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Full text of "Early English Text Society"

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(garlj (ftitflM SCwt Reditu. 



A SCOTTISH METEICAL EOMANCE, 

(ABOxrr 1490-1600 jld.) 

EE-EDITED FEOM A. MAKTTSCBIPT IN THE CAMBBIDaE UlTIVEBSITT UBEAEY, 

WITH AK 

INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX, 



BT 



THE EEV. W. W. SKEAT, M.A., • 

LATE FBLLOW OF CHSIST'B COLLEGE, CAKBRUDOS; AMD TSAM8LAT0B OF THE 80MGS AMD 
BALLADS OF VHLAND. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOB THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETT, 
BY TBUBNEE & CO., 60, PATEBNOSTER BOW. 



MDCCCUET« 

Price Eight Shillings. 



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The Philological Society has issued the following Early English 
Texts, which can he procured of Asher & Co., 13, Bedford 
Street, Covent Garden, W.C. : — 

1. "EARLY ENGLISH POEMS AND LIYES OF SAINTS'' 

(with those of the "Wicked Birds Pilate and Judas), 1250- 
1460. Edited by F. J. Fubjtivall, Esq., M.A. 58. (Phil. 
Soc. Trans., Part II., 1858.) 

2. "THE PLAT OF THE SACRAMENT,'' a Middle-EngUsh 

Drama. Edited by "Whitley Stokes, Esq., M.A. 5«. (Phil. 
Soc. Trans., Part IL, 1860-61.) 

3. "LIBER CURE COCORUM," a Cookery Book in verse, about 

1440 A.D. Edited by Richaio) Mokeis, Esq. 3«. 

4. "THE PRICKE OF CONSCIENCE" (Stimulus Conscientise). 

A Northumbrian Poem, by Richard Rolle De Hampole, 
about A.D. 1340. Edited, with an Introduction, Notes, and 
Glossarial Index, by Richabd Moems, Esq. 12«. 

5. "CA8TEL OFF LOUE" (Chasteau d' Amour, or Carmen de 

Creatione Mundi), from the French of Bishop Grosseteste, 
early 14th century. Edited, with Notes and Glossary, by 
R. F. "Wetmoxtth, Esq., M.A. 6«. 



CHEAP AETHUR texts. 

LE MORTE ARTHURE, Edited from the Harl. MS. 2252, by F. 
J. FiJEiavALL, with a Prefatory Essay on Aethtjb by the late 
Herbeet Coleridge. Macmillan, 7«. 6d. 

LE BEL INCONNXJ, the French version of Giglain, son of Sir Gawain, 
edited by C. Hippeatj. Paris, Aubry, 6fr. 

MESSIRE GATJVAIN, ou La "Vengeance de Raguidel, poeme de la 
Table Ronde, public par C. Hippeau. Paris, Aubry, Qfr. 

Of the Tftree Early English Metrical Romances edited by Mr. Robson 
for the Camden Society, 1842, two are The Anters of Arther at the 
Tarnewathelan, and The Avowynge of King Arther, 



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gMctUi w| iU Snih 



A SCOTTISH METEICAL EOMANCE, 

(ABOUT 1490-1500 A.D.) 



BE-EDITED FBOM A HANTTSCItlPT IN THE OAMBBIDOE TTNIYEESITT LUSBABT, 



INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND GLOSSARIAL INDEX, 



BT 



THE REV. W. W. SKEAT, M.A., 

LAra FXLLOW OF OBETtT*! OOLLXOB, OAMBKIDOX ; AND TBAXTILATOH OF THK lONOI AHD 
BALLADB OF VKLAKD. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED FOR THE EABLT ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY. 
BT TRTJBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

ICDCOOXJCT. 



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PfiEFACK 



I.— DESCRIPnON OF THE MS., ETC. 

A former edition of tlie present poem wa43 printed for the 
Maitland Club, in 1839, and edited by Josepli Stevenson, Esq. 
It has saved me all trouble of transcription, but by no means, 
I am sorry to say, that of correction. Those who possess the 
older edition will readily perceive that it diflfers from the 
present one very frequently indeed, and that the variations 
are often such as considerably to affect the sense. Many of 
the errors in it (such as easualtyee for camalytee, grone for 
goney reprent for repent), are clearly typographical, but there 
are others which woidd incluie me to believe that the 
transcription was too hastily executed ; several passages being 
quite meaningless. Near the conclusion of Mr, Stevenson's 
preface we read: "The pieces which have been selected for 
the present volume^ are printed with such errors of transcrip- 
tion as have crept into them by the carelessness of the scribe ;" 
a statement which certainly implies that there was no intention 
on his part of departing from the original. Yet that he some- 
times unconsciously did so to such an extent as considerably 

> The Tolume oontaiiu other poems besides ** Sir Lancelot." 



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VI 



PREFACE. 



to alter (or destroy) the sense, the reader may readily judge 
from a few examples : — 



LINE. 


EDITION OF 1839. 


TEUB aPADINO OP THE MS. 


26. 


fatil {fatal), 


fatit {fated,) 


285. 




enarmyt {fully armed). 


682. 


can here, 


cam nere. 


700. 


rendit {rent). 


vondit {wounded). 


764. 


refuse {refusal ?), 


reprefe {defeat). 


861. 


felith {feeleth\ 


fetith {setUth). 


1054. 


vyt (?), 


ijcht. 


1084. 


speiris. 


spuris. 


1455. 


cumyng {coming), 


cunyng {skill). 


1621. 


he war, 


be war {beware). 


1641. 


promyft, 


punyft {punish). 


2010. 


ane desyne, 


medysyne. 


2092. 


bom, 


lorn {lost). 


2114. 


havin (?), 


harm. 


2142. 


Hymene (!), 


hyme {him). 


2219. 


such, 


forth {forth). 


2245. 


al so y-vroght, 


al foly vroght. 


2279. 


chichingis (!), 


thithingis {tidings). 


2446. 


love, 


lore {teaching). Etc. 



Several omissions also occur, as, e.ff., of the word "off*' in 1. 7, 
of the word "tressore" in 1. 1715, and of four whole lines 
at a time in two instances; viz., lines 1191-4, and 2877-80. 
It will be found, in fact, that the former text can seldom 
be safely quoted for the purposes of philology; and I can- 
not but think Mr. Stevenson's claim of being accurate to be 
especially unfortunate ; and the more so, because the genuine 
text is much simpler and more intelligible than the one which 
he has given. 

The original MS. is to be found in the Cambridge University 

Library, marked kk. 1. 5. It formerly formed part of a thick 

volimie, labelled "Tracts;" but these are now being separated, 

^or greater convenience, into several volimies. The MS. of 

"Lancelot" has little to do with any of iihe rest as regards 



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PREFACE. VU 

its subject, but several other pieces are in the same hand- 
writing ; and, at the end of one of them, an abstract of Solo- 
mon's proverbs, occur the words, " Expliciunt Dicta Salamonis, 
per manum V. de F," This hand-writing, though close, is 
very regular, and my own impression certainly is that the 
scribe has almost always succeeded in preserving the sense of 
the poem, though he has made sad havoc of the dialectal forms, 
as will be shewn presently. 

The present text is as close a fac-simile of the MS. as can be 
represented by printed letters, every peculiarity being preserved 
as far as practicable. The sole points of difference are the fol- 
lowing : — 

1. In the MS. the headings " Prologue," " Book I.,'* etc., do 
not occur. 

2. The lines do not always begin (in the MS.) with a capital 
letter. 

. 3. The letters italicized are (in the MS.) represented by signs 
of contraction. One source of difficidty is the flourish over a 
word, used sometimes as a contraction for m ot n. I have 
expanded this flourish as an m or n wherever such letter is 
manifestly required ; but it also occurs where it is best to 
attach to it no value. In such instances, the flourish occurs 
most frequently over the last word in a line, and (except very 
rarely), only over words which have an m or w in them. It 
would thus seem that their presence is due to the fact of the 
scribe wanting employment for his pen after the line had been 
written, and that the flourish therefore appears over certain 
words, not so much because the n is wanting in them, as 
because it is there already. Such words have a special attrac- 
tion for the wandering pen. Still, in order that the reader 
may know wherever such flourishes occur, they have all been 
noted down; thus, in 1. 46, the stroke over the e in "gren" 
means that a long flourish occurs drawn over the whole word, 
and the reader who wishes to expand this word into "gren^" 



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VUl PKEFACB. 

or "grenw** may easily do it for liiniself, thougli he should 
observe that the most usual form of the word is simply " gren," 
as in lines 1000, 1305. 

4. I am responsible for all hyphens, and letters and words 
between square brackets; thus, *' with-outen'* is in the MS. 
"with outen;'* and «knych[t]ly'' is written "knychly." 
Whenever a line begins with a capital letter included between 
two brackets, the original has a blank space left) evidently 
intended for an • illuminated letter. Wherever illuminated 
letters actually occur in the MS., they are denoted in this 
edition by large capitals. 

6. We find, in the MS., both the long and the twisted « 
(f and s). These have been noted down as they occur, though 
I do not observe any law for their use. The letter "fi** has 
been adopted as closely resembling a symbol in the MS., which 
apparently has the force of double s, and is not unlike the ^'sz** 
used in modem German handwriting. It might be conve- 
niently denoted by ss or sz when the type "ft'* is not to be 
had. 

6. The MS. is not puncttuited. The punctuation in the pre- 
sent edition is mostly new; and many passages, which in the 
former edition were meaningless, have thus been rendered easily 
intelligible. I am also responsible for the headings of the 
pages, the abstract at the sides of them, the mimbering of the 
folios in the margin, the notes, and the glossary ; which I hope 
may be found usefiil. The greatest care has been taken to 
make the text accurate, the proof-sheets having been compared 
with the MS, three times throughout. 



n.— DESCEIPTION OF THE POEM. 

The poem itself is a loose paraphrase of not quite fourteen 
folios of the first of the three volumes of the French Bomance 



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PREFACE. IX 

of Lancelot dn Lac, if we refer to it as reprinted at Paris 
in 1513, in three yolumes^ thin folio, double-columned.^ The 
English poet has set aside the French Prologue, and written a 
new one of his own, and has afterwards translated and amplified 
that portion of the Romance which narrates the invasion of 
Arthur's territory by "le roy de oidtre les marches, nomme 
galehaulf (in the English GaUot), and the defeat of the said 
king by Arthur and his allies. 

The Prologue (lines 1-334) tells how the author undertook 
to* write a romance to please his lady-love ; and how, after 
deciding to take as his subject the story of Lancelot as told in 
the French Somance, yet finding himself unequal to a close 
translation of the whole of it, he determined to give a para- 
phrase of a portion of it only. Affcer giving us a brief sum- 
mary of the earKer part by the simple process of telling us 
what he will not relate, he proposes to begin the story at the 
point where Lancelot has been made prisoner by the lady of 
Melyhalt, and to take as his subject the wars between Arthur 
and Galiot, and the distinction which Lancelot won in them ; 
and afterwards to tell how Lancelot made peace between these 
two kings, and was consequently rewarded by Venus, who 
^'makith hyme his ladice grace to have" (1. 311)» 

The latter part of the poem, it may be observed, has not come 
down to us. The author then concludes his Prologue by be- 

1 « As to the Romance of Sir Lancelot, our author [Gower], among others on the 
subject, refers to a yolume of Tvhich he was the hero ; perhaps that of Robert de 
Borron, altered soon afterwards by Godefroy de Leigny, under the title of Ze Soman de 
la Charr$tt$, and printed, with additions, at Paris by Antony Yerard, in the year 1494, 

For if thou wilt the bokes rede 

Of Launcelot and other mo, 

Then might thou seen how it was tho 

Of armes," etc. 

(GowBit : Gonfeam AmantU, Book iy.) 
(Quoted from Warton's English Poetry, vol. ii., p. 234, ed, 1840. I quote this as 
bearing somewhat on the subject, though it should be obserred that Ze Soman de la 
Charrette is not the same with Lancelot du Lae, but only a romance of the same 
class. 



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X PREFACE. 

seeching to have the support of a very celebrated poet, whose 
name he will not mention, but will only say that 
" Ye fresch enditing of his laiting toung 
Out throuch yis world so wid is yroung," etc.^ (1. 328.) 

The First Book introduces us to king Arthur at Carlisle.^ 
The king is visited by dreams, which he imagines to forbode 
misfortune; he therefore convokes all his clerks, and inquires 
of them the meaning of the dreams, proposing to hang them in 
the event of their refusal. Thus strongly urged, they tell him 
that those on whom he most relies will fail him at his need ; 
and when he further inquires if this evil fate can be averted, 
they answer him very obscurely that it can only be remedied 
by help of the water-lion, the leech, and the flower ; a reply 
which the king evidently regards as unsatisfactory. Soon after 
an aged knight, fully armed, enters the palace, with a message 
from king Galiot, requiring him to give "tribute and rent.'' 
Arthur at once refuses, somewhat to the astonishment of the 
knight, who is amazed at his hardihood. Next arrives a 
message from the lady of Melyhalt, informing Arthur of the 
actual presence of Galiot's army. We are then momentarily 
introduced to Lancelot, who is pining miserably in the lady's 
custody. Next follows a description of Galiot's army, at sight 
of the approach of which king Arthur and his " niece," Sir 
Gawain, confer as to the best means of resistance. In the 
ensuing battle Sir Gawain greatly distinguishes himself, but is 
at last severely wounded. Sir Lancelot, coming to hear of Sir 
Gawain's deeds, craves leave of the lady to be allowed to take 
part in the next conflict, who grants him his boon on condition 
that he promise to return to his prison. She then provides for 
him a red courser, and a complete suit of red armour, in which 
guise he appears at the second battle, and is the "head and 

> He does not necessarily imply tl^at the poet invoked was still alive ; and we might 
almost suppose Petrarch to be meant, who was more proud of his Latin poem called 
"Africa'* than of his odes and sonnets. See Hallam's Literary History (4 vols.), 
vol. i., p. 85. 2 But the French has " Cardueil." See 1. 2153. 



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PREFACE. XI 

comfort of tlie field ;" the queen and Sir Gawain beholding his 
exploits from a tower. The result of the battle convinces 
Galiot that Arthur is not strong enough at present to resist 
him sufficiently, and that he thus nms the risk of a too easy, 
and therefore dishonorable, conquest ; for which excellent reason 
he grants Arthur a twelvemonth's truce, with a promise to 
return again in increased force at the expiration of that period. 
Sir Lancelot returns to Melyhalt according to promise, and the 
lady is well pleased at hearing the reports of his famous deeds, 
and visits him when asleep, out of curiosity to observe his 
appearance after the fight. 

In the Second Book the story makes but little progress, 
nearly the whole of it being occupied by a long lecture or 
sermon delivered to Arthur by a "master,*' named Amytans, 
on the duties of a king ; the chief one being that a king should 
give presents to everybody — a duty which is insisted on with 
laborious tediousness. Lines 1320-2130 are almost entirely 
occupied with this subject, and will be found to be the driest 
part of the whole narrative. In the course of his lecture, 
Amytans explains at great length the obscure prophecy men- 
tioned above, shewing that by the water-lion is meant God the 
Father, by the leech God the Son, and by the flower the Virgin 
Mary. Though the outline of a similar lecture exists in the 
old French text, there woidd seem to be a special reason for the 
length to which it is here expanded. Some lines certainly seem 
to hint at events passing in Scotland at the time when the poem 
was composed. Thus, "kings may be excused when of tender 
age" (1. 1668) ; but when they come to years of discretion 
should punish those that have wrested the law. Again we 
find (1. 1920) strong warnings against flatterers, concluding 
(1. 1940), with the expression, 

" Wo to the realme that havith sich o cbans ! " 
Such hints may remind us of the long minorities of James 11. 
and James III. ; and, whilst speaking on this subject, I may 



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XU PREFACE. 

note a somewhat remarkable coincidence. When king Arthur, 
as related in Book I., asks the meaning of his dream, he is told 
that it signifies that " they in whom he most trusts wiU fail 
him'' (1. 499); and he afterwards laments (1. 1151) how his 
"men fail him at need." Now when we read that a story is 
current of a prophetess having told James III. that he was 
destined to "fall by the hands of his own kindred/'^ and 
that that monarch was in the habit of consulting astrologers^ 
(compare 1. 432) as to the dangers that threatened him, it seems 
quite possible that the poem was really composed about the year 
1478 ; and this supposition is supported by the fetct that the 
handwriting of the present MS. copy belongs to the very end 
of the fifteenth century. 

Towards the end of the Second Book, we learn that the 
twelvemonths' truce draws near its end, and that Sir Lancelot 
again obtains permission from the lady to be present in the 
approaching combat, choosing this time to be arrayed in "armys 
al of blak" (1. 2426). 

In the Third Book Galiot returns to the fight with a host 
thrice as large as his former one. As before, Gawain distin-^ 
guishes himself in the first encounter, but is at length so " evil 
wounded" that he was "the worse thereof evermore" (1. 2706). 
In the second combat, the black knight utterly eclipses the red 
knight, end the last thousand (extant) lines of the poem are 
almost wholly occupied with a description of his wonderful 
prowess. At the point where the extant portion of the poem 
ceases, the author would appear to be just warming with his 
subject, and to be preparing for greater efforts. 

In continuance of the outline of the story, I may add that 
the French text^ informs us how, after being several times 

> Tytler*8 History of Scoiland (Edinburgh, 1841), vol. iy., p. 216. 

3 The French text does not say anything about '* astronomy." YTe may especially 
note the following lines, as not being in the French, viz., lines 1473-1496, 1528-1642, 
1599-1644, 1658-1680, and the long passage 1752-1998. 

' See Appendix. 



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PREFACE. XIU 

remounted by Galiot, and finding himself with every fresh 
horse quite as fresh as he was at the beginning of the battle, 
the black knight attempted, as evening fell, to make his way 
back to Melyhalt secretly. Galiot, however, having determined 
not to lose sight of him, follows and confronts him, and 
earnestly requests his company to supper, and that he will 
lodge in his tent that night. After a little hesitation, Lancelot 
accepts the invitation, and Quliot entertains him with the 
utmost respect and flattery, providing for him a most excellent 
supper and a bed larger than any of the rest. Lancelot, though 
naturally somewhat wearied, passes a rather restless night, and 
talks a good deal in his sleep. Next day Galiot prays him to 
stay longer, and he consents on condition that a boon may be 
granted him, which is immediately acceded to without further 
question. He then requests Galiot to submit himself to Arthur, 
and to confess himself vanquished, a demand which so amazes 
that chieftain that he at first refuses, yet succeeds in persuading 
Lancelot to remain with him a little longer. The day after, 
preparations are made for another battle, on which occasion 
Lancelot wears Galiot's armour, and is at first mistaken for 
him, till Sir Gawan's acute vision detects that the armour 
really encases the black knight. As Lancelot now fights on 
Galiot's side, it may easily be imagined how utter and complete 
is the defeat of Arthur's army, which was before victorious 
owing to his aid only ; and we are told that Arthur is ready to kill 
himself out of pure grief and chagrin, whilst Sir Gawain swoons 
so repeatedly, for the same reason, as to cause the most serious 
fears to be entertained for his life. At this sorrowftil juncture 
Lancelot again claims his boon of Galiot, who, in the very 
moment of victory, determines at last to grant it, and most 
humbly sues for mercy at the hands of Arthur, to that king's 
most intense astonishment. By this very unexpected turn of 
a£fairs, the scene of dolour is changed to one of unalloyed joy, 
and peace is immediately agreed upon, to the satisfaction of all 



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XIV PREFACE. 

but some true-bred warriors, who preferred a battle to a peace 
under all circumstances.- Not long after, GaKot discovers Lan- 
celot with eyes red and swollen with much weeping, and endea- 
vours to ascertain the reason of his grief, but with small success. 
After endeavouring to comfort Lancelot as much as possible, 
Galiot goes to visit king Arthur, and a rather long conference 
takes place between them as they stand at Sir Gawain's bedside, 
the queen being also present. In the course of it, Galiot asks 
Arthur what price he would pay to have the black knight's 
perpetual friendship ; to which Arthur replies, he would gladly 
share with him half of everything that he possessed, saving 
only queen Guinevere. The question is then put to Gawain, 
who repKes that, if only his health might be restored, he would 
wish to be the most beautiful woman in the world, so as to be 
always beloved by the knight. Next it is put to Guinevere, 
who remarks that Sir Gawain has anticipated all that a lady 
could possibly wish, an answer which is received with much 
laughter. Lastly, Arthur puts the question to Galiot himself, 
who declares that he wotdd willingly, for the black knight's 
sake, suffer that all his honour should be turned into shame, 
whereat Sir Gawain allows himself to be outbidden. The queen 
then obtains a brief private conference with Galiot, and prays 
him to obtain for her an interview with the blcKjk knight, who 
promises to do what he can to that end. He accordingly sounds 
the black knight upon the subject, and, finding him entirely of 
the same mind, does all he can to promote their acquaintance, 
and is at last only too successful ; and at this point we may 
suppose the Scottish Romance to have stopped, if indeed it was 
ever completed. 

III.— THE DIALECT OE THE POEM. 

In coming to discuss the dialect, we find everywhere the 

utmost confusion.^ Certain errors of transcription soon shew 

^ For many valuable remarks upon the dialect of the poem I am indebted to Mr. 
R. Morris. 



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PREFACE. XV 

that the scribe had before his eyes an older copy, which he 
mis-read. Thus, in 1. 433, we find " set/' where the older copy 
must have had "fet," and which he must have mis-read as 
"fet;" and again, in lines 2866, 2883, he has, by a similar 
confusion between "f" and "f," written ''firft" instead of 
"fiift." It is sufficiently obvious that the older copy was 
written in the Lowland Scottish dialect (the whole tone of the 
poem going to prove this), as shewn by the use of ch for ffk, 
as in brickt for bright ; by the occurrence of plurals in -1% of 
verbal preterites and passive participles in -itj and of words 
peculiarly Scottish, such as syne (afterwards), anerly (only), laif 
(remainder), oft-syss (oft-times), etc. But, on the other hand, it 
soon becomes evident that the copyist had no great regard for 
pure dialect, and continually introduces Southern and Midland 
forms, mixing them together in the most undisceming and 
unskilful manner. Wq find, for example, in line 1765, 

"Bei^'^A larg and iffw frely of thi thing,'* 
the Scottish form iffis (give) and the Southern beith in close 
conjunction; and we find no less than six or seven forms of 
the plural of the past tense of the verb "to be ;" as, for example, 
war (3136), vdr (818), ware (825), waren (3301), veryng (2971), 
waryng (443), etc. 

A few instances will at once prove and illustrate the above 
statements. 

1. The broad Northumbrian forms a, ane^ baith,fra, ga, Aaill, 
hame, knaw, law, sa, wat, although occasionally retained, are 
also at times changed into o, one, b(Mh,fro, go, hoU, home, know, 
low, so, and wot. Thus, at the end of 1. 3246, we find haill, 
which could not have been altered without destroying the rime ; 
but in 1. 3078, we find it changed, in the middle of the line, 
into holl. In 1. 3406, we find sa, but only three lines ftirther 
on we find so twice. 

So, too, we not only find tane (taken), gais (goes), but also 
the forms tone and goR. See lines 1071, 1073. 



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VI PREFACE. 

2. The true plural form of the verb is shewn by lines 203, 204, 

'*0f quhois fame and worschipfiil dedis 
Clerkis into diuer6 bukis redU,^^ 

where alteration would have ruined the rime utterly ; and the 
same termination (-is) is correctly used in the imperative 
mood, as, 

" fo giffis W8 delay" (1. 463) ; 

"And of thi wordis hm trew aad stable" (1. 1671) ; 

but the termination ^ith is continually finding its way into the 
poem, to its great detriment, even as early as in the fourth line, 

" Uprisith arly in his fyre chare ;" 

and in the imperative mood also, as, 

** £0memhrith now it stondith one the poynt" (1. 797). 

The worst point of all, however, is this — ^that, not content with 
changing -is into -ith in the 3rd person singular, the scribe 
must needs do so even in the 2nd person, thus producing 
words which truly belong to no dialect whatever. Observe the 
following lines : — 

" woftd wrech, that levta in to were ! 
To schew the thus the god of loue me sent, 
That of thi seruice no thing is content. 
For in his court yhoue lewith in disspar. 
And vilfiilly austmis el thi care. 
And aehaptth no thinge of thine awn remede, 
Bot olepith ay and eryith apone dede," etc. (11. 84-90). 

Here levis is altered into lemth, not only unnecessarily, but 
wrongly. For similar mistakes, see 11. 1019, 1369, 1384, 2203. 
For examples of correct usage, see 11. 1024, 1337, 1796, 2200, 
2201. 

3. But the terminations which are used in the most confused 
manner of aU are -en, -yne, and -inff or -yn^. Thus we find 
the non-Scottish infinitives, tekn (494), walMn (1239), makine 
(191) ; the constant substitution of -iriff for -and in the present 



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PREFACE. XVU 

participle;^ a confusion between the past participial ending 
-ine (more correctly -en), and the present ending -and, thus pro- 
ducing such forms as thinkiTie (34), and besichyne (418) ; and also 
a confusion between -iriff and the past participial ending -en, as 
fundyng iovfundm (465), fallyny {or fallen (1217, 1322,3267)f 
swellyng for swollen (1222), and holding for halden (2259). We 
even find -ing in the infinitive mood, as in atvysing (424), viting 
(to know, 410), smyting (1326), wamnyng (1035), passing (2148), 
/chewing (2736), etc. ; and, lastly, it occurs in the plural of the 
indicative present, instead of the Midland -en ; a^ in passing 
(1166), biding (2670), and leoyng (3304). 

It may here be remarked, however, that the frequent occur- 
rence of non-Scottish infinitives must not be altogether attri- 
buted to the copyist, but are probably due in part to the 
author; for in such lines as 

** That if yon knycht wil walkin, and persaif " (1. 1239), 
the termination -in is required to complete the rhythm of the 
line. 

In the same way we may perhaps accoimt for the presence 

of the prefix i-, as in the line 

"Qubarwith that al the gardinge was I-clede" (1. 50). 

This prefix seldom occurs in Scottish, and is, indeed, not very 

common in the present poem; yet we may safely conclude, 

upon the whole, that the dialect in which the poem was written 

was impure at the first, and has been made more so by the 

copyist. We may easily suppose that several Southern forms 

of words are due to the author's familiarity with Chaucer's 

poems, as evinced by the similarity of the rhjrthm to Chaucer's, 

and by the close resemblance of several passages. Compare, 

for instance, the first seventy lines of the Prologue with the 

opening passages of "The Flower and the Leaf," and "The 

Complaint of the Black Knight." 

^ We find the true fonns occasionally, as obeisand {6il), plesand (1731), ihinkand 
(217 Z),prekimd (3089), and feohtand (3127). Compare the form seruand (122). 



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XVIU PREFACE. 

4. We find not only the Northumbrian forms sail and suld, 
but also shall, sAalt, and Bkuld. 

5. As regards pronouns, we find the Scottish scho (she) in 
1. 1169 ; but the usual form is sche. We find, too, not only 
the broad forms thai, tkair, tkainiy but also thei (sometimes the), 
ther, and them. As examples of forms of the relative pronoun, 
we may quote who, quho, whois, quhois (whose), quhom, qivhome 
(whom), quhat, qwhat (what), and tvhilk, quhilk, quhich, quich, 
wich (which). Wich is used instead of who (1. 387), and we also 
find the tvich, or the wich that similarly employed. The nomina- 
tive who does not perhaps occur as a simple relative, but has the 
force of whoso, or he who, as, e,ff., in 1. 1102 ; or else it is used 
interrogatively, as in 1. 1172. 

6. Many other peculiarities occur, which it were tedious to 
discuss fully. It may suffice, perhaps, to note briefly these 
following. We Gud both the soft sound eh, as in wich, sich, 
and the hard sound k, as in whilk, reke (reach), streke (stretch), 
etc. ; which are the true Northern forms. 

Mo is used as well as more. 

Tho occurs for then in 1. 3184 ; and for the in 1. 247. 

At occurs as well as that ; atte as well as at the. 

The short forms ma (make), ta (take), sent (sendeth), stant 
(standeth), are sometimes found ; the two former being North- 
umbrian. 

Has is used twice as vl plural verb (11. 481, 496). 

^ha (yes) occurs in 1. 2843 ; but we generally meet with ^his 
or yis ; with reference to which Mr. Morris writes : — " The latter 
term was not much in favour with the people of the North. 
Even now yes sounds offensive to a Lancashire man. ' Hoo 
cou'd naw opp'n hur meawth t' sey eiffh (yea) or notv (no) ; boh 
simpurt on sed iss; th' dickons iss hur on him too. — 2^m 
Bobbin.* The changes introduced by the transcriber, and the 
deviations from his Scotch copy, must have been equally offen- 
sive and displeasiDg to Scotchmen who attempted to read this 



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PREFACE. XIX 

version of their heroic countryman's deeds in the lisping^ dia- 
lect of the South." 

As regards the vocabulary, we find that some Northumbrian 
terms have been employed, but others thrown aside. Thus, 
while we find the Northumbrian words thxr (these), traist (trust), 
newis (neives, fists), radour (fear), etc., we do not, on the other 
hand, meet with the proper Scottish word mirky but observe it 
to be supplanted by dirk (1. 2471). So, again, eke is used in 
the sense of ahOy instead of being a verb, as usual in Northern 
works. We may note, too, the occurrence oi frame as well as 
fray and the curious form tkyne-furth (thenceforth) in 1. 2196. 

In a few words ending in -//, the plural is indicated by a 
stroke drawn through the double letter ; as in perilUs, sadilliSy 
etc. ; and even the word ellis (else) is thus abbreviated. 

The spelling is very various. We find even four forms of 
one word, as cusynacey ctcsyriece, cusynes, ctvsynes; and, as 
examples of eccentric spelling, may be quoted qsquyaris 
(squires, 1. 3204), whilst in 1. 3221 we find sqwar. 

Both in the marginal abstract and in the notes I have chiefly 
aimed at removing minor difficulties by explaining sentences of 
which the construction is peculiar, and words which are dis- 
guised by the spelling. For the explanation of more uncommon 
words, recourse should be had to the Glossarial Index. 

1 This is said with reference to the substitutioo of -HA for -t>. 



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APPENDIX. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE FRENCH ROMANCE OF 
"LANCELOT DTJ LAC." 

As it seems impossible to do justice to the story of Lancelot 
without giving due attention to the famous French Homance^ 
and since a portion of the French text is really necessary to 
complete even that fragment of it which the Scottish author 
proposed to write, the following extracts have been made with 
the view of shewing (1) the general outline of the earlier part 
of the story,' (2) the method in which the Scottish author has 
expanded or altered his original, and (3) the completion of the 
story of the wars between Arthur and Galiot. 

I. Headings of the chapters of the French Romance, from 
its commencement to the end of the wars with Galiot. 

[The commas are inserted by the present editor, and the 
expansions marked by italics.] 

% Cy commence la table du premier volume de la table 
ro«de lancelot du lac. 

^ Comment apres la mort de vterpandragon roy du 

Sotiaid ^? °' royaulme de logres, & apres la mort aramon, roy de la 

Sd ^in?^B«)rt P®^^ bretaigne, le roy claudas de la terre Descosse mena 

of their lands, guerre contre le roy ban de benoic et le roy boort de gauues 

tawt quil les desherita^ de leurs terres. Feuillet. i. 

1 See U. 1447-1449. 



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HSADS OF THE EARLY CHAFTSBS OF THE FRENCH ROMANCE. XXI 



H Comment le roy daudas assiegea le chasteau de trible £»*«?«« J _-, 

u JO Ban in the Caatla 

auquel estoit le roy ban de benoic, et comment ilz parle- of TriUe. 
menterent ensemble, f. i. 

^ Comment le roy ban de benoic, accompaigne de sa Kmg ito^ hk 
femme et de son £lz lancelot, auecqti^ vng seul escuyer, se J^^]®*,^^^^^ 
partirent du chasteau de trible pour aller querir secours Arthur, 
deuers le roy Artus a la grant bretaigne. Feuillet ii. 

^ Conmient apres ce que le roy ban fut party de son 5wbie^S*&ach- 
chasteau de trible, le seneschal a qui il auoit bailie la garde ^qJJ^J^ ^^ 
trahit ledit chasteau, et le liura es mains du roy claudas. 
Feuillet. ii. 

^ Comment le roy ban mourut de dueil quant il veit son Sf, wId£S*o2 
chasteau ardoir et brouyr. Et comment la dame du lac by*theUidyofSe 
emporta son filz lancelot.* Fueillet iiii. ^■^*' 

^ Comment la royne helaine, apres que le roy fut mort 
et elle eut perdu son filz, se rendit nonnain en labbaye du 
monstier royal. Feuillet. v. 

^ Comment le roy de gauues mourut | et comment la 
Boyne sa femme, pour paour de claudas, sen partit de son 
' chasteau pour aller au monstier royal, ou sa seur estait The two sisters, 

-widows of kings 

rendue. et conmient ses enfans Lyonnel et Boort luy furent Ban and Boort, 

" retreat to a mon- 

ostez. Feuillet vi. "tery. 

% Comment la royne de Gauues, apres que son seigneur 
fut mort et que elle eut perdu ses deux enfans, se vint 
rendre au monastere ou estoit sa seur la royne de benoic. 
Feuillet vi. 

^ Comment merlin fut engendre du dyable : £t comment Merlin's lore for 
il fut amoureux de la dame du lac. FeuiUet vii. lake. 

^ Conmient le cheualier farien, qui auoit tollu a la royne sir Farien se- 
de Gauues ses deux enfans, les emporta en sa maison | et the two^ons of 
les feist nourrir me espace de temps. £t conmient le ismadesenesc^Sa 

to king Claudas. 

roy claudas fut amoureux de la femme du diet Farien | et 
pource le fist son seneschal. Feuillet yiii. 

^ Comment le roy claudas fist appeller son cheualier ciaudas accuses 
farien de trahison par ladmonnestement de sa femme, treason. 

I lines 215 220. 



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XXU HEADS OF THE EARLY CHAPTERS OF THE FRENCH ROMANCE. 

disant quil gardoit les deux enfans du roy boort de 

gauues .Peuillet. viii. 

ciaudas, in di»- ^ comment le roy daudas en maniere de chenalier 

thur's court. estrange, se partit du royaulme de gauues pour aller en 

la grant bretaigne a la court du roy artus pour veoir sa 

puissance et son gouuemement. Feuillet x. 

The lady of the f[ Comment la dame du lac bailla a lancelot ung 

lake informs " ^ " 

k*"wn*»*^** ^^ maistre j)our linstruyre comme il appartcnoit a filz de 

roy. Feuillet xii. 

% Comment la royne helaine alloit faire cbascun iowr son 

dueil au lieu ou son seigneur mourut | et de la alloit au lac 

ou elle perdit son filz. Feuillet xv. 

% Comment le bon Eeligieux qui auoit dit nouuelles a la 

royne helaine de son filz lancelot, print conge de eUe, et sen 

Tint au roy artus en la grant bretaigne. Feuillet xvi. 

The lady of the ^ Comment la dame du lac enuoya sa damoyselle a la court 

la&e seeKS to cle* 

kJf'^B^ort^^^ °' ^^ ^^y claudas, pour delyurer les deux enfans au roy boort 

que claudas tenoit en prison. Feuillet xvii. 

% Comment farien, seneschal du roy claudas par le com- 

mandement de son seigneur, alia querir en prison les deux 

filz au roy de Gauues, Feuillet xviii. 

Lyonnci and f[ Comment les deux enfans au roy de gauues blecerent 

Boort wound " . . 

king paudas, le roy claudas, et occirent dorin son filz I et comment la 

and slay his son '' ' ' 

Dorin. damoyscUc du lac les emmena en semblance de deux 

leuriers. feuil. xix. 

^ De la grant ioye et du grant honneur que la 

dame du lac fist aux deux enfans quant elle les veit en 

sa maison. Feuillet xx. 

aaudaa hewaiif C Comment le roy claudas mena tres grant dueil pour 

his son's death. " ^ '' ^ ° ^ 

la mort de dorin son filz que boort auoit occis. Feuillet xx. 

% Comment farien et le peuple de la cyte de gauues ses- 
meurent centre le roy claudas a cause que il vouloit faire 
mourir les deux filz au roy boort de gauues. Feuillet. xxi. 

^ Comment le roy claudas se partit de gauuQS | et com- 
Faricn saves ment ceulx dudit lieu le vouloieAt occire, se neust este 

Claudas* life. - , ' 

farien le bon cheualier. f. xxiii. 



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HEADS OF THE EARLY CHAFTEBS OF THE FRENCH ROMANCE. XXUl 

^ Comment le roy claudas se deffendit vaillamment contre 
ceulx de Gauues qui le vouloyent occire. Feuillet. xxv. 

^ Comment lyonnel et boort perdirent le boire et le 
manger pource quilz ne scauoyent nouueUes de leur 
maistres | lesquclz estoyent demourez auee le roy claudas | 
et comment la dame du lac enuoya une siemie damoy- 
selle a gauues pour les amener. Feuillet. xxvii. 

% Comment, par la conseil des barows de gauues: leonce et LeonoeandLam- 

. begaes so to leek 

lambegues sen allerent auecques la damoyselle pour veoir Lyotmci and 

leurs seigneurs lyonnel et boort. Feuillet xxviii. 

% Comment la dame du lac sen retouma apres ce quelle 

eut monstre a leonce et a lambegues les enfans du roy de 

gauues leurs seign^t^rs, et comment lesditz cbeualiers sen 

retoumere»t a gauues. Feuillet xxx. 

^ Comment le roy claudas retouma a gauues, pottr soy aaudaa medi- 
tates roTmge. 
venger de la honte quon luy auoit faicte, et pour la mort 

de son filz. Feuil. xxxi. 

% Comment lappointement fut fait entre le roy claudas et 
les barons, par le moyen de farien et lambegues son nepueu. 
Feuillet. xxxiii. 

^ Comment farien | sa femme, et son nepueu lambegues Death of Farien. 
sen partirent pour aller veoir lyonnel et boort, qui esto- 
yent au lac I et comment farien mourut. Feuillet xxxv. 

^ Comment les deux roynes menerent saincte vie au The widow of 
monstier royal | et comment celle de gauues veit ces deux her children and 

. . ^1 Lancelot in a 

enfans et lancelot ei; aduisxon | et comment elle trespassa yision, and dies, 
de ce siecle. FeuiUet. xxxv. 

If Comment le roy artus assembla le iour de pasques Arthur holds a 

. tournament, and 

tons ses barons, et tmt grant court a karanes, et comment Banin, son of 

' ° . ' king Ban, is the 

banin le filleul au Roy ban emporta le pris du bebourdys victor, 
celluy iour. Feuillet. xxxvi. 

% Comment la dame du lac se pourpensa de mener lancelot The lady of the 

lake sends Lance- 

au roy artus pour le faire cbeualier,^ et elle luy bailla lot to Arthur to 

J ^ . be knighted, and 

armes blanches, et partit du lac a tout quarante cbeualliers provides for Mm 

' ^ ^ .. white armour. 

pour le conuoyer. Feuillet xxxvii. 

1 Liue 223. 



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XXIV HEADS OF THE EARLY CHAPTERS OF THE FRENCH ROMANCE. 

^ Comment img cheuaUier nanre, lequel auoit xme espee 

Of the wounded £chee exL la teste et deux troncons de lance parmy le 

toArthur'scourt. corps/ vint a la court du roy artus | et comment la dame 

du lac le mena deuant le roy artus, et luy prya quil le 

fist cheualier. Peuillet xxxix. 

^ Comment messire yuain, a qui le roy Artus auoit recom- 

knTghted*' mawde lancelot, alia faire sa requeste audit roy artus, que le 

lendemain il fist ledit lancelot cheualier, et comment ledit 

lancelot deffera le cheualier naure.' Feuillet. xli. 

^ Comment la dame de noehault' enuoya deuers le roy 

artus, luy supplier quH luy enuoyast secours centre le Eoy 

tad\t*^dcfOTded ^® norhombellande qui luy menoit guerre. Et comment 

haSt^^^ **' ^^' Lancelot requist au roy axtus quil luy donnast congie dy 

aller | et il luy octroya. Peuillet xlii. 

and won the ^ Cowmeut le nouueau cheualier aux armes blanchcs vaiu- 

battle for her. , 

quit la bataiUe pour la dame de noehault. Feuillet xliii. 
^ Comment lancelot apres ce quil se fut party de la dame 

de noehault, se co^T^batit auec ung cheualier qui lauoit 

mouille. Peuillet xlv. 

How Lancelot % Comment lancelot conquist vaillammewt par sa force et 
"Sorrowful proesso le chasteau de la douloureuse garde que nul aultre 

ne pouoit conquerre.* Feuillet xlv. 

How Arthur c Commcut les uouuelles vindrent au roy artus que la 

hears of it, and " j -x 

^^% Tt^te^teu*** douloureuse garde estoit conquise par la cheualier aux 
armes blanches [ Et le roy y enuoya messire gauuain pour 
en scauoir la verite. Peuillet xlviii. 

Gawain is impri- f[ Comment messirc Gauuain fut mys en prison | et com- 

Boned, and sup- " j r i 

posed to be dead, ment le roy et la royne entrerent en la premiere porte de 

la I et la veirent des tuwbes ou il y auoit escript que mon- 

seigneur gauuain estoit mort, et plusieures aultres cheua- 

liers. Peuillet. xlix. 

% Comment une damoyselle de Ihostel de la dame du lac 

feist assauoir au cheuallier blanc que monseigneur gauuain 

G^*ain*s^i^x?- ^^ ses compaignows estoyent emprisonnez par celluy qui 

•onment, auoit estc seigueur de la douloureuse garde. Peuillet 1. 

1 Lines 237-245. » Lines 249-262. « Line 265, * Lines 267-269. 



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HEADS OF THS BAKLT CHAFTBBSOF THE FRENCH BOMANGS. XXT 

^ Commefit le blanc chenalier ad combatit encontre celluy 
qui auoit este seigneur de la douloorense garde, qui tenoit «nd deUTen Um 
en prison messire ganuain et sea compaignons.^ Feuillet. 1. puiion*. 

% Comment le chenallier blanc emmena le chenalier con- 
qnis en nng bennitaige. et comment ledit chenalier conqnis 
Iny rendit audit heimitage gannain ei sea compaignons. 
f. lii. 

fr Comment messire gannain et ses compaignons senvin- Oawmin ntnns 

to Arthur tt^ bis 

drent par deners le rov artna qni estoit a la donlonreuse Qneea at Don- 

loQTOiiM Gttrda. 

garde. Et comment le roy et la royne fnrant ioyenlz 
qnant ilz les yirent. Fenillet. liii. 

. % Comment le chenallier blanc retonma a labbaye on il 
anoit laisse ses eacuyers | et comment il acent laasemblee 
qni denoit estre entre le roy artns et le roy doultre les Lancelot heart of 

. . , the war to eome 

marches, et comment il conquist le chenalier qui disoit i>«tw«eii Arthur 

' ... andOaUot. 

mienlx aymer le chenalier qui auoit naure que celluy qui 
lauoit este.' Feuillet. liiii. 

^ Comment messire gauuain se misten queste pour trouuer Gawain goca to 
le blanc chenallier.' Et comment la meslee dentre les gens imight» 
an roy des cent cheualiers et les gens de la dame de noe- 
hault fut appaisee. Feuillet Iv. 

IT Comment le blanc chenalier yainquit lassemble dentre who ii voimded 

. in the battle 

les deux roys I et comment il fut naure du roy des cent against oaiiot by 

.-_ the Unff-of-a- 

cheualiers. Feuillet. lyi. hondred^nighti. 

# ^ Comment apres que le chenalier qui auoit gangne le 
toumoyement dentre le roy doultre les marches sen fiit Arthur and 

... Qaeen Genure 

alle, le roy artus et la royne gemeure se partirent pour return home, 
aller en leurs pays. Feuillet Ivii. 

^ Comment messire gauuain se combatit a brehain sans 
pitie, et le rua par terre. et comment apres ilz sen allerent 
a la douloureuse garde : et comment les deux pucelles que 
messire Gauuain menoit luy furent toUues. Feuillet. Iviii. 

^ Comment lancelot print congie de son mire | et com- Lancelot endi 
ment il mist a fin les adventures de la douloureuse garde. thJ^sS^Sti?' 
FeuiUet Ix. ""^^ 

1 Lines 268-4. ' See 11. 244-5. s Line 267. 



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XXVI HEADS OP THE EARLY CHAPTEBS OF THE FBENCH ROMANCE. 

^ Comment mescdre gaanain recoaura les deux pucelles 
TfctoriSii'i?fh« ^^ ^^y a^oyeiit €8te toUues, Et comment lancelot vainquit 
^h^ imd^^*** ^* seconde assemblee dentre le roy artus et le roy donltre 
®*^*- les marches. PeuiUet Ixi. 

?*?!^ wtuma f[ Comment messire ganuain retouma a la court du roy 

to Artnnrs court. « v^ * 

artus apres la seconde assemblee dentre le roy artus et le 

roy doultre les marches, et comment lancelot vainquit le 

cheualier qui gardit le gue. Feuillet Ixiii. 

[^Eere begins the Scotch Translation^] 

^thur's evil ^ Comment le roy Artus songea plusieurs songes | et apres 

manda tons les saiges clercs de son royaulme pour en scauoir 
la signifiance.^ , Feuillet Ixiiii. 

Gaiiot defies Ar- ^ Comment le roy doultre les marches, nomme gallehault, 
enuoya deffier le roy artus* | et comment Lancelot occist 
deux geans empres kamalot.' Feuillet Ixv. 

Lancelot is as- ^ Comment lancelot occist yng cheualier q^i disoit moins 

sailed by forty 

knights, and im- aymer le cheualier naure que celluy qui lauoit naure* I et 

prisoned by the ^ ^ '' ^ ' 

ladyof Meiyhait. comment il fut assailly de .xl. cheualliers, et mys en prison 

de la dame de mallehault.^ Feuillet Ixviii. 

Lancelot, reieas- fT Comment gallehault assembla au roy artus vng iour 

ed from prison, is u o .^ o 

^^i*^ ▼ictorions durant que lancelot estoit en prison* I et comment le len- 

against Galiot. ^ ^ ' 

demain lancelot fut deliuvre de prison' | et vainquit lassem- 

blee dentre les deux roys.' Feuillet Ixvii. 

Arthur is re- ^ Comment le roy artus fut reprins de ses vices, et moult 

proved by Amy- -it . • , . « , 

tans, and Galiot bicu conscille par vug cheualier qui surumt en son ost'l 

proposes a truce 

for a year. Et Comment gallehault donna tresues au roy artus lusques 

a vng an.'° Feuillet Ixix. 

^ceiot returns ^ Comment lancelot, apres ce quil eut vaincu lassemblee, 

Meiyhait. retouma en la prison de la dame de mallehault" | et comment 

elle le congneut, a son cheual et par les playes quil auoit, que 

cestoit celluy qui auoit vaincu lassemblee.^* Feuillet Ixxii, 

^ Comment messire gauuain, soy quarantiesme de conx- 

> Lines 363-527. > Lines 540-592. s Line 280. 

* Lines 233-252. » Lines 281-292. » Lines 634-894. 

7 Lines 895-974. » Lines 975-1138. * Lines 1275-2130. 

10 Lines 1543-1584. ^^ Lines 1139-1152. i> Lines 1181-1274. 



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HEADS OF THE EABLYCHAFTBESOF THE FBENCH BOHANCE. XXYU 

paignons, se mist en queite pour tronuer le cheuallier OAwain, with 

. , , forty ooinnid6S( 

qui auoit porte lescu venneil a lassemblee dentre le roy dmxtf to seek 

'^ "^ tlie red knight. 

artus et Gallehault.^ Eeuillet Izzii. 

1[ Comment la dame de mallehault mist a rancon le cheual- The ledy of 

Melyhalt sooepti 

lier quelle tenoit en prison, et le laissa aller quant elle veit Laneeiot's ren- 
quelle ne peult scauoir son nom.' fii. Izxiii. 

% Comment messire gauuain et ses compaignons retoume- SS^^^S^^ 
rent de leur queste' | et comment apres les treues faillies *«*• Arthur, 
galehault Tint assembler centre le roy artus, & tons ses 
gens en furent moult troublez.* fu. Ixxiiii. 

% Comment gallebault suyuit le cheuallier aux noires G<^iot gains over 

" "^ . the black knight. 

armcs,^ & fist taut par belles parolles quil lemmena en son 
ost, dont le roy artus et tons ses gens en furent moult 
troublez. Feuillet Ixxviii. 

^ Comment lancelot par sa prouesse conquist tout, et fist Lancelot induces 
tant que gallebault crya mercy au roy artus. fu. Ixxix. to Arthur. 

% Comment gallebault fist tant que la royne yit lancelot | The Queen and 

, , to 1 • Lancelot meet. 

& comment ilz se arraisonnerent ensemble, fu. Ixxxi. 

^ Comment la royne congneut lancelot apres ce qtt»l eut TheQueenknowa 

Lancelot from hi« 

longuement parle a elle, et quil luy eut compte de ses ad- adventures that 
uentui'es. et comment la premiere acointance fut faicte entre 
la royne et lancelot "par le moyen de galehault. fu. Ixxxii. 

^ Comment la premiere acointance fut faicte de gale- GaUot beeomes 
hault et de la dame de malehault par le moyen de la royne SeuSyof Meiy- 
de logres, et comme[nt] lancelot et galehault sen aUoyent 
esbatre et deuiser auecques leurs dames, fu. Ixxxiiii. 

II. The Chapter of the French romance from which the 
translator has taken the beginning of his First Book is here 
given, in order to shew in what manner he has treated his 
original. It begins at Fol. Ixiiii. 

Comment le roy artus songea plusieurs songes, et apres Arthur's ctu 

dreams. 

manda tons les sages clercz de son royaulme pour 
en scauoir la sigmfiance. 

1 lines 2162-2256. > Lines 2357-2442. > Lines 2504>2630. 

4 Lineft 2531-3268. • Lines 3343-3487. 



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XXVm THE ORIGINAL OF BOOK I. OF THE SCOTCH TRANSLATION. 

King Arthur be- ^VR dit le compte que le roy artus auoit longuement 

^ seioume a cardueil. Et pource ny auenoit mie graw(f«- 

hia knights are meixt de auenture«, il enuuya moult aux compaignons du Boy 

annoyed at meet- ^ • n • • i • • j. • 

ing with no ad- de ce qutiz auoient si longuement seioume, et ne veoient riens 

▼entnret* 

de ce quilz souloyent veoir. Principallement keu le senes- 
chal en fut trop ennuye Et en parloit moult souuent, et 
disoyt deuawt le roy que trop estoit ce seioMr ennuyeulx, 
et trop auoit dure. Le roy luy demande " Keu | que voul- 

Sir Kay counsels driez que uous fcissous?" **Certes," fait keu, **ie con- 
that they should ^ ' ' 
go to Cameiot. seilleroye que nous allissions a kamalot | car la cite est plus 

aduantureuse que tous ayez | et la nous verrions souuent et 

, orrions clioses de merueilles que nous ne Toyons pas icy. 

Nous auons seioume ia icy plus de deux moys, et oncques 

The Ung con- ne y Tcismes gueres de choses aduenir." ** Or alons done," 

gents to go } . 

fait le roy, "a Kamalot, puis que vous le cowseiUez." 

Lendemain deust partir le roy | mais la nuyct luy aduint 

but the same une merueilleuse aduenture. II songa que tous les cheueulx 

night dreams '^ ^ 

ftaiB "off ^' hfh ^® ®* ^^^ clieoiewt, et tous les poUz de sa barbe, dont il 
delays him. f^it moult espouente I Et -par ce demoura encores en la 
aftlr*hl'*dream8 ^^®' "^^ ticrce uuyt aprcs il songa que il luy estoit aduis 
^ Si^ S- ^*^ tous les dois luy cheoiewt fors les poulces, et lors fut 

oept his thumbs, ^j^g ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

hS^toes*^ ftt A ^^^^^® nuyct songea il que tous les ortelz des piedz 
^pt his great l\. i^y cheoient fors les poulces. de ce fut si trouble que 

plus ne peult. * * Sire, ' ' fait son chappelain a qui il lauoit dit, 
1^ h^r^ S^ "nevous chaille | car songes ne so«t pas a croire;" le roy 
drSSi-***^ le dit a la royne, et elle respond tout ainsi que luy auoit 

fait so» chappelain. " En verite," dist il, " ie ne laisseray 
fOT wi^wsi^ P®^ ^* ^^^®® ainsi" | il fait mandet ses euesques et archeu- 
S^^*?d»St esques qwtlz soie»t a luy au .ix iour ensuyuant a kamelot, 
clerks ; ^^ quilz amaiuent auec eulx tous les plus sages clercz quils 

potoToient auoir et trouuer. A tant se part de cardueil et 

sen va par les chasteaulx et par les citez | tant que au neuf- 
whom he impri- nicsme iouT est yenu a kamalot, et aussi sont venus les 
!S^ tSi Mm clercz du pays. II leur demande conseil de son songe, et ilz 
meim.* ***°" elisent dix des plus sages : le roy les fist bien enserrer, et 



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THE ORIOmAL OF BOOK I. OF THE SCOTCH TRAKSLATIOK. XXJX 

dist que iamais nen sortiioient de prison deuant qwlz luy 

auioient dit la ngmfiance de son songe. Hz esprouueient 

la force de lefir sciences par nenf iours, et puis ymdrent an aact ^yia* ftir 

rojf et direut qnilz nauoient riens tronue. ''Ainsi maist ^^ 

dien/' dit le roy, ** ia ainsi nescbapperez." £t ils deman- 

dent respit iusques an troisiesnie iour ensayaant, et il leur They twiee ob- 

, ^ •» tain • dday of 

donne. Les .lii.' lonrs passez, ilz reuiennent deuant le roy, tinee days. 

et dient que ilz ne peuent riens trouuer | et demandent 

encores autre delay | et ilz ont. Et de recbief vindrent 

pour demander aultres troys iours de dilacion, ainsi que le 

roy auoit songe de tierce nuyt en tierce nuyt. '* Or sachez," 

fait le roy, '' que iamais plus nen aurez." Quant vint au 

tiers iour ilz dirent quilz nauoient rien trouue; "ce ne 

vault rien," fidt le roy, "ie vous feray tous destruire The king threit- 

' •'' ^^ ^ ens to day them. 

81 VOUS ne me dictes la verite;" et ils dirent. ''Sire 

nous ne vous en scairions que dire" Lors se pense 

le roy quil leur fera paour de mort. H fait fair ung 

grant feu, et commanda en le«rs presences que les .v. y P^*.*^ 5*>-*« 

fussent mis, et que les autres cinq soyent penduz | mais ^^'^- 

priueement deffent a ses baillifz quilz ne les menassent 

que iusques a la paour de mounr. Quant les cinq qui 

fiirent menez aux fourcbes euerent les cordes entour leurs The Uto who are 

, to be hung, haT- 

colz, ils eurent paour de mounr, et dirent, que se les ing the corde 

* *^ > > ^ round theirnecke 

aultres cinq le vouloyent dire, ilz le diroyent. La nouuelle offertoei eakout. 

vint au .v. que len menoit ardre | et ilz dirent que, se les 

autres le vouloyent dire, ils le diroyent | ils ftirent amenez 

ensemble deuant le roy, et les plus sages dirent | *^ sire, 

nous vous dirons ce que nous auons trouue I mais nous ne They stipauta 

^ . not to be held m 

vouldrions mie que vous nous tenissiez a menteurs se u ne liarsif theirinter- 

^ ... pretatioM fail. 

aduenoit | car nous vouldrions bien quil nen fast rien, et 
voulons, comment qml en aduiengne, que vous nous asseurez 
que ia mal ne notM en aduiendra;" et il leur promet. 
Lors dist lung de eulx qui pour tous parla. ^* Sire, sacbez 
que ceste terre et tout bonneur yous conuiendra perdre I et Thedreamsmean 

, . , « « ,\ . . n, , , that he wm lose 

ceulx en qui plus vous nez vous famdront ; telle est le his land and his 

honour. 

substance et signifiance de voz songes." De ceste cbose fut 



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XXX THE ORIGINAL OF BOOK I. OF THE SCOTCH TRAITOLATION. 

Arthur asks if le rov moult effrave, "Or me dictes," fait il, "sil est chose 

anything can . 

avert such fiate. qui men peult garantir." ''Certes/' fait le maistre, 
nous auons yen line chose | mais cest si grande merueille 
que on ne le pourroyt penser, et ne la yous osons dire.*' 
** Dictes/' fait il, ** seurement | car pis ne me pouez tous 

He is told, "no- dire que tous mauez dit," ** 8ire, riens ne vous peult 

thing, except the ^ ' ' ^ 

Mivage Uon and garder de perdre tout honneur terrien fors le lyon saul- 

the leech without ® ^ '' 

medicine, by help uaige, et Ic mire saus medecine, par le conseil de la fleur, et 

of the counsel of ° ' . . 

theflower.*» g^ uotis semble estre si grande folic que nous ne losions 
dire | Car lyon sauluaige ne y peult estre, ne mire sans 
medecine | ne fleur qui parlast." le roy est moult entre- 
prinq de ceste chose : mais plus en fait belle chiere que lo 

Arthur goca to cueuT TLB luy apportc, TJng iour alia le roy chasser au boys 

the ohaae* 

bien matin | et mena auec luy messire gauuain, keu le senes- 
chal, et ceulx qui lui pleust. Si laissse icy le compte a par- 
ler de luy, et retoume a parler du cheualier dont messire 
Gauuain aporta le nom en court. 

