A New Nut. 

There is a new /ml which has just come " to the 
surface." It is of Chinese origin, and so far as we 
know has not yet made i's appearance in the United 
States. It is called the " Water Nut,'' which grows 
and matures in still, clear water of from one to two 
feet in depth. It is technically called Trnpahicornis 
(Ling Kok of the Cantonese). The best situation 
for \i is where the water is subject to a gentle over- 
flow by the tides, " but it grows well iu ponds be- 
yond the reach of tides." 'fhig, of course, makes it 



more popular, and so does its earlinees, as It is ready 
for consumption as early as May, ami Is in the mar- 
ket up to August. "They are eaten by all classes 
of Chinese, and are also relished by Kuropeans. 
They are sometimes eaten raw, but generally in a 
cooked state. They are simply lioiled, and black 
skiu is taken off either before or after boiling, like 
potatoes. On Kurojiean tables they are served up 
w ith sauce." Indeed ! Now w hat do we want more 
but for some enterprising speculators he re to take It 
in hand and make a fine penny out of it f The capi- 
tal w ill be very small. The cost of importation will 
be little, the principal expense being a few thousand 
pamphlets, with well-executed " cuts," representing 
the water nut In Its various stages of maturity, its 
appearance before and after cooking, before aud 
after the black skin is removed, and when It Is 
placed on the Yankee table with the aforesaid sauce. 

Don't Crowd the Fruit Trees. 
. In setting out fruit trees, it Is not uncommon to 
see insiinielcnt allowance made for tliclr future 
growth; hence, wheu the years have passed and the 
little saplings have attained their full size, their 
spreading branches almost, if not quite interlace, 
excluding needed sunlight atid air from the lower 
branches and bringing the roots into too near ueigh- 
borhood. It has been observed that the lower 
branches of trees planted in this way produce Infe- 
rior fruit, while the UJiper branches — reccivlug 
abundance of sun and air — give fruit of good quality; 
also that the outer rows of these tree^ have finer 
fruit than the inner rows. These facts teach a lesson 
likewise in pruning. Branches should not be al 
lowed to grow so thickly as to exclude a fair share 
of light and air from any part of the tree. The 
distance apart the trees should be set must be de- 
termined Ijy the climate aud by the kind of tree; the 
size of eveu the same variety of tree varies more or 
less with the climate. Less complaint would be 
hearil about non-fruiting years if a generous bell of 
sunlighi was allowed between the rows of the trees, 
and the soil annually supplied sutlicient food for 
material to restore that used iu the productiou of 
large crops of fruit. 

Plant Apple Trees. 

While we recommend farmers to plant apple trees, 
we do not wish to be understood as underratlDg all 
other kinds of hardy fruits, for all kinds of hardy 
fruits shoulil be found on every farm. But, then, 
the ajjple is the king of fruits. Its season is the 
whole year — late keepers bciug on hand, if proper 
care has been takeu of them, when the early vaiie- 
ties again ripen. It can safely shi|iped all over the 
Union, and to Europe even, as it now is by the 
million barrels almost annually. It forms, or should 
form, a part of one's daily food. It Is healthful, 
keeping the bowels iu projicr condition, acting upon 
the liver and warding off bilious diseases. It makes 
nice preserves, jellies, pies, dumplings and other de- 
sirable dishes. The tree is long-lived, giving fruit 
for fifty years or more. No farm, no home, is com- 
plete without a large orchani of well-selected varie- 
ties of apple trees. Every farmer who has not a 
good orchard should select the ground for one, plow 
and harrow it, lay it off for the trees, ilig the holes 
and plant the trees in early spring. 

Domestic Economy. 



Polishing Furniture. 
To clean furniture, and especially the surface of a 
finely polished piano, we will give our lady friends a 
recipe better than any in the books. Take a wash- 
bowl full of tepid water, and a little fine toilet soap, 
and a tablespoonful of sweet oil. Dip a piece of old 
fiannel in this, and apply it to the wood, rubbing 
vigorously for. awhile; then exchange this for a 
piece of old, soft, fine cotton (not linen, as that 
leaves its fibres of lint), and rub with this awhile, 
finishing with a fresh piece of the same cotton until 
the liquid application Is thoroughly removed. All 
these successive applications to be made to one par- 
ticular spot of the wood no larger than can be worked 
with a single stroke of the arm, and that to be 
finished before a fresh place is treated. When the 
whole piano has been done over in this way (It 
should take two hours at least to do it well), it will 
look as good as new, and far better than if rellnished 
by an ordinary workman. This is the best possible 
application for that purple cloud that comes over a 
polished wood surface in damp weather. Of course 
a judicious lady w ill be very sparing of the liquid, 
although she has a wash-bowl half full of it, and 
will not use enough to drip on the carpet, or to 
penetrate to the interior of the piano. — Krchange. 



Bloody Milk. 
In reply to a corresiKindenl « ho inquires for the 
cause and remedy for bloody milk, the Atnerican 
Agriculturitt says : "The milk may be found mixed 
with blood, without any distinct attack of gaiget. 
Garget consists of Inflamation and congestion of the 
udder, or part of it, aud is accompanied by constitu- 



so 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



tional disturbance, generally fever. But the milk 
may be tinged with blood from other causes. Vio- 
lent jerking of the udder, by racing about, a blow, 
cold in the organ, or other similar accidents, may 
cause it, and with some heavy milkers, which are 
subject to it occasionally the cause seems to be over- 
excitement of the secretory apparatus of the udder. 
Generally a cooling purgative, or a saline diuretic 
(such, for instance, as eight ounces of salts, or four 
drams of saltpetre, or both together,) with rest and 
frequent careful and gentle milking, will effect a 
cure when the latter is the cause. For garget simi- 
lar but more active treatment is needed. 

Measuring the Height of a Tree. 
When a tree stands so that the length of its 
shadow can be measured, its height can be readily 
ascertained as follows : Set a stick upright— let It be 
perpendicular by the plumb-line. jMeasure the 
length of the shadow of the stick. As the length of 
its "shadow is to the height of the stick, so is the' 
length of the shadow of the tree to its height. For 
Instance, if the stick is four feet above the ground, and 
its shadow is six feet in length, and the shadow of the 
tree is ninety feet, its height will be sixty feet (6:4:: 
90:00.) In other words, multiply the length of the 
shadow of the tree by the heisrht of the stick, and 
divide by the length of the shadow of the stick. 



Treatment of Frozen Plants. 
In times of severe cold, the more tender plants in 
the window will sometimes be chilled and frozen. 
Such plants should not be put near the stove, to be 
thawed out; but kept where the temperature is a 
trifle above the freezing point that the thawing may 
be gradual, and In the dark that no deleterious 
chemical changes may take place. If severely 
touched with frost, it is best to remove the frozen 
parts, that new stems may be forced out from the 
buds below. Water freely, and finally bring them 
to the ordinary temperature for house plants — li5 to 
70 degrees. — American Agriculturut. 



To Preserve Shingles. 
Petroleum applied to shingles adds greatly to their 
durability. The best way is to dip the shingles in 
the oil, taking a handful at a time, and leaving them 
in a tub a few minutes. Saw an oil barrel across 
the middle, and it will make two good tubs, one for 
holding the oil, and the other for the shingles to 
drain in. If well seasoned, they will take the oil 
more readily than otherwise. A barrel of oil will 
give a good soaking to seven thousand or eight 
thousand shingles. 



Ventilation of Bed Rooms. 

Each inhalation of pure air is returned loaded with 
poison; a hundred and fifty grains of it is added to 
the atmosphere of a bedroom every hour, or twelve 
hundred grains during the night. Unless that 
poison-laden atmosphere is diluted or removed by a 
constant current of air passing through the room, 
the blood soon becomes impure, then circulates 
sluggishly, accumulating. and pressing on the brain, 
causing frightful dreams. — J7a:. 



Tar for Warts. 
A farmer writing to an exchange, says : "I had 
a mare some years ago that had a large wart on her 
side, where the harness rubbed and kept it sore. In 
summer the flics made it worse. To prevent this I 
put on a good daub of tar, and in a few weeks the 
wart was killed and disappeared. I have frequently 
tried it since on cattle and horses, and seldom had 
an occasion to use a second application. The remedy 
is simple and effectual." 



Household Recjpes. 

Mince Me.\t.— Beef's heart, beef's tongue, the 
hock or the neck or the round may be used. Boil 
the meat until it is thoroughly done and mince it 
fine. For every pound of me.it allow a pound of 
raisins, stoned and chopped, half a pound of dried 
currants, washed dried and picked over; quarter of a 
pound citron, half a pound of suet, a heapiog table- 
spoonful of salt, two heaping cups of brown sugar, 
the grated rind and juice of two lemons, one cup of 
molasses, three of boiled cider, two heaping table - 
spoonfuls of mixed spice, and twice as much chop- 
ped apples, by measure as of chopped meat. Fruit 
syrup may be used instead of cider, and butter in- 
stead of suet. Mix all the ingredients, save the 
apples, and when the pies are to be baked, mince 
the apples and add them. The flavoring may be 
changed to suit the taste. 

Custard Pie. — Beat the yolks of four eggs very 
light, then the whites, then both together. Spill a 
level teacupful of sugar into the eggs and beat all 
well. Add gradually a quart of the richest milk, if 
it is half cream all the better, and stir thoroughly 
together, add a level teaspoonful or more of any 
flavoring essence. If spice is used it should be 
beaten into the egg before the milk or sugar is added 



to them. Put the deep pie plates (covered jwith 
paste before the eggs are beaten) into the oven and 
with a cup or ladle fill them carefully to the rims. 
Bake till the custard is firm. Cover if necessary 
with a pasteboard or thick paper if the oven is too 
hot. This is from Mrs. Whitney's " Just How." 

Lemon Pie. — Two lemons, six eggs, two teacup- 
fuls of sugar, two tablespoonfuls of flour, one tea- 
cupful boiling water, rich pastry for lining pans. 
These materials will make two pies. Grate off the 
yellow rind of the lemons for flavoring, throw away 
the thick white skin, cut up the remainder of the 
lemon very fine, being careful not to loose the juice. 
Add to this the sugar, the yolks of six eggs well 
beaten, then the flour, and lastly the boiling water. 
Pound the mixture into the lined pie pans and bake. 
Prepare an icing with the whites of six eggs and 
when the pies are a light brown spread it smoothly 
over them ; return again to the oven and bake a 
light brown. 

Apple Jelly. — A beautiful and delicious jelly 
may be made of any sour red apples such as Spitz- 
enbergs, Baldwins or Northern Spys. Wash, quar- 
ter and core without paring and cook until the 
whole mass has a red tinge and is soft. Pour into a 
colander, drain off the juice and run it through a 
jelly-bar. Boil again one-half hour. Measure and 
to every three cups of juice allow two cups of sugar 
and boil again fifteen minutes. If highly-flavored 
jelly is liked, lemon or vanilla may be added before 
it is turned into the cups. Most jelly recipes give 
an equal measure of sugar and fruit juice, but in 
making jelly of winter apples I have found two of 
sugar to three of fruit give a good firm jelly that 
will cut smoothly with a knife. 

Pound Cake. — One pound of butter, one pound 
of loaf sugar, one pound of eggs, one pound and a 
quarter of flour. Put the butter into a clean pan, 
about milk-warm, and stir it round until it becomes 
cream; then add the sugar, which must be pounded 
very flne, and stir them together for a few minutes. 
Break the eggs in and beat them all together for five 
minutes; then gradually add the flour and six drops 
of essence of lemon; stir them lightly together, put 
in a buttered mould and bake in a cool oven. This 
cake is good, but plain. If a richer one is desired, 
put in one pound of currants, half a nutmeg, grated, 
and a quarter of a pound of candied lemon, cut into 
thin slices. 

Boston Jumbles. — Four ounces of butter, the 
same quantity of sugar and of sifted flour. Cream 
the butter and sugar, add the yolk of one egg beaten 
white, and flour, rosewater to taste; drop on tins 
covered with paper and buttered; bake in a quick 
oven about eight minutes; ice them when cold. 
Dust with flour before iceiug, rub off all that will 
not stick. The flour makes the iceing adhere to the 
cakes. 

Rice Pudding Boiled. — Boil a large cupful of 
rice in water for five minutes, drain off the water 
and put the rice on again in milk; let it boil until 
soft, stirring occasionally to prevent it from burn- 
ing; when done put into a basin with a part of 
butter, the zest of a lemon, a little nutmeg, half a 
glass of brandy; sweeten to taste; add five eggs; boil 
for three-quarters of an hour in a basin; serve with 
marrow pudding sauce. 

Almond Pastrv. — Pound three ounces of al- 
monds, one-quarter pound of butter, two ounces of 
loaf sugar, with a little rose water till it becomes a 
thick paste. Spread it on a buttered tin, bake in a 
slow oven. When cold divide into eight pieces, put 
a spoonful of preserves on each piece and cover with 
whipped cream. 

Calf's Liver Broiled. — Cut the liver into thin 
slices, wash it and let it stand in salt and water for 
half an hour, to draw out all the blood. Season 
with salt and salt and pepper, and broil, basting fre- 
quently with butter. Either fried or broiled liver is 
more delicate if, after it is cut into slices for cooking, 
it is parboiled in salt and water. 

Potato Pie. — Boil and sift two pounds Irish or 
sweet potatoes, grate a lemon and squeeze the juice 
into them while hot. Kub a pound of butter and 
one pound of sugar to a cream, to this add the well 
beaten yolks of six eggs, the potatoes, half a nut- 
meg grated, a quart of rich milk, and lastly the 
whites of the eggs beaten to a stirt' froth. Bake with 
an undercrust only. 

Pearl Barley Pudding. — Wash half a pint of 
pearl barley, put it into a stewpan with three pints 
of milk, a quarter of a pound of sugar and a little 
nutmeg at the corner of the stove; when properly 
swelled, take it out, flavor to taste, add four eggs 
and boil in a basin for one hour, serve with black 
cherry arrowroot sauce. 

Pistachio Diplomatic Pudding. — Chop very 
fine a quarter of a pound of blanched pistachios ; 
mix with half a pint of clear jelly ; mask a plain 
mould with all this, and fill up with a custard, as 
for diplomatic pudding, mixed with a quarter of a 
pound of finely chopped almonds and flavored with a 
glass of noyeau ; cold German sauce. 

Hickory Nut Macaroons. — Make frosting as 
for cake ; stir in enough ponnded hickory-nut meat, 



with mixed ground spice to taste, to make conve- 
nient to handle. Flour the hands and form the 
mixture into little balls. Place on buttered tins, 
allowing room to spread, and bake in quick oven. 

Plain Pastry. — With one pound of flour sift four 
times two teaspoonfuls baking powder, then add a 
teaspoonful of salt and rub into the flour six ounces 
of butter with very cold water; make this into a 
paste, roll thin. This pie crust is good for dyspep- 
tics and those who do not care for rich pastries. 



Live Stock. 



Teething in the Horse— Wolf Teeth. 

In connecting the teeth with diseased eyes we are 
not following the foolish prejudice which attributes 
all troubles of sight to the wolf teeth. These teeth 
are harmless enough; yet the popular prejudice has 
a foundation which it would be well for horsemen 
not to ignore. Most diseases of the eyes occur at 
that period of life when the milk teeth are being 
most rapidly shed and the permanent teeth are com- ' 
ing up. To suppose that a horse suffers nothing in 
cutting his teeth is a great mistake, as is shown by 
the frequently slow and painful mastication of some 
young animals by the occasioned dropping of food 
in a half-chewed condition, and by the heat, redness 
and swelling of the palate and gums. That red, 
swollen and tender state of the roof of the mouth 
behind the front teeth, familiarly known as "Lam- 
pas" is but an indication of this teething trouble, 
and in not a few instances it renders the animal 
feverish, weak and by virtue of the general conges- 
tion of the head, strongly predisposed to inflamma- 
tion of the eyes. The wolf teeth are in the mouth 
during the greater part of this period of teething, 
and are usually shed toward its completion; so that 
once it is hinted that these are the cause of the 
trouble with the eyes, the owner, looking into the 
mouth seems to find ample confirmation of the 
statement. The wolf teeth are, however, the most 
harmless in the mouth, having long ago reached 
their full development, and are but slightly inserted 
in their sockets, while the great and dangerous irri- 
tation attends on the cutting of the large grinding 
teeth, and, in the male, of the tushes. The presence 
of the wolf teeth in the mouth at this time is an acci- 
dent, and not an injury. The temporary recovery 
often following their removal would have taken 
place all the same had they been left in the mouth, 
and a later attack is just as likely as if they were 
present. The excitement- attendant on teething is 
natural; what we should guard against is its excess. 
Any costiveness of the bowels should be corrected by 
the feeding, or, if necessary, by one ounce of Glau- 
ber's salts daily. Teeth pressing painfully beneath 
tense, resistant, painful gums indicate the need of 
the lancet; teeth entangled on the crowns of their 
successors should be removed: all excessive swelling, 
redness and tenderness of the gums demand lancing; 
and, finally, all unnecessary excitement or exhaus- 
tion should be a.\oided. Nati07ial Live Stock Jouriialy 
Chicatjo. 

Ventilating Stables. 
Many stables require no ventilation, as the cracks 
about the doors and windows, and the openings in 
the side walls, always admit all abundant supply of 
fresh air. But when the wainscoting, doors, and 
windows are as tight as in a well flnished dwelling- 
house, some provision must be made for the escape 
of foul air and the inflow of pure air. So long as 
the foul air does not escape from an apartment, 
pure air cannot enter. In some stables flues about a 
foot square extend from the ceiling to the roof. But 
foul air will not escape through such flues unless 
pure and colder air can find an entrance near the 
floor of the stable. Pure air will enter such holes so 
gradually that no draft will be produced. Then as 
the colder air enters, the foul air will escape through 
the flues. In order to ventilate any apartment by 
opening windows, the upper sash should be lowered, 
and the lower sash should be raised. By this ar- 
rangement the cool air will flow into the room be- 
neath the sash. Let it be borne in mind that one 
cannot All his sleeping apartment or stable with 
pure air so long as the space is occupied by foul air. 
Horses like to thrust their noses out of the stable, 
through a small window, so as to breathe the pure 
air. Horses will endure very cold weather without 
injury, provided the apartment is kept dry and full 
of pure air. It is vastly more injurious to a horse to 
breathe over and over again the foul and warm air 
of a close stable, than to inhale very cold air when 
the mercury indicates zero. Foul air will always 
rise into the story above the stable, provided there 
are openings or Hues through which it may escape 
into the atmosphere. A great many owners of flne 
and beautiful horses damage the health of their 
animals for want of proper ventilation. When the 
coat and skin of a horse are dry, there is no danger 
that the animal will take cold by inhaling very cold 
air. But when he is warm and sweaty, the groom 
cannot be too careful of horses until the hair and 
skin is quite dry.— ,S'. E. T. 



1880. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



Fattening Sheep. 
An Ohio sheep raiser, wiitini; to the Rural New 
Yorker, says : " Sheep [liekeil out lor tlie butcher 
should be feii ije>it'>''"i''ly and roiruhirly, and upon 
this point too niueli stress eannot be laid. Care 
should be taken, liowever, to give tlie sheep only 
just enough lor one meal at eaeli feedinj; time. If 
they are given superabundance of hay they soon 
learn to lie particular in selecting tlie best part only ; 
and if there is not enougli of this at one feeding 
time, they will wait half hungry for the next. My 
own experience agrees with tlial of most successful 
sheep owners, that I'attening cattle should be fed 
three times a day, tliougli some of my neighbors 
think twice often enough. It is also very important 
that the sheep should not be allowed to sulfer from 
want of water ; neither shcnild they lack a .supply of 
salt; for although salt is not so necessary to them in 
the winter as in summer, still they will thrive lietter 
If it is fed to them at least once a week at all 
seasons." 

Catarrh in Sheep. 
Sheep run at tlie nose sometimes because of cold, 
but often it is chronic eatarrli, and is not easily 
cured. If tliey are made to inhale the steam from 
hot vinegar or a decoction of bojis, they will thiow 
out a great deal of mucus which will be loosened by 
inhalation. The steam may be made by dropping a 
live coal into a vessel containing the liquid, or by in- 
serting a hot irim. After the mucus has been dis- 
charged, smear the nostrils with pine tar. Scotch 
snutf dropped in the nostrils will cause the sheep to 
throw out the mucus, bnt this remedy is not so 
etfective as the steaming. A hood may be put on 
the head of the sheep to prevent the steam from 
escaping, and the head of the animal must be held 
directly over the vessel. Sheep affected with catarrh 
should not be exposed to cold storms or cold winds, 
as either will increase the malady. 



Bonner's Horses. 

The folowilng is the price which Bonner paid lor 
some of his horses : Uarus, S'i6,0(HI; Dexter, $:i3,000; 
Goldsmith Maid, ?:i.5,000;(;rafton, 815,000; Socrates, 
?26,000; Tattler, Sl7,000; tien. Knox, $10,000; Poca- 
hontas, 5-15,000; .Jay Gould, g;!."),000; Startle, S-'0,0()0; 
Lady Thorn, ?3(l,0U0; Lucy, 825,000; Rosalind, ilO,- 
000;" total, §:ilO,000. There is §34u,000 worth of 
horses, besides some forty more of choice and high- 
priced ones which he has in his pastures and studs. 
He has a sort of mania for iiigh-priced horses, 
which can be of little value to bim, except to gratify 
his ambition to own more good horses than any 
other living man. 

Entomological. 



The War on Insects. 

Out-worm» — Where cut-worms are troublesome in 
the Held, a very old and at the sam^^ time very good 
remedy is to entrap them in holes made near the 
plants, or hills, if iu the corntield. An old rake 
handle tapered at the end so as to make a smooth 
hole five or six inches deep, or more, will answer 
very well for this purpose. In the morning the 
worms that have taken refuge in these boles may 
be crushed by thrusting the rake handle into them 
again, and the "trap" is set for the next nigbt. It 
is always well in planting to make provision for the 
loss of a stalk or two by cut-worms or other causes, 
as it is easier to thin out than to replant. 

Muij-bectlcs — These are the perfect insects of the 
white grub, so destructive to lawns and sometimes 
to meadows. A French plan for destroying, or 
rather catching, the cockcbafer, a very similar 
insect, is to place in the centre of the orchard after 
sunset an old barrel, the inside of which has been 
previously tarred. At the Ijottom of the barrel is 
placed a lighted lamp, and the insects circling 
around to get at the liglit strike their wings and legs 
against the tarred sides of the barrel, and either get 
fast or are rendered so helpless that they fall to the 
bottom. Ten gallons of beetles have been captured 
in this way in a single night. 

.S/Kr/s— English gardeners place handfuls of bran 
at intervals of eight or ten feet along the border of 
garden walks. The slugs are attracted to the bran, 
and in the morning each little heap is found covered 
with them. The ground is then gone over again, 
this time the operator providing himself with a 
dustpan and small broom and an empty bucket, and 
it is an easy matter to sweep up the little heaps and 
empty them, slugs and all, into the bucket. In this 
way many hundred have beentaken in a single walk, 
and if a little salt and water be placed on the bot- 
tom of the bucket the slugs coming in contact with 
it, are almost instantly destroyed. 

Anis — When these insects are troublesome in the 
garden fill small bottles two-thirds with water, and 
then add sweet oil to within an inch of the top; 
plunge these into the ground near the nests or hills, 
to within half an incli of the rim, and the insects 
coming for a sip will get into the oil and perish, as 
it fills the breathing pores. The writer once entrap- 
ped in a pantry myriads of red ants in a shallow tin 



cover, smeared with lard, the vessel having aeel 
dentally been left in their track. Another means of 
entrapping them, suggested to me by Professor 
(i lover, many years ago, is to sprinkle sugar into a 
dampcncil sponge near their haunts to attract the 
insects. When they have swarmed through t'.ie 
sponge it is squeezed in hot water, and the trap is 
reset until the majority of the insects are kllleil. 

Aphix — A remedy for plant lice upon the terminal 
shoots of rose bushes (or similar hardy plants,) said 
to work like a charm, is as follows : Take four 
ounces of quassia chips and boil lor ten minutes in 
a gallon of soft water. Takeout the chips and add 
four ounces of soft soap, wbieli should be dissolved 
in it as it cools. Stir well before using, and apply 
with a nmderate sized paint brush, brushing up- 
ward. Ten minutes after syringe the trees with 
clean water to wash olT the dead insects and the 
preparation, which otherwise would disfigure the 
rose trees. 

.S'c«/e— A French composition for destroying scale 
insects, plant lice, etc., on Iruit and oilier trees, is 
as follows : Boil two gallons of barley iu water, 
then remove the grain (which may be fed to the 
eliiekens) and add to the liquid (piicklime until it 
approaches the consistency of paint. When cold 
add two poun<ls of lampblack, mixing it for a long 
time, then add a pound and a lialf of llowers of sul- 
phur and a quart of alcoliol. The mixture is applied 
with a paint brusli, first using a stilf bristled brush 
to remove moss, etc. It not only destroys the in- 
sects but gives the bark greater strength. — Chan. R. 
Dodge. 

How to Get Rid of the Pests. 

Our excellent contemporary, the Hub, publishes 
the following account of the wood-destroying beetle 
(L'jctus) which Charles Evans, Cleveland, Ohio, 
communicates to that paper : 

Of the multitude of insects which devour plants 
and trees, some attack only the leaves ; others the 
trunk, and others the roots or various other parts. 
The nettle is infested by no less than forty species of. 
insects, which are horn, live and die on its stems. 
The oak alone has one hundred and eighty-four 
species, and the hickory is the exclusive home of 
numerous tribes of insects. One particular species 
which infests the hickory is the Lyclnx. This is the 
cliief pest of the carriage wood-shop, and catises 
more trouble than any other insect in shops whert; 
second-growth hickory is used. This beetle is of a 
dark chestnut-brown color, and has eleven jointed 
antenn:^, club-shaped at the outer end. They then 
undergo transformation, and eat through the shell, 
and return to the outside as perfect beetles, in the 
spring or early summer, to reproduce and cai-ry on 
their work of destruction, leaving small pin boles in 
the wood as evidence of their exit. Some call this 
trouble the " powder-post," and others simply speak 
of the timber as "worm eaten." Some think that 
the worms breed in the wood, but this is an error, as 
investigatiou clearly proves. 

The best method of destroying these pests is to 
destroy tivery piece of worm-eaten timber before the 
month of March. If any man in the shop finds the 
wood he is working is infected, instead of putting it 
in a corner and saving it, let him immediately use it 
for firewood, or otherwise destroy it ; for if it be left 
in the shop it will surely help to continue tlie pests 
another year. 

Timber cut in the month of August is less liable to 
be attacked by them, as it then has less sap than 
when cut in the spring or fall. With a little care iu 
selecting timber, Imying only that cut in August, 
and using caution and foresight in the shop and 
lumber shed, they mayjbe almost if not quite got rid 
of; but if left to themselves, they will very soon 
spoil every piece of second-growth hickory about the 
establishment. 



Poultry. 



Lice on Cattle. 

A correspondent of the Farmers' Adi'oeate says : 
" Some ten or twelve years ago an agricultural 
writer observed his bull to be free from lice, but not 
so the rest of his cattle ; and, thinking over the 
liiatter, be came to the conclusion that the habit of 
pawing dirt over himself must have the cU'cet of 
keeping the lice olf the bull, and he tried dry earth 
on the rest of the cattle with the best effect. Ever 
since reading the above, I have usc^d nothing but dry 
earth, and have repeatedly put it on cattle having 
lice, and have found it perfectly ellicacious, both as 
a preventive and a cure. If in winter I find it 
needed, and cannot get it otherwise, I go into my 
cellar and obtain a few quarts (no danger of using 
too much), and dj-y it on the stove ; I then sprinkle 
it over the back from bead to tail, and, the earth 
working in and through the hair, destroys all lice. I 
believe the earth to be just as ellicacious, less dan- 
gerous and less expensive than tobacco or any of the 
acids recommended." 



Destruction of Weevil. 

The leaves of the elder strewed among grain will 
effectually preserve it from the ravages of the weevil; 
the juice will al.so kill maggots. The leaves scat- 
tered over cucumbers, cabbages and other plants 
subject to weevil ravsges effectually shield them. 



Poultry Interest of America. 

Noticing the rapid development of the poultry in- 
terest iu this country, a New York correspondent of 
the Connlry (Ir.ntleinan writes : 

A glance at a few simple statistics will surprise 
even those who have heretofore considered them- 
selves posted. Mark the change in a few years! 
Ten years ago not a paper in the country was pub- 
lished in the interests of poultry, to-day there arc 
more than a dozen, with a combined circulation of 
upwards of thirty thousand subscribers. We can 
add to this nearly a hundred agricultural papers, 
which devote a de|)arlmcnt to this now important 
branch of farm industry. A few years ago, there 
might have been found a breeder here and there In 
the Kastern States ; now they may be found In every 
part of the country, ami are numbered by the tens of 
thousands. Then not an exhibition was made ; to- 
day there are already over forty advertised to be held 
In various parts of the country, and as many more 
will be held later on. F.ven Oregon holds its State 
exhibition. In every New Knglaml State, there will 
be from two to half a dozen exhibitions, and in New 
York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and Indiana, there will 
be six to ten each, and bixleen States arc represent- 
ed in some way. The cash premiums alone at these 
exhibitions will exceed one hundred thousand dollars. 

That this interest at the present time l> crowing 
more rapidly than ever before, is apparcn. on every 
side. With the Improvement that is now taking 
place in business circles in every part of the country, 
the interest iu fine stock including poultry, will also 
secure a firmer hold. The good prices of the past 
will be fully maiutained in the future, and really ex- 
tra choice specimens will yet find purchasers at the. 
figures obtained in England, where the "gold cup" 
prize Black lied game cockerel, at the Crystal Pal- 
ace exhibition in 1S77, sold for tlOO 10s., nearly 
?.-iOO. Within two months, $100 has been offered in 
New England for single birds of last season's breed- 
ing- ^_^ 

Pickings From the Poultry Yard. 

In no case breed from sickly or weak constltutlon- 
ed fowls, as your chicks will be worthless and also 
bring disease. 

Fowls with canker or roup will communicate the 
disease to all the rest of the flock if allowed to use 
the same drinking vessel. 

Rucks and geese should always be scalded, and 
steamed by covering up with a blanket for a short 
time, before picking; in other respects handle as tur- 
keys and chickens. 

Cayenne pepper, ginger or mustard for fowls Is 
quite beneficial . When added to their food it will 
stimulate egg-production, increase their vigor and 
make them feel well generally. 

Young and quick-fed animals have more water 
and fat in their llesb, while oMer and well-fed ani- 
mals have llesb of a fiimer touch and a richer flavor, 
and are richer in nitrogen. The former may be 
more delicate, the latter will be more nutritious. 

Cabbage Is best given poultry whole, hung up by 
the stalk. At first it may not be touched, but when 
one fowl begins to peek at it, tlic rest will be tempted 
to keep on until little remains. Bciug suspended 
it does not waste or become polluted, and it will 
remain in good condition to be eaten at will. 

Moderately fat animals are the most profitable. 
Every ex<'essive fat animal has been fe<l at a loss 
during the latter part of its feeding. When an an- 
imal is ready for market, sell it; if there is feed 
left, buy some more lean animals and feed them. 
The nimble sixpence brings the profit. 

When soft eggs are laid liy fowls they intimate 
usually that the egg organs are inllammed. This 
state is occasioned by the birds being over-fed or 
too fat. Sparc diet and plenty of green food, es- 
pecially lettuce leaves in summer, or cabbage in 
winter, is the best treatment for fowls in such 
condition. 

Every fowl house should face south, and, if pos- 
sible, lie upon dry ground. Any available ground , 
protected by groves, hedges, stone walls or by 
buildings of any kind, may be used for this pur- 
pose. Fowls suffer very much from cold storms 
and wind, and any protection against these is very 
valuable as a preventive of colds and roup. 

Roup with Pigeons. 
The roup with pigeons being a very formidable, 
and often fatal disease, I forward you the result 
of my treatment of it for the benefit of the fancy. 
The disease broke out in my loft, of about fifty 
birds, during the month of October, but attacked 
only the trumpeter, and all those affected were 
young birds of 1879 hatch. As soon as the pres- 
ence of the disease was detected, the birds were 
removed to a large cage, about three by four feet, 
placed in a sheltered situation, and were dosed with 
about a spoonful of castor oil. This one dose of 
oil was the only internal remedy used, but the 
birds' throats and beaks were well syringed and 
washed with the disinfectant' bromo ehloralum, dl- 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 188(5. 



luted according to directions on the bottle, twice 
daily. The floor of the cage was well covered 
with dry eaud, gravel and broken lime plaster, and 
a very small qu:mtity of copperas dropped info the 
water can. They were fed on wheat, and out of 
four cases, only one died. The most remarkable 
recovery was that of a very fine yoiint: cock, 
which had just mated with a young hen, and they 
were sitting for the first time when he was attacked. 
His case was so severe that his head and beak 
swelled enormously, and an angry looking ulcer 
covered Oue side of his head and moulli, and pie- 
vented his closing his beak by nearly half an inch. 
He could neither eat nor drink for several days, 
forsook Ills nest, and seemed about t(j die. He 
was taken from the loft at this stage, and placed 
under the treatment above described, and in about 
two weeks had so far recovered as to be able to 
return to the loft and resume breeding. Apparently 
he is now perfectly well. As I have never seen 
the bromo chloralum recommended for pigeons, and 
have found it very efficacious as a wash for mouth 
and throat affections, particularly with fantails, I 
consider it worthy of introduction to the notice of 
fanciers. — Fancier k^ Jonrital. 



Rearing and Value of Ducks. 

A great deal of skill is invested in the raising of 
the duck-crop. The writer's earliest experience in 
trying to raise young ducks taught me that the 
young should not be allowed to go near a pond or 
creek or in wet grass; they should be kept in a warm, 
dry place, and have no more water than sufficient to 
dip their bills in. When about fifteen days old give 
them a larger supply of water, and their "frolics will 
not only prove very amusing to you, but harmless to 
themselves. Soft food is necessry for the young. 
For the first few days after hatching, hard-boiled 
eggs and cooked meat chopped fine should be given 
every other day; but the chief supply used iu ray 
yard is indian-meal and "ships " in equal quanti- 
ties, well-mixed and thoroughly scalded. Use this 
until the ducklings are two-thirds grown, the main 
article of lood afterwards being grain. Ground 
worms and small fish are tidbits, with young ducks: 
they are not only very fond of such food, but thrive 
well on it. 

There are said to be over a hundred varieties of 
ducks. In this country the best varieties are the Rouen, 
Alsbury and the Aesthetic. The Rouen attain the 
greater weight, and is superior in the quality of its 
flesh, as well as iu their laying properties. They are 
very domestic and can be raised without much water. 
Clear water every day in a trough will meet all their 
wants. There is an old saying that ducks eat more 
than they are worth, which we consider very unjust. 
Several years ago we were speaking with a woman 
residing near Indianapolis, Ind., who raised yearly 
large numbers of ducks and chickens. She stated 
that "ducks eat less in proportion to their growth 
than chickens." Readers of the Telegraph may be 
surprised at this, but upon a little reflection they 
will understand the reason. It is because the 
ducklings reach maturity sooner than chickens; 
and the longer it takes to bring a creature to ma- 
turity the greater the expense. Experiment has 
taught us that with the same quantity of food, 
the ducklings in ninety days from the shell may 
be made to weigh from eleven to twelve pounds 
per pair, while chickens in the same length of time 
five or six pounds per pair. Hence the remarks 
that ducks eat more than they are worth, does 
not apply when ducklings are properly and intelli- 
gently managed. For home use, many consider 
that ducks are more valuable than hens, taking 
into account the number and size of their egss. 
The solid matter and oil in a duck's egg exceed 
that of a hen's fully one-fourth. — Oermantoimi. Tel- 
egraph. 

.*►■ 

Mt hcn-liouse is not a model,, but has nests and 
roosts all in one apartment. I was always troubled 
iu having the fowls roost upon the front of the nests 
instead of going on the poles, until I made the top 
of the front board semi-circular instead of straight. 
It had no hindrance for the hens going on to lay, 
but as they are not so apt to be standing long on 
the edge, they are less liable to learn to eat eggs. 
To keep poultry free from lice, and their legs free 
from scab, I think it is a good plan to paiut the 
roosts a few times during winter (before the time for 
saving eggs for setting commences) with a mixture 
of sulphur and grease. Dry sulphur may be sifted 
into a sitting hen's feathers with good elfect. 

Literary and Personal. 



Catalogue and price list of Santa Rosa Nursery, 
Park street near main, east of the "laza, Santa Rosa, 
Sonoma county, California. Luther Burbank, pro- 
prietor, 1880. Specialties — trees, plants and seeds. 

Report of the " Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' 
Society" for 1879. Prepared by its otticers ; 70 pp. 
royal octavo, with five beautiiul full-page colored 
illustrations of fruit, lawns, >S:c. 



E. P. Roe's new descriptive catalogue and price 
list of strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, black- 
berries, currants and grapes for the spring of ISHO. 
Address E. P. Roe, Cornwall-on-the-Hudson, New 
York. 

Those old and familiar journals, the Gardener's 
Monthly and the Maryland Farmer for February, 
IS'^O, havejalso been laid on our table. They are 
marching along, fully up to the spirit of the timei, 
in all that relates to their callings. 

The Amerkan Bee Journal. — The February 
number for 1880 of this excellent publication is on 
our table, and is freighted with a valuabe cargo of 
bee and honey intelligence from "stem to stern," 
which needs no eulogy from us. Thos. G. Newman 
& Sons, 97'J and 974 West Madison street, Chicago, 
111. ?1..50 a year, 48 pp., 8 vo. 

Circular of Apiarian Supplies. — Francis 
Dunham, De Pere, Brown county. Wis., inventor 
and author of Dunham's Foundatiou Machine. This 
is an 8vo. pamphlet of eight pages, addressed to the 
bee-keepers of the United States, and relates to all 
kinds of supplies necessary to advancing bee culture. 

The American Rural Home. — A beautifully 
printed and illustrated double-folio at $1.00 a year, 
devoted to the farm, garden, household and stock, 
including, also, healthy general literature. Its 
clubbing list possesses peculiar attractions. Pub- 
lished by Rural Home Company, Rochester, New 
York. 

Destruction of Obnoxiou.s Insects. — Phyl- 
loxera, potato beetles, cotton worm, Colorado 
grasshopper and green-house pests, by application 
of the yeast fungux. By Dr. H. A. Hagen, Professor 
of Entomology at Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass., 12 pages royal octavo, in paper covers. See 
editorial on page 1 of this number of The Faruer. 

Fanciers' Journal. — A serai-monthly quarto of 
28 pages devoted to the interests of plain and fancy 
poultry — "Not for itself, but for all." Springfield, 
Mass., January 1, 1880. This handsome and very 
ably conducted journal reached us too late to notice 
in our January number. This is No. I of vol. 7 
"enlarged and improved." 

Kansas and Colorado Illustrated News- 
paper. — Kansas City, Mo., and Denver, Col., Janu- 
ary, 1880. An eight page folio, illustrated with 
many landscape views of those new and progrestive 
States. This number is largely occupied by a de- 
tailed recital of what the Great West proposes to do 
next summer in the matter of getting up a great 
national fair, at Bismark Grove, Kansas. Vol.1. 
No. 11. .5 cents a single number, from which we 
infer that it is only published at irregular or occa- 
sional periods. 

Borpee's Farm Annual- — Garden, farm and 
flower seeds, and blooded stock, for 18S0. W. Atlee 
Burpee & Co., office and warehouse '211 Church 
street, Philadelphia, 44 pages octavo with 120 illus- 
trations of vegetables, flowers, fruits, stock, poultry, 
implements, &c., interspersed with interesting and 
useful descriptive matter. A hand-book of agricul- 
tural, horticultural, floricultural and domestic sup- 
plies, and instructions in their cultivation and use. 
Copyrighted. Send for pamphlet, and labor intelli- 
gently. 

National Live Stock Journal.— The February 
number of this most excellent and reliable royal 
quarto has been duly received, and is freighted with 
such a cargo of live stock literature as is found in 
no other similar journal in the Union, if in the entire 
civilized world. But, alas, the January number for 
1880 we have not yet seen. Perhaps it passed us 
.and is eastward bound — gone and going yet, with a 
view of circumnavigating the world. We are con- 
soling ourself with the thought that it probably will 
stop here when it "swings around the circle," if it 
does'nttake a notion to "repeat." 

PsTCHE — Organ of the Cnmbridijc Entomological 
Club. — Edited by George Dimmock, B. P. Mann, A. 
J. Cook and C. C. Eaton. Publishod by George 
Dimmock, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. Yearly 
subscriptions, ?1.00; monthly numbers, 15 cents. 
Jani)ary, 1880 — being the first number of volume 3 — 
has beeu received, and its improvement on previous 
issues is very appreciable. This is a royal octavo of 
12 pages on clear, white calendered paper, and 
beautiful imprint. True, as its object implies, its 
patronage, it may be naturally supposed, will be 
limited to entomologists — but not necessarily so— 
and if it were, the name of that class of specialists 
in the United States and Canada is becoming 
"legion." At this time there are recorded in the 
registry of the " Cambridge Entomological Blub" 
tiifht hundred and thirty-Jive names, all of whom 
make entomology either a specialty or a collateral 
study. But otlicrs will also be interested iu the 
publication of J'syche, if for no other reason, at 
least for its interesting and useful bibliographical 
record. Although the Chib that publishes it, and of 
which it is the otlicial organ, bears a local name, 
yet the papei's aim is to represent the interests of 



scientific entoraology throughout the civilized world, 
and especially wherever the English language can 
be read and understood. This journal, reflecting 
a phase of entomological literature that is in con- 
flict with no other similar interest, should receive the 
undivided support of entomologists throughout our 
wide extended country. 

The Laws of Life and Journal of Health. — 
Managing editor Fanny B. Johnson, assistant editors 
Harriet N . Austin, James C. and James H. Jackson, 
Kat}' -J.J ackson, and a large corps of valuable con- 
tributors. The January and February numbers for 
ISHO have reached our table, and are filled with the 
usual quantity and quality of siinitary literature 
which has so long distinguished its columns, and 
which is so little heeded by the masses of suflfering 
humanity. Thie Is a royal octavo of 32 p.ages in 
fine, tinted paper covers, and is pulilishcd by Austin, 
Jackson A Co., Dansville, N. T., at ?1..50 per j'ear, 
single copies 15 cents. 'The very appearance of this 
journal suggests "Health and joy and peace," and 
the fact that it has reached its 23rd volume evincee 
that it is appreciated and liberally sustained. If it 
is not, then it ought to be, and anything short of 
that cannot be charged to its talented conductors. 

Bulletin No. 3, " United States Entomological 
Commission, Department of the Interior, containing 
"The Cotton Worm," summary of its natural his- 
tory, with an account of its enemies, and the best 
means of controling it ; being a report of progress of 
ihe work of the commission. By Prof. Chae. V. 
Riley, M. A., Ph. D., Washington, D. C, January 
28, 1880; 144 pages 8vo., with a full page colored 
plate, illustrating the eggs, larva, pupa and imago at 
their various periods of development ; and nearly a 
hundred excellent wood cuts, illustrating the trans- 
formations of the cotton worm, (Aletia argillacea) 
and allied species, its enemies, and the various im- 
plements and remedies invented for its capture and 
destruction. We are under obligations to Professor 
Riley, the chief the commission, for an early copy of 
this work, containing, as it does, a large amount of 
much-needed information to cotton growers, who, 
however, can only be benefited to the extent that 
they read, observe intelligently, and make a practi- 
cal application of the principles involved. 

The Lecturer. — A bi-mouthly journal — and sup- 
plement to the above — devoted to the publication of 
speeches and lectures on the laws of life and health, 
lelivered by the medical faculty of "Our home hy- 
gienic institute," 18 pp., royal 8 vo., published by 
the foregoing at the same place, gratuitous to sub- 
scribers. Vol. 1 No. 1. 

The Practical American. — An independent 
monthly, especially devoted to manufacturing and 
building : sent post-paid to any part of the world for 
one dollar and a half per annum. P. H. Vander- 
wede, M. D., editor and proprietor. A royal quarto 
of twenty-four three-columned pages, handsomely 
illustrated. It is printed in clear, sharp type, on 
buff-tinted, calendered paper, and its literary con- 
tents embraces a larger and more varied field of 
topics than those usually included under " manu- 
facturing and building" — scientific, mechanical, 
philosophical and domestic. This is a new candi- 
date for public patronage, the number before us 
being the second of Vol. I., for February, 18sO, con- 
taining eighteen separate papers on a variety of 
different subjects of a practical and useful character. 
If eleven years of editorial experience on a similar 
paper, typographical execution, and ably-written 
literary production are of any value in the "make 
up" of a journal, then the Practical American 
ought, and, no doubt, viU succeed, and fill a useful 
"vacancy." 34 Park Row, New York. 

Science Advocate. — Issued quarterly by the 
Natural Science Society of Ateo, New Jersey, Henry 
Green editor. Vol.1. No. 1, January, 1880, .i. four 
column demi-folio of four pages, at 15 cents per 
annum, with reduced club rates. Its motto — "The 
heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament 
showeth his handiwork," appears, upon its very first 
page, to indicate that it regards science as the 
"handmaid of religion," and not antagonistic toil, 
as so many of the would-be scientists do. An article 
on the 2nd page entitled Science and t/ie'Bible, occu- 
pies the most rational ground on that important 
subject that has come under our observation for a 
long time. It discountenances scientific anogance, 
and inculcates scientific humility, through which 
humanity is able to apprehend that any conflict 
seemingly existing between science and the Bible is 
only apparent, and results from an erroneous inter- 
pretation of both nature and the Bible. The sub- 
scription is so exceedingly low — hardly the price of a 
good cigar — that it ought to meet with a favorable 
reception everywhere, and especially among the 
present generation of younsr farmers whose tastes 
are turning in that direction, and who yet feel dis- 
couraged at the volumiuousness of scientifle litera- 
ture, and its technicalities. The leading articles on 
mineralogy and botany are plain and practical, and 
constitute such scientific aliment as an ordinarily 
intelligent mind can appropriate and digest, and 
only appearing quarterly there will be ample time to 
assimilate its contents. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER^ 



III 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Seeds and Plants. 

We would call the attention of those of our 
readers who contemplate purchaBinp seeds or plants 
during: the coniingf season, to the advertisement of 
Peter Ilenilerson & Co., New York, now appearing 
In our columns. Peter Henderson, the senior mem- 
ber of the firm, Is known far and wide as a horti- 
cultural writer and authority. His books, "Oar- 
^ening lor Profit," "Practical Floriculture," and 
"Gardeuinfr lor Pleasure," are now in the hands 
of thousands. The f;reen-house estahlishtnent of 
this firm covers three acres in jjrccn-houses and 
employs upwards of fifty hands. Millions of plants 
are shipped hy mail or express annually to every 
State and Territory. Their seed warehouse is the 
most extensive in the city of New York, and every 
order received is certain to he filled with goods of 
the best quality, and as they are producers as 
■well as dealers, "everything for the garden" will 
be sold at low rates. Feb-3m 




Xy annual Catalogue nf TtgHahle and Flouoer 
SePd for IS80, rich in engravini^s, from photograplis, of 
the origiuals. will be sent FREE to all who npply. My old 
customers need not writeforit I offeroueof the largest col- 
lections of vegetable seed ever sent out by any seed house 
in America, a luree portion of which were grown on luy six 
seed farms. Full direcfions for cullivathn 071 each pack- 
<uje. All seed warratiti'd to be. both fresh and true to name; 
so far, that should it prove otherwise, / will refill the order 
oriKw. The original inlrodncer of the Hubbard Squash, 
Plilnney'8 Melon. Maiblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and 
scores of other vegetables, I invite the iiatrouage of aU who 
arc anxioui io have their need directly f rem the ijrower, fre^h, 
true, and of the ver// beM fifrain 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

.l.VMES J. H, (iREGOUT, 
dec-6mj Marblebead, Mass. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 

1 will furnish eggs for batching from my finely bred 
stock of Light Brahmas, on coudi ion that I will be allowed 
to select at the i.ge of six m.ntha one- half of the chicks 
raised. This is an excellent opportunity for farmers to 
impiove their stock, as Light Brahmas are the heaviest and 
largest of all tue varieties of fowls, arc the best of winter 
layers, and hare no equal for crossing -with the common 
stock. Farmers desiring to avail themselves of this offer 
oan address j. b, LICHTY, 

„ _ Lancaster, Pa, 

jan-3m* ' 



Sale of Full -Blooded Stock. 

On Thursday, March 4, 1«80, Mr, A, M. Ranck, 
of Bird-in-Hand, will oflTer for sale a lot of fine 
blooded stock. There are twelve head of thorough- 
bred short horn cows and heifers, and seven head 
of thorough-bred short horn bulls. He has, also, 
one grade cow, two grade heifers, a pair of first- 
class mules and three draft and driving horses. 
Mr, Ranck has paid special attention for years in 
getting good stock, and as advertised, it is all 
full-blooded. It would be better for our farmers 
if they paid more attention to improving their 
etock, and this sale of short horns gives them a 
splendid opportunity to do so. That it pays to 
keep good stock instead of common, ha^ been 
demonstrated too often for us to attempt to do it 
DOW, and again we would advise farmers to at- 
tend his sale. He has Issued catalogues giving the 
pedigree of the various animals for sale, and will 
send them to any one who applies. 



The Cooley Creamer. 

This method of "deeji-setting of milk" is coming 
Into so general use, that at the recent daii-y fair 
in New York, it was not shown as a "novelty," 
but took its place as a common and indispensable 
adjunct to the dairy. With a Cooley Creamer a 
xlairyman is entirely independeut of the weather, and 
his product is uniform at all times. It is in this, as 
well as iu its convenieuce, that the Cooley process of 
setting milk commends itselfto all who make but- 
ter. 

From our foreign exchanges we infer that it has 
been quite extensively introduced into use in Great 
Britain, — Albany Cotmtry Gentleman. Feb-4m, 



a week in your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free 
Address H, Hallett & Co., Portland, Maine, 
Jun-lyr* 



FARMERS, 

Look to Your Inteests, 

IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. TRUCKERS 
AND GARDENERS. 

A NATURAL FERTILIZER ! 



J] 




ii Je 



RICH I HI DISSOLVED BONES. 
PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

POTASH, SILICIC ACID. &C. 



I Permaueatly Enriches Every Variety of Soil. 
It Doubles the Yield of Grass. 

It Insures Good Crops of Wheat, Com, Potatoes Vegeta- 
bles and Fruit. 



An excellent change for land after the contiuuad uno of 
Lime. 

In successful use here over 100 years, and more than two 
thirds of the cropped laud of Europe;improved with Marl. 

It is not a stimulant, as patent manures are, but Its eflects 
are lastiug. 

Farmers, why then pay from $30 to $40 per ton for Phos- 
phates, when you can buy a Natural Fertilizer at the low 
rate of 



$10 PER TON, 



that will yield you a rich return and be a lasting benefit 
to your soil. 

Its History, Analysis, Application to different Soils, 
Crops, Testimonials, and further informatiou regarding its 
uses, will be giveu on application to 



D. P. BITNER 



General A^ent for 



LANCASTER COUNTY. 



Agencies where MARL is kept constantly on 
hand : 

B, h B. F. Walter, Christiana, Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Joseph C. Walker, Gap, '• " 

Henry H. Rohrer, Leaman Place, '* ** 

J. B. Newhaueer, Bird-iu-Uaud, ** *' 

Jacob Mauck, RoUrerst()wn, " " 

M. G. Shindle, MountTille, 

H. F. Bruner, Columbia, " •' 

Miller & Musser, Upper Marietta, " '* 

Groff & Rutt. Landiaville,» " *• 

B. G. Groff. Elizabeth! own. " '* 

Cassel & KlUig, Mount .Joy, " • " 

Shultz&Bro., VVaHhingtou Bor.,Colura'a bPortDeposit R. 

Samuel Hamish. Pequea Station, •' " 

Kirk Brown. Huiues Station, " " 

W. G. Mellinger, West Willow, Quarryville Railroad. 

James A, Meek, Reftou Station, " •' 

Achesou & Swarr, Mechanics Grove, " *' 

H. W. Graybill, Petersburg, Reading & Columbia Railroad. 

Hershey & Danuer, Mauheim, *' •• 

Wm. Evans & Son, Litiz, " " 

P. S. Brubaker, Millway, *' ** 

Sener & Bro., Ephrata, ** ♦' 

Brubaker & Co., Union, " " 

Diller & Sutton, New Holland, Waynesburg Railroad. 

D. P. BITXER, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-lO-lm. 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANII^•.^< TITKKROK 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

MAItltl.FN. 

COLLARS, "WHIPS, FLY NETS. Sz,a., 

.M,-<() l)K,M.i:U IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

liUFAU) liOBKS, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

-1-12] I.ANOAHTKU, PA, 



^HAS: A. LOCHER. 

WHOLESAtEAt^'^ RETAIL 
^^- DRUG 6 1 ST". .^^^ 

NO 9, EAST KING STR. 
^^>- L.ANCAST-ER, PA, 

LOCH ERISJ ENOWN E D QOU G H 

And celebSjed hors£ 

m CATTLE POWDER 

, JT" SEND FQR puOTAT-IONS:'Ss,:SCj 



dec-Iy] 






GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. 
SHIRTS MADFtO order, 

AND WAUliANTEI) TO 1- IT, 

E. J. ERISMAX, 

56 North Queen St,, Lancaster, Pa, 

79-1-12] ' 

PHAUES W. I'KY. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WftLL PftPER^ WittOaW SHftOES, 

llollaiKlM. plain Slin.le <'lolli. 

Fixtures, Fringes, TuBst-Ie aud aW goods pertaiuing to m 
I'iiper and Shade Store. 

No, 63 North Queen St„ Lancaster, Pa, 

79-1-12 

1879 FALL AND WINTER 1880 

Clotljs, Cassinjeres, Coatings, Suitiijgs, 
Veslirigs, and 

FURNISHING GOODS, 

Including the usnal faHhionable varieties of the season, 

PLAIN, STRIPED AND FIGURED. 

ALSO, 

READY-Mi^DE CLOTtjING, 

of "all sorts and sizes." 

AT THE VERY BOTTOM PRICES. 

Don't Forget the oldest and longest established staud In 
the C'it.v of 

LANCASTER, 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

RJerchant Tailors, Drapers and Clolljiers, 

Corner K. Qur*^n and Oraiif/e St8» 

" A jienuy saved is sixpeaco earned.*' 

&tC TH (tOH'^*^^ day at home. Saoiples worth l~'> troe. 
ipj I U ipZUAddresfl SxiNHON k Co., Portland, Maine. 
juQ-lyr' 

FARM ACCOUNTS ! 

Everj' Farmer should know how to keep rheni. An ontirely 
new and complete system just devised. Send postal for 
free Circulars to the Kr.vniit A KIralton BuMlneNH 

I'oUocro, los; s. Tenth Street. Pbilndeli.hia. [TO IO-3m 

A GENTS! READ THIS! 
Wf will |my Af;;:eiilH h Salary of $IO0 per 
iiiontli rikI exppnseN, or allow a large commls- 
sflon, to eetl our new and wanderful inventtxuns. Wc 
mean xchat we sav. Sample Free. Address 

SHKRMAN A CO., Marabali, Mich. 
Nov-6m. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMERS 



[February, 1880. 





GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE MARK.Tho<;real English TRADE ^fl^K. 

IC4*iuecl> will prompt- 
, ly liiid radically cure 
\uiiy and every case^ of 
' nervous DebiU'y and 

\Ve:.kne83, r«Hult or 

ludiscretioij, excess of 

overwork of the brain 

aud uervouB system, is 

pt-rffctly harntlesB, acts ^ ^ __ 

Before Takuur'**^*" '""«'?• ""'^'^"s been AfVp«"Tflkiii(r 

*^ * Oext(Mi8ively used for over ■O-Ll'Ol XdJUUg. 

thirty years with threat succesf". Full paiticiilars iu our 
pamphlet, whicli we desireto seud free liy mail to every oue. 
The Bpecinc mfdicine JA sold by all druggists at^l per pack- 
age, or six packaRes for $5. or will he seut free by mail ou 
receipt of the money by addressing 

TIJEGKAY MEDICINE COMPAXY. 
No. 10 Mecliauics' Block, Detroit. Michigan, 
la^SoId in Lancaster by H. B. Cochran. 137 and 139 N. 
Queen St., aud by drujjgisis everywhere. [79-3-12 

Iftn APPCe PIANTED WITH BERRIES, 
■ WW IMiiiis livtiwa 1 r traii^pUintiiie, ami 



i*Kii»is Kr<n\ u 1 

Fruit foriiio niarkru S 

for V. hat 8' rts to plant. St'iit tree* A'Jclrcss 

iX: - ^ 



iraii^pUiiitiiiCf aiid 
'Scu New CatnlOKue 



JOHN H COTXlNS.M<'<jreeto\vn.K'\v Jerrey. 
- Ab» JKKSEY lU:ii V10T3, ali pure block. 



T9u.l0-6m 




THIS J^^Z^^T^T- 

ELASTIC TRUSS 

HasaPaddif 
feriug from 
all others, ii 
oup-shaped, 
•with SEIjF- 
ADJTJST'NQ 
BAX.I. in the 
center, adapts 
itself to all 
positions of the bodyi 
while the B Aljli in the 
Cup PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
jrST AS A PERSON 
"WOrrLD ■WITH THE 
FINGER. "With light 
pressure the Hernia ia 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
ical core is certain. It is easy, durable 
and cheap. Sent by mail, postage paid. 
Circulars free. 
Address, Eggleston Truss Co., Manfira. 

Or c. H. EGGLESTON CO., Chicago.lH. 




^ Enlarqco View or 
THE Pad. 



t»-T-ly] 




COOIEY CREAMER. 

GOLD IIEDAI., PAttIS, 1879. 

BL"TTER made by IMS 
process awarded 
SWEEPSTAKES at 

liiifrnaiion;'! indry Fair. 
i-7s, an'i«JOI-0 jTlED- 
-, t.aiicl ff-IKST PKE- 
!!l!.« at same Fair, 
1. S-IltST PieE> 
'5 BUM at hoyal Agri- 
culiuraltxhlbiMon, Lon- 
don, 1ST9. 

It re<|UireM no mllJt- 

room. 

It riil«i-« nil or<ream bclwiin mllkiuE*. 
Il aerorda l>.ner vemHutloii. 
It rtqiilrfu \'-'- l"'>"r. 

It IH more thofouuhly m:»«lo. 
It l» cheaper, and gives hi;ttcr 
BatlBfnctlon than any othpr wjy 01 6Ctt.:nK imlk. 

THK BITIER MAHK BT THIS sTj r>.M IS UN- 
EXCELLKD IN ITS KEKPING QUALrriKS. 

VEKJUONT FaKM MACIIISE CO., 

BcliowB Falls Vt. 
Febtan. 

A GREAT SUCCESS! lo.ooo.soidM liEAH- 

LK^ 'S noii<l<'i-liill> i:"i>uUir work, the 

Tk'/^Ers'JjFGEN. GRANT 

is iiri>iii.iiiiu.cd Ijv (tie (ifutTiiI f iiitininto fri4'ii<lN the 
beNt loHft-|>rici'4J wnrk-tn-iu*^ tlif splemlnl «nc- 
cewN of Ageutf. tf^A .MII.UO.V people wnnt 
lIKAnr£V*S book to-<lnv. VVVneed 

3000 MORE AGENTS AT ONCE 1 1 
BEWAKE of linifatjoiiH. We send ;)roo/of superi- 
onty, ftdinple leavfS, ntcel portrait of Grant, and yvll 
particulars froo to all desiring them. Address HUBBARD 
BROS., Publishers, T23 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. 
Feb-3m. 



KlIOKT H4>K>S AT 1*1 Itl.lC SA KE.— t'uW S, 
BULl S. .\Nn HKH-'KKS. to be sohl at publit 
auction ou MARCU 4, 18^0, at Biid-in-Hand byi 
the uudersigned. Catalogues on application 

to 

A. M. RANCK. 
jan-lm] Bird-in.Hand. 





deo-lt] 



}°?|3 Printing Press 

For bailneuorpleuure, young or old. Do yonrowo »d- 
T*rtUlng md priatliig. CftUloK°e of presMi, trpe, cmrdt, 

;4c^ for S tbuBp*. K«L»er Ji Co. MeHaen, Oov u 



Sawing off a Log, 
Easy and Past 




A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



Ourlntest improved sawing machine cuts 
off a 2- foot lo^ in 2 minutes, A $IOO 
PRESENT vill be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the old way, as one man 
can with this machine. Circulars sent free. 

U. S. MAMTTACTUREVOCO., 

149 Clark 8t., Chioagro, III. 

A. n. Frank, Buffalo, N. Y., owns and controls Eastern 
and Middle States. 

C'Al'TSON. — Anv sawing machine having a seat for 
the operator, or treadles for his feet, is hh infringement 
on our patents, and'we are prosecuting all infringers. So 

BKWATtK WHO YOU BUT OF. jaU-"m 



.WELL-AU6ER, 



Oursisguarantoedto be the 
cheapest and best in the 
Iworld. Also nothing CR.n beat our SAWING MA- 
f'HlNK. It saws off a --foot lo^ in 2 minutes. 
Pictorial books free. W, liXJLKa, Chicago, HI. 



dec-6m] 



NOTICE. 

A VALUABLE WORK. 

A TREATISE 

— ON THE— 

HORSE AND HIS DISEASES, 

By DR. B. J. KENDALL, of Enosburgh Falls, Veimont. 

It is nicely illustrated with thirty-five engravings, and is 
full of useful horse knowledge. Every horBe owner should 
lave a copy of it, 

SEND 25 CENTS FOR A COPY. 

jun-tf 



mm 



r-AH D- 



I On the Kansas Pacific 
Railway. 3,000,000 
Acres for Sale in the 

I GOLDEN BELT. 



I S3 10 |I7 



10 ST b.T 

rs creiiit. 



Wbeat 



KOiiS 



20 to 50 biishfls ; Corn I 

40tn|00I>ii-ti.j>.- 

No Manure ntK'iS*^!. 

OoLidc'lini;iti', pill I- w:i(. i 
fine echodls, churcln.-3, 
and good -soriftv. Railio,id and mai kel fiicilitiea excel- 
lent. Mans anil full iiifornuUiun FREE. Addr.-^a 
S. tilLinOREf LaudCummis^iotier,>'-';^liua, Kansas. 

79-9-3meon)] 



(h'7QA WEEK, $12 a day at home easily made. Costly 
iP / Zoutfit free. Address True & Co., Augusta, Maine, 
jun-lyr" 




Feb-3m. 



KENDALL'S 



This remarkable medi 

cine will^cure Spavlne,- 

Si'lint. Curb, ClallouB. S:c., or aiiy enlargemeul, AND WILL 
REMOVE THE BUNCH WITHOUT BLISTERING or 
C*'^3 A ^TTT^ causing a sore. No remedy ever 
i^JrjAm V ^.(^ discovered equals it for certainty 
of action in stopping the lameness and removing the bunch. 
Price fl.Od. Send for circular giving PCSITIVE PROOF. 
/NTTTJ X* SOLD BY DROGGI8TS or sent bv the in- 
\J U XmiXi ventor, B. J. Kendall, M. D.. Enosburgh 
Falls, Vt. Johnston, Holloway tt Co., Agts., 602 Areh St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. T9-8-W. 




A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancaa^ 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONE DOLip PER ANNUHJ, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PROPBIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number,unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S. S. Rathvon, who has so ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, ■will continue in the position of 
editor. His contributions ou subjects connected with the 
science of farming, aud particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thorouhly a master — entomological scieuce— some 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the success- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He is determined to make "The Farmer' 
a necessity to all households. 

A county that has so wide a reputatlou as Lancaster 
county for its agricultiiral products, should certainly be 
able to support au agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmei'S Interested in this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The ''Farmer" is 
only oue dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications In regard tothe editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rates of 
advertising can be had on application at the office. 

JOHN A. HIESTAND. 

No. g North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM-SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION'.'- WE&STeR 



Dr.^. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.; MARCH, 1880. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Fublisher. 



Entered at llie Post Ollico at I.ia<icaflier as 
Spfond 4'Ihsn .>lat(<'r. 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL. 

"Too Scientific," 33 

Local Agricultural Fair, - - - - - 34 
Obituary, ------- -34 

The Weatlicr, - - 34 

Graham Bread Agaiu, ----- 35 

The Chiuch Bug, 35 

Ground Hog Philosophy, - - - - 35 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers, - - - - 30 

The Slate Fair, 3li 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

About Graham Bread— fi^. J/. £"., . . - 36 

What Fertilizer Shall we Use— .1. B. K., - 37 

SELECTIONS. 

Tobacco Culture, 37 

How our Growers Raise the Weed — Tobacco Prom 
ttie Seea Bed to the Warehouse— A Practical 
Essay — How to Raise Tobacco — Tlie Flaut Bed — 
How to Grow 8troug Plauts — Preparation of 
Ground — Setting out ttie Plants — Wiien to Top — 
Enemies to be Guarded Against — Topping — Wtien 
to Cut It — Hanging it iu the Barn — Stripping — 
I'acblug — General Remarks. 

New Process of Butter aud Cheese Making, - 38 
The Chatham Creamery, ----- 39 

Our Revised Fruit List, 39 

Standard Pears— Dwarf Pears— Apples— Peaclies — 

Grapes — Cuerries — Raspberries — ^Strawberries — 

CarrantB — Gooseberries — Blacl£ berries. 

Hints for March Work, 40 

Tne Fruit Garden. 

Country Road Making, .... - 40 

More About Sorghum Sugar, - - - - 41 

The Manufacture of Beet Sugar, - - - 41 

Result of the £xt>eriuent — How the Sugar is ot- 
tained. 

Reclaiming Swampy Land, - . - - 41 

Transplanting of Trees, ----- 4;i 

Should we Abolish Oxen, ----- 42 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society, -----.-42 

Crop KeportB — ReBOhitious of Respect — Apple Cul- 
ture-Referred Questions— Clover Seed— Tne Next 
Fair — Fruit on Exhibition — Mlscellaneoas Busi- 
ness — Question for Diecussiou. 

Poultiy .Association, ------ 43 

Reports of Committees — Election of New Members 
—Election ot Ofiicei s— How Early in t'je Season 
Shall we set our Hens— Question for Discussion. 

Linnsean Society, ----- . 44 

AGRICULTURE. 

Sugar in America — Its Introduction, - - - 45 

About Rotten Manure, - . - - - 45 

Some Corn in Illinois, ---... 45 

Notes for the Farmer, - .... 45 
Nitrate of Soda, --.-...45 

HORTICULTURE. 

Peas In Plenty, 45 

Peach Culture, 45 



Think About the Garden Now, ... 45 

What to put in the Garden, - - - - 40 
Apples, ---.----4() 

DOMESTIC 'ECONOMY. 

Ventilation of Sleeping Rooms, - - - - 46 

How to Cook Codfish, 46 

Milk— What is It, 46 

Strange Taste in the Butter, - - - - 46 

To Cure Hams or Beef, ----- 46 

How to Cook Poultry, 46 

Extra Good Sausage, ------ 46 

To Boil a Ham, -...-. 46 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

Apple Sauce, ------- 46 

Apple Pie, 46 

Baked Apples, 46 

Apple Dumplings, ------ 46 

Apple Custard, .-----. 47 

Apple Fritters, - 47 

Brown Betty, ------- 47 

Ox-tail Soup, -------47 

Pan-dowdy or Apple Slump, - - . - 47 

LIVE STOCK. 

