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Full text of "Land and freshwater Mollusca of India, including South Arabia, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir"

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Dlfffc^on of Mofe.l: 




^f^, MOLLUSCA OF INDIA, 

DMdon of MoUusks 
SedSonal Librorr 

EXCLUDING ^ 

SOUTH ARABIA, BALUCHISTAN. AFGHANISTAN. 

KASHMIR, NEPAL. BURMAH, PEGU, TENASSERIM, 

MALAY PENINSULA, CEYLON. AND OTHER 

ISLANDS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TO MESSRS. THEOBALD AND HANLEY'S 

CONCHOLOGIA INDICA. 



BY 

LiEUT.-CoLONEL H. H. GODWIN- AUSTEN, 

F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., &c., 

LATE DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF INDIA, IN CHAUGF, OF 
THE KHASI, GARO, AND NAGA-HILLS SURVEY PARTY. 

VOLUME I. f ||iv rs .^^^ 

WAY 2 1989 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

1889. 



FLAMMAM. 




PRINTFD BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLKKT STREET. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In issuing the First Part of ' Land and Freshwater Mollusca 
of India/ the undersigned is attempting to carry out what 
the editors of the ' Conchologia Indica ■" express a hope of at 
the end of their Preface. They say that work was never in- 
tended to be exhaustive, but to assemble in one book species 
which were dispersed in scores of other volumes. I can 
hope to do but little more. 

But the ' Conchologia Indica ' was brought to an end 
before the editors had exhausted all the known species from 
India ; and since then a very large number of new forms have 
been discovered in that vast country, with its varied climate 
and conditions, and where every year new areas are visited 
by the naturalist and collector. Although I have published 
many new species brought together by myself, there are still 
many left in my collection ; while H. F. and W. T. Blanford, 
Col. Beddorae, W. Theobald, Geoffrey Nevill, Col. Main- 
waring, Dr. Hungerford, Dr. Townshend, Professor J. Bayley 
Balfour in Socotra, Messrs. M. T. Ogle, A. Chennell, W. 
Robert, and H. Godwin- Austen have added many an addi- 
tional species to the list, so that there is no lack of 
material. With the aid of the above gentlemen and others 
I hope to make this supplementary work as valuable as its 
predecessor. 

Mr. W. T. Blanford, in a late paper in the ' Journal of 

a2 



IV INTRODtrCTION. 

the Asiatic Society of Bengal ' *, summing up Avhat has been 
done in Indian conchology^ says : — "The same decade (1870 
to 1880) has seen the completion of a series of illustrations, 
many of them well executed, of Indian land and freshwater 
shells, the ' Conchologia India ' of Hanley and Theohald. 
The work is mainly due to Mr. Hanley, upon whom the 
whole of the editorial labour has fallen, Mr. Theobald having 
been absent in India during the publication. Whilst it is 
impossible to avoid regretting that more complete illustrations 
of most of the species have not been given, and that some 
additional details have not been furnished in the accompany- 
ing letterpress, it is unquestionable that the plates are a 
valuable contribution to the knowledge of Indian MoUusca. 

Two other rather important works on Indian land 

and freshwater shells have been issued since the completion 
of the ^Conchologia Indica.^ One of these is Mr. Theobald's 
' Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Shells of British 
India,' the other Mr. G. Nevill's ' Hand-list of the MoUusca 

in the Indian Museum, Calcutta,' Part I This 

work is especially important for the large number of exact 

localities given ; and in many points the classification 

adopted for the Helicidae of India is a considerable improve- 
ment on any thing that had previously been published. At 
the same time there is, I believe, very much more to be done 
before these puzzling shells are properly arranged." 

Every illustrated work of this kind is a step in advance in 
the study of Natural History ; and I propose, besides the 
figuring of new species, to take up those minute forms that 
have not been sufficiently enlarged and well drawn in the 
* Conchologia Indica,' such as the small forms of Helices, 
and those among the Cyclophoridse and Helicinidse — Alycaus, 
Diplommatina, Acmella, Georissa, &c. 

* " Contributions to Indian Malacolog}-.— Xo. XII." (Dec. 1, 1880). 



INTEODUCXION. 



Drawings of the animals will also be added^ with the ana- 
tomy whenever it can be obtained^ showing the odontophore 
&c., by the help of which I trust we shall be able to arrive at 
some better-defined system of classification to what we have 
now, based solely on shell-characters. We shall then be 
better able to understand the relationship between our Indian 
genera and those of the neighbouring regions which are 
being worked out on one side by Professor von Martens and 
O. Semper, and on the African &c. by Professor A. Morelet, 
J. R. Bourguignat, and many other foreign conchologists. 

Not the least important part of the work will be attention 
to the record of accurate distribution of species ; and I shall 
always give the exact locality and districts of India^ with 
elevation &c. 

I shall not limit myself to political boundaries, or what is 
termed British India ; such boundaries are being constantly 
altered or overstepped by the naturalist ; the progress of a 
friendly mission or the entry of a punitive force into some 
adjacent independent country brings a fresh crop of objects 
of natural history. I therefore take as a northern limit the 
watershed of all the rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean 
through the countries named on the titlepage ; thus the Indus 
will include the whole of Afghanistan and Kafiristan, Swat, 
Gilgit, Baltistan or Little Tibet, Ladak, Rudok up to the 
Manasarowa Lake. The Brahmaputra will include that vast 
unknown country northwards and eastwards of the junction of 
the Dihong and Dibong rivers, any part of which we may see, 
and I hope to see, explored within the next four or five years, 
and the same of the Irrawaddy and Salween, while the southern 
extension of the Mule-it range, in Tenasserim, down to the 
Malay Peninsula, gives a very well-defined boundary in that 
direction. I have included South Arabia as far as the vicinity 
of Aden, because on that side we have a mingling of East- 



INTROBUCTIOIf. 



African and Indian forms. Unless we take the wide area 
indicated above, we shall never be able thoroughly to eluci- 
date the distribution of the different genera and species, and 
how they overlap the confines of the Oriental, Palsearctic, 
African, and Malayan Regions. 

A great want in India at present is that of good text-books 
on the Natural History of the country for the use of Euro- 
pean and native students. The Vertebrata have received 
attention, and many able works have been written on some 
classes : all these, however, are not brought up to our present 
knowledge. But nothing has ever been attempted among 
the vast array of the Invertebrata ; and I only hope that the 
small additional labour I bestow on one group, the Mollusca, 
will hereafter lead up to such Handbooks being published ; 
but I fear nothing can be expected without some Government 
assistance, such as was once afforded to Dr. T. C. Jerdon to 
bring out the ' Birds of India.' 

H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN. 



ERRATA IN PARTS I. & II. 



Page 11, line 12 from top, for Lithocystis read Liocystis. 

26, ,, 24 from top, for tubiniformis read turbinifarmis. 



34, 
40, 
59, 

59, 



5 from bottom, for Thamandaiva read Thamandava. 
22 from top, for NolamuUies read Kolamullies. 
20 from bottom, erase (Jarava). 
17 from bottom for increscens read virescens. 



ERRATA. 



Part III.— January 1883. 

Page 80, line 17 from bottom, for plate xi. read plate ii. 

,, 94, Plate XIX. fig. \,for Bhangulpur read Bhaugulpur. 
„ 94, „ XIX. fig. 4, after perplana, Nevill, insert MS. 
,, 94, ,, XX. fig. 2, for Macrochlamys read Kaliella. 

Part IV. (Plates).— September 1883. 

Plate XLII., read Africarion fallens?, Morelet (received as VitniM rilpjoel- 
liana, Pfr., Abyssinia, from Mr. Damon). 



LAND AND FRESHWATEE lOLLUSCA 



OP 



INDIA. 



Family ZONITIDiE*. 

Subgenus Kaliella. 

(Plates I. & II.) 



This genus was formed by Mr. W. T. Blanford in February 1863, 
and published in the 'Anuals and Magazine of JN'atural History' f j 
he included in it : — 

1. fastigiata, Hutton. "Western Himalayas, Nilgiri Hills. 

2. barrahporensis, Pfr. Ease of Sikkim Himalayas, and Kal- 

ryenmuUay Hills, near Salem, in S. India (Foote). 

3. aspimns, W. & H. Blanf. Nilgiri Hills. 

Now the first type-shell, fastigiata from the Nilgiri Hills, as I 
show further on, is not Hutton's species from the N.W. Himalaya, 
which Mr. Blanford I do not think then had had an ojiportunity of 
compariug it with ; so we must fall back on barralporensis, and take 

* Tho genera and subgenera will be treated of in no particular order at 
present, but as data concerning them can be put together and the drawings 
completed. The classification can hereafter be attempted ; we shall then be better 
able to judge what weight, generic or subgeneric, to give to the many genera 
now recorded from the Indian Eegion. 

t " On Indian Species of Land-Shells belonging to the Genera Helix, Linn., 
and Nanina, Gray." 



Z LAND AND FRESHWATER 

it as the typical form of the genus. Fortunately, it is immaterial iu 
this instance which species is taken, for it is quite clear what group 
of shells Kaliella is intended to include, and either three species 
might be taken for the type. I wish one could say this of some 
other genera — JVanina, Gray, for instance. The first two species of 
Mr. Blanford's genus were included by Albers (' Die Heliccen,' 1860, 
edit. Yon Martens) in his genus Trochomorpha ; but, as he has taken 
trocJiiformis, Fer., from the Fiji Islands, as the type, it must be 
exclusively used for species from that part of the world, which are 
not at all likely to be related to these Indian forms ; moreover, when 
Trochomorpha was made to hold such very dissimilar shells as fas- 
tigiata, anceps, and serrtdo, the sooner it was restricted the better ; 
and atter/ia, infula, cacuminifera, and araj were soon removed from 
it by Stoliczka, the first becoming the type of his genus Conidema 
(J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 236), the second the type of Adams's genus 
Sitala, which has priority. Drawings of species of this genus I hope 
to give at an early date. 

Kaliella baekakporensis, Pfr. (Plate I. fig. 1.) 

JT. harrcd-porensis, Pfr. P. Z. S. Dec. 1852, p. 156 ; Chemn. ed. ii. 
Helix, n. 96iJ, t. 147. figs. 20, 22 ; Conch. Ind. pi. Isxxvii. f. 7 ; 
Theob. Suppl. Cat. C. I. p. 20 ; Benson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. April 
1859, p. 272; Nevill, Hand-1. 1878, p. 41. no. 191. 

Original description : — " H. testa suhperforata, eJevato-trocJiiformi, 
tenui, striatula, nitida, pellucida, fusco-cornea ; spira conlca, acuti- 
uscida ; sutura profunda ; anfr. 6, conve.vis, lente accrescentibus, 
tdtimo carinato, non descendente, basi convexiusculo ; apertura vix 
ohliqiia, depressa, subangtdato-lunari ; per«s<. simpUci, tenui, recto, 
onargine columellari brevi, ad perforationem punctiformem reflexi- 
usculo. 

" Diam. ^, alt. 3| mill. 

" Hah. ad Barrakporc, Indiac (Bacon)." 

The animal is of a pale colour, with a distinct gland at the ex- 
tremity of the foot, with a well-defined lobe above it. Stoliczka, 
in his description attached to a drawing left to us by him, says — 
" I have not seen any mantle-lobes ; pinkish gre)% tentacles and 
head darker." In J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 237, the same author writes— 
" The anatomy of H. barraTcp>orensis closely resembles that of 
Comdema, but the dentition is different, that species having fewer 
teeth in a transverse row and a great number of the median ones 
enlarged, all being squarish, not pectiniform." 

Locality ? Ex Museum Cuming, now in collection of W. 

T. Blanford, marked an authentic specimen. 

Shell pyramidal, subperforate ; sculpture very fine close-set rib- 
bing, with fine spiral lines on base ; colour iimber-brown ; spire 
high, conic, sides slightly convex ; suture moderately deep ; whorls 
5|, convex, keeled on last, convex below; aperture suboblique, 
quadrately lunate ; peristome thin, columellar margin subvertical 
and slightly reflected near the perforation. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. O 

*Size : major diam. 0*12 inch, alt. axis 0*1 inch. 
„ 3-0 mm., „ 2-6 mm. 

Kaliella bareakporensis, Pfr. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

Localiti/. Barisal, forty miles above, near the river Megna, Lower 
Bengal (G.-A.). 

Shell pyramidal, somewhat depressed, base flat ; sculpture rather 
close, fine costulation, each rib distinct, the spiral sculpture on the 
base like that of Mussoorie specimens (Plate I. fig. 3 b) ; colour 
horny brown ; spire moderately high, broadly conic, sides very 
slightly convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, sides flatly convex ; 
aperture quadrate ; peristome thin, columellar margin subvertical. 

Size : major diam. 0-13 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 3-3 mm., „ 2'3 mm. 

In a paper entitled " Notes on the Land and Freshwater Shells 
of Kashmir &c." (J. A. S. B. 1878, p. 142), Mr. W. Theobald remarks 
that the specific name of this shell is badly chosen, this being a hill- 
species (not found on the plains, iinless transported on plants). I 
found it very abundant in the above locality in the bamboo-clumps. 

Kaliella bareakporensis, Pfr., = sivalensis, Hutton, var. (Plate I. 
figs. 3, 3«, 36, and Plate II. fig. 1.) 

Locality. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya, about 7000 feet {G.-A.'). 

Shell scarcely perforate, conoid, base flat ; scidpture distinct, fine 
transverse ribbing, close set, touching, the spiral striation on the base 
regular and wide apart, 4 to 5 lines ='005 inch (Plate I. fig. 3 h) ; 
colour pale brown ; spire high, pyramidal, sides convex ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 7, flat ; aperture semilunar ; peristome thin, re- 
flected on columellar margin, which is perpendicular. 

Size: major diam. 0-14 inch, alt. axis 0*10 inch. 
„ 3'6 mm. ,, 2*5 mm. 

Benson, in "Descriptions of new Helicidse contained in the Darji- 
ling Collections of Messrs. W. T. and H. P. Blanford" (A. & M. N. H., 
Apr. 1859), writes : — " Two bleached and broken specimens of a 
small shell allied to H. fastigiata, Hutton, from the Western Hima- 
laya, were found by Mr. W. T. Blanford at Pankabari and in the 
Eungun valley, at elevations of 1000 and 4000 feet. They cannot 
be distinguished from Pfeifffer's H. barraJqjorensis, of which speci- 
mens were sent to me by the late Dr. J. F. Bacon from Titalya, 
on the border of the Sikkim Terai, before the shell was seen by 
Dr. Pfcifi'er ; others were more recently taken by Capt. Hutton in 
the Dhoon valley, below Landour, and were transmitted to me by 
him under the MS. name of sivalensis, H The occurrence of 

■* In all descriptions the most reliable measurement is that of the major 
diameter ; not so that of the height, for it is often doubtful how it has been taken. 
In this and the following descriptions the height of the shell is taken from the 
lowest portion of the body-whorl at the columnar margin to the apex ; this I 
have found much easier to take than the vertical distance from the lowest edge 
of the aperture to the apex. It is simple enough with the ordinary measuring 
instruments when dealing with solid strong shells, but ^ery dangerous with 
email fragile forms. 



4 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

H. harraljiorensis near Calcutta is more than doubtful. There is a 
countrj'-house called 'Titalya,' near Barrackpore, which may have 
given rise to an error in the statement of the locality of the species." 

It will be seen, however, below that both Nevill and Stoliczka 
have taken it in or near Calcutta. 

Mr. Theobald {I. c. p. 142) records a single specimen of this species 
from Kashmir, 6 mm. in height. This must be either an error in 
measurement or it is another species, for I have never seen among 
hundreds of specimens any approaching this size. 

Nevill gives (I.e. p. 41) the following localities: — 1. Parasnath 
(Stol); 2. Pegu (Stol) ; 3. Prome (IF. T. B.); 4. Thyat Myo (Dr. 
Hungerford) ; 5. Teria Ghat {G.-A.) ; 6. Khandala {Stol) ; 7. Cal- 
cutta (Nevill Sf Stol). It would be interesting to see those from 
No. 6 ; those from Burmah are very possibly K. vulcani, described 
further on. 

Kaliella cherraensis, n. sj). (Plate I. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

Locality. Cherra Poonjee, Khasi Hills (G.-A.). 

Shell elongately pyramidal, scarcely perforate ; sculpture very fine, 
regular transverse ribbing, with very fine, regular, close-set spiral 
ribbing on the base, 12 lines ="005 inch (fig. 5 «) ; colour dull 
brown ; spire high, sides convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 6, sides 
flatly convex, a distinct sulcation on the keel of the last ; aperture 
semilunate ; peiistome thin. 

Size: major diam. 0*10 inch, alt. axis 0*09 inch. 
„ 2*5 mm., „ 2-3 mm. 

Garo Hills, one specimen. Yery smooth, but under lens has micro- 
scopic transverse ribbing. 

The largest are from Teria Ghat. Height of spire equal to diameter 
of base ; major diameter 3*0 mm. ; colour ochraceous ; whorls 7 ; 
ribbing very distinct (Plate I. fig. 7 and Plate II. fig. 2). 

I have three specimens, from the Dikrang valley, Dafla Hills, 
from the North Cachar Hills, and Laisen in the Naga Hills. 

Kaliella cherraensis, n. var. (Plate I. fig. 6.) 

Localiti/, Forty miles above Barisal, on the river Megna, Lower 
Bengal {G.-A.). 

Sculpture very fine, regular, rather distant costulation, with very 
fine, close-set spiral striation on base, while in many specimens 
quite smooth ; colour pale ochraceous brown ; spire, vide description 
of the Khasi shell. 

Size : major diam, 0"15 inch, alt. axis 0*11 inch. 
„ 2-7 mm., „ 2'8 mm. 

This shell is almost identical with the Khasi-Hill species, being, 
perhaps, rather more convex on the side of the spire, a character 
which distinguishes all the forms of KalieUa from those hills from 
the much more flatter-sided harral-porensis of the N.AV. Himalaya 
&c. The waters of the Barak in Sylhet drain into the Megna, and 
this species must be constantly washed down by them. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. O 

Kaliella khasiaca, n. sp. (Plate I. fig. 8.) 

LocaliUj. North Khasi, numerous {G.-A.). 

Shell imperforate, elougately conical, rather tumid ; sculpture 
microscopic ribbing, quite smooth under ordinary lens ; colour glassy 
white ; spire conic, sides convex ; suture impressed ; whorls 8, sides 
convex ; aperture almost semicircular ; peristome thin, columellar 
margin perpendicular, rounded below. 

Size : major diam. 0-09 inch, alt. axis 0*15 inch. 
„ 2-3 mm., „ 2-7 mm. 

Kaxiella munipueeksis, n. sp. (Plate I. fig. 9, and Plate II. 
fig. 3.) 

Localitif. Munipur Hills, N.E. frontier (G.-A.). 

Shell elougately conical, base flat ; sculpture fine transverse continu- 
oxis ribs, very fine and close, concentric on the basal side ; colour dull 
ochraceous ; spire as high as breadth at base, conic, sides rounded, 
apex blunt; suture impressed ; whorls 6|, slightly convex; aperture 
semicircular ; peristome thin, columellar margin slightly curved. 

Size : major diam. 3'0 mm., alt. axis 3'0 mm. 

This shell differs from the Cherra and Khasi species in the whorls 
being more convex, more tumid below, and the columellar margin not 
so oblique. It is nearest in shape to K. a>'2)ij'('ns of Southern India, 

Kaliella MTJNiPirEEisrsis, var. (Plate I. fig. 10.) 

Locality. Phiinggam, Lahupa Naga Hills, 5000 feet (G.-A.). 

Shell elougately pyramidal, keeled, but not sharply ; sculpture 
fine transverse ribbing on whorls, fine radiating on base ; colour 
bleached ; spire high, sides convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 5|, sides 
flatly convex ; aperture semiovate ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
strong, perpendicular. 

Size : major diam. 0'09 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
5, 2*3 mm., ,, 2'3 mm. 

Kaliella sigttiiensis, n. sp. (Plate I. fig. 11.) 

Locality. Nilgherri Hills, Seegoor Ghat and Neddiwuttom Passes 
("FT. T. Blanford). 

Shell subperforate, conical, rather flat on base ; sculpture rather 
fine, irregular-sized, transverse ribbing, especiallj well developed on 
base, with no spiral ribbing there ; colour, umber-brown epidermis ; 
spire conic, sides rounded ; whorls 7, sides rounded ; aj^erture lunate ; 
peristome well rounded below, columellar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 0'13 inch, alt. axis 0-12 inch. 
„ 3-25 mm., ,, 3*0 mm. 

Animal unknown. 

This is the shell referred to by Messrs. W. T. and H. F. Blanford, 
after the description of H. aspirans. in J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 356, 
as closely resembling H. fastigiuta, Hutton, from the above loca- 
lities. In Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection I find he must have 



6 LAIfD ANB FRESHWATER 

afterwards altered liis opinion regarding it, for the label (fastigiata) 
is covered with another (harral'porensis) ; but, although close, it is 
certainly not that species ; and in the same paper (Contributions to 
Indian Malacology, No. II. p. 358) H. barmJqwrcnsis is referred to, 
and a figure is given on plate ii. fig. 5 of a specimen received from 
Mr. H. Bruce Foote, who found it on the Kalryenmullay grouj) of 
hills near Salem. I have given a copy of this figure (Plate I. fig. 4), 
and which appears to be this species. But the shell is not in 
Mr. Blanford's collection, which he has, during his absence in India, 
so kindly left with me to refer to and take care of. H. fastigiata, 
Hutton, of the N.W. Himalaya, does not occur in South India ; and 
Mr. Foote's specimen of harrahporensis maj^ present, on a closer 
examination, some slight difference from the type form. The drawing 
shows it to have very flat sides to the spire, with a very acuminate 
apex. 

Kaliella aspieaks, W. T. & H. F. Blf. (Plate I. fig. 12, from 
specimen in coll. W. T. Blanford.) 

Locality. Nilgherri Hills, Madras (TF. T. B.). 

Described in the J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 355, pi. i. fig. 12, very 
roughly drawn. 

Type from near Pykara, rare. 

Conch. Indica, pi. xvi. fig. 4 is not in the least like ; it gives the 
idea of a thickened peristome. 

Th. Cat. Conch. Ind. p. 20. 

Nev. Hand-list (1878), p. 41. no. 197. 

Original description : — " Testa vix perforata, elevata, pyramidalis, 
viv striata, tenuis, cornea. Spira turrita, apice ohtusa, sutura parum 
profunda. Anfr. 7, convexiuscidi , lente crescentes, tdtimiis non de- 
scendens, hasi convexus, carina ohtusa, prope aperturam evanescente, 
circumdatus. Ap>ertura subverticalis, transverse lunata, semicircidaris ; 
peristoma tenue, rectum, marginibiis distantibus, columellari breviter 
rejiexiusculo. 

"Major diam. 2-0 mm., alt. axis 3-0 mm. 

0-08 inch, „ 0-12 inch." 

Kaliella vulcani, n. sp. (Plate I. fig. 13.) 

Locality. Puppa-doung Hill, Burmah ( TF. T. Blanford). 

SheU ovately conical, rather tumid ; Eculpture transverse, mode- 
rately close ribbing, on base radiating from umbilicus ; colour 
(bleached) apparently of usual horny colour ; spire conic, moderately 
high, sides convex, apex well rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 6, 
sides convex ; aperture widely lunate, slight angulation below ; 
peristome thin, slightly reflected; columellar margin straight, 
subvertical. 

Size : major diam. 0-12 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 3-0 mm., „ 2-3 mm. 

Puppa-doung is an extinct volcano in I'pper Burmah below 
Mandalay, and some 25 miles from Pagan, on the left bank of the 



MOLLTJSCA OP DfDIA. 7 

Irrawaddy. The specimen described was given me by Mr. "W. T. 
Blanford, who collected so many fine shells in that country. It is 
an interesting species, in its convex sides approaching the N.E. 
frontier forms, but at same time not like any of them in the rounded 
form of the apex and large aperture. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

(All figs, enlarged seven times.) 

Fig. 1. Kaliella barrakj^orensis, 'Ph:, tyTpical. Locality? 
2. -. Near Barisal, Lower Bengal. 

3. 3a. , =dvalensis, Hutton. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

3b. : sculpture on base, X 50. 4 to 5 lines=0'005 inch. 

4. , close to barraJcporensis ; copy of figure in J. A. S. B. Salem, 

Madras. 

5. cherraensis, G.-A. Cherra Poonjee, Khasi Hills. 

5 a. : sculpture on base, X 50. 12 lines = 0*005 inch. 

6. , var. Near Barisal, Lower Bengal. 

7. . Fine specimen, Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

8. kkasiaca, G.-A. Khasi Hills, northern slopes. 

9. munipureiisis, G.-A. Munipur Hills. 

9«. : sculpture, X 50. 

10. , var. Phunggam, Lahiipa Naga Hills. 

IL sigurPMsis, G.-A. Seegoor Ghat and Neddiwuttom Passes, 

Nilgherri Hills. 

12. ■ aspirans, W. T. & H. F. Blf. Nilgherri Hills. 

13. vulcani, G.-A. Puppa-doung Hill, Burmah. 

Kaliella jaijsttaca, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 4.) 

Locality. Marangsip Peak, South Jaintia Hills, 5350 feet. 

Shell subglobosely conoid, keeled, well rounded below ; sculpture 
very close-set fine transverse costulation, concentric on base ; colour 
pale olivaceous umber-brown ; spire conic, flatly convex ; suture 
impressed ; whorls 5|, sides convex ; aperture ovately lunate, sub- 
vertical ; peristome thin, very slightly reflected, columellar margin 
subvertical. 

Size : major diam. 0-13 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 3*3 mm., „ 2*3 mm. 

Three specimens are from Marangsip Peak and two from Sher- 
faisip Peak, 5600 feet. 

This species is very near barralcporensis, but is more convex on 
side of the spire and more tumid below, with much wider and more 
open aperture. 

Kaliella costulata, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 5.) 

204 of Nevill's Hand-list, p. 42 (not named). 

Locality. Tanir Eidge, Dafla Hills, Assam, 4400 feet (Godivin- 
Austen). 

Shell pyramidal, sharply keeled, a single raised rib on the peri- 
phery ; sculpture distant very distinct transverse costulation, irre- 
gular longitudinal strise below ; colour very pale olivaceous brown ; 



8 LAND AND FKESHAVATER 

spire high, sides flat ; suture moderate ; whorls 6, sides flat (species 
not quite fullj' grown) ; aperture semiovate ; peristome thin, slightly 
reflected on columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 0*13 inch, alt. axis 0*11 inch. 
,, 3'3 mm., ,, 2'8 mm. 

Assimilates in its distinct costulation to the next species, but is 
much larger, with flatter sides, and is more pyramidal. 

One specimen, Hcngdan Peak, North Cachar Hills, about 8000 feet. 

Kaliella stjbcosxulata, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. fi.) 

Locality. North Khasi Hills. 

Shell pyramidal, iimbilicus hidden ; sculpture strong, well-defined 
(often distant) ribbing, also fine radiate ribbing on the base ; colour 
pale sienna-brown ; spire conic, sides very slightly convex, apex 
acuminate ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 6, sides convex ; 
aperture semilunate ; peristome thin, slightly oblique near axis. 

Size : major diam. 0*11 inch, alt. axis 0"08 inch. 
„ 2*8 mm., „ 2-0 mm. 

Kaxieiia peeakensis, n. sp. (Nevill, MS.). (Plate II. fig. 7.) 

Locality. Perak (Dr. E. ToivnsTiend). 

Shell pyramidal, very narrowly umbilicatcd, keeled : sculpture 
fine, somewhat irregularly disposed, transverse costulation on the 
basal side, fine, close, regular, spiral or longitudinal ribbing ; colour 
whitish grey : spire conoid, sides moderately convex, apex subacute ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 6, sides moderately convex ; aperture 
semilunate ; peristome rather thickened, strong, perpendicular or 
angulate below at the columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 0-15 inch, alt. axis 0'12 inch. 
,, 3'8 mm. ,, 3"1 mm. 

Kaliella fastigiata, Hutton. (Plate II. fig. 8.) 

Paper on the Land and Freshwater Shells of the Western Hima- 
laya, by Lieut. T. Hutton, 37th Eegt. N. I., and W. H. Benson, Esq., 
C.S., J. A. S. B. vol. vii. pt. 1, p. 217. 

Type from Landour, N.W. Himalaya, Chemn. ed. Kiister, Helix, 
p. 141, f. 15, 16. 

Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. April 1859, p. 272. 

Nevill, Hand-list (1878), p. 40. no. 190. 

Conch. Ind. p. 8, jfl. xvi. f. 5. 

Th. Cat. Conch. Ind. p. 20. 

Original description : — " Testa parvida, alhido-cornea, minutissime 
ciranulata^pyramidata, siditus plano-convexa ; anfractihus aeptem, con- 
vexiuscxdis, xdtimo acuto angidato, sutaris leviter impressis ; umbilico 
evanescente ; apertura latiore qnam lonr/a ; apicp ohttisn. 

" Axis 0"10 mm. 

" Animal heliciform, greyish, darker on the tentacula. Found on 
df-ad leaves at Simla, in the Khads (ravines), and when in motion 



MOLLTISCA OP IXDIA. 9 

carries its shell upright. It is not uncommon, but its smallness 
renders it difficult to collect (U.). 

" It is more lengthened proportionally than either IT. turhiniformis 
of Patargatha and Berhampore, alluded to in p. 357, vol. v. of this 

journal The animal does not appear to exhibit the beautiful 

dark patches on a light ground which render that shell so conspi- 
cuous, when the animal is alive, by the appearance of the tints 
through the translucent shell (B.)." 

Localiti/. Mussoorie, jS'.W. Himalaya (O.-A.). 

Shell elongately pyramidal ; sculpture, regular fine ribbing ; colour 
pale broTvn ; spire high, sides slightly convex ; sutui'e shallow ; 
whorls 8, sides flatly convex ; aperture semilunate ; peristome thin, 
perpendicular on the columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 0"15 inch, alt. axis 0'14 uich. 
., 3*7 mm., ,, 3'8 mm. 

Benson (I. c.) says " at Mussoorie and Landour H.fastigiata is not 
uncommon above 5000 and beyond 7000 feet elevation. I procured 
it most frequently creeping on the large wet leaves of Saxifraga 
ciliafa, in damp and shady situations having a northern aspect." 

Nevill (I. c.) records it from : — 1. Mussoorie, Simla (StoIiczJca) ; 2. 
Darjiling (StoUczka and Mamwarinf/) ; 3. Arakan Hills {Sloliczica) ; 
4. Naga Hills {A. W. ChennelT) ; 5. Dafla Hills (Godwin-Austen). 
I have not identified any in my own collection from these two last- 
named localities, and I think no. 3 should be re-examined. 

Kaliella elongata, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 9.) 

Locality. Raliang, Jaintia Hills (O.-A.). 

Shell very elongately pyramidal, not umhilicated ; sculpture, rib- 
bing transverse at irregular infprvals, some longitudinal or con- 
centric striation near the umbilical region ; colour pale ochraceous 
brown ; spire very high, sides convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 10, 
sides rather convex ; aperture semilunar, suboblique ; peristome thin, 
reflected, and somewhat strong. 

Size : major diam. 0-13 inch, alt. axis 0"20 inch. 
,, 3-3 mm., ,, 5-0 mm. 

Kaliella geatiosa, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 10.) 

Locality. Kopamedza Peak, Anghami Xaga Hills, 8375 feet. 

Shell globosely conoid, angulate on periphery and rounded below, 
very closely umbilicate ; sculpture very fine regular transverse ribbing, 
also on the basal side, with a well-marked carination on the keel ; 
colour pale horny brown ; spire moderately high, conoid, blunt ; suture 
well impressed ; whorls 5, very convex ; aperture semilunate, rounded 
below; peristome thin, slightly reflected, suboblique from axis. 

Size : major diam. 3*5 mm., alt. axis 2-5 mm. 

Kaliella nagaensis, n. sp. (Plate II. fig. 11.) 

Locality. Kopamedza Peak, Anghami Naga Hills, 8375 feet 
{G.-A.). 



10 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Shell pyramidal, of thin texture, subperforate ; sculpture, regular 
distinct olDlique costulation, radiating from umbilicus below ; colour 
pale horny brown ; spire high, conic, apex blunt, sides flat ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 6, sides somewhat convex, the last whorl keeled 
and with a distinct carination ; aperture semilunate ; peristome thin, 
slightly reflected near axis, and suboblique. 

Size : major diam. 0'14 inch, alt. axis 0-10 inch. 
,, 3*6 mm., „ 2-0 mm. 

Two specimens, Hengdan Peak, with sculpture finer. 

Kamella? teriaensis, u, sp. (Plate II. fig. 12.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, southern base of Khasi Hills, about 300 feet. 

Shell depressly pyramidal, rounded on base, narrowly umbilicated ; 
sculpture, on the upper whorls oblique transverse fine ribbing visible ; 
colour bleached ; spire conic, sides flat ; suture shallow, a thin fine 
raised beading following it ; whorls 5, flattened, the last sharply 
keeled ; aperture oblate ; peristome thin, the columella thickened 
and perpendicular, slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 0-14 inch, alt. axis 0-08 inch. 
3-6 mm., „ 2-0 mm. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

(AU figs, enlarged seven times.) 

Fig. \. KalieUa barrakporensis, Fh\,=sivalcn.4s, Hutton, var. Mussoorie, 
N.W. Himalaya. 
2. cherraensis, G.-A. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

3. munipiirensis, G.-A. Blimipur. 

4. Jawfiaca, G.-A. Marangsip Peak, Jaintia Hills. 

5. • costulata, G.-A. Tanir Eidge, Dafla Hills, north of Assam 

valley. 

6. siibcostulata, G.-A. North Khasi Hills. 

7. perakcnsis, G.-A. Perak, Malay Peninsula. 

8. fastigiata, Hutton. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

9. elongata, G.-A. Ealiang. Jaintia Hills. 

10. gratlosa, G.-A. Kopamedza Peak, Angliami Naga Hills. 

11. nagaensis, G.-A. Kopamedza Peak, Anghami Naga Hills. 

12. teriaensis, G.-A. Teria Ghat, base of Khasi Hills. 



MOLLTJSCA or INDIA. 11 

On the Subgenus Microcystina, witli Descriptions o£ the 
Original and New Species. 

(Plate III.) 

TMs genus was first introduced, but without any description, by 
Prof. A. 0. L. Morch in his paper on the Shells of the Nicobar 
Islands, published in the ' Journal de Conchyhologie,' October 1872, 
p. 311 ; in the same Journal for October 1876, p. 356, its characters 
are given — " a little notch, narrow and very deep at the columellar 
margin ; " and he compares it with molecula, Bs., from Burmah ; 
but I cannot detect in this last any resemblance save in form and 
polished surface. The columella is not similar*. At the same time 
(in 1872) we find Prof.- Morch creating another subgenus, Litlio- 
ajstts, on a species named brunii by him; but no description is 
given. Helix c/onlcUi, Pfr., 77iilmm, Martens, and cassichda, Bs., 
being quoted as similar in form. In 1876 (?. c. p. 357), Liocystis, 
we are told, differs from 3Iicrocystina by the columella being twisted 
in S-form and not notched, and by an unpolished surface f. 

The shell of M. rinlii is a small one, and the animal was not in 
a very perfect state, so that I am not able to give a very satisfactory 
description of its outer form, but it is sufficient to place it in a 
better position with regard to other genera. 

Animal. The right shell-lobe was distinguished, and a long nar- 
row left shell-lobe in two portions (fig. 3). The dorsal lobes were 
not made out. The extremity of the foot has a long pointed process 
above the mucous gland (fig. 4). The generative organs (fig. 5) were 
not all got at in a perfect state. The penis is long, with a slight 
short twist on the side next the vas deferens, and there is another 
rather swollen portion with a convolution lower down. The amatory 
organ, D, is also present. 

The odontophore (figs. 7 & 7a) I am enabled to describe much 
more minutely, as it was dissected out very perfectly, the dental 
formula being — 

35 to 40 . 2 . 7 . 1 . 7 . 2 . 35 to 40 
= 44 to 50 . 1 . 44 to 50. 

The central tooth is very long and sharp-pointed, with two sharp 
well-developed cusps on either side ; the next seven medials are also 
very elongate and sharp, with a single cusp on the outer lower 
margin ; in the eighth this is absent, being a plain unicuspid tooth ; 
the next, the ninth, is bicuspid, with the outer cusp slightly shorter, 
these two being of transitional form ; then follow the series of bi- 

* Original description : — " Les Microcystina sont caracterises par une petite 
t'chaucrure, etroite et assez prufoude, a la columelle, qui montre de faibles 
traces d'une dent obtuse. La coquille est polie sur toute sa surface. U Helix 
molecula, Benson, de Birmanie, parait tres-analogue." 

t Original description : — " Les Liocystis different des Microcystina par leur 
columelle tordue en S et non echancree, et par leur sui-face non polie." 

B 



12 LAND AND FRESH^VATER 

cuspid laterals, the points being blnnt and rounded. The jaw (fig. 6) 
is semicircular in form, particularly well rounded on the side of the 
muscular attachment, while on the cutting-edge it is very convex, 
and with a well rounded central prominent projection. 

The odontophore of this subgenus is therefore in every respect 
similar to that of J\lacrochIamijs, Benson*; and the jaw, though more 
bent, is also of the same type. 

This subgenus, therefore, I consider ranks very close to Macro- 
cJilamys, and must be placed at present next it. Whether its cha- 
racters are sufficient to retain it, is a question that must be settled 
hereafter, when all these diff'erent genera are more closely examined. 
The shell (fig. 1) is of a solid texture, and the solid or very sinuate 
form of the columellar margin (fig. 2) is a distinct departure from the 
obhque and feebly-reflected columellar margin of MacrocliJamys. 

I hope to be able to examine before long some more spirit- 
si^ecimeus. 

1. MicROCTSTiNA RiNKii, Morch. (Plate III. fig. 1.) 

Microcystina rinlii, Morch, Journ. Conch. Oct. 1872, p. 311 ; id. 
Oct. 187t), p. 356 ; NeviU, Hand-list, p. 39. no. 171. 

Locality. Island of Teressa, one of the Nicobars. 

Shell closely umbilicate, subgloboscly conoid, polished above; 
sculpture, very fine, regular chsposcd, and parallel longitudinal stria?, 
26=-01 inch (fig. 1 «) ; colour rich sienna above, below covered 
with a dull white deposit ; spire subconoid, sides flat, apex blunt ; 
suture shallow ; whorls 5, the last weU rounded ; aperture oblique, 
symmetrically lunate, the body-whorl covered with a distinct callus ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin (fig. 2) obhque, much thickened, 
reflected and very sinuate, the reflected portion ending abruptly at 
right angles to the base of the last whorl. 

►Size : major diam. 0-21 inch., alt. axis 0-10 inch. 
„ 5-4 mm., „ 2-6 mm. 

For the animal of this species I am indebted to Mr. G. Nevill, to 
whom I owe many thanks for this and other rarities. 

Original description (Z. c. p. 311): — " T. anguste mnbilicata, con- 
vexo-deprcssa, tenuis, polita, nitidissitna , brunnea, umhilicum versus 
pallidior ; strice incrementi ohsoletissimce, remotissimce ; spira parmn 
elevata, obtuse convixa ; sutura obsolete appresso-marginuta ; anfr.4, 
vix convexi, angusti, idtiiniis sid)depresso-rotundatus ; apertura obli- 
qua, lunata, murgine columellori {yel labro) dilatato, re.fiexo,profunde 
sinuato, fere emarginato, nmbilicum propcndente. 

*■' Diam. maj. fere 5 mill., axis 2^ mill. 

" JJab. Sambeloug, bords de la riviere Galathea : trois exem- 
plaires. 

" Ohs. JSanina (Jlicrocystis) mitiuscula, v. Martens (Reise, p. 75, 
t. xii. f. 10) quoad formam." 

L. c. p. 356 : " Habitat Sambelong (Eeinhardt) ; Petite Nicobar 
{Busch, 1845) ; Kamorta, Teressa, Katchal (lioipstorf)" 

* This genus I hope to describe and figure in the next Part. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 13 

MiCROCTSTIlSrA MOERCHIANA, 11. sp. (Nevill, MS.). (Plate III. 

fig. y, x4.) 

Locality. Kondul Island, Bay of Bengal. 

Shell subdepressly conoid, very polished ; sculpture (fig. 9 a, x 50), 
very microscopic longitudinal fine striation, 32 = -01 inch ; colour 
reddish brown ; spire flatly conoid ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, regu- 
larly increasing ; aperture subovately lunate, subvertical ; peristome 
thin, reflected at the umbilicus, solid and quite perpendicular at 
junction with body-whorl. 

Size : major diam. 0-32 inch, alt. axis 0'15 inch. 
„ 8-2 mm,, ,, 3-8 mm. 

Animal not known. 

Mtcroctstijsta avarnefoedi, n. sp, (I^eviU, MS.). (Plate III. 
fig- 8, X 7.) 

Microcystina ivarneford'i, Nevill's Hand-list, Dec. 1878, no. 108,= 
Nanina {Microcystis), n. sp., but not named. 

Locality. Andamans. 

Shell subdepressly conoid, narrowly i;mbilicate, glassy ; sculpture 
(fig. 8«, X 50), very fine regular microscopic longitudinal striae; 
colour umber-brown ; spire low ; suture shallow, adpressed ; whorls 
nearly 5, the last rounded on periphery ; aperture lunate ; peristome 
thin, columeUar margin oblique, very slightly reflected, solid and 
angulate. 

Size : major diam. 0*28 inch, alt. axis 0-08 inch. 
„ 4*6 mm., ,, 2*0 mm. 

Animal not known. 

MicROCTSTiNA HARRiETENSis, n. sp. (Nevill, MS.). (Plate III. 
fig, 11, x8,) 

Locality. Mount Harriet, Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 

Shell globosely conoid, narrowly umbilicated, rounded below ; 
sculpture (fig. 11 «, x50), fine regular longitudinal ribbing, crossed 
by rather regular lines of growth, but not decussate, 12 = -01 inch; 
colour umber-brown ; spire subconical, sides convex ; suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 4, last well rounded ; aperture rather broadly 
lunate; peristome thin. 

Size: major diam, 0-09 inch, alt. axis 0-045 inch. 
„ 2-3 mm,, „ 1*3 mm, 

Microcystina cryptomphalus, n. sp. (IS'evill, MS.). (Plate III. 
fig, 10, x7.) 

Locality. Parisnath Hill, Hazaribagh, Lower Bengal, 4480 feet. 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, depressly conoid, flat on base ; sculp- 
ture, regular fine parallel spiral striation or grooving, 20 = -01 inch ; 
colour pale brown ; spire subconical ; whorls 5, regularly increasing ; 
aperture lunate ; peristome thin, reflected and angulate at columeUar 
margin. 

Size : major diam. 0-12 inch, alt. axis 0*06 inch. 
„ 3-1 mm., ,, 1-5 mm. 



14 LA^^D AND FRESnWATKE 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 

Fig. 1. Microcystina rinkii, Morch, X 8. 

1 a. : sculpture, X 50. 

2. : coluraellar margin, X 20. 

3. : part of mantle, X 8. r.d.l., right dorsal lobe ; l.d.L, left 

dorsal lobe. 

4. : extremity of foot, X 8. From spirit-specimen. 

5. : generatiye organs. P., male organ ; <S^., spermatheca ; 

vd., vas deferens ; D., dart-sac. 

6. : jaw, X 50. 

7. : teeth of the radula, central, median, and lateral, X 1210. 

la. : ditto, ditto, X 3G0. 

8. warncfordi, n. sp., X 7. 

8 a. : sculpture, X 50. 

9. onoerchiana, n. sp., X 4. 

9«. : sculpture, X 50. 

10. cryptomphalus, n. sp., X 7. 

10 a. : sculpture, X 50. 

106. : columellar mai-gin, X 20. 

11. harricfensis, n. sp., X 8. 

11 «. : sculpture, X 50. 



On the Land-Molluscan Genus Cryptosoma, and Description 
of the Animal of Cryptosoma prastans, Gould. 

(Plate IV.) 

The genus Cryptosoma was created in 1857 by Mr. "W. Theobald, 
of the Indian Geological Survej', for a shell common at Moulmain, 
named Vitrina ^jnestans by Gould. Mr. Theobald's original descrip- 
tion in the J. A. S. Bengal, no. iv. p. 252, is very brief, and runs 
thus : — " Testa vitrina; simile, sed rohustiore. Peristomate oitt(so hated 
tenui. Animale penitus intra testam retractile, et, in oistivatiunis tem- 
pore, solido epipliraymate obtecto, 

^'' C. prcestans (Vitrina pro'stans), Gould. Maulmaiu, Martaban, 
Tenasserim valley. I have separated this shell from Vitrina, as the 
animal is perfectly retractile, and the peristome is thicker than in 
Vitrina proper, and not membranous. It is common in holes in 
laterite at Martaban, and not rare throughout the Tenasserim valley. 
Its colour is a bay-olive Cajiput green." 

The genus was therefore founded partly on the characters of the 
animal, and is therefore far better than the meagre shell-characters 
on which so many genera have been created. It is curious the 
truncate form of the foot with the mucous pore was not also men- 
tioned, which is the principal outward character that distinguishes 
it from Vitrina with its long pointed foot. I had long wished to 
get a specimen of the animal of this species, its shell being peculiar. 



MOLLtJSCA OF INDIA. 15 

SO unlike the otlier species of Hdicarion, with which it has been 
classed by other conchologists since ; even Mr. Theobald himself, 
in his ' Catalogue of the Land and Freshwater Shells of British 
India,' puts it in his section E of Hellcarion. H. ovatus, H. Blanford, 
and succlneus, Reeve, are also included in this section, but on no 
tangible grounds. 

Geoffrey Nevill, in his " List of the Mollusca brought back by 
Dr. J. Anderson from Yunnan and TJiDper Burmah," J. A. S. Bengal, 
part 2, 1877, p. 25, recognizes the genus Cryptosoma with these 
remarks : — 

" The entire shell is covered with a thick and compact epidermis ; 
the largest specimen in the Museum (Calcutta), from Tenasserim, 
measures, axis 27 h, diam. 31 5 mil. It is an extremely abundant 
species in Tenasserim and also near Moulmein ; Dr. Anderson found 
it abundant at Sawady and on the banks of the Irrawady, Second 
Defile." The shell, with animal, was also figured in Dr. Anderson's 
work from a drawing made, under Dr. Ferd. Stoliczka's superinten- 
dence, by a native artist, and which I give a copy from the same 
original excellent drawing (Plate IV. fig. 1). 

Vitrina prcestans, from Tavoy (Gould), P. Best. Soc. N. H. vol. i. 
p. 140, read Sept. 6 (1843). 

Vitrina prcestans, Gould, Boston J. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 456, 
plate 24. f. 2, read Sept. 6 (1843); Pfeif. Mon. HeHc. vol. ii. p. 497 
(1848); Reeve, Conch. Icon. Vitrina, f. 12 (May 1862); Theobald 
and Hanley, Conchologia Indica, plate Ixv. figs, 5, 6 (1870), with re- 
mark " our fig. 6 is scarcely round enough." 

Cniptosoma proistans, Maulmain, Martaban, and Tenasserim valley 
(W. Theobald), J. A. S. B. p. 252 (1857). 

Helicarion (Section E) prcvstans, Theobald, Cat. Land and Fresh- 
water Shells of British India (1876). 

Helicarion {Cnjpjtosoma) prcestans, Nevill, J. A. S. B. part ii. p. 25 
(1877). 

Helicarion prcestans, G. Nevill, Hand-list of Mollusca in Ind. 
Mus., Calcutta (1878). 

Original description : — " Testa depressa^fragili, nitida, straminea ; 
a7ifr. trihus, striis incrementi, et volventihus reticidatis ; apertura suh- 
coarctata." 

The colour is dark straw-colour or amber-colour, inclining to 
green. A thin layer of enamel unites the two extremities of the 
lip. The figure given is very good. 

In response to a wish I expressed in a paper in the Linnean 
Society last year, Mr. Theobald most kindly sent me quite lately a 
couple of specimens, preserved in glycerine, of this species from 
Maulmain. I am now able to give a somewhat more detailed account 
of its forms and anatomy, which gives it a more substantial position 
as a subgenus by itself, and which must, with our present know- 
ledge, be recognized. 

Animal (Plate IV. fig. 2). Vv^ith tentacles rather short and blunt, 
the extremity of foot truncate, the mucous pore large, but with no 



16 LAIfD AND FRESHWATEE 

overhanging lobe, the pedal line very distinct and segmented, termi- 
nating at the upper margin of the mucous gland, the foot with a 
broad pedal margin, segmented (fig. 6). Mantle — the right shell-lobe 
is moderately largo and extends over the region of the body-whorl 
(Plate lY. fig. 2) ; it extends quite round to the posterior margin 
(figs. 4, 5), and unites with the left shell-lobe, which is very long and 
well developed (fig. 3), and spreads over the edge of the peristome 
from near the respiratory orifice. The right dorsal lobe is triangular 
in shape, and the left dorsal lobe is long and rather narrower than 
the shell-lobe adjacent. The genital organs in one specimen were 
very small and undeveloped, and were not verj- well developed in 
the second specimen ; they show the presence of a thick bluntly 
cylindrical amatory organ (dart-sac) (fig. 0, D). The penis is much 
convoluted, and is closely folded together, having a cfeeum-like pro- 
cess (kalk-sac) (fig. 10, c.c.) midway between the vas deferens and 
the retractor muscle, exactly as in H. hicarinattis. Semper, and //. 
ceratodes, Pfr., from Luzon, but which have no amatory organ. The 
ovo-testis, hermaphrodite duct, &c. were not made out. Helicarion 
ciimingi is also somewhat similar, and possesses this organ. 

Odontopliore (PI. IV. fig. 12). The buccal mass is large, the radula 
is nearly as broad as long, with a very large number of teeth in each 
row. The ribbon was delicate, and was broken in taking it out ; but 
88 rows were counted in one specimen and 97 in the second : we 
may take 100 as the probable number. The dental formula is 

120(2+7). 1 .(7 + 2)120, 
or 130 . 1 . 130. 

The central tooth is broad, large, bluntly pointed, with two small 
basal cusjjs on either side, on a broad oblong base. The next median 
eight are large, broad, and sharp-pointed, but decreasing in breadth 
outwards ; each has one short basal cusp on the outer margin. Each 
median has a small notch on the inner margin, its position halfway 
between the apex and the outer cusp. In No. 8 it is still nearer 
and is less developed. In No. 9 it is hardly to be seen ; the tooth 
is narrower, while the outer basal cusp has advanced its position 
close up to the point, and No. 10 is changed completely into a long, 
narrow, bicuspid lateral. More than one hundred such teeth suc- 
ceed, all of the same size and shape ; then the points become blunter 
(fig. 12 «), with only an indication of the bicuspid form, and finally 
the last have a single, blunt, rather square point (fig. 12/j), and the 
outermost diminish much in size and are short and pointed. This 
radula is therefore very peculiar, assimilating to that of Maa-ochlami/s 
on one side in the general character of the well-developed median 
teeth, but diff'ering widely in the very great number of the laterals, 
the formula of MacrochJami/s being 

40 to 50 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 40 to 50, 
or 55 . 1 . 55. 

The jaw is strong, straight in front, and longitudinally striate, 
thus diff'oring again from Macrochlanuis and its allies (Gimsia, 



MOLLUSCA OF rNDIA. 17 

Ausfenia, &c.), wMcli have a central convex projection on the 
frontal edge. In the great number of teeth it recalls the genus 
Durgella, which also has a straight jaw. 

The odontoj)hore is very similar to Helicarion ceratodes, Pfr., from 
Luzon, given by Dr. C. Semper in Eeis. Archipel Philippinen, pi. vi. 
fig. 24 ; and the animal on plate i. fig. 12 is also very like, but does 
not show the form of the right shell-lobe. 



EXPLAJSTATION OF PLATE IV. 

Fig. 1. Animal of Cryptosoma prcBstans, from nature, nat. size. Copied 
from an original drawing made by native artist, under the super- 
intendence of the late Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

2. Animal (enlarged), from spirit-specimen, viewed from right side. 

Shell removed, showing the mantle and its lobes. 

3. Ditto, left side. 

4. Ditto, posterior side, viewed from above, showing the junction of the 

shell-lobes. 
6. Ditto, side view. 

6. Anterior portion, underside of foot, showing the segmented pallial 

margin. 

7. Side view of extremity of foot. 

8. Generative organs. 

9. Ditto, second specimen. 

10. Male organ, showing the ca3cum or kalk-sac. 

11. Jaw, X 20. 

12. Teeth of lingual ribbon, X 360. 

12 a. Laterals, about the 100th from central tooth, 
12 b. Outermost laterals. 



LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 



OF 



INDIA. 



Part II JULY 1882. 



Family ZONITIDiE. 

Subgenus Kaltella {continued). 

(Plate V.) 

Kaliella bakrakpokensts, Pfr. 

Additional synonymy : — Cat. Pulm. B. M. p. 80 {Nanina) ; Eeeve, 
Conch. Icon. n. 816, t. 132. 

Since the publication of Part I. I am enabled to give a description 
of the lingual ribbon of this species. The dried-up animal, a mere 
speck, still remained in a specimen from Barisal (Part I. p. 3). By 
soaking this in glycerine for some days, I was rewarded by finding 
the lingual ribbon, and getting the greater part of it out {vide 
Plate V. fig. 11). This confirms Stoiiezka's remarks on the differ- 
ence of its dentition as compared with Sitcda, Adams, when 
describing that genus under the title Conulema. The dental 
formula is 

26 . 7 . 1 . 7 . 26 
33 . 1 . 33 

The central tooth is tricuspid on an oblong base ; the central 
cusp very long, narrow, and sharp-pointed, the lateral cusps about 
half as long, also lengthened and sharp. The nest seven median 
teeth are similar in form, with the basal cusps having a tendency to 
turn outwards. The central point is rather shorter in 6 and 7, which 
last is broader than any of the other median teeth. At the eighth 
the form quite changes into a narrow, elongate, curved, still tricuspid 

c2 



20 LAWD AND FRESHWATER 

tooth, the inner cusp being slightly longer than the median, and 
that again than the outer. The laterals decrease rapidly in size to 
the outermost, which are small, short, and tricuspid (fig. 11a). 

Benson was the first to discover this shell. He notes finding it 
at Patharghata in September, and also at JBerhampur (J. A. S. B. 
1836, p. 357). 

In continuation of what has been recorded of this species (pp. 2, 
3, 4), I may mention that I have seen the two examples in the 
British Museum, marked from India only, the types described by 
Pfeiffer out of the Cuming collection. They have all the appear- 
ance of specimens from Mussoorie. In the same collection are a 
number sent from that part of India by Captain T. Hutton, who 
distributed this shell to several collectors about the same time. 
They are of the sienna-brown colour which is characteristic of the 
N.W. Himalayan form (sivaletisis). 

Benson, in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., May 1863, records that 
this species was obtained by Mr. F. Layard at Kaudookerre, in 
Lower Ourah, Ceylon. I have not seen any myself from that part 
of India. 

The most interesting and remarkable fact in distribution is the 
occurrence of the genus Kaliella in Madagascar. My attention has 
been only lately drawn to this by Mr. Edgar Smith, of the British 
Museum, Avho obtained the specimens from Mr. W. Johnson, who 
collected them at a j^lace " in the outskijts of the upper forest, 
28 miles east of Antananarivo," the capital of the island. Mr. Edgar 
Smith has kindly sent me a specimen, and having compared it side 
by side with species from different parts of India, I found it agreed 
very closely with the Nilgiri variety in Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection 
which I named sigurcnsis. Erom the K.AV. and East-Himalayan 
forms it differs in the columellar margin being less oblique, and 
the peristome more rounded below, giving a larger aperture. It 
measures in major diam. 3-6, alt. axis 2-9 miUim. The Madagascan 
Kaliella can therefore stand as K. sir/urensis, or as K. harral-povensis, 
var. sir/urensis, or simply var. No two naturalists are agreed as to 
where a variety ends and a species begins ; in fact there is no defined 
line ; I prefer, however, when there is a decided change of form in 
some character or another, and constant over a separate area, to 
distinguish such forms by a name. It is this gradual change which 
is so interesting when studying and following out any group over a 
wide extent of country. 

Mr. Johnson says, " It was not in or near any garden or human 
habitation, nor could any introduced plants have got there." He 
found them " on the ground, among bracken fern, in a scrap of 
forest. A fire had passed over the place a year (?) previously, and 
these shells were hidden among the light black earth and leaves, on 
high ground, above a cliff or brow of rock, below which was thick 
forest." The shells were very scarce, he " could only find a few 
specimens, except blanched ones." This account certainly 8ui:)ports 
the view that the shell has not been introduced ; and we ma}' con- 
sider it one of the several forms that formerly had a far more ex- 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 21 

tensive and similar range from this island towards India on the 
north-east. The paucity of these genera and species, however, points 
to a very distant and not a very close and continuous connexion. 

Kaliella fastigiata, Hutton. (Plate TI. fig. 8.) 

Additional st/nom/my : — Wiegm. Arch. (1839) ii. p. 222; lleevo, 
n. 823, t. 133 ; Pfr.^Mon. Hel. i. p. 37. no. 57, and iii. p. 41. no. 85 ; 
Chem. ed. Kiister, Helix, n. 919, t. 141. figs. 15, 16 ; Mon. Suppl. 
p. 40 ; Cat. Pulm. B. M. p. 75 (as Nanina). 

I next figure, on Plate Y., a group of minute shells, of which the 
animal has never been examined, nor have I any notes of my own 
regarding them. The sculj)ture is similar to species already figured, 
viz. fine transverse ribbing ; they are conoid or globosely conoid in 
form, and rounded or subangular on the periphery, instead of being 
sharply keeled, and the whorls are more convex. Of this subgroup 
Helix nana, Hutton, may be taken as the type. I hesitate, at pre- 
sent, to give the group any distinctive title, and shall bring them in 
under Kaliella, to which, I think, they will be found to be nearest 
related ; and should this prove to be the case, it will be better to 
slightly amend the characters of the above genus as originally de- 
scribed by Mr. W. T. Blanford, than to create a new subgenus. I 
hope to receive specimens in spirit from the N.W. Himalaya of 
nana and hidlula, which will clear up the question whether they 
are or are not aUied to K. harraTcporensis. 

Kaliella nana, Hutton. (Plate V. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Helix nana, J. A. S. B. March 1838, vol. vii. p. 218 ; Conch. Indica, 
p. 28, pi. Ixi. figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Sitala nana, Theob. Cat. p. 20, 

Nanina {Microcystis) nana, IS'evill's Hand-list, p. 38. no. 164 ; 
Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 74 (1855). 

Orobia nana, Die Heliceen (ed. von Martens), p. 58 (1860). 

Original description : — " Testa parvula, convexo-conoidea, pallide 
fucescente ; anfractihus sex aid septem arete convolutis, idtimo rotun- 
dato ; apertura latiore, lahro simplici ; umbilico evanido ; apice valde 
obtuso. 

" Diam. O'l. 

"Animal Helieiform, colour dark grey. Accompanies the two 
last species (fastigiata and bulhda), and occurs in the greatest 
abundance." (B.) 

Range. Simla, Mussoorie (Dr. T. Oldham and Stoliczka). Dar- 
jeeling (Stoliczka and Col. Mainwaring) : I have never seen this 
shell, which may not be the same ' species. Moisraka, Midnapur 
district (O. Nevill), and Botanical Gardens, Calcutta (Stoliczka) ; Port 
Canning ( Wood Mason) : regarding these three Lower Bengal 
localities, there is, I think, some doubt as to the correct identifica- 
tion of the shells. 
. Locality. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya (Cr.-^.): figured. 

Shell very globosely conoid, rounded on the base ; sculpture very 



22 LAJfD AND FRESHWATER 

fine, regular, sharply defined transverse ribbing, quite smooth to 
the eye ; colour jmle ochraceous ; spire conoid, sides convex ; apex 
blunt ; suture well impressed ; whorls 6, sides convex ; aperture 
lunate ; peristome thin, oblique on columellar margin. 
Size : major diam. 0*12 inch, alt. axis 0*08 inch. 
„ 3-0 mm., „ 2*0 mm. 

Kaliella RESiNUiA, n. sp. (Plate V. fig. 8.) 

Localit)/. Khasi Hills (G.-A.). 

Shell globosely conoid, very closely umbilicate, rounded below ; 
sculpture beautifully fine close costulation ; colour pale ochraceous ; 
spire high, sides much convex ; suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex, 
regularly increasing ; aperture semilunate ; peristome thin. 

Size : major diam. 0-09 inch, alt. axis 0*08 inch. 
„ 2-4 mm., „ 2-0 mm. 

Kaliella reshjula, juv. (Plate V. fig. 7.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat {G.-A.). 

Shell globosely conoid, very closely umbilicate, rounded below ; 
sculpture very fine transverse costulation ; colour pale horny ; spire 
moderately high, sides convex ; suture impressed ; whorls 5, convex, 
regularly increasing ; aperture semilunate, nearly vertical ; peri- 
stome perpendicular near axis. 

Size : major diam. 0*08 inch, alt. axis 0*06 inch. 
„ 2*0 mm,, „ 1-G mm. 

Kaliella sikkimensis, Nevill, MS. (Plate V. fig. 9.) 

Locality. Sikkim, ex Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Shell ovately conoid, rounded below, closely umhilicated ; sculp- 
ture extremely fine, close, regular costulation ; colour pale sienna- 
brown ; spire blunt and rounded ; suture impressed ; whorls 6, sides 
convex ; aperture semicircular ; peristome sharply reflected near 
the umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 0-095 inch, alt. axis 0-08 inch. 
„ 2-3"' mm., „ 2-0 mm. 

This is very close to the Khasi shell resinula, but is not so tumid. 

Kaliella lhotaensis, n. sp. (Plate V. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Locality. Lhota Naga {A. Chennell). 

Shell globosely conoid, not umhilicated, subangular on last whorl, 
base rounded ; sculpture delicate, regular, fine transverse ribbing, 
quite smooth below ; colour pale sienna-brown ; spire conoid, sides 
convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, regularly increasing ; aperture 
oblique, ovately lunate, small ; peristome moderately thickened ; 
columellar strong, perpendicular. 

Size : major diam. 0*09 inch, alt. axis 0'06 inch. 
,, 2-3 mm., „ 1-6 mm. 

This shell is at first sight very like animula from the Khasi 
Hills, but its small semicircular aperture is very different from the 
larger open one of that shell. 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 2^ 

Kaliella piattjea, n. sp. (Plato V. figs. 10, 10a.) 

Locality. Munipur {G.-A.). 

Shell globosely conoid ; sculpture regular, well-marked, transverse 
ribbing, not apparent to the eye ; colour horny brown ; spiro high- 
conoid, sides slightly convex ; suture impressed ; whorls 5, sides 
convex ; aperture ovate, vertical ; peristome thin, a good deal re- 
flected and perpendicular on columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 0*09 inch, alt. axis 0*06 inch. 
„ 2-3 mm., ,, 1-5 mm. 

Near lliotaensis, but more globose, whorls more convex, blunter 
apex and coarser ribbing. 

Kaliella animula, n. sp. (Plate Y. fig. 1.) 

Locality. Khasi Hills (G.-A.). 

Shell pyramidal, somewhat rounded below, angular on periphery ; 
sculpture oblique, irregular ridges of growth, with very minute 
transverse ribbing ; colour pale horny ; spire conoid, sides flat ; 
suture moderately impressed ; whorls 5, sides convex ; aperture 
broadly ovate, subvertical ; peristome thin ; columellar margin but 
slightly reflected and very upright. 

Size : major diam. 0-1 inch, alt. axis "075 inch. 
„ 2*6 mm., „ 1*9 mm. 

Kaliella bullula, Hutton. (Plate V. fig. 4.) 

Helix buUula, J. A. S. B. March 1838, p. 218 ; Eeeve, n. 819, 
t. 133 ; Conch. Ind. p. 28, pi. Ixi. figs. 2, 3. 

Sitala hullula, Theob. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina {Microcystis) hullula, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 37. no. 155 : 
Naini Tal, Simla, Kulu, and Mussoorie {Stoliczka). 

Nanina bullula, Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 88 (1855). 

Orohia hullula, Die Heliceen, ed. von Martens, p. 58. 

Original description : — " Testa parvula, glabra, trccnslucente, suh- 
trocliiformi, conoidea ; anfractihus qitinque ' convexis, idtimo rotun- 
dato ; suturis impressis ; umbilico angustato ; ajpertura latiore ; lahro 
simplici. 

" Diam. 0-15 inch {B.). 

" Found with H. fastigiata among dead leaves at Simla. This 
shell is much larger than nana, with which it has been mistaken." 

Locality. North side of the Nag-Tiba range, near Mussoorie, 
N.W. Himalaya (specimen figured). 

Shell bluntly conoid ; sculpture fine, regular, transverse ribbing, 
with no longitudinal furrows, as in rimicola ; colour pale whitish 
horny ; whorls 5, sides convex, somewhat subangulate on the peri- 
phery, the last somewhat descending ; columellar margin sub- 
oblique. 

Size : major diam. 4*0 mm., alt. axis 3*0 mm. 
0-16 inch, „ 0-12 inch. 

In Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection there are three examples 'of 



24 LANB AND PEESHWATER 

tliis species from Kumaon, which only differ in being smaller than 
those from Mussoorie {vide Plate V. fig. 5). Major diam. 3-5 ; alt. 
axis 2-1 mm. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Kaliella animula, n. sp., X 7. Khasi Hills. 

2. Ihotaensis, n. sp., X 7. Lhota-Naga Hills. 

2 a. : sculpture, X 50. 

3. barraJcporcnsis, Pfr., X 7. Madagascar. 

4. bullula, Hutton, X 7- North side Nag-Tiba range. 

6. , X 7, small var. Kumaon, N.W. Himalaya. 

6. 6rt. nana, Hutton, X 7. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

7. Kaliella resinula, juv., n. sp., X 7. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

8. resinula, n. sp., X 7. Khasi Hills. 

9. sikkimensis, Nev. MS., X 7. Sikkim. 

10, 10a. flatura, n. sp., X 7. Munipur. 

11. Teeth of the radula of Kaliella harrakporensis, Pfr., from a speci- 

men from Barisal, Lower Bengal : central and twelve laterals. 
11 a. Outermost laterals, X 1250. 



The characters of the subgenus Kaliella have never been drawn 
up. They are indicated below, with a synoptical list of the species 
I would include in it. 



Character. Name. Locality. 

Shell trochiform or pyramidal, 
with sides flat, well keeled on 
periphery ; base flat, with trans- 
verse or oblique very fine costu- 
lation ; subperforate. Animal 
with a mucous pore. Anatomy 
Bimilar to the genus Sifala. 
Odontophore, central teeth ob- 
long, sharp-pointed, with tri- ^ r x t. i t^ 

cuspid laterals. narrakporcnsis ... \ ^°'!^'' ^^.^^\ ^^'- 

I. Jilmg, Himalaya. 

, var. siva- f Mussoorie and N.W. 

lensis \ Himalaya. 

, var Madras. 

perakensis Malay Peninsula. 

vulcani Burmah. 



a. Major diameter ::> than height 
of spire 



{sigurensis Nilghiris. 
, var Madagascar. 
cherraensis Khasi Hills. 
, var Lower Bengal. 

a". Strong distant costulation | ''"f "'^f « • Dafla Hills, Assam. 

° [ suocosiulata N. Khasi Hills. 

(munipurensis ... Munipur. 
, Tar Naga Hills. 
aspirans Nilghiris. 
khasiaca Khasi Hills. 

b'. Spire higher [fastigiata N.W.Himalaya. 

^ ^ Xeloiigata Khasi Hills. 



MOLLtrSCA OF INDIA. 25 

Synoptical List (continued). 

Character. Name. Locality. 

ijaintiaca S. Jaintia Hills. 

nagaensis Naga Hills. 

gratiosa Ditto. 

teriaensis Khasi Hills. 

B. Shell globosely conoid ; sides 
convex ; aperture small, subper- 

forate ; close fine transverse cos- ^^ „. ■„■• i 

tulation. (^ana NW.Himalaya. 

\resinula Kb asi Hills. 

d. Bounded on last whorl \ sikUmensis B. Himalaya. 

I bullula JSr.W. Himalaya. 

[flatura Munipur. 

. , Uhoiaensis Lhota-Naga Hills. 

c'. Subangulate on periphery . . . | ^„j,„„^^ -Khasi HiUs. 

Genus Sitala. 
Sitcda, H. Adams, P. Z. S. April 1865, p. 408. 

In a paper entitled " List of the Land Shells collected by Mr. 
Wallace in the Malay Archipelago, with Descriptions of the new 
Species by Mr. Henry Adams," under TrocliomorpTia trojyidophora. 
Ad. & Reeve, from Borneo, is the following note : — 

'< From the observations of Mr. W. T. Blanford, the animal of 
T. lychnia is without a mucous pore at the extremity of the foot ; 
and Troclwmorpha therefore must be removed from the family 
Stenopida). The species infula, Bens., however, hitherto included 
in Trocliomorpha, is, according to Mr. Blanford, furnished with one, 
and must remain in that family, where it may be considered the 
type of a group, under the name of Sitala." — //. Ad. 

The genus was therefore, under this title, never thoroughly de- 
scribed ; but it is sufficiently well indicated, and it was very neces- 
sary to remove infula from the subgenus TrochomorjoJia, in which 
Albers had originally placed it. 

Ferd. Stoliczka, in ignorance of the very brief note by Adams*, 
described this genus most thoroughly and accurately under the name 
of Conulema, in that very elaborate and excellent paper on " Terres- 
trial MoUusca from the Neighbourhood of Moulmein," in the Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1871, p. 236, taking atter/ia, Bs., for his type, 
and including culmen, Blf., infula, cacuyninifera, arx, and -pal- 
maria, Benson, H. gratidator and conjinis, Blf., liricincta, Stol., pro- 
bably JV. apicatn and H. hypTiasma, Pfr., from South India and 
Ceylon, H. leucophlcea. Martens, from Celebes, and a few others. 
Stoliczka says also, " The genus is, as regards form and structure of 
the shell, closely allied to Semper's Martensia (a name ali-eady em- 
ployed in botany) (Keisen im Archipel der Phil. &c., Theil 2, Band iv. 
p. 42) ; but in this the light shell-lobe of the mantle is said to be 

* And be acknowledges this when describing Sitala carinifera, in J. A. S. B. 
1873, p. 16, saying Conulema must now be regarded as identical with Sitala. 



26 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

entirely absent, and the penis has two csecal appendages, which 
have not been observed in ConuUma" I give Stoliczka's descrip- 
tion in full : — 

" Shell conoidal, thin, consisting of many, usually spirally ribbed 
or striated whorls ; base convex, narrowly or indistinctly umbili- 
cated ; margin of the aperture thin, not expanded, outer simple. 

" Animal narrow, long, generally equal to twice the greater dia- 
meter of the shell; pedicles long, tentacles much shorter, lateral 
line distinct, the margin below it smooth; gland at the end of 
foot large, superseded by a distinct horn ; sole grooved ; two shell 
and two dorsal lobes to the mantle, all of them small and with no 
separately produced appendages, but slightly extended on cither 
end ; genital organs with or without an amatorial gland ; a single 
appendage to the penis, produced into the penis retractor, recepta- 
culum semiuis terminating with a bulging end, attached to the 
anterior portion of the prostata. Jaw thin, transparent, smooth, 
indistinctly or finely concentrically striated in the middle. Kadula 
large, consisting of numerous (about 100) transverse rows, each 
with very numerous (300 to above 400) teeth, a few median teeth 
being conspicuously larger than the laterals, which are narrow, 
pectiniform, and very gradually decreasing in width." 

SiTALA iNFFiA, Bs. (Plate VITI. fig. 1.) 

Helix infula, Benson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. Sept. 1848, p. 160, 
changed from H. tuhiniformis, J. A. S. B., type described from Mur- 
ehedabad and Patharghata, Behar ; Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Helix, 
f. 783 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iii. p. 58 ; Conch. Ind. pi. liv. fig. 9 ; 
Chem. ed. ii., Helix, n. 804, t. 127. f. 24, 25 ; Mon. Suppl. p. 58. 

TrochomorpJia infula, Albers, Die Heliceen, 2nd edit, von Martens 
(1860), p. 61 ; W.'T. Blanford, Ann. & Mag. N. H., Feb. 1863. 

Nanina infula, J. E. Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. M. p. 80 (1855). 

Sitala infula, Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina \Sitala) infula, Nev. Hand-list, 1878, p. 33,=ci<Zm(j«, Blf. 

