(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

! $. S.RATHVON'S 



Fiif 4T1 ; 




\ 



"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.'-WEBSTER. 



.^J^fe.' 




^^^Wi^"^ 



A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL EiNTOMOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

AND GENERAL MISCELLANY. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME XIII-1881. 

La45f 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

JOHN A. HIE3TAND, PUBLISHER. 

1881. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME THIRTEEN 



About Our Late Fair, 1 

A Forciijn Grain Enemy, 2 

Aildeudum et Correglcuduui, 2 

Annual Address, -i 

A Brief History of the Agricultural 
Societiesof Lancaster County, 4 

A Foot-Warmer, 4 

A Clioap and Durable Cistern, 6 

A Difficulty with Shrubberies, l:! 

Apple Compote, 14 

Almond Pudding with Sauce, 14 

A Principle in Feeding, 15 

Arc Our Improved S\vlne too Fat ( 15 

A Huge Spider, 15 

" Ault Barricks," 10 

A Double Apple Preserved in Alcohol, 
19 

An Ant Story, 22 

About Apples, 35 

A Patent Rat-Trap, 25 

American Agriculture, 2(> 

A Valuable Table, 26 

A Remarkable Year, 3(5 

Accumulation of Manure i Stables, 30 

A Grape Discussion, 49 

Artificial Milk, 185 

Arrareek Farm, 55 

About Orchard Grass, 59 • 

April Meeting of Fulton Farmers, 60 

About Limestone and Lime as Fer- 
tilizers, 61 

A Half Million in Horses, 185 

Attention to Swine, G4 

A County Fair, 65 

Are Roots Worth Growing, 76 

A Cow's Cud, 79 

Analyzing Fertilizers, 94 

A Mistake of Cooks, 95 

Assassination, 97 

Arkansas, et al., 99 

About Bets, 101 

A Word for the Potato Crop, 110 

Apples, 116, 136 

American Archaeology, 117 

Almond Cookies, 127 

About Chickens, 128 

An Ungathered Harvest, 130 

A Worm, 133 

A Library Pest, 134 

An East Donegal Dairy, 135 

A Big Farm, 135 

About Frosts, 146 

A Giant Grapevine, 15S 

About Pigs, 159 

Address of William Saunders, 164 

American Cheese and Its Exports 168 

A Shoe-Black Plant, 172 

A Knit Bed QuUt, 173 

A Quick Pudding, 174 

American Horses Again, 174 

A Study of Various Sources of Sugar, 
177 

A Relic, 173 

A Curious Beetle, 179 

Bone Dust and Wood Ashes. 12 

Bran for Milch Cows, 15 

Black Ants and Insect Destroyers, 15 

Bees and Grapes, 24 

Brightening Timware, 31 

" Butter and Cheese and I," -H 

Barley Soup, 47 

Barbed Wire for Fences, 186 

Beef and Mutton in England, 47 

Batter Salt, 62 

Beef Tea for Children, 63 

Baked Corn Meal Pudding, 64 

Broiled Chicken, 78 

Baked Pickerel, 79 

Barbed Wire Fences, 94 

Be Careful of the Cherry Trees, 94 

Butter and Cheese, 95 

Beef Stew, 95 



Breaded Eggs, 144 
Bucgy Peas, 149 
Bone Spavin, 150 
Breeding and Value of Butter 

Cows, 151 
Blount's White Prolific Corn, 157 
Brittle Hoofs, 159 
Boiled Rice, 174 
Big Head in Horses, 174 
Clothing of Glass, » 
Cold Feet, 14 



Cocoanut Pudding, 14 
Chicken Stew .or Potplc, 14 
Chickens' Livers, 14 
Chicken and Onions, or with Mush- 
rooms, 14 
Caged Song Birds, 17 
Cold Winters, 25 
Cultivating the Cherry Tree, 30 
Cranberry Sauce, 31 
Calves' Foot Jelly of 17S0. 31 
Charlotte Ruese, 31 
Capt. Ead's Ship Railway, 34 
Corn Culture, 40 
Cultivating Orchards, 47 
Candle, 47 
Chocolate Mange, 47 
Cornstalks as Manure, fi'i 
Cabbage, 62 
Chocolate, 63 
Clam Chowder, 64 
Crow's Nest, C4 
California Pudding, 64 
Cultivating Spring Crops, 69 
Castor Pomace as a Fertilizer, TO 
Cement for an Aquarium, 78 
Chicken Pudding, 78 
Canadian Jelly Cake, 78 
Care of Cattle in Warm Weather, T» 
Currant Worms, 85 
Corn Bread, 95 

Cement for Leather Belting, 95 
Cheese Omelette, 111 
Communicated, 116 
Celery Fritters, 137 
Cake or Fruit Sandwiches, 127 
Causes of Roup in Fowls, 127 
Colorado Potato Beetle, 133 
Chow-chow, 143 
Custard Souffle, 144 
Corn Aphis, 147 
Care of Fruit Trees, 158 
Coal Ashes, 15S 
Calves, 159 
Cotton Manufacturers al the Atlanta 

Exposition, 161 
Comparative Value of Feed Stuffs, 167 
Cheap Sponge Cake, 173 
Cold Spiced Beef, 173 
Common Sense in the Poultry Yard, 

175 
Difference in Farming, 13 
Danger In the " Silos," 13 
Delicious Pickled Oysters, 14 
Dried Fruits, 16 
Diseases ol Cows, 15 
Double Apple, 36 
Do Bees Puncture Grafes, and If so. 

How I 38 
Drying Potatoes, 63 
Danish Pudding, 63 
Dietetics — Moral and Physical Reform 

Closely Allied, 87 
Dried Peach Pudding, 96 
Dairy Products, 111 
Destructive Owls, 133 
Death of President Garfield, 145 
Delicious Strawberries, 153 
Eggs as Food, 6 
Enriching Poor Lands, 12 
Excerpts, 20, 132, 146, 163, 181 
Enemies of Spiders, 32 
" Ex Libris," 24 
EnsUage, 35,49,,70 
Entree, 47 
Encouraging Reports from all Over 

the Union, 75 
English and American Implements, 78 
Egg Dumplings, 79 
Early Turnips, 95 

Estimate of Jay Gould's Wealth, 132 
Early Frosts In the Garden, 143 
Eggs vs. meat, 173 
Farm Machinery, 7 
Fresh Shad all the Time, S 
Fulton Farmers' Club, 11, 28, 45, 60, 

93, 109, 124, 141, 18? 
Facts In Soil Culture, 12 
Facts About Timothy, 12 
Fruit Garden, 13 
Fuchsias, 13 
For a Time of Need, 13 
For Taking Out Scorch, 14 
Foreign Slugs, 15 
Fat Makes Hem Lay, 16 
Fowls, 16 



Forests in Pennsylvania, 18 

Foreign Pears and Apples, 3ll 

Fruit Jumbles, 31 

Feather Cake, 31 

Fruit Crops In Pennsylvania, 39 

Fig Pudding, 47 

FrI-d Herring, 47 

False Flax, 68 

Fodder Corn, 69 

Flower Garden and Lawn, 76 

Fences, 77 

Feeding, 79 

Feeding for Eggs, 80 

First Annual Exposition, 84 

Free and Flour Gold, 85 

Failure of Seeds, 91 

Frosted Apple Pie, 95 

Fine Sweet Rusks, 96 

Fertilizers in Pennsylvania, 110 

Food for Roses, 110 

Flecks or "White Caps," in Cream, 
186 

From Nature's Storehouse, 121 

Fifty-four Bushels Apiece, 126 

Forestry, 138 

Fall pasturing, 173 

Farmers' Gardens, 17j 

Flower Farming, 172 

Fruit Trees, 172 

Flannel Cakes, 172 

French Cake, 174) 

Fried Mush, 174 

Frosting, 174 

Feeding Calves, 174 

Food for Fowls, 176 

Feeding Chicks forjRapId Growth, 175 

Grape Culture, 5 

Garden Fruits— Getting Ready for Com- 
ing Season, 46 

Game So'up, 47 

Green Manurina:, 61 

Gapes or Strbngyli, 81 

Glucose and Grape Sugar, 94 

Grow the Hollyhocks, 95 

Grapes from Thorns, 95 

Graham Meal Griddle Cakes, 111 

German xMillet, 125 

Garden Crops yet to Grow, 136 

Gingerbread Loaf, 144 

Garget ; Its Causes, Symptoms and 
Cure, 144 

Glucose, 158 

Grape Vine Treatment, 172 

Grape Vines on Stakes, 172 

Gumbo, 174 

Gapes In Chickens, 175 

Grain Speculation of 1881, 184 

How to Treat Frozen People, 1 

Hotch-potch, 4 

Household Hints, 7, 127, 158, 17J 

How long will Seeds Live, 13 

How to Hang Thermometers, 13 

How to Boil and Stew, 14 

House Plants, 30 

How to Cook a Turkey, 31 

Hot Beds and Cold Frames, 47 

Hot Water for Insects, 50 

How we are poisoned, 58 

How to Wash Clothes without Fading, 
63 

Horse Radish Sauce, 6:! 

Hereford Cattle, 64 

How Voltaire .Cured the Decay of his 
Stomach, 77 

Horseback Riding, 78 

How the Chinese make Tea, 78 

Hellebore, 101 

Hurdling Sheep, 111 

Horses— Trotters and Walkers, 112 

How Cattle are Killed for New York 
Market, 121 

How to Plant Celery, 136 

How the French Workman Lives, 143 

How the French Manage, 187 

Hominy Griddle Cakes, 144 

How to feed Pigs and What to feed 



then 



114 



Honey Locust, 146 
How to Distribute Manure, 158 
How to make Beefteak Tender, 159 
How to Grow Clover, 17.' 
Influence of Trees on Health, 14 
Items for the Farmer, 36 
Insanity of Farmers' Wives, 73 
In Testing Eggs, 78 



Insects and Insect Remedies, 83 

Internal Revenue, 132 

International Cotton Exposition, Atlan- 
ta. Ga., 145 

Insects on Fruit Trees, 149 

Japan Persimmons, 4 

Jelly Custard, 78 

Jersey Marl, 139 

Kieffer's Hybrid Pear, 3 

Killing Canada Thistles, 46 

Know how to Cook a Turnip, 63 

Kedgeree, 63 

Keep a Slate, 173 

Lancaster County Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, 10, 27, 
43, 59, 74, 92, 108, 123, 139, 165, 
170 

LInuaean Society, 11, 29, 55, 61, 75, 
93, 109, 133,141, 156, 171 

Late Fall Plowing, 13 

Literary and Personal, 10, 32, 48, 64, 
SO, 96, 112, 144, 159, 176, 191 

Lobster Patties, 31 

Lice on Chickens, 31 

Light Pot-pic, 78 

Lusus Naturae, 99 

Lancaster County Peat, 114 

Lima Bean Enemy, 148 

Large Flocks of Fowls, 1.59 

Lima Bean Soup, 174 

Lambs, 174 

Minnesota Flour, 7 

Mince Meat, 14 

Maccaronl, 14 

More Corn to the Acre, 29 

Manuring Lawns, 29 

Mayonnaise, 31 

More Eggs, 31 

Mayonnaise Dressing for Salad, 63 

Mayonnaise of Fish, 63 

Maguum Bonum Potatoes, 76 

Manuring the Garden, 77 

Marlborough Pie, 78 

Moisture, 85 

Moths' Ravages, 86 

Muck, 94 

Manure for the Gardener and Fruit- 
Grower, 108 

Marl as a Tobacco Fertilizer, 115 

More About Bats, 115 

Mock Buckwheat Cakes, 127 

Mutton Haricot, 173 

iMush, or Hasty Pudding, 174 

Meat Pie, 173 

Notes and Comments, 13 

New Process In Milling, 27 

Nitrogenous Elements of Plant Food, 
42 

New York Wool MarTtet, 186 

Noxious Weeds, 134 

Notes on Farm Stock, 174 

Nutritive Value of Animal Food, 178 

Oleomargarine, 5 

Our Exports, 7 

Our Great Staple, 8 

Our Grain Trade, 9 

Ofticers Elected, 21 

Oatmeal and Beef Tea, 47 

Omelette Souflee, 47 

Onions, 63 

Osufs a rOrange, Oi 

" Our Hellebore," 65 

Origin of Fultz Wheat, 71 

Orange Pie or Pudding, 78 

Oyster Fricassee, 9(> 

Old Documents, 113 

Our Coming Wine Crop, 121 

Our Primitive Forests, 131 
On the Timber Line of High Moun- 
tains, 1.52 

Onions for Chicken Cholera, 175 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers Society, 

3 
Preservation of Harness, 6 
Preparing Poultry for Market, 8 
Poultry Association, 11, 28, 170, 188 
Practice on the Farm, 12 
Planting Potatoes in Autumn, 13 

Protecting Plants and Shrubs, 13 

Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, 21 
Potato Culture, 24, 184 
Propagating Fuchsias, 31 
Peach Buds and Peaches, 41 
Potato Cakes for Breakfast, 47 
Pruning Trees, 54 



IV 



INDEX. 



Pish-pash of Mutton, 63 

Potted Meat, 64 

Poor Man's Sweet Cake, 64 

Potato Salad, 64 

Prepare for the Fruit Crop, 77 

Pigs Feet, 77 

Putting Away Clothes, 78 

Pruning Roses, 94 

Pork Chop, 96 

Planting large Pear Trees, 110 

Public Docun-ents, 114 

Plowing Toung Orchards, 126 

Poultry Notes, 128,159,176,191 

Preserving Grapes for Winter, 143 

Plowing and Pulverizing, 142 

Preserving Eggs, 143 

Pan Dowdy, 143 

Pocklington Grape, 146 

Peacock Moth, 147 

Pennsylvania's Untilled Acres, 155 

Poultry Exhibition, 163 

Plain Kice Cake, 173 

Potato Pudding, 173 

Persimmon, the 192 

Queries and Answers, 22, 182 

Quitters, 184 

Robbing the Soil, 5 

Rotation, 12 

Removing Candle Grease, 14 

Raising Ducks for Profit, 32 

Reply to W.H. S., 53 

Rice au jus, 63 

Raising Peas, 77 

Raise Gapes, 77 

Rhubarb Tart, 78 

Royal Diplomatic Pudding, 78 

Raising Calves, 79 

Raising Camels in Nevada, 79 

Ravages of the Insect Army, 86 

Rhubarb, 110 

Rhubarb Jam, 111 

Raising Jersey Cattle, 111 

Remedies Against Injurious Insects, 

149 
Revised Fruit List, 150 
Remove the Dend Limbs, 158 
Raising the Price of Sour-Kraut, 161 

Rolls, 173 

Rice Chicken Pie, 173 

Roast Duck, 174 

Salt as a Preservative of Timber, 12 

Scrape the Feet, 13 

Sausage, 14 

Short Cakes, 14 

Sweet Potato Fie, 14 

Sheep-Raising Near Large Cities, 14 

Seventeen Year Locust, 17, 22 

Shelter Belts, 23 

Salt in Sowing, 30 

Snowball Pudding, 31 

State Fruit-Growers' Association, 46 

Suggestions of and for the Season, 
46 

Soused Herrings, 47 

Snow Pudding, 47 

Stuffed Potatoes, 47 

Suffering of the Cattle on the Plains, 
48 

Scientific Conjugation of the Alliga- 
tor, 50 

Sand Bag in a Sick Room, 63 

Soiling Milk Cows, 69 



Systematic Farming, 76 

Stumps, 76 

Some Items in Farm Economy, 76 

Snow Cakes, 78 

Spice Cakes, 78 

Salt for Poultry, 80 

Sure Death to Flies, 86 

Summer Salads, 94 

Salt for the Throat, 95 

Sassafras for Killing Lice, 95 

Scrap Bags, 96 

Silk Cultu.e in the United States 98 

Silk Culture, 105 

Sods, 110 

Summer Pruning, 110 

Strawberry Culture, 111 

Sheep Husbandry in Virginia, 112 

Slow Progress, 113 

State Board of Agriculture, 114 

Summer Drinks, 120 

Scientific Notes, 121 

Summer Treatment of Calla Lilies, 

126 
Salad Dressing with Raw Eggs? 127 



Sugar-Beet Flea Beetle, 131 
Suggestions of and for the Season, 142 
Storing and Keeping Potatoes, 143 
Sweet Pickles, 143 
Sago Pudding. 143 

Smothered Chicken, 143 

Secure Good Seed, 157 

Shade in Pastures, 158 

Sugar-Beets, 162 

Selecting a Good Cow, 168 

Swine-Raising— A Different System 
Desirable, 169 

Seed Buns, 174 

Spontaneous Forests, 178 

Strategy vs. Strength, 180 

Sources of Sugar, 177 

The New Tear, 1 

Two Remarkable Apples, 5 

The Oyster, 9 

Taking Cold, 9 

Toxic Effects of Tea, 10 

The Beet Sugar Industry, 13 

To Wash Flannels without Shrink- 
ing, 13 

To Prepare Iron Kettles for Use, 14 

To Kill Unpleasant Odors, 14 

The Silk Worm in Nevada, 16 

The Honey Ant, 15 

The Best Food for Egg Producers, 15 

The late Poultry Show, 18 

The Timber Question, 19 

The Stone Age, 19 

The New Holland Clarion, 30 

The Freezing of Insects, 21 

The Corn Cut-worm, 23 

The Finest of the Wheat, 30 

The Best Time for, Grafting Trees, 30 

The Feathery Acacias in Bloom, 30 

To Color Roses, 30 

Tuberoses, 31 

To Renovate Black Goods, 31 

The Railroads and the People, 33 

The Mammoth Pearl, 34 

The Sources of Springs, 36 

The Elm Tree Beetle, 36 

The Two Catapals, 36 

Tobacco Cultu e— How to Grow our 
Next Crop, 37, 56, 71, 89, 97, 
103, 119, 136, 188 



The Poultry Society, 44, 75, 123, 141, 

1.56, 188 
The Bee Keepers' Association, 45 
To Clean Ermine and Minever Skins, 

47 
To Remove Ink Stains from Printing 

Books, 47 
The Rearing of Calves, 47 
That's what all should be doing, 49 
The Magnum Bonum, 50 
The Seventeen-year Cicada, 51 
The " Sack Worm," 53 
The Uses of Lime in Farming, 58 
Tree Trimming, 58 
The Mfuagement of Liquid Fertil- 
izers, 61 
The Co.v Pea, 62 
The Pomegranate, 62 
To Cut Sod, 62 
Take Ca»e of the Matches, 62 
To Remove Glass Stoppers, 63 
To Avoid Insect Ravages, (i6 
The Skunk, 67 
The Peach Crop, 68 
To Make and Maintain a Lawn, 71 
Table Corn, 76 
The Wheat Crop in Kansas, 76 
Timely Notes of Seasonable Interest, 

77 
To Take Woody Taste out of a Pail, 
78 

To Make Chocolate, 78 

Treatment of Cows with Calf, 79 

The Value of Water for Cows, 79 

The Apple Worm, 85 

The Tear without a Summer, 88 

The Farm Laborer, 88 

The Tobacco Trade, 89 

Tea Two Hundred Tears Ago, 89 

The American Merino, 91 

The Ground Limestone Question, 93 

The Millet Crop, 94 

To Keep Very Shaded Places Green, 
95 

Tying up Raspberries, 95 

To Remove Caps of Glass from Fruit 
Cans, 95 

To Counteract Salt, 95 

To Destroy Fungus Growth, 96 

To Keep Preserves, 95 

To Utilize Feathers, 96 

T\.oof aKind, 100 

The Free Pipe Line, 102 

The Agricultural Circle, 110 

The Exportation of Dried Apples, 110 

Transplanting, 111 

To Determine the Weight of Live Cat- 
tle, 111 

The Kieffer Pear, 114 

The Game Laws, 115 

The Terrible Heat, 115 

Tabulated Analyses of Fertilizers made 
by Prof. Genth, State Chemist, 
118 

Trade in Flowers, 120 

The Turnip Crop, 125 

The "Monthly Reports from the De- 
partment of Agriculture, 125 

Top Dressing Meadows, 126 

Two Good Pears, 126 

Thin the Crops, 126 

Timely Suggestions ps to the Treat- 
ment of Persons Overcome by 
Heat, 126 



The Milk Periods, 127 

Tossed Potatoes, 127 

Tomato Soup, 127 

To Boil Rice, 127 

The Drouth, 130 

"The Sugar Beet," 131 

The Spectre Insect, 1-34 

The Peach Cnrl Fungus, 136 

The Discovery of Silk, 136 

The Fruit Garden, 143 

The Corn Crib, 143 

The Feeding Value of Corn Fodder, 

144 
The Crops of 1881, 145 
The Corn Worm, 148 
The Elm Tree Worm, 149 
The Atlanta Exposition, 164 
The Coming Tree, 154 
To Propagate the Currant, 158 
This Will Pay Tou, 162 
The Coal-bug, 162 
The Sources of Sugar, 167, 177 
The Short Wheat Crop, 171 
To Relieve Asthma, 174 
To Remove Proud Flesh, 174 
To Prevent Choking, 17i 
The Shropshire Sheep, 174 
To our Patrons and the People, 177 
Thick and Thin Seeding of Wheat 

185 
Useful Remedies, 31 
Usefulness of Lemons, 127 

Useful Hints for Measuring Land, 
173 

Valuable Hints, 13 

Value of Water for Cows, 15 

Varnished Work, 31 

Vennor's Latest Weather Predictions, 
53 

Veal with Tomato Sauce 63 

Vermicelli Soup, 78 

Vegetable Animals, 168 

Value of Tobacco Stalks, 171 

Well Water, 6 

White Veins in Tobacco, 6 

Waste of Manure, 7 

Wise Ants, 10 

Wheat-Growing Experiments, 12 

What Not to do for Sick People 13 

Washing Made Easy, 14 

Why We Use Quick Lime Upon the 
Land , 3(; 

What is Good Grape Culture, 30 

White Cake, 31 

Weight and Measure, 46 

Why We Shall Never Starve, 46 

Work in the Orchard Now, 47 

Whip Sauce, 63 

Why Cattle and Other Stock Die To- 
wa. cis Spring, 64 

Weeds, 76 

White Grubs, 87 

What a Tenant May Remove, 88 

Waste Material from Towns, 89 

Wire-Worms, 97 

What About Liquid Manure, 110 

Wo -th Knowing, 117 

Wonders of Broom-Corn, 126 

Whipped Cream, 127 

Weather Wisdom, 158 

Wo -king Brood Mares, 159 

What Does Dew Come From, 163 

Wheat, 167 

Which Brings the Most Money, 179 




Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. JANUARY, 18S1. 



;CHK A. HIESTAND, Publisher. 



Liiiicaster 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 
The New Year, --..-. 
About Our Late Fair, ----- 
now to Treat Frozen People, 
A ForeiiTU Grain Euemy, - - - - - 
Adileuiiutn et Corregleiiduin, 
Kieffer'fi Ilyl'rid Pear, . - . - . 
Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers' Society, - 

ESSAYS. 
Annual A<Ulross, ------ 



CONTRIBUTIONS. 
A Brief History of the Agricullural Socielics of 

Lancaster County — Warwick, . . . 
Hotch-Potcli— J'. 0., ----- - 

Japan PersinimoDS — J. 0. Oarber, - 
A Foot-Warmer—/. (?., 

SELECTIONS. 
Two Uemarkable Apples, - - - - 

Grapo Culture, ------- 

Olcomarifarine, - . . - . . 

Robbiiifr the Soil, - . - - - • - 
Well-Water, .---.-.. 
EgKS as Food, ------- 

A Cheap and Durable Cistern, - - - - 

Preservation of Harness, - - - - - 

White Veins in Tobacco, - - - . - 
Minnesota Flour, ------ 



Our Exports, - - - 

Household Hints, 

Waste of Manure, 

Farm Machinery, - - - 

Our Great Staple, 

Fresh Shad all the Time, 

Preparing Poultry for Market, 

Our Grain Trade, 

CloUiing of Glass, 

The Oyster, - ■ - . 

Taking Cold, 

Toxic Etfeets of Tea, - 

Wise Auts, - . - - 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society, 

New Members— special Committee— Crop Re- 
|X)rls-Thc Presidenl'a Address- Rssuy on 
Windbreaks— Lcjtislution on Foreiit Culture- 
blcctiou of OlHccrs— Treasurer's Kcport— Mis- 
c-eltuneuus. 

Poultry Association, 

Bepoils of Officers-Kcport of the Sccrctary- 
l iilimslie.l Business- New Busines.-!. 

Fulton Farmers' CInb, 

LInnaean Society, 

Museum-Libmr}--rapcr3 Read-New Business. 
AGRICULTURE. 
Difference in Farming, - . - . . 



Practice on the Farm, 1 

Kotation, 1 

Danger in the "Silos," 1 

Enriching Poor Lands, ----- 1 

Facts in Soil Culture, 1 

Late Fall Plowing, 1; 

Salt as a Preservative of Timber, - - . 1 

Facts About Timothy 1 

Bone Dust and Wood Ashes, - - - - i: 

Wheat-Growing E.xpcriments, - . . i 

HORTICULTURE. 
Planting Potatoes in Autumn, 
The Beet Sngar Industry, - 
Valuable Hint, 

Protecting Plants and Shrubs, 

A DilKculty With Shrubberies, - - - 1,3 

Fruit Garden, 13 

Notes and Comments, ----- i.s 

Fuchsias, 13 

How Long Will Seeds Live? - - - - 13 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

How to Hang Therniometers, - - - - 13 

To Wash Flannels Without Shrinking, - - 13 

Time of Need, 13 



The Honey Ant, - . . . 
A Huge Spider, . - . . 
Foreign Slugs, - - - - 
POULTRY. 
The Best Food for Egg Producers, 
Fat Alakes Hens Lay, 

Fowls, 

Literary and PerS' nal, - 




Wiiat Not to do for Sick People, 

Scrape the Feet, 13 

Cold Feet, 14 

Influenceof Trees on Health, - . - . 14 

To Prepare Iron Kettles for Use, - - - 14 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

.A.pple Compote, ----- . 14 

Delicious Pickled Oysters, 14 

Mince .Meat, -•----. 14 

For Taking Out Scorch, - - . - . 14 

Kemoving Candle Grease, - - - - 14 

Maccaroni, -------- 14 

Dried Fruits, ----..- 14 

To Kill Unpleasant Odors, - - . - 14 

Cocoanut Pudding, ------ U 

Sausage, -------- 14 

How to Boil and Stew, . - - - - 14 

Washing Made Easy, ----- 14 

Chicken Stew, or Potpie, - - - - - 14 

Almond Pudding, with Sauce, - - - 14 
Short Cakes, - - - - - . -14 

Sweet Potato Pie, -----. 14 

Chickens' Livers, ------ 14 

Chicken and Onions, or with Mushrooms, - 14 

LIVE STOCK. 

Sheep-Raising Near Large Cities, - - - 14 

Value of Water for Cows, - - - - - 1.5 

Bran for Milch Cows, ----- 1.5 

Diseases of Cows, - ig 

A Principle In Feeding, 15 

Arc Our Improved Swine Too Fat, - - - ^5 

ENTOMOLOQICAL. 
Black Ants and Insect Destroyers, - - -15 

The Silk Worm In Nevada, - . - . 15 



M.v Anniinl <-afalntfiio of V<>i;nlahl« and 
Fluwpr Kp*a for I8KI. rich in pnxnivinRS fiom pho- 
tPgraihB of I he origin iIb. will be eeut FKJ5 to «ll who 
apply. My ni.l cuBt.iniTM 1 eed not wiile for II. I oir«r 
one of (tie lart:eHt co'lectionw of vegetable seed ever lent 
out I'jr any seed Hoitao In America, > li.r(r« portion of whidl 
were rrowu ou my six seed farms. Full dirrctiont /or eu>- 
tivation an each package. Ml seed varranlcd to be both 
fresh and true In name; so f..r, thai fhould It i rove other- 
wise, / will refill the order gratia. The original introducer 
of the Hubbard Squaah. Pbiuuey'a Melon, Haablehrad Cab- 
biiRfB, Mexican Corn, tnd acorea of other vegetables, I 
invite the patroni ee of off vhn are anxiou* to hace their 
feed directly from the iiroicer. fresh, true, and 0/ the very 
best utrain. 

SEW VKGKTABI.EK A SI»K<I A I. TY. 

JA.WEN J. 11. UKKUOKT, 



Nov.fimol 



Mi.rljlcbtiid, Mass. 



EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

n;i%r. TO Ai.i.. 

AMERICAN DRIER COMPANY, 

rhninberMbiirsr, ■>«. 

Apl-tf 



SAWING MADE EAST- 




THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



►ENXSYI.VAXIA RAILROAD SOHF.DIII.K. 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific Express* 

Way Passengert 

Niagara ExpresB 

Hanover Aecoramodation,. 

MaU train via Mt. Joy 

No.2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Accommodation . 

Hai-risburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express" 



EASTWARD. 
Cincinnati Express. 

Fast Line* 

Harrisburg Exprt 



5:00 a. m 
11:00 a. m 
11:05 p. m 
10:20 a. m 
11.25 a. m 



>:08 a. m 



8:05 a 



Columbia Accommodation, 

Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail 2:00 i 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express' | o 

Harrisburg Accom , 6 

The Hanover Accommodation, 
with Niagara Express, west, at v.ii a 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Acconimodatiou, west, t 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m., am 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, 
stop at M-1dletown, Elizabethtown, Mom 
Tille. 

•Thf oi 



Col. 10:40 ! 
12:40 p. 1 
12:55 p. 1 
12:40 p. 1 



7:20 p. m. 
9:30 p. m. 
connects at Lancaster 
a. m., and wUl run 



NORBECK SMILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



kfm Builders, 



i;<IX & OO'S OIB STA'D, 

km of Duke anJ Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PL4TED WARE, 
GI.OOKS. 

JEWELRY IT ABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly attended to. 

North Queen-st, and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa, 

79-1-1-2 



3B. ap". aso wivt^a-isr. 



AT I.OWKNT P»<SSIBI,E FKK ES, 

Fully gui'.auteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] Opposite I.eopnid Hotrl. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHAETONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 



Prices to Suit tlie Times. 

BEPAIRING promptly iittende,! to. All work 
guaranteed. 



S. IB. OOXl, 

Manufacturer of 

Ctrriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Large Stock uf New and Secon-haud Work on hand, 
very clieaij. Carriages Made to Order Work Warranted 
oroneyear. [Ts-9-U 



--SU.^" 



G. SENER & SONS, 



L,XJ»KBER, 



PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YAKD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnut-sts., 

LAISrCA-STKR, 3? A.. 



TREES 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trpes raised in tliis couuiy and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.. Pa. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 



And Manufactu 



FURNITURE PD CHAIRS. 



M'AREROOH.S: 



102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



79-1-12] 



Special Inducemenrs at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 
ivo. xs x-a :e. i£.xT<9-<3n si<xt.x:s:rz> 

(over Bursk's Grocery Store), LincaHter, Pa. 
A general aseor^meut of furniture ot all kinds constantly 
on hand. J>on't forget the uuinber. 

IS X-2 £:a,st ZSlxxxs Street, 

Nov-ly] (overBurBk'B G.ocerj" Sloi e. i 



For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, 

No S09 NORTH QUEEN ST.. 

(Opposite Northern M.uket), 
Also, all kinds of picture 1 raniea. uov-ly 



GREAT BARGAINS. 

Alargeassoitmunt of all kuids of Carpets are still sold at 

CARPET H^LLoTHrs. SHIRK, 

No. 20-i West Kiny St. 

Call and examine our stock and satisly yourself that we 
can show the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
jilies and ingrain at all prices— at the lowoai Philadelphia 

Also on hand a large and complete assortment of Rag 

Satisfaction guaranteed bath as to price and quality. 
You are invited to cill and see my goods. No trouble in 
showing thorn even if you do not want to puichase. 
Doii't forget this notice. You can save monoy here if yon 

Particular attention given to customer v ork. 
Also on hand a full assortiueut of Counterpanes, OU 
Cloths and Blankets of every variety [nov-lyr. 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Emlnaciuy the history and hubita ot" 

^-^^ NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

^^^ INSECTS, 

and the best remedies f.ir their exi.uUiou or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work will be Highly lUustrated, and wiU be put in 
press (as soon after a sufficient number of subscribers can 
be obtained to cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 



$77- 



PHILIP SCHUM. SO« & CO., 

38 and 40 West King Street. 

We keep ou liauil of our own mauufacture, 

GUILTS, COVERLETS, 

^ COUNTERPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau and Tidy Covers. Ladies' Furnishing Goods, Nb- 

Parlicuiar attention paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
scowering and dyeing ol all kimis. 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption witliont medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will i 
for you what nolhiug else on earth can. Hundreds ot ci 
zens of Lancaster s->y so. Get the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 



G. R. KLINE, 
yVlTOP^NEY-AT-^AW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

L,A.NCA.STKK, FA.. 

Nov-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1881. 



Vol. XIII. No. 1. 



Editorial. 



THE NEW YEAR. 

"AsWrbsti'i-says." as '-Mra. Barton says," 
as the plav sav> : ■• Fahit heart never won fair 
ladii " iuiil «■('• li. li.vc its ixfael. Wo have at 
least this i-onsolatioii, if a tiling is a. faH 
liraitically, it makes l)ut little dilTei-ence 
wlh thcT we believe it or not, or wlutluT any- 
ImmIv else believes it or not. Perhaps there 
lire luit few who have missed their aim in 
lili , who would not he williiifc to admit in 
thrir cahiifr iiioiiients that that miss was 
mainly due to a fninlneiis <if heart; or, as Dr. 
j Collier puts il, "io a want of ";/n'(." (Pro- 
I fessimial politicians (lerhaps would say, a want 
of •■i;ali" ami ••^rah.") Be all thi«, however, 
as it iiiuy, what we desire to say is, that cast- 
ing away all faiutiiess of heart," the Farmer 
vonehsafrs its cordial sreetiusfS, and i)roposes 
to p\it in its appearance during the year 1881 
whether it wins its fair lady or not. And 
that. t(if), in the very face of the jiredictions 
that 1881 is to witness the "consummation of 
the ages," in other words, the end of the world. 
If the end must needs be in 1881, then, to use 
a sporting phrase, the Farmer wants to be 
"in at the brush." It is in entire sympathy 
with the sage Puritan legislator, wiio, on a 
dark colonial occasion, remarked that the 
judgment day was coming, or it was not com- 
ing. If it was not coming there was no need 
of anxiety or alarm, but if it ?«as coming, 
then he wished to be found doing his duty. 
Believing that men are ultimately saved, not 
for what they hare been, or what they expect 
or propose to be, but for what the;/ are, the 
Farmer desires to answer to the great roll- 
call, "/rod," not I was. or will be; and it 
desires all its correspondents, its contributors, 
its patrons, and all who ought to be its patrons, 
to be in the same category — "in the same 
boat." 

AYe believe it is as solemn a duty for some- 
body to publish an agricultural journal in 
Lancaster county as it is to publish a politi- 
cal, a literary or a religious journal in it ; and 
we believe there exists a self-imposed injunc- 
tion of moral and material support that is 
just as solemn ; and, if every head of a 
family <;an practically s ly, "Bcji Adhem^s name 
in there," it will be no bar to his elevation to 
the beatitudes, when the world comes to an 
end. We lielieve this, because we believe 
that ^'■T he farmer is the founder of civiliza- 
tion." If there is any i)lace on this earth 
where the jiroducts of agriculture are not 
needed, there can be no civilization there ; it 
must be a land of bloodthirsty carnivora — 
whether biped or quadruped — and under the 
ban of the "abomination of desolation." 

"Agriculture, manufactures and commerce" 
is a universal motto throughout the civilized 
Vforld ; these three, but the greatest of these 
is agriculture. The products of agriculture 
are the substances which manufactures man- 
ipulate, and commerce conveys. This is both 
the theoretical and jiractical aspect of the 
case, and it ai>pears to us that where this is 
not appreciated, and in some measure reiilized, 
it evinces that the schoolmaster is either 
abroad, or that his system is defective ; for 
the first human occupation on this earth in- 
volved the subject of agriculture ; and 
wherever it degenerates it argues a ])rior de- 
generation of the agriculturist. There is no 
prospect that agriculture will ever be fore- 
stalled so long as this world endures, or man 
has physical wants that need gratification. 
This is the anchor of Hope when other occu- 
pations wane, fluctuate, or become disturbed 
thrnughout the civilized realm. 

The year 1880, through which we have just 
passed, has been an eventful one to our entire 



country, and especially to the interests of 
agriculture. It has demonstrated that tin- 
population of our Union has risen to over 
5(1,000,000 souls ; it has witnessed the pea(;e- 
ful election of a new President \nider all ttu^ 
forms of law ; and it has experienced a foreign 
demand lor our agrii'ultural inddiietions be- 
yond that of any otiier count ly under the sun. 
It has also witnessed a return of prosperity 
that presages a brighter future than it has 
enjoyed for half a score of years. Whilst 
under these brightening circumstancefi, we 
would not counsel extravagance or reckless 
enterprise ; still we would stimulate confi- 
dence, and gently admonish the people against 
that mawki.sh " faintness of heart" which 
" never won fair lady." Men in this life, and 
especially in the present organization of 
society, must incur some risk— some venture ; 
for even the sharpest can't see much beyond 
the ends of their noses. Still we must exer- 
cise a rational judgment ; ambition must take 
counsel of discretion, and leave results to Him 
"who shapes our ends, rough hew them as 
we will." When the farmer places his seed 
in the soil, he has no certainty that he is going 
to realize a crop, not even when he gives it 
all the cultivation his reason may sugce.st. 
Still he ventures, nor abates his energies th<^ 
present year, because the last one may liavi^ 
been a failure. He has faith in the ultimate 
omnipotence of agriculture, however it may 
be temporarily thwarted through adverse 
contingencies. In this respect the farmer is 
the peer of any other occupation in the land. 
Others, when they fail to realize their antici- 
pations, "shut down," and drive out their 
employees upon the cold charities of the 
world, but the farmer continues on " in the 
even tenor of his way," whether he "makes 
a spoon or spoils a horn." The farmer is, 
therefore, not only the fimnder of civilization, 
but he is also the " bulwark of the nation," 
and it is on account of this responsible status 
that he needs a literary mouthpiece of that 
civilization. Under the auspices of .his sym- 
pathy and support, we, with this issue, begin 
the thirteenth volume of our journal, and we 
desire, and hope to deserve, as much of that 
support, morally, intellectually, and pecuni- 
arily as will convert it into a " silver-backed " 
mirror, from which his reflection may be cast 
over our progressive county, our State, and 
our entire country. We congratulate him on 
the advent of 1881 — we tender him our New 
Year's compliments, with a hope for many 
happy returns of it. We ask this all for the 
present; for the present will become the past 
rapid enough without troubling ourselves 
about the/«fi(re. Our wants, our wishes, and 
our aspirations relate to the pregnant now, for 
this alone is ours. If the present is properly 
cared for the future will take care of it.self. 

In closing these our fraternal greetings, we 
again respectfully solicit the literary contri- 
butions, and communications of facts con- 
nected with the noble profession of farming, 
from our friends and patrons. There are also 
many historical incidents and events con- 
nected with the progress of our county that 
would be interesting to our readers, the pre- 
paration of which would be a "double bless- 
ing." In conclusion, finally, permit us to 
invoke for one and all, a right prosperous and 
Happy New Year. 

ABOUT OUR LATE FAIR. 
In reading over President Witmer's ad- 
dress, delivered at the January meeting of 
the society, and especially his comments on 
the last fair of the society at the Northern 
Market House, and also in reading over 
Warwick's "Brief History" of the old county 
societies, we are reminded of the great lab()r 
and anxiety experienced by those who origi- 



nated and conducted them ; in which they i 

stpiandered their time, their money, and their j 
physical energies, and never experienced a ] 
real success. People forget these things; new ' 
generations spring up that know nothing | 
about them. When wc comi)are our late 
"failure" with the unrequited efforts of the 
past, ours sinks into insignilicance. AVe well 
remember the .small number of self-sacrificing 
men who alone carried lliosi^ exhibitions 
through. How they W(!i>t finm house lohou.se 
in the city of fiamtaster and in the suironnd- 
ing districts and importimed — yea begged 1 
and implored the people to become exhibitors, j 

iind all to little or no jiurpose, except bv a 
few of their siiecial friends, and also how they 
sent their hired men and their vehicles to 
haul their exhibits out to (he fair ground and 
home again at the close, and all at their own I 

expense. Since then agricultural fairs had I 
become common all over the country — many ] 
of them successful, but of the labor and ex- 
pense it cost to make (hem so we never could 
know, for that |iart never was i)ublished. 
But many ofthiin also failed, and their effects 
were finally seized and sold by the sheriff. A 
fair, doubtless, might succeed in Lancaster , 
county, and ought to succeed, hut it never can, ! 

we feel now convinced, until there is more of 
a unity than now exists, and until the people 
themselves become more liberal patrons than 
they have been heretofore. j 

HOW TO TREAT FROZEN? PEOPLE. i 

"Somebody who knows what he is talking 
about writes as follows in the Ameriran Agri- 1 

ewZiurisS: 'If any jiart of the body gets frozen 
the very worst thing to do is to apply heat | 
dircctl.v. Keep away from the fire. Use 
snow if you can get it; if not, u.se the coldest 
])ossible water. Last winter our little boy of 
five years froze his feet while out coasting at 
considerable distance from the house. He 
cried all the way home, and the case seemed | 

pretty bad. I brought a bii: i>anful of stiow "i 
and put his feet into it, rubbing them with 
the snow. But mv hands could not stand i 

the pold. I was alarmed to see him keep his 
feet in the snow so long, but he could not ' 

bear them out. of it. It was half an hour be- 
fore he would take them out, and then the 
pain was all goni\and when I had wiped 
them di-y and rubheci them a little he was en- 
tirely comfortable, put on his stockings 
and shoes and went to play. He never after- ] 

ward had any trouble with his feet on account j 
of this freezing. His sister got her feet ex- \ 
tremelv cold, and put them at once to the 
fire, iler case at first was not so bad as her 
brother's, but the result was much worse. , 

Her feet were very tender all winter, and she J 

suffered from chilblains. Her toes had a 
swollen, purple look, and she had to take a 
larger size of shoes.' " 

The foregoing— which is now extensively | 

coined — is unquestionably good, but not un- i 
qualifiedly so : nor is it iicio. either. It is as j 
" old as the hills." i)nt happily none the worse | 
for that, and "< knew of it fifty years ago at ] 

least. If this remedy is apiilied immediately | 

after the feet. hand. eaif). &c., are frozen, no j 

other application is nece.s.aary — except, per- | 
haps, warm, soft flannel, when the frost is 
out in cases of very severe freezing. People ; 
often fortret these things, and it is well that 
thev should be occasionally reminded of them. 
AVhen a boy we had our feel twice frozen, but 
not very severely, so far as we can remember. 
The first time they were frozen, wc were not 
aware of it until the approaching spring. We j 
knew there was something wrong with our 
feet, but we did not know what it was imtil 
admonished by one who knew, or pretended i 
to know. The parts affected became swollen 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



and inflamed, and iti:hed intolerably. Beef 
gal/ ointment was applied, and two applica- 
tions perfoiTued a cure. It was a habit among 
some farmers then, when they slaughtered a 
beef, to carefully cut out the gall and hang it 
up for future use. There it would hang "tor 
several months, until the liquid portion 
evaporated, and the residue assumed the con- 
sistence of a salve. If it became too hard or 
'•stiff" to spread as an ointment, it was 
softened with lard, sweet oil or butter. Some 
time afterwards— two or three years— our feet 
were frozen again, and on this occasion the 
cold application was tried, and on the follow- 
ing morning there was very little to evince 
that they had been frosted ; but there being 
no snow on the ground, a mixture of crushed 
ice and water was used, accompanied by 
friction. Years afterwards a gentleman in- 
formed us that he nearly paralyzed his nether 
limbs by immersing his feet in ice water to 
draw out frost. But it was weeks, perhaps 
months, after they had been frozen, and wlien 
they were swollen and inflamed ; moreover, 
he him-^elf was in a heated or feverish condi- 
tion. Verily, circumstances alter cases. '-Pork 
and saur-kraut, as an antidote, may be good 
for blacksmiths, but its h — 1 on tailors." 

A FOREIGN GRAIN ENEIWY. 
" The great cause of the failure of wheat 
in Russia is a beetle plague. The beetle is 
known as the "Couzka," or Anisoplia Austri- 
aca, and first appeared in the Melitopel dis- 
trict five years ago, but how it came no one 
knows, as it had never been seen in any part 
of Russia before. These insects appear to 
live for several years, and although they take 
two years to develop from the egg to full 
growth, yet they increase so fast that in the 
second year of their appearance so many as 
ten bushels of them have been collected otf 
one acre of land." 

The foreign genus Anisoplia is allied to the 
American genus Anomala, which sometimes 
becomes an inveterate pest, both in its larva 
and its imago stages of development. It is in 
the larva form, however, that these insects 
are the most injurious to vegetation, although 
in its perfect or beetle state" it often seriously 
damages vegetation, especially the grape in 
its blooming season, roses, and other flowers. 
Its larval period is passed under ground, and 
it then lives on the roots, and tender sprouts 
of vegetation before they have pushed them- 
selves above ground. They have a family 
alliance with our "cherry-bug" [Macrodac- 
tylus subspiiiosus,) and almost every farmer 
and fruit-grower knows how destructive these 
insects occasionally become in some localities. 
Anisoplia belongs to the order Coleoptera, 
the subsection Lamellicoisnia, and the 
family Melolonthid^. The antenna are 
terminated by a little fan-like appendage 
which the insect can spread out and close up 
at will. The larva is a white, fleshy, crescent- 
formed worm, popularly known under the 
name of "Grub-worm," but they are much 
smaller than the common Grub-worm of the 
"May-beetle." They are voracious feeders 
and remain under ground, feeding all the 
while, from two to three years. In Europe a 
reward is commonly offered for the collection 
of both the larva and the adult beetles, and 
the work is done mainly by poor children. 
There is perhaps nothing that would kill them 
without also killing the grain. The only way 
seems to be to loosen or dig up the soil, and 
sift out the grubs, and sometimes the product 
amounts to many bushels per acre. It is not 
likely that we would import the insects in 
wheat. We have analagous native species 
that are bad enough. 

Stephens, inhis ^'■Manualof British Beetles,'''' 
thus describes Anisoplia ausiriaca- blue- 
black, glabrous : elytra dull red, with a square 
black patch round the scutellum ; sides of the 
abdomen with white facicles. Length, about 
three-quarters of an inch, or 20 m. m. In- 
troduced. The family to which they belong 
have the antennae lor horns) clavate, the club 
composed of three or more lamellie or pectina- 
tions, the basal joint sometimes half the en- 



tire length ; legs slender and elongate, or short- 
ish and stout, mostly ^formed for digging ; 
tibia externally dentate and spinulous. In 
the species here alluded to the legs are long 
and moderately slender — not much unlike an 
overgrown "Cherry -bug." liTow, it is within 
the pale of possibility that we may ultimately 
have to lament the introduction of this insect, 
just as we now do the , introduction of the 
"cabbage-worm," the "currant sawfly,"and 
the "asparagus-beetle." 

The Lammellicornian Beetles, however, do 
not all burrow in the ground and feed on 
roots. Some feed on much decayed wood, 
and we have succeeded in rearing the perfect 
beetles— especially Passalus, Pelidnota and 
Osmodernia— from larvae that we have taken 
from decayed wood. Therefore, it seems to 
us that it is not judicious firming to let old 
logs (.f wood remain undisturbed "year in 
and year out," until it is decayed and be- 
comes the nesting places of these beetles. 
The Pelidnota, especially, often becomes 
numerous, and destroys the foliage of the 
grapevines. On one occasion we saw them so 
numerous on a Wild Fox grapevine, in the 
vicinity of where they bred, that they stripped 
it entirely of its foliage. 

A. cording to the "clipping" at the head 
of this paper— sent to us by a friend— the 
Anisoplia is destructive to the wheat crop of 
Russia ; from which we infer that the larva 
destroys the roots, and, perchance, the imago 
may appear early enough to also destroy the 
foliage or the bloom, and although it may not 
be likly that we would import the larvaj, yet 
it is not impossible we might import the 
mature beetle or its eggs. 

ADDENDUM ET CORREGIENDUM. 
We think Warwick, in his communication 
in another page of this number of the Farmee, 
has omitted one society that was the immedi- 
ate predecessor of the present one, of which 
we think Mr. H. M. Engle was President : 
Messrs. J. B. Garber and J. M. Prantz, Vice 
Presidents ; and Christian H. Lefevre, Secre- 
tary, and perhaps Librarian. This society 
met in a back room, and in an upper room of 
the Cooper House, but it held no exhibitions, 
ft was organized about, or a short time after, 
the outbreak of the rebellion — in 1860 or 
1861— but in consequence of that event it be- 
came enfeebled, and finally disbanded. It had 
a librai-y, kept at the office of Mr. Lefevre, 
and we were one of a committee authorized 
to make a disposal or distribution of it. It 
honored us with the function of Entomologist, 
and Mr. Staufier with tliat of Botanist. 

We regret exceedingly the misunderstand- 
ing between Warwick and the management 
of the late exhibition ; but to us the whole 
matter is as transparent as glass. No one, 
we feel convinced, meant any disrespect or 
took any undue advantages. The whole thing 
grew out of one of those informalities which 
often disturb the harmony of societies where- 
ever they exist. As societies increase in im- 
portance and enter into larger enterprises 
they become more complicated in their organi- 
zation, and hence are under the necessity of 
adopting certain rules for their government ; 
and, the members, as exemplars, are as much 
in duty bound to observe those rules as out- 
siders are, if they have the success of the 
society at heart. We had previously been 
elected a member of the Board of Managers, 
and under the .ules of the society all that re- 
lates to public exhibitions is under the control 
of that board. But, owing to unforeseen con- 
tingencies, it was impossible for us to give 
our personal attention to the matter during 
the exhibition. It is true that Warwick came 
to our place of business and donated to us 
his fruit, we to take possession of it at the 
conclusion of the fair, and also told us that if 
it drew a premium it should be for the benefit 
of The Lancaster Farmer ; for all of 
which we felt exceedingly thankful, and still 
feel so. But we supposed he had complied 
with the rules (being a member of the society, ) 
and therefore we paid no special attention to 
the matter, feeling that all was right. Now, 



it is both a written and an unwritten rule in 
all societies that hold exhibitions, where there 
is a competition for premiums, for exhibitors 
to have their exhibits entered upon the books 
of the society at the office or department of 
the secretary and his assistants, and any 
entries otherwise made, of course, can't come 
to the notice of tlie officers, nor under the ex- 
amination of the judges. The judges are 
usually men who do not covet the office, and 
hence confine their labors to the entries in the 
books placed in their possession by the officers. 
If no entry at all is made in the books, no 
matter how meritorious an exhibit may be — 
even if it were "apples of gold" and peaches 
of silver— it could not come officially before 
the judges, nor have they any authority to 
make an entry. 

All the judges have to do is to determine 
the degree of merit among the articles recorded. 
The judges do not even name the amount of 
the premiums. They merely determine 
whether it is entitled to a, first, second or third 
premium, or whether tpecial, a diploma, or 
honorable mention. The books are then re- 
turned to the officers and they carry out the 
amounts according to the published premium 
list. If we clearly understand Warwick's 
statement, he, no doubt with the best inten- 
tions in the world, quietly but informally pro- 
ceeded to arrange and place his own labels 
upon his fruit, and then left the exhibition 
without having reported it formally to the 
secretaries. If this is so then his exhibit 
could not be otherwise than neglected. There 
may be a bit of " red tape " in this, but it is 
necessarily so. Suppose a bloody revolt was 
to occur in our county or State, and the suf- 
ferers were to implore the President of the 
United States to send on Federal troops to 
quell the disturbance. What attention could 
be legally given to such an appeal ? The 
matter would have to be brought before him 
officially, in due foi-m of law, before he couid 
move in the premises at all. But suppose War- 
wick did report it at the proper place, it might 
even then be neglected without any one intend- 
ing to disregard it. Every one who lias had any- 
thing to do with the opening of a fair knows 
how often "confusion becomes worse con- 
founded" on such occasions — when every one 
wants to be served first. Under such'circum- 
stances, it is very plain to see how such 
omissions may occur, without intentional dis- 
respect to any one. 

In regard to the demand of an admission 
fee from Warwick, merely for going in to get 
his baskets to take them home ; the act was 
hardly warranted by the circumstances of the 
case, if it was not discourteous. But perhaps 
the doorkeeper did not know that that was his 
only purpose, or, he might have acted too 
literally under his instructions as to admis- 
sions. We think, however, that Warwick 
misapprehends the import of the rule he 
quotes. That rule relates to exhibits and not 
to exhibitors, and if any one was charged a 
fee for an entrance of his goods, it was clearly 
against the rule, or was done in a misunder- 
standing of the rule. As to '■'■exhibitors' 
tickets,'" that had been agreed upon by the 
Board of Managers weeks before the fair was 
opened. This is the usual custom where 
there are liberal premiums ofliered, a large 
number of exhibitors, and heavy expenses. It 
seems necessary to draw such'a line, else a 
person might carry an apple in on a plate, 
have it entered, draw an exhibitor's ticket, 
and go in and out for a whole week gratis. 
We vvere not present when this rule was 
adopted, but having accepted the position of 
a manager, we do not hesitate to bear our share 
of the responsibility. So far as the reporters 
are concerned, in order to take the "shortest 
cut," they make their reports from the entries 
on the books of the clerks. If an exhibit does 
not appear there it is not likely to appear in 
their printed reports. We have volunteered 
these remarks, because we believe the whole 
thing was one of those fortuitous events that 
may occur among the best of friends. 



Subscribe for the Farmer for 1881. 



1881] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



KIEFFER'S HYBRID PEAR. 

"This runiiukalile pear was raised from the 
seed of a bli^'lit-proof Chinese Saiul Pear, sup- 
posed to be crossed with Hartlett. The origi- 
nal tree, now twelve years old from seed, has 
not failed to <jive a good crop each year for 
seven years, violdiiiir over seven bushels of 
fine fruit in IST'.t. It ftill stands near IMiila- 
delphia, 'a model for tbnn, beauty and pro- 
ductiveness.' The fiuit avera<j;es fidin ten 
to fifteen ounces. The healtli, vifcor, beauty, 
early and annual hearinj; and productiveness 
of the tree, with the large size, good tiuality, 
line form and beautiful color of the fruit, 
makes this the most valunhlc pear yet intro- 
duced. In season October and November." 
E. G. Chase & Co., Geneva, N. Y. 

The above pear bus n eeivcl tlie endorse- 
ment of such notabilili.s :i.- Ihe rililors of the 
Gardeners'' Mnnthlii, tlir Ani.rlni,, Agrirul- 
turist, the Amerifan Furnur, aud Edwin Sat- 
terthwait, Esq., than whom none are more 
competent to s))cak to such a question, in the 
entire country, and we call the attention of 
our fruit- growei-s to the subject, because " the 
blight" has been a great drawback to pear 
culture in Pennsylvania. With all our know- 
ledge and experience the real cause and cure 
of jyrar hluihl. is still but imperfectly wider- 
stood, and' bliglit-proof stock .seems to be the 
only remedy. If this pear is really what it is 
represented to be, whether it will be a for- 
tune to its discoverer or not, it will at least 
place him in the category of horticultural 
benefactors. AVe have just been partaking of 
some canned pears, and they were so luscious, 
so refreshing at this midwinter season, and so 
grateful to the appetite, that, like Sancho 
Panza, we can't refrain from invoking a 
blessing on the "inventor" of any improve- 
ment or discovery in their cultivation. 

PEIINSYLVANIA FRUIT-GROWERS- 
SOCIETY. 

The twentv-second annual meeting of this 
society wiin'.r held at Gettysburg, Pa., com- 
mencing at :i o'clock p;M., Wednesday, Janu- 
ary 19, and continuing over Thursday. 

A cordial invitation is extended to all per- 
sons engaged or interested in horticulture, 
and similar i)ursuits, and to the citizens of 
Gettysburg aud vicinity in particular, to at- 
tend these meetings. Ladies are specially 
invited. In addition to the essays and ad- 
dresses announced in our programme, general 
discussions will take place on fruits, flowers 
and horticultural topics. 

In holding our coming sessions at Gettys- 
burg, we meet in a section of our State never 
before visitrd by tliis society. It is historic 
ground, menioralile as the scene of the great 
battle of the rebellion ; and as such, a favorite 
resort of the tourist and relic seeker. These 
considerations alone should induce a full and 
interesting meeting. 

The usual arrangements will be made for 
the display of fruits, flowers, Ac. Farmers, 
orehardists, members and others having speci- 
mens of new or desirabh^ varieties of apples 
or pears, are recpiested to exhibit them at the 
meeting. Specimens from a distance may be 
sent bv ex|iress to the Secretary, at the Eagle 
Hotel; Gettysburg, Pa. 

Persons desiring to become members of the 
society can do so at any lime by payment of 
the annual fee of $1.00, during the meeting, 
or by remitting the same to the Treasurer, 
Geo. B. Thomas, AVest Chester, Pa. The 
transactions of the society are published an- 
nually, and are furnished free to all members. 

The Secretary regrets to announce that not 
being able to guarantee the requisite number 
of Excursionists, no special rates could be 
obtained on the Pennsylvania Railroad, or 
lines controlled by that Company. The most 
direct route to Gettysburg from Reading and 
the East, is via Columbia and York to Ilan- 
over. From the North and West, via N. C. 
R. W. and P. R. R. to Ilarrisburg and York, 
thence to Hanover. The accompanying Time 
Table may assist in making the best connec- 
tions : 



Leave Columbia at rrM and 11:35 A. M. 
and 12:30, 3:10 and 8:00 P. M. 

Arrive at York at 7:32 and 12:18 A. M. and 
1:43, 3:51 and 8:40 P. M. 

Leave York at 8:00 and 12:21 A. M. and 
5:25 and 3:54 P. M. 

Arrive at Hanover at 11:05, 1:12 A. M. and 
7:40 and 4:44 P. M. 

Arrive at Gettysburg at 12:10 noon and 
8:10 P. M. 

There is also a mixed train leaving Hanover 
at A. M. arriving at Gettysburg at 10:30. 

By taking the "way passenger," leaving 
Philadelphia at 12:30 midnight, passengers 
reach Columbia at 5:45 A. M. and Gettys- 
burg at 12:10 noon. By leaving Philadelphia 
at 12:20, noon. Columbia at 3:10 P. M. pas- 
sengers reach (Gettysburg at 8.10 P. M. Trains 
leave II ur.slmrg at 0:35 A. M. and 2:40 and 
3:45 V M., reaeliiug York at 7:50 A. M. and 
3:50 and 4:41 P. M. 

Geo. D. Stitzkl. Frei--., lirading. Pa. 
E. B. Engle, iS'ec'i/, MarietUt, Pa. 



Essays. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS.* 
Fdhiw iitfnihfys of the Lannisbr Cinmty Agri- 

ndlurdl iDiil lioHiriiUunil Surhh/. 

In accordance with tlic recjuircnients of the 
by-laws of the society and in conformity with 
the time-honored custom of my predecessors, 
I present herewith my annual address. 

The year which has just closed has been one 
long to be remembered by the agriculturist 
and horticulturist of our country. They have 
much to be thankful for. Crops of all kinds 
in almost all parts of the country have been 
larger than ever before, and tlie enormous 
surplus we have goes far to show that the 
United States of America can produce enough 
breadstufls to supply the world. 

The year just closed has been the first full 
year of the society under its charter. I fear 
our expectations have not been realized. The 
principal reason for obtaining the charter was 
to enable us to hold a fair more successfully. 
Last year our fair was barely a success finan- 
cially, and this year, although the exhibition 
was better in almost all its parts except 
flowers, was a failure financially. 

The exact cause of our failure we may 
never be exactly able to understand, but one 
very apparent cause was the late political 
campaign, the warmest within the recollec- 
tion of many of us. 

It may have been that the management 
was to blame, but I truly believe they all did 
all they conscientiously felt able to do. The 
place of holding our exhibition was against 
us and the time we had T>ossession of the 
building entirely too short. Since our fair 
closed I had a long talk with one of the man- 
agers of a very successful exhibitioh held in a 
neighboring county, and the amount of work 
required to bring it to a successful termina- 
tion was rather appalling. 

Whether we can hold a successful fair or 
not remains to be seen, but I am fully satisfied 
that we cannot unless we can get the business 
men of Lan<'aster to co-operate with us, and 
then we must go into the open ground. I 
must confess that the farmers of the county 
did not give us the support and assistance ait 
either of our fairs that I expected. 

For my part I am opposed to holding any 
more fairs, unless it be on a very small scale, 
oi cereals, fruits, vegetables and flowers. I 
think that those who have the management 
of fairs generally have too much labor for the 
benefits received, and, secondly, I think our 
society was in a much more flourishing condi- 
tion before we ever thought of holding a fair 
— at least our meetings were much better at- 
tended. And I have frequently noticed that 
as soon as we commence talking about the 
fair our visitors begin to leave! Therefore 
I say, let us have no more fairs, but let us 
get down to good solid work and try to make 

•Read before the Laucaster County Aerionltural and Hor- 
ticultuturnl Sociely by President Joheph F. Witmer, on 
Monday, January 3rd, 1881. 



the Lancaster County Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society one of the best and most 
practical societies in the land. Let us strive 
to make our meetings more interesting, and 
induce our friends and neighbors to meet with 
us and give us the benefit, of their experience. 
I do not wish to disparage anything that has 
been done by this society, for I know the re- 
ports of our meetings are read by a great 
many who never come near us, and many 
essays read before this society are republished 
in the most advanced agricultural papers in the 
country. 

The agricultural interest is a.ssuming a 
much greater imiiortance than heretofore. It 
formerly was supposed that any one who was 
not fit for anything else would make a farmer, 
but now it is dilTcreiit. Some of the best 
minds in the count ly are given to the calling, 
and, as in all oIIk r inanelies of business, it is 
seen that brains will tell. It is oidy to men 
of good education and large minds that we 
can look to for any improvement in agricul- 
ture. Let us all see what improvements we 
can make in aL'ricidture and horticulture and 
give the benefits of our experiments to this 
society. 

I would recommend smaller farms than are 
generally cultivated and better cidture. High 
farming as long as it gives the greatest yield 
at the least cost per bushel or pound is pre- 
ferable. 

We can scarcely hope to long compete with 
our western bretiiren in raising cereals and 
stock, and may before long have to look to 
some other product to make our farms profit- 
able. True, we have a monopoly of the to- 
bacco trade just at present, but we must be 
very careful lest we exhaust our soil, iis so 
many of the older tobacco growing districts 
havealready done. Then, again, fashion may 
change, and an article may be required whicih 
we cannot i)roduce. 

I would particularly urge the necessity of 
thorojigh cultiu'e in all crops and the improve- 
ment of our stock by the introduction of 
thoroughbred males. It does not cost any 
more to raise a grade .Jersey or Short Horn 
than it does to raise the meanest scrub, but 
the difference in value at maturity is very 
much in favor of the grade 

To keep cattle jirofilably on land as valu- 
able as Lancaster county farms are we may 
soon have to resort to some other method 
than pasturing them during the summer. 
Soiling pre.sents the two-fold advantage of 
allowing more stock to be kept to the acre 
and the removal of all inside fences. 

Whether "ensilage" will be snffieipntly 
practicable to be generally ailopted remains to 
be proven, altliouL'h we have some very favor- 
able reports from those who have adopted 
that mode of preserving green crops for win- 
ter use. 

I think it would be well for us to turn our 
attention a little more towards producing 
such articles as will not bear transportation 
for great distances, and I think the dairy and 
the growing of small fruits may in the near 
future be sources of profit. By the estab- 
lishing of creameries in different parts of our 
county the arduous labor of the farm dairy 
can be done away with, and an article of 
butter manufactured of more uniform quality, 
and which will sell much more readilv at a 
better price. Another important matter, 
which T think we nearly all neglect, is recrea- 
tion. We are such a thorough-going, go- 
ahead sort of people that we scarcely ever 
take time to rest and amuse ourselves. " All 
work and no plav makes .Tack a dull boy." I 
would not recommend following any low or 
degrading sport, but something that is ele- 
vating and ennobling, and which leaves the 
mind and body in better condition to follow 
the every-day duties of life. 

In conclusion, I desire to expres.1 my sin- 
cere thanks to each and evfry member of this 
society for the uniform courtesy and kindne.s3 
with which T have been treated ever since I 
came amongst you. and I hope that the uni- 
form good feeling which has existed amongst 
us may continue until life closes. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



Contributions. 



Fon The LiNCASTER Farmeb. 
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AGRICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETIES OF LANCASTER 
COUNTY. 

A society was organized about 1850 (the 
first to my recollection) of which the Hon.' 
Jolin Strohni was President, and his co-man- 
agers were Benjamin Eshleman, Benjamin 
Herr, Abraham' Peters, L. S. Reist, John 
Miller, J. Hershey and J. Hartman Hershey. 
Soon after 1850 the State Agricultural Society 
was organized. The managers of this society 
looked about for a suitable place to hold an 
exhibition (the first State show in Pennsylva- 
nia) and finally chose Lancaster as the most 
proper place, giving the county society a cer- 
tain interest therein, and from the proceeds 
of this exhibition the said county society 
realized between $700 and SSOOas their share. 
If I am correct in my recollections, the county 
society made an effort in 185-t to hold a county 
fair, provided the citizens of the city would 
assist them. A committee was appointed to 
solicit funds for that purpose, but it met with 
no success. The citizens of Columbia then 
volunteered to raise the necessary funds if the 
fair was held at or near that place. This fair 
was advertised to come off about the middle 
of September, but the cholera breaking out in 
an epidemic form at Columbia in the begin- 
ning of that month, the fair was postponed 
until some time in the following October. 
This fair, perhaps, was as successful as could 
have been expected under the circumstances, 
but the society sunk all it had formerly real- 
ized from the State Fair. Discouraged by 
this financial adversity the society abandoned 
its organization and was " wound up." Sub- 
sequently a horticultural society was organ- 
ized, with the late Dr. Henry Muhlenberg as 
President, supported by about a dozen man- 
agers. They held monthly meetings_ and 
exhibitions at Cooper's Hotel, in West"King 
street. I cannot recall the members of that 
organization. 

About the year 1857 a county fair was again 
agitated, and the then existing society was 
urged to hold one, but it was unwilling to 
undertake it, remembering perhaps the finan- 
cial failure at Columbia. A temporary society 
or club was then formed by Benjamin Mishler, 
Emanuel Shober, David G. Eshleman, Jacob 
F. Fry, Seth Spencer and others, who held 
several exhibitions in successive years, near 
where the Reading Railroad depot is now 
located. When they finally settled up their 
afliairs they found a financial deficiency, which 
had to be made up by the members of the 
society ; and after several subsequent attempts 
to resuscitate the old society the organization 
was finally abandoned. 

After a lapse of several years, or about the 
year 1865, the present .society was formed, at 
Cooper's Hotel, and L. S. Reist was elected 
the first president. It held several exhibitions 
in Fulton Hall, the Orphans' Court Room, 
the corridor of the Court House, and also two 
or three at the Northern Market House. 

What made these a partial success at least 
was there being held without premiums being 
■paid to any of the exhibitors. Emulation 
alone was the spirit that developed and con- 
troled them, and many of the exhibitors also 
allowed their fruit to be sold for the benefit 
of the society, or donated it to the "Children's 
Home." The managers and exhibitors all had 
free access to the exhibition, going in and out 
when they pleased, reminding the people of 
the fine display of fruit, and speaking a 
friendly word here and there. These /ree fairs 
were gotten up without premium lists or 
posters, and only ordinary newspaper adver- 
tisement ; the members themselves verbally 
advertising them, the people answering, 
"Well, I had forgotten all about it, but I 
will now go and see it." The whole object of 
the society was a spectacular display, and the 
question of financial success was only a sec- 
ondary matter, if it was considered at all. 
But a new departure was made in accordance 
with the custom of other societies all over the 



country, and under all the circumstances 
liberal premiums were offered. This, of course, 
involved a greater responsibility than the 
former exhibitions, and not everyone felt in- 
clined to assume those responsibilities. Still 
the society, up to its last exhibition, realized 
sufficient to cover all its expenses, and this, 
if not a "success," was at least nota failure, 
and encouraged the society to make a more 
liberal and energetic effort. 

The last exhibition, however, seems not to 
have been successful, although the manage- 
ment sent out posters that would have done 
credit to the "World's Fair," and a fair 
premium list, by thousands. On looking over 
the rules to exhibitors I find in Article 3. 
' Competition is open to all, except when 
otherwise provided for. No charges will be 
made for receiving and entering articles." 
Notwithstanding, I learned afterwards that 
an entrance fee was charged, and also a 
charge was made for exhibitors' tickets. I 
had spent some days before the fair in gather- 
ing autumn leaves, forest flowers, and berries, 
and also two bushels of apples, comprising 
upwards of fifty varieties. These I brought in 
on Tuesday morning, with my own labels at- 
tached, and arranged them properly for ex- 
hibition. I then went to Mr. S. S. Rathvon 
and told him that he was to have my entire 
exhibit, except one or two varieties, and in 
case any premium was awarded to it, he was 
also to draw that, for the benefit of the Lan- 
caster Farmer. As 1 did not expect to be 
in Lancaster any other day of that week, I 
went right from his place to the Northern 
Market House to get my baskets, when I was 
refused admission without paying, to which I 
demurred, and went home to find out that I 
was no exhibitor, my collection receiving no 
notice whatever, not even from the reporters. 
Still, hoping future success to the society, I 
am — " Warwick.'''' 



FOE [HE LanOASTEB FARMER. 

■HOTCH-POTCH." 

I always see a good many recipes in the 
Lancaster Farmer for cooking, baking, 
stewing, &c., but there is one article that I 
am very fond of that I have never yet seen 
in The Farmer or elsewhere, and that is the 
stomach of a pig filled with rneat and pota- 
toes. Cut a slit in the stomach about four 
inches long, across the natural aperture, and 
after emptying it turn it inside out. Take the 
inner skin off, and when it is thoroughly 
cleaned fill it with meat and potatoes— about 
two parts of potatoes and one part of meat. 
More of the one and less of the other can be 
taken if desired. The meat should be cut 
into small pieces, from half an inch to an inch 
square, and the potatoes should be sliced. 
Any kind of meat, fresh sausages or spare- 
ribs are good, but a part of it at least, must 
be fat. if the meat is not fat, about an equal 
quantity of "speck" .should be added. Mix 
well together and season to the taste, (fresh 
or salted meat will do.) Then fill the stom- 
ach, but it must not be stuffed too full, or it 
will burst in boiling. Sew up the slit that 
was cut before it is boiled. (The bursting 
can be avoided by sewing a thin piece of mus- 
lin around it.) Put it in a kettle of boiling 
water, and boil it moderately for three or 
four hours, until the potatoes get soft. Then 
take it out of the kettle and put in a pan and 
roast it like a turkey. If done well it is ex- 
cellent — next to turkey. — J. G., Warwick, 
Jan., 1881. 

"That's so," and we thank J. G. for this 
revival of a good old dish, that somehow in 
this fast ase was becoming obsolete. Our 
mother made it more than sixty years ago. 
Our mother-in-law made it fifty years ago, 
and our wife made it forty years ago. When 
we first commenced housekeeping, raised our 
own pigs, and had our annual butchering, the 
stomach of one pig at least was always con- 
verted into a "Hotch-potch," as it was called. 
A little parsley or sweet marjorem was added 
to give it flavor, but about tlie best flavoring 
is a dozen of good fresh oysters, when the 
meat is fresh. It has also" this advantage; 



there are no bones in it, (unless when made of 
spareribs) it is easily carved, and th-re is no 
choice in the pieces. It has been many a 
long year since we have seen it, or eaten of it, 
but we are glad to know that it has not en- 
tirely gone out of fashion in Lancaster 
county. It is a dish worth retaining, and all 
of our recollections concerning it are favora- 
ble to its qualities. 



JAPAN PERSIMMONS. 

Mr. Editor : Only a few years since there 
was much interest felt in the above fruit. 
Many statements were published in the papers 
of the great desirability of introducing and 
growing the trees, by those having eaten the 
fruit in Japan, and afterwards in California, 
all of whom declared it a most valuable and 
delicious fruit. The result, of course, was 
that many trees were introduced and sold at 
high prices ; but unfortunately it was soon 
found that the trees were too tender to with- 
stand the severity of our winters, and so far 
as we know, disappointment has been the 
result in the Middle States, at least in many 
instances. 

The Hon. Commi.<;sioner of Agriculture, at 
Washington, has imported many trees, and 
he informs ns that some varieties have been 
killed on the experimental ground, while 
other varieties have not been injured in the 
least, remaining green and sound to the top 
shoots. It thus appears that some of the 
varieties are more hardy ihan others. It is 
very probable that trees from the more north- 
ern localities of Japan might withstand the 
climate of our Middle States, especially if 
planted on high ground. Further trials should 
be continued, and ultimately some of the 
many varieties may yet be found to suit our 
variable climate. 

Some six or eight years ago, I received four 
small plants from Hon. Thos. Hogg, of 
Brooklyn, New York. He had brought them 
with him from Japan, and had planted some 
on his place at Brooklyn, and succeeded so 
far as to get his trees to bear fruit. Thinking 
if the trees were hardy there, they would, of 
course, be hardy here ; so I planted mj trees 
out in a clump, but the next winter was 
extra cold, and ray little trees froze down, 
and I afterwards found that Mr. Hogg's trees 
were also killed. However, two of my plants 
sprouted up from the roots. These I took up 
and planted in pots ; one died ; the other I 
still have growing in a nine-inch p'>t. In the 
winter I simply place the pot in the cellar ; as 
they are deciduous, they can be placed out of 
the way in an ordinary cellar, where they 
keep in a fine, healthy condition. The ground 
in the pot of my jilant has been frozen as hard 
as a rock, the plant was not injured in the 
least. 

This last season my plant ripened four per- 
simmons, yellow as an orange, measuring 7 by 
7i in circumference ; and as to qujility of the 
fruit, I can fully confirm all that has been 
said in praise of the deliciousness of this new 
fruit ; not a single seed was in any of them, 
and they might well be " eaten with a spoon," 
as some had said. Even before fully ripe, 
they have none of that astringency of our 
native persimmons. 

If we cannot grow this new fruit out of 
doors, we certainly can grow them in tubs or 
boxes quite as easily as orange trees, and dur- 
ing the winter place them in the cellar out of 
the way. 

Still, I hope some varieties will be found as 
hardy as our natives, or time may acclimate 
them so that they can be grown in the open 
air, the same as our other fruit trees. This 
delicious fruit is certainly well worthy of 
further tTiaX.—Bespectfully, J. B. Garber, . 
Columbia, Pa., Dec. 27, 1880. 



For The Lancaster Paemke. 

A FOOT-WARMER. 

In such cold weather as we have had this 

winter it is the practice of some people, when 

they go away from home, to take hot bricks 

and wrap them in a small piece of carpet, or 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



something ot that kind, and lay them on the 
bottom of tlie sleigh or carriage to keep their 
feet warm. Now, I have somctliiiig else iiiiicli 
better, and tliat is a till can, I-') or U> iiulies 
long, 12 inches wide, and 5 inches diep on 
the one side and 3 on the other, with the 
edges rounded a little on the sides, hut the 
ends square. Of course the reader will under- 
stand that this is a tin box, with the top in- 
clined like a desk. In one of the corners of 
the decp<'st side there should be a hole ;il.ont 
an inch in diameter, and a coik to lit it ti-zlit- 
ly. Itshouldalso liavea handle to carry it hy. 
When I Ro to market I till it. with boiling 
water, and wrap a piece of carpet around it, 
two or three times. Then I lay it in front of 
the market wagon, the narrowest side towards 
the seat, and the cork uiiperinosl, s.) that if 
it should hajipen to leak I can see il before 
the water runs out. I set my feet on the can, 
and when 1 come to the niaiket house I take 
it out of the wagon and lay it in my market 
stall, and when I am done selling I put it in 
the wagon again. Such a '•foot-warmer" re- 
mains warm a great deal longer than bricks— 
more than twice as lonj;- and will not burn 
the carpet as bricks do, when they are too hot 
at least. I generally start to market between 
3 and 4 o'clock in tli- morning, and when I 
get home again, about 12 o'clock, the water is 
still warm enough to wash the hands. The 
position of the feet, too, being a little higher 
at the toes than at the heels, is more com- 
fortable than where they rest on a level sur- 
face.—/. «., Warwick, Jan. 1881. 



Selections. 



TWO REMARKABLE APPLES. 

About twelve jears ago I became ac- 
quainted with a new seedling apple which 
promised to be an acquisition to the apple 
family. As I was then engaged extensively 
in the grafting business, I began to prop.igate 
the variety as rapidly as possible ; and now, 
after twelve years' experience, I can truly say 
it has proved an acquisition. 1 named it the 
"Yoke Apple," by which name it is known 
in these parts. The history of the apple is as 
follows : About the year 1860 and 1862 a 
young seedling apple tree on the farm of 
Benjamin Yoke, of Paradise, Jefferson county, 
Pa., was grafted in the top prior to its having 
borne any fruit ; and some of the natural 
branches, through neglect or otherwise, were 
permitted to remain till they bore fruit, which 
proved much superior to the grafts on the 
same tree ; and omission or neglect saved to 
the world the "Yoke Apple." It is in season 
from the first of September to the middle of 
October. It is a large, round, sub-acid apple. 
and in color very much similar to the fall 
rambo. 

I have had forty years' experience in the 
grafting business ; have become acquainted 
with and grafted almost all the varieties that 
have been brought to the country from far 
and near, from more than a dozen nurseries 
for the last twenty-five years, and will say 
that in my opinion the "Yoke Apple," for 
dryiny purjwsex, sta.m\s at the head; and is 
also very good when fully ripe for eating, and 
all culinary purposes ; though its best use is 
for drying. About the 8th of October last I 
bought a bushel, which I gathered from trees 
which I had grafted about six or. seven years 
before, and thirty-two apples was all that 
would lay in and on each half bushel. A 
portion of these I took to the Punx.sutawney 
fair, where they were as much or more ad- 
mired than any other apple among a very 
large collection of varieties tliere exhibited. 
It is without exception one of the best and 
most regular bearers that I ever knew among 
apples. The apple should be generally cut in 
eight pieces to dry. and when di-y is of a rich, 
whitish-yellow color. This apple has but one 
drawback or fault. When the grafts are 
young and growing very thrifty, or when the 
tree stands in damp or very rich ground, they 
are somewhat disposed to rot, but when grown 
on high, dry channery ground, suitable for 



the growth of the apple, it is without spot or 
blemish. It is a good grower, and is destined 
to become extensively cultivated. 

Hut must I speak somewhat of another 
apple, anil (hat is thi! •■(iravenstine." This 
apple came into bearing for the first time 
in thisconmiunity about four to six years ago, 
and now it is regarded by all who have it as 
the most perfect apple they ever saw. As a 
fall apple il seems to be willi.mt tUnU. .Vbout 
eight years ai>o I was told by an a^iMit from 
Rochester, New York, Ibat there, was not ii 
better apple known among nuisi-rymen than 
the "Gravensline," and our short experience 
in this comtnuiiity fully proves it true. 

1 feel like sayinij a word for the "Northern 
Spy." Were 1 to;,'ive my oiiinion, after forty 
years in grafting apples, and liii\ ing set in 
that time near or quite •Jdd.diil) Lriults, of flic 
three above-named apples I would say : The 
"Yoke Apple" for the purpose of dri/inrj is 
the most valuable apple ever grafted. The 
"Gravenstine" is the most perfrctcd apple in 
all respects I ever grafted ; and the "North- 
ern Spy" is the most vthiable apple to grow 
for use and market that I have ever grafted ; 
and they should all be grown on high, or dry 
channery ground. — F<mner''s Friend. 

GRAPE CULTURE. 

The great increase in grape culture is en- 
couraging. California has tliousands of acres 
in vineyards, and nearly all the European 
varieties of grapes are produced in the great- 
est perf,;ction and abundance. Extensive 
vineyards have been planted in the Ohio and 
Missouri valleys and in favored localities in 
the Northeastern States. New varieties have 
been originated and widely distributed, that 
are hardy enough to mature in every State in 
the Union. Our large cities and many of our 
villages along the line of railroads are fairly 
supplied with good grapes in their season, at 
reasonable prices. It has been demonstrated 
that every farmer and villager in the land can 
have an abundant supply of this delicious 
fruit for four months in the year, for the 
trouble of planting and caring for a few vines. 
Our horticulturists have done the pioneer work 
of hybridizing, and originating new varieties 
that stand the test of soil and climate in all 
the States. And yet California is the only 
State where the grape may be said to be fairly 
popularized. The great mass of our fiirming 
population do not enjoy this luxury, and mul- 
titudes a little remote from market towns are 
only acquainted with our wild varieties. The 
grape ought to be as widely disseminated as 
the apple, and there is no good reason why it 
should not be. The large vineyards can sup- 
ply our city population, but to supply the ag- 
ricultural districts, grapes must be grown at 
home. This can be done at so small cost, 
that no man who owns a home with half acre 
of land has any apology for depriving his fam- 
ily of grapes. An eighth of an acre in vines 
will .supply a family and leave a surplus to .sell. 
Any well drained land that will produce sixty 
bushels of corn to the acre may be expected 
to produce good grapes. Well prepared l)or- 
ders, with a good supply of bones, is desirable, 
but by no means essential. A dressing of 
wood ashes is an excellent fertilizer, but any 
manure good for corn will be good for the 
vines. The varieties which do well under 
the greatest variety of circumstances, and 
bear neglect best, are '.such as the Concord, 
the Hartford Prolific, and the Ives Seedling. 
There are much better quality than these, 
but they are good enough to suit the popular 
taste, and are hardy. They can be relied 
upon to bear fruit every season in generous 
ous quantity. The Ives has a thick skin and 
is particularly desirable to pack in boxes for 
winter use. They have been before the pub- 
lic, are thoroughly tested, and can be furnish- 
ed very cheaply by any nurseryman. A cheap 
trellis of chestnut posts and wire will be all 
the support they need. A four months' sup- 
ply of grapes will promote health in the 
family, save doctor bills, and prove an im- 
portant part of the food supply.— .4j»!erica« 
Agriculturist. 



OLEOMARGARINE. 

Fully 100,000 pounds of oleomargarine are 
weekly produced at the works on the grounds 
at the West Philiuielphia abattoir. This is 
at the rale in round figun^s of 5,000,000 
pounds a year. Four years ago a yearly out- 
put of l,r)0(),000 pounds was sufficient to meet 
the demand. Now the call is in excess of the 
supi)ly. A market could be found for 500,000 
pounds a week if a sutlicient supply of neces- 
sary malcrials were forlhcoming. From 
■J.-),i)00 lo :iU,UIIU pounds of beef fat, 1,500 
(piarts of milk and 1,.5U0 to 2,000 pounds of 
dairy butter are daily consumed in the works 
in till! manufacture of artificial butter. Two- 
thirds of the entire amount of oleomargarine 
made at West Philadelphia is sent to Euroiie. 
Loijiloii, Liverpool and Glasgow are the prin- 
eiinil markclH. A few consignments have 
bieii .sent to Italy, China and even to Cal- 
cutta, India, but the Asiatics do not take 
kindly to the American article. A good trade 
is growing up with South America, and large 
shipments are made to Kio de Janeiro, Para 
ami Pernambuco. Some of the West India 
Islands are also customers. In this country 
the bulk of the supply is taken by New Or- 
leans, although shipments are occasionally 
made to New York and Boston. Only a 
small percentage of the entire production is 
put upon the Philadelphia market. The 
Hollanders are large consumers of oleomar- 
garine, but they do not get the mannfaclured 
product in a complete state. Instead, they 
take the oil before it is churned and do all 
the finishing processes themselves. It is 
shipped in tierces holding 350 pounds, and 
by this method thrifty Hollanders save the 
profit on the salt, milk and other ingredients 
which enter into the complete proce.ss. 

ROBBING THE SOIL. 

The following is taken from the London 
Farmer : " Always lo take from the soil and 
never to give to the soil, not even the rest of 
nature, makes the most fertile land weak. 
American farming has taken the best out of 
the wheat soils of half the continent. What 
wonder that we are flooded with American 
grain V But when little new land shall remain 
to be opened up, and the average yield per 
acre on old laud shall show a steady diminu- 
tion, who will wonder then if the United 
States should find their agricultural export pre- 
eminence to be slipping away from herV" 

This is a very important subject. Nature 
on the vast prairies has been storing up fer- 
tility for ages, and the rich boon has been be- 
queathed to the people of of the present age, 
and for years, like other spendthrifts, they 
have been squandeiing this heritage with a 
prodigal hand. 

It would be an insult to agriculture to 
dignify this process with the title of farming. 
This has been but an operation of scattering 
the wheat or planting the corn and then reap- 
ing the harvest ; the only thought has been 
how to get rid of the refuse. The operation 
of simply plowing it under the soil was too 
laborious, and it was liurnt or tluowu into the 
streams or lakes. Fil'iy years ago this process 
was in vogue even in New lOngland, and when 
one plot of ground was exhausted of its fer- 
tility it was abandoned and another plot was 
submitted to a similar exhaustive system ; but 
this was not farming ; it was not agriculture ; 
it required no brains, no thought. Agricul- 
ture means cultivation of the land. Cultiva- 
tion implies the improvement of the soil, not 
exhausting it. In those days it was not a 
question how to fertilize this field or the other 
to make it productive of certain crops. If it 
was found too poor to produce the crop re- 
quired it was abandoned for another that 
would produce it. Now the question is : 
IIow can I best raise a particular crop, and so 
fertilize it that its fertility shall be increased 
in place of being decre;ised V Then one crop 
was obtained perhaps every two years. Now 
we want to understand how to obtain two or 
three crops in one season. Then any novice 
could exhaust the soil, and it is no wonder 
that he who laid claim to the title of farmer 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



was looked down upon and considered ah 
ignorant laborer. But this is not the farmer 
of to-day. Our fanner must know how the 
land is exhausted by the crop and how to re- 
store it. He must know how to husband the 
resources of his farm so as not to exhaust it, 
and yet obtain a living from it. 

And such to-day is the dill'erence between 
the farmer of the East and the one of the 
West. By the system pursued in the West 
the rich land is becoming every season poorer, 
while under tlie system at present pursued in 
the East the lands are becoming richer every 
year, and tlie farmer himself is becoming bet- 
ter cultured year Ijy year ; the more he culti- 
vates his land the better he becomes ac 
quainted with tlie laws which govern the 
waste and supply of the soil, the requirements 
of the plant, the wants of his cattle and how 
to render them more capable of administering 
to his wants, and so lie becomes the more 
capable of understanding his own social, 
moral and physical nature ; in other words, 
the more i?f a farmer he becomes the more of 
a man he is. — American Cultivator. 



WELL-WATER. 

Wells in these parts have often been low, 
but never perhaps lower than they have been 
most of the past summer and autumn. Many 
were looking anxiously for rain, so that the 
springs might rise again. But local rains 
have nothing to do with our wells, and this 
can be seen by anyone wlio has any- 
thing to do with digging of the ground. 
It makes no difference how dry or how wet 
may be the summer season ; if in the fall we 
dig a few feet we find tlie ground dry. No 
rain penetrates to any grt;at depth after the 
spring rains arc over and before the regular 
autumn-soakers commence. Sometimes we 
have rain several days in the week, and 
considerable of it at a time, yet, after all this, 
people on digging down find the earth dry 
six inches from the surface. In fact, the earth 
has as much as it can do in any season to 
meet the demands on it from the vegetation 
growing on iis surface. As fast as the surface 
dries from the heat there is a continual flow- 
ffom the lower portions to supply the waste, - 
just as water in a saucer will flow to the top 
of a sponge, so tliat in the end the saucer is 
dryer than the sponge in it. Thus the sub- 
stratum in a dry season is often dryer than 
the earth loosened by cultivation on the 
surface. 

The water which feeds springs and wells 
does not come from local rains, except they 
are very shallow, but often hundreds of miles 
away. The frost cracks and breaks up the 
rocky faces of mountains, and the rains and 
melting snows — sometimes many feet in 
depth— descend through the clefts. Kocks do 
not absorb water as earth does. Collected in 
this way, the water sinks deep into the earth 
in the fissures, following the strata to long 
distances and appearing again only when the 
rocky veins crop up near the surface. Those, 
therefore, who are looking for deep water in 
their wells and high water in their springs, 
have rather to pray for mountain rains than 
local showers — which serve our crops, noth- 
ing more — after summer weather once sets 
in. — Oerv^antown Tdeyvaph. 



EGGS AS FOOD. 
Eggs are an article of cheap and nutritious 
food which we do not find on farmers' tables 
in the quantity economy demand-. They are 
very convenient to take to market, and this is 
the disposition which too many farmers make 
of them. They probably do not fully conipre- 
hend how valuable eggs are as food ; that, 
like milk, an egg is a complete food in itself, 
containing everything necessary for the de- 
velopment of a perfect animal, as is mani- 
fested from the fact that a chick is formed 
from it. It seems a mystery how muscles, 
bones, feathers and everything that a.x:hick 
requires for its perfect develo[)ment are rriade 
rom the yolk and white of an egg ; but such 
s the fact, and it shows how complete a food 



an egg is. It is also easily digested, if not 
damaged in cooking. A raw or soft boiled 
egg is always as easy assimilated as is milk, 
and can be eaten with impunity by children 
and invalids. The average egg weighs a 
thousand grains, and is worth more as food 
than so much beefsteak. Indeed, there is no 
more concentrated and nourishing food than 
eggs. The albumen, oil and saline matter 
are, as in milk, in the right proportion for 
sustaining animal life. When eggs bring no 
more than twenty cents per dozen, it is much 
better economy to find a market for them in 
the family than at the store. Two or three 
boiled eggs, with the addition of a slice or 
two of toast, will make a breakfast sufficient 
.for a man, and good enough for a king. 

An ordinary hen's egg weighs from one and 
a half to two ounces, a duck's egg from two 
to three ounces, the egg of the sea-gull and 
turkey from three to four ounces, and the egg 
of a goose from four to six ounces. The 
solid matter and the oil in the duck's ega ex- 
ceed those in a hen's eggbj about one-fourth. 
According to Dr. Edward Smitli, in his 
treatise on "Foods,'' an egg weighing an 
ounce and three-quarters consists of one hun- 
dred and twent ) grains of carbon and eighteen 
and three-quarter grains of nitrogen, or 1.5.25 
per centum of carbon and 2 per centum or 
nitrogen. The value of one pound of eggs, 
as food for sustaining the active forces of the 
body, is to the value of one pound of lean beef 
as 1,584 to 900. As a flesh producer, one 
pound of eggs is about equal to one pound of 
beef. 

A hen may be calculated to consume one 
bushel of corn yearly, and to lay ten dozen or 
fifteen pounds of eggs. This is equivalent to 
saying that three and one-tenth pounds of 
corn will produce, when fed to a hen, five- 
sixths of a pound of eggs, but five-sixths of a 
pound of pork requires about five pounds of 
corn for its production. When eggs are one 
shilling per dozen and pork five pence per 
pound we have a bushel of corn fed, produciug 
ten shillings' worth of eggs and four shillings' 
worth of pork. Judging from these facts eggs 
must be economical in their production and 
in their eating, and especially fit for the labor- 
ing man in replacing meat. — Canada Farmer. 

A CHEAP AND DURABLE CISTERN. 
An abundance of rwin water for family use, 
for the barnyard, and irrigation in the gar- 
den, is still a great desideratum in our rural 
districts. The great bar to this water supply 
is the anticipated expense. It costs money to 
excavate and line the sides of a cistern with 
brick and stone. Most farm houses have no 
provision for washing except well water, 
drawn with the bucket, and this is often hard, 
and the yard and barn-cellar are without any 
water for stock. A cistern that will hold all 
the water that falls upon the house, or the 
barn, is within reach of every thrifty farmer, 
and will pay for itself every year in saving 
labor, and in the health and comfort of the 
family, and in the care of the farm stock. A 
neighbor of ours, who is a gardener as well as 
a farmer, built a cistern for his greenhouse 
last year, and liked it so well that he has 
built another this fall for his barn and garden. 
The first item of expense was the labor of ex- 
cavating on the south side of the barn, where 
the frost does not penetrate very deep. The 
excavation is about ten feet deep, ten feet in 
diameter at the bottom, and twelve feet at the 
top. The soil is gravelly loam at the top, 
and compact gravel below. But sand, if it 
were compact enough not to cave, would 
answer just as well. Tlie sides of the cistern 
are made as even as possible, and a wash of 
Portland cement is applied with a broom— to 
the bottom and sides. This dries very rapidly, 
and four or five coatings will make a perfectly 
tight and strong basin to hold all the water 
that will ever fall into it. The cost of the 
cement is very small, and the thin crust, 
backed by the solid subsoil, is just as good 
and durable as mason work of brick or stone. 
For a covering he used chestnut timber of 
one foot in diameter, hewn upon one side, 



upon which chestnut plank two inches thick 
were laid. Two leaders conduct the water 
from the eaves of the barn into the cistern. 
A man-hole was left at the top largt enough 
for the cleaning of the cistern, and for the 
insertion of the pump. The plank was cov- 
ered with about two feet of earth, which is a 
sufficient protection against frost in this lati- 
tude. The cistern will hold 8,000 gallons of 
water, or more, and will furnish an abundant 
supply of water for stock, and for irrigation 
in ordinary seasons. The whole cost for 
labor, timber and cement, was abo..t fifteen 
dollars. Most farms will furnish the neces- 
sary labor and lumber, and the only money 
outlay would be for the Portland cement. 
This cement will harden under water, and 
become as solid as stone. It is entirely prac- 
ticable for almost any farmer to build a cis- 
tern of the kind described, and to have a good 
supply of water for his cattle during the win- 
ter. Build a cistern. — American Agriculiurihi. 

PRESERVATION OF HARNESS. 

The first point to be observed is to keep the 
leather soft and pliable; this can be done only 
by keeping it well charged with oil and grease; 
water is a destroyer of these, but mud and 
saliije moisture from the animal are even 
more destructive. Mud, in drying, absorbs 
the grease and opens the pores of the leather, 
making a ready prey to water, while the salty 
character of the perspiration from the animal 
injures the leather, stitchings and mountings. 
It therefore follows that to preserve a harness 
the straps should be washed and oiled when- 
ever it has been moistened by sweat or soiled 
by mud. To do this effectually, the straps 
should be unbuckled and detached; then 
washed with a little water and brown soap, 
then coaled with a mixture of neatsfoot oil 
and be allowed to remain undisturbed until 
the water is dried out; then thoroughly rub 
with a woolen rag; the rubbing is important, 
as it, in addition to removing the surplus oil and 
grease, tends to close the pores and gives a 
finish to the leather. In hanging harness 
care should be taken to allow all straps to 
hang their full length; bridles, pads, gig sad- 
dles'and collars should be hung upon forms of 
the shape of each. Light is essential to the 
care of leather, and when the harness closet 
is dark the door should be left open at least 
half of the time during the day. All closets 
should be well ventilated, and when possible 
they should be well l.ighted. To clean plated 
mountings use a chamois with a little trip oil 
or rotten stone, but they should be scoured as 
little as possible. Rubber covered goods are 
cleansed in the same way. Leather covered 
needs to be well brushed and rubbed with a 
woolen rag. 

If a harness is thoroughly cleansed twice a 
year, and when unduly exposed treated as we 
have recommended, the leather will retain its 
softness and strength for many years. — Har- 
ness Journal. 

WHITE VEINS IN TOBACCO. 

A correspondent, writing to the American 
Cultiimtor, remarks : Among the many evils 
which afflict the tobacco crop, white veins are 
the most serious and damaging. A veiny leaf 
makes an unsightly wrapper causing the cigar- 
maker to reject it even if satisfiictory in other 
respects. A leaf that cures with white veins 
is generally defective in other respects. It is 
often thick, leathery and greasy, burning 
badly. In short, for a cigar leaf it is worth- 
less, and every tobacco grower should be care- 
ful to avoid producing such an article. 

What produces white veins is a question 
often asked, but seldom, I think, correctly 
answered. Having investigated this subject 
carefully for many years, I have come to the 
following conclusion : White veins are not 
the result of any peculiar conditions in the 
curing process. There are many persons who 
suppose that a dry cure will produce white 
veins, and this was probably the basis of the 
opinion, held by many packers, that the 1880 
crop would be veiny, from the fact that we 
have had a comparatively dry season for cur- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ing it. But till! 1880 crop lias fewer white 
veins than any that lias been raised in the 
valley for many years. There are growers 
wild never have white veins in their crops, no 
matter what the curing season is, while neigli- 
borini; cultivators will often, ami as a rule, 
liave veiny crojis, allhouijh cured under simi- 
lar conditions with the more fortunate growers. 

"White veins are caused by an imperfect 
growth of the plant and an immature leaf. 
The causes of tlu-se imperfections are many. 
A lack of proper fertilizers is the starting 
point of all these evils. Late setting, high 
topping, and careless cultivation will almost 
certainly result in white veins, or in fact any 
one of the above named causes will be likely 
to produce tiiis unfavorable result. The 
growers should use fertilizers that contain all 
the elements of pl.int food required by the 
tobacco crop, combined in the right propor- 
tions and in such forms that they can be 
readily taken up by the plants. Set plants 
early, say not later than the middle of June, 
cultivate carefully, top low, keep the suckers 
off and allow the cropto get ripe before cut- 
ting. White veins will then be things of the 
past. 

The reasons why the 1880 crop is generally 
so free from white veins are that it has had a 
more intelligent cultivation than those of 
former years, and again the season has been a 
remarkably line one for growing tobacco. In 
short, most of the crop was well ripened. 



MINNESOTA FLOUR. 
Wheat is cracked and mashed at Minne- 
apolis ana not ground into flour. Burr stones 
are things of the past and Hungarian steel 
rollers have taken their place. The rollers are 
about thirty inches long and eight inches in 
diameter. It takes live sets of steel rollers to 
finish the flour. Each set of roUer.e run closer 
than the preceding. After the wheat passes 
each set of roUere it is bolted or sifted through 
coarse cloth. This cloth lets the disintegrated 
particles of wheat through, and passes off the 
bulky and larger pieces, which are run through 
another and clo.scr set of rollers, and cracked 
again. The last rollers have little else but wheat 
hulls and waxy germs of the wheat, which do 
not crack up, but mash down like a piece of 
wax. The germ of a kernel of wheat is not 
good food. Ii makes flour black. By the old 
millstone process this waxy germ was ground 
up with the starch portion, and bolted through 
with the flour. By the new system of crack- 
ing the kernel instead of grinding it, this 
germ is not ground, but flattened out, and 
sifted or bolted out, while starchy portions 
of the wheat are crushed into powdered wheat 
or flour. 

OUR EXPORTS. 

The annual report of Joseph Nimmo, Jr., 
Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, on the for- 
eign commerce of the United States, says : 
"The five leading articles of export during the 
year ended June 80, 1880, were as follows : 
Bread and breadstuffs, S288 036,835 ; cotton 
unmannfaetured, $211,535,905 ; provisions, 
S127,043.243 ; mineral oils, $36,218,625; to- 
bacco and manufactures of, $18,442,273." 
"The United States," he says, "already sur- 
passes every other country in magnitude of 
its exports, both of breadstufl's and pro- 
visions." 

The report claims that the market for 
American breadstuffs and provisions in Eu- 
rope can be still further extended. After 
presenting tables showing the percentage of 
the various commodities imported into Great 
Britain and Ireland, the report deals with the 
maritime interests of the country and pro- 
ceeds to show that the building of ships and 
barks employed in our foreign commerce fell 
from an annual average of 233 during the ten 
years from 1851 to 1860 to an annual average 
of 56 from the year 1871 to 1880. During 
the year ended June 30, 1880, there were only 
23 ships and barks built. The report contin- 
ues : The total tonnage of the United States 
employed in foreign trade fell from 2,379,396 



tons in 1860 to 1.314,402 tons during the year 
ended June 30, 1880. 

During the year ended June 30, 1880, the 
total value of commodities transported in 
American and foreign vessels (imports and 
exports) amounted to the sum of $1,589,472,- 
093, of which the value transported in Amer- 
ican vessels amounted to only $28u,005,497, 
IT 17.6 per cent., and the value transported in 
foreign vessels amounted to $l,30it,466,496, 
or about 82 per cent. 

Tiie total tonnage built on the seaboard, 
embracing the Atlantic, (iulf and Pacific 
coasts, including both tonnage built for the 
coastwise and for the foreign trade, but 
chiefly for the coastwise trade, fell from 1,- 
013,040 tons during the five years from 1866 
to 1870, to only 669,362 tons during the five 
years from 1876 to 1880. 

The American tonnage built on the great 
lakes, almost exclusively for internal trade, 
fell from 214,333 tons during the five years 
from 1866 to 1870, to 74,499 tons during the 
five years from 1876 to 1880. 

The report enters very fully into the ques- 
tion of railway transportation, and furuislies 
some interesting figures, from which the fol- 
lowing extracts are made: 

The gross earnings of the railroads of the 
United States for the years mentioned, are 
shown to have been as follows : 

In 1851, $39,456,358; in 1861, $130,000,000; 
in 1871, $403,320,209 ; in 1879, $520,012,999. 

In conclusion Mr. Nimmo says: "The 
question of restoring the American merchant 
marine is undoubtedly a dificult one. Never- 
theless the apparent dilliculties in the case 
should be the incentive to a thorough inves- 
tigation of the whole subject in all its bear- 
ings, and to the adoption of all practicable 
measures which may tend toward securing 
the desired result." 



HOUSEHOLD HINTS. 

Some one may be glad to know how to make 
a delicious lemon pie which is not too rich to 
be enjoyed. Prepare a crust for the pie in a 
deep plate, then stir one tablespoonful of corn- 
starch into a little cold water, add one cup of 
boiling water, let all come to a boil, then add 
sevi-n tablespoon fuls of sugar, the well-beaten 
yolks of four eggs and the grated rind and 
the juice of two lemons ; while this is baking 
beat the whites of the four eggs and one 
heaping tablespoonful of pulverized sugar to 
a stiff" troth ; when the pie is baked spread 
this smoothly over the top, then set it in the 
oven for two or three minutes ; this is long 
enough to give it the desired golden brown 
color. 

Charlotte russe is recommended as a desert 
for the Christmas or New Year's dinner. 
Here is an easy and very satisfactory recipe 
to follow : Take half an once of gelatine and 
put it into just enough warm water to cover 
it ; .while this is slowly dissolving take one 
pint of thick sweet cream, and whip it to a 
stiff broth ; beat well the white of one egg. 
After the gelatine is dissolved boil it for two 
or three minutes, then sweeten and flavor it : 
when it is about as warm as new milk add 
the cream and egg, and beat the mixture till 
it is cold. If the sponge cake over which this 
is to be turned is baked in a large round tin 
which is scalloped around the edge it adds 
much to the pretty effect of the dish. Put 
the cake while warm, to prevent its crumbling, 
into a round dish, allowing the scallops to 
show at then top ; the pour the whipped cream 
into it and you have a dish fit for the gods. 

It is perfectly natural, as everybody kuows, 
for children to beg for lumps of sugar from 
the time when the baby first connects sugar 
with the bowl till years later when he is 
allowed to help himself. It is entirely legiti- 
mate that they should have in moderation 
the sweets they crave, and which in a large 
measure supply their bodies with needed heat. 
They enjoy wonderfully well having sweet 
things made at home in whose making they 
can assist, and during holiday week it is not 
hard to indulge them, and le't them at least 
have molasses candy and popcorn balls. 



These balls are easily made by boiling some 
molasses until it will harden in cold'water ; 
then ]i(iur it over the poiicorn, take it into a 
eool I. .(MM. butter your hands and roll the corn 
into the inoper shape. It is a simple matter, 
also, to make chocolate caramals ; all that is 
needed is one cup of sweet milk, one cup of 
molasses, half a cup of sugar, half a cup of 
grated chocolate, a piece of butter the size of 
a walnut ; stir constantly, and let it boil until 
it is thick, then turn it out on to buttered 
plates; when jt begins to stiffen niaik it in 
squares, so that it will break readily when 
cold. Cocoanut caramels are made of two 
cujis of grated cocoanut, one cup of sugar, 
two tablesjioonfuls of flour, the whites of 
three eggs heateii stiff ; bake on a buttered 
paper ill a quick oven. Nice white candy is 
easily made. Take one quart of granulated 
sugar, one pint of water, two tablespoon fuls 
of vinegar, boil just as you do mola-sses candy, 
but do not stir it ; you can tell when it is 
done by trying it in cold water. Pull it as if 
it were molasses candy ; have a dish near by 
with some vanilla in it, and work in enough 
to flavor it as you pull ; put it in a cold room, 
and the next day you will have delicious 
candy.— jBvtnni^ Post. 

•WASTE OF MANURE. 

It should be a cardinal principle with every 
farmer to economize his manuie. Upon it de- 
mands his success, and without it his labors 
must, to a very great extent, be without 
profit if not attended with absolute loss. 
If it is necessary to have the barnyard on a 
hillside it is equally necessary to have the 
lower side of it protected by a wall or some 
other arrangement by which the escape of 
liquid manure may be prevented. It is al- 
most equally important to have a spout to 
convey rain water from the roof of the barn 
in some other direction than immediately 
through the barnyard. It is bad enough that 
the manure heap shoiild be exposed to the 
rains which fall directly upon it, without ad- 
ding to it the droppings from the roof of the 
barn. 

If such improvident farmers were to behold 
the actual value of the fertilizing material 
thus lost, rolling from their ))urses in the 
shape of dollars and cents, how energetically 
would they labor to prevent this waste. The 
loss of a single little gold dollar would stir 
them up to a greater activity than the direct 
waste of a hundred times that little gold dol- 
lar's value in the form of liquid manure. 
Year after year, silently the golden streams 
are flowing f"rom their purses. Tell tlieiu of 
their error and they acknowledge it but rarely 
does it happen, that being reminded of it, in a 
friendly manner, they make a single effort to 
correct it. 

How many are there w'ho, after a lifetime 
of steady unremitting toil, find themselves no 
richer in lands or money than when they be- 
gan. They cannot explain the reason. Other 
causes may have led to such discouraging re- 
sults, but if the drain of liquid manures from 
the barnyards had been checked when they 
began farming, very many of these unsuccess- 
ful ones would have been as prosperous as 
their more provident neighbors.— fTestern 
Buval. 

FARM MACHINERY 
Upon a well-ordered farm of the presnt day 
a very large outlay of capital must be expend- 
ed upon niachiuery of various kinds. Besides 
ploughs, harrows, forks and rakes, wagons 
and carts that our forefathers had; the farmer 
of to-day must have in addition to these, a 
corn-sheller, a horse-rake, grain drills a 
mower and reaper, a hay-lioister and a 
threshing machine, besides many others that 
might be mentioned. The fir.st"cost of these 
last named is more than double that of all 
the implements used upon the best farms a 
generation ago. But these last named helps 
in farming are imperative; the f rmer of to- 
day cannot cut his gra.ss with the scythe, or 
his tangled wheat with the sickle or cradle, if 
he would— the day laborer of the present day 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



refuses to wield, or what is much more likely 
does not know how to wield these harvest in- 
struments of a former age. Improved ma- 
chinery has revolutionizetl almost every op- 
eration of the harvest field, and now where 
the swift sonuding flail was once heard as 
thump after thump it went down upon the 
full sheaves of grain, or the slow measured 
tread of horses and oxen that once trod out 
the crops of grain entire, and cost the farmer 
a winter's work to prepare the grain for mar- 
ket, there is now the threshing machine that 
not only takes off the grain and chaff, but 
makes the wheat entirely ready for the miller, 
and all at one operation. Even the horse has 
been superseded in this operation of taking 
off grain by the potent agency of steam that 
has been so harnessed as to be innoxious to 
to combustibles usually stored in barns. 

The comparative ease with which the hus- 
bandman now cuts the harvest and stores the 
several crops of the year, the improved drills 
that now seed whole fields with accuracy and 
speed, superceding hand-sowing almost en- 
tirely, leaves the farmer more leisure than he 
has ever enjoyed before. But it is with the 
farmer as with the printer or any other me- 
chanic, more outlay of capital is now required 
than ever before to carry on a business suc- 
cessfully. Machinery costs in the first pur- 
chase and in the subsequent repairs that are 
needed, and last and not least in the care and 
protection from the weather it requires. 
More skilled labor is also necessaiy to manage 
and run it, and hence higher wages are now 
paid to operatives in all departments of human 
industry than was formerly tlie rule. Con- 
tradictory as it may seem that the invention 
and introduction of so much labor-saving ma- 
chinery has had the effect to enhance the 
wages of labir, yet I believe it is a problem 
in the political economy of this age that can 
be demonstrated. 

There is probably as muih labor-saving ma- 
chinery in the United States as in all the 
rest of the civilized world together. The 
American farmers are riclier in agricultural 
implements of a labor-saving character than 
are the most advanced natious of the old 
world. Though more labor can be accom- 
plished than by the unaided human hand, 
yet this very fact is potential in stimulating 
to greater effort. We strive after other fields 
in which to employ this improved and im- 
mensely more speedy direction of labor and 
skill, hence more new ground is brought 
under the plough, new forests are felled, more 
and better habitations are needed and built, 
other minerals are discovered, deeper mines 
opened, and stimulation in every branch of 
business is developed; so that as Franklin 
says, "riches beget riches'" so does this greater 
amount of labor performed enhance both the 
income of the laborer and that of the capitalist 
who has employed him. More capital means 
again more ventures in business and more 
new employment for labor, hence as demand 
and supply are correllative terms wages must 
advance as production increases. 

It is but just to say, however, as a sequence 
to this problem that markets are much more 
api to become stocked with superfluous goods 
and hence stagnation in business is more 
likely to occur tlian before the age that brought 
so much machinery into use. But it is en- 
tirely necessary in this age of machinery to 
study economy with it. If a machine is once 
selected from competing ones and the pur- 
chase completed, it would seem false economy 
some to discard it in a short time for one tliat 
in respects was found to be a little superior to 
it— though it is a great satisfaction to have 
the best, yet business does not always aflbrd 
this. If one kind of reaper excel in cutting 
tangled grain, but will not pay it off the 
platform as well as some other make, it would 
take several bushels of wheat to make the ex- 
change which would perhaps only be better 
than the old machine in one particular and be 
worse than it in others.— T. B. in Lancaster 
Inquirer, Dec. ith, 1880. 



Send in your subscriptions for 1881. 



OUR GREAT STAPLE. 

Kecently we paid a visit to Col. Duffy's to- 
bacco shed, where his men are busy assorting 
his 1880 cro'3 of tobacco. During the damp 
weather in October, when the tobacco was 
thoroughly cured, Mr. S. M. Myers, who 
superintends the Colonel's crop, with a large 
force of workmen, took down and stripped 
every stalk of tobacco on Col. Duffy's two 
home farms, and also on the island near Fal- 
mouth. It was carefully placed in bulks in 
sheds, and then the work of assorting com- 
menced. The taking down of the crop so 
early was considered a very dangerous experi- 
ment by many of the farmers in this section, 
and .some of them predicted that the tobacco 
would rot. But the result shows that the 
Colonel was right. He has all his tobacco 
down and about one-half of it assorted, while 
those who were fearful of the rot have the 
bulk of theirs hanging in the sheds yet, there 
being no weather since then suitable to handle 
the crop. Mr. Myers argues that the tobacco 
should always be taken down the first oppor- 
tunity after it is cured, as there is danger of 
an early frost, which freezes the stalk when 
it is full of sap, and a sudden thaw coming 
the sap runs down to the leaf causing the 
stems to rot. and when stripped one rotten 
leaf will spoil a great deal In the bulk. Another 
reason is that after tobacco is subjected to a 
severe freeze the leaf becomes coarse and 
loses the fine texture it would otherwise have. 
The crop now being assorted is as perfectly 
cured as it possibly can be. The texture is as 
fine as a silk handkerchief, and the leaves 
have the body which is essential to the proper 
curing after it is packed. 

The manner of assorting is quite interesting 
to those who have not seen it. Col. Dufl'y's 
basement is arranged with bins tlie entire 
length of the building, and at one end the to- 
bacco is placed, after being brouglit from the 
shed. Here it hes for three or four days, 
when it is damp enougii to handle. It is then 
earned to the foreman, who weighs it and 
records the weight in a book kept for that 
purpose. The bundle is then opened and put 
upon a long table, at which sixteen men are 
at work assorting the leaves into piles of uni- 
form length. The leaves are then put into 
"hands" of eight or ten leaves— no leaf in a 
"hand" being half an inch longer than 
another. After being put into hands the to- 
bacco is carried to the foreman, who carefully 
inspects each lot, to see that it is put up prop- 
erly, and he then sizes them, being careful to 
put each lot in the proper bin, so that when 
the time for packing arrives it can be done 
expeditiously. After the assorting is all done 
the casing commences. 

Exercising the same care in packing as in 
assorting, each case is filled with tobacco of 
the same size and quality, so that when a 
buyer comes to examine the crop one "hand" 
will show the contents of the entire case. 
The cellar in which the men work is heated 
by a large stove and is as comfortable as any 
dwelling house. 

Col. Duffy has done more to give the to- 
bacco of Lancaster county the excellent repu- 
tation it has than any other man in the 
county. Not content with the tobacco as 
raised twenty-five years ago, he has experi- 
mented with different kinds of seed until he 
has secured the best he has ever grown. The 
leaves of this year's crop have not the coarse 
ribs and harsh feeling that most of the tobacco 
has hitherto had, but they are as fine and soft 
to the touch as a piece of silk. 

One great saving which the Colonel has 
made, both in labor and material, has been in 
the matter of scaffolding. Heretofore he had 
scaftblding erected in the field, on which the 
tobacco was hung after being speared on the 
lath. Now the fcolonel does not use scaffold- 
ing at all. After being speared the laths are 
immediately hung upon tl)e wagon and hauled 
luto the shed, and thus a great deal of time 
and labor is saved. 

The proper hanging of tobacco in the sheds 
is one of the most important points in the 
curing. This tobacco, which Col. Dufty is 



now assorting, was hung eight inches apart 
from lath to lath, and not a single leaf shows 
any sign of burning. It Is poor economy to 
crowd your tobacco into a small house, as it 
will always burn, as the air cannot properly 
pass around and about it. 

The crop of Col. Duffy's "Haines" farm is 
all assorted, and the average weight per acre 
reaches eighteen hundred pounds. This indi- 
cates a very heavy growth, and we believe ex- 
ceeds any other large patch in the county. 
There were twenty-two acres in the patch. 

We think if all our farmers were to follow 
the lead of Colonel Duffy as to carefulness in 
the growth of the weed, from the selection of 
the seed to the curing and packing of the 
plant, Lancaster county would receive more 
tlian double the amount it does for its tobacco 
crop. Whatever is worth doing at all is worth 
doing right.— 3/ai-ieMa Register. 

FRESH SHAD ALL THE TIME. 

A new enterprise has recently been organ- 
ized, with headquarters in Philadelphia, under 
the title of the Delaware and Potomac Fish 
Preserving Company, with a paid-up capital 
of .S20O,060. The oflicers of the company are: 
President, Jacob J. Hi.,schler; Treasurer and 
Secretary. William G. Rupert ; Superinten- 
dent, D. W. Davis ; Directors, J. J. Hitschler, 
W. G. Rui)ert, D. W. Davis, W. J. Turner 
and J. S. Worman. The oltject of the com- 
pany is to freeze and keep in a perfect state 
of preservation, sliad and other salt water 
fish m the United States, and market them at 
times when such fish are not in season. 

The enterprise will be operated under two 
patents of D. W. Davis, of Detroit, who is 
the superintendent of the company, which 
are described as follows : Galvanized tubs, the 
exact size and shape of a barrel sawed in half, 
are filled with pulverized ice and fish thor- 
oughly shaken down to a compact mass. A 
wooden cover, secured by an iron rod, run 
through ears on opposite sides of the tub, is 
put on, and the package placed in coarse ice 
and salt. There it remains for twenty-four 
hours. It is then taken out, placed with the 
cover downwards, the rod withdrawn, a 
stream of cold water turned upon it to loosen 
the frost from the metal, and the tub lifted 
oft', leaving a solid block of ice in which the 
fish are firmly imbedded. Two of the half- 
tub blocks fill a barrel, which is headed up and 
placed in a large room, known as the freezer. 
Here the temperature is constantly kept at 
from twelve to fifteen degrees below freezing 
point, and in this condition the fish remain 
absolutely unchanged until such time as they 
are wanted for use. Another patent provides 
for placing a single fisli in a galvanized iron 
pan just large enough to hold it, and covered 
with salt and ice, a'nd it is contended that in 
three hours the fish is frozen sulfleiently to 
warrant its preservation indefinitely if kept 
in a temperature of eight degrees above zero. 

The large five-story warehouse at No. 402 
South Delaware avenue has been leased for a 
term of five years, and has been fitted up for 
the purpose of the company. In the four 
upper floors have been placed freezers or re- 
frigerators, with a capacity of storing 200,000 
shad, while the first floor will be appropriated 
to the preliminary process with a capacity of 
twenty tons a day. 

It is expected to procure enough shad dur- 
ing the fishing season from the Delaware and 
Potomac livers to enable the company to 
carry on the business successfully. In sea- 
sons of plenty the superintendent of the com- 
pany states that sliad can be purchased in 
quantities at Baltimore at less than ten cents 
each, and the last report of the New Jersey 
Fish Commissioners show that the average 
price obtained for Delaware shad was about 
18 cents each. Even at the latter price, for 
all they can procure, the company conter d 
that they can make a success of the enter- 
prise. — Philadelphia Ledger. 

PREPARING POULTRY FOR MARKET. 