Lanc^on his /^Vant' le cheuallier qui lassewblee auoyt raincu se 

^ partast de la ou il se combatist a son hoste, il erra 

toute ioMr sans autre aduanture trouuer. II se logea la nuyt 

chiez une veufue dame a lyssue dune forest a cinq lieues 

angleches pres de kamelot. Le cheualier se leua matin, et 

He meets an es- erra, luy et Bcs escuyers et sa damoyselle, tant qud encon- 
tra ung escuyer. "Varlet," fait il, **scez tu nulles 

and asks him, uouuelles?" ** Ouy," fait il, "ma dame la royne est 

"what news t» J> > j 

"The queen," icy pres a kamalot.'' ** quelle royne," fait il. " La femme 

ne says, is at 

cameiot." au roy artus," fait lescuyer. Le cheuallier sen part, et 

Lancelot goes on cheuauche tant quil treuue vne maison forte, et voit une 

till he sees a large ^ . , . , 

house, a lady, and dame en SOU surcot, qui regardoit les prez et la forest I et 

her damsel. ^ . . 

auoit auec elle vne damoiselle. Le cheualier se arreste. 
He regards her et regarde la dame moult longuement tant quil oublie tout 

autre chose. £t maintenant passa ung cheuallier arme de 
Anarmedknight, toutcs armcs, qui luy dist. " SLtc cheualier, que attendez 

passing, asks him j. ^ x 

whatheisregard. VOUS?" et ccUuy ue rcsportd mot | Car il ne la pas ouy. 
Et le cheualier le boutte, et luy demande quil regarde. 

' There is no trace of the rest of this chapter in the Scottish poem. 



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THE ORIGINAL OP BOOK I. OP THE SCOTCH TRANSLATION. 

" Je regardc," flait il, " se que me plaist : Et vous neates He ttoU«, that 
mie coortois, qui de mow penser me auez iecte." " Par la piewethun. 
foy que vous deuez o dien/' fait le chcuallier estrange. The knight aski 

if he knows who 

scauez vous bien qui la dame est que vous regardez?" the lady is, 
" Je le cuyde bien scauoir," fait le bon cheualier. <* Et «nd he replies 

that he knows it 

qui este elle,'* fait lautre. ** Cest ma dame la royne/* is the queen. 

■ ' Si maist dieu, estrangement la congnoissez, deables vous 

font bien regarder dames." "Pourquoy,** faict il. "Pource 

que vous ne me oseriez suyuir par deuant la Boyne la ou 

ie yroye." **Certe8," faict le bon cheuallier, **se vous 

osiez aller la ou ie vous oseray suyuir, vous aurez passez 

de couraige tons les plus grans oseurs qui oncques furent." 

A tant sen part le cheualier. Et le bon cheualier va 

apres. Et quant ilz out vne piece alle, lautre luy dist, The stranger 

vous hebergerez ennuyt auec moy, et le matin ie vous home to lodge 

meneray la ou ie vous diz ;" et le bon cheuallier luy de- 

mande sil conuient ainsi faire, "Oy" | fait il. El it dist 

que done lottroyera il. II geut la nuyt chez le cheualier JJ^ruSn^ ^*" 

sur la riuiere de kamalot, et fut moult bien herberge, et sa 

pucelle I et ses escuyers. 

III. Our last extract will shew exactly where the Scottish 
poem suddenly ceases^ and how the story was probably continued. 
For the latter purpose, two chapters of the French Romance 
are added beyond the point where the Scotch ends ; and it is 
possible, (judging from lines 306-312 of the Prologue,) that 
the author did not intend to go very much further. The pas- 
sage begins, in the French copy, at Fol. Ixxvii. b, col. 1 ; and, 
in the Scotch poem, at 1. 3427. 

Lors descent de son cheual, et la bailie an cheualier. 
Et celluy si y monte sans arrest. Et gallebault monta 
sur vng autre, et vient a son conroy I Si prent auec oaMot gives 

° .^ I JT Lancelot his own 

soy les dix mille, et dit quilz voisent assembler deuant ; korse, 
**et vous,'' fait il au roy vend, "viendres apres, si ne 
assemblerez mie si tost comme ceulz cy seront assem- tohismmen!^ 



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Q^ 



XXXU THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

blez I mais quant les derrains de ceulz de dela seront 

venus, Tous assemblerez, & moy mesmes tous iray querir.'' 

A taut amaine les dix mille pour assembler/ Et quant 

SS teSSJ?te*toil fut entre en la bataille il fist sooner ses busines tant 

be sounded. ^^ ^^^ ^^ retentissoit.' Quant le noir cbeuallier les 

ouyt venir, si luy sembla que grant effort de gens eut la, si 

raS^^w^i^^wn. ^® retrait vng pouvers les siens, et les appella entour luy, 

& leur dist. ** Seignewrs, vous estes tous amys du roy. 

Or y perra comment votw le ferez."' Et messire yuain, 

fOTts^Arthu^s"*" ^^^ ^^^ ^^ venir, dist a ses gens, '* Or soyes tous asseurs 

soldiers. q^ j^q^^ uq perdrons au iourdbuy -par force de gens.'** 

Et ce disoit il pource quil cuidoit qw« les gens gallehauTt 

fussent tous venus.* 

^Vant les .x.m. de gallebault sassemblerent, si fut 

grande la noise, et moult en abbatent a lewr yenir | 

mais quant messire yuain vint, si reco^forta moe^lt les gens 

du roy artus | et toM« les fuyans retoument auec luy. 

^iMot ordera a Et gaUehault sen va arriere a son conroy, et commande 

quilz cheuaucbent fermement | et quilz se frappent es gens 

du roy artus* de telle maniere' que nul dentreulz ne 

demeure a cbeual "Vous estes tow* frays. Or y perra 

comment vous le ferez.** A tant cheuaucbent les conroys 

deuers le«rs gens, Car ilz auoyent ia du pire. Et quant le 

Gaiiot»s reserve conroy de Gallebault fu venu, si cbanga moult laffaire | 

awhile prevail. (Jar moult y auoyt grant effort de gens. Et fut a lewr 

venue le cbeualier noir mis a terre.® Et aussi les six com- 

paignons qui toute iour auoyent este pres de luy.' Lors 

moBntsS^ioS^ vint gallebault, qui le remonta sur le cheual mesmes ou 

son corps seoit.*° Et si tost comme il fut monte, il sen 

reuint a la meslee aussi frays comme il auoit le iot^ este. 

Et quant il vint aux coups donner, tous ceulx qui le veoyent 

sen esmerueiUoyent, Ainsi dura la bataille iusques a la 

I Line 3432. » Lines 3436-3440. » Lines 3441-3476. 

« Lines 3477-3480. ^ Lines 3481-3484. « Lines 3485, 6. 

7 Line 8487 atid last. « Compare lines 3365-3368. « Lines 3369, 70. 

10 Compare lines 3391-3426. 



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THB FRBNCH CONTINIJATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. XXXIU 

nuyt. Et quant il vint au soir ilz se departirent I et toutes- iJiAt arriving, 

•^ ^ r I the horts retreat. 

foys les gens du roy Artus en eurent du meilleur. Le bon 

cheualier se departit de lost le plus coyement quil peut,^ dqSart^ii^ ^ 

et sen alia par ung chemin entre les prestz et vng tertre, et ■•^•^ 

cuyda que nul ne le yeist | mais Gullehault sen print tres 

bien garde, et picqua tant son cheual qui luy fat au deuant w2 oilJJ*^®^^ 

par vne adresse, et le vint rencontrer au pied du tertre. 

Si le salue, et dit 'que dieu le conduit.' Et celuy le 

regarde en trauers, et luy a a moult grant peine rendu son 

salut. "Bel amy," fait galehault, "qui estes tous?" 

"Sire/* fait il, "ie suis vng cheualier, ce pouez vow 

veoir." "Certes,'* fait galehault, "cheualier estes vous 

meilleur qui soit | & vous estes Ihomme du monde que plus 

ie vouldroye honnourer,' et si vous suis venu piier que ^^^ p»y«^ J»im 

•' ' x- ^ to lodge with hi« 

VOUS herbergez ceste nuyt auec moy." Et il luy dist '« ^»* ni»w. 

ainsi cowme sil ne lauoit huy veu, "Qui estes vous, 

sire, qui me auez prie de me herberger?" " Je suis galle- 

hault; le sire de ces gens icy, vers qui vous auez au 

iourdhuy garanty le royaulme de logres, leqt^l ie eusse 

ia conquis se ne fust vostre corps.*' " Comment," fait il, 

"vous estes ennemy de monseigneur le roy artus, et me 

priez de herberger | Auec vow« ne herbergeray ie mie en ^®*^***Mf ^if* 

ce point." " Haa sire," faict gaUehault, " plus feray ie •^^^^^Lan^dT^*' 

pour vous, et si nay mye a commencer. Et ie vous prie gJI' require of 

que vous y herbergiez par tel conuenant que ie feray tout 

ce que me scaurez requerre." A tant se arresta le cheual- 

lier, et dist a gallehault ; " Sire, vot^s promettez assez | 

mais ie ne scay cowment il est du rendre" | et gaUehault 

luy dist. "Sire, se vous herbergez ennuyt auec moy, ie 

vous donneray tout ce que vous oserez diuiser de bouche, ^^rt^'^hS *** 

et bien vow en feray seur," Et lors luy fiance, & apres ■^napt^o'wiy; 

luy promet bailler bons plaiges ; A done sen vont tons Jtm^^togeSS 

deux en lost. to OaUof. o«np. 

^ Comment gallehault suyuit le cheuallier auz noires 
armes, et fist tant par belles parolles quH lemmena 

^ Compare hne 1140. ^ Compare linei 2845-8. 

c 



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XXXIV THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

en son ost, done le roy artus & tons ses gens en 

furent moult troublez. 

Oawain, seeing 11 TEssire gauualn auoyt yen allcr le cheuallier au noir 

Lwiceiot with Jjj^ gg^^^ ^ 2e eust voulentiers suiuy sil eust pen mowter a 

cheual. Lors regarde contre val la riuiere, et voit gallehault 

that now^^they ^^ ^^ cheuallier noir qui retournoyent pour venir a lost, et dist 

are all lost ; a la royne, ** Haa dame, or pouons nous bien dire que nous 

sommes gens perdus | regardez que gallehault a conquis 

par scauoir," Et elle regarde, & voyt que cest le cheuallier 

noir qtte gallehault emmaine ; si en est tant iree quelle ne 

pent dire mot. Et messire gauuain se pasme en pou 

and swoons away dheure plw« de trois fois. Le roi Artus vint leans | et ouyt 

toM. ^ ^^ le cry que chascun disoit, ** il est mort, il est mort." Si 

vint a luy, et lembrassa, et commenca a plorer mottlt tendre- 

ment. Et reuient monseigneur Gauuain de pasmoison; 

Sat^his* to? of ^^ qua^t il veit le roy artus, il commence a le blasmer, et 

misfortune is dit. ** Ores est venu le terme que les clercz vous disrent. 

come; Eegardez le tresor que vous auez huy perdu, eelluy voiis 

tectorlf iS?" toldra terre qui toute iour la vous a garantie par son corps, 

et se vow« fussiez preudhomme vous leussiez retenu, ainsi 

comme a fait le plus preudhomme qui vine, qui par cy 

Arthur also sees deuant lemmaine.'* Lors voit le roy gallehault, qui emme- 

deeiSy grieved^ ^^^^ ^^ cheuaUicr, dont il a tel dueil que a pou quil ne est 

but tries to com- cheut | muis de plorer ne se pent tenir, et toutesfois faict il 

B nep ew. j^ ^^^^ heUe chere quil pent pour son nepueu reconforter. 

Et si tost que il vit en la salle, il £st gra»t dueil | aussi 

fist chascun preudhomme. 

GaiiotandLance- fTlAnt sont allez gallehault et le cheualier quilz 

iot'sSpf* ^*^' -L sont venus empres lost, A done luy dist le 

cheualier, **Sire, ains que ie entre dedans vostre ost, 

and Lancelot x» • x • i j i jt_ 

asks to speak Kiictes moi porleT aux deux -plus preudhommes que vous 

^hom^oSiJt™*^" ayez et esquelz vous fiez le plus." Et gallehault lottroye. 

most trusts. Lors sen va en son tref, et prent deux des hommes du 
mowde ou plus il se fie, et leur dist, ** Venez auec moy et 
vous verrez le plus riche homme du monde." " Commewt," 
font ilz, ** nestes vous mie le plus riche qui soit au monde ? " 

Gaiiot takes him " JS"enny," dist il I *'mais ie le seray ains que ie dorme.** 

to the "first con- n j j. i. i • • i xi -j i. 

quest" king and Ccs dcux estoycut le roy premier conquis | et le roi des cent 
todioSffh^^ cheualliers, Qua«t ilz virent le cheuallier, si lui firent 
wug ta,an ^^^^^^ grant ioye | Car ilz le cougneurent bien par ses 
armes. Et le cheuallier leur demanda qui ilz estoient | et 
ilz se nommerent sicomme vous auez ouy | et il leur dist. 
** Seigneurs, vostre sire vous faict moult grant honneur | 
Car il dit que vous estes les deux hommes du monde que 
plus il ayme, et entre luy et moy a une conuenance que ie 
vueil que vous oyez | Car il ma fiance que pour en nuyt 
herberger auec luy me donnera ce que ie luy vouldray 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. JUtXV 

demander." Et gallehanlt dist | " vous dictes rerite." Lancelot rep^iti 
"Sire," faict le chenalUer, "ie veml encores anoir la ^ac^^ithoSS^" 
senrte de ses hommes." Et gallehanlt dist, '' Dictes and ukm their 
moy comment." "Hz me fianceront," fait le chenallier, piedje that uwy 
" que Be vous me faillez de coifnenant, ilz vous gnerpiront Gaiiot if he 
et sen viendront anec moy la on ie diray," Et gallehanlt Sratli^go^iA 



dit qne ainsi le venlt | et il le fedt fiancer. Lors appeUa ' 

gallehanlt le roy premier conqnis a nne part, et Iny dist. 

*' Allez anant & dictes a mes barons qnilz assemblent 

maintenant a monstre si honnorablement comme ilz ponr- 

rent, et gardez qne en mon tref soient totM les dednys qne oaUot orden au 

lew ponrra tronner en tont lost." Lots sen va cellny an S?^e^4 to^ 

ferir des esperons, & fist le commandement de son seignenr. brought to bii 

Et gallehanlt tient le chenalier anx parolles, Iny & son ^^^ 

seneschal, tant qne le commandement fiist fait. Si ne de- 

monra gneres qne encontre enlx vindrent denx cens barons 

qni tons estoient hommes de gallehanlt^ .xxviii. roys, et Twenty-eigbt 

les antres estoient dncz et contes; la fnt le chenallier JJ3S,^^^ 

tellement honnonre qne oncqnes si grant feste ne fat ponr come to the feast, 

nng homme mescongnen comme len fit ponr Iny a celle fois | Sotastheflower 

et disoient grans & petis, " Bien viengnez, la flenr de la 2'*^^^* y?®*** 

chenalerie du monde" | et il en anoit grant h<mte. Ainsi ^ 

vindrent insqnes an tref de gallehanlt, si ne potwroient 

estre comtez' les dednys et les instrnmens qni leans 

estoient, A telle ioye fnt recen, et qnant il fut desarme, 

gallehanlt Iny fit apporter vne robe mowlt riche, et il la Lancelot Unehiy 

vestit. qnant le manger fnt prest, ilz se assirent a table, ^^J]^'"^^*"**^^ 

et furent noblement semis, et le chenalier fnt mowlt 

honnonre. After rapper few 

APres manger cowmanda gallehanlt a faire quatre Ktz Jj^^, one lamr 
desqnelz Inng estoit pins grant qne les aultres. Quant JJian the reat^ 
les litz farent si richement atoumez, gallehanlt maine le cheu- *°**^°^ 
allier concher. Et dist, " Sircvons gerrez icy;" "Et qni gerra 
de la?" fait le chenalier. " Qnattre sergens," faict gallehanlt, 
" qni vons semiront | Et ie iray en vne chambre par dela, aflftn 
qne vous soyez icy plus en paix." ** Haa, Sire, pour dien," 
faict il, "ne me faictes gesir pins ayse que ces aultres 
cheualiers | car tant ne me deuez a vilennir." "Kayez 
garde," faict galehanlt, " Car ia pour chose qne vous faciez oaiiotawhUe de- 
pour moi vous ne serez tenu a villain." A tant sen part p^J"^.^*^®*- 
gallehault. Et le cheuallier commence a penser an grant ° " ^^* 
honneur que gallehanlt luy faisoit. Si lenprise moult | puis 
se concha, et tantost il sendormit | car moult estoit las ; Et oaiiot then re- 
qnant gallehanlt scent quil fat endormy, le plus coyement ^^^*» .^^ , ^^ 
quil pent se concha en nng autre lit empres luy | et es "^^^ * 
deux aultres litz se concherent deux cheualiers, et nes- 
toyent en la chambre que enlx quatre, sans plus. La nuyt 



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XXXVl THB FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM* 

Sf ^^eS" mm- ®® P^^* moult Ic cheualier en son dormant, et gallehault 

mar^^ sleep' loit bien, Car il ne dormoit gueres. Ains pensa toute 

Next day they go la nujt a le retenir. Lendemain le cheualier se leua 

to hear mass, ^^ ^^^^ ^^jj, mcsse ; ct ia estoit gallehault leue, car il 

ne Tonlut mie que le cheualier laperceust. Quant ilz 

and Lancelot yindrent du monstier, le cheualier demanda see annes, & 

armaf^diSSng to gallehault demandc ponrquoy. Et il dist quil sen vouloit 

depart. allcr. Et gallehault luy dist. "Beau doulx amy, de- 

mourez | et ne cnydez mye que ie vous vueille deceuoir. 

Car vons noserez ia riens demawder que vons nayez. Et 

sachez qt** vous pourriez bien auoir compagnie de plus 

riche homme que ie suis | mais vous ne laurez iamais a 

homme qui plus vous ayme." " Sire/' faict le cheuallier, 

Qaiiot induces «* ie demoureray done puis quil vous plaist. Car meil- 

htm to stay, 1 • ' 1 xi: • • i 

'' leure compaignie que la vostre ne pourroye le mye auoir | 

Mais ie vous diray presentement le don pourquoy ie de- 
moureray auec vous | et se ie ne lay, ie ny demoureray ia." 
but again promi- *< Sire," fait gaUchault, "dictes seurement et vous laurez, 
tSatewheaSS! se cest chosc que ie puisse acomplir;" Et le cheuallier 
appella ses deux plaiges et dist deuant eulx, "Je vous 
Lancelot then de- dcmaude," fait il, " que si tost que vous serez au dessus du 
8haU?ubmi?Mm- ^^^^ artus, que vous luy aUiez crier mercy si tost comme je 
. self to Arthur. ' VOUS en semondray." Quant gallehault lentent, si en est 
tout esbahy, et commence a penser. Et les deux roys luy 
dirent. "A quoy pensez vous icy endroit, de penser 
nauez mestier | car vous auez tant couru que vous ne pouez 
retoumer." "Comment," faict Gallehaidt, "cuydez vous 
GaUot is con- que ie me veuille repentir | se tout le mowde estoit mien si 
jintot'butthen ^^7 oseroye ie bien do»ner. mais ie pensoye a vng seul mot 
grants Lancelot's quil a dit | mais ia dieu ne maist," dist il, "se vous nauez le 
reques . ^^^ | ^^^ ^^ ^^ pourroye riens faire powr vous ou ie peusse 

auoir honte. Mais ie vous prye que ne me toUez vostre 
compagnie pour la dormer a aultruy;" et le cheualier 
luy creanca. Ainsi demoura | et ilz se asseirent au manger qui 
estoit appreste. Si sont moult grant ioye par tout lost du 
Lancelot remains cheualicT qui est dcmoure. Ainsi passerent celle nuyt. Len- 
with him another demain gallehault et son compagnon allerent ouyr messe, et 
* * gallehault luy deist | * * Sire, il est huy iour dassembler ; voul- 

lez vous armes porter ? " " Ouy, ' ' dist il. " done porterez vous 
les miennes," fait gallehault, "pour le commencement." 
Et il dist quil les porteroit voulentiers | " mais vous ne 
porterez armes," feist il a gallehault, " si non comme mon 
sergent ?" " Kon," dist il. Lors firent apporter les armes, 
& armerent le cheuallier du fort haulbert, & des chausses 
Next day, the qui trop estoycut longues & lees ; Lors se armerent les 
araSd for battte! S^^^ ^^ gallehault. et pareillement les gens du roy Artus, 
& passerent les lices de telz y eut. Touteffoys le roy 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. XXXVll 

auoyt deffendu que nul ne les passast. Si y eut de bonnes 

ioustes en pou dheure | si se assemblerent tons les ostz 

deuant la lice^ & commencerent a faire armes. Le roy 

artus estoit a son estandart, et auoit commande que ilz 

menassent la royne a sauluete se la descomflture toumoit 

sur eulx | quant tons les ostz furent assemblez et le bon 

cheualier fust arme, si cuida chascun que ee fust galle- 

hault, & disoyent tons. ^'Yoicy gallehault^ voicy galle- Lancelot is at 

hault" I messire gauuain le congneust bien & dist. " Ce G3io1?^**b!t '"2 

nest mye gallebault | ains est le cheualier aux armes noires, recognized by 

le meilleur cheualier du mo»de" | & si tost comme ilz ®*''^*^' 

furent assemblez, oncques ne se tint le roy Artus ne ses Arthur's men 

ge«s depuis que le cheualier y fut arriue | et trop se des- ^^\£5Sceiot. 

confortoyent du bon cheualier qui centre eulx estoit, si 

furent menez iusques a la lice, car trop estoient grans gens 

auec gallehault. au partir des lices se tindrent vne piece et 

souf&irent lo»gueme«t | mais le souflFrit ny pent riens valoir. 

Grant fut le meschief des gens au roy artus. et dit le 

compte que le cheualier neust mie moins de peine de tenir 

les gens de gallehault que ilz ne passassent oultre le lice 

quil auoit de chasser les gens au roy Artus. Et nompour- 

tant moult les auoit supportez | & il les eut mis oultre a 

force sil eust voulu | mais il demoura emmy le pas pour les 

aultres detenir. Lors regarda tout entour de luy, et com- 

menca a hucher | *^ gallehault, gallehault." et gallehault Lancelot oaiis 

vient grant alleure, et dist. ** bel amy, que voulez vous?** JJJ^ Sl^^com^ 

'* quoy," faict il, ** ie vueil que mon conuenant me tenez ;" pact. 

**Par ma foy," fait gallehault, "ie suis tout prest de 

lacomplir puis quil tous plaist." Lors picque le cheual 

des esperons & vient iusques a lestandart ou le roy artus oaiiot rides for- 

estoit, qui faisoit si tresgrant dueil que a peu quil ne se 75;?' "^^ J^i'* 

• 'i ^ M i. 'x J jij. a' I. -J. • 1 Arthnr ready to 

occioit pource quil estoit desconut. Si estoit la la royne kiii himself for 
montee, et lemmenoyent quarante cheualliers. Et mon- ^^ ^^^Sscwted 
seigneur gauuain, que on vouloit emporter en lictiere | mais away by a tpiaxd 
il dit quil aymeroit mieulx mourir en ce point que veoir S^dOawiS^lish*. 
toute cheualerie morte et honnye: si se pasma tellement ingtodie. 
que len cuydoit bien que il mourust incontinent. 

^ Comment lancelot par la prouesse conquist tout, et How Lancelot 
fist taut que galehault cria mercy au roy artus. Serc^y SHJrthS^ 

aVant le cheualier veit gallehault prest dacomplir son 
conuenant, il iura bien que oncques si loyal compaig- 
non ne fut trouue. II en a telle pytie quil en souspire moult 
fort, & dit entre ses dens. " Haa dieu, qui pourra ce desser- 
uir;" & gallehault cheuauche iusqt/^s a lestandart et oaiiot demands 
demande le roy artus. II vient auant* mowlt dolent & \l^^ ^"*» ^'^■ 
esmaye comme celluy qui tout honneur et toute ioye 
terrienne cuyde auoir perdue; Et quant gallehault le 



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XXXTUl THE FRBKCH OOKTINUATION OF THE S(X>TCH POEM. 

voit, si luy dit. "sire, roy artns, yenez auant, & nayez 
paour ! car ie vueil a totu parler." et quant le roy louyt, 
and at tight of ^^ sesmerueille moult que ce peult ostre ; Et de si loing 
him' diBmoonts, comme galeihault le voit yeuir, il descend de son cbeued 
aSdrabmitahiS*-®* se ageuouille, et dit. " Sire, ie vous viens faire droit 
self to him de CB que ie vous ay meffiedt ; si men repens, et me metz 
humbly. ^^ vostre mercy.*' 

Arthur, otw- /^ Yant le roy lentend, il a merueilleuBement grant ioye, 

^23f» !*■*■* \qI et lieue les mains vers le ciel, louant Dieu de ceste 

aduanture | et se le roy fait bonne chere, encores la faict meil- 

leure Gallehault. et il se lieue de genoulx, & sentrebaisent, 

et font moult grande cbere lung a lautre. lors dist Galle- 

bault I ** sire, faiotes vostre plaisir de moy | car ie metz en 

vostre saisine mon corps pour en faire ce que il vous plaira. 

oaiiot, first ask- £t sil V01M plaist, ie yray retraire mes gens arriere, & puis 

£*i|^^j;^g^ reuiendray a vous incontinent." "Allez doncqtt«," fait 

histriwpatothcir le roy | **car ie vueil parler a vous." A taut sen part 

**^**' gallehault | & reuient a ses gens | & les en faict aller. Et le 

roy enuoya apres la royne, qui sen alloit faisant grand dueil. 

et les messages cbeuaucbent tant que ilz lattsongnent | et 

sont venus a elle, & luy comptent la ioye qui aduenue leur 

est. Et elle ne le peult croire tant qt^lle voy les enseignes 

que le roy luy enuoye. tant coururent les nouuelles que 

The queen and monseign^wr gauuain le sceut, lequel en eut grant ioye sur 

^ce^gritiy. "" tous les aultres, et dist au roy. ** Sire, comment a ce este ?" 

'* Certes, ie ne soay," fait il ; " mais ie croy que telle a 

este le plaiser de nostre seigneur." moult est grande la ioye, 

& moult se esmerueille chascun comment ce peult estre 

aduenu. Gallebault dist a son compaignon. " que voulez 

vous que ie face ? iay fait vostre commandement ; & le roy 

ma dit que ie retoume | mais ie vous conuoyeray auant 

iusques a voz tentes." "Haa sire," fait le cheualier, 

"aincoys vous inez au roy & luy porterez le plus grant 

honneur que vous pourrez. Et tant auez fait pour moy 

que ie ne le pourroye dessemir | mais tant vous prye, pour 

Miot^not tore- ^^^^ I ®^ Pp'"' lamour que vous auez a moy, que nul ne 

Teal where he is, sacbe ou ie suis" | aiusi sen vont parlant iusques a leurs 

to thSfttnto^ tentes. obascun scait que la paix est faicte | mais plusiewrs 

en sont dolens | car mieulx aymassent la guerre que la paix. 

lors sont descenduz les deux compaignons, et si tost quilz 

furent desarmez, Gallebault print une de ses meilleures 

robbes pour aller a la court, et feist oryer par tout son ost 

GaUot commits ^^ cbasoun sen allast, fors tant seuUement ceulx de son 

his guest to the bostel. Apres appella les deux roys, et leur bailie son com- 

^gs,^' imd ^d^ paignon, & leur commande quilz faoent autant de luy 

p«^ to speak comme de son ccops mesmes. A tant monte Gallebault, et 

^ ^' sen va a la court du roy artus. Et le roy luy vint alen- 



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THE FRENCH CONnNUATIOir OF THE SOOTCH POEM. XXXix 

oontre, et la ro3rne qui ia estoit letoamee, & la dame de male- 

hault anec plasdeurs dames & damoyselles. A tant yont 

en la bretesclie on monseignenr gannain gisoit malade. Arthur a&A Gai- 

et quant il scent que gaUehanlt venoit, il sefforoe de beUe Jhe*S>Sf? wheJj 

chere faire, comme ceUny qui oncqnes mes ne lanoit yen de G»M^n ues m. 

si pres. lore Iny dist | " bien soyez yons venn oomme de 

cellny dont ie desiroye moult lacointance | car yons estes 

Ihomme du monde qui plus doiyt estre prise & ayme a 

droit de toutes gens. Et ie cnyde que nul ne scait G^«»^^»^to«nrt 

si bien congnoistre ^prendhomme comme yons & bien y 

a paru." Ainsi parle messire gannain a gallebault, & il 

Iny demande comment il luy est | et Gannain dist. ''Jay 

este pres de mort. mais la grant amour qui est entre yons 

& Ie roy ma gnery." Moult font grant ioye Ie roy artus 

& la royne & monseignenr gannain de la yenne de galle- ^® qne^, the 

hault I et tout Ie ionr ont parle de amour et daccointance. rejcSceatCai^t's 

Mais du noir chenalier ne tiennent ilz nnlles parolles | co°^?t 

ains passent Ie ionr a resiouyr lung lantre tant quH yint an 

yespre. Lore demande gallehault congie de ses gens aller 

yeoir. Et Ie roy Ie luy do;me | **mais yons reuiendrez,*' bQthe,8oon after, 

fait il, "incowtinent;" et gallehault Ie luy octroye | si LXSit *for*^ 

senrenient a son compaignon & luy demande comment il J^ t™e» p^o- 

a depnis fait | et il luy respondit que bien ; ** Sire," fait * '^*"™* 

gallehault, ** comment feray ie | Ie roy ma moult prie que 

ie retoume a luy, & il me feroit mal de yons laisser en ce 

point." **i[aa, sire chenalier, po«r dien mercy, yons Lancelot teiig 

ferez ce que monseignenr Ie roy youldra. car iamais a plus ^*^°J^J?^°^^** 

preudhomme que il est ne enstes accointance. Mais ie yneil wishes. 

que yons me donnez ung don." Et gallehault luy dist. 

** Demandez ce quil yons plaira | car ie ne yons escondiroye He charges Qa- 

iamais;" " Sire," fait il, "ie yons remercye. Vous me "ot again not to 

-' ' '^^ *' •,. asK his name, 

anez donne que yous ne me demandetez mon nom deuant but to teii him 
que ie Ie yous diray." ** Et ie men tiendray a tant puis about Arthur. 
que yons Ie youlez," dit gallehault. " Et ne doubtez pas 
que ce eust este la premiere chose que ie yous eusse de- 
mande, si men tairay a tant.'' Lore luy demanda de laccoin- 
tance du roy artus | mais il ne nomme mie la royne | et 
gallehault dit que '* Ie roy est moult preudhomme, & moult 
me poyse que ie ne lay congneu pieca | Car moult en 
feusse amende | mais ma dame la royne est sy yaillante que GaUot praises the 
onoques plus honneste dame.ne yey." et quant Ie chenalier ^^®«»» 
onyt parler de la royne, si se embronche et commence a ^^ Lancelot 
souspirer durement. et gallehault Ie regarde et se esmer- sheds tears, 
neille moult pource qw les larmes luy cheoyent des yeulx, 
si commence a parler daultre chose. 

QYant ilz ont longuement parle ensemble, Ie cheua- 
lier noir luy dist. "iJlez, si ferez a monseig- 



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Xl THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

Lancelot asks neur le roy compaignie, et si escoutez sy vonz orrez 

^ArthSi "*aSi de moy nulles parolles, & vous me compterez demain 

to r^rt to him ce que VOUS auTez ouy." " Youlentiers, sire," faict galle- 

tion. ^ *^°°^®"*" hault I lors le accolle, et dit aux roys. ** Je vous bailie 

en garde cest homme comme le cueur de mon ventre." 

Ainsi sen va gallehauU & le cbeuallier demeure en la garde de 

deux preuhommes du pays de Gallehault | mais il ne fault 

mye demander sil fust honnore | car len faisoit assez plus 

LjMeiot fieepi pouT luy quil neust voulu. celle nuyt geurent les deux 

kings in GaUoT's Toys au tref gaUebault pour lamour du cheualier & luy 

*«»*» firent entendawt quilz ny coucheroyent mye | & ilz le firent 

coucher ainsi que GaUehault auoit fait lautre nuyt. Au 

commencement dormit le cheualier moult fort, et quant fint 

but awakes at a myuuit si commenca a soy toumer, et commenca a faire ung 

nMjw?**a piat dueil si grant que tons ceulx qui entour luy estoyent sen 

moaning. esueiUerent. Et en son refrain disoit souuent. **Haa chetif, 

que pourrayie faire?" Et toute nuyt demena tel deuil. Au 

matinse leuerent lesdeuxroys le plus coyement quilz peurent| 

GaUot comes to & moult SO meruoillent quil pouoit auoir. daultre part fut 

Me r Lance- gaUehault leue, & vint a son tref veoir son compaignon. 

II demande aux deux roys que son compaignon fait. Et ilz 

luy dient quil auoit toute nuyt mene grant dueil. Lors 

entre en la chambre ou il estoit, et si tost comme il le ouyt 

venir il essuye ses yeulx ; Adowc gallebault, cuidant que 

il dormist, saillist debors de la cbambre incontinent ; apres le 

finds him withhis cbeualier 66 leua. Et gallebault vit que il auoit les yeulx 

eywred and rougcs et enflez. Adouc le prent par la main, et le tyre a 

part, et luy dist. "Beau doulx compaignon, powrquoy 

vous occiez vous ainsi ? dont vous vient ce dueil que vous 

auez toute nuyt demene, & le desplaisir que vous auez? 

to wi"iS^whS ^^ '^^^^ P^® P^^^ ^^®^ ^^® ^^^^ ^® ^^®^ ^* cause, et ie 

the matter is. VOUS ayderay se nul bomme mortel y peult conseil mettre ; " 

^eeiotcriesbit. ^ commence a plourer si durement comme sil veist mort la 

chose du monde que mieulx aymast. Lors est gallebault 

moult a malayse et luy dit, **Beau doulx compaignon, 

dictes moy vostre mescbeance | car il nest nul homme au 

monde, sil vous auoit riens forfait, que ie nen pourchassasse 

vostre droit." Et il dist que nul ne luy a riens meffait. 

** beau doulx amjr, pourquoy menez vous doncqws si grant 

dueil? Yous poise il que ie vous ay fait mon maistre & 

S^hSJ^hich °^^ compaignon?" "Haa," fait il, "vous auez assez 

has all the dread plus fait pour moy quc ie ne pourroye desseruir, n© 

^m^c^STeMt ^®?® ^^ monde ne me met a malaise que mon cueur, 

to hare. qui a toute pjlour que cueur mortel pottrrait auoir. Si 

doubte moult que vostre grant debonnairete ne me occie." 

De ceste chose est gallebault moult a malayse, si recon- 

They go to Mass, forte SOU compaignon. Apres allerent ouyr masse. Quant 



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THE FEBNCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. xU 

vint que le prestre eut fait troit parties du corps de nostre 
seigneur, gallehault se trait auant, et tient son compaignon 
par la main, & luy monstre le corps de nostre seigneur que t^^ Lancelot de- 
le prestre tenoit entre ses mains ; Puis luy dist. " doncques tSatbeBrildii 
ne croyez vous pas bien que cest le corps de nostre saulueur? " ^ift^y ®' 
'* Yoirement le croy ie bien,'* fait le cheualier. Et galle- 
hault luy dist. '^ beau doulx amy, or ne me mescreez mye 
que ces trois parties de chair que ie yois en semblance de 
pain, ia ne feray en ma Tie chose que ie cuyde qui yous en- 
nuye : mais toutes les choses que ie scauray qui vous plair- 
ont, pourchasseray a mon pouoir." " sire,*' fait il, ** grant 
mercys." A tant se taisent iusques apres la messe | et lors ^^ JfJ^^i*"* 
demanda gallehault a son compaignon quil fera; '< Sire," go ilgain' torAr^ 
fait il, "vous ne laisserez mie le roy en ce point | ains yrez ***^' 
luy faire compaignie." " Sire," faict il, " grant mercys ; " 
A tant sen part de luy, si le rebaille auz preudhommes 
de la court du roy artus. si font de luy grant signeurie 
sicomme ilz peuent. 

ET quant vint apres disner, sy forent le roy & la royne ^' ^^ the 
& gallehault appuyez au lict de messire gauuain, tant TisifG^ainrimd 
que messire gauuain dist a gallehault. " Sire, or ne vous ^®^ ^Jj^®*^®* 
poise dune chose que ie vous demawderay." " Certes," fait between hirnlS 
galehault, ** non fera il." ** sire, celle paix qui fut entre Arthur, 
vous & mon oncle, par qui fat elle, par la chose au monde 
qtti plus vous aymez?" ** Sire," fait il, "vous me auez 
tant coniure que ie le vous diray. Ung cheualier la fist." !^^™**^*»*'**^ 
"Et qui est le cheualier?" fait messire gauuain. "Si "But 'what 
maist dieu," fait gallehault, " ie ne scay." "Qui fiit celluy §J^J^" ■•^ 
aux noires armes?" deist messire gauuain. " Ce fut," '^^^ 
feit il, "ung cheualier;" "Tant," feiit il, "en pouez 
YOUS bien dire | mais acquitter vous conuient." " Je me 
Buis acquitte de ce que me coniurastes. Ne plus ne vous 
en diray ores | ne rien ne vous en eusse ores dit, se vous ne 
me eussiez coniure." " Par dieu," faict la royne, " ce fut "The Black 
le cheuaUier noir | mais faictes le nous monstrer." " Qui | theQnMo^thow 
moy, dame?" faict gallehault, "ie le vous puys bien ^>^ *<> ^»-'* 
monstrer sicomme celluy qui rei»s nen scait!" "Taisez 
vous," fait la royne, " il est demoure auec yous, & hier 
porta voz armes." " Dame," fait il | " il est vray | mais ie 
ne le vys oncques puis que ie party du roy a la premiere "i cannot," says 
fois." "comment," fait le roy, "ne le cognoissiez vous Sf^'iom^^m" 
mye | ie cuydoye que il fust de vostre terre." " Si maist coimtry;" 
dieu, non est," fait gallehault. "certes," fait le roy, 
" ne de la myenne non est il mye" | Moult tindrent Ion- and oaUot wui 
gnement gallehault a parolle le roy et la royne pour auoir ^Sight's mSie*^* 
le nom du cheualier | mais plus nen peurent traire. et ' 

messire gauuain craint quil ne ennuye a gallehault, si dist 



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Xlii THE FRENCH COKTINtJATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

au roy. " Or en laissez a taut le parlw. certes le cheua- 

lier est pretidliomme, & pleust a dieu que ie lay ressem- 

blasse.'' Moult loe messire gauuain le cheualier. Si en 

ont la parolle laissee | et gallebault la recommence et dit. 

but askft Artiwr <* Sire, veistes vous oncques meilleur cheuaUier que celluy 

£jttJrkn1gift!Jiid ^^ ^oir escu?*' ** certes," fait le roy, ** ie ne vy oncques 

what he would cheualier de qui ie aymasse mieulx lacointance po«ir cheual- 

leL^ortr erie;'' "Non" | fait gallebault. ''Or me dictes,'' faict 

gallebault, " par la foy que vous deuez a ma dame qui cy 

est, combien vous vouldriez auoir donne pour auoir son 

"Half of aU I accoiutauoe a tousioursmais?" "Si maist dieu," faict il, 

^el" M^^* ""^ " ie luy partiroye la moytie de tout ce que ie potmroye 

Arthur. auoir, fors seullement de oeste dame." ** Certes," ftiit 

"And what would gcdlebault, " assez y mettriez. Et vous, messire gauuain, 

w^ T^^^* ^*' 8® ^®^ vous doint sante que tant desirez, quel mescbief 

en feriez vous pour auoir compaignie a si preudbomme ?" 

Et quant messire gauuain lot, si pense ung petit comme 

" I should uke to celluy qui ne cuyde iamais auoir sante. " Se dieu me 

h?wou7dioySme <ionnoit la sante que ie desire | ie vouldroye orewdroit estre 

aUhiiiife." vue des plus belles dames du monde, par conuenant quil 

me aymast totM les iours de sa vie." " par ma foy," fiedt 

gallebault "assez y auez mis.*' ** Et vous, madame, quel 

mescbef feriez vous par conuenant que ung tel cbeualier 

**i can offer no fust tousiours en vostre seruice?" "par dieu," fait elle, 

waS',"*M^8 Se " niessire gauuain y a mis toutes les offres que dame y 

Queen. peult mettre." Et mowseigneur gauuain & tons aultres se 

commencerent a rire. " Q-allebault," fait messire gauuain, 

" qui tons nous auez adiurez par le serment que ie vous 

"WeU," says cowiuray, ores qui vouldriez vous y auoir mys?" "Si 

^°aii' nT^^^ "^^^^ dieu," faict gallebault, "ie y vouldroye auoir 

honour into toume mon bonneuT a bonte, par tel si que iensse a tous- 

a^me, for his ioursmais vng si bon cbeualier en ma compaignie." " Sy 

maist dieu," faict messire gauuain, " plus y auez mys que 

So ^J»^ ^^' nous." et lors se pensa messire gauuain que cestoit le noir 

the Black knight cbcualier qui le paix auoit faicte | car pour luy auoit toume 

\*^o^^^ought gon bonneur a bonte, quant il veit quil estoyt au dessus. 

about the peace. -nxij*'i. • i a. j* t. ^ ja 

Et le dist gauuam a la royne, et se tut la cause dont 

gallebault fat plus prise; Moult tindrent longuement 

The Queen walks parolles du cbeuaJier. et la royne sadressa, et dist quelle 

tSshSfriSii^w sen voulloit aller vers la bretescbe pour veoir les prez, et 

him much, and gallebault la cohuoye : si le print la royne par la main & luy 

EeJ?eetheBiwk^ist. "Gallebault, ie vous ayme moult, & il est vray 

Knight. q^e rous auez le cbeualier en vostre baillie, & par aduen- 

ture il est tel que ie le congnois bien; si vous prie 

si cber que vous auez mamour, que vous faciez tant 

que ie le voye." "Dame," fait gallebault, "ie nen 

ay ^c(»*es ntOle saisine | et ne le vy puis que la poix 



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THE FBENCH OONnNUATIOlf OF THE SOOTCH POEM. zlili 

fat Mete de moy & da toj. Et se il estoit or en men tref, 

si y coimiendroit il anltre Toulente qne le yostre & que HeimnniMstodo 

la mienne. Et bien saichez que taut me auez coninre que •'H>«oMft»h«r; 

ie mettray tont le pouoir que ie pourray. comment yons 

ponrrez parler a lay?" " se yons en faictes yostreponoir," «nd tiie Queen 

tait elle, "ie le yerray bien, & ie men attens a yons, et"S'toiJhSn^ 

fedctes tant qne ie soye yostre a tonsionrs : car cest nng 7^ *»7. 

des hommes dn monde qne ie yerroye pins yonlentiers." 

"Dame,*' fait il, "ie en feray mon pouoir." "Grant 

mereys," fait elle. " Or gardez que ie le yoye an plus tost for h« si in yoor 

qne yons ponrrez | car il est en yostre baillie, ie le Sd^SWrn.^* 

Bcay bien | et se il est en yostre terre, enuoyez le 

qnerre." Atant sen part gallehanlt ft sen yient an roy. 

Et monseigneur gannain & le roy Ini dient. " gallehanlt, ^^S ^^?! 

ie snis deliure de mes gens, ores faictes approcher yoz andhisoim^^be 

ge«s des nostres, on ie feray approcher les nostres des J™2?.\. .°SS*' 

_A_ in • • »» ltd' ,, to on« •nother. 

yostres | Car nous sommes a pnuee mesgnie. ' " Sire,' 
fEuct gallehanlt, "ie feray approcher les miens danltre part 
de cest riniere si qne mon ti^f sera endroit le yostre, et sera 
nne nef appareillee en quoy nous passerons dicy la et de la 
icy." " Certes," fait le roy, " moult auez bien dit." 

LOrs sen ya Gaillehanlt en sa tente, et tronne son com- S^^eio?*™* *** 
paignon moult pensif. II luy demande comment il a 
puis fait ; Et il dist, " bien, se paour ne me mestriast." et 
gallehault dist, "de quoy auez yons telle paour?" "que 
ie ne soye congneu," dist il. "or nen ayez mie paour, car 
yons ny serez ia congnen, se yostre youlente ne y est;" 
Lors luy compte les offres que le roy et messire gannain tells him what th« 
out faict pour luy, et ce que la royne dit | et comment la |Sd*'the*^<Sen 
royne la tenu a grant parlement de le yeoir | et comme il i^aje s^d rfhim, 
luy respondit. " et saichez que eUe na de nnlly si tres grant *" " 
desir de yeoir comme de yons. Et monseigneur le Eoy ma 
prye qne ie face mes gens approcher | car nous sommes trop 
loing limg de lautre. Or me dictes que yons youlez que je 
£ace I car il est en yostre plaisir." " Je loue que yous 
facez ce que monseign^r le roy yons prye ;" " Et a ma dame what answer he 
qne respondray ie, beau douli amy?" " Certes," fait il, Queen.*^^* * * 
" ie ne scay." Lors commence a souspirer. Et gallehault Lancelot aifhs^ 
luy deist. " Beau doulx amy, ne yons esmayez point | mais 
dictes moy comment yons youlez quil soit | car bien saichez 
quil sera ainsi comme yous youldrez | et ie aymeroye mieulx 
estre courronce a la moytie dn monde que a yous tout seul. 
ores me dictes quil yous en plaist." " Sire," faict le dit "e/yJS'id^*"' 
cheualier, ** ce que ycus me louerez | car ie snis en yostre 
garde desonnais." "Certes," fait gallehault, "il me "There wiUbe 
semble que pour yeoir ma dame la royne il ne yous peult he^S^SSiS* 
emp3rrer." L<aw apperceut galehault assez de son penser, Qaiiot. 



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xliv^ THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH. POEM. 

Lancelot says the & le tient si court quil luy octroye ce quil demande | 

Sl^^jed'iJ^r^ "mais n conuiendra," faict il, ''que U soyt faict celee- 

iv; and they agree ment, que nul ne le saiche I fors moy et vous." Et galle- 

teU^tSqul^S Hault dit que il ne se soulcye point. " Or dictes," (fait le 

^w sent to wek cheualier a gaUehault,) ''a ma dame que vous me auez 

^^ ^^ ' enuoye querre." " Sur moy en laissez le surplus,'* dit 

Gallebaidt. Lors sen part a tant, et commanda ses trefz a 

tendre la ou il auoit en conuenant au roy | et son seneschal 

fist son conmiandement. 

How Guinevere If Comment gaUehault fist tant que la royne veit Lan- 

and lAncdot celot, Et comment ilz se araisonnerent ensemble, et 

meet and talk, i < i i • i 

parlerent de plusieurs cnoses. 

The Queen aaks A ^^"^^ ^^^ partit gaUehault & sen vient au tref du roy, 

GaUot what he J\_ & si tost commo la royuo le Yoit, si luy courut a len- 

has done for her. ^j^j^^^^ ^ i^j demawde Comment il auoit exploycte la be- 

songne. "dame," faict il, * * ie en ay fait tant que ie craing que 

lamour de vostre pryere ne me telle la chose du monde que 

ie ayme plus." ** Sy maist dieu," faict elle, *' vous ne 

perderez riens par moy que ie ne vous rende au double | 

mais que y pouez vow»," fait elle, **perdre?" **Celluy 

mesmes que vous demandez," fait gallebault | "Car ie doubte 

quil ne se courrouce, et que ie ne le perde a tousiours." 

** Certes," faict elle, " ce ne pourray ie pas rendre | mais ia par 

moy ne le perderez, se dieu plaist. Et touteffbys dictes 

"Sent to seek for moy quant il viendra" | " dame," fait il, " quant il pourra | 

•a^^he.^^*^**" car ie lay enuoye querre, et croy que il ne demourra mye 

longuement." De leur conseil entendit img pen la dame de 

maUehault qui sen prenoit garde et nen faisoit mye sem- 

Oaiiot returns to blant. Lors sen partit gaUehault et vient a ses gens qui 

hia men, estoyent logez la ou il auoit commando. 

and tells his Sen- /\Yant il fat descendu, il parla a son Seneschal et luy 

S?^ot^heShl X* deist I "quant ie vous enuoyeray querir, venez a moy, 

sends for him. yous & mon compaignon en ce lieu la." Et le roy des cent 

cheualiers, qui son seneschal estoit, dist que mowlt voulen- 

tiers feroit son commandement & son plaisir. Lors salua 

Sck * *to^ ^ GaUehault son compaignon, et sen retouma a la court. Et 

Queen, says he quant la royuc veit gaUehault qui estoit venu, eUe luy dist 

lSe°^er*^knight ^^® ^ gardast bien et loyaulment ce qml luy auoit promis. 

that evening, and Et U luy dist | "dame, ie cuyde que vous verrez ennuyt 

hc?2?im0rcw ^ <1^® ^^^^ *^®^ ^^8^* desire." Quant eUe ouyt ce, si en 

below. fat moult ioyeuse, et moult luy ennuya ce iour pour sa 

voulente acomplir du desir que eUe auoit de parler a celuy 

ou toutes ses pensees estoyent. Lors luy deist GaUehault, 

"nous yrons apres scupper en ce vergier la aual" | et eUe 

After supper the luy octroye. Quant ce vint apres souper, si appeUe la 

OrS§°******^* royne | la dame de maUehault | et dame Lore de cardueU, une 

sienne pucelle, et sen vont tout droit la ou gaUehault 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. xlv 



auoyt dit | et gallehault prent ung escuyer et luy dist. fJ^i^S^iciija 
'' Ya et dy a mon seneschal que il yiengne la ou ie luy and the Knight, 
commanday." Et celuy y va. Apres ne demoura guaires 
que le seneschal y vint, luy et le cheualier. Ilz estoyent who oome. 
tous deux de grant beaulte ; Quaat ilz approcherent, si 
congneut la dame de mallehault le cheualier comme celluy 
que elle auoyt eu maint iour en sa baillie. Et pource 
quelle ne vouloit mye que il la congneut, se embroncha, et 
ilz passent oultre. le seneschal les salue. Et gallehault dit 
a la royne. ^^ Dame, lequel vous semble il que se soit ?" | 
et elle dit. ^' Certes, ilz sent tous deux beaulx cheualliers | ThtQueenatUnt 
mais ie ne voy corps ou il puisse auoir tant de prouesse SSS? b tSbSSt 
que le noir cheualier auoit." '' or saichez, dame, que cest icnight, 
lung de ces deux" | a tant sent venuz auant, et le cheual- 
lier tremble si que a peine peult saluer la royne, & la 
royne sen esmerueille. lors se agenouillent etdx deux, et le 
cheualier la salue | mais cest moult pourement | car moult butoneiftoimsh- 
estoit honteux. Lors se pense la royne que cest il. Et Sn i^* **** **** 
gallehault dit au seneschal, '^allez, si faictes a ces dames 
compaignie." Et celluy fait ce que son sire luy commawde. 
A doncqt^s la royne prent le cheualier par la main & le aeatshimbyher, 
assiet iouxte eUe. Sy luy fait moult beau semblant & dit J^^^h^^hii*^ 
en riant. " Sire, moult yous auons desire, tant que, longed toaee him, 
dieu mercy et gallehault, vous voyons. et nonpourtant en- 
cores ne croy ie mye que ce soit celluy que ie demande | 
& gallehault ma dit que cestes vous | & encores Touldroye andnowhemnst 
scauoir qui vous estes par vostre bouche mesmes, se vosb:e Jfj $^'1 faiow*^' 
plaisir y estoit." Et celuy dit que il ne scait | et oncques he anawem. 
ne la regarda au visaige. Et la royne ce esmerueille que il 
peult auoir, tant quelle souspeconne ime partie de ce quil a. 
Et gallehault, qui le voigt si honteux, pense quil veult dire OaUot leaves the 
a la royne son penser seul a seul. lors sen vient messire JSvea,*** ^^^^' 
gauuain celle part, et fait rasseoir les damoyselles pour ce 
que leuees sestoient encontre luy. Puis commencent a 
parler de maintes choses. Et la Eoyne dit au cheuallier, and the Qneen 
** Beau sire, pourquoy vous celez vous de moy ? Certes il "Are^ot^^u^e 
ne ya cause pourquoy ; nestes votw mie celluy qui porta les 3^i»<> ▼ore the 

• J. • • • i.1 -Li in //T\ 1)1 black armour, 

noiresarmes, etquivamquistlassembleer ' "Dame, nenny"| and overcame 

" et nestes vous pas celluy qui porta lendemain les armes a «veryoneT" 

gallehault?" "Dame, ouy ;" "Do«c estes vous celluy qui 

vainquistes lassemblee qui fut faicte le premier iour par 

deuer* nous et par^ deuers Gallehault?" "Dame, non "No, lamnot,** 

suis." Quant la royne ot ainsi parler le cheualier, a done *"**^^*» 

appercoit elle bien quil ne veult mie congnoistre quil oust 

vaincue lassemblee, si len prise mieulx la royne | car quant ung J^JjJSP ^ ^'"^^ 

1 The original has pat. 



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xlyi THE FRENCH CONTUaTATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

homme sc loe luy mesmes, il tonme son honneur a honte | 

**ThA who Bade et quant aultmy le loe, adonc il est mieulx prise. '^ Or me 

wheS 1^**^*'"^ dictes,'' fait la royne a lancelot | " qui vous fist chenallier ? '* 

*' Dame,'' fait il, ^< vous ; " '* Moy ? " fait elle, " Et quant ?" 

ioL^\ien^*^e "^*°^®/' ^^^^ ^> " VOUS remembrez vous point quant ung 

spear uid'^word cbeuallier vint a Kamalot, lequel estoyt naure de deux 

outorSewwfnS ^^^^^ d® lance au corps, et dune espee parmy la teste, est 

edkmght» que uug varlet vi»t a co«rt en ung vendredy, et fut chena- 

lier le dymenohe, et deffera le cbeuallier?" "De ce," fait 

elle, ** me souient il bien | et se dieu vous aist, feustes vous 

ce que la dame du lac amena en court vestu dune robe 

blancbe?" **Dame, ouy." **Et pourquoy dictes vous 

done que ie vous fis cbeuallier?" "Dame," fait il, "ie 

dys vray | Car la coustume est telle que nul ne peut estre 

and yon girded cbeuallier saus ceindre espee. Et celluy de qui il tient 

. SigKiSrm?'" lespee, le faict cbeuallier ; de vous la tiens ie. Car le roy 

ne la me donna onques. Pour ce dis ie que vous me feistes 

cbeualier." De ce est la royne mowlt ioyeuse | " ou vous 

and I vent away en allastes VOUS au partir de court?'' "Dame, ie men 

rf SSSi^t^d «^*y V^^ secourir la dame de noebault ;" " Et durant ce 

aent yoo two temps me mandastes vous riens?" "Dame, ouy | ie yous 

^■"°"^' enuoyay deux pucelles." "II est vray," dist la royne. 

" Et quant vous partistes de noebault, trouuastes vous nul 

Then I met a cbeuallier qui se reclamast de moy ?" " Dame, ouy ; ung 

wa?ioiwi^**ht* ^^ ga-rdoit nng gue, et me dist que descendisse de dessus 

^^** * ' mon cbeual et le vouloit auoir, et ie hiy demanday a qui il 

estoit I et il dist a vous. Puis luy demanday apres, qui le 

commandoyt. Et il me dist quil nauoyt nul commande- 

ment que le sien. Et adoncques remys le pied en lestrief et 

remontay | Car ie estoye ia deseendu | et luy dis que il ne 

acDdifoQght him lauoyt point, et me combatis a luy. Et ie scay bien que ie 

jSuTpardwoT^* ^^^^ ^^ oultraig©, si vous en one mercy" | " Certes a moy 

ne en feistes vous point | Car il nestoyt mye a moy | et luy 

sceuz mauluais gre de ce quil ce reclama de moy. Maid 

After that itook or me dictes ou vous en allastes de la?" " Dame, ie men 

CiSti^^d there allay » la douloureuse garde" | "& qui la conquist?" 

X saw yon thrice, <* Dame, ie y entray | et ne vous y viz ie oncques." 

"Ouy, plus de troys foys. Et en quel temps?" fist elle. 

"Dame," fist il, " ung iour que ie vous demanday se vous 

vouliez leans entrer ; Et vous deistes ouy | et estiez moult 

esbabye par semblant." "Et quel escu portiez vo«»?" 

"Dame, ie portay a la premiere foys ung escu blanc a 

une bande de beltf vermeille. Et lautre foys ung ou il y 

laet when yon auoyt deux bendes" I "Et vous vys ie plus?" "Ouy, la 

SUt*&inS and ^^ <1^® ^^^^ cuidiez auoir perdu messire Gauuain et ses 

hit companions, compaiguons, et que les gens cryoyent que len me prenist ; 

Je vins hors a tout mon escu a troys bendes." " Certes," 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OP THE SCOTCH POEM. xItU 

faiet elle, '^ ce poise moy | car se on youb eust detenu, tons 
les enchantements feussent demourez | Mais or me dictes, aad i iieiped to 
fuates vous ce qui iettastes messire Gauain de prison?*' ^JJJ[,?^^^^"* 
" Dame, ie y ayday a mon pouoir.*' " Certes,'^ faiet elle, "en 
toutes les choses qtie yous me dictes ie nay trouue si non 
verite. Mais or me dictes qui estoit en une tournelle Th« Q^e«j »*• 
dessus la chambre monseigneur." ''Dame, cestoyt une wu in^tSe turret 
pucelle que ie ne viUennay oncques | Car ma dame du Jjjj® *^" '<^™ 
lac la me auoyt enuoyee | si me trouua en ceste tournelle | il 
fat assez qui la honnora pour moy. Quant ie ouy nouuelles i ^t^/^uoS 
de monseigneur Ghtuuain, si en fut motelt angoisseux, et men onred, 
party de la Damoyselle qui auecques moy debuoit yenir, bat i asked her 
et luy priay que elle ne se remuast tant que elle eust mon JJ* g^w^JJy met! 
messaige ou moy. Si fus si surprins de tresgrant a£Paire senger or me, 
que ie loubliay | et elle fut plus loyalle uers moy que ie ne forgot, ud Spt 
fus courtois vers elle | car oncques ne se remua iusques a j^er t^ere a rery 
ce qfitflle eut mes enseignes, et ce fut grant piece apres." ^^ *' 
Comment la royne congneut Lancelot apres qt*tl eutjj ^ ^ 

longuement parle a elle, et quil luy eut compte de knew Lancelot. 

ses auentures. Et comment la premiere acointance 

fut faicte entre lancelot et la royne genieure par la 

moyen de gallebault. 