Original description : — " Testa suhperforata, glohoso-conica, suh- 
trocJiiformi, albido-cornea, pellucida, sujpra minime nitente, lineis 
distantihus panmi elevatis cincta, mihtus suhnitente, radiato-striata, 
striis remoiiusadis concentricis ornata [PI. YIII. figs. 1 a, 1 6] ; sjnra 
subconica, apice obtuso ; anfractibus sex convexiusculis, idtimo anc/u~ 
lato, infra convexiusculo ; apertura subquadrato-lunata, peristomate 
aciito, margine columellari verticali, prope perforationem subrejlexo. 

" Diam. maj. 7 mill., axis 5 mill. 

" Hab. prope urbem Murshedabad Bengaliaj, necnon prope collem 
Patharghata, provincia; Behar. 

" Formerly indicated as H. turbiniformis, mihi, in the * Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta.* This name being used by Pfeiffer 
for another species, I have altered it for one of nearly similar signi- 
fication. //. inftda occurred to me in 1835 on the leaves of trees 
and shrubs at the two places above noted. The animal has a caudal 
protuberance like Nanina, but no expansion of the mantle, and is 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 27 

wMtish, spotted with brown, which, appearing through the trans- 
lucent shell, gives the species a beautiful appearance when newly 
captured. At first sight it appeared as if the colours resided in the 
sheU." 

Specimen figured ex. coll. W. T. Blanford, from Calcutta. 

Major diam. 8*0, alt. axis 5-5 mm. 

The largest specimen I have seen in same collection, from Tal- 
chir, measures — major diam. 8-5, alt, axis 7'0 mm., showing how 
these local races or varieties differ. On a close examination of four 
Calcutta specimens, seven distinct spiral ribs, crossed by fine 
transverse oblique costulation, were counted, the ribs being less 
distinct on the last whorl. In the two specimens from Talchir 
this spiral sulcation is much wider apart, and only five could be 
counted on each whorl. 

Stoliczka (I. c. p. 239) thus describes S. infula in detail ; and I 
have copied the animal with its anatomy, and that of S. attegia 
given on plate xviii., which illustrates his paper : — 

" The animal of this species [PI. VIII. fig. 1 c] is identical in form 
and coloration with that of attegia, except that there is often a 
little more leaden grey on the upper posterior part of the foot, 
tinging the sole. The general organization is also the same in both, 
with the only difference that in the genital organs the amatorial 
sac is entirely absent. The end of the seminal receptacle is attached 
by a fine thread to the anterior part of the prostata, and the albu- 
minous gland of the uterus is comparatively larger than in attegia. 
In specimens which I examined in winter, the oviduct was ante- 
riorly only slightly enlarged ; but all the larger specimens examined 
during the rainy season showed a very conspicuous orange-coloured 
swelling in that place [PI. VIII. fig. 1 g']. The ova composing it wore 
in an advanced state of development, and some of them showed 
already a spiral arrangement of dark corpuscles. 

" The jaw [fig. 1 d^ exhibits a rather distinct but very fine concen- 
tric striation ; the median projection in the anterior concavity is very 
slight, and the convex edge is partially soft, granular, not entirely 
homy. 

"The radula [fig. 1 e] is large, composed of about 100 nearly 
straight transverse rows, each generally consisting of from 307 to 
321 teeth, the seven median teeth being conspicuously larger than 
those following on either side, the formula being 

150 + 3. 1 . 3+150 
153 . 1 . 153 

and the total number of teeth is somewhat above 30,000. 

" The anatomy of the present species [fig. 1/], when compared with 
that of the last {attegia), agrees, as already stated, almost perfectly. 
There is a slight diff'erence in the terminal attachment of the 
seminal receptacle and in the number of enlarged teeth, but the 
only essential distinction lies in the absence of an amatorial sac in 
infula. I was at first inclined to attribute the absence of that 



28 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

organ to immaturity ; but this view was not supported by the exa- 
mination of specimens at all seasons of the year, and some which 
had fully-developed ova. The only conclusion I can arrive at is 
that the presence or absence of an amatorial sac cannot be consi- 
dered as a character of generic importance ; for it would be simply 
dragging classification into absurdity if we would refer infula and 
attegia to two genera, while almost everj' other point of organization, 
the form and colour of the animals and of the shells are nearly 
perfectly the same." 

I can bear out Stoliczka in these remarks ; for when examining 
two species of the genus Durgdla, which is closely allied to Sitala, 
and which I described in the Linnean Society's ' Journal,' vol. xv. 
1881, p. 291, I pointed out that the Tenasserim form D. levicula 
possesses an amatory organ, while in D. assamica it was absent, yet 
in every other character there was similarity between them ; and I 
subsequently found that a third species (D. chrisfiance from the An- 
damans) was also deficient of this organ, still preserving the main 
characters of the genus Durr/eUa. 

" C infula is a common species in the neighbourhood of Calcutta ; 
it occurs sparingly in Western Bengal, and northwards up to the 
foot of the hills, and is also found near Poena and Balarampiir in 
Southern India. In none of these localities do the specimens attain 
the size of the Burmese attegia ; and when compared with ordinary 
specimens of the latter, the spiral angle is generally found to he 
smaller, the whorls slightly more convex, and the base of the last less 
inflated. However, these characters are all somewhat variable ; and 
I collected specimens of attegia at Moulmain which are almost un- 
distinguishable from the Bengal infula, the only difference being 
that the former are clearly immature, while the latter, of the same 
size, have all the appearance of full-grown shells." The above com- 
parative description of the two forms (the italics are mine) is clearly 
shown in the figures I give of them, and to this can be added the 
difference in their sculpture. Nevill, in his ' Hand-list,' records 
twenty specimens of infula from Moulmain, ex coll. Stoliczka ; 
these are probably the immature specimens of attegia referred to 
above : he, at the same time, records S. culmen, Blf., as a synonymn 
of infula, while, as I shall show further on, Stoliczka considered 
cidmeii to be the young of attegia, which, if it is not distinct, is a 
much more reasonable conclusion. 

" The following measurements have been taken from specimens 
of different localities : — 

Calcutta. Ranigunj. Poona. 

Number of whorls . . . . 6| 7 5| 

Larger diameter 7*0 mm. 7*5 mm. o'o mm. 

Smaller „ 6-5 „ 7-0 „ 5-5 „ 

Height of shell 7-0 „ 7-3 „ 5-5 „ 

Spiral angle 72° 74° 78° 

" I have not seen, from any part of Bengal, specimens larger than 



MOLLIJSCA OF IT7BIA. 29 

8 mm. in the greater diameter, and those from the "Western Ghats 
appear rarely to attain more than 6 mm, in the same diameter. 
The spiral angle varies in the Bengal specimens from 65°-78° ; on 
the average it is decidedly smaller than in atlegia, and may be 
taken at 74°." 

The great diflPerence in the proportion of diameter to height 
between the Western Ghats form and the two other localities, in 
the first the two measurements being equal, denotes a very consi- 
derable modification of form, which may constitute, if constant, a 
very good variety. 

In ' Contributions to Indian Malacology,' No. II,, by Messrs. 
Blanford, they say " This shell is tolerably abundant on Banyan 
trees (Ficus incUca) in the Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. We have 
also met with it in Orissa." 

SiXALA ATTEGiA, Bs. (Plate VIII. fig, 2.) 

Helix attegia, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1859, iii. p. 184 ; Pfr. Mon, Hel. 
vol. V, p. 91 ; Novit. pi, 78. f. 17, 18, 19; Conch. Ind. pi, Ixxxv. 
f. 7, p. 36 (form of shell weU given). 

SitaJa attegia, Th. Suppl. Cat. p. 20, =culmen, "W. Blf. 

Nanina {Sitala) attegia, Nev. Hand-list, p, 33. 

Conulema attegia, Stoliezka, J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 237 (type of 
genus), pi, xviii. f. 1-4, = culmen, Blf. 

Trochomorpha attegia, "W. T. Blanford, Ann. & Mag. N. H., Peb. 
1863. 

Original description : — " Testa anguste perforata, conica, tenuis 
striatula, liris tenuibus vix elevatis, remotiusculis, sjjiralibus, striisque 
minutissimis interpositisdecussata [Pl.VIII. fig. 2a'],pe7lucida, cornea; 
spira suhangnste conica, sutura leviter impressa,apice acufo, p>allido ; 
anfractihus 7 convexiuscidis, ultimo Jiloso-carinato, sid)tus convexi- 
uscido ; apertura vix obliqua, rJwmbeo-lunari, peristomate acutOy 
recto, margine coJumellari verticali, superne valde dilatato-reJlexOf 
perfora tionetn siiiiegente. 

" Diam. major 8, minor 7, axis 8 mill. 

" Habitat ad Phie Than, vaUis Tenasserim, frequens. 

"Distinguished from the Cingalese M. hyphasma, Pfr., by its 
narrower conical form, sculpture, structure of columellar lip, &c." 

Locality of specimen figured. Moulmain (Stoliezka). 

Sculptm-e. On the upper whorls there are six distinct spiral 
ridges, the lowest being close to the suture ; finer and intermediate 
ridges come in below, until on the last whorl they are numerous 
and rather close together, crossed by oblique regular striae. 

Size: major diam. 10*2 mm., alt. axis 7*5 mm. 
0-4 „ 0-3 inch, 

Specimen from Prome, Pegu, figured Plate VIII. fig. 3. 
Size : major diam. 11*0 mm., alt, axis 0*3 mm. 
This species ranges from Ava (Blanford's coll.) through Pegu to 
Moulmain in Tenasserim. 



3U LAND AND FRESHWATKR 

Stoliczka (I. c. p. 237) thus describes the animal : — 

" The animal is of a dull whitish colour ; the larger warts of the 
body, often possessing a pink tinge, are arranged in oblique rows ; 
the pedicles are grey, and this colour also extends over a part of 
the back ; ridge of the posterior part of the foot ashy grey ; mantle- 
lobes light, or sometimes pinkish grey ; inner part of mantle, form- 
ing the pulmonary sac, with spots and stripes of dark pigment, 
giving the shell, when the animal is retracted, a spotted appearance. 

" The mantle-lobes [PI. VIII. fig. 2 c] are very slightly extensible ; 
those covering the shell are somewhat thickened near their margins, 
the left shell-lobe being slightly reflected over the edge of the outer 
lip, so as to just cover it. The right dorsal lobe is much larger than 
the left, which is represented by a mere thickened rim. 

" The general anatomy of the digestive and nervous organs and 
of the muscular system is exactly as in Rotida. 

" The generative organs [fig. 2/] have a large and long uterus ; 
the terminal swollen end of the seminal receptacle is imbedded in a 
soft tissue at the anterior end of the prostata ; vas deferens short 
and extremely thin, widened before it enters the penis, the ex- 
panded portion being fiUed with a granular colouring pigment, in 
which, however, no calcareous particles were discernible. The 
penis is rather thick, posteriorly prolonged and attached by thin 
muscles to near the end of the prostata. The amatorial gland [D] 
is a very strong, tough, twisted tube, enclosing a pointed flagel- 
lum 

" The jaw [fig. 2 d'] is semicircular, slightly projecting in the 
centre of the concave edge, smooth, about the median part indis- 
tinctly and very finely concentrically striated The radula 

[fig. 2 e] is verj^ large, consisting of about 100, nearly straight or 
slightly undulating transverse rows. In a full-grown specimen I 
counted 405 teeth in a row, the formula being 

200 + 2. 1 .2 + 200 = 
202 . 1 . 202 

and the total number of teeth about 40,000. 

" The four median teeth are conspicuously larger than those fol- 
lowing on either side ; all have a sharp pointed cusp at the anterior 
end. The centre tooth has besides two smaller cusps at each side 
and is symmetrical; the following are gradually more and more 
turned on either the right or left side, and the smaller cusps are 
therefore developed only on one side ; the last lateral tooth is 
styliform. 

" The shell of Comdema aUecjia is subject to a large amount of 
variation. The original specimen described from Teuasserim was a 
thin horny shell, and probably not quite mature. Young shells 
have the periphery always very sharply carinated, and the spiral 
ribs or stria) on the whorls, as well as on the somewhat inflated 
base, are distinct. Specimens which live on foliage or other kind 
of vegetation on low land retain the thin horny structure of their 
shells, even when fullgrown ; but the spiral striation of the whorls 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 31 

is often difficult, to be traced. On drier places and on sandstone 
hills the shells become more solid, and are covered with a thin 
horny cuticle ; the spiral striation becomes very distinctly dis- 
cernible, and there often appear intermediate stria) between the 
four or five stronger spiral ribs. A young specimen of this type 
has been described by Blanford as Nanina cuhnen. On limestone 
ground the shells become again more solid, often attaining a con- 
siderable thickness, and the specimens also grow to a larger size, 
but the spiral striation occasionally disappears almost entirely on 
the two last whorls. 

"This species is common about Moulmain, though not so much on 
the low land as on limestone hills. 

*' The spiral angle of specimens collected in Burmah varies from 
nearly 70° to 86°. The following table will indicate some of the 
principal variations : — 

Pegu. Moulmain. 



Number of whorls.. 6 8 H H 7 

Larger diameter , . 5-8 13 mm. 7 8 11*2 mm. 

Height of shell.... 5-5 12 „ 64 7-2 10 „ 

Spiral angle 72° 80^ 70° 80° 86° 

culmen. attegia, attegia." 

I have given this long extract from Stoliczka's interesting remarks 
on this shell because they show so well how the nature of soil, food, 
and moisture affects within very small areas the form and sculpture 
of the shells of these creatures ; it is these slight changes, gradually 
becoming more permanent, to be extended over larger areas or re- 
maining restricted, that are regarded as local races, or varieties, 
or subspecies, whichever the naturalist likes to call them, and 
which, after all, is quite immaterial to the general result of our ob- 
servations. What we have to show is, how very unequal these 
areas are in size, and how they are distributed ; and from this we 
shall find where the boundaries of these changes lie, and thence 
perhaps be able to connect them with the past and present distri- 
bution of land and sea. 

SiTALA ciTLMEN, W. Blf. (Plate VIII. fig. 4.) 

Nanina culmen, Contrib. Ind. Mai., J. A.S.B. 1865, p. 72 (section 
TrochomorpJia) . 

Conulema as =attegia, Bs., Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 237. 
Sitala as = attegia, Bs., Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 
Nanina (Sitala) as = {nfula, Bs., Nev. Hand-l. p. 33. 

Original description : — " Shell very minutely perforated, trochi- 
form, very thin, horny, translucent. Spire conical, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed. Whorls 6, convex above, and ornamented with 
fine raised spiral lines and oblique striae ; the last whorl sharply 
keeled at the periphery, not descending, swoUen and minutely de- 
cussately striated beneath. Aperture but little oblique, subquad- 



32 LA.ND AND FRESHWATER 

rately lunate ; height less than the breadth ; peristome simple, thin ; 
margins distant, columellar vertical, slightly reflected above." 

" Major diam. 5*75, minor diam. 5'33, axis 5-5 mm. 
0-23, „ 0-21, „ 0-22 inch. 

" Aperture 3 millim, broad, 2 high. 

" Habitat. Akoutoung and banks of the Tsanda Khyoung, Hen- 
zadah district, Pegu. 

" Easily distinguished from JV. confinis and N. attegia by its 
smaller size and higher spire, from N. arx by the sides of the spire 
being straight and not concave, and from the Bengal N. infula, Bens., 
by its sculptrue and its sharper keel." 

The shell figured is one of the two tyjDical specimens (No. 65) in 
Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection. There are nine distinct spiral ribs, 
the two lowest close together, and these are in far stronger relief 
and more marked than in infula, and extend even to the base of 
the shell. 

Size : major diam. 4*8 mm., alt. axis G*3 mm. 
,, 0-17 inch, ,, 0"25 inch. 

For this form I retain the original specific name, as it seems to 
be a good and distinct local race, as nearly related by shell-character 
to attegia as it is to infula. 

SiTAXA CONFINIS, W. Blf. (Plate X. fig. 2.) 

Nanina confinis, J. A. S. B. 1865, p. 71 (section TrocliomorpJia) ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 83. 

Helix confinis. Conch. Ind. p. 64, pi. clix. fig. 8 (not good), 

Sitala confinis, Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20 ; Nev. Hand-1. 1878, p. 33. 

Oriqinal description : — " Shell minutely perforated, trochiform, 
very thin, whitish horny, smooth, shining. Spire conical, apex 
slightly obtuse, suture scarcely impressed. Whorls 7, fiatly convex, 
marked above with 4 or 5 spiral ribs and fine oblique lines of 
growth ; the last sharply keeled, flatly convex beneath, and very 
finely radiately striated. Aperture oblique, subrhomboidal, twice as 
broad as high ; peristome thin, acute, straight, margins distant, 
columellar subvertical, briefly and triangularly reflexed. 

" Major diam. 10*5, minor diam. 9-5, axis 7*0 mm. 
0-42, „ 0-38, „ 0-28 inch. 

" Aperture 5 mm. broad, 2*5 high. 

" Habitat. Near Thayet Myo, on the borders of British Burma ; 
also near Ava. 

" A near ally of N. arx, Bens., from Tenasserim, which, however, 
may easily be recognized by the concave sides of its spire. From 
other related species (as N. infula, Bs., N. cacuminifera, Bs., and 
N. attegia, Bs.) N. confinis is distinguished by its sculpture," 

The "figure now given is from a specimen in Mr. W. T. Blanford's 
collection. 

SiTALA GROMATICA, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 5, 5 rt.) 

Locality. Munipur Hills {G.-A.). 

Shell pyramidal, sharply keeled, flat on base, scarcely perforate ; 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 33 

sciilpture, 10 very fine spiral thread-like ribs far apart, with 4 close 
together at basal side of whorl near suture ; colour pale ochraceous 
umber-brown ; wspire conic, sides nearly flat ; suture sliallow ; whorls 
7, sides slig-htly convex ; aperture semilunatc, subvertical ; peristome 
thin, oblique on columellar margin and scarcely reflected. 

Size : major diam. 3'4mm., alt. axis 2*7 mm. 
„ 0-13 inch, „ 0-11 inch. 

This species is at first sight very like S. haroldi of the Nicobars, 
but is distinguished by its more convex-sided whorls and higher 
spire, while it is not so flat on the base as haroldi, and has a much 
larger deeper aperture. 

Sttala gromatica, var. (Plate X. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Locality. Khasi Hills {O.-A.). 

Shell pyramidal, keeled, flat on base ; sculpture, 12 to 14 distinct 
fine spiral ribs, crossed diagonally by irregular lines of growth, con- 
centric ribbing on basal side ; colour pale horny ; spire conic, sides 
flat ; suture shallow ; whorls 6, slightly convex ; aperture semi- 
lunar, narrow, oblique ; peristome thin, perpendicular near axis, but 
becoming rapidly oblique. 

Size : major diam. 0*12 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 3"0mm. „ 2-4 mm. 

This shell only differs from the typical form in the greater number 
of the fine spiral ribs. 

Plate X. fig. 8 is a young specimen from the Jatiiiga valley, 
North Cachar Hills, which was the first specimen detected in my 
collection when I began sorting some of the original boxes, and it 
thus was figured before the others. 

SiTALA HAROLDI, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 7, 7 a.) 

Locality. Andamans (11 specimens). 

Shell pyramidal, imperforate ; sculpture, on base distant con- 
centric ribs in relief, above with 10 longitudinal or spiral white 
thread-like ribs of equal size and distance apart on each whorl 
(fig. 7 a) ; colour pale nmber-brown ; spire high, sides flat, ai)cx 
acuminate ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 7, sides flatly 
convex ; aperture quadrate, slightly rounded below ; peristome thin, 
columellar thickened above, straight oblique. 

Size : major diam. 3*3 mm., alt. axis 2-7 mm. 
„ 0-13 inch, „ O'llinch. 

This pretty species, remarkable for its very pyramidal form and 
flat base, was discovered by my brother Mr. Harold Godwin -Austen. 
I at first thought it must be Helix {Sagdinellu) microtroclms of 
Moreh, described in Journ. Conchyl. Oct. 1876, p. 358, until I re- 
ceived the type specimen of Saydinella, which shows the sculpture 
to be transverse and the shell in every way different from the group 
Sitala (vide PL IX. figs. 1, 1 «)*. 

* This and the last described are close allies, but the form at once distinguishes 
the Andaman shell. The range of gromafica no doubt extends along the line 
of the Arakan Hills, which, there is little doubt, were once continuous with the 
Andaman Islands. 



34 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

SiTALA PHTJLONGENSis, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 4.) 

Locality. East of the Kopili river, North Cachar (one specimen) 
{Q.-A.). 

Shell clongately pyramidal, scarcely perforate ; sculpture, 6 to 7 
well-raised longitudinal or spiral ribs on the whorls, fine close con- 
centric ribbing on base ; colour pale sienna-brown ; spire high, sides 
slightly convex, apex blunt; suture well impressed; whorls 5^, 
sides convex ; aperture semicircular, oblique ; peristome thin, colu- 
mellar margin vertical, slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 0"10 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 2-5 mm., „ 2*3 mm. 

I have more than twenty of this species, which is distinguished 
from its near allies by its more elongate form, rounder aperture, and 
the fewer and stronger liration. I have named it after the trigono- 
metrical station of Phulong, near which it was first found by me, but 
it is very common at Cherra Poongce. 

The shell figured is the single specimen from Phulong, and is not 
quite mature. 

SiTALA LIRICINCTA, Stol. 

Conulema liricincfa, J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 241, pi. xviii. f. 10. 
HelLv liricincta, Conch. Ind. p. 53, pi. cxxxii. fig. 7 (too dark in 
colour). 

Sitala liricincta, Thcob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina (Sitala) liricincta, Nev. Hand-list, p. 34 (type specimens). 

Original description : — " Con. testa, late conica, tenid, castanea, 
apice paUido, vel omnino pallide lutescente, anguste timbilicato ; ati- 
fractibus 7, convene gradatis, sutura imp>ressa simplici junctis, quatuor 
liris acutis spiralihtis cinctis ; liris duahvs medianis crassissimisy 
sup)erna tcnuissima hasi laevigata, prope periplieriam liris 3-4 tenui- 
hus, apiproximatis notata ; lineis incrementi suhtilissimis et confer- 
tissimis ; apertAira suhsemilunari, lahio columellari rectinsculo, brevi, 
si(p)rfi p>a^do rejlcxo ; labro tenui, simplici, arcuato. 

" Major diam. 6*4, minor diam. 6-0, alt. testae 5*8, alt. aport. 2*5, 
lat. apert. 3-0 mm. ;" or major diam. 0'25, minor diam. 0-24, alt. testoe 
0-23, alt. apert. Q-IO, lat. apert. 0-12 unc. 

" Hah. prope Moulmain, ad flumen Ataran. 

" The species has the general form of a rather largo and elevated 
Con. pff?mrtn(/,Bs., but the spiral ribs are more distant and stronger, 
except at the periphery, which is less sharply carinated. 1 have 
not seen the animal ; but, judging from the general resemblance of 
the shell to that of infula, it is tolerably certain that both belong to 
one and the same genus." 

Sitala limata, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. 9, 9 a.) 

Localitij. Thamandaiva, Bassein, Pegu (W. Blf.). 

Shell conoidal, scarcely perforate ; sculpture, six thread-like longi- 
tudinal ribs on each whorl, close and spiral on base ; colour horny 
brown ; spire conic, apex blunt and rounded, sides slightly convex ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 5, sides convex ; aperture broadly semi- 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 35 

circular ; peristome thin, columellar margin upright, rather thickened, 
a white callus on the body- whorl. 

Size : major diam. 2-6 mm., alt. axis 1"6 mm. 
„ 0-10 inch, „ 0-06 inch. 

SlTALA CARINIFEEA, Stoliczka. 

Sitala carlnifem, J. A. S. B. 1873, p. 16, pi. i. fig. 8. 

Nanina (iSitala) carinifera, Nev. Hand- list, p. 33 (the type shell). 

Original description : — " Testa globose conoidea, cornea, cqnce oh~ 
tusulo, anr/ustisslme perforato ; anfmctibus quinque, gradatlm accres- 
centibus, convexe angulatis, sutura simplici jmictis, tramversim minu- 
tissime striolatls, SHperis infra medium carinis Jiliformibus duobus 
ornatis, ultimo ad perlpheriam tricarinato, basi planate convexiuscido, 
Icevigato ; apertwra semdunari, verticaU, non descendente, labro extus 
temcissimo, in regione columellari patdidiom rejlexiusculo. 

" Diam. maj.'2-2 mm., minor 2-0, alt. testae 2-0 mm, 
0-09 inch, „ 0-08, „ 0-08 inch. 

" Hob. ' Penang Hill ' in foliis Coffece arabicce, specimen unicum. 

" The animal of this species is exactly like that of S. infida, figured 
in plate xviii. in J. A. 8. B. vol. xl. (1871) ; it has a generally pale 
brownish-grey colour ; but having obtained a single specimen, I did 
not like to sacrifice the shell, in order to notice the internal struc- 
ture ; for when examining these little species, one is by no means 
sure that he wiU obtain from a single specimen an insight into the 
whole anatomy. 

" The present species is closely allied to the Nilghiri H. tricarinata, 
Blf., which is also a Sitala, and diff'ers by a more depressed and 
broadly conical shape, and by having a much wider umbilicus." 

SiTALA PALMARiA, Bcuson. (Plate X. fig. 3.) 
Helix palmaria, Ann. & Mag. N. H., Feb. 1864, p. 137 ; Pfr. 
Mou. Hel. vol. V. p. 575 ; Conch. Ind. p. 15, pi. xxx. f. 5, 6. 

Sitala palmaria, Th. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, subconica, spnraUter 7- 
lirata, striis Jilosis obliquis cotifertissimis decussata, sub epidermide 
cornea albida ; spira subconica, apice obtusiusculo Icevigato, sutura 
impressa ; anfractibus 6|, convexis, ultimo subtus convexiuscuh, peri- 
tremate leviter carinato ; apertura obliqiia, late angulato-limata, sub- 
sectiriformi J peristomate tenui, recto, margine columellari superne 
breviter expansiuseulo. 

" Diam. major 8|, minor 8, axis 6 mill. 

" Hcd}. ad montem Nundydroog in regione Mysoriana. 

"Two imperfect specimens were found by my son, Caj)tain C. A. 
Benson, on the Fort Hill of Nundydroog, north of Bangalore, in 
Mysore, and a single specimen (fully grown, but weathered) by my 
daughter, Mrs. E. H. Sankey, at the same place, about 4000 feet 
above the level of the sea. It is very distinct from the various 
lirate species described by the Messrs. Blanford in the Journ. Asiat. 
ISoc. Beng. for 1861, from the hill-ranges of Southern India." 



36 LAND AND FKESHWATEK 

The specimen figured is No. 66 of Mr. Blanford's collection and 
MS. list, a typical specimen from Benson, from the original locality. 
This mcassiues — Major diam. 8*0, alt. axis 48 mm. 

Tliere are two other specimens in the same collection (No. 67) 
marked imhnaria, var., from the Wynaad, collected by Colonel 
Beddome ; these are much smaller, but in other respects similar, 
being only 5*0 mm. in major diameter. 

SiTAiA AEx, Benson. (Plate IX. fig. 8.) 

Helix arx, Benson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1859, iii. p. 184 ; Pfr. 
Mon. Hel. v. p. BO ; Conch. Ind. p. 25, pi. liv. fig. 8. 

Shall arx, Theob. 8uppi. Cat. p. 20 (Therapon Hill, Tenasserim 
valley). 

Nanina {Sitala) ar.v, Nev. Hand-list, p. 34. 

Original description : — " Testa anguste perforata, acute conica, 
tenui, striis minutissiviis confertissimis obliquis, lirisque 3-4 spirali- 
bus, validis, sup)erne sculpta, suhtus hrviori, translucente, olivacco- 
cornea ; sjnra gracili, conica, laterihus concavis, sutiira marginata, 
apice aciitiiiscuh, hyalino ; anfractibus 7|, superiorihus conve.vius- 
culis, turn ijlaniusculis, ultimo acute carinato, subtus conve.riuscvlo ; 
apertura obliqua, trapcziformi , peristomate recto, acuta, 'nuirgine colu- 
mellari brcviter rejlexo, supernc perforationem subtegente. 

" Diam. major 10, minor 9, axis 7| mill. 

" Ilab. ad coUem Therabuin, vallis Tenasserim, nee raro ; detesit 
W. Theobald." 

" Distinguished by its sculpture and slender concave spire, which 
recalls that of my Nilgherry species, H. cacuminifera.'" 

This last-named shell, however, is very distinct in its sculpture, 
and, together with other similar species from peninsular India and 
Ceylon, form a very distinct group by themselves, which I propose 
to figure together later on. 

Figured from specimen in the Benson collection at Cambridge, in 
which there are five specimens labelled as from Tenasserim. 

Major diam. 10-0, alt. axis 7"0 mm. 

SiTALA RiMicoLA, Bcnsou. (Plate IX. fig. 2.) 

Helix rimicola, Benson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1859, iii. p. 266 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 71 ; Conch. Ind. p. 28, pi. Ixi. f. 1. 
MacrocliJamys rimicola (sec. D), Theob. Bupjil. Cat. p., 19. 

Original description :— " Testa vix perforata, orbiculato-pyrami- 
data, tenui, fragili, oblique striatula, diap)liana, pallide cornea ; 
spira conica, apice obiuso, sutura leviter impressa ; cmfractibus 5^ 
convexiuscidis, ultimo convexo, compresse rotundato ; apertura obliqua, 
subquadrato-lunari, peristomate tenui, recto, margine columellari 
verticaliter desccndente, basali arcuato. 

" Diam. major 4|, minor 4, axis 4 mm. 

" Var. iHripheria pjrimo sidjangidata, angido versus aperturam 
evanescente, it) Juniori magis conspic^o. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 37 

"Habitat forma typica prope Landour Himalayae occidentalis, 
varietas in valle Kungun prope Darjiling, rarissime." 

" I got a single fresh specimen of this fragile species in October 
1842, in a precipitous rift at the back of the Seinty or Queinty 
ridge, eastward of my grounds at Rockville, near Landour, and at 
an elevation of nearly 7000 feet. The Messrs. Blanford have lately 
procured the variety, but rarely, and in a dead state, in the Rungun 
valley in Sikkim, at an elevation of 4000 feet. From the data 
furnished by Mr. W. T, Blanford respecting the resort of species at 
Darjiling, I observe that the same forms evince a disposition to 
descend there to a lower altitude above the sea than in the western 
portion of the range — a circumstance attributable probably to the 
greater moisture of the climate, — whereas the drought and hot 
winds, which prevail for so many months in the year at the base of 
the western ranges, drive species to a greater height in order to 
obtain the humidity necessary to their existence. At Landour this 
form escaped the active researches of the late Dr. J. F. Bacon ; and 
I am not aware of its having yet occurred to Capt. T. Hutton." 

Locality of specimen figured. Nag-Tiba range, near Mussoorie, 
N.W. Himalaya. 

Shell globosely trochiform ; sculpture regular, distant longitudinal 
striation (furrows), crossed diagonally by sharply-defined close-sot 
striae, below regular and concentric ; spire conoid, sides flat ; 
whorls 6, sides moderately convex; aperture ovately lunate ; peri- 
stome thin. 

SiTALA. KiMicoLA, var. (Plate IX. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c.) 

Locality. North and west Khasi Hills {G.-A.). 

Shell globosely conical ; umbilicus hidden ; sculpture, moderately 
strong, regular longitudinal striation or furrowing, with diagonal 
coarse ridges of growth ; colour very pale horny brown ; spire 
conical, sides slightly convex ; suture fine ; whorls 6, convex, the 
last tumid and rounded ; aperture ovately lunate, oblique ; peri- 
stome thin, columellar margin strong, reflected, perpendicular. 

Size : major diam. 0"21 inch, alt. axis 0*16 inch. 
„ 5'4 mm., „ 4'1 mm. 

Is a very abundant siJecies in the above hills ; the apex of the 
shell is much more acute than in examples from Mussoorie, and it 
is also larger. 

SiTALA RiMicoLA, var., Bcuson. (Plato IX. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Locality. Darjiling, 4000 feet {W. T. B.). 

Sculpture, very fine close longitudinal ribbing or furrowing, 
crossed by extremely fine diagonal regular striae of growth, below 
rather coarser concentric ribbing, near umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 4*5, alt. axis 3*0 mm. 
0-18, „ 0-12 inch. 

Has flatter sides to spire and whorls, and is more depressed, with 
finer spire than typical rimicola. 



38 LAND AND FEE9HWATER 

SiTALA INJTJSSA, W. T. & H. F. Blf. (Plate IX. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b.) 

Helix hijussa, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 356, pi. i. f. 13 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. vol. V. p. 181. 

Nanina {Microcystis) injmsa, Nev. Hand-list, p. 38. 

Original description : — " Testa vice perforata, trocJiiformis, per- 
tenuis, ixdliclo-cornea, superne peroblique, infra radiatim striata ; 
spira conica, api^:e acutiusculo ; anfr. 5|, vix convex iusculi, ultimus 
non descendens, suhtus tumidus, ad periplieriam angidatus, angulo 
antice evanescente; apertura ohliqiia, transverse rotundato-hcnaris ; 
■peristoma simplex, acutum, margine columellari subverticali, superne 
brevissime rejiexo. 

" Diam. maj. 3*25 mm., min. 3 mm., alt. 3*25 mm. 
„ 0*13 unc, „ •12unc., „ 0*13unc. 

" Hob. raro in Coonoor Ghat, montium Nilgiri. 

" The Sikkim and Landour //. rimicola, Bens., is the nearest form 
to //. injussa with which we are acquainted. The Nilgiri shell has 
a higher spire, and is considerably smaller in size. From the com- 
paratively large H. infida, Bens., H. injussa may be easily distin- 
guished by the absence of the peculiar sculpture of that species, as 
well as by its fewer whorls and smaller size." 

The specimen figured is in Mr. Blanford's collection and from 
original locality ; there are two other specimens also from the Nilgiri 
Hills, No. 58 of his MS. list. 

On the last whorl rather strong, spiral, parallel, somewhat wavy 
ridges are crossed by irregular lines of growth ; on the apical whorls 
the transverse ridges are more regular and close together, giving an 
almost decussate appearance. The aperture is very oblique, and the 
peristome on outer margin sinuate above, so that the columellar 
margin is distinctly seen from the side. This specimen measures 
in major diam. 4*2, alt. axis 3-2 mm. 

SiTAlA FEBBILIS, W. T. & H. F. Blf. 

Helix febriUs, J. A. S. B. 1801, p. 357, pi. ii. f. 4 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. 
vol. V. p. 138 ; Conch. Ind. p. 52, pi. xxix. f. 4. 

Macrocldamys febriUs (sec. E), Th. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Original description : — " Testa angustissime perforata, globoso-tur- 
binata, spiraliter lirata ; spira subelevata, convexa, apice obtuse, sutu- 
ris valde impressis ; anfr. 4^, convexi, ultimus non descendens, ad 
perjiheriam subdep>ressus infra planate rotundatus lawis ; apertura 
obliqua, oblongn ; peristoma rectum, acutuni, ad basin expansiusculiim, 
columellari breviter rejiexo, marginibus remotis. 

" Diam. maj. 1*5, diam. minor 1*3, alt. 1*25 mm. 

''■ Hab. apud moutes Kalryenmullies, Ind. mer., teste B. Bruce 
Foote. 

" This species bears a general resemblance to//, tricarinata above 
described, but is readily distinguishable by its higher spire, the 
absence of the characteristic triple carination, and the flatness of 
its basal surface. The two specimens received from Mr. Foote are 
both much weathered, and have lost their colour and much of the 



MOLLUSC A OF INDIA. 



39 



sharpness of their ornament. This species I cannot find now in 
Mr. Blanford's collection. It was figured by Hanley, who only 
gives a view from behind." 

SiTALA TEicARiNATA, W. T. & H. F. Blf. (Plate X. fig. 10, the 
type specimen also figured in tho Conch. Indica.) 

Helix tricarinata, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 355, pi. i. f. 10 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. vol. V. p. 91 ; Conch. Ind. p. 52, pi. cxxix. f. 7, 10. 

Sitala tricarinata, Theob. Cat. Suppl. p. 20. 

Nanina {Microcystis) ? tricarinata, Nev. Hand-list, p. 42 (2 sp. 
ex coll. Blf.). 

Original description : — '* Testa aperte perforata depresso-turbinata, 
tenuis, pallicle cornea, oblique striatula, subtm obsolete decussata ; 
spira conoidea, apice jilcmulato, perobtuso, sutura impressa^ ; anfr. 4, 
convexi, superne carinis duobus filiformihus cincti j idtimus tribxis 
medianis, non descendens, subtus rotundatus ; apertura subverticalis, 
rotundato-lunaris ; peristoma rectum, acutum, marginibus distantibus, 
sinistro non rejlexo. 

" Diam. If, alt. 1 mm. 

" Hab. prope Pykara ad summos montes Nilgiris." 

Major diam. of specimen figured 1-4, alt. axis 1-0 mm. 

SiTALA 8UBBILIKATA, G.-A. (Nev. MS.), u. sp. (Plate X. 
figs. 11,11a.) 

Locality. Little Brother Andaman. 

Shell depressly conoid, rather openly perforate, _ covered with a 
strong epidermis ; sculpture, very fine longitudinal ribbing, weU seen 
on base, crossed by irregular lines of growth ; colour dull ochraceous 
brown ; spire flatly conoid, apex flat ; whorls 5, with a fine rib on 
the periphery of the last whorl, with a single intermediate one above 
it, sides flat from the suture to this, slightly convex above ; aperture 
ovate, subvertical ; peristome rather thickened ; columellar margin 
slightly oblique, not reflected. 

Size: major diam. 2-7 mm., alt. axis 1-3 mm. 
„ 0-07 inch, „ 0-05 inch. 

SiTALA STJBBiLiEATA, var. (Plate X. fig. 12.) 

Localitif. Batte Malve. 

This shell was sent me by Mr. Geofi'rey NeviU from the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, as No. 206. Sagdinella didricJisenii, Morch, with a 
note attached, " I doubt it being this species." In this part, further 
on, I treat of this genus, which wiU clear up this uncertainty that 
surrounds Morch's genus ; and I now find that this shell from Batte 
Malve agrees well with Nevill's MS. subbilirata from Little Brother 
Andaman, only that the shell is not so well grown, and the apex 
is flatter, and I have therefore figured both. 

It measures : major diam. 2*3 mm., alt. axis 1*3 mm. 
0-09 inch, „ 0-05 inch. 



40 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

No. 20G of Hand-list, p. 42, stands as " Nanina (Microcystis) di- 
drichsenii, Morch." 

" Thirty specimens from Nicobar Islands, coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka," so 
that it is possible they may not be the same as the shell I figure from 
Batte Malve. 

SlIAiA BILIRATA, W. T. Blf. 

ffeliv bilirata, J. A. S. B. 1861, p. 352, pi. i. f. 7 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. 
vol. V. p. 85 ; Conch. Ind. p. vii, not figured. 

KalieUa hilirata (sec. B), Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina (Sagdinella?) (Microct/stis?) hilirata, Nev. Hand-list, 
p. 41 (South India, ex coll. Dr. F. Btoliczka). 

This species I have not found in Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection, 
so am unable to give a figure of it. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, ghhosa, turhinata, soli- 
diuscula, cornea, transverse striata ; spira conoidea, apice obtusulo ; 
anfr. 7, angusti, sensim accrescentes ; superiores carina una supra 
mediana muniti, ultimus ad peripheriani acute bicarinatus, subtus 
tumidus ; apertura subverticalis, angulato-lunaris, perist. rectum, 
marginibus distantibus, columellari brcvl, verticali, rejlexo. 

"Maj. diam. 6 mm., axis '^h'^- 

„ 0'24unc. „ O'lo aiic. 

" Hah. in montibus Shevroys et Nolamullies, teste W. King, 

" This species apparently approaches the Ceylonese H. mono- 
nema, B., in character, but differs in its rounded base and less 
elevated spire." 

SiTAiA ? lERiiANA, W. T. & H. F. Blf. (Plate IX. figs. 9, 9 «.) 

HeRv tertiana, J. A. S.B. 1861, p. 355, pi. i. fig. 11 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. vol. V. p. 71 ; Conch. Ind. p. 8, pi. xvi. 

3Iacroc7ilami/s tertiana (sec. D), Theob. Cat. Suppl. p. 19. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depresse turhinata, tenuis, 
pallide cornea, siriatula, spira conoidea, ajnce obtuso, sutura im- 
pressa ; anfr. 6, angusti, convexi, ultimus hand descendens, sid)tus 
rotunda tus ; apertura subverticalis, rotundato-lmums ; peristoma 
simplex, marginibus distantibus, columellari 7'ejiexiuscido. 

" Diam. major 2-25 mm., alt. 1*75 mm. 
„ 0-1 unc. „ 0-07 unc. 

^^ Hah. raro ad Pykara, necnon ad Neddiwuttom in montibus 
Nilgiris." 

Specimen figured diam. major 2*5 mm., alt. 1*3 mm. 

Messrs. Blanford add : " H. bullula, Hutt., and H. humilis, Hutt., 
of the Western Himalaya, together with some small Cingalese Helices, 
appear to belong to the same group." 

It occurred at the edges of sholas, in company with Jerdonia 
trochlea, B., Diplommatina nilgirica, Blf., and Cyathopoma mala- 
baricum, Blf. 

I do not think H. bullula is allied to this species, for there is no 
sign of spiral striation on that shell ; and //. humilis is, I suspect, a 
species of the subgenus Patula. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA.. 41 

SiTALA SRTMANI, 11. Sp. (Plate IX. fig. 7.) 

Locality. Munipur {G.-A.). 

Shell siibclepressly turbinate, closely umhilicated ; sculpture, with 
four or five indistinct longitudinal ribs, with rather coarse oblique 
lines of growth ; colour ochraceous brown ; spire depressed, apex 
blunt ; suture well impressed ; whorls 5, sides convex ; aperture 
widely lunate ; peristome rather thickened, columellar margin very 
oblique and scarcely reflected. 

Size : major diam. 3-9 mm., alt. axis 2-2 mm. 
0-16 inch, „ 0-09 inch. 

This shell is at first sight very similar to >S'. tertiana, but its close 
umbilication and different spire distinguish it. 

I have named this species after and in remembrance of a Goorkha, 
Datfadar Sriman, who was in the Khasi- Hills Survey Party, and a 
most excellent trustworthy man, who, like so many others, fell a 
victim at last to the climate of that part of India, lie became a 
most diligent collector ; and to him I owe the possession of a large 
number of shells in my collection, wliich he even continued to collect 
after I had left the Survey Party. 1 have always noticed that the 
Goorkha, Lepcha, and Khasia made much more intelligent collectors 
than the people of the plains :i][_Tndia, that they took a far greater 
interest in the work, and possV* ['. many of them a great amount 
of knowledge of animals and plants and their specific differences, 
while they recognize the numerous species, particularly the birds, 
by name. 

SiTAiA MOxoNEiiA, Bensou. (Plate IX. fig. 6.) 

Helix mononema, A. M. X. H. 1853, xii. p. 92 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. 
vol. iv. p. 37: Eeeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1339; Conch. Ind. p. 37, 
pi. Ixxxvii. f. 2, 3. 

TrocJwmorjiha, Pfr. Malakoz. Bl. 1855, p. 132 ; Albers, Die Helioeen, 
1860, p. 61. 

Kaliella, sec. B, Theob, Cat. Suppl. p. 20. 

Nanina {Microcystis) mononema, Xev. Hand-list, p. 41 (8 species, 
Balapiti, Cej'lon). 

Original description : — " Testa angustissime jjerforata, trochiformi, 
radiato-striata, corneo-alhida, ylahra, non vitida, translucente, spira 
conoidea, apice obtuso, sutura distincta ; anfractibus 6|-7, superne 
convexiuscuUs, JiJo unico, elevato, tenui, mediano ctncfis, idtimo acute 
Jiloso-carinato, subtus subplamdato ; apertura verticali, seciiriformi, 
peristomate recto, acuto, margine columellari brevi, verticali, rejlexo, 
perforationem subtegente. 

" Diam. major 5, minor 4^, axis 4 mill. 

" Hab. ad Heneratgodde, Ceylon." Mr. Benson says : — " AUied to 
the Himalayan H. fastigiata, Hutton, and to the Bengal IT. barrack- 
porensis, Pfr., but well distinguished by its more depressed form 
and by the filiform line, which, in addition to the keel on the last 
whorl, runs along the central part of each of the upper whorls. Mr. 
Layard bad not been able to procure a second specimen." I do not 
agree with Mr. Benson as to the alliance or, I would rather say, 

E 



42 LAND ANU KRESHWATEK 

similarity between this species and the two above-named shells, the 
thread-like spiral midrib being so very distinctive of the subgenus 
1 now place it in. 

SiTALA? GRATULATOB, W. Blf. (Plate X. figs. 1, 1 ct, 1 h.) 

Nanina qratulator, J, A. S. E. 1805, p. 72 (section TrocJiomoiyha) ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 94. 

Helix (jratulator, Conch. Ind. p. 8, pi. xvi. fig. 2. 

Sitala gratulator, Theob. Suppl. Cat. p. 20 ; Nev. Hand-list, 1878, 
p. 33. 

Orif/inal description : — " Shell turbinate, perforated, thin, whitish 
horny. Spire conical ; apex obtuse ; suture impressed. Whorls 5, 
slowly and regularly increasing, convex, spirally Urate and marked 
with oblique striae of growth above ; the last whorl keeled at the 
periphery, convex and decussately marked with concentric and 
radiating strife below, not excavated round the perforation. Aper- 
ture diagonal, subtrapezoidal, breadth exceeding the height ; peri- 
stome thin ; margins distant, united by a callus, basal deeply 
sinuate ; colunaellar vertical, forming a right angle with the basal, 
and briefly triangularly reflexed above ; reflexed portion thickened 
and passing half round the perforation. 

"Major diam. 5-0 mm., minor diam. 4*5 mm., axis 4*0 mm, 
0-2 „ 0-18 „ 0-16 inch. 

" Aperture 3 mm. broad, 2 high. 

" Animal with a small mucous pore, and very small lobe above. 

" Hab. Irawaddy valley, Pegu. 

" This pretty little species abounds near Thayetmyo, and occurs 
throughout the Irawaddy valley in British Burmah. I do not re- 
member meeting with it in Arakan. It is easily distinguished from 
all others of similar form among Indian shells by its oblique mouth, 
by the peculiar columellar margin of the peristome, and by the 
strong lirate sculpture. I have much doubt as to whether it should 
be assigned to Trocliomorplia^ the species of which group are larger 
and the animals somewhat different." 

This species does not occur, to my knowledge, anywhere on the 
Indian side in Assam. 

The subgenus Sitala can be divided into the following very di- 
stinct groups : — 

Character. Narae. Locality. 

A. Shell small, pyramidal, closely 
umbilicated, keeled, more or less 

flat below, with four or more . .^^y^^^ Lower Bengal. 

spiral ribs on the whorls ; coin- ^^^^^.^^ Tenasserim. 



spi 

mellar margin simple, more or 

less oblique ; spire with flat sides ; 



culmen Pegu. 

confinis 



apex acuminate \ haroldi Andamaus. 

I gromafka Munipur. 

I phulongensis North Kachar Hills. 

\^liriclncta Tenasserim. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 4^3 

Character. Name. Locality. 

a'. Shell conoid, apex bluut limata Pegu. 

a". Shell conoid, depressed, sides / carinifera Penane;. 

convex \palniaria Mysore. 

a'". Spire high, with concave 1 rr 

'■ ■ -I ^ > arx Tenassenm. 

sides J 

B. Shell globose ; vrhorls tumid, with | rimicola... N.W. Himalaya. 

many fine, close-set, longitudinals , var Darjiling. 

ribs [ , var Khasi. 

b'. Sides convex ; spiral ribbing less 1 . ■ tv'-i ,• • tt-u 

regular | "y"-''*'« ISilghiri Hills. 

b". Globosely turbinate, very small febrilis KalryenmuUi Hills. 

The following species are very distinct forms, and one is tempted 
to place the first two in a new subgenus : — 

0. Shell depressly conoid ; whorls I 

turreted, with one or two spiral yfiicarinata Nilghiri Hills. 

ribs; apex flat J 

( ,; .,- , / Little Brother An- 

c'. Openly umbilicated ] suoot/irara | daman Island. 

[ , var Batte Malve Island. 

c". Apex obtuse bilirafa phevroy and Kola- 

^ [ nully Hills. 

,„ T -i T 1 -ui • • { tertiana Nilghiri Hills. 

c '. Longitudinal ribbing m- ._ . t,^ °. 

■1?,. . ,.,• °i \ unman t Muuipur. 

distinct, umbilicated . . rt ^ 

' \ 7)iononcma Ceylon. 

The next is distinct from all the preceding species, and the 
animal, no doubt, will be found presenting differences : — 

D. Shell conoid, rounded below ; "^ 
aperture very oblique ; spiral | 

ribbing both above and below; >'i gratulafor Pegu. 

columellar margin thickened, | 
perpendicular, and twisted ) 

These are quite distinct, in their sculpture particularly, and will be 
figured together in a future Part : — 



E. Apex acuminate, spire more or 
less concave ; transverse ribbing 
more regular and denned, a .,. 

spiral sdcation breaking up the ^ himhasma 



( apicata Nilghiri Hills. 

cacumimfera ,, 

concavospira Ceylon. 



former into minute raised dots 
or dashes, having a longitudinal 
arrangement 



layardi 

phideas 

phyllophila 
\ verrucula . . 



e2 



44 LAND AND FRKSHWATKH 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 



Fig. 1. Sitala infula, Benson, X 4. Calcutta. 

1 a. Ditto : sculpture of last whorl, X 180. 1 b. Sculpture of the 

apical whorls, X 180. 
I c. Ditto : animal, X 2. From drawing by E. Stoliezka. 

1 d. Ditto : jaw, enlarged. From drawing by F. Stoliezka. 

\ e. Ditto: teeth of radula. From drawing by F. Stoliezka. 
1/. Ditto: genei-ative organs, much magnified. \ g. Showing en- 
largement of oviduct («)• From drawing by F. Stoliezka. 

2. Sifala attegia, Bs., X 4. From Moulmain. 

2 rt. Ditto : sculpture of apical whorls, X 180. 2 b. Sculpture of the 

last whoi-1, X 180. 

2 c. Ditto : right and left shell and dorsal lobes of the mantle, en- 

larged. From drawing by F. Stoliezka. 
"2(1. Ditto : jaw. From drawing by F. Stoliezka. 
2e. Ditto: teeth of radula. 
2f. Ditto : generative organs, much enlarged. 

3. Sitala atfegia. Bs., X 4. Prome, Pegu. 

4. culmcn. W. BIf., X 4. Pegu. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX. 

Fig. I, 1 a. Sagdinella didrichsenii, Morch, X 7. Nicobar. 

2. Sitala rimioola, Bs., X 7. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 
.2 a. Ditto : sculpture of last whorl, x 50. 

3. Sitala rimicola, var., Bs., X 7- Darjiling, E. Himalaya. 

3 a. Ditto : sculpture, X 50. 

4. 4rt. Sitala rimicola, y&v., X 7. Khasi Hills. 

4 b. Ditto, X 4, viewed from below. 4 c. Ditto, nat. size. 

5. 5 a. Sitala injussa, W. & H. Blf , X 7. Nilghiri Hills. 

5 b. Ditto : sculpture, X 50. 

6. Sitala mononema, Bs., X 4. Ceylon. 

7. srimani (G.-A.), X 7. Munipur. 

8. arx, Bs., X 4. Tenasserim. 

9_ 9 a. ? tertiana, W. & H. Blf., X 12. Nilghiri Hills. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. Sitala gratulator, W. Blf., X 4. Thayetmyo, Pegu. 

1 «, 1 b. Ditto, showing form of the columellar margin, X 7. 

2. Sitala confitiis, W. Blf., X 4. Thayetmyo, Pegu. 

3. j)almaria,'iis., X 4. Mysore. 

4. phulongensis,G.-A., X 7. N. Cachar. 

5. gromatica, G.-A., X 7. Munipur. 

5 a. Ditto : sculpture, X 60. 

fi. Sitala gromatica, var., X 7. 6 a. Sculpture. Khasi. 

7. haroldi, G.-A., X 7. 7 «. Sculpture, X 50. Andamans. 

8. gromatica, ]u.\., X 7. North Cachar Hills. 

9. li?7inta, X 12. 9 a, X 8. Pegu. 

10. tricarinata, W. & H. Blf., X 20. Nilghiri Hills. 

11. 11 rt. siihbilirata, G.-A., Nev. MS., X 12. Little Brother An- 

daman. 

12. Ditto, var., X 12. Batte Malve Island, Nicobars. 



Subgenus Sagdinella. 

The genus Sagdinella of 0. A. L. Morch was introduced, but without 
description, in Journ. de Conch. Oct. 1872, in his list of " Mollus- 
ques terrestres et fluviatiles des lies Nicobar,"' the t.vpe form being 
didrichsenii from Sambelong in that island. He compares it with 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. -45 

simulans, Adams, a Jamaica form, which is not likely to he related, 
and he would class with it orcula, Bs., han-aJcporensis, Pfr., and 
infulci, Bs., of the East-Indian region. The two last, could hardly be 
classed together on shell-characters, and a genus has already been 
formed for harral-porensis. In the dourn. de Conch. Oct, 1876, 
p. 357, in a revision of the Land Shells of the Nicobars, another 
species is added, viz. H. microtrochus, Miirch, found with the former. 
He thinks Sa(/di)ieUa may be allied to Stnytaxis in its sculpture 
(transverse) ; but this would hardly be a sufficient reason on which 
to form such an alliance, unless combined with other characters. 

Mr. G. Nevill, in his ' Hand-list of the Mollusca in the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta,' p. 35, includes both Sagdinella and Kaliella 
under the subgenus Mict-ocifstis, Beck (type ornatella, Beck, from 
Pitcairn Island, a South-. Pacific shell) ; and in this he has placed 
most of the minute Indian species, many with most varied cha- 
racters. Knowing that I was engaged working upon these small 
shells he was good enough to send me a specimen named didrichsenii, 
from Batte Malve ; but as it did not agree with the original descrip- 
tion, I applied to the Zoological Museum of the University of Copen- 
hagen for specimens of the shell. Professor Japetus S. Steenstrup 
responded most cordially to mj' request and kindly sent me a 
specimen in the Museum, the label in Mdrch's handwriting — 
" Sagdinella^Hapalus'i) didnchsenii, Boepst. 1877, p. 370. Nicobar." 
The original specimen described in 1 872 was collected during the voyage 
of the ' Galathea ' by M. Reinhardt, and should be in tlie Museum 
at Copenhagen, where most of his shells were placed. The Museum 
of Kiel received those of M. Behu ; and Cuming obtained duplicates 
of this last collection described by Pfeiffer, Prauenfeld, &c. I have 
thus been able to figure a typical shell of this genus and clear up all 
uncertainty about it, for which I and other conchologists owe our 
thanks to Prof. Steenstrup. It certainly has no relationship to 
either 8itala or Kaliella in any way ; moreover I do not think it is 
quite mature, and it possesses, as Morch says, some similarity in its 
transverse costulation to that of Strejdaa-is. I hei-e give the original 
description of the shell ; the animal is quite unknown ; but whatever 
it may be, it undoubtedly belongs to a group quite distinct to those 
with which Nevill associated it. 

Helix ? (Sagdinella) didrichsenii. (Plate IX. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Journ. Conch. Oct. 1872, p. 312. 

Var. 0. grandis. Jour]}. Conch. Oct. 1870, p. 358. 

Nanina (Microcgstis), Nev. Hand-list, p. 42. no. 206 (30 sp. 
Nicobar, ex coll. Dr. P. Stoliczka). 
• Original description : — " Testa turbinata, loerforate umbilicata, 
crystallina alhida nitida, leviter iridescens ; anfr. 3|- convexiusculi, 
costulato-striati, idtimus magnus, spiram fere diiplo superans, media 
obsolete angulatus ; basi Icevissima ; apertura subrliombea. 

" Diam. maj. 2i mill., axis 2 mill,, apertumo altit. 1| mill. 

" Hab. Sambelong, sur les bords de la riviere Galathea ; un seul 
exemplaire. 



46 



LAXU AXI) FKKSIIWATER 



" Ohs. L'Heli.v sinmlans, Adams (lleeve, Icon. f. 351), donne 
uiie assez bonne idt'e de cette espece. 

" L'H. orcula, Benson (Reeve, f. 1170), en diflPere par sa spire 
beaucoup plus elevee. VH. barakporcnsis, Pt'r. (Reeve, f. 81G), et 
17/, infida, Benson (Reeve, f. 783), de I'Hindoustan, appartiennent 
peut-etre a la meme section. La coloration et le genre de costulation 
de la coquille rappollent les Streptaxis. Peut-etre cst-ce un 
Agnathe ? " 

H. orcula is the only shell above mentioned that approaches it in 
its sculpture, but it has a strong epidermis. I am sorry that the 
two specimens in Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection are not quite 
perfect, and not in a state to take otF the glass slide on which they 
are gummed, so that I cannot give an enlarged figure of it. 

" Var. /3. (jrandis, alt. 3*5 mill., diam, 3. T, tenuis, non iridescens 
linea alba, pellucente, ad suturam. 

" Hab. lies Xicobar, probablement Kamorta {Roepstorf). 

Helix (Sagdinella) microtrochtjs, Mtirch, Journ. Conch. Oct. 
1876, p. 358. 

" Dijfert a prcecedente testa obtuse anr/ulata, obtecte perforata, nee 
ni)ibilicata, columella recta ; linea sidurali, cdba pellucente. 

" Alt. 3-5 mill., diam. fere 3. 

" Hab. Avec I'espece precedente: un exemplaire( 7?o^ps^or/). Les 
Sar/dinella doivent etre ranges, peut-etre, pres des Streptaxis, d'apres 
Icur sculpture : quant a la forme, eUes ressemblent a de jeunes 
Bulimus (Ena)." 

Professor Steenstrup informs me this species is not in the museum 
at Copenhagen, nor could he find it in the collection of a friend of 
the late Dr. 0. Miirch ; being a single specimen, it may be in Mr. 
Roepstorf 's collection. 

Genus Anadentjs. 

(Plates VI, & Yll.) 

The genus Anademis was described by Yon F. D. Heynemann in 
the ' Malakozoologische Bliitter,' 1803, p, 137, pi. i., giving figures 
of the shell of two species with their lingual dentition. Tlie speci- 
mens were collected and brought home by the Schlagintweits from 
India, and the original description is therefore from spirit-specimens 
as follows : — 

" Anadenas (without a tail-gland). 

" Body extends the whole length of the sole. Mantle covei'ing 
the fore part of the body. Respiratory orifice behind the middle of 
the right side of the mantle. Generative orifice behind the right 
eye-tentacle. Two upper and two lower retractile tentacles. Back 
flatly rounded, without a keel and without a tail-gland. Sole in 
three parts. The jaw with close-set cross ribbing ; the curve of the 
teeth of the radula almost in a plane. Tooth-plates of rectangular 
form, with the sides projecting. ^liddle tooth equilateral, with side 
points or prickles. Side teeth hardly ditt'ering from the middle 



MOLLPSCA OF INDIA. 47 

tooth, with the small points on the exterior side. Internal shell 
present, white, calcareous, with no epidermis ; iiucleus on the 
side. 

" Animal at first sight is like our German Avion and Limax. It 
is related to Arlon, to Limax only similar. 

" The relationship to Avion is in the form of the jaw, which has ribs 
like that of A. emjnvicovum, but they differ in the following points : — 



Avion. 


Anadenus. 


Tail-gland present. 


absent. 


Respiratory opening anterior 


close behind. 


to middle of mantle. 




Internal shell, absent. 


present. 


The mantle contains only 


with distinct lin 


scattered calcareous par- 


growth. 


ticles. 





of 



" The absence of the tail-gland is the principal difference between 
Avion and Anndenus ; less importance must be placed on the posi- 
tion of the lung-opening. In dead Anadenus it is in the middle ; 
but the front part of the mantle always contracts more than the 
hinder part. In Limax it lies behind the middle, but in a spirit- 
specimen it is in the middle. 

" The new species is nearest to Oeomalacus of Great Britain, which 
I have not had an opportunity of examining, and from which it 
differs in the following points : — 



Geomalacns. 


Anadenus. 


End of the body rounded. 
Respiratory orifice in the 

middle of the side of the 

mantle. 
Tail-gland present. 


pointed. 

behind the middle, 

absent. 



"• It must not be confounded with Limax., although it is similar in 
o-eneral form, in the position of the respiratory and the genital aper- 
tures, and in the presence of the inner shell ; besides tliey differ in 
the jaw and in the terminal end of the body, which in Limax is 
always keeled, whereas in Anadenus there is no sign of a keel. 

" If we could see the living animals or get an accurate description 
of them, undoubtedly further differences between similar or related 
forms would be shown, and in one respect from the formation of 
the wrinkles of the mantle and the body. As I observed before, in 
the dead animal the wavy circles on the mantle disappear. It 
cannot be said whether the mantle of Anadenus is papillate, as in 
Avion, Amalia, and Geomalacns, or whether it has the structure of 
Limax. Similarly the wrinkles on the back flatten out, and no 
accurate description can be made from a spirit-specimen. 

" From the illustration whicli I give [reproduced, PI. VII. fig. 4] of 
the skin of the back it is clear that it differs considerably from all 
known slugs. A furrow runs along the middle of the back, from 
which side-furrows branch off' at an acute angle the spaces en- 



48 LXyD AND FKKSllWATKK 

closed by these furrows are covered with a double row of irregular 
diverging wrinkles." 

Anadenus gigajiteus (type species). 

From original description. Length of spirit-specimen 80 to 100 mm. 

,, the mantle 30 to 40 „ 

Colour isabelline, brownish. 

Internal shell 20 mill, long, 12 broad ; flat, very thick. Jaw 
with fourteen ribs, distinct from each other ; the last are grown 
together. 

Kadula : 110 cross rows ; the middle tooth slender, long-necked, 
with long point and sigus of side points ; the side teeth not differing 
much, inclining inward, with still longer points, and likewise signs 
of side points, and in the less developed teeth towards the edge the 
points are still much longer with no side points. The upright position 
of the points {vide orig. fig. 1(?, c,/), and which is most prominent 
in the side teeth, is also peculiar to Arion. From the size of the 
contracted median and from the circumference of the inner shell 
and the size of the teeth-plates we can conchide witli some certainty 
that this species is of extraordinary length. Limax dorice of Bour- 
guignat, who says it is 3(J0 to 450 mm. long (or 13 to 17 inches), 
has hardly from the plate (in Eeviie et Mag. pi. viii. June 1861) so 
large a shell. I do not maintain that this extraordinary length 
could be reached in gigante^is. Equally interesting may it be in a 
li\-ing state from its bright colour, which certainly does not differ 
much in the spirit-specimen. 

Hah. Fuudort Shimpti (Shipki ?), Kumaon ; Badrinath to Masuri, 
Garhval. 

Anadenus altivagus, Theobald. (Plate YI. fig. 1, spirit-specimen.) 

Limax altivagus, J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 489. 

Anadenus giganteus, Heynemann, Malakoz. Bl. 1863, p. 140, 
t. i. f. 1 ; Theob. Suppl. Cat. C. i. p. 65 ; G. Xevill, Second Yarkand 
Mission, MoUusca, p. 21. 

Anadenus ? giganteus, NeviU, Hand-list, p. 65 (Changligalli, near 
Murree). 

Original description : — " Corpore limaciformi, 2i(dlio lente granu- 
losa, dorso rugose reticidato, more frondis brassicce, colore virescente 
fusco sive lutescente fulvo, interdmn nigrescente, et rarissime pallide 
aurantiaco pallio, minus colorato corpore ; tentaculis quatuor nigris, 
cajnte nigro, infra pallescente ; ano ad dextrum latus jx^dlii, jn'O^ie 
marginem posito, ad mediam partem vi.v attingente. 

" Longitudinis (corpore extenso) 9 unc. 

"Habitat montibus Cissutlejensibus prope Fagu, Narkanda, 
Saraon, &c., 6000 ad 9000. 

" This Limax is rather variable in colour, and large specimens, 
when in motion and extended, exceed 9 inches in length, though 
their ordinary dimensions is about 6. It feeds on fungi." 

This species is evidently the same as that described by F. D. 
Heynemann in 1863 under the title giganteus and the type of his 
genus Anadenus. The length of specimens contracted in spirit 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 49 

being 80-100 millims., as given by Heynemann, would be quite 
6 to 9 inches when living, and extended to their full length. The 
description as regards texture of the epidermis of the mantle and 
foot agrees well ; and they are both from the same part of the 
Western Himalayas — Heynemanu's specimens having been col- 
lected by one of the brothers Schlagintweit in Shimpti (Shipki?), 
? Kumaon, Badrinath to Masuri, Garhval. There is a single un- 
named specimen in the British Museum collected by the above 
gentlemen, but it is labelled " Sikkim Himalaya," which I take to 
be this species ; and this is no doubt a duplicate specimen sent 
originally to the Hon. E. I. Co.'s Museum, whence it was lately 
transferred, with the rest of the collection, to the British Museum : 
75 mm. long, mantle 30. Six specimens were sent to me labelled 
" Simla, collected in the rainy season of 1880," by some friend, who 
I have yet to discover, but to whom my best thanks are due, for it 
is from these specimens the drawings on Plate VI. have been made. 
They agree in every way with Theobald's description of altivcKjus, 
and with the British-Museum specimen above mentioned. Heyne- 
mann does not give Sikkim as the habitat of r/ir/anteus, though he 
makes schlaijintweiti common to both that and the Western Hima- 
laya. There may be some error here in the labelling of the speci- 
mens. 

AxADENtrs ALTiVAGUs, Theob. 

External description of animal (from spirit-specimen) collected at 
Simla (vide fig. 1, Plate VI.). — Slug-like, rounded above ; foot 
rather pointed behind; no gland, with a narrow segmented pedal 
margin. Mantle closely fitted to the foot behind, only slightly over- 
lapping on the sides ; the neck-lobes only partially developed near 
the respiratory orifice, with a fine papillate surface. The respiratory 
and anal orifices (figs. 2 & 3) situated together just above the centre 
of the mantle-margin. The generative orifice (fig. 4) at a moderate 
distance (about 8 or 10 mm.) behind the right eye-tentacle. 

Total length 700, mantle length 30-0, mantle breadth 20'0 mm. 
„ 2-75 „ 1-20, „ 0-8 inch. 

Largest spec. : Shell quadrate, flat, thin, horny, white, with con- 
centric lines of growth, nucleus on right central margin. 

Major diam. 15*0 mm., minor 10*0 mm. 
,, 0*60 inch, „ 0*4 inch. 

Odontopliore, c|'c. The jaw is solid and composed of 13 ribs 
(PI. VI. fig. 5). In the radula (figs. 6, 6 a) the centre tooth is broad, 
with two small pointed projections at the base ; the adjacent laterals 
are also broad, with a single small blunt tooth on the exterior side ; 
about the 28th from the centre they become much more elongated, 
and the outer basal tooth is rather sharper. The outermost laterals 
are oblong at the base, with one long blunt tooth and one or two 
small teeth disunited and separate from it, but rising from the same 
base (figs. Off, 6 6). These outer teeth are very characteristic of the 



60 LAND AND FRESilWATKR 

genus, for nothing like them is to be found in either Arioa or 
Lhnax. The teeth of this species do not certainly agree with the 
radula described and figured by Heynemann ; there is a similarity only 
so far as the straight form of the central teeth ; but he distinctly says 
all the laterals aj'e straight and with no basal cusp, and he thus 
figures the ooth oi gnfantnis (Taf. i. fig. 1/); and the -iOth tooth of 
A. schlagintwehi has this small basal tooth, but he adds that on the 
extreme laterals it disappears. There were 106 rows in a very 
complete radula I got out, arranged thus : — 

55 . ] . 55. 

The jaw and radula are found to be like that of Geomalacus, to 
which genus Anadenus has, in this respect, some affinity {vide 
Plate XII. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 6). 

Generative organs (Plate VI. fig. 7). The ovotesds (p.t) is bilobed, 
and situated quite within the folds of the liver-lobes, and is of a 
pale green tint ; the hermaphrodite-duct is rather long, a good deal 
convoluted near its lower end, but is stiaight for a short distance 
before it joins the albumen-gland ; this organ is very large, and lies 
on the left anterior side of the animal. The oviduct is of the usual 
form. The vas deferens {v.d) is given oft" just above the duct of the 
spermatheca ; it is very long, and is coiled on itself at one point 
about the middle of its length ; this coil lies well forward on the left 
anterior side behind the left tentacle, and doubles back on itself, 
and passing up the side of the male organ enters it at the hard 
rounded posterior end, close to where the retractor muscle is given 
off. The attachment of this muscle is at the posterior margin of 
the mantle-cavity ; it is so much contracted in the spirit-specimen as 
to bring the posterior end of the penis close up to it and the attach- 
ments of tlie eye-tentacles, dtc. The spermatheca {Sp) is about the 
same length as the penis, pear-shaped. 

All the six specimens sent to me from Simla (where they wei'e 
collected during the rains in June and July, at the period when they 
are in full activity and development) show the generative orifice 
much expanded, with the male organ partly protruding (Plate VI. 
figs. 1 & 4). This discloses the existence of several small, sharp, 
curved spines fixed upon the surface of this reversed portion. On 
further opening the generative orifice (Plate VII. fig. 6), these 
curved spines were discovered to be only the most advanced of a 
much greater number arranged in two parallel rows {d) and ex- 
tending upwards, gradually lengthening, and forming part of a very 
complicated and beautiful arrangement of far longer and stronger 
calcareous (r) spines. The frontal side of this curious apparatus was 
found covered by a large and longitudinally perforated plate («), 
which had evidently been built up by the union together at their 
upper and lower extremities of originally parallel spines. On the 
posterior side of this basal portion of the male organ one very 
large, long, spear-shaped spine (c) was situated; this measured 8 mm. 
in length. The whole of this complicated structure must therefore 
be legarded as representing the simple dart-sac with a single dart, 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 51 

as seen in other genera of the Helicidse, for the fixed position of the 
bases of these spines in the integument of the lower swollen portion 
of the male organ precludes the idea of its being a spermatophore. 
On following the large duct of the penis upwards towards the junc- 
tion with it of the vas deferens (fig. G «), the end of the penis is seen, 
occupjiug the upper swollen portion ; so that here we have appa- 
rently the penis and the dart-sac almost united together, instead of, 
as is usual, the dart contaiued in a distinct and long sac of its own ; 
but this, after all, is onlj- a question of degree, for the transition is 
seen in such rudimentary pouches of the dart in Helix pisana (vide 
pi. six. fig. 16, Moquin-Tandon's ' Mollusques de France,' and HeUx 
buUmoides, pi. xx.). 

Can it be that in this species the great development of spines and 
this plate has converted this organ into one of a holding or clipping 
nature on their interlocking or entanglement prior to or during 
the act of copulation ? for after expansion or protrusion the muscular 
contraction would draw these spines together very tightly. 

One of the most interesting points in the anatomy of this species 
is the relative position of the heart and renal organ (Plate VII. 
fig. 5), in which respect it has a considerable similarity to what is 
seen in Avion and Geomalacus, encircling the heart. The position 
of the ventricle is, however, different, on the posterior edge of the 
mantle-cavity and directed backwards ; it is large and flatly pear- 
shaped. 

The renal organ is ovate and is divided into two portions by a 
main secretory duct, the inner portion forming a nearly complete 
narrow disk round the ventricle and commencing from near where 
the aorta is given off. The renal organ is quite free for three 
quarters of its anterior margin, the dorsal surface (which is under- 
neath in fig. 5) being spread over with the network of the pul- 
monary veins, the ventral surface of the pulmonary sac being shown 
in the figure. The retractor muscles of the eye-tentacles, odonto- 
phore, and penis {r.m. T., 0., P.) are all situated in a line close 
together at the posterior margin of the mantle ; and in this they are 
thus somewhat more like Avion, only that the muscle of the buccal 
mass has a more posterior position for its attachment. 

Anadenus sciilagint-s^^iti, Heynemann, Malakoz. Blat. 1863, 
p. 141. 

Anadenus schlagintweiti, Theob. Cat. C. i. p. Qb. 

This species would appear to be externally very similar to A. 
cdtivar/HS, or the typical species of Heynemann, but smaller. There 
are two specimens in the British Museixm which may probably be 
this species, and out of the Sehlagintweit collection. They are both 
of a dark grey colour and smaller than cdtivagus. One is marked 
"Bias at Bishisht, Kulu Himalaya;" the second " On road from 
Simla to Sultanpur, Himalaya." Heynemann gives, besides these 
two places. Bias Ivund, llotang Pass, and Sikkim ; but I doubt the 
Sikkim locality. 



52 LAND AND FKESnWATKll 

Original description : — "Length of spirit-specimen 45 to 60 mm. 

" Length of the mantle 25 mm. 

" Colour ash-grey or blackish. 

" Internal shell 11 mm. long, 7| broad, massive, thick, flat. 