The simplest things are oftentimes the most 

difficult of accomplishment. For instance, 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



9 



the picking of a duck or goose may aiipear 
easv to the iiiiiiiitiate.l, wliil.' to >h, this nv.My 
ami witli (lispat.-h, so tliat llu; f,.utli..i-s and 
tlie carcass in:iv lirkd't in ^'ocd onhT, i-ciiunvs 
some kiiowlfdKi' of the luisiiicss beforehand. 
AVhile duck and ;,'iese IVai hers are of more 
vahie tliiin lliose nl Ihe liirkey or lieii, it i.s a 
liltle nion^ dillieult to (.btaiii tlicm from tlie 
dead bodies in t;i"'d order. Ii> the llrsi place 
the fowls should be shumldered in sneh a 
manner llial llie phnMa;.-e is not soiled or 
rulUta, and this is only done by lian>;in),' them 
by the liecls. When dead, tlie bodies sliould 
be carried and carefully laid on a clean table 
in the picking room on the back, with the 
heads dangling, that the blood may drip to 
tlie floor. Tlieu before the animal heat es- 
capes, pluck.all possible, thus preserving the 
feathers, as it were, in a live state. Lay the 
left hand (irmly on the breast, and with the 
right, using the thumb and fore finger, taking 
a grip of the feathers close to the warm body, 
gathering only three or four at once, give a 
sudden [luU and tliey will yield. Continue in 
this manner as (piiekly as possible, and do the 
work clean, until the whole breast, which un- 
usually contains the finest and most valuable 
feathers, is all pieked ; then proeeed with the 
neck, legs aiul liack. Alter this is gone over 
there will still remain on a full feathered fowl 
a considerable light down. Tliis should all be 
plucked away, or as much of it as is possible, 
before the fowl is scalded. 

When the birds are plump and fat, which 
every one should be before slaughtering, much 
of this may be preserved in a natural state. 
Before commencing operations, everything 
should be in readiness. The feather bags 
should be made, and of such material in which 
the feathers are to remain, as by shifting 
much of the valuable down and softer feathers 
are lost. The tick may be covered with some 
old or inexpensive material, so that it may be 
preserved from being soiled in the process of 
filling. Where there are large numbers to be 
slaughtered, there should be plenty of help, 
that all may proceed in regular order and 
with dispatcli. After the fowls are all dry- 
picked and clean as possible, remove to the 
scalding room, and give a gentle dip in boiling 
hot water, and take out the quill feathers, 
and the other feathers that remain, care being 
taken that the skin is not rubbed up, as it 
gives it a bruised look. When putting away 
to cool, fold the wings under and lock them 
together on the back, and place the fowl on a 
board or shelf, in a cool room or cellar, on the 
back, tlius preserving the smooth plumpness 
of the breast. Before packing to send to 
market, remove the head and about an inch 
of the neck, and make the place where it is 
severed as neat as possible, bi this manner 
any one may have attractive poultry, while 
tae extra care in saving the feathers will 
more than compensate by their value either 
in sale or for home use. Many have large 
flocks to slaughter, and a little care and fore- 
thought will save much labor and disappoint- 
ment in the future. 

OUR GRAIN TRADE. 

Colonel John W. Foster, American Minis- 
ter to St. Petersburg, has written a letter to 
the State Department, which, in view of the 
interest felt by the people of this country in 
our foreign grain trade, will be considered 
significant and well worthy of studious con- 
sideration. Col. Foster .says: 

The important part which the United States 
is now taking in the commerce of Europe in 
its enormous shipment of grain, is nowhere 
attracting greater interest than in Russia, 
where it attracts the deepest concern. This 
country has been onr chief competitor in 
European markets lor breadstuffs, and there 
are various reasons why our rapidly growing 
predominance should cause alarm. The im- 
ports into Russia are largely in excess of the 
exports, and while the former are increasing 
the latter are annually decreasing. The gov- 
ernment finances are by no means in a satis- 
factory condition ; a deficit is annually re- 
ported in the receipts, compared with the 



e.\peiulituies, and the country labors under ' 

more than :'.ii per ciiit. briow par, with a 
lenileiiey to liivater depn-eiat ion. 

Cereals have been the eliiet'article of export 
whereby to keep down. the balance of trade 
setting in so heavily against her, to meet the 
heavy demand for gold invoices in imports 
and maintain the paper currency and fifovern- 

shipnii-nts of Ainerieaii grain (o ICnrope, to 
increase the alarm comes the otlieial publica- 
tion of the exports for the six months of the 
current year, showing a heavy falling off, {es- 
pecially in wheat and rye, the most important 
items of export. From this publication I ex- 
tract ibe follow inu. >lio\viiiLj tbe <'omparative 
exports of tlic le;i(liim cereals for the first six 
months of the yi'ar> IST'.t and 1S80 : 

Wbcftt, bush 

Kvc, bush 31,781,486 19,9S1,622 

Barley, bush 6,113.892 4,679,694 

Corn, bush ; 2,224.874 S,5,54,22.1 

Oats, bush 23,483,370 23,201,124 

Totiil 104,723.818 72,5.')8,09O 

The effect of this heavy decrease in the most 
important of the country's resources is notice- 
able in other directions' than the government 
finances. The business stateinentOf Russian 
railways for the six months of the present 
year, compared with the corresponding period 
of 187!), shows a tailing of .$4,0110,(100, or 13 
per cent, and $7,O0O,0tJO less than for the first 
half of 1S7H ; and this decline is almost en- 
tirely attributed to the decrease of the ex- 
portation of grain. A depression is also felt 
in almost all industries and interests. 

It is- true that various natural causes, as 
the devastation of insects, the unseasonable 
winter, etc., have this year greatly operated 
through the failure of crops to produce this 
falling off in the exports of wheat and rye; 
but it is becoming apparent that unless some 
radical improvements are made, both in the 
methods of cultivation and transportation, 
the grain growers of Russia cannot compete 
with those of the United States in the markets 
of Europe. The report of the British Com- 
missioners, Messrs. Read and Pell, giving 
the result of their investigations in the wheat- 
growing districts of the United States, has 
been published here, and has attracted much 
attention. An intelligent writer in the Jour- 
nal of St. Petersburg, in an exhaustive exami- 
nation of this report, points out the absorbing 
interest which it has for his country. ''If," 
he says, ''we do nothing, as has unfortunately 
been the case for the two years i)ast— that is 
since we felt for the first time in a serious 
manner the effects of American rivalry — if we 
remain with folded arms as passive spectators 
while the grain of America and Australia 
overrun Europe, then we will have nothing to 
do but to contemplate not only the ruin of 
our commerce but that of our great land- 
holders." He concluded as follows: 

"The situation is too grave, the interests 
involved too important, not only to appeal 
to the individual attention of the state but 
also to all the elements of the country, to the 
end that measures may be taken against 
American competition. Importation alone is 
increasing in Russia, while exportation is de- 
creasing on a Very alarming scale. We have 
suffered enough that three articles which liad 
already reached a considerable Hgure in our 
exports — tallow, wool and copper — should lose 
a great part of llieii importance ; but we will 
not know how to endure it if we see wheat 
and rye disappear from our exterior com- 
merce. 

The recent arrival at Revel, near Peters- 
burg, of a few cargoes of Indian corn from 
the United States, has also contributed lo the 
alavm, and it is even predicted that before the 
next year's crop can he harvested American 
wheat will be imported at St. Petersburg. 

CLOTHING OF GLASS. 

The ingenuity that led to the m.anufaotiire 
of articles of clothing from paper has teen 
eclipsed, as similar articles are now made 
from glass. An uptown dry goods house has 



on exhibition a glass table cloth several feet 
sipiaie of vai'i('j.'ate(l colors, with ornamental 
border ami liiii|;ed edges. Tbe fabric is flexi- 
ble, and only a liltle heavier (ban those woven 
of (lax, while it is claimed that it can be 
washed and ironed like the ordinary table 
cloth. Glass has been spun and woven in 
Austria for some years, but it is a new under- 
taking in this eountry. \ prominent glass- 
niannt'ac-tuiiiig lirm of riilsburu'. I'a., recently 
engaged in the inannfaclnre ot tins brittle 
substance into I'abiies, wliieb (hey claim are 
as perfect, delicate and durable as the finest 
silk. A representative of this firm said yes- 
terday that they can spin 2.'>0 fine threads, 
each ten miles in length, in one minute. The 
weaving is done with an ordinary loom, but 
the process is more ditlicult and much more 
interesting than the si)inning of cotton or 
other threads. 

" We can duplicate in gla.s8 any costume," 
said this gentleman, "and can make it just 
as brilliant in color, elaborate in Hnish, per- 
fect in fit, and equal in its smallest details, 
even to the buttons on the original. The 
fabric is very strong, cannot be ripped or 
torn, and can be sold at a less price than 
linen, cotton, or silk, or other fabric imitated. 
It is also very warm, easy fitting, and com- 
fortable, whether worn as dress, shawl, or 
other garment in ordinary clothing." 

Among the articles already manufactured 
of glass are beautiful feathers, which resemble 
those of the ostrich, towels, napkins and table 
cloths. 

THE OYSTER. 
Dr. William Roberts, in his interesting lec- 
tures on the digestive ferments, writes : Our 
practice in regard to the oyster is quite excep- 
tional, and furnishes a striking example of 
the general correctness of the jiopular judg- 
ment on dietetic questions. The oyster is 
almost the only animal substance which we 
eat habitually, and by preference, in the raw 
or uncooked state ; and it is interesting to 
know that there is a sound physiological rea- 
son at the bottom of this preference. The 
fawn-colored mass which constitutes the 
dainty of the oyster is its liver, and this is 
little less than a heap of glycogen. Associ- 
ated with the glycogen, but withheld from 
actual contact with it during life is its ap- 
propriate digestive ferment — the heptic dias- 
tase. The mere crushing of the dainty be- 
tween the teeth brings those two bodies 
together, and the glycogen is at once digested 
without other help by its own diastase. The 
oyster in the uncooked state, or merely 
warmed, is in fact, sel (-digestive. But the 
advantage of this provision is wholly lost by 
cooking ; for the heat employed immediately 
destroys the associated ferment, and a cooked 
oyster has to he digested, hke any other food, 
by the eater's own digestive powers. 

TAKING COLD. 

There isan old saying, "When the air comes 
through a hole, say your prayers to save your 
soul ;" and I should think almost anyone 
could get a "cold" with a spoonful of water, 
or the wrist held to a key hole. Singular as 
it may seem, sudden warming when cold is 
more dangerous than the reverse ; everyone 
has noticed how soon tlie handkerchief is re- 
quired on entering a heated room on a cold 
day. Frost bile is an extreme illustration of 
this. As the Irishman said, on picking him- 
self up, it was not the fall, but stopping so 
suddenly that hurt him. It is not the lower- 
ing of the temperature to the freezing point, 
but its subsequent elevation, that devitalizes 
the tissue. This is why rubbing with snow, 
or bathing in cold water, is re(iuired to restore 
safely a frozen part ; the arrested circulation 
must be very gradually re-established, or in- 
flammation, perhaps mortification ensues. 
General precautions against taking cold are 
almost self-evident in this light. There is 
ordinarily little, if any, danger to be appre- 
hended from wet clothes, so long a.s exercise 
is kept up, for the "glow" about compensates 
for the extra cooling by evaporation. Nor is 



10 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



a coiuylete dreuchiug more likely to be in- 
jurious Lhau weLimg of oue pun. But ntiver 
sit still wet, iuiU 111 chuu^iug rub the body 
(iry. There is a geueral leuaeiicy, spriugiDg 
froui latigue, iiiUol iicu or ludiltereuce, to 
uuglect uaiup feet ; that is to say, to dry them 
by the lire ; Out tuis prooess is tedious and 
uijceitam. i would say especially, oft with 
the muddy boots aud suddeu soeks at ouce — 
dry stoekmgb alter a hunt may make just the 
diifereiice oi your being able lo go out agam 
or never, lake care UeVer to check perspira- 
tiou ; during Uiis process the body is in a some- 
what critical couuitiou, and a sudden arrest 
of the function may result disastrously— even 
fatally. Uiie part ol the business of perspira- 
tion IS to equalize bodily temperature, and it 
must not be lulertered with. The secret of 
much that IS to be said about bathing, when 
healed, lies uere. A person overheated, pant- 
ing it may be, with throbbing temples and a 
dry skin, is in danger, partly because the 
natural cooUug by evaporation from the skin 
is denied, and this condition is sometimes not 
far from a •■sunstroke." Under these circuui- 
stauces a person of fairly good constitution 
may plunge into the water with impunity — 
even with benefit. But if the body be already 
cooling by sweating, rapid abstraction of heat 
from the surface may cause internal conges- 
tion, never unattended with danger. Drinking 
ice water offers a somewhat parallel case; 
even on stooping to drink at a brook, when 
flushed with heat, it is well to bathe the face 
and hands hrsi, and to taste the water before 
a full draught.— Cones' Field of Ornilkoloyy. 

TOXIC EFFECTS OF TEA. 
W. J. Morton, M. D., of New York, gives 
in The Journal of Neimiis and Mental Disease, 
an account of investigations he has made on 
the toxic effects of tea. They were carried 
on in the case of live tea-tasters suffering from 
disease who came under his care, and in obser- 
vations of his own symptoms during a week, 
in which he subjected himself to special treat- 
ment with tea for purposes of experiment. 
From the whole series of observations, he 
draws the conclusions that (1) with tea, as 
with any potent drug, there is a proper and 
an improper dose. [-A] In moderation, tea is 
a mental and bodily stimulant of a most 
agreeable nature, loUovved by no harmful re- 
action. It produces contentment of mind, 
allays hunger and bodily weariness, and in- 
creases the disposition and the capacity for 
work. (3) Taken moderately, it leads to a 
very serious group of symptoms, such as head- 
ache, vertigo, heat and llushings of body, 
ringing in the ears, mental dullness and con- 
fusion, tremulousness, "nervousness," sleep- 
lessness, apprehension of evil, exhaustion of 
mind and body, with disinclination to mental 
and physical exertion, increased and irregular 
action of the heart, increased respiration. 
Each of the above symptoms is produced by 
tea taken in immoderate quantities, irrespec- 
tive of dyspepsia, or hypochondria, or liyper- 
aemia. (4) immoderate tea- drinking, con- 
tinued tor a considerable time, with great 
certainty produces dyspepsia. (5) The imme- 
diate mental symptoms produced by tea are 
not to be attributed to dyspepsia. (0) Tea 
retards the waste or retrograde metamorphosis 
of tissue, and tliereby reduces the demand for 
food. It also diminishes the amount of urine 
secreted. (7) Many of the symptoms of im- 
moderate tea-drinking are such as may occur 
without sus icion of tea being tlieir cause, 
and we find many people taking tea to relieve 
the discomfort which its abuse is producing.— 
Fopular tScience Monthly. 



an English gentleman set himself to work to 
And out the trut^i of the matter, and dis- 
covered tliat they are used to make hot-beds 
in which the eggs are hatched. As soon as 
this happens the the bifs of leaves are carried 
out of the nest and thrown away. In some of 
the large colonies there will be bushels of this 
stuff in a pile. Many ways have been tried 
to destroy or drive away these destructive 
creatures, but only lately has a way to do so 
been discovered. The way is simple ; it is 
merely to scatter some of the refuse leaves 
from another nest in the paths and ways of a 
fixmily of ants. This is very offensive to them ; 
tliey drop their loads instantly, and run for 
the nest, and will not return for many 
days. A bushel of this hated refuse will 
keep the ants away from acres of ground. 
The English gentleman w'ho writes to the 
Zoological Society of Loudon about it, says he 
got the hint from a negro, and he has tried it 
several times without a failure. 



Our Local Organizations. 



WISE ANTS. 
A stoi7 of the knowing ways of ants comes 
from Colorado. It seems that in that State 
flourish great numbers of ants of a large zize, 
called Atta Cthaloles, which are very destruc- 
tive to all green leaves. No matter whether 
they are sweet or sour, tender or tough, the 
ants cut them all down and carry them off. It 
was supposed that the leaves were eaten, till 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The regular meetiug of the Lancaster County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society was held in 
their rooms on Monday afternoon, January 3rd. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. 
Tlie following members and visitors were present : 

Joseph F. Witmer, Paradise ; M. D. Kendig, Ores- 
well; Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy; Simon P. Eby, 
city ; Casper Hiller, Conestoga; Johuson Miller, 
Warwick; W. W. Griest, city ; F. R. Diffenderffer, 
city; E. B. Brubaker, Brickerville ; Dr. C. A. 
Greene, city; Mr. Hoover, Lititz ; Dr. Wm. Corap- 
ton, city; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheim ; Calvin 
Cooper, Bird-in-Hand ; Frank H. Griest, city ; J. M. 
Johnston, city ; Washington L. Hershey, Chickies ; 
John G. Kesh, West Willow ; William McComsey, 
city ; Dr. S. S. Rathvon, city ; C. A. Gast, city ; Hen- 
ry G. Resh, West Willow. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes of last 
meeting was dispensed with. 

New Members. 
Cyrus Neflr, of Mountville, was proposed and 
elected to membership. 

Special Committee. 
Dr. Greene reported that he had not yet succeeded 
in securing any one to deliver a lecture before the 
society. 

Crop Reports. 
Johnson Miller reported that some cherry trees 
had burst during the cold weather. 

Casper Hiller said a tree might split and yet bear 
fruit. Some fruit bnds are killed when the mercury 
goes down to 15 or 18 degrees below zero. In 1»30 
or 1835 the apple trees were so badly frozen that 
some never recovered. Apple trees can bear a good 
deal of cold weather without being destroyed. 

M. D. Kendig proposed that each district report 
the average yield of the cereals during the past year 
at the next monthly meeting. 

The President's Address. 
President Witmer then read the annual address 
to the society. See page 3 of the present number of 
The Farmer. 

Essay on Windbreaks. 
Casper Hiller, to whom this question was referred, 
discussed the subject in the foUowint: essay : 

As far as my experience and observations go, 
windbreaks are of no practical benefit to orchards 
in our county. Our orchards are not often injured 
by winter winds. If injured by cold, it is usually by 
the still cold, and that is always greater in sheltered 
and low places than on high and exposed situations. 
In one of our extreme cold winters the thermometer 
indicated 11° below zero, while in a low, sheltered 
situation, half a mile distant, it sank to 23° below 
zero. In the former place, peach trees were but 
slightly injur d, while in the latter they were en- 
tirely destroved. A few successive sunshiny days in 
March or early April will start vegetation quickly in 
those sheltered nooks, oftentimes starting the blos- 
soms of the apricot, peach and cherry, while on high, 
unsheltered ground the rays of the sun are contiim- 
ally cooled by the breeze, and vegetation is not 
started by a few warm days. Dew forms and settles 
in these sheltered places, and causes frequent white 
frosts, while in open places the free air prevents the 
formation of dew and frost. These influences would 
not be so marked on the apple orchard as they are 
on the peach, as the apple is seldom injured in the 
wood by winter weather, and is so late a bloomer 
that spring frosts do not often hurt it. Shelter 
belts have the ettect of ripening the fruit quite per- 
ceptibly earlier, which, in an apple orchard, would 
be a great objection, as the fruit already ripens too 
soon in our locality. 



Legislation on Forest Culture. 

S. P. Ebv, esq., to whom the discussion of this 
subject was confided, read the following paper : 

We suppose it is no longer a disputed fact that, 
within the last forty years, the Hate of Pennsylva- 
nia, and particularly the eastern portion thereof, 
has undergone great climatic changes,a few of which 
may be briefly mentioned : 

1. That the variations in temperature of heat and 
cold have become more sudden and intense. 

2. That the summers are more dry, and the win- 
ters more changeable, with less snow. 

3. That the flow of our larger springs has decreas- 
ed in volume, while many of the smalle" ones have 
disappeared altogether : consequently wells have to 
be deepened, and water power supplied during dry 
seasons with steam. 

4. That our rivers and streams are no longer as 
regular in their flow, but rise higher and more sud- 
denly after heavy rains, and become lower in dry 
seasons. 

5. That winds sweep with greater force. That we 
have fewer local riins during the hot seasons, and 
more frequent hail storms. 

6. That we have no longer the fine fruit-bearing 
orchards our ancestors had forty years ago. 

The principal cause of all these changes, as well 
as minor ones, which we have not now time to 
enumerate, has by close observation and careful in- 
vestigation of intelligent scientific men, both of this 
country and Europe, been satisfactorily traced to the 
cutting away and destruction of the forests and belts 
of timber which formerly existed. 

It needs no argument to prove that these changes 
are injurious to both animal and vegetable existence; 
that they seriously affect our well-being as a commu- 
nity, by depriving us of many of the necessaries and 
comforts of life. 

A land without vegetation or water is either a bar 
ren heath or an arid desert, unsuited for human 
habitation, while with the most desirable homes we 
naturally associate pleasant groves, fruitful gardens, 
fertile grain fields and springs of pure water. It 
follows, therefore, that we should employ all proper 
means to restore as many of those blessings as we 
can by preserving the forests which yet remain; by 
restocking such as are getting thin, and by planting 
new timber belts for windbreaks and for shelter 
around springs and along the heads of our streams. 
I do not wish to be understood that whon timber 
trees have grown to full maturity they should not 
be cut and used; only that before they are removed 
others should be planted and partly grown to take 
their place. We should learn from nature, and have 
an undergrowth of young trees upon the ground be- 
fore we cut down the full grown timber. 

Lancaster county had in 1877, only 12.1 per cent, 
of timber area, as compared with its clear land, 
some of which has since been cut down. Of the ad- 
joining counties, Lebanon had 21.2; Berks, 15; 
Chester, 14; York, 18; and Dauphin, 24. Forty 
years ago Lancaster county had six furnaces and 
fourteen forges, that were supplied with charcoal 
from timber mostly growing in the county. At the 
present time, we have but one charcoal furnace and 
two forges, which look for much of their coal out- 
side of our county. I think we are safe in saying 
that more than one-half of the timber standing forty 
years ago in Lancaster county, is now cleared oflr. 
The whole of this need not be restored. An increase 
of from three to five per cent, will, with what re- 
mains, if judiciously distributed, be sufficient, 
making the forest area of Lancaster county about 15 
per cent. To do this will require about three addi- 
tional acres of forest to every one hundred acres of 
clear land— not an expensive nor impossible project, 
when we consider the increase in the value of the 
timber twenty years hence, and the important bear- 
ing newly-planted belts of forests will have upon the 
crops of the interior. 

While individual eflfort, and the agricultural so- 
cieties can do much towards accomplishing the de- 
sired result, it is plain we must have legislation on 
the subject, and this brings us to the question. 
What should such legislation be ? In some parts of 
Europe the government itself takes care of its forests. 
Ill other parts the ditlerent communities in which 
the forest is located, or upon which the community 
is dependent for its fuel, have charge of and adopt- 
regulations for its preservation. In our State I 
think it would best be intrusted to the united enter- 
prise of private citizens— to companies formed for 
that purpose similar to insurance companies, com- 
posed of such persons as may take an interest in the 
matter To that end I have prepared a draft for an 
act of assembly allowing the incorporating of com- 
panies for that purpose, and allowing members and 
individuals who plant forest trees a credit on ac- 
count of their county tax for encouragement and 
compensation. , 

Dr. Greene also read an essay from Harpers 
Maqazine, published twenty -six years ago, on this 
subject, which was at once valuable and interesting. 
Casper Hiller thought it a question whether rtuch 
can be got by an act of legislation. He is afraid of 
such jobs. Even in the West, those who planted 
trees have had a good deal of troubje to compel 
compliance with the existing laws. 



He believed it 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



11 



must be left to individual effort. He helleved the 
trouble to be that we have only recently awaked to 
the reality of the (jreat issue. Perhaps now that all 
begin to see the masnitude of the evils from cnttlng: 
down trees, more eaulion will he used in this matter. 

Mr. Eby said his proposed act was not Intended to 
Interfere with private enterprise in the same direc- 
tion. Sonii' Inducement, he lliouirht, should be held 
out by the State to bring about the desired result . 
He gave examples of successful timber culture in 
Germany. He also showed how lands so set apart 
would soon begin to yield a revenue. He thouirht 
we should begin now. We may not have beneUt 
from this ourselves, but our children will have. 
This society ought to urge tljis matter upon our 
Representatives, and see that sonn tiling is done at 
ODce. Souiething must be done if we would avoid 
the evils that have come upon other lands from the 
cutting down of timber. 

C. L. Hunsecker said in this eounty a large area is 
still covered with forests. This was the case at the ear- 
ly settlement of the Slate. The early settlers had to cut 
down their timber. Most of our oaks are under two 
hundred years old. What will be the result of such 
a law as the one proposed! It will remain on the 
statute books an idle tiling. He was not opposed to 
tree planting. But our land is too valuable to be 
left standing in timber. 

Henry Kurtz was not oppoped to tree planting. 
But he feared that liberties might be taken with the 
private lands of owners that would not be agreeable 
or desirable. 

Johnson Miller took the ground of Mr. Kurtz. 
He was opposed to give any company the right to 
take away your property to plant trees on. He was 
opposed to have any forest planted yvitliin two hun- 
dred yards of his farm buildings. 

Dr. Greene called attention to the great needs of 
the county for timber. Our timber is rapidly going. 
When it is all gone it will then be too lute to lament 
the matter. !f things are not so bad with us now as 
in some other countries, the time will come when 
they will be. There can certainly be no harm in 
such an act. But if even one man in this county 
adopts its views, so much at least will be gained. 

Mr. Eby wished to have the sense of the society on 
this suliject. He hoped some action would be taken 
In the matter. 

Johnson Miller moved for the appointment of a 
committee of three to prepare a resolution to be pre- 
sented to the Legislature, asking that some action 
be taken in the matter. 

Calvin Cooper asked for immediate action. If 
left to a committee, there would be delay ; no time 
should be lost. 

That portion of Mr. Eby's bill allowing the pro- 
posed companies to take lands at will was stricken 
out, and the document then endorsed. 

On motion, the society then adopted Mr. Eby's act 

and it will be accordingly laid before the Legislature. 

Election of Officers. 

A motion was then made to go into an election for 
officers to serve for the coming year. 

Mr. Witmer was re-nominated for President. He 
made a speech of declination, which was uot heeded, 
and he was unanimously re-electtd. 

J. B. Garher and Henry .VI. Engle were nominated 
for Vice Presidents, aud promptly elected by ac- 
clamation. 

M. D. Kendig was nominated for Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

John H. Landis was nominated for Corresponding 
Secretary. 

For Managers, Johnson Miller, Calvin Cooper, 
Ephraim S. Hoover, W. H. Brosius and John C. Lm- 
ville were nominated. 

It was moved that Mr. Eby cast the vote of the 
society where there were no opposing candidates. 

This resulted in the election of all the above named 
gentlemen. 

Treasurer's Report. 

Messrs. Eby and Miller were appointed a commit- 
tee to audit the accounts of the Treasurer. They 
reported having examined them, and declared a 
balance of 847.:i8 to be in the treasury. 

On motion, the report of the auditors was accepted 
and the committee discharged. 

Miscellaneous. 

A number of small bills were presented and or- 
dered paid. 

Dr. Kathvon, to whom was assigneJ the duty of 
paying the awards made at the late fair, repor'.ed 
bavlDg done so. 8H;a.42 were put into his bands, of 
which he paid out $124.95, leaving iu his hands 
$37.34. He also reported two certificates as uncalled 
for, those of North &, Co and A. V. .•<i)encer. 

On motion the society adjourned. 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Lancaster 
County I'oultry Association was held .Monday morn- 
ing, January Mrd. 

The following members were present : William 
W. Griest, ciiy • Christian A. Gast, citv ; Era: k K. 
Diffenderffer, city; Jacob B. Lichty, city ; Chas. E. 
Long, city; H.H. Tshudy, Lititz ; WUliam H. Amer, 



city; W. A. .Sehoenberger, city ; J. B. Long, city t 
Charles Lippold. city ; Dr. E. H. Witmer, Nelfsville; 
George A. Gever, Spring Garden; J. B. Garman, 
Leacoek;T. F. Evans, Liiiiz; Samuel G. Engle, 
Marietta; Edw. C. Bnic klilll, Strasburg; J. W. 
Bruekhart, Salunga; Washington L. Hershev, 
Chlekles; J. M. Johnston, city ; Joseph F. Witmer, 
Paradise. 

In the absence of President Warfel, the meeting 
was called to order by Vice President Geyer. 

Minutes of previous meeting were read and ap- 
proved . 

Reports of Officers. 

Treasurer Evans made a report for the past year, 
from which it was seen that the total recel|)ls during 
the year were 81s(5.91 and the expenditures $11.5.40, 
leaving a balance in his hands of 571..51. 

On motion, the report of the Treasurer was ac- 
cept ed. 

Report of the Secretary. 

Secretary Lichty read his annual report, in which 
it was stated the number of members is now 7'), of 
which 3li were elected during the past year. 

On motion the report was accepted. 
Unfinished Business. 

The principal item transacted under this head was 
the payment of dues for the present year. 
New Business. 

Nelson Dyson, of New Providence, and Charles A. 
Gruger, of Columbia, were nominated and elected to 
membership. 

A committee was on motion appointed to nominate 
officers for the association during the current year, 
and present the same for the action of the society. 

The chairman named Messrs. Lippold, Engle and 
Bruekhart on this committee. 

After retiring for consultation they returned and 
reported as follows : For President, S. N. Warfel 
and J. B. Long; for first Vice President, S. A. Geyer 
and W. A. Schoeuberger ; for second Vice President, 
M. L. Greider and H. S. (iarber ; for Corresponding 
Secretary, J. F. Reed aud Colin Cameron ; for Re- 
cording Secretary, J. B. Lichty and Charles E. Long; 
for Treasurer, T. Frank Evans and H.H. Tshudy; 
tor Executive Committee, H. II. Tshudy, T. D. 
.Martin, J. B. Long, Charles Lippold, W. A. Schoen- 
lierger, John E. Schum, M. L. Greider and John A. 
Stober. 

F. R. Diffenderffer withdrew, by authority, the 
name of S. N. Warfel as a candidate for re-election; 
as that gentleman would be away from home the 
greater part of the year, and consequently unable to 
serve. J. B. Long having also declined to stand, 
the committee reported the following new list of 
officers, who were unanimously elected : 

President, H. H. Tshudy ; First Vice President, 
Geo. A. Geyer; Second Vice President, M. L. Greider; 
Corresponding Secretary, John F. Reed ; Recording 
Secretary, J. B. Lichty ; Treasurer, T. Frank Evans; 
Executive Committee, H. H. Tshudy, John F. Reed, 
J. B. Lichty, T. Frank Evans, J. R. Trissler, John 
E. Schum, J. B. Long, W. A. Schoenberger, Chas. 
Lippold. 

The secretary stated he had received a number of 
letters from the secretaries of other societies, stating 
that they would permit entries up to certain dates, 
to accommodate exhibitors at our own association, 
thus giving them opportunities of showing at both 
places with the same birds. 

There was a willingness shown to permit such as 
ilisired to exhibit at two places to have special 
l.ivurs in order to enable them to do so. 

Chas. E. Long was not in favor of receiving birds 
from the Reading exhibition after our own has been 
opened, thereby delaying the judging, which has 
been fixed for a certain day, and with which it would 
interfere. 

It was finally agreed to allow birds from the 
Reading show to be entered up to the 14th at noon, 
and those from our own show to be withdrawn on 
the 19th for exhibition at other places, if exhibitors 
so desire. 

On motion of Charles E. Long, it was decided to 
offer a third premium for birds on exhibition, In the 
shape of honorable mention. 

It was also resolved to hold a special meeting of 
the Executive Committee during the comiug week. 

It was ordered tiy the society that a dozen addi- 
tional coops for turkeys and geese be procured for 
use during the exhitiiiiou. 

On motion the society adjourned. 

FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The December meeting of the Fulton Farmers' 
Club was held at the residcec of Franklin Tollinger, 
Fulton township, quite a number of visitors being in 
attendance by invitation. 

F. Tollinger exhibited a patent open link. Wil- 
liam P. Haines a numl>er of reports and public docu- 
ments that had been presented to the club by Dr. J. 
C. Gatchell. 

E. H. Haines exhibited Lawrence and Vicar of 
Winklield pears. Wm. King, an apple for a name. 
No one present was able to identify it. 

Layman C. Blackburn, a visitor, asked if bored 



wells generally give satisfaction. Most of members 
and visitors thought them rather expensive and not 
satisfactory, the well being too small to contain 
water enough to stand much pumping. 

John Grosnian, a visitor, said that a neighbor of 
his had dug a well Ibrly feet deep. It was then 
iKired forty feet deeper with a three-inch drill, but 
still they got no water. He thought that It would 
have been better to have blasted the rock, as it 
would have a tendency to open it up. Besides, in 
making a larger hole, as In digging, water would 
often be found which a small auger would be apt to 
go past without striking. 

E. H. Haines asked If there was any advantage in 
racking olf eider that was intended for vinegar? 

Franklin Tollinger said that if the barrel was kept 
full all the Impurities would work out of It, and that 
racking was unnecessary. 

Amos Smith and several others have had good 
vlni'gar from cider that had remained In the same 
barrel that it had come In from the press. 

Montillion Brown has always thought it best to 
rack. He had a barrel that would not go to vinegar. 
He had thought that It was for the want of racking, 
but what he had heard had nearly upset his Ideas. 

A member asked what the members were going to 
do with their cornstalk ground I 

The answers given to this question showed plainly 
that oats was regarded as very uncertain, but no- 
thing had yet been found to take its place in the 
rotation of crops. 

At the afternoon session Jeseph Griest read an 
article he had found in the papers, on what he con- 
sidered rather a novel suljject, viz : Feeding hay to 
hogs. It should be cut as for horses, and they will 
soon learn to like it. 

Several of the members had noticed that hogs 
were fond of clover, hay and cornfodder. 

Selections on different subjects were read by Mon- 
tillion Brown and Wm. King. 

Carrie Blackburn and Mabel Haines delivered 
recitations. 

The question, " Do farms in this section pay, as a 
general thing, four per cent, on the money invested 
in them ?" was then taken up and discussed. 

Joseph Griest was of the opinion that they did not, 
outside of the labor of the owner, unless the increased 
fertility of the soil was valued along with the other 
products. 

John Grosman had not much experince in this part 
of the country, but where land would bring $:iOO per 
acre, the money would bring more at 4 per cent. 
interest than could be made off the farm. 

S. L. Gregg said that a man with $10,000 at In- 
terest could not rent as fine a house and take as 
much time for pleasure and live as well generally ae 
the farmer did, although his money was bringing six 
per cent. He thought if farms were not bringing 
more than four per cent., there would be some as- 
signees to appoint before long. Land that would 
bring «ixty dollars per acre would produce tweuty 
bushels of wheat and fifty bushels of corn to the 
acre. A farm of 100 acres at $1)0 per acre would 
cost $f),000. This, at 6 per cent., would produce 
gSliO. Ten acres of woodland would be sufficient. 
Fourteen acres of wheat, 280 bushels, at one dollar 
per bushel, would bring J280. The same number of 
acres in corn would produce 700 bushels, worth 
JMO. Fourteen acres in oats would produce, say 
$140 worth. This woijld be In all $770. One-half 
would go to the cropper, leaving 8 i8.5 as the profit 
of the farm ; the remaining fifty-eight acres being 
left for grass, which should pay for all fertilizers 
and repairs. 

E. H. Haines said farmers, as a general thing, 
were men of only average capacity, and they could 
not command large salaries. Allow hira to have 
86,000 at 4 per cent, interest. This would bring 
8 40 per annum, which, with a salary of $.500, 
would be 8^40. A house as good as farmers gener- 
ally live in could not be rented for less than $150. A 
A horse and carriage would cost $150 a year, and 
they would both be depreciating in value. Take 
these from h s income and he would not be able to 
live as well on the remainder as the farmer does who 
always has fresh vegetables on his table and fresh 
meat at his command from his poultry yard, and 
lives the best of any man in the worlil He then 
went into a calculation, which showed that land 
worth $60 per acre could be farmed at a profit of 
8-.40 per acre. All are in the habit of keeping too 
much woodland. 

Montillion Brown thought that perhaps they had 
better be farmers than try to be Congressmen ; but 
if they farmed out their farms to croppers, they 
would not get four per cent. If a man and his wife 
would work, manage and save, he might make four 
per cent., but not wi hout. 

The question, '• Which is better — to buy hay and 
corn and feed to stock, in order to make manure, or 
buy stable manure from the city?" was adopted for 
consideration at the next meeting, which will beheld 
at .Montillion Brown's, at the regular time next 
month. 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY- 
Agreeably to previous notice, the annual meeting 
i of the Linntean society was held on Saturday, the 



i2 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



18th of Decemlier, instead of Saturday, the 35th, as 
it was decinod impolite to iuterfere with private 
festal arraiiKeinents. Presideot Professor Stahr, in 
the chair. Dr. J. H. Dubbs was appointed secretary 
pro tem. Six members and four visitors present. 
The proceedings of tlie last meeting having been 
published, their readin"; was omitted. After the 
usual preliminary business the foUowiug donations 
were made to the museum and library : 
Museum. 
1. A most magnificent adult specimen of the 
"American Skunk" (Mephitis Americanna,) pur- 
chased by the curators from two citizens of Marlic 
who caught it in a "dead fall" trap the night previ 
ous. It was therefore not only in good condition, 
but was altogether free from the usual disagreeable 
stench of the animal, artistically stuffed and mounted 
by Mr. Geo. Hensel. 

3. A fine large specimen of carbonate of lime im- 
pregnated vfilii octahedral Iron Pyrites, from Lehigh 
county. Pa., donated by Master James Munsen, of 
this city. 

.3. A bottle containing thirteen specimens of the 
"Horned Fungus Beetle" (Bolitophagus cornutus) 
sent by some unknown person by mail to the curators 
of the society. 

4. Prof. J. C. had on exhibition a specimen of 
Tnckahoe or "Indian bread," found under ground; 
near the base of a tree, in Rockingham county, Va., 
and sent by Mr. G. C. Kennedy to the Diagnothian 
society of Franklin and Marshall college. Its form 
is an oblong oval slightly compressed, about eight 
inches long and the same in its largest circumfer- 
ence. There are no surface indications of its pres- 
ence ; in this respect its habit being similar to the 
trufiSe ; but the truffle is a.fmiyus, whereas this is a 
tuber, or rather a groundnut, remotely resembling 
the "vegetable ivory," and is edible. The external 
surface is similar to that of a cocoanut, although not 
so smooth and spherical. 

Library. 

1. Nine volumes of the Second Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania, from the state department at Har- 
risburg. Five of these were descriptive volumes, and 
four portfolios of maps in book form and size, to 
correspond with the general issue. 

2. Nos. 21, 23, 33 and 24 of the Official Patent 
Office Gazette, from the interior department at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

3. The Lancaster Farmer for December, 1880. 

4. One envelope, containing thirteen historical and 
biographical scraps by S. S. Kathvon. 

5". Two catalogues of scientific and miscellaneous 
hooks from publishing houses. 

6. Eight pamphlets and circulars of miscellaneous 
literature. 

7. A lithograph of Oil City, Venango county. Pa., 
from a drawing maie by the late Jacob Staufl'er. 

8. Doctor Dubbs had on exhibition an interesting 
collection of foreign and American illustrations of 
heraldic emblems, mottoes, tokens, coats-of-irms, 
ifec, both ancient and modern; a few of these fac 
similes, but the larger number genuine. These ob- 
jects are grouped in a class known as Ex Libris, or 
"book plates," and furnishes a very perfect illustra- 
tion of the history of art, besides other interesting 
information relating to the histories of families, as 
sociations, corporations and individuals. 

Papers Read. 

1. S. S Rathvon read a paper on the peculiarities 
of skunks in general, and on local species in par- 
ticular. 

2. Dr. J. H. Dubbs read a paper on "Ex Libris" 
or book-plates, which he illustrated by collection on 
exhibition. 

S. The treasurer read the annual report, from 
which it appears that there is a balance in the treas- 
ury of |6..59. 

The chairman read the annual report of the 
curators, from which it appears that nearly two 
thousand specimens have been added to the museum 
during the year 1880 and to the library two hundred 
and eighty-three books, pamphlets, serials, cata- 
logues and circulars, of which fifty-two were bound 
volumes. Also four hundred and forty-one bio- 
graphical and historical scraps. 

New Business. 

The curators presented bills amounting to $10.55, 
which were ordered to to be paid. On motion it was 
resolved that the election of officers be postponed 
until the January meeting, 1881. 

After the usual social intercourse the society ad- 
journed. 



AGRICULTURE. 



Practice on the Farm. 

The London Agricultural Gazette says: "The 
Royal Agricultural Society very rightly, when adopt- 
ing its motto 'Practice with Science,' placed prac- 
tice first. It is in close attention to details that the 
elements of success in farming are to be sought. 
Economy in general management cannot be attained 
and habitually practiced unless a man understands 
'even to the nail's breadth' the particular depart- 
ments of his business. This particular knowledge 
can only be acquired on a farm step by step and day 
by day', as the working of the farm goes on. The 
ornamental farmer, like the ornamental manager or 
director in commercial affairs, is a complete failure." 



Rotation. 

The famous system of rotation, now extended quite 
generally throughout England and Scotland, with 
occasional modification, is as follows : "The first 
year, clover and mixed grass seed ; the second year, 
wheat ; the third year, turnips or rutabagas ; the 
fourth year, barley; and then the same course again. 
An innovation on this is to add another grain crop, 
oats, to the shift, making a five years' course ; and 
so efficient has this course been that it has been cal- 
culated that the grain crops have increased one- 
fourth. 



Danger in the "Silos." 
We are impressed with the importance of warning 
people who have put their corn fodder in tanks, es- 
pecially in deep ones, of the dangerous carbonic acid 
gas, the "choke damp" of mines and wells. A far- 
mer near Sing Sing used an old ice-house for pitting 
his corn-fodder ; on Saturday night, when they 
knocked off work, there were some seven or eight 
feet of fodder cut in half-inch bits, and well troddon 
down in the pit. On Monday morning it had settled 
considerably and one of the hands jumped in and 
was treading.about on it to see if it had settled even- 
ly, when he felt dizzy and faint ; the thought of 
"choke damp" flashed through his mind, and he 
called out to have a ladder lowered to him. This 
was done just in time, and he half crawled and was 
half hauled out. His head vas four or six feet 
above the worst of the "damp," for it is very heavy. 
Had he fallen, he would have been drowned in the 
gas, as effectively as in water, without a struggle or 
a murmur. When going into a pit, never fail to 
lower a lantern first, for half a minute, and if it 
burns brightly the air of the pit is fit to breathe. — 
Anierica^i Agriculturist. 



Difference in Farming. 
At a recent agricultural gathering in New Eng- 
land, one claimed that he made 12 per cent, on his 
capital invested in farming, and another said he did 
not make over lU per cent. Both may have told 
the truth, which seems to demonstrate the difference 
between the two men, and perhaps an equal differ- 
ence in the original character of their farms. 



Enriching Poor Lands. 
There are three principal methods of rapidly in- 
creasing the supply of plant food in any soil : By 
feeding concentrated foods upon the land, as oil- 
cake, cottonseed cake, etc. ; by the application of 
barnyard manure, and the use of artificial fertilizers. 
Which of these three methods is to be adopted in any 
given case must be determined by the many condi- 
tions and circumstances that surround it. It may be 
that the feeding of sheep with decorticated cotton- 
seed cake upon a poor pasture may be the quickest 
and best method of enriching the land. In other 
cases the purchase and application of barnyard 
manure may be the most profitable. When it comes 
to the artificial fertilizers, it should be borne in mind 
that their true office is to supply quickly one or two 
ingredients that may be deficient in the soil — when 
these are known their use is to be recommended. 



Facts in Soil Culture. 
One of the most important facts in soil culture not 
generally understood is that finely-pulverized soil 
holds more moisture than that which is solid or 
compact. The reason is that it is in better condition 
to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, with *vhich 
the latter is always more or less filled, and which, 
the soil being cooler, is being constantly condensed 
by the same, and held for the use of plants. 

Another fact is that soils, although they may be 
well underdrained, either naturally or artificially, 
yet, if not well pulverized, they become, in a little 
while, honeycombed, as it were, as far down as the 
water line by ground-worms and other insects, 
which act as so many little channels for conveying 
away the rainfall more rapidly. This, however, is 
too much of a good thing, as it allows the rain to 
escape too rapidly, and thus carry off with it much 
of the fertilizing matter brought down from the 
atmosphere ; whereas if the surface soil is pulverized 
to the depth of six or eight inches, it acts as a filter 
to pass off the water more slowly, and yet sufficiently 
fast to allow the whole area of the soil to become 
uniformly moistened, besides affording it a better 
opportunity to arrest and hold the fertilizing matter 
brought down from above. 

Another fact is that the roots of plants will not 
retain their healthfulness and vigor in the absence of 
atmospheric air, and as the constant saturation of a 
soil with water excludes the air, the result is disease 
and death to the plant. But if by underdraining 
I and pulverization of the surface soil the rainfall is 



enabled to pass off rapidly, the air immediately takes 
its place only to be expelled by subsequent rain, 
which in turn passes off to make room for other fresh 
air, and thus the enriching elements of the atmos- 
phere are brought into constant contact with the 
roots of the growing plant. — Baltimore Sun. 



Late Fall Plowing. 
Plowing is one of the kinds of spring work that 
can be done to most excellent advantage in the fall. 
The season for plowing in the spring is often very 
short, and in many eases the ground is in exceeding- 
ly bad condition. In many cases teams are weak in 
consequence of insufficient exercise during the un- 
favorable weather that generally occurs during the 
latter portion of the winter. They are not able to do 
the amount of plowing then that they can in the fall. 
The advocates of late fall plowing increase every 
year. Farmers no longer consider it necessary to 
defer plowing land for most crops till immediately 
before the time of planting. Most persons acknowl- 
edge there may be too loose a seed bed for wheat 
and other sorts of small grain. The advocates of 
"firming" the soil before or after the sowing most 
crops are increasing. By plowing land in the fall a 
good start is made in the work that is ordinarily 
done in the spring. A large amount of vegetable 
rubbish is buried in places where it will aid in en- 
riching the soil. The under soil is also exposed to 
the action of the frost, which exerts a useful in- 
fiuenee in preparing it to aid in thegrowth of plants. 

Salt as a Preservative of Timber 

Fourteen years ago a Mr. Sterling, of Monroe, 
Michitran, placed two gate-posts of white oak in front 
of Iks residence. When they were set he bored into 
the top of each with an inch and a-half augera hole 
three inches deep, filled it with common salt, tightly 
plugged it and coppered the posts. Having occasion 
recently to change the location of the posts he found 
them as sound from top to bottom as the day they 
were planted. 



Facts About Timothy. 
Timothy in ripening its seed requires the same in- 
gredients as those of wheat — principally phosphoric 
acid and nitrogen. Being remarkable for the abun- 
dance of seed it produces, that fact alone will ex- 
plain why it is considered more exhausting to the 
soil than most any other crop. Indeed, it is held by 
many that when a crop of timothy is allowed to per- 
fect its seed before cutting, the soil is exhausted of 
its fertility in about the same ratio that it is replen- 
ished by a crop of clover. If this be so, it affords a 
conclusive reason why it should be cut before the 
seed has had time to form. 

Bone Dust and Wood Ashes. 
A farmer in Indiana gives the following as the re- 
sult of an experiment made with bone dust and wood 
ashes on a portion of his wheat. " On one plot of 
land," says the writer, " I applied 600 pounds of 
dry, unleached ashes to the acre, sowed it in wheat, 
and the result was only six bushels to the acre. 
Adjoining this tract I drilled in 200 pounds of bone 
dust to the acre on three acres, and got twenty 
bushels to the acre, being an increase of fourteen 
bushels per acre over the tract sown with wood 
ashes." The following year I stubbled that part up 
upon which I had sown the 600 pounds of ashes to 
the acre, and put it in wheat again, using 200 pounds 
of bone dust to the acre, and the result was 40 
bushels of wheat to the acre, being double that pro- 
duced from the bone alone. This experiment satis- 
fied me that neither ashes nor bone alone would give 
as satisfactory results as if the two were combined — 
the one with ashes alone yielding but 6 bushels, the 
one with bone alone 30 bushels, but the acre on 
which the two were combined yielding 40 bushels. 
Thus showing what experiments on a small scale 
will do for the farm." 



Wheat-Growing Experiments. 

Forty years ago Messrs. Laws and Gilbert, two of 
the most scientific farmers of England, commenced 
a series of experiments in growing wheat. They 
selected several plots of ground of equal size, on 
some of which they tried different fertilizers, while 
on others, the land having been already brought up 
to the highest state of fertility, no fertilizers were 
applied, but on all of them wheat was made to fol- 
low wheat, season after season, for forty years. In 
that time there has been a decrease in the yield of 
just ten bushels per acre, or one-fourth of a bushel 
per acre a year. Taking this as a standard case, 
farmers who follow wheat with wheat without giving 
the land the needed rest, or feeding it with manure 
or green crops turned under, may look for a decrease, 
less, of course, some years than others, but an 
average of one-fourth of a bushel per acre a year. 
This is a practical outcome from these celebrated ex- 
periments, for which the farmers of the whole world 
may thank Messrs. Laws and Gilbert. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



13 



Horticulture. 



Planting Potatoes in Autumn. 

An iuqulry was lately made iu the Lomlou Garden, 
of such correspondeuts of that journal as had tried 
planting potatoes in autumn, as to the success of the 
practice. A number of answers were received, re- 
porting exactly opposite results. One cultivator 
Btatcs that fall plantinp: had been practiced In one 
neighborhood for SO years, and always with first-rate 



mediately after planting, which was raked off in 
spring. Another correspondent said tlie practice 
had been pursued for 30 years in another place with 
great success, the three important conditions being 
observed, of using whole seed, planting 9 or 10 inches 
deep or below frost, and placing a liberal allowance 
of stable manure over and in contact with the seed. 

A third planted two adjoining crops both ways ; 
the autumn seed being much the deepest (or nine 
inches,) was later coming up than the shallow 
epring-planted portion. But the fall-set plants soon 
outgrew the others, and the result was nearly double 
the yield. There is no question that the stable 
manure on the seed, or on the surface, discharged a 
large supply for the benetit of the plants, of liquid 
manure during all the winter, which would not have 
taken place if applied in <>prlng. 

On the other hand, other experimenters reported 
opposite results. One cultivator stated that his 
spring-planted crop gave 20 bushels of exeelletit and 
eound potatoes, while his fall-set crop produced only 
12 and many of these diseased. But he planted the 
fall seed only six inches deep, nine inches being 
claimed to be necessary by the advocates of autumn 
planting, to escape frost. Another speaks of fall- 
worked soils running together in winter, and asserts 
that for one good fall-planted crop, a thousand may 
be cited which have done best from setting in spring; 
and another s'ill expresses the opinion that fall 
planting can succeed only in light and poorer soils 
which do not become hard. 

These opposite reports show that some important 
conditions were present where success followed fall- 
planting which were absent in others. It would be 
interesting to discover by varied experiments what 
these conditions were. It is not probable that the 
practice would succeed in the Northern States, ex- 
cept in such regions (on the Grand Traverse for ex- 
ample,) where snow lies all winter on unfrozen 
ground ; but it might be vvell worth trying farther 
south. Although the scattered roots left in the 
ground after digging sometimes grow after having 
been frozen in the soil, yet generally the vigor of the 
seed is retarded by such exposure, and wherever the 
experiment is tried the seed should not be in reach of 
frost. 



The Beet Sugar Industry. 

Recently a new sugar mill at Riverside, a short 
distance above Wilmington, Delaware, commenced 
operations, and is now working up tifty tonsof greou 
beets per day. The mill is owned by the Delaware 
Beet Company, which expects to work up three to 
four thousand tons more beets than they did last 
year. Many citizens along the line of the Philadel- 
phia and Baltimore Central Railroad were invited by 
this company to supply beets, some of whom agreed 
to furnish them. The beets already delivered are 
testing from 8 to H per cent, of saccharine matter, 
and the company are paying from $3..50 to ?7 per 
ton for them. If they obtain the quantity of biets 
calculated upon, the product, under the new and 
improved process now in use in the now mill, will be 
about .5.50,000 pounds of raw sugar, 300,000 pounds 
of molasses, and 1,700 tons of pulp, which is now 
selling at the factory to farmers at $1 per ton. It is 
stated that some of the beets were allowed to re- 
main in the ground too late in the season, and 
thereby were somewhat deteriorated for producing 
sugar. This, with other defects in the cultivation, 
will, It Is said, be remedied the next season. — Village 
Record. 



Valuable Hint. 



For the last live years I have not lost a cucumber 
or melon vine or cabbage plant. Get a barrel with 
a few gallons of gas tar In it ; pour water on the tar; 
always have it ready when needed, and when the 
bugs appear give them a liberal drink of tar water 
from a garden aprinkler or otherwise, and If the rain 
washes It off and they return repeat the dose. It 
will destroy tne Colorado potato beetle, and frighten 
the old long potato bug worse than a thrashing with 
a brush. Five years ago this summer both kinds 
appeared on my late potatoes and I watered with tar 
water. The next day all Colorados that had not 
been well protected from the sprinkling were dead ; 
and the others, though their name was legion, were all 
gone, and 1 have never seen one of them on the farm 
since. I am aware that many will look upon this 
with Indifference, because it is so cheap and simple a 
remedy. Such should always feed both their own 
and their neighbors, as they generally do. 



Protecting Plants and Siirubs. 
There is one principle which should not be forgot- 
ten ; whatever be the nature of the covering applied 
to tender plants, more especially to the woody por- 
tions or parts above ground. This is, that the ex- 
ctuxioii. of moitture is an important object, without 
excluding air. Ligatures are sometimes left on in- 
serted buds for protection, and more usually destroy 
the buds by retaining water like a sponge. Closely 
wrapped straw operates in the same way, as well as 
by excluding air, which is often important. Roots 
and stems like those of the grape, which will bear a 
greater degree of moisture, arc partial exceptions. 
Roots even are often destroyed when in a too moist 
soil ; and there is no doubt that many tender herbace- 
ous perennials would survive the rigors of our win- 
ters If in earth with a dry bottom and sheltered from 
rain. — Albany Cultivator. 

A Difficulty With Shrubberies. 

Shrubs, when set in the grass of a lawn, arc often 
dwarfed by the turf which su.rounds them. Spading 
about them only partly removes the difllculty, as the 
spaded ground never extends to the length Of the 
roots which always run at least as far each way as 
the height of the shrubs. Besides, the ground is 
necessarily more or less defaced by the operation. 
The true remedy Is top-dressing. Superphosphate, 
on such soils as are benefited by it, will answer a 
good purpose and not present an unsightly appear- 
ance like coarse manure. Finely pulverized old 
manure will be unobjectionable. In many cases 
liquid manure for sniall plants will answer well. 
The top-dressing should be done in autumn or very 
early In spring^ and special care must be taken to 
extend it as far from the stems as above indicated. 

Fruit Garden. 

Winter protection : Many plants are killed by too 
much protection. For example, strawberries are 
hardy, and the covering of straw, marsh hay, etc., 
that is recommended for them is not so much to 
shield them from cold as to prevent frequent freezing 
and thawing of the soil. The covering should be 
mainly around and not upon the plants. 

Shrubs that are not quite hardy do not require 
bundling up, as was thought necessary not many 
years ago, when more plants were smothered than 
benefited by the coverin:;. A little brush, or bel- 
ter, some evergreen boughs placed close to the 
shrub will ward off the severe winds, modify sudden 
changes of temperature, and be a sufficient protec- 
tion. Tender raspberries must be bent down, and 
covered covered with earth before freezing prevents it. 

Notes and Comments. 
Dwarf apple trees, worked on the Paradise stock, 
although quite hardy at the East, often fail to endure 
the severe winters in the Western States. The College 
Quarterly states that one of the oldest Iowa nursery- 
men planted and propagated them largely for the 
supply of the demand in towns. The past winter 
killed nearly every one. The editor of the journal 
recommends in place of the Paradise stock the use 
of the dwarf service-bury (AmelattcMer), judging 
from recent experiments made upon it with the 
hardy Russian varieties.— Co'M«(rj^ Oentleman. 

Fuchsias. 

Fuchsias, says a writer In The fforticultnrist, may 
be trained into any desired shape if taken in time. 
Take the little upright plants, pinch out the centre, 
and in place of one there will spring out two, often 
three shoots. Let these branches make about the 
same growth, and repeat the process to each, keep- 
ing the side branches of equal length, or tapering 
like a pyramid ; or by clipping off all the lower 
limbs and letting the upper ones droop over, you 
have an umbrella. 



How Long Will Seeds Live .' 
Darwin and others have made experiments on 
seeds by immersing them in salt water. Out of 
eighty-seven kinds sixty-four germinated after being 
in salt water for twenty-eight days, and a few after 
an immersion of one hundred and thirty-seven days. 
Instances are on record, too, of seeds of American 
plants, which have been washed on the shores of 
Western Europe, germinating after their long voyage 
across the Athintic. Radish aoptl lias been known 
to grow freely whiMi sp\riifi''-ii years nhl. 



Domestic Economy. 



How to Hang Thermometers. 
""Old VVeathercock" writes to the St. Paul Pioneer 
Pretx: "There seem to be so many errop'-ous notices 
among the many amateur meteorologists of the city 
about the minimum temperature of the twenty-four 
hours, and how to obtain it correctly, that a few 
lines from an 'old weather'ock,' I trust, will not be 
altogether lost. In the first place, then, the tempera- 
ture of the wall of any building, at any hour of the 



night or day. Is not the true temperature of the cir- 
culating air and Is of no use to science. A wood wall 
radiates its heat more rapidly than a brick or a stone, 
and the amateur scientist who hangs his thermome- 
ter on on a wood wall can force hie mercury down 
below the amateur who selects a brick wall. The 
proper way to expose your thermometer Is to sur- 
round It with a light wood frame covered with slats, 
like shutter work, and roofed ov r. This will protect 
It from the direct rays of the sun and reflected heat. 
Run a light wood bar across the centre of your In- 
strument shelter, to which you can attach thermome- 
ters, which should be, when properly exposed, oy the 
north side of the buihling, and the thermometer at 
least one foot from all objects. If these directions 
are followed erroneous reports of extreme cold 
weather will not find their way Into print so often. 
It is not a very funny thing for the press to report 
25° below zero when 15° represented the true tem- 
perature of the circulating air. It gives persons 
a wrong imi)rcssic)n of your t'limate." 

To Wash Flannels Without Shrinking. 
First have soft water for the whole process, made 
so artificially If necessary, and next have good soap, 
or that which does not contain rosin. Our best 
soaps are safe for this purpose. You may wash and 
rinse entirely in cold water if you choose, but if you 
wash in warm water you mnst not rinse In cold. It 
is decidedly best to use warm water all through, 
the rinsing water warmer than the suds, if there is 
any difference. It is best to make good, strong, 
cleati suds (and not wash nice white flannels in a 
dirty suds with other clothes that are to be boiled,) 
and put the flannels in it, instead of rubbing soap, 
into the cloth. Hand rubbing tends t© full and 
shrink flannel, as it mats and interlaces the delicate 
fibres. — American Agriculturint . 

For a Time of Need. 
Some one sensibly suggests that every house should 
hold a trunk of half worn clothing, sheets and pillow 
cases in readiness for sickness. For this purpose a 
double gown, made of two calico dresses, might 
prove serviceable as well as some soft handkerchiefs, 
bandages and lint ; also plenty of linen, cotton and 
woolen pieces. While overlooking the various re- 
ceptacles of such articles, it would be well to re- 
member this timely hint, and collect them against a 
time of need. Incase of sudden illness, a store of 
this kind is invaluable. 



What Not to do for Sick People. 

Don't make a fuss. Don't bustle, don't fidget, 
don't prognosticate. Don't hold consultations in or 
about the patient's room, recounting all your own 
and your neight)or's cxjjcriences iii what you suppose 
to have been like cases. Don't meddle and advise 
and experiment. We all need a great deal more 
letting alone than we get, and when we are sick it is 
one of our prime needs. If mortuary lists were 
honestly tabulated, we should find that more people 
have been bored to death than have died from ne- 
glect. The pest of the sick-room is the inevitable 
friend who drops In to " cheer up " the patient, the 
glistening eyes and flushed cheeks which such minis- 
trations evoke being hailed as evidence of success by 
the well-meaning persecutor. 

Don't tease the patient with questions about food 
or drink, but present the proper quantity at suitable 
intervals ; and if one article is found to be disagree- 
able, quietly substitute another without remark. 
Don't think, because the patient declines nourish- 
ment, that it becomes less necessary to administer 
It. By quiet, firm, methodical persistence in pre- 
senting food at stateil periods, oiyections will be- 
come feebler and cease, in self-defense. Solid food 
need not be Insisted upon unless by special direction 
of the physician, but milk and beef-tea should never 
be omitted. — /fame Guardian. 

Scrape the Feet. 
Every careful housekeeper, with an eye to first 
causes. Is much interested in the way feet — or rather 
feet-coverings come in from out of doors. If Imys did 
n;U have muddy boots tlie cares of the house would 
be much lessened. But the boys are not the only 
ones that "bring in the dirt." Men folks are often 
very forgetful of the amount of work they may make 
by not attending to the simple matter of cleaning 
their boots and shoes. Every door step should be 
provided with a foot scraper, and a brush or broom, 
and every one, young or old, as he comes In should 
take the time to use them before appearing on the 
carpet or clean floor. If a scraper — one made for the 
purpose — is not at hand, one can make one from a 
bit of hoop-iron, which is to be placed on a step or 
edge of the |)orch In a convenient place. It Is well to 
provide a "mud-mat," which Is simply strips an inch 
or so square— fence pickets will answer— screwed to 
to three or four cross pieces, an inch apart; or a 
more elaborate one can be made by stringing the 
slats upon fence wires. One with muddy boots is 
very apt to stamp and rub tliem on the steps or floor 
of the porch ; a mud-mat will clean them more ef- 
fectively, and save the porch hard wear. A very 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



excellent mat may be made by boring holes in a 
board, and drawing cornhusks through the holes. 
Careful persons change their foot gear when they 
enter the house to remain any leugtli of time, a cus- 
tom conductive not only to neatness but so greatly 
to comfort, that is to be commended. 

Cold Feet. 
It is, as we have often labored to show, a mistake 
to suppose that there is any warmth in clothes. Ani- 
mal heat is the direct result of changes going on 
within the body itself. Nutrition by I'ood and the 
discharge of energy by exercise are the efficient 
causes of heat. Clothes seem good and warm be- 
cause they prevent the cold air and objects with a 
capacity for heat which surround the body from _at- 
tracting the heat generated within itsorganism. The 
clothing is simply an insulator. It follows that it 
should be light in weight, and above all things, that 
it should permit the free and full circulation of blood 
through every part of the system — to the end of 
every finger aiid toe — and that the muscular appa- 
ratus of the extremities should be in perfect working 
order. If we will wear foot coverings, whether 
boots or stockings, which compress the feet and 
render the separate action of each toe impossible, ii 
is simply absurd to expect to he warm-footed. Heat 
is the complement of work and nutrition, and if a 
part of the organism is so bound that it cannot 
work, and its supply of food is limited, it must be 
cold. The resort to stouter and heavier clothing 
under such circumstances is simply ridiculous. Gen- 
erally it is the stockings that compress the feet. The 
garter acts as a ligature, and diminishes the blood 
sup|)ly, while the stocking itself acts as a bandage, 
and impedes the circulation through the extremeties. 



Influence of Trees on Health. 

The value of trees, from a sanitary point of view, 
in large and overcrowded cities, can scarcely be over- 
estimated. Apart from the sense of relief and cool 
ness which they impart, their value as purifiers uf 
the atmosphere is almost incredible. It has been 
calculated that a good sized elm, plane or lime tree, 
will produce 7,000,000 leaves, having a united area 
of 200,000 square feet. The influence of such a large 
surface in the absorption of deleterious gases, and the 
exhalation of oxygen, must, therefore, be of im- 
mense benefit in overcrowded and unhealthy districts. 

In all large cities there exists a great number of 
waste spots in which one or more trees could be 
planted to advantage in every way. In this respect, 
at all events, they manage things well in France, 
and indeed in most Continental cities, where the 
boulevards are kept cool in summer and warm in 
winter, owing to the influence which trees have in 
modifying the temperature ; in addition, they tend 
by absorption to purify the soil below as well as the 
atmosphere aljove them. A society for planting 
trees in the wide streets and waste places of the 
metropolis might accomplish as beneficial results as 
the excellent" institution which supplies drinking 
fountains for the refreshment of man and beast. — 
The Household. 

To Prepare Iron Kettles for Use. 
The best way to prepare a new iron kettle for use 
is to fill it with clean potato-pairings; boil them for 
an hour or more, then wash the kettle with hot 
water, wipe it dry, and rub it with a little lard, re- 
peat the rubbing for a half a dozen times after 
using. In this way you will prevent rust and all the 
annoyances liable to occur in the use of a new kettle. 



Household Recipes. 



Apple Compote. — Peel, core and quarter six 
large apples, trimming each quarter so as to get 
them all of a size; drop them as they are done info 
cold water, with the juice of a lemon squeezed into 
it to prevent their turning brown. Have ready a 
strong syrup (made with a pound of sugar and one 
quart of water) boiling hot ; put the apples into this, 
with the thin rind of a lemon and two or three 
cloves. As soon as they are cooked (great care 
must be taken that they do not break) take them 
out and dispose them on a glass dish. Pour the 
syrup over them and garnish with sliced citron. 

DELtcious PioKLED Otsters. — Wash them and 
hang them over the fire, with barely sufficient water 
to cover them ; very little is necessary if there is an 
abundance of the liquor. To one hundred oyster 
add a small handful of salt; let them come to a 
scald to swell them ; watch for them and remove 
immediately with a skimuicr, carefully laying them 
on dishes to cool ; and one-third part vinegar (hav- 
ing previously strained the liquor) with whole white 
pepper-corns, allspice and blade mace to the taste ; 
let all boil up together and pour over the oysters in 
stone jars. Keady for use in from twenty-four to 
forty-eight hours. The oysters should be fresh 
and large. 

Mince Meat.— Two pounds of currants, five 
pounds peeled and cored apples, two pounds lean 



and boiled beef suet, three-quarter pounds citron, 
two and a half pounds coffee sugar, two pounds 
raisins, one pound seedless raisins, two tablespoon- 
fuls cinnamon, one nutmeg, one tablespoonful each 
mace, cloves, and allspice, one Dint each Madeira 
wine and brandy. Wash the currants, dry and pick 
them, stone the raisins, remove the skin and sinews 
from the beef and chop each ingredient up separately 
and very fine ; place as soou as done in a large pan, 
finally adding the spices, "aderia and brandy ; mix 
very thoroughly ; pack in jars ; keep in cold places. 

For Taking Out Scorch.— If a shirt bosom or 
any other article has been scorched in ironing, lay it 
where the bright sun will fall directly on it. " It will 
take it entirely out. 

Removing Candle Grease.— The French, who 
use candles to a greater extent , than any other 
nation, have a way of effacing candle grease which 
is worth knowing. Instead of applying a hot iron, 
they use a few drops of spirits of wine, rubbing the 
spot with the hand. The grease becomes powder 
and leaves no trace. 

Maccakoni.— Cook the maccaroni the day you 
have roast beef; boil it in milk and water, with salt ; 
add three or four tablespoonsful of the hot beef 
gravy, about a teacupful of stewed tomatoes, two 
or three tablespoonsful of grated cheese, and a little 
red pepper ; just brown in the oven. 

Dried FRniTS.—All kinds of dried fruits should 
be stewed long and slowly. Tiny bits of lemon and 
orange peel, together with the juice of two or three 
oranges and lemons, are a very desirable addition. 
Only the thin, yellow part of the rind must be used, 
and care takeij to take out the seeds. The sugar 
should be added when the fruit is about half done. 

To Kill Unpleasant Odors. — A scientific 
writer in the Quarterly Review asserts that a piece of 
bread about the size of a French billiard ball, tied 
up in a linen bag and placed in a pot of boiling vege- 
tables, will prevent unpleasant odors arising from 
the same. 

For a cocoanut pudding take half a pound of 
desiccated cofoanuts and two thick slices of bread; 
put them tn soak in a quart of milk for two or three 
hours; l.lien add au ounce of butter, two ounces of 
sugar, the yolks of four eggs, and a tablespoonful of 
salt; beat the whites to a stiff froth; add them to 
your pudding, and bake in a hot oven for three- 
quarters of an hour. Serve hot. 

Sausage. — Nine pounds of fresh pork, six tea- 
spoonfuls of black pepper, eight of salt and ten pow- 
dered sage. Mix thoroughly, cook a bit to see if 
properly seasoned, and pack in jars, covering with 
melted lard. If you prefer to keep in skins, empty 
them, cut them into lengths, scrape with a dull 
knife, put to soak in salt and water, let stand three 
days, then turn them inside out and soak two days 
longer. Again scrape, rinse well in soda— baking— 
and water, wipe, tie up one end, blow into it, and if 
whole and clean, stuff with meat. 

How TO Boil and Stew.— To do either properly 
the food must be immersed at the beginning in actu- 
ally boiling water, and the water must be allowed 
to reach the boiling point again immediately, and to 
boil for five minutes. The action of the boiling 
water upon the surface of either meat or vegetables 
is to harden it slisrhtly, but enouL'h to prevent the 
escape of eiilu-r juice or mineral salts. After the 
pot containiri- the fond has Ijegun tn boil the second 
time it should be remnved to the side of the fire and 
allowed to simmer until it is done. This simmering 
or stewing extracts all the nutritious qualities of 
either meat or vegetables. The pot should be kept 
closely covered unless for a moment when it is neces- 
sary to remove the scum. The steam will condense 
upon the inside of the cover, and fall back into the 
pot in drops of moisture, if boiling is slow. Do not 
think that rapid boiling cooks faster than the gentle 
pi-nrr ---- 1. , ,,nin;rnilfd. After the pot once boils you 



hnvi- 



the ( 



v--. „ lid uioat of its goodness will go up 
!.■> and out of the window with the steam. 
!G Made East.— No woman will regret 



Wash: 

having given this recipe a trial. It will prevent 
many a weary step, many an aching arm or foot- 
yes, many a heartache, too. Take one pound salsoda, 
half pound of unslacked lime, put them into one 
gallon of water ; boil twenty minutes,' let stand till 
cool, and then pour off and put in a stone jug. Soak 
your dirty clothes over night, or until vet through ; 
wring out and rub on plenty of soap, and to one 
boiler of clothes covered with water add one teacup- 
ful of the fluid. Boil half an hour fast, then wash 
through one suds, rinse in two waters, and your 
clothes will look nice. 

Chicken Stew, or Potpie.— Wash as many 
fowls as you need, cut the birds up at every joint, 
splitting open the back and breast. Soak well in 
salt and water. It draws out all the blood from the 
flesh. Then put into an iron boiler, with suflSeient 
water to cover the pieces, boil till quite tender, tak- 
ing care to skim well before it commences to boil. 
Make a stiff dough, like short biscuit, and cut out 



just like biscuits, either square or round, and drop 
into the kettle on the top of the chicken, boil briskly 
for fifteen minutes. You can test its being done by 
piercing the dumplings with a fork ; if it does not 
stick to the tines it is done. Remove the dump- 
lings carefully into a covered dish and keep hot. 
Stir up two tablespoonfuls of fiour with a little 
water, breaking all the lumps, so it will be smooth ; 
turn it into the kettle with the addition of a lump of 
butter the size of an egg to each chicken. If you 
like pepper, it is well to add it now. 

Almond Pudding (with sauce). — A large cup- 
ful of finely minced suet, a teacupful of milk, four 
ounces of bread crumbs, four ounces of well cleaned 
currants, two ounces of almonds, half a pound of 
stoned raisins, three well-beaten eggs and the whites 
of other two, sugar, nutmeg and cinnamon and a 
small glass of rum. Butter a shape, and place part 
of the raisins neatly in rows. Blanch the almonds, 
reserve half of them to be placed in rows between 
the raisins just before serving. Mix all the remain- 
ing ingredients well together, put into shape and 
boil for three hours. The Sauee.— One teaspoonful 
of milk and yolks of two eggs, well beaten, and some 
sugar, to taste ; put on the fire and stir till it just 
comes to the boil ; then let it cool. When lukewarm 
stir into it a glass of sherry or currant wine, and 
serve in a sauce tureen. This sauce is a great im- 
provement to the pudding. 

Short Cakes (in layers)— One quart of flour, a 
little salt, two tablespoonfuls of butter; rub into the 
flour; two tablespoonfuls of sweet milk, three table- 
spoonfuls of baking powder, add enough water (to 
mix) to roll out ; divide it into three parts, and now 
take one of these parts roll it and put it into a but- 
tered jelly tin ; then butter the top of it ; then roll 
each part the same way, but do not butter the last 
layer; bake, when baked separate the layers with a 
sharp knife ; have your fruit prepared and place be- 
tween each layer. 

Sweet Potato Pie.— One pint of mashed pota- 
toes, one quart of milk, one cup of butter, and two 
of sugar. Beat four eggs light, add the butter, then 
the potatoes and milk, flavor with nutmeg or spices, 
and bake on paste without cover. 

Chickens' Livers. — One and one-half dozen of 
chickens' livers, one-quarter of a pound of fat bacon, 
one saltspoonful of pepper, one saltspoonful of salt. 
Place the livers into a saucepan, cover them with 
cold water, throw in the salt, and, bringing the 
water quickly to the boiling point, let the livers boil 
for five minutes. When done, remove the livers 
from the water, slice them lengthwise carefully in 
order not to break them, and, cutting the bacon into 
very thin slices, and of a size similar to the slices of 
liver, thread alternate sizes of liver and bacon upon 
a spit, and broil all over a bright fire five minutes, 
turning them constantly in order that they may 
brown even. When broiled, sprinkle over all the 
pepper, and send them to table on spit. 

Chicken and Onions, ok with Mushrooms. — 
Prepare a fine chicken as for boiling; fill up the 
bodv with small onions which have been parboiled in 
milk, with a little salt. Make a stock to boil the 
chicken in of the giblets, a little bacon, four large 
onions, and pepper and salt to taste ; let the chicken 
simmer in this stock for three-quarters of an hour, 
or until perfectly tender. Make a white sauee by 
boilini,' four onions in a quart of milk until reduced 
to one pint. Mix two tablespoonsful of flour in two 
or three of cold milk ; stir in the thickening, taking 
care to keep it perfectly smooth. Now stew over a 
slow fire until the sauce becomes as thick as good 
cream, when break up two ounces of good fresh 
butter, and put it into the sauce, with a grain of cay- 
enne pepper and salt to taste ; stir the sauce over 
the fire until the butter is well mixed, but take care 
it does not boil. Pour the sauce over the chicken 
and serve. If for any reason onions are not ap- 
proved, substitute l.iittnn mushrooms. Stuff the 
crop of chicken with tlifm, and for the sauce stew 
some in milk, and proceeil exactly .as for the above. 
A little creara is a most acceptable addition to either 
of these sauces. As a matter of economy the onions 
used for the sauce can be made to serve for stuffing 
the chicken, or to give flavor to the stock for boil- 
ing it. 



Live Stock. 



Sheep Raising Near Large Cities. 

Wool-growing as a general thing is confined to 
places a eood distance away from populous places, 
where land is cheap and dogs are scarce. In these 
places the wool alone is cared for. The animal it- 
self is of secondary consideration. Droves are sent 
to the great meat markets by rail, but after all ex- 
penses are paid there is not generally considered 
much profit in it. Sheep for the meat and with the 
wool for the second consideration, is rarely thought 
of. To do this well the sheep farm should of course 
be near a large city ; but there have been so many 
discouragements of one sort or another that sheep- 
raising by a large town is not by any means among 



1881.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



15 



the first things that strikes the fancy of a suburban 
fanner. 

But we have been readies lately an account of one 
who, near one of our larfe eastern towns, has paid so 
much attention to the little details which go to make 
up success, that he has made his slieepthe most 
profitable portion of the whole farm. He first 
cleared a piece of woodland, and after leaving it lie 
for a few months, till the herbage appeared, he 
turned in the sheep, and there they have been with- 
out any diaufie of pasture for many years. Noth- 
ing wliatcver has been done to the ground. The 
natural grass and nature's own vegetation spring up, 
and the manure which the sheep themsslves make 
fertilize the whole. 

The great enemy of the sheep-raiser— the prowling 
dog— has no fears for him, as every night the llock 
Is gathered together into a stockade made in the 
centre of the lot, and in which they also get some 
feed in the severest of winter weather. This must 
take some labor, which those who raise sheep in the 
far West are no doubt free from. The proximity to 
market probably makes up for this extra care and 
labor, at any rate he seems to make tlie sheep tract 
pay so well that it is said he would sooner dispense 
with all other parts of the farm and all other branches 
than this. 

This Is a very dilTercnt mode of procedure that 
many adopt uuder sheep-killing difJiimltics, and to 
which we referred some time ago. Instead of aban- 
doning the care of sheep because dogs will kill some, 
or leaving the whole farm to run after some maker 
of dog laws for one's protection, which never protect 
after all, this man falls to and protects himself, and 
evidently deserves the great profit that energy, self- 
reliance and good sense always bring. 

It is well worth considering by those who have 
farms near other of our large cities whether there is 
not more in sheep culture then is generally supposed. 
— Oermanlowii Telegraph. 



Value of Water for Cows. 

Cows should have access to water at all times, es- 
peciall] cows that give milk. They waut to drink 
often and return to their feed. The best stable, and 
one In which stock do the best, is one where water is 
always running in through troughs before the cattle. 
Thus managed cows may bo kept up to a full flow of 
milk, either winter or summer, and for this reason, 
if the pasture fails from drought, it may be supple- 
mented with other feed, but a failure of water cau 
not be remedied. So in winter, cows that are only 
watered once a day, as many do who consider them- 
selves good farmers, shrink in their milk and it can 
never be regained. The same rule will hold good in 
the stable; abundant feed may be supplied, but if 
the water supply fails the profit will be nil. 

The necessity of plenty of pure water for stock is 
one of the first importance to breeders and feeders. 
It must not only be in abumiance, but it should be in 
such supply that stock may either take it at will, or 
If supplied at stated times it should be offered at 
least twice a day. and three times will be better. No 
animal can thrive properly that has access to water 
but once a day. Every good feeder knows this, and 
hence in all large feeding establishments the greatest 
care is taken to keep the supply ample and constant. 
Many farmers neglect this, and always to their cost. 
If W!.ter cannot be had near in any other way, wells 
should be dug and the water raised by wind or otiicr 
power, as the case may be. Having plenty of water 
see that the stock get it as regularly as they feed. It 
will pay. Kemember that animals should De treated 
well in order to thrive properly. VVe are familiar 
with the troubles incident to the neglect of regularity 
In food and drink with the human body, and the 
consequences are somewhat analogous for our cat- 
tle. — Nebraska Sural. 



Bran for Milch Cows. 

We don't suppose that there is a dairyman in the 
country but who knows the value of "bran" as a 
food for milch cows. As long as we can remember 
anything of cattle-feeding it is connected with tlie 
use of bran, and the scalded messes given to cows 
for some time after calving ; also, its sprinkling over 
chopped pumpkins, turnips, potatoes, <toe. Bran was, 
indeed, always regarded as excellent and profitable 
food for cows in milk. Still there is force in the 
recommendation of bran, which we find in an Eng- 
lish journal, that if one fesires "rich milk give your 
cows, every day, water slightly salted, in which bran 
has been stirred at the rate of one quart to two gal- 
lons of water. You will find that your cows will 
give twenty-five per cent, more milk immediately 
under the effects of it, and will become so accus- 
tomed to the diet as to refuse to dnuk clear water, 
unless very thirsty." 

If our English contemporary was to see the im- 
mense amount of bran used by the farmers of a 
single county in Eastern Pennsylvania, it would be 
surprised, judging from its quoted remarks, not so 
much at the extent of consumption as to the general 
knowledge on the subject, which must long since 
have had a widespread influence as cattle-food in the 
production of milk. 



Diseases of Cows. 

The falling of the withers is not an uncommon oc- 
currence when a cow i^ in i-all', :iiiJ though not at all 
pleasant it Is not daiiLiii.Mi!- il (irop.ily attended to. 
It Is no dlBBcult matl.r l.. lui ih. m huek, our course 
having been to wash (In- lunl with ti'pld water, then 
with the clinched fist pusli ihein back, having a man 
grasp *he hide of the cow in the mid<lle of the back 
to prevent her from rounding it up ; if she does this 
she crowds against the hand and prevents the parts 
from settling back into their proper place. The 
platform on which the animal stands should be so 
raised under her hind feet that when she lies down 
her hind quarters will be higher than her fore qnar 
ters. Do not give her tniich hiilkv li>" t : rflii'-'' Imv 
hay rations conslileraMv, an I ■ ' i- - ii ' 

shorts. Obtain a pniiy In i i 

and a sharp awl or pa.Mii- i, > !. , 

stitch or two, taking IujUI will lj.ii k uii;. i!:i l.i !.: .,u 
that the holes will not break out. We have luunJ a 
belt lace the best for this purpose, which may be ob- 
tained at any factory where they have belting. 
There need be no fear that this will Interfere witli 
calving. You will have ample time when tliat oc- 
curs to cut the string. After calving we should re- 
commend fattening the cow and make no more at- 
tempts to breed from her. This difliculty is uo 
doubt caused by a physical weakness, wliicli is not 
uufrequently transmitted to progeny. 

A Principle in Feeding. 
All food beyond such amount as is properly 
digested and assimilated by the animal is a source of 
loss to the owner, and that in two ways : First, the 
food is lost ; and second, the animal is not kept in 
the best condition for getting the most of its feed — 
its stomach is overloaded, and its digestive apparatus 
more or less disarranged. Just inside the limits of 
assimilation is the point to have in view In feeding ; 
in this way the animal will have a good appetite, 
and other things being equal, is sure to give the best 
returns for food consumed. There is a golden mean 
in feeding farm stock, which the farmer should 
find . — American Agriculturist . 



Are Our Improved Swine Too Fat .' 

With reference to various articles that have 

appeared of late, asserting that the present style of 

improved pig run chiefly to grease, the American 

Stockman has the following sensible remarks : 

At certain seasons the demand in the market is 
chiefly for light hogs, trim and not fat — ^just such a 
lean, tender animal as can he easily made from a 
good Berkshire or Poland-China, and plenty of good 
grass, supplemented with a little grain toward the 
finish. For such higher prices will be paid than can 
be then obtained for any but extra fine heavy hogs. 
But the number of animals wanted of that descrip- 
tion forms but an insignilicaut part of the vast supply 
required, and the farmer who has none other to offer 
just now is not to be envied, for the thin light 
weights so highly lauded some months ago are a 
drug in the market now, at prices from 25 to 35 
cents below those readily paid for those heavy, fat 
hogs in which there is an abundance of good lard. 
We would advise farmers to keep right on in the 
work of breeding hogs which have a strong tendency 
to take on fat, for a lean hog can be made of a well- 
bred pig, but a fat hog cannot be profitably made of 
a scrub. 



Entomological. 



Black Ants and Insect Destroyers. 
The Geneva Continent says : "Many of the lead- 
ing orchard proprietors in Northern Italy and South- 
ern Germany are enthusiastic cultivators of the 
black ant, which industrious insect they hold in high 
esteem as the fruit grower's best friend. They 
establish ant-hills in their orchards, and leave the 
police service of the fruit trees entirely to the tiny 
sable colonists, which pass all their time in climbing 
up the stems of the fruit trees, cleansing their 
boughs and leaves of malelactors, mature as well as 
embryotic, and descending, laden with spoils, to 
mother earth, where they comfortably consume or 
prudently store away their booty. They capture 
the eggs of caterpillars, grubs aad canki'r-worms ; 
they " requisition " all tlie countless varieties of 
leaf-lice that strip trees of their young foliage ; they 
break up the chrysalides awaiting transformation, 
and carry them off in minute morsels; they never 
meddle with sound fruit, but only Invade such apples, 
pears and plums as have already been penetrated 
by the canker, which they remorselessly pursue to 
its fastnesses within the very heart of the fruit. 
Nowhere are apple and pear trees so free from blight 
and destructive insects as In the immediate neigh- 
borhood of an ant-hill five or six years old. The 
favorite food of ants would appear "to be the larv:e 
and pupae of those creatures which spend the whole 
of tiieir brief existences in devouring the tender 
shoots and juvenile leaves of fruit trees. But noth- 
ing In the way of creeping or stationary preyersupon 



vegetations comes amies to the Indefatigable and 
insatiable ant, whose animosity airalnst the minuter 
insect trlbi-s is so inveterate that " his great revenge 
hath stomach for them all." 

The Silk Worm in Nevada. 
The Agrleiiliural Bureau at Washington has re- 
ccivcMl iiiforniutloii tliat a new varietv of silk worm 
hastjeen diseovered ueciilentally in Nevada. Natural- 
ists pronounce the worms Bomhyx guerclcux. It is a 
silk worm that feeds on oak leaves, and Is largely 
used 111 China. It makes several broods In a year, 
and its silk has peculiar qualities. The fibre te 
^ircpiiger. All other silk worms. In emerging from 
Il .m, cut a hole for exit, which, by breaking 

iiiiiity of the thread in unwinding, renders It 
I \alue. The Bombj/x guerciCHK pushes aside 
I M 1 1 M i.l.s Instead of cutting them, and the cocoon 
IS :iB valuable as others reserved In ordinary kinds 
lor spinning by killing the contained worm. This 
new silk worm is hardier tlian the old. It Is raised 
in the open air, needing neither care nor shelter. 

The Honey Ant. 

The honey an* makes its store-vessels from the 
bodies of l^he workers. First, it bites the end of the 
abdomen, thereby setting up an Inflammation, which 
closes the apertures of the body. Then It feeds the 
maimed creature with honey, pouring it into the 
mouth of the living honey.pot, just as the bee pours 
honey into i's crop. This process Is continually re- 
peated until the body of the store-ant is distended to 
an astonishing size with honey, the skin being 
stretched to such an extcut that It is sufllcienlly 
transparent to show the honey within. It cannot 
escajje, for its body is so heavy that the limbs are 
insuflieient to carry it, and so it remains In the nest 
until the honey is wanted. In .Mexico these ants arc 
so plentiful that they form regular articles of com- 
merce, being sold by measure in the markets, and 
used for the purpose of making mead. Specimens 
may be seen in the British Museum. — Rev. J. O. 
Wood, in Good Words. 



A Huge Spider 
In the sands of Central Asia a huge spider exists 
which Is known popularly as the Grandfather Gray- 
beard, which has long hair, "and, when walking, 
seems as large as one's two fists." This formidable 
beast is given to biting when irritated, and with its 
jaws makes four little holes in the flesh. This bite 
is poisonous, though not deadly. Its victims feel at 
first no more discomfort than from the sting of a 
gnat ; but after a time the pain spieads over the 
whole body, and is accompanied with fever and 
great exhaustion. A traveler has stated that the 
body of this loathsome creature is the size of a but- 
ternut. 



Foreign Slugs. 
Persons who receive plants of any sort from other 
countries would do well to destroy any insects or 
eggs that may be attached to them. A box of bulbs 
from Germany was received in Rochester, New York, 
four or Ave years ago, in which were a number of 
large slugs. They were foolishly set free In one of 
the city parks, and are said to have thrived to an 
alarming degree, spreading over the city In a way lo 
make them a serious nuisance. They are much 
larger than any native slugs, measuring from four to 
six inches in length, and are likely to become very 
injurious to vegetation. 



Poultry. 



The Best Food for Egg Producers. 
It has again and again been demonstrated that 
wheat is the best of all cereals for the production of 
eggs. But next to that is milk, and especially sour 
milk, and if we add to these a third substance, 
namely, gravel produced from broken granite of 
suitable size and quantity, we have as nearly a per- 
fect food as can be furnished for egg-producing fowls. 
But there arc some details which ought to be at- 
tended to in order to attain the best resulU. Thus, 
in hot weather and In all weather but that which Is 
very cold, the grain should be previously soaked 
twenty-four hours and the water salted, but only 
moderately so. But shrunken wheat, or mill scJeen- 
Ings, when they are not musty ami when they do 
pot contain rotten or unsound grain, are quite 
as good as clear wheat, and some say Ihey 
are better, because shrunken wheat kernels con- 
tain more of the egg and llesli-making principles 
than sound ones. But we cannot always procure 
wheat or wheat screenings, and then we must find 
the best substitute. The I'ollowing arc good In the 
order in which they are nameii: Barley, oats, cracked 
corn and whole corn, and each and all should have 
the preliminary twenty four hours' snaking. Buck 
wheat and rye will do very well as complements 
to other grains, but when fed alone they 
are unsafe ; the former because It Is too 



16 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 1881. 



stimulatinff and the latter because it is too fat- 
tening and difficult of digestion. Meat, offals and 
scraps, broken victuals, vegetables and the like are 
valuable additions to the daily ration, but they are 
unsafe if fed in large quantities, for they not only 
injure the health of the fowls, but impair the quality 
and flavor of the eggs. One essential point vphich 
must not be forgotten in the make up of the daily 
rations— in cases they are not principally wheat and 
sour milk— the constituent element of bones and egs 
shells must be furnished in the shape of burned 
bones, broken small, or ground oyster shells. — Xew 
England Homestead. 



Fat Makes Hens Lay. 

There is much refuse fat from the kitchen that can 
be turned to good account by feeding it to the hens. 
Of course where soap is made it will be used up in 
that way, but it is a question whether it is not much 
easier and more profitable to buy soap and make 
hens lay by feeding them with fat. Everything that 
is not wanted for drippings for cooking purposes 
should be boiled up with the vegetables for the fowls. 

Fowls. 
With half the farmers their fowls cost them more 
than they get from them. They feed them just 
enough to keep them alive and to enable them to 
lay an egg now and then. When a dry time comes, 
very likely they do not have any water, and hen 
■without water do not do well. They should have 
plenty of clean water always accessible. It is the 
extra feed an animal gets over and above what 
required to sustain life, which makes the profit. 
With poultry it will make eggs in the season, and 
with all animals flesh, which is gain, and the gain is 
profit. '^ 



Literary and Personal. 



Dairy Farming— Being the theory, practice and 
methods of dairying, by J. P. Sheldon, assisted by 
leading authorities in various countries. Published 
by Cassel, Potter, Gilpin ifcCo., London, Paris and 
596 Broadway, New York. The 18th part of this 
beautifully illustrated quarto has been placed upon 
our table, and it more than sustains the deserved 
reputation it started out with some months ago, not 
only in quantity but more especially in q'ualitv. 
The full page colored plate, illustrating Welsh cattle, 
is unsurpassable, and, indeed, the illustrations 
throughout are executed in the highest style of art. 
"BuflTalo grass" and "Bermuda grass" are so per- 
fect in their delineation and execution that the 
novice in botany ought to be able to recognize them 
without referring to the explanatory letter press. 
The botanical contributions to this journal are most 
ably discussed, both practically and scientifically, 
furnishing the intelligent and progressive dairyman 
with the very fundamental elements of his profes- 
sion; for if there is no butter in the plant food he 
will not be likely to extract it from the lacteal of his 
animals any more than he would "blood from a 
turnip." Nineteen pages of this part is devoted to 
"the dairy cattle of America"— their history, breed- 
ing and management— cross-bred buffaloes, produce 
of dairy cows, prices of cattle, &c., &c., from which 
we learn that "the first domestic cattle in America 
were brought over by Columbus on his second voy- 
age in 1493." This paper is very elaborate and 
thorough, and introduces many familiar and distin 
guished names in the cattle operations of the country. 
The illustrations: "Cross-bred Buffaloes," "James- 
town Cattle," "Cross-bred Jersey Ayrshire Heifers," 
"The Oaks Cow," "Old Creamer" and "Jersey 
Belle of Scituate' are among the finest cattle por 
traits of this artistic period. Of course, as the title 
of this journal indicates, it discusses the subjects of 
its specialty from the standpoints of produciiveness 
and quality. As an absolute factor, form only occu- 
pies a secondary relation to "butter, cheese and 
cream," although, in conformity with physiological 
law, intrinsic excellence will exercise a perceptil)le 
influence upon extrinsic texture and form. This 
work is published in monthly parts at 40 cents each, 
and when compared with other works of the same 
quality we regard it as the cheapest publication in 
the country. 

The American Bee Journal- Devoted to 
scientific bee culture and the production and sale of 
pure honey. This, the leading apicultural journal in 
the Union, was heretofore published as a monthly 
octavo ; but now it is changed into a four-columned 
weekly quarto, and from this time forward will be 
publ shed in that form. Thomas C. Newman, editor 
and proprietor, Chicago, Illinois. Terms, *2.00 a 
year, in advance. When clubbed with the Farmer 
the two journals will be furnished for ?2.85 a year. 
The Bee Journal enjoys the enviable reputation of 
having been the first periodical exclusively devoted 
to apiculture in America, and it is at this time the 
only meekly paper devoted to that specialty in the 
world! It is a remarkably clean and clear print, 
on fine calendered white paper, and we commend it 



to our pations and the public. Each number will 
contain eight pages (32 per month) at least an inch 
longer and wider than the Farmer, and well filled 
with the most ably conducted bee literature in this 
or any other country; and at the end of the year its 
patrons will possess 41(5 pages of the choicest and 
most reliable bee literature extant. We know from 
many considerations that this "departure" will be 
acceptable to the old patrons of the Bee Journal 
(and their names ought to be "legion") not only in 
America, but wherever the English language can be 
read, or bee culture pursued. It affords ns unalloy- 
ed pleasure to notice these indications of progress 
on the part of our contemporaries, and especially 
those engaged in illuminating the realm of "beedom." 
And here we would respectfully suggest that so able 
a specialist as the editor of this journal should solve 
the problem, if possible, whether bees do really tear 
open and destroy the pulp of grapes or not. That 
charge rests upon them hereabouts, whether true or 
false, and we would like to have the sentiments of 
those who are able to speak with authority on this 
much mooted subject. 

The Texas Sun, for October, November and De- 
cember, 18-iO, is a large double folio, published at 
San Antonio, Texas, in the interest of Texas and 
Mexican lands, railroads, mines, mercantile opera- 
tions and stock raising, at .50 cents per annum, 12 
copies to one address $3.00. Copyrighted in 1879. 
No man, or family, or company of men, designing to 
settle in Texas or contiguous Mexico should fail to 
consult this journal, if he desires to act intelligently 
in the matter, whatever his special occupation may 
be, even if he possesses other sources of information 
upon the topics It discusses; for "in a multitude of 
counselors there is safety." It contains a map. of 
western Texas, illustrating its ereat railroad from 
San Antonio to El Paso, on the Rio Grande del 

The Kansas Daily Tribune, of December 14, 
1880, comes to us freighted with the "Great Law- 
rence Sensation," in relation to " The Western Farm 
Mortgage Company ^^^ which, according to the public 
statement of Mr. J. B. Watkins, of the firm of J. B. 
Watkins & Co., must be an arrant fraud. But 
whether a fraud or not, or whether mere business 
rivalry or not, the expositions involved will not be 
hurtful to outsiders, and especially those at a dis- 
tance. If Mr. Watkins' story is true, then we have 
as emphatic an illustration of the monkey seizing 
the cat's paw to scratch his chestnuts out of the fire 
— in the person of .Mr. F. M. Perkins— as ever was 
placed, on record. Equal to a "brass mine." 

The "Holiday Number" (vol. 1, No. 3) for Jan- 
uary, 1881, of Our Little Ones, was duly received, 
and we are in accord with the press in general in re- 
gard to its merits. It will no doubt be hailed with 
acceptance by the parents and the appreciative chil- 
dren of the nation. We had occasion to notice a 
previous number of this excellent juvenile publica- 
tion in a former number of the Farmer, but the one 
now before us is far superior to the former one, and 
indicates a progressive future, and must elicit a 
hearty welcome in the liearts and homes of our com- 
mon country. It is very profusely illustrated, and 
the illustrations are almost uuexceptioually good and 
finely executed. This is trnlv a holiday number, 
and faithfully caters to the holiday fancies of the 
"little ones." In scanning its paircs the children will 
be rollicking in the pleasirjg realizations of the pres- 
ent, whilst the dim recollections of the elders will be 
descanting on the past, perhaps with some regret 
that the halcyon days of youth have forever fled. 
But for them there is a delightful compensation in 
seeing others delighted, especially children. Surely 
with all the advantages possessed by childhood in 
this pregnant age, the future generations ought to 
exhibit a higher state of mental and moral develop 
ment than the generations that have passed. Pub- 
lished by the Russell Publishing Company, 149 A 
Tremont street, Boston, .Mass., at $1..50 a year in 
advance; 8 numbers *1.00, 16 numbers 8 '.00. Club 
rates, two copies one year $2.80, 3 copies $1.00, 4 
copies J.i.00, and 5 copies $15.00. Every household 
blessed with children should have it. 

The American agriculturist. The American 
Farmer, The Gardener's Monthly, and The Poultry 
World, January, 1881, are now before us, and may 
be regarded as fair representations of the specialties 
to which they are severally devoted. Each occupies 
a different position, and covers a somewhat different 
ground, but all are excellent of their kind and ex- 
hibit unmistakable evidence ot jnogrets. Of course, 
these journals are too old, too prominent, and occu- 
py too large a space in the field of agricultural liter- 
ature, and moreover, are too ably conducted, to need 
any special commendation of ours ; neither is this 
our purpose on this occasion. They speak to a bet- 
ter purpose by speaking for themselves. But we no- 
tice nnr special spicing in them(which we, alas, lack) 
without which no journal can make itself always in- 
teresting, acceptalile and instructive to its readers, 
and that is their many able contributors and corres- 
pondents. Their columns are fairly "peppered and 
salted" through and through by a cordon of contrib- 
utors who seem to be habitual thinkers, and who 



know how to place their thoughts on record, Sup- 
pose every publication in Lancaster county were 
stricken out of existence to-day, would it be a sorrow 
or a joy '. a joy that we might then enjoy a surcease 
from reading and writing, and vegetate to the "top of 
our bent;" a sorrow that no avenue existed through 
which we only can talk to the world . The one in- 
volves a candle in a candlestick, the other a candle 
under a bushel. "He that hath an ear to hear, let 
him hear." 

The Home Almanac for 1881 is a perfect bijou in 
its way — absolutely the prettiest little publication 
that has 'come under our observation "this year." 
Most beautifully and elaborately illustrated, after 
paintings of celebrated artists. It only includes 36 
pages 8 vo. in paper covers, but among those are 
nine full page pictures of the most interesting char- 
acter, besides about a score of half and quarter page 
pictures. Published and distributed by the Rome 
Insurance Company of New York. It contains the 
usual calendars, besides appropriate poems, and de- 
scriptive and historical matte"-. If the external is 
any indication of the i7iternal, and we had occasion, 
we should not hesitate to patronize the Some. 

The Musical Herald. — This super royal quarto 
for January, 1881, has been received, accompanied 
by one of the most liberal premium lists that has 
ever been issued in this country, including 130 pre- 
miums, ranging from $1.00 all the way up to $1,000. 
It has been many a long day since we were "music 
mad," but persons who take part, or who are inter- 
ested in music, cannot afford to lose sight of the in- 
structive articles on this subject, which are being 
published in the Musical JTerald from month to 
month. It is published at $1.50 a year, but it is 
worth ten times its cost. All who are engaged in 
the study of music in any of its branches will find 
the able articles from the thoroughly educated 
writers in its editorial corps, as well as its other con- 
tributors, worth many times the cost of the journal, 
and, apart from the teacher, really the best means 
for securing the valuable information they seek. 
We have been particularly interested in the series of 
papers for some time being published, on the subject 
of musical instruments, ancient, medieval and mod- 
ern, and in this connection we would respectfully 
ask, when, and by whom, were the "bones," or 
bone castinets, first introduced into Atnerica ? 
Sixty years ago an old African itinerating minstrel 
sang, and accompanied himself with "hones and 
bell," in Lancaster county. Poor old Ben Caywood 
was frozen to death just thirty years ago in a barn, 
where he had betaken himself for a night's repose 
in the frigid month of January. But he was already 
famous Ions before any other professor had "rattled 
the bones" in this region. 

The Musical JTerald is published by a company of 
that name, at Music Hall, Boston. 

The Drainage and Far.m Journal. — Devoted 
to farm drainage, progressive agriculture, and the 
manufacture of drain tile. Published monthlv by J. 
J. W. Billingsby & Son, Indianapolis, Indiana, n( 
one dollar a year. The January number of this pe- 
riodical has been received (vol. Ill, No. 1.) It is an 
octavo in form, and contains 32 pages of mat- 
ter relating to its specialty, and 18 pages 
of advertisements, many of them relating to the man- 
ufacture of drain tiling. Drainage in some localities 
is absolutely indispensable, and ought to be resorted 
to by many who pay little or no attention to it. 
Much otherwise useless land could be reclaimed by 
drainage, and even that which has long been culti- 
vated might be improved by this process. Although 
tnis journal contains useful information on various 
subjects, yet it is mainly the repreeentative of the 
tiling interests in the land. Send and get a catalogue. 

Breeding, Raising and Management of 
Horses in Kansas. — The Fourth Quarterly Report 
of the Kansas State Board of Agriculture for 1S80 
has been received. It is a pamphlet of 134 pages, 
containing statistics relative to live stock of the State, 
the production of butter and cheese, number of acres 
in farms, meteorological data, quarterly report upon 
the condition of crops and farm animals. A short- 
account of the Inter-State Agricultural Convention, 
at Springfield, Illinois, together with valuable papers 
on bee-keeping by prominent apiarians in various 
parts of the State. The special feature of the re- 
port, and probably the most valuable one, is that 
portion of the volume devoted to " Breeding, Raising 
and Management of Horses in Kansas." Com- 
mencing with a short descriptive history of the 
thoroughbred, the trotter, Percheron-Norman or 
French draft, and Clydesdales, the papers, sixty- 
three in number, giving the experience and observa- 
tion of breeders from every part of the State, aggre- 
gate a vast amount of practical experience of great 
value to the farmers of Kansas. This portion of the 
report is followed by a short paper upon epizootic, 
and extracts from Dr. D. E. Salmon's article upon 
Texas cattle fever, recently published by the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture. "The last paper of the 
volume is an illustrated essay upon " Insect-Eating 
Birds." This report may be obtained by inclosing 
two three-cent stamps to the Secretary, J. K. Hud- 
sou, Topeka, Kansas. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER' 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Lancaster Examiner. 
We desire to cull the attciitiou of the readers of 
the Karmek to the Daily and Weekly Examiner. 
The Daily was enlarged over six eoluinns on January 
1st, anil is now the largest daily published in the 
county. The weekly supplement was also enlarged 
over three columns, and the weekly is now one of 
the largest weeklies in the State. Subscribe for the 
Examiner. They are both, dally and weekly, good 
family newspapers. 



SECOND ANNUAL EXHIBITION 

LANCASTER COUNTY 

POULTRY ASSOCIATION! 

TO HE HELD AT 

LANCASTER, PA. 

An Incubator, pt^teutpd by \Vm. G. Foehl, of Lancaster. 
Pa., will Hatch Obickeiis daily duriug the Exhibitlou. 

This will be the Finest and Largest Display of Poultry 
held in Peuusylvanta tliiti year. 

FRIDAY, SATUKDAY, MONDAY, TUES- 
DAY ami WEDNESDAY', 
JANUARY 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 1881. 
PREMIUMS OVER $800. 

EscufHiou Tickets with couiiOns attached, admitting pur- 
obaser to the exliibition, will be issued by the P. K. B. Co., 
from Dowuiuglown, Npw Holland, Port Deposit, Yolk, 
Harrisburg and all intermediate stations. 

Daily Excursion Tickets over the Reading and Columbia 
R. R. Exhibitors will beluruished tickets at reduced rates. 
AD9IISSIOK 15 riM. - - CIIILUREN 10 I'ts. 

^^Send for I'remium List to 



rn ij n n 



OFFICE. 

No. North Oueen Street 

LANCASTER, PA.. 



GERMANTOWN TELEGRAPH. 

Which is generally acknowledged to be the best Literary. 
Farming and A^riculi Ural Newspapers in Pennejlvauia, is 
issued iveekly at Germuritown, PhUadelphia, at $2.60 per 
uuuum. It will couiiiieuce its Slst volume with the drst 
number in March, proximo, being established and conduct- 
ed by its pres-eut editor and proprietor. No family giving 
it a trial for a year would be willing to do without it at 
double the subscription. Address 

PHILIP R. FRE.«»«, 

Germmtown, Phila. 



'^ THE VICTOR 

7^ Double Huller 
Clover Machine 



"WANTED. 

BUTTER. EGGS. 



Berries and Peaches. 
"Send for Prices. 

BAIXASD, BRUNCH & CO., 

112 Broad St., N. Y. 
l-lt General Produce Commission Merchants. 



GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 




overwork of the 
perfectly barmless, ucts 

Before Taking ^^VeSyused'/o^orr After Taking. 

thirty years with great success. Full particulars in our 
pamphlet, which we de«ireto send free by mail to every one. 
The speclflc medicine is sold by all druggists at $1 per 'pack- 
age, or six packages for $.5, or will be sent free by mail on 
receipt of the money by address j ng 

THE GRAY M EDICINE COMPANY, 
No. 10 Mechanics' Block, Detroit, Michigan. 
B'"Sold in Lancaster by H, B. Cochban. 131 and 139 N. 
Queen St., and by druggists everywhere. [79-3-12 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 



THE WEEKLY 



LANCASTER HXAMINBR 



One of the largest Weekly Papers i 
the State. 



Published Every Wednesday Morning, 



Is an old, well-eatablished newspaper, and contains just the 
news desirable to make it an interesting and valuable 
Family Newspiper. The xiostage to subcribers residing 
' ' ■ ' ■ ity is paid by tne publisher. 



Two Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



The Largest Daily Paper in the 
county. 



Publislied DaUy Except S nday. 



The daily is published ev^^y evening during the week. 
It is delivered in tile City and to surrounding T.'wns ac- 
cessible by railroad and d^ily stage liueB, fur 10 ceutN 
a week. 

Mnil Subscription, free of postage — One mouth, 50 
cents; one year, 85.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 



The job rooms of The Lancastisk Examiner a 
filled with t'le latest styles of presses, material, etc., ai 
we are prcpar. d to do all kiuds of Book and Job Printili 
at as low rotes and bhorl notice as any establishment I 
the State. 



SALE BILLS A SPECIALTY. 



! bills iu the Slate. 

JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort^A Queen St.. 

LANCA-STEK. FA.. 



SEND FOR 

On Concord OiBpi-vines, Tran»|ilaTite<l l^crgreeni.. Tulip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, elc. Tree Seedlings and Trees for 
timber pluutatione l>y the 10m,0()U . 

J. JE.VKIXN' NVRNKRT, 
3-2-T9 WINONA, COI LMDIANA CO., OHIO. 



$66.; 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANOFACTIIItEn OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

COLLARS, WHIPS, FLY NETS. &c., 

.\I.so i)i;.M,i;it IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUKALO KOBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

-1-12] l.ANC.\STKU, PA. 



\CHAS A. LOCHER. 

aaaholesaleaW"^ retail 
1^^ DRUGGIST. ^^■ 



CATTLE POWDER 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. it?j 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 



E. J. ERISMAN. 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



. PHAKES W. FRY, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WftlL PAPER 8, WINDOW SHADES, 

lIollaiKl-i. pittiii Nlia<|p «'l«lli. 

Fixtures, Fringi-8, Tassels and all goods pertaining to a 
Paper and Shade Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



CHRISTMAS GOODS 

BKLOW COST. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

READY-Mi^DE CLOTIjING, 

i;i:i,(>\v COST. 
ALSO, FURNISHING GOODS, 

FROM NOW UNTIL JANl AKY 1st, AT COST. 
CLOTHING MADIC TO OliDKK 

In the prevailing styles and at IDt-dium prices. 

Comer N, Queen and Orange Street « 

LANCASTER, PA. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

MEKOHANT T.MI.UItS. 



(^R Tfl (tnnicr dayathoa.e. Samples worth JS free, 
(j) J I U ipZUAddrees Stihson k Co., Portland, Maine. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



[January, 




LANDRETH'S EXTRA EARLY PEAS, 

The earliest Peas grown. 

American Wonder Peas, 

CRYSTAL WAX BEANS, 

BLOOIISDALE EARLY MARKET CABBAGE, 

BLOOMSDALE LATE FLAT DUTCH CABBAGE, 

The fluest in the world. 

Gourd Seed Corn, Prize Stock, Recleaned CIo- 

and Timothy and other Grass Seeds. 

Cooly Creamer, Csok Tree Proteetor, 

VEGETABLE ROOT CUTTER, 

Cahoon's Broad Cast Seed Sower, 
SPAIN'S PATENT CHURNS, 



Mi 1 H»nd anA Power. 

Laijdretlj's Rural Register &Almaijac for '81 

In English and German — Free. 

u. L.\SDltfcTH A- SONS. 

2S A 33 Noillh Sixth Ht., 

oct-6m PHILADELPHIA. 



nlXtLi^ i >3 GOOD F.4VI ETEAUY EMPLOTUEHT 
SEI,!-!Xa TEE STAr.'DARD AQRICCLTIIBAL BOOK, 

Tai? miag Tor P r ofit. 



acting Paveri 



ailiomest Rnl Best Farm 
Book ivt.^ published. Eacrt/ Farmer ahould have a Copy. 
For D,;5criptivc Circular ao4 Terms to Agents, Addresi, 

J. C. KcSrJBY & 00., 633 Chestist St., Fhiladjlphii, P». 
CinoiaDaH. (i. riiiucja, El. or 3t. Louis, Mo. 



It: 

(advert 
of Phil; 

getheV' 

ill 



FARMING FOR PROFIT. 

i eojieeded that tliis lart^^e and eoniprehen<i\-e book, 



'...' .i. Fruil-iirowin-, Bnsi- 
ifi ; telling just what the 
v,-int I., know, eonibining 
. i.iung tlicnght, awakening 
.uiy member of the family, 
^hly intluence for good. It is 
the best agricultural writers 
[d is destined to have an ex- 
v-anted everywhere. jan-lt 




J. l,K*V[S 



E!3I.I>-i. Q}'KE!SS, N.Y. 
jan.lt 



$72^ 



certainty ul action in atop- 
ic hunch. Price «1 00. Send fur illus- 
ulflfffiving positive proof, and your 
ent'saddreis. Kendall's Spav- 

"In Cure Is sold by JtrnicEists, or 

Met by Dr. B. J. Keudlll & Co., Enosburg Falls, VermoDt 
79-8.tf. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



Sa-Jring off a Log, 
Easy and Past. 




OurhtL t improved sa\iing machine cnts 
off a 2 f ot lo£r m 2 minutes. A $100 
PRESENT Mill be given to two men who 

can saw as much in t]:e old wav, as one man 
can with this mnchina. Circulars sent free. 

U. S. MA>IIFACTURING CO., 

14!» Cl.irk St., Chiciisro. III. 

Qd coutrols Eastern 



CAUTJ«>Sr.— Auv siiwiuE injehioe having a seat for 
the operator, or treadles for his feet, is an intriiigement 
on our patents, and Tp aie inoBtcutiug all infriuRers. So 
BEWARE WHO Toti BUY OF. jan-?m 





•mis 3srE-';xr 

ELASTIC TRUSS 

Has a Pad dif 
fering from 
I all others, is 
cup-shaped, 
with SEI.F. 
ADJTJST'NG 
BALL in the 
center, adapts 
itself to all 
positions of the hody, 
irhUe the BALL in the 
C«p PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
JUST AS A PERSON 
"WOULD -WITH THI 
FINGER, W^ith lighl 
pressure the Hernia is 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
leal cure is certain. It is easy, durable 
Etnd cheap. Sent hy mail, postage paid. 
Circulars free. 
Address, Eggleston Truss Co., Manfira. 

Or C. H. EGGLESTON CO.. Chicago.lH. 

J9-7-ly] 




world. Also nothins can beat ( 
CHINK. It sawa off a 2-foot log i 
Pictorial booki free. W. GII.£S, Chicaso, 

dec-6m] 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the LancaS' 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONEDOLLPPERANNUI 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY TBE PROPfilETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S. S. Rathvon, who has so ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, will continue in the position of 
editor. His contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of fanning, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thorouhly a master— entomological science— some 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the success- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He is determined to make *'The Farmer* 
a necessity to all households. 

A county that has so wide a repatatfon as Lancaster 
county for ita agricultural products should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers Interested ui this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers in..erested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your coi>y. Try and 
Induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly asuist us. 

All communications in regard tothe editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. 8. 8. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rates of 
adveitisiug can be had on application at the office. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



i 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANITTTM -SUTGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. FEBRUARY, 1881. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Publisher. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



EDITORIAL, 
ids, - - 



•Caged .Soiin 
Seventeen Year Locust, - 

A Grceii-llouse Product!. 
Forests in Pennsylvania, ■ 
The Late Poultry Show, 
"Ault Barrieks," 
"The Stone Age," 



A Double Apple Preserved in Alcohol, - 

The Timber Question, 

Its Effect Upon Our Social Enconomies, and the 
Inlcgrlty of Our Sea.sons— The Cause of Drouths 
—Where our Forests are Going. 

Bxcerpts, 

-The New Holland Clarion, 

The Freezing of Insects, 

Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, - 

Officers Elected, 

Mcehiinics' Library Association— Berks County 
Agricultural mid Horticultural Society. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
Seventeen Tear Locusts, - . - . . 
The Corn Cut-Worm, - ' - 

Enemies of Spiders, 

An Ant Story, 

Queries and Answers, 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Shelter-Belts— TKancict, 

Bees and Grapes— If. .ff. /S<o«<, - 

Potato Culture— C, 

ESSAYS. • 

"Ex-Libris," 

About Apples, 

SELECTIONS. 

A Patent Rat-Trap, 

The Sluifular Effect the Beating of Drums had 
on a Nest, of Itodents. 

Cold Winters, 

The Winter of 1779-80— The Cold Friday of 
February 7, 1S07. 

Why we use Quick Lime Upon the Land, - 

American Agriculture, 

A Valuable Table, - s - - - - 
A Remarkable Year, - - - - . 

New Process in Milling, 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
Lancaster County AKricultural and Uorticul- 

tural Society, 

Crop Reports— Insects— The ;Horsc— Apple Cul- 
ture—What arc the Relative Value of Wheat 
Bran and Corn for Feed?— Fallen Apples- 
Cultivation of Corn- The Agricultural College 
—Report of Committee. 
Poultry Association, ----.. 
Reports of Otlicers- Treasurer's ' Report— New 
Business— New Members— Question for Dis- 
cussion. 

Fulton Farmers' Club, 

Questions and Answers— Interesting Exhibits- 
Result of an Ejiperiment— Literary Exercise. 



1 Society, 



) the Muscuii 



-I-il 



New Busin 

AGRICULTURE. 
More Corn to the Acre, - 
Manuring Lawns, .... 

Danger in the " Silos," - 
Accumulation of Manure in Stables, - 
The Finest of the Wheat, 
Salt in Sowing, . - - - . 

HORTICULTURE. 
Foreign Pears and Apples, 
What is Good Grape Cultare ? - 
Cultivating the Cherry Tree, - 
The Best Time for Grafting Trees, - 

FLORICULTURE. 

House Plants, 

The Feathery Acacias in Bloom, 
To Color Roses, .... 

Tuberoses, 

Propagating Fuchsias, 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 
How to Cook a Turkey, ... 
Useful Remedies, - . - . . 
Brightening Tinware, - - - - 
Varnished Work, . . . . . 
HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 
Fruit Jumbles, . . - - . 
Cranberry Sauce, . - . - . 
Snowball Pudding, - - - . 
Calves'Foot Jelly of 1780, - 
Feather Cake, . . . - . 

White Cake, - 

Mayonuaise, - - - - . ' 
Charlotte Russe, - . - - - 
To Renovate Black Goods, - 
Lcbster Patties, - - . - - 

POULTRY. 
More Eggs, --.--. 
Lice on Chickens, .... 
Raising Ducks for Profit, - 
Literary and Personal, . - - . 



HENDERSON'S 

COMBINKD CATALOniR OF 



SEEDS - 
PLANTS 



Vi/l he Mailed Fro- l> uU who apply by \ 

Our Expnrlincntal GrnnndH 
whii-h we KKt ou»- Vca:ctable and 
Flower Sfodn nrcnioNtroiii(>U-io; f 
land onr CreenlioiiNps l'nrl>laiii» 
l(?ovrrin2 3 arre«i In Rlans), are 
I tUe lari^vNt In America. 

IPETER HENDERSON & CO. 

35 Cortlandt street. New York. 



SAWING MADE EAST- 




Machine riv:>ls M 



ng Sawing 
•*ni bo given 



I. Circulars sent Free. Agents wanted. 

iio>ris:H ysBTinss sav oo., 

163 Kaiu'olph St., Chicigo, lU, 




ELASTIC TRUSS 

HasaPaddif 
fering &om 
all others, U 
oap-shaped, 
with SEI.F. 
ABJTTST'NG 
BAXL in the 
center, adapti 
itseU to all 
positions of the hody, 
while the BALL in the 
Cnp PRESSES BACK 
THE INTESTINES 
JUST AS A PERSON 
WOUrD WITH THE 
FINGER. With light 
pressure the Hernia is 
held securely day and night, and a rad- 
ical core is certain. It is easy, durable 
and cheap. Sent by mail, postage paid. 
Circulars free. 
Address. Eggleston Truss Co.. Manfirs. 

Or c. H. EGGLESTON CO., Chioago.lH. 

T9-7-1T] 




^N Enlarqco View i 




toru «oo uowtntir HaiM. itemit namney or pottace iiunpt. m* 

footUhkvc&n MfvhlfiheO r«pot*i'fln antl so to sH parU e>tlb» ■worl/. 

J. 1.KWIS rMlLDS, afTGfiNS, N.¥J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



WE TWABD. 