QYant la royne eut parle de la damoiselle, si scait bien ifmen die h«urd 
qu9 cost Lancelot. Si luy enquist de toutes les Qu"i^iS!i**2 
dioses qt^tflle auoit ouy de luy, et de toutes Ie trouua vray mnatboLanoBiot, 
disa»t ; " Or me dictes,*' fait elle, "vous vy ie puis ? " *' Ouy, 
dame, telle heure que rom me eustes bien mestier | car ieusse 
este noye a kamalot se ne eussiez vous este.'' " Comment ! and asks him if 
feustes vous celluy que daguenet Ie fol print ?" * * Dame, prins ^^^ DagSenet 
fus ie sans faulte.' ' * * Et ou alliez vous ? ' * * ' Dame, ie alloye took. Heanswen 
apres ung cheuallier.** " Et vous combatistes vous a luy" | "^^^oiakmed 
"dame, ouy." "Etdillec ou allastes vous?" **Dame, ie Wa iion«e, and 
trouuay deux grans villains que me occirent mon eheual | ^otherf*^ *^^ 
mais messire yuain, qui bonne aduenture ayt, men donna 
vng." " Ha, ha," fait elle, ** ie scay bien qui vous estes ; «« Ah, then your 
Vous auez nom lancelot du lac." II se taist. "Par dieu," {^°??J* ^jjf**" 
faiet elle, " poumeant Ie celez | long temps a que messire ° ' ' 

Gauuain apporta nouuelles de vostre nom a cowrt ; " Lors 
luy compta comment messire yuain auoit compte que la 
damoyselle auoit dit | cest la tierce. "Et anten quelles 
armes portastes vous?" "Ynes vermeilles." "Par mon 
chef cest verite. £t auant hier pourquoy feistes vous tant «and for what 
darmes comme vous feistes ?" Et il commenca a souspirer. Jjdy ot ^^^ 
" Dictes moy seurement | Car ie scay bien que pour aulcune feats of axmi the 
dame ou damoyselle Ie feistes vous, et me dictes qui elle ^^fS^ ^®*' 
est, par la foy que vous me deuez." " Haa, dame, ie voy 
bwi quil Ie me eonment dire, castes vow." "Moy?" fedot "Forywi,Lady; 



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xlviii THE FBENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

and for yon I elle. ''Yoiie, dame." ''Four moy ne rompistes vous pas 

^c^ SatwQT ^®® ^^y® lances que ma pucelle vous porta?" **Car ie me 

maiden brought mis bien horB du mandement, dame ; ie fis pour elle ce que 

™®' ie deuz, et pour voub ce que ie peux-" " Et combien a il 

que vous me aymez taut?" '' JDes Ie iour que ie fus tenu 

pour cheuallier, et ie ne lestoye mye" | ''Far la foy que 

vous me deuez, dont vindrent ces amours que vous auez en 

moymifies?" ''dame," fait il, ''vous Ie me feistes faire qui 

for yon had made de moy feistes vostre amy, se vostre bouebe ne me a menty." 

STd^SSd-^T^ "Mon amy !"faict elle, "comment?" "Dame," fait il, "je 

your knight in vius deuant VOUS qucuit ie eu prins congie a monseigneur 

BM^eu SyJJJ 1© roy I si vous commauday a dieu, et dis que ie estoye 

ownaweetfrtend. vostre cbeuallier en tons Heuz. Et vous me dictes que 

vostre amy et vostre cbeuallier vouUiez vous que ie feusse. 

Et ie dys, "a dieu ! dame." Et vous distes "a dieu ! mon 

beau doubc amy ! " Ce fut Ie mot qui preudbomme me fera, 

That word haa se ie Ie suis, ne oncques puis ne fus a si grant mescbef que 

^wa^*hSa*my ^ ^® ^®^ remembrast. Ce mot ma coiSbrte en tous mes 

atrengthand eunuys. Cest mot ma de tons maulx guary. Cest mot 

^*^ ma fait ricbe en mes pouretez;" "Far ma foy," fait la 

royne, " ce mot fut en bonne beure diet | et dieu en soyt 

aoure | ne ie ne Ie prenoye pas acertes comme vous feistes, 

"Oh but that®* ^ msint preudhomme ay ie ce diet ou ie ne jpensay 

was only an ordi- oncques rieus que Ie dire. Mais la coustume est telle 

m2t,*» Siya Gui- ^®^ cheualliers que font a mainte dame semblant de telles 

narere, to teaae cboses dont a gueres ne leur est au cueur." Et ce disoit 

**^' elle powr veoir de combien elle Ie pourroit mettre en 

malaise; Car elle veoit bien quil ne pretendoit a autre 

amour que a la sienne | mais eUe se delectoyt a sa malai- 

ThiagriereaLan- sete veoir, et il eut si grant angoisse que par ung pou quil 

newiy'^fiiS^ ^ uc sc pasma I & la royne eut paour quil ne cbeist, si appella 

which GaUot ia gallcbault, et il y vmt acourant. Quant il voyt que son 

greatly griered, compaigno» est si couirouce, si en a si grant angoisse que 

plus ne pent. "Haa, dame," fait gallebault, "vous Ie 

nous pourrez bien tollir, et ce seroit trop grand dommaige." 

"Certes, sire, se seroit mon ;" " Et ne scauez vous pour qui 

il a tant fait darmes ? " faict gallebault. " Certes, nenny," 

*S* Slo2^*^ ^^^ ®^® ' * mais, se il est veoir ce qui ma este diet, cest pour 

the^gaiiantert moy;" "JDame, semaistdieu, bien len pouez croire | car aussi 

andtruaatof comme il est Ic plus prcudbomme de tous les hommes | 

''*°* aussi est son cueur plus vray que tous aultres." "Yoirement, 

fait elle, "diriez vous quil seroit preudbomme se vous 

scauiez quil a fait darmes puis quil j&t cbeuallier." Lors 

luy compte tout ainsi comment vous auez ouy | " et saicbez 

qiul a ce faict seullement pour moy," fait elle. Lors luy 

S^'mw^^'^OTP™ gaUebault, & dist. "Four dieu, dame, ayez de luy 

hinu mercy, et faictes pour moy ainsi comme ie fis pour vous 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. xlix 

qnant vous men priastes." " Quelle mercy yoalez vons que •* wiut merey !*» 
ien aye?" " Dame, vous scanez que ie vous ayme sur toutes, "y* *•**» 
et il a fait potcr tous plus que oncques cheualier ne fist 
pour dame, et sacliez que la paix de moy et de moiiseign«iir 
neust ia este &dcte se neust il este." " Certes," faict eUe, ^ il "thereis nothing 
a plus faict pour moy que ne pourroye desseruir, ne il ne S^Ti'wiii'naJ 
me pourroyt chose requeue dont ie le peuisse esconduyre | ^^i^,*^ ^*" 
mais il ne me requiert de riens | ains est tant melencoHeux 
[ue merueiUes.'' '' Dame," fait gaUehault, '' auez en mercy ; 
est celluy qui votw ayme plus que soy mesmes. Si 
maist dieu, ie ne scauoye riens de sa voulente quant il vint, 
fors quil doubtoit de estre congneu, ne oncques plus ne men 
descouurit." "Je en auray," fait elle, "telle mercy comme 
vous vouldrez." " Dame, vous auez fait ce que ie vous ay 
requis ; aussi doy ie bien faire ce que vous me requerez. 
Se dit la royne, " il ne me requiert de riens." " Gertes, dame," " He does not 

« ., n T_ "^ ,/ ,, -1 7 1 • • dare,'* answers 

fait gallenault, " il ne ose | car Ien ne aymera la nens par Ga]iot,"butiwiii 
amotirs que leu ne craigne | mais ie vous en prie pour ^^ ^^ ^" 
luy, & ee ie ne vous en priasse, si le deussiez voim pour- 
chasser. Car plus ricbe tresor ne pouiriez vous con- 
quester." " Certes," fidt elle, " ie le scay bien et ie en feray " Then i wni 
tout ce que vous commanderez." " Dame," fait GaUehault, Si^G^^ 
" grant mercy." Je vous prie que vous luy donnez vostre ?*^* P™y* ^«^ 

.,«', *^i^-i it'^a • xto «*▼« Lancelot 

amour, et le retenez pour vostre cheuallier a tousiours, et her loye, and be- 
deuenez sa loyalle dame toute vostre vie | et vous le aurez SSJfauSrS^ 
fait plus riche que se vott« luy auiez donne tout le monde." 
" Certes," faict elle, " ie luy ottroye que il soyt. mien | et b^iJK^s' ^ 
moy toute sienne, et que par vous soyent amendez tous les 
meffaitz;" " Dame," faict GaUehault, « grant mercy.'/ Or S52^^\5^«;^e 
conuient U commencement de sendee ; '' Yous ne deuiserez is told. 
riens," fait la royne, "que ie ne face." "Dame," faict "ThaikissLan. 

-I tt A. ia\» ij A. celot before me," 

il, "grant mercy | done baisez le deuaut moy pour com- saysOaUot. 
mencement de vrayes amours." " Du baiser," faict eUe, "ie 
ne voy ne Heu ne temps | et ne doubtez pas," faict eUe, "que 
ie ne le voulsisse faire aussi vouUentiers quU feroit | mais 
ces dames sent cy qui mot^lt se merueiUent qt^ noiM auons This ouinerere 
tant fait, si ne powrroyt estre que ilz ne le vissent. Nom- JS^io? i^«i 
pourtant, se U veult, ie le baiseray vouUentiers." Etit- 
U en est si ioyeulx que U ne peult respondre si non tant 
quU diet. "Dame," faict U, "grant mercy" | "dame," g'SJ^J^JJ^'b^t 
faict GaUehault, "de son vouloir nen doubtez ia|Car U Lancelot's wish ; 
est tout vostre, bien le saichez, ne ia nul ne sen apper- 
ceuera ; l^ous troys serous ensemble ainsi comme se nous 
conseiUions" | "Dequoy me feroye ie pryer" | faict elle | 
"plus le vueU ie que vous." Lors se trayent a part, et and as he is bash- 
font semblant de conseiUer. La Royne voyt que le cheual- Ses*^ by tS 
lier nen ose plus faire, si le prent par le menton, et baise cWn, and r 



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1 THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

him before Gal- deuant GftUehault assez longuement. Et la dame de 

o? MfiSSfaii?**'^ Mallehauli {sic) sceut de vray que elle le baisoyt. Lors parla 

Bees her.) la EoYiie qui mouIt estoyt sage & vaillant dame. " Beau 

La^rouhatlhe doubsTamy," faict elle, " tant auez faict que ie suys vostre ; 

i8his,butcharge8 Et moult en ay grant ioye. Or gardez que la chose soyt 

mSteTTOcret,***^ celee. Car mestier en est. Je suys une des Dames du 

monde dont len a greigueur Men diet, Et se ma renommee 

empiroyt par vous, il y auroyt layde amour et villaine | et 

and Gaiiot too. yous, Gallehault, ie vous prye que mon honneur gardez | 

Car Yousestes le plus saige | Et se mal men venoyt, ce ne 

seroy t si non par vous ; Et se ien ay bien et ioye, vous me 

lauez donnee." **Dame," faict GaUehault, **il ne pour- 

^ot promises p^y^ ygj.g y^^ mesprendre, et ien ay bien faict ce que vous 

me commandastes. Or vous prye que faciez ma voulente 

ainsi comme iay fait-la vostre ;" ** Diotes," fait elle, ** tout 

ce quil vow« plaira bardyment | car vous ne me scauriez 

chose commander que ie ne face." "Dame," faict il, '* done 

^"to ^make °^^^^^ ^^^ ottroye que ie seray son compaignon a tous- 

Lanceiothiscom- iours." " Certes," fait elle, **se de ce yous failloit, vous 

panion for ever, auriez mal employe la peine que vous auez prinse pour 

luy et pour moy." Lors prent le cheuallier par la main, 

She takes Lance- ®^ ^ct. " Gallehault, ie VOUS donne ce cheualier a 

k>t'B hand, gives tousiours saus CO quc iay auant eu, et vous le me creancez 

^ * °** ainsi" | et aussi le cheualier luy oreance | ** scauez vous," 

fait elle, "Gallehault, que ie vous ay donne lancelot du 

^vefSm^ lSS! ^*^» ^^ ^ ^^ ^^y ^^ ^® benoic;" Ainsi luy a fait le 

ceiotof theLake, cheualier congnoistre, qui moult en a grant honte. Lors a 

This^giv^ GauSt gallehault greigneure ioye quil neust oncqwtfs | oar il 

more joy than auoit maintesfois ouy dire, comme paroUes vont, que 

fore, ^M he h^d ccstoyt le meillcur cheualier et le plus preux du monde, 

LaSSelS^as^hI ®* ^^^^ scauoit que le roy ban auoit este moult gentil 

g^antest^ight homme, et moult puissant de amys et de terre. 

in the world. A j^jgi f^^ faicte la premiere acointance de la royne 

J\_ et de lancelot par gallehault | et Gallehault ne 

lauoit oncques congneu que de veue, et pource lujr fait 

creancer qMtl ne luy demanderoit son nom tant quil luy 

dist, ou autre po«r luy. Lors se leuerent tons trojrs, et jl 

moonlight ^'^^^^ anuytoit durement. Mais la lune estoyt leuee, si faisoit 

th^recross the ^^^^ I ^^ ^^® ^^^ luysoyt par toute la praerie | Lors sen 

meads towards retoumereut a une part contrement les prez droit vers le 

ceots tent, ^^ j^ cheualier, & le seneschal et gallehault vint apres 

luy & les dames tant qwlz vindrewt endroit les tentes de 

and GaUot sends gallehault. Lors cnuoya Gallehault son compaignon a son 

wSiThecondScte ^ref, et prent cowge de la royne, et gallehault la conuoye 

JJ« Qjieen to Ar- iusqucs au trof du Roy. Et quawt le roy les veyt, si de- 

aod'tlu^Lmthey manda dont ilz venoyent. " Sire," fait Gallehault, " nous 

have only been uenons de vcoir CCS pros a si pen de compaignie comment 



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THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. ll 

Lors se assient, et parlent de plusieurs looking at the 
choses ; si soat la Boyne et Oallehault moult ayses. J^^ *y ^^' 

AV chef de piece se leua la royne, et sen alia en la bre- 
tesche ; gallehault la conuoya iusqw^s la. Puis la 
comma^e a dieu, et dist quU sen yroit gesir auec son oaUot sees the 
compaignon. '* Bien auez fait," dit la royne, *«il en sera tow^?,*°^" 
plus ayse" | A tant sen part gallehault, et vient au roy 
prendre congie, et dist quil ne luy desplaise, et que il yra 
gesir auec les gens pource quil ny auoyt geu de grant piece, «»* then ukes 
et dist. " Sire, ie me doibz pener de faire leur voulente I ^Pot^Gm^^ 
car ilz me ayment moult." *' Sire," fait messire gauuain, 
**vo«« dict^ bien, et len doit bien honnorer telz preud- 
hommes qui les a." Lors sen part gallehault et vient a son 
compaignon ; Ilz se coucherent tot^ deux en ung lict, et and ^ to Lan- 
deviserent la une piece. Si vous laisserons ores a parler ^^^ " ^^' 
de gallehault & de son compaignon, et dirons de la royne 
qui est venu en. la bretesche. 

QYant gallehault fut party, la royne sen alia en vne Queen ouineyere 
fenestre, et commence a penser a ce que plus S^tot^k^d 
luy plaisoyt. La dame de mallehault saprocha deUe quant the Lady of kai- 
eUe la vit seuUe, et luy dist le plus priueement que elle ^^^^^ 
pent. '' Haa, dame ! pourquoy ne est bonne la compaignie asks her why 
de quatre ?" La royne le ouyst bien, si ne dit mot, et fait fo^'^arebadcom- 
semblant que riens nen ouyt. Et ne demoura gueres que At first Guine- 
la dame dist celle parolle mesmes ; la royne lapella.et dist. rhi?,but£eL^ 
"Dame, pourquoy auez ce dit?" "Dame," fait elle, fep^atsit; 

1 1 3 •• •%• 11 n the Queen asks 

" pardonnez moi, le nen diray ores plus | car par aduen- whv she says it, 
ture en ay plus dit que a moy napartient | & le» ne se Jg^ M?don a5 
doit mi fdre plus priuee de sa dame que len est | car tost en perhaps she *has 
acquiert on hayne." " Si maist dieu," fait la royne, " vous »1?o!?°8^ oii- 
ne me powrriez riens dire do»t vous eussiez ma haine | ie nevere, 
vous tiens tant a saige et a courtoyse, que vous ne diriez 
riens qui fost encontre ma voulente | Mais dictes hardy- " speak boidiy 
ment | Gar ie le vueil, et si vous en prie." " Dame," fait ^^*J ' ^^ "•" 
©He, ** done le vous diray ie | Je dy que moult est bonne la " Then i must 
compaignie de quatre ; Jay huy veu nouueau accointement fojr^^very *goS 
que vous auez faict au cheuallier qui parla a vous la bas en company, i saw 

^ . -r;., ,. XT J J the new acquaint- 

ce vergier. Et scay bien que cest la personne du mowie ance you made 
qui plus vous ayme, et vous ne auez pas tort se vous hT^^'the ^an 
laymez | car vous ne pourriez vostre amour mieulx em- who loves you 
ployer;" "Comment," fait la royne, " le congnoissez vous ? " ^^l^^ ^^« 
"Dame," fait elle, "telle heure a este ouen que ie vous 
en eusse bien peu faire refus comme vous en pouez ores i kept him a year 
faire a moy | car ie lay tenu ung an et demy en prison, and a half in pri- 
Cest celluy qui vaincquit lassemblee aux axmes vermeilles | KSuhe^ired ^ 
& ceUe de deuant hier aux armes noires, les unes & les ^^^J^"™*^ 
autres luy baillay ie; Et quant il fut auant hier sur la tounwyBr^^ * 



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lii THE FRENCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. 

liuiere pensif, et ie luy touIu mander que il fist Y«dllam- 

ment armes, ie ne le faisoye sinon pour ce que ie esperoye 

and I thought ^^^ ^^^^ aymast ; si cuydoye telle heure fust que il me 

then thathe loved aymast | Mais il me mist tost hors de cuyder, tant me 

mSeceived m^» descouuiit de SOU peuser." Lors luy compta comment elle 

lauoyt tenu en prison an et demy | et poiurquoy elle lauoit 

TOB,^^S?t tou P'^s. " Or me dictes," fait la royne, " quelle compaignie 

me why four are vault mieulx de quatre que de troys | car mieulx est una 

San thrM?»^°^ chose cclec par trois que par quatre.*' " Certes non est 

"Because, cy endroit, et si yous diray. Vray est que le cheualier 

kxdghtiov^Von, vouB ayme, et aussi fait il gallehault, et desormais se 

Sx) Midthe^^wm c^^orterowt lung lautre en quelque terre quilz soient. 

not stoy hS Car icy ne serowt ilz pas longuement : et vous demourerez 

imd 'S^you^^e ^y toute sculc, et uc le scaura nul fors vous | ne si ne 

nooneeisetoteuaurez a qui descouurir vostre pensee, si porterez ainsi 

youww^orc^ Tostre faix toute senile | mais sil yous pleust que ie fosse 

tokeepyoju-fidth la quarte en la compaignie entre nous deux dames, nous 

ifyotrniuietme solacicrous ainsi comme entre eulx deux cheualiers feront, 

we*ciui^oinfort ^ ®^ seriez plus aise.'* " Scauez vous," fait la royne, 

one another. " qui est le cheuallier ?*' " Se maist dieu," fait la dame, 

"nenny." ** Vous auez bien ouy comment il se couurit 

vers moy." ** Certes," faict la royne, "moult estes appar- 

ceuante, et moult conuiendroit estre sage qui vous voul- 

Quecn^toerere droit rien embler, & puis que ainsi est que vous lauez 

*^®^ aperceu, et que vous me requerez la compagnie, vous 

laurez | mais ie vueil que vous portez vostre faix ainsi 

comme ie feray le miew." " Dame," faict elle, ** ie feray 

ce que il vous plaira, pour ci haulte compaignie auoir." 

" En verite," faict la royne, ** vous laurez | car meilleure 

compaignie que vous ne pourroye ie mye auoir." " Dame," 

" ' " I heures quil vous 

<*Etno«« 

Lake «**..* -*v,*>,*x« ^^^^^ *u compaiguie de nous quattre." Lors 

luy compte de Lancelot, comment il auoyt ploure quant il 

regarda deuers elle, " et ie scay que il vous congneut, et 

saicbez que cest lancelot du lac, le meilleur cbeuallier qui 

• vine." Ainsi parlerent longuement entre elles deux | et 

At night the font moult grant ioye de le«r accointement nouueau. Icelle 

^tter,* ^^ *°' nuyct ne souffiit oncques la Royne de logres que la dame 

de mallebault geust sinon auec elle | mais elle y geut a 

force. Car elle doubtoyt moult de gesir auec si ricbe dame ; 

Quant elles fdrent coucbees si commencerent a parler de 

Sw lovea, *" leurs nouueUcs amours ; La royne demanda a la dame de 

lehauif ^ M^ mallebault selle ame nulluy par amours, et elle luy diet 

that she ^ne^ef quc ncnuy. " Saicbez, dame, que ie naymay oncques que 

Mdlh^^oniy^S "^"^ ^^y^f ^^ ^® ^^® amour ne fis ie que penser;" et ce dit 

thought (and elle de lancelot, quelle auoit tant ayme comme femme 




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THE FBEKCH CONTINUATION OF THE SCOTCH POEM. liii 

pourroit aymer homme mortel | Mais elle nen anoit onoques that wm Lanoe- 
aultre ioye eue, non pourtant ne dit pas que ce eust il este. ^^^' 
La royne pensa quelle feroyt ses amours de elle et de galle- The Qumd thinks 
hault, mais elle nen veult parler iusques a tant quelle ?iSi^*«S*CteUot 
scaura de gallehault sil la veult aymer ou non | car autre- J^ "^^^7^ ^^ 
ment ne len requerroit' elle pas. Lendemain se leuerent Nextmoralng 
matin elles deux, So allerent au tref du roy, qui gisoit la t£S»i^?* ^' 
pour faire a monseigneur gauuain et aux aultres cheual- and wake him, 
iers compaignie. La royne sesueilla, & dist, " que moult 5?Jr*^^"]Si^ 
estoyt mauluais qui a ceste heure dormoyt." Lors se dows 
toumerent contreual les prez, et dames et damoyselles auec 
elles. ^ Et ils allerent la ou laccointement damours auoyt J^^fiJTjj?3*r 
este faict, et diet la Eoyne a la dame de mallehault toute took piaoe, ° 
laccointance de lancelot | et comme il estoit esbahy deuant JJ* t^e i^dJ^ 
elle, et riens ne luy laissa a dire. Puis commenca a louer Maiiehanit ail 
gallebault, et dit que cestoit le plus saige homme et le plus J^'^thwl praiae* 
Tertueulx du monde ; " Certes," fait elle, " ie luy comp- Gaiiot ai the 
terajr lacointance de nous deux quant il yiendra, et sachez ^^t£wo%! 
que il en aura grant ioye. Or aliens | car il ne demourra 
gueres quil ne viengne." 

The next chapter tells how Queen Guinevere requires Galiot 
to let her dispose of his love as he had disposed of hers. This 
he agrees to do, and she bestows him on the Lady of Malle- 
hault. Then they arrange for the promised parlement de eulx 
quatre; the Queen introduces Lancelot to the Lady of Malle- 
hault ; the four sit down in the wood, and, after a short chat, 
wait silent a long time, saying nothing, but embracing and 
kissing one another (seemingly in pairs) comme ceulx qui 
voulentiers le /akoyent. After this Gawain becomes well, 
and the Court breaks up, Galiot taking Lancelot with him 
to his country, and the Queen taking the Lady of Mallehault 
home with her and Arthur, all promising to meet again as 
soon as possible. 



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NOTES TO THE, APPENDIX. 



^'.:^glli^e$eo89e=d^ Eeosse^ of Scotland. In Old French, words are 
frequeiifly run together; thus we have lahhaye for Vahhaye^ seammrent 
for a^imeurenty etc. Also the letter a i| often replaced in modern 

French by an acute or circumflex accent ^^ so that £6eoaae^=zJScoaae; 
ehaaieau=chdteau, etc. The word at often apcurs below with a great 
variety of meanings, vi%. 1, he ; and, also ; ^l thus ; etc. 

P. xxi. haiUe, given, entrusted; brouyr (bruler), being burnt; 
manatier, monastery. 

P. xxii. gauuea, so in the original titfonghout; gaunea is used in 
other romances. 

P. xxiii. nueequea = avec^ with ; aduiaian, vision, hehourdya, prowess. 

P. xxiv. naure, wounded. deffera=i deaf err a^ un-ironed; it means 
that Lancelot drew the weapons out of the knight's wounds, dettera, 
'' Prepositi<»i relative au temps et an lieu dont on parle ; pr^s, vers, 
centre, proche; det^er^M." Roquefort. oc^oya,x)ermitted (authorized). 
mauille, UL wetted ; insulted, veirenty saw. eaertpt (Serit), written. 

P. XXV. laaaemhleej the gathering; i.e. the war, strife, rua, over- 
threw, mire, physician. 

P. xxvi. gue, ford, pass, "^treauea, a truce ; spelt treuea on p. xxvii. 

P. xxvii. eahatre, to divert oneself. In modem French, a^^attre. 

P. xxviii. orriona, shall tlfcr . deuat=:d4t. cheoient, from eheoir, 
to fall. Compare eh^te. ' j^^^^ hairs. eahahy^Bmeized. orteh^ toes. 
ehaille \ from chahir, to be a^^^s about. 

P. xxix. dilaeian, delay. ^^P^? fear. 

P. XXX. mire, physician. jP^ old. ehettauehe, riijiie^ hotdte, buts, 
pushes. ^^^im^ 

P. xxxi. iecte, {J^t^tK^ euyde, I believe. Si maiat dieu, so Gk)d 
aid me. Here maiaOli^xit for m^aiat. oncquea, ever, ennuyt, this 
night, to-night, hpkoyera, will permit him. eonroy, troops. 

P. xxxii. derraina {demiera), last, luainea, trumpets, vny pouvera 
{un pen vera), a little towards. Or y perra, now it will appear. 
euidoit, believed; from the old verb quider. eheuoMchent, ride, ta, 
already/ 

P. .^xxiii. iertre, a small hill, adreaae, a cross-path, huy, just 
before ; lit this day. Lat. hodie. 

P/xxxiv. ae paame, swoons, leans, thither, orea, now* Afiy, to-day. 



V 



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NOTES TO THE APPENDIX. Iv 

prmdhomme^ a wise and prudent man. lottroye^ permits him. trefy 
tent, nenny^ no ! ainsy before. 

F. xxxY. guerpiront, will leave, deduys^ amusements, diyersions. 
lecmSf there, gerrezy will lie. las, tired. 

F. xxxvi. Amsy but. semondray, shall ask. eshahyy amazed, tolla^ 
take away, creanoa, promised, lees, wide, full. UceSy lists. *^' 

F. xxxvii. emmy le.pas, in the midst of the passage, huchery to cry 
aloud. 

F. xxxviii. lieuey lifts, saistne, disposal, ensetgnes, tokens, aineoysy 
first of aU. 

F. xxxix. oncques tnesy never, a resiouyr {rijou%r)y in amusing. 
escondiroyey will refuse, me poyse, it troubles me. pieca, long ago. 
se emhronchey covers his face. 

F. xl. sen estmllerenty awoke thereat. Adonc, then, rieiis-^rfaity 
anyway injured. ^ * 

F. 3di. ne me mesoremi mye que, do not doubt me more than. 

F. xlii. dotnty gives, were to give. ' .^^ 

F. xliii. mesgnicy properly the suite or household of a prince ; see 
Roquefort s.v. magnie and maignee, nefy a boat, louey advise, vous 
esmayety afflict yourself, courrouce, wroth, displeased. 

F. xliv. vergieTy orchard, aualy below. 

P. xlv. se embronohay she veiled herself, or, hid herself, iouxtey 
beside, mamtes, many, oty heard, len prise mieutx, esteemed it 
better. 

F. xlvi. key praises, defferay dis-ironed, drew the weapons out of. 
lestriefy the stirrup, leans {h didans), there, helif. "We find in Cot- 
grave's French Dictionary, *^ Belie, a kind of red or geueles, in Blazon." 

F. xlvii. enseignes, tokens, message, mestiery serviceable, dilke, 
thence, poumeant, for nothing, in vain. 

F. xlviii. voirey truly, commanday a dieUy commended to god, bade 
farewell. < 

P. 1. mestier en esty there is need of i%^\ greigneu/r hieny exceedingly 
well, very highly, greigneure, greeLteT.jt^uytoity became night. 

F. li. sepenevy to take pains.* ^ 



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C0ERECTI0N8, ETC. 



P. xxxi. 1. 17. Tw « El lt»* rtad "Et il." 

P. 1. 1. 18. I now find that the true reading of the MS. is not " denit," hnt " dealt." 
It demt me-it availed me. Compare O.N. duga ; Ger. taugen. In Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary we find — " Dow, I. to he ahle. A.S. dugan [valere)y to 
he ahle. 2. to avail. Teut. doogen," The note to this line is therefore wrong. 

P. 5, 1. 144. Ibr " aypetit" read " appetit." 

P. 25, 1. 826. Mr " heuOiold" read "houftiold." 

P. 43, 1. 1448. liM^ " ftan" read " flan." 

P. 61, 1. 1749. For " famyne" read " famyne." 

P. 103, note to 1. 28. For ^^ carving** read "earwingf* and add, "But it mnst he 
rememhered that <hegan to cut* is only a literal, not a strict translation ; the 
true force of the phrase is did cut, as explained in the Glossary, a.v. Can." 

P. 106, 1. 2. Jbr *• fill nimhle" read " full nimhle." 

In the Glossary, a.v. Ward, add—'' But the meaning of tMrd itself may he world; 
and there is no necessity to alter it to warld. Ward is giyen for ioorld in 
Grose's Proyincial Dictionary, and word (in the same sense) occurs several 
times in the Corpus MS. of ' Genesis and Exodus.'" 



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ADDITIONAL NOtES. 

Inl. 1343, the word diners should doubtless bt supplied heiorepeplig; see 
1. 731. 

In 1. 1917, the word to should have been into, as elsewhere ; the line would 
then have been complete. Both these errors are due to the seribe of the MS. 

It should be observed that, in words beginning in the MS. with ftn illumin- 
ated letter, the other letters in the word are smallj not capitals. Thus, in 1» 1 , 
the first word is not Jhe, but Jhe ; and so on, throughout the poem. 



EBSATUM. 

Page 63, 1. ISOS, for " efth- " read « e/*tir." 

GLOSSABT. 

JDan9 may also be compared with Prov. dans, a form of the Lat. damnum ; 
see Sir G. C. Lewis, Essay on Bomance Languages, p. 113. 

DmprisSf at 1. 269, should have been explained to mean horuywr or good esti- 
mation, in which sense it occurs also in 11. 129, 3458. 

Stak. Add ; — it is just possible that Stak may be referred to Sto^, the 
handle of a sword; thus " i-wondit to the stak " would be "wounded up to the 
hil t of the sword , very deeply woundjgd." 



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PROLOGUE. 



THE foft morow onde The lu fte^ pe 
The wynt^ set, the Btormysinel 
Quhen that the bry^^At and frefch illumynare 
4 XJpriiith arly in his fyre chare 
His hot courA in to the orient, 
And fh)me hM Q>ere his goldine ib^mis sent 
Wpone the grond, in maner off mefag, 
8 One eu^ry thing to yalkyne thar enrage, 
That natnr haith set wnd^ hire mycht, 
Boith gyrfi, and flour, and euery lufty vicht : 
And^amly thame that felith the allay 
12(0f Infk to fchew the kalendis of may, 
nirow birdis fonge with opine woz one hy. 
That feflit not one lufan> for to cry, 
Left thai forjhet, throw flewth of Ignorans, 
16 The old wfage of lowis obf#ruans. 
And frome I can the bricht face affpy. 
It denit^ me no langare fore to ly, 

1 We Bhould, perhaps, read " demit." See note. 



[Fol. la.] 
In April, when 
the fireth lumi- 
nary aprlieth. 



and sendeth from 
bii sphere hii 
golden streams, 



and when I espy 
his bright fa<M, 



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THE POET BEWAILS HIS LOT. 



I walk fortb, be- 
wailing my m^ 
life. 






The sword of love 
caryes my heart. 






Myladyknoweth 
not bow I am wo- 
begone. 

[Fol. 16.] 



I walked thus in 
the field, and 
came to a well- 
beseen garden. 



It was closely 
environed with 
leaves. 



fTore that loue fohuld flouth In to me finde, 

20 Bot walkine forth bewalinge in my mynde, 
The dredfol lyve endurit al to longe, 
Sufferans in loue of foroufal harmys ftronge, 
The fcharpe dais and the hewy jerys 

24 Quhill phebns thris haith pailith al his fperis, 
Vithoutine hope ore traiftinge of comfort ; 
So be fuch meine fatit was my sort. 
Thus in my faull Eolinge al my wo , 

28 My earful hart carwing can In tw o 
Th e derdfu l fuerd of lowis hotj^ffire ; 
So be the morow set I was a-fyre 
In felinge of the accefi hot and colde, 

32 That haith my hart in fich a fevir holde, 
Only to me thare was none vthir eft 
Bot thinkine qhow I fchulde my lady plefi. 
Th^ fcharp afiay and ek the Inwart peine 

86 Of dowblit wo me neulyngw can conflrein, 
Quhen that I have remembrit one my Hiocht 
How iche, quhois bewte al my harm haith wrocht, 
Ne knouith not how I ame wo begone, 

40 Kor bow that I ame of hire iemsjidLis one ; 
And in my ielf I can nocht fynde the meyne 
In to quhat wyft I fal my wo compleine. 
Thus in the feild I walkith to and froo, 

44 As tho(?Atful wicht that felt of nocht bot woo, 
Syne to (| gardingej that weft weil befen. 
Of quiche the feild was al depaynt with gren. ' 
The tendyre and the lufly floum new 

48 Up throue the gren vpone thar ftalkw grew 
Ajhane the fone, and thare levis Ipred, 
QuharwitA that al the gardinge was I-clede ; 
That pryapus, in to his tyme before, 

52 In luftear walkith nevir more ; 
And al about enweronyt and Iclofit 
One fich o wyft, that none w»tAin fuppofit 



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i 



HE SEES A VISION OP A GREEN BIRD. 



Fore to be (ett with ony vicht thare owt ; 

56 So dide the leyis clof it^ all about. 

Thar was the flour, thar was the quen alpheft,* 
"Rjcht wering being of the njehUs reft, 
Wnclofiwg gane the crownel for the day ; 

60 The hrjcht fone iUmnynit haith the fpray. 
The ny^Atw fobir ande the moft fchowrw, 
As criftoll terys witAhong vpone the flourw, 
Haith vpwarpith In the lufty aire, 

64 The morow msMth soft, ameyne, and faire ; 
jAnd the byrdw thar myehty voce out-throng, 
Quhill al the wood refonite of thar fonge, 
That gret confort till ony vicht It Wer 

68 That pleilith thame of luftenes to here J 
Bot gladneft til the tho(?Atful, auer mo 
The more he feith, the more he haith of wo. 
Thar was the garding witA the flouris ourfiret, 

72 Quich is in pofy fore my lady set. 
That hire Beprefent to me ofb befor, 
And thane alfo ; thus al day gan be for' 
Of tho<?At my goft with torment occupy, 

76 That I became In to one exaiy, 
Ore flep, o r h ow I wot ; b ot fo befell 
My wo haitibL done my livis goft expell, 
And in fich wift weil long I can endwr, 

80 So me betid o wondir ayentur. 

As I thus lay Ey^^At to my fpreit vas fen 

A birde, yat was as ony lawrare gren, 

A-licht, and fayth in to hir birdM chore ; (^i^J , 

84 " woftd wrech, that levis in to were ! 
To fchew the thus the god of loue me fent, 
That of thi fi^ruice no thing is content. 
For in his court yhoue lewith i» difQpar, 

88 And yilfally suftenis al thi care, 



The sun illumin- 
ed the sprays ; 



the birds sang 
till the woods re* 
soonded; 



the garden was 
adorned with 
flowers. 



[Fol. 2a.] 

I fell there into 

an extasy or 

sleep, 



and saw in my 
dream a green 
bird, who said : 



"The God of 
Love is discon- 
tent with thee. 



1 MS. "oloilt." 



« May we read " alceet" ? ' MS. « befor." 



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4 THE bird's message. 

And fchapith no thinge of thine awn remede, 
Bot clepith ay and cryith apone dede. 
Yhow caUith the birdM be morow fro thar bourn, 
92 Yhoue devilJi boith the erbis and the floun>, 
And clepit hyme vnfaithfiil king of lowe, 
Yow dewith hyme in to his rigne abnfe, 
Yhoy tempith hyme, yhone doith thi felf no gud, 

Tonwedestitiite gg yj^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ deftitude. 

"Wot yhoue nocht that al liwis creatwre 
Haith of thi wo in to his hand the cwre f 
^°^,^?Sii*^^ And fet yhoue clep one erbis and one treis, 

lady heis not. iqq g^jj^g j^^j^ j^^^ ^j^j ^^^ j^^^q ^y^^ f^y^^ fgjg . 

/ l-^^^ ^^^ ^^^® °^*^ know the dirkneft of thi thorAt, 

' Ke blamyth h^ thi wo fche knowith no^At. 

And It is weil accordinge It be so 
104 He fuffir harme, th at to redreft hw wo 
Preyiditb not ; for long ore he be fonde, 
Holl of his-leieh, that fchewiUi not hw vound. 
SLtter'trshew ^^ of jowid jye autor fchall yhow knaw 

than to conceal jQg q£ ^^^ ^^t feith, for to confel or fchow, 
The laft he clepith althir-beft of two ; 
And that is futh, and fal be eu^r mo. 
And loue alfo haith chargit me to fay, 
[Foi. 2*.] 112 Set yhoue prefume, ore beleif, ye aflay 
Of his f<?ruice, as It wil ryne ore go, 
Prefwme It not, fore It wil not be so ; 
Al magre thine a £»ruand fchal yow bee. 
id^nh^f^ 116 And as tueching thine adu<jrfytee, 
the remedy." Complen and fek of the ramed, the cwre. 

Ore, gif yhow likith, forth thi wo endure." 
And, as me tho(;At, I aniuerde a^aine 
Then answered ^20 Thus to the byrde, in wordw fchort and plane : 
p' It ganyth not, as I have harde Eecorde, 
It The f<?ruand for to difput with ye lord ; 
'i^n of^'JJJ*^ Bot well he knowith of al my vo the quhy, 

^'^'" 124 And in quhat wyfi he hath me fet, quhar I 



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SHE BIDS HIM WRITE A POEM. 



Nore may I not, nore can I not attane, 

Nore to hir hienes dare I not complane." 

" Ful ! " quod the bird, " lat be thi nyfi difpare, 

1281 For in this erith no lady is fo fare, 
So hie eftat, nore of fo gret emprifi. 
That in hire felf haith vifdome ore gentrice, 
Yf that wicht, that worthy is to be 

132 Of lovis court, fchew til her that he 
Seruith hire in lovis hartly wyfi, 
That fchall thar for hyme hating or difpiftJ 
The g od of love thus chargit^the, at fchort, 

136 That to" tiii lady yhoue thi wo Report ; H^f^ 
Tf yhoue may not^thi planf fchall yhov vrit, 
Se, as yhoue cane, be man^ oft endit 
In metir quhich that no man haith fuflpek, 

140 Set ofb tyme thai contenyng gret effecc ; 

Thus one fume wyfi yhow fchal thi wo dwclar. 
And, for thir fedulis and thir biUis are 
So gen^all, and ek fo fchort at lyte, 

144 And fwme of thaim is loft the aypetit, 
Sum trety fchall yhoue for yi lady fak, 
That wnkouth is, als tak one hand and mak. 
Of love, ore armys, or of fum othir thing, 

148 That may hir one to thi Remeiwbryng brynge ; 
Qwich foundith Not one to no hewynes, 
Bot one to gladnefi and to luftenefi, '^ ^ '^'^^ ^^ 
That yhoue belevis may thi lady plefi, f^c\^ j^ a 

152 To have hir thonk and be one to hir eft ; » « .-*• y 
That fche may wit in f(?ruice yhow art one. 
Faire weil," qwod fche, "thus fchal yhow the difpone, 
And mak thi felf als mery as yhoue may, 

166 It helpith not thus fore to wex al way." 
yfi\Ji that, the bird fche haith hir leif tak, 
For fere of quich I can onone to wak ; 
^ Sche was ago, and to my felf \hocht I 

160' Quhat may yis meyne ? quhat may this figwify ? 



"FooV said the 
bird, "despair 
not; 



the God of Love 
charges thee to 
speak out yoar 
love, or else to 
write thy phunt; 



write, then, some 
treatise for her to 
read; 



[Fol. Sa.] 

one that may 
please her and 
get her thanks. 



Farewell, and be 
merry." 



Thereon I awoke, 
and wondered 
what it might 



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b HE RESOLVES TO DO SO. 

Is It of troucht, or of Illuiioune ? 
Bot finaly, as in conduiioune, 
Be as be may, I fchal me not discharge, 
164 Sen It apperith be of lovis charg ; 
And ek myne hart none othir biiTynes 
Haith bot my ladice ^^roice, as I ge6 ; 
tek^JSSf thk Among al vther»> I fchal one honde tak 
occupation. j^g rphis Htil occupationne for hire fak. 

Bot hyme I pray, the mjchty gode of lone, 
That fitith hie in to his fpir abuf, 
(At eommand of o wyi^ quhois yiiioune 
172 My gofl haith takin this opynioune,) 
That my lawbonre may to my lady pleft 
And do wnto hir ladefchip fam ef^, 
Bo that my trtmeU be nocht tynt, and I 
176 Quhat vthem fay fetith nothing by. 
I know it wui but For wel I know that, be thi worlds fame, 

hurt my name, 

when men hear It fchal not be bot hurting to my name, 

my feeble negli- '=' '' . 

«^T^^' Qnhen that thai here my febil negligens, 

180 That empit is, and bare of eloquens. 
Of difcreflioune, and ek of Eetoryk ; 
The metire and the cuwing both elyk 
So fere difcording frome p^eccioune ; 

I submit my 184 Quhtlk 1 fubmvt to the correccionne 

poem to the oor* — ^ 

rection of the O f yaJm the quhich that is difcret and wyft . 

And ent^ t is of lone in_thejfar.gice ; 
[Foi. ».] Quhich knouyth that no loyare dare wrUflonde, 
188 Quhat loue hyme chargit he mot tak one honde, 
Deith, or defam, or ony man^ wo ; 
And at this tyme with me It ftant rycht fo, 
for I dure not As I that dar makine no demande 

oppose LoTe*8 

command. 192 To quhat I wot It lykith loue commande. 

Tueching his chargi«, as with al deftitut, 
WitAin my mynd fchortly I conclud 
For to fulfyll, for ned I mot do fo. 
196 Thane in my tho^At rolling to and fro 



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HE THINKS OF THE STORY O^ LANCELOT. 



'fv^r.^t, 



»pco 



1 



Quhare that I mjeht fum wnkouth maier fynde, 

Quhill at ye lafl it fell in to my mynd 

Of ftor y, tha t I be for had fene, 
200 That boith of loue and armys can oonten, 

Was of knyMt clepit lancelot of ye laik, 

The fone of bane was, king of albanak ; 

Of quhois fame and worfchipful dedis 
204 Clerktj in to diuwft buki9 redw, 

Of quhome I thynk her fam thing for to writ 

At louis charge, and as I cane, endit ; 

Set me» tharin fal by expmens 
208 Know my confait, and al my negligens. 

Bot for that ftory is fo pafing larg, kM\j[ii o| 

One to m^ wit It war fo gret o char g 

Forlto tranflaiij the romans of that knj^At ; 
212 It paflith fare my cu»yng and my mycht, 

Myne Ignorans may It not compr^hende; '^^ 

Quharfor thare one I wil me not depend 

How he was borne, nor how his fad^ deid 
216 And ek his mod^r, nore how he was denyed 

Wter thare deth, pr^fumyng he was ded, 

Of al ye lond, nore how he fra that ftede 

In sacret wyfi wnwyii away was tak, 
220 And nwrift w^'tA ye lady of ye lak. 

Nor in his jouth think I not to tell 

The auewtourw, quhich to hyme befell; 

Nor how the lady of the laik hyme had ^ 
224 One to the court, quhare that he knyc^t was mad ; 

None wiit his nome, nore how that he was tak 

By loue, and was Iwondit to the flak, 

And throuch and throuch perfit to ye hart, 
228 That al his tyme he cou^A It not aftart ; 

For tha re of loue he ent^rit in f<?ruice, | ,^ j ^ ^ 

Of wanore throuch the beute and franchis, ^ „, : ^ 

Throuch quhois f<9ruice in armys he has vro^j^t 
232 Mony wondms, and p^rellw he has socht. 



At last I thought 
of the Btory of 
" Lancelot of the 
Lake," 



of whom I here 
think to write 
something. 



But because my 
ignorance cannot 
comprehend the 
French romance, 
I BhaU not tell 
how he was bom; 



ON*' C^^^ f ^ 

Jior how he was 
nourished by the 
Lady of the Lake; 



nor how he was 
brought to Ar- 
thur's court, and 
pierced to the 
heart by the 
beauty of Wanore 
(Guinevere), 



[FoL 4a.] 



for whose serrioe 
he wrought many 
wonders^ 



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O HB BRIEFLY ENUMERATES 

Nor how he thor, in to his joirng curage, .^^ ^^ ^ajt^cJ 
Ttow to^S^ISSe ^**^ "^*^^ awoue, and in to louis rage, Kn^aWvf 

aw^ded jj^ ^^ rewenging of o wondit \aijcht 

236 That cumyne was in to the conrt that nycAt ; 
.""JS-dShiShid; Intohiflhedabrokin^fuerdhadhe, 
ofabrSS^SS -^d ^ ^8 body alfo myi^At me» see 
in >»dy; rpj^^ tronfione of brokine fper that was, • 

240 Qnhich no man out dedenyt to aras ; 
Kor how he haith the wapnis out tak, 
ijid his awowe apon this wis can mak, 
That he fchuld hyme Reweng at hw poware 
244 One eu^ry kny^^At that louith the hnrtare 

Bett^ thane hyme, the quhich that vas Iwond. 
Throw quich awone in armys hath ben fonnde, 

* ^ th^death ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ knowing of the knye^At), 

ofmjmy a wight 248 The deth of mo»y werroure fill wicht ; 

Thare was ful mony o pafage in the londe 
By me» of^armys kepit to withftond 
This kny<?At, of qnhome thai ben al set afyre 
252 Thaim to reweng in armys of deiir. 

or bow he and Nor how that thane in^^mtynent was fend ^ ffr^-isior a la- j 

stent _ _ .. _ . _ _ "^ _ . _ ^ ,1 >Jn 

ilady 

of Nohalt ; 



Sir Kay were tent w .i '-^ u 

todefendtheiady He and {ir kay togidd^r to defend ^ ' * * ' *^ 

of KnhftU ! ^ ° 



The lady of nohalt, nor how that hee 
266 Gou^mit hyme thare, nore in quhat degre. 

Nor how the gret pafing vaffolag 

He efcheuit, throne the ontragoufS cnrag, 
quewTth'e SSl ^^ conqniryng of ihe sorow fal caiteU. ^ ^ ' - /'.,.. ,^ 
rowfw Castle ; 260 Nor how he paffith doune in the canis fell, ., .... J . 

And furth ye keys of Inchantment broefAt, ^ 

That al diftroyt qnhich that thare vas yroe^At. *^^. i ^[%^y^j^]^ 
[Foi. 46.] Nore howe that he refkewit fir gawane. 

Sir Gai^^uid 264 WttA hi« ix falouf^ in to prefone tane ; 

hit nine fellows ; t^- a-i •!• a> -i . mniKC of 

Nore mony vthere Qiuerr) aduentnre, ' 



r , 



Quhich to report I tak not in my cwre, 
» MS. "abrokin." 



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lancslot's early deeds. 



Nor mony aflemblay that gawane gart be maid 
268 To wit his name ; nor how that he hyme hade 

Wnwift, and hath the worfchip and emprifi ; 

Nor of the kDjohtis in to mony diuarf) wyft 

Throuch his awone that hath thare dethis found ; 
272 Nor of the fufferans that by louis wqunde 

He in his trawel fufferith aiw more ; 

Nor in the quenis prM«ns how tharfor 

By cameloty in to that gret Eevare, 
276 He was ner dround. I wil It not declare 

How that he was in louis hew y thogAt 

By dagenet in to the court Jhrocht ; 

Nor how the kny^^At that tyme he cane p^few, 
280 Nor of the gyantM by camelot he flew ; 

Nor wil I not her tell the man^ how 

He flew kny^jAt, by natur of his wow, 

Off melyholt ; nore how in to that toune 
284 Thar came our hyme o gret confuiione 

Of pupil and knjehtii, al enarmyt. 

Nor how he thar haith kepit hyme wnharmyt ; 

Nor of his worfchip, nor of hi* gret prowes, 
288 Nor his defens of armys in the pres. 

Nor how the lady of melyhalt jat fche 

Came to the feild, and prayth him that he 

As to lady to his ^ his fuerd hath pld, 
292 Nor how he was in to hir keping hold ; 

And mony vthir novil deid alfo 

I wil report quharfor I lat ourgo. 

For quho thaim lykith for to fpecyfy, 
296 Of one of thaim my^At mak o gret flory ; 

Nor thing I not of his hye renown 

My febil wit to makin menfloune ; 

Bot of the wer»« that was fcharp and flrong, 
300 Bicht p^ellouf), and hath enduryt long, 



nor of the many 
"a8Bemblie8"Ga- 
wane held to find 
oat hia name ; 



nor of his snffer- 
ing caused by 
love's wound ; 



nor how he was 
nearly drowned 
at Camelot ; 



nor how he was 
brought to court 
by Dagenet ; 

nor of the giants 
he slew at Game- 
lot; 



nor how he slew 
a knight of Mely- 
holt; 



and there de- 
fended himself 
against a crowd ; 



whereupon the 
laily nf MriyhaJt 
prayed him to 
yield his sword 
to her: and kept 
him inner power. 



Whoever likes, 
might make, of 
these things a 
kmg story. 



iut I think to 
tell of the wan 
between Arthur 
landOaliot; 



1 So in MS. We should, perhaps, read "hir." 



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10 THE DEDICATION. 

[Foi. 5a.] Of Arthur I n defending of his lond 
Frome galiot , fone of the fair gyonde, 
That broe^At of kajehtis o paiing confluens ; 
wherein Lancelot 304 And how lancelot of Arthures hoi defens 

won renown by 

^hm^^ **' ^^ ^^ ^^ v®"^ berith the renown ; 

And how he be the wais of fortouwe 
^SiS*bJtw2J** ^^®^ ^^ ^^ princM makith the accorde, 
the two princea. 393 Qf al there moit^ wem to concorde ; 
I BhaU abo tail And how thalf venusl iiting hie abuf. 

how Yenua re- ^ *' ° ' 

warded him. Eeuaidrttihyme of tranell in to loue, 

And makith hyme his ladice grace to have, 

312 And thankfally his fdroioe cane refave ; 

This is the mat^ qnhich I think to tell. 

Bot ftil he mot rycAt with the lady duell, 

Quhill tyme cmm efb that we fchal of hym fpek. 

My story must 316 This proceft mot define ben and ftek ; 
end for the pre- ^ ' 

««**• And forth I wil one to my mat^jr go. 

Bot firft I pray, and I befek alfo, 
One to the moil conpilour to fupport. 
Flour of poyetw, qnhois nome I wil report 
To me nor to non ythir It accordit, 
In to our rymyng his nam to be recoidit ; 
*"** For fum ftild deme It of prefumpfioune, 

S'but'd^^"* 324 And ek our rymyng is al bot deryfioune, 
SSS to^rem^I Quhen that remewbrit is his excellens, 
^'^' So hie abuf that ftaat in reu^rans. 

Ye frefch enditing of h^ laiting toung 
S%T^utJ?e ta! 328 Out throuch yis world fo wid is yroung, 
inditing Latin; q^ gj^q^^j^g^ ^nd ek of rotoryk ; 

Nor is, nor was, nore neu^r beith hyme lyk, 
SSdS'JS'''*' »»s world gladith of his fuet poetry, 
world uke him; 333 jQg f^ul I blyfi conferuyt be for-thy ; 
to him he the -^Jid yf that ony lufty terme I wryt 

BuSo^.'**' ™^ He haith the thonk y^rof, and this endit. 

EXPLICIT VJtOLOGUS, ET INCIPIT VmUUS LIBER. 



But I pray for 
the support of a 
very great poet, 



^cf 



k / 320 



whose name I 
may not men« 



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ARTHUR AT CARLISLE. 



H 



BOOK I. 



/^£ii 



QUH5EN tytan, withe his lufty heit, 
Twenty dais In to the aryeit 
Haith maid his courA, and all with diu^rft hewis 
Aparalit haith the feldis and the bewis ; 
The birdiff amyd the erbis and the floun>y 

340 And one the branchis, makyne gone thar boom, 
And be the morow iinging in ther chore 
Velcmn the lufty feflbne of the jer e. 
In to this tyme the worthi conqueroure 

344 Arthure, wich had of al this wor/de the flpu re 
Ql^heueby auerding to his crown, 
So paling war his knjehtis in renoune, 
Was at carliU ; and hapynnit fo that hee 

348 Soiomyt well long in that faire cuntree. 
In to whilk tyme In to the conrt thai heire 
None awenture, for wich the knyghtta weire 
Anoit all at the abiding thare. 

352 For why, beholding one the fobir ayre 
And of the tyme the paling luftynes. 
Can fo thir knyghtly hartw to encrefi, 
That thei fhir kay one to the king haith fende, 

356 Befeiching hyme he wold wichfaif to wende 
To camelot the Getee, whare that thei 
Ware wont to heryng of armys day be day. 
The king forfuth, heryng thare entent, 

360 To thare delir, be fchort awyfment, 

Ygrantid haith ; and fo the king proponit 
And for to pas hyme one^ the mome difponit. 
Bot fo befell hyme that nycht to meit 

364 An aperans, the wich one to his fpreit 



FFol. Sft.l 
When Titan, be- 
ing in Aries, had 
apparelled Uie 
fields, 



and birds began 
to make their 
bowers; 



king Arthur was 
at Carlisle. 



His knights, 
hearing of no ad- 
venture, were an* 
noyed. 



They therefore 
sent Sir Kay to 
pray the king U> 
go to Camelot. 



The king pro- 
posed to do BO OOL 
the morrow. 



1 MS. *^U> pas one hyme one." 



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12 Arthur's two dreams. 

That night he It femyth that of al his hed ye hore 

dreamt that his "^ ^ 

hair aU feu off ; Qf fallith and maid defolat ; wharfore 

The king therof was pensyve in his mynd, 
368 That al the day he couth no refting fynde, 
^^^^. Wich maldth hyme his lomeye to delaye. 
And fo befell apone the thrid day, 
The bricht fone, pafing in the weft, 
372 Haith maid his courf^ and al thing goith to Eeft ; 
ttgfh^^'S^ij The king, fo as the ftory can dewyfi. 
We hiT* ^^ He thoght ajeine, apone the famyne wyfi, 
[Foi. 6a.] His Tombe out fallith vith his hoil syde 

376 Apone the ground, and liging hyme befid ; 
Throw wich anon out of his Hep he ftert, 
Abaiit and adred into his hart. 



^J^y^ an- The wich be morow one to the qwen he told, 
should 'res^^ 380 And flie ajeine to hyme haith anfuer jolde; 
vain earns. fl-7< rp^ diemys, ffV, fliuld uo man have Refpek, 



i[For thei ben thingw weyn, of non affek." 
"Well," q«wd the king, "God grant It fo befall !" 

SSr^Ssd^ 384 Arly he rofi, and gert one to hyme call 

to a clerk, q ^^^^ ^ whome that al his hewynes 

Tweching his drem Ihewith he exprefi, 

iSih ^gs" S- ^i^^ «^^®^ ysf and feith one to the kinge ; 

tify nothing." ggg u ^i^^ ^^ Record lyith to fuch thing ; 

Wharfor now, ihir, I pray^ yow tak no kep, 
Nore traift in to the vanyteis of slep ; 
rU. V ^v pk/r J Por thei are thing»« that afkith no credens, 

otecx/^rj r>.c cJ^ 392 But caufith of fum manor influe»s, 

'j «, f.,^^ ^ Emprift of thoght, ore fup^rfleuytee, 

"\ ' ' ^'^ "" *'' Qr than fum othir cafualytee.'* 

heT^r sSff^ot " ?i*'" ^"^ ^^ ^^& " I ^ ^^^** leif It so ; " 
leave It so." 395 ^^j fiirth he chargit mefingerw to go 

Throgh al his Eealm, wttAouten more demande, 
He bade all the And bad them ftratly at thei ihulde comande 

bishops and " 

ciergnr come to All the bifhopes, and makyng no delay 

twenty days. 400 The fhuld appere be the tuenty day 



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HE SENDS FOR HIS CLERKS. 