Testing a Milch Cow, ----- 47 

How to Water Horses, ----- 47 

The Position of Windows in Horse Stables, - 47 

Bran for Cows, ------- 47 

POULTRY. 

Pure Bred or Common Fowls, - - . 47 

Chickeu Eutozooty, ------ 47 

Selling Eggs by Weight, 47 

Keep Pure Bred Fowls, 4S 

Feeding Poultry, ------ 48 

Milk for Fowls, - - 48 

Literary and Personal. ----- 48 



in your Fertilize) s by using 

"POWELL'S PREPARED CHEMICALS." 

Why pay <S3.> to $45 for your fertilizers wheu 
$13 tu $15 will buy you 

"POWELL'S CHEMICALS" 

For Ono ton Corn, Oat*«, I*o(r1o or Ti»baoco 
Fertilizer, cqnal to the beMt higli-i^riced PhosiitiAte iu 
the miirket. Seud for "PowoII'h ISook ol" l>'orina- 

laN,** with directions for mixing, nearly 5ilU uamea oi reli- 
able PeuDBjlvuuia farmerB uBiiig them the paet Heasou, 
teatixDOuials, etc. 

EDWABD J. EVANS h Co., 
Mar-3m] Geueral Afienta, York, Pa. 

S£ND FOR 

On Concord Grapevines, Trannplanted Evergreens, Tulip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, etc. Tree Seedlings and Trees for 
timber plantations by the 100,000, 

1. JEKKIMS' NCRSERT, 



THE 



S-S-Y9 



WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



EXillll ilD IXPffi 

OFFICE, 

No. North Oueen Stfeet, 

LANCASTER, PA.. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 

THE WEEKLY 

EXAMINER AND EXPRESS, 

Published ETC17 Wednesday Morning, 

IB an old, well-establiebed newspaper, aud contains just tli* 
news desn-able to make it an interesting and valuabU 
Family Newapiper. The poBtage to suboribers residing 
ontpideuf Lancaster county is paid by tlte publisher. 
Seud for a specimen copy. 

SXrBSC2eiX"3:l01T : 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



EXAMINER AND EXPRESS. 

Published Daily Except Sunday. 

The dally is iiulilished evtry evening during the week. 
It is dolivored ii» tne City aud to surrouuding T' wns ao- 
oessible by railroad and d«ily stage lineB, for 10 cent* 
x\ week. 

Mail SubHcription, free of postage— Ooe moDtb, 50 
cents; one year, SI^-OO. 



THE JOB KOOMS. 

The job rooniB of The Examiner and Extkess ar* 
filled with the latent Btyles of prepsew. material, etc., and 
wo are prepared to do all kinds of Buok and Job Priutia 
at i>R low ruCee and bhort uotiLC as auy catabliebiueuC 1 
the State. 

SALE BILLS A SPECLiLTY. 

W.th a 'full Bi-BOrtment of ne.7 cute that we have jnst 
purchased, we are prepared to print the finest and moat 
attractive sale bills iu the State. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 NortU Queen St., 

L.A.NCASXKR.. -PA.. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



■OENXNYI.VANIA D 

X^ Trains leave the Dep 

WE TWARD. 


.AII.ROAD 

ot iu this city. 

Leave 

Lancaster. 

2:40 a. ra. 

6:00 a. m. 
10:05 a. m. 
10:10 p. ni. 
11:05 a. m. 
11:07 a. m. 
10:50 a. m. 

2:10 p. m. 

2:15 p.m. 

5:45 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

8:50 p. m. 
11:30 p.m. 

Laucaster. 
12:25 a. m. 

4:10 a. in. 

.i:20 a. m. 

7:35 a. m. 

9.10 p. m. 

1:25 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. 

3:0.T p. m. 

5:20 p. m . 

6:25 p. m. 


KOHEDVLE 

as follows : 
Arrive 
Harrisburg. 
4:05 a. m. 








11:20 a. m. 


Hanover Accommodatiou,. 

Mail train via Jit. Joy 

No. 2 \na Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line* 

Frederick .\ccommodation. 


Col. 10:40 a. m. 
12:40 p. m. 
12:55 p. m. 
12:40 p. m. 
3:25 p. m. 
Col. 2:45 p. m 
7:40 p. m. 


Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisbtirg Kxpress 

Pittsburg KxpresB 

Cincinnati Express* 

EASTWARD. 


Col. 8:20 p. m. 
8:40 p. m. 
10:10 p. m. 
12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 
3:00 a. m. 


Philadelphia Expresst 

Fast Line* 


7:00 a. m. 
7:40 a. m. 


Harrisburg Express 

ColHmbia Accommodation.. 

Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 


10:00 a. m. 
12:0 p. m. 

3:40 p.m. 

6:00 p. m. 

.S:bO p. m. 

7:20 p. ra. 


Harrisburg .\ccom 


9:30 p. m. 



The Hauover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will rim 
through t<i Hauover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connectsat Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. aud ruue to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, ou Sauday, when flagged, will 
Btop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy aud Laudis- 
ville. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuuB daily, except Monday. 

NORBECK & MILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



^ 



Gapriage Builders 

cox & CO'S OLB STA^D. 

Corner of Duke and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 



PHyETONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 



Prices to Suit the Times. 

KEPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 
79 -2- 



Manufaoturer of 

Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER,' PA. 

Idrg» Stock of New and Second-hand Work on hand, 
very cheap. Ciirriage« Uade to Order. Work Warranted 
tor ona year. [T9-1-12 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

UEALKR IN 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairiug strictly attended to. 

North Queen-st. and Centra Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 

AT LeWE^T PO*4^IBI.E I*RICE8, 

Fully guaranteed. 
No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] Opposite Lfopard Sotel. 

ESTABLISHED 1832. 




G. SENER & SONS, 

Manufacturers and de:iU>r8 in all kiuds of rough and 
finished 

The best Sawed SHIVi^TESiu the counti'y. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

aud PATENT BLINDS, which are far unperior to any 
other. AIbo beet COAL constantly ou hand. 

OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince aud Walnnt-sts,, 

LANCASTER. PA.. 

79-1-12] 




PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history and habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

and the best remedies for their expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 
This work will be Highly Illustrated, aud will be put In 
press (as soon after n euiticieat number of aubscribers can 
be obtained to cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 
79-2- 



$77 



a month and eipenaes guaranteed to Agents. 
Outfit free. 8UAW k CO., AugiuU, llaiae. 




Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

plant Trees raised iu this couuty aud suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C.LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co., Pa. 

Nursery at Suioketown, six miles east of Laucaster. 
79-1-12 

WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 

WAREROOMS: 

102 East King St., Cor. of Duke ^t. 

■LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-12) 



Special Inducements at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 

JSTo. XS X-2 EI. IS.XVr<3^ S'X'Xt.XIXS'X', 

(over Bursk'e Grocery Store), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assor'meut of furniture of all kinds constantly 
on hand, l^on't foi-get the number. 

X5 X-a £:ctst Z^ixxs Stx-eet, 

Nov-ly] (over Buri-k's Giocery Sioie.) 

For Good and Cheap Work go to 

r. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS. 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST.. 

(Opposite Northern Market), 
Also, all kinds of picture frames. nov-ly 

GREAT BARGAINS. 

A. large assortment of all kinds of Carpets are e till sold at 
lower rates than ever at the 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No. 202 West King St» 

Call and examine our stock and satisfy yourself that w« 
cnu show the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
plies and iugralu at all prices — at the lowest Philadelphia 
prices. 

Also oa hand a large and oomplete assortment of Bag 
Carpet. 

Satisfaction guaranteed bath as to price and quality. 

You are invited to call aud see my goods. No trouble la 
showing them even i( you do not want to purchaee. 

Don't forget this noljce. You can save motley here if you 
want to buy. 

Particular attention given to customer vork 

Also on hand a full a»8ortmeut of Couuterpanes, 011 
Cluths and KlaiikelBof every variety fnov-lyr. 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 

38 and 40 "We.st King Street. 

We lieep ou liaud of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COVERLETS, 

COUXTERPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau and Tidy Covers. Ladies' Furnisliing Goods, No- 
tions, etc. 

Particular attention paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
Bcoweriug and dyeing of all kiuds. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 

Nnv-ly Lanc:i8*er, Pa. 

THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption withont medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will do 
for you what nothing else on earth can. Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Lancaster s-'j so. Get the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lyr 

C. R. KLINE, 
5AtT0I^NEY-AT-|:iAW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

LA.NC.A.STKR. PA.. 

NoT-ir 



/ 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATEVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MARCH, ^880. 



Vol. ZU. No. 3. 



Editorial. 



"TOO SCIENTIFIC." 
Perhaps no object is more frequently and 
more persistently urged ajjainsl Ijooks, lec- 
tures and essays on natural history than 
that which is embraced in the title of this 
paper, namely : that they are "too scientilic" 
to be understood by the unlearned, or those 
who have only received a common school ed- 
ucation, and hence there is entertained a 
decided, and sometimes a bigoted aversion to 
them. Now this may not be the fault of 
scientists themselves, as a class, but may be 
owing to a defective system of common school 
education, or to the prejudice of the students. 
Doubtless there may be instances in which 
scientilic names are introduced or multiplied, 
in order to make the scientists appear learned, 
or to mystify and darken the subject instead 
of shedding light upon it, but it is doubtful 
if honest men, who are entitled to the name 
of scientists, ever resort to such means based 
upon such motives. It is presumed that those 
who speak or write on any subject desire to be 
understood, and if they employ scientific 
names in natural histoiy it is possible that 
they have no choice if they name the animals 
about which they are writing at .all; for, many 
thousands of species have never received a 
common name, and probably never will. For 
instance, a contemporary recently published 
an article on an analysis of the water supply 
of a western city, in which he stated that 
water drinkers .are in the habit of swallowing, 
perhaps, millions of such monsters as the fol- 
lowing : NiUschia curuula, Cyniatopleiira soles, 
Cyniatopleura elHplka, Slansoneis inmctata, 
Plenrosigna speticerii and Jihizolenia eriensis. 
Now it is not at all likely that these little an- 
imals will ever receive specific common 
names, because they are not visible to the 
naked eye, and hardly one man in a hundred 
thousand will ever get a sight of them, for 
they are only brought to view through a pow- 
erful microscope. Still they may be of sufli- 
cient general interest to the public to become 
the subject of essays, lectures, pamphlets and 
books, and if so, they must be called by their 
proper names. It is true that in many in- 
stances scientific names may be enclosed in 
parenthesis and skipped by the general reader 
without interrupting the general thread of the 
discourse, but to omit them entirely would 
mutilate the subject. Because common 
names are often very loc.il in their signifi- 
cance, and often relate to very different ani- 
mals in one locality from what they do in 
another. The subjects of the insect world, 
for instance, are specifically so numerous 
that one common appellation often includes a 
large and indefinite number of species. So 
much so, indeed, that it is rarely we can 
safely use the definite article the in alluding 
to them. Of what specific value arc such 
common names as "Pinchbui^," "Dung- 
beetle," "H.ammerbug," "Woodborer," 
"Plantlouse," "Grasshopper," "Butterfly " 
"Moth," "Bumblebee," "Blowfly," or even 
"Potato-beetle," "Curculio" and "Phylloxe- 
ra—the last two being popularized scientific 
terms— since some of these names may cover 
hundreds, or even thousands of distinct species. 
Even in such classes as quadrupeds and birds 
the systematic common names are becoming 
almost as complicated as their scientific 
names, comparatively limited .as their num- 
bers are. Again, take the class which includes 
the marine .and fresh w.ater shells, hundreds 
of which, to a common observer, look .alike 
and yet .are specifically diflerent, and contem- 
plate the difficulty of giving them all common 
names. Those who object to scientific names 
are also sometimes unsparing in their criti- 



cisms of scientific men because they do not 
give them an unfailing remedy for the extinc- 
tion of each particular species of noxious in- 
sects. Tills may to a great extent be the 
truth of the matter, but farmers, gardeners, 
fruit growers arid florists seem to forget that 
the discovery and application of remedies for 
the arrest or extinction of noxious insects is 
an experimental work, a work too that comes 
directly within the sphere of their own daily 
occupations and pr.actical ob.servations, and 
immediately atfeots their own material inter- 
ests, and therefore ought to elicit their special 
attention. Their opportunities, as a general 
thing, are for superior to those of most ento- 
mologists in making the necessary observa- 
tions upon insect life and h.abit. If they 
were as observant .as their own interests 
would seem to require, they might become co- 
workers with entomologists, and be not only 
mutually beneficial to e.ach other, but also to 
the whole community of earth's cultivators. 
The functions of the entomologist arc two- 
fold—scientific and practical— or they may 
be three-fold, when he adds the discovery 
and apijlication of remedies for the destruc- 
tion of insects, to his already formidable la- 
bors. The purely scientific entomologist will 
find his hands full for a lifetime, in dissections, 
analysis of structures, determinations of gen- 
era and species, nomenclature, and classifica- 
tion, including a multitude of contingencies 
relating thereto. 

The practical entomologist will be as inces- 
santly and laboriously occupied in observing 
and recording the histories and habits of in- 
sects, .as well as their noxious, neutral and 
innoxious qualities and economies— their pe- 
riods of "ingress, egress and regress"— their 
transformations and transitions — as well as 
their food, (whether animal or vegetable) 
their local domiciliations, their forms, sizes, 
.and colors, in their various stages of develop- 
ment and m<aiiy other things contingent there- 
to. Here is where the intelligent farmer, 
gardener and fruit grower's work begins, and 
if he is assiduous, he will find a great help in 
the labors of both the scientific entomologist 
and his practical co-laborer. It is true, that 
essays and addresses intended for ,tlie peojilc 
should not be lumbered too much with tech- 
nicalities, but the English language is so 
meagre, and the subjects of the animal king- 
dom are so immense in number, that the dif- 
ficulty of linding a suitable common name is 
much greater than framing a scientific one. If 
the study of natural science was made a part of 
the instruction of our common schools the difli- 
culty ill technology would soon be overcome. 
School boys of ten years of age will learn to 
repeat from their toy books such names as 
Aramaraparagaramoos, Crononhotontliologos, 
and Aldibormitifoski/ornioslccus, as easily as 
they can the word huckleberry, and it would 
be .the same in regard to scientific names. 
Where, for instance, is the consistency of 
a German persisting in calling a little 
species of Lady-bird, Kugelkaferocoulich- 
cr Heckenbl'iitkrefer, instead of Chrysomela 
coccinelloides, merely because the latter is a 
scientific name? Curculio and Phylloxera, 
as we have said before, have become in a 
great measure popularized, and are now quite 
as often used as Plum-weevil and Grapelcaf 
gall louse. Moreover, Plum-weevil can hard- 
ly be regarded now as a s))ecific common 
name, because we have bred it not only from 
the plum, but also from the apple, the quince, 
the peach, the apricot, and the cherry, and it 
is also known to have been bred from soft 
plum and cherry "knots," .although it is not 
claimed that they caused them. But, let those 
who complain about scientific technology take 
courage, for scientific writers are doing what 



they can to simplify and popularize the natu- 
ral sciences, although it seems manifest that 
science never will, and perhaps never can 
entirely abandon her technology, there may 
be a descent to a lower mental plane, in ac- 
coiumod.ation to an intelligent mediocrity, but 
the persistently illiterate masses must become 
educated up to that plane if they value the 
benefits of scientific teaching. It is all folly 
to assume that the reasonably intelligent 
among the human family cannot become edu- 
cated up to a general comprehension of scien- 
tific liturature, for scientfic technology is not 
peculiar to natural history alone. There is 
scarcely a mechanical professional or commer- 
cial occui)atioii that has not its peculiar tech- 
nology. Place in the hands of a man of ac- 
knowledged intelligence, ou other subjects, a 
list of the different garments, and the fabrics 
which compose them, whic4i enter into a 
lady's toilet of the present day, and see how 
much he will understand about the names, 
qualities and materials; and yet a little miss 
scarcely in her teens, may know all about 
them, and may be able to repeat their names 
as glibly as her A B Cs; .and a boy; ten or a 
dozen years old. may be able to lay his hand 
immediately upon a thousand articles in a 
drug store, all of which bear Latin names. 

Why, the very cut-throats, burglars, pick- 
pockets, pugilists and habitues of the cockpit 
have a sort of flash technology that is per- 
fectly intelligible to them, but "all (freek" to 
the honest and unsophisticated. It seems 
impossible that all the brain should have been 
monopolized by tliese and others to whom we 
luave alluded, and none accorded to farmers, 
gardeners and fruitists. We must confess 
that, personally, we have often wished that 
scientific descriptions had been couched in 
.somewhat plainer language, but at the same 
time we are compelled to acknowledge its 
impracticability. We never feel quite sure that 
we perfectly understand what the animal or 
plant is that an author is describing who 
entirely discards or ignores scientific nomen- 
clature. AVe feel like a mariner at sea with- 
out a compass; although he may not fully 
understand the minute details of the instru- 
ment, yet so far as he rhcs understand,it is to 
him an infallible guide. We must educate 
ourselves up to an intelligent standard ont his 
subject as well as on others, and meet the 
efforts that are being made to popularize 
science, at least halt way, and to do this 
there needs to be provision made for it in our 
systems of public instruction. The currimdum 
of the school need not be lumbered unneces- 
sarily with scientific technology bnt still 
suUicient to guide the student in any occupa- 
pation he may afterwards select as his busi- 
ness of hfe. Under any circumstances all 
elementary education is only rudiment.al, and 
only becomes useful when it is reduced to 
practice, and especially so when it becomes a 
part and parcel of our daily calling, and is 
interwoven with our pecuniarv interests. 
The name, the, n.ature, the habits and the 
forms ot the animals existing in the districts 
we have cho.sen for our inheritance, becomes, 
as it were, a part of our stock in trade, and a 
knowledge of them is as essential to the suc- 
cessful farmer as a knowledge of composts 
and fertilizers, or as agricultural implements 
and how to use them. And the longer we 
live, the more we iraprove|and cultivate the 
Land, the more attention will have to be paid 
to the incidental checks and drawbacks to 
agricultural progress. 



The next "boom" in the .agricultural 
world will likely be the production of beet- 
sug.ar, at least there is a perceptible current 
now running in that direction. 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



t March, 



LOCAL AGRICULTURAL FAIR. 
As will be seen by the proceedings of the 
last meeting of our local society, near their 
close, preliminary action was taken in rela- 
tion to a proposed fair of the society next fall. 
And the society has acted not one moment 
too soon. Indeed, several societies that we 
have heard of had committed themselves to 
such an enterprise full two months ago. 

We hope our farmers and manufacturers 
will take sufficient interest in the enterprise 
to insure its success, and this we are confident 
they can accomplish with only an ordinary 
effort. Let every participant go to work as 
if the whole enterprise depended upon his own 
energy, his own volition and his own presence, 
and in this way a spirit will be started that 
will become infectious. 

It will appear, too, that the exhibition 
rooms and other out-buildings of the Park are 
to be changed into tobacco warehouses, so 
that they will not be available for fair ,'Ur- 
poses. Well, that is something of a draw- 
back, but it is not necessarily a sine qua non 
to a successful exhibition. The fact is, the 
capacity of the Northern Market House — the 
place suggested — has never j'et been properly 
tested, never has been even half filled at any 
of the former fans held there. If every ave- 
nue and every stand of that building was oc- 
cupied it would make as grand a display as 
any county could desire to make. "With 
proper economy of space and a proper arrang- 
meut and classification of material that build- 
ind could easily accommodate six times as 
much as has ever been placed there on exhibi- 
tion. 

It is true, there would be no space for large 
machinery, but they are not exactly essential 
to success moreover, there are always state 
fairs and county fairs where ample facilities 
exist for the exhibition of heavy machinery, 
and inventors and proprietors will avail them- 
selves of these. But small or light machines, 
agricultural and domestic implements, bee 
products, chickens and poultry in general, 
grain and seeds, garden and field vegetation. 
Fruits, flowers, household productions, music 
and musical instruments, needle work, draw- 
ing, and last, not least, the various manufac- 
tures of toDacco. Leaf tobacco of various kinds 
besides many other things would all serve to 
make, in their aggregate, a splendid fair. 
Tobacco is becoming king, as much so as ever 
cotton was in the south, and, therefore, the 
tobacco interest alone could get up a fair in 
Lancaster county if only a moiety of the in- 
terest was manifested that prevailed at the 
centennial four years ago. Try it, tobacco 
men, and show the world what can be done 
here. But, says one, "it takes too much 
labor to get up and superintend exhibitions 
of this kind." True, it does require labor, 
but we would like to know if anything ever 
can be, or ever has been accomplished in this 
world without labor, and sometimes very hard 
and incessant labor. Most of the labor, how- 
ever, required in getting up fairs can be pur- 
chased at a very reasonalsle price,but the direct- 
ing and controling energy may not always be 
as accessible, or so abundant, as circumstances 
might require. The labor, in fact, has not 
heretofore been the chief trouble; it has been 
the seeming want of interest, and the unwill- 
ingness to labor on the part of the many, and 
casting the burdens of labor upon the shoul- 
ders of the few, which has always been the 
cause of complaint. But, really, even this is 
but a poor excuse for opposition, or indiffer- 
ence in relation to a fair. The many could 
not work to advantage; they would be in each 
other's way — "too many cooks spoil the 
broth;" as a general thing it must be dele- 
gated to a few, and these few clothed with au- 
thority to employ such assistance as they 
require. 

An early start, a liberal premium list, 
equitable rules, attractive posters and ample 
advertising, backed with intelligent and ener- 
getic management, are the best "booms" to 
help along a fair. With these elements un- 
selfishly "used and not abused," if the Al- 
mighty deems us worthy of any crops at all 



in 1880, we may be able to get up and sustain 
an exliibition worthy of the "name and fame" 
of Lancaster county. It won't do for us to be 
as our ancestors; we must transcend them 
just as thoy transcended their ancestors in the 
Palatinate, and planted themselves on Amer- 
ican soil, where there was room to expand. 
Therefore we must "push along, keep mov- 
ing," for if we stop, the car of progress will 
pass us and we shall be left behind. It must 
be evident to all who have ears to hear and 
eyes to see, that, like the unsophisticated old 
farmer whose mind was opening to a consci- 
ousness of these things— "We can't do as we 
used to did, because we ain't as we used to 
was." And none manifest in their domestic 
habits and customs a more practical appre- 
hension of these things than the yeomanry of 
the county; in many respects they are really 
in advance of their city cousins, although they 
may seem otherwise. There are more bene- 
fits accrumg from the public expositions of 
the products of the soil and the workshop 
than are immediately visible. It is a kind of 
planting, the reaping season of which will 
follow in due time. Speed then— "The plow, 
the anchor and the shuttle— united they 
stand, divided they fall;" for "In union there 
is strength." 



OBITUARY. 

Owing to our limited space we have not 
been in the habit of publishing death notices, 
even when the departed belonged to the noble 
army of agriculturists, except in a few very 
near and special cases, but the following from 
the Germantoivn Telegraph of February 25, 
1880, is such a distinguished record, and the 
deceased had been so long before the world of 
agriculture and was so widely known and ap- 
preciated that we feel our readers will thank 
us for inserting such a record in the columns 
of our journal, where it may be referred to by 
themselves, by their children and their chil- 
dren's children, when they themselves have 
passed away. Very few of our readers per- 
haps have ever seen the man (we never have) 
but who has not seen, or could not have seen 
if he wished it, a copy of the familiar little 
'■'Landreih^s Rural Begister,'''' which has been 
published these many years, aud gi atuitously 
scattered abroad with such a liberal hand. 
It was more than a mere advertisement, for 
it was always well filled with matters inter- 
esting and useful to the farmer and gardener: 
"It is with great sorrow that we are called 
upon in our present issue to announce the 
death of David Landreth, the great seed- 
grower and merchant of Philadelphia. He 
died at his residence, "Bloomsdale,,' near 
Bristol, on the Delaware, on Sunday last, in 
the 79th year of his age. He owned and ope- 
rated the largest seed farm in the world, his 
principal depot for the sale of his seeds and 
cognate matters being in this city, though 
there were branches elsewhere. His father, 
who came from England, established the first 
seed farm in this country, in what is called 
"The Neck," and his son succeeded him in 
the business, but changed the location of the 
farm to the Delaware, two miles above 
Bristol, where he added to its dimensions 
until he had acquired a tract of land which 
for beauty, fertility, and as especially adap- 
ted to his business, is not surpassed in this 
country or in Europe. The deceased was the 
head of the firm of the well-kno\Yn house of 
D. Landreth & Sons, and for unswerving in- 
tegrity, reliable and scrupulous characteristics 
was the peer of any man in the community. 
"In the year 1827 he was active in founding 
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, the 
first American Association of its kind, and in 
the following year he was chosen its Corres- 
ponding Secretary, which office he filled for 
nine successive years. As an associate of the 
Philadeli)hia Society for the Promotion of 
Agriculture, he zealously co-operated for 
many years, and for two successive terms 
filled its highest official station. It was dur- 
ing his occupancy of the presidency that the 
United States Agricultural Society held its 
famous exliibition at Powelton. 



' 'The rural writings of Mr. Landreth are 
diffused through periodicals and pamphlets, 
and some of the latter have attained a wide 
circulation. For some years past he has re- 
sided at Bloomsdale, a most beautiful resi- 
dence which he erected, aud where he died. 
It is an estate of 500 acres devoted to seed- 
culture, and also contains an arboretum, 
principally of conebearers and other ever- 
greens of interest to botanists. During the 
latter years of his residence at Bloomsdale he 
very rarely visited the city, the business of 
the house being managed by his sons, who 
were brought up to it and thorouglily under- 
stand all its multitudinous ramifications. 

"Mr. Landreth was a gentleman by nature, 
education and association. He was a fine 
conversationiilist, genial in disposition, of 
extremely pleasant manners, and never failed 
to impress every one favorably though he may 
have never met him but once. He was warm- 
hearted, sympathetic, generous and true. His 
loss will be long felt and mourned, and the 
vacancy he has caused will be long left im- 
flUed. 

"We learn that the deceased died calmly, 
with perfect resignation, surrounded by his 
family, who loved him so devotedly, and that 
he retained his full mental powers to the end. 
His funeral took place on Thursday, at a 
quarter past three o'clock, at St. .James' 
church, Bristol. 



THE WEATHER. 



It has long since passed into a vulgar pro- 
verb that "all signs fail in dry weather;" 
which is presumed, no doubt, to be otherwise 
in wet weather. But it seems they are as 
likely to fail in one kind of weather as in the 
other. The winter of 1879-80 cannot be said 
to have been a ciry one, indeed, it has rather 
been the contrary, and yet all prognostica- 
tions in regard to its specific character have 
signally failed. Not a single prediction in 
reference to it, however, commonplace or 
learned, has been fulfilled. It has been barely 
four weeks since we had a bright, clear and 
sunny Candlemas, which, according to an old 
tradition, presages six weeks of cold, bluster- 
ing .and wintery, weather, and yet with the 
exception of a very few days, all that interval 
has been mild and spring-like, and the dande- 
lion, the snowdrop and the crocus have been 
in bloom, and to make the case stronger, the 
groundhog who is supposed to be wonderfully 
weatlierwise, ventured abroad on the 28th of 
February and "put his foot in" a steel trap, . 
when his disciples in meteorological lore 
thought he was still enjoying his six weeks 
nap. °lt is true "old prob." generally makes a 
near approximation to the kind of weather 
we are going to have within twelve or twenty- 
four hours, but he rarely ventures beyond 
that. He does'nt pretend to foretell what 
kind of weather we will have for a week, ten 
days or a month hence, as some do — yea, six 
months hence has been confidently claimed 
by a few of them. Doubtless there must be 
some cause for these abnormal conditions of 
the weather, but those causes are hidden too 
deeply in the weather's "wisdom chest" for 
mortals to pry into and proclaim. Can the 
cause be planetary ? Can it be that our new 
stargazing association has made the planets 
cross, and that they are punisliing us for our 
trespass upon their domain ? Thursday 
afternoon, March 4th sent the mercury up to 
72^ of Fahrenheit, and the bees were fairly 
rollicking in the few flowers they could find. 
What wonderfully vivifying elements, light, 
heat and moisture are, no matter at what 
season of the year they may occur. They es- 
pecially disturb the repose of plants and ani- 
mals in their winter hibernations, not even 
sparing the groundhog — secretly prying into i 
the arcanum of nature, rousing animate and 
inanimate life into activity, telling them to go 
forth and prosper in the things relating to ] 
their ditlerent organizations, and they go 
forth. They don't stop to consider theH 
various prognostications of weather-prophets, 
whether bipeds or quadrupeds. Whatever 
may yet be hidden in the womb of the future I 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



it cannot now allect the winter months of 
1879-80. That meteorologic epoch has passed 
away, and we are now on the thi-esholU of 
spring. Whetlicr a late spring or an early 
spring, a warm spring or a cold spring, time 
alone can tell. 



GRAHAM BREAD AGAIN. 

We cheerfully welcome our esteemed cor- 
respondent aijain to our columns. He had 
been absent so long that we had begun to con- 
clude he liad gone "where the woodbine 
twineth," and hence we thought we might 
trespass upon the domain of "(xraham 
Bread" with prospective impunity, l)ut it 
seems we have "waked u)) the wrong pas.sen- 
ger." Of cour.se, there will always be "many 
men of many minds." Our strictures were 
based mainly on the sentiment — "Not that 
we esteemed (rraham bread any less, but that 
we esteemed bread made of good bolted 
wheaten tlour more." 

A school-boy is said to have proven to his 
grandmother, according the rules of logic, 
that "our cat has three tails." Granny ad- 
mitted the logic and the argument, but, 
nevertheless, there stood the cat spasmodic- 
ally nianipulatiug her solitary tail, logic or 
no logic. Although we do not, and never 
have, condemned Graham bread, we fear we 
are as arbitrary in our likes as the stubborn 
fact that Tommy's cat had but a single tail. 
No doubt there are chronic cases of indiges- 
tion, dyspepsia, constipation, flatulency, &c., 
in which Graham bread may gradually initiate 
a more healthy tone than luxurious bread 
made out of good bolted Hour. If Grahamites 
are as honest in their adhesion to and the 
expression of their sentiments in favor of 
their bread as we are in relation to ours, then 
"Brutus and Cassius may both be honorable 
men," and hence may "agree to disagree." 

THE CHINCH-BUG. 

(BlU^UH Cucopterus Saj/.) 

Thanks to our geographical situation we 
have thus far been free from this insect pest, 
and probably may remain so, but its ultimate 
presence we think may be included among 
the possibilities, for we have a host of its 
cogeners, and sometimes they also become 
very destructive. It is not so very long since 
a nursery man in the State of Delaware lost 
about 800 sniall apple trees (all he had) by the 
punctures of a species of Pht/tocoris, which is 
not very far removed from the "chinch-bug," 
and similar destructions occurred in our 
county from the infestations of JPhytoarris 
lineolaris. 

It is estimated from sufficient data and 
reliable authorities that the Slates of Illinois 
and Missouri alone sustained a loss in 1874 of 
$50,000,000 in corn, wheat, oats and barley, 
and it would be safe to estimate the entire 
country's loss, the same year, at $100,000,000. 
It is very common for some editors and pub- 
lishers to sneeringly regard these tigures as 
exaggerations,alleging that as the chinch-bugs 
multiply most rapidly, and are most destruc- 
tive during seasons of drought, it is not likely 
there would have been much of a crop at any 
rate, and, therefore, they could not fairly be 
charged with destroying what had never 
really existed, or what was not likely to exist 
under such circumstances. Whatever plausi- 
bility there may be in such an argument we 
have had sufficient experience to know that 
objectors of that character have a very im- 
perfect conception of insect multiplication 
and gastronomy. The chinch-bug is not a 
large insect, not nearly so large as a bed-bug, 
(it belongs to the same order,) somewhat 
larger than a chicken-louse, but it often hap- 
pens that these small insects are more prolific 
and more destructive than the larger species. 
Take for instance the "grape phylloxera," 
which in a few years has spread over 1,000,000 
acres in France, and has utterly ruined the 
vines in 700,000 of those acres, effecting a loss 
of $830,000 in a single district in a couple of 
years, and that insect is a mere pigmy in size 
compared with the chinch-bug. 

We believe that the estimates made fall 



largely below the reality, and that any im- 
pressions fostered to the contrary have a 
tendency to mislead the people and throw 
them off their guard. The infestations of 
noxious insects are so formidable, and their 
destructions so vast, that people cannot be 
too vigilant in effecting their extermination. 



GROUND HOG PHILOSOPHY. 

"Yfyt-' wuddp-cliuclic BW-ii his shaddo in yc euoDe, 
Six wokos of wyiiterre siioH li:ivu IjeguniK;; 
Yf'ye wud<le-chufke his sluulildiloes nolt see, 
Six wokes of epryiifje-lyke weatlier tliayr shall be." 
The orthograi>hy of these lines would seem 
to imply that they were written in "fair 
sunny England" about four hundred and 
fifty years ago — during Chaucer's time, if not 
by that distinguished poet himself. What is 
most fatal to an implicit faith in their genu- 
ineness is the fact that "wudde-chuke," or 
"wood-chuck," is purely an Americanism ; 
that name not being applied to any animal 
in England, or even on the continent of 
Europe. It is even questionable whether that 
animal or any other of the same genus has an 
existence in England at all. On the conti- 
nent of Europe they have the "Alpine Mar- 
mot" {Arct'imys aljdnus), which is gcnerically 
allied to the "ground-hog" of Lancaster 
county, but, but it is not known by the name 
wood-chuck. Nor are the habits of this ani- 
mal used as a prognosticator of the weather, 
either in England or on the continent of 
Europe; therefore the entire prophecy is as 
little known there as the term "wood-chuck" 
or ground-hog either. Con,sequently we must 
transfer the origin of the story to the conti- 
nent of North America, and specifically to 
Pennsylvania, where it is more popular than 
anywhere else in the American Union. But 
then the language of our quotation, and es- 
pecially its orthography, is not in any sense 
Pennsylvanian, it is too antique, and belongs 
to the period we have above indicated — iii- 
deed, it smacks very much of an overdrawn 
very modern imitation — and very probably 
was intended to clothe a modern local super- 
stition in an ancient foreign literary garb. 
Wherever the notion exists, and with what- 
ever faith it may be believed in, we think we 
ought to acknowledge its Pennsylvania pater- 
nity — if we do not claim it even for Lancas- 
ter county — and record it as one of the pecu- 
liar notions of the "Pennsylvania Dutch." It 
cannot be exactly ranked with superstitions, 
for there may be many who believe it with 
qualifications — in a sort of Pickwickian sense 
— and therefore we "book it" as a notion. 
Nor are we prepared to say it is entirely 
"moonshine," when the prophecy is properly 
understood, because it is fulfilled about as 
often as it fails; but in the majority of in- 
stances, the weather is of such a character for 
six weeks after Candlemas, that it could not 
be established before a courtand jury whether 
it has been a fulfillment or a failure. This 
depends somewhat upon how peoi)le under- 
stand it. Some would say we shall have six 
consecutive weeks of cold or mild weather 
(based upon the character of the weather on 
Candlemas or Groundhog day,) without ref- 
erence to the kinds that might follow the six 
weeks. Others may say that we shall have an 
early or a late spring, with six weeks of cold 
or warm weather interspersed between the 2d 
of February and the 1st or middle of April, 
as the case may be; indeed, we have heard it 
said long years ago, that the sun must shine 
sufficiently to cast a shadow, or be over- 
clouded, all day on the 2d of February, or the 
prognostication loses its potency and is en- 
tirely void; others were content with one 
hour, bv even less, in the morning. But, 
"for the sake of the argument." suppose we 
admit the genninness of the writing; we are 
then forced to conclude that the author of 
this old prophecy knew very little about the 
history or habits of the American wood-chuck, 
or ground-hog. And, if he had intended his 
prophecy to be applicable to the "uttermost 
parts of the earth" and for all coming time, 
probably would have substituted some other 
animal as a symbol of his prognostication — a 



hare, a rabbit or a cat, for instance — and not 
have idenlitied it with a physical impossibil- 
ity. As to whether a clear or cloudy Candle- 
mas morning presages cold or mild weather 
(luring the six weeks which immediately fol- 
low it, we leave entirely to the discussion of 
llie weather-wise; beiause, in discussing the 
question from our standpoint, we are not dis- 
puting its meteorological inlluence. There 
may lie zodiacal or planetary afiinities that 
we are unconscious of, although they may not 
be so unerring or so conspicuous in their man- 
ifestations as -some people claim for them, 
running as they do far beyond the compre- 
hensions of the most philosophical mind. 
This is not the case in regard to weather 
prognostications alone; but also in relation to 
what may be deemed more tangible subjects. 
How often are physicians of long practice and 
the most extensive and varied experience 
baffled in the treatment of an apparently sim- 
ple disea.se, in which they have found that all 
tlie .symptoms have misled them, all their 
remedies have failed, and they have only 
discovered the real cause alter it was too late 
to benefit the patient, or perhaps only after 
they had made a post mortem examination. 
It may often be so also in regard to the usual 
signs of the weather, and perhaps it always 
will be so as long as human knowledge can- 
not penetrate the vail that shrouds the hidden 
secrets of nature's realm. Therefore, we 
here neither deny norafirm the moteorological 
significance of the day known as Candlemas 
in the churches, and Ground-IIog day among 
the "gentiles." Practically speaking, there 
is not a farmer who would not rather have 
six weeks of cold weather to follow the 2d day 
of February than six weeks of mild or warm 
weather, unless he could be assured that it 
would not return to cold again after the mid- 
dle of March, for it seems, according to the 
prophecy, that neither Candlemas nor the 
ground-hog exercises any influence over the 
weather beyond the six weeks which immedi- 
ately follow the second of February. Nor 
would the prevalence of either a cold or a 
warm temperature— unless they continued 
considerable longer than six weeks — result ia 
what is usually considerd a late or an early 
spring. All this argumentation, however, 
may seem like the two opposing attorneys, 
who discussed, during a long summer day, 
the application of a certain point of law in a 
case then before the court and then in despair of 
convincing each other, appealed to said court 
for its opinion in the matter. At length the 
judge, wearj' and worn with the long debate, 
arose and with becoming dignity answered: 
" Oaitkmcn, that law has been repealed'^" la 
like manner we may enunciate, "Gentlemen, 
the ground-hog never leaves his winter retreat 
on a cold day? Indeed, it could not if it would. 
It is a hibernating animal, and when it retires 
for the winter, it remains in its lair until the 
warm return of spring. It is only infiueuced 
in its movements by a warm temperature,, no 
matter in what month it occurs, just as vege- 
tation, insects, or other subjects of the king- 
dom of nature are. Neither sunshine nor 
cloud could bring it out if the weather was 
cold, nor keep in if the weather was warm. 
It is entirely independent of festivals and set 
days, if there is not sulUcient heat to revive 
it. Its fixed habit "repeals" all such useless 
speculations. 

It is said that in Scotland the prognostica- 
tion is expressed in this wise : 

If camllemas is lair and clear, 
There'll be two winters in the year, 

which does not Jeopardise the prognostication 
by an improhahk — and in some instances an 
i)ipoA-6i6?e— figure. The author of the.se lines 
probably knew nothing about the ground-hog 
or wood-chuck as it is called in America, nor 
yet about its peculiar habits; but this did not 
prevent him from concocting a prognostica- 
tion. Candlemas is known whcreever Chris- 
tianity is known, and hence its fitness as a 
meteiological symbol ; but the ground-hog is 
not co-extensive with Christianity, although 
it has a tolerable, wide range, and there are 
also several species of them. 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



t March , 



First, we will mention the "Maryland mar- 
mot " (Arctomy''s mcrnaz). This is oicr local 
species, called the "ground-hog," also called 
locally, elsewhere, the "wood-chuck;'" but it 
has various other names. In Canada it is 
called the "marmot," or ground-hog, by the 
English and Scotch, but the French Cana- 
dians call it the "siffleur." At Hudson's 
Bay it is called the "thick-wood badger; in 
Eussian America, the "Tarbagan. " The 
Creek Indians call it the "weenusk," and the 
Chippewas, " kalh-hilla-kovang;" it is the 
Quebee marmot of Pennant, and the marmot 
de Canada of Butlon. Linnteus described it 
under the scicntitic name of Mus monax, the 
same genus to which the common rat belongs. 
Gmelin placed it in the genus ^rctom's, which 
is, Uterally interpreted, "bear-rat." It had 
also other names. 

At least seven species of Arctomys, or 
"ground-hogs," were known to the territory 
of the United States forty years ago, and by 
this date many otliers may have been added. 
Most of them, however, have been referred 
to other, or new genera. One species in Lan- 
caster county, as previously stated, is usually 
referred to in books as the "Maryland mar- 
mot," probably because the specimen from 
which the original description was made was 
captured in Maryland and supposed to exist 
nowhere else. Then there is the Quebec mar- 
mot (A empretie) which was somehow once 
confounded with ours, but now supposed to 
be a distinct species, Franklin's marmot (A. 
jPranKnui), Tawny marmot (A. Richardsonii), 
prairie marmot {A.ludovicianits), Parry's mar- 
mot {A. Faryii), and Hood's marmot (A. tra- 
decmiUneata). These specimens vary in size 
from that of our common red squarrel up that 
of our common "possum." About ten years 
ago we had a specimen of "Hood's marmot " 
sent to us from Missouri by mail, enclosed in 
a tin mustard box. It was late in Autumn 
and it was eight days on the way, but within 
half an hour after the box was opened in a 
warm room, tlie animal revived, and became 
as active as if nothing unusual had happened 
to it. It was very pugnacious, and would re- 
sent promptly any disturbance of its repose. 
It ate very sparingly of chestnuts, and as 
soon as the temperature lowered towards 30^ 
or4CP it would relapse into its torpid state. 
This species has been removed to the genus 
sperrnophihis. It finally escaped and was never 

recaptured. 

^ . — 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS. 
A special meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Pennsylvania Fruit Grower's So- 
ciety was held at the Stevens House, Monday 
morning, March 1st. The president, Judge 
Greorge D. Slitzel, of Reading; vice president, 
Henry M. Englc, of Marietta, and recording 
secretary, E. 15. Engle, of Marietta, were 
present, the former presiding. The only bus- 
iness transacted was the appointing of com- 
mittees for the ensuing year, which are as 
follows. 

General Fruit Committee — E. Satterthwait, 
Montgomery county, chairman; A. R. Sprout, 
Lycoming county; Joseph Lewis, Jr., Dela- 
ware county; Dr. James Calder, Centre 
county; J. O. Martin, Franklin county; W. 
M. Paunebacker, Mittlin county;.!. V. Gar- 
retson, Adams county; S. Stevenson, Lacka- 
wanna county; Bassler Boyer, Lebanon 
county; T. A. Woods, Dauphin county; J. W. 
Pyle, Chester county; A. S. Shreiner, North- 
ampton county; Casper Hiller, Lancaster 
county; Peter Lint, York county; A. S. 
Sheller, Union county; W. L. Schaeffer, Phil- 
adelphia; J. Murdoch, Allegheny county; H. 
S. Rupp, Cumberland county; Cyrus T. Fox, 
Berks county; U. Leh, Lehigh county; F. F. 
Merceron, Columbia county. 

Committee on Nomenclature-Josiah Hoopes, 
Chester county, chairman; L. S. Reist, Lan- 
caster county; J. Hibbert Bartram, Chester 
county; S. VV. Noble, Montgomery county; 
Ezra High, Berks county. 

Committee on Floriculture and Arboricul- 
ture — Charles H. Miller, Philadelphia, chair- 
man; P. C. HUler, Lancaster county; John C. 



Hepler, Berks county; George Achelis, 
Chester county; R. B. Haines, Montgomery 
county. 

Committee on Orcharding — Thomas M. 
Harvey, Chester county; Dr. .1. II. Funk, 
Berks county; J. G. Engle, Lancaster county; 
II. F. Clark, Columbia county; Jacob Hey- 
ser, Franklin county. 

Committee on Entomology — S. S. Rathvon, 
Lancaster, chairman; Jacob Stauffer, Lancas- 
ter; Herman Strecker, Berks. 

Committee on Arrangement and Reception 
— E. G. Fahnestock, Adams county, chair- 
man; Raphael Sherfly, Adams; Messrs. Stable, 
of Adams; Hereter, of Adams and E. B. 
Engle, of Marietta, Lancaster county. 

^ 

THE STATE FAIR. 



The State Agricultural Society. 
President W. S. Bissel, John McDowell, of 
Washington county; J. L. Norris, of Susque- 
hanna county; Dr. A. L. Kennedy, of Phila- 
delphia; Elbridge McConkey and D. W. 
Seller, of Harris burg, members of the Penn- 
sylvania State Agricultural Society, met at the 
Girard House, Philadelphia, to arrange the 
details for the State Fair and International 
Sheep Show, to be held next fall at the Per- 
manent Exhibition Building. The State Fair 
will continue from the 6th to the 18th of 
September, and will be followed by the Sheep 
Show, which will close on September 2.5th. 
The State Agricultural Society will offer pre- 
miums aggregating 840,000, which will be 
divided into classes as follows : Sheep, $8,000; 
horses, S7,000; cattle, $8,500; swine, $3,000; 
poultry, $1,000; dairy products, $1,500, and 
the balance to machinery, fruits, seeds, etc. 



Contributions. 



t'OR The Lancasteb Fakmeb. 
ABOUT GRAHAM BREAD. 
An article on this subject appeared in the 
New Era some time since from L. D. Z. and 
was copied into the Lancaster Farmer, 
of February, and commented upon to some 
extent by the editor of the latter. As 
there are generally two sides to questions, 
it will be readily conceded to this, but the 
broad and sweeping denunciation of the use of 
Graham Bread by L. D. Z. is of too much 
importance to pass without a reply. It is too 
late to condemn an article of diet of so much 
importance which most of the ablest physi- 
cians and pysiologists of the present and for- 
mer ages have pronounced superior to white 
flour. Graham flour bread is especially rec- 
ommended by physicians to invalids in many 
and various cases, and if the thousands would 
speak who have been greatly benefited or 
cured by its use, such articles as the one refer- 
red to would appear very insignificant. Such 
articles are oft times written for buncomb 
only, but may deter many a suffering invalid 
from taking advantage of an article of 
healthful diet by which he or she might be 
greatly benefited, if not cured. I do not 
claim that Graham bread would be a cure for 
all the ills that "flesh is heir to," but bread 
being considered the "stailof life" the gener- 
al use of the article best adapted to the wants 
of the human system would accomplish very 
much in that direction; but so long as mankind 
prefer to gulp down all the contents of 
the drug shop instead of seeking relief in 
hygienic living, invalids will be the rule, 
instead the exception, as unperverted nature 
intended it should be. L. D. Z. says young 
children and feeble or irritable stomachs will 
be injured by its use. Now if he could see all 
the children that are fed on Graham instead 
of white flour diet he might become an advo- 
cate of the former, unless he is very obstinate 
in his ideas. He also advises never to use 
soda, saleratus or baking powder in the man- 
ufacture of it, which is sound doctrine, but it 
applies no more to Graham than to any other 
flour. I shall not repeat the slang in the 
close of his article, as such language is only 
used in the absence of sound argument. 



Now, Mr. Editor, I know it is a little risky 
to invade the editorial sanctum, as such have 
the inside track so far as their paper is con- 
cerned, but I know the editor of the Farmer 
too well to suspect him of unfairness towards 
his contributors. The editor of the Farmer 
seems disposed not to condemn Graham 
bread, but at the same time gives it several 
pretty hard licks. I suppose he knew that 
there are still a few Graham eaters about 
that are not quite dead yet; he may have ex- 
pected a review. He thinks he would never 
learn to like it, having tasted it on several 
occasions and felt as if it would make him 
sick. This will not be disputed here, but 
such cases are very common, and will apply 
to a great many articles of food that are staples 
of diet generally. That such is the case, it is 
not at all strange, amid the abnormal condi- 
tion of mankind generally; but let us get 
upon a platform upon which we can all 
stand. We must believe that man by nature 
is in a natural or normal condition, and that 
Deity has provided food in variety adapted to 
such condition. Now if man cats food that 
does not agree with him, where is the fault ? 
Not in the food, if it is such as is by nature 
intended for him, because it has not become 
abnormal, then it follows that if proper food 
does not agree with him he must be in an ab- 
normal condition, and in such a case is not 
capable of judging what is best for him. I 
shall prove that a person may change his 
habits and tastes to such an extent that he 
can no longer relish simple and proper food, 
and will feel uncomfortable unless it is doc- 
tored up with articles that are not food, such 
as salt, pepper, mustard, grease and a host of 
other ingredients, neither of which he would 
eat separately, while a person of simple habits 
and unused to such diet could neither relish 
such a mixture nor feel comfortable after 
eating it. Now two such persons judging by 
their tastes and feelings who is right. Both, 
you may answer. But let us look up this mat- 
ter of taste and feeling a little further and we 
will find that habits will make such changes 
as to bring about "a second nature," (if there 
is such a thing, ) so that what was eaten with 
a keen relish at one time can no longer be en- 
joyed without increasing the condiments and 
stimulants, and what was at one time nause- 
ous is now taken with gratification. The use 
of tobacco will furnish evidence of my asser- 
tions. How few habitual tobacco users admit 
that it does them injury, and are all out of 
sorts when deprived of it for some time. 
They judge by their tastes and feelings; are 
these a sure criterion V Let us see. How 
was it when they took their first quid or 
smoked their first cigar? I need not tell 
them now, their recollection of it is not for- 
gotten. Now, Mr. Editor, please answer can- 
didly, when was the system in the most 
proper condition to judge what was proper to 
be taken by it, then or now ? When was the 
system most nearly normal, then or now ? I 
have came to conclusion that a person who 
could overcome his early disgust of tobacco, 
go as now so greatly to enjoy it, might cer- 
tainly, and with less perseverance, have 
learned to enjoy simple Graham bread, and if 
not the better, certainly not the worse for it. 
He would certainly be less obnoxious when 
coming in contact with persons who abhor 
tlie fumes and fragrance of the weed. Once 
more of Graham. Is it not an established 
fact that the most eminent chemists and 
physiologists say that the whole kernel of 
wheat ground and eaten supplies the wants 
of the human system better than white flour? 
That the bran supplies material for the 
healthful building of the body which flour 
does not contain. The scare-crow that bran 
is indigestible is no argument. If our food 
were so concentrated as to be all digested the 
system could not be sustained in a healthy 
condition. The reason that bran is so objec- 
tionable to some is owing to the method of 
grinding, for to make best white flour the 
bran must not be cut, but left as near whole 
as possible, while to make best Graham meal 
wheat should be ground on sharp burrs so as 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



to cut the bran fine. In conclusion I would 
say I do not expect to make converts to Gra- 
ham diet, but trust there can be no liarm in 
agitutiiiK the importance of hygienic Hvinj;. 
If it could Ije made as fashionuhli^ as so mucli 
improper diet now is, it would tell largely foi" 
ihe better upon the risinj; generation. Tliere 
is no question in the mind of the writer that 
the excessive use of the many spices and con- 
diments so eonmion on the tables at present, 
cause more than auythiug else the cravings for, 
and indulgence in stronger stimulants, such 
as tobacco, opium and ardent drinks, in addi- 
tion to diseases of various types.— J/. M. E. 

For The Lancaster Farmeb. 
WHAT FERTILIZER SHALL WE USE. 

{Conlinucfl from Fehritary Xo.) 
If we were entirely sure as to which one in- 
gredient the .soil lacks, the application of the 
fertilizer would be both simple and profitable 
on all crops. Where two are lacking, even if 
positively known which two, the application 
might not l)e i)rofitablc on some crops, as the 
prices are too low, the clieap lands and fertile 
soils of the west reducing the prices. Where 
all three are wanting, or what might be called 
poor or worn out soils, the application of a 
sufficient (piantity would Ije profitable only on 
tobacco at present prices, or where trucking 
was Virisk, as near .some city. 

Those that advocate the use of complete 
fertilizers may be divided into two classes; 
one would have his fertilizer comjiounded so 
as to have the ingredients in about the rela- 
tive proportions as found in stable manure, 
the other would have them according to the 
supposed needs of the crop to which it is to be 
applied. 

That the latter class may be in the right is 
not to be disputed, but oiily in such cases as 
where the same crop is repeatedly removed, 
or in any other case where a fertilizer is ap- 
plied to each crop. But where a fertilizer is 
applied to one crop and then a regular rota- 
tion of crops following, without further appli- 
cation, then I would believe in and apply a 
"complete" fertilizer instead of a "crop" fer- 
tilizer. 

But we have this further to bear in mind 
that while phosphoric acid and polash usually 
remain in the soil until removed by cropping, 
this is not the ease with nitrogen, either as a 
nitrate or in the form of ammonia salts. In 
all good fertilizers the nitrogen is in a very 
soluble slate, it is soon washed out of the soil 
or beyond the reach of the roots, or it may 
imite with some element in the soil and escape 
into the air. In stable manure it is not so 
soluble, and is given slowly to the soil as 
the manure decays. It might be advi.sable 
therefore to apply less nitrogen at a time, and 
apply it oftencr. 

We will now see from what sources the 
different ingredients may be derived. 

Xitrogen or ammonia is supplied by the 
followiug : Nitrate of soda contains 1.5i per 
cent, of nitrogen; price .5 cents per pound. 
8nl(iliale of ammonia contains 2U per cent, of 
nitrogen; price 4| cents per jwund. Both the 
above are very soluble and should be applied 
at the latest possible moment before the time 
at which it is to act. 

Peruvian guano contains as high as LS per 
cent, of nitrogen; it also contains a high per- 
centage of phosphoric acid, in some cases as 
high as -20 per cent. ; the price ranges from 
$.")().00 to S6.").00 per ton, according to the 
percentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash; it also contaiiung from 2 to 3 per 
cent, of the latter. 

Nitrate of potash, saltpetre, contains about 
12i per cent, of nitrogen and 42^ per cent, 
potash. It is too high in price to warrant its 
use in the field, the price being about 0^ cents 
per pound. 

Dried blood and dried flesh contain from 11 
to 12 per cent, of nitrogen and are used to a 
considerable extent in trucking. The dried 
blood sells at from §40.00 to Si.'j.OO per ton. 

Phosphoric .acid is found in the following : 
"Acid phosphate," "acididated rook phos- 
phate," &c. are all about the .saiue thing, 
being South Carolina or other rock phos- 



phates, and treated with sulpuric acid. I 
believe they contain alxnit 11 per cent, oi sulu- 
blr phosjihoric acid when properly prepared. 
The price is about $25.00"per ton. 

.'^llperphosphate prepared from burnt bone, 
"dissolved bone black," contains about Iti i)er 
cent, of available phosplioric acid, but I do 
not know how much is nohihle. The price is 
about $35.00 per ton. 

Superphosphate prejiared from ground raw 
bones contains about ItU per cent, of phos- 
phoric acid. Manufacturers claim all the 
way from 10 to 10 per cent, as soluble and 
available. This is the so-called "phospiiate" 
and is manufactured over the whole country, 
each maker claiming his as a standard article. 
It is well to know the reputation of the 
parties oflering it, as it is so often greatly 
adulterated. It is hoped our present law will 
do away with much of the trash heretofore 
offered. The, price varies from S;3I?.00 to 
$4."). 00 with the different manufacturers. 

Soluble Pacific guano is rich in phosphoric 
acid, and also yields about 2^ per cent, nitro- 
gen, ('ii per cent, ammonia) and about 2 per 
cent potash. Unlike the Peruvian guano a 
heavy application is not likely to injure the 
growing plant, being without that" caustic 
(burning) quality for which the Peruvian ;is 
sometimes dreaded. 

Potash is obtained from the following : The 
sulphate of potash when a good article is ob- 
tained, contains about 44 per cent, of i)otash, 
costing about $70.00 per ton, or nearly 8 cents 
per pound for the potash. A lower grade can 
be purchased at $30.00 to $35.00 per ton, in 
which the potash costs only about 7 cents 
cents per potmd. 

German potash salts (kainit) can be pur- 
chased at from $12.00 to .S18.00 per ton, ac- 
cording to the percentage of potash cojitained. 
The latter price is asked for an article con- 
taining about 15 per cent, of potash, making 
the cost of the potash cents per pound. 

Muriate of potash contains about 50 per 
cent, of potash, and is worth $40.00 to $45.00 
per ton, the potash thus costing from 4 to 4i 
cents per pound, but unfortunately it dare not 
be applied to all crops, tobacco, potatoes and 
sugar beets (for sugar) being, however, only 
the important crops that are injured by it. It 
is supposed to injure the burning quality of 
the tobacco, lessen the amount of ."(tarch 
in potatoes, and diminishes the amount of 
sugar in the sugar beets. 

Ashes supply potash of the best quality and 
to the amount of 10. per cent, of their weight, 
except in pine and other evergreen wood, 
where the percentage is only 6. A bushel of 
unleached aslies would thus contain respect- 
ively about 5 and 3 pounds of potash; when 
leached they contain only about one-fourth of 
this amount. They also contain about 4^ per 
cent, phosphoric acid from evergreen wood, 
and per cent or more in deciduous woods, 
and this amount is diminished little or noth- 
ing in leaching. As they impart these ingre- 
dients very slowly to the soil, heavy applica- 
tions can 1)6 made without danger, applica- 
tions of a hundred bushels of leached ashes 
being known; in the unleached twenty bushels 
and upwards arc often applied. 

Miin)' farmers make objections against the 
use of fertilizers, contending that it "runs 
down" the land so that the soil will not pro- 
duce any crop except by a fresh application, 
and that at last even the heaviest applications 
will not respond. Now this is contrary to 
theory and is also contrary to experience when 
that experience is the result of a systematic 
and common sense method. 

Though it is very well known that ii ferti- 
lizer must contain three certain ingredients, 
yet many a|>ply a plain suiieri)hospliate made 
from burnt bone or rock pliosphate, that con- 
tains absolutely nothing but phosphoric acid. 
Repeated applications of tliis may at first 
bring good crops, but in time the nitrogen and 
the potash in the soil will be reduced to so 
small a quantity that the roots can not find 
enough for the needs of the plant, and the 
result will be feeble and stunted plants incap- 
able of perfecting a crop. The only way to 



get a full crop again is to apply a fertilizer 
that contains those ingredients that the other 
lacked. 

Another cause of "running out" is by ap- 
plying a fertilizer, though it may be a per- 
fect one, in insnllicienl quantity. They being 
usually very soluble, and the roots therefore 
having easy access, it follows tliat the better 
the fertilizers the (piicker the crop is pushed 
in its first stages, and after a certain growth 
is attained it is able to push on to perfection 
by using the ingredients that may have been 
in the soil after that supplied by the fertilizer 
has been exhauste^^. In a good season this 
way of applying will be aggravated by the 
more than ordinary strain put on the soil in 
perfecting the greater cioj). 

In the use of incomplete fertilizers some 
crops are most benefited by a certain element 
of plant food and others tiy a different one. 
Such element is said to be the dominant ele- 
ment required for that crop. 

Wlieat, rye, oats and all the grasses seem 
most benefitted by nitrogen. This element is 
supplied by the nitrate of soda, and is applied 
to wheat in the fall to make a quick and 
strong growth; in the sjiring to all the other 
crops the usual application being 100 to 150 
pounds per .acre. 

Corn and turnips hare phosphoric acid as 
their dominant element. There seems to be 
no fertilizer that has been more uniformly suc- 
cessful with corn than a superphosphate from 
raw bone, but it must not be inferred that 
paying crops always result from its u.se. The 
season and the soil are factors that make or 
mar crops, for which oftentimes no intelligent 
reason can be given. 

Tobacco, potatoes, clover and fodder corn 
are the more prominent farm crops that re- 
qinre potash in abundance. Tlie truck and 
garden crops that are greatly benefited by 
potash arc cabbage, peas and beans. 

Any one wishing to use a complete ferti- 
lizer will be rather" bewildered if he asks two 
or more manufacturers as to the best combina- 
tion, the ratio of the elements varying with 
each manufacturer. Prof. Ville, not a manu- 
facturer, fixed the ratio at about 0| for nitro- 
gen, 5 for phosphoric acid and 74 for potash. 
In well rotted barnyard manure the ratio is 
in the order as above, resi)ectively about 6, 3 
and 5 wtiicli correponds pretty closely with 
the Ville formula, except in nitrogen, and as 
the nitrogen in the latter is more soluble it is 
no doubt as near correct as it can be made. 

If fertilizers are used it; may be well to 
make some experiments in soil tests at the 
same time, but go slow until you find out 
what crops you can raise profitably by their 
use. — A. B. K. 

Selections. 

TOBACCO CULTURE. 

How our Growers Raise the Weed — Tobacco 

From the Seed Bed to the Warehouse 

— A Practical Essay. 

The enormous proportions attained by the 
tobacco crop of Lancaster county, its rapidly 
increasing importance, the vast wealth it is 
pouring into the pockets of our farmers, and 
the large profits it returns to the growers, 
have drawn the attention of all persons inter- 
ested in the trade, either as consumers or 
planters. 

In response to a request, we publish below 
the subjoined directions, intended to aid be- 
ginners in growing tobacco. They will be 
found sulliciently minute for all practical 
puqioses, and if strict regard is paid to the 
methods here laid down, the result will, no 
doubt, be found satisfactory. Mr. Frantz is 
one of our most experienced and intelligent 
growers, and speaks from many years of 
actual experience. His methods, as here laid 
down, embrace the practice of our most suc- 
cessful planters, and when strictly adhered 
to, will no doubt give as good results else- 
where as they have done here, soil and cli- 
mate being favorable. Experience, however, 
is the great teacher; careful instructions will 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



go far, but they must be supplemented by 
actual experiment; growing tine tobacco is 
not to be learned in a single season, but the 
knowledge gained one season must be increas- 
ed during subsequent ones; in fact the tobacco 
planter is never done learning, but every 
succeeding year contributes its quota to his 
already acquired store of information. 
How to Raise Tobacco. 
The culture of tobacco has assumed such 
proportions as to make it one of, if not the 
most important crop, in a monetary point 
of view, in Lancaster county. It has gro\yn 
from time to time, in acreage, as well as in 
quality, until it has attained a reputation in 
the markets of the country excelled only by 
that grown in the West Indies and a few 
other favored localities. 

Tnis is the result of that care in its man- 
agement through its various stages, which 
has of late years been practiced and studied 
by the more careful growers. 

With the view of guiding others, not 
familiar with the process, I will endeavor to 
give a brief outline of the manner of treat- 
ing the plant through the various stages, from 
the seed to its preparation for market. 
The Plant Bed. 
In the first place, the successful grower 
must raise his own plants, and this is by no 
means the least difficult part of the work. As 
the seed is small, and the young plant tender, 
it requires attention corresponding with these 
condit.ions. The i)rime requisite is a piece of 
ground, of rich soil, and protected from cold 
winds. This should be prepared in the fall, 
by spading and manuring, and about April 1, 
sow seed at the rate of a tablespoonful to one 
hundred square yards. Having previously 
pulverised the soil thoroughly, then rake it 
gently, and pat the surface with back of a 
spado to bring the seeds in close contact with 
the ground. Mixing the se d with, say a 
pack of wood ashes, will facilitate the sowing 
of the mixture with regularity. 

How to Grow Strong Plants. 
A covering of the bed with hog bristles has 
a wonderful influence in promoting the de- 
velopment of the plant. Tlie bristles may be 
removed, after the plants have attained a 
growth of three or four leaves, and preserved 
for future use, a rake being the best means of 
removal. Frequent sprinkling is indispensa- 
ble, as moisture is an active promoter of all 
vegetable growth. A solution of some active 
fertilizer applied in liquid form is of great 
benefit. By careful attention to your plant 
bed, thorough weeding included, they will be 
ready for transplanting during the latter half 
of iiay in this latitude. From this to say 
June 5, plant whenever weather and ground 
arc favorable; tlie same conditions that favor 
the growth of a cabbage plant will do the 
same for tobacco, and all farmers should 
know how to start cabbage 

I have dealt with this part somewhat tedi- 
ously, but none too much so for the interests 
of the grower, as his experience will testify to 
abundantly. Good plants ready in time are 
half the prospect of a cro]) attained, and not 
having your own, and in time, is like expect- 
ing to make "liricks without straw." 
Preparation of Ground. 
The ground cannot be too rich. Barn-yard 
manure is, beyond disptile, the one i)refera- 
ble, if not the only reliable, fertilizer. Gyp- 
sum, wood ashes, &c. are good auxiliaries. 
Sandy loam is preferable to a stiller soil, and 
thorough cultivation is absolutely necessary. 
Without this a paying crop cannot be expect- 
ed. Fall plowing, or early spring, is desira- 
able. 

Setting out the Plants. 
When ground is thus prepared, say about 
May 20, it should be ridged in rows, three 
and a-half or four feet apart, if the ground is 
very rich. After ridging, cut o>it indenta- 
tions to receive the, ])lant, say three and a 
half inches deep on the row, and from twenty- 
two to thirty inclies apart, as experience may 
dictate, a medium between the two being, 



perhaps, as good as any, depending, of course, 
on soil and season. The plants should be set 
below the general level of the row, as by 
future hoeing the higher portions will be cut 
down to a level. All other cultivation should 
be the same as that for corn or other hoed 
crops— thorough and frequent. No weeds 
dare be allowed at any time. In an average 
season the plant will mature sufficiently by 
the early part of August to dispense with 
further cultivation of the ground, as the 
plants shading it will check the growth of 
weeds. 

AWhen to Top. 

Whenever the plant develops from fourteen 
to sixteen leaves, break off the top, don't cut 
it off. This arrests the further production of 
leaves, but will promote the growth of 
suckers, which will have to be removed, after 
attaining a length of three or four inches, as 
often as they appear. 

Enemies to be Guarded Against. 

It may be well to refer here to two formid- 
able enemies of the plant, viz : the black cut- 
worm and the green tobacco worm. The 
former will attack the roots of the plant as 
soon as it is put into the ground. The depre- 
dations of this worm sometimes necessitate 
frequent re-planting. They must be hunted 
and destroyed until they disappear, which 
they will do as the season advances. The last 
narned generally appears about July 1, and 
feeds on the leaf until the crop is secured in 
the sheds. In fact, they frequently, if not 
picked off clean, cling to the leaves after the 
stalk is hung up. About these there is but 
one advice to give, pick them off and destroy 
them, going over the field for this purpose 
daily, as the ravages of the green worm do 
more to injure the quality, perhaps, than any 
other thing. 

Topping. 

Usually, from three to four weeks from the 
time of topping, the plant will mature and 
be ready to cut. Uniform size of leaves, and 
a stiffness of the leaf, making it liable to 
break by bending and handling, are the surest 
signs of maturity. 

When to Cut It. 

Cut after the dew is off, but not during the 
middleof the day, when the sun is bright, as 
you must guard against burning while it is 
undergoing the wilting process, preparatory 
to spearing and handling in the removal to 
the shed. 

Hanging It in the Barn. 

When sufficiently wilted, the plan most in 
practice is spearing or stringing upon laths 
four feet long, five or six plants to each lath, 
and then removing the same into sheds, hang 
up for curing. The distance between the lath, 
general arrangement of shed and manage- 
ment thereof, as to ventilation, admission of 
light, &c., must be attended to. Air and 
light, having a great influence on the curing 
and fixing of color, must be used to the best 
advantage in catering to the tastes of the 
trade, which, by the way, are subject to fre- 
quent changes; sometimes light tobacco is in 
demand and again dark will only meet a ready 
sale. Strange^ but true, frequently when we 
have it dark^the buyers want it light and vice 
versa. 

In removing plants to the shed after cut- 
ting various devices are used. Sleds, wagons 
of various styles, or any way in which you 
succeed without breaking or bruising the leaf 
is a good plan, and the quickest way, with 
these ends accomplished, is the best. 
Stripping. 