Lancaster. 


Harrisburg. 


Pacific Express' 


•2:40 a. m. 




Way Paseeiigert 








IIOO a m 


11-20 a m 


Hanover Accommodation, . 


11:05 p.m. 


Col. 10:40 a. m. 


MailtraiuviaMt. Joy.:.... 


10:20 a.m. 


12:40 p. m. 


No. 2 via Columbia 


U.25a. m. 




Sunday MaU 


10:50 a.m. 






3:26 p. m. 


Frederick Accommodation. 




Col. 2:45 p. m. 




5:45 p. m. 


7:40 p. m. 


Columbia Accommodation.. 


7:20 p. m. 


Col. S:2i) p. m. 


Harrisburg Express 


7:30 p.m. 


8:40 p. m. 








Cincinnati Express' 


11:30 p.m. 


12:45 a.m. 


EASTWAKD. 


Lancaster. 


Philadelphia. 




2.55 a. m. 










Harrisburg Express 


8:05 a. m. 


10:00 a. m. 


Columbia AccommodatiOD.. 


9.10 p. m. 


12:0 p.m. 


Pacific Express* 


^^^. 




Bundiiy Mail 


5a>0p.m. 


Johnstown Express 


3:0.-. p. m. 


5:S0 p. m. 


Day Express^ 


5:35 p.m. 


7:20 p. m. 


Harrisburg Acoom 


6:25 p. m. 






ion, west, conn 


cts at Lancaster 


with Niagara ExpreBS, wes 


, at 9:35 a. m 


.,aud will run 








The Frederick Accommod 


tion, west, coi 


lectsat Lancas- 








The Pacific Express, east 


OQ Sunday, w 


len flagged, will 
oy and Landis- 


stop at MMdletown, EUzabe) 


itowu, Mouat . 


TlBe. 






•The only trains which ru 


1 daily. 




tRuus daily, except Moud 









NORBECK & MILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



Gapfiage Builders, 

cox & CO'S OLD STAHD, 

Cornef of Duke and Vine Stfeets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PH.4ETONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 



Prices to Suit the Times. 

REPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 

79-2- 



Manufacturer of 

Cirriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Large Stock of New and Seoon-hand Work on hand, 
Terr cheap. Carriaires Made to Order Work Warranted 
or one year. [TI-»-lJ 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS. 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. " 

Repairiug strictly ntteuJed to. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 



I*. 3BO-«\7"3VEjA.Kr, 



AT LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES, 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

)-l-12) Oppttsilf Leopard Hotel, 



ESTABLISHED 183? 




G. SENER &SONS, 

Manufacturers and dealers in all kiudB of rough and 
finished 

The best Sawed SHINOEEK iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors. Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLIND.S, which are far surerior to any 
other. Also best OOA L constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts., 

LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-12] 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embraciug the history and habits of 

.NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

and the best remedies for their expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work will be Highly Illustrated, and will be put In 
press (as soon after a sufficient number of subscribers can 
be obtained to cover the cost) as the work can possibly bo 



$77 



Outfit free. SHAW It CO., Augusta, Maine. 



fTKEES 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trees raised in this couuty aud suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand p. O., Lancaster co.,Pa. 

Nurserj' at Suioketown, six miles east of Lancaster. 
79-1-12 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 



And Manufactu 



FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 

WARER001M.S : 

102 East King St., Oor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Special Inducements at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 

PTo. XS X-a U. ItllWCl- S-r-DEtEET 

(over Bursk's Grocery Score), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assortment of furniture of all kinds constantly 
on hand. Don't forget the number. 

13 X-2 XlASt ZSlxxxg; Sitx-eet, 

Nov-lyl (over Bnrsk's d.ocery Store.) 



For Good and Cheap Work go to 

F. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST.. 

(Opposite Northern Market), 



GREAT BARGAINS. 



CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No. 202 West King SU 

Call aud examine our stock and satiBfy yourself that we 
cau show the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
plies and iugralu at all prices— at the lowest Philadelphia 



na haud a large aud i 



Qplete 



of Rag 



Satisfactiou guaranteed bath as to price aud quality. 

You are iuvited to call aud see my goods. No trouble in 
showing' them even if you do uot waut to purchase. 

Dou't forget this noUce, You cau save money here if you 
waut to buy. 

Particular attention given to customer v ork. 

Alao on hand a full assortment of Counterpanes, Oil 
Cloths aud Blankets of every variety. ^ f uov-iyr. 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON Sl CO., 

38 anti 4© West King Street. 

We keep ou baud of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COTERLETS, 

^ COUNTERPANES, CARPETS, 

Bureau and Tidy Covers. Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 

Par'ticuiar atteulion paid to customer Eag Carpet, and 
: and dyeing ol all kinds. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD | 

Cures by absorption without medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They -will 
lor you what nothing else on earth can. Hundreds of ci 
zens of Lancaster sij so. Get the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 



C. R. KLINE. 
5Attoi^ney-at-|jAW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

NoT-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1881 



Vol. xm. No. 2. 



CAGED SONG BIRDS. 

'■ The Cardinal Grosbeak deserves a promi- 
nent place among American caged sotif; 
birds. It sings well in confinemcHt, and 
thrives upon such seeds as are used for the 
Canary. It has been termed tlie Viiijinia 
Nightingale, in consequenee of its singing by 
night as well as by day. Its varied song is 
musical and clear. Both se.\es sing, the fe- 
male quite equals the male in compass of 
voice. There is a peculiar richness in the 
vermilion plumage of llie male. The female 
is of a rich brown, tinged with red. Both 
have crests, which they elevate at will, giving 
them a gay and spirited apinaninee. They 
are geographically distributed from New Eng- 
land to Central America, and are iiarticular- 
ly numerous soutli of Pennsylvania, where 
they are found tlic year round. In the North- 
ern and Eastei-n .States they are" migratory. 
They build their nests of small dry twigs and 
dry grass, and usually place it in shrubs in 
the vicinity of a small rivulet. They lay 
four dull white eggs, marked thickly, but ir- 
regularly, with spots of olive brown. Their 
yoiing are easily reared by hand, and old 
trapped birds are easily domesticated." 

We have known this beautiful bird (Cardi- 
nalis virginianus) these very many years in 
Lancaster county, and from the fact that we 
have seen it in theChickiis li ills as late as No- 
vember, and as early as rebiuaiy, we have 
inferred that it occasionally parsed the winter 
here, especially if it should happen to be a 
mild one. The first one we saw was in the 
possession of Andrew Hershey. Sr., who 
lived on the Donegal Creek,, about one mile 
above its oonfluence with the Chickies. This 
was fully sixty years ago, and we vividly re- 
tain impressions of its sprightliness and its 
rare musical qualities. It was tlien already 
an old male bird,and had been cnged fourteen 
years. Its food was noi confined exclusively 
to seeds, for it had been educated to eat 
insects, especially gra.sshoppers, and many is 
the one we have caught and fed it, It would 
have been strange indeed, if it had not 
learned somethiny different from its normal 
habits in fourteen years. Judge Libhart saw 
the nest of one in a "honeysuckle" in the 
garden of a neighbor, in the borough of Ma- 
rietta, Fa., a short distance from a kitchen 
door — indeed considerable numbers of them 
were seen in the yards of the above named 
town, on various occasions. The common 
name of "Virginia Corn-eracker," was also 
applied to it in addition to those above 
named, and in "Pennsylvania Dutch " it was 
called "Blude-fink " although this name was 
also applied to the " Scarlet Tanager" (Tan- 
egra rubra). The most vulgar name it re- 
ceived was the "Red-bird," or "Top-knotted 
Red-bird." In an economical point of view, 
it probably possessed no special value, for in 
its state of freedom, it fed on seeds and 
berries, unless it may have "fed its young on 
insects. It, however, was a cheerful occu- 
pant of the chapperal, the garden, and the 
lawn, and may have been more useful than 
we knew of. 

"The Rose-Breasted Grosbeaks are allied 
close to the Cardinals, though differing in 
color, the general color being black, white 
and rosy crimson ; the last is confined to the 
breast, narrowing in width as it descends to 
the belly. It is a northern bird ; winters in 
the Middle States, and wanders in the sum- 
mer into high northern latitudes. Its song is 
remarkably sweet, and its notes clear and 
mellow, s'.nging by night as well as by day. 
The prevailing colors, white, black and crim- 
son, contrast richly, making it a desirable 
cage bird, though unfortunately it is scarce, 
and seldom seen confined in cages." 



This h'ml{Guivacn ludoriciaiKi) also called the 
"Louisiana Grosbeak," was also frequently 
metwitli in Lanca.ster county, but it was not 
.so common as toe "Cardinal." There is also 
reason to suspect that it wintered here in mild 
seasons, although it was more frequently 
found on its passage to more northern locali- 
ties, as its chosen breeding grounds ; still, it 
often breeds and passes the summer here. It, 
however, is rather secluded, and is ran-ely 
seen, e.vcept by experts, and by them most 
frequently during its passage in early spring. 
We have frequently seen it hi cages in the po- 
scsssion of fanciers, but know very little 
about its singing qualities. Its food is per- 
haps the same as that of its family (i'Viii- 
(lillidw), which is mainly seed.s and berries. 
We have a specimen now in our possession 
which we shot and stufl'ed two and forty years 
ago, which remains intact, and is an object of 
many pleasant memories of long ago. 

"The American Goldfinch, popularly 
known as the Yellowbird, is held in high es- 
teem, although very commonly seen. Its 
lemon yellow body and black and white 
wins;8 contrast nicely. They are docile in 
confinement and sing sweetly, though their 
notes are weak. They afford fine amusement 
for the boys during the pairing season, as they 
are easily taken by means of a call-bird and 
trap-cages. They sing as h-ipily confined as 
in the wild state, and eat freely the same seeds 
as the Canary. The female is less gaudy in 
plumage than the male. They construct a 
neat nest, lay five dull white eggs, spotted at 
the larger end. 

This bird {Chrysomitris trisJi.s) was also call- 
ed the "Salad-bu-d" and "Thistle-Finch ;" 
and by the Penna. Germans, "Distle-fink. " 
AVe have frequently seen it in flocks of fifties, 
feeding on the seeds of the common thistle, 
in late summer, or early autumn, or on the 
garden lettuce, when in seed. It also very 
frequently breeds in Lancaster county. Per- 
haps there was no bird, fifty years ago, of 
which the average town-boy had a better and 
a more pleasing recollection than this species, 
especially those towns surrounded by vacant 
and uncultivated commons, where, for years, 
the thistle or other seedbearing weeds grew 
almost iminterruptedly. Here the "yellow- 
birds" would congregate in tolerably large 
flocks, towards autumn, and feed on the this- 
tle seeds, and perhaps discuss their departure 
to a more genial winter clime. And when 
they were interrupted, he may be also able to 
recall their peculiar flight— their alternated 
chattering notes — their undulated motions in 
the air — the rapid manipulation, and the sud- 
den sessation of their wings until they had 
passed beyond the reach of danger. Even at 
that period an occasional- individual would be 
foimd in a cage,, but the instances were rare ; 
bird-fancying was not then as much of a 
Uisiness as it is now. Housewives complained 
of them destroying their "salad-seed," and 
the boys were oft^en instructed to "hillo" 
them out of the garden. Being finches they 
of course were graniverous, although they 
may have fed some insects to their young. 

"The Indigo Finch is much admired on ac- 
count of its indigo-colored plumage. Its 
song is sweet and vigorous, though short, and 
it continues to sing during the hot months, 
when most birds in the wild state are silent. 
The female is brown, tinged with blue. They 
are usually shy birds, and it requires one 
well skilled in the business of trapping them 
to succeed in catching any considerable num- 
ber in a single day. For this purpose a decoy 
bird is employed, and then, by frequenting 
the vicinity in whicli they are found, by a 
little manoeuvering they are taken. They are 
usually found on the line of a railroad ; and 
by a roadside not much frequented the adept 



will soon hear the familiar song of the Indigo 
Finch. The cage containing the decoy bird 
is then held in front of the trapper, as be ad- 
vances in the direction of the songster, occt.- 
sionally flirting his fingers against the wire 
cage, which causes the uccoy to flutter and 
chirp. This attracts the attention of the out- 
side bird ; the cage is immediately set upon 
the ground, and before the trapper has gone 
many yards from the cage tiie stranger is 
upon it, if not caught. The Indigo Finches 
are always found in pairs, though the female 
is scMoiii caught. She does not sing but only 
twitters. They are hardy and easily reared. 
In c'liiliiienient during tlie winter they lose 
their beautiful plumage, though in exceptional 
cases it is not at all changed. They build 
their nests in low bushes, suspended by two 
twigs. They lay four blue eggs, having a 
lilotch of purple at the larger end. In con- 
finement their diet should be the same as the 
Canary's. They are very fond of beet leaves." 
— James S. Baily, M. D. 

This is the "Indigo-bird" {Cyanoxpiza cy- 
anea) or " Blue-finch " of our boyhood. The 
Lancaster county Germans, who had any 
name for it at all, called it the " Blau-finkh." 
We knew it long before there was a foot of 
Railroad or Canal in Pennsylvania, and 
doubtless it was here long before there was 
an improvement of any kind, but adapted 
itself to them after they invaded its native 
domain! We had an experience with one of 
these birds which more strongly illustrates 
the monagamic character of some of the 
feathered tribes, than anything that ever 
came under our observation. In the spring 
and early summer these birds frequently came 
into the town in which we lived, and nested 
and raised their broods therein. This was 
especially the case in an uncultivated town 
lot, the lower end of which was covered with 
a thicket of locust sprouts and blackberry 
canes. In the spring of 1838 we shot a fine 
male, for an "ornamental specimen," which 
we skiimed, stuffed, and mounted, and we 
have it still in one possession, in as good con- 
dition a& it was then. The tree from which 
we .shot it hung over an alley near where we 
resided, and we could see it every time we 
went into our garden or back-yard. And 
there would come the female and mournfully 
sing-, from day to day, a seemingly funeral 
dirge over the spot where fell her beautiful 
partner ijy wanton hands. We felt self-re- 
|)roach, and thought ol making amends by 
shooting her also, »nd bringing them together 
in deatii as they had been in life (to outward 
appearance at least) but she always contrived 
to evade us. This continued for fully a week, 
and then the mournful ditty ceased, and we 
.saw the bird no more on that tree; and of 
course supposed she had found another mate, 
and had abandoned the fat.il locality. Some 
days afterwards we had occasion to visit the 
aforesaid thicket and there, immediately un- 
der the tree, close to the fence, we found the 
dead body of the female " Indigo-bird," and 
we never doubted that she may have "pined 
away and died," for the loss of her beautiful 
mate. We liardly ever looked upon our stufl'- 
ed specimen that we did not think of this cir- 
cumstance, and yet, we do not know that we 
have made a record of it before— at least not 
a public one. It is true the bird may have 
died by violent hands, but there was no mark 
on the body that indicated violence, although 
its carcass had been invaded by "the worms," 
after it had suflered the "canker and the 
grief." 

SEVENTEEN YEAR LOCUSTS. 

I have now in my possession a specimen of 

Cicada septendecim, or seventeen-year locust, 

that evolved from its pupal form on the sec- 



18 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



ond day of February. 1881, possibly the only 
instance of such an occm-reiice on record ; 
and if it has no other significance it might 
have illustrated that this insect passes at least 
four months in the pupa state. It is pretty 
well established that this insect makes its ap- 
pearance, in certain localities, every seven- 
teea years; and although these septendecenial 
periods may be broken, by broods appearing 
earlier or later than the regular seventeen 
year period, still there always are seventeen 
years intervening between the appearance of 
the respective broods, except in the case of 
broods which appear every thirteen years, and 
this difference has been deemed sufficient to 
establish a new species known as the " thir- 
teen year locust (CicacZa tridecim). Now, the 
ragular seventeen year period of the cicada in 
Lancaster county will not occur until the 
year 1885, with perhaps a few irregular excep- 
tions, alluded to above. This year will be the 
regular period for the thirteen years species, 
w^iierever it occurred thirteen j'ears ago ; but 
I do not regard the specimen now before me 
as absolutely .belonging to the thirteen year 
variety, or species. 

A Green-House Production. 

This individual evolved in the green-house 
of Mr. George O. Hensel, the enterprising 
florist of East Orange street, in this city, and 
its history is very probably as follows. In or 
about the month of Juue. 1864, Mr. Hensel 
was employed in the peach region of the State 
of Delaware, and on his return to his home 
in Lancaster, he brought with him about 
fifty living specimens (more or less), which he 
set at liberty in the neighborhood of where 
he now resides, and it is possible there will 
be a reappearance of that limited brood the 
present year. Last fall (October or Novem- 
ber) Mr. Hensel erected a new green-house, 
and in digging the foundations he exhumed 
large numbers of the larva of the cicada of at 
least two different sizes. These may have be- 
longed to the two difterent broods. They 
were so numerous that in a square foot he 
counted fifty of them. The individual before 
me was included within the enclosure, after it 
was finished, and doubtless mistook the genial 
temperature of the green-house for summer, 
which caused its rapid and premature devel- 
opment. I said above that this occurrence 
miiiM have illustrated that the cicada passes 
at least four months in the ^nyice state, but 
unfortunately Mr. H. did not preserve and 
present to me specimens, in order that I 
might have determined whether they were 
larvce or jmpce, which would not have been 
ditficult to do. 

Pupae and Larvae. 

In the piipm the rudimental wings are al- 
ways present, but never in the larvce, hence 
those that come up out of the ground in May 
or June, every seventeen years, nxe 2Jiipre. On 
the removal of a solid brick pavement in 
North Duke street, Lancaster, ih 1869, at ft 
place where there was no pavement in 1851, 
but instead thereof a number of trees, a large 
number of the cicades were found in a pupa 
state; these, of course, were retarded individ- 
uals, on account of the pavement, through 
which they could not penetrate ; but when, or 
how long before that period it was that they 
assumed the ptcpa form is not known. I liave 
found, and have had also given me, the larva 
of cidada three, five, nine and eleven years 
after the regular period of their advent, but 
none of them had the remotest appearance of 
wings, and at seasons, too, which precluded 
the probability of their being the larva of the 
annual-cicada. The premature subject before 
me is a female, and is minus the abdominal 
tympani or drums, with which the male pro- 
duces his musical notes. Anacreon sang 
beautifully of these "happy creatures," and 
accords to them the attributes of "a demi- 
god, at least," but Xenarchus, the incorrigi- 
ble Rhodian sensualist," intimates a different 
reason for their happiness in — 
"Happy the cicadas' lives 
Since they all have voiceless wives !" 

"We have an annual species that makes its 



appearance about the first of August, but it is 
much larger than the seventeen year species, 
and its music is harsher ,ind louder ; and, hi 
looking at the two, we may well wonder why 
it is that the one passes through all its trans- 
formations within a single year, whilst the 
other requires seventeen years to accomplish 
the same routine of development. 

I have seen, heard and handled the seven- 
teen year cicada, or locust, four times, name- 
ly, in 1817, iu 1834, in 1851, and in 1868, and 
the Linnaean Society has in its collection spe- 
cimens of those four periods, and also of 1800. 
All the superstitions and horrific apprehen- 
sions attached to these insects are repeated 
every seventeen years, as regularly as the in- 
sects make their advent amongst us. The 
generations of their last appearance do not 
seem to have derived any benefit from the ex- 
perience of tliose of their foriner~visits. The 
newspapers of 1868 were full of their devas- 
tations of the vegetable kingdom — stripping 
all the trees, plants, and shrubbery of their 
foliage. This surely could not have been the 
cicada ; indeed, I question very much if a 
single well-authenticated ease is on record of 
their ever having partaken of any kind of 
food at all during their imago period. If they 
have, it must have been in a fluid form. The 
females, however, do injure the branches of 
trees by rasping incisions, and depositing 
their eggs therein. 

FORESTS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Editor Lancaster Farmer— Dear Sir : 
I was amazed to read in The Lancaster 
Farsier, at page 182, " Was Pennsylvania a 
forest country ? Professor Me.ehan seems to 
think it was not." 

Permit me to say that I have never given 
any such an opmion. I well know that the 
State was wholly under forest with the excep- 
tion of the very few larger valleys, of which 
there is some reasonable doubt. I have never 
anywhere uttered anything to warrant your 
correspondent's assertion that I have seemed 
to advance otherwise. 

Very truly yours, 

Thomas Meehan. 

" "Was Pennsylvania a forest country ? 
Prof. Meehan seems to have advanced the 
opinion that it was not." This is the lan- 
guage of our correspondent " Warwick," on 
page 182 of the 12th volume of the Farmer. 

In order to do justice to Prof. Meehan, and 
to illustrate just how far Warmick may have 
apprehended or »nisapprehended him, we will 
quote what he says touching this subject, in 
his paper read before the "State Board of 
Agriculture," and published in the January 
number of the Oardener^s Monthly for 1881. 

" In going through the Shenandoah Valley 
of Virginia, the absence of any remarkably 
old trees was apparent, and Maj. Hotchkiss 
furnished proof entirely satisfactory thai 
when the white man settled in the valley it 
was wholly clear of timber, and that most of 
the immense quantity we find there now, has 
grown up during the past one or two hundred 
years. In like manner the probability is that 
in all the large valleys of Pennsylvania there 
was no wood at the early settlement of the State.''' 
Prof. M. then adds, "This is the tradition 
among almost all who have had family estates 
for several generations ; and this is confirmed 
bv tlie recent investigations of Dr. Joseph 
Leidy, of the Philadelphia Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, who reported to that body re- 
cently the finding the bones of the buffalo in 
caves of northeastern " Pemisylvania. " And 
further: "Indeed, the tradition is, especially 
in the Cumberland valley, that these valleys 
were annually fired by the Indians, chiefly 
that the trees might be kept down, and food 
provided for the buffalo instead." 

Warwick says, the age of the majectic for- 
est of the present period, generally ranges, 
by counting the annual growths, from 150 to 
200 years." And, "The uplands were burned 
over occasionally if not annually." Also, 
"No general and extensive forest fires are 
likely to have occurred after 1680." Now, it 
seems to us, that these several statements are I 



[February, 



rather corroberative than otherwise. Tlie In- 
dians must have had som.e object in firing the 
uplands annually, and who cpn tell that that 
object may not have been to keep down the 
trees, in order that the buffalo miglit be pro- 
vided with food, especially sinc« buffalo bones 
(if tliey were not the bones of Jones's mule) 
have been found in Pennsylvania caves. If we 
were to write an essay on this subject we 
should quote both of these writers in the af- 
firmative of the theory that Pennsylvania 
was once destitute of timber where it is now 
found abundantly. 

THE LATE POULTRY SHOW. 

The second annual exhibition of the Lan- 
caster County Poultry Association closed on 
Wednesday evening, January 19, and it scor- 
ed a financial suece.ss. The receipts at the 
door were about S400 leaving the society SlOO 
better off than before the show. The re- 
ceipts were §25 in exce.>*s of those of last year, 
but the profit Vras larger because the entry 
fees were much higher. It is estimated that 
nenrly 5,000 people visited the show, includ- 
ing the school children at five cents each, and 
the complimentary tickets. On Thursday 
morning all was confusion about Roberts' 
Hall, the exhibitors being busily engaged in 
removing their exhibits. All "the exhibits 
were found by the exhibitors in as good con- 
dition as when they were given into the soci- 
ety's keeping, with a single exception, and 
the damage done to it certainly deserves no 
milder term than that of 

A Dastardly Trick. 

Some time during Wednesday evening, and 
unobserved by any oue, some heartless rascal 
seized the mail golden pheasant by the tail 
and pulled out nearly all of his beautiful 
plumage, 'xhe bird is not injured, physically, 
liut his beauty is sadly marred. 

We clip tlie above from the £ra, and feel 
gratified that some things can be a "success " 
in Lancaster county. The great secret of the 
success of the Poultry Society may be mainly 
attributed to the/act that it undertakes and 
carries through its enterprise with ewersf^, and 
tlie association, as a unit, assumes therespon- 
sibility, without which, almost any eiiter- 
prise would fliil. When those who ought to 
be leaders and exemplers in an enterprise 
manifest a disposition to "shirk the responsi- 
bility," in nine cases out of ten, the thing is 
already, to all interests and purposes, con- 
demned to failure. " A house divided against 
itself cannot stand ;" it is contrary to the 
usual order of things— it is contrary to the 
inculcations of Divine authority. There is a 
sense in which, " he that js not for us is 
against us." If a. respectable majority of a 
society determine on a worthy enterprise, it 
is not creditable to a minority to hang with 
indifference on its "ragged edges." But one 
sentiment ought to pervade the whole society, 
and that — success. 

The success of the late poultiy exhibition 
redeems the failure of the agricultural and 
horticultural exhibition of last fall, so far as 
the county is concerned, but it cannot com- 
pensate the disappointment experienced by 
the sponsors of the latter, nor exonerate any 
one from the responsibility of that failure. 

Another element of success in the chicken 
show was the fact that it was gotten up by 
live chicken fanciers — by interested amateurs 
and professionals, and in the interest of 
cliicken culture. It did not depend on dis- 
interested outsiders. The members of the so- 
ciety knew they could not expect success with- 
out energetic labor, and for this they planned 
and schemed. It was admirably conceived 
and executed. Again, it had but one object, 
or idea, and that was chickens, and what pri- 
marily and subordinately relates to chickens. 
Its success, however, is not to be measured 
by its money receipts; it was a success witb- 
out that. Compared with the magnitude of 
the exhibition, and the quality of the "goods" 
displayed, the income was quite ordinary; 
still it was much better to realize a surplus 
than to "fall short " that amount. A chick- 
en show too, is more limited — more distinctly 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



19 



outlined— thau an agricultural show, and 
hence possesses the elements of s'eatev oon- 
centnilion than those of a greater diversity of 
objects; Iviit the same methods and eiierpies 
in any dir.clidu would be likely to meel with 
success. We hope therefore it may ahwiys be 
successful, for the chicken is a great item iu 
the domestic economy of the people, and de- 
serves the encouragement of the people. All 
honor to the Poultry Society ; may it bo a 
permanent lixtm-e amoi\g us. 

■ AULT BARRICKS." 
" Taking time by the /ore/ocA-."— Here we 
have a card, issued on the 17th of January 
already, which inforuis us that the " Berks 
County Agricultujal and Horticultural Soci- 
ety," will hold its twentii-sfventh nmvial cxhi- 
hition iu the City of Ileadinc;, on the :27lh, 
28th, 2'Jth andSOth days of Septiinl.rr, 18S1, 
and irom the proceedings of said Society, pub- 
lished in the Reading papers, 5ve also learn 
definitely, that its exhihilion of 1880 was an 
entire success, and that the Society is, practi- 
cally, now out of debt, and has a clever bal- 
ance in its treasury. And not only that, but 
that it also owns property, is a unit in its or- 
ganization, has the material support of the 
community, and is popular with the people. 
Well, we don't envy •■ Old Berks ;" but we 
often ask ourselves, what is Lancaster doing, 
or what has she done, of such a peculiar na- 
ture, that she should be deemed imworthy of 
a similar success V Perliaps the proper ques- 
tion is, what has she left undone, through 
which all her agricultural exhibitions have 
been such signal failiu-es. Who, which, 
where, and what, is the >' Jonah " that needs 
to be tlu'own overboard, in order that the 
enterprise may be enabled to sail into port? 
Does Lancaster county occupy a social, 
moral, and material place that is higher than 
that of Berks county, and therefore does not 
need these public pageantries as stimulants to 
success? Are these things so overruled as to 
redound to the highest social and fmancial 
good of the people ? Without for 
a moment doubting the ultimate " blessings 
of adversity," still we cannot refrain from 
looking a little deeper into the questiou, and 
contemplating the problem whether those who 
can only become regenerated through adver- 
sity may not occupy a lowerjplane of moral alti- 
tude, than those who can become regenerated 
through prosperity. Lancaster has been prone 
to look (foicn on Berks, when she, perhaps, 
should have looked up. 

Long, very long ago, a native of Old Berks 
used to visit our father's domicile and glowing- 
ly expatiate upon the qualities of his native 
domain, and its superiority, in all that related 
to domestic progress. Perhaps he may have 
been a little vain of " Ault Barricks "—as he 
expressed it— but we cannot help admiring his 
fidelity to the memories of his youthful days. 
It illustrated that local pride, and unity of senti- 
ment, through which any community finds its 
shortest and surest road to material success. 
AVhen a man thinks his wife bakes the best 
bread, and compounds the best apple dump- 
lings on earth, it shows that they are a domes- 
tic unit, apd in their domicile we are likely to 
find ■ prosperity and contentment — the house 
is not "divded against itself." Perhaps this 
is the key to the lock of Berks county's suc- 
cess in all her enterprises. She may not be 
perfect — indeed she may be far in the rear 
of Lancaster in many essential things, but we 
cannot deny that she is in advance of us in 
her Agricultural shows. We are glad that 
Berks county is in Pennsylvania, and that 
Pennsylvania is in the United Slates, because 
we unconsciously partake of their " blushing 
honors " notwithstanding we may do so little 
in their achievement. We, perhaps, have not 
yet attained to our true calling, and are still 
in a state of progressive probation. If we 
cannot turn a "summersault," we may, at 
least, "dance among eggs" without breaking 
them. All men do not possess the same gifts, 
the same powers, and the same faculties -at 
least not in the same degi-ce, and what is 
true of men, is also true of communities, of 



counties, and of States. We think, that with- 
'out a radical transforiuatlnn, LanCiister coun- 
ty is not the place in which to hold a success- 
ful Agricultuial Fair, and that Berks county 
is. Agricultural shows should be conducted 
by agriculturists, and iu the iutiaest of agri- 
clture. That makes all the difference, and 
that alone. 

-THE STONE AGE." 



Indian Relics Plowed Up in Lancaster County. 
Mr. W. H. McFalls exhibited to us two of 
the most perfect implements of tlie kind that 
it has ever been our privilege to see. They 
are what are usually culled "pestles," and are 
supposed to have been used for crushing corn, 
but is questionable whether these were ever 
used for that purpose,, or even intended to be 
so used. One of these implements is 17 inches 
long and 7 inches in circumference, at the 
thickest part — In the middle. It is made of 
a yellowish argillicious rock, smoothly finished 
and tapers beautifidly towards each end, the 
ends being rounded. The other is in the same 
form, 10 inches long, 61 in circumference, and 
is of a harder rock. It has a brownish color, 
perhaps hornblende, and being susceptible of a 
finer finish, and not being so liable to external 
disintegration, it is therefore iu a still more 
perfect condition than the former; almost pol- 
ished. Both the implements (or orukments) 
are perfectly cylindrical (a transverse section 
would exhibit a perfect circle) and symmetri- 
cally tapered from their centres to their ends. 

Pestles 
or "corn-crushers," in order to be eflfcctive, 
would natm-ally be larger aud squarer at the 
base, but the end of these are cone-shaped. 
They resemble "rolling-pins," and if not used 
for that purpose, may have been war imple- 
ments or batons of authority. Mr. McFalls 
l)lovved them up in one, of his fields, near 
Clearfield, Providence township, Lancaster 
CO., Pa. _ 

A DOUBLE APPLE PRESERVED IN 
ALCOHOL. 

Mr J. William Roeting, of Elizabcthtown, 
I^ancaster county. Pa. , sent us a few days ago, 
a singular double apple, which we are endeav- 
oring to preserve in alcohol. The color is uni- 
formerly a light red, streaked with darker red, 
but only faintly. Latitudinal circmference, 
ten inches; longitudinally the circumference is 
seven inches on one side of the basin and seven 
and a half on the other side. The basin is 
moderately deep, and oblong iu form; it had 
no stem, but the appearance is, that it origi- 
nally luui a branching stem, one branch at- 
tached to each end of the basin, indicated by 
two depressions, or indentations, Between 
the two divisions of the apple there is an ob- 
tuse suture on the one side, and a more dis- 
tinct one on the other side; at the apex — or 
rather apices — the suture is entirely obsolete, 
and a slightly elevated ridge instead. There 
are two very distinct and well defined calyxes, 
two inches apart. The whole is ovoid in 
form, as if about the two-thirds of two apples 
had muted together in their growth. To us 
the most probable theory is, that two apples 
grew on one bifed stem ; and that as they in- 
creased in size, either by friction or pressure, 
the skin become ruptured, bringing the pulp 
of each in contact, and that they thus assimi- 
lated and formed a "silent partnership." Ex- 
cept this abnormal freak the fruit is well 
formed, has a smooth surface, and is without 
a blemish save a slight contusion near the 
calyx of the inferior side. We don't like to 
cut it open to explore the inner side, but we 
judge from the position of the calyxes, that 
there are seeds and seed cavities in correspon- 
dence with the external contour. From the 
dimensions given it may be seen that the size 
is hardly medium. Jlr. R. said nothing 
about its variety, and, under the circumstan- 
ces, we shall not venture to name it — especi- 
ally since there are about two thousand de- 
scribed varieties in the United States, and 
that is, perhaps, one thousand too many. 



THE TIMBER QUESTION. 

Its Effect upon our Social Economies, and the 
Integrity of our Seasons. 

"Scientists have been teaching us for a 
number of yi-ars, that the immense amount 
of timber being cut away was the prime cause 
of lessening the rain and snow fall. This 
winter completely explodes that theory aud it 
these men of science are not submerged by 
the snow they will please rise up and acknow- 
ledge their utter ignorance iu matters meteor- 
ological. 

"Thus far this has been what we call an 
old fashioned winter, like they had in the 
days of our fathers, when they would sit be- 
hind the stoves all winter, playing "old 
sledge" and drinking hard cider, spinning 
yarns aii<l pitching pennies, and indulging in 
various oilier modes of eutertaining them- 
solvex. It rejuvenates the old men to see such 
winters like we are now enjoying. They seem 
now almost persuaded to plunge themselves 
into such active scenes again. Meanwiiile, 
wo will await the delivering of more theories 
from .•scientific mindt about the timber view- 
ers." — Kcchamje. 

Although the theory of the climatic influ- 
ence of forest lands may be overestimated, 
still, we hardly think that it is exploded. 
These things are not governed by infiueuces 
alone, but also by eouiiler influences. As "all 
signs fail in dry weather," the winter season 
may work an exception to the rule. It is 
said that "one swallow won't make a sum- 
mer," therefore one intervening winter like 
tlie present, can no more demolish the theory, 
than ii dry winter can establish it. Much 
more may be claimed for this theory than We 
are willing to grant, and the data upon which 
it is founded may be insufficient, but they 
cannot be so summarily ignored. The local 
evidences are abundant, where the removal of 
the forest trees had wrought a great change 
in water courses, and general water supply, 
but whether this is arbitrarily or universally 
so, is still an open question. Fifty years ago, 
or more, we were at service on a farm located 
in the fork formed by the "Big" aud the 
"Little Cliickies" (liaplio township).. At 
that period, perhaps, more than half the farm 
was woodland, aud especially those parts 
which bordered on the creeks, were covered 
with timber. Near the house, and at the base 
of a hill was a large "never-failing" spring, 
surrounded by trees. This spring had been 
there from time immemoral, and had ever 
been the sole source of water supply for culi- 
nary and drinking purposes. The stock of 
course were watered at the creek. After we 
left the place, fifty years intervened before we 
visited again. In the mean time the old barn, 
the corn crib, the pig pens, the chicken coops, 
aud the dwelling house had been demolished, ' 
and new farm buildings erected about half a 
mile north of the old location and on higher 
ground ; -the entire forest growth had also 
been removed : and when we visited the farm 
on the 1-ith of December, 1878, every land- 
mark was gone, and we could ' hardly recog- 
nize it. The day was moist and raw, never- 
theless we thought we would like to see that 
old spring once more, and perchance drink of 
its limpid waters. We were taken to the 
place, but the spring was non est — it had dis- 
appeared a quarter of a century ago. Not a 
tree or a shrub was near it : all the hills on 
both sides of the creek were denuded of their 
timbers, and even the creek itself was not as 
large and full as it was half a century aga : 
and this drying up of the spring, and the di- 
minition iu the' flow of the creek, was co- 
temporary with the removal of the trees, and 
was doubtless the effect of that cause. The 
removal of the trees will materially expose 
the surface of the earth to the heating rays of 
the sun, and the drying influenceof the winds, 
and facilitates the evaporation of moisture 
from the soil. This is very perceptible along 
the margins of fields bordered by woodland, 
and especially in a dry season. Well, it may 
be said, does not this ascending vapor con- 
dense and return again in descending rain ? 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



True it does, but it does not follow that it will 
come down in the same place, unless there is 
some element there for which it has affinity. 
It is notorious that in the West India Islands 
where all the mahogany and otlier trees have 
been removed, tlie clouds, that once came 
down in showers of ram, now, in a great 
measure, pass entirely over them, leaving 
them dry and arid. Of course, there are ex- 
ceptional counter influences also at work, 
but these influences would be more frequent- 
ly and more mildly affected by the presence of 
trees. As to the severity of the present win- 
t3r, may not om- earth be passing through a 
moist and frigid belt in the realms of space, 
just as it passed through a vast meteoric field 
in November 1833 ? Influences beyond the 
sphere of the earth may occasionally be 
brought within its sphere. 

The following extract conclusively shows 
that there will always be a variety of reason- 
ings and opinions on this prolific subject, and 
although tlu: cause may not yet be fully devel- 
oped, yet the observations which have been 
made at various times and places, are assum- 
ing the form of approximations to the true 
cause. Science is a progressive work and 
many of its decisions are not yet final. 
The Cause of Drouths, 

"The question is often asked, why drouths 
are more common latterly than in former 
years. The miin reason, we concede, how- 
ever, to be because the forests have been cut 
down. The eflects of forests iipon the atmos- 
phere are twofold. They fill the air with 
dampness, and again this dampness, when it 
is condensed into clouds, is attracted by tlie 
forests. The roots of trees run deep into the 
ground and absorb the moisture that is con- 
tained in it a considerable depth below the 
surface. This moisture, much of it at least, 
is evaporated by the leaves, and thus the air 
is loaded with water. The amount of water 
that is drawn up from the strata of the earth 
lower down than the roots of ordinary culti- 
vated plants penetrate, is enormous. This 
water, if not drawn up by the roots of the 
trees, would gradually make its way into 
creeks and rivers, and ultimately into the 
ocean. Cutting down the forests has two 
other effects, both of which result in decreas- 
ingthe amount of rain. Dry and parching 
winds are unimpeded in their progress, and 
the result is that they carry off the moisture 
which is in the atmosphere. Another result 
is tiiat small streams of water have in many 
instances been entirely annihilated, except 
during the winter months. This has decreased 
the volume of water in tire creeks and rivers, 
and consequently, decreased' the attractive 
force of the clouds and the amount of water 
evaporated from the surface of the earth in 
any particular section." 

But there is another source of solicitude in 
regard to our forests, independent of meteor- 
ological considerations. Even if it were cer- 
tain that their removal had no effect on the 
rainfall of the country, there is danger of a 
timber famine in the near future; and some- 
thing, it seems, ousht to be done now to 
avert it, and should it transpire that there 
never would be a dearth of timber for the 
purposes enumerated in our concluding ex- 
tract, yet health, refinement, beauty and con- 
tentment might suggest the wisdom of re- 
taining them, or reproducing them. We 
cannot conceive of a country without trees, 
as being anything else than monotonous, cold, 
stift' and formal, attributes that must be re- 
volting to a refined moral constitution. It is 
anything but flattering to. our moral man- 
hood, that the beautiful works of nature 
must be subordinated to the one ab.sorbiug 
principle of pecuniary emolument— the sale 
of our souls and bodies to the great Moloch 
of wealth, and its attendant proclivities. 
Where our Forests are Going. 

"To make shoe pegs enough for American 
use consumes annually 100,000 cords of tim- 
ber, and to make our lucifer matches, 300,000 
cubic feet of the best pine are required every | 
year. Lasts and boot-trees take 500,000 cords 
of bkcb, beach and maple, and the handles I 



of tools 500,000 more. The baking of our 
bricks consume 2,000,000 cords of wood.orwhat 
could cover with forest about 50,000 acres of 
land. Telegraphic poles already represent 
800,000 trees, and their annual repair con- 
sumes about 300,000 more. The ties of our 
railroads consumes annually thirty years' 
growth of 75,000 acres, and to fence all our 
railroads would cost $45,000,000 with a yearly 
expenditure of $15,000,000 for repairs. These 
are some of the ways in wliich American for- 
ests are going. There are others, our packing 
boxes for instance, cost in 1875, S12,000,000, 
while the timber used each year in making 
wagons and agricultural implements is valued 
at more than $100,000,000." 

EXCERPTS. 

"The toad, which used to be thought a most 
malignant reptile, is really one of the most 
useful creatures a gardener can have about 
him. In the matter of feeding, anything that 
creeps or crawls will do for him— wood-lice, 
beetles, spiders, slugs, worms, even snails 
with their shells being snapped up by his dex- 
terous tongue and swallowed as if by masric. 
Kept in a garden or a green-house, they will 
destroy an immense number of injurious in- 
sects while doing absolutely no harm them- 
selves." 

It affords us great pleasure in being able to 
endorse the character of old Bufn umericana, 
as well as many of his congeners. But, not- 
withstanding their good qualities, they are 
still "malignant reptiles," but their malice is 
governed by their stomachs, and then it is 
only directed towai=ds insects. Toads cast 
their skins just as snakes do, but we seldom 
if ever find'thecastoftsktn of a toad. Because 
they generally, if not always, very compla- 
cently swallow it. 

"A dairying company of London has lately 
estabUshed a laboratory at which samples of 
milk received from farmers are subjected to 
chemical analysis. Prizes have been offered 
by the company, which are to be given to 
those farmers whose milk supply stands high- 
est in quality during a stated period of time. 
The samples of milk are carefully examined 
by the company's analyst, whose analyses and 
reports will decide the competition for the 
prizes. It is expected that much valuable in- 
formation respecting methods for producing 
the richest possible milk will be secured in 
this way. " . ■ 

A " tir.st-rate " idea, provided the farmers 
sell to their patrons the same kind of milk 
tliey "sample," and have analyzed. 

" Evergreen and other trees and shrubs 
with brittle wood should have the snow shaken 
off their branches after every heavy snow fall. 
Many valuable trees become permanently dis-- 
figured from the bending or breaking of 'their 
limbs, by heavy masses of snow and ice."' 

"That's so," for on one occasion we saw a 
heavy snow fall in May, (Whitsuntide Mon- 
day) when the early peach trees were in bloom, 
and they suffered very much by tlie bending 
and breaking of the branches. It was prior 
to 1825, but we cannot name the particular 
year. In six liours the snow disappeared. 

"An agricultural journal tells of a man 
who plants, two or three weBks after the crop 
is planted, a new hill of corn in every fif- 
teenth row each way. This is the reason : If 
the weather becomes dry during the filling 
time, the silk and tassels both wither and dry 
up. In this condition, a return of moist 
weather revives the silk, but the tassels do 
not recover. Then, for want of pollen, the 
silk is unable to fill its proper office. At this 
time, however, the replanted corn is ready to 
supply fresh pollen, and the fiUing is com- 
pleted." 

If the above is a really good thing, we be- 
lieve we would risk a little ihore of it— say, 
every fifth row, instead of fifteen. If it was 
too late for the second plant to ripen, it might 
be just in time for a late crop of " roasting- 
ears." | 



"Some experiments by a number of Ger- 
man scientists seem to show that the nutri- 
tive value of pea straw is equal to that of 
clover hay. Oat straw is interior, botli in 
proportion of nutritive matter and in diges- 
tibility." 

When we were a boy, cattle took more 
kindly to oat straw than to any other kind of 
straw— indeed they seemed to like it as well 
as hay. " Pea straw," was not much of an 
item among farmers then, but what there was 
of it, so far as we can recollect, was not 
deemed of much value. If it is more nutri- 
tious than clover hay, that fact will be an im- 
iwrtaut item in our'domestic economy. 

"After considerable investigation. Dr. 
Frankland concludes that the persistence of 
fogs in large cities is due to the fact that the 
minute particles of vapor become covered 
with an oily coating from the smoke— the 
evaporation of the fog being thus greatly re- 
tarded. This is considered a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the nature Of 'dry fogs,' .so 
often observed." 

Important perhaps as an item of knowledge, 
but hardly of much value to those who do not 
live in large cities or towns. 

'^ Lake Village.— Another Lake Village, 
assigned by experts to the age of bronze, has 
been discovered at Auvernier, near Nenf- 
chatel. Several millstones quite new, others 
half made, have been brought to light, from 
which it is inferred that the place may have 
been the seat of a manufactory of these arti- 
cles. Another conclusion drawn from this find 
is that Swiss pile buildings served as actual 
dwellings for the primeval inhabitants of the 
land, and were not, as has been supposed, 
used merely as storehouses. " — Nature, 

Interesting as an item of antique history, 
or archteology, but belongs to the non-es- 
sential. 

THE NEW HOLLAND CLARION. 

This excellent weekly journal, published by 
Geo. H. Eanck, at §1.50 a year, comes to us 
''■enlarged and iJ»(^rorert," and especially im- . 
proved. It is now a large {20 by 2(3) eight col- ' 
umned folio, printed on good white paper. In 
mechanical execution it is not inferior to the 
best paper in the county of Lancaster, and in 
a premium competition would stand as good 
a chance to carry the first prize, as any other. 
It does our heart good (and our eyes also) to 
read such papers ; things reflected from its 
columns look so fragrant and so fresh; and it 
makes us feel so proud of the "United States 
of Lancaster county. " There is a "style" 
about some papers, that makes even a com- 
mon-place article look artistic and learned, 
and the Clarion is one of those. When we 
take a retrospective view of the newspapers 
of our county we are more than a little aston- 
ished at the rapid progress they liave made, 
both in quantity and quality. Wiien we quote 
from the columns of such a paper, we feel 
convinced that it has a " grit " about it. In a 
recent number — in its new dress- it sounds a 
note that ought to be familiar to "everyone," 
even if their had been no instrument in the 
county to sound it. It verbreates and rever- 
berates a smooth harmonious note in the fol- 
lowing,|which echos and re-echos "that's so:" 

" Every one of our Lancaster county farm- 
ers should subscribe for the Lancaster Farmer 
our home journal, which is conducted by men 
who know sometliing about practical farm- 
ing, and are not mere theorists. Much valu- 
uable information can be obtained throughout 
the year from the Farmer and every one who 
will' venture to invest a dollar in it will find 
the investment a profitable one. John A. 
Hiestand, publisher, Lancaster, Pa." 

There is no discord about that, and those 
to whom it is addressed, could not possibly do 
anything better than to act on its suggestions. 
We, ourselves, may know little or nothing 
about the worth of our paper— or any other 
paper — but we believe the Clarion does. This 
is a discovery which the Clarion made and 
promulgated years ago, which, it is clear to 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



our mind, "every one" has not heeded. Now 
is the time for the citizens of Lancaster coun- 
ty at least, to carrv the sugije.stious of tlie 
Clarion iiilo iJiMcfh-al effect, ami \vc feel con- 
fldenl tliat they ini},'ht "p, fart her ai.d fare 
worse." Till' F'lrnnrls tlic siiccial incdiiiin 
through which tlie tilkrs uf the soil can make 
a permanent declaration of how tliey till it, 
and what It produces. We need a corps of 
local contribuli)r.<! as much as we do a list of 
subscribcj-s, and will clucfully assist the most 
illiterate to place Ihenisdves'on record in an 
intclli.uent manner. .Y""- is the time— now is 
the jieriod of literary rcLjeneration, 

THE FREEZING OF INSECTS. 

AVe could not iwssibly attend the February 
mectinfi of the Agricultural and Hmticnltn- 
ral society, and had \vc b.cn there wc pi-uba- 
bly could' not have heard what was said on 
this subject. The reports of the proceedinf.'s 
hy the tlnce daily papers do not seem to con- 
vey e.xactly wliat'Dr. Greene advanced, but all 
j^cm to afiree that he admoni.shed those inxs- 
ent that they need not entertain any appre- 
hension in regard to insects the coniini,' sea- 
son, -'.solely from the fad '' that tlirou-h the 
long and intense cold of the present winter, 
eggs, larva-, pupte, and mature insects would 
largely be frozen. This does not follow hy 
any means, lender favorable circumstances 
(unfavorable to the insects) this may follow to 
some extent, but it caunot be regarded as a 
matter of course. 'It is very hard to freeze 
the eggs of insects, especially in a dry and 
continuously cold winter. The eggs of Aphids 
Cocci, and "Tent" caterpillars, will bear a 
very low degree of cold without injury, 
and this is also the case with many of the 
pupiE, and even some of the larvoc. As to 
the developed insects themselves, many of 
the hibernating species arc underground, and 
the ground too deei)ly covered witli snow to 
be much allected by freezing. A few years 
ago, when Mr. Lutz reported the ground 
frozen three feet in depth, in Lancaster ceme- 
try, " Colorada potato beetles " talien out of 
solid blocks of earth, revived in iwo hours 
after they had been removed to a warm room. 
The same winter we had our eye daily on a 
chrysalis of the " white cabhage butterfly " 
from the month of November until the follow- 
ing April, when one warm day the fly evolved 
and fled. We think it was that same winter, 
that one of those butterflies ftew into the In- 
telligencer office on the 2'2d day of February, 
which was given us hy Lieutenant Johnston. 
The day was not very cold, but the ground 
was still covered with snow. When a silk- 
worm breeder receives eggs before he has any 
food for -them he puts them in an ice-hou.se 
to retard incubation. The Japanese send 
silk-worm eggs to San Francisco, from 
• whence they are shipped across the continent 
to New York, and from thence to different 
ports in Europe. These are preserved from 
incubation by placing them in refrigi-rators, 
or packing them in ice. ■> 

We have frequently seen species of Pfr- 
K*B {shad Hies) coming up through fissures in 
decomposing ice along the shore of the Sus- 
quehanna, in February and March. We have 
also found insect larvic frozen so stifl' that 
Ihey coidd be broken like icicles, and .yet ou 
the removal of those intact to a warm niedi- 
um, they have revived and become active. On 
one occasion we cut tlie caterpiller of Arclia 
Isabella out of a solid block of ice, in a rain 
stand, and within three hours afterwards we 
found it creeping over the carpet in a warm 
room almost as briskly as in summer. Diu-- 
iug the cold winter alluded to above, Mr. 
Hensel, of East Orange street, cut potato 
beetles out of the frozen earth, but the bee- 
tles did not seem to l>e trozen— they mashed 
and made a yellowish streak, as they do on 
being crushe<l in summer time. And yet, 
there are meteorological conditions that are 
detrimental to the life and health of insects, 
namely, watery saturations and extremes of 
alternate freezings and thawings. Almost all 
the architectural struttures of "insects are im- 
pervious to water. The object seems to be to 



keep out moisture and not the cold. A gravid 
female insect appears to have as many lives 
as a cat. After all her eggs are deposited she 
loses her tenacity ; the case is similar with a 
•'bachelor " male. Afer his fertilizing otHco 
is performed he loses his vitality and passes 
away. When weadviseafarmertoturn up the 
soil with a plow and expose the larvte and 
cln-ysalids in it, it is more to subject them to 
destruction by birds, skunks, etc., and to 
freezings, thawings and watery saturations, 
than to cold. 

All this, however, does not militate against 
the tact that insects at a certain low tem- 
perature may freeze ; especially when other 
conditions render the:p more suscei)til)le to 
the effects of cold ; but we do not think 
that it makes any dilli-rence with those below 
th(> "snow liiu" Ihe present winter, how cold- 
it is above that lirie;:nid to illustrate how 
invulnerable some aliove that line are, we 
have only to mention that on ^londay, the 
7th inst., a young man brought to us a lively 
chrysalis of Allacus rTcroyJa— "for name"- 
whicli he had very injudiciously taken out of 
its coooon. This is the large "American silk- 
worm," or "Cecropia moth," and we think if 
any insect would be likely to freeze this one 
would, for it always spins its cocoon and 
fi\stens it in a low branch, a weed, a. shrub 
or some such place. -Its cocoon is impervious 
to water, and that is pretty much all it pro- 
vides against. Th. s secured, it is very doubt- 
ful if ever one was killed by c)Id. Nor will 
water always effect the destruction of insects, 
unless they are immersed in it for a long 
period or until decomposition takes place. 
It is certahily known that "house Hies" 
caught in a "water trap" have revived after 
exposure to the sun's rays in less than an 
hour. Rev. Mr. Kirby, one of- England's 
most distinguished entomologists, had his at- 
tention first called to the study of insects 
from a most striking case of their tenacity, 
which came under his observation. lie im- 
mersed a small yellow and black-spotted 
"Lady bird" {Cocinella iO-punctata) in spirits, 
and in placing it in the sun some hours after- 
wards, it revived and flew away. We have 
often been astonished, when we have killed 
and impaled insects, to find them "alive and 
kicking" two or three days thereafter. Al- 
though a certain degree of heat will revive 
insects that are thought to be dead, yet in- 
tense heat is a surer mode of destruction 
than intense cold. We wish we could assure 
farmers and others of a millennial absence of 
noxious insei ts through the intervention of 
cold winters, but we cannot. They are here, 
and have been, here since our earliest recollec- 
tion, and perhaps always will be here as long 
as the earth produces food for them to feed 
upon; and the more the untamed earth is 
cultivated and its products improved in quan- 
tity and quality, the more inviting and facili- 
tating will it he to the pre.sence and increase 
of insects. No farmer cures his meat, or has 
his meals cooked, without providing salt. 
This is an all-pervading and ever accompany- 
ing essential. Let him regard insects as 
something that he shall have "always with 
him," as a matter of course, and make pro- 
vision by prevention, circumvention, or ex- 
termination, as conditions upon which he 
can only be enabled to "reap what he sows." 

As to Prof. Riley's predictions in reference 
to tlie appearance of the|seventcen-year locust 
in Lancaster county in 1881, to which Dr. 
Greene alluded, we think the professor only 
refers to it approximately, and not as a finali- 
ty. He doubtless bases his theory on certain 
data which ought to produce certain results, 
if those data have been correctly noted or re- 
ported. Prof. R. has done more to reduce to 
systematic order the chaos that has existed 
in regard to the various broods of tliese insects 
for the last humlred years, than perhaps any 
man living. We do not expect such an ad- 
vent of these insects this year in Lancaster 
county, as those we witnessed in 18.'54, 18.51 
and 1868, although small and isolated broods 
may appear in certain localities, both in York 
and Lancaster counties, and to which we 



have more fully alluded elsewhere. It does 
not require much prophetic power to forecast 
the damage done to vegetation liy the seven- 
teen-year locust. BeyoiKl a little pruning, in 
some cases absolutely bemlieial to some tree.s, 
they do very little "dania-e, exeeiit to very 
young trees, or dwarfs and shrubbery ; but 
their visits are so "few and far between" 
that a single year may set matters right 
again. Had they never been wrongly called 
" locusts," perhaps, no destructive character- 
istics would hav(! attached to them ; but 
that name suggests the locusts of Asia and 
Africa, &c. 

PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTURAL SO- 
CIETY. 

The annual meeting of the Pennsylvania 
Agricultural Society was held at the rooms 
of the society in llarrisburg, Wednesday, 
January 2(Jth, 1881. The following officers 
for the ensuing' year were elected : 

Pre>ident--\VilliamS. Bissell. 

Vice I'rcsidents-D. L. Twaddcl), George 
Blight, William ilassey, Thomas T. Tasker, 
Charles L. Shariiless, David H. Branson, 
William II. Holstein, Tobias Barto, S. S. 
Spencer, Daniel II. Neman, D. 11. Waller, 
Ira Tripii, .1. S. Keller, James Young, Joseph 
Piolett, John A. Lemon, .lohn S. Miller, 
Daniel O. Gehr, L. A. Mackey, George Rhey; 
.lohn Murdoch, Jr., W. W. Speer, John Mc- 
Dowell, Moses Chess, J. D. Kirkpatrick, 
James Miles. 

Additional Members Executive Commit- 
tee—A. Wilhelm, Abiier Rutherford, William 
Taylor, John H. /iegl.r, W. B. Culver. 

Ex-Presideni-. Members of the Board- 
Frederick Watts, D. Taggart, Jacob S. Hal- 
deraan. Amos E. Kapp, John C. Morrow, J. 
R. Eby. 

Corresponding Secretary— Elbridge Mc- 
Conkey. 

Recording Secretary— D. W. Seller. 

Treasurer— John B. Rutherford. 

Chemist and Geologist— A. L. Kennedy. 

Librarian— William II. Egle. 

OFFICERS ELECTED. 

Mechanics' Library Association. 

At the annual meeting of the Mechanics' 
Library Association, on the 15th ult., the fol- 
lowing officers were elected to serve during the 
ensuing year : 

President— II. R. McConomy. 

Vice President— George E. Zellcrs. 

Secretary- Samuel H. Zahm. 

Treasurer— Christian Gast. 

Library Committee— S. S. Rathvon, Wm. 
F. Duncan, J. W. Byrne, D. C. Haverstick 
and R. E. Snyder. 

Property Committee— G. M. Zahm, J. W. 
Byrne, Philip Docr.som and J. D. Pyott. 

Librarian — S. S. Rathvon. 

By a resolution, the annual subscription 
for others than members was fixed at $1. The 
association has now over 5,000 books in the 
Library. 

Berks Co. Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society. 

At the annual meeting of the Berks County 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society, held 
in the Court House, in the City of Reading, 
Pa., on Saturday, January 15th, 1831, the 
following officers were elected to serve during 
the ensuing year : 

President— Jacob G. Zen-. 

Vice-Presidents— George D. Stitzel, Adam 
Styer. J. H. Reinhold, William R. High. 
Reuben W. Scherer.. 

Secretary— Cyrus T. Fox. 

Corresponding Secretary-Albert 11. Fegely. 

Treasurer— Willi.am S. Ritter. 

Auditors— Matthias Mengle, Ezra High. 

The twenty-seventh annual exhibition of 
the society will he held in the City of R«ad- 
inir, September -27th, 28th, 29th and 30lb,- 
18i81. 

The office of the society is at No. 11 J North 
Sixth street, (Itmes and Dispatch Office.) 
Reading, Pa. 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



Entomological. 



SEVENTEEN YEAR LOCUSTS. 
Prof. Eiley, the entomologist, says the 
year locust will abound next June 



in Marquette and Green Lake counties, AVls- 
consin, ip the neighborhood of Wheeling, 
West Virginia, and probably in Marylaiid, 
Virginia and District of Columbia. They 
may also appear, he says, in the west part o'f 
North Carolina, in northeastern Ohio, Lan- 
caster county, Pa., and Westchester county, 
N. Y. There are two broods of these period- 
ical locusts, one appearing once in seventeen 
years, and the other once in thirteen. Both 
broods will appear this year, but not in the 
same localities. The professor says that the 
thirteen-year brood will probably be seen in 
Southern Illinois, in all of Missouri except 
the northwest corner, in Louisiana, Arkan- 
sas, Indian territory, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, North Caro- 
lina and South Carolina. Tlie two kinds of 
locusts differ very little in appearance. The 
earliest appearance of the seventeen-year 
locusts in this country, so far as the records 
go, was in 1643 in Plymouth, Mass., and they 
have not failed to a^jpear once in seventeen 
years ever since. " 

Prof. Kiley is aufait on the subject of the 
" Seventeen year Locust," but we are inclin- 
ed to believe that his prophecies will not be 
realized so far as Lancaster county. Pa., is 
concerned, as a general advent. We have wit- 
nessed four appearances of the seventeen year 
locusts, namely in 1817, in 1834, in 1851 and 
in 1868, and we expect them to visit us again 
in 1885. If any appear here before that time, 
they must be an irregular brood, or the thir- 
teen year variety, although the latter should 
have appeared in 1880. In parts of York, 
Adams and Franklin counties a brood ap- 
years at an irregular period, according to the 
reports of those who have said they saw them, 
and in the oil regions a brood appears two' 
years before the regular period. A sort of 
dread has been attached to the appearance of 
these insects that probably will never die out; 
because, between their appearances a new 
generation usually rises up, and these do not 
seem to be much beuelited by the experiences 
of the generation that precedes them. We 
were just five years old when we first saw 
them (1S17), and between that time and the 
next appearance (1834), we passed through 
our school days, worked five years on a farm, 
served five years as an apprentice, grew to 
manhood, passed through our journeyman- 
ship, commenced business, and got married. 

THE CORN-CUT-WORM. 

"We noticed briefly in a late number the 
discussion at the Eliuira Farmers' Club on 
this insect, which is so often destructive to 
the corn crop. In a late number of the 
Husbandman we observe the following direc- 
tions tor destroying it, given by Secretary 
Armstrong, whicli may be useful to some of 
our readers, and which we have successfully 
adopted for many years : 

"There is really but one way to save the 
crop after the plants are once attacked by 
cut-worms— that is to dig the worms out and 
kill them. It is not a difficult ta.sk, nor is it 
rery costly. I presume that a fourth part of 
the loss sustained would be the full equivalent 
of all the labor it would cost to dig up the 
cut-worms and kill them. The worm does the 
mischief at ni^lit, and before morning bur- 
rows in the ground near the spot where its 
depredations have been committed. A prac- 
ticed eye will readily discern the entrance to 
the hiding place, a small round hole into 
which the worm has passed and lies concealed. 
The way to bring the pest up is to thrust a 
pointed knife down near the hole and lift out 
the eartli to the depth of two or three inches, 
when the malefactor will lie exposed to view 
and can be instantly destroyed. I have 
known of large fields being cleared by this 
process at a cost of labor so slight as to bear 
no comparison with the loss that would other- 
wise have resulted." 



The above is the most practical and the 
most certain remedy for diminishing the 
number of cut-worms that has ever been dis- 
covered, as it is also the oldest and most 
laborious. Other remedies of prevention, or 
circumvention, there have been published 
many of, at various times, but their effects 
are not so certain as the above, if they have 
not been, in most cases, entirely useless. The 
cutworm is still amongst us, and especially 
since the mtroduction of tobacco culture. 
The "worm" stems to be exceedingly fond of 
tobacco, and tobacco-growers "go tor him" 
accoi-dingly. Whether he cuts the corn or 
the tobacco, it is the "same old coon." These 
plants, with beans, pPiis, cabbages, radishes, 
&c., are all the same to him; he is not par- 
ticular which, and the remedy foi: one is the 
same for all. 

ENEMIES OF SPIDERS. 

" The well-known naturalist, the Rev. H. E. 
McCook, of Philadelphia, has been talking to 
the Academy of that city on spiders, which 
he designated as the most benevolent of in- 
sects. Among the principal enemies of the 
spider he enumerated many of those hymen- 
opterous or four winged flies, the bees, wasps, 
etc., which produce flesh-eating grubs. Large 
numbers of spiders are used by this species as 
food. The nest of one- of these forms was 
exhibited, built of clay in such a manner as 
to resemble the pipes of Pan. When opened, 
these nests were found filled with spiders of 
different species. They were all paralyzed by 
the fly, but not killed, and in this .state of 
suspended animation they remain until the 
hatching out of the grubs, which eagerly de- 
vour them one after the other. The unfortu- 
nate captives lie limp in the jaws of the grubs, 
showing no sign of sensation and making no 
resistance. Other flies, and amoiig these may 
be included the common black house fly, prey 
upon spiders by destroying the cocoons or by 
sucking the contents of their eggs when they 
happen to be uncovered or only slightly pro- 
tected. The eggs are also devoured in large 
numbers by birds. Some species of birds as- 
sist in preventing the spread of spiders by 
making use of their webs, especially the thick- 
er portion used in the construction of co- 
coons, to build their nests. A bird's nest was 
exhibited composed of this material in such 
.quantity as to indicate the destruction of a 
great many webs. Those hymenopterous in- 
sects which deposit their eggs in tlie cocoons 
of the spiders, are, however, their most de- 
structive enemies. When the grubs are 
hatched, they attack the eggs and young of 
their hosts and consume them as food, until 
sufficiently developed to obtain their own 
nourishment." 

Many a time, when we were a boy, hnve 
we watched the Blue wasp (Spinx ' cerulen) 
building his mud nest and llien sloi in- it \\\U\ 
spiders; and many a time tnu )i:ive n-e i>.-eii 
bothered to know his object iu thus JTiipriBon- 
ing the spider, and tlien closing up the aper- 
ture of ingress with mud ; never for a mo- 
ment suspecting that he provided them as 
food for his young. 

We have also followed him to the place 
where he procured his mnd, sometimes carry- 
ing off a pellet of it lieavy enough to weigh 
down the front part of his body. House- 
keepers had no particular love for the wasp, 
but their aversion to spiders amounted to a 
dread ; and, had they known the habits of 
the wasp, they woidd liave loved him more. 



AN ANT STORY. 
Frank Buckland, the naturalist, is responsi- 
ble for the following story : "One day a lit- 
tle boy of mine, about four years old, being 
tired of play, threw liimsclf on a grassy 
mound to rest. Shortly after I was startled 
by a sudden scream. My instant thought 
was, some serpent had stung him. I flew in 
horror to the child but was at once reassured 
on seeing him covered with soldier ants, oji 
whose nest he had laid himself down. Num- 
bers of the iints were still clinging to him 
with their forceps, and continuing to sting 



the boy. My maid at once assisted me in 
killing them. At length, about twenty were 
thrown dead on the ground. We then car- 
ried the boy indoors. In about half an 
hour afterward I returned to the same spot, 
when I saw a large number of ants surround- . 
ing the dead ones. I determined to watch 
their proceedings closely. I followed four or 
five that started from the rest toward the 
hillock, a short distance off, in which was an 
ant's nest. This they entered, and in about 
five minutes they reappeared, followed by 
others. All fell into rank, walking regularly 
and slowly, two by two, mitil they arrived at 
the spot where lay the dead bodies of the 
soldier ants. In a few minutes two of the ants 
advanced and took up the dead body of one 
of their comrades ; and then two others, and 
so on, until all were ready to march. First 
walked two ants bearing a body, and then 
two others with another dead ant ; and so on, 
until the line extended to about forty pairs. 
And the procession moved slowly onward, 
followed by an irregular body of about twQ 
hundred ants. 

Occasionally the two laden ants stopped, 
and laying down the dead ant, it was taken up 
by two walking unburdened behind them, and 
thus, by occasionally relieving each other, 
they arrived at a sandy spot near the sea. 
The body of ants now commenced digging 
with their jaws holes in the ground into each 
of which a dead ant was laid, while they 
now labored on until they had filled up the 
ant's grave. This did not quite finish the re- 
markable circumstances attending this 
funeral of the ants. Some six or seven of 
the ants had attempted to run off without 
performing their share of the tai-k of dig- 
ging ; these were caught and brought back, 
whenthey were at once "killed upon" the spot. 
A single grave was quickly dug, and they 
were all dropped into it. 



Queries and Answers. 



CABBAGE WORMS. 

Salem, III., January 31st, 18S1. 
' Prof. S.S. Rathvon— -Dear Sir: I have, as one 
of the members of the .Jo Daviess County Horticultu- 
ral Society, been requested to discover if there was 
any remedy for the "Cabbage Worm" which has 
proved so destructive to tlie cabbage, in this part of 
the Slate. Through the columns of the ia«(;ns(er 
lutellUiencer , I see your name as still Interested in 
the societies there, and although many years have 
j,assed since I knew you, I filt us though you were 
yet willins- to funiisli iiifi'i .n:ili< iii to the Lancaste- 
rians of former times. I.U inu in tlie city, the infor- 
mation is of no persiiual iuuirst lo me, but would 
be of real service to my friends. One person reports 
that a (ierman woman here owed the freedom of her 
plants, from the worm, to raisimr a bed of flax all 
around, like a boi-der, to her cabbage bed, and the 
"White Millers " never got on the plants to deposit 
th'irnva. Another said, eoveriniif the small plants 
V, it!i hi;iu, or saw dust, had proved of service, others 
Said a number of toads round the bed destroyed the 
woriii.'s. All seem to claim that none of these were 
forcible enough to satisfy those who were directly 
interested. Will you be kind enough to write and 
inform me if there is any remedy for this destroyer 
of a vegetable that is of such service to us during 
our long cold winter. During the last week the 
thermometer has been 27° below zero, and we have 
line sleighing and our atmosphere is a dry cold, and 
of a very bracing nature. Hoping to hear from you, 
lam R. P.S. 

We cannot answer our correspondents 
through the mail. When their communica- 
tions contain anything it would be useful to 
the public to know, we publish them, and 
answer them, to the best of our ability, 
through the columns of oui' journal. There 
are several insects that are destructive to the 
cabbage crep, but we infer that our corres- 
pondent alludes to the " White Cabbage But- 
terfly " {Pieris rapce) since this insect has 
been the bane of the cabbage plant through- 
out a large part of the country for the last 
seven years'. In its larvoe state it is generally 
known as the "Green AVorm," because, in 
color it approximates nearly to the color of 
the plant upon which it feeds, and hence it 
may be on the plant some time before its pres- 
ence is discovered. In regard to the remedies 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



mentioned in tlio above communication, wc 
liave no kiii)\vledj?o of tho efficacy of any of 
them, except that of the toads, and that is 
only [;oail so far as it goes. Toads ate very 
effeclivt' insiMi dcstiwers and live almost ex- 
clusivily upnii tlifin, but they are sucli pei-^ie- 
cutod auinials. anil they are so repulsive to 
many people, that it would be dillicult to {^ot 
a sufficienl imniber tofjetlior to lu.ike their in- 
Quence fell in a large '"eabbage patch." We 
have heard of '-bran" lieiuR used to destroy 
the "cut-worm," but our tobacco-growers 
seem to have no conddeuee iu it ; cut-worma 
are as abundant now in I<ancaster comity as 
ever they were. We have no conlideuce in 
the "flax" remedy. Some of our farmers, at 
first, ])lanted hemp in their potato fields to 
scare oir tlie ••Colorado jiotato beetles," but 
thev would not jeaic "Wortl] a cent:" 

fhcRreen e:ib1>aue worm iiuisl be fouglit 
through all ils siages of development iu order 
to effect its total destvuel ion.. This insect is 
not a native of our country — it is a "foreign 
importation," but it is UKu-e destructive, and 
also more numerous nere than in Europe whence 
it came. The predominating color of thetly is 
white, and in size it is about as large as the 
common yillow bntterlly, so well known from 
our youth upwards. Tliis fly appears early in 
the spring and deposits its eggsbn cruciferous 
plants generally, but is partial to the cabbage. 
If they are then captured with a hand-net 
the destruction of each female will prevent 
the deposition of from one to perhaps three 
hundred eggs ; and this would certainly be a 
very eflective mean? of prevention. But if 
this has not been done, or only partially done, 
(except searching for, and destroying the eggs 
on the plants) the next step must be a warfare 
against the Zdcfce, or "green worms." This 
will require the application of White Helle- 
bore, Paris Green, London Purple, or Pyre- 
tkrum, either as a dry i)owder or liquid in- 
fusion. Both the Paris Green and J.ondon 
Purple require a dilution of 15 or ^20 per 
cent., according to its quality. Ifthe.se ap- 
plications do not destroy all the worms, and 
some of them should consequently transform 
to the cliry.salis, or pupa state, then, by 
placing strips of rough board about three 
inches wide, and cross-pieces about six inches 
higher — iu the form of low benches — between 
the rows of cabbage plants, the worms will 
use the lower sides of these benches as con- 
venient places to pupate, when they may be 
gathered and destroyed. These insects pro- 
duce at least two broods during the summer 
season in this locality, and tlie second brood 
is always more numerous and more destruc- 
tive tlian the first ; it therefore behooves the 
gardener to exercise vigilance until he secures 
his crop in the fall. The most hopeful cour 
tingeney, however, is that; this insect Ivas a 
parasitic enemy tliat destroys multitudes, and 
in localities where this enemy abounds the 
cabbage worm has become nearly extermi- 
nated. A farmer in Fraukliu county. Pa., 
sent us twenty chrysalids about a year ago, 
and out of the number seventeen were 
destroyed by these parasites. Of course the 
remedy of hand-picking is always available, 
and although it may be repulsive to some 
people, still it is not more so than destroying 
the tobacco worm by hand, a custom that has 
been very conuuon i'or many years in tobacco- 
growing distriets, and especially in the South. 

In conihisiou, jjerhaps it may be necessary 
to atlmonisli the novice tliiit Paria Green and 
London Purpk are both virulent mineral 
poisons, and sliouid be manipulated with 
caution. On this account many persons are 
prejudiced against the use of them'; .some, 
- also, fearing that they might become poi.soned 
in eating tlie cabbage. But there is no ground 
for such fears, unless it is prepared by a cook 
too careless to be tolerated among civilized 
pe»)i)le. Mrs. P. E. Gjbbons, one of the most 
intelligent authorities in the County of Lan- 
caster, iissures us that there is no danger 
whatever .with proper care, as she has used 
Pans Gm II as a remedy, "oier and over," 
with no bad results. When Paris Green was 
tirst recommended as a remedy against the 



"Colorado potato beetle," raanyof our farm- 
ers revolted against it, on the same ground, 
but they soon overcame their prejudices, and 
now it is ahumt the only remedy used, and 
the potato is as certain a crop as any raised 
in llie county. 

Ihlhbore and Piircthrum are vegetable 
poisons, the latter of wliieii has only recently 
come into use, and is said to be a safer and 
more effectivo than any remedy now in use, 
but the supply is still limited. Decoctions of 
tobacco or sumac flowers are said to destroy 
the worms when they arc quite young. In 
tlie application of dry powders, it should 
be early in the morning while the jilants are 
covered with dew, and if no dew has fallen 
they should be .sprayed with water. Finally, 
if we desire to preserve our •'saur kraui" 
hitaet we must be •'up and doing." 

.Since writing tlie foregoing we have re- 
ceived a bulletin from Prof. Riley, from which 
we make the following extract ; 

'■' Experiments wUli Ptirelkrnm—Safe Reme- 
dies for Cabbage Worms and Potato Bett'es.— 
The following experiments with Vyretkrum 
were made, at our recpiest, by Prof. A. .J. 
Cook, of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
at Lansing. They are interesting as cfjnlirm- 
ing all that we have hitherto said in recom- 
mendation of this pojvder for the imported 
cabbage worm, no safe and satisfactory 
remedy for which had been discovered before 
we recommended this powder and showed 
that it could be economically used, when 
simply mixed with water. Its' value, used in 
this way for the "Colorado potato beetle," 
as a substitute for the niore dangerous arseni- 
cal compounds, willatimcebe appreciated."— 
a V. li. 

Sept. 27, 1880.— I placed ten cabbage cater- 
pillars (Pieris rapne) in two small wooden 
boxes, which were covered with wire gauze. 
In one box I dusted the least possible amount 
of Pryrethrum mixed with flour in the pro- 
portion of one pait of Pyrethrum to twenty 
parts of flour. I sprayed tliose in the other 
box with a liquid mixture, using one table- 
spoonful of Pyrethrum to twenty gallons of 
\yater. In five minutes all the larvee were on 
their backs, nor did any of them recover. A 
large number of caterpillars on the cabbage 
plants were sprinkled or dusted with the 
Pyrethrum, the proportion being the same as 
above. In one hour the plants were ex- 
amined and in evei-y case the caterpillars 
were dead. 

Pyrethrum isa flowering plant that be- 
longs to the order CoiirosiTvE, and generi- 
cally allied to the Chi/santliemums, if it is not 
identical with C. Siense. It is said to be of 
very ea.sy culture in any common soil, and 
may be propagated by cuttings, by suckers 
and by seeds. It is a perennial. 



Contributions, 



SHELTER-BELTS. 

The subject of shelter-belts was discussed 
at the January meeting of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, when friend Hiller 
read an essay adveree to them in his neigh- 
borhood, or in Lancaster county. I would 
respectfully differ with him, but would not 
confine myself to this county — I would take 
a wider range. Oijr county has many natural 
shelter-belts through that diversity ot nature's 
face, as it is presented on the surface of our 
terrestial abode— in valleys, hills and ridges. 
I know many instances where buildings were 
providentially so located that they were shel- 
tered on all sides . from the cold and bleak 
winds of winter. Some may be so situated 
as to be protected only from the northwest or 
the east winds, but under ordinary circum- 
stances that is all sutliitent. How pleasant 
to be protected from tlii' chilling winds— often 
so (Uimaging to fruit-culture, by liills, trees, 
a;id high iidges. Sometimes we leave our 
homes without particularly feeling the dis- 
comforts of the chilling winds, until we get 
away some distance from the house. People 



in by-gone days in this county used to occupy 
' mansions in places surrounded by the majestic 
I oaks of the forest. Some were protected only 
I on one side, and many are shidtered by belts 
I of forest trees, and enjoy a comfort unknown 
; to those who live in exposed places. Why 
' not then go to work and plant shelter-belts 
iu open or exposed places, and follow artifi- 
cially the suggestions of nature's laws. It 
would become a pecuniary "beneftt, as well as 
a comfort to men and beasts. It would also 
i encourage and multiply our insectivorous 
I birds, and diminish the number of noxious 
I in.sects. I think it a mistake to suppose that 
I the only efiiecl of shelter belts is to hasten 
vegetation and render it more liable to injury 
from early or late spring frosts. Prematurely 
advanced vegetation is more the effect of the 
heat of the sun and the earth, independent of 
protective belts of trees. As the spring ad- 
vances the rays of the sun become more verti- 
cal and penetrate the earth more thoroughly, 
which gives vegetation an earlier start than 
otherwise. These belts are of great advan- 
tage even in late si)ring,when apples, peaches, 
cherries and grapes are in bloom, protecting 
them from the rough bliists of wind and hail, 
so fatal to fruit trees about tho fertilizing 
period. 

Our shelter-belts should be of mixed timber, 
with plenty of evergreens. These would then 
furnish evergreens sufficient for decorating 
purposes from the trimmings alone. It was 
the design of Providence to furnish beautiful 
parks and forests for the subjects of his crea- 
tion, as a means of making them happy and 
contented. I have seen in my travels some 
of the most exquisite natural parks, but these 
are now being shamefuU^^ invaded, and few 
of them remain intact, even in this county. 
On a few of out water-courses we often find 
what would be beautiful natural parks of 
evergreens. But these are annually mutilated 
or decapitated to furnish Christmas and other 
decorations. Among the people generally 
the propensity of destruction is greater than 
that of construction. Through all the West- 
ern States the very first improvement made, 
after the building of a habitation, is the plant- 
ing of shelter-belts; and no place is deemed 
desirable without them. They plant ever- 
greens, mixed with other varieties of timber. 
Walnut is one of the leading timbers for 
value. It is esteemed a great luxury in the 
West to possess a house sheltered from the 
cold winter winds. It is a great enjoyment 
to "man and beast" to be so protected. That 
no benefit is derived in any shape from a tim- 
ber grove (except the value of the timber) is 
a question that should be no longer debated ; 
or, that the thermometer varies from 1 to 5 
ilegrecs higher in localities surrounded by 
trees. I knew an orchard in 1833 that was 
protected, both by a ridge of high ground 
and by a forest, which wa.s the only orchard 
in the county that bore a crop of apples that 
year. There is no doubt whatever that fruit 
trees will do much better in sheltered places 
than elsewhere. In the olden times farmers 
were more particular in locating orchards 
than they are now. When I was a boy I was 
fond of rambling through some of the timber 
parks along some of our larger streiims, and in 
them I found growing abundantly the com- 
mon wild red-plum, in what seemed to me 
their perfection, and when well ripened they 
were delicious. 

This was undoubtedly owing to their shel- 
tered situations as they grew in those groves. 
Years afterwards t planted one of these wild 
plum trees in my yard, which was almost 
treeless then, but it would not bear fruit until 
I had a thick growth of trees as a shelter 
arounil it, when it connnenced to bear. I 
never doubted that these trees attracted the 
birds, and that the birds destroyed many ot 
the eurcuHos. I am sorry that my friend 
from Conestoga hiis taken a stand so dis- 
couraging to tree-planting, and especially to 
shelter-l)elts, and at a time, too, when so 
large a portion of our country is looking 
hopefully in that direction, and when we 
.should encourage our people to increase our 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



planting instead of throwing cold water upon 
such a laudable enterprise.— TfarwicA:, Febru- 
ary, 1881. 

Doubtless, ''circumstances alter eases." 
It is now more than half a century since we 
retired from the farm and became a denizen 
of the town, but we can vividly recall some of 
our observations and experiences of that 
period, and they seem to be somewhat in 
harmony with the sentiments of "Warwick," 
whether his theory is true or false: After 
the cold winter of 1834 and 1835 it was found 
that the peach trees, apricots, nectarines 
were so badly frozen along the valley of the 
Susquehanna, that the crop proved an entire 
failure. This was also largely tlie case with 
the cherries and apples. Some of the trees 
were so badly frozen that their trunks and 
branches bursted. But high up on the very 
top of the hill that borders the Susquehanna, 
on the York county shore, was an orchard of 
peaches, pears, apples and cherries, entirely 
surrounded by trees. A short distance north- 
west of it was an elevation called "Round 
Top, ' ' sparsely covered with evergreens. This 
elevation, with the intervening trees, formed 
a shelter to the enclosure. Never was such 
an abundant crop of fruit seen anywhere as 
that orchard bore that year— especially of 
peaches. True, the quality was inferior, but 
the quantity was simply marvelous. We do 
not pretend to give the cause, but the facts 
were substantially as we stated them. On 
more than one occasion we have seen the 
sides of trees, exposed to dashing rain and 
hail at the fertilizmg period, entirely desti- 
tute of fruit, whilst the protected side bore an 
ample crop. ^ 

For The Lancasteb Farmeb. 
BEES AND GRAPES. 

Editor Lancaster Farmer — Dear Sir: 
By close investigation I have satisfied myself 
that bees do not destroy sound grapes. We 
had, during the past season, 22 colonies of 
Italian and common black bees ; all the hives 
were in close proximity to the grapes, while a 
number had the vines trained over them for 
shade during the heat of summer. 

The grapes are of the Concord variety, of 
which we had an abundance of fine fruit, 
some clusters of which grew within 18 inches 
of the entrance to the hives. 

Bunches of the grapes remained on the 
vines until the frosts had killed the foliage, 
which fell off and left the grapes exposed, af- 
fording every temptation to the bees ; and 
this, too, through a season when the honey 
yield from natural sources was so small that 
the bees were consuming the stores they had 
gathered earlier in the season. 

But the bees do work on grapes, and also on 
other fruits under certain conditions. If the 
skin of grapes, peaches, pears, &c., .is rup- 
tured from any cause, the bees, wasps, ants, 
&c., are very quick in discovering it, and soon 
leave only the dried shells. During the hot 
weather of August, especialy when there are 
frequent showers, the skin of ripening fruit 
cracks, for reasons which I will leave to some 
philosophical friend to explain. 

My conclusions are not hasty; nor were ray 
observations superficial ; but they were pro- 
longed from the time the first grapes ripened 
until the close of the season. 

I found some clusters of grapes literally 
covered with bees scrambling and fighting for 
the little sweets contained in the cracked 
grapes, which are the only ones on which they 
work, as I found out by driving the bees 
away and removing from the clusters all the 
bursted grapes ; when the bees, as soon as 
they found on]'_ i ound fruit remained, went 
away and left tht, grapes uninjured. 

We also laid some bunches of grapes on 
top of the hives and others close to the en- 
trances, also left clusters hanging on the vines 
close to the hives, where they remained unin- 
jured by the bees as long as the fruit was 
sound. 

I know very well that bees can gnaw 
through heavy muslin, or shave' off wood and 
straw. To cover the bees we have quilts made 



of heavy muslin which they sometimes bite 
through, and we have wood and straw hives 
on which they have enlarged the entrances; 
but, nevertheless, I am fully satisfied that 
they do no injury whatever to sound fruit.— 
Yours, &c., W. H. Stoiit, Pine Grove, Janu- 
ary 22, 1881. 



Although it is not now the time to plant 
potatoes, it is never out of season to lay 
plans for next season's operations. In this 
severe winter weather, when outdoor work 
cannot be carried on to much extent, we have 
good time to plot out our next _ summer's 
work, so that when the season for each par- 
ticular work comes around we may be ready 
for it. How much ground are we going to 
plant to potatoes ? Shall we plant in corn- 
stalk ground or in sod ¥ If for an early crop 
on stalk ground, we should have hauled our 
manure on the ground last November and 
plowed it down, but if that was not done, the 
manure should behauled on the ground and 
plowed down as early as possible, and the 
potatoes should be planted as early in April 
as the weather will permit. A good dressing 
of stable manure appears to be essential on 
stalk ground to raise a good crop of early 
potatoes. A mixture of cow and horse 
manure is good. Cow manure alone is not 
considered of much value for potatoes. But 
no good farmer will have his manure other- 
wise than mixed. The value of a manure 
pile on wliich the cleanings of the cow and 
horse stables are regularly mixed weekly, is 
worth fifty per cent, more than the fire- 
fanged hor.^e' manure is when piled up by 
itself. If the ground is poor it may be well 
to scatter about two hundred weight of a 
good superphosphate along the rows before 
dropping the seed. If stable manure is 
scarce, stalk ground can be put in good con- 
dition for growing potatoes for late crop, 
without stable manure, by sowing the ground 
in early fall to rye, or if this was neglected it 
will be of some benefit to sow to oats as early 
as possible. But a clover sod is ijetter than 
any of the foregoing, either for an early or 
late crop. But as many of our farmers can- 
npt, or think they cannot spare the clover 
sod, they can adopt the green manuring with 
profit. 

The best time for planting for a late crop is 
from June 1st to 20th. Before planting sow 
broadcast on anacrethe mixliirf' in tin- fol- 
lowing formula, which Ikis Ihmi lii.d mid 
found valuable: 200 It.s. (li.-^sulvpd animal 
bones ; 200 ibs. Acid of South Carolina Rock ; 
300 K>s. Sulp'jate of Potash ; 200 fts. ground 
land plaster. These ingredients can be had 
of responsible parties at a cost not exceeding 
ten dollars. In this green m.anuring -it is 
necessary to plow the potato seed in. By 
using a chain the rye, oats or clover can be 
completely turned under, where they will 
gradually decay, giving both food and mois- 
ture to the growing plant. The seed should 
be dropped every third furrow, regulating the 
furrow slice so that the rows will be from 32 
to 36 inches apart. Experience has sliown 
that that distance apart is-iiiont riglit for the 
amount of cultivation that is necessary in dry 
seasons. Seed cut to two eyes has proven 
the most satisfactory. One of the i)rincipal 
objections to single eyes is that many fail to 
grow. 

Two eye cuttings should be planted 12 to 
14 inches apart, while one eye cuttings may 
be put down 9 or 10 inches apart. Lay tlie 
seed Close to the inverted furrow ; this will 
make it come up regularly between the fur- 
row slices ; it will also be less liable to be 
tramped by'the horse walking in the furrow. 
The first culture necessary is to prevent the 
formation of a hard crust and to destroy all 
weeds as fast as they appear. A spike-harrow 
is the proper implement to use before the 
potatoes are up, and it can be used to advan- 
tage even after they are an inch or two high. 
For the rest of the cultivation the shovel- 
harrow is ihe best. In the earlier part of the 



season run the shovel-harrow deep and as 
close to the plant as possible ; later, not so 
deep, and further from the plant. Theshovel- 
harrow properly used will hill up the plants 
about as much as the crop requires. 

The object of cultivation is to keep down 
weeds, and the ground from baking ; and for 
these purposes it is necessary to keep it up to 
the end of the growing season. If this is 
faithfully carried out you can laugh at dry 
weather and be reasonably sure of a good 
crop. 

An acre on clover sod, in 1879, treated as 
above, yielded 200 bushels. Three-fourths of 
an acre, also clover sod, in 1880 yielded 100 
bushels. The 1879 crop liad only one rain 
during the season sufficient to reach the root, 
while the 1880 crop had no rain that moistened 
more than the surface. 

The 1880 crop was planted with single eyes, 
which made a bad failure in growing, proba- 
bly about one-fourth. The mimber of pota- 
toes to the plant was from one to tliree, sel- 
dom four, many of them being undesirably 
large. Two-eye cuttings would have made a 
better set, and probably would have increased 
the yield otherwise. The potato crop under 
the ordinary treatment which it usually gets 
is the most uncertain of our crops. By good 
manuring and high cultivation it can be made 
pretty reliable.— 0. 



Essays. 



- " EX-LIBRIS."* 

Literary collections are as old as civiliza- 
tion. In Europe complete series of Roman 
coins have been found, so exquisitely ar- 
ranged that there can be no doubt that their 
collection had been a labor of love on the 
part of certain ancient patricians. It is re- 
corded that the historian, Cremutius Cordus,. 
had made a collection of autograph letters, 
and that when they were in danger of being 
destroyed by fire his daughter proved her 
filial aftectio'n by saving them at the peril of 
her life. Pliny says that in his days the auto- 
graph letters of Julius and Augustus had 
become exceedingly rare, and were highly 
prized by amateurs, which proves that rare 
documents were collected and treasured as at 
present. 

At present there is hardly a class of objects 
which has not received the attention of the 
amateur. All work of this kind is fascinating, 
and (J very culleftion thus formed is possessed 
i.f inti'iist. Xcry leceutly there has been a 
ras.- for "Bonk-1'lalcs," or "Ex-Libns," and 
I deem it proper to mention to the Linnsean 
Society the appearance of this new "hobby," 
as well as to acknoyvledge my personal weak- 
ness for these bits of torn and tarnished paper. 

Book-Plates are believed ito have appeared 
during the Reformation at Nuremberg, which 
was tlien the great centre of wealth and 
literature. Willibaldus Pirckheimer, a 
wealthy patron of letters, who was among 
the first to declare himself in favor of the 
Reformation, induced his friend, Albert 
Durer, to engrave' a plate, which he mounted 
in the volumes of his library. His example 
was soon followed by other patricians of 
Nuremberg, and spread to all the countries of 
Euroiif, TliPse plati'S. as they successively 
aiipcar it) vaiidus coiiiiti-ics. furnish jierfect 
illustralions of llir hisloi'v of art, besides the 
fact tliat tliey preserve a vast amount of curi- 
ous information concerning the history of 
families and individuals. 

German and French "ex-libris" have 
always been rare, but in England, especially 
during the last century, every family of note 
had its separate book-plate. Sometimes half 
a dozen of them are found placed over each 
other in a single volume, thus giving the 
history of a number of generations. Every 
heraldic device has its story to tell, and thus 
the work of collection is found to possess ex- 
traordinary fascination. 

In America "ex-libris" were common dur- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



iiii,' the Colonial period, but during the early 
\t:irs of the republic, when the display of 
;mnoriiil bearings was regarded as aiiti- 
rL'))ublican, they were almost unlinown. All 
this is rapidly changing, and almost all of the 
book-worms of our great cities once uiore in- 
dulge in this literary luxury. At the request 
of certain members of the society I have 
brought with me a few specimens of the "ex- 
libris" of various countries, which I have col- 
lected witli the intention of finally arranging 
them in a volume, according to tljcir age and 
nationality. It is with some licsitalion thai 
I venture to exhibit tliein. To the great 
multitude of Philistines, "who believe that 
man lives by bread alone," the whole subject 
is no doubt suflicicntly contemptible, but to 
those who have sufferid for years from lack 
of aiiprcriiition in liuir several employments, 
it will ln' ]ilaiii tliiil lirsides furnishing a de- 
lightful recriation tlicsp little "ex-libris" are 
capable of furnishing a considerable amount 
of valuable information. 

ABOUT ABPLES.* 

It has, for some years, been manifest that 
Lancaster county cannot compete with West- 
ern New York and some of the Nortliwestern 
States in growing apples for market. Our 
apple crop of 1880 was a plentiful one, but 
about the holidays very few good Lancaster 
county apples could be found in our market, 
while York State apples, of the best quality, 
were "plenty, at about two dollars a barrel. 
Owing to the extreme hot and dry summers 
that have been the rule for ten or more yeais 
past, our apples ripened so early in the season 
that they were not to be relied on for winter 
use. Many persons pronounce apple culture 
unprofitabel, and in consequence orchards are 
left to go down, and new ones are sparingly 
planted. It may be admitted- that, in a com- 
mercial sense, niueteen-twentieths of our 

• orchards are a failure, but it is, nevertheless, 
a mistake for any one to think that he has a 
well-regulated farm oh which there is no 
orchard. An acre orchard of good varieties 
with ordinary care willone year with another, 
without selliug a dollar's worth of fruit, real- 
ize more to the owner than his average acre 

• of the farm. It furnishes us with sauce, pies, 
cider, vinegar, applebutter, snits, a supply of 
ripe fruit from early in July to winter, giving 
comfort and health to the children and all 
about the house ; also, taking into considera- 
tion the saving of bread and meat, and it will 
also be quite an item in the saving of corn by 
feeding the scrubs and surplus to the pigs. 

Add" these together and see if your orchard 
does not compare fiivorably with your other 
acres. But apple culture is not so entirely 
discouraging, but that by judicious selection 
of varieties, soil and care, orchards could be 
made profitable, commercially. 

An intelligent farmer in Strasburg town- 
ship realized five hundred dollars (actual sale) 
from an orchard of one hundred and fifty trees. 
His selection of varieties is a good one, but 
for his special market purposes hfs profits 
would have been better if he had only had 
half or perhaps one-third as many varieties. 

A ^ood selection of fifty trees for home use 
would be about as follows, viz : 

1 Early Harvest, 2 All Summer, I Red As- 
tracban, 2 Benoni, 2 Maiden's Blush, 2 
Jeffries, 2 Townseiid, 2 Hubbardston Non- 
such, Ic Smokehouse, 2 Mellinger, 2 Rambo, 
4 Baldwin, 4 Griest's Winter. 4 York Im- 
perial, 4 Smith's Cider, 4 Willow Twig, 4 
Russets, 4 Sweet. 

If the fruit is wanted for a general market 
during the season, the list would be better 
somewhat like this : 

2 Early Harvest,4 Bed Astrachan,4 Benoni, 
6 Mellinger, 6 Maiden's Blush, 8 Smokehouse, 
6 Hubbardston Nonsuch, 8 Baldwin, York 
Imperial. 

Or, if the fruit is wanted for a special mar- 
ket, the list would admit of further improve- 
ment, say : 

•Read before the Lancaster C'ouiitv Aprlinillural nnd 
Horticultural Society, by Casper Hiller, Momlav, Feliru- 
ury 7tU, 1881. 



10 Smokehouse, 10 Ba,Idwin, 10 Ewalt, 10 
York Imperial, 10 Smith's Cider, 10 Griest's 
Winter. 

Many years of observation has shown that 
the foregoing varieties are reliable and valu- 
able, but there are many other kinds that are 
equally good. 

The rule by which the planter should be 
governed is to plant largely of varieties that 
lie knows are especially good and profitable in 
his own neighborhood. 

In order to be more successful with our 
future orchards, we will have to pay more at- 
lenliun to the soil and location. Our dry 
southern slojies must be avoided as much as 
po.ssible. Northern inclinations are i)refer- 
able, because they are not so much atlected 
by. the sun and dry we.iHirr. Depp clay loams 
retain nmisliire Ix-ltn- ilmn miikIv soils, and 
therel'.ire sIkiuIiI have lie- prelniMice. 

To grow the speeial list above jriven it will 
be of the highest importance to have a rich 
moisture, retentive soil, a level bottom or a 
drained swamp, where the water may be but 
a few feet beneath the surface, but where no 
stagnanl water ntmains after a rainfall, or a 
rather sleep iiorlhcrn slope of a hill. 

Anyone having such a situation could 
hardly fail in having an orchard that would 
yield far better returns than the average crops 
of the farm. 

If these northern slopes, or moisture- 
retaining soils, are not available, we must 
guard against the effects of he,at and drought 
by cultivating and mulching. 

If all the water that falls in our summer 
thunder showers could be made available our 
trees would want very little more. But thisse 
fall so fast, aud often last but a few minutes, 
that the soil becomes moist only an inch or 
two, while the water flows away. Some one 
has suggested that a basin be made around 
the tree by banking up the earth that would 
hold a hogshead or. more, into which the 
waste water could be turned with very little 
labor. The water would soon sink away and 
moisten the earth so deep that it would take 
some time to dry out. The suggestion is 
worthy of consideration. 

After the selection of a site, and the jmiper 
planting of the trees, it is important that we 
give our orchard proper attention and care. 
We do not attempt to raise a crop of corn or 
tobacco without mitnuring and cultivating. 
We sometimes think it expedient to put .§.?() 
worth of manure to an acre for tobacco. But 
as the seasons come around we look for a 
crop of apples, never thinking that the trees 
too want manure and cultivation. 

Ten dollars worth of manure to the acre in 
the shape of wood ashes or superphospiiate 
would no doubt be a paying investment, add- 
iug not or ly vigor to the tree, but also size 
and- 1)eauty to the fruit. Trees are very 
grateful for cultivation. It is astonishing 
what vigor, with the aid of manure, it will 
put into trees.- 

A plot of gr«und was dug and manured, 
and has been annually top-dressed for a few 
years for an experimental grape patch. On 
this plot stood au old dwarf pear, over twenty- 
five years old, a poor, stunted thing. This, 
under the treatment, took a new lease of life, 
and is now as thrifty as a fruit tree can be. 
Where it is impracticable to continue culti- 
vation, the next best thing is to sow to grass 
and give liberal -treatinent afterwards. An 
annual top-dressing of a fertilizer, rich in 
potasli and pho.sphorit^ aeid, to the amount of 
from two to four hundred weight to the acre, 
would make a crop of grass and keep the trees 
thrifty. The first cutting of the grass could 
be made into hay, while the second should be 
spread over the ground where it would act as 
a mulch and as a manure. It has been re- 
commended by a good authority that a top- 
dressing of iialf a cart load of 'road wa.sh or 
earth from ditches, swamps, &c., spread 
around each tree is highly beneficial. 

Orchards so situated, where the wash from 
roads and hillsides can be conducted over 
them, are always among the best bearers. 
This may also be a hint for selecting a site. | 



The secret of success with orchards, there- 
fore, would appear to be to a great extent in 
our own control. 



Selections. 



A Patent rat-trap. 

The Singular Effect the Beating of Drums 

Had on a Nest of Rodents. 
, A most remarkable phenomenon was wit- 
nes.sed in the Second ward, this city, says the 
Newcastle (Pa.) JVeH-s, being no less than 
large numbers of rats being enlieed to their 
death by the roll of drums. A number of the 
small boys of this city, hearing it is said that 
nits could be brought out of their holes by Uie 
beating of.drums, determined to try the ex- 
periment. So, procuring a number of these 
instruments of martial music and a half dozen 
dogs with a weakness for rat flesh, they pro- 
ceeded to a barn near Pear.son's flouring mill, 
in which .structure were known to dwell many 
well-fed rodents, who subsisted on the con- 
tents ot the grain bins near by. Stationing 
part of their number with drums in the hay- 
mow of the stable, and the other at the doors 
with the dogs, everybody was eager for the 
fray. The drummers brought their sticks 
down on the taut calf-.skin, and .soon the 
building shook to its very foundation with the 
deafening roll. Several boys had been sta- 
tioned at various knot-holes in the floor of the 
hay-mow, and these youths, iieering down 
into the semi-darkness helow. soon saw twink- 
ling eyes appear at certain aiieitiires all 
around the apartment beneath. The drum- 
ming was continued, and shar])-i)ointed noses 
aud then sleek bodies f)f rats came from the 
boles. Soon the rapid rolling of the drums 
seemed to excite the rodents to a |)oint lie- 
yond self-control. They began to taper and 
whisk around the stable'llooras if intoxicated. 
They ran around the feed liins in a wild chase 
after each other. So rapidlv diil thev turn 
corners that their tails snaiiiied with a report 
like that of al)ull-wliacker"s whip. and making 
the flour fly from their caudal appendages so 
.as to fill the .apartment with dust. Now was 
the time for action. The boys with the dogs 
were siL'iialed, the doors were opened and the 
biiii; - ' 11, -^ let in on them. The unfortu- 
nii' ' i I Id lie undera spell .and made 

'!" ' ^'-ek their holes. For five 

iiiiiiii! .- . ;,.ii^.,u r reignedsupr<3me, and when 
it had .subsided the floor w'as covered with the 
bodies of forty-three rats. Again were the 
drums called into retjuisition, and the same 
scene ensued again. This time thirty-eight 
rats bit the dust. The boys continued their 
ojK'iations with their drums and dogs all the 
afternoon, and when evening came tlier^Mvere 
piled u\} in front of the stable, mangled, cut 
and torn, the bodit-s of four hundred and 
seventy-nine rats. In fact, all tlie rodents 
which had lived and thrived for vears on the 
grain in the mill had been totally extermi- 
nated. 

COLD WINTERS. 

The Winter of 1779-S0- The Cold Friday of 
February 7, 1807. 
The winter of 1770-80 beuan as the present 
one did, and bctore the slight moderation in 
the atmosiiherc. many of the elder residents, 
whose fathers aud mothers had told them 
many tales of that terrible winter, were 
speculating as to whether the present one 
would resemble it in other respect.?. lu 
177'.»-SO the .-old weather set in alwiit the 
middle of November and continued until 
about the middle of February. During that 
long period there was not enough warmth in 
the sun's r.ays to melt the .snow on the ground, 
nor to affect in the least the fetters of ice that 
bound the cieek.s, ponds and rivers. One 
snow storm followed another until finally the 
ground wa.s so covered that it was difficult to 
go from place to place, and the ice upon the 
rivers at all convenient points was used by 
men and teams and animals in place of roads. 



26 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



The cold winds were so piercing that wild 
turkeys were found frozen to deatli in the 
forests, and domestic fowls fell frozen from 
their roosts. The deer and bufl'alo .sought 
shelter from the blast around the cabins of 
the settlers, and all kinds of wild animals 
perished in the forests for want of food, which 
was buried beneath the snow. The fierce 
wolf and panther, which usually skulked 
about the boundaries of the settlements only 
by night, now came near in broad daylight 
in search of the bones and offal thrown 
from the cabins of the settlers. No rain 
fell, and the pioneers were compelled to 
obtain water for drinking, cooking, etc., 
by melting ice and snow. The Northern 
and Western rivers were tightly bound 
by frost, and even as far south as Nashville 
the Cumberland was frozen over with ice 
tliick enough for tlie safe passage of emigrant 
trains. The Delaware, at Pliiladelphia, had 
ice three feet iu thickness, and tlie Chesa- 
peake Bay and Long Island Sound were 
frozen over. Another similarity l)etween the 
present winter and that of 1779-80 was the 
mild autumn weather that preceded it. When 
the cold began in November, 1779, the leaves 
had hardly fallen from the forest trees, and 
many trees and shrubs were putting forth 
new growth. The same condition of tilings 
was witnessed last fall. The winters of 1788, 
1784, 1786, 1787, 1792, 1796 and 1799 are all 
reported as having been very severe. It is 
stated in "Hildreth's Pioneer History," that 
on the 26th of December, 178S, the Delaware 
and Oliio rivers were both frozen over and 
navicration was suspended upon them until 
the 18th of the following ISIarch. In 1792, 
when soldiers were sent to the disastrous bat- 
tle field of Gen. St. Clair to bury the dead, 
they encamped where Cincinnati now stands, 
January 23. Tlie snow was reported two 
feet deep upon the ground, and the Ohio was 
so stronixly frozen that the soldiers rode tlieir 
horses across from Kentucky on tlie ice. The 
7th of Febi'uary, 1807, was known for years 
as cold Friday, and was the groundwork of 
many a grandfather's tale. On the evening 
of the 6th the weather was mild, and raiti 
began to fall as night set iu. In a few liours 
the rain changed to snow, which fell to the 
depth of six inches, after, which a hurricane 
came to sweep over the land. It grew colder 
/and colder as the night progressed, and the 
next morning the trees inlhe forests were 
cracking like Oie reports of guns,' and every- 
tliing was bound up in fetters of ice. There 
was no thermometer to register the cold, but 
the day comes down in history and tradition 
as Cold Friday. 



All cultivated plants contain lime in their 
aslies, and it is considered necessary to their 
l)roper growth. But as soils generally contain 
enough lime, and we apply it for its action 
upon the soil, lime acts upon and greatly aids 
the decompositions of organic matter in tlie 
soil. It is thought to neutralize the organic 
acids contained in what are called '"sour 
soils." In a complicated manner it aids in 
the fl.^ing of Ammonia. It also acts upon the 
inorganic or mineral constituents of the soil, 
and aids in converting them into forms in 
which they can be taken up by the plants, 
especially in liberating potash from its combi- 
nations. The edo'ct of lime upon the mechani- 
cal condition of the soil is an important fea- 
ture. Upon heavy clay soils its effect is most 
marked ; the particles lose their adhesiveness, 
and allow air and water to enter. These are 
the leading effects that follow the use of lime. 
In view of the claims made for ground, un- 
burned limestone, it is an important question 
how far it can produce the above effects. 
That the unburned limestone will supply the 
demands of the plant for lime, that it may 
slowly neutralize organic acids, and help the 
mechanical texture of the soil, seems very 
probable. But that it will perform one of the 
most important offices, the decomposition of 
organic matter in the soil, and convert that 



into plant food, seems improbable, because 
tlie ability of lime to do this depends in a 
great measure upon its avidity for carbonic 
acid, while limestone, being already a car- 
lionate, lias no Jieed of more. That limestone 
cannot jiroduce all the effects of lime is shown 
by the well-known fact that soils underlaid by 
limestone, and naturally containing a large 
proportion of finely divided'carbonate of lime, 
are as much benefited by the use of quick- 
lime as are soils deficient in limestone, The 
advertisements of ground limestone, that we 
have seen, make great use of the experiments 
of one person in Pennsylvania, who states 
that his yield of wheat, treated with ground 
limestone, was more than double tliat to 
which slaked lime had been applied. He also 
claims to have found it a much cheaper fer- 
tilizer than lime and bone dust, and more 
profitable than Guano and Superphosphate. 
These statements have been sent by several 
who ask our opinion. Our "opinion" is, that 
we do not accept as final the results of any 
one experimenter, when they are in direct 
opposition to the accumulated evidence of 
tliose whose pi-actice runs through many 
years. In nothing more easily than in agri- 
cultural experiments can an effect be ascribed 
to the wrong cause, and when we see the fer- 
tilizing value of ground Limstone placed 
above Guano or Superphosjiate, we do not 
accept \t.^ American Agriculturist. . 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURE. 

One of the most extraordinary facts con- 
nected with the recent progress of this repub- 
lic is, that during tlie year ending ending 
June 30th, 1880 "the value of the exports 
of domestic ai^riculture amounted to $083,- 
019,076, and constituted 82.0 per cent, of the 
total value of exports of all kinds of domestic 
enterprise in the United States. We call es- 
pecial attention to these figures as significant- 
ly illustrating the amazing prngiessof our na- 
tional agriculture, and the extent to which it 
has become the chief reliance of the general 
trade and (■niiiiii.-n-i' nf ilu' ri';mlili<;-, I'ur it 
must be i-pcILt!. ,1 that in adililinu u, this 
volume iif i-.\ij('rlati"ii to furrigii cnuutries, 
our farmers and planters finnished all tlie 
cotton used in the domestic inanut'actines, all 
the wool used in the home industries, all the 
breadstuffs consumed, all the live stock, and 
all the meat and provisions. Of course we 
have no intention of underrating the value of 
manufactures and mining to a nation like 
ouns. But it must be evident that — notwith- 
standing all the progress we have made in tlie 
primary and advanced arts of civDization — 
this nation is still devoted so overwheljuingly 
to agricultural pursuits as fairly to dwarf ail 
other interests. In 1860, and for forty years 
preceding, the exports of raw cotton from 
the United States to foreiaii comitiips were 
fifty-three per cent, of the total \aluc nf the 
exports of domestic merchniulise. 

But during the last fiscal year the exports of 
cotton amounted to only about twenty-six 
percent, of the total. This was owing to the 
remarkable fact that the export of bread- 
stufls rc.se from #24,422,310 in the year 1860, 
to $288,036,835 in the year 1880, while in the 
same period the exports of provisions in- 
creased from $16,612,441 to no less than $127,- 
043,242. Those who shidy these figures at- 
tentively will appreciate the attention given 
from tiiiie to time by the Ttleijniph to the 
amazing development of the live-.stoek interest 
in the Northern and Western States. 

Grain-farming in this country seems to 
stand in no need whatever of encouragment 
or stimulation. It increases spoiit.aneously so 
fast that the only trouble is to provide adequate 
facilities for transportation. But those branch- 
es of farming which relate to the provision 
trade offer much better chances of profit, and 
are more varied and diversified iu character 
and details. Although not so easily under- 
stood as grain-farniing, they nevertheless 
seem to be acquiring immense scope in all 
parts of the North and West, and in the 
course of the next ten years there can be very 
little doubt that tJiey will raise the exports 



of provisions from this country to an equality 
with the exports of cotton or breadstuffs. In 
fact, it really seems to us to be the true voca- 
tion of our people to be the great agricultural 
reliance of the civilized world. To say that 
this republic is destined to be the world's gran- 
ary but feebly meets the case. It seeins to be 
xjur province to feed and clothe the world. 
Before that great fact, all other national inter- 
ests dwindle away into insignificance. — Ger- 
manlown Telegraph. 

A VALUABLE TABLE. 

Messrs. D. Landreth & Sons have issued 
the following table, giving the quantity of 
seed and number of plants requisite to crop 
an acre of land, which will prove valuable to 
farmers aiid gardeners, and to families gener- 
ally who may have only a small garden. It can 
always be referred to to set one right in any 
matter of doubt connected with the subjects 
involved. We have ourselves often been 
bothered for instant information which this 
table would have supplied : 
Asparagus in 12-inch driils, 16 quarts. 

■ " plants @ 4 by m feet, 8,000. 

Barley, 2% bushels. 

Be.ius, Bush., in drills @2V< feet, IH " 

" Pole, Lima @ 4 by 4 feet, 20 quarts. 

" Carolina, Prolific, &c., 4 by -i, 10 " 

Beets and Mangolds, drills @ 2'^ feet, 9 pounds. 
Broomcorn in drills, 12 " 

Cabbage, outside, for transplanting, I'i ounces. 
Cabbage shown in frames, 4 " 

Carrot, in drills @ 2]4 feet, 4 pounds. 

Celery, seed, 8 ounces, 

plants ® 4 by M feet, 25,000. 

Clover, White Dutch, 12 pounds. 

" Lucerne, 10 " 

" Alsike, 6 " 

" Large Red with Timothy, 12 •' 

" " " without " 16 " 

Corn, Sugar, 10 quarts. 

" Field, 8 



Corn Salad, drill @ 10 inches. 


25 


pounds. 


Cucumber, in hills @ 


3 


quarts. 


" " in drills, 


4 


" 


Egg Plants, plants 3 by 2 feet, 


4 


ounces. 


Endive in arills @ 'J.yi feet, 


A 


pounds. 


Flax, broadcast, 


20 


quarts. 


Grass, Timothy, with Clover, 


ri 


" 


" " without Clover. 


10 


" 


Orchard, 


25 


"' 


" I{ed Top, or Herd, 


20 


" 


" Blue, 


28 




Rye, 


20 


" 


.Millet, 


32 




Hemp, broadcast. 


% bushel. 


Kale, (ierman Greens, 


.3 


pounds. 


Lettuce, in rows @ -IM feet. 


^i 




Leek, " 


4 


" 


Lawn Grass, 


35 


" 


Melons, Water, in hills, S by 8 feet 


3 


" 


" Citron, " 4 by 4 feet. 


^' 


" 


Oats, 


2 


bushels. 


(I!;! :. ill i.i, !-,■,■' , !)y '^ feet, 

'>'■• ■ •• ■■ r .^i-'is; 


20 
50 


pounds. 


; -1 l.-.vge bulbs. 


7 


" 


P. 11 -,,:',. ', ,- ■ . LJ'.: iL-e', 


5 


17,.500. 


Pumpkin, i,, • 1 11, 


2 


quarts. 


Parsley, m 


4 


pounds. 


Peas, inilril,:^, -i..,, ,,:in.|„.^, 
tail 


ltol> 


bushels 


" broadcast, 






Potatoes, 


8 


" 


Radish, iu,drnis (212 feet. 


10 


pounds. 


Rye, broadcast. 


1^ 


i bushels. 


" drilled. 


11 


" 


Salsifv, ill drills (n, 2'.. feel, 


in' 


pounds. 


Spinach, broadcast, 


30 


" 


Squash, Bush, in hills, 4 by 4 feet. 


."> 


" 


" runnliig, 8 by 8 feet. 


2 


" 


Sorghum, 


4 


quarts. 


Turnips, in drills @ 3 feet, 


:j 


pounds. 


" broadcast. 


3 


" 


Tomatoes, iu frame. 


3 


ounces. 


seed in hills, 3 by 3 feet. 


8 


" 


plants, 




3,800. 


Wheat, in drills. 


I'x 


;jjusliels 


'" broadcast, 


■i 





A REMARKABLE YEAR. 
Viewed from a business standpoint, the 
year has been a remarkable one, probably the 
most remarkable in the history of the country. 
There has been a good revival in tiade, and 
the volume of legitimate business during the 
year was beyond all precedent. This im- 
proved condition of affairs was the natural 
result of large crops, a good export demand 
for our products, the growth of the country. 



1881] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



the heavy infhix of gold from Europe, and 
the complete restoration of confidence, Rrow- 
ing out of the success of si)ecie payments. One 
of the most >;ratifying features of 1S8() has 
been the great falling off in the number of 
-failures and amount of liabilities of suspend- 
ed merchants. The growth of the country 
and the large additions to the national wealtli 
during 18S0 are strikingly illustrated in the 
products of the soil, of which we raised 475,- 
000,000 bushels of wheat. 15.-,,(I00.0(I0 busliels 
of corn, 413,000,0(10 bushels ..t oats. 24,000- 
000 bushels of rve. 4(i,U0it,(Hiii bushels of bar- 
ley, and 6,000,000 bales of cotton, to say 
nothing of the toliacco, sugar, rice, hemp, 
hay, and other crojis, and the hogs and dairy 
products, which yield au immense sum of 
money in the aggregate. 

In plain words, the United States now 
raises enough to ;feed her own 50,000,000 of 
people and to supply the deficiency of the 
balance of the civilized world. During the 
year more miles of railroad have been built, 
more consolidations and combinations have 
been entered into, more freight and passen- 
gers have been trausportcd. more money 
earned and nicirc interest and dividends paid, 
than in any former year. The commerce of 
the country during the year has made rapid 
progress and caused the United States to take 
still higher rank, being now third among the 
commercial nations of the globe. 

NEW PROCESS IN MILLING. 

All the Minnesota millers are now lighting 
the old-fashioned Hour barrels. They say it 
is a relic of barbarism. They desire to substi- 
tute the cotton sack in its place. Cotton sacks 
holding a half barrel of flour are worth ten 
cents apiece. Flour barrels aie worth forty- 
five cents each. All the flour shipped to 
Glasgow and Rotterdam goes in cotton sacks. 
These sacks are worth as much there as here. 
The millers maintain that flour does not sift 
through a good cotton bag as much as it sifts 
through a barrel. The bags of flour were 
shipped to Glasgow, returned to Minneapolis, 
and sent again to Glasgow. "When weighed 
they bad actually gained in weight. Six 
hundred barrels "of flour put up in bags and 
shipped to Glasgow will gain in weight one 
thousand eight hundred pounds. When l^ew 
York flour dealers begin to handle flour in 
half-barrel sacks, the people will save twenty- 
five cents on a barrel and have their good sacks 
left. 

The old millstones are taken out and new 
Bteel rollers are substituted in their places. The 
wheat passes through five sets of rollers, ea(;h 
set closer than the former. These rollers are 
thirty inches long and ten inches in diameter. 
After passing between each set of rollers it is 
"bolted" or sifted through the cloth. The 
last rollers are hardly anything but wheat 
hulls and the waxy germs which do not crack 
up, but smash together. So flour is now 
cracked and disintegrated without grinding. 
The first rollers crack the kernels of wheat 
into say six pieces. The slarcliy substance 
which rattles out drops through the cloth 
sieves or bolting cloths. These six pieces are 
broken between the next rollers into thirty-six 
pieces. Then the wiiite starch crumbs are 
sifted out again, and the thirty-six pieces are 
passed between still tighter rollers, which 
crack them into 216 piees; another set of roll- 
ers multiply each of these particles into six 
more, making them agregate 12fl6. Another 
set of rollers screwed together with tremen- 
dous pressure makes 777(5 pieces. The scien- 
tific miller says a grain of wheat is finally 
cracked into 7776 pieces without being ground 
at all. This is the Hungarian process. The 
germ of a kernel of wheat is a waxy sub- 
stance, not fit to eat. Between .stones this 
germ grinds into the flour and damages it. 
By the new process of the Hungarian rollers 
this germ is flattened out, and it is bolted out. 
However, it is finally ground up with the 
debris, on stones, to make the low grade of 
flour, which we sell in Eotterdani for S2.50 
per barrel.— Cinciwjiati Conmurcial. 



Our Local Organizations. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Tlic n-riiliir st.itc-.l iiiiolin;,- of'llie I,:inc.is(cr 
County A-iiiiiltmal and Horticultural Society was 
heW ill ttioir room, In City Hall, on .Monday after- 
noon, February 7l)i, President WItnier In tlu> cliair. 

In the absence of the Secretary, M. D. Kciidle, 
Calvin Coo|)er acted as Sccietary. The readliiff of 
tlie minutes of lant meetini; was dispensed ivitli. 

The followinir membera and visitors were present : 
Joficpli F. .Wltmer, President, Paradise ; Calvin 
Cooper, Bird-lii-llaiid ; Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy; 
Casper Ililjer, ConestoRa ; John C. Linvlllc, Salis- 
bury; Wm. H. Brosius, Uruinore ; Washiniitou L. 
Hershey, Chickics ; Frank H. Dlfl<;nderfl'er,cily ; 
Henry ihiffer, Upper Lcacock ; Henry Hcrr, Lan- 
caster towiisliip; J. M.Johnston, city; Cyrus Naif, 
Manor; John .Slerlinc, West Hcnipfleld ; Simon P. 
Eliy, city ; John Kesh, Pequea ; W. W. (iriesl, city; 
Dr. VVm. Compton, city; E. 8. Hershey; James 
Wood, Little Britain; John H. Frey, F.phrata: J. 
H. Hershey, Uohrerstown : Dr. C. A. Greene, city; 
Levis. Kcist, Oregon. 