"Jaw with 10 ribs. 

" Eadula 125 rows of 90 teeth. 
.„ 110 „ 80 „ 

" Middle tooth broadh' triangular, with moderately long points ; 
the side points arc somewhat broader at the base ; side teeth hardly 
differ from the middle tooth, inclined inwards. The shape does not 
perceivably change even towards the side, only at last the side point 
disappears. 

''■The ifonnr/ animal. On the back part of the mantle is a black 
spot, which runs in a point in front and encloses a small space, 
which is brighter than the rest of the mantle. The sides of the 
mantle are black-spotted, and down the sides of the body runs a 
black stripe, which towards the back is sharply marked out, but 
towards the sole is shaded off ; the top of the back is again some- 
what darker. 

" It is very probable that, as in the case of many European slugs 
which in their young state are similarly coloured, this coloration 
disappears through the darkening of the whole skin. 

^'■Habitat. Sikkim ; Simla to Sultanpur ; Bias at Bishi.sht, Kulu ; 
Bias Kuud, Botang Pass. 

" As these two forms were obtained from different localities, we 
may consider the species to bo generally distributed and common ; 
according to 8chlagintweit it exists at 13,420 feet. In all proba- 
bility their food is fungi." 

Anadenus jEEDONi, u. sp. (Plate YII. fig. 7, spirit-specimen.) 

Kashmir {T. C. Jerdon). In coll. Brit. Mus. 

DescrijAion from spirit-specimen. Animal large. The mantle 
apparently finely papDlate in life. The foot above very coarsely 
wrinkled, rounded at extremity. No gland. A very narrow pedal 
margin. The respiratorj' orifice at the posterior right margin or 
about one third the length of the mantle from the posterior side. 
The eye-tentacles would appear to be very large at the base. The 
mantle, viewed from above, is rather circular in form. The foot 
has a wade central area. 

Total length 101-6, mantle 38'0, breadth 31*8 mm. 
„ „ 4 „ 1-5 „ 1-25 inch. 

Jaw' is well ribbed, and 0*2 inch or 5-1 ram. wide. 

There is only one specimen at the British Museum, and therefore 
I am unable to give any details of the anatomy of this s])ecies, of 
which no doubt some will be found in the Indian-Museum collec- 
tion, Calcutta. The gigantic specimens alluded to by Mr. G. Xevill, 
in the molluscan portion of the ' Scientific llesults of the Second 
YarkandMission,'under^Hrtf?. rtZi/cff^^/s, I well remember his showing 
me in Calcutta. They are certainly verj' distinct from the Simla 
specimens I have seen, and mxich nearer A. Jerdoni in outward 



MOLLUSCA or INDIA. 53 

appearance. Heynemann's name -would have well suited these gigantic 
Nepalese slugs ; but his description certainly a])plies to a much 
smoother animal, so well shown in his figure of a portion of the foot 
viewed from above (plate i. fig. 1 h), and which I reproduce on 
Plate VII. fig. 4. The Nepalese species I propose to distinguish by 
the name insirfnis. 

The shells described by Mr. Xevill in the above work were col- 
lected by Dr. F. Stoliczka ; and from his notes it would appear that 
he distinguished two other species as occurring at Changligalli, near 
Murree, both of small size, like modestus. Nevill thus refers to 
them : — 

'■'■Aaademis, sp. — -I should not have ventured on separating this 
single specimen, found with the two x)receding, but for a note of 
Dr. Stoliczka's, which says, ' I also found near here four specimens 
of an Arion and specimens of two other Arwn-\\\.Q slugs.' It is 
slightly larger than the preceding, and of a black instead of a light 
liver-colour ; otherwise I can see no difference." 

"Anademis, s]i. — Described by Stoliczka in his notes as ' a slug like 
the one I found at Chaiigligalli, but with the foot sharply crested.' 
Where this was found is not recorded, and it might possibly be 
another genus, from the keeled foot.'' 

Anadexus blanfordi, u. sp. 

From the single spirit-specimen it would appear to have been of 
a dark ochraceous brown, with some dark grey mottlings on the 
upper part of the foot. It may be distinguished by the very diffe- 
rent arrangement of the warty protuberances on the epidermis, 
these being well raised, isolated, and elongately diamond-shaped. 

Total length 44, length of mantle 16, breadth 11 mm. 
„ „ 1-75 „ ,, 0-65 „ 0-45 inch. 

Hah. Darjiling, about 7000 feet ( W. T. Blanford). 

There is no doubt of its distinctness from all other species I have 
seen, but I defer figuring it until I receive a large collection in spirit 
now on its way from Sikkim. The single specimen described was 
given me by Mr. W. T. Blanford, together with several other inter- 
esting sheUs which he had taken at Darjiling some years ago. 

Anadentjs modesxus, Theobald. 

LimaoB modestus, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 489. 
Anademis modestus, Theob. Suppl. Cat. C. i. p. 65. 
Second Yarkand Mission, Mollusca (G. jS'evill), p. 21. 
Nevill, Hand-list, p. 65 (from Changligalli, near Murree). 

Original description : — "Corpore limaciformi, jiostea acuminata, 
colore chureo, fuscis punctis notato ; dorso duohus lineis maculosis 
catenifonnibus ornato, a sese et a margine equidistantihus et a pallio 
usque ad extremitatem e.vtensis, spatio his lineis incluso paidlo fus- 
cente et elegante fuscis lineis striato et marmorato. Tentaculis qua- 
tuor ruhro-fuscis. 

Longitudinis 1^ unc. 



54 LAND AND FRESHWATKK 

" Habitat cum pnecedente," /. e. the Cissutlej Mountains, near 
Fagu, Narkanda, Saraon, &c. 

It is " much smaller and rather more elegantly shaped," and is, 
perhaps, rather more numerous than althnujus, though this is far 
from uncommon. 

There is a very small species in the British Museum in the same 
bottle with A. r/ir/anteas, mentioned above, which appears immature, 
but is certainly another species. It measures — Total length 20 mm., 
mantle 9*0 ; breadth 5*5. It may be distinguished by its olive- 
brown colour and having the mantle speckled with black, and two 
well-marked lines of this colour on either side of the extremity of 
the foot ; it agrees well with modestits of Theobald. I hope shortly 
to receive a collection of slugs from Darjeeling which may contain 
this species, for there is now some doubt whether yiganteus of 
Heynemann was ever obtained there. This may possibly be the 
young of A. schlagintiuAti, described by Heynemann on p. 141, I. c. ; 
but he does not give any dimensions. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. Anadenus aUivagus, Theob. : animal, side view, nat. size. Spirit- 
specimen. Simla. 

2. Ditto: respiratory orifice, X 4. 

3. Ditto : ditto, with the an;il apertui-e {A.ap.) adjacent, X 4. 

4. Ditto : the generative aperture, X 4. P(jrtion protruding showing 

the spines {vide Plate VIL). 

5. Ditto: the jaw, X 7. 

6. Ditto: teeth of radula, X 360. 6«, (Sb. The outermost laterals. 

7. Ditto: the generative organs, X \^. o.t., ovotestis ; h.d., iierma- 

pln-odite duct ; Al.Gld., albumen-gland; oy., oviduct ; v.d., \as 
deferens ; P., male organ, with (r.m.) retractor muscle ; Sj)., sper- 
matheca. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Fig.]. Anadenus aliivagus, Theoh. : shell, X 2. Simla. 

2. Ditto, nat. size, —giganteus, Heynemann ; from his drawing, 

Taf. i. fig. 1.(7. 

3. schlagintweifi, Heynemann, nat. size ; from his drawing, Taf. i. 

fig. 2.. 

4. Portion of back of A. giganteus, Heynemann ; from his di-awing, 

Taf. i. fig. 1 h, &c. 

6. Anadenus aUivagus, Theoh. Simla. View of heart and renal organ, 
seen from below, showing position of the different muscle-attach- 
ments. M.f., Mantle, frontal edge ; JM.L, mantle, left side ; i?., 
renal organ surrounding the ventricle ; i, intestine ; r.m. T., P., 
& 0., retractor muscle of eye-tentacles, penis, and odontophore 
respectively; lies. Or., position of respiratory orifice. 

6. The generative aperture cut open on the frontal side to expose the 
dart^sac, with its numerous spines and (a) the perforated shield ; 
b, spines attached to the shield at its upper margin ; c, larger 
and stronger spines attached to the posterior upper part of the 
sac ; d, row of short spines extending to the generative aperture ; 
e, outer integument of the animal ; c', muscular sac ; /, the 
aperture into the vagina and spermatheca below this and in- 
clining upwards to the left {vide fig. 7, Plate VI.) ; v.d., portion 
of vas deferens. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 55 

Fig. 6 a. Upper portion of male organ (P), showing the termination of the 
vas deferens within the swollen portion where the retractor 
muscle is given off. 
<> b. Diagrammatic vertical section of fig. 6, viewed from tiie side. 
6 c. Horizontal section of same. 
7. Anademis jerdoni, n. sp., nat. size : spirit-speciinen. Kashmir. 



Genus Htalimax, H. & A. Adams. 
(Plate XI.) 

The genus is indicated with the following very short description 
in 'The Genera of Eecent Mollusca,' vol. ii. p, 219 (1858), type 
species perhicidus, Quoy & Gaimard : — -" Orifice of respiratory 
aperture in the middle of the left side of the mantle ; animal pel- 
lucid." This very imperfect description of a new genus was no 
doubt made upon Quoy and Gaimard's drawings and description of 
Limax perlncidus. Voyage I'Astrolabe, pi. xiii. figs. 10-13 (1832): — 
" Limax, coiyore ovuli, depresso, jjerlucido, alho, punctis nigris 
notato ; tentaculis minimis, crassis, nigro striatis ; ossiculo corneo 
ovato." Shell ovate, horny, with an indication of a whorl at the 
top. Male organ near the right tentacle ; no caudal gland. 
Habitat. Ponce Mountain, Isle of Prance. Gray placed this species 
as the second in his genus Drusia (Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. 1855, 
p. 59), of which the first species and type was Pannacella valen- 
ciennii, Webb & Van Beneden, from the Hippurite Hills of Alcantara 
(Webb), Portugal. Adams was quite right in separating it from 
this European form. Even Gray, who gives a subcaudal gland as 
a character of his genus, says, " Intermediate between Limax and 
Parmacellns, Quoy. Though Quoy and Gaimard have not mentioned 
the subcaudal gland, I have ventured to place it in this family with 
doubt." There is no indication of this gland in the figures given of 
the animal. 

Gray's genus Drusia is made up of a number of very different and 
distinct forms, and, as Eischer truly points out (Journ. de Conch. 
1872, pp. 207, 208), has no value whatever and cannot stand. 

In July 1867, Mr. P. Eischer, in the ' Journal de Conchyliogie,' 
p. 18, describes this genus most fully, and gives figures of it and its 
anatomy. As this genus is now to be included among our Indian 
Land Mollusca, I cannot do better than extract it in full, for the 
benefit of those who may not have access to the above journal. 

" J'ai reqw de M. Deshayes un Limacien recueilli a Pile de la 
Reunion (Bourbon) par M. Maillard, le patient coUecteur, dont nous 
deplorons la perte recente. Un premier examen suffit pour recon- 
naitre ses afiinites avec le Limax perhicidus de Quoy et Gaimard 
(Astrolabe, pi. xiii. figs. 10-13), signale a I'lsle-de-Erance sur la 
montagne du Pouce. Le Limax perlucidns de Quoy est devenu le 
type du genre Hijalimax de MM. H. et A. Adams, c'est, par conse- 
quent, sous ce nouveau nom generique qu'on devra designer le 
Limacien de Bourbon : Hyalimax maUlardi. 

" L'animal est long d'environ 15 millimetres ; le manteau est forme 



56 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

completemeut sur lo dos ct ne laisse apercevoir aucun rudiment de 
test ; les bords forment cuirasse en avaut et en arriere de la masse 
viscerale. L orifice pulmonaire est situe a la partio moyenue du 
rebord du mauteau (cote droit) ; le pied, assez large, se termine en 
arriere par une pointe, sans pore muqueux. L'oritice genital est 
place a droite, a egale distance du grand tentacule et du bord du 
manteau ; en dessous, la tete est separee du reste du corps par un 
sillon bien marque. 

" En enlevant les tt-'guments du dos on deeouvre une limacelle a 
peu pres arrondie, tres-mince, un peu bombee a sa face superieure, 
et qui me parait manquer de rudiment spiral ; mais peut-etre le trou- 
verait-on sur des individus frais. 

" La machoire est visible a I'exterieur par son bord iuferieur ; elle 
est tres-remarquable et se compose d'un fer a cheval brun, epais, 
largement ouvert, tres-fiuement strie vers les extremites, a bord 
tranchant simple, non festonne, muni d'une dent obtuse a sa partie 
moyenne. Au-dessus du fer a cheval existe une lame ou support 
subquadrangulairo, allonge, etroit, analogue a celui des Saccitiea et 
des genres voisins. 

" La plaque linguale est construite d'apres le type ordinaire des 
Pulmone's herbivores ; la denticulation mediane est etroite et son 
bord iuferieur est tricuspide, mais les pointes descendent tres-peu ; 
les denticulatious laterales, plus larges, portent en dedaus urie pointe 
assez longue et deux ou trois petites saillies externes ; les dents 
marginales ne consistent plus qu'en series, presque liueaires, de den- 
ticulatious egales entre elles et extrememcnt petites. Les dents 
linguales sont disposees sur des lignes plus obliques que dans le 
genre Xanthomjx. Les organes genitaux ofFrent tres-peu de compli- 
cation : la verge est longue, simple, euroulee sur elie-meme ; vers 
son extremite, on trouve un muscle retracteur. Le canal deferent 
la suit dans toute sa longueur et s'accole a une matrice tres-con- 
tournee et festounee, sans renflement special pres de I'orifice com- 
mun genital. La glande albuminipare est globuleuse, divisee en 
lobes tres-nombreux : le canal excrt'teur de la glande en grappe est 
tres-tortueux au point ou il s'accole a la glande albuminipare. 

" La poche copulatrice, placee a Textremite d'un col tres-long et 
simple, est petite, arrondie ; un muscle retracteur s'insere sur ses 
parois. 

" Le mollusque de Bourbon est done un Limacien par sa coquillo 
completemeut interne, mais sa .machoire le rapproche des Succinea ; 
le peu de complication des organes genitaux etablit un rapport de 
plus entre ceux-ci et le geure HuaUmax. 

" n existe, par consequent, parmi les mollusques du groupe des 
Succinea une serie tres-complete analogue a celle des Arionida3 ou 
des Limacidse, et dont les priucipaux termes sont : 

" 1°. Coquille contenant entierement le mollusque : Succinea, 

Simpulopsis ; 
" 2". Coquille ne recouvrant qu'une portion de I'animale Oma- 

lo)ii/x. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 57 

" 3". Coquille cachee completement par le manteau : Hyalimax. 
" 4". Coquille absente ou tout a fait rudimentaire : Janellia, 
Aneitea, etc. 

" La forme de la machoire des Hyalimax les distingue do cos divers 
genres ; c'est une combinaison des caracteres de celle des Zonites (pour 
le bord) et des Succinea (pour le support) ; le genre Hyalimax est 
done etabli tres-legitimemeut ; mais nous somraes certain que 
MM. Adams ne pensaient pas, en le creant, qu'il viendrait un jour 
se ranger aupres des Succinea." 

In July 1872 the same author published another paper on the 
species of this genus (Journ. de Conch, p. 202) ; and he describes in 
detail Rang's species Parmacella mauritias^ which he places in 
Hyalimax, after showing the points of similarity with //. maillardi, 
Fischer. The dentition is also of the same type ; but I note that the 
dental formula given on p. 205 is 120 . 1 . 120, thus differing very con- 
siderably from that of H. anclamanica ; and he concludes by saying : — 
" Le genre Hyalimax, forme aberrante des Succineidoc, est le dernier 
degre de I'aplatissement de la coquille des Succinea. Ainsi I'animal 
des vrais Succim'ci est contenuc dans sa coquille ; chez les Homa- 
lonyx, la coquille ne recouvre qu'une partie du corps ; chez les 
Hyalimax eUe devient interne. Les Hyalimax sent les equivalents, 
dans les iles Africaines, des Homalonyx de I'Amerique." 

Htalimax (Jaeava) andamanica, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 1, 2, 3, 
and 4.) 

Hah. Near Port Blair, Andaman Islands. 

The animal is thus described by my brother, Mr. Harold Godwin- 
Austen, who sent me four specimens. " Pale watery green, yeUower 
on the mantle, with alternate stripes of torquoise-blue and chocolate 
on the upper part of the neck." These darker lines I suspect are the 
retractor muscles of the eye-tentacles ; the animal when living would 
appear to have a much flattened wide foot, thin, and spreading at 
the margin, for in the spirit-specimen it is much wrinkled ; the extre- 
mity of the foot is pointed, with no mucous gland. There is no defined 
pallial margin to the foot ; distinct grooves run at intervals from the 
dorsal edge of the mantle to the side of the foot ; and two of the 
specimens show a few distinct dark spots on the u^iper surface of the 
extremity of the foot. An indistinct median area on the sole of the 
foot. Eye-tentacles apparently stout. I am in doubt regarding the 
oral tentacles ; and if present, they are probably small. The mantle 
is continuous over the shell, and covered with minute papiUae ; there 
is no division into right and left shell-lobes ; the dorsal lobes are 
very much reduced in size, the right dorsal lobe particularly so, being 
very narrow and only extending to the posterior margin ; the left 
dorsal lobe is also very narrow, and only just separated from the 
mantle, terminating on the left anterior side. The res])iratory 
orifice (fig. 3) is just behind the centre of the right side of the 
mantle, a short distance above its lower edge. The anal orifice, 



58 LAND AND FKKSHWATKU 

fig. S{A), is some distance (3 mm.) behind it, and concealed by the 
mantle, its position being quite on the right posterior margin. 

Length of spirit-specimen 16'0, mantle 11*0, breadth 5*5 mm. 
„ „ 0-65 „ 0-45, „ 0-23 iuch. 

The shell (fig. 4) is ovate, thin, flat, transparent, milky white, 
with close concentric ridges of growth, very thin and delicate on the 
margin ; the apex rather more solid and quadrate at that end, the 
nucleus being on the right margin. 

Size : Major diam. 5-0 mm., minor diam. 3-3 mm. 
0-20 inch, „ 0-13 inch. 

Odontojihore &c. The buccal mass (fig. 6) is large ; the strong 
retractor muscle has its attachment, together with that of the eye- 
teutacles, in the usual ]»osition at the posterior side of the mantle- 
margin ; but the posterior portion of the buccal mass is very 
different to what we find in other species : it is more truncate ; and 
that part where the lingual ribbon takes its origin, and which in 
all species I have hitherto examined jjresents a shortish blunt knob- 
like process, in this species is represented by two coils, which are 
really the posterior edges of the lingual ribbon, turned up on each 
side and coiled on itself inwards. The lingual ribbon is broader 
than it is long ; and 92 rows were counted, each containing at least 
530 teeth. 

265 . 1 . 265. 

The central tooth (fig. 8) is 4-cuspid and much hooked. The 
laterals are all alike, very gradually becoming smaller on the outside ; 
they bend over in a claw-like form, and are edged with four cusps, 
of which the two outermost are slightly longer than the two inner ; 
a very minute cusp can just be disceriicd in some of the largest 
laterals near the centre, at the exterior base of, and next the first 
long inner cusp. 

The jaw (fig. 7) is very peculiar. It is a very dark umber colour ; 
the cutting or frontal edge forms an oblique angle ; and the muscvdar 
attachment is very strong and extends back at right angles, equal 
in length to the width of the jaw, which is T-shaped as in Suc- 
cinea &c. 

The heart {vide fig. 5, V) is situated on the left anterior margin of 
the mantle. The position of the anus is very far back on the right 
posterior side, quite removed from the neighbourhood of the respi- 
ratory orifice, its usual position in most genera ; and this is perhaps 
the most interesting point in the anatomy of this species. The 
intestine terminates in a large expanded sac just within the aperture. 

Generative organs (fig. 9). The ovotestis, hermaphrodite duct, and 
albumen-gland were not made out. The oviduct {ov.) is much convo- 
luted for a short distance, and then extends in a long straight duct 
to the generative aperture ; the prostate is of same length, the vas 
deferens running parallel to the straight portion of the oviduct down 
to a short bulbous expansion, to which it is probable the retractor 
muscle is given off ; but this was not found iu either specimen 
examined. The spermatheca {Sp) is of very great length ; a long 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 59 

and thin tube terminating in a round ball-like expansion, which is 
like in this respect to H. maillurdi. Hyalimax andamanica, how- 
ever, differs from this Bourbon species (1) in the form of the jaw, 
which has no indication of a central projection ; (2) there is con- 
siderable divergence in the shell, and I give a drawing of that of 
JI. perliicidus (fig. 10), from Mauritius, received by me from Mr. G. 
Nevill, which shows the apex to be very attenuate and sharp, and 
there is a distinct greenish epidermis ; (3) the dental formula is 
different; (4) Fischer does not indicate the position of the anal 
aperture, which, situated in H. andamanica so far back on the 
posterior right margin, is of extreme importance, so that if other- 
wise in Hyalimax of Bourbon, and in its usual position adjacent 
to the respiratory orifice, it may render it necessary to place the 
Indian form in another subgenus, which I would name Jarava, from 
the name of the aboriginal tribe that inhabit the South Andaman 
Islands. In this case a subfamily Htalimacin^ would include 
1. Hyalimax {perlucidas, Isle of France ; maiiritiamis, Isle of France ; 
maillardi, Bourbon), and 2. Jarava (j-einhai'di, Nicobars ; anda- 
manica, Andamans ; viridis, Arracan). 

In the form of the buccal mass, the broad radula and its 
numerous teeth, andamanica resembles in a remarkable manner the 
curiously formed New-Zealand slug Janella antipodarum. Gray, 
described and figured by Mr. C. Knight in the ' Transactions of the 
Linnean Society,' vol. xxii., read Juno 2, 1859 ; and they all must 
be regarded, with Succinea and others, as one great group, indicated 
so well and on such good grounds by Mr. P. Fischer. 

From the islands of the Bay of Bengal we also have another 
species 

Hyalimax (Jarava) eeinhardi, Morch. 

Hyalimax (Jarava) reinliardi, Morch, Journ. de Couch. July 1872, 
p. 314. 

Original description : — " C Unguceforme, postice acuminatum, pal- 
lide increscens, Ommatoplioria ccerulea. Tentacula brevissimcc. Pal- 
lium ellipticum, prasinum, orijicio respiratorio in medio marginis 
dextri sito. Notceum pedis sulcis radiantihus distantibus et sulco obso- 
letoperipherico circumdatum. Testa scapuloiformis, latere dextro recto. 
Maxillce crista muscularis angusta, longitudinis fere dimidium maxillce. 

Long. 45 mill., long, pallii 22 mill., lat. 11 mill., long, nota^i 
pedis 17 mill, (ox icone). 

" Hab. Pulo Panjang et Sambelong. Cette espece a ete recueillie 
sur le cote inferieur des feuilles de Calderon et d'autres vegetaux a 
feuillage epais. L'animal so tient habituellement immobile et con- 
tracte, en effectant une forme ovale. L'attache musculaire de la 
machoire est plus etroite et plus allongee que chez VH. maillardi, 
Fischer (J. Conch. 1867, p. 218, t. x. f. 5, 9). " 

This species would a^jpear to be very similar to the Andaman 
form, but larger ; until, however, they are compared together in 
greater detail, or we obtain drawings of the animals from life, I 
think it best to keep them separate. 



60 LAXD AND FRESHWATKR 

Hyalimax (Jarava) viridis, W. Theobald. 

Hyalimax {Jarava) viridis, W. Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1864, p. 244. 

Origiual description: — '•'■Cor pore expanso, p>one acuminata, Jlnvo 
cinereo. Pallio magno, Icete colorato viridi-Jlavo limonis. Tentaculis 
superiorihxis longis, pallidis, oculos parvos nigros f/erentibus j et linea 
pallide smaragdina ad basin notatis. Tentaculis inferioribus minu- 
tissimis. 

^^ Habitat inter folia in dumetis mariuis 'mangrove' dictis apud 
littus Peguense, propo fines provinciis Arracan, 

" This elegant little Limax is very active, and creeps about briskly 
on the green foliage of the salt swamps, which (i. e. the leaves) it 
resembles in colour.'' 

There can be but little doubt, from the above description and 
the habitat, that this species must find a place here ; how far it 
extends north, and whether Hgalimax occurs in the Sunderbunds it 
would be interesting to learn ; but it may certainly be looked for 
there, especially on the eastern side, near Chittagong. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XI. 

Fig. I. Animal of Hyalimax {Jarava) andamanica, from spirit-specimen, right 
side, X 4. 

2. Ditto, viewed from the left side. 

3. Ditto, right side, showing tlie position of the respiratory and anal 

orifices. 

4. 4 a. Ditto : shell, X 8 and natural size. 

6. Ditto: view from below, X 4. .<4, anal aperture ; J^'', heart ; Ees.or., 
respiratory aperture; r.m.T,, retractor-muscle tentacles; r.m.B., 
ditto, buccal mass. 

6. Ditto : nnicli enlarged view of the buccal mass, showing the form of 

its posterior end. s, salivary-gland duct. 

7. Ditto : jaw, x 20. 

8. Ditto: central teeth of the radula, X 1250. 

9. Ditto : generative organs, X 8. 

10. Shell oi Hyalimax 2>erlucidus, Quoy and Gaimard, from Mauritius. 



Genus Geomalacus. 

The genus Geomalacus was first discovered by William Andrews, 
Esq., of Dublin, in 1842, and first described at a meeting of the 
Dublin Natural-History Society, in January 1843, by Prof. G. J. 
AUman, who afterwards gave a full account of it, with a drawing of 
the animal, in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' for May 
1846, vol. xvii, p. 21) 7, the original description being as follows : — 

"Gen. Char. Corpus productum, lanceolatum, carincB expers ; 
pallium scutiforme, ovatum; spiraculmn in manjine anteriori pallii ; 
foramen genitale pone radicem tentacidi minoris dextri ; testa solida, 
plana, subovata. Ab Arione differt hoc genus situ foraminis geni- 
talis, a Limace Cauda glandulifera et situ anteriori spnraculi. 

" G. maculosus, unica sp>ecies qtumi in rup)ibus madidis comitatus 
Kerricnsis repentem invenit Gulielmus Andrews. 

" .... It is an exceedingly beautiful animal, measuring when 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 61 

creeping about 2 inches in length ; the colour of the shield and 
upper part of the body is black, elegantly spotted with yellow ; the 
under surface of the foot light yellow, and divided into three nearly 
equal bands ; the edge of the foot is brown with transverse sulci. 
Besides the typical variety, which is that now described, a second 
is occasionally met with ; it is characterized by the spots being of a 
pure white." 

Professor AUman then proceeds to show how this genus differs 
from A7'ion and Limax, and considers that it approaches more nearly 
to the former than to the latter. I am inclined to think it is 
equally distant from both — the position of the generative aperture 
in Arion just below that of the respiratory, which is an excellent 
character, places it very wide of that genus, much more than the pre- 
sence of the mucous gland at the extremity of the foot separates it 
from Limax ; while the forward position of the respiratory aperture 
is not a character of very much importance ; whereas the position of 
the generative orifice m Arion, and adjacent to the respiratory, alters 
altogether the arrangement and form of the other organs of the 
body, the site of muscle-attachments, &c. The size of the rudi- 
mentary shells in these genera of slugs does not very much affect 
the question of their respective affinities. 

I have lately, owing to the kindness and liberality of Dr. A.. 
Giinther, of the British Museum, been able to examine the animal 
of this genus more closely, and look at other characters, which place 
it altogether in a more remote and isolated position as regards both 
Arion and Limax. At the same time the possession of species of 
the genus Anadenns, Heynemann, from the Himalaya, which I have 
already figured and described, shows that Geomalacus is more nearly 
related to that genus than those above mentioned. It is for this 
reason, and that we may compare the characters of both, that I 
enter more fully into and figure some of the internal organs of this 
very restricted European genus. 

As the position and attachment of the large retractor muscles in 
these creatures bear somewhat the same relation to its body, as 
regards its outer form, when in motion or at rest, as the develop- 
ment of the muscles in the Vertebrates effects and modifies the size 
and form of their skeleton, importance should be paid to this part 
of their anatomy ; and it is found that in many genera the position 
of these muscles where given off changes from a posterior to a more 
anterior one, showing in this respect a greater departure from some 
original type. 

Geomalacus maculosus, Allman. (Plate XII.) 

Geomalacus maculosus, Allman, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. xvii. 
p. 297, pi. ix. (May 1846) ; Forbes & Hauley, vol. iv. p. 12, pi. f p f*. 
f. 5 (1853). 

G. mamlatus, Adams, Genera, p. 228, pi. Ixxx. ff. 4, 4«. (1858). 

1 Limax anguiformis, Morelet, Moll. Port. p. 36, pi. iii. f. 1. 

G. maculosus, Gwyn Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, i. p. 129, pi. v. f. 3 (1862) ; 
Bourguignat, Class. Fam. Moll, vivants, p. 14 (1877) ; J. Mabille, 



62 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Revue et Mag. Zoologie, January, p. 53 (1867) ; Lovell Reeve, Land 
& Freshwater Moll. British Isles, p. 13 (1863) ; J. Mabille, Annales 
de Make. p. 120 (1870). 

Loc. An island in Dingle Bay, west coast of Ireland. Coll. Brit. 
Mus. 

Shell (PI. XII. fig. 2) covered ou the outside with a very thin trans- 
parent epidermis. The mucous gland is very small (figs. 1,1a), the 
pedal margin of the foot very distinct and similar to that of Avion. 
The renal organ is triangular in form, its nearly equal sides completely 
surrounding the heart (fig. 8), which is thus central as regards that 
organ, as in Arion (fig. 9); but in that genus the form of the renal 
organ is lunate. The ventricle is directed towards and very close to 
the anal and respiratory orifices, while in Arion it is more remote 
and in a more posterior position. These diff'erences in position and 
form of the renal organ in this genus, Arion, Anadenus, and Limax 
are shown in fig. 10, where it lies alongside the heart and posterior 
to it. 

Retractor muscles. Those of the two eye-tentacles {r.m.T., fig. 8) 
are attached at the right and left posterior margin of the mantle, 
that of the odontophore or buccal mass {r.m.O.) just behind the 
attachment of the right eye-tentacle ; while that of the penis is 
situated far back near the extremity of the foot on the left posterior 
side. Now in Arion the attachments of the eye-tentacles and odon- 
tophore are closer together at the posterior margin of the mantle, 
and that of the penis is here also occupying a middle position be- 
tween the muscles of the eye-tentacles. 

If we examine Limax again (fig. 10) we find a still greater 
divergence. The retractor muscle of the penis (r.m.P.) is anterior, 
ou the mantle-margin, and that of the eye-tentacles and buccal 
mass (r.m. 0., E/, T.) are all close together on the posterior right 
margin. 

Odontophore. The jaw is distinctly ribbed, solid, dark brown in 
colour ; concave in front, with a sharp edge. The dental formula is 

59 . 1 . 59. 

The central tooth is unicuspid, rather short and broad ; the median 
teeth are long, sharply pointed, with a very small notch or cusp at 
the outer basal margin. This becomes better developed in the lateral 
teeth ; up to the 14th or 15th median the teeth are xmiform in 
size, but they then become gradually smaller towards the sides, and 
about the 4Gth are much broader at the base, with the outer tooth 
well developed ; the last five or six are very minute, and the cusps 
blunt and irregular. In the form of these laterals and the radula 
generally it has a most interesting similarity to that of Anadenus, ' 
which also has a ribbed jaw. It is quite unlike Arion in this 
character of the radula. In one specimen the teeth were quite 
worn down in the centre, so that the points were reduced to a 
blunt knob. The stomach of this individual contained a cousider- 
able quantity of coarse angular sand mixed with the food, which 
appeared derived from granite rocks. 

Generative organs. I have dissected two specimens, and both 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



63 



were similar in every way. There is nothing remarkable from the 
ovotestis to the oviduct and vas deferens. The male organ and sper- 
matheca, however, are peculiar. The retractor muscle is, of course, 
very long, as it extends so far back in the body-cavity. The vas 
deferens is very long, and very much twisted and convoluted on 
itself, and in a portion of this twisted length the capreolus is no 
doubt formed. The spermatheca is not attached to the generative 
apparatus by a separate duct of its own, but rises close to and beside 
the retractor-muscle attachment, its duct running with, as if forming 
a part of, the penis. Now if we look at the generative organs of 
Anadenus (Plate YI. fig. 7) there is a good deal of similarity in the 
form of the long coiled vas deferens, and we have only to unite the 
duct of the spermatheca to that of the penis to bring about what is 
seen in Geomalacus. On opening out the vagina of Geomalacus, 
there is found a curious arrangement of the flattened folds, of which 
the central part with pointed end, situated close to the genital 
aperture (Gt'n.Ap.), may be the homologue of the dart in other 
genera. 

Monsieur Jules Mabille has given (I. c.) a paper on the genus 
Geomalacus, and enumerates some seven species, and he points out 
the differences between it and more or less similar genera. He is, 
however, over-critical, I think, on the English drawings that have 
been given of G. maculosiis ', for that in the 'Annals and Magazine 
of Natural History' is, I consider, a very good representation of the 
animal, judging from spirit-specimens, and it shows clearly the very 
distinctive mottled skin of the animal ; it does not profess to give a 
magnified portion of the skin drawn from life and the minute white 
specks alluded to in the footnote, a character which is not an all- 
important one. When we examine the descriptions of the new 
species we find that they depend entirely on outward characters 
alone, so that M. Mabille leaves much to be desired ; and it will be 
an interesting and useful task if some French naturalist will take 
up the examination of the internal characters of these slugs, 

G. andreivsi, occurring in the same part of Ireland with macit- 
losus, can only be considered a variety, with more white than black. 
At the time Avhen Forbes and Hanley, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, &c. 
recorded this slug in their works as a Great-Britain form, it was 
not known to occur in France. The last-named author pointed out 
that anguiformis, Morelet, of Portugal probably belongs to the same 
genus, and goes so far as to think it may be even the same species 
as maculosus, so that it was not at all unexpected by English natu- 
ralists that the genus should be found in France, a very natural 
range for it ; how far it may extend eastward is now the point 
that interests us. From what is now known, its present range is 
the west of Europe and the countries on the Atlantic sea-board. 



64 LAND AND FRE8HWATKR 



List of recorded Species of Geomalacus. 

G. macidosus, Allman : type. Ireland. 
O. andrewsi, var., Mabille. Ireland. 

G. aiu/uiformis, Morelet. La serra de Morichique, Algarve, 
Portugal. 

G. intermedius, IS'ormand. Valenciennes, France. 
G. hourguir/iiad, Mabille. Foret de Meudon, Paris. 
G. paladilliiaiius, Mabille. do. do. 

G. moikssierianus, Mabille. do. do. 

These three last, I should conclude, are the same species in dif- 
ferent stages of growth. 

In a paper entitled " Des Limaciens Frangais," I. c. (1870), M. 
Mabille records also 

G. tncdnlli, Baudon, Journ, Conch, viii. p. 142 (April 1868). 
Mouy-de-l'Oise. 

G. vendeianns, Letourneux, Rev. et Mag. Zool. t. xxi. p. 7. 
Bois-Plat, Fonteuay-le-Comte (Vendee). 



Key to Genera of Liinacidaj and Arionidae. 

External characters. Geuus or Subgenus. 

A. Animal with a complete oval mantle ; gene- 

rative aperture near the right tentacle. 

a. With shell rudimentary, internal. 

a'. Jaw smooth, simple, with central pro- 
jection. 
a". Anal aperture close to respiratory ori- 
fice. 
a'''. Foot pointed; no mucous pore. 
«■*. Respiratory orifice on the posterior 
riglit margin of mantle. 

a5. Extremity of foot keeled Limax. 

,^ , ... ^ f {Amalia), VToquin-Tandon: 

aa. Mantle papillate | ^ {Milax), Gray. 

,, T\ VI 1 • -J { {Ei(limax), Moquin-Tan- 

60. Do. with concentric ridges ... i ^ -, ,r- n >< „ 

° [ don ; {Ltmax), Gray. 

i*. Foot rounded above I/hnacus. 

b*. Respiratory orifice in middle of 

mantle. 

b. Shell witli well-developed spire; foot keeled.. Parmacella. 
b'. Jaw ribbed Anadenus. 

b'". Extremity of foot with mucous gland. 
c*. Respiratory aperture on anterior 

right margin Geomalactts. 

B. Generative aperture below the respiratory Arion. 

cc. Shell rudimentary (calcareous 

particles not united) (iocAea ), Moquin-Tandon. 

dd. Shell with slightly united gra- 
nulations (Pro^epi5),Moquin-Tandon. 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 65 

Key to Genera o/Limacidse and Arionidse {continued). 

External characters. Genus or Subgenus. 

0. Anal aperture on the posterior right margin of the 
mantle removed from the respii'atory orifice, 
c'". No mucous gland. 

d^. Respiratory orifice in middle of 

mantle Hyalimax. 

Internal characters. 

A. Rectum close to respiratory orifice. 

a. Muscle-attachment of penis anterior to edge of 

mantle. 

a!. Renal organ lying alongside the heart {plnMceWa. 

b. Muscle-attachment of penis ■posterior to edge of 

mantle. 

h'. Renal organ partly surrounding the heart ...\ a^Iq,., 

c. Muscle-attachment of penis near extremity of foot Geomalacus. 

B. Rectum behind the respiratory orifice, and radula 

of diiferent type Hyalimax. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 

Fig. 1. Geomalacus maculosus, Allman : side yiew of extremity of foot, with 
mucous gland, from spirit-specimen, a, view from behind of ditto. 

2. Ditto : shell, x 7. 

3. Ditto : jaw, x 20. 

4. Ditto: teeth of radula, X 360. 4a. 12th to 18th; 4 6. Outer- 

most laterals. 

5. Ditto : generative organs, X 2. 

6. Ditto : ditto, portion of, from second specimen. Male organ. 

7. Ditto: the basal portion of male organ, laid open. Goi.Jp., position 

of generative aperture ; the external opening is on the other side. 

8. Ditto : position of renal organ, heart, and the retractor muscles, 

viewed from below, X 3. 

9. Arion ater. Reigate. Position of above organs, similar view, X 2. 
10. Limax agrestis, SlilUer : ditto, ditto, X 3. M.f., mantle, frontal 

edge; M.I., mantle, left margin; r.m.O., T., P., retractor-muscle 
attachments of odontophore, eye-tentacle, and penis ; s, position 
of apex of shell. 

Genus Helicaeion, Ferussac. 

I have been able lately to examine the animal of a species of this 
genus from Australia, kindly sent me, together with other interesting 
shells, by Dr, J. C. Cox, of Sydney, who has worked so long and 
so well at the shells of that country. The specimen is close to 
R. hyalina, Pfr., and is referred to in Dr. Cox's ' Monograph of 
Australian Land Shells' (1868), p. 85. I have named it coxiana, 
and shall refer to the anatomy when describing the Indian species 
that have been hitherto placed in this genus. I may now state that 
the Australian form differs in this respect very materially from the 
East-Indian ; that from Sydney, I find, resembles exactly that of 
Helicarion freycineti, Quoy and Gaimard, from New South Wales, 
figured so well in Dr. C. Semper's ' Eeisen im Archipel der Philip- 
pinen,' pi. iii. fig. 6. 

Girasia of Gray is a very distinct subgenus of the Helicarionidae. 



LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 



OF 



INDIA. 



Part in.— JANUARY 1883. 



(Plates XIII.-XXI.) 

The shells that are now figured on Plates XIII. to XVII. are aU 
of very small size, and many of them arc described for the first 
time, I had hoped in this Part to be able to figure some of the 
small operculated shells which are included in Mr. Sjdvauus 
Hanley's " Sjnstematic List of Species " in the ' Conchologia Indica,' 
though not figured in that work, and the large number that have 
been found since ; but I have thought it best to continue the minute 
Zonitidae, and record the little-known forms of this family before 
entering on another. 

It has become somewhat a difiicult matter to know under what 
genus to place most of these little shells. We know nothing of the 
animals, still less of their anatomy : in the case of some species it is 
doubtful even to what family they belong ; for instance, the more 
or less depressedly pyramidal shells on Plate XYI. are transversely- 
sculptured like KaJieUa, and I bring them into that subgenus. 
In India the Zonitidas altogether exceed the HelicidaB in number, 
and those genera and subgenera which come into the latter family 
are mostly of large and characteristic form. 

I am therefore obliged to group them, to a certain extent, by 
outward form of shell and the sculpture well magnified ; and as this 
depends almost entirely on the form and action of the mantle, it is 
of a certain value. Thus guided by sculpture, those shells figured on 
Plate XIII. approach the subgenus Sitala, for longitudinal ribbing 
is characteristic of aU and is always well seen on the base and 
apex, though somewhat obliterated on the face of the whorls by the 
transverse lines of growth. In the strong epidermis of some, hirsute 
in others, or very oblique undulate ribbing there is much divergence ; 
and these again merge into forms like MacrocMamys, as shown on 
Plate XIV., to which I suspect several belong. 

For some of these species we might establish subgeneric titles, 
and they will perhaps be necessary to complete the chain of classifi- 
cation ; it is better, however, to wait and learn more about them 

PART III. H 



68 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

before doing so. Helix conidus, Blf., stands alone, a very peculiar 
form, which cannot be put in any of the genera I am now figuring. 
Blanford placed it in KalieUa with doubt, and I follow him. 
The examination of the odontophore of a species on Plate XV. 
shows close relationship with KalieUa ; and the dissection of a species 
(figs. 1 & 2 on Plate XYII.) from Cherra Poongeo settles definitely the 
position of most of the shells on that Plate in the genus MacrocJdamys, 
and thus leads up through these small forms to the illustration 
of it in detail on Plates XVIII., XIX., and XX. On Plate XXI. 
I give drawings of the sculpture of several species of Zonitidag, 
which I found useful when roughly grouping them together. 

The description and synonj-my of Macrochlamys indicav^iM be given 
in Part IV., together with tugurium, petrosa, resplendens^ decussata, 
and other largo species of the genus, which perhaps contains more 
species than any other in the Indian llegion, and those species ex- 
ceedingly variable in form. 

With reference to the discovery of KalieUa in Madagascar, 
Mr. Edgar Smith writes as follows, in the P. Z. S. for 1882, p. 375 : 
— " One minute species, H. harrakporensis, has not previously been 
met with except in India, where it may have been introduced, as is 
the case with the large Achatina fidica, a most abundant shell in 
some parts of Madagascar and also at the Mauritius." The intro- 
duction of this last by Mr. Benson into Calcutta is weU known ; and 
since then it has spread all over Calcutta and its suburbs up to 
Barrakpur, where I have seen it, and across the Hooghly into the 
Botanical Gardens, the eggs, no doubt, transported in the roots of 
garden plants. It has thus become a perfect pest— a somewhat 
similar and questionable benefit to the country as the introduction 
of the rabbit and sparrow has been to Australia. Now KalieUa 
harrcd'porensis is not a parallel case, but one that must remain an 
example of great extension of a species. It is a most abundant shell 
over a vast area of country from the Sundabunds to the Himalayas, 
there being few small shells so abundant. 



Family ZONITID^ (continued). 
Subgenus Kaltella {continued from pacje 24). 
Kalielia. lailangkotensis, n. sp. (Plate XV. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Locality. Lailangkote, Khasi Hills (//. H. G.-A.). 

Shell depressedly conoid, subangular on periphery, closely umbi- 
licated; sculpture, covered with a strong epidermis, well ribbed 
transversely, crossed by regular longitudinal fine ribs ; colour pale 
ochre ; spire low, blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 5, somewhat 
flattened ; aperture subvertical ; peristome sinuate below, thin, 
columellar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 4-8 mm., alt. axis 2-3 mm. 
„ 0-19 inch, „ 0-09 inch. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



69 



This shell is very abundant at Lailangkote among the large 
weathered masses of granite there ; but it was found also at Mairaiig, 
Teria Ghat, Maotherichau Peak, and Mokarsa. 

From one of these dried specimens I have been able to extract 
the labial ribbon and jaw, which 1 figure on Plate XX. The 
central tooth is tricuspid, the centre cusp long ; the next five 
median teeth are rather broad, pointed, long, with small denticles 
on both the outer and inner basal sides; the sixth and seventh 
are similarly tricuspid ; from the eighth outwards all are bicuspid, 
but the outer cusp never reaches to the same length as the inner. 
In this respect this dentition differs from that of Macroclilamys. 
The dental formula is 

2(3 . 2 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 2 . 2G 
33 . 1 . 33 

The jaw is simple, the cutting-edge concave, with a low convexity 
in the median area. 

The mantle-lobes could not be made out in this specimen. 

The central and median teeth are thus as in Kalidia and the 
formula is the same ; the only diff'erenee lies in the laterals being 
bicuspid in this species. This character of the odontophore, together 
with the keeled form of the shell, shows that it should be placed in 
that subgenus together with other species on Plate XV. 

Two specimens of this shell have been sent me by Mr. G. Xevill 
(collected by Mr. Robert intheXaga Hills) as no. 209 of his ' Hand- 
list,' Nanina (Microo/stis), n. sp., p. 42, " 14,Xaga Hills, coll. Major 
Godwin-Austen, W.^Eobert, and A. W. Chennell, Esqs." I do 
not possess a single specimen from that district ; there must have 
been some mixing of shells here. 

Kaliella kezamahensis, n. sp. (Plate XV. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Locality. Kezamah, Anghami Naga Hills ; Gaziphima, Naga 
Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell subturbinate, well umbilicated, covered with strong epi- 
dermis, base flat ; sculpture rather coarse, decussate, like cloth, the 
transverse ribbing the strongest ; colour, specimen bleached ; spire 
conoid, sides convex, apex blunt; whorls 5|-, convex,^ keeled 
sharply on last ; aperture semilunar ; peristome rather thickened, 
very oblique near axis. 

Size : major diam. 4-1 mm., alt. axis 2-0 mm. 
„ 0-16 inch, „ 0-08 inch. 

T have been successful in extracting the labial ribbon of this 
species, which is the same as that of the preceding {lailamjl-otensis) 
as regards the central or median teeth being tricuspid, only that 
it does not possess the two transitional teeth between the median 
and laterals ; and these last are more distinctly unilateral, the outer 
cusp being situated near the base and never rising so high towards 
the point as in lailangkotensis. The formula is 
25 . 6 . 1 . 6 . 25 
31 . 1 . 31 

h2 



70 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Jaw not seen. With this specimen I was also fortunate to find 
the spermatophoro, which will be figured in the next Part with the 
above odontophore. 

Kaliella ? BTJREAiLENSis, n. sp. (Platc XV. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b.) 

Locality. Burrail range, Naga Hills (G.-A.). 

Shell closely umbilicated, dcpressedly conoid, keeled ; sculpture, 
on base well-marked radiating ridges of growth, crossed by fine con- 
centric ribbing ; colour pale dull ochraceous ; spire, sides flatly 
convex, apex rounded ; suture very shallow ; whorls 5, flat ; aperture 
narrow, semilunate ; columellar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 5-7 mm., alt. axis 2-4 mm. 
0-23 inch, „ 0-10 inch. 

This shell approaches K. ruya in its form, but has not got the 
small indentation on the base of the last whorl ; it may also at first 
sight be mistaken for both lail angle otetis is and hezamaJiensis ; but its 
close umbilication and large size distinguish it. Only two specimens 
were obtained. 

Kaliella? ruga, n. sp. (Plate XV. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Locality. Phiinggam, Lahiipa Naga Hills, on the trap-boss near 
the village ; Shiroifurar Peak, 9000 feet (//. //. G.-A.). 

Shell depressedly turbinate, well rounded below, iimbilicate, covered 
with strong epidermis, with a single palatal plica or tooth within 
the aperture * ; sculpture like cloth, irregular, coarse, the transverse 
ribbing the strongest, below smoother, with a few transverse ribs ; 
colour pale horny brown ; spire low, sides convex, apex flat ; suture 
slightly impressed ; whorls 5, regiilarly increasing, the last angular 
at periphery ; aperture narrow, subluuate, vertical, the tooth-like 
process just within on lower margin, this is oblong, blunt, but 
slightly raised and directed obliquely backwards, and in some speci- 
mens two are to be seen, one behind the other ; this tooth appears to 
be formed during periods of arrested growth, the old edge of the 
aperture being apparent near it ; peristome thin, thickened towards 
the columellar margin, which is much oblique to the axis. 

Size : major diam, 3*6 mm., alt. axis l"8mm. 
„ 0-14 inch, „ 0-07 inch. 

Kaliella ? nevilli, n. sp. (Plate XIII. fig. 6.) 

Locality. Darjiling. 

Shell subpyramidal, openly umbilicated, thin, fragile, subangulate, 
the periphery ornamented with a line of hairs, which aro pointed ; 
sculpture very oblique and distant, well-marked costulation ; colour 
olive-brown ; spire conoid, sides flat ; suture weU impressed ; whorls 

* A similar palatal tooth to this is found in H. hcUcifcra, Blf., from Arakan, 
of which I shall hereafter give a drawing, as it is not shown in the figure in 
the ' Conch. Indica,' nor is the peculiar columellar margin very well delineated. 



MOLLXTSCA OF INDIA. 



71 



5, last well rouudcd below ; aperture very ovate ; peristome thiu 
aud scarcely reflected. 

Size : major diam. 0-30, alt. axis 0'14 inch. 

„ 7-7 „ 3-5 mm. 

This species was sent me by Mr. Geoffrey NeviU, from the Indian 
Museum collection, Calcutta, where the type figured will be sent. 
It was, I believe, discovered by Colonel Mainwaring. Its generic 
position is very doubtful. 

Kaliella ? coNULTJs, W. T. Blauford. (Plate XY. figs. 6, 6 a.) 
Sec. Kaliella? Nanina conula, W. Blf. J. A. S. B. 1865, pt. 2, 
vol. xxxiv. p. 73; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 89 ; Conch. Ind. p. 52, 
pi. cxxix. figs. 5, 6. 

Kaliella, sec. A, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 20. 

Locality of figured specimen. Jatinga valley, North Cacbar Hills, 
and I have one other shell from Muuipur. 

Sculpture, longitudinal fine ribbing, most marked on the apical 
whorls, crossed by fine, irregular, very oblique strise ; colour white. 
There is one of the four original specimens in Mr. W. T. Blanford's 
coUection, fixed upon a glass shde, with which I have compared 
the above, but it was too thin and dehcate a shell to remove for 
figuring ; they agree perfectly. 

Size: major diam. 3-1, alt. axis 2-9 mm. 

Original descrijAioa :—" iiheli subperforate, turreted, white, 
horny', thin, translucent, marked with oblique sinuous subfihform 
costulate striatiou, and below the centre of the whorl with very 
fine spiral lines, only visible under a powerful lens ; spire conical, 
apex rather obtuse ; suture deeply sunk. Whorls G, very convex, 
keeled in the centre, the keel very fine, raised, thread-hke, opaque 
and white ; the last whorl bicarinate, the second raised spiral line 
being below the periphery ; fiatly convex beneath, and marked by 
radiating striiE and concentric impressed lines. Aperture oblique, 
tumidly and subangulaiiy lunate, about equally broad and high; 
peristome thin ; margins distinct ; columeUar nearly vertical, very 
briefly reflexed at the penultimate whorl. 

" Diam. 1^ mm. = 0-07 inch. 

" Height 2 „ = 0-08 „ 

" IJab. Phoung-do, Arakan. 

" A minute species, remarkable for its keeled and convex whorls. 
Only four specimens were found." 

It would be interesting to know the anatomy of this species and 
the relationship to its neighbours. 

Kaliella ? leithiana, n. sp. (Plate XVI. figs. 6, 6 a, 6 b.) 

Locality. Ceylon (ex coll. Dr. Leith). 

SheU narrowly umbilicated, discoid, keeled, base flat ; sculpture 
covered with an olivaceous epidermis, irregular transverse hues of 
growth ; spire very depressedly conoid, sides flat, apex blunt ; whorls 
6A, all very equal in breadth, flat ; aperture elongate, narrow, per- 
pendicular ; peristome thin, columeUar margin upright, short. 



72 LAND ANB FRESHWATEK 

Size: major diam. 7'0 mm., alt. axis 2-4 mm. 

This specimen was purchased from a dealer, having come from the 
late Dr. Lcith's collection ; it was still on the original card he had 
gummed it on, so that the habitat can bo trusted. It is to be 
regretted the exact locality is unknown, as I have only one specimen. 
However, it may be well known to others who have collected in the 
island of (jevlon. 

Kaliella ? DiKRANGENsis, n. sp. (Plate XYI. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Dikrang valley, Dafla Hills, Assam (H. H. G.-A.), 

Shell globosely conoid, keeled, imperforate, much rounded below ; 
sculpture, very microscopic, transverse regular costulation, the finest 
I have seen ; coloiar pale amber ; spire pyramidal, sides nearly flat, 
apex well rounded ; suture moderately impressed : whorls 6, closely 
wound ; aperture narrowly quadrate ; columellar margin strong, 
perpendicular, with a slight protuberance on the inner margin. 

Size: major diam. 1*6 mm., alt. axis 1-1 mm. 

0-065 inch, „ 0-0-45 inch. 

This shell, of which I only possess one example, is similar in form 
and comes nearest to K. noiu/stehiensis, but is very much smaller, the 
spire less conoid, and much more rounded below. The sculpture is 
similar to that of Kaliella ; and I place it at the end of that subgenus 
until something more is known of the anatomy of these very minute 
species. 

Kaliella ? nongsteixexsis, n. sp. (Plate XVI. fig, 2.) 

Localit>/. Maotherichan Peak, 6297 ft., North Khasi (H.H. G.-A.). 

Shell conical, well rounded below, keeled, suhperforate ; sculpture 
very minute, regular transverse ribbing; colour pale ochraceous; 
spire high, sides convex, apex rounded ; suture moderately im- 
pressed ; whorls 8, closely wound, sides flatly convex ; aperture 
quadrate, narrow, suboblique ; peristome thin, columellar margin 
straight, short, thickened. 

Size : major diam. 2*0 mm., alt. axis 1'7 mm. 
0-08 inch, „ 0-07 inch. 

I possess only one specimen of this very pretty shaped well- 
marked shell. 

I have named it after that part of the Khasi HiUs which is under 
the " Seem," or chief, of Nongstein. 

Kaliella ? tiritxana, n. sp. (Plate XVI. fig. 4.) 

Locality. North Khasi Hills, three specimens obtained (//. H. 
G.-A.). 

Shell globosely conoid, base rounded, solid, keeled ; sculpture 
smooth, with a few indistinct lines of growth ; colour bleached ; 
spire conical, sides flat; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 6, 
closely wound, narrow ; aperture narrow, rectangular ; peristome 
rather thickened, columellar margin strong, vertical, and a distinct 
thickening or callus on the lower maro;in. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 73 

Size: major diam. 0-07, alt. axis 0*05 inch. 
1-8 „ 1-3 mm. 

For want of a better, I have named this shell after the Demon 
Tirut, to whom the Khasias so constantly sacrifice and propitiate 
with oiferinars. 



Kaliella ? TiRUTANA, n. sp., juv. (Plate XVI. fig. 5.) 

Locality. Xhasi Hills {H. H. Q.-A.). 

Spire moderately high, conic, sides flat, apex rounded ; suture 
impressed ; whorls 6, sides convex ; aperture narrow, long, quad- 
rate ; peristome thin, but strong and thickened on the columcUar 
margin. 

Size : major diam. 0*051, alt. axis 0*034 inch. 
1*3 „ 0*8 mm. 



Kaliella? chennellt, n. sp. (Plate XVI. fig. 1,) 

Locality . Lhota Naga Hills. 

Shell depressedly turbinate, much rounded below, sharply keeled, 
not umbilicated ; sculpture very finely ribbed transversely, springing 
from a well-defined sutviral band, smooth below, and apparently 
slightly and finely hairy when fresh ; colour pale horny brown ; 
spire pyramidal, sides fiat ; suture shallow ; whorls 6|, closely 
wound, regular, sides fiat ; aperture narrow, elongate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin perpendicular, rather thickened, sinuate below. 

Size : major diam. 3*6 mm., alt. axis 2*0 mm. 
„ 0*14 inch, „ 0*8 inch. 

A single specimen only obtained by Mr. A. Chennell, of the Topo- 
graphical Department, who brought in a number of shells when 
surveying the above hiUs, for which I am deeply indebted to him 
and other members of the Topographical Survey who assisted in 
surveying the Assam hill-country. 



Helix ? ( ?) glomerosa, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 9.) 

Locality. Dikrang valley, Dafia Hills {H. H. O.-A.). 

Shell globular, subperforate ; sculpture indistinct, very close longi- 
tudinal stria3 ; colour dull olivaceous ; spire conoid, rounded above, 
sides convex; suture shallow ; whorls 6, the last very tumid; aper- 
ture narrowly lunate, contracted slightly on the outer margin, a 
well-marked callus on the bodj'-whorl ; peristome strong for size 
and somewhat thickened below into an indistinct tooth, columellar 
margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 1*3 mm., alt. axis 0*7 mm. 
0*05 inch, „ 0*03 inch. 

This very minute pretty shaped shell is unlike any thing I have 
found in India ; and I place it in the Helicida?, for its true relation- 
ship is very uncertain. 



74 LAND AND FRESHWATEE 

Genus Sitaia (continued from page 43). 
SiTALA? balliana, u. sp. (jSTev. MS.). (Plate XV. fig. 2.) 

LocaJifif. Hills near Ganjam, Madras ( V. Ball). 

Shell umbilicate, cariuate, conoid ; sculpture, traBSvorse rather 
irregular fine ribbing or costulation, with four or five strongly marked 
longitudinal ribs ; colour umber-brown, covered with a strong epider- 
mis ; spire rather high, conic, sides slightly convex ; suture im- 
pressed ; whorls 5, very convex ; aperture semilunate ; peristome 
moderately thickened and slightly reflected near umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 3*6 mm., alt. axis 2-0 mm. 
„ 0-14 inch „ 0-08 inch. 

This shell falls close to S. paJmarla (p. 35, Plate X. fig, 3) in its 
keeled and conoid form ; but it is very much smaller, umbilicated, 
and the longitudinal ribbing is not so high in relief, being finer and 
closer. 

Sitala tjvida, n. sp. (Plate XIII. fig. 5.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, south base of Khasi Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell narrowly umbilicate, globosely conoid ; sculpture wavy, 
transverse ribbing, crossed by fine indistinct longitudinal lines, 
which are more distinct on apex, and distant well-marked concen- 
tric ribbing on the base ; colour pale sienna-brown ; spire conoid ; 
suture well impressed ; whorls 5, closely wound, convex ; aperture 
ovate, oblique ; peristome rather thickened, columellar margin 
oblique. 

Size : major diam. 0-11 inch, alt. axis 0*07 inch. 
„ 2-8 mm., „ 1*7 mm. 

Also one from the Jatinga valley, Xorth Cachar Hills. 

Somewhat like S. srimani (Plate IX. fig. 7) : but the form and 
sculpture distinguish them when the shells are placed side by side, 
twida being higher in the spire and with much rounder whorls. This 
species, together with the next, should come in after tertiana and 
srimani in the Table given in Part II. page 43. 

I defer the continuation of this synopsis of the species until more 
are figured and described. 

Sitala placita, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 3.) 

Locality/. Khasi, one specimen (type) ; Munipur, one specimen 
(H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell, perforation concealed, globosely conoid ; sculpture, distant 
longitudinal ribbing, on the base far apart and well raised; colour pale 
horny ; spire rather high, conic, apex blunt ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 4|, convex, last well rounded on periphery ; aperture ovate 
or nearly semicircular ; columellar margin subobliquc. 

Size : major diam. 2-8 mm., alt. axis 2'0 mm. 
0-11 inch, „ 0-08 inch. 

This shell in its form approaches aS^. srimani (Plate IX. fig. 7), 
but is not so flat on the base. 



MOLLIJSCA OF INDIA. 75 

SiTALA suBNANA, 11. sp. (NeviU, MS.). (Plate XIV. fig. 6.) 

Locality. Jessore. 

Shell conoid, angulate on the periphery, rather flat on the base, 
perforation hidden ; sculj^ture, finely decussate, regular coarse trans- 
verse ribbing, crossed by regular fine longitudinal lines ; colour 
pale sienna-brown ; spire conic, sides slightly convex ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 4, flatly convex ; aperture semilunate ; peristome 
oblique on columellar margin and slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. O'll inch, alt. axis 0-06 inch. 
„ 2-8 mm., „ 1*5 mm. 

This shell has no I'elationship with oiana, Hutton, from the N.W. 
Himalaya. That shell has the distinct transverse fine costulation 
of KaUella (vide Plate V. fig. 6). 



SiTAiA ? cKENiciNCTA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. fig. 2.) 

Localitif. Lailangkote, Khasi Hills (//. H. O.-A.). 

Shell perforate, depressedly conoid, covered with a thick 
epidermis, with two parallel rows of fine hairs, pointed under high 
power ; sculpture, transverse irregular ribbing, with regular rather 
distant continuous longitudinal raised ridges, very distinct on apex, 
fine concentric ribs on base ; colour pale olive-brown ; spire low ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 4, last rounded ; aperture ovately lunate, 
oblique ; peristome thin, columellar margin weak, not reflected. 

Size : major diam. 0*09 inch, alt. axis 0'0.5 inch. 
,, 2*3 mm., „ 1*3 mm. 

Otlier localities. Marangsip Peak ; Jawai ; TeriaGhat ; Shillong ; 
Kopamedza Peak, Naga Hills ; Munken valley, Jaintia. 

A variety from the wood at Mairang, slightly larger and very 
narrowly perforate. 



SiTALA? iNioNSA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 h.) 

Locality. Marangsip Peak, Khasi Hills {H. H. O.-A.). 

Shell umbilicate, globosely conical, slightly hirsute ; sculpture, 
irregular ridges of growth, crossed longitudinally with fine and 
coarser ribbing, a few concentric fine distant ribs on base ; colour 
olive-brown ; spire moderately high, obtuse and roi;nded ; suture 
impressed ; whorls 5, sides convex ; aperture ovately lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, very slightly reflected. 

Size: major diam. 0-15 inch, alt. axis 0-08 inch. 
„ 3*8 mm., „ 2*0 mm. 



SiTALA? KECONDITA, n. sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 4, 4rt, 4 h, 4r.) 

Locality. (Type) Raliang, North Jaintia Hills ; Jawai near Mun- 
tidoo river; Khasi Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell depressedly conoid, perforate : sculpture, above regular. 



/b LAND AND FEESHWATER 

very oblique costiilation, on base smooth, but under lens beauti- 
fully concentrically and regularly striate, the oblique costulation 
does not extend to the suture, and each long rib has, above, a 
short parallel rib adjacent to it (vide fig. 4 c) ; colour pale sienna- 
brown ; spire low, apex blunt ; suture impressed : whorls 4, regu- 
larly increasing ; apei'turc oblique, ovately lunate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 0-10-0*12 inch, alt. axis 0*05 inch. 

„ 2'5-3-0 mm., „ l-3-l"G mm. 



Genus Macrochlamys, Benson. 

This generic title first occurs, but without description, in the 
J. A. S. B. vol. i. p. 13, January ] 832, in a jjaper by Benson, who 
writes : — "Those (Ptefoeyclus, sp.) which I found were, with several 
specimens of a Cyclostoma, a reversed CarocoUa and Macrocldamys ; " 
and in a footnote, " a new genus of the Helicidne, separated by me 
from Hdix in consequence of the wide departure of the animal from 
the type of that genus ; " and the species is indicated, but not then 
described, from the Gangetic delta, on page 70 of the same volume, 
for in Eebruary 1832 Mr. W. H. Benson presented to the Society a 
series of the land and freshwater shells of the Doab and of the Gan- 
getic provinces, with a list, in which occurs "•Helix {Macrochlamys) 
indicus, Benson, separated from Helix on account of the difference 
of character in the animal." 

The genus is again referred to in vol. v. of same journal, pp. 350,351 
(183()). After describing Xuniiui decussata, Benson says, " On a cur- 
sory inspection of this sliell I erroneously considered it to be a variety 
of the species viti-inoides, Deshayes, belonging to Mr. Gray's genus 
Nanina (Zool. Proc. July 8, 1834), which I indicated under the name 
oi Macrocldamys in the first number of the ' Journal of the Asiatic 
Society ' for January 1832, pp. 13 and 76, and which I altered to 
that of Tanycldamys in a paper on the genus read before the Zoolo- 
gical Society in August 1834. Mr. Gray's characters, drawn up 
from specimens preserved in spirits and from General Hardwicke's 
drawings, having the advantage of priority of publication, his name, 
although inexpressive, will necessarily be adopted. Several inde- 
pendent observers have united in stating the necessity of separating 
this genus from Helix on the characters of the animal ; witness the 
observations of Lieut. Hutton (J. A. S. B. vol. iii. p. 83)." 

Again, in 1834, Mr. Benson exhibited a collection of shells from 
the Gangetic provinces of India, and gave a full description of this 
genus under the title Tanycldamys (altered by the editor to Nanina), 
at the August meeting of the Zoological Society, and recorded in 
the ' Proceedings,' p. 89, as follows : — 

" A collection of Land and Freshwater Shells formed in the Gan- 
getic Provinces of India by W. H. Benson, Esq., of the Bengal Civil 
Service, and presented by that gentleman to the Society, was exhi- 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 77 

bited. It comprised forty species, and was accompanied by a de- 
scriptive list prepared by the donor, and also by detailed notices of 
some of the more interesting among them. These notices were 
read ; they are intended by Mr. Benson for publication in the forth- 
coming number of the ' Zoological Journal.' From the time that he 
first became acquainted with the animal of a shell, resembling in all 
respects, except in its superior size, the European Helix lucida, Drap., 
Mr. Benson regarded it as the type of a new genus of Helicidae, in- 
termediate between Stcnopus, Guild., and Helicolimax, Per. He 
had prepared a paper on this genus, for which he intended to pro- 
pose the name of Tanychliimj/s ; he finds, however, that Mr. Gray 
has recently described (p. 58) the same genus under the name of 
Na>ii)ui." 

The generic characters observed by Mr. Benson are as follows : — 

Nanina, Gray. 

First original detailed description of shell and animal of Macro- 
flilamys : — '■'■Testa heliciformis, umbUicata ; peritremate acuta, non 
rejiexo. 

'•'■Animal cito repens. Corpus reficidosum, elongatum. Pallium 
arnpluin, foramine communi magno perforatum, peritrema amplexans ; 
processubus duobus transverse rugosis (quasi articulatis) omni latere 
mobilibus instructum, unico prope testce aperturce angulum superio- 
rem exoriente, altero apud peripheriam testce. Os anticmn inter ten- 
tacula inferiora Mans ; labia radiato-pUcata. Tentacula superiora 
elongata, punctvyn percipiens tumore oblongo situm gerentia. Penis 
2)rcegrandis ; antrum cervids elongatum latere dextro et prope ten- 
tacida situm. Solea complanatu pedis latera cequans. Cauda ten- 
taculata ; tentaculum, subretracMle glandula ad basin p)osita humo- 
rem viscidum {animale attrectato) exsudante." 

Mr. Benson describes particularly the habits of the species ob- 
served by him, which he first discovered living at Banda, in Bun- 
delkund, on the prone surface of a rock. The animal carries the 
shell horizontally or nearly so, is quick in its motions^ and, like 
Helicolimax, it crawls the faster when disturbed, instead of retract- 
ing its tentacles like the Snails in general. In damp weather it is 
rarely retracted within its shell, the foot being so much swollen by 
the absorption of moisture that if it is suddenly thrown into boiling- 
water the attempt to withdraw into the shell invariably causes a 
fracture of the aperture. In dry weather the foot is retracted, and 
the aperture is then covered by a whitish false operculum similar to 
that of the other HelioidEe. The two elongated processes of the 
mantle are continually in motion, and exude a liquid which lubri- 
cates the shell, supplying apparently that fine gloss which is observ- 
able in all recent specimens. The fluid poured out from the orifice 
at the base of the caudal horn-like appendage is of a greenish 
colour ; it exudes when the animal is irritated, and at such times 
the caudal appendage is directed towards the exciting object in such 
a manner as to give to the animal a threatening aspect. 



78 



LAND AND FRESHWATER 



Of several specimens brought to England by Mr. Benson in 1832 
one survived from December 1831, when it was captured in ludia, 
until the summer of 1833. 

The above description we iind published again in the Zool. Journal, 
1834, vol. V. p. 458, in a paper entitled " Conchological Notices, 
chiefly relating to the Land and Freshwater Shells of the Gangctic 
Provinces of Hindoostan." 

Under genus Nanlna, Gray, and in footnote, we find it stated, "The 
peculiar form of the animal of this genus had long since induced me 
to regard it as constituting a distinct group, to which I had in my 
MSS. assigned the name of Taiu/chlami/s ; on submitting specimens, 
however, to the Zoological Society at one of its late meetings I find 
I have been anticipated by Mr. Gray, who had just previously 
proposed for it the name which I have adopted above." 

He says that it is to be found in the Gangetic plain from Calcutta 
to Cawnpur, that he found it at Banda, in Bundelkund, that he had 
received it from the hill-fort of Callingar (Kalingar in north of same 
district), and also from the old fort at Iligmahal (E-ajmahal?) ; he 
probably then had not noticed the slight differences in the local 
forms of this shell. 

In July 1834, one month previous to Benson's exhibition of tho 
shells at the August meeting of the Zoological Society, Mr. J. E. 
Gray had described the genus Nanina, partly from the animals of 
several species and partly from the animal of a species which had 
been figured by General Hardwicke in 1797. This figure evidently 
represents the species common in Calcutta, with the mantle much 
paler than the rest of the body ; and this he erroneously identified as 
N. vitrinoides, Dcsh., which is a distinct species from the Malay 
Archipelago, and is Macroc7dain;/s indica, Bs. 

In the J. A. S. B. pi. iii. p. 83 (Feb. 1832), Hutton describes the 
Mizapur shell, M. pdrosa, which he found at Tara, in the low hills 
near that place, and he gives a good description of the animal of 
Macrochlami/s after the No. 3 Helix, which, in the list of shells at 
the end, is recorded as " H. jidrosa mihi." He says, " dark brown 
or blackish ; body elongate, with a hooked process on the extremity 
of the tail pointing backwards." He mentions the "two narrow, 
flat, gradually pointed filaments or tentacula, which, when the ani- 
mal is in motion, are kept constantly playing over the surface of the 
shell ; " but there is a want of accuracy in the description, for ho 
says they both proceed " from the right side of the animal." To 
Hutton therefore, and not to Mr. Gray, belongs the credit, among 
English naturalists, of having first described this genus and noted 
the great difference between the European and Asiatic forms of 
Helix as then constituted. 

But in 1829 Desmoulins had examined and described tlie animal 
of an Indian species (//. kevipes, Midler), to which he gave the sub- 
generic title Aeiophanta, from its similarity to Arion in possessing 
a mucous pore at the extremity of the foot; and he laid great 
stress on this anatomical point. Now had //. hevij^cs been a dextral 
shell, with less marked characters of its owii, the title Ariophanta 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 79 

would include all those Indian species with simple neck-lobes and 
no tongue-like shell-lobes, which have been hitherto placed in 
Nanina. H. loevipes is, however, a sinistral form, and related to a 
group all of this character. I do not myself set much value on it, 
unless it be supported by others. It is certainly very constant in 
some genera, but very inconstant in others, not affecting the anatomy 
in one single point ; and it would have made classification much 
simpler had Arioplianta been adopted for all these species until placed 
in their respective subgeneric positions, restricting it eventually for 
l(xvipes and its allies ; and the subfamily Ariophantin^ would have 
better distinguished these Asiatic land-shells from the very different 
and distinct group Zonites of Montfort. 

Stoliczka adopts the title MacrocMamys in the J. A. 8. B. 1871, 
pp. 246, 247, and, after going through the record of it, says, " It is, 
I think, tolerably clear that under the above name (i. e. indica) the 
Bengal species, usually recorded as vitnnoides, was meant. Conse- 
quently this species must be taken as the type of MacrocMamys, 
whether it be called vitrinoides or indica, for both, if different, are 
no doubt very closely allied." 

In the Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. for 1881, p. 131, Mr. G. Nevill 
enters on the question of the priority of Nanina, Gray, over that of 
MacrocJdamys, Benson, and rather favours the retention of the 
former in a wide sense, which I think quite unnecessary. 

The question of priority is not to be settled by Benson having 
admitted the validity of Gray's genus over one of his own creation. 
This an author might do from a modest feeling not to put his own 
work forward before that of another naturalist ; and the editor of 
the P. Z. S. at the time appears to have substituted Gray's title for 
Benson's on p. 89, 1834, without reference to i^revious papers of 
the latter. This question is to be settled by the writings of the two 
individuals, and how they can be best interpreted ; i. e. which of the 
generic titles is first found in print, and can be best and without any 
doubt ascribed to a single species also strictly identifiable. 