By the middle of December, and after, 
whenever the plant is sufficiently pliable by 
moisture to strip or handle it without injury, 
you can strip it; assorting leaves is one of the 
i)rominent features in the stripping process. 
All solid leaves should be kept separate as 
wrappers, and these sorted into hands of ten 
or twelve leaves, each hand tied at the but by 
a single leaf. All leaves in the same hand 
should be of the same length. The hands 
should then be assorted with reference to 



length into two or three sizes. All defective 
leaves should be treated alike and put up sep- 
arately, the respective qualities being bulked 
separately, ready for market. 
Packing. 
The packing or casing is generally done by 
parties buying it from the grower. I would 
further add, that so much depends upon little 
details in the management of a tobacco crop, 
to bring about the best and highest results, 
that the details cannot be presented intelligi- 
bly on paper or even conveyed verbally. 
General Remarks. 

A personal observation during the season 
with a practical grower is so highly advanta- 
geous, that I regard it as almost indispensable 
to success. All jirofessions and trades require 
a course of reading and an apprenticeship. 
Why should we not devote a season to the ac- 
quisition of toe information so highly essential 
to success, and which relieves us of much loss 
of time and expense in experimenting ? 

The large quantity of inferior tobacco con- 
stantly upon the market is the best evidence 
of the importance of this feature in the busi- 
ness. 



NEW 



PROCESS OF BUTTER AND 
CHEESE MAKING. 

The last number of that thoroughly excel- 
lent dairy paper, the Americaii Dairyman, 
contains an article which we reproduce here, 
describing a new process of making butter and 
cheese. Our friends, the farmers' wives, who 
have tired of the weary work of churning, 
will perhaps see in the new way at least a 
hope "of deliverance from an onerous task 
which has full many a time caused them, with 
tired arms and aching l)ack, to ask if life is 
really worth living. Says the Dairi/man: 

The air is full of novelties. One would 
have thought that the centrifugal milk sepa- 
tor was enough to satisfy the most ardent ad- 
mirer of ingenious contrivances in aid of the 
hard-worked dairy maid ; but now a voice is 
heard, this time from Germany, which 
promises to spare for the future all labor in 
the manufacture of butter and cheese, these 
articles being engaged to submit themselves 
to the wand of a new magician, whose deli- 
cate touch will henceforth compel them to 
extract themselves from their liquid matrix, 
while tlieir old time tormenter is, I dare not 
say asleep, for we all know that the "fer- 
miere" never sleeps, but attending to other 
matters no less important to the well-being 
of her family. 

We all know that, if a quantity of cream 
wrapped in several folds of cloth be buried in 
the ground, at the end of twenty or thirty 
hours the water will be found to have left the 
cream, and the solid particles remaining, well 
washed to expel the casein, will give a re- 
markably pure, well flavored butter. The 
weight of earth resting on the enveloped 
cream: is the active agent in this change — a 
change gentle and slow, like all the operations 
of the great Mother. 

Again : if milk is coagulated by the use of 
rennet, or by allowing it to turn itself by the 
formation of lactic acid, a mass is found 
gathered together in the surrounding whey, 
which mass, being dried by pressure, is cheese. 
These facts have been laid hold of by a Ger- 
man lady who, following out her investigation 
on the true principles of induction, has con- 
trived a machine by which butter and cheese 
may be almost said to make tliemselves. In 
butter making the cream is put into clean 
linen l)ags surrounded by two or three folds of 
coarse canvas. No pressure is employed for 
the first twelve hours; then weights are grad- 
ually applied in increased proportions, until 
at the end of the second day the sack is 
opened, and the pure butter is found freed 
from all buttermilk. The manufacture of 
cheese can be conducted on the s.ame plan, 
but the ultimate pressure must be greater. 
The most perfect cleanliness must be observed 
in this as in every other process connected 
with the dairy. 

The inventrix of this method, after having 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



submitted the products of lier ingpnuity to the 
inspection of Messrs. Luss, Brandt and Naw- 
rocki, of Berlin, believes that she has a right 
to state tlie gain in butter is 10 per cent, and 
20 to 25 per cent, in cheese ; e. tj. : 

MONTHLY aVkuAOE MILK TO ONE POnND OHECi^e. 

Ordinary Mutliod. Ziemau's Met od. 

January, 1878 5 lit. TjlO 4 HI. 7;I0 

Miircb, " 6 4.6 

April, " 6 4«-9 

May, " 0', 4.3 

MOMTHLT AVEBAOK MILK TO ONK POUNL» UUTTKR. 

January, 1S78 17 lit. ?X 12 ?i 

March, " 16 "< 1'2 11-15 

April, " 16 i( 11 8 11 

M.1V. " • 16 >i 114-9 

Dr. Petri has analyzed the butter and the 
buttermilk, wliich test conlirnis the practical 
results of the Zieman process : 

ANALY8I8 OF BUTTERMILK. 

Old Way. Zieuian'g Way. 

Water 94.21 91.7S 

Albumen " 2.06 3.76 

Milk sugar 1.80 2.60 

Fat 1.75 1.03 

Lactic acid 0.26 0.30 

Ash 0.44 0.44 

100.00 100.011 

AKAI.T81S OF BUTTBB. 

Water 15.07 9.76 

Fat 82.17 88.91 

Albumen 1.72 0.48 

Milk sugar 0.42 0.30 

A^h 0.62 065 

100.09 100.00 

The "litre" is to the Imperial quart as 61 is 
to 07. 

If we consider that it is the object of the 
butter maker to get rid of as much of the al- 
bumen and lactic acid as possible, the.se mat- 
ters being destructive to the kee|)ing proper- 
ties of the product, and to retain as much as 
possible of the fat and milk sugar, we shall 
see that the Zieman process is eminently qual- 
ilied as to obtain the desired end. There is 
also a diminution in the quantity of water re- 
tained, its place being occupied by the fat; 
but the grand point practically is the expul- 
sion of an extra 1.24 jier cent, of albumen. 
This is the substance that plays the mischief 
with all our butters, giving them the cheesy 
smell and taste, and, like all matters contain- 
ing nitrogen,* rendering them liable to every 
description of change on the least provocation. 
In this the Zieman process seems to equal the 
old Devonshire plan of heating the milk after 
a certain number of hours of repose from the 
time of milking. I may as well give a de- 
scription of this latter process, as I am 
anxious to have it tried by private individuals, 
feeling convinced that it gives less trouble, 
requires fewer utensils, and produces butter 
which is superior in flavor and in keeping 
qualities to any other in use. 

The pans for milk intended to be treated 
after the Devonshire fashion should be made 
of the strongest tin. They may hold from 
two and a-halfto three gallons, and the top 
should be considerably wider than the bottom, 
say in projiortion of three to two. The milk 
must be strained into these vessels, and re- 
main in the coolest possible place in summer, 
unmoved and unshaken, until the cream has 
risen. Thirty-six hours in winter will be the 
outside time necessary — less if the tempera- 
ture be kept at about -50 deg. F.— and in sum- 
mer the greatest care must be taken that not 
even the smallest acetilication takes place; 
sixteen hours, however, will be the average 
safe i'mw. If the milk curdle, farewell to all 
hopes of butter. We are now ready to heat 
the milk— on the stove in this country, but a 
"water-bath" would be preferable. Place the 
pans carefully, without shaking, on top of the 
stove, which should be only moderately warm 
to start with, and very gradually raise the 
temperature. A ring will shortly be seen to 
form on the cream; this ring, which will be of 
the same size as the bottom of the pan, should 



*Commonly called "Porteiu compoands." Proteus w»8 a 
sea. god of inferior rank yfho kept the Fea-oalves (seals?; of 
Meptuue: 

"Omme cum Proteo'* pecus egit altos 
Visere monies," 
as our friend Horace says. He was, bko Mr. Weller's 
friend, »'the rcd-*aced Nixou," gifted with the power of 

Eropbecy; but w.ns so adv-^rst^ lo exerciaiug his power that 
e would not open his lips except under rompulsion, to 
avoid which he used to transfoim himself into various 
eha))e8, and give those who wished to oonnuU him as much 
trouble as a refractory gamin before a police magistrate. 



be carefully watched. In a short time it will 
swell and thicken; as the milk approaches the 
boiling point the whole cream will present a 
rough, blistery appearance, the color will be- 
come more or less orange brown according to 
the ricliness of the milk, and the pan must be 
gently removed to the dairy to cool. If the 
ring break, which it will do if the heat exceed 
210 degrees F., the cream will mix with the 
milk, and the hatch will bo in a great measure 
ruined. Great care should be taken to raise 
the fire by degrees, as othcrwi.se the butter 
will have a "fire-fang" flavor. If these hints 
are sedulously attended to, I guarantee per- 
fect succe.ss on the first attempt. 

When cool, the "scaled," or "clouted," or 
"clotted" cream may be taken ofl" in an 
almost solid cake— delicious, indeed, when 
eaten with apple tart, very few cloves in a 
muslin bag, and no lemon peel, if you please, 
or any other arrangement of fle.sh or pre.servetl 
fruit, but the oleaginous particles render it 
unfit for tea and cofiee. How long does this 
cream take to churn ? I have done it in forty- 
five seconds — it has never taken three 
minutes. The way is this : put the cream 
into any vessel and stir it round with the 
hand, or, if that is considered objectionable, 
with a spoon or wooden spatula. The butter 
forms in small grains. There is hardly any 
buttermilk, and what there is will be very 
superior to ordinary new milk. Put the 
grains, when come, into cold water, and then 
wash carefully, finishing the process as you 
would in the ordinary way. 

The rea.son why this butter will keep good 
twenty-four hours longer than that made in 
any other way seems to me to be that, as al- 
bumen is the main cause of butter spoiling, 
and as albumen coagulates at a temperature 
much below boiling point (212 deg. F.,) the 
enemy is deprived of his power in the first in- 
stance by heat; and subsequently, owing to 
the granular form of the butter when submit- 
ted to the influence of cold water, is elimi- 
nated from the mass, the butter remaining a 
nearly pure compound of water, sugar and 
fat, with a trifling percentage of ash (mineral 
matter;) thus the lactic acid, having nothing 
to act upon, sulkily stays behind, a mere 
caput niortum, incapable of offence. 



THE CHATHAM CREAMERY. 

John I. Carter sends us the following de- 
scription of his creamery, situated near the 
village of Chatham, Londongrove township, 
which has been in successful operation for a 
year and a half: 

A description of the establishment may be 
of some interest, as several of its arrange- 
ment are new and original. The building 
itself is a handsome three-story building, Mx 
40, tastily finished and neatly painted, with a 
19] feet water wheel in it, which furnishes the 
power for churning, grinding feed, cutting 
sausage and such operations as are likely to 
be needed around such an establishment. 
The lower story is the milk and churn room, 
abundantly supplied with the purest cold 
water, which comes from three wells and two 
springs all within a distance of fifty j'ards, 
and supplying a large reservoir from which 
the water is piped with a heavy fall into the 
milk tanks. These tanks are made of brick 
and cement, are two feet wide and twenty 
inches in depth. 

The milk cans, twenty inches deep and 
eight inches in diameter, holding 15 (piarts of 
milk, are set in these tanks as quickly as pos- 
sible and when full the whole is covered b}^ a 
large pan, resting upon the sides of the tank 
anil the tops of the cans, thus thoroughly pro- 
tecting them from all dust, dirt, or taints of 
.any kind. This covering pan is four inches 
deep, and into it flows a strong stream of 
water, filling the pan, then flowing over into 
the tank among the milk cans, filling the tank 
to within an inch of the top when it passes 
out. By this arrangement the milk is cooled 
from the top and all around by a constantly 
flowing stream of cold water, insuring its 
rapid and perfect cooling, and its thorough 



protection from all injurious influences — at- 
mospheric or otherwise. 

At the end of twelve or twenty-four hours, 
with the milk still sweet, the cream is mostly 
poured off the cans, finishing the operation 
with a conical dii)per, and is immediately 
churned — thus churning every day except 
.Siinday.s. As the whole operation from tne 
setting of the milk till the churning of the 
cream is conducted with dispatch, the risk of 
damage to milk or cream is greatly lessened. 
After churning till the butter reaches the fish 
egg state, it is wa.shed in brine, worked on 
Embree's butter worker, printed on Happ's 
automatic press and stored in a refrigerator 
room for shipment. NotwithstandinfJ nearly 
one-third of this room is occupied with the 
water wheel and gearing of it, with these 
simple and compact arrangements it is ample 
to accomodate the milk of 500 cows. In an 
attached kitchen one of Gorton's steamers 
furnishes the steam and hot water for the in- 
evitable washing of the numerous pans. 

The pig pen, which is a necessary adjunct to 
a butter factory, is a building 48x34 with an 
18 foot feed room attached. This building is 
also neatly finished and painted, with ventila- 
tors and sky lights in tli* roof. The pig pen 
proper divided into sixteen pens — eight on 
each side of a four foot entry in the centre. 
Next the entry are the troughs and feeding 
floors five feet wide, then a cemented manure 
yard of five feet and then a sleeping room of 
five feet more, all of course enclosed. The 
pens are divided by partitions, and a gate 
over the manure yard, which being opened 
and swung around closes the pigs on the 
feeding floor and leaves the manure yard open 
from one end to the other for convenient 
cleaning, which is done every few days. The 
pigs are found to do well in this pen, as actual 
weighing has found them to gain on milk 
alone, U lbs. per day for weeks at a time. 

Near this pen is a calf house 18x20, divided 
somewhat like the pig pen, into a four feet 
entry, with opposite rows of calves standing 
on a four foot floor, with three feet manure 
yard behind them, and a meal trough in front. 
The house holds twenty calves, which are fed 
sweet skimmed milk made warm and given 
all the oil cake meal they will eat, occasion- 
ally alternating with a meal of corn, oats and 
bran, ground in equal parts. These calves 
have also as a general thing done well, some- 
times gaining as much as 2 to 2i pounds per 
day. They are sold at to 10 weeks old, for 
veals. 



OUR REVISED FRUIT LIST. 

Since the last publication of our fruit list, 
we have for satisfactory reasons changed our 
opinion with respect to a few of the fruits 
which it contained. But in regard to the list 
as a whole we can see no just grounds for 
disturbing it. Indeed, we flo not see how it 
can be improved for this section of country, 
or as a general list for all the Middle States. 
Some of each of the separate selections may 
not do well upon one premise that will suc- 
ceed admirably on another. Each grower 
must find out for himself the particular 
apples, pears, &c., especially adapted to his 
soil and location. 

According to our present preference, we 
should select the following for our own plant- 



Standard Pears. 



1. GifTard, 

3. Doyenne d' Ete, 

3. Early Catharine, 

4. Kirtland, 
•5. Bloodgood, 

f). Summer Julienne, 
7. Tyson, 

5. Brandvwlne, 
9. Bartluh, 



10. Belle Lucrative, 

11. Manning's Elizabeth, 

12. Seckcl, 

13. Howell, 

14. Anjou, 
1.5. Shclden, 

16. St. Ghlslan, 

17. Lawrence, 

18. Reading. 



■^For those who may desire a smaller num- 
ber, we .should select; 1. GifTard; 2. Early 
Catharine; 3. Bloodgood; 4. Tyson; 6. Bart- 
lett; 0. Belle Lucrative; 7. Seckel; 8. Law- 
rence; 9. Keading. They ripen in about the 
order they are arranged. 
In the above list, from No. 1 to 8 are sum- 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



mer varieties; from 9 to 16 autumn (early and 
late;) and 17 and 18 winter, thus affording a 
sufficient number for each of the periods of 
the best known sorts for this region. 
Dwarf Pears. 

1. St. Michael d'ArchaDge 7. Belle Lucrative, 

2. Bartlett, 8. Lawrence, 

3. Cornice, 9. Ott, 

4. Rostiezer, 10. Louise Bonne, 

5. Diel, 11. Bosc, 

6. Tyson, 12. Boussock. 

13. Glout IMorceau. 



1. Maiden's Blush, 

2. Baldwin, 

3. Smokehouse, 

4. Northern Spy, 

5. Smith's Cider, 

6. Fallawater, 



Apples. 

7. Cornell's Fancy, 

8. Red Astrachan, 
0. Wagener, 

10. Porter, 

11. Gravenstein, 

12. Tompkin's King, 



13. Roxbury Russet. 
"We add to the foregoing list Tompkin's 
King and Roxbury Russet, both most excel- 
lent varieties; indeed the King is regarded by 
some as unsurpassed. Northern Spy is also 
restored. 

Peaches. 

1. Crawford's Early, 6. Crawford's Late, 

2. Hale's Early, 6. Ward's Late, 

3. York Early, _ 7. Smock's Late, 

4. Old Mixon, * 8. Susquehanna. 
There is no solid reason to change this list 

so far as it goes. We suggested to peach- 
growers to favor us with a list of their own, * 
and a few did, but where they differed from 
ours we did not deem them an improvement. 
Grapes. 

1. Telegraph, 4. Clinton, ' 

2. Concord, 5. Salem, 

3. Hartford, 6. Rogers' No. 32. 

We have added to the list Rogers' No. 32, 
which, should it maintain its present char- 
acter, will be the best out-door variety culti- 
vated. It is a beautiful pink, or rather 
maroon, colored grape, and at times is trans- 
parent. It bears regular crops yearly with us. 
Clinton, in the foregoing list, is only for wine, 
and is probably the very best for that purpose. 
Cherries. 

1. May Bigarreau, 6. Elton, 

2. Belle de Choisy, 7. Downer's Late, 

3. Black Tartarian, 8. Early Richmond, 

4. Black Eagle, 9. Early Purple Guigno, 

5. Black Hawk, 10. Del. Bleeding Heart, 
The ripening of the list will range from the 

earliest to the latest, thus carrying one 
throun;h the whole cherry season. No one can 
go amiss in adopting this list. 
Raspberries. 

1. Hornet, 3. Philadelphia, 

2. Herstine, 4. Brandywiue. 

Strawberries. 

1. Captain Jack, 3. Sharplcss, 

2. Seth Boyden, 4. Triomphe de Gand. 

Currants. 
1. Black Naples, 2. Red Dutch, 

3. White Grape. 
These three varieties are the best among 
the different colors. The Red Dutch is a reg- 
ular bearer and is of better quality than any 
other. There are others larger, but they are 
more acid. The white grape is transparent, 
of good quality, and ought to be more gener- 
ally grown, but it is not a great bearer. 

Gooseberries. 
1. Houghton, 2. Downing. 

These are the two best gooseberries grown 
in this country. They bear every year heavy 
crops, are free from mildew, and are of excel- 
lent quality. They are large enougli for all 
practical purposes. Keep clear of the giants 
and their big prices. 

Blackberries. 

1. New Rochelle, 

2. Missouri Cluster, 

The Snyder, a new Western Blackberry, is 
highly spoken of at distant points, but we 
prefer to wait another year before recommend- 
ing it, in the meantime giving it a trial. 

It is better that those wIjo intend to culti- 
tivate fruit and have to make purchases, to 
take this list with them to the nursery, and 
adhere to it as far as possible. 



3. Wilson's Early, 

4. Snvder. 



In selecting fruit trees, or any others, be 
cai'eful to choose those with smooth, healthy- 
looking bark, have entirely shed their leaves, 
and have plenty of small fibrous roots. Trees 
on which the leaves remain after frost sets in 
and stick to the branches in the spring, may 
be regarded as not healthy, and in some way 
lacking stamina. — Germantown Telegraph. 



HINTS FOR MARCH \AAORK. 

Spring Work. — The spring of the Almanac 
now begins; but the spring-like weather dur- 
ing a large portion of this winter has al- 
lowed the spring work of the Middle, South- 
ern and AVestern States, to be greatly for- 
warded. For the first time in many years, 
the writer has been ploughing through nearly 
the whole of .January, and hundreds of other 
farmers have done the same. Fencing, 
ditching, clearing woodlands and even sowing 
grass-seed, has been extensively done, as 
though spring had already come. Sometimes 
"the most haste is the worst speed," and it 
remains to be seen, if, after all, the .season's 
work will be benefited. It is a peculiar time, 
in which caution should be exercised, lest 
work done too soon, may need to be done 
over again. 

A Strong Plant Digests its Food better than 
a weak one; and its appetite, so to speak, is 
more vigorous, precisely as is that of a strong, 
healthy young animal. It is with the plant 
as with the animal; early feeding, and vigor 
of growth, bring early and vigorous maturity. 
The farmer should study to get early a strong 
and healthy growth. 

Fodder Crops. — It has been proved repeat- 
edly, that one acre of good green fodder will 
feed two cows through the summer. Fodder 
crops must be put in"early. A mixture of oats 
and peas is the best crop for early cutting, to 
come in after the first clover, which follows 
the rye. The two sown together will yield, 
on one acre, about as much as if sown sepa- 
I'ately on two acres. This may be doubted, 
but it is true. Tall growing leafy oats, and 
tall peas, yield the most fodder; the "Black- 
eye Marrowfat" pea, grown in Canada as a 
field crop, is the best for our use, the seed 
being free from weevil. For a second crop, 
the earliest small "Canada Gray" pea may be 
sown. The fodder is in the best condition for 
cutting when the peas are in full blossom. 

Gi'ass Lands. — It is a mistake to suppose 
that our climate forbids the success of perma- 
nent grass for meadows and pastures. If the 
right kind of land is chosen, low, moist, and 
full of vegetable matter, and is kept well ma- 
nured, and occasionally re-seeded, we can 
have permanent grass as well as other coun- 
tries. But it is necessary to sow, and encour- 
age a number of kinds of grass, those with 
creeping roots being preferable, if the quality 
is good. This subject is worthy of study and 
experiment. 

Poultry. — "The early chick gets the early 
worm," and the sooner begins to feed itself. 
March pullets are those which fill the egg 
basket in the winter time. Therefore set all 
the Viroody hens for which eggs can be pro- 
cured as soon as possible, and take great care 
of the chicks which come in this month. A 
warm run out of doors may be made under a 
hot-bed sash, arranged between two coops, 
and laid on boai'ds set on their edges. 
The Fruit Garden. 
In selecting a spot for a fruit garden, choose 
a warm place, and as near the house as possi- 
ble, that it may be both convenient for gath- 
ering, aiid more secure from trespassers. The 
.soil should be well drained, deep, mellow, and 
enriched with well rotted manure. The im- 
portance of a good selection of varieties can- 
not be too strongly insisted upon. For a list 
of the leading kinds of the various fruits see 
the January number Notes; for others see the 
Catalogue of dealers. The selecting of new 
sorts for the main reliance, is not recom- 
mended. Let the bulk of the planting be of 
old, and thoroughly tested varieties, rather 
than of new and untried kinds 
Planting. — So soon as the ground is settled, 



plant the trees, shrubs, etc., that they may 
get an early start, and be well established by 
the time drouths come. Like animals, much 
depends on early growth. 

Blackberries and Baspberries start very early, 
and it is best to set them in the fall; but very 
early in the spring will answer. The canes 
produced this year will bear the fruit the fol- 
lowiug season. 

Strawberries. — Old beds are to be uncovered. 
The method of cultivating the vines in rows 
three feet apart, is now generally considered 
the most satisfactory. See article and en- 
graving of the "Sharpless" Strawberry, on 
page 103 of this number. 

Grapes. — Every farmer's family should 
have all the grapes they can eat, from Sep- 
tember to January. It is not necessary to 
have a large vineyard for this; a few vines, 
each of the best sorts, and properly treated, 
will give a great amount of fruit. There 
are hundreds of out-of-the-way places where 
a vine may be set, such as along a fence, 
or it may be by the side of a shed or barn ; 
with good soil, and care in pruning, satisfac- 
tory returns may be expected. — American 
Agriculturist. 

^ 

COUNTRY ROAD MAKING. 

The transportation question is one of great- 
est importance to American farmers. It is 
probable, however, that the phase of this 
subject that has been least discussed by pub- 
lic journals — the making and mending of 
countrj' roads — is quite as important and less 
understood than any other. A large propor- 
of American farm products never reach the 
railroads. They are consumed on the farm 
or in the villages and cities whither the 
farmer's team and wagon convey them. Most 
of these farmers live so far from market that 
one full day at least is consumed in market- 
ing a load of produce. If the roads are uni- 
formly good and level a team will draw two 
tons of grain more easily than on ordinary 
roads they will draw half that amount. This 
may seem to some too great a diflerence, but 
it is because we have too few really good 
roads. Too little attention is paid to grading. 
In a long stretch of level roads, a slight hill 
may compel every teamster to put on much 
less than he should be able to do. lu such 
case it would be better to grade the hill, if 
that be possible, or go around it. The meas- 
ure of value of a road is what a team can 
draw over the hardest part of it. 

There is a decided increase in the selling 
value of farms which always have a good and 
level road to market. I do not believe the 
importance of having good roads is apprecia- 
ted as it should and will be, but there is 
already an understanding on this subject 
which makes intelligent road improvement 
profitable. As a rule, most of the work an- 
nually put upon countrj' highways is wasted. 
Consciousness of this fact is one reason why 
such work is generally shirked as far as pos- 
sible. Most men will not work at their road 
tax as they do on their farms for themselves. 
If they could know that their work on the road 
was as directly for their own benefit as that 
which they do in every day farm work, this 
would not be so. To have men engage 
earnestly in road making, it must be shown 
that their labors are lu'oducing good results. 
As it is worse now, very often the harder men 
work the worse will he the roads. 

The severe winters and superabundant 
rains and snows of our northern climate, 
make the keeping of roads in repair extremely 
difficult. We have hardly begun to appreci- 
ate the importance of underdraining to keep 
roads in good order. It is, on all heavy soils, 
the first thing to be done. In neighboorhoods 
where farmeis underdrain their land, the 
roads are nuich better than where they do 
not. Very often the drain crosses the road, 
and always at a point where it will be of most 
advantage. With an underdrain three feet 
deep crossing a road, and usually in a depres- 
sion, it should be easy to keep a long stretch 
of road always dry. This is the place to pnt 
in a piece of macadam turnpike — two or three 



1880 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



layers o£ stoae lightly covered with earth and 
gravel. The macadam turnpike is really a 
thoroughly drained road-bed wlieii it is per- 
fect. The reason why it so often fails is 
because in many places there is no outlet to 
the drain. Tlie water runs under tlie road to 
tome depression, and tliere lies until wiuter 
frosts have lifted the stones from their foini- 
dation and left road a quagmire as soon as 
the spring came. If the macadam road-bed 
is connected with an underdrain it will obvi- 
ate this trouble and make a lirm and perma- 
nent road-bed. 

Piling loose earth and sods in the centre of 
the road may be somewluit better than leav- 
ing tlie surface level. But if the snil is vege- 
table matter, sods and the like, the more it is 
piled up, the worse the road-bed will surely 
be. Nothing will do any good except to fir.st 
remove surplus water by stone or tile uiuler- 
drains. When this is done, it is surprising 
how little stone or gravel is needed. I am 
glad that road-makers are learning to use 
more gravel; but in thousands of (ilaccs draw- 
ing gravel to throw on an undrained turnpike 
is nearly a waste of labor. — Country Gentle- 
man. 

MORE ABOUT SORGHUM SUGAR. 
Not long ago the Cane Growers' Conven- 
tion met in St. Louis, and a large number 
were in attendance. Mr. Belcher, the expert 
of the association, made a number of interest- 
ing statements concerning his experiments, 
that show what possibilities there are in 
sorghum and corn stalks. His experiments 
were of a nature to greatly encourage those 
who look forward to a time when this country 
shall be emancipated from paying the tribute 
of 8100,000,000 we are now compelled to send 
annually to Cuba and other sugar growing 
countries. The samples of sorglmm juice 
tested by him showed the presence of sugar 
running from 4.47 to 12.86 per cent., the lower 
figures having been obtained from unripe and 
the latter from matured cane later in the sea- 
son. Some .even tested up to 14i degrees; 
the juice of Cuban cane was from 14 to 10. 
What is not definitely known is whether there 
are substances present in sorghum juice that 
are not to be found in true sugarcane. Every- 
where the results were satisfactory. Large 
sums of money have been invested in the 
sorghum sugar interest and with very fair 
results. At Chrystal Lake, in Indiana, 4.5,- 
000 pounds of most excellent sugar were 
turned out from the sugar making establish- 
ment located there, and that, too, from very 
inferior juice expressed from unripe cane. 
The president of this comi)any asserts tliat 
cane with juice testing up to 10 degrees can 
be ground" up one day and at once converted 
into sugar, ready for maket the following 
day. All the facts developed corroborate 
what Commissioner Le Due has so often 
told us. 

The fact is abundantly proven that both 
sorghum and corn cane contain saccharine 
juices of a grade sufficiently higli to make 
sugar from profitably. What is now needed 
is the skill and intelligence necessary to carry 
forward the process. It is something new, 
and not to be learned in a single day. In 
consideration of the vast interests involved, 
it seems the part of wisdom in Congress to 
make such appropriations as shall eventuate 
in carrying forward the experiments now 
making by private associations and iudividu- 
uals to a successful conclusion. No man can 
estimate fully what an advantage it would be 
to this country if we could grow cane in suf- 
ficient quantities to free us from our present 
dependence on foreign countries; It would 
add auotlier source of great agricultural 
wealth to our farmers, which is, at the pres- 
ent time, almost entirely neglected; one, too, 
which would be restricted to no limits of lat- 
itude or longitude, but which can be grown 
successfully all over the country. It is an 
interest which tlie government will do well to 
foster. It can make no appropriations that 
will return an equal amomit of benefits for 
the sums expended.— JVew Era. 



THE 



OF BEET 



MANUFACTURE 
SUGAR. 

The Legislature of Delaware, in 1K70, ap- 
proi>riated .S300 to be paid out as an encour- 
agement for the growing of sugar beets in the 
State; and at the session of 1878 the amount 
was increased to Si. 500, and a commission, 
cosisting of Messrs. Lea Pusev, of Wilming- 
ton, S. B. Cooper, of Kent, and T. B. Giles, 
of Sussex county, appointed to oiler premiums 
to tlie growers of sugar beets. Tlie commis- 
sion obtained pure Imperial sugar beet seed 
from abroad, which they distributed to 
farmers who desired to riiise them. Wi"' 
the seed were furnished documents containing 
instructions as to the character of the soil 
needed and its preparation, the time ofiilant- 
ing, cultivation and harvesting, also eojiies of 
the following conditions as the principal ones 
to be observed: "Select a suitable soil; use 
fertilizers or well rotted manure; deep jilow- 
ing in tlie fall or early spring; straight rows 
and close together, and plenty of seed ; early 
and frequent working and careful thinning to 
one beet in a i)lace;"place one boet to every 
120 or 200 square inches, which will give from 
HU,000 to 50,000 beets per acre, wliich, in ricli 
laud, will weigh from one to two pounds 
each." 

Result of the Experiment. 
Tlie action of the commission induced a 
large number of farmers in Delaware to com- 
mence the culture of the sugar beet as an ex- 
periment, and premiums were awarded for 
the growth of 1878 to twenty-two farmers in 
Kent county, ten in New Castle county, and 
one in Sussex county. The reports from the 
various parties contain a description of the 
soil, the time of plowing, and the mode of 
cultivation. The premiums for tlie growth of 
1879 were $100 for the best oik; acre and 
upwards grown under contract; $7.5 for second 
best; $50 for the the third, and $25 for the 
fourth. This action of the Commission stim- 
ulated the ftirmers, and, during the past year, 
from 75 to 100 of them, priiiciiially in Kent 
and New Castle counties, cultivated the beet 
with an aggregate production of attout 000 
tons. The result of the experiment was con- 
sidered so favorable that a company was 
formed under the name of the Delaware Beet 
Sugar Co., to erect a factory for the purpose 
of manufacturing sugar from the beet. A lot 
was purchased on the line of the P. W. and B. 
R. It. four miles north of Wilmington, and 
about six months ago a brick building was 
erected, in which the work was to be carried 
on. Aliout four months ago the machinery 
necessary for the operations was set in 
motion, and since that time has been in con- 
stant operation. 

How the Sugar is Obtained. 
Last week Mr. Coleman, city editor of the 
Ledijer, in company with other gentleman, 
visited the works, and gives tlie following 
description of the processes connected with 
this new and promising industry ; 

The method adopted for tlie manufacture 
of the sugar is known as the diffusion pro- 
cess. The beets are first placed in a cylinder 
of wood, with slight openings, and thoroughly 
washed, after which they are conveyed by an 
elevator to the second story and emptied into 
a cutting machine, where they are cut into 
tliin slices, and from tliere carried by another 
elevator into the iliflusion battery. This ar- 
rangement consists of eight iron tanks,, each 
holding about 1,500 pounds of cut beets, into 
which the water is introduced. The water is 
started in one of the tanks, and, after i)a.ssiiig 
through it, is conveyed to the outside by 
means of pipes, which connect all the tanks, 
so that the water from the first tank flows 
througli each, thus absorbing all the sugar 
possible. When the water has thus become 
impregnated, it is shut off and the juice, as 
it is now termed, is withdrawn and conveyed 
to larger iron tanks, where lime is introduced 
with the juice, so as to absorl) its impurities. 
Carbonic acid gas is then introduced to pre- 
cipitate the lime, after which the production 
is run through bone black to clarify it. From 



these tanks the juice is passed to a steam 
pump, where it is forced to the filer presses, 
wliicli still further extract impurities. Prom 
here it is conveyed into the vacuum pan, 
wliore it is concentrated almost to the crys- 
tallization iioiiit. 

After having passed through tliis process, 
tlie juice is placed in iron wagons and run 
into a room with a temperature of about 125 
degress, where it remains from four to five 
days, when it is ready for the last process, 
whicli consists in passing the Juice tlirough a 
centrifugal macliine. This revolves at the 
rate of 1500 revolutions per minute, and from 
one end runs tlie molasses or syru]), and from 
a box a dark yellow substance, known as raw 
sugar, is taken, and which is sold to the re- 
finers. 

Tlie capacity of the present works is 25 tons 
of green beets per day, but it is expected to 
increase them to 200 as the cultiViUion of the 
beet increases througlumt the State. The 
product so far has been from eight to over 
eighteen tons jier acre, and the inice realized 
was about $4 per ton. After extracting the 
sugar from the beet, the i)ulp is .sold to farm- 
ers, at $1 per ton, and u.sed by them as food 
for cattle. 

The only other establishment now making 
sugar from beets is one in Maine, and one „r 
two in California. 



RECLAIMING SWAMPY LAND. 

A writer in referring to the reclaiming of 
swampy land, says: The treatment of swampy 
land is'usually bad, and this is worse, as such 
land can generally be made the best. The 
difficulty is in the work, which is too often 
badly planned and worse carried out. With 
proper management these boggy plains can be 
made the very best meadow land; also supe- 
rior for corn, producing indeed any crop, if 
rotation be practiced. Usually, however, as 
the substratum is niostiy clay, timothy and 
other grasses are best adapted, and may be 
put in permanently. First, of course, tliere 
must be drainage, carefully and thoroughly 
done, by open or blind ditches, or both, as the 
situation may require. Next the vegetable 
material must be removed, leaving sufficient, 
say a few inches, to mix with the hard soil 
below, being careful that an equal distribu- 
tion is secured. It is best to plow in the fall 
or winter, throwing up to the frosts and 
snows. If there is a fair proportion of sand 
and a thorough winter action, a mellow sur- 
face might be secured in the spring. But 
whether a crop may be ventured upon de- 
pends upon other things, as where a consider- 
able depth of muck had rested uiion the soil, 
preventing the sun and frost from reaching it, 
thus leaving it in a raw state, little calculated 
to successfully grow any crop, though exhib- 
iting a mellow seed bed. But with little peat 
or wafer to obsfrucl the heat and cold, the 
land approaching the condition of sod, there 
is more prospect of success, especially if a 
coat of ripe manure follow the plowing. 

The belter way (because the safe way,) is 
to forego a spring crop, and put the soil in 
thorough condition during the summer, work- 
ing manure in to aid in the )ireparation, also 
lime, if an acid taste shows it is lacking, ap- 
plied in the sjiring. Thus the vegetable ma- 
terial, sometimes tough and ditTcult to man- 
age, can be reduced by mellowness and mixed 
with the heavier soil. (Jrass seed may be sown 
in the fall, or any grain crop in the following 
spring. I would not advise wheat sown with 
the grass seed, as the soil may lack the neces- 
sary compactness. The most difiicult thing 
in the whole operation is the first plowing, 
requiring often three horses, with a stout 
man at the i)low, to keep it at its projier 
depth, and see that every tussock is inverted 
or removed. The first jilowing dune well, 
there will be little dilliculfy afterwards. The 
action of the elements during the year, and 
the free use of the plow, cultivator and har- 
row,. have a wonderful effect in reducing to 
mellowness, making new land of it and the 
easiest to work. 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



TRANSPLANTING OF TREES. 

As the season is approaching for the setting 
of fruit-trees, I have tal<en up my pen to re- 
cord a little of an old man's experience and 
observation. 

Fir.st the selection of soil, and situation. If 
possible select sloping land, east or south, 
where the trees will be protected from the 
cold northwest winds. If tlie ground is too 
moist it sliould be underdrained, for the trees 
wilj not thrive if tlieir roots are continually 
soaked in water. All s;!ndy plains should be 
discarded, when hilly land can beliad. Bould- 
ers will have no disadvantage if the soil is 
deep and strong, for I have seen some as pro- 
ductive orchards on land of this description 
as I ever saw in my life, and the land suitable 
for no other purpose but grazing. The land 
should be well plowed and planted with some 
crop for one j'ear; and if new '.and, or where 
there has never been an orchard before, it will 
want but very little if any stable manure; a 
few bushels of wood-aslies, plaster and lime 
are all that will be necessary. 

Distance trom thirty-five to forty feet will 
will be near enough. Holes need not be over 
a foot deep, but four or five feet broad; if a 
hard-pan underneath it should not be broken, 
for it will make a pond of water under the 
tree and be sure death to it. When setting 
the tree, raise a pyramid in the centre of the 
hole, sloping gradually to the outer edge, 
high enough'to set on the heel of the tree at 
the depth it stood in the nursery. Afterwards 
remove all the wounded roots by cutting; cut 
back one-half the top in tlie crown and leave 
what laterals that are not wounded. Set in 
the tree, spread out the lateral rooots, put in 
fine earth and fill up level; don't tread down 
too hard about the roots of the tree, for it 
will get full hard enough. I have found 
loose "stones the best muMi, for they will pre- 
vent the tree from blowing out and keep the 
ground cool. 

From my observation thousands of trees 
are destroyed every year through the igno- 
rauce and stupidity of the planters in select- 
ing the soil. In no case would I water a 
tree, for 1 have never watered one in my life 
and I have set out thousands. 

iSituation of trees and varieties. Buy good 
trees and pay a good price for them; they are 
tlie cheapest in the end. In no case set a 
root-graft, for they are worthless. If you can 
get tlie trees near home it is as well to do it, 
if not I think it matters but little if the soil 
and planting are all right, provided you get 
good seedling stocks, not hide-bound things; 
but the planter must remember that tlie best 
of trees will do nothing on pom-, uncongenial 
soil; it will only be a vexation and loss of time 
and money. 

Varieties. The Baldwin stands fir.st as 
among apples in New Englaud. I have had 
a hundred varieties on my farms and only six 
or seven are worth the ground they stand on 
for making money. For Rockingham countj', 
N. H., I would set ten Baldwins to one of any 
other variety. 1 would begin witli the Bed 
Astrachan, Porter, Gravenstein, Pound 
Sweet, Dauvers Sweet and Baldwin. All 
these have been successful with me. — German- 
town Tclc(jrapli. 



SHOULD WE ABOLISH OXEN. 

Tlie following answer to this question was 
made at the January meeting of tlie Eastern 
experimental farm club by Tliomas Wood, of 
West Marlborough : 

The first part of this question had been for- 
merly referred to me and answered against 
laying aside the good and faithful ox and 
substituting the expensive horse or the treach- 
erous mule. In the first place the cost of a 
good pair of horses or mules will lie about 
twice as much as a good pair of oxen, and 
will cost more than twice as much to keep in 
harness, and nearly twice as much for feed. 
Horses and mules must be regularly fed with 
grain, while working oxen generally keep in 
fair condition with hay or grass, and to do 
many kinds of work on a farm are handier 
than horses. They can be geared or ungeared 



in about half the time, and less than half the 
time is taken in currying and otherwise car- 
ing for oxen that is spent witli horses and 
mules. Furthermore when oxen have worked 
a few years they may be fattened and sold for 
what they cost and with this we can buy a 
younger pair and continue to keep up the team 
without an additional cost, as oxen often 
bring enough when fattened to pay not only 
first cost, iiut interest on it also, and can be 
made fat for market with less than half the 
amount of grain fed to the working horse or 
mule during the time the oxen were worked. 
The horse not only costs twice as much as the 
ox and is more expensive whilst working, but 
is a total loss when he gets too old to be 
serviceable and the money paid for it is 
gone. I am not advocating the disuse of 
horses and mules, as horses are a sort of ne- 
cessity for driving and tbv many purposes on 
a farm, but as a matter of economy every 
farmer having more work on the farm than a 
pair of horses can do .should have oxen, 
unless we could adopt the French rule to eat 
our horses when they get too old for work. 
As to the other part of the question I don't 
feel qualified to suggest an improvement or 
condemn the present ox yoke. 

Our Local Organizations. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTU- 
RAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
SOCIETY. 

The recular mdntlily mee'ing of the Lancaster 
County Airricultural and Horticultural Society wae 
held Monday afternoon, March let, in the Society's 
rooms. 

The meeting: was called to order by the Vice Pres- 
ident, Henry M. Engle. 

Tlie following members were in attendance : Joseph 
F. Witiner, Paradise; Calvin Cooper, Bird-in-Hand; 
Simon P. Eby, city; Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy; Casper 
Hiller, Conestoga; Christ. A. Gast, city; Martin D. 
Kendig, Creswell; J. M. Johnston, city; F. K. Diffen- 
derffer.city; J. C. Linville, Salisbury; Daniel Smeyeh, 
city; John Huber, Warwick; Henry M. En^le, Mari- 
etta; Elias Hershey, Paradise; John B. Erb, Stras- 
burg; Kobert Dysart, city; Samuel Binliley, Warwick; 
Webster L. Hershey, Landisville; Washington L. 
Hershey, Chickies; C. L. Hunsecker, Manlieim; W. 
H. Brosius, Drumore; Dr. C. A. Greene, city; Levi 
S. Reist, Mauheim; John H. Landis, Manor; Peter 
S. P.eist, Lititz; E. S. Hoover, Manheim; William 
McComsey, city; Dr. S. S. Rathvon, city; Peter S. 
Hershey, city; Jacob B. Garber, Columbia; Johnson 
Miller, Warwick; Israel L. Landis, city; Enos B. 
Engle, Marietta; Simon E. Hershey, West Hemp- 
field. 

The reading of the minutes of the previous meet- 
ing was, on motion, dispensed with. 
Crop Reports. 

Henry Kurtz reported wheat as looking very well. 
It seems to have continued growing all winter 
Grass is not so good. Has himself plowed under 
some clover. Tobacco is nearly all sold. 

J. C. Linville reported wheat as very good. Fruit 
buds are pushing rapidly, maples are in bloom and 
the bees are at work on them. Sheep have done 
well: feeders of cattle have also been successi'ul. 
Resolutions of Respect. 

Calvin Cooper reported the following : 
- Whereas, It is with deep regret that we have 
lost one of our late associates, Christian M. Hostet 
ter; therefore, 

Resoh'ecl, That while we bow in submission to the 
work of an overruling Providence, we liave lost an 
active co-laborer in the cause of agriculture. 

Resolved, That it is with sorrow we tliink of his 
removal while yet in the prime of life, and tender 
the friends of the deceased our sincere regrets, 
tiURting that our loss has been his gain. 

/iesoli'cd, That a copy of these resolutions be sent 
to his fiiends. 

The resolutions were spoken on by Mr. Eby and 
unanimously adopted. 

Apple Culture. 

Mr. Casper Hiller read the following essay : 
The day was, in the recollection of many yet liv 
ing, that Lancaster county was one of the greatest 
apple growing sections in the country. Then apples 
rarely ever failed. Every other year was called the 
apple year, though the off-year a-iually produced 
fruit in abundance for home use. Well I know 
that we picked wagon beds full of apples and hauled 
them to the distillei-y to have them convei-ted into 
apple-jack, to keep them from spoiling (?). The 
hogs reveled in the orchards and got fat, and the 
cellars were filled with winter apples, that were 
free to every comer, and in the spring there was 



often such a surplus that they had to be carried out 
to the hogs. In those days there was no available 
distant market for apples. 

Then twenty-five cents a bushel was a fair price 
for winter apples, ^ud they were often sold as low 
as ten cents a bushel. But a change has come over 
these things. For many years the apple crop has 
been uncertain, sometimes failing altogether, but 
frequently plentiful enough, but defective and ripen- 
ing before its proper season, so that often we have 
no fruit about the holidays. 

The result of this is that our five or ten acre 
orchards have disappeared, and in their place we see 
half acre or acre orchards, and in many places no 
orchard at all. 

But with all these discouragements in apple cul- 
ture, are not these very orchards after all paying 
better averages than the rest of the acres of the 
farm? They generally supply the family with all 
the fruit needed during summer, fall .and early 
winter, supply all the dried fruit, applebutter and 
vinegar needed during the year. 

It must not be forgotten that fruit is necessary to 
health. If it is not grown at home, the household 
will be often short of a supply, especially in the 
summer season. 

If a supply is to be kept up by purchases, the bills 
during the year could not be paid by the profits of 
an acre of wheat or corn. These things should be 
sufficient inducement for us to attempt to grow 
fruit. 

It is a question, too, worthy of our consideration, 
whether we have been doing all we could to grow 
better fruit and more of it. 

The most careless observer, no doubt, has noted 
occasionally a tree of some well known variety pro- 
duce a much better fruit than its fellows; or, some- 
times an orchard thiit from some cause is much 
better than the average. If these trees or orchards 
have received different treatment from others, we 
should learn what it is and imitate the treatment. 
If they are caused by location, influence of soil, 
water supply, shelter, &c., why then by all means 
let us select, if possible, just such conditions. 

My own observation of late years has made me a 
great believer in water supply, not necessarily run- 
ning water, but a soil retentive of moisture. 

Deep clay loams, or swamps so drained as to take 
away surface water, would he my first choice for 
orchard location. A northern slope, where the sun 
has little influence on the ground, is also good. All 
good corn land is adapted for growing trees, hut the 
tendency in many of these to dry to the depth of 
several feet in our scorching dry summers, that 
have become the rule of late years, is the cause, 
perliaps, more than all others combined, to produce 
our premature ripening of apples. To counteract 
this dryness, to imitate the natural moisture that 
we flud in some clay soils, requires our best efforts. 
To effect this, much can be done by frequent and 
thorough cultivation and by mulching. 

Mr. Meechan, editor of the Gnedener's Monthly, 
one of the best authorities on horticulture in the 
country, thinks stirring of the soil unnecessary. He 
advocates the sowing of grass and the making of one 
or two crops of hay annually, with a good dressing 
of manure also every year. Some of our Lancaster 
county hill sides are entirely too washy to permit 
thorough and continued cultivation. Here the grass 
system will answer a good purpose if we leave every 
second crop, and occasionally every crop, spread 
over the surface as a mulch, and be sure not to for- 
get the manure. 

Our winter varieties of apples could be much im- 
proved by mulching around the trees with straw, 
leaves, tan-bark or even stones. Stones are excel- 
lent for retaining moisture in the ground, and where 
they are plenty it would be worthy of trial to cover 
the ground under the trees with them. 

What varieties shall we plant? This is a difficult 
question to answer. Some kindb do well in a cer- 
tain locality, or soil, while they fail in others. If 
the fruit is wanted principally for home use, con- 
siderable variety is required to keep up a rotation 
during the summer, fall and winter. If a home 
market is to be supplied, summer and fall apples 
should be planted. 

• If for distant markets, or a winter supply, the 
varieties should he few. Every planter, to he suc- 
cessfnl, should know what kinds are adapted to his 
soil, and should plant them almost exclusively. 

I have seen the Smokehouse for several years past 
growing in a rich clay loam, where the roots could 
dip into running water, the fruit coming to perfec- 
tion, and keeping in prime condition until after the 
holidays. If anyone hassuch a soil and situation he 
may plant the Smokehouse, to any number of trees, 
with a great prospect of success. • 

But in such situations many other varieties would 
flourish. The Baldwin would do well, and even the 
Newtown Pippin and BellHower could be grown 
profitably. 

On higher ground the varieties that are reliable 
winter apples are not plentiful. Smith's Cider is 
promising, and the York Imperial is one of the most 
reliable varieties we have. 

I would not be understood to say that no other va- 
rieties are worthy of being planted, but, as I said 



1880. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



before, the planter should know what varieties are 
adapted to his situation. 

Mr. Hillcr was asked his opinion of the Russet 
apple. On hillsides it will not do. It requires a 
good deal of moisture, which it can not have in such 
situations. 

Dr. Green said he believed the time will eomc 
when every farmer will be able to take up a handful 
of his soil and be able to tell precisely what he needs to 
make it most productive. The most successful far- 
mer in New Ens;land is a chemist who in reality was 
never taught farming: ; chemistry was his suide and 
led him to fortune. This matter of understanding 
soils; is all important; with a full knowledge there 
will be no failure in any crop the agriculturist un- 
dertakes to grow. He also advised experiments to 
be made ou the various kinds of remedies to guard 
against insect ravages ; to learn what is eflectual 
and to practice it ; he l)elievcd millions of dollars 
worth of fruit can be annually saved. 

S. P. Eby could not understand why we fail in 
growing fruits now, wfiereas wc once grew them 
most profusely on the same kind of soil we now 
plant the trees on. The soil is the same. Even vir- 
gin soil no longer gives the answer. Our climate 
has changed. We have less snow and more open 
winters. Cutting away our forests has done the 
work. That is the source of this trouble of ours. It 
Is not a matter of soils so much as of climate. Birds 
have been driven away because the forests are gone. 
The insect armies have |)oured in in consequence and 
have ruined our fruit crops. 

Casper Hiller stated that better wheat, corn, to- 
bacco and grass are now grown than 40 years ago, 
and yet the same elements very nearly enter into 
these that enter into fruits. In wet seasons we often 
grow fine apple crops. Can it be the rain that does 
all this ? The elements must certainly be in the soil, 
and chemistry seems unable to account for our fruit 
failures. 

Henry Kurtz believed additions to the .soil as well 
as climate were necessary. Experiment is the thing 
needed. He wanted to see a return of the time when 
we could buy apples at six cents a bushel, as we once 
did. 

J. G. Linviile did not believe chemistry could cure 
all our ills. Analysis of soils are very good thcoreti- 
callv, but actual experiment is still better. The sea- 
son goes ahead of chemistry many times. Farmers 
must find out these things for theiinselves. He spoke 
a good word for the Romanite apple, now generally 
neglected. 

■Webster L. Hershey said chemistry is the stepping 
stone to agriculture. But it is not all, other things 
come into phvy. 

H. M. Engle agreed generally with Mr. Hiller's 
essay. We, perhaps, grumble too much. After all 
we grow pretty good crops, even though we can't 
come up to what was done in growing 'fruits fifty 
years ago. He still believed we could grow paying 
fruit crops. Insects, in his opinion, were our great- 
est danger and drawback. If we can counteract the 
ravages of insects, we can restore the golden age of 
. fruit growing. Sitting still and lamenting will do 
no good; let us goto work and discover remedies. 
The coddling moth is the greatest enemy the fruit 
grower has. Let us theorize less and "experiment 
more. 

On motion the discussion of this subject was closed. 
Referred Questions. 

By what means and in whnt way can the growing 
of forest trees be most encouraged, and the timber 
land of the State be best protected ; This question 
having been referred to Levi S. Reist, he read the 
law passed by the last Legislature, pointed out its 
defects, and made suggestions which he believed 
would more effectually answer the purpo.se. 

In answer to the question how to encourage the 
planting and protection of trees, I would answer, 
organize State and County Forest Tree Associations 
at such places where the forest hes been cleared 
away. There is a United States Forest As.50ciation 
in existence, of which Dr. Warder, of No.ith Bend, 
Ohio, is President. Offering premiums is perhaps 
the best method of inducing farmers to plant trees, 
but by whom they should be offered is a perplexing 
question. The Berks County Agricultural Society 
offered premiums for the largest number of fruit 
trees planted in a given time, and it had a stimulat- 
ing eflTect; but our society is not able financially to 
offer premiums. I would therefore suggest that a 
law be passed by our Legislature to ailtriiorize our 
County Commissioners to pay about cvcrv three 
years g.'iOO in difl'crcnt sums to the one who has 
planted the largest number of trees — say S'JOO as the 
highest, reducing the premiums until the 8500 is 
expended. We must induce the coming boy to plant 
trees. The father ought to oS'er small premiums. 
As money is the great lever to sway nations, and 
even politics, why not little boys. If fathers would 
encourage boys to gather forest tree seed and nuts 
in the fall, and olfer as a premium only 10 cents for 
trees raised from seed when two feet high, this gen- 
erally would induce them to raise trees. They 
would soon delight in nourishing them. It would 
become a nucleus of a useful home education; it 
would be a benefit to themselves, and a benefit to 
their country. 



John H. Landis alluded to the extraordinary de- 
struction of the timber of the Stato which has been 
going on during the pist fifty years. He read a 
part of the report of the Secretary ef the State Board 
of Agriculture on this subject, In which the protec- 
tion of existing forests and the planting of new ones 
was most strenuously insisted upon. He did not 
believe that the present law on this subject woulil 
produce the desired result. He read a bill Intro- 
duced by himself, also, on this subject, to which he 
invited criticism and suggestion. 

S. P. Eby suggested that joint stock companies 
might undertake the work. Cheap, useless lands 
might be bought and planted with trees and the 
answer might in this way be brought about. Ho 
closed by saying : 

I had fully intended to take part in this discus- 
sion, but upon examination of the subject have 
become convinced that its great importance, and the 
numerous fads and authorities bearing upon the 
question of the value of forests, their inllucnce 
upon streams, temperature, climate and rain fall, 
caiHiot be properly considered in the brief space of 
time necessarily allotted to discussions before the 
society. I have therefore concluded to put my 
views on paper, and expect to present them to the 
members at some future meeting. 

Levi S. Reist said he had personally set out over 
700 forest trees on his farms. 

C. L. Hunsecker said this was no new thing. Fifty 
years ago the question was agitated. He thought 
this question was a bugaboo; houses can be built of 
other things than wood; so can bridges and most 
other things now made of wood. 

W. H. Urosius thought trees should be planted as a 
speculation. The planter may reap no benefit from 
his act, but some one else will. His heirs may make 
a fortune out of Ills foresight. 

E. S. Hoover, H. M. Engle, Dr. Greene, W. H. 
Brosius, John L. Landis, S. P. Eby, and others, dis- 
cussed the timber question very thoroughly. The 
general opinion w.is that it was liigh time that some 
stringent law should be enacted to not only pre- 
serve what still remains to us of our forests, but to 
provide for our future timber needs. It was stated 
that many farmers were cutting down their line 
groves of forest trees in order to get virgin soil ou 
which to plant tobacco. 

Casper Hiller remarked that when we plant forest 
trees wc do not do so solely for the benefit of future 
generations. Thirty-three years ago he planted 
pineswliieh are to-day 'JO inches in diamcler;larchcs, 
planted 10 years later, are 1.5 inches in diameter, and 
sugar maples, planted at the same time, are now 
three feet in circumference. He did not have much 
faith in legislation on this subject; self-interest will 
in the end govern farmers. 

On motion, the further discussion of this question 
was postponed. 

Clover Seed, 

Calvin Cooper to whom was referred the question 
"Why Iocs the second crop of clover produce more 
seed than the first?" answered it as follows : 

In the question why does the second crop of clover 
produce more seed than the first, I misrht answer 
simply that there are more heads. That the first 
crop (iocs produce seed there is no doubt, and that 
there are as many seeds to the head, if allowed to 
fully mature, I fully believe. Who ever heard of 
the first crop being taken for seed ? I am sure I 
never have, although I have made considerable in- 
quiry. That there is seed in the first crop I have 
grown, my own observation gave abundant evidence, 
I have frequently, in feeding clover hay, found it in 
considerable quantity on the Hoor or entry where the 
hay was thrown. .'Vnd I doubt not that if the grass 
had been grown with a view of gathering seed instead 
of hay, there would be as many seeds on an average 
to the head as there would be in the second crop. 
But the prevailing custom is to cut the first crop for 
hay, knowing the second will come in ample time 
for seed, and at a season, too, when the farmer is 
not so pres.scd with work in harvesting his crops. 
There are also several reasons why the second cro|i 
should be taken in preference: First, a crop of hay 
is wanted for stock during the whole year, which, as 
I said before, can be taken and allowed sufficient 
time for the second crop to mature in season. Then, 
too, the first is more or less mixed with other grasses 
of spontaneous growth, or for a purpose sown in con- 
nection with tlie clover for hay. Second, the first 
crop does not "throw out as many branches or later- 
als as the second, and it also comes into head irregu- 
larly. Hence there would be less heads from the 
crown of the plant, and maturing at different times, 
it would be difheult to cut .at the proper time to save 
all the seed. While the second, starting as it does 
in the middle of the season when the plant (or rather 
root) should be in its most vigorous condition, im- 
mediately after the cutting, forces out a new growth 
from every eye, and in a few days we find tlie field 
green with the foliage from the young growth ; 
these rapidly develop, and in a month or six weeks, 
the field is red with bloom, and, as you have doubt- 
less observed, continues in that condition but a short 
time, showing conclusively, that if left undisturbed 
as it should be from the first cutting, that the bloom 
is all developed about the same time, hence the seed 



would mature evenly, and a better crop be obtained. 
That there are conditions of the weather favorable to 
the production Is beyond doubt. Most plants bloom- 
ing during a wet time suffer alo.ssfo a greater or less 
extent of tlii'lr power to produce seed. 

J. C. LlnvlUe thought it was positively settled that 
the first crop of clover yielded less seed than second 
crop and of a far inferior quality. He believed the 
common bumble bee Is a prominent factor In fertlll- 
zing clover. Early in the season there was very few 
of these, hut when the second crop comes along they 
are very plenty, and lend their aid in fertilizing the 
few of these, but when the second crop comes along 
they are very plenty, and lend their aid in fertilizing 
the second crop of clover. He would protect the 
bumble bees and docs so on the farm. 

H. M. Engle also believed the bumble bee was an 
involuntary agent in the distribution of pollen, hut 
was not willing to go to the extent advocated by Mr 
Linviile. He believed the first crop of clover grows 
too rank, aud for that reason is not so productive of 
seeds. 

The Next Fair. 

The Boanl of Managers, to whom was referred the 
question of holding a fair next fall, reported through 
E. S. Hoover that the late Park grounds were about 
to be converted into other uses, and that they have 
not yet succeeded in having an Interview with the 
proprietor. Hcbelieved they could get the Northern 
.Market House again for this purpose. 

The inatterof holding a fair next fall was discussed 
by several members, and there was a disposition 
manifested not to go into the thing unless the 
farmers manifest more interest than they have here- 
tofore done. The exhibition last year was a matter 
of reproach to the agricultural interest of this great 
county. Assurances of better support are required. 

On motion of .Mr. Mnvlllc, the Board of .Managers 
was instructed to procure the Northern -Market 
House in which to hold a fair next fall. 

A motion was made and carried to Instruct the 
Board to prepare a premium list to be offered to ex- 
hibitors. 

Jacob T. Whitson was nominated aud elected to 
membership. 

Fruit on Exhibition. 
Levi S. Reist had on exhibition some choice speci- 
mens of Lady Fingers or Sheep Nose, Smith's Cider, 
Komanitc and Conestoga Pippin ajjjiles. 
Miscellaneous Business. 

The bond of the Treasurer, M. D. Kendtg, was 

approved and accepted. 

Several miscellaneous bills were presented and or- 
dered to be paid. 

The thanks of the Society were tendered toJ.H. 
Landis for a number of volumes of agricultural re- 
ports from various other States — Ohio, Kansas, New 
Hamshire and Vermont. 

A motion was made and carried instructing the 
Secretary to effect a settlement with the former 
treasurer. 

Question for Discussion. 

Does it pay to cut fodder for stock? Referred to 
William Brosius. 

Root crops. Referred to Henry M. Engle. 

Is the American Agricultural Suciety likely to be 
a benefit to the farming community; Referred to 
Calvin Cooper. 

Israel L. Landis requested to have his name taken 
from the list of Board of .Managers, because he will 
be absent much of the time and will be unable to 
give proper attention to the duties of the position. 
His resign-ation was accepted. 

There being no further business the Society ad- 
journed. 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The Lanca.ster County Poultry Association held 
its regular monthly meeting .Monday morning, 
.March 1st., in their rooms over the City Hall. The 
meeting was called to order by Vice President Geyer. 

The following members were present: John A. 
Stobcr, Schoeneck ; Frank Griest, F. R. Dlffenderf- 
fer, J. M. .lohnston, Chas. E. Long, J. B. Liehty, 
W. W. Griest, city ; W. L. Hershey, Chiekies ; H. H. 
Tshudy, Lititz ; VVilliam A. Sehoenbcrger, city ; G. 
A. Geyer, Spring Garden ; Henry WIssler, Columbia; 
M. L. Grider, Kapho; C. E. Cast, city; W. J. 
Kafroth, West Earl ; John C. Linviile, Salisbury; 
Jacob B. Long, Chas. Lippold, Joseph Trissler, city; 
Peter S. Reist, Lititz ; Joseph F. Witmer, Paradise ; 
T.Frank Evans, Lititz; Ferdinand Scheaffer, city ; 
Addison Flowers, Mt. Joy; Jos. A. E. Carpenter, 
city ; H. S. Garber, Mt. Joy. 

•The miiuites of the last meeting were read and on 
motion approved. 

Reports of Committees. 
H. H. Tshudy, on the part of the committee ap- 
pointed to audit the accounts of the Treasurer, 
reported progress only, the other members of the 
committee being absent. 

Election of New Members. 
D. Rine Hertz, of E|)hrata, .lohn M. Grider, of 
Mountvllle, Johnson Miller, of Warwick, Sebastian 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



Keller, of Elizabethtown, and John Garber, of 
Elizabethtown, were nominated and elected to mem- 
bership. 

Election of Officers. 

The President nominated Messrs. Carpenter and 
Hershey as tellers during the election of officers of the 
Society for the current year. 

Charles E. Lons: arose and said he withdrew his 
name as a candidate for President. He said he had 
heard some of the country members had intended 
to cut him because it was charged that he exhibited 
a bird at the last exiiibition which was not his own, 
contrary to the rules governing the exhibition. He 
explained how the bird he exhibited came into his 
possession, and how it was again returned to its 
former owner. By his explanation the origin of the 
report was fully shown. He believed the fowl ex- 
hibited to be fully his own, and he exhibited it as 
such. Several other members made explanatJry 
remarks aiding in clearing up the transaction. 

On motion, the matter was dropped. 

A vote for President was then had, which resulted 
as follows: S. N. Warfel, '-'^ votes ; S. S. Spencer, 
4 votes, and Charles E. Long, 2 votes. 

The President [announced Mr. S. N. Warfel to be 
the successful candidate, and a motion was 
madeto instruct the Secretary to inform him 
of the fact and to request him to accept the honor. 
Carried. 

W. A. Schoenlierger was nominated to iill the 
vacancy on the Executive Committee which would 
be occasioned by the retirement of Mr. Warfel to 
assume the Presidency of the society. 
How Early in the Season Shall We Set Our 
Hens? 

W. J. Kafroth said it was always time to set hens 
— winter as well as summer. 

Mr. Buch believed the latter part of February 
was as early as hens could be set safely. Young 
birds need grass and they can't get this earlier. 
Chicks hatched in the latter part of January 
or February do not do so well as those hatched 
later. 

Mr. Flowers agreed with the latter speaker. His 
March chicks have always beaten the January and 
February ones by far. 

H. H. Tshudy thought much depended on the 
weather. If that was lavorable, he believed the ear- 
lier they were hatched the better. Among some 
farmers the belief is prevalent that late chickens- 
hatched at harvest time — are the best. All things 
considered, he believed March the best month to 
hatch chicks. 

J. Trissler believed any month prior to June and 
July was equally good. Early chicks, as a rule, are 
best. 

J. M.Johnston, who had some of the chicks hatch- 
ed in the incubator, reported them all dead. He 
took too good care of them altogether. 

Others reported success with these little waifs, 
who are thriving finely. 

.Mr. Johnston held a private inquest over one of 
his chicks and described the symptoms of disease 
manifested with all the minuteness of a coroner's 
physician, and no doubt came about as near the true 
cause as such inquests usually do. 

Mr. Frank Greist was the essayist of the day, and 
read the following : 

Did the larger varieties of fowls at the late exhi- 
bition receive a sufficient number of premiums as 
compared with the smaller varieties ? 

The first difficulty that presents itself is the di- 
vision into larger and smaller varieties, but for the 
purpose of answering this question v/e will say first 
that those which from an utilitarian point of view are 
of most value — the Asiatics and Plymouth Rocks, 
together, of course, with the turkeys, ducks and 
geese — are the larger fowls, and that all others shall 
be classed among the smaller varieties. According 
to this division (not counting entries for the four 
special premiums, amouting to ?25, S:;0 of which 
was taken by small fowls) there were (j5 entries of 
large fowls, paying entry fees of §''2. .50, and carry- 
ing off premiums amounting to $:J1. As opposed lo 
this, there were 143 entries of the smaller varieties, 
paying cutry fees of $.')S. 50 and receiving premiums 
of§«B..50. That is, eachentry of large fowls paid to 
the exhibition 50 cents andjreceived from it 4712 cents 
nearly, a gain for the association of 2>:; cents on each 
entry, while in the smaller varieties each entry gave 
to the exhibitiou 41 1-5 cents, and received from it 
an average of til cents, the exhibition losing on each 
entry 19 4-5 cents. 

The average loss on each pigeon entry was 25 
cents ; aaiiaries, .50 cents ; Polish, 83';; cents. Ex- 
cept Dorkings and turkeys, where the 50 cents 
entry fee was all gain, they having received no 
premiums, the largest average gain was in Plymouth 
Rocks, SO cents. 

Omitting pigeons, canaries and the parrot from 
this calculation, we have seventy varieties of smaller 
fowls, giving 540. .50 and taking 8.50..5O, making an 
average loss of 14 2-7 cents on each entry. 

Excluding special cash premiums above mentioned 
and the entries therefore, the average loss through- 
out on each entry was 12 4-5 cents ; including them, 
18 cents. 



It was stated before the exhibition that the entry 
fees would pay the premiums, and as no one objected 
to this I suppose every one considered that to be 
about right. The sequel shows that they lacked 
$40 of doing this, and as the entries were even 
greater in number than was expected, this deficiency 
can only be accounted for on the hypothesis that 
entirely too many premiums (vere given to the 
smaller fowls. 

This has been blamed on the pigeons, but the loss 
on them is only about half of the total loss. 

What is the object in raising poultry? To obtain 
flesh, eggs and feathers. Tlien the poultry most 
needed is that which best answers this purpose — 
furnish good flesh and eggs for the table, and lay 
and propagate most rapidly. Are Bantams, Games 
and Polish on the one hand, orjBrahmas, Cochins, Ply- 
mouth Rocks and Leghorns on the other, best fitted 
for this? Most emphatically the latter. I doubt 
whether there is a man in Lancaster county, choos- 
ing from the standpoint of usefulness, who would 
not take the Plymouth Rock exhibit in preference 
to the whole batch of pigeons, although the 
former took but ?3 in premiums to the latter's 
?34K. 

It may be held that we should cultivate fowls for 
beauty, as well as for utility, but should not those 
which are pre-eminently both of these receive more 
consideration at the hands of an association of 
poultry raisers than varieties which are purely orna- 
mental ? And what fowls on exhibition were 
more beautiful than some of the Brahmas and 
Cochins? 