M. L. Grcider, of Kaplio, and John E. Huber, of 

Pequea, were proposed for membership and elected. 

Crop Reports. 

Henry Kurtz said he could report a vary heavy 
crop of ice and snow, and an abundance of unstripped 
toliacco. Of tlie stripped tobacco only a small pro- 
[wrtion has been sold. The ground is so deeply cov- 
ered with snow and ice that it is impossible to tell 
what is the condition of the winter wheat. It is re- 
liorted tliat the peach trees and some ot the apple 
trees are frozen. 

Casper Hiller said that if the peach trees -were not 
frozen it might be regarded as almost a miracle ; for 
it is generally conceded that the peach will not stand 
a, temperature of more that 10 to 15 below zero, and 
this winter the mercury has fallen to 20 and 34 below. 
In 1856, when the mercury fell to 11 below zero, 
peach trees planted on high and dry ground survived 
the winter, while those planted in the low ground 
were killed. This year the wood of the peach is 
plump and full of sap, and there is a chance that 
the trees may survive. It is not likely that the apple 
trees will be much injured. 

John C. Liuvlllc did not think the peach trees 
would he killed. The past season was remarkably 
dry, and the wood became mature and hardy before 
the cold weather set in. Many young peach and 
pear trees have, however, been killed by the rabbits, 
which have entirely girdled them. He feftred that 
the wheat in low and wet sections was badly dam- 
aged, as it has been so long covered with solid ice. 

Johnsou Miller had little to report except that he 
still remained in winter quarters, the mercury this' 
morning marking 4 degrees below zero. He fears tlie 
wheat has been greatly injured by the severe weather. 
He never knew a good harvest to follow a very cold 

President Witmer said that he had cut through 
the snow and ice to examine the wheat, but a neigh- 
bor of his, who had filled an ice-houee with ice cut 
from the pond in a wheat tield, reported that the 
wheat looked green and heallliy. 

Casper Hiller said that this winter the ground was 
well covered with snow before the severe weather 
came ; so that the great sheets of ice with which the 
ground is covered do not lie directly on the young 
wheat, but are found some distance above it, and 
therefore not so liable to kill it. 

James Wood said he thought there was more ice 
and snow on the ground in the winter of 185(i than 
there is this winter, and yet we had an unusually 
good crop of straw that year. 

Dr. C. A. Greene read the following short paper 
on "Insects" and the longer one upon the horse : 
Insects. 

Prof. Riley has notified the farmers of Lancas- 
ter county that the seventeen-year locusts will make 
their unwelcome appearance this summer in this 
county ; and my prediction is that if tliey so show 
themselves, no decided harm will take place — solely 
from the fact that insect life in all its forms will be 
largely killed off by the continuous severe cold of 
this winter. Neither the mature insects, larva, 
chrysalis, or egg can stand freezing. 
The Horse. 

There is no animal to which man is more decidedly 
indebted than the noble, intelligent, willing horse, 
and many men so understand it, and treat him with 
due consideration. Many persons think as much of 
his comfort as they do of their own. He is always 
well fed at proper times and well cleaned and watered, 
and kept in a well ventilated, warm stable. It gives 
me real pleasure to stand and look at the round, 
slock, shiny coats of some of our farmers' horses. 
Toucan at once perceive that they have not been 
nci;lected, and you can imagine, now the farmer's 
wife and bis girls take pride in his appearance, and 
that they like to take him some extra tidbits, and 
feed him with their own bands. 

Unfortunately for the reasoning animal there is 



another class of humans who arc either ignorant of 
hi9 wants or else they are of huch brutal instincts 
themselves that hislwants are only partially fuiailed, 
and t.\iih horses sutler more than man has any 
knowledge of. Wonderful and cxceetllugly interest- 
ing anecdotes have been told and verltled in refer- 
ence to the reasonine: ability of tliis useful quadru- 
IK'd. I've studied him well, and 1 believe if big 
tongue was unloosened sometimes he would givebls 
owner such a scorchinir,wiihering lectnreon Ingratf- 
tiide as would force lilni from real remorse to treat 
hlin as he deserves. 

The horse and man are a good deal alike. He 
wants a variety of food just like man. Some farmers ■ 
thlJik if they throw him a half peck of corn iu tba 
ear they have well fed him, and they do u day after 
day. Now, a horse gets just uji tired of whole corn 
as a man does of liwr or chicken all the time. If 
you try the experiment and put ditl'erunt kinds of 
food before him you will see how quickly and eagerly 
he makes a selection. I never had a horse, which 
Would not, after a time, eat bread, sugar beets, car- 
rots, cabbages, and even [Kilato 'peelings and other 
table droppings, especially when some bran or mual 
was liberally sprinkled on them. 

Horses suffer from cold, and lose flesh and fat 
rapidly if exposed too long and too often, to its In- 
fluence. As a matter of economy, if not of kindness 
it pays anyone to keep the; imal warm, and 
any roan who owns or has hired a horse and will let 
him stand unblankeled In tlie streets for hours, ought 
to get thirty days imprlBOnment for the lirst oll'ence 
of the kind. During the winter the bridle bit should 
always be warmed before it is placed in the horse's 
mouth. Hundreds of. horses suffer pain by the 
frozen bit having taken olT the skin from the tongue 
and mouth by this cruel proceeding. 

To all those persons who in order to majce the 
horse "show otf" (as they say) . to advantage, 
tightly check up the hcud, I would only say it is ex- 
tremely cruel, and if they can't believe it let them 
l)Ul a wooden bit in theirown mouth and let some 
one draw their head buck for ten minutes and I'll 
guarantee they will never so tantalize him again. 

Galls and sores on hones are usually caused by 
pure carelessness on the part of the owner. The 
thills are too close and rub, or the harness Is too 
tight and unyielding. Always watch the condition 
of the skin, and it you sec the hair wearing off 
change the arrangement of the harness or put some 
softer and more pliable material under the harness 
which galls the animal. See that that the collars 
are always clean and well oiled. If the inside is left 
dirty it is hound to make a sore. 

Blinders are the relic of barbarous times. A 
horse does not need such an appendage any more 
than a man does. One half of the horses know 
more than men do, and if they could express their 
opinion on this subject they would say ; "Take off 
these horrid things: at the very time when I am the 
most anxious to know whether there is danger iu 
my rear, I can't see, and if I could, my fears would at 
once be quieted. Why kccj) me in ignorance of what 
is behind me ? You think I'll shy ! 0, no, I shy 
because I imagine danger. Besides, the stiff things 
strike my eyes and the bones around niy eyes and 
make them very much inflamed and uncomfortable." 
From my experience I can advisedly say they are of 
no use whatever, and there Is no horse fn the world, 
but will soon become so intelligent without them as 
in no manner to reiiuirethem. Besides the above they 
often cause decided suffering by the closencis of the 
blinder injuring the eyes and sight. Film and cata- 
ract of the eye arc often caused by the blinder. 

Most animals are fur better off without the crup- 
per. It galls and pajus them, and whenever It can 
be, it should be left oft'. In fine, let me say a horse 
if properly cared for, well-fed, well-kept in a clean, 
well-ventiiatcd stable, ought and will be in t?ood 
working condition at twenty years of age, and ii 
richly paysthe owner to care kindly for this intolll- 
gent, willing, obedient and affectionate animal. 

Henry Kurtz endorsed nearly all Dr. Greene said 
about the horse; but didn't think that blinders could 
bu dispensed with, especially where the horse was 
hitched to reaping or roowini: machines. 

Casper Hiller took exception to the statement that 
the seventeen-year locust would make its ap|iear- 
ance next summer. He said the time of its appear- 
ance would be in 1885. He did not believe cither, 
that the locust or' other insects would be killed by 
the severe weather. 

Wm. H. Brosius also thought the insects were 
doing very well during their hibernation,. One inch 
below the surface the earth is very little below the 
freezing point. 

Calvin Cooper was much pleased with what 
Dr. Greene had said about the horse and 
called special attentiou to the cruelty of placing 
frozen iron bits in their mouths. He advised that 
the bits should be covered with leather, or If this 
was thought to be too much trouble, dip the bit into 
water before placing it into the horse's mouth. Tlie 
iron will be thus immediately covered with a thin 
lilm of ice, which will prevent it from adhering to 
the skin of the mouth. 

S. P. Eby, esq., endorsed all Dr. Greene said in 
behalf of' the horse, but did not think the frost 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



would kill the insects. He inclined to the opinion 
that locusts and other insects had holes far below 
tlie surface, into which they could retreat when the 
winter became cold. It is well known that worms 
and the summer locusts have such retreats. 

Dr. 'Greene asked whether it was not a fact that 
all insects wei'c killed when they were exposed to a 
temperature a few decrees below the freezing point. 

Casper Hiiler said they would not. Many of them 
deposit their ei;!;e under the bark of trees and their 
larva in cocoons exposed to the severest cold. 

Mr. Linville Said that Prof. Rathvon and other en- 
tomologists held that cold weather will not kill the 
insects, whose terms of life extend beyond a single 
year ; but that they are offten destroyed by wet 
weather. Mr. Linville agreed wiih Dr. Greene in all 
he had said in regard to the horse. On his motion 
the thanks of the society were voted to Dr. Greene. 
Apple Culture. 

Casper Hiiler read an instructive essay on apple 
oulture, which will be found on page 2.5 of the Far- 
mer. 

S. P. Eby, esq., knew a gentleman in the northern 
part of this county, who h.ad winter apples grown in 
hie own orchanl, lli.at were .as good us any grown in 
Northern New Y.uk. Twice a year he washes his 
trees with lye Irnm hard wood ashes, and cultivates 
and manures the ground around the trees. The or- 
chard is an old one and lies on a slope facing the 
northeast. Mr. Eby favored high lying grounds for 
orchards, and believed in liberal irrigation. 

John Resli tried an experiment with his orchard 
which might be wortli mentioning. Tlie orchard was 



in grass and up. 
ing of barnyard 



he 



■, and on top of the manure 
he bad spread t/ie eartn which he dug from the cellar 
of a new b\iild'ng wliich he wa« erecting. This was 
done to kill the sod ;ind prevent it from appropriat- 
ing to itself the fertilizing properties of the manure. 
He regarded the exjjeriment as a success. 

Calvin Cooper mentioned a case in his neighbor- 
hood in which a valuable orchard was eftectually 
killed by being planted with tobacco. 
What are the Relative Value of Wheat, Bran 
and Corn for Feed ? 

John C. Linville read the follow 
to a question referred at the last meeting" 

The answer to this question depends somewhat on 
the object we wish to attain by feeding. Corn con- 
tains a large percentage of carbohydrates and a small 
amount of albuminoids. Wheat bran ie rich in albu- 
minoids and phosphate of lime. A perfect food 
should contain carbonaceous matter to keep up the 
animal heat and form fat, nitrogenous or albuminous 
matter to form muscle and i)hos|)horiis and lime to 



mg paper m reply 



ind 



lud • 



■ measure, ol 
•1,1 lor young 



Cattle that have aliM,,. i i.;. ir ^r-juUi and are fed 
for beef will thrive on one-lburMi or one-third bran 
and the remainder cornmeal. Thousands of cattle 
and hogs are fed in the West on corn alone. But 
these animals are unhoused and exposed to the in- 
clemency of the weather. A large proportion of 
their food is burnt up in the system to maintain the 
animal heat. In that case, perhaps, corn, witli its 
large proportion of carbohydrates, is as good a feed 
as any. 

Ad excellent daily allowance for a milch cow in 
winter consists of four quarts of cornmeal and four 
quarts of bran, with a peck of sliced mangles and as 
much clover hay and cornfodder as he will eat. 

Linseed cake and cottonseed cake are much richer 
in nitrogen than brau and are valuable concentrated 
feed for young stock and milch cows. Every ojie 
knows the great value of oats for horse-feed. This 
js due in a great measure to the large amount of 
liitrogen they contain. 

A principal oliject in feeding grain and other con- 
centrated feed is fo increase the value of our manure 
piles. An ordiiiL: lo a table prepared by Dr. J. B. 
Lawcs, III i;,.ili;i instead, England, it would seem 
that the inaiiure from one ton of wheat bran is worth 
more than that from two tons of cornmeal; that the 
manure from one ton .of linseed cake is worth that 
from three tons of cornmeal, and the manure from 
one ton of decorticated cottonseed cake is worth 
more than that from four tons of cornmeal. Dr. 
Lawes estimates the value of a ton of decorticated 
cottonseed cake as manure, after being fed to ani- 
mals, at «-J7.86. 

Manure fs valuable in proportion to the nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and jiotash it contains. From 8.5 to 
95 per cent, of these valuable fertilizers are voided 
in the excrements of the animals, and with proper 
care may be utilized. A large amount of carbon- 
aceous matter is burnt up in the animal and lost, 
but it is of little or no use as manure. 

Dr. Greene, Johnsoii Miller and'Wm. H. Brosius 

spoke in commendation of the views of the essayist. 

Fallen Apples. 

"Should fallen apples be allowed to remain on 
the ground?" was a question referred to Oalvin 
Cooper for answer. He answered, "No; many of 
them contain insects or the eggs of insects ; they 



should be gathered and burned and thus the insects 
will be destroyed ; or they may be fed to the pigs, as 
even imperfect or partly rotten apples contain some 
nutriment. 

Cultivation of Corn. 
On motion of Casper Hiiler "the cultivation of 
corn " was chosen for discussion at next meeting, 
and Mr. Hiiler was appointed to open the discussion. 
The Agricultural College. 
President Witmer stated that he had received a 
letter from Thomas M. Harvey inviting him and 
as many others .as could make it convenifint, to at- 
tend a meeting of agriculturists to be Ijeld in the 
elub room at the Farmers' Market, Philadelphia, to 
consider what is best to be done in regard to the 
palpable failure of the Pennsylvania College of 
Agriculture to meet the wants for which it was 
organized and endowed. The letter was accompa- 
nied by a report of a committee of the Eastern Ex- 
perimental Farm Club on the Pennsylvania State 
College and its relations to the experimental farms. 
Report of Committee. 
Tour committee respectfully report that they have 
carefully considered the subject referred to them, 
and desire to say : That the Pennsylvania State Col- 
lege is now and has been for several years in receipt 
of an annual income of about $30,000— said income 
derived from a congressional land grant, donating 
lands to our State for special educational purposes. 
The interest of the sum accruing from the sale of 
these lauds was placed by our Legislature, undtr 
certain conditions, to the use of this college. One of 
the conditions especially affecting us as farmers was: 
that in consideration of the receipt of this annual in- 
come the college should agree to " establish, con- 
duct and maintain three experimental farms " — 
which condition the college accepted without reserve. 
But your committee are free to say, that^ having an 
intimate knowledge of the manner in which the 
Eastern farm was "conducted and maintained " by 
the college, that such maintenance was not in ac- 
cordance with the terms or spirit of the Legislative 
act above referred to. 

When the experimentaF farms were first started, 
the intelligent farming community took a marked 
interest in them, the Eastern farm being principally 
stocked and equipped by citizens of Chester county. 
But the ignorant management of these farms by the 
college, and their niggardly maintenance, has made 
them'a discredit to the farming community, iu whose 
interest they are supposed to be run, and as public 
institutions are a disgrace to the commonwealth. 
But your committee fully believe that "experimental 
farms " or " experimental stations," properly con- 
ducted and maintained, can be made of great value 
to agriculturists and to the people generally ; and, 
therefore, iu view of the fact that the State college 
has utterly failed to do its plain duty iu this matter, 
we would suggest that you petition the Legislature 
to compel a com]iliance with the act referred to, and 
secure it by selling aside one-third part of this in- 
come for tile conduct and maintenance of such farms 
or stations ; and further, as the college has shown 
such ineompetency in the management of such sta- 
tions, that the portion so set aside shall be under the 
control and direction of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture with such restrictions and regulations as the 
Legislature in its wisdom may see fit. 

Your committee are willing to go still further, and 
say that inasmuch as the college trustees have so 
iujuriously changed the character of the college 
from its original design as the " Farmers' High 
School," as devised by Dr. Elwyn and other eminent 
men, and inasmuch as unfortunate location and pre- 
vious bad management have always made it un- 
popular, and with no probable hope for future use- 
fulness or popularity ; and inasmuch as large sums 
have been spent upon this institution without any 
adequate return, therefore, we would further sug- 
gest that you recommend the Legislature to substi- 
tute some better managed or more popular institu- 
tion as the recipient of this land grant fund, by 
endowing a professorship of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts ; or in such manner as the Legislature 
may deem best. All of which we respectfully submit. 

Jno. I. Carter, Job H. Jackson, Thos. M. Harvey, 
Benj. W. Swayne, Sylvester D. .Linvill, Milton 
Conard. 

Accompanying the report was a petition to the 
Legislature for the enactment of a law to remedy 
the evils complained of by appropriating to some 
more practical purpose the $S0,000 annual income 
now wasted by the management of the college. 

Johnson Miller stated that he was present at a 
meeting of the State Board of Agriculture, last week, 
and heard the new President of the State Agricul- 
tural College ask that action on this subject be sus- 
pended for soine time, and let the new management 
have a chance to redeem the character it acquired 
under the former President. 

Joseph F. Witmer related the ex))eriences of one 
of the managers of the State Experimental Farm, 
and they were not such as to reflect much credit on 
the State College under whose care they unfortu- 
nately are. The college virtually starved him. 

Levi S. Reist also said that the loeation of the 



college was a grand mistake. " There was neither 
well nor spring water on it when he was there sev- 
eral years ago. It was a very poor place to put such 
an institution. 

L motion was made and carried that all the mem- 
bers sign the petition to the Legislature, and that it 
be sent to Harrisburg at once, and that the society 
shall be represented at the meeting to be held at 
Philadelphia, which has the matter under consider- 
ation . 

Calvin Cooper offered the following resolution, 
which was adopted ;. 

Resolved, That the sentiments expressed by the 
committee from the vicinity of the Eastern Experi- 
mental Farm are cordially endorsed by this society, 
and we cheerfully join them in petitioning the Legis- 
lature for some action in behalf of oppressed agri- 
culture. 

On motion, Mr. Witmer was appointed to repre- 
sent the society at the contemplated meeting in 
Philadelphia, on Wednesday. 

S. P. Eby exhibited an apple called the Baltimore, 
which was pronounced excellent. 

On motion, the society adjourned. 

POULTRY ASSOCIATION, 

The Lancaster County Poultry Association met 
on Monday morning, February 7th, in their room in 
the City Hall. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
H. H. Tshudy. 

The following members were present : H. H. 
Tshudy, Lititz ; J. B. Lichty, city ; T. Frank Evans, 
Lititz ; Geo. A. Geyer, Spring Garden; John A. 
Stober, Schoeneck ; W. A. Schoenberger, Clare Car- 
penter, W. W.|Gricst, F. R. Diffenderffer, Chas. Lip- 
pold, city; .Joseph F. Witmer, Paradise; John E. 

Schaum, city ; E. H. Hcr.'.hey, ; I. M. Kreider, 

Mount .Joy; J. W. Bruckhart, Salunga; Dr. Mayer, 
Willow Street: J. M. .Johnston, city. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. 

Reports of Officers. 

The Executive Committee, through their chair- 
man, J. B. Lichty, made a report, giving in detail 
the results of the late exhibition. "The statement 
showed that there were 411 entries of birds, from 
which $185.25 in entrance fees were received-; $2.30.50 
were paid in general premiums, ?120 in special premi- 
ums, |I55 in miscellaneous specials ; the total paid 
out in premiums having been $.50S..50. 

The report was on motion adopted.- 
Treasurer's Report. 

T. Frank Evans reported that the total expenses 
of holding the exhibition were ?G44.08, and the total 
receipts were $.597.05, leaving, however, certain 
moneys still uncollected. This does not, however, 
leave a deficit, as there was money in the treasury 
before the show and there is still a balance there 
after buying new coops and other miscellaneous ex- 
penses of .Sj:)..50. 

The report was accepted. 

A pair of almond tumblers having been stolen, 
the question whether the society should pay for them 
came up. The rules of the exhibition do not guran- 
tee exhibitors against loss by accident or theft. Re- 
ferred to the Executive Committee. 
New Business. 

The Secretary of the Society said' that a. contract 
had been entered into for the storage of the coops 
during the cominu' year. 



ill Lion : 
-ed or 
I fowls 



Society sh.i;: (.,..,■< t.ici» .lU..; tv^ii iuv.i ,,v ijird so ex- 
hibited, and shall didiver tlie score cards to the Ex- 
ecutive Committee for examination and determina- 
tion." 

There seemed to be a general desire to have some- 
thing of this kind donCj as the partial scoring gave 
a good deal of dissatisfation. There was a long 
discussion on the resolution, some advocating it and 
others objecting for various reasons. A vote was 
taken on it, which resulted in its adoption. 
New Members. 

William Bullard, of Marietta, and Tobias llershey, 
of Sporting Hill, were elected to"membership. 
Question for Discussion. 

The following question was proposed for discussion 
at the next meeting : 

" Are the smaller breeds of fowls more subject to 
injury, owing to change in the weather, than the 
Asiatics?" 

The society, on motion, adjourned. , 

FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The January meeting of the Club was held at the 
residence of Montiltion Brown, Fulton township. 
Very few of the members were present. The extreme 



1 



. 1881.] 



celd weather and the snow blockading the roads in 
many places will probalJy accoui.t for the measre 
attendance. The visitors present by invitation were 
James Smedley ami Joseph A. nonum. 
Questions and Answers. 

Montilllon Brown asked : "What kind of fertilizers 
are those present iroing to use for corn ?" 

The answers given to this question showed that a 
decided preference was given to South Carolina Koek 
by most of them. 

James Smedley asked if any one had tried South 
Carolina Rock alongside of other fertilizers ? 

Solomon L. Gregg had tried it against barnyard 
manure and other fertilizers ; the Kock was decidedly 
the best. Once hp had sowed a land across a wheat 
field in the spring of the year. It made no percepti- 
ble difference In the wheat crop, but it showed for 
several years in the grass. 

James Smedley had tried it against lime. The 
rock made better corn and oats ; after that it was all 
covered with barnyard manure, but the rock still 
made its mark in the wheat and In the grass for the 
three following years. 

Montillion Brown saiil that rock and phosphate do 
well ou his farm, but that he had put on half a ton 
to the acre of ground bones at two ditl'crcnt times 
and had no perci-ptible results. 

Joseph A. Roman had noticed that the man who 
owned the bone mill was putting on rock. 

William King : Docs any:one present know how to 
make good, marketable butter.in cold weather, with- 
out using artillclal coloring ? 

It was answered that it could only be done by 
feeding eornmeal to to the right kind of cows. For 
making butter of good color Alderneys were pre- 
ferable. 

Joseph A. Roman said that there was a great deal 
of common sense in a remark once made by a friend 
of his, that he did not see the use in giving high 
prices for Alderneys when he could color live hun- 
dred pounds of butter with five cents worth of 
aoDatto. 

Interesting Exhibits. 

Joseph A. Roman exhibited a bag full of ensilage 
taken from his silo. It was of light-brown color, and 
had something of the smell of tigs. His experience 
In the use of it. was very lituited, but he had fed 
enough of it to know that his cattle are very fond of 
it. The green fodder can be cut aud put up cheaply, 
as there is no rush or hurry about it. He had taken 
the wheat ofl' the ground last harvest, plowed it, 
raised the fodder corn, and took It off, and seeded 
the same ground again with wheat in the fall. It 
cuts easy, and a great deal of it can be stored in very 
little space. He is of the opinion that his experi- 
ment will prove a success, and that the discovery 
will be a great benetit to farmers. 

He also exhibited a sample of cotton seed meal, 
costing $3S per ton in Baltimore, aud stated that a 
neighbor of his had tried feeding a pint a day to his 
dairy of thirty cows, aud found that it increased the 
product of butter fifteen pounds per week. The feed 
of eornmeal was reduced considerably while using 
the cotton seed meal . 

Result of an Experiment. 

E. H. Haines gave the result of an experiment in 
setting milk. Six hundred pounds of milk well 
mixed together were set, part iu shallow pans, in a 
warm atmosphere iu the cellar, and part in deep 
cans, aud the cream raised by means of ice. The 
milk set in shallow pans made a pound of butter to 
twenty-one pouuds of milk, while it took twenty- 
three pounds of the milk in the deep cans to make a 
pound of butter. Other experiments that he had 
made were more I'avorBble to the deep setting, and 
as it was much less trouble to set deep he expected 
to experiment further. 

Literary Exercise. 

Ella Brown recited "Merry New Year's Day," writ- 
ten by a convict iu Lancaster County-Prison. Rebecca 
D.King read "Queries," a temperance article. M. 
Brown read "Beeelier on Bob Ingcrsoll," and Wm. 
King read an article on "Jiusilage and Silos," frOm 
the Kew York Tribune. After a few remarks by J . 
Smedley, the club adjourned to meet at Joseph K. 
Blackburn's next month'. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



LINNiEAN SOCIETY- 

Tlie society met on Saturday, January '29, at 2 
o'clock P. M., at the usual place, President Stahr 
and Secretary Davis in their chairs. Present, nine 
members and six visitors. After the usual prelimi- 
nary business, the followiug donations were made to 
the museum and lil.rary : 

Donations to the Museum. 

1. The heirs of the late Jacob StauU'er donated to 
the society the entire botanical collection of our late 
fellow-member, comprising tweuty-live large port- 
folios, containing about 2,500 specimens of the flora 
of Lancaster county. 

2. Mr. George H. Haldemau donated a large col- 
lection of minerals, belonging to his father, the late 
Dr. Edwin Haldemau, comprising a large number of 
specimens, some of which are very fine aud rare. 



5. Mr. J. William Rooting donated a "double 
apple," which is" now preserved iu alcohol, a de- 
scription of which was published in the Daily Ex- 
aminer of January 14, 1881 . 

4. Master James Munson donated a Sienlte, "Ham- 
mer stone," (ail Indian relic,) dug out of the soil in 
the city of Lancaster. Also, a " Brown Bat," ( Ke»- 
perlilis Carolinetmn,) that was captured in this city 
In January. Also, the nest of a "Cat Bird," 
(.Vlmiu CaroHventis,) made of womly fibre and line 
roots. Also, a nest supposed to be that of a species 
of sparrow. 

.5. A portable writing desk, made of fine dark 
wood, inlaid with pearl, and said to have been the 
property of Jetterson Davis, was donated by Mr. D. 
McNealy Stauffer. 

6. A friend donated a beautiful polished trans- 
verse section of brown agatized wood; 5 metallifer- 
ous fragments ; 12 fragmentary varieties of agate : 
U arrowheads ; a large specimen of " ribbon agate ;" 
2 iron " grape shot " balls, and minnle rifle balls or 
slugs. The minerals were picked up by the donor 
at Iowa City twenty-five years ago, and the grape 
and minnle balls from the field three days after the 
battle of Antletam. 

7. A wood cut of Strasburg Academy and adja- 
cent buildings, drawn and engraved by the late 
Jacob Stauffer, donated by William L. Gill. 

8. A canoe paddle of the Indians of British Guiana, 
1878, and a Maquarri whip, used in the dance of the 
Maquarri Indians of British Guiana, donated by Mrs. 
S. S. Haldemau. 

9. Two large boxes, containing a great number of 
Indian relics, minerals, fossils, &c., collected by the 
late Dr. S. S. Haldeman, and donated by Mrs. 
Haldeman. 

10. A piece of semi-fossilized wood from Ocean 
Grove, New Jersey, donated by Jas. G. Thackara. 

11. A living alligator (Alligator MimHuippitmis,) 
over ten inches long. Donated by Prof. I. S. Geisl, 
of Marietta. This animal was brought up from 
Florida, by J. B.Hopkins, Esq., of Baltimore, iu 
November last, and presented to Prof. Geist. 

12. A large tlattened pod of Kyah Shah, or " Tiger 
Tongue," from British Birmah, was donated by 
Miss Lefevre. 

]:i. Forty-two arrow and spearheads from Ken- 
tucky, were donated through .Mr. Gill, by Mrs. S. S. 
Haldeman. These are fine specimens, and are of 
agate, jasper, chalcedony, quartz and horn stone. 
Library. 

1. An illustrated paper read before the " American 
Philosophical Society," on the contents of a Rock 
Retreat near Chickies, by the late Dr. S. S. Halde- 
man. This is a quarto of 17 pp. and 1.5 plates, in- 
cluding 255 figures. Donated by Mrs. S. S. Halde- 
man. 

2. Report of the Commissioner of Education for 
1878, 7:i0 pp. octavo, donated by the Department of 
the Interior at Washington. 

3. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents, 
for 1879, 416 pp., dcmi-quarto, from the Department 
of the Interior. 

4. Numbers 25 and 2G, Vol. 18; and 1,2,3 and 
4, Vol. 19, of the Official Patent Office Gazette, from 
the same. 

5. A skelcth of the Wyoming Historical and Geo- 
logical Soeiely. 

K. A copy of the Musical >/«ra7d for January, 18S1. 

7. The Lancaster Fakmer for Jauuury, 1K81. 

8. Eight old alm.anacs, namely: Anti-Masonic 
almanac for 1830 and 1832; United States almanac 
for 1830; Farmers and .Mechanics almanac for 1830 
and 1831; Pennsylvania almanac for 1834; Uncle 
Sam's almanac for 18.52; and Agricultural almanac 
for 1833, donated by a friend. 

9. A manual of Devotions for the Catholic blind, 
by Rev. James O'Reiley, printed in raised letters, 
and to be read with the fingers ; donated by the 
same, 18ti7. 

10. A portfolio of manuscript botanical papers, 
consisting of classified lists of plants, and a number 
of other papers relating to botany; from the heirs 
of the late Jacob Stauffer. 

11. An octavo volume, containing a catalogue of 
the Herbarium of the late Ellas Diffeubach, whose 
collection is now the property of the society ; from 
the same. 

12. Three unbound folios, containing drawings 
and impressions of plants, taken from the plants 
themselves, in ink. From the same. 

13. Several large chjirfs. In the form of botanical 
trees, Illustrative of plant classification aud scien- 
tific arrangement. Same. 

14. An unbound volume of the "Rural New 
Yorker." From the same. 

15. Two ciruulars of information, Nog. 4 aud 5, of 
the Bureau of Education, from the Department of 
the Interior. 

Historical. 

1. A draft from the "Lancaster Cotton House" 
on the Farmers' Bank, of Lancaster, for ten dollars, 
in favor of George Washington Brown, or bearer ; 
signed bv J. Adolphus Peters, and dated June 2d, 
1810. This relic is iu the form of a bank note, and 
has the "Old Factory" for a Vignette. Donated by 
a friend. 



2. A fifty dollar note on the Lancaxter J3ank,BigDei 
by David Longeiiecker, president, and B. M. Bach- 
man, cashier, and dated December 3d, 1849. Across 
the face Is written In red Ink, "Payment demanded 
March 3d, 1S57, D. M. Lebkiches, cash, pro tern." 
By the same. 

3. A lease of lot No. 563, in the borough of Lan- 
caster, from Wm, Hamilton, Esq., to Christian Neff, 
dated May 29, 1790. This document bears the genu- 
ine autographs of Wm. Hamilton, Jasper Yates and 
Dan. Oflar. Donated by the heirs of the late Jacob 
Staufi'er. 

4. A brief of titles to Lancaster estates. This 
paper contains briefs of 25 titles, dating from 1731 
to 1753. Same. 

5. Lists of lots leased by Wm. Hamilton and 
Jasper Yates, "under a special warrant of attorney." 
These lists contain lUO numbered lots of ground, 
and were leaseil to 70 persons, the aggregate amount 
being i;2.'')6 Us. Id. Same. 

(>. Four envelopes, containing 08 historical and 
biographical scraps, from Dr. S. S. Rathvon. 
New Business. 



the society with their liberal donations on this oc 
caslon. 

The librarian was authorized to procure a blank 
book and catalogue therein the books belODglng to 
the society. 

The curators were instructed to examine and 
classify the contents of the boxes of donations, arid 
to make a proper record of the same. 

The annual election of offlccrs was held, which 
resulted as follows : President, Professor J. S. Stahr; 
Vice Presidents, Professors J. H. Dubbs and T. R. 
Baker; Recording Secretary, Dr. M. L. Davis; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Professor I. S. Geist; Treas- 
urer, Professor S. S. Rathvon ; Librarian, Mrs. L. 
.VI. Zell; Curators, S. S. Rathvon, C. A. Helnltsh, 
.John B. Kevinski and W.. L. Gill; Miscroscopist, 
Dr. M.L.Davis. 

After a season of interesting social intercourse the 
Society adjourned. 



Agriculture. 



More Corn to the Acre. 

The farmers in the Middle and Atlantic States are 
beginning to study out the expediency of raising 
more cereals to the acre than they have heretofore 
been doing. They see very clearly that it can be 
done, and in the case of maize or Indian corn es- 
pecially so. It is true that the labor bestowed will 
be somewhat greater; but when they consider that a 
very large portion of the labor is done with ma- 
chinery, it does dot present the same drawback that 
it did formerly. Besides there is no crop that shows 
the benefit of good culture so much as corn. It can- 
not stand wellin its own defence against the rapid 
grovrth of a multitude of greedy rampant weeds ; 
hence, its gratitude when the Iflvading enemies are 
thrust out and it is allowed to go on its way rejoicing. 

In referring to a heavy yield of corn grown by 
Nathan G. Pierce, .Maryland, twice during the year 
just closed, he furnishes for publication the state- 
ment that one hundred and ten oushels were the 
product per acre, or rather that number of bush- 
els allowing seventy-five pounds of ears to equal 
one bushel of shelled corn. But to remove all 
case for evil, he sets down the net yield, notwith- 
standing this allowance, at one hundred bushels per- 
acre. This seems to be a liberal estimate, and farmers 
in general will no doubt admit it to be so. His mode 
of culture is to plow the grouud, which was a grav- 
elly loam, about the first of May, harrow it in the 
usual manner, and treat it to nine hundred pounds of 
a standard krtiliz'-r per acre ; again well harrow the 
land, make the rows three fet apart, then a " small 
amount" of fertillier scattered iu each row, and on 
May 10 drop three grains of corn (the Lost Nation 
variety), two feet apart in the rows; cultivate and 
hoe tlie crop four times, cutting out one of the three 
plants and removing all the suckers and weeds until 
time arrives for cutting and removiug to the barn for 
huskiug, &c. 

This is only what every good fanner ought to be- 
stow ujion a crop of corn. ' There is nothing out of 
the way about it all ; hence, there Is no Just reason, 
with an ordinarily favorable season, that the result' 
should not be the same, or measurably the same, in 
the production of the crop generally.— fferino7i(oinn 
Telegraph, 



Manuring Lawns, 
and objectionable practice is to spread 
manure In coarse lumps on lawns, just before winter, 
where the grass needs a fertilizer. These lumps lie 
unbroken till spring, entirely destroying the good 
appearance of the lawn, and on warm days giving 
off an odor not of a pleasing character. Lawns 
need enriching, and this may be effected In a better 
way. Compost, or old manure, finely pulverized 
and spread half an Inch thick very evenly over the 
surface, will settle between the blades of grass, 



30 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



impart viffor to the roots, and protect the surface. 
An inch of finely broken peat or dry swamp muck is 
excellent in protecting the surface when evenly 
spread over it, and the grass will make an earlier 
and more vigorous start next'sprins. On soils which 
are beneted by superphosphates, these form an ex- 
cellent top dressing, although the offensive odor, 
■which lasts some days, may be an objection. If the 
mowing of lawns has been properly discontinued 
early in October, and a growth of grass some inches 
long has been permitted, this growth will constitute 
a good protection, and assist in giving an earlier 
spring growth.— Co«n<)-^ Gentleman. 



Danger in the " Silos." 
We are impressed with the importance of warning 
people who have' put their corn-fodder in tanks, 
especially in deep ones, of the dangerous carbonic 
acid gas— the " choke damp " of mines and wells. 
A fafmcr near Sing Sing, used an old ice-house for 
pitting his corn-fodder ; on Saturday night, when 
they knocked off work, there were some seven or 
f'ii.'iit feet (if fnililcr i-nt in lialf-inch bits, and well 
trrnjcliu a.iAii in Mil- jiii. On Monday morning it 

juiniji-.i ii, ami i.a-~ tn u.liiu iiljout on it to see if it 
had bellied cvuLilv, » lien lie felt dizzy and faint; 
the thought of "choke damp " flashed throiigh his 
mind, and he called out to have a ladder lowered to 
him. This was done just in time, and he half 
crawled and was half hauled out. His head was 
four or six feet above the worst of ihe " damp," for 
it is very heavy. Hfad he fallen he would have been 
drowned in the gas, as effectively as in water, with- 
out a struggle or a murmur. When going into a pit 
never fail to lower a lantern first, for half a minute, 
and if it burns brightly the air of the pit is lit to 
breathe. — American Agriculturist. 



Accumulation of Manure in Stables. 
A large mass of dung, unless frozen or kept near 
the freezing point, will undergo decomposition, and 
gives of}', besides steam, ammonia, and other gases. 
These tend to soften and injure the hoofs of animals, 
and especially horses, that maybe forced /to stand 
continuously 'upon the accumulation of dung. Tnese 
gases cause inflammation of the eyes, and injure the 
general health, iutt-rferc with the digestion, and re- 
duce the viu'or of the animal. There should be no 
mass of manure in any stable where horses are kept. 
A clean fioor and pure air are requisites for the best 
health of the animals. 



, though well- 
■s, is scarcely 
ii) Its wonder- 
iiyfactof its 
lUse— a cause 



quite ripe, after which it never comes to its best 
flavor ; and before it took to cracking in some few 
locations. The White Doyenne, however, had just 
as many votes as the Beurre Diel, and this, also, our 
people "would have agreed to years ago. The 
Doyenne tins, still a popular pear, comes next ; and 
then the Beurre de Cap! nnnnt. w 
known to many of ..ik i.-:,r r 
popular, because its i; i ■• : 
fully prolific characir I ,^1 

enormous bearing i> ;ir> .ilv i 
which judicious thiuniiii;- iiiiL:l!l nuK-dy. >;a[iMl.>(,ii 
stands fifth ; but in this case .\i.e,iri,,, Ikh. i,m- 
thi'ng to say, for although it is 11 iiiai 1: .li'} iealiliv 
and productive and of tine quality ii . iten a ^lav or 
two after maturing, there are none left after a week 
or so is gone. 1^ next one is Williams' Bon 
Chretien, or as we say, Bartlett ; and then comes 
Marie Louise, which, like Napoleon, ripens too fast 
for us to make anything out of. Finally the two 
last oil the list we find to be Beurre Clairgeau and 
Beurre D'Hardenpont, well-known to Americans as 
excellent pears in some localities. 

01 conr.^e our order of excellence would be very 
ditlerenl IVum tliis ; but- still as compared with the 
apple, it is remarkable to find all well-known kinds 
to us and kinds which we find so often in our gar- 
dens, to be the leadiiiL' ones iu tlie German lists. 

It would he intere.siiii- to know how our best 
American seedling peajt dti in Eur-.pe. Tlie Sockel, 
the Tyson, the Sheldon, tlie Biandywine, the Read- 
ing, the Lawrence and others would, no doubt, be 
as'acceptable to them as their varieties are to us. — 
Oermantown Telegraph. 



The Fin 



,01)1', 



of the Wheat. 

real products of this 



annual 
S50, to 
n 1870. 



and 2,4a1,(1UO,1)00 in IsTy. The value of th( 
products increased from S3,9B.5,000,000 iu 
§7,977,000,000 in ISiiO, and 1111,000,000,000 
North of the Ohio river there are 400,000,0ou acres 
of land immediately available, which can produce 
in wheat and other cereals at least 4,800,000,000 
bushels annually. 



Salt in Sowing. 
Some French as well as some German authorities 
recommend the use of salt at the rate of one hundred 
and flftv pounds per acre for clover and other legu 
miuous'plants ; for wheat and flax, two hundred and 
fifty pounds ; and tor barley and potatoes, three 
hundred pounds — to be sown broadcast iii the spring 
season, before the herbage has attained any consider- 
able growth. 



Horticulture. 



What is Good Grape Culture ? 
A friend joyfully told us a few days ago of his 
anticipations in the grape way. He had bought a 
little place in the vicinity, and had made up his 
mind to have things right. His maxim was that 
what was worth doing at all was worth doing well, 
and he meant to doit. He had done it. He had 
dug out the dirt three feet into the clay, and had 
filled with light rich compost, through which the 
roots might push their way in ease and comfort, and 
live on the fat of the land. He had spent consider- 
able money in doing the job well. He intended to 
get only the best vines, and felt sure such an ex- 
peuditure would result in magnificent grapes and 
plenty of them. He had done his work well. 

It is strange that such a course as this should ever 
have been recommended by horticultural writers, 
but it is a fact that Ihey have. Grapes are now so 
easily and cheaply grown— fruit often four and five 
cents a pound- that we had well-nigh forgotten that 
this was the standard advice of the books years ago. 
But our friend produced It in black and while from 
the pages which he had chosen as an authority, and 
then we knew how it was in the olden time. 

Now, our readers at least should know that in- 
stead of such a proceeding as this being an evidence 
of doing it well for the grape, it is simply an act of 
folly. Tlie grape root needs to be warm and dry, 
but this deep well in the clay, encouraging the col- 
lection of water from all around it, has just the con- 
trary cH^ect. The roots are damp and cool and not 
warm and dry. 

Indeed, it is only of late years when people have 
given up all this expensive foolery that grape-culture 
has become a tolerable success. Under the old plan 
we had failure after failure, and we came to believe 
only those varieties wliich were little removed from 
the wild fox or the frost grapes could be grown. 
But now we have the finer kinds getting quite com- 
mon. As soon as we gave up tliis deep trenching 
nonsense, grape-culture — real grape-culture — took a 
fresh start, and this real culture consists in little 
more than planting a vine in good earth, of less 
depth than we would any ordinary tree, and see that 
it does not sufl'er for want of food. This is good 
grape-culture in a nutshell. 



utmost care, spreading out the roots their full length, 
and stake them firmly, but so that they will not rub 
by the action of the wind. Then cut away super- 
fluous top-branches, of which each one must judge 
for himself, and be careful that in digging and 
grubbing about the trees no injury is done to the 
roots or bark . 

The Best Time for Grafting Trees. 

In several publications we notice that the cutting 
of grafts in the fall, "or before the sharp cold of 
winter injures their vitality," is highly recommended. 
Dire, lions are thus given how they are to be pre- 
sci VI 4 iiirough the winter : "They may be packed 
away in l>oxes of fine damp moss, damp sawdust, or 
buried in the earth or sand." There is a great deal 
more added which we do not think worth while to 
quote. This mode may be a very good one, but we 
have' never tried it and just now do not seem in the 
mood to do so. We have done most of our own 
grafting, and have been successful. We never cut 
our grafts before February, and if the ground is not 
frozen stick them in at the foot of the tree, then the 
variety is kown without labeling. If the ground is 
frozen they are tied up, the bunch labeled and buried 
in the ground under a shed or in a rather dry place. 
We have set seventy of these grafts (pears) at one 
time and every one of them grew. Once on a time we 
employed a professional grafter, who brought his 
own eions (cherries) and set thirty-two for us, every 
one of which died. The following spring we thought 
to try our own hand at it, and set sixteen (cherries) 
on the same tree which had been fifteen years 
planted, the grafts cut as usual in February, and 
eleven of them grew. This we thought was doing 
pretty well with cherries. It the grafts are carefully 
preserved and properly set, it makes no difi'erence 
whether cut in fall or "spring. Cherry grafts, how- 
ever, should be always cut before the buds show any 
signs of swelling.— German^owjt Telegraph. 



Floriculture. 



Foreign Pears and Apples. 

Not long since the German pomologists undertook 
to discover by a system of voting, once popular in 
our country, but which, very properly, we think, 
has lost favor of late years, what varieties were— not 
the best — hut were most popular in the various dis- 
tricts. Not one of the apples returned do we recog- 
nize among our popular kinds except the Ked 
Astrachan, a Kussian variety, and this is given at 
the tail end of the list, with the remark that it does 
well in an occasional case. The Golden winter 
Pearmain, one almost unknown to our cultivators, is 
set down as the best apple in twenty-two out of 
thirty-four of these large districts, and" such trashy 
things ,that is, trashy as wc find thom — as Alex- 
ander, kibston Pippin and the various Keinettes, 
carry olf tlie palm. 

Now, iu pears of all kinds named as their best are 
well-known to our cultivators, and although we 
would not put them in the same order as resulted 
from this German inquiry, some American cultiva- 
tors, it is not at all impossible, would make some 
such list. First and foremost they have the Beurre 
Diel, which would have suited a large number of 
Americans some years ago, before it took to shed- 
ding its leaves early in autumn before the fruit was 



Cultivating the Cherry Tree. 
A few words of advice in planting out and pro- 
tecting cherry-trees may not be out of place at this 
time, when people are making up their lists of fruit- 
trees, etc., for transplanting the approachingspring. 
There is no tree that requires more careful handling 
and setting and attention than the cherry. Fre- 
quently, those being transplanted from a long dis- 
tance suffer sufficient injury to render them unfit for 
planting. In our expei-ienee we have havejmet with 
repeated loss in this way. The worst of the disap- 
pointment is, that after being set out the tree will 
give just enough signs of growing to induce one to 
Tet it stand until the whole summer and fall are past, 
thus depriving us of two opportunities to throw it 
out and plant another in its place. In all such cases 
we would advise in the first place the cutting off of 
nearly the whole of the top, and then if it docs not 
in the course of a few weeks give decided evidence 
of a fresh growth to remove it entirely. We have 
saved several by this sharp pruning, which are now 
fine, healthy trees. 

But, in the first place, set out no cherry tree that 
has not a full supply of roots, especially of small 
ones, and the stem of which is not free from bruises, 
from which they will never recover. Set out with the 



House Plants. 

The soil best adapted to the growth of house plants 
is one in which some organic matter, as old turf or 
partly decomposed stable manure, is slowly decay- 
ing. One of the chief reasons why plants do not 
grow well is that the soil is not rich enough. A good 
compost is made of two parts of well decomposed 
stable manure, two parts partly decayed and one 
part sand. These proportions may be varied to suit 
the different kinds of plants, the rose, smilax and 
calla requiring a larger amount of manure, while 
the cactus needs more sand. 

Watering is the part of the work of plant grow- 
ing in which most persons fail. Three reasons can be 
given for.watering plants, viz: to supply the moisture 
evaporated from the foliage and soil ; to dissolve the 
plant food in the soil, and by running through the 
soil to carry out the impure air which is replaced by 
a fresh supp"ly as the water escapes from the opening 
at the bottom of the pot . The amount of water that 
must be applied depends upon the quantity of the 
foliage and the dryness of the .atmosphere. Those 
plants having but little foliage require less water 
1 !, Ill I.' a i .uin-- a large amount, and oue in vigorous 
,1,, , , _ i.tli more than one in a dormant or 
r, 1 11:; 111. "To apply water until it runs into 
il,,' „a.; r anl not water again until the soil is in 
condition as to almost cause the plant to wilt. With 
plants in small Dots watering may be required every 
day, or in some cases twice in one day." Some 
plants, however, like the calla, require more 
water than they would receive by following this rule, 
but there are only a few exceptions.— JfiJss. Plough- 
man. _. 

The Feathery Acacias in Bloom. 

The yellow acacias are in bloom, and all glorions 
in their feathery, tropical verdure. The acacia is 
mentioned bv very ancient writers. It extends over 
Oriental countries, Australia and Polynesia, and ex- 
ists in some two hundred varieties, of which only a 
few are found in temperate climates. In the times 
of Israel's greatness and glory, before the Wander- 
in" Jew started on his melancholy and eternal 
round, it* was planted at the heads of great men's 
fraves, not as a drooping mourner, but as an emblem 
of eternal life. It was made use of as a funeral 
emblem by the Knightly Crusaders. For these 
reasons, and more particularly because it was the 
tree of Solomon, it is held in high regard by the 
Masonic fraternity ; and of all evergreens it is pre- 
ferred as an emblem to be worn at burials and to be 
cast upon the cofiin lid when a friend is about to dis- 
appear forever from the world . 

To Color Roses. 

A yonng man on the cars the other day had in his 
hand three roses, one of which was white, oue green, 
and one of a delicate flesh colored tint. These 
flowers attracted the attention of the ' passengers, 
both ladies and gentlemen. One lady remarked that 
she had seen the buds of the green rose, another 



i'HE LANCASTER FARMER. 



31 



said she had seeu the rose Itself, but had. never seen 
any so lovely and perfect as this one. The flesh 
colored one was also commented upon and |)rai«od. 
Finally the young man volunteered the iuforniatlon 
that all were white In the morning, and that this 
coloring was done by pultinn one Into green ink, and 
the other Into red InU, Although the leaves were 
beautifully colored, the <oloring would not rub off- 
It only required ten minutes to charage the lolnr. 

Tuberoses. 
The Miehiffan Farmer gives some practical advice 
on the treatment of tuljeroses. It says : "Tuberoses 
when taken up in the fall should be well I'ricd and 
laid away on shelves in a warm place for winter. 
The young bulbs or olfsets, both of tuberoses and 
gladiolus bulbs, should be removed either In the fall 
or before planting In the spring. If old bulbs are 
planted with the young ones attached, the result is a 
mass of leaves and no flowers. Tuberoses will not 
endure cold or moisture, either in the ground or 
when stored, the result of exposure being the decay 
' of- the embryo flower-stem within the bulb. Bulbs 
In which this chau^'C has taken place will produce 
ftbundance of leaves but no flowers." 

Propagating Fuchsias. 
The following method of raising young plants of 
fuchsias is said to be practised by cottagers ill the 
westof England : "In the autumn, after the Irost has 
destroyed the foliage, the wood of the present season 
Is cut otf close to the ground, and laid like a sheaf 
of corn in a trench a loot deep. The bundle is cov- 
ered with a few inches of soil, and here It remains 
until spring, when a multitude of shoots may be 
seen pushing their way through. Tlie soil Is then 
carefully moved, and "with a sharp knife a cut is 
made each side of a joint ; and the result is, rooted 
plants enough for the parish. The old stool throws 
up more vigorously than before, to bo served In the 
same way the following autumn." 



Domestic Economy. 



How to Cook a Turkey. 
Unless it is badly soiled, never soak, wash or wet a 
turkey, as many do. Indeed washing injures any 
kind of meats and Hsh, except those kept in salt 
brine. Carefully draw the turltey, and wipe thorough- 
ly inside and out with a dry towel. It will thus keep 
longer uncooked, and be better flavored. If it 
chances to be a tough one, steam It an hour or two, 
as needed, before baking. If one has not a steamer 
large enough, as few have, it may be done in a wash 
boder, supporting the bird, above the water on a 
couple of inverted basins, or suspending it by strings 
from the handles. My family has leariTed to like 
plain stuffing rather than the highly seasoned, rich, 
indigestible dressing so much in vogue. I use stale 
bread . chopped fine, just moistened with scalding 
water, not to a " mush," and add a little butler^salt, 
pepper, and, if desired, a small pineh of sweet mar- 
joram or thyme. Most like summer savory, but we 
omit It, because not relished by one of the family. 
After stuffing and sewing, fasten the wings and legs 
down closely with skewers or by tying with strings. 
Koasl in the dripping pan MiWio!(< 'imicr. To keep 
the skin from scorching, basic now and then with 
a little water seasoned with butter and salt. Bake 
thi<ough uniformly to a light brown, avoiding burn- 
ing or hardening any part. A good oyster siufliiig, 
-when easily obtainable, i^ liked by many, as follows: 
Drain off most of the liquor from the oysters, seasou 
with sufficient butter and pejiper, and roll them in 
cracker or bread crumbs. Fill the cavity of the 
turkey entirely with these. 



Useful Remedies. 



aching termed colic, add a teaspoonful of salt to- a 
pint of cold water, drink it and go to bed ; it is one 
. of the speediest and best remedies known. The same 
will revive a person vfho seems almost dead from re- 
ceiving a fall. In an apopletie flt Do time should be 
lost in pouring down salt water, or sponging the 
head with cold water until the senses return, when salt 
will completely restore the patient from his lethargy. 
In a tit the feet should 1)6 placed In warm water with 
mustard and and- legs briskly rubt)ed, all bandages 
removed from the neck, a; da cool apartment pro- 
cured if possible. In many cases of bleeding at the 
lungs, when other remedies fail, Dr. Kush found 
that two teaspoonslul of salt completely stayed the 
blooJ. In the case of the bite of a mad dog, wash 
the part with a stong briue for an hour, then bind 
on some with a rag. In toothache, warm salt water 
held to the part and renewed two or three times will 
relieve in most cases. If the teeth be covered with 
tartar wash twice a day with sail and water. 



Brightening Tinware. 
One of the best things I have ever tried for keep- 
ing tins bright is water-lime. This Is a soft brown 



substance th.'it polishes metals without scratching 
the surface, and Is very cheap. 

Also rub your tins with a damp cloth, then take 
dry flour and rub it on with your hands and after- 
ward take an old newspaper and rub the (lour otf, 
and the tin will shine as well as If half an hour had 
been spent in rubbing them with brick-dust or pow. 
der. 

Another good thing for biightcnlng tinware is 
<:ommou soda. Diimpcn a cl.<th and dfp In Jsoda and 
rub the ware briskly, •after which wipe dry, and it 
will look equal to new. To prevent the rusting of 
tin, rub fresh lard over i-vt-ry part of the dish, and 
then put in a hot oven and heat it llioroughly. Thus 
treated, any tinware may be used in water constant- 
ly, and remain bright and free from rust.— CAok- 
tanqna Democrat. 

Varnished Work. 

If varnished work becomes defaced, and begins to 
show white spots, take equal parts of linseed oil and 
turpentine, put them In a vial, shake till thoroughly 
Incorporated, then pour In small quantilies on a 
soft cloth, and apply to the spots. Kepeat till the 
color Is restored, and then with another clean soft 
cloth wipe the mixture otf carefOUy. In deeply 
carved furniture, if the dust has settled so as to be 
dililcult to remove, use first a stiff haired paint- 
brush to gel out as much of the dust as possible 
before using the wet sponge ; then roll the sponge up 
in the hand, and rub it into the carving two or three 
times; rinse, and rub dry with the chamois, and 
flnisli oft' by wrapping the dry skin over the ivory 
needle, and drying every damp place in the carving. 
This neeil not take more time than is occupied in 
telling it. If the furniture Is often dusted, it will 
uire any more, and it will look fresh and 



noi require any more, auu n win 
bright for years with such earc. 



Household Recipes. 



To BKAT the whites of eggs quickly put in a pinch 
of salt. The cooler the eggs the quicker they will 
froth. Salt cools and also freshens them . 

Fkuit Jumbliss. — One pound of sugar, three- 
quarters of a pound of butter, one pound and a 
quarter of flour, five eggs, one small teacupful of 
milk, iu which dissolve half a teaspoonful of soda; 
cream the butter ; add the sugar ; cream again ; 
then add yolks of eggs, the milk, beaten whites and 
flour ; a little cinuamou, nutmeg, and allspice aud 
ground cloves, and one-quarter of a pound of cur- 
rants rolled in flour. 

Ckanberrt Sauce. — Pick over one quart of cran- 
berrii'S, mash and put into a saucepan with one cup- 
ful of water ; stew slowly for about an hour ; if 
thick by that time strain through a collander, then 
sweeten with fine white sugar. Place iu a mold that 
has previously been wet with Ice water ; let stand 
until ready for use. 

Snowball PTn>i>iN'G.— Boil one quart of rich 
milk and then thicken it with a tablespoouful of- 
llour or arrowroot ; beat up the yolks of four eggs 
with three tablespoousful of white sugar, then pour 
the milk slowly into the eggs and sugar, stirring all 
the time. Pour this custard into a pudding dish and 
brown it slightly ; beat up the whites to a still' froth, 
adding four tablespoousful of sugar, and flavoring 
with lemon ; ilrop it on the custard (wbeu browned) 
in the form of balls as lai-ge as an egg. Se't it back 
iu the stove to brown a little. 

Calves' Foot Jellt op 1780.— Put four feet into 
two gallons of cold water ; let it boil down to one 
gallon, strain It, and set away until cold ; then take 
oft' the I'at from the top and the sediment from the 
bottom ; put the jelly Into a kettle with a pint of 
white wine, the juice of four lemons, and the peel of 
one ; beat the whites and shells of six eggs and add 
to it; sweeten to your taste; let it boil for a few 
minutes ; pour into the jelly-bag, and repass until 
quite clear. If needed for an invalid, add a cup of 
pale brandy. 

Feather Cake. — Beat to a cream half a cup of 
butter, add to it two of sugar and beat well together ; 
one cup of milk with one teaspoon of soda dissolved 
in it ; heat well together ; add one cup of sifted flour 
with two teaspoons of cream of tartar prcvionsly 
rubbed into it ; add next the well-beaten yolk of 
three eggs, beat the whites separately until more 
cups of flour; beat well between each successive 
addition ; butter two middle sized tins, put In the 
cake and bake for twenty minutes or half an hour in 
a moderate oven. 

White Cake.— Four ounces of butter, three gills 
of milk, one uiid a half pints of flour, one pint of 
sugar, one and a half tcasfXKinful of cream of tartar, 
three-quarters of a teaspooneful of soda, two eggs, 
the whites whiskiMl to astill' froth, and bitter almonds 
to the taste. Beat the batter and sugar together, add 
the yolks and beat until very light; then stir in the 
milk, in which the soila is dissolved, the flour in 
which the cream of tartai- Is sifted and the whites of 
eggs, alternately. Add the almonds and- bake in 
paper-lined pans. 



MatoxjcatSE. — One tablespoonful of dry mus- 
tard, two even teaspoons of salt, a small jiinch of 
eayi-nnc, half a gill of vinegar, half a pint of sweet 
oil, and oUc raw egg. Mix the mustard, salt and 
pepper with one and a half teaspoonsful of vinegar 
in a large bowl, add theegg and beat well. Pour iu 
the oil in a continuous thread-like stream, keeping 
up a brisk beating'. When well beaten and like a 
thick batter add a gill of vinegar slowly. 

CuARLOTTi: Iti'ssE.- Cover an ounce of isinglass 
with cold water, place a weight iijion It to prevent Its 
floating, and soak two hours. Line moulds with thin 
strips of sponge cake, stlckino- the edges together 
with white of egg. Scald one jilnt of inllk over 
boiling water, beat the yolks of four eggs, and add 
six ounces of sugar ; [lour the hot milk on tbcra ; 
take the isinglass from the water, lay It In the hot 
custard, then stir the whole over the boiling water 
until a little thickened, and put aside to cool. Whip 
one quart of eream iu a deep l)Owl and lay the froth 
on the shallow side of the sieve. lieturn to the bowl 
the cream that has drained through the sieve and 
whip as much of It as possible. What cannot be 
whipped may be added to the custard. When the 
custard Is cool and quite thick beat It very thorough- 
ly with the whipped cream, then pour it in mouldt 
and place on ice. 

To renovate black goods, take one-flfth of a 
pound of extract of logwood and one ounce of 
salaeratus ; put in a boiler willi.ten gallons of water, 
cold or hot ; stand over- the fire, and when Imlliug 
hot put in the goods, either wet or dry ; let stand 
twenty minutes, moving about occasionally ; rinse in 
cold water imtil the goods drip clear, and Iron Imme- 
diately. This will be found a most excellent recipe . 
for restoring black goods of any kind that have be- 
come rusty or brown— cloth, eashinere, a water- 
proof, worsted grenadine, or any material that will 
not cockle in wetting. Press on the wrong side. 

Lobster Patties.— Line the patty pans with puff 
paste and put into each a .small piece of bread. 
Cover with paste, brush over with egg and bake of 
light color. Take as much minced lobster as is re- 
quired, and add six drops of anchovy sauce, lemon 
juice and cayenne to taste. Stir it over the .fire for 
live minutes, remove the lids of the patty cases, take 
out the bread, UII with the mixture, and replace the 



Poultry. 



More Eggs. 
The great reason why we have not more eggs Id the 
winter Is that the hens have not inure comfortable 
quarters uor requisite food. Ihc hen Is a tender 
animal. .She is an exotic in this cold climate, and 
wants a warm bedroom aud comfortable nursery. 
If we compel her to sleep on a fence or in a tree and 
lay her eggs where the snow can sift upon them and 
the frost crack them, she will lay very few. ' Under 
such circumstances slic has very little energy in this 
dlrcctiOD, and knows too much to waste what little 
she has. Comfort is the concomitant of egg pro- 
duction, and food the great forerunner. In summer, 
the hens. If allowed the free run of the farm, can 
scratch for a living aud pick up 6ec<lR, grubs and 
perfect insects enough to supply all demands for the 
raw material from which the eggs are manufactured. 
In winter this supply fails, and the eggs of course 
fail. An egg Is essentially animal food ; in fact, lt_ 
contains the animal — the chick. Hence it requires 
for its manufacture in winter some substitute for the 
insects which the hens eat in summer. Comfortable 
quarters and a mixed animal and vegetable diet are 
therefore the great secrets in egg production in win- 
ter. The animal food Is best furnished in the form 
of animal meal. This is made atour large abattoirs 
in great quantities by steaming the bones and re- 
fused parts of the animal, aud then drying and 
grinding them. This meal costs but little more than 
cornmeal, aud a quart of It with three or four quarts 
of cornmeal and wheat bran will furulsh hens just 
the raw material for making eggs. We have tried 
it aud know. Some recommend adding to this mash 
a little red pepper. And this ts a good stimulant, 
but we have not found it necessary. — A'ational 
AgricuUuriit. 

Lice on Chickens. 
A correspondent of the Country (ftntleman has 
the following to say on the above subject : Let me 
give you my experience with fowls; then you will 
sec why these Inquiries seem strange to me. Just 
about live years since I purchased a trio of Yellow 
Duckwing Bantams, a trio of Silver-Laced Sebrights, 
and a trio of Black-Breasted Red Games. When the 
spring of the year came I soon bad chickens ; it was 
not long before one or more began to be dumpish, 
would continually gape, and finally die. I could not 
I account for It for some time, but one day, just after 
a pretty Silver chick died, I held It in my hand, and 
on Iboughtlessly rubbing up the feathers a little I 
saw something on its head, and quickly discovered 
it to be patch of liee, boring into its head, which 
seemed to me quite enough to cause Its death. Then 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 1881. 



I found some under Its neck. It occurred to me at 
once that I had seen in the Country Oentieman that 
kerosene mixed with lard enough to prevent its run 
ning, would not only kill lice on fowls, but the nits 
also. I tried it and it thoroughly killed th em . I 
now go over every brood of chicks, when they are 
ten or twelve days' old, and rub the kerosene and 
lard on their heads and under their wings,' and 
whenever else I find lice. They look very rough for 
some hours afterwards, but it is not long before they 
look all right again. From the time I began to do 
this I have had no chickens gaping and'dying. I 
■ lose chickens from time to time, and fowls, but not 
on account of lice. 

Raising Ducks for Profit. 

It is a pleasing fact that the increase of the supply 
cvf ducks in our markets is very sensible in the last 
few years, and they are readily bought up at good 
prices as a change from chickens and turkeys. Farm- 
ers tell us tb.at t1ii-y are as easily raised as chickens ; 
indeed cost less for food and bring a better price, es- 
pecially if the kinds are raised which look plump 
and appetizing on table. These are the Rouen, the 
Pekiu and Aylesliury. They are of good size, and 
in their growth tliey consume almost anything and 
really keep the premises clear of many things that 
would prove an annoyance, such as insects, grubs, 
ofl'al, wormy apples, &t. In October and November, 
meal or oat-meal mush, fed a Ittle warm, mixed with 
sour or skimmed milk, will in about two weeks fat- 
ten them for market. From every farm from twen- 
ty-five to fifty pairs should be annually sent to 
market, the returns of which would do a full share 
in filling the family purse from the pleasanter and 
lighter branches of the farm. 



Literary and Personal. 



The Weeklv Fancier. — A three-columned, 
four-paged quarto, published at Reading, Pa., at 
Jl.OO a year, postage paid. This is a «ew candidate 
for public patronage, but if we muy be permitted to 
ju'lgc it hy '';.• .|uality of the number before us, 
(Janu.iry I'.i, l.SHl,) we have no hesitation in s.aying 
it is a ii:oi-;hij (tin-, and we give it our "ballot." 
True, compared with other subjects of the newspaper 
realm, it is a " small potato," but as the maiden 
replied to the old bachelor, it is a "sweet one" — 
sweet, at least, to the genuine fancier. The number 
before us eontain.'i sevrn .nhimns of as interesting 



fou 



?pt, 



5, Robesonia, Berks county, 



AUr.imuiiaii 
be made to F.H. Schwai 
Pa. 

The Catalpa.— Additional facts and information 
in relation to the " Catalpa Trr-c," fT',. '„'.,; hirjno- 
moide.s) and its variety s^ecios'/. !' 1' ' l;:iiney, 
Dayton, Ohio. A demi-oetavo |> ;' ' ! ' ■ i-ages, 
which discusses the uses, the m" ' • '• ' "' cul- 
ture of the catalpa in a very abii; ai.J lXi« ilmeutal 
manner, and also very scientifically. We have 
known this tree for full sixty years, but until re- 
cently we never supposed that it possessed any other 
value than as a beautiful flowering shade tree. Al- 
though its specific gravity is less than hickory, 
white oak, elm, walnut, birch, wild cherry or 
ailanthus, yet it is said to grow more rapidly and is 
more durable than any of them. It can be used for 
posts, rails, railroad ties, cabinet work and general 
building purposes, and in the general depletion of 
our forests this tree may become our uUimatutn. 

AN^a'AL Report of the "Fruit-Growers' Society." 
Prepared by its ofticers, 1880. 76 pp. Royal octavo, 
with four full-page plates, illustrating ehoice varie- 
ties of fruit", two of which are colored. The colored 
illustration of "Kieffer's Hybrid Pear," is the most 
beautiful picture of a pear tliat has ever been brought 
to our notice, and if one-half can be realized that 
has been said in behalf of this pear, it will be an ad- 
dition to our fruit list that is invaluable. The colored 
illustration of the .Martha Grape is also very beauti- 
ful. The "Yacob, or Schautz," and the "Sohaeffer" 
apples, are the subjects of the uncolored plates, 
equally well executed. The quality of the paper, 
the typography and the literary contents are unex- 
ceptionable. 

Illustrated Catalogue of optical goods manu- 
factured and imported by Meyrowitz Bros., opticians. 
No. 297 Fourth avenue, southeast corner of Twenty- 
third street, building of the Society for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Children, New York, is one of the 
finest illustrated catalogues of its kind that lias ever 
been published. It is 7 by 12 in- i - :\i >:/,«, mtains 

134 pages, and 1,63S finely exvi I, ; ,,,- ns of 

everything in the optical line t; im , mation 

can conceive of. Such a cataln-u. i.iu.i iinlirate a 
large and profitable business, and we advise our 
readers who have any wants in that line of goods to 
order one immediately. 

We are indebted to Prof. Meehan, editor of the 
Gardener's ilonthly, for a copy of his paper read 
before the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 



delphia, "0/( the Timber Lineof High Mountains;" 
also, one on the " Sexual ■ Variation in Castanea 
America?ia," by Isaac C. Martindale, and himself. 

Our thanks are also due to Prof. A. E. Foote, 
M.D., for six numbers of the "yatnralist's Leisure 
Hour, and Monthly Bulletin." 1323 Belmont avenue, 
Philadelphia. To one desiring to accumulate a col- 
lection in any department of natural history this lit- 
tle periodical is almost indispensable, especially as it 
contains catalogues and prices of all that the doctor 
has for sale at his scientific depot. 

Frances Dunham's Bee-Comb Foundation Ma- 
chine. A pamphlet of beekeepers' supplies, DePere, 
Brown county, Wis. 

Life and Health— Physical, mental, moral; 
how lost, how gained. 'Vinemont and Reading, Pa. 
January and February, ISSl. A beautiful royal 
quarto of 8 pages. Edited and published bi-monthly 
by Thos. F. Hicks, M. D., Wernersville, Berks county. 
Pa. "An independent journal of health, progress, 
religion and sanitary science." A remarkably well- 
gotten up paper, and of unexceptionable literary 
contents. Only 30 cents a year. 

The "Southern Planter and Farmer," pub- 
lished by I/ulfe S. Sanders, Editor and Proprietor, 
for January l.sSl, comes to us greatly enlarged, im- 
proved, and beautified ; and, as to quantity and qual- 
ity, will compare with any agricultural magazine in 
the entire country. It is an octavo of 76 pages, and 
is published at No. 28 Ninth street, Richmond Vir- 
ginia, at 83,00 a year in advance, with exceedingly 
liberal cliib rates. The fact that it contains'Sl 
pages of advertisements in addition to its regular 
number (of literary letter press) evinces 
that it elicits a fair appreciation as a medium of 
business communication with the people. Its list of 
distinguished contributors cannot fail to place it in 
the very front rank of agricultural, livestock, and 
rural literature, and the character and quality of 
their contributions, must continue it, as it now is, 
"the oldest (and best) agricultural journal in the 
South," being in its forty-second year. Its me- 
chanical execution is unexceptionable, and a real 
"godsend" to those under the ban of that dimness 
of vision which is the usual accompaniment of in- 
creasing age. It enters upon the new volume with 
increased facilities for carrying out its design to 
impart additional interest and increased value to the 
work. So mote it be. 

"Seed-time and Harvest,"— An illustraled 
quarterly horticultural magazine, published by 
Isaac F. Tillinghast, La Plume, Lackawanna county. 
Pa., " for every one who plants a seed or tills a 
plant," at the very low price of 35 cents a year, with 
liberal premium inducements. Number 5 for Jahu- 
ary, 1881, has been received, and the article upon 
hot-beds in this number is, we think, the most com- 
plete ever published, and contains hints of great 
value to gardeners. It is worthy of note to state 
that this magazine will be sent free to all the patrons 
of Mr. Tillinghast's seed and plant establiflini.-nt. 
This magazine contains 2-1 pji. Svo., and we w^mld 
not know where else to send our patrons that, tli-'y 
would be so sure of getting so much at so small a 
price. 

The Journal of Forestry and Estates Man- 
agement for January, 1881, reached our table in 
that month, but too late to receive a notice in The 
Farmer for January. We kindly greet the familiar 
face of this excellent journal, for we have been in the 
regular receipt of it from its very first number, and 
are pleased to note its onward and upward progress. 
Edited and published by J. & W. Rider, No. 14 
Bartholomew street, London, and D. Van Nostrand, 
2B .Murray street. New York, at 12 shillings a year, 
(post free) or one shilling per number. Three more 
numbers will complete the fourth volume, and if the 
minds of our countrymen have not been imbued with 
ideas of systematic forestry, still, since its advent 
there has been a strong sentiment excited towards 
the preservation of our present forests, and the re- 
planting of new ones. A large double-page plate in 
this number, illustrating appliances used in forestry, 
invests it with additional value. 

Musical Journal. — Edited and published by 
Thomas Brothers, Catskill, N. Y. A monthly royal 
quarto of 28 pages, including ornamental covers, 10 
pages of which are printed music, mainly vocal. A 
remarkably well executed work, and of the' finest 
and best material. Its general appearance looks. like 
"business" — and as an advertising medium it cer- 
tainly has no superior within its special sphere. 
Terms, $1.00 a year, postage paid. 

The American Garden.— a quarterly illustrated 
journal, devoted to the gardening interests of 
America. Published by B. K. Bliss & Son, No. 34 
Barclay street, N. Y'., at the very low price of 35 cts. 
a year. No cheaper and better 16 pages, on fine 
calendered paper and fair type issued in this country; 
the illustrations and literary contents are simply 
superb. 

Nebraska FARMER.--This excellent journal is 
now issued semi-monthly. Devoted to agriculture 
and kindred subjects. Published by McBride & 
PruBBj at 51.50 a year in advance, at Lincoln, Neb. 
16 pp., 4 to. This new departure is a vast improve- 



ment on what was almost faultless heretofore, and 
greatly enhances its usefulness. The letter-press 
and illustrations are excellent. 

Worcester Monthly Visitor.— Devoted to 
literature, mechanics and the farm. A demi-folio 
of 8 pages, at 50 cents a year in advance. Worcester, 
Mass. A new candidate for public patronage, and 
from the number before us, amply deserving it. 

Keystone Farmer and Miller.— This is another 
new candidate for public favor, and is published by 
a company under the management of J. S. Sanders, 
Plymouth, Pa., at .50 cents a year. 8 pages, demi- 
folio. There seems to be an opening for a paper de- 
voted to the milling interests of the Commonwealth 
at least, and this journal ought to secure it. 

New Mexican Miner.— We hardly know whether 
to call this a royal quarto or a demi-folio. It is a 
new journal of le'pages and is devoted to the mining 
interests of that far-oflf State, and is of paramount 
value to those eng.aged in mining, or who propose I 
engage in it. And in looking through its pages w 
cannot but wonder at the expansion of our country, 
the enterprise ofour people, and the progress making 
by the "art preservative of all arts." 

Injdustrial News.— Published by the Inventors' 
Institute, Cooper Union, New York. 24 pp., royal 
quarto; monthly, at *1. 50 a year, postage paid. This 
is a splendidly gotten up journal, and the January 
number, 1881, is embellished with an excellent 
portrait of Peter Cooper, and a sketch of his life. 
Its material and execution is first-class, and it must 
be of inestimable value to those engaged in inven- 
tions and patent-rights. 

The Musical Herald for February is one of the 
best numbers yet issued of this leading magaz 
It opens with a humorous illustration, " The Musical-. 
Committee in Session," which is in every respect ai 
capital "hit," overflowing with sarcasm. An article' 
on " Wasted Talent," by Dr. E. Tourjee, speaks in-^ 
a very practical manner on the number of young' 
voices which conld • be advantageously used in: 
church, Sunday, and public school, jnd the most' 
efficient manner of their instruction. Mr. Gotthold 
Carlberg, the well-known symphonic conductor of' 
New York, contributes an instructive paper upon ■ 
"Modern Instrumentation," wlierein the use and- 
abuse of difi'ereut orchestral instruments are fully 
discussed. Mr. W. F. Apthoi-p draws many useful 
thoughts for the advancement of the present art 
from'the history of the past. Mr. Louis C. Elson, 
in an essay on " Criticism," defends the critic from 
the necessity of art-creation, and proves that the 
best composers, poets, and painters have been the 
poorest critics. There is an excellent paper giving 
" Hints to Teachers of the Piano-forte." The inter- 
esting serial story of "The New Tenor" is con- 
cluded. The departments of Foreign and Editorial 
Notes, Questions and Answers, Critiques, Reviews of'j 
Music, Hymns and their Authors, etc., etc., 
piiiuaiit, brilliant and reliable. There are numerous 
uMii r I ililorials; and the music represents some of 
llic laii.sl, [iroductions from the pens of Sullivan, 
Ko.schai, Joseffy, Hopkins, etc., much of it being of 
very moderate difficulty, but of sterling worth. 

Texas Planter and Farmer. For the farm and ■ 
fireside. Fublished semi-monthly, by H. C. and J. 
P. Jones, office corner Main and Market-sts., Dallas, 
Texas, at $1".00 ayear. Six copies for $5.00. 

The copy -of this paper before us is a five columned, ' 
eight paged folio. No. I, vol. 1, of an indefinite se- 
ries, issued on the 15th of January, 1881, about 
the size of "Colma?i's Rural World," and makes, 
quite as preopssessing an appearance. We consider" 
the general "make up" and literary contents of this 
agieu[tural infant (infant only in age, however,) as a 
credit to the Lone Stir, and we cheerfully reciproca 
the X; but, "at this event we stil must wonder." In 
December, 18o6 we stood on the banks of the lower 
Ohio river and witnessed the steamboat struggling 
against an ice flow, which bore the famous Santa 
Anna, as a hostage under the protection of our flag, 
to the city of- Washington, after his inglorious defeat . 
by General Houston, on the field of San Jacinto. • 
Times looked " blue " in Texas then, and Dallas was 
not yet even conceived ; and here we already have a , 
representative agricultural journal that would do 
honor to any country an hundred years old. 

Afield and Afloat is a " right down " good pa- , 
per, perhaps, one of the best representations of the . 
sporting interests in the country, a specialty, howev- 
er, in which we must confess hi« take very little inte- 
rest; and, therefore, we are hardly competent to- 
speak wl ii.s [nerits. It has some good points outside 
of the siiuitiu^ King; but, "for the life of us" we 
cannot be either interested or entertained in gunning, 
fishing, rowing, walking or sailing, as sources of 
mere sport, although we are far from intimating that ; 
they are illegitimate or useless. 

SoRrBNER's Monthly, for December 1880, is on 
our table, and is laden with its usual literary budget, 
among which is a marked article intitled " The Rail-., 
roads and the People," with which we are in sympa- - 
thy so far as we understand the subject, but morel 
observation "and reflection will be necessary to the ex- . 
pression of an unqualified sentiment. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Lancaster Examiner. 
We (Ipsirc to cull the attention of tlie readers of 
the Fakmkk to the Daily and Weelsly Kxainmer. 
The Daily was cnlarijed over six columns on Janu^ry 
let, and is now the largest daily published in the 
coODty. The weekly supplement was also enlarged 
■OT«r three columns, and the weekly is now one of 
the largest weeklies in the State. Subscribe for the 
Examiner. They are both, dally and weekly, good 
family newspapers. 

J. J. H. Gregory's Seed Catalogue. 

r. Gregory's Catalogue (advertised Id our 

columns) opens with several flne engravings of new 

vegetables, after which follows an immense variety 

of flower and vegetable seed, inclnding 47 kinds of 

beans, !}:J of beet, 54 of cabbage and cauliflower, 86 

com, 38 of cucumber, 28 of lettuce, 41 of melon, 

(if squash, 24" of tomato, 30 of turnip, &c., &c., 

iliilv described. Catalogues are advertised free 

ul,' " It 



The Lancaster Farmer. 
Farmers, do you want a good, cheap farm jour- 
nal ? If you do subscribe for The Lancaster 
Fakmkk and encourage a home paper. Head the 
articles prepared by practical farmers relating to 
•our own county. It will pay you. Get your neigh- 
fcor to subscribe for it also. The price is only one 
dollar a year. 




$1000 00 ^^ CASH i« deposited in 
▼"W''''»''W bank ag'ainst any otlier 
■aw machine in America. Tliis is tl':e 
cheapest machine made, and wai-rauted 
to saw log-s easier and faster than aii.7 
other. We are the oldeSt saw machine 
firm in America. Any prominent mer- 
chant will tell you we are responsible. 

Bevrare of infringements. Our circulars 
are free. Address, 

Dnlled States Manufacturlog Co., Chicago, III. 



Our WELL AUGERS wiU bore a 

well 75 feet deep and 2 feet in diameter 

In a day. This would clear you $50 in o 

day. Send for our Pictorial Cataloerue. 

0. S. MANF'G CO.. Chicago. Ill 

feb-lml 



SAVED 



on lon.V and 
aoc.on WHEAT 

c.irt jioi-ilin/y be 



■worUl. Also nothing' 
CHrXK. It 8RW3 I 
Pictorial books tree. 



cheapest and beat in the 
mn boat our SAWING »1A- 
IJ a L'-foot loK in '2 minutes. 
W. GILK^j, Chlcaeo, Dl. 




THE VICTOR 

Double Huller 
Clover Machine 

hullt°d°lio 



Affrlvunuml ImpU'tncnt Mfa. Oo. 

■1UJ AUvcrlisfmenl. llajpTstowa, Ala. 



WANTED. 

BUTTER. EGGS. 

Cheese, Potato™, Ouions, Poultry, Wool, Hops, Lamb, 
Mutloii, Veal, Dried ApplOB, 
Berries aud Peaches. 
tsrseui for Prices. 

BALLARD, BRITNCH Si CO., 
iia Broad St., N. Y. 
Apl-lt General Produce Commiasioa Mershanti. 



THE 



OFFICE, 



No. 9 North Queen Stfeet 



LANCASTER, PA. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 



THE WEEKLY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



One of the largest Weekly Papers in 
the State. 

Pablislied Every Wednesday Moriiiug, 

l8 au old, well-established newspaper, aud contains just the 
news dcBii-able to make it au iuteresting aud valuable 
Family Newspaper, The postage to subciibers residing 
outside nf Lancaster cuuuty is paid by the publisher. 
Beud for a specimen copy. 



Tv/o Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



The Largest Daily Paper in the 
county. 



Pablished Daily Except S inday. 



The dally Is published every evening during the week. 
It is delivered in the City .lud to surrouudiug Towns ac- 
cessible by railroad and daUy stage lines, for 10 cents 

Mall Subscription, free of postage— One month, 50 
cents; one year, $5.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 



The Job rooms of The Lancaster. Examinee are 
filled with the latest Btylee of presBee, material, etc., and 
we are prepared to do all kiudB of Book and Job PrintiQ 
at as low ratee and short notice as any establishiueut 1 
the State. 



SAXE BILLS A SPECULTY. 



attractive sale bills iu the State. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 North Queen St., 

L^A-NCASTKR. PA- 



SEND FOR 

On Concord Qrapeviucs, Transplanted Evergreiins, Tulip, 
I'oi.lar, I.inden Maple, etc. Tree Seedlings aud Treea for 
limber plantations tiy the lon.oiio. 

J. JE.^KINN* NVRHKRY, 
3-2-79 WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



•tfiR" ""■'■'' '° >""■■ """ '""'"• Terms aud V> ontBt free 
ipDDAddress II. llii.LKTT 4 Cu , Portland, Maine. 
^Jun-lyr. 



M. nAP>EHr.USH, 

MA^'^T^■.^cT^l!l:l■. or 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

na»i>i,i:n. 

COLLARS, WHIPS, FLY NETS, &c., 



TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

IIUI'ALO I'.dBKS, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, <fec., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 



CHAS. A. LOCHER. 

.VS/HOLESALE^^a RETAIL 
V^^-DRUGGIST ^ 



CATTLE POWDER 



^ GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. 

<1 

in 



SHTETS MADE TO ORDER, 

AND WAKIiANTlil) TO 1- IT. 



pi E. J. ERISMAN, 

W 56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



PHARES W. J'KY. 

Wholesale and Ret lil Dealer in 

WALL PAPER & WINDOW SHADES, 

IfollHii<l-i. plain Shnde Clotli. 

Fixtures, FrlugLS, Tassels aud all goods pertaining to a 

Paper aud Shade Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ACt'lii J'^C iwApiiCD EVEBYWHERBr 

AUClll 1 O (.000 I'Ari 8TKAUY EMPLUTUEMT 
BKr.LINO TUE STANDiBD AQRICULTUEAL BOOK, 

Far.ming For Profit. 

Oomplcta r«rrj Librirj. Bure Oaido to SuccciefQl Farming. 

TELLS HOW m £;:i;r*.^c!L,r?^L';r/s-u»«. 

Make Mone7 lU SrscV^;;^^,'!^"^"'"-"' 

Bfit Book for Fumers and Farmtrt' Bnya. tndorttd b$ 
L'-a'Una Papert and AbttM Writfra <m a TlfreusMii Practical 
itanual of Farm Affair: Savu man]/ timet it* Co»t tvtry »*ato%. 

800 Picf*.' 140 niutraUsna. Haniaotoeitt ud Best Fahb 
Book ever publUhed. Koer^ Farmtr ahould hot* a Copj/. 
For De*cripllf-« Olrculmr ud Tcmn U JtRroU, Ad<lr«M, 

J. C. M:CU2D7 & CO.. C32 Chestnut Ct.,Phihd»lplii4, Pi, 
CiQoluoati, Q. CUloaKO* Ul- or St. IfOuU, Mo. 



$72^ 




TH£ LANCASTER FARMER 



[February, : 



WHERE TO BUY GOODS 
LANCASTER. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 



MARJSH AI.I. * S**S, No. 12 Centre Square, Lan- 
ca.sler. Dealers in Boots, Shoes and Rubbers. Re- 
pairing pronij.tly altendecl to. 



M. 



BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



JOHN BAER'N SON'S, Nos. 15 and 17 North Queen 
Street, have the largest and best assorted Book and 
Paper Store in tlie City. 



FUkNITURE. 



CHINA AND GLASSWARE. 



'IGH A MAKTIN. No. 1.5 East King : 
. in China, ( 
Lamps, Unii.cis. 



CLOTHING. 



M 



YEKS A- KATHFOX. Centre Hall, No. 12 East 
King St. Largest Clothing House in Pennsylvania 
ie of Pliiladelphia 



DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 



Braces, Supporters, &c., 1.5 West King St., Lancaster, Pa 



JOHN F. LONG * SON. Druggists, No. 12 North 
Queen St. Drugs, Medicines, Perfumery, Spices, 
Dve Stufls, Etc. Prescriptions carefully compounded. 



DRY GOODS. 



/"I IVHSR, B<»WEKS A- HJJItST, No. 25 E. King 
\jr St., Lancaster, Pa., Dealers in Dry Goods, Carpets 
and Merchant Tailoring. Prices as low as the lowest. 



HATS AND CAPS. 



JEWELRY AND WATCHES. 



H 



5E. KHOAItH A BKO., No. 4 West King St. 

, Watches, Clock and Musical Boxes. Watches 

d Jewelry Manufactured to order. 



PRINTING. 



JOHN A. HIESTANO. 9 North Queen St., Sale 
Bills, Circulars, Posters, Cards, Invitations, Letter 
and Bill Headsand Envelopes neatly printed. Prices low. 




My AnnanI Catalogue of Vegatable and 
Flower fl^eed for 1881. rich iu engravings fiom pho- 
tographs of the origin lie, -will be sent FREK to all who 
apply. My old ctistomers need not write for it. I offer 
one of the largest coileotions of vegetable seed ever sent 
out by any seed House iu America, u large portion of which 
were grown on my six seed farms. Full directions /or cid- 
tivation on each package. All seed warrayiieif to be both 
fresh a7ld true to name ; so far, that should it prove other- 
wise, / will renU the order qralix. The original introducer 
of the Hubbard Squash. Phinuey'a Melon, Maablcliead Cab- 
bages, Mexican Corn, and scores of other vegetables, I 
invite the patronage of all ipho are atizious to have their 
seed directly from the grower, fresh, true, and of the very 
bent strain. 

NEW TEOETABI.es A SPEflAI/rr. 

JAMES J. U. GREGORY, 

Marblehead, Mass. 



EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUH 

FREE TO ALL. 

AMERICAN DRIER COMPANY, 

diambersburgr, Pa. 

Apl-tf 



FARMING FOR PROFIT 



ol the family^ 
for good It 13 
nltural writers 



.^^^}^^MBT^ 




LANDRETH'8 EXTRA EARLY PEAS, 

The earliest Peas grown. 

American Wonder Peas, 

CRYSTAL WAX BEANS, 

BLOOllSDALE EARLY M.\RKETCABB.\GE, 

Large size, early ripening. 

BLOOMSDALE LATE FLAT DUTCH CABBAGE, 

The finest in the world. 

Gourd Seed Corn, Prize Stock, Recleaned Clo- 

and Timothy and other Grass Seeds. 

Cooiy Creamer, Csok Tree Protector, 

VEGETABLE EOOT CUTTER, 

Cahoon's Broad Cast Seed Sower, 
SPAIN'S PATENT CHURNS, 

Davis' Swing C>'urn, Lilly's Butter Worker, Reid's But- 
ter Worker, Hay and Fodder Cutter, CornSheller, 
Little Giant ' 'orn and Cob Mills, Corn 
Mid Hand and Power. 

Laijdretlj's Rural Register & Almaijac for '81 

In English and German—Free. 

1>. LANDRKTH A- SONS. 

21 <L- S-t South Sixtb St., 

oct-6m PHILADELPHIA. 



Ready-Made Clothing 

BELOW COST. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

Are Selling off their entire Btock of 

FiEADY-Mi^DE CLOTI^ING, 

BELOW COST. 

ALSO, FURNISHING GOODS, 

OF THE LATEST STYLES BELOW COST. 

CLOTHING MADE TO ORDER 
In the prevailing styles and at medium priceB, 

Corner N. Queen and Orange Stree fs 
LANCASTER, PA. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

MERCHANT TAILORS. 



GERMANTOWN TELEGRAPH, 

'SVhich is generally acknowledged to be the best Literary, 
Farming and Agricultural Newsnapere in Pennsylvania, is 
issued weekly at Germantown, : Philadelphia, at $2.60 per 
annum. It will commeuce its 5l8t volume with the first 
number iu March, proximo, being established and conduct- 
ed by its present editor and proprietor. No family giving 
it a trial for a year would be willing to do without it at 
double the subBcription. Address 

PHILIP R. FREAS, 

Germantown, Phila. 



AK Xn dSOHP*'' day at home. Samples worth t5 free. 
(j)0 I U JpZUAddrees Stisson k Co., Portland, Maine. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to Agnculfure, Horticulture. Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas- 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONEDOLLpPERANNUlf, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY TBE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S. S. Rathvon, who has bo ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, will continue in the positioi 
editor. His contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thorouhly a master — entomological science— si 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the sncc 
fill farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of ■ 
this publication. He Is determined to make *'The Farmer' 
a necessity to all households. 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster 
county for its agricultural products should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers Interested in this mat- 
oter. We 'ask the co-oporation of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and^ 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but It will greatly assist us. 

All communications In regard totheedltorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Eathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to Bubscriptions and ad- 
vertising shoald be addressed to the publisher. Rates of 
advertising can be had on application at the office. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



i 



ONE DOLLAR PEE ANNUM -SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




CONTENTS 0F_THI8 NUMBER. - 

EDITORIAL. 
The Rallroids ami the People, . - - 33 
The Mammoth Pearl, ------ 34 

©apt. Eads' Ship Railway, - - - - .^4 

" Butter aud Cheese anfl I," - - - - 3t 

Ensilage, -------- f!5 

The Sources of Springs, ----- 36 

QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 

The Elm Tree Beetle, •'16 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 
Items for the Farmer— -Tl'm. 7. /"y^c, -. - - 36 
Double A pple— irm././'y(<', - - - - 36 

The Two Catapals 36 

ESSAYS. 

Tobacco Culture— How to Grow our Next Crop, 5'i 

Good Seed— The 8eed Bed— Burning the Seed 

Bed— Spronling the Seed. 

Do Bees Puncture Grape, and if so, How ? - 3S 

Fruit Crops in Pennsylvania, - - - - 3! 

The I.«rse Apple Orop— Selection of Varieties of 
Apples— Most. Profit.%ble Varieties of Pears- 
Fire Blight, the Greilt ICnemy— Danger of Over- 
stocking the .Mnrkel— The Peach and itsi Ene- 
mies— <;herries, tininccs and Pluma— Stmw- 
bcrrie.s and Other Small Fruits. 
Corn Cnlture, ------- 4( 

Peach Buds and Peaches, ----- 41 

. Nitrogenous Elements of Plant Foo(l, - - 4S 
OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
Lancaster County Asricultural and Horticul- • 
tural Society, - - ' - - - - 4-' 

The State Horticultural College— Lecturers Invi- 
ted—Crop Reports- A Chester County Sale, the 



The Poultry Society, 

Discussions at the March Meeting- New Business 
— <iiiestion8 for Consideration- The Stolen 
Pigeons— <iiieslion.s for Discussion. 

The Beekeeprs' Association, .... 

Fnllou Farmers' Club, 



Llnnsean Society, 

Museum- Donations to the Library— Hiatorloal— 
Prfiwrs Head— New Members. 
State Fruit-Growers' Association, 
AGRICULTURE. 

Weight and Measure, - 

Bone-dust and Wood-ashes, . . . - 
Why We Shall Never Starve, . - - - 
KiUing Canada Thistles, . . - . 

Suggestions of and for the Season, - 

HORTICULTURE. 
Garden Fruits - Getting Ready for the Coming 
Season, ---...-- 



Cultivating Orchards, - - - - - 

Hot Beds and Cold Frames, 

Work in the Orchard Now, - - - ■ 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES 
To Clean Kriniue and Minever Skins, 
To Ucmove Ink Stains from Priming Books, 
Barley Soup, ------ 

Game Soup (Clear), . - - . 

Oatmeal and Beef Tea, - - - - 

Sauced Uerrinjis, - . - - - 

Entree, 

Snow Pudding, 

Caudle, ------- 

Fig Pudding, - • - - - - 

Potato Cakes for Breakfast, 

Chocolate Mange, - - - - - 

Fried Herring, ------ 

Omellette SouHee, - - - - 

Stuffed Potatoes, - . - - - 

LIVE STOCK. 
Beef and Mutton in England, - 
The Rearing of Calves, 
Suffering of the Cattle on the Plains, - 
Literary and Personal, - - - - 



(-(Mli.Berlisbire Baauty Cab- 

bago. Amber Cream S-woot Corn, !.• 



[ENDERSON'S 

COMBINED C.\TALO0UE OP 



SEEDS - 
PLANTS 



Will be Mailed Free to all who apply oy 
Letter. 
Our i:xpcriniental GronndH In 
I wlilrb wc test «>ur Vcsetablo and 
I Flower Seeds arcmostcoin|ilotc; 
land onr Grccniioiises lorPlanit* 
l(eovcrin2 3 acres in eiass), arc 
ItUo largest In Aiucriea. ^ 

IPETER HENDERSON & CO. 

35 Corllandt Street, New York. 



NieH0LS,SHEPARD8cG0 



YIBRATOR 



THRESHERS, 

Traction and Plain Engines 

and Horse- Powers. 

ModtCorapIctoThrcuhrrFnctory J Established 
Inlbc World. i 1848 

\l') YEARS nr... without chOT^o oi nun.o. 
%3 M^ manoKt'incnt, or location, io " frac* Mjt tht 
^^ ». > ..../.. ...'...« /», aU ovr ffootU. 



SAWINU Wfil't tAbf. 




Our nfw portable Monnrr-h T,l~Ii(nin|; Sawing 
Machine rivals all mhjr,. »,io c».h >. il bcRivcn 
to two men who can saw r\s />ft ^nd faty in the old 
way. as one boy 16 years ol-i cr^n with ihii machine, 
rculars sent Free. Agents wanted. 

traHunsa eav co., 

163 Ranilolph St , Chieaco, lU. 




STEAM-POWER SEPARATORS ,«nd 
Complete Stcain Oi:Ifitso/«w/<JilM»<jiia"'i<a>. 
Tinut Traction £ii«rinc8 and Plain Ensuies 

ever seen in the American market 

A mvUilurfo of •ptrial /Voture* and intprovtmmU 
f or 18SI , tOfe'et her with fuptHar qiialiH<-» tn wnWnie- 
lUm and malcriah not ilrcamed of by olher^mallcrB. 

Four Blzea of SciisratoR". from 6 to 1 



12 borxe 



1 Blyles 



•Mou 



' Horw-Powen. 



7k(\(\ AAA Feet of Selected I umber 
,OUU,UUU (from Ihrn to MX yeura ■• r-.lrird) 

conatsntly on liar: ' — ■-'-■- ■- '-"• "■ - — 
ible 



nparable wood-work of ourmachlnory 




THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



PEXXSYI>VANIA KAII.BOAD SCIIEBCL,E. 
Trains LEAVE the Depf • — ~ »-"—.-■ 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific. Express" 

Way Passengert 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommodation. 

MaU train via Ml. Jo.v 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday MaU 

Fast Line' 

Frederick Accommodation 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsbnrg Express 

Cincinnati Express' 



1 this city, 

Leave 

Lancaster. 



7:30 p. 
8:50 p. 
11:80 

Lancaster. 
2.55 
5:08 



8:05 I 



12:55 p. 1 

12:40 p. 1 

3:26 p. ! 

Col. 2:45 

7:40 p. I 
Col. 8:20 I 
8:40 p. 1 
10:10 p. r 
12:45 a. E 

Philadelphia 

7:40 a! m. 
10:00 a. m. 
12:0 p.m. 

3:40 p.m. 



5:00 p. m. 
5:30 p.m. 
7:20 p. m. 
9:30 p. m. 
Lancaster 



Exp 
Ma 

Express 

Day Express* | d:3o p 

Harrisburg Acootu i 6:2o p 

The Hanover Accommodation, west 
■with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., auu win run 
throngh to Hanover. _ ^ , 

■ The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m., and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, wiU 
stop at M'idletown, EUzabethtown, Mount Joy and Laudia- 
TiBe. 

•The only trains which run dally. 

tBuns daily, except Monday. 



NORBECK & MILEY, 




EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED V^^ARE, 
CLOCKS. 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Aninilel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly atteuded to. 

Nortli Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 



:ei. 35*, ^o^vK7^^s/LJ^L.^pa^, 



AT LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES, 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

9-1-12] Opposite Leopard SotfU 



PRACTICAL 



Carriage Buildepg, 

cox & CO'S OIB STA^D, 

toef of Duke and Vine Stfeets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 




TREES 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trees raised in tbiB county and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co., Pa. 



Qiles east of Laucaster 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 

WAREROOMS : 

102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

■LANCASTER, PA. 

79-1-12] 



Special Inducements at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 
pro. xs x-2 IE. xs.x:nr<3- srraei.EsiB'r 

(over Bursk's Grocei-y Store), Lancaster, Pa. 
A general assor'ment of furuifureof all kinds constantly 
on hand. Don't forget the number. 

15 1-2 £:et,r9t ZSlxaxs !Sttx-eot, 

Nov-ly] (over Bursk's Giocery Store.) 



For Good and CheaiD Work go to 

r. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST., 

(Opiiosite Northern Market), 

XjA,xxca,sitex-, I"**,. 

Also, all kinds of ijicture frames. uov-ly 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHAETONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 

mmBmmmmmi 

Prices to Suit the Times. 

REPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 
guaranteed. 
79 -'2- . 



G. SENER & SONS, 

Manufacturers and dealers in all kinds of rough and 
finished 

The best Sawed SlIIlXGIiESiu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, Moltldiiigs. &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, which are far superior to any 
other. Also best COAI. constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND YAED : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts., 

LANCASTER, PA. 



GREAT BARGAINS. 

sold at 

CARPET HALL OF H. S. SHIRK, 

No, 202 West King St. 

Call and examine our stock and satisfy yourself that we 
can show the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
plies and ingrain at all prices— at the 

Also on hand a large 
Carpet. 

Satisfaction guaranteed bath as to price and quaUty. 

You are iuvited to caU and see my goods. No trouble in 
showing them even if you do not want to purchase. 

Don't forget this notice. You can save money here if you 

Particular attention given to customer » orfe 
Also on hand a full assortment ol Counterpanes, Oil 
Cloths and Blankets of every variety. [nov-..yr. 



lowest Philadelphia 
and complete assortment of Rag 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 

38 and 40 "West .King Street, 

We keep on hand of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COYERLETS,^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Bureau and Tidy Covers, Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 
' '" Rag Carpet, and 



s. 13. oois:. 

Manufacturer of 

Cirriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH 8T„ NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA, 

I arae Stock of New and Secon-hand Work on hand 
very cheap. Carriage* Made to Order Work Warranted 
or one year. l,l»-»-li 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history aud habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

"^ INSECTS, 

edies for their expulsion or eitermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work win be Highly lUuatrated, and will be put in 
irpMB [as Hoon after ii sutficient number of Bubscnbers cau 
le obtained to cover the cost) .as the work can possibly be 




$77 Ou 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cnres by absorption without medicine. 

Now is the time io apply these remedies. They will do 
lofyon what nothing else on earth can Hundreds of citi- 
zens of Lancaster s".y so. Get the gcmime at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 

Nov-lyr 



C. R. KLINE, 
^TTOF^NEY-AT-^AW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

Nov-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. SATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MARCH, 1881. 



Vol. XIII. No. 3. 



Editorial. 



THE RAILROADS AND THE PEOPLE " 

Wlifii llie United Stall's Oovuinineiit as- 
sessed a tax of one liuiidivd pi-r <eiit. on 
friction matclies— so far as the mere question 
of revenue was coueeiiied— it was, i)erliai)S, a 
judicious, as well as a inaetieal measure ; f.ir 
well it knew tliat the i.eople would not return 
to the "steel and tlint " ayain, to i)roduce 
their needed fire : no, not, perhaps, if it liad 
assessed two hundred, three Imndred, or even 
five hundred per cent, instead of one. The 
diseoveiy of tlie friction in a tcli was a progres- 
sive invention of miivi isal application, com- 
fort, convenience, and economy ; so mucli so, 
and so popular withal, that no patent was 
taken out for it, and if there had been, it 
probably never would have been respected. 
Had not the use of stone-coal as a fuel been 
almost sinuiltatuously discovered, the use of 
the nia.ch would iiroliably not have been so 
obvious, so popular, nor so necessitous. Peo- 
iplc would sutler a t'i"eat de.al of imposition 
before they would go back to exclusively 
wooil or charcoal tires, and those who trade in 
stone-coal knew this quite as well as the gov- 
ernment knew that the soverned would cheer- 
fully pay one hundred per cent, on their 
matches, rather than refuse to consume them. 
True, the revenue assessed on nr.itcbes was 
for a patriotic purpose, but the occasion has 
entirely passed away, and the tax on matclies 
still remains, perhaps, as an heirloom of the 
war. Its equity alone sustained it, and still 
sustains it, but aside from this, it was a 
monstrous measure to impose one luindred 
per cent, tax on any article consumed by the 
people, and especially an article of such prime 
necessity as matches, the consumption of 
which never could be classed with dissipa- 
tions and sensual indulgencies. .Waiving all 
questions involving the causes, the effects 
and the ends of domestic measures, can it be 
right, just, and humane for any governinent, 
corporation, or company to impose a tariff 
upon any article of universal consumption, to 
" f/ie arnoimt it will bear,'''' merely because they 
have the assumed or implied right to do so? 
It is true that onerous taxes or duties are 
sometimes imposed, ostensibly for protection, 
wlien the true intent and purpose is entire 
■prohibition, but this is not the case, with the 
domestic production and consumption of 
stone-coal and friction matches. The people, 
like non-resistant bovines, quietly, but pro- 
testantly, submit to the one hundred per cent, 
taxation, solely because of the luxuriant con- 
venie.nce of matches, as well as in other things ; 
and therefore the tax is fearlessly continued. 
Under any tircumstauces, however, a tax of 
one hundred per cent. <pn matches will never 
seem exorbiaut, because of its integral insig- 
nificance, its equitable- assessment, and the 
essentiality of the product to domestic com- 
fort and convenience. It is one of those 
things of such prime importance, that it is 
seldom viewed in its tinancial aggregations, 
but only as an isolated and diminutive 
integer. 

Analogous to tiie foregoing is the pregnant 
question of ''The Baitroads and the People" — 
a question that is loomiu,? into prominence 
all over the country, and a question involv- 
ing more "crooks and kiiik:s " than, perhaps, 
any other relating to the riglits, the comforts, 
and the conveniences of the people ; and 
these corporations seem to knoic exactly the 
extent of their powers, and theorize and act 
upon them accordingly. The people cannot, 
and will not go back to the old system of 
transportation and travel, and especially not 
when they want to make a long and expedi- 
tious journey or transport heavy and large 



quantities of niercliandize. The stage coach 
and tile Conesloga Ti.'am of liygone years, 
could not possibly " till the bill " of commer- 
cial intercourse and travel, and no persons 
know this better than railroad companies. 
Acting upon this knowledge they afl'ord the 
public the most ample facilities, and the most 
splendid comforts and conveniences ; and 
should imposition or extortion follow as a re- 
sult, the people are bribed into acquiescence 
by tlie very luxury of their accoininodations. 
No, the people could not if they would, and 
would not if they could, eschew the use of 
railroads, any more than tlley would the use 
of stone-coal and friction matches, if fares 
and freights, were a hundred per cent, over 
the present rates and if the '■^merchandize 
would bear it.'" The assessments of fares and 
freights under such a rule seems an unfair 
one, unless it worked both ways— that is, only 
what the merchandize will bear, instead of aH 
it will bear ; for then a farmer in the West 
might atford to send a whole train of loose; 
straw to the eastern market. But, from all 
we can learn and understand of this subject, 
through, public discussions, investigations, 
and reports of special committees; what the 
people are complaining about, is the exorbitant 
fares and freights, and especially the extraor- 
dinary and oppre.ssive discriminations against 
local or way-freights, and in favor of those 
between very remote points on the roads; 
and, if the testimony elicited represents the 
facts of the case, the system is little less than ex- 
tortionate. Still, short shipments must neces- 
sarily be higher in proportion to the distance 
than long ones as a rule, because the labor 
and expense of shipment and transhipment 
may be the same, whether the points are one 
mile apart or a thousand miles ; but the dif- 
ference shouldnot be exorbitant, or amount tiv 
a prohibition. A printer might only charge 
$10.00 for one thousand handbills, but he 
would by no means print you one hundred for 
SI. 00, simply because it would cost as much 
to set up the " form " of the smaller number 
as it would of the larger, the only difference 
being in the ink and paper, and a little addi- 
tional press-work ; still, if he were to charge 
as much for the one hundred as he does for 
one thousand his discrimination would sim- 
ply be extortionate ; and his conduct would 
be dishonorable, if he made such a charge only 
because he had the power to make it. • • 

What is a railroad anyhow ; or any other 
corporation that derives "its powers— yea, its 
very existence — from the sovereign people, 
through their representatives in conclave as- 
sembled ? Is it greater, and independent of 
the power that created it ? Can a State grant 
or delegate to a company powers greater than 
those she her.self possesses? Can a part— 
under any circumstances — be greater than 
the whole f Can a State endow a corporation, 
or a company, with the prerogatives or priv- 
ileges of royalty ? Common sense, in defer- 
ence to the principles of Republicanism, would 
doubtless respond negatively ; and yet, it is 
alleged that there are railroads in our country 
that are exercising power's that are interdicted 
by the fundamental law. The fundamental 
idea undtrlying all public improvements 
or ought to "be, that said improvements are to 
all intents and purposes the servants of the 
people, and not tneir ma.'<ters — that tlie pco 
pie, through the legal tribunals which they 
have created, arc the power to which railroads 
are amenable. The people, however, cannot 
exercise their powers arbitrarily in holding 
corporations to their accountability, except 
through and by means of the legal powers 
through which they were created. The ques- 
tion of the extent of the ownership of rail- 
roads involves some abstruse points, which, 
none but the profound among the legal pro- 



fession can satisfactorily solve, and even 
these widely differ. It is not so much a ques- 
tion of ab.solule right, as it is the extent and 
limit of the right. The State grants a com- 
pany a charter to construct a railroad between 
two specific points, when neither the State 
nor the company owns those points, nor a sin- 
gle foot of the land that lies between them ; 
nor can the road be built without compensat- 
ing tne owner or owners for damages ; but 
that coniijensation does not constitute the 
company the unqualified owners of the land 
occupied by the road. When it vacates or 
abandons tire road, neither the company nor 
the Slate are the owners of the territory so 
vacated or abandoned, but it reverts to the 
original contiguous domain. This clearly 
evinces the limit of the ownership. It is the 
same as in an incorporated town or city, 
when it vacates or abandons a public street 
or highway. The town or city does not pos- 
sess an ownership in the land thus vacated, 
with the right to build thereon, or to dispose 
of it by deed to another person, but it, as in 
the former case, reverts to the original con- 
tiguous domain, whoever may be the posses- 
sor of it. Damages to the possessors of prop- 
erty may be modified in their assessment by 
the btniefits accruing to other property of the 
same owner, by reason of such public im- 
provements, but in no case do those damages 
constitute a corporation an absolute and per- 
petual owner, as hi fee simple. The corpora- 
tion can take away its rails, its ties, its Mac- 
adamization, or any other moveable eflects it 
placed on the land occupied by its road, and 
retain its ownership therein, but it clearly 
cannot take the land, nor dispose of it by 
deed to any other person or persons. This 
being the case, it greatly qualifies the vaunted 
ownership of railroads. They are merely ■ 
granted certain limited rights and privileges 
so long as they occupy and use their original 
grants for the purposes for which they were 
granted, and amenable to the power that 
created them. 

We would not abridge the privileges and 
the immunities that are, or ought to be, ac- 
corded to railroads by reason of the responsi- 
bilities and risks they incur in locating and 
building their roads. We would even endow 
them with privileges through which they 
mi-iht re.alize a larger per cent on their in- 
vestment, than that yielded by ordinary busi- 
ness enterprises, for the reasons already 
briefly intimated, but we would limit them to 
uniform, legitimate, and equitable means ; 
and they ought not be allowed to discriminate 
excessively against poverty and in favor of 
riches ; or against smaller quantities and in 
favor of larger ones ; or against shorter dis- 
tances and in favor of longer ones ; except to 
the reasonable limit before indicated — indeed, 
railroads, and other corporations, ought never 
to know persojis at ail, but be governed entirely 
by principles. Whether A. travels over their 
roads once every week, or only once in a life- 
time they ought never to know, in the applica- 
tion of their principles. They ought to be 
equally obliveous whether B. travels over 
their road one mile or a thousand miles, ex- 
cept the reasonable commutations in such 
cases uniformly provided, and recorded in 
their schedules. As an abstract principle of 
right, it is questionable whether railroads or 
other corporations, ought to possess, or exer- 
cise, any discretionary powers, except in very 
extraordinary cases, and then they ought to 
be delinite, equitable, and limited ; having 
no regard to jiersons whatever, but to 
principles only. Other than reasonable com- 
pensations to tlie builders and conductors of 
such euter|)rises, the public, for whose benefit 
they are ostensibly constructed, should share 
in their advantages. The extraordinary ef- 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[Marcli, 



forts that are used to induce the public to 
subscribe to the stock of such enterprises are 
well known, among which are the public ad- 
vantages wliich will accrue to the landowners 
through whose domain railroads are located. 
As a general tiling, the stockholders know 
very little about what dispasition has been 
made of their money, or how the business is 
conducted. The companies furnish con- 
venient depots and station houses, comfort- 
able and luxurious carriages, voluptuous and 
enticing accommodations, and the piiblic be- 
comes psychologised into blind acquiescence 
in whatever may transpire, until some overt 
imposition conflicts with its pecuniary in- 
terest, and then only it becomes cognizant of 
the prerogatives and franchises it has bartered 
away. The public, as it is now constituted, 
cannot'dispense with railroads and other cor- 
porations ; they are ingrained into the warp 
and woof of the body politic, aud it can't 
forego them any more than a duck can water; 
and the corporators knoiv this, and impuni- 
tively presume upon it. It has become a 
social aud commercial disease— not incurable 
perhaps— the eradication of which will rack 
the constitution of the patient. 

Notwithstanding the public convenience of 
railroads, and the facilities they atford to 
travel and ,; transportation, it' is altogether 
wrong to endow or grant them powers and 
privileges'so loosely defined that in their ex- 
ercise they may become oppressive to the 
people who are the legitimate source of power 
in a republican form of government, or to en- 
able them to build up irresponsible monopo- 
lies ; or to unjustifiably discriminate in tlieir 
schedules of freight and travel ; nor yet to ef- 
fect those combinations and consolidations 
through which they are enabled to subordi- 
nate the entire production of the country to 
their imperious will. America — or at least 
the United States— has the skeleton of the best 
government on this planet, and if that is de- 
stroyed, it will cause a moral and physical 
retrogression that will carry us back five 
hundred years, because it is always easier to 
gravitate backward and downward than it is 
to progress forward and upward. We only 
need contemplate the retrogression of Egypt, 
of Asia, of Greece aud Rome, to apprehend 
the extent of similar ictiogivs^ions, after the 
downfall of their siil.iiiliil governments, 
whether repuljlican. iii-'iiai'rhii'al, or mixed. 
Every day as time nills reckli-ssly onward it 
seems tliat the idca'of tlie inherent sovereignty 
of the people is Itecoraing more of a farce. Men 
are patriotic, deferential and conciliatory, only 
until they have opportunities to be otherwise. 
The farmers, through whose lands railroads 
are located, and which could not be built 
without traversing— or trespassing upon — 
llieir property, are becoming bound hand and 
foot, and it seems as if they had no rights that 
are worthy of respect. They are becoming 
like sheep led to the slaughter, and if things 
continue as they are a few years longer, they 
will become powerless before the Juggernaut 
of monoply, notwithstanding the sustaining 
freight of railroads is the product of their 
lands, and without which, railroads would be 
of little account. There are many respects 
in whicli these corporations may work op- 
pression to the people, e.specially that peculiar 
dilution called " watering their stock" — to 
which we have not referred because of their 
complication, and the indirectness of their 
operation, aud because of their remoteness of 
action. The subserviency of legislatures is 
another crying evil, and when these are prac- 
tically bribed into quiescence by privileges 
and .immunities, the case becomes more in- 
tolerable. 

If anything is necessary to be done, and if 
anything can be done, through legislation, it 
is high time the farmers would take it in 
hand. The tissues of our governmental 
skeleton in order to be muscular and healthy 
should be filled in by our farmers. They 
should join in the "dance," instead of per- 
petually "playing the piper." Tliey should 
control, instead of being the victims of 
monopoly. 



THE MAMMOTH PEARL. 

This new and wonderful medium early va- 
riety of potatoes was originated in the State 
of Ohio, and selected as the best of over 2, .500 
seedlings: the aim of the originator was to 
obtain a variety that would produce a crop- 
in spite of the bugs— of the best table quality, 
beautiful to appearance, free from rot or any 
other disease, and never hollow; and that his 
efforts were successful when tlie Mammoth 
Pearl was produced, thousands of persons can 
testify. 

In shape it is oblong, and usually a little 
flattened, very smooth and uniform in shape, 
eyes even with or slightly raised above the 
surface, skin pearly white, flesh the whitest 
of all varieties ; for the table it cooks like a 
ball of flour and as white as snow, evenly to 
the centre. The vines are, as Mr. I. E. Til- 
linghast says, "without exception the most 
rampant and strong growing of any variety 
we have ever grown: they come up strong and 
grow so fast, that the potato bugs have no 
chance at all." 

If they are planted three and a half feet 
apart each wa}', the vines will completely 
cover every spot of ground, thus keeping the 
• 1 t 1 1 11 f the 




hot ia\s of the suu Thtj upm ui August, 
oi the hist of 'ieptcmljer, and can be dug any 
time at your leisure ; and in the important 
matter of productiveness, it will yield double 
or triple any ordinary kind, and will sell for 
more in market ; in short, the handsomest, 
and by far the most productive potato in cul- 
tivation, and it is confidently claimeu that its 
equal cannot be selected — in all respects— /rom 
all the varietiet under cultivation at the pres- 
ent day. 

If any of the patrons of the Farmer desire 
to secure specimens of this "King of the 
Murphies " for cultivation in Lancaster coun- 
ty, or elsewhere, we would advise them, by 
all means, to address themselves immediately 
to Mr. J. A. Everitt, Watsontown, Northum- 
berland county. Pa., who makes potato-grow- 
ing a specialty. Or, if they wish to know 
more about this, and other varieties of pota- 
toes, their origin, history, and cultivation, we 
would advise them to send for Everitfs Cata- 
Z»y«e of seeds, and seed-potatoes for 1881, a 
notice of which will be found in our literary 
and personal columns. The period in solani- 
culture has arrived, when the best for cultiva- 
tion should be selected ; not only for health 



and comfort, but also for pecuniary compen- 
sation. The potato grower cannot realize 
too soon that the best in not only the cheapest, 
but also the most remunerative. 

CAPT. EADS' SHIP RAILWAY. 

"Sailing on the land as well as on the ocean." 
The Illustrated Scientific News, for March, 
'81, has an interesting article on this project, 
which is elaborately illustrated by appropriate 
engravings, and from which it seems manifest 
that nothing more is wanting to demonstrate 
the thing an accomplished /act, but time and 
means. It only involves the principle of the 
"Dry-Dock," where the largest seagoing ves- 
sels are successfully "hauled out" on dry 
land, when they need repairing ; and, if they 
can be hauled away from the water's edge 
ten rods, they can be hauled ten miles away, 
and if ten miles, why not a hundred, or evena 
thousand ? 

In the early history of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and Canal, there were modes of 
transportation called "Section-boat lines" 
between the cities of Philadelphia and Pitts- 
burg, which practically embraced the same 
principles involved in Capt. " Eads' Ship 
Railway." These boats were cut in two, 
three, or more sections to facilitate their 
transfer from the water to car-truck, upon 
which they were transported for many miles 
over land ; and, at Philadelphia, Columbia, 
Hollidaysburg, Johnstown and Pittsburg 
there were docks erected for tlris purpose. 
These boats were also taken beyond Philadel- 
plna and Pittsburg, and therefore mer- 
chandize sliipped at New York could pass 
down the Ohio river and through the Ohio 
canals without trans-shipment. Capt. Eads' 
system is the same, only on a larger scale. 
Four locomotive engines — two on each side of 
the bow— constitute the propeHing power, 
and the truck upon which the ship i* 
mounted is so adjusted with numerous wheels, 
pulleys and springs, that the passage overland 
must be almost as free from friction or jarring 
as the passage over water. To our feeble 
perception the plan seems a feasible one, and 
has its advantages over a canal. A canal 
must be a dead level, or nearly so, and then a 
great lift and delay to elevate the craft to an- 
other level, whilst a railway will be able to 
overcome gradually any grade it will be apt to 
encounter, in passing from one ocean to the 
other. We ourselves may never live to see it 
accomplished, but depend upon it, if the 
means are available it will be only a matter of 
time. 