Although Benson in 1832 did not give a detailed description of 
MacrocJdamys, yet the species is clearly indicated, and that a genus 
was necessary to receive it ; and this can cause no confusion, for in 
1834 he proceeded to publish the same most minutely. Nor should 
Capt. T. Hutton's writings be overlooked in the chain of evidence ; 
that ofiicer and Mr. Benson worked together, corresponded, and 
exchanged specimens for years about this period *. We find Hutton 
describing a closely allied species of this genus in February 1832. 
It is evident throughout that Benson and Hutton had always the 
same species in view for the type of the genus MacrocJdamys, and 
they knew its characters thoroughly. On the other hand, Gray's 
knowledge was supei-ficial, he selected no particular type, and 
his generic description of Nanina does not apply rigorously to 

* I possess a large number of pamphlets from different journals, sent bj 
Benson to Hutton, with MS. notes and queries in some of them ; these were 
kindly presented to me by the latter when he gave up collecting. What became 
of Benson's own set and his valuable MS. notes I know not. 



80 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

the so-called vitrinoides of India. Moreover, we find in P. Z. S. 
1847, p. 169, in " A List of the Genera of llecent MoUusca, their 
Synonyma, and T}i)es," Nanina and Macrocldamys are both sub- 
genei'a of Stenopus, with citrina and vitrinoides as their respective 
type shcUs. Nanina should therefore only hold citrina and allied 
forms, apjjarently a good subgcneric group ; but it certainly should 
not be used in the wide sense that has been given it by so many 
authors. The family Zouitidse is sufficient for this ; and when all the 
species of it are collected into well-characterized genera and subgenera 
there will be no need for any generic term to include the doubtful 
species of the group. It is even, I think, preferable to use J/eJir in its 
widest sense thau to use Nanina for these Asiatic forms. But E. von 
Martens has condemned the title, and so has Mr. W. T. Elanford ; and 
I cannot do better than quote what the latter writes (J. A. S. B. 
1880, p. 184) : — " The difficulty is to determine what generic name 
or names should be adopted. Nanina is utterly bad ; it ofiends every 
law ; the name had been used previously by llisso * ; the type is 
the same as that of Benson's genus MacroMamys ; the term is 
objectionable on account of its signification. All this has been 
pointed out by von Martens t, but still he and others employ the 
name because it has crept into use. Now in such difficult matters 
as these generic terms, unless rules are strictly attended to, utter 
confusion must residt, and undoubtedly it has resiilted. AVhen, 
however, a search is made for a better founded term thau Nanina, 
endless difficulties are encouutered." 

In December 1848 Mr. H. E. Strickland, F.G.S., described the 
animal of another species of this genus, published in the P. Z. S. 
for that year, p. 142, with two figures (plate xi. figs. 1 and 2) ; this 
was obtained in Ajmeer. I give his interesting account in full, for 
the animal was kept some time alive in this country. He named it 
vitrinoides, following Gray's identification in P. Z. S. 1834. 

"0>i tJie Habits of a Living Specimen o/ Nanina vitrinoides (Desk.). 
By H. E. Strickland, F.G.S. 

" On the 2nd of December, 1847, Capt. W. J. E. Boys presented 
the writer three specimens of a terrestrial mollusk, named Nanina 
vitrinoides by Mr. Gray (P. Z. S. pt. 2, p. 58, Helix vitrinoides, 
Desh.). Capt. Boys had procured them a considerable time before, 
certainly not less than a year, in the district of Ajmeer in Upper 
India. The animals still remained within the shells ; but from the 
length of time during which they had been kept dry, they were 
greatly reduced in bulk, and had almost wholly retired from the 
outer volution, as was easily seen from the transparency of the 
shell. Like many of the Helicidae of hot climates, especially those 
which are exposed to long intervals of drought, the Nanina vitri- 

* "J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 47. 

t " Albers, 'Heliceen,' 2. Ausgabe, p. 46, where the synonymy is fully dis- 
cussed." 



MOLLPSCA OP INDIA. 81 

noides secretes a calcareous poma or deciduous operculum every 
time that it retires into a state of torpor. The specimens in question 
had formed two or three successive pomata, one within the other, 
during the process of their desiccation. 

" In hopes of restoring their animation, I placed them upon some 
wet moss in a warm room. Two of them proved to be past re- 
covery, but the animal of the third was seen through the trans- 
parent shell to be gradually enlarging in bulk by the absorption of 
moisture, and at the end of a week it finally reached the door of 
its dwelling, threw off the poma, and began to crawl. A morsel 
of boiled carrot was presented to it, which it greedily devoured, 
and speedily increased in health and vigour. I have now kept 
this interesting creature a twelvemonth, and have often been 
tempted to exclaim with Oken, ' What majesty is in a creeping 
snail ; what reflection, what earnestness, what timidity, and yet at 
the same time confidence ! surely a snail is an exalted symbol of 
mind slumbering deeply within itself.' Since its revival my Na- 
nina has greatly increased in size, and has added half a volution to 
its shell, which noAV measures -^-^ inch in diameter. Its favourite 
food is boiled carrots and raw lettuce-leaves. It generally remains 
quiet during the day, but crawls forth and shows considerable ac- 
tivity in the evening, and has never shown any inclination to hyber- 
nate or become torpid for a lengthened period. The sheU of Nanina 
vitrinoides is brown, glossy, and pellucid, and in shape and colour 
closely resembles the shells of the European genus Zonites, from 
which, without examination of the animal, it seems to be generically 
undistinguishable. The animal, however, is very different, and is 
more allied to, though quite distinct from, that of the genus Vitrina. 
The foot when contracted is too large to be withdrawn into the 
shell, except after a considerable period of desiccation. When ex- 
panded, and at full stretch, the foot is remarkably long and narrow, 
measuring about 2 inches in length and -i- inch in breadth. The 
hinder extremity is abruptly truncate, surmounted by a short horn- 
like appendage, similar to that in the larvae of certain Lepidopterous 
genera. 

" But the most peculiar character in the animal of Nanina is that 
of the two elongate pointed lobes or flaps which project from the 
margin of the mantle, one on each side of the mouth of the shell. 
These lobes possess a certain amount of lateral motion and a consi- 
derable power of retraction and expansion, but are always kept in 
close contact with the surface of the shell. 

" The animal is in the frequent habit of performing the following 
singular operation, which, as far as I am aware, has not before been 
noticed in any terrestrial moUusk. Crawling to the top of its prison 
(which consists of an inverted tumbler, with a small aperture for 
air), it suspends itself to the glass by the hinder half of "the foot, 
and twists the anterior part round so as to bring its lower surface 
into contact with the shell. By the great length and flexibility of 
the anterior half of the foot it is enabled to twist in a variety of 
directions, and thus to crawl as it were over every part of its own 



82 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

shell in succession, the hind part of the animal remaining all the 
while firmly attached to the surface of the glass. 

" During this operation the horns are partially contracted, and the 
mouth of the animal is applied closely to the shell, and is seen to be 
alternately expanded and contracted, as if in the act of suction. In 
fact the whole process resembles the action of a cat when licking 
its feet and body, and is performed with just the same appearance 
of systematic determination. The object of this operation is no 
doubt the same in both animals— that of clearing their person from 
extraneous matter and producing that aspect of cleanliness and 
beauty which is one of the laws of organic nature in its normal 
state. Hence that brilliant gloss which distinguishes the shell of 
the moUusk here referred to. It would be desirable to ascertain 
whether any analogous habit is possessed by the allied genera Vi- 
trina and Zonites. The shells of the British species of Zonites {Z. 
nitens, alUacea, cellaria, &c.) closely resemble -Xanina vitrinoides in 
form, colour, and glossiness of surface, and their brilliancy must 
apparently be due to some polishing action similar to that here de- 
scribed. On the other hand it is difficult to understand how the 
animals of Zonites and Vitrma, whose foot is much broader and 
shorter than in Nanina, should be able to reach every part of their 
shell and purify its surface. 

" The animal oijS'anina vitrinoides is of a deep cinereous, the mantle 
yellowish, its lateral projecting lobes darker ; the under surface of 
the foot pale grey, with a yellowish stripe along each side." 

In November 1849 the above gentleman described the same species 
in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. The size (diameter -^ inch) and the 
description of the shell agree well with specimens I have in my col- 
lection, collected by the late Capt. A. B. Melville at Jeypur, only SO 
miles from Ajmeer, and which I shall describe in the next Part under 
the title of Macrocldamys strieJclandi, for it is certainly not the 
Gangetic delta form. 

No group of sliells can be more difficult to identify than those 
that have been classed under this genus. The shells of the larger 
species are so similar in outward form and texture that they are 
very liable to be mistaken at a cursory glance ; however, consider- 
able differences are to be found when the animals are examined, 
particularly in the shape and size of the mucous gland at the extre- 
mity of the foot, and in the mantle, its lobes, and varying tongue- 
like lubricating processes. 

1 have collected species of this genus for many years over a very 
large area, extending from the Punjab and Mussoorie in the North- 
west Provinces to Assam on the north-east frontier, and I was earl}^ 
struck with the very great difference in the colour and form of the 
animal of those shells to which the majority of Indian conchologists 
then gave the name of 31. vitrinoides. The shells certainly have a 
very striking similarity, though on a closer examination differences 
in tho form, the increase of whorls, &c. can bo detected. It is not 
surprising therefore that the whole group stands in a considerable 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 83 

state of confusion ; and it is to clear this up partially that I have 
endeavoured to classifj' thorn, and distinguish what were the species 
Hutton, Eenson, and others have described and named. 

Few of these Indian naturalists had the training and skill to 
examine the anatomy of the animal ; only in a few instances do we 
find the outward form and colour noticed ; the old plan of boiling 
and getting rid of the animal as soon as possible was followed, and 
many species were collected in a dead and bleached state, and Avere 
thus described. 

I noAv regret extremely that when I was in India I also was in 
perfect ignorance of how to dissect a mollusk ; and it was only after 
association with Henry and "William Blanford and Ford. Stoliczka 
that my attention was directed to the outward form of the animal, 
and I recorded this and made many useful sketches from the liviiig 
animals. Ford. Stoliczka was one of the first to take up the internal 
anatomy of the land MoUusca of India ; and he published several 
very interesting and valuable papers in the ' Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal,' which I have already referred to. 

On commencing with this genus I had to consider what characters 
I could take or combine to separate on good grounds the very nume- 
rous species we have in the East. As the form of mantle is so 
widely different, and as this organ, however slightly modified, afi^ects 
the sculpture of the shell, I began to examine under the microscope, 
and, using a moderately high power, first the sculpture of as many 
species as I could get access to. In my own collection I have a vast 
amount of material, all with the exact localities most carefully re- 
corded, and which I knew had never got mixed together. Each 
box or tube was taken in turn, and every shell separately examined 
and its sculpture recorded in a tabular form. I soon found that the 
same species from the same locality were all identical with one 
another and had a certain defined range, while in many instances 
the structure and arrangement of the epidermal lines of growth were 
sufficiently marked to distinguish the species even from a small 
chip. I give drawings of the most characteristic surfaces, magnified 
and drawn under the camera lucida. This is of course nothing new 
in the study of shells, for by far the greater number of species can be 
distinguished by better and more marked characters, and such labour 
would be thrown away. I only wish to explain here the method I 
followed before discrimination was made between the different local 
forms that came before me. I am under great obligation to Mr, 
Sylvanus Hanley for a similar examination of his fine collection, to 
Dr. A. Giinther, of the British Museum, and Prof. J. W. Clarke, of 
Cambridge (where Benson's collection now rests), and to Mr. G. 
Nevill for specimens from the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Mr. Y. 
Ball also gave me a large number he had collected at different 
times. 

Starting with the sculpture of the shell only as a distinctive cha- 
racter, I first divided these sheUs into a number of artificial groups, 
again subdivided roughly by size and form. I only anticipated from 
the first a remote relationship to be shown ; but it aided greatly in 

PAET III. I 



84 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

finding and lumping the species together, and gleaning them even- 
tually out, to be inserted finally in their more natural positions. 

The next character I turned my attention to was the odontophore. 
On going over my own collection I found, not having boiled and 
removed the animals save of the very large kinds, that in a number 
of specimens the animal still remained in a hard dried-up state. 
Placed in water, not only can the mantle-lobes be distinctly made 
out, but the buccal mass and, what was of equal importance, the 
reproductive organs and, in several instances, the spermatophores 
were secured. 

I shall give drawings of such parts when describing the different 
species ; although incomplete as a whole, in many cases I think it will 
be allowed that they are of considerable value specifically, considering 
how^ difficult, almost impossible, it will be for many years to collect 
some of these shells again. I also jjossessed a few specimens pre- 
served in spirit, which have proved of great use. 

The genital organs present us with good specific differences ; 
but, as Stoliczka warns us, they must not be taken as certain evi- 
dence, at least not until a very great number of examples have been 
examined at different stages of growth and at different periods of 
the year ; for it can be easily understood that in a soft animal like 
a mollusk such organs do undergo very great modification and en- 
large at different parts, and that we should expect to find their con- 
dition during the period of rest in the cold season different to that 
during the rains, when they are in their most active state and the 
process of reproduction going on. These remarks also hold good 
with respect to the lobes of the mantle, which in moist weather are 
much more lengthened and expanded. Yet this cannot modify to any 
great extent the relative position of the different parts or other acces- 
sory organs. 

Of small size ; sculjjture smooth ; glohosely conoid. 

Macrochlamys longicauda, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 1.) 

Locality. Cherra Poongee {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell subglobosely conoid, last whorl rather swollen ; no sculpture 
visible to eye alone, but crossed with very fine raised lines oblique to 
each other under high power ; colour horny brown ; spire mode- 
rately high, sides rather flat ; suture shallow ; whorls 5|, sides 
slightly convex ; aperture widely lunate ; peristome thin, suboblique 
near axis. 

Size : major diam. S'O mm., alt. axis 3*1 mm. 
0-22 inch, „ 0-12 inch. 

Macrochlamys longicauda, var. (Plate XVII, figs. 2, 2 a.) 
Locality. Maotherichan Peak, N. Khasi (H. H. G.-A.). 
Shell glohosely turbinate, closely perforate ; sculpture none, sur- 
face like ground glass ; colour pale ochre ; whorls b^, the last sub- 
angulate at the periphery ; aperture subobli(]ue, na"i-rowly lunate ; 
peristome thin, the columeUar margin perpendicular and slightly 
reflected. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. _ 85 

Size : major diam. 4*3 mm., alt. axis 3'1 mm. 
„ 0-17 inch, „ 0-12 inch. 

Size of specimen from Maosmai, near Cherra Poongee : major 
diam. 0*20, alt. axis O'll inch. 

Other localities : Banks of the Manken, North Jaintia, and 
Jawai. 

The dried-up animal being apparent in two of the specimens from 
Cherra Poongee, these were soaked in water for a few days ; and I 
was rewarded by the form of the animal coming out most distinctly, 
as shown in the drawings made from it, placing it and the allied 
forms without doubt in this genus. The right shell-lobe is tongue- 
like, and the small left lobe is present (Plate XX. fig. 1 b). The 
overhanging lobe above the mucous pore at the extremity of the 
foot (Plate XX. iig. 1) is developed to a great extent ; and of this I 
have the sketch from life in my note-book (fig. 1 o)*, together 
with the following description : — " Animal when fully extended 0-45 
to 0*5 inch long. Tentacles of full size ; body thin, of a light pale 
colour, with thin line of dark grey on upper surface to the extremity 
of the foot ; the gland here is large for the size of the animal, and pro- 
trudes upwards above the level of the back : in fully developed shells 
the animal is darker about the head," I also detected the amatorial 
organ, and the odontophore and jaw are also figured (Plate XX. 
figs. 1 c-1 e). The former differs very considerably from that of the 
typical Macrochlanu/s indica in the smaller number of the median 
teeth and their elongate form. The laterals have the same bicuspid 
form ; but their number is quite double. Thus in 31. longicauda 
the formula is 

7G to 80 . 3 . 5 . 1 , 5 . 3 . 76 to 80, 
or 84 . 1 . 84, 

as against 45 . 1 . 45 in M. indica. 

The jaw has no central projection, being slightly concave on the 
cutting-edge. 

The central tooth is long with convex sides, and with two small 
denticles on either side low down near the base ; the next five are 
also long and narrow, with a single small tooth on the outer side ; 
in the sixth and seventh this outer tooth rises and is nearer to the 
point of the main cusp, and in the eighth and ninth still more so. 
From the tenth to the outermost all are bicuspid, becoming gradually 
smaller in size. 

MACROCHLAMrs LONGICAUDA, var. (Plate XVII. fig. 4.) 

Locality. Marangsip Peak, North Cachar Hills (//. II. O.-A.). 

Shell closely perforate, globosely conoid, rounded below ; sculp- 
ture none, save a few lines of growth ; colour, pale ochraceous epi- 
dermis ; spire conic, sides flat ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 
5, sides flatly convex ; aperture elongately quadrate ; peristome thin, 
reflected slightly at axis, and subvertical. 

* In this character it resembles Seinper's genus Macroceras from Samar, oue 
of the Philippines ; but there is no other similarity. 



H6 LAND AND FKESHWATEK 

Size : major diam. 6*4 mm., alt. axis 3*6 mm. 

,, 025 inch, „ 0*14 inch. 

Not so open at the aperture, and columellar margin straighter and 
rather more rounded below than in the type. 

Macrochlamts nengloensis, n. sp, (Plate XVII. fig. 3.) 

LocaKtij. Ncn<>lo, Naga Hills (//. H. G.-A.). 

Shell perforate, glohosely conoid, somewhat flat on the base, 
slightly subangulate ; sculpture smooth, with irregular wavy 
distant ribbing ; colour pale olivaceous green ; spire conoid, ratlier 
high, sides slightly convex, apex blunt ; suture shallow ; whorls (>, 
regularly increasing, flatly convex; aperture narrowly lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, oblique to axis on columellar margin, and considerably 
reflected. 

Size : major diam. 5*3 mm., alt. axis 3-1 mm. 
„ 0-21 inch, „ 0-12 inch. 

This shell is closely allied to M. longicauda, but is more globose, 
with more convexity on the side of the spire ; the aperture is nar- 
rowly lunate, and the columellar margin is stronger. This shell I 
considered at first to be the same as Helix poongee, Theob., from 
Moulmain ; but a comparison of specimens from that locality in Mr. 
W. T. Blanford's collection shows the sculpture to be very difi'erent, 
and there is considerable diff'erence in size and form. 

Macrochlamys nengloensis, var, (Plate XYII. fig. 5.) 

Localihj. Munipur (H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell tumid and rounded below ; sculpture none, a few lines of 
growth, surface like ground glass ; colour pale umber-brown ; spire 
conoid ; whorls 6 ; aperture semilunate ; peristome thin, oblique 
near axis, scarcely reflected. 

Size : major diam. 5-1 mm., alt. axis 3"1 mm. 
„ 0-20 inch, ,, 0-12 inch. 

Principally differs in the aperture being wider, a weaker colu- 
mellar margin, and not so flat on the base. 

I obtained a specimen of this species in the Umiam valley near 
ShiUong, which I find described in my note-book as follows : — 

" hicul^dure none, but the epidermis like roughish paper, crossed 
with microscopic lines irregularly. 

'■'Animal. Length 0-33 inch; tentacles nearly 0*1, Dark greyish 
brown, and ridge of foot of same colour. Foot beneath white. 
Body long and tapering, with a mucous pore at the extremity of the 
foot. Shell of a dull ])ale-brown colour when containing the living 
animal. By suddenly contracting its body, the animal can throw 
itself off the position it may be on, after the manner of JJelicarion 
salius and other species of that genus. 

Macroculamys KOLiAENSis, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. G.) 

Locality. Koliaghur, low hills on Brahmaputra, Nowgong District, 
Assam (//. //. G.-A.). 



MOLLUSCA OP INDIA. 87 

Shell, perforation concealed, very globosely conoid, rather swollen 
below, shining, thin ; sculpture qtiite smooth, glassy ; colour pale 
horny ; spire conical, apox rather pointed ; whorls 6, body-whorl 
large, close, and regularly wound, suture adpressed ; aperture flatly 
lunate, small ; peristome thin, columollar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 4*1 mm., alt. axis 2'3 mm. 
0-lG inch, „ 0-09 inch. 

Macroohlamts roberxi, n, sp. (Plate XYII. fig. 7.) 

Localitij. Angauluo Peak, 6777 ft., Burrail range, Naga Hills 
{W. Robert). 

Shell narrowly perforate, globosely conoid, rather flat on basal 
side, polished ; smooth, but transverse lines of growth distinctly 
marked ; colour, pale horny brown epidermis ; spire conoid ; suture 
adpressed; whorls 5|, the last flattened below ; aperture lunate ; peri- 
stome thin, oblique and sHghtly reflected near umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 4-1 mm., alt. axis 2-0 mm. 
0-16 iuch, „ 0-08 inch. 

I name this after one of my assistant surveyors, Mr. W. Robert, 
who has collected extensively and so successfully for me. 

Macrochlamys dorani, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 8.) 

Locality. Maotherichan Peak, N. Khasi {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell closeljaimbilicated, globosely conoid ; sculpture quite smooth, 
with an indication of ribbing ; colour pale umber-brown ; spire low, 
blunt ; whorls 5, rounded, the first the largest and swollen ; aper- 
ture ovately lunate ; peristome thin. 

Size : major diam. 3-3 mm., alt. axis 2-3 ram. 
0-13 inch, „ 0-09 inch. 

A. form very close to M. imibraticola, though much smaller, more 
globose, and with a less expanded aperture. 

Macrochlamys tanirensis, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 9.) 

Locality. Tanir Peak, 4400 ft., Dafla Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell, perforation concealed, globosely conoid, body-whorl large ; 
sculpture polished, quite smooth ; colour pale sienna-brown ; spire 
depressedly conoid, apex rounded ; whorls 4|, regularly increasing, 
sides slightly convex ; aperture vertical, lunate ; peristome thin, 
columellar margin oblique. 

Size : major diam. 2-8 mm., alt. axis 1"5 mm. 
,, 0*11 inch, „ 0*06 inch. 

Two specimens only from above locality. One in Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. 

Maoeochiamys rusticula, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 10.) 

Locality. North Khasi {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell minute, verj^ narrowly umbilicated, depressedly conoid, rather 
solid, shining, subangular ; sculpture quite smooth ; colour sienna- 
brown ; spire rather flat ; whorls 4 ; aperture subvertical, widely 
lunate ; peristome thickened and very oblique on columellar margin. 



88 LAND AND FKESHAVATER 

Size : major diam. 2-3 mm., alt. axis 1*0 mm. 
0-09 inch, • „ 0-04 inch. 

Macrochlamts ? PLANitrscuLA, Hufcton. (Plate XVI. figs. 7, 7 a.) 

Helix plamnscuhi, J. A. S. B. March 1838, p. 218 ; Conch. Ind. 
p. 15, pi. xxxii. figs. 7-10. 

Macrochlamys, sec. D, Theob. Cat. p. 19. 

Original description : — " Testa parvula^ depressa, fusca, polita ; 
anfractihus quinqi(e,ultimiperipheria rotundata ; apertura transversa. 

" Diam. 0-1. 

" Found at Simla on dead leaves. 

" This shell is darker and smaller than H. crtjstallina of Britain, 
which has likewise a more flattened apex than the Simla species." (B.) 
Helix cri/staUina, however, belongs to Zonites or Hi/alina, Fer., and 
is not related to this species. 

There is no authority for placing this shell in the genus Macro- 
chlamys, and I do so with considerable doubt ; it must take a position 
at the end of that genus until wc know what the animal is like. 
I found it pretty abundant in the ravines at Mussoorie among dead 
leaves ; the specimen figured is from that place. 

Size : major diam. 3*3 mm., alt. axis 1*7 mm., of specimen 
figured, 

Macrochlamys ?dakjilingensis, Nevill, MS., n. sp. (Plate XVII. 
fig. 11.) 

Locality. Darjiling (Col. Mainwaring). 

Shell, i)erforation hidden, depressedly globose, solid, shining ; 
surface smooth, with rather regular distant transverse faint ribs ; 
colour pale horny white ; apex flatly rounded ; suture adpresscd, 
shallow ; whorls 5, closely wound ; aperture perpendicular, narrowly 
lunate, with a thin callus on the body-whorl ; peristome rather 
thickened, scarcely reflected at the short columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 1-7 mm., alt. axis 0*9 mm. 
0-07 inch, „ 0-04 inch. 

Of this distinct and peculiar little shell four specimens were sent 
me by Mr. G. NeviU. It is difficult to know where to place it ; and 
it may possibly be a true Helix. 

Macrochlamys ? molectjla, Bs. (Plate XVI. fig. 8.) 

Helix molectda, Benson, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1859, iii. p. 389 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 69 ; Conch. Ind. pi. xxxii. figs. 8, 9, p. 15. 

Macrochlamys, sec. E, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 20. 

Nanina (Microcystis), Nev. Hand-list, p. 38. no. 162. 

Locality. Rangoon (Stoliczka). 

Size of specimen figured : major diam. 4-4 mm., alt. axis 1-9 mm. 

0-17 inch, „ 0-08 inch. 

Original description : — " Testa anyuste pe7\forata, conoideo-glohosu, 
tenui, obsolete radiato-striata, nitida, fusco- vel castaneo-cornea ; spira 
conoidca, lateribus convexiuscidis, sutura impressa, suhmaryinata, 



MOLLUSCA OP INDIA. 



89 



apice obtuso ; anfractibus 5^ arete convolutis, convex'msculis, ultimo 
ad peripheriam rotundato, subtus convexo ; apertura vix obliqua, late 
lunari, peristomate recto, acuta, margine columellari anguste rejlexo. 

" Diam. major vix 5, minor 4, axis 3 mill, 

" Habitat ad Rangoon, satis copiose. 

" A minute shell, with a more conoid spire and more closely 
wound whorls than //. caiisia. It is altogether deficient in the 
spiral stria3 which distinguish that species." 

Fine, longitudincdly striate scidpture ; globosely conoid. 

Mackochlamys xtmbraticola, n. sp. (Plate XIV. figs. 4, 4a.) 

Locality. Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills {H. II. G-A.). 

Shell, perforation concealed, globosely conoid ; sculpture very 
minute, regular, longitudinal striae ; colour pale olive-brown ; spire 
low ; whorls 4| ; aperture ovately lunate, snboblique ; peristome 
rather thickened, very slightly reflected. 

Size : major diam. 0-17 inch, alt. axis 0-08 inch. 
„ 4*3 mm., „ 2-2 mm. 

This shell was very abundant among the dead leaves in the forest 
around the above-mentioned peak ; I also got single specimens in 
the Jatinga vaUey and Kopamedza Peak, 8376 ft., in the Naga Hills. 

Macrochlamys peepatjla, Bs. (Plate XIV. fig. 5.) 

Helix perpaida, Bs. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1859, iii. p. 390 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 69 ; Conch. Ind. p. viii (not figured). 

Nanina {Microcystis), Nevill's Hand-list, p. 37. no. 156. 

Locality. Moulmain (Stoliczka). 

Shell perforate, rounded below, glassy ; sculpture, regular longi- 
tudinal fine ribbing throughout, crossed by evenly disposed lines of 
growth, but not decussate ; colour umber-brown ; spire conoid, apex 
rounded ; whorls 4, much rounded ; aperture lunate. 

Size : major diam. 0'09 inch, alt. axis 0*05 inch. 
„ 2*3 mm., „ 1*3 mm. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depresso-globosa, oblique 
striatula, sub epidermide cornea albida ; spira conoideo-convexa, apice 
obtuso, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 4| sensim crescentlbus, convexi- 
usculis, ultimo rotundato, subtus convexo; ajicrtura obliqua, rotun- 
dato-lunari, pei-istomate recto, acuto, margine columellari rejlexo, sub- 
oblique descendente, basali arcuato. 

" Diam. major 2, minor 1|, axis 1^ mill. 

" Habitat ad Phie Than, raro. 

" AUied to H. molenda, but, besides its much smaller size, it is 
more globose. The single specimen received is much weathered. 
It is probably translucent and polished when fresh. The spire is 
less conoid, and the whorls not so closely wound as in H. bullula, 
Hutton, of the Western Himalaya." . 

NeviU gives (I. c. p. 37) Parisnath and Darjiling as localities 
where this shell has been found. These specimens should be again 
closely compared with typical examples. 



90 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Macrochlamys? kandiensis, Nev. MS,, n. sp. (Plato XTV. fig. 2.) 

Locdliti/. Kandy, Ceylon. 

Shell perforate, globosely conoid ; sculpture fine, regular, rather 
distant, longitudinal strige or grooving, the surface of the shell much 
decomposed in patches, giving it a mottled appearance ; colour dark 
chestnut-brown ; spire subdepressedly conoid, sides rather rounded ; 
suture well marked : whorls 5, the last well rounded ; aperture 
oblic^ue, ovately lunate ; peristome thin, slightly reflected on the 
columellar side. 

Size: major diam. 0-16 inch, alt. axis 0-09 inch. 
„ 4-1 mm., ,, 2-3 mm. 

Nevill remarks that it is near 31. sfe^^hoides, Stol.,from Penang Hill ; 
but it has a very diflferent form from the figure 9 in the J. A. S. B. 
1873, pi. 1. 

Macrochlamys poongee, Theobald. (Plate XIV. fig. 1.) 

MacrocMamiis poongee, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1859, vol. xxviii. p. 307. 

Heliv poongee. Conch. Ind. pi. xvi. fig. 9, p. 8 (gives the idea of 
a shell with a thickened peristome). 

MacrocMamiis p>oongi (sec. D), Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 19. 

Nanina {Microcystis) poongee, Xev. Hand-list, jd. 38. no. 159. 

Locality. Moulmain (Stoliczhi). 

Sculpture microscopic, close, longitudinal striation, hardly visible 
on the apical whorls ; colour rich brown. 

Original description : — " Testa, turbinate eonoidea, tenui, apice de- 
pressiuscido, anguste umbilicata, tumida, fusco-cornea; anfract. 6J 
convexis ; apertura rotunde lunari ; perist. recto, acuto. 

"Diam. 0-26, alt. 0-20 inch. A thin brown Helix, somewhat 
resembling the small //. molecula, but with a more elevated spire, 
which, however, varies a little in diff'erent species." 

Size : major diam. 5'4 mm., alt. axis 3*8 mm. 
„ 0*21 inch, „ 0*15 inch. 

Nevill gives also Cherra Poongee and Xaga Hills as the habitat 
of this species, from specimens sent by Mr. Chennell and myself to 
the Calcutta Museum : these are 31. longicauda and 31. nengloensis 
of my collection, which originally w^ere considered to be U. poongee. 
The sculpture and colour are quite distinct. 

Macrochlamys pacata, u. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 10.) 

Locality. Lhota Xaga Hills {A. Chennell). 

Shell depressedly conoid, thin, smooth, and glassy ; sculpture fine 
regular and somewhat distant lines of longitudinal strife ; colour 
sienna-brown ; spire low, rather flat; suture adpressed; whorls 4^, last 
largest and tumid below, regularly increasing ; aperture ovately lunate ; 
peristome thin, columellar margin iDerpendicular and reflected. 

Not fuUy grown. 

Size: major diam. 0-11 inch, alt. axis O'Oo inch. 
„ 2-8 mm., „ 1-3 ram. 

Macrochlamys faceta, n. sp. (Plato XIV. fig. 7.) 
Locality. Dikrang vaUey, Dafla Hills (//. //. G.-A.). 



MOLITTSCA OF INDIA. 91 

Shell globosely conoid, scarcely perforate; sculpture fine, close, 
regular longitudinal furrowing ; colour ochraeeous ; spire subconoid, 
sides flat; suture adpressed; whorls 4, convex, the last tumid; 
aperture subvertical, ovately lunate ; peristome thin, columella 
weak, subvertical. 

Size: major diam. 2*7 mm., alt. axis 1*4 mm. 
0-11 inch, „ 0-06 inch. 

This shell is somewhat of the form of umbraticola, but is much 
smaller and the whorls not so rounded and globose as in that shell. 

Macrochlamys enata, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 11.) 

Locality/. Lhota Naga Hills (Chennell). 

Shell globosely conoid, thin, transparent; sculpture fine, very 
regular longitudinal stria3, glassy to the eye alone; colour pale 
sienna-brown ; spire moderately high, conic, blunt ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 4i, regularly increasing; aperture oval, subvertical; peri- 
stome thin, perpendicular at the columellar margin. 

Size: major diam. 2-4 mm., alt. axis 1-1 mm. 
0-10 inch, „ 0-04 inch. 

Macrochlamys oeiginaria, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 12.) 

Locality. Munipur {H. B. G.-A.). 

Shell perforate, globosely conoid, glassy, rather solid, and rounded 
below ; sculpture fine regular longitudinal striation ; colour sienna- 
brown ; spire moderately conoid, the side convex ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 4|, the last with a tendenc}^ to subangulation ; aperture 
ovate, subvertical ; peristome thin, suboblique. 

Size : major diam. 2-5 mm., alt. axis 1-5 mm. 
0-10 inch, „ 0-06 inch. 

Macrochlamys sata, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 13.) 

Locality. Shenghor Peak, 6706 feet, Dafla Hills {coll. Indian Mu- 
seum), one specimen ; Toruputu Peak, 7322 feet, Dafla Hills, one 
specimen {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell depressedly conoid, very small ; sculpture microscopic regular 
lines of striae, crossed transversely with other striation ; colour pale 
olivaceous grey, mottled black, with shining lustre ; spire flat ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 4, sides flatly convex ; aperture lunate ; 
peristome oblique below from columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 2*0 mm., alt. axis 0"8 mm. 
0-08 inch, „ 0-03 inch. 

Macrochlamys? anon^, n. sp. (Plate XIV. fig. 8.) 

Nanina (Microcystis), n. sp., Nev. Hand-list, p. 38. no. 163 
(found on fruits of the custard-apple). 

Locality. Calcutta (G. Neviil and J. Wood-Mason). 

Shell narrowly perforate, subdepressedly conoid, covered with a 
rough limy deposit ; sculpture indistinct longitudinal fine ribbing, 

PART III. K 



92 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

with a few trausverse ridges of growth ; colour umber-brown ; spire 
subconoid, sides flat ; suture shallow ; whorls 4, the last rounded 
below and somewhat compressed towards the aperture ; aperture 
oblique, laterally lunat-e ; peristome somewhat thickened, oblique on 
columellar margin. 

Size : major diam. 0*06 inch, alt. axis 0-03 inch. 
,, 1-5 mm., ,, 0-08 mm. 

This very minute species, the generic position of which is very 
uncertain, and which it would be interesting to examine in a living 
state, I xilace in the above genus with doubt. It was sent me by 
Mr. G. Nevill, with the title 2 jpeliosanthi, Morch ; but the descrip- 
tion does not agree. 

Helix (Kaliella) peliosanthi, Morch, Vidcuskabelige Meddelelser, 
1872, p. 13. 

Original description : — " T. minutlssima, trocJdformis, obtecte 
perforata; anfr. 4^, medio angulati, spircditer lineati ; litiece incre- 
menti ea?pressce, regidariter remotce ; anfr. tdtimus bicarinatus, basi 
plana nitida, umbilico anguste ohliquo. Epidermis tenuissima, in 
varinis ciliata. Apertura rhombea, columella siibdentata. 

" Diam. 1^^ mm., alt. 14- mm. 

" Paa Bladene af Peliosanthes tela fra Haven i Calcutta. {Dr. 
DidricJisen). Maa va3re naermest beslsegtet med Nanina (Kaliella) 
comdus, Blanford (Contrib., Pfr. Mgr. v. p. 90) men de to kjcilc ere 
forsynede mod meget grove Cilier, og untersiden er aldeles fiad ; 
ligeledes er den nye Art meget mindre.'' 

I hope to obtain this from Copenhagen, and give a figure of it. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Fig. 1, 1 a. Sitala intonsa, G.-A., X 7. Khasi Hills. 
1 b. Ditto : sculpture, X 50. 

2. Sitala crenicincta, Gr.-A., X 12. Khasi Hills, 

3. Ditto, X 7. 

4. 4rt, 4'^- Siiala recondiia, G.-A., X 7. Raliaug, Jaiutia Hills. 
4 c. Ditto : sculpture, much enlarged. 

6. Sitala iivida, Gr.-A., X 7. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 
6. ? nevitli, G.-A., X 4. Darjiling. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys poongee, Theobald, X 4. Moulmaiu, Tenasserim. 
2. ? kandicnsis, Nevill, MS., X 7. Kandv, Ceylou. 

3. Sitala plaeita, G.-A., X 12. Khasi and Munipur. 

4. Macrochlamys umbraticola, G.-A., X 7. North Cachar Hills. 
4a. Ditto: sculpture, X 50. 

5. Macrochlamys per paella, Benson, X 7. Moulmain, Tenasserim. 

6. Sitala sulmana, Nevill, MS., X 8. Jessore. 

7. Macrochlamys faccta, Gr.-A., X 12. Dafla Hills. 

8. ? anoncB, G.-A., X 12. Calcutta. 

9. Helix ? ( -i) glomerosa, G.-A., X 20. Dafla HiUs. 

10. Macrochlamys pacata, G.-A-, y. 8. Lhola Naga Hills. 

11. cnata, G.-A., X 8. Lhota Naga Hills. 

12. origlnaria, G.-A., X 8. Munipur. 

13. sata, G.-A., X 8. Dafla HiUs. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 93 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1. Kaliella lailangkotensis, G-.-A., X 7. Khasi Hills. 
1 a. Ditto : sculpture, X 50. 

2, Sitala baUiana, Nev. MS., X 7. Ganjam. 

3, 3 a. Kaliella kezamahensis, G.-A., X 8. Naga Hills. 

4, 4 a. ruga, G.-A., X 8. Naga Hills. 

5, 5 a. htrrailensis, G.-A., X 7. Naga Hills. 

5 b. Ditto : sculpture, X 50. 

6, 6a. Kaliella comdus, W. T. Blf., X 12 and 8. North Cachar. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1. Kaliella? chenneUi, G.-A., X 7. Lhota Naga Hills. 
1 a. Ditto, suture between first and second whorls. 

2. Kaliella nongsteinensis, G.-A., X 12. North Khasi Hills. 

3. dikrangcnsis, G.-A., x 20. Dafla Hills. 

4. tirutana, G.-A., X 24. North EJiasi. 

5. Ditto, juv., X 24. North Khasi. 

6. Kaliella leifhiana, G.-A., X 7. Ceylon. 
6 a. Ditto : lunbilical region, X 12. 

6 b. Ditto : the keel of the last whorl, much enlarged. 

7,7a. MacrochlaniT/s? planiicscula,llu.tt., X 9. N.W.Himalaya. 

8. ? molccicla, Bs., x 7. Eangoon, Pegu. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATE XVII. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys longicauda, G.-A., X 8. Khasi Hills 

2. 2 a. Ditto, var., X 8. Khasi Hills. 

3. Macrochlamys nengloensis, G.-A., X 8. Naga Hills. 

4. longicauda, var., X 7. S. Jaintia Hills. 

5. nengloen&is, var., x 8. Munipur. 

6. Jcoliaensis, (G.-A., x 7. Assam. 

7. roberti, G.-A., x 8. Burrail range. 

8. dorani, G.-A., x 8. Khasi Hills. 

9. tanircnsis, G.-A., X 8. Dafla Hills. 

10. rusticula, G.-A., x 12. North Khasi Hills. 

11. (?) darjilingensis, Nevill, MS., x 20. Darjiling. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVIII. 

Pig. 1. Macrochlamys indica, Bs., nat. size. Calcutta. Showing position of 
the right shell-lobe in life, somewhat contracted. 

2. Ditto, spirit-specimen: view of right side, x 4, showing :—r s / 

right sheU-lobe ; r.d.L, l.d.l., right dorsal lobe and left dorsal 
lobe. 

3. Ditto, ditto: left side, with left shell-Iobe (l.s.l.) and posterior 

termination of the left dorsal lobe (l.d.l.). 

4. Ditlo : sketcli of end of the foot, from life, somewhat enlarged 
6, 5 a. Ditto, shell of, X 2-4. ^ ' 

6. Ditto: generative organs, X 4: h.d., hermaph. duct ; .<4^.(?c;., albu- 

men-gland; o.y., oviduct; P., penis; c.r.R, c£ecum of retractor 
muscle of the penis ; c.d., cfficum calciferum, or kalk-sac ; D the 
amatorial organ. ' ' 

7. Ditto : jaw, X 20. 

8. 8 a, 8 6. Portion of the radula, x 360; central, median, and lateral 

teeth. 



94 LAND AND FRESHWATER M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1, la. Macrochlamys petrosa, Hutton. Bhangulpur. 

2, tugurium, Bs. Darjiling. 

3, 3«. si^n^wW/ewsis?, Nevill. Calcutta. 

4, perplana, Nevill. Parisnath. 

6. Iccythis, Bs. ? Parisnath. 

6, 6 a. decussata, Bs., in coidi, and to show the shell-lobes. 

Cherra Poongee. 

7. Macrochlamt/s komsta, G-ould : r.s.l., l.s.l., right and left shell-lobes ; 

r.d.l., l.d.L, right and left dorsal lobes. Mule-it range, Tenasserim. 
7 a. Ditto : extremity of foot, from spirit-specimen. 
7b. Ditto: jaw, ditto. 
These species will be described in detail in Part IV. Figures 1-5 are from 
drawings by a native artist, executed under the superiuteudeuce of Ferd. 
Stoliczka, and preserved in the Indian Museum Library, Calcutta. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XX. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys langicauda, G.-A. : the extremity of foot, from spirit- 
specimen, X 12. 
1 a. Ditto : the extremity of foot, showing the long lobe over the mu- 
cous gland. Drawn from life. 
1 b. Ditto : the mantle, from spirit-specimen, X 12. 
1 c. Ditto : jaw, X 20. 
1 d. The odontophore, central and median teeth, X 720. 

1 e. Outermost laterals, X 720. 

2. Macrochlamys lailangkotensis, G-.-A., jaw of, X 50. 

2 a. Ditto : central and median teeth up to the 7th, and 8th, 9th, and 

10th laterals; '2b, 11th, 12th, and 13th laterals; 2 c, the outer- 
most laterals, X 720. 

3. Macrochlamys iuguriimi, Benson, showing the shell- and mantle- 

lobes: lettering as above. Ecs.or., respiratory orifice. In 3, 3 a, 
the l.s.l. would turn backwards over the edge of the shell. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXL 

Sculpture of portion of last whorl near aperture, X 50; viewed from above, 
the aperture directed towards the bottom of the diagram. 
Fig. 1. Macrochlamys indica, Bs. Calcutta. 

2. petrosa, HutLon. Kajmabal. 

3. splcndcns, Hutton. Mussoorie. 

4. , near lubrica, Bs. Dafla Hills. 

5. , species undetermined. Lhota Naga. 

6. daflaensis, G.-A. Dafla Hills, Assam. 

7. castanco-labiata, G.-A. Naga Hills. 

8. masurknsis, G.-A. N.W. Himalaya. 

9. sylhetmsis, G.-A. Chatak. 

10. hardwickii, G.-A. Calcutta. 

11. Bensooiia 7nonticola,'S.\x\ior\,in\. Mussoorie. 
12. ditto, —labiata,Viv. Mussoorie. 

13. 13a. Macrochlamys? pedina, Benson: first and second whorls 

Bombay. 

14. staffordi, G.-A. : ditto. Dafla Hills. 

15. decussata, Bs. Khasi Hills. 

16. longicauda, G.-A. Khasi Hills. 

17. ? textrina, Bs. Pegu. 



LAND AND FUESHWATER MOLLUSCA 

OP 

INDIA. 



Part IV.— OCTOBER 1883. 



(Plates XXII.-XLII.) 



Having given in Part III, the history and original descriptions of 
Benson's Genus Macvoclilamys and denoted the type M. indica, I 
shall commence this Part with a detailed description of that species 
and its anatomy, together with some other allied forms, and show 
what modifications and divergences they present. 

Stoliczka, when treating of this genus in the J. A. S. B. 1871, 
p. 246, considers M. indica, Bs., of Calcutta, to be the type, for similar 
reasons as I have given. Professor C. Semper's work is referred 
to, which leaves no doubt but that the species the latter received 
from Dr. J. Anderson and described was a true MaerocJilamys 
from Darjiling, but not splendens of the N.W. Himalaya, which, 
from what I can remember of the animal, is a very distinct and 
different form. Stoliczka, unfortunately, instead of taking one of 
the Calcutta species for his detailed description of the genus, 
selected M. lioaesta, so different — he says (p. 250) he could not 
detect the kale-sac — that to it he attaches a subgeneric value, being 
led to do so by observing the presence of the peculiar spermatophore, 
which he had not then made out to be that organ. Taking this 
character and the large lobes of the mantle, he considered Blanford's 
Durgella its probable subgeneric position ; he says : — " This name 
has been proposed for Benson's Helix levieida from Tenasserim as 
type, and would indicate a close relation, both in the form of the 
shell and the characters of the animal, to HeUcarion." I have 
since shown, when describing the animal of Durgella levicula (Proc. 
Linn. Soc, Zool.xv. p. 291), how very distinct and how far removed it 
is in every way from the genus under review and Helicarion, i. e. the 
Indian forms of this genus. The absence of an amatorial organ in the 
specimens of M. honesta dissected by Stoliczka is a departure from 
the typical form of MacrocMamys ; and I shall treat of this point 
when describing that species. To show to what extent the true 
Helicarion of Australia differs from our Indian forms I give a Plate 
of a species kindly sent me from Sydney by Dr. T. Cox, for which 
I am greatly indebted to him. 

There arc certainlj' three species in Calcutta that have been 
included under M. vitrinoides. Stoliczka alludes to two (J. A. 
S. B. 1871, p. 240) in these words :— " There occur two allied 

PART IV. L 



96 LAND AXD FKESHWATER 

forms of the vitrinoides tvpe about Calcutta, one very flat with 
the base conspicuously concave about the umbilicus " (this I 
believe to be the same as the species from Cachar [Plate XXVII. 
fig. 2]) ; " it is very closely allied to M. lubrica, Bens. The 
other is a little higher and is said to be vitrinoides, Desh. Both 
are thin shells : the former appears to have no trace of spiral 
etriation ; in the other the stria3 become traceable when the super- 
ficial glossy polish is weathered off, but even then they are not 
nearly so strongly marked as in splendens " (vide Plate XXI. fig. 3). 
Stoliczka was therefore not making a comparison with such dis- 
tinctive sculpture as that shown on Plate XXI. figs. 9 and 10. He 
continues, " Neither of these Calcutta species agrees sufliciently 
with the original description of Deshayes's Helix vitrinoides ; but 
there have been so many other allied species (pedina, decussata, 
seqnax, resijJendens, &c., and lately one or two by Semper and 
Martens) described, that it would be unsafe to augment the already 
confused literature with new names without previously most care- 
fully comparing all the allied forms. Among all the Indian Zoni- 
tidiB the species of the vitrinoides type are certainly the most 
difficult of discrimination." It is the second species alluded to, 
with scul])ture like M. splendens, that I consider to be M. indica 
(Plate XVIII.), for its sculpture has the same arrangement of the 
spiral striae as in M. petrosa (Plate XXI. figs. 1 and 2), a closely 
allied variety. 

Mr, Gray, when describing his genus Nanina, in which he in- 
cluded a H. vitrinoides, mentions Major-Geueral Hai'dwicke's draw- 
ing made in 1797 ; and he must have written his description of 
the animal partly from this drawing. In his ' Catalogue of the 
Pulmonifera in the British Museum,' p. 73, although he makes 
H. citrina the type of the above genus, in the description and 
synonymy of //. vitrinoides, p. 81, we find the P. Z. S. of 1834, p. 58, 
quoted, and with it a reference to Mrs. Gray's ' Figures of Molluscous 
Animals,' vol. iv. p. Ill, t. 71. f. 5, for the animal. I have lately 
looked at the interesting original drawings at the British Museum, 
man}' of them signed Eliza Hardwicke. There are two dis;tinct 
species of Macrochlamys given, Xos. 10 and 11 ; the first bears 
the date Futtehgurh, Aug. 1797, the second Dumdum, Oct. 1823; 
this last was the one copied into Mrs. Gray's work, so that both 
have received the same specific title. As Hardwicke's drawings 
constitute the first and original record of the geiuis Macrocldamys 
I give a description of them. 

No. 10. Macrochlamxs peteosa, ? Hutton. 

A very black-coloured species ; body long, the lobe over the 
mucous gland very tapering and pointed. The right shell-lobe very 
narrow and long, and extending over the shell ; the left shell-lobe 
also long and well developed. Shell of 5 whorls ; colour ruddy 
brown. Major diam. 18-o mm. = 0*73 inch. 

Futtehgurh, which is not far from Banda, typical locality of petrosa. 



ilOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 97 

No. 11. MACROCHLAMrs iNDicA, ? Eensoii. 

Animal of a liglit purplish tint, the tail-lobe not lengthened, slightly 
overhanging. The right shell-lobe broadly triangular and extending 
to the apex. No left shell-lobe shown. Shell, whorls 4^ ; colour 
ochre-brown. Major diam. 21-0 mm. = 0"83 inch. 

Dumdum, near Calcutta. 

It is unfortunate that no accurate drawings were made of these 
two species, showing the shells in different positions ; both are re- 
presented viewed from above, so that we cannot identify them with 
absolute certainty. No. 10, however, in its shell-lobes agrees 
best with 31. petrosa (vide Plate XIX. fig. 1), and in its coloration 
with Hutton's description, and No. 11 agrees best with 31. indica. 

The third species from the neighbourhood of Calcutta is one 
which I have found in Assam and Cachar, and may be known at 
once by its sculpture (Plate XXI. figs. 9 &, 10) from the other two. 
This I describe and name 31. liardivicTcei, after General Hardwicke. 
Mr, G. Nevill, in the J. A. S. B. 18S1, p. 132, founds a new species, 
31. pseudovitrinoides, on 3f. indica of Benson and the H. vitrinoides. 
Gray (thus identified), the animal of which was described by Strick- 
land in the P. Z. S. 1849 and figured on plate 2. Nevill gives no 
description ; he merely says " it is the common snail " throughout the 
plains of the Gangetic delta, and that he is indebted for a fine 
series of this species from Sylhet to Mr. J. "Wood-Mason. It is 
quite impossible from this sort of data supplied with the first notice 
of a new species to know what was received, when we know there 
are three or four common snails of this type in the above delta, 
each equally abundant in different localities. There is no proof, in 
fact, that the Ajmeer form is the same as indica of Benson ; and it 
is more than doubtful if the Ajmeer species is to be found in Sylhet. 

The accession of many thousand specimens in all the local genera 
preserved in spirit, for which magnificent collection I am indebted 
to the industry of Mr. Wm. Robert, of the Survey Department, 
who collected them in the Bhutan Mountains east of the Teesta, 
from their base to 10,000 feet, enables me to give drawings and 
descriptions of several species I had not got before, and renders the 
history of the present genus more complete. 

Passing from 31acrochlamys to Austenia, NeviU, I find also in 
this last genus species with perfectly smooth shells, and others with 
delicate well-marked sculpture. I figure these on separate plates as 
a simple guide for identification, although, as shon-n in 3Iacroc7damys, 
the sculpture has but a slight connexion with anatomical detail. 

Machochlamys (continued). 
SheUs of large size, globose or depressedly globose ; sculpture, longi- 
tudinal, linear, rather wavy striation, with smooth ribbon-like 
intervals. (Vide Plate XXI. figs, 1, 2, 3, and 4.) 

Macrochlamts indica, Benson. (Plate XVIII. figs. 5, 5 a.) 
Macrochlamys indica, Benson, J. A.S. B. vol. i. p. 13 (1832). 

l2 



98 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Locality. Calcutta. 

Shell very depressedly conoid, base flat, thin, translucent, shiny ; 
sculpture longitudinal, the bands rather waved, the transverse lines 
of growth not very distinct (Plate XXI. fig. 1) ; colour pale umber- 
brown ; spire low, sides flat, apex convex; whorls 5|, regularly 
increasing, flat above, the last rounded ; aperture subvertical, sub- 
globosely lunate ; peristome thin, straight, the columellar margin 
obliquely descending. 
Size : maj. diam. 17*0, min. 14-8 ; alt. axis 6-3, body-whorl 5-8 mm. 
0-G7, „ 0-58; „ 0-25, „ 0-23 inch. 
Two other specimens : — 

Maj. diam. 18*7, min. 1G*3 ; alt. axis 8'3, body-whorl G-7 mm. 
„ 0-74, „ 0-64; „ 0-33, „ 0-26 inch. 

19-8, „ 18-0; „ 8-75, „ 6-78 mm. 
„ 0-76, „ 0-71; „ 0-35, „ 0-27 inch. 

The mantle (Plate XVII. fig. 2, and Plate XXV. figs. 9, 10). 
The right shell-lobe small, the left is narrowly reflected over the 
edge of the peristome, and at the basal side gives off a short tongue- 
like process ; the right doreal lobe is narrow, elongate, and extends 
to the columellar margin near the great retractor muscles ; the left _ 
dorsal lobe has two distinct positions, as viewed from the outside 
(Plate XXV. flg. 10), an anterior and a posterior, but when turned 
back and viewed from below (fig. 9) they are seen to be united by 
a reentering concavity in the margin, which is not so free as the 
above portions on either side — an approach to the more distinct 
separation of the two portions which we find in M. atrkolor and 
other species {vide Plate XXV. fig. 8). 

Generative organs. At the junction of the vas deferens a mode- 
rately long, cylindrical, blunt kale-sac is given off a short flagellum ; 
it is then straight for a short distance, forms a sharp twist, and is 
continuous again, but before reaching the retractor-muscle attach- 
ment it makes a close coil on itself, very typical of the organ in 
this and allied genera, of Avhich a comparison may be made with 
the similar coil in M. hardwklcei (Plate XXVIII. figs. 1 ff, 1 6, 
Plate XXXII. fig. 5 6, &c.) ; from this it is straight and cylin- 
drical to the generative aperture. 

The amatorial organ is present as a large gradually tapering 
cylinder, with a retractor muscle at the posterior end. The sper- 
matheca is short and elongately pear-shaped. 

Odontophore. The jaw is moderately concave on the cutting-edge, 
with a well-marked central convex projection. The dental formula 
referred to on p. 85 is 

34 . 2 . 9 . 1 . 9 . 2 . 34 

45 . 1 . 45 

(88 rows counted). 

The central tooth is elongately triangrdar, with two short pointed 

cusps on either side at about half the length. The median are 

similar, tricuspid, the inner cusp being higher, or about midway 



MOLLtrSCA OP INDIA. »» 

between the main point and the outermost ; at the tenth and eleventh 
this inner tooth almost disappears, and the first laterals are unevenly 
bicuspid, the inner cusp being the longest ; the outermost laterals 
decrease gradually in size, and at last are short evenly bicuspid teeth. 

MacpvOchlamts petrosa, Hutton. (Plate XXII. fig. 1 ; animal, 
Plate XIX. figs. 1, Irt.) 

Macroclilamys petrosa {Helix ?), Hutton, J. A. S. E. vol. iii. p. 83 
(1834). 

Helix pet7-osa, Pfr. Mon. Helic. vol. i. p. 56 ; Conch. Ind. p. 37, 
pi. Ixxxviii. figs. 7-10, and note 18, p. viii (good figure as regards 
external form, not correct near umbilicus). 

Macrochlamys indica, Theobald, Supp. Cat. p. 18. 

Nanina vitrinoides,not separated by several authors, and Chemnitz, 
Helix, no. 689, p. 228 (several species are drawn, all from India). 

Locality. Rajmahal on Ganges (Raban), 200 miles from the sea at 
head of the delta. 

ShoU depressedly conoid, base flat, umbilicated, solid ; sculpture, 
longitudinal lines, rather broad, waved, at irregular distances apart 
(Plate XXI. fig. 2) ; colour duU umber-brown, paler beueath ; spire 
moderately high, sides convex ; suture adpressed ; whorls 6, re- 
gularly wound, sides convex, the last rounded ; aperture broadly 
lunate, subvertical ; peristome rather thickened, somewhat sinuate 
on lower margin, very oblique. 

Size : maj. diam. 24-2, min. 21-5; alt. axis 10-8, body-whorl 7*5 mm. 
„ 0-95, „ 0-85; „ 0-43, „ 0-30 inch. 

This shell was sent me by the late Mr. Raban, Bengal C.S. It 
difi"ers in its form from its very close ally indica, from Calcutta, 
the sides of the spire being rounder, not so tumid below, and in its 
far larger size. The animal has not been seen by me. 

I have identified it with the form Hutton collected near Mirzapur, 
although I have not seen any shells from that locality ; but as he 
got it at Tara in the low range of rocky hills (August 1832), the 
Eajmahal shell is very likely to be the same, habitat and climate 
being similar, and both places lying on the right bank of the 
Ganges ; he also gives the size as about one inch. I have no 
specimen from Calcutta so large as this. I have already quoted 
Hutton's description of the animal of petrosa in my history of the 
genus. 

The Bhaugulpur form seems identical with Mr. Eaban's shells. 
I give a drawing of the animal taken by H. T. Blauford on July 1st 
(Plate XIX. figs. 1, 1 rt), from one made under the superintendence 
of Ferd. Stoliczka, and among the set of drawings left by him to 
the library of the Indian Museum, and I append Capt. J. Hutton's 
description in full. 

" No. 3. Genus Helix ? 

" Animal. Dark brown or blackish, with four tentacula, the two 
superior ones being longest and bearing the eyes at their summits ; 



100 LAND AND FKESUWAIER 

tentacula clubbed or forming a button at the tips, retractile ; body- 
elongate, with a hooked process on the extremity or tail, pointing 
backwards ; from the right side of the animal proceed two narrow, 
flat, graduaUy-poiuted filaments or tentacula, which, when the 
animal is in motion, are kept constantly playing over the surface of 
the shell, and in all probability give it the high polish it possesses. 

" Shell. Thin, fragile, pellucid, with a small pillar-cavity, not 
discovering tlie previous whorls ; whorls six or seven in number ; 
colour pale brownish ; shell very glassy, with fine smooth polish ; 
aperture Innated, margins edged and disunited, being interrupted 
by the body- whorl ; diameter about one inch ; spire flattened, as 
are also the sides of the shell more or less. 

" I have placed a mark of doubt to the generic name, because I 
do not find in the description of the genus Helix any allusion made 
to the process on the tail of my specimen, nor to the two tentacula 
proceeding from the right side of the animal. I found specimens of 
these shells, dead, in dry ravines and on the banks of the Ganges. 

" They live, however, in rocky situations, so that their being 
found in the above-mentioned places must be owing to the moun- 
tain-streams having carried them off during the rains. 

" 1 procured living specimens at Tara, in the range of rocky hills 
near Mirzapore, in the month of August 1832. In wet weather, 
or, more properly speaking, during the rains, they sally forth from 
their retreats in quest of food, which consists chiefly of vegetable 
matter. They prefer the early hours of morning to feed in, before 
the sun has sufficient power to become distressing to them. They 
appear to require a great deal of moisture while in motion, without 
which the slimy matter, which exudes plentifully from their bodies, 
becomes so thick as to impede the progress of the animal. I ob- 
served this to be the case with several which I kept alive for some 
time ; when a few drops of water were sprinkled upon it the animal 
put itself in motion and continued so to do until the slimy matter 
became too thick to allow it to proceed without evident exertion. 
I never found these shells in motion except on very wet days ; and 
the above circumstance may probably be the reason. At tlie close 
of the rainy season they deposit their eggs in the ground, and re- 
tire to some secure retreat, where they remain during the cold and 
dry seasons of the year, protected from the weather by the dark 
caves or blocks of stone, among which they conceal themselves, 
shutting up the aperture of the shell with a viscous fluid, which 
soon hardens, and, becoming like a thick coating of gum, efiectually 
excludes the external air. 

" The ova are deposited in long strings, and are white." 

Macrochlamts splendens, Hutton. (Plate XXII. figs. 4, 4a.) 

Nanina splendens, Hutton, J. A. S. B. vol. vii. pt. 1 (1838), 
p. 215 (form of the shell-lobes not alluded to ; they possibly are 
absent). 

HelLv splendens, Pfr. Mon. Helic. vol. i. p. 73, vol. iv. p. 124. 

Nanina splendens, Gray, Cat. Pulm. p. 89 (1855). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



101 



V. 



Orobia sphndens, Albers, Die Heliceen, 2nd ed. p. 58. 
Bensonia sphndens, Pfr. Vers. Zeits. Malak. ii. 1855, p. 119. 
Nanina sphndens, Albers in Malak. Bl. iv. p. 90 (1857). 
N. (Macrochlamijs) splendens, W. T. Blf. A. M. N. Hist. 1863, xi 

p. 83. 

Helix sphndens, Conch. Ind. p. 24, pi. U. figs. 7, 10. 

MacroMamys sphndens. Semper, Reis. Arcb. Phil. p. 17, pi 
figs. 10-19. This refers to some other species sent by Dr. Anderson, 
probably from Darjiling. 

IlacrocJdanujs sphndens, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 18. 

Nanina {Bensonia) sphndens, Nev. Second Yarkand Mission, p. 18. 

Bensonia sphndens (type), Clessin, Nomen. HeUc. p. 41 (1881). 

Locality. Nag-Tiba ridge near Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

Shell Terydepressedly conoid, thin, polished, flat on base, concave 
round umbilicus; sculpture longitudinal, linear, wide apart, not 
very regular, ribbon-like, minute transverse lines of growth (Plate 
XXI. fig. 3) ; colour dark horny brown, pale ochre near aperture ; 
spire' flatly convex, apex rounded; suture shallow, adpressed ; 
whorls 8, closely wound, sides above flat, round on the last : aper- 
ture narrowly lunate, oblique; peristome thin, straight, _ shghtly 
sinuate below, scarcely reflected at umbilicus and descending very 
obliquely ; umbilicus almost hidden. 

Size : mai. diam. 15-5, min. 14-0 ; alt. axis 6-8, body-whorl 5-0 inch. 
0-61, „ 0-55; „ 0-7, „ 0-20 mm. 

Some specimens are considerably larger than this. Abundant under 
stones and fallen trees at 7000-8000 ft. 

Animal. Very pale grey ; tentacles grey, extremity of foot glan- 
dular. 

Original descri]Dtion : — ''Testa discoidea, imrpureo-brunnea, poUtu, 
hvitet^conceutrice et radiatim striata, striis radiatis remotls, illis con- 
fertissime clispositis ; spira vice elevata, anfractibas septem (ajnre 
omissa) arete convolutis ; apertura lunata, lahro stricja, mcrassata 
interna distante munitum. 

" Diam. 0-65 {B.\ . . 

" Animal as in the genus ; the colour a dark verdigns-green. 

" This beautiful species is found in great abundance in the forest 
of Mahasso, beneath fallen timber, and in the hollow trunks of 
decaying trees ; it is also plentiful at Fagu and Xagkunda at 
9000 ft., and has been met with at Hattu at 10,6o6 ft. AM these 
places have a greater elevation than Simla, where it has not yet 
been discovered" {H.). 

" The closely packed whorls, showing a larger number m a smaller 
diameter, at once distinguished this species from all the darker- 
coloured and more depressed varices of N. vitnnoides " {B.). 

1 have just obtained spirit-specimens from Mr. Theobald, collected 
by him at Murree, and the shell now finds a generic resting-place. 
The animal has a very small right shell-lobe and a small left shell- 
lobe, the left dorsal lobe being very distinctly divided into two 
sei)arate lobes. This will be described in more detail. Regarding 
the genus Bemonia referred to, Pfeiffer evidently regarded lahiata 



102 LAND AND FRESHWATEK 

as the t3'pe. Clessiii arbitrarily adopts H. splendens ; but this method 
of dealing with genera cannot be adopted, and as yet we do not know 
\vhether the two species are so much alike as to be placed together. 
The radula is like M. indica, arranged — 

30 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 30 
44 . 1 . 44 

Macrochlamys suengorensis, n. sp. (Plate XXII. fig. 5.) 

Nanina (Microo/stis?), n. sp., Nevill's Hand-list, No. 149 d, p. 37 
(3 sp. Shengor), is the young. 

Localltt/. Shengor Peak, Dafla Hills. 

Shell discoid, narrowly umbilicated, glassy, flat on base (not fuUy 
grown) ; sculpture longitudinal stride, regular and broadly ridged, 
also showing as spiral striae on the base ; colour olivaceous brown ; 
spire quite depressed, apes flat ; suture very shallow ; whorls 4, 
sides flat above, rounded on periphery ; aperture lunate, moderately 
large, nearly vertical ; peristome thin, oblique below, a good deal 
reflected over the umbilicus. 

Size : mnj. diam. 11-2, min. 10*0 ; alt. axis 4*3, body-whorl 3'8 mm. 
0-44, „ 0-39; „ 0-17, „ 0-15 inch. 

A small specimen of 2| whorls sent back to me by Mr. Nevill out 
of a series of Dafla shells given by me to the Calcutta Museum is, 
no doubt, the j'ouug of this species, the apex and spiral curve and 
sculpture being exactly similar. A number of these minute Helices 
■will, I tliijik, turn out to be young shells. 

Macrochlamys ? * choinix, Bs. (Plate XXII. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Helix clioinix, Bs. A. M. X. Hist. 1801, vii. p. 83; Conch. Ind. 
p. 24, pi. li. fig, 1 (not correct on columellar margin) ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. 
vol. V. p. 117. 

Macrochlamys clioinix, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 17. 

Nanina {Macrochlamys) choinix, Nev. Hand-list, p. 23. 

Locality. Andaman Islands. 

Sculpture of the figured specimen, longitudinally broadly arranged 
stride, irregular. 

Size : major diam. 1G*0, minor diam. 12*75, alt. axis 5 ram. 

Original description :■ — " H. testa perforata, vix conoidea-de^iressa, 
teniii, oblique striattda, striis exilissimisspiredibiis confertissime decus- 
sata, superne fusco-cornea, subtus pallidiore,translncente ; spira sub- 
conoid eo-plantdat a, apice vix elevato, obtuso, sutura leviter impressa, 
submar(ji7iata ; anfractibus 6, vix convexiuscidis, snperioribus arctius 
convolutis, idtimo majore, ad peripheriam superne subanr/ulato-rotun- 
dato, subttis convexiuscido ; apertura obliqna, magna, late lunata ; 
peristomate temii, acuto, martjine dextro superne arcuatim prominente, 
colamellari p)rope timbiUcum breviter dilatato. 

" Diam. major 17, minor 14-|, axis 8 mill. ; apert. 9|- mill, lata, 
8 mill, longa. 

" Habitat in Insulis Andamanicis. 

" A naninoid shell, with the last whorl large in proportion to those 

* This queiy denotes tbat the animal has not been described, and that 
the generic position is still doubtful. 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 



103 



of the spire. It has not yet been found in a living state. For the 
specimens which are most perfect in form I believe myself to be in- 
debted to the late Superintendent, Dr. Walker. A broken specimen, 
with the surface in good condition, was transmitted by Captain 
Haughton." ^_____^_»i_«.- 

Shells of same form as preceding species. Sculpture longitudinal, 
each fine rib broken up into papillate dots. 

Maokochlamts ? EXUL, Theobald. (Plate XXII. fig. 3.) 
iTeZiA^ e.^^M^, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1864, p. 245. 
OroUa andamanensis, Tryon, Amer. J. 0. vol. v. p. 110, pi. 10. 
fig. 4 ; vide Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 87. 

HelLv andamanensis, Conch. Ind. p. 28, pl.^ Ixii. figs. 1, 2, 3. 
yiacrochlamys andamanensis, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 18. 
Macrochlamys exid, Nev. Hand -list, p. 23 (Mt. Harriet). 
Locality. Andamans {Harold Oodtvin- Austen). 
Shell narrowly umbilicated, subdepressedly conoid, polished; sculp- 
ture regular, broad, longitudinal bands marked by fine striae ; colour 
pure ochre ; spire depressedly conoid, apex rounded ; suture shahow ; 
whorls 5, the last rounded ; aperture broadly lunate ; peristome thin, 
a white deposit on the body-whorl, scarcely reflected at the columellar 
margin, which is oblique. 

Size : mai. diam. 16-0, min. 14-5 ; alt. axis 7-2, body-whorl 5-8 mm. 
0-63, „ 0-57; „ 0-28, „ 0-23 inch. 
Original description : — " Testa angusteumbilicata,depresso-conoidea, 
Icevi, tenui, striatida, concolore fusca ; apice obtuso ; anfractibus sex, 
tarde crescentibus, convexiusculis, ultimo non descendente ; apertura 
obliqua; pieristomate recto, tenui, juxtaximbilicum leviter reflexo.^ Long. 
16-5, lat. 15, alt. 8-5 miU. Habitat in insulis Andamanicis." _ 

" this sheU seems a Nanina and somewhat recalls N. semifusca, 
Dh., but is a more tumid species." 

Macrochlamys prona, Nevill. (Plate XXII. figs. 2, 2 a.) 
=mamriensis, MS. G.-A. Part III. Plate XXI. 
3IacrocJdamys prona, Nevill, Moll. Tarkand Exped. p. 17(1878); 
? NeviU, Hand-Hst, No. 18, p. 21 (10 sp. Naini Tal). 

Locality. Masuri, X.W. Himalaya. • -,. i 

SheU umbilicated, discoidal, base flat ; sculpture linear-longitudmal, 
each Une formed by close-set papillate dots (Plate XXI. fig. 8) ; 
colour pale sienna-brown, a darker conspicuous band of same colour 
near aperture, progress of growth is shown by tbe ochreous bands 
behind it at intervals ; spire very depressed, apex very flattened ; 
suture adpressed ; whorls 6, regularly increasing, sides flat above, 
rounded on the last ; aperture lunate, subvertical ; peristome thin, 
straight, scarcely reflected, and very obliquely descending at the 
umbilicus. , i ^ o 

Size • mai diam. 18-2, min. 16-2 ; alt. axis 7-0, body-whorl 4-8 mm. 
0-72,,, 0-63; „ 0-28, „ 0-19 inch. 

Animal (from note-book). Very black and long, a very sharp- 



104 LA.ND AND FHESHWAIEK 

pointed lobe over the mucous gland at extremity of foot. Mantle 
slightly reflected over the margin of the peristome, with two tongue- 
shaped expansions, which the animal expands and contracts. This 
shell I found in a semifossil state embedded in the deposits of 
tufa in crevasses of the limestone. 

The colour of this snail distinguishes it at once from the species 
of the Gangetic delta. 

The specimens above described were shown by me to Capt. T. 
Hutton, and he at once advised my noting the colour of the animal, 
and gave me the title petrosa. Captain Hutton, some j'ears after, 
presented me with all the shell-pamphlets he possessed, which had 
been most of them given him by Mr. W. H. Benson. In one (Ann. 
& Mag. I^at. Hist. Sept. 1848, on p. 163) I find the following note 
in Benson's handwriting : — " Hutton's original H. petrosa was from 
Mirzapur. Query, is it identical with the mountain form from 
Mussoorie which ho now refers to that name ? " 

To this again is appended a note by Hutton, as foEows : — " "With 
reference to Benson's query as to whether the Mirzapur shell was 
the same as that of Mussoorie, I answer certainly not, as he must 
have known, having both species before him ; the Mirzapur shell 
was Naninavitrinoides of Deshayes, the oihev Nanina i^etrosa (\\6h.), 
the name being altered by Benson's advice. When I first found N. 
vitrinoidcs, I knew nothing of species and recorded my discoveries 
haphazard. 

" Benson thought the Mussoorie shell a mere variety of N. vitri- 
noides ; but as we differed he recommended my giving it a name, 
which I did, and I still regard the species as distinct. (Signed T. H.) " 
AVe now know how it was that between them the title pe/^ro.va was 
altered. The Mirzapur form known to Benson as vitrinoides must 
retain Hutton's original name petrosa, and Mr. Nevill has since indi- 
cated and described the "Masuri" species under the distinctive 
name prona. The exact range of petrosa has yet to be defined (vide 
my remarks on the species from Rajmahal). 

The specific designation p)>'ona may have been taken from a MS. 
name of Mr. W. T. Blanford's or vice versa ; for in his collection 
and in his MS. list of it proyia is the name given to the species 
from Parisnath, which is, I find, also distinct, and I have therefore 
had to describe it under the tWlc jainiana. 