It is also an acknowledged fact that it is easier to 
get bantams that will count a higher score than 
larger fowls. 

■Taking all these into consideration, I not only be- 
lieve that the larger fowls received too few premiums 
at the Lancaster County Exhibition, but that they 
do at nearly all sirailiar exhibitions throughout the 
country. Tour Secretary will tell you that out of 
$700 lost on premiums in thirteen exhibitions from 
which he has recently heard, only S91 was lost on 
Asiatics, Plymouth Rocks and Spanish and about 
?4.50 on Games, Hamburgs, Bantams, Polish and 
Pigeons . 

From away "down East" the Secretary of the 
Southern Massachusetts Poultry Association sends 
his laments. He thinks there should be some re- 
vision respecting the pigeon department, and sug- 
gests that throughout no premiums should be paid 
when there is no competition. This would of course 
make the list of the premiums much smaller, and 
would pecuuiarly benefit the association, but yet 
would not equalize matters sufficiently to give the 
larger fowls a chance. 

When competition is between large and small 
fowls, a discount of 5 per cent, might put them more 
nearly on equal footing. 

Less bantams weigh higher points — that is, the 
less valuable they are as a marketable bird, the 
higher will they score. 

Mr. Greist's essay did not find favor with the 
breeders of pigeons, who thought their favorites got 
scant treatment. 

Secretary Liclity had gone to a good deal of trouble 
to get some light on the subject. He had thirty re- 
plies from secretaries of Poultry Associations giving 
their views. From an analysis of these replies he 
found that Dark and Light Brahmas, Cochins and 
Plymouth Rocks were the most profitable varieties 
to Societies; the smaller and pet varieties particularly 
famous for running away with the premiums of ex- 
hibitions. The general conclusion was that the 
smaller classes get to many premiums. 

Chas. E. Long thanked Mr. Griest for his essay, 
and also thought the Secretary ought to be com- 
mended for the trouble he had gone to in securing 
the facts he had given us. He believed the larger 
varieties got all they were entitled to at the late 
exhibition. He contended the premiums were fairly 
awarded — as fairly as they were at any show. He 
joined issue with Mr. Greist for classing Game birds 
with the smaller varieties. 

John A. Stober believed the objectof poultry shows 
was to improve the breeds of fowls. He had tried 
many kinds; he now breeds Brown Leghorns and 
thinks more of them than any of the larger breeds 
he has ever had. 

J. B. Long has also breed mauy kinds; lie has 
found the Black Cochins to be the greatest layers 
of them all. He gave the facts to prove what he 
said. 

H. H. Tshudy said Mr. Stober has not got far 
enough yet. When he gets Plymouth Rocks he will 
change his opinion, and when Mr. Long's Black 
Cochins begin to hatch, he will also change his 
views. 

Secretary Lichty thought too much attention was 
given to money premiums; awards are worth far 
more than their mere money value. 

The discussion on this subject took a wide range, 
and much entertaining information was elicited. 

Question for Discussion, 

Is there any way to reduce the flying propensities 
of Leghorns ? Referred to Jacob B. Long. 

There being no further business the society ad- 
journed. 



LINN^AN SOCIETY. 

A stated meeting of the Linnaian Society was held 
on Saturday, February 38, 1880, President Rev. J. 8. 
Stahr in the chair. After attending to the opening 
duties the donations to the museum were examined, 
and found to consist of a fine specimen of fish, 
caught below the dam at Columbia, and sent per Mr. 
Geo. F, Rathvon, and subniitted to J. Stauffer, chair- 
man of the committee on ichthiology for a name, 
which he gave as the Ainbloplitt'i rupestrn, a fish 
only known in Lake Erie and the Western waters, 
and new for the Susquehanna. A specimen of ore. 
A dark colored large tooth, sent last October by Geo. 
D. Boggs, Elizabethtown, and by him supposed to be 
a fossil tooth. On inspection it has not attained the 
stage of a fossil, and proves to be the tooth of a 
horse. 

A bottle containing one of a number of singular 
productions, passed by a respectable female of this 
city, similar to those claimed by Doctor Campbell to 
have been crabs, a year ago, by one of his patients. 
This is intended to be submitted to Dr. Davis for a 
microscopic inspection, to determine its character. 
One bottle, having a singular growth found, on what 
they call fish-bred, an alg»e or fungus growth, not 
inspected— both deposited by S. S. Rathvon. Several 
very large, flattish, circular beans, from a pod said 
to attain four feet in length ; also, thin, flat double 
seeds, with fine silky wings, two inches on each side, 
from some shrub, no doubt similar to the catalpa 
bean or tree, together with 9 leaves of palm leaf- 
part of a sacred book of the Burmah religion, and a 
translation ; title, "Justice and Mercy Reconciled;" 
donated by Miss Salome S. Lefevre, who had been 
a missionary in Burmah for years. For the inspec 
tion of the members present she also had on exhibi- 
tion a book in leaves about 3H inches wide and 20 
inches long, embossed with raised letters of a shiny 
black polish on a gilded ground, and a gorgeously 
colored envelope or cover — quite a curiosity, but no 
one volunteered to read the title even. Sculptured 
idols, artistically made, together with richly colored 
pictures of some of their gods and goddesses, such 
as the Krishna and Radhika, or the Monkey God ; 
Kali, the bloody war goddess ; Ganeh, the Elephant 
God; Mohader, or Lakkhia and Sn-araswati, two 
daughters of Mohadar. These water-color paintings 
are in the oriental style, rich in color smoothly laid 
on, but like those of the Chinese or Japanese, not 
remarkable for perspective skilljor thruthful outline. 
A framed bouquet of flowers per Mrs. Zell from 
specimen collected in Palestine by Miss Lefevre, the 
"Rose of Sharon" occupying the centre. -Mr. Rath- 
von exhibited a full large "flower of the hellebore, 
called Christmas rose, wondering why this was not 
more cultivated, as it yields flowers in succession, 
from December to April, out of doors, when no flow- 
ers are about. 

To the historical section, Chas. A. Heinitsh, esq., 
added a revenue tax receipt from Leonard Eicholtz, 
dated Feb. 31, 1816 — on saddles, Jas. Humes, col- 
lector. S. S. Rathvon, four envelopes containing 
clippings of historical interest. 

To the library. Proceedinas of the Academy of 
Natural Science, Philadelphia, Part II., April to 
October, 1879. The Lancaster Farmer for February. 
No. 1, Soieidiflc A-di'ocalc; editor, A. Green, Atco, 
N. J. Sunday-school book notices and catalogues. 

Papers read: J. Stauffer read an illustrated paper. 
No .537, ou the fish named by him as the AiiMopliies 
ruapcslris, andffrom a copy of it sent to S. S. Baird, 
secretary of the Smithsonian society, the name was 
pronounced correct aud it is considered new for the 
waters of Pennsylvania, and of interest, Prof. Baird 
desiring the loan of the specimen to compare it with 
those they have from the Western waters. S. S. 
Rathvon read a miscellaneous record of articles de- 
posited and whence taken. 

New business; Miss Salome S. Lefevre was pro- 
posed and unanimously elected a corresponding 
member of this society, and on motion a vote of cor- 
dial thanks was given her for the pleasure aflbrded 
by the display of Indian curiosities and her expla- 
nation as well as for the desirable specimens donated 
to the society. 

The President, Rev. J. S. Stahr, asked if the society 
could not publish a small monthly sheet of its pro- 
ceedings? A motion was then made that a com- 
mittee of three be appointed to ascertain the cost 
aud expediency so to do and exchange with other 
societies. The motion was agreed to, when Mr. 
Stauffer nominated Rev. J. S. Stahr, S.S. Rathvon 
and Rev. Dr. J. H. Dubbs as that committee, and 
they were agreed to. Mr. Rathvon reported a bill 
for alcohol; "ordered to he paid. The treasurer was 
authorized to subscribe for the ficience Advocate for 
one year. 

Under scientific miscellany the religion and pro- 
ducts of Burmah was discussed, or rather comment- 
ed upon, and after spending a few hours in a highly 
interesting and profitable manner the society ad- 
journed. 



SuusCHtBERS will please consult the little lable 
on their paper, and see if their subscription is paid 
up to 1880, if not, they would confer a favor by at- 
tending to the matter immediately. 



1880.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Ab 



Agriculture. 



Sugar in America — Its Introduction. 

In the spriug of t8.5(>, the editor of the American 
Agritulturist received a small parcel of sorghum 
seed from .Messrs. Vilmoriti, .\ndreux & Co., tiie 
noted seedsmen of Paris, who had brought it from 
China. It was planted in rich ffiinien eoii, and irrew 
13 to 1.5 feet hio;li, maturing its seed well. The 
children of the neighborhood found the juices of the 
stalks so sweet that lliey used up a larire part of 
the three rows 2.') feet iij Icnstlh. A sketch of one of 
the plants was made and published, with a descrip- 
tion in this journal for February, 18.')7. It was sub- 
sequently announced that the seed would be distrib- 
uted among our readers, to be divided equally 
among all who should send au envelope directed to 
themselves— say from ilo to .'50 seeds each. This 
publication brought samples to the ollice from tliree 
otiier parties within oO miles of New York city. 
Soon after a stranger came in and tried hard to buy 
all our seed. When his offer reached $8 a pound, 
he wa» inl'ormed that it would not be sold at any 
price, as it was already protniseii to our readers. He 
then jiroduced a newspaper item from the West, 
where Ije had been traveling, and saiil the interest 
was so great that lie could divide a pound into a 
hundred or more parcels and sell them quickly at 
Jl.OO a parcel. As soon as he left the office, the 
editor sent out and bought all the seed in the three 
lecalities he had heard of, at $5 a pound. At tlie 
same time he wrote lo the I'aris seedsmen to send 
him all the seed they had, and draw on him for the 
pay. To his surprise— consternation almost — they 
returned word by the next steamer that they liad 
shipped 1,000 pounds (no Atlantic Cable then) and 
held 600 pounds more to his order. The whole was 
ordered at once, and when the 1,000 pounds arrived 
it was immediately announced that none of it, would 
be sold, but that a packet of at least 400 seeds 
would he presented to any reader of the American 
Agriculluri.it who desired it — enough to experiment 
with and to provide an abundant supply of plants 
the next year if it proved valuable. Thirty-one 
thousand (31,000) parcels were distributed to our 
readers throught the country, and planted. Enough 
was saved and sent to Georgia to grow :;4,.500 lbs. 
(IT'X tons) of seed, during the Summer of 1857. 
This was sent to this otflce, and a full pound 
was given to every ' reader desiring it for 1858 — 
over 30,000 pound parcels were thus distributed. 

From the ai ove seed thus widely and freelj 
scattered was produced at least nine-tenths of all 
the sorghum grown in this country. (A small 
quantity was sent out from the Patent Office, and 
some sold by dealers.) Hundreds of millions of 
gallons of syrup were made and used during the war 
when the usual supply of Southern grown sugar 
was cut off. It was worth many millions of dollars 
to the country. But such difficulty was experienced 
in producing good sugar that the cultivation fell olT 
fifter the supply of South grown sugar came in. 
Quite a "boom" was started later on by high claims 
asserted for a variety called the African "Imphec," 
but this soon died out. Recently, the improved pro- 
cesses of obtaining the saccharine matter in eh rys- 
talline form, as sugar, have given a new impetug, 
and promising results are anticipated. 



About Rotten Manure. 

The Oermantoum Telegraph says : 

At a meeting of farmers and fruit-growers some time 
ago, there was considerable discussion on the ques- 
tion of fermented manure. One speaker thought 
that it did no harm to the manure left behind to 
have the black liquid run away from it, as this was 
a sign that it was being thoroughly decomposed. 
Others appear to h.ave taken the "stand that every- 
thing in the manure-heap was of value as it stood. 
We do not understand that the one who thought the 
manure was the better for the black liquid going out 
from it attached no value to the black liquid; per- 
haps he would utilize this in some other way. The 
report is obscure on this point; but it is still a novel 
pomt to make that the manure-pile is the better for 
its absence. 

In some first-class works on agriculture, where 
recommendations are often made on "perfect farm- 
ing," without any regard to the means at hand to 
carry out the recommendations contained in the 
book, it has been insisted on that the best results are 
obtained from barnyard manure when a cistern is 
built at the foot of the manure pile, and the liquid 
contents daily pumped over the whole solid mass. 
We do not know that anyone ever went to work to 
do just this thing, for many of the /oac/jni; recom- 
mendations of these books, written as if they had 
actually been done, are too often but the writers' 
idea of what ought to be done. Still, the recom- 
mendation by the intelligent men shows how much 
they value this "black" material, and how very dif- 
ferent is the recommendation now offered. 

It is one of the most remarkable phases of agri- 
culture that advocates can be found — intelligent 
advocates — for the most opposing views; and it is a 
sad reflection on any supposed science in agriculture. 



It is not long since we noticed in our columns that 
though the practical farmer — those who watch 
results — had for years been coming to the conclusion 
that it was b«tt to keep manure covered from the 
rain, one of our most progressive Chester county 
farmers has taken the ground that it Avas absolutely 
useless. This friend will prol)ably consort with our 
present one, who regards draining the manure heap 
as no lo.-is to it. Still tlicre is a science in agricul- 
ture, and especially in Ihc management of manures. 
We hold that when there ii- any great I'ontradiction 
in results, such a.s is here indicated, it is because 
the real principle at the bottom of the practice has 
not been reached. The shell has been in hand only, 
there is a kernal at the botloin of it all. For our 
part wc like to note this apparent diversity of con- 
clusions Iromthe same liictB, as It compels us to 
look deeper for the cause. 



Some Corn in Illinois. . 
The corn eropof the single State of Illinois for the 
year 1879 is i-eported to lie 305,813,:i77 bushels, and 
estimated to be worth $07,4^3,0.52, or about '.'■Vi 
cents per bushel. It is ditlicull for the mind to take 
in the full magnitude of these figures. Here are 
some calculations that will help theconception: Load 
this corn U[ion wagons, 40 bushels to the load, and 
start them off on the road so near together that 
there shall be 100 teams in every mile. The line of 
wagons carrying this one crop of Illinois corn would 
stretch aw.ay 7(),4.53 miles, or tnore than three timet 
around Ihr worldl — Again: Load this crop upon rail- 
way freight cars, 285'", bushels or about 8 tons to the 
car, and make up these cars into a continuous freight 
train, allowing 30 leet of track to each car. The 
train would extend 0,080 miles, or nearly twice 
across the continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Oceans! — Again: Suppose we put this corn crop 
into a s(juare bin 20 feet deep. Let the arithmetical 
young readers of the American Agriculturalist reckon 
how large this bin would be each way. Also, how 
many acres it would cover. — Also, how many pounds 
of pork it would make if given to pigs weighing 100 
lbs. each when they begin feeding upon the corn, and 
250 lbs. when killed for pork. — American Agricultur- 
ist/or Mnrcli 1. 

Notes for the Farmer. 

It has been discovered that the .South Carolina 
willow, which grows very plentifully in that State, 
is equal to the best imported basket willow, and it is 
thought the cultivation and shipment of this material 
may become an important industry. 

The potatoe crop of the country is estimated at 
181,369,000 bushels. Compared with 1,878 there was 
an increase of three per cent, in acerage, and the 
yield is estimated by the Department of Agriculture 
at 98 bushels per acre, against 69 bushels last year, 
and 94 in 1,S74. 

The grand secret of manuring for corn is to keep 
the fertility near the surface when applied, and it is 
rare that another course is advisable. It is best to 
harrow or brush, so distribute more evenly, and then 
by shallow ploughing prevent loss of nitrogen. — 
Dr. Slurtei'aut. 

Nitrate of Soda, 

or Chilli Saltpetre, is one of the leading mineral fer- 
tilizers supplied from the immense deposits in the 
rainless desert of Southern Peru. Attention was 
first called to it by Alexander von Ilumbolt, in the 
early part of this century, but it is not over fifty 
years ago that it was first shipped abroad to any ex- 
tent. The Nitrate of Soila industry is to-day a large 
and rapidly growing one, there being over 2.50,000 
tons of this fertilizer mined and exported per year, 
though it is not all used upon the land, a large share 
going to the manufacturers of chemicals as a source 
of Nitric Acid. It is a formidalde competitor of Pe- 
ruvian Guano. — American Agriculturist for Murch 1. 




Peas in Plenty. 

" This is not a pea country," said an Englishman 
to U6, and he was right, it is not in the sense that 
England is, where they can take picking after ])iek- 
ing from the same vines. The hot suu that gives us 
our green corn and tomatoes, which English gard- 
ens cannot have, puts an end to our peas. But we 
can have them in abundance during their short sea- 
son, and should have them in fargreater pleuly than 
wc do. Farmers are apt to be content with two or 
three messes, and many find it too much trouble to 
grow them at all. One great obstacle to an abun- 
dance of peas, is the necessity for sticking or brush- 
ing them, but that, as we shall presently show, may 
be for the most part avoided. The great point with 
early peas is to start early; select a piece of light, 
dry soil, all the betterif it slopes to the south, and 
just 60, soon as It can be worked, plow and har- 
row it, furrow out rows at least 6 inches deep, 3 feet 
apart for dwarfs, and 4 feet for the taller kinds. 
Then scatter a good supply of the best and finest 
manure in the furrow, and sow the peas upon the 



manure, if well rotted; if not, cover the manure 
with an inch or so of soil. Then by the use of the 
rake or hoe, cover to the depth "of three Inches. 
Some cover only an inch at first, and as the plants 
show themselves, gradually <lraw in the earth, until 
the seed is four or live inches deep ; the deeper, the 
better the plants will staiul hot weather. 

Varieties. — One who looks at a catalogue, finds a 
puzzling list of names, and It may help them to 
know that for the earliest peas, there are several 
names for what is essentially one and the same pea. 
Those not familiar with the matter, should know 
that there are two kinds of peas, the round and the 
wrinkled, and that there is as much difference be- 
tween them in quality, as between field corn and 
sweet corn. The earliest peas are round. The 
wrinkled peas. If wet weather comes after sowing, 
will rot in the ground. Then again, there are dwarf 
and tall sorts of hotli kinds ; the dwarfs are a foot 
or less high, the others grow from two to live or more 
feet. It need hardly be said thai the tall kinds pro- 
duce more from the same land, .is they have the most 
vine; though the dwarls may be planted closer, they, 
so far as our experience goes, are not so satisfactory 
as the others. Great claims are made for some of 
the newer dwarfs, that we have not yet tried. For 
general use, " Daniel O'Kourke," and " Carter's 
First Crop," are the best very early. Then comes 
" Alpha," the earliest of all the wrinkled peas. For 
the main crop, no pea is better than " Champion of 
England," and probably none ever will be. This 
should not be sown until the ground is dry and warm, 
or the seed may rot. "Bishop's Long .Pod " is in- 
termediate between the early and " Chamjiion, but 
a second sowing of " Alpha," a fortnight after the 
first, will do well for an intermediate crop. 

About Brushing. — None of the market gardeners 
brush their peas, and while we would give brush or 
other support if practicable, as affording better crops, 
and easier picking, yet one should not go without 
peas because he cannot stick them. When the peas 
come up, the ground should be kept clean with the 
horse cultivator, or garden plow, and if any weeds 
come up in the rows, pull them out; when tiie peas 
are about six inches high, throw a furrow with a 
small plow towards them on each side. When they 
begin to fall over, turn them all to one side, and let 
them lie on the ground. Every two or three days, 
turn them over to the other side of the row, especially 
after a rain; this is done very rapidly by using a 
hoe-handle, or similar stick, running it uuder them, 
and turning over several feet of the row at once. 
The " Champion of England "should have some 
kind of support, as that is longer in growing, is 
taller, and yields more pickings. If brush cannot 
be had, use cord or wire stretched between stout 
stakes or posts. — American .\gricnlturist for March 1. 



Peach Culture. 

Thinking that some hints on the subject of peach 
culture might not prove uninteresting to our readers, 
I venture a few remarks : 

Some years ago, within the recollection of our 
fathers, peach trees were long-lived, hardy, healthy, 
and bore annual crops of fruit, which was not only 
a source of luxury but of profit, but later on they 
were almost universally attacked here in Pennsylva- 
nia and many other northern states, with a disease 
called the yellows, which almost entirely destroyed 
them, since which time it is but rarely our orchards 
live to a greater age thau 5 or 6 years, rarely bear- 
ing more than two crops, when death ensues. This 
is greatly to be regretted. The value of this fruit is 
too well known for us to abandon all hope of Its 
successful culture again. 

It is a fact known to many of us that in Kent 
county, eastern shore of Maryland, in vicintity of 
Sassafras river, peach growing is an entire success; 
they make it a specialty; orchards of .5,000 to 10,- 
000 trees are quite common, and live from 15 to 20 
years, the yellows being unknown. 

Now it strikes me very forcibly that If our farm- 
ers would procure trees from some such healthy 
peach-growing region they would prove hardy, long- 
lived and profitable here, being free from any he- 
reditary predisposition to this disease so fatal with 
us. Besides, the growers there have made this 
branch of fruit culture a study, have originated 
many valuable varieties, tjest suited to our markets, 
for canning and the tastes or wants of a progressive 
people, and have discarded such of the old varieties 
as have degenerated, or lived out their day of use- 
fulness; a plan, I hold to be vitally essential in order 
for the best results, as this system of budding or 
breeding in and in, from one generation to another, 
for the perpetuation of any one variety, has a ten 
dency to deteriorate or impair the vitality of that 
variety, which renders it unprofitable and should be 
discariied logive place for some kind more desirable. 

It will not be expensive to make the experiment; 
let us try it. — A Native Penniyliianian in Intelli- 
gencer. 

Think About the Garden Now. 
How often have we suggceted to those having suf- 
ficient ground for garden, and especially farmers, to 
pay increased attention to this important appendage 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ Marct, 



of family comfort. Farmers, as a rale, are entirely 
too careless about their gardens, their whole minds 
being placed upon their field-crop, stock, &c. The 
women would in most cases be competent and gladly 
willing to take charge of a large portion of the labor 
necessary to the proper culti%-aliou of the garden, if 
the men would prepare the ground to their hands. 
Indeed, it is a fact that those who pursue the culti- 
vation of the soil as their business, rarely enjoy 
garden products in perfection, just because they ap- 
pear to insist upon the error that they don't pay. 
Now is the time to think about how the garden can 
be enlarged and the number and quantity of the 
crops increased. The stuff can also be got ready 
for the additional fence, and the fence itself erected 
as soon as the weather will permit. 

The little hot beds in which to raise your tomato, 
cabbage plants and egg plants should now be re- 
paired and got ready for sowing the seed as soon as 
the time arrives and tliat will be from the '20th to the 
end of this month. One thing must be remembered, 
that there should be no sparing of the underlaying 
stratum of horse manure in preparing the beds. — 
Germaittoion Telerfraph. 

^ 

What to Put in the Garden. 

Of the many hundred of sorts of Peas, Beans, 
Cabbages, Corn, Sweet Corn, Lettuce, Potatoes, To- 
matoes, Beets, Carrots, Cucumbers, Melons, Rad- 
ishes, Turnips, Onions, etc., etc. (each variety piais- 
ed by its seller), is an important question. A right 
choice of kinds will return many dollars worth more 
for the same labor and expense, even in a small gar- 
den. To help all in deciding, Peter Henderson, 
the highest authority in such matters, has tested, 
tide by side, over tOO varieties of the above garden 
products, and he gives the results in the American 
AgriculturiU for March 1st. Tbis number has much 
other practical, seasonable information, illustrated 
with over 100 engravings, and is alone worth the 
cost of a whole year's subscription, which is only 
$1.50, or 4 copies for 85. Okange Jncn Company, 
New York, are the publishers. 



Apples. 

Apples, in addition to being a delicious fruit, 
make a pleasant medicine. A raw, mellow apple 
Is digested in an hour and a-half; while boiled cab- 
bage requires five hours. The most healthy dessert 
that can be placed on a table is a baked apple. If 
eaten frequently at breakfast, with coarse bread and 
butter, without meat or fiesh of any kind, it has an 
admirable effect on the general system, often remov- 
ing constipation, correcting acidities, and cooling off 
febrile conditions more efl'ectually than the most 
approved medicines. If families could be induced 
to substitute them for pies, cakes and sweetmeats, 
with which their children are frequently stuffed, 
there would be a diminution in the total sum of 
doctors' bills in a single year sufficient to lay in a 
stock of this delicious fruit for the whole season's 
use. 



Domestic Economy. 

Ventilation of Sleeping Rooms. 
One must use judgment in the ventilation of bed- 
rooms, not to let in too much air at a time, to avoid 
all drafts, and in the coldest nights not to allow the 
room to become as cold as the outside atmosphere, 
but there must be an inlet for pure air, and an outlet 
for bad air, from some source. If two persons are 
to occupy a bedroom during a night, let them step 
upon weighing scales as they retire, and then again 
in the morning, and they will find their actual 
weight is at least a pound less in the morning. Fre 
quently there will be a loss of two or more pounds, 
and the average loss throughout the year will be 
more than one pound — that is; during the night 
there is a loss of a pound of matter which has gone 
oflT from their bodies, partly from the lungs and 
partly through the pores of the skin. The es- 
caped matter is carbonic acid and decayed animal 
matter of poisonous exhalations. This is diflused 
through the air, and in part absorbed by the bed 
clothes. If a single ounce ol wool or cotton be burn- 
ed in the room, it will so completely saturate the 
air with smoke that one can hardly breathe, though 
there can only be an ounce of foreign matter in the 
air. If an ounce be burned every half hour during 
the night, the air will be kept continually saturated 
with the smoke, unless there be an open door or 
window for it to escape. Now, the sixteen ounces 
of smoke thus formed is far less poisonous than the 
sixteen ounces of exhalation from the lungs and 
bodies of the two persons who have lost a pound in 
weight during the eight hours of sleeping, for while 
the dry smoke is mainly taken into the lungs, the 
damp odors from the body are absorbed into the 
lungs and into the pores of the whole body. — Ex. 



when properly prepared for the table. I do not like 
the fish in warm weather as do some people, but 
when winter sets in and I can obtain good specimens, 
caught at what may be called at sea, there are few 
dishes to be compared to it. When rightly boiled, 
such a fish exhibits the flesh separately from the 
hone in solid flakes that retain their white curvature 
after they are distributed by the carver. Even the 
scraps left from such cod are never wasted, but can 
be made into a palatable dish by removing the flakes 
from the bones and skin before becoming cold, and 
when wanted placing them in a stew-pan with what 
is left of the sauce; then add a dozen or more fresh 
oysters with their liquor, and if these do not moisten 
the fish enough, and it requires to be only moistened, 
add a spoonful or two of melted butter. Warm 
carefully over a gentle fire and when once thoroughly 
hot through set aside. Get your dish, warm it, and 
surround it with fine mashed potatoes. In the mid- 
dle of the dish place the warmed-up fish with its 
sauce; crumble over the fish grated bread-crumbs, 
and set In a hot oven for a few minutes until nicely 
browned on the top. It will prove a most desirable 
dish. Fresh cod cut into slices two inches thick, 
dressed plentifully with eggs and bread-crumbs, 
and fried a light brown in plenty of lard, is really 
delicious. At least so think some of our best fami- 
lies and even fastidious epicures out here in Massa- 
chusetts. — Oermantown Telegraph. 



Milk— What is It ? 



How to Cook Codfish. 
Many people, knowing little about codfish and 
perhaps only having eaten them when spoiled by 
cooking, have but a faint idea of their excellence 



The natural food for the young of all mammals is 
milk — a rather complex fluid, the physical proper- 
ties of which it is not necessary to describe. The 
principal constituents are water, sugar, caseine, al- 
bumin, fat, and several salts. The sugar, when 
separated, looks much like the ordinary kind from 
the cane, but is much less sweet. Caseine is one of 
the leading constituents, and is the part which, when 
removed from the milk, becomes the cheese. The 
caseine exists in small particles in the milk, and is 
contracted or gathered into large masses by the ac- 
tion of acids or rennet. The albumin remains in 
solution after the caseine is removed, and is separat- 
ed by boiling, when it appears as white curds, some- 
what resembling the white of eggs in appearance, as 
it does also in composition. The fat is not dissolved 
in the milk, but suspended as little globules 
with thin coverings. In the process of churning, 
these globules are broken, and the fat collects in 
lumps of various sizes. This fat, when worked, 
salted, etc., is the butter of the market and table. 
The ash is but a small part of the milk, and consists 
of a number of substances, which are left behind 
when the milk is dried down and burned. There are 
many things to influence the percentage of these va- 
rious ingredients of milk. It is unlike in different 
species, and among cows, the breed, feed, genera] 
treatment, age of animals, etc., all have a modify, 
ing influence. — American Agriculturist for March 1. 

Strange Taste in the Butter. 

The principal causes why butter is found to be 
badly "off' flavor" are, first, browse and weeds in 
the pastures, or in the hay, or coarse roots and other 
unsuitable feed in the stable ; second, bad water, or 
too little of it; third, heating the cow's blood by 
running or abuse; fourth, uncleanly milking; fifth, 
setting the milk in open pans which are exposed to 
the fumes of cooking, or to stove-smoke or tobacco- 
smoke, or to cold victules set near; sixth, to keeping 
the cream in uncleansed vessels, or too long before 
churning; seventh, the use of impure salt ; eighth, 
putting down the butter in unsuitable or ill-prepared 
tubs or other packages; ninth, storing it in dirty 
cellars, or beside kerosene, salt or smoked meat, or 
fish, or any other strong-odored thing. Butter is the 
most susceptible of taint of any article of food, 
and when tainted, even slightly, has lost its value. 
A person may have every other qualification for the 
business that can be thought of, yet if lacking in 
scrupulous neatness, is utterly unfit to be employed 
in butter-making. A farmer whose wife is a slattern 
may succeed in sheep or hogs, but never as a dairy- 
man. Tet let every man remember that at least 
half our bad butter was made before the milk left 
the stable. 



To Cure Hams or Beef. 

Lay the hams on a slanting board and rub with 
fine salt. Let them lay forty-eight hours; then wipe 
off the salt with a dry towel, and to each ham take 
a teaspoonful of powdered saltpetre and a dessert- 
spoonful of coarse brown sugar and red pepper 
rubbed well into the fleshy part; then pack in a tub, 
skins down, sprinkling between each layer with fine 
salt. In five days cover them with pickle made as 
follows; To one "gallon water take one and a half 
pounds coarse salt, one-quarter to one ounce saltpe- 
tre, and one-quarter to one-half pound brown sugar. 
Lat them lay five, six or seven weeks, according to 
size; beef, either ten days or two weeks. Hang them 
up to dry several days before smoking. 

The pickle should stand and be skimmed, and must 
be c Id. In Virginia they use no pickle, only plenty 
of salt rubbed on. 



How to Cook Poultry. 
Old poultry may be made tender and savory by 
the following method : Soak it in cold water with a 
handful or two of ashes thrown in for twenty-four 
hours; pick off the feathers and let it hang for twenty- 
four hours longer. Then let it boil for a quarter of 
an hour in veal broth or water; take it out, lard and 
bake it; when nearly done baste it with hot butter. 
By this method the flavor of a young chicken may 
be imparted to an old fowl. Poultry of all kinds 
requires thorough cooking, as when undergone it is 
tasteless. A turkey weighing eight pounds should 
be baked three hours and hasted every ten or fifteen 
minutes with its own drippings and with melted but- 
ter. If proper care is taken in dressing poultry it 
will not need washing. A wet cloth may be used to 
wipe it clean if necessary, but soaking it in water 
takes out the flavor. Young poultry may be known 
by having smooth legs and supple feet. If the legs 
are rough and the feet are stiff, the poultry is old 

and stale. 

^ 

Extra Good Sausage. 

This receipt was fortunately obtained in time for 
our own benefit this winter. The friend who gave 
it to me said she originated it, and I think I never 
tasted any better cooking or seasoning than she can 
do. 

To every eighteen pounds of saussage-meat add 
three good tablespoonfuls black pepper, four table- 
spoonfuls salt, a little heaped, and six tablespoon- 
fuls sage. After measuring the pepper for all your 
meat, weigh it, and to every half pound of black 
pepper put a heaping teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, 
and to every fifty pounds of meat put one teacupful 
of pulverized sugar. 

As to sausage-meat, we aim to have one-third of it 
fat, the rest lean, but guess at it, and it is best to 
season the meat before the first chopping. We always 
chop twice and take out the stringy pieces. The 
second chopping also stuifs it in the skins. 

This is by far the best sausage that we ever had, 
and can safely recommend it. — Nellie, Germantown 
Telegraph. 

^ 

To Boil a Ham. 

Scrape and wash carefully in plenty of cold water. 
Put it to cook in boiling water enough to cover it en- 
tirely, hock end up; let it remain on the front of the 
stove till the ham begins to boil.; then put it back 
and let it simmer steadily for three hours. Take It 
off the fire, and let the ham remain in the water it is 
boiled in till cool enough to handle; then skin it; put 
in a baking pan and sprinkle with about three ounces 
of brown sugar; run your pan in a hot oven, and let 
it remain a half hour, or until the sugar has formed 
a brown crust. This not only improves the flavor of 
the ham, but preserves its juices. 



Household Recipes. 



Apple Sauce is the form in which the fruit most 
frequently appears. There is apple sauce, and 
apple sauce. To make the best, requires the best 
apples. Select high flavored fruit, such as the R. I. 
Greening, or Spitzenberg, pare, and slice in thick 
slices, and put, with the needed quantity of sugar, 
in a dish with a tight fitting cover. Some have a 
dish made for the purpose, but a tin pail with a 
good cover will answer. Set in a moderate oven, 
and allow it to stew slowly, until thoroughly done; 
good apples will need no water. Apple sauce so 
prepared, is far superior to that made in the usual 
way. Next in popularity to apple sauce is 

Apple Pie. — Stewed apples half an inch thick, 
between two fiabby crusts, is a caricature on apple 
pie. The apple pie is made with sliced raw apples, 
in a very deep plate, and as few plates are deep 
enough, the sliced apple should be heaped up ia 
generous measure. It is a mistake to spoil good 
apples with much seasoning. Cloves and allspice 
overcome the natural flavor; a very little cinnamon, 
or minute bits of the dried peel of a sweet orange, 
develop it. In many families, sauce and pie end the 
changes, while they are really but the beginning of 
the list. What can he better for a dessert, than 

Baked Apples. — Either sweet or sour? Many 
have a notion that sweet apples are the only kinJs 
proper for baking. They are indeed exellent— when 
sour ones cannot be had. But for the perfection of 
baked apples K.I. Greenings are required : RemoTe 
the centers with a "corer," fill the cavities with 
sugar, set in a baking dish with a little water, and 
bake rather briskly. Apples so treated, are better 
than most of us deserve; but if we add, as they are 
eaten, a liberal supply of Jersey cream i 

It is but a step from apples to 

Apple Dumplings. That person is not to be en- 
vied, whose recollections of childhood does not In- 
clude apple dumplings— "such as mother used to 
make." That kind will never be found again, but 
a fair approach to it may be hoped for. Her's were 
both boiled and baked, and we never could tell 
which were best. Isn't the making of the crust for 
boiled dumplingB a lost art ! Well, we can minage 



1880.] 



TU^ LANCASTER f ARMEI^. 



4^ 



baked ones, and there is less risk of failure, and 
consequeut danger to the digestion. "Both kinds of 
sauce if you please." 

Apple Custaki> is not to he omitted. Pare and 
core the apples, stew in verj'llittlo water until tender; 
pour over tlietn a custard nuulc iu the usual manner, 
and bake until the custard is done. Housekeepers 
find it dillicult to select a pudding-dish large enough 
for this. 

Apple Fritters are much liked by many; 
rather large slices of apples are sprinkled willi 
sugar and cinnamon, allowed to lay for an hour or 
io; they are then dipped in a batterof Hour and eggs, 
and fried in an abundance of very hot fat; for these, 
a wire frying basket is very convenient. They are 
drained ibr a few minutes, and served hot. If for 
dessert, they are dusted with powdered sugar when 
served, hut if, as many prefer tliem, to he eaten with 
meat, the sugar is omitted. 

Bhown Betty. — We gave this several months 
ago, and will only briefly repeat. All the clean bits 
and fragments of bread are dried crisp in the stove 
oven with the door open, then rolled, and bread- 
crumbs are always at hand. Sliced apples, bread- 
crumbs, sugar, cinnamon, and a deep pudding dish. 
A layer of apples, sugar, s|)ice, crumbs; apples, 
sugar, spice, crumbs, and so on until the dish is full. 
Bake. 

O.x-TAIL SofP.— Take three tails, hiive them di- 
Tidcd at the joints, put them in warm water to soak; 
put into a gallon kettle eight cloves, lliree onions, a 
few allspice, pepper, and "the tails; fill with water 
and let boil as long as any scum rises; take it olT, 
cover the pot and fet it simmer two hours; take out 
the meat and cut in small moutlifuls; set the stock 
away until the next day; remove Till the grease and 
put all ou to boil, adding two tablespoonfuls of 
brown flour mixed with butter; let it simmer half an 
hour, then add two tablespoonfuls of catsup and 
two glasses of wine, and salt. — E. G. P. 

Pan-dowdy or .\pple Slump. — Since wood-fires 
and the old hake-pan or skillet, with a cover to hold 
coals on the top, went out of fashion and use, an 
"apple slump" has not been possible. An imita- 
tion is made in a deep pan, and baked in an oven, 
but it is only a baked apple pudding. Probably the 
real thing can still be found in the lumber camps, 
and in a few otlier localities where wood is the fuel, 
and the open fire-place has not given way to the 
stove. The apples are quartered; the bake-pan is 
lined at the sides with a crust; apples are put in, 
packed solidly, some spice is used, and sufBcient 
molasses, or part sugar, and part molasses, to 
sweeten; a top crust is pot on, gashed to let f.ie 
steam escape; the pan is set on the coals, and the 
coals put on the cover. Eaten hot with butter ! 
Who can ever forget it ? The side crust baked before 
the juice came from the apples; it then became 
partly penetrated with syrup; the apples were done 
to a rich crimson mass. Talk about apple merin- 
gues, and such flummery — Here was richness ! — 
America7i AgricuHuriH. 



9. Kind and quantity of grain and roots fed, If 
any. 

All to be divided so as to make a scale, 100 to be 
perfection. 

There may be other poiuls that might bo consid- 
ered. But it seems to me that I have enough lor the 
present. Could these points (or better ones) be 
adopted, those who take cows to fairs where premi- 
ums are ottered, would know what was expected of 
them. Every part of the contest would be open to 
all concerned, anil when eommittees had agreed upon 
their verdict, it would clearly explain their views to 
the competitors. In this way, as it seems to me, 
fair justice would be the result. The cow with the 
best record should draw the prize; not her owner. 
Each of the nine pointseau be readily comprehended, 
I trust. Brother dairymen, everywhere, please give 
us your views. Criticise my scale of points. — Coun- 
try Gentleman. 

How to Water Horses. 
In cold weather give one pailful at a time three 
times a day. This is enough unless you are working 
them regularly; then give a little more, hut not to 
exceed four pailfuls a day. In warm weather when 
they are brought in, first sponge out the month ami 
nostrils well with cold water. After a fewspongings 
they will wait for it to be done. Then eive them not 
to exceed a pailful apiece, and after feeding give 
one more pailful before you commence work. Don't 
let them go without long enough to make them want 
more than this. If aUowed, a thirsty horse, when 
warm, will drink too much. A common twelve- 
quart pail is the size referred to above. 



Live Stock, 



Testing a Milch Cow. 

I submit the following points or specifications by 
which the value of a cow can be ascertained for pro- 
duction of butter : 

The word "best," as it is generally used in pre- 
mium lists, has so many meanings that the com- 
mittee are at a loss to know just what its fullest 
signification may be. Some would consider one 
point of great excellence, while others of the same 
committee would think it of little value. So far asl 
can learn, there is no list of points agreed upon by 
any agricultural society which oll'ers premiums for 
that class of stock, and there is a chance for a wide 
variation of opinions. 

For many years I have hoped that this subject 
would meet with that attention that it deserves. If 
a dairyman has a cow that is unusual iu her yield of 
butter, her yield and treatment could be readily com- 
pared by an accepted standard of points. If he dis- 
covered in his cow certain excellencies not in the 
standard, he can make them known. Hoping that 
otheis of your reader will favor us with their views, 
I will otter a few of the requisites to be considered in 
making up a scale of points. 

1. Breed and age of cow. If thoroughbred, what 
breed. If grade, how graded. 

2. Time of trial after calving. 

3. Number of days of trial test; not less than five 
days at any one trial, and not less than three trials 
in a year. 

4. Quantity of milk in pounds (not quarts) to one 
pound of butter. 

.5. Pounds and ounces of butter when worked, 
salted and ready for market. 

6. How the milk and cream were treated before 
and at the time of churning. 

7. Gross weight of cow at time of giving the milk. 

8. Kind and quantity of food. If pasture, what 
kind of grasses, and time of year. 



five o'clock In the evening I give them the same 
quantity of eornfodder, chaff and mixed feed, as I do 
in the morning at seven o'clock. At six o'clock I 
give them el^'ht pounils of nieuilow hay. I also clean 
them with the curry comb an<l brush twice a week, 
sometimes oftener. And I also clean the stable on 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. I keep only four 
cows, and at the present time I milk only three of 
them ; one of them dropped her calf Aug. 2.')th, one 
Sept. 12th, and one .\ov. 15tli, and I make twenty 
to twenty-live pounds of butter a week, besides we 
use milk iu two families. 



POULTRY. 



The Position of Windows in Horse Stables. 

We find in a German exchange some curious ob- 
servations on the manner in which the position of 
the windows in the stable atlects the eyes of a horse. 
In one instance the horses of a farmer— fine animals, 
celebrated for their excellent condition, where kept 
in a stable lighted only by a small window atone 
side. When light wa^ueeded for work, the door was 
temporarily left open; the result was that nearly all 
of these animals had eyes of unequal strength, and 
in time a number of them became blind on the side 
toward the window. A strong light directly in the 
horses' faces has been found to weaken the sight. 
The worst position of all for a stable window is in 
front of the horses and much higher than their 
heads. An officer had bought a perfectly sound 
mare from a gentleman whose stables were lighted 
by windows at the rear of the stalls. The animal 
was sound and perfectly satisfactory. After three 
months she became suddenly "ground shy;" on ex- 
amining her eyes they were found directly upward, 
and this was explained by the fact that the windows 
of the oflicer's stable were situated above the head 
of the stalls, the eyes being generally drawn in that 
direction. She was removed to another stable, 
where the light was admitted from all sides, and iu 
three months time the dilticulty disappeared. 

Another officer reports th.^t during the campaign 
of IhTO, in France, he rode a horse that was a capi- 
tal jumper. On his returu from the war, he placed 
this animal in his stable, the windows of which were 
above the front of the stalls, and in a short time the 
horse became so shy of the ground that he had to 
sell it. He had had a similar experience with other 
saddle horses, all of which became ground-shy in 
his stall. One animal in particular, a thoroughbred 
mare, renowned for her jumping qualities, refused 
iu a short time to cross the smallest obstacle, and 
when forced to cross a foot-wide gully, made a leap 
that would have cleared a ditch fourteen feet wide. 
Owners of horses who find that their animals shy at 
objects on the ground, or at their side, would do well 
to look to the windows of their stables for an ex- 
planation of the evil. 

Bran for Cows. 
Ten years ago I was of the opinion that bran was 
a poor thing to feed cows, ',but I always like to 
make experiments, and so I bought some bran and 
mixed it with ground oats and corn and I and my 
wife watched pretty close for the result. It did not 
take long for us to find out that the cows gave more 
milk and butter and the butter had a finer color. I 
omitted the bran one week, and my cows gave four 
quarts of milk less. I fed bran again, and in three 
days they gave four quarts more milk, and since 
that time I will tell you how I mix my feed. To six 
bushels of shelled corn I add three bushels of oats 
and have it ground together, and with every three 
hundred pounds of such feed I mix one hundred 
pounds of bran. In the morning at seven o'clock I 
take one bushel cut eornfodder and one bushel oat 
chatt"; on this I put thirteen pounds of the mixed 
feed and eleven quarts of water ; at eight o'clock I 
give them eight jKiuiids of clover hay; at eleven 
o'clock I pump them pure fresh water from a well 
forty-two feet deep. If it is a warm day I give each 
cow one bundle of eornfodder, out in the yard ; if it 
is cold or cloudy I do not leave then) out longer than 
they drink; then I put them in the stable and give 
the eornfodder in their racks. I also give each cow- 
half pint of meal and half an ounce of salt; this I 
give them every time I put them In the stable. At 



Pure Brtd or Common Fowls. 
The pure bred Asialle fowl weighs from 8 to 13 
pounds, and some cocks can be puslied to l(i |>ounds . 
The Leghorn fowl lays from 100 to i'i't eggs per 
year anil never wants to set. Admllting the above 
to be a laet, 1 think jou can very readily see the ad- 
vantage they have over the common fowl, both for 
market purpo.'^es, and as egg producers. It Is also a 
satisfaction to have anythlngtiiat you know is choice. 
Can you imagine anything more handsome than a 
fine Hock of say Black Cochins, with their rich glossy 
plumage, or in fact any variety that breeds true to 
shape, plumage, etc. They are more expensive 1 will 
admit that they look to he at first glance, but they 
are not, and as aproofwouldcall your attention tothe 
following : Let two boys take $10.00 each, one pulbU 
out at interest; at the end of the year he has ^10.80. 
The other buys a trio of pt^re bred fowls. He gets 
them early in the spring, and they begin to lay in 
.March. He sets the e_gs during the months of 
April, .May, June and July. It is safe to say that 
the two pullets will average at least 20 eggs per 
month, and that at least three-quarters of them will 
hatch, and that the same proportion will grow up to 
lie well developed birds, which gives him forty-Uvo 
young birds, and the three old ones making forly- 
eiglitin all. Supposing these to be Asiatics, they 
will be worth at least 00 cents for table purposes, 
which gives him 32S.00, allowing ^MO for expensce, 
etc., connected with raising them, and he has made 
1(111 per cent, on the original investment and still 
has the principal. That is good enough for the first 
year. The second year he can start in with a larger 
number, and of course his profits will be In propor- 
tion, and with proper care the average hatch will be 
more than three-fourths of the eggs set. 



Chicken Entozooty. 

Your intelligent correspondent, .Mr. Larkin, of 
Delaware county, lately spoke of a new disease pre- 
vailing among chickens in his vicinity, which I find 
has extended to West Philadelphia. 

A hen, apparently healthy, of the Golden Pheas- 
ant variety, was sent to me to stuff a few days ago, 
which had died very suddenly. In dissecting it I 
found a large mass of watery substance among the 
intestines, of a brownish yellow hue, of the consis- 
tency of calf's-foot jelly. The lower extremities of the 
fowl were also lined with this foreign matter mixed 
with blood. The liver on one side was of a pale pink 
hue and on the other side of the natural color. At 
the base of the liver, the artery which leads to the 
heart was of a dark olive green. The lungs were of 
a dark purplish color, clotted with blood; the heart 
of the same color, with a tinge of olive green. The 
natural color of the heart is dark red. 

The fowl presented a rotund appearance, and 
about the eyes and head the symptoms which chick- 
ens usually have when suffering from a cold. It 
apparently had a good appetite up to tlie last mo- 
ment, as its crop was full of wheat and small pieces 
of dried grass. 

I have another chicken In my possession which 
also died very suddenly while sitting on thirteen eggs. 
An examination showed a dark green spot on each 
side of the liver, but iu every other respect presented 
a healthy appearance. A gentleman in my neigh- 
borhood has lately lost a large number of fowls by 
the same fatal disease. — Germantuwn Telegraph. 



Selling Eggs by Weight. 
Every little now and then the agitation arises as 
to the propriety of selling eggs by weight instead of 
by number — that is so much per pound and not by 
the dozen. It was quite well agreed upon that while 
everything had some help from the law, it was 
hardly fair to expect an egg, of all things in the 
world, to stand alone. Various Legislatures have 
sat over this egg question, but none have hatched, 
until some eight or ten years ago the Legislature of 
Massachusetts passed a law to the effect that eight 
eggs must weigh a pound, and that any hen which 
relusesto abide by this law must work longer, and 
must give nine or even ten or more to justify the law. 
But legislation should not stop here. Our egg-plants 
as well as egg-laying birds do not always produce 
fruit of uniform size. Some, to be sure, do justice 
tothe efforts of their raisers, but a large number 
offered by the venders are miserable spoils. Yet 
with these conscienceless fellows a dozen is a dozen, 
and we think it would be a great protection to the 
poor man if it should be declared by law that there 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 1880. 



should be one to a pound; but then it might be asked 
what protection would there be to the chicken ? The 
other day we heard a scientist say that the quantity 
of rain that actually fell in the Himalaya moun- 
tains reached sixty-ilve feet. An incredulous man 
standing by asked what the size of the drops were. 
"Drops!" answered he, "why as big as a horse 
bucket." "I'll never believe that; you may tell that 
to the marines, but not to me." — Gertnantown Tele- 
graph. 

^ 

Keep Pure Bred Fowls. 

Aside from the great pleasure which it affords, it 
pays better to keep and to feed pure fowls than to 
breed and feed a lot of mongrels, which latter many 
do for fear of the expense of buying a few pure bred 
fowls to start witli. In determing which breed of 
fowls to get, make up your mind at the start that no 
one breed can or does possess all the desirable quali- 
ties you are in search of. If you wish a breed for 
layins, get Leghorns or Hamburgs; if you wish a 
breed for weight, get some of tjie Brahmas or Co- 
chins; and if you wish a breed principally for orna- 
ment, get the Polish; but give up the ideas of getting 
a grand combination of all these qualities in one 
breed. Make up your mind what you wish, in the 
way of fowls, and then select such breed as will an- 
swer those requirements best. Give them good, 
comfortable quarters, supply them liberally with 
water, giving them requisite care and attention, and 
you will never have cause to regret your investment 
in pure bred fowls. — iloore's Rural Life. 



Feeding Poultry. 

It is a common practice to throw the "chicken 
food" on the cold snow, sometimes where it is as 
deep as the fowls can well wade through, or even 
worse, into a regular mud hole. Neither of these 
methods is of advantage to the fowls ; in the first 
case they are obliged to swallow a large amount of 
cold, chilling snow, and in the second, an amount of 
mud is taken into the stomach that is not desirable. 
All this discomfort could be avoided by providing a 
feeding trough, so arranged that the food may be 
clean. Aside from the looks of the practice, it will 
pay to be neat in feeding these animals that help to 
feed us. 

Milk for Fowls. 
An old poultry raiser, who believes in milk for 
fowls, says : "It is both meat and drink. Some of 
the finest chickens I ever saw were raised upon 
the free use of milk with their food. Hens lay as 
well, or better, when furnished with this, than upon 
any known article offered them." 



Literary and Personal. 

Strawberry Culture.— Spring 1880, with a 
history and description of leading varieties and a 
price list of plants grown and for sale by M. Craw- 
ford, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 24 pp. 8 vo. 

A Condensed list of the most desirable micro- 
scopes of moderate cost and accessories, mounting 
implements and materials. R. & J. Beck, manu- 
facturing opticians, London, and 1016 Chestnut St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 16 pp., 8 vo., copiously illustrated. 

Nellis' Floral Instructor and priced cata- 
logue for 1880, published quarterly, at liO cents per 
year by A. C. Nellis, Cauijoharie, New York, H6 
pages octavo, with useful tables, a copious index of 
contents, and 115 illustrations of choice varieties of 
flowering plants. 

The Ohio Journal of Floriculture. — Pub- 
lished by Leroy S. Lamborn, propietor of Le Roi 
rose and plant nursery. Alliance, Ohio. liO pp octavo, 
with characteristic illustrations. $1.00 a year 
(monthly) with a premium, without premium, .50 
cents . 

Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue of 
Moreton Farm Seeds, for 18S0, a select and choice 
varieties of fresh farm, garden and flower seeds, 
potatoes, &c., for sale by .Joseph Harris, Moreton 
Farm, Kochester, N. Y. A 4S page, Octavo pamph- 
let, ful of beautiful illustrations, and detailed instruc- 
tions in their cultivation. 

Descriptive Catalouues of Fruits, 24th edi- 
tion, and do. of plants, S.ird edition, (or 1680. Ell- 
wanger & Barry, Mt. Hope Nurseries, Rochester, 
New Y'ork. Being Nos. 1 and -J of this series of 7 
for the present season, including 88 page6,octavo, of 
descriptive matter, and 15 illustrations of choice 
varieties. Established in 1840, therefore, 40 years 
of experience and constantly increasing facilities 
and reputation, ought to be a guarantee that their 
establishment is A No. 1. 

Abridged Descriptive Catalogue, of the 
Bloomington Nursery. I. S. Tuttle and A. FoUet, 
proprietors, and Baird and Tuttle, agents. Blooming- 
ton, 111. 100 pp., 8 vo., with two additional ones of 
40 and 20 pp., respectively, on tine tinted paper, and 
beautifully and elaborately illustrated, containing 
lists of plants, roses, bulbs, fruit, shade and orna- 
mental trees, shrubberry, flowers, fruits, seeds, roots, 
Ac, with wholesale price list. Among the fruits 



are choice apples, pears, cherries, grapes, gooseber- 
ries, currants, blackberries, raspberries, and many 
other vegetable productions with instructions in their 
cultivation. 

Our Home. — Bearing on its banner the truthful 
and significant inscription, "The comforts and econ- 
omy of home are of more deep, heart-felt and per- 
sonal interest to us than the public affairs of all the 
nations in the world." This is a demi quarto of 33 
pages on calendered paper and distinct letter press, 
containing the choicest home literature that has 
ever come under our observation. Published by 
Geo. H. Bladworth k, Co., No. .W Bible House, New 
York citv, at$1.00 a year, 3 Nos. trial at 25 cts. 
No. 2., Vol. 1, (Feb., 1880) received. Among other 
excellent features it contains home amusements 
(including theatricals) and fashions, interspersed 
with poetry, wit and sentiment. 

The Floral Monthly. — A beautiful 8 paged, 
3 columned quarto, devoted exclusively to flowers, 
plants and the garden, published the 1st of every 
month, at only .50 cents a year, by W. E. Mortou & 
Co., 615 Congress Street, Portland, Maine. No. 2, 
Vol 1, (for February, 1880) of this young and vigor- 
ous looking candidate for public favor has reached 
our sanctum, and is about the freshest and most 
sprightly visitant we have had during the present 
year. It is printed on fine, calendered paper, in new 
and plain type, and superbly illustrated. Six pages 
are devoted to floral literatiu-e, and only two pages 
to advertisements. Each page has a beautifully 
embelished margin, and the paper is so faultlessly 
pure, the typography so distinct, and the selections 
so practical and from such excellent authorities, 
that we cannot see why this journal should not 
command a large patronage among the fair dames 
and daughters of our land, especially ,as its print is 
such as to make it re.adily readable by all, from 
little Dora up to great grandmother. 

The Musical Herald.— A new royal quarto 
musical journal of 24 pages, 8 of which are devoted 
to the latest and best music ^in the market. Its 
contents consist of original contributions, transla- 
tions, foreign letters, able criticisms, reviews, illus- 
trated sketches, serial stories, Sunday school, pub- 
lic school, .singing school and ;church music; hymns 
and their authors, gems of thought, musical men- 
tion, music of the future, scherzando, and corres- 
pondence. It is especially adapted to the use of 
choirs, conerregations, social meetings, Sunday 
schools, families, praise meetings and vespers. The 
printed music alone is worth $10.00 a year. Pub- 
lished by the .Musical Herald Co., Music Hall, 
Boston, Mass., on fine, tinted, calendered paper, and 
with clear type, .at the exceeding low price of fl..50 
a year, single numbers 15 cents. No. 2., Vol. 1, 
(Feb., 1880) has been received, which, among other 
excellent things, contains an interesting illustrated 
memoir of John Sebastian Bach, the great German 
composer. Its difl'erent departments are all con- 
ducted with "rare and raccy" ability. 

The Chinch Bug. — Its history, characters and 
habits, and the means of destroying it, or counter- 
acting its injuries. By Cyrus Thomas, Ph. D., an 8 
vo. pamphlet of 44 pages, with sundry illustrations 
and a map, forming Bulletin No. 5 of the United 
States entomological commission, under the auspices 
of the Department of the Interior. We are under 
obligations to the commission, at whose request a 
copy of this valuable work has been sent us, through 
the politeness of Assistant Secretary Bell. The work 
came to hand too late to refer to any portion of it in 
the present number of the Farmer, except to 
say that in the distribution of the insect referred to, 
according to the map, its region extends at least 
three degrees beyond the northern boundary of 
Pennsylvania, and approaches unpleasantly near our 
entire western boundary, there being, partly, noth- 
ing but an artificial line separating the eastern 
boundary of its region from us. The Interior De- 
partment is certainly doing a good and useful work 
in issuing their bulletins and scattering them among 
the people. We ar» satisfied that they will lie more 
widely distributed and do more good than when 
they are included in voluminous and promiscuous 
reports which may or may not be distributed by 
members of congress. If they have not the desired 
effect, then it will be because those in whose behalf 
they are issued have failed to read them and follow 
their instructions. 

~The Y'oung Scientist. A popular record of sci- 
entilic experiments, investigations and progress. A 
monthly octavo of 12 pages, with about 12 pages of 
advertisements, all relating to scientific matters, and 
in that respect interesting and specially important. 
Terms — fifty cents a year, free of postage, and pub- 
lished at 176 Broadway, New York. P. O.box 4873. 
This is an exceedingly interesting and practical pub- 
lication, appropriatly illusti-ated and of excellent 
typhograpbical execution. Just the thing for those 
who have neither time nor ability to "wade through" 
the more voluminous scientific publications, and the 
price is such as to bring it within the means of those 
in the most ordinary circumstances. Its articles are 
short, terse and practical, and just of such a charac- 
ter as ought to make the work welcome to any fami- 
ly and fireside that occupiei a mental plane above 



the sensuous or merely romantic. It is a great pity 
that the teeming millions of our country are too 
much absorbed in sensational literature to entertain 
a proper appreciation of the rational. If there is any 
species of literature that is likely to make an inroad 
upon that impractical domain, we think it would be 
such a publication as the "Young Scientist." 

The Sugar Beet.— Devoted to the cultivation 
and utilization of the sugar beet. A very hand- 
somely illustrated quarterly quarto of 16 pages. 
No. 1 of this new journal, issued in .January last, 
has just come to hand, and ought to have a wide 
circulation in our country, not so much for the 
pecuniary speculation it may be to its publisher, as 
because of its being the representative of what may 
become and ought to become one of the leading in- 
terests of our country — an interest, too, in which 
every man, woman and child is immediately con- 
cerned. Very few perhaps consider the vast amount 
of sugar consumed amongst the whole people of 
whatever condition they may be, nor of the immense 
amounts of money that are sent every year to pay for 
the sugar we consume; and it must be evident to 
every one who notices the great increase of the 
confection business, and other corelatives, and the 
increased patronage they command, that there must 
be a corresponding increase in the consumption of 
sugar. Now, because the sugar cane is cultivated 
in a few of the Southern States, and we occasionally 
hear of such things as "New Orleans molasses and 
sugar," some of our people may be unsophisticated 
enough to suppose that all this sugar is grown and 
manufactured in our country, but far, immensely 
far from it. We only produce comparatively a small 
portion of it. But we ought and can produce all we 
need for home consumption, and a surplusage for 
exportation, and -Whoever may live to see it, it will 
come to that before many years. The sugar com- 
merce is too big a "plum" for enterprising and spec- 
ulative America to let slip through her fingers. 
Sorghum, maize and the beet vegetation that can be 
grown luxuriantly in our most Northern States, will 
supply the saccharine fluid in abundance, and it only 
needs rural enterprise to develop this interest. It 
has been demonstrated over and over again that the 
manufacture of sugar from the beet is not only prac- 
ticable but profifable. We shall take occasion to 
introduce into the columns of the Farmer interest- 
ing extracts from this journal, and regret that it 
came to hand too late to do so this month. Pub- 
lished by Henry Cary Baird &. Co., 810 Walnut St., 
Philadelphia, at 50 cents a year. Robert Grimshaw, 
Ph. D., and Lewis S. W.are, M. E., editors. 

The Christian Union. — A weekly journal of 
religion, literature and politics, a 16 page 3 column- 
ed quarto, published at No. 8 Salisbury Square, Fleet 
street, London, England, at " six and sixpence per 
annnum," single numbers one penny. No. 249., Vol. 
6, February 13, 1880, has found its way to our table, 
and is welcome there. Although it does not seem 
to be distinctly stated who the editor is, yet it is 
announced that it is printed and published for Chas. 
Kirby, at the above named place. The journal is 
gotten up, mechanically, in a creditable manner, and 
it breathes a healthy tone in all of its articles, both 
original and selected; indeed we can truly say that 
its solid and compact reading columns are exceed- 
insrly interesting, and its morals unexcepti»nable. In 
a heading " marlied " editorial, the " proximate re- 
appearance " of Mrs. Victoria Claflin Woodhull, is 
announced, after a recess of two years. The editor 
seems to have a very exalted opinion of Mrs. Wood- 
hull, and perhaps justly so. It is possible that Mrs. 
W. has been misunderstood, yea, even "maligned 
and persecuted." Many others have, and these at 
least will sympathize with her. But if she can 
" pos.'iess her soul in patience," these things will only 
facilitate her moral and spiritual regeneration, in- 
stead of being permanently injurious. We confess 
we know very little about her, except so far as her 
history has been reflected through the columns of 
the public press, and this may have misrepresented 
her. We are entirely in harmony with Irer view 
"that woman's loving influence is to be the great re- 
generator of the human race," if even it is regener- 
ated; but, is the moral, spiritual, intellectual social 
and domestic condition of women per se such, at this 
juncture, as to qualify her for the great work of 
iiuman regeneration? Have they a firm reliance upon 
Divine Providence, and accept the adversities which 
He has permitted as a means of individual or personal 
regeneration? Woman possesses an immense power, 
if she only knew how to wield it rationally and dis- 
passionately, and we believe as firmly as Mrs. W. 
does, that \voman only, as an instrument in the hands 
of the Almighty, through a pure hereditary trani- 
mission, can effect the regeneration of the human 
race, and that she is a God-appointed means. But 
O, let her not obey the dictates of her sensual nature, 
nor pander to that of man. The regenerating of the 
human race involves a subordination of mans sensual 
nature to that of his spiritual, and when we say 
man, we mean man, male and female, " There's the 
rub." We are so apt to mistake the promptings of 
this dual nature in man. How often do the insidious 
promptings of the iMl o'er sway the suggestions of 
the understanding? How often does the intellect yield 
to the affections. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER^ 



III 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Seeds and Plants. 
We woviUl call the atlcnliou of tlioso of our 
readers who contemplate purcliasiiii: seeds or plantB 
duriiiir tlie eominir season, to the advertise tnelit of 
Peter Henderson it Co., New York, uow appeiirhisf 
In our coluniiis. Peter Hendirson, tlie senior mem- 
bei* ol" tlie lir'm, is known far ami wiiU' as a liorll- 
cullural writer and autliorily. His books, "Uar- 
dcnine lor Profit," "I'raclical Floriculture," and 
"Ciardenins for Pleasure," arc now in the hands 
of tllou^;llKls. Tlie irreen-lionse establishment of 
this firm covers three acres in jrrcen-houscs and 
employs upwards of tilty hands. Millions of plants 
are ship|icd by mail or express annually to every 
State and Territory. Their seed warehouse is the 
most extensive in the city of New York, and every 
order received is certain to lie filled willi f;oods of 
the best, quality, and as they are producers as 
well as dealers, "everything for the garden" will 
bo sold at low rates. Feb-3ra 

^ . — 

Wallace's Monthly. 

The March number of Wallace'^ Monthly has just 
reached us, and is fully up to the standard. "The 
Marshland Stud Farm," by "Privateer," heads the 
list of contents, is handsomely illustrated, and is, 
moreover, interesting to the j;cncra! reader. This is 
followeil hy a description of Midaletown, by Rysdyk's 
Hambletonian, with a portrait. "Breaking and 
Training Trottine: Horses," is the first of a series of 
papers tiy H. C. Wooduut, the noted trainer, and is 
worlhy the attention of all interested in horse stock. 
"Was Ethan Allen by Flying Morgan?" is a query 
propounded in an exceedingly readable article, no 
less excellent than two others, t'iz, "Butter Cows," 
and "The Future Trotter — How shall lie be Bred?" 

"Mattie Hunter and hci- Ancestors," and "The 
Sire of Karus," are topics discussed in the editorial 
department, which is unusually well filled with in- 
teresting matter, "the list of :i:aO horses, under their 
Sires," being alone worth a year's subscription. 

Publication Office, 212 Broadway; terms $1.00 per 
year. Mar-lm. 

The Cooley Creamer. 

This method of "deep-setting of milk" is coming 
into so general use, that at the recent dairy fair 
in New York, it was not shown as a "novelty," 
but took its place as a common and indispensable 
adjunct to the dairy. With a Cooley Creamer a 
dairyman is entirely independent of the weather, and 
his product is uniiorni at all times. It is in this, as 
well as in its convenience, that the Cooley process of 
setting milk eooimends itself to all who make but- 
ter. 

From our foreign exchanges we infer that It has 
been quite extensively introduced into use in Great 
Britain. — Albany Conntry C-'entleman. Feb-4m. 




JIfv nnnnnJ Cittil"gne t'f Vrff^table and Floujer 
Sf'-'f for ISSOf ricll iu enKr;ivm^B, from photogralills, of 
theorif^inala, w'll be sent FREE to all who Hppl.v. M.v old 
euBtomers ueecl iiot write for it I oflfer one of the iur»;eat col- 
lectionH of vi goi^ble seed ever scut ou t by any seed houce 
In America, a luree portion of which were Rrowu on my si.x 
seed farm?. Futt direrfjon^ for culliL'atum on exuh pack- 
xtge All seed warranted to he both frcnh and true to name; 
80 far, that should it prove otherwise, / wid refill the order 
matlH. The oiiKlnal introducer of the Hubbard Squash, 
Phinupy's Melon, Marbleheart Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and 
Bcores of other vegetables. I invite the i atronage of ali who 
-are anxious to have their seed directly frcmi the grower, /resh, 
trttf, and of the rery beM strain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

J.\MES J. H. GREOORY, 
dec-6ro] Marblebead, Maes. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 

I Will t^nrnisb eggs for hatching from my finely bred 
itock of LiKbt Braiimait, on coudi iou tb»t t will b« a lowed 
to B'lect at the .ge of six m utha on*-half of the chicka 
raiB*-d. This is au excelleDt oppnrtuuity for faraiers to 
Iioi-rove their Btock, as Light Brahmas are the heaviest and 
largest of all tae vari^'tiea of fuw]«, are the bent of winter 
layrrfl, and ha c no equal for cro..8iug vith the common 
Btock. Farmers deslriug to avail tbemseUee of this offer 
can address J. B. LICHTY, 

JLuncaster. Pa. 
jan-3m* 

^i week io your own town. Terms and $5 outfit free 
\dire88 H. Hallett k Co., Portland, MiUna. 

Jufl-lyr* 



$66 



FARMERS, 

Look to Your Inteests. 

IMPORTANT TO FARMERS, TRUCKERS 
AND GARDENERS. 

A NATURAL FERTILIZER ! 



m OF M? 




RICH IN DISSOLVED BONES. 
PHOSPHORIC ACID. 



POTASH. SILICIC ACID, &C. 



I Perraan«ntly Enriches Every Variety of Soil. 
It Doubles the Yield of Grasfl. 

It luflures Good Crops of Wheat, Corn, Potatoes Vegeta- 
bles and Fruit. 