"BUTTER AND CHEESE AND I," 

In the estimation of the average individual,, 
butter and cheese doubtless seems a small 
item in comparison with the gi-eat bulk of 
human aliment, and so perhaps it is ; bnt 
when it is separated from the general volume 
and stands out alone, so that its outline may 
be distinctly apprehended, it assumes colossal 
dimensions ; and not only this, but its magni- 
tude is annually increasing. At jio previous 
period of the world's history has there been 
so much interest elicited in the manufacture 
and consumption of butter and cheese, as 
at the present period ; and this interest in- 
cludes not only the kine that produce the 
milk and cream, the manufactory, the im- 
plements and utensils employed in its pro- 
duction, and the skilled manipulation of the 
elements out of which it is manufactured, but 
also the substances and their conditions which 
are anterior to these, and the subsequent 
commercial distribution and disposal of the 
mass. Immediately related to the foregoing 
must al.so be reckoned the great army of em- 
ployees involved, the high breeding of milk 
producing animals, their care and culture, 
their proper treatment, the chemical knowl- 
edge exercised, the improved machinery used, 
and " last not least " the rapidly increasing 
aud upward tending literature on the subject, 
and tlrrough wliich the process and its results 
are more widely and intelligently diffused. 
In alluding to the butter and cheese literature 
of the country, we should stultify ourselves if 



■1881.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



we failed to mention that excellent quarto en- 
titled Bairy Fwminy—hcmg the theory, 
practice and methods of dairying— edited by 
J P. Sheldon, and published by Cassel, 
Potter, Galpin & Co., London, Paris and 
New York, as omii\ying the head of tlie very 
front nink in llic ilairy literature of the world. 
Ostt^iisibly niHvsciit'ing the dairy interests 
and till" daiiv lore of two continents, its field 
is in reality the civilized world, wherever the 
Englisli language is capable of being inter- 
preted and understood. Ko. 19 of tins beau- 
tiful journal is now before us, and from an 
elaborate chapter on American Dairy Pro- 
ducts we (juoie a few statistics relating to the 
butler and clieese of our country, and espe- 
cially the quantity and value of these jno- 
ducts which we export to other countries. 
Much stress is laid upon our tobacco and our 
alcoholic productions when our moral status 
is discussed, but these pale before the pro- 
duction of our dairies. Taking the whole 
country through, the amounts here given are 
probably far below the reality, bfi-ausr thou- 
sands of farmers keep no account wIuiIcVit of 
their milk and butter producticm, and many 
of them are unable to make even an approxi- 
mation to the aggregate amouut. 

As near as possible from the available data 
— based upon the census returns of 1880— we 
have in the United States 12,000,000 of dairy 
cows, and during the year above given these 
produced 800,000.000 pounds of butter, 350,- 
000,000 pounds of cheese, and 2,000.000,000 
gallons of milk were sold and used, valued at 
$408,000,000. Add to this for the Dominion 
of Canada 1,600,000 cows, 100,000,000 pounds 
of butter, 7.5,000,000 pounds of cheese, 200,- 
000.000 gallons of milk sold and used, amount- 
ing to 8'">0,000,ti0(i, and we have an aggregate 
for the United States and Canada of 13,600,- 
000 cows, 900,000,000 pounds of butter, 425,- 
000,000 pounds of cheese, 2,200,000,000 gal- 
lons of milk, amounting to 8458,000,000. 

Our exports of butter and cheese are given 
decenially from 1790 to 1880, but omitting the 
intermediate years, we will merely give the 
two years named, by way of contrast. In 
1790 we exported 470,440 pounds of butter, 
and 144,734 pounds of cheese, whilst in 1880 
the quantity exported was 39,236,658 pounds 
of butter, and 127,553,007 pounds of cheese ; 
an increase of 38,766,218 pounds of bntter, 
and 127,409,173 pounds of cheese. In 1879 
we exported 14,100,567 pounds of cheese more 
than we did in 1880, and 988,632 pounds less 
of butter. 

These figures illustrate not only the num- 
ber of our dairy stock, the magnitude and 
money value of our dairy production, but also 
ihe necessity and the quality of the literary 
channels through which this information is 
collected and diflused ; as well as the modus 
operandi by which such results are accom- 
plished, pre-eminently amongst which, is the 
journal from whose columns we have been 
"quoting. So far as the matter relates to the 
quantity, the quality and the pecuniary value 
of our exportations or importations, whatever 
the commodity may be, there is perhaps no 
difficulty in arriving at accuj-ate conclusions, 
if the original records have been accurately 
made. But it is not so easy to obtain re- 
liable information upon the exact amount and 
value of home production and consumption of 
any object of human industry. Perhaps two- 
thirds of civilized society care vei-y little 
about the amount they produce or consume, 
80 that ends meet, or exhibit a reasonable 
plus. Indeed a large proportion of the world 
don't want to know whether their living 
" costs more than it comes to " or not, and 
this is not confined to the profligate and the 
indolent only. 

This indifference being in the way, there 
will always be a difficulty in collecting ac- 
curate statistics, especially in the products of 
the dairy. How many cows are in the pos- 
of private families, who perhaps never 
of a cent's worth of butter, milk, 
I or cream, but consume it all within 
their own families ? and yet, all this must be 
recognized iu aggregating the dairy pro- 



ductions of the country. Those can, there- 
fore, only be estimated, until more detailed 
light is dift'used. 

ENSILAGE. 

This is comparatively a new term in con- 
nection with the subject of agriculture, and 
yet it is becoming popularly familiar; but 
new as it is, in principle, it has been known 
and practiced these very many years ; for in 
point of /acf it embraces the same chemical 
princijiles that are operative in preserving 
green fruit ; namely, the expulsion of atmo.s- 
pheric air. As much as five and fifty years 
ago— during our apprentice days— a neighbor- 
ing housewife was somewhat remarkable for 
he"- good green currant pies prepared during 
the long winter seasons. On one occasion 
we were present when she opened one of her 
miniature " silos" and deposited the plump 
currants into a dish, previous to the manu- 
facture of her pies. There they were, crisp 
and juicy, albeit a little paler than they were 
wheii taken from the bush in the i)revious 
early summer. The modus operandi was 
simply this and nothing more: The currants 
were gathered and picked from the main 
stems ju.st before they began to change in 
color, and were spread out to allow whatever 
moisture may have enveloped them, to 
evaporate. They were then put into large 
glass bottles with narrow necks, also 
thoroughly dried out. When quite full, and 
thorouglily shaken together, the bottles were 
tightly corked — perhaps hermetically sealed — 
and set away in a cool place, and kept for 
winter uses. Thus, every bottle was a mina- 
ture silo, and the process, practically, modern 
ensilage. 

The canning of green corn, peas, beans, 
cabbages, etc., are approximations to ensilage 
in its application to green fodder, and the 
success or failure in the one involves the same 
chemical principles as the success or failure 
in the other, namely the perfect or the imper- 
fect expulsion of atmospheric air. How many 
cans of green corn, beans, peas and tomatoes 
were utterly spoiled— sometimes causing ter- 
rific explosions of the cans— before success 
was attained ? atid yet no body thought it 
necessary to come out over their signatures in 
condemnation of canned vegetables. There 
is no guess-work about ensilage— no zodiacal 
signs to be consulted, and no moon's phases to 
be' exorcised, in order to attain success. 

Indeed, every kraut-stand is a silo, and the 
preparation of sauer-kraut is a near approxi- 
luation to ensilage. It is not the small moiety 
of salt that is used that preserves the kraut ; 
it is the thorough packing it down and the 
exclusion of air, and the heavy weights on the 
top are to keep it packed, the brine that rises 
on the top being equivalent to sealing. Any 
])art of the kraut which is above the brine 
always spoils, and as the brine sinks, through 
leakage or otherwise, the kraut becomes ex- 
posed to the air and spoils. 

In the preparation of green fodder by en- 
silage, the same precautionsmust be observed, 
as in the preparation of sauer-kraut and green 
fruit and vegetables— namely the thorough 
exclusion of air. Why have we better and 
more butter during the summer than during 
the winter ? Simply because the butter-pro- 
ducing animals have access to green fodder 
during the summer, which they generally 
have not during the winter, and it is to prac- 
tically can the fodder and keep it green, that 
ensilage is resorted to ; but the process must 
be as perfect, as possible— the nearer per- 
fection the better— or the cattle that eat it 
may be injured as much as. people are who 
eat spoiled fruit and vegetables. We had a 
conversation with an intelligent and enter- 
prising dairyman a few days ago, who visited 
thesiios of New York and "Massachusetts, 
and he is fully satisfied with the utility and 
practicability of ensilage. Where one man 
used it two years ago, one hundred used it 
last year, and one thousand will use it this 
year, and wherever it has failed, it has been 
through the slovenly or careless maimer in 
which the process was executed. Men must 



read, think, and observe the chemico-pneu- 
niatic laws, through which perfect ensilage 
only ciui'be practically' accomplished. 

A silo does not mean imnlv dig-ing a hole 
in the ground, throwing tin- fodder loosely in- 
to it, and covering it with a few loose boards. 
It means an airtight pit, or airtight box, sunk 
into the ground — either round or square — 
Willi an airtight covering ; but no matter 
about the form, so that it is airtight. When 
we say airtight, we do not mean absolutely so, 
because, pneumatically considered, a perfect 
vacuum is hardly practicable, but it should be 
as nearly airtight as it can possibly be made, 
and the nearer so the better. 

But the establishment of the fact that en- 
silage is practicable, and that its principles 
are correct when rigidly adhered to, by no 
means justifies a blind or hap-hazard adoption 
of it by every person who may possess " a cow 
and a pig or two," without regard to compen- 
sation, and the cost of the silo. There would 
be little economy iu building a sUo that would 
cost the farmer or the dairyman more than the 
additional profit he would realize over feeding 
the ordinary dvy food. It is comparatively a 
new thing in this country and needs to be 
adopted cautiously, feeling their way care- 
fully as they proceed. The question is not so 
much ' Can it be done V' as ' Will it pay after 
it is done ?' And that this question needs to 
be duly considered— and thoroughly too— we 
quote from oiu- cotemporaries, the first of 
whom we recognize as the editor of the 
OermanUJwn Tehyraph, whose age and long 
experience in handling professedly progressive 
ideas, entitles bis opinion to the favorable re- 
gard of his fellow-citizens. It is always best 
to "be sure you are right " before you at- 
tempt to " go ahead." Ensilage is either a 
bad thing as a profitable investment or it is a 
good.thing. If it is a bad thing, it will of itself 
come* to naught- perhai)S after the farmer-has 
squandered his means unavailably upon it ; 
but if it is a (jood thing, the gates of prejudice 
cannot prevail agaiust it. Under any circum- 
stances it will not injure the intelligent and 
progressive farmer to view all its points be- 
fore adopting it. 

The Silo. 
No matter how absurd any new tiling introduced 
into agriculture or horticulture may he, there are 
not only ardent advocates of it, but these advocates 
are not willing to allow anybody to differ from them 
without condemning their want of judgment, or in 
expressing opinions without having opportunities to 
form them. Yet these very persons, without any 
more experience have gone Into the construction of 
pits and filling them with green corn cut into short 
hitp, which, coming out green and fresh, iu the 
wiuter-tiiue, and the cattle eating it freely, they 
shout at once to come and see and then judge 1 Now, 
no one ever doubted that the green corn could not 
be preserved in this way, or that the cattle would 
not eat it readily ; but we did and do doubt that 
there is any saving as is s.i vehemently claimed, in 
the inethod. Again, we did not condemn it at all, 
only advising our agricultural friends that if they 
regarded the thing favorably, to try it at flret on a 
moderate scale, so that in case of not being satisfied 
they could abandon it wiih little loss. One maniac 
says, just come to my place about four o'clock in the 
afternoon, when I feed my cattle, and see how they 
consume the fodder, and the milk the give. This Is 
no doulit all very nice ; we have not a word to say 
against it ; but that does not meet the question. The 
cautious farmer wants to know what it co»t» in com- 
parison to the present methods of feeding. The silos 
are expensive ; the cartage of the green corn is very 
heavy; the cutting of the stalks into one or two inch 
pieces is very laborious ; then it has to be packed 
lightly down in the pits so as to exclude the atmos- 
phere ; then there is no small time occupied in re- 
moving it from the pits and covering up again ; and 
then there is interest to pay on the cost of the silos. 
This is what farmers want to know exactly about. 
If it can be shown that the new way of feeding is 
better and cheaper than the old— and this has not 
yet been shown— it will be taken hold of and intro- 
duced fast enough. The silos and ensilage origina- 
ted in France, if we are correctly informed, but it is 
not generally in use there, neither is it in England, 
where, of all countries, and for reasons unnecessary 
to state, it ought to be universally adopted. 

We call attention of our viticulturists to the 
paper of Prof. Tustiu, of Lewisburg, Pa., on 
page 38 of this number of the Parmer, and hope 
the question may be better tlie comiug season . 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



THE SOURCES OF SPRINGS. 

On page 19, of February number of tlie 
Farmer, a correspondent says : "Fifty years 
ago, or more, more than half the farm was 
woodland, and especially those parts which 
bordered on the creeks were covered with 
timber. Near tlie house, and at the base of 
a liill was a large ' never-failing ■* spring, sur- 
rounded by trees. The entire fore.st growth 
had boeuf removed : and when we visited the 
farm on the loth of December, 1878, the 
spring was non est— it had disappeared a 
quarter of a century ago. Not a tree or a 
shrub was near it ; all the hills on both sides 
of the creek were denuded of their timbers, 
and this drying up of the spring, and the di- 
minution in the flow of the creek, was cotem- 
porary with the removal of the trees, and was 
doubtless the effect of that cause." 

Are we to understand that in the part Of 
the country where this occurred, Geolo- 
gists teach that a hill immediately over the 
mouth of a spring, has the slightest influence 
on its source ? — T. M. 

The " correspondent " alluded to in the 
above paragraph, is no other than our "own 
sweet self," and no geological doctrine is to 
be inferred, other than what the general facts 
may imply. We were merely giving our in- 
dividual observations on the changed charac- 
ter of the locale of our boyhood, as "seeming 
to favor the theory that forests exercise an 
influence on climate and water flow. Of 
course, we do not infer that the removal of 
the trees immediately surrounding a spring 
will exercise much influence over it, unless it 
is a very week (me, and especially not over its 
source ; and yet, ive do knmo of a half a score 
of springs along the Susquehanna, that have 
entirely disappeared since the days of our 
boyhood, when there were many small groves, 
where there are now only cultivated flelds. 
The farm to which we alluded, and upon 
which we wraught in 1826 and 1827, con- 
tained perhaps 150 acres, about one half of 
which was forest, and contiguous to it were 
also otlier forest lands. This forest occupied 
the highest ground, north and westward of 
the spring, but this is now all cultivated 
fields ; and the spring, was such a strong one, 
that we confess we were much surprised at the 
magnitude of an eft'eet from, apparently, 
such a slight cause. The present occupants 
of the farm know nothing about the spring, 
save from tradition. We .cannot say that we 
have yet been able to come to ii definite con- 
clusion upon this question of climatology, 
and therefore we have merely related a plain 
unvarnished fart, for whatever it may be 
worth. We feel confident, however, that the 
theory can never be either sustained or over- 
thrown, by grasping at little inadvertent 
straws in the testimony, either pro. or con. to 
the main issue. 



Queries and Answers. 



THE ELM TREE BEETLE. 
Faiemount Park, Phu.adelphia, March 4, 1881. 

Prop. S. S. PlATHvos, Lancaster, Pa.— Z»far Sir: 
I am seekina: information regardina: an insect, 
{Oalcnica calmarieiixix) a. &ma.U beetle that infests 
the elms, around and south of Philadelphia, and 
which I believe is unknown north of us. The beetle 
flies upon the leaves to deposit its eggs, and the 
larva feeds on the leaves, until the trees are quite 
denuded of foliatje. 

Wliat I desire to know, is whether they undergo 
their metamorphosis, from the larva, to the pupa 
condition, Upon the tree and descend to the ground 
by means of the trunk, or do they accomplish their 
descent by the falling of the leaves. I have referred 
to several works on the subject, but cau find no 
reference to the question. Any information you can 
give me in relation to this matter, will be fully ap- 
preciated. Tours truly, 

Cbas. H. Miller. 

By reference to page 131, vol. 8 ; p. 98, vol. 
9 ; p. 97, vol. 10 ; p. 97, vol. 11 ; and p. 98, 
vol. 12, of the Lancaster Farmer, (187(5, 
1877, 1878, 1879, 1880) you will perceive that 
the " Ehn-leaf ]3eetle " has been a common 
pest in Lancaster county — and especially in 
und about Lancaster city— ever since about 



the year 1875. But first allow us to say, that 
the insect to which you allude is not the 
Oalenica calmariensis, but the G. xanthoma- 
loena ; the first named species confining itself 
exclusively to equatic plants, and probably 
docs not exist in this country — at least we 
have never seen it here, in its native state. 
Those writers who have confounded the latter 
with the former named species, probably 
never saw a specimen of the former. AVe 
sincerely wish you could have ready access to 
the volumes of the 'journal aViove named, be- 
cause we tire of repeating what we have al- 
ready written upon the subject. Many beau- 
tiful Elm trees fell victims to the infestations 
of these- pernicious insects during the year 
1880— for they were present in mihions, in 
the city of Lancaster, and yet the people 
generally — except, perhaps, the owners of 
the trees— seemed to regard them with com- 
parative indiflerence. This was conspicuously 
so, in regard to several trees that stood on 
church properties, where the beetles were al- 
lowed full sway with little molestation. The 
Elui-leaf beetle is a winter hibernating insect, 
and gets into dwelling houses, stables, or out- 
houses of dirterent kinds, under the bark of 
trees, or any other cover of which they can 
avail themselves, and come forth in the 
spring, as soon as the elmleaves begin to ex- 
pan'd. There are at least two broods of them 
during the summer season, but the second 
brood is always the most numerous and the 
most destructive. Both the beetle and ■ its 
htrva feed on the elmleaves, but the larva is 
the worst on account of its longer life and its 
greater numbers — each female depositing from 
two to three hundred eggs. After the larva 
is matured, d riiiu' July and August, it comes 
down, and pupates iiinl.r tin- trees, creeping 
under any cover tliat is available, and where 
the ground under the trees is hard and smooth, 
or where the ground is paved, they will 
pupate in the seams between the bricks', or in 
any small cavities around the bases of the 
trees they infest, and may be swept together 
by hundreds of thousands and destroyed. 
Usually the larva travel down the trunks of 
the trees, but many fall with the leaves, and 
WB have also reason to believe that many of 
them let themselves drop d:)wn from the 
branches, for we have seen the pavements 
covered with them as far as the branches ex- 
tended, and often on a space three feet square, 
we could have gathered as many as would 
have filled a. piut-nieasure But they do not 
all pupale ml the trriiuiid ; for, when that in- 
lerestiiiji iiciuid in tlair development occurs, 
they pupate wherevir they hai)pen to be, 
hence under tlie scales of bark all over the 
trunks and larger branches of the trees their 
yellow pupiE may be found. Doubtle.ss the 
larvai would yield to the spraying of the trees 
with poisonous solutions and decoctions, but 
in great high elm-trees this is almost imprac- 
ticable. They are most assailable in tlie pupa 
state, and if they cannot be circumvented in 
that condition, the only remedy is to remove 
the trees, for they infest no other trees, even 
when they are in in near proximity to them. 
A strong solution of whale-oil soap, and a stiil 
brush with a long handle (such as is used in 
cleaning gutters) will be necessary in cleaning 
the trunks and branches. Those gathered 
from the ground may be scalded, burnt, or 
crushed. It will, however, require a per- 
sistent effort to destro3' them. Birds — at 
least the English sparrows— have no liking 
for them; for, in a "roost" of about one 
hundred sparrows' nests, not a stone's throw 
from an infested tree, we never saw a single 
sparrow approach one, or appropriate a single 
beetle, although they were active in feeding 
their young all summer. . 

The Elm-leaf beetle is about one-half larger 
than the " Cucumber beetle " [Diahrotica 
vittata) to which it has a family alliance, and 
is* similar to it in form. The general color is 
a clay-yellow, and also generally three black 

*Since writing the above we are informed that full sets 
oftheLAXCAST-B FAKMKRforl875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879 
and l^so niaj be obtained, at the usual price, by address- 
ing tiie publisher. .John A. Hiestand, Ksq,, "Examiner" 
oflice, Lancaster. Pa. 



spots, tranversely arranged, on the thorax. 
But these are not always distinctly present, 
there is also generally a black longitudinal 
dash near the' outer margin, at the hinder 
ends of the wing-covers. When the weather 
is warm the beetles are tolerably active and 
quickly take flight, but early in the spring 
they are somewhat sluggish and may be easily 
captured when surprised in their hiding 
places. Of course they fly into the trees and 
deposit their eggs on the leaves. On one occa- 
sion a lady in the county brought us about a 
dozen specimens, which aimong a hundred 
others, she found behind a fireboard in an 
upper unoccuped room in her house, in the 
month of March. If they can be found and 
destroyed in the spring, the number will be 
so much ies.sened during the summer, for 
each female will deposit a great number of 



Communications. 



ITEMS FOR THE FARMER. 

As soon as the upper portion of the straw of 
the cereals becomes yellow, no farther increase 
takes place in the weight of the seed. If the 
grain be not cut down soon after the ap- 
pearance of this sign, its quality deteriorates, 
and its weight diminishes. 

It is as easy to grow 100 bushels of corn to 
the acre, as it is to grow 70, and with the 
same labor only, and after the plan of 'doing 
it is at once explained, it will be as plainly 
seen as the nose on one's face. The seed from 
the same, grown in this wise, is cheaper at 
S2.00 per bushel, than your present seed corn 
is at a gift, as it will always produce the 
same, (more rather than less). 

Where two trees of the same class of fruit 
bear a good crop every other year only, it is 
an easy matter to change and have one of 
the two to give its portion of fruit every year, 
and it requires but little labor, say one hour, 
and the work is permanent, without any fur- 
ther work or trouble. These items are worth 
knowing, especially where the fruit is choice, 
and for one to be master of his trade (agri- 
culturist). 

For the two above receipts, any one wish- 
ing to learn how, can do so, by writing to 
me.— Wm. I. Pyle, Box 400, West Chester, 
Chester count;/, Fa. 

DOUBLE APPLE. 
Mr. Rathoon: I see by the February num- 
ber of the Farmer, that yon have a double 
apple. I will here tell you how it was made 
double, as I have seen the like. Immediately 
after the fall of the blossom, the stem split at 
the fruit end, and as fruit is nothing but a 
modification of a leaf, the fruit, or tight com- 
pact substance of leaves, gradually divided 
with the stem, and being furnished with sap, 
it healed as it divided. I have seen fruit and 
leaf both in the one and same body, both 
apples and tomatoes, more especially toma- 
toes, fruit and leaf, leaf at both ends, and 
fruit between. In this case there is no seed 
bearing solid fruit. Yours truly, 

Wm. J. Pyle. 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
THE TWO CATAPALS. 

The writer of this asked through the 
columns of the Farmer, for information as 
to the wood of the western species of catalpa, 
as that wood is said to be the coming wood 
for durability, for railroad ties and tor fence 
posts. No one having responded, I will 
therefore essay|a description, through John A. 
Warden, M.d!, President of the American 
Forestry Association. 

We have two species of catalpa, both native 
to our country — an eastern species, and a 
western species. Our western catalpa, ac- 
cording to Micheau, has a wide habitat, 
sti-etching from Vincennes, Indiana, to Illi- 
nois, Kenuicky, and Tennessee, and from 
thence on to Kansas and most of the tribu- 
taries of the Mississippi. This species waa 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



introduced into Ohio, and into at least two 
diffi-rcnt localities that were widely separated 
from each other. At first it was simply 
known as the ••catalpa tree," hut in the 
meantime the I'astern species, the Cntnlpa 
bignmn(>idn<, of Wallers, had been widely dis- 
tributed bv tliv nnrseryim-ii on either side of 
the 40th piinitlel of north latitude. Here both 
trees weri' (ihinted totjethcr, and here it was 
where their .superior hardiness was first ob- 
served by Slid Foster, of Muscatine, Iowa, 
on wliosi' ijroiinds the experiment was miide, 
durinu the severe winters of 1S5-") and 1850, 
with The entire escape of the speciosa, or west- 
ern species, and tlie destructioM of the 613- 
novioide.s, or eastern species. The upenma 
stood the cold winters on the Missouri river, 
at Onialui, wlicre the-eastcrn tree was apt to 
be injured. The Indian and French settlers 
had long before discovered the value ot the 
wood and had utilized it. The observant 
General Harrison, afterwards President of 
the United States, when acting as Governor 
of the Xofthwestern Territory, fully appre- 
ciated the " Shavanon '" tree of the Indiana, 
and also utilized it. Some posts of Ids plant- 
ing were in good condition when removed 
after having done service in a fence during 
forty years. Some of them were set in other 
fences now standing. Near the old Governor's 
mansion, at Vincennes, are catulpa trees still 
growing, which were probably of General 
Harrison's planting, one of which is three feet 
in diameter, with a tall erect stem, bearing 
its top branches full fifty feet above the 
ground, and having lateral branches of almost 
eqnal breadth. This was called the "Treaty- 
Tree," under which he may have cemented 
the compact between the United States and 
the northwestern Indians. Although a great 
admirer of this tree, the Governor probably, 
only knew i^ as the catnlpa, without any 
botanical observations. 

And so it was reputed by Mr. Nnttal, 
who, in his "Genera," page 10, on the au- 
thority of General Harrison, gives this region 
as an indubitable habitat of this tree ; for, 
up to 1836, that distinguished botanist and 
extensive traveler had not .seen a catalpw tree 
in a state of nature ; as he tells us he then 
did, for the first time, on the banks of the 
Cbattahoot-Shee, near Columbus, in Georgia. 
— ■'jStfua Aynericana, vol. Ill, p. 77." 

On leaving his office of Governor of the 
Northwestern Territory, General Harrison 
brought the western species of Cataipa with 
him to his farm at North Bend, where his de- 
scription wa.s first written. The tree has 
been spreading in the neighborhood ever since 
and has become alreadj' perfectly naturalized, 
although on a (Hffereut soil from that of its 
native' habitation. Some of the tree.s have 
been cut down, dressed, and used ;i.s gate- 
posts. Although taken at midsummer, July 
2, 185i, they are to-day firm and sound. 

The CuMpa speciosa. is taller, straighter, 
less branching, more symmetrical, and more 
hardy than the eastern species {bignonioides). 
Tlie (lowers are more abundant, larger, and 
of a purer while. The fruit is usually longer, 
sometimes two fwt in length, but the steeds 
present the surest and safest distinguishing 
characters, as the cornu is spreading, less 
pointed, and the tissue soft and silky, and the 
grains are also much larger. 

This tree seems now to be cultivated very 
extensively throughout tlie west, and they are 
furnished "on moderate terms by nurserymen. 
Stone, Harrison & Co., offer SiOO collections 
of a variety of trees, and among them they 
will pack 100 catalpas, and forward thera to 
any address by mail, post i>aid. 

L. S. R. 

Warwick, Febniari/, 1881. 

[Pretty much all that we practicallv know 
abont the Caia'pa is contained in a para- 
graph on page 181, in the 12th volume of the 
Fakmer. "We did receive some weeks ago, 
an interesting little pamphlet on the subject, 
and had prepared an article for our journal, 
compiled mainly from information found 
therein, but somehow, both it and the pamph- 
let have been "spirited away " for just now 



we cannot lay our hands on either of them. 
If there really are but two species (Dr. Gray 
recognizes but one), and if the wood is of 
such an endurable and superior quality, it 
does seem a little singular that those facts 
were not discovered very long ago. This 
ovei-sight, however, may be due to the abun- 
dance of belter material existing heretofore, 
and that a prospective famine now st;iring the 
eoundy in the face, has elicited attention to 
the subject; and al.so that rapidity of growth 
has as iiiueh to do with the question as the 
quality of the wood. Its specific gravity is 
far less than oak, hickory, walnut, cherry and 
ash. 



Essays. 



TOBACCO CULTURE— HOW TO GROW 
OUR NEXT CROP. 

We herewith publish an essay on tobacco 
culture for the benefit of th(«e who are al- 
ready classed among the growers of the weed, 
as well as for such as have concluded to enter 
upon the cultivation of this croj) during the 
coming season. Such an essay, if it entered 
fully into all the details, fioni the prepanition 
of the seed bed until the packing of the crop, 
would take up much more space than could 
conveniently be allotted to the subject in a 
single issue of this paper. 

We have therefore determined to prepare a 
series of • articles covering the general sub- 
ject of tobacco culture, which will appear at 
seasonable periods during the year, each one 
having a special reference to that portion ot 
subject which engages the tobacco grower's 
attention when it appears. In this way the 
reader's attention will not be confounded by 
a multiplicity of unseasonable details, but 
will be occupied for the time being with only 
that portion of the subject which covers the 
period at hand. 

As the time is rapidly approaching when 
tobacco growers will be compelled to begin 
their preparations for the coming season, we 
present our first instalment of the general 
question of tobacco growing. Lancaster 
county has assumed such a commanding 
position for the extent, excellence and value 
of her tobacco product, that the methods 
practiced by her growers must of necessity be 
valuable to growers elsewhere, especially to 
those whose experience h,is been limited and 
who are not yet thoroughly posted in the most 
approved modes of tobacco culture. There 
are perhaps thousands of growers to whom 
what we shall say will convey no new infor- 
mation. It is not for such that these chapters 
are prepared, but for those in other and newer 
districts, who, while anxious to grow an 
article that shall command the highest 
market price, have neither h.ad the required 
experience nor requisite opportunities for per- 
sonal observation to enable them to do so. 
Good Seed. 

In order to grow good tobacco, it is essen- 
tial that nothing be left to chance. Every 
step of the process must be taken with the 
final result In view. A defective link any- 
where in the season's chain may render all 
previous or future etforts useless, and render 
the cami>aign a failure. It is therefore of the 
highest importance that a correct start is 
made if final success is to be hoped for. It is 
true that accident or a favorable season may 
compensate for a blunder or two, but the to- 
bacco grower must not rely upon any such 
stray contingencies. 

Good, healthy, vigorous seed must be had 
to start with. Too little attention is paid to 
this anparently small but very important 
matter by many tobacco growers even here i n 
Lancaster county. At the proper season, 
which is of course topping time, the strongest 
and best plants should be allowed to develop 
their flower stem. Not all the seed pods must 
be allowed to mature. All of them except 
about a dozen at the top must be removed. 
This will insure much better and stronger 
seed, and consequently more vigorous plants, 



a most important consideration at all times 
and in certain seasons decisive of the quality 
and value of the crop. It would not be amiss 
if every seed plant had a stake driven into 
the gnnmd by its side, to which it could be 
tied and thus be secured against damage from 
stomis of wind. The pod worm should be 
carefully .searched for and destroyed. When 
the bolls have turned black or a dark brown, 
the sjiike containing Iheni must be cut off and 
hung up in a dry place, with the tops down- 
ward, and here they may be left until the 
the time for sowing them comes round. New, 
fresh seed should always have the preference; 
it can be told by its dark brown color; iti 
grows lighter in color as it grows older. A 
few growers have suggested, and, we believe, 
practiced, the planting of a few old seeds 
along with fresh ones in order to have a bet- 
ter succession of jilants when the time comes 
for setting them out and in case they should 
be needed. 

Old seed, however, must not be regarded as 
vulueless. It preserves its vitality five or 
more years. A good test is to throw some on 
a hot stove; if it crackles or "pops" it may 
be sown with confidence. There is an opin- 
ion current that the quality of tobacco will 
gradually deteriorate unless renewed fiom 
outside sources evei-y year. There are no 
good reasons to believe this of any of the va- 
rieties cultivated here — with the " Pennsyl- 
vania seed leaf" or the "Gleaner" varieties. 
Farmers, we believe, have it in their power 
to keep up and even improve the varieties 
they have by careful cultivation. The plauta 
set "apart for seed should .stand near each oth- 
er; this enables the winds and insects to carry 
the pollen from one to the other more readily, 
and thus effect a more complete fructification. 
This plan ought to be observed instead of the 
present plan of letting the seed plants stand 
ill every part of the field. These are appa- 
rently trilling points, but they all contribute 
their share to the ultimate success of the 
grower who observes them carefully. 
The Seed Bed. 

The seed bed may be fairly regarded as the 
starting-point of the tobacco grower. It is 
here that the future wrapper, rich brown in 
color, generous in size, thinly veined and silky 
in texture, Ls nourished into life. Its proper 
management will demand his closest atten- 
tion, and barring accidents, including the 
contingencies of the season, his future success 
depends in a large mea.sure upon his careful 
preparation of it before planting the seed and 
his unceasing attention to it afterward.s. At 
no period of the entire year will watchfulnesg 
and good management go further towards se- 
curing a good crop. Knowing this, he must 
spare neither time nor labor to get a good 
start, and his seed bed is the place where the 
work must be beifun. 

Growers of tobacco everywhere are agreed 
in the opinion that the situation of the seed- 
bed is a matter of the utmost importance. 
On this will depend largely the full and timely 
supply of plants needed. A southern sloping 
exposure should be selected whenever possible. 
Where this is not possible, then a southeastern 
one ; a western one is not desirable, and a 
northern one still worse. It must he sheltered 
on the north and west from the keen blasts of 
early spring. The southern exposure gives 
the young iilants the full benefit of the sun's 
rays early in the season and advances them 
rapidly, enabling the farmer to set out his 
fields earlier than he otherwise could, thus 
avoiding the hot weather of summer. 
Burning the Seed Bed. 

We desire to draw esiiecial attention to a 
custom which is invariably fruitful in pood 
results, which is almost universally practiced 
in the Southern tobacco States, but which 
hardly one farmer in a hundred in Lancaster 
county practices ; we of course allude to burn- 
ing over the seed bed prior to planting. 
Anything that will burn may be employed 
for this purpose ; brush wood, corn stalks, 
old rails and logs, briars, in short anything 
that is at hand. Several hours hard burn- 
ing is not too much. This has the effEect 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



not only of killing all weeds and seeds 
that may be in the soil, but also the 
noxious insects near the surface — no slight 
consideration. It would be difficult, in fact 
to describe all the good results from this 
practice. After the bed has been carefully 
burnt over, the refuse matter should be care- 
fully raked off, leaving only the ashes. The 
ground must then be dug over, <-are being 
taken not to turn up the subsoil. All stones, 
roots, or other foreign substances must be 
carefully removed, and the soil made fine and 
friable. We feel as if we could not too strongly 
impress the good results of this fact upon our 
tobacco growers. In those portions of the 
State where timber is still plentiful and 
cheap, the custom ought to be universally 
followed. 

The ordinary custom is, however, not to 
burn over the seed-bed. It should be dug 
over as early in the spring as the weather 
will admit or the ground is dry enough. A 
rich virgin loam is the best soil ; black, if it is 
to be had, is preferable, as the color absorbs 
the sun's rays better and advances the plants 
faster. If the ground is not naturally rich 
enough, it must be made so. You cannot 
make it too rich. Well-rotted stable manure 
is much the best article that can be used ; 
chicken or hog manure are not nearly so de- 
sirable, nor are artificial manures. A com- 
post made the previous year of the various 
manures produced on the farm and plenti- 
fully applied would, no doubt, produce ex- 
cellent results. This must be spaded in and 
care be taken to render the soil on the sur- 
face, and indeed throughout, as fine as if run 
through a fine sieve. Lumpy ground would 
impede the free sprouting of the minute sued 
by covering them. The bed is now ready to 
receive the seed. 

Sprouting the Seed. 
Most growers sprout the seed before plant- 
ing, but a few do not. The former course is 
much the best. It is surer, because it enables 
you to see whether your seed is good. It also 
gives you plants sooner, as unsprouted seed in 
an unfavorable season sometimes lie hi the 
ground a long time before germinating. 
Wheu the season is late and inclement 
weather prevents the early preparation of the 
seed-bed, it is sometimes all important that 
the plants are brought forward as rapidly as 
possible. There are different methods of 
sprouting the seed. 'The more common way 
is to tie it in a little bag and place it in 
slightly tepid water for a day or two ; it is 
then removed and placed under some .moist 
woollen covering in an atmosphere suflSciently 
warm to forward the process of germination; 
near a stovein a light room is a good place. 
Much care must be taken in handling the 
seed at this critical period. Any injury to 
the tender sprout that issues from the minute 
seed is sure to result in the death of the 
germinal principle. They must be kept 
slightly moist all the while, so that the 
sprouting process may not be interrupted, 
which, were it to occur, might also result 
disastrously. 

An old and very successful grower of our 
acquaintance sprouts his tobacco seed in an 
entirely different manner. He selects a lot 
of chip soil from the site of an old woodpile, 
sifts it carefully to remove all foreign sub- 
stances and to pulverize the earth thoroughly. 
This is then moistened with warm water, 
placed in earthen pots, or some other vessels, 
and the proper quantity of seed thoroughly 
mixed with it. The pots are then placed near 
a stove ; the soil is kept most by the addition 
01 sulBcient water, and it is besides carefully 
stirred over several times daily to prevent 
packing and to expose the seed to the light. 
Much care is necessary when the tiny shoot 
begins to emerge from the seed, as rude hand- 
ling would soon break it ofl'. Either of the 
two methods just given, if carefully followed, 
will give good results. — New Era. 

Eight hundred varieties of pears and near- 
ly one hundred kinds of native grapes are said 
to be iu cultivation in America. 



*DO BEES PUNCTURE GRAPES, AND 
IF SO, HOW ? 

The question as to whether the Honey Bee, 
A^ds melUJica, punctures and tears open the 
skin of fruit, and especially that of the grape 
has called forth considerable discussion. That 
a matter apparently so simple should for so 
long a time be in an unsettled condition seems 
not a little surprising. 

Bee keepers generally deny that bees do 
auy injury to sound fruit, and as they doubt- 
less best understand the habits of their favor- 
ites, they make a strong argument in their 
own behalf. 

Fruit-growers on the other hand, earnestly 
claim that bees do them gresit harm. They, 
find these insects industriously engaged in 
sipping the juices of bursted grapes, and in 
their vexation over the lost fruit, and with- 
out much discrimination, they charge the 
whole work — both the rupturing of the skin, 
as well as the extracting of the juices — upon 
the busy yet harmless insect. 

Here we have the chief point of interest in 
this question— the fruit grower, from persbnal 
considerations, demanding that the bees shall 
be destroyed or kept within bound : — the 
apiarist denying that his bees do any harm, 
and that therefore they should not iu any 
way be restrained. 

The subject was assigned to me to report 
upon before this society, at a time when I had 
not the opportunity of giving it any special 
attention, and yet in a general way I have 
observed for several years that bees have 
been very numerous about my vines, and 
that many a grape was robbed by them of its 
sweet juices and rich pulp. 

That bees have increased in number and 
that they are fond of feeding upon the luscious 
contents of a ripened bunch of grapes are 
well admitted facts. The food most natural 
to the bee is the fluid secretions contained in 
the nectaries of various kinds of flowers, and 
the pollen dust on the anthers. But when 
flowers are scarce, or when they have passed 
their season,— since the bee must live and 
gather honey all the day— its instinct leads 
it to other saccharine substances, and on this 
account, doubtless, it takes to the ripened 
peach, grape, pear, and the like. 

The bee is furnished with organs, enabling 
it readily to gather its food. In the first 
place it has a double stomach, or more cor- 
rectly, two stomachs, the first of which 
serves as a receptacle or pouch for the tiuid 
matter which it gathers from the flowers ; 
this fluid matter thus gathered and stored up 
does not appear to differ from honey. In 
this honey-stomach no digestion of the honey 
is known to take place, and' it seems to serve 
the only office of holding the gathered honey 
until the bee returns home. The coatings of 
this stomach being furnished with the power 
of muscular reaction, the honey is readily 
emptied into the cells of the comb. 

To extract the honey-fluid from the flowers 
and introduce it into this stomach, the bee is 
furnished with what may be regarded as an 
elongated tongue, formed by a prolongation 
of what with us answers to the lower lip. 
This tongue is flexible, and capable of a cer- 
tain degree of extension. It is not a hollow- 
tube with a suction arrangement at the end, 
to enable the bee to s..ck the fluid of the 
flower into its stomach, as has commonly 
been supposed. But in gathering honey, the 
bee inserts its tongue into the nectary of the 
flower, and whatever honey may adhere to 
the surface of the tongue is introduced into 
its mouth and ultimately finds its way into 
the stomach. It is in tliis way that the 
bee gathers its honey. This tongue is a very 
delicate organ and^has no, puncturing or pen- 
etrating power. 

To further enable the bee to accomplish its 
work the mouth is furnished with " feelers " 
or palpi— four in number. These are for the 
insect, its organs of sense. There are, be- 
sides, two strong mandibles or jaws, furnish- 
ed with two teeth. These parts are not used 



as in vertelirates for masticating the food, but 
for a variety of other purposes. For instance, 
sometimes the parts of the flower may be so 
compressed, that ready access to the necta- 
ries cannot be obtained and it may be neces- 
sary for the bee to push apart or to cut away 
portions of the floral envelopes, so as to gain 
the honey. And in the work of preparing a 
place for the building of the nest, or 
the making of the comb, it may be ne- 
cessary to break away or to cut through hard 
substances. ■ In the accomplishment of these 
things the mandibles furnish the requisite 
power, while the paliri or feelers tell the bee 
^vllat is to be done, and Ikao and where to do 
it. 

That these mandibles have, for the size of 
the insect, considerable power, may be seen 
by consideriug for a moment some of the gen- 
era allied to the common honey bee. 

Thus, instances are known where the bum- 
ble-bee has been shut up within the corolla of 
flowers, and he has cut his way through the 
walls of his imprisonment. There is the so- 
called boring bee, which with its mandibles 
often skilfully cuts its way for a considerable 
distance through dry timber. Then the ma- 
son-bee detaches and gathers together grains 
of sand and by the aid of a mucous secretion 
works these up into cells of an almost im- . 
perishable kind. So that the mandibular 
power of the bee family is quite conspicuous, 
and it is a power to be exerted according as 
the exigencies of the case may require. 

The sting of the bee is an organ in its 
structure and in its use quite different from 
the mandibles. It is situated in the posterior 
part of the body and is a finely pointed in- 
strument with au open tube extending along 
its entire length. At the root of the sting is 
a little sac in which is contained the poisonous 
fluid, which the bee injects through this tube 
into the wound which he may have made. 
The object here is to provide the insect with 
the necessary means of self-defense when it 
is exasperated or attacked, and so far as is 
known, it is only under these circumstances 
that the sting is used. It is strictly an organ 
of defense, and in no way used as a means to 
assist in the gathering of the food. When 
the sting is used, it simply punctures the sur- 
face to which it is applied, unless that surface 
be powerful enough to resist the fine point of 
the sting. So toat with reference to the 
question before us the opinion is generally 
held, that in their ravages upon grapes, if 
bees ever do tear open the slcin, they certainly 
do not and cannot do tliis with their sting, 
this organ having no power to tear or cut' 
open, but only to penetrate orpuncture«asily 
yielding substances. 

But it is not certainl}' known that the bee 
does ever tear open the skin of the grape. 
From what has been stated, its mandibular 
power is without doubt sufficient to enable 
this to be done, and that it is iwssible may not 
be doubted. But there is want of evidence 
that thee bee ever does this, 

I have never seeu a bee in the act of tear- 
ing open the skin of a sound grape, although 
I have seen repeated instances, of one and 
indeed several bees together luxuriating upon 
the sweet juices of a Dalaware or a Concord. 
And so far as I have been able to corres- 
pond with them, I find that the authorities 
upon this subject quite unanimously agree, 
that there is no evidence against the bee that 
it tears open the grape, although this assidu- 
ous little honey-worker is ready to appropriate 
the sweet substance of the grape, the peach 
and kiudred fruits, when once tlie skin has 
been broken from any cause, whether on ac- 
count of a defect in the growtli of the fruit, 
or Ihrongh disease, or by reason of an excess 
of juices in the fruit whereby the skin not 
being able to yield sufficiently must burst, or 
through the sting of a wasp or of other insect. 
In a note from Professor A. S. Packard, 
now of Brown University, he says that 
though he has no evidence that they do so, 
yet liis "impression is that bees will puncture 
and bite open grapes," but this impression 
he says is founded simply on this, that he sees 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



"no reason from the structure of the mouth 
why they could not do so." 

But the observations and experiments of 
Mr. Charles H. Math, the Secretary of the 
Cincinnati Entomological Society, are more 
to the point. lie says that if you lay a ripe 
bunch of grapes with sound berries in front 
of the liive, with the entrance thereto con- 
tracted to ,( or to i of an inch, so that every 
bee going out or coming home will have to 
run over or around the bunch, you will notice 
that they try their very best to attack the 
grapes, while yet every berry remains intact. 
He found the same to be true of a sound ripe 
BartJett pear. After he had .satisfied himself 
of the inability of the bee to penetrate the 
skin of the grape, he then punctured each 
berry with a pin, and in an hour or two no- 
thing remained but ^he skins and the stem. 

Dr. S. S. IJathvon, the learned editor of the 
Lancasteu Farmer— a pai>er of excellent 
scope and character, and devotiil to the high- 
est interests of agriculture and liorticulUire — 
■says in a letter of the date of Octolier L"), " I 
have grown grapes (Isabellas, Clintons, Con- 
cords, Hartlord Prolilics, Marthas, Dela- 
wares,) upon my premises for thirty years, 
and yet I liavc never observed a bee cutting 
or tearing ojieii any of them. From the or- 
ganic structure of the mouth of the bee, it is 
very probable that they can lacerate skins of 
the niore delicate grapes, and the testimony 
from intelligent sources seems to be so strong 
that I do not feel like ignoring it, and yet I 
fear that many observations in that direction 
are too superficial to be entirely reliable." 
From another part of the letter we quote, "I 
have not conversed with a single person who 
says he ever saw a bee in the act of cutting 
open grapes. But the grapes are found rup- 
tured, and the bees at work upon them, and 
that seems to be the bulk of the testimony." 

Mr. A. I. Root, the editor of "Gleanings 
in Bee Culture "—a paper published at Me- 
dina, O., says that "although bees may at 
times puncture sound grapes, the evidence is 
very strong that they very rarely, if ever, do 
so. Their work is principally on broken or 
bursted grapes." 

But the highest and best authority is Pro- 
fessor A. J. Cooke of Lansing, Michigan, 
who says in his communication of Dec. 13, 
"From close observation for many years, from 
careful experiments seemingly crucial, and 
from a vast amount of testimony, I feel sure 
that if bees ever attack sound grapes it is ex- 
exceptional : some scientists say they do at 
times — so that I cannot say they do not. But 
L am sure that it is very rarely, if ever, the 
case. I have lived for some years in the midst 
of vineyards, and where bees were very nu- 
merous, but I never saw bees tear open a 
sound grape. If bird or wasp or disease 
break the grapes, and the bees find no other 
stores, they will lap up the oozing juice. At 
such time I have broken grapes, and when 
they were being supped by bees, I would re- 
move tliem and place sound grapes in their 
stead, when the bees would at once stop 
work." 

Our conclusions from observations, and 
from the testimony of others are then— 

1. That the bee cannot puncture the skin 
of the grape with either its tongue or its 
sting. 

3. That it is possible that bees may tear 
open grapes from the fact that they possess 
the necessary mandibular power. 

S. We believe that tlicy rarely, if ever, do 
this, and that their depredations upon grapes 
are confined to cases where aheady from other 
causes, the skin has been ruptured. 

The complaints of bees destroying grapes 
and other kinds of fruit are more frequent 
than they were thirty years ago, and possibly 
for the reason that in later times the trees 
and shrubs and plants from which bees have 
been in the habit of gathering their lioney 
have been relatively decreasing in numl)er, 
while at the same lime the culture of bees 
has been increasing all over tlie country. The 
remedy for such complaints should be found 
not in destroying the bees, nor in advocating 



their restriction, for honey we must liavc and 
j it is quite as desirable to many persons as is 
I fruit. The true way will be for the bee- 
[ keeper to provide in places conveniently near 
the hives, tlie necessary clover and other 
j flower-bearing plants from which his bees 
may derive their food. 

Imluied with its instinct of industry, the 
bee will not be idle. It will gather its stores 
fVom flowers if it can ; from various fruits, 
peaches, grapes and pears, if it yuust. 

FRUIT CROPS IN PENNSYLVANIA. 

Mr. E. Satterthwait, of .lenkintown, Mont- 
gomery county. Chairman of (he (iemial 
Fruit Committee of the I'ennsylvunia l'"niil 
Growers' Society, presentrd tlie following re- 
port in reference to the fruit crops of the past 
season in Pennsylvania, which was read at 
tlie recent annual meeting of the society held 
in Gettysburg : 

To the President and Members of the .Sociely. 

I have received answers to my inquiries in 
regard to the fruit crops of the past season 
from most of the members of the committee, 
and from these, together with my own per- 
sonal observations, I have gathered the fol- 
lowing conclusions : 

The Large Apple Crop. 

The apple crop throughout the State was 
unusually good. All the reports except from 
one locality agree in this, and all have the 
same complaint to make, that owing to the 
unusual forwardness of the season all varieties 
ripened some weeks before their time, so that 
a large proportion of the winter varieties had 
to be disposed of early in the fall to little 
profit, but fortunately those that stayed on 
the trees until the proper time for picking 
were unusually fair and fine and are keeping 
very well ; and this was the only part of the 
apple crop that paid, the summer and fall 
varieties as usual not bringing enough to pay 
the expense of sending to market. The de- 
struction from codhng moth is not complained 
of as much as usual, but this is probably 
owing to the fact that the crop of apples was 
uncommonly large, and there being only an 
average crop of the insects their ravages 
were not so much noticed. I fear there is no 
good ground for hoping for any immediate 
abatement of this great evil as most probably 
another season will show, with a smaller crop 
of fruit and an increased crop of insects. As this 
insect is the only real obstacle to the produc- 
tion of apples in this State in any amount and 
of the best quality, it is of great importance 
that some more effectual remedy than any 
yet devised may be discovered. Nothmg 
better has been suggested in my reports than 
the gathering of the wormy fruit as it falls 
from the tree and the destruction of the 
worms, either by feeding the fruit to swine or 
making into cider for vinegar. This is very 
well as far as it goes, as is also the trapping 
of the worms with hay bands and other simi- 
lar devices, but these though doubtless very 
beneficial as far as they go have not proved 
effectual. 

Some complaints are still made of injury to 
and destruction of apple trees by the borer. 
As this is a thing so easily guarded against, 
and the one, simple, easy and effectual 
remedy has been so frequently mentioned at 
these meetings that it would seem almost in- 
credible that any member of our society 
should be so far behind the times as not to 
have learned how to save his fruit trees from 
injury by the borer. There docs not seem to 
be anything else worth mentioning injurious 
to the apple crop. 

Selection of Varieties of Apples. 

The most important consideration, perhaps, 
connected with apple culture in this State is 
the selection of profitable varieties. Next to 
the destruction by codling moth, the grej\t 
cau.se of the failure of the apple crop in this 
State for many years, has been the platiting of 
trees from New York nurseries, not because 
these trees are not as good as trees grown 
here, but because they are all of kinds, which 
though good varieties there, are of no value 



here. Almost all of the kmds wliich are 
grown in the North for keeping varieties and 
do so well there, ripen here in the fall and 
will not keep and are conseciuenlly worthless. 
I am sorry I am not able to give a list that 
could he depended' on for tlie State, or for any 
large part of it. As it is not only a question 
of climate, but the kind of soil as well as cul- 
tivation, and perhaps many other things 
wlrich are not yet understood have much to 
do in determining the adaptability of a 
variety of fruit to any particular locality, I 
will merely give here the varieties mostly 
spoken of as having done well the past year. 
Karly Harvest, Red Astracan,Benoni, Porter, 
r.lush, Smokehouse, Domine, Krauser, York 
Striiie, York Imperial, Fallawater, Ben 
Davis, Grimes' (Joldeii, Smith's Cider and 
Kidge Pippin. This is indeed a very meagre 
list, and perhaps does not embrace the one- 
tenth part of the valuable varieties that are 
cultivated here and there in the State, but 
are not generally known and have not been 
widely tested. This is one of the questions 
upon which information is greatly wanted, 
and should claim a large share of the atten- 
tion of this society. A great deal of good 
work has been done by this association in 
bringing into notice and diffusing valuable 
varieties of apples that hiid only a local rejiu- 
tation, and there seems to be no reason why 
we should not be able to obtain a list of 
varieties of apples asjcertain and reliable as we 
now have of pears and peaches. I have dwelt, 
perhaps, too long on this subject, but it is one 
of great importance. Pennsylvania can and 
will in time grow all the apples needed to .sup- 
ply her own population and many to spare for 
foreign markets, instead of purchasing the 
larger part of our own supjil y, as we have been 
doing from other States. We are learning to 
do it, but not as fast a.s we ought to. 

Most Profitable Varieties of Pears. 

Pears, from all accounts throughout the 
State, were not more than half a crop. The 
failure is attrilluted to late frosts which are 
said to have killed the blossoms. Fortunately 
we are not as much at sea as to varieties of 
pears as with apples. Great unanimity lias 
prevailed for years as to the most profitable 
varieties of pears. Bartlctt, Seckel, Duehesse, 
Buerre d' Anjou and Lawrence and Man- 
ning's Elizabeth for an earlier sort, are the 
varieties universally recommended, and for 
those wanting a greater variety. Doyenne 
d'Ete, Buerre, Giffard, Ott, Itowell, Des 
Nomes, Buerre, Superfine, Buffam, Rutter 
and Vicar of ^Viukfield can be relied on as 
doing well everywhere. And it is safe to say 
that any one desiring to plant will not go far 
wrong in planting these, unless, indeed, they 
are soon to be superseded as some think by the 
new and hardier and more vigorous seedlings 
of the Chinese pear. It seems but proper to 
say here that the Kiefler, the only one of these 
which has as yet been fairly tested here, has 
fully held its own the past year and so far has 
proved to be all that was claimed for it, in 
quality as well as in fniitfulness, vigor of 
growth and freedom from disease. 

Fire Blight— The Great Enemy. 

The one gre;vt obstacle to pear culture con- 
tinues to be fire blight. It is very strange 
how this mysterious disease continues its never 
ceasing and destructive, but erratic and per- 
fectly unaccountable course— breaking out 
suddenly in one locality and as suddenly 
ce.asing altogether in another, without tlie 
slightest reason that can be imagined for 
either. As the cause of this totally incompre- 
hensible disease is not even within the verge 
of conjecture, no rpmedy can be suggested but 
the planting of varieties least subject to it. 

It may not be out of place to say here that 
my own crop of pears, notwithstanding the 
general failure reported, was very large and 
fine, and I might add that I have not missed 
a good croi) of pears for many years. I could 
give what I consider the reasons for this, but 
do not think it would be proper here, as it 
would involve disputed theories of cultivation 
which would be out of place in a report like 
this. 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



Danger of Overstoc'dngf the Market. 
There is one thing about pear culture of 
which it might be well to remind those about 
to engage in fruit culture for market purposes, 
that the pear market is very easily broken 
down. The consumption of pears i.s very 
small compared with that of peaches and 
winter apples. In winter there is no demand 
for pears, and during the greater part of the 
summer and fall, the markets are so full of 
peaches, grapes, melons and other fruits that 
are generally preferred to pears, that only a 
limited quantity of these are wanted, and not- 
withstanding the great destruction of pear 
trees by blight, the quantity of this fruit sent 
to market has latterly been so largely on the 
increase that it is evident tlie time is near at 
hand when none but those of the finest 
quality will pay for marketing at all, and that 
not for long distances ; and though I think a 
few pear trees indispensable to every farm, I 
would not recommend them for a market 
crop. 

The Peach and Its Enemies. 
Peaches were a good crop generally. The 
old varieties that have stood the test for many 
years are mostly reported as having done well. 
Of the many new very early sorts I have 
nothing favorable to report. The earliest 
peach, so far tested, that seems to be worth 
planting, is the Mountain Kose, and succeed- 
ing that the following : Foster, Reeves' 
Favorite, ilary's Choice, Stump the World, 
Susquehanna, Crawford's Late, Smock, 
Golden Eagle and Salway. This list does not 
include near all the valuable varieties of 
peaches, but these are all good kinds and 
about as many sorts as it is generally profit- 
able to plant. The one great enemy of the 
peach continues to be "the yellows," and 
though volumes have been written and an 
endless amount has been said upon the sub- 
ject, and though undoubtedly we have ob- 
tained some light, there is much yet to be 
cleared up. It would occupy entirely too 
much space to go into this subject here, fur- 
ther than to say, that it seems to be well "es- 
tablished that the disease, whatever may be 
its cause, is in some way, and to some extent, 
contagious, and that it "is incurable, and the 
only remedy consists in being very careful to 
plant none but perfectly healthy trees, grown 
from seed procured where no yellows exists, 
and worked with buds taken from perfectly 
healthy trees, and on tlie appearance of the 
first symptoms of the disease, remove at once. 
As to weather it is necessary, as Mr. Ruttev 
and others tell us, to take out the tree, root 
and branch, and burn it, I have doubts, but 
this is one of the questions that we will be 
better able to determine, when we learn more' 
as to the nature of the disease and the man- 
ner in which it is communicated from one 
tree to another. We have the usual com- 
plaint about the peach borer, but not so 
much as of the apple tree borer, the same re- 
marks as were made in regard to the latter 
will apply here. 

The subject of peach culture is important 
and is entitled to a large share of our atten- 
tion. The time is not far distant when the 
markets of Pennsylvania will be supplied with 
this fruit from the products other own soil, 
and not, as heretofore, from adjoining States.' 
Already enough has been done to demonstrate 
that no country in the world is better adapted 
to the culture of this, the most delicious of 
all fruits, than is our own good old common- 
wealth. It is true, as I have said, that much 
remains to be done before we shall be entirely 
master of this dread disease, which for so 
many years has been the cause of the utter 
neglect of peach culture here, but the ice has 
been broken and the road to success is as- 
sured. 

Cherries, Quinces and Plums. 
About cherries there seems to be nothing 
new to report. Every year we have about 
the same reports about this crop— a large 
crop but nearly all rotten; unless it be some 
of the sour varieties. It seems hardly worth 
while to try to grow cherries, the tendency to 
rot seems to have become so universal. 



Quinces have done better than usual, and 
there seems to be some hopes, that in spite of 
the codling moth, their one great enemy, they 
may yet be made a profitable crop. The 
apple tree borer is very bad in the quince and 
must be attended to in the same way by 
taking them all out, early in the fall, before 
thfey have got far into the wood or deep in 
the ground. 

Fiums, of eourse, were mostly destroyed by 
curculio, and what escaped the insect rotted 
like the cherries. There seems to be some 
mysterious climatic influence of late yeara, 
that causes these fruit to rot so badly, and as 
no remedy is likely to be found for this they 
are not worth planting in most places. There 
are however, locations that seem to ' be 
exempt from this influence, where plums still 
do well, when not destroyed by curculio, and 
are a profitable crop. A good deal of atten- 
tion has been paid within a few years to 
varieties of the common wild plum of the 
country, under the name of Wild Goose, etc. 
If proper attention were paid to the selection 
of good sorts of these, something valuable 
might be obtained, as there are varieties of 
these wild plums that are really good, and 
they seem to withstand both the curculio and 
the rot. 

Strawberries and Other Small Fruits. 
Strawberries— the reports from almost all 
locations speak of failures from severe and 
prolonged drought. So generally in this the 
case that little is said as to the varieties. The 
Cumberland is more generally well spoken of 
than any other. Miner's Great Prolific is set 
down as very promising. As to the Sliarp- 
less, most cultivators seem to be waiting for a 
more favorable season before giving a decided 
ojiinion. The Monarch and Chas. Downing 
are still recommended by many, ' the Captain 
Jack and Crescent by some, but many con- 
demn them as too small. In the. neighbor- 
hood of Philadelphia strawberries sirtfered 
greatly from drought and were a poor crop 
and did not pay, as the market is now always 
glutted with the immense quantity that over- 
flows from the New York market. 

RaspbeiTies also suffered from drought and 
were not abundant.' There seems to be noth- 
ing settled, as vet, as to the best raspberry to 
plant. Many still adhere to the old Philadel- 
phia, but certainly the Reliance is a great im- 
provement on this. The Brandywine and 
Bristol are still largely grown for market. 
The newer varieties need to be fui-tlier Iri.d. 
Of blackberries I hear of nothiii:; new to re- 
port, and the same may be said of gdos*-- 
berries and currants. The currant worm 
still continues its ravages and has now nearly 
completed its work, by the destruction of the 
crop in most parts of the State. The markets 
of Philadelphia are now mostly supplied with 
currants from the State of New York, where 
they seem to have great success with tlieni ; 
whether it is because they are still exempt 
from the currant worm I have not learned. 

For grapes the season was very favorable 
and the crop abundant everywhere. Grapes 
are now grown in such quantities that they no 
longer possess any value as a market crop, 
though they are one of the most value and in- 
dispensable of fruits, and should be planted to 
a limited extent by every one who possesses 
a foot of ground. Of varieties there are two, 
the Concord and the Clinton, that always do 
well, and besides these there are some 'hun- 
dreds whose claims are advocated by different 
growers, and many of these are undoubtedly 
valuable, but tf I were to attempt to speak of 
them here, I should not know where to begin, 
nor where to leave off, and I prefer leaving 
the subject to some one more familiar with it. 
In concluding this report I desire to return 
my thanks to all the other members of the 
committee who have so kindly responded to 
my inquiries f >r information from their re- 
spective localities. I have endeavored to em- 
body in this rejjoi-t a summary of the informa- 
tion thu.s obtained together with some obser- 
vations of my own that seemed to be perti- 
nent, all of which is respectfully submitted. 



*CORN CULTURE. 

The corn crop among cereals is the most 
valuable in Lancaster county. I have no cor- 
rect data of the average of this crop for the 
county, but late statistics fix the average of 
the State at 36 bushels. The average yield of 
wheat is estimated at 14 bushels to the acre. 
At these rates the money value of the crops 
is nearly the same. But this State average 
for corn is evidently too low for the county— 
probably should be about 45 bushels. Many 
of our best farmers have, perhaps, averaged 
not less than 70 bushels during the last °ten 
years, while those same farmers in the same 
term have been below 20 bushels in their ave- 
rage for wheat. From our present know- 
ledge and experience we can easier raise the 
average of corn to 80 bushels than we can 
the average of wheat to 25 bushels per acre. 
Corn requires only about four months from 
planting to harvest, and is therefore not so 
much exposed to weather influences and to 
insects as wheat is, which requires nine 
months to come to perfection, and which in 
that time is subject to the depredations of the 
fly, in autumn and spring, to severe winter 
cold, to drought at various times of the year, 
and at times to heavy rain storms. From 
those causes wheat is often a short crop. The 
corn crop rarely fails. Drought is the great- 
est hindrance to large crops, but this can in a 
measure be counteracted by high culture. 

That our soil, as fi whole, is remarkably 
adapted to the growth of corn is shown by 
the crops that are raised under the system 
that is i)racticed. The general plan is to plow 
a clover sod, spread from 50 to 100 bushels of 
lime on each acre, harrow, mark out and 
plant as early in the spring as the weather- 
will permit. Cultivate the corn as soon as it 
makes its appearance, and when it is three or 
four inches high give it the finishing toucli by 
banking up the earth against the young plants 
with a Harnly scraper, and then trust to Pro- 
vidence tor a big crop of corn. 

No matter how baked and bard the earth 
gets, or how many weeds grow after this, 
there must be no more culture for fear of tear- 
ing ofl' a corn root or breaking a plant in 
turning the team. Who can seriously call 
this good farming ? 

The requirements for a good crop of corn 
are: First, a rifih soil; second, good cultivation; 
and third, good weather. The first we have 
under our control. We can apply fertilizing 
materia! to the acre suflicieut. to make plant 
food for .50 bushels, or for 100 bushels, or for 
200 bushels. But experience has taught us 
that it does not follow if we apply manure 
that will bring a crop of 60 bushels, tliat by 
putting on two times that amount of manure 
will realize 100 bushels: The big crop de- 
pends on other circumstances beside the ma- 
nure, yet it is obvious that there must be 
more plant food in the soil to raise 100 bush- 
els than 50. 

How are our corn fields fertilized ¥ By 
putting to the acre from 50 to 100 or more 
bushels of lime. To this practice our farm- 
ers cling tenaciously, notwi&tanding that 
chemical science has demonstrated that there 
is very little manure in lime. Lime, no doubt, 
on these clover sods will help to increase the 
crop of corn, not by adding plant food to the 
crop, but by makang the vegetable mass 
quickly available. And since lime is no ma- 
nure, the crop must necessarily uraw wholly 
upon .the substances already in the soil for 
sustenance, and consequently it is just that 
much poorer when the crop is matiu-e. Would 
it not appear to be reasonable to let the vege- 
table matter in the soil gradually decay to be 
food for the entire rotation, and assist the 
corn cro'vby a direct fertilizer? Ten dollars' 
worth (the price of a dressing of lime) of a 
good superphosphate, or acidulated South 
Carolina rock, which are in themselves plant 
food, as the}' contain nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash, the most valuable ingredi- 
ents in any manure, would seem to be of far 
more service to the soil. These are not used 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



for any action on other substances already in 
the soil to make them available, but for their 
direct ell'ect in manuring the crop. Tlie more 
of these direct fertilizers are put on the soil 
the richer it will be, while the more lime that 
is put on the poorer it will be when the crop 
islripe. Tliat is evidently the best farming 
which leaves the soil better at harvesting 
than it was at the end of the previous crop. 

The second and third requirements for a 
good crop of corn, viz : good cullivatiou and 
good weather, are so dependent on each <itlier 
that they must be considered together. Tlie 
usual understanding of corn cultivation is, 
"destroy the weeds and hill up tlie plants." 
The destruction of weeds is not corn culture. 
They are destroyed because they rob the soil 
of moisture, &c. If there were no weed.s, 
there might be such a condition of weather 
that corn would require no cultivation what- 
ever. But as a such a condition of weather 
seldom falls to our lot, we have to .adopt such a 
system of cultivation as will as much as possi- 
ble answer the requirements of the crop. 
What tliese requirements in the different 
stages of growth are we must know, if we 
want to' treat them properly. It lias been ob- 
served tliat dry weather in June and in early 
July is favorable to a corn crop, tliat the ap- 
pearance of the tassel at 7 or 8 feet is better 
than at 10 or 12, and that of the ear at 4 feet 
from the ground is better than at 8 feet, and 
that favorable weather during the latter part 
of July and through August makes the good 
corn crop. Soil that has been highly manured 
will, if the weather is favoratile in June, be 
likely to make sucli a growth as will defeat 
many of these desirable conditions. In such 
a case cultivation should be withheld, and if 
that is not a sufficient clieck, deep culture or 
root pruning sliould be resorted to, to bring 
about the desired growth. 

One foot of healthy growth in June is bet- 
ter than two or more feet. • Slow growing at 
this time makes the stalk short jointed, and 
will have a tendency to make it more prolific. 
After the appearance of tlie tassel and tlie 
ear, comes the drain on the soil for moisture 
and plant food. From tliis period, if the 
weather is riglit, the crop will take care of 
itself. 

But if the weatlier is dry, then is the time 
for judicious cultivation. We now want no 
more deep culture to tear up the roots, but a 
loosening of tlie surface with a light shovel 
harrow or a spike harrow, built of tlie same 
shape, between the rows, and with the hoe 
between the lUants, keeping tlie whole sur- 
face level. The loose surface will act as a 
mulch, under which the moisture will dry out 
slowly. This may have to be repeated up to 
the middle of August if the ground at any 
time bakes. Some might say that this takes 
too much work. But if by such a system of 
cultivation we could increase our crops one- 
third or one-half, this extra labor would be 
well paid for. 

We do not pay sufficient attention to the 
possibilities of a corn crop, and are satisfied 
to keep on in the old rut in which our fatliers 
moved. In any good field of. corn, we can 
pick out numerous hills that will shell over a 
quart of corn. If this could be made uni- 
form the yield would be over one hundred 
and fifty bushels to the acre. 

By selection of seed, mode of planting, by 
an improved system of cultivation and ma- 
nuring, the indications are that we can as 
easily raise 100 bushels as by the old system 
50 bushels. The report from the farm con- 
nected with the liur'il li'ew Yorker gives a 
yield of 150 bushels of shelled corn off an acre 
of Chester county mammoth. An acre of 
Blount's Prolific yielded nearly the same. 
Larger yields have been reported, but these 
were grown on plots less tlian an acre, and 
are therefore not so valuable. "What lias 
been done can be done again," is an old say- 
ing, and in this case is a plausible one. Good 
seed is one of the important factors in grow- 
in^large crops of corn. 

Experiments have recently been made by 
eminent agriculturists, which indicate that 



there was a difference of from 20 to 100 per 
cent, in the yield, where in the one case poor- 
ly developed ears were used for seed, while in 
the otlier the best only were taken. IIdw im- 
portant then that our seed corn be thorough 
bred. To make and keep it so will require 
care and judgment. The selection should 
be made before the corn is cut, as then is the 
only time the character of the stalk (an im- 
portant one,) as well as the ear can be fully 
seen. 

In conclusion, I will briefly .Siiy that a clover 
sod should be plowed only four or five inches 
deep, not that sliallow plowing.in itself is val- 
ahle, but because by turning down the vege- 
table mass eight or more inches it gets out of 
reach of atmospheric influences, and also out 
of reacluof the roots that are the best grain- 
feeders. In some cases it might pay to run a 
siib-soiler tlirie or four iuclies deeper, but 
wliere tlie in-evicius plowings were right, sub- 
soiling is not so im])ortiuit. If some ingeni- 
ous mochaiiic would invent a .sod-plow, some- 
what on the prineiiile of the double Michigan 
plow, with this difference,that it should leave 
the sod slice on the top instead of the bottom 
of the furrow as the Michigan does, he would' 
be doing the corn grower a favor. Where ar- 
tificial fertilizers are used, two-thirds should 
he put on the plowed ground and harowed in, 
while the one-third would be used to the best 
advajitage around the plants about ear-form- 
ing time, as this is the time that plant-food is 
specially wanted. 

Who among the members of the L.ancaster 
County Agricultural Society will compete 
nest season with the liural 2}eto Yorker. 

*' PEACH BUDS AND PEACHES." 

Jfr. President and Gentlemen of Pennsylvania Fruit 
Growers' Society : 

At the request of your worl^ secretary and 
others, I have prepared an essay upon a topic 
pertaining to my vocation, which is partly 
growing and fruiting the peach, and have 
chosen" Peach Buds and Peaches." 

It is a well known fact to all peach growers, 
that there are season when every peach tree 
that has vitality enough to produce a. crop of 
buas, will likewise produce a crop of peaches, 
irrespective of size or quality ; other seasons 
but a partial crop, or certain varieties will 
bear well while other varieties will produce 
no fruit at all. Some seasons they are an en- 
tire failure, such as the present year promises 
to be with us. The cause of the two extremes 
we can readily understand, viz : heat and 
cold. 

I desire especially to invite the attention of 
this society to the cause of the great difference 
of fruitfulness of some varieties, in different 
seasons, on the same grounds, under the same 
cultivation. The past season was one of those 
years in which certain varieties produced 
little or no fruit, while other varieties bore 
abundantly. 

When quite a youth I first observed this 
fact, and have never been able to find an es- 
say written upon the subject. I also learned 
by observation that u tree that produced a 
heavy crop of fruit and was at the .same time 
poorly fed or cultivated, was unable to form 
fruit buds for a crop the succeeding year. 
Tliis is one of the causes, but there are still 
other causes for this diflerence. 

We also recognize the natural tendency of 
some varieties in not forming fruit buds plen- 
tifully under an.;/ cil•cum^tances, such as the 
Susquehanna and Maiden- blush, but why 
sliould the Crawford Late, Troth's Early or 
Mountain Kose fail to fruit, when the Craw- 
Ibrd Early, Mixon Free or Salway produce 
heavy crops all under the same conditions in 
every respect ? This has occurred the past 
season with myself and other fruit growers in 
this county. 

My orchard, granite soil, porous subsoil, 
with somewhat of an eastern exposure and 
but sliglitly protected on the west, bore a good 
crop in 1871) and a heavy crop in 1880. with 
the exception of Crawford's Late, which was 



almost an entire, failure ; Troth's Early and 
Mountain Kose about half crop. In an orchard 
in the same locality, with southeastern ax- 
jKisMie, Will protec-tcd on the north and west, 
soil blue gravel, with open porous subsoil and 
conditions alike with all varieties, Crawford's 
Late was a total failure, while other varieties 
liroduced a partial crop. In another orchard 
of an eastern exposure, with scarcely any pro- 
tection on the West or north, soil red gravelly 
loam, with porous subsoil, conditions of all 
varieties aliki-, Crawford's Late liiiled entire- 
ly, while other varieties boro a good crop. 

In still another orcliard on a similar soil, 
with a northve.tteru exposure, conditions of 
all varieties alike, Crawford's Late produced 
a half crop, while other varieties produced a 
full crop. The oirlnud horc n(» fruit the year 
previous, when all tin- otlur oichards did. 

From observ:Uioiis gathered last spring and 
years previous, I was not surprised at the 
year's result. I attribute the failures men- 
tioned to the peculiar formation and process 
of development of the fruit blossoms. 

It is scarcely necessary for nie to mention 
the fact that" there are two kinds of peach 
blossoms, large and small, tiie difference in 
size, being caused by the petals of one kind 
lieing broader and longer than those f>f the 
other ; Crawford's Late, Troth's Early, 
Mountain Rose, Salway and a host of other 
varieties producing blossoms of the smaller 
kind, while Hale's Early, Bilyeu's Late Octo- 
ber, and nearly all of the early sorts, produce 
blossoms of the largt^r khul.'^ Bilyeu's Late 
October is Ihi^ firM variety to bloom, while at 
the same time Crawford's Late exposes the 
organs of its buds to the elements by parlinlly 
opening its petals and allowing the pistils and 
stamens to slightly protrude, and remain in 
that condition several tlays before their final 
expansion. This is also true of all small 
blossoming varieties, although somewliat la\e. 
Next iu order of blooming are Troth's Early 
and Mountain Rose, next Early York, Mixon 
Free and Smock Free ; lastly Salway, Hale's 
Early and many of the new open blooming 
varieties, Salway being particularly noted for 
its tardiness in opening its petals, and con- 
tinuing in hloorn several days later than its 
sister varieties. 

Last spring (1880) we had a sharp frost just 
■at the time Crawford's Late i^arWa/^.y opened 
its petals, which damaged the organs of Us 
blossoms, while at the same time most other 
varieties except Troth's Early and Mountain 
Rose weie well protected within the folds of 
the blossoms. Several days later, when tlie 
trees were in full bloom, the injured organs 
were easily perceived: 

One peculiar habit of Crawford's Late is to 
open quite all of its petals simultaneously, 
while Troth's Early and Mountain Rose are 
more gradual ; heix-e the reason why their 
crop was iiartial. The only reason that I can 
conceive why the orcliard with the northwest- 
ern exposure bore as much fruit as it did, is 
because it did not expand its petals by .several 
days as early as in orchards of more favorable 
location, and thereby escaped the early frost. 

Although Bilyeu's Late was the first to 
bloom, it did not suffer as badly as the other 
varieties named, owing, I belieVe, to the pro- 
tection rendered by its large petals. 

How often do the newspapers when report- 
ing the prospect of a peacli crop, say, "All 
badly damaged but Hale's and Smocks.'' Why 
are they less liable to be injured ? Because 
they are late and gradual in opening their 
blossoms. I have but once known the Salway 
to be entirely killed by severe cold or spring 
frosts. It bears a small nuttijhwX and is very 
gradual iu blooming ; many buds are just 
opening while the first opened are losing their 
folds. This accounts for its great tendency 
to over-beat, which I by no means consider a 
fault. Nature's God here has placed in our 
liands a matter for our control, and we, as 
horticulturists, .should profit by it. I believe 
] that the large blooming varieties, as a class, 
I are less liable to be at any time injured by 
frost than tlie smaller blooming sorts, with 
the exception of the variety last named. The 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



organs of the large blossoms are nicely envel- 
oped within the corolla until nearly the time 
for fertilization to take place, while, on the 
other hand, the organs of the smaller bloss- 
oming varieties are exposed to the elements a 
number of days before the general expansion 
of the blossom. 

Had Crawford's Late the power of with- 
standing or resisting cold as greatly as some 
of our more- hardy varieties,, the peach grow- 
ers in this county alone, the past season, 
would have reaped prohts of thousands of 
dollars where they did not reap hundreds. 

Here is a field well worthy of serious inves- 
tigation, and our botanical friends can assist 
us. 

Many of our fruit growers have a mama for 
extreme earliness. This is right in its place, 
but let us not overlook other desirable points 
in our craft by striving alone for earlir ass. 
Let us take with us fruitfulness and hardi- 
ness as well as size, color and flavor. We have 
varieties that will ripen in succession from 
the very earliest to the very latest, having the 
size and color of the Crawford, shipping qual- 
ities of the Smock, and fruitfulness and har- 
diness of the Stalway. We may be years in 
attaining these points, but by proper hybridi- 
zation, cross-fertilization and observation, 
they will eventually be attained. We have 
already in our land varieties that have been 
brought into existence by intelligent hybridi- 
zation, such as Wilder, Downing, Saunders, 
Louise and Rivers. This proves that by the 
assistance of an intelligent mind, new varie- 
ties having desirable qualities can be pro- 
duced. 

Let us take a glance at what our enterpris- 
ing stock breeders are doing. They are 
breeding their animals to the size and shape 
of the mirror, to the splash on the forehead, 
color of the feet, or tip of the tail. 

Our brother apiarians are breeding to the 
length of the bee's tongue in order to enhance 
their profits, by getting honey from flowers 
that the common bee cannot reach. Can't 
we as peach growers keep pace with our 
brethren in other industries ? I think we can. 
While they may have some advantage over us, 
in directly controlling their subjects, nature, 
on the other hand, off'ers us many advantages 
that they have not, by proffering in her boun- 
teous efforts, thousands of natural seedlings, 
which we, by judicious care, can take from 
her storehouse of variety the very objects 
that we are desirous of obtaining, 

I have placed in my nursery varieties that 
my atrention has been du-ected to by their 
having desirable qualities. One of them hav- 
ing the size and color of Crawford's Late, one 
week later in ripening and a more regular 
bearer. 

Let us ever be on the alert for new seed- 
lings, and if any have escaped the severity of 
the past winter note them well. So long as 
there are desirable points to be attained, so 
long can we aff'ord to test new seedlings. We 
cannot by any means, succeed in producing 
varieties that will withstand the severity of 
any winter, or the effects of a very late severe 
frost, but there is room to improve greatly on 
the hardiness of many varieties. 

I have been frequently asked the reason 
why peaches fail more frequently now, than 
30 or 40 years ago V I invariably reply, that 
in our efforts to increase earliness, size and 
quality, we have in a measure iost sight of 
hardiness. The old natural varieties our an- 
cestors propagated in the fence corners and 
by the way sides, were in fact nearly all of 
the large blooming kinds, and these natural 
sorts yet ofttiraes produce fruit when all 
others fail. It is true, that we are advancing 
rapidly in peach growing. Twenty-five years 
ago August 10th was considered, in this lati- 
tude, an early date for peaches to ripen. Now, 
July 1st is the opening of the season. Then 
September 25th quite late ; now October 15th 
is the closing of the season. Then an orchard 
could scarce'ly be found that ripened its ft-uit 
in stmession tor a period of 6 weeks ; now 14 
or 15 weeks is not considered more than an 
ordinary achievement, and yet we are on the 



lower rounds of the ladder. There are still 
many above us, all of which we can surmount 
by close investigation and intelligent applica- 
tion. 

Let us be vigilant, be active and unwearied 
in our labors, in one of the delightful fle Ids 
that God has created for man. 

•NITROGENOUS ELEMENTS OF 
PLANT FOOD. 

I. Almost all, if not all, the nitrogen con- 
tents of all vegetation, is derived by the plant 
from or through the soil. It has been main- 
tained by some, that certain orders of plants, 
particularly from among agricultural vegeta- 
tion, the broad-leaved root crops derive at 
least a small portion of their nitrogen through 
their leaves, from the atmospheric nitrogen or 
nitrogenous compounds. This, to say the 
least, is extremely doubtful. 

II. Nitrogen exists in the .soil in three 
classes of condition : 

(a.) Those compounds which are insoluble, 
and are the intermediate products of vege- 
table decay— classed as nitrogenous organic 
bodies, etc. 

(6.) The soluble compounds of nitrogen, in- 
cluding ammoniacal and nitrate salts. 

(c.) Free nitrogen held in solution in soil 
water or in the air, held in the pores or con- 
densed on thelsurfaces of the pores of the soil. 

HI. The nitrogen of the soil is derived from 
the four sources : 

(a. ) From the decay of former vegetation 
as stored in the soil. 

(6.) From the air carried down as am- 
monia, nitrates and organic dust in solution, 
or suspension In falling rain, snow and dew. 

(c.) From the circulation of air through the 
pores of the soil. 

(cZ.) From additions in the form of barn- 
yard manure or chemical artificial fertilizers. 

IV. Nitrogen in the insoluble form, and as 
free nitrogen, can not be assimilated by the 
plant. Hence the two food forms of nitrogen 
are ammoniacal and nitrate salts, and in the 
light of our information on the subject, it 
seems very probable that it is in the latter 
form, or as nitrates, that the plant finds the 
conditions in which it is best able to avail 
itself of nitrogenous food offered to it. 

Here, as in many other cases where we at- 
tempt to question the processes of nature, we 
find ourselves unable to obtain a definite an- 
swer to our query. In this instance there are 
on record certain admirable experiments, 
some quite recent, which seem to indicate, 
that in some cases, with certain plants under 
certain conditions of age and treatment, the 
plant is best able to avail itself of the nitrogen 
oftered in the form of ammonia. But the 
general statement given above, is expressive 
of the most successful practice and experi- 
ment. 

V. The soil has, to a certain extent, the 
power of retaining within itself the soluble 
nitrogen compounds, (ammonia and nitrates,) 
by partly physical, but more by chemical ab- 
sorption. 

VI. But, in consequence of their solubility, 
these same assimilable forms of nitrogen are, 
also, likely to be lost by the action of the per- 
colating waters. 

A discussion of these principles would be 
interesting, but we pass this by, to the con- 
sideration of several inquiries which these 
principles render of extreme practical import- 
ance. 

(a.) What is the relation of atmospheric 
nitrogen to the food supply, through the soil ? 

(6.) What conditions are favorable for ren- 
dering tlie nitrogen of the soil, stored or 
added, assimilable ? 

(c.) What conditions are favorable to the 
retention of assimilable nitrogen in the soil, 
and bringing it to those layers of the soil 
through which the main portion of the roots 
ramify ? 

{d.) What relations do different kinds of 
crops bear to the food supply of nitrogen ? 

'Delivered before the State Board of Agrieulture at 
Gfettyaburg, by Prop. Reidenbach, at the annual meet- 
ing, Januarry, 1881. 



(e.) If nitrogen is to be added in fertilizers, 
in what form is it most conveniently and 
cheaply applied ? 

In other words, we inquire, "How can we 
bring the nitrogen of the soil into condition 
favorable to plant growth'? How prevent its 
undue loss ? How arrange our crops to most 
economically utilize the nitrogen in the soil ? 
And how can we add nitrogen to the best ad- 
vantage ?" 

I must repeat here, that I can only give but 
a brief outline of tlie answer to each topic. 

(a.) What is the relation of atmospheric ni- 
trogen, to the food siqiply through the soU. 

You are aware that about four-fifths 
(79,100) of the atmosphere by volume, and 
slightly less bweight, (77-100,) is free nirro- 
gen, which is inert, and, as free nitrogen, is not 
available for plaut nutrition. In addition to 
the free nitrogen, the atmosphere also con- 
tains traces of nitrogen, in the form of am- 
monia and nitrates, formed by action of de- 
cay, and carried into the air", and, also, by 
other processes. Ammonia is barely in excess 
over the nitrates. These compounds being 
soluble in water, are carried down, by rain 
and dew, into the soil. Careful determina- 
tions show that the amount thus obtained 
from the measured fall, that is, from rain and 
snow alone, is from eight to ten pounds per 
acre, on the average, for each year. The 
amount carried down by dew has not been as- 
certained, but is probably an important 
amount. Indeed, it may often be very con- 
siderable. To this we must add the atmos- 
pheric source of nitrogen, free or compound, 
fixed and retained by the soil, by some chem- 
ical action with which we are not acquainted, 
brought into the soil by circulation of tlie at- 
mosphere through its pores. Experiments 
made at Rothamstead, England, by Gilbert 
and Lawes, indicate this as a very important 
source of nitrogen for plant food. 

We thus see that the atmosphere not only 
supplies all the carbon of the plant, and the 
water necessary, but, also, is a reservoir of 
nitrogen, from which there is a certain, 
though variable, supply given to the soil. 

How far this supply of nitrogen is sufficient 
is an important and as yet unanswered in- 
quiry. 

(6.) What conditions are favorable for ren- 
dering the nitrogen of the soil, stored or added, 
assimilable f 

We have already referred to the nitrogen in 
the soil in two classes of conditions, available 
and not available, for the plant. It is of 
value to the farmer to know if he can assist 
nature in bringing the unavailable nitrogen 
into an assimilable or available form. 

I briefly mention some of the leading condi- 
tions for bringing about this change. 

The presence of mineral fertilizers, particu- 
larly of potash, and carbonate and sulphate 
of calcium ; that is, limestone and gypsum. 

The presence of oxygen of the air, and such 
substance as can supply oxygen, among which 
are red oxide of iron as found in our Adams 
county red shale, sulphates as gypsum. 
Moisture acts as an agent of change. 

A free circulation of the air also promotes 
the same change. Among other reasons why 
these conditions are favorable to our purpose, 
they tend to promote the conversion of other 
nitrogen compounds into nitrates, the process 
known as nitrification. Tlie mineral fertil- 
izers, phosphates and potash salts, facilitate 
to a wonderful, degree, particularly on clover 
and other leguminous plants, the bringing of 
the nitrogen of the air into a condition of 
availability. 

On the other band the presence of caustic 
lime causes a serious loss of available nitrogen 
in converting even the already formed nitrates 
into ammonia and preventing their formation, 
ammonia thus formed passing into the air. 

It is hardly necessary to add that the phy- 
sical condition of the soil has much to do with 
this same nitrification; such treatment as pro- 
motes moisture during dry, hot weather and 
renders the soil friable, are important ad- 
juncts, also the presence of sand and marl. 

I also add a condition which we are not able 



1881. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



to control, but we can modify its action. I 
refer to the fact that nitrifaction is more ac- 
tive during hot weather, but if the soil is 
very dry at the same time, or so compact as 
to exclude oxygen, ammonia may be formed 
from nitrates themselves, and thus be lost to 
the immediate use of the plant. You thus ob- 
serve, that during winter tlie nitrogen may 
remain as ammonia stored for the use of veg- 
etation during its active state. 

I have not spoken of ozone, or of ferments, 
or of rootlets, or of other causes of nitritica- 
tion, because, though important, they are not 
under the active control of the former. 

(c.) What c'onditinns are favorable for the 
retention of assiwilubk nitrogen in the soil? 

The mention of the causes of loss will sug- 
gest the ruincilits. 

Till' priiuipal loss is foand in the solubility 
of uitnitLS and ammonia in water. In soils 
with ueur-lying impervious subsoil, the drain- 
age may cause a very considerable carrying 
awry of these other mitritive elements, as is 
shown by analyses of spring, well and river 
waters. 

Another loss is found in the formation of 
ammonia, and yet another is caused by the 
absence of those mineral compounds which 
act as absorbents, chemical and physical, of 
nitrogen compounds, such as phosphates, car- 
bonate of lime, and gypsum. One remedy 
against loss, is to have a soil in that condi- 
tion of looseness by plowing and hoeing, as 
increases the absorbing power for water, and 
decreases the evaporating power. 

(d.) What relation ao different kinds of 
crops bear to the food supply of nitrogen. 

We consider this question first in the 
amount of nitrogen found in difterent crops. 

If we have an acreage crop of twenty-eight 
bushels of wheat, with twenty-five hundred 
pounds of straw, about forty-five to forty- 
eight pounds of nitrogen will be found pres- 
ent. In a crop of two and one-half tons of 
meadow hay, fifty to sixty pounds, (that is lo 
each ton, twenty to twenty-four pounds,) and 
in a crop of two and one-half tons of clover, 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifteen 
pounds of nitrogen, (each ton containing forty 
to forty-six pouuds.) 

In general, the leguminous crops, clover, 
beans, vetches, are rich in nitrogen, while the 
cereals and grasses are relatively poor in ni- 
trogen. 

Now comes the remarkable fact, shown by 
many investigations, but recently and remark- 
ably demonstrated in over thirty years' cul- 
ture on trial plots of various crops by Gilbert 
and Lawes, that the poor in nitrogen crops, 
namely cereals and grasses, require the pres- 
ence of a larger quantity of as.similable nitro- 
gen, than do those rich in nitrogen. 

The exi)eriinents are grouped in three 
classes, made in each case on iDOth kinds of 
crops : 

(a.) With nitrogenous manure. 

(b.) Without any manure. 

(c.) With mineral manure containing phos- 
phates and potash, but no nitrogen. 

The results may be tabulated thus : 

1. Without any manure, the nitrogen in all 
crops gradually diminished, and also the soil 
content was lessened, that is, the crop dimin- 
ished. 

2. With mineral manures, the amount of 
nitrogen in the cereals still diminished as also 
in the soil, but at a somewhat less rate, while 
the nitrogen of clover and beans is diminished 
but little, and the soil content even increased. 
In other words, the mineral fertilizer, parti- 
cularly potash, enabled the clover to use more 
nitrogen and thus to i)roduce a good crop, 
and at the same time increase the store of ni- 
trogen in the soil, even rendering it assimila- 
ble. 

3. What is more renjarkable, the crops rich 
in nitrogen derive far less benefit from nitro- 
genous manures than do those poor in nitro- 
gen. 

4. Root crops exhaust particularly the 
superficial layers of soil of theii- nitrogen, 
under any of these conditions. 

We have no time to-day to inquire Into the 



reasons of these facts, but they Are of most 
practical imiwrtance. 

Two conclusions must appear : 

(a.) The leguminaceae must draw a con- 
siderable portion of their supply of nitrogen 
from the air, and, as already stated, through 
the soil. 

(!).) Mineral fertilizers have at least as 
valuable indirect action, in reference to sup- 
ply of nitrogen, as direct in furnishing potash 
and uhospliorus to the growing plant. 

(c.) If nitrogen is to be added to the soil in 
fertilizers, in what form is it most conveniently 
and cheaply applied f 

Our answer has already been suggested. 
Clover is the best, from the aniount of nitro- 
gen it gathers in its own tissues, and from 
the increase it i-lli-cts cm the .soil, besides the 
considerable amount found in its roots. Of 
mineral manures, nitrates arc the best, par- 
ticularly hi dry weather. Sulphate of ammo- 
nia, in a wet season, is equally good. For 
leguminous i)laut8, particularly for clover, no 
large quantity of nitrogen is required by ordi- 
narily good soil, but use a complex mineial 
fertilizer, containing a goodly percentage of 
potash. 

From these statements, we must conclude 
that from the air through the soil the plant 
gathers a large portion of its supply of nitro- 
gen, but that crops having unequal power in 
thus utilizing the supply of nitrogen from the 
air, such a rotation of crops can be employed 
as will keep the supply of nitrogen in soil al- 
ways sufficient for the plant use. 

There is a growing sense of the importance 
of having experiments made on this and 
kindred subjects. There is required careful 
management, under the intelligent persever- 
ing discretion of practical farmers and trained 
chemists. This great State of Pennsylvania 
should do some efficient work in this direction. 



Our Local Organizations. 



LANCASTER COUNTY AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

A stated meeting of the Lancaster Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society was held in their room in 
City Hall, Monday afternoon, March 7th. 

The following named members and visitors were 
present : 

Joseph F. Witmer, Paradise: Johnson Miller, War- 
wick ; Casper Hiller, Conestoffa ; Henry M. Enjrle, 
Marietta ; F. R. Diffenderfer, city ; John C. Linville 
Salisbury; John H. Landis, Millcrsville ; Calvin 
Cooper, Bird-in-Hand ; Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy ; 
Levi S. Reist, Ore<ron ; J. M. "Johnston, Citv ; Pet'er 
S. Reist, Lititz; Dr. C. A. Greene, City;"johu G. 
Re8h,Pequea; J. Frank Lantz, East Lampeter; C. L. 
Hunsecker, Manheim; William H. Brosius, Druniore; 
C. A. Cast, City; John Huber, Pequea; William 
McComsey, City. 

The secretary being absent, Calvin Cooper was 
chosen secretary pro tem. 

The readin? of the minutes was dispensed with. 

Hon. Wm. Ellmaker, of New Holland, was pro- 
posed for membership and elected. 

The State Agricultural College. 

President Witmer at some length detailed the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting of agriculturists held in 
Philadelphia last month to take action relative to 
withholding the appropriation from the State Agri- 
cultural College, located at Bellefonte, the proceed- 
ings of which have been heretofore published. Mr. 
Witmer expressed himself as beine a good deal dis- 
appointed at the action taken. He had supposed 
the meeting would be under the exclusive direction 
of practical farmers, instead of which he found It in 
charge of the Philadelphia Agricultural Society, and 
among the leaders were the president of one college 
and the provost of another. He half suspected that 
their opposition to the State college receiving the 
J:50,000 appropriation, as heretofore, was that the 
money might be divided among their own institu- 
tions. Nothing of importance was done at the meet- 
ing except the indorsement of the resolution passed 
by the House of Representatives in June, 1879, to 
the effect that no further appropriations should he 
paid to the college until It shall have complieil with 
the law under which it was created and keeps In op- 
eration the experimental farms ; and a resolution to 
the effect that the farming interests of the State re- 
quire the maintenance of an experimental farm ac- 
cessible to Philadelphia and Harrlsburg. The prcsl- 
dent gave a brief outline of the history of the State 
Agricultural college, and closed by saying that his 
opinion as to the propriety of withholding the Slate 



appropriation from the college had been somewhat 
modified within the past month. 

John H. Landis, member of Assembly, said that 
his resolution to withhold the State appropriation 
from the college had passed almost unanimously In 
1870. He helleved the college could give no satis- 
factory account of the laree sums of money expend- 
ed by it, and was satlstled that the institution was 
badly managed. (Jf th<» three classes graduated by 
it, the agricultural class is the smallest. 
. Mr. Enirlc was aware there had been serious com- 
plaint of the nilsmana<(emcnt of the college, but he 
could never briing himself to quite agree with a nia- 
jorlty of this assoeiation that the appruprlatloo 
should lie taken away from It. Before this is done, 
wo should see our way clear to do something better. 
Great sums of money have been expended upon It 
by the State ; the valuable building is at Bellefonte, 
the teachers and pupils are there, the school Is going 
on, and though it may not b'' managed as well as It 
ought, It might be unwise to slop It. The state board 
of agriculture had been asked to take sidoa against 
the college, but had declined to interfere with the 
trouble. He thought this society should act with 
due caution also. 

President Wl.mer said he felt at the last meeting 
of the society that the appropriation should be with- 
held ; he now thinks It might be unwise to withhold 
It. With a new audefllcleut board of trusteeh elect- 
ed to the college, the farming interest might get 
more good out of it than by having the approprla- 
llou divided among several smaller institutions. 
The.-e has been expended on the college some $700,- 
000 already, the greater part of which would be lost 
if it were abandoned. 

Mr .Landis said if the State appropriation were 
withheld, it would remain in the State Treasury and 
not be divided among other liistitutlons. 

Dr. Greene had no doubt of the management of 
the college. With more than a dozen professors 
there are only forty students. Great good might re- 
sult from withholding the appropriation aiid ap- 
pointing a legislative committee lo give the Institution 
a thorough investigation. The location of the college 
at Bellefonte had Iwen secured by fraud, and It was a 
farce to place it there. 

Henry Kurtz favored a legislative investleatlon. 

Johnson Miller thought the best that could be 
done would be to have the Landis resolution which 
had passed the House become a law. 

P. S. Reist had high authority for saying the Leg- 
islature could afford no relief. The college is a na- 
tional affair; the United States had made land grants 
to the Stale conditioned on the maintenance of the 
college ; the state sold the land and endowed the 
college, and cannot divest it of the appropriation 
without the sanction of Congress. The college 
should not have been located where it Is— neither the 
location nor the land is tit. Even with good man- 
agement good cropscannot be raised there, and some 
one has said that the cattle have to be stabled and 
fed there thirleen mouths in a year. The sooner we 
can get ride of the college the better ; we can better 
afford to lose all that is there and direct our efforts 
lo more valuable work than by squandering more 
money on the college; but togctiid of it we will 
have to go to Congress for authority. 
Lectuiers Invited. 

Dr. Greene, from the committee on speakers, re- 
ported that he had invited Messrs. Spencer and Levy 
to address the society and he expected one or both 
of them to be present to-day. He had also Invited 
Judge Stitzel, of Reading, who would probably be 
present next month. 

The president suggested Mr. Kennedy, and Mr. 
Engle named Judire Klluiakeras speaker, who would 
Interest the meeting, and Dr. Greene said he would 
send them invitations. 

Crop Reports. 

Henry Kurtz reported that in the vicinity of Mount 
Joy the wheat is still partly covered with snow and 
ice? that which can be. seen don't look very well; 
the tobacco Is nearly all stripped and some «ale« 
have been made : John A. Snyder has sold 2'^ acres 
at 10, li and 'i ; others at 10 and :i ; another has re- 
fused 13 round, and Mr. Lichty sold his crop at S4 
and 4. 

John C. Linville, of Salisbury, said that when the 
snow first passed off the wheal looked well, but the 
alternate freezing and thawing since that time have 
damaged 11 a good deal. He had traveled a great 
many miles in Chester county and found the wheat 
In fine condition ; he attributed it to the use of pho«- 
phate,which enabled it to withstand severe weather. 
The past winter has been very destructive to bees, 
one Chester county man having lost forty colonies. 
There was plenty of honey in the hives, but the 
weather was too cold for the bees to withstand. Some 
of the peach trees are killed, but others have with- 
stood the wlnt«r better than could have been expect 
ed. The drouthof lastsumraer killed nearly all the 
young clover and many farmers re-sowed their ttelds 
in the fall. The clover grew nicely for a time, but 
Is now apparently all gone, and the bay and grass 
crop wil probably be eiiort next summer. 

Levi S. Reist said the wheat at present looks very 
much as it did some years ago— that which watsown 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



early looks bad and that which was sown late looks 
well. The early sown will probably yield a poor crop 
and the late-sown a good one. 

Johnson Miller said that some wheat fields that 
looked very well when the snow melted have been 
much injured by the recent storm. 

Peter S. Eeist endorsed the views of the above gen- 
tlemen as to the wheat and peach prospect, and 
called attention to the fact . that the bee keepers 
would hold a meeting at the Black Horse hotel next 
Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock. 

Henry M. Engle said that about Marietta they had 
considerably more snow than here, and that the 
wheat looks well ; the clover is poor and will proba- 
bly yield a poor crop. He advised farmers to pro- 
vide sustitutes. Hungarian grass, green corn, oats, 
peas, &c., cnt green "and cured, made good feed, 
for cattle, so that farmers need not suffer. The 
peach buds are pretty generally killed and some of 
the wood is also killed; apples and pears are all 
right ; cherries a good deal damaged ; grapes and 
raspberries better than expected: many hives of 
bees killed. The rainfall for January was 3 9-16 
inches for February 2% inches. 

Wm. H. Brosius of Drumore, said wheat and grass 
looked poorly. 

John G. Resh of Pequea, said the same, but that 
the wells and springs were in good condition and 
there was little danger of a drouth next summer. 

John C. Linville read the following easy : 
A Chester County Sale— The Great Dairy of 
Enos Bernard 

The subject of ensilage is now giving rise to much 
discussion among the farmers of New York and the 
New England States. Although it does not yet 
amount to a " boom " among the steady-going farm- 
ers of Eastern Pennsylvania, the matter is beginning 
to excite some inquiry. 

With the view of learning something about this 
much-praised and much abused ensilage, I, on the 
the second instant, in company with my brother, vis- 
ited the dairy of Enos Barnard, near Doe Run, Ches- 
ter county. 

We were hospitably received by the proprietor, 
who took us at once to the silo. This is neither 
more nor less than a large root cellar. The cultiva- 
tion of roots has been abandoned because of the im- 
mense labor of raising and storing them. 

We euter the silo through a door in the back wall 
of the cow stables. The odor of the "cow-crout" is 
perceptible as soon as we approach the door. The 
door sill is three feet above the bottom of the silo, 
and the ensilage has been removed only to this level. 
We walk in on the ensilage and perceive at once that 
it is quite juicy when we tread on it. Tankee-like, I 
asked a great many questions, which were as 
promptly answered by our host. He does not con- 
sider the present trial a fair test of the value of en- 
eilege. Finding that his hay crop would be inade- 
quate for his large dairy— 180 cows— he broke up 
eight acres after harvest and planted It with corn. 
Most of it was seeded with the wheat drill and not 
cultivated. 

Although the corn grew rapidly it had not attained 
sutlicient maturity when cold weather came on. He 
then went to work with fifteen men and a large fod- 
der cutter driven by steam power and in three days 
he put the crop, of over 100 tons, in the silo. The 
machine was set to cut the pieces one eighth of an 
inch in length. The ensilage is covered with boards 
running across the silo and weighted with slones. 
1,000 pounds pressure per square yard is applied. 
The joists over the cellar were lifted until the ensi- 
lage was settled enough to allow them to be re- 
palaced. 

Sixty cows are in the barn containing the silo and 
they are fed .0 bushels of the " crout " per day at 
two feeds, and notwithstanding its somewhat sour 
stfiell and taste, they eat it with avidi'y. The ensi- 
lage is mixed with cut fodder, corn and cob meal, 
bran and cottonseed meal. This is certainly a bill 
of fare over which the most fastidious cow might 
smile. 

As regards the value of ensilage as a butter pro- 
ducer, sur entertainer could give no information, as 
he has not tested it in comparison with other feeds. 
He thinks if the corn was planted earlier in the sea- 
son and well cultivated, and better matured, the en- 
silege would make richer feed. Ho notified his com ■ 
mission merchant in Philadelphia that he had begun 
feeding ensilage and if objections were made to the 
butter, be should report immediately. His patrons 
have been eating the butter for several weeks, and 
eo far have not given a single squeak. 

From the silo we went to the dairy. This building 
has been gotten up at great expense. The walls are 
constructed with five compartments with sheathing 
paper between and plastered on the inside. The ceil- 
ings are the same and the floors are laid with arti- 
ficial stone. The windows are made of three or four 
sashes, flitting as closely as possible. The object in 
all this is to make the building as nearly air-tight as 
possible. 

Standing out on the hill, perhaps K05 feet from the 
dairy, is an object resembling a gigantic trumpet 
with a vane attached, so that the flaring mouth of 
the trumpet is always directed to the wind. Con- 



necting this apparatus with the dairy is a subter- 
ranean passage or air-duct. This air duct is fifteen 
feet below the surface of the ground and was tun- 
neled, part of the way, through rock. It is arched 
over with stone and a man can pass through it. As 
the temperature of the earth, at a depth of fifteen 
feet is about the same, summer and winter, the dairy 
can be supplied with cool pure air in summer through 
this duct. The proprietor considers it a success. 

The milk is set in shallow pans. Steam furnishes 
the motive power. The boiler supplies water for 
washing the dairy fixtures and steam pipes warm 
the milk room and wash and drying room. The en- 
gine cuts fodder and ensilage, runs the three large 
churns, pumps the milk up from the cellar, and 
does all that a faitliful steam engine can do to light- 
en the labor of the dairy. On the high ground in- 
the rear of Ihe buildings stands a wind engine which 
pumps water for the stock. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that the most rigid cleanliness and order are 
observed in the dairy. 

Of course, these costly appliances are out of the 
reach of the average farmer ; but Emerson says we 
should " hitch our wagon to a star." It is well to 
note the work of advanced farmers as we pass along 
and we may find something worthy of imitation 
even ina small way. 

In the meantime the dinner bell rang. Our horses 
were well cared for, and we were soon resting our 
legs under our host's mahogany. All of which goes 
to show that " hospitality is not an obsolete word " 
in Chester county. 

The essay was discussed at considerable length by 
Dr. Greene, Henry M. Engle, Jos. F. Witmer, John 
G. Resh, Wm. H. Brosius and others, some of the 
speakers professing to believe that ensilage would 
prove of great value, and others fearing that it 
would not. The discussion took a very discursive 
range. 

Insects and Agriculture. 

Dr.,C. A. Greene read an essay on the above sub- 
ject, of which we have only room for the following 
abstract : 

The gentleman prefaced his remarks by congratu- 
lating the society upon the fact that a number of the 
papers read before it had been widely copied and 
discussed in the newspapers. He then referred 
briefiy to a criticism by Dr. Rathvon of his (Dr. 
Greene's) paper, recently published in the Intelli- 
gencer, in which he stated that insect life in all its 
forms would be largely killed off by the continuous 
cold weather of this winter. To this Dr. Kathvon 
had taken exceptions, and gave instances of insects 
being taken out of solid blocks of frozen earth, 
which were not dead, and contended that insects 
were not always killed by the cold. These cases, 
Dr. Greene contended, were but exceptions to the 
general rule, and should furnish no argument 
against the truth of his statements. He was willing 
to admit that entomologists were at sea on this sub- 
ject. Tile following questions have never been satis- 
factorily answered : How great a degree of cold will 
kill insect life ? How long must insects' eggs and 
larva, etc., be frozen before life Is extinct? What 
class of insects are easiest killed by freezing? What 
variety can longest endure freezing? These ques- 
tions, he said, should long since have been answered 
by the entomologists in our agricultural college, and 
in the agricultural department at Washington. If 
Prof. Pviley had turned his attention to this matter, 
and also to the one whether the honey bee does or 
does not destroy the grape, he would have been of 
some service to the people. 

There is a degree of cold that will kill any larva, 
imago, eggs, chrysalis or insect, and our paid-for it 
entomologists, like Prof. Riley, who received over 
$.5,000 last year, should answer satisfactorily the 
above inquiries. The form of insect life that we see 
in the various forms of cocoons will resist the ac- 
tion of the cold longer and of a greater degree than 
when not similarly protected, as the silk covering is 
a non-conductor of the heat, and hence prevents its 
inmate from being easily frozen. The United States 
has arrived at the state of its condition, in its intel- 
lectual scale, as now to demand many new commis- 
sions and improvements. We need now a commis- 
sioner general, and several subordinates, one of 
agriculture, another of commerce, another of 
geology and another of entomology. Heretofore our 
progress has been hindered by not collecting valu- 
able information. 

To those who have read the entomological mis- 
carriage of Prof. Riley, in his endeavors to let the 
public believe he is the first man to bring the pyre- 
thrum before the people, let me here say that in the 
United States Agricultural Report of 1861, page 2J3, 
you will find it fully described and references show- 
ing it was known and used many years before. This 
pyrethrum (called bv many druggists in this country 
and Eurojie Persian insect powder,) is called techni- 
cally the Pyrethrum of Caucasus. It belongs to the 
chamomile family, and it is a very sure and general 
insect destroyer, and can be easily raised in this 
country. There are several varieties of the pyre- 
thrum, some of which are worthless. In the above 
volume is a very valuable essay on insects by Prof. 
Rathvon, of thirty five pages with ninety-seven illus- 
trations, printed,aB you see, twenty years ago. Now 



it is about time the government took such men into 
their employ; Prof. Rathvon has a very large store 
of valuable entomological facts which would be 
worth thousands of dollars to .the farmers of the 
United States if the United States Government 
would employ his valuable services, and pay for 
them. For two-score years and more he has been 
laboring almost for nothing. There is plenty of 
talent in our country if 'only properly brought to- 
gether. The acquired information of Hon. Marshall 
Wilder, of Boston, Dr. John Warder, of Cincinnati, 
and Judge George D. Stitzel, of Reading, Pa., on 
fruits of all kinds, should be collected and saved to 
the world. The services of Prof. Herman Stocker 
(who has, although a day laborer — a worker On 
marble— collected together 60,000 butterflies,) 
should be retained by our government. An immense 
amount of valuable information has been lost to the 
world that in the above manner could have been 
saved. A farmer can write all the experiences of a 
lifetime in a small work, and if the government 
would adopt the above suggestions, they would be of 
incalculable service to the people. Heretofore a 
gem has been here and there seen and retained, and 
thousands lost in the above manner. All inventions, 
discoveries and experiences of the mineralogist, the 
farmer and the artisan could be collated and pre- 
served. 

The expense to the government would only be a 
trifle as compared with the ultimate benefits de- 
rived. The loss every year to the farmers of the 
United States, from insects only, amounts to mil- 
lions of dollars. 

Mr. Engle regarded Dr Greene's essay as a valua- 
bleone, and especially urged farmers to test the merits 
of the Pyrethrum. 

Casper Hiller read an exhaustive essay ou the cul- 
tivation of corn. See page iO. 

The essay was discussed at great length by P. S. 
Reist, Dr. Greene, Henry M. Engle, J. C. Linville, 
Wm. H. Brosius, C. L. Hunsecker and President 
Witmer. Verily, corn is a subject that makes folks 
loquacious, whether in the hill, the shock, the crib, 
the silo, the distillery or the taverni 
Books Presented. 

I. L. Landispresented the society with two bound 
volumes of the Religious Farmer, published Id 
1S2S-9. 

Mr. Engle presented copies of the report of the 
State Board of Agriculture, report of Pennsylvania, 
Fruit Growers' society, and Agriculture of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1880. 

Seeds and Nuts Distributed. 

Dr. S. S. Rathvon presented for distribution pack- 
ages of squash seeds. 

Levi S. Reist presented about a pint of very large 
chestnuts, grown from a tree planted by himself. 
Exchange of Reports. 

On motion, Mr. Engle was authorized to make ex- 
changes of the reports of the board of agriculture 
and other Pennsylvania publications for similar re- 
ports published by other stales. 

John H. Landis stated that he had the names of 
the members of the society at the head of his list of 
those to whom he distributed state documents, and 
he would endeavor to supply all in his own district 
with the agricultural reports, and, if possible, those 
residing in the Northern district. 

A Life Membership. 

In consideration of the many valuable works pre- 
sented by John H. Landis to the society, and in ac- 
knowledirmcnt of liis untiring zeal in furthering the 
interests of f.irmers, Mr. Engle moved that Mr. 
Landis be elected a life member of the society. 

The motion was unanimously agreed to, and Mr. 
Landis briefly acknowledged the compliment. 

Adjourned. 

THE POULTRY SOCIETY. 

Discussions at the March Meeting. 

The regular monthlv meeting of the Poultry As- 
sociation was held Monday, Mal-ch ~th. The follow- 
ing members were present ; J. B. Lichty, city; C. A. 
Gast, city; .John C. Linville, Sadsbury; Wm. L. 
Hershey, Chickies; Charles E. Long, city ; John E. 
Schum, city; J. M.Johnston, city; W. A. Schoen- 
berger, city; J. W. Bruckhart, Salunga; Charles 
Lippold, city ; F. R. Diffenderffer, city ; S. G. Engle, 
.Marietta; T. Frank Buch, LitHz; J. B. tiarman, 
Leacock ; George A. Geyer, Spring Garden ; 'Squire 
Grieder, MoantviUe; Josdph F. Witmer, Paradise ; 
and J. A. Stober, Schoeueck. 

In the absence of the President, Vice President 
Geo. A). Geyer called the association to order. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were road by 
Secretary Lichty, aud approved as read. 
New Business. 

Edward Trlssler, of Lancaster ; Jacob Barnhart, ■ 
Frederick Beates and John Boots, of Lancaster ; 
Cyrus B. Neff, of Manor; A. G. .Musser, of Mariet- 
ta; J. F. Johnson, of Maytown; Dr. E. Keller, of 
Elizabethtowu ; J. S. Keudig, of Mountville ; Henry 
S. Musser, of Marietta; C. Musselman, of Witmer, 
and John H. Tyson, of Cordelia, were nominated 
and elected to membership. 



l^Sl.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



45 



Question for Discussion, 

"Are lliu Bmalk-r brci^ds of fowls more subject to 
Injury, owing to chiiuges of the wcatber, tlmii 
Asiatics." 

J. W. Brucliliart believed tlie question suliold be 
answered in tlio ailinuaiive. Small breeds iu his ex- 
perience, talie eulds sooner than the Asiatics, and 
more severely besides. Severe ehanijes in the weath- 
er at once work a great dlllerenee in egg laying. The 
Brahmas and I'lyniouth liocks. lay better iu cold 
weather than the Leghorns, which are known as 
fine layers at other seasons. 

Cbas. E. Long's experience has been the ssme as 
Mr. Bruckliart's. The larger breeds are belter pro- 
tected by feathers, and therefore less likely to take 
cold. Games, Bantams, liamburgs, and some of the 
other smaller breeds are especially liable to roup and 
climatic clianges. 

S. G. Engle has had no experience in this matter. 
The large fowls, howevei", can stand cold weather 
better. 

J. A. Stober has had experience with largo and 
■mall breeds and especially with Uambiirgs, and he 
has never had roup on his place. Ue believed lack 
of care was often the cause of disease. 

C. E. Long said his experience has been that the 
Hamburgs are more liable to roup than any other 
breed. 

J. E. Schum's experience has been that the Asi- 
atics and oifher large breeds not only lay better iu 
winter, but arc far less subject to roup than the 
small breeds. 

C. E. Long said that during the present winter 
bis bantams have not been laying at all, but the 
large breeds have been laying all the time. 

Josepli F. Wltnier said he began with Light Bral>- 
mas, got Black Spanish, then Legliorns, and his ex- 
perience has been that the Brahiuas were the best, 
and those he has continued to breed ever since. Ue 
had cholera badly among them, but the adoption of 
sanitary measures brought them through, and he 
has been pretty clear of it ever since. The light 
Brahmas have been the best layers in his experi- 
ence. 

Mr. Lluville has had no expericucc with the small 
breeds. A remarkably hardy cross is the Plymouth 
Kock and Partridge Cochins, and they are good lay- 
ers besides. They laid during the coldest weather of 
the last winter; iu fact, he got more eggs than ever 
before at the same time. A lull-blood cock bred to 
common fowls will, in his opinion, always produce a 
stronger class of birds. 

J.M.Johnston staled that he had a number of 
partridges couflned during the winter. They were 
led on wheat screenings, look plump, are fat, have 
plenty of water, and yet lately they have been dying 
rapidly. He wished to know how the mortality "was 
to be prevented. 

Charles E. Long thought good screenings and 
cracked corn would perhaps remedy the matter. 

The Stolen Pigeons. 

J. B. Lichty, as the chairman of the Executive 
Committee, reported that the sum of $3 had beeti 
agreed upon by them as the amount to be paid to 
Mr. Sebum for the stolen birds. 

Chas. E. Long said that while he voted for the 
payment of the lost pigeons, he believed it was a 
n rong precedent, and the society should put its foot 
down on such claims in the future. The society dis- 
tinctly disclaims all liability for exhibition risks and 
losses. 

J. A. Stober agreed with with the former speaker, 
and believed the society should recognize no such 
claims in the future. 

Chas. Lippold thought the society should have 
taken belter care of the exhibits, and permitted none 
to be stolen. He believed the society should make 
itself rcBponsible for such losses. 

Chas. E. Long moved that hereafter the society 
will not consider any claims for losses of this kind. 

Several other members spoke iu favor of Mr. 
Long's i-esolutlou, while several advocated the nega- 
tive side of the question. 

J. M. Johnston read the rule of the society gov- 
erning the case, and moved Mr. Long's resolution be 
laid on the table. 

On being put to vote, the resolution was carried. 

The Secretary called attention to the fact Ihat in 
defiance of the rules birds .were exhibited by persons 
whodid not own them. The thing should be frowned 
upon and stopped if possible. 

T. Frank Buch olfered a resolution which was in- 
tended to end this trouble, by means of an investiga- 
tion. 

The society adopted the resolution. 

Questions for juiscussion. 

How can we best prevent fowls from feather eat- 
ing? Referred to S. G. Engle. 

Is the rearing of fancy poultry a financial success? 
Referred to C. E. Long. 

, Will Bantams mix wilb Asiatics if allowed to run 
In the same yard ? For general discussion. 

On motion, the society adjourned. 



THE BEEKEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

A mectinj; of the bcekcopcrs of Lancaster counlv 
was held on Monday afternoon, .March 14th, in the 
parlor of the Black'llorse Hotel. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
Mr. Peter S.Kelst. The following members were 
present: Peter S. Kclst, Litlz; J. K. Horshey, .Mt. 
Joy ; Ellas Hersliey, Paradise ; John S. Uohrcr, city, 
Levi 3. Reist, Oregon. 

Peter S. Kelst reported that out of about 60 colo- 
nies, wliieh he had on the summer stand, he lost 
about Ave during the winter. He did not think any 
of lliem froze. Several starved. The last time he 
saw them they were Hying and appeared to be in 
good condilinn. He put uu a wind brake on the 
back part of the hives, but the fronts were open the 
some U9 In summer. He did not feed any during the 
winter. 

John 8. Uohrcr said he has six stands of bees ; 
wintered them on the summer stands ; he got a great 
deal of honey from them. About the llrsl of Novem- 
ber he cleaned the hives on the top, and then closed 
them up with the exception of one fourth of an 
inch. When the warm weather came his bees began 
to lly out. He thought a great many bees died during 
the winter owing to too moch surplus being left in 
the hives. He made it always an object to prevent 
swarming. As soon as a cap is full he takes it away, 
and this he thought in a measure prevented swarm- 
ing. 

Mr. J. P. Hershey went Into winter quarters with 
IVi colonies. He went into a bee house. He divided 
a great many of the swarms and had lost so far three 
small swarms. The rest are in a good condition, 
although not very strong in bees. In Febrnary he 
took them all out and found many of them to have 
young hatching bees. He then put them back again 
and tliey are in the houses now, although he expects 
to take them out as soon as the weather gets warmer. 