Original di'scription : — " Shell small, of the same group as N. 
petrosa, Hutt. &c., but with closer-wound whorls ; it is a form which 
apparently is widely spread throughout the North-western Hima- 
layas, as tlie Museum possesses numerous specimens from Simla, 
Masuri, Naini Tal, and Saharunpur ; two specimens found by Colonel 
Godwin-Austen in the Dafla Hills also apparently belong here*. A 
very similar small form, but I think specifically distinct, is also found 
in the Bombay Presidency. Dr. Stoliczka's specimens from Murree 
are all young or in bad preservation ; I have therefore deterraioed 
on not naming the species from his Murree specimens, but take as 
my type the common North-west Himalayan form, the animal of 

* These I have not seen, and I doubt the identification.- G. A. 



MOLLU80A OF INDIA. 105 

which is known and which is usually recorded in collections as N. 
petrosa. Colonel Godwin-Austen informs me that Hutton himself 
transferred his own name petrosa from the Mirzapur shell to the 
Masuri one on the strength of Benson's statement that the former 
was identical with the Calcutta N. vitrinoides, in which, as already 
stated, Benson was quite wrong. This species is not figured in the 
' Conchologia Indiea,' as far as I can see. Whorls six, closely wound, 
the last only slightly deflected, sometimes not at all, in which case, 
of course, the aperture is quite vertical ; spire almost or quite flat ; 
periphery rounded ; umbilicus resembling that of M. petrosa, more 
open than in all other allied species ; horny brown colour, smooth 
and polished above and below, margins of aperture distinctly but 
slightly thickened. Type from Naini Tal : diam. 12, axis 4^, apert. 
lat. 6, alt. 4| mm." 

The following extract may also refer to this species ; the shells 
from the two localities require examination : — 

'•'■ Nanina vitrinoides "'i, Deshayes (J. A. S. B. vol. vii. p. 215), oc- 
curring in valleys near Subathu. 

" At Simla a scarce variety is found ' with a rib-like incrassation 
within the aperture, like many of the specimens of another variety 
found in Bengal.' Attains a large size and animal is of a dark green 
colour " {Hutton). 

Shells of similar form as the preceding ; sculpture, very fine, regular, 
and delicate longitudinal striation. (See Part III. Plate XXI. 
figs. 9 and 10.) 

Mackochlamts hardwickei, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. fig. 1.) 

Locality. Calcutta, the cemetery at end of Park Street ( O.-A.). 

Shell subcouoid, slightly tumid below ; sculpture regularly and 
delicately striate longitudinally, the striae sharply defined, about 3 
~ToVi7 ^^*^^ (Plate XXI. fig. 10) ; colour dull ochraceous brown, 
with a greenish tint; spire conoid, sides rather flat, apex blunt; suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 6, regularly increasing ; aperture 
large, laterally ovate and well rounded on the ujiper outer margin ; 
peristome thin, straight, suboblique, columellar margin obliquely 
descending and well reflected at the umbilicus, which is not 
concealed. 

Size: maj. diam. 16-2, min. 14-4 ; alt. axis 7*0, body-whorl 5-2 mm. 
0-64, „ 0-57; „ 0-28, ,_, 0-21 inch. 

Animal. Body and tentacles of the same pale grey tint ; the mantle 
is very pale ochraceous, in marked contrast with the rest of the body ; 
the pallial margin is narrow and ill-defined, and the surface of the 
animal peculiarly smooth. A tongue-shaped expansion is situated 
close in at the inner margin of the aperture, given off from the right 
anterior mantle-lobe, and is directed sideways and upwards over the 
periphery towards the apex, and can be extended for 0-15 inch ; 
another linguiform expansion, butvery small, is to be seen on thelower 
margin a short distance from the umbilicus and reflected back over 
the shell. The mucous gland has a short but pointed lobe above it. 



106 



LAND AND FEESHWAXER 



The odontophore consists of 109 rows of teeth, the formula being 

50 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 1 . 50 
63 . 1 . 63 

The centre tooth is tricuspid, two short cusps at the base of the 
long central ; the median teeth have a single outer basal cusp ; the 
laterals are bicuspid, the outer points rather shorter than the inner, 
but rising gradually as they approach the margin of the lingual 
ribbon (Plate XXYIII. fig. 1). 

The generative organs (Plate XXYIII. fig. 1 a) are as in M. indica, 
the spermatheca being longer. There are, however, some differences 
in the penis ; the kale-sac is very long, a flagellum-like appendage, 
in which a partially formed spermatophore could be detected (fig. 1 6), 
the gland of the retractor muscle, which is in the form of a sort of 
coiled caecum, and which appears to be developed from a part of the 
duct being bent and laid together for a portion of its length and then 
coiled on itself from the extreme end ; and at this point, as in so 
many of these Indian genera, the retractor muscle is given off. 

Thus as regards the odontophore and generative organs consider- 
able modifications exist in comparison with M. indica. 

MACROcnLAMTs HARDWicKEi, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. fig. 2.) 

Locality. Chatak, on Barak river, Sylhet District, Lower Bengal. 

Shell umbilicated, subdepressedly conoid, thin, surface dull glassy ; 
sculpture beautifully and regularly striate longitudinally, but very 
fine (Plate XXI. fig. 9, sylhetensis, MS.) ; colour pale corneous ; spire 
depressed, apex rather blunt ; suture adpressed ; whorls 6, the last 
rapidly enlarging, rather tumid below ; aperture subvertical, glo- 
bosely lunate ; peristome thin, the columellar margin nearly vertical 
and but slightly reflected at the umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 16*2, minor diam. 14*2, alt. axis 6-8 mm. 
0-64, „ 0-56, „ 0-27 inch. 

The animal is thus described in my field note-book : — " With long 
foot, light faint green, pink at the extremity of the foot ; underside 
of the foot of a pale orange-colour, of a richer tint near the mouth. 
Eye-pedicels of a light neutral tint. Mantle rather expanded. Ten- 
tacles very long, the oral drooping. Extremity of foot glandular, 
rather truncate, lobe above small "* (Plate XVIII. fig. 4). 

Macrochlamys haedavickei, var. 

Locality. Barowli river, Durrang District, Assam {J. Burt). 

Shell depressedly conoid, umbilicated, smooth, transparent ; sculp- 
ture fine longitudinal striae, 3= jJjj-jj inch ; colour very pale dull 
olive-brown or horny ; spire depressed ; suture adpressed, shallow ; 
whorls 6, flat on spire, rounded on the last and moderately swollen ; 
aperture widely lunate, subvertical ; peristome thin, straight, and 
nearly perpendicular on the columellar margin, very slightly reflected ; 
umbilicus small but open. 

* No mention is made of the liuguiforra appendages to mantle, but they were 
probably overlooked. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 107 

Size: maj. diam. 16-3, min. 14-0 ; alt. axis 6-2, body-whorl 5-0 mm. 
0-64, „ 0-55; „ 0-24, „ 0-20inch. 

Maceochxamts haedwickei, var. (Plate XXIII. fig. 4.) 
Locality. Barroi Gorge, Durrang District, Assam {H. H. O.-A.). 
Sculpture smooth, but with very fine regular longitudinal striation, 
5 lines =jiyLj.,- inch. 

Size: maj. diam. 16-4, min. 14-0; alt. axis 7*0, body-whorl 5-5 mm. 

Maceochlamts hakdwickei, var. 

Locality. Brahmakund, Upper Assam {Mr. M. J. Ogle). 

SheU thin, very depressedly conoid, umbiKcated ; sculpture micro- 
longitudinal strise, in some specimens not to be discerned ; colour 
dull whity brown ; spire low ; suture shallow, impressed ; whorls 
5, flat above, rounded on the periphery ; aperture laterally ovate, 
oblique ; peristome thin, with much obliquity on the columeUar 
margin, and but slightly inflected at the umbilicus. 
Size: maj. diam. 14-0, min. 12-0 ; alt. axis 4*0, body- whorl 3"0 mm. 
0-56, „ 0-48; „ 0-16, „ 0-12 inch. 

Maceochlamts haedwickei, var. politttlfs. (Plate XXIII. fig, 3.) 

Locality. Upper Assam (Mr. M. J. Ogle). 

SheU subglobosely conoid, rounded below, with glassy lustre ; 
sculpture very fine longitudinal strise, not continuous far in a straight 
line, the parallelism being broken at intervals by the wavy trans- 
verso lines ; colour pale horny brown ; spire subconoid ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 6, the last rounded and rather tumid ; aperture 
ovately lunate, subvertical; peristome thin, straight, columellar 
margin oblique, descending, slightly reflected at the umbilicus, which 
is not hidden hy it. 

Size: maj. diam. 15-0, min. 12-8 ; alt. axis 6*2, body-whorl 5-4 mm. 
0-59, _„ 0-50; „ 0-24, „ 0-21 inch. 

Animal not seen. This form is but slightly removed from the typical 
Calcutta one, but it is flatter on the base, with finer sculj)ture, and 
in a large series of some 40 specimens all are of the same pale tint of 
sienna-brown ; whereas an equally large series from the Durrang 
Hills are all of an extremely pale tint of ochre or nearly white. 

Maceochlamts haedwickei, var. polititlijs. (Another specimen.) 

Locality. Upper Assam {Mr. M. J. Ogle). 

Shell depressedly conoid, base rather flat, \imbUicated, thin, 
diaphanous, glassy ; sculpture with fine transverse lines of growth, 
but under lens shows fine, regular, longitudinal striae, the surface in 
some slightly waved, 6=y-^Ljjj inch ; colour pale sienna-brown ; 
whorls 6, regularly increasing. 

Size: major diam. 15-2, minor diam, 14-0, alt. axis 6 5 mm. 
0-60, „ 0-56, „ 0-26 inch. 

Maceochlamts lhotaensis, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. fig. 5.) 
Locality. Lhota-Kaga Hills {A. W. Chenncll). 



108 LAND AND FRESH WATKU 

Shell very thin, umbilicated, depressedly conoid, flattish on base ; 
sculpture very deep, regular, longitudinal striae, crossed by numerous 
fiue lines of growth (Plate XXI. fig. 5) ; colour dark horny ; spire 
low, apex blunt ; suture moderately defined ; whorls 7, flat above, 
periphery rounding suddenly ; aperture ovate ; peristome straight 
above, sinuate below, slight reflexion and very oblique near 
umbilicus. 

Size: maj. diam. 23-0, min. 19-8 : alt. axis 8-0, body- whorl 6-5 mm. 
0-61, „ 0-76; „ 0-32, „ 0-26 inch. 

This is a very distinct large species, unlike in its form, thin texture, 
and sculpture the many other closely allied forms. 

Macrochlamts opipaktjs, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. figs. 6, G a.) 
Localit)/. Darjiling. 

Shell globose, subcouoid above, umbilicated, rather solid ; sculp- 
ture above with minute, irregular, transverse lines of growth ; roughly, 
coarsely, and unevenly striate longitudinally ; colour dull ochre, 
with a pale brown band bordering the peristome ; spire, apex blunt ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 6, convex, the last well rounded on the 
periphery and much swollen; aperture globosely lunate, subvcrtical; 
peristome thin, straight, subvertical on the columellar margin and 
slightly reflected near umbilicus. 

Size : major diam. 16'7, minor diam. 14*0, alt. axis 7*0 mm ; 
0-66, „ 0-56, „ 0-28 inch ; 

alt. body-whorl above the columellar margin 5-8 mm. 

0-23 inch. 

Maceochlamts kala, n. sp. (Plate XL. figs. 1, la, 1 b.) 

Locality. Damsang Peak, Baling Hills, Western Bhutan (W. 
Robert). 

Shell closely perforate, depressedly conoid, base flat, thin, trans- 
parent, glassy ; sculpture fiue, regular longitudinal striae (similar to 
ifigs. 9, 10, Plate XXL, rather coarser) ; colour very pale ashy 
ochre ; spire flatly conoid ; whorls 5, slightly convex above ; aperture 
subvertical, lunate ; peristome circular on outer margin ; columellar 
margin subvertical, weak. 

Size: maj. diam. 9-0, min. 7*0 ; alt. axis 3-5, body- whorl 2-5 mm. 
0-36, „ 0-28; „ 0-14, _ „ 0-10 inch. 

The animal may be distinguished at once by its very dark colour 
above, contrasting with the light colour of the pedal margin and sole 
of the foot below. It is a true MacrocMami/s, with the usual right 
and left shell-lobes present (Plate XL. figs. 2, 3, 4). The left dorsal 
is divided into an anterior and posterior lobe. 

The generative system (fig. 5) is wanting in the usual amatorial 
organ, and the male organ is more simple than in 21. indica and 

thout the coiled caecum. The spermatophore is beautifully dis- 
played in most of the specimens I have examined, both in course of 
formation within the male organ (fig. G) and also where it has been 
received into the spormatheca (fig. 7). At its posterior portion it is 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 109 

beset with a series of small recurved hooks arranged in a band along 
one side, passing into a line of single hooks extending to the pointed 
cap-like anterior end. 

In the radula (figs. 9, 9 a) the central tooth is tricuspid, of usual 
shape : the median teeth with a single basal cusp on the outer mar- 
gin ; the laterals are evenly bicuspid, and very min ute on the outer 
margin. 

40 . 2 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 2 . 40 
50 . 1 . 50 

The jaw (fig. 8) is straight in front, with a slight central pro- 
jection. 

Shells depressedly conoid, of large or moderate size, the surface 
of the shell jjcr/a'fZ^/ smooth. 

Maceochlamts ? REsPLENDENs, Phil. (Plate XXVI. fig. 1.) 

Helix resplendens, Phil, in Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1846, p. 192; Chemn. 
ed. 2, n. 688, t. ex. f. 7-9 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. i. p. 56, v. p. 100 ; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 81.* f. 430. 

Helix expolita, Desh. in Per. i. 190. n. 255, t. 87. f. 1. 

Nanina resplendens, Trosch. in Arch. f. Nat. 1849, i. p. 234. 

Xesta resplendens, Albers, Helic. p. 95. 

Nanina resplendens. Gray, Cat. Pulm. p. 82. 

Helix resplendens, Conch. Ind. p. 24, pi. li. fig. 4 (is not this species). 

Macrochlamys resplendent, sec. A, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 18; Nev. 
Hand-list, p. 20. 

Locality. Mergui (TJieobald). 

Shell subperforate, very depressedly conoid, shining, thin, smooth ; 
colour ochraceous, greyer below ; spire flatly conoid ; whorls 6|, 
closely wound and increasing very gradually and evenly ; aperture 
nearly vertical, lunate ; peristome thin, acute ; columellar margin 
oblique and not reflected until close to the umbilicus, and then but 
slightly so. 

Size: maj. diam. 25-5, min. 23-0 ; alt. axis 10*0, body-whorl 8-0 mm. 
1-0, „ 0-91; „ 0-40, „ 0-32 inch. 

I am indebted to Mr. W. Theobald for a fine example from the 
typical locality, which is 6'5 mm. larger than the original specimeti 
described. 

Original description: — "11. testa suhperforata, depressa, c/laher- 
rima,lucida, tenui, pellucida , lutescenti-cornea ; spira vix promimtla ; 
anfr. 6^, convexinsculis, ultimo regidariter aucto, basi convexiuscido, 
medio profunde impresso ; opertura fere verticali, depressa, lata, 
lunari ; peristomate simplice, acuto, margine columellari in centra 
haseos hrevissime rejlexo. 

" Diam. 8-9, alt. 4'". 

" Prope Mergui Indiae Orientalis legit Th. Philippi." 

* The form here represented with the high spire is not at all like the typical 
species I have seen ; and, from the habitat Burmah, it is evidently some other 
species, not unlike those examples of M. atricolor from Upper Burmah 
named resplendens by Nevill. 



110 LAND AND FRESHWATEK 

Macrochlamys resplendens, Phil. (Plate XXYI. fig. 2.) 

Locality. Cambodia (ex coll. H. Adams). 

Shell similar to Mergui specimen in form, more discoid ; colour 
umber-brown, paler grey below ; spire very flat, not so high ; suture 
well impressed ; whorls 6. 

Size: maj. diam. 21*8, min. 18-8 ; alt. axis 8-0, body- whorl 6-8 mm. 
0-86, „ 0-74; „ 0-32, „ 0-27 inch. 

This shell is very close to the last, but is smaller and flatter above 
and below, and not so tumid. 

Macrochlamys resplendens, Phil. (Plate XXVI. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Siam {Mr. R. Damon). 

Shell similar to Mergui specimen, but smaller and body-whorl 
less tumid ; colour very pale umber-brown, with a grey tinge below ; 
whorls 5. 

Size: maj. diam. 19-0, min. 17*0 ; alt. axis 7"5, body-whorl 6-5 mm. 
0-75, „ 0-67; „ 0-30, „ 0-26 inch. 

Macroclilamys suhcornea, PfeifFer, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 20 ; Mou. 
Hel. vol. V. p. 103; Mai. Blat. 1860, p. 232, from Siam (Mouhot, 
coll. Cuming), is a much closer-wound shell than any I possess ; and 
I doubt the identification by Hanley of one of Theobald's shells 
from Phie Than, figured in Conch. Ind. pi. cxlix. figs. 2, 3, and 
which I believe is a young specimen of resplendens. 

Macrochlamys ? consepta, Bs., small var.? (Plate XXVI. fig. 4.) 

Helix conse2)ta, 'Benson, A.M.N. Hist. Sept. 1860, vi. p. 190 (dwarf 
var.), and 1863, xi. p. 320 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. v. p. 239 ; Conch. Ind. 
p. 37, pi. Ixxxviii. figs. 5, 6. 

Macroclilamys conse])ta, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 19 ; Xev. Hand-list, 
p. 22 (from Pegu). 

Locality. Mule-it range, 4000 feet, Tenasserim (0. Limhory). 

Shell, perforation nearly hidden, globoselj- conoid and depressed 
above, flat on base, rather thickened, with shining surface ; sculp- 
ture none ; colour pale olivaceous ochre, stronger near peristome ; 
spire low, scarcely elevated, apex rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 
6, closely wound ; aperture narrowly lunate ; peristome thickened ; 
columellar margin very oblique, slightly reflected at the upper 
portion. 

Size: maj. diam. 14-5, min. 12-3 ; alt. axis 6*0, body-whorl5-70 mm. 
0-57, „ 0-48; „ 0-24, „ 0-22 inch. 

This shell was compared with a specimen marked from the 
typical locality Mergui, and labelled resplemlens, in JMr. Sylvanus 
Hanley 's collection ; it has some characters in common ; but its more 
solid smaller form does not at all agree with the shell received from 
Mr. Theobald {vide-^. 109, Plate XXVI. fig. 1), concerning which no 
doubt exists regarding its locality. I have not been able to compare 
it with the type specimen described by Benson. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. Ill 

This may be also ci/cloidea, Albers (Helix cycloidea, Albers, Malak. 
Blatt. 1857, p. 89, pi. i. figs. 1, 2, 3 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iv. p. 43 ; 
Macrochlamys, sec. A, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 18), which I have never 
seen. 

Original description : — " Testa suhperforata, orbiculari, stibdis- 
coidea, nitida, radiatim striatida, superne obsolete spiraliter stri- 
ata, pallide cornea ; spira depresso-conoidea, apice elevatiusculo, 
obtuso, sutura impressa, marginata ; anfractibus 8, angustis, con- 
vexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo ad peripheriam rotundato, 
subtus medio excavato ; apertura subverticali, late lunnri, peristo- 
mate albido, intus late incrassato-marginato, superne recto, margine 
basali expansiusculo, undulato, crassiusculo, columellari brevissime 
rejlexo. 

" Diam. major vix 18, minor 15|, axis 7 mill. 

" Habitat ad Damatha, prope Moulmein. Detexit Capt. J. C. 
Haughton. 

" A single specimen is in the collection of Mr. Theobald." 

Macrochlamys jainiana, n. sp. (Plate XXVI. fig. 7 & Plate 
XXVIII. figs. 2-2 e.) 

= p)i'ona, MS. coll. Blanf., = perplana, MS. in pencil on a drawing 
by Stoliczka. 

Localitij. Manbhum (F. Ball) ; Parisnath ( TF. T. Blf.). 

Shell umbilicated, discoid, glassy, some specimens very thin ; 
sculpture none, surface quite smooth ; colour dark brown, paler be- 
neath, often of a rich burnt- sieima tint; spire flat, scarcely raised 
above the body-whorl ; suture shallow ; whorls 6, the last well 
rounded on the periphery ; aperture subvertical, broadly and laterally 
lunate; peristome oblique on the columellar margin. 
Size : maj. diam. 20'0, min. 16-3 ; alt. axis 6-0, body-whorl 5*3mm. 
„ 20-3, „ 18-0 {Blanford coll., Parisnath). 

18-8, „ 15-8 (F.^aZ/); alt. ax. 6-5, body-wh. 5-8. 

Besides other characters the umbilicus is more open in this 
species than in M. indica, petrosa, &c. 

Animal. The foot evidently very long, and the lobe overhanging. 
There is a small right shell-lobe and a small left shell-lobe, and the 
amatorial organ is present; but in the animals examined the gene- 
rative organs were broken up and very hard. However, portions of 
the sperraatophore (Plate XXVIII. figs. 2 6-2 e) were preserved, 
which was of lengthened form, with a series of bicuspid processes 
along the sides, these being set closer together at the basal end 
(fig. 2d) ; a portion of the sac of the spermatophore with its con- 
voluted contents was also preserved (fig. 2 e). 

Odontophore. The jaw (fig. 2 a) has the central projection ; the 
central teeth are as in M. indica (fig. 2), but in the laterals (fig. 2. 
17-20) we find a good specific character ; they are not, as is usual in 
most species of Macrochlamys, bicuspid, but are long and straight, 
with a very minute notch near the apex, and this is not apparent 

PART IV. M 



112 LANB AND FRESHWATER 

in the smaller outermost teeth. The formula is 
27 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 27 
42 . 1 . 42 
In another specimen from Manbhum 

38 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 38 
50 . 1 . 50 

Among the drawings left us by Ferd. Stoliczka is one which I 
have reproduced on Plate XIX. fig. 4, and which, from its flattened 
form, may bo the young of M. jcciniana. Under the original drawing 
JN^evill has written " N. perplana " ; in pencil Stoliczka records as 
follows: — " Macrochlamys like lur/iibris (a MS. name), Parisnath. 
Shell of flattened form. Both mantle-lobes very long and narrow ; 
mantle greenish splashed white, whole body of a distinct greenish 
tinge ; anterior part, especially on the pedicles and back, black ; 
middle part pale ; posterior part dark above, less dark at the sides." 

iV. perpJana, Nevill, MS., was never described ; it is Nanina, 
No. 23, p. 22, not named, in Xevill's Hand-list Mollusca, Dec, 1878, 
with above description of the animal by Stoliczka somewhat 
altered. 

Eight specimens of the shell are in the Indian Museum from 
Dr. F. Stoliczka's collection ; but as I am not able to compare them 
with the shells in my own, I have not retained Nevill's MS. title. 

Macroculamts jainiana. (Plate XXVI. fig. 8.) = stricHandi, 
MS., G.-A., Part III. p. 12. 

Localitj/. ]\[adhopur, Jeypur {Captain A. B. Melville). 

Shell umbilicated, depressedly conoid, glassy, rather solid ; sculpture 
none, surface quite smooth ; colour pale umbor-brown in parts, but 
greatly bleached ; spire low, apex rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 
6, regularly increasing, periphery of last rounded ; aperture sub- 
vertieal, semiovate ; peristome thin ; columellar margin oblique, 
not reflected. 

Size: maj. diam. 16-2, min. 14-0; alt. axis 6-3, body-whorl 5*3 ram. 
0-64,,, 0-56; „ 0-25, „ 0-21 inch. 

I also have a small specimen, 13*0 in major diam., from Borlai in 
Central India, collected by Mr. N. Belletty. 

Macrochlamys ? roLixissiMA, Pfr. (Plate XXVI. fig. 6.) 

Helix politissima, PfeifFer, P. Z. S. 1853, p. 125 ; Mon. Hel. 
vol. iv. p. 45 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. Helix, f. 1292 ; Hanley, Conch. 
Ind. p. 15, pi. xxxi. figs. 8, 9. 

MacrochJamys (sec. A) politissima, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 18. 

Nanina (Macrochl.) politissima, Nev. Hand-list, p. 22. 

Locality. Ceylon. 

Sculpture none ; glassy surface. 
Size: raaj. diam. 22-0, min. 18*5; alt. axis 8-0, body-whorl 7'Omm. 
0-87, „ 0-73; „ 0-32, „ 0-28 inch. 

Original description : — " H. testa snhaperte perforata, depressa, 



MOLLtJSCA OK INDIA. 



113 



temii, politissima, virenti-cornea vel castanea ; spira vix elevata, 
vertice subtili, ohtuso ; sntura profunda ; anfractibus 4|, convexis, 
sensiin accrescentibus, ultimo rotundato, noti descetidente ; apeHura 
parnm obliqua ; rotundato-lanari ; peristomate simplke, recto, mar- 
ginibus convergentibus, dextro antrorsum subm-cuato, columellari 
arcuatim descendente, superne hreviter rejlexo. 

" Diam. maj. 24, min. 20, alt. 11 miU. 

" Hah. in insula Ceylon (Thivaitesy 



Shells depressedly conoid, of large or moderate size, the surfaces 

perfectly smooth. 

MACKOCHLAMrs ATRicoLOK, Godwiu-Austcn. (Plate XXTV. fig. 1.) 

JBelix (Nanina) atricolor, J. A. S. B. 1875, p. 2, pi. 1. fig. 2. 

Naaina {Macrochlamys) atricolor, Nev. Hand-list, p. 20, as var. 
of resplendens, Phil. 

Locality. ^. Cachar Hills (typical locality). 

Sculpture none, perfectly smooth ; colour olivaceous ochre or 
umber-brown, with a stronger band of colour bordering the peri- 
stome. 

Largest specimen : — 
Size : maj. diam. 22-5, min. 19'5 ; alt. axis 9*4, body-whorl 8*8 mm. 

Original description: — "Shell imperforate, depressedly conoid, very 
strong ; colour varying from rich bright brown to greenish ochre, 
pure brown or ochre near aperture, with a glassy surface finely 
striated {i. e. by mere transverse additions of growth) ; spire flatly 
conoid ; whorls 6|, periphery rounded, flat at base ; aperture sub- 
oblique, broadly luuate ; peristome well thickened and slightly 
reflected near the columella. 

" Major diam. 0-93, minor 0*85, alt. 0-45 inch. 

" Animal quite black throughout ; tentacles long, with extremities 
paler ; extremity of foot short and glandular, as in Nanina de- 
cussata, Bs." 

Size : maj. diam. 23-0, min. 21*0; alt. axis 8-75, body-whorl 7*2 mm. 
0-91, „ 0-83; „ 0-35, „ 0-28 inch. 

" Habitat. On the higher parts of the North Cachar Hills, never 
seen to the westward of that j)ortion of the range, and tolerably 
abundant in certain spots." 

The colour of the animal is its most distinctive character. 

Macrochlamts ateicoloe, Godwin-Austen (large var.). (Plate 
XXIV. tig. 2.) 

Locality. Munipur Hills (Ji. J. Ogle). 

Shell subperforate, depressedly globose, base very flat, shining 
polished surface, perfectly smooth ; colour dark chestnut-brown, 
brighter and more ochraoeous near the peristome ; spire flat and 
apex rather rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, regularly in- 

M 2 



114 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

creasing, flatly convex above ; aperture subvertical, broadly lunate, 
directed obliquely downwards from the columellar side ; columellar 
margin very oblique. 

Largest specimen : — 
Size: maj. diam. 28-U,min. 23*5; alt. axis lO'O, body-whorl 8*7o mm, 
1-0, „ 0-93; „ 0-40, „ 0-34 inch. 

This shell may be known from similar forms, even when young, 
by its more tumid and rounded form below, the rounded apex and 
shallow suture, and particularly the milky white colour of the 
interior of the aperture, which in adult shells often covers the 
columellar side of the body- whorl, also the strong band of colour 
bordering the peristome. 

Animal (Plate XXV.). The right shell-lobe (r.s.l, figs. 1, 2, and 8) 
is well developed and must be of considerable length when extended 
in life, for it is very long in the beautifully preserved specimens 
sent me by Mr. Ogle ; the left shell-lobe overlaps the edge of the 
peristome as a simple band for its entire length (figs. 3, 4, and 8), 
and there is no tongue-like shell-lobe given off as in M. indica 
{vide figs. 9 and 10, representing the mantle removed, and viewed 
from above and from beneath). The right dorsal lobe is as in M. 
indica, but the left is more decidedly divided into two portions 
(figs. 1, 3, and 4), the posterior being almost a separate lobe by 
itself, and has that appearance when viewed from the exterior side, 
though the connexion is seen from below {vide fig. 8). The sole of 
the foot is divided into the usual central and side portions, and the 
segmental lines run quite across it from side to side. 

The pedal line is particularly well defined by two parallel grooves, 
enclosing a series (as in all these forms) of oblong epidermal spaces. 
On reaching the large elongate labial tubercle, situated on cither 
side below the mouth, this pedal line is continued diagonally back- 
wards and follows a distinct deep groove, which leads up to the 
posterior upper part of the neck underneath the mantle-lobes. A 
row of tubercles also starting from the above labial tubercle borders 
this groove on its upper margin, and thus distinctlj- divides the 
prosoma with the mouth, tentacles, and generative apparatus from 
the muscular foot, and would correspond to the more distinct ros- 
trum-like head of some species of Cyclophorida? &c. (figs. 4 and 5). 
Along this groove the mucous fluid as it is secreted no doubt would 
be carried and thence beneath the mantle completely over the dorsal 
part of the animal, thence down the lateral grooves, meeting the 
flow of the same fluid at their junction with the pedal line, to 
be eventually thrown off at the extremity. Mr. J. Wood-Mason, in 
a paper published in the P. A. S. B. March 1882, enters into the 
question of this pedal groove (his peripheral groove), and was the 
first to define its use. He does not appear to have considered this 
oblique groove, which would so much more completely spread the 
lubricating fluid over every part of the animnl, and without the 
exclusive aid of the ciliated surface ; however, this groove is not so 
distinctly seen in most other species. 



MOLLtrsCA or INDIA. 115 

The extremity of the foot (fig. 7) is somewhat truncate, the lube 
overhanging the mucous gland, which does not extend to the base 
or sole of the foot. 

Eeferring to the above paper by Mr. Wood-Mason, the taxonomic 
value of this organ is no doubt considerable. He says, "As Pul- 
monata possessing a ciliated peripodium with and without a terminal 
pit were found in every quarter of the globe, and as it was in the 
highest degree improbable that so highly specialized a structure sub- 
serving such an important purpose in the animal economy as this 
evidently did had arisen independently many times in many dif- 
ferent forms in many widely separated areas of the earth's surface, 
he considered that it had a higher taxonomic value than had hitherto 
been assigned to it." 

Mr. Wood-Mason proposed " to distinguish those forms that 
possessed it and those that did not (or had lost it) from one another 
by calling them Craspedophora and Lipocraspeda respectively." 
Similar distinctive titles had been given by Desmoulins in 1829, 
Pherepor^e and Apoe^ respectively. I do not think its function 
is merely to catch the coagulated fluid after it has passed over the 
body, which it appears to do, for it may often be seen covering the 
orifice, but that the opening is more or less connected with the 
lacunar portion of the body-cavity, through which similar mucous 
excreta pass away. It is probably homologous to the canals and 
orifices in the foot of Haliotis and other genera ; or may it not bo 
analogous to the water vascular system of the Turhelluria^ How- 
ever this may be, it is a form of development on which there is 
much to be studied and cleared up. 

The generative organs (Plate XXVII. fig. 1 d) are as in M. indica 
(compare Plate XVIII. fig. 6), the spermatheca being longer than 
in that species and the caecum calciferum is not so well developed ; 
ovo-testis not seen. Penis (fig. 1 d, P) : the ctecum calciferum is re- 
presented by a short rounded gland (K) close to the junction of the 
vas deferens ; amatorial organ (D) very large and cylindrical ; sper- 
matheca (>S/9) very long, reaching nearly to the albumen-gland ; in- 
testine, the salivary gland (Plate XXVII. fig. 1 c) is elongate, 
bifurcating at the anterior end, where the two ducts to the buccal 
mass are given ofi". 

The teeth of the radula (Plate XXVII. fig. 1 h) are arranged 
thus — 

35 . 3 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 3 . 35 
53 . 1 . 53 

and are also similar to M. i7idica, the median being all tricuspid, 
but are far more numerous, there being six more on either side of 
the central tooth, not including the two teeth of transitional form ; 
the outermost bicuspid laterals are also longer, with one point, the 
inner, exceeding the outer throughout. The jaw (fig. 1 a) has the 
central projection on the cutting-edge, but is not so curved in form. 
It will thus be seen that these two species of Macrochlamys are 



116 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

similar in all important characters, the departure heing exhibited 
in the shell and dorsal lobes of the mantle, AI. atricolor possessing 
no tongue-like process to the left shell-lobe overlapping the edge 
of the shell, while the left dorsal lobe is divided into two parts, of 
which the posterior is nearly detached from the anterior portion. 
Other forms share these differences, but more species must be 
examined before creating a subgeneric title. 

I have examined two specimens of this species, one from Kopa- 
medza Peak, Naga Hills, which agree perfectly in the form of the teeth. 

Maceochlamys atricolor, var. (Plate XXIV. fig, 3.) 

Locality. Munipur Hills and Burrail range. 

Shell narrowly perforate, subglobosely conoid, solid ; colour 
olivaceous, ochaceous below ; spire subconoid, sides flatly convex ; 
suture shallow ; whorls 5, last well rounded, globosely lunate, sub- 
vertical ; columellar margin very oblique. 

Size: maj. diam. 20-5, min. 18-5 ; alt. axis 9*0, body-Avhorl 7"0 mm. 
0-81, „ 0-73; „ 0-36, „ 0-28inch. 

This form from the highest ranges is smaller and more globose 
than others. 

Mackochlamts atricolor, var. 

Locality. Kopamedza Peak, Burrail range. 

Shell scarcely perforate ; colour ochraceous with a greenish tinge, 
a band of stronger ochre colour near peristome ; whorls 5. 
Size: maj. diam. 18*0, min. 16'0 ; alt. axis 7*4, body-whoii 6-0 mm. 
0-71, „ 0-63; „ 0-29, „ 0-24 inch. 

This is again a smaller form, similar to the last in every respect. 

Macrochlamts atricolor, var. juv. 

Locality. Hengdan Peak. 

This is evidently a young shell of 3L atricolor, var., from Kopa- 
medza. Sculpture very smooth and glassy, with irregular, indistinct, 
micro-striation longitudinal ; colour fine olive-brown, with a sienna 
band near the aperture ; whorls 4. 

Size: maj. diam. 10'5, min. 9*2 ; alt. axis 4*5, body-whorl 3-3 mm. 
0-41, „ 0-3G; „ 0-18, „ 0-13 inch. 

Macrochlamts atricolor, var. (Plate XXIV. fig. 5.) 

Locality. Hatone, Khakhyen Hills, Upper Burmah {Dr. J. An- 
derson). 

Sculpture perfectly glassy on surface, without slightest sign of striae. 

Nevill, in the " List of Mollusca brought back by Dr. J. Anderson 
from Yunnan and Upper Burmah," J. A. S. B. 1877, p. 16, identifies 
this species with M. resplendens, Phil. A comparison of fig. 5 with 
that of fig. 1, Plate XXVI. of this work, from the typical locality 
Mergui, collected by Mr. Theobald, will show how greatly they differ 



MOLLUSCA or INDIA. 117 

in form; and I possess three specimens from Upper Barmah out of 
the Indian collection. Nevill says, " This species was found abun- 
dantly at Bhamo and in the second defile of the Irawady. The spe- 
cimens are quite undistinguishable from others in the Museum from 
Mergui (typical locality). I thiuk it doubtful if Godwin-Austen's 
JV. atricolor from the 8hisba valley will prove really distinct." The 
closely wound whorls, their greater number, and the flattened form 
of M. respJendens are very distinct characters, and these two forms 
cannot be confused. " Shisha valley " (Z. c.) is an error of copying or 
printing; there is no such place. 

Size: maj. diam. 21*8, min. 19-0 ; alt. axis 9-5, body- whorl 8-8 mm. 
0-86, ,, 0-75; „ 0-37, „ 0-35 inch. 
More globose and tumid than the typical specimens from Munipur 
and the Naga Hills. 

MaCEOCHLAMYS ATHICOLOE. 

Locality. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills. (Plate XXI7. fig. 4.) 
Shell, umbilicus very narrow, almost concealed, subglobosely 
conoid ; sculpture smooth, glassy surface, with indistinct longitudinal 
lines on last whorl, not apparent on the apical portion ; colour pale 
olivaceous brown ; spire moderately high, apex blunt ; suture well 
defined ; whorls 5, convex, the last well rounded and rather veu- 
tricose ; aperture moderately thin, subvertical ; peristome broadly 
lunate, horizontal at base, slightly sinuate and oblique near 
columellar. 

Size: maj. diam. 19*0, min. 16*8 ; alt. axis 8-4, body-whorl 6-4 mm. 
Very similar to specimens from Munipur. 

Mackochlamts cachabica, n. sp. (Plate XXVII. fig. 2.) 

Locality. Munipur Hills. 

Shell subperforate, very depressedly conoid and flat on the base, 
thin, glassy ; sculpture none save transverse strioe of growth ; colour 
pale sienna-brown ; spire flatly conoid, apex subacute ; suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 5, regularly increasing ; aperture 
subvertical; peristome thin, sinuate below; columellar margin 
weak, oblique, non-reflected. 

Size: maj. diam. 18'8, min. 17*3 ; alt. axis 7'0, body-whorl 5-7 mm. 
0-74, „ 0-G8; „ 0-28, „ 0-23 inch. 

This shell may be distinguished from M. atricolor of same size by 
its flatter base and less rounded apex. 

The animal is, as regards its outward form, exactly as in M. atri- 
color ; but the generative organs (Plate XXVII. fig. 2 c) are modified. 
The male organ is like that of M. indica with a longer kale-sac, and 
the spermatheca is short and club-shaped with a rounded terminal 
portion. There is, however, no amatorial organ, and I have exa- 
mined four specimens. Another instance of its absence in certain 
species is exemplified in Biur/ella, a j^oint that has been noticed 
by Stoliczka. The jaw (Plate XXVII. fig. 2 a) is slightly convex 
on the upper margin, still more so on the cutting-edge, with a large 



118 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

central projection ; the odontophore (fig. 2 b) differs materially from 
M. atricolor and M. indica. 

38 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 38 
52 . 1 . 52 

The central tooth is tricuspid, of usual form ; the median teeth 
are bicuspid, the smallest cusp being situated on the outer lower 
margin, the inner (conspicuous in the above species) being absent ; 
the laterals are bicuspid, with points rising equally. 

Here we are presented with a form which outwardly cannot be 
distinguished from its close neighbour M. atricolor, but in its anatomy 
presenting considerable divergence both in generative organs and 
dentition, really quite marvellous are the modifications which are 
presented in this grouji of shells. So many combinations of the 
various characters are found as we look more closely into the different 
species, that these are better shown in a tabular form, which I am 
preparing. 

Mackochlamxs cachaeica, var. glauca. (Plate XXIV. fig. 6.) 

Locality. Harmiitti, base of Dafla Hills, Assam. 

Shell perforate, depressedly conoid, base flat ; sculpture, very 

smooth surface, no striation seen ; colour very pale greenish ochre ; 

spire low ; whorls 5 ; aperture subvertical ; umbilicus rather open. 

Si/e : maj. diam. 22*8, min. 19'8 ; ait. axis 8*0, body-whorl 7*8 mm. 

0-87, „ 0-76; „ 0-32, „ 0-31 inch. 

The shells from the above locality are rather more tumid than the 
typical specimens from the Cachar side. 

Maceochlamys ? LUBRicA. (Plate XXIV. fig. 7.) 

Helix luhrica, Benson, A. M. N. H. vol. x. p. 349 (Nov. 1852) ; 
Pfr. Mon, Hel. vol. iv. p. 44 ; Ileeve, Con. Icon. pi. clxxi. fig. 1153; 
Conch. lud. p. 24, pi. li. figs, 8, 9. 

Nanina luhrica. Gray, Cat. Pulm. B. M. p. 42 ; H. & A. Adams, 
Gen. ii. p. 223. 

Macrochlamys (sec. A) luhrica, Theob. Cat, Supp, p, 18. 

Nanina {Macrocldumys ?) luhrica, Nev. Hand-list, p, 22. 

Nanina (Xesta) luhrica, Pfr. Malak. Bliitt. 1855, p. 120. 

Locality. Darjiling, X,E. Himalaya, 

Sculpture none, a perfectly smooth surface ; colour very rich ochre- 
brown. 

Size : maj. diam. 26-7, min. 22-3 ; alt. axis 100, body-whorl 8-5 mm. 
1-1, ,, 0-88; „ 0-40, „ 0-34 inch. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, dejpressa, obsolete radiate- 
striata, politissima, luteo-fulvescente vel olivacea ; spira planiuscula, 
apicevix prominulo, ohtuso, sutura leviter suhcanaliculata. Anfractihus 
5, xdtimo rotundato, hasi convexo ; aperttira late Innari, vix ohlicpia, 
peristomate acuto, intus interdum subremote albido-labiato, margine 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



119 



columellari oblique descendente, suhsinuato, leviter incrassato, swperne 
reflexiusculo. 

" Diam. major 24, minor 20, axis 11 mill. 

" Uah. ad Darjiling." 

"Distinguished by the proportion of the whorls and other characters 
from H. resplendens, Philippi, and from H. vitrinoides also by the 
greater depth of the last whorl, and the characters of the mouth. I 
have long possessed the pale-coloured variety from Darjiling ; the 
acquisition of a second dark- coloured specimen from Mr. Trotter has 
confirmed the distinctness of the species." 

Maceochlamts koliaensts, n. sp. (Plate XXVI. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

Locality. Koliaghur, on Brahmaputra river, Assam. (Young 
specimen.) 

Shell umbilicated, smooth, transparent, shining, very depressedly 
conoid ; sculpture none ; colour horny brown with an olive tinge ; 
spire very low; suture adpressed ; whorls 5, rather rapidly increasing, 
last rounded on side and tumid below ; aperture subvertical, ovately 
lunate ; peristome thin, oblique on columellar margin. 
Size : maj. diam. 12-0, min. 104 ; alt. axis 4-7, body-whorl 3-7 mm. 

Animal (extract from Field-book). " Dusky green, side of foot 
grey, spotted with sienna ; extremity of foot with gland, having an 
overhanging lobe long and pointed ; mantle just overlaps the edge of 
the aperture." On dissection of dried specimen we find a long 
slender right shell-lobe on the upper inner margin, and a small left 
shell-lobe also could be made out. 

The generative organs are as in Macroclilamys indica, the amato- 
rial organ being present, having a blunt rounded termination at the 
anterior end. 

The central tooth of the radula of usual tricuspid form, the median 
have only the lower denticle on the outer basal margin ; the laterals 
are bicuspid cusps of unequal length even to those on the outer 
margin, which become very small. There were 93 rows of teeth 
arranged thus {vide Plate XXVIII. fig. 3) : — 

42 . 2 . 10 . 1 . 10 . 2 . 42 
54 . 1 . 54 

The jaw was straight on the cutting-edge, with a central median 
projection. 

Sculpture regular, longitudinal coarse striae, broadly ridged 
(Plate XXI. fig. 7) ; odontophore with straight unicuspid laterals. 

Maceochlamts castaneo-labiata, G.-A. (Plate XXIX. fig. 2.) 

Locality. Asalu, Burrail range, Assam. 

Shell perforate, depressedly conoid, flat below, surface shiny, with 
fine transverse lines of growth, translucent, moderately solid ; sculp- 



120 LAND AND FRESHWATEE 

ture regular, longitudinal, rather coarse striae, broadly ridged ; colour 
pale horny brown, with a pale ochraceous, more or less wide margin 
at the peristome (in the largest specimens a former aperture is still 
shown by a band of colour across the whorl) ; spire flatly conoid, 
apex obtuse ; suture shallow ; whorls 6, regularly increasing, the 
last somewhat swollen below ; aperture broadly lunate, suboblique ; 
peristome acute, slightly curving outward above and slightly sinuate 
below ; columellar margin very oblique from umbilicus, and scarcely 
reflected. 

Largest size : 
Maj. diam, 15-8, min. 13-8 ; alt, axis 6-8, body-whorl 5-8 mm. 

Smaller size : 
Maj. diam. 13-2, min. 11-8 ; alt. axis G-0 mm. 

This shell was very abundant at Asalu, especially in the old 
(jooms) forest- clearings ; it occurred also on the peak of Hengdaa, 
one of the highest points in this part of the Bui-rail range : from 
this locality it is somewhat smaller, paler and whiter in colour, per- 
haps due to the dark forest- home. These measured 12-2 x 10 x 5*2 
mm. and 11-2 x 10*3 X 4-8 mm. 

On Japoo Peak, 10,000 feet, another small variety was found, 
but all having the distinctive pale-margined lip. I have a fine ex- 
ample also from Rezaraeh in the Xaga Hills (1(3-0 x 13-7 X 7-3 mm.) 
(Plate XXIX. fig. 3), which is rather more globose in form. 

Animal. Head and tentacles dark grey, underside of foot with 
two narrow black lines. 

Macrochlamts castaneo-labiata, G.-A. (Plate XXIX. figs. 1, 
1 rt.) 

Localitij. Munipur Hills {Mr. J. Ogle). 
Size : maj. diam. lS-3, min. 15-5 ; alt. axis 7*0, body-whorl 5-5 mm. 
0-72, „ 0-61; „ 0-28, „ 0-22 inch. 

Specimen figured from Asalu (Plate XXIX. fig. 2) : — 
Size: maj. diam. 14-8, min. 13*3 ; alt. axis 6-0, body-whorl 5-0 mm, 
0-58, „ 0-53; „ 0-24, „ 0-2Uiuch. 

Specimen from Rezameh, Naga Hills : — 
Size: maj. diam. 1 G-0, min. 14-2 : alt. axis 6*8, body-whorl 5-0 mm. 
0-63, „ 0-56; „ 0-27, „ 0-20 inch. 

The above specimen, sent me in spirit by Mr. Ogle, from the high 
hills between Cachar and Munipur, Avas evidently, when living, very 
dark in colour, with perfectly black head and tentacles. The right 
shell-lobe extremely long (Plate XXIX. fig. 4), as well as the left 
shell-lobe, which must be extended over the basal part of the shell ; 
the neck-lobes as in M. indica ; the jaw and odontophore are, how- 
ever, quite different. 

The generative organs (Plate XXIX. fig. 7) may be compared 
with those of M. indica (Plate XVIII. fig. 6). The male organ has 
only a blunt swollen portion near the junction of the vas deferens. 



MOLLtrSCA OF INDIA. 



121 



indicating the kale-sac, and the amatorial organ is large and termi- 
nating in a blunt rounded form. 

Odontophore. The radula (figs. 6 ft, 6c) is about 2-75 mm. long,with 
about 82 transverse rows of teeth ; the median are all considerably 
larger than the laterals ; the centre tooth is tricuspid, as well as the 
next 8 median teeth ; the next (that is the 9th and 10th) have only a 
single cusp on the outer margin, and all the succeeding laterals are 
simple, elongate, straight teeth, becoming small on the edge of the 

labial ribbon. 

45 . 2 . 8 . 1 . 8 . 2 . 45 

55 . 1 . 55 

The jaw (fig. 5) is straighter than in other species of this genus, 
the centre projection being on a level with the portion on either side ; 
it is longitudinally striate and about 1*2 inch in breadth. Fig. 6 a 
gives a central tooth and first median on either side of a specimen 
in which the former is unsymmetrical as regards the cusps at the 
base ; and this malformation continued the whole length of the ra- 
dula. Such malformation occasionally occurs in one of the set ; and 
whatever form it may assume, it necessarily is always repeated in 
each row. In this odontophore we find another departure from 
Macrochlamys, the laterals being like those of Ariophanta and Od-ytes. 



Shells rather large, globose or depressedly conoid ; sculpture decussate 
or papillate ; longitudinal striae, crossing fine transverse ribbing. 

Macrochlamys dalingensis, n. sp. (Plate XXXV. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Locality. Damsang, Baling Hill, Western Bhutan ( W. Bohert). 

Shell, perforations somewhat concealed, subdepressedly conoid, base 
rather flat ; sculpture slender, under high power papillate (fig. 2, 
X 50), the longitudinal striation crossing coarser but fine ribbing and 
breaking it up ; this is again arranged in transverse bands of growth ; 
colour dark umber-brown, with a pinkish broad margin bordering 
the peristome; spire flatly conoid, apex obtuse; suture rather shallow; 
whorls 6, rather closely wound near the apex ; aperture oblique, 
ovate ; peristome somewhat thickened, milky white just within it ; 
columellar margin oblique and but slightly reflected. 
Size : mai. diam. 24-2, miu. 21-0 ; alt. axis 10-5, body-whorl 8-2 mm. 
0-95,,, 0-83; „ 0-42, „ 0-32 inch. 

Among Stoliczka's drawings is one ("No. 46) of a Darjilmg shell 
of a dark brown colour, with a ruddy band near the peristome, the 
animal having a very conspicuous long horn above the foot-gland 
and right and left shell-lobes, the latter well in front ; it is no 
doubt this species, although slightly smaUer, and a near ally of M. 
tugurium. No. 21 of the same set of drawings represents another 
umber-coloured shell, with edge of peristome coloured, of same size 



122 LAND AND FRESHliVATEB 

as M. dalingensis, but no shell -lobes are visible, and the horn above 
the mucous pore is unusually well developed. Stoliczka wrote 
" liibrica?" below this ; Nevill '^ mainwaringi?" and on the other 
drawing '■^ maimuaringiana." No. 21 is also the species referred to 
in Nevill's Hand-list, p. 49, no. 272, Nanina (Bensonial), n. sp., 
with this note : — " Perhaps better classed near N. tugurimn. From 
a drawing of Dr. Stoliczka's the animal appears to be of a brick- 
red colour, with a pointedly truncate tail and remarkably developed 
nearly vertical horn above. 20 sp. Darjiling. Coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka 
and Colonel G. B. Mainwaring." There is some uncertainty about 
Nevill's MS. title mainwaringi, and I therefore do not retain it, 
but think it better, so as to avoid any future confusion, and as my 
specimens include the animal which I also describe, to give it the 
above name dalingensis. I have a fine specimen of Mr. Nevill's 
mainwaringi Yeceiwedihora. him, and although no doubt belonging to 
this group, it differs very much in colour and form. I shall figure 
it with tugurium and other shells in some future part. 

The animal (figs. 3 and 4) is pale coloured in the spirit-specimens. 
The right shell-lobe is present though not very large, and there is a 
left shell-lobe (figs. 4 and 5) on the anterior left margin of the 
peristome, thus not quite so far back as in other forms. The left 
dorsal lobe is divided into two parts, and the posterior (fig. 4) is 
narrow and pointed behind, showing an interesting approach towards 
the more reduced form of the same lobe in Oxytes cydoplax (Plate 
XXXI. fig. 4) and orohia (Plate XXXII. figs. 1, 1 d, 1 b) ; the an- 
terior portion is well developed. The extremity of the foot presents 
a different formation, and even in the spirit-specimen is still long ; 
the ridge of the foot behind extends quite to the point, running up 
between the extended pedal margin ; the gland is linear and just 
reaches to the sole of the foot, which is of normal form. 

Generative organs (fig. 9). These do not call for any de- 
tailed description, being very similar to M. indica ; the kalk-sac is 
moderately long, the amatorial organ slender and pointed near the 
muscle-attachment ; the hermaphrodite duct much convoluted. 

Odontophore. The central and laterals (figs. 8, 8 a) as in type 
of genus, but the laterals are more numerous and diminish in size 
into very small teeth on the outer edge (fig. 8 h). 

45 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 45 
61 . 1 . 61 

The laterals are bicuspid at first, with the inner point the longest, 
but pass outwards into almost unilateral teeth, showing only a 
slight notch near the point. 

The salivary glands are in one mass ; the oesophagus and intestine 
are of same size throughout (fig. 10). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 123 

Genus Oxxtes, Pfeiffer. 

Thia was indicated with its type Nanina oocytes, Eenson, in section 
vi. of true Helices (without description). The animal of this 
species presents some good characters sufficiently distinctive, and also 
common to other species in the Indian region. It forms therefore a 
good weU-marked group, resting on a better basis than many of these 
subgenera. The modification of the mantle-lobes and its very dif- 
ferent dentition mark it as a distinct subgenus. 

O.viftes, Pfeiffer, Zeits. Malak. 1856, p. 138 (synopsis of species) ; 
Mon. Hel. vol. iv. (1859) p. 2. 

Hemiphcta, sec. D, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 22. 

Nanina (ffemiplecta), in part = O.vi/tes, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 46. 

Oxytes, Albers, Heliceen, ed. v. Martens (1860), p. 54 ; Godwin- 
Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 157. 

Genus Nanina, sec. Oxytes, Pfr. ed. Clessin, Nomen. Helic. 1881, 
p. 54. 

Mr. W. Robert's collection from Darjiling enables me to give a 
fuller account of this genus and its anatomy. 

Description of the Genus. (Plates XXX., XXXI., & XXXII.) 

Animal : tentacles short and rather thickened ; the mucous gland 
or foot-gland with no marked horn above, therefore as in Ariophanta, 
but the slits extending to the sole of the foot. Mantle : the right 
dorsal lobe is, as usual, triangular and well developed (Plate XXXI. 
fig. 2, Plate XXXII. fig. 1 a) ; the left dorsal is in two parts, the 
anterior large, the posterior very small (Plate XXXI. fig. 4, Plato 
XXXII. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 h), giving off short tongue-shaped processes, 
right and left or upwards, which may be compared with the similar 
reduced posterior lobe of MacrocMamys atrieolor (Plate XXV. figs. 
3, 4, and 8) ; the left shell-lobe is a narrow ribbon reflected over 
the peristome ; there is no right shell-lobe. Generative organs : 
the hermaphrodite duct is peculiarly long, and composed above of 
two distinct ducts (Plate XXXII. fig. 5, ? the (S and 5 ) ; the male 
organ has a short spindle-shaped kalk-sac (fig. 5 b) with a large 
coiled caecum where the retractor muscle is given off, and which may 
be a sort of secretory sac for the development of the spermatophore; 
the amatorial organ is present. The odontophore : this is very 
characteristic ; the central teeth are long, straight, with no side cusps, 
or these are just indicated ; the laterals are also simple, straight, 
unicuspid teeth ; the jaw has the central projection ; the radula 
and foot-gland in this genus assimilate with those of Ariophanta on 
one side, the left dorsal lobes to Macrochlamys (as seen in atrieolor 
only) on the other. 

Shell. Generally of large size, perforate or openly umbilicated, 
dextral, somewhat depressed above, rounded below, some sharply 
keeled ; whorls regularly wound, sides flat above, suture linear or 
very shallow. 



124: LAND AND FRESHWATER 

The following species are included in this genus : — 

OxTTEs oxTTES, Bcuson. (Plate XXX. figs. 2, 2 « ; animal, 
figs. 3, 3 a, 3 h, from Cachar.) 

Hdiv oxijtes, Benson, J. A. S. B. 1836, vol. v. p. 351 ; Pfr. Men. 
Hel. vol. i. p. 395 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 734 ; Conch. Ind. p. 13, 
pi. xxvi. fig. 1 (with the misleading general locality " Bengal," and 
the keel shown far too broad and coarse). 

Hemiplecta (sec. D) oxytes, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 22. 

Nanina {Uemijilecta) oxytes, N"ev. Hand-list, No. 261, p. 47. " No 
projection above the gland, which is rather broad; sole broadly 
margined and with a double line ( W. T. B.)." 

Locality. S.W. Khasi {H. H. G.-A.). 

This is a very abundant shell on the outer lower slopes of the 
Darjiling and Western Bhutan Mountains, as well as of the Khasi 
and Garo Hills. In the limestone rocks south of the latter districts 
it grows into a superb shell, solid, and more depressed above, the 
whole form so altered that it might be taken for another species. 
Shells in every stage of development can be found, and their larger 
size is due to the excessive moisture, abundance of food, and the 
character of the rocks, undermined and hollowed out by the drip 
from the forest trees, so that the land-shells have most secure quarters 
to retire to, and thus live much longer than in more open situations. 
The bind Mollusca are more prolific also in such ground ; notably 
near Nongkulang and Yindku, in the S.W. Khasi Hills, their dead 
shells strew the ground on every side. 

The large variety of 0. oxytes is figured on Plate XXX. figs. 1,1a; 
it measures — major diam. 56"5, minor diam. 50'0, alt. axis 16*5 mm. 
I found 0. oxytes also in the Dafla Hills, similar to Darjiling speci- 
mens ; and in the North Cachar Hills I obtained fine examples. 

The animal figured is from Stoliczka's series of drawings (No. 36), 
made from a si^ecimen sent by me to him from Cachar. 

Original description: — ^^ T. late umbilicata, orhiculari, depressa, 
oblique suhplicata, ferrugineo-cornea, spira convexa, apice planato ; 
anfractihus 5|, suhplanatis, contabulatis, iiltimo carinato, subtus tumi- 
diusculo ; sutura vix maryinata ; apertura subquadrato-lunuta, vahle 
obliqua, intus cdbida, polita, marginibus acutis expansiusculis, callo 
tenui junctis, inferiore vcdde arcuato, subrejlexo ; umbilico lata, pro- 
fundo, omnes anfractus exhibente, margine subcompresso. 

" Diam. major 47, minor 40, axis 15 mill. 

" Hab. in montibus prseter fines proviucise Bengaliae orientales 
versus septentrionem spectantes." 

The following is the description of the animal of a specimen from 
Moyong in the N. Khasi Hills : — Dark coloured, the eye and oral 
tentacles very dark neutral grey ; extremity of foot rounded, with a 
wide open gland above ; the foot is also short and fiattened. 

The next species is a very close ally. 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 125 

OxYTES CYCLOPLAX, Bs. 

Helix cyclo2)l(uv, Benson, A. M, N. Hist. vol. x. p. 348 (1852); 
Reeve, Conch. Icon, ffelia.-, f. 1156 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iv. p. 181 ; 
Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxvi. fig. 7. 

Hemiplecta (sec. D) cycloplax, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 22. 

Nanina {Hemiplecta ?) cycloplax, Nevill's Hand-list, p. 48, 

Oxytes cycloplax, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 157. 

Locality. Baling Hills near Darjiling ( W. Robert). (Plate XXXI. 
fig- 1, juv.) 

A mature shell is figured from a fine specimen in Mr. W. T. 
Blanford's collection (figs. 8, 8 a, 8 6); it measures — major diam. 
36-0, minor diam. 31*0, alt. axis 11-0 mm. The anatomy is that of 
the specimen fig. 1, which shows the coloured band. The generative 
organs (Plate XXXI. fig. 7), mucous gland, and mantle-lobes (figs. 
2, 3, 4) are similar to 0. orobia, as described further on (p. 129). The 
central teeth of the radula are elongately triangular and straight- 
sided in form, the laterals slightly curved, straight unicuspid teeth ; 
the formula is 

26 . 11 . 1 . 11 . 26 
37 . 1 . 37 

The figure in ' Conch. Indica ' is very rough, and no basal view of 
either this or oxytes is given to show the open umbilicus. I therefore 
give additional figures of these two species. 

Original description : — " Testa late umbilicata, orbiculato-depressa, 
supra confertini et undatim radiato-striata, striis spiralibus decussata, 
granidata, rufescenti-cornea, »ubtus leviore pallida, fascia mediana 
castanea circumdata ; spira convexiuscida, apice planato, sutiira ob- 
soleta, demum impressa. Anfractibuso,planatis, ultimo sabcarinato 
(oitate juvenili acute carinato) antice dilatato, prope suturam antice 
tumidiusculo, siibfas tumido. Apertura sabquadrato-lunari, obliqua, 
intus interdum albido sublabiata,peristomate simplice, acuto, margine 
cohmiellari non rejlexo, cum basali angulum obtusatmn formante. 
Umbilico profundo, perspectivo. 

" Diam. major 42, minor 34, axis 17 mill. 

" Hub. ad Darjiling, Himalayas Sikkimensis montem. Teste R. 
Trotter. 

" I am indebted for this fine and interesting shell to Mr. Robert 
Trotter, of the Bengal Civil Service, who collected it, with some other 
new shells, during a short visit to the Sanatarium of Darjiling, to- 
gether with a single specimen of the scarce Helix orobia, nobis, and 
some Cyclostomata previously described. Darjiling is situated at an 
altitude of more than 7000 feet above the sea-level. 

" The shell is nearly related to H. oxytes, nobis, an inhabitant of 
the mountain group south-east of the Burhampooter river ; but it is 
at once distinguished from it by its sculpture, less acute periphery 
in the adult, the formation of the last whorl anteriorly, the more 
tumid base, &c." 



126 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

OxYTEs CASTOK, Theobald. = 0. pollux, var. cherraensis, "W. Blf. 

HelLv castor, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1859, vol. xxvii. p. 319 ; Hanley, 
Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxvi. fig. 3 (Nanclai), Khasi Hills. 

Hemiplecta (sec. D) castor, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 22, = cZierraewsis, Blf. 

Nanina {Hemiplecta ?) castor, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 48. no. 263, = 
cherraensis, Blf. 

Oxytes castor, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 157. 

Original description: — " Testa lenticulari, subdepressa, vix umhiJi- 
cata, acute carinata, confertim striata ferrugineo-fu^ca ; anfractibus 
5|-6 ; magnitudinis 1'40-1*60. 

^'Habitat apud Nanclai, ' Nongklai ? ' in montibus 'Khasia' 
dictis. 

" This shell is not common, and I have only a barely adult spe- 
cimen in good condition The keel, too, is a trifle more acute 

and divides the body-whorl in a symmetrical manner, from the shell 
not being so flattened down as in //. oxytes. The shell is rather 
stout, and the peristome probably thickened more or less." 

I have lately seen, for the first time, the type specimen of 0. castor 
in Mr. Theobald's collection, and compared it with shells in my own 
collection, and I am able to state that it is the var. 0. cherraensis 
of Mr. Blanford. I give his original description, as it is more de- 
tailed than that of 0. castor. The peristome is not thickened in the 
adult shell. 

Oxytes polltjx, var. cherraensis, "W. Blf. 

Oxytes pollux, var. cherraensis, W. Blf. J. A. S. B. vol. xxxix. 
1870, p. 14, pi. iii. fig. 8. 

Helix cherraensis, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxvi. fig. 6 ("very 
closely allied to, if, indeed, distinct from H. castor"). 

This is only a variety of Oxytes polhuv found in the deep valley 
east of and below Cherra Poonjee. 

Mr. Blanford remarks, " I should not have distinguished this shell 
from N. polhix, Theobald, had not Major Godwin-Austen assured 
me that the animal is totally diff'erent from that of the shell described 
above. It is distinguished by its higher spire, darker colour, and by 
the more marked spiral striation." I have six specimens, all of a 
ruddy umber-brown, with coarser sculpture when compared with 
specimens from Nongkulong, in the S.W. Khasi HUls, which are 
pale ochraceous and far smoother. The following note was made 
of the animal : — " Of a brown-pink, the pink very rich towards 
the extremity of the foot ; tentacles long, 0"65, oval, well deve- 
loped." 

My largest specimen measures : — 
Major diam. 35*5, minor 32'5, alt. axis 12*0 mm. 
1-40, „ 1-28, „ 0-48 inch. 

Original description: — Testa perforata, depressa, acute carinata, 
lenticularis, tenuis, nitidula, castaneo-cornea, striis incrementi et lineis 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 127 

minutis spiralibus undique conferthn decussata; spira depresso-conica ; 
apice ohtuso ; sutura linearis. Anfr. 6, intus convexiusculi, extus 
planulati, ultimus jiuvta carinam compressus, subtus convexus, non 
descendens. Apertura ohliqua, angulato-limaris ; peristoma tenue, 
margine hasali leviter undulato, columellari juxta perforationem vix 
rejiexo. 

" Diam. maj. 32, min, 29, axis 13| mm. 

" Hah. ad Cherra Piinji in montibus Khasi (Oodwin- Austen)" 

OxYTES POLLUX, Theobald. 

Helix pollux, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1859, vol. xxvii. p. 319 ; 
Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1870, vol. xxxix. p. 13 ; Hartley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 13, pi. xxvi. figs. 2-5. 

Hemiplecta (sec. J)) pollux, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 22. 

Nanina {Hemiplecta ?) pollux, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 48. no. 264, 
pi. xi. fig. 4. 

Oxytes pollux, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, pp. 157, 158. 

Original description : — " Testa lenticulari, subdepressavix umhili- 
cata, acute carinata, tenue striata, translucente, colore strainineo,polita, 
peristomate acuto; anfractibus o^-Q ; magnittidinis l-40-0*55. 

" Habitat prope Teria ghat, ad pedem montium Khasia dictorum. 

" This shell is a very distinct species, of the same form as the 
above, from which it differs in sculpture, want of solidity, and colour. 

" As far as I can judge, its habits are arboreal, whilst the last 
species affects rocks in company with H. oxytes." 

Oxytes pollux, var., Theobald. 

Oxytes pollux, var., W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1870, vol. xxxix. 
p. 13. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depressa, lenticularis, 
acute carinata, tenuis, cornea, nitida, striatula, lineis spiralibus mi- 
nutissime sub lente, fere obsolete decussata. Spira depresso-conica ; 
apice obtuso ; sutura linearis. Anfr. 5|, intus convexiusculi ; extus 
concaviuscuU et colore saturatiore, ultimtcs juxta carinam compressus, 
subtus convexus, non descendens. Apertura obliqtie angidato-lunaris ; 
peristoma tenue, marginibus callo tenui junctis, basali leviter undu- 
lato, juxta perforationem vix rejiexo. 

" Diam. maj. 30, min. 27, axis 111 ram. 

'■'■ Hob. Nongkulong et Habiang in montibus Khasi (Godwin- 
Austen). 

" This appears to me a variety of Mr. Theobald's species, difi'ering 
only in the last whorl being a little narrower. Mr. Theobald's tjrpe, 
of which I have a specimen, is from Teria Ghat on the south side of 
the range. Major Godwin-Austen's specimens are from the north 
side." 

Nongkulong is on the south side of the range and about forty 
miles to the west of Cherra Punji. I had been surveying also on 
the north of the range, and had forwarded many shells from there, 

PAET IV. N 



123 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

and this may have led Mr. Blanford to think the locality on that side. 
The animal is thus described in my note-book : — " Pale light yel- 
lowish ochro. Head rather darker. Eye-tentacles rather thick at 
the base and long. Extremity of foot and lower part of the body 
very light, short, flat, and rounded behind, with a gland ; underpart 
of foot with a dark furrow ; slight colour at extremity of foot. The 
shell is pale yellowish green ; older specimens pale grey, with an 
ochraceous tint." 

These two species castor and j^oUax are very closely allied, and 
can only be considered varieties — castor, first described, being the 
typical form, thongh. 2)oUnx is the most abundant. 

I have been able to soak out the radula of a specimen from 
Xongkulong. It is similar to that of 0. cycloplax and orobia, 
nearest to the latter ; the laterals perhaps rather longer and more 
numerous. 

OxYTEs BLANfORDi, Thcobald. 

Heliv bJanfordi, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1859, vol. xxvii. p. 308 ; Pfr. 
Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 113; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 27, pi. Ix. figs. 1, 
2,3. 

Hemiplecta (sec. D) hlanfordi, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 22. 

Nanbia {Hemiplecta ?) hlanfordi. Nevill, Hand-list, p. 48. no. 265. 

Oxytes hlanfordi, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 157. 

Original description : — " Testa umhilicata, depressa, late, sine costti- 
late striata, exilissime et minutissime jlexuose granalata, ad periphe- 
riam undata ; ferrugineo-cornea, acute carinata, linea peripheriali 
tenui alhida cincta, ad suturam anfractus ultimi rotunda. Anfract. 
5^, ultimo circa umhilicum vix perspectivum tumido. Apertiira an- 
gulate lunari. Perist. acuto ad umhilicum jjarum dilato, crassiusculo. 

" Hah. prope Darjiling. Diam. O'UG, alt. 0-35. A young spe- 
cimen of II. cycloplax measures diam. 0'96, alt. 0"45." 

Umbilicus not so open as in 0. oxytes and cycloplax, but more so 
than that of 0. pollux. 

OxYTES SHANENSTS, n. Sp. 

Hemiplecta (sec. T>)? = hlanfordi, Theobald, Supp. Cat. p. 22, 
from Upper Salwin, Shan States. 

Locality. Shan States (Fedden). 

Shell openly umbilicated, depressed, sharply keeled, rather flat 
below, thin ; sculpture fine, transverse, well-marked stria? arranged 
in about 14 wavy indistinct spiral bands : colour dark ochraceous 
or pale umber, covered with a thin epidermis ; spire depresSedly 
conoid, apex obtuse ; suture linear ; whorls 5, flat above, the last rather 
compressed below near the peripherj% regularly but rather closely 
wound ; aperture suboblique, semilunate ; peristome sharp, curved 
on lower margin ; columellar margin subobhque and but slightly 
thickened. 

Size : maj. diam. 28"0, min. 26-0, alt. axis 7*0 mm. 

1-11, „ 1-03, „ 0-28 inch. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 129 

There are two specimens, unfortunately neither of them fully grown, 
in M"r. W. T. Blanford's collection. No. 3G of his MS. list unnamed, 
and with a note " not iV. blanfordi." Compared with this last, I note 
that blanfordi has a more contracted umbilicus, and the sculpture 
is quite diiferent. Compared with oxytes it is closer wound, not so 
flat above, and must, when fully grown, have a greater number of 
whorls ; the umbilicus is not so open and the region round it very 
differently formed. 

This appears to be the species from the Shan States which Mr. 
Theobald, in his Supp. Catalogue to the 'Conchologia Indica,' identifies 
as the same as the Darjiling form blanfordi mentioned above. There 
is DO doubt regarding its distinctness. 

A figure of this species will be given hereafter. 

Oxytes oeobia, Benson. (Plate XXX. fig. 4.) 

Helix orobia, Benson, J. A. S. B. 1848, vol. ii. p. 158 ; Pfeiffer, 
Men. Hel. vol. iii. p. 117 ; Beeve, Conch. Icon., Helix, fig. 738 ; 
Hanley, Couch. Ind. p. 14, pi, sxviii. fig. 8 ; Chemn. ed. ii. Helix, 
n. 886, t. 137. figs. 8, 9. 

Hemiplecta (sec. C) orobia, Theobald, Supp. Cat. 

Hemiplecta orobia, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 48. 
' Oxytes orobia, Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B, 1880, p. 157, pi. xi. 
figs. 1, 1 a. 

Locality. Darjiling ( W. T. Blanford). 

The animal of this species (Plate XXX. fig. 4) was also figured by 
me in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal,' from the drawing 
made under Ferd. Stoliczka's superintendence. I have since obtained 
a specimen in spirit from Mr. Blanford, which has enabled me to 
give a few notes on its anatomy ; and Mr. W. Kobert's recent collec- 
tions in the Bhutan Hills have given me several more. Although on the 
general plan of structure of this family, there are some well-marked 
differences and peculiarities. 

The animal (Plate XXXII.) has no right shell-lobe to the mantle ; 
the right dorsal lobe (fig. 1 a) is well developed, as is also the anterior 
portion of the left, although it does not extend very far on the left 
margin of the peristome ; for its posterior portion, lying some distance 
on the basal side, is small and apparently bilobed (figs. 1 and 1 6). 
The shell-lobe is slightly reflected over the margin of the peristome 
from the resj)iratory orifice. The mucous pore at the extremity of 
the foot is linear, and no horn is developed, though it is represented 
by a short blunt process {vide Plate XXXII. fig 1 c). 

The ovo-testis is very large, the follicles extremely minute, and it 
might be taken for a portion of the liver, only that its colour is of a 
darker brown. The hermaphrodite duct (fig. 5, h.d.) is exceedingly 
long, and much convoluted for its entire length ; near the end it divides 
into two still convolute ducts which lead into the mass of the ovo- 
testis : it is thus unlike this portion of the generative organs in all 
other species I have as yet examined, and may indicate the develop- 

n2 



130 



LAND AND FBESHWA'XER 



ment in separate eacs thus early of the spermatozoa and ova. The 
albumen-gland is covered by the long thin lobes of the liver, is ovoid 
in form, with one flat side. Oviduct as usual. The spermatheca is 
buried in its folds and elongately pear-shaped. The amatorial 
organ is cylindrical, somewhat bent, conforming to the coils of the 
animal's body, and with the usual muscle-attachment. The penis is 
very peculiar : at a short distance from the generative aperture it is 
like a caecum coiled on itself in a circular or discoid form (fig. 5 b), 
with a short retractor muscle given off from its periphery ; it is then 
free for a short distance to where the vas deferens unites with it, 
and here is an elongate, oval, rather pointed, spindle-like kalk-sac, or 
ccecmn calciferiun. 