An excellent change for Uud after the continuad use of 
Lime. 

In BucceuBfuI use here over tOO years, and more than two 
thirds of the cropped laud of Euroiie imi-roved with Marl. 

It is not a stimuUnt^uB patent manures are, but Its eflects 
are lasting. 

Farmers, why then pay from $30 to $40 per ton for Phos- 
phates, when you can buy a Natural Fertilizer at the low 
rate of 



$10 PER TON, 



that will yield you a rich return and be a lasting benefit 
to your soil. 

Its History, Analysis, Application to different Soils, 
Crops, Testimonials, and further informatioa regarding its 
uses, will be given on apjilicatiou to 



D. P. BITNER, 

General Agent for 
LANCASTER COUNTY. 



Agencies where MARL is kept constantlj on 
hand : 

B. & B. F. Walter, Christiana, Peansylvania Railroad. 

Joseph C. Walker, Gap, 

Henry H. Rohrer, l.eiman Place, 

J. B Newhauser, Bird-in-Hand, 

Jiicub Mauck, Rohrerstown, 

M. G. Shiudle, Mountville, 

H. F. Bruner, Columbia, 

Miller & Musaer, Upper Marietta, 

Groff At Rutt, Lnndisvi le, 

B. G. Groff. Elizabethtown. 

Cassel h KUng, Mount -Toy, 

ShuUz&Brc, Wasbingtou Bor.,Oolum'( 

Samuel Uarniah. Pequea Station, 

Kirk Brown. Haines Station, 

W. G. Melliiiger, West Willow, Quarr; 

James A. Meek, Reftou Station, 

Acheson & Swarr, Mechanics Grove, 

H. W. GraybiU, Petersburg. Heading bt ( 

Hershey & Dinner. Manheim, 

Wra. Evans h Son. Litiz, 

P. S. Brubaker, Millway. 

Sener & Bro., Ephrata, 

Brubaker h Co.. Union, 

Diller k Sutton, New Holland, Waynoeburg Railroad. 



b Port Deposit R. 



yviHe Railroad. 



ColambU Railroad. 



M. IIABERBUSH, 

MANOKACTUnUB OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

SAI>I>I.FM, 

COLLARS, "WHIPS, FLY NETS. &o., 

AI^O DKALEK IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

DUrAI.O HIIBKS, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &o., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

-1-121 lANfAHTER. PA. 



CHAS A. LOGHER 

WHOLESAUE>w>> RETAIL , 
>^- D R U G 6 1 S T^ ^-^^ ' 

:(sJO 9 EAST KING S.XR. 
^^>--: LANCASTER, PA. 

. [.\ AN U.FA C T U R !-: « f.<3r. 

LOCHER'S RENOWNED, COUGH;; 

And GaEBRATED HORSEi 
aB^ CATTLE POWDER 



'IT" SEND FOR PU0TAT!0NS.<5 



dpc-lvj 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER 

AND WAUHANTEU TO HT. 



E. J. ERISMAN, 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

9-1-121 






D. P. BITNER, Lancaster, Pa. 



7»-10-XlB. 



PHAKll;^S W. FKY. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WALL PftPER& WINDOW SHftQES, 

HoIlanclH. pinln Kbadc Cloth, 

Fixtures, Friuges, TasselB and all Roods j.ertaiuing to a 
Pajier aud Shade Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 

1879 FALL AND WLNTEU 1S80 

Clolljs, Cassinjeres, Coatings, Suitiijgs, 
Vestiijgs, and 

FURNISHING GOODS, 

luclufiiiip the UBUal fayliionablo vaneijcH o| t'lP aeaaou, 

PLAIN, STRIPED AND FIGURED. 

AI.SO, 

READY-Mi^DE CLOTl^ING, 

of "all sortB and aizes." 

AT THE VERY BOTTOM PRICES. 

DOu't Forget the oldest and longest eatabliMhed alaud tn 
the City of 

LANCASTER. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

RJerchant Tailors, Drapers and Clolljiers, 

Corner N, Quern and Orange Sis. 

'* A penny navod i« Biiretice eanu-d." 

CJR Tn CjOni'^t- djiy at ho ne, Sttioidea woith $■> Iree. 
ipL/ I U ipZUAddreflS Stiwsoh Jb Co., Portland, Maine, 
jun-lvr* 

FARM ACCOUNTS I 

Every Farmer Rhonld know how to keep them. Au entirely 
new and complete nyetem jU8t devj«e<l. Send poHtul fur 
free CireahirR to the Bryuiit A Mtruttoit KiiNliieM* 
4'ollofffr'. Kti* S. Tenth Street. PhJlddrU'lii'i. (T'J-KJ-irQ 



A 



GENTS I READ THIS! 

We win pny Af:«ni<i a NnlAry of $IOO per 
month and rxpet-s«s. or allow a larfje rominlM- 
Nion. to nell our u(^w luid wanderful iuventtiuaa. W» 
mean what vat may. Sample Free. AddresB 

SUKBMAM A CO., Maraball, Mick. 
Nov-€xiL, 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER! 



[March, 1880. 



GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE MARK.Th<»i-»*eat Kn^li*«h TRADE MARK. 

R«>iiipd>- will prompt- 
i ly and radically cure 
Rauy and every case of 
' DervouB Debili y and 

We-ikness, result or 

Iiidi-cretion, excese of 

overwork of the biaiu 

and nervous syBtenj, is 

I>eifpcrly ijiiinilpss, nets -v— ,-«3^ » s». 

Before Takme;i''^«' ""'kjc. and has ue^-n ^n.- Takino' 

o extensively used forever *i-itci xaisjiig, 
thirty years wirh threat success. Full imrticulars iu onr 
pamrhlet. which we desire to send free by mail fo every one. 
The Bjectflc njediciue is sold by all druggists at $1 per pack- 
age, or six piickages for $1, or will be sent free by mail ou 
receipt of the nionev liy iiddrcssjug 

THE GRAY MEDICINP: COMPANY, 
>'o. 10 Mechauics" Block. Detroit, Michigan. 
^F"Sold in Laucaster by II. B. CucniiAN, 137 and K-S9 N. 
Queen St , and by dtuirijisTS everywhere. [79-3-12 










____JPOn 1880 

■Will be mailed pheii to all applicants, and to customers without 
<>rdcntie U. It rontnins r.iur colored plat«s, 600 engrravincs, 
■hout liOO pfipes. and full descriplions, prices and directions for 
pIXDiint; UuO vnnciies of Vegetable and Flower Seed^Plaati, 
Eose8,etc lavahiable toall. Send for it. Address, 

D. M. FEEEY & CO., Detroit, Miclu 



Har.lm. 



(0"7n.A ** ii-i'.-K. $1^ ^1 (i.i> iiL uuiiit' easily mud*'. CosUy 
Vp/ Zouftit free. Addret's True & Co., Aug-usia, Maine, 
jaii-lyr* 





Ml Enlarged View of 
TH£ Pad. 



■mis iTElTTT- 

ELASTIC TRUSS 

Has a Pad dip 
fering &oiD 
. all others, ii 
cup-shaped) 
with SELF- 
AD JUST 'NO 
BALL in the 
center, adapta 
itself to all 
positions of the hody, 
I 'while the BALL in the 
'Cup PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
JUST AS A PERSON 
W^OULD WITH THE 
FINGER. "With Ught 
pressure the Hernia is 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
ical core is certain. It is easy, durable 
knd cheap. Sent by mail, postage paid. 
Circulars foee. 
Address, Eggleston Truss Co., Man£rsi 

^^ C. H. EGGLESTON CO., Chicago.llL 

t9-T-lT] 

COOLEY CREAMER. 

GOLD nEDAL, PAKIS, 1879. 

BETTER made by tms 
process awarded 
SWEEPSTAKES at 
IniernatloiiM J);uo' i'alr. 
18T8, anrl t.OI^D I»IED- 
AEancl FIRST PKE- 
MlUilI ac fame Fair, 
1ST9. riKST PUE- 
MllIM at Koyiil Agrl- 
culiuraljixhlbltion, Lon- 
don, 18T9. 
^^ It requires no mllli- 

,^^^^ t5^ room. 

It rsii>i'- nil of cream beHveen mllklnBi. 
It afford- b -ttci- Teolllatlou. 
It reqiilven li-«« Uioor. 

It I" more inoroiiEhly mnile. 
It ■• cheauer, and glvca better 
nftttftrnrtion tban any other way ol settingmtlk. 

THE BETTER MXDE BT TfilS STSTSM 13 DN- 
EXrELLKD IN ITS KEEPING QUALITIES, 

Btnd lor-' r>ii\rui'iiin" o/i-'n.; l'<tU yantfilim a- t lr»nmr,ntalt. 

VKHMONT t'AHM MAC H INK CO.. 

Bellows Falle Vt. 
Feb 4m. 




t 



. GREAT SUCCESS! ^o,«oo Koidll UKAt>- 
EV\S uoiKlerl'nll V 7"'/'('/ar work, the 

Tki*'^El?°oFGEN. GRANT 

iB prououiiefii hy the General's intimate fri«*lld.s the 
best I<»w-priee<l work— hence the »iplenillcl sac- 
eens of Agents. f^~A MILLION people want 
HKAULEt '.Shook lo-<la.v. Wenced 

3O00 MORE AGENTS AT ONCE II 
BEWARE of Imitations. We send proo/ of superi- 
orily, sample leaves, eteel portrait of Grant, and /utl 
particulars free to all desiring them. Address HUBBARD 
BBOS., Pablishers, 723 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. 
Veb-Sm. 



Sawing o2 a Log, 
Easy and Fast. 




Our latest improved sawing machine cuts 
off a 2- foot log in 2 minutes. A $100 
PRESENT will be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the old way, as one man 
can with this machine. Circulars sent free. 

U. S. MANUFACTURING CO., 

1(9 Clark St., Cbicujiro, III. 

A. H. Frank, Buffalo, N. Y., ov/us and controls Eastern 
and Middle States. 

CAUTION. — Anv sawing machine having a seat for 
the operator, or treadles for his feet, Is an infringement 
on our patents, and we are prosecutiug all infringers. So 

BEWARE WHO TOU BUT OF. jan-?m 

Wn I i>flll(!rP O'l^^issaarantoGdtobe the 
f> lLL'MUQLIii cheapest and best in the 
-world. Also nothing can beat our SA'VVrNG MA- 
CHINK. It saws off a '.i-foot log in '2 minutes. 
Pictorial books tree. W. GILDS, Clxicaeo, HI. 
dec-6m] 

li' YOU HAVE A GAEDEN, YOU NEED 




Established 1815. 



150 pnicen. Over 800 niustratlona. and a BenntiruIlT 
Colort'd Plutv of PaJiNiert. Mulkd for 10 Vents. 

BUNS' II.MTSTUVTt^:i> AM.iTErij'M GFIIlE TO 
THE FI.OWEU AM> KITCHEN (iAUDEN coLtaio 
more practical itifonnaiion on Rnrdeuiug thau many high-priced 
books. Our list comprises 2,000 varieties Flower Seeds, 1.000 
varieties Bulbs and Flanta. 50O v.irieties Vegetable Seeds. 500 
varieties Potatoes, etc. 220 pages, over 600 illustrations, 2 double- 
page colored plates of flowers. Price; paper covers, 35 cents; 
bound in muslin, $1.00. 

BLISS* rLLrsTRATED POTATO CATALOGUE. 
60 pages. A valuable Ireatise on the Potato und descriptive list of 
all the principal varieties i;rowu. Profuselv illustrated. Price 
10 cents. B. K. BLISS & 8UNS, 84 Barelay St., New Tork, N. Y. 

Mar-lm. 






I On tlie Kansas Pacific 
Railway. 3,000,000 
Acres for Sale in the 

GOLDEN BELT. 



HiMES 



20 to SO bii^helH ; Corn I 

•iOrolOOi'iish.p^- 

No iflaiiurc needed. 

Goodchniale, pure wnt.i ,1 
6iie Hchnols, churcht'S, i 
Qfidgood pociftv. Railioad ami ui;irliel fiicihtifs fxcpl- 
)ent. Mnm .turi full iiifui iniuiun FREE. Addre»>i 
S. tillilTIOItl:^ Land Commissioner, Saliim, Kansaib 
79-9-3meom] 



FORTHE 



CATAUOGUE FREE TO ALiLi 

; WHO APPLY BY. LETTER . 

St> CORTLANDT ST. NEW YORK. 



reb-3m. 



Xf '^p'lM'X^ ATT 'C '^'''''' '■'?m;"kable med 
I^JljI^ "* ** 1 .. 1 J |9 cine will. cure Spavins,- 
Hplint. Curb, Cullons, &c., or any eulargenienl, AND WILL 
REMOVB THE BUNCH WITHOUT BLISTERING or 
C* Y^ \ "W^TTWr '^^"^'"K a sore. No remeay ever 
l9 AT .Xm, V JLJTV discovered equals it for certainty 
of action in stopping the lameness and removing the bunch. 
Price tl.Od. Send for circular giving POSITIVE PKOOP. 
^TfTIJ X' «'-'LD BY DRUGGISTS or sent by the in- 
\j \J XIiXj venter, B. J. Kendall, M. D.. Enosburgb 
Falls, Vt. Johnston, Holloway & Co., Agts., 602 A reh St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. TSMi-tf. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



w 




mn 



iU 




A MONTHLY JOUENAL, 



Devoied fo Agriculfure, Horticulture. Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas- 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONE DOLL/^R PER ANNUHJ, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S, S. Rathvon, who haa so ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, will continue in the position of 
editor. His contributions on subjects connected with tho 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is 80 thorouhly a master — eutomoIoEic;il science — some 
knowledge of which has become a neceSBity to the succeaa- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He la determined to make *'The Farmer' 
a necessity to all households. 

A coiinty that has so wide a repatatlon as Lancaster 
county for it9 agricultural products, should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers interested in this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" la 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subEcribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly asyist us. 

All communications In regard totheerlitorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Laucaeter, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Kates df 
advertising can be bad on application at the office. 

JOHN A. HIESTAND. 

No. g North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE.BOLLAB FSH A2TlTU2iC.-SZNGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor, 



;0H17 A. IIIECTAND, Publisher. 



Entered itt tbe Poi>t OOice nt Lancaster ns 
^eeoiKl t"!nsH IWnttor. 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL. 

Dried Fruit, 49 

Death of Jacob Stauffer, ----- 49 

" Blocciing Kansas," ..---. 49 

LoDit-Legged CentipeJe, ----- 50 

Agricultural Department, - - - - - 50 

Another Peach Tree Enemy, - - - - 50 

Garberia, 50 

An Uuuor Conferred upon a LancaRter County Bo- 
tanist. 

A New Myriapod, 51 

Hair Worms, .-...-. 51 

A Muniticent Gift, 51 

A Good Egg', - 51 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, - - 51 
Commilteew lor 1!?81. 

ESSAYS. 
Chemistry of Soils — Dr. C. A. Greene, - - 52 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 
DangheafWLiquor — A.S.K.,- - - - 52 
Using Absorbents — Ex}i«rinieut8 with Frriilizors. 
SELECTIONS. 
Practical Hints for April, - - - - - 53 
Ort^Iiard an 1 Nursery — Fruit Garden — Flower Gar- 
dene and Lawiis. 

Have You a Strawberry Bed? - - - - 54 

Fencing and Fences, ------ 54 

Iron aii<l Wood Posts t.'ompared — Non-Destructible, 
Nou-t'oinbustible Wocdeii Posts — An ImportJiDt 
Point in Favor of Wire Fences — Specific Loss and 
Gain. 

Pleuro-Pneumonia, ------ 55 

Sugar— A Great Problem Solved, - - - 55 

The Question of Fruit of Culture, - - - 6(5 

The Olive — Pickiiifi; Fruit— Dcsti ucti n of Foreuts 

— A Theory for Failures in Fruit Crops — Insects 

— Preserving Cider — Fruit vs. Tobacco Growing. 

Resources of the South, - - ... 56 

Flowers and Perfumes, . - - - - 68 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 

Society, ------- 5s 

Crop Keports— The Fair— Reading of Essays- Root 
Crops— Does it Pay to Cut Fodder for Stock ? — 
Miscellancoua Busniess — Quetitli.ns for Discus- 
sion. 

Poultry Association, 69 

Members Present — Election of New Members— Dis- 
cussions — Reports on this SiU'iiig's Success — l{e- 
porf of Auditing Coiniuiitee — Miscellaneous. 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 60 

The Linnxan's Tribute, 60 

The Society's Respect to the Late Jacob Staoffer. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

Flowers and Insects, 60 

Destroyers of Carpets, ----- 61 

The Chinchbug, 61 

Entomological Notes, ----- 61 

Small Borer in Apple Twig — Worms on Cotton- 
w od — Ailanthus tiilkwonu in Missouri. 



AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural Items, -..--- 61 

The Grain Blockade, ijl 

HORTICULTURE. 

The Best Location for Fruit Trees, - - - 62 

The Best Fruit to Plant, ----- 62 

Selecting Seed Potatoes, 62 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

What Every House Needs, - - - - 62 

Have Clean Beds, 63 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

Veal Pie, 62 

Gravies, ---..--. 62 

Beef Like Game, 62 

Scrambled Eggs with Dried Beef, - - - 62 

French Karebit, 62 

Stewed Chicken, - - 62 

Stewed Beef, 62 

Savory Eggs, --..-.-63 

Scrambled Eggs with Cheese, - - - - 63 

Scalloped Fish, 63 

Baked Fish, 03 

To Spice a Hound of Corned Beef, - - - 63 

Egg Soup, 63 

Scotch Oatmeal Cakes, ----- 63 

Baked Calf's Heiid, 6.1 

Potted Beef, 63 

Beef Cakes, 63 

MUk Rolls, 63 

Cheese Fritters, 63 

LIVE STOCK. 

Abortion iu Cows — The "Probable" Cause of It, 63 

The Villager's Pig— How to Keep It, - - 63 

Feeding Bran, . 63 

Robert Bonner's Large Sale of Fine Blooded 

Stock, 64 

Black Leg in Calves, .----- 64 

Breed Kather than Purchase, - - - - 64 

Keeping Old Sheep, (U 

A Horse's Foot, - - - . . 64 

Kentucky Mules, ------ 64 

Literary and Personal, ----- 64 



21 10 $25 PER TOfi SMI 

in your Fertilizers by using 

"POWELL'S PREPARED CHEMICALS." 

Why pay 835 to 8*5 for your fertilizere when 
813 to $15 will bay jou 

"POWELL'S CHEMICALS" 

For Ono ton Corn, Oat«, Potato or Tobncco 
Fertilizer, equal to Ibu bent high-priced Phosphate in 
the market. Seutl for *'FoweirN Uook. Of l-'ornin- 

laN/' with directions for mixing, nearly CiiiJ names of n-U- 
ublH P^'uuRjlvauiu farmere usiug them tho past seasou, 
teetimonialB, etc. 

EDWARD J. EVAKS k Co.. 
Mar-3mJ General AK<^Dts, York, Pa. 




Hfy anwtttl Cufnlogue nf V^g'tabl* and Floterr 
Sf.fti for |J*SO, rich in eiicravin^B, from r^^togriiplia, of 
theorij^iniilH, will he nent FRKI? to til who cjii-ly. My old 
cuMtomers uecii uot writeforit I offeroneof ihelirKest cal- 
lectious of v<'Ket«l)le seed ever fle?it out by .luy need bonso 
iu Americ-i, h Hriff portion of wliJcU wure (trown otnuy six 
eecd fiirmtJ. Full direr.tioTW for cttUiratitm mi forh pack- 
age All seed tcarrante>i to be both fresh and true to nam^ 
BO far. thiit should it j.rove otherwise, / toill rffilt the order 
ffi'ati^. The uiiKiiial inti»iducer of the fliibbiird Squash. 
Phluney'u Melon. Mmblebead OalilmRPH. Mexican Corn, and 
Bcores of other vet^'etiibles, I invito the r.atroij:igo of ali who 
are anxious to hace their need dircctty from tbe yroircr^ /re^h, 
trve, and of the vtrtj bent Ktrain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

JAMES J. H. GHEGORY, 
dec-flm] Marblehe.^d, MaH. 



EGGS^^ 



rom Ihc^rmiKh-l.reil LMIIIT BKAH- 

lAS curejully jiarknl for bilcliiug $3,00 

per 13. Bn-edni^' yartls contani 18 first j>rumium bIrdB. 

Aluo g thrni ii pnlle* grx>red 07, Cockerel 95?4, weight at 

8 mouths. ]:{ ponnds 4 oz. 

Adilrcss 

DR. IWtA-YKR, 
Willow Street, P. O.. I>iincu6ter co , Po. 
Apllt 



BF I!^ 




II..;.- 

Ai.l 3m 



THE VICTOR 

Double Huller 



X Clover Machine 



I- tin- 'jnlvkhfl ttiu! Iin-;cvcr 
^ulk-ll littt Im-h. 1* ut »c%i 
til ouc day fttini damp aod 
««'t Mrftvr. Scml for Dc- 
rii'live rircular tind Prii-* 
i.i-i. wUi-h contain* n.auj 

n\ Iiiipl< miill Mfc On. 
i^tit. lliiitvrKlowu, ^O. 



1880 



1880 



GREAT IMMlORATIOy YEAR. 

ThouBandrt are f^oinjj West, and ihe majority " 

S£TTL£ IN NEBRASKA! 

AU Eiatoru Farmern, when roraing West are | leased 
with tho 

BnrliuEtoii & Missonri Riyer Railroad Laiils. 

17,000 H ivc Mrcuily I'linriiisiNl, niiJ llicro is yet For Salo 
by this Coinp.'tiiy Kuouxli L.t.i(l \.xj lutitc 

10.000 EIGHTY-ACRE FARMS I 

Seud Postal Cjrd for a OHAKT sliowing ull ILe LANDS 
FOU SALK. January Ut, ISSO. 

AddreasOeu'l Xg't B. k M. It. R., 

Al>I-3ni. Oluabji. Nob. 

EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

FKEE TO ALL. 

AMERICAN DRIER COMPANY, 

CbamberKbaric, Pa. 

Apl-:f 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



X^ Trains leave the Dej 
WE TWARD. 


tAII.R«>.4D 

ot in this city. 

Leave 

Lancaster. 

2:40 a. m. 

5:0(1 a. m. 
10:05 a. m. 
10:10 p.m. 
ll:l'5a. m. 
11:07 a. m. 
10:50 a. m. 

2:10 p. in. 

2:15 p.m. 

5:45 p. in. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p. m. 

6:50 p. m. 
11:30 p. m. 

Lanc.ieter. 
12:25 a-, m. 

4:10 a. m. 

6:20 a. m. 

7:05 a. m. 

9.10 p. m. 

1:25 p. m. 

2:U0 p. m. 

3:05 p. m. 

5:20 p.m. 

0:25 p. m. 


^iCHEDVLE 

IB follows : 
Arrive 
Harrisburg. 




7:50 a. ra. 




11:20 a. m. 


Hanover Accommodation,. 
Mail train via Mt. Jo.v 


Col. 10:40 a. m. 
12:!0 p. m. 
12:55 p. in. 


Sunday Mail 


12:40 p. ra. 
3:25 p. m. 


Frederick Accommodation. 

HarriBburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harripburg Kxpress 

PittBbnrg ExjireHS 

Cincinnati Express' 

EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express" 

Philadelphia Expresst 

Fast Line* 


Col. 2:45 p. m 

7:40 p. m. 

Col. 8:20 p. m. 

8:40 p. m. 

10:10 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 
3:00 a. m. 
7:00 a. m. 
7:40 a. m. 


Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation.. 


10:00 a. m. 
• 12:0 p. m. 




5:00 p. m. 


Johnstown Express 


6:30 p. m. 
7:20 p. m. 


Harrisburg Accom 


9:30 p. m. 



The Hanover Accommodation, west, conuecte at Laucaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and yfill run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connectsat I,anc:!8- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 i . m., and runs to Fi liderick. 

The Pacific Express, c-.s!:, ou Sunday, when flagged, will 
Btop at Middletown, Elizabethtowu, Mount Joy and L^ndis- 
Tille. 

*The only traine which run daily. 

tRuns daily, excei.t Monday. 

NORBECK & MILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



Carriage Builders, 

cox & CO'S m ST.\tD. 

Coffief of Duke and Viae Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHAETONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 



Prices to Suit the Times. 

KEPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 
I ISl^ n' ■'- guaranteed. 
79-2- '__ 

s. IB. oos:, 

MaQOfacttirer of 

Carriages, Buggies, Piiaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCA8TER,',PA. 

Largo Stock of New and Second-hand Wort on hand, 
very cheap. Cftrriages Ifad* to Order. Work Warranted 
for oa« y»ftr. [7>-l-ia 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

DEALBn IN 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CI.OCKS. 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

8ole Agent for the Aruudel I'inted 

SPECTACI^ES. 

Eepalriiig striotly attended to. 

Nortli Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



AT I.OWSCsT POSSaitLE PE£ICES, 
FuUy guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] Oi>ji>!>i:e t'OpniA Motel. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 




G. SENER & SONS, 

Mauut'acturc-rs und dealers in all kinds of rough and 
finibhed 

The best Sawed SHI^<iJ.ESiu the country. Alao Sash, 
Doors, BliudH, Mouldings, &c, 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, whica are far snporior to any 
other. Also best COAlj cunetantly ou hand. 

OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince aud Walnnt-sts., 

LAIsrCA^STKR, PA.. 

79-1-12] 




PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history aud habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 



INSECTS, 



and the beat remedies for their expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON. Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work will be Highly Ilhutrated, and will be pnt In 
prCBS (as Boon after a sufficient number of subscribers can 
be obtained to cover tile cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 
79-i2- 




Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

plant Trees raised iu this couuty and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. C, Lancaster CO., Pa. 

Nursery at Smoketowu, six miles east of Lancaster. 
79-1-12 

WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS. 

102 East King St., Cor, of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-15] 



Special luciucementsat the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 
\A/. A. HEINITSH, 

(over Eursk's Grocery Store), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assoi • ment of furniture of all kinds constantlj 
on hand. Don't forget the number, 

X5 X-2 :EI<a,s-£ SSixiLg; jSitz-oet, 



Nov-ly] 



(ovt r Lliri-k's G.nctry S:oie.) 



$77 

j»-a-i» 



a mouth and expenses guarantee*! to Agents. 
Oatat free. 8HA.W h CU., Auiputa, Mais*. 



For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOI.I.MER,'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, 

No S09 NORTH QUEEN ST.. 

(Oppcsite Ni^rfheru IM;irket)| 
Alsu, hU kiuda of picture fraojes. nov-ly 

GREAT BARGAINS. 

A large assortment of all kinds of Can^ets are still sold at 
lower raten th;in ever at the 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No. 202 JFest King St. 

Call and exumine our Etock and salisty youAelf that we 
can show the l;irgeKt as-sortment. of tliese BiUBselB, three 
lUes ;tud iugralu at all prices — ivtthe lo\v»8t Philadelphia 
prices. 

Also oa hand a large and complete assortment of Rag 
Ciirpet. 

Satisl'.icMon guaranteed bath as to price and quality. 

you are iuviUd to call and see my goods. No trouble in 
showing them even if you do not want to purchase. 

Don't forget this notice. You can save moaey here if yoa 
want to buy. 

Particular attention given to customer v ork 

Also on hand a lull jiesortmeut of Couuterpanea, OU 
Cloths and Bliiikets of every variety [nov-lyr. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 

38 and 40 West King Street. 

We keep on band of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COVERLETS, 

^ COUNTERPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau and Tidy Covers, Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 
tions, etc. 

Particular atteotion paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
scowei'ing and dyeiug of all kiuda. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 

Nov-ly LaiictiB^er, Pa. 

THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption withont medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will do 
for you what nothing else on earth can. Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Lancaster S".y so. Get the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lyr 

C. R. KLINE, 
)\ttof(NEY-at-|3AW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

LA-NCASTKR. TA.. 

WOT-lj 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Hi. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1880. 



Vol. XII. No. 4. 



DRIED FRUIT. 

The great bulk ot the diicil fruit coiisuined 
in our co\nitry to-day is no better— if it even 
is as good— as that wliieh was consumed one 
hundred years ago. Souieliow people liad 
come to think tliat fruit wlien dried ought to 
be tlie color of maliogany, and the liiiuid in 
which it is boiled should be the color of 
uncrciimed cotl'ee. Fruit was usually set out 
on screens and dried l)y the slow process of 
the BUii, or put into the oven after the bread 
was taken out, if tlie sun failed to sliine; in 
the meantime, it was visited by hosts of com- 
mon Hies, wasps, moths, hornets, spiders and 
other "vermin" that mutilated it, and pep- 
pered it all over with their excretal voidings, 
so that consumers were eorapelled to wash it 
thoroughly Ijefore boiling it, or cat more than 
they bargained for. At other times it was 
strung on strings and hung up to dry by the 
sun or atmosphere, under a like exposure, or 
put in tin or iron pans and dried in the oven, 
which was often made hot enough to dry it as 
crisp as oid shoe leather, or Imrn it as black as 
charcoal. Much ot that in the market at the 
present day is of that character, and especi- 
ally the kind made of sweet apples, and often 
when brought to table it is of an inky color, 
and anything but inviting to the appetite. 
AVe have often wondered why this should be 
so, and whether it could not be dried in so)jje 
way by which it would retain more of its 
natural color, taste and flavor. ' 

Another objection to much of the dried 
fruit was that it was dried with the skins on, 
and tills was especially the case with sweet 
apples and peaches, and, also, in some cases, 
with pears. This is to some extent still the 
case. Possibly there may be some people 
who prefer unpared dried fruit, and if this is 
the case the demand for it should certainly 
be supplied. Another reason, perhaps, is 
that pared fruit necessarily commands a 
higher price, and people may prefer the un- 
pared on that .'vccount. But with the present 
improved paring and coring machines the 
labor of preparing fruit to dry is very much 
diminished ; besides, it takes longer to thor- 
oughly dry fruit that is unpared than it does 
that which is pared. During the past ten or 
twelve years various machines have been in- 
vented for drying fruit by artificial heat in 
such a manner as to retain nearly its original 
color and flavor. Of ceurse it will necessarily 
become a little darker in color than the fruit 
was before it was dried, but there is no need 
that it should be " done up brown " to find a 
free and profitable market. We often won- 
dered why our farmers did not more generally 
avail tliemselves of this improved apparatus 
in drying their fruit, because they can pro- 
duce a more edible and Ijetter paying article 
by paring and coring their fruit Ijefore diy- 
ing it, and by patronizing a good machine 
they certainly would soon be able to pay for 
it out of the advanced price their fruit would 
bring in the market. 

When fruit is dried in such a manner as to 
preserve its color, taste and flavor as nearly 
as possible, there would be little necessity in 
preserving or canning it, and thus all the ex- 
pense of cans and sugar would be saved, 
besides all the risks of spoiling by fermenta- 
tion and exploding of cans or jai\s. Among 
all the different machines that have come 
under our observation for this purpose, we 
think there is none — in its structure or prin- 
ciples — that can compare with "J?.i/t?cr's 
American Fruit Drier or Pnewnatic Evapora- 
tor,'''' erahraciug new principles of fruit evap- 
oration, and manufactured by the '' American 
Fruit Drier Manufacturinrj Company,'''' Cham- 
bersburg. Fa. It may be said with confidence 
that no family that has been in the habit of 



canning and preserving fruits and vegetables 
for their own use can all'ord to be without 
this household necessity, for the following rea- 
sons : 

"1. It will save you its cost the first 
season in money paid tor sugar, fruit-jars and 
cans. Put your fruit in paper bags or boxes 
as you takeit out of the drier, and it is safe. 
"2. It will save you its cost eVery season in 
time labor and vexation. At any time your 
folks can kindle a lire, put in a few trays of 
IVuit and it will bo out of the reach of dust or 
flies, and all this without overheating them- 
selves, or being vexed with broken jars or 
leaking cans. 

";i It will save you its cost in Hie quality 
and healthiness of its productions, avoid all 
corrosions of metal cans, and exempt you 
from lead poisonings. Fruits prepared on this 
drier are superior in flavor, color, taste and 
general appearance, not to be compared with 
ordinary dried fruits, and in the nutritive 
value far sui)erior to canned fruits. 

"4. It will save its cost in utilizing wind- 
falls, specked and knarly fruits that could not 
otherwise be made use of. Inferior fruits 
can be used and turned to account ijy drying, 
but the best fruits will pay better to dry than 
to can and preserve by the old methods. 

".'). It will dry and preserve equally well all 
kinds of fruits and vegetables, as strawberries, 
cherries, raspberries, blackberries, currants, 
gooseberries, grapes, apples, peaches, pears, 
peas, plums, quinces, green corn, beans, 
sweet and common potatoes, pumpkins, to- 
matoes, egg-plant, &c., all of which retain 
their flavor with increased sweetness, and 
when properly treated with water are easily 
restored to their nearest possible natural size 
and fresh appearance." 

The true philosophy in drying cut and 
paied fruits is to subject them to a current of 
dry heated air, in order to dry the cut surface 
quickly, which prevents discoloration and 
makes an artificial skin, which practically 
closes the cellular tissues that contain the 
acid and starch, which yield glucose or fruit- 
sugar. Let it also be remembered that fruit 
dried by this drier needs no preparatory wash- 
ing — indeed, washing always carries ofl' a 
consideralile amount of the flavor and sac- 
cliarine matter, and produces a corresponding 
insipidity. 

There is another matter connected with 
fruit-drying for market which seems to have 
elicited' but little attention generally, but 
which, we believe, would pay in the end ; 
and that is to make different grades of 
quality, and these grades should be based 
upon equal degrees of ripeness and equal de- 
grees of texture. For instance, ripe fruit and 
unripe should not be included in the same 
lot ; neither should naturally tough and ten- 
der fruit, because unripe and tough fruit 
always requires longer boiling than ripe and 
tender fruit ; hence, in their culinary pre- 
paration the former may be partially raw, 
whilst the latter may be reduced to a pulp 
when they are boiled together. Time was 
wlien butchers paid little attention to grading 
their meats, except, perhaps, in the larger 
cities; but now the thing is more systemati- 
cally arranged everywhere, and it pays. The 
tobacco growers see the advantage of sys- 
tematic grading in preparing their crops for 
market, "but before they learned it many a 
first-class lot of tobacco was sacrificed because 
of the inferior grades being mixed up with it. 
It pays them, and pays them well, too, to 
grade their crops into different qualities. It 
would pay equally well in dried fruit. It may 
be said this would place the good fruit in the 
possession of the rich, and the inferior would 
be left for the poor. Well, is it not the same 
in everything ? A rich man may wear $10.00 



cloth, and live in a villa tliat cost $10,000, 
whilst the poor man must be content with 75 
cent satinet, and occupy a cottage worth 
$.500, and feels glad when he has even that 
unencuinljered. 



DEATH OF JACOB STAUFFER. 
By reference to the proceedings of the Lin- 
najan Society, at another place in this num- 
ber of the Faumeh, our readers will be in- 
formed of the death of our old contributor, 
.Jacob Stauffer, in tlie 72nd year of his age. 
From 1800 to 18S0, Mr. Stauller has been an 
almost constant contributor to the columns 
of the FAnMEii, and his death is a source of 
regret in this respect that has not been 
mentioned in any of the obituaries and tes- 
timonials that have been published in hia 
behalf. Ilis papers (inanv of which were 
illustrated by his own hands) mainly re- 
lated to botany, which ' ho usually treated 
in a pleasing and practical manner, giv- 
ing historical sketches of plants, their dis- 
covery and significance, their good or bad 
qualities, and tlie various mechanical, culi- 
nary and medicinal uses to which they may 
be applied. When it Is remembered that dur- 
ing all the eleven years in which he so disin- 
terestedly labored in the cause of agricultu- 
ral literature he never received— and never 
demanded or expected— one penny of com- 
pensation, it will be readily perceived what 
acrilices he must have made. 

But men's works "follow them," whether 
they be good or evil ; and the "Well done, 
good and fiiilhful servant, thou hast been 
faithful over a few things, I will make thee 
ruler over many things," will be a greater 
ultimate comiiensation to him than anything 
that the world could possibly bestow. Not 
only as farmers, but also as inventors, the 
people of the county of Lancaster will dis- 
cover that tliey have sustained a serious loss. 
Mr. Stauffer in his own person combined the 
rare functions of both attorney and draughts- 
man, and hence, as a patent agent, he was of 
great advantage to the inventors of the 
county, and it will be many days before the 
vacuum created by his departure can be 
adequately supplied. Few men within the 
borders of our county have led lives of such 
disinterested usefulness, and few more cheer- 
fully have shed their moral and intellectual 
light than he. But his "warfare " is now over; 
his arduous labors on this earth have ended, 
and none who kuew him will refuse to join in 
the invocation accorded to the faithful— 
'■^rest in peace.^^ 



It is 



"BLEEDING KANSAS." 

not so many years ago since these 



terms were used by mere politicians as a lam- 
entation, or ironically as a reproach. Her 
political and social warfares arc now happily 
over, and Kansas is "bleeding" such substan- 
tial treasures as cannot fail to redeem her 
citizens from dependence and want, and 
assure the reign of prosperity within her 
borders. Hardly more than a (piarter of a 
century old, she already far outstrips, in her 
agricultural productions, many of ner sister 
states who are centenarians. 

The quarterly report of her State Board of 
Agriculture, (a notice of which appears in our 
literarv columns) is an octavo volume of 170 
pages, "in which her resources are systematic- 
ally and methodically brought to view, up to 
December 31, 1879, and as a tabulated and 
statistical document, we question whether 
another of equal ability has ever appeared in 
the Union, either in detail or as a whole. It 
was the last labor of the lamented Alfred 
Gray, of whose reports we have formerly had 
occasion to speak in terms of praise, and any 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April 



man after such a labor might truthfully he 
accorded the scriptural "«i'rn *jn«." These 
statistics are veiT minute, giving the acreage, 
product and money value of each particular 
county, but they would be too voluumous to 
transfer to o\u- columns. But, to exhibit to 
our readers the .sfcidi.s of Kansas fertility as a 
whole, we would call their attention to the 
" summary for 1879 : 

U.r>M,'>m bn. $10,087,403.09 



Winter wheat 1,6.'0,0.)9 ac's 

Spring " 412.139 " 

Eye 43.616 " 

Corn 2,995.070 " 

Barley 45,SR1 " 

Oata ST3.9S2 " 

Buckwheat 2,817 " 

Irish Potatoes.... 02,601 " 
Sweet " .... 2,728 " 

Castor Beans 68,179 " 

Sorgbuni 23 664 



Flax 

Cotton 

Herap 

Tobacco 

Broom Com 

Millet&HunKariaii 
Meadow Timothy 
Meadow Olnver.. 
Meadow Prairie.. 



09,393 

197 

606 

752 

14,273 

174,890 

57,IS1 

14,709 

672,994 



2,990.0' 

660.409 

10S,704.927 

720.09-2 " 

13,326,037 " 

41,300 " 

3,324.129 " 

197.407 " 

766,143 " 

2,721,4ES gal. 

622,256 lbs. 

33.5SS " 

557,878 " 

.550.753 " 

8 095,145 " 

494,962 touB 

86.884 " 

26S22 " 

913,053 '• 



2,3li 1, 387,60 

204,103.43 

26,562,0:4.-10 

360,046.00 

3,397,416 33 

37,175.74 

2,177,664.66 

197,407.57 

706,143.37 

1,224,056.57 

622,266.02 

3.023,00 

33,472.72 

65,675,38 

283,330.15 

2,642,275.75 

483,812,15 

152,503.92 

3,017,412,43 



credit. As soon as the animals saw each 
other they halted and began to reconnoitre, 
the roach raising up on its legs as high as it 
possibly could, keeping its head towards its 
antagonist, which made a circle around it. 
At length it pounced upon the roach with the 
qnickiie.ss of lightning, and when the witness 
approached it darted off as quickly, leaving 
its victim dead upon the field, 

I had a similar experience as to locality, 
in regard to R&luviiis novenarius, a IIemipte- 
Kous insect. Here it is common, and is be- 
coming more numerous every year, but there 
I never saw it, and do not know that it is 
there now. 



Besides 14,212 acres timothy pasture, 
7,007 [acres clover pasture, ,S(i,lG(i blue grass 
pasture, and 9.55,82(3 acres prairie pasture, 
amounting in the aggregate to 7,769,926 acres, 
valued at $00,129,780, omitting fractions. 

Tills only relates to the manipulations of 
the soil and its productions, and does not 
include stock, milk, Ixitter, cheese, garden 
and orchard products, of which we shall have 
something to say on a future occasion. Surely 
there is a signilicance attached to tliese 
results, when compared with the older states, 
and especially with ' the "Sunny South," 
When we see the coiniiaratively small acreage 
devoted to tobacco it must surely be encour- 
aging to those who fear our country is becom- 
ing "one vast -'tobacco patch," In Kansas, 
at least, the preponderenee leans towards 
ivheat and corn. 



LONG-LEGGED CENTIPEDE. 
Cerjiatia FoiiCEPS. — Noticing a para- 
graph on page 711 (November number) of the 
American Naturalist, in relation to the 
"northern boundary" of this seemingly 
unique myriopod, recalls some observations 
of my own on its local habitat, and especially 
the " sharpness " of its own boundary. For 
instance, from 1812 to 1818 my residence was 
at Marietta, on the banks of tlie Susquehanna 
river, being the southwestern margin of Lan- 
caster county. Pa. Although the last eight 
years of my residence in tliat locality were 
among the most active aud enthusia.stic of 
my life, as an entomological explorer and 
collector, yet, during the entire period of 
thirty-six years I never saw a single specimen 
of Cermatia forceps in or about that locality, 
aud from the faci that I have been unable to 
make any one from that place understand 
what kind of animal I mean, when I inquired 
about it, I infer that it is not there now. 
But when I located here in 1848, I found 
them in tolerable abundance in the centre of 
the city, and in remote locjilities within its 
boundaries, and I have seen them at various 
times every year from that period down to 
the present time. At first I only found them 
in cellars, especially of old buildings, and I 
was almost ready to conclude that they were 
mere spectres they vanished so quickly from 
my view, but at length a friendly spider's 
web accompli.shed what I had failed in by en- 
tangling several specimens. Now, liowever, I 
find them on first, second and third stories, as 
well as cellars, in stables and outhouses, and 
often in my own sanctum and sleeping room — 
indeed, they frequently come out of their 
hiding-places at night and run across the 
desk on which I am writing, and in one in- 
stance across the very paper. Marietta is 
about twelve miles west of Lancaster, but 
whether this myriopod has been observed at 
any intermediate point, 1 cannot say. And 
here allow me to record a deadly conllict be- 
tween a full-grown (Jcrmatia and a cockroach 
{Blatta oriciitulis) as related to me by an eye- 
witness of this city, of sufiicient intelligence 
and veracity, in my view, to entitle it to 



AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT, 

The subject of this department, as a pros- 
pective creation of Congress, is now looming 
up, and the wonder is that it has not been 
thought of and carried into effect at an earlier 
period of our liistory as a nation— indeed, at 
the very foundation of the government. It 
is proposed to raise this department to an 
pquality with the State Department, the 
War, Treasury, Navy, Interior, and other 
departments, with a secretary who shall be a 
member of the Cabinet, and in all respects be 
on an equality with the other presidential 
advisers. It seems to us that this is eminently 
proper, and should have been done long ago 
for the simple reason that agriculture is, or 
ought to be, the first interest of any civilized 
nation— an interest of paramount value, and 
upon which are based all other interests of 
the nation. It involves the great question of 
physical subsistence, and furnishes the sinews 
for the practical operation of the whole ma- 
chinery of government and the successful 
existence of society. Without agriculture 
and its products all other departments of the 
government, as well as commerce, manufac- 
tures, arts and sciences, and all other interests 
pertaining to eivilization, must become en- 
tirely extinguished for the want of a material 
basis. Wliat would an army or navy be with- 
out the subsistence which agriculture fur- 
nishes ? When a being is born into this world, 
whether it be the lowest or the higliest crea- 
tion, or any intermediate creation, the first 
impulse that it manifests tends towards sub- 
sistence, and if this is not furnished at the 
proper time, and in proper quantity and 
quality, that being languishes or perishes. 
So long as wo are in the body we are com- 
pelled to provide for the comforts of the body, 
and no man or animal, no individual, state 
or 'nation, can be either comfortable or con- 
tented so long as they are hungry or inade- 
quately clotlied, and the material to assure 
these comforts is drawn from the soil as a 
tangible result of agriculture. Where the 
necessity for agricultural labor does not exist, 
the state of civilization is low and inferior. 
In locating in and "settling up" a new 
country the very first and all-absorbing ques- 
tion is^ its fitness for agriculture, and if this 
resource is wanting it is not regarded as a 
place that is fit for human beings to live in, 
simply because it does not promise the ali- 
ment necessary to a continuance of human 
life. If this, and much more that might be 
said in behalf of agricultue be so, it seems 
reasonable to assume that it ought to elicit 
the fostering support of government in pro- 
jiortion to the essentiality of its function. 
There may be some objections to making 
agriculture a co-ordinate department of the 
government, but the most objectionable to us 
would be its political snbordination to the 
periodical changes in the administration of 
the government, whereby it might become a 
"plum" for politicians to intrigue and fight 
about, but if its creators wouldthey could pro- 
vide against such a contingency. 



discovered about the base of it quantities of 
issuing gum, but never had found any insects. 
FromTiis report we concluded tliat it was in- 
tested by the common " Peach Tree Borer" 
{^■Ej^eria exilosa), and that wlien he had made 
his "examinations the insects had already 
escaped in their matured form. Last -year 
the tree was so much enervated that it scarcely 
had power to leaf or blossom, and, of course, 
produced no fruit. This spring he removed 
it, and brought us a portion of tlie lower end 
of the trunk. The whole interior of the 
trunk to about the height of two feet was in 
a state of decay, and this decay extended 
down into the larger roots at least one foot 
under the ground. A thin shell of living 
wood here and there around the exterior was 
all that was left as an avenue for the ascend- 
ing sap. This dead wood was jierfectly 
honey-combed with galleries, containing nu- 
merous larvae, not of the JEyeria, but of a 
species of Langicornia, (probably a clytus 
or a saperda, or some of their cogeners), 
From the fact that a number of young peach 
trees had also been in a feeble condition, and 
which on removal were found to be similarly 
infested— some of them perfectly girdled at 
the base— and the roots completely barked 
for six inches below the surface— even to the 
destruction of the woody tissue — we incline 
to the opinion that these larvie are Saperdans, 
based mainly upon the fact that we have fre- 
quently found young apple trees in the same 
condition, caused by Saperdans. One of these 
young trees (about an inch in diameter) con- 
tained a larva in the heart of it, working 
upward. Mr. .Johnston says that some years 
ago an old building stood very near this peach 
tree, and that on its removal the lower tim- 
bers were perforated similar to the trunk of 
■ihe tree, and were "full of worms," which 
no care wa§ taken to destroy, and he supposes 
that they found their way from thence into 
the tree as the only place accessible to them, 
for the surroundings are chiefly brick and 
mortar, being in the very centre of the city. 

These larva: are perfectly white in most 
cases, a few having a tint of pink. They are 
of various sizes, the largest being \\ inches 
long, and I in circumference around the 
thoracia segments, whicli are larger than 
those that follow, though not nearly so large 
as they usually are in the Buprestaus. They 
are altogether footless ; the liead small and of 
a dark brown color, and the mandibles short 
and sharp. 

Even if the peach escapes the cold weather, 
it has yet a fearful gauntlet to run. The 
peach-aphis, peach-coccus, peach- TomjcM.'?, 
peach-borer, peach-codling, poach-curculio 
and several other pests, including this last 
one, all seem to be lying around— like the 
aspirants to the throne of France— waiting 
for an opportunity to possess it. 

We are in the effort to breed these larrm, 
and if we succeed we shall in due time, we 
hope, be able to determine the species. In 
the meantime we would admonish our readers 
to destroy all worms that they find in or on 
their trees, and thus save themselves a world 
of subsequent trouble. Especially when they 
split up old wood or timbers and find worms 
in them, they should see that they are killed 
or fed to fowls. Fowls are very fond of them, 
for they are a rich and savory morsel. ^Mr. J. 
gave his chickens quite a feast when he re- 
moved and split up the old peach stump. 
We feel confident that this matter is not at- 
tended to as it should be and cuuld be, if only 
the people determine that it xooidd be. 



ANOTHER PEACH TREE ENEMY. 

For the past two or three years Mr. Jno. 
M. Johnston, of I>ancaster, has been making 
frequent complaints about an old but favorite 
peach tree, alleging that it was gradually be- 
coming weaker and weaker, aud that he had 



GARBERIA. 



An Honor Conferred Upon a Lancaster County 
Botanist. 
At the meeting of the Botanical Section of 
the Aaidemii of Natural Sciences, of Philadel- 
phia, held on the 10th of November, 1879, Mr. 
Iledfield presented the following from Dr. Asa 
Gray, America's distinguished botanist : "I 
wish to secure an opportunity which occurs to 
dedicate a genus of plants peculiar to Florida, 
to Dr. A. P. Garber, of Pennsylvania, who 



1 SS0.1 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



has (lone such good botanical sprvice in liis 
recent faithful exploration of the soutliern 
portion of Florida. Anioiiu; tlie resl, lie lias 
rediscovered the interesting plant wliieli will 
now eoninieniorate his name and services. 
This plant is the Liali-is frKtirosa of Nuttall, 
before collected only liy Mr. Ware in .scanty 
specimens." Nnttall formed for this plant a 
sub-genns, which Dr. Gray suhse(inently 
raised to a sieneric rank, in view of certain 
characters which he had formerly described. 
Dr. Uray then adds: "A sut)^eneric name has 
no rights as against a published generic name. 
So a new name must be provided for the 
Florida plant. I had thought at the lirst of 
dedicating it to Dr. thirber, but I deferred to 
the subgeneric name given by Nuttall; and I 
now do with alacrity what I ought to have 
done in .the lirst place. The name and .syn- 
onymy will stand thus : — 

GARBERI.V FKl tkosa. 

Liatris frutkosn, Nuttall. 

LeptocUiiium Jrutirnsa, Gray. 

South Florida. — Ware, Qarber.^'' 

Dr. A. P. Garber is a native of Lancaster 
county, and a son of the venerable Jacob B. 
Garber, of Mountville, one of the horticul- 
tural veterans of oui' county. Dr. (iarber 
was a graduate of the State Normal at Millers- 
ville, tiie faculty of which <loubtless still re- 
member him. lie al.-<i) graduated as a pliysi- 
ciau, and for some time held a position as 
botanist in Lafayette College, at Easton, Pa. 
He was also an active member of the Lan- 
caster Linna'au Society, and is still a corre- 
sponding member, and we recall him as one 
of the members of its early held e.xcursions. 
He has been for some years located at Manitee, 
Florida, and occasionally forwards to the 
society rare specimens in natural history. 
This dedication conferred by such a distin- 
guished authority as Dr. Gray, and recognized 
by such a distinguished institution as the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, is an honor 
worthy of tho.se who so heartily accord it a 
credit to him whom we know will •'blush- 
ingly hear it " — an honor of which any man 
might afford to feel proud. We recall Dr. 
Garber as a quiet patient, per-severing and 
thorough student in the scientilic specialty to 
which he has been for many years devoted, 
and which furnishes him "so many golden 
opportunities in the ''land of Bowers." As 
an evidence that he is not merely an idle 
spectator there, the Conservator of the Botanic 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
in his report for 1879, states that during the 
year Dr. Garber has donated to the Herbarium 
of that institution 023 species of Florida 
plants, embracing many rare and new species, 
the results of his untiring industry. 

It is with a peculiar pleasure that we are 
enabled to make this honorable record of one 
of the worthy sons of Lancaster county, and 
regret that the cxamides seem to be so "few 
and far between. " Most young men of leisure 
and pecuniary means court luxurious ease, 
rather than the school of .science, even in 
cases where opportunities are amply afforded. 
And yet there is a compensation in it, of 
which nothing can deprive them. 

A NEW MYRIAPOD. 

The following we clip from the Intelligencer, 
altliough we have seen something similar to 
it in the American Ifaturalial : 

Mr. Ryder, a member of the Academy of 
Nat>u'al Sciences, Philadeliihia, has discov- 
ered in Fairmount Park a little myriapod- 
like scolopendrella, which is regarded as a 
creature of great importance scientifically. 
The extraordinary — one might say bizarre — 
combination of characters presented by the 
animal, makes it what has been known since 
Agassiz's time as a synthetic type — that is, a 
form which combines clKiractcristics of several 
orders or widely separated groups. It, in 
fact, represents the ideal form, from which it 
maj' be supposed that the great six-legged 
group of insects has been derived, as the 
number of joints in its body corresponds witli 
that of the larval stages of the greater part of 
this group. It seems, in truth, to be an insect 



with legs to every joint instead of to only 
three, as in the latter. This view of its ela- 
tiiinship more than ever justilies its recogni- 
tion as the type of an order under the name 
sympyla, signifying that its oi'ganization 
represents in a combined form that of several 
lines of development of descent. When the 
embryology or development from the egg of 
this little creatui'e is studied, the proiiabilities 
are that a story of the highest significance 
will be revealed, perhaps one of the most im- 
portant ever recorded in the annals of ento- 
mological science. 

HAIR WORMS. 

A small and very attenuated wliite worm is 
sometimes found in the seed cavities of the 
apple — hardly any thicker than No. tiO spool 
cotton — and also in other fruits and vege- 
tables. We have specimens in the (tolk'ction 
of the Liiniffiau Society, oiu^ of which was 
taken out of a cavity near the middle of a 
head of cabbage, and another taken out of 
an apple — the former being by far the thick- 
est and longest. Others iuive been received 
from persons who had no distinct recollec- 
tion of the circumstances under which they 
were found, or had gotten them from other 
jiersons. These animals belong to a family 
of Abranchious annelides, (or "worms" 
without bristles) of which the common 
" Hair Worm " is the typical genus. The 
GoKDiACEiD.E have been long known to be 
parasitic on other animals, in tlie early stages 
of their development, but the details of their 
transformations or transitions are little l)et- 
ter known now than they were a hundred 
years ago. These animals are seldom found 
stretched out at length, except when found 
swimming in ponds or marshes in very warm 
weather. They are usually found tangled or 
knotted, and from this fact the " Gordian 
Knot " has originated. We have a female 
specimen of Oordius rariun in the Linna?an 
Museum, that has a fine filament adhering 
to her body, to which are attached a number 
of eggs resembling a tiny string of minute 
beads. On one occasion we fomid numerous 
specimens of F'daria (which belongs to the 
.■^ame family) infesting the bodies of grass- 
hoppers {Caloptinus ffmer-ruhrum), some of 
them protruding an inch or more, and in 
every instance the "hoppers" were either 
dead or very feeble. There are still some 
people who firmly believe that these Gordians 
are animated horse-nairs. We tried to ani- 
mate a horse-hair many years ago, but we 
utterly failed. 

Dr. Greene, of this city, sent one of the.se 
white hair-worms to Prof. Comstock, of the 
Entomological Department at Wa.sliington, 
for determination, and lie answers under date 
of March lu, 1S80, that it is Mermis accumi- 
nata, and that it is parasitic on the larva of 
the ''codling moth" (C(n-pocap,sa jiomnic/^a) 
which is good news to apple growers, as far 
as it goes, that that pernicious pest has at 
least one parasite. But it does not go very 
far, forthe codlings are too numerous and tlie 
parasites too few, ever to ed'ect an equilibri- 
um. It may, however, serve to quiet alarm 
when the 3Ifrniis is found in apples- Could 
the specimens found in cabbage have been 
parasitic on the larv;e of Fieris rapa' ? That 
would also be something worth knowing. 

A MUNIFICENT GIFT. 
William L. Shatfer, Esq., formally years the 
distinguished president of the "Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society," has just consumated 
an act that will forever place his name high 
on the pillar of fame, and render it dear as 
an example of disinterested liberality to the 
friends of Horticulture all over our broad 
land. The society over whose interest he has 
so long and so etliciently presided, and whose 
welfare w-as so dear to him, is the oldest hor- 
ticultural society in our whole country, hav- 
ing been organized about sixty years ago — if 
not longer — and, during all that long period, 
it has been one of the most Jive societies in 
the "Keystone State," or elsewhere. The 
fruit and tloral exhibitions of this ancient as- 



sociation have for many years been prominent 
events in the progress of American horticul- 
ture. Some years ago during the successful 
tide of our commercial, manufacturing and 
general business allaiis of the country, it pur- 
chased ground and built a magnificent hall on 
the west side of Broad street, at a cost of 
about $75,(100, an ornament to the city of 
Pluladelphia, and a credit to the society 
under whose auspices it was erected. But 
after that a "long and anxious" financial re- 
verse occurred, einliiacingour entire country, 
and "wiping out" many of the noblest enter- 
jirises of the land, and so enervating othera 
that they could only with the greatest difli- 
culty brave the impending storm; and hence, 
this old society had an embarra.ssing outlook, 
financially, although, in the objects of its or- 
ganization, it kept on, in the "even tenor of 
its way." At length President Shafler, under 
the iniluence of an ennobling and benevolent 
impulse, stepped forward, purchased the 
entire hall, and kindly donated it to the soci- 
ety. An engrossed copy of the society's 
giatelul thanks, signed by the facidty, wa9 
executed and presented to the president on 
Friday evening, April 9th, in the hall, on 
which occasion the formalities of tliis "double 
blessing" were duly observed, and appropri- 
ately solemnized. Long live the ^^Pennsylva- 
nia Horticultural Society.''^ 

A GOOD EGG. 
Mr. Henry Wyman of this city, exhibited 
to us a very eiyys-traordinary hen's egg; and, 
although we may not be able to separate it 
from the class of "monstrosities," yet, for 
special reasons, it may be none the less a good 
eyg. He found it "lying around loose" in the 
chicken yard, which seems to imply that 
whatever value he or other people may attach 
to it, the hen that laid it thought it "no great 
shakes" — not worth cackling over. There 
were in fact two eggs, united uy a narrow tu- 
luilar process, the wiiole being without a shell, 
but covered with a white translucent integtr- 
luent — something like an old-fashioned double 
money-purse, with the middle contracted and 
the ends well tilled. That which is most singu- 
lar about it is, that the one lobe contains the 
albumen and the other the yolk; and to caiTy 
the singularity still further the^integuments 
of the two lobes have accommodated them- 
selves in form to the character of their con- 
tents — that is, the lobe that contains the yolk 
is spherical, and the one that contains the al- 
bumen is oblong, approximating to the natu- 
ral form of an egg. This may illustrate the 
influence which the inner contents of the egg 
exercises over the form of the shell. Now, 
we have above designated this a "good egg," 
and doubtless every progressive housewife 
will occur in that opinion In many culinary 
or baking preparations housewives desire the 
yolk and the albumen separated, and some- 
times in attempting to do this, they get the 
two sadly "mixed" up;" therefore, if they 
could have them naturally separated, so that 
they could empty them out (like a purse) into 
separate vessels," it would facilitate labor and 
prevent vexation. If Mr. Wyman can pro- 
duce "strains" of that kind of eggs, no doubt 
he would be considered a benefactor. 
^ ■ 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS- 
SOCIETY. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee 
of the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' Society, 
held in Lancaster, Pa., ]S;arch, 1st, 1880. the 
following standing committees were appoint- 
ed for the year ending third Wednesday of 
January, 1881. It is hoped that chairmen 
will open correspondence at once with mem- 
bers of committees, and submit their reports 
at the annual meeting without, further 
notice. 

The next annual meeting will be held in 
Gettysburg, Pa., commencing third Wednes- 
day in .lannarv, 1881. 

Geo. D. Sti"tzel, Pres., Reading. 

Geo. B. Tho.ma.'^, Treas., West Chester. 

E. B. Engle, Sec. Marietta, 

IHxecutive Committee, 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Committees for 1881. 

General Fruit Committee. — E. Satterthwait, 
Montgomery county, chairman ; A. R. Sprout, 
Lycoming county; Joseph Lewis, Jr., Dela- 
ware county; Dr. .Tames Calder, Centre 
county; J. O. Martin, Franklin county; W. 
M. Pannebaker, Mifflin county; J. V. Gar- 
retson, Adams county; W. L. Shaeffer, Phil- 
adelphia; J. S. Murdoch, Sr., Allegheny 
county; H. S. Rupp, Cumberland county; S. 
Stevenson, Lackawanna county; Bassler 
Boyer, Lebanon county; T. A. "Woods, 
Dauphin connty; J. W. Pyle, Chester county; 
A. S. Shimer, Northampton county; Casper 
Hiller, Lancaster county; Peter Lint, York 
county; A. S. Sheller, Union county; C. T. 
Fox, Berks county; H. Leh, Lehigh county; 
F. F. Merceron, Columliia connty. 

Committee on Nomenclature.— Joshxh Hoopes, 
Chester county, chairman; L. S. Reist, Lan- 
caster county; J. ttiblierd Bartram, Chester 
county; S. W. Noble, Chester county; Ezra 
High, IBerks county. 

Cmnmitteeon Florinilture and Arboriculture. 
— Charles H. Miller, Philadelphia, chairman; 
P. C. Hiller, Lancaster county;. John C. Hep- 
ler, Berks county; Geo. Achelis, Chester 
county; W. P. Brinton, Lancaster county. 

Committeeon Orcharding. — Thomas M. Har- 
vey, Chester county, chairman; Dr. ,T. H. 
Funk, Berks county; J. G. Engle, Lancaster 
county; H. F. Clark, Columbia county; Jacob 
Heyser, Franklin county. 

Committee on Entomology. — S. S. Rathvon, 
Lancaster county, chairman; J. S. Stauffer, 
Lancaster county; Herman Strecker, Berks 
county. 

Committee on Arrangement and Reception. — 
E. G. Fahnestock, Adams county, chairman; 
Raphael Sherfy, Adams county; II. J. Stable, 
Adams county; Isaac Herretter, Adams 
county; E. B. Engle, Lancaster county. 



Essays. 



CHEMISTRY OF SOILS.* 

I fully and conscientiously believe that the 
time is not far distant when all farmers will 
have full confidence in chemistry, and will be 
able by making an analysis of their soils to 
readily determine the necessary additions to 
be made to them to raise any crops suited to 
their longitudinal locality. In a few years 
more no farmer will be so ignorant of this sci- 
ence as to need to test one after another of a 
long list of manm-es in order to determine the 
proper requisite to his land. To illustrate it, it 
is now well known that one vegetable product 
requires largely a phospliale, another a sul- 
phate, another an aramoniate. Hence when 
the farmer is about raising any product re- 
quiring either of the above chemicals, he will 
examine his soils and add any deficiencies. 
To- again illustrate ; Putty is composed of 
linseed oil and whiting, and no other tvv'o 
simples can be united to make the compounds 
of putty. Charcoal, sulphur and saltpetre sep- 
arately are non-exiilosives.but ujiited in proper 
proportions, gunpowder is the compound, 
which is a terrible explosive. 

Nitric acid and glycerine separately are 
harmless substances ; mixed together, nitro- 
glycerine is the compound, and it is a fear- 
fully powerful explosive ; chloric acid and 
quicksilver mixed in equal parts, in a fire in a 
crucible, will majje calomel ; if two ounces of 
chloric acid is mixed with one ounce of quick- 
silver in the same way, an entirely new and 
poisonous compound is made, viz., corrosive 
sublimate. If you mix nitrate of soda and 
hyposulphate of soda together, both of which 
are intensely bitter, they will produce a very 
sweet substance. If you rub together equal 
quantities of glauber salts and nitrate of 
ammonia, the two solids will become liquids. 
The malic acid in the grape in July becomes 
grape sugar in August. Now, I have intro- 
duced these chemical facts to prove that the 



*Reod befox-e the Lancaster Connty Agricnltural ftnd 
Horticultural Society by Dr. C. A. Oreene, 



laws of chemistry never change. Tlie laws of 
formation of vegetable matter also never 
changes. Corn to-day requires the same con- 
stituents in the soil for its development that 
it did two hundred years ago, and if you do 
not provide the suitable requirements you 
cannot raise good corn. The best baker in 
the world is the scientific one, that is tlie one 
who makes his dough up after certain well- 
known laws, and the best baker in the world 
may try to make good bread from stale poor 
flour, and he will always try in vain. The 
word science is very greatly disliked by some 
farmers, but they are disliking their best 
friend ; they are ignorant of its true meaning, 
and all through their lives every good result 
they obtain is only a scientific fact. Science 
is a bundle of experiences tied together. The 
farmer who writes down in an almanac or in 
a book the good results of certain experi- 
ments he has made, is collecting scientific 
items. The most successful raiser of crops 
has in some way become the most scientific. He 
has separated the wheat from the chaff of life; 
and all the successful facts he picks up in a 
long life may be written in a small book that 
can be read and learned by another farmer in a 
few weeks. 

Let me give another illustration premised 
by a fact : One of the immutable laws of the 
inscrutable controller of this world is that in 
the vegetable and animal kingdoms there 
shall be no rest; growth and decay, formation 
and disintegration are ever going on, now to- 
morrow and forever, and the most intelligent 
farmer is the one who shall find out the 
simplest and cheapest manner of replenishing 
or restoring that portion of the soil abstracted 
by the vegetable growth^ou his farm : now 
for the information. Supposing a certain 
portion of your land is very claj'ey and 
another part very sandy, by a union of the 
two you can produce, witli other additions, an 
elegant loam. The seeds that have died in 
the clay would have sprouted and born good 
results in the mixture. This union of Uie 
two soils is a scientific fact that somebody 
had to first learn from experience. There is 
not a farmer's tool to-day in America but 
what is an improvement on the first tools 
made; this is the result of science. Compare 
the wooden plough of the Africans with the 
best varieties of to day; the scythe of our 
Pilgrim fathers with the mowing ma- 
cliines of to-day, the stage coach with 
the railroad; the letter carrier of George 
■Washington with] the Atlantic telegraph 
cable of to-day, and in a few years, if 
alive, I shall write an appendix to this article, 
and say the farmer of 1880 with the farmer of 
1900. Then testing fifty fertilizers to find the 
one required on his farm, while to-day (year 
1900) he selects from among the list the re- 
quired ones after analyzing his soils. The 
changes effected are the result of scientific 
experiments, and this knowledge is carried 
all over our land by the thousand and one 
papers and magazines. Papers like The 
Lancaster Faejier and JiuIiVr Agricul- 
turalist are doing much to perfect farming. 
In 1704 only one newspaper was published in 
the United States ; now almost every hamlet 
and town of America is supplied with its 
newspaper. One of the great misfortunes of 
to-day is that these scientific facts are so 
widely spread about in so many books, organs, 
magazines and papers ; they should be col- 
lected together in a series of agricultural 
books, easily read and understood, and printed 
at such costs that all fiirmers could purchase 
them. 

Another illustration : In land full of lime, 
the addition of more lime would destroy the 
formative principle ; an excess of any chemi- 
cal in the soil will act prejudicial to vegetable 
growths, the results will be sotnetimes ex- 
cessive, worthless or fungus excrescences. 
Pure urine thrown on plants will kill them ; 
mixed in water or loam and added, in many 
cases, it will rapidly increase the formation of 
good sap. Ben Franklin, in his almanac 
called Pooi- Richard, says, "Constantly tak- 
ing out of the meal bag, and never putting in. 



will soon come to the bottom." So growing 
corn or wheat on the best soils will, after a 
time, take out the necessary] chemicals, and 
the crops will cease growing. 

Contributions. 



DUNGHEAP LIQUOR. 

Every now\and then new ideas are advanc- 
ed ,_that completely upset our own precon- 
ceived ideas of the subject, or make us modify 
them in a greater or less degree. A case in 
point is to beifound in the March number of 
the Farmer where part of an article under 
the heading of "Rotten Manure" is copied 
from the Germantown Telegraph. 