W. B. Detwiler, of Mt. Joy, went into the same 
style of winter quarters with 80 colonies and had 
not lost one. 

H. n. Myers, of Spring Garden, went Into winter 
quarters with 12 or 15 swarms, and they were all 
doing well. These bees were wintered in houses also. 
He found that those who went into winter quarters 
with the bees unprotected had lost a great many 
bees. 

Ellas Hershey went Into winter-quarters with 
twenty-nine swarms, nine of which died, and the 
rest are very weak. He heard from his neighbors 
that a great many of theirs had died. He lel't his 
bees on the summer stands. His father, .lacob 
Hershey, had ten stands of native, and they were all 
well and hearty. Most of his bees had died of 
dysentery or diarrhoea, not of starvation; some of 
them died of cold. 

Mr. Difienderffer, of the ^Tetc Era, called the at- 
tention of the society to the fact that the danger 
was not yet over. A great many of the hives weie 
weak, and he desired to know how they could be 
built up. 

Mr. J. F. Hershey said the proper way was to take 
all the comb" from them except just as many as 
they could conveniently cover. They should be well 
fed and carefully attended in regard to warmth. They 
should alfo be kept quiet. They should not be 
allowed to fly out very much in the spring, because 
a great many would get chilled and drop down. As 
soon as they are getting a little stronger, another 
comb should be given them, and in that way con- 
tinue until you have a full-sized colony again. 
There are a great many of what are called weak 
swarms that can be kept alive if they are attended 
to properly, whereas if left to themselves they will 
surely die. The strong swarms must also be care 
fully looked after. Everything should be kept 
clean and sweet about the hive, and the hives should 
be guarded against the cold air. 

Levi S. Reist went into winter quarters on the 
summer stands with three colonies and lost one. 
The other two are doing very well. The one that 
died had not honey enough tocarry it over the winter 
and starved. 

Adjourned to meet on the second Monday in .May. 



FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The February meeting of the club was held at the 
residence of Joseph R. Blackburn. Davis A. Brown, 
a visitor, exhibited specimens of Long Island Russet 
and Baldwin apples. 

J. K. Blackburn exhibited a package of Heiges' 
"prolific wheat" that he had received from the Agri- 
cultural Department at Washington last fall, too 
late for planting. It is said to be a hybrid of the 
Arnold and Fultz. The grain resembles the latter 
variety in shape, but is less amber-colored. As its 
name implies it is said to make a large yield. 
Asking and Answering Questions. 

S. L. Gregg : What effect will the snow and ice be 
likely to have on the w heat that is growing ? 

Isaac Bradley thought that it is doing more good 
than harm. 

Davis A. Brown did not think that the wheat 
would be hurt by the great amount of snow. 
Further north they always have a great deal of snow 
and ice, yet they generally have good wheat crops. 



Most of the others present thought that there was 
too much Ice among the snow, and that It would be 
likely to injure the wheat, especially on low ground. 

K. n. Haines liud read in an agricultural paper of 
a man hauling across a wheat field, and a cake of 
lee had formed on the road. The wheat on the road, 
Instead of being killed, proved to be better than the 
rest of the field. 

Joseph R. Blackburn asked if live stock should be 
furnished with earth or clay to lick In the winter! 

Franklin Tollinger thought that.it would be a 
good substitute for old shoes, clubs and bones that 
they often get in the habit In the habit of chewing. 

Davis A. Brown thought It would )>e well to give 
It a trial. He remembered a sick horse that the 
doctor recommended to give earth ; all that he would 
eat. 

Joseph Gricst : Will feeding wheat bran or bone 
ir.Cal to cows prevent them from chewing bones 1 

Levi B. Kirk said that they could oaen get all 
that they wanted while on pasture, but would still 

There did not appear to bo any one present who 
couhi give a satisfactory reason why cows would 
chew bones or tell what would prevent it. 
An Important Question. 

Rebecca D. King : Why are eggs so scarce this 
winter? 

Solomon Gregg said when the ground was covered 
with snow fowls require shell-maKiug material, such 

oyster shells and lime. They also need gravel to 



wheat and keep them warm and they will lay. 

Grace A. King said that one of her neighbors fed 
oats to his hens, and he always had plenty of eggs. 

Davis A. Brown said that part of his chickens 
staid at the wagon house and were fed on corn ; 
others staid about the barnyard and had access to 
the sheep pen, where they got fed on wheat Bcrceo- 
iugs. The ones at the barn are the best layers. 

F. Tollinger had always found a few warm days 
better than any kind of feed, but they will lay well 
if fed on wheat screenings and oats. 

E.H.Haines: Will the paint on carriages be Id- 
jured if they are kept over or close to a barnyard or 
stables? 

Josepli Rreist said It would injure the varolab. 
This might possibly '.le prevented by having a tight 
floor for them to stand on. 

Davis A. Brown asked for a remedy for hens eat- 
ing their eggs. 

8. L. Grecg would feed broken oyster shells. They 
do not do it in the summer time. It must be to sup- 
ply a want. Building nests so constructed that the 
egg would roll out of their reach was suggested as 
a remedv by some. 

J. R. Blackburn and Lindley King would take 
their heads off and send them to market, as there 
was danger of their learning others. 

The Host's Premises. 

After dinner the host exhibited some fine hogs and 
young cattle, and made the following report of the 
produce of his farm for the year 18*^0 ; 10 acres of 
wheat, 210 bushels ; 11 acres of corn, B.'JO bushels; 
11 acres of oats, ^<00 bushels ; 2G bushels of |K)tatoe8, 
IH bushels sweet potatoes ; pork and bacon sold, 
$141,88 ; home raised cattle sold, $207. 
Literary Exercises. 

" Don't run In debt," was recited by Carrie Black- 
burn ; •' The Pumpkin," by Whittier, was recited by 
Mabel A. Haines : an article on entertaining compa- 
ny was read by G. A. King, showing that rich and 
costly dinners do not constitute true hospitality ; 
but it is the friendly welcome, the looks and the be- 
havior that make your visitors feci that you aro 
really glad to see them. 

An article from the New York Tribunt on plow- 
ing down green crops for manure, was selected by J. 
R. Blackburn, which he read to the club. The arti- 
cle contended that the great need of the farm was 
nitrogen, and that the cheapest way to get it was 
from the atmosphere by plowing down green crops, 
and that live stock on the farm was an expensive 
necessity. 

There was no one present who had much expcri- 
ence in enriching the soil in this manner, but the 
general sentiment of those present, who expressed 
an opinion, was that the writer of the article was 
rather wild in some ofhis ideas. 

The club then adjourned to meet at the residence 
of Joseph Gricst, in Fulton township, at the usual 
lime in March. 



LINNiEAN SOCIETY- 
The society met at the hall on Saturday afternoon, 

February 20, 1S81. Oflicers in the chairs: Vice 

President Prof. J. H. Dubbs; Secretary pro tan. 

Prof. J. B. Kevlnski, and subsequently Secretary M. 

L. Davis, .M. D. 
Present, eight members and seven visitors. 
After the usual formalities the following donations 

were made to the museum and library : 
Museum. 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[Marci 



on the 2d day of February, 1S81. Donated by Geo. 
O. Hensel. For further particulars see paa;e6 17 and 
18, Vol. 13, of the Lancastee Farmer. 

The Alligator Misxixaippiensix, donated by Prof. 
Geist at the last meeting having died, the* curators 
had it preserved in alcohol and placed it in the 



Two small bottles of North and South American 
"Walking twigs" (Phasmida) in alcohol. These 
animals Belong" to the orthopterous order, which in- 
cludes the grasshoppers and crickets. 

Donations to the Library. 

Proceedings of the " American Philosophical 
society," from March to December, 1880. Nos. ti, 7, 
8 and 9, Vol. 13, of " Official Gazette of the United 
States Patent Office." Catalogue of .works on 
natural history. Lancaster Farmer for February, 
1881. Four catalogues and circulars. 
Historical. 

Three envelopes containing 40 historical and bio- 
graphical soraps. 

Papers Read. 

A short paper by S. S. Rathvon on the systematic 
position the alligator occupies in the class Reptilia, 
and its relation to other animals in the same class. 

The committee appointed to examine and make a 
specific record of the donations of the January 
meeting, and also the library, reported progress and 
are continued. 

New Members. 

Mr. Brinton and Miss S. S. Lefever were nnanl- 
mously elected active members of the society, pend- 
ing which a question arose upon the status and con- 
ditions of the dift'erent forms of membership, when, 
on motion, Messrs. liathvon, Davis and Dubbs were 
appointed a committee to examine the constitution 
and subsequent legislation on the subject, what 
changes, if any, are necessary, and report at the 
next meeting of the society. 

Under "Science Gossip" various topics were tem- 
porarily discussed and thoughts interchanged, after 
which the society adjourned. 

STATE FRUIT-GROWERS' ASSOCIA- 
TION. 

This society met in twenty-second annual session 
in the Court House, Gettysburg, on January 18 
ISSl. President Stitzel and Secretary Engle, witli 
ten or a dozen of the members, were on hand in 
good time, and they, assisted by the local committee, 
proceeded to arrange on tables provided for the pur- 
pose in the court-room, an exhibition of such fruits 
as had been brought in. The exhibits were largely 
from Adams co., but Berks, Lancaster, Cumber- 
land, York, Chester, Philadelphia, etc., contributed 
many handsome specimens also. In apples the dis- 
play was especially rich, and well worthy of the 
admiration it excited. Several new seedlings (nota- 
bly that presented by ex-Sheriff Hersh) grown in 
Adams county were received with much favor by the 
visiting fruit-growers, and at their suggestion have 
been sent to Mr. Charles Downing for examination 
and report. 

President Stitzel called the meeting to order at 3 
o'clock. H. J. Stable made a epeech of welcome, to 
which the President responded. The speeches, 
essays and discussions will be printed in the annual 
report . 

Several prominent apples. Smith's Cider, Newtowu 
and Abemarle Pippins, etc., were taken up and their 
points inquired into. Smith's Cider and Ben. Davis 
seemed to be favored more because of abundance in 



The evening train brought quite an accession of 
members, and the regular business of the meeting 
was taken up and attended to in order. 

Various committees were appointed and reports 
read, the latter showing the society to be in good 
financial and working condition. 

A number of new members were added, the annual 
fee being one dollar. 

Three sessions were held on the 19th. The elec- 
tion for officers resulted in the retention of all the 
old ones, viz : President, Hon. George D. Stitzel, 
Reading; Vice Presidents, Henry M. Engle, Mari- 
etta; Josiah Hoopes, West Chester, and Wm. P. 
Bissell, Pittsburg ; Recording Secretary, E. B. Engle, 
Marietta ; Corresponding Secretary, W. P. Brinton, 
Christiana; Treasurer, George B. Thomas, West 
Chester; Professor of Botany, Thos. Meehan, Ger- 
raantown ; Professor of Entomology, S. S. Rathvon, 
Lancaster ; and Professor of Horticultural Chemistry, 
S. B. Heiges, York. 

The committees for the year were also appointed, 
Kaphael Sherfy being at the head of that on No- 
menclature (naming fruit.) Joel V. Garretson, also 
of this county, is a member of the General Fruit 
Committee. 

The President read his Annual Address ; followed 
hy Raphael Sherry's essay on " Peach Buds and 
Peaches," received with decided expressions of favor 
on all sides of the hall, and printed in this issue of 
the Compiler. Joel V. Garretson read' an essay on 
"The Apple," J. C. Hepler on "General Fruit Cul- 



ture," Rev. Dr. Calder on "Pruning," and Prof. 
Meehan on " Farmers' Gardens." Others were read 
by the Secretary ; John I. Carter on " Tree Planting 
by Roadsides and Waste Places," and " Apple Cul- 
ture in Cumberland Valley," by Dr. Sibbett. Seve- 
ral highly interesting discussions followed the read- 
ing of essays ; and a number of prepared questions 
were reached: "Is Pennsylvania well adapted to 
Apple Culture ?" "Will the new methods of Evap- 
orating Fruits prove profltableto the Fruit Grower?" 
" What birds are trulv the Farmer's Friend ; what 
of the English Sparrow ?" "Should Rabbits be Pro- 
tected by Law?" 

lir. Satterthwait, of Montgomery county, one of 
the most extensive fruit growers in the State, pro- 
nounced unqualifiedly in favor of stable manure for 
orchard trees. The President had had excellent, if 
not the best, results from wood ashes. Opinions dif- 
fered as to the bext manure, but all agreed upon lib- 
■eral feeding, nearly all upon stirring the soil of the 
apple orchard, and all upon plowing the peach or- 

As to the birds, there seemed to be no difference 
of opinion in regard to the value of the old insectiv- 
erous kinds, the robin, blue bird, woodpecker, &c., 
but the English Sparrow came in for a good deal of 
adverse criticism, the President concluding the dis- 
cussion by declaring that there are those now living 
who will have abundant reason to regret the impor- 
tation of this bird. 

"The five best winter apples for Pennsylvania, con- 
sidering vigor of trees, productiveness, quality and 
long keeping," was voted upon, and the following 
were the favorites in the order mentioned : York 
Imperial, Smith's Cider, York Stripe, Baldwin and 
Ben Davis. The Smokehouse had many friends, but 
classed as a, fall apple, it received only a few votes. 
So with the Red Streak, Pound Apple, &c. 

The society voted to hold the next annual meeting 
at Harrisburg, and passed resolutions thanking the 
citizens of Gettysburg and vicinity for their atten- 
dance and interest. 

The society then adjourned without day, after a 
meeting that appeared pleasant and profitable to the 
membership, as it surely was to our people. It has 
served to create a new interest in frnit culture, and 
the result we think will show itself in marked im- 
provement in succeeding years. Adams county 
already has a good position among the fruit produc- 
ing sections of the Commonwealth, but the discus- 
sions of last week in our midst cannot but work out 
for it a still better name. 

The officers of the society proved themselves eiH- 
cient in every sense. Judge Stitzel presides with a 
good-natured dignity that suits the average taste, 
whilst Secretary Engle shows himself exceptionally 
well fitted for his post. 

The debates were participated in by Professor 
Meehan, Mr. Satterthwait, Dr. Calder, Mr. Woods, 
Mr. l^upp, Mr. Engle, Mr. Hoopes, Mr. Hepler, Mr. 
Brinton, Mr. Garretson, Mr. Lint, Rev. Dr. Hay, 
Rev. Joseph Sherfy, Raphael Sherfy, H. J. Stable 
and others. — Oettyxburg Compiler. 



Agriculture. 



Weight and Mi 
Mr. A. P. Owen states in the Santa Cruz county 
Courier, of California, that he spent two days recent- 
ly in gathering items from persons of intelligence 
and veracity of that county, who had taken pains to 
weigh the wheat and measure the ground from 
which it was taken, and that a good many fields 
turned out from 70 to 90 bushels t<) ih' acre, and 
two fields yielded over 100 bushels to the acre; while 
50 to 70 is 



Bone-dust and Wood-ashes. 

An Indiana farmer sends to the Practical Farmer 
the following result of experiments with bone-dust 
and wood-ashes on wheat: " I applied 600 pounds of 
dry, unleached ashes to the acre, and sowed wheat 
on that, and the result was only six bushels to the 
acre. Adjoining this tract I drilled in 200 pounds of 
bone-dust; and three acres produced 20 bushels to the 
acre, being an increased yield of 14 bushels over the 
tract sown with wood-ashes. The following year I 
used 200 pounds of bone-dust on the plat on which 
I had previously sown 600 pounds of ashes, and the 
result was forty bushels of wheat to the acre, being 
double what the bone produced alone. This experi- 
ment satisfied me that ashes alone nor bone alone 
would not give me a yield that paid to my 
satisfaction. The acre with ashes yielded six bush- 
els ; the acre with bone-dust yielded twenty bushels; 
but when the two were combined I harvested forty 
bushels. This showed what experiments and a_ small 
expenditure of money will do for the progressive 
farmer." 

Why We ShaU Never Starve. 

According to a recent compilation and comparison 
of the statistics of grain production of the country 
made by the Chicago Times, the wheat yield of 
1871 was 230,732,400 bushels, in 1S75 it wm 293,136,- 



000 and in 1880 it was 480,840,733. In the same 
period the yield of corn increased from 991.898 000 
bushels in 1871 to 1,.5.37,.535,940 bushels in 1880, the 
Western States producing the bulk of corn as well 
as wheat. The grain area of ISSO was 104,143,676 
acres, a large total, but yet 70,000,000 less than the 
single State of Texas contains. The average yield 
per acre of wheat in 1S80 was 13.3 bushels ; of corn, 
3S.9; of oats, 27.8; of barley, 25.1. The value of 
the grain products of the United States since 1871, is 
put down at $10,000,000,000. The value of last 
year's crop is divided as follows : Wheat, ?453,.5.58,- 
371 ; corn, ?i;06,6S5,37l ; other grains, $177,389,269. 
The growth of the export movement of grain has 
been constant during the decade, except in 1875 and 
1877. In the former year there was a decrease of 
18,000,000 bushels and in the latter leas than 1,000,- 
000. In 1871 the total exports of grain from all 
ports of the United States were 73,122,.398 bnshels ; 
in 1880, 289,537,974 bushels. 



Killing Canada Thistles. 
A cotemporary notices two modes of destroying 
this weed, one of which is to be a tablespoonful of 
salt on each stalk or stub, causing the plant to wilt, 
become dry and disappear by October. This is re- 
commended as better than the other mode, which is 
to cut off each plant with a knife, just below the 
surface of the ground, as one does asparagus. 
These modes may answer for very smalT patches in 
gardens, but any one may easily contrast its econo- 
my in labor on a large scale on a farm, with the 
rapid work of turning the plants under with a plow. 
We have destroyed many acres in this way, so that 
not a plant ever reappeared. A strong pair of 
horses will turn over a sod eight inches deep, and 
much lower than the knife in the hand will go ; and 
if the work is thoroughly done and no.balks left, the 
plants will stay under the inverted soil for three or 
four weeks, unless in very porous or light soil, which 
must be plowed oftener. The only failure which we 
have known with this treatment was wheie the 
plowing was imperfectly done, or so long intermitted, 
that strugglers found their way to the light and fur- 
nished a feeding to the roots below. 

Suggestions of and for the Season. 

Manure, the key to successful farming over the 
larger part of the country, demands attention. Per- 
haps in no one item of farm practice has there been 
a greater change than in that of the management of 
manure. Formerly it was thought that manure 
should only be brought to the field just as it is to be 
used. Now it is taken out when carting or sledding 
is good, and the hands and teams are not pressed 
with other work. By hauling it in winter, and 
placing it in heaps near to where it will be needed in 
spring, it gets the benefit of an extra turning, and, 
if desirable, these heaps may be again turned'before 
they are spread. Of course some forethought must 
be taken to put the manure in the most convenient 
place for the after labor of distributing it. What- 
ever else is done with manure, let it be kept in com- 
pact heaps ; to scatter over the whole barnyard that 
which should only cover an area of a few square 
yards is wicked waste. After the winter rains have 
washed out the soluble matter from the scattered 
manure (often it runs to the nearest creek), what 
remains is of little value. It would be far better 
were the manure upon the field where its washings 
would be utilized. One fact has been often repeated 
in these columns, but our correspondence shows that 
it is not everywhere understood, which is— the 
quality of the manure depends upon the quality of 
the food. The animal adds nothing to what is fed 
to it; it takes out something, but leaves the refuse, 
which it does not want, but the soil does, in an 
available form. The old adage, " out of nothing 
nothing comes," is commended to those who think 
they can make a large quantity of rich manure out 
of a little poor food. — American Agriculturist. 



Horticulture. 



If a new garden is to be made, or plants added to 
the old one, the varieties and the number of each 
should be decided upon, and the order sent to the 
nearest reliable nurseryman at once. It is best to 
select the bulk from well-tried kinds, though the 
new sorts may be indulged in somewhat. The mar- 
ket and the home table have both to be consulted in 
making the choice. If the market is a distant one, 
then firm fruit that will reach its destination in good 
order must be selected. The local market and the 
home table demand a difi'erent class of fruit. The 
claims of those having new varieties of strawberries, 
blackberries, raspberries, currants, etc., for sale are 
not to be ignored, but a good well-tested sort is not 
an uncertainty. Tnere is much work to be done in 
the fruit garden that may be preparatory to the busy 
time of spring. All such work as the getting ready 
of the trellisses and supports of grapevines, raspber- 
ries, etc., may be flone now with great advantage. For 



18S1J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



4t 



grapevines in small vineyards we prefer tlie upright 
trellis. Posts are set S feet apart ; a strip 2'^ inches 
wide is nailed on a loot from the ground and another 
at the toj) of the posts (3 or 4 feet above the lower 
one). The arms of the vines are fastened to the 
lower strip, and perpendicular wires from the upper 
to the lower strip allow each ascending shoot to lie 
securely tied. Pruning that has been neglected 
should be attended to as soon as the weather will 
allow. Grapevines should be pruned long before the 
buds begin to start ; the same holds true of the cur- 
rants and gooseberries, in which vegetation begins 
very early, hence should be among the first things 
trausplaiited.— ^mericuji AgrUulturM. 

Cultivating Orchards. 

There Is extraordinary error in supposing orchards 
cannot prosper unless the soil is cultivated, and error 
also with regard to manuring. If the orchard is in 
grass, and sheep and calves or yearling cattle graze 
It, the droppings from the animals will be sulflcieut 
to keep the land. Of course the land must be rich 
when the trees are planted or there will be little 
grass for sheep and young stock to eat, and conse- 
quently little manure from them. 

In England all the orchards are on old grass land, 
and the trees when young are protected from being 
barked by having thoru-brush tied round the stems 
with tar cording or willow withes, and sometimes a 
frame called. a "crutch" Is put round to keep the 
stock from gnawing the bark or rubbing against the 
tree. ■ 

The harm in recommending keeping orchards in 
grass is that It is not explained that the grass must 
never be allowed to grow long, but must be grazed 
close. If a nice, comlbrtable shed or two are in the 
most sheltered parts, and the animals are fed with 
nourishing food every morning and evening througli 
the autumn, the sheep and calves will, by going 
about the orchard, drop more manure than is due to 
the grass eaten, and thus enrich the earth very 
much. A good orchard near a farm house is very 
handy for keeping calves which are weanrd on skim 
milk. They are used for this purpose a good deal 
In England. 

On the Island of Jersey orchards are grazed a 
good deal with the milch cows, which have their 
heads fastened to one fore leg in a way which gives 
free action excepting to reach upward. This is where 
the trees are at full size. 

Hot Beds and Cold Frames. 

With regard to the management of these import- 
ant auxiliaries of a well regulated garden, Mr. \V. 
D. Philbrick says in the New England Farmer : 

This is the time for starting hot-beds and cold 
frames Into active service. The weather is still cold 
and windy, but in clear weather the sun has a good 
deal of power under the glass, and the dandelion 
and parsley in ihe cold frames will make conside- 
rable growth. About the middle of the month is 
the time to get ready a hot-bed for starting the seeds 
of tomatoes, cabbage and lettuce for setting out in 
the flclk ; also lettuce for heading under glass to 
come just before the field crops. 

There is no need of more than twelve inches deep 
of good hot manure to start the above named seeds. 
Too much heat is very troublesome, and makes con- 
stant watering and airing necessary. The bed, how- 
ever, should be well banked around with strawy 
manure as high as the grass to prevent the frost 
from working in at the sides in cold, windy weather. 
In bright weather the sashes on the hot beds will 
need raising a little for three or four hours everyday, 
to give air; the cold frames, however, will not need 
airing much If at all till March, and careful atten- 
tion must be giveu to covering up at night with mats 
and shutters. 

It should constantly be born in mind that the dif- 
ferent kinds of seeds need difl'erent treatment, ac- 
cording to tee hardy or tender nature of the plants. 
Thus cabbage, lettuce and radishes "are hardy and 
require only a mild heat to start them, say from 40° 
to 60°, such a heat as is to be found in an old bed 
or in a new one with only about eight inches of ma- 
nure, covered with six inches of loam. Tomato, 
pepper, egg-plant and cucumber seed being tropical, 
need a.heat of 70° to 80° to bring them up; this is 
easily obtained by twelve inches of hot manure, 
covered with four inches of loam. These tropical 
plants will require cautious airing in sharp, windy 
weather, as they easily suffer from cold. 



Work in the Orchard Now. 
At this season of the year, If not already attended 
to, in many places reached by our paper, the hus- 
bandman takes his hatchet and saw and pruning- 
knlfe and goes to his orchard to trim his fruit trees. 
It may be that as the twig is bent the tree's inclined ; 
but somehow this foresight is not always ready to 
hand, and It grows as we would not have Inclined it ; 
and often when we know better, the tree runs on in 
its own willful way, simply for want of time or occa 
eion to put in practice that which we know. Cer- 
tainly of whatever might have been, as an abstrac- 
tion, looking on things as they are, we know of but 



very few orchards that a good pruning in winter will 
not benefit. 

In a large number of cases, where the orchard is 
of some age, sprouts will oomc up from the trunk 
just under the ground, and form a complete bundle 
around It. This is the more likely to be the case 
with trees that have overbore, and have a large 
number of half-stunted branches, and also in cases 
where the borer has been working in the tree near 
the ground. Whatever obstructs the passage of the 
sap up the trunk. Induces shoots to break out from 
below in this way. Of course, we should try to help 
this by encouraging vigor in the head of the tree, so 
as to check this tendency to throw out collar-sprouts; 
but at any rate, these sprouts must come away. 
Many rest with cutting them back to the ground, 
which merely makes them push stronger the next 
year. The ground should be opened a little with 
the grubblng-hoe, and with the same Implement the 
sprouts rooted clean out. Throughout the tree these 
sprouts are often common and should be cut away, 
unless the main branches show signs of being worn 
out by disease or overbearing. In which case it is best 
U> cut these long arms away to the young vigorous 
sprout, which should thus have a chance to grow up 
and replace them. Sometimes cutting away these 
large branches leaves large scars on the trunks, and 
the old wood, weakened by disease, soon rots away, 
and leaves a hollow place for water to collect In, 
and then the hole soon gets worse. But this Is 
remedied by painting the place over. It makes no 
difference what kind of paint Is Used. Anything 
that will keep out the water from the wood will do. 
It Is because these precautions are neglected that 
people have a chance to say that cutting off large 
branches Injures trees. Nature herself often seems 
to ask for the pruning-knife. Branches often seem 
to he struggling between death and life, as if the tree 
were begging of some one to cut them off. The trees 
are always lienefited when they are. — Oer. Telegraph. 



Household Recipes. 



To Clean Ermine and Minever Skins.— Take 
apiece of soft flannel and well rub the fur with it 
against the grain; then rub again with common flour 
until clean. Shake it well, and rub again with the 
flannel till all the flour is out of It. I have had a 
minever boa four years ; it has never been cleaned 
with anything but flour, and is not in the least in- 
jured by the rubbing. It was a school companion 
who told me that her aunt (a Russian lady) always 
cleaned her white fur with flour, and that they 
looked beautiful. It has one advantage — the lining 
does not require to be taken out, and it only requires 
a little trouble. Ermine takes longer than minever ; 
the latter is very easily done. 

To Remove Ink Stains from Printing Books.— 
Procure a pennyworth of oxalic add, which dissolve 
in a small quantity of warm water ; then slightly 
wet the stain with it when it will disappear, leaving 
the leaf uninjured. 

Barlet SotTp. — Boil one pint of pearl barley In 
one quart of stock until it is reduced to a pulp, pass 
it through a sieve, and add as much more stock as 
will be required to make the puree of the consistency 
of cream; put the soup on the fire; when it boils 
stir into it (off the fire) the yolk of an egg beaten up 
with a gill of cream ; add half a pat of fresh butter, 
and serve with small slice of bread fried in butter. 

Game Soup (Clear.)— Take the remnants of any 
kind of game, not high, put them in a saucepan 
with an onion and carrot, two or three cloves, a 
small piece of mace, a bay leaf, some parsley, white 
pepper and salt to taste. Cover the whole with a 
veal or poultry stock, and set the saucepan to boil 
gently for a couple of hoilTs. Strain off the soup and 
set it to boil again, then throw in an ounce of raw 
beef or liver coarsely chopped ; let It give one boll, 
and strain the soup through a napkin. If not quite 
clear, the clarifying process must be repeated. A 
very small quantity of sherry may be put in before 
clarifying. 

Oatmeal and Beef Tea.— I find this quite useful 
to give strength to weak patients ; take two table- 
spoonfuls of fine oatmeal and make it perfectly 
smooth in two spoonfuls of cold water; pour Into 
this a pint of strong beef tea; boil It eight minutes ; 
keep stirring all the time ; it should be very smooth ; 
if lumpy pass through a sieve. 

Sauced Herrings.— Place the herrings side by 
side in a pie-dish, with slices of onion and bay leaf, 
and some salt and whole pepper; mix half and half 
of vinegar and ale, and pour as much of the mixture 
over the fish as the dish will hold. Put the dish 
into a pretty hot oven for about twenty minutes, 
taking care never to let the flsh get dry, but as they 
get soaked up pour over the remainder of the vinegar 
and ale. Serve cold. 

Entree.— Remove the tendons or gristles from a 
breast of veal (these lie at the end of the front 
bones in a breast), and place them in a stew pan 
with good white stock, one large onion, two carrots, 
a bundle of savory herbs, and the peel of half a 
lemon cut very thin, two cloves and a blade of mace. 



The stock should simply cover the tendons. Simmer 
for four hours, or until they are perfectly tender ; 
when this is the case take them out and lay them on 
a steamer before the Ore to drain and dry. Strain 
and boll the gravy to a thick glaze, arrange the 
tendons in a circle on a hot dish with a fried crust 
of bread {crouton) between each piece, and fill the 
centre of the circle with some very young boiled 
green peas. Many persons serve a puree of peas. 
Remember that the tendons are well glazed aacr 
they are dried with the glaze made from the stock 
before tbcy arc arranged to send up. This Is a very 
economical dish, as the breastof veal can be dressed 
next day In a variety of ways. 

Snow Puudino.— Pour one-half pint of cold water 
on a half box of gelatine ; after standing ten minutes, 
pour one-half pint of boiling, water, add one cup of 
sugar, and the whites of four or six eggs ; beat 
three-fourths of an hour ; place in the dish used on 
the table and put on ice to harden. Flavor the mix- 
ture with wine, or If preferred, the juice of two 
lemons, In which case add one cup of sugar. To be 
eaten with cream, or a rich boiled custard. 

Caudle.— Beat up an egg to a froth, add a wine- 
glassful of sherry and half a pint of gruel, flavor 
with lemon-peel and nutmeg and sweeten to taste. 

Fio Pudding.— Six figs chopped fine after boiling 
them, three cups of bread crumbs, one-fourth pound 
of suet, one egg, one-fourth iMJund of sugar, one 
lemon, grate the riod ; one nutmeg grated ; boil three 
hours In a tin mold or bag. 

Potato Cakkb for Brkakfast.— Save from din- 
ner a soup plate of mashed potatoes, add to It a half 
a saltspoonful of pepper, the same of nutmeg, a* lit- 
tle salt, and the yolk of an egg ; form into small 
cakes, put In a buttered baking-pan, brush the top 
with the white of egg, and brown In quick oven. 

CiioroLATF Mange.— Boll one box of gelatine In 
as little water as possible till entirely dissolved ; let 
boil one quart of milk and one quart of cream ; 
sweeten to taste ; flavor with vanllle ; also one cup- 
ful of chocolate; lastly pour In the warm gelatine 
through a strainer. Let all lioll about five minutes. 
Then pour in molds. Eat with cream. 

Fbied Herring.— These flsh abound Just now 
and are very reasonable in price. Clean them and 
scale and dry in a towel. Take a piece of letter- 
paper, rub a little hot or cold butter on it, fold a 
herring in it, salt and pepper it, and broil. Eat with 
a little lemon juice, or make a sauce with butter 
and a little vinegar. 

Omelette SoupLEE.— Six eggs, six tablespoon - 
fuls powdered sugar, juice of one lemon, one-half 
the peel grated; beat yolks and whites separately; 
add to the yolks by degrees the sugar, beat to a froth 
until thick and smooth, and the whites until stiff 
enough to cut with a knife ; stir logether lightly with 
the seasoning; pour In a buttered dish, and bake in 
a quick oven five or six minutes ; the dish should be 
warmed when it is buttered. 

Stuffed Potatoes.— Take large, fair potatoes; 
bake until soft, and cut a round piece off the top of 
each; scrape out the inside carefully, so as not to 
break the skin, and set aside the empty cases with 
the covers, mash the Inside very smoothly, working 
into it while hot some butter and cream, about half 
a teaspoonful of each for every potato; season with 
salt and pepper, with a good pinch of grated cheese 
for each; work It very soft with milk, and put into a 
saucepan to heat, stirring to prevent burning ; when 
scalding hot, stir in one well-beaten egg for six large 
potatoes ; boll up once ; fill the skins with the mix- 
ture, replacing the caps ; return them to the oven 
for three minutes ; arrange upon a napkin in a deep 
dish, the caps uppermost ; cover with a fold of the 
napkin, and cat hot; or you may omit the eggs and 
use a double quantity of cheese. 



Live Stock. 



Beef and Mutton in England. 
Notwithstanding the constant large importations 
of these from America and Australia, the English 
papers inform us that the prices not only keep well 
up there, but are likely to continue to do so. This 
Is owing mainly to the Increasing population, and 
the Increasing prOKperity in the manufacturing dis- 
tricts. .Moreover, those poor people who formerly 
got meat of a poor quality only once a week, on ac- 
count of its high price, now that abundant importa- 
tions have placed before them a superior quality at 
a lower price, can afford to have it nearly every day 
on their tables, and hence this greatly Increased con- 
sumption of meat in the United Kingdom. As to 
mutton more particularly, the liver-rot has again 
broken out among the fiocks of Great Britain, causing 
many deaths in them from the disease, and this 
again assists to keep up the price of mutton as well 
as of beef and pork. 

The Rearing of Calves. 

It may be laid down as a first proposition that a 

dairy farmer should raise at least as many heifer 



48 



TH-E LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, : 



calves as are required to fill up the vacancies that 
occur year by year in his herd of dairy cows ; and it 
is all the better if he has a few more than he wants 
for that purpose. Some people contend that three- 
year-old-in-calf heifers can be bought for less 
money than they can be raised for, counting; in the 
risk. This depends, however, entirely on the iticili- 
ties a mail has for keepinsf young cattle so as not to 
interfere with his mill; pastures. 

On all mixed farms it is commonly a simple mat- 
ter enouah to summer and winter young cattle so 
cheaply that it is better to raise them than to buy 
others for the dairy herd, and many farmers find it 
to their advantage to raise them for sale when "on 
note," or to fatten for the butcher. Judiciously car- 
ried out rearing pays very well, and heifers raised on 
the farm are commonly found more profitable to it 
ill after life as millvcrs, tlian otliers that are raised 
elsewhere and purcliasc-d. liesides which it is more 
than probable that rearing will always pay well, 
providing only that the stock is of good quality ; for 
the demand for luill; in our towns and cities is sure to 
goon increasing and their will always be a brisk 
demand for stock of good quality for grazing pur- 
poses. 

A careful breeder can but seldom buy dairy stock 
that will suit him as well as those of his own rear- 
ing. Those he buys may, pel haps, be as well bred 
as his own are in every respect, but if they are only 
as well and no better bred, they will scarcely ever 
do as well in the milk-pail as those that have been 
reared on the farm. — Farmers' Union. 

Suffering of the Cattle on the Plains. 

A Chicago Tiinea. correspondent sent out to inves- 
tigate the cfr.Ti ,,r tlir li ir.l winter on the cattle in 
the great i;r;i:-i!._ • :._■■.-. ■ :■ .i.iphs from Kansas city 
that owiim t'l ! ' > I ■ i^i' of ''the beef empire" 

iu which till- hiiiU riim,:: vill, it is almost impossi- 
ble to gain reliaDlc news. Inielligence received from 
the ranges of the North Platte river between the 
towns on that river and Sidney, Nebraska, and 
northward for 1.50 miles from the Niobrara ranges 
extending 200 miles along tlie valley of the Niobra- 
ra, and running over into Dakota from the grazing 
ground in Northeastern and Central Colrado, 
and from Northeastern New Mexico and Southwest- 
ern Kansas indicates great probable losses, while 
the greatest fears are entertained that the thickly 
populated pasture lands of Montana, Idaho and Or- 
egon may be strewn with carcasses by the time 
springs open. 

William Parton, a member of the Nebraska Legis- 
lature, from Omaha, expects to lose from .5,000 to 
7,000 of the 1.5,000 head on tlie North Platte, estima- 
ting a loss of from $100,000 to $125,000. 

J. N. McShane, another member, anticipates a loss 
of 30 per cent, in the Creighton herbs, numbering 
some 30,000 head. 

The cattle men no longer try to conceal the fact 
that, at best, the season of 1.S80 will be disastrous to 
their native interests; and, though it should turnout 
that the actual loss by death is fess than the present 
appearances indicate, it is universally conceded that 
the percentage of increase will be far below the reg- 
ular percentage. 

The cows will be so weakened by exposure and the 
approach of starvation, that they will be barren for 
a year or two longer. The estimates of loss in the 
various ranges run all the way from 10 to 75 per 
cent. 



Literary and Personal. 



Everitt's Descriptive Catalogue and Price 
List of Seeds, Seed Potatoes, &c., for 1881. A royal 
octavo pamphlet of 38 pages, on tinted covers, and 
splendidly illustrated, Wafsontown, Pa. A distin- 
guishing feature of this catalogue is its illustration 
and description of several choice and improved vari- 
eties of the potato, among which are the " Lux- 
ury,'' the "Champion of America," the "White 
Rose," an "English Variety," the "Mammoth 
Pearl," the " Magnum Bonum," &c., ifcc, of which 
Mr. E. makes a specialty. The pamphlet also con- 
tains a select list of vegetable seeds, and concise de- 
scriptions of their culture ; indeed, the historical 
and descriptive character of this catalogue indicates 
a progressive step in this department of agriculture 
which, duly appreciated, must result to the advan- 
tage of the seedsman, and the farmer. The " La 
Plume Celery," the "Lackawanna Cauliflower," and 
the " Berkshire Beauty," are very special objects of 
kitchen garden culture. On the whole, this pamph- 
let, in quality and reliable contents, is worthy of the 
special attention of our readers, and we advise them. 
In their cultivation of solanaceous weeds, to send for 
a copy of it, believing they may find something that 
will pay as well, and be a greater boon to humani- 
ty than devoting their whole attention to the culti- 
vation of tobacco. 

Uses of Forests in Lancaster County. Their 
Influence on the climate, temperature, springs and 
streams. Their protection against storms and floods. 
How forests improve the soil. The question of the 
influence of forets on the raiu-fall considered. How 



orchards have been affected. Reasons why new 
forests should be planted, and the timber belts of 
the country should be restored and preserved. An 
aaaress by S. P. Eby, Esq., Librarian of the Lancas- 
ter County Agricultnral and ITorticnUural liociely. 

This is an octavo pamphlet of 35 pages in tinted 
paper covers. In this Essay Mr. Eby does not con- 
fine himself to his own observations and experi- 
ences, but cites the most noteworthy and intelligent 
authorites on this interesting and very important 
subject ; showing a commendable zeal in his re- 
searches, and the development of a class of facts 
that are of a significance that cannot be doubted, 
although the theory may be denied. There are very 
few men, of any observation whatever, who may 
not— in an experience of fifty or sixty years — have 
noticed many times, that the trees and shrubbery, 
•in many places, have passed away, and tliat the 
character of the climate is no more what it was 
during the period of their boyhood, whatever may 
have been the cause. We think it would be much 
liarder to prove that these meteorological changes 
have not been produced by the removal of the for- 
ests, than the converse of the question. If these 
prolific coincidences have not produced these too 
evident results, then what has produced them ? The . 
efi'ect we notice almost daily, but, because they are 
so familiar to us, by lio means evinces that they can- 
not occur without a pre-existing cause. We confine 
a fox and chickens in a pen together, and daily find 
that our chickens are growing " beautifully less " in 
number; we need not hesitate to conclude that the 
fox has eaten the chickens, although we may never 
have seen the fox destroy them. We would commend 
this pamphlet to the intelligent and thinking portion 
of our readers, and especially those who till the 
soil. Perhaps they may see in it something that 
they ean corroborate by their own experience. 

Agricdlture of Pennsylvania, containing re- 
ports of the State Board of Agriculture, the State 
Agricultural Society, the State Dairymen's Asso- 
ciation, the State Fruit-Growers' Society, and the 
State Agricultural College for 1880. We are in- 
debted to our local Representative, E. G. Snyder, 
Esq., for a copy of this the most creditable volume 
ever issued by the State Government, and one that 
fairly represents the State's agricultural resources 
and progress. The work-, is a royal octavo of 6.59 
pages, printed on fine calendered paper, in clear 
type, and is embellished with 26 full page illustra- 
tions, and .86 cuts illustrative of crops, implements, 
machinery, &c., &c., including lists of oflicers and 
faculties of the different institutions ; their proceed- 
ings, and copious indexes to the whole. The most 
voluminous and elaborate is that of the State Board 
of Agriculture, the youngest and seemingly the most 
vigorous of our State agricultural organizations. It 
•isl.o be rather regretted that all the associated ener- 
gies and resources of the State cannot be consoli- 
dated in one organization. This volume also con- 
tains the lists of premiums awarded at the late 
agricultural and wool shows, held in Fairmount 
Park, in September last, including illustrations of 
some of the premium stock. Containing, as it does, 
many valuable statistics, the volume ought to be 
specially interesting to our farming population. 

Report of the Kansas State Horticultural 
Society for the year 1^79, containiu* the proceed- 
ings of its ninth semi-annual meeting, held at Beloit, 
Mitchell county, June 17, 18 and 19, and the thir- 
teenth annual meeting, held iit Holton, Jackson 
county, December 16, 17 and 18, 1879. Together 
with the proceedings of the division, county and 
local societies ; edited by the Secretary, 460 pages, 
royal octavo, with many illustrations of noxious 
insects, and as a frontispiece, a portrait of William 
M. Homsley, M. D., a veteran pioneer and worker 
in the field of horticulture. This isthe ninth volume 
of the series, and only represents the State Horticul- 
tural Society , and, like all that has recently come 
under our observation of Kansas' State publications, 
it is gotten up in the best quality of book-making 
material and composition. The work is practical, 
being the experimental knowledge of practical men, 
and cannot fail to be of practical service to horticul- 
ture, both in and out of Kansas. 

Reports op Proceedings of the International 
Dairy Fairs for the years 1878 and. 1879. Royal oc- 
tavos, respectively of 176 and 80 pages, in tinted covers 
We thankfully acknowledge the receipt of these 
excellent reports, although they seem to have been 
"long a coming." They are handsomely and ably 
gotten up, and contain much valuable information of 
a very practical character. Twelve pages are de- 
voted to "descriptions of the processes" of those to 
whom were awarded the high.est prizes for the but- 
ter and cheese they had on exhibition. This we 
deem a most ^aluahle feature of the reports, and 
one in which every new dairyman at least must feel 
an abiding interest, because it contains the experi- 
mental knowledge of the most prominent dairymen 
of the entire country, and in future numbers of the 
Farmer we shall take pleasure in laying; some of 
these before our readers. 

Gettysburg Compiler.— We are indebted to 
some considerate friend for a copy of this journal, 
containing able papers read before the State Board 



of Agriculture and the Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers' 
Society at their annual meetings held in January 
last, and we regret that we did not receive these 
papers in time" to publish them in our February 
number. En passant, the Compiler is not only a 
K«e paper", but it is also a very lively one— "chuck 
full " of good things. 

The Poultry Monthly— Published by the 
Ferris Publishing Company, at Albany, N. T., is a 
royal quarto of lie pages and tinted covers, and also 
most royally illustrated with choice specimens of 
poultry stock. It is printed in clear type and on 
finely calendered paper, and on the whole will vie 
with any publication devoted to a similar specialty 
in the country. Subscription, one dollar a year. To 
all new subscribers we will furnish the Lancaster 
Farmer and the Poultry Jlonthiy at the low price of 
one dollar and fii"ty cents a year in advance — the 
cheapest publications in the Union. 

The Poultry World, devoted exclusively to 
poultry, with 16pages quarto and 'Zl pages — includ- 
ing the tinted covers— of advertising matter, comes 
to hand with its usual budget of gallicultural lore, 
perceptibly improved, and is, apparently, the lead- 
ing poultry journal of the country. In the way of 
illustrations, nothing could excel the Black Cayuga 
Ducks, on the first page of the March number, for 
1881. The Poultry World now going into its 10th ; 
volume, may be regarded as a success and is well de- 
serving of it. Published by H. H. Stoddard, 
Hartford, Connecticut, at $1.25- per year : Chromo 
edition g2.00, including postage. 

The Fruit Recorder, and Cottage Gardener, a 
16 pagej-oyal quarto. A. M. Purdy, editor and man- 
ager, published at Rochester, N. Y., at $1.00 pec 
year. Its scope is indicated by its motto^"To till 
and keep, and of the fruit to eat, and the beautiful 
to enjoy." On the first page of the cover are fine il- 
lustrations of eight varieties of the Stra,wberry, 
natural sizes, namely: Warrm, Longfellow, Crystal 
City, Miner's Great Prolific, Glendale, Crescent 
Seedling, Cowiug's Seedling, and Windsor Chief. 
These are all new varieties. Mr. Purdy is a veteran 
editor and a practical fruit grower, and has a reli- 
able reputation, and he says, at present he knows of 
no strawberries superior to those illustrated on the 
first page of the January number of the Recorder. 
This journal evidently cares little about general ad- 
vertising, and therefore devotes the whole of its 16 
pages to the general and particular details of fruit 
growing and cottage gardening. 

The American Cultivator, devoted to Agricul- 
ture, Horticulture, Markets, News, Art, Science, and 
Home Literature. This is a large eight paged folio, 
going into its 43d volume; and therefore, not to know 
it, argues one's .''elf unknown. Published weekly, at 
$2, .50 per annum, including postage, Boston, Mass. 
Address Geo. B. James, 48 Summer street. The 
January 2Jd number of this magnificent journal 
came to hand too late to transfer a very interesting, 
marked, article to our columns, but we shall do so 
in our next number — if we don't forget it. 

The Rockdale Enterprise, published by 
Spindle, France & Milnes, Shenandoah Iron Works, 
Page county, Virginia. A new monthly folio at 
fifty cents a year, in advance. No. 1, Vol. 1 for 
February, 1881, is on our table, and is well filled 
with interestinir local and literary matter. It makes 
a very creditable appearance and is an enterprise 
worthy of success. 

The Illustrated Champion— A journal de- 
voted to agriculture, the mechanic arts, and useful ,i 
and entertaining literature, published by the I 
"Champion Machine Company," at Springfield, ■ j 
Ohio, and edited by Charles G.Rowley. This is a ^.1 
large double-foiio, splendidly illustrated, issued, 
apparently, occasionally, in the special interest of 
the company. An able and well-executed repre- 
sentative. 

The American Dairyman, and Butter, 
Cheese and Egg Reporter— A weekly record of • 
dairy interests at home and abroad. An eight-page 
royal 4to., conducted with great ability, and alive to 
all interests connected immediately or remotely with 
its specialties. Published at $1..50 a year, in advance, 
by Clark & Co., 5 and 7 Murray street. New Tork. 

Dominion Bazaar.— The Amateur's and Fan- 
cier's guide to profit, amusement, pet stock and 
home interests. Toronto, Canada. An eight-paged 
royal quarto, published monthly at $1.00 per year — 
illustrated. 

The Virginias— a mining, industrial and scien- 
tific journal ; devoted to the development of Vir- 
ginia and West Virginia. A demi-folio monthly of 
24 pages, including geological illustrations and a 
great deal of statistical information. Terms, $3.00 
a year in advance. Jed. Hotchkiss, editor and pro- 
prietor, Staunton, Virginia. A substantially bound 
volume of this journal for 18S0, with 18 extra pages 
of maps and sections, complete, with index and title 
page, will be sent by express or mail, prepaid, to 
any address in the United States for three dollars. 
This is a remarkably well gotten up paper in the 
specialties to which it is devoted, and is well worthy 
the patronage of those interested therein. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER^ 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Send for a Catalogue. 
j If you intend plantlD^'trecsof any kind tliis spring, 
write to Louis C. Lyte, Bird-in-Hand, Lancaster CO., 
Pa., and he will send you a Catalogue containing 
the different kind of trees he has on hand and for 
(•;ili-. Ilis nurseries are at Smoketown, one mile west 
of Bird-in-IIand Post Office, and six miles east of 



It 



The Lancaster Examiner. 
We desire to call the attention of tlie readers of 
the Farmek to the Daily and Weekly Eraminer. 
The Daily was enlarged over six columns on January 
1st, and Is now the largest daily published in the 
county. The weekly supplement was also enlarged 
over three columns, and the weekly is now one of 
the largest weeklies in the State. Subscribe for the 
Sxamiuer. They are both, daily and weekly, good 
family newspapers. 

J. J. H. Gregory's Seed Catalogue. 

Mr. Gregory's Catalogue (advertised In our 
eolumns) opens with several fine engravings of new 
vegetables, after which follows an immense variety 
of flower and vegetable seed, inclnding 47 kinds of 
beans, 33 of beet, "54 of cabbage and caullllower, 26 
•of corn, 28 of cucumber, 28 of lettuce, 41 of melon, 
17 of squash, 24 of tomato, 36 of turnip, &c., &c., 
all duly described. Catalogues are advertised free 
loan. It 



LIGHT BRAHMA EGGS 



Forhatchincr, now ready— from the best 



in the 



91. SO for a Hetting of 13 XSgSIS* 

9S,00 if sent by lixpress. Address 

L. RATHVON, 

Nc. 9 Norlli Quri n nt., Exnminer Onice, Lancjister, Pa. 



HOPE 1 DEAF. 

Garmore's Artificial Ear Drums 

PERFECTLY RESTOUE THE HEARiNO and 

perform tlio work of the Watnral Drniii. Always in 
position, but Invisible to otbers. All conversation 
and even whispers heard distinctly. We refer to those 
using them. Send for descriptive circular. 
Address. 04R1H0RE Jt CO.. 

Southwest Corner 5th and Race Sts.. Cincinnati, O. 



SAVED 



Sc. p«T b-isilJ" 
»n I OR Si and 
aOc.iinWllKAT 



WELL-AUGER.°e'^:i'p: 



i gnaranteedto be the 

cheapest and best in the 

world. Also nothins can beat our S.-ttVIXG »IA- 

CHINE. It sawaoffa 2-foot loa in -J minutes. 

Pictorial book* trea. W. GIL,Eji, Clucaeo, ni. 

dec-Bni] 



,# THE VICTOR 

'/fi't.-''' Double Huller 



Clover Machine 



y. 



BULBS, TLAHTS. 




paU. lOOIMiolu.. 10 
8 Lille.. 9 .ort. n.int4, »L 19 dgubla Tiil)»ro«>l, lie. 

J. LEWIS cflll.DS, Qi;i%.\S. 







OFFICE, 



Ko, 9 North Queen Sheet 



LANCASTER, PA.. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 



THE WEEKLY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



One of the largest Weekly Papers in 
the State. 



Published Every Wednesday Morning, 



le an old, well-establislied newspaper, and contains just the 
news desirable to make it an interesting and valuable 
Family New8pai)or. Tlje postage to subcribers residing 
outside of Lancaster county is paid by the publisher. 
Send for a specimen copy. 



Two Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



The Largest Daily Paper in the 
county. 



Fablisked Daily Except S inday. 



Tlie dally is' published erery evening during the week. 
It is delivered iu the City and to gurrounding Towns ac- 
cessible by railroad and d»ily stage lines, for 10 cents 
a week. 

Mall Subscription, free of postage— One month, 50 
cents; one year, ($3.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 



The job rooms of The Lanoabtkb Examinee sr< 
filled with the latest styles of presses, maleriiU, etc., and 
we are prepared to do all . kinds of Book and lob Printin 
at as low rates and ahort notice as any estabUsluneul i 
the State. 



SALE BILLS A SPECIALTY. 



With a full assortment of ne ^ outs ihat we haye JuBt 
purcUABOd, we are prepared to print the flneat aud most 
attractive sale bills in tho State. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort'i Queen St., 



SEND FOR 



J. JKSTKINS' NVRMERY, 

3-2-79 WIKONA, COLUMBIANA CO.. OHIO. 



(POOn wwU III your i.wn loWn. Terms and fi "Utflt 1 
oOOAcl.lnss H. llAi.i-icTT i Co., Porllauil. Maine. 
'^Jun-lyr* 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANDFACTIIKEUOF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

WAItltl.KN. 

COLLARS, "WHIPS, FLY NETS. <fec., 



TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

IlUl-AI.O UOBE.S, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, <fec., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 



. LOCHER. 

WHOLESALE/^w^ RETAIL 
^^DRUGGIST -^ 



CATTLE POWDER 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR, jw 
SHIRTS MAdFtO ORDEE, 

.^ND W.\i;U.\NTi:o TO HT. 



£. J. SRISMAN, 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



PHAHES \V. FRY. 

Vvholesalc and Retail Dealer in 

WftLL PAPER & WINDOW SHftOES, 

IfollaudM. piiiiii ShiKlr <'lolli. 

FixturcB, Krinije^, T.ibkcIb lunl all ,; is i ciliiininK to a 

Pap.T aii.l Sh;„l,. sr,.n-. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ArC'lM rC vVAuieD EVERYWHERBf 

AUCil I 3 I.I'UD I'AYI STKAUV KMrLOrMEM 
8EI.1.INT, THK ST.\SD.VBD AORICULTI B.Vt, BOOK, 

Farming For Profit. 

Ooroplfte Farm Library. Sure OaiJc to Succewful Farmiog. 

TELLS HOW ipn s?:;ir*.'=<.c'j'>^L';r/.'i«». 

Make Money lU SnTeTiHlrprj:"""- 

Beat Bnok for Farmers and Farmera' Bnyf. Bndortai hf 
Trading Papfr» and AbUit WriUrt a< a ThorouQktv PraeHcal 
Manual r>/ Farm Afatrs. ««»'« many tlmt* iU oott tvry tMton, 

nm rat^. 140 MlnalraUant. Han'1ioinc«t aad Rett Farm 

Boot ,wr i-ubli-.hM. Every Farmer thotUd hare a Coj-p. 
For DiJ9<?rlptlro Circular aod TcrmJ to An^al*, Adircu, 

J. C. K:CtJSDT k CO.. 632 Chestant St., Philadelphia, P*. 
Clnoiuuuti. O. Chlooffo, 111. or St. Lonla* Mo. 

j»»-it 



$72^ 




. ac<nl'ia<l<liTsi. Kendall'sNpuv- 
C-ure la lold by ItmKKlata, 

.D.J. KcQiUll * Co., Enixbiut Ftllf , Tcrmait^ 



THE -LANCASTER FARMER 



[March, 1881, 



WHERE TO BUY GOODS 
LANCASTER. 



BOOSTS AND SHOES. 



MAIt»iH Vi.I, A 

paii-iiiji [n-umplly atteii 



M. 



300KS AND STATIONERY. 



Paper Store in the Cit; 



FURNITURE. 



HEIXITSWS.No. 15'.; E.ist King St., (over China 
Hall) is the chea|i<>.st place in Lancaster to .buy 
Furniture. Picture Frames a specialty. 



CHINA AND GLASSWARE. 



HI«H A MARTI X, No. 15 East KiuR St., rtealers 
in China, Glass and tiueensware, F'ancy Goods, 
Lamps, liunicrs, Cliiinneys, etc. 



CLOTHING. 



MTBKS * KATHFOST. Centre Hall, No. 12 East 
King St. Largest Clothing House in Pennsylvania 
outside of Philadelphia 



DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 



GW. lIl'i.L. Dealer in Pure Dru^s and Medicines 
, Chemicals, P.Ucnt IMe.licines, Trusses, Shoulde 
Braces, Supporters, &e., 15 West King St., Lancaster, Pa 



JOHN F. LONG * .SON. Druggists, No. 12 North 
Queen St. Drugs, Medicines, Perfumery, Spices, 
Dye Stufi's, Etc. Prescriptions carefully compounded. 



DRY GOODS. 



C~1 1VI>KK, KOWKKS * HrKSr, No. 25 E. King 
X St.. Lancister, Pa., Dealers in Dry Goods, Carpets 
and Merchant Tailoring. Prices as low as the lowest. . 



HATS AND CAPS. 



JEWELRY AND VyATCHES. 



HZ. RHOA9>!li <& BKO., No. 4 M^est King St. 
. Watches, Clock and Slusical Boxes. Watches 
and Jewelry Manufacttired to order. 



PRINTING. 



JOHN A. HIE»i'|-ANI>, 9 North Queen St., Sale 
Bills, Circulars Posters, Cards, Invitations, Letter, 
and Bill Headsand Envelopes neatly printed. Prices low. 






M.V Annual C 


atalogne 


of 


Vpsatr 


tbic and 


Flowfi- »of«l f<> 




me 




flora pho- 


tograi'lis of the orl 


in tie, will b 




t FUEL 




apply' My old cus, 


-mers ueed 


not 


v.ite for 


it. I offer 












out l.y any seed Hon 


31- in Amnric 


, a 1 


1 ge port 


m of which 




X seed farms 


















/resh and true lo nan 










wise, I will re/ill the 


ider qratix. 


I'll 


u.lt'in:; 


iiitriidliCfr 


of the Hubbard Squa 
bages, Mexican Cor 


sh. Phiuney' 


M.- 


u„, Mi,;a 


ehfi.J Cab- 
















seed direcllii from th 


nrower, fresh, 


rtM, and 


ofthe very 













NEW VEGETABI.es A RPEriAI/rT. 

.TAMES J. H. GREGORY, 

Marbleheati, Mua 
Nov-6mo] 



EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUH: 

FREE TO ALL. 

AMERICA NDRIER COMPANY, 

Cbaoibersbnre, Pa. 

Apl-tf 



FARMING FOR PROFIT. 



highly recommended by the best affucultural wri 
and the leading papers, and is destined to have an 
tensive sale. Agents are wanted everywliere. ja 




PEAS, 



The earliest Peas grown. 

American Wonder Peas, 

New variety, very fine. 

CRYSTAL WAX BEANS, 

BLOOIISDALE EARLY M.\RKET CABBAGE, 

Large size, early yipening. 

BLOOMSDALE LATE FLAT DUTCH CABBAGE, 

The finest in the world. 

Gourd Seed Corn, Prize Stock, Recleaned Clo- 

and Timothy and other Grass Seeds. 

Cooly Creamer, Csok Tree Protector, 

VEGETABLE ROOT CUTTER, 

Cahoon's Broad Cast Seed Sower, 
SPAIN'S PATENT CHURNS, 
Davis' Swing C'uro, Lilly'.s Butter Worker, Reid'8 But- 
ter Worker, Hav and Fodder Cutter, CornSheller, 
Little Giant i orn and Cob Mills, Corn 
Mid Hand and Power. 

retlj's Rural Register &Alraa!5ac for '81 

In English and German — Free. 

D. LANDKETH & SONS, 

21 & 23 Sonth Sixth St., 
PHILADELPHIA. 



Laijd 



Ready-Made Clothing 

BELOW COST. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

Are Selling off their entire stock of 

ftEADY-Mi^DE CLOTI^ING, 

BELOW COST. 

ALSO, FURNISHING GOODS, 

OF THE LATEST STYLES BELOW COST. 

CLOTHING MADE TO ORDER 

lu the prevailing BtyleB and at medium prices. 

Corner N. Queen and Orange Stree ts 
LANCASTER, PA. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

MERCHANT TAILOR?. 



GERMANTOWN TELEGRAPH, 

Which ie generally acknowledged to be the best Literary, 
Farming and Agricultural Newsnapera in Pennsylvania, la 
issued weekly at Germantown, 'Philadelphia, at $2.50 per 
annum. It will commence its Slat volume with the lirst 
Dumber in March, proximo, being established and conduct- 
ed by its pretent editor and proprietor. No family giving 
it a trial for a year would be willing to do without it at 
double the Bubscrlption, Address 

PHILIP It. FREAS, 

Germantown, Phila. 



MddreeB Stiksoh <t Co., Portland, Maine. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoied to Agmulture, Horticulture, Do- 
• mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas, 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONEDOLLpPERANNUlf, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PR0P8IET0R. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S. S. RathTon, who has bo ably managed the editorial 

department in the past, wiU continue in the position of 
editor. His contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thorouhly a master — entomological science— i 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the sue 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He Is determined to make *'The Farmer' 
a necessity to all households, 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster 
county for its agricultural products should certainly be 
able to support an agriculturaj paper of its own, for tb© 
exchange of the opinions of farmers Interested In this 
oter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers in„ereated in 
this matter. Work among yoxir friends. The "Fanner" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly asyist us. 

All communications In regard to the editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters- in regard to subscriptions and ad- , 
vert ising should be addressed to the publisher. Eatee of 
adveitising can be had on appUcation at the office. 

JOHN A HIESTAND, , 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa, ''. 



ONE DOLLAR PEE ANNUM -SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S. SATHVOH, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. APRIL, 1881. 



-CKN A. EIESTAND, Pablislier. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 

Ensilage, - - - 

That's'what All Should be Doing, 
A Grape Discussion, ..---. 
A Claim tlmi the Hudson ami Prciittesiire Ideiit 

ScicntiSc ConjuijaUon of the Alligator, - 
The Magum Boiuim, . - - . . 
Hot Water for Insects, . - . , . 
The Seventeen-Year Cicada, - . - - 

F.vlsely Ciilleit "Seveiiteen-Year Locust." 
Venuor's Latest Weather Prediction, 

QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 

Reply to W. 11. S 

The "Sack- Worm," 



ESSAYS. 
How we arc Poisoned, - . . . - 

Pruning Trees, 

SELECTIONS. 
Arrareek Farm, ---... 

The New Method of Feeding Cattle. 
Tobacco Culture, No. L', - - - - - 
Open Air Beds Preferable— Care of the .Seed 
Bed— f'anvas-Covered Beds— Insect Pesta — 
How to Kill Them— Grow EiiouBh of Plants. 
The Uses of Lime in Farming, - 
Tree Trimming, - . . . - 
About Orchard Grass, 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultu 
ral Society, - - . - - . 
Crop Report,-)— Iron I*>rites as a Fertilizer— The 
Colopa Spisiosu— Bueiiiesa for Next Meeting. 
March Meeting of Fulton Farmers, - 

Question— Discua.*»ion. 
April Meeting of Fulton Farmers, - - . 
Questions .\»ked and Answered- Entertained 
the HoMt^Papera Kejui — An Interesting Essay- 
Literary. 
The LinnssaD Society, - - - . 



AGRICULTURE. 
About Limestone and Lime as Fertilizers, 

Green Manuring, 

The Management of Liquid Fertilizers, - 
Cornstalks as Maniue, . . . . 

Cabbage, ------ 

HORTICULTURE. 
The Cow Pea, ---..- 
The Pomeffranate, - . . . 
To Cut Sods, -.-... 
A Difficulty with Shrubberies, - 
Onions, ------- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 
Butter Salt, 



Fading, 



Take Care of the Matches, - 

Drying Potatoes, 

Know How to Cook a Turnip, 

Sand Bag in a Sick Room, 

How to Wash Clothes Withou' 

Chocolate, - - - - - - - 

To Remove Glass Stoppers, - - - - 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES 

Fig Padding, 

Whip Sauce for Above, . - - . - 
Horseradish Sauce, ------ 

Kedgeree, - ' - 

Rice au Jus, ------- 

Stuffed Potatoes, 

Veal with Temato Sauce, - - - - 

Beef Tea lor Children, - - - - 

Oeufs a I'Orauge, ------ 

Mayoimaise Dressing for Salad, 
Pish-Pash of Mutton, - - - 
.Mayonnaise of Fish, - . . - - 
Danish Pudding, ------- 

Snow Pudding, ------ 

Clam Chowder, ------- 

Crow's Nest, -..-.. 

Potted .Meat, ------- 

Poor Man's Sweet Cake, _ - 
Potato Salad, - - - - 

To Remove Ink Stains from Printed Bonks, 
Baked Corn Meal Puddinir, - - - - 

California Pudding, - 

LIVE STOCK. 
Attention to Swine, - . . - . 
Hereford Cattle, - - • 
WhyCatt.le and other Stock Die toward Spring, 
Literary and Personal, - ' - 



HENDERSON'S 

COMBINED CATALOGUE OP 



SEEDS 
PLANTS 



be Jlailed Free to all wM apply by 
Ltltcr. 

Our Experimental Gronndn In 
I whlrh v*-e test our Vccetablo and I 
I Flower Sccdii are niost com nietc; 
land our GreenhouRei* for Plants 
■ (covering 3 acres In glass), are I 
ItUolarj^est lu America. 

IPETER HENDERSON & CO. 

35 Cortlandt Street, New York. 



WELL-AUGER.r:::: 




Dlsaeminiiior <»r Hh^ ManLmoth Pearl and 
Magnixm Bonum Potatoes {'iJ)^ l>n. jrrown 
from 1 lb. of eeeil), Berkshire Beauty Cab- 
bage, Amber Cream S-«reet Corn. L.a 



NCHOLS.SHEPARD&CO 



VIBRATOR 



THRESHERS, 

Traction and Plain Engines 

and Horse-Powers. 

Mo«t Complt tc Thresher Factorr J Established 

Iji Uie World. i I84S 

rf"l ICflnOnr.<. without <haii«e of rniue. 




^Formers and Tbresbcrnen are InTlted u 
niTWtliratn this mauht'-i. ThnjihlDf Ma/Jllnorj-. 
tarculam sent free Addnsa 

NICHOLS. 8HEPARD « CO. 

Battte Cre^k, Mlohhcarf 



THE LANCASTER FARM'ER. 



^VASrlA KAII.ROAD SCWEDCI.E. 



PE the Dep*>t '" tbis city, as, follows : 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific Exyress" 

Way Passeiigeit 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Afcommodatiou.. 

MaU tralu via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Accommodation . 

Harrisburg Accom 

Coltunbia Accommodation., 

Harrisburg Es])ress 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express' 

EASTWARD. 



Colambiii A 
PaciHc Ex) 
Sunday Mu 



11:00 a. I 
11:05 p. 1 
10:20 a. I 
11.25 a. I 
10:50 a. I 
2;30p. I 
2:Kp.l 
6:t5p. I 
7:20 p. 1 
7:.30p.i 
8:50 p. I 
11:30 p. 1 



«:05 a. m. 
9.10 p. m. 
:46 p. m. 
2:00 p. m. 
3:05 p m. 
5:35 p. m. 
6:25 p.m. 



11:20 a. m. 

Col. ll>:40 a. 

12:40 II. m. 



Accommodation, west, 



9:36 



The Hano 
with Niagara Ex 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter jrith Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs to Frederick 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at M-'ldletown, Eiizabethtowu, Mount .Toy and Laudis- 
ville. 

•The only trains which run dally. 

tKuns daily, except Monday. 



NORBECK & MILEY, 




EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS. 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing utrictly attended lo. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



AT LOWEST I»«S!SIBI.,F, 1>RH'ES. 



No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 



fTBEES 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trec-B raised in this county and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to j^^^ jg ^ LYTE , 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.. Pa. 

Nursery at Smoketowu, six miles east "f Lancaster. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 

W.4ltKROOM!>i: 

102 East King St., Oor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Special Inducements at the 
NEW FURNITURE STORE 

W. A. HEINITSH, 



I«^o. XS X-2 -Ei. ItlHirG- SI 

(over Bursk's Grocery Store), Lancaster, Fa. 
A general assornuent ot furniture of all kinds constantly 
on hand. Don't forget the number. 
15 X-a Xlj^st XSIxxxs £itx-eet, 

Nov-ly] (over Bursk's Giocery Store.) 



For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, < 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST., > 



PRACTICAL 



Iwm Builders 



cox & (lO'S OLD ST.l^ft, 

Co[ne[ of Ouke and \m Stieets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHyETONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 

Prices to Suit the Times. 

REPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 

guaranteed. 

79-2- _^_^_______ 

s. :o. Go:sL, 

Manufaclurer ot 

C images, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

GHURGH ST„ NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA, 




G. SENER &SONS, 

M.uiufai.tureiE and dealeis u all k n Is f r u„h ar 1 
finished 

i.x7IMIB]e:ii, 

The best Sawed SHlSifil.ES in the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds. Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YAIJD ; 

Northeast Corner of Priuce and Walnut-sts., 

XjANCA-sxkr, pa. 



No 309 

(Opposite Northern JLaket), 



Also, -all kinds of pictu 



GREAT BARGAINS. 

A large 8 1 1 eat of all kinds of Carpets are still sold at 

CARPET 'Fall orH" s. shirk, 

No. 202 West. King St. 

Call ud ex nine our stock and satisfy yourself that we 
eai sho \ the largest assortment of these Brussels, three 
ll sand ingialnat all prices— at the lowest Philadelphia 

^"^Aho oa hand a large and complete assortment of Eag 

^"'t^'sl ctiou guaranteed bath as to price and quality. 

1 D 1 iL lUMted to call and see my goods. No trouble in 
sno V ug them even if yon do not want to purchase. 

Til, II t to Let this notice. You can save money here it you 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 

38 and 40 West King Street. 

We keep on hand of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COTE^LET|,^^p^^^^^p^^^ 

Bureau and Tidy Covers, Ladies' Fumishing Goods, No- 
""partfcuiar attention paid to customer Kag Carpet, and 
eg and dyeing of all kinds. 

PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO., 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 
NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

and the best remedies tor their expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 
This work wiU be Highly Illustrated, and will be put in 
press ^alsoorTfter a snftfcieut number of subscribers can 
be obtainedTo cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 
79-2- 



<hM.'[^ a month and expenses KU 
$_7 7 Outfit free. SHAW & CC 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures bv alisorptiou nitliont luedkinc. 

N'^■ia the time io -ipl'lv these remedies. They will do 
u vl It nothiug els- on earth can. Hundreds of citi- 
is of.Lancuster s.y so. (Jet the yenuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 



C. R. KLINE, 
yVlTOI^NEY-AT-^AW, 

OFFICE: 15 NORTH DUKE STREET, 

Nov-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1881. 



Vol. 2m. No. 4. 



ENSILAGE. 

The nttcMitii>ii of fanners and all who are 
interi'stcil in the feeding of stock, is called to 
the reiiuukiiliie artiele headed " Arrareek 
Fann,"coi)iod fri)m|tho last nuinb(T of "Har- 
per's Weekly "' into the present issue of the 
Farmkr. Ilow far the extremely favorable 
result of the new method of stock feeding 
there detailed is capable of being-realized by 
farmers generally who may pursue this plan 
we will not inidertakc to say, but the subject 
is certainly deserving of 1he"ir earnest consid- 
eration. 

THAT'S WHAT ALL SHOULD BE DO- 
ING. 

Wbat ? Why, lookins| after the noxious in- 
sects before they deposit their first "batch" 
of eggs. Every "now and theu " some cor- 
respondent senis us either the eggs, the larvfe, 
the pupa, the nest, the cocoon, or the imago 
of insects, and desires to know what they are, 
whether they are noxious, and how to destroy 
them. Only a few days ago a gentleman in 
South Queen street stated that one day last 
winter he kicked over a small heap of sawdust, 
.and found in it about 300 "Lady-birds," and 
although the thermometer was four degrees 
below zero tlicy were all alive, or revived 
shortly after they were placed in a warm 
room. This don't look much like insects 
being killed by freezing. Tru6, many of the 
Lady-birds are innoxious, but our informant 
did not know to which class these Lady-birds 
belongetl, but judging from his description,we 
do not know Init tnat they were of the nox- 
ious kinds, for on one occasion we took about 
five' hundred specimens from under a piece of 
bark-on an old cherry-tree, little more than a 
foot square, in the month of March, ■which 
proved to bo the great "Northern Lady-bird," 
(Epliackna horealis) which is exceedingly inju- 
rious to melon and pumpkin vines. We 
would advise people to kill them off, noxious 
or innoxious, unless they positively know to 
what tribe they belong, looking for their com- 
pensation in the fact, that if their insect ene- 
mies are destroyed, they will not need the as- 
sistance of their insect friends. Do not place 
any dependence in the " probability " that 
insects are very materially injured by the in- 
tervention of a cold winter. In exceptional 
cases some of them may be,but all other things 
being equal, they will pass the winter intact, 
no matter how cold it is. We have had many 
cold winters during the past fifty years, and 
yet, somehow, the succeeding summers, in- 
sects have l^een as prolific as ever. Most of 
the insects that survive the winter are fertil- 
ized females, and if ten of these are destroyed 
in early spring, it may prevent hundreds later 
in the season. 

Kill them off! kill them off I That's what 
every farmer and his boys should be doing 
now. Give no heed to the fallacious doctrine 
that the survival of insects of a cold winter is 
only exceptional, or that only those survive that 
are protected by a cocoon. Cutworms and 
potato beetles are not thus protected, and yet 
they resist an intense degree of cold, and those 
that pass the winter in the egg state are still 
more invulnerable to cold. Before the trees 
and shrubs are olothed in their leafy sheen, 
the cocoons and follicles inclosing ehrysalids 
or eggs may be plainly seen, and these should 
now be removed, if they have not been remov- 
ed at an earlier period. Examine the black- 
berry and raspberry canes, the currant and 
gooseberry bushes, the gr.ape vines and the 
pea<'h, apple, and pear twigs, and see wheth- 
er they have insects eggs'on them, or in them, 
and if so cut them off and destroy them. 
Only a few days ago we received some apple 
twigs from Etarrisburg that contained the 



punctures of the " Snowy Tree Cricket," an 
insect that is rapidly multiplying and becom- 
ing injurious to the tobacco plant. Although 
these twigs had .been punctured two summers 
ago, and the young insects had made their es- 
cape from them nearly a year ago, yet the 
same thing may have been done to other twigs 
last season, and these will hatch out the pres- 
ent season it they are not destroyed. These 
eggs are not affected by cold, no matter how 
intense it is, provided fliev are not immersed 
in cold freezing water too long. Many of the 
twigs perforated by these insects die and break 
off at the point of puncture, but it is not for the 
damage they do to the trees on which they are 
found that they are particularly objectionable, 
but for the damage the mature insects do to 
other crops, and especially the tobacco and 
the green grapes. The clustei-s of eggs or of 
the young larvae of the spring wcb-worms may 
also be now seen in the forks of the branches, 
and the bracelet of eggs around the branches, 
of the "American Lackey moths, " and the 
cocoons and eggs of the " American Vapor 
Moths " on the outside of them, should all be 
destroyed this month if it was not done last 
month— kill them off I kill them off!! 



A GRAPE DISCUSSION. 

The Kingston Journal a)wl Weckh/ Freeman, 
N. Y., come to us with a conspicuously 
marked article on the subject of Vitiue iden- 
tity, through which it is alleged that the 
Hudson and the Prentiss are one and the same 
variety, although they are offered to the pub- 
lic as different varieties. Perhaps, in the 
multiplicity of varieties in the different kinds 
of fruit, it is not at all astonishing that there 
should be two claimants to the same variety 
under different names ; and when such is the 
case it may be of some importance to the pub- 
lic to know exactly upon what foundation 
those claims rest. If both of the claimed va- 
rieties are equally meritorious, the public can 
run no risk in patronizing either of them, or 
both of them, at the same time it cannot be 
considered honorable for one man to propa- 
gate and vend as his own, under anew name, 
a variety that has been the discovery or origi- 
nation of some other man. When each party 
with equal zeal claims that he is right and his 
competitior is wrong, and each with equal 
persistence proceeds to place his goods on the 
market, it would seem expedient that those 
who are expected to patronize them should 
have some knowledge of the premises they re- 
spectively occupy ; and it is solely with this 
view that we place the argument "before our 
readers, so far as it has been brought to our 
notice ; and not for the purpose of becoming 
the special champion of either. We prefer 
to let the parties in the controversy speak for 
themselves; and with this view we adduce the 
following from the journal above named, 
which, .although snfflciently plausible, is still 
only exparte testimony. Those of our readers 
who are practical grape-growers themselves, 
and are well posted in such matters, will 
know exactly what use to make of it ; and 
also whether either of the claimed varieties 
has any merits worthy of their special con- 
sideration. In 187(5, Dr. Staman, of Kan.sas, 
had enumerated over 1500 varieties of apples. 
It would not be surprising if some of these 
were identical with others of a different 
name. 



Editor Freeman : Having waited for 
nearly six monthes for the proprietors of the 
Prenti.«3 grape to refute my suspicions that 
the Hudson and the Prentiss are the same, 
and being pressed from all quarters to explain, 



receiving letters from the owners of the Pren- 
tiss teeming with billingsgate, and threatened 
the last letter one month ago that it the state- 
ments made before our society in regard to 
the identity of the twograpes in question were 
not recanted in one week, he would publish 
me in our local papers and the leiuling agri- 
cultural journals of the country. As there 
lurs been no light thrown on this mystery 
since it began, and in which thousands of 
people are pecuniarily interested, I feel that it 
is a duty to myself and especially to the coun- 
try to give the facts as I have them, and in 
doing so this paper will be necessarily 
lengtliy, as it is a transaction of long dura- 
tion. 

The Hudson is a Rebecca seedling, no at- 
tempt at crossing having been made. While 
in fruit a company of veteran fruit-growers 
and i)omologists from the Newburg Bay Hor- 
ticultural Society were invited to visit it at 
Poughkeepsie. After examining it for an hour 
or more they consulted privately, and their 
unanimous advice was to "spend no money on 
the Hudson " in the way of propagating, as it 
could never prove valuable, and the following 
are among the re;isous they gave: First, that 
it was a seedling of the Rebecca, which is half 
foreign and tender. Second, the vine was a 
poor grower and the leaves likely to mildew. 
Third, cluster too small, skin thi -k and bitter 
and quite foxy, and that in advertising, a cut 
of a single cluster would be too small to ap- 
pear at good advantage, and in \new of the 
superiority of the Rebecca, they would plant 
it in preference. 

I then put it out for testing in the hands of 
about sixty gimtlemen, scattered through 
many of the states, but the greater portion m 
central New York; the largest number in one 
locality was on Crooked Lake, and on the 
west shore in the Pultney neighborhood there 
were three, two of which were J. W. Pren- 
tiss and E. Roff, who had a Hudson and 
Dutchess vine. 

All who have received my new fruits for 
testing have signed an article binding them 
not propagate or sell them or allow others to 
do so until two years after our first general 
sale. We have not yet sold a vine of the 
Hudson. 

There has been two or three cases where I 
have had reason to complain among all this 
great number who are testing our new fruits. 
The first we heard of the matter in question, 
I was written from Western New Ywrk last 
spring, that a company of gentlemen had ob- 
tained specimens of the Prentiss and Hudson, 
and after close examination h.ad pronounced 
them identical; this was reiterated from sev- 
eral other localities during the summer. I 
holding the Hudson in abey.anee for reason- 
above named, and at the same time seeing so 
many encomiums of the Prentiss, and kmw- 
ing it involved a question of general interest 
throughout the country, I concluded not to 
be hasty in any correction I might make. On 
my return from the state fair Last fall on the 
second day of our local exhibition at Marl- 
iKirough, on looking over our collection of 
grapes I inquired of ray sons why they had 
two plates of Hudson onjthe table, they replied 
that "one of them was Prentiss," which had 
been placed near our collection. Their one- 
ness in appearance brought to mind the state- 
ments made from the West during the previ- 
ous spring and sumtuer. The two plates 
were examined by many persons during the 
day. We afterward laid tlie Prentiss and 
the Hudson before some of the most experi- 
enced grape growers in this and other .sections 
of the country. " No difference " w;i8 the 
universal answer. 

The owner of the Prentiss sent a gentle- 
man iu western New York a specimen of the 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



fruit and foliage, both of which were tested 
with the Hudson growing on his farm, and he 
pronounced them one variety and so informed 
the owner of the Prentiss. The same grapes 
were then examined by several old growers 
(one of them the most distinguished horticul- 
turist in central New York), none of whom 
could distinguish them. A grape-grower and 
agent for the Prentiss living in Cliutondale, 
Ulster county, was invited to visit an old 
Hndson vine growing near and take with him 
some fruit of the Preiitiss. He did so, and 
in company with several parties compared 
them minutely, in cluster, skin, flesh and 
seeds, and unhesitatingly declared them one 
variety, and stated he would so report at 
headquarters, 

There are more of these instances, but 
they are too numerous to be mentioned here. 
After I had reason to believe that the Hudson 
and Prentiss were one variety, I asked the 
owner of the Prentiss by letter if he thought 
it honorable to propagate and sell a new va- 
riety of grape belonging to another, who 
thou4!;ht his seedlings safe in the hands of 
parties where he had placed it for testing, and 
told him since he had got so far with it if he 
would pay me S500 I would turn the whole 
stock of the Hudson over to him. His an- 
swer was one of the letters spoken of above. 
I then answered that I should give the true 
character of the Hudson to the country, and 
sell it for what it is worth. His answer was 
another of the letters previously named. 
Finding correspondence unavailing, a third 
party, to whom the Prentiss interest is behold- 
en, through his desire for peace, consented to 
propose the following to the owner of the 
Prentiss: " t to turn over to him the whole 
stock of the Hudson now, and disinterested 
parties to be chosen in any section of the 
country, and a vine of the Hudson and Pren- 
tiss be placed in their hands to be planted to- 
gether, after three or four years, or when the 
vines were sufficiently established, and found 
to not differ in any particular the owner of 
the Prentiss to pay me $500, but if found to 
differ in the slightest degree I to have nothing 
and he to keep the whole stock of the Hnd- 
son;" his answer to this was that he would do 
nothing of the kind.— ^. /. Cnywood & Son, 
■Marlborough, iV. T., March 15, 1880. 

SCIENTIFIC CONJUGATION OF THE 
ALLIGATOR. 

Class Reptilia. 

Order 1. CAeJoraJa— "Turtles." 
^/" 3. Loricata — "Crocodiles." 
,'' " 3. Sanria — "Lizards. 
,''' " 4. OpAidia— "Serpents. 

,'.'' " 5. Jiatrachia — "Frogs, Toads," &c. 

Order 2 Loricata. 

Family 1. Crocadiladce. 

Genus 1. Oroeodilut. 
" 2. Oavialis. 
_,^— •-" " 3. Alligator. 
^^— '-'''' . " *• Oairnanus. 

^^.-'-'''' " 5. Jacare. 

-^— '"" SenmS. Alligator. 

Species 1. Mississippiensis. 
There is but a single species belonging to 
the restricted genus AUigutor (A Mississippi- 
ensis) and that is confined to the gulf-sates 
of North America. They are a middle genus 
in the family to which they belong, but are 
nearer allied to the Caimans and Jacares of 
South America, than they are to the Croco- 
diles and Gavials of Asia and Africa. Croco- 
dilics mlfjarus is the sacred reptile of the 
Egyptians, and Oavialis gangetica, is the sa- 
cred crocodile of the Ganges. 

The most prominent distinctions between 
the crocodiles and the alligators are in the 
shape of the head and in the dental system. 
In the former the muzzle is long and narrow, 
whilst in the latter it is shorter" and broader. 
Their habits are very similar and they both 
attain to a very large* size. Alligators have 
been known to attain a langth of twenty feet, 
and crocodiles as much as thirty feet in length. 
The skin of the alligator, when properly 
tanned, is said to make good belting and 
boots. If this can be profitably realized they 
are bv no means a useless creation. 



[April, 



THE MAGNUM BONUM. 

There is no resemblance between this pota- 
to and the English variety of the same name. 

This new potato was origiuated in New 
York. In 1878 the originator had accumulat- 
ed enough to plant 27 rods of ground, and 
from the same raised 102 bushels; and the next 
year he raised 548 bushels from one measured 
acre of ground, without any manure whatever 
and they matured and were dug two months 
and five days after planting, many of the tu- 
bers weighing from three to four pounds apiece. 
In the right situation they will certainly yield 
tremendously, although they may not always 
realize the originator's success, as above de- 
scribed; but as an early potato, probably no 
other variety equals it. 



HOT WATER FOR INSECTS. 

"According to the editor of the Gardener's 
Monthly,, it has been found th-at water heated 
to 130O is fatal to all insects that infest plants 
even though exposed to it but for an instant! 
while the immersion of a plant for an instant 
in water of that temperature does not injure 
the plant in the least, unless the leaves are 
very tender from having been grown in the 
shade. But even thenlhey do not suffer at 
120-^, while the insects seem to be destroyed 
at about 100° or 110° ; so in gardening prac- 
tice the rule is to recommend the water to be 
heated to 120°. The practice generally is to 
turn the plant upside down and dip the plant, 
but not the pot, for an instant only, in hot 



-A 




The Magnum Bonum is a seedling of the 
" I'each-Blow, " and somewhat resembles that 
once valuable variety in its general form and 
appearance. They are very early, even in 
size, free from all disease, the very best keep- 
ers, and do equally well planted early or late. 
One eye produces only one stalk with many 
branches, which stand up firmly like a tree, 
and protect the hills from the hot rays of the 
sun, and cause them to get full benefit of the 
little summer rains, bv conducting the water 
down to the roots. Each stalk produces four or 
five potatoes weighing from one half to three 
pounds each. They are nearly round or a little 
flattened, sklu, russet white, small pink eyes, 
slightly sunken, flesh white and nutty, and 
when boiled or baked are nearly white as snow: 
good as the Early-Kose ever was and will 
keep well into June for table use. Tho origi- 
nator says they should be planted three feet 
apart between the rows, and ten or eleven 
inches apart in the rows. Put two pieces 
of one eye each in a hill. If planted 
on rich manured land, and a fair season, 
many will grow to weigh four pounds each. 
Awards of $100, in premiums, have been won 
by the Magnum Bonum, for the largest yield 
of potatoes from one pound of seed, under 
the supervision of legally qualified commit- 
tees. 1665 pounds, or 27J bushels, have been 
grown from one pound of seed. 

Of course, it is to be understood that such 
extraordinary results are the efi"ects of extra- 
ordinary causes, and these causes are greatly 
assisted by favorable seasons and skillful cul- 
ture. Perhaps we don't need 1665 pounds of 
tubers from every pound of seed that is plant- 
ed, any more than we do a fully matured fish 
from every roe that is spawned, but we do 
need a remunerating crop, a good quality, and 
an early maturity, and tliese may reasonably 
be realized in. the Magnum Bonum ; and if so, 
Where's the use in spending time and toil in 
cultivating the miserable roots that still find 
their way into our markets. For further par- 
ticulars see the Everitt's Catalogue for 1881, 
Watsonstown, Northumberland co.,Pa. 



Subscribe for the Farmer. 



water. In use the water has to be carefully 
tested by a thermometer." 

The foregoing is practically what we have 
long since recommended in the treatment of 
tobacco beds, and what has also been recom- 
mended by an essayist on tobacco culture, 
published in the March number of the Lancas- 
ter Farmer. Not only in relation to tobacco 
beds, but also beds or cold-frames in which 
any kind of early spring vegetation is intended 
to be started.' Although insect vitality may 
resist an intense degree of cold, yet it invar, 
iably succumbs to an intense degree of heats 
as we have practically demonstrated hundred- 
of times. The saturation of the soil of cold- 
frames, or tobacco beds with "scalding' 
water," two or three times before the seeds 
are sown will be an efleotual extinguisher of 
all insects, insect eggs or insect pup?B that 
may be in the soil at the time such scalding is 
done ; but, of course, it can have no influence 
beyond the limits of the beds or frames. Still, 
if those insects that are evolved beyond that 
limit, cannot have access to the insides of the 
beds or frames, it will be so much gained for 
the young plants in their salvation from the 
"bugs." Some years ago the tobacco beds 
were infested by a small species of centipede, 
or rather a Polydesmus, belonging to a group 
oiMyriapods between the Centipedes and 3Iilli- 
X>edes. We at that time recommended drench- 
ing the soil with hot water before the seeds 
were sown, but we believe that water can be 
so tempered as to kill the insects, and yet not 
injure the plants after they have grown. Ex- 
perience has demonstrated that plants will 
resist a heat of 120° with impunity, and in- 
sects have succumbed at 100, or at least at 
110. We have always regarded heat as the 
quickest, cheapest, and most effectual means 
of killing insects when we collected them for 
scientific purposes. Of course, on a collecting 
tour it would be inconvenient to carry a heat- 
ing apparatus, and therefore the entomologist 
resorts to chloroform, ether, camphor, ammo- 
nia, &c., but still, when he returns home, he 
may be under the necessity of resorting to 
heat, to finish what these suffocating oi stran- 
gulating substances had failed to do. It is 
not even necessary that the hot water, in such 



881.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



ases, should come in contact with the insects 
-ii is sufficient to immerse the collecting 
lottle for a miunte (more or less) in the hot 
i'ater, and when they are once killed by heat, 
hey will never revive again — a pin may be 
try safely " stuck in " just there. 



THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR CICADA. 



cly Called 



' Seventeen-Year Locust." 



Perhaps, no subject belonging to the Ento- 
Inolngical fauna of North America, has been 
more popularly, and more persistently mia- 
liaimd, than the one whose history and habits 
I propose to discuss in this paper. It is un- 
rortunate that the term Locust was ever ap- 
ilied to it, as a distinsuisbing title ; and it 
fnust have been so named in utter ignorance 
i)f the form, the habits, and the anatomical 
structure of a true Locust. And more than 
hat. it is nothing to our credit, that in no 
ountry where the genus exists to which it 
jelongs, save in the United States, is it called 
I Loamt, either by the ignorant or the intelli- 
rent. I have said that it is unfortunate that 
t was named a Locust, because that name 
mplies a widely different insect, and falsely 
nvests it with characteristics which it does 
lot possess, and which are impossible to it, 
^ lirom its organic structure. 
j' I In 1828 I first read Captain "Riley's Nara- 
; five," and I well remember how we "Knights 
of the Shopboard " criticised and even ridi- 
I buled his book, because in illustrating a 
Locust, he had portrayed a huge " grasshop- 
her." We had received our impressions of a 
i/Lornst from tiie Cicadas of 1817, and from our 
Annual species. Capt. Riley, I believe, was a 
New Yorker ; had been wrecked on the coast 
bf Africa, and had been taken prisoner by 
flic Caffrariaiis, marched inland, and saw a 
great deal of the African Locust After suf- 
fering many hardships, he was finally ran- 
miird, returned home, and wrote a book, 
.vli (li was read all over the country. 

r.ut when I subsequently saw an illustra- 
tion of the Locusts upon which John the 
1! iptist subsisted in the wilderness of Judea, I 
wa- compelled to reliix my criticism of Riley, 
lit hough my mind was still much confused on 
the subject of Locusts and Grasshoppers ; and 
' the xtattcs of these insects only became clear to 
' Ine, after I viewed them through the medium 
} hf scientific entomology. This may serve to 
illustrate the false impression that may be 
iiiade upon the ductile mind of youth by giv- 
ing an animal a false or inappropriate common 
(name. But it teaches more than this ; it ex- 
j liibits the absolute necessity of designating 
bhji'ots in natural history by scientific names, 
I iev'en though they never should be pronounced 

I in reading a description of an animal. 

I I Some years ago I read a conspicuous para- 
igraph in a Tennessee newspaper, in which 
.the editor describes a visitation of the seven- 
jteen-year Locust, during which they ate off 
|cvery green herb, and left the country as 

I |dPSoiate as if it had been visited by a confla- 
te:rrttion. No man could tell what insect the 
editor aforesaid alluded to, other than what 
[the name implied, and that was a physical 
[impossibility. It seems that it is harder to 
lunlearn than to learn, and hence these impos- 
;3ibilities are perpetuated. 
j Let me illustrate.— For the sake of conven- 
jience, the class of the Animal Kingdom, 
which includes the insect world may be 
divided into two great sub-classes, named 
Mandibidat'i and Haustellata. or masticator- 
ial and suctorial insects. Those belonging to 
the first named sub-class are provided with a 
more or less strong pair of Mandibles, corres- 
ponding to the jaws of the liigher orders of 
animals, except that they have a horizontal 
instead of a vertical movement. These organs 
are used for cutting and masticating their 
food ; for making excavations into other sub- 
stances : for^aggression and defence, and as 
instruments by means of which they con- 
struct their variously formed cells or nests. 
The second sub-class, on the contrary, are | 



without jaws, but are provided with a Ilaus- 
tcllum, or proboscis, by means of which tlicy 
penetrate animal or vegetable substances, and 
absorb their interior fluids. These, therefore, 
can appropriate no food, except it be in a 
liquid form. Nor have they the power to 
bite, in the sense usually understood by that 
term. This/act, however, is not more reassur- 
ing than the response of the showman to the 
lady who cautioned her son not to approach 
too near the Anaconda, or he might " bite." 
' No danger, madam ! That animal never 
bites, it swallows its victims whole.' Suc- 
torial insects never bite, but some of them 
possess extraordinary piercing or stinging 
powers. 

This division between the mandibulated 
and haustellated insects is, however, not ab- 
solute or distinct throughout all their .stages 
of development ; for, some entire orders of in- 
sects during a part of their lives are either on 
the one side or the other of that line. During 
their larval period, or worm state, they may 
possess a stout pair of cutting jaws, and ex- 
traordinary mandibulatory power ; and whilst 
in that state they may be exceedingly de- 
structive to vegetable and other substances ; 
whilst during the matured or imago state, 
they may be haustellated, and capable of 
imbibing fluids only — some of them indeed 
harmless — gaily flitting from flower to flower, 
and daintily sipping their tempting nectar ; 
but others, possessing a formidable proboscis, 
and capable of penetrating the integuments 
of animals and plants, and voraciously appro- 
priating their circulating fluids. These in- 
sects, however, form an anomalous, interme- 
diate class. 

But there is another class division which 
separates insects by a different line, and this 
line runs athwart that already mentioned, 
admitting Mandibidata and Haustellata on 
either side of it : namely, those in which the 
transformation is complete, and those of an 
incomplete transformation. In insects of a 
complete transformation, the young comes 
forth from the egg in the form of a worm, a 
caterpiller, or a slug, possesssing no feet at 
all, or from four to twenty-two. After it has 
passed through the various stages of its worm 
state it stops its feeding, and is transformed 
to a footless and quiescent pupa or chrysalis 
— incapable of partaking of food of any kind — 
from which, in due time, it is transformed to 
the imago or perfect state, its ailment and its 
habits of life totally changed. 

But, in those of an incomplete transforma- 
tion, the young comes from the egg a six- 
footed animal, approximating the adult form, 
acquiring only wings and wing covers— an 
active creature, feeding until the end of its 
days, if it feeds at all. Indeed, by some En- 
tomologists these changes are regarded more 
as transitions than transformations. The 
form remains much the same through all its 
periods of development. 

These latter characteristics constitute the 
only resemblance between the true Locusts 
and the spurious or Seventeen Year Locusts. 

The true locust is a mandibidate ; the spur- 
ious locust is a haustellate. The true locust is 
a voracious feeder, from early spring until 
late autumn ; whilst the spurious locust 
evolves and passes away within a single 
month ; and it has never been satisfactorily 
demonstrated, that it partakes, in its imago 
state, of any food at all, and if it did, "it 
could only be in a Uquid form. This much 
by way of fixing the status of our subject. 

The insect which by common consent is 
now usually called the sevenleni-year hcnst, 
belongs to "the order Homoptei-a,' the family 
Cicadidoi, and the genus Cicada, this genus be- 
ing the type of the family. The term Homop- 
tera is a compound of two Greek words, which 
mean same or lil<£, and imng, because the in- 
sects belonging to this order have four mem- 
branous wings, which are hfimogeneous in 
structure and form, although differing in size. 
These wings do not overUi)) each other, but 
are deflexed, like the double pitch of a roof. 
Nor do they contract in longitudinal corruga- 
tions, or folds, like a fan, as is the case with 



the underwings of the Jrue Locust. The 
generic name Cicada is Latin, perhaps de- 
rived from the Greek, but, like man}: other 
generic names that are employed in Ento- 
mology, it is arbitrary, and does not seem to 
have any particular relation to this insect at 
all. As authors differ in their definitions, 
we will ])ass it by for the present. The speci- 
fic name, sfiitfidhrim, is derived from the long 
estabhshed and long known fact, that this in- 
I sect requires, for its development from the 
egg to the imago, the full term of seventeen 
years — the most remarkable instance of insect 
longevity on record. 

According to the " Grammar of Entomolo- 
gy" our subject would be susceptible of the fol- 
lowing conjugation : Sub-kingdom Anricu- 
i.ATA ; class Insecta ; section Haustel- 
lata; order Homopteka; family CicadiDjE ; 
genus CiCAi>.\, and species septendccim. Ex- 
cept that it is an articulated hexapod of incom- 
plete metamorphosis, there is nothing that 
allies it to the locust. The true Locusts be 
long to the sub-class Mandibulata ; order 
Orthopteka ; group Saltatokia ; family 
LocusTADyR ; genus Locusta. The species 
are numerous, but the great eastern and most 
destructive species is the Migratoria, or 
migrating locust. The term Orthoptera is a 
compound of two Greek terms which mean 
straight- wings. Asaltaterial insect is a leap- 
ing insect, and the structure of its limbs indi- 
cates such a habit. The true locusts deposit 
their eggs in the ground, and when the young 
are hatched they come above ground and feed 
on various species of vegetation, and espe- 
cially on cereals. 

The Cicadas, or Spurious Locusts, deposit 
their eggs in the small branches and branch- 
lets of trees, and when the young arc hatched 
out, they fall to the earth, and immediately 
commence burrowing into the ground, and 
remain there from one to seventeen years, 
feeding on the juices of vegetation extracted 
from the roots ; but when quite young it is 
difficult to ascertain what they feed oii. Some 
say the moisture exuding from the roots of 
fruit and forest trees. 

There are many species of Cicada— even in 
our own country— very materially differing in 
size and coloration ; but no country on the 
planet, so far as is positively known, produces 
species that require seventeen yffirs for their 
full development. We have in Pennsylvania 
one or two species of Cicada which "appear 
annually, that are much larger in size than 
the seventeen year species ; besides a species 
that makes its appearance every thirteen 
years ; and why is it that the one should 
effect all its transformations within a single 
year, and the other sjiould require thirteen or 
seventeen years to effect a similar develop- 
ment, is a problem in natural history that will 
probably never be satisfactorily solved. I 
have seen, heard, and handled the seventeen- 
year Cicada four times in my life, and if I 
should live until June, 188.5, and retain my 
eyesight, and as much of my hearing as i 
Iiossess now, I as confidently expect to see, 
hear, and handle it again, as I expect to- 
morrow's sun to rise. The first advent ofc 
this insect I witnessed was in 1817, when I 
w^s but five years old, and I recall the event 
as vividly as if it had only occurred yesterday. 
I can recall the consternation of my mother 
when I entered the house with my hat filled 
with the " terrible locusts." and that hat on 
my head, for, at that early day, perhaps more 
than now, they were regarded with a super- 
stitious dread; with the ominous " W " on 
their wings, and their peculiar stridulations, 
which were interpreted into "P/iarwft." 
Although T was but five years old, yet before 
they appeared in 18H4, I had passed through 
my school days, served five years on a farm, 
five years as an apprentice, two years as a 
master workman, and had gotten married. 
We never forget the year in which we were 
married— whether for " weal or woe "—and 
on that occasion I could distinctly hear the 
song of the Cicadas across the Susquehanna — 
a physical privilege I am deprived of now. 
When these insects appeared in 1851, I was a 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



resident of Lancaster, and then for the first 
time I saw and examined their eggs. In 
1868, their next appearance, my observations 
were more thorough, and I then for the first 
time developed and collected the young, and 
wi-ote and published ten separate papers on 
the subject, in the city journals, and else- 
where. No doubt some of you have seen or 
heard of tlie sere»teen and thirteen year cicadas 
at other periods than those I have mentioned, 
and so have I. Although, so far as my exper- 
ience goes, there is always either seventeen or 
thirteen years between their appearing, they 
do not appear in all places in the same year- 
there are local breaks in their normal periods. 
"Whether the seventeen year Cicada origi- 
nally appeared within the limits of its normal 
habitat, uniformly everywhere in the same 
year, perhaps can never be determined; it is 
"suflflcient to say that it does not so ajipear 
now, whate\'er may have been the cause of 
this variation. There are districts, even in 
Pennsylvania, where they make their advent 
one or more yearsearlier or later than tliey do 
in the county of Lancaster; but still, so far as 
observations have been made, seventeen years 
have always intervened between each advent. 
There are districts also in which they seem to 
occur twice in seventeen years; but as they 
are precisely identical in species, tliis pheno- 
menon is regarded as the result of two partially 
overlapping districts, and thus, although they 
appear to be the same, they in reality are two 
difEerenl broods, having an inteiTal of seven- 
teen years lietween their respective advents, 
which only becomes conspicuous beyond the 
boundaries of the over-lapping district. This 
subject may be partially illustrated by a case 
in point. As I have before stated, our regular 
"locust year" will occiu' in 1885, yet it is 
very probable we shall have a partial brood 
wiihin the limits of Lancaster city the present 
year. About seventeen years ago Mr. Geo. O. 
Hensel, of East Orange street,~brought about 
fifty living specimens from the state of Dela- 
ware, and set them at liberty in that portion 
of the city. Last autumn he made an altera- 
tion in his green-house, and in digging for a 
foundation he exhumed a large number of 
these insects In the larva or pupa form ; and 
within the area of the green-house one indi- 
vidual actually evolved on the 2ud day of 
February lust, which I now have preserved in 
alcohol. He had an abundance of these in- 
sects on his premises in 1868, and doubtless 
will have them again in 1885, nothwithstand- 
ing their appearance there tlie present year. 
These insects are not migratorial in their 
habits, after the manner of the true Locusts. 
Wherever there were trees seventeen years 
ago, in the branches of which the Cicadas de- 
posited their eggs, other things being equal, 
there they will appear in 1885. Their span of 
life is so brief, and the quantity of aliment 
they require so limited— if any at all— that 
there seems no necessity for their migrations, 
if there is any vegetation on the ground they 
occupy, that would be a suitable nidus for 
their eggs. This is not the case with the true 
Locust. They migrate to new localities as 
^oon as they have devoured all the edible 
vegetation on the one they last occupied. 

The Cicada does not, and perhaps cannot 
deposit its eggs in the trunk of a large tree 
They choose small branches, either because 
they are easier to penetrate, or because they 
can grasp them and thus acquire sufficient 
lever power in using their ovipositors. 

Tlie ovipositor is a modification of the sting. 
What is a sting in some of the other orders of 
insects, is an ovipositor in the Cicada, as well 
as in many that are remotely removed from it 
in systematic classification; and this instru- 
ment appertains exclusively to the females. 
Indeed, no male insect in the whole realm 
possesses either ah ovipositor or a sting, (what- 
ever significance may be attached to it either 
as a simple fact or a symbolical representa- 
tive.) Wlien you are stung by a hornet, a 
wasp, or a bee of any kind, you" may be sure 
it was a female. Biit it would be impossible 
for the Cicada to penetrate any substance 
•uddenly with its ovipositor, as a "hornet or a 



bee does. The ovipositor is composed of a 
central rasp, and a sheath on either side of it. 
The central rasp is manipulated in the man- 
ner of a small saw or gouge, and the side 
sheaths follow and keep the incision suffi- 
ciently open to admit an egg. The eggs are 
deposited in two parallel rows, and they are 
all placed in the branch at a uniform oblique 
angle, each eggimbedded in woody fiber. All 
the tales, therefore, that have gained circula- 
tion about the stinging of the Cicada — in the 
sense of a bee's or wasp's sting— are likely to 
have no foundation in fact. Nor can they 
penetrate any substance suddenly with t,he 
proboscis, as bees or wasps do with their cau- 
dal stings. A mosquito can't, a horse-fly can't, 
a bed-bug can't. They begin with a boring 
motion, and it requires some time to penetrate 
the external integument. Admitting that 
people have been stung by Cicada- which is 
exceedingly doubtful — it never has been de- 
termined whether the wound was inflicted by 
the proboscis or the ovipositor. 

The song, or rather the noise made by the 
Cieacia is the peculiar province of the male 
insect, the female being entirely silent. It is 
in allusion to this fact that the crusty old 
Xenarchus wrote— 

" Happy are Cicada's lives, 
Since they all have voiceless wives." 

But the song of this insect is not vocal; it 
does not issue from the throat, as in man, and 
in animals endowed with vocal power. It is 
purely mechanical. Attached to the vietaste- 
mum of the male are two thin plates, which 
extend down and over the ventral portion of 
the abdomen, and beneath these plates are 
delicate abdominal membranes, and by mus- 
cular vibrations between these peculiar organs 
a stridulating sound is produced, which is 
known as' the Cicada's song. Indeed, no in- 
sect has vocal power. These mechanical stri- 
dulations are common to many other species 
of insects. I might instance the crickets, the 
grasshoppers, aud especially the well-known 
"katydid;" but in these the musical appara- 
tus is dorsal or lateral instead of ventral. In 
the katydid it is on the back, at the base of 
the wing covers. 

According to a catalogue of Homoptera 
published at Stettin, Germany, in 1859, there 
were 259 named species of the genus Cicada 
given, as the number recorded up to that 
period by entomologists, of which 21 were 
North American; 35 Brazilian; 42 Australian ; 
22 European; 50 African; 7Mexican; 15New 
Zealand; 20 Asiatic; 4 Javanese; 5 Cuban.; 
5 West Indian; 24 other parts of Central and 
South America, and the remainder from sun- 
dry islands. It is very probable that many of 
these species have been referred to new 
genera, but it is also probable that during the 
active entomological period that has inter- 
vened, many new species have been dis- 
covered and described by scientists. There- 
fore, although the number of species is very 
indefinite throughout the world; still, so far 
as positively known, one of our American 
species is pre-eminently the "Seventeen year 
Cicada," and is entirely unique. These in- 
sects, in England, are called "Havest-flies," 
perhaps because they make their annual ap- 
pearance about harvest time, but nowhere, 
except in the United States, are they called 
Locusts. They are the Cigala of the Italians, 
the Cigale of the French, and the Cigarva of 
the Spanish; all of which names are derived 
from the Latin Cicada. Our own annual 
species "put in their appearance," usually, 
about oat-harvest, or about a mouth later 
thau the seventeen year species, but this does 
not seem to remove them from the category 
of IjOcusIs, for we call them the "summer 
locusts, or the dng-day locusts, " by way of 
distinction. 

So far as I can ascertain, the first record of 
the appearance of the seventeen year Cicada 
in this country, was at Plymouth, Mass., in 
1633, in a work called Morton's "Memorial," 
in which he says: "In bigness they were like 
unto bumble-bees, and came up out of little 
holes in the ground, aud did eat up the green 
things, and made such a constant yelling noise, 



as made the woods ring,and ready to deafen the 
hearers. " Morton's assertion that they ate up 
green things casts a shadow of doubt over his 
record; for other early observers state that 
they did not seem to eat anything, "motion 
and propagation appearing to be the whole 
object of their existence." The earliest record 
of their appearance in Pennsylvania, was in 
1715, but they must have been here in 1698 
1681, 1664, 1647 and 1630, and how long be- 
fore the last named period no man knoweth. 
Specimens are, or were, in the Linnean collec- 
tion of 1783, 1800, 1817, 1834, 1851 and 1868. 
But so numerous are the broods, and so widely 
are they diffused over our vast territory, that 
there is not a year pa.sses which is not a "locust 
year ' ' in some locality. But uotwithstandiu" 
all this diversity, there is a general concu"- 
rence in the /act, that there are always seven- 
teen or thirteen intervening years between the 
appearance of the respective broods. 

But, a knowledge of the Cicada is not con- 
fined to merely modern, or even mediseval his- 
tory, for it was well known to the ancients, 
and it seems to have been especially a favorite 
of the Grecian bards from Homer and Hesiod 
to Anacreon and Theocritus. They esteemed 
it as perfectly harmless, and lived only upon 
dew; hence they addressed it by the most en- 
dearing epithets, and regarded it as almost 
divine. 

As Egyptians wore their favorite symbol, 
the sacred ScAEAB.a:us— as an ornament to 
their head-dress— and especially their combs, 
so it became a subject of attic pride to set up 
a rival in the head-dress, ornamented with 
cicadas, by Cecrops and his followers, and the 
Samians most probably derived this fashion 
from the early Athenians. But the admira- 
tion of the ancients was not limited by the 
mere dead emblem. To excel the Cicada in 
singing was the highest commendation of a 
singer, and the music ot Plato's eloquence was 
only comparable to the voice of this insect. 
Homer compared his. good orators to the 
Cicada, "which, in the woods, sitting on a 
tree, sends forth a delicate voice." We are 
compelled to conclude from this, that the 
Grecian Cicadas must have been more highly 
gifted with musical powers than those of 
America, or that their admirers had very un- 
cultivated "ears for music," and the t-esti- 
mony of Virgil inclines to the latter conclu- 
sion, for he ^ays their song is a " disagreeable 
and stridulous tone," and he accuses them of 
bursting the very>hf ubs with their noise. 

Notwithstanding the veneration of the 
Greeks for the Cicada, their epicures made 
these insects an article of food, and accounted 
them delicious. Aristotle says, the larva, 
after its transformation to a pupa, just before 
or at the time it emerges from the earth, is 
the sweetest, and this is especially the case 
with the females, on account of the ova they 
contain. This is quite in harmony with the 
likes of our Amei-ican animals; for it was 
particularly noticed in 1868, that fowls, swine, 
weasels and even the domestic cats, devoured 
them with avidity. And not only by these 
animals and others, but also by our Indian 
tribes, who esteemed tliem as better than 
"grasshoppers," although that may not be 
saying much for thera. 

Among the ancients, JEiUa,n was extremely 
angry with the men of his age, that an animal 
sacred to the Muses should be strung, sold 
and greedily devoured by men. 

Still, with all this, which may be more or 
less fanciful or impractical, the Cicada must 
be of some use in the economies of nature, if 
it can't be immediately utilized, or it proba- 
bly never would have been created. That 
use, whatever it may be, must be developed 
through the restless ingenuity of man, and 
that will be ultiraated when the necessity 
arises. 

It has been said, although upon what speci- 
fic authority I have not learned, that the 
pupo and larva of the seventeen-year cicada, 
possessing as it does a fine oily substance, has 
been used in the manufacture of sqap. This 
need not surprise us, for. many years ago 
when the larva of the "cockchafer" be- 



1881.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



53 



came so abundant in France and Germany, 
their respective f^overnments offered compen- 
sations for their collection, of which offer the 
poor availed themselves, and returned them 
by bushels. Among other things they were 
converted into soap. But some of the cicadas 
are capable of a still more advanced use. 
The larva of a Chinese species {Flata limbata) 
and one of the smallest iu the family, secretes 
au unctuous substance on the branches of 
trees, which hardens into wax, which is mixed 
with oil and made into a superior kind, of 
candles. This wax is white and glossy, and 
13 employed as a remedy by Chinese physi- 
j cians, in several disea»ses, and especially as a 
I preventive of palpitations of the heart and 
I swoouings. 

■ In conclusion, most of tin- stories about the 
I dangerous character of the Cicada are merely 
j apocryphal, or exageralions. 'It is the same 
in regard to the story that they continue 
' eight and a half years going down into the 
earth, and then requin^ eight years and a half 
to come up again. I bavu liad ilie l,iri\t -.d 
3, ."), 9, 11 and 1.3 years after llic rejiuhir year, 
and they have all been found within the range 
of root vegetation. A record was made, I 
believe, in 1834, that a larva or pupa was 
found 30 feet below the surface, which is not 
at all improbable, as under certain circum- 
stances, the roots of trees may extend so far 
down. It is certain that during ;i few weeks 
previous to their advent, they arc usually 
found at a very inconsiderable distance be- 
low the surface, seemingly waiting for their 
metamorphosis. The extraordinary phenome- 
non of the seventeen-year cicadas building 
galleries, in the form of tubes, from six to ten 
inches above ground, was witnessed here in 
Lancaster city in 1868, and perhaps no where 
else on earth. Several of these tubes were 
preserved and sent abroad as insect architec- 
tural curiosities, and the phenomenon re- 
corded and Lhe tubes illustrated in books, &c. 
On a part of Mr. Hensel's lot tlie soil was 
saturated by a series of rainfalls, about the 
period of the Cicada's appearance. Tliey 
seemed to be too near their evolution to go 
" deep down " again, and yet not quite ready 
for their final change, and so they built these 
tubes above ground, and therein awaited that 
important event. 

And now, having delivered my Cicadiau 
"Rigmarole," I thank you for your indulgent 
patience ; for your great self-denial, and for 
the interest you seem to have manifested 
under such an extraordinary infliction. 



VENNOR'S LATEST WEATHER PRE- 
DICTION. 

Vennor Writes: "The winter of 1881 is 
not over yet by any means, and nothing in 
my opinion could render this more probable 
than the present term of mild weathei'. There 
are yet at least three storm periods in this 
month— namely, on the 12th, 13th or 14th; 
on the 16th and 17th, and lastly on the 20th 
and ilst. The last two periods will give us 
lieavy snow foils, one of which is likely to be 
the heaviest fall of the winter. This will be 
prelty general over a large part of North 
America, and is likely to cross over to Great 
Britain. There will also be one more cold dip 
of considerable severity. The month [March] 
will end with rain and slush. 

"Putting that and that together," the 
winter of 1880 and 1881 has been one of the 
longest and coldest on record. We say one of 
them, because we believe it has had is par- 
allel even within our own experience; some- 
how, the last of our experiences are always 
the best or the worst, more because they are 
fresher in our memories, than because of their 
real characters, whether founded on facts or 
mere fancies. After an event has passed and 
become chronicled merely in memory, its in- 
tensity, or the joy or calamity involved in it 
Boon fades away and succeeding events less 
pronounced or less intense are looked upon as 
enhanced repetitions of particular events 
that have passed. It ever has been thus, and 
ever will be thus with those who do not make 



a written record of time's changes as the 
world moves on. To our apprehension the 
winter of 1834 and 1835 was as protracted 
and as intensly cold as that of 1880 and 1881, 
and even exceeded it in its continuation. 
During that winter the Susquehanna was rig- 
idly bound in its icy fetters until far in the 
month of March, although we do not hesitate 
to .say that to our present recollection, we 
have never before experienced such intense 
and prolonged cold as that of the forepart of 
the present month, and especially the .5lh and 
6th. As to the winds, we always have them 
about the opening of si)ring either, in .March 
or April. But what of Mr Vennor, the Cana- 
dian weather prognosticator? Is he a great 
prophet or noti" According to those who 
profess to have devoted their entire lives to 
meteorological observations, nothing is easier 
than a true forecast of the weather. It is 
quite certain that this sort of experience ob- 
tains very extensively among "Old Salts " 
who have spi.-nl almost their entire lives on 
till' bud of "old ocean;" but far inland they 
pnliaps would lie as much at fault as "land- 
lubbers." On the whole Mr. Vennor's pre- 
dictions were perhaps a little more correct 
than those of "Baer's Almanac," but then it 
may be easier to foretell, cold weather up in 
Canada than it is farther South, and easier 
still up about the North Pole. On the 16th 
of the month of March, the snow drops and 
the Black Hellebore in our garden were visited 
by hundreds of lively honey-bees; still in a 
country so vast as the United States and Can- 
ada the prophecy may have been fully verified 
elsewhere. It would have been "curious" if 
it had not been. 



Queries and Answers. 



Pine Grove, Pa-, Maicb 



S. S. Rathvon, Eiq.,— Dear Sir : Herewith lind 
some eggs found under some rubbish. They were 
adlieriog to leaves, grass, ifec, and I thought llrst 
they were radish seeds, but discovered the error on 
biting one through,when I found it to be tough, and 
and like the coeoou of an insect. If you think it 
worth while, let us know through the Fanner, what 
insect laid the eggs, &c. 

Yours truly, W. H. S. 

Your letter and contents duly received, but 
we do not think we can , give the information 
you desire. We would remark, however, that 
there is nothing, perhaps, that is not "worth 
while;" at least we think there is not. Every 
thing has an importance attached to it, when 
we know its relation to other things. We 
have on several occasions found thete tough 
little seed-like objects attached to decayed 
vesjetation, among' rubbish, but they were usu- 
ally larger than those you send. "They do not 
seem to be either seeds or insect "cocoons,' 
but more likely small species of fungi. 

They are flattened, pear-shaped lobes, 
six mm in length and two mm in width 
at the widest part. Under the microscopic 
they are of a brownish color, with a rougli 
or seabrous surface, and resemble Japanese 
persimmon figs. They are solid all through, 
and as tough as gutta percha. The inside is 
a pearly-wiiite, and closely resemble the inside 
of a papau seed. They evidently are for- 
eign to the plants on which they are found, 
although they seem to have grown out of 
them ; and this leads us to conjecture that 
they are a species of parasitic/imj/us. There 
is nothing like the structure of a cocoon alxiut 
them, and if they were insect eggs, they 
would have an interior cavity and an outer 
shell, which is not the case. The outer in- 
tegument is very thin, and in cutting them 
through it comes off in scales along the mar- 
gins of the incision. If they were seeds, at 
this season of the year, they would retain 
their form when dry, which they do not, b^it 
shrink into one-fourth their size, but expand 
again when immersed in water or alcohol. 
They differ greatly iu size and intensity of 
coloring ; the one we measured being the 
largest, most of them being ;not more than 
oue-fourth that size, which would also be 



against the egg theory. Seeds they cannot 
possibly be, because they seem to be growing 
out of both the stems and the leaves. We 
will endeavor to identify them and when we 
succeed we will apprise you of it through the 
columns of The Farmer. In the meantime 
we do not think you need fear any danger 
from tlium. 