13 



T 



At camelot, with al thar hoi clergy 
That moft expert war, for to certefye 

A mat^ tueching to his goft be nyght ; 
404 The mefag goith forth with the l^^^s Right. 
IHE king eft lone, w»t^in a litill fpace, 

His lomay makith haith frome place to place, 

Whill that he cam to camelot ; and there 
408 The clerkf« all, as that the chargit were, 

Aflemblit war, and came to his prefens. 

Of his deiir to yiting the fentens. 

To them that war to hyme moll fpeciall 
412 Earth his entent ihanyth he al hall ; 

By whois confeil of the worthieft 

He cheiith ten, yclepit for the befl, 

And moft expert and wifeft was fuppofit, 
416 To qwhome his drem al hail he haith difcloilit ; 

The houre, the nyght, and al the carcumftans ; 

Befichyne them that the fignifycans 

Thei wald hyme Ihaw, that he mycht refting fynde 
420 Of It, the wich that occupeid his mynde. 

And one of them with^ al ther hoU aflent 

Saith, '* iliire, fore to declare onr entent 

Vpone this matere, ye wil ws delay 
424 Pore to awyfing one to the ix day." 

The king ther-to grantith haith, hot hee 

In to place, that ftrong was and hye, 

He cloiith them, whare thei may no where get, 
428 Yn to the day, the wich he to them set. 

Than goith the clerki> ladly to awyfi 

Of this mat^, to feing in what wyf^ 

The kingf« drem thei fhal beft fpecefy. 
432 And than the maiftris of aftronomy 

The booki> longyne to ther ams set ;' 

Not was the bak»> of arachell forget, 



He goes to Came- 
lot, and finds the 
clerks assembled. 



He discloses all 
to the ten that are 
most expert, 



[Fol. 6ft.] 



and beseeches 
them to explain 
thedreyns. 



One of them asks 
for nine days to 
advise upon the 
matter. 



The king com- 
plies, but shuts 
them up in a 
strong place. 



The masters of 
astronomv 
their book 



* MS. "saith with" (with a very slight scratch through "saith"). 
» So in MS. Read"fet." 



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14 THEY REFUSE TO EXPLAIN THEM. 

Of nembrot, of dan^helome, thei two, 
436 Of moyfes, and of herjrnes all soo ; 
dfsp^ti^SSS ^nd feking be ther calcolacioune 
^ ^^' To fynd the pianette difpoiicioune. 

The wich thei fond ware wond^ ewill yfet 
440 The famyne night the king his fweuen met. 
So ner the point focht thei haye the thing, 
"SZJZ^^I^ raeifondltwond-rhewytotheking, ^^^'^Tl^. 

the king, /m» • i. i.T_' xi. • • x *^ *^^ n^O*:^^^^^^ 

and doubted if Of wich thing thei waryng in to were ^ 

^^houid teu 444 Xo fhew the king, for dreid of his danger. 
Of ane accoide thei planly hane proponit 
"No word to fhow, and fo thei them difponit. 
Being sent for, The day is cumyng, and he haith fore them fent, 

448 Befichyne them to (hewing ther entent. 
^|7 *^ "P^ Than fpak they all, and that of an accorde ; 
no eVidenoe.". « giuy^ of this thing WO Can no thing Eecorde, 

For we can noght fynd in til onr fciens 
452 Tweching this mater ony ewydens." 
qn^oth "St ^g! " J^ow," quad the king, « and be the glorius lorde, 
'^^^^^"^ Or we depart ye fhall fum thing recorde ; 
So pas yhe not, nor fo It fall not bee." 
456 " Than," quod the clerks, ** grant ws dais three." 
[Foi. 7a.} The wich he grantid them, and but delay 
S^efd?^ mow! The term paffith, no thing wold the fey, 
Wharof the king flondith heny cherith, 
460 And to the derkM Ais vifag fo apperith, 

That all thei dred them of the kingt« myght. 
I^J^J^^f Than faith o clerk, " sir, as the thrid nyght 
three days. y^ drcmyt, fo giffls WS delay 

464 The thrid tyme, and to the thrid day." 

By whilk tyme thei fiindyng haith the ende 
Of this mater, als fiEur as fhal depend 
To ther fciens ; yit can thei not awyfi 
468 To fchewing to the king be ony wyfi. 
Thej Btiu refiiie The day is cum, the king haith them befocht, 
thought Bot one no wyfi thei wald declar ther thoght ; 



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INTERPRETATION OF THE DREAMS. 



1& 



Than was he wroth in to his felf and noyt, 
472 And maid his wow that thei fhal^ ben diftroyt. 

His baronis he commandit to gar tak 

Pyve of them one to the fir-ftak, 

And vther fyue be to the gibbot tone ; 
476 And the farth with the kingis charg ar gone. 

He bad them in to fecret wyf!» that thei 

Shud do no harm but only them ailey. 

The clarkis, dredfiil of the kingi^ Ire, 
480 And faw the prell of deth and of the fyre, 

Fyye, as thei can, has grantit to record ; 

That yther herde and ben of ther accorde ; 

And al thei ben yled one to the king 
484 And fhew hyme thus as tueching of this thing. 

" Shir, fen that we conftrenyt ar by myght 

To fhaw that wich* we knaw no thing aricht ; 

For thing to cum preferuith It allan 
488 To hyme the wich is euery thing certan, 

Excep the thing that till our knawleg hee 

Hath ordynat of certan for to bee ; 

Therfor, Ihir king, we your magnificens 
492 Befeich It tume till ws to non offens, 

"Not hald ws nocht as leartV, thoght It fall 

I^ot in this mat^, as that we telen fhall." 

And that the king haith grantit them, and thei 
496 Has chargit one, that one this wif^ fidl feye. 

" Prefii myth, fliir, that we have fiindyn ejfo ; 

All erdly h onore ye ned ift moft for-go^ 

And t hem ihe wic h ye moft aff^in-tyll 
600 Shal failye jow, magre of ther will ; 

And thus we haue in to this matere founde." 

The king, quhois hart was al wyth dred ybownd, 

And afkit at the clerkis, if thei fynde 
604 By there clergy, that ftant i» ony kynde 



The king tows to* 
destroy them ;. 



but aecretiy- 
charges his 
knights not to> 
harm them.. 



They yield atlasty 
and say, 



*(HoId uBBotas 
liars, though it 
happennotaswe 
say. 



You must forego 
all earthly 
honour ; 

[Fol. 76.] 

and those on 
-whom yon most 
rely, wUl faU 
you.'* 



> MS. "Ihat." 



» MS. "wich that." 



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16 THE CLERKS GIVE MYSTERIOUS ADVICE. 

The Ui^ Mks if Of poffibiUtee, fore to reforme 

be altered. His defteny, that ftud in fuch a forme ; 

If in the hewyne Is preordynat 
508 On fuch o wif^ his honor to tranilat. 

The clerkiV faith, <^ Forfuth, and we haue fene 
Tbej reply, that O thing whar-of . if we the trouth fhal men, 

the matter la . 

dark. Is fo obfcure and djrk til our clergy e, 

512 That we wat not what It fhal iignefye, 
"Wich caufith ws we can It not forth iay." 
" Tie," quod the king, " as lykith yow ye may. 
For wers than this can not be laid for me." 

^e^**^o hSp ^1^ Thane faith o maiftir, " Than futhly thw finde we ; 

iVtJ? i^. ^d Thar is no thing fal fucour nor refkew, 

ta ^^^.^ Your worldly honore nedis moft adew, 

Bat thronch the watrye Ijone md^kf^e, 
520 fin thronch the liche and ek the wattirJP^e, 

God knowB what And throuch the confeill of the flour ; god wot 

thushoQldmean. ^ — ^^ ~ ' ° 

What this fhude men, for mor ther-of we not." 
1^0 word the king anfuerid ayane, 
624 For al this refone thinkith hot in weyne ; 
^"" ^"Li'^S^ He ihawith outwart his contenans 

no oatwara gxiefa 

As he therof takith no greuans ; 
Sl^tT^"^ But al the nyght it paffid nat his thoght ; 
"^^*- 528 The dais courfi w»tA fdl defir he focht ; 

And furth he goith to bring his mynd in reft 
Next day he goes "With mony knyght vn to the gret foreft : 

to the forest. *' •'" ,,. 

The rachis gon wn-copelit for the deire, 
532 That in the wodis makith nois and cheir : 
The knychtttf with the grewhundw in aweit, 
' . Secith boith the planis and the flreit. 

The chaM. Doune goith the hart, doune goith the hynd alfo ; 

536 [In to the feld can rufching to and fro] ^ 
The fwifb grewhund, hardy of aifay ; 
Befor ther hedis no thing goith away. 



^ A line must here be lost, but there is nothmg to shew this in the MS. 



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galiot's message. 



17 



The king of hunting takith haith his fport, 
540 And to his palace home he can Eefort, 
Ayan the noon ; and as that he was set 
Yith all his nohle kajghtis at the met, 
So cam ther in an agit knyght, and hee 
644 Of gret efllat femyt for to bee ; 

Anarmyt all, as tho It was the gyf>, 
And thus the king he falufl, one this wif^, 



548 



^^ CIHIR king, one to yow am y fende 



Frome the worthieft that i» world is kend, 

That leuyth now of his tyme and age, 

Of manhed, wifdome, and of hie curag, 

Galiot, fone of the fare gyande ; 
552 And thus, at fhort, he bidw yow your londe 

Te yald hyme our, w*tAout Impedyment ; 

Or of hyme holde, and if tribut and rent. 

This is my charge at fliort, whilk if youe left 
556 Eor to fulfill, of al he haith conqueft 

He iais that he moft tendir fhal youe hald/' 

By fhort awys the king his anfuer yald ; 

" Shir kajoht, your lorde wondir hie pretendis, 
560 When he to me fie falutatioune send»> ; 

For I as yit, in tymys that ar gone, 

Held neu^ lond excep of god alone, 

Nore neiwr thinkith til erthly lord to yef 
664 Trybut nor rent, als long as I may lef." 

''"Well," quod the kojchty "ful for repentith me ; 

Non may recift the thing the wich mone bee. 

To yow, ftr king, than frome my lord am I 
668 With diffyans fent, and be this refone why ; 

His purpos Is, or this day moneth day. 

With all his oft planly to affay 

Tour lond, wtt^ mony manly man of were, 
672 And helmyt knjohttSy boith with fheld and fpere ; 

And neu^ thinkith to retwm home whill 

That he this lond haith conqueft at his will ; 



The king nturns. 



[Fol. 8a.] 

As they ait at 
meat, an aged 
knight enters, 
folly armed. 



The knlght'8 
message is that 
king Galiot bids 
Arthur to yield 
to him his king- 
dom. 



The king reftises. 



The knight re- 
plies, that his 
lord bids him de- 
fiance, and will 
invade his land in 
a month ; 



not to return till 
hehaseonquered, 
and intending to 
potsesa queen 
Vanour. 

2 



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18 ARTHUB DEFIPS OALIOT. 

And e^ yafiour the quen, of whome that hee 
576 Herith report of al this world that ihee 
In fairhed and in wertew doith excede, 
He bad me iay he think»» to poflede." 
w?dSL^^ " Schir," quod the king, '* your mefag me behufw 

680 Of refone and of curtafy excuflft ; 

But tueching to your lord and to his oft, 
His powar, his mefag, and his boft, 
That pretendith my lend for to diftroy, 
684 Thar-of as jit tak I non anoye ; 
[Foi. ».] And fay your lord one my behalf, when hee 

Haith tone my lond, that al the world fhal see 
That It fhal be magre myne entent." 
The knigbt de- 688 With that the kaychty wttAouten leif, is went, 

parti} lamenting . . ' 

Arthur's adven- And ncht as he was pafing to the dure 

torons spirit. 

He faith, "A Gode P what wykyt aduenture 
Apperith ! " With that his hors he nome, 
592 Two knichtw kepit, waiting his outcome. 
The kmcht is gon, the king he gan Inquere 
At gawan, and at other larychtis sere, 

TO %h?^jS5t -^ *^** *^®^ ^®^ ®^ ®^^ ^^^ recorde 

**• 696 Of galiot, jond whaxof he wes lorde ; 

And ther was non among his kny^^AtM all 
Which anfuerd o word in to the hall. 
Than galygantynis pf walys rafe, 

^Sr?e^ o' 600 That trauelit in diuerf) londw has, 

In mony kny^^Atly auentur haith ben ; 
And to the king he faith, '* ftir, I haue sen 
Galiot, which is the fareft knycAt, 

that Galiot is the 604 And Heft be half a fat one hycht, 

tallest knight h\ ^ ' 

JjlLt/^iPfw That eu^ I saw, and ek his men accordith : 

he ever saw; that ' ' 

humwTcoSSSSL ^y°^® ^*^^ ^^^^^ ^** ^ * ^^^ recordith. 
SSVy^Sj ^or vifare of his ag is non than hee, 
608 And fill of larges, and humylytee ; 



> MS. "agod«.* 



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THE LADY OF MBLTHAXT'S MBSSAOE. 



19 



An hart he haith of paimg hie ourag, 

And is not zxiiij ^er of age, 

And of his tyme meHL haith oonquisrit ; 

612 Ten kingi'» at his command ar flerit. 
He Ytth his men fo looit is, y gefi, 
That hyme to plefi is al ther hefynes. 
Not fay I this, fir, in to ye entent 

616 That he, nor none wnd^ the firmament, 
Shal pouere hane ayane your maieflee ; 
And or thei fhnld, this y fey for mee. 
Rather I ihall knye^Atly in to feild 

620 Eefaue my deith anarmyt wnd^ iheld. 

This fpek y left." The king, ayan the mofm, 
Haith vamit hnntan^ foaith with hund and hom^, 
And arly gan one to the foreft ryd, /)» p i * \ 

624 With mony manly knyght»« by his fid, *^ ' ' 
Hyme for to fport and comfort wttA the dere ; 
Set contrare was the fefone of y* yere. 
His moft huntyng was atte wyld bore ; 

628 God wot a htftye cnntree was It thoore, 

In the ilk tyme ! Weil long this noble king 
In to this lond haith maid his fiiomyng ; 
Frome the lady was send o mefinger 

632 Of melyhalt, wich faith one this maner, 
As that the ftory ftiewith by recorde : 
^^ nnO yow, ftr king, as to her fou^ran lorde, 
J- My lady hath me chargit for to fay 

636 How that your lond ftondith in af&ay ; 
For galiot, fone of the fare gyande, 
Enterit Is by armys in yonr land. 
And fo the lond and cuntre he anoyth, 

640 That quhar he goith planly he diftroyth, 
And makith al obeifand to his honde. 
That nocht is left wnconqneft in that lond, 
Ezcep two oafijellM longing to hir owre, 

644 Wich to defend ihe may no^At long endnre. 



(Fan Idngt obiy 



Tbe Unff gbm 
Main to tM 



He llkM boar 
hunting bMt. 

[Fol. 9a.] 



oomes from the 
lady of Melyhalt, 



toMtythatGaUot 
has entered Ar- 
thur's land, 



and has conquer- 
ed bU but two 
castles belonging 
to his mistress. 



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20 



ARTHtJB S READINESS FOR WAR. 



Wharfor, fir, in word»> plan and ihort, 
Ye mon difpone your folk for to fupport." 
SL^ot tode. " ^®^'" ^•^^^ ^^ ^^S' " one to thi lady fay 

SJ'n^iSSS: 648 The neid is myne, I fall It not delay ; 
'**• Bat what folk ar thei nemmyt for to bee, 

That in my lond is cumyne in iioh degree ?" 
ttituS^^ the " -^ hnndreth thonland boith vith Iheld and fpere 

"P^y- 662 On hors ar annyt, al redy for the were." 

" "Wei," qwod the king, ** and but delay this njehty 
Or than to mom as that the day is lycht, 
^ ^^off^t I ihal remuf ; ther ihal no thing me mak 
▼ery 8 t. ^^^ Impedyme»t, my lomey for to tak." 

Than feitb his kny<^At»« al with one aflenty 
His knights ad- « Slinx, that is al contrare our entent ; 

Tise him to wait ' ' 

tiu he has raised Por to vour folk this mater is wnwift, 

an army. *' ' 

660 And ye ar here our few for to recift 

^one power, and youre cuntre to defende ; 
Tharfor abid, and for your folk ye send, 
That lyk a king and lyk a weriour 

664 Ye may fuflen in armys your honoure." 

" Now," quod the king, "no langer that I jeme 
My crowne, my fepture, nor my dyademe, 
Frome that I here, ore frome I wnd^fhmd, 

668 That ther by fors be entrit in my land 
Men of annys, by ftrenth of vyolens, 
witlJS^r u^ If ti^at I mak abid or refydens 
tiu the morrow. Into place Isugar than ny(?At, 

672 For to defend my cuntre and my rychL" 
[FoL 9b,} The king that day his mefage haith forth sent 
Throuch al his realme, and fyne to reil is went. 

Fgoith the morow, wp goith the hrycht day j 
— Wp goith the sone in to his frefh aray ; . 

Eicht as he fpred his bemys frome northeft, 
2ext SSSiiS*** -^^ ^^S wprafi wttAouten more areft, 

without deUy, j^^ ]^y ^^ ^^^ ^^j^f^Q ^^ ^^^^^^ 

680 His loznaye tuk at ihort awyiment. 



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LANCELOT 8 LAMENT. 



21 






And but dulay he goith frome place to place 
Whill tliat lie cam nere whare* the lady was, 
And in one plane, apone o rener fjde, 

684 He lichtit donne, and ther he can abide ; 
And yit with hyme to batell fore to go 
Vij thousand fechterw war thei, and no mo, 
I fTlHIS was the lady, of qwhome befor I tolde, 

68p -I- That lancilot haith in to hir kepinge holde ; 
But for to tell his paiing hewyneife, 
His peyne, his forow, and. his gret difb^ile 
Of prefone and of loues gret fuppris, 

692 It war to long to me for to dewys. 

When he reme/nbrith one his hewy charge 
Of loue, wharof he can hjnne not difchorge, 
He wepith and he forowith in his chore, 

696 And euery nyght femyth hjnne o yere. 
Gret peite was the forow that he maad, 
And to hyme-felf apone this wifi he faade : 



and reaches a 
plain by the river 
tide, 



haying onlyseren 
thonaand with 
him. 

Lancelot, haring 
been imprisoned 
by the lady of 
Melyhalt, 



^^/\ WHAT haue y gilt, allace ! or qwhat defoniit? 
700 ^ That thus myne hart fhalvondit ben <M»<?carwit 

One by the fuord of double peine and wo ? 

My comfort and my plefans is ago, 
To me is nat that fhuld me glaid referuit. 

704 I curfi the tyme of myne Natiuitee, 

Whar in the heuin It ordinyd was for me. 
In all my lyue neu^ til haue eef) ; 
But for to be example of difefi, 
708 And that apperith that eu^ vicht may see. 

Sen thelke tyme that I had fufficians 
Of age, and chargit thoghtt« fufferans, 
Nor neu^ I (»mtinewite haith o day 
712 With-out the payne of thoghtM hard aflay ; 
Thus goith my youth in tempefl and penans. 

1 MS. « whare thaV with slight scratch through '<that." 



laments his fate. 

Lancelot's la- 
ment ; 



his pleasnre is 
gone; 



he corses his 
natal day; 



he has never 
spent a single 
day free from 
anxiety. 



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22 GALIOT BESIEGES A CASTLE. 

a^ is BOW in And uaw my body is In prefone brog^t ; 

[FoL loa.] But of my wo, that in Regard is noght, 
716 The wich myne bart felith euer more. 

deth,. allace ! whi hath yow me forbore 

Mid mtoket rpj^^ ^£ ^^^^ j^jjj^ ^j^^ ^^ j^j^g bofoght I '' 



Thns nen^remore he fefith to compleinei 
720 This woful knyght that felith not bot peine ; 
S^ tovi?l*sSS5 ^® prekith hyme the finert of loues fore, 
pricketh him. ^^ eudfy day encreifith more and more. 

And with this lady taking is alfo, 
Sun ^ra^rdM ^^^ -^^^ ^®P^^ whar.he may no whare go 
of knighthood ; To haunt knychthed, the wich he moft defirit ; 

And thus his hart wetA dpwbil wo yfirite : ^^f^i "" 7 ^ 
htoSSL'"' ^' ^« ^** ^y^® duel here ^th the lady (till, tfiTu t^ J 

728 Whar he haith laifere for to oompLeine his fyll, 
qXr^gsd n A ^^ ^^* ^ tliis meyne tyme he laie 

•~*^*- -^ By ftrong myght o caftell to aflay, 

With many engyne and diu^rf^ wais fere, 
732 Por of fute folk he had a gret powere 

That bowis bur, and vther In(bimienti>, 

5u<S^tcnte^«Sl ^^ ^^ *^®°^ ^®^® *^®^ paljonis and ther tentw, 
iwa^heeia "^£^1^ mony ftrong chariot and cher 

736 With yme qwhelis and barris long and fqwar ; 
Well ftuffit with al maner apparell 
That longith to o fege or to batell ; 
Whar-with his oft was cloftt al about, 
740 That of no ftrenth nedith hyme to dout. 
2Su?8 oSSng' '^^ when he hard the cumyne of the king, 
And of his oft, and of his gaderyng, 
The wich he reput but of f ebil myght 
744 Ayanis hyme for to fuften the ftcht, 
His confell holl aftemblit he, but were, 
coi^cST*^ ^ T®^ knightw with other lordw fere, 

And told theme of the cuining of the king, 
748 And afkit them there coniell of that thing. 



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PREPARATION FOR THE BATTLE. 



23 



Hyme thoght that it his worfchip wold degrade, 
If he hyme felf in propir p^fone raide 
Enarmyt agane fo few menye 

752 As It was told arthur fore to bee ; 

And thane the kyng An hund^eth kajehtis cold, 
And fo he hot, (for neu^rmore he wolde 
Ryd of his lond, but In his cnwpany 

756 hundyie knyghtftf M of chiuellry) ; 
He faith, << Shir, ande I one hond tak, 
If It you pleft this lomey fhal I mak." 
Quod galiot, " I grant It yow, but ye 

760 Shal firft go ryd, yone Imjchtts oft and see.*' 
With-outen more he ridith our the plan, 
And faw the oft and is retumyd ayan ; 
And callit them mo than he hade fen, for why ? 

764 He dred the reprefe of his cumpany. 

And to his lord apone this wys faith hee, 
*' Shir, ten thoufand y ges them for to bee." 
And galiot haith chargit hyme to tak 

768 Als fell folk, and for the feld hyme mak. 
And fo he doith and haith them wel Arayt ; 
Apone the mome his banaris war difplayt. 

Fgoth the trumpeter with the clariouns, 
Ayaine the feld blawen farth ther fownis, 

Eurth goth this king with al his oft anon. 
Be this the word wes to king arthur gone, 
That knew no thing, nor wift of ther entent, 

776 But fone his folk ar one to armys went ; 
But arthur by Report hard saye 
How galiot non armys bur that day, 
Wharfor he thoght of armys nor of iheld 

780 None wald he tak, nor mak hyme for the feld. 
But gawane haith he clepit, was hyme by. 
In qwhome Rignith the flour of cheuelry ; 
And told one what man5r,~aii~J one what wyfi 

784 He fhuld his batelles ordand and dewys ; 



ivho thought it 
would degrade 
him, to fight in 
proper perscm 
against so few. 



[Fol. 10».] 

The kinff of a 
hundred knights 
(Maleginis) un- 
dertakes toe ex- 
ploit; 



who reconnoitres 
Arthur's host, 
and says it is 
10,000 strong; 
whereon Galiot 
charges him to 
take the same 
numher. 



Galiot's host set 
out. 



Arthur's host don 
their armour. 



Arthur, hearing 
that Galiot is un- 
armed, will not 
armhunself; 



but calls Gawane, 
and tells him how 
to order his bat- 
talions. 



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24 GAWANE HARANGUES HIS MEN. 

Befeching hyme wifly to for-see 
Ajaine thei folk, wich wag far mo than hee. 
He knew the oharg and paflith one his way 
788 Furth to his hor6, and makith no dulay ; 
The clariouiiis blew and fiirth goth al onon, 
SS^'^%y^ And onr ye watt^ and the ford ar gone, 
giewater at the Within playne vpone that other fyd 
792 Ther gawan gon his batellis to dewide. 
As he wel couth, and set them in aray, 
Syne with o manly contynans can fay, 
Hehanngaeibis a Ye falowis wich of the round table ben, 

796 Through al this erth whois &m is hard and fen, 
Bemembrith now It ftondith one the poynt, 
Por why ? It lyith one your iperis poynt,* 
[Foi. iin.] The well-fare of the king and of our londe ; 
800 And fen the fucour lyith in your honde. 
And haidement is thing fhall moft awaill 
Frome deth ther men of armys in bataill, 
Lat now your manhed and your hie curage 
804 The pryd of al thir 'multitude afluage ; 
Deth or defence, non other thing we wot." 
hi?^t "c^*" This frefch king, that maleginis was hot, 

oyer the pli 
and Gawane 
sends a oompi 
against them. 

In myde the borde, and feitinit in the ilell 
The fperithis poynt, that bitith fcharp and well ; 
But they were au Bot al to few thei war, and myeht noehi left 

too few ; where- " 

ton Gawane 812 This sret Bout that cummyth one fo faft. 

sends a second " *' 

company^ then a Than haith fir gawan fend, them to fupport, 
8ete*out^^^ One othir batell with one knjehilj sorte ; 
to rMist the ' j^^ fyj^Q the thrid, and fyne the ferde alfo ; 
816 And fyne hyme-felf one to the feld can go, 
When that he fauch thar latt^ batell fteir. 
And the ten thoufand cummyne al thei voir ; 

^ At the bottom of this paee appears for the first time a catchword, which 
"The wel fare." 



Sld'GSfanS^"* Wi^ al his oft he cuwmyne our the plan, 

s^ds a company g^g j^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^^ . 



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GAWANE DEFEATS MALEGINIS. 



25 



Qwhar that of armes prewit he so well, 

820 His e^nemys gane his mortall fell. 

He goith ymong them in his hie curage. 
As he that had of knyghthed the wfage. 
And couth hyme weill conten i» to on hour ; 

824 A^aine his ibxik reiiitit non armour ; 

And mony knjcht, that worth ware and boldey 
"War there with hyme of arthuri9 heufhold, 
And knyghtly gan one to the feld them here, 

828 And mekil wroght of armys In to were ; 
Sir gawan than vpone fuch wyfi hyme hure. 
This othere goith al to difcumfitoure ; 
Sewyne thoufand fled, and of the feld thei go, 

832 Whar-of this king in to his hart was wo, 
For of hyme felf he was of hie curage. 
To galiot than fend he in mefag, 
That he fhuld help his folk for to defende; 

836 And he to hyme hath xxx^ thousand sende ; 
Whar-of this king gladith in his hart, 
And thinkith to Beweng all the finait 
That he to-for haith fuffirit and the payne. 

840 And al his folk retumyt Is ayayne 

Atour the feld, and cu^tmyne thilk as haill ;^ 
The fwyft horfi goith firft to the aflall. 
This noble knyght that feith the greitd forft 

844 Of armyt men, that cummyne ypone hori^, 
To-giddir femblit al his falowfchip. 
And thoght them at the fhaip poynt to kep, 
So that thar harm fhal be fid deir yboght. 

848 This vthere folk with ftraucht cour6 hath focht 
Out of aray atour the larg felld ; 
Thar was the flroki> feftnit in the fhelde, 
Thei war Eefauit at the fpert« end. 

852 So arthurM folk can manfully defend ; 



He goes among 
them in his 
ooturage. 



and many other 
of Arthur's 
knights perform 
wonders. 



Haleginis goefh 
to discomfiture, 
and 7,000 of his 



Galiot sends him 
30,000 more. 



[Fol. lU.] 

His folk retom 
across the field as 
thick as haU. 



Arthur's folk re- 
ceiYo them man* 
ftUly, 



^ MS. 'Hbilk as (Rayne) haill," as if it were at first intended to find a rime to 
"ayayne," 



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26 gawane's valiant deeds. 

The formefl can thar lyues end conclude, 

Whax fone ailemblit al the mnltitude. 

Thar was defens, ther was gret affailly 
856 Richt wond^rfuU and firong was y® bataill, 
b^toin muoh y^y^. arthun, folk fuftenit mekil payn, 

And kny^Atly them defendit haith a^aine. 
^ "SJISS^t^ ^^^ ©ndnr thei mjeht, apone no wyft, 



860 The multitude and ek the gret fuppnfi ; 
But gawanf, wich that fetith al his payn 
Ypone knyghthed, defendid fo a^aine, 
That only in the nianhede of this knyght 
864 His folk relofit them of his gret myght. 
And ek abafit hath his ennemys ; 
For throw the feld he goith in luch wyfi, 
And in the pref^ fo maufcdly them fmiith, 
Gawane carrM 868 His fuerd atwo the helmys al to-kerwith, 

hdmeU in two, *' ' 

S^iS^n*^** ^^® ^®^** ^^ ^® ^® ^^ Ihouldwis fmat ; 

The horft goith, of the maifbr defolat. 
But what awaileth al his befynes, 
872 So firong and fo infufferable vas the pref^ ? 
^8*the"^'to Bis folk are paifit atour the fordis ilkon, 
gototktoiodges. Towart ther bretis and to ther luges gon ; 
"Whar he and many worthy knyght alio 
876 Of arthurw houfi eiidurit mekill '^o, ' 
That nfeutfr men mar in to armys vroght 
Of manhed, jit was It al for noght. 
[Pd. i2a.] Thar was the ftrenth, ther was the pafing myght 
Gawane foxutht 880 Of gawan, wich that whill the dirk nyght 

alone till ni^t, , , , , , 

Befor the luges faucht al hyme alon, 
When that his falowis entrit ware ilkon. 
On arthur»« half war mony tan and ilan ; 
whenGaiiot'Bfoik 884 And galot«> folk Is hame retwmyd ajaine, 

retomed home. '^ • 

For it was lait. Away the oftis ridit^, 
And Gawan ^t apone his hor6 abidxth, 
With fuerd in bond, when thei away var gon, 
888 And so for-wrocht hys lymmys ver ilkon, 



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LANCELOT PRAYS TO BE RELEASED. 



27 



And wondit ek his body vp and doune, 
Ypone his hori^ Eight thore he fel in fwoune ; 
^jun And thei hjme tuk and to his lugyne barei 

' ' 'I* . 892 Boith king and qwen of hyme vare in difpare ; 
r( UcJi \f ^or thei fuppolit, throw marwellis that he yroght, 
He had hyme-felf to his confuiioune broght. 
[T]his^ was nere by ofmelyhalt, the hyll,. 

896 Whar lanfcelot ^it was with the lady iHll; 
The Isnyohtia of the court paiing home ; 
This ladiis laijchUa to hir palice com, 
And told to hir, how that the feld was vent, 

900 ,^d of gawan, and of his hardyment, 
vThat merwell was his manhed to behold ; ; 
And fone thir tithingt« to the kni^ At yas told, 
That was with wo and hewynefs oppreA ; 

904 So noyith hyme his fuiome and his reili 
And but dulay one for o hajcht he send, 
That was moil ^eciall with the lady k^id. 
He comyne^ and ihekajcht vn to hyme faid; 

908 '* Difpleft ^ow not, f«r, be ^he not ill paid, 
So homly thus I yow exort to go, 
To gare my lady fpek o word or two 
With me, that am a cacfiil pr^fon^e." 

912 " Sir, your co«»mande y fhall, wft^uten were, 
Fulfill;" and to his lady paffit hee 
In lawly wyft befichang her, that (he 
Wald grant hyme to pas at his requei!;, 

916 Unto hir knyMt, flood undtfr hir areft; 
And ihe, that knew al gentillef^ aright^ 
Furth to his chamber paOit wight' the licht. 

AND he aroft and faluft Curtafly. 
The lady, and (aid, /^ Madem, her I,* 
Your prefoner, befekith yow that ^he 
Wold merfy and compaffione haye.of me> 



920 



Gawane swoons 
upon his horse. 



The king and 

Sueen fear he has 
rough t himself 
to oonftision. 



TheladyofMely- 
halt hears of Ga- 
wane's deeds ; 

and Lanoelot 
also, 



who sends for a 
knight to take a 
message to the 
lady; 



who oomes to his 
ohamher. 

[Fol. m.] 

Lanoelot be* 
seeoheshertoap^ 
pointltis ransom. 



See note to thb line. 



» "with?.' (?). 



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28 THE LADY AT FIRffT REFUSES; 

And mak the ranfone wich that I may yeif ; 

924 I waifl my tyme in presonne thus to leife» 
For why? I her on be report be told 
That arthnr, with the flour of his houfholde, 
Is cummyne here, and in this cuntre lyis, 

928 And flant In danger of his ennemyis. 

And hoith affemblit; and eft this fhalt bee 
Within Ihort tyme one new aflemblee. 
Thar-for, my lady, y youe grace befech, 

932 That I mycht pas, my Eanfon for to fech ; 
presondng that Fore I prtffume thar longith to that fort 

■ome of Arthiir's * ^ 

knights wiu pay That louid me, and fhal my nede fupport." 

^^ aHIBE kny^^At, It flant no^^t in fich dugree ; 
S^dSSSStTOt ^^^ ^ It is no ranfone wich that caufith me 
uSSSJid" wS T<^ holden yow, or don yow fich offens ; 
for hiigmut. jt ig y^^ gillj^ It ia y^^ widens, 

Whar-of that I defir no thing but law, 
940 "Wit^ut report your awn trefpas to knaw." 

*^ Madem, your plefance may ye wel fdlfiU 

Of me, that am in pr^one at your will. 
He^wyi for B^t of that gilt, I was for til excufi, 

944 For that I did of werrey nede behwfi. 

It tnechit to my honore and my fame ; 

I mycht noeht lefe It but hurting of my nam. 

And ek the knycht was mor to blam than I. 
948 But ye, my lady, of your curteffy, 

Wold je deden my Bansoune to refaue, 
M^hep tm Of prefone fo I my Hbertee myght haue, 

Y ware plde eu^rmore your knyght, 
952 Whill that I leif with al my hoU myght. 

And if fo be ye lykith not to ma 
or at least to be My rafifone, if me leif to ga 

allowed to go to '' 

the next battle, To the aflemblo, wich (al be of new ; 

under a promise 

to retom at 956 And as that I am feithful kny^At and trew, 

night* 

At njeht to yow I ent^ fliall a^ame. 
But if that deth or other lat c^rtan, 



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BUT AT LAST GRANTS HIS BOON. 



29 



Throw wich I have fuch Impediment, 

960 That I be hold,^ magre mjne entent/' 

" Sir knyght," quod fhe, "I grant yow leif, witMhj 
Your name to me that je wil fpecify." 
''Madem, as pt futly I ne may 

964 Buclar my name, one be no man^ way ; 
But I promyt, als fail as I haue tyme 
Conuenient, or may vith-outen cryme, 
I fhall ;" and than the lady fidth hyme iyll, 

968 "And I, fchir kny^At, one this condifcione will 
Grant yow leve, fo that ye obM bee 
For to Eetom, as ye haue faid to me." 
Thus thei accord, the lady goith to refl, 

972 The Tone difcending cloiit in the veil; 
The ferd day was dewyiit for to bee 
Betuex the oflt^ of the aflemblee. 

AND gaHot Bicht arly by the day, 
^. w Ayane the feld he can hf^ folk aray ; 

And fourty thoufand armyt men haith he, 
That war not at the othir aflemble, 
Oommandit to the batell for to gon ; 
980 << And I my-felf," quod he, '<fhal me difpone 
On to the feild a^aine the thrid day ; 
"Whar of this were we llial the end aflay." 

AND arthuntf folk that come one eu^ry iyd, 
.^ . He for the feld can them for to prouide, 

Wich ware to few ajaine the gret affere 
Of gaHot ; }it to (nften the were 
The knyMti9 al out of the cete ro6 
988 Of melyholt, and to the femble gois. 
And the lady haith, in to facret wyfi, 
Gart for hir kny^^t and prefon^ dewyi^ 
i^ til he a In red al thing, that ganith for the were ; 
( t 992 His curfeir red, fo was boith fcheld and fpere. 



[Fol. iSa.] 

She consents, if 
he will specify to 
her his name. 



Hereftisesforthe 
present. 



She grants him 
leave, nnder the 
proposed condi- 
tion. 



Galiot assembles 
40,000 fresh men. 



Arthur also pro- 
Tides his men for 
the field. 



The knights of 
Melyhalt Join 
him. 

The lady secretly 
proTides Lance- 
lot urith a red 
oonrser, and a 
shield and spear, 
both red also. 



» MS. "behold.' 



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80 



LANCELOT ENOOURAGBS HIMSELF. 



And he, to qwham tibe piefoBe hath hen fioaart. 
With glaid deiir apone his curfour flart ; 
St fldd.*°aS^ Towait the feld anon he gan to ryd, 

bytheriyer^de. ^96 And in plan houit one reu^ syde. 

This Isnjchty the wich that long haith hen in cag, 
Lancelot is en- f He grew in to frefch and new curage, 

oourageo, Beelng ^ ^ ' 

SS ^^uu'^thl; ' ^in.^ the morow hly^Afoll and amen, 

wSi,*^<PSe l^^^f ^® "^®^> *^« Reuer, and the Todis gren, 
^hte and ban- ^ rjv^^ kny^Atw in armys them arayinge, 

[Foi. i».] The hanem ayaine the feld difplayng, 

' His jouth in flrenth and in prtffperytee, 
1004' And fyne of luft the gret aduerfytee.* 

Thus in his thoe^^t rememhryng at the lafl, 
2&t'Se'SL.7h; Eft^waxd one fyd he gan his Ey to caft, 

2?S^a S2SS. ^^^ o^ a ^rtes> lying haith he sen 

1008 Out to the feld Inking was the qwen; 
Sndandly with that his goft aftart 
J^^«^«^»>» Of lone anone haith cancht hyme hy the hart ; 

Than iaith he, '' How long fhall It be so, 
■ l^rri t I 1012 Loue, at yow Ihail wirk me al this wo ? 

Apone this wyfi to be Infortmiat> * 

Hir for to fime the widi thei no thing waite 
What fcdOferanoe I in hir wo endure, 
1016 Nor of my wo, nor of myne aduenture ? 
Apd I wnworthy ame for to attane 
To hir pr#«ms, nor dare I no^t complajie. 
hSuTS^p tt!I Bot, hart, fen at yow knawith {he is here, 

self at need, j^g^ rjc^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^y ^.^j^ -^ ^^^^ 

Now is thi tyme, now help thi-felf at neid, 
And the dewod of eu^ry point of dred, 
to^tow oow- That cowaidy be none In to the sSn, 

1024 Fore and yow do, yow knowis tiu peyne I weyn ; 
Yow art wnable eu#r to attane 
To hir ]Haaroy, or oxun be ony mayne. 

* May we read " diuerfytee " ? > MS. « abertes." 



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THE RED KNIGHT S TRANCE. 



81 



Tharfor y red hir thonk at yow diflerue, 
1028 Or in hir prM«iB lyk o knycAt to fterf." 

"With that confufit with an hewy thochty 

Wich ner his deith ful oft tyme haith hyme fo<?At, 

Deuoydit was his fpriti« and his gofl, 
1032 He wifl not of hyme-felf nor of his oft ; 

Bot one his horC», als ftill as ony fton. 

"When that the kajchtis armyt war ilkon, 

To wamnyng them yp goith the bludy fown, 
1036 And eu^ry knyght vpone his horfi is bown ; 

Twenty thoufand aimyt men of were. 

The king that day he wold non armys here ; 

His batellw ware devyfit eumlkon, 
1040 And them forbad out our the fuxd«« to gon. 

Bot frome that thei ther ennemys haith sen, 

In to fuch wys thei coutA them noght fuften ; 

Bot ovr thei went vithouten more delay, 
1044 And can them one that oy^ sid aflay. 

The red kny^At ftill in to his hewy thoght 
'r>4^« U ^^ li^ifyng pt apone the furd, and noght 

"Wift of hime felf ; with that a harrold com, 
1048 And Tone the hajcht he be the brydiLl nom, 

Saying, '^ A^alk ! It is no tyme to flep ; 

Your worfchip more expedient vare to kep." 

"No word he fpak, fo prikith hyme the fmart 
1052 Of heyynes, that ftood vnto his hart. 

Two fcrewis cam with that, of quhich on 

The kny^Ate^ ftield rycht frome his hals haith ton ; 

That vthir watt^ takith atte laft 
1056 And in the Imjchiis wentail haith It caft ; 

"When that he felt the vatt^ that yas cold 

He wonk, and gan about hyme to behold, 

And thinkith how he fum-quhat haith myfgon. 
1060 "With that his fpere In to his hand haith ton, 

Goith to the feild witAouten vordis more ; 

So was he Tare whare that there c^jn before, 



«y\ 



and to deserve 
her thanks or die. 



Gkmftised with a 
heayy thought, 



he [sits] on 
horse as stiU 
stone. 



The bugles are 
blown, and the 
kniffhts are ready 
on horseback. 
20,000 in numoer. 



They are forbid- 
Aen. to cross the 
fords, but cannot 
be restrained. 




[Fol. I4a.] 



The red knight 
still halting by 
the ford, a herald 
seizes his bridle, 
and bids him 
awake. 



Two shrews next 
approach; one 
takes his shield 
off his neck, 

the other casts 
water at his ven- 
tayle, which 
causes him to 
wink, and arouse 
himself. 



He goes to the 
field, and sees the 
first-conquest 
king. 



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32 THE RED KNIGHT FIGHTS LIKE A LION. 

manly man he was in to al thing, 
1064 And clepit was the ferfl-conquest king. 
The Eed Imjeht with fpurttf fmat the fted, 
The tother cam, that of hyme hath no drede ; 
They meet. With ferfi curag ben the knjehtts met, 

1068 The king his fpere apone the kny^At hath set, 
That al in pecif^ flaw in to the felde ; 
?hol^8hSS?^ His hawbrek helpit, fuppos he had no fcheld. 

ieM,^^Tertimrws j^^ )^q (j^e king in to the fcheld haith ton, 

1072 That horft and man boith to the erd ar gon. 
rti?e8'w^''siSSd. Than to the knye?At he cuwmyth, that haith tan 

His fheld, to hyme deliiwrith It ayane, 
Beiiching hyme that of his Ignorance, 
1076 That knew hyme nat, as takith no grewance. 

The knye?At hh fche[l]d but mor delay haith tak. 
And let hyme go, and no thing to hyme fpak. 
Than thei the* wich that fo at erth haith fen 
The men of the 1080 Ther lord, the ferft-conquefl king, ymen, 

fiiist*coiu][ue6t 

king oome to the In haift thei cam, as that thei var agrevit, 



And manfully thei haith ther king Eelenit. 
[A]nd Arthuris folk, that lykith not to byde, 
1084 In goith the spuria in the fledis syde ; 
[Foi. 14ft.] To-giddir thar aflemblit al the oil : 

At whois meting many o Imjcht was loft. 
The battle was The batell was richt crewell to behold, 

right cruel to be- ' 

hold. 1088 Of kny^Atw wich that haith there lyvis jolde. 

One to the hart the fpere goith throw the fcheld, 

The Imjehtis gaping lyith in the feld. 

The red kny<?At, bymyn g in loues fyre, 
1092 Goith to o laijchtj als fwiffc as ony vyre. 

The wich he perlit throuch and throuch the hart ; 
k^ 'hi 'Sw! The fpere is went ; wM that anon he ftart, 

SJlrSoallli ^d out fuerd in to his bond he tais ; 

^ field like a j^gg Lyk to lyone in to the feld hej^s^ 

» MS. " thei," altered to " thee," which is still wrong. 



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GAWANE BEHOLDS THE RED KNIGHT. 



33 



In to his Eag fmyting to and fro 

Fro fum the arm, fro fum the nek in two, 

Sum in the feild lying is in fwon, 

1100 And some his fuerd goith to the belt al doune. 
For qwhen that he beholdith to the qwen, 
"Who had ben there his manhed to haue* sen, 
His doing in to armys and his myght, 

1104 Shwld fay in world war not fuch o wight. 
His faloufchip siche comfort of his dede 
Haith ton, that thei ther ennemys ne dreid ; 
But can them-self ay manfoly conten 

1 108 In to the flour, that hard was to fuflen ; 
For galyot was o paling multitude 
Of prewit men in armys that war gude. 
The wich can with o frefch curag afTaill 

1112 The ennemys that day In to batell ; 

That ne ware not the vorfchip and manhede 
Of the red kny<?At, in p^ell and in dreid 
Arthurs folk had ben, vith-outen vere ; 

1116 Set thei var good, thei var of fmal powere. 
And gawan, wich gart bryng hyme-felf befor 
To the bertes, set he was vondit sore, 
Whar the qwen vas, and whar that he mycAt see 

1120 The manere of the oft and aflemble; 

And when that he the gret manhed haith sen 
Of the red kny<?At, he faith one to the qwen, 
" Madem, jone knyght in to the armys Rede, 

1124 ITor neu^r I hard nore faw in to no fted 

knytJ^t, the wich that in to fchortar Ipace 
In armys haith mor forton nore mor grace ; 
Wore bettir doith boith with Iper and fcheild, 

1128 He is the hed and comfort of our feild." 

'* Kow, f/r, I traift that neu^r more was fen 
1^0 man in feild more knyghtly hyme cont&ji ; 

1 pray to hyme that eu^ry thing hath cure, 
1132 Saifhyrae fro deth or wykit aduenture." 



Some he oleaves 
to the belt. 



His fellows take 
comfort from his 
deeds, 



thongh Galiot's 
host was a sur- 
passing multi- 
tude. 



Had it not been 
for the manhood 
ofthe red knight, 
Arthur's folk had 
been in peril. 



Gawan is led to 
the parapet, 



and saith to the 
queen, that none 
ever did better 
than yon red 
knight. 



[Fol. 15a.J 

The queen prays 
for Lancelot. 



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34 GALIOT PROPOSES A TRUCE. 

J?riioi2'^or^th ^^^ ^^^^ ^* ^^^ ^^^* p^reUus and ftrong 

■^*^®^» On boith the fydis, and continewit long, 

ti5°the"BJn°'^ ^y fro^ ^^e fone tlie vaxldis face gan licht 

gone down. ^ 136 Whill he was gone and cuwyne vas the nycht ; 
And than o forft thei mycht It not afllart, 
On eu^ry fyd behonit them depart. 

SL^^rJtSras* T^® ^^^^ is ^^^ ^^ ^^°^ g^i^^ ^^^^<^ kny<?At, 

kSSht'^ri^T^ 1140 And prevaly, unwift of any wicht, 

^ back to the rpi^g ^^y ^g j^ kny^j^t to the cete tails, 

As he had hecht, arid in hu chamber gals. 

When arthure hard how the knycht Is gon, 
1144 He blamyt fore his lordis eu^rilk-one ; 

And oft he haith remembrit in his thoght, 
fhfS5lu^e^f ^^at mnltitud that galiot had broght ; 

SS?°hLT^; Seing his folk that ware so ewil arayt, 

aaying, * ^ j^g j^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ftondith al afirayt, 

And faith, " I traift ful futh It fal be founde 
My drem Eicht as the clerkw gan expounde ; 
feUme'Stneed." ^^^^ why ? my men failjeis now at neid, 

1162 'My-felf, my londe, in p^rell and in dreide." 
^mjt^teiis his j^^ galiot vpone hie worfchip set, 

And his confell anon he gart be fet, 
To them he faith, " "With arthur weil ^e see 
1156 How that It ftant, and to qwhat degre, 
Ajanis ws that he is no poware ; 
honoi^^ "con- WharfoT, me think, no worfchip to ws ware 

quering Arthur, j^ conqueryng of hyme, nor of his londe, 

1160 He haith no ftrenth, he may ws not vithftonde. 
Wharfor, me think it befl Is to delay, 
twdvSSraS^s * ^^ refput hyme for a tuelmoneth day, 

*^<^' Whill that he may aflemble al his myght ; 

1164 Than is mor worfchip ajanis hyme to ficht ;" 
And thus concludit thoght hyme for the beft. 
The yery knycAtw palling to there Refl ; 
Of Melyholt the ladeis kny^Atii ilkone 
1168 Went home, and to hir pr^^s ar thei gon ; 



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THE LADY VISITS LANCELOT. 



35 



At qwhome M fone than gan fcho to Inquere, 
And al tlie maner of the oikta till spere ; 
How that It went, and in what man^r wyfi, 

11 72 "W"ho haith moll worfchip, and who is moft to pryfi ? 
'* Madem,** quod thei, " knjcht was In the feild, 
Of Eed was al his armour an4 his fheld, 
Whois manhed can al otheris to exced, 

11 76 May nan report in armys half his deid ; 
Ne wor his worfchip, Ihortly to conclud, 
Our folk of help had ben al deftitud. 
He haith the thonk, the vorfchip in hyme lyis, 

1180 That we the fold defendit in fich wyft " 
The lady thane one to hir-felf haith thocAt, 
" Whether Is jone my pr^onar, ore noght ? 
-The futhfaflneft that fhal y wit onon." 

1184 When euery wight vn to ther Reft war gon, 
She clepith one hir cwfynes ful nere 
Wich was to hir moft fpeciall and dere, 
^ And faith to hir, '* Qwheyar if yone bee 

1188 Our prefoner, my consell Is we see." 

With that the maden In hir hand hath ton 

torche, and to the ftabille ar thei gon ; 
And fond his fted lying at the ground, 

1192 Wich wery wds, y wot, with mony wounde. 

The maden faith, "Ypone this horfi is fen, 

He in the place quhar strokw was hath ben ; 

And jhit the horfi It is nocht wich that hee 
1 196 PurtA with hyme hade." The lady faid, '' ^er dee, 

He vfyt haith mo horfi than one or two ; 

1 red one to his armys at we go." 
Tharwith one to his armys ar thei went ; 

1200 Thei fond his helm, thei fond his hawbrek rent, 
Thei fond his fcheld was frufchit al to nocht ; 
At fchort, his armour In such wyfi vas vro^At 
In ^nery place, that no thing was left haill, 

1204 Nore neu*r eft acoordith to bataill. 



TbeladyofMely- 
holt asks her 
knights who hath 
won most hon- 



[Fol. 156.] 

They reply, that 
a red knight had 
exceeded all 
others. 



The lady wonders 
if her prisoner is 
meant 



She calls her 
cousin. 



who takes a 
torch, and they 
go to the stable, 

and find his steed 
wonnded. 



Next they view 
his armour, 



and find his hau- 
berk rent, and his 
shield frnshed all 
to naught. 



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36 THE LADY IS LOVE-SMTTTEN. 

Than faith the lady tohir culyneft, 
" What fal we fay, what of this maier geft ? 
** Madem, I fay, thei have nocht ben abwsyt ; 
1208 He that them bur fchortly he has them vfyt." 
" That may je fay, fuppos the beft that lewis, 
Or moft of worfchip in til annys prewis. 
Or jhit haith ben in ony tyme befom, 
1212 Had them in feld in his maft curag bom/' 
Si^liS^ht ^- " I^ow," quod the lady, '' will we paft, and see 

^*^™*«^» The knycAt hyme-self, and ther the futA may we 

[Foi. 16a.] Knaw of this thing." Incontynent them* boith 

1216 Thir ladeis vn to his chambre goith. 
^Ji° ^" ^^"^ ^^® 'kn.joht si wery fallyng was on Hep ; 

This maden paflith In, and takith kep. 
The lady's consia Sche fauch his biell With al his fchowd^s bare, 

observes his 

breast and shoui- 1220 That bludy War and wonndit her and thare ; 

dera bloody, his •' 

face hurt, and his His face was al to-hiirt and al to-fchent, 

fists swollen. 

His newis fwellyng war and al to-Kent. 
Sche finylyt a lyt, and to hir lady faid, 
1224 '* It femyth weill this knjcht hath ben aflaid." 

The kirychtis worfchip wich that he haith vroght. 
and is smitten to jj^ hire Kemembrance loues fyre dart 

the heart by the j . - -^ 

dart of love, 1228 \Wtth hot defyre hir fmat one to the hart ; 
And than a quhill, witA-onten wordw mo, 
In to hir mynd thinking to and fro. 
She ftudeit fo, and at the laft abraid 

SS^S'tTdraw ^232 Out of hir thocht, and fudandly thus faid, 

iS^ls^e^'inight! '' WitA-draw," quod Ihe, " one fyd a lyt» the lyght. 

Or that I pafS that I may kyfS the knyght.*' 

Her cousin re- u Madem," quod fche, '< what is It at le men? 

provra ner, / j. ' e 

1236 Of hie worfchip our mekiU hdve je sen 
So sone to be fuppr^'fit wetA o thoght. 
"What is It at jhe think ? pr^fwm ^e noght 
ihouid'awl^if ^* That if yon kny^^At wil walkin, and p^Haif, 

^ "then" (?). a MS. "alyt." 



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HER COUSIN REPROVES HER. 



37 



1240 He fhal yarof no thing hot ewill confaif ; 
• In his entent Euput yow therby 
The ablare to al lychtnet^ and foly ? 
And blam the more al vthem in his mynd, 

1244 If your gret wit in fich delire he fynde ? " 
^^I^ay," quod the lady, " no thing may I do 
Por fich knycAt may be defam me to." 
** Madem, I wot that for to lone yone knycAt, 

1248 Confidir his fame, his worfchip, and his mjcht ; 
And to begyne as worfchip wil dewyft, 
Syne he ayaine mjcht lowe yow one fuch wyft, 
And hold yow for his lady and his lone, 

1252 It war to yow no manor of Eeprwe. 
Bnt quhat if he appelit be and thret 
His hart to lowe, and ellis whar y-fet ? 
And wel y wot, madem, if It be so, 

1256 His hart hyme sal not fiiffir to lone two, 
For noble hart wil have no dowbilneft ; 
If It be fo, ,jhe tyne yowr low, I geft ; C-'*.*^' 
Than is your-felf, than is your lone Refufit, ^ 

1260 1 Your fam is hurt, your gladnefi is conclufit. 
My confell is, therfore, you to abflen 
WhiU that to yow the werray B.jcht be £en 
Of his entent, the wich ful fon jhe may 

1264 Have knawlag, If yow lykith to aflay.'* 
So mokil to hir lady haith {he vroght 
That at that tyme fhe haith Retwmyt hir thoeht, 
And to hir chambre went, wetAouten more, 

1268 "Whar lone of new aflaith hir ful sore. 
So well long thei fpeking of the kny<?At, 
Hir cufynace hath don al at Ihe mjckt 
For to expel that thing out of hir thocht ; 

1272 It wil not be, hir labour Is for nocht. 
Now leif we hir In to hir newefl pan. 
And to arthur we wil retwrn agan. 



The lady replies. 



Her coQsin next 
argues the point ; 



[Pol. 166.] 



and persuades 
the lady to return 
to her chamber, 
without further 
delay. 



Her cousin la- 
bours to expel 
her love for. Lan- 
celot from her 
thoughts, but her 
labour is Id vain. 



EXPLICIT FJRITAUS LIBER, INCIPIT SECUNDZ7iS. 



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38 Arthur's great anxiety. 



BOOK II. 

Night. rpHE clowdy nyght, wndir wbois obfcnre 

1276 J- The reft and quiet of eueiy criatur 
Lyitli fauf, qtOiare the goft with befyneft 
Is occupiit, with thoghtfull hewynes ; 
And, for that thocht forth fchewing vil his mycht, 
1280 Go farewel reft and qniet of the njcht, 
Arthur cannot ArtuT, I meyne, to whome that reft is nochty 

But al the njcht fuppriiit is with thocAt ; 
In to his bed he tumyth to and fro, 
1284 Eemembrjmg the apperans of his wo, 

That is to fay, his deith, his confufioune, 
And of his realme the opin diftxuccioune. 
That in his wit he can no thing prowide, 
1288 Bot tak his forton thar for to abyd. 
^e sun gocth Y^goith the foB, vp goith the hoimorow ; 

The thoghtful king al the nycht to forow, 
[Foi. 17a.] That fauch the day, vpone his feit he ftart, 

Arthur gocth 1292 And furth he goith, diftrublit in his hart. 

forth. — - — - — — — — ~ — -. - - - 

A quhill he walkith in his penfyf goft, 

d[CTk Saairivei ^^ ^^ ^® ^^® ^^ cuwmyne to the oft 

clerk, with whome he was aqwynt befor, 
1296 In to his tyme non better was y-bore ; 
Of qwhois com he gretly vas Reiofit, 
For in to hyme fum comfort he fuppofit ; 

^dwSs^^ttiCTe Betuex them was one hartly affeccioune. 

feSon.^®*'*^ *'" ^3^^ ^^^ ordms had he of Eelegioune, 

Pamw« he was, and of gret excellence, 

S^thS^scvOT ^ And rycht expert in al the vij. fcience ; 

sciences, Contemplatif and chaft in gou^mance, 

Am fflys . 1304 And clepit was the maift^ amytans. 



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AMYTANS REPROVES ARTHUR. 