The gist of the article is this : 

At a meeting of farmers and fruit growers 
one of them advanced the idea'^lhat manure 
was not injured by having the black ^water 
run off. 

I doubt if many will be found to agree with 
the speaker, for it has been a standiiig injunc- 
tion that manure should be covered so as to 
prevent leaching, or if not covered that the 
yard should be so formed as to hold this same 
black water. 

According to some tables at hand the com- 
position of "dungheap liquor" is given as U 
pounds nitrogen, 5 pounds potash and a few 
ounces of phosphoric acid in every 1000 
pounds of the liquor. This would be about 
f pound nitrogen and 2^ pounds potash for 
each large barrel, the size of such as coal oil 
and molasses is now received in. As only the 
mdre soluble parts of the manure woiild be 
washed out, and these more soluble parts are 
more valuable because of their quicker ac- 
tion, it follows that a barrel of the liquorl 
would be worth something like 40 cents. Itf 
is scarcely to be supposed that the speakerl 
would claim that a heap of manure would bel 
just as valuable after a number of barrels of ] 
this liquor had' leached away. The leaching 
of course implies time, and in such time the 
manure becomes more thoroughly rotted and 
of smaller compass, and as such a load of it 
would be worth more than before leaching, 
but there would not be so many loads as be- 
fore. If manure was to be purchased by the 
load there would be no objection to some 
leaching, as then it would be more thoroughly 
rotted and be less bulky, if kept in open heaps, 
as is most usual, but if purchased by lump, 
more value would be received without leach- 
ins, but the extra amount of handling re- 
quired would perhaps counterbalance the ad-j 
ditional value. 

Using Absorbents. 

It has been the custom to recommend the! 
employment of dry earth or other absorbent,! 
to be used in preserving the manure of poultry] 
fqr the purpose of preventing the escape of I 
ammonia. Dry earth has also been used| 
more or less in stables and in earth closets. 
Yet a few years ago Col. "Waring had an ar- 
ticle in the American Agriculturist, in which! 
it was stated that dry earth that had beenj 
re-used a number of times did not show any] 
apprecialjle gain iu the amount of ammonia ] 
contained, and that in the opinion of the| 
writer the admission of air through the me- 
dium of the dry earth decomposed the ammo- 
nia that may have been added from time to] 
time. 

It is important to know the real truth ofl 
the case, and the editor of the AgriculturistX 
informs us that observations were being madej 
in order to determine as to the correctness ofl 
Col. Waring's deductions ; the editor also! 
thought that chamber slops that would bej 
poured into a barrel containing earth would! 
not be likely to lose ainmonia, because the| 
earth would be kept moist by the slops. No- 
thing has yet been published as to the con- 
clusions arrived at, and it is prebably one of 
those problems that take time to solve in 
satisfactory manner. 

Dr. Sturtevant, of the Scientific Farmer, isi 
of the opinion that dry earth is useful, andl 
that Col. Waring did not sufficiently take! 



1880. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



53 



■ into considei-ation the greut bulk of dry earth 
in compiirisou with that of tho fa'ces, aiid 
that "bo far as our facts apply, we must be- 
lieve that wliatever fertility night-soil adds to 
the earth of the earth closet is to be fouud in 
the earth closet manure, if not dried by too 
Iiigli artilicial heat." 

The addition of the earth to manure has at 
Icasi the merit of preventing overheating 
from excessive fermentation, and there is 
very little doubt but as much ammonia is 
prevented from escaping by keeiiing tho 
inanmx' moderately cool as may be lost from 
decomposition through the eartli, and the 
hitter fact has yet to be proven to be true. 

Experiments with Fertilizers. 

Since writing the article for the March 
number .of Tiik Fakmeu, the American 
Aijricu'UurisI has come to hand, and contains 
tables of the results of experiments with fer- 
tilizers. It may be well to state that two 
years ago the journal mentioned above was 
the means of getting sets of fertilizers put up 
for purely experimental purposes, and the 
tables referred to are the results of such ex- 
periments as were reported. 

If the increase in production, at regular 
market prices, does not more than pay for tlie 
fertilizers and the extra amount of labor re- 
sulting, thei'e is, of course, no profit in the 
application, and no incentive to strive for 
increased production. In making the follow- 
ing remarks on the experiments referred to 
above, we have been guided by this idea, and 
made corn lifty cents per bushel, and potatoes 
forty cents. 

In fifty-three experiments with corn, nitro- 
gen, derived from nitrate of soda, paid in 
eight cases only ; on potatoes in four cases 
only out of nineteen. 

In the experiments with phosphoric acid, 
derived from dissolved bone-black, corn paid 
in only twenty-one cases out of lifty-three, 
and potatoes in twelve cases out of nineteen. 
This is a poor showing for corn, as super- 
pho.sphate is generally accounted as one of 
the most reliable fertilizers for this crop. 

In potash, derived from muriate of pot- 
ash, corn in only twenty cases out of fifty- 
three, and potatoes in only eleven cases out 
of nineteen. This showing is quite disap- 
pointing, as potash has been claimed as 
the dominant element required by pota- 
toes. 

In fifty-two experiments reported in which 
nilroycH and piliaspiioric acid were supplied, 
corn paid paid in fourteen cases onlj'; the 
cost of the nitrogen has been such a drag on 
corn in these experiments that it reduced the 
number of cases in which phosphoric acid 
alone was used by fully one-third. Potatoes 
paid in eleven cases out of eighteen reported; 
the increase from the application of phos- 
phoric acid was decided enough to more than 
balance the dead weight of cost for nitrogen. 

With nitrogen and potash corn \md in only 
eight cases out of thirty-seven reported, po- 
tatoes in six cases out of twelve. 

Witli phoaplioric acid and patash corn paid 
in only twenty cases out of fifty-three, hut 
potatoes paid in fifteen out of the eigliteen 
cases reported. 

In the complete fertilizer, .supplying liitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid and pota.sh, cornjpaid in 
only thirteen cases out of fifty-three, potatoes 
in seventeen out of nineteen. 

From the last two paragraphs it would 
seem that any good fertilizer containing 
phosphoric acid and potash, if sold at a fair 
price, will be tolerably sure to pay when ap- 
plied to potatoc land. As nitrogen has been 
only a drag on this crop, i)hosphoric acid de- 
rived from dissolved phosphate rock would 
do as well as any, and is cheaper than that 
from fresh bones. 

Finally the whole series of experiments has 
confirmed me in what I have before insisted 
on, that at present relative prices of produce 
and fertilizers, there are but few crops that 
will pay to use them, the exceptions at pres- 
ent being truck, tobacco and potatoes. — 
A. B. K. 



Selections. 



PRACTICAL HINTS FOR APRIL. 

Barky.— A fine condition of the .soil is in- 
dispensable for this crop. Old barley growers 
know all about this, but many want to grow 
Ijarley because it is a profitable crop when suc- 
cessful. It will succeed in any good, well 
prepared soil, but a mellow clay loam which 
can be brought to good tilth is to be i)referred. 
But gin)d crops of bright grain may be grown 
on lighter loams if in good heart. It may be 
made an excellent soiling crop to follow 
clover, and as a change fi'om oats. We prefer 
to sow thickly, say 24 bushels per acre, but 
opinions vary in this respect, and from lA to 
2_i bushels is the range. 

Oats. — Early sown oats in our hot climate 
are, as a rule, better than the late sown. Our 
climate is not so favorable for oats as the 
cooler northern and northeastern ones. There 
oats are heavy and plump, and .seed from 
Canada, Xova Scotia and New Brunswick 
will produce well for two or three years. By 
using seed from these northern localities, oats 
may be grown in the Middle .States weighing 
from 35 to 45 fts. per bushel. 

Corn. — This is one of those crops which re- 
quire a warm soil and which suffer from a 
late frost. But the ground may be i)repared 
in .season to help on the planting afterwards. 
As good a cr(jp may be grown on stubble as 
on sod if the right method is followed ; and 
this is simi)ly to give sulHeient manure and 
thorough cultivation. 100 bushels per acre 
may be produced, and this means double or 
treble pay for the same labor. Far larger 
crops tlian this have been grown, and of late 
years, thanks to the general diffusion of 
scientific knowledge through the best of the 
agricultural journals, the average yield of 
this grain has been doubled. A yield of 75 or 
80 bushels is now secured where ;!0 or 40 
bu.sliels used to satisfy farmers. The use of 
fertilizers and good methods of cultivation 
have effected this ; but the same means may 
be made available for even larger yields, and 
one should never stay satisfied with a large 
crop, but try for still greater ones. The time 
of planting of course varies with the latitude, 
and these remarks apply when corn-planting 
is in season. 

Cows. — Garget and abortion tremble the 
dairymen. We believe in prevention. The 
former may surely be prevented by due care. 
As soon as the udder contains milk, it should 
be relieved by drawing off a part of it, if there 
is any tendency to hardness. The.se diseases 
are often a consequence of weakness. A fat 
animal may be weak for want of food. When 
a cow's time approaches and the feed is sud- 
denly reduced, disturbance of the system is 
caused. Circulation becomes irregular, and 
congestion occurs in the most susceptible 
organs. The udder is the principal one of 
these at this period, and an attack of garget 
is very sure to occur. This may not always 
be so, but long experience and observation 
convinces us that it generally is. The remedy 
is obvious. 

Swine. — Corn is high, but so is freight, and 
as 800 lbs. of corn may be carried in a pork 
barrel, it is a question if it will not pay to 
feed .50 cent corn to 4 cent pigs. Every 
bushel of corn fed relieves the market of a 
surplus, and makes the remainder more 
salable. This is to be considered. Also the 
fact that there is a kind of pig that may be 
fed the most profitably and that one kiiid is 
the one to discover and choose. Hereafter 
farmers will save their profits in all jiroba- 
bility, just as is done in other manufacturing 
business. Animals are living farm machines. 

Orchard and Nursery. 

Whoever sets out an orchard of course does 
it with the expectation of a return in fruit. 
No one plants corn or potatoes without first 
considering if the land will give him a crop ; 
if the soil is not in the proper condition he 
knows that he must make it so, or lose his 
seed and his labor. Much less than corn and 



potatoes can fruit trees make a crop on no- 
thing. The trees will struggle along, do the 
best they can, but such orchards do not pay, 
and "run out" early. Uidess the land is 
sulliciently fertile for an ordinary farm crop, 
it should be made so ; no soil too wet for such 
crops will answer for fruit trees, which, to 
succeed, need well draineil land. The plow- 
ing should lie as deep as the character of the 
soil will allow, and the sub-soil plow maj 
generally follow the other with benefit. 

The Trees. — It is assumed that trees were 
ordered some time ago ; they should be at 
baud ready for planting. It is the custom at 
nur.series to take up and heel-in a large stock 
of the kinds of trees most called for, this re- 
tards the growth, and allows them to fill late 
orders. If there is a nursery near at hand it 
will pay to make a bargain, if possible, to 
lielp dig the trees yourself, and thus .secure a 
larger sliare of the roots that belong to them. 
If trees, in a long journey, become dry and 
shriveled, bury them, root and branch, in 
mellow earth for a few days, when they be- 
come plump again. In unpacking the trees, 
look to the labels, as some may become de- 
tached and would otherwise be lost. 

Preparimj the Trees. — Everybody wishes to 
get all he can for the money, and the nursery- 
men send much larger tops to the trees than 
the pruned roots in their new positions can 
support. It is safe to shorten the branches 
OMe-fhird or one-half, but it should be done 
with judgment and reference to the condition 
of the roots. At the same time pare smooth 
any broken or mangled roots. 

Planting. — In setting a tree take time to do 
it properly ; spread the roots evenly and to 
their full length, and so work in the soil 
among them that there will be no hollow 
places. Water may be used to^carry the soil 
among the roots — not dashed in by the pail- 
ful, but showered from a watering-pot. Do 
not stamp the soil down around the roots, but 
firm it carefullly with the foot. The tree 
should be set no deeper than it stood in the 
nursery. 

CVops.^ — The soil of a young orchard may 
be kept in cultivation until the trees begin to 
bear ; grain should never be grown, except 
Indian corn, but potatoes and root-crops are 
the best. 

Insects. — Destroy the eggs of the Tent Cater- 
pillar, which are to be found in small closely 
fitting rings or bands near the ends of the 
smaller twigs, and may be cut away. Many 
insects harbor beneath the loose bark of trees, 
and by scraping this off and washing the 
trunk and limbs with a solution of soft soap, 
much good may be done. To prevent the 
ascent of the wingless females of the Canker 
Worm, \ise heavy brown paper bound closely 
around the tree's trunk, and then smear with 
clieap printer's ink or tar. The bands will 
have to bo re-coated at frequent intervals 
through the season. 

Fruit Garden. 

Currants and Oooseberries. — Prune at once 
any that have been omittted; abundant ma- 
nuring and mulching will increase the size of 
the'cropand Ihefruit. So soon as the leaves are 
of much size the "worms" may be expected. 
Examine the under surface of the lower leaves 
for the eggs, and destroy all that are found. 
When holes are seen in the leaves apply 
White Hellebore, either sprinkled dry or 
mixed in water, a tablcspoonful or so to a 
pailful of water. It is better to first scald the 
Hellebore with a little boiling water tefore 
adding it to the pail containing the cold water. 
Keep stirred. 

Asparagus. — The old ideas about the elabo- 
rate preparation for an asjjaragus bed are out 
of date; it is as easy to make a bed for aspar- 
agus as almost any other plant, and nothing 
pays any better for the little trouble. Set the 
new beds so soon as the plants can be had, 
giving it a generous manuring, and putting 
the crowns about four Indies below the sur- 
face. Hows two feet apart, with a foot 
between the plants, is a good distance for the 
family garden, but if room can be spared the 



54 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April 



distance may be increased. Let the plants 
grow until the third year before cutting. 
The coarse litter should be raked from the 
old bed, to make it smooth and clean, before 
the stems begin to come through the ground. 

Early Potatoes should be put into the 
ground at the earliest possible date. When 
started in boxes they may be greatly hastened; 
in planting take care tliat the tender sprouts 
are not broken off. The soil should be light 
and warm for early potatoes. 

Flower Gardens and Lawns. 

Lawns. — Nothing is more pleasing tlian an 
expanse of smooth, rich, green, nicely kept 
grass. The lawn should be one of the features 
of every pleasure ground, no matter how lim- 
ited in extent, and in laying out the walks 
and drives they should not divide the lawn 
more than can be helped. In making a lawn 
the soil should be first thoroughly manured 
after which, tor heavy soils, Kentucky Blue 
Grass seed should be sown in abundance; for 
light soils Ked-Top is the best. It is well to 
sow the seed in two or more directions, thus 
securing a more even distribution, and there- 
fore a better turf. — American Agriculturist. 



HAVE YOU A STRAWBERRY BED ? 

This question is put to every reader who 
has the land, and especially to every farmer, 
who, having the land, is very apt to not have 
strawberries. Without taking space to in- 
quire wbj' the farmer, who of all others should 
have an abundance, so generally has no .straw- 
berries, we put in our plea for hi.s family, and 
insist tliat he shall provide them with tliis ex- 
cellent fruit — not only a few as a luxury, but 
an abundance. There is just one time to 
make a strawberry bed, and that time is now! 
Under any circumstances a strawberry plant 
must grow a season before it will give a crop; 
there is no way in which plants may be set 
this spring and give fruit the same season. If 
any "nursery agent" offers such — don't buy 
them. Much that has been said about straw- 
berry culture has conveyed the impression 
that it is a great deal of trouble; that runners 
have to be cut off and much care given other- 
wise, while in fact it is no more trouble to 
raise strawberries, than it is to grow carrots. 
But the cost ? Is very little — nothing com- 
pared with the result in fruit. One can begin 
as small as he pleases; if he cannot afford the 
outlay for a large bed, let him buy enough 
for a start and raise his own plants. It makes 
no difference where the farmer may be, if he 
gets the Ainerican Agricult^irixt, he can have 
strawberry i.ilants — the mail brings both. A 
dozen, or a hundred plants come by mail, and 
when one has even but a dozen "plants, his 
strawberry future is i)rovidcd for. "It is the 
first step which costs" is a proverb. In this 
case "it is the first step which tells." While 
we have in view especially the family comfort, 
it may be well to consider that in most local- 
ities enougli berries can be sold from the first 
crop to pay for the whole outlay— only don't 
sell and let the family go without, but have 
enough for both demands. 

"'Hotu many shall I plant ?" will be one of 
the first questions to decide. An ordinary 
family should have at least 200 plants, and 
generally 400 will not be found too many if 
the fruit is used freely. It is better to provide 
for an abundance. 

What kinds? — If restricted to one kind, we 
have no hesitation in saying, Charles Down- 
ing. If there ai'e successful strawberry 
growers in the vicinity, find what does best 
with them and plant the same kind. But we 
do not advise planting all of one kind. If 400 
plants are set there may safely be four kinds. 
Charles Downing, ^Monarch of the West, 
Champion, and Sharpless, would be a good 
selection, but it may be varied and not go 
amiss. 

Hmo to plant. — Select a good bit of soil, all 
the better if it was in potatoes last year, and 
if practicable within sight of the house, and 
prepare it just as you would for a good crop 
of cabbages; this means an abundance of the 
best manure well worked in. Mark out the 



rows two feet apart, three if a cultivator is to 
be used, and set the plants one foot apart in 
the row, using a trowel to open the ground, 
and when the plant is put in, crowd the soil 
down firmly over the roots with both hands. 
Thereafter run the cultivator, hoe, or rake, 
often enough to make the soil mellow and 
keep down the weeds. The plants will by and 
by throw out runners; turn them into the 
row and let tliem take root. For the after 
treatment of the bed, consult "Notes about 
Work" at the proper season. 

liaising plants. — If it is preferred to buy a 
few plants to staff with and raise a stock to 
put out next year, set these two feet apart 
each way, and let runners form. Ashes are 
very useful to promote a large growth of run- 
ners. Finally, plant strawberries — and do it 
this spring. — American Aqricultxirist. 

FENCING AND FENCES. 

Since this series of articles on Metal Feuces 
was planned during our summer trip through 
the West, there has been a very rapid and 
great advance in the price of iron and steel. 
In September, 1878, the Standard No. 1 An- 
thracite pig iron was selling at $16(«'17 per 
ton, and in September last it had only risen to 
$22((r23 — that is, to a tritie over one cent per 
pound. The last week in January it sold as 
high as S43 per ton, and to-day (Feb. 6) is 
quoted at $40(o 41 — an advance of fully 90 per 
cent., or nearly double since last September 1. 
This has resulted from the great deinand 
arising from the wonderful revival of business 
that took place as soon as our large crops 
were secured and the generally poor condition 
of crops througlii)ut Europe became fully 
ascertained. This demand enables iron pro- 
ducers to charge their own prices, and they 
are realizing enormous profits. Such a state 
of things may continue for a moderate period, 
but when all the idle furnaces are in opera- 
tion, and the new ones projected are in full 
blast, prices will be likely to fall back to 
figures affording only a fair profit. As a very 
large part of the cost of iron and steel fence 
materials depends upon labor, patent royal- 
ties, etc., the actual cost of metal fencing has 
not advanced correspondingly, and will not 
do so. Yet this rise materially affects, for 
the time being, the progress towards securing 
iron fence posts that can successfully com- 
pete with wood for ordinary farm use. But 
even at the present vaL.e of iron, there arc, 
or soon will be found, iron posts which will be 
more than to use wood posts at a nominal 
price. 

Iron and Wood Posts Compared. 

Suppose we take tlje present cost of iron 
posts at 50 cents each. Several are now 
offered at this rate and under. The tables 
last month (page .51) estimated 100 rods of 
post and board fence at SlOO; and of wire 
fence with wooden posts at $67.2.5. Taking 
similar figures we have 

FOR 100 RODS OF FENCES! 

( Galvanized Stetl Wire or Strnp, 4 Strands Hi'ih. i 

WOOD POSTS. 

400 Rods Wire, at lie. $44.00 
100 Hoot; Posts, at 12XC. 12.S0 

400Suiples 78 

Labor about 16.00 

Total $101.50 

Total $T2.25 

Two men with a single horse and wagon 
should distribute the material, drive the iron 
iwsts'and put up 100 rods of wire in two days, 
at a cost of .S7..50. This gives a cost for iron 
posts over wood of 30 cents per rod (less than 
2 cents per foot.) But for the increased out- 
lay to start witli, we have a permanent fence, 
one occupying the smallest possible amount 
of ground, one scarcely needing any repairs 
for half a century, and one indestructible by 
fire. We are quite sanguine however, that 
with the present interest and the great activ- 
ity of inventive minds, we shall very soon 
learn of some form of iron post that will be 
botli effective and cheap, at a cost considera- 
ably below .50 cents each. 

Non-Destructible, Non-Combustible Wooden 
Posts. 

We are glad to learn that hopeful experi- 



IIKJN POSTS, 

400 Bods Wire, at lie. ..$44 00 
100 /;o>! rosts. at mc... 50.00 
Labor about T.oO 



ments are now being made towards producing 
a wood fence post that shall be both non- 
combustible by any ordinary fire, and prac- 
tically non-destructible by the weather or 
ordinary decay, and at an increased expense 
of only a few cents per post. The informa- 
tion is private and confidential as yet, and we 
can not judge as to the probable success, but 
we do not see why, with the Kyanizing piw- 
cess long successfully practised, and with the 
new application of asbestos there should not 
be valuable results in the direction indicated. 
Perhaps b)' applying such improvements to 
the cheaper, more abundant varieties of wood, 
we may get such prepared posts at about the 
present cost of those made from cedar, 
chestnut, and like comparatively durable 
timber. 

An Important Point in Favor of Wire Fences 
is referred to by several of our readers, which, 
summarized in nearly the language of one of 
them, runs thus : " I raise winter grain 
mainly, and my fields are subject to snow- 
drifts. Formerly I usually lost a pretty wide 
sti'ip of wheat along the wooden fences, owing 
to the heavy snow-drifts remaining so long on 
a strip two to five rods wide on ai; least two 
sides of the field. I have now four ten-acre 
fields fenced with barbed wire and small 
cedar posts. These do not check the wind so 
as to produce snow-drifts, and I save wheat 
enough to pay the cost of the wire in every 
two or three crops, while the feno will out- 
last half a dozen rail fences, I think. Two of 
these fields adjoin pasture fields, and on the 
sides next these pastures I have spiked slim 
long poles upon the posts four feet from the 
ground. These do not stop snow, but warn 
olf animals, and so far I have had no acci- 
dents." 

Another correspondent writes that his fruit 
trees were often girdled by mice that found 
good winter quarters in the snow-drifts along 
his old wooden fences. Two years ago last 
summer he substituted wire fences, partly 
barbed and partlj' plain wire, and has had no 
snow-drifts and no trouble from mice, by 
taking the precaution to remove or trample 
hard any considerable bodies of snow that 
gathered around the trees ; and further, that 
since the removal of the wood fences the mice 
have had no breeding places, and they have 
mainly disappeared, so that this winter he 
will not take any trouble with the snow 
around the trees. 

Specific Loss and Gain. 

A subscriber in Central New York, states 
figures thus: " In autumn of 1878, I .sowed 
winter wheat in a field with a high rail fence 
on one side, 70 rods long. The snow-drift 
killed a strip full 4 rods wide, or 280 rods — 
just IJ acres. The rest of the field averaged 
24 bushels per acre, and I sold my wheat at 
$1.45 per bushel. The 42 bushels lost by the 
snow, were worth .$60.90. Here was a" loss 
on one crop of enough to have built a new 
wire fence, with iron posts, along the whole 
70 rods — a fence that would be permanent for 
a life-time, and need no repairs." 

Another writes from Wisconsin: "I have 
fields fenced with wood, and others with 
wire. My observation is, that the latter can 
on the average be worked at least a week 
earlier in spring ; the former is wet and cold 
on the borders, long after the rest, owing to 
the snow which has been cau.sed to lie in 
drifts by the wood fence. The wire fence 
does not produce iierceptible snow-drifts." 

Mr. R. C. Mc Williams, an old subscriber of 
the American Agriculturist in Northumber- 
land county, Pa., personally gives us items 
from his experience with barbed wire fence. 
He has not discarded its use, and does not 
absolutely condemn it ; liopes the embank- 
ment described last month (page .52), or some 
other device, will render it less dangerous. 
He had a valuable cow that had one leg cut 
down to the bone, "nearly half off," and the 
flesh badly torn by the fence barbs. She was 
a long time in a dangerous condition. A 
$200 horse had both legs cut, and a wound on 
the side, He had paid f 18 for a veterinary 



vMO.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 



surgeon's attendance, had tlie horse laid up 
three months, and it was not well yut. He 
Uiought the vreseTit value of the horse might 
1 '(• $50 for orilinary work when fully recovered, 
I iioiiKh lie could only get an offer of S.'iO. Ili.s 
fulher-in-Uiw, Dr. "Jucoh l!cit;ard, of 0^'le 
county, llliiiciis, has a half mile of harbed 
fence, and tliounh not entirely satisfied with 
it, does not condemn it. 

IT. L. Haven, of Travis county, Texas, 
writes us: "As to the injury of livestock, 
which seems to be tlie great obj('ction to 
barbed wire here, my own experience is that 
the danger is not of great extent. I liave 
had no serions accideuls. Only one horse 
has scratched itself, though I have i)ut into 
the pasture horses that liad never s en a wire 
fence. But it is best to be careful and not 
crowd ahiinals towards these barbed wires 
until they learn where tliey are. Barbed wire 
will be a great boon to Texas, enabling us to 
put into cultivation large tracts of land that 
woultl have lain idle without it.'"— Anicrinm 
AtjricnUurial. 

PLEURO-PNEUMONIA. 

At a stated meeting of the Philadelphia 
Society for the Promotion of Agricul- 
ture, Dr. J. W. Gadsden read a paper 
on " Pleuro-pneumonia and its Suppression.'" 
It is stated that the disease is better known 
as; '-The Lung Plague of Cattle." It is a 
malignant fever introduced into the system 
of a healthy animal by contagion. It is a 
sjiecilic disease, different from all other dis- 
eases of man or l)east, not influenced by ex- 
posure to inclement weather, bad ventilation, 
changes of tenii)erature, &c., which might 
cause ordinary iutlaramation of the lungs. It 
is tlie most destructive of all cattle disea.se 
becau.se it is tlie most insidious. It has a 
period of incubation which is variable and 
there is often an interval of from one to two 
months from tlie reception of the contagion 
to the first general symptom of the disease. 
The usual time, however, that it remains 
latent in the system appears to be from ten 
days to two months. In many cases this 
disease creeps im very slowly, the only symp- 
tom being a slight cough but of a peculiar 
character. 

Dr. Gadsden maintained that this disease 
never originated in this country, but spreads 
asthe result of contagion ; therefore it can be 
prevented. In winter, wlieii tlie cattle are 
confined to the stables, and but little commu- 
nication with other herds takes jilace, this 
malady diminishes in severity. Virginia 
supplies a large number of the cattle sold at 
the Baltimore cattle markets. Up to No- 
vemljer 1st the special of the governor quaran- 
tined 27 herds, which included 408 animals. 

Dr. Gadsden examined cattle with this 
di.sease in the .States of Kew York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, and has no hesitation in 
declaring the disease there prevailing to be 
the same which occasioned such losses in 
England. It is quite time our people had 
awakened to the importance of this subject, 
for Canada is now endeavoring to secure the 
cattle trade of the country. In Philadelphia 
alone the Philadeljihia Steanishi]) Company 
had made arrangements last spring to ship 
700 head of live cattle per week in England, 
but the entire trade is now stopped by reason 
of the embargo. 

The (piestion is how can we get rid of this 
disease V Cert;iinly not by the pennywise 
and pound-foolish method of cheai> inspectors. 
Cheap terms with the nnfortunate owners of 
diseased cattle, promising them S5 a piece 
when they could get $'20 by selling them to a 
dealer, and allowing the cattle markets, rail- 
way stations and ferries bringing cattle from 
other States to be unguarded. Baltimore has 
been sending us about 400 per week, and it is 
estimated there are from one hundred to one 
hundred and fifty diseased cattle in its 
vicinity. Maryland has no law to prevent 
the sale of such animals. 

The oHicial report on plenro-pneumouia 
among cattle in the State of New Jersey 
states that from recent investigation made it 



is evident that the disease was being intro- 
duced from Penn.sylvania. Four months' in- 
spection have discovered sixteen lots of dis- 
eased cattle, containing 217 hea<l, 40 of which 
were found infectedvvith contagious pleuro- 
pneumonia, and, with the rest, sent back to 
Philadeli.hia. 

JSIr. Tliomaa J. Edge, Secretary of the 
Pennsylvania Boaril of Agriculture, staled he 
had an interview with the governor relative 
to the diseased herd at Elm station, on the 
Pennsylvania Uailroad. The governor ex- 
pressed a desire to co-operate iu anything 
done according to law. Although the law 
permits the killing of diseased cattle, there is 
nothing to permit the killing of cattle not 
diseased. In one herd in Lehigh county ten 
animals were found diseased. The governor 
proposed the animals should be paid for at 
the time of killing. The only way in which 
the disease could lie got rid of was to take 
possession of the herd and treat them as if 
they belonged to the State. Lven then that 
might not prevent the disease, as the diseased 
cattle are constantly arriving from Baltimore. 
There are scattered all over the State some 
300 or 400 ofiicial reporters, wliose duty it is 
to report all cases of diseased cattle. The 
average price paid for the slaughtered cattle 
is $10^71. Since March 27, 1-2.S animals have 
been killed, and the price paid was •If 1,162. 50. 



SUGAR— A GREAT PROBLEM SOLVED. 

A writer, who subscribes himself "W." 
and dates his letter Washington, March 6, 
says in the New York Herald: 

From a visit to the agricultural building, 
this day, the writer returned with the con- 
viction tlial surely within the next ten years, 
and probably within the next five years, the 
production of sugar within the limits of the 
United States will supply the demands of our 
50,000,000 of people, and that in this produc- 
tion not only will there be a gain annually to 
the wealth of the country ecpial to .f200,000,-, 
000, but even our Northern border states will 
become self-supporting. In other words, 
from recent discoveries made and new pro- 
cesses applied in the production of sugar from 
the raw material, our sugar producing belt, 
from the superior profits of the culture, will 
within a few years embrace all our territory 
in which sorghum or Indian corn will come 
to maturity. 

Colonel Itobert C. Murphy, formerly United 
States consul general in China, but now en- 
gaged here in the agricultural department, 
called the writer's attention to this important 
subject; first in a reference to the facts jire- 
seiited iu the interesting agricultural report 
for 1877 of Commissioner Le Due, and next 
in an introduction to Professor Collyer, the 
chemist of the department, the general results 
of wliose experiments in the production and 
crystallization of sugar may be ranked in 
importance with the invention of the cotton 
gin. 

It appears from the commissioner's report 
that the .several attempts to make sugar 
from beets iu this country having been aban- 
doned as profitless, and "in the attempts of 
twenty years to make a merchantable sugar 
from sorghum having failed down to the new 
processes of 1877, it had become a settled 
opinion that only from the tropical cane and 
the sugar maple tree could sugar be in-ofitably 
made in the United States. But the maple 
sugar is an inferior article. Our product, 
some twenty-eight million pounds in 1800, is 
but a smallitem in the general consumption; 
and the limited belts of maple groves along 
our northern border, by the axe and by fire, 
are fast disappearing. The sugar production 
frcun the tropical cane in this country is con- 
fined to a narrow belt bordering the gulf of 
Mexico. The total production of this striii 
last year was about 25,000,000 piuinds, while 
our importations from abroad were 1,741,0.50,- 
000 pounds of sugar, besides molasses, nielado 
and other forms of sucrose, being about 
300,000,000 pounds increase over the imports 
of the preceding pear. 

It is estimated that the annual consumption 



of sugar in the United States does not exceed 
forty iiouuds pcrcai)ita, wliile iu England the 
Consumption is sixty pounds per person. It 
may be .safely assumed, therefore, that with 
an abundaul sui>ply of a cheap, pure and 
wholesome home grown sugar our consump- 
tion would soon increase to sixty, and per- 
haps eighty jiounds per capita. At sixty 
pounds, the English average (the French 
much higlier,) our fifty millions of people 
would consume three tliousand million pounds 
of sugar, which at .seven cents per giouud 
W(uild be ('(pial to 8210,000,000. But the 
Crystal I/ake sorghum sugars of Weidner & 
Co., of Chicago, sold la.st year at ten cents 
per pound, and at this figure our farmers have 
now in sorghum and Indian corn the canes 
from which thev may add annually fully 
ff200.000,000 to the wefilth of the ouu'lry. 

Two years ago this great desideratum was 
held to be so far beyond our reach as to be 
utterly unattainable. Now. with the im- 
proved and chea]) machinery and chemical 
jiroccsses employed, the profitable production 
of sugar from sorghum— and a suiierior mer- 
cantile sugar, too— is placed within the reach 
of every f^armer on whose lands .sorghum or 
Indian corn will grow. Some twenty-three 
years ago the attention of fhe farmers of the 
country. North and South, began to lie ac- 
tively drawn to the growth of sorghum, and 
several "varieties — African, European and 
Central American — were widely distributed 
and cultivated. During the war for tlie 
Union so general had the cidtivation of this 
cane become throughout the South that from 
Virginia to Texas the people of the Confed- 
erate States for their "sweetening" were 
reduced almost wholly to sorghum syrup or 
molas.se8, all attempts to crystallize it having 
proved futile; hence, since the war, the gen- 
eral decline in the sorghum culture North 
and South until the last year, from which we 
may date the rising of a "big boom" for sor- 
ghnm, which will push forward our home 
production of sugar until it is numbered 
among our exports to England. 

Without troubling you with the tables of 
figures, the results of the numerous chemical 
experiments made at the agricultural depart- 
ment in the crystallization of the juices re- 
spectively of the Louisiana ribbon sugarcane, 
a half a do/.(;n varieties of sorghum, and sev- 
eral kinds of Indian field corn, it is sulhcient 
here to say that from these experiments tlie 
general results include the following : 

From the juice of the Louisiana ribbon 
sugar cane (the choicest variety) the highest 
lierceutage obtained was : 

Per Cent. 

Sucioec (or true cane sa^ar) - - - IG .50 

From the early arabcr sorshum - - - 17 00 

From the Chinese sorghum - . . 13 90 

From tlie white Lilierian - - - - 1.5 2(5 

From the Hoii'luras 16 10 

From the pearl millet - - - - - 11 30 

And from the samples on exhibition all 
these sorghum sugars are of excellent quality. 
The general conclusion, from the numerous 
chemical examinations made, is that there 
exists but little ditlereuce between the various 
kinds of sorghum as sugar producing plants, 
and that the juice of each of them is, in its 
full development, nearly as rich in sugar as 
the best tropical cane produced in this coun- 
try. Professor Collyer says that from an acre 
of the Honduras sorghum he has obtained 
two tons of sugar, and from three other vari- 
eties, one ton of sugar each. The larger yield 
from the Honduras plant is mainly attributa- 
ble to the stage of devcloiimcnt at which the 
stalks were gathered for the grinding. Now, 
bearing in mind the fact that sugar and syrup 
have been made from sorghum by the carload 
the past sea.son, wliich commanded the high- 
est market price, and that the ca.sh value per 
acre above all the costs of its production, is 
such as to make it a more profitable crop than 
wheat, Indian corn, tobacco or cotton, it can- 
not be doubted that, with the diffusion of this 
information, the cultivation of a field or two 
of sorghum for its sugar will be generally 
adopted by the farmers of the country; first. 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



as an experiment, and next, on a larger scale, 
as a regular crop from year to year. 

But the most remarkable results from these 
experiments in sugar making obtained by 
Professor Collyer were from Indian corn. 
From an acre of land planted last year with a 
common white field corn, known as the horse 
tooth, from tlic shape of its kernel, he gath- 
ered the ears when fully ripe, and their yield 
of shelled corn was sixty-nine and one-tenth 
bushels— more than double the average crop 
per acre of the country at large. Next, 
stripping and grinding the stalks and work- 
ing up their juice by the new processes, he 
extracted from it 960 pounds, or nearly half a 
ton of sugar of a good quality. Here, then, 
from the stalks — thrown out by our farmers 
into the refuse of the barn yard as fit only to 
be reduced to manure — a more profitable 
crop has been obtained than the corn. Nor 
is this all. The pulverized stalks, after the 
extraction of the saccharine juice (to the 
extent now practicable, sixty per cent,) have 
proved nutritious food for cattle, from their 
elements of starch and nitrogen retained. 
Applying this extract of sugar to the Indian 
corn crop of the United States — that is, to 
the rejected cornstalks — they would give us an 
income whicli, within the brief period of ten 
years, would extinguish our national debt. 

Incredible as this fixct may appear it is de- 
ducible from the product of 960 pounds of 
sugar obtained from the stalks of an acre of 
Indian corn, in addition to their yield of 
sixty-nine bushels of good shelled corn. Or 
take it in another form. Putting our Indian 
corn crop at the average of $400,000,000 in 
value, and estimating the sugar in the stalks 
at only half the value of the corn, with the 
production of so vast an amount of sugar we 
have still in these cornstalks gold and silver 
to the amount of $200,000,000— more than 
double the sum of gold and silver extracted 
from all our mines between the British Do- 
minions and Mexico, and equal in value to 
the cotton crop of all our Southern states. 

When the first Napoleon, when France, 
under the blockade of the English navy, was 
cut off from her foreign supplies, offered a 
reward of 10,000f. for a home produced sub- 
stitute for the sugar of the West Indies which 
could be produced equal to the wants of the 
French people, he secured a reward worth in- 
calculably more to France than all her vic- 
tories in the battle field — a reward the value 
of which cannot be reached in the millions of 
money saved to France in her beet root sugar. 
How, then, can we estimate the value of these 
new appliances which render the production 
of sugar from sorghum and cornstalks a more 
profitable industry oil our large Southern 
plantations than cotton, and on our small 
Northern farms yielding a richer return than 
corn, wheat, grass or potatoes ? 

The old Mexican inhabitants of Santa Fe, 
New Mexico, will tell you that from their 
grandfathers they inherited the secret of ex- 
tracting sugar from cornstalks, and that the 
corn fields of their valley for generations gone 
by have supplied tho.se people their bread, 
meat and sugar, to say nothing of the whisky 
— a "Yankee notion." We find, too, that 
our forefathers of the war of independence 
knew something of the saccharine value of 
cornstalks, from the extract of a letter written 
by Abigail Adams to her husband. John 
Adams, dated September 24, 1787, which is 
as follows : 

"An instance may be seen in the progress 
which is made in grinding cornstalks and 
boiling the liquor into molasses. Scarcely a 
town or parish within forty miles of us Ijut 
what has several mills at work; and had the 
experiment been made a month sooner, many 
thousand barrels woidd have been made. No 
less than eighty have been made in the small 
town of Manchester. It answers very well to 
distill, and may be boiled down to sugar. 
There are two mills fitting up in this parish. 
They have three rollers — one with cogs and 
two smooth. The stalks are stripped of the 
leaves and tops, so that it is no robbery upon 
the cattle, and the juice ground out, 'Tis 



said four barrels of juice will make one of 
molasses, but in this people differ widely. 
They have a method of refining it so that it 
looks as well as the best imported molasses." 

Had these beginnings in the way or sub- 
stitutes for foreign sugar been actively and 
perseveringly followed up we can no longer 
doubt that some thousands of millions of dol- 
lars would have been saved to the country, 
which have been spent in importations of 
sugar and molasses. Now, this new industry 
opened to our Southern planters. Northern 
farmers and capitalists, offers such profits 
from a crop of sorghum and cornstalks, and 
from the extraction of their sugar, that our 
home product of all grades, from the coarsest 
browns to the finest whites, will soon turn 
the balance of trade on sugar, and likewise in 
rum and molasses, in our favor. 

The strongest argument in support of the 
scheme of tlie annexation of the island of St. 
Dommgo was the plea that it would render 
us independent of Cuba in the important 
article of sugar. This plea now falls to the 
ground. The new machinery and processes 
employed in the extraction and crystallization 
of the sugar from the sap of sorghum and 
cornstalks are simple and comparatively in- 
expensive. Sorghum sugar, worth ten cents, 
can now be produced, all costs included, at 
less than four cents per pound. The ma- 
chinery and implements employed include 
grinding mills, drying pans and centrifugal 
driers. They are now at Chicago, operated 
by steam, and many persons are preparing to 
follow the profitable example of the Chicago 
firm already referred to, on the score of at 
least a ton of sugar per day. There is room 
in this work for hundreds of small factories 
in the United States, for the nearer the mill 
is to the sorghum and corn fields the cheaper 
will be the carrying of the stalks to the 
grinder. Any further light that may be de- 
sired by the reader on this important subject 
can be obtained at or from the agricultiu-al 
department. The object of this communica- 
tion is simply to herald the advent of a new 
industry among our people; no moriis multi- 
caulis fallacy, but a highly profitable field of 
industry, equal to the gain of $200,000,000 to 
the country, and wide as the zonejof sorghum 
and Indian corn. 



THE QUESTION OF FRUIT CULTURE. 

Since the publication of my article of Feb- 
11, on the subject of fruit culture in Berks 
county, I am glad to see the .subject taken 
hold of by so "practical a farmer as Casper 
Hiller, and brought before our Agricultural 
Society. It has not only awakened the pro- 
gressive and thoughtful farmers, but others 
testifj' that there are as remunerative crops to 
be raised in fruit as tobacco produces. I met 
one of our fiirmers a few days ago, who con- 
firmed what was then written as to the value 
of moisture on fruit, and explained, by a dia- 
gram, the positions of several pear trees set 
out on his farm, and the astonishing differ- 
ence in a few years, "To me," he said, "it 
was inexplicable at the time, but since read- 
ing the article it is all very plain — moisture." 
The Olive. 

I am told the olive will bear only when its 
roots are in close proximity to constant mois- 
ture, or when a system of irrigation is adhered 
to. I have seen shellbark trees, just on tlie 
verge of a stream, the nuts of which would 
drop into the stream, to the annoyance of the 
writer, bear annually, while others a distance 
off, sometimes failed of a crop. 

I do wish Mr. Hiller had gone further in 
the subject and given his opinion, based on 
actual experiment, as to the picking of fruit. 
Picking Fruit. 

My informant told me he allows no inex- 
perienced persons to pick apples, as they are 
likely to destroy the bud prepared for next 
season's crop. There is reason in this, and 
may account for the "off year" in many of 
our kinds of apples. A few bear annually, 
we know, but this does not by any reasoning 
disprove the theory. For if half the buds 



produced apples the same season it would be 
called an extraordinary crop. This is gener- 
all observed on trees which bud prolifically. 
Destruction of Forests. 
Mr. Hiller might have|boldly asserted that to 
the destruction of forests can be attributed 
the failure of fruit crops. Not so much on 
account of the protection against storms, but 
on account of exposing the whole surface of 
the earth during the summer to the scorching 
rays of the sun, and often to the drying winds 
of fall and spring. How many thousand little 
springs bubbling from many hill sides in the 
county are now seen no more ! What citi- 
zen of Manor town.shipor Mountville does not 
remember the large -ponds in Mr. Berger's 
woods, south of Mountville ? They were con- 
stant and never-failing until the forests were 
cut away. Where are they now ? 

A Theory for Failures in Fruit Crops. 

How many thousand trees drew their suffi- 
cient moisture from these constant and never- 
failing reservoirs, no one can tell ! The sur- 
face of our county having a sub-soil of cl5,y, 
impervious to water, who can tell how many 
trees were watered by the thousand si)rings 
which are now no more, as they went mean- 
dering silently between the mould and clay 
strata before bursting forth from their con- 
finement. 

Insects. 

The most destructive insects to fruit can be 
readily destroyed b3' the methods used by Mr. 
Grisemer as related in a former article. If 
plums and such fruit are attacked, the best 
plan yet discovered is to carefully pick up all 
the fruit which drops to the ground before 
ripe, and cast it into the oven. One person 
ought not to do it, but every one who has 
such fruit, and by destroying the larva we rid 
ourselves of the pest. 

Preserving Cider. 

Some people have difliculty in keeping their 
cider sweet and palatable, and most frequently 
when they begin to use it. Mr. Gri.semer 
says : " Let it stand until it has the desired 
taste. Clarify with the white of an egg if 
you want to. Tap off into the barrel you 
wish to keep it in. Pour into the bung olive 
or linseed oil, several tablespoonsful (sufficient 
for a covering), and you can use it any time, 
as the scum or coating produced by the oil 
will prevent the air from changing the taste. 
The oil will not be tasted, as it will not mix 
and not escape until opposite the spigot." 

Fruit vs. Tobacco Growing. 
I sincerely hope our people will begin to 
give the subject of fruit culture more atten- 
tion, and not allow themselves to run wild on 
the subject of tobacco. That they are real- 
izing handsome incomes from the production 
of tobacco is a fact. To produce from one 
hundred to five hundred dollars worth of to- 
bacco on the acre is considered a pretty fair 
compensation for labor ! But suppose your 
orchard of one acre had received so much 
labor as the tobacco, is it not reasonable to 
suppose, j udging from the experience of others , 
that the orchard would have produced 500 
bushels of apples. They were worth more 
than one dollar per bushel. Would it not be 
more pleasant to see a boy eating your lus- 
cious fruit, at a cent apiece, than to see him 
smoking a " two for five," or taking a cliew 
from afive cent plug ? Consider these things. 
I do not intend to discourage its jiroduction ; 
but before we go too far let us reason a little. — 
B. , in New Ih-a. 



RESOURCES OF THE SOUTH. 

The following address was read by Hon. 
Frederick Lauer at a recent meeting of the 
Berks County Agricultural Society : 

To the request of the last monthly meet- 
ing of the Berks County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, to prepare an essay 
giving the result of my recent trip through 
the South, I take great pleasure in respond- 
ing. Agriculture is the foundation of every 
civilized government, and too great impor- 



1880.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



tance, therefore, cannot be given to the sub- 
ject of the cultivation of the soil. Cvilization 
and culture had their origin in the south of 
Asia, in the country oxtonding from the Eu- 
phrates river to the Mediterranean sea, in- 
cluding that lovely agricultural section, 
Palestine. Thence these hand-maidens of 
Progress continued into the countries of 
Europe, spreading their gentle iulhienees 
through Turkey, Greece, Italy, France, Spain 
and Portugal ; also through the north of 
Africa, including Egypt, Algiers, Morocco 
and other countries. Now coining to our 
cotintry, the United States is possessed of all 
advantages which marked tlio.sc countries of 
the old world in which agricidturo and horti- 
culture first spread their civilizing induences. 
For diversity of surface, fertility of soil, and 
attractiveness of climate no country possesses 
greater advantages than the United States, 
and of all the different sections of our beauti- 
ful country, none present better inducements 
to agriculturists tliau that portion along the 
southern xVtlautic coast and the (Julf of 
iSexico. The first discoverer of this conti- 
nent, Christopher Columbus, landed on our 
southern coast, and other adventurers of the 
same period landed among the West India 
Islands, or the coasts of Florida or Georgia. 
The French settled Louisiana, and the Span- 
ish, Florida. The original forts erected by 
the Spaniards at St. Augustine, Fla., three 
hundred years ago, are still in existence. 
These original settlers had no idea or desire 
of going North. They considered the soil 
and climate as satisfactorj', exceeding, in 
fact, their most .sanguine expectations, and 
their reports promulgated throughout the old 
country created a tremendous excitement, 
particularly in England, where religious per- 
secution was in full sway. Sects like the 
Puritans were the victims of continual perse- 
cution, and they left in large bodies for the 
new world. In order that they might strike 
land early they took a northern course. The 
" May Flower " was the first to land at Ply- 
mouth Rock. However, their destination 
was Virginia, or some point still further 
South, but on account of their supply of beer 
having run short, the vessel was run into 
Plymouth Harbor, where a landing fol- 
efteeteu, to await the comingof a vessel was 
lowing after them, which contained an ample 
supply of beer. The latter vessel, however, 
encountered storms, and the passage was a 
long and tedious one. The voyagers of the 
" May Flower " would not risk their voyage 
further South, without having an abundant 
supply of beer, so these early settlers con- 
cluded to remain at the spot where Boston 
now stands, and iu the year lfi37. Captain 
Sedgewick erected a little brewerj' for the 
purpose of supplying the settlement with beer. 
The facts here stated can be verified by re- 
cords m the Congressional Library at Wash- 
ington, D. C. it will thus appear that the 
cause of beer settled the Yankee States, and 
the South was deprived of the settlers who 
had intended that section of our country as 
their destination when they left their homes 
iu England. 

However, the Huguenots and other perse- 
cuted sects of France, adopted parts of North 
and South Carolina as their destination, 
where they established colonies and local 
governments. A great many Huguenots em- 
igrated also north and east of Pennsylvania, 
and many even found their way into the east- 
ern counties of this state, as is apparent from 
the prevalence of the French names of their 
descendants — the Bertolettes, Levans, De 
Turks, De Longs, Delaplanes, and many 
other families whose names might be men- 
tioned, and who are among the most honored 
citizens of the county. On account of the 
sparsely settled condition of the country, and 
the productiveness of the Southern soil, the 
New Englanders and Spaniards opened the 
slave trade, which, however, proved a serious 
barrier to the rapid settlement of the country, 
owing to the odium with which slavery was 
regarded by the emigrants of that period. 
Most of the emigrants of that day came to 



this country to seek freedom, and they ob- 
jected to locate where slavery confronted 
them on every side, but, now that slavery is 
no more, there are insuperable oppoitunities 
in the South, and room fiu' fifty millions of 
settlers. I jiredict that in fifty years hence 
we will lind the beautiful gardens of th(! 
world transferred from the countries which 
they have made famous— Italy, France, 
Spain, and t\\v. whole south of Europe — to 
the productive territory of North Carolina, 
South Carolina and (Jeorgia. All along the 
Blue mountain ridge, or Appalachian cMiain, 
we find the finest region for grape culture on 
the globe. All those superior varieties of 
grapes from which are manufactured the cel- 
ebrated wines of Spain, P(u-tugal and France 
can be grown in the salubrious climate and 
upon the sandy soil of the South Atlantic 
States. The millions of the over-populated 
countries of Europe, miaware of the innuense 
advantages of this country, hesitate long be- 
fore they aI)andon their mother countr)' — the 
homes of their youth— but when they do 
arrive upon our shores they i)rove to be 
among our most useful and industrious citi- 
zens. Upon their arrival they are usually 
worn out by their tedious sea voyage, and are 
averse to a further journey of eight or ten 
days, so they direct their course to the West, 
wliich can be reached hi less than one-half 
the time than if they were to go South. In 
the West, however, they find that lands have 
already advanced to a high figure, and that 
the soil is best ada{)ted to the cultivation of 
cereal crops. In the South, on the other 
hand, there is greater diversity of soil. All 
the crops can be produced that are usually 
grown in the West, while sui)erior facilities 
are aflbrded -for the raising of fruit and the 
grazing of cattle. A number of valuable 
crops, such as cotton and tobacco, can also he 
cultivated, which cannot be grown in the 
AVest. If such southern seaports as Norfolk, 
Wilmington, N. C, Charleston and Savannah 
possessed the advantages of lines of ocean 
steamers, plying between their ports and Eu- 
rope, much of the foreign emigration which 
is directed towards the West, would find its 
way to the South, and that section of our 
country would be rapidly built up. Emi- 
grants upon their arrival at these southern 
ports could be conveyed to their destination 
in from eight to twenty-four hours. The first 
settlers of the eastern counties of Pennsylva- 
nia came in colonies from the Palatinate and 
the Rhine, Germany. They wisely took ad- 
vantage of the cheapness of the lands, and 
secured large tracts, which are now occupied 
by their descendants. The wisdom of their 
action is apparent. As the South may to a 
certain extent be looked upon as a new 
country, the same advantages may there be 
found, as were presented to the early settlers 
of Pennsylvania, particidarly since the aboli- 
tion of slavery. 

The State of North Carolina offers many 
advantages to settlers. The climate is un- 
surpassed, being tempered on the one side by 
the Atlantic Ocean, and on the other by the 
high peaks and tab'e lands of the Appalach- 
ian mountains. As the State has so great a 
length from East to West, as well as so con- 
siderable an elevation towards the interior, 
the range of climate is very great, from sub- 
tropical on the coast, within the intluence 
of the Gulf stream, to cold temperature on 
the table lands of the West. Emigrants can 
thustake their choice, and enjoy any climate 
they please. Since my return from the South 
I have been asked as to the healthfulncss of 
the country, and have found that there exists 
an opinion which is pretty general, that a 
residence of a number of years is necessary to 
become thoroughly acclimated, and that ma- 
larial diseases are frc(pient. I am hai)py to 
be able to state that the.se impressions are for 
the most part erroneous. It is true that ma- 
larial disea.ses do occur during the .summer 
and autumn, but they are confined chietly to 
a few localities in swampy regions, and along 
river courses. The middle and moimtain 
sections are, however, remarkably salubrious. 



The statistics of the la.st census show that 
one of the two or three most healthy localities 
iu the Unitid States is found in the Western 
part of North Carolina, iu tlie Blue Kidge 
region, and it may be indeed said that a more 
hi'allhy climate cannot be found in the world. 
Tlie soil and natural appearance of the coun- 
try is nmch like that of this section of Penn- 
sylvania. Land is cheap, and great induce- 
ments are offered to emigrants. 

In South Carolina are i)re.sented many of 
the advantages to be found in North Carolina, 
the country In the interior of both States 
being very siuillar. South Carolina offers the 
additional advantages of great plains sloping 
toward.s the Atlantic coast, most favorably 
adapted for the cultivation of cotton. In 
both States there are immense areas of tim- 
ber, the pine predominating in the eastern 
portions, and splendid opportunities are pre- 
sented to capitalists desiring to engage exten- 
sively in the lumbering business. The State 
of Georgia is one of the most fertile of the 
Southern States, and shoidd be especially at- 
tractive to Pennsylvanlans, <us all the crops 
usually grown in the Keystone Stale can be 
successfully produced in Georgia. In the 
northern portions of the Stale the soil is a 
mixture of clay and s;i,nd, forming a fertile 
loam, easily worked, while in the northwest- 
ern portioni there is a large admixture of lime. 
The valleys are remarkably rich and produc- 
tive, -while there are many line farms on the 
very summit of the Blue Ridge and Lookout 
range of mountains. There is scarcely a crop 
of any kind which cannot be grown in north- 
ern Georgia, and no more beautiful agricultu- 
ral region exists in the United States thau 
that in the vicinity of the cities of Atlanta 
and Rome. The surface of middle Georgia is 
rolling, and the soil generally red, with here 
and there a liberal admixture of^ gray, and 
very strong and jiroductive. This middle 
belt presents many natural advantages. Em- 
bracing a territory about two hundred miles 
iu length from east to west, aiul one iiundred 
broad from north to south, intersected by 
numerous rivers and smaller water courses, 
the amount of water power available for man- 
ufacturing purpo.ses is simply incalculable. It 
constitutes the heart of the cotton region, aud 
the material is consequently at hand to be 
worked into the various fabrics. Ten rail- 
roads cross it at various directions, so that 
the transportation facilities are all that could 
be desired. Its drinking water is excellent, 
and the health of the coimlry uninterrupted 
throughout the year. The southern portion 
of the State consists chiefly of saudy, piuo 
land, with many fertile openings. 

Besides the great stai)les of wheat, com, 
cotton and tobacco, which can be grown with 
great profit in the .Stales of North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia, there are splen- 
did opportunities for the cultivation of .special 
crops, which cannot be grown in the North, 
and which yield handsome returns to the pro- 
ducer. There are millions of acres along the 
Atlantic Coast and (iulf of Jlexico which arc 
specially adapted for rice culture, and from 
which a profit of ?'20(J per acre can he realized. 
The crop will always command a ready sale 
in this country aiuI Europe, and the market 
cannot be overstocked. China alone feeds 
over ■200,000,000 of her population on rice, 
and the failure of the crop in that far distant 
country is the occasion of di.sastrous famine, 
resulting in thousands dying daily, as was 
the case lass than a year ago in China. As 
the soil of our Southern States is more pro- 
ductive than that of China, how many more 
millions can we feed V The cultivation of 
sorghum in the three States mentioned is also 
destined to become a great industry in this 
coimtry, and all the sugar needed for home 
consumption can be produced as well as largo 
(luanlities for export. The State of Florida, 
south of the St. John's river, is cai)ablc of 
sui)plying the whole of North America with 
tropical fruits, such as oranges, figs and other 
varieties, at a profit of several hundred dollars 
per acre. The streams of the South contain 
fish in great abundance, and a profitable 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



market has been opened in the Korth for 
shad and other species of fish caught in 
Southern waters, and with which the marliet 
can be supplied weeks in advance of tlie 
Northern fisheries. In the cultivation of 
fruit and vegetables for the markets of the 
large cities of the North a most lucrative 
business can be done. The extensive live oak 
and yellow iiine forests of the South are able 
to supply timber barren counties of the Old 
World for at least another century or more. 
As to the mineral wealth of the South, and of 
North Carolina and Georgia in particular, too 
much cannot be said. In the two last men- 
tioned States the first discoveries of gold in 
this country were made, and some of the most 
profitable mines would now be in operation in 
northern Georgia and the western portion of 
North Carolina if the discovery of gold in 
California had not diverted to the El Dorado 
of the Pacific coast the great masses of for- 
tune hunters in this country. I venture to 
say, however, that there are gold mines in 
North Carolina and Georgia, which, if 
properly worked, would yield millions of 
treasure per annum. No section of the Union 
is richer in valuable iron ore deposits than the 
northwestern portion of Georgia, where 
Messrs. Noble & Son, formerly of Heading, 
are engaged in conducting extensive iron 
manufacturing establishments, and aie the 
owners of thousands of acres of ore producing 
lands. 

As to the "reign of terrorism" in the 
South, this is a bug-a-boo wliicli should not 
deter northern emigration. Many of the 
most successful men "to-day in the South are 
Northern men. The freednian has become 
accustomed to his freedom, and is no longer the 
victim of designing men. Recognizing the 
fact that the acquisition of property depends 
upon industry and frugality, he is devoting 
himself with greater persistency to productive 
labor, and tlie good results are seen on every 
side. 



FLOWERS AND PERFUMES. 

A writer in one of the magazines says : 
Odors are extracted from different parts of 
plants and flowers— from the root, as in arris 
and vitivert, the stem, as in cedar, sandal and 
rosewood ; the leaves, as thyme, mint, patch- 
ouli ; the blossom, as roses, violets, etc. ; the 
seed, as the Tonquin bean, tlie caraway ; the 
bark, as the cinnamon. But all tlie more 
delicate odors are chiefly derived from the 
corolla or blossom. After the orange — wliich 
enters In some shape or form very largely into 
the composition of countless essences, po- 
mades, oils and cosmetics— one of the most 
useful plants to the perfumer is cassie. It is 
to be found in most of the favmite handker- 
chief bouquets ; but alone it is too sickly 
sweet an odor to be agreealile. It is exten- 
sively grown at Cannes, and combines well 
with orange flowers, rose, tuberose and vanilla. 
Bergamot is another faithful ally of the per- 
fumer. It is an essential oil, obtained by ex- 
pression from the rind of a species of citron, 
and is to be found in the majority of essences, 
particularly in the celelira'ted Ens Bouquet. 
Of itself it is not a particularly pleasant odor, 
but combined with orris, musk, or other fixing 
scents, it is very fragrant. It is best kept in 
a cool, dark place, in closely stoppered bottles, 
which applies to all perfumes except essence 
or extract of rose ; so that when ladies keep 
their perfume bottles on the toilet table in 
sunlight and gaslight, or, as is sometimes the 
case, on the maiitlepiece over a fire, they 
should not be surprised if they soon lose their 
delicate subtle odor; in fact the purer and 
better perfumes arc, the more susceptiljle are 
they to the influences of light anfl heat. It is 
a curious fact that some of the sweetest flowers 
are unavailable for the purposes of perfumery. 
Sweet-brier, for instance, and eglantine can 
only be imitated. No process has been dis- 
covered by which their delicate perfume can 
be extracted and preserved ; but spirituous 
extracts of rose pomade, of flower of orange, 
neroli oil— also produced from the orange and 



verbena — when cunningly combined, very 
fairly imitate both. Lily-of-the-valley — an- 
other useless flower to the perfumer, though 
of exquisite scent in itself — is marvellously 
imitated by a compound of vanilla, extract of 
tuberose, jasmine and otto of almonds. Al- 
most all lilies are found too powerful even for 
perfumery purposes, and are therefore little 
used, even in combination with other odors, 
for it has been found in many instances that 
they do not harmonize well with the " fixing 
and disguising " scents in general use. Most 
of the very sweetest flowers, it is said, are 
only successfully imitated, as wall-flower, 
clove-pink, sweet-pea. Magnolia is too ex- 
pensive to be genuint). Myrtle is very rarely 
genuine. Real sweet-pea there is none, and 
heliotrope and lioneysuckle are cleverly made 
up. Tuberose, vanilla, orange flower, violet, 
rose, jasmine and cassie, with orris and viti- 
vert, musk and ambergris, in proper propor- 
tions and combinations, are the leading 
ingredients in most perfumes. Mignonette, 
sweet as it is in the garden, is almost useless 
by itself to the perfumer ; and tuberose, one 
of the sweetest, if not the very sweetest 
flower that blooms, combined with jasmine, 
makes the perfume called stephanotis. By 
enflniragc it gives a most delicious extract ; 
but it needs to be fixed immediately by a less 
violent scent or it will immediately evaporate. 
Fixed by vanilla or some other enduring 
odor, it is one of the most charming and use- 
ful essences in thy perfumer's repertoire, and 
euters into the composition of almost all tlie 
favorite handkerchief bouquets. Cassia, otto 
of almonds, tuberose, and orris form two- 
thirds of the violet essence generally sold. 
The genuine essence of violets is only to lie 
procured at special places and al exorbitant 
prices. 

Of fixing or permanent scents the principal 
are musk, vanilla, ambergris, orris and viti- 
vert. Orris is perhaps more used than any 
other, and enters largely into the composition 
of all our popular dentrifices. From the 
odors already known, we maj' produce by 
proper combinations the scent of almost every 
flower that blows, except the jessamine. It 
is the one perfume that defies spurious imita- 
tion. It seems almost needless to say that 
otto of roses comes chiefly from tlie" East. 
The rose fields of Kasanlik, in Roumelia, and 
the sweet vallej's of Cashmere, give us the 
attar gul renowned over the whole world. 
But there is a very sweet otto of roses made 
from the beautiful Provence roses that grow 
to such perfection at Cenues and Grasses. 
The flower has a rather subtle odor, arising, 
it is .said, from the bees carrying the pollen 
of the orange flowers to the rose beds. The 
otto is ol^tained by maceration and enfleurwje. 

The whole south of Europe is what Jue 
might call the perfumer's happy farming 
ground. Canes and Nice are especially fa- 
mous. There on the mild sea-coast grows 
the delicate cassie that can barely bear a 
blast; at the foot of the mountains tlie violets 
are sweeter than if grown in the sheltered 
valleys where the oranges, tube-rose and 
mignonette attain such a marvelous perfec- 
tion. But flowers are grown for jierfumery 
purposes in mony other places. Nimes is fa- 
mous for its rosemary and thyme, Nice for its 
violets, Sicily for its lemons and bergamot, 
and England is famous for lavender and pep- 
permint, the latter always commanding a 
high price in foreign markets, as it forms the 
general mouth wash used on the continent. 
The lavender grown at Mitcham and Hiteliin 
is about eight" times the value of that grown 
in France and Italy, and for ordinary use 
there is no sweeter perfume than good laven- 
der. 

.lust one word on the use of perfumes; and 
it is moderation. Persons, places and things 
are all the better and pleasanter for a little 
sweet essence, but see that it is a little. If 
some persons are too lavish in the use of their 
favorite bouquet, and turn what was meant 
for a refined pleasure into a vulgar nuisance, 
their extravagance is to be avoided rather 
than the perfume itself. 



Our Local Organizations. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTU- 
RAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
SOCIETY. 

Tlie regular meeting of the Lancaster County Ag- 
ricultural and Horticultural Society was held Mon- 
day afternoon, April 5th, in their rooms in the City- 
Hall. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
Joseph F. Witmer. 

The following members and visitors were present : 
The President; M. D. Kendig, Creswell; Casper Hil- 
ler, Conestoga; Daniel Smeych, city; Frank Griest, 
city; J. C. Linville, Salisbury; Henry Kurtz, Mount 
Joy; C. A. Gast, city; Ephraira S. Hoover, Manheim; 
F. R. Diffenderffer, city; Washington L. Hershey, 
Rapho; Webster L. Hershey, East Hempfleld; J. M. 
Johnston, city; Dr. S. S. Rathvon,city; H. M. Engle, 
Marietta; J. B. Eshleman, West Hempfleld; Dr. C. 
A. Greene, city; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheim; Peter 
S. Reist, Lititz; W. H. Bollinger, Warwick; William 
McComsey, city; W. H. Brosius, Drumore; John H. 
Landis, Manor; Dr. William Compton, city; Israel 
L. Landis, city; Isaac Hess, Manheim; S. P. Eby, 
city; Harry G. Rush, Couestoga; A. D. Hostetter,* 
Millersville. 

On motion the reading of the minutes was dis- 
pensed with . 

Crop Reports. 

J. C. Linville said grain looks remarkably well. 
Fruit buds are not injured; the prospect for a peach 
crop is good. About half the oats is sown. The 
fatted cattle have mostly been sold. All the clover 
in his neighborhood has been killed. 

Henry Kurtz stated wheat as looking very well. 
Clover fields are "spotty;" many of them are being 
plowed down for corn. The tobacco men have also 
been busy and some have plants already up. There 
will be a little increase over last year. All the last 
year's tobacco is sold; that still on hand has been ad- 
vanced in price by the holders. 

H. M. Engle said wheat along the Susquehanna is 
doing remarkably well; clover is poor everywhere. 
The fruit crop is very promising. Pears won't yield 
quite as largely as last year. Apples promise a 
full crop. 

Joseph F. Witmer said clover in Paradise town- 
ship has not "missed;" his own looks well; a little 
oats has been sown; tobacco growers are getting 
ready for their work. 

The Fair. 

Jos. F. 'Witmer reported having communicated 
with the Northern .Market Company, who agreed to 
let the society occupy the building during Wednes- 
day, Thursday and Friday of any week in September, 
at the price of $20, and the payment of the gas, 
allowing the janitor to retain his stand in the mar- 
ket. 

Dr. Greene stated the methods used in Berks 
county to get up the premium lists and have them 
published. He found that many farmers did not 
belong to the society, and he thought inducements 
should be otfered them. 

J. C. Linville thought the premium list should be 
offered as soon as possible. 

H. M. Engle moved the society should accept the 
proposition of the Northern Market Company. 
Adopted . 

Reading of Essays. 

Dr. C. A. Greene read a lengthy essay on chemis- 
try of soils and incidentally on chemistry in general. 
(See page .53.) 

Wm. McComsey thought the essay contained 
hints in the proper direction. We have given the 
chemical properties of our soils too little study. 

Henry Kurtz said the essay was a good one, but 
farmers were not enough advanced to understand it. 

He gave some of his early experiences in liming; 
of the flne crops of wheat and grass raised by its use. 
So with phosphate and fertilizers; they are srood, 
but the farmers do not understand them. H3 is 
afraid of some of these compounds and has been de- 
ceived by them. 