THE "SACK-WORM." 
Afrs. H. B. B., LancasUr, Pa. The spin- 
dle-shape cocoons you sent us some weeks 
ago — evidently _taken from an Arbor mice, tree 
ari! the Itabilucula of a Lc|)idopterous insect 
known under the names of "Sack-worm," 
"Basket-carrier," "Drop-worm," "Sack- 
trager," and other names, but in scientific 
language it is called Thyridopterii xepliem- 
oeriformis., a name almost " as long as the 
moral law." Perhaps if it knew the space 
its name occupies in natural history, it would 
be better mannered than it is. It is notorious 
as a tree defoliator, especially conebearlng 
trees, and most especially, perhaps, the Arbor 
ViUf.. It may have a choice, but it is by no 
means restricted by that choice, and will at- 
tack almost any kind of tree. We have 
known it to be abundant on linden, maple, 
elm, apricot, plum, locust, apple, pear, 
various species of pine, quince, oaks— in short 
on nearly all kinds except the peach, and we 
have heard that it has been known in a 
"strait" to attack the peach. Many of the 
follicles now found on trees are the deserted 
habilacula of the males of last season, but a 
goodly number are those of the female pupa 
filled with eggs, and now before the trees have 
put forth their leaves, is the time to collect 
and destroy them. If the season is favora- 
ble, between the 1st and the l-")th of May, 
the young will be hatched from the eggs that 
have remained in the sacks or baskets of hist 
summer. If they arc left undisturbed until 
the last of May or the beginning of June, the 
trees will be in full foliage, and for a month 
or two the foliage will be too dense to see 
them. Each female deposits one hundred or 
more ('ggs,and these eggs possess the possibili- 
ties of the same number of caterpillars. 
These caterpillars are never nakedly seen, 
for as soon as the young are excluded from 
the eggs they begin to form their sacks, and 
these they carry with them wherever they 
go, only protruding the head and the three 
thoracic segments of the anterior part of the 
body. No liquid or powdered remedy can 
reach them, nor can birds dislodge them from 
their haliitaeula. If these insects are per- 
mitted to continue on the trees to their injury, 
the resi>onsibility must ri;st with those who 
own the trees they infest, for we know of no 
insect lliat is more accessible, especially dur- 
ing late fall, winter and early spring. 



Essays. 



HOW WE ARE POISONED.* 

Thousands of persons die every year from 
poisons taking into the stomach. I propose 
briefly to show in what manner it' is done, 
and also to show that thousands of persons 
also suffer pains, some of them almost inde- 
scribable, from the absorption of poisons into 
the body. On the outside of the bidy are 
millions of little holes called absorbents, 
which have the power like a suction pump of 
drawing into the body almost anything that 
may come in contact with the skin. Hence 
it is a self-evident fact that under no consid- 
eration should poisons of any kind be handled 
nor should they be taken into the alimentary 
canal. The object of a man or animal's 
stomach and intestines is to convert food into 
blood, and any foreign substance in these 
organs acts (like a splinter in the flesh) irri- 
tantly. Hence they are contra-indicated. 
Newspapers throughout our commonwealth 

•Rear! bo fore the .^pril mectinR of the LiincasUf 
County Aerricultural and Horticultural Society, by Dr. A 
0. Qreen. 



54 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



often publish receipts and items on physiology 
■ that are truthless, worthless and often ex- 
ceedingly injurious. In a March number of 
the Philadelphia Record sulphate of zinc 
and foxglove (or digitalis) are called a sure 
remedy for small pox, and yet both of them 
are powerful poisons; one grain of foxglove, 
which is the l-480th part of an ounce, has 
been known to produce vertigo, extreme pains 
dimness of vision, and a reduction of the 
pulse from 80 to 40 beats a minute. In the 
same issue was the following receipt: 

"A solution of oxalic acid is the best for 
scouring and polishing copper. Finish with 
whiting." 

Now as editors are not chemists or physi- 
cians, why will they in this reckless manner 
give such statements to their readers? The 
blacksmith who never saw an astronomical 
instrument, does not force his crude concep- 
tions of celestial bodies upon the people. 
Oxalic acid is also a very dangerous poison, 
and only a few grains of it taken into the 
stomach will produce disastrous symptoms 
and death, and merely handling it may intro- 
duce into the system sufficient to produce 
thousands of unnecessary pains and aches. 
It should never be found in your home; it is 
as dangerous as a rattlesnake. 

COPPER UTENSILS. 

Many farmers do a large amount of cooking 
for themselves and their cattle, poultry, &c., 
in copper and brass kettles. Any of them 
when not used for a time are lined with ver- 
digris, called in the books subacetate of 
copper, also oxide of copper, and it is soluble 
in water and is a virulent poison. Brass ket- 
tles are made from copper and zinc. Any 
acid will always act upon metals. If you stew 
apples, cramberries, tomatoes or any fruit or 
vegetable that is of an- acid nature, the acid 
eats or corrodes the copper or zinc and forms 
usually acetate of copper or zinc. No matter 
how small the quantity swallowed, it is a 
foreign substance as well as poisonous, and 
produces indigestion. The acid of apples is 
called malic or sorcic acid, and if it comes in 
contact with copper, sine, lead or tin, will 
produce malatate of copper, zinc, lead and 
tin. The formentation of apples or cider, 
giade from apples, produces vinegar, which is 
dilute acetic acid, aud it will also produce the 
same chemical changes if it has the opportun- 
ity, and the results will be acetate of copper, 
acetate of zinc, lead and tin. When the milk 
become sour it produces lactic acid which will 
a,ct in the same manner as the above acids, 
and for lactate of copper, lead, zinc and tin, 
and all of these metals are poisonous, and 
every one injures the health of the individual 
who has eating them in his or her food. Dys- 
pepsia in some of its forms, paralysis, neural- 
gia, and affection of the organs of the body, 
are the sequences. I would as soon have a 
copperhead snake- in my house as a brass or 
copper utensil for cooking purpose's. If they 
are scoured ever so clean, the acid will act 
upon them even more readily. It is a com- 
com occurence when pickles become a little 
changed in the spring, to put pickles and vin- 
egar in a copper or brass kettle and boil them 
fur a time and they come out much improved 
in appearance, and handsomely greened. 
This bright color is acetate of copper. Tin 
vessels also lose their lustre by long exposure 
and forms a poison called oxide of tin. Lead 
pipes have been used for many years to con- 
vey drinking water; it it stands for some time 
in the pipe the oxide of lead is formed aud 
any one drinking it is.poisoned. 

The quail and partridge in the cold winter 
months eat poison berri.es and in this way 
they contaminate their flesh and injure the 
health of the one who eats it. Acetic acid is 
distilled vinegar. If you take one pint of 
acetic acid and seven pints of water, and unite 
together, you have eight pints of vinegar. 

SOAP. 

Some soap makers, regardless of the conse- 
quences, take the tallow or fat of diseased ani- 
mals and make them into soap. The unchanged 
virus is absorbed into the body while being 



used for washing purposes. If you cook 
lemons in a brass or copper kettle, the acid of 
the fruit, called citric, will act upon the 
metals in the same manner and form citrate 
of copper, zinc, &c. 

HAra BRUSHES. 

Many persons use the hair brush of, another 
individual, or the barber uses upon a hundred 
or a thousand heads the same brush. If any 
of his patrons have tetter, eczema, syphilis or 
other skin disease, it can be readily conveyed 
to any one whose head is briskly rubbed with 
it. In the above and many other ways are 
poisons conveyed into the body, and the vic- 
tim of the virus may suffer all his life from 
the effects. I have brought for inspection 
some of these poisons, aud to show how small 
a quantitv of copper will by the laws of 
affinity make itself known, I propose to add 
one drop of a solution of nitrate of copper to 
one hundred drops of water, and then add one 
drop of aqua ammonia to the colorless liquid 
and it will at once become beautifully blue. I 
will conclude by saying that there is a friend 
of mine in this city who has over 100 tumors 
on his body occasioned by his handling paints. 

At the close of his essay Dr. Greene made a 
number of chemical experiments with the 
poisons referred to in the essay. 

Mr. Engle said that it was news to him 
that the souring of milk in tin cans produced 
a poisonous acid, and yet there seemed to be 
no doubt it would do so. 

In answer to questions. Dr. Greene said 
that tin was a less dangerous metal to be 
brought in contact with food than zinc, brass 
or copper. Iron vessels may be safely used as 
cooking utensils,as',when iron is taken in prop- 
er proportions it is not injurious; but people 
usually get enough of it in the food cooked 
in iron vessels, without taking it as a medi- 
cine. 



PRUNING TREES.* 
There is nothing more deserving of admi- 
ration than a well proportioned tree. Trees, 
when left to grow naturally, usually assume 
an outline that is pleasing ; but where prun- 
ing is properly understood and apphed, the 
general appearance of trees can be much im- 
proved. If pruning be judged by what is 
seen around us it would be difficult to assert 
that it is generally beneficial, for too often it 
has resulted in the permanent injury of trees 
and certainly to the disfigurement of nearly 
every street in Philadelphia. On a place 
where young trees have been recently planted 
tliere is room for the pruner's skill. There 
are many small fruit orchards in our town 
where pruning has been understood, that con- 
tain pear and other trees, models of symmet-ry. 
Pruning should commence before a tree is 
planted. In digging trees there are usually 
some roots bruised, and these roots should be 
pruned off, otherwise fungus will attack the 
diseased parts, and fungus around the roots 
is the mortal enemy of trees. If the trees 
that are being planted are fruit trees, such as 
pears and plums, the branches will generally 
need pruning ; and here at the start, is where 
the greatest amount of knowledge is needed. 
There may be two reasons for pruning. 
The first is that in transplanting some roots 
are always lost ; and a cutting away of some 
branches is needed, because the fibres, or 
feeders of these branches, have been lost. In 
other words, the servants to caiTy the provi- 
sions have disappeared, and some of the occu- 
pants of the house must go to enable the rest 
to be served. The other reason for pruning 
is to form the outline of the future tree. If 
the tree is wanted with a tall stem that youth- 
ful depredators cannot easily climb, the lower 
branches must be pruned away. If, however, 
the tree is desired with branches to the 
ground, it is the proper time to prune it. 
There is a very general belief that fruit trees 
are better for having their stems somewliat 
sliaded when young, but this should not be 

Horticultural 



considered where a low-branched tree is not 
desired. 

In pruning the tree on account of loss of 
roots; the weak shoots are the ones to take 
out so far as possible, leaving the strong ones 
wherever they have grown out at desirable 
places to make a shapely tree. There is too 
little care given to forming the future habit of . 
the tree at pruning. The usual way is to 
prune off the strong branches here and there 
to compensate for the loss of roots, with no 
regard to whether the cut has been where it 
was needed, and forgetting that the weak 
shoots are the ones to cut out. It not unfre- 
quently happens that fruit trees are cut back 
several feet with no good to the tree, and 
making it take a year or two of growth to gain 
the size it was. 

A tree properly planted and pruned will 
need but little heavy work afterwards if a 
little care be constantly given it. The most 
of the pruning will be to regulate the shape of 
the tree, and this can be done mostly when 
the tree is growing in the spring and summer 
time. A little attention in the growing season 
goes a great way. If a bushier growth be 
needed, the pinching off of a shoot will cause 
the buds along the side to burst and grow, 
and very soon a twiggy growth and a bushy 
tree is the result, isummer pruning is the 
only kind to be practiced to make a dense 
growth. In the winter time pruning tends to 
make vigorous shoots but not bushy ones. 
Just below where cut off, one bud, aud gener- 
ally one only, will burst out and grow up 
strong. Wherever weak shoots exist, winter 
pruning will benefit the tree by giving a 
stronger and cleaner growth the following 
year. To know what we waut is the point 
to be sure of before we commence to cut a 
tree. 

The street 4;rees of Philadelphia are pruned 
in a way that produces the very opposite of 
what is" desired. The trees are generally 
poplars, maples and similar trees, that have 
grown too tall, and the desire is to dwarf 
them. Some one with a hatchet and saw is 
called in, who speedily dwarfs the tree by 
sawing it almost to the ground. The^ tree 
makes a somewhat weaker growth the next 
year, but the pruner thinks it needs sharpen- 
ing and cuts again the next winter, and a 
season or two of this treatment gives the 
owner a half-dead stump in front of his house. 
The mistake is that a tree growing too tall 
was planted, and that it was not pruned every . 
summer to keep it dwarf and bushy. Sum- 
mer pruning takes but little of the growth of 
the tree away, and in this way there is no in- 
jury to the vitality of a tree. Repeated prun- 
ing of a tree weakens and kills it. This is not 
usually thought of, but it is nevertheless a 
fact that every branch removed from a tree is 
a blow to its vitality. Every greenhouse lad 
knows that the geranium which is repeatedly 
cut for cuttings dies ; and in the same way 
the tree that is repeatedly pruned dies. This 
knowledge is turned to good account by prac- 
tical fruit-growers. 

So long as a fruit tree is growing strongly it 
seldom bears well. It is only when it attains 
some size, and maturity commences, that it 
begins to fruit. To take away from a tree or 
plant spme of its growing; forces, is to make it 
flower and fruit. This Knowledge' gave rise 
to the practice of root-pruning to produce 
fruit, and being founded on natural laws it has 
proven successful. A tree that seems in full 
vigor, making a strong growth with healthy 
leaves, showing nothing ails it, can be gener- 
ally thrown into bearing by a pruning of the 
roots. It is often practiced and is generally 
successful. Some are satisfied with thrusting 
a spade down here and there around the tree, 
but this is too risky, as more roots may be cut 
oft" than desirable. The best way is to dig a 
trench on one side of the tree, cutting off a 
few of the strongest roots. This side should 
be the one least exposed to high winds, so 
that no danger of blowing over is brought to 
the tree. ' But roots enough cut off to make 
the tree liable to blow over is not wanted; a 
few strong ones will be enough. Many a per- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 



son has a Scckol or Bartlett pear tree that 
grows wll, yv\ ilncs not bear, aud if root prun- 
ing be adiiii'nisU'n'il wliile tlie tree isdin-mant 



lop 



■fruit will be the result. This 



prac- 



tice holds i^ootl with plants of all kinds. Any 
plant tliat does not llower, yet grows ram- 
pantly, may be helped toward.s flowernig by 
witholdiiig from it the elements of food. .Some 
inmates of the fniit-garden, suclias grapes for 
instance, connnence bearin;,' frnit llie year 
sucerediiii; their planting, and tlins need no 
I root-pruning ; but a proper pruning of tludr 
branches is benelicial to them. Grapes i)ro- 
i : duce the finest bunches from young canes, and 
to get them, a few brandies should be cut 
within an eye or two of the ground every 
winter. Some strong shoots will Ije the result, 
producing fruit the following year tlie whole 
length of the stem, wliich is hard to obtain 
on wood over a year old. 

On the lawn, deciduous and evergreen trees 
should be pruned on the same principle <is 
fruit trees. Many trees require no pruning, 
growing always into beautiful specimens. Tlie 
pine oak is. an example of tliis. No pruning 
can make a more shapely tree of it tlian it 
makes if left alone. It is not iniusual to sec 
shrubs trimmed of into a ball-shape, very 
similar to what the street trees are. The 
summer pruning is what they want. It was 
once thought that evergreeiis could not be 
touched with a knife, but it has been long 
known in America that these ti-ees bear pnin" 
ing just as well as any other tree. The knife 
can be used anywhere needed, and the tree 
can be brought into any shape desired. But 
generally evergreens reciuire but little prun- 
ing ; a shoot pinched off here and there to 
keep them shapely is generally sufficient. 
Those who have hedges to prune should be 
careful to see that the pruuer tlioroughly un- 
derstands for what purpose he jiruues. if the 
hedge be thin at the base with a thick top 
growth, the pruning should be done in early 
summer while the growth is still going on. 
The object will be mainly to thicken the base. 
This is accomplished by pruning back the top 
shoots, thus throwing the sap to the lower 
branches, making them vigorous, bushy, and 
forming a close branch base. Later iti the 
season, when the growth has ceased the hedge 
may be trimmed into shape, the conical bein" 
the best, as affording a better chance to the 
lower branches to get sun and air. Where 
the hedges are evergreens they should never 
be pruned late in the fall as this exposes the 
inside shoots, the weakest always, to the ac- 
tion of the winter weatlirr, resulting in much 
injury to the trees. This of course applies 
also to single specimen evergreens. Some- 
times an old tree has braliches'on which must 
be cut off. These branches, if large, are apt 
to make unsightly scars where cut from the 
tree. It is not generally known that a branch 
cut in summer, when the sap is active, heals 
over much more quickly than when cut iu 
winter. This being so, these large branches 
should lie pruned in the summer time. 

The most useful and easiest mode of prun- 
ing is that of the summer time. When the 
young growth is soft, a pinching off of a shoot 
here and there will produce perfect specimens 
and leave no scars behind. There is much 
pleasure in-pruning a growing tree. As one 
year succeeds the other, the work that has 
been well done shows itself, and we wonder 
that the beautiful tree l.elniv us has been pro- 
duced by so little labor nCmrs. 



Selections. 



ARRAREEK FARM. 

The New Method of Feeding Cattle. 

There can be no more beautiful country 
than that found in Passaic County, New 
Jersey, in the neighborhood of Pompton. The 
village itself is situated on a big plateau all 
surrounded by hills, real flat lands which 
stretch out in a level plain between every gap 
of rising ground. Just beyond Airareek 



Farm you see the continuation of the plateau 
as it breaks through the blue hills, and ex- 
tends panoramic-wise far beyond. It is a 
country bountifully watered, for on Arrareek 
Farm there are two fairly big rivers, the 
AVynokie and Kumapo. The country seems 
especially lifted, from natural circumstances, 
for dairy-farms, the meadow-lands running 
down to tlie brink of the wafer. Pompton 
has its interesting historic reminiscences, for 
right liy .\rrareeU I'^irin stands an ancient 
stone house which tradition states wius once 
General W.vsfiiNOTON's head-quarters in 
1777, for the old Pompton road was the back 
route on the line of communication between 
Trenton and West Point. 

But it is not so much with the beauties of 
the scenery or with the historic traditions of 
Pompton that we have to do as with a most 
novel way of feeding cattle in use on Arrareek 
Farm. The visit made to the farm is chosen 
purposely in March, for it is just at that time 
that, under ordinary circumstaces, cattle are 
in their very worst condition. Now it has 
happened that this year, owing to the excep- 
tional severity of the winter— the coldest 
known for quite a number of years— cows are 
in very bad order. Even those having the 
best shelter and abundant feed have felt the 
rigors of the past winter. 

Cows on a farm, though all necessary pre- 
caution may be taken, can not be pampered. 
The few Jerseys or Ayrshires on the experi- 
mental farm may be petted aud housed, but 
when a farmer has 120 head of cattle, though 
he uses all possible care, if the winter is, a 
hard one the animals in March and April 
must look at their worst. Generally hides 
are rough ; the hair stands the wrong way ; 
the eyes are heavy, and want that soft sub- 
dued gleam which is the chiefest beauty of 
bovine expression. They are languid, and 
show physical depre.'^sion. There are few- 
frisky yearlings, and the four and six month 
calves have a feeble and puny look. If the 
farmer has been a thritty man, he has been 
doing all in his power for his stock during the 
long winter. Tliey have been sheltered every 
night, often during the day, and have been 
fairly feed. They have had their ground dry 
feed, with a plentiful supply of hay. If they 
have not been allowed to eat their heads off, 
still, they have been well cared for. Yet, 
under usual circumstances, they are all of 
them gaunt and ugly, and their owner has 
been anxious about them, and is longing for 
the chance to turn them out into the fields 
when the first sweet grass saall spring forth ; 
and then, as if by magic, his poor cows will 
once more look smooth and sleek, and take on 
fat, and fill his pails to the brim with the 
richest and sweetest of milk. 

The visitor at Arrareek Farm, on a cold, 
rainy day in March, looked at the cows, year- 
lings, calves, and saw no scarecrow animals. 
Instead of being m their worst condition, as 
thin as "a March cow," he was surprised to 
notice that they were very fat— in fact, a 
great many of them in good enough order to 
bo butchered. The eyes were handsome, and 
full of life. There was no stiffness in the 
joints of the animals ; they moved around 
briskly. The yearlings were full of life and 
animation. The calves came along at call 
with baby gallopings. In fact, it wiis a happy, 
contented-looking herd, which had passed 
through a severe winter, and wore now in 
as prime condition as when they munched 
their last mouthful of grass some five or six 
months before. 

Of course the visitor, when he saw this 
commenced to wonder. lie was, if the least 
bit of an agriculturist, accustomed to see poor- 
looking beasts iu March, and noticing at Ar- 
rareek Farm something quite the contrary, he 
propounded to himself for a solution some- 
thing of this kind: "Mi-. C. W. Mills, who 
owns these fine-looking cattle, is perfectly in- 
difierent to the cost. He has been stall-feed- 
ing these cows. What a lot of money it must 
have cost, with hay at S22 or $2.5 per ton, to 
winter all this herd! It must -have cost from 
88,000 to 810,000 to do it. If he sees profit iu | 



this kind of thing, I do not. It's all very well 
to 1)0 tender-hearted, but cows are cows, and 
milk is worth so much a (piart, and butter so 
much a pound, and though Mr. Bergh might 
crown Mr. Mills for the excellent condition of 
his cows, the public would not pav a cent 
more for his butter or milk. What' a prodi- 
gious quantity of hay these cows must have 
eaten!" 

Then the visitor looked to see if he could not 
find out some huge barns, which must have 
been bursting out with hay at some time, and 
ho peered around to find traces of demolished 
hay-ricks. He had been to the barn, by no 
means a large one, and seen that it was one 
of ordinary size, almost entirely occupied by ■ 
feeding-stalls, and that there was no hay there 
at all. The longer ho huiitetl, the more diffi- 
cult it was for him to find the least trace of 
hay, or straw, or any kind of long fodder. At 
last he found out that there was not even a 
sprig, a stem, of hay on the premises. Then 
he wondered and wondered how these cattle 
had been kept so fat and healthy duriuir the 
last long winter. " 

Then' Mr. Mills explained it all. and com- 
mencing with the very beginning, imparted 
to the visitor the .story of the silo and the 
character of ensilage. Mr. Mills, who is a 
grain merchant in New York, of high stand- 
ing, familiar with all kinds of wheat and corn, 
had been long struck with the luxuriant char- 
acter of some species of the Southern corn. 
He determined to experiment with it on his 
farm at Pompton. Having selected his seed, 
he planted it in proximity to his ordinary 
New Jersey corn. His idea was that by 
hybridism he might improve the size and 
quality of the Jersey com. Planting his corn 
of both varieties side by cide, when the end Of 
September came, to his dism-ay the native 
com was ripe, ears all formed, but the South- 
ern corn, which was twice as tall, was yet im- 
mature. If frost came, it would be waisted. 
Neighboring farmers would lean over the 
fences of Arrareek Farm and speculate on the 
character of the extraordinarv growtli, and 
pass queer comments upon it. ' In fact, this 
tall corn, green and luxuriant, which required 
a quicker climate than that of New Jersey, 
ill time oppressed Mr. Mills. Here was mag- 
nificent food for his cattle which was likely to 
be wasted. Evidently it never would ripen in 
time. Frost would come long before an ear 
was formed, and then it would all be ruined* 
He pondered and pondered over the business. 
Then there did come in early November the 
Hrst slight nip of frost. He must try some- 
thing, or his farmer friends would forever 
have the laugh on him. Necessity is the 
mother of invention. He remembered the 
old method of keeping roots in mounds of 
earth, practiced from time immemorial. All 
hands were ordered to work. Pits were dug 
in a dry gravelly soil. The tall corn was laid 
low, cut in lengths, transpoiied to the pit, laid 
ui it lengthwise on a foundation of hoards. 
When the pit was full, it was roofed with 
planks and covered with eiirth, and entirely 
irrespective of any other silo, perfectly unac- 
quainted with ensilage, never having read a 
word about it in any language, in the same 
year, 18T0, Mr. Mills .discovered the way of 
keeping forage. When the time came to" try 
this food on cattle, the contents of the pit 
were found to be in fair order. It gave out a 
vinous odor, was of a tawny green— "the 
color of cooked beans,'' is Mr. Mill's artistic 
idea of the exact shade of good ensilage. The 
cattle ate of it greedily. They came and came 
again for it. The i)rocess with its make-shift 
method was a partial success only. What 
was good in the mass answered airpurpo.se.s, 
but a certain portion had rotted. There was 
no fault in the general plan, only the details 
wanted greater consideration. Then Mr. Mills 
set about thinking it all over, and devised hia 
present system of preservation by the exclu- 
sion of the air by pressure only. 

It all .seems simple enough when you see it, 
but the simplest things are always those 
which ouc arrives at after matured thought. 
When you enter the barn you see two deep 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[Apjil, 



pits sunk right into the floor of the barn. 
The exact dimensions are, for each, length, 
forty feet ; width, thirteen feet ; depth, 
twenty feet. These pits are lined with con- 
crete made of rubble and Rosedale cement. 
They are solid and substantial. These are 
the silos, which hold the ensilage. 

Now let us go back to the method of plant- 
ing the special kind of corn. The term spe- 
cial is hardly worthy of commenting upon, 
and need be no bugbear, because the seed can 
be most readily obtained, and is not in the 
least expensive. There are good reasons for 
using it : one is because of its luxuriance of 
growth, and that, in our climate, it contains 
the major part of the nutritious qualities in 
the stalk and leaves before it goes to the seed, 
and that by cutting it down in time we can 
get the utmost advantage out of the vegeta- 
tion. Mr. Mills sows it in drills three inches 
wide, with spaces of three feet clear open soil 
between the drills. These drills are heavily 
seeded. In time the field looks as if it were 
planted solid, though the intervening spaces 
give the plants light and air. It is planted in 
May, and cut about the middle or end of Sep- 
tember, when it is some eight to ten feet 
high. The product is about sixty tons per 
acre, of green stalks and leaves. Mr. Mills 
planted some thirteen acres, not more ; and 
from the yield, 780 tons gross of green stuff 
cut, he feeds his 120 cattle. Tliis very small 
amount of land, used for this purpose, seems 
wonderful. Just as soon as the corn is ready, 
which is distinguishable by the tasselling and 
the formation of a few nubbins, in go the 
men, who . lay it low. It is at once carted to 
the barn where are the silos. The green 
stalks and leaves are submitted to the action 
of ordinary cutting-machines, the only pre- 
caution necessary being that the knives be 
kept as sharp as possible, so that the green 
stuff shall not be bruised, Mr. Mills" idea 
being that by rough handling the juices are 
expelled, and to that extent air takes its 
place in the cells of the plant — a thing to be 
avoided as much as possible. Two cuttin'j- 
machines are used, which make the fodder 
into lengths of one-lialf and one inch. 

Now to describe the method of filling the 
silos. The cutting-macliines deliver the green 
stuH into the cement-lined pits, the capacity 
of each being 300 tons. As the material goes 
iif it is not trodden on, but worked evenly 
into the silos by changing the direction of the 
delivery. When the pit is full, level with the 
floor, a wooden case is placed like a fence 
arouhd the pit, which case is seventy-five per 
cent, in height of the depth of the pit, for the 
ensilage by compression sinks about this much. 
The pit being twenty feet deep, when it and 
the fifteen-foot case are full, then the whole 
mass of green material is covered over with 
stout wooden planks, made in sections. These 
sectional covers are among the most important 
adjuncts of the silos, and in their proper con- 
struction a great deal of the success of the 
operation depends. These covers are made of 
two-inch-thick spruce plank, tongued and 
grooved, and firmly battened together, four 
feet wide, and and one inch less in length than 
the width of the silo. As the silo is forty 
feet long, it will take ten of them to cover it. 
The object in making them only four feet 
wide will be apparent later. Now when the 
silo or pit is full of green stuff, even to the 
level of the fifteen feet additional, the sec- 
tional covers are put on the green stuff, and 
these are weighted evenly and carefully. 

The whole secret of ensilage depends upon 
a simple mechanical one, tha,t of perfectly even 
continuous compression. The air must be ex- 
cluded, and also the ambient moisture. Mr. 
Mills weights down his covers by distributing 
on top of each silo fifty tons of grain or ground 
feed in bags, which he afterward uses to mix 
with his ensilage at time of feeding. He 
recommends, in case grain is not handy, that 
barrels be filled with gravel or sand, and used 
for the same purpose. As soon as the weighted 
covers are applied, the mass gradually sinks, 
until it reaches a level with the floor, and if 
the pit has been properly constructed, after 



the sinking down is concluded, the pits, or 
silos, are exactly filled. In about ten days 
the mass has come down to its bearings. In 
two weeks after it has been put down, it is 
ready to use, and the operation is completed. 

Now let us explain the reason why the 
covers were made sectional. As a cover is 
taken off it exposes a surface four feet wide 
and twenty feet deep, and not any more. This 
is cut down into for feed with a six-tined fork 
clean to the bottom as the ensilage is used. 
All the rest of the mass is covered, and has its 
weight and compression the same, thereby 
keeping out the air and all tendencies to fer- 
mentation. As the ensilage is taken it may 
be fed to cattle at once, but Mr. Mills thinks 
it better to leave that portion intended for a 
feed, when taken from the silo, to remain ex- 
posed for twenty-four hours. Some slight fer- 
mation then ensues, which apparently is ad- 
vantageous to the cattle. When one silo, 
cover by cover, is taken off and used, the mass 
being cut into from top to bottom until ex- 
hausted, the other comes into play. At Arra- 
reek Farm one silo had been used up, and 
about one-half of the other. The ensilage 
gave out a sweet vinous odor, had nothing in 
the least disagreeable about it, aud was rather 
pleasant to the taste. It was not warm nor 
heated, and on compressing the stalks the 
juice exuded. This ensilage was used in the 
proportion of one bushel per diem for each 
cow, divided into two feeds, and with it was 
mixed about two quarts of wheat bran or 
middlings. This was all the feed the animals 
— cows and horses — had had during the win- 
ter, and the horses looked quite as handsome 
as the cows. 

Now as to questions of cost. These two 
silos, built in the most substantial style, cost 
$350 each, or $700 for the two. The abso- 
lute expenses oi making the crop, preparing 
the ground, seeding, harvesting, cutting the 
green stuff, and putting it in the silos, was 
|500. Capital being $700 employed in the 
silos, the interest at 6 per cent, being $42, 
and depreciation on silos, say, twenty per 
cent., which would be the very outside for all 
possible repairs, we have, at the very utmost, 
the cost of the ensilage to be $1.13| cents per 
ton, aud this is a most liberal estimate. 

Now suppose we make up the cost of keep- 
ing these cattle for the hay alone. The ex- 
penses would have been certainly in 1880-81, 
for hay, some $8000. With the use of the 
ensilage, Mr. Mills has absolutely demon- 
strated that he wintered his 120 head of cat- 
tle and 12 horses, 132 head in all, from the 
15th of October until the loth of May next, 
seven months, at an expense of $682, or that 
each animal ate an amount, the cost of which 
at the highest estimate was $5.25. The dif- 
ference, then, between $8000 for hay, and say 
even $700 for ensilage, would show a balance 
to the credit of the latter of $7300,. 

Now as to the products derived from these 
ensilage-fed cattle. It would be impossible 
for such fat, healthy cattle not to give the 
best of milk. Mr. Mills produces a large 
quantity of milk, the demand for which is so 
great that it is beyond his capabilities of sup- 
ply. The yield of milk is exceedingly large, 
far beyond that usually given in winter by 
hay-fed or even soft-fed cows, and this milk is 
of the best quality. A lactometer placed in 
the milk showed its uncommon richness, as it 
stood at not less than 120. Particularly rich 
in the fatty substances, the yield of butter is 
very large, though the proprietor of Arrareek 
Farm furnishes milk only, and does not sup- 
ply butter. 

In all matters of this kind it is unwise to 
form a too rapid judgment, for sometimes in 
the most carefully considered plans there may 
be initial vices which are concealed. But 
there are certain facts in regard to this method 
of ensilage which seem to stand out in tlie 
most salient way. Firstly, the cettle seen were 
in the finest possible order when examined at 
a season when cows and all other farm stock 
are usually at tlieir worst ; secondly, the pro- 
duct made, the milk, was excellent ; and 
lastly, this, which is one of the most impor- 



tant of all factors, seems to be conclusively 
shown, that if Mr. Mills' 120 cows aud 12 
horses had been hay-fed for tlie same time 
—seven months— he would have expended on 
each one of them $61.54, whereas by his 
system of ensilage he has arrived at better re- 
sults with a positive outlay not exceeding 
$5.25 per head. 

Agriculturists may do well to ponder over 
a system of this novel character which pre- 
sents so many advantages. If in time this 
method should be adopted, and its working 
found to be successful, there will be a new de- 
velopment given to the dairy and grazing 
farms. In the West, anywhere where this 
corn can be made to grow, the silo system 
could be adopted. It might be even lucra- 
tive for larger farmers to make ensilage 
which could be sold to those who might re- 
quire it. Of course hay-culture is not to be 
abandoned; animals, like human beings, re- 
quire change, with rotation of food; but en- 
silage could be used twenty-eight days in the 
month, or mixed with a small quantity of hay 
every day. What Mr. Mills intends doing in 
the future with this system is really remarka- 
ble in the novel direction it takes. When 
with his numerous cattle he has enriched his 
Pompton farm so that it shall be luxuriant 
with sweet, tender grasses, it is his intention 
to take this fresh grass crop, when he has 
more than sufficient for his cows to feed on in 
summer, and in the same pits, aud by the 
same method, instead of making hay, to con- 
vert these succulent grasses into ensilage. 

Arrareek Farm to-day is a centre of great 
attraction. Visitors from all sections of the 
country come to it, and are amazed when they 
see a siniple process by which 120 of the finest 
cows in the country have been fed all winter 
on the product of not exceeding thirteen acres 
ot ground.— Harper^s Weekly. 



TOBACCO CULTURE.— NO. II. 

Some disagreement exists among, tobacco 
growers as to the proper quantity of seed to 
grow on a given surface of ground. We can 
only saj', the danger always is to sow too 
thick. A heaped tablespoonful to every 
hundred square feet of surface are about 
the usual proportions, but we regard the 
quantities as too much. A far better plan 
would be to increase the area of the seed- 
beds largely, and sow on the quantities given 
above. 

The seed, having been sufficiently sprouted, 
should be sown at once. Being so exceed- 
ingly minute, thit cannot be successfully 
done unless they are mixed with some fine 
material, such as sifted wood ashes, plaster or 
very fine sand.- Advantage must be taken of 
a calm day, so that an even distribution may 
be secured. To attain this more effectually, 
the seed-beds should not be more than four 
feet wide, and they might advantageously be 
sown one way with half the full amount of 
seed, and then crosswise with the other half. 
A more even stand of plants results in this 
way. The beds must not be raked over after 
the seed has been sown. The latter would 
find their way too far under the surface to 
make a rapid growth, and perhaps be smoth- 
ered entirely. A smooth board laid over the ■ 
surface of the bed and pressed upon the soil 
by the the weight of a man upon it is about 
the best plan we know of Some growers 
simply walk over their beds, pressing down 
the entire surface with foot, aud this method, 
when carefully practiced, may give as good re- 
sults as any other. The former, however, is 
more rapid and does not pack the surface of 
the soil so closely. A roller of the proper 
weight could be used advantageously, aud 
even a spade could be made to answer the 
purpose. The object of this pressure is to 
prevent the light seeds from being blown 
away by the wind, and also to bring them in 
direct contact with the ground, so that the 
tender rootlets may at once penetrate it and 
thus nourish the coming plant. 

We have already said the seed bed cannot 



ISSl.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



be made too rich. In addition to the well 
rottud barnyard manure that should be plenti- 
fully spaded into tlief.M(>und, a toi> dressing of 
some good compost, free from, weed-seed, 
should be placed on top. The plants are ad- 
vanced much more rapidly in this way. It is 
not neces^ary that the site of the seed bed 
should be changed every year, but when old 
beds are used a second or third lime, it is de- 
sirable that their fertility be renewed by a 
coating of virgin soil several inches thick. 
The black vegetable mould from \voods is ex- 
cellent for this purpose. It must be carefully 
worked into the surface soil. In the South, 
■ seed beds are nearly all made in cleared 
places in the forests, as the insect pests are 
found to be less troublesome. Of course, the 
seeds must be sown on top of the compost we 
have just spoken of, and not worked into it — 
merely pressed down hard. 

Lastly, when all this has Ihm'U done, a linal 
top coveriULT nl' luij.' lirisllcs must lie added. 
Several other sulist;'nicrsarc used in tlie South, 
such as brushwood of various kinds, but all 
yield the superiority to bristles. They serve 
not only to attract and retain the moisture, 
but furnish warmth to the young plants, and 
appear to act as a manure besides. Unless 
used, frosts are likely to play havoc with the 
seed-btd. They absolutely seem to reiiuire 
some protection, and none equal to this has 
yet been found. They are a most valuable 
adjunct to the seed-bed, and should never be 
omitted. Care must be taken to sjiread them 
over the bed c veuly, so as not to choke the 
plants, as well as to admit plenty of air and 
sunlight. Common laths may be laid Over 
them at proper distances to prevent the bris- 
tles from beiui: carried away by the wind. 
With some growers the custom is to replace 
them after the lirst weeding, while others do 
not. Care nnist, however, be used so that 
the yoiuig plants shall not be injured during 
the operation. A rake is the best implement 
for this purpose. With care the same bristles 
may be used a number of seasons. 

Open Air Beds Preferable. 

It will be observed that all the foregoing has 
reference to the growing of plants in the open 
air, in beds exposed to all kinds of weather. 
In a few cases plants are grown in hot-beds. 
We have not deemed it necessary to go into 
the details required to bring forward the 
plants in that way. In our opinion the prac- 
tice should be discouraged. The only advan- 
tage it ofl'ers is that plants are ready for set- 
ting out earlier. With onlinary care the open 
airbed will give you plants early enough to 
mature before the fall frosts. "Besides, the 
latter has many advantages. We do not mean 
in regard to cost and trouble only, but in the 
great superiority of the plants themselves. 
The plants are always stronger and hardier. 
They can stand much more cold and grow far 
more readily after being set in' the field. A 
weakj sickly plant is always to be avoided, if 
possible. The more capable it is of resisting 
its enemies of whatever kind, the better your 
chances for a good crop. Our advice there- 
fore is to Peimsylvania growers to dispense 
with the hot-bed for tobacco plants; 

Young plants can bear a pretty low tempera- 
ture before freezing. They are much more 
easily nipped by the saim- temperature when 
about maturing, than when iu the seed-bed. 
A grower of our acquaintance neglected to 
gather the seed from a plant tliat was left 
standing in his garden. The winds of autumn 
scattered it far and wide, and much to bis sur- 
prise these self-sown seeds developed into hun- 
dreds of unusually line and hardy plants in 
the early spring, ail of whicli wi-rc utilized. 

So far as tlie proper time for sowing the 
seed-bed isconcerncd, much of course depends 
on the season. .Most farmers I'avorthe earliest 
moment possible. Erota the middle to the 
end of March is the usual time in thisconnty, 
which gives the plants ample time inordinary 
sea.sous to attain their perfect development 
before the i>criod of frosts arrives. 
Care of the Seed Bed. 

The labor of the tobacco grower begitis 
with the seed bed, and no where during the 



entire season can he less alTord to neglect his 
work. If the season happens to f>c dry, the 
warn) sun would soon shrivel up such of the 
sprouted seed as wa.s not fairly in contact 
with the soil. This must be watched, and 
when necessary the beds should be carefully 
watered every' evening with slightly tei)id 
water. Tliis'shouhi not, however, be applied 
in large quantities, but only enougli to keep 
up the required moisture. Can-ful observa- 
tion will be the best guide of the farmer in 
this particular. When there are plentiful 
showers, of course artiticial watering must be 
dispensed with. 

Liquid manure is a favorite preparation 
with which to sprinkle the seed bod, as the 
jilants can much more quickly utilize the fer- 
tilizing properties of manures in this shape 
than any other. lien manure is most eom- 
moidy employed for this purpose. Care must 
be taken, nowevcr, not to make the licpiid ex- 
tract too strong, as it will in such casccs not 

assume a sickly appearance, but It has been 
known to kill them altogether. The careful 
grower will, however, note every stage of 
progress, and modify or altogether abstain 
from these applications if he sees unfavorable 
indications. 

When beds have been burned over, the 
likelihood of weeds is not so great, but under 
any circumstances more or less will make 
their appearance. These must be carefully 
watched and as carefully removed. No im- 
plemeflt except the fingers of the human hand 
will answer, and care must betaken to disturb 
the tobacco plants as little as possible during 
the operation. 

When the plants make their appearance, 
the beds should be examined to see whether 
they are too crowded. If that is the case the 
surplus ones ought to be removed at once, to 
give the remaining ones a better chance. A 
small iron rake with teeth three inches long, 
curved and set about half an inch apart, has 
been found efficacious. The hand is perhaps 
better for this purpose than anything else. 

After the plants begin to show well above 
the surface a top dressing of manure should 
be spread over tlie bed to hasten their devel- 
opment. Almost any kind can be used for 
this purpose, and various kinds are employed. 
Nothing better can be applied than a com- 
pound consisting of one part hen manure, one 
part unleached wood ashes and two parts 
Idack woods-earth ; these thoroughly mixed, 
the lirst and last well pulverized, and the 
whole .sown broadcast over the beds, will be 
found to give excellent re.sults. Perhaps 
well-rotted -stable manure, if rubbed tine 
enough to do no injury to the growing plants, 
would be better than anything else. 
Canvas-Coyered Beds 

While we -discourage the use of hot-beds 
for the growing of tobacco plants, we confess 
to a strong partiality for covering the ordinary 
open air beds with canvas. The advantages 
are !5o many that we have no room here to go 
into all the details. If burning the seed-bed 
were practiced by oiu- growers, and the beds 
aftervvards carefully covered with canvas, we 
believe they would rarely experience any 
trouble from beetles and bugs. The fire would 
destroy all in the bed, while the canvas would 
prevent the entrance of any from the outside. 
The custom is becoming very general among 
the Kentucky and Tennessee growers, and 
their testimony is unanimously in favor of its 
many advantages. It is not an expensive 
operation. Boards six inches high placed 
around the beds and closely fitted at the cor- 
ner are sufficient. Over these the canvas- 
common brown domestic will answer— must 
be drawn tightly to prevent sagging in the 
centre, and then tacked closely to the board 
frame. The keen blasts of spring are also kept 
out, and a more uniform temperature is pre- 
served within. On one side of the frame the 
covering .should be so lightly fastened as to 
admit of its easy removal when the bed fir 
plants reg[uire attention, or when it is desira- 
ble to expose them more fully to the sun. 
Further on we will allude to what is said to be 



a sure protection against fleas and bugs by the 
use of a plant frame or fence around the seed 
bed, but where the caijvas covering is not 
necessary. Of coiu'se where the ])recaution 
of burning the seed-bed is not adopted neither 
boards nor canvas will afford protection 
against bugs, as they are no doubt in the soil 
and will make their way to the surface in due 
time. 

Insect Pests. 
The greatest enemies of the tobacco crop 
are the hordes of insects that come to ravage 
it. They make their appearance in the seed 
bed and cease tlnif ilc|ii.il:itions only when 
the tobacco is bun;; iipiii iIm l.arn. 1 low to 
overcome them ami sciuic (lie crop in good 

marketable cou,litlon. tin i ',,;. 1 :,,e the 

all iniportaiil qnestioiis. I,,> -> than 

tuv-.fv different insect [,<-: ,. , i. ,| prey- 
ing upon the tobi.ccocroi, in l„,i,r:,-l, I .omity. 
Some of them were such as were never known 
to attack it before. They succeeded in damag- 
ing the crop to the amount of hundreds of 
thousands of dollars. Their ravages extended 
into the adjoining ccmnties of Dauphin, Leba- 
non, Voik, Beiks and Chester, but nowhere 
wen^ they so bad as within a radius of ten 
miles around the city of Lancaster itself. Some 
years they destroy the seed beds almost en- 
tirely, but at other times their ravages are not 
so bad. 

The first destroyers that came along last 
year were members of what Entomoloj'ists 
call the HalHcidac family, or " Flea Beetle." 
The principal ones were the " Cucumber Flea 
Beetle " — Haltica Cucumeris. " The Downy 
Flea Beetle," Haltica Pub&icens, and the 
"Snow Fleas " or " Spring Tails." It was 
the second brood of the " Downy Flea Bee- 
tle" that ravaged the crop so badly a few 
weeks before maturity. The question that 
concerns our tobacco growers is how the 
ravages of these insects shall be prevented. 
They did immense damage in some seed beds, 
destroying thousands of plants. They seem 
to be the first insects that attack vegetation 
in the spring. Several intelligent farmers 
have, in conversation with us, expressed the 
hoi)e that the severe winter may have killed 
olV these invaders and that we shall not be 
troubled with them this spring. If they do 
not come, it will not be becatise of the low 
temperature. One species is often to be ob- 
served in large numbers on the surface of the 
snow, hence its common name "snow flea." 
No amount of cold weather will kill them, 
and other means must be sought to attain 
that end. Their size is so minute that they 
cannot be caught with the hand. Besides, 
the largest of them are not more than the 
sixteenth of an inch long, while others are 
hot larger than coarse grains of gunpowder. 
They are, besides, able to take long leaps, and 
when disturbed at once find refuge and safety 
under the surface of the ground. The small 
clods especially afford theiu hiding places. 
How to Kill Them. 

As both they and their larva are to be 
found in the ground the first thing is to kill 
those already in the seed bed. To do this it 
has been recommended to drench the seed 
bed copiously with hot water several days be- 
fore sowing. This should be done on a warm, 
sunshiny day, when they no doubt are near 
the surface. This plan would no doubt kill 
all it could be made to reach. To keep out 
the rest, a board or plank 14 or 15 incl)es 
high, placed close around the beds, with the 
earth pressed tightly against it on the out- 
side, has been found effectual. 

If neither of these precautions has been 
taken and the lU'C beetle makes its appearance 
iu the beds, a different course must be pur- 
sued. .Drenching the beds with a solution of 
lime has been found effectual. Paris green in 
water will also do the work. Persian insect 
powder kills them, if it reaches them, which, 
however, it cannot always be made to do. A 
gentleman reports that an application of sul- 
phur and asafoetida relieved him of the annoy- 
ances. Carbolic acid and kerosene liave been 
recommended and tried, but with unsatisfac- 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



tory results. One of our largest and most 
successful growers informs us that he has 
always obtained relief by the following method: 
lie extracts one gallon of lye from half a bushel 
of hen manure; to one part of this fluid, four 
parts rain water are added, and with this com- 
ponnd the beds are sin-iiikled every evening. 
This remedy deserves to be tried by all grow- 
ers, as it is cheap and easy of application. 
The fluid is besides highly beneficial to the 
plants, and occasional applications of it are 
highly desirable even though there are no fleas 
to be killed. A partial preventive is to plant 
the outer borders of the plant thickly into 
black mustard. It comes u}) quickly and the 
flea beetle is very partial to it, as it is to cab- 
bages, turnips, radishes and many other plants 
and vegetables. Lastly, we give the plan 
mostly in vogue in Tennessee, which is to set 
several hens with broods of chicks from six to 
fourteen days old near or in the bed, of course 
securing the mothers. The chicks are said to 
make clean work with every species of insect 
life to be found in the beds, and, at that age, 
can of course do no harm to the plants. A 
species of centipede ,or spider, that frequently 
girdles and kills the plants, would of course 
succumb to the various remedies given above 
We do not give these remedies as infallible. 
They have proved successful with some grow- 
ers, and will no doubt do so wherever they are 
fairly tried. If one is found not to answer, 
the farmer sliould try another. The end in 
view is worth all the trouble and expense he 
may go to. 

Grow Enough Plants. 

Do not forget that you cannot well sow the 
seed too thinly; the danger always is your 
plants will come up too tliick. When they 
stand close together they grow up thin and 
spindling, neither the roots nor leaves having 
room for development. When not crowded, 
they grow a stronger and more vigorous stalk, 
which will not only have better roots, but 
bear transplanting better and stand a fairer 
chance of resisting the insect enemies and the 
season, to say nothing of maturing earlier. In 
fact, too much stress can not be laid upon the 
great importance of having a stand of strong, 
healthy plants. They will stand drouth much 
better and pass beyond danger from the cut 
worm much sooner. Last year the early to- 
bacco escaped the ravages of the flea beetle; 
a period of ten days' time may make or mar 
a crop. 

Another thing we especially commend to 
the attention of tobacco growers: Always 
sow twice as much seed as you are likely to 
require. It is not enough to have just as 
many plants as you need, but it is well to have 
a good many more. In the first place, you 
have a mvxch larger field for selection. By 
this plan you are enabled to secure plants 
more alike in size; this will not only make 
your tobacco field present a much finer ap- 
pearance, but it will ripen more evenly, and 
as the buyers make their inspecting tours, they 
will make notes of wliat they see, which may 
put a good many dollars in your pocket. No 
matter if you have more plants than you need. 
There are nearly always some who have been 
careless in this matter and must buy their 
plants. If your first planting is badly eaten, 
as it perhaps will be, you have a second sup- 
ply of vigorous plants to replace them. Last 
year the cut-worms were so numerous here- 
abouts that a tliird replanting was required, 
and the unlucky growers were often compelled 
to ride weary miles at much expense to obtain 
the required plants. Every consideration of 
prudence therefore should induce the tobacco 
grower to take the necessary steps to provide 
himself with an ample supply of plants. 



THE USES OF LIME IN FARMING. 

From an Irish agricultural paper we take 
the following summary of the uses of lime : 

The uses of lime are in part mechanical and 
part chemical. 

1. Upon deep alluvial and clay soil it in- 
creases the crop of potatoes, and renders 



them less waxy. Sprinkled over potatoes in 
a store heap, when both the potatoes and the 
lime are in a dry state, it preserves them, 
and when riddled over the cut set at plant- 
ing time it wonderfully increases their vitality. 

2. Lime eradicates the finger and toe 
disease in turnips, and helps to give greater 
firmness to the bulbs. 

3. It gives, when applied to meadow land, 
a larger product by producing more nutritious 
grasses, also helping to exterminate the seeds 
of mosses and aquatic plants. 

4. Upon arable land it destroys weeds of 
various kinds. 

5. It rapidly decomposes vegetable matter, 
producing a large amount of food for plants in 
tlie form of carbonized elements. 

6. It destroys and neutralizes the acids in 
the soil, hence its adaptaliility to some lands. 

7. It acts powerfully upon some of the or- 
ganic parts of the soil, especially upon sulphate 
of magnesia and alumina. 

8. It proves fatal to worms and slugs, and 
the larvae of insects, though favorable to the 
growth of shell bearers. 

9 Slacked lime added to vegetable matter 
causes it to give off its nitrogen in the form 
of ammonia. Upon soils iri which ammonia 
is combined with acids, it sets free the ammo- 
nia which is seized upon by the growing 
plants. 

10. Its solubility in water causes it to sink 
into and ameliorate the subsoil. When the 
soil contains fragments of granite or* trap 
rock, lime hastens their decomposition and 
liberates their constituents. 

11. Its combination with the acids in the 
soil produces saline compounds suah as potash 
and soda, which immediately enter into plant 
growth. 

12. Strewed over plants it destroys or 
renders uncomfortable the location of numer- 
ous species of insects which prey on the sur- 
face—notably the turnip fly. 

13. Worked in with grass seeds the benefi- 
cial effect of lime, chalk, marl and shell sand 
—into the composition of all of which lime 
largely enters — it has been known to produce 
visible effects for upwards of thirty years. 

Applied to manure, lime serves to destroy 
the seeds of various weeds, the larvte of in- 
sects, and otherwise exercises a very beautiful 
effect in the liberation of organic constitu- 
ents, and then assists in their combination 
with other and more useful forms of plant 
food. 

So much for the testimony of an intelligent 
Irish Journal ; and now let us see what our 
progressive friends nearer home have to say 
as to the marked beneficial effects oi^ Lime 
when applied to the soil : 

From some reports from the Department 
of Agi-icultural at Washington, we clip the 
following from its correspondence : 

J. R. Evans, of Hainsville, Pa., says : 

* * * * * u Considerable 
interest is manifested by our farmers upon 
the subject of manures. They devote their 
attention as carefully and regularly to collect- 
ing and saving all kinds of vegetable matter 
to be procured as to the more indispensable 
labors of the farm. Lime is applied to corn 
ground, after it is ploughed, at the rate of 7-5 
to 100 bushels to the acre. Tlie ground is 
then thoroughly harrowed before planting. 
For wheat on fallow land, 100 bushels are 
sprfead to each acre in August previous to 
sowing." 

" A. M. Higgins, of Delaware, writes : 

* * * * * "In about the 
year 1830, lime began to be introduced, 
against much skepticism as to its utility. It 
is now universally used, and may be regarded 
by our farmers as the principal element in the 
success already attained. It is deposited by 
lime boats, from the Schuylkill, along the 
banks of the Delaware and other inlets, in 
vast quantities, at a cost of from 12^ to 14 
cents per bushel of stone or quick-lime. No 
farmer has occasion to haul his lime further 
than five or six miles from a landing." 

Authority on such matters writes as fol- 
lows concerning Lime : 



* * * * * " Where the soil 
is heavy, and contains so much water that it 
is sticky and plastic, and fit to make brick, 
green manuring would do no good. Such 
lands would be radically improved by another 
means— by the use of lime, which sometimes 
produces the most wonderful effect on stiff 
clay soils. With a top-dressing of lime, lightly 
harrowed in, the lime will gradually dissolve 
in water, and as the water penbtrates the soil 
the lime goes down with it, is deposited in 
the clay, and intervenes its own particles be- 
tween the particles of clay ; and it will be 
found, after a season or two, the plowing of 
the land can be undertaken earlier in the 
season. It dries off sooner, and acquires a 
loamy texture, while at the same time it is 
chemically improved." 

.Joshua S. Keller says : "As fertilizers, we 
chiefly use barn-yard manure. The cheapest 
way to improve land is by Lwie. 

"The quantity depends on the kind of soil 
and after-treatment. Heavy clay can bear 
one hundred or more bushels to the acre, 
while on light soils, from fifty to eighty bushels 
will answer very well." 

Wm. Bacon, Richmond, Mass., writes : 

"Lime is extremely valuable for lands 
which have acquired too much acidity, 
whether they rest on a limestone formation 
or not. But the extreme high price it bears, 
from 25 to 30 cents per bushel, forbids the 
use of it to any considerable extent. The re- 
fuse of the kilns is readily bought up at cheap 
rates, and usually applied to land in compost 
with swamp or pond muck, or turf from the 
highway, which, when thoroughly worked, is 
productive of great benefit as a top-dressing 
on grass lands, and ploughed crops. The 
ashes from these kilns, like house ashes, are 
in high demand for the compost heap, or im- 
mediate application to the land, where their 
effects are strongly marked and long visible. 
They are obtained at from 8 to 10 cents a 
bushel." 

John Eichar, Greensburg, Penna.,says: 

" The only fertilizers in general use with us 
are lime, plaster and barnyard manure. Air- 
slacked lime and barnyard manure are ap- 
plied to land intended for wheat, oats, or corn, 
and are generally spread upon the ground 
after it has been ploughed. Plaster is prin- 
cipally used in the spring on our grass lauds, 
at the rate of a bushel to an acre, which will 
increase the yield of hay about one-third. 
Fifty bushels of lime and twenty-four horse- 
loads of barnyard manure to an acre, renewed 
every three years, are generally applied for 
corn, oats, and wheat, which usually in- 
creases the yield 25 percent., and the soil 
will be in good condition for the two follow- 
ing crops." 

N. Linton, Chester Co., Penna., very for- 
cibly writes : 

"Barnyard manure and lime are our main 
dependence. Lime is mostly spread on the 
sod at the rate of 30 to 60 bitshels to the acre, 
once in each course of crops ; but it is often 
scattered on corn ground just previous to corn 
planting. Many farmers think it the best 
way to apply it to wheat stubble shortly after 
the grain is harvested ; but in whatever way 
it is put on, it is the basis of successful hus- 
bandry. Nearly all our lauds for miles 
around were formerly worn out old fields, 
which would produce nothing ; but the appli- 
cation of lime unlocked the hidden treasures 
of the soil, and redered available as food for 
plants 'the inert organic matter which it con- 
tained. This, accompanied by judicious cul- 
tivation and a proper rotation of crops, has 
entirely changed the appearance of our neigh- 
borhood. Scarcely an . old field is to be 
found." 



TREE TRIMMING. 



In trimming a tree several objects must be 
held in view. Fu'st. A proper balance of 
limbs and branches. A leaning tree or a one- 
sided tree may produce good fruit, but a 
straight, well balanced tree will produce more 
fruit and better fruit. I go once or twice 



1881.J 



-THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



around a tree, and try to take in the whole 
situation before I put my knife to the limb. I 
look at the probable size and shape of the tree 
live to ten years hence, and cut accordiiiKly. 
Three years ago I set a row of plniu trees 
where the prevailing winds made all the 
branches grow on one side. Sickness pre- 
vented niv attending to them properly, and 
the next winter they were a sorry sight- all 
on one side. 15y my constant attention sum- 
mer and winter, encouraging one side and 
discouraging the other, they are now pretty 
equally balanced. Second. A proper degree 
or openness, so as to let in sun and air, to 
properly perfect fruit and branches; and not 
too much sun to wither up any part of tlu; 
trees. Thirdly. Limbs must not cross eAch 
other, producing future chaling of the bark. 
Fourthly. A crotched tree must be avoided, 
as when one of the crotches splits off the tree 
is ruined. Fil'lhlv. Surkers ami sap limbs, 
and long, strag^'lin;; braaclie.s must he kepi in 
check. I sutler my trees to branch out low, 
often less than a foot from the ground, so as 
not to have a long naked bndy e.\posed to the 
sun, wind and insects. I keep the lower limbs 
pretty well in, however, so as not to be too 
much' in the way of the plow. To do this it 
is sometimes necessary to cut oiT the ends of 
the limbs to an inside bud. I trim all times 
of the year; as one nurseryman expresses it, 
"whenever my knife is sharp." I trim so 
often that I vei7 seldom take off a large limb. 
One large limb taken from a tree is more in- 
jurious to its vitality than many scores of 
small ones. Indeed, if the thing were pos- 
sible without introducing the inevitable Irish- 
man, I would trim so often and well as not to 
have to trim at all. This, indeed, would be 
the perfection of fruit-growing— when you can 
induce your true to expand all its vitality in 
the production and perfection only of fruit 
and necessary growth. And, I think, by con- 
stant attention, pinching in and summer prun- 
ing, we ciin come much nearer perfection in 
this direction than is often done. I love 
nature; 1 like to see her in all her wayward 
moods and rough, wild way.s. I never ])ut a 
knife to an ornamental or forest tree. These 
city evergreens, trimmed up in shape of bot- 
tles, pyramids and cones, are pretty, to he 
sure, but thej' look so constrained and dis- 
torted that the sight to me is rather painful 
than otherwise. But when it comes to a fruit 
tree, it must be constrained to a shape of 
utility, and then only it is beautiful. A fruit 
tree with clustering masses of tangled boughs, 
so that the sun and air cannot penetrate to 
give color and flavor to the fruit, or with long 
straggling branches, unprotected from the 
fierce winds and hot glare of the sun, or with 
neglected sprouts growing from the roets, sap- 
ping the life from the trees, is truly a sorry 
sight. 

About Orchard Grass. 

It is gratifying to note the number of in- 
quiries made of late concerning Orchard- 
grass. It is quite as valuable a grass as 
Timothy, and in some respects preferable to 
that grass, and should be more generally 
known. Its botanical name is Dacti/lis glmne- 
ruta, the generic name, Dadylin, being nearly 
the Greek word for "a finger's breadth," 
probably applied to it on account of the size of 
its cluster of^spikelets. Though called orchard- 
grains with us, it is generally known in Eng- 
land as "Cock's-foot." In some works it is 
given as a native of this country, but while it 
is generally introduced in all the older states, 
it is nowhere a native. Still, singularly 
enough, the .success that attended its cultiva- 
tion in Virginia, where it had been brought 
from England, in colonial times, caused it to 
be returned to the mother country about 1764, 
as Orchard-grass, and of great value; thus an 
interest was created in England in one of 
their own grasses, which iiad not heretofore 
been highly valued. Since Orchard-grass was 
thus introduced into England, its culture 
largely increased, and it now properly 
holds a high rank. In this country, on 



the contrary, its popularity diminished; and 
it is only within a few years that interest 
in it has been renewed. Without discussing 
the reason for this, we may say that we know 
of no other grass, not even the universally 
enltivated Timothy, so well deserving the at- 
liMiliou (if our thriiieis I'nr boll] hav and pas- 
tunige, us Orehard-urass. It adapts itself to 
all varieties of soils; its stems are very leafy; 
it does well in the shade of trees; it gives a 
very heavy aftermath; and it is in its best con- 
dition, in blossom, at the same time with red 
clover; all of these being in its favor as a 
meadow grass. For pastiures it is quite as 
valuable, startiiig quite early in spring; push- 
ing a new growth very rapidly after it has 
bcH'U gra/.e(l over; lasting late in the fall; and 
enduring ilnmlh liettei' than almost any other. 
Against it are cited twd faults: 1st. It has a 
tendency to grow in clumps and form tussocks; 
and 2ud. It has not sufficient hold upon the 
soil, but is pulled up by the roots by the cat- 
tle. The tirst of these is overcomft by thick 
seeding, and the second by not turning the 
cattle upon it \mtil the roots have taken 
thorough hold of the soil. On this point Col. 
Killebrew, in his excellent work on "The 
Grasses of Tennessee, " says: " It should not 
be pastured, the first season, until August, 
however tempting it may be." He states 
that in every case of complaint as to the want 
of endurance of tliis grass in pastures, he 
found the trouble due to pasturing too early. 
Like Timothy, it may be sown with grain 
crops in fall or spring, and is regarded as es- 
pecially suitable to seed with oats. The seeds 
run from 12 to 1.5 pounds to the bushel, those 
usualy offered by seedsmen weighing 14 pounds. 
Two bushels to the acre is the least that should 
be sown, and two and a half bushels is still 
better, using about 15 pounds of Clover seed 
to the acre. Orchard-grass has been found 
admirably suited for winter pasture in the 
Southern States. Howard, in his pamphlet on 
" Grasses and Forage Plants at the South," 
ranks it as next in importance to the "Fall 
Meadow Oat-grass" (Arrenatherum avcna- 
ceiim), both for hay and especially for winter 
pasturage, with both leaving the after-math 
undisturbed, and turning the cattle on after 
Christmas, and if the grass is for pasturage 
only, keeping them on after spring opens. One 
point to which we have before referred, finds 
an illustration in this grass; that is, the im- 
portance of improving our grasses hy selec- 
tion . Something like 40 years ago, the Messrs. 
Lauson & Son, of Edinburgh, selected some 
of the most vigorous plants of Orchard-grass, 
(Cock\s-foot), and by continuously sowing and 
selecting, established a variety known as 
"Mammoth Cock's-foot," the seed of which, 
at the present day, bring a much higher price 
than those of the common kind. We have 
not yet found out what it is possible for us to 
do in the improvement of many of our com- 
mon grasses. 



OUR Local Organizations. 



Tlie I>anc.i6tor County Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural society hfild a stated meetinif in their room, in 
city liall, Monday afternoon, April 4tli. 

The reading of the minutes of last meeting was on 
motion dispensed with. 

The following members and visitors were present: 

Messrs. Jbs. F. Witmer, president, Paradise; M. 
D. Kendig, secretary, Creswell; Dr.Wra. Compton, 
city; John C. Linville, Gap; Henry M. Englc, .Mari- 
etta; S. P. Eby, city; Henry Kurtz, Mount Joy; 
Frank R. Diffenderfler, city; J. M. Johnston, city; 
John H. Landis, Millersville; Dr. C. A. Green, city; 
C. A. Gast, city; Johnson .Miller, Warwick; W. W. 
Griest, city; C. L. Hunsceker, Manheim; W. H. 
Brosius, Druniore; .John Huber, Pequea; Israel L. 
LaudiS) Manheim; Cyrus Neff, Manor; J. Hoffman 
Hershey, Salunga ; I. O. Arnold, Drumore ; .Mr. 
Buckwalter. 

John J. Moore, of Drumore township, was pro- 
posed for membership and elected. 

President Witmer said he had within a few days 
received a note from J. B. LIchty, In which he says, 
if the society holds a fair next fall, he will guarantee 
a profit of $150 to ?200 from the publication of the 



premium list. Dr. Greene had recently said that lie 
would guarantee $500 profit to the society If the fair 
was run on a plan suggested by him. President 
Witmer added that If it was the intention of the so- 
ciety to hold a fair, now would be the proper time to 
take action. 

Dr. Greene said he had no doubt that if prompt 
and proper clforts were made the society could give 
a fair that would of be profitable to Itself and a credit 
to the county, and now Is the time to commence 
making arrangements. Farmers want five or six 
months in which to prepare some of their exiilblts. 
The names of pro|)osed exhibitors should be secured 
and published widely. There are many Industrial 
interests that will be only too glad to have an oppor- 
tunity of displaying their manufactures (o the public. 
While he had no desire to have anv control of the 
fair, and thought It would be much better for the so- 
ciety to have entire control of It, he would stand by ■ 
the offer he had made on a former occasion, and for- 
feit J.'JOO if the fair proved unsuccessful, If run on 
the plan suggested by him. It should embrace live 
slock of all varieties, farm produce of all kinds, 
manufactures and machinery of all kinds, fruits of 
every variety, and liberal luduraments should be 
held out to all Industrial interests to exhibit the best 
of their several products. The fair should be widely 
advertised, and talked up and written up for months 
in advance, and It would certainly prove successful . 
H. M. Englc said if a few men as liberal as Dr. 
Greene were to take hold of the matter, the fair 
could undoubtedly be made a success. He did not 
think, however, it should be conducted under Indl-, 
vidual auspices. The society should at once take 
hold of the matter and push It forward instead of 
holding it back. The first thing to be done is to 
secure proper grounds. A committee for the pur- 
pose should be at once appointed. Ample space 
should be secured ; experience has shown that the 
Northern market house is not the place to hold a 
county fair. What has been done can be done again ; 
we have had good fairs In years gone by, and wc can 
have them again; farming is not going liackwards 
but forward ; other counties hold gooil fairs annu- 
ally and there is no good reason why JLaiicaster 
county should be behind them. There is no reason 
for being east down simply because our last fair, 
held at the wrong time and place, had proved a fall- 
Mr. Kurtz favored holding another fair. There 
are plenty of farmers in the county who own plenty 
of superior stock and grow superior products, and 
they have sufficient county pride to exhibit them It 
proper Inducements are held out to them. 

Mr. Witmer said that if our farmers had felt an 
interest in exhibiting their products there was 
plenty of room for them in the Northern market 
house last fall, where they could have shown every- 
thing except live stock and heavy machinery, and 
yet the market house was not half filled with ex- 
hibits. 

Mr. Eby said we used to have good fairs before 
the war, but after the troops took possession of the 
fair grounds, pulled down the shedding and fences 
and burned the timber the society collapsed. Those 
fairs were made successful by liberal subscriptions 
from the hotel keepers and other business men, who 
subscribed from ?.5 to ?.50 each to promote the fairs. 
Unless the business men of Lancaster come forward 
and pledge themselves for an amount suflldent to 
meet all probable expenses he would oppose holding 
another fair. 

Dr. Greene made a motion that a committee of 
three or more be appointed by the president to can- 
vass the city for subscriptions, to call especially 
upon business men, mechanics, manufacturers and 
men of wealth, and solicit their assistance and sup- 
port ; the committee to report to next meeting. 

Mr. Englc moved to amend by making it a part of 
the duty of the committe to look around for suitable 
grounds on which to hold th^ fair. 

The amendment was accepted and the motion as 
amended was adopted. 

The chair appointed Dr. C. A. Greene, H. M. 
Engle and Henry Kurtz said committee ; but .Messrs. 
Engie and Kurtz both declined, on the ground that 
the committee should be residents of Lancaster. The 
chair then substituted the names of Wm. McComsey 
and Dr. Wm. Compton. 

Dr. Compton positively declined. He expected to 
be very busily engaged In another matter for some 
mouths, and would not have any time to devote to 
the Interests of a fair. Besides, he was opposed to 
holding one, aud prophesied that the society would 
run itself 82,.')00 in debt if it held one. He had been 
mixed up in one fair, and he wished to wash his 
hands of all conuection with another. If, however, 
the society resolves to hold a fair he will do all he 
can to make it a success. 

Mr. Iluusccker spoke of the success of the old 
time fairs, and had no doubt that sufficient funds 
could be collected to make the next one a success. 

As Dr. Compton positively refused to serve on the 
committee, the chair substituted the name of Israel 
L. Landis. 

Crop Reports. 

Henry Kurtz said the condition of the crops In the 
vicinity of Mount Joy was rather discouraging ; the 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



wheat looks bickly and is getting worse under the 
action of bad weather ; clover and timothy is in gen- 
eral a failure; many farmers have plowed up their 
grass fields and will plant them in corn or other 
crops. 

H. M. Engle said that the condition of the crops 
had changed hut little since last month; it is too 
soon as yet for farmers to begin to croak; there are 
plenty of chances yet for a good crop of wheat if the 
season should not prove unfavorable; much of the 
grass is, of course, frozen out, but what is left may 
make a pretty good yield. As to fruits he believed 
all the peach buds in his neighborhood had been 
killed; he had e.^ca mined great numbers of them and 
all were deid; apricots and other tender fruits have 
been killed; apples are not injured, but as this is an 
"off year "a full crop cannot be expected; pears 
stand severe cold without injury, and a good crop 
maybe expected. He had been astonished to find 
that several half-hardy varieties of grapes and rasp- 
berries, which had in former winters, mnch milder 
than last winter, been killed, were now uninjured. 
The rainfall for the past month was one of the 
heaviest he had ever noticed, being 6}g inches. 

S. P. Eby said he had a small peach orchard on 
high ground, near Mountville, that did not appear to 
have been injured by the winter; he had examined a 
great many of the buds and found that while they 
were brown outside they were green and healthy 
looking within. 

J. C. Linville, of Salisbury, said th.at the wheat in 
his neighborhood that had been well manured, looked 
pretty well, but all the rest looked bad^much worse 
than when the snow first melied; it had been mucli 
injured by the recent frosts and rains. Tlie result 
teaches one good lesson: if we expect to grow good 
crops of winter wheat we must manure them well. 
R.aspberries, blackberries and other small fruits ap- 
pear to be uninjured; the peach buds are all killed, 
but the wood is uninjured. His grass appears to be 
nearly all killed, and he will plow up the fields and 
put in Hungarian grass and other crops for fodder. 
He asked if any of the member had had any experi- 
ence in sowimr peas as a substitute for grass. 

.Mr. F,iii;le answered that he had sown peas with 
oats, and Ininil them to do very well as green fod- 
i| r, and lir l[ad no loubt they would do well dried. 

.M.D. Keiidig mentioned as a peculiar circumstance 
the fact that he had a Marseilles rose — a variety 
that floritsts say will not stand the winter— which he 
had kept outside for several winters in succession, 
and notwithstanding the severity of the past winter, 
the stock was not frozen. He reported the young 
grass and clover in his neighborhood as being a 
failure, some of the farmers having sown their fields 
three times without securing a setting of grass, and 
would plow up-the fields. Re further reported that 
there was last year more stall-fed cattle in Manor 
than ever before, and most of them had been sold at 
good prices— 5 and 5\i cents per pound and some 
choice cattle at It. cents. The stock was fed with the 
object of securing more manure. About 40 per cent, 
of the tobacco crop has been sold at good prices, and 
prices are still maintained. 

Mr. Linville reported in behalf of Daniel Smeych, 
that while many varieties of cherries liad been in- 
jured by the severe winter the " Lancaster cherry " 
had weathered it uninjured. 

Wm. H. Brosius, of Drumore, said that some 
fields of wheat looked very well and others very bad, 
the prospect for a crop being below the average. 
The grass fields are all very thin. 

President Witmer said that Paradise township was 
about on a par with others reported ; wheat does 
not look so well as when the snow first left ; grass 
in some places is pretty well set ; a great many cat- 
tle were stall-fed and disposed of, but not at quite 
such good prices as were mentioned by Mr. Kendig ; 
tobacco goes oflf slowly, some of the local buyers 
having gone all the way to Juniata county for leaf, 
while the bulk of the crop in their own tovvnship re- 
mains unsold. 

Mr. Engle advised farmers to be not too hasty in 
plowing down their young grass; it may with favora- 
ble weather come up thicker than they now expect, 
and with the wild grasses may make a pretty fair 
crop; better let the grass grow till June than cut off 
what there is of it, and if it is not a full crop, plow 
down the stubble and sow Hungarian grass or mil- 
let, which only require sixty days to mature. If you 
determine, however, to grow oats, the grass fields 
must at once be plowed down. 

Iron Pyrites as a Fertilizer. 

Dr. Greene said he had a bushel or two of a fertili- 
zer which"he would like to distribute among farmers 
who will give it a trial; he will willingly give a quart 
or two to all who apply. It is nothing more than 
iron pyrites, decomposed by long exposure to the at- 
mosphere, and is composed largely of sulphur and 
alumina. It is not only a good fertilizer, espeeially 
for fruit trees, but it is a sure preventive against in 
sect pests. He has no interest in it whatever, but 
having witnessed its valuable.effects he would like 
others to give it a trial. 

Dr. Greene read an essay on "How we are 
Poisoned." See page 53 of this number of the 
Fahugb. 



The Cololpa Spisiosa. 
Mr. Engle read an interesting article on the 
Catalpa spisiosa tree, wherein the writer, .Mr. Doug- 
lass, pays it a deserved compliment as being one of 
the most valuable of trees. It is more durable than 
the locust, makes an elegant shade tree, grows 
rapidly, and can be easy grown as far north as lati- 
tude 45. He urged farmers to secure seeds or young 
trees which could be got from Illinois nurseries, and 
perhaps elsewhere, at trifling expense. 

Business for Next Meeting. 

The following questions were proposed for discus- 
sion at next meeting : 

" What is the best to way repair worn out lands?" 
Referred to Dr. Greene. 

" Is land improved by lying many years in grass ?" 
Referred to C. L. Hunsecker. 

"What do farmers keep dogs for ?" Referred to 
Wm. H. Brosius. 

" What is a good substitute for a good hay crop ?" 
Referred to Levi S. Reist. 

Adjourned . 

MARCH MEETING OF FULTON FARM- 
ERS. 

At the .March meeting of the Fulton Farmers' 
Club, at the residence of Joseph Griest, Fulton twp., 
an election for officers to serve for the ensuing year 
was held with the following result : President, Wm. 
King ; Secretary, E. Henry Haines ; Treasurer, 
Lindley King; Librarian, Wm. P. Haines. 

William King exhibited some Nottingham Brown 
apples and a scion 4 feet 3 inches long cut from a 
graft that was put in last spring. 

Solomon L. Gregg exhibited a Lawrence pear and 
Rawles, Jannett, Dominie, smokehouse. Ridge, Pip- 
pin, and Smith Cider apples. 

Question. 

Jus. Griest^Which is the best way to dispose of 
the rag weeds now on the wheat stubble fields ? 

William P. Haines would drag a scantling or slab 
over them to break them off, and then rake them up 
and haul them off the fields. 

Jos. C. Stubbs would break them off with roller 
and rake them. 

William King said they could best be raked with 
an old iashioned wooden horse-rake, with the teeth 
only in one side of the head. 

S. L. Gregg had gone over his field twice with a 
green pole dragged in opposite directions. 

Isaac Terrill had moved his in the fall and intends 
to rake them off in the spring. 

S. L. Gregg stated that either corn stalks or weeds 
will knock off easier the first hard freeze than they 
will afterwards. 

S. L. Gregg— How have apples kest this winter, 
and what is the proper way to keep them ? 

William King replied that his had kept well, both 
in barrels, in the cellar and buried in the ground. 
Those of the cellar were left out until cold weather. 

Isaac Bradley has packed apples in leaves with 
good success. He fills the barrels with alternate 
layers of leaves and apples, and puts them in the 
cellar when freezing time commences. He thinks 
leaves much better than chaff, as they do not heat. 

After dinner the men portion of the meeting took 
a look at things in and around the farm, where they 
found about a half dozen horses, several cows and 
heifers and fifteen very fine fat steers. The owner 
has another barn on his premises, not visited, where 
he also keeps some stock, making an unusual 
amount for the size of his farm. Most of the host's 
stock was admired from the horsesdown to the dogs, 
and the only things found fault with was that the 
chickens were allowed to roost about the stable, and 
the rabbits had eaten the bark off several young 
fruit trees. 

After assembling in the house, Joseph Griest read 
from the Country Gentleman an article on ensilage, 
written by Dr. Bailey, of Winning farm, Mass., who 
was the first to thoroughly test, in this country, this 
manner of keeping green food for stock, and who 
still claims great merit for the new discovery. 

At the request of William P.Haines, the secretary 
read an article on the question discussed at the last 
meeting about the paint on carriages suffering in- 
jury if they are kept near stables, in which the 
writer insists on the necessity of keeping all painted 
vehicles out of the reach of the gases arising from 
such places. 

William King read an article on pyrethrum, an in- 
sect powder for killing potato bugs, elc. 

Carrie Blackburn recited "Farmer Ben's Theory." 

.Mary A. King read a temperance article entitled 
"The island and City of .\»any Such. 

Mabel H. Griest read "The Two Ages." 
Discussion. 

On the qu'-stion, "Is it better to buy manure from 
the city or buy feed and straw and feed cattle to 
make it ! 

Joseph Griest, who has used considerable of city 
manure, said it cost three and a half dollars per ton 
delivered by railroad at Peach Bottom, and it re- 



quires four tons per acre to give the land a tolerably 
good dressing. He believes at present prices farm- 
ers had better make the manure at home. Last 
year he fed a lot of steers by which, counting the 
manure to be worth the hay and straw consumed, 
he received a dollar per bushel for his corn. 

Joseph R. Blackburn, who is another of the few 
cattle feeders belonging to the club, coincided with 
the above view on the subject. 

William King said that if it would pay to fatten 
them on purchased feed, and if it is better for those 
who raise the feed to feed it on their farms and save 
from going to the city for manure, it will pay others 
to purchase feed and do likewise. Several others 
seemed inclined to an opposite view of the question, 
and reasoned somewhat in this wise ! if it takes 35 
bushels corn at 50 cents per bushel, one ton of hay 
worth §15, and one ton of straw worth S6 to fatten 
one steer, the cost of fed and bedding will be 838.50. 
Now if the steer is sold at an advance of $25 (and 
farmer.s as often get less as more) there will be a 
loss of ?13.50, which is more than the manure is 
worth, while in addition to this there is the loss of 
the labor. 

The librarian requested all those that hftve books 
belonging to the Club, to bring them to the next 
meeting, which will he held at Lindley King's on 
Saturday, April 14. 

E. H. H., Sec'y. 



APRIL MEETING. 



The April meeting of the club was held at the resi- 
dence of Lindley King, in Fulton township, on the 
9th instant, a number of visitors being present by in- 
vitation. 

Montillion Brown exnibited several ears of corn of 
his own raising, and also some ears that were sent 
for exhibition by Jesse Tocom. 

William King exhibited an ear of Canada corn, an 
eight-rowed variety, which some of the Chester 
county farmers are raising on their corn-stalk ground 
as a substitute for oats, its early maturity enabling 
them to clear it off the ground in good time to seed 
it with wheat. 

Questions Asked and Answered. 

Josiah Brown asked what kind of potatoes the club 
would recommend for planting. 

The Early Rose was recommended as one of the 
varieties by every one present. The Victor and 
Peerless were also the varieties that would be planted 
by some. 

Day Wood asked if it would be of any use to sow 
timothy seed in the spring. 

Josiah Brown always mixes timothy seed with his 
clover seed wlfcn he sows in the spring. It some- 
times does very well. 

Robert Gibson, (a visitor), said it would take as 
well on flat ground when sown in the spring as in 
the fall. 

Several others had known it to do well svhen sown 
in the spring. 

Lindley King; Would it be worth while to sow 
clover on the wheat stubble where the young grass 
was thrown. out by the winter? 

Montillion Brown did not think that it would in 
ordinary cases. If the ground was harrowed and 
manned it might do. 

Josiah Brown would run a harrow over it. He 
had treated corn stalk ground in this way and sowed 
with clover and had it to take well. 

Joseph R. Blackburn thought that it would not be 
worth while to make the trial. 

Edwin M. Stubbs asked, which would produce the 
most feed per acre— corn sowed for foddei , or Hun- 
garian grass — feed tb be used in winter ? 

Hungarian grass was preferred by nearly all pres- 
ent. It produces a good quality of hay, and cattle 
do well while feeding ou it. 

Day Wood and Robert Gibson thought that more 
weight could be obtained from corn. 

Lindley King: Which is the better way of putting 
on phosphate for eorn, sow broadcast or put it in the 
hill; 

.Montillion Brown had tried it in the hill several 
years. About one-half bf the time it does well, but 
in dry seasons it is an injury rather than a benefit. 
It is better as a general thing to sow and plow down. 

Joseph R. Blackburn would sow part broadcast 
and put the remainder in the hill. 

Sowing broadcast and plowing In seemed to be in 
favor with most of the others. 

Montillion Brown asked what kind of oats the club 
would recommend for sowing. Common white 
would be sown by all except Jos. R. Blackburn and 
Robert Gibson. The first would sow White Poland, 
the others Whire Mediterranean . 

Entertained by the Host. 

The club next adjourned to the dining room, where 
a good substantial meal was waiting. After the 
wants of the inner man were well supplied, the male 
members of the club were shown over the farm by 
the proprietor. The fences were found in goo.d order, 
and things generally looked well. Some improve- 
ment had been made in the dwelling, and a new hog 
pen built since the club last met there. He was ad- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



vised to put a jointer on his plow in order to turn In 
the corn etalks tnore effectually. 
Papers Read. 
After returnlns: to the hoase the host selected an 
article entitled " More corn to the acre," which was 
read to the Club. The article gave an .account of a 
crop raised by Joseph G. Pierce of over one hundred 
bushels per acre. It was planted two feet apart In 
the rows and rows three feet apart, two stalks In the 
hill. Nine hundred pounds of standard fertilizer 
had been used, part sowed broadcast and part in 

E. H.Haines read a letter from Joseph A. Roman, 
of Colora, Cecil county, Maryland, giving a report of 
his experience with eusilaffc. While he is aware 
that one winter's trial Is not sufBcient to establish 
its merits al)Ove_ feed cured In the ordinary way, he 
is so well pleased with it that he would Increas ■ his 
sllos if he was not looking forward to the time when 
he would be livln? on n prairie farm. Mr. Haines 
f^aid that he did not suppose that Joseph had been 
able to give it anything like a fair trial, but as it had 
turned out so well we might try It. 

.Montillion Brown said this Is something new and 
we sometimes go too fast. He had seen an article in 
tlie Gcrmantown Telegraph warning people to be 
careful. In Europe, where It originated, It Is by no 
means universal. 

K. H. Haines. The French are not so much in ad- 
vance of us. What they know to-day we know 
tomorrow. 

Joseph R. Blackburn asked if a crop of corn 
raised for ensilage was worth more than if raised for 

Samuel J. Kirk thought It would be if it could be 
got otrthe ground In time for seeding it with wheat. 
. Montillion Brown : The advocates of ensilage 
have one strong ground to stand upoi) — there are no 
patents to sell. 

Day Wood had not much faith In it. It would suit 
fancy farmers, with a surplus of money. 

The question was left for further consideration at 
a future meeting. 

An Interesting Essay. 

Mary A. King read an essay on agriculture, writ- 
ten by William M. Way, recommending more atten- 
tion to science in farming and closing with strong 
remarks against the cultivation of tobacco, an arti 
cle that was of no use, but an Injury to mankind, and 
its bad effects would be likely to be visited on our 
children. 

S.J. Kirk thought it a very able essay and it 
would be well for farmers to think about it. 

E. H. Haines said the writer speaks of scientific 
farming. He had thought the matter over and had 
come to the conclusion that there was nothing in it. 
We try an experiment and succeed. We are paid 
three or four fold, and we think that money can be 
made easily and fast. We try again and lose. We 
don't know the amount of sunshine or the amount of 
rainfall we are going to have. There are many 
things affecting our experiments over which we have 
no control . The results of chemical experiments are 
always the same. 

Literary. 

Emma King recited the ballad of " Thirty-six ;" 
Phebe A. King recited " The Wish," by Isaac Allen, 
a school teacher, who was somewhat of a poet and 
resided In this vicinity many years ago. At the re- 
quest of several of tho-ie present, Sadie Brown read 
the " White Parasol," by the same author. 

Adjourned to meet at Josiah Brown's Fulton town- 
ship, the first Saturday in May. 



THE LINN.ffi;AN SOCIETY. 

The society met on Saturday afternoon, March 3iith, 
1881, in the Museum building. President Stahr and 
Secretary Davis in their chairs. Eight members and 
five visitors present. Reading of the minutes of the 
last meeting dispensed with. After the usual pre- 
liminary business the following donations to the 
museum and library were reported : 

Museum Additions. 

1. Mrs. Gibbons donated a specimen of anthracite 
coal, which she received from a friend, the fracture 
of which exhibited their circular disks, indicating 
transverse fractures of the vegetation out of which 
the coal.was originally formed, if not fossilized eu- 
crinities. 

2. Mr. Rathvou donated a small bottle containing 
alcoholized specimens of the larva of a species o"f 
TCTieftrio— commonly called "meal worms," taken 
from a piece of wood around which cloth was wrap- 
ped. This larva has the singular ability of moving 
either backward or forward with equal facility. 
Also a specimen of the "short-winged mole-cricket," 
(OrijUotalpa brevipenne) ,%eni to him by a correspon- 
dent from Ch£8ter county, who last summer de- 
tected to preying upon his young potato tubers. This 
is entirely in harmony with the general character of 
this insect. Also a specimen of the " Goldeu carp " 
(Cyprinus auralm)— the victim of an ill adjusted 
aquarium. 



3. Mr. John May, of South Queen street, donated a 
fine specimen of flint which he found in a mass of 
common chalk; probalily from the chalk beds of 
England or France. 

4. Mr. KevinskI donated a fine specimen of 
"chilled Iron," from the Peacock furnace, at the 
southern terminus of Prince street, Lancaster. 

5. Prof. T. R . Baker, of Millersville, donated 
beautiful crvstalllzed speciments of Calcium, formu- 
lated Ca. H". 0. 75-2. 

H. .Mrs. (ilbbons exhibited a fine specimen of Beet 
Stujar, from the Russian department In the Paris in- 
ternational exposition of 1S7H, and was surprised to 
find such a large and beautiful exhibit of Russian 
sugar on that occasion. 

Additions to Library. 

1. Report of the commissioners of education for 
187K, 771 pp. octavo, from Hoh. A. H. Smith. 

3. United Stales coast survey for 1877; 192 pp. 
quarto, with 34 folded maps and charts from the de- 
partment of the interior. 

•■'.. Nos. 9, 10, 11 and 12, vol. 19, of the Patent Of- 
fice Gazette from the department of the interior. 

4. Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Natural Science from Oct. to Dec. 1880. 

5. Lancaster Farmer for March, 1881. 

6. LIppincott's classified catalogue from 1881,100 
pp. royal octavo, with index and illustrations. 

7. " BooksMf" for March 1881, a new standard 
of choice publications. It! pp. 8 vo., illustrated. 

8. Sundry minor catalogues and circulars. 

Historical. 

Four envelopes containing 40 historical and bio- 
graphical selections. 

New Business. 

Prof. I. 8. Geist propo.^ed William H. Buller, of 
Marietta, for active membership, to be acted on at 
the next meeting. 

The committee to whom was referred the question 
Involving the status of membership in the society, 
reported that no person had been elected an active 
member since the 29th of July, 1871, without paying 
$.5 (for which he received a certificate of ownership), 
and contributing 10 cents monthly to the funds of 
the society. But as there 4re persons who desire to 
co-operate with the society, and who for suflScient 
reasons may waive all present ownership the com 
mittee recommended a proviso, that such persons 
may be elected : and it shall be optional with them 
whether they become certificate members, or come 
in under the $1 initiation, which obtained previous 
to July 29th, 1871, and contributed lOcents monthly. 
It was a.\so provided that all active members elected 
under this rule, after being three full years con- 
tributing members, and all their dues paid up, shall 
receive a certificate of ownership as a gratuity, and 
enjoy all the privileges- and prerogatives of other 
certificate members. The report was debated and 
unanimously adopted. 

Note.— Contributing members are entitled to all 
that other members are save that of voting on the 
disposition of the Museum Library and other pro- 
perty of the society, which are subject to the control 
of the certificate holders — whether they are members 
of the society or not— and to the amount of certifi- 
cates they hold, each $5 representing one vote. On 
motion duly seconded, the following resolutions were 
unanimously adopted :■ 

1. Resolved, That the president appoint a commit- 
tee of three to examine the records and report the 
number of active members and correspondents from 
the organization of the society to the present time; 
the date of thfeirelection, how many have withdrawn, 
and how many have died, including their name, and 
so far as known, their residences. 

2. Resolved, That said committee also report the 
financial standing of each active or contributing 
member (in their relations to the society) and how 
many, and who are entitled to additional certificates 
of ownership, under the resolution of 39th of July, 
1871. 

3. Resolved, That said committee report at the next 
stated meeting of the society, either finally or the 
progress it has made in the work assigned It. 

The president appointed Drs. Ralhvon, Davie and 
Baker said committee. 

Scientific Gossip. 

Under this head, half an hour of free social inter- 
course was spent very pleasantly. With good talk- 
ers and good listeners this might be made the most 
interesting feature of the society. After the usual 
routine of business is disposed of, which is neces- 
sarily formal and subject to rule, " scientific gossip " 
is declared by the president, when every one can 
" say his say ' on any subject, without fear of being 
out of order, and also with more freedom than wh^n 
confined to " place." 

Adjourned to meet on the last Saturday in April, 
which occurs On the 30th, the last day of the month 



A CHICKEN fancier says that he stuck court plaster 
over an egg found broken in the nest after the lien 
had been setting a week and in due time it gave 
chicken as sprightly as any of the brood. 



Agriculture. 



About Limestone and Lime as Fertilizers 
No other single topic has recently brought so 
many queries. This is due to the extraordinary 
claims of parties selling ground Limestone, or mak- 
ing machinery for grinding it. Limestone is a most 
ividely distributed mineral, one of its purest forms 
being known as marble, and Is found almost all over 
the country of various quiilltles and deirrces of purity . 
It is a Carbonate of Lime, that Is Lime combined 
with Carbonic Acid. If a fragment of Limestone Is 
placed In a glass of water, and a little strong acid is 
added, the Carbonic Acid is set free, and we see It 
pass off as bubbles rising through the water. Lime 
stone Is so slightly dissolved by water that it is taste- 
less. It takes l.tiOO parts of water to dissolve one 
part of Limestone. Water, in which there Is much 
CiUlioiiii- .\( id. dissolves a considerable amount of 
(Ml .n,i. I I ii:;. . If a small piece of Limestone be 
k. |.: I II r.i| heat for some hours, it will be 
uiii ' I ! Iii:avy as the original stone. What 
li» : I ;■; I iMiinlng? If tested with acid, as be- 
fore, \v> bulil.les of gas will be given off. The heat 
has driven out all the Carlx)nlc Acid ; it Is no longer 
a Carbonate of Lime, but simply Lime (an oxide of 
the metal Calcium, or Calcic Oxide as the chemists 
have It.) Liiii.-sione burned in kilns produces Lime., 
often called tjuicklimc. If a lump of freshly burned 
Lime have water gradually put upon it, it soon be- 
comes hot, in a little while it swells up, cracks and 
falls into a Vfry while powder; though much water 
ha.<! h I'll added, tin- [iinvihr is quite dry. The water 
has united w ii li th'' Liiiu-, making a solid. Caustic or 
Slakid Lime, l.imc cMpo.sed takes up moisture from 
the air, and we have Air-slaked Lime. Slaked Lime 
with enough water forms whitewash, or " Milk of 
Llini?." On standing, the greater part of the Lime 
will settle, leaving clear Limewater — a saturated so- 
lution of Lime; that is, the water has taken up all 
it can dissolve, for at ordinary temperature it re- 
quires 700 parts of water to dissolve one part of 
(juick-lime. If clear Lime water be placed in aglasa, 
and with a straw or pipe-stem the breath be forced 
into it, the Lime water will soon become cloudy,"and 
then milky. Set the glass aside, and a fine white 
powder will settle at the bottom, leaving the water 
clctr above. The breath contains Caibonic Acid; 
this, when forced into the Lime water, unites with 
the Lime, forming Carbonated,the same as unburned, 
Limestone, which, being little soluble, separates as a 
white powder. If we continue to bre.ithe into the 
Lime water after it has become milky, it will soon 
become perfectly clear as at the start. The continued 
breathing supplies more Carbonic Acid than Is needed 
to convert the Lime into an insoluble carbonate; the 
excess of Carbonic Acid in the water re-dissolvcs the 
Carbonate. Heating this solution drives off the ex- 
cess of Carbonic Acid, and the Carbonate of Lime is 
always present in the atmosphere, and when slaked 
Lime is long exposed, it takes up Ihls Acid and 
slowly becomes Carbonate of Lime.— .4m«ri<;an Ag- 
riculturist 



Green Manuring. 
What is the best crop to plow in? This question 
is often asked and does not admit of a very decisive 
answer. Much depends upon the nature of the soil, 
time of year in which it is wished to manure in this 
manner, climate, etc. If the soil is worn out or 
naturally poor, and a very rapid erowlh Is dcsited 
to turn under in early autumn, buckwheat, is reoom- 
mended. It is a close feeder ; and will make a large 
and rapid growth, where many other crops lail. 
Too much cannot be said in favor of the common red 
clover as a green manuring crop. Its roots run very 
deeu, and bring much of the fertilizing materials in 
the subsoil to be deposited in the stems and roots, 
especially the latter, which, when turned over by the 
plow, goon decay and yield a supply of food for other 
plants. In the Southern States the cow pea has 
proved very satisfactory as a crop for enriching the 
soil by green manuring. In some localities rye is 
ranked very high as a green crop to be plowed under. 
A few years ago there was much said in favor of fod- 
der corn as a green manure, but repeated trials 
proved it too difficult to plow under, unless turned 
when quite small. The best treatment of fodder 
corn is to let it grow to a good size, and feed to live 
stock, and apply the manure thas made to the soil. 
— American Agricallnrtit . 

The Management of Liquid Fertilizers. 
There is no doubt that, with proper arrangements, 
the applications of liquid manure by a system of 
irrigation, may be highly profitable. But for the 
averape farmer, or the owner of a truck patch, with- 
out proper appliances, to transport liquid manure by 
means of a tank drawn by one horse, or a barrel 
upon a barrow, it is very doubtful If it Is the best 
method. The liquid manure is largely water, and 
water is not only a very heavy article to carry about, 
but it is not, ia the strict sense, a fertilizer. If one 
can make the water transport Itself, and carry the 
fertilizer with it. one great item of the expense is 
saved. If this cannot be done, it will be better— to 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



'[April, 



I contradiction of terms— to transport the liquid 
the solid form, instead of collecting it in 
a cistern to receive it on an absorbent. Sun-dried 
peat ; muck that has been frozen and dried ; sods 
from the head-land ; straw from thrasher ; eea-weed ; 
Bwale hay ; marsh grass ; leaves and sawdust ; are 
all good absorbents. There is no difficulty in taking 
up with one or another of these— all the liquid made 
by farm stock kept in the barn. A mass two or 
three feet in thickness, in the barn cellar, will take 
up the liquid, and retain all its fertilizing qualities 
without much loss. This compost made under cover 
retains everything valuable in the solid and liquid 
excretions of the cattle, and the mass is in a tit con- 
dition to be spread as a top-dressing upon grass laud 
at any season of the year, or to be incorporated into 
the soil for any cultivated crops; every particle of 
the compost becomes, so to speak, a cistern for hold- 
ing what is valuable in the liquid manure. Thus 
there is no waste in carting a vast amount of water 
to the fields. The fertilizing material is distributed 
In the compost, as it is mixed with the soil, and the 
process is completed by the rainfall. All the riches 
of the barn cellar are thus placed economically 
within reach of the roots of plants. 

Cornstalks as Manure. 

A New York correspondent of The Canada Farmer 
writes: A few years ago, having a field of sowed 
corn of good heavy growth, I made an estimate of 
the green weight of the stalks growing on an acre 
by counting and weighing measured sections of dif- 
ferent parts of the Held, and found the amount to be 
thirty-six tons to the acre, which I see corresponds 
with the weight of the best crops reported by others. 
As I intended to plow under part of the field I esti- 
mated that the amount of vegetable matter, counting 
the stumps and all would not be less than forty tons 
per acre to use for green manuring, and as this was 
a heavier amount than I could expect to get. from 
anything else than that for the purpose, I was in 
hopes to find that it would do the land the most 
good. To plow under such a crop and have it all 
covered deep and nicely under ground required some 
practice. I did it in the following manner : With a 
long chain a team was hitched to the rear of the 
farm roller, and as they were driven alongside the 
standing corn the roller was made to crush the corn 
flat to the ground by a man holding the tongue and 
stearing it into it. In this way it was laid down in a 
way fit for plowing. Then with a large plow and 
wheel coulter I was able to turn it under deep and 
nice. A.fter plowing (it being about the first of Sep- 
tember) the furrows were rolled down, dragged and 
sowed to rye, thinking to plow that under the follow- 
ing spring in the time for planting the whole field in 
potatoes, and expecting then to see a marked differ- 
ence in the crop in favor of this piece with two green 
crops plowed under, compared with the rest of the 
land having no manure . But in this I was much dis- 
appointed, fori have not to this day seen any differ- 
ence in the way of this better than the rest of the 
field. After plowing in a clover crop in the same 
way, I have, after a week, found it rotting fast under 
the furrow ; but this corn after three weeks, seems 
to be about as green as when first plowed under ; 
and again, after six weeks, I found it was not rotting, 
eo that finally, after plowing under the rye the fol- 
lowing spring I had to run tlie plow very shallow to 
avoid tearing up the tough and partially green stalks 
of the sound corn. By this I was pretty well con 
vinced of iti keeping qualities when buried under 
ground or packed in the soil. As is so much recom- 
mended in the practice of ensilage. 

As to the value of such corn for feeding purposes, 
I find it worth most to feed green from the field to 
cattle and horses in August and September, when 
the pastures are becoming dry and the feed short. 
Then if any is left, cut and stand it into large stacks 
to remain until about the time they are wanted to 
feed in the spring, unless it was cut and stored in a 
green state as referred to above or winter green food. 

In conclusion, I wish to state that although the 
plowing under of sowed corn seems rather a failure 
for enriching the land, still I have great faith in 
green manuring, that it will enrich our land the 
cheapest of any way, and for the purpose would use 
first of all tlover ; but if that failed, would Imme- 
diately after harvest till the stubble and sow it to 
rye or oats to plow under. I find two great reasons 
for doing this, for I thus obtain a good clean vege- 
table growth to plow under, and also by preoccupy- 
ing the land with such a crop it is kept from seeding 
Itself to foul grasses and iveeds, to be a detriment to 
the land ; for I find that manure is always ready 
soon to start something growing there, if I should 
fail to. I also after any hoed crop sow it again in 
the same when there is time to obtain any reason- 
able growth— to oats if only for a fall crop, or to 
rye if it can remain until some time into the next 



Cabbage, containing as it does, a lurge per cent, 
of phosphoric acid makes one of the most valuable 
kinds of food for young pigs, calves and chickens. 
All young animals require a bountiful supply of 
phosphatic food to make bone. Clover is next in 
value to cabbage. 



Horticulture. 



The Cow Pea. 

The value of this pea, if its advantages were 
known, would be great; butasit has been principally 
grown in the South, it is only very recently that it 
has been brought to the attention of Northern 
farmers. Even in the South it has not received the 
notice due to a plant so important to agriculture in 
that section as it deserves, for it has really been the 
means of rescuing some of the Southern plantations 
from total exhaustion. The cow pea, though called 
a pea, is properly a bean. It will grow on soil that 
scarcely produces anything, but is, however, sensible 
to the efl'ects of good manuring, and rewards the 
farmer for such treatment with bountiful yields. It 
is indigenous to the Middle States and the South, 
preferring a warm season and dry soil. There are 
a great many varieties of it, the most prolific being 
the Crowder; but the " black-eyed " is preferred for 
the table. 

As a renovator of the soil, next to clover, it has no 
equal. Growingwith a heavv, dense foliage, ploughed 
under just at the period of blossoming, it makes a 
splendid green manure, rotting quickly and produc- 
ing lasting efi'eots. It can be grown for this pur- 
pose on land that will not produce clover, and that is 
a very important item. On inferior land that has 
had a crop of cow peas turned under, if a light 
sprinkling of lime is added, a venture may safely be 
made with clover the following year. It is planted 
about the same time with corn. It can be sown for 
hay, but care must be taken in harvesting it properly. 
If allowed to get too ripe the leaves will crumble off 
after it is stowed away in the loft; but if cut when in 
full blossom, or just as the young pods begin to 
form, and then cured like ordinary liay, it will keep 
well all the winter. Cows eat it with a relish, and 
for sheep nothing is eqiWl to it— they eat it up clean, 
being very fond of It. The seeds are more nutritious 
than our ordinary white bean, stock preferring it 
when cooked to corn or meal, while calves are raised 
on them with ease where it is desirable to wean early. 
For the table they are cooked not only when dry, but 
when green, being a favorite dish on Virginia and 
Carolina tables. There is a prejudice against it on 
the part of those not familiar with it on account of 
the dark color it takes when cooked; but if the 
nutritious qualities of the pea were fully known no 
difficulty would be experienced in making it a staple 
article of food. 

The cow pea is worthy of being introduced to every 
farmer. Its value as an article of food for man and 
beast, the large crops of fodder (or bushy vine) it 
produces, its adaptation to the lightest and poorest 
soils and its usefulness as a green manurial crop, 
place it far above many other plants that are grown 
to its exclusion. It has no enemies among the in- 
sects, and is in that particular free from damage. 
A heavy crop of it will so completely cover the 
ground that not even a ray of sunshine can enter, 
and it is often necessary to pass over the vines with 
a heavy roller in order to get them plouglied under. 
From twenty to forty bushel of the peas are usually 
produced to an acre, and if they have been well 
manured previous to seeding the crop of hay will be 
very large One of the most important advantages 
the pea confers on land is the shading it gives, some 
experienced farmers contending that by this method 
it rather improves the soil than injures it. A small 
outlay will enable any one- to try the cow pea, and 
those who have not grown it should do so. 



tion, a generation after the good old fathers that 
had planted them had passed away. In foliage, 
flower or fruit, it is a beauty. It is of the myrtle 
family, but must stand at the head, as the fruit is 
valuable, will keep forever, almost, and will stand 
transportation to any corner of our vast country. It 
can be planted with success, from six to eight feet 
apart, in orchard and in hedge, the same as the 
Osage orange, and will bear any amount of pruning. 
It will do well in any portion of the State, and this 
notice of it is particularly dedicated to our lady 
friends of the northern counties, who may not be 
familiar with tbe habits and uses of this charming, 
beautiful and useful plant. The rind of the fruit is 
used here as a useful astringent in sore throat as a 
gargle, the seeds as a febrifuge, and the root and 
bark in diarrhoea. If this notice will call the atten- 
tion of our refined and cultured people to this beau- 
tiful industry, I will feel hiirhly repaid.-ios Angeles 
Letter in San Francisco Call. 

To Cut Sods. 
Take a board eight to nine inches wide, four to 
six feet long, and cut downward all around the 
board, then turn the board over and cut again 
alongside the edge of the board, and so on as many 
sods as needed. Then cut the turf with a sharp 
spade, all the same lengths. Begin at one end, and 
roll together. Eight inches by five feet is about as 
much as a man can handle conveniently. It is very 
easy to load them on a wagon, cart or barrow, and 
they can be quickly laid. After laying a good niece, 
sprinkle a little with a watering pot, if the sods are 
dry ; then use the back of the spade to smooth them 
a little. If a very fine efi'ect is wanted, throw a 
shovelful or two of good earth over each square 
yard, and smooth it with the back of a steel rake.— 
Country Gentleman. 



A Diflficulty with Shrubberies. 
Shrubs, when set in the grass of a lawn, are often 
dwarfed by the the turf which surrounds them. 
Spading about them only partly removes the diffi- 
culty as the spaded ground never extends to the 
length of the roots which always run at least as far 
each way as the height of the shrubs. Besides, the 
ground is necessarily more or less defaced by the 
operation. The true remedy is top dressing. Super 
phosphate, on such soils as are benefited by it, will 
answer a good purpose and not present an unsightly 
appearance like coarse manure. Finely pulverized 
old manure will not be objectionable. In many 
cases liquid manure for small plants will answer 
well. The top dressing should be done in Autumn or 
very early in spring, and special care must be taken 
to extend it as far from the stems as above indi- 
cated. 



The Pomegranate. 

The orange, lemon, lime and citron have been well 
written up (not exhausted) by practical men who 
have devoted much time to these industries as a 
source of living and profit. My observations on 
these matters have been limited to pleasure and rec- 
reation. The pomegranate has not received merited 
consideration. It can hardly be dignified with the 
name of tree, but in good soil will reach the height 
of twenty feet. We know it here as a beautiful orna- 
mental shrub, bearing a beautiful fruit. Our Castil- 
ian friends appreciate it, as they have experience in 
its cultivation and uses. They know it. as the 
Granada, and have given a beautiful city its name. 

In our mystic circles it is recognized as the emblem 
of abundance, and justly so. Apart from the treatise 
on this beautiful plant by excellent medical au- 
thority, our Spanish friends have long learned from 
the Moors and their ancestors along both sides of the 
Mediterranean, to value this lovely shrub for its 
beauty and usefulness. In a hot summer's day there 
is nothing so charmingly delicious as a saucer of the 
pomegranate seed, sprinkled with pulverized sugar. 
It is cooling and refreshing, and a most agn^eable 
febrifuge. In orchard or hedge it is pleasing to the 
eye of the cultivated taste. It is a hardy plant, easy 
of propagation— from the natutal seed or from the 
slip or cutting. The latter is the easiest, as you are 
as sure of the cutting as you would be of that of the 
willow, and with this advantage, that it does not re- 
quire the moisture that the willow does. I have 
seen the charming plants in some of our deserted 
missions, clinging to life without care or cultiva- 



Onions. 
Onions require rich soil and clean culture. A 
newly reclaimed swamp is the best soil, and the 
longer it is kept in onions the better they succeed. 
The seed is sown in drills nine to twelve inches apart, 
and thinned out to three or,' four inches in the rows . 
High manuring is required, and with thoroughly 
rotted stable m'anure superphosphate of lime is the 
best artificial help. 



Domestic Economy. 



Butter Salt. 
The salt used is of greater importance than might 
be considered. The usual impurities of salt are 
chloride and sulphate of lime and chloride and sul- 
phate of magnesia. Lime mixed with fats combines 
and forms an insoluble white soap. When lime is 
present in salt, small, white specks of soapy sub- 
stance, are found in the butter, thus injuring its 
keeping qualities. Magnesia is bitter, and if this is 
present the flavor is injured, so that it is of the 
greatest importance to have the purest salt. Unfor- 
tunately, our American salt is not of sufficient purity 
or uniformity for dairy purposes, and the best quali- 
ties only of English salt should be used. Of these 
there are two kinds on the market, known as the 
Ashton, and Higgin's Eureka. The latter is fast 
superseding the former on account of its perfect 
purity, uniformity of grain and freedom from objec- 
tionable scale. As the difference in price between 
good and bad salt is very small, and the difference 
between good and bad butter is very large, the extra 
cost of a sack of the best salt may easily be saved 
upon one pail of butter. A hundred pounds of salt 
will pack l,tiOO pounds of butter, and two to five 
cents a pound on this quantity may easily be lost by 
means of bad salt, making a loss of $30 to $S0 to 
offset the gain of one dollar, or less.— flenry Stew- 
art i;4 Sural Hew Yorker. 



Take Care of the Matches 
In nothing about the household does the injunc- 
tion to have " a place for everything " require more 
strict enforcement than in the care of matches. 
What are known as "Parlor Matches " light the 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



most readily, and are as much more dangerous than 
the common matches as they are more convenient. 
The general stock should be kept in a tin box, which 
Is not to bo opened or taken from, except by the 
master or mistress of the house. For eacli room 
where matclics are used there should be a metal 
match-safe of some kind, and the matches are to be 
kept in that and no where else. It should be re- 
garded as a serious offence for a match to be, any- 
where or for ever sc short a time, found " lying 
around loose." In the kitchen and the bed-room, or 
wherever else matches are in frequent use, itl9 better 
to have the match-safe fixed and always in the same 
place, so that it can be found, If needte In the dark. 
In takin? matches from the larger box to rcpU nish 
the safes, let that always be done by one person, and 
It will pay fortbat person to look over the matches 
at the time, throwing away all broken ones, and 
where, as is often the case, two or more are stuck 
together by the explosive mixture, these should be 
carefully broken apart, and unless two good matches 
are the result, rather than to put Into the safe one 
with too little and the other with a ragged excess of 
the mixture, throw both away. Also throw Into the 
Are those matches that have two or three times as 
much of the mixture on the ends as they should 
have. These, in lighting, often explode and scatter 
burning particles In a dangerous manner. If, in 
lighting a match, day or night, it breaks or the ex- 
plosive end comes off without lighting, do nothing 
else until that end is found, aud put into the tire, or 
where it can do no harm. lafact, treat;matches, every 
match— as if It were— as It really is, a fire-arm, capa- 
ble of dangerous mischief to person and property. 
Teach the children to carefully observe the same 
caution. 



Drying Potatoes. 
During the past year or two an Important Industry 
has sprung up In this State in the way of preserving 
potatoes for a foreign market. A machine has been 
Invented for pressing and preserving potatoes in such 
a manner that they may be dried and kept for a num- 
ber of years in any climate. No oxidization, or fer- 
mentation, takes place in the process; they retain to 
a great extent, their natural taste . and original 
freshness. Shippings nmde to England during the 
past year by Falkner, Bell & Co., have attracted at- 
tention, and the demand for California-preserved 
potatoes in that country already exceeds the sup- 
ply. The lirst shipment to Liverpool brought the 
sum of 91GO per ton over all expenses of shipment. 
Last year about twenty tons were shipped from San 
Francisco, which brought forty-five English shillings 
per hundred weight, oi- at the rate of $3 per sack for 
green potatoes. At Areata, Humboldt county, a 
strong company has been organized to preserve 
potatoes by the new [irocess. Ventura has an 
apparatus in working order, and will handle a large 
quantity of potatoes this fall. San Francisco mer- 
chants evince a lively interest in the enterprise, and 
are watching results closely. The testimony of 
English merchants is to the effect that the products 



Know Howr to Cook a Turnip. 
That we may be understood we will ask the reader 
to cook two turnips in two different ways. The first 
Is to be peeled and sliced and left to 6oak in cold 
water for an hour or more. The slices are to be 
boiled until quite tender, and then are to be drained 
ani nicely mashed with butter. This is the common 
method of cooking, and it has the demerit of wash- 
ing out the gum and sugar and other fine constitu- 
ents of the root, and consequently the flavor is very 
much reduced. The other root is to be washed quite 
clean, but is not to be peeled or cut or soaked. 
Boil It whole in its "jacket." It will take twice as 
long to cook as the one that was cut. When by try- 
ing it with a fork you find it quite tender take it up, 
peel it, press it quite moderately and mash it with 
butter; you will be surprised at the difference. In- 
stead of being as perhaps you will expect, " strong," 
"rank" or "bitter," it will be delicious, full- 
flavored aad will contain all the nourishment that 
was In It before It was cooked. 



Sand Bag in a Sick Room. 

The writer of " Household Hints " in the Enening 
Post says that one of the most convenient articles for 
use in the sick-room is a eand-bag. Make a bag 
about eight inches square of flannel, fill It with 
clean, fine sand, thoroughly dried, sew the opening 
carefully together, and cover the bag with cotton or 
linen cloth. This will preveut the sand from sifting 
out, and will eiiable you to heat the bag quickly by 
placing it in the oven, or even on the top of the 
stove. After once using this you will never again 
attempt to warm the feet or hands of a sick person 
with a bottle of hot water or a brick. The sand 
holds the heat a long time ; aud the bag can be 
tucked up to the back without hurting the invalid. 
It is a good plan to make two or three bags, and 
keep them ready for use. 



How to Wash Clothes Without Fading. 

A lady correspondent sends us the following recipe, 
which she has tried with success on all kinds ol^ 
fabrics; Wash and peel Irish potatoes, and grate 
them into cold water. Saturate the articles to be 
washed in this potato water, and they can then be 
washed with soap without any running of the color, 
I have taken oil out of carpets saturated with this 
potato water, when simple cold water would make 
the color run ruinously; have get the color In figured 
black muslins. In colored merinos, in ribbons and 
otherl silk (goods. Often the potato water cleanses 
sulDclently without the use of soap; but the latter Is 
necessary where there is any grease. In such cases 
(without soap) I take the grated potato itself and 
rub the goods with a flannel rag. In woolen goods 
It is necessary to strain the water, else the particles 
will adhere, but this Is not necessary In goods from 
which they can be well shaken. 

Chocolate. 
Chocolate, says the London Olobe, must never bo 
cut with a knife. In making it an ounce and a half 
is required for a cup. Dissolve it gradually in hot 
water, stirring It the while with a wooden spoou ; 
let It boil for a quarter of an hour, and serve it hot 
with milk orjwithout, according to taste. "More than 
fifty years ago," relates Brillai^Savary, " Madame 
d'Arestrel, the lady-superior of the Convent of the 
Visitation at Bellen, told me that if I wished to drink 
really good chocolate it must bo made the night 
before, in an earthenware pot, and left. The night's 
repose concentrates it and gives it a softness which 
makes It much better." 



To Remove Glass Stoppers. 

Young ladles are sometimes In a dilemma over ; 



the teakettle and knock it gently with. a knife blade. 
If that will not serve the purpose put a few drops of 
sweet oil about the cork and set the bottle near the 
fire where it will get warm. 



Household Recipes. 



F)0 Pdddino. — Take onepound of figs aud quarter 
them, one-half pound of flour, three-quarters of a 
pound of beef suet ; chop the suet in the flour, very 
flue ; add one pound of bread crumbs, one pound of 
brown sugar, five eggs well beaten, one nutmeg, and 
a half pint of milk ; knead all together very well ; 
press into a butter bowl ; tie down firmly with a 
pudding-cloth and boil five hours ; have the water 
boiling before putting the pudding in, and keep it 
well-covered with water; serve with wine sauce. 

Whip Sauce for Above. — Break four eggs, put 
the yolks into a small deep stewpan ; add two 
ounces of sifted sugar, a glass of sherry, a little 
lemon juice and grated peel, and a grain of salt ; 
whisk the sauce over a moderate heat, taking care 
to set the stewpan which contains the whip sauce in 
another of somewhat larger size already containing- 
a little hot water— say an iuch— aud as soon as it 
presents the appearance of a well-set .creamy froth, 
pour it over the flg pudding or serve separately in a 
sauce-boat. 

Horseradish Sauce. Grate the horseradish, 
boil an egg hard, pound the yolk, and add to the 
above a little raw cream, mustard and vinegar added 
the last thing. , It must all be mixed cold, and then 
heated. 

Kedgeree.— Boil two tablespoonfuls of rice, and 
drain it as dry as possible. Have ready some pre- 
viously cooked flsh, pulled with forks into nice small 
pieces, and free from small bones and skin; add it to 
tl-.e rice, and maket it hot over the tire. Just before 
serving beat up two eggs and stir well into the rice 
and fish. Add a little cayenne and salt to taste. 

Rice au Jos.— Thoroughly boil a cupful of rice, 
have ready a buttered pie-dish, and a pint and a half 
of good strong stock . Drain the rice, turn it into the 
pie-dish, pour the stock ovi>r it; add a seasoning of 
pepper, salt and butter. Place it in the oven for ten 
minutes, and serve very hot. 

Stuffed Potatoes.— Bake some large potatoes 
in their skins; when quite done scoop out the insides, 
and mash them well with a little butteror milk; mix 
some finely minced beef or mutton with the mashed 
potatoes, adding pepper and salt to taste; refill the 
empty skins with the mixture, and place them in the 
oven again till thoroughly hot, adding a small lump 
of butter on the top of each to prevent their becoming 
too dry. Serve up in a cloth. This Is always a 
favorite dish with children. 

Veal with Tomato Sauce.— Take a piece of 
breast of veal, cut it in pieces an in inch square, toss 
them in a saucepan with some olive oil till they be- 
gin to take color; add a shallot finely minced, some 
French tomato sauce, pepper and salt to taste, and 
some minced parsley ; let the whole simmer gently 
by the side of the fire, shaking the pan occasionally 
for about half an hour. 



Beef Tea for Children. — The best way to 
make beef tea for children is as follows : Soup meat 
without bone, from the shin or the neck. Cut the 
meat into dice with a very sharp knife ; to every 
pound of meat use one pint of cold water. Cut the 
meat on a dish, not on a board, as the latter absorbs 
the juices wastefully. Have the proper measure of 
water beside you, in a proper soup basin or bowl, 
and as you cut up the meat sprinkle it moderately 
with salt, and throw It Into the cold water. There 
let it remain for two hours ; then put It all Into a 
saucepan and set It on the flre. Watch carefully the 
first rising, and skim and secure this ; it Is the very 
essence of beef being thrown out. Put it In a clean 
bowl, and let the beef go on boiling for ten minutes, no 
longer, then pour it" through a sieve to the first 
skiminings. Stir it before using. In older children 
than infants you can flavor with 0!.ion and a few 
cloves. 80 completely does this way of making beef 
tea extract the goodness, taat a dog would not eat 
the meat that Is left. 