39 



The king befor his pal^oune one the gren, 
That knew hyme well, and haith his cuwmyn £en, 
Velcuwmyt hyme, and maid hyme rycht gud chere, 
1308 And he agan, agrewit as he were, 

Saith, " !N"othir of the falofing, nor the, 
Ne rak I no<?At, ne charg I no^At," qwod hee. 
Than quod the king, ** Maiil^, and for what why 
1312 Ar je agrewit? or quhat treflpas have I 
Cowmytit, fo that I fhal yow difples?" 
Quod he, "No thing It is ayane myn efi. 
But only wwtrare of thi-felf alway ; 
1316 So fare the courfi yow paffith of the way. 
^\^^ (Thi fchip, that goth apone the ftormy vail, 
ry^\n&/ ♦J^ey of thi careldis iu tho fwelf it fall, 
^Whar fhe almoft is in the p^ell drent ; 
1320 That is to fay, yow art fo far myfwent 
Of wykitneft vpone the vrechit dans, 
Thatj[owjirt^dlyn^in th^^ yengons 

Of goddis wreth, that fhal the fon deuour ; 
1324 For of his ftrok approchit now the hour 

That boith thi Einge, thi ceptre, and thi crovn, 
Frome hie eftat he finyting ftial adoune. 
And that accordith well, for in thi tho^At 
1328 Yow knawith not hyme, the wich that haith the wro<?At, 
And fet the vp in to this hie eftat 
From powert ; for, as the-felwyne wat. 
It cuwmyth al hot only of his myght, 
1332 And not of the, nor of thi eld^ris Eicht 
To the difcending, as in heritage. 
For yow was not byget in to spoufag. 
^ "Wharfor yow aucht his biding to obferf, 

^1336 And at thi mjchi yow ftiuld hyme pleft and ferf ; 
^r»5jr That dois yow nat, for yow art fo confuflit 

"With this falfl warld that thow haith hyme Eefafit, 



Arthur welcomes 
llim. 

He recks nothing 
of Arthur's salu- 
tation. 

The king inquires 
what trespass he 
has committed. 



He repUes, «It 
is not against me, 
hut against thy- 
self. 



Thy ship is al- 
most drowned in 
the whirlpool. 






That is, Ood*s 
wrath shall soon 
devour thee. 



Because thou 
knowest Him 
not, who set thee 
up in this high 
estate, 



though not begot- 
ten in spousage. 

[Fol. 176.] 



So in MS. Is it necessary to alter it to " strong" } 



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40 THE TYRANNY OF KINGS. 

And brokine haith his reul and ordynans, 
1340 The wich to the he gave in gouemans. 
He made thee | ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ king, he maid the gou^rnour, 

' He maid the fo, and fet in hie hononr 

Of Reabnys and of peplis fere ; 
1344 Eft^r his lone thow fhuld them Eenl and ftere, 

And wnoppreffit kep in to luftice, 

The wykit men and pwnyce for ther wice. 

Yow dois no thing, hot al in the contraxe, 
^d^t^ons^ffe^ 1348 And fufl&ith al thi puple to forfare ; 
'*" ^* Yow haith non Ey b nt one thyne awn delgt , 

Or quhat that plefing Ihall thyne appetyt. 

In the defalt of law and of Inflice, 
1352 Wndir thi hond is fufferyt gret fupprift 

Of fadirleft, and modirleft alfo, 

And wedwis ek fuftenit mekill wo. 
^eaJed?^ '^ ^^' "With gTot myfchef oppreflit ar the pure ; 

1356 And thow art caul^ of al this hoi Iniure, 

Wharof that god a raknyng fal craf 

At the, and a fore Raknyng fal hafe ; 

Por thyne eftat is gewyne to Redraft 
1360 Thar ned, and kep them to rye?Atwyneft; 

And thar is non that ther complant«« hen« ; 

The my<?Aty folk, and* ek thj^flaitereiis- 

^7 ^}}T\f with ih'^, and doith this oppreffionw ; 
it'is^iSiS?Sl ^^^^ If thai complen, It is ther confufliouw. 
'^^^^ And daniell faith that who doith to the pure, 

Or fad^rleft, or modirleft, Enlure, 

Or to the puple, that ilke to god doth hee ; 
1368 And al th is harme fuftenit Is throw the. 

Yow fufferith them, oppreflith and anoyith ; 

So yow art cauft, throw the thei ar diftroyth ; 

T han, at thi mjchty god fo diftroys yow. 
d?"* whJn gSS ^^"^2 Whatlhai he'do ajane ? quhat Ihal yow, 
o?^e^*TiiS^Tf When he diftroys by vengance of his fueri 

the earth? rphe fynarw fra the vysagi* of the Erde ? 



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ARTHUR ASKS ADVICE. 



41 



Than vtraly yow Ihall diftroyt bee ; 
1376 And that Eicht weiU apper«« now of thee, 

Por yow allon byleft art folitere ; 

And the wyft salamon can duclar, 

* Wo be to hyme that is byleft alone, 
1380 He haith no help ;' so Is thi forton gone ; 

Por he is callit, with quhom that god is nooAt, 

Allone ; and fo thi wykitneft haith wrocht 

That god hyme-felf he is bycuwmyn thi fo, 
1384 Thi pupleis havtts haith thow ty nt alfo ; 

Thi wykitneft thns haith the maid aloni, 

That of this erth thi fortone Is y-gon. 

Yow mone thi lyf, yow mone thi vorfchip tyne, 
1388 And eft to deth that neu^r fhal haf fyne." 

" "jl/TAIST^iS!," quod he, " of yowre beneuolens, 
-IJ-L Y yow befech that tueching my» offens, 

}he wald wichfaif your confell to me If 
1392 How I fal mend, and ek her-eftir leif." 

** 1^0 w," quod the maifler, "and I have m^rwell qwhy 

Yow afkith confail, and wil in non aflfy, 

"Not wyrk thar-by ; and jhit yow may In tym, 
1396 If yow lykith to amend the cryme." 

" Jhis," faith the king, " and futhfalUy I wiU 

Jonr ordynans in eu^ry thing fulfyll." 

'* And if the lift at confail to abide, 
1400 The remed of thi harme to prouyde— ^ 

Firft, the begyning is of fapiens. 

T o dreid the lord and his magweficens ; 

And what thow haith in contrar hyme ofendit, 
1404 Whill yow haith mjchtj of fre defir amend it;* 

Eepent thi gilt, repent thi gret trefpaft, 

And remembir one goddis richwyfneft ; 

How for to hyme that wykitnef!) anoyt, 
1408 And how the way of fynaris he diftroit ; 



Solomon saitli, 
"Wo to him who 
k left alone 1 He 
hath no help." 

[Fol. 18a.] 



Thou hastlost thy 
people's hearts, 



and Shalt come 
to death that hath 
no end." 



Arthur asks how 
he shall amend, 



and promises to 
fulfil his bidding. 



The master re- 
plies, "Thou 
must first diead 
the Lord. 



Repent thy gruilt. 



IMS. "amendit." 



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42 ARTHUR CONFESSES HIS SINS, 

And if ye lyk to ryng wnd^ his peft, 
Ye wengans of his my^Aty hond yow fefi, 
This fchalt yow do, if yow wil be p«rfit. 
1412 Firfl, mone yow be penitent and contrit 
Of euery thing that tnecEth tlii coniSeiis, 
Done of fre will, or ^hit of neglygens. 
Thy need re- Thi neid requirith ful contretionne, 

qnireth full oon- ^ 

trition. 1416 Princepaly without conclufionne ; 

With humble hart and goftly byfyneft, 
Syne fhalt yow go deuotly the confeft 

confeas to some Ther-of vnto fum haly confeflbur, 

holy confessor. "^ ' 

1420 That the wil confail tueching thin arour ; 
And to fulfill his will and ordynans, 
Do penanee» and In fatiffaccione and doing of penans, 

amend all o a. / 

wrong." And to amend al wrang and al Iniure, 

1424 By the y-done til euery Creature ; 
[Foi. 18*.] If yow can In to thi hart fynde, 

Contretionne well degeft In to thi mynd. 
Now go thi weie, for if it leful were, 
1428 Confeffioune to me, I fhuld It here." 
Arthur tries to fTlHAN arthuT, Kicht obedient and mek, 

remember erenr I 

sin done since his X In to his wit memoratvve can feik 

years of mno- ^ ^ "^ 

««Jic«» Of euery gilt wich that he can pens, 

1432 Done frome he paffith the ^eris of Innocens ; 
And as his maiiler hyme commandit hade, 
andmadehiscon- , He goith and his confeffioune haith he maad 

fesBion with la- ° 

Kicht deuotly with lementable chore ; 

The maner wich quho lykith for to here 

He may It fynd In to the holl romans, 
; Of confeflione o paling c^rcumftans. 

I can It not, I am no confeflbur, 
1440 My wyt haith ewiU confat of that labour, 

Quharof I wot I aucht repent me fore. 

The king wich was confeflit, what is more, 

Goith aud til his maifl^ tellith hee, 
1444 How euery fyne In to his awn degree 



mentable cheer. 

1436 



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AND AGAIN ASKS FOR ADVICE. 



43 



He shew, that mycht occuryng to his mynde. 
'*!N"ow/' quod the maiflere, "left thow aght behynde 
Of albenak the vorfchipfal king ban, 

1448 The wich that vas in to my f<?ruice flan. 
And of his wif difherift eft alfo ? 
Bot of ther fone, the wich was them fro, 
Ne fpek^ y not." The king in his entent 

1452 Abafyt was, and furt^w^tA is he went 
A^ane, and to his confeflbur declarith ; 
Syne to his maifl^r he ayane Reparith, 
To quhome he faith, '* I aftir my cuwyng 

1456 Your ordinans fulfillit in al thing; 

And now right hartly y befeich and prey, 
Jhe wald wttAfchaif fum thing to me fay, 
That may me comfort in my gret dreid, 

1460 And how my men ar faljet in my iNeid, 

And of my dreme, the wich that is fo dirk.*' 
This maill^r faith, *' And thow art bound to virk 



1464 



* A T my confail, and if yow has maad 



Thi confeffione, as yow before hath faid. 
And in thi conciens thinkith p<9rfeuere. 
As I pr^fume that thow onon Ihalt here 
That god hyme-felf fhal fo for y® prouide, 

1468 Thow Ihal Remayne and In thi Ring abyd. 
And why thi men ar faljet At this nede, 
At fliort this is the cauft, fhalt yow nocM dred, 
Fore thow to gode was frawart and perwert ; 

1472 Thi ryngne and the he tho^At for to fubwart; 
And yow fal knaw na power may recifl. 
In contrar quhat god lykith to affi[f]t. 
I The vertw nore the flrenth of victory 

1476*^ It cuwmyth not of man, bot an^rly 



"Leftcst thou 
aught behind," 
quoth the master, 
"about Ban, king 
of Albanak, and 
his disinherited 
wife?" 



The king again 
confesses, and re- 
turns, 



prays for com- 
fort, 



and inquires 
about his dream. 

The master saith, 
"If thou art 
bound to work by 
my counsel, 



thou Shalt abide 
in thy kingdom. 

[Fol. 19a.] 



strength of vic- 
tory cometh from 
God only. 



1 MS. apparently has "srpek;" but a comparison with line 1543 shews that 
the apparent r is due to the meeting of, two slight flourishes belonging to the * 
and p. 

3 This line (though it should not) begins with an illaminated letter. 



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44 KINGS DERIVE THEIR POWER FROM GOD. 

Of hyme, the wicli haith euerj ftrinth ; and than, 
If that the waiis pleffit hyme of man, 
He Ihal haye forft ajane his ewnemys. 
1480 A-ryght agan apone the famyne vyft, 
^ThSfEl'sT If te difpleft vn to the lord, he fhaU 

miefl, as we r^d ^6 to hls fais a fiihiet or a thrall, 

oeming the Jews? As that WO may In to the bible red, 

1484 Tueching the folk he tuk hyme-felf to led 
In to the lond, the wich he them byhicht. 
Ay when thei ^hed in to his ways Eicht, 
Ther fois gon befor there fuerd to nocht ; 
^ugh?*iaiiist ^^^^ ^^ y^hen that thei ayanis hyme hath YToeht, 
roSiioffeVthlt ^®^ ^^ ^^ f^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ diflpare, 

filing S? madS That of o leif fleing in the air, 

a thou«uid flee. rJ^^^ ^^^^ ^f j^. ^^j^j^ ^^ ^ thonfand tak 

1492 At onys apone them-felf the bak, 

And al ther manhed vterly foryhet ; 

Sich dreid the lord apone ther hartw set. 

So fhalt yow know no powar may w/tAflond, 
1496 Ther god hyme-felf hath ton the cauft on hond. 
S^^?'Jbe''^. r^d ye ^^^J ^a^* i^ ^^y^e awn offens, 
reSpteVaii^Jee. [ That al thi puple faljhet off defens. 

And fum ar faljeing magre ther entent ; 
1500 Thei ar to quhom thow yewyne hath thi rent, 

Thi gret Eeuard, thi richeft and thi gold, 

And cheriflith and held in thi houfhold. 

Bot the moft p^^rt ar faljheit the at wyll, 

Thou hast sheim 1504 To quhome yow haith wnkyndnef!) fchawin till; 
some of them iiii- ^ ^ »i r 

^^^eaa^ Wrong and iwlure, and ek defalt of law, 

And pwnyfing of qwhich that thei ftand aw ; 

And makith feruice bnt reward or fee, 
1608 Syne haith no thonk bot fremmytneft of the. 

Such folk to the cummyth bot for dred, 

Kot of fre hart the for to held at nede. 

And what awalith owthir flield or fper, 
1612 Or horft or armoure according for ye were, 



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UNJUST KINGS ARE PUNISHED. 



45 



Yith-outen man them for to flere and led ? 

And man yow wot that vantith hart is ded, 

That in to armys f^ruith he of noght ; 
1516 A cowart oft ful mekil harm haith vroght. 

In multitude nor6 ^hit in confluens 

Of fich is nowther manhed nore defens. 

And fo thow hath the rewlyt, that almoft 
1520 Of al thi puple the hartw ben y-lost; 

And tynt richt throw thyne awn myfgou gmans 

Of auerice and of thyne errogans. 

What is prince ? quhat is o gou^rnoure 
1524 Withonten fame of worfchip and honoijj*? 

What IS Ins my'cMy Tuppos he be A. lorde, 

If that his folk fal nooht to hyme accorde ? 
I May he his Eigne, may he his hoU Empire 
1528 Sullen al only of his owne defyre, 

In ferwyng of his wrechit appetit 

Of awerice and of his awn delyt, 

And hald his men, wncherift, in thraldome ? 
1532 Kay ! that Ihal fone his hie eftat confome. 

For many o Inijcht^ therby is broght y-doune, 

All .vtraly to ther confufioune ; 

For oft it makith vther king*« by 
1536 To wer on them In traft of victory ; 

And oft als throw his peple is diftroyth, 

That fyndith them agrewit or anoy th ; 

And god alfo oft with his awn fwerd, 
1540 Punyfithiher wyfis one this erd. 

Thus falith not o king but gou^mans, 

Boith realme and he goith one to myfchans.'*] 

AS thai war thus fpeking of this thinge, 
Frome galiot cam two knyc7*t/« to ^he king ; 
That one the king of hund^reth "knjchtts was ; 
That other to nome the fyrst-cowqueft king'* has, 

1 "king" (?). 

* MS. *'kinghe," a spelling due to confusion with "knight." 



1544 



[Fol. 196.] 

and a man that 
wanteth heart is 
dead. 



Thou hast 80 con- 
ducted thyself as 
to lose ail thy 
people's hearts. 



What is a prince 
without honour ? 



Can he hy him- 
self suetsun his 
kingdom, by 
serving his own 
appetite ? 



His oppression of 
his people con- 
sumes his high 
estate, and makes 
other kings war 
on them. 



Ood also punishes 
their vices." 



Meanwhile, the 
king of a hundred 
knights and the 
iirst-conquest 
king come from 
Galiot, 



See L 1533. 



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46 A MESSAGE FROM GALIOT. 

At firft that galyot conquerit of one. 
1648 The n^reft way one to the king thei gon. 
And vp he roft, as he that wel coutA do 
Honor, to quhome that It afferith to ; 
And jhit he wift not at thei king«« were ; 
1552 So them* thei boith and vytA jjchi knyghtly cher 
Reu^rendly thei falufl hyme, and thane 
Surew^hl'S^ ^^® ^^g ^^ hund^ knyghtw he began 

sage, to the effect j^^ ^^^ hyme, " S»r, to }ow my lord ws fende, 

[Foi.20a.] 1566 Galiot, whilk bad ws fay he wende, 

That of this world the vorthieft king wor jhe, 
Gretell of men and of awtoritee. 
GaUot wonders at Wharof he has gret wonder that ?he ar 

the feebleness of o / 

Arthur's folk, 1560 So feble enmmyne In to his contrare, 

For to defend your cuntre and your londe. 
And knowith well ^he may hyme uochi wttAftonde. 
Wharfor he thinkith no worlchip to conquere, 
1564 IS'ore in the wem more to p^rfyuere ; 

Confiddir yowr wakneft and yowr Indegens, 
Ajanis hyme as now to mak defens. 

Iand is willing to Wharfore, my lord haith grantit by vs here 

*»^<^» 1568 Trewis to yhow and refput for o ^here, 

?^ti^;^ * For to retwm ayane In to this place. 

Her to manteine yhour cuntre and wttAftond 
1572 Hyme witA the hoU power of yhour lond. 
And for the tyme the trewis Ihal endure, 
Yhour cuntre and yhour lond he will aflurre ; 
And wit ^he ^hit his powar is nocAt here. 
1576 And als he bad ws fay yhow by the yhere, 
^^^^ The gud kT^yMt ^^'^^ tbnt the ^^ nrmyn hur^ 

^.^ow.^ And in the feild maid thej^ifmiTng fTirA^ 

The whilk the flou r of knygA^ ed jpay behold, 
1580 He thinkith h yme to haup nf his b onih^ ^." 

i"then"(?). 



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A TRUCE PROPOSED AND ACCEPTED. 



47 



" Well," quod the king, " I have hard quhat yhe fay. 

But if god will, and ek if that I may, 

In to lich wyft I think for to withftond, 
1584 Yhour lord fhall have no powar of my londe." 

Of this mefag the king Eeiofing hai), 

And of the trewis wich that grantit was, 

Bot anoyt ^hit of the knjcki was he, 
1588 Wich thei awant to have in fuch dogre. 

Ther leif thei tuk ; and when at thei war gon, 

^mHIS maiftifr faith, " How lykith god difpone ! 
-L Now may yhow fe and futh is my recorde ; 
1592 For hy hyme now is makith this accord ; 

And by non vthir worldly providens, 

Sanf only grant of his bynewolans, 

To fe if that the lykith to amend, 
1596 And to pronid thi cuntre to defend. 

Wharfor yow ihalt in to thi lend home fair. 

And goweme the as that I flial declaire. 

Firft, thi God with humble hart yow ferfe, 
1600 And his comand at al thi mjcht obferf ; 

And fyne, lat paft the ilk bleffit wonde 

Of lowe w«tA m^rcy luflly throw thi londe ; 

And y befeich — to quhome yow fal direke 
1604 The rewle vpone, the wrangw to correk — 

That yow be nocht in thi electioime blynde ; 

For writin It Is and thow fal trew It fynde. 

That, be thei for to thonk or ellw blame, 
1608 And towart god thi p«rt ihal be the fam ; 

Of Ignorans fhalt yow nocht be excufit, 

Bot in ther werkw forly be accufit. 

For thow fhuld eu^r chef!) apone fich wyft 
1612 The mimfleris* that rewll haith of luftice :— 

Firfl, that he be defcret til wnd^rftond 

And lowe and ek the mat^ of the londe ; 



Arthur rejoices 
at the trace, 



which the master 
aciribute? to 
God*« provi- 
dence, and ex- 
horts him, say- 



[Fol. 206.] 

"First, serve God 
-with hnmhle 
heart, and let the 
wand of law pass 
through the land. 



Thus Shalt thou 
choose the minia- 
teni of Justice. 



^ The initial T is illaminated. 



« MS. *' mifteriB.** 



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48 ' HOW TO CHOOSE JUDGES. 

And be of my^At and ek Autoritee, 
1616 (For puple ay (?owtempmtli low degre,) 

And that of troutli he folow furth the way ; 
' That is als mych as he louyth trewth alway, 

And haitith al them the wich fal pas therfro. 
1620 Syne, that he god dreid and lowe al-so. 

Of auerice be- war with the defyre, 

And of hyme full of hailynes and fyre ; 

Be-war thar-for of malice and defire, 
1624 And hyme alfo that lowith no medyre ; 

For al this abhominable was hold, 

When lultice was in to the tymis olde. 

For qwho that is of an of thir byknow, 
1628 The left of them fubn(9rtith all the low. 

And makith It w[n]Iustly^ to precede ; 
Eechew nnfit Efchew tharfor, for this fal be thi meid 

men, for tliis Bnail ' 

toe Siy Sn^dl? Apone the day when al thing goith aright, 

ment. 2^32 Whai none excuft hidjTig fchal ye lyght ; 

But he the lug, that no man may fuflpek, 
Eutfry thing ful luflly fal correk, 
Be-war thar-wttA, as before have I told, 
1636 And cheft them wyfly that thi low Ihal hold. 
And als I will that it well oft be sen, 
Bicht to thi-self how thei thi low ^onten ; 
Bediiigent to in- And how the Eight, and how the dom is went, 

mStifl given. ^" 1640 Fop to Inquer that yow be delygent. 

[Foi. 210.] And punyft for, for thing fhal yow know, 

The most trefpas is to fubuert the low. 
So that yow be not in thar gilt accufit, 
1644 And frome the froit of bliffit folk refufit. 
• Visit every chief And pas VOW fhalt to euery chef toune, j 

town throughout r J j i ^ 

the bounds of thy Throw-out the bouudis of thi Kegioune 

kingdom. ° I 

Whar yow fall be, that lullice be Elyk I 

1648 With-out diuifione baith to pur and ryk. 



IMS. "w Justly." I 

I 



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KINGS MUST BE JUST AND TECE. 



49 



B' 



And that thi puple have awdiens 

WiUh thar complantt«, and alfb thi pr^^ns ; 

For qwho his eris frome the puple ilekith, 
1652 And not his hond in ther fupport furth rekith, 

His dom fall be fill grewous and ial hard. 

When he M cry and he ial nocht be hard. 

Wharfor thyne eris ifith to the pwre, 
1656 Bot in redrefi of ned, and not of inlnre ; 

Thus fall thei don of EefTone and knawlag. 
^UT kingM when thei ben of tender ag, 
Y wil not fey I traft thei ben ezcnfit, 
1660 Bot fchortly thei fell be fer accufit, 

When fo tbei cum to yheris of Eefone, 

If thei tak not fall contrifioune, 

And pwnyft them that hath ther low myfgyit 
1664 That this is trouth it may not be denyit ; 

For vther ways thei fel them not difcharg, 

[Excep thei pwnyfi them that have the charg]' 

One eflatis of ther realm, that ihold 
1668 Wtt^in his ^outh fe that his low be hold.^ 

And thus thow the, wt'tA mercy, kep alway 

Of luftice fart^ the ilk bleflit way. 

AND of th i wordis beis trew and ftable, 
Spek not to mych, nore be not vareable. 

kingt« word fhuld be a kingt« bonde. 
And feid It iB, a kingi> word fhuld flond ; 
kingt« word, among our fadms old, 
1676 Al-out more precious and more fur was bold 
Than was the oth or feel of any wight ; 
king of trouth fuld be the werray lyght, 
So treuth and luflice to o king accordyth. 
1680 And als, as thir clerkis old recordith, 
^TN tyme is larges and hamilitee 
-1- Eight well according vnto hie dugre, 

^ A blank space here oc^ors, just suffieient to ooniain one line. 
3 The initial I is illununatea; rather becanBe there is here a change 
because it begins a new sentence. 



Gire thine ears to 
the poor. 



Kings, while 
minors, may be 
excused; 



but, when of age, 
they must pimish 
those that hare 
wrested justice. 



Temper justice 
with mercy. 



Be true and stable 
in thy words. 



A king should be 
the rery light of 
truth. 



MS. "behold." 
of subject than 



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50 KINGS SHOULD CHEKISH ALL MEN. 

And pleilith boith to god and man al-so ; 
[Foi. 216.] 1684 Wharfor I wil, inconiment thow go, 
And of thi lond in euery pe^rt abide, 
Whar yow gar fet and clep one eu^ry fid 
Out of thi cuntreis, and ek out of thi tovnis, 
earu, gnat^ ^ 1688 Thi dukf«, srlis, and thi gret baronis, 
thr^r knight., Thi pur hajchtu, and thi bachlen*, 

£15, JS?/we"om*; And them refauf als hartly as afferis, 

them «€.crauy. j^^ ^ them-folf yow welcum them ilkon : 

1692 Syne, them to glaid and chens, thee difpone 
With foiling and with humyll ^w»tynans. 
Be not penfyve, nore proud in arrogans, 
Keep .coi»^^*^ Bot wM them hold in gladnes cumpany ; 

w^ ttfJ* **^r ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ *^® ^^^^ ^^^ ^JS^^ an^ly, 
worthy man aiao. ^q^ ^th the puTO woithi man alfo, 

With them thow fit, wft^ them yow ryd and go. 
I lay not to be our fameliar, 
1700 For, as the moft philofephur can duclar, 
tiat faSttSiri^ To mych to oyft familiaiitee 

breeds contempt. Contempuyug bryngith one to hie dugre ; 

Bot cherice them wi'tA wordis &ir depayift, 
1704 So with thi pupelle fal yow the aquay»t. 
Choose out of Than of ilk cuntre wyfly yow enquere 

each district an J J J ^ 

a««d knight to be An agit kmcht to be thi confulere, 

thy counsellor. ^ ^ ' 

That haith ben hold in armys Bicht famM«, 
1708 "Wyi^ and difcret, and no thiug Inwyua ; 

For there is non that knowith fo wel, I-wyf^, 

O worthy man as he that worthi Is. 
^SnS? ^ When well long haith yow fwiomyt \n a place, 

^de^thM^^ ^^^2 And well acqueynt the Yiih thi puple has, 
£S^?«id[S3^ Than ihalt thow ordand and \ rowid the 

TnT; *^^^^^*^" Of horfi and ek of armour gret plente ; 

Of gold, and filu^, tressore^and cleithing, 
1716 And euery Biches that longith to o king ; 

ta ** dtetribito'^" -^^ '^^'^^ *^® lykith for to tak thi leif, 

gifts iiberaUy. gy largefi thus yow thi reward geif, 



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KINGS MUST BE LIBERAL. 



61 



Firet to the pure worthy honorable, 

1720 That is til armys and tQ manhed able ; 

(Set he be pur, }hit worfohip in hyme bidith) ; 
If hyme the horfi one wich thi-felw3rne Ridith, 
And bid hyme that he Eid hyme for yhour fak ; 

1724 Syne til hyme gold and filu^ yow betak; 
The horfi to hyme for wdrfchip and prowes, 
The trefor for his fredome and larges. 
If moft of Biches and of Oheriiing ; 

1728 Efkir this gud knyoht berith vitneiing. 
Syne to thi tennandi^ and thi wawafouris 
If eify haknays, palfrais, and curfouris. 
And robis iioh as plefand ben and fair ; 

1732 Syne to thi lordM, wich at myohty aire, 
As dukf«, erlis, princi«, and ek kingi«, 
Yow if them ftrang, yow if them vncoutA thingt«, 
As diu^fi iowellis, and ek pr^cioufi ftonis, 

1736 Or halkM, hundis, ordinit for the nonis. 

Or wantone horfi that can no^^t ftand in liable ; 
Thar giftt« mot be fair and delitable. 
Thus, firft vn to the vorthi pur yow if 

1740 Giftis, that may ther pouerte Eeleif ; 
And to the rich ifti« of plefans. 
That thei be fair, fet noeht of gret fubilans ; 
For riches alkith no thing bot delyt, 

1744 And powert haith ay ane appetyt 

For to support ther ned and Indigens : 
Thus ihall yow if and makith thi difpens. 
And ek the quen, my lady, ihalt alfo 

1748 To madenis and to ladeis, quhar }he go. 
If, and oherifi one the famyne wyfi ; 
For in to largefi al thi welfar lyis. 
And if thy giftis with (ioh continans 

1752 That thei be fen ay gifyne YitA ple&ns ; 
The wyfi man fais^. and futh it is approuit, 
Thar is no thonk, thar is no ift alowit. 



Gire to the poor 
worthy man the 
horse thou thy- 
self ridest. 



[Fol. 92a.] 



Give to thy ten- 
ants and vaya- 
sours easy hack- 
neys, palfnes,and 
coursers. 



Give to thy lords 
things strange 
and unoouth. 



So, too, shall the 
queen giro to 
maidens and la- 
dies, 



forallthyweltee 
Ues in Uberality. 



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52 LIBERAL KINGS ARE LOVED IN LIFE, 

Bot It be ifyne In to fich manere, 
5r|i?^^ho*Sfd 1756 (That is to fay, ale glaid in to his chore), 
^^T ^^tte 5l! ^8 he the wich the ift of hyme Kefenith ; 

ceiver. j^^ ^^ j^^ ^^^^^ 1^^ ^^^ ^ diflauith. 

¥or who that iffis, as he not if wald, 
1760 Mor profit war his ift for to w»t^-hald ; 

His thonk he tynith, and his ifb alfo. 

Bot that thow ifith, if with boith two, 
Snd !2d hSS That is to fay, Tith hart and hand atonis ; 

at once ; j 7^4 ^^ ^-^ ^^ wyfman ay ye iffc difponis. 

Beith larg and if£is frely of thi thing ; 
for Uberaiitj to Por largefS is the trefonr of king, 

the treasure of a — ° ^' 

^^8' And not this other lowellw nor this gold 

1768 That is in to thi trefory withholde. 
{Foi. 22J.] Who gladly iffith, be vertew of largea 

^ Sl^^t^ His trefory encrefis of Richelfi, 

sury increasea. ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ refawe. 

For the receiver 1772 For he to Quhome he jewith fall hawe, 

shall place hia ^ ' ' 

|?odf at the Firft his body, fyne his hart with two, 

who shall gain, TTifl gudis al for to difbono also 

moreover, both ° * 

wo^p and In lug fejyxiice ; and mor atonr he fliall 

1776 Have thing, and. that is heft of all ; 
That is to fay, the worfchip and the loft 
That vpone larges in this world ftirth goft. 
And yow fhaJ knaw the lawbour and the preft 
1780 In to this erth about the gret Richeft. 

w «ce^f fOT Is <>^y» ^^' »P®»® ^^ ®ft^ft ^e see 

Sr* Au the*^" ^^ met, of cloth, and of profperitee ? 

^»mant is for ^yj ^j^^ romanant ftant ap<me the name 

1784 Of purches, Airth apone this worldw fame. 
And well yow wot, in thyne allegians 
Fill many Is, the wich haith fufficians 
Of euery thing that longith to ther ned ; * 

1788 What haith yow more, qwich them al to lede, 

1 MS. " Is ony bout bot ; » « bout" boing defaced. 



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AKD COMMENDED AFTER DEATH. 



53 



For al thi Eealmys and thi gret Riches, 

If that yow lak of worfchip the encrefi ? 

Well lefi, al-out ; for eft^r tiiar eilate 
1 792 Thei have vorfchip, and kepith It algat ; 

And yow degradith al thyne hie dugree. 

That fo fchuld ihyne In to noveKtee, 

Throuch wys and throw the wrechitneft of hart. 
i796 And knowis yow not what fall by* thi part, 

Out of this world when yow fal paft the courfi ? 

Fair well, I-wyft ! yow neuer fhaU Beconrf^ ; 

Whar no prince more IhaU the subiet' have, 
1800 But be als dep in to the erd y-grave, 

Sauf vertew only and worfchip wich abidith ; 

With them the world apone the laif dewidith ; 

And if he, wich ihal eftir the fucced, 
1804 By larges fpend of quhich that yow had dreid, 

He of the world comendit is and prilit, 

And yow ftant furth of euery thing difpifit ; 

The puple faith and demyth thus of thee, 
1808 ** Now ia he gone, a werray vrech was hee. 

And he the wich that is our king and lord 

Boith wertew haith and larges in accorde ; 

Welcum be he !" and fo the puple foundith. 
1812 Thus through thi vift his wertew mor aboundith, 

And his vertew the more thi wice forth fchawith. 

Wharfor ^he, wich that princes ben y-knawith, 

Lat not yhour vreohit hart so yhow dant, 
1816 That he that euwmyth next yhow may awant 

To be mor larg, nore more to be commendit ; 

Bed kepit Is the Biches well difpendit. 

jhe the wich that kingw ben, fore fham 
1820 Bemembrith yhow, this world hath hot o naam 

Of good or ewill, eft^r jhe ar gone I 

And wyfly tharfor cheflith yhow the ton 



Knoweet thou 
not what shall \m 
thy part, when 
thou pasaest 
awav from this 
world! 



Virtue and hon- 
our will alone re- 
main. 

And if thy suc- 
cessor be hberal, 
he will be com- 
mended of the 
world; 



[Fol. 23«.j 

and hisTirtue will 
abound through 
thy vice. 



Riches well spent 
are the best kept. 



"be."(?) 



3MS. has^subcin." 



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54 LIBERAL KINGS WIN SUBJECTS, 

Wich moft accoixUth to nobilitee, 
1824 And knytith larges to yhour hie degre. 

For qwhar that £redome In prmce Eignis, 
It bryngith In the victory of kingi«, 
And makith realmys and puple boith to dout, 
1828 And fubecttii' of the cuntre al about, 
wnooer^irt * ^^^ qwho that thinkith ben o conquerour, 

^ '^^ ^ Suppos his largefi fumquhat pas myfour, 

Ne rak he nat, hot frely iffith ay ; 
1832 And as he wynyth, beis var al-way 

To mych nor ^hit to gredy that he hold, 

Wich fal the hartf« of the pnple colde. 

Both !©▼• and And low and radonr cummyth boith two 

SSirS^* ^'^ 1836 Of larges ; Beid and jhe M fynd It fo. 

I Alexofu^^fj this lord the warld that wan, 

Firft with the fuerd of larges he began, 

w^SSlay. "^"^ ^^ *® ^® wynith ifith largely, 

1840 fie rakith "No thing hot of cheuelry ; 

Wharfor of hyxne fo paffith the Eenown, 

d*5r5"to hi** That many o cetee, and many o flrang town 

such a lord, Of his worfchip that herith the Becorde, 

1844 Diiiirith fo to hayeing fich o lorde ; 

andofferedthCTi- ^d ofESerith them wtt^-outen flrok of fpere, 

selrea peaceably -"^ ' 

Sey we*miSy (Suppos that thei war manly men of were), 

men of war. ^ut Only for his gentiUcft that thei 

1848 Have hard ; and fo he lonit was al-way 
For his larges, humilitee, and manhed. 
With his awn folk, that neu^rmore, we Eeid, 
[Foi, 286.] For al his weris nor his gret trawell, 

1852 In al his tym that thei hyme onys faill ; 
Bot in his worfchip al thar befynes 
Thei fet, and lewith in to no diflres ; 
Whar-throw the fuerd of victory he berith. 
SS'thJ^ of 1®^6 And many prince full oft the pabn werith, 

» Or, '♦subeit«>"; or, "subettij." 



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BUT UNJUST ONES DESPOIL THEM. 



65 



As has ben hard, by largeft, of before, 
In conqueringe of Rignis and of glore. 
And wrechitnes Eicht fo, in the contrar, 

1860 Haith Bealmys maid ful defolat and bare, 
And kingtis broght doun from fal hie eflat ; 
And who that Eed ther old bukw, wat 
The vicis lef, the wertew have in mynde, 

1 864 And takith larges In his awn kynd ; 
A-myd (landing of the vicis two, 
Prodegalitee and awerice alfb. 
Wharfor her-of It nedith not to more, 

1868 So mych ther of haith clerkw vrit to-fore. 
Bot who the wertw of larges and the law 
Sal chef^, mot ned confidir well and knaw 
In to hyme-felf, and thir thre wnd^rftande, 

1872 The fubftans firft, the powar of his land, 
Whome to he iffith, and the canft wharfore, 
The nedfcil tyme awatith en^rmore. 
Kepith thir thre ; for qwho that fal exced 

1876 His rent, he fallith fodandly in nede. 

And fo the king, that on to myfl^ drowis, 
His subiettw and his pnple he onr-thrawis, 
And them difpol^eith boith of lond and Eent ; 

1880 So is the king, fons the pnple fchent. 

For-qnhi the woice It fcrik[i]th vp fnl ewyne 
WttA-ont abaid, and pailith to the hewyne, 
Whar god hyme-felf reiauith ther the crye 

1884 Of the opprefionne and the teranny. 

And vith the iuerd of wengans doun y-fmytith, 
The wiche that camith al to for, and bitith, 
. And hyme diflroyth, as has ben hard or this 

1888 Of euery king that wirkith fich o mys. 
For ther is few efchapith them. It fall 
Boith vpone hyme and his fucceilione fall ; 
For he forfuth haith ifyne hyme the wond 

1892 To luftefy and BeuU in pece his lond. 



▼ictorr, through 
libenUty; 



while miserliness 
hath made realms 
desolate. 



Choose the mean 
between prodi- 
gality and ava- 
rice. 



Whoso chooses to 
be liberal. 



most understand 
three things; the 
amuiunt he haSf to 
whom he giveth, 
and the^ titM 
for giving. 



a)Thekinflrthat 
boDomes indiffent 
overthrows his 
subjects. 



For the voice of 
the oppressed 
shrieketh up 
ceaselessly to 
heaven ; 



and God smiteth 
down with the 
Rword of ven- 
geance. 



For God hath 
given the king 
the wand of Jus- 
tice; 

[Fol. 24a.] 



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56 BEWARE OF INJUSTICE AND FLATTEKY. 

The puple all fubmytit to his cure ; 

And he a^an one to no creatnr 

Save only fhall vn to his gode obey. 
1896 And if he paffith fo far out of the wey, 
J^ tJSn^P- f Them to opprefi, that he fliuld reul and gid, 
whom he should , j^^^ heritag, there gwdis to dewide, 

Ye, wnd^ whome that he moll nedis flond, 
Hta^b^*^ 1900l At coireccioune fal ftrek his mye^Aty bond, 

for oorrMdon. ^ j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ £^ 

I On hyxne, mayhap, and his fiiccefcione all. 
Sr&tofJ ot In this, allace ! the blyndw of the kingw, 

kings. J9Q4 j^^ jg ^Yie fall of princw and of Rygnis. 

The moil wertew, the gret Intellegens, 
of'l^^S^8**5!S The bleffit tokyne of wyfdom and pradens 

r^Stdn ut hand lfP>j in king,^ for to reflren his.honde 

rie£s. ^***''^* 1908 Frome his pnpleis Riches and ther lond. 

Mot euery king have this wice i» mynd 

In tyme, and not when that he ned fynde ! 

And in thi larges beith war, I pray, 
i?i/SSi? *-^" 1912 Of nedfal tyme, for than is beft alway. 
i?H%'^«!*' Awyft the ek quhome to that thow fait if, 

Of there fam, and ek how that thei leif ; 
taoiiJ°*aS^ ^; And of the wertws and wicious folk alfo, 

JhelSiild?^ 1916 I the befeich dewidith weU thir two. 

So that thei ftond noeht in o degree ; 

Bifcreccionne fall mak the diu^Hitee, 

Wich clepith the mod«* of al vertewis. 
B»ware of flat- jggQ And beith war, I the befeich of this, 

That is to fay of flatry, wich that longith 

To court, and al the kingf« larges fongith. 

The vertuoufi man no thing thar-of refauith, 
1924 The flattererw now fo the king diffanith 

And blyndith them that wot no thing, I-wyfS, 

When thei do well, or quhen thei do o myfi ; 

And latith kingw oft til wnd^rftonde 
1928 Thar vicis, and ek ye faltf* of ther lond. 



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FLATTERERS SUCCEED WHEN KINGS ARE FOOLISH. 



67 



In to the realme about o king Is holde 
flatterere were than is the ftormys cold, 
Or peAelens, and mor the realme anoyith ; 

1932 For he the law and puple boith diilroyith. 
And in to jnincipall ben ther three thingtV, 
That caoifith flattereris bonding with the king»< ; 
And on, It is the blyndit Ignorans 

1936 Of king»>, wich that hath no gou#mans 
To wnd^rftond who doith fich o myft ; 
But who that fereft fchewith hym, I-wyft, 
Kofi fuffiiith and beft to his plefans. 

1940 Wo to the realme that havith fich o chans ! 
And fecundly, quhar that o king Is 
Weciuft hyme-felf, he cheriflith, y wys, 
Al them the wich that one to vicis foundith, 

1944 Whar-throw that yicis and flattery ek aboundith. 
The thrid, is the Hk fchrewit harrmfol wice, 
Wich makith o king within hyme-felf fo nyce, 
That al thar flattry and ther gilt he knowith 

1948 In to his wit, and ^hit he hyme witA-drowith 
Them to repref, and of ther vicis he wot; 
And this It is wich that diiTemblyng hot. 
That in no way accordith for o king. 

1952 Is he not fet abuf apone his Eingne, 
As fou^raiie his puple for to lede ? 
Whi fchuld he fpare, or quhom of fchuld he dred 
To fay the treuth, as he of Bight is hold ? 

1956 And if fo ware that al the kingtf wold. 
When that his legts comytit ony wyce. 
As beith not to fchamfal, nore to nyce, 
That thei prefume that he is negligent, 

1960 But als far as he thinkith that thei myf^-went, 
But diiTemblyng reprewith as afferis ; 
And pwnice them quhar pwnyfing Bequeris, 
Sauf only mercj in the tyme of ned. 

1964 And fo o king he fchuld his puple led, 



A flatterer is 
worse than a 
storm or a pesti- 
lence. 



[Fol. 24ft.] 

Three things ' 
make flatterers in 
favour. 

First, the blind 
ignorance of 



SecondlT, where 
a king is yicious 
himself. 



Thirdly, where 
the king is so 
foolish, that he 
knows their flat- 
tery, yet with- 
draws from re- 
proving them. 



Why should a 
king spare to say 
the truth? 



He should re- 
prove without 
dissembling, as it 
is fitting. 



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58 WISE KINGS KAKE A WISE PBOPLB. 

That no trefpa6, that cummyth in his way, 
Shnld paA his hond wne-pwnifl away ; 
Nore no good deid in to the famyn degree, 
1968 Nore no wertew, fuld wn-Renardid hee. 

5SS"n5S'£^gh. '^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^®» ^ ^^^f 

should be low. • And wice from the kingwconrtwttA-drow; 

His minifUris that fhuld the lufHce renll, 
1972 Shnld kep well forth of qniet and renll, 
That now, god wat, as It conferwit Is, 
The flere is lofl, and al is gon amys ; 
[Foi. 25o.] And vertew fhnld hame to the court hyme dref^, 

1976 That esillith goith in to the wild^mes. 
^toodiik^Sifl*^"' Thus if king ftud lyk his awn degree, 

t^Sf*be ▼Stat Wertwis and wyfi than fhnld his puple bee, 

ous and wiM. Qnly fet by vertew hyme to plefi, 

1980 And fore adred his wifdom to difplefi. 
And if that he towart the yicis draw, 
His folk fall go on to that ilk law ; 
What fhal hyme plefi that wil nocAt ellM fynd, 
1984 Bot ther-apon fetith al ther mynde. 
hta"*p^pi?^Lid "^^^ ^^y ^ ^^ wertew of o king 

^*€fy ^hl ^® ^^^ ^^^ ®^ ^^ P^P^® ^^ ^ ringne, 

king's ▼ttue. jf ]^Q Y)e wyfi aQd, but diflemblyng, fchewis, 

1988 As I have faid, the vicis one to fchrewis. 
And fo thus, ftr. It flant apone thi will 
For to omend thi puple, or to fpill ; 
Or have thi court of vertewis folk, or fullis ; 
Since thou art 1992 Sen VOW art hoU maifUr of the fcoullis 

wnolly master of *' 



thSifwd'^S^ Teichith them, and thei fal gladly leir, 

jh^'j^y rjij^^^ jg ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^gj jj^^y ^^ ^j^g j^g^i 

Sauf only wertew towart thyn eftat ; 
1996 And cherifi them that wertews ben algait. 

!And thinkith what that wertew is to thee ; 
It pleffith god, vphaldith thi degree." 

' Or, "leir." MS. apparently has "heir," corrected to "leir;" h$ir might stand 
in the preceding linc« 



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THB WATBR-LION MEANS GOD. 



69 



" Maifbr," quod he, " me think rjeht profitable 
2000 Yowr confeell Is, and wond^ honorable 

For me, and good ; ry^At well I have eonf&mtf 

And in mjn6 haxtis Inwartnef^ refauit. 

I fhal fulfill and do yowr ordynans 
2004 Als far of wit as I have fnfOlfans; 

Bot y befeich yow, in til hartly wyft, 

That of my drem jhe fo to me dewyfi. 

The wich fo long haith occupeid my mynd, 
2008 How that I fhal no man^ fucour fynd 

Bot only throw the wattir lyon, and fyne 

The leich that is wttAouten medyfyne ; 

And of the confell of the flour ; wich ayre 
2012 Wondms lyk that no man can duclar." 

<< VrOW, f»r," quod he, " and I of them al thre, 
-1-^ What thei betakyne fhal I fchaw to the, 

Such as the clerktj at them ipecifiit ; 
2016 Thei vfit no thing what thei fignefiit. 

The wattir lyone Is the god werray, 

God to the lyone is lyknyt many way ; 

But thei have hyme In to the wattir fen, 
2020 Confufit were ther wittis al, y wen ; 

The wattir was ther awn fragelitee, 

And thar trefpas, and thar Inequitee 

In to this world, the wich thei fiond y-clofit ; 
2024 That was the wattir wich thei have fuppofit. 

That haith there knowlag maad fo Inp^rfyt ; 

Thar fyne and ek ther worldis gret deljrt, 

As clowdy wattir, was eu^rmore betwen, 
2028 That thei the lyone p^rfitly hath noeht fen ; 

Bot as the wattir, wich was jer awn fynne. 

That eu^rmor thei flond confufit In. 

If thei haith ftond in to relegidn clen, 
2032 Thei had the lyone Not in wattir fen, 

Bot clerly vp in to the hewyne abuf, 

Et^/naly whar he fhal not remufe. 



Arthur ooiiaider« 
his oouBMl pro- 



He bMeechM him 
to expound his 
dream, 

how he shall onlv 
find help tlurongn 
the water-lion, 
the leech, and the 
flower. 



The master's ex- 
planation. 

[Fol. 26&.] 

The water-lion is 
the very God, 



The water is 
men's fragility; 



whereby they see 
not the lion per* 
feotly. 



Had men been 
always religious, 
they had seen the 
lion not in water, 
but elearly. 



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60 THE LEECH WITHOUT MEDICINE IS CHRIST. 

And en^rmore in yatW of fjne vas hee, 
2036 For-quhi It is Impoffeble for to bee ; * 

ciwed^'fai** Se ^^ ^^* **^® world, wich that thei ar In, 

d^kixMs of thei? Y-clofit Is m dyrknes of ther fyne ; 

And ek the thiknef^ of Hie air betwen, 
2040 The lyone mad in vattir to be fen. 

For It was noc At bot fbenth of ther clergy 
Wich thei have here^ and It is bot erthly, 
That makith them there refouns dewy6. 
2044 And fe the lyone thus in erthly wyf^, 

Ihesu criil, wich ay in hewyne fal woniie. 

For as the lyone of enery beft is king, 
2048 So is he lord and maifbr of al thing, 

That of the bleffit vyrgyne vas y-bore. 

Fnl many a natur the lyone haith, qnhar-fore 

That he to god refemblyt is, bot I 
2052 Lyk not mo at this tyme fpecify. 

This is the lyone, thar-of have yow no dred, 

That fhal the help and comfort In thi ned. 

THE fentens here now well I the defyne 
out mcdidne Ib ^^ liyme, the lech wttAouten medyfyne, 

•^ God. Wich is the God that enery thing hath vroght. 

[Foi. 26a.] For yow may know that vther Is It noght, 

Not as surgeons, As fuTgynis and feiicianis, wich that deUth 

2060 With mortell things, and mortell thingii helyth, 
meSSne^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^ art is in to medyfyne, 

As it is ordanit be the mycht dewyne, 
«nd in piaistm, As plajftms, diinkM. and anoayntmentM^ feir, 

drinks, and vari- . ^ ' ' ^ ' 

?JKr"tao5nSi ^^^^ ^^ ^' *^® qnalyte watyng of the yher ; 
^'"^r^Mdthe^ And of the planetif difpoiicion^»e, 

TOsmrai of the ^^ ^f i}^q natuxis compleccyonne, 

And in the diu^rft changing of hwmowr«>. 
2068 Thus wndtfr reuU lyith al there cwris ; 

1 "see" (?). 2 MS. " anonytmetM," or " anouytmetw." 



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THE FLOWER IS THE VIRGIN MARY. 



61 



2072 



2076 



2080 



2084 



2088 



2092 



2096 



2100 



And yhit thei far as blynd man In the way, 
Oft qnhen that deith thar craft M to aflay. 
Bot god, the wich that is the foiitfron lech, 
Nedith no man^ medyfyne to fech ; 
For ther is no Infynnyte, nore wound, 
Bot as hyme lykith al is holl and found. 
So can he heill Infyrmytee of thoght, 
Wich that one erdly medefyne can noght ; 
And als the faul that to confuiioune goith. 
And haith with hyme and vther jwrteis boith, 
His dedly wound god helyth frome the ground ; 
On to his cure no medefyne is found. 
This Is his mjchi that neu^ more fhall fyne, 
This is the leich wftAouten medyfyne ; 
And If that yhow at oonfeffioune hath ben. 
And makith the of al thi fyn»is clen, 
Tow art than hoU, and this ilk famyn is he 
Schall be thi leich In all neceflitee. 

NOW of the flour y woll to the difcem : 
This is the flour that haith* the fix)yt etem, 
' This is the flour, this fadith for no fchour, 
'This is the flour of euery flouris floure ; 
This is the flour, of quhom the froyt vas bom. 
This ws redemyt eft^ that we war lorn ; 
This Is the flour that exier fpryngith new. 
This is the flour that changith neu^ hew ; 
This is the vyrgyne, this is the bleffit flour 
That JhegVL bur that is our salweour. 
This flour wnwewmyt of hir wirginitee ; 
This is the flour of our felicitee. 
This is the flour to quhom ve ihuld exort, 
This is the flour not feffith to fupport 
In prayere, confell, and in byflynes, 
Ys catifis ay In to our wrechitnes 



Bui God can heal 
inflrmity of 
though^ 

and also the soul 
thatgoethtoeon- 
fasion. 



He shall be thy 
leech in all neces- 
sity. 



The flower is she 
of whom the 
eternal fruit was 
bom, 



The Tirgin that 
bore the SaTiour, 



that ceaseth not 
to support us 
caitiffs, 



[Fol. 26ft.] 



^ The word, though indietinct, is almost certainly " haith." Stevenson has " high ;'* 
but this gives no sense. 



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62 ARIHUR IS OOMFORTBD. 

On to hir sone, the quich bir confell herith ; 
2104 This is the flour that al our gladneft ilerith, 
throagh whoM Throuch whois prayer mony one is iawit, 

prayw are many jt .^ «f » 

■*^®^ That to the deth et^maly war refawit, 

Ne war hir hartly fuplicatioune. 
2108 This is the flour of our faluatioune, 

Next hir sone, the froyt of euery flour ; 

This is the fam that ihal be thi fuccour, 

If that the lykith hartly Beu^rans 
2112 And £»rvice ^eld one to hir excellens. 

Syne worfchip hir w»t^ al thi byflynefi ; 

Sche fal thi harm, fche &11 thi ned redref^. 
SSnl£*"th^ uon Sc^e fall fice confell if one to the two, 

tE?tthou*S^est 2116 The lyone and the fou^rane lech alfo, 

not despair. y^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^p^^ 

Nor ^hit no thing that is in thi contrare. 

Now — qwod the maifbr — yow may well wnd^rfland, 
2120 Tueching thi drem as I have bom on hande ; 

And planly haith the mat«r al declarith, 

That yhow may know of wich yow was difparith. 

The lech, the lyone, and the flour alfo, 
2124 Yow worfchip them, yow ferve them eu^rmo ; 

And pies the world as I have faid before ; 

In gou^mans thus flondith al thi glore. 
Do now as thou Do as yow lift, for al is in thi honde, 

list, for all is in J ' » 

thy hand. 2128 To tyne thi-felf, thi honore, and thi londe, 

Or lyk prince, o ^jonquerour, or king. 
In honore and in worfchip for to Binge." 

The king repUes, *< Now," q«o(? the king, ** I fell that the fupport 

2132 Of yhour confell haith don me fich comfort, 

that his heut is Of eucry raddouT my hart is In to eft, 

eased from fear ; ' 

To ^our command, god will, y fal obeft. 
Bot thing is yneuch wn to me, 
2136 

knight, and what 
is his I 



hnt inquires if 2136 How Gbliot makith his awant that he 

Galiot will win 

oyer the red Shall have the knycAt, that only by his honde 



And manhed, was defendour of my londe ; 



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ARTHUR AGAIN BECOMES MOURNFUL. 



63 



If that fhall fall y pray yhow tellith me, 

2140 And qnbat he hecht, and of quhat lond is hee?'' 
'* What that he hecht yow fhall no fory^ know, 
His dedis fall her-eft^rwart hyme fchaw ; 
Bot eantrsn the he fhall be found no way. 

2144 No more thar-of as now y will the fay."* 
With that the king haith at his maiftir tone 
His leve, one to to his cuntre for to gone ; 
And al the oft makith none abyde, 

2148 To paffing home anone thei can prowid ; 
And to fiir gawane thei haith o lytt^ maad, 
Ful fore y-woimd, and hyme on with them haade. 
[T]he king, as that the fiory can dedar, 

2152 PaiTith to o cete that was Bight fair. 
And depit cardole. In to walis, was, 
For that tyme than It was the ndrefi place, 
And thar he foiomyt xxiiijti days 

2156 In ryall feiting, as the auttore lays. 
8o difcretly his puple he haith cherit. 
That he thar hartis holy haith conquerit. 
And fir gawan, helyt hoU and found 

2160 Be XV dais he was of euery wounde ; 

Bight blytA ther of in to the court war thei. 
And fo befell, the xxviij day. 
The king to fall in to o hewynes, 

2164 Bight ate his table iiting at the mef) ; 
And fir gawan cummyth hyme before, 
And faid hyme, ** 8ir, yhour thoght is al to fore, 
Confiddfing the diu^fi knjchtit fere 

2168 Ar of wncouth and ffarang landt« here." 
The king anfuert, as in to matalent, 
" Sir, of my tho<?At, or jhit of myne entent, 
The have the wrang me to repref , for-quhy 

2172 Thar lewith none that fhuld me blam, for I 



The master 
eradef reply. 



[Fol. 27a.] 

The king and the 
host return home. 



Theldng Bojoums 
twenty-four days 
at Cardole, in 
Wales. 



Sir Qawan is 
healed in fifteen 
days. 



ThekingheoomcB 
moumfm, as he 
sits at the mess. 

Oawan rehukes 
him. 



The king answers 
in "matalent/' 



1 At the bottom of the page vn the catch- word, *'With that the king." 



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64 gawai^e's expedition. 

^ki* ^" the ^^ thinkand one the worthieft that lewyt, 

J^^i«*kn^ht Thataltheworfchiplntoannysprewyt; 

And how the thonk of my defens he had, 
2176 And of the wow that galiot haith mad. 
But I have ien, when that of my honfhold 
Thar was, and of my falowfchip, that wold, 
If that thei wifl, quhat thing fhuld me plefi, 
2180 Thei wald nooht leif for trawell nor for e6. 
And fum tyme It prrfwmyt was «md faid, 
SS*fl^we?*^f^ That in my houihold of al this world I had 

SJ^SSf iS?^ The flour of knyf Athed and of chevalry ; 

£Twi^ ^^^^^ 2184 Bot now thar-of y fe the oontrarye, 

Sen ttiat the flour of knyMthed is away." 
'* Schir," quod he, " of Refone futh yhe fay ; 
(Foi. 274.] And if god will, In al this warld fo Round 

2188 He fal he foght, if that he may he found." 
2Sk iiSSS?*° Than gawan goith wt^* o kny^tly chere, 

At the hal dure he faith In this manor : 
*^ In this pafag who lykith for to wend ? 
2192 It is lome mofl for to comend 

That In my tyme In to the court fallith, 
To knyghtw wich that chewellry lowith 
Or trawell In to armys for to hant ; 
2196 And lat no kaycht fra thyne-fartA hyme awant 
^to^^^ That it denyith." WftA that onon thei lofi 

^'™* Al the knjehtisy and frome the hurdis go6. 

The king that fauch In to his hart was wo, 
^hur reproyes 2200 And faid, " Sir gawan, nece, why dois yow fo? 
Knowis yow nocJit 1 myne houfhold fuld encref^, 
In knycAthed, and in honore, and largeft ? 
And now yow thinkith mak me diflblat 
2204 Of kny<?7*t«>, and my houfi tranfulat. 
To fek o knyf At, and It was neu^ more 
Hard flch o iemhle makith o hefore." 
Gawan expiaina. " St>," quod he, ** als few as may yhow pleffi ; 

2208 For what I said was no thing for m3me efi, 



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GAWANE AND HIS FELLOWS DEPART. 