J. C. Linville bad bought a good many fertilizers 
and he is beginning to have eontidehee in them. He 
said the composition had the aualysis printed on 
the packages, as required by the State. We must 
experiment as yet. We cannot analyze our soils as 
yet. Our limestone soils contain fo'ir times more of 
the elements to grow wheat than the wheat itself, 
but it must be largely in excess to give us good 
crops. He believed we should not put our fertilizers 
on at one time, but apply it as we see it needs them 
most. 

Casper Hiller said the essay was right in theory, 
but we can't make it work in practice. Why this is 
so he did not know. Soils vary in the same Held, 
and yield different results. We must have certain 
ingredients to grow corn ; now, which of these have 
we already? He tried several experiments, and the 
only thing that gave satisfactory results was phos- 
phoric acid ; by applying this for years it would be- 
come excessive in quantity, and he would have the 



1880 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



tame old trouble over. Three principal constituents 
enter into corn, and all we want to know Is in which 
of them we are dcfleient. 

Root Crops. 

H. JI. Engle read the following essay on the above 
Bubject : 

This fiucstion will apply to almost any other farm 
crop. In reply I would therefore say that they are 
profitable under certain circumstances. 

Root crops, as a rule, are i^reiit feeders, and there- 
fore require well prepared and enriched soil, and in 
addition, thorouirh after-culture, to jiroduce payinj:; 
crops. The common turnip (of which there are 
many varieties) is most easily (frown, and requires 
the shortest season of all root crops, and Is at the 
same time of least value. Kuta-ba^'a reciuires more 
care, and a little longer season, but are of more 
value as food. 

Next come maneiolds and sugar beets, both of 
which require a still lousier season and consequently 
more Cultivation. The former yields more tons per 
acre than any other root crop, while the latter is 
equal if not superior in nutrative elements to all 
other root crops, and to whicli I shall call special 
attention before I close. Carrots and parsnips re- 
quire the entire season to mature, and as food for 
man and beast are very valuable. Willi proper at- 
tention they will yield in quantity with most other 
root crops. Yields are reported from a few tons to 
twenty-five, and even more, per acre, owin? to soil, 
climate, and, above all, to management. No person 
wishing to produce the best results in milk and liut- 
ter, and have Ids stock come out iu siuiug as it 
should, can afford to do without some root crop. 
There Is no (and never will lie any) butter-coloring 
equal to that produced by feeding carrots, parsnips 
or sugar beets in winter. The present fashionable 
butter-coloring so much in use is doiug.more to hide 
defects in butter, and give it a good appearance, 
than to improve its quality, and does not give it that 
rich Dutty flavor which is imparted l)y feeding roots 
of the best quality, and I doubt whether oleomarga- 
rine is more objectionable, at least not more decep- 
tive. Both should stand upon their intrinsic merits. 
The sugar question is becoming an imi)ortant one 
to our country, in which the sugar beet will, at no 
distant day, play an important part. I wish, there- 
fore, to impress the matter upon the mii.ds of our 
farmers for consideration, so that we may not be 
lagging behind. lam well aware that iu this and 
neighboring counties, where the tobacco growing 
mania is so rampant, it is an up hill business ; but 
there are still a good many farmers who are con- 
scientious in growing the weed, and not a few who 
are about half consKientious, and would not grow it 
were it not for the mighty dollar it brings. Now 
those who grow the weed without auy compunction 
might for humanity's sake help produce some of the 
sweets of life, as an offset to the production of the 
nauseous, which causes so much embittermeut to 
so large a propoi-tiou of the human family. 

It will be admitted that sugar beet growing will 
never bring such large returns as tobacco has iu 
years past, but for Ihe purpose of sugar it has 
proved to return from S.50 to SLiO per acre, and, 
being less exhaustive to the soil than tobacco, and 
leaving the ground in equally good condition for a 
wheat crop, should l3e an inducement for farmers to 
turn their attention in that direction, and to have at 
hand not only more crops for rotation but also to 
add to our industries. 

He also read an interesting article from the New 
York Trilnme, advocating the cultivation of the 
sugar beet and making sugar from it. He advoca- 
ted the cultivation of this important crop. 

E.S.Hoover was interested iu this subject. He 
believes nothing is so good a substitute for grass as 
good roots. The time will come when we will have 
as many root cellars as tobacco cellars; we may, in 
case the latter business declines, turn our tobacco 
cellars into root cellars. Beets are of more value 
than farmers are aware of. Roots will do away 
with the use of cattle powders. The time will come 
when farmers will provide themselves with roots as 
regularly as with hay, and when they will be one of 
the regular farm crops. They are especially valua- 
ble for dairy purposes. They are not properly ap 
preciated by our farmers. No food can he provided 
with the same labor that will do as mucli good. 
Nothing keeps cattle in such good order as roots. 

J. C. Linville was glad this root business was 
called up. He has grown them for years and with 
favorable results. There is not so much nutriment 
in them, but they seem to aid cattle in assimilating 
other foods. He believed all farmers should grow 
more or less. As milk producers they are excellent; 
slightly fermented, they are better feed than when 
not. Do not feed too strongly of beets; one feed a 
day is enough. He practices this method. He has 
difficulty in growing ruta-bagas; sugar beets have 
done well with him. 

Henry Kurtz wanted to know how many tons of 
beets were necessary to every cow during the winter 
season. 

Dr. C. A. Greene said a variety of food is required 
by cattle as much as by men. Lay ditferent foods 
before cows and they will select a variety. They get 



tired of grass and of hay. They are fond of beets 
and carrots and will eat them as greedily as any 
thing you can give them. 

H. -M. Engle discussed the root question as food 
for stock at considerable length. Gave his experi- 
ence in it and related many interesting facts derived 
from his own observation. He is an earnest advo- 
cate of root-food. He spoke in favor of growing the 
sugar beet in this county and hoped the time was 
near when they would be grown so largely here as to 
warrant the establishment of a sugar beet factory. 

Does it Pay to Cut Fodder for Stock ? 
W. II. Brosius answered this question aflirma- 
tivcly. He has practiced it for some years and with 
the liesl results. Meal when mixed with rough or 
bulky food, does much better than when fed by 
itself. He gave it as his decided opinion that it was 
to the farmer's benefit in every way to cut fodder for 
cattle. 

Henry Kurtz also gave testimony in favor of cut- 
ting cornfoddcr for cattle. He practiced it, and 
always with most favorable results. Besides, you 
have less trouhlc iu putting out your numure, as 
well as in cleaning your stables. 

Harry (i. Rush is satisfied that cliafVis as good as 
cornfoddcr, and is already prepared feu- use. To 
cut all the cornfoddcr is no little trouljle and no 
trifling expense. To cut our fodder is as much ex- 
pense as to harvest your corn crop. He has used 
chaff two years, and has had all the results he could 
have had from cut fodder. 

Wm. McComscy was satisfled from his own expe- 
rience and observation that one ton of cut fodder was 
equal to two tons in its natural state. Fodder con- 
tains more nutriment than is believed. 

J. C. Linville said cut fodder will go much further 
if cut very small — the smaller the better. 

Harry G. Rush asked if corn stalks have as much 
nutriment as the leaves, why the cattle prefer the 
latter? He was told the woody, fibre in the stalk 
was objectionable to cattle if given to them. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
John H. Landis presented to the society the agri- 
cultural reports of the States of New Jersey, New 
York, Missouri, Massachusetts, Michigan and In- 
diana. 

A vote of thanks was given him for the same. 
A committee of three was appointed to audit the 
accounts of the late treasurer of the society, Levi W. 
Groff. E. S.Hoover, F. R. Diffenderffer and Wm. 
McComscy were named as the committee. 

A motion was made and carried to appoint a com- 
mittee of three, with Dr. S. S. Rathvon as Chairman, 
to express the sense of this society on the death of 
our late me;uber, J. StauH'er. The other members 
of the committee were S. P. Eby, esq., and H. M. 
Engle, and they reported the following ; 

WnERE.vs, It has pleased God to remove from the 
material plane of life our late fellow member, .Mr. 
Jacob Stauflcr— for many years the botanist and 
chemist of this society — and whose removal is an 
irreparable loss, not only to this society, his family, 
and this county, but also to the State of Pennsyl- 
vania at large ; therefore, 

Rexoli'ea,'T\\3.t in the death of Mr. Stauffer, agri- 
culture, horticulture, botany, and their correlative 
occupations, as well as the community in general, 
are deprived of the services of an efficient and cheer- 
ful colaborcr, a friend of social progress, and a 
symyathizer in all that relates to human welfare. 

RcsoleeiJ, That while we submit with human 
resignation to the wisdom of Hinx, "in whom we 
live and move and have our being," yet in human 
weakness we cannot but feel regret that the social 
relations between us and our departed member h.-vve 
been so suddenly severed, and that on this earth we 
shall meet him no more. 

kcsob'cd, That in the removal of Mr. Stauffer this 
society has lost a distinguished patron, the commu- 
nity a useful fellow-citizen, science an industrious 
and patient co-laborer, and his family a kind parent 
and friend. 

licsoli-ed, That we are in unfeigned sympathy with 
all those sentiments of bereavement whicli have been 
so feelingly expressed by tiic community and other 
associations to which our late fellow-member be- 
longed. 

liesohied, That we condole with his family and 
friends, but not as " those who mourn without 
hope ;" that these sentiments be recorded iu the 
proceedings of the society, an that copies be sent to 
the members of the family. 

S. S. Rathvon, 
It. M. Engle, 
S. P. Eby. 
J. V. Witmer called attention to the fact that the 
Board of .Managers liavc the entire control of the 
matters pertaining to the coming fair. They are 
unwilling to assume all tliese labors. He thought 
all the officers of the society should be united with 
them. There would tlieu be a more equal division 
of responsibility and labor. 

J. C. Linville made a motion that article i:i of the 
by-laws be so amended as to include all the officers 
of the society among the Board of .Managers. 

"Ttie amendment was read and, under tlie rule, 
lies over until the next meeting for action. 



Questions for Discussion. 

Should potatoes lie cut into small pieces for plant- 
ing ? Referred to II. M. Engle. 

Should large or small potatoes be selected to seed i 
Referred to Win. .McComscy. 

Which is prefcraljle, hill planting or drilling corn 1 
llcferrcd to U. (i. Rusli. 

What per cent, of tobacco should be cultivated by 
our farmers ! Referred to Henry Kurtz. 

There liciiig no further business before the society 
a motion to adjourn was adopted. 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The Lancaster County Poultry Association met 
Elatedly Monday morning, April 5, at 10'.^ o'clock 
in their rooms. 

The meeting was called to order by the newly 
elected President, S. N. Warfel, who upon taking 
the chair said : 

The business of which wo meet to consider la as 
yet iu its infancy in this county. It lias about it 
pIcasuH!, and, what is of equal importance, profit. 
The man who gives to the world a new breed of 
fowls — awakens for those already in existence a new 
or a deeper interest — makes the best modes of keep- 
ing better understood— and especially, iu calling out 
a tovc for the beautiful denizens of the farm yard, 
calls it away from things hat degrade and belittle— 
has pleasure which others never dream of. The 
profits to be derived I'rom the business of breeding 
improved poultry must be the subject of a special 
paper. Sultice it for the present merely to say, that 
I believe !5.5ilO a year is not a wide estimate of what 
may be realized ou a hennery of fifty fowls judi- 
ciously managed. 

But I must not detain you longer at this time. 
Gentlemen, I heartily thank you fur the compliment 
you have paid me in your choice of chairman. I 
cannot take tiiis seat vacated by your former re- 
spected President without feeling almost as If 1 
were stealing a position which belongs to another. 
Had I co-operated more earnestly in the organiza- 
tion of this society, 1 should have less compunction 
iu now accepttng" the Presidency. But coming as I 
did after that had proved a success wliich was re- 
garded by many as hut a doubtful experiment, I 
cannot avoid the conclusion that this honor whicli 
you have conferred upon me is more to be credited 
to your goodness than any merit of my own. I can, 
therefore, only show my appreciation of your kind- 
ness by endeavoring to serve you in the most faithful 
and impartial manner. 

Members Present. 

The following members responded to the roll call: 
S. N. Warfel,' Strasburg, President; Frank Greisl, 
city; W. L. Ucrshey, Rapho; F. K. DitfenderUer, 
city; Henry Wisslcr, Columbia; Dr. BeruthciscI, Co- 
lumbia; H. II. Tshudy, Litilz; J. B. Lichty, city; C. 
A. Gast, citv; Ferdinand Shaeller, city; W. II. Bol- 
linger, Warwick; J. B.Long, city; Clias. E. Long, 
city; John M. Hagans, Strasburg; Ubadiah Kcudig, 
Lancaster. 

The minutes were read by the secretary, and on 
motion approved. 

Klection of New Members. 

John B. Eshleman, of West Hemiilield, and D. D. 
Courtney, of ElizabetliTown, were nominated to 
mcmlicrship and unanimously elected. 

Secretary Lichty asked to be furnished with a 
book of certificates, to be issued to members. The 
society granted the askeil for permission. 

Discussions. 

Is there any way to reduce the flying propensities 
of Leghorns ? 

II. H. Tshudy keeps Leghorns but has no trouble 
In keeping them iu an enclosure with a low fence. 
He clips one wing on each bird. 

Dr. Berntheise'l said you can prevent hens from 
flying by clipping their wings, but you eau't break 
down the propensity of birds to lly. 

J. B. Lichty said tailless cats had been produced 
by cutting oll'thcir tails for many generations. Can 
we not do the same thing by removing the quill 
feathers for a scries of years. There are ways of 
pinioning the wings which will prevent them from 

F.'r. DiQ'endcrfler suggested the removal of the 
outer wing joint. He found it very successful when 
used on wild ducks and geese, although the latter 
retained their propensity to migrate when the season 
to do so came around, iu the spring and fall. 

President Wai lei related the case of a man who 
has Golden Pheasants which have the wing cut olT 
at the first joiut, which prevents them from fiying. 

J. B. Long thought kindness may do somewhat to 
prevent Leghorns from flying, but the only effective 
remedies were to cut off their wing feathers or their 
heads, either of which will bring the answer. 

J. B. Lichty thought there was some connection 
with the wonderful laying qualities of Leghorns and 
their great activity. They are always In motion, 
always on the alert and this may have some eflect 
ou their egg producing capacity. 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[Aprili 



Reports on this Spring's Success. 

J. B. Lichty reported having had fair success in 
hatching out birds this spring. 

H. Wissler reported excellent luck so far. 

Dr. Berutheisel said he had lieen experimenting 
with the age of eggs for incubating purposes. He 
put 11 eggs under a lien, 6 of which were 29 days 
old, and he got out 10 chicks in all; he is therefore 
persuaded that eggs will hatch out when much older 
than people generally concede. 

Report of Auditing Committee. 

The Committee on Accounts reported through J. 
B. Long that they had audited the Secretary and 
Treasurer's accounts and found them correct. 

Their report was accepted and the committee dis- 
charged. 

Miscellaneous. 

The Secretary asked whether it would not be well 
to notify members of the day of meeting. He 
thought we could secure a much larger attendance 
in this way. 

On motion he was authorized to notify the mem- 
bers by postal card of the time for the next meeting. 

On motion of Frank Greist an article published in 
the Germanloum Teler/raph about the care of chick- 
ens was referred to Kev. D. C. Tobias for discussion. 

There being no further business the society ad- 
journed. 

FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The March meeting of the club was held at the 
residence of Moutillion Brown, March 6th. Day 
Wood exhibited the following statement of an ex- 
periment in hog feeding ; 

Four hogs fed 112 days ; live weight at commence- 
ment was l-'O pounds each, equal to 100 pounds dead 
weight. When killed they dressed 1,460 pounds, 
equal to 367 pounds each. Seventy bushel* of corn 
were fed — first forty bushels whole, and then last 
thirty bushels ground. Tlie average daily gain of 
each was about S'^ pounds. Amount of pork made 
per bushel of corn, 15 2-7 pounds. Pork sold in 
Lancaster at 6^^ cents per pound, and the total gain 
of pork being 1,069 pounds, at 6I4 cents, amounted 
to §66.81, thus making the price of corn fed 9.5 cents 
per bushel. The hogs were full-bred Poland China 
and eleven months old when killed. 

Wm. King asked if there was any great advantage 
in feeding hogs groimd corn. 

Day Wood said he was satisfied that the thirty 
bushels of ground corn had made more than half of 
the gain in his hogs, but he had not tested the mat- 
ter by weighing his hogs when he changed the feed. 
There was less waste in ground corn, and it would 
pay to grind iine. 

Most of the other members fed whole grain, al- 
though several of them believed that hogs would 
gain faster on meal. Edwin Stubbs, a visitor, had 
soaked corn for his hogs last year, and had never 
had them to do so well before. 

Montillion Brown : Would it be safe to put salt or 
pickle on quince trees ? Joseph Geist knew of trees 
where it is put on every spring. They bear nice 
quinces. Several others had been in the habit of 
salting their quince trees. Some of them had re- 
ceived no benefit from it. 

Solomon L. Gregg: Has any one present tried 
Howell's Prepared Chemicals as a fertilizer, and 
what is the result? No one l»ad tried them. 

After treating the club and visitors to a good sub- 
stantial dinner the liopt showed some fine j'oung 
cattle of his own raising, and a pen of good Chester 
White hogs. When again convened in the house, 
criticisms ou the farming operations being in order, 
the live stock above mentioned received due notice ; 
but some of the fences were found to be in a very 
bad condition. The host explained that it was his 
intention to remove the old fence altogether, and re- 
place it with a new post and rail. 

An essay was then read by M. Brown, criticising 
an article that appeared in The Lancastek Far- 
mer, copied from the .Maine Farmer. The article in 
question stated that the farmers of England and 
Scotland paid from ?11 to S->5 per acre rent for their 
farms and made money and lived at their ease ; 
while American farmers, even when they owned the 
land and had it well stocked, complained of hard 
times. 

Grace A. King read a poem from Scattered Seed, 
entitled " The Grant Excitement." Carrie Black- 
burn recited " Going West." Ella Brown recited 
" The Grave of Tliaddeus Stevens." 

The question, " Would co-operative farming pay 
in this community ?" then came up for consideration. 
The general opinion of the club was that in dairying 
and some other things co-operation would be bene- 
ficial, but in most kinds of work it would not prove 
satisfactory. 

Joseph Griest and wife were now elected members 
of the club. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing 
year: President, Day Wood; Secretary, E. H. 
Haines; Treasurer, Joseph Greist ; Librarian, Wm. 
P. Haines. 

The club then adjourned to meet at the residence 
of S. L. Gregg, Drumore township, on the 10th of 
April. 



THE LINN.iEAN'S TRIBUTE. 



The Society's Respect to the Late Jacob 
Stauffer. 

The Linna'au society met in the hall of the Y. M. 
C. A., on Saturiiay 21 ult., Presi't Stahrin the'cbalr. 
Dr. S. S. Rathvon moved that the routine of busi- 
ness be dispensed with in order to allow an opportu- 
nity to offer the follow' Bg testimonials of respect to 
the memory of their late departed fellow-member 
which was adopted. 

Mr. Presibent : Mine becmes the sorrowful 
duty to-day of announcing officially to the Linnsean 
Society the death of Jacob Stauffer, ourdistinguished 
fellow-memljcr and honored secretary. He died at 
his late residence, in East Orange street, Lancaster 
city, on Monday evening, March 22, at about eight 
o'clock, in the 72nd year of his age. Natiu'allv 
possessing a reasonably strong constitution, yet he 
had been for so many years afflicted with chronic 
bronchial inflammation and spasmodic coughing, 
that those nearest, dearest, and most intimately as- 
sociated with him must have noticed the inroads 
which thi.se exhausting afflictions were making 
upon his physical health, and that they must have 
ultimately terminated in death. But now, that 
through the 7:>trjnis.sio7i.s' of divine Providence be has 
been removed from this earthly stage, his removal 
seems sudden; and, under the impulses of natural 
affection and social affiliation, we cannot but lament 
his "taking off," however humbly we may endeavor 
to yield a Christian resignation to the will and wis 
dom of Him who has seen fit to call him to a higher 
sphere of being. 

Mr. Stauffer was one of the original founders of 
the Linnajan Society, in February, 1862, and of its 
incorporators in 1864. 

For eighteen consecutive years he faithfully served 
as its Recording Secretary, ch.airman of the commit- 
tees on Icthyology and Herpetology, and also as 
associate member of other committees, especially 
that of Botany. In all the duties rcl.ating to these 
several functions he was an industrious, cheerful, 
and eflicieut worker; often manifesting a disinter- 
ested and youthful zeal, and nothing seemed to 
limit his efforts save physical disability. In the 
specialties of icthyology and ophidiology his loss to 
this society is irreparable. Our departed fi'iend en- 
joyed a literary and scientific reputation that was 
not confined to the limits of this association, extend- 
ing, as it did, beyond the borders of our county and 
our Stale, and the records of these labors of love 
may be found upon the pages of many of the publi 
cations of our country. We confine our estimate of 
his character on this occasion, however, mainly to 
his relations to the Linnfean Society — an organiza- 
tion for which he always manifested the deepest in- 
terest, notwithstanding the many discouragements 
by which it has been surrounded, and during his 
long connection with it he was seldom absent from 
his post of duty. 

To him who bears this imperfect testimony — who 
had known him so intimately and so long — he seem- 
ed like "another self;" and the uniform and practical 
kindness which he always exhibited, his fraternal 
sympathies, his purity of life, and the general integ- 
rity of his private character, were such as to elicit 
the highest esteem. 

He was always ready by purse orpen to advance 
the cause of literature and science, not forgetting 
his duties as a Christian and a father; and from 
this standpoint, looking over his career as a member 
of the Linnwan Society — its early scientific excur- 
sions, its field meetings, its spring and summer ex- 
plorations, in which he was a conspicuous figure — 
we only irritate our unhealed wounds of regret that 
on this earth we shall see him "nevermore." 

Of course Mr. Staufl'er was liable to those frailties 
which are common to the very best specimens of hu- 
manity, and none were more sensible of this than 
himself. His physical energies were never quite 
able to ultimate the aspirations of his will, or to free 
him from the limitations of circumstance. 

Had he posessed less versatility of talent, he prob- 
ably might have been enabled to accomplish more in 
any specific direction, but like all votaries of science 
who are compelled to "eat their bread by the sweat 
of their face," he could only avail himself of the 
means which he found within his reach; moreover, 
diflerenlly endowed, he would not have been able to 
satisfy the great diversity of demands almost con- 
stantly made upon his time and talents. 

He was constantly at work in many directions, and 
literally "died in harness." Less than five hours 
before his spiiit fled an article appeared in the col- 
umns of the Lancaster Intelligencer on a new fish 
discovered in the Susquehanna river, which, there is 
reason to believe, was written on the Saturday pre- 
ceding the day ou which he died, in which no abate- 
ment of his usual mental vigor is apparent. 

Perhaps it could not be truthfully said that Mr. 
StaufJ'er never had an enemy; indeed, there are 
those, whose opinions are entitled to the highest re- 
spect, who allege that it may be nothing to a man's 
credit to pass through an active life in this world 
without exciting the enmity of some one ; especially 
since the highest moral and spiritual exampler ever 
vouchsafed to the human family was not without his 



enemies, and those, too, of the most bitter and ma- 
lignant character. And this need not. be at all sur- 
prising when we reflect that the " carnal mind " 
itself is always at enmity with everything that is 
good and true. According to his own apprehension 
of his characteristic traits, he inherited a sanguine 
temperament, and fully an aver.-ige share of com- 
bativeness. But during his maturer years the im- 
pulses controlling these faculties were happily held 
in subordination to his moral and religious senti- 
ments ; hence, all who truly knew him" and could 
appreciate his his motives, it may be safe to say, 
were numbered among hts friends. 

He was just and generous, and would havesuffered 
himself rather than to have imposed suffering on an- 
other, and if he erred in the exercise of these, that 
error leaned towards humanity. 

His church has born its testimony in relation to 
his character as a Christian ; the community has 
spoken in reference to his status as a fellow-citizen, 
■inJ his scientific labors have long been recognized 
and recorded. His philosophical deductions were 
always antagonistic to those speculations which, 
under the name of progress, leaned towards infidelity, 
or militated against the authenticity of scripture 
and man's moral accountability. We pass no empty 
compliment to his worth when we say it will be 2 
long time before we shall look upon his like again ; 
for there is not a place made vacant by his removal 
that will not almost irretrievably miss him. Be- 
lieving these sentiments to be in entire accord with 
the sentiment of this society, they are submitted as 
an humble tribute to the memory of a faithful and 
Bel/-sacrificing fellow-member, and a manifestation 
of sympathy and condolence with his bereaved 
family, the community, and our association, in the 
great loss which we all have sustained. Therefore, 
Resolved, That this tribute be filed in the archives of 
the society, that all further business to-day be sus- 
pended, that cdlnmittees be continued, and that out 
of respect to the memory of our departed fellow- 
member, we do now adjourn until the next stated 
meeting. 

Unanimously adopted and ordered to be printed. 
Remarks were also m.ade by Dr. J. H. Stubbs and 
Kev. Prof. Stahr. 



Entomological. 



Flowers and Insects. 

Sprengel, the German botanist, appears to have 
been the first to perceive the intimate relations which 
exist between plants and insects. In the year 1787 
he observed on the corolla of the Geranium sylvati- 
cnm a number of delicate hairs. He endeavored to 
ascertain the use of these hairs, and concluded that 
they served to protect the honey from rain. But 
wliy should the honey be protected? What service 
were the insects to the flower that it should nourish 
them? Sprengel w.as thus led to make numerous 
examinations, and was surprised to find how many 
of the peculiarities of uowers could be explained by 
their relations to insects. The importance of the 
visits of insects to plants is in the fact that they 
transfer the pollen from the stamens to the pistil. 
In many plants the stamens and pistil are in difi'erent 
flowers, and even in those in which the stamens and 
pistil are found together they are so placed, that 
self-fertilization is difficult or impossible. Again, 
self-fertilization is sometimes rendered impossible by 
the fact of the stamens and pistils not maturing at 
the same time. The pollen is then transferred in 
difierent ways from the stamens to the pistils. In 
some cases the pollen is carried by the wind ; in a 
few cases by birds, but mostly by insects. Sprengel, 
though he saw that " Nature does not wish that any 
complete flower should be fertilized by its own pol- 
len," did not perceive that to transfer this pollen 
was the office of insects. He saw that stamens and 
pistils did not mature together, but supposed that the 
visit of the insect was to transfer the pollen from the 
stamen to the pistil of the same flower. If this had 
been the whole use of insects, the contrivance would 
appear to be a very elaborate and unnecessary on''. 
It was strange that two sets of arrangements, one to 
effect and one to preclude self-fertilization, should 
exist in the same Hower. What a roundabout con- 
trivance it was by which honey was put in the flower 
to attract the insect to transfer the pollen from the 
stamens to the pistil, when a slight change in the 
structure of the flower might have produced the same 
result ! The vi.sits of insects are really useful be- 
cause it is intended that the petal of one flower shall 
be fertilized by the pollen of another. The principle 
first pointed out by Darwin is now well established, 
that if a flower be fertilized by pollen from a different 
plant the seedlings so produced are much stronger 
than if the plant be fertilized by its own pollen. Six 
crossed and six self-ferlilized seeds of Ipomaea jiur- 
purea were grown in pairs on opposite sides of the 
same pot. The former reached a height of seven 
feet, while the latter reached an average of five feet 
four inches. The former also grew the more pro- 
fusely. 

Sir John Lubbock has treated this subject in an 
attractive and lucid manner in a little book, juBt 



1880.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



Issued by McMillan & Co., N. Y., on " British Wild 
Flowers io Kelation to Insects." Not only docs he 
point oul the necessity of insects to the existence of 
(lowers, but ho shows that flowers and insects modify 
and change each other. Especially do liowcrs under^'o 
changes from the inlluencc of insects. Insects are 
attracted by colors, perfume and lioney. If It be an 
advantttije to llowers to be visited by insects it is 
evident that those llowers which are the brightest, 
sweetest iu peri'urae and fullest of honey, will be 
most visited, will thrive the most ami will be most 
likely to perpetuate themselves. Insects are thus 
the agents of a constant natural selection among 
flowers. Sir John Lubbock himself experimented 
upon the attractions of colors for insects. He placed 
slips of (flass with honey on paper of various colors, 
accustominj; ditl'erent bees to visit special colors, and 
when they had made a few visits to honey on paper 
of a particular color, he found tliat if the papers 
were transposed the bees followed the color. This 
and kindred topics are pursued tliroujjh llie volume 
with'mueh diversity of anecdote. 



Destroyers of Carpets. 

The season is at hand in which many careful 
housewives will be dismayed at tlie wholesale de- 
struction which their best carpets have sullered, 
through the depredations of some insect pest, and as 
usual the injury will be attributed to tlie well-known 
domestic scourge, the clothes moth, tinea tepelzdle. 
But it may be of interest to some to know that an 
insect of quite a ditl'erent order, and far more de- 
structive, is fostered unwittingly beneath our ear- 
pets. If the windows of infested rooms be carefully 
examined during the winter and spring, a number of 
small beetles may often be I'ound not exceeding one- 
eighth of an inch in length, and of an oval convex 
form. These insects are beautiful little objects, 
being jet black, variegated witli scarlet and white 
markings. If examined through a low power micro- 
scope these markings are seen to be composed of 
minute elongated scales of various colors, with 
which the body is completely covered as with a 
coat-of-mail. This is the insect which in the larval 
stale plays such havoc with the carpets, and is 
known to entomologists under the name of anthrenus 
scroplmlarioe. Its discovery in this country is of 
recent date, and it has probably been imported from 
Europe, where it has long been known and dreaded 
for its destructiveness. Owners of carpets who have 
not suffered from this source have reason to con- 
gratulate themselves and should be vigilant, making 
frequent examinations during the summer months, 
at which time the insect is in the larval state, and 
commits its ravages while its presence is often un- 
suspected. The larvi\j measure about three-six- 
teenths of an inch in length in mature specimens, 
and are clotlied with short bristly hairs somewhat 
longer at the sides where they form small tufts, and 
are terminated at the hinder end by a tuft of longer 
hair, making them appear nearly three-eighths of 
an inch long. When they are disturbed they are 
active and glide very quickly away into some crevice 
of the iloor or beneath the washboard. It is not 
very consoling to know that this pest is rapidly in- 
creasing, while no elTeclual means for its destruction 
has yet been discovered, although benzine, kerosene 
oil and insect powder liave been reported beneficial. 
A curious fact concerning these insects is that the 
imago, or perfect insect, is frequently found on 
flowers, apparently feeding on the pollen. A friend 
recently gave me a number of specimens which he 
had taken on the tulip, while I have frequently 
found them abundant on the flowers of the spirea 
alha. 

The Chinchbug. 

The following synopsis of a report on the chinchbug 
by Dr. Cyrus Thomas, president of the Illinois Uni- 
versity, and member of the United States entomolog- 
ical commission, which has just been prepared, 
gives its history, characters and habits, and the 
means of destroying it or counteracting its injuries. 
He says the chinchbug {blhsns CHOOiJtcroun my) is 
unquestionably the most formidable insect pest with 
which the farmers within the wheat-producing area 
of the United States have to contend. 

The locusts of the West are the only creatures of 
this class whose multiplication causes more sweeping 
destruction than that of this diminutive and seem" 
ingly insignificant insect. The loss from this insect 
in Illinois alone in 1830 was estimated at ?4,000,000, 
an average of §4.70 to every man, woman and child 
then living in the state. It attained tlie maximum 
of its development in the summer of 18C4, in the ex- 
tensive wheat and corn fields of the valley of the 
Mississippi, and in that single year three-fourths of 
the wheat and one-half of the corn crops were de- 
stroyed throughout many extensive districts, com- 
prising almost the entire Northwest, witli an esti- 
mated loss of more than'8100,000, 000 iu currency. 
The course of their severest ravages is in a belt in 
Illinois on about a line with the jnnction of lowaand 
Missouri, and taking in a corresponding part of 
Southern Iowa and Nebraska and of Northern Mis- 
souri and Kansas. The loss by chinchbugs in the 
state of Illinois in 1871 was upward of ?10,500,000 



taking an equal amount In Iowa and Missouri, and 
again an equal amount In Indiana, Kansas, Ne- 
braska and Wisconsin, the loss iu these states alone 
from this one species of Insect was uiiward of $3(1, 

000,000. 

As the speciee appear to have a maximum of de- 
velopment about every Ave years, the foregoing esti- 
mates, Mr. Thomas thinks, render It probable, that 
the annual loss to the nation by Its operations aver- 
ages 8JO,000,000. The insect first appeared In Illi- 
nois in ISIO, ill Iowa in 1S17, in Indiana and Wiscoii- 
sin in 1,S.")4, and In ISri over the entire Northwest, 
or natural agencies which assist in their destruction, 
Dr. Thomas says that the cliinchbiig has no such re- 
lentless enemies as those that pursue the army 
worm, plant lice, etc. There are a few insects that 
prey ujion them, hut not sufficiently numerous to 
make any material impression on the vast hordes of 
these invaders of our grain fields. The most efficient 
of these aids mentioned is the Acc/jiic^or <;i«e/«», or 
banded bug, and the frog. Professor Koss expresses 
the belief that the destruction of the frog by drain- 
ing their natural haunts is one reason why the 
chinchbug multi]ilie.s as rapidly as it do.;s in some 
sections, and Dr. Fitch is mentioned as suggesting 
the idea of sprinkling. Tlie artificial remedies given 
by Dr. I.eRaron, state entomologist of Illinois' and 
quoted by Dr. Thom.as, are : 

1. The plan of sowing grain so early in the spring 
as to get in advance of their depredations. 

2. The attempt to save a part of the crop by pre- 
venting the migrations of the bugs from one field to 
another by furrows or kerosene oil. 

o. The method of destroying the insects by burn- 
ing cornstalks and other rubbish in wiiich they are 
supposed to hibernate. 

4. The prevention of their breeding to any serious 
extent by abstaining from the cultivation "of those 
grains upon which they chiefly subsist. 

Dr. Thomas suggests burning over the infected 
fields iu tlio winter as the best means of destroying 
them. Rolling he also suggests. Dr. Thomas con- 
cludes by saying that clean fanning is the best under 
all circumstances, and if adopted as a rule will tend 
largely toward preventing the increase not only of 
chinchbugs, but of all other injurious insects. He 
also believes in diversified farming. Massing crops 
in immense bodies, and cultivating the same thing 
year after year, tend to increase the insects that feed 
on these crops. 



Entomological Notes. 

S.MALI. BORER IN APPLE TWIO. 

Editors Rural World: Enclosed you will find an 
apple twig, perforated with some kind of borer, 
whose habits seem to be like those of the flat-headed 
(working under the bark, and then boring into the 
wood.) It is new to me. The twig was handed me 
by a gentleman for examination. 'The larvie is un- 
like the flat-head (Chryso bothris fttnorala) being 
ronud and plump. Anything you can scud to 
enlighten me will be thankfully received. — Frank 
Jlohiiiycr, Kansax City, Jan. 17, '7(i. 

The small larva; are those of a long-horn beetle 
(Pseryoccrus snpernotatits,) of a cinnamon-brown 
color, with darker shading on the wing covers, 
and transverse white lines. It is generally supposed 
to attack by preference trees that arc injured or dy- 
ing, and it would be interesting to know if such is 
the case in your instance. The species was recently 
referred to in the liaral : 

The beetle deposits its eggs upon the twigs early in 
June, and the young, as soon as hatched, bore their 
way into and commence feeding on the under side of 
the bark and sap wood, gradually making their way 
to the pith, which they bore in the direction of the 
axis for the space of an inch and a-half or two inches, 
filling the cavity with their powdery excrement. 
Tlicy complete their growth by the end of summer, 
but hibernate iu the iarva^ state. Early in the fol- 
lowing spring they change to pupse, and in May the 
perfect insects appear. 

WORMS ON COTTOXWOOD. 

Editom Rural World: Please find enclosed a phial, 
with a worm inside. If you are entomologist 
enough to name it and define its species through the 
columns of the 7?»r(iZ, it will be of interest to many 
of its readers. The subscribers of the Western 
7?«ra; frequently do this. We find them numerous 
on our cottonwoods. — /. II. Davidson, Burr Oak, 
Otoe county, Xcfj. 

The worm had changed to chrysalis on the way, 
and as it was impossible to determine the specie 
without further specimens, we kept it and endeav- 
ored to hasten its development. We recently (Janu- 
ary, 1.5th) reared the moth, and it turns out to be 
one of the commonest species in the country, and 
one of the earliest flyers in spring, viz: Drasleria 
erecthea. It has no common name, but may be dis- 
tinguished by its broad gray winirs, with brown 
shades across them, the shades margined with pale 
narrow lines, and there being two small but very 
distinct spots near the apex of the front wings. This 
worm has been known to feed on clover, but has 
never before been reported on cottonwood. 

AILAXTHLS SILKWORM IX MISSOVRI. 

Editors Rural World: I would like to ask a ques- 



tion or two through your valuable paper, which I 
would like to have answered either by yourself or 
some of your numerous readers who hiive liad expe- 
rience. I want to know whether the aiiantlius silk- 
worm is grown in Missouri, with what success, and 
where I can get a supply of plants and worms, and 
tlieir probalile L'nul.—SHliMriber. 

The ailanthus sllkworm(.5nmia cynMi(i,nnbn.)ha« 
never, to our knowledge, been grown in Missouri, 
except in small numbers, as a mere curiosity. 

Tlie Insect is of Chinese origin, and in its native 
country a very durable fal>ric is manufactured from 
its cocoons. Experiments that have been made with 
it in France and England, liowever, have convinced 
silk growers that at present It can not compete with 
the mulberry silkworm {liomUyx mori.) This i« 
owing to the dilliculty attending the reeling of the 
silk, and the Inferior quality of the latter when 
wound. 

The ailanlhus silkworm was introduced into this 
country in ISOl, at Philadelphia, and, adapting itself 
readily to the climate, has already so multiplied in 
several of our eastern cities, as to become a. serious 
nuisance. 



Agriculture. 



Agricultural Items. 

To And the number of tons of hay in long or square 
stacks, the following is given as a rule : Multiply 
the length in yards by the width in yards, and divide 
the product by 15. To fiiid the number of tons iu 
circular stacks: .Multiply the square of the circum- 
ference in yards by lour times the altitude in yards, 
and divide by 100. The quotient will be the number 
of cubic yards in the stack. Then divide by 15 to 
get the number of tons. 

Tlie Country Oenlhinan says that James Wood, of 
Westchester county, New York, raised three thou- 
sand bushels of turnips on four acres of land— be- 
tween seven and eight hundred bushels to the acre. 
This is assuredly a great yield, but it was beaten in 
the county of Philadelphia, on the farm of Mr. Isaac 
Pearson, some twenty years ago, as he himself In- 
formed us, the yield b.ing nearly nine hundred 
bushels per acre. The variety was Landreth's Pur- 
ple-Top. 

Thousands of tons of Limburger cheese are pro- 
duced every season, mostly in the States of New 
York and Wisconsin, at a cost of less than half that 
of the imported article. It finds its market among 
and is consumed mostly by our (.ierman-Ainerlcan 
population. It is more profitable to the farmer and 
maker than any other kind of cheese, because from 
a given quantity of milk more weight is obtained, 
aud better prices are realized. 

The Prairie Faryner considers Minnesota the most 
certain State in the Union for raising wheat, espe- 
cially the spring variety, owing to the peculiar 
climate and qnality of the laud. Last year the yield 
of the whole State was twenty-eight million bushels. 
It is mostly ground and sent away as flour. The 
milling business in .Minnesota is one of colossal pro- 
portions. 

As there is much controversy in the igricnltural 
jiapers at present as to how to "make and save man- 
ure, I will give my plan in as few words as possible. 
First, I keep my horses aud cows iu the same stable ; 
I bed the horses well with good wheat or oats straw, 
and when they have stood in it one night, I clean all 
the straw and manure out of the stall and put it 
under the cows. By doing this I save straw, and it 
makes the manure finer. The horse manure Is 
always dry, and by putting it under the cows It 
absorbs all the urine, and it also keeps the horse 
manure from burning when thrown into the heap. 
When the manure gets well warmed in a heap, I 
take a long-handled manure fork and turn it over, 
and by that time it is well mixed and ready for the 
land . If any of your correspondents have any bettor 
way, let us hear from them. — Cor. Germanloan 
Telegraph. 

The Grain Blockade. 

The Chicago Timet has the following remarks iu 
the course of an editorial : The grain blockade at- 
tracts attention simply from the fact that the eleva- 
tors are filled. We have a constant glut in other 
lines of trade, wherein the accumulation is propor- 
tionately as great as in the grain trade. The amount 
of provisions in store here now is enormous, but the 
fact that we have nearly 300,000 barrels of pork In 
store at this moment, and meats and other provis- 
ions in proportion, does not excite any alarm, 
because there Is plenty of room for It. 

Our lumber stock is almost as largely in excess of 
the normal supply perhaps as our grain stock, but 
there is no occasion for alarm, since we have "all 
out doors" to store it in. What we need to perma- 
nently relieve the situation is a greatly Increased 
warehouse capacity, and this, fortunately, we are 
likely to get in some measure. This year elevators 
are to be built which will add a capacity for holding 
5,000,000 bushels more, and make our total capacity 
about 22,000,000 bushels. 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



But the factors at work this season are likely to 
be at work another season. If we are carryins; lii,- 
000,000 bushels this year, there is no reason why we 
should not be carrying 25,000,000 bushels next year. 
An increased warehouse capacity — much greater 
than that now contemplated — should therefore be 
added as soon as possible. Our capitalists, who 
have money to invest in this kind of property, 
should bear in raiud that we are becoming more and 
more a holding market, and that the facilities for 
storing grain must be increased to keep pace with 
this tendency. 

Not long ago we were the transfer point and the 
seaboard cities the holding points. Now the situation 
has been exactly reversed; and it is not likely that 
the old state of affairs will ever be restored. Instead 
of regarding the grain blockade as a calamity, and 
grumbling aboit it, we should consider it as a sign 
of our sure progress toward supremacy over all 
American cities. 

Horticulture. 

The Best Location for Fruit Trees. 

This question has often come up for discussion, 
and as is usual on all questions of the kind, there is a 
considerable diversity of opinion. We have our own 
and have frequently expres.sed it. For a peach, 
pear or apple orchard we should select a northern 
exposure in older that the swelling of the buds and 
their blooming might be as long delayed as possible 
and thus pass over the period of probable frost un- 
harmed. Take the present season, for instance, and 
mark the condition of the buds to-day, and what 
must be the consequence of a severe freeze in the lat- 
ter part of this mouth or the forepart of next month? 
And that we shall have it before long, on account of 
the almost unparallelled mild winter and spring up 
to this writing, may be looked for with almost abso- 
lute certainty. It is the late springs on which we 
must depend for our beet crops of fruits of the larger 
kinds; but when the season is not too backward or 
forward, a northern exposure to retard the blooming 
is to be preferred for orchards. 

We have an old friend in Montgomery county — 
the late Judge Longstreth, than whom there was 
no better citizen in the county — who was nearly 
always successful in raising peaches, having an 
orchard of about one hundred trees, and who told us 
that liis practice was when a snow fell in the latter 
part of January or in February, to pile it around the 
stems of the trees to the depth of a foot or more, 
well-tramped down. This retarded the blooming foi 
a full month later, so that in nearly all cases his 
crop was uninjured by late frosts, as is so often done 
in Delaware, Maryland and elsewhere. 

But, in connection with the raising of pears and 
cherries, the results are so variable and singular as 
to be dillicult to understand them or to adopt a rem- 
edy. A plan that will do well in one part of a pre- 
mises will fail in another part, though they may be 
only a hundred yards apart. Then, too, while lime, 
salt or a fertilizer may prove a remedy for cracking, 
falling permaturely ofl', or failing to ripen, in one 
case, in the other it will have no effect at all. 

Withxherries it is worse. One never knows when 
there will be a crop. A tree may be covered with 
blossoms, you watch it carefully, and you see noth- 
ing to interfere with an overloadec^ tree of fruit. 
There is no storm, hail or rain at the time of inflor- 
eseenee, the latter of which is especially injurious at 
this delicate period, and yet there is no fruit. They 
will grow freely until half the full size, when they 
suddenly — sometimes in a single day — turn black 
and fall to the ground. The tree itself, too, without 
giving any indication, will suddenly curl up its 
leaves and die. Some years ago we had six trees, 
oyer twenty years old, which bore full crops nearly 
every year, but they died within a few weeks of each 
other one fall. They were of different varieties, em- 
bracing Mayduke, Black Eagle, Black Tartarian, 
Florence, Downton and GovernorjWood. They stood 
In cultivated ground, not over thirtj feet apart. 
Grass, we are very well satisfied, is the best for 
pears or cherries. 



The Best Fruit to Plant. 
Friends who have but small yards of garden often 
ask what is the best tree to plant where only one or 
so can have room to grow. Now, in a general way 
there is no doubt but the apple is the king of fruits ; 
but limited to one or two trees we shall give the 
preference to a pear. The apple has such a close- 
spreading head that notliingwill grow well under it. 
Everything must be given up to it ; neither grass nor 
flowering shrubs will grow. But the pear has rather 
an upright growth, which does not shade every- 
thing about it ; and the roots run deep, so that often 
things can grow almost up to its very trunk, and 
this gives it a great advantage over the apple tree. 
Besides all this, it is measurably free from diseases 
when growing in these confined localities. We do 
not think we ever heard of a case of fire-blight in a 
pear tree in a city yard ; and it is well known that so 
far as the disease which results in cracked fruit is 
concerned, it is so little known in city yards that the 



old butter pear will often bear good fruit, under 
such circumstances, when it will do so nowhere else. 

Then in regard to the certainty of producing a 
crop, there is no fruit like it, at least in Pennsylvania. 
Peaches, apples, cherries, all may fail ; but when a 
pear once conies in, it is tolerably sure to have more 
or less fruit every year. 

We should plant a pear by all means if limited to 
a small space of ground. And yet in some respects 
the cherry is not far behind it ; and especially in 
that good point which allows crops to grow close to 
the trunk without much objection. One of the most 
successful cherry-growers we have in this State 
grows clover between the trees, and he insists tliat 
he has quite as good a crop about the tree-trunks as 
anywhere else. Be this as it may, we do know that 
the deep roots of the cherry do not interfere near as 
much with things growing on the surface of the 
ground under the branches as many other things do. 
it is also a tolerably regular bearer, though the cur- 
culio, and in some eases birds, are troublesome. In 
the matter of diseases, also, the knot is often formid- 
able. The pie cherries, however, are less troubled 
by the curculio, though perhaps more liable to suffer 
from the knot trouble. The sweet cherries grow 
very rapidly as a general rule, and in this respect are 
often chosen where a little shade as well as some 
fruit are desirable combinations in a single tree. On 
the whole, we prel'er the pear, though for a little 
change and for some other reasons one can have a 
cherry if desirable. — Germa9flow7i Telegraph. 



Selecting Seed Potatoes. 

Those farmers who have no settled practice of 
selecting their seed potatoes would do well to con- 
sider carefully whether the same rule which governs 
the selection of seed corn will not apply equally as 
well to potatoes. We have no doubt that it will, and 
therefore advise that the larger-sized tubers, such as 
are used for the table, be selected for seed, and that 
a very economical way of domg so is, when selecting 
such for the table, to cut' each one horizontally in 
two, reserving the smaller half, or that containing 
the crown end, for seed, and using the other or larger 
half for culinary purposes — the smaller-sized tubers 
to be fed the cows, or boiled and mixed with meal 
for the pigs. Before planting, however, these crown 
halves should be cut lengthwise in two, and rolled in 
plaster, the better to prevent their drying. To test 
the diiJerence in product between whole and cut 
potatoes, the most careful experiments were recently 
instituted in Germany, where it was found that an 
acre of ground planted with tubers cut in half length- 
wise produced five tons, another acre planted with 
whole tubers produced seven and a half tons, while 
from an acre of ground planted with the crown half 
of tubers cut lengthwise in two the yield was nine 
and a half tons. Other experiments but confirmed 
these results, while there was no evidence of any 
well-ordered experiments showing the contrary. 
Repeated trials also demonstrated the fact that the 
largest potatoes yielded the largest potatoes iu re- 
turn. There are two reasons for this : one, that it is 
in accordance with a uniform law of nature that like 
will produce like, and the other that the nutriment 
afforded the embryo potato is in proportion to the 
size of the parent tuber. It is all a mistake, there- 
fore, to sujipose that all that is necessary to insure 
its full yield is to plant the eye of the potato, with- 
out reference to the amount of nutriment it receives 
from the tuber containing it. 

Domestic Economy. 

What Every House Needs. 

One of the worst faults of our very faulty modern 
architecture, as applied to houses, is found in the 
fact that architects do not take into their plans the 
possibilities of sickness in the family. No house is 
properly constructed that has not in it a room or 
rooms expressly designed for the accommodation of 
the sick and the infirm. This room should have a 
very warm, sunny exposure. The window-light 
should tie ample, and command the widest possible 
view. The next essential is a good, liberal fireplace. 
By the warmth which it generates, and facilities for 
ventilation, the whole room is kept wholesome and 
pure. Not only so, but a slowly burning fire, with 
its lights and shades, its rising sparks and glowing 
brands, its curling and many colored smoke, and its 
changed embers, furnishes careless diversion to the 
sick one who lies watching it. Nothing is more 
soothing and quieting than the influence which 
siil)tly steals over the senses of on£ who gazes 
dreamily into the genial fiame. It is companionship 
itself. The walls too, should have their proper 
adornments. Pictures that suggest quiet and peace, 
and the free, fresh life of nature outside, should be 
ou them. A bracket with its vases of fiowers; a 
green clambering vine, clinging ambitiously to the 
ceiling; a library case full of familiar books; curtains 
that soften the light while admitting it — all these 
are helpful to one that lies in weakness, and can 
take no more than the little room reveals. Better 
still, if just outside the window stands a tree with 
the branches so placed that the leaves of some 



almost sweep the pane. How much the sight of 
twigs, buds, and leaves stirred by the wind and 
flecked with bright gleams of the sun, can cheer the 
mind of one who lies up in the pillow idly looking at 
them ? The central thought expressed iu a well con- 
ducted sickroom is — diversion. The oliject of Its 
construction and location should be to give perfect 
accommodation and protection to the invalid, while 
at the same time it suggests the beauty and the free- 
dom of being juncsnfiued — the life and animation of 
the great outdoor world beyond. 



Have Clean Beds. 

It is a false idea of neatness which demands that 
beds should be made soon after being vacated. Let 
it be remembered that more than three-fifths of the 
solids and liquids taken into the stomach should pass 
off through the pores of the skin — seven millions in 
number — and that this escape is the most rapid dur- 
ing the night, while warm in bed. At least one-half 
of the waste and putrid matter (from twenty to 
thirty ounces in the night), must become more or 
less tangled in the bedding — of course soiling it — 
and a part of this may become re-absorbed by the 
skin, if it is allowed to come in contact with it on 
the next night, as it must if the bedding is not ex- 
posed for a few hours in the air and light. We may 
well imitate the Dutch example of placing such bed- 
ding on two chairs near the window, that the best 
purifier known — the light of the sun — may dissipate 
their impurities, or neutralize them. At least three 
hours on the average is as short exposure as is com- 
patible with neatness. It is also desirable that the 
air shall pass through open doors and windows, and 
that as much sunlight be admitted as possible to the 
room in which about one-third of the time is spent. 
In addition to these measures, it is w.ell to have the 
attic windows wholly or partly open, and the doors 
leading to it, so that a free current may pass through 
all the rooms, up the stairs, and out into the outer 
world, to become purified by vegetation, etc., before 
being again respired. Clothes thus aired and sunned 
will not demand more than half the usual washing, 
though they can scaicely be washed too often. An- 
other means of promoting cleanliness is by the abso- 
lute change of all clothing morning and night, wear- 
ing nothing by night that is worn by day, and vice 
versa. Such clothes are hung to sun by day and dry 
by night, and such only are fit to be worn by those 
who have a reasonable regard for personal cleanli- 
ness. And I may remark that when such clothes 
are removed for the change, it is of the utmost im- 
portance to the health that the skin should be sub- 
jected to a reasonable friction — as by a flesh-brush, a 
crash, a coarse flannel, or the hand, as a means of 
cleanliness, and of improved circulation. — J. M. 
Hanaford. 

Household Recipes. 

Veal Pie. — Take some of the middle or scrag of a 
small neck ; season it with pepf er and salt, and put 
to it a few pieces of ham or lean bacon. If it be 
wanted of a high relish, add mace, cayenne and 
nutmeg to the salt and pepper, and also forcemeat 
and egg balls. 

Gravies. — To have gravy always on hand you 
must do as the French do— namely : Save gristle and 
every bone left from cold meat or fresh. The bones 
must be chopped small and put on to stew, with 
enough water to cover. Leave the fat on until you 
need to use gravy. By this means it will keep longer. 

Beef Like Game. — Cut some slices of beef in 
square pieces, put on each a strip of bacon, dredge 
flour over them, skewer them into a rolled shape ; 
fry them in butter ; when brown, add shalots, a 
slice of lemon peel, a spoonful of capers, two bay- 
leaves, salt, spice, a wineglass of vinegar, and a 
glass of wine and a little of water ; stew till tender. 

Scrambled Eugs with Dried Beef. — Shave the 
beef very fine; put a tablespoonful of butter in a 
frying pan ; set it over the fire, and when hot put in 
the beef; heat a few minutes, stirring constantly to 
prevent burning ; beat up the required number of 
eggs and stir in with hot beef ; stir altogether until 
the eggs are cooked. Serve immediately. 

French Rarebit. — Take three ounces of cheese, 
cut in small square pieces, and set it to fry with a 
little piece of butter. When your cheese begins to 
melt, have three eggs beaten up with salt and pep 
per, pour them upon your cheese. Stir and roll it 
into a sort of a muff, and take it off. The whole op- 
eration should uot take more than one or two min- 
utes. 

"Stewed Chicken. — Cut up your chicken pretty 
fine, wash careful and set on the stove with cold 
water nearly to cover it; skim carefully as it comes to 
a boil; cook till tender, and season with salt, pepper, 
and butter. Have ready some hot biscuits short- 
ened a little, split them open, aud lay them in your 
dish, pour over your meat and gravy, and send to 
the table. 

Stewed Beef. — Cut thick slices from the tougher 
portions of beef; lay two or three slices of salt pork 
iu the bottom of your kettle, and fry it till cri«p; 



1880^] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



take out the pork ami lay in your sliced beef; season 
with salt, pepper, and a little clove; pour in water 
nearly to eover it, and cook slowly for three or four 
hours; when tender, take up the beef, thieken the 
gravy with a little Hour wet with water, and pour 
over your meat. 

Savout Eggs. — Six or eisht e-rss boiled bard, and 
then cut in two ; remove the yolks and ijrind them 
in a mortar quite smooth, with about a tabli'sjioonful 
of anchovy sauce (more if necessary), a little cay- 
enne, and a tablespoonful of cream, to make Into a 
paste ; pile the mixture rousrbly in the twelve'half- 
wbites, which must have a piece the size of a six- 
pence cut oil at the bottom to make them stand in 
the lish ; garnish with parsley. 

Scrambled F.uos with Cheese. — Grate any ordi- 
nary sharp cheese, a tablespoonful for every two 
eggs; put some butler in a frying-pan, anil, when 
melted, throw in the cheese; stir for a minute or 
two until the cheese melts ; add the eggs, pepper 
and salt, and mix with a fork until cooked. This is 
a nice side dish at dinner, or maybe served at break- 
fast with fried bacon and baked potatoes. — Tlu: 
Aiiicrkiin Puultry Yard. 

Scalloped Fish. — Any cold tish, one egg, milk, 
one large blade of pounded mace, one tablespoonful 
of flour, one teasiioonful of anchovy sauce, pepper 
and salt to taste, bread-ciumbs, butter. Pick the 
lish carefully from the liones, anil moisten with milk 
and the egg; add the other ingredients, and place in 
a deep dish or scallop shells; cover with bread- 
crumbs, butter the top, and brown before the fire; 
when quite hot, serve. — An Kiij/lish Woman, I'Mla- 
(Mphia. 

Baked Fish.— Take a fresh codflsh,;wcighing sev- 
eral pounds, clean very carefully; make a stutflng of 
bread crumbs moistened with milk and seasoned 
with pepper, sage, and a little salt pork chopped; 
stuft'the fish, se\v it together carel'iiUy, and lay in 
your dripping-pan with'a little water; lay thin slices 
of salt pork on the top, after sprinkling with salt 
and flour; a good oven will bake it nicely in two 
hours; add a little flour and butter to' the gravy, and 
serve with the flsh. 

To Spice A Rouxd op Corned Beef.— Take a 
strong twine string and tie it tightly around the 
round to keep it in good shape; then stick it well on 
both sides with cloves, squeezing tbeni in as far as 
possible; rub it also well with three tablespoonfuls 
of pounded saltpetre, and then with plenty of fine 
salt. Lay it iu a large wooden tray or round vessel 
that is tight, and every other day turn it and rub 
well iuto it the brine which makes froiu it. In teu 
days if properly attended to it will he fit for use. 

Eoo Soup. — Put two large teaspoonfuls of lard in 
a pot ; when hot add two of flour and two onions cut 
up fine ; 'lY^en the flour is brown put as much boil- 
ing water m the pot as you desire lor soup ; add salt 
and pepper, and let it boil lor a short time ; break 
into the soup tureen five or six eggs ; beat them up 
w^ell, then gradually pour iu the soup, stirring the 
■ egg while doing so. Toast two thin slices of bread, 
cut them iuto small squares, fry in butter and pour 
into the soup. Before sending to table a little vine- 
gar may be added or not, as taste dictates. 

Scotch Oatmeal Cakes. — Put one pound of oat- 
meal in a basin. Take oue pint of boiling water, 
with half an ounce of salt butter or lard melted iu it. 
Pour this, boiling, over the rn 'al, sijrring it as 
quickly as possible into a dougli, and then turning it 
out upon a board, upon which roll it until it is as 
thin as it will allow to hold together. Then stamp 
it out into the shape of round cakes. Place these 
first upon a griddle to make them firm, and after- 
wards toast them before the fire, alternately on each 
side, till they are quite dry and crisp. 

Baked Calf's Head. — Boil the head until you 
can pick out all the bones, and keep the water the 
head is boiled in; take your pieces and lay them in a 
dish, having cut them small; use some salt, pepper, 
a little parsley, a grate of nutmeg, a small piece of 
butter and some dry breadcruiubs, say a teaeupl'ul 
of the latter; moisten it all witli some of the water 
the head has been boiled in, put in a baking-dish, 
and let it bake half an hoiu" take the yolks of two 
eggs and make a sauce with the boiled liquor; make 
•cup of the rest of the liquor. 

Potted Beef.— Take three pounds of lean beef, 
rub it with an ounce of saltpetre, let it lie twenty- 
four hours, then salt it well with common salt, and 
put it into a pot, covered with water, for three or 
four days; then take it out and dry witli a cloth, 
after which put with it a quarter of an ounce of pep- 
per and bake it; then drain it from the liquor and 
pull from it the skin and veins; beat it in a mortar 
very fine, season with cloves, mace, and, if required, 
more pepper and siilt; mix with rather better than a 
quarter of a pound of butter, melted; pot it up hard 
and cover with clarified butter. 

Beef Cakes. — Take the part of beef used for 
steaks, cut it into pieces, then beat it well in a mar- 
ble mortar until it is very fine. Take especial pains 
to free it from all bits of skin and fat; then add to it 
good beef suet, well chopped and carefully picked, 
in the proportiou..of a quarter of a pound of suet to 



each pound of meat; season to j'our taste with mace, 
cloves, nutmeg, white pepper and a little salt, all 
well iJounded, and also lemon-thyme, sweet marjo- 
ram and parsley dried and clu)pped. To these add 
one yood-sized onion finely minced. Blend the whole 
mass very thoroughly, and make into small cakes 
and fry them over a brisk lire. If your meat is fresh, 
and you make It in winter, this will keep good for a 
fortnight, if pressed closely down In a jar. 

Milk uolls. — One jioiind flour, one ounce butler, 
one ounce sugar, one full teaspoonfnl Clcvelan(l 
baking powder, one pint new milk and a little salt. 
First put in the basin the flour, then the butter and 
half tile sugar; rub altogether with the hands till the 
batter is smooth; llu-n aild the salt, next the baking 
powder, then theiTiilk.a small quantity at a time. 
Turn it out on the boaril.and knead rjuickly together 
— the quicker it is done the better and lighter it will 
be. Cut into six or eight parts; shape the dough 
into long, high pieces; make two cuts across the top; 
lil.ace it in a floured tin, and bake In a cpiick oven for 
fifteen minutes. Wiien done, take out, glaze over 
with white of an egg, or a little milk, dust the re- 
mainder of the sugar over tliem, and return to the 
oven for a short time. 

Cheese FitiTTEKs. — Take three ounces or three 
tablespoonfuls of flour, one ounce of butter, one gill 
of tepid water (t wo jiarts of cold and one of lioiling), 
a little pepper and salt, one egg, three tablespoonfuls 
of grated cheese. For this the old hard pieces of 
cheese may be used. First place in the bowl the 
flour, then the pepper and salt; melt the butter, 
and pour it upon the Hour. Ne.xt, add the water, 
diop in the yolk of an egg, and then stir in the 
cheese. Beat the white of the egg tb a stiff froth, 
and when light, mix with the other ingredients. 
Put in by spoonful into hot lard or clarified fat, and 
cook for three minutes. When they rise toss them 
over, so as to brown both sides. When done, take 
out and place first upon a sheet of white paper, then 
pile on a hot napkin. — .!/;,■.■.■! Duild. 



Live Stock. 



Abortion in Cows- 



-The 
of It. 



Probable " Cause 



It is a fact that abortion among the cows of our 
milk and butter dairies has become alarmingly pre- 
valent — so prevalent that the Pennsylvania State 
Board of Agriculture has instituted diligent inquiry 
by luimerous questions put to the most likely persons 
to know, " What is the probable cause of it, in pub- 
lie opinion V 

Although we are bound to respect public thought 
on all the issues of life, I cannot see any good reason 
why any one who may think he sees something good 
outside of common routine thought should not be at 
liberty to venlilate it, and specially if he attempts to 
give some cogent reasou for "the faith that is in 
him." I shall make no assertion in this connection 
but what I think lean logically stand by. Of course 
positive proof of anything is in the power of but few 
on most, of the questions of huiuan experience, but 
such proof as I have to otfer is the best that a limited 
experience has put in my power. 

On our little farm at home we have but eight to 
twelve head of cattle, and, as we raise our own 
stock, there is always some " not in profit," or not 
milking. Since we have adopted the present man- 
agement of our stock we have only had one case of 
abortion, and that from a known cause, while 
neighboring dairies arc suffering from many every 
year, even to half and some more. I think we make 
as much butter per cow per annum on an average as 
any of them. For twenty years past we never have 
stabled our cows, day or night, summer or winter. 
Their pasture lies in one undivided enclosure con- 
tiguous to the barn and milking-pen. Wc never 
confine them except to feed and milk. There is 
plenty of running water and shade very plenty, and 
shelter at the barn for all. We feed a little wheaten 
bran all the time, and a little cornmeal towards 
spring, in the winter. We keep them only in thriv- 
ing conditiou, not fat, and never "push" them lor 
the purpose of "making it pay." It is an observable 
fact in nature tliat greed leads to the sin of excess 
and the curse of defeat of its own purpose. 

It is an observable fact, too, that all power on 
earth is derived /rom t/ie fun. That which is not 
direct between animal and the sun is first something 
else direct from the suu, and from thence to the 
animal, as to atmosphere, water, herbage, itc. This 
suu power thus modified to the animal, produces 
only certain natural effects, chief among which are 
the functions of procreation and the function of nu- 
trition necessary to it. 

It is also a fact in nature that everything to be 
perpetual is compensating one part for another ; 
that is, iu the case of the cow, when one function is 
active on which another partly depenils, the other ie 
comparatively quiescent or sympathetic. Nature is 
so profusely liberal in all her appointments and sup- 
plies that to a certain extent she maybe tampered 
with, without producing entire failure of any mate- 
rial function. Yet beyond such limit mau must 
learn, easily or dearly, he cannot go. 



I have already on other occasions said so mucli 
that may be constrned iuto disregard of public opin- 
ion, or a desire to run counter to it — a propensity I 
disclaim — that I need not here enumerate the many 
deviations from nature tile milch cow is now under- 
going at the hand of the dairyman. Every intelli- 
gent mind connected with the business is aware of 
it, and if he knows nature at all cannot fall to llnd 
abunf (»/ natural fttnctionii as a probable, may I not 
say a " knowable," cause of abortion. And not ouly 
of abortion, but of the many forms of disorder preva- 
lent among our herds. 

1 have been Informed tliat the French get their 
heifers In" milking condition and then have them 
"spald," so that they may never cease milking uutll 
by force of nature they are worn out In the service, 
when they become a kind of beef! I do not vouch 
(or this statement, nor do I know to what extent it 
is praittised ; but I liave read It among many other 
to me strange innovations on dame nature, none of 
which, so far as I know, has been with impunity. — 
(icrntaittou'n. Trlctjrajih. 



The Villager's Pig.— How to Keep It. 

A large number of our village subscribers keep a 
cow, and one or mcu'e pigs, just to save the waste 
from the table, and to help in the support of the 
family. Both are important sources of Income when 
properly managed. The inevitable waste from the 
kitchen in an ordinary American family amounts to 
a good deal in the <oursc of a year. It may as well 
be turned into pork, sausages, head cliecse, spare 
ribs, and lard, as to be thrown away. A neighbor, 
who has a vegetable gardf.n, and stuiiles thrift, has 
just slaughtered two pijjs. weighing 598 pounds, and 
worth S-io.KS at the market jirice. The manure 
made from them is worth ten dollars at least. Two 
small pigs were put into the pen April (jth, and came 
out well fatted November 21st, about seven months 
and a half. The food consumed consisted mainly of 
sour and buttermilk, kitchen waste, small potatoes, 
cabbage, turnips, sweet corn, wind-fall apples, and 
other wastes liom the garden. To this was added 
enough Indian meal to keep them constantly full fed 
from spring to fall. A good pen is an important 
item in feeding pigs. The sleeping apartment 
should be dry, and be kept well littered with straw, 
leaves, or sea-weed. From one-half to two-thirds of 
a pig's life is to be spent in sleep, if It is well treated. 
Give tlie pig the materials, and he will make a nice 
bed and keep it clean. The remainder of the stye Is 
of less importance. There should be room enough 
to compost the manure, liquid and solid, with gar- 
den soil, corn stalks, weeds, and other refuse mat- 
ter. The pig Is unrivalled as a manufacturer of 
compost. Its good effects will be seen in all parts 
of the garden, where it Is spread the following sea- 
son, llcgularity of feeding, three times a day, is 
one of the secrets of success. This may be at your 
own meal times, if your wife is a good house-keeper 
and keeps a clock in the kitchen. Good digestion 
depends upon regular meal hours for man and beast. 
There is then very little temptation to over eating, 
no cloying, and no spells of refusing food. A pig 
should never lose a meal after he is put into the pen, 
and should never be hungry enough to squeal. It 
requires some judgment iu equalizing the rations, 
as well as in regulating their time. .Much less of 
Indian meal is required for a ration, than of cooked 
potatoes, and less of potatoes than of kitchen 
waste. If anything is left in the feed trough, the 
ration has been a little too large, or not quite 
good enough. A pig should have all he can eat 
up and digest. A variety of food should also receive 
attention. The raw vegetables and fruits from the 
garden are excellent appetizers, and enable the pig 
to consume more meal. The meal may be mixed 
with cold or boiling water, with milk, or boiled 
fruits and vegetables, as suits convenience. It may 
be varied with unground corn, buckwheat, or mix- 
ture of ground grains. The time spent in caring for 
a pig usually comes at meal hours, and may be bal- 
anced by what wc learn in tlic school of economy. 
There is perhaps no animal that will exhibit more 
satisfaction, and give greater returns for good care 
and feeding, than a pig; and on the other hand a 
hungry one without a warm home — one that has 
not had a proper bringing up — can make itself ex- 
ceedingly disagreeable, both as to general appear- 
ance and the noise that it will produce; besides, such 
an animal is without profit. As a rule, it pays the 
villager to raise his own pork, and it pays him the 
greatest profit when he takes the best care of his 
pig. — C, American AgritruUnristy Feb. 