Oedfs a l'Orange.— Make a stiff pudding, 
with a pint a milk, put on fire with a small half cup 
of sugar. When it comes to boiling point add tq It 
two tablespoonfuls of corn starch, dissolved in a lit- 
tle cold milk, previously reserved from the pint. Stir 
until it thickens, then add the beaten whites of four 
eggs, and flavor with a teasjjoonful of orange juice. 
Have some little patty pans oval like an egg, and put 
It into the centre ol'cach a small round hall of wood, 
the size of an egg yolk, and dipped )n cold water. 
(To keep these balls steady they must be bored, and 
the hole filled up with lead.) Pour the hot pudding 
into the little pans, which must also be dipped Id 
cold water, and when it is cool and firm take out the 
little wooden balls. Then pour into their vacant 
place an orange jelly made thus: dissolve half a 
Iiackage of gelatine in half a cup of water, letting It 
stand an hour. Then add the juice of Ave sour 
oranges and a little less than apound of white sugar. 
After mixing these together pour on the whole a half 
pint of boiling water. The mixture is not to go near 
the fire at all. Before the jelly Is cold add it to the 
pudding and set away to get firm. Then slip the 
"eggs" out of the little pans on a dish to serve. 
They have the appearance oi poached eggs, and are 
very nice. A set of these pans and balls will be 
found useful. 

Mayonnaise Dressing for Salad.— One pint of 
olive-oil, salt and cayenne pepper U> taste, half tea- 
spoonful of French mustard, the juice of one lemon, 
and vinegar, take an earthen dish, rub a clove of 
garlic on the bottom of the dish, then place in it the 
yolks of two raw eggs, salt, pepper and mustani, 
take the bottle containiug the oil in the left hand and 
a wire whip in the right hand; pour the oil slowly 
and keep stirring the yolks. • Should it become stiff, 
add a little viuegar. "Keep adding oil and vinegar 
until you have used the pint of oil, but be careful not 
to add too much vinegar. Finish with the lemon 
juice. The dressing should bo of rather a stiff con- 
sistency, and will keep any length of time if It Is 
covered so that the air will not reach it. 

Pisn-P.VSH OF Mutton.- Take any lean mutton, 
cut it in small pieces without any fat or gristle, boll 
it down into a nice broth. Then lake out the meat. 
Wash a teacupful of rice nicely, and boil it for a lit- 
tle while in the broth, until it begins to look trans- 
pareut. All grease to be skimmed off. Then take a 
mutton chop or two, take out the bone, cut in dice. 
Boil the whole together, with a whole onion aud a 
little pepper and salt, for a quarter of an hour. 
Serve it without straining. The «ame recipe does 
for beef, chicken, turkey, or rablrft. 

Matonnaisb op Fish.— Boil a pickerel (n salted 
water *ith lemon juice in it ; be careful that the flsh 
does not break. When done let it get cold ; remove 
the boues carefully, aud cut the flsh Into neat, 
smooth bits the size of a thimble. Let them stand 
for an hour or so in a little oil and vinegar or oil and 
lemon juice. Then dress some nice lettuce with 
Mayonnaise sauce, and arrange the bits of fish 
around the dish, mixing with them canned shrimps 
cut in small pieces. Put more Mayonnaise sauce 
over the whole. 

Danish Pudding.- One cupful of tapioca, three 
generous pints of water, half a teaspoonful of gait, 
half a teacupful of sugar, one tumbler of any kind 
of bri^lit jelly. Wash the tapioca and soak in the 
water all night. In the morning put on In the double 
boiler and cook one hour. Stir frequently. Add 
the salt, sugar and jelly, and mixthoroughly. Turn 
into a mould that has been dipped into cold water 
and set away to harden. Serve with cream and 
sugar. 

Snow Pudding.— Take five eggs; divide yolkt 
Irom whiles; beat whites to a stiff "froth; place one 
quart of milk on the range; when at a boiling point 
add sugar to taste, one vanilla bean or one stick of 
cinnamon; sweeten the whites with one tablespoonful 
of powdered sugar and drop them into the hot milk; 
leave In long enough to scald them while you whisk 
them into small flakes; take a skimmer and takeout 
the flakes and let them cool on a dish; add yolks to 
milk with a teaspoonful of corn starch dissolven In 
water; when cool add the flakes and serve. 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 1881. 



Clam Chowder. — One quarter pound of fat pork, 
one quart of white onions, two quarts of potatoes, 
ono cents' worth of parsley ; one-half dozen large 
tomatoes, fifty clams ; cut the pork in small pieces 
and fry ; chop the onions fine and fry ; boil the pota- 
toes ; chop the clams moderately fine ; put all the 
ingredients together and let simmer gently until the 
tomatoes are cooked. Thr above quantity makes 
one gallon of chowder. 

Ckow's Nest. — Fill a deep pudding tin or dish 
with apples cut in thin slices ; sugar and cinnamon, 
or lemon, to sweeten and flavor to taste, and a little 
water ; cover with a thick crust madQ as above ; 
hake until apples are tender ; serve hot with hard 
sauce, or with cream and sugar ; be sure to cut air 
holes in the crust to let the steam escape. 

Potted Meat.— Remove all gristle, hard pieces 
and fat from the meat ; mince it very Hue, and 
pound it in a mortar with a little butter, some gravy, 
well freed from fat, and a spoonful of Harvey or 
Worcester sauce ; beat it to a smooth paste, season- 
ing during the process with pounded clove or all- 
spice, mace or grated nutmeg, salt, and a little 
cayenne; put it in pots, press it close down, and 
cover with clarified butter, or with marrow fat. 

Poor Man's .Sweet Cake.— One cup of sugar, 
one cup of sour cream, one-half cup of butter, one 
egg, half a teaspoouful of soda, one-half a nutmeg, 
grated fine ; flour enough to make a ^tilf batter, 
gratedn s slow oven. 

Potato Salad. — Take about ten nice, tnealy, 
freshly boiled potatoes; when they are quite cool 
cut them in thin slices and plac tliem in nn earthen 
dish ; add vinegar, pepper, salt, and olivi--oil to taste ; 
mix with a wooden spoon; add a chopped onion and 
parsley, also, if desired, add capers. 

To Eemove Ink Stains from Printed Books. 
^Procure a pennyworth of oxalic acid, which dis- 
solve in a small quantity of warm water ; then 
slightly wet the stain with it, when it will disappear, 
leaving the leaf uninjured. 

Baked Corn Meal Pudding.— Boil two quarts 
of sweet milk ; scald it in seven tablespoons of corn 
meal. When a little cool, add salt, three eggs and 
half a teacup of sugar or syrup; season with nut- 
meg. Bake in a moderate «ven oven over three 
hours. 

California Pudding.— Chop and pound to a 
paste a quarter of a pound of candied orange peel ; 
put it into a stew pan in which you have melted 
three-quarters of a pound of butter and the same of 
sugar; stir all together and then add the yolks of 
twelve eggs ; put into a buttered dish and bake. 



Live Stock. 



Attention to Swine. 

The average American farmer pays entirely too lit- 
tle attention to the health and absolute wants of their 
swine. Not a few keep their hogs closely confined in 
vile and filthy pens, where neither enough light or 
exercise can be had. Common decency and our com- 
mon interests demand that American stock must be 
kept free from diseases. Foreign countries are de- 
pending upon us for meat supplies, but from the 
complaints made in prominent French journale of 
diseased hog products received from America, it be- 
gins to look very much as if our foreign export trade 
might be irreparably crippled by the filthy and 
criminal carelessness of a few of our worthless 
farmers who do not take the necessary sanitary pre- 
cautions to keep hogs healthy, and who do not hesi- 
tate for a moment to send off to market hogs from 
an infected drove, or even animals that are sick. 
Among the worst needed things at Chicago is an in- 
spector who would condemn and kill every diseased 
hog. 

By those who know not whereof they speak, it is 
frequently said and thought that hogs are more .uni- 
form in quality and sell at a more narrow range of 
prices than do cattle. The idea is absurd, to say the 
least. The quality of hogs varies just as much as 
any other class of stock, and like cattle, a heavy 
average weight is not always indicative of good 
quality. For instance, a drove of soft, "ghuffy" 
hogs, averaging 200 pounds, will not bring as much 
per hundred, by fully 10@15c., as a lot of well bred, 
firm hogs that weigh twenty pounds Jess on an 
average. Good breeding and careful selection is just 
as essential in making" the best selling pork as in 
producing any other kind of stock calculated to 
realize top prices —Dfover's Journal. 

Hereford Cattle. 
Though the Herelbrd breed of cattle has not as 
yet been exclusively introduced into this section of 
the country, its excellencies are commanding the 
situation at many other points, notably in England, 
Australia, South America and in our western 
country. It is a matter of record that not only in 
the London market have they been quoted from one 
to two cents a pound above the Short-horns, but that 
the Hereford steer has a record over the Short-horn, 
and the same record shows that the Hereford steer 



has made as good weights as the Short-horn at any 
given age. And now the Bath and West of England 
society has awarded the two champion prizes, for 
best male and female in the show, to the Herefords. 
Coupling this with the fact that during the same re- 
cord he has always brought better prices, and 
another established fact that he has always been a 
more economical feeder and grazer, is it not strange 
that the press and agricultural societies have not 
been more ready to encourage them ? 

A recent sale of one hundred Hereford bulls in 
England lor eliipniLiit to the grazing regions of 
Buenos kynn .sImuv.^ iln' rsi iiuation in which this 
famous stock is ilurr li.ia. The Herefords have 
made more rapid pr. u^ri'ss in public favor at the 
west in the last live years, than ev«r was made by 
any other breed of cattle in America in the same 
time. In Colorado and Wyoming there are several 
herds of from .30,000 to 70,000 head, that are using 
all the Hereford bulls they eau get, and already at 
the Union stock yards at Chicago, and at the St. 
Louis and Kansas City stock yards, these steers are 
commanding the top prices, while flAe years ago 
they were not known in these yards. In five years 
more they will be quoted in all the markets, as they 
have been in the London market in England for the 
last hundred years or thereabouts. 

The Hereford cattle are tough and hardy, and 
thrive on a diet both in quality and quantity tha 
would be unprofitable in the short-horns. The cattle 
are very large in size, make excellent beef, are fair 
milkers, especially when crossed with other kinds, 
and are withal quite handsome, being red-bodied, 
with white markings and white face, the latter being 
an invariable mark of the kind. — American CnlHva- 



Why Cattle and other Stock Die toward 
Spring. 
When the stock is not regularly fed, and the sup- 
ply of respiratory food is deficient, nature avails her- 
self of the fat previously stored in the animal's body, 
as fuel (o sustain the animal heat; and where the 
food is deficient, and there is no accumulation of fat 
to supply its place, the muscle and other portions of 
the body are consumed, and death by gradual starva- 
tion is the consequence. Farmers, keep your stock 
well fed if you do not want to sustain losses toward 
spring. — Farm Jo^irnal. 



Literary and Personal. 



Crawford's Strawberry- CuLTtTBE, with cata- 
logue, "free to all." Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, for 
1881. This is an octavo pamphletof 3Spp., in tinted 
covers, descriptive of t,wenty-nine of the most popu- 
lar varieties of the strawberry, together with their 
mode of culture, the insects that prey upon them, 
and the remedies for their prevention, expulsion and 
destruction; including the questions of irrigation, 
manuring, testing, fertilizing, etc. 

Annual Catalogue of Franklin and Mar- 
shall College, for 1880-1'^81, 36 pp., octavo, in 
paper covers, including also the catalogue of the 
Theological Seminary, their faculties, number and 
names of students, courses of study, prices of tui- 
tion, etc. 

E. B. Case's Botanical Index, spring supple- 
ment for .March, 1881, Kichmond, Indiana, 20 pp., 
octavo, splendidly illustrated, including a splendid 
colored frontisplece,embracingtwo choice varieties of 
pelargonum, natural size. Mr. C. does not only tell 
to the public what he has, but also tells how the 
public may obtain or produce the same, with practi- 
cal views upon cultivation, etc. 

The Sugar Beet, (4t,h quarterly number) , a royal 
quarto of i;0 pp., finely illustrated with designs of 
the most elaborate machinery. The Sugar Beet is 
begining to loom up in the progress of domestic pro- 
duction, and ought to, and doubtless eventually will 
succeed. 

The Naturalist's Leisure Hours, a monthly 
bulletin of science and practice, published by Dr. A. 
E. Foote, 1223 Belmont Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
A-u interesting 16 pp. octavo, and of special value to 
practical naturalists and amateurs in any branch of 
science. 

The Journal of Forestry, and estates man- 
agement, an octavo magazine of 60 pp., published 
by I. & W. Klder, 14 Bartholomew close, E. C, Lon- 
don, with publication offices in Edinburg, Dublin 
and 2.3 Murray street, N. Y. Price one shilling per 
number. Tha March number of this excellent 
journal is replete with valuable information on the 
subject of Foresty, in which our country has a 
growing interest. 

Eleventh Quarterhj Report of the Pennsylvania 
State Board of Agricultural, for December, January 
and February, 18>0-81. Contains a list of members 
elected by the Agricultural Societies of the .State ; 
a list of the present olBcera ; proceedings of the an- 
nual meeting condensed from the minutes of the 
society ; fourth annual report, of tlie Secretary to the 
members of the board, at the annual meeting held 
January 26th, 1880, embracing local reports, corres- 
pondence, commercial fertilizers, suppression of 



pleuro-pneumonia, contagious diseases of live stock, 
new source of profits for farmers, beet sugtir, forestry 
and tree planting, silk culture, and an estimated 
value per acre of timber land ih nineteen States 
of the Uuion ; centrifugal creamers, by the Secre- 
tary, with four illustrations; geology as related to 
agriculture, by Prof. J.P.Lesley; estimated aver- 
age value of farm lands in nineteen States of the 
Union; a list of olHoial reporters and correspondents 
for 1881 ; an act to regulate the manufacture and 
sale of commercial fertilizers, and tabulated analyses 
of fertilizers, by Dr. C4euth, chemist of the Pennsyl- 
vania Board of Agriculture. The average value 
per acre of timber laud seems to be highest in New 
Jersey(8.5ii.82), and lowest in California (?8..5.5), 
Pennsylvania standing eighth on the list (g29.70.) 
The average value of farm land per acre, is highest 
in .Massachusetts ($8.5.00), and lowest in New Hamp- 
shire ($1.1.00), Pennsylvania is fifth on the lift 
($45.75). These papers are all interesting and val- 
uable, especially that by Prof. Lesley on geology— 
particularly his graphic account of an interview 
with the old farmer, who had been looking seven- 
teen years for coal on his land without finding any. 
There are many people in Lancaster county that are 
akin to the old Somerset farmer, who always have 
their "pockets full of rocks," perhaps comforting 
themselves, with the prospect that — "a blind sow 
may find an acorn " 

Dairt Farming being the theory practiced and 
methods of dairying by I. P. Sheldon, assisted by 
leading authorities in various countries. Part 22 of 
this excellent quarto has been received, with rather 
more than its usual amount of practical matter in re- 
lation to an enterprise that Interests every man, 
woman and child in the entire civilized world, and 
probably the moral and intellectual condition of no 
country could be measured by no surer test than the 
quantity and quality of its butter and cheese. When 
we unsophisticated outsiders scan the pages of such 
a journal, we may well be surprised at the im- 
mensity of the field occupied by the dairy interests 
of the world, the improvement in dairy furniture and 
implements, the astouishing production and the ad- 
vanced literature on the subject. The full-page plate 
in the part before us is perhaps the very best that has 
yet been issued, illustrated groups of improved swine, 
including the Essex, Berkshire, Poland-china, Suf- 
folk and Yorkshire, colored to nature, than which 
nothing could be handsomer in that line of beauty. 
Fourteen other wood cuts, comprising plans of fac- 
tories, coolers, butter-workers, pails, etc., illustrat* 



this 



nber. 



The chapter on recent modifications in American 
cheese-making, goss into practical details of this in- 
teresting branch of human husbandry at great length , 
including " making cheese without acid;" the ched- 
der process; heat; setting the milk; cutting the 
curd; stirring the curd; the rack; oxidation; salting; 
taints; sour milk cured; curing and coloring. Also 
a new method of making skim-mnk cheese, and 
winding up with a statistical list of articles, with 
prices required to thoroughly equip a factory or 
creamery receiving the milk from .500 cows. In this 
part is also commenced an elaborate chapter on 
" Canadian Dairying," which jve have not space to 
notice at this time in detail. Published by Cassel, 
Potter, Gilpin & Co., London, Paris and New York. 
Forty cents a part. 

The Farmer's Magazine and Ror.al Guide, a 
12 page monthly quarto, published at Parkesburg, 
Chester county, Pennsvlvauia, by Potts & Brothers, 
at 25 cents a year, this is a " right down " good 
paper— ably conducted and amply illustrated, and 
also cheap ; and more than that, it is not "too eheap 
to be good." It seems to us that a paper so cheap 
arid good ought to have its price inserted into every 
paralgraph relating personally to it, and yet if one 
should miss seeing the terms in small type on the 
first page, one might look in vain for a distinct state- 
ment of it throughout the whole journal. "Single 
copy four cents," although conspicuous enough, is 
no indication of the subscription price per -year, nor 
yet is any club-rate statement. We feel as proud of 
our young neighbor as we do of our neighboring 
county from which it hails, and would cheerfully 
club with it at one dollar a year, for the Farmer and 
the Parmer's Magazine. Its editorials are "level- 
headed," and Its selections the very cream of the 
agricultural literature of the county. Its scope is 
the "very thing" for those who love to indulge in 
diverse reading-luruishing as it does, that " streak 
of lean and streak of fat," so agreeable to the 
literary apetite of the general reader. Its columns 
contains as much of that which relates to the local 
interest of Lancaster and Chester counties as can be 
found in the columns of any of its mammoth city 
contemporaries, and yet it, like similar rural enter- 
prises everywherejperhaps has to struggle for a local 
recognition as energetically and perseveriugly as 
others have, and with similar elements and influ- 
ences " Tubs," of course, should stand upon their 
own bottom ; " but the fashion of the world is to 
recognize and to patronize that which can call to it, 
aid other supports than those which are abstractly 
its own. Well, be it so, let us "possess our souls m 
patience"— and bide the good time that is coming. 
Let us "wait for the wagon." 



THE LANCASTER FARMER- 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



The Lancaster Examiner. 
Wc desire lo call tlie iitluiitlon of tlic readers of 
the Farmeii to the Daily and Weekly Examiner. 
The Daily was enlarged over six columns on January 
Ist, and is now tlie largest dally published In the 
county. The weekly supplcineut was also enlarged 
over three columns, and the weekly is now one of 
the largest weeklies in the State. Subscribe for the 
Examiner. They are both, daily and weekly, good 
family newspapers. 



ROSES 



,r RARE PLANTS %.r'$l. 

Our Oropnhoiifipg fcnvrring 8 acres in Glass) 

Peter Henderson & Co, 

35 Cortlandt St., New York. 



EGGS FOR HATCHING. 

All the vrfiieties of poultry, in. h h i_ i;i , 
Cochiii8,-IIiiinburgs, Polish, Plynu>th — 
Leghorns, etc.; also Houeii, Pt-km ^ . i .> 

Cayuga Ducks' Eggs, carefully pack m '•>>: 

pens Si .50 per 13; two or more sittinK^. idu i-t i i-; 
Plymoth Uocks and Pekiii.s have never bucii bcittc 



FIFTY TONS 



mi 



I- sale at the Lancaster (Jraiii Elevator, at 
50 CEIVTS PBK BUSUKL. 



Linseed meal is a good general Feed and unequalled 
for the production of Milk, Beef and Butter, summer as 
well as >vinter. The best Englisli authorities estimate 
the feeding value of lOO poiiiidH of this meal to be 
equal to 300 poiiiidtt Oats, 'SIH pounfis Corn, 767 
pounds Wheat Bran. 



GROFF & WE8THEFFER, 



apl-Siu 



LANCASTER, PA., 
30 CENTRE »iQITARE. 



I.IGHT BRAHMA EGGS 

Por lintchin^, now rea<ly— from tlie best strain in the 
connly— at the moderate price of 

$l,SO t'or a setting of X3 ZISSSI. 

L. RATHVON, 
Ne. 9 North Qnceii St., Exainiiu-r Ollioe, Lanoa.sler, Pa. 



SAWING MADE EAST- 




way, as one boy 



Free. Agents wanted. 

uoNAsca uoET^iKa skv oo., 

163 Randolph St., Chicago, lU. 



SAVED 



aOc.ou'VVIIK.VT 



For niuj-lratert Pamphlet" 'j:"iviii;i mil''' par- 
•--s. uddreM Tlie 1 (lomas Harrow Co., laencva, N» Y. 



OFFICE. 



No, 9 Kodli Queen Street 



LANCASTER, PA. 



THE OLDEST AND BEST. 

THE WEEKLY 

LANCASTHR EXAMINER 

One of the largest Weekly Papers in 
the State. 

Pnblislied Every AVediicsday Moruiu^', 



iBau old, well-estatilished uewspiiper, aud ooutaius junt the 
news desimble to make it an interesting and valuable 
Family Newspaper. The postage to subcribera residing 
outside of Lancaster couuty is paid by tbe publisher. 
Seud for a specimeu copy. 



S-CrBSCXSI^"XIOX-T : 



T^vo Dollars per Annum. 



THE DAILY 



LANCASTER EXAMINER 



The Largest Daily Paper in the 
county. 



Pablished Daily Except S inday. 



Tlie dally is published every evening during the week. 
It is delivered in tlie City aud to surrounding Towns ac- 
cessible by railroad and dally stage lines, for 10 cents 

Mali Subscription, free of po.stage— One mouth. 50 
cents; cue year. $n.00. 



THE JOB ROOMS. 



The .iob rooms of The Lancaster Examines are 
filled with the latest styles of presses, material, etc., and 
we are prepared to do all kinds of Hook aud Job Printin 
at as low rates and short notice as any eetablishment i 



SALE BILLS A SPECIALTY. 



ittractive sale bills iu the 8ta 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort u Queen St.. 

LANCA-STKR. PA. 



SEND FOR 



J. JE.MKINN' MTKSEKY, 

WINONA. COI IMIilAXA 1()., OnlO. 



dJOOa week in yoi.rown town. Terms and V '>»ttl 
ajOOAddiesH H. Hai.lktt It c. . Portland, Maine. 

^jun-lyr* 



M. HABERBUSIl, 

MANnFACTIlRKK OK 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

.s.voni.rK. 

COLLARS, WHIPS, FLY NET.S, &c.. 



TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

liUrAI.o HOBKS, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves. Sec, 
No. 30 Penn Square, 



CHAS. A. LOCHER. 

WHOLESALE/vWP RETAIL 
^DRUGGIST -^ 

10 9 EAST KING SXR. 
-5>- LANCASTER, PA. 

manufagtur!-:r Or<^ 
LOCHER'S RENOWNED COUG 

\NDcffEBRATEDHORS 
;$? CATTLE POWDER 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. ^ 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 



E. J. TGRISMAN. 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



PHAHKN W. b'HY. 

'.Vholesaleand Rct.il Dealer in 

WfttL PAPER & WINDOW SHABE8, 

iloll.'iiKlv. Plain Sli:><l<. 4 lolli. 

Fixtnr.'B. I'lM.-.s, 1...... ;s I'.l .i: ^.,.o,lsl.Brl,nniMgloa 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



JinCPiTC ■^'^'ANTED EVERYWHEREf 

AuCill 1 D i;ooD iMvi sti:auv kmploymemt 

BK1.I.IXU Tin: .standaud aobicultlb.vl BOOK, 

Farming For Profit. 

Coroplelc r«rai Lllaapy. Buro Oulilo Is Succcinfiil FirmlDj. 

TELLS HOW m ^i^.>^r:;{^L.^. 
Make Money lU 2X8«:«i{l*p";f«"°"°'"' 

Best Book for Farmere and Farmen' Pfty». Bndorted hp 
Lfadina Pnptm and Ablctit Writf^ro n-- n Th'^rouijhty Practical 

S60 Past*. 140 Illiutrfttlont. Haniaomest nod Beit Pann 
Bouk over published. Every yarmtr thould Aatr« a Copy. 
For Dcscrljitlvo Circular and Tcrmi to Ageott, SMrat, 

J. C. :::Ci:BDr & CO.,-632 Chcstaut St.,Phnadolpliia, P», 
dnoinoati. O. Chicago, JX\. cr St. Louis, Ho. 



%m 




IV. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



[April, 1881. 



WHERE TO BUY GOODS 



LANCASTER. 



BOOTS AND SHOES. 



M. 



BOOKS AND STATIONERY. 



JOM X BAEK-.s .s«t X -S, Nos. 1.5 and 17 Xorth Queen 
8he(.l, liaM- tlic !.ir.^'(.-st and best iii%sorted Book and 
Puper .Sturu in tlu- CHy. 



FURNITURE. 



'EISilT.SH-N.No. I.i'., East King St., (over China 
^ Hall) is Hit- ilicapest iilaoe in Lancaster to buy 
nilure. I'ionu-e Frames a specialty. 



CHINA AND GLASSWARE. 



HIG!« .t MAKTI>. X.J. 1.3 East Kiiij; St., dealers 
in China, aia.-.s and (Jneeiisware, Fancy Goods, 
Lamps, Burners, Cliininey.s, etc. 



CLOTHING. 



M 



YBKS A- KATIIKOiV, Centre Hall, No. 12 Eas 
King SI, Largest Clotliinsf House in Pcnnsvlvanii 
side of Philadelphia 



DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 



(^ W. Iiri,!.. Dealer in Pun- l)nm:= uid > 
T« Cheniieals, Patent Jledicincs, Trusses, 
Braces, Supporters, &c., 15 West Kini; St., Lane 



JOHSf F. l.OXti A SOX, Drug-ists, No. 12 North 
Queen St. Drugs, IMedi^ines, Perfumery, Spices, 
Dye Stuffs, Etc. Prescriptions carefully compounded. 



DRY GOODS. 



GlVl^ltK, B4>WERf» A- HUKS'I', No. 25 E.King 

and Merchant TaiLnin- . I'lrces as I.av as the lowest. 



HATS AND CAPS. 



CJI AMKX. No. a;i West Kni^t Street, Dealer in 
• Hats, Cai.s, Furs, Robes, etc. .Assortment Large. 



JEWELRY AND WATCHES. 



H 



/ KH<>\n*. A JSItO, No i -West King St 
M itthis ( lotk in I "Uasical Boxes Watches 
Jcweli\ -Mnnd nlnii 1 ti Older 



PRINTING 



JOHN 4 mt«»l4M> tf Not th Queen St Sale 
Bills Cneuliis I o I, i Carls InMt itions letter 
andBill Heads mdEuMl .icsneitlj pruittd I»ri«slow 




biges AI Mcar ( n ai 1 t rfp ol jth r \(„etablc8, I 
invite tL« pitronjge of all who are anxioui. to hare thetr 
need dttet fly from the grower^ fre^h, Uue^ and oftlie veiy 



STEW VEGEr\RI,E|i| \ SPEClAI.rY. 



Nov-emo] 



EVAPORATE YOUR FRUIT. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

FIlEli TO AI.I.. 

AMERICAN DRIER COMPANY, 

diHniborwbiir);, Pu. 

Apl-ll 



.Jl 


FARMING FOR PROFIT. 

iscono.-.Ic! tl^at this large and coniprehensiv 

M,i'ii'i'.'iVLvr V, '„k''f"i'ic ki'i'i'.'i ,',''i''„.ir'il!^'.: ;-v 


book, 
&Oo., 


gc-' 


Jt alto- 
r been 


go, 


"7.',.:,-' -•'■'■'■ ' '. ■■' 




, ,:-,.;- 


s!^ 


;".^';,;;.; ■;■..',/,' .::. 




^-■umu 


li'i; 


sivcsalc. ."-cnN arc IV 


li. iKst agricultural 

is declined to have 
,nlcd everywhere. 


r-'itis 

writers 
Tan-U 




^rV'*" ' 


B^ 






^^^S 


ji^^a 


^ 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



LANDRETH'S GARDEN SEEDS I 



FLOWEinXli 1;<M ITS for Sluing planting. 

RHUB.\tii; iMii'i-s, .\si' \i;.\<:rs uoOTS. 

I10RSE-li.\l)l)]sll I,Miir,~, r MMI.VGAN ROOTS. 

SEED l'(iTA-|Ml;s i„ gical .arirty. 

FIELD COKX ingrcal varictv. 

Sl'G.VR C(.)KN iii great variety, 

RED AND WHITE CLOVER, ALSIKE CLOVER, 
Li:CERNE. 

BLUE GRASS, GREEN GRASS, ORCHARD 
IIliRDS (atASS, I'EUKXXIAL RYE GRASS. 

MIXF.D l,.\WX G1,',\SS Sl;i;i>. xcrv finest quality. 

I'LAXT l-uilll l-dl; liorsi: I'I,\XTS. 



F.\R:MSAI/r, FI..\XS1CF1I .Mi;,\i,. 
CARBOLIC .SOAPS, PARIS GRKICX. 
LONDON PURPLE, PARIS PURPLE, 
INSECT I'OWDER, TOBACCO DU.ST, 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS in great vjjriety, 
HORTRiULTURAL TOOLS in great variety, 
REQUISITES for CJARDEN AND GREENHOUSE. 



D. LANDRETH & SONS, 

Nob. 21 AND 23 SOUTH SIXTH .STREET, 

(Between Market and Chestnut,) 

No. 4 ARCH STREET, 

apr-6m] PHILADELPHIA, 



Ready-Made Clothing 

BELOW COST. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

Are SilUng u^' their entire stock of 

READY-MI|DE CLOTljING, 

BELOW COST. 

ALSO, FURNISHING GOODS, 

OF THE LATEST STYLES BELOW COST, 

CLOTHING MADE TO ORDER 

In the prevailing styles and,at mediuui prices. 

Corner N. Queen and Orange Stree ts 
LANCASTER, PA. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

MEEOHANT TAILORS. 



GERMANTOWN TELEGRAPH. 

Which is generall.v acknowledged to be the best Literary, 
Farming and Agricultural Newsnapers in Peuueylvania, Is 
issued weekly at Gcvmantown, Phihidelphia, at $2.60 per 
aunnm. It will commence its .5l8t volume .with the first 
number in March, jiroxitno, being established and conduct- 
ed by its jtreeent editor and proprietor. No family giving 
it a trial for a year would be willing to do without it at 
double the flubecription. AddreeB 

PHIMP R. FKEAS. 

Germautowii, PbiJa. 



*R Tfl (tOnper day at home. Samples w 
q)y I U ipZUAddreeBSTlKSON & Co., Pen 
jnu-lyr" 



$.5 free. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, ' 

Devoied to Agriculiure, Horticulture, Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas 
' ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION 



ONEDOLLpPERANNUlf, 



POSTAGE PREPAID BV THE PROPBIETOR. 



All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S. S, Rathvou, who hue so ably managed the editorial 
department in the past, will contiuue in the position of 
editor. His contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thoronhly a master— entomological science— some 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the success, 
ful farmer, are alone wortli much more than the price of 
this publication. He Is determined to make "The Fanner' 
a necessity to all households, 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster 
county for its agricultural products should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers Interested in this mat- 
oter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among" your friends. The "Farmer" ie 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications in regard to the editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. S. S. Eathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regard to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the pubhsher. Rates of 
advertising can be had on application at the office. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAR FEE ANNTTM-SINOLE COPIES 10 CEITTS. 




Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Sditor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. MAY. 1881. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Pig's Feet, -------- 77 

How Voltaire Cured the Decay of His. Stomach, 77 

Fences, .--.---- 77 

Oatmeal and Beef Tea, ----- 78 

Horseback Riding, ------ 78 

English and American Implements, - - - 78 

Cement for an Aquarium, - - - - 78 

Id Testing Eggs, - 78 

ToTake Woody Taste Out of a Pail, - - 78 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES 

Jelly Custard , 78 

Marlborough Pie, ------ 78 

Vermicelli Scup, 78 

Broiled Chicken, 78 

Snow Cakes, 78 

Light Pot Pie, 78 

Chicken Pudding, 78 

Putting Away Clothes, 78 

Spice Cakes, 78 

Orange Pie or Pudding, 78 

Canadian Jelly Cake,'- -. - - - - 78 

Rhubarb Tart, 78 

Barley Soup, ----... 78 

Sauced Herring, - - - . - . 78 

Royal Diplomatic Pudding, .... 78 

To Make Chocolate, 78 

How the Chinese Make Tea, - - - - 78 

Egg Dumplings, 79 

Cocoanut Pudding, -..-.. 79 

Baked Piefeerel, 79 

Chocolate Mange, 79 

LIVE STOCK. 

Care of Cattle in Warm Weather, . - - 79 

Raising Calves, - .79 

Treatment of Cows with Calf, - - - - 79 

Raising Camels in Nevada, . - - . 79 

The Value of Water for Cows. - - - - 79 

A Cow's Cud, -.-.-- 79 

Beef and .Mutton in England, - - - - 79 

Feeding, ----.-. 79 

POULTRY. 

Feeding for Eggs, ------ go 

Sail for Poultry, ------. 80 

Literary and Personal, - - - - . 80 

wTscnsTNTTMn^ 

500,000 ACRES LHIIUO 

ON THE I.I.VE OF THE 
W^SCOSfSl.X CENTKAL K. R. 

Kor fn'l parHculars, which will bp sent prbr, »ddrr»B 
Chari.k^ L. Colby. Land CommisKjoair, Milwaukee. Wl» 



;CH1I A. HIESTAND, Publisher. 



.Svt'ontI 4'lM 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 

A County Fair, - C,6 

A Meeting of Citi7.cn9 Called to Coiisider the Matti-T. 
"Our Hellebore,"' - - - - - - 05 

To Avoid Insect Ravages, - - - . 66 

The Skunk, 67 

The Peach Crop, - - - - . - 68 
QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 

False Flax, - - - 68 

SELECTIONS. 
Cultivating Spring Crops,- - - - , - 69 

Growing Barley— Corn I'lanting— Cultivation of Beets 
—The Potato Crop. 
Soiling Milk Cows, ------ 69 

Fodder Corn, ------- 69 

Ensilage, - 70 

A Peniisylvrtnia Farmer's Conclusioni*. 
Castor Pomace as a fertilizer, - - - - 70 

To Make and Maintain a Lawn, - - - 71 

Origin of Fultz Wheat, ----- 71 

Tobacco Culture, ------- 71 

Uow to Grow the Coming Crop— Rich .SoiL Required 
New Ground Iho Best^The Host Ixjcalities— .\ 
Chanfie of Ground Desirable— Full and Spring 
PlowiriR— Use of FertjIiMrs— Quantity of Manure- 
Plowing the Land— The Proper Condition of the 
Ground — Throwing up tlie Ridges — Distance Be- 
tween the Rows and IMants. 
Insanity of Farmers' Wives, - - - - 73 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
Lancaster County .Agricultural and Horticultu- 
ral Society, ------- 74 

Members Present— Reports of Committees — Crop Re- 
ports- How we are Poisoned— Is IaikI Improved 
by Laying Many Years in Grass— What to .Substi- 
tnle for a Failing Hay Crop. 
The Poultry Society, ------ 75 

Election of N^w Members— New Business— Young 
Chieks. 

The Liunsan Society, 75 

Museum— Library— Historicrtl Relics — Papers Read. 
AGRICULTURE; 
Encouraging Reports from All Over the Union, 75 
Systematic Farming, - ----- 76 

Weeds, - - - 76 

Table Com, -------- 78 

Are Roots Worth Growing, . - - - 76 

Stumps, -----... 76 

The Wheat Crop.in Kansas, - - - . 76 

Some Items in Farm Economy, - - . 76 

HORTICULTURE 
Flower Garden and Lawn, - - - - 76 

Magnum Bonura Potatoes, ----- 76 

Prepare for the Fruit Crop, - - - - 77 

Timely Notes of Seasonable Interest, - - 77 
Raising Peas, ---... 77 

Manuring the Garden, ----- 77 

Raise Grapes, ----.-. 77 



1 1 cheapest and best In 




lotli Pearl and 
Magrnum Boniim Potatoes ('-73i bu. grown 
from 1 lb. of pfcd). Berksliire Beauty Cab- 
bage, Amber Cream STxreet Com, La 
Flume Ch.estnut Celerv, etc, eto. £1»- 
jant Catalogue free to all ; send for li. 



NICHOLS.SHEPABD&CO 



YtBRATOR 



THRESHERS, 

Traction and Plain Engines 

and Horse- Powers. 



32 



VEARS:; 



if-'f, without cJiiDt'O of 
^.«...r,v.^-"l, or location, to'^bad: 
broad warranty ytr«i en aUourffootU 




STEAM-POWER SEPARATORS and 
Complpto Srcam Outnu of matdiUvmialUiM. 
Ftnett Traction Ed fines and Plain Emrincft 

ever seen in the American market 

A muUituda of special featvraa and improoemmu* 
for 1881, tOBBther with re/xrior qualiHa in conftnuy- 
lion and maieriaU not dreamed of by other malicrs. 

Four sizes of Separators, from 6 to 18 horse 

espacity./or Hy<am or horaepotfer. 

Two styles of •• Mounted " Horso-Powem. 

Tann nnn ^eet or Selected I.hinber 

constantly ou hand, from wtilch is buUt the 1»- 




NICHOLS, SHEPARD A CO. 

Battie Creeik. Mich lea iv 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific Express' 

Way PasscnRert : . 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommodation, 

Mail traiu via M;. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Snnday Mail 

Fast Line- •■-.••• 

Frederick Accommodatiou 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodatiou. 

Harrisburg Express , 

Pittsburg Express 

Cinciuuati Bxpress* 



EASTWARD. 
Cincinnati Express. 

Fast Line - 

HarrisLarg Exp: 



7:30 p. I 
8:50 p. I 
11:30 p. 1 



SiOS a. m. 



Harrisburg. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. m. 
11:20 a.m. 
Col. 10:40 a. m. 
12:40 p. m. 
12:55 p. m. 
12:40 p. m. 

3:25 p. m. 
Col. '2:45 p. m. 



8:051 



:40p. 
2:00 p. 
3:05 p 
5:3.5 p. 
6:25 p. 



Columbia Accommodatiou.. 

Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express" 

Harrisburg Accom 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, coi 
*ith Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a, 
through to Hanover. ^ 

The Frederick Accommodatiou, west, c 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. anij 

The Pacific Express, east, on Sunday, 
stop at M-idletown. EUzabethtowu, Mom 
ville. ^ ., 

•The ouly trains which ruu anny. 

tRuus daily, except Monday. 



7:20 p.m. 
9:30 p. m. 
:8 at Lancaster 



runs to Frederick, 
when flagged, will 
t Joy and Liindia- 



NORBECK & MILEY, 




EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

V/ATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Aruudel riutnd 

SPECTACLES. 

Nortli Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa. 



:e. I'. :^c^yxr-j!ia..A.isr, 



AT LOWEST POSSIBJ.K I'RIt'ES, 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

9-1-12] Opposite I.eopiiid BotH. 



ESTABLiShlED i S32. 






Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 



Plant Trees raised i 



LOUIS C. LYTZ 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster CO., Pa. 

at SmoketowH. six rallea cast of Lancaster. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE pD CHAIRS. 

WAItKKOOMS: 

102 East King St., Oor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



PRACTICAL 



kmm Builders, 



cox & CO'S m STA^D. 

Coiner of Duke and Vine Stieets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SlDE-BilR BUGGIES, 

PHOTONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 



~A 



G. SSNER & SONS, 

Mauufacturers and dealers iu all kinds of rough and 
tiuiahed 

The best Sawed SHI»'«I.ES iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors. Blinds, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 

and PATENT BLINDS, which are f.ir sniJerior to any 
other. Also best COAI. constantly on hand. 

OFFICE AND TAKD : 

Northeast Corner of Prmce and Walnnt-sts,, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Special Inducements at the 

NEW FURNITURE STORE 

■W. A. HEINITSH, 

(over Bursk's arocery Slore), Lancaster, Pa. 
A ceneral aasorMneut of furniture of all kinds constantly 



For Good and Cheap Work go to 
F. VOLLMER'S 

FURNITURE WARE ROOMS, 

No 309 NORTH QUEEN ST., 

(Opposite Northern Jlinket), 

Ija.xxc«.s»t©r, :E»«.. 

Also, :ill kinds of picture frames. uov-ly 



GREAT BARGAINS. 

AlaigeasiiOitmeut of all kinds of Carpets are still sold at 

CARPET 'FALroTl's. SHIRK, 

Ko. 202 Wexf Kiiit/ St. 



nd examine o' 
A- the largest 



—at the lowest Philadelphia 
baud a large and complete assortment of Bag 



Prices lo Suit the Times. 

REPAIRING promptly attended to. All work 

guaranteed. 

79-2- 



!S, 23. oois:, 

Mauufactuver of 

Cirriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

GHURGH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

luroe Stick of Now and Heoon-hand Work on hand, 
_ i„^rcheap. Carriagea M.de to Order Work War_rauU>d 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history and habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

and the best remedies for their expulsion or extermination. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work wiU be Highly [Uustrated, and vnll be put in 
nresB u" sooiTafter a sufficient number of subscnberB can 
EeobtainedTo cover tUe cost) as the work can possibly he 
accomplished. 



Don't forget this notice. 

\fs''o'm^Lmd°I'7ul!'rssortm;nt';f'Counte.-pane8, OU 
Cloths and Blankets of every variety. [noY-iyr. 



PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 

38 and 40 'West King Street. 

We keep ou baud of our own manufacture, 

QUILTS, COYERLETI^^^^^^^^p,,,^ 

Bureau and Tidy Covers. Ladies' Furnishing Goods, No- 
" p" rtfcuiar attention paid to customer Rag Carpet, and 
scoweiiug and dyeing of all kinds. 

° PHILIP SCHUM, SON & CO.. 



$77 



a month and expenses guaranteed to Agents. 
Outfit free. SnAW S CO., Augusta, Maine. 



THE HOLMAN LIVER PAD 

Cures by absorption without medicine. 

Now is the tune io aj.plv these remedies. They will . 
for you what nothing else on earth """^ ^mnlreds ot cii 
zens of Lancaster sty so. Set the genuine at 

LANCASTER OFFICE AND SALESROOM, 

22 East Orange Street. 



C. R. KLINE, 

y\.TTOI^NEY-AT-J:iAW, 

OFFICE : 15 NORTH DUKfi STREET, 

Lj^lSrCA-STKR, FA. 

Nov-ly 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S, S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1881. 



Vol. XIII. No. 5. 



Editorial. 



A COUNTY FAIR. 

A Meeting of Citizens Called to Consider the 
Matter. 

The citizens of Lancaster county and this 
city who are interested in holding a 2;randfair 
of the farming and industrial interests of the 
county are requested to meet in the spacious 
reading room at the Stevens House, oh Wed- 
nesday afternoon at 3 p. ni., April 27, to ap- 
point committees to act in concert with the 
Agricultural and Horticultural Societ}' in 
showing next fall on our Fair Grounds tlie 
great resources of this favored spot of Penn- 
sylvania. The exhibits will be shown under 
immense tents and buildings to be prepared 
for tlie occasion. 

Every farmer and artisan will be astonished 
at the wealth and manufactures, and it is ex- 
pected tliat all of the citizens will take hold 
with willing hands to make it the grandest 
exhibition ever held of our agrcultural and 
horticultural products, of our numerous cattle, 
sheep,- hogs, poultry, &c\ also, of all the var- 
ious manufactures of every kind here produ- 
ced. 

On each day of the fair there will be ex- 
hibited in a ring prepared for the occasion a 
cavalcade in which each farmer can show his 
animals to advantage for the benefit of the 
thousands of visitors. Hundreds of animals 
will be in this immense ring at one time, led 
or driven by their owners or attendants. 
There will probably be the largest exhibition 
of poultry ever brought together in Pennsyl- 
vania, containing fancy fowls from other 
counties and States. The details and prem- 
ium list will be published as soon as the com- 
mittees can prepare them. At the last meet- 
ing of the Lanciister County Agricultural So- 
ciety this matter was well discussed, and a 
committee of three were appointed to make 
the preliminary arrangement.s. 

We insert the above in this number of the 
Fahmer, "because, having noticed it in only 
one of our city papers, we do not think it was 
sufficiently advertized, according to the 
vast importance of the subject involved, and 
hence, perhaps, the reason for the mcaser 
gathering on the day appointed. From the 
same paper from which we quote this, we ob- 
serve that there were only four or five persons 
present at the mi'cting at the Stevens House, 
and that these transacted no business. This 
is very much to be regretted ; but we hope it 
is no indication of what will be ultimately 
done in the premises. Lancaster city and 
county ought to accomplish and ran accom- 
plish, if they will it— all thai, is proposed in 
the above call, although it does seem to be a 
"big claim" to promise definitely so much in 
advance of its determination by the farmers 
in solemn conclave assembled. We may, how- 
ever, be permitted to say this mucli, that no one 
man will be able to carry out such a programme 
without being sustained by superior person- 
al influences, much time and patience, unusu- 
al energy and perseverance, aud last not least, 
ample pecuniary means. Perhaps the very 
wisest plan would be to first ascertain upon 
what special plane of operations the united 
resources of the city and coimty could be con- 
solidated in the ultimation of such a mag- 
nificent and worthy enterprise. There should 



be no " brcalting in " on such a subject, but 
on the contrarj' wiUi/ o£ will and purpose, 
and all abnegation of self should bo the pre- 
dominating influence from beginning to end; 
and this also in the general results, as well as 
in all particulars pointing to such results. 
There ought to be one hundred~ov at the very 
lowest number Ji/ty— good and trno men in 
Lancaster city and county who arc willing to 
assume the reponsibility of such an exhibition; 
and whilst it may be true, as a general maxim, 
that "where there is a. xoill there is atoay," 
yet there is nothing truer thau that idll has 
its limits, and those limits are often bounded 
by a wall of adamant, beyond which no way 
can possibly penetrate. 

We believe the fathers of the rising genera- 
tions of farmers, mechanics and artizans are 
making a great mistake in their apathy and 
non-participation in agricultural and mechan- 
ical exhibitions. These things exercise and 
foster the higher instincts of our human 
nature, besides encouraging mechanical and 
agricultural skill, as well as affording a stimu- 
lant to the cultivation ot the intellect. Any 
one of sufficient mental capacity can see, that 
every year it is demonstrated more clearly 
that viind is working the lever of labor, in- 
stead of mere physical force. These exhibi- 
tions should occur about once a year in every 
county in the Union, and especially ajich count 
ties as contain the resources of the county o 
Lancaster. Fathers do not know, in the pres- 
ent progressive spirit of the age, how much 
recreation their sous and daughters need as a 
relaxation from the monotonous labors of the 
workshop and the farm. "All work and no 
play makes Jack a didl boy," is true in more 
ways than one ; nevertheless, there is, and 
alw.ays will be, a distinction between liberty 
and license ; but the happy mean can only be 
attained through the cultivation of a mind 
governed by moral principle. It is true, that 
these occasions may be prevented, or thwarted 
from their legitimate ends, but this does not 
militate against their proper use. Man is by 
nature a social being, and in proportion as.he 
ignores the social relation between himself 
and his fellow man, in that degree he becomes 
selfish. An exhibition of the agricultural, 
mechanical, domestic aud mineral produc- 
tions of a county, a State, a district or a 
nation, is an object school to the artizans who 
delve in these different occupations, and prac- 
tically illustrates to the one half the world not 
only how the other half lives, but also what it 
knows — it becomes, as it were, a city set upon 
a hill, where it can be seen of men. No man, 
however, should engage in an enterprise of this 
kind through compulsion, or with an end only 
to pecuniary speculation. Those who necessari- 
ly give their time to it, with no interest in it 
save their other daily labor, should be reason- 
ably compensated; but in all prosperous and 
progressive communities, there must be those 
who have an indirect or ultimate interest in 
the success of these enterprises, and these ought 
to labor or use their influence in behalf of th« 
common good. There must ever Im a mutual 



intercourse between city consumption and 
rural production, and public cxhibitious lead 
to that commerce between these communities 
which develops the best articles and the most 
compensating rewards. In short, a public 
exhibition of industrial products, is one of 
the most practical and satisfactory advertise- 
ments that can possibly be made, because, the 
objects on exhibition in mute eloquence speak 
for or against themselves. 

But the ground work must be unity of 
purpose, mutual confidence, untiring energy, 
disinterested perseverance, and abnegation 
of, self relying for compensation upon reacting 
efiects. 

•OUR HELLEBORE." 

The winter of 1880-81 will doubtleas long 
be remembered as' one of the longest, coldest, 
"snowiest and blowiest " in the annals of 
meteorology— so much so, indeed, that we 
surely thought our "Black Hellebore " {Hik- 
boroiis niger) would perish. The perishment 
of the insect world had been forecast by grave 
sarans, and if these all fell victims to the 
frigid blasts of King Boreas, how could we 
expect a blooming winter flower to escape? 
We say blomning, because the last time we 
noticed it before the winter set in — about 
Thanksgiving Day— we observed that it had 
begun to push forth its flower buds, and in the 
winter of 1870-80 it bloomed from November 
to April, and never had less than a dozen 
opened flowers at a -time. But during the 
winter just ended it was nearly all the while . 
covered with ice and sliow, or' slush, most of 
the time frozen nearly as hard as a rock, and 
what plant could expect to pass through such 
an ordeal unscotched or unscathed by frost? 

But, when winter's frigid reign relaxed, the 
ice had thawed and the snow had melted 
away, there arose old Hellebore witli his half 
a hundred swollen flower buds, congratulat- 
ing the tiny snowdrops on the prospective 
advent of spring. Some of his leaves were 
nipped by frost and partially discolored, but 
the flowers were intact. When we first ex- 
amined the plant, March 16, we counted over 
sixty flowers, about half of which were open- 
ed—each expanding over two inches in diam- 
eter—and about as many bees were holding a 
sort of carnival among them. What a singu- 
lar provision of prolific nature, that the deni- 
zens of the insect and the floral worlds should 
thus be rolling in jollity befoi% Saint Patrick's 
day. 

When we planted our Hclebore Ave years 
ago, it remained stationary for nearly two 
years thereafter, apparently never making a 
single leaf. But all the while it w;w invisibly 
gathering strength, and now the " bush " 
measures nearly two feet in diameter. It 
looks like a huge composite flower, surround- 
ed by a very dark green frill of leaves lying 
flat upon the ground. This is perhaps an ob- 
jection to the plant. If it bore its flowers 
more aloft it would be more desirable, but 
they have a short stem and all come up from 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[May, 



the earth around the bases of the leaf 
stems. 

It is interesting and instructing to observe 
tliis singular plant during au open winter, 
and when there are no snows upon the ground, 
lu a warm and genial day, its flowers expand, 
and it seems to rejoice with you that even in 
bleak winter and in the open air, it can recall 
the semblance of blooming summer. It seems 
to .say, "Now, enjoy yourself while you may, 
and to the extent that you legitimatel}- can. 
Dou't put it off until to-morrow and then run 
into excess, but improve each day and hour 
as it passes. Let your chief delight in life be 
in your duty, and let your duty be your de- 
light." "Don't be afraid of wasting jour 
precious fragrance on the desert air, for its 
outgoing will bo a boon to somebody or some- 
thing. Why, I have been visited by the gen- 
tle 'little busy bees' in the months of Decem- 
ber, January, February and March, attracted 
chiefly by the perfumed aura that exhales 
from my winter bloom, when all the other 
objects of the flowery realm are transiently 
enveloped in the sleep of death." 

But when summer is fairly initiated, or 
when "showery, bowery, flowery May " has 
made her advent, it seems to speak a different 
language. It seems to say, "You do not need 
me now. There are fairer, loftier, sweeter 
and more winsome forms than mine. Auon, 
worship these, and leave me to my accustom- 
ed summer rest. When 'the last rose of sum- 
mer, left blooming alone,' sadly retires, I will 
awake from my long sleep and cheer you again. 
During all the precious summer you have been 
banqueting on the 'balm of a thoiisaud flowers, ' 
and you have quite forgotten me, but I will 
not forget you. When the Chrysanthemums 
fade and shiver under the chill November 
winds, and the memories of God's incarna- 
tion begin to loom up, I will peer forth with 
becoming humility, and hail the auspicious 
day." 

And it will redeem its pledge, if it is only 
vouchsafed the "ghost of a chance." Heav- 
ing on it or around it, all the blessed winter, 
old boots, broken crockery ware, coal screen- 
ings, coffee grounds, snows, ices and slushes 
don't improve it much, although they may not 
destroy it, and every intervening warm period 
throughout the vrinter it will expand one or 
more flowers, which will greet with a cheerful 
" Here am I ; the tip of the morning to ye !" 

Perhaps one of the most singular character- 
istics of the Black Hellebore is the successive 
changes in the color of its flowers ; in that re- 
spect, seemiijgly affecting the habit of the 
common Hydrangea. When the flowers fu'st 
begin to "blow," they are white, tinged with 
green — at least this is the color of the outside, 
for they force themselves up inverted and 
with the flower stem abruptly bent. As they 
expand they turn their faces upward, or 
towards the outer margin of the group. The 
corollse, then, on their inner surface, are mar- 
gined with a delicate pink coloration, which 
is intensified about the base. They continue 
in this condition for some weeks, and then 
they gradually change to a dull crimson, from 
which, during the month of April, they 
change to a light green, after which they be- 
come brownish and shriveled, and by the first 
of June they have all passed away. The seed 
pods become enlarged, and look like six small 



peas united by their stems, resembling the 
seed pods of the Aquileyias, or coliimbines, to 
which it has a family alliance. The leaves 
also become brown and shriveled, and in May 
and June new leaves are developed. While it 
reposes other flowers can be cultivated all 
around it, completely hiding it from view — 
provided, always, that they are not perennials. 
As the plant is very lowly, perhaps a slightly 
elevated mound in the centre of a circular 
bed would be a proper situation for it. Also, 
if some regard was paid to shelter it might 
improve it some. We have not been noticing 
specially the effects of culture upon it, but 
rather its singular progress under neglect. 

The "Black Hellebore" belongs to the order 
Ranuncidaceoe, "Crowfoot family," and, be- 
cause of its winter blooming, it is also called 
the "Christmas rose." There are three well- 
known species of the genus Heleborous, name- 
ly, the H niger, or "Black Hellebore ;" the 
Hfetidm, or "Fetid Hellebore," also called 
the " Bear's-foot ;" and H. viridis. or " Green 
Hellebore." The fir.st named is a native of 
Austria and Italy, but was introduced into 
England by Gerard in 1596. Just when or 
by whom it w.as iutroduced into the United 
States we have not yet been able to learn. 
The second species is a native of many parts of 
England, especially in Yorkshire, where it 
has long been used as a vermifuge for chil- 
dren. Its substance is an acrid cathartic, 
and it owes its virtues to these qualities. 
The third named is found growing Wild on 
Long Island, near Jamaica and Brooklyn, but 
is supposed to have been originally iutroduced 
from Europe. 

The Black Hellebore was extensively used- 
by the ancients as a purgative, in cases where 
there was obstinate costiveness. In modern 
practice it seems to be less frequently used, 
and then chiefly in small doses, as an altera- 
tive in obstructions of the uterine discharges, 
or in dropsy. 

There is also a plant called the " White 
Hellebore" of a more poisonous quality than 
any of the aforenamed species, but this be- 
longs to a different genus and a different 
family. This is the Veralrum album, or 
"False Hellebore'" and is included in the 
order MELANTHACEiE, or Colchicum family. 
This plan is a native of Italy, Switzerland, 
Austria and Russia, and Gerard is supposed 
to be the person who introduced it into Great 
Britain. There are three or four species of 
Veratrum recorded as native to North 
America, but the album is not among them. 

It is singular how difficult it is to correct a 
wrong start in nomenclature. The true and 
the false hellebores are already so much con- 
founded by writers, that it is difficult to tell 
exactly which the ancients attempted to de- 
scribe. When the average individual wishes to 
procure the poisonous "white veratrum," he 
must ask for "white hellebore," or it is possible 
he may not be able to obtain it. It lias long 
since had a reputation, in specific cases, as an 
efl'ective insecticide, and in all works, or in 
cases where it is recommended, it is invariably 
alluded to as white hellebore. So let it be, if it 
can't be otherwise, until it shall be of suffi- 
cient importance to change it. 

Get your Job Printing done at the Daily 
ExAsiiNER office. 



TO AVOID INSECT RAVAGES. 

Several methods of treating the plant beds 
to avoid the ravages of the flea-beetle have 
come to our notice within the past few days. 
A planter of large exiwrience writes from 
Tennessee that he has found unleached wood 
ashes an effectual remedy. The method of 
using them is this: Early in the morning, 
while the dew is still on the plants, the ashes 
are sown broadcast over the bed, thinly, of 
course, but carefully,, so tliat every plant may 
receive its due share. Tlie dew aids the ashes 
to cling more closely to the plants. A. rain, 
however, will quickly wash them off'. The 
ashes ought to be supplied every other morn- 
ing, whether it has rained or not. They' 
should be sown over the bed from the earliest 
moment the flea-beetle discovers itself. Per- 
haps it would be better not to wait for their 
appearance, but to begin as soon as the seed 
begins to develop leaves. The ashes ciin be 
sown over the bristles, brush or whatever 
covering may have been placed over the seed- 
bed. We have been assured this remedy is ef- 
flcacious. At any rate, no better fertilizer 
can be put on the seed-bed. It is at once a 
cheap- remedy, easy of application, and de- 
serves to be tried by every tobacco grower in 
Pennsylvania. 

Another grower assures us that he has al- 
ways succeeded in getting ahead of the dread- 
ed beetle by the Use of cow manure. This 
is prepared by putting the solid manure into 
a couple of old barrels during the previous 
fall, and adding a few handfnls of unslacked 
lime to every six inch layer of the manure. 
The barrels should be kept in the dry, and in 
the spring, when needed the manure will be 
dry, may be easily pulverized, readily handled 
and must be dusted over the beds. Like 
most of those already given, this application 
will enric.i the soil and hurrj along the 
plants, while it is protecting the young ijlants 
from insect ravages. Certainly, from tlie nu- 
merous remedies we have offered, the tobacco 
growers out to be measurably protected from 
these pests. 

Let no tobacco grower be deterred from 
using one or both of these agents because of 
their apparent simplicity. Such common, 
cheap and easily obtainable remedies are 
oftentimes the most efficacious, although 
many may reject them because they seem so 
simple. 

The above we clip from the columns of a 
local daily, and insert it here for what it may 
be worth. Possibly it may be efficacious in 
the seed beds in the spring, especially since it 
is endorsed by a "planter of large experience. " 

Here in Lancaster County the "Cucumber 
Flea-beetle " and the "Snow-flea" predomi- 
nated in the spring, and either of these reme- 
dies would probably be efficacious, especially 
in the case of such a delicate creature as the 



last named insect. 

But the grtatest damage the tobacco sus- 
tained last year was from the " Downy Flea- 
Beetle" {Haltica pubescrns) in the month of 
August, when the plants were fully developed, 
and ready to harvest. The tobacco growers 
of our county had fields of from one to 
fifty acres under cultivation, and in the 
application of any remedy the magnitude of 
such a labor may be imagined, when we con- 
sider the vast increase in area, and leaf sur- 
face, in such enclosures, compared with the 
area of a seed bed, and the diminutive plants. 
Nearly eight acres in the vicinity of Lancas- 
ter city were completely riddled by these in- 
sects, one leaf of which, now in the rooms of 
the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
being penetrated by two thousand holes, from 
the size of a common pin-hole, to that made 
by a common duck-shot. Of course, such 
leaves were rendered entirely useless as wrap- 



I 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



67 



pers. and could only be used as fillers, and 
I)erhaps were damaged even for that purpose. 

We confess we are at our wit's end to con- 
ceive of a remedy that would reach this sec- 
ond, summer brood of the flea-beetle. But^ 

" It will uevcr do to irlvc it up 80," 
and therefore wo suggest the trial of any and 
every reasonable thing iu playing for such a 
st,ake. The following paragraph from the 
same source, may do no harm, if administered 
in time. 

"The present is a cood time to destroy in- 
sects which harbor l)eneath the bark of trees. 
Scrape off the bark and then wash the trunk 
aud lower limbs with sIioul; soap suds, or 
with a solution of potash, or even with lye 
from wood ashes, but do not use whilowash." 

THE SKUNK. 

( MqMtis americana. ) 

I have at length succeeded in procuring for 
the Muneum of the Linnasan Society, a local 
mammal that I have been endeavoring to 
obtain for fifteen years or more without suc- 
cess ; not that the animal is at all a rare one 
in Lancaster county, but that it usually emits 
such a nauseous odor that no living being, 
(•i\-ilized or savage, cares about coming in 
contact'with one of them ; and yet, if advan- 
tage can be taken of them, they are as in- 
offensive as a rabbit, and their flesh is said to 
be far superior to a rabbit's, as food. 
* Abouttwo weeks ago, two citizens of Martic 
township called upon me and offered for sale 
the skin of a "skunk," which they had trapped 
in a "dead-fall" the night previous, and so 
sudden had been the capture that the animal 
was killed before it had time to discharge its 
fetid liquid. I purchased the skin for a trifle, 
and placed it in the hands of Mr. George 
. Hensel, one of our local taxidermists. It is 
one of our most beautiful animals, but all its 
beauty is entirely negatived by its repulsive 
stench. To obtain this specimen, therefore, 
under these circumstances, was a rare oppor- 
ttmity that I could not resist, aud especially 
because of its color aud condition, for many 
of these animals are a rusty black or brown- 
ish, and the lighter parts are not so clear a 
white in color. It is said that these differ- 
entialities are the bases of various species, to 
which I will allude farther on. Aud here it 
may be well to say that the fetid liquid of the 
skunk is not its urine, as has been commonly 
supposed, and perhaps is still, by many in- 
telligent persons, so regarded ; and the idea, 
also prevalent, that the animal discharges this 
liquid upon its bushy tail, and thus scatters it 
abroad, is equally erroneous. This animal 
has two glands, corresponding to the musk 
glands of musk animals, but iu the skunk 
they are located near the inferior extremity 
of the alimentary canal, and these glands 
secrete an extremely fetid liquor, which the 
animal has the power of emittiug at pleasure, 
as a means of defence, and although a car- 
nivorous animal, and amply provided with an 
efticient dental apparattis, it never attempts 
to defend itself iu any other way — either by 
"fight or flight." This liquor is said to 
possess valuable medicinal powers, but its 
extreme ofifensiveness interferes with its use. 

Whenever it prepares to charge upon its 
foes, it carefully turns its tail over its back, 
for it is a scrupulously clean and neat little 
animal, and will not soil itself with its own 



fetor or anything else. At night the offensive 
liquor exhibits a phosphorescent light, and it 
can be discharged from ten to fifteen feet. It 
is not the stench alone that is to be dreaded, 
but the liquid is exceedingly acrid, and when 
discharged into the eyes of its assailant, it 
produces severe^inflammation, and even blind- 
ness. 

The term " skunk," is said to be a contrac- 
tion from Segankii, whatever that may mean. 
The group of animals including the various 
species of skunks, is conflned exclusively to 
North and South America. It is true that 
in Europe they have an animal that also emits 
a disagreeable odor, called the "Pole-cat," 
but this animal belongs to a different genus— 
Mi(s(ela ptitfiriits — alied to the true weasels. 
TJie term Pole-ait is said to be a contraction 
of Poidtry cat, hecmiso. it feeds largely on poul- 
try : it is also called the fitchew, or fitchel. 
Pole-cat is also pretty extensively applied to 
our skunk in Pennsylvnnia. Our common 
species of the skunk abounds from Hudson's 
Bay to the plains of Missouri, aud was de.scrihed 
by Linnseus aud Giueliu under the name of 
Vivm-a mephitis: and, although several species 
are described as North American, yet Dr. 
Godman held that they were all merely varie- 
ties of the same species. The same author 
places the skunk in his second Iribe which 
includes the Dj"y»f''^'"rt<^'''s— a-nimitls walking on 
their toes — between the weasels and the ot- 
ters. Other authors place it in a family be- 
tween the Viverridn- or civets, and the Ursi- 
dce or bears, and claim that it is more planti- 
grade than digitigrade— that is, walking on 
palms, or flatfooted. Desmoulin described it 
first under the name of Mephitis americana, 
the significance of the generic term being a 
foul, offensive or noxious exhalation from de- 
composing substances, filth or other sources, 
and the specific term from the fact that it is 
exclusively an American animal. America 
therefore enjoys the distinguished honor of 
possessing the " loudest smelling " quadruped 
on this planet. Among the early (Spanish, 
English, French and German) settlers of 
America, this animal is the "Skunk "and 
"Polecat" of the English; "Bete puaute " 
of of the French; "Stinkthier" of the Ger- 
mans; "Pisskatz" of the Pennsylvania Dutch; 
"Seecawk" of theCree Indians; "Mapunto" 
of other tribes; " Mefitismo " of the Italians, 
and also the same of the Spaniards. 

The French naturalist. BufCou, called it the 
"C'hincha;" Pennant, the "Skunk- Weasel;" 
Father Charlevoix, "I'Enfant du Diable "— 
the child of the devil ; the German natural- 
ist, Kalm, called it Fiskatta ; so that an ani- 
mal so able to make its presence manifest, it 
will be seen, has not been slighted by the 
absence of a "local habitation and a na«if. " 
Tenny assigns it to his sub-order Carnivora 
and family MuslelicUe, placing it generically 
between the Otters and the Badgers. He 
also drops the specific name of Amvricnnn and 
adopts that of Cliinga, or Chincha, of Ticde- 
man. He also claims four distinct species 
north of Texas and east of Missouri, namely: 
Chinga, variaxts, occidentalis and mesokncn. 
In addition to these species there are the 
bicolor and meficaiw of Mexico ; the mcsome- 
las and nasuta of Texas ; the chiknsis and 
couepnl of Chili ; the zorilla and interruptn of 
California ; aud the castanea, quitentis, fenillei 



and plusilineatu of South America. Although 
the skunk is habitually a night prowler, yet 
when pressed by hunger he will also roam 
abroad by day— indeed, the only first I ever 
saw at large, full sixty years ago— I saw about 
fonr o'clock in the afternoon; but they seem 
80 be more frequently met with about human 
habitations during the morning twilight, al- 
though I have Iwen sensible at other hours of 
their whereabouts scores of times. They 
feed on rabbits, mice, frogs, insects, poultry — 
especially young chickens, and have a great 
fondness for eggs. It is very seldom that 
they are included among collections of living 
animals, on account of their offensive smell, 
although Cateshy, in his natural history of 
Florida, states that he saw one domesticated, 
and that it never had made use of its offen- 
sive battery. A volume could be written on 
the encounters of diflerent people with this 
handsome little animal, in which the assail- 
ants always had been vanquished. It never 
moves very rapidly nor makes any special at- 
tempt to escape, seemingly conscious of its 
repelling power when pressed too ilosely. 
Kev. Lyman Beecher states that one oftliese 
animals once crossed his path as he was taking 
an evening walk, and not knowing what it 
w;is, he heaved a volume of the British cyclo- 
predia at it and struck it; the consequence 
was that the volume had to be buried, and 
after remaining for mouths in that condition 
the effluvia had not diminished. 

A skunk was in the habit of entering a cel- 
lar in the vicinity of Rochester, New York, 
through an avenue known only to itself. It 
had often been seen in the cellar by the mem- 
bers of the fiimily, but they, being acquainted 
with its peculiar characteristic, had never 
alarmed or assailed it. But an uninformed 
servant maid, recently hired, on going into 
the cellar on one occasion, commenced au 
attack as soon as she saw it, with the follow- 
ing result : The girl had to be carried to bed, 
where she lay three weeks before she was 
able to work again ; her clothing had to be 
buried or burned, and all the butter, cream, 
milk and meat in the cellar spoiled, and had 
to bo thrown away. I think it is Hearne who 
recorded that about Hudson's Bay he saw the 
Indians cooking and eating the skunk — in- 
deed, he ate of it himself, and found it excel- 
lently flavored ;ind tender. He himself helped 
to kill one, soon after which the place was 
covered with snow, aud on retui:ning to the 
same place again the following spring, when 
the snow had melted away, the odor was 
quite as strong ivs it had been four months 
previously. The odor of the skunk is not 
easily definable, and I suppose Its substance 
has never been chemically analyzed. The 
one I saw, to which I have before alluded, 
was surprised near a "sink hole" in a har- 
vest field, which had been partially filled up 
with stones, collected from said field. Two 
bigger Iwys and an inexperienced dog were iu 
advance of me in the effort to capture it be- 
fore it could gain its buiTOW under the stones. 
The animal, perhaps, saw that it would be 
intercepted, and immediately opened its bat- 
tery on its assailants, and the rout Wiis imme- 
diate and complete. The dog began to root 
iu the ground, and ran home to the farm 
house. The foremost boy disgorged a lunch, 
taken a few moments before, and the re- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[May, 



mainder of the company had no appetite for 
supper that day. A highly diluted whiff of 
the skunk musk is not more disagreeable to 
some people than the musk of commerce ; but 
on that day I think it would have compared 
with the smell of a Mexican kitchen, in which 
a traveler detected " niwe(!/-m)ie stinks and 
fourteen well-defined stenches." 

The Linnsean Society is, therefore, to be 
congratulated on the acquisition of this splen- 
did subject, for notwithstanding its disagree- 
able odor, it cannot be ignored in a collection 
©f our local mamals, and the circumstances 
under which it was captured may illustrate to 
others the manner in which it may be laken 
without incurring the usual risks of suffoca- 
tion, blindness or nausea, oo a too near ap- 
proach to it. But, it may illustrate more 
than this. It is well known that game ani- 
mals are every year becoming less abundant in 
Lancaster county, and, tliat animals now 
reach the table of the epicure, which in the 
early history of our local settlement were 
either unknown or of little value as articles 
of human food. I might instance the raccoon 
the opossum, the groundhog and the frog. 
These animals have a fearful gauntlet to run 
now, and are likely to become extinct event- 
ually, to the great distress of those who de- 
light in such fare. Let it be generally known 
that the skunk is a rich and delicately flavored 
edible morsel, and that it can be captured 
, without discharging its repulsive effluvia and 
one more may be added to our limited list of 
game animals. Neither is this all. As a 
commercial article of peltry, the skin of the 
skunk, when in good condition, -is worth from 
one to three dollars. The great drawback to 
the business has been t^^e difficulty of secur- 
ing them untainted. What these unsophisti- 
cated citizens of Martic have accomplished, 
may be accomplished by sporting experts with 
improvements thereon, reducing the business 
to a safe and certain system. An able writer 
on this subject, states that no animal on the 
earth possesses the defensive and repelling 
power of the skunk. By the simple ejectment 
of a valuable and nauseous liquid, it can put 
to flight the most ferocious bloodhound, the 
kingly lion, the stealthy tiger, the ponderous 
eleiphant and even the venonous rattlesnake. 
No animal once encountering a skunk will 
ever put itself in the way of anotlier. But, 
nstwithstanding all this, it may be circum- 
vented through the superior tact and intelli- 
gence of man, and this too by so simple an 
implement as a dead-fall trap. 



THE PEACH CROP. 

From all we can learn, the peach crop will 
doubtless be nearly a totaf failure throughout 
the entire country where peaches have been 
heretofore cultivated as a special crop. There 
may be a few here and there, where they have 
had more than ordinary protection. This is 
to be regretted, for there were millions invest- 
ed in it, but it cannot now be helped. Per- 
haps in the end, there may be some compen- 
sation for the losses thus sustained. It 
is very certain that there were many inferior 
varieties under cultivation, and it is to be 
hoped that where it will become necessary to 
remove the old trees, better varieties will be 
substituted in planting the new. The busi- 
ness of raising peaches should be by no means 



relaxed or abandoned on account of the late 
"slight discouragement," for such a winter 
as we have just passed through may not occur 
again for many years; moreover, past exper- 
ience has abundantly demonstrated through- 
out the entire world, that no croj) of any 
kind is exempt from meterological contin- 
gencies. To illustrate the loss which the 
country (and especially the peach growers) 
sustains the present season from the failure 
of this single crop, we adduce the following, 
clipped from the columns of a local cotera- 
porary, and the newspapers all over the 
country speak about the same language : 

"There is no longer hope entertained by the 
fruit-growers of Delaware of any profit from 
peaches in that State this season, Not in 
twenty-five years has there been a worse show 
ing, and not only have the growers giving up 
all hope of having a crop this season, but the 
belief is general among them that a great 
majority of the peach trees have been killed, 
while almost all the rest of them have been 
so injured as to make them useless. Many of 
the most enterprising growers are already 
making arrangements for planting new or- 
chards to take the place of trees which they 
believe to be dead or -dying. Should the fear 
of growers prove| correct that the peach or- 
chards of the State have been practically de- 
stroyed, it will result in serious loss, as not 
less than $.5,000, 000 are invested in peach cul- 
tivation on the peninsula, more than half of 
which is invested in Delaware." 

It has been alleged that such paragraphs 
have been heretofore put in circulation by 
the peach-growers tliemselves, when there 
was no foundation for them in fact," in order to 
"eteate a corner" in the market, but we 
think they can be exonerated from such a 
suspicion the present season, for the wolf this 
time seems to have really carried oft' the sheep. 

The plums and the cherries in many places 
seem to have bloomed as freely as usual, and 
in rare cases of protection this has also been 
the case with apricots, but the peaches are 
almost universally shabby looking. How the 
case stands in this county, may be inferred by 
glaucing over the proceedings of the May 
meeting of our local Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society, which is by no means encour- 
aging, although as a whole, the crop may not 
be a total failure. Solicitude about the condi- 
tion of the peach crop, however, is not at all 
a new thing ; foi' we can remember its peri- 
odical manifestations there very many years. 
We have seen the peach crop a mere drug 
from our earliest boyhood, and we have also 
seen its absence lamented as much, perhaps, as 
it will be the present season. Peaches are so 
universally and so intensely esteemed, that 
every year as soon as the Christmas festivals 
have subsided, the next thing was to indulge 
in speculations about the "peach crop" — its 
status always seemed precarious. 



Queries and Answers. 



FALSE FLAX. 

Mr. Wm. A. Jlf.— The plant which you 
find so abundant in your tobacco field of last 
year, is the noxious weed, known as "False 
Flax," and belongs to the crucifbr^, or 
Mustard family. It is generally known as 
a noxious weed, and abounds in fields — espe- 
cially flax-fields— and on the roadsides, and 
seems to have been introduced into this coun- 
try from Europe. It is said to have been 
formerly cultivated in Germany for the sake 



of an oil which was expressed from the seeds; 
from which you will observe that, noxious 
and useless as it may seem, it is still of some 
use ; and although it may never pay in this 
country to develop that use, yet it may be 
intrinsically of more value than tobacco. Its 
abundance on your premises has no special 
significance other than that it has found the 
soil unoccupied and congenial, the seeds 
having been scattered from contiguous proper- 
ties last season, and were germinated and 
protected by the snowy mantle of winter. 

It has been observed this spring that from 
the same cause many plants have survived 
the past winter unscathed^ which in milder 
and more open winters have been entirely 
out-frozen. It was also observed that as soon 
as the snow had ;disappeared, the ground, so 
far as concerned frost, was in a condition to 
be spaded and plowed. The past long and 
intensely cold winter will, therefore, afford no 
immunity from noxious weeds and insects 
during the coming season. Tlieir embryos 
nestled too cozily in their " little beds," cov- 
ered with a "tick" of feathered snow, until 
the vernal suns bid them rise. From a paper 
read before the Linuaean Society by Mrs. G. 
on Saturday, the .30th ult., I quote the fol- 
lowing : 

"Our late very severe winter has not 
affected plants very much that were close to 
the ground ; owing, doubtless, to the early 
and long continued snow. Thus I have found 
this spring calliopsis and pausies tliat have 
survived the winter out of doors." The 
plant under review seems to be unique, both 
in genus and in species, and our young bo- 
tanist, Mr. T. B. of North Queen street, 
identified it as Camelina sativa. It grows 
from six inches to two feet high — according 
to the strength of the soil — and bears a small 
yellowish flower. Its cogeners are the mus- 
tards, the pepper grasses, the turnips, radishes, 
cabbages, &c., &c. Indeed, its cruciferian 
character is apparent from its odor when 
bruised, being akin to that of decaying cab- 
bages. Perhaps it might be utilized as 
"greens," especially when other "sauce is 
scarce." If you do not care about going into 
"green grocerage " the best thing you can do 
is to " root it out " of your premises before it 
matures its seed. After your tobacco is once 
fairly started, there will be little danger to be 
apprehended from the "false flax," for 
tobacco will not allow much else to flourish 
where it becomes domiciliated. 



Hev. E. H., East James Street, Lancaster, 
Pa. —The beautiful Uttle green Beetle you sent 
us is a variety of Gastrophysa ccerulsipennis, 
and as a variety, might properly be named 
veridiphennis, ov "green-winged." They be- 
long to the Chryomklans a Lady-bird fami- 
ly. They strongly resemble the "Flea-Beetle," 
but they have not the leaping powers of the 
latter named. We have found them on sev- 
eral occasions feeding on the loaves of various 
species of "Dock," {Rumex) and also on 
"Smart-Weed," (Fobiyonum) enth-ely de- 
stroying the crop, which was no very serious 



Mr. J. H. S., Manheim, Pa.— Your sniall 
box and postal, by mail, were duly received. 
The box contained sundry fragments of a 



1881. J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



69 



specimen of Cermatia foroeps, an animal that 
belongs to the Mykiapoda or " many feet ;" 
and they destroy cockroaches ar.d bedbugs, 
and are, therefore, very desirable about a 
house. Tliey are quite common in some 
localities in this county. 



Selections. 



CULTIVATING SPRING CROPS. 
The first grain crop to be put into the 
grouud is spring wheat, and this should be 
sown so soon as the ground can be made ready. 
Out of its proper district, marked by climate, 
it is of no use to grow spring wheat. There 
are other crops that are surer and give mueli 
better returus. Oats should come immedi- 
ately afler spring wheat in time of sowing. 
S'.iccess with oats in our hot climate largely 
depends upon early sowing. Tlie cooler cli- 
mate of Canada and New Brunswick is more 
favorable for oats, where they are plumper 
and much heavier than those grown in most 
parts of the United States. By using seed 
from the northern localities above mentioned, 
we can grow heavier and better oats than 
when our seed is sown. The aim should be 
to harvest fifty to sixty bushels per acre. This 
cau be obtained by having the soil rich and in 
good condition, and sown with about three 
bushels of the best seed. Oats are a succes- 
ful crop in the far Southreu States, as they 
can be sown and make their growth in winter 
and the crop kept out of the way of hot 
weather. 

Growing Barley. 

Barley, under favorable conditions, is a re- 
liable and profitable crop, and should not be 
considered simply as material for brewing. 
There is no better grain to feed to horses, and 
when ground with corn it makes a most ex- 
cellent feed for cattle and growing swine. 
The two rowed varieties yield more than the 
six-rowed, but bring somewhat less in the 
market. The grain should be sown thickly, 
2k bushels per acre. Barley will succeed in 
any good, well prepared soil, but it prefers a 
mellow, clay loam, in good tilth. 
Corn Planting 

Corn planting comes later in the spring, as 
it requires a warm soil for the grain to ger- 
minate, and snfters from late frosts. The 
time of planting of course varies with the 
locality, and the soil can be prepared in read- 
iness for the coming warm, settled weather. 
Sod turned under not too deei>ly is conducted 
as the best for corn, but excellent crops can 
be grown upon stubble, provided there is a 
good supply of manure given to take the 
place of the vegetable matter of the rotting 
grass, etc., of the turned sod. 

Cultivation of Beets' 

Beets, including mangels, need to be put in 
very early. There is much difference of opin- 
ionas to the advantage of soaking and sprout- 
ing the seeds before sowing tiiem. If thus 
treated they should be carefully watched, and 
be sown as soon as soon as the minute germ 
or sprout appears on a few of them. Drying 
with fine gypsum (laud plaster) will make the 
sowing easy. This treatment will insure quick 
germination, and the young plants will get 
the start of the weeds. As soon as the plants 
are up sutficiently for the rows to be seen, run 



a hand cultivator between them and witliin 
an inch or so of the plants. This will leave 
a strip next to the rows to be treated with 
hand-hoes. Use a horse-hoe for most of the 
latter cultivation. The manufacture of beet- 
sugar promises succe.ss, provided enough roots 
are grown in apy one locality to make it pro- 
fitable to erect the necessary buildings and 
machinery for extracting the sugar. This 
needs co-oj>eration among the farmers them- 
selves, and between them and the manufac- 
turers; upon this the success of beet sugar 
making in our country depends. 
The Potato Crop 
Farmers have so thoroughly learned how to 
manage the potato-beetle that it is not neces- 
sarp to plant early with a view to escape its 
ravages. But it is well to plant early, espe- 
cially if the crop is to be sold, and there is a 
ready market. The earliest pays the best, 
and the one who is first gets the cream of the 
market. The Early Rose still holds its rank 
among the most desirable varieties. 

SOILING MILCH COWS. 

Soiling is a method of feeding cattle that 
are confined in yards, pens or stables, with 
green fodder grown for the purpose and cut 
and carried to them. It is a jjractice suited 
best to lands that are of high value, and to 
small farms upon which pasturing cannot be 
made profitable. For instance, a farmer that 
has .^0 acres of fair land would do well to 
keep 10 cows upon it under ordinary circum- 
stances, but if by soiling his animals he can 
support 30, 40 or even 50 cows, the advantages 
are very obvious ; and this result has been 
reached by farmers who understand the sy.s- 
tem and know how to apply it economically. 
The method may be described as follows : To 
begin, a green crop should be prepared fof 
use early in the summer, but a beginning 
may be made at any time. The system can, 
however, be better understood by going 
through the whole detail, supposing every- 
thing is in working order. The first crop pre- 
pared is winter rye or wheat, or both, sown 
early in the fall and later, so <vs to give a suc- 
cession of crops for cutting. A piece of 
clover and grass is also kept in readiness, and 
a field of orchard grass is useful. The rye or 
wheat is ready for cutting in April and May. 
and is cut and fed as it_ is required. One 
square rod will supply a cow for one day if 
the crop is good, as it ought to be. Near the 
end of May orchard grass and clover will be 
ready for cutting, and timothy and clover in 
June. Oats are to be sown on fall plowed 
ground as early as possible in the spring, one 
acre or more at a time in strips so that tlie 
fodder will be fresh and tender. Oats and 
peas sown together yield twice as much as 
oats alone ; barley and vetches also make a 
good crop as a change from oats. This lasts 
until early Canada corn, or early sweet corn 
becomes ready. This is ready as soon as it is 
in tassel, and lasts until the ears are harden- 
ing. If there is a market the ears can be sold 
for green corn ; if not, they make rich fodder. 
Corn is sown in succession so as to keep com- 
ing in in the best condition. 

When the first rye is cut off it will make a 
second growth and may be pasture if desired, 
but it is better to plow the laud at once and 



plant com or mangels, or oats and peas on it. 
The oat ground is plowed and planted as soon 
as an acre is cleared, and in this way the 
land is never idle but is always producing 
Hungarian grass or millet is sown in July on 
the late oats or the earliest corn ground, and 
thes(! crops carry the cows through until the 
frosts make it necessary to cut the corn and 
millet. Rye may be sown in August for late 
pasture if needed or for early cutting in the 
spring, and later. When a new crop is ready, 
what is left of the former one is cut and cared 
for winter feed, while it is in good condition 
and before it gets ripe and h^rd. An acre or 
two of mangels or sugar beets should be 
planted iu May or early in June for winter 
feeding with the surplus fodder or hay not 
used in the summer. The corn is planted in 
drillB from 18 inches apart for the small 
kinds, and three feet for the larger kinds, 
and the hills are made from six to twelve 
inches apart. Some bran and cornmeal should 
be fed, as these make the manure rich and 
pay for themselves in the increa.sed growth of 
the fodder crops. 

The fodder is fed in racks in the yard or 
feed troughs in the stables, and all the ma- 
nure is saved by using abimdance of Utter, 
such as dried swamp muck, leaves, hard 
wood sawdust or even earth drawn in from 
the fields and scattered around liljerally. An 
enormous quantity of the richest manure may 
be made by feeding liberally of such feeds as 
malt sprouts, bran, middlings, palm meal, 
cotton seed meal, and the extra milk and but- 
ter pay for the feed. A cheap stable for ten 
cows to be used for soiling may be made by 
setting posts in the ground fourteen feet apart 
one way and seven teet apart the other way 
and boarding up and dividing into stalls ; two 
cows can be kept in each stall, fastening each 
to one side of the stall. The stalls are 9x7 
feet and a feed passage runs iu front from 
which the fodder can be given. The fodder is 
best cut 12 or 2i hours before feeding, and it 
can be put into the feed passage through 
windows from the wagon so as to be readily 
distributed to the cows. Each cow will eat 
50 pounds of green fodder with an allowance 
of meal, or 80 pounds without, but the meal, 
if it has to be bought, is always advisable. 
The feeding should be iu the uiorniog right 
after milking, at noon, and after milking at 
night. Abundant water also should be pro- 
vided, as much as if the cows had dry food. 
The manure should be wheeled out twice a 
day and a deep gutter made to carry off the 
liquid into a hollow where it is absorbed by 
proper material of some kind. As soon as a 
piece of land is ready, the manure is spread, 
.resh as it may be, and plowed in, so that but 
' i ttle of it accumulates and none of it is wasted . 
The cows may be kept very clean if well lit- 
tered, or the stable is well drained and cleaned 
twice daily, and a brush and card should be 
used before milking. It is but little trouble 
and it pays both in the health of the cows and 
cleanliness of the milk. 

FODDER CORN. 

With your permission I will give your read- 
ers my experience in raising fodder com. 
There are but few articles that a farmer can 
raise at a better profit than fodder corn, yet 
how many farmers mow over fields year after 



70 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[May, 



year that will not cut more than half a ton to 
a ton of hay to tlie acre? The last three or 
four years I have raised considerable quanti- 
ties of fodder corn in this way, with but little 
labor, and a saving of labor is a saving of 
money. Four years ago I bought a piece of 
mowing-laud that liad been to grass for twenty 
years, without any manure, except one or two 
years during tlie time horses were pastured on 
it. Each year I have plowed-up from an acre 
to an acre and a half and spread on it a fair 
coating of mostly green manure, say fifteen 
to twenty-two horse loads to the acre, or less, 
and harrowed it in well; then sowed broadcast 
about two bushels of Southern white corn to 
the acre. The corn cost at different seasons 
from sixty-five cents to one dollar per bushel. 
This kind of corn, I think, is much prefera- 
ble to sweet corn, because the stalks grows 
much longer, therefore, giving a larger quan- 
tity of fodder, and the seed costs much less 
than sweet corn. 

I break up the land and sow the corn any 
time in June, the last two years from the 20th 
to the 30th — can all be done after the otlier 
planting is over; but sometimes the draught 
begins the last of June. This is all the labor 
I give the corn, except putting up twiije or 
something to keep the crows off until harvest- 
ing time. When it has got its growth nearly 
I cut it before there are any signs of ripening, 
taking a strip say six to eight feel wide, with 
a common corn cutter, and place it in bundles 
as largb as can be bound with convenience 
and let it lie a few days in the sun to wilt, but 
not long enougii to become mouldy and slimy 
on the under side. Had rather bitrd it up 
green, which I do at times; then I put it up 
in stooks of six to eight bundles, and let it 
dry as much as it will; then put two or three 
stooks together in a dry day and bind around 
the whole with a large twine or strong cord, a 
little above tlie middle (twine for an acre will 
not cost more than fifty cents) and let it stand 
in the field, and draw in a load or two at a 
time as I want to feed it. It comes out as 
briglit and green as if it had been well housed, 
except a few leaves on tlie outside. My cows 
eat it up clean as if it were good hay, and it 
makes as much milk. I am confident I got 
equal to four or five tons of good made hay to 
the acre. 

I believe it almost impossible to have it 
dried by the weatlier so as to pack it in a mow 
and .not have it hurt. Mine stands until 
winter, if I do not wish to feed it before 
Small farmers can raise an acre or two witli- 
out being at the expense of silos. The next 
year I plow the same land and manure it the 
sanle, harrowing in the manure, and sow 
about three bushels of oats to the acre, and 
obtainetl two tons of oats to the acre, and 
obtained two tons of mowed oat fodder for 
winter food. Sometimes I manure in this 
way and plant corn the usual way, if I have 
plenty of time to cultivate, which is prefera- 
ble to oats. 

I can make the most winter fodder with 
less expense in this way than any other I 
know of.— C. P. Barney, in Germantown 
Telegraph, 



Subscribe for the Farsieu, the cheapest 
and best agricultural paper in tlie country. 
Price, 81.00 per annum. 



ENSILAGE. 
A Pennsylvania Farmer's Conclusions. 

In the Western States where liind is worth 
from $20 to $.30 per acre, and corn can be 
raised profitably at 20 cents per busliel, I 
think the present plan of allowing the corn to 
mature, and feeding the ears to hogs and the 
stalks and leaves to cattle, will pay better 
than ensilaging the corn when in tassel. But 
in Eastern Pennsylvania, where good land 
brings 1100 to $200 per acre, according to dis- 
tance from great markets,and where the soiling 
system is practiced in order to keep one cow 
to each acre of arable land, and where good 
butter brings from 40 to 50 cents per pound in 
winter, and 25 to 30 cents in summer, it seems 
to me that ensilage is tlie most economical 
cow food. I have the " ensilage fever " this 
spring ; last spring I had an attack of the 
root fever, but I am cured of that. I planted 
an acre with sugar beets, but only about a 
pound of seed came up. I suppose 1 had at 
the rate of ten tons of beets to the acre. I 
fed the two tons I raised in five days, giving 
thirty pounds to a feed, and decreased the 
regular ration of cut cornfodder from two 
heaped basketfuls to one per day, and fed as 
usual eight quarts of bran and two quarts of 
cottonseed per day. My cows did not increase 
any in their flow of milk by the change of 
food, arid I am convinced that I can raise one 
basketful of sowed corn cheaper and on less 
land than I can sixty pound of beets. I am 
also convinced tliat it would be better to keep 
the corn in a green state than to dry it. 

One huudred tons have been kept green in 
a silo this winter by Enos Barnard, one of 
my neighbors. He is now feeding it to 70 of 
his 150 milch cows, and the man who feeds 
and tends to the cows says they like ensilage 
better than any other food, and are thriving 
well upon it. Mr. Barnard informed his butter 
buyer when he commenced the feeding of en- 
silage, and requested him to test tlioroughly 
the quality of the butter, and inform him if 
the butter was not up to the standard ; but 
he has received no word, and still gets 43 
cents per pound wholesale. When a man 
like Mr. Crozier, who receives $15 apiece for 
shepherd pups, and $20 to $100 for calves 'and 
yearlings, and who sends away whole carloads 
of high priced cattle, talks about the expense 
of a silo, it strikes me as bordering on the 
ludicrous. 

I propose to build a silo this summer 40 
feet long, 20 feet wide and 14 feet deep ; the 
walls will contain about 100 perches, and a 
mason will build it for 50 cents a perch. My 
hired man will dig the pit with a little assis- 
tance, and I have the stone and most of the 
lumber that will be required. I think $100 
will build a silo that wiU hold 200 tons of 
corn fodder, which I expect to raise on 7 
acres of corn land. I have not charged 50 
cents a load for tlie stone, or $30 a month for 
my hired man and $2 a day for my team ; but 
I have the team and man, and not work 
enough to keep them and myself busy unless 
I grow roots. I would like to know where 
there is a farmer who would not lose $1 ,000 a 
year if he charged sucli exorbitant rates for 
his labor and the use of his team, as some of 
the writers calculate when trying to run up 
the cost of a silo. 



I think by buying from $300 to $400 worth 
of grain a year and adopting the system of 
ensilage, I can keep 30 cows and 100 sheep, 
and raise more wheat and corn, on 70 acres, 
than I now do by keeping 20 cows and farm- 
ing in the old way. I will set apart 7 acres 
of my best land, and gfve it a good coat of 
manure every year and one ton of superphos-, 
pliate. About the first of June I will drill 
my corn at the rate of 1^ bushel per acre, and 
in September will ensilage the corn. After 
taking off the corn, I will drill in rye, and by 
manuring every year, will increase the fertili- 
ty of the ground. I will make them 5 to 15 
acre fields, and follow corn by two crops of 
wheat and the wheat by clover. By keeping 
more than double the amount of stock, I will 
have plenty of manure for tlie last crop of 
wheat, a clover sod for C(;rn, and will drill 
phosphate for the wheat whioli follows corn in 
tlie fall. In this way I will liave 30 acres of 
wheat and 15 acres of corn. The only loss will 
be in the timotliy hay now raised on eight 
acres, and a little pasturage.— TFaKer Dar- 
linijlon in Country Gentleman. 



CASTOR POMACE AS A FERTILIZER 
FOR TOBACCO. 

As there has been of late considerable in- 
quiry concerning the use of castor pomace as 
a fertilizer for the tobacco crop, I "will give 
you the benefit of our experience in its use 
here in the Connecticut Valley. Twelve or 
fifteen years ago, some of our tobacco grow- 
ers were casting about for fertilizers out of 
the usual course, having ■ become disgusted 
with the use of some of the superphosphates 
with which our valley was so persistently 
flooded. Some experimented with shorts, 
others with corn meal and cotton-seed meal, 
and still others with castor pomace. 

At that time the most desirable color for 
the leaf was a light cinnamon, something that 
would grow a wrapper largely of Claro or 
Claro Colorado. As these colors were the 
most fashionable among consumers, so of 
course dealers were obliged to seek light col- 
ored leaf. Hence, light sandy soils were in re- 
quest for tobacco lands, and any fertilizer that 
had a tendency to give a dark-colored leaf was 
ignored. The only exception to the latter 
rule was the use of Peruvian guano, and this 
was used with care. As fertilizers, corn meal, 
cotton-seed meal and castor pomace were 
generally discarded. 

At the present time the trade demands a 
darker leaf than that in former fasliion. 
Cigars of a shade as light as Colorado are 
sometimes painted or colored, either after the 
manufacture or at the resvveating, through 
the use of some mixture in dampening the 
leaf for the resweating process, that shall give 
a fine, dark-colored cigar. To enable the leaf 
to bear the second sweat successfully it must 
possess more body than is possessed by such 
leaf as is usually grown in light soils. Con- 
sequently on account of this present demand 
for a darker and more fashionable leaf, and 
also of a heavier body, our farmers are once 
more resorting to the use of castor pomace 
and cotton seed meal as cheap and desirable 
fertilizers In tlie growth of tobacco. They are 
also cultivating the leaf on heavier, darker 
soils than formerly. 



Superphosphate is very quick in its effects, 
iind it has always been remarked that a spoon- 
ful of it in tlio hill would ripen the tobacco 
l)lant a week or more sooner than when well- 
rotted manure was alone used. It has also 
been the experience of our jjrowers that su- 
perphosphate <;ives iV fine, thin leaf. Thus 
quick ripening is now thought obj*!etiouable 
by many, since if the ])lant remains of a dark 
green, exhibiting a healthy growing appear- 
ance, for a longer time, the leaf will be heavier 
and of a darker color. This is effected, as is 
claimed, by the use of castor poinaee aud 
cotton-seed meal. Perhaps this theory needs 
longer testing before it becomes a fixed i)rin- 
ciple, yet this is the common view of growers. 

Tobacco growers, like all other producers, 
should seek to produce that article for which 
there is an active and positive deiniind from 
buyers. Now it is well known that among 
tobacco buyers who are well pi)Sted in their 
business, there is a demand for tobacco grown 
in connection with the use of castor pomade 
and cotton-seed meal a.s fertilizers, in prefer- 
ence to such lots as are fertilized with other 
matters. Our Connecticut Valley farmers use 
about half a ton of either the above-named 
pomace or meal to tlie acre, in connection 
with the usual quantity of farmyard manure, 
sowing it broadcast. 

In this connection, it may be remarked that 
growers do not crowd their rows or hills as 
closely as formerly, preferring to give each 
plant more space in which to expand and de- 
velop, experience having shown that this prac- 
tice gives a better leaf than can be secured 
when overcrowding the plant prevails. The 
castor ponace is generally harrowed in by the 
use of a pulverizing or wheel-harrow.— ffJH 
Top, in American Cultivator. 

TO MAKE AND MAINTAIN A LAWN. 

The preparation of the soil must be made 
thorough, as it is the very basis of success. 
If there be a good natural clay sub.soil, with 
a covering of loam, this part of tlie work will 
prove comparatively easy; Imt if, as is often 
the case in newly improved grounds, there is 
only tlie bare clay to begin with, or if the sub- 
soil be a leachy gravel, the preliminary pre- 
paration is not light. 

Suppose the plat to be a bald piece of clay, 
from which, in the grading, every vestige of 
the superficial soil has been removed. If beds 
of rieh loam aie at hand and available, the 
loam may be carted upon the plat to a depth 
of from eight to ten inches, and leveled by 
thorough harrowing and rolling. If good sods 
are convenient, small lawns mav bo made by 
sodding, in which case a dept of three or four 
inches of loam upon the clay, underlining the 
soil, will be sufficient. If suitable loam is 
not attainable an artificial soil may be made. 
The clay should be plowed when moist, or 
spaded into clods and allowed to bake in the 
sun tilltbo lumps can be pulverized. A heavy 
wooden mallet or beetle is a good tool for 
breaking the lumps. Upon the surface of the 
broken clay a layer of from three to four 
inches of screened coal ashes should be spread 
and thoroughly mixed in. The pulverizing 
and mixed should proceed together, for if 
rain should chance to fall on the clay after it 
is beaten tine it will again form a colierent 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 

mass. The mixture of clay and coal ashes 
will not compact like the raw clay. The 
ground so prepared should next receive a 
layer of two or tvjoro inches of street dirt, 
which is l)etter if it has lain in a heap for a 
year or so. The manure, whether it be ft-om 
the stiible or f rom the streets, should be thor- 
oiigly mixed with the pounded clay and ashes 
by forking if the plat is small, or by ha.irow- 
ii)g and cross-harrowing if large, and after 
seeding or sodding the surface should be well 
rolled. 

Gravelly leachy soils are the worst for lawn 
purposes. It will be clieaper in the end to 
cart clay upon the gravel to make an imper- 
vious stratum, when clay can be cheaply ob- 
tained, superimposing a suitable soil upon the 
clay. No matter how thorough the prepara- 
tion may be, a good deal of attention is re- 
quired every year to keep lawns in perfect 
condition. 

When weeds have made their appearance, 
as they are sure to do when animal manure 
has been used or when natural sods have been 
laid, they must be carefully removed ; and to 
avid their appearance, the subsequent fertil- 
izing should be by artificial fertilizers. We 
find ill the Boston Journal of Chemistry a re- 
cipe for a lawn fertilizing mixture which com- 
mends itself to our judgment as being among 
the best: 

Nilrate of soila - - - - - 80 lb 

Superpliospliate of lime - - . . 100" 

Rectified guauo -MO " 

Gypsum 120 " 



This amount is sufficient for one acre, and 
should be applied once a year, or twice on 
poor soils. The best time is early in the spring, 
after the snows have melted. It must be dis- 
tributed evenly and with care. Those who 
have small i)lats of ground devoted to a lawn 
can readly estimate the amount of fertilizing 
needed if they will measure the plats. The 
mixture of the matei'ials should be as perfeel 
as possible. 

A mixture of 125 lb. nitrate of soda with 
150 lb superphosphate of soda, also makes a 
good top dressing for an acre of land. 

The substances named should be of "prime 
quality to render the quantities named suffi- 
cient. The superphosphate of lime is very 
often adulterated. The nilrate of soda should 
not be less than !)0 per cent pure. 

These fertilizei-s will also renovate lawns 
when they have partly run out, and arc con- 
sidered by some as better than manuring with 
stable manure, turning it under and seeding 
again, a course which is enriching, but apt to 
disfigure the lawn with unsightly weeds. Atop- 
dressing with staDle manure will also renovate 
a lawn, but it also restores the weed.s, and is 
ofiensive to sight aud smell, (IJone meal is a 
capital thing for a lawn. It is odorless, clean, 
and gives a rieh green color to the grass. ) 

La^vus should be mowed as often as once 
a week, leaving the short cut grass on the 
plat. The wilted cuttings protect the roots 
from the sun, nourish them, and help the soil 
to retain moisture. 

A lawn which has a good clay subsoil will 
stand very dry weather, but there are occa- 
sional seasons when it is absolutely necessary 
to water artificially in order to prevent the 



71 



appearance of unsightly yellow spots. On 
small lawns this may be easily done by a gar- 
den hose; large lawns may be watered by an 
ordinary street sprinkling machine having 
wheels with very broad tires to prevent cut- 
ting the turf, ^.lust before nightfall is the 
proper tiina for watering. During the night 
the water will soak down to the roots instead 
of evaporating rapidly, as it would in tlie hot 
sun.) Scimt ific American . 

ORIGIN OF FULTZ WHEAT 

The place where Fultz wheat originated is 
in Milllin county. Pa. It takes its name from 
the discoverer, Abram Fultz, of AUenville. 
IIow it W!i8 discovered is related by Mr. 
Fultz himself, in the following letter wi-itten 
more than a year ago in reply to some inqui- 
ries on the subject : 

Allenvilt.e, Aug. 6, 1879. 

Mr. .Iohx SwATiTZELL— Dwr Sir: 1 re- 
ceived your letter yesterday. In regard to 
that wheat, it is now nineteen years since I 
discovered it. I found it in one of Christian 
Yoder's wheat fields, where I was harvesting. 
In a low place where the wheat was lodged, I 
saw three .stalks standing upright, aud be- 
cause they stood up straight is the reasou why 
I noticed thepn. With my pocket knife I cut 
off the tops of tliose three stalks and stuck 
them in my hat. When Mr. Yoder came 
around I showed them to him and asked 
whether I might have them; he said I should 
take them. I told him that 1 intended to 
rai'se a new kind of wheat from these heads 
on a spot of ground where I burned a brush 
heap. The next year this yielded nearly a 
pint of clean wheat. This time I attempted to 
drill it in, but the drill did not sow it thick 
enough, and by the next harvest I saw that 
this was mixed with other wheat and 1 was 
obliged to assort it. I assorted only a part of 
it, and kept that by -itself. That seed time I 
had enough to have it drilled in. The next 
season I had enotigb to have some of this 
wheat ground into fiour ; that was before any 
person got of it for seed. I offered Mr. Yoder 
three bushels in exchange for other wheat, but 
he refused the offer. After other persons got 
it jand tried it, then Mr. Yoder exchanged 
three bushels with me. The foregoing state- 
ment is as nearly correct as I can give it from 
memory. Very respectfully, 

AlJU.\M FCLTZ. 
TOBACCO CULTURE. 

How to Grow the Coming Crop. 

The seed bed well under way, the next care 
of the tobacco grower will be the proper pre- 
paration of the ground on which the crop is 
to be raised. Here quite as much judgment 
and care must be exercised as in the prepara- 
tion of the seed bed. Thorough preparation 
of the soil will tell on the future crop just as 
certainly as carelessness will result in failure. 
It is important, therefore, to start right aud 
keep right to the end of the season. 
Rich Soil Required. 

We presume no one needs to be told that 
the tobacco plant is very exacting in the mat- 
ter of soils, and will be contented with none 
but the best. lie who cannot .supply this 
want might as well not undertake the culti- 
vation of the crop. Under proper treatment 
and favorable eouditions tobacco' will do .well 
on many soils, but the best seedleaf is with 
very few exceptions grown on limestone land. 
There seems to be something especially con- 
ducive in this geological formation to the pro- 
duction of choice cigar tobacco. A warm, 
riable soil, such as is commonly known 



72 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



(May, 



among farmers as a saudy loam, resting upon 
a limestone formation, is much the best to- 
bacco land. Fine alluvial soils, such as are 
found along river bottoms, excel all others. 
In many of the northern counties of this 
State there are fine tobacco lands along the 
Susquehanna and its tributaries while those a 
few mites distant are comparatively valueless. 
Perhaps the best tobacco land in the world is 
furnished by the islands in the Susquehanna. 
New Ground the Best. 
It is equally well known that new ground, 
a virgin .soil that has never been made ac- 
quainted with the plow and the harrow, is 
far better than laud which has long been un- 
der cultivatiou. It is on such ground that 
the best results in tobacco culture have been 
attained. In the Southern tobacco growing 
States, where lauds are plenty and cheap, and 
where forests still cover much of the country, 
new lauds are commonly used. In fact, their 
system of culture necessitates such a course. 
With us here in Lancaster county, this course 
is practicable only in exceptional cases. Our 
forests are nearly all gone, and new lands 
seldom attainable. During recent years, 
however, the limited woods still left have been 
heavily drawn upon to supply tobacco ground. 
It seems a pity that our forests should be 
felled solely for this purpose. 

The Best Localites, ■ . 

Tobacco ground should be chosen as well 
for its localities as for its richness and pro- 
ductiveness. It should have a southern ex- 
posure, if possible. It ouglit to be slightly 
rolling, rather than flat, on account of the 
better drainage, which is of no little impor- 
tance. Lands sloping gently upwards from 
the water courses are preferable to uplands, 
although these are frequently damaged by 
heavy rains -and floods. Dry, well-drained 
soil is of much value and importance in this 
matter. In many places this brown or choco- 
late colored soil of this county rests upon a 
sliivered instead of compact limestone forma- 
tion, affording a most excellent natural drain- 
age downward, which reheves the ground of 
its surplus moisture. This is another of the 
many natural advantages which the farmers 
of this county have for the production of this 
crop. Although tobacco requires a liberal 
share of rain, an excess of moisture is fatal 
to a good crop and to fine leaf. This is why 
a loamy, friable soil is best suited to the cul- 
ture of the tobacco plant. This also makes 
slaty, sandstone and free-stone formations ap- 
propriate for tobacco -growing. The color of 
the Soil has also much to do in influencing the 
crop. Just as the dark-colored soils of this 
county are largely to be .credited with the 
rich, chestnut-colored leaf of which we boast, 
a light-colored ground will be likely to impart 
to a certain extent its color to the tobacco 
crop grown on it. In the northeastern portion 
of Lancaster county there are red sandstone 
districts in which the earth and rocks are 
fairly red, but buyers assure us that when 
these lands are heavily manured the tobacco 
grown on them is of excellent quality and 
hardly distinguishable from that grown on 
more favored soils. 

A Change of Ground Desirable. 

Most farmers are accustomed to change 

their tobacco ground from year to year, 



although some plant on the same ground two 
or more years successively. There is no good 
reason why the same ground should not pro- 
duce good crops continuously, if well fed and 
cared for. Two years ago we saw a crop taken 
off an alluvial field on the Conestoga, which 
was the ninth in regular succession. The 
grower told us it was equal to the first one, 
and it was really hard to beat. But while 
these repeated croppings are possible, we do 
not think they should be encouraged. They 
are likely to work harm to the rest of the 
farm, and in this way: If tobacco is grown on 
the same ground for a series of years, an un- 
due share of the contends of the barnyard are 
carried to one spot instead of being distribu- 
ted in the course over the entire farm. When 
the manure is carried upon the same spot in 
excessive quantities year after year the re- 
maining acres are bound to suffer and the gen- 
eral condition of the farm will in all proba- 
bility run down. There can be no doubt that 
except in special cases a new. site every year 
or two for tlie tobacco field is advantageous. 
In this way all the fields in turn get their heavy 
coating of manure and the average feitilityof 
the farm is kept up. The tobacco grower should 
ever bear in mind that a time may come when 
tobacco growing may be no longer desirable 
or profitable, and when he will have to fall 
back on his usual farm crops. If he discov- 
ers that this special crop has, through the un- 
due prominence given it, lowered the general 
productive capacity of his acres, it would 
have been well for him perhaps, if he had 
never grown a single tobacco plant. 

Fall and Spring and Plowing. 
It is hardly worth while at the present 
time to more than simply allude to the fall 
plowing of tobacco ground ; but we cannot 
allow the opportunity to pass to advocate its 
more general practice. Spring plowing only is 
the almost exclusive rule amoni; our farmers, 
but we believe they would find it to their ad- 
vantage in many respects to give the ground its 
initial plowing in the fall. We say initial 
plowing because more than one plowing is 
almost indispensable to a good crop, and is 
largely practiced by tobacco growers in Lan- 
caster county, As a rule tobacco is put on 
the previous years corn groimd. A few old 
growers, however, turn down sod, and do it 
in the fall. Their testimony is conclusive 
upon a very important point : they are agreed 
that the cut worms are far less numerous in 
the following spring and consequently less 
destructive. This is in itself a most import- 
ant consideration and deserving of attention. 
Of course, the land should be turned before 
the grass has withered and died. Unless this 
is done little or no advantage is derived from 
the grass crop turned under. The heavier 
the vegetable growth on the ground the more 
satisfactory the result the following year. 
Then, too, to let the turned up furrows lie in 
ridges during the winter, expo.sed to the va- 
rious weather changes, has a most happy 
effect upon the soil. No good results could 
come from turning sod in the spring for to- 
bacco. There would be no time for the vege- 
table mass to decompose and become availa- 
ble as plant food for the tobacco plant. No 
doubt corn stubbles would be all the better j 
for like treatment in the fall, although in the | 



latter case it would be best to plow under the 
manure, so that in the following spring it 
would be brought to the surface again better 
prepared by the decomposition to feed the 
tobacco plants. 

Use of Fertilizers. 
The general rule, however, as we have 
already stated, is to plow corn ground in the 
spring for the purpose of preparing the tobacco 
field. Two or three weeks before the plowing 
is to be done haul out your manure, and let 
us say right here, put on nothing but stable 
manure. The experience of the past quarter 
of a century in this county has unmistakably 
pointed out that no other fertilizers so far 
used give such excellent results. ■ We do not 
think we err in saying that much of the repu- 
tation the tobacco of Lancaster county has so 
justly acquired, is due to the almost exclusive 
use of barnyard manure. We cannot impress 
this fact too earnestly on the minds of our 
tobacco growers. We do not -say artificial 
fertilizers have not given good results. The 
tobacco grown by their use is, however, not 
in favor with packers or manufacturers. It 
burns with a darker and less compact ash, 
whereas with a good soil and well rotted barn- 
yard manure a tough, liglit-colored ash is al- 
most certain to result. These are the requi- 
sites demanded by cigar manufacturers, and 
the grower must cater to their needs. If the 
buyer is aware that artificial fertilizers have 
been used, he will rate the crop lower than if 
barnyard manure had been put on the field. 
Let no tobacco grower lose sight of this fact. 
Let him not be deceived by attractive analyses 
of this, that or the other artificial fertilizer. 
They may be just as represented ; but if he 
he wants to grow the) best tobacco and com- 
mand the top market price, he must stick to 
barnyard manure. That, and that alone, will 
enable him to produce the best article that 
can be grown. 

Quantity of Manure. 
It is unnecessary to go into minute details 
as to the proper quantity of manure to be 
drawn on an acre of tobacco ground. A good 
rule to go by, is to bear in mind that you 
can't well put on too much. Two years ago 
Col. Young, of Middletown, hauled it so 
thick that the men who spread it declared 
they could hardly find place enough on which 
to put it ; the ground was completely covered, 
but the crop proved the wisdom of the plan 
and amply repaid the outlay. Besides, it 
must be borne in mind, the manure is not in- 
tended for the food of the tobacco crop alone. 
Wheat commonly follows tobacco, and it is a 
well known fact that the crop of this grain 
grown on tobacco land is commonly the best 
raised on the farm. Therefore, in manuring 
tobacco land you are at the same time pro- 
viding for the .succeeding crop as well. Al- 
ways bear that in mind, and then haul out a 
few loads more. What the tobacco cannot 
make use of will most likely give you an in- 
crease of five bushels per acre in your wheat 
crop. 

Plowing the Land. 
Tobacco ground must not be scratched 
over, but plowed, and plowed deeply, espe- 
cially at tlie first turning of the soil. The 
roots go down a considerable distance, and 
the ground must be prepared to that end. 



1881.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



73 



The subsoil must not be turned up, liowever, 
as that would prove an injury rather than a 
benefit. Where a second plowiup; is intended, 
the earliest period the season will allow should 
be chosen to plow down the manure. The 
second plowing may be done a week or two 
before the time of planting comes around, 
not so mucli because the ground would be in 
better order as IwcaUse unfavorable weather 
may intervene and the land not be ready 
when the plants are large enough to be set in 
the field. The prudent planter will so regu- 
late these matters us not to be caught napping, 
but be prepared to avail himself of every 
favorable condition of weather that may pre- 
sent itself, and thus lose no time in giving liis 
crop the most favurable start tlie circum- 
stances will allow. 

The Proper Condition of the Ground. 
Tlie old adage, " A good preparation is half 
cultivation," is novvliero more applicable than 
in the thorougli preparation of the tobacco 
field. Let no labor lie spared to put the soil in 
perfect condition. The more complete and 
thorough the tiltli, the more likely is final 
success to attend the grower's efforts. The 
cultivator and tlie harrow sliould be put into 
the field until every clou and lump has dis- 
appeared, and it looks more like a carefully 
prepared garden bed than anytliiug' else. 
The move frequently the field is gone over in 
this way, the less likely are the worms to 
bother you, or the grass to annoy you. Let 
the latter get no foothold thus early, and the 
field will be all the better for it the entin; 
season through. Nothing more offends the 
tobacco planter's eye than a tobacco field in 
which the few weeks' old plants are hidden 
from sight by a rank growth of grass and 
weeds. A few acres of tobacco ground are 
soon gone over with a harrow, and every 
time this is done another step in the direction 
of final success has been made. The season 
may be dry, and therefore unfavorable to 
putting the ground into the best condition ; 
unusual and persistent efforts must, there- 
fore, be made to do the best possiljle under 
the circumstances. If the grower has availed 
himself of the earliest opportunity the season 
afibided him of preparing his ground properly, 
he will attain the desired tilth and" not be 
compellBd to trust to luck and the elements 
when the last moment arrives. It pays to 
take time by the forelock in tliis matter as it 
does in many others. 

Throwing up the Ridges. 
The ground having been thoroughly gone 
over, and brought to its highest possible con- 
dition, it is ready for ridging. The favorite 
. implement with our farmers for this work is 
the common plow. It is not well to plant on 
an even surface, as heavy rains may inundate 
the young crop, and do it irreparable injury. 
The ridge is made by throwing two furrows 
together from opposite sides. These should 
be about eight inches high and raked even at 
the top, all stones, clods and rubbish being 
carefully removed. After this is done the 
ridges should not be higher than six inches. 
In a wet season a greater elevation would do 
no harm, but it would hardly be beneficial, while 
in a dry one the plants would certainly suffer 
from drouth. The ridges having been made, 
a man should go over the field with some stick 



of proper length, or a wooden compass of the 
requisite expansion, and mark out where the 
plants.aro to be set. Another person with a 
lioe sliould come after him and cut down the 
row sliglitly at the marked places and press 
the place lightly witli the back of the hoe to 
provide a firm and level bed in •whicli the 
plant may be set. 

Distance Between the Rows and Plants. 

Considerable ditfereuce of opinion cxi.sts as 
to the proper distance at which the rows 
should be apart, and aLsoas to how clo.sely tlic 
plants sliould be set in the row. The former 
varies from three to four feet, and the latter 
from twenty-two to thirty inches. These 
matters should be controlled by the quality of 
the soil and the kind of tobacco planted. 
Where the soil is thin, and a heavy growth 
cannot reasonably be expected, three feet be- 
tween the rows may be enough. When 
"Havana seed" is planted, three feet will 
also be ample. When, liowever, the soil is 
naturally rich, and has been heavily manured 
besides, four feet is not too close. We have 
seen a crop of " Pennsylvania Seedleaf " and 
of " Glesner " at maturity completely hide the 
ground when planted at this distance, show- 
ing that any nearer distance would have 
given inferior results. Extremes are, how- 
ever, to be avoided in this matter as in all 
things else, and we incline to the opinion that 
taking one season with another, and one crop 
with another, the roost satisfactory results 
will be obtained by making the rows .Si feet 
apart. This is the general practice by the 
large majority of farmers. 

The distance between the plants in the row, 
as we have said, varies at the whim of growers 
from 22 to 30, and sometimes even more 
inches. Cuban tobacco, which grows tall, is 
short-leaved and not so spreading as our 
native varieties, would not be too close proba- 
bly at 22 inches, but this is entirely foo little 
for our broad-leaved kinds. For the latter 27 
inches has been found to yield the best results 
in average seasons, and is pretty generally 
adopted. These distances allow ample room 
for a sutlicient development of leaf, which in 
due season shades the ground most effectually, 
not only keeping down the weeds, but pre- 
venting the rapid evaporation of moisture 
from the ground. The planter cannot go far 
amiss if he adopts the schedule of 3i feet by 
27 inches in setting out his plants. 

INSANITY OF FARMERS' WIVES. 

It has been currently stated that of insane 
vv'omen a larger proportion are the wives of 
farmers than of any other class. The statis- 
tics of insane asylums are appealed to as wit- 
nesses, and the cause of the sad condition of 
these sufferers is supposed to be their exces- 
sively hard work, enforced upon tliem neces- 
sarily in the duties of their position. 

This is a very serious indictment of the 
domestic side of farm life, and "can it be 
true V" is the spontaneous and anxious ques- 
tion. If.it be accepted as true, it casts a 
gloomy shade over all our farms. I am not 
able to show how the records of the institu- 
tions for the insane reckon the proportions. 
Do they show that there are more wives of 
farmers within their walls than those of other 
classesjor more in proportion to the whole num- j 



bcr ? If the latter, then it should appear that 
about lialf of the women in these hospital's are 
the wives of farmers, for it is known from the 
census that almo.st half— forty -eight per cent, 
—of the families in the United States are 
farmers' families. This estimate is entirely 
contrary to my knowledge and belief concern- 
ing the matter. From a wide and extended 
acquaintance with fariiiers' families all my 
life, and from my historical knowledge of 
them over several generations, I testify that 
tliere is, in my observation, no class of the 
country, heads of families, more exempt from 
insan