65 



"Not for defir of faloufobip, for-why 
To pafi alone, but cumpany, think I ; 
And ilk kDjcht to pa6 o fundry way ; 

2212 The mo thei paft the fewar efchef thay, 
Hot thus fhal pas no mo hot as yhow left." 
" Takith," quod he, ** of quhom jhe lykith beft, 
Fonrty in this pafag for to go ; " 

2216 At this command and gawan cheiit fo 

Fourty, quhich that he louit, and that was 
Richt glaid in to his falowfchip to pas. 
[A]nd furth thei go, and al anarmyt thei 

2220 Come to the king, wetAouten more delay, 
The relykw bro^At, as was the man^ tho, 
When any knyghtw frome the court fuld go. 
Or when the paflit, or quhen thei com, thei fwor 

2224 The trouth to fchaw of euery aduentur. 
Sir gawan knelyng to his falowis fais, 
" Yhe lord««, wich that in this feking gais, 
So many noble and worthi "knychtis ar jhe, 

2228 Me think in wayne yhour trauel fhuld nocht be, 
For aduentur is non so gret to pref. 
As I fuppone, nor jhe fal It eflchef , 
And if ^he lyk as I that fhal dewyf^, 

2232 Yhour oth to fwer In to the famyne wyfi 

Myne oith to kep." And that thei vndtfrtak, 

How eu^r fo that he his oith mak 

It to conferf, and that thei have all fwom. 

2236 Than gawan, wich that was the king befom. 
On kneis fwore, " I fal the futh duclar 
Of euery thing when I agan Repar, 
Nor neu^ more a^hane fal I return, 

2240 Nore in o place long for to fuiorn 

Whill that the knjcht or verray eyydens 
I have that fhal be tokins of credens." 
His Moufchip abafit of that thing, 

2244 And als therof anoyt was the king. 



Arthur assigns 
him forty com- 
panions. 



These knights 
arm themselves, 



and bring the 
relics, -whereon 
to swear to shew 
the truth. 



[Fol. 28a.] 



Gawan swears 
not to return till 
he has found 
Lancelot, or evi- 
dence of him. 



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66 THE LADY ASKS LANCELOT HIS KAME. 

of^atttS?^ ^y And wilfulnefi, that liaith noeht in thi thoght 

The day of batell of galot and me." 
2Sr? Vw! ^* 2248 Quod gawan, " Now non other ways ma be." 
pawan and hi» Thar- wttA he and his falowfchip alfo 

fellows laoe their ^ 

toSfkw ***^ "^^^ halmys lafit, on to ther horft thei go, 

Syne tuk ther lef, and frome the court the fare, 
2252 Thar names ware to long for to declar. 
Kow fal we leif hyme and his cumpany, 
That. in thar feking paflith bifTely ; 

to "thT^ta^'f ^^^ ^^ *^® ^y ^^ melyhalt we tell, 

Meiyhait. 2256 With whome the kaycht mot ned alway dueU. 

*[0] day fhe mayd hyme on to hir pr^fens fet 
And on o fege be-fid hir haith hyme fet, 
" Sir, in keping I have yow balding long," 
2260 And thus fche faid, ** for gret trefpas and wrong, 
Magre my ftewart, in worfchip, and for-thi 
Jhe fuld me thonk." *' Madem," quod he, *' and I 
Thonk yhow fo that eu^r, at my mycht, 
2264 Whor-fo I pafi that I fal be yhour kajchV 
L^cS2?^ame. '*^ Grant mercy, fir, hot o thing I jow pray, 

What that jhe ar jhe wold witAsauf to fay." 
Herefoaettoteii. "Madem," quod he, *' yhour mercy afk I, quhy 

2268 That for to fay apone no wyft may I." 

** No ! wil jhe not ? non oy^ ways as now 
b^ taThmU tiS ?^e fal repent, and ek I make awow 

£S .^y °' '°°*- One to the thing the wich that I beft love, 

[FoL 28ft.] 2272 Out fix)me my keping fal jhe not Eemuf 
Befor the day of the affemblee, 
Wich that, jher, is n^reft for to bee ; 
And if that jow haith pleflit for to fay, 
2276 Jhe had fore me deliu^t ben this day ; 
Surt\%^.Sd And I fal knaw, quhey^ jhe wil or no, 

^•™ **• For I furtA-wtU one to the court fal go, 

^ Room is here left in the MS. for an illuminated letter, and a small << o" inserted 
as a note. 



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SHE GOES TO SEE ARTHUR. 



67 



Whar that al thithingw goith and cumyth fon." 

2280 "Madem," quod he, "yhour plefance mot be done. 
With that the kaycht one to his chahn^ goith, 
And the lady hir makith to be wroith 
Ajanis hyme, but futhly vas fche not, 

2284 For he al-out was mor in to hir thoght. 
Than fchapith fhe a^ane the ferd day, 
And richly fche gan hir-felf aray ; 
Syne clepit haith apone her cufynes, 

2288 And faith, ** Y will one to the court me dreft ; 
And malice I have fchawin on to jhon kajcht, 
For-quhy he wold nocht fchew me quhat he hicht, 
Bot fo, I-wy6, It is nocht in my thocAt, 

2292 For worthyar non In to this erth is wrocht. 
Tharfor I pray, and hartly I requer 
^he mak hyme al the cumpany and chere. 
And do hyme al the worfchip and the ef), 

2296 Excep his honore, wich that may hym plefi ; 
And quhen I cum deliu^th hyme als fre 
As he is now." " Ne have no dred," quod fche. 
[T]he lady partit, and hir lef hath ton, 

2300 And by hir lome to the court Is gon. 
The king hapnit at logris for to bee, 
"Wich of his reahne was than the chef cete ; 
And haith hir met, and In til hartly wy6 

2804 Ee&uit her, and welcummyt oft-fyfi ; 

And haith hir home one to his palic© hrocht, 
Whar that no dante nedith to be focht. 
And maid hir cher with al his ful entent. 

2308 Eft fupir one to o chalm^r ar thei went, 

The king and fche, and ek the quen al thre ; 

Of hir tithandis at hir than aikit hee. 

And what that hir one to the court had bro^At ? 

2312 " Sir,'* quod fche, ** I come^ not al for nocht ; 



The knight re- 
tires. 



Before going to 
the court, 



She prays her 
ooQsm to take 
care of him. 



The lady meets 
Arthur at Logiis; 



who hrings her 
home to his 
palace; 



andhiquireswhat 
hashronghfther. 



• ^MS. "conne." 



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68 ARTHUR CAN TELL HER NOTHING. 

a^frirad*^hS hS ^ ^^^® ^ ^^^^ ^^^*'^ ® dereyne ydoo, 

°"*« Yfo^/SSo ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^® ^^^® knycAt tharto ; 

For he the wich that in the ^ontrar Is 
2316 Is hardy, (Irong, and of gret kyne, I-wyfi ; 
Bot, It is faid, If I mycAt have with me 
Jour knye?At, quich in the last afTemble 

im/*htcOTidblS ^^ ^^ *^® ^^^^* *^^ *^® ^^^ armys bnr, 

maintain. 2320 In his manhed y mycht my cauft affur ; 

And yhow, fir, richt hartly I exort 
In to this ned my myft^ to fupport." 
** Madem, by faith one to the quen I aw 
ttSJ?" a'SSf is 2324 That I beft loue, the .knye?At I neuijr faw 
gone to seek him. j^ nemeft by which that I hyme knew ; 

And ek gawane Is gan hyme for to few 
With other fourty knye?AtM In to cumpany." 
2328 The lady fmylit at ther fantefly ; 

The quen thar-wttA pr^fumyt wel that fche 
the iad^°if *1he Knew quhat he was, and faid, '* Madem, If jhe 

luiowB where he Knowith of hyme what that he is, or quhar, 

2332 "We jhow befech til ws for to declar.'* 
Sfd ^?i!SLs°?i " Madem," quod fche, " now be the faith that I 

"*'"™* Aw to the king and yhow, as for no why 

To court I cam, but of hyme to Inquere ; 
2336 And fen of hyme I can no tithingf« here, 
NedlyngtV to-mom homwart mon I fair." 
tolto/.^^"^'^*' "Na," quod the king, '* Madem, our fon It waire ; 

Jhe fal remayne her for the qwenys fak ; 
2340 Syne fhal jhe of our befl kny^At«« tak." 

*' Sf>," quod fche, " I pray jow me excuft, 
For-quhy to paft nedis me behuft ; 
Nor, fen I want the knyt?At which I have focAt, 
2344 Wtheris wttA me to have defir I nocAt, 
For I of otheris have that may fuffice.'* 
Bot jhit the king hir prayt on fich wyft, 

?^®.;f^°" *^ That fche remanit whill the thrid day ; 

the third day. ^ -^ * 

2348 Syne tuk hir leif to paiing horn hir way. 



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THE LADY AGAIN SENDS FOR LANCELOT. 



69 



2352 



2356 



2360 



2364 



2368 



2372 



2376 



2380 



It nedis not the fefling to declax 
Maid one to hir, nor company nor fare ; 
Sche had no "knjcht, fche had no damyfeill, 
l^or thei richly rewardit war and well, 
Now goith the lady homwart, and fche 
In her entent defyrus Is to fee 
The flour of knycAthed and of chevelry ; 
So was he pryfit and hold to euery wy. 

THE lady, which one to hir palace come, 
Bot of fchort time remanith haith at home 
"When fche gart bryng, withonten Eecidens, 
With grete effere this 'knycht to hir prM^is, 
And faid hyme ; " Sir, fo mekil have I fo^At 
And knowith that be-for I knew no(?At, 
That If yhow lyk I wil yhonr Eansone mak.** 
" Madem, gladly wil jhe wichfauf to tak 
Eft^ that as my powar may atten. 
Or that I may prowid be ony men?" 
"Now, fir,'' fho faid, '^forfutA It fal be so, 
The fal have thre, and chefi yhow on of tho ; 
And if yhow lykith them for to refufi, 
I can no mor, but jhe fal me excuft, 
The ned«« mot fuften yhour aduentur 
Contynualy In ward for til endur." 
" Madem," quod he, " and I yhow hartly pray, 
What that thei fay^ jhe wald w»tAfauf to fay?" 

"[T]he firft," quod fche, "who hath in to the chen 
Of low yhour hart, and if jhe may deren ? 
The next, yhour nam, the which je fal not lye ? 
The thrid, if eu^ jhe think of cheualry 
So mekil worfchip to atten in feild 
Apone day in armys wnd^ fcheld. 
As yat ^he dyd the famyne day, when jhe 
In red armys was at the aflemblee ?" 



She is sumpta- 
ously enter- 
tained. 



and retumB 
home. 



[Fol. 29J.] 

Soon after, she 
fends for Lance- 
lot, 



and pi 
ransom 



Toposes to 



on one of three 
conditions. 



Either he must 
tell whom he 
loves, 

or declare his 
name, 

or say if he ex- 
pects again to 
equal his former 
exploits. 



So M S. We should probably read " bee." 



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70 LANCELOT CLAIMS HXS LIBERTY; 

"Madem/' quod he, "is thar non yther way 
2384 Me to redem, but only thus to fay 

Of thingw, which that Eynyth me to blam, 
Me to awant my lady or hir name ? 
But if that I moft fohawin furth that one, 
2388 What suerte fchal I have for to gone 
At libertee out of this dang^ free ? " 
" Schir, for to dred no mylbr is," quod fliee ; 
"As I am trew and fa/tAftill woman hold, 
2392 Jhe fal go fre quhen one of thir is told." 

" Madem, yhour will non vther ways I may, 
Si^DSaeJ" I ^o^e oW; and to the firft y fay, 

^ [I] 8 to declar the lady of myne hart, 
2396 My goft fal rather of my breft aftart" — 
Whar-by the lady fayndit al for noeht 
The lowe quhich long hath ben In to her thocht — 
or his own; " And of my nam, fchortly for to fay, 

2400 It ftondith fo that one no wyft I may. 
[Foi. 80a. Bot of the thrid, madem, I se that I 

Mon fay the thing that tuechith velany ; 
but declares that For futA it is I trafl, and god before, 

he trusts to do > o » 

iSS^ f'^d'^^ ^^^^ ^ ^®^^ **^*^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ armys more 
quireshisuberty. rphau eu^r I did, if I cowmandit bee. 

And now, madem, I have my libertee, 
For I have laid I iieu^ thoc/^t to fay." 
2408 " l^ow, ftr," quod fche, "when-eu<?r jhe wil ye may ; 
she^^p of him ^q^ q ^j^i^g jg^ j yhow haitly raquer. 

Sen I have hold yhow apone fuch maner 
Not as my fo, that jhe vald grant me till." 
2412 "Madem," quod he, "It fal be as jhe will." 
"Now, ftr," quod fche, "it is no thing bot jhe 
that he will re- Eemau with ws wnto the aflemble, 

mam with her ' 

tattle^ **y °' And euery thyng that In yhour myft^r lyis, 

2416 I fall gar ordan at yhour awn dewyfi ; 

1 A space is here left for an illaminated letter. 



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AND ASKS FOR BLACK ABM0X7B. 



71 



And of the day I fliall yow certefy 

Of the aflemble jhe fal not pas therby." 

" Madem,*' quod he, " It fal be as yhow lift/' 

2420 " l^ow, fir,'* quod fche, ** and than I hald It beft, 
That jhe reman lyk to the lamyne dogre 
As that jhe war, yat non fal wit that jhe 
Deliu^t war ; and in to facret wyft 

2424 Thus may jhe be ; and now yhe fal dewyft 
"What armys that yhow lykyth I gar mak." 
" Madem," quod he, " armys al of blak/ ^ 
With this, this kny^At is to his chalm^ gon ; 

2428 The lady gan ful prewaly diflpone 

For al that longith to the kny^^^t, in feild ; 
Al blak his horfi, his armour, and his fcheld, 
That nedful is, al thing fche well pr^widith ; 

2432 And in his keping thus with hir he bidith. 

iSuppos of love fche takyne hath the charg, 
Sche bur It clos, ther-of fche vas not larg, 
Bot wylly fche abftenit hir diflir. 
For ellw-quhat, fche knew, he was afyre ; 
Thar-for hir wit hir worfchip haith defendit, 
For in this world thar was nan mor commendit, 
Boifh of dilcreccioune and of womanhed, 
2440 Of gou^/n5ns7 of nurtur, and of farhed. 

This hajckt with hir thus al this whil mon duell, 
And furtA of arthur fumthing wil we teU — 
[T]hat walkyng vas furtA in to his Eegiouwis, 
2444 And foiomyt in his ceteis and his townis, 
As he that had of vifdome fufficyans. 
He kepit the lore of maift^r amytans 
In ryghtwyfhes. In fefling and larges, 
2448 In cherifing cumpany and hamlynes ; 
For he was biffy and was deligent. 
And largly he iffith, and difpent 
Eewardis, boith one to the pur and riche, 
2452 And holdith feft throw al the ^her eliche. 



and inquires 
what arms he 
would like to 
haye made for 
him. He chooses 
black armour, 



which is pro- 
Tided. 



She keeps her 
love dose, 



being commend- 
ed for discretion* 



The story returns 
to Arthur— 



[Fol. 806.] 

who obeys the 
counsel of Amy- 
tans, 



and giT 
largely ; 



ites sway 



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72 Arthur's liberality. 

In al the warld pacing gan his name, 
He chargit not hot of encreft and fame, 
And how his puples hartw to emplefi ; 

2456 Thar gladnes ay was to his hart moft eft. 
He rakith not of riches nor treflbur, 
£ot to difpend one worfchip and honour ; 
He ifith riches, he ifith lond and rent, 

2460 He cherifTyth them with word»« eloquent, 
^opiSf S^f^ So that thei can them vtraly propone 

In his Ujruice thar lyres to difpone : 
So gladith theme his homely contynans, 

2464 His cherifyng, his wordis of plefans, 
His cumpany, and ek his mery chere, 
His gret rewardis, and his litis fere. 
Thus hath the king non vthir befynes 

2468 Bot cheriiing of kny^^Atts and largef). 

To mak hyme-felf of honour be commend ; 
And thus the pier he dry with to the ende. 



EXPLICIT SECUNDA P^22S, INCIPIT T^JZTIA TASS. 



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THE TBVCE DRAWS TO A CLOSE. 



73 



BOOK III. 



, [: ' rpHE long dirk pafag^ of the vint^, and the ly^At 

:p * ^ ^^472 -L Of phebus (?omprochit wttA his my(?At ; 
The which, afcending In his altitud, 
Awodith satum w«tA his ftormys Eude ; 
The foft dew one fra the hewyne doune valis* 

2476 Apone the erth, one hill«« and on valis, 

And throw the fobir and the mwft hwmonrw 
Vp nurifit ar the erbis, and in the flouris 
Natur the erth of many diu^rft hew 

2480 Ourfret, and cled w«U the tendir new. 

The birdis may them hiding in the grawis 
Wei frome the halk, that oft ther lyf berevis ; 
And scilla hie afcending in the ayre, 

2484 That euery vight may heryng hir declar 
Of the feflbne the pafling luftynes. 
This was the tyme that phebus gon hyw draft 
In to the rame, and haith his courft bygown, / ^v 

2488 Or that the trewis and the ^her yas Eown, 
"Which was y-fet of galiot and the king 
Of thar aiTemble, and of thar meting. 
Arthur haith a xv dais before 

2492 AiTemblit al his bamag and more 

That weryng wnd^r his fubieccioune, 
Or louith hyme, or longith to his crown ; 
And haith his lomay tone, wVtAouten let, 

2496 On to the place the wich that was y-fet, 

Whar he hath found befor hyme mony o kny(?At 
That cuwmyng war wttA al thar hoU my(?At, 



The sujD asoendfl 
in his altitude. 



The soft dew 
falls down from 
heaven. 



Nature decks the 
earth with vari- 
ouB hues. The 
birds may hide 

[Fol. Sla.] 

them from the 
hawk in the 
{proves, and Scilla 
may ascend in 
the air. 



The time of com- 
bat between 
Galiot and the 
king drew near. 



Arthur goes to 
the appointed 
place. 



iSoMS. Should we read "paaith"? 



3 So MS. It should be <' falis." 



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74 



GAWANB REJOINS AETHUK. 



Al enarmyt both with fpere and fcheld, 
2500 And M of lugt> plantith haith the feld, 
Hyme In the wer for to fupport €tnd ferf 
At al ther mjchty his thonk for to diflerf. 
And gawan, which was iji the feking ^hit 
2504 Of the gud kny^^At, of hyme haith got no wit, 
Smtte'iS^^" Remembrith hyme apone the kingt« day, 

And to his falowis one this wys c>n fay : 
" To jhow is knowin the mat^, in what wyft 
2508 How that the king hath wetA his ennemys 
A c^rtan day, that now comprochit nere, 
And one to ws war hewynes to here 
That he var in to p^rell or in to dreid, 
2512 And we away and he of ws haith neid ; 
For we but hyme no thing may efchef. 
And he but ws in honore well may lef ; 
For, be he loft, we may no thing wttAftond, 
2516 Our-felf, our honore we tyne, and ek our lond. 
^f u^"*^ *o Tharfor, I red we pas on to the king, 

to help the king. Suppos our oth It hurt in to fum thing. 

And in the feld with hyme for til endur, 
2520 Of lyf or deth and tak our aduentur." 
Thar-to thei ar confentit eumlkon. 
And but dulay the have thar lomey tone. 
[Foi. 81ft,] When that the king them faw, in his entent 

contjmt at ttSf 2524 Was of thar com Bight wond^ well content ; 
^"^*' For he pr^fwmyt no thing that thei wold 

^«tt?^^*^ Have cummyne, but one fartA to jer feking hold. 

And thus the kinghis oft aftemblit has 
2528 A^ane the tyme, a^aine the day that vas 
Y-ftatut and ordanit for to bee. 
And euery thing hath fet-in the dogre, 
[A]nd galiot, that haith no thing for^het 
2532 The termys quhich that he befor had set, 
l^btefhi folk, Affemblit has, apone his beft maner, 

. His folk, and al his other thiagis fere, 



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THE TEUCB ENDS. 



76 



That to weryour longith to prouid, 
2536 And is y-come apone the tothir fyde. 

Whar he befor was one than vas he two, 

And al his ythir artillery also 

He dowblith hath, that m^rwell was to fen ; 
2540 And by the rewere ly<?Atit one the gren, 

And ftronghar thane ony wallit tonne 

His oft y-bont y-clofit in Eandoune. 

Thns war thei cuwmyne apone ather fyd 
2544 Be-for the tyme, them-felf for to prowid. 

Or that the trewis was complet and rwn, 

Men my^At have fen one euery fid begwn 

Many a fair and knychtly lup^y 
2548 Of Infty mew, and of jong chevalry, 

Difyrus In to armys for to pruf ; 

Snm for wynyng, lum canfith vas for luf. 

Sum In to worfchip to be exaltate, 
2552 Sum caufit was of wordis he and hate, 

That lykit not ydill for to ben ; 

A hund^eth pair at onis one the gren. 

Thir lufty folk thus can thar tyme difpend, 
2556 Whill that the trewis goith to the ende. 

The trewis paft, the day is cummyne onone. 

One euery fyd the can them to dilpone ; 

And thai that war moft facret and moft dere 
2560 To galiot, at hyme the can enquere, 

"Who fal fidTemble one yhour fyd to-mome? 

To-njchi the trewis to the end is wome." 

He anfuerit, " As yhit one to this were 
2564 I ame awyfit I wil none armys here, 

Bot If It ftond of more ITeceffitee ; 

Nor to the feld will pas, bot for to fee 

Yhone Isnjchty the which that berith fich o fame." 
2568 Than clepit he the <?<>«quest king be name. 

And hyme (k>mmandit xxx thoufand tak 

Ajaine the mome, and for the feld hyme mak. 



doubling hu 
army and artil- 
lery; 



and pitches on 
the green by the 
rirer. 



Before the trace 
is ended, 



muiy combats 
are seen between 
lusty men; 



a hundred pair 
atonoe. 



The truce past, 



Galiot's Mends 
inquire who shall 
fight on his side 
on the morrow. 



[FoL 82a.] 



He commands 
the first-con- 
quest king to 
take 80,000 men. 



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76 DEEDS OF SIR ESQUYRIS. 

And gawane haith, apone the toy^ syde, 
2572 Confulit his Erne he fchuld for them prowid, 
And that he fchuld none armys to hyme tak 
"Whill^ galiot will for the feld hyme mak. 
**I grant,'* quod [he*], **wharfor jhe mone difpone 

SJJSni toSs. 2576 Yhow to the feld with al my folk to-mome, 
And thinkith in yhour manhed and enrage 
Por to recift jhone folkis gret owtrag/' 

The day comes. [T jhe nygAt is gQ^e^ vp goith the morow gray, 

2580 The hry^jAt fone fo cherith al the day : 

The knjcktis gone to armys than, in haft ; 
One goith the fcheildw and the helmys laft ; 

^"uil toS. Arthuris oft out our the furrde thai ryd. 

2584 And thai agane, apone the toy^ syd, 

S^bie'inTTaiS: Affemhlit ar apone o lufty greyne, 

In to o waill, whar fone thar mjcht be feyne 
Of haychtts to-gedder many o pair 
2588 In to the feld affemblyng her and thair, 

And ftedw which that haith thar maift^ bom© ;• 
The knjchtis war done to the erth doune borne. 

SLaylSSSt; ^ ^^^ efquyris, which was o manly knjcht 

2592 In to hyme-felf, and hardy vas and wjcht ; 
And in till armys gretly for to pryft, 
Jhit he 'Was pure, he prewit wel oft-fyft ; 

QahoVB ^S! °' ^^ that tyme was he of the cu/npanee 

P^y' 2596 Of galiot, hot eft<9rwart was hee 

With arthur ; and that day In to the feild 
He come, al armyt boith with fpere and fcheld, 
With ferft defir, as he that had na dout, 

attacks a band, 2600 And is affemhlit ewyne apone a rowt ; 

His fpere is gone, the lunycht goith to the erd, 
And out onon he pullith haith o fwerd ; 

^proves his That day In armys prewit he rycht well 

2604 His ftrenth, his manhed ; arthuris folk thai fell. 

» MS. " WihUl." 2 Omitted in MS. 

8 So MS. We should read "lome," as in hne 2092. 



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DEEDS OF SIR GWTANS. 



77 



2608 



2612 



2616 



2620 



2624 



2628 



2632 



2636 



Than galys gwynans, with o manly hart, 
Which hroy^r was of ywane the haftart, 
He cu;?iniyne Is onone one to the Hour 
For (?o«quering In armys of honour, 
And cownt^rit with efquyris hath so 
Than^ horft and man, al four, to erth thai go ; 
And fHll o quhill lying at the ground. 
"With that -part of arthuris folk thei found 
Till gwyans, and haith hyme fone refkewit. 
Ajanis them til efquyris thei fewyt 
Of galiotw well xxx** 'k.njchtis and mo ; 
Gwyans goith done, and vthir vij alfo. 
The wich war tone and efqwyris relewit. 
Than ywane the anterus, aggrewit. 
With kynwifmen one to the melle £ocht 
The hardy knychtis, that one thar worfchip ihochty 
Cowntmt them In myddis of the fcheld, 
Whar many o knjcht was horn doun in the feld ; 
Bot thei wich ware on galiotw part. 
So wndMakand nor of fo hardy hart 
Ne ware thei not as was in ye contraxe. 
Sir galys gwyans was refqwyt thare 
With his falowis, and efqwyris don hore. 
Thar al the hatell/« cam, wit^uten more. 
On ather part, and is affemblit fo 
Whar fyfty thoufand war thei, and no mo. 
In plane hefyd the gret Eiwere 
XXX thoufand one gsiliott* half thei vare ; 
Of arthuris x thoufand and no mo 
Thei ware, and jhit thai contenit them fo 
And in the feld fo manly haith horn. 
That of thar fois haith the feld forfworn. 
The ^onqueft king, wich the p^rell knowith, 
Ful manly one to the feld he drowith ; 
The lord fir gawan, cou^t witA hw fcheld, 
I "that" (?). 



Then Galys Gwy- 
nans, brother of 
Ywan, 



[Fol. 326.] 

encoxmters him, 
and horse and 
man go all four 
to earth. 



Arthur's folk r( 
cue Gwyans; 



thirty knighto of 
Galiot's arrive, 
and rescue Es- 
quyris. 



Next Ywan 
comes to the 
mefee. 



GaHot's men give 
way. 



Gwyans is again 
rescued. 



50,000 men are 
assembled. 

SO,OOOonGaliot*s 
side approach the 
river, 

and 10,000 on 
Arthur's. 



Gawane puts the 
conquest-king to 
flight. 



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78 SIR G A wane's intrepidity. 

2640 He rufchit in myddis of the fdld, 

And haitli them fo in to his com aifayt, 
That of his manhed were thei al affirait ; 
ITo lang^ mjcht thei contrar hyme endur, 
2644 Bot fled, and goith one to difcumfiture. 
GaUot,fuiof an- And galiot, wich haith the difcwmfit fen, 

ger and gnef, ° ' ' 

JJJlJ out a new Fulfillit ful of ang^ and of ten, 

In<?ontine»t he fend o new poware, 
2648 Whar-w/tA the feldw al our-coumt ware 
[Foi. ssa.] Of armyt fledt> bot^ in plait and maill, 

With knjehtis wich war reddy to affaiU. 
Gawane draws Sir gawan, feing al the gret fuppris 

his men together, /^ • /• 

and shews them 2652 Of fois cuwjmyng In to uch wys, 

comfortable . , f ° ^ * 

▼ords. Togiddir al his cumpany he drew, 

And confortable wordw to them fchew ; 
So at the cummyng of thar ennemys 

They receive the 2656 Thei them refauf, in fo manly wyft, 

foe in manly wiM. ' j j 7 

That many one felith deithis wound. 

And wnd^ horfi lyith fobing one the ground. 

This vther cummyth in to gret defir, 

2660 Fulfillit ful of matelent and Ire, 

So frefchly, w«tA fo gret o confluens, 
Thar ftrong affay hath don fich vyolens, 
And at thar come arthuris folk fo led, 

2664 That thai war ay abayfit and adred. 

Bot gawan, wich that, by this vorldw fame, 
Of manhed and of kny^^thed bur the name, 
Haith pr^wit well be expmens ; 

2668 For only In til armys his defens 
Gawane encou- Haith maid his falowis tak fich hardymewt. 

raflreahiifellowf, *^ ^ 

That manfully thei biding one the bent. 
Of his manhed war m^rwell to raherfi ; 
2672 The khy^Atis throw the fcheldtV can he perft, 
That many one thar dethis haith refauit ; 
l^one armour frome his my^^Aty bond them fault, 
S? t6ee*toOTwt ?hit ay for one ther ennemys wor thre. 



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SIK YWAN RESCUES GAWANE. 



79 



2676 Long mjcht thei nocht endur in fuch dugree ; 
The preft it wos fo creuell and fo flrong, 
In gret anoy and haith ^ontinewit longe, 
That, magre them, thei nedis moil abak 

2680 The way one to thar lugw for to tak. 
Sir gawan thar fufferith gret myfchef, 
And wond^is in his knyc^thed can he pref ; 
His faloufchip haith merweU. that hym faw, 

2684 So haith his fois that of his luerd ftud aw. 
Xing arthur, that al this whill beheld 
The dang^ and the p^ell of the feld, 
Btr ywan with o falowfchip he fende, 

2688 Them In that ned to help and to defend, 

Qwich fond them In to danger and in were, 
And ent^rit nere In to thar tentis were. 
Sir gawan fechtand was one fat At erde, 

2692 And no defend, but only in his fwerde, 
Ajanis them botA with fpere and fcheld. 
Of galowa the knjcht goith to the erde. 
Thar was the batell furyous and woid^ 

2696 Of armyt knychtis ; to the grownde thai ^hud. 
Sir ywane, that was a noble knyght. 
He fchew his ftrenth, he fchew thar his gret mjcht, 
In al his tyme that neu^ of before 

2700 Off armys, nore of kny<jAthed, did he more : 
Sir gawan thar refkewit he of fors, 
Magre his fois, and haith hyme fet one horft 
That frome the firft conqvLeA king he wan ; 

2704 Bot fir gawan fo ewill was wondit than, 
And in the feld fupprtlit was fo fore, 
That he the werfi thar-of was eu^rmore. 
Thar fchew the lord fir ywan his enrage, 

2708 His manhed, and his noble wafTolage ; 

And gawan, in his doing, wald nocht irk ; 



vet his men are 
forced to retreat 
to their tents. 



Arthur beholds 
the peril of the 
field, and sends 
Sir Tvan to help 



[Fol. 336.] 



who finds Sir 
Oawane fighting 
on foot with only 
his sword. 



The battle was 
ftirlous and 
wood. 



Sir Ywan rescnes 
Sir Gawane, 



who was so evilly 
wounded, that he 
was the worse 
thereof ever- 
more. 



1 The "t" u undotted, and is therefore perhaps meant for the first stroke of a "u* 
We should read " woud." 



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80 END OP THE FIRST DAU's BATTLE. 

Se'SSSa^. ^^ «^ *^® ^y enduring to the dyrk 

Sal them, magre of thar defyre, eonGren 
2712 On ayar half fore [to] depart in twen. 

And when that gawan of his horft vas ton, 
. The bind out of his noifi and mouth is gon, 

And largly fo paffith euery wounde, 
Sir oawajie 2716 In fwonyng thore he fell one to the ground : 

Than of the puple petee was to here 

The lemytable clamour, and the chere ; 
d^paf™**?f ''hi! ^^d ^^ *^e king the forow and the care, 

illenu oTw""^ 2720 That of his necw lyf was in diffpare. 
^^- '* Far well,'' he fais, *' my gladnes, and my delyt, 

Apone knye?Athed far well myne appetit, 

Pare well of manhed al the gret curage, 
2724 Yow flour of armys and of vaflblage, 

Gif yow be loft ! " Thus til his tent hyme bro<jAt 
JXS^^"*"** Wit/i wofuU hart, and al the furryjenis focht, 

"Wich for to cum was reddy at his neid ; 
2728 Thai fond the lord was of his lyf in dreid, 

For wondit was he, and ek wondit fo, 
t^J^brokra^ribi? ^^ ^ ^^® ^^^ ^^^ brokyne Ribys- two. 

wound/ "'"''^ ^^* ^^^^^ for-thi, the king thai maid beleif, 

[Foi. 84a.] 2732 That at that tyme he fhuld the deith efchef. 
[0]ff melyhalt the ladyis 'knjcJitts were 

In to the feld, and can thir tithingis here, 
Siti'knightelJii -Ajid home to thar lady ar thai went, 

batae°wentf 2736 Til hir to fchewing eft^r thar entent, 

In euery poynt, how that the batell ftud 

Of galiot, and of his multitud ; 
Sre him ^n™ -^^^ ^^^ gawan hyme in the feld hath born, 

wo^i^^ °' ^ ^^^^ Throw quhoys fwerd fo many o kny<jAt vas lorn, 

And of the kny<?My wond^ris that he wro{?At, 

Syne how that he one to his tent vas broc^t. 

The lady hard, that lowit gawan so. 
She weepB for 2744 She gan to wep, in in ^ hir hart vas wo. 

1 So in MS. Should we read ** in W ? 



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Lancelot's lament for gawane. 



Thir tythyngf* one to lancelot ar gon, 
Whar-of that hie was wonder wo-bygone, 
And for the lady haftely he sent, 

2748 And fche til hyme, at his command, Is went : 
He faluft hir, and faid, '* Madem, Is trew 
Thir tithingw I her report of new 
Of the afiemble, and meting of the oft, 

2752 And of fir gawan, wich that fliuld be lofi: ? 
If that be fwth, adew the flour of annys, 
Now neutfrmore recou^ryt be the harmys ! 
In hyme was manhed, curtefly, and trouth, 

2756 Befy traweU In kny<?Athed, ay but fleuth, 
Humilyte, gentrice, and cwrag ; 
In hyme thar was no man^r of outrage. 
Allace ! Isnjehty allace ! what fhal yow fay ? 

2760 Yow may complen, yow may bewail the day 
As of his deith, and gladfchip aucht to fes, 
Baith menfbafy and fefling at the des ; 
For of this lond he was the holl comfort, 

2764 In tyme of ned al knjchthed to fupport ! 
Allace ! madem, and I duril fay at ^he 
Al yhour beheft not kepit haith to me, 
Whar-of that I was in to fuU belef 

2768 Ajane this day that I fchuld have my lef, 
And noeht as cowaxt thus fchamf ally to ly 
Excludit in to cage frome chewalry, 
"Whar othir 'knjchtis anarmyt on thar ftedis 

2772 Hawntw ther jhouthhed in to knjchtlj dedis." 
" Sir," quod fche, *' I red yhow not difpleft, 
}he may In tyme her-eft^ cum at es ; 
For the thrid day Is ordanit, and ihal be 

2776 Of the oftw a new aflemble, 

And I have gart ordan al the gere 
That longith to jour body for to were, 
Boith horfi and armour In the famyne wyft 

2780 Of fable, ewyne aftir jhour awn dewyft ; 



81 



Lancelot re- 
quests to see the 
lady; 



land inqoireii H 
Gawane IS reallj 
likely to die. 



He laments over 
him. 



first apostro- 
phixiag himselT, 



and next blaming 
the lady for not 
having allowed 
him to be present 
in the battte. 



[Fol. 94b.] 
She promises he 
shall go to the 
next battle, 



ng that his 
Die armour is 
ready. 



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82 LANCELOT PEEPABES FOR BATTLE. 

And yhe fal her remayne one to the day ; 
Syne may )he pa6, fore well jlie knaw the way." 
" I will obey, madem, to yhonr entent." 
2784 With that fche goith, and to hir refl is went : 
Si^'iTtai'^! One the mom arly vp fche roft 

wwt. ^ *^* WttAout delay, and to the knycAt fche gois, 

And twk hir lef, and faid that fcho vald fare 
2788 On to the court, witA-outen any mare. 
SlntatooftlSi^ Than kneHt he, and thankit hir oft-fys, 

That fche fo mych hath done hyme of gentrif). 
And hir byhecht eu^r, at his myght, 
2792 To he hir awn trew and ftedfaft knyeAt. 
^^goesuntothe q^^^ thonkith hyme, and fyne fche goith hsr way 

On to the king, wtt^-owten more delay, 
Whar that in^ honour with king and qwen fche faU 
2796 RyrAt thonkfiilly refauit be wttA-all. 
Eft to fir gawan thai hir led, and fche 
Ryght gladly hyme defyrit for to fee, 
GitS'?m??dif- And fche hyme fond, (and fche was glad tharfore), 

Sd'bJS^JcJd^* 2800 All vthir ways than was hir told before. 
^*** The Isnjehty the wich in to hir keping vas, 

dilwiJhefl'L^^ ®^^® ^^ commaudit to hir cuffynece, 

lot in her best Wich cherifl hyme apone hir beft manere, 



2804 And comfort hyme, and maid hym rycht gud chere. 
[T]he days goith, fo paffith als the nycht, 
The twrd day. The thrid morow, as that the fone vas lychtj 

the maiden goes ' o 

to his chamber. The knv^At onou out of his bed aron, 

and fastens on *' ' 

his armour. 2808 The maden fone one to his chalmtfr goft, 
And facretly his armour one hyme fpent. 
He tuk his lef, and fyne his way he went 
He goes to the Ful prewaly, rycAt to the famyne gren 

side the river, as 2812 One the rewere, whar he befor had ben, 

before. 

Ewyne as the day' the firfl coutd hath maad. 
Alone Tjeht thar he howit, and abaade, 

^ MS. *'wtU;" which is crossed out, and '<in" inserted above, rather minutely 
written. ' After " day** we should perhaps insert " he." 



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IHB QUEEN BEHOLDS THE BLACK KNIGHT. 



83 



Behalding to the bertes, wliar the qwin 

2816 Befor at the aifemble he had sen. 

'Rjcht fo the foae fchewith fartA his lycAt, 
And to his armour went is euery wyoAt; 
One athir half the Infting is bygon, 

2820 And many o fair and knych[t]ly courfi is rown. 
The blak kny^^At ^hit howyns on his fled, 
Of al thar doing takith he no hed, 
Eot ay, apone the befynes of tho^^At, 

2824 In beholding his ey dep^tit no<jAt. 

To qnhom the lady of melyhalt beheld, 

And knew hyme by his armour ami his feheld, 

Qwhat that be was ; and thus fche faid one hy^^At : 

2828 " Who is he jone ? who may he be, jhone kajcht, 
So ilill that hovith and flerith not his Ben, 
And feith the knycAtt^ rynyng one the gren ?" 
Thau al beholdith, aad in princypale 

2832 Sir gawan beholdith moA of all ; 

Of melyha[l]t the lady to hyme maid, 
Ine^ontineMt his couche and gart be had 
Before o wynaew more, as he mygAt se 

2836 The knjchtf the oil, and al the aifemble. 

He lukith furtA, and fone the knyc At hath ien, 
And, but delay, he fiilth one to the qwen, 
^< Madem, if jhe remembir, fo it was 

2840 The red kny^At in to the famyne plaoQ 
That wencuil al [at] the SjcR aifemble ; 
"Whar that fone knye^At howis, howit hee." 
** Jha," quod the qwen, *^Tjcht well remembir I ; 

2844 Qwhat is the cau6 at ^e inquere, ifnd quhy ?" 
** Madem, of this larg warld is he 
The kny^At the wich I moft defir to fee 
His ilrenth, his manhed, his curag, and h«8 my^At, 

2848 Or do in annys that Ipngith to o knycAt." 

[B]y thus, arthur, wttA confell well awyfit, 
Haith ordauit his batellf«, and devyiit : 



[Fol. 85a.] 

He abides there 
alone, looking to- 
wards the para- 
PQ| where he saw 
the queen. 

The Jousting be- 
gins. 



The black knight 
still halts on his 
steed. 



The lady beholds 
him and knows 
him ; but yet in- 
quires who he is, 



thus callinff the 
attention or Ga- 
wan. 



who saith to the 
queen: 
"Madam, re- 
member that the 
red knight halt- 
ed where yon 
knight halts.*^ 



" Why do you in- 
quire r* she re- 
pliesk. 



« He is the 
knight, madam, 
whom I most de- 
sire to see." 



Arthur arranges 
his lines of battle. 



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84 THE ORDEK OF BATTLE. 

EnjYdrusietdi The fiift of them led ydrus king, and he 

2852 worthy man vas nemmyt for to bee. 
weT'^ M * i£S "^^® fecund led harwy the Eeweyll, 

^ht, the That in this world was knycAt that had moft feill 

For to prowid that longith to the were, 
2856 One agit knycAt, and well couth armys here. 
[Foi. 85ft.] [T]he thrid feld deliu^t in the hond 

SSSnof"S&OT* Of angtw king of ylys of fcotlande, 

Wich cuiing was one to king arthur nere, 
2860 One hardy knyrAt he was, wttAouten were. 
^gjwoM the The ferd bateU led ywons the king, 

manly kfly^^At he was In to al thing. 
And thus dewylit ware his batellw fere. 
In every com- 2864 In euery feld xv thoufand were. 

pasy are 15|000. *' 

[T]he firft^ batell the lord ftr ywan lede, 
ivan^ieaSTthe Whois mai»hed was in euery cuntre dred, 

rearguard. g^jj^ j^e ^^g q^q ^ wryne the kyng, 

2868 Forwart, flout, hardy, wyft, and ^hing ; 
XX thoufand in his oft thai paft, 
Wich ordanit was for to affemble laft. 
QaUot'f armies. [A]nd galiot, apone the tothir fyde, 

2872 ^jcht wjHj gan his batelli* to dewid. 
MaiggTOieada The firft of them led malenginys the king, 

None hardyar In to this erth lewyng ; 
He neuer more out of his cuntre Raid, 
2876 Nor he with hyme one hund^eth knjchtis hade. 
^^?2SSd • L^]^® fecund the first-conqueft king led, 

wArdeyne the ' That for no preU of armys vas adred ; 

The thrid, o king clepit walydeyne, 
2880 He led, and was o manly larychty but weyne. 
aamedeus the [T]he ferd, king Clamedew* has, 

Wich that lord of far ylys was. 
and King Bran- The firft* batell, whar xl thoufand were, 

flr^SrUi?). 2884 Xing brandymagt^^ had to led and ftere, 

1 "fift" (?). See 1. 2870. « "fift" (?). 



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THE FIRST MESSAGE TO THE BLACK KNIGHT. 



85 



manly knycht, and prewit well oft-fyft, 
And in his confeU wonder fcharp and wyfi. 
Galiot non armys bur that day, 

2888 Nor as o kny^At he wald hyme-felf aray, 
But as f<?mand in o habariowne ; 
prekyne hat, and ek o gret trownfciown 
In til his hond, and. one o curfour fet, 

2892 The bed that was in ony lond to get. 

Endlong the rewar men mjcht behold and fee, 
Of "knjchtts weryne mony one affemble ; 
And the blak hajcht flill he couth abyde, 

2896 "WttAout remowyng, one the Eiwer fyde, 
Bot to the bartes to behold and fee 
Thar as his hart defyrit mofl to bee : 
And quhen the lady of melyhalt haith fen 

2900 The kny<?At fo flond, fche faid one to the qwen 
" Madem, It is my confeU at ^he send 
One to pne Isirycht, jour-felf for to eommendf 
Befeiching hyme that he wald wnd^tak 

2904 This day to do of armys, for jour fak." 
The quen anfuerit as that hir lykit nocht, 
(For othir thing was more In to hir ihocht), 
** For well jhe fe the p^ell, how di8io[i]nt 

2908 The adwentur now flondith one the point 
Boith of my lord his honore, and hts lond. 
And of his men, i»* dang^ how thai flond : 
Bot jhe, and ek thir vthere ladice may, 

2912 If that yhow lykith, to the Imjcht gar fay 
The mefag ; is none that wil yhow let. 
For I tharof fal nocht me ent^met." 
On to the quen fcho faith, *' Her I, 

2916 If fo it plef^ thir vthir ladice by. 

Am for to fend one to the kny^At content;" 
And al the ladice can thar-to afTent, 



Galiot bore no 
arms: 



but was arrayed 
as a servant in a 
habergeon with 
a "prekyne" hat, 
and a truncheon 
in his hand. 



The black knight 
still remains 
looking towards 
the parapet. 



The lady says to 
the queen— 

[Fol. 36a.] 

<< Madam, pray 
commend your- 
self to yon 
knight.*'^ 



The queen replies 



that the lady and 
the rest may send 
a message, but 
that she will not 
herself take part 
in it. 



* Stevenion reads "the"; but "the" is crossed out, and "in" written otot it. 



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86 SIR LAKCELOT IS NOT CONTENT. 

Befeching hir the mefag to dewyfi, 
2920 As fche that was moil pradent and moft wyR. 
discreet nuSd^r ^^^^ grantit, and maden haith thai tone, 

Difcret, apone this mefag for till gone ; 
"uiw^T^tTtlS ^^ ^'^ eawan a fqwyar bad alfo, 

spean, 2924 With two fperis one to the knjcht to go. 

The lady than, wttAonten more dulay, 

Haith chargit hir apone this wjPi to fay : 
£SS.*?hi qi^ " ^^^^ ^ ^® kny<?At, the ladice eu^r-ilkone 

JimLndSSifto 2928 Ben In the court, excep the quen allon, 
the biiok knight, Til ijy^^ ^^ l^aith recowmandit oft-fy 6, 

Befeching hyme of knytrAthed and gentrift, 
(Or if It hapyne en^rmore that he fhall 
2932 Cum, quhar thai mai, owther an or all, 
In ony thing awail hyme or fupport, 
Or do hyme ony plefans or comfort,) 
Siy'^^deS ^® ^^^^ withfaif for lone of them this day 

of arms. 2936 In armys fum manhed to aflay ; 

And fay, fir gawan hyme the fperM fent ; 
Now go, this is the fek of our entent." 
T^^damsei and rjij^^ damyfell fche hath hir palfray tone, 

2940 The sqwyar wttA the fperis with hir gon ; 
[FoL 36J.] The n^eft way thai pafi one to ye kny^At, 

repeat the mes- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ j^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^ ^^j^^ . 

8irLanceiot,find- And quheu he hard, and planly wnd^rftude, 

ing the queen not ^ ' r j j 

in the message, 2944 How that the qucu not in the mefag jude, 
was not content, He fpak no word, hot he was not <?<wtent ; 

Bot, of fir gawan, glaid in his entent. 
He afkit quhar he was, and of his fair ? 
2948 And thai to hyme the man^ can duclair ; 
?qui"tohSdthe Than the fqwyar he prayth that he wold 

forMr" ""^^ Paft to the feld, the fperis for to hold. 

He faw the kny^ Atw femblyng her and thafOi 
2952 The ftedis Rynyng wttA the fedillw bare; 
His fpuris goith in to the ftedis syde. 
That was f ul fwyft, and lykit not to byd j 



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HE USES UP SIR GAWANB S TWO SPEARS. 



87 



And he that was hardy, ferft, and ftout> 

2956 Furth hy o fyd affemblyng on a rout 

Whar that one hunde^reth Isnjohtis was, and mo ; 

And with the firft has Recountmt so, 

That home the deth not helpith hjm his fcheld, 

2960 Boith horB and man is lying in the feld ; 
The fpere is gone, and al in pecis brak, 
And he the trunfcyoune in his hand hath tak 
That two or thre he haith the fadilli> reft, 

2964 Whill in his hond fchortly no thing is left. 
Syne, to the fqnyar, of the feld is gon, 
Fro hyme o fpere In to his hond haith ton, 
And to the feld retumyt he ajayne : 

2968 The firfl he met, he goith one the plan. 
And ek the next, and fyne the thrid alfo ; 
If or in his hond, nore in his flrak was ho. 
His e«n0mys that veryng In aflBray 

2972 Befor his flrok, and makith rovm alway ; 
And in fich wyfi ay in the feld he vro<?At, 
Whill that his fperis gon yar al to noeht ; 
Whar-of fir gawan berith vitnefing 

2976 Throw al this world that ihar vas non levyng. 
In fo fchort tyme fo mych of armys wro^At. 
His ^eris gone, out of the feld he foeht, 
And paflit is one to the Eewere syde, 

2980 'Rjcht there as he was wont for to abyde ; 
And fo beholdyne In the famyne plan. 
As to the feld hyme lykit nocht a^an. 
Sir gawan £aw, and faith on to the quen, 

2984 "Madem, yhone knycht difponit [not],' I weyn. 
To help ws more, fore he fo is awyfit ; 
As I pr^fume, he thinkith hyme difpilit 
Of the mefag that we gart to hyme mak ; 

2988 Thowre-felf yhe have fo fpecialy out-tak. 



He attacks a 
compaDT of a 
huudred knights, 
Blaystlie nearest, 



and with the 
stump of his 
spear hereayes 
two or three of 
their saddles. 



He takes a new 
si>ear fh>m the 
squire, and oyer- 
throws three 
knights. 



His spears gone, 
he returns to his 
first position. 



[FoL 87a.] 



GHr Gawan says 
to the queen : 

''Madam, yon 
knight thinks 
hiniBelf despised, 
hecause you so 
specially excq^t- 
ed yourself in the 



* not" seems required. 



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88 THE SECOND MESSAGE TO THE BLACK KNIGHT- 

He thinkith ewill contempnit for to bee, 
Conlid^ing how that the necefiitee 
Moft piinfpally to yhowr fupporting lyis* 
2992 Tharfor my confell is, yhow to dewyft, 

And ek jhowre-felf in yhowr trefpaa accuf^, 
uk him mercy. And afk hyme mercy, and yhour gilt excnft. 

cvae your gruiit. For well it oucht prince or o king 

2996 Til honors and tQ cheri6 in al thing 

worthi man, that is in kny<?Athed pr^wit. 
For throw the body of o man efchevit 
Mony o wondir, mony one aduenture, 
8000 That nwrwell war til any creature. 

And als oft-tyme is boith hard and fen, 
For often, by one Quhar xl thoufand haith difcuwfit ben 

knight's prowess, 

have 40,000^1^ Yith V thoufand, and only be o Isnjcht ; 

3004 For throw his ftrenth, his vorfchip, and hu mjcht. 
His falowfchip lich comfort of hym tais 
That thai ne dreid the danger of thar fays. 
And thus, madem, I wot, wttAouten were, 

If yon knight wiu 3008 If that ^hone knycAt this day will p^ywere 

oontmne to help / "' ^ r j 

^^ J^R 'With his manhed for helping of the king, 

"We fal have cauft to dred in to no thing. 
Our folk of hyme thai fal fich comfort tak, 
3012 And fo adred thar ennemys fal mak, 
That fur I am, onys or the nychty 

pSoroe\k? to ^^ ^^^ ^®^® ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^® *^®°^ *^® ^y^^* • 

^^*-" Wharffor, madem, that jhe have gilt to mend, 

8016 My confell is one to jhon Inijcht je fend." 
She consents to « gj/. '» quod fche, " quhat pleffith yhow to do 

send a message. ' ^ » t. x- ./ 

5he may dewy 6, and I confent thar-to." 
Than was the lady of melyhalt content, 
3020 And to fir gawan in-to-<?ontynent 
[Foi. 376.] Sche clepit the maid, wich^that paffit ar ; 

therefore'^sent to And he hir bad the mefag thus duclar. 

"^* " Say [to]* the knjcht, the quen hir reco«imendith, 

I "to" seems required. 



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SIR GAWANE SENDS HIM TEN SPEARS MORE. 



89 



3024 And fal correk in quhat that fche offendith 
At liis awn will, how fo hyme lift dewyft ; 
And hyme exortith, in moft hnmyll wyft, 
As euer he will, whar that fche can or may, 

3028 Or powar haith hir charg, be ony way, 

And for his worfchip and his hie mawhede, 
And for hir luf, to helpen in that ned 
The kingw honore, his land fore to preferf, 

3032 That he hir thonk for ejxer may deferf." 
And fonr fquyaris chargit he alfo 
With thre hor6 and fperis x to go 
Furt^ to the knycht, hyme prayng for his fak, 

3036 At his raqueft thame in his ned to tak. 

[T]he maden tuith with the fqwyarw is went 
One to the knycAt, and fchawith jer entent. 
Tho mefag hard, and ek ye prefent fen, 

3040 He anfwerit, and afkith of the qwen ; 

" S«r," quod fche, [" sche]^ in to jhone bartiis lyis, 
"Whar that this day yhonr dedis fal dewyfi, 
Thowr manhed, yhour worfchip, and affere, 

3044 How jhe eonten, and how yhe armys here ; 
The quen hir-felf, and many o lady to, 
Sal lugw be, and vitnes how yhe do." 
Than he, whois hart ftant in o new aray, • 

3048 Saith, " Darayceyll, on to my lady fay, 
How euer that hir lykith that it bee, 
Als far as wit or powar is in me, 
I am hir kny^^t, I fal at hir command 

3052 Do "at I may, w*tAouten more demand. 
And to fir gawan, for his gret gentrifi, 
Me recommend and thonk a thoufand fyft." 
"With that o fper he takith in his bond, 

3056 And fo in to his fterapis can he ftond 

That to fir gawan femyth that the kajcht 



that the aueen 
hnmbly eznorts 
him 



to help in that 
need to preserve 
the king's 
honour, and to 
deserve her 
thanks. 



Sir Gavan also 
sends four squires 
with three horses 
and ten spears. 



The message 
heard,he inquires 
about the queen, 

and is told that 
from yon parapet 
she can witness 
his deeds. 



He returns a 
message that he 
is the queen's 
knight. 



He stands in his 
stirrups; and 
seems to increase 
a foot in height. 



A second ^^sche" is here required. 



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90 THE BLACK KNIOHT's CHABOE. 

Enciefyng gon o larg fdt one hycbt ; 
And to the ladice iidth he, and the qwen, 
3060 '' Jhon is the knjeht that eu^ I have fen 
In al my tyme moft kny^My of affere, 
And in hyme-Mf gon fEureft armys here." 
[FoL 88a.} [T]he knycAt that haith Bemembrit in his tho<?^t 

Mw^C ^^^^ ^® qwenys charge, and how fche hy»» hefockt, 
Curag can encrefing to his hart ; 
His curfer lap, and gan onon to fhirt ; 
And he the fqwaris haith reqwyrit fo, 
8068 That thai wtth hyme one to the feld wald go. 
SSS*ovCT^hS Than goith he one, wttAonten mor abaid, 

TiTertotheiieid; And OUT the leuar to the feld he raid ; 

Don goith his fpere onone In to the Eeii, 
w^ere^hlsect 3072 And in he goith, witAouten mor areil, 
moft peni. Thar as he few moil ptfrell and moft dred 

In al the feld, and moil of help ' had ned, 
Whar femblyt was the £rfl-<;it>nqaefl king 
3076 With mony o kny^At that was in his leding. 
S?o iSjhte7" The firft he met, donne goith boith hor6 and man ; 

The fper was boll, and to the next he Ban 
That helpit hyme bis hawbrek nor hts fcbeld, 
3080 Bot tbrouch and thronch haith periit in the feld. 
Sir Kay, Sir S»r*kay, the wich haith this encontyr fen, 

Sygramore, Sir •'^ J f 

Y^^a^lx^B ' ^^ borfi be fbekith our the larg grai, 

h^*'au*!4 Sl% ^^ ^*^ fygramors ek the defyrand, 

tST 7Sa ^^ ^^®* ^**^ ^*^ grefown cuwmyth at jer honde, 

Btretched .pears, ^^^ ^£ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^If^^ {tr y Wan 

The baHart, and fir brondellis onan, 
And gaherfi, wich that broyir was 
3088 To gawan; tbir fex in a Baft 

Deliu^ly com prekand our the ieldts 
With fperis firaucht, and coumt wi ti^ thar fcbeldis ; 
Sum for love, fum honor to puroheft, 
IftJrttSiJ?^^*' 3092 And aftir them one bundijreth kny<?At« was, 

1 MS. "held." 



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SIX KNIGHTS FOLLOW HIM. 



91 



In &myii6 will, thar manbed to aiTay. 

On his V falowifl clepit than fir kay, 

And faith them, ^'SiVis, thar has ^hond^ ben 

3096 A cour6 that neu^-more farar was Cen 

Maid be o kny^At, and ve ar cnmmyn ilkoa 
Only ws on e worfchip to difpone ; 
AS.d nernr we in al our dais myMt 

3100 Have bet axa mpil than iffith ws lone kny g^ 
W well doin g] and her I he cht for me 
j gTer Jayme aL day^ if i^atl ga^ tobee, 
^ndjblow hyme a t^ [jad JSIgjj ^ ^Q^> 

3104 BoTdeth or ythir adwentur me fall. 
"With that thir fex, al in one aflent, 
With frefch curag In to the feld Is went. 
The blak knychtia. fpere in pecM gone, 

9108 Prome o fqwyar one vthir haith he tdne, 
And to the feld onone he goith fill rycht ; 
Thir fex wttA hyme ay holdith at jer mjoht 
And than bygan his wond^s in the feld ; 

3112 Thar was no helme, no hawbryk, nore no fcheld, 
Nor yhit no kny^At fo hardy, ferft, nore ftout, 
'No ^hit no man^ axmonr my<;At bald owt 
His ibenth, nore was of powar to wttAAond ; 

3116 So mych of armys dyde he with his honde, 
That euery wight ferleit of h^ deid, 
And al his fois ilondith fid of dreid. 
So befely he can his tyme difpend, 

3120 That of the fperis wich fir gawan fend, 
HoU of them all thar was not lewit one ; 
Throw wich but nwroy to the deyth is gon 
Ful many o knyoAt, and many o weriour, 

3124 That coutA fuflen ful hardely o Aour. 
And of his horfi fuppnfit ded ar two, 
One of his awn, of gawanis one alfo. 
And he one fut was fechtand one the gren, 

3128 When that iir kay haith wi%^ his falowis fen ; 



Sir Kay exhorts 
them 



to keep near the 
black knight, 
and follow his 
guidance all day. 



[Fol. 885.] 

With a second 
spear, the black 
knight seeks the 
field, closely fol- 
lowed by the six. 



No knight nor 
armour can with- 
stand him. 



ETery wight 
wonders at his 
deeds. 



He nses up all 
Oawan's spears, 



Two horses of his 
are killed, and he 
fights on foot. 