Odontophore (fig. 3). Central tooth elongately triangular, broad 
at base, with two minute denticles on either side ; central cusp very 
pointed ; first laterals broad, with a single small blunt tooth on the 
outer margin at one third its length from the point ; tenth and 
eleventh hardly show a trace of this tooth ; and aU the remaining 
laterals are simple, curved, styliform, and gradually decreasing in 
size. 

25 . 2 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 2 . 25 
42 . 1 . 42 

in 90 rows, and some wanting. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depresso-glohosa, tenuius- 
cula, radiutim j^Hcato-striata, striis concentricis granidato-decussata, 
luteo- cornea, fascia infra peripheriam rufo-fusca ornata, versus 
apicem rufescente,hasi p)al^idiore ; spira rotundata, apice planafo ; 
anfractihiis 5|, superiorihus plamdatis, ultivio prope suturam 
tumidiore, p>eripheria snhangidata ; apertura suhquadrato-lunata, 
perisiomate redo, intus late albido lahiato ; margine columellari sub- 
verticaliter descendente, vix rejiexo, perforationem subtegente, angulum 
cum margine basalt expansiuscido efformante. 

" Diam. major 35, min, 31, axis 16 mill. 

" Hab. Darjiling, regione Sikkim montium Himalayanorum. 

" Mus. nost. et Soc. Ind. Orient. Angl. Lend. 

" This shell, like labiata, monticola, and other Himalayan Helices, 
has frequent varices, the edges of former apertures, distinguished by 
obliquely radiate bands of a darker colour. It was received by Dr. 
J. F. Bacon from Darjiling. A specimen from Dr. Pearson is in the 
East-India Company's Museum in Leadenhall Street." 

OxTTEs sYLVicoLA, W. Blanford. 

Oxytes sylvicola, W. Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1880, vol. xlix. p. 185. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, depressa, carinata, soli- 
dula, oleoso-micans, epidermide crassiuscida obtecfa fulva vel luteo- 
fusca, striis obliquis incrementi atque lineis impressis minutis sjnrali- 
bus subdistantibus superne decussata (micleo suhlan)igata), subtus Icevior 
sed distincte decussato-striata. Sjnraparum elevata, depresso-conoidea, 
fere convexa, apice obtuse, sutura lineari, antice vix impressa. Anfr. 



M0LLTJ80A OF INDIA. 13] 

5|, sensini accrescentes, primi planulati, ultimi convexiuscuU, ultimus 
Jiaud descendens, subtus convexus, niodice injiatus, sed infra carinam, 
nisijuxta aperturam, leviter C07npressus. Apertura obliqua, angulato- 
lunaris, intus livido-alhida ; peristoma acutum, intus subincrassato- 
labiatiwi, 7narginibus callo tenui jmictis, columellari ciirvcdo, breviter 
reflexo. 

"Diam. maj. 32, min. 29, axis 17mm. Apert. 16| mm. lata, 
13| oblique alta. 

" Hcd). In montibus ' Burail Range ' dictis, ad alt. 3000-4000 
pedum, in provincia ' North Cachar' Bengaliae orientalis (i/^. H. God- 
ivin- Austen). 

" Shell perforate, depressed, carinate, not very thin, having a 
greasy lustre and a thick epidermis, tawny or yellowish brown, marked 
with oblique raised stria3 of growth decussated by fine, subdistant, 
spiral impressed lines above (the nucleus almost smooth), and with 
fainter radiating strife and concentric impressed lines below. Spire 
but little raised, almost convex, depresslj conoid ; apex obtuse ; 
suture linear at first, but slightly impressed near the mouth. Whorls 
5g, gradually increasing, the inner nearly flat above, the outer 
slightly convex, the last not descending, convex and moderately 
swollen below, but slightly compressed just below the keel, except 
near the mouth. Aperture oblique, angulately lunate, a little broader 
than high, pale livid within. Peristome sharp, with a slightly 
thickened lip inside, the margins joined by a thin callus ; columellar 
margin curved, reflected for a short distance at the perforation. 
Major diameter 1'26 inch, minor 1*14, axis 0*69, breadth of aper- 
ture 0'65, height (measured obliquely) 0*53. 

" There is a very remai'kable resemblance between this shell and 
that described by me as Nanina koondaensis (J. A. S. B. 1870, 
xxxix. pt. 2, p. 16, pi. iii. fig. 12), yet I am by no means sure that 
both belong to the same section or subgeneric group. N. Icoonda- 
ensis is an ally of N, indica (Pfr.) and iV. shiplaiji, shells doubtless 
nearly allied to Hemiphcta, and very possibly belonging to that sub- 
genus, but hitherto referred to Rotida *, or to other sections. 0. 
sylvicola is larger, more solid, and covered with a distinct epidermis, 
and the sculpture is less granulate above, the spiral impressed lines 
being more distant. 

" I have seen but one specimen of 0. sylvicola^ for which I am 
indebted to Col. Godwin-Austen. Other specimens, I learn, are 
larger." 

On measurement, however, my largest specimen from Kigwemah 
in the Anghami-Naga Hills is very little larger, being 

Major diam. 33*0, minor 30*5, alt. axis 15-5 mm. 
1-30, „ 1-2, „ 0-61 inch. 

* " Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1871, vol. xl. pt. 2, p. 231." 



Ic52 LASD AND FRKSHWAXER 

Genus Ariophanta. (Plates XXXIII., XXXIV.) 

Ariophanta, Desmoulins, Bull. Soc. Bordeaux, iii. p. 227 (Nov. 
1829), pi. i. figs. 1-5; H. & A. Adams, Geu. Rec. Moll. vol. ii. p. 225 
(185b); Albers, DieHelicccn,p. (32 (ISGO) ; W. T. Blanford (sec. B, 
as subgenus of Nanina), A. M. X. H. 18G3, xi. p. 85 ; Semper, lleisen 
Phil. p. 50 (1870); Theobald, Supp. Cat. p. 5 (1876) ; Nevill, Hand- 
list, p. 18 (1878) ; Godwin-Austen, Jouru. As. Soc, Beng. (1880). 

jyanina {Ar'wphanta), Clessiii, Xomen. Helic. 1881, p. 54. 

Kcmina, H. Beck, Index Moll. Mus. Christ. Fred. (1837). 

Desmoulins founded this genus on the animal of a specimen 
sent to him alive by M. Theophile Laterrade in March 1829 from 
the island of Elephanta, Bomba}-. The mollusk lived some short 
time, and two very good drawings of it were made*. Previous to 
this the shell, only had been known, and described by Miiller as 
Reliv Icevijics. To M. Desmoulins {vide Part III. p. 78) therefore 
belongs all the credit of first noticing and distinguishing the very 
distinct and large group of Asiatic Helices possessing a mucous pore 
at the extremity of the foot, and for which group so characterized 
he proposed the title Pherepone, placing the Bombay shell in the 
above subgenus. 

Albers (' Die Heliceen,' p. 62, 1860) defines the subgenus by 
the shell alone as follows : — " Testa sinistrorsci, umbilicata, tenuis, 
diapluma ; anfractus idtimiis angulatus vel carinatiis ; ajiertura 
obliqiia, lunaris, jj(?7*/s<0TOa simplex, acutiim, margine columellari 
rejlexo." I now describe the animal in more detail, taken from 
another, but a closely allied, species, A. immerita, W. Blf., from 
Southern India, collected and supplied to me by Colonel Beddome. 

Animal. The shell-lobe (Plate XXXIII. figs. 2, 2 a, s.l.) is a 
simple narrow band slightly reflected over the peristome ; the right 
dorsal lobe (r.d.l.) is divided into two parts, an anterior and a 
posterior — in this respect as in Macrocldamys {vide Plate XXV. 
figs. 8, 9); but the former conceals much more the respiratorj' and anal 
orifices. The left dorsal lobe (l.d.l.) is simple, in one piece. The 
mucous pore (figs. 3, 3rt) is, as described by Mr. Blanford, " above the 
flattened posterior extremity of the foot and without a lobe above 
it." The orifice is a narrow slit which does not reach to the sole 
of the foot. The pedal line extends up to the lower terminal side 
of the foot, from the border of which regular oblique grooves are 
given off. The sole is broad, with a narrow distinct border. 

Generative organs (figs. 6, 6 a). The penis is short from the 
junction of the vas deferens ; it has a large kale-sac with a blunt 
end ; the spermatheca correspondingly small. The amatorial organ 
is present, having a long sharp point or " sagitta amatoria." 

Odontopliore. The radula (figs. 5, 5 a, 5 h) is quite distinct from 
Macrocldamys in all the Indian species I have examined: the central 

* They are LOpied in Fig. Moll. Auim. by Maria E. Gray, pi. 288. fig. 7 ; 
also by Adame in Gen. Moll. pi. liiix. figs. 6, 6a. 



MOLLTJSCA OP INDIA, 133 

tooth is tricuspid, the side cusps small and basal ; in the median 
teeth there is only one very small external side cusp, up to the 22nd ; 
the laterals are then curved, uniformly pointed teeth, gradually 
becoming very small on the extreme margin. The jaw is slightly 
curved, with a small central projection. 

No genus, however, is constant over a large area; and thus we find 
in the species of Arioplianta east of the Bay of Bengal {A, retrorsa, 
Plate XXXIV. figs. 7, 8, 8 a) that the radula and jaw are much modified 
— the central tooth more equally tricuspid, shorter, and all the 
laterals are bicuspid with even points, the jaw straight in front. 
I do not, however, possess another specimen in spirit to examine 
other i)arts of the anatomy. Professor Semper has, however, ex- 
amined several species from the Malayan region which he places in 
this genus (vide Reis. Phil. pi. iii. figs. 17-21), viz. : — rumphi, v. d. 
Busch, martini, Pfr., nemorensis, Miill., javanica, Lam., rareguttata, 
Mouss., striata, Gray, atrofusca, Alb. They aU diff'er very much 
from the South-Indian form as regards the generative organs, es- 
pecially in the dart-sac with its large glandular extremity ; and as 
regards the odontoiihore, in those sjjecies Qiemorensis and rareguttata) 
where the laterals are similar to the Burma form the centrals are 
unicuspid (/. c. plate vii. figs. 6-8). Besides this, some, such as 
rareguttata, have shell-lobes, though generally small, which the 
Indian species do not possess. 

From these differences, all taken together, I consider the above 
species from the islands of the Malay archipelago to be a distinct 
group (ykle J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 153) ; but as I have not examined 
them or seen the animals myself, I refrain from giving them any 
subgeneric title. The sinistral form of the shell counts for very 
little ; for instance, H. brooJcei, which some conchologists have 
on this single external character placed near this group, pos- 
sesses no mucous gland, and therefore cannot even be included 
among the Zonitidfe. It is very interesting though to note that it 
has a right and left shell-lobe. By Gray this species was placed in 
Nanitia, and by Adams in Rhyssota. H. regalis, Bs.,^vittata, Adams 
and Reeve, from Borneo, is another species with a very doubtful 
generic position, placed in Ariophanta by PfeifFer, in Nanina by 
Adams. 

The Indian species of Arioplianta are as follows : — 

Ariophanxa l^vipes, Miiller. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 7, 7 a, white 
var. ; animal, Plate XXXIV. fig. 1, from 576 of Stoliczka's draw- 
ings, =<r^/'rtsc^ato, Chemn.) 

Helix la'vipes, Miill. Hist. Verm. ii. p. 22. no. 222 ; Desh. in Fe'r. 
Hist. i. p. 177. no. 238 ; Kiister & Chemn. ed. nov. Helix, ii. p. 107, 
t. 84. f. 22, 23,t. 136. f. 12. 

Nanina (Ariophanta) loivipes, Albers, Helic. p. 62. 

Helix Icevipes, Pfr. Men. Helic. vol. i. p. 71, vol, iii. p. 75 ; Conch. 
Indica, p. viii (not figured). 



134 LAND AND FBE3HWATEB 

AriopTianta Icevipes, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 23. 
Nanina {AriopTianta) Icevipes, Nev. Hand-list, p. 19. 
Per. Hist, MoU. pi. xcii. figs. 3, 5, 6. 

Subgenus Ariophanta, Desmoulins (var. a, all white), from 
Elephanta. 

Description of //. Icevipes by Benson : — " Helix testa sinis- 
trorsa, orhleulato-convexa, longitndinaliter rw/osa, supra inter- 
stitiis rurjar^im corrngatis, infra transverse rvx/osulis, imnida, nm- 
bilicata ; falva fasciis plurimis castaneis, majore infra peripheriam ; 
jperijpTieria subangulata ; lahro rejlexo, alho." 

Aeiophanta teifasciata, Cbem. vol. xi. p. 308, t. 213. f. 3018-19. 

Helix trifasciata, Kiist., Chemnitz, Conch, ed. nov. Helix, ii, 
p. 108, t. 84. f. 20, 21, t. 136. f. 13 ; Beck, Ind. MoU. p. 5. no. 3 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iii. p. 76. 

Helix Icevipes, var,, Fer, Hist, Moll, pi, 92, f, 4 ; Conch, Ind. 
p. 52, pi, cxxxi, f. 4. 

Arioplianta Icevipes, Desmoulins (vars, b, c, banded), from island 
of Elephanta. 

Helix Icevipes, Fe'r. Tabl. Syst. p. 41. no. 229 ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 
p. 3616. no, 222; Chemnitz, Conch, ix. t, 108. figs. 915, 916. 

Ariophanta rNTERRTjPTA, Bs., =himalai/a7ic(. Lea. (Plate XXXIV. 
figs. 2, 2 rt. Copied from Xo. 44 of Stoliczka's drawings in 
Library of Indian Museum. The specimens were from the Botanical 
Gardens, Calcutta.) 

Helix interrupta, Bs. Zool. Journ. vol. v. p, 461 (1832-34); 
P. Z. S. 1834, p. 90 ; Pfr. Mon, Hel, vol, i, p. 63, vol, v, p, 122. 

Nanina interrupta. Gray, Cat, Pulm, p. 84. 

Helix interrupta. Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 1159 ; Han. & Theob. 
Conch. Ind. p, 13, i)l. xxvii, f. 3, 

Arioplianta interrupta, Theob, Supp. Cat, p, 23 ; Beck, Ind. MoU. 
p. 5. no, 4, 

Nanina interrupta, Xevill, Hand-list, p, 19. 

Description of Helix interriqyta, Bens. : — " Helix testa sinistro7-sa, 
orhiculato-convexa, infra tumida, umhilieata, ad peripheriam obtuse 
angulata, longitudincditer confertissime striata, supra striis inter- 
ruptis fasciis transversalibus dispositis, spira apice obtusa ; peri- 
stomate tenui acuto. 

" Hab. in rupibus umbrosis Sicrigali et prope Gangis ostiorum 
fluvium Jelliughy dictum, 

" This shell has been thought to belong to the species called 
H. himcdayana by Mr. Lea {Hel. Icevipes'!), but appears to me to 
be very different when compared with the following characters of a 
specimen of the latter in my possession." 

Benson's description of the animal is brief, and he was mistaken 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 135 

in the anatomy when he says the excrements are voided from an 
opening in terminal part of the foot. 

Nevill in his Hand-list, from note by W. T. Blanford, states : — 
" Eggs similar to those of N. Jtevipes, but dull white in colour ; 
length 8-9 mm., diam. about 5 ; oval longitudinally, deeply sul- 
cated." 

The teeth of the radula are similar in every way to those of 
A. immerita, received from Col. Beddome (Plate XXXIII. figs. 5, 5a). 

40 . 23 . 1 . 23 . 40 

or 

63 . 1 . 63 

Specimens from Faqirabunda, Jessore district, are thus described 
in my note-book : — " The animal being of a pink colour the same 
tint is given to the shell, while black mottlings show through the 
body-whorl. The head is dark-coloured up to a well-defined black 
line (extending from the posterior part of the neck to below the 
oral tentacles), thence light-coloured into a pink tinge, which is 
more intense near the extremity of the foot. The mucous gland 
has the form of a long slit with a very small lobe above." 

AmoPHANTA iMMEEiTA, W. T. Blf. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 1, juv.) 

Nanina (^Arioplianta) immerita, Blf. J. A. S. B. vol. xxxix. 
p. 17(1870). 

Ariophanta immerita, Note on Contrib. Ind. Moll. xii. J. A. S. B. 
1880, p. 185, pi. iii. figs. 4, 4«. 

Helix immerita., Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. vii. p. 128 ; Conch. Ind. 
p. 60, pi. cl. fig. 7. 

Ariophanta immerita, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 23. 

Nanina immerita, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 19. 

Locality. S. India (Beddome). 

Shell umbilicated, keeled ; sculpture irregular, ribbing broken 
into a line of raised nipples near the periphery ; colour olivaceous 
brown ; a thick epidermis ; spire low, rounded, sides quite flat ; 
whorls nearly 4, above flat, rounded below. 
Size (not adult) : maj. diam. 22-5, min. 20*0, alt. axis 9-5 mm. 

0-89, „ 0-79, „ 0-37 inch. 

Diff'ers from interrupta of Lower Bengal in its flatter apex and 
whorls and in the larger umbilicus. 

The generative organs and the odontophore of this species have 
been sufficiently well described in the diagnosis of the genus (p. 132). 
The dental formula is as follows (in 78 rows) : — 

25 . 24 . 1 . 24 . 25 
49 . 1 . 49 

The animal, when the shell is removed, is beautifully mottled with 
black over the heart and branchial region. The neck and shell- 
lobes are very diff"erent from what we have seen in Macrochlamys 



136 LAND AND FRESHWATEK 

&c. The sole of the foot is uot divided into a central area and 
lateral areas. 

The respiratory and anal orifices are situated rather far back near 
the left neck-lobe. 

Original description : — " Testa sinistrorsa, avf/vste vmh'dicata, de- 
pressa, subleniicalans, fidvo-cornea, tenuis, oblique striata ; spira 
iniruin elevata, conoido-convexa ; apice perohtuso ; sutura vix im- 
2}ressa. Anfr. 4^, convexiusndi, tdtimus maf/nus, acute carinatus, 
carina antice ohtusiore, subtus tiiniidiore, 'nitidida. Apertura obliqua 
subsecuriformis ; peristoma tenue, rectum, margine columellari sub- 
verticali, rejlexo. 

" Diam. maj. 25, min. 21, axis 14 mm. Apertura 13 mm. longa, 
11 lata. 

" Hub. South Canara (Beddome). 

" This species approaches N. interrupta, Bs. {N. Jdmalai/ana, Lea), 
but has the sculpture finer and not decussated. I have only seen two 
specimens, one of which is quite young, and it is possible that the 
one above described is also immature, but there appears no doubt 
that the form is undescribed. The specimen having been returned 
to Major Beddome, I am unable to figure it at pi'esent." 

The same author writes as follows, Z. c. p. 185 : — " This shell 
was originally described from an immature specimen, and the same 
was figured in the * Conchologia Indica.' 

" Subsequently Col. Beddome obtained an adult from the same 
locality. South Canara. Of this example a figure is uot given. 
The species only difi'ers in sculpture from A. interrupta, which is 
found in various parts of Bengal and Orissa, and has been procured 
by Col. Beddome as far south as the Golcondah range of hills in 
Yizagapatam. The two forms replace each other in the eastern 
and western parts of the Indian peninsula, precisely as do their 
allies A. Icevipes and A. laidJayana." 

Ariophanta? reteorsa, a. a. Gould. 

Helix retrorsa, Gd. Description of Land-shells from the Province 
of Tavoy, in British Burma, Boston J. Nat. Hist. vol. iv. (Jan. 
1844) p. 455, pi. xxiv. fig. 5 (an excellent figure) ; Bfr. Mon. Hel. 
vol. i. p. 70 ; Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxv. fig. 6 (viewed from 
behind). 

Hemiplecta (sec. E) retrorsa, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 22, from Tenas- 
serim, 

Nanina {Hemiplecta) retrorsa, jSTevill, Hand-list, p. 10, from 
Moulmain and Mergui. 

Original description : — " Testa orbiculata, sinistrorsa, utrinque 
convexa, pallide castanea, arete umbilicata ; anfr. 5, lineis longitudi- 
nalibus et volvcntihus minute riujosis, tdtimo carinato, apertura ro- 
tundata, labro acuto. 

" Shell large, sinistral, orbicular, about equally convex above and 
below, but most rounded below ; of a pale chestnut or fawn-colour 



MOLLTJSCA OP INDIA. 137 

above, growing paler to the umbilicus, where it is horn-colour. 
Surface somewhat undulated by the irregular lines of growth, and 
rendered minutely rugose by very fine, serpentine, revolving lines, 
forming conspicuous wrinkles near the carina ; whorls 5, forming 
a regular, moderately elevated spire ; the suture slightly impressed ; 
the periphery surrounded by a prominent, compressed, but acute 
keel, which becomes lost towards the aperture ; aperture rounded, 
height and width about equal ; lip simple, slightly reverted in the 
umbilical region, some vitreous matter across the penultimate 
whorl ; umbilicus rather large, but not deep. 

" Diam. 1| inch, height 1 inch. 

" This large heterostrophe Hdix resembles an inverted specimen of 
one of that group of shells, so common and so varied, from the 
Philippine Islands, of which H. laynarclcii is one. Young specimens 
might at first glance be confounded with //. lamalana. Lea ; but 
the hhnalana is much more globular, the surface less striated, the 
carina quite indistinct, and the umbilicus smaller. 

" Hah. Province of Tavoy." 

Ariophanta? eetrorsa. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 4, a young specimen 
dissected.) 

Locality. Mule-it Eange, Tenasserim (0. Limborrf). 
Shell sinistral, smaller and more solid than typical shells in Mr. 
Theobald's collection. 

Sculpture (Plate XXXIV. fig. 5). 

Size: maj. diam. 38'5, min. 32-0, alt. axis 18'0 mm. 

„ 1-5, „ 1-25, „ 0-71 inch. 

There are no shell-lobes to the mantle, and the dorsal lobes are quite 
simple. The odontophore has been noticed on p. 132 when de- 
scribing the genus. The teeth (Plate XXXIV. figs. 8, 8 a) are 
arranged thus — 

45 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 45 

or 

57 . 1 . 57. 

Ariophania bajadeea, Pfr. 

Helix bajadera, Pfr. Zeitschr. f. Malak. 1850, p. 69 ; Chem. ed. ii. 
Helia.\ no. 860, t. cxxxiii. f. 10, 11 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iii. p. 52, 
vol, iv. p. 250 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. f. 388 ; Conch. Ind. p. 45 (as 
from Bengal, a wrong locality). 

Ariophanta bajadera, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 22 (Xag-pur and Bom- 
bay) ; NeviU, Hand-list, p. 19. 

Benson remarks, in the A. M. X. Hist. x. p. 350 (1852), that 
" Pfeiffer has ascribed his handsome reversed species, Helix bajadera, 
to Bengal, on the authority of Cuming's collection. I have always 
held this habitat as more than doubtful, no specimen having ever 
been detected in any quarter of the Bengal Presidency by myself or 
my fellow-labourers in this field ;'' and I find the following in MSS. : 



138 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

" Lieut. H. Alexander, 10th Hussars, has since sent me H. hajadera^ 
which he found in company with Cydostoma indicum, Desh., between 
the Bhnre Ghat and Bombay." 

W. Elanford, in A. M. N. H. 1863, xi. p. 85, says, from an inspec- 
tion of the type specimens of both shells, " I have ascertained that 
N. ammonia, Val., is founded on the type variety of N. hajadera, Pfr." 

Original description : — " T. nmbilicata, sinhtrorsa, globoso-conoidea, 
teniduscula, Jongitudinaliter valide plicata (plicis alternis miaorihus), 
fulvida ; spira conoidea, vertice obtusiusculo, rufulo ; anfr. 4, con- 
vexiusculi, ultimus injlatus, medio subacute carinatus, antice descen- 
dens, hasi jaxta umbilicum angustissimum, comjwessus ; apertura ob- 
liqua, magna, lunato-rotundata ; perist. simplex, rectum, margine 
columellan superne late dilatato-reflexo. 

" Diam. maj. 30, min. 25, alt, 20 mill, (J/ms, Cuming). 

" Hab. in BengaUa." 

See under the next species the localities given by Mr. Blanford ; 
I found it on the island of Elephanta, Bombay. 

Ariophanta intumescens, W. T, Blf. 

Nanina (AriopJianta) intumcscens, W, T, Blf. Cent, Ind,ilal. no, vi. 
J,A, S.B. 1866, p. 32. 

Helix intHmescens, Pfr, Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 321 ; Conch. Indica, 
p, 45, pi. cxi. fig. 6 (a very good drawing). 

Ariophanta intumescens, Theob, Cat. Supp. p. 23. 

Nanina {Ariophanta') intumescens, Nev, Hand-list, p, 19. 

Original description : — " Shell sinistrorse, narrowly and sub- 
obtectly umbilicated, globose, thin ; finely, subplicately, transversely 
striated with obsolete decussating sculpture ; dull fulvous-brown, 
hoi'ny, rather lighter in colour just above the periphery and around 
the umbilicus ; spire conversely conoid, apex very obtuse, suture 
scarcely impressed ; whorls 4|, slightly convex, the last bluntly 
carinate, descending very little near the aperture, tumid beneath, 
compressed around the umbiliciis ; aperture large, diagonal, trun- 
cately subcircular ; peristome white, subexpanded, margins ap- 
XDroaching each other ; columellar margin nearly vertical, rather 
broadly reflected, partly covering the umbilicus. 

millim. inch. 

" Major diameter 32 1*3 

Minor ditto 2Q 1-05 

Axis 22 0-9 

'• Habitat. Mahableshwur, Western Ghats of Hindustan, 
" This fine species of Ariophanta has long been confounded with 
Nanina bajadera, Pfr., which is, however, although a variable shell, 
easily distinguished. N. bajadera is more globose and thicker, being 
at the same time more transparent ; it has much stronger sculpture 
(and deeper sutures), and is always rounded at the periphery near 
the mouth, and frequently throughout, while in N. intumescens the 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 139 

blunt augulation is persistent. N. bajadera, too, has a fine vitreous 
lustre, while intumescens is dull ; and the former shell is usually of 
a greenish-olive colour, though varying in this character, and some- 
times resembling the latter. The animals also show a difference in 
colour : that of N. intumescens is uniformly, so far as I have seen, 
dark cinereous, while that of bajadera is much lighter, but very 
variable. The latter shell is found mostly on shrubs, the former 
on the ground ; and while mtnmescens has as yet only been found at 
Mahableshwur, 4500 feet above the sea, bajadera (which is rare 
at Mahableshwur) abounds on the equally or nearly equally high 
hills of Singhur and Poorundhur, and along the summit of the 
"Western Ghats at about 2000 feet. It abounds at Khandalla at 
the top of the Bhore Ghat. 

" I have already mentioned in a previous paper (Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist, for February 1863) that an examination of the type specimens 
of N. bajadera, Pfr., and N. ammonia, Valenciennes, has showed 
these two supposed species to be identical. 

*' I long doubted the distinctness of the species now described 
from N. bajadera ; but although I have specimens of the latter from 
many different places, they are all easily distinguished from N. 
intumescens.^^ 

The teeth are similar to those of A. interrupta, var., but the 
median teeth have a decided small tooth on the inner margin, ren- 
dering them tricuspid ; the laterals are long and narrow and gradually 
become very small on the outer margin, and are more numerous. 

In a radula in Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection they are arranged 
thus : — 

50 . 27 . 1 . 27 . 50 
77 . 1 . 77 

Akiophanta crsis, Bs. 

Helix cysis, Bs. A. M. N. H. 1852, ix. p. 404 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. 
iii. p. 92, vol. iv. p. 194. 

Helix cystis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. Helix, f. 737. 

Helix cysis (var. ampidlarioides), Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 13, 
pi. XXV. fig. 5. 

Helix ampullarioides. Reeve, Conch. Icon. Helix, f. 1423. 

Helix auris, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 286. 

Ariophanta cysis, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 213 ; Nev. Hand-list, 
p. 19. 

Ariophanta cysis, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 152. 

Mr. W. T. Blanford's collection contains a labial ribbon of this 
species, the arrangement of which is 

60 . 22 . 1 . 22 . 60 

or 

82 . 1 . 82 

(in 106 rows). 



140 LAND AND FKESHWATER 

Original description : — " Testa anguste et profunde umhilicata, 
sinistrorsa, depresso-glohosa, teniiiuscula, oblique plicato-striata, fiisces- 
cente-cornea, spira convexa, apice plaauto ; anfractihus 4, convexis, 
celeriter accrescentihus, idthno injlato, primo obsolete angidato, tunc 
rotundato, antice breviter descendente, subtus tumido ; apertura obli- 
qua magna, subovato-hmata, peristomate simpUci, acuto, marginibiis 
conniventibus, externa et basali vix incrassatis, columellari brevlter 
rejlexiuseido. 

" Diam. major 43, minor 35, alt, 23 miU. 

" Hab. in niontibus ' Nilgherries,' Indite australis. Teste Jerdon. 

" In form it is more globose and inflated than the other sinistral 
Helices, excepting H. {Arioplianta, Beck) cicatrieosa, Miill. (China, 
Woosiing), qua^sita, Desh., and bajadem, Pfr. In figure it more 
nearly approaches H. quoisita, Desh. (Fer. t. 10 B. figs, 10, 12), 
but differs in the narrow umbiUcus, smaller number of whorls, with 
a greater size, as well as in colour, texture, and less developed 
peristome." 

ArIOPHANTA THYRETrS, Bs. 

Helix tliyreus, Bs, Ann. M. N, H, vol, ix, p. 405 (1852) ; Pfr. 
Mod, Hel, vol, iii, p. 251, vol, iv, p, 301 ; Reeve, Conch, Icon, 
f. 735 ; Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxvii, fig, 6 (good figure), 

Arioplianta thgreus, Theob, Supp. Cat. p, 23 ; Nev. Hand-list, 
p, 19. 

Arioplianta thyreus, Godw.-Aust, J. A. S. B. 1880, p, 152, 

Locality. Sispara, Nilghiris, and Annamallays (Beddome). 

Original description ; — " Testa profunde umbilicata, sinistrorsa 
depressa, orbiculata, supra cerea cornea, oblique radiatim plicato- 
striata, striis spiralibus exilissimis decussata, subtus convexa, polita, 
radiato-striata, fascescente-cornea, infra carinam breviter saturatiore ; 
spira convexiuscida, apice pilanato ; anfractibus 4|, convexiusculis, 
lente accrescentibus, ultimo obtuse carinato, non descendente ; apertura 
obliqua, lunata, intus livide purpurea, margine expansiusculo, re- 
Jlexiusculo, columellari breviter recte descendente cum basali anguhim 
efformante. 

"Diam, major 34, minor 29, alt. 16 mill. 

" Hab. in India australi. Teste Jerdon, 

" The umbilicus, although moderate, is peculiai'ly deep and dis- 
tinct, comparatively with other orbiculate depressed sheUs of the 
group, showing, like H. (Amoena, Adams) qucesita (Desh,, Molucca), 
all the whorls internally to the apex." 

Abiophanta laidlatana, Bs. (Animal, Plate XXXIV. fig. 3, 
from No. 30 of Stoliczka's drawings.) 

Helix laidlayana, Bs. A, M, N, H, xviii. p, 253 (1856) ; Pfr, Mon. 
Hel. vol. iv. p, 31, 

Helix parietalis, Martens, Mai, Bliitt, p, 167 (1864), teste Pfr, 

Helix laidlayana. Conch. Ind. p. 27, pi, Iviii. fig, 3, var. figs. 4 
and 5 (fig. 4, from Cuttack, is the unhanded variety). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 141 

AriojyJianta laidlayana, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 23 ; Godwin-Austen, 
Journ. A. S.B. 1880, p. 155. 

Nanina (Ariophanta) laidlayana, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 18. 

Localiti/. Manbhnin. 

Original description : — " Testa constricte perforata, sinistrorsa, 
turhinato-depressa, tenui, oblique striata, striis confertissiniis sptirali- 
hus decussata, nitidiuscula, translucente, albida, fascia 1 supera an- 
c/usta, rufo-castanea, periphairiam tangente, interdum 1 supera lata, 
et altera infera remotiuscula ornata ; perioniphalo et pariete aper- 
turali castaneis ; spira depresse conoidea, apice ohtusiusculo, sutura 
leviter impressa ; anfraetihus 5 sensim accrescentibus, idtimo ad peri- 
pJiceriain angulato, antice breviter descendente, subtus convcvo ; aper- 
tura valde obliqua, subquadrato-lunata ; peristomate recto, acuto, 
Ttiargine columellari sid>recte descendente, anguste rejiexo, perforationem 
constrictam subtegente. 

" Diam. major 27, minor 23, axis 15 mill. ; apert 15 mill, lata, 
13| alta. 

" Hab. in Provincia Bengalensi Bheerbhoom, ubi exemplum unicum 
Junius detexit J. W. Laidlay ; nuperrime in Provincia Orissce, non 
procul ab urbe Cuttack, exempla majora non raro invenit W. 
Theobald. 

" Named after a former Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Cal- 
cutta, to whom I am indebted for a specimen found by him many 
years ago in the region of the late Santhal insurrection. The re- 
discovery of the shell in about 20° N. lat., as well as the detection 
of H. capitium in the same quarter, shows that these species range 
through nearly 5 degrees of latitude. The colouring of H. laid- 
layana has much resemblance to that of H. quccsita, Fe'r., but the 
shell has nearer relations to IT. interrupta, nobis, and H. trifasciata, 
Miill. It differs from H. interrupta in colour, depressed form, 
greater number of whorls, contracted perforation, descent of the 
last whorl above the aperture, and in the disposition of the bands. 
When a single broad dark band is present in interrupta, it touches 
the angulate periphery. Prom H. trifasciata it differs in lustre, 
less depressed form, want of solidity, contracted perforation, more 
vertical columellar lip, and in the disposition of the bands, that 
which is above the periphery in trifasciata never touching the 
angle. The colour of the periomphalus and parietes of the aperture 
is also peculiar." 

This species varies much : those with a broad brown band of 
colour on the upper surface of the whorls extending from near the 
periphery to the suture (Conch. Ind. fig. 5, plate Iviii.) seem the 
most numerous ; some have the band very narrow (fig. 3), and in 
others it is absent, as in that given on Plate XXXIV., and fig. 4, 
Conch. Ind. plate Iviii. 

Aeiophanta kadapaensis, Nevill, =«ico6«Wcfl, Chemn. 

Helix pomatia contraria nicobarica, Chem. ix. p. 79, tab. cviii. 
figs. 911, 912. 



142 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Helix nicoharica. Beck, Index Moll. Christ. Mus. Fred., Ap. p. 6 
(1837), as a subgenus of Nanina (with no description) ; Pfr.Mon. Hel. 
vol. i. p. 40 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 1157 ; Han. & Theob. Conch. 
Ind. p. 24, pi. lii. fig. 1 (back view only). 

AriopJianta nicobarica, Theobald, Cat. Supp. p. 23. 

Nanina {Ariophanta) Tcadapaensis, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 19 (re- 
named). 

Ariophanta hadapaensis, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1880, p. 152. 

" iV. nicobarica, Chem., is a misnomer, as it is not found at the 
Nicobars." The specimens in the Ind. Mus. Calcutta are from 
Golapilli and Jummulmulgoo, Kadapa dist., South India. Collected 
by Mr. "W. King. 

Description in Pfeiffer : — " Testa perforata, sinistrorsa, solida, 
globulosn, oblique striata, castaneo-rufa, ad peripJieriam, suturdm et 
basin albo-zonata ; spira brevis, obtusa ; anfr. 5^-, conve.viuscidi, idti- 
mns antice descendens, basi injlatus ; apertura rotundato-lunaris, 
intus concolor ; p)erist. simplex^ obtusum, album, marline columellari 
rejlexiusctdo, p)erforationem fere tegente. 

" Diam. major 37, minor 30, alt. 27 mill. {Mus. Gray). 

" Hab. in insulis Nicobarisis." 



Genus Durgella. 



Durgella, W. T. Blanford, A. M. N. Hist. ser. 3, 1863, vol. xi. 
p. 81. 

Macrocldamys (Durgella) honesta, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1871, 
p. 248. 

Durgella, Godwin-Austen, Proc. Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. xv. 1881, 
p. 291. 

The genus was founded by Mr. W. T. Blanford in February 1863 
in his paper (Z. c.) " On Indian Species of Land-Shells belonging to 
the Genera Helix, Linn., and Nanina, Gray," which was really the 
first attempt to classify the Indian land-shells by the form of the 
animal ; and in the section Nanina the form of the mucous pore at 
the extremity of the foot was principally relied on, together with 
the character of the shell. It placed several species in their correct 
natural divisions which were before unknown ; and the localities 
are authentic, which renders the paper a valuable one as regards 
their distribution. In Durgella he included three species : — 

The type, D. levicida, Bs. Tenasserim (Theobald) ; Prome in Pegu. 

D. mucosa, W. & H. Blf. Nilgiri Hills. 

D. seposita, Bens. Darjiling. 

I am very doubtful if mucosa can be placed in this genus : seposita 
may be, perhaps ; but if, as Mr. G. Nevill thinks, seposita is the 
same as my bilineata from the Dafla Hills, then it must be removed ; 
for the latter is a true Macrochlamys. The species honesta, as placed 
by Stoliczka in this genus, cannot be retained ; he had not then ex- 



M0LLTJ3CA OF INDIA. 



143 



amined the animal of D. levicula ; it is also, I find, a true Macro- 
chlamys. In my paper above mentioned I describe this shell from 
the typical locality (p. 293) in detail, together with another species, 
D. assamica, and two plates (xx. and xxi,) are given ; these de- 
scriptions will be given in a subsequent part. 

The Additional and Principal Characters of the Genus Durgella. 

1. The right and left dorsal lobes moderate, the shell-lobes very 
ample ; the right shell-lobe extends from the anal aperture (close 
to the upper angle of the shell-aperture) to the columellar margin, 
and spreads away over the shell in a broad triangular tongue ; the 
left shell-lobe is reflected slightly over the edge of the shell in front, 
from near the respiratory orifice, and becomes wider on the lower 
margin as it approaches the umbilicus, and is also of triangular 
shape when extended. A large portion of the shell is always ex- 
posed. 

2. The mucous pore is well developed, with a large overhanging 
lobe. 

3. The jaw is very thin, membranaceous, almost straight on the 
cutting-edge, and with a very slight central pi'ojection. 

4. The odontophore is broader than long, with a central minute 
generally bicuspid tooth ; the lateral teeth all similar, minutely 
sexcuspid or pectiniform, on a curved edge ; very closely set together 
and exceedingly numerous. -|-170 . 1 . 170 -|-. 

5. In the generative organs an amatorial organ is present in 
some species, absent in others. 

6. Shell thin or membranaceous, globose or depressedly conoid ; 
polished, very closely perforate, the columeUar margin having no 
solidity. 

The abnormality of this genus, as compared with shells of similar 
form, lies principally in the very remarkable odontophore, which is 
quite unhke any other Indian species of the Zonitidse that I have 
examined ; with this, of course, we find the jaw also much modified. 
There is considerable similarity with the teeth of Sitala attegia and 
S. infula (figured by Stoliczka in the J. A. S. B. 1871, pi. xviii. 
figs. 4-9) (vide Plate VIII. figs, le, 2 e, Part II.) in the multicuspid 
or pectiniform laterals and the greater number (153 on each side) 
in S. infida ; but the centre tooth is large, and the shell-lobes of 
the mantle are not developed ; still here we have a relationship or 
connection indicated, and shown also in Sitala phidongensis, G.-A., 
Part II. p. 34 (Plate X. fig. 4), for since describing it I have suc- 
ceeded in finding the lingual ribbon and jaw. There is a minute 
central, with a great number of similar lateral teeth, multicuspid, 
curved outwards, and set extremely close, gradually becoming 
smaller to the outside, and thus similar to those of Durgella levicida. 
This form of odontophore, which I have now observed in several 
species, a list of which I give further on., difiers remarkably in type 
of the teeth and formula from other genera of the Zonitidae ; and I 
consider them a distinct group, having a remote relationship. 

PART IV. 



144 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

SItala and Darcjella are intimately connected by this characteristic 
dentition. 

Dtjrgella mintta, Godwin-Austen. (Plate XXXIX. figs. 1-6.) 

Helkarion minntus, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 313, pi. viii. 
figs. 1, la, lb. 

Locality. Under Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Amended description. Shell depressedly ovate, horny, rather solid, 
with a glazed polished surface ; colour brown, with an olive tinge, 
olive-green by transmitted light ; spire rounded ; suture deep ; 
whorls 2i, very rapidly increasing ; aperture oblique, laterally 
ovate ; peristome thin ; columellar margin not thickened, oblique. 

Size : major diam. 6*7, minor diam. 4-8, alt. axis 2-7 mm. 

0-26, „ 0-19, „ 0-10 inch. " 

Animal (Plate XXXIX. figs. 2, 2a), dried specimen after soak- 
ing. Head black ; foot well mottled with black, the pedal line is 
indicated by a double line of short oblong black streaks, with lateral 
spots above lying between the lateral grooves ; the pedal margin 
pale. The central area of the foot beneath is for the entire length 
black, a very distinctive character in this species. The right shell- 
lobe (fig. 2) is ample, and the left (fig. 3) extends from the respira- 
tory orifice, and is reflected over the shell ; a tongue-like process on 
the left posterior margin, very narrow behind where it meets the 
right shell-lobe. The right dorsal lobe is of normal form and the 
left is narrow and continuous, saving a small slit on the left 
margin. 

Odontophore. The radula (figs. 5, So) is very beautiful and cha- 
racteristic of the genus, with one straight central tooth, succeeded 
by equilateral bicuspid teeth, all much curved inwards, and similar, 
veiy numerous, and very gradually decreasing in size to the outer 
margin of the lingual ribbon. 

190 . 1 . 190 

Jaw (fig. 4) slightly arched and no central projection. 

It will be noticed at once how the radula of this species diff'ers 
from that of D. l-hasiaca from the West Khasi Hills, alluded to on 
p. 313 of my paper " On the Helicidte collected during the Expe- 
dition into the Dafla Hills, Assam," which I at first, in 1876, con- 
sidered a variety of D. minuta, but on closer examination even the 
shell and animal are distinct in form and markings. 

Living animal (Plate XXXIX. fig. 1). Pale horny ; tentacles and 
a line from them to the mantle dark coloured, with a dark line 
down the upper surface of the extremity of the foot, which last is 
mottled on the side. The mantle just covers the edge of the shell, 
and the right shell-lobe is moderately developed. The portion of 
the body anterior to the shell is very short in comparison with the 
posterior portion. Total length 17*8 mm. = 0*7 inch ; head to 
mantle 2-5 mm. ; mantle to extremity of foot 10-7 mm. A well- 
marked hooked process above the mucous gland (fig. 1 a). 



M0LLU8CA OV INDIA. 145 

DuEGELLA KHAsiACA, n. sp. (Plate XXXIX. figs. 7, 7 a, 76.) 

LocaUtij. West Khasi HiUs {H. H. G.-A,). 

The shell has been drawn four times the natural size, to bring 
it to the size of A. salia (see on Plate XXXVII.), to better illustrate 
the slight difference in form of these shells. 

Shell depressedly ovate, thin, horny, shiny, smooth, with close, 
fine, transverse lines of growth ; colour pale ochraceous olive ; spire 
very depressed, flatly convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 3, rapidly 
increasing ; aperture oblique, flatly ovate ; columellar margin but 
weakly developed. 

Size : major diam. 6-7, minor diam. 5*0, alt. axis 2'0 mm. 
0-26, „ 0-20, „ 0-08 inch. 

OdontopJiore. Jaw thin and horny, nearly straight in front. The 
radula (figs. 8, 8 a, 8 b) is a beautiful object in the microscope. 

225 . 1 . 225 

in 120 rows, or 54,000 teeth ; the central is elongate, with three 
equal-sized points ; the lateral teeth are all alike, much curved and 
bicuspid, the outer point slightly in excess of the inner, gradually 
decreasing in size outwards.,' 

The right shell-lobe is triangular and extends over the right side 
of the shell ; the left is reflected over the peristome for some dis- 
tance and then gives off a long lingual process. Extremity of foot 
very long and narrow. 
We at present know 

D. levicula, Bs. Tenasserim. 

D. assamica, G.-A. Tezpur, Assam. 

D. minuta, G.-A. Dafla Hills. 

D. khasiaca, G.-A, West Khasi HiUs. 

D. christiance, Theob. Andaman Islands. 

D. mairangensis, G.-A. Khasi Hills. 
This last will be described in a future part, with descriptions of the 
others. 



SiTALA (continued from p. 76). 

The odontophore of Sitala crenicincta (described in Part II. p. 75, 
Plate XIII. fig. 2) is very similar in every way to that of Kcdiella 
harrahporensis (Plate V. fig. 11), but the outer laterals are not tri- 
cuspid. The central tooth is very large (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 4, 4 a), 
tricuspid, the central point broad and long ; the median teeth are 
bicuspid, with the outer denticle near the base, while in the outer- 
most three or four it nearly disappears. There are very few in the 
row, as follows : — 

18 to 20 . 5 . 1 . 5 . 18 to 20 
25 . 1 . 25. 



o2 



146 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Kaliella {continued from p. 73). 

I also figure a portion of tlio radiila of KcdidJa l-ezamaensis 
(Plate XL. fig. 10), which I described in Part III. p. 69, also a 
portion of the spcrmatophore (fig. 11). Among a large collection 
of shells from Darjiling in spirit I have been enabled to see the 
generative organs of Kaliella barraJqwrensis (Plate XXXVIII. 
fig. 5). There is no amatorial organ. The male organ is long and 
cylindrical, with a small pear-shaped kale-sac situated at the junction 
of the vas deferens, the retractor mnscle being given off some short 
distance below. The spermatheca was broken off. 

Note. As the measurements given in this work differ somewhat 
from those adopted by some conchologists, on Plate XXXVIII. fig. 6 
will be found a figure showing what I term the height of the axis, 
viz. the distance frx)m the umbilical region at the base of the last 
whorl to the apex of the shell (A B). The height of the body-whorl 
is taken from the same point up to the plane of the suture of the 
last whorl in front, or B C. The height of the aperture is the per- 
pendicular dropped from the upper angle of the aperture to the 
peristome below, or « & ; the breadth of the aperture from the colu- 
mellar margin to the outside edge of the peristome, c d. 



Subfam. Helicarionin^. 
Genus Helicarion. (Plate XLI.) 

Founded by Ferussac on the Australian species H. cuvieri, For., or 
freycineti, Fer. I have therefore gone beyond the limits of ray 
work, and give a Plate to illustrate this genus, which is so intimately 
connected with so many of our Indian forms. It will show more 
clearly what the extent of the differences are. I am sorry I could 
not obtain a larger species for this purpose, and I shall not at pre- 
sent give anj^ general description of the genus. 

In the generative organs there is the greatest departure, the 
shell-lobes being more like those of DurgeUa. These particular 
Australian, Indian, and African land mollusca thi;s form a good 
subfamily, under the title of Helicarionin^. 

Helicaelon HELENA, u. sp. (Plate XLI. figs. 1-8 a.) 

Locality. Sydney, N. S. Wales (Dr. J. C. Cox). 

Shell elongately oval, polished, quite smooth ; colour pale yel- 
lowish green ; spire flat : whorls 2^, the first small, rapidly increas- 
ing, the last much expanded and elongated in front ; peristome thin, 
arcuate above. 

Size : major diam. 7'3, minor diam. 4-5 mm. 
0-29, „ 0-18 inch. 

Animal (figs. 1, 1 a). Beautifully executed water-colour drawings 
from life by Mrs. H. Forde, dated the 3rd June, 1870, were sent 



M0LLU8CA. OF ISDIA. 1-17 

me by Dr. J. C. Cox, with the animal in spirit. The following 
note is attached by Mr. Geoffrey Nevill : — " Helicarion hyalina, Pfr., 
var. (Sydney). Coloration exact. When taken fresh from its damp 
home on the mossy sides of large stones &c., the mantle-lobes almost 
entirely cover the shell, leaving only a little bare spot. Top figure 
[Plate XLI. fig. 1] is as it appears after a day's confinement." 

I am much indebted to Dr. Cox for sending this species and some 
others from Australia, and I am now able in consequence to show 
more clearly the anatomy of true Helicarion and the points of dif- 
ference between it and the Indian allied forms ; they are suffi- 
cient to keep them subgenerically apart. 

Resembles exactly in its anatomy H. frei/cinefi, Fev. (not Quoy 
and Gaimard), from N.S. Wales, figured in temper's Reis. Philipp. 
pi. iii. fig. 1 (Plate XLI. fig. 9), even in the form of the flageUiform 
kalc-sae. 

The mantle (figs. 2, 3) has a similarity to that of Durgella : the 
right shell-lobe is, however, the smallest, and is broadly tongue-like ; 
the left shell-lobe includes the whole upper and outer margin of the 
peristome and terminates on the left posterior side in a tongue-like 
process ; both right and left dorsal lobes are very ample, the left one 
especially, continuing all round to the posterior side and uniting 
with the right shell-lobe (fig. 4). The mucous gland is very dis- 
tinct, with a small lobe or horn above it, but the foot above does 
not appear to be sharply keeled. 

Generative organs (Plate XLI. figs. 8, 8 rf). Ovo-testis in two 
rounded masses, very difficult to separate from the liver in which it 
is imbedded : hermaphrodite duct extremely and closely convoluted ; 
albumen-gland small, hard, and oblong ; penis long, twisted back 
on itself and swollen at the base, with a long flagellum, within 
which the capreolus was in process of formation ; spermatheca long, 
with a swollen rounded extremity. It had no dart-sac or amatorial 
organ, and in this respect it differs from the Indian species that 
have hitherto been placed in this genus; the salivary gland rather 
lengthened. 

Jaw (fig. 6) with a central projection, like H. ceratodes, Pfr. 

In the lingual ribbon (figs. 7, 7 a, 7 b) the arrangement of the 
teeth is 

40 . 2 . 16 . 1 . 16 . 2 . 40 
58 . 1 . 58 

The numbering of the last median teeth in fig. 7a is unfortunately 
reversed, 17 and 18 should be the two teeth of transition form next 
the bicuspid laterals. The outermost laterals are very smaU (fig. 7 b) 
and several are tricuspid in this specimen. I give a copy of the 
part of the radula of H. cuvieri, Fer., as given by tSemper (Z. c. pi. vi. 
fig. 11) to show the correspondence. 



148 LAND AND FRESHWATER 



Subgenus Austenia, Nevill, 

ffelicarion, Fe'r., of many authors. 

Vitrina, Fer., of many authors, 

Austenia, Nev. Hand-list, p. ] 6 (Dec. 1878) ; Godwin-Austen, 
P.Z.S. 1880, p. 294. 

This as a subgenus of Belicarion was indicated by Mr. Geoffrey 
Nevill in his valuable ' Hand-list of Mollusca in the Indian Museum,' 
Calcutta, part 1, issued in December 1878. It was not described, 
but the type was indicated, viz, A. gigas, a well-known form on 
the Khasi Hills. It is a sufficient departure structurally from 
Girasia of Gray to retain, this latter being more slug-like and 
with usually far less developed shells. In a paper in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society,' April 1880, p. 289, the animal 
of A. gigas was described by me in detail, as well as that of Girasia 
shiUongensis, and the two compared, and the plates (xxiv.-xxvii.) con- 
tain figures of Girasia magmfica, shillongensis, hrunnea, and Jiookeri 
(the type), and Austenia gigas and gigas var. minor. A list of 
the species as then known in both subgenera was also given and 
can now be somewhat added to and amended. 

Characters oftlie suhgenns. The animal is somewhat slug-like in ap- 
pearance, but with a well-formed shell. The shell-lobes ample. The 
right dorsal lobe extends from the respiratory orifice to the posterior 
right margin. The left dorsal lobe is large in front and extends from 
the same part to the left margin. The shell-lobes are connected all 
round the periphery of the mantle-zone, but are reduced in size 
and present two distinct right and left contractile lobes ; the right 
extends to and covers the apex of the shell, while the left extends 
over the edge of the body-whorl for a short distance, leaving the 
posterior and the greater portion of the upper surface of the shell 
uncovered (we have here, in a more developed form, what is seen 
in the genus Macroclilamys). The posterior margin of the shell is 
not sunk in a depression of the hinder part of the foot, but the 
upper surface of the foot extends in an unbroken ridge to the mantle- 
zone. Extremity of the foot truncate, with a large linear mucous 
gland, with or without an overhanging lobe ; the pedal line very dis- 
tinct. The sole of the foot with a central separate area. 

Genital aperture at the lower outer base of the rigbt tentacle. 

The generative organs may be compared with those of Macro- 
chlamys indica &c., and are, as might be expected, very similar ; the 
amatorial organ is always present and well developed, and the 
spermatheca is large. The male organ, however, never has the 
coiled caecum near the retractor muscle attachment so typical of all 
the species of Macroclilamys. The spermatophores are remarkably 
well formed and beautiful objects. The teeth of the radula and jaw 
as in Macrochlamys indica. The type and other species will be 
figured in future parts. 



MOLlirSCA OF INDIA. ^'^^ 



AtTSTENiA PLANOSPIRA, Beiison. (Plate XXXVI. figs. 1-5 d, Plate 
XXXVIII. figs. 1-1 6.) 

Vitrina planospira, Benson, A. M. N. Hist. 1859, iii. p. 271 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 14. 

Vitrina succinea ?, Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Vitnna, f. 8. 

HeUcarion (sec. G) planospira, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 24 

Belicarion succineus, lie(iNQ= planospira, Bs. Nev. Hand-list, p. 14. 

Lom?%. Damsang Peak, Baling HiUs ( IF. i^oierf). 

Shell imperforate, very depressedly globose, rather swollen, thin, 
diaphanous, horny, polished ; surface perfectly smooth ; colour bright 
bronzy olive ; spire rounded, scarcely raised above the last whorl ; 
suture shallow ; whorls 3, rapidly iucreasmg ; aperture oblique, 
broadly and horizontally ovate ; peristome curving forward above, 
sinuate ; columellar margin nearly perpendicular, but weakly deve- 
loped. , . , r 

Size : major diam. 13-5, minor diam. 10-3, alt. axis 4-5 mm. 

0-53, „ 0-40 „ 0-18 inch. _ 

Original description :— " Testa suborbiculato-depressa, peripheria 
rotundato-ovata, tenui, Icevigata, obsolete arcuato-striatida, translu- 
cente, polita, cornea ; spira convexiuscida, superne planata, sutara 
canalicidato-marginata ; anfractibus 3, celeriter accrescenttbus, ultimo 
antiee depresso, leviter descendente, ad periphenam compresse rotim- 
dato, subtus convexiusmh ; apertura valde obliqna, ovato ?-lwmri, 
peristomate tenui, superne antrorsum arcuato, margine columeUari 
valde arcuato. 

" Diam. major 14, minor 11, axis 5 mill. 

"Habitat ad Pankabari et in valle Rungun, Vitrince salii consors, 

raro occurrens. , j v nr 

" Only two dead and imperfect specimens were collected by Mr. 
W T. Blanford. The species is remarkable for the sudden flatness 
of the upper part of the spire, and for the neat shallow canaliculate 
suture It was found in companv with a variety of the smaller and 
more convex Vitrina scdius, B., which Mr. Theobald had previously 
taken alive on the Khasia Hills." o.. v i » 

A specimen from Darjiling has been capitally drawn by Stoliczka a 
native artist, and I give a copy of it (Plate XXXVI. fig. 1). It re- 
presents the body as olive-brown in colour, and upon the coarsely 
papillate mantle and the size I make this identification. Mr. W. 
Robert's collection from Darjiling contains a number of well-pre- 
served specimens, and I can now give a description of the animal 
(vide fio-s. 2 & 3). The right dorsal lobe is of the usual form, the 
left moderately broad, with a slight reentering contraction on the 
left frontal margin. The right shell-lobe is broad, with a strongly 
papillate surface, some of the projections being nipple-like, as ob- 
served in A. verrucosa, G.-A., from the Dafla Hills (J. A. S. B. Ib76, 
p 313 pi viii f 5). The left shell-lobe is also papillate, and con 
fcinuous ail round to the right; it is broad in front, overlapping 
the peristome, but it narrows suddenly on the left middle margin. 



150 LAND AND FKESHWATEK 

The foot is truncate behind (fig. 4), with a slight overhanging 
lobe and a linear gland just reaching to the sole of the foot. This 
is divided below into a central area with a lateral margin. 

The generative organs (Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1) are simple, the 
amatorial organ being large, showing, when the outer sheath is re- 
moved (fig. 1 (/), a blunt cylindrical sagitta or dart with longitudinal 
muscular ribbing. The intestine (fig. 1 h) shows a large swollen sac 
near the oesophagus laid open by the salivary gland. The pulmonary 
chamber is very capacious. 

The teeth of the radula are arranged thus : — 

50 . 1 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 1 . 50 
65 . 1 . 65 

Similar to Macrochlamys indica, but the outermost laterals be- 
coming gradually very small, the inner point the longest. 

Atjstenia bensoni, Pfeiffer. (Plate XXXVI. figs. 6-7 h.) 

Locality. Jessore {G.-A.). 

Vitrina hemoni, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 107 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. ii. 
p. 497 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. Vitrina, fig. 9 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 29, pi. Ixv. figs. 1-4. 

Helicarion (sec. C) hensoni, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 24. 

Helicarion bemoni, Xev. Hand-list, p. 14, with this note : — " Mol- 
lusc granulated, especially the mantle, which is quite rough, being 
covered with small papillae ; it entirely covers the shell ; jaw smooth, 
with slight projection in centre (IF. T. B.). Botanical Gardens, 
Calcutta and Chandanagar." 

Stoliczka has left a drawing (Xo. 2) with this title, and a note in 
his handwriting is as follows: — "Dull greenish grey,with a very slight 
pinkish tinge, or very pale olive with some dark irregular blotches; the 
larger marks on the mantle-lobes are whitish ; pedicels dusky ; sole 
of foot in three parts, middle narrowest, white, lateral parts dusky, 
speckled white." This drawing, which is very accurate, I reproduce 
{vide Plate XXXVI. fig. 6, nat. size) ; it shows the large expanded 
shell-lobes covering almost the whole shell save a small slit, and the 
animal conforms to the description of the genus in the ridge of 
the foot behind extending unbroken to the mantle-zone. 

For radula see Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2. The formula is 

45 . 3 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 3 . 45 
60 . 1 . 60 

It is like the general form of Macrocldamys, the laterals after the 
fifteenth being bicuspid, the inner cusp or point considerably exceed- 
ing the outer cusp in length ; the central and median are elongate, 
tricuspid in form. 

Original description: — " V. testa depressiuscula, tenui, striatula, 
7iitida, pellucida, pcdlide cornea ; spira vix elevata, obtiisa ; sutura 
impressa, subniarginata ; anfractibus 3^, convexiusculis, ultimo sub- 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 



151 



depresso, perijjheria rotundata, basi lato ; apertura obliqua, lanato- 
subcirculari ; peristomate simplice, subinfiexo, marginibus conniventi- 
bus, supero antrorsum subdilatato, columellari recedente, perarcaato. 

"Diam. 12, altit, vix 6 miU. 

" In the Botanic Garden of Calcutta ; collected by Mr. Benson." 

AxJSTENiA BENsoNi, var. sTLHETENsis. (Plate XXXYIII. fig. 3.) 

Locality. In a wood on bank of the Soorma river, about halfway 
between Atgaon and Chatak, Sylhet District. 

Shell depressedly ovate, thin, horny, shining, smooth surface; 
colour duU olive-green ; spire flattened, rounded ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 3, gradually increasing, the last tumid; aperture oblique, 
broadly ovate ; peristome arcuate in front above ; columellar margin 
oblique. 

Largest specimen : — 

Size : maior diam. 10-3, minor diam. 8-5, alt. axis 4 mm. 

0-41, „ 0-34, „ 0-16 inch. 

This species differs from bensoni in the last whorl being more ex- 
panded in front, its thinner texture, and greener colour. The teeth 
of the radula are also modified in number, although of same type, 
as shown in Plate XXXVIII. figs. 2 and 3c; the central teeth being 
exactly similar in both forms, are not repeated. Their arrangement 

is 

64 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 64 

80 . 1 . 80 
(in 102 rows). 

The outermost (fig. 3 c) are very smaU and show a tendency to be 
pectiuiform, so characteristic of Durgella, and which in this case is 
evidently produced by the merging together at an early stage of de- 
velopment of two teeth into one. 

The left shell-lobe (fig. 3 b) is narrow, giving ofi" a broad linguate 
process on the left margin ; the left dorsal lobe is long and narrow, 
with a slight indentation opposite the above expansion. These 
differences taken together, in spite of the similarity of the shells, 
incline me to consider A. sylhetensis a distinct species. 

Animal about an inch long ; tentacles black ; body light ; extre- 
mity of foot mottled with black and green. The animal carries 
this extremity turned up (as shown in Plate XXXVIII. fig. 3 a, 
which are copied from drawings made by me from life). On the 
under surface is an opening, from which exudes the mucous matter 
as the creature crawls ; it can be seen flowing down the underside 
of the foot in great quantity to the surface upon which it is moving. 
Shell in living animal dark, from the markings of the shell showing 
through it ; the oral tentacles short and light coloured, situated very 
near the mouth. Another animal from the same locality was thus 
described in my field note-book : — " Light yellowish green ; tentacles 
darker, the lower light ; a very few dark markings near the gland at 
extremity of foot." This, after aU, is the same as the last species 



152 LAJTD AND FRE9HWATEK 

described, for after examining it for some time it began creeping 
with the extremity raised in the same manner ; so that it is the 
occasional habit of this species, which I at first thought was an indi- 
vidual peculiarity, due to the malformation of some muscles or injury 
to the nervous system. 

Atjstekia? salia, Benson. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

Vitrina salius, Bs. A. M. X. Hist. 1859, iii. p. 189 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. vol. iv. p. 799. 

Helicarioii salius (sec. C), Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 24. 

Hdkarion snlius, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 14. 

Austenia salia, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 298. 

Locality. Teria Ghat, Khasi HiUs. (II. H. G.-A.). 

Surface like ground glass, with indistinct, transverse, close lines 
of growth ; colour pale ochraceous ; whorls 3. 

Specimen figured : — 

Size: major diam. 9*8, minor diam. 8*4, alt. axis 3-5 mm. 
0-39, „ 0-33, „ 014 inch. 

Largest specimen : — Size : major diam. 12'0, minor diam. lO'O mm. 

In no specimen that I possess from the typical locality does the 
last whorl descend near the aperture, as in specimens from Panka- 
bari, near Darjiling. 

Original description: — " Testa subr/loboso-dejircssa^jicripheria ovata, 
tenuissima, fragili, nitidissima, pellucida , fuscescenti-cornea vel pal- 
lide cornea, obsolete arcuatim striatula ; spira brevissime conoidea, 
sutiira leviter impressa, marginata ; anfractibus 3^, rapide accrescen- 
tibus, xdtimo depressiiisculo, subventricoso-rotundato, antice superne 
antrorsum arcuato ; apertura obliqua, subrotundato-lunari, peristo- 
matis marr/ine columellari subverticaliter descendente, superne vix cal- 
loso, basali leviter arcuato. 

" Diam. major 8, minor 6, axis 4 mill. ; apert. lat. 4^^, alt. 
4| mill. 

" Habitat ad Teria Ghat, cum prsecedeute. 

" I have named this little species from its habit, observed by Mr. 
Theobald, of springing several inches from the ground, like the little 
Cape Helix Tollini, Albers, recorded in a former number of this 
Journal on the authority of Mr. E. L. Layard. V. salius also occurs 
near Darjiling, where Mr. W. T. Blanford has found it sparingly, in 
company with another new species. 

" Mr. Theobald met with my large species, Vitrina gigas, at 
Cherra, on the mountains above Teria Ghat; it was not common. 
On the limestone at the same place, a solid variety of the \yestern- 
Himalayan shell, H. plicidens, B., was common.'' 

Austenia? salia, Bs., var. ovata. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 2, 2a, 
2 6.) 

Locality. Pankahari, near Darjiling (coll. AV. T. Blanford). 
Shell rather more globose iji form than the Tcria-Ghat shells, the 



MOLLTJSCA OF IKDIi.. 153 

last whorl descending and rather more expanded in front (compare 
figs. 1 b and 2 h). 

Size: major diam. 9-8, minor diam. 7*8, alt. axis 4 mm. 

0-39, „ 0-31, „ 0-16 inch. 

Attstenia ? PANCHETENsis, n. sp. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 h.) 

Locality. Panchet Hill, near Ranigunj, L. Bengal (ex coU. W. Blan- 
ford). 

Shell imperforate, depressedly globose, rather thickened, covered 
with a strong epidermis ; colour dull ochraceous brown ; spire de- 
pressed, rounded ; suture shallow ; whorls 3, flat above, and rapidly 
increasing, the last descending ; aperture very oblique, ovate ; peristome 
rather thickened, columellar margin perpendicular. 

Size : major diam. 10-7, minor diam. 9'0, alt. axis 4-5 mm. 

This shell is very distinct from A. bensoni in the manner in which 
the last whorl descends near the aperture and in its more shelly 
structure and globose form. There is only one specimen in Mr. W. 
Blanford's collection. It is very probably the No. 16, HeUcarion 
ovatus, Nev. Hand-list, p. 14, 8 specimens Eajmahal, Sikrigulli, 
and Patna (coll. Col. G. Mainwaring and Dr. Oldham). 

AusTENiA PAPiLLASPiEA, u. sp. (Plate XXXYII. figs. 4, 4 rt, 4 b.) 

Locality. North Khasi Hills. 

Shell imperforate, globose, membranaceous, shining ; sculpture, 
transverse undulations of growth, otherwise quite smooth ; colour 
pale ochraceous green ; spire somewhat raised, small, apex like a 
small nipple ; suture shallow ; whorls 4, irregularly wound, closely 
so at apex, the third covering the second on the anterior margin, 
the axis not being straight ; aperture oblique, widely ovate ; peri- 
stome sinuate on upper margin, curving forward ; columellar margin 
perpendicular, a slight reflection at umbilical region. 

Size: major diam. 11-0, minor diam. 8-8, alt. axis 4-5 mm. 

Differs from A. salia in the greater number of whorls and pecu- 
liar, smaller, closer-wound, nipple-like apex. Three specimens were 
found. 

AusTENiA? GLOBOSA, Godwiu-Austcn. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 5, 
5 a, 5 6.) 

Eelix (Nanina) globosa, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1876, p. 312. 

HeUcarion No. 17, n. sp. (prox. H. bensoni), Nev. Hand-list, p. 51, 
5 sp. from Dikrang and Toruputu Peak {O.-A.) 

Locality. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills {H. H. G.-A.). 

Shell imperforate, tumidly globose, very thin, transparent, glassy, 
quite smooth ; colour pale ochraceous ; spire moderately high, de- 
pressedly conoid ; whorls 3, last well rounded, rapidly increasing ; 
aperture oblique, rotundately oval ; columcsllar margin weak, not 
thickened. 



154 LAND AND FKESUWAXER 

Specimen figured : — 

Size: major diam, 9-4, minor diam. 7*5, alt. axis 3-4 mm. 
0-37, „ 0-30, „ 0-14 inch. 

Largest specimen : — 

Size : major diam. 9-5, minor diam. 8*0, alt. axis 4-8 mm. 

Original description : — " Shell very globose, thin, and glassy, pale 
ochre ; whorls 4, the last large and expanded below. Aperture 
broadly lunate. Apex rounded. 

" Alt. 0"-28, major diam. 0"-40. 

" Animal dark grey, becoming pale fleshy on extremity of foot, 
which is broad behind, with the lobe over the gland much hooked. 
Tentacles rather thick at base. Length 1"*2, tentacles 0"'2. 

" Ifab. Summit of Toruputu Peak. 

" This shell is of the form of H. salins, but is much larger ; an<l 
the animal differs considerably." 



Subgenus Apkicakion, Godw.-Aust. 
Afeicaeion fallens?, Morelet. (Plate XLII. figs. 1-7.) 

Locality. Abyssinia (from Mr. Damon, as Vitrina riljijielliana, 
Pfr.). 

Helicarion pallens, Morelet, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia 
Naturale di Geneva, p. 190 (1872). 

Shell ovoid, depressed ; surface smooth ; spire very slightly ele- 
vated near the apex, which is rounded ; whorls 3, closely wound, 
the last expanding much ; the line of suture is not a regular spiral, 
from the last whorl closing in on the second and narrowing its 
breadth in front very considerably. 

Size : major diam. 13, minor diam. 9*4 mm. 

Animal (Plate XLII. figs. 1, 2, 3), in spirit-specimen, 22-5 mm. 
in length, with a truncate glandular extremity of foot ; the pedal 
line distinct, with some black spottings, the pedal margin having a few 
at the posterior end ; the dorsal portion above is also darkly mottled. 
The mantle-lobes are finely and distinctly papillate and closely 
mottled with black. The right sheU-lobe is broad, extending towards 
the shell ; it narrows posteriorly, and is continuous round to the left 
ehell-lobo. The right dorsal lobe is small, but the left ver}^ ample 
and continuous. The ridge of the foot behind, just beneath the 
posterior margin of the shell, forks into two ridges (fig. 3), and this 
portion of the shell rests in the long triangular depression between 
them, a formation of the body similar to that of Girasia. 

OclontojjJiore (figs. 6, G a, 6 b). As in Macrochlamys ; the laterals 
bicuspid, the inner cusp much longer than the outer, which is small 
and on the last scarcely developed. The teeth are arranged 

28 . 2 . 12 . 1 . 12 . 2 . 28 
42 . 1 . 42 

The jaw (fig. 7) is much arched, with a concave cutting-edge and 
a central projection. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 155 

The buccal mass has a strong retractor muscle (Plate XLII. fig. 5), 
There is a short narrow oesophagus passing into a very capacious 
bag-like stomach, on the side of which the salivary gland lies. 

The generative organs (fig. 4) are very simple ; there is no ama- 
torial organ. The spermatheca is short, with a round-shaped sac at 
the posterior end. The male organ is a simple, long, cylindrical 
tube with a strong, short, retractor muscle, and thus similar to that 
of the genus Avion, and so very different to the more complicated 
form of Girasia and aUies, and also to the Australian form of true 
Helicarion (vide Plate XLI.). The albumen-gland is very large. 

Although the combined characters of this specimen would place it 
in the subfamily Helicarioniuse, it differs sufficiently from the Indian 
genera Girasia and Austenia, and also from the Australian genus 
Helicarion, to be placed in a separate subgenus. For these East- 
African forms I would jDropose the subgeneric title Africarion. 

There is considerable doubt regarding the identification of Damon's 
specimen. Blanford, in his work 'Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia,' 
records three species of Vitrina (p. 475), and among them V. riip- 
pelliana*, apparently only one (unnamed) he captured alive at Lake 
Ashangi, and ho notices that it is a true Vitrina with no mucous pore. 
In Nevill's Hand-list, p. 18, under V. mamillata, Martens, from above 
locality, is a detailed description by Blanford of this species, which 
I will copy : — 

" Animal apparently not retractile ; mantle large and rugose, only 
partially reflected over peristome, a little more so over the shell at 
the suture ; foot coarsely granulate above, sole not margined by a 
furrow at the side ; tail bluntly keeled above, pointed, with no trace 
of a gland ; three furrows from near breathing-orifice to lower ten- 
tacles, lower two uniting in front ; lower tentacles short, upper one 
(eye-pedicels) moderate ; the rounded process of the mantle, reversed 
over the suture, sometimes reaches the apex, and appears easily ex- 
tensible. Pale flesh-colour, yellowish on back, two dark lines from 
base of tentacles : mantle with opaque yeUow spots ; jaw narrow, 
without process in centre, smooth." 

Mens. Bourguignat has lately published (1883) a work, ' Histoire 
Malacologique de FAbyssinie.' In this a small species (raffrayi) is 
described and placed in Helicarion ; it is figured with a mucous 
pore on pi. vii. fig. 13. //. lymphaseus, Morelet, and H. pallens, 
Morelet, are also referred to as occurring in the Bogos country : 
riippelliana is placed in Vitrina^ and on pi. vii. fig. 10 the very 
pointed form of the extremity of the foot is given. The species 
received from Mr. Damon is about the size and form as riippelliana ; 
the identification must be wrong, but at any rate the African habitat 
would ajDpear to be correctly given by him. 

On referring to Mr. Damon for the history of this species, he says : 
— " I have only had Abyssinian shells from Issel and a dealer named 

* Viirina riqjpelliana, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 107 ; Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. ii 
p. 503 (very like 'prmstans, Gd.) ; — V. darjiaudi, Pfr. W. Blanford, Zool. Abyss, 
p. 475 ; J. E. Bourguignat, Malac. Abyss, p. 20, pi. 7. fig. 10 (animal). 