^ 

Feeding Bran. 

Bran is an excellent food for production of milk 
iu cows, and for feeding young animals. It contains 
a large proportion of the phosphates, which are a 
most necessary part of the food of an animal, but 
one in which most foods are deficient. In a ton of 
wheat bran there is flfty-four and a-half pounds. 
Kye bran is also richer iu potash than that of 
wheat, by nearly forty per cent.; hence for food, and 
for the resulting manure, rye bran Is preferable. In 
feeding bran the value of the manure should be 
taken into consideration. This, although it may not 
be seen so conspicuously, nor so quickly as the milk 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 1880, 



in the pail, or the increased thrift of a young ani- 
mal, yet it is as certainly exists, and in good time 
will show itself in the field. It is beyond question 
that in I'eediuj; a ton of bj-an, the larger part of the 
profit is made in the manvire, and if one is satisfied 
with what he gains directly in the feeding, he may 
be all the more so with that which he receives in the 
manure. 



Robert Bonner's Large Sale of Fine Blooded 
Stock. 

A large number of admirers of fine blooded stock 
gathered at the .Manhatten club grounds. New York, 
Wednesday morning, to attend the sale of some of 
Robert Bonner's horses. Horse fanciers from all 
parts of the country were present. Eighty-seven of 
Bonner's horses were sold. Only a few of the lots 
went at what may be called high prices, and even 
these were sold at rates far below the real value of 
the animals. 

Keene Jim, a famous gelding, was sold for $4,000. 
The name of the purchaser was Charles A. Dana. 
The following are the names of some of the horses 
sold, with their price and names of purchasers : 
Prince Imperial, b. g., foaled June2, 1869, sire Wm. 
'Welsh, dam, celebrated Flora Temple, present year 
has shown a record of 2:2:5;!^ was sold for |1,42.5 to 
W. F. Osborne, of Ansonia, Conn.; Thomas K., b.e., 
foaled May l(i, 1S74, sire, Edward Everett, trotted 
last year in 2-A3}i, was purchased by J. H. Clarke, 
of Scio, N. Y., for-?500. 



Black Leg in Calves. 

This disease, which is so prevalent in spring and 
fall, and is so sudden in its attacks that it is nearly 
always fatal, affects only those calves which are 
well fed and in good condition. When the young 
animals are to alT appearance thriving, the owner is 
apt to be satisfied and thinks all is well with them ; 
but in reality it is then that watchfulness should be 
exercised, or at least some precaution should be 
used. Over-feeding is productive of more disease 
than scanty feeding, and when calves are known to 
be in a luxurious pasture, it will be wise to give them 
an occasional purgative of an excellent antiseptic 
character. Sulphite of soda is an excellent altera- 
tive, and may be given in one dram doses with some 
Epsom salts at intervals of a few days ; once a week, 
for instance, will benefit as a preventive of this 
disease. 



Breed Rather than Purchase. 

The experience of many thriving farmers, says the 
Massacfiusclls I'lowman, all over the country proves 
a better run of animals is obtained by breeding them 
on a farm than by purchasing them. More care is 
bestowed in selecting the likely offspring of tried an- 
imals- They will go on fattening more rapidly and 
uniformly than strangers picked up here and there, 
for it takes some time before these get acquainted 
and become contented enough to lay on flesh kindly 
in their new home; and, moreover, the tendency of 
your stock is upward, and the probability is that ere 
long it will not pay farmers to go into the market 
for young animals. In any ca.se it is, as a rule, 
more profitable to breed the stock one handles than 
to purchase it. 



Keeping Old Sheep. 
The New York Tribvne says : " It is folly to keep 
old sheep. They should be turned off to the butcher 
while they are in their prime. It does not take half 
so much to fatten them then. When they (iet old 
and thin, in order to put them in condition to slaugh- 
ter, the whole superstructure must he rebuilt. Four 
sets of lambs are all a ewe can bear ; this will bring 
her to five years, and this is an age when, with a 
little extra care, she will round up to a fine carcass. 
Exceptions may be made when the breed is scarce, 
and the blood is more valuable than anything else." 



A Horse's Foot. 

Those who will take the pains to examine a horse's 
foot will find it a set of elliptical springs separated 
from each other by a spongy substance, and the frog 
a cushion to rest the foot upon, the whole being 
admirably constructed for a heavy body to resist 
jars, from which the natural inference that cutting 
and paring the hoof and frog is not only useless but 
positively injurious. 



Kentucky Mules. 

Seventy Kentucky mules have been imported into 
England for use on the tramways. It is said that 
three mules can be kept as cheaply as two horses, 
and that their powers of endurance are greater than 
those of horses. In Glasgow the experiment has 
been tried with success. 

Literary and Personal. 

The American Cultivatok.— Devoted to agricul- 
ture, horticulture, markets, news, art, science and 
home literature, under the cabalistic motto : " Im- 
prove the mind and the soil." Boston, Mass. This 
IB a large eight paged folio, six columns to the page, 



published weekly, at 82.50 per annum, by George 
B.James at 48 Summer street. No. 9, Vol. 42 ie 
before us, and in quantity and quality surpasses any 
imilar publication in the Union. 

The Koanoke Farmer. — Published by Harrell 
Bros., Weldon, N. C, an 8 vo. magazine of :8 pp. 
No. 1, Vol. 2, for March, ISSO, has found its way to 
our table, and is well filled with short and practical 
articles in the interest of husbandry and domestic 
industry. Although published in the "Sunny 
South," it contains much that is of general interest, 
not only to the farmers in its locality, but also to the 
entire country. 

PnRDT's Fruit Farm and NtTRSEltlES, Palmyra, 
N. Y. A royal 8vo. of 24 pp., being a descriptive 
retail catalogue of small fruits for spring, 1880, in- 
cluding strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, 
goo.seberries, dewberries, currants, grapes, &c., in 
their different varieties, with interesting remarks in 
relation to their origin, habits, profit, proliflcatiou 
and culture. Send and get a catalogue before you 
commence your spring operations. 

Journal of Science. — An illustrated periodical 
of practical information, designed for popular read- 
ing, and devoted to the diffusion of knowledge. 
New Series, Vol. 3, No. 3., Chicago, Illinois, March 
l.'j, 1880. A 4 columned demi-folio of 10 pages, 
Edited l)y C. H. Fitch, and published by "The 
Journal of Science Publishing Company, at §1.00 a 
year. The letter press, the illustrations, and the 
literary contents are of an able and practical charac- 
ter, and cannot fail to interest and instruct those 
who are of a practical and scientific turn of mind. 

The Sorgo Hand-Book. — Being the twenty-first 
annual edition of a treatise on the Chinese and 
African sugar canes. Published by Blymyer Manu- 
facturing Co., for gratuitous distribution, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. "This is a handsomely printed 8 vo. pamphlet 
of 28 pp., including the covers, with 19 superb illus- 
trations of the different sugar canes, mill, engines, 
evaporators and other implements used in making 
sugar, and instructions in culture and use. As an 
industrial enterprise sugar raising and manufacture 
must ultimately become a matter of permanent con- 
sideration among our farmers 

Seventh Quarterly Beport of the Pennsyl- 
vania Board of Agriculture for December, 1879, and 
January and February, 1880. A royal octavo of 48 
pages. So far a9 material and typography are con- 
cerned, these are the best documents ever published 
by the State. This document is almost exchisively 
made up of reports of county fairs, and judging 
from the report of Lancaster county fairs of Septem- 
ber last, they are pretty correct. We would ad- 
monish our local society that there is a " Chief 
among them taking notes, and faith he'll print'm." 
This year ought to elicit a better report than that of 
last year, anyhow. 

The Homing Pigeon and Exchange Mart, 
Springfield, Mass., March 15, 1880. Published semi- 
monthly at $1.00 per annum. Sample copies 6 
cents. No. 1, Vol. 1 of this exceedingly neat journal 
has been received, and it is replete with matter in- 
teresting to the "fanciers" of this species of pet 
stock. It is a double columned demi-quarto of 8 pp. 
on pure white paper, and, in typographical execu- 
tion, it will compare with any other journal in the 
country. (After all there is nothing in the typo- 
graphic art that will compare with black ink and 
pure white paper.) As its title implies, it is devoted 
exclusively to pigeon culture, and especially the 
"Homing," or carrier varieties. 

The Stock Farm and Home Weeklt.— A (i 
columned and S paged folio, edited by O. G. Con- 
tant and H. C. Brown, and published by E. AV. 
Noyes & Co., Kansas City, Kansas, at |l.50 per 
annum. This journal contains an immense amount 
of practical information on a great variety of subjects 
coming within the sphere of the farmer, mechanic, 
stock raiser and fruit grower, and is far in advance 
of any similar journal published in Penn.sylvania. 
Vieing successfully with the Prairie Farmer and the 
Jiural Nev) Yorker. No. 2, Vol. 1, March 6, 18S0, is 
on our table, showing that it is a new enterprise, 
and, coming; as it does from Kansas, ought to be a 
guarantee of its ultimate success. 

The Torch of Ttuth. — Published monthly by 
Elder J. F. Weishample, North Queen street, Lan- 
caster, Pa., at 25 cents a year. No. 1, Vol. 1, of this 
little 7 by 11 folio, has been kindly placed upon our 
editorial altar,5and from our heart we wish it well. 
It is entirely an individual enterprise, but is pub- 
lished in the interest of the "Church of God." True 
it is small, but when we reflect that a single "parlor 
match" of the present day makes as brilliant a light 
as the largest old-fashioned "lallowdip," we may 
feel assured that fiiend Weishample's little Torch 
will be none the less luminous because it is small, 
nor will it burn the less brightly in lighting the 
torches of others. With all the significance that 
may be legitimately attached to a commcin saying — 
"may its shadow never grow less." 

The American Monthly Microscopical Jour- 
nal.— Edited and published by Romyn Hitchcock, 
F. R.M.S., No. 5:i Maiden Lane, New York, at 
$1 .00 a year, In advance ; single numbers 15 cents, 



with club rates still more liberal. An octavo of 23 
pp., of which a sample copy — being No. 3, Vol. I for 
March, 1880— has been received. Organized micro- 
scopic progress is comparatively a new scientific 
enterprise m North America, and mainly confined to 
the larger towns and cities. But now the subject is 
assuming a more important form, and increased 
facilities for microscopic observation, and a wider 
field for diffusion is opening, and this journal — al- 
though not the only one devoted to this specialty in 
our country — may legitimately take rank among the 
representatives of our microscopic enterprise and 
literature. Although many people look upon micro- 
scopy as merely a temijorary source of amusement, 
it is of the utmost importance as an auxiliary in 
scientific analysis and minute investigation, and the 
chief wonder is why America has been so far behind 
Europe in this respect, connected as it so eminently 
is, with the atomic or protoplastic origin of material . 
forms. Its practical character in many departments 
of knowledge will be developed as the science pro- 
gresses, and like the telephone, its utility and its 
application to the economies of every-day life, will 
be e'er long fully recognized and regarded as a ne- 
cessity. "The Journal is a clean, neat and well- 
executed specimen of the typographic art, and its 
literary contents of a superior order. We commend 
it to the notice of our local society as an indispensa- 
ble aid in their microscopic labors. 

Quarterly Report of the State Board of 
Agriculture for the Y'ear Ending December 
31, 1879. — Owing to the continued ill health of Hon. 
Alfred Gray, late Secretary of the State Board of 
Agriculture, the quarterly report for the quarter 
ending December 31, 1879, has been greatly delayed. 
The volume has been received, and among its valua- 
ble contents will be found the average condition of 
crops and farm animals, estimated acreage of winter 
wheat of 1879 compared with the acreage of 1878, 
crop statistics summarized by counties, showing the 
number of acres, product and value of crop for 1879, 
a general summary of all crops, acreage increase 
and decrease, average yield, also summaries by 
counties, showing the number and value of live 
stock for 1879, valuation of property, school statis- 
tics, showing number of school districts, number of 
school houses, value of school buildings, number of 
teachers employed, etc., population of Kansas in 
1878 and 1879, showing increase by counties, mete- 
orological summary of the year, an article upon 
Egyptian corn or Pampas rice, togetlier with a chem- 
ical analysis of the same, and an article on pearl 
millet. Probably the most interesting feature of 
this report is the lengthy illustrated part devoted to 
"sheep husbandry" in Kansas, giving a short his- 
tory and description of the various breeds of sheep 
and the experience of practical breeders in each 
county, closing with an illustrated sketch of "A 
Kansas sheep and grain farm, its receipts and ex- 
penditures." This is followed by a map showing 
the railroads of Kansas, January 1, 1880, and also 
the census districts. The volume closes with a 
brief biographical notice of the late Mr. Gray, who 
gave to this quarterly report the last labors of his 
life. The address of Rev. Dr. McCabe, which fol- 
lows the biography, delivered at the funeral of Mr. 
Gray, is an eloquent tribute to a useful man. 

"Happy Days." — A summer tour to the Azores 
and Lisbon, described in a series of lettei'S written 
for the rtiiladelphia Times, by Marianna Gibbons. 
This is a square 12mo. pamphlet of 41 pages, in 
paper covers, and printed on tinted calendered paper, 
by John A. Hiestand, Lancaster, Pa. {Examiner 
Printing House.) These letters originally appeared 
in the columns of the Times over the pseudonym of 
" Maritana," and doubtless may have been read by 
those of our readers who patronize that paper. We 
are under obligations to the fair author of this little 
work for an advanced copy ; we have read it, and 
have felt as much interest in it as we did in Russel 
Young's " Life and Travels of General Grant," al- 
though written from a different plane of observation. 
"One-half of the world don't know how the other 
half lives," and never would find out, if they cir 
cumnavigated the globe a dozen times, so long as 
their observaiions were circumscribed by royal and 
noble intercourse alone. Every letter contains 
something that is original, something new, some- 
thing that is interesting, even if we have read it 
before. As coming immediately within the sphere of 
our agricultural function, we would remark that the 
dairy "system of Lisbon is decidedly commendable In 
those districts of our country where it is impossible 
to obtain pure milk ; unless they may be like the 
young lady who objected to the thick and yellow 
cream of the country, because it was not thin and 
blue like they get it in the city. The Lisbon dairy- 
man drives his cow from door to door and draws 
from her udder, in the presence of his customers, 
the quantify they desire. There can surely be no 
adulteration under such a system. " John Donkey," 
as a means of conveyance, seems to occupy quite as 
distinguished a position in the West Indies as he does 
in the East, and all over the world he is the same 
patient, indolent and obstinate creature. The reader 
will find amusement and instruction in " Happy 
Days." 



THE LANCASTER FARMERv 



III 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Fruit Evaporator. 
Within a few years tlie evaporation of fruit by Im- 

I reived processi'S, unJcr tlie etinuilus of ttic current 
l;iL:h prii'es for the product, luis received mucli at- 
iDiiioii. American evaporated fruits liave {rained a 
^'reat reputation in Europe, and now constitute an 
liiiportiint, item in commerce. The demand, marl<et 
and price within tlie last year has added new interest 
and importance to the husincss. 

Perhaps the most si;,'nilicant fact In this conncc- 
tiou is, that simpler and elieapor, yet philosophical 
evaporators have been constructed, and arc now 
(roini; into use as an auxiliary to the farmer and 
orchardist. Fruit growers should closely investigate 
and turn to account upon their own promises much, 
if not all, qf the fruit that usually goes to waste or 
is sold at nnremunerative prices. The fact that 
raisins are sold here for 10 cents per pound, after a 
carriage of thousands of miles, and evaporated 
pared iieaclies is worth 35 to yo cents per pound, 
suggests at least investigation. 

Seeds and Plants. 

We would call the attention of those of our 
readers who contemplate purchasing seeds or plants 
•during the coming season, to the advertisement of 
Peter Henderson & Co., New York, now appearing 
in our columns. Peter Henderson, the senior mem- 
ber of the lirm, is known far and wide as a horti- 
cultural writer and authority. His books, "Gar- 
dening for Profit," "Practical Floriculture," and 
"Gardening I'or Pleasure," are now in the hands 
of thousands. The green-house establishment of 
this firm covers three acres in green-houses and 
employs upwards of fifty hands. Millions of plants 
are shipped by mail or express annually to every 
State and Territory. Their seed warehouse is the 
most extensive in the city of New York, and every 
order received is certain to be filled witli goods of 
the best quality, and as they are producers as 
■well as dealers, "everything for the garden" will' 
be sold at low rates. Feb-om 



"Bo-Peep " 

This exquisitely wrought steel plate engraving, by 
■ the well-known artist, J. A. J. Wilcox, from a 
painting by that world famous German artist, 
Meyer Von Bremen, is one of the most beautiful 
and artistic engravings ever published. A mother 
and her child are away from the dusty town for an 
afternoon's recreating in the "Sylvan Wild" of Ger- 
many; golden jiages are added to life's book of 
■""Happy Hours." It is a genuine steel engraving, 
and so excellent in subject and body that its pos- 
sessor can never outgrow it — become be or she how- 
ever lesthetic in art. Printed on 3.i.x'i8 paper. Price 
5:5.li(). Published by K. H. Currau & Co., 22 School 
street, Boston, Mass. Apr-It. 



The Cooley Creamer. 

This method of "deep-setting of milk" is coming 
Into so general use, that at the recent dairy lair 

"In New York, it was not shown as a "novelty," 
but took its place as a common and indispensable 
adjunct to the dairy. With a Cooley Creamer a 
dairyman is entirely independent ofthe weather, and 
bis product is uniform at all times. It is in this, as 
well as in its convenience, that the Cooley process of 

•setting milk commends itself to all who make but- 
ter. 

From our foreign exchanges we infer that it has 

• been quite extensively introduced into use in Great 
Britain. — Albany Country Gentleman. Feb-4m. 



Inventors, Take Notice. 
To any of the readers of The Farmer who desire 
a patent we would refer them to William S.Gerhart, 
Solicitor of Patents, at No. M North Duke street, 
('2d floor) Lancaster, Pa. He has opened communi- 
cation with the Patent Office, at Washington, and is 
prepared to push claims with promptness and dis- 
patch. Apr-lm 



Ballard, Branch & Co. 

In another column will be found the advertise- 
ment of Ballard, Branch it Co. Apr-It 



■WANTED. 

BUTTER. EGGS, 

Obeene, PotatOPB, Onionn, Poultry, Wool, Hops, Lamb, 

Mutton, Veal, Dried Apples, 

Berries and Peaches. 

tarstnd for Prices. 

BAIXAJRD, BKUNCH St CO., 

lia Broad St., N. T. 
Apl-lt Oeneral Produce Commluioa Merobants. 



I 




THE 

H 



OFFICE, 




m 



No, 9 North Queen Stieet, 



LANCASTER. P&.. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 



THE -WEEKLY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



Published Erery Wednesday Morning, 



la ftu old, well-established newepapcr, and coutalns just tlio 
uews desirable to m.ko it au intercHliiig uud valuable 
F;imily Newspij^er. The jioHtago to auburihere residiug 
outside ot LaucHHter cuuuty in paid by the imblisher. 
Send for ii Bpecimen copy. 



SXTESCIEenPTTOa^ : 



T^vo Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



Published Daily Except Suuday, 



The dally is* pTiblisbed evfry evpuing during the week. 
It IB delivered iu the (Jity aoil to aurrouudiug T'nvna uc- 
cespible by railroad and daily etage Imos, for 10 cents 
a woek. 

M-^U Subscriplion. free of postiige — Oue monib, 50 
cents; oue year, )$5.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 



The job rooms of Toe Lancaster Examiner are 
filled with tbe latest styles of pieMsea, material, etc., aod 
we are prepared to do alt tiDrlB of Book and 7ob PriDtiH 
at hft low rtktes and bhort notice ub any uHtabiiBhmen& 1 
the State. 



SALE BILLS A SPECIALTY. 



WUh a 'foil assortment of ne ' cntH that wo haTC just 
purchased, we are prepared to print the finest and most 
atiractive sale bills in the State. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Proprietor, 

No. 9 NortU Queen St., 

LAJJ^CASTJER. FJL. 



SEND FOR 

On ronrord GnirovluPH, TraiiHl'Iaiited KvergreeuR, Tulip, 
I'-ij lar. Llridcn Muple. pic. I'rcc Heedlliigs aod Treea for 
timber i.luntutlonH !>>• tbc lOl'.OOO. 

J. Ji:\UINS' MrKNKRY, 

8-«-T» WINONA, COI UMDIANA CO., OHIO. 



(h/?Pii wf^rli in your own ti'Wil. T«rini* and $5 o 
ipDO ArtdieBo H. llALLK-T & Co., Portlaud, Malm 
Jiui-lyr* 



ulQt frc« 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANlTrACTCUEE OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

NAni»j,i s. 

COLLARS, WHIPS, PLY NETS, &o., 
Ai-so D]:Ai,i;i; in 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFAI.O K0BE3, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

-1-1'21 ' I.ANCASTKR. PA. 



vCHAS A LOCHER ! 

NA/H0t£SALE7^'^° RETAIL 

j.rNO 9 EAST.^KING STR 
^^^ i- A N C AST E R , P A . 

.I.OCHER'S:.REItO"WN ED. 'eOU G H . 
|;J52CATTL& POWDERI 



SEND FOR pUOTATiaNS; 



dec-ly] 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER 

AND WARUANTKD TO I IT. 



E. J. ERISMAN, 
56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



CO 



PHAKE.S \V. FRY. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WALL P^PER&WiRBQVtf SHftOES, 

IIollaixlN. piRin Nlia<lc i'loth. 

Fixtures, Fringes, Tassels and all gooda pertaining to a 
Pajter and ijhado Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

-9-1-12 



1879 



SPRING AND SUMMER 



1880 



Clolljs, Cassinjeres, Coalings, Suiliijgs, 
Vesliijgs, and 

FURNISHING GOODS. 

Including the usual fashionable varieties of the season, 

PLAIN, STRIPED AND FIGURED. 

ALfO, 

READY-Mi^DE CLOTl^jlNG, 

of "all sorts and sizes." 

ATTHEVERY BOTTOM PRICES. 

Don't Forget the oldest nnd longest established stand 1b 

the City of 

LANCASTER. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

Jjerchant Tailors, Drapers and Clotljiers, 

Corner N. Quern and Orange Sts. 

" A penny saved la prxjtence earned." 
Ar TA (JjOflP^r day at hoiie. Samplca worth $5 fret. 



Jan-lyr* 



J Address Stihsox h Co., Portland, Maine. 



IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



[April, 1880.. 



GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE M&RK.''h*'<i«"oat Fn^^lssh TRADE WARK. 

^j* ^^si^ly .-md radiciiUy cure 
f^'"' ^ A^ "^-^ ^^*^ every caBO of 
>.S■^■ ?^ t;ervoii8 Dtbili'y and 

Wenkness, result or 

Ii-fU-cretion, excess of 

overwork of the brain 

and iiervoua systtm, is 

Before Takinffi*"^,*' ^-^-'-'i^^. ^^d has be^n x^^ TaViTio- 

oexU-nsivfly used forover ■O-ltcr XaJtlllg. 
thirty years wifli Kreat success. Full j>a,rticu!;irs in our 
pampblcf, wliich we desire to send free by mail to every one. 
The eiieclflc medicine is sold by all druggists at $1 j:er "pack- 
age, or six packa^ps for $5, or will be seut free by muil on 
receipt of the monev hy addressing 

THE GKAY MEDICINE COMPANY, 
No. lU Mechanics- Block, Detroit, Michigan. 
tS^Sold 111 Liiiicaster by II. B. Cochhan. 137 and 139 N. 
Queen St , and by dniK^isis everywhere. [79-^-12 





fBF&M 1880' 

Will be mailed FBtK to all applicants, and to customers withont 

©rdenns it. It mntains four colored plates, 600 engravinp^ 
iiV^nt VOO pnpeE. ni)d full detrriptions, prices and directions for 

£lanling ISiX' vnrk-ties of Veedatile and Flower Seeds, Plants, 
.otesjslc, iuvalimMeloall. Stnd fjr it. Address, 

D. M. FEERY & 00., Detroit, Miclu 
Mar-lm. 




(jjyOA WKiiK. $12 :t u.iv i*t lj»..nie e.isUv rndd*-. CostJy 
(J) r ZOutfit free. Addre.-s Tude & Co., Augusta, Maine. 
juQ-lyr* 





Hh Enlarged View of 
THE Pad. 



ELASTIC TRUSS 

HasaPaddif 
fering from 
I all others, is 
cup-shaped, 
with SELF- 
ADJUST'NQ 
BALIi in the 
center, adapt< 
itself to all 
positions of the hody, 
I whUe the BAl,Ii in the 
I Cup PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
JUST AS A PERSON 
WOULD ■WITH THE 
riNGER. W^ith UgM 
pressure the Hernia is 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
ical cure is certain. It is easy, durable 
and cheap. Sent by mail, postage paidi 
Circulars free. 
Address, Eggleston Truss Co., Manfrs. 

Or C. H. EGGLESTON CO., Chicago.UI. 

7»-7-ly] 

COOLEY CREAMER. 

GOLD mEDAI^, PAUIS, 1879. 

BUTTER m.idc hy this 
process awarded 
SWEEPSTAKES at 
Internal ion»l Daiiy Fair. 
1878, anfl (iOI^n MED- 
AEaiitt FtllSX PKE- 
HIII:M at sarno Fair. 
1ST9. FIKST PKE- 
mH'M at hoyal Agri- 
ciiluiraltxliiWtion, Lon- 
don, 18T9. 

It require* no mdto- 

,,_^^^_ ^ room. 

It rnUrii iill of cpeam between milklnic.. 
It aflorda li.ttei- ve"tl!:»H""' 
It r'-qiiires lent luhor. 

It i>; more tnorouffhly mncle. 
It is cheaper, and gives better 
MtiBfaction than any ""er wiill °' ,»^"',?t'""Ji- -™ 
THR BUTTF.K MADE BY THIS ^-Ts 1 fcM ..-, UN- 
EXCELLKl) IN ITS KEBMNG QUALH lt&. 

f KRIWONT 1FA»M MAC HfNP. tV.. 

BcUowB Falls Vt. 
Feb 4ni. 

A GREAT SUCCESS! -lo.ooo.si.iu!! UKA»- 
JOEY'S wondevfiili.v poiju!ar work, the 

Tk'/^El^^pGEN. GRANT 

iB pronounced by the Geueral's inliiiintp frieiitiM the 
best l«w-pi*ice<l work— hence the t!,|»1en(li(l suc- 
cess of Agents. ev-A MII.MOIV people want 
HI',AI»Ii£t 'K book t«-<lav. Weneed 

3000 MORE AGENTS AT ONCE ! I 

BKWAIiK of Imitations. We send proi/ of superi- 
ority, sample leaves, vtcel portrait of Grant, and /\dl 
particnUrs free to all desiriug them. Address HUBBARD 
BROS., Publishers, 723 Chestnut street, PhUudeipUia. 
reb-Sm. 





Our latest improved sawing macliine cuts 
ofF a 2-foot lo^ in 2 minutes. A ${00 
PRESENT ^viII be given to two men who 

can saw as much in the okl way, as one man 
can with this machine. Circr.'ars sent free. 

U. S. MANUFACTURING CO., 

14» riarh St., Chicago, III. 

A. n. Frank, Buffalo, N. Y,, owns and controls Eastern 
and Middle States. 

CAUTIOK". — Anv sawing machine having a seat for 
the operator, or treadles for his feet, is an infringement 
on our patents, and we are prosecuting all infringers. So 

BEWABE "WHO YOU BUY OF. jan-?m 

WFI I •ifSnf*FD OuraiBguaranteedtobo tli9 
IlLLL HUiiSLlil cheaoest and best in ths 
■world. Also nothing can beat our .SA%vrN'G HIA- 
C'HINK. It saws off a 'J-fuot log in "2 minutes. 
Pictorial books free. W. Gir.Ii,S. Cliicaeo, m. 
dee-Cm} 

1£ YOU HAVE A GARDEN, YOU KEED 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



I 





A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 




Established 1845. 



160 paces. Over SOO IUuaI rntton«, and a BcantIf\iBr 
Colored Plntc of Panslcs. Mailed for 10 Cents. 

BLISS' ILLUSTRATEO AMATEUR'S <;ini>E TO 
THE FLOWER AM> KITCHEN tiAUDEN contain 
more pr.ictical iufonuai.iou on g.-irdeuin'; than many high-priced 
books. Our list comprises 2,000 Turietiea Flower Seeds, 1,000 
varieties Bulbs and Plants, 5U0 varieiics Vezetable Seeds, 500 
Tarieties Potatoes, etc. 220 pages, over GOO illustrations, 2 double- 
page colored platea of flowers. Price: paper covers, 35 cents; 
bound iu muslin. %\.on. 

BLISS' ILLUSTRATED POTATO CATALOftUE. 
60 pagea. A valualjle treatise on the Potato and descriptive list of 
all the principal varieties srown. Profuwelr illnstrated. Price 
10 cents. B. K. BLIhS & SO>S, 84 Xtarclar St,, New Yort, N. Y. 

Mar-lm. 



fMm 



On the Kansas Pacific 
3,000,000 

I Acres for Sale in tlie 

I GOLDEN BELT. 



S3toS7 



.^'t" 



11 



SO In 50 biuhol.? ; Corn 
40 li'IOOlMith, peiRClv. 
Ndftlllunure needed. 

Ooodriiniitf, pit) p v.:iUr,j 

fine hcliouls, cliiirch 
iilpnf.rl.-.ofiPty. Kaiiicrid 



DIES; 



tiid luai icf-l l.i'.-ilrtit 



)^nt. Mfips :iij'.l full iiiCuiimtiyn 1-'I5EE. Atlthesb 
79-9-3meonj] 



SELL 



FOR THE 



CATAliOGUE FREi: TO ALiU 

■■ ; WHO APPLY BVLET-T.ER . . ..- 

35 CORTLANDT ST. NEW YORK. 



XTTTCTT^ ATT 'C! T'lis r.markable med 
MLaAjM AJ J3L.jLit^ i9 cine -will.'cure Spavius,- 
Sijlint, Curb. CulluUR. ;v:e.,ur ;;uy enlargement, AND WILL 
REMOVE THE BUNOH WITHOUT BLISTERING or 
^3 *»^ \ "XTTT^ causing a sore. No remeay ever 
|9JL JAt V JL^^ discuvered equals it for certainty 
of action iu stopping the lameness and removing tlie bunch. 
Price $1.00. Send for circular giving POSITIVE PROOF. 
^TT13 TP SLlt-D BY DRUGGISTS or sent by the in- 
\j \J JXtjL4 venter, B. J. Kendall, M. D.. Enosbnrgh 
Falls, vt. Johnston, Hollowly & Co., Agts., 602 Arch St., 
Philadelphia, Pa, 79-8-11. 



Devoied to Agricultmre, Horticulture. Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas- 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONE DOLLp PER ANNUftJ, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY TBE PROPBIETOR. 

AH subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. 8. 8. Rathvon, who has bo ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, will contiuue in the position of 
editor, nis contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which- 
he is so thorouhly a master — eutomolofiical science — eom& 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the success- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of , 
this publication. He Is determined to make *'The Farmer' 
a necessity to all households. 

A county that has eo wide a reputation as Lancaster ' 
county for its agricultural products, should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opiuioue of farmers Interested in this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporatiou of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" la 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications in regard tothe editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to aubscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Kates of 
advertising can be had on apphcatioa at the office. 

JOHN k. HIESTAND. 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, P». 



ONE DOLLAR PEB ANNUM.- SINGLE COFIES 10 C^plNTS. 




Dr. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. MAY. iSfcO. 

AGRICULTURE. 

System on the Farm, 78 

Walc'iiug in a Dry Time, 78 

Sowing Orcliani (irass, - - - . - 78 

Mi.vcd Fanning, ----- - - 78 

How to Dissolve Bones, 78 

HORTICULTURK. 

Flowers and Shrubbery, 78 

Gralling-Wax, 78 

Plants and Plant Food, 78 

Asparagus and Celery, 78 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

Picealilli, 78 

Worcestershire Sauce, 78 

To I'.eniove Urease from Cloth or Silk, - - 79 

To Remove Grease from Silk or Velvet, - . 70 

Patent Yeast, 70 

Tomato Catsup, 79 

Mixed Piekles, ------- 79 

Simple .Method of Kcnioving Grease spots from 

Silk, - - - - " - - - . 79 

LIVE STOCK. 

Pure Milk, - . . 79 

Colic in Horses, ------ 79 

A Jersey Cow's Ueeord, 79 

Cows, 79 

Put Bells on Your Sheep, ----- 79 

Merinos Improved, ----.. 79 

Keep the Good Calves, 79 

POULTRY. 

How we Ought to House our Fowls, - - . 79 

'laking care of his Kow Is— Poultry Houses do not 

Create Diseases— The House not the Cause— Died 

or Apoplexy— Wrong Again- How to Keep Fowlii 

Heathy. 

Brecdina: foi Shape and Style, . - - . f-o 

Milk as a Poultry Food 80 

Burned Bones for Hens, . - - . . so 

Chicken Cholera, 80 

Fattened Poultry, ----- . (.q 

The Fattening Process, ----- 80 

Literary and Personal, go 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Publisher. 



^«><*ikn<l 4'laMM .flutter. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL. 

The State, and County Fairs, - - - - 0.5 

Ephrata Publications, ----- *).5 

The Brown Thrush, ------ 65 

Cerealia Californiea, ----- 65 

Indian Turnip, --66 

State Board of Agrieulture, . - - - 66 

Queries and Answers, - - - - - 6(> 

The Coining Fair, 79 

Special Field Preiuiums Ottered iiy the Agricultural 
aud Horticultural Society. 

ESSAYS. 

Report of the Present Crops — L. a. Heist, - 67 

Ephrata Publications— /.//. /.IhWs, - - - 67 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Stellar Influence, ------ 69 

Sugar audits Production— .4. ^. A'., - - 69 

SELECTIONS. 

An Acre in Onions, ------ 70 

Fences and Fencing, ------ 70 

A Kood Feuce. 

American .Merino Sheep, - - - - 70 

ThcOrigiuof the Potato, ----- 71 

What Shall We Itaisei 71 

Farmer and Gardener, ----- 71 

Grotnid-Dut Growiug .\gain — Tobacco Growing — 
Look to the Koiids — Xrausplautiiig — Lund- Owning 
iu Europe. 

Farmers who are not Farmers, - - - 72 

Poudrette, -------- 72 

The Wages of Farm Labor, - - - - 72 

Neatness at the Barn, ----- 73 

Beef and Mutton, - 7;! 

Value of Butter Package, 7,S 

Crabs and Their Habile, - - . - 78 

Farmers' Returns to Cencus Takers, - - 74 

Information for all who Breathe, . . - 74 

Agriculture iu the Schools, - - - - 74 

Excellent Glycerine Ointment, - . - 75 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 

Society, -..---. 7.5 

Poultry Association, ----- 76 

The Beekeepers' Association, - - - - 76 

Fullon Farmers' Club, 77 

.\skiDg and Answering Queitione — Viewing the 
Premises — Literary Exerciaes. 

Linna?an Society, -.--.. 77 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

Tobacco Plants— Depredations by Bugs, - 77 

About Cut Worms, 77 

To Prevent Powder Post, - - - - 78 I 

Insects, - - - - - - - - 78 I 



VI 10 $25 PER m mn 

in your l'\'rtilizt'is by using 

"POWELL'S PREPARED CHEMICALS." 

Wliy ].oy S:*.'^ tr- Xfi lor yon r fertilizers when 
$1.1 to 81.5 will buy you 

"POWELLS CHEMICALS" 

For Olio Ion 4'orii, Ontfx, Potnfo or Tolinoco 

Fertilizer, eqiiiil to tho benf, higb-iiriced Phosphate in 
the market. Send for "PonelTH Book of f'ornm- 

Inn/* with directions for mixing, nearly 5(h> uamps of reli- 
able Penueylvituia farnurs using ihem the past seapoii, 
teetjmouials, etc. 

EDWARD J. EVANS & Co., 
Mar-3mJ General Agents, Vork, Pa. 




?fy ttnntint VaO'V^gue of V^g'-tablfi and Flotorr 
Sf.tti for I^SO, rich in orKrnviiifiS, Iroin pholOKraiilis, of 

the oriKiuals, will be Bent FitKT-: to all who h))] ly. My old 
fUstonierR need not write for it I ollVroneof lhelarRe»t col- 
lections of vegetable BL'ed everHeui out by any need hou«6 
in America. » laree portion of wliirh were urown on my Mx 
Bet-d fannp. Full (lirectioiu* for rultivat inn on rut^h paek- 
arjc All set-ii warranted to be both fresh and true to name; 
fO far, that should it prove olherwiKe, / m'j7/ re/ili the order 
itratU. The original introducer of the Hubbard Squash, 
Phmuey'a Melon, Maiblohead CHbbageM, Mexican Corn, and 
scores of other VHf^ctiihlt'»«. I *nvile the i atronago of aU wht* 
are aiixinm '.o hav^ their need directly from t he grviter, froth, 
t?-ite, anti of the eery bej*t ntrain. 
New Vegetables a specialty. 

■lAMKS J. H. (*RE0ORY, 
dec-fim] Marblobead. Maps. 



EGGS 



from tboroURh-hreil LIGHT ltK.\H- 

MAS eurefully irckcd lor ll.lcliiUK $3,00 

per 13, BreedriiR yards coiituin 13 tiret pruiniuui l)trdB. 
Anio K Ibeiii 11 i)UlletFcoreil 97, Coekerol 9.5',', weiKht at 
8 niouthn. l:{ ioiuhIh 4 (>/.. 
AddreKK 

DR.. MA-YIT.B, 
Wiilnw fitiiet, P. <)., I.iiicaster eo , Pa. 
.\pl-lt 



E55! 



■VfTfli 



^ THE VICTOR 

■P':-!^^'^ Double Hullor 
Clover Machine 

I- tl. onfi/J-ci./ l!i.il rin^tv.r 

, l.iilk-l 100 l-ii-hil. ..r ^i■■■'l 

, 111 ollf^ <tay Tr'nn [lnm|i •ml 

(wet *irnw. Send for IV-- 
", -crlptlvr Circular i»rnl Pii-- 
I.Ut, whi>-li miitnln* niaiK 

l|nje«'rKtown A|Erlt>iillurul Implriiiciit Mfif. Vt*. 



Apl :tlil 



1880 



1880 



THIG 
(iUKAT IMMIOliATIOS YEAH. 

ThouHaDds are going Wcsl, and .hi- majority ' 

SETTLE IN NEBRASKA! 

AH Kastern Farnu'i's. wlien cuniini,' Wi-st are ]jlraHfd 
wiib I he 

BurliuEtou & Missouri Im Railroail Laiils. 

17,000 lliive Alre;idy Purcliased, and (he'O is yet For Sale 
bv this Company Enough Litiid t^ lunke 

10.000 EIGHTY-ACRE FARMS ! 

S.uil l'u»Uil C.inl (or a I'lIAItT MliowiHR nil lie LANDS 
I'"OK 8.\LF.. .jBlluary l»l, H'ie. 

Address (iCD 'I Ag'l B. & M. U. R., 
Apl-Sni. Oliinhn, Nelj. 

EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

FUEE TO AM,. 

AMERICAN DRIER COMPANY, 

ChninberMbnrir. P*. 

Ap'-lf 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



"OEiXX.SYI.VAXSA t 

XT Traius J.KAVE tbe Vay 

WE TWARD. 

Pacific Express* 

Way Pat^sengert 


C tll.KOAK 

ot iu tbis city, 

j Leave 

1 Laucaster. 

1 2:40 a. m. 

5:110 a.m. 

10:05 a. m. 

10:10 p.m. 

11:05 a. m. 

11:07 a.m. 

10:.50 a. m. 

2:111)1. m 

2:15 p.m. 

5:15 p. m. 

7:20 p. m. 

T:25p. m. 

8:50 p. m. 

11:30 p.m. 

LiiJicaster. 
12:25 a. til. 

4:10 a. m. 

5:20 a. m. 

7:35 a.m. 

9.10 p. m. 

1:25 p. m. 

2:00 p. m. ; 

3:05 p.m. 

5:20 p. m . 1 

fi:25 p. m. i 


Hs follon's : 

Arrive 

Harrisburg. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:.50 a. m. 

11:20 a. m. 


Hanover Afconiniodiition,. 

Mail traiu \ia Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Coluujbia 

Sunday Mail 


Col. 10:40 a. m. 
12:40 p. m. 
12:55 p. m. 
12:40 p. m. 
3:25 y. m. 


Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Colmubir. Accommodation.. 

HarriBburK Kxpress 

Pittsburg ExprfBs 

Cincinnati Express" 

EASTW.\RD. 


Col. 2:45 p. m. 

7:40 J), m. 

Col. 8:20 p. 111. 

S:40 p. m. 

10:10 p. m. 

12:45 a. m. 

Philadelphia. 
3*00 a m 


Ptiiliidelphia Expresst ] 

Fast Liue* . 


7:00 a. lu. 


Harriubuvg Express 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Pacifie Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstowii Kxpress 


10:00 a. m. 
12:0 p. m. 

3:40 p.m. 

5:00 n. m. 

5:30 [■.in. 

7:20 p. m. 

9:;i0 ji. m. 


Harrisburg Accom 



The Hauover Accommodation, west, connects at Lnncaster 
■with Niagara Kxiirees, west, at 9:85 a. m., and will run 
through to Hauover. 

The Frederick Accotnmodation, west, counecteat iyancas- 
ter with Fust I.iue, west, at 2:10 p. m., and rune to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, ou Sunday, when flagged, will 
Btop at iliddletown, Elizabethtowu, Mount Joy and Lundi«- 
vilie. 

■The only trains which run daily. 

tliiuis daily, except Monday. 



NORBECK & MILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



^ 



Garriage Boilder 

cox & <;o's OLD mi). 

Cofner of hk mi Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHAETONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 



iiss 



Prices to Suit tlie Times. 

REPAIRING proiuptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 
79-2- 

s. :b. oozx:. 

Manufacturer of 

Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Large Stock «jf New and JHecon-hand Work on hand. 
very cheap. Carriagea Made to Order, Work Wnrranted 
roroueye»r. [!• 1»-1S 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

IiEALUK IN 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 

cr.ocKs. 
JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole AgHiit for the Arundel Tintt-d 

SPECTACI^ES. 

Repairing strictly attended to. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



?. HF". OEo t-vs/i-A-axr, 




AT t-OWKJ.T I'ilKi.SSiJJLK PKECKS. 

J'''ully guaranleeJ. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

70-1-12] (tppislfp I.iopiiril Holil. 

ESTABLISHED 1832. 



* 




U*"- 



^=^: 




^i 



6. SENEH &, SONS, 

Mauutacturers iind dealers iu all kinds of rough and 
finished 

The liest Sawed SiS! i%<)rI.(EH iu tiie country. Alao Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Moiildingw, &c, 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

aud PATENT BLINDS, which .ire tar sniierior to auy 
other. .\lso beat l'4>.4Ij coi-.Ktaiill.v ou huud. 

OFFICE AND YAIiD : 

Northeast CorL'vr of Prince aud Waliint-sts., 

LANCASTKR, IPA^. 

73-1-12] 

PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Kiubraciu^: the history juij luibits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 




INSECTS, 



and the best remedies for thnjr expulsion or eitermlnatioii. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work will bo Highly IlluBtmted, and will be put in 
press (as soon after h sufficient number of subscribers cnu 
be obtyiuod to cover the cost) as the work ciiu possibly be 
accomplished. 
79-2- 




$77 



a mouth and exjtenses t;uar;iuteed to Agents. 
Outflt free. SHAW is. CO., Augusta, Maine. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant TreiB raised in tlii.s couity ;ind suited to rhiw climate. 
Write for pricf to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co., Pa. 

Nursery at Smoltelown. six miles east of Liucuf^t^'r. 
79-1-12 

WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PO CHAIRS. 

tVAKKKOOMS: 

102 East King St., Oor. of Duke St. 

"LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-12] 

Special Inducements at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 
^N . A. HEINITSH, 

iKTo. IS X— 2 E3- ^XIV<3^ Si * J. ' -K .33 Jul ' JL ' , 

(ovfr Bursk's Gsoiiery Store I, Lmciieter, Pa. 
A general ussor'nicut of tuniimre uf ull kinds ooustantly 

on haud. lion'tforyet the uiunbcr. 

X3 X-2 3i3£«,st XS:x23.s £»tx-ooty 

Nov-ly] (owrBuff'k's G.uti-r.v Stoie.) 

For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOLI^MER'S 

FURNITLIRE WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST., 

(Opiiosite N ■Itlleru M.irl;et), 
Also, all kiuiis of pic'ure traiuey. liov-ly 

GREAT BARGAINS. 

A large assortment of all kiurts of Ciirpets are still sold :ib 
lowor rates llian ever m thf 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

So, 20*^ Ufst Khifj St. 

Giill and examine our stock aud satisfy yourself that we 
c:iu show the largest assortment of these, Brussels, three 
i,lies a,nd ingrain at all prices — at the lowest Philadelx^hia 
prices. 

Also on band u large aud complete assortmeut of Bag 
Carpet. 

Sntisfaction gunrr.nteed bfith as to price and quality. 

You are iir. ited to c.ill and see iny goods. No trouble m 
ehowiug them evcu if you do not want to purchase. 

Dou't forget this notice. You can save money here if you 
want to buy. 

Particular uttentinu given to customer v ork 

AIfo on hand a full assortment of Counterpanes, Oil 
Cloths and Ulanketsof every variety fnov-Iyr. 

PHILIP SCHUM. SON & CO.. 

38 and 40 West King Street. 

We keep oa baud of our own mauufiicture, 

QUILTS, COVERLETS, 

COimTEBPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau and Titlv Covers. Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 
ti'jus, etc. 

Particular atteutiou paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
scowering aud dyeiiieot" all kinds. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 

jifov-ly Lancaster, Pa. 

THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption withont uiediciue. 

Now is the time io apidy these remedies. They will do 
for you what nolhin^' else ou earth can. Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Laticnster s>v so. (iet the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lvr 

C. R. KLINE. 
^TTOF(NEY-AT-^AW, 

OFFICE : 16 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

lj\.nca.stkr., fa.. 

NOF-lj 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1880. 



Vol. XII. No. B. 



Editorial. 



THE STATE AND THE COUNTY FAIRS. 

By icference to onr "Literary and Per- 
sonal" columus our readers will observe that 
the Stale Agriculliaal and Stock E.xhihition 
will be held in the main Centennial BuiUlinj;, 
Fairmount Park, from the Ot.i to the ISth of 
Sept'r next, and that the International Ex- 
hibition of sheep, wool and wool products will 
open on the 20tli of the month at the same 
plai-e, thus making the two exhibitions almost 
continuous. A |)reliminary abstract of the 
list of premiums for horses, cattle and swine 
has already been issued; complete lists to he 
issued at an early day. The premiums, so far 
as published, are very liberal, and no doubt 
they will be so in other departments. Of 
cour.sc there will be a line dis|)lay, aod "every- 
body and his wife" will be there, but this 
should not in the least detract from their par- 
ticipation — either as patrons or exhibitors — 
in their local county or district fairs. 

In our June issue we will be .able to an- 
nounce the date of our own county fair, au- 
thorized by our Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral Society. As our own fair will only con- 
tinue from Wednesday morning to Saturday 
morning — a period of three days — it will not 
at all interfere with those who may desire to 
visit or exhibit in the State fair. At the 
present writing the world of nature at least 
seems propitious, and, therefore, if we do not 
get up a grand county exhibition it will be 
due to our own apathy or indifference alone, 
unless some extraordinary contingency should 
supervene. This event .should be thought 
over and talked over, at our outgoing and our 
incoming, at our uprising and our down sit- 
ting, between our door posts and by the way- 
side, and should be constantly kept as front- 
lets before our eyes — in short, just as a to- 
bacco grower thinks about and talks about, 
and also ads about the various phases of his 
crops of the great "King-weed." When a to- 
bacco grower deposits bis "grain of mustard" 
in the ground he does not fold his hands in 
apathy nor turn the key to the lock of his mind, 
if he expects to realize a crop — not he — he es- 
tablishes a base, line and tights it out on that 
line, until his. crop is housed, packed and sold. 
In a similar manner the managers and mem- 
bers of a society must act, and the people 
must reciprocate their action in getting up a 
successful county fair. 



"EPHRATA PUBLICATIONS." 
We make room in this number of The 
Farjier for a Very able and interesting essay 
on the subject of the early publications of 
Lancaster county, notably those of the ancient 
village of Ephrata ; written, and read before 
the Linnseau Society, ^larch 28, 1880, by 
Prof. .7. H. Dubbs, of Franklin and Marshall 
College. Althougli not exactly gerraain to 
the objects of our journal, yet in view of its 
local character, and its relation to the early 
history of our county, we believe it will inter- 
est our agricultural, as well as our historical 
and scientific readers, and this must sutBce as 
an apology for placing it thus irrelevantly be- 
fore them. Indeed, we happen to know 
personally that there are quite a number of 
our rural patrons and readers who would 
rather, occasionally, peru.se such a paper than 
the most elaborate essay on Agriculture, and 
to those who have time and inclination to 
make historical literature a collateral study, 
it will prove a fortunate "send." The history 
of Lancaster county has never yet been pro- 
perly written up, and when the time comes 
for that, this will be an important auxiliary 
paper. 



THE BROWN THRUSH. 

This bird has a variety of common names, 
and also several scientific names, but is is best 
known in I>ancaster County as the "Hrown 
Thrush." "Ferruigiuous," "Fox-colored" 
and "LongtaiUd Thrusli" are some of its 
common names. It is the Tardus ru/us of 
Liini. altho.gh it has been recently removed 
to the genus liarporliiinclius, but most of our 
readers, no doubt, would prefer the shorter 
luime, which simply means Brown thrush. 

This bird arrives iu Lancaster county as 
early as the middle of April wh<ui the weather 
is favorable, but the present season it was too 
cold for him during tlie greater part of April, 
and he came a little later. He is a splendid 
singer and imitator, and hence has been also 
called the "Fox-colored mock-bird." Wilson 
says — "About the middle or 20th of April, or 
generally about the time the cherry trees 
begin to blossom, he arrives iu Pennsylvania, 
and from the tops of our hedge-rows, sassa- 
fras, apple or cherry trees he salutes the open- 
ing morning with his charming song, which 
is loud, emphatical and full of variety. At 
that serene hour you may plainly distinguish 
his voice half a mile off." Notwithstanding 




its singing characteristics, it is perhaps miu-e 
interesting to the farmer and fruit-grower in 
another more important respect, namely, 
what he lives on? Mr. Gentry, who has 
made the life-history of birds a specialty for 
many years, says, "an examination of the 
stomachs of many individuals showed that its 
diet during the three or four first weeks of its 
visit is of a very decided coleopterous char- 
acter." .He has found 10 species oi' coloeptcra, 
4 of other types, 1.5 of Lcpidoptera, and dif- 
ferent kinds of berries, constituting the luxu- 
ries upon which this bird habitually feeds. 
The names of these insects are given, and 
among them we recognize several of o'.ir 
most common and destructive species. They 
begin to pair about the 2.=)thof May, and after 
building a proper nest and lining it with fine 
soft grass, the female lays four or five while, 
marked with reddish brown, eggs, which, in 
about 14 or 15 days bring forth a brood of 
young birds. The young are fed mainly on 
grubs and soft caterpillars, embracing about 
10 species of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The 
bird is one brooded, and destroys an immense 
mumebr of insects in its lifetime, besides mil- 
lions of pjossihiliiies, although as a change it 
will also appropriate berries. 



CEREALIA CALIFOKNICA. 

We have before us three specimens of Cal- 
ifornia's most prolific cereals, sent over by 
Mr. F. II, Russel, of Sacramento, to his 
brotlier Mr, A, W. Ilussel, of Lancaster city, 
and as they may Ijc of interest to the farmers 
<jf Ijancaster county, we essay a brief notice 
of them, mainly drawn from the illustrated 
catalogue of Mr. AV. A. Sanders, of Sanders 
P, O,, Fresno Co., California. Mr. Sanders 
has long been in the successful cultivatiou of 
beautiful and rai)id growing evergreens, rare 
tropical and s(!mi-tropical fruits, bamboos, 
sugar canes, tea trees, ginger roots, shal-lae, 
jujube and many otiier new and valuable 
trees and fruits; and, moreover, belongs to a 
well known family, including some of the 
most enterprising and practical men in the 
country. 

The first we shall notice is the "East India 
Millet," (Pmcillaria spicata,) a single head of 
which bcfbie us is fourteen inches in length 
and three in circumference, solidly studded 
with well filled seeds or grains from the base to 
the apex. This plant has been long culti- 
vated, not only for its seeds, but for its im- 
mense yield of forage in the hot, dry regions 
of Asia and Africa, and like many other 
plants long under culture, it has developed 
into as many varieties as there are of wheat 
and corn. On the dry "sand plains" of 
Fresno, Cal,, with only moisture enough to 
cause the seed to germinate, it grows to the 
height of twelve feet, and so dense that a 
horse can barely force his w.ay through it — a 
perfect mass offender foliage and stalks of 
the greatest value as a fodder for live .stock of 
all kinds. In California it requires 178 days 
to mature its first crop of seed. From every 
point it sends out a shoot bearing a seed head 
each yielding an immense and constant 
amount of seed ripening daily until its growth 
is arrested by frost A single seed is capable 
of producing 100 stalks, and forming a clus- 
ter three or four feet iu diameter. For hay 
it is usually cut when four feet high, and it 
can be cut every thirty days until frost. In 
rich soil it has been known to produce at the 
rate of 2,000 tons of green fodder to an acre. 
As nearly as we can get at it, by counting 
the seeds in a single circle, and the number 
of circles in an inch, there are about 4,000 
seeds in the head before us. If any of our 
readers desire to experiment they should get 
the instructions how to cultivate when they 
order the seed. 

A second is called the "White Egyptian 
Corn" [sorylium vidgare.) ^Ir. Sanders says 
that this is the most valuable grain ever in- 
troduced into California, There are several 
varieties of thissorsjhura, but the white solid- 
headed variety introduced by himself is, ia 
all respects, esteemed the most valuable. It 
is from the interior of China, and was intro- 
duced many years ago. It will make a crop 
on the poorer kinds of land, and with lefs 
moisture than other kinds of grain, being 
more valuable, pound for pound, than barley 
or Indian corn as a feed for horses; [while for 
swine and fowls nothing of the grain kind 
('(pials it. Mr. Sanders remarks that by high 
culture he has realized at the rate of nine 
tons ol seed per acre, and cut seven crops of 
heads, extending over a period of six months, 
harvesting a crop every 30 days. On the 19th 
of ,Iune, 187'J his ditch 'broke and overflowed 
a large piece of laud. This he plowed as soon 
as it was dry enough, dropping the sorghum 
seeds in every third furrow. It never had any 
care, water or culture, and in 117 days from 
the day of planting he gathered sixty bushels, 
or 3,000 pounds of beautiful grain per acre; 
and in 1878 Mr. Burke of Yolo, Cal., formerly 
living in Ohio, raised 140 bushels per acre. 
We can fully reahze the beauty of this grain, 



66 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[May, 



for the head now before us measures five 
inches iu length and nearly six inches in cir- 
cumference, and this is barely an average 
specimen. It is very compact and the seeds 
are finely formed and nearly as pure a white 
as "pearl-barley." Tlie advantages of rais- 
ing this grain are represented to be : 1st. A . 
larger yield on soil too poor to raise any other 
crop. 2nd. It wiU grow on soil too dry to 
produce a crop of rye or barley. .3rd. It re- 
quires no threshing— just cutting off the heads 
being all that is necessary; separating the 
grain from the head, from the appearance, 
would be an easy and simple process. 4th. 
It can be harvested at any time from August 
until Christmas, being ready at any time the 
farmer is ready. 5th. Its yield is greater 
and more valuable as stock or team feed, 
pound for pound, than any other kind of 
grain. And 6th. It is one of the most health- 
ful and palatable articles of food tliat can be 
brought to the tai)le of the familj-, either 
ground and made into buns, cakes, puddings, 
&c., or cooked whole as a substitute for rice. 
It leaves on the ground when summer food is 
gone immense amounts of green stalks, leaves 
and heads, wliich is eagerly eaten by stock of 
all kinds, and is therefore a valuable forage. 
The third specimen is the "Liberian 
Imphee," a variety o{ sm-ghimi vulgare. Its 
seeds are red, and it is a large growing plant; 
remains a long time in leaf growth, making 
it a valuable forage plant. It is confidently 
said to be never affected by disease of any 
kind. Its yield of syrup or sugar in the hot, 
dry climate of southern California is said to 
be much greater than tlie Chinese variety, 
and, therefore, it is regarded as one of the 
most valuable varieties, and will make twice 
as much syrup per acre as the restricted sor- 
ghums, which are more valuable for forage 
than for sng.ir. The hybrids of the sorghums 
aud the imphees are of a quick growth and 
are mainly valuable for forage. This and the 
Chinese imphee are the most valuable for the 
production of sugar. The head of the spe- 
cimen of imphee before us measures seven 
inches from the base to the apex, and the cir- 
cumference is nine inches. This seed head 
recalls a variety of "imphee" that was culti- 
vated in this country more than half a cen- 
tury ago as a substitute for coffee That was 
a dark purple variety, and was known under 
the names of "Chinese Coffee-corn," "Choco- 
late corn," or simply "Chinese coffee." The 
seeds nearly all had a white face or a white 
spot upon them, and were much larger than 
the variety before us; not only were the seeds 
pai'tly purple, but the stalks and leaves were 
also streaked with that color. ^Nothing, to 
our recollection, was at that period known of 
its saccharine qualities, and it seemed to be 
cultivated entirely for the purpose of making 
coffee. It was while the country was finan- 
cially prostrated after the "financial crash" 
of 1817, when roasted rye had been substituted 
for coll'ee. We can distinctly remember the 
rye-coflee of 1820, when merchants received 
it roasted, by the barrel, from Philadelphia, 
and almost everybody became weary of it. 
The chocolate corn, as it wasjcommonly called, 
was hailed as a blessed relief, and nearly every 
one that occupied only a town lot, raised this 
plant. It was roasted and ground in a coffee- 
mill, and the beverage had the taste, smell 
aud general appearance of chocolate. It was 
hardy and grew with only ordinary garden 
cultivation. 

These latter remarks relate mainly to the 
poor, or those only in medium circumstances; 
for it may be supposed that those who were 
really rich never relinquished the use of coffee 
because it was high in price; and we have in- 
dulged in these comments here for the pur- 
pose of illustrating that whatever might be 
realized from our soil— as compared with that 
of California — and whatever the use and 
market value might be of such crops, those 
who may intend to raise them need entertain 
no unfavorable apprehensions on climatic 
grounds. Sorghum, imphee, millet, broom- 
corn and other plants of their class have been 
grown luxuriantly and with perfect safety in 



Pennsylvania, and especially in Lancaster 
county, although it might take a long time be- 
fore they would supersede corn and tobacco 
on the score of profit alone. The specimens 
can be seen at Russel & Shulmyer's coal 
office. 



INDIAN TURNIP. 

(Ariscema Triphyllnm.) 



This plant, so well known to every one 
whose boy-life was passed in the country, or 
near a woods, belongs to the order Aeace^ 
or Arum family, and the clase of Monoco- 
TYLEDONOUS plants. It is the Arum triphyl- 
lum of Linne, and is very common, abound- 
ing in rich woodlands generally, and appears 
in May. The conn is turnip shaped, wrinkled, 
farinaceous, with an intensly acrid Juice. 
Each plant bears but a single flower, usually 
green, variegated with dark purjile and whit- 
ish stripes. The fruit is cone shaped, and in 
August and September is of a deep scarlet 
color. There are several species allied to our 
Indian turnip, both in our own country and 
in other parts of the world, all of which pos- 
sess its acrid and farinaceous characters. The 
root has been used as a medicine, but now 
seems to have gone out of use. It was at one 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 




time thought to be an unfailing remedy for 
rheumatism; and, when a boy, it was admin- 
istered to us as a remedy against ague, on ac- 
count of its heating qualities, but we can 
hardly remember the result. One thing, 
however, we do remember, that boiling it de- 
stroys its acridity in "to-to." Indeed boiling 
it in milk and adding a little pepper and salt 
makes it a pleasant and nutritious food. It is 
surprising to note the great change it undergoes 
in its culinary preparation, and it seems to us 
tliat those who live along or near the margin 
of a rich wood might do much worse than to 
cultivate an Indian turnip bed. The Egyp- 
tian Arum and the Tare of the Polynesians 
belong to the same family of plants, have the 
same acrid character when raw, but they are 
cultivated as an esculent, and large quantities 
are consumed by the natives. They are es- 
teemed for their'mild and farinaceous quality. 
No doubt the Indian turnip might be culti- 
vated, botli from the seed and the root, but 
perhaps it never would "pay," owing to the 
fact that they require the rich forest mould 
and the forest shade for their support and 
protection. Still, as we have intimated above, 
those persons favorably located might culti- 
vate them for their own use. 



Programme for the Summer Meeting to be 
Held in June. 

The Summer meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Board of Agriculture will be held in Gettys- 
burg, commencing on Wednesday, June 9. 
The following is the programme as decided 
upon : 

Essays and Subjects for Discussion. 

Is stock raising profitable to the Pennsylva- 
nia farmer ? By John L. George, memlier 
from Washington. Buckwheat — under what 
conditions is its culture profitable ? By M. 
W. Oliver memlier from Crawford. Sanitary 
arrangement of tarm buildings. By Dr. Har- 
vey, member from Delaware. Which consti- 
tutes the most economical team for farm work, 
mules or horses ? By W. G. Moore, member 
from Berks. Clover as a fertilizer. How 
does it enrich the soil ? By Prof. J. Hamil- 
ton, member from Centre. The exhaustive 
effects of different crops. By the Secretary of 
the Board. Legal rights and duties of farm 
employer and farm employees. By Geo. W. 
Hood, member from Indiana. How can a 
farm be most economically improved from 
sources within its borders ? By Col. James 
Young, member Irom Dauphin. Preparing 
the ground and cultivation of corn. By John 
B. Smith, member from Luzerne Is cherry 
growing profitable ? By W. S. Roland, mem- 
ber from York. Salt as a fertilizer. By 
James Miles, member from Erie. Lime and its 
action. By the Secretary of the Board. A 
plea for nomenclature. By J. A. Herr, mem- 
ber from Clinton. Are fruit preserving houses 
a success and are they profitable ? By H. M. 
Engle, member from Lancaster. Does cut- 
ting injure the vitality of the potato ? By 
Dr. James Calder, President Pennsylvania 
State College. Other essays and subjects will 
be oflered for discussion. 

At some time during the continuance of the 
sessions, Prof. S. Breidenbaugh will address 
the meeting on "Some points in the relation 
of Chemistry to Agriculture," and Thomas 
Meehan, the botanist t)f the Board, upon 
"Practical lessons from Botanical Science." 

Excursion tickets to Gettysburg and return 
will be issued from stations on Pennsylvania 
railroad and branches. 

Queries and Answers. 

Llnyphia. 

Mr. J. B. A., Lancaster, Pa. — The yellow- 
ish spider from Montana, according to the 
arrangement and number of its eyes, ap- 
parently belongs to the genus Linyphia:, and 
the color and other characteristics seem to 
approximate it to the species autumualis, but, 
comins; from Montana, it is more likely to be 
an entirely new species. The specimen is 
considerably "shriveled," and the abdomen, 
especially, has sundry depressions and eleva- 
tions that would not be present in a fresh or 
living specimen. Spiders also moult several 
times during their lives, and the same species 
may present a different appearance between 
the" respective moulting periods, therefore, 
species captured late in autumn or during 
the winter are most likely to be perfectly de- 
veloped, and possess the most reliable charac- 
teristics. 

Seventeen-Year Locust. 

Mrs. P. E. O., jEnterprise, Pa.— Your in- 
sects seem to be the larvte of the seventeen 
year locust ( Cicado septendecim) in the 12th 
year of their development. Of course this con- 
clusion is only inferential. I received a larva' 
of the same kind in October last, which I in- 
ferred to be in its 11th year, from the fact 
that it was quite too large to belong to our 
annual species. These are somewhat larger 
than that specimen was. I have one also of J 
about .5 years ago which was still less thanj 
that of last year. We had the Cicadas in this! 
county in 1868, if they therefore belong to the! 
17 year species they must be in their 12th.| 
year. For myself, I think they are. 



I S80.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



67 



May-Beetle. 
Mr. J. M. IF., Lancaater, Pa. — Your big 
Irown beetle, is our coniinoii "May-Beetle," 
or "Juno Bug," as some iiecipl.; arc wont to 
( all it, (Litchnestcina qmrciuu) ami i.s tlie 
|.:nout of a "White Grub" tliat feeds on vege- 
i:ition uudergrouuil, and sometimes becomes 
\(ay destructive. 

Grape-leaf Flea-Beetle. 

Mr. Jl. O. B.. of Stra.-ihurij, and liev. J. H. 
P., of Elizabethlincii, Pa. — Your greenish- 
blue, and steel-blue insects, are the "grape- 
lesif Flea-Beetle," [(xvaptodera rliali/hta), and 
where they are numerous they are very de- 
structive. I have seen them destroy the 
foilage from the base of the vines to the ends 
of the branches. There are two broods in a 
season, the last brood hibernating imder 
ground, or under the bark of trees, coming 
forth in the spring and attacking the young 
buds, or the young leaves. The females of 
those received from Strasburg were already 
gravid, and had commenced depositing their 
eggs in the buds and on other parts of the 
branches, sent with them. They are called 
"flea-beetles," because they have leaping 
power, and to distiugui.sh them from other 
species that have not this power, but are 
otherwise of the same size and color. After 
these spring visitors have deposited all their 
eggs, they will probably all die, but they will 
leave behind an increased brood, in the form 
of yoimg tuberculated six-footed larvai that 
will prey upon the advanced foilage, and from 
them a second brood will be pioduced before 
the season closes. I have seen them as late as 
August and September — indeed the fir.st time 
I was able to identify the larvm and imnijo was 
from specimens of the larvie obtained at West 
Chester in 1800, and I al.so then learned they 
underwent their transformation undergroinid 
The larvie at first are very small and of a very 
dark color, but as they increase in size they 
become of a light-brownish or'*tawny color. 
Drenching the vines mth a tobacco decoction, 
or a solution of whale oil soap, would destroy 
the larvje, if it is properly done, but it might 
require several applications to be entirely 
efl'ectual. 

There are many species of these leaping or 
Flea-Beetles (Halticidm.) the turnip, cab- 
bage, lettuce, potatoes, eggplants and other 
species of domestic plants, and even the 
"Nightshade," "Jimpsou Weed," and other 
poisonous plants, have species that prey upon 
them, from which we may infer they are 
"tough customers." 



Horned Grebe. 
Mr. S. L., Manhcim twp. — The singular 
bird (water-fowl) you captured alive in the 
road, about a mile from any stream, a week 
ago, is a splendid specimen of the "Horned 
Grebe" {Podicejjs cnrnuius,) and it probably 
was beaten down in its flight by the storm 
that prevailed a day or two previous, or 
through some other contingency, for the bird 
would not