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92 SIR KAY ASKS WHO THE BLACK KNIGHT IS. 

h^a1S»hS«? -^^ fqwyar with his horft than to hjm hioeht ; 

Magre his fois he to his courfeir foeht 

Deliu^rly, as of o tajchty hart, 
he leaps into the 8132 "WttAout fteropis in to his fadill ftart, 

saddle without ^ 

•tirrupa. That euery wycht beholding m^rvell has 

Of his llrenth and deliu^r befynes. 
heta,*^"^"*** S»r kay, feing his horft, and how that thai 

8136 War ded in to fir gawams aray, 
Afkith at the fquyar if he knewith 
What that he was, this knycht ? and he hym fchewith 
eImio?teU*^'*^ He wift no thing quhat that he was, nore hee 

3140 Befor that day hyn» neiwr faw with Ee. 
Than afkith he, how and one quhat wyft 
On gawanis horft makith hyme iich ftruice ? 
The fqwar faith, ** Forfuth y wot no more ; 
3144 My lord ws bad, I not the cauft quharfore." 
The black knight The blak kny^At, horfit, to the feld can few 

returns to the j 7 i 

field. Als frefch as he was in the morow new ; 

^e^sixcOTiradfia The fex falowis folowit hyme ilkone, 

3148 And al in front on to the feld ar gon ; 
[Foi. 99a.] "Rjcht frefchly one thar ennemys thai foght. 

And many o fair poynt of armys vroght. 
Maiangin»8 hoat [T]han hapnyt to king malangins oft 

king Ydras; and 3152 By ydias king difcumfit was, and loft, 

retreats to jom j j o 7 i 

^m^dl^ ^^ -^^ ^^» ^^^ ^ *^® ^o»queft-king ar gone, 

ktog?TSit '^^^ ^^^^ *^® bateUw afTemblit In to one ; 

tp^'to w^ooo ^"ig malengynis in to his hart.was wo, 

of Arthur's. gjgg ^01 of hyme-feK no bett^ knycAt mjchi go ; 
Thar xl thoufand war thai for xv. 
Than mjcht the feld rjehi p^rellus be fen 
Of armyt ^snjchiis gaping one the ground ; 
3160 Sum deith, and fum w»t7* mony a grewous wond ; 
For arthuris kny<jAt««, that manly war and gud, 
Suppos that vthir was o multitude, 
Eefauit tham well at the fperis end ; 
3164 But one fuch wyft thai may not lang defend. 



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T^E BLACK knight's PROWESS. 



The blak haycht faw the dang^ of the feld, 
And al his doing«« knowith quho beheld, 
And ek remewtbrith in to his entent 

3168 Of the mefag that fche haith to hyme fent : 
Than curag, ftrenth encrefing with manhed. 
Fill lyk hajcht one to the feld he raid, 
Thinking to do his ladice lo ve to have, 

3172 Or Uian his^deth befor hir to refaye. 
Thar he begynyth in his ferft curag 
Of armys, as o lyoun e in his rag ; 
Than m^rwell was his doing to behold ; 

3176 Thar was no Imjeht fo flrong, nor yhit fo bold, 
That in the feld befor his fuerd he met, 
N"or he fo hard his ftrok apone hyme fet, 
That ded or wondit to the erth he focht ; 

3180 For thar was not hot wond^ris that he wroeht 
And magre of his fois en^ilkone. 
In to the feld oft tymys hyme alon 
Throuch and throuch he paflith to and fro ; 

3184 For in the ward* it was the man^^r tho 

That non o kny^At flinld be the brydill tak 
Hyme to oreft, nore cum behynd his bak, 
N"or mo that on at onys one o knycAt 

3188 Shuld llrik, for that tyme worfchip flud fo Tjcht 
}hit was the feld rycht p^rellus and flrong 
Till arthuris folk, fet thai efo«tenyt longe ; 
Bot in fich wy6 this blak knjcht can conten, 

3192 That thai, the wich that hath his manhed fen, 
. Sich hardyment haith takyne In his ded, 
Them thocht thed had no man^ cauf^ of dred, 
' Als long as he mycht owthir ryd or go, 

8196 At euery ned he them recomfort fo. 

Sir kay haith wttA his falowis al the day 
Folowit hyme al that he can or may. 



Theblackknight, 
knowing who is 
beholding him, 



thinks to haTe 
his ladv's love, or 
die before her. 



He works no- 
thing but won- 
ders; 

and often passes 
alone through 
the field. 



[Fol. 896.] 

He fights in such 
wise as to en- 
eourage all who 
see his deeds. 



Sir Kay and his 
fellows follow 
him all day. 



I "warld" (?). 



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94 SIB KAY'8 MESa^GS TO SIR HARWr. 

And woudir well thai have in annys prawit, 
3200 And with thar manhed oft thar folk relewit ; 

Bot well thai faucht in diu^rf^ plads feie, 
?^*nLriy*au*^ W»tA multitud jiT folk confufit were, 

nrmbSJ!"^ ^^ That long in fich wyft mjehi thai nocht cpnt«a. 

sirKayeendBOa- 3204 Sir kaj that hath fir gawans qfquyam fen 
r mMra!^^ Sir He clepit hyme, and haith h3^e prayt fo, 

ough7 not to That to fir harwy the jewel! wil he go, 

sofrer the best . 

knight that ever And fav to hymo. " YY s ttunk hyme 0wiJj awyfit ; 

bore arms tobe ^ ^ ^^ ^ j ' 

surprised, 3208 For her throuch hyme he fufient be fuppri£t 

The beil knycAt that eu^ armys bur ; 
And if it lb befell of adwentnr, 
In his defalt, that he be ded or lamyt, 
3212 This warld 61 have hyme vtraly de&myt. 

Sf tti^Ro^S^^ And her ar of the round table alio 

'^mt^^ ^ ^ faloufchip, that fall in weU and wo 

Abid with hyme, and fuxth for to endur 
3216 Of lyf or deth, this day, thar adwentur ; 
And if fo fal difcumfyt at thai bee, 
The king may fay that wond^ ewiU heith h» 
Contenit hyme, and kepit his honore, 
3220 Thus for to tyne of chevalry the flour ! " 

Swf message^** The fqwar hard, and furtA his way Eaid, 

In teimys fehort he al his meiag faid. 
Sir harwy faith, " T wytnefi god, that I 
3224 "Neaer in my days comytit tratory, 
And if I now begyne In to myne eld. 
In ewill tyme fyrft com I to this feld j 

SltSSTy Su Bot, if god wiU, I 61 me fon difcharg. 

JeJroJe ^ *° 3228 Say to ftr kay I fel not ber the charg. 
He fal no mat^ have me to rapref, 
I fal amend this mys if that I lef." 
The fqwyar went and tellit to fir kay ; 

tosSSSJ!3232 A NDftrharwy,inalthehafthemay, 
-^ Affemblyt hath his oftw, and onon 
[Foi. 40o.] In gret delyre on the feld is gon 



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GALIOT S FOLK ARE WORSTED. 



95 



Before his folk, and haldith fuith his way ; 

3236 Don goith his fper, and ewyne belore ixr kay 
So hard o kny^At he ftrykith in his ten 
That horl^ and he lay boith apone the gren. 
Sir gawan few the counter that he maad, 

3240 And leuch for al the ikrues that he had : 
That day fir harwy prewyt in the feld 
Of armys more than longith to his eld, 
For he was more than fyfty yher of ag, 

3244 Set he was ferC» and ^ong in his curag ; 
And fro that he afTemblyt his bataill 
Dounc goith the folk of galotM al haill ; 
For to wftAftond thai war of no poware, 

3248 And yhit of folk x thonfand mo thei vara. 

KYNG valydone, that fanch on fuch o wyft 
His falowis dangmt with thar ennemys, 
With al his folk, being freft aUd new, 
3252 Goith to the feld onon, them to refikew ; 
Thar was the feld ryeht p^ellus a^ane, 
Of arthuris folk fiil many on var flan. 

BOT angus, qnhich that lykith not to bid. 
And faw the p^rell one the.tother fid. 
His fled he fbrok, and with his ofl is gon 
Whar was mofl ned, and thar the feld has ton. 

KYKG clamedyus makith non abaid, 
Bot with his ofl one to the fid he raid. 
KB ywons king, that haith his cummyn fen, 
Encoimtmt hyme in myddis of the gren. 
The aucht batellt^ afTemblyt one this wif) ; 
3264 On ather half the clamore and the cryifS 
Was lametable and petws for til her. 
Of knycAtw wich in diuerf) placis fere 
Wondit war, and fallyng to and fro, 
3268 ^hit galyotM folk war xx thonfand mo. 

^SE blak kny<?At than on to hyme-feK he faid : 
** Eemembir the, how^xhqw haith ben araid, 



3256 



3260 



A' 



and proves him- 
self a better war- 
rior than might 
hare been ex- 
pected of one so 
old. 



Galiot's folk are 
beatea. 



King Valydone 
comes to support 



T 



Angns comes to 
aid Arthur's men. 



Clamedyus comes 
to aid Qaliot's 
men. 

Ywons encoun- 
ters Caamedyus. 



Great clamour 
and lamentable 
cries oa. either 
side. 



The black knight 
bids himself re- 
member lore's 
power oyer him ; 



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96 THE BLACK KNIGHT's DARIKO EESOLUTION. 

Ay fen ye hour that yow w «h Tn^ln*<1 Tq\^f?A^, 
3272 With love, a ^ane ^uho is powar jm<? whois myckt 
Yow haith no Jftrentl^ j[^d^ m ay It not end nr, 
JSorjhitnonvthir erthly creatur ; 
and that only his ^ji^ ^jot two thingw ar the to amend, 

lady ■ merov or . .« *^ -.— «. ^ —r^ 

SSfJ^^hiS?. 3276 Thi ladice mercy, or thi lyvys end. 

I And well yhow wot that on to hir pr^fens, 
[Foi. 406.] \]/ Til hir eftat, nor til hir excellens, 
Thi febilnefi neu^more is able 
3280 Eor to attan, fche is fo honorable. 

And fen no way yow may fo hie extend 
Hecounicishim- My verray confell is, that yow pretend 

her thanks, This day, (fen yow becummyne art hir kny<?At 

3284 Of hir comand, and fechtit in hir fy^At), 

And well yow fchaw, fen yow may do no mor, 
That of refone fche fal the thank tharfore ; 
and to be Qf euery povnt of cowardy yow fcham, 

ashamed of erery ^, ¥ j r - « , ^ — .*t^,-. _^» 

gjnt of cow- 3288 And in til armys jurchejft the^fum nam.'* 

With that of love in to o new defir 
Swift as a cross- His fpere he flraucht, and fwift as any wyre ^ 

bow-bolt heseeks „.„. ,,,.«o., ««,,, .,, 

the field. With al his forft the n^reft feld he foght ; 

3292 His ful flrenth in armys thar he vroght, 
In to the feld rufching to and fro, 
I Doune goith the man, doune goith the hor6 alfo ; 
A/ Sum throw the fcheld is perfit to the hart, 
3296 Sum throw the hed, he may It not ailart. 
His sword caryee His bludy fuerd he drench, that carwit fo 

the head ftom •' ' 

some, and cuts Yto film the hed, and fum the arm in two : 

the arms of others ' ' 

in twain. gm^ ^ j^}^q f^id fellit is in fwon, 

3300 Throw fum his fuerd goith to the fadill donne. 
His fois waren abafit of his dedis, 
His mortell ftrok fo gretly for to dred Is ; 
When his toes Whar thai hyme faw, wftAin a lytall fpace, 

fSSeiiiSfdSSh ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^)' ^^ levyng hyme the place, 
That many o ftrok ful oft he haith forlorn ; 
The fpedy horfi away the kny^At hath bom. 



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GALIOT WONDERS WHY HIS MEN FLEE. 



97 



8308 



3312 



3316 



3320 



3324 



3328 



8332 



3336 



3340 



In to his wyrking ncu^rmore he feft, 

l^or non abaid he makith, nor areft. 

His falowis, fo in his kajchthed afluryd, 

Thai ar reco»«fort, thar manhed is recou^/yt, 

And one thar fois ful ferlly thai foght, 

Thar goith the lyf of many o knycAt to nocht 

So was the batell wonderful to tell, 

OfknjcMia to fe the multitud that fell, 

That pety was til ony Imjcht to len 

The 'knjchtts lying gaping on the gren. 

The blak knjcht ay contmevnt fo fall, 

WhilP many one, difcumfit at the laft. 

Are fled, and planly of the feld their pas : 

And galyot haith wondyr, for he was 

Of mor powar, and afkit at them qwhy 

As cowartw thai fled fa fchamfully ? 

(Than faith o knjcht, for wondit in the brayne, 

** Who lykith, he may Retwm ajayne 

Frome qwhens we come, m^rwalis for to lee. 

That in his tyme neu^r lich fanch hee." 

** Marwell,'* quod he, " that dar I boldly fay 

Thay may be caUit, and quhat thai ar, I pray?'' 

** Schir, in the feld forfuth thar is o kny^jAt, 

That only throw his body and his mjcht 

"Wencuflith all, that thar may non fuften 

His flrokis, thai ar fo fnreows and ken. 

He farith as o lyone or o beyre, 

Wod in his rag, for fich is his affere. 

I?br he the hajcJit in to the armys Red, 

"Wich at the first aflemble in this lied 

"Wencuflith all, and had the hoU renown, 

He may to this be no comparyfouwe. 

Fore neu^ he felith fen the day vas gon, 

Bot eu^rmore eonimewit in to one." 



His knightly 
deeds assure his 
fellows. 



It was pitiful to 
see the knights 
gaping upon the 
green. 



[Fol. 41a.] 

Oaliot aeks his 
men why they 
flee. 



A knight replies, 
that whoever 
likes may go and 
see marveu. 



Galiot asks, what 
marvels ; and the 
knight tells him 
there is a knight 
who vanquishes 
all; 



who fares as a 
lion or a hear ; 



to whom the red 
knight hears no 
comparison. 



»MS.«Wldlk/' 



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98 GALIOT RALLIES HIS MEN, 

Gaiiot iays he Quod galiot, ** In nome of god and we 

will ^ and see. ^ o j d 

Al, be tyme, the futhfaftne6 fal see." 
Gaiiot is anned, fTlhan he in armys that he had is gon, 

rallies the flyers, ^ -^ "^ ° 

and encourages 3344 And to the feld With hyme amne hath ton 

his men. '' * 

Al the flearw, and foundyne [in]* fioh aray 
His folk, that ner difcumfyt al war thay ; 
Bot quhen thai faw cuwmyne our the plan 

8348 Thar lord, thai tuk fich hardement ajan, 
^ries!"* ^^^ ^^^^ *^^^ efTenjeis lowd thai gon to cry. 

He chargit tham to go, that ware hyme by, 
Strancht to the feld, with al thar holl forfi ; 

8352 And thai, the wich that fparit not the horft, 
All redy war to fillyng his comm&nd, 
And frefchly went, witAowten more demand : 
Throw qwich thar folk recount haith thar place, 

hMt^Sf'ioiingr ^^^^ ^^^ »^ *^® ^®1^ pr^wmyt that thar was 
new oft, one fuch wyft thai foght ; 
Arthur's foUt de- Whar ^huris folk had paffith al to nocht 

termine rather to ^ 

die than fly. J^q ytqi that thai the better war ilkone, 

3360 And at thai can them vtraly difpone • 

[FoL 4id.] Rat hax to jgejthaii flee, in thar entent, 

' And of the blak knycAt haith fich hardyment ; 
For at al p^ell, al harmys, and myfchef, 
3364 In tyme of ned he can tham al ralef. 

[T]har was the batell dangerw* and ftrong, 
Gret was the pres, batA perelltw and throng ; 
2^ born? ^^l ^^® ^^^^ knycAt is bom on to the ground, 

ground. 3368 His horft hyme falyth that fellith dethis wound. 

So^toth^Sr^r The vi falowis, that falowit hyme al day, 

Sich was the pre6, that to the erth go thay ; _ 
And thar in myd among his ennemys 
3372 He was about enclofit one fich wyft 
whe?e^e°li. ^hat quhare he was non of [his] falowis knew, 

Nor mjcht nocht cum to help hyme, nore refkew* 

* The sense requires " in," but not the metre. 



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GALIOT WONDERS AT LANCELOT'S PROWESS. 



And thus among his ennemys allon 

3376 His nakid fuerd out of his hond haith ton ; 

A nd thar he pr^wit his wer tew and his flrenth ; 
Par thar was none within, the fuerdis lenth 
That came, hot he goith to confuiioune. 

3380 Thar was no helme, thar was no habirioune, 
That may reiifl his fuerd, he fmytith so ; 
One euery fyd he helpith to and fro, 
That al about the compas thai mjcht ken ; 

3384 The ded horft lyith virflyng with the men. 

Thai hyme affaljeing botA with fcheld and fpere, 
And he a^ane ; as at the ftok the bere 
Snybbith the hardy houndjg ^that ar ken, 

3388 So farith hej^ for neu^r mjcht be fen 
His fuerd to reft, that in the gret rout 
He rowmyth all the compas hyme about. 
[A]nd galiot, beholding his manhed, 

3392 Withia his-felf wondmth of his ded, 
How that the body only of o kny^At 
Haith fich o flrenth, haith fich affere and myeht ; 
Thau faid he thus, ** I wald not that throw me, 

3396 Or for my cauft, that fuch o knyMt fuld dee. 
To conquer all this world that is fo larg." 
His horft than can he with his fpuris charg, 
A gret trunfioune In to his hond hath ton, 

3400 And in the thikefl of the preft is gon, 
And al his folk chargit he to feft. 
At his comm&nd thai levyng al the prefi ; 
And quhen he had departit all the rout, 

3404 He faid, <* Sir kny<?At, havith now no dout.*' 
Wich anfwerit, " I have no cauft to dred." 
"?i8>" qt(0(? he, ** fa ener god me fped, 
Bot apone fut quhill ^e ar fechtand here, 

3408 And yhow defendith apone iich manere, 
So hardely, and ek fo lyk o kny<?^t, 
I fal myfelf with al my boll mjeht 



He defends him- 
self with his 
sword. 



No helm nor ha- 
bergeon may re- 
sist his sword. 



He fares like a 
bear at the stake, 
that snubs the 
hardy hounds. 



Galiot wonders at 
his deeds ; 



and says that 
such a knight 
shall not die on 
his account. 



Heehargesallhis 
folk to cease ; 



[Fol. 42a.] 



and assures the 
black knight that 
he will himself 
warrant him from 
•11 hanxis 



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100 GALIOT GIVES LANCELOT HIS OWN HORSE. 

Be yhoiir defena, and varand fra al harmys ; 
3412 Bot had yhe left of worfchip In til armys, 
What I have don I wold apone no wyft ; 
Bot fen yhe ar of kny^/ithed fo to prys, 
Jhe fal* no man^r cauft have for to dred : 
many horses as 3416 And fet yhouT horfS be falit at this ned, 
proposes diat Difpleft yhow not, for-qnhy je fal not want 

again part. Als many as yhow lykith for to hawnt ; 

And I my-felf, I fal yhowr fqwyar bee, 
3420 And, i f god will^ nejier more ial wee 
his horse, and Depgrt^ "With that, anon he can to lycht 

Lancelot, who Doune frome his horf!), and gaf hyme to y® kny^At. 

The lord he thonkit, and the horfi hath ton, 
3424 And als fo frefch one to the feld is gon, 
As at no flrokw he that day had ben. 
His falowis glad, one horlft that hath hyw fen. 
To galiot one vthir horft thai broght ; 
3428 And he goith one, and frome the feld he focht, 

Sf ro:SSo'me^?°'^ ^d brandymagus chargit he to flere 

TLfter hyme, wtthia a lytill fpace, 
3432 And x thoufand he takyne wttA hyw haB. 
Towart the feld onon he can to Rid, 
And chargit them befor ye o£l to byd. 

The trumpets, "Wp goith the trumpetw, and the claryownis, 

clarions, horns, ^ ° . J f 

and bugles are 3436 BEomys, bugiUw blawing furtA thar fownis, 
That al the cuntre refownit hath about ; 

desks' ^^^ Than arthnris folk var in difpar and dout, 

That hard the noys, and faw the medtitud 

3440 Of frefch folk ; thai cam as thai war wod. 

^ feari^^^^*' [B]ot lie that was w^Uowten any dred, 

In fabill cled, and faw the gret ned, 
Affemblyt al his falowis, and arayd ; 

5Sr«y" g.^ 3444 And thus to them in manly t^mes iaid : 

1 MS. "fait." 



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LANCELOT HARANGUES ARTHTTR's HOST. 



101 



3448 



3452 



3456 



3460 



3464 



3468 



3472 



3476 



" What that je ar I knaw not yhour eftat, 

Bot of manhed and worfchip, well I wat, 

Out throuch this warld yhe aw to he wmmendit, 

This day je have fo kny<?Atly yhow defendit. 

And now yhe fee how that, ajanis the njchtj 

Yhour ennemys pr^ndit with thar myght 

Of multitud, and with thar new oft, 

And with thar huglis and thar wyndw hoft 

Frefchly cuwrnyng In to fich aray, 

To ifyne yhow one owtrag^ or aflfiray. 

And now almoft cummyne Is the njoht, 

Quharfor yhour ftrenth, yhour curag, and yhovr my^ht 

Yhe occupye in to fo manly wyft, 

That the worfchip of knye?7*thed and empryfi 

That yhe have wonyng, and the gr^t renown 

Be not yloft, be not ylaid doune. 

For one hour the lufferyng of diftreft, 

Gret harm It war yhe tyne the hie encreft 

Of vorfchip, {ermt al this day before. 

And to yhow al my confell is, tharfore, 

With manly curag, but radour, yhe pr^nd 

To met tham fcharply at the fperis end, 

So that thei feil the cold fperis poynt 

Out-throw thar fcheldw, in thar hart«« poynt. 

So fal thai fynd we ar no-thing aflPrayt ; 

"Whar-throuch we fall the well left be aflayt. 

If that we met them fcharply in the herd, 

The formeft M mak al the laif afferd." 

And w«t/* woyft thai cry al, ** Sir kny(?At, 

Apone yhour manhed, and yhour gret my^At, 

"We fal abid, for no man fliall efchef 

Frome yhow this day, his manhed for to pref." 

And to his oft the lord fir yvane faid, 

"Yhe comfort yow, yhe be no-thing a£&ayd, 



[Fol. 42ft.] 

"I know not who 
yeare,bntIknow 
that ye ouRht to 
be commended. 



Ye see how jovar 
enemies, as night 
approaches, are 
strvingr to Rive 
you an outrage 
or a fright. 



Employ then 
your courage, so 
that the honour 
ye have won be 
not again lost. 



BesolTC then to 
meet them 
sharply, without 
fear, so that they 
may feel tue cold 
spear in their 
hearts. 



Perhaps then the 
foremost will 
make the rest 
afraid." 



They promise to 
stand firm. 



Sir Yyan also 
bids his men be 
oooxforted; for 



^ MS. "owtray." See GIoBsaryi 



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102 THE POEM ABRUPTLY ENDS. 

thf sSS^ 'of ^® ^^ ^° "^°'® *^- <^^g 0^ fupprifi ; 

their enemies. 3430 We fe the flrenth of al our ennemys." 

Thus lie faid, for he wend thai var no mo, 
Sir Gawan, how- Bot fir gawan knew well It Tas not fo ; 

ever, knew ^ ' 

^^^'' For al the oftw mjcht he fe al day, 

3484 And the gret hofl he faw quhar yat it lay. 
SJS'hi.^'men!*" [A]nd galiot he can his folk exort, 

Befeching them to be of good comfort, 

And iich encont^r 



[7^ rest is tcantin^,'] 



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NOTES. 



[It may be observed, once for all, that the expression in to repeatedly 
occurs where we should simply use tn; and one to is in like manner 
put for unto. The ending -tth (for -ed) is frequent in the past tense, 
and -it (also for -ed) in the past participle, though this distinction is 
not always observed. A still more noticeable ending is -ing (for -en) 
in the infinitive. Observe farther that the letters t?, w, and w are 
perfectly convertible, and used quite indiscriminately; so that wpone 
means upon ; vthir means uthir, i.e, other ; our is put for over ; vounde 
signifies wound, etc.] 



Page 1, line 1. The soft morow. This nominative case Has no verb. 
A similar construction occurs in the first lines of Books II. and III. 
4. Ujprisith — his hot courss, ITpriseth in his hot course ; chare, chariot. 
6. sent, sendeth; so also stant, standeth, 1. 326. 8. valkyne, waken. 
10. gyrssy grass. 11. assay, assault. 13. wox, voice. 17. frome I can, 
from the time that I began. 18. MS. has denit, which might mean 
deigned; but it seems better to follow Mr. Stevenson's reading, "/if 
demit me;*^ i.e. it seemed good to me. 

P. 2, 1. 23. hewy )erys, heavy years. 24. ** Until that Phoebus had 
thrice gone through his full circuits" (lit. spheres). See the peculiar 
use of "pas" in other places. 26. "So, by such a manner, was my lot 
fated;" see 1. 41. 28. carving can, began to cut. 30. he the morow, 
by the mom, 36. neulyngis, newly, anew. 43. toalkith, walked. 
50. I'clede, y-clad, clad. Ch. has clede. 54. "No one within thought 
he could be seen by any wight outside." 

P. Sf 1. 66t ohs itf enclose it| the MS. has elosiU 57. alpk$H% This 



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104 NOTES. 

reading of the MS. is an error for alcesf. See Chaucer, introduction to 

Legend of good women, 1. 511 : 

" The great goodnesse of the queue Alceste, 
That turned was into a dayesie," 

Alceste being the contracted form of Alcestis. 69. WhcloBing gane, 
began to unclose. 60. " The bright sun had illumined the spray, and 
had updrawn (up warped) into the lusty air the night's soft (sober) and 
moist showers; and had made the morning soft, pleasant, and fair." 
"With this difficult passage we should compare 1. 2477. 66. QuhiU, 
until. 67. till ony mcht, to any wight. 69. Bot gladness til the 
thocht/ulf auer mo, etc., **But, as for gladness to the melancholy man, 
evermore the more he seeth of it, the more wo he hath." 73. repre- 
sent, represented (accented on the second syllable). 74. Al day gan he 
sor, etc., **A11 the day, my spirit began to dwell in torment, through 
sorrow of thought;" be sor, by sorrow (A.S. sorh), 77. Ore slep, or 
how I wot, " Or sleep, ere I knew how." 83. A-licht, alighted. 84. 
levis in to were, livest in doubt. 

P. 4, 1. 91. he morow, by morrow ; at early mom. 99. set, although. 
103. weil accordinge, very fitting. 105. long ore he he sonde, (It is) long 
ere he be sound. 108. seith, for to consel, saith, that as for concealing 
or shewing, etc. 109. althir-hest, lit. best of all; see Chaucer's use of 
alderfast, alderlast. 

P. 5, 1. 127. lat he thi nyss dispone, let be thy nice (foolish) despair. 
128 erith, earth. 134. schall hyme hating, shall hate him. The termi- 
nation -ing is here the sign of the infinitive mood after the verb sJiall. 
140. Set, although. 146. tah one hand and mak, undertake and com- 
pose; treiy, treatise; wnhouth, unknown, new. 151. helevis, believe 
will please thy lady. 160. yis, this. 

P. 6, 1. 161. troucht, truth. 163. discharge, release. 170. spir, 
sphere. 171.* '* At command of a wise (god, from) whose vision," etc. 
"We sometimes find in Old English the adjective ''a wise" used abso- 
lutely for "a wise man." See "Le Morte Arthur," ed. F. J. Fumivall, 
1. 3318. 175. tynt, lost. 177. he this worldis fame. Here again, as 
in many other passages, "be" expresses with relation to, as regards. 
185. yaim, them. 191. demande, demur. 

P. 7, 1. 198. Quhill, until. 200. conten, treat; lit. contain. 202. 
Lancelot is here called the son of Ban, king of Albanak ; so again in 
1. 1447. 204. redis, read. 214. "I will not waste my efforts there- 
upon." 219. wnwyst, unwist, unknown. 225. nome, name. ?26. 
Iwondit to the stahy very deeply wounded ; but I cannot find the origin 
of the phrase. See Glossary. 228. astarty get rid of it, escape it. 



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NOTES. 105 

P. 8, 1. 240. dedmyt to araSy deigned to pluck out. 244. hurfarSy 
hurter. 245. Iwondy wounded. 248. ful wichty ful nimble. 251. of 
guhome, by whom. 253. send, sent. 257. posing vassolagy surpassing 
prowess. 260. ** Passed down into the fell caves." 264. tane, taken. 
266. cwrBy care. 

P. 9, 1. 267. gart he maid, caused to be made. 271. awoue, vow. 
275. in to that gret Revare, in that great river. 284. o gret confusione 
of pupil and knychtis, al enarmyt, a great medley of people and knights, 
all fully armed. Stevenson actually reads unarmyt ! 294. / wil re- 
port ; both here and in 1. 320 we should expect to find '*/ nil report',''^ 
i.e. I will not tell. It must mean, " I will tell you why I omit to 
mention these things." Compare lines 266, 320. 297. thing, think. 

P. 10, 1. 305. vm», wars. 306. 5^ <A^M;flV«, by theways. 307. Tw^;r, 
betwixt ; accord, agreement. 314. mot, must. 316. steh, concluded. 
319. most conpilowr, very great composer. 320. "As to whose name I 
will only say, that it is unfit," etc. 326. stant, standeth. 328. yrgung, 
rung. 330. leith, shall be ; observe the future sense of heith in this 
place. 331. suet, sweet. 332. **His soul in bliss preserved be on that 
account." 334. and this endit. Whether endit here refers to inditing 
or ending is perhaps doubtful. 

NOTES TO BOOK I. 

P. 11, 1. 338. hewis, boughs. 340. mahyne gone, began to make. 
341. in ther chere, after their fashion. (For chere, see Glossary). 345. 
auerding to, belonging to. 351. anoit, annoyed. 352. For why, where- 
fore ; so also for-thi, therefore. 354. can, began. 355. sende, sent. 
358. heryng, hear (infin. mood). In the next line it occurs as a pre- 
sent participle. 362. to pas hyme, to go, depart. 364. msit, to dream 
of; aperans, an appearance, apparition. 

P. 12, 1. 365. hore, hair. 375. vomhe, womb ; hence bowels. 377. 
stert, started. 384. gert, caused. 390. traist, trust. 397. demande, 
demur, delay. 398. at, that. 

P. 13, 1. 407. whill, until. 408. the, they. 410. to viting, to know. 
412. shauyth al hall, sheweth all whole. 414. chesith, chooseth. 422. 
shire, sir. 424. fore to awysing, in order to take counsel. 433. The 
MS. has **set" {not with a long s). Mr. Stevenson has **fet," which 
would seem right. 

P. 14, 1. 439. **The which they found were wondrously evil set." 
440. his sweuen met, dreamed his (h'eam. 443. waryng in to were, were 
in doubt. 444. danger, power to punish ; compare Shakspere's use of 



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106 NOTES. 

the word. 457. hut delay, without delay. 459. stondtth heuy eherithf 
stood heayj-cbeered, was sad in his demeanour. 465. fundyng^ found. 
466. depend to, depend upon. 

P. 15, 1. 475. tonef taken. 478. assey, test. 481. record, to tell oiit, 
speak. 487. preaeruith It allan, is preserved alone. 499. ajy in-tyU, 
rely upon. 500. failye, fail. 504. there clergy, their science. 

P. 16, 1. 519. "Through the watery lion, who is also faithful, and 
through the leech and eke the water also, and through the counsel of 
the flower." It is very possible this passage is partly corrupt ; 1. 520 
should certainly be, as may be seen from lines 2010, 2056, 

''And throuch the leich withouten medysyne." 
The meanings of lion, leech, and flower are fully explained, however^ 
in lines 2013-2120. 524. weyne, vain. 527. passid nat hU th4>yht, 
left not his thoughts. 531. rachis, braches, dogs. 533. gretohundis^ 
grayhounds. 536. This purely conjectural line is merely inserted to 
carry on the sense. It nearly coincides with line 3293. In the next 
line we should read " grewhundis," rather than "grewhund." 538. 
Befor ther kedis, before their heads. 

P. 17, 1. 545. "All armed, as was then the fashion." 546. ialmt, 
saluted. 548. kend, known. 549. leuyth, liveth. 552. The rime re- 
quires "land,** as in 1. 638. 553. yald kyme our, yield him over. 
554. if trthut, give tribute. 566. recist, resist; mone bee, must be. 
568. he, by. 569. day moneth day, ere this day month; comp. 1. 1162. 

P. 18, 1. 577. fairhed, fair-hood, beauty. 587. magre myne entent, 
in spite of my intention. 591. nome, took. 593. Inquere at, inquire 
of. 596. wes, was. 599. rase, rose. 605. accordith, agree thereto. 
606. recordith, belongith. 607. vieare, wiser. 

P. 19, 1. 621. This speh I lest, this I list to speak. 622. 'carnit, 
warned. 626. "Though the season of the year was contrary." 627. 
atte, at the. 629. the ilk, that (Scotch thilk), 632. Melyhalt, the name 
both of a hill, and of the town built upon it. 636. affray, terror. 642. 
UJnconquest, unconquered. 643. cwre, care. 

P. 20, 1. 649. nemmyt, named. 652. were, war. 654. or than to 
mom, earlier than to-morrow. 660. our few, over few. 677. northest, 
north-east. 

P. 21, 1. 686. fechteris, fighters. 688. holde, held. 691. presone, 
prison. 697. peite, pity. 699. The metre of Lancelot's lament is that 
of Chaucer's "Cuckoo and Nightingale," and was very possibly copied 
from it. Qwhat haue y gilt, what crime have I committed. 702. ago, 
gone. 703. 7»a^, naught; m^ ^^tVf, gladden me« 706. til haue, tf^hxt^ 
TOdi £^ thelke tyme, since that time. 



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NOTES. 107 

P. 22, 1. 718. of remedy for a remedy. 719. miih^ ceaseth. 723. 
with this lady, by this lady. 728. laiaere, leisure. 731. diuerss toaia 
sere, divers several ways. 733. hur, bore. 735. cher, car. 740. douty 
to fear. 745. hut were, without doubt. This expression often occurs. 

P. 23, 1. 751 few menye, small company ; an oddly sounding expres- 
sion to modem ears. 753. cold, called. 754. hot, bade. 755. hut in 
his cumpany, unless he had with him. 757. Sis saith; the speaker is 
the captain of the hundred knights, called in 1. 806 Maleginis, 768. 
tdsfell^ just as many. 777. hmd, heard. 781. clepity called. 

P. 24, 1. 793, as he wel couth, as he well knew how. 796. sen, seen. 
800. sen, since. 806. was hot, was hight, was named. 809. In myde 
the horde and festinit in the stell, In the midst they encounter, and 
fastened in the steel. See 1. 850. 812. Bout, company. 815. ferde, 
fourth. 817. eauch thar latter hatell steir, saw their last division 
stir. 

P. 25, 1. 820. yane his mortall fell. A word seems here omitted ; if 
after mortall we insert strokis, the sense would be, " His enemies began 
his mortall strokes to feel." 825. worth, worthy. It would improve 
the metre to read worthy (1. 875). 828. In to were, in war, in the 
fltrife. 829. hyme hure, bore himself. 839. to-for, heretofore. 841. 
jitour, i.e. at over, across. 842. assail, assault. The rime shews we 
ehould read assaill, as in 1. 855. 849. socht atour, made their way 
across. The use of seke throughout this poem is curious. 

P. 26, 1. 861. setith his payn vpone, devotes his endeavours to. 868. 
al to-herwith, cutteth to pieces. 880. dirk, dark. 883. tan and slan, 
taken and slain. 

P. 27, 1. 895. It frequently occurs in the MS. that a space is left at 
the beginning of a line, and the first letter of the line is omitted. It 
is evident that the intention was that the first letter should be illumi- 
nated, and that this, after all, was not done. Here, for instance, the 
T is omitted, as indicated by the marks of brackets. So also in 
L 1083, etc. 897. pasing home, go home. 899. was vent, had gone. 
905. dulay, delay. So also dt^lar for declare, 907. comyne, -tjame. 
908. ill paid, displeased. 909. homly, humbly. Stevenson reads 
hourly, but this is wrong ; see 1. 914. 911. earful, full of care, unhappy. 
912. withouten were, without doubt. 914. lawly, lowly. 918. wight y 
with (unusual, and perhaps wrong). 

P. 28, 1. 924. leife, live. 929. eft, after. 933. thar longith, there 
belongeth. 943. / was for til excuss, I had some excuse. 944. 
" Because I did behove (to do it),, out of very need." 946. lefe it hut^ 
hmw it without* 953. ma, mako. 954. ga^ go. 955. of new^ aaoWi 



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108 NOTES. 

958. But if that deth or other lot eertan, " Except it be owing to death 
or other sure hindrance." 

P. 29, 1. 960. he hold, be held. MS. behold. Stevenson suggested 
the alteration, which is certainly correct. 961. withthy, on the condi- 
tion that. 965. promyt, promise ; ah fast as, as soon as. 973. ferd, 
fourth. 982. " Where we shall decide the end of this war." 

P. 30, 1. 997. caffi cage, prison. 999. amen, pleasant. 1000. vodis, 
woods. 1004. lusty pleasure (Ch.). But the line is obscure ; unless we 
read '^ diuersitee.^* 1009. **His spirit started (owing to the) love 
(which) anon hath caught him," etc. 1012. at, that. 1014. ** (As to) 
whom they know not, etc." (?). 1019. sen at, since that. 1022. the 
dewod, devoid thee. 1024. and, if. 1026. he ony mayne, by any mean. 

P. 31, 1. 1027. y red, I advise. 1035. To tvarnnyng, to warn. 1040. 
our the furdis, over the fords. 1044. oyer. So in MS. ; the y repre- 
senting the Saxon ^A ; other. 1046. ^*w/yn^, halting. 1050. tcorschtp, 
honour. **It were more expedient to maintain your honour." 1058. 
wonk, winked. 1062. vare, aware. 

y. 32, 1. 1064. The meaning of "ferst-conquest" is <* first-conquered," 
(conquest being Old Fr. for conquered). It is explained in 1. 1547 as 
having been a title given to the king whom Galiot first subdued. 
1067. ferss, fierce. 1070. suppos, although. 1073. he; viz. the shrew. 
1077. The MS. has '*fched." 1080. ymen, I mean. 1095. tats, takes. 

P. 33, 1. 1109. Oalyot, put for Galyot's, the sign of the possessive 
being ofken omitted, after a proper name especially. 1110. prewit, 
proved, tried. 1129. traist, trust. 1131. that euery thing hath cure, 
that (of) everything hath care. 

P. 34, 1. 1135. "Aye from the time that the sun began to light the 
world's face, until he was gone." 1137. **(i/orM," perforce. 1141. 
talis, takes. 1142. hecht, promised. 1151. fail^eis, fail. 1154. fet, 
fetched. 1156. stant, standeth. 1162. resput, respite. 1166. very 
knychtts passing, weary knights go. 

P. 35, 1. 1170. till spere, to inquire. 1177. ne wor his worship, had 
it not been for his valour. 1187. qwheyar, whether. 1191-4. '* And 
fond," etc. These four lines are now for the first time printed. They 
were omitted by Stevenson, evidently by accident. 1 196. Per dee. Fr. 
par Dieu : an oath common in old ballads, generally in the form pardy^ 
1 197. vsyt, used. 1 198. " I advise that we go unto his arms" (armour). 
1203. haill, whole. 

P. 36, 1. 1207. ahwsyt, abused ; i.e. made an ill use of. 1208. vsyt^ 
used. 1209. suppos the best that lewis, even though (it were) the best 
that lives. 1217. on slep, asleep. The prefix a- in English is due to 



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NOTES. 109 

the Saxon on. 1221. al to-hurt, etc. See note' in Glossary on the word 
To-herwith, 1225. aauchy saw; remt^ rued, pitied. 1233. one syd a 
lyty a little on one side. 1236. our mekill, over much. 

P. 37, 1. 1240. yarofj thereof. 1241. ruput, repute, think. 1242. 
ahlare, abler, readier. 1253. Insert a comma after thret, and destroy 
that after lowe. The meaning perhaps is, "But what if he be appealed 
to and threatened, and (meanwhile) his heart be elsewhere set to love." 
Observe that and is often the third or fourth word in the sentence it 
should begin. See 1. 2833. 1258. ^he tyne yowr low, you lose your 
love. 1260. <;o«c?««tY, ended. 1265. woM, much. 1268. o/w^w?, anew, 
again. 1273. pan, pain. 

NOTES TO BOOK II. 

P. 38, 1. 1279. thocht, anxiety. 1284. apperana, i.e. vision, as in 
1. 364. 1295. aqwynt, acquainted ; Burns uses acquent. 1297, com, 
coming. 

P. 39, 1, 1316. "So far out of the way you go in your course." 
Compare 1, 1797. 1317. " Thy ship, that goeth upon the stormy 
whirlpool, nigh of thy revels (i.e. because of thy revels) in the gulf it 
falls, where it is almost drowned in the peril." 1321. "In the 
wretched dance of wickedness." See the curious uses of the word 
" daunce" in Chaucer. 1323. the son, thee soon. 1330. powert^ 
poverty; as the-selwyne wat, as thyself knows. 1334. tn to spousag, in 
wedlock. 

P. 40, 1. 1352. «Mj?^m«, oppression. 1354. w^e^^trw, widows. 1367. 
that tike, that same. 1369. sufferith, makest to suffer. 

P. 41, 1. 1379. Eccles. iv. 8, 10. 1387. yow mone, thou must. 
1392. her-efier let/, hereafter live. 1401. There should be no comma 
after " sapiens" It means " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of 
wisdom." Prov. ix. 10. 

P. 42, 1. 1409. to ryng tender his pess, to reign under His peace, by 
His permission. Roquefort gives pais, licence, permission. 1420. 
arour, error. 1427. leful, lawful. 

P. 43, 1. 1447. Ban, king of Albanak, was Lancelot's father. See 
L 202, 1450. 1448. stan, erratum for slan, 1474. The MS. has 
"a£it." 

P. 44, 1. 1491. Tak the hak apone themself, turn their backs. 1500. 
yewyne, given. 1504. till^ to; redundant. 1506. stand aw, stand in 
awe. So also in 1. 2684. 

P. 45, 1. 1537. throw his peple, by his people. 1541. ThusfaUth not, 



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110 NOTES. 

etc. ** Except wise conduct falleth to a king.*' 1546. It were better 
to retain the spelling of the MS. — ** kinghe;" for, though strange and 
unusual, it occurs again in 1. 2527. 

P. 46, 1. 1556. wmde^ weened. 1560. in to his contrarey against him. 
1568. trewiSf truce. 1575. his powar, his chief army. 1576. by the 
yhere, by the ear, privately. 1579. eoldy called. 

P. 47, 1. 1597. JMrnefair, go home. 1608. And\ redundant in modem 
English. 

P. 48, 1. 1628. lesty least; loWy law. It requires care to distinguish 
the two meanings of low, viz. love and law, 1633. lug, judge. 

P. 49, 1. 1660. sar, sorely. 1666. A line omitted. The inserted 
line is purely conjectural. 

P. 50, 1. 1704- pupelle, people. 1708. Inwyus, envious. 1716. 
longith, belongeth. 1717. the lyhith, it likes thee. 

P. 51, 1, 1724. hetak til hymcy confer upon him. 1730. essy, easy. 
1736. for the nonis, for the occasion. See Tyrwhitt's Chaucer. 1739. 
vn to the vorthi pur yow if, unto the worthy poor thou give. 1742. set 
nocht of gret suhstans, though not of great value. 1754, ahwit, 
approved of. 

P. 52, 1 1761. tynith, loseth. 1763. atonis, at once. 1771. resawe. 
receive. 1773. with two, also. 

P. 53, 1. 1791. well less, al-out, much less, altogether. The punctua- 
tion hereabouts in Stevenson's edition is very wild. 1795. wys, vice; 
the wrechitness, thy miserliness. 1797. pass the courss, go thy way. 
1808. vrech, wretch; but here used instead of miser, 1812. viss, vice. 
1814, hen y-knawiih, are known (to be) (?). 1815. dant, daunt. 1822. 
the ton, the one. 

P. 54, 1. 1832. heis var, beware. 1834. eolde, cool. 1852. onys, 
once, 1855, whar-throw, through which, whereby. 

P. 55, 1. 1864, awn, own. The metre requires the more usual form, 
awin. 1879. dispoljeith, despoileth. 1881. For-quhi, wherefore. In 
this line the MS. has *' scrikth." 

P. 56, 1. 1899. most nedis, must needs. Te=*the', i.e. The one, He. 
1909. Mot, might. 

P. 57, 1. 1940. havith, hath. 1950. hot, bight, is called. 

P. 58, 1. 1966. wnepwnist, unpunished. 1990. amend, amend; ^illy 
destroy. 

P. 59, 1. 2011. ayre, are. 2012. duclar, declare* so also dulay for 
delay. 2017. the god werray, the Yery God. 

P. 60, 1. 2036. For-quhi, wherefore. 2040. mad, made. 2041. clergy, 
science. 2062. he the myohi dewyne, by the might divine. 



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NOTES. Ill 

P. 61, 1. 2069. fa/r, fare. 2079. Myth from the ground, heals from 
the bottom; i.e. effectually. 2100. not sesaithy who ceaseth not. 

P. 62, 1. 2107. Ne war, were it not for; hartly, hearty; it occurs 
again four lines below. 2135. yneuchy enough. He means he will ask 
but one question more. 

P. 63, 1. 2148. To passing home, to go home. 2162. the xxviij dag. 
The MS. has a **v'* smudged over; we should read "xxiiij," as in 
1. 2155. 

P. 64, 1. 2190. hal dure, hall door. 2192. o iorne most for to oomend, 
a journey most to be commended. 2194. lowith, love. 

P. 65, 1. 2212. the fewa/r eschef thay, the less they achieve. 2229. 
**Por no adventure will prove so great, that ye shall not achieve it." 
2241. tohill, until. 

P, 66, 1, 2247, galot\ so in MS. 2265. grant mercy, great thanks; 
Pr. grand merct, 2267. quhy, because. 

P. 67, 1. 2279. thithingis, tidings ; probaby an error of the scribe for 
tithingis, Stevenson has chichingis I 2284. al-out, altogether. 2304. 
oft syss, offc-times. . See Glossary {Sys), 2306. dante, dainty. 2310, 
tithandis, tidings ; compare 1. 2279. 

P. 68, 1. 2323. aw, owe. 2328, fantessy, fancy, notion. 2334. for 
no why, for no reason. 2337. mon I fair, must I go. 2338. our son It 
waire, over soon it were. 2342. For-quhy, because. 

P. 69, 1. 2352. nor has the force of lu^* 2366. he ony men, by any 
means. 2368. on of tho, one of them. 2375. chen of low, chain of 
love. 2376. and if )he may deren, an if you may declare. 

P. 70, 1. 2409. hartly raquer, heartily require. 2416. gar ordan, 
cause to be provided. 

P. 71, 1. 2428. prewaly disspone, privily dispose. 2436. ellts-quhat; 
1 suppose this means, "he was on fire elsewhere,^^ 2448. hamlynes, 
homeliness. 2452. fest throw al the ^her eliche, through all the year 
alike. 

P. 72, 1. 2469. commend, commended. 2470. he drywith, he driveth, 
pursueth. The reading is not drawith, as in Stevenson. 

NOTES TO BOOK III. 

P. 73, 1. 2471. This line is too long, and the sense imperfect ; but. there 
is no doubt about the reading of the MS. 2474. Awodith, expels 2475. 
doune valis, falls down ; for it is evident that valis is an error for falis, 
the mistake having arisen from confusion with the succeeding line. 
2480. cUd^ dftd. 2487. hygown^ began. In the next line Stevenson 



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112 NOTES. 

has sown. But the true reading is Eowny run; as in 1. 2820. 2492. 
harnag, baronage, nobility. 

P. 74, 1. 2522. hut dutay, without delay ; the, they. 2524. ihar corny 
their coming. 2530. in the dogre, in its (due) degree. 

P. 75, 1. 2545. Or that, ere that. 2552. he and hate, high and hot. 
2558. the can, they began. 

P. 76, 1. 2574. hyme mak, prepare himself; or perhaps simply, make 
(for the field), go. 2582. helmya last; last possibly means laced; see 
1. 2250. 2594. ^hit, although. 2599. dout, fear. 2600. is assemhlit, 
made an attack. The peculiar use of assemble must always be borne in 
mind. 2601. erd, earth. 

P. 77, 1. 2612. found till ywyans, go to Gwyans. 2614. til esquyris 
thei sewyt, after Esquyris they followed. 2619. one to the melle socht, 
made their way to the mel^e. 2627. don lore, borne down. 2630. 
Fifty thousand. It would appear that Galiot had 40,000, of whom 
10,000 were held in reserve; so that in 1. 2632 only 30,000 are men- 
tioned. See 1. 2569, 2647. 

P. 78, 1. 2646. ten, sorrow, vexation. 2656. resauf, receive. 2663. 
at thar come, at their coming ; led, put down. 2670. hiding one the hent, 
abide on the grassy plain. 

P. 79, 1. 2679. **That, despite their efforts, they must needs retire." 
2684. stud aw, stood in awe. 2693, 4. These lines do not rime. Two 
lines at least must here be Idst. 

P. 80, 1. 2712. On ayar half, on either side. The MS. omits to, 2713. 
of, off. 2714. noiss, nose. 2731. Bot nocht forthi, But not on that 
account. 

P. 81, 1, 2754. harmys, loss. 2761. atccht to sesy ought to cease. 
2765. at, that. 2768. my lef, my leave, permission. 2770. in to cage, 
in prison. 

P. 82, 1. 2802. commandit, commended. 

P. 83, 1. 2819. one athir half, on either side. 2820. rown, run. 

2821. howyns; an ungrammatical form; perhaps howyng is meant. 

2827. one hycht, on height ; i.e. aloud. 2829. sterith, stirreth. 2833. 

** The lady of Melyhalt made (her way) to him, and immediately caused 

his couch to be placed before a window.*' Mr. Stevenson reads, 

" Of Melyhalt the lady to hyme maid 
Incontinent his couche, and gart he^ had," etc. 

i.e. "The lady immediately made his bed for him," etc. 2841. wencmt, 

vanquished. After this word we should perhaps insert "at," as in 

1. 3336. 

1 But the MS. has " be ;" also « melyhat" instead of " Melyhalt." 



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NOTES. 113 

P. 84, 11. 2877-2880. These lines are now printed for tlie first time, 
four lines having been here agsdn omitted by Mr. Stevenson. 2880. hut 
toeyne, without doubt. 2884. to led and stere^ to lead and direct. 

P. 85, 1. 2893. Undlong, along. 2894. weryne, were., 2913. lety 
hinder. 

P. 86, 1. 2925. dulayj delay; as in several other places. 2938. fek, 
eflfect. 2944. ]ude, went. 2947. fair^ welfare. 

P. 87, 1. 2964. whill, until. 2970. Ao, stop, pause. 2971. veryng 
In affray, were in terror. 2972. rovm, room. 2978. sochty made his 
way. 2984. dtsponit, intends; but we must insert **not,'' to complete 
the sense and the metre. 

P. 88, 1. 2998. eschevit (used passively), is achieved. 3003. o knychty 
a single knight. 3005. tats, takes. 3006. fays, foes. 3013. onys or 
the nycht, once ere the night. 3015. that ]he have gilt to mend, to amend 
that in which ye have trespassed. 

P. 89, 1. 3052. Do at I may, Do that which I can. 

P. 90, 1. 3065. This line is printed by Mr. Stevenson, 
" Curag can [ ] encresing in* his hart" ; 

but it is not clear that a word is wanting, for the metre is as complete 
as in maay other lines; whilst, as regards the sense, ''the knycht" is 
probably a nominative without a verb, and 1. 3065 means, ** Courage 
did increase in his heart.'* Or the reader may, if he pleases, 
insert "fele." Compare 1. 3058. 3066. lap, leaped. 3079. Observe 
the omission of the word '* neither*' in this line. 3080. persit, pierced, 
3086. onan, anon. A.S. on-dn. 

P. 91, 1. 3093. In samynewill, with like intent. 3100. let axampil, 
better example. 3104. hot, unless; me fall, befall me. 3108. o»^ vthir, 
another. Z\2Q. send,^nt, 3121. /^u^t'^on^, left one. Z\22, hut mercy, 
without mercy. 

P. 92, 1. 3134. deliuer hesynes, clever readiness. 3136. aray, livery. 
3140. Ee, eye. 3146. the morow new, the early morning. 3160. deith, 
dead. 3162. Suppos, although. 

P. 93, 1. 3178, Mr; we now use hut. 3184. ward. See Glossary. 
t?w, then. 

P. 94, 1. 3200. relewit, relieved. 3201. dtuerss placis sere; as sere = 
diuerss, one of these words is redundant. So in 1. 3266. 3207. ewil 
awysit, ill advised. 3217. **And if it so happen, that they be discom- 
fited." 

P. 95, 1. 3240. kuoh, laughed ; sarues, service. 3246. al hatll, all 

» MS. has "to." 



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114 NOTES. 

whole. 3248. x thamand mo^ ten thousand, and more. 3259. ahaidy 
delay. 3263. auchtf eight. 3265. petwi for til hevy piteous to hear. 

P. 96, 1. 3297. drench, drew. 3299. fellit, fallen. 3304. levyng, leave. 

P. 97, 1. 3307. aesty ceased. 3321. (Mhi at, asked of. 3331. Wen- 
cussith, yanquisheth. 3340. in to one, continually ; which is sometimes 
the sense of A.S. on-dn. 

P. 98, 1. 3353. tofillifng, to fulfil. 3357. soght, came on; see Glos- 
sary. 3359. Ne war, etc, '*Had it not been that they were, indi- 
yidually, better men." 3364. ralef, relieye. 3368. fellith, feeleth. 

P. 99, 1. 3384. vtralyng, wrestling, i,e, entangled with ; a strong ex- 
pression! 3385. tfwa/j^w^, assail. 3390. rowwjy^A, roometh, emptieth. 
3403. departit, parted. 3404. douty fear. 

P. 100, 1. 3412. left, failed. 3423. The lord, i.e. Galiot, as I sup- 
pose ; Mr. Stevenson has, **The Lord." 3430. stere, to stir, move, come. 

P. 101, 1. 3450. pretendit, endeavour. 3457. oceupye, employ. 3461. 
For one howr, etc., "On account of suffering distress for one hour." 
3470. the well lees, much less ; see 1. 1791. 3471. herd, beard. 3473. o 
wof/88, one voice. 3475. eseheffrome yhow, win from you; or, perhaps, 
withdraw himself from you. See Glossary. 

P. 102, 1. 3481. wend thai var no mo, thought they were no more. 
3487. And eieh eneonter, and such encounter. These three words are 
written at the bottom of the page as a catchword. The rest of the 
MS. is wanting. 



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GLOSSAEIAL INDEX. 



[As many of the words occurring in "Lancelot" are well explained either in 
Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary or in Koqnefort's ^'^Glossaire de la langue Romane," 
I have frequently referred to these works by means of the letters J. and R. ; using 
the latter to signify either <* Roquefort" or "Romance." Other abbreviations, as 
O.N. for Old Norse; Goth, for Moeso-Gothic; Su-G. for Suio-Gothic, etc., will be 
readily understood. Ch. has also been used as an abbreviation for CJhaucer. The 
rarious French, Danish, German, and other words referred to in the Glossary are 
merely added by way of illustration, to indicate in what direction a word may be most 
easily traced up. To ensure accuracy as far as possible, I have verified every foreign 
word by the aid of dictionaries, using for Gothic words the Glossary subjoined to 
Massman's edition of "Ulfilas;" for Suio-Gothic words Ihre's Glossarium; for Old 
Norse words the ** Worterbuch" in Pfeiflfer's Altnordisches Lesebuch ; and for Romance 
words "Roquefort." In Mceso-Gothic words, however, I have always written to 
wherever, by some singular perversity, German editors write v. Whatever errors 
occur below may thus, I hope, be readUy traced.] 



Abaid, ) delay, tarrying, 1882, 
Abyde, ) 2147, 3069, 3308. A.S, 

aMdan, J, 
Abasit, \ abashed, Iminbled, di- 
Abasyt, > spirited, cast down, 378, 
Abaysit, ) 1452, 2664. Abasit of, 

dispirited by, 3301. E. ahaiser, 
Abasit of (used passively), were 

dispirited by, 2243. 
Abraid, awoke, 1231 ; (Cb.) A.S. 

on-hredan, 
Abwsyt (abused), made an ill use 

of, 1207. 
Access, a fever ; or better, a fit of 

the ague; Lat. aeeessus fehriSf 

Wright. 31. 
Accorde, to agree with, 1526. Fr. 

s^accorder. 
Accordith, is suitable for, becomes, 



1679, 1951 ; agreed therewith, 

605 ; was useful for, was fit for, 

1204. 
According for, suitable for, 1512. 

R. accordant. 
Adred, terrified, 378, 2664. A.S. 

on-dr(8dan. 
Affek, effect, 382. 
Afford, afraid, 3472. A.S. afered, 

afceran, 
Affere, warlike preparation, 985. 

A.S. /ara»(?), aspect, bearing, 

3043,3334,3394. K.^.feorhj. 
Afferith, belongs to, suits, 1550, 
Afferis, is suitable, 1690, 1961. 

R. aferer. 
Affrait, terrified, from the verb 

Affray (Ch.), 2462, 3469. E. 

effiraer. 



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116 



GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



Affray, terror, fright, 636, 3454. 

Fr. effroL 
Affy in till, trust to, rely upon, 

499, 1394. R. affier, 

Afyre, affianced (?), 2436. See E. 

affier^ for which one meaning is 

Jiancer ; else it means simply on 

fire, asinU. 30, 251. 