156 LAND AND FKESHWATER 

Wesel of Hamburg. The Vitrina in question must therefore have 

been from the latter I see that the specimen in question came 

to me in 1870." Monsieur A. Issel has very kindly given me the 
information that, during his trip into the Bogos country, he only ob- 
tained V. caillaudi and Isseli, and Helicariom hjmphaseus ^.n^ixillens, 
but notF. ruppeJUana ; therefore Mr. Damon could not have received 
it from him. He continues, the two species of Helicarion were pre- 
served by me in spirit, but that on looking for them in the Museo 
Civico di Storia Naturale, Genova, only the shells remain, the animals 
having probably decayed and the shells removed from the tubes. 

The animals of these two species of Helicarion are thus described 
by Morelet {I. c.) : — 

Helicarion ltmphasetjs, Morelet, t. ix. f. 4. 

" L'animal est epais, finement grenu, d'un fauve livide, couleur de 
fer sur le dos ; le pied, nettement tronque, est perce d'un pore 
assez large que Ton voit a I'oeil nu. Le plan locomoteur est separe 
du corps par un sillon. 

" Testa dejyressa, teniiissima, nitida, Tiyalina, pallide fulva, in- 
cequaliter arcuato-striata ; spira planulata, vertice ohtusa, vix pro- 
minula ; sutura strictissime marginata ; anfr. 3, superne plani, 
snhtus convexi, ultimus ccleriter crescens, subelongatus j apertura ob- 
liqua, ohlonge ovalis, basi rotundata, marginibus rectis, parallelis. 

" Diam. maj, 13, min. 9, altit. 6millim." 

Helicarion pallens, t. ix. f. 5. 

" L'animal ressemble tout a fait au precedent ; le lobe poste'rieur 
du manteau est marque d'un ligne couleur de fer dans le sens longi- 
tudinal. 

" T. superne depressa, subtus turgidula, tenuis, striolata, nitida, 
pellucida, pallide straminea ; spira brevis, obtuse rotundata ; anfr. 3, 
convexiuscidi, ultimus ampins, juxta suturam marginatam radiatim 
obsolete plicatus ; apertura perobliqua, lunato-ovalis, margine colu- 
mellari arcuato nee membranaceo. 

"Diam. maj. 12-13, min. 8, altit. 5 millim." 

Both found in the Bogos country by Messrs. Issel and Beccari. 
From the dark line on the left shell-lobe of Mr. Damon's specimen 
(Plate XLII. fig. 2) I beUeve it to be this last species. 

While these sheets are passing through the press, I have just 
received two more specimens from Mr. Damon. As regards the 
animal, they agree with H. pallens, but in the size and form of the 
shell better with H. lympTiaseus. Monsieur Issel will, I hope, do 
me the favour of settling the true identification, after a comparison 
of these specimens with the types at Genoa. It may possibly be a 
new species. In both specimens the whorls are irregularly wound, 
the last contracting and covering over the second. 



MOLICSCA OF INDIA. 157 

The examination of many different species of Macrochlamys and 
those of allied genera begins to afford sufficient material on which to 
base their classification ; and I am now convinced and hope to show 
that a sj'^stem commencing with Ilelicanon, as if that were a primor- 
dial form, cannot be adopted. I think I have given sufficient examples 
of the modification of the shell-lobes of the mantle in these genera 
and subgenera to show clearly that their gradual growth has been 
in the dii-ectiou from genera without such appendages to those that 
possess them. Climate has, no doubt, had a great influence in 
producing this change, certainly facilitating the growth of it. The 
highly-heated damp atmosjihere of the Khasi HiUs, particularly the 
southern side, where for hours the air is in a state of complete satu- 
ration, tends to the enlargement of such appendages, until we reach 
forms like Austenia hensoni, planospira, &c., and with still greater 
extension and spread of the same part of the mantle in species like 
Girasia hooheri &c., where the junction of the two originally dis- 
connected lobes is so admirably shown by the distinct cicatrice along 
the line of junction (P, Z. S. 1880, pi. xxiv. figs. 1, 2, and pi. xxvii. 
fig. 1), indicating that even in the young the lobes are not quite 
united, but do so as development proceeds, an interesting case of the 
tendency of homologous parts to cohere, one of the many interesting 
facts put forward by Darwin. The interesting result is yet to be 
noted, that as the animal thus gains an extra protection to the 
most vital organs of the body within the spire of the shell, this latter 
structure becomes less and less developed until we find only a mere 
thin horny or membranaceous shell ; for instance, in forms such as 
Girasia burtii, where the shell-lobes unite completely, the apex of 
the spire is reduced to a mere nucleus, of rounded form, at the end 
of a narrow strip of thin membrane, which readily breaks off" from it. 
This cannot be considered a retrogression or deterioration in develop- 
ment ; from a pure conchological point of view it may be, but in 
fact it is a great stride in advance. 

This slug-like form which, having got rid of a structure superflu- 
ous to its existence and a great tax on its powers to construct, re- 
mains as perfectly developed in aU its organs as the most highly 
specialized mollusks with solid shells, and is able to hold its own 
against its numerous enemies ; in fact, its form is greatly in favour 
of its prolonged existence, seeing that it is better able to conceal 
itself deeper among the crevices of the rocks, under stones, and in 
the cracks of fallen trees, or underneath the bark, situations inac- 
cessible to most of the shell-bearing species, ceitainly to aU those 
of equal size. I do not think it is possible to find a better instance 
of gradual development of species, i. e. with so many existing links 
presented to us by these interesting forms of the Zonitid®. It is 
not difficult to imagine a similar kind of evolution from some heli- 
coid ancestor developing a form like our common Avion or Limaoc. 
Development has in this case proceeded further, for in these two 
genera the body-cavity extends to the extremity of the foot, and 
is occupied by the coils of the intestine, the liver-lobes, &c. Now 



158 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

even in some species of Girasia we see a tendency to a similar de- 
velopment, viz. a diminution in the size of the muscular foot and the 
body-cavity extending considerably further back into it in a posterior 
direction and occupied by a great fold of the intestine and a mucous 
gland. The evidence of gradual development shows that Girasia 
must be placed towards the end of the series of genera of Indian 
Zonitidae. Many more genera must yet be examined before this 
classification can be completed. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE XXII. 

All enlarged 2-4. 

Fig. L Macrochla7ni/s pefrosa, Hutton. Eajmabal. 

2, 2 a. prona, Nevill. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

3, exul, Theobald. Andaman Islands. 

4, 4 a. splendens, Hutton. Mussoorie. 

6. shengorensis, G.-A. Dafla Hills. 

6, 6 a. choinix, Benson. Andamans. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIII. 

All enlarged 2'4. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys hardwickei, G.-A. Calcutta. 

2. Ditto. Sylhet. 

3. Ditto, var. politulus. Eastern Assam. 

4. Ditto, Tar. Darrang. 

5. Macrochlamys Ihoiaensis, G.-A. Lhota-Naga Hills. 

6. 6 a. opiparus, G.-A. Darjiling. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV. 

All enlarged 2*4. 
Fig. 1. Macrochlamys atricolor, G.-A. North Oachar Hills. 

2. Ditto, large var. Munipur Hills. 

3. Ditto, small var. Munipur Hills and Burrail range. 

4. Ditto, var. Dafla Hills. 

6. Ditto, var. Khakyen Hills, Upper Burmah. 

6. M. cacharica, G.-A., var. glauca. Dafla Hills. 

7. M. lubrica, Bs. Darjiling. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXV. 
Macrochlamys atricolor, G.-A. Munipur Hills. 

Fig. \. Animal, spirit-specimen, showing mantle and shell-lobes, X 2'4. 

2. Ditto, viewed from right side, showing position as regards the 

shell, X 15. 

3. Ditto, mantle, viewed from left side, X 2*4. 

4. Entire animal, left side, X 2-4. 

5. Head, viewed from right side, showing position of generative aper- 

ture, X 2-4. 

6. Head, front view, showing form of mouth, X 4. 

7. Extremity of foot, viewed from behind, X 7. 

8. Mantle, viewed from below or inside, showing the division into 

two lobes. 

9. Same view of mantle in M. indica, Bs. Calcutta. 

10. Mantle of M. indica, viewed from the outside, showing the addi- 
tional shell-lobe. 



M0LLU8CA OP INDIA. 159 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVI. 

All enlarged 2-4. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlam^s ? resplendcns, Vhil. Tenasserim 
I- I^tto. Cambodia." 

3. Ditto. giam. 

4. ? conscpta, small var. Tenasserim. 

5. 5 a, Macrochlamys koliaensis. Assam. 
f>. poUtissima, Pfr. Ceylon, 

7. jalniana, n. sp., G.-A. Parisnath. 

o- jainia7ia,n. sp.,—strici:la7idi,M.S.,Q.-A. Jeypur. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIL 
( Vide shell of Plate XXIV. fig. 2.) 

Fig. 1 a. MacrocMamijs atricolor, G.-A., jaw, x 12. Munipur Hills 
1 b. Ditto : teeth of radula, X 3G0. 
1 c. Ditto : salivary gland : «, intestine; c, duct of gland. 

1 d. Ditto : generative organs, X 2-4. 

2. MacroMamys cacharica, n. sp., X 2-4. Muniimr Hilla 
2a. Ditto: jaw, x 12. " 

2 b. Ditto : radula, x 360. 

2 c. Ditto : generative organs, X 4. 

3. Macrochlamys atricolor, small var. Kopamedza Peak, Naga Hills. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVIIL 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys hardwicJcci, n. sp., portion of radula. Calcutta. 
la. Ditto : generative organs, enlarged. 

1 b. Ditto : male organs, much enlarged. 

2. Macrochlamys jainiana, n. sp. Parisnath. Portion of radula, 

median and lateral teeth, X 360. 
2a. Ditto: jaw, x 12. 

2 b. Ditto : portions of the spermatophore, x 50. 
2 c. Ditto : ditto, x 180. 

2 d. Ditto : ditto, x 180. 

2 e. Ditto : spermatophore, posterior end of, X 180. 

3. Macrochlamys koliaensis, n. sp. {vide Plate XXVI. figs. 5 5a): 

portion of radula, X 360. ' 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIX. 

Fig. 1,1a. Macrochlamys castaneo-labiata, G.-A., X 2-4. Munipur Hilla 

2. Ditto, X 2-4. Asalu. 

3. Ditto, X 2-4. Eezaraeh, Naga Hills. 

4. Ditto : mantle and lobes of No. 1, X 4. 

5. Ditto : jaw, X 12. 

. (i. Ditto: central portion of radula, X 180. 
6 a. Ditto : an Asalu sp., x 340. 
6 b. Ditto : median teeth 6 to 10, X 340. 
6 c. Ditto : outermost laterals, x 340. 
7. Ditto: generative organs of No. 1, x 4. 



I'ART IV. 



IGO LAND AND FRESH WATEE 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXX. 

Fig. 1, 1 fl. Oxytes oxytes, Bs. Shell, natural size ; largest specimen from 
S.W. Khasi Hilla. 

2. 2 a. Ditto : usual size. Same locality. 

3. Ditto: uniuial. Cachar. From original drawing (No. 30) by 
native artist in Library, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

3 a. Ditto : the mucous gland, viewed from above. 
3 h. Ditto : tentacles. 

4. Oxytes orobia, Bs., from Stoliczka's original drawing (No. 45), made 

by a native artist. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATE XXXI. 

Fig. 1. Oxytes cycloplax, Bs., uat. size, juv. W. Bhutan Hills. 

2. Ditto : animal, shell removed, viewed from right side, X 4. 

3. Ditto : extremity of foot, viewed from behind, X 4. 

4. Ditto : mantle-edge, as seen from left side, X 4. 

5. Ditto: jaw, x 12. 

('). Ditto: radula, centre teeth of, X ISO. 

(> a. Ditto : last median and first lateral teeth, X ISO. 

6 b. Ditto : outermost laterals, X ISO. 

7. Ditto: generative organs, X 4. 

8, 8 a, 8i. Oxytes cycloplax, Bs., adult shell, nat. size. Darjiling. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXII. 

Fig. 1. Oxytes orobia, 'Ba, Darjiling. Animal, from .spirit-specimen, left 
side, with shell nearly all removed. 
1 a. Ditto : right side and sole of foot. 
1 b. Ditto : the left postdorsal lobe, enlarged. 

2. Ditto : jaw. 

3. Radula, central portion, x 200 ; 3a. Ditto, newer teeth; 3 5. 

9th, 10th and 11th median; 3c. 15th to 20th lateral teeth; 
3 d. The outermost laterals. 

4. Portion of animal in apex of shell, showing position of the herma- 

phrodite duct and liver-lobes. 

5. Generative organs. 

ba. Junction of herma^iLrodite duct with the albumen-gland, very 

much enlarged. 
5 b. Portion of male organ, showing the kale-sac and coiled ciecum 

of the retractor muscle. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIII. 

Fig. 1. Ariophanta immcrita, W. Blf., nat. size. South India. 

2. Ditto : mantle viewed from left side, shell removed, X 4. 
2 a. Ditto : the same turned back. 

3. Ditto : side view of extremity of foot. 

'6a. Ditto: back view of same, showing mucous gland. 

4. Ditto : jaw, x 7. 

6. Ditto : teeth of radula, central portion, X 340. 

5 a. Ditto : 20th to 24th median, 25th and 2Gth intermediate. 

5 b. Ditto : outermost laterals. 

(). Ditto : generative oi'gans, X 2'4, 

6a. Ditto ; male organ, X 4. 

7, 7 (I. Ariophanta Icsvipcs, Miill., nat. size. Bombay. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 161 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIV. 

Fig. 1. Ariophanta Imvipes, Miiller. 

1 a. Ditto : extremity of foot from above. 

2. 2 a. Ariophanta intcrrupta. 

3. laidlayana, Pfr, 

The above are copied from drawings by a native artist. 

4. Ariophanta ? retrc/rsa, Gould, nat. size. Tenasserira. 

5. Ditto : scidpture of last whorl, X 12. 

6. Ariophanta interrupta : sculpture of last whorl, X 12. 

7. retrorsa: jaw. 

8. Ditto : central and three median teeth of radula. 

8 a. Ditto : 8th, 9th, and 10th median, 11th transition, and first lalen 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXV. 

Fig. 1, 1 fl. Macrochlwmys dating ends, G.-A., X 2-4. W. Bhutan Hills, 

2. Ditto : sculpture on last whorl, X 50. 

3. Ditto : animal, right side, showing mantle and shell-lobes, X 4. 

4. Ditto : ditto, left side, ditto, X 4. 

5. Ditto : ditto, front view, x 4. 

6. Ditto : extremity of foot, showing mucous gland, X 7. 

7. Ditto : jaw, x 12. 

8. Ditto : odontophore, central teeth, X 200. 
8a. Ditto: ditto, x 200. 

8 h. Ditto : ditto, last laterals, X 200. 

9. Generative organs, X 2-4. 

10. Buccal mass, mucous and salivary gland, x 2-4. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVI. 

Fig. 1. Austcnia planospira, 'Ba. Darjiling. From a drawing by a native 
artist. 

2. Ditto : from a spirit-specimen, right side, X 2-4. Western Bhutan 

Duars. 

3. Ditto : ditto, left side, X 2-4. Ditto. 

4. Ditto: the mucous gland, viewed from behind, X 7. Ditto. 
6. Ditto : shell, nat. size. Ditto. 

ba,bb,5c,5d. Ditto : shell, x 2-4. Ditto. 

6. Austenia bensoni, Pfr., nat. size. Calcutta. From a drawing by 

a native artist. 
7,7 a, 7 6. Ditto : shell, x 2-4. Jessore District. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIL 

Fig. I, I a, lb. Austenia salia, Bs., X 2-4. Teria Ghat. 

2, 2fl, 2 b. salia, Bs., var. ovata, X 2*4. Darjiling. 

3, 3 a, 3 6. panchctensis, x 2*4. Lower Bengal. 

4, 4 a, 4 b. papilla&pira, G.-A., x 24. N.W. Khasi. 

5, 6 a, 5 h. globosa, x 24. Dafla. 



162 LAND AND FRESmVATER 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXVIII. 

Austenia planospira, Benson. W. Bhutan Ililla. 

Fig. L Generative organs, X 4. 
la. Aiuatorial organ, X 7. 
1 b. Buccal mass and gland, salivary gland, &c., X 4. 

Ausfenia benso7ii, Pfr. Calcutta. 

2. Eadula, median and laterals, X 340. 

Austenia hensoni, var. syUictensis. Sylhet. 

3. Shell, X 2-4. 

3 a. Extremity of foot and mode of carrj'ing it (enlarged). 
3 b. Mantle-edge removed, X 4. 
3 c. Kadula, X 34U. 

4. 4 a. Sitala crenicincta (Plate XIIL figs. 2, 3) : radula, X 1250. 

5. Kaliclla barrakporensis: generative organs, x 12. 

6. To illustrate the dimensions as given in this work. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXXIX. 

Fig. 1. Durgclla minuta, G.-A. : from life, nat. size. Dafla Hills. 

2. Ditto : view of right side, showing the sheU-lobes, X 4. 
2 a. Ditto : left side, ditto, X 4. 

3. Ditto : shell, x 4. 
3a. Ditto; ditto, X 2-4. 

4. Ditto : jaw, X 20. 

5. Ditto : central tooth of radula and adjacent teeth, X about 1250. 
5 a. Ditto: laterals near margin. 

6. Generative organs, X 7. 

7. 7 a. Dicrgella khasiana, G.-A., from life, nat. size. West Khasi Hills. 

7 b. Ditto, X 2-4. 

8. Ditto : central teeth of raoula, very much enlarged. 

8 a. Ditto : ditto, two rows, X 340. 

8i. Ditto : the outermost laterals, very much enlarged. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL. 

Fig. 1. Macrochlamys kola, G.-A. : shell, X 4. Western Bhutan Hills. 
1 a. Ditto : ditto, X 2-4. 
1 b. Ditto: ditto, nat. size. 

2. Ditto : animal, viewed from right side, shell removed, showing 

shell and dorsal lobes, X 4. 

3. Ditto : ditto, viewed from left side, X 4. 

4. Ditto : shell and dorsal lobes removed, X 7. 

5. Ditto : Generative organs, X 4. 

6. Ditto: male organ : sp, the sperraatophore developing, X 7. 

7. Ditto : spermatheca, X 12 : sp, a spermatophoro within it. 

8. Ditto : jaw, x 12. 

9. 9 a. Teeth of radula, X 340. 

10, 10 rt. Macrochlamys kczamacmis, G.-A. (Plato XV. figs. 3, 3 a): 

portion of the radula, X 1 250. 

11. Ditto: a portion of spermatophoro, X 110. 



MOILTTSCA OF INDIA. 163 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLI. 

Fig. 1, 1 a. Helicarion helciice, u. sp. Sydney. From a drawing by Mrs. 
H. Forcle. 

2. View of riglit side of a spirit-specimen, shell removed, showing 

mantle and lobes, X 4. 

3. View of left side, ditto. 

4. View from behind. 

5. Shell, X 4. 

6. Jaw, X 12. 

7. 7 a, 7 b. Portions of a row of the radula, x .340. 

8. Generative organs, x 4. 
8 a. Male organ, x 12. 

V). Helicarion cuvieri : generative organs, after Professor Semper. 
10, Ditto : t«eth of radula, central, Nos. 1, 5, 14, 17, and 20, 
X 260. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLII. 

Africarion pallens ?, Morelet (received as Vifrina rupjjclliana, Pfr., 
Abyssinia, from Mr. E. Damon.) 
Fig. 1. Animal : right side, X 2'4. 

2. Ditto : left side, x 2-4. 

3. Ditto : from behind, x 2"4. 

4. Generative organs, X 4. 

5. Buccal mass, salivary gland, &c., X 4. 

6. 6 a, 6 b. Eadula, X 340. 

7. Jaw, X 12. 



LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSOA 



OP 



INDIA. 



Part V MAY 1886. 



(Plates XLIII.-LI. — Tune 1884.) 



INTEODUCTION. 

In order to keep the two great natural divisions of Land Mollusea 
distinct, the Helicidoe and the Cyclophoridte, I have restricted thia 
Part to the latter, for such au arrangement will much facilitate the 
work of the conchologist. 

Drawings of the animal of Cijdophorus are given, but I do not 
BOW describe that genus in detail ; the figures, although taken from 
spirit-specimens, serve to give a conception of the animal of the 
smaller genera now treated of. 

I have selected sjiecies of Ahjcams and Diphmiiuitina, also Eha- 
pJiauhis, because it is a tube-bearing genus like AlyxvAis. In the 
' Conchologia Indica ' a number of species in the two first genera 
were left unfigured hy Mr. Sylvanus Hanloy, and the number of 
new forms has been largely increased by those since discovered : 
several of these are now figured side by side with their nearest 
allies, which, although before givcu in the above work, were 
figured in a very unsatisfactory manner. It has been suggested to 
me, and it would no doubt have been of more advantage to my work 
and secured a few more contributors, if I had given plates of new 
species selected indiscriminately from among ;ill Indian genera of 
the MoHusca, and as soon after their discovery as possible. I have, 
however, deemed it best, in the true interest of conchology (so far 
as I can serve it), to continue to work out together closely allied 
genera, and thus eventually make the work as it progresses rather 
a collection of monographs of the difterent genera. 

In Part VI. I shall revert to the Helicida3, and continue the 
genera already treated of in the first four parts, leading on to the 
more slug-like forms, such as Girasia &c., intimately related to 
those already described. 

PART V. Q 



[Plates published June 1881.] 



ICti LAND AND FRKSHWATIOK 

Subfamily Diplommatinin^. 

Genus Diplommatina. 

Diplommatina, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1849, vol. iv. p, 193. 

Carycliium, Hutton, Journ. A. S. B. vol. iii. p. 85. 

Bulimus, Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. ii. p. 81 (1848). 

Animal: Benson, A. M. N. H. April and June 1853 ; Blanford, 
A. M. N. H. 1867, vol. xix. p. 305. (Plate L. figs. 1 & 2, from 
nature.) 

The first specimens of this geuus were found in the N.W. 
Himalaya by that indefatigable collector Captain Thomas Hutton, a 
naturalist who, landing in India as a cadet with a limited knowledge 
of natural history, but with an intense love of it, worked in the 
early days of his service in that country under great difficulties, when 
oooks were not so easily obtained and when it was even rarer than 
now to meet any one with kindred tastes to stimulate the collector 
or add to his knowledge of the subject. 

The Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, contains some interesting papers 
relative to the generic position this shell should hold, and even 
whether it possessed an operculum. This Mr. Gray was the first to 
discover ; subsequently it was also detected and acknowledged by 
Captain Hutton. Benson (J.c, June 1853, p. 433) was particularly 
positive as to its being an unoperculated form; and an amusing note by 
Hutton, appended to his copy of this paper which he gave me, shows 
that he (Benson) was very unwilling to acknowledge Hutton's con- 
firmation of Gray's discovery. 

Hutton placed his newly found species, from the supposed absence 
of the operculum and the position of the eyes, in Carycliium, while 
PfeifFer placed it in Bulimus, as from Bengal, possibly in error of the 
exact locality. Benson, however, in September 1849, quoting this 
erroneous generic identification and having examined the animals 
of two species, founded a new genus, which he described as fol- 
lows : — 

" Tentacula two only, originating from the upper part of the 
head, long and filiform ; eyes situated on the posterior part of the 
tentacula at their base, composed of two lobes : one lobe deeply 
seated in the tentaculum and larger than the other lobe, which is a 
small black point coming to the surface on the outer side of the 
larger lobe ; foot short. 

" Had the animal been provided with an operculum, it might 
possibly have been referred to the family of Cyclostomatida) in 
accordance with the position of the eyes, and the form of the aperture 
of the shell. The differences observable in the latter, as well as in 
its inhabitant, give countenance to a separation from Carychium ; 
I therefore propose for the type the following name derived from 
the peculiarity of the percipient {sic) points or eyes. 



MuLLUSCA OF INDIA. 167 



" Dlplommatlna, nobis. 

" Char. Geu. Testa vuv rimata, tenui, subovata ; spira elongata ; 
anfraetihus convexis, costatis, ultimo suhascendeiite ; apertura edentula, 
subcirculari ; peristomate duplicato, expanso ; murginihus callo 
parietali appresso junctis ; operculo nullo. 

" Sp. 1. D. {Bui.) folUcidus, Pfr. Monogr. vol. ii. pp. 81-2. 
Carychium costatum, Hutt. MSS. 

"Sp. 2. D. {Carych.) costulatum, Hutt. MSS." 

In 1867, Mr. W. T. Blanford sent the following to the Annals 
& Mag. Nat. Hist., from Central India : — " I have more than once, 
within the last few years, called attention to the circumstance that, 
in the supplements to Dr. Pfeifier's admirable monograph of the 
living operculated land-shells, the position assigned to the genus 
DipJommntina, close to Acicula, and in a suborder distinguished by 
the position of the eyes above the base of the tentacles, is not in 
accordance with the structure of the animal. For some years past 
I have not had an opportunity of reexamining the animal of any 
typical species of the genus. I am indebted to Captain Godwin- 
Austen for the accompanying outline sketch of the animal of a 
species of Diplommat'ma inhabiting the Western Himalayas near 
Masiiri, and apparently a variety of D. puUida, Benson, which was 
first found by myself near Darjiling. This species is a typical Di- 
plommatina, with strong costulation and a well-developed columellar 
tooth." 

The animal is sketched as it appears just emerging from the 
shell (vide Plate L. fig. 2, from original drawing). The eyes, as 
will be seen, are distinctly lateral, as in Cyclophorus. I can trace 
no difference between the animal of this form and that of the 
smooth or spirally-ribbed species of the Indian Peninsula, which 
are by Pfeiffer classed as Arinia, in the neighbourhood of Pupina, 
in a different family, and even a distinct suborder from their nearest 
allies the typical Diplommatlnce. 

Stoliczka (J. A. S. B. vol. xl. 1871, p. 152) has entered so fully 
into the subject of this genus and the many subgenera into which 
it has been divided, that there will be little new to say, after ex- 
tracting all he has written. 

Previously, in the same Journal (vol. xxsix. 1870), I gave, with 
drawings similar to those on Plate L. figs. 7, 7 «, 7 6, 7 c, 8, 8 a, of 
this work, a detailed description of that portion of the shell situated 
near the aperture and columella, which I now reprint: — 

" In almost all the species of Diplommatina that I have examined, 
a constriction of the penultimate whorl is to be found, and in the 
larger species it is very weU developed. This constriction of the 
whorl marks, of course, the position of the operculum when the 
animal is fully withdrawn into the shell, and the operculum of 
dead specimens is also to be found at this point. It would appear, 
from an examination of these shells, that the constriction also 

q2 



168 LAND AND FBESHWaTEK 

marks the commencement of the forDiation of the columellar tooth. 
Behind the constriction the inside of the whorl appears thicker, and 
is much more polished ; with the constriction this contracts, leaves 
the outer surface of the shell, and continues as a rim, like the sharp 
thread of a screw, running down and round the columellar margin 
of the peristome in the more or less blunt tooth-like process, cha- 
racteristic of the genus. Situated also at the constriction on the 
roof of the whorl at this point may be seen a long tube-like ridge, 
very similar to the external tube of AJj/cams, only that it diminishes 
from the back forwards. The position of the operculum, as regards 
both this and the lower rim, is at the back. It does not seem to 
me at all clear for what purposes this internal formation has been 
created. Possibly the extremity of the foot currying the operculum 
travels along the screw-like thread, and the ridge above may give 
the necessary guiding surface to the operculum when the animal 
issues from the shell. The operculum, situated as it is so far from 
the aperture, would require some fulcrum ok^ guiding-edges to pass 
it evenly and smoothly out of the shell." 

On Plate L., in figures 7, 7 a, and 8, 8 a, I have endeavoured to 
show the position of the operculum and constriction, from the front, 
of I), pachycheiliis and D. hJanfordiana : where t represents the 
spiral rim ; o, the position of the constriction ; r, the upper ridge or 
tube. 

Figs. 7 h and 7 c are respectively a side view and plan of the 
relative positions of the operculum and the commencement of the 
spiral rim. 

The peculiar characteristics of Diphmmatina are : — 1. The very 
marked constriction of the penultimate whorl, situated generally 
above the aperture, in some species behind it, more or less distant. 
2. In the short internal parietal rib just at the beginning of the 
last whorl, and in the twisted columella which terminates in the 
aperture with a tooth, sometimes placed so far internally as to be 
hardly visible, but very rarely becoming nearly obsolete. 8. The 
whorls are more or less transversely costulated, occasionally this 
is absent on the last two *. The first and last characters assimilate 
it to AhjGceus, and the short internal tube or rib has also some re- 
semblance, lying as it does close behind the constricted portion of 
the whorl. Compared with Alycams, even with animals of the 
larger species, the eyes are comparatively much larger, and the 
tentacles are longer and more slender. It has not the burrowing 
habit of this genus, -nhich perhaps accounts for this very marked 
diff"erence of their development. 

The teeth of the radula are gcncrallj' so crowded together 
(Plate L. fig. 6 a), that only the central and the next lateral can 
usually be seen. However, on dissecting out several lingual ribbons, 
it occasionally happens that they become flattened out and separated 
(fig. 6). For a typical example of the radula and operculum in 
this genus I have selected the largest species as yet known, D. in- 

* Species are found both dextral and sinistral over the whole range of tlie 
distribution of the genua. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 16'J 

sujilis, of the Naga Hills, which shows the central tooth to be 7- 
cuspid and the three laterals to be 5-cuspid. The formula being 

3 — 1— _3 

5.5.5 7 5T5T^' 

This radula is of very considerable length comparatively. See 
fig. 5, r. 

The buccal plate (fig. 5) can be well seen in some specimens, and 
consists, not, as in the Helicidae, of one solid horny mass with a 
cutting-edge, but of a multitudinous series of quadriform plates, 
slightly overlapping, and having a sort of tooth on the free angle, 
a modification of development really similar to that of the radula. 

In this example (fig. 5) what I take to be otoliths were distinctly 
visible, situated in a sac near the base of the tentacles. 

Operculum jjaucispiral, thin, shelly, brittle, and transparent. 

Diplommatince are numerous where found, generally among decay- 
ing leaves, on which they are easily detected, and sometimes on the 
damp surface of limestone rocks they creep about in hundreds. 



Species from the Western and Eastern Himalayas, &c. 

DlPLOMMATINA BLANFORDIANA, BcUSOn. (Plate XLIX. figS. 10, 

10 a.) 

Locality. Damsang Peak, W. Bhutan Hills, 

Diplommatina blanfonliana, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1860, vol. v. 
p. 460 (Darjiling) ; Journ. A. S. B. 1868, p. 83, pi. i. figs. 8, 8 a ; 
Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. iii. p. 9 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 41. 

Diplommatina blanfordi, Bs., Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 49, pi. cxix. 
figs. 5 & 6 ; Nevill, Hand-list, p. 267. 

Original description :— " Testa diwtrorsa, foveato-rimata, ovato- 
acuminata, confertim arcuato-costulaia, albida, sjiira ovato-pyrami- 
data, superne attenuata, apice acutiusculo, sutura impressa ; anfracti- 
hus 7g convexis, antepenult imo majuscido tuniido, ultimo anticc 
ascend ente ; apertura suhverticali, late auriculari, plix^a columellari 
valida nutante munita, peristomate cxpanso, extus varice retroreUcta 
remotiuscula valida aucto, infra ad sinistram subangulato, marginibus 
callo parietali crasso expanse appresso junctis, columellari leviter 
sinuato. Operc. ? 

" Long 4|, diam. 2 1 mill. 

'■'■ Hiib. prope Darjiling. Teste W. T. Blauford. 

" Independently of its smaller size and stronger costulation, this 
shell is distinguished from D. pacliyclieilus by its foveate rimation 
behind the thin columellar lip, and by the retrorelict variciform 
second peristome, which is remote in its course, on the right side, 
from the thin actual peristome, but joins it below the umbilical 



170 L\>'D AND FI'.KSn^VATlU! 

cavity. In I). liUiTiycheihis the peristome is thickened and bifurcate 
at the insertion of the outer lip, and there is no remote varix ; 
while the incrassate columellar lip is reflected over the rimation, 
and entirely conceals it. The last whorl ascends more conspicuously 
in front than in D. j^ochycheihts, although it rises considerably also 
in that shell — a feature which I omitted in the description given in 
the ' Annals' for 1857. The costulation of D. pculiycheilns is very 
variable ; in some specimens it disappears on the lower whorls, in 
others on the upper ones only ; occasionally it pervades the whole 
surface." 

It appears to be most abundant in the Western Bhutan Hills, 
judging from the numbers collected by Mr. W. Robert. 

DiPLOMJiATiNA PTJLLTJLA, Bcuson. (Plate XLIX. fig. 12.) The 
specimen figured is from Mr. Blanford's collection and the typical 
locaKty. 

Diplommatina pidlida, Bs. A. M. N. H. 1859, vol. iii. p. 182 ; 
Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 18G8, p. 83, pi. i. fig. 7 ; Pfr. Men. 
Pneum. vol. iii. p. 9 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 49, jjI. cxix. fig. 7 ; 
Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 42 ; N"eviU, Hand-list, p. 287. 

Original description : — " Testa imperforata, ovato-turrita, oblique 
confertim costulata, fulvescenti-cdhkla, versus apicem r^lbeUa, spira 
subturrita, sutura impressa, apice obtitsmsado ; anfraciibus 6-7 con- 
vexis, antepenidtimo himidiore, tdtivw cmtice valde ascendente, costulis 
remotioribus irregidaribus ; apertura sidjverticali, vix superne spec- 
tante, obliqne obovali, p)eristomate dvplici, interno porrecto expansius- 
cido, externo subrejlexo, ^narginihus callo appresso expanso junctis, 
columellari verticali planato intus acute unidentato bas^i angulato- 
rotundato, dextrcdi valde arcuato. Operc. ? 

" Long. 3, diam. 1^ mill. 

" Hab. in valle Rungun, ad latus occidentale. 

" In form and size between huttoni and folliadtis, Pfr. ; dextrorse 
like the latter, though agreeing with the former in having the tooth 
apparent on the columellar lip " 

Diplommatina huttoni, Pfr. (Plate XLV. figs. 7, 7 «, 7 h.) 

Locality. Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya (G.-A.). 

Diplommatina huttoni, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 157; Guppr, 
A. M. N. H. 1867, vol. xx. p. 95 ; Blanford, A. M. N. H. 1868, 
vol. i. p. 110; Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. i. p. 123; Kust. and 
Chemnitz, Cycles, pi. xlviii. figs. 36, 37 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 55, pi. cxxxix. figs. 5, 6 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 42. 

Original description : — " D. testa sinistrorsa, snbrimata, ovato- 
conica, eleganter confertim et oblique costulata, diaphana, albida ; 
spira conica, acuta ; anfract. 6, perconvexis ; apertura subcirculari ; 
j^erist. duplice, expanso. 

" Long. 2-5, diam. 1 mill. 



JIOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 171 

" This little shell belongs to the genus Diplommatina, founded by 
Mr. Benson (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1849, Sept.), on sufficient 
characters of the shell and of the animal, for Carychium costutum, 
Hutt., which I had erroneously referred to Bulimus under the name 
of B. folUculiis. The genus seems to belong to the Auriculaceae." 

Size : maj. diam. 0'83, alt. axis 1*9 mm. 

On a comparison of five specimens of Dij)lommatina kuttoiii, 
collected by myself at the typical locality Mussoorie, with eighteen 
specimens from Trinidad, said to be the same, kindly lent to me by Sir 
Rawson liawson, I do not identify them as the same species, and I 
therefore further on describe the West-Indian form as D. occidcntalis. 
The former is much more closely costulated, in proportion of 20 to 10, 
that is twice as many ribs on the antepenultimate whorl ; the 
general form is different, particularly the much more expanded 
penultimate whorl in the Trinidad shell when compared with the 
flatter sides of D. huttoni. Still there is undoubtedly a very close 
resemblance, particularly in colour and texture. 

The species from Trinidad was first brought to notice, identified 
as D. huttoni, in August 1867, by Mr. E. J. Lechmere Guppy, in the 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., and to the same periodical Mr. W. T. Blan- 
ford contributed a paper in February 1868 on this subject, and the 
occurrence also of Ennea hic^lor in the same island. As all Mr. 
BLinford's remarks still hold good, as to distribution &c., and as it 
is difficult to condense with justice all that the author brings for- 
ward in support of his views, I give it in extenso, for it is a point 
of great interest as regards distribution. I have now shown that 
they arc not the same species, and it remains to be discovered from 
what hill-district of India the Trinidad form has been conveyed, as I 
believe it was, together with Ennea hicolor, in the manner suggested 
by Mr. Blanford. 

" On the Occurrence of Diplommatina huttoni and Ennea bicolor 
in the West Indies. 

" In the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' for August 
1867, Mr. R. J. Lechmere Guppy described the occurrence in 
Trinidad of DipJommatitia huttoni, Pfr., and suggested that its 
presence and that of Ennea hicolor, Hutton, might be accounted for 
by supposing both to have migrated across the Tertiary Atlantis. I 
cannot help thinking that there are several circumstances opposed 
to this view ; and in order to explain them it is necessary to de- 
scribe the distribution of Diplommatina huttoni and Ennea hicolor 
in India. 

" Diplommatina huttoni has hitherto only been found on the lower 
slopes of a portion of the Western Himalayas, near Masiiri, It is 
true that the Himalayas have not been explored to a sufficient 
extent to justify the assertion that the shell does not exist else- 
where ; but, as not a single Western Himalayan Diplommatina has 
as yet been found in those parts of the Eastern Himalayas about 
Darjiling which have been comparatively well explored, nor, vic« 



172 LAND AND FIU'^IIWATI K 

versa, a solitary Parjiliiig species in the Western Himalayas, it is 
extremely improbable that the range ol I), huttoni extends more 
than, at the outside, 200 or 300 miles along the base of the moun- 
tains. In the plains of India no Diplommatlna has ever yet been 
found*. In the hills of Southern India, forms diifering entirely 
from those of the Himalayas alone occur. The negative evidence, 
therefore, against the existence of D. huttoni, or of any other Indian 
species of the genus, over any large area of country is overwhelming. 
And this is entirely in accordance, as has been remarked by Mr. 
Benson, with the general facts of the distribution of opercuhited 
laud-shells in India, none being me . with over so large an area as 
species of the non-operculated forms frequently are. 

"To the west of Hindustan not a single Diplommaiina, or land- 
shell allied to Diplommatina, has ever beei recorded. The genus 
and its allies arc utterly unknown in Western Asia, Europe, and 
Africa. Not only are the Diplommatinidje absent, but all their 
allies, the Cyelophoridte, are equally so, with the excei^tion of two 
or three obscure species in Bouth Africa and oT T'e anomalous genus 
Craspedopoma in the Azores, Madeira, and Canary Islands ; and 
these few forms have at least as close an affinity to American types 
as to those of India, 

" To the east and south-east of India the case is different. 
S[)eoies of Diplommaiina, many of them sinistral, and of allied 
genera have been found in Emma, Labuan (Opisthostoma de-cres- 
jngnii), the Philip])iiie Islands (Arinia), the Moluccas, the Pelew 
Islands (Falaina), the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, Lord Howe's 
Island, Australia, and New Zealand. A species is said to occur 
also in the Sandwich Islands. Now, as Mcgalomastoma and Cy- 
dopdiorus are common to the mainland of India, the Malay Archi- 
pelago, and the West Indies, it appears by no means improbable 
that Diplommatina may have the same distribution ; and certainly, 
if D. huttoni ever migiatcd or was transjtorted by natural causes 
from India to America, I cannot help thinking that it most probably 
traversed countries iulial)ited by its relaticns. But I cannot helj") 
doubting its having migrated at all over any extensive area. 

" Ennea bicohr is a shell of much wider distribution. It is met 
with throughout the whole peninsula of Hindustan, and it also 
occurs in Burma. It lives in the plains, in cultivated land as well 
as in waste. 

" It is easy to conceive that a mollusk with such habits might be 
very j^robably tiansported with living plants, or with roots or seeds. 
Mr. Guppy doubts whether the animals would survive the voyage 
from the East to the West Indies. Of this there can, I think, be 
no question. Mr. Benson, if I am not mistaken, has had specimens 
of Diplommatina alive in England ; and there are very few Indian 

* ''I know of but, one, doubtful exception — doubtful inasmuch as I do not 
know at what elevation the shell was found. This was in South Canara, on the 
Malabar coast. The form was one of the tyjie peculiar to the hills of Southern 
India. The whole fauna of the coast of Malabar is peculiar." [Eeddome has 
since found at least three species. — H. H. Gr.-A.] 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 173 

shells which, when oestivating, will not bear a journey of several 
mouths without injury, provided damp or excessive cold be 
avoided. 

" That the introduction of a single pair of shells is ample for the 
diffusion of the species has been proved in Calcutta in the case of 
Achatina ftilica. The facts are well known, but will bear repeating. 
About twenty-five years ago, 1843, two specimens were brought 
from Mauritius, and placed in a garden. Now the species abounds 
almost everywhere throughout an area of at least five miles in 
length *. In many places several hundreds might be collected. 
Ten years ago, to my own knowledge, the shell was quite unknown 
in the Botanical Gardens on the opposite bank of the Hoogly. The 
other day I saw it living there in abundance. Of course, in a large 
city like Calcutta, where plants are constantly transferred from one 
garden to another at a distance, great facilities for dispersion exist ; 
but the numbers, all unquestionably derived from a single pair in 
the course of so short a time, are nevertheless astonishing. I have 
very little doubt that one impregnated female would sufiice equally 
well to introduce a species. 

" Another fact in favour of Diplommatina huttoni and Ennea 
hicolor having been introduced into the West Indies by man is, that 
both are very small shells, precisely such as would most easily 
escape notice and be transported with plants. No shell is more 
likely than the Ennea to have been thus carried into foreign coun- 
tries. The case of the Bijjlo7ninatina is certainly far more difficult, 
but still it appears to me to present fewer difficulties than the theory 
of migration. Is there a botanical garden in Trinidad ? 

" If the Diplommatina has not been transported artificially, I 
should be almost inclined to suspect that the Trinidad species is not 
really identical with that inhabiting the Western Himalayas, but 
that two forms, closely resembling each other, have originated 
separately at the extreme limits of the area occupied by the genus. 

"With regard to the Ennea, I have very little doubt of its 
having been transported. Many of the cultivated plants of the 
West Indies must have been introduced by the Spaniards and 
Portuguese, some of them, in all probability, direct from India ; and 
the date of the introduction may thus have been sufficiently distant 
to allow of a considerable amount of dispersion amongst the various 
islands." 

Diplommatina occidentalis. (Plate XLV. figs. 8, 80, 8 h.) 

Locality. Island of Trinidad, West Indies (ex coll. Sir Bawson 
Raivson). 

Shell sinistral, elongately turreted, scarcely sinuate; sculpture 
somewhat distant well marked costulation ; colour white ; spire 
rather attenuate, apex blunt ; suture deep ; whorls 6, sides tumid, 
the last small, the penultimate much the broadest, those above be- 

* [In 1877 I found it abundant in the gardens at Barrackpur, which is 15 
miles north of Calcutta. — H. H. G.-A.] 



174 LAND AND FKESnWATER 

coming gradually swoUeu to the apex ; aperture small, subvertical, 
round ; ])enstome continuous, closely double : columollar margin 
weak, no tooth, the twist on columella seen within the aperture. 
Size : major diam. 1*2, alt. axis 2*2 mm. 
0-05, „ 0-09 inch. 

DiPLOJIMATTNA THEOBALDI, U.Sp. (Plate XLIX. flgS. 11, 11 O.) 

Local! f I/. Darjiling (Theobald). Only one specimen. 

Shell sinistral, globosely scarcely rim ate, constriction central, 
above the aperture ovate, somewhat gibbous ; sculpture smooth, with 
rather close costulation, high and sharp near aperture ; colour pale 
umber ; spire bluntly conoid, apex obtuse ; suture moderately im- 
pressed ; whorls 5, sides flat in front, rounded at back ; aperture 
subvertical oval ; peristome double, not continuous ; columellar 
margin curved, no tooth visible viewed from the front, biit seen 
slightly well within the aperture. 

Size : major diamo 1-4, alt. axis 2-3 mm. 
0-06, „ 0-09 inch. 

This interesting sinistral species, the first I have seen from the 
Darjiling Hills, is another similar to D. jaintiaca of the mountains 
south of the Brahmaputra, biit diff"ers in many respects, particularly 
in its tumid small size and the absence of the columellar tooth. 

DiPLOMMATiNA DAFLAENSis, n. sp. (Plate XLV. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Diplommatina austeni (large var.), Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 
1876, p. 179. 

Locality. Dikrang valley, Dafla Hills (G.-A.). 

Comparing this more closely with the form from the Khasi Hills 
(figs. 2, 2 a), it differs very much in its general shape, being much 
smaller below, the antepenultimate being much larger in proportion 
to the penultimate ; the apex is more attenuate, and the sculpture 
differs. It must therefore be distinguished as a species. 

Original descrijjtion: — " Shell dextral, ovately fusiform, mode- 
rately thick, pale horny. Sculpture very fine, almost disappearing 
on the two last whorls. Sides of spire moderately flat. Whorls 7, 
penultimate and antepenultimate the largest, the last ascending 
slightly. Constriction in middle of aperture, which is circular and 
vertical ; columellar margin rounded, tooth moderate. Peristome 
simple, double, rather strongly formed, the inner lip continuous. 
Alt. 0-15, diam. 0*70 in. 

" Ilab. Low down on the left bank of the Dikrang River ; about 
a dozen were found. 

" This shell is very similar in form to D. anstcni, W. Blf., from 
the Khasi Hills, l)ut it is much larger, that shell being only 0-90 inch 
in length, and the two last whorls are not so smooth and show 
slight traces of sculpture." 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 175 



Species from Peninsular India. 

DiPLOMMATiNA GRACILIS, Beddomc. (Plate XLVI. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

Bijjiommatina gracilis, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 442, pi. lii. 
f. 2 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. xii (index only) ; Theob. Supp. Cat. 
p. 42 ; NeviU, Hand-list, p. 288. 

Size : alt. axis 2-7 mm. 

Original description : — " Shell dextral, narrowly ovate, straw- 
coloured, not rimate ; whorls 6g, all except the apical or two upper 
ones rather distantly and prominently costulated, interstices smooth ; 
spire rather slender, the fifth whorl the largest and projecting a 
httle more than the penultimate, the penultimate with the con- 
striction over the centre and right centre of the aperture ; aperture 
reniform ; peristome continuous round the penultimate whorl, 
prominently angled, below the tooth double, the outer lip expanded 
and reflexed, columellar margin nearly straight, the tooth promi- 
nent, a little deflexed : total length ^ inch. 

" Gudam Hills, Vizagapatam, 3000 feet elevation, 17° N. lat.'' 

I notice a variety of this shell sent to me by Colonel Beddome 
from the Jeypur Hills, Madras, figured on Plate XLVI. figs. 2, 2 a. 
It has rather more tumid whorls and is less acuminate. In three out 
of eight specimens another point of difference is in the right margin 
of the peristome, which is sharply sinuate, as shown in fig. 2. The 
three specimens of D. gracilis from the Golcondah Hills do not 
show this. It is evidently only a more angulate form of the inner 
lip. 

DiPLOMMATiNA CANARicA, Bcddome. (Plate XLVI. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Diplommatina canarica, Beddome, P. Z. S. 1875, p. 442, pi. lii. 
fig. 1 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. xii (index only). 

Size : alt. axis 2*5 mm. 

Original description : — " Shell dextral, broadly ovate, scarcely or 
very inconspicuously rimate, flesh-coloured ; whorls 6^, convex, aU 
except the apical obtuse one closely, regularly, and sharply costu- 
lated ; interstices smooth ; spire conical ; the fifth whorl much the 
largest, and projecting much more than the penultimate ; the penulti- 
mate with the constriction just in front of the centre of the circular 
aperture ; peristome shining, continuous round the penultimate 
whorl, slightly canaliculate in its free portion below ; columellar 
margin much incurved ; the tooth prominent, slightly deflexed : 
total length ^ inch. 

" North Canara, in moist forests about Yellapore, 2500 feet 
elevation, 14° N. lat." 



176 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

DiPLOMMATiNA MINIMA, Bcddome. (PI. XLIX. figs. 13, 13 a.) 

Diphmimatina minima, lieddome, P.Z. S. 1875, p. 442, pi. lii. 
figs. 3, 4 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. xii (in list of species only) ; 
Ncdll, Hand-list, p. 288. 

The specimen figured is 1'4 mm. in height. 

Ofiijinal dcscrijjtion: — "Shell doxtral, cylindrical, straw-coloured, 
not rimate ; whorls bh, convex, all except the two upper ones 
minutely costulated, sutures deep ; spire black and tapering very 
slightly, the antepenultimate whorl not larger than the penultimate, 
the latter very slightly constricted ; the position of the operculum 
over the centre of the aperture, aperture circular ; peristome shining, 
continuous round the lower portion of the penultimate whorl, double 
in its lower free portion, the columellar margin semicircular, the 
tooth small but plainly visible under the lens : total length yL iuch, 
2| times the breadth. 

" Gudam Hills, Vizagapatam, with the preceding {D. (jracilis), 
but very rare. This is the smallest known species of Diplom- 
matina true ; it is quite a connecting-linlc between Sempers genus 
Moussonia (Pupa prohlematica, Mousson) and true DipJommatina. 

" These are the first species of EndipJommatina discovered in 
Southern India ; the genus docs not apparently occur on our western 
ghats south of 14"" N. lat., where its place is taken by Nicida. 
I^arge tracts of the mountainous country in the Vizagapatam and 
Ganjam districts are conchologically quite unexplored ; and other 
species Avill no doubt be some day discovered, particularly as Nicida 
is not found. Ou the Nallay-Mallay mountains, Kurnool district, 
15° N. lat., I could not detect either Diplommatina or JVicida, though 
Opisthostoma was discovered ; these hills, however, have been only 
superficially searched, and Dipdommatinas will, I think, yet be found 
there." 



Species from the Khasi and Naga-Hill Ranges. 

Diplommatina poltpleuris, Bs. (Plate XLV. figs. 1, 1 a.) From 
Khasi Hills ; the same as figured in ' Conch. Indica.' 

Dipdommatina polyphuris, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1857, vol. xix, 
p. 203: Blauford and Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1808, p. 83, 
pi. iii. fig. 1 (from North Khasi). 

Diplommatina polypleuris, var., Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1870, 
p. 4, pi. i. fig. 4 (from N. Jaintia, is distinct; I have named it 
minuta) ; Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. ii. p. 11 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 56, pi. cxl. fig. 10 (Sandoway, habitat doubtful); Theob. Supp. 
Cat. p. 42, Moulmein, Nattoung (both doubtful). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 177 

Diplommatina pohjpeuris, var., Nevill, Hand-list, uo. 11, p. 285 
(from Dafla Hills) ; = minuta. 

Diplommatina pnlypleuris, var., Nevill, Haud-list, no. 11, p. 285 
(from Sandoway and Nattoung), ? n. sp. 

Original description : — " Testa dextrorsa, non riinata, oblongo- 
ovata, confertbn oblique cJionlato-costulata, pallide carnea, upiee 
ohtusiusculo, hycdino, sutura profunda ; anfractibus 6 convexis, ante- 
pemdtimo tumidiascido ; apertura verticali, subcirctdari, dente colu- 
mellari munita ; peristomate duplici, interiori expansiusculo, externa 
expanso, ad basin sinistram angidato-rotundato, callo parietali nie- 
diocri, appres-'o. Operc. ? 

" Long, vix 2, diam. 1 mill. 

" This little species was found by Mr. Theobald at Nanclai Ponji, 
forty-five miles from Cherra, in 92" 30' E. and 25° 15' N." 



DiPLOMMATiNA AusTENi, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLV. figs. 2, 2 «.) 
Locality. North Ivhasi. 

Diplommatina austeni, W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1868, p. 5, 
pi. iii. fig. 2. 

Diplommatina austeni, large var., Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 
1876, p. 178, pi. vii. figs. 8, 8a (is distinct); Hauley, Conch. Ind, 
p. 49, pi. cxix. figs. 1 and 4 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 41 ; Nevill, Hand- 
list, p. 286. 

Original description: — ^'■Ttsta dextrorsa non rimata, conico-ovata, 
albida vel succinea. Spira supcrna conica, non aftenuata, sutura im- 
pressa, apice obtusiusculo. Anfr. 6, primi 3 gradatim crescentes, 
confertim minute costidati, uUimi lavigati vel costidis subobsoletis 
signati, antepenultimus major, ultimus aliquando lituis subdistaniibus 
versus aperturam signatus, antice ascendens, subtus rotundatus. 
Apertura verticalis oblique subovalis ; perist. incrassatum, mediocriter 
expansum, duplex, margine columellari verticali, angido aperto subtus 
desinente, basali rotundato, plica columellari mediocri, ccdlo parietali 
expanso. 

" Long. 2j, diam. 1 mill. ; apertura e perist. 1^ mill, longa, intus 
I lata. 

" Hah. Cherra Poonji et Maotherichan in montibus Khasi ( W. 
Theobald et Godwin- Austen^. 

" 1 some years ago received a specimen of this species from Mr. 
Theobald as D. jjolypleuris, Bens. On comparing the series of 
Diqjlommatina' collected by Captain Godwin-Austen with Mr. Ben- 
son's description, it is evident that the type of that species belonged 
to a difierent form, found abundantly by Captain Godwin-Austen 
with the present species on the Maotherichan ridge, part of the 
northern scarp of the Khasi Hills, and distinguished from the pre- 
sent form by its much stronger sculpture, less conical spire, deeper 
suture, and rounder mouth. It is a smaller form. Mr. Theobald's 
type specimens of D. polypleuris were from Nanclai, also on the 
northern portion of ^^^'^ m-^ci* niateau. D. austeni varies con- 



178 LA.ND AND FRESUWATKU 

siderably in the sculpture of the lower whorls, which are in most 

specimens quite smooth. One individual sent is considerably 

more tumid than the type, but presents no other difference of 
importance." 

DiPLOJiMATixA SALTUENSE, n. sp. (Plate XLV. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Locality. Jatinga valley, jS'orth Cachar Hills. 

Shell dextral, not rimate, umbilicated, ovately fusiform ; sculpture 
distant, strong costulation on all the whorls ; colour ruddy ochre, 
strong on apex ; spire conic acuminate, sides flat near apex, which 
is rather pointed ; whorls 6|, the three last much rounded, tho 
antepenultimate the largest, the constriction in middle above the 
aperture ; aperture circular, perpendicular ; peristome very solid, 
double ; coluraellar margin straight, the tooth pointed. 

Size : major diam. 1'4, alt. axis 2*4 mm. 
0-06, „ 0-10 inch. 

This species, which assimilates in general form to D. polypleuris, 
&c., yet differs considerably in the attenuation of the apex and 
proportion of the whorls, being more like in this respect D. clajla- 
ensis. A considerable number were collected. 

DiPLOMMATiNA siLvicoLA, n. sp. (Plate XLV. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Locality. Jenta Hajuma Peak, 5127 feet (G.-A.), North Cachar 
Hills. 

Shell somewhat depressedly ovate, not i-imate ; sculpture, regu- 
larly well-marked distant costulation ; colour pale sienna-brown ; 
spire conic, sides convex, apex rather blunt ; whorls 6, rounded, the 
last rather small, penultimate the most swollen, constriction in 
middle and above the aperture ; aperture vertical, circular ; peri- 
stome double and solid, columellar margin subvertical, tooth 
strong. 

Size: major diam. 1*3, alt. axis 2*2 mm. 
0-05, „ 0-09 inch. 

I obtained only six specimens of this shell, in the dense lofty 
forest of the highest part of the North Cachar Hills. It approaches 
D. austeni in its general form, but is more depressed, and its sculp- 
ture is very defined. 

DiPLOMMATiNA SILVICOLA, small var. (Plate XLV. figs. 5, ba.) 

Locality. Jatinga valley, North Cachar Hills. 

A shell which in general shape and sculpture is very similar to 
the last described was very abundant in the above valley, which 
drains from the Jenta Hajuma ridge. It is evidently a dwarf form, 
and measures only 1-7 mill, in height. 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 



179 



Species from Arakan, Burmah, and Nicobar Islands. 

DiPLOMMATiNA spERATA, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLVI. figs. 5, 5 a.) 
Locality. Moditoung, Arakan Hills. 

Dijjlommatina sperata, W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 143 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Pn. vol. iii. p. 10 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. xii (index) ; 
Nevill, Hand-list, p. 284 (two sp., Mai-i, Arakan coast). 

Size : alt. 2-7 mm. 

Original description : — " Testa dextrorsa, non rimata, ovato-conica, 
suhfusiformis, soUdiuscula, pallide cornea, subremote verticaliter cos- 
tidata. Spira conica, apice acuta, sutura impressa. Anfr. 6^, 
convexi ; antepenult imus major, tumidus; ultimus antice vix as- 
cendens. Aperttira verticaUs, subtus antice sinuata, late auricularis, 
plica columellari valida munita ; perist. subduplex, expansum, mar- 
gine columellari sinuato et ad basin angalo acuto desinente, callo 
parietali mediocri, 

" Long. 2g, diam. I5, ap. diam. | inch. 
„ 0-09, „ 0-05, „ 0-02 mm. 

" Hab. in montibus Arakan a Pegu secernentibus. 

" But two perfect specimens of this shell occurred to me at Modi- 
toung, on the Prorae and Tongoop road, together with Ali/cceus 
graphicus &c. It resembles D. pachyclieilus, B., in the shape of the 
mouth, but it is distinguished by the slighter rise of the last whorl 
and by its subremote costulate sculpture, which, together with its 
rounded aperture, serves also to distinguish it from D. diploclieilus^ 
B., D. jndlula, B., and D. blanfordiana, B., the two latter of which 
are closely costulated, and the first named smooth." 



DiPLOMMATiN*. HENZADAENSis, n. sp. (Plate XLVI. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Locality. Kyoung Gyoung Nulla, Henzada, Pegu. 

Shell dextral, ovately turreted, scarcely rimate ; sculpture rather 
distant, fine ; spire, sides convex, apex blunt ; suture well impressed ; 
whorls 6, rounded, the antepenultimate the largest, the constriction 
being just above the upper outer margin of the peristome ; aperture 
circular ; peristome double, continuous, solid for size, columellar 
tooth well developed. 

Size : major diam. 1*0, alt. axis 1*6 mm. 
0-04, „ 0-07 inch. 

There is only one specimen in Mr. Blanford's collection ; but as 
it is fully grown, though so very minute, and is so unlike any thing 
before described from Pegu, I have ventured on figuring and 
naming it. 



180 LAND AND FRESH WATEI; 

DiPLOMMATiNA EXiLis, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLIX. fig. 1.) 

Diphmmatina exUls, W. T. Blf. J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 325 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Pneum. vol. iii. p. 10 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 49, pi. cxix. fig. 10 ; 
Theob. Sujjp. Cat. p. 42(Mya-Leit Doung and Farm Caves, Moulmein; 
the latter locality refers to D. exserta) ; Nevill, Hand-list, p. 284. 

Orii/iiial description : — " Shell dcxtral, not rimate, very slenderly 
snbfusiform, rather solid, moderately, closely, and obliquely ribbed 
throughout. Spire turreted, with straight sides, apex obtuse, suture 
impressed. Whorls 7^, rounded, antepenultimate slightly larger 
than the penultimate ; lower whorl rising a little near the aperture, 
which is subvertical, slightly inclined downwards, almost circular, 
the columellar margin being straightened, terminating in a right 
angle at the base, and bearing a moderately sized internal tooth. 
Peristome double, the inner lip being prominent, slightly expanded, 
and continuous upon the penultimate whorl, but not forming a broad 
callus ; outer lip slightly expanded, retrorelict. Opere. ? 

Alt. Diain. Diam. ap. 

3 li § mm. 

0-12 0-05 U-03 inch. 

" Habitat. Mya-Leit Doung, Ava. 

" The most slender species of the genus with which I am ac- 
quainted, and easily distinguished from all others by its long narrow 
form." 

DiPLOMMATiNA PUPPENsis, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLIX. fig. 9.) The 
shell figured is from the typical locality. 

Diphmmatina pvppensis, W.T. Blanford, J, A. S. B. 1862, p. 324 ; 
Blauford & Godwin-Austen, J. A. S. B. 1868, p. 83, pi. iv. figs. 2, 2 « ; 
Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 55, pi. cxxxix. figs. 8, 9 ; Theob. Supp. Cat, 
p. 42 ; Xevill, Hand-list, p. 284. 

Diphmmatina pappensis, Blf. A. M. N. H. 1864, vol. xiii. p. 443. 

Original descripttion : — " Shell dextral, not rimate, elongately sub- 
ovate, thin, translucent, light amber in colour, very finely and 
closely costulatcd, spire with convex sides, apex pointed, not acumi- 
nate, suture impressed. Whorls 7, the antepenultimate being the 
largest, last whorl rising considerably upon the penultimate. Aper- 
ture vertical, nearly circular, the columellar margin being straight, 
with an obtuse angle at the base, and furnished with a small tooth 
internally. Peristome double, orange in colour; both lips expanded, 
the inner forming a thin callus upon the penultimate whorl. Operc. 
thin, horny, white, circular, flat, with no distinct spiral structure. 



Alt. 


Diam. 


Diam. ap. 


3i 


2 


1 mm. 


0-15 


0-08 


0-04 inch, 



^* Habitat. Puppa HiU in Upper Burma, with Alycaus vulmni. 



JIOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 181 

"The largest species V'-t discivered in Burma, and Uie most 
symmetrical, so far as I know, of all Asiatic forms. None of the 
Burmese representatives of Diplommatina show the strongly acumi- 
nate spire, or the great swelling of the antepenultimate whorl, which 
distinguishes the species inhabiting the Himalaya." 

Diplommatina nana, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLIX. figs. 6, Go.) 

Diplommatina nana, W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1865, p. 85 ; 
Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 55, pi. cxl. fig. 1 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 42 ; 
Nevill, Hand-list, p. 285. 

Original description : — " Shell not rimate, dextrorse, subovate, 
rather solid, amber- coloured, very finely and closely filiformly costu- 
lated on the lower whorls, less closely on the upper, or, frequently, 
subdistantly costulated throughout. Spire conical, with sides scarcely 
convex above ; apex rather obtuse, sometimes reddish, suture im- 
pressed. Whorls 6-6.|, rounded, antepenultimate the largest, the 
last rising considerably upon the penultimate. Aperture vertical, 
ear-shaped, nearly circular, coluraellar margin straight for a short 
distance and vertical, with an internal tooth. Peristome double, 
both portions expanded and appres-ed, the inner forming a thin 
callus upon the penultimate whorl. Operculum ? 



mm. inch. 

2i 0-U 

Diameter 1 0-04 



" Length 2^ 0-09 



** Aperture with peristome about | millim. in diameter. 

" Habitat. Akoutoung, Thondoung, and Ycnandoung in Henzada 
district, Pegu. 

"This species approaches D. iioliipleuris, Bens., more nearly than 
any other. It is distinguished by its more regularly ovate form, 
blunter apex, less swollen penultimate whorl, and more marked 
and distant sculpture. The latter character, however, varies — the 
specimens from Thondoung, a hill about 20 miles south of Akoutoung, 
being either closely costulate throughout, or subdistantly sculptured 
above, closely below ; while in Akoutoung specimens the costulatiou 
is subdistant throughout As, however, I can trace no other dis- 
tinction between the shells, and the costulation varies in different 
individuals from each place, I do not think there is any specific 
distinction." 

Diplommatina apfinis ?, Theobald. (Plate XLIX, fig. 3.) 

Diplommatina affinis, Theobald, J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 398 ; Hanley, 
Conch. Ind. p. xii (index only) ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 41. 

Locality. Upper Salwin valley (ex Theobald's collection). 

Shell elougately fusiform, rimate ; sculpture much worn, costu- 
lation close ; colour bleached ; spire turreted, attenuate towards 
apex ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 7, rounded, antepen- 

PART v. K 



182 LAND AND FRESH WAT IH; 

ultimate slightly the largest, the penultimate with constriction above 
the coiumellar margin ; aperture suhvertical, circular ; peristome 
double, close, slightly developed, coiumellar margin with a small 
tooth. 

Size : major diam. 1-0, alt. axis 3-0 mm. 
0-04, „ 0-12 inch. 

Mr. Theobald writes that the type is lost and probably smashed 
with some other shells in the same box. This specimen was referred 
to D. ajjinis by Stoliczka, and it agrees with the following original 
description : — 

" Testa dextrorsa, ovata, tnrrita, vix rlmata; (infract . 7, regulariter 
crescent lb t(s;transversim lev iter striatis, ultimo antice valde ascendente 
D. pulluho modo ; apertura ovali, oyiargine columellari recto, dente- 
parvo instructo, lahro daplici, extra expansiiiscido. Long. 0*18, 
lat. 0-08 unc. 

" D. pidlula differt magnitudine, spira minus attcnuataet apertura 
magis rotandata, 

" Habitat. Shan States." 

DiPLOMMATiNA pxiPiEFORMis, Theobald. (Plate XLVI. figs, 4, -Iff.) 
Shan States. 

Diphmmatina pupcfformis, Theobald, Journ. A. S. B. 1870, p. 398 ; 
Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. xii (index) ; Thcob. Supp. Cat. p. 42 ; Nevill, 
Hand-list, p. 285, as var. of salwiniana. 

Original description : — '■^ Testa sinistrorsa, oblongo-ovaJi, nan rimata, 
paUidissime cornea ; sutura impresm ; anfract. 7, regulariter crescen- 
tibits. transversaUter confertim striatis ; apertura sid)circulari, maryine 
columellari brevi, recto, dente columellari modico instructo, labro 
duplici, margine externo expanso. Long. 0-16, lat. O'OS unc. 

" Habitat. Shau States." 

D. sahviniana must be exceedingly close, if it be not the same 
ehell, as Stoliczka considered it. The original description runs as 
follows : — 

" Testa sinistrorsa, ovate turrita, non rimata, paUidissime Jiaves- 
cente, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 7g, convexis, regidariter cre- 
scent ibus, transversim distincte striatis, striis in idt. anfractu magis 
distantihus ; apertura rotundate ovata, margine columellari recto, 
dente parvo suhmediano instructo, margine externo uniforme curvato, 
tenuiter calloso. Long. 0-20, lat. 0-10 unc. 

'^Habitat. Shan States.'' 

DiPLOMMATiNA CARNEOLA, Stol. (Plate XLIX. figs. 8, 8 a.) 

Diplommatina carneola, Stoliczka, Journ. A. S. B. 1871, p. 152, 
pi. vi. f. 3; Hanlcv, Conch. Ind. p. 55, pi. cxl. fig. 4; Theob. Sujip. 
Cat. p. 42 ; Nevill, 'Hand-list, p. 284. 

Original description: — "D. testa ovato-elongata, turrita, vix rimata, 
carnea, seu carneo-lufeola ; anfract. 7, valcle convexis, suturis pro- 
fundisjunctis, primis duobus la^vigatis, luteis, ceteris costuUs obliqiiis. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 183 

modice distantihus, ornatis, pemiltimo maxime htjlato, ad termina- 
tionem valde constricto, idtimo minore, ad basin rotundato ; apertura 
rotundata, marglnibus paido dilatatis et incrassatis, ad anfrachim 
penultmium conspicuiter ascendentdnis, intiis Icevif/atis ; lahio adnato, 
paido expanso, labro dvjjlici, extiis prope marcjinem costa tenia et 
acuta instructo, columella fere recta, infra clente unico instrticta, ad 
basin vix anf/nlata. Diam, anf. penult. 1*2 ; alt, tot, testte 2*6, 
apert. alt, 0-8,ejusdem diam. 0-8 mm. 

" Animal carneo-luteoluni, tentandis, rostra ad terminationem in- 
terdumque dorso sup>ero, plus minusve distincte atratis ; oculis magnis 
in latere basali tentaculorum sitis, atris, pec^e anr/usto, postice acumi- 
nato ; operculum corneum, teniussimum, concentrice multispiratum. 

" Hab. Damotha, prope Moulmain. 

" This species is somewhat allied to D. puppensis, Blf., differing 
from it by its constant smaller size, more tumid or convex and more 
widely costulated whorls, and by the aperture being at the eolumellar 
base rounded or nearly so, instead of deeply angular and canaliculate as 
it always appears to be in puppensis. The present species was found 
to be very common on the perpendicular limestone cliffs at Damotha, 
especially in localities where a little water trickled down the rock. 
The animals seemed to feed on minute alga? which were growing in 
the locality." 

DiPLOMMATiNA cEispATA, Stoliczka. (Plate XLIX. figs. 4, 4 a, 
4 6.) 

Diplommatina {Palaina)crisp>ata, Stol. Journ. A. S. B, 1871, p. 153, 
pi. vi, fig. 4 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 56, pi. exli. fig. 6, 

Palaina crispata, Theob, Supp, Cat. p. 43, 

Original description : — " Diplommatina (Pal,) testa conoidea, medio 
latissima, sordide albida ; anfractibus 7, primis duobus {rare Ig) mam- 
millatis, Icevigatis, eonvexis, sequente convexiusculo, confertim lamellose 
striata, ceteris medio angulatis, crasse lamellatis, lamellis crebris, in- 
cequalibus, tenuibus, undulatis et crispiatis, ad perip]ieriaman(julosam 
spyiniforme productis, latere interiore exeavatis ; anfr. penidtimohaud 
distincte constricto ; ultimo angustiore, basi convexiusculo ; apertura 
perobliqua, circulari, extra dilatata, intus continua, Icevi, supra leviter 
adnata, ad latus c«himellare incrassata et infra clente pliciforme, vix 
distinguendo, instructa, margine interno aeuto, undique libera ; peri- 
stomate externa tenui, lamelliforme undulato et late expanso. Alt, 
testae 2-5, diam, anf. penult, (spinis iucl.) 1*5 ; diam. apert. int. 0"8, 
d, ap, cum perist. I'D mm, 

^'•Animal albidum, tentacuJis cinereo atratis ; operculum corneum. 

'■^Habitat. Damotha, prope Moulmain ; rarissime cum pra3cedente, 

" This is the first species from British India referable to the sub- 
genus Palaina of Semper {vide Journ, de Conch, 18G3, p, 291, and 
1866, p. 348), although, if the subgenus should be retained, it can- 
not include all the species referred to it by its author," 



184 LAND AND FHESUWAIEU 

DiPLOMMATiNA ANGULATA, Tlieobuld & Stolifzka. (Plate XLIX. 
fii^s. 5, 5 «.) 

Localiii/. Damotha, Moulinain. 

Diijlommat'ma angulata, Theobald & Stoliczka, Journ. A. S. B, 
1872, p. 331, pi. xi. fig. 3 (Chouktalon Hill, south of Moulmain) ; 
Hanlej-, Couch. Ind. p. 55, pi. cxl. fig. 7 (not a characteristic 
drawing). 

Palaina amjulata, Thcob. Supp. Cat. p. 43 ; Nevill, Hand-list, 
p. 285. 

Original description : — " D. testa ovato-chngata, dextrorsa vix ri- 
mata, sordide albida, anfracta penultimo latissimo, apice obtnshtsculn, 
jjallide rabido, suhmamillato ; anfratibus sex, primis duobus lirviyntls, 
eceteris valde convexis, ad peripheriam jihis minusve distincter angu- 
latis, transversim conftrtissime costellatis aut acute striatis ; ultimo 
hasi contracto ; sutura profunda, simplice ; apertura late eirculari ; 
peristomate undique expanse, bilabiato, interao subrecto, ad marginem 
columella rem dente obliquo instracto, externa ad anfractum penuUhnum 
constrictum modice ascendents. Long. 2, lat. maximus U"8, diam. 
apert. 0'6 mm. 

" liab. prope Moulmain, provincia Martaban." 

" The peculiar angulation of the whorls, combined with the very 
close transverse costulation, or almost striation, and the proportion- 
ately large aperture, readily separate this species from any other as 
vet known. Mr. Theobald obtained numerous specimens on the 
limestone hill near Damotha, and also south of Moulmain, together 
with D. carncola, Stol." 

DiPLOJiMATiNA EXSERTA, n. sp., Ncvill. (Plate XLIX. figs. 2, 2a.) 

Biplommattna exserta, Xevill's Hand-list, p. 284, as D. exilis, var. 
exserta, from Farm Caves, Moulmain. 

Locality. Damotha Cave, Moulmain (Theobald). Four specimens. 

Shell elongately fusiform, not rimate ; sculpture, minute spiral 
stri;B, crossed by rather close transverse cost ulation, coarser and more 
distant on tlie apical whorls, less apparent on the last ; colour very 
light sienna ; spire high, turreted, sides flat, apex small ; whorls 8, 
sides rounded, the antepenidtimate the largest, the last ascending,con- 
striction just behind the aperture ; aperture vertical, oval ; peristome 
closely double at base at right angles to the axis ; columellar margin 
subvertical, the tooth not at all prominent, blunt and rounded. 

Size : major diam. I'O, alt. axis 3 mm. 

0-04, „ 0-12 inch. 