Agrewit, | aggrieved, vexed, 

Aggrewit, ) 1308, 1538; angry, 

enraged, 2618. E. agrever. 
Ago, gone, 159. A.S. agdn. 
Aire, are, 1732. 
Algait, Algat, always, 1996, 1792. 

Gothic gatw6, a street, way. 
Al magi'e thine, in spite of thee, 
115. An expression compounded 
of A.S. aly wholly ; maugre (Fr. 
malgre), ill-will, and thine (A.S. 
thin, the gen. case of thiij thou). 
Al-out, altogether, 1676, 1791, etc. 
Alowit, approved, 1754. Fr. allouer, 
Als, 1, as ; 2, also. 
Amen, ) pleasant, 64, 999. Lat. 
Ameyne, ) amoenua. 
Anarmyt, fully armed, 545, 620, 

2219, 2771. See EnarmyU 
And, if, 1024, 1591 ; and if (=an 

if), if, 2376. 
Anerly, only, 1476, 1696, A.S. 

cen-Vie, 
Anoit, \ annoyed, vexed, 351, 
Anoyt, ) 2244. 
Anoyt, annoy eth, 1407. 
Anterous, for Aunterous, the 
shortened form of Aventurous, 
adventurous, 2618. Fr. mentwre, 
Aparalit, apparelled, 338. 
Aperans, an appearance, a vision, 
364. So also ApperanSy 1284. 
Apone, upon, 765, etc. 
Appetit, desire, 2722. Ch. has ap- 

petite as a verh, to desire. 
Aqwynt, acquainted, 1295. Bums 

uses acquent, 
Aras, to pluck out, 240. Fr. or- 
raeher. 



Araid, afflicted, 3270. Wright 
gives Araye, to dispose, afflict. 
TJnless we take " araid with" as 
equivalent to * * arrayed against ;'' 
giving to with the meaning it 
has in withstand^ etc. 

Arest, stop, delay, 678, 3072, 3308. 
Fr. arrH, 

Arly,eaj-ly,4,384,975. k.^Arlice, 

Artillery, implements of warfare, 
2538. See E. artillerie. Com- 
pare 1 Samuel, xx. 40. 

Assay, 1. assault, trial, 1 1, 35, 112, 
712; attack, 537, 2662. As a 
verb, to assault, attack, assail, 
570, 1044. Fr. assailUr. 2. to 
essay, attempt, 2936; to test, 
478, 982. Fr. esaaier. 

AssTI; I assaulted, 1224, 2641. 

Assail, assault, attack, 842. TVe 
should perhaps read "assaill,'' 
as in 1. 855. 

Assaljeing, assail (3 pers, plural), 
3385. 

Assemblay, an assembling of 
knights for a combat, a tour- 
nament, 267. 

Assemble, a hostile meeting, com- 
bat, battle, 978, 3336. See J. 

Assembly ng, encounter (3 per 8. 
plu, indie) y 2588. 

Assemblyng on, attacking, 2956. 

Assey, to test, 478. See Assay. 

Astart, to start away from ; hence 
to escape from, avoid, 228, 
3296. Ch. has asterte. 

At, that, 1019, etc. Compare 
Dan. at\ O.N. at. 

Atour, at over, i.e. across, 841, 
849, 873; in excess, in addi- 
tion, besides, 1775. 

Ather, either, 2629, 2819, 3264. 
A.S. dgther. 

Atte, at the, 627, 1055. 

Aucht, eight, 8263. Compare 
Ger. aeht. 



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GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



117 



Anentur, adventure, 601. 

Auer, ever, 273, etc. 

Auerding to, belonging to (?), 345. 
See It. esgarder, of which one 
form is awarder, the true mean- 
ing of which, however, is, to 
regard, to counsel. The sense 
seems to point rather to the 
Qoth. and'Wairths f-preBent; O.JS". 
iind-wer^Vj opposite. 

Aventur, Auentoure, adventure, 
80, 222. 

Aw, owe, deserve; the present 
tense of the verb of which ought 
is the past tense. A.S. dh, 
dhte. 3447. 

Awalk, awake, 1 049. Goth. waJcan, 
The form awalk occurs in Dunbar, 

"Awalk, hiyaris, out of your slomer- 
ing." 

(Tho Thistle and the Rose.) 

Awant, boast, 2136. As a verb, 
1588 ; and as a reflective verb, 
2196,2386. Yr.sevanier. Ch. 
has avante, 

Awin, own, 89. A.S. dgen. 

Awodith, maketh to depart, 2474. 
See Avoid in Nares* Glossary, 
edited by Halliwell and Wright. 

Awow, ) vow, 234, 242, 246. 

Awoue, j Ch. has avowe, 

Awys, consideration, advisement, 
558. 

Awyft the, advise thee, consider, 
1913. 

Avryft, \ to consider, 424, 429. 

Awyfing, ) Pr. a^aviser. 

Awysment, advisement, considera- 
tion, 360, 680. 

Ay, ever, continually, 1135, 1486. 
A.S. aa, 

Ayar (written instead of Athar), 
either, 2712. 

Ayre, are, 2011. 

Ayanis, 744, | against. A.S. 

A^anis, 1 164,2283, ) ongean. 

Ajaae, A^eine, again, 3253, 380. 



Bachleris, bachelors ; a name given 
to novices in arms or arts, 1689. 
See E. hacheler. 

Banaris, banners, 770. 

Bartes, 2897, ) q j. . 

Bartiis, 3041, J ^^^ ^''^''' 

Barnag, baronage, nobility, 2492, 
See K. harniez, 

Batell, a battalion, division of an. 
army, 784, 808, etc. 

Be, by. A.S. he. 

Behest, promise, 2766. A.S. heJiaes. 

Behufis, behoves, 579. A.S. be- 
hd/an, often used impersonally. 

Behuf!>, I to behove, to be obliged 

Behwft, j to do, 944, 2342 ; appa- 
rently contracted from hehuJU. 

Beleif, tobeHeve(?), 112. 

Bent, a grassy plain (properly a 
coarse grass ; in German, binse), 
2670. J. 

Bertes, a parapet, a tower, 1007, 
1118,2815. E. bretesche, from 
Low Latin brestachia. 

Betak til, to confer upon, 1724. 
A.S. be-tcBcan, in the sense, to 
assign. 

Betakyne, betoken, 2014. A.S. 
be-tcBcan, in the sense, to shew. 

Be wis, boughs, 338. A.S. boh. 

Billis, letters, 142. Pr. billet. 

Blindis, blindness (?), 1904. 

Borde, to meet in a hostile manner, 
encounter, 809. We find in E. 
border, to joust, fight with lances. 
Compare Pr. aborder, and Spen- 
ser's use of bord, 

Bot, l.but; 2, without. In gene- 
ral, without is expressed by but, 
and the conjunction by bot ; but 
this distinction is occasionally 
violated. 

Bown, ready, prepared, 1036. O.N. 
bminn, past part, of buay to pre- 
pare. Su-G. boa, to prepaie. J. 

Bretis, fortifications, forts; "pro- 
perly wooden towers or casUes : 



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118 



OLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



BretaehiiBy caatella lignea, qui- 
buB castra et oppida munieban- 
tur, Gallis Bretesque. Du Cange." 
Jamieson. 874. See JSertes. 

Bukis, books, 434, 1862. 

Burdis, boards, i.e. tables, 2198. 
A.S. b6rd, wbich means — 1. a 
plank ; 2. a table, etc. 

Bur, bore, 733, 778. 

But, without; common in the 
phrase but were, without doubt. 

But if, unless, except, 958. 

Byhecht, ) promised, 1485, 2791. 

Byhicht, ) A.S. he-hatan, 

Byknow, notorious for, known to 
be guilty of, 1627. Compare 
"I know nothing by myseK*' 

il Cor. iv. 4). Compare also 
)an. bekiende, to make known. 
By, near at hand, 1535, 2916. 



C^e, ) ^^Se, prison, 997, 2770. 

Can, an auidliary verb, used nearly 
as we now use did, 

Careldis, plural of Careld, a merry- 
making, revel (?) * * Caravde, r^- 
jouissance; V and " Caroler, dan- 
ser, se divertir, mener une vie 
joyeuse.^' Roquefort. 

Catifis, wretches, 2102. E. caitif, 
eaptif. Compare Ital. eattivo, 

Chalmer, chamber, 2281, 2308, 
2427, 2808. J. 

Cher ' I ^^^^*J 4, 735. B, cher. 
Charge, load, 693. Fr. charge; 
see discharge in the line follow- 
ing (694), meaning to shake off 
a load. ^ 

Chargit, weighed in my mind. 
Wright, 7 10 ; or, perhaps, busied 
myself about, which is the mean- 
ing in 1. 2454. Pr. ee charger de. 
Chen, chain, 2375. 
Cher, car, chariot, 735. BeBChare, 
Chere, cheer, demeanour, 83, 341, 



695; sad demeanour, outward 
grief, 2718. Fr. chkre; com* 
pare Ital. ciera, the face, look. 
*' Wtpinge was hyr moste ehere." 

(Le Morte Arthur, 1. 726.) 

Cheft, choose, 1611, 1636, 2368. 

A.S.eeSsan; Gei. kiesen ; Butch 

kiezen, 
Clariouns, clarions, 771, 789. 
Clepe, to call, 90, 99, A.S, elepan, 
Clepit, callest, 93 ; called, 781. 
Clepith, is called, 1919. 
Clergy, science, knowledge, 504, 

511, 2041. R. clergie. 
Closine, closed, concluded, 316. 
Closith, enclosed, shut up, 427. 
Cold, called, 753, 1579. 
Commandit, commended, 2802. 
Comprochit, approacheth, 2472, 

2509. 
Conpilour, compiler, poet, 319. 
Conquest, conquered, 574 ; Fyrst- 

conquest, first conquered, 1545, 

etc, 
Conseruyt, preserved, 332. 
Conten (us^ as a reflective verb), 

to demean oneself valorously, 

to maintain one's ground, 823, 

1107,1130. See'Bi,'/oontenfmfnt, 

contenance, conduite, maintien, 

postm-e." 
Contenit hyme, behaved himself, 

3219; Contenit them, 2634, 
Contenyt, endured, 3190. 
Contretioun, contrition, 1 4 1 5, 1 426. 
Contynans, demeanour, 1693, 1747, 
Counter, encounter, attack, charge, 

3239. 
Couth, could, 793. A.S. cunnan; 

past tense, ic cii^e. 
Cowardy, cowardice, 1023, 3287. 
Cownterit, encountered, 2609, 

2621. J. 
Crownel, coronal, corolla of a 

flower, 59. J. 



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GLOSSARI^L INDEX. 



119 



come (past 
part.). 



kinswoman. 



Camyne, 650, 1136, 

Cumyng, 447. 

Cummyng, 2498, 

Gunyng, knowledge, 1455, 

Cusynace, 1270, 

Cusynece, 2802, 

Cusynes, 2287, 

Cwsynes, 1185, 

Cwre, care, 98, 266, 643. Lat. 
eura. (N.B. Though Cwre = 
eura, yet cura should be distin- 
guished from A.S. eearu,) 

Danger, power to punish; "the 
power of a feudal lord over his 
vassals," Wright, 444. Also, 
power to injure, 3006. See R. 
dandier, 

Dans, (dance), in the phrase 
**wrechit dans,*' evil mode of 
life, 1321. See Chaucer's use 
of daunee. 

Dede, 90, ) death. Dan.ifde?. A.S. 

Ded, 3304, ) ded"^. O.N. dau^u 

Deden, deign, 949. J. 

Dedenyt, deigned, 240. 

Deid, died, 215. 

Deith, dead (past part.), 3160. 

DeUtable, deHghtful, 1738. E. 
delitable. 

Deliuer, nimble, clever, 3134. 

Deliuerly, (cleverly), nimbly, 
lightly, 3089, 3131. E. delivre. 

Demande, demur, 191, 397, 3052, 
3354. See E. ^^demander, con- 
tremander, changer, revoquer 
Tordre donn^." 

Demit, 18. See note. 

Depart, to part, 3421. E. departir, 

Departit, parted, 3403. 

Depaynt, painted, 46, 1703. Fr. 
d^peint, Ch. depeint. 

Depend me, concern myself 
with(?), 214. Depend to, to 
concern, appertain to, 466. 

Deren, to speak out, tell, 2376. E« 
derainier. 



Dereyne, a plea, 2313; "haith 
dereyne ydoo," hath appealed 
to trial by combat. E. derainier, 

Des, dais, high table, 2762. B. 
deis ; Lat. disctts, 

Devith, ) deafen, 92, 94. <'Su.G. 

Dewith, ) deofwa; Icel. deyfa,** J, 
Compare Dan. dove. Burns has 
deave, 

Dewod the, devoid thyself, 1022. 

Deuoydit was = departed, 1031. 
Compare Awodith, 

Dewyfi, to tell, narrate, 373. 

Discharg, to put aside one's lia- 
biUty, 163, 1665. 

Diseft, lack of ease, misery, 707. 

Disiont (Disioint ?), disjointed, out 
of joint ; hence uncertain, haz- 
ardous, 2907. *' Disjoint, A dif- 
ficult situation." Wright. 

Dispendit, spent, 1808. E. de^- 
pendre, 

Dispens, expenditure, 1746. Fr. 



Dispoljeith, despoileth, 1879. 

Dispone, to dispose, provide; or, 
as a reflective verb, to be dis- 
posed to do, to intend, 54, 446, 
980, 1590, 2428, 2462. 

Disponit, declines (?) ; but much 
more probably, intends ; and we 
must read "disponit not," 2984. 

Dout» fear, 2599, 3404, 3438 ; as 
a verb, to fear, 740, 1827. Ch. 
doute, E. douhtanee. 

Drent, drowned, 1319. A.S. dren* 
can. 

Dreft (as a reflective verb), to 
direct oneself, proceed, go, 1975, 
2288, 2486. Lat. dirigere. 

Dry with, drives; "he dry with to 
the end," i.e. concludes, 2470. 

Dudar, declare, 3022. 

Dulay, delay, 681, 788, 2925. 

Eflere, solemnity, pomp, J. Com- 
pare Ger. ftiem. 2860. 



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120 



OLOSSARUL INDEX. 



Efter, after, 217. A.8. efler. 

Eld, old age, 3225, 3242. A.S. 
yldo. Gothic aldi, 

Elyk, Eliche, alike, 182, 2452. 

Erne, tincle, 2572. A.S. edm, 

Empit, emptied, empty, 180. A.S. 
(Bmtian, 

Emplefi), to please, 2455, J, 

Emprift, success of an enter- 
prise (?), 269 ; compare R. em- 
prinse ; Ital. impresa. Anxiety, 
oppression, 393. E. emprtndre. 

Enarmyt, fully armed, 285, 751, 
2499, J. 

Endit, indited, 138; indite, 206; 
inditing, poem (?), 334. If 
the meaning were, **this ends,'* 
the form "endis" would be re- 
quired. 

Endlong, along, 2893. A.S. and- 
lang\ Ger. entlang, 

Entent, intention, will, meaning, 
thoughts, 1451, 1499, 2938. 
R. entente. Used by Chaucer. 

Entermet, to intermeddle with, to 
have do with, 2914. R. entre- 
metre. 

Enweronyt, environed, 53. 

Erde, earth, 1072, 1540, 2601. 
Compare Ger. erde. 

Erdly, earthly, 498. 

Erith, earth, 128. A.S. eor\ 

Eschef (eschew), to shun, with- 
draw himself, 3475. R. esohever. 

Eschef (achieve), to accomplish, 
2212, 2513. R. eschavir. Es- 
chef deith, to die, 2732. 

Escheuit, achieved, 258. 

Eschevit, is achieved, 2998. 

^^^^^^' lease 
Eefi, 706, ] ^^' 

Essen ^eis (ensigns), warcries, 3849, 
J. See also R. enseigne. 

Exasy, extasy, 76. (Possibly mis- 
written). 

Ezortith, beseecheth, 3026. 

Extend, attain, 3281. 



Eail^eis, fail, 3 pers. pin. indica- 
tive, 1151. 
Fairhed (fairhood), beauty, 577, 

In A.S. fagemes^ but in Dan. 

fdrhed. 
Fall, to happen, befall, 493, 2139. 

A.B.feallan'y Don. /aide. 
Fallyng, fallen, 1322. 
Falowschip, used as we now use 

company, 1105, 2687, etc. 
Farhed, beauty, 2440. SeeFairhed. 
Fayndit (feigned), dissembled, 

2397. 
Fays, foes, 3006. A.S. fdh. 
Fechtand, fighting, 2691, 3127, 

3407. Ger. fechten. 
Fechteris, fighters, 686. 
Feill, knowledge, skill, 2854, J. 

A.S./^/ia»(?). 
Fek (effect), sum, amount, result, 

drift, 2938. Fr. effet. 
Fell, to feel, 820 (?), 2131. 
Fellith, feeleth, 3368. 
Fell, many ; als fell, as many, 768. 

A.S.f^ala; Gothic ^/«. 
FeU, horrible (?), 260. A.S. feU, 

cruel, fierce. 
Ferde, fourth, 815, 973, 2285. 

Compare Dan. fierde. 
Ferleit, wondered, 3117. A.S. 

fdr-lic, sudden, fearful. Bums 

YLoaferlie. 
Fet, fetched, 433, 1 154. K.^.feceany 

past tense, icfeahte. 
Fongith, catcheth, seizeth, 1922. 

A.S.fangan; Qtoth.fahan. 
Forfare, to fare amiss, to perish, 

1 348. A.S. for-faran. 
Forlorn, lost, 3305. A.B.forl<fren ; 

Goth. fra-Uusan. 
For-quhy ; see For-why. 
For-thi, ) (there-fore), on that ac- 
Fof-thy, ) count, 332, 2261, 2731. 

A.S. forth^ ; where thg (Gothic 

thS) is the instrumental case of 

M, that. 
For-wrocht (for-wrought), over- 



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GLOSSABIAL INDEX. 



121 



worked, wearied out, 888. A.8. 
forwyrcan, 

For-why, 798, 925, 2209, \ for 

For-quhy, 2171, 2342,2290,) the 
reason that, because that. Pol- 
lowing Stevenson's edition, I 
have unnecessarily inserted a 
note of interrogation after this 
word in lines 798 and 925; but 
a comparison of all the passages 
shews that it is better to omit 
it. 

Pound, to advance, go, 2612. J. 
A.S./w»iifl», to try to find, go 
forward. 

Pranchis, generosity, 230. E./ra»- 
chise. 

Premmytnefi, strangeness, aliena- 
tion, 1508. A.S. fremdnes. 

Proit, enjoyment, 1644; fruit, 
2088, 2109. B,. fruit 

Prome, from the time that, 17, 
1432. Groth./rwm«, a beginning. 

Pruschit, broken, dashed in pieces, 
1201. E. froisy broken; from 
the Yeibfroter. 

Pyne, faithful, true, 519. See R. 
"/;i^, fiddle;" and ''Jlns, foi." 
Pyne, end, 1388, 2081. Tr.Jin. 

Ganyth, it ; it profits ; tised imper- 

sonalli/, 121. E. gaagner, 
Gktnith, is suitable for, 991. O.^N". 

gegna, J. Compare Dan. gavne. 
Gare, to cause, 910, 2416. Dan. 

gtdre; 0.!N". gora. 
Gart, caused, 267, 2777. 
Gentrice, 130,2757, ) courtesy,no- 
Gentrift, 2790. j bleness. E. 

gent Hesse, 
Gere, gear, equipment, armour, 

2777. A.S. gearwa, 
Gert, 384. See Gart. 
Giffis, give thou, 463. A.S. gifan. 
Gifyne, given, 1752. 



Gilt, offended, done wrong, 699, 

3015. A.S. gyltan. 
Grewhundis, grayhounds, 533,537. 
Gowemethe, conduct thyself, 1598, 
Grawis, groves, 2481. QYi.greves. 
Gyrft, grass, 10. A.S. gars, 
Gyft, guise, fashion, custom, 545, 

Ch. gise. 

Haade, had, 2150. 

Habariowne, habergeon, 2889. 

Prom hauhergeon, the French 

form of Ger. halsberge. See 

Hawhrek, 
Habirioune, habergeon, 3380. 
Haill, whole, 3246. A.S. hal 
Haknay, an ambling horse for a lady, 

1 730. E. hacquenie (Lat. equus). 
Half; in the phrase on arthuris 

hat/y i.e. on Arthur's side^ 883. 

Compare use of Germ, halb, 
Halk, a hawk, 1736, 2482. A.S. 

hafoc. 
Hall, \ 

Hoil, r various spellings of Haill, 
Holl, ( whole. 
Hail, ; 
Hals, neck, 1054. A.S. hah. 

Goth, hals, 
Hant, to exercise, practise, 2191. 

Pr. hanter, lit. to frequent. " 
Hardement, 801, 2669, | hardi- 
Hardyment, 900, 3362, j hood, 

boldness. E, hardement. 
Hate, hot, 2552. 
Havith, hath, 1940 ; have, 3404. 
Hawbrek, 1070, 1200, \ hauberk, 
Hawbryk, 3112, ) neck-de- 

fence ; Ger. haU-herge, armour 

for the neck. 
Hawnt, to use, 3418. See Hant. 
Hawntis, exercise, 2772. 
He, high, 1969, 2552. A.S. hedh. 
Hecht, hight, is called, 2140 ; was 

caUed, 2290. 
Hecht, to promise, 3101 ; promised 

{jpast part.)^ 11^2. A.S.Ad^an. 



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122 



OLOSSARIAL IKPEX. 



Hedis; heads, 588, 869. 

Hienes, highness, 126. 

Ho, paase, stop, cessation, 2970. 
According to J. radically the 
same with the verb ITouey or 
Bow (see ITouit), The Dutch, 
however, use kou, hold! from 
houdefiy to hold. 

HoU, whole, 106, 745. 

Here, hair, 365. 

" Hol}e were his yjen and vnder campe 
hores." 

(Early English Alliterative 
Poems ; ed, Morris. See Poem 
B. 1. 1695.) The meaning of 
the line quoted is, "Hollow 
were his eyes, and under bent 
hairs." 

Hot, I. commanded, 754. A.S. 
hdtan (verb act.). II. hight, 
was called, 806 ; is called, 1950. 
A.S. hdtan (neuter). 

Houit, delayed, tanied, halted, 
996. " W. hojlan, hqfio, to fluc- 
tuate, hover, suspend," Morris. 
** Ger. hof-eriy domo et hospitio 
excipere." J. 

Hovith, stays, halts, 2829. 

Howit, halted, 2814, 2842. 

Howyns, halts, tarries, 282 1 . Pro- 
bably miswritten for "howyng." 

Hufyng, halting, delaying, 1046. 

Hundyre, a hundred^ 756, 1554. 

I, in, 332. Dan. i; O.K i. 

Iclosit, y-closed ; i.e. enclosed, 
shut in, 53. 

rf, to give, 554. In lines 1718- 
1910 the word occurs repeat- 
edly in several forms; as fffis, 
^ffithy giveth; iffia, give thou; 
fj^ntf, given, etc. 



Ifyne, to give, 3454. 

mis, gifts, 1741. In the line 

preceding we have gifttB, 
Ilk ; the ilk (—thilk) that, 629, 

1601. Literally, the ilk==the 

same. A.S. ylc. See 1367. 
Hlumynare, luminary, 3. 
Incontinent, ) immediately, 253, 
Incontynent, ) 1215, 2647, 2834. 

Still used in French. 
In-to-contynent (== Incontinent), 

3020. 
In to, used for " in ;" pasaim, 
lomaye, journey, 680. 
Irk, to become slothful, grow 

weary, tire, 2709. A.S. eargian. 
luperty, combat, 2547. Fr. jeu 

parti, a thing left undecided ; 

hence the meanings, 1. strife, 

conflict ; 2. jeopardy, as in Ch. 

See J. ; and Tyrwhitt*s note to 

C.T. 16211. 
Iwond, 245, | wounded. "We find 
Iwondit, 226, ) inA.S.both«?A»rf 

and wiinded, 
I-wyft,. certainly, of a surety, 

1709, 1925, 1938. A.S.^^b; 

Ger. gewiss. Often wrongly in- 
terpreted to mean, I know. See 

Wit. 

Laif, the remainder (lit. what is 

left), 1802, 3472. A.S. Id/. 

Bums has "the lave." 
Lametable, lamentable, 3265. The 

omission of the n occurs again 

in 1. 2718, where we have lamgi- 

able, 
Larges, liberality^ 608, 1681, 1750. 

Fr. largesse, 
Larg, prodigal, profuse, 2434. 
Lat, impediment, 958. A.S. iMan 

means (1 ) to suffer, (2) to hinder. 
Lat, to let, permit (used as an 

auxiliary verb), 803. 
Latith, preventeth, 1927. 
Lawrare, a laurel, 82. Ch. hHif0r, 



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OLOSSAKIAL INDEX. 



123 



Learis, liars, 493. 

Led, pat down, beat down, de- 
pressed, OTerpowered, 2663. It 
id the past tense of A.S. leepan, 
to lay. to cause to submit, to 

km. 

Lef, to live, .564, 3230. 

Leful, lawful, 1427. 

Legis, lieges,, subjects, 1957. R. 

iige; Lat. ligatua. 
Leich, leech, physician, 106. AS. 

l<^e\ Dan lage. See 520, 2056. 
Leif, to Hve, 952, 1392. AS. 

lyhhan ; Goth. Ulan, 
Leir, to learn, 1993. Comp. D. 

leeren. 
Lest, to list, to please, 555, 621. 

A.S. lystan. 
Lest, to last out against, sustain, 

811. A.S. lc§stan. 
Lest, least, 1628. 
Let, hindrance, 2495. 
Leuch, laughed, 3240. A. S. hhhan, 

past tense ic hloh, 
Lewis, liveth, 1209. 
Lewith, left, deserted, 1854. 
Liging, lay; Spers. sing, past tense, 

ind, 376. A.S. Idgon, 
Longith, belongeth, 738, 1921, 

2429, 2778. Compare Dan. 

lange, to reach. 
Longith, belonged, 3242. 
Longyne, belonging, 433. 
Lorn, lost, 2092 ; destroyed, 2740. 

See Far-lorn, 
Loft, praise, 1777. Lat. laus, 

Ch. has losed^ praised. 
Low, ) 1. law, 1602, 1628, 1636, 
Lowe, ) etc. 2. love, 29, 1620. 

It is sometimes hco^d to say 

which is meant. Compare Dan. • 

lovy law ; A.S. /«/, love. 
Luges, tents, 874,881, 2500,2680. 

Fr. loge, logis ; Qter, lauhe^ a 

bower, from huby foliage ; Gothic 

laiif, a leaf. 
Lugyne, a lodging, tent, 891. 



Lyt, a little, 1233. At lyte, in 
little, used as an expletive, 143. 

Ma ; short form of Make, 953. 

Maad, made, 697. 

Magre of, in spite of, 500, 960, 
2679, 2702, 2711. Sometimes 
* * magre * ' is found without " of. " 
Fr. mal grL 

Matalent, \ displeasure, anger, 

Matelent, ) 2169,2660. In both 
cases Mr. Stevenson wrongly 
has maltalent, E. maltalent, 
mautalent 

Mayne, .1026. See Men, 

Medyre, mediator (?), 1624. I am 
not at all sure of this word, 
but we find in E. many strange 
forms of "mediator," such as 
miener, m^eisneres, etc. In the 
Supplement to the "Dictionnaire 
de r Academic" we find mediaire, 
qui occupe le milieu, from Low 
Lat. mediartus. K.B. In the 
MS. the "d" is indistinct. 

Meit, to dream, 363. A.S. matan. 

Melle, contest, battle, 2619. Fr. 
melee, J. 

Memoratyve, mindful, bearing in 
remembrance, 1430. Fr. mi- 
moratif. 

Men, mean, way; "be ony men*' 
=by any means, 2366 ; so, too, 
"be ony mayne," 1026. Fr. 
moyen. 

Men, to tell, declare, 510. A.S. 
tnanan, 

Menye, a company, multitude 
(witiiout special reference to 
number) ; whence " a few 
menye," a small company, 751. 
A.S. menigu; Ger. menge. 

Met, dreamt, 440. See Meit. 

Meyne, 41. See Men. 

Misgyit, misguided, 1663. B^.guier. 

Mo, more, 3187, etc. A.S. md. 

Mon, maji, 96. 



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124 



6L0SSABIAL HTDEX. 



Moneth, month, 569. A.S. mdnd^ ; 
Goth. mSndth. 

Morow, morning, 1, 30, 64, 341. 
Goth. maiirgiiM. 

Mot, must, 195. A.S. ie m6t, 

Mys, a fault, 1888, 1937, 3230. 
A.S. mi». Do o myf^, to com- 
mit a fault, 1926. 

MjBour, measure, 1830. 

Myster, need, 1877, 2322. Ch. 
tnistere ; E. mester ; Lat. miniS' 
terium, 

Nat, naught, 703. Shortened from 

A.S. nd wuhtf i.e. no whit. 
l^ece, nephew, 2200, 2245, 2720. 

E. niez, 
I^edlyngis, of necessity ; J. 2337. 

A.S. neddinga. 
Nemmyt, considered, estimated, 

649, 2852. (?) A.S. nemnan, to 

name, call. 
Ner, near, 441 • 
l^eiiljmgis, newly, agcdn; J. 36. 

A.S. niwe-lice (?). 
Newis, for Nevis, nieves, fists, 1 222. 

O.N. hne/l, Dan. nave. Bums 

has nieve ; Shakspeare neif. 
Noght, not, 1182. 
Noift, nose, 2714. E. niis. 
Nome, name, 226, 320, 1546, 3341. 

Fr. nomme, 
Nome, took, 591,1 048. A. S. nimany 

past tense, ic ndm. 
Northest, north-east, 677. 
Not (shortened from Ne wot), know 

not, 522, 3144. A.S. ndt, from 

nitan=:ne witan. 
Not, naught, 720. SeeiVa^. 
Noyith, annoyeth, 904. Fr. nuire, 

Lat. noeere, 
Noyt, annoyed, offended, 471. 
Nys, I (nice), fooHsh, 127, 1946. 
Nyce, ) Fr. niais. Ital. nidiaee. 

0, a, an, passim*, one, a single, 
2998, 3003, 8393, etc. 



Oheisand, ohedient, 641. 

Oheft, obey, 2134. 

Oblist, obliged, 969. 

Occupye,* to use, employ, 3457 ; 
to dwell, 75. Lat. ocettpare. 

Of, with, 66. 

Oft-syft, oft-times, 2304, 2594, 
2789, 2885, 2929. See iSyft. 

On, and, 519. Possibly a mistake. 

One, on, often used for In ; One 
to = unto. 

Onan, ) anon, 158, 1466, 2602, 

Onone, | etc. The form " onan," 

Onon, ) 1. 3086, suggests the 
derivation of anon; viz. from 
A.S. on-dn, in one; hence, 
forthwith, immediately. 

Onys, once, at some time or other, 
3013; at onys, at once, 3187. 

Opin, 1286, ) 

Opine, 13, ] °P®^- 

Or, ere, before, 77, 1887, 2545. 
A.S. ^. 

Ordand, to set in array, 784; to 
prepare, procure, 1713. E. 
ordener ; Lat. ordinare, 

Ordan, to provide, 2416, 2777. 

Ordynat, ordained, 490. See 1. 
507. 

Orest (=Arest), to arrest, stop, 
3186. 

Orient, east, 5. 

Oucht, it; it is the duty of (= 
Lat. dehet)y 2995. Strictly, we 
should here have had ** it 
owes" (debet), not "it ought" 
{debuit). See Aw. 

Ourfret, over-adorned, decked out, 
71, 2480. A.S. fratwian, to 
trim, adorn. 

Out- throng (=Lat. expressii), ex- 
pressed, uttered, 65. A.S. iit, 
out, and ^rinffan, to press. 

Owtrag, outrage, 3454. E. out- 
rage; Ital. oltraggio, from Lat. 
idtra. The MS. has outray, 
probably owing to confiision 



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GLOSSABIAL INDEX. 



125 



with affiray in the same line. 
We find "owtrag'* in 1. 2578. 
Oyft, to use, 1701. J. 

Paid, pleased ; ill paid, displeased, 

908. Low Lat. pagare, to pay, 

satisfy. 
Paljonis, pavilions, tents, 734; 

plural of 
Pal pane, a pavilion, a tent, 1305. 

R. gives pallton, a pall, and 

pavilion, a tent ; deriving them 

from Jjoi, pallium. 
Pan, pain, 1273. 
Pas hyme, to pace, go, 362. 
Pa6, to go, 1213. 
Pasing, pacing, departing^ 371 ; 

surpassing, 303, 346, 689, etc. 
Pens, to think of, 1431. Pr. 

penser, 
Planly, at once, 3319. j'. gives 

**Playn, out of hand, like Fr. 

de plain, ' ' In the same Hue " of ' ' 

= off. 
Plant, plaint, complaint, 137. Fr. 

plainte, 
Plessith, pleased, 68. 
Possede, to possess, 578. Fr. 

posseder, 
Poware, a power, a strong hand of 

men, 2647. We now say /ort?^. 
Powert, poverty, 1330, 1744. 
Pref, to prove, 2229, 3476. 
Prekand, pricking, spurring, 3089. 

See the very first 1. of Spenser's 

Faerie Queene, 
Prekyne, 2890, showy(?), gaudy(?). 

J. gives "Preek, to he spruce; 

to crest ; as * A hit preekin bodie,* 

one attached to dress ; to prick, 

to dress oneseK." Compare D. 

prijcken. 
Pretend, to attempt, aspire to, 

3282,3465. "Fr, pritendre. So, 

too, in lines 559, 583. 
Pretendit, endeavour, attempt, 

3442. 



Process, explanation ,316. Wright 
gives "Proces, a story or rela- 
tion, a process." The writer is 
referring to his prologue or in- 
troduction. 

Promyt, to promise, 965. 

Proponit, proposed, 361, 445. 

Pupil, people, 285. 

Puple, people, 1367, 1498, 1520. 

Pur, 1648, ) 

Pure, 1697, > poor. 

Pwre, 1655, ) 

Quh — . Words beginning thus be- 
gin in modem English with Wh. 
Thus, Quhen=when, etc. 

Quhilk (whilk), which, 184. A.S. 
hwi/lc=Ijai, qualia rather than 
qui. 

Quhill, while, used as a noun, 1229, 
1293. A.S. hwil, a period of 
time. 

Quhill, until, 24, 198. See WhilL 

Quhy ; the quhy=^\hQ why, the 
reason, 123, 1497. 

Qwhelis, wheels, 736. A.S. htoeol. 

Qwheyar, whether, 1187. 

£S,j-»^-. 171, 1297. 

Bachis, hounds, 531. Su-G. racka, 
a bitch, which from the v. racka^ 
to race, course. Connected with 
hrach. 

Radur, fear, 1489, J. From Su-G. 
radd, fearful ; Dan. rad. 

Raddour, 2133, K 

Radour, 1835, 3465, ) ^®*^- 

Raid, rode, 3070, 3260, etc. 

Ralef, relieve, 3364. 

Ramed, remedy, 117. ^ee Reined. 

Randoune, in ; in a circuit, 2542. 
In Ogilvie' s Imperial Diction ary, 
B.v. Random, we find the Nor. 
Fr. ranionnie explained to mean 
the " sweeping circuit made by 
a wounded and frightened ani- 



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OLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



mal;" but the true meaning of 
randonnie is certainly /or^, im- 
petuosity; see B., Cotgrave, etc. 
In Danisli) rand is a surround- 
ing edge or margin; while in 
Dutch we find random, round 
about. But though the word 
seems thus doubtful, the sense 
is decided by help of the cor- 
responding line, viz. 739. 

Raquer, require, 2409. 

Ban, race, swift course, 3088. 
A.S. r^. Compare Eng. mill' 
race, and D. ra», 

Becidens, delay, 2359. B. resi- 
dier, to defer. 

Becist, resist, 566, 660, 2578. 

Becounterit, met (in a hostile 
manner), encountered, 2958. 
Fr. rencontrer. 

Becord, witness, testimony ; hence 
value, 388. B. record, 

Becorde, to speak of, mention; 
hard recorde, heard it said, 121, 
695. 

Becorde, speak out, 454, 481. 
See B. recorder, 

Becordith, is suitable, belongs, 
606. 

Becourse, to return, 1798. Lat. 
reeurrere. 

Bed, to advise, 1027, 1198. A.S. 
r<^dan ; Goth. rSdan. 

Belewit (relieved), lifted up again, 
rescued, 2617. Fr. relever, J. 

Bemede, 89, ) ^^^^ 

Bemed, 718, ] "^^^7- 

Bemuf, remove, 655. 

Beport, to narrate, 266; to ex- 
plain, 294 ; to state, 320. 

Beprefe, reproof, defeat, 764. 

Beput, he reputed, i.e. thought, 
considered, 743. 

Besauit, received, 2796. 

Besawit, reserved (?), 2106. We 
should have expected to find 
"reseruit." 



Besonite, resounded, 66. 
Beeydensi delay, 670. See Reci- 

dens, 
Bevare, 275, \ 
Bewar, 2893, > river. 
Bewere, 2812, ) 
Beweyll, proud, haughty, 2853. 

B. revele, fier, hautain, orgueil^, 

leux. Compare Lat. rebeUare. 
Bichwysnefi, righteousness, 1406. 

A.S. rihtwksnes. 
Bigne, 94, 1527, ) akingdom. Fr. 
Ring, 1468, [ rigne, Ch. 

Binge, 1325, ) regne, 
Bignis, kingdoms, 1858. 
Bignis, Bignith, reigneth, 1825, 

782. 
Bingne, a kingdom, 1952. 
Bout, a company, a band, 812, 

2956, 3403. Rowt, 2600. 
Bowmyth, roometh, i.e. makes 

void, empties, 3390. A.S. 

riimian, 
Bown,run; past part. 2488,2820. 
Bwn, run, 2545. 
Bygnis, kingdoms, 1904. 
Byne, to run, 113. See 2952. 
Byng, to reign, 1409, 2130. 

Sa, so, 3322, 3406. Dan. taa. 

Saade, said, 698. 

Salust, saluted, 546, 919, 1553, 

2749. Ch. salewe, 
Salosing, salutation, 1309. 
Sar, sorely, 1660. 
Sauch, saw, 817, 1219, 1225. A.S. 

ic sedhf from se6n, 
Schawin, shewn, 2387. 
Schent, disgraced, ruined, 1880. 

A.S. scendan; Dan. skiande. 
Scilla, the name of a bird, also 

called Ciris, 2483. 

— - "pluraifl in aycm mntata rocator 
Ciris, et a tonso est hoc nomen adepta 
capiUo.'* 

(Ovid, Met. viii. 1^0.) 

Screwis, shrews, ill-natured per- 



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6L0SSARIAL INDEX. 



127 



sons, 1053. More offcen used 
of males than females in old 
authors. 

Sedulis, letters, 142. R. cedule, 

Sege, a seat, 2258. Fr. stSge» 

Semble, a warlike assembly, hostile 
gathering, 988, 2206. 

Semblit, assembled, 845. G, sam- 
meln \ from Goth, aama, aamana, 

Semblyng, encountering, 2951 . See 
Assemble, 

Sen, since, 709, 800, etc. Sen at, 
since that. In Piers Plowman 
we find syn. 

Septure, sceptre, 666. 

Sere, several, yarious, 694, 731, 
746. " Su-G. sa&r^ adv. denoting 
separation." J. 

Sess, to cease, 14, etc. Fr. cesser. 

Set, although. 

Sew, to follow up, seek, 2326. R. 
suir\ Pr. suivre* 

Sew, to follow up, go, proceed, 
3145. . Sewyt, 2614. 

Shauyth, shewith, 412. 

Sice, such, 2115. Scotch, sie, 

Snybbyth, snubs, checks, 3387. 
Oomp. D. sneh, a beak ; snehbt^, 
snappish. 

Sobing, sobbing, moaning, 2658. 

Socht, ) sought to go ; and hence, 

Soght, I made his (or their) way, 
proceeded, went, 2619, 3179, 
3357, 3428. Sought one, ad- 
vanced upon, attacked, 3149, 
83 1 1 . Sought to, made his way 
to, 3 1 30. A. S. siean, past tense 
te s6hte, to seek, approach, go 
towards. 

Bor, sorrow, anxiety, 74. A.S. 
sarh; Goth. sa<irga. 

Sort, lot, fate, 26. Fr. swrt, 

Sound, to be consonant with, 149. 
See Gloss, to Tyrwhitt's Chaucer. 
Lat. Bonare, 

Soundith, 1811. "So the puple 



Boundith," so the opinion of the 
tends. 
*<As fer as touneth into honestee." 
(Chaucer : Mankes Froloffue.) 

Soundith, tend, 1943 ; tends, 149. 

Sown, sound, 1035. Fr. son, 

Sownis, sounds, 772, 3436. 

Spent, fastened, clasped, 2809. 
A.S. spannan, to clasp, join. 
Comp. Dan, spande, to stretch, 
span, buckle together. 

Spere, ) sphere, 6, 170 ; speris, 

Spir, j spheres, circuits, 24. 

Spere, to inquire, 1170, A.S. 
spiriauy to track. 

Sperithis, spear's, 810. 

Spill, to destroy, ruin, 1990. A.S. 
spillan. 

Spreit, spirit, 81, 364. 

Stak, 226. J. gives "to the steeks, 
completely ;" and this is the sense 
here. SeeJamieson: s.v."Steik." 
More strictly, perhaps, it means 
— " to complete satiation." In 
the N. of France it is said of 
one killed or severely wounded, 
il a eu son estoque, he has had 
his belly-ftil ; from estoquer, to 
cram, satiate, "stodge." Com- 
pare Ital. stucco, cloyed. 

Start, started up, leapt, 994, 1094. 

Stede,stead,place,218,1124. A.S. 
stedc. 

Steir, to stir, 817. . A.S. stirian, 

Stekith, shuts, 1651. Ger. stecken. 
Bums has steeL 

Stek, shut, concluded, 316. 

Stell, steel (?), 809. Stell com- 
monly means a stall, or fixed 
place ; but the form stell for 
steel occurs ; e.g. " Brounstello 
was heuy and also kene." 
Arthur, 1. 97. 

Sterapis, 3056, ) stirrups. A.S. 

Steropis, 3132, ) sti-rap or stiye- 
rdpj from stiyan, to mount, and 
rdp, rope. 



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GIX)SSAltIAL INDEX. 



Stere, ruler, arbiter, 1020; con- 
trol, guidance, 1974. 

Stere, to rule, control, 1344, 2884, 
A.S. sty ran, 

Stere, to stir, move, go, 3430. See 
Steir. 

Sterith, stirretb, 2829. 

Sterf, to die, 1028. A.8. $teorfan, 

Sterit, governed, 612. K.^.atyran, 

Stert, started, 377. 

Stok, the stake to wliich a baited 
bear is chained, 3386. 

Stour, conflict, 1108, 2607, 3124. 
B. estour. 

Straucht, stretched out, 3090. A.S. 
streccan, past part, geatreht, 

Strekith, s^etcbetb, i.e. ezciteth 
to bis full stride, 3082. 

Subiet, 1799, ] 

Subeitis, 1828, > subject; subjects. 

Subietti8,1878, ) 

Suet, sweet, 331. 

Suppris, (surprise), overwhelming 
power, 691, 860, 2651 ; oppres- 
sion, 1352. Er. surprendre, to 
catch unawares. 

Supprisit, overwhelmed, 1237, 
1282; overpowered, 2705,3208, 
Supprisit ded, suddenly killed, 
3125. 

Surryjenis, surgeons, 2726. 

Suth, sooth, true, 110. A.S.sdth, 

Sutly, soothly, truly, 963. 

Swelf, a gulf such as is in the 
centre of a whirlpool, a vortex, 
1318. J. A.S. swelgan, to swal- 
low up. 

Sweuen, a dream, 440. A.S. swefn, 

Swth, sooth, true, 2753. See Suth, 

Syne, 2026, )^ 

Synne, 2029, j ^^' 

Syne, afterwards, next. J. 45, 
794 etc. 

Syfi, times, 3054. A.S. b%^. 

Tais, 1095, 3005, | takes. Abbre- 
Taiis, 1141. j vlated, as 



"ma" is from "make." Seelfo. 

Tane, taken, 264. 

Ten, grief, vexation, 2646, 3237. 
A.S. teonaiif to vex. 

Tennandis, tennants, vassals hold- 
ing flefs, 1729. E. tenander* 

Than, then, 3111. 

The, (1) they, (2) thee, (3) thy. 

Thelke, that, 709. See 1. 629, 
where the ilk occurs; and see 
Ilk. 

Thir, these, those, 2734, 2745^ 
2911, 3110, etc. 

Thithingis, tidings, 2279. A.S. 
tidan, to happen. 

Tho, then, 545, 2221 ; them, 2368. 

Thoore, there, 628. Thore, 1102. 

Thrid, third, 370, 2347, 2401. 
A.S. \ridda. 

Throng, closely pressed, crowded, 
3366. A.S. \r%ngan. 

Til, to ; til have, to have, 706. 

Tint, lost, 1384. See Tyne. 

Tithingis, tidings, 902, 2336. 

Tithandis, tidings, 2310. 

To, too, besides, 3045. 

Togidder, together, 254. 

To-kerwith, carves or cuts to pieces ; 
al to-kerwith, cuts all to pieces, 
868. A.S. tO'Ceorfian, The pre- 
fix to- is intensive, and forms a 
part of the verb. See Jud ges ix. 
53 : "AU to-brake his skuU;" 
i.e. utterly brake; often mis- 
printed "all to break" (!). 

Ton, taken, 1054, 1071. 

Ton, one ; the ton, the one, 1822. 
The tone = A.S. \<Bt dne, 

To-schent, disfigured, 1221. The 
intensive form of the A.S. verb 
Beendariy to shame, destroy. In 
the same line we have to-hurt, 
and in the next line to-rent, 
words modelled on the same 
form. We find, e.g., in Spenser, 
the forms dU to-rent, all to- 
hrue'd. 



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GLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



129 



Tothir, the other, 2536. The tothir 
=A.S. }at o^ere, where \<Bt is 
the neater gender of the definite 
article. Bums has the tither. 

Toyer (=tother), the other ; y be- 
ing written for the A.S. \ {th)y 
2571, 2584. 

Traist, to trust, to be confident, 
390, 1129, 1149, J. Trast,1659. 

Traisting of (trusting), reliance 
upon, or expectation of, 25, J. 

Translat, 508, ) to transfer, re- 

Transulat, 2204, i move. 

Tratory, treachery, 3224. See K. 
traitor, 

Trety, treatise, 145. Fr. traits, 

Trewis, truce, 1568, 2488, 2545. 

Tronsione, 239, \ a truncheon, 

Trunscyoune, 2962, > a stump of 

Trownsciown,2890, ) a spear. Fr. 
trongon ; from Lat. truncus. In 
the last passage it means a 
sceptre, hdton. 

" One hytte hym vpon the old6 wound 
"Wyth A tronchon of an ore ; " (oar.) 

(Le Morte Arthur, 1. 3071.) 

Troucht, truth, 161. 

Tyne,tolose,1258,1387. O.l^.tpna, 
Tynith, loseth, 1761. 
Tynt, lost, 175, 1384, 1521. 

TJnwist, unknown, 1140. 

Valkyne, to waken, 8. See AwalL 
Valis, falls; we should read "falis," 

2475. 
Tail, whirlpool (?), 1317. A.S. 
wal; J)\i,wtel; Lancashire t^c^Z^, 
an eddy, whirlpool. So, too, in 
Bums : — 
** Whyles owre a linn the humie plays, 
As thro' the glen it wimpPt ; 
Whyles round a rocky scaur it stays, 

Whyles in a toiel it dimpPt ;*' 
Or, perhaps, we may simply 
render it by billow, or sur^e. 



Ger. toelle; O.N. vella, to well 
up, boil, 

Yarand, to warrant, protect, 3411. 
B. warandtr. 

Yamit, warned, 622. 

Yassolag, a deed of prowess. Bas- 
ing vassolag, surpassing valour, 
257. E. has vasselage, courage, 
valour, valourous deeds, as in- 
dicative of the fulfilment of the 
duties of a vassal. We now 
speak of rendering good service. 

Yassolage, valour, 2724. 

Yeir, were, 818. 

Yeris, wars, 305. See Were. 

Yeryng, were, 2971. A.S. toaron. 

Yicht, a wight, a person, 10, 55, 
67. A.S. tviht. 

Yirslyug, wrestling, struggling, 
3384. J. gives the forms toar- 
selly wersill. 

Yisare, wiser, 607. 

Viting, to know, 410. A.S. witan. 

Yncouth, lit, unknown ; hence, little 
known, rare, valuable, 1734. 
A.S. uncir6, 

Yodis, woods, 1000. 

Yombe, womb, bowels, 375. Goth. 
wamha. 

Yondit, wounded, 700. 

Ypwarpith, warped up, i.e. drawn 
up, 63. See Note to this line. 
It occurs in Gawain Douglas's 
prologue to his translation of 
the 12th Book of the ^neid. 
Du. optverpen, from Goth, wair- 
pan, to cast. 

Yyst, used, 1197, 1208. 

Yyre, a cross-bow bolt, 1092. R. 
vire, from Lat. vertere, 

Wald, would, 419, 470, etc. 
Walkin, to waken, wake, 1239. 

See Awalk. 
Wapnis, weapons, 241 . A.S. wdpen, 

or wdpn. 
Ward, guard, defence (?) : "in 



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OLOSSARIAL INDEX. 



the ward," in defending them- 
Belves (?), 3184. Bat we should 
rather read toarld, i.e. world. 

Wassolage, yalour, 2708, See 
Vdssola^. 

Wat, know, 512. 

Wawasouris, Tavasours, 1729. A 
Vavasour was a sub-yassal, hold- 
ing a small fief dependent on a 
larger fief; a sort of esquire. 
E. vavaseur* 

Weil, very. Weil long, a very long 
time, 79. Comp. Ger. viel, J. 

WencuBsith, vanquisheth, 3331 ; 
vanquished, 3337. 

Wencust, vanquished, 2841. 

Wend, to go, 2191 ; thought, 3481. 

Wentail, ventaile, a part of the 
helmet which opened to admit 
air, 1056. E. ventaile ] from 
Lat. ventua. 

Were, (1) war. Fr. guerre. E. 
werre^ 308, etc. (2) doubt, 84, 
etc. " But were, * * without doubt. 
A.S. W(^, cautious, wary, (3) 
worse, 1930. Bums has waur. 

Wering, weary, 58. A. 8. wirig, 

Werray, very, true, 1262, 2017. 

Werroure, warrior, 248. 

Weriour, warrior, 663. 

Wers, worse, 515. 

Weryng, were, 2493. 

Wex, to be grieved, be vexed, 156. 

Weyn, vain, 382, 524 ; but^weyne, 
without doubt, 2880. A.S. 
ipinany to ween, to suppose. 

Whill, until, 1136, J. Formed 
from A.S. hwilj a period of time. 

Wice, advice, counsel, 1909. 
Shortened from Awys. 

Wichsaif, vouchsafe, 355, 1391. 

Wichsauf, id, 2364. 

Wicht, wight, person, 131. 

Wicht, strong, nimble,248. "Su-G. 
wig,^^ J. Sw. vig. 

Wight, with, 918. Possibly mis- 
written. 



Wist, knew, 225, 1047. See Wit. 
Wit, to know, 268. A.S. mtan; 

pros, ie wdt, past tense, ic toiste. 
Wit, knowledge, 2504. 
With, by, 723. 
Wnkouth, littie known, 146. See 

Vneauth. 
Wnwemmyt,undefiled,2097. A.S. 

toam^ wem, a spot. 
Wnwyst, uiinown, secretiy, 219, 

269. 
Wod (wood), mad, 3334, 3440. 

A.S. io6d. Goth. wdds. 
Woid, mad, 2695. Perhaps we 

should read tooud, 
Wonde, wand, rod, or sceptre of 

justice, 1601, 1891, J. 
Wonk, winked, 1058. 
Wonne, to dwell, 2046. A.S. 

wunian. 
Worschip, honour, 1158, 1164. 

A.S. treor^'Scipe. 
Wot, know, 192, etc. See Wit. 
Wox, voice, 13. Lat. vox. 
Woyfi, voice, 3473. 
Wrechitnes, misery, 2102; miser- 
liness, niggardliness, 1795,1859. 
Wy, reason; "to euery wy," for 

every reason, on all accounts, 

2356. Compare Quhg, 
Wycht, strong, nimble, 2592. See 

Wicht. 
Wynyth, getteth, acquireth, 1832. 
Wyre, a cross-bow bolt, 3290. See 

rgre. 
Wys, vice, 1795. Wysis, 1540. 

Y, written for "th." Thus we 
find "oyer" for "other," etc. 
The error arose with scribes 
who did not understand either 
the true form or force of the 
Saxon symbol }. 

Yaf, gave, 387. 

Yald, yield, 553; yielded, 558. 
A.S. gildm. 

Yclepit, called, 414. 



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OLOSSAEIAL INDEX. 



131 



Yef, give, 563. 
Yeif, give, 923. 
Yer, year, 610. Used instead of 

the plural " yens," as in 1. 3248. 
Yewyne, given, 1500. 
Ygrave, buried, 1800. Comp. 

Ger. hegrahm, 
Yhere, ear, 1576. 
Yher, year, 2064. U^ instead 

of <'yheris,"3243. 
Yhis, yes, 1397. 
Yis, yes, 514; this, 160. 
Ylys, isles, 2858, 2882. 
Ymong, among, 821. 
Yneuch,enough,2135. JL.^.genog. 
Yolde, yielded (to be), 951, 1088. 
Ystatut, appointed, 2529. Fr. 

Btatuer. 
Ywyft, certainly, 1798, 1942. See 



Jeme, to take of, regard, have ror 

spect to, 665. A.S. giman, 
Jere, year, 342. 
|erys, years, 23, 1432. 
Jha, yes, 2843. Ger. /a. 
Jhed, went, 1486. Ch. has yede. 

A.S. ie edde, past tense of gdn, 

to go. Goth, ik iddfaf past tense 

of gaggan, to go. 
her, year, 2064, 2274. 
!hing, young, 2868. 
Ihis, yes, 1397. 
thoutii-hed, youth-hood, youth, 

2772. 
Jhud, went, 2696. See ^hed, 
}is, yes, 3406. 
Jolde, yielded, 291, 380, 951. A.S. 

ie gealdy past tense of gyldan, to 

pay, to yield. 
Jude, went, 2944. See ^hed. 



ADDITIONS TO THE GLOSSARY, 



Euerilkon, every one, 1039, etc. 

Paljeing, failing, 1499. 

Faljet, Faljheit, failed, 1460, 1469, 
1498, 1503. 

GentiUefi, 917, 1847. See Gen- 
trice, 

Harrold, herald, 1047. 

nk, each, 2211, etc. A.S. (bIc. 

Kend, known, 548, 906. 

Mekill, much, 876, 1236. Mokil, 
1265. 

Plesance, Flesans, pleasure, 941, 
1939. 



Schrewit, accursed, 1945. 
Sudandly, Sodandly, suddenly, 

1009, 1876. 
Suthfastnes, truth, 1183. A.S. 

sd^fastnea. 
Withschaif, vouchsafe, 1458. 
With-thy, on this condition, 961. 

See For-thy. 
|ewith, givetib, 1772. 
fhe, ye, 921. Observe that, as in 

this line, ye (A.S. ge) is the 

nominative^ and y<yu (A.S. eow) 

the objective case. 



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INDEX OF NAMES, ETC. 



Albanak, 202, 1447. 

Alexander, 1837. 

Alphest, 57. 

Amytans, 1304, 2446. 

Angas, 2858. 

Apnl, 1. 

AracheU, 434. 

Aries, 336. 

Arthur (^flw«w). 

Ban, 202, 1447. 

Bible, the, 1483. 

Brandellis, 3086. 

Brandymagus, 2884, 3430. 

Camelot, 275, 280, 357, 407. 

Cardole, 2153. 

Carlisle, 347. 

Christ, 2046. 

Clamedens, 2881, 3259. 

Dagenet, 278. 

Daniel, 1365. 

Dan^elome, 435. 

Esqnyris, 2591, 2609, etc. 

First-conquest king, 1064, etc. ; 

2568, etc. 
Gahers, 3087. 
Galiot {passim). 
Galys Gwyans, 2605, 2613, etc. 
Galygantynis, $99. 
Galloway, 2690. 
Gawane {passim), 
Gwynans or Gwyans; see Galys. 
Gyonde or Gyande, 302, 551, 637. 
Harwy, 2853, 3206, etc. 
Herynes, 436. 
Hundred knights, king of, 1545, 

1554. 



Jhesn, 2046, 2096. 

Kay, 254, 355, 3081, etc. 

Lady of the Lake, 220, 223. 

Lancelot {passim) ; appears as the 
red knight, 991, etc. ; as the 
hlack knight, 2430, etc. 

Logris, 2301. 

Maleginis, 806. See MaUnginy^. 

Malenginys, 2873, 3151, 3155. See 
also Hund/red knights^ king of. 

May, 12. 

Melyhalt, 283, 895. 

Melyhalt, lady of {passim). 

Moses, 436. 

ISTembrot {i.e. Nimrod), 435. 

Xohalt, 255. 

PhcBbus, 24, 2472, 2486. 

Priapus, 51. 

Round Table, 795, 3213. 

Saturn, 2474. 

SciUa, 2483. 

Solomon, 1378. 

Sygramors, 3083. 

Titan, 335. 

Valydone, 3249. See JFalydeyne, 

Yanore, 575. See TFanore. 

Virgin (Mary), 2049, 2087, etc. 

Yenus, 309. 

Wales, 599, 2153. 

Walydeyne, 2879. 

Wanore, 230. 

Wryne, 2867. 

Tdrus, 2851, 31^. 

Twan, 2606, 2618, etc. 

Ywons, 2861. 



««'C 



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