This shell is very like D. exilis, the constriction, however, is 
much moi'e defined ; there is no spiral striation on the surface of 
I), exilis, and there is great difterenco in tlie form and size of the 
columellar tooth. Its abnormal form serves to characterize D. exserta 
well, and it may be compared in this respect to D. nicohariea. 

In the paper " Xotes on Burmese and Arakanese Land-Shells," by 
W. Theobald, Esq., and Dr. F. Stolie/ka (J. A. S. B. 1872, p. 331), 



MOILUSCA OF INDIA. 185 

this species is referred to as follows : — " 4. D. exilis, Blf., was foiiiid 
on the limestone hills at Damotha and at the Farm-Caves near 
Moulmain. Most of the specimens somewhat exceed in size those 
from Upper Burmah ; the costulation of the whorls also is a shade 
finer, though variable in different specimens, and the outer lip of 
the aperture a little more expanded ; however, the general form, 
character, and proportion of the whorls is exactly the same. One 
of the largest specimens measures : total length 3*2, diameter of 
penult, whorl I'O, diam. of apcrt. with perist. U'9 mm. ; it has nine 
whorb." 

DiPLOMMATiNA EDENTTTLA, n. sp. (Plate XLIX. figs. 7, 7 a.) 

Locality. Moulmain (Theobald). 

Shell ovately fusiform, not rimate, thin ; sculpture minute, longi- 
tudinal striaj, crossed by distant strong costulation ; colour whitish 
ochre ; S2)ire turreted, sides convex, apex rounded ; suture moderately 
impressed; whorls 7, regularly increasing, the antepenultimate slightly 
the largest, the constriction above tlie aperture ; aperture vertical, 
circular ; peristome double, but not strongly developed ; coluraellar 
tooth very small. 

Size : major diam. 1*3, alt. axis 2*0 mm. 
U-04, „ 0-OS inch. 

This is another of the small, toothed, dextral forma from this lo- 
cality, and it cannot be for a moment confused with D. exserta ; it 
may possibly be the shell referred to D. polyplnwis and said to have 
been found near Moulmain. 

DiPLOMMATiNA NicoBAEiOA, n. sp. (Plate XL VI. figs. 7, 7 a.) 

Locality. Nicobars {H. Godwin- Austen). 

Shell dextral, fusiform, not rimate ; sculpture very close regular 
costulation ; colour pale brown ; spire, sides rather flattened, apex 
acuminate ; whorls 7, sides convex, the antepenultimate the broadest, 
the constriction usually immediately above the aperture, but in some 
inclining more to the outer margin ; aperture circular, suboblique ; 
peristome closely double ; columcllar margin straight, only a slight 
indication of the usual tooth, but the thread or twist of the columella 
is visible within the aperture, 

Alt. axis 4-3 mm. 
„ 0-17 inch. 

This species was sent me by my brother with numerous other 
shells ; the absence of the usual columellar tooth is a conspicuous 
difference ; it is the first species described from these islands. I 
note, however, in Nevill's ' Hand-list,' p. 284, that a species very 
similar to D. carneola was found by Stoliczka on Batti Malve, and 
also on Katchall Islands- 



186 I.AXD AND I'KKSUWA-lKrc 

Subfamily Ai,YCJ.iKiE. 
Genus Alyc^us, Gray, MS., B.M. 

Alycmis, Gray, Moll. Anim. & Shells Coll. Brit, Museum, 1850, 
p. 27 ; Benson, A. M. N. H. 1859, vol. iii. p. 176 ; W. T. Blanford, 
A. M. N. H. 18G4, vol. xiii. p. 445 (as a distinct subfamily) ; Tlieob. 
Supp. Cat. 1870, p. 7 (subfam. Alycajinae) ; Nevill, Hand-list, 1878, 
p. 290 (subfam. Diplommatinina). 

Cyclo'pliorns, sp., Pfr. Zeitsch. f. Malak. 1847, p. 108. no. 21. 

Oriyinal description : — " Operculum horny, many-whorled. Shell 
conical. Spire regular. Last whorl distorted, compressed, much 
contracted before the mouth. Mouth circular. Peristome regularly 
reflexed." Type, A. (jihhus, from Cochin China, the secon 1 and only 
other species recorded being A. siranyulatus^ from Landour, "N".W. 
Himalaya, from the collection of Captain Boys. No meution is made 
of the peculiar and typical sutural tube. 

Dr. Pfeitfer divided the species into two groups, " subturbinate " 
and " depressed ;" but in 1859 Mr. Benson was the first to put the 
rapidly increasing species into systematic order, based on better 
characters, the principal being tlie position and extent and form 
of the constriction, shape of shell, and length of the sutural tube. 
Of these he formed three sections: — 1. Ahjcans, normal group, 
thus described : " The last whorl constricted somewhat remotely 
from the aperture, tumid on both sides of the constriction." It 
contains ten species, in four subdivisions. 2. Cliara.v, Bs. : '• Con- 
striction broad, contiguous to the aperture, and divided more or less 
remotely from it, across the whorl, by a ridge which is hollow 
internally." There are six species given, divided again into three 
subsections : — 

•' * Ridge curved back remotely from the peri- 
stome A. hehes. 

** Ridge parallel to and approaching the peri- 
stome A. stylifer. 

*** Ridge parallel with and close to the base of 

the peristome A. j^lectocheilnsj' 

3. Dioryx, Bs. " Constriction narrow, and immediately behind 
the aperture ; the sutural tube arising proportionally nearer to the 
peristome than in Sections 1 and 2."' There are two subsections 
based on form of shell : — 

a. A. amjilwra, Bs. 

b. A. crenidatds, Bs. 

This last, however, certainly belongs to Sect. 2. 

As the sutural tube is one of the most important characters, I 
give what Benson very truly says of it : — " In estimating the length 
of the sutural tube, it is necessary to observe whether its brevity or 
mediocre size is permanent and natural, or due to decay or injury, 
especially in specimens which have become brittle from weathering. 



JIOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 187 

In the species of which 1 have been enabled to examine a series, I 
find that the perfect tube is invariably of uniform length iu each 
form. The character is so important, that 1 have thought it worthy 
of notice in the sectional arrangement." I can bear this out ; hun- 
dreds of specimens may be taken of any one species, and the tube is 
invariably of the same length and form. 

The above arrangement was a great advance towards a better 
knowledge of the genus ; but in 1859 only about 20 species had been 
discovered, and as they began to multiply it was soon evident that 
the above three sections could not be so distinctly separated by any 
hard-and-fast line, and Sections 1 and 2 were soon blended. 

In a little over 5^ years (18(34) the number of species had mounted 
up to about 37, 31 being from the Indian area. And in this year 
Mr. W. T. Blanford publislied his most excellent paper in the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' " On the Classitication 
of the Cvclostomacea of Eastern Asia,'' and v.'hich must form the 
basis and starting-point of all future classificatioia of the group ; he 
arranged all the then known species in eight typical groups including 
Dioryx. Owing to the above author's subsequent observations, added 
to the valuable work done by 8toliczka in the same field, this requires 
to be somewhat modified. Many more species have been since dis- 
covered. Theobald's Supplementary Catalogue enumerates 50 (ex- 
cluding A. makarsie, G.-A., MS., never described), and 10 more, in- 
cluding those now described in this pait, bring the number up to G<i 
that are known to me ; while numerous species have been found 
iu Siam, the Malay Archipelago, and several new species yet remain 
in mj own collection. 

If we take the more important characters of this very remarkable 
well-defined genus — such as; (1) the sutural tube; (2) form of the 
aperture, circular, angular, or crenulated, with varying peristome ; 
(3) form of the constriction (most varied) ; (4) whorls, regular, 
compressed, more or less closely wound ; (5) sculpture of whorls 
above and that adjacent to sutural tube ; (6) operculum ; and, lastly, 
the geneial form of the shell — we find Nature manipulates the above 
iu every conceivable way with Geographical Distribution, and it 
becomes almost impossible to restrict a group by any very fixed boun- 
daries, forms merging most beautifully one into the other ; I shall 
not attempt, therefore, any fresh airangement until many more 
have been figured. 

DioRTX, restricted to such forms as amphora, urnula, &c., is one 
of the most distinct subdivisions that can be retained. The points 
of difference are its smooth globose form, position of constriction 
and operculum, and the long sutural tube. 

Another well-marked section quite as worthy of subgeneric 
distinction is type ii. of Blanford ; it would contain aU those species 
like constrictiis, Bs., and may be thus described : — Shell perforated, 
ovately conical ; sculpture consisting of very fine, regular, close 
ribbing on the inflated portion of the shell ; sutural tube very 
.short, clubbed or pear-shaped. 

The small size of the fitrures illustrating this genus in tlic ' Con- 



188 LAND AND FRESUWAIER 

chologia Indica' renders them often quite unsuited for reliable 
reference or make clear any specific classification, for very often only 
one view, and that not the most important, is given. In the case 
of plate ciii. the shells are repi'csentcd from every possible point of 
view, and are positively wrong in detail. I therefore hope in time 
to figure the greater number of this genus in a similar way to those 
now given ; and to do this properly it is necessary to give three views 
of each species, and sometimes four, to show clearly the differences 
that exist between such closely allied forms. It is a heavy task, and 
one that 8toliczka, with Mr. lilanford's assistance, had hoped to carry 
out in the whole family of the Cyclophorida3. If I can accomplish 
a part of this work, it will, I triist, lessen the labours of future eon- 
chologists, and show how beautifully the law of Evolution is exem- 
plified by these varying forms. 

I have no drawing of the animal taken from life, as they are not 
easy to observe, being very shy about coming out. The eyes are 
small, and the tentacles not so long and thin as in Diplouunatlna, 
Plate LT. fig. 3 is taken from a spirit-specimen of yl. nagaensis, 
enlarged four times. 

The lingual ribbon given in fig. 4 is that of A. h'wenatus, one of 
the larger species, and very similar to A. ingrami. From this we 
find that in Algcceus the form of arrangement is 
3 — 1— 3 

4.5.5 5 5.5.4' 

all the uncini being 5-cuspid, with the exception of the outer, on 
which I could only detect 4. It may be noticed that in the drawing 
the 5 cusps are not shown in every instance ; but it must be 
remembered that they can only thus be seen owing to the toothed 
edges being strongly curved, both longitudinally and laterally. The 
uncini of this species are peculiarly spreading and fan-like, especially 
the first and second laterals. 

There is a slight scar of a semicircular form present on the surface 
of the branchial sac, which corresponds in position with the internal 
orifice of the sutural tube. This indicates the rudimentary nature 
of the branchial tube in this genus. It is very short, and evidently 
by its margin the sutural tube is formed, for this shows successive 
layers of deposition. After the animal has reached a certain stage 
of development (and this stage is perhaps the corresponding one in 
Dijjlontmatina, at the formation of the constriction) this ceases, and 
the whole anterior portion is formed by the edge of the mantle alone. 

Ahjcceus hevihcx is a species with a very short but stout sutural 
tube ; an examination of several species showed that close to the 
branchial chamber there is a divarication on the upper side, short 
and coriespouding with the external tube, but opening into the 
chamber ; the tube is completely closed on the other or posterior 
end. This must be homologous to the tube of I'SfrejitanJus. 

It is somewhat difficult to understand how the foimation of the 
sutural tube is effected. Tlie position of the internal orifice, so 
different in Hhdjihauhiii and Allien k:<^ rather complicates the elucida- 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 189 

tion, though it can only be a raodification of the same inherited 
character. I have endeavoured from examination of the animal and 
shell in these two tube-bearing genera to understand how this 
difference can be produced, and on Plato LI. are figures and sections 
presenting internal and external views of these parts. Figs. 6 a 
and 9 a represent not the shell, but an ideal section through the 
mantle-margin and respiratory tube (fig. 7, t). In fig. 9 a the 
thick line represents the early stage, the dotted line the last stage of 
growth in Hhapluudus. 

It is easy to understand that any slight folding of the mantle, 
either on its internal or external surface, will produce a notch upon 
the peristome, such as we find in Ptirocyclos, and that if this fold be 
increased so that the lower edges meet, a more or less circular notch 
or circular orifice will be produced, which, still retaining the shell- 
secreting property of the mantle, would deposit a tube. Then 
accordiiig as the mantle on its free cuiwilinear margin grew faster 
or slower than the tube or pari passu with it, so would the shelly 
tube be modified in form and position ; or, again, the tube may 
increase or remain constant in length. Thus I imagine in Rhaphaiilus 
the complete curvilinear edge of the mantle is slightly anterior to 
the free end of the tube, which has a continuous growth from its 
first formation, and thus the outer surface of the shell is formed 
over it up to the aperture, rendering the tube internal and its orifice 
posterior. At this stage the mantle-edge ceases to increase, the 
animal having reached its maximum development ; this is stationary 
so to speak and the thickened peristome is then formed. The inter- 
nal tube still continuing to grow at the free end passes upwards, 
backwards, or downwards externally, the common specific character. 

In Ahjcanis the tube would appear to have a short but permanent 
length and position, and from the commencement of its formation, 
or folding in of the mantle-edge, is turned upward and backward 
over the edge of the peristome and slightly in advance of it, deposit- 
ing the shelly tube externally upon the outer surface of the body- 
whorl and in the sutural angle, and is never internal. It should be 
noticed that the length of the tube in Alycceus bears invariably a 
constant relationship to the swollen, close, regular, and strongly 
ribbed portion of the body-whorl, and there is some intimate con- 
structive connection between the two, indicating, I think, an inter- 
mittent action upon the line of the mantle-edge, during which it 
undergoes a change somewhat like the following. The part produced 
into a tube-like form is withdrawn, or reduced in size, on the forma- 
tion of a rib which may be likened to an incipient peristomatic lip ; 
on this being completed and the work of the mantle reduced, the 
fleshy tube is again produced, reflected over the margin to deposit a 
ring of shelly matter on the sutural tube, and then again retires 
during the formation of the next peristomatic ring. 

When the animal approaches its mature size the fleshy tube 
becomes atrophied, leaving a mere scar on the mantle corresponding 
with the internal orifice, and here the above ribbing or close costu- 
lation ends. The portion of the whorl in front would then appear 



190 



LAND AJJD FRESHWATER 



to be formed more rapidly, aud liiially the tliickened double peristome 
is completed. That the mantle-edge has a tendency to expand and 
grow, taking on a wavy outline, is shown in those species with 
deeply crenulatcd lips. 

We have in the genera Pterocydos, Sjnractilum, Rliaphaulvs^ 
Ali/ca'us, DipJommatina, and Opistliostuma that indication of continual 
development going on, and assuming great diversity of form alter a 
certain stage of existence, which has been so oitin brought to 
notice in other groups of animals, showing that these shells are the 
more modified descendants of older and less specialized forms, that 
reached and brought their shell-constructing powers to an end at an 
earlier stage of growth. Ahjarus with the shell cut back to the 
posterior end of the sutural tube and supplied with a thickened lip 
would bo in all respects like many simple forms of Cydophoius. 

Bhaphaidus would be a JSlegalomustoma. In Diplommatina the 
change would ajjpear shown at the constriction of the last whorl. 

Alycaits is essentially of a burrowing habit, and I have often 
obtained them quite deep in the moist soil ; this is perhaps the 
reason of the eyes being so much smaller in comparison to those of 
Diplommatina. The shells when taken fresh are generally coated 
with a black clayey substance comjJetely concealing the surl'aco and 
its costulation. In favourable localities, among the dcej) layeis of 
black decaying leaves, they are very numerous and easily found. 

ALTCiEtrs GEMMTJLA, Bcnson. (Plate XLVIII. figs. 4, 4fl,4f', 4c.) 
Locality. Eungun Valley, near Darjiling (ex coll. W. T. Blavford). 
Alyccms {Cliara.v) gemmida, Benson, A. M. N. H. Ib5!^), vol. iii. 

pp. 177, 179 ; Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. iii. p. 5:^ ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 

p. 38, pi. xciii. fig. 7 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 39 ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. 

1878, pi. V. fig. 37. 

Original description : — '* T'csta umhilicata, conoideo-depressa, 
Icevigata, nitida, ad ventricidum minutissime, ad umlilicum crasse 
striata, liyalina ; spira coioidea, apice ohtusiuscido^sutura profunda ; 
anfractihus 4 convexiuscidis, ultimo covipiresse rotundato, turn tumido, 
tuhidum medioorm c/erente, tunc fossicidato-constricto, slrictura crista 
recumhente, demumque area planuta ah apertura separata ; aperlvra 
ohliqua, superne arcuatim 2)ro7ninente, 2Jei'i>>iomate dvplici, valde in- 
crassato-rejiexo, intus superne ad angiduvi ct infra ad basin levitcr 
emaryinato ; und>iJico profundo. OjJerc. ? 

" Diam. major 2^, minor 1|, axis 1| miU. 

" Habitat rarissime in valle Ilungun. 

" Of this little shell the sole specimen obtained by Mr. Planford 
was forwarded to me for examination. Its affinities are with the 
Khasia A. hebes ; but it is perfectly distinct in colour, smaller size, 
sculpture, narrower constriction behind the ridge, narrower umbilicus, 
and in the emargination visible within the aperture at the lower part." 

Altc^tjs pachitaensis, n. sp. (Plate XLVIII. figs. 5, 5 o, 56, 5 c.) 

Locality. Pachita village (Camp no. 7 of the Expeditionary Force, 
1874-75), Dafia Hills, Assam. 
Four specimens in my collection. 



JilOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 191 

Shell dei^rcssedly turbinate, opcnlj- umbilicatcd, small ; sculpture, 
jilHcal whorls quite smooth, some distinct distant costulation on the 
posterior side of the last whorl, succeeded by very fine and close on 
the swollen portion of the same ; colour dull whitish ochre ; spire sub- 
conoid, apex blunt ; si;ture impressed, the tube short ; whorls 4, the 
last swollen, the constriction close to the sutural tube, slightly enlarg- 
ing again midway between it and the i^cristome, and this portion quite 
smooth ; aperture oblique, ovate, angular above and below ; peri- 
stome double, thickened, with a well-defined notch below, columellar 
margin concave ; operculum multispiral, horny, brown. 

Size : major diam. 3-2, alt. axis 2-6 mm. 
„ 0-13, „ 0-11 inch. 

This shell finds its nearest ally in A. f/emmtda, Bs., of the Darji- 
ling side, but the distinct ridge next the constriction is reduced to a 
mere even swelling of the whorl, and the peristome and form of 
aperture diifer ; it is also larger. 

ALYCA.VS HEBrs, Bcnson. (Plate XLITI, figs. 1, 1 a, 1 6, 1 c.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, south base of Khasi Hills. 

Alyvavs liebcs, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1857, vol. xix. p. 204. 

Cliarax hehcs, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1859, vol. iii. p. 177 (type of 
subgenus). 

Ahjcaiis heles, Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. ii. p. 37; Pfr. Novit. 
Conch, pi. XXXV. figs. 28-31 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 38, pi. xciii. 
figs. 5, 0; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 39; Nevill, Hand-list, p. 290; 
Blanford, A. M. N. H. 1864, vol. xiii. p. 459. 

Original description : — " Testa nmhUkata, solidiuscnla, dej^ressa, 
vice striatula, ad sjiotiiim injiatum et circa nmhilicum confertissime 
striata, carneo-aJbida, ajjicem versus rxiheUa ; spira conoidea, apice 
ohtusiusndo, sittura impressa ; anfractihtis 4 convexiiiscidis, idtimo 
ad latus gibhoso, tubulum mediocrem suturalem gerente, spatio con- 
stricto costa valida retro recvmbente nninito j apertura obliqua, 
circidari ; pieristomate continuo, dvpJici, interiori porrecto, eccteriori 
CApariso, incrassato. 

•' Diam. major 4, minor 3, axis 3 mill. 

" Hab. ad Teria Ghat. Teste W. Theobald. 

" This species occurs on rocks, and is distinguished by the struc- 
ture of the aperture fiom the small Bornean A. sp>iraceUnm, A. & R. 
In the latter species, moreover, the rib behind and above the aper- 
ture is nearly parallel with the peristome, whereas in A. hebes it 
looks like a loop which had fallen backwards on the whorl. In both 
species it takes its lise at the right side of the peristome, and ends 
at the suture, corresponding with an internal sulcus." 

Altc^us notaitjs, Godwin-Austen. (Plate XLIII. figs. 2, 2 «, 
2b.) 

Locality. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills. 

Alyccnis notatus, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1876, p. 176, pi. vii. 
figs. 9, 9 f/, 9b; Nevill, Hand-list, p. 291. 



192 LAND AND I'RESHWATEU 

Oriyinal description : — " Shell globoselj^ turbinate, narrowly um- 
bilicated, of solid form ; white, distant strong costulation on the 
upper whorls, close and fine ribbing on swollen portion of the last, 
8pire conoid, suture fairly impressed. Whorls 4|, closely wound, the 
last swollen, then sharply constricted, and again enlarged and 
descending, tlie expanded portion being marked with deep fold-like 
furrows. Sutural tube moderate, aperture obliciue. Peristome very 
thick, distinctly treble in full-grown shells, outer layer terminating 
just behind the aperture, the inner continuous, the two outer much 
reflected near tlie umbilicus. Operculum smooth in front. 

" Alt. 0-14, major diam. 0-17 in. 

"■Hah. On the slopes of Torupiitii Peak at 3000 feet, about 15 
specimens collected. 

"This is one of the most distinct and curious species I have as 
yet discovered, the fold-like indentations upon the expanded portion 
near the aperture having no counterpart in any other form with 
which I am acquainted. In other respects it is somewhat similar 
to A. diagonius, in the strong thick peristome and closely-wound 
whorls." 

Altcjeus damsangensis, n. sp. (Plate XLIII, figs. 3, 3rt, oh, '6c.) 

Locality. Damsang Peak, Western Bhutan Hills ( W. Robert). 

Shell turbinate, A'ery closely urabilicated ; sculpture, well-marked 
distant costulation on the upper whorls, coarse, close, regular on the 
enlarged portion of the last ; colour dull, very pale ochraceous ; 
spire high, conic, apex blunt; suture moderately impressed, tube 
mediocre ; whorls 4, the last sharply constricted at base of the 
sutural tube, then enlarging suddenly into a recurved ridge, suc- 
ceeded by a depression, and then another shorter ridge, and a pit- 
like depression in front of it ; aperture oblique ; peristome double, but 
not thickened ; columellar margin straight, subvertical, with slight 
notch below ; operculum multispiral, brown. 

Size : major diam. 3*8, alt. axis 3-2 mm. 
0-15, „ 0-13 inch. 

This shell assimilates somewhat, in the character of the constric- 
tion and the expansion of the whorl anterior to it, to A. huhcs, lis, ; 
but in the irregular -nrinkled portion in advance of the main ridge 
crossing the swollen ])art it diflers very materially, and presents a 
most interesting approach to A. uotatus, G.-A., of the Uatla Hills, 
the surface of which is more irregularly wrinkled and pitted ; it is 
not so closely umbilicated, and the aperture is more angulate below. 
It appears to be a most abundant species. 

AlycyEus cuennelli, n. sp, (Plate XLVIII, fig. 2.) 

Locality. Pikniii, Naga Hills (Ghennell). 

Shell globosely turbinate, umbilicated, but very closely, as a narrow 
slit; sculpture, smooth near apex, distant costulation developed 
beyond, and strongest near suture ; colour white ; spire conic, high, 
apex rounded; sutural tube long, fine; whorls 4, rounded, con- 
striction short and close to the base of the sutural tube, then 



MOLLUSCA OF INBIA. 193 

suddenly expanded, in a somewhat bell-shaped form, smooth, flatly 
convex in front, with a few very shallow indistinct wrinkkvs or pits ; 
aperture very oblique, quadrate ; peristome double, rounded on the 
outer lower margin, the columellar margin with a distinct notch ; 
operculum smooth in front. 

Size : major diam. 3'7, alt. axis 2-9 mm. 
0-15, „ 0-12 inch. 

This shell is allied to A. notatus and damsangensis, but the ex- 
panded part of the last whorl behind the aperture is smoother, with 
only an indication of wrinkling. It is more closely wound than the 
latter, and the aperture differs from both in its squarer form and 
angulation below (compare with the figures on Plate XLIII.). 

Specimens from the Lhota-Xaga Hills (fig. 2, Plate XL VIII.) difier 
slightly in being larger and in the expanded portion being more pitted 
and with little or no costulation towards the apex ; these differences 
were found constant in 25 specimens, received by me from the late 
Mr. A. Chennell, after whom I have named this species. Deeply do 
I deplore, and I am sure all who knew him do the same, the early 
death of this excellent surveyor, who was one of the assistants in my 
Survey Party on the Assam Frontier. He was always to be depended 
on, and was possessed of great ability for the work, and tact and know- 
ledge of the people. Combined with these official qualifications, he 
was a great lover of natural history, and a most ardent and admir- 
able collector of birds, insects, and shells. My own collection and 
that of the late Marquis of Tweeddale were both greatly enriched by 
bis indefatigable work. A fall in the rocky bed of a ravine, which 
occurred more than 2^ years previously, injured him internally and 
ultimately affected the spine, and he died after great suffering in 
Bombay Harbour last October, on his return from a trip to Australia, 
where he had been for the benefit of his health. 

Altc^us ingrami, W. T. Blf. (Plate XLIV. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 6, 1 c.) 

Alyccms imjrami, W. T. Blf. J. A. S. B. 1862, p. 135 ; Pfr. Mon. 
Pueum. vol. iii. p. 48 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 38, pi. xcii. figs. 7, 10 ; 
Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. xx. pi. vi. fig. 54 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 39 ; 
Theob. J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 92 (is ingrami, var., a distinct and good 
species) ; Xevill, Hand-list, p. 292. 

Locality. Tongoop, Arakan. 

Original description : — " Testa late umhilicata, conoideo-depressa, 
acute sinuafo-costulata, albida, interdum ruhello-alhida, versus apicem 
ferruginea, via; translucens. Spira conoidea, apice ohtusula, sutura 
parimi profunda. Anfr. 4 convecci, nltinnis ad periplieriam sub com- 
pressus, ad latus mediocriter tumidus, ibidem confertissime costulatus, 
turn constrictus, prope aperturam non descendens. Spatium, constric- 
tum longitudinis mediocris, cosfulatum, medio tumidum ; tubulum 
suturale mediocre, | ^>erj)j7i(?r?Ve suhcequans. Apertura obliqua, circu- 
laris ; peristoma duplex ; eMei'no breviter incrassato-expanso ; interno 
expaniusculo, contiauo. Opjercidum fusco-corneum, multispirum, ex- 
terne perconcavum , nuclco centrali intus promincnte papillari. 



194 



LAND AND FRESHWATER 



" Size: maj. diam. G-0, min. 5-0, alt, 3|, aper. diam. 1| mm. 

„ 0-24, „ 0-20, „ 0-13, „ 0-07 inch. 

" Habitat prope Toiigoop, Ai'akan. 

" The present belongs to the typical group of Ah/cceus, according 
to !Mr. Benson, and is most nearl}- allied to A. umhonali^, B., from 
Pegu. It is distinguished from that species by its more raised spire, 
smaller size, shorter sutural tube, and shallower suture, by its less 
ol)lique mouth and non-descending last whorl, and by its duplex 
slightly expanded peristome, which contrasts strongly with the 
broadly reversed tip of A. ximhonalis. That species also has the 
upper whorls much more closely, but less sinuously, costulated than 
are those of A. mc/rami. In the subangulatiou of the last whorl at 
the periphery there is some resemblance to the little Thayetmyo 
A. sculptilis, B., which, however, is easilj' distinguished by the 
characters of its creuulated peristome, besides other peculiarities. 
* * * * 

" I have much pleasure in naming this form after Captain Ingram, 
to whom I am indebted for a very large collection of shells, chiefly 
from Arakan and the Arakan hills, and embracing altogether about 
50 species, several of which had escaped my own search. A. inr/rami 
was found in only one spot, viz. in earth, at the sides of a large mass 
of limestone about 3 miles S. W. of Tongoop. There it was abundant." 

ALTciiTJS tJMBONALis, Beuson. (Plate XLIV. figs. 2, 2a, 2b, 2c.) 

Alycceus umbonalls, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1856, vol. xvii. p. 225 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. ii, p. 3G ; Pfr. Xovit. Conch, vol. i. pi. xxxv. 
figs. 18, 19, 20 ; Hauley, Conch. Ind. p. 38, pi. xcii. figs. 8, 9 ; Reeve, 
Conch. Icon, vol. xx, pi, iv, fig. 36 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 40 ; 
Nevill, Hand-list, p. 293 (from Bassein, Thyetmyo, Arakan, and 
typical locality). 

Localit)/. Akouktoung or Kyonktoung, on bank of Irawady River. 

In the Blanford collection there are seven species from the typical 
locality, one of which I have figured ; there is one from Thyetmyo, 
smaller and more globose with higher spire, costulation coarser, and 
on the swollen part each rib is duplicate, and the peristome is 
thicker. Size, major diam, only 9*8, as compared with the largest 
from Akouktoung, which is 11-8. There are also two from the 
Arakan hills, east side, on the Tongoop road, 10-3 in major diam., 
quite like the type except that the peristome is rather better deve- 
loped. From Mai-i, Arakan, I have a single specimen sent me by 
Stoliczka, similar to this species, but with a very shurt bent sutural 
tube, entire, not broken 08"; costulate throughout, but very distantly 
so near the apex. As I have only one specimen I can only consider 
it a variety, and perhaps an accidental one. 

Original description : — " Testa late umhilicata, depressa, suhdisco- 
idea, confertim acute arcuatim costulata, clnereo-aWida, apicem versus 
obtusulum, rubellum vel nigrum, rubesccnte ; spira brevi, sutiira pro- 
funda ; anfractibus 4g convexis, idtimo ad latus, spiraliter rugoso- 
cancellatum, inflato, turn constricto, deinde tMmidiuscuJo, iubtdum 
ntroversum, elongatum suturaleni pone consirlctioncm ge rente ; aper- 



JIOLLUSCA OF INIlTA. 195 

tura valde ohliqxia, circulari, undata, peristomate dapJici, Inteviori 
continuo, expanso, nitidissimo, prope umbilicum sinuato, extariori 
expanso, incrassato, ad anfractum penuUimitm breviter inter r upto ; 
umbilko perspectivo. Opercido corneo-fusco, midtispirato, anfractuum 
marginibus scabre elevatis, extus jjrofunde concavo, intas convexiusculo, 
7iitidissii)io, sidco mari/inato, umbone CL-ntrali papillari munito. 

" Diam. major 10, minor 8, axis 5 mill. 

" Hcdj. ad Akaouktoung, prope ripas fluvii Irawadi, nee raro. 

" The scabrous cancellation of the inflated part o«?y of 

the last whorl is an unusual feature, no trace of the spiral rugae 
appearing elsewhere on the whorls. 

" The origin of the sutural tube is about 4 millimetres from the 
aperture. This shell has much affinitj- with the Bornean Alycceus 
spiraceUum, A. & R., which has a somewhat similar operculum. 
Dr. PfeifFer informs me that it is an Ah/ca:us, and not a Pteroct/clos, 
as conjectured by him before he had an opportunity of inspecting 
the shell." 

Altc^tjs nagaensis, Godwiu-Austen. (^Plate XLIV, figs. 3, 3rt, 
3 b, 3 c.) 

Alycceus ingrami, var. naqaensis, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 
1871, p. 92, pi. V. fig. 2 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 40 ; Nevill, Hand- 
list, p. 292. 

Original description : — " Shell depressedly globose, openly um- 
bilicated, thick, slightly translucent, white, generally covered with 
a thin muddy coating, finely and sharply costulated throughout. 
Spire depressedly conoid, apes blunt, suture impressed ; whorls 4, 
rounded, the last much swollen, constriction close to the base of 
sutural tube, slightly swelling again towards the mouth, quite 
smooth, sutural tube very long and thin. Aperture oblique, circular, 
peristome double, both lips close and slightly expanded. Operculum 
black, smooth, and concave in front, convex at back, with a central 
boss. 
Maj. diam. 8*0, miu. 6"8; alt. 5*0, diam. ap. 3*5, sut. tube 3*5 mm. 

0-32,,, 0-27; ,,0-20^ „ 0-14 „ 0-14 inch. 

" Hab. Neighbourhood of Asiilu, rather local in its distribution, 
but there abundant. 

" Its well costulated surface distinguishes it from the preceding 
variety of A. ingrami.'" 

Altc^tts BRAHMA, u. sp. (Plate XL VIII. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Brahmakund {31. Ogle). 

Shell turbinate, umbilicated ; sculpture very fine, longitudinal or 
spiral hair-like strite, crossed by distant costulation, the ribs alter- 
nately very fiiie ; colour whitish grey ; spire high-conic, apex fine ; 
suture impressed, the tube long; whorls four, well rounded, the 
swollen portion regularly ribbed for the length of the sutural tube, 
then blending gradually into finer costulation, the last suddenly 
flattened just within the umbilical region, constricted sharply just 
beyond the base of the sutural tube, then straight and cylindrical up 



!!)() LAND AND FRESHWATER 

to the reflected inner lij) ; peristome obliciue, crenulated on tlio outer 
lower margin, with four uotches, solid, double, and much reflected ; 
operculum multispiral, with a central dark depressiou. 

Size : major diam. 5*0, alt. axis 4-0 mm. 
0-20 „ 0-1(3 inch. 

This shell in its simple straight portion of the whorl at the con- 
strictiion shows a resemblauce to the Asalu species figured by rae in 
the J. A. S. B. 1871, fig. 3, which I theu thought a variety of A. 
ingrami ; but it is quite distinct, and the Asalu species I now name 
A. hicnniatus. 

Genus E-nArnAULUs, Pfr. 
(Plate XLVII.) 

Bh(q,7mnlus, Pfr. in Novit. Conch, i. p. 75 (1850); Pfr. Mon. 
Pneum. vol. ii. p. 90 (1858) ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 1870, p. 151 
(animal). 

Type 11. chrysalis, Bens. A. M. N. H. 1850, vol. xvii. p. 342. 

Original description : — " OperctdiDn tcnimsimiim, corneum, sub- 
angastispiriim, extas concaviuscuJum. Tcsta iimhilicata, pupime- 
formis; apertura circidaris; perist. subduvh'.x ; internum continuum, 
externum dilaiatum ; ad insertionem marginis dextri canaJi aperto 
perforatum, canali suturali interna profande in caverna spirce desi- 
nente, utrinque pervio."^ 

PfeifFer had described this genus previously under the title of 
Anatjlus, taking as the type A. bombi/cinus, Pfr., from Sarawak, 
Borneo (P. Z. S. 1855, p. 105) ; but he apparently did not retain it 
after creating the genus Rhapliaidus. 

Benson afterwards founded the genus SxREPXAurus (A. M. N. H. 
1857, vol. xix. p. 201), with 8. bJanfordi as type ; it is thus 
described: — " Testa umbilicata, pupiniformis, nitens ; peristoma cir- 
cuJare, non continuum, superne tubuh suturali interno et externa, 
contiauo, ad extremitates ambas aperto, sipJionem mentiente, perfo- 
ratum. Operc. ?" 

As the animal does not differ from that of Rhapliaulus, and as the 
chief point of difference is confined to a single character, the posi- 
tion and form of the sutural tube at its terminal end, Streptaidus 
cannot he considered gcnerically or even subgenerically distinct. The 
form of this tube is most variable, even in the species *S'. blanfordi ; 
in some, as var. tubulus or var. />, it is upright, like that of K. chry- 
salis ; in var. tortuusus y it is directed downwards as in B. pachy- 
siphon and assamica. 

Mr. Benson (Ann. & Mag. INT. H., August 1859, p. 94) has 
described the animal of the genus Rhaphaidus and other genera from 
specimens sent home alive by Captain Haughton, then (in 1859) 
Magistrate of Moulmein, and by Captain Sankey : — - 

" Foot oblong, rounded anteriorly, narrowed posteriorly, and 
rounded at the extremity ; muzzle short, declivous, rounded at the 
front, not emarginate nor lobed ; tentacula somewhat short, slightly 
ringed, pointed at the summits and then slightly tumid, colour a 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA. 197 

pale cinnabar-red ; eyes small, jet-black, situated on tubercles, which 
are on the head, and'joined to the outer base of the teutacula. The 
foot is greyish white, the sole pale, the muzzle a pale reddish buff- 
colour. 

" The operculum, which is carried centrally on the hinder part of 
the foot, about midway between the shell and the tail, is capable of 
being withdrawn beyond the iuternal opening of the sutural tube, 
although ordinarily closing the aperture. 

"There is no organ to be seen corresponding with the internal 
sutural tube, the animal in this respect exhibiting a similarity to 
that of Pterocyclos, which, as described by me in 1836, possesses no 
soft parts calculated to fill the anomalous portions of the shell near 
the aperture. 

" Operculum very thin, horny, concave externally, consisting of 
6| concave volutions with a varnished surface. 

" For the single living specimen of this shell I am indebted to 
Captain E. H. Sankey, by whom it was taken in January. It 
remained closed in its shell until the 27th of June, when it began to 
yield slowly to the means employed to revive it, finally moving 
about and creeping freely under an inverted glass." 

In 1863 Mr. Blanford had au opportunity afforded him of looking 
more closely at the animal preserved in spirit, and Mr. Benson's 
conclusions regarding the absence of any process analogous to the 
tube were found to he erroneous. 

In Mr. Blanford's paper " On the Animals of Raphauhis, Spira- 
culum, and other Tube-bearing Cyclostomacea," Annals & Mag. Nat. 
Hist., July 1863, this subject is well discussed ; and as our knowledge 
of the subject has not been increased since that time, I shall extract 
it in full : — 

"No one can have examined carefully a collection of the operculated 
land-shells of India and South-eastern Asia without remarking the 
peculiar shelly processes of the peristome or suture which charac- 
terize several of the genera. Two principal forms of these processes 
may be distinguished, viz. (1) sutural tubes, either open at both ends 
or closed at one extremity, as in the genera Raphaidus, Spiraculum, 
Opistlwporus, Ah/cceus, &c., or, (2) incisions in the peristome— 
simple, as in Piqnna, Eer/istoma, &c., or accompanied by expansions 
of the outer lip, as in Pterocyclos and Ehiosioma. So far as I am 
aware, no soft parts have hitlierto been observed in the animals of 
any of the above genera, corresponding to the peculiarities of their 
shelly coverings. During the past two or three years, I have ex- 
amined carefully the animals of species belonging to the majority of 
the above-named forms ; and in two instances I have ascertained the 
existence of an organization to which the processes of the shell are 
adapted, these two cases being in the genera Rap)liaulus and Spira- 
culum, which, although by no means nearly allied, agree in possessing 
a sutural tube opening both internally and externally. 

" By the kindness of Baron F. v. Richthofen, I had, some time 
since, an opportunity of examining the animals of several specimens 
of the rare Raphaulus chrysalis, Pfr., from Moulraein in Burma. 



PAKT V. 



S 



198 LAND AND rRESHWATlUl 

The sutural tube in this species opens internally, a short distance 
from the peristome, by a small longitudinal slit, and then passes 
outside the suture to the aperture, where it is deflected upwards, and 
runs vertically for 2 or 3 millimetres on the exterior of the penulti- 
mate whorl, opening to the air at the extremity. I found this tube 
to be partly lined by a perforated process of the mantle, communicating 
internally, by means of a passage beneath the shell-muscle, with a 
very small orifice inside the air-chamber in the neck of the animal, 
and thus affording free access of the air to the pulmonary cavity, 
even when the mouth of the shell is hermetically closed by the 
operculum. The existence of this conformation cannot easily be 
observed during life*, on account of the manner in which the mantle 
lines the interior of the shell ; but after killing the animal in hot 
water, and extracting it from the shell, the little free perforated 
process is distinctly seen, and is then about 2 millim. in length, its 
dimensions having been, doubtless, much contracted bj^ the hot water. 

"The genus Sinraculum of Pearson was established upon the species 
S. hispklum, P. By Dr. Pfeiffer that species has been referred to 
Pteroci/clos, to which it is certainly nearly allied, although there 
appear to be good reasons for its generic separation. I have never 
had an opportunity of examining the animnl of S. hispidum ; but 
in the autumn of 1861 I met with a second species of the same 
genus in the neighbourhood of Ava (S. avanum, mihi). This species 
is furnished with a small tube similar to that in S. hispidam, open- 
ing at both ends, internally inside the body-whorl, close to the 
suture and at a short distance behind the peristome, and externally 
into the air, the short tube on the exterior of the whorl being free 
and curved backwards. The individual which I examined Avas just 
adult ; there was no tubular process of the animal, but it was re- 
placed by a deep notch in the mantle corresponding to the perforation 
of the shell. It is possible that, in older sj^ecimens, this notch may 
become altered into a more or less perfect tube ; but, as the specimen 
examined was full-grown, this is scarcely probable. 

" The other tube-bearing genera with open tubes are Streptcmlus, 
which can scarcely be considered as generically distinct from 
liapJiatdus, and Opif;tliop>orus. I have not been able to examine the 
animals of eitlier of these. The tube in the aberrant genus Alycceas 
opens anteriorly into the body-whorl by a longitudinal slit, as in the 
other genera ; but after running back along the exterior of the 
suture for a greater or less distance, corresponding with the inflated 
portion of the last whorl, it is closed at the posterior termination. 
I have seen the soft parts of several species, including the compara- 
tively large A. umhonalis, Bens., but have been unable to detect any 
organization corresponding to the shelly tube. 

It was long since observed by Mr. Benson that no portion of the 
animal of Pterocyclos appeared to correspond with the peculiar 

* " This is doubtless the reason that the tubular process of the mantle was 
overlooked by so careful an observer as Mr. IBenson, who, I believe, confined 
his observations to the living animal. (See Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, ser 
vol. iv. p. 94.) " 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 



199 



incision of the inner, and cowl-shaped process or wing of the outer, 
peristome. I have examined two or three species * of that genus 
with precisel)' the same result. Amongst the Pupinidse, I have 
examined the animals of a variety of Pajjina artata, Bens., and of 
Hybocystis gravida^ B., but I could detect no trace of any process 
similar to that in Raphaulus. 

"The question of the use of these peculiar tubes in several genera 
of Indian Cyclostomacea, and the reason of their existence in only a few 
forms belonging to two different families (Cyclophorida3 and Pupinidae) 
and by no means closely allied, has always appeared to me of con- 
siderable interest. The first and most natural suggestion which 
would occur to any one is that the tubes in question serve to supply 
the animal with air when the mouth of the shell is closed by the 
operculum. But, natural as this explanation seems, and despite its 
apparent confirmation by the discovery of the perforated ])rocess in 
the animal of Rnphaulns, as described above, a very short considera- 
tion will show the difficulty of accepting it. For if additional 
means of breathing during sestiration are essential to Mcqyhaulns and 
Spiraculum, how do forms so closely allied to them as Pupina and 
Pterocydos contrive to exist without them ? And this is the more 
inexplicable because there are modifications of the shelly portions of 
those genera which apparently represent the sutural tubes of 
llaphaulus and Spiraculum, the close relation of perforations in the 
body-whorl and slits in the peristome being shown bj' such genera 
as Scissurella, Haliotis, and Stomatia, FlssureUa and Einargimda, &c. 
Above all, what explanation can be adopted for the tube in Alycceus, 
perforated throughout its length, but closed at its posterior termi- 
nation ? 

" It is extremely probable that there is a connexion between the 
existence of the sutural tubes in the land-shells mentioned and the 
well-known siphon of Ampidlaria, which genus, from its habit of 
sestivating in the dried mud of tanks, and its power of living for 
months without water, may almost be considered as an amphibious 
mollusk, and which approaches the Cyclostomacea most closely in 
the form of the animal. Another siphon-bearing species is Cam- 
ptony.v, Bens., allied to Otina, which is by most conchologists classed 
with the amphibious Auriculaceae, and I have recently obtained in 
Western India another generic type similarly furnished. It is 
closely affined to Carnptonyx, being intermediate between that genus 
and Succinea. The two last-named shells festivate attached to rocks. 
I am inclined to think it possible that links yet remain to be dis- 
covered between all the siphon- and tube-bearing genera, in which 
the peculiar organization, common under various modifications to all 
of them, is more clearly adapted to the animal's mode of existence 
than in the cases mentioned. It is extremely probable that such 
links may have existed and have become extinct. We can on this 
hypothesis easily conceive that their living representatives or, on the 

* " Aiuongst othei's rhroci/dos puUafus, Bens., fruui Pegu, I', nanus, B.. 
from the Niigiris, and a species (a variety, perhaps, of P. alhersi, Pfr.) from 
Arrakan." 



200 LAND AND FKESEWATKR 

theory of Darwin, their modi tied descendants possess the organiza- 
tion, in a more or less perfect condition, whicli ^yas essential to their 
predecessors, but is no longer equally necessary to their own exist- 
ence, and that, in short, the various apeitural slits and imperforate 
tubes of Pterocydos, Fupina, Ah/ccevs, &c., must be regarded in the 
same light as rudimentary organs. By this hy]wthesis, also, we can 
understand the appearance of the more perfect conditions for com- 
munication between the atmosphere and the hmg-chamber of the 
animal in widely separated forms, while others closely allied to each 
of them are more or less deficient in all traces of a similar organiza- 
tion, and the occurrence of a gradual passage from tube-bearing 
genera to others totally destitute of any modification of the peristome 
or suture is perfectly natural. The tube of Sjnracidicin becomes an 
incision in the peristome in Pteroajdos, the Burmese forms of which 
are closely allied to species of Cydoplwrus like C. calyx, Bens., 
which have a thickened operculum and a minute rudimentary wing- 
shaped projection of the outer lip, close to the suture ; and from 
these forms, again, there is a passage to discoid species, like C. 
stoiostomus, Sow., with perfect peristomes. In the same way we 
may pass from Rajjhaidus, through Piipinetta and Piqnua, to 
Reyistomn, and finally to Callia, and through Cataulus to Meyalo- 
mastorna. To the subject of the affinities of these various genera, 
however, and especially of the aberrant Alycceus, I hope to refer in 
a future communication." 

EHAPHArLus PACHYsiPHON, Thcob. & Stol. (Plate XLVII. figs. 3, 
3rt.) 

Bhap7iauh(S iKidiysi2^hon, Theobald & Stoliczka, Journ. A. S. B. 
1872, vol. xli. p. 329, pi. xi. fig. 1. 

Rhaphcndus , Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 53, pi. cxxxiii. fig. 4. 

Bhnphaidus • , Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 40 ; Nevill, Hand-list, 

p. 302. 

Original description : — " R. testa cylindraceo-ovata, angnste per- 
forata, solida,fi(Sca ; spira obtusa, apice ad latus indinato, excentrico ; 
anfractibiis 5g convexiiiscidis, transversim confertissime strlolatis, ad 
siduram simplicem adpressis ; anfractu penidtimo sensim, ultimo 
valde, descendente, primo snpra aperturam depJanato, altera ad 
siduram paido constricio, ad basin convexiuscido ; apertura fere verti- 
cali, circidari, peristomate pallide fttscescente, plane expanso atque 
crasso, sup>ra ad anfradnm penuUimum Icdjio attenuato et fere horizonti 
adnata, postice (aut siipra') ad sutia-am tubulo crasso, dejlexo instnirto. 
Long. 12-6, lat. anf. penult. 7*6, diam. apert. cum perist. 6-2, apert. 
int. 3*6 mm. 

" Hab. prope Moulmain, valle Ataran fluminis. 

" A rare and very distinct form from any of the other known species 
by its distorted spire and externally bent down sutural tube." 

Rhaphaijll's chrysalis, Pfeiffcr. (Plate XLVII. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Cyclostoma chrysalis, Pfeiffer, P. Z. S. 1852, p. 158. 

Anaidus chryscdis, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1856, vol. xiii. p. 342. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 201 

Rhaphaulus chrysalis, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1859, vol. iv. p. 94 
(desc. animal and operculum) ; Pfr. Mon. Pneum. vol. ii. p. 92 ; 
Sowerby, Thes. Conch, pi. cclxv. figs. 6, 7 ; Hanley, Conch, Ind. 
p. 63, pi. cxxxiii. fig. 7. 

NiajihauJus chrysalis, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 40 ; Nevill, Hand-list, 
p. 301. 

Original description : — " C. testa umbilicata, distorto-ovata, solida, 
striatula et inmctato-malleata, fiisco-carnea ; spira irrer/idariter ovata, 
apice conoidea, acutiusctda ; sutiira levi ; anfract. 6, conveanusculis, 
pemdtimo latere ap)erturali plamdato, idtimo axigustiore ; apertura 
verticali, circidari ; perist. crasso, dilafato, patente, rejieoco, margine 

siqjero linca horizontal! adnato. Operculum ? Long. 16, 

diam. 9 mill. Hah. Ava." 

Stoliczka, in 1871, described the animal of this species as fol- 
lovFS : — " I have only obtained a single live specimen at the Farm 
Caves near Moulmain. The animal was pale greyish white, with a 
slight fleshy tinge ; tentacles rather long and pink; rostrum stout, 
the red oral parts shining through at its base ; the frontal edge is 
slightly lobed. There is a regular canal leading from the pulmo- 
nary cavity backwards, then piercing the mantle and entering the 
tube, which runs again forward on the internal side of the last whorl 
below the suture, until it terminates in the external apertural tube. 
The form of this tube is different from that of Pupina or Alycceus, 
but it is very much the same as in Streptaulus." 

RHAPHAiiLtrs AssAMicA, n. sp. (Plate XLVII. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 

Locality. Brahmakhund (3/. J. Ogle). 

Shell elongatcly cylindrical, solid, rather tumid, flattened on the 
frontal surface of the penultimate whorl; sculpture regularly 
closely costulate ; colour dull umber-brown ; suture moderately im- 
pressed ; whorls 6, penultimate the largest with sides flat, the next 
much smaller and convex ;' aperture perpendicular; peristome very 
thick, double, both continuous, but the outer only has a thin callus 
on the whorl. 

The sutural tube has its origin on the upper outer margin close 
upon the outer lip, is colourless, and turns sharp downwards behind 
it, extending to nearly the height of the last whorl. This peristo- 
mial tube is not a tube in the strict sense of the term, but in section 
is semicircular, an arch outside resting upon the body-whorl, which 
forms the diameter. An inner sutural tube follows the suture 
backwards ; it opens internally 3 mm. within the aperture, it is in- 
distinctly shown on the exterior, but the lines of costulation extend 
over it, differing thus from what is seen in the similar tube in 
Streptaulus hlanfordi, Bs. 

Operculum horny, of 8 close- wound whorls ; origin central. 

Largest. Size : major diam. 8*3, diam. ap. 4*0, alt. axis 16'75 mm. 
0-33, „ 0-16, „ 0-66 inch. 

Smalhsf. „ 5-0, „ 3'8, „ 13-2 mm. 

0-20, „ 0-15, „ 0-52 inch. 



202 LANB AND FRESHWATER 

This shell is similar in general construction to lUiaphaulus pachy- 
siphon, Stol. & Theob., from Moulmain, but it is considerably larger 
and tlic sutural tube terminates closer to the peristome, while in the 
latter it is sejjarated from it. 

Rhaphaultjs blanfordi, Benson, (Plate XLVII, figs. 4, 4 a, 4 6, 
4 c.) 

Streptanlus blanfordi, Benson, A. M. N. H. 1857, vol. xix. 
p. 201 ; Pfr. Mon. Pncum. vol. ii. p. 92; Sowerby, Thes. Conch, 
vol. iii. pi. cclxv. figs. 8, 9 ; Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 187(3, 
p. 172, pi. viii. A. figs. 2, 3, 4 ; Hanley, Couch. Ind. p. 53, 
pi. cxxxiii. tigs. 5, 6 ; Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 40 ; Nevill, Hand-list, 
p. 302. 

Var. a. intiibus, Godw.-Aust. 1. c. pi. viii. fig. 3. (Plate XLVII. 
fig. 5.) 

Var. /3. TUBDLTJs, id. 1. c. pi. viii. fig. 4. (Plate XLVII. fig. 6.) 

Var. y. TORiuosus. (Plate XLVII. fig. 7.) 

Var. abnormal. (Plate XLVII. fig. 8.) 

Original description : — " Testa umhiUcata, ohlonga, polita, regn- 
larittr oblique striata, striis prope suturam siibmarginatam fortiori- 
bzis, lineis tionnullis spiralibus decussatis, fiisco-cornea, translucente ; 
apice obtusiusculo ; anfractibus 5 convexinsculis, penidtimo ventri- 
cosiori ; apertura magna, subcirculari ; peristomate simplici, rejlexo, 
subrevoluto, inarginibns callo parietali tenui junctis ; tubuli suturalis 
parte externa longa, pone junctionem labri breviter arcuatim elevata, 
suturam subtus e.vhibente ; umbilico impervio. 

"Long. 7g, diam. 5 mill. Long, apert. (peristomate incluso) 
4 mill. 

" Hab. prope Darjiliug, in montibus Himalayanis Sikkimonsibus. 
Teste H. Blanford." 

" .... In Streptaidus the tube is first internal, and on arriving 
at the aj)erture is suddenly reflected, and instead of forming an 
opening in the lip above the aperture as in R. bombycinus, or ending 
in a short upright tube as in R. lorraini or chrysalis, Pfr., it describes 
a short arch behind the lip, and then runs to some distance along 
the external suture, as in Alyca;us. In texture and colouring Stre^^t- 
aulus agrees with RliapJiaidus, not with Alycceus, and it is entirely 
deficient in the strangulation and swelling which characterize the 
anterior portion of the last whorl in all the species of the latter 
genus. It inhabits the same tract with Megalomastoma funicidaium. 
None of the larger Pupiform Cyclostomacea are known to travel 
farther towards the north-west." 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



203 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIIL* 

Fig. 1, I a, I b,l c. Alycaus hehes, Benson, X 7. Khasi Hills. 

2,2 a, 2 b. notahis,Qr.-K., X 1. Dafla Hills. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, 3 c. damsangensis, G.-A., X 7. W. Bhutan Hille. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIV. 

Fig. 1, 1 a, 1 A, 1 c. Alyc(Suswgrami,W. T. Blf., X 24. Tongoop, Arakan. 

2, 2 a, 2 h, 2c. umbonalis, Bs., X 2"4. Kyouk-touug, Pegu. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, 3 c?. naffaensis, G.-A., X 2'4. Asalu, N. Cachar Hills. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLV. 

Fig. 1, la. Diphmmatina polyplmris, Bs., X 12. Khasi Hills. 

2, 2 a. austeiii, W. Blf., X 12, N. Khasi Hills. 

3, 3a. silvicola, G.-A., X 12. N. Cachar Hills. 

4, 4 a. daflaensis, G.-A., x 7. Dafla Hills. 

5, 5 a. silvicola, small var., X 12. N. Cachar Hills. 

6, 6 a. saltuense, G.-A., X 12. N. Cacliar Hills. 

7,7 a. kufto7ii, Bs., X 12. N.W.Himalaya. 

7 b. Apex of ditto, x 20. [Indies. 
8, 8a. DiplommaHna occidentalis,(ji.-A., X 12. Trinidad; West 

8 b. Apex of ditto, X 20. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVI. 



Fig. 1, la, 16. Biplominafina gracilis, 'BeAd.jX 12. 

2,2a. gracilis,\ar., X 12. 

3,3 a, canarica, BqAA., X 12. 

4, 4 a. pitpeeformis, Theob., X 7. 

6, 5 a. sperata, W. T. Blf., X 7. 

6, 6a. ketizadaoisis, G.-A., x 12. 

7, 7 a. nicobarica, G.-A., x 12. 



Vizagapatam, Madras. 

Vizagapatam, Madras. 

North Canara. 

Shan States, Burmah. 

Arakan. 

Pegu. 

Nicobar Islands. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVII. 



Fig, 1, 1 a. Bhaphaulus chrysalis, X 2"4. 

2. assamica, G.-A., X 2-4. 

2 a. Ditto, X 1-6. 

2 b. Ditto : front view of aperture, X 2'4. 

3,3 a. Bhaphaulus p achy siphon, X 2'4. 

4. 4 a. blanfordi, Bs., X 2-4, 

4 b. Ditto : posterior termination of sutural 
4c. Ditto: operculum, X 7. 

5. Ditto, var. a. intubns, X 4, 

5 a. Ditto, ditto : aperture, front view, x 4. 

6. Ditto, var. /3. iubulus, X 2-4. 

6 a. Ditto, ditto, X 4. 

7. Ditto, var. y, tortuosus, X 4, 

8. Ditto, abnormal var., X 24. 



Moulmain. 
Eastern Assam. 



Moulmain. 
Eastern Himalaya. 
tube, X 12, 

[Himalaya. 
Dafla Hills; Eastern 

Dafla Hills. 

[Bhutan Hills. 
Damsang Peak ; W. 
Damsang Peak. 



* Plates XLIII.-LI. published June 1884. 



204 I.ANO AND KKESIIWATEK 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLVIIL 

Fig. 1, 1 CI, \b,\c. AlyccBus chennelli, G.-A., X 7. Nnga Hills. 

2. chennelli, var. Lhota-Naga Hills. 

o. brahma, G.-A., X 7. BrahmakunL 

3«, 3^1, 2>c. Ditto, X 4. 

4, 4 a, 4Z>, 4c. Alycmis qemnmla, Benson, X 7. Darjiliug. 

5, 5«, 56, 5 c. pacJiitaensis, G.-A., x 7. Dafla Hills. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XLIX. 

Fig. 1. Biplommatina exilis,V^' .HIL, X 12. Ava. 

2, 2«. exsertafl^iiw, X 12. iVIoulmain. 

3, affinity, Theobald ?, X 12. UpptT Salwiu valley. 

4, 4 a, 4i. crisj;>afa, iitol., X 12. Moulmain. 

5,5a. a«^«/«Aif, Tlieob. & Stol., X 12. Mouluiaiu. 

(i, (i a. nam/, W. T. Blf., X 12 and 7. Pegu. 

7, 7 «. edentiila, G.-A., X 12. Muulmain. 

8, 8 a. carneola, StoL, X 1^ and 7. Moulmain. 

1). piqjjiensis, W. T. Bit'., X 12. Upper Burniah. 

10,10 a. blanfonUana,'Bs.. x 7 and 12. Darjiling Hills. 

11,11a. theohaldi,n. SI)., Gr.-A., X 12. Darjiling. 

12. • 'pidlula, Bs., X 12. Darjiling. 

13, 13rt. »ii?jma, Bedd., X 20 and 12. South India. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE L. 

Fig. 1. Diplovwiatlna oUgopkuris, W. T. Blf. Teria Ghat. Drawn 
from lii'e, creeping and at rest. Enlarged. 

2. Diplommatina folliculns, Pfr. Mussoorie. The shell held in the 

hand, showing manner of protrusion of the rostrum and the 
various forms the animal assumes. Enlarged. 

3. Bipjlommatlna in&ignis, G.-A., x 12. Spirit-specimen. 

4. blanfordiana, Bs., X 12. Ditto. Western Bhutan. /, 

foot ; o, operculum ; sjn, shell-muscle ; b.c, branchial sac. 

5. Diplommatina blanfordiana, Bs., X 20. Portion of the head 

under slight pi'essure, showing: — r, radula ; b.p, buccal plate; 
t, tentacle ; e, eye ; o, otolith ? ; m, mantle. 

5 a. Ditto : portion of buccal plate, X 3G0. 

6 b. Ditto : otoliths ?, X 360. 

('). Diplommatina insignis,(3!.-A.: portion of radula, X 3G0. 
6 a. Ditto : ditto. 

6 b. Ditto : centi'al and lateral teeth of radula in different positions. 

Very much enlarged. 

7. Diplommaiina pachychcilus. Ivhasi Hills. Portion of the shell 

enlarged, showing the position of the operculum (o) and con- 
striction (c) in the penultimate whorl, the internal parietal rib 
or lamella (r), and the columellar twist or tooth (t). 

7 a. Ditto : ditto, another view. 

7 b. Ditto : vertical section anterior to the opei-culum. 

7 c. Ditto : horizontal section at the operculum, when withdrawn 

into shell to the full extent : the arrow shows the anterior .■^ide 
of same and direction towards the aperture; col, columella 
rest of lettei'ing same as above. 

8. Diplommatina blanfordiana, Bs., X 12. Darjiling. Showing 

similar constriction. Front view. 

8 a. Ditto. Ditto. Viewed from side. 

y. Diplommatina insignis, G.-A..: operculum, x 20. 



M0LLT7SCA OF INDIA. 205 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LI. 

Fig. L Cyclophorus aurora, Bs., c5', X 24. Animal from spirit-speci- 
men. Damsang Peak, W. Bhutan Hills, vi, the mantle drawn 
back, showing {a.o) the anal orifice and 2^ tlie penis ; r, the 
rostrum ; /, sole of foot folded together; sjn, shell-muscle ; o, 
operculum. 

2. Cyclojihorus aurora, Bs., ? , X 2'4. Spirit-specimen. Animal 

withdrawn into the shell. Viewed from the outer side of the 

aperture. Greater portion of shell broken away, showing foot 

folded together. Same locality. 
2 a. Ditto : ditto, X 2-4. Viewed from the right side. 
2b. Ditto : ditto, X I'fi. Viewed from the left side, showing form of 

the mantle and the branchial cavity {b.c). 
'2c. Ditto: ditto, X I'fi. Viewed fi-om the right side, to show the 

shell-muscle {s.m). 
'2d. Ditto: ditto, x I'G. The mantle cut and opened back, to show 

the anal orifice and interior of the branchial cavity. 

3. AlyccBus naffaensis, G.-A., enlarged. Animal from spirit-speci- 

men. 

4. bicrenatus, G.-A.. One row of the radula. Much enlarged. 

5. bembcx, Bs. Sutural tube (t) of the whorl of the shell 

broken away, to show the internal orifice of the same {p.t). 

6. Alycceus nagaensis, G.-A., x 7. The outer right margin of the 

shell broken away, to show the sutural tube {t) in the internal 
orifice of the same {o.f). 
6 a. Diagrammatic section of the frontal edge of the mantle (;«) in 
Alycceus, by which the sutural tube is formed. 

7. Rhaphaulus blanfordi, Bs., enlarged. Animal removed from 

shell, showing the sutural or branchial tube {t). 

8. Ditto, X 7. Shell with margin broken away, to show the internal 

orifice {o.t) of the sutural tube {t), extending forward to the 
peristome. 

9. Bhaphaulus blanfordi, Bs., X 20. A portion of the shell near 

suture, to show the internal sutural tube {t) and the external 
sutural tube (?!'), corresponding to that in fig. 7. 
9 a. Diagi'ammatic section of the same across the front edge of the 
mantle (iii), to illustrate the supposed formation of the internal 
and external sutural tubes {t, t'). 



LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 



OF 



INDIA. 



Part VI APRIL 1888. 



(Plates LU.-LXn.Se2^te,nber 1887.) 



INTRODUCTION. 

In this Part I take up again the genus MacrocMam)js, figuring 
some small species of the M. petasus type, and a very diverse group 
from the Kashmir and Punjab mountain area, represented by M. 
jieminyi. Gray's genus Girasia next follows, and the very closely 
related subgenus Austcnia, which I commenced in Part IV. p. 148, 
is Continued. 

The slug-like snails of Southern India will bo found of extreme 
interest, and are included in Africarion, while there is also a re- 
markable new subgenus of Girasia, which I name Dekhania. 

Through the kindness of Mr. J. B. N. Heunessey, of the Indian 
Survey Department, I am enabled to clear up the position of a 
species which had hitherto been uncertain, viz. Bensonia lahiata of 
Pfeiffer {Helix inonticola of Hutton) ; it is, I find, so close in its 
characters to the genus Oxijtcs that I consider Bensonia a good 
subgenus. I'he characters, as regards the animal, that differ much 
are the odontophore and form of the mucous gland, but the shell is 
very dift'erent to typical Oaijtes of the Eastern Himalayan and Assam 
ranges. We thus have three divergent characters. When we re- 
member the scores of molluscan genera founded on no other character 
than that of the shell, then for those conchologists who support the 
system of subgenera, Bensonia csiXi stand as a subgenus of 0.r_j/^^s and 
its Western Himalayan representative ; and I adopt this view instead 
of suppressing it. The more perfect we can build up our necessarily 
artificial classification of the animal kingdom the better ; and with 
this end in view I consider the forming of subgenera a most 
valuable aid as well as the adoption of named varieties or sub- 
species, it mattei's little what we call them, and it is only carrying 
the system a step further. It may not be so essential, or even 

PAKT VI. V 



{^Plates published September 1887.] 



203 



LAND AND FKESH WATER 



required at all in some groups as in others ; but where modification 
of outward form exists, and also chanj>;es in the various internal 
organs, as in these Indian Mollusca, then gradation in classification 
can, with advantage, be extended beyond that of genera and species. 
Characters seem to me like the strands of a plait made up of 
diff'erent colours, which are renewed from time to time, increased 
or decreased in number as they are worked into it ; they run 
through a certain length of the plait, representative of time, each 
succeeded in turn by a new strand, the new cliaracter, which takes, 
ns it were, the place of the other — yet not exactlj^ for each successive 
strand never holds the same position one to the other previously 
held ; they are intermingled in every conceivable manner as the 
plait is extended — some are short, some long, some thick, others 
again fining away to mere threads. How very representative 
these threads or strands are of the altering character of allied forms, 
and how dimly, yet how distinctly, certain older characters are pre- 
sented to us on close examination of all their parts ! In the land- 
mollusca the characters given below are all of importance and should 
all be separately looked at before any attempt is made to assign 
a species to its proper genus, and, finally, to classify the genera with 
any degree of accuracy. 

Characters. 



Internal. 
a. Radula. 
a'. Jaw. 

h. Generative organs. 
b'. Capreolus or spermatophore. 

c. Other organs, renal kc. 

d. Retractor muscle attachments, of 

buccal mass, tentacles, &c. 



External. 

A. Form of foot and its proportion in 

con1pari^"on to the shell or the 
mantle-lobes. 
A'. Mucous pore and other orifices. 

B. Mantle-lobes, form of. 
B'. Texture of epidermis, pedal line, 

and segmental groovings. 
B". Tentacles. 
0. Shell. 

Enough is now known of the above in genera of Indian Mollusca, 
so far as I have been able to examine and treat of them in this 
work, to place a few in relative position, and as near as we can do 
so in a lineal arrangement, in or near which it will not be difficult 
to iutercallate those that have yet to be examined. This may be 
considered somewhat premature work ; but as time goes on other 
interests arise, bringing different work, and good sight (so much 
needed for tliis kind of investigation) may fail, so that it is best to 
bring observations together before making any fresh departure. 



MOLLTjSCA op ISDIi.. 209 

M^kC^ocRhi.'Hts (continued from p. 122). 

Sliells of small size, conoid or depressedly conoid, with smooth 
polished surface ; whorls closely wound. 

Macrochlamts ? coNSEPTA, Beusou. (Plate LIIL fig. 1.) 

Macroclilamiis consepta, Benson, A. M. N. Hist. 1860, vi, p. 190 { 
1863, xi. p. 320. 

Hdix consepta, Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 239. 

Maeroclilamris (sec. B) consepta^ Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 19. 

Nanina (iMacrochhnnys) consepta, Nev. Hand-list, p, 22. 

Locality. Moulmain {0. Linihorg). 

Shell not umbilicated, discoid, flat on base, glassy, solid ; sculp- 
ture none ; colour pale ochraceous, with grey on the inner whorls ; 
spire low, apex flat; suture shallow; whorls 7, closely wound, 
regularly increasing, rounded on periphery; aperture narrowly 
lunate, somewhat subangular on upper margin, subvertical ; peri- 
stome thickened, sinuate below. 
Size: maj. diam. 17-0, min. 15-8; alt, axis 6'3, body-whorl 5-3 mm. 

For the original description see Part IV. p. 111. 

Macrochlamts ? woodmasoni, n. sp., Nevill, MSS. (Plate LIU, 

fig. 2.) 

Locality. Little Coco Island, Bay of Bengal. 

Shell not quite mature, perforation minute, very depressedly 
globose, glassy, rather solid ; sculpture quite smooth ; whorls 6, 
closely wound, flat above, subangulate above on periphery. 
Size: maj. diam. 9-5, min. 8-0 ; alt. axis 3-o, body-whorl 2-8 mm. 

This shell is a small form of those closely wound shells represented 
by M. resplendens in Tenasserim. The animal of this last I have 
not yet been able to get, so that its true position in or near the 
genus I place it in has yet to be made out. 

Macrochlamys ? LAXUs, n. sp. (Plate LIU. figs. 8, 8 a.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, southern base of Khasi Hills. 

Shell discoid, umbilicated, solid, glassy ; sculpture none ; colour 
milky white or grey ; spire low, apex convex ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 5, impressed, rounded on periphery, regularly increasing; 
aperture laterally ovate, not flat at upper margin ; peristome 
thickened, very oblique on lower margin. 
Size : maj. diam. 9-0, min. 8*5 ; alt. axis 3*4, body-whorl 3'0 mm. 

I was at first inclined to think this the same as the next described 
shell, M. hepatizon, but the constancy of the form and size of the 
Teria-Ghat shell, its colour, and the very difierent form of aperture 
are distintive enough. 

Macrochlamys hepatizon, n. sp. (Plate LIU. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Habiang-Garo HiUs (t. e. the south-eastern side of that 

range). 

V 2 



210 LAND AND FHESHWATKR 

Shell discoid, umbilicated, solid, base flat ; sculpture none ; colour 
pale liver-brown ; spire verj- low, apex flat; suture very shallow ; 
whorls 5, regularly increasing ; aperture suboval, flat on the upper 
margin, subvertical ; peristome thickened, sinuate below, very 
oblique from columellar margin. 
Size : maj. diam. 14*0, min. 12-8 ; alt. axis 5-0, body-whorl 4*8 mm. 

Maceochlamts ? HEPATizoN, n. sp. (Plate LIII. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 h.) 

Locality. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills. 

Shell umbilicated, discoid, glassy ; sculpture short, microscopic 
longitudinal stria3, not continuous; colour pale sienna-brown, 
whitish below, with a stronger defined brown edging at the aper- 
ture ; sjjire very low, apex flat ; suture shallow, adpressed ; whorls 
5, flat above, rounded on periphery ; aperture narrowly lunate, sub- 
vertical ; peristome thin, very oblique on the columellar margin and 
but little reflected at the perforation, slightly sinuate below. 
Size : maj. diam. 12-75, min. 11-2; alt. axis 4"8, body-whorl 3-S mm. 

Maceochlamts? petasus, Bs. (Plate LTII. fig. 6.) 

Helix petasHS, Benson, A. M. N. Hist. 1859, iii. p. 388; Pfr, 
Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 97. 

Ma crocJilami/s {sec. A) j^etasus, Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 18. 

Naniaa {Microcystis) petasus, Nev. Hand-list, p. 35. 

Locality. Phie Than, Tenasserim (ex coll. W. T. Blanford) 

Shell very narrowly perforate, glnbosely conoid, flat on base, 
rather solid, polislied ; sculpture indistinct transverse lines of 
growth, otherwise quite smooth : colour pale ochre ; spire sub- 
depressed, apex rounded, sides nearly flat ; suture shallow ; whorls 0, 
somewhat flatly convex above, rounded on peripher}', closely wound; 
aperture lunate, nearly vertical ; peristome thin ; columellar mai'giu 
oblique, nearly straight, not reflected. 

Size: maj. diam. ll'S, min. 9-5; alt. axis 5*0, body-whorl 4*0. 

A specimen from same locality (ex Indian Museum), sent me by 
Mr. (1. Nevill, is identical. The animal of this species has not 
been examined. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, orhicvlato-convexa, 
racliato-striatula, niiida, translucente, cornea; spira hrevi, con- 
vexiuscula, apice elevatiusculo, obtuso, sutura leviter canaliculata ; 
anfractibus G, convexiusculis, lente accrescentibus, ultimo ucl peri- 
pheriam valcle rotundato, subtus convexo ; apertiira subverticali, late 
lunata, peristomate intus ad maryinem ipsum albo-labiato, maryine 
basali arcuate, columellari ad perforationem brevissime reflexo. 

" Diam. major 10, minor 9, axis 4 mill. 

" Var. spira convexiori : Diam. major 91, minor 9, axis 4| mill. 

" Habitat ad Phic-Than, vallis Tenasserim. 

"A small polished Xanina of the vitrinoid type, notalle chiefly 
for its shallow canaliculate suture, and for the labiation, which is 
so even with the edge of the lip, at the base, as to give a solid 
ap])earance to the .shell." 



MOLLUSCA OF IKDIA. 211 

Macrochlimys subpetasus, d. sp., Nevill, MS. (Plate LIIL 
fig. 7.) 

Locality. Arakan Hills, west side (ex coll. W. T. Blf. No. 40, un- 
named). 

This is No. 137, 2ud var., of Nevill's Haud-list, p. 35, 12 sp., 
Arakan, ex coll. Dr. F. Stoliczka and W. T. Blanford, Esq. 

Shell scarcely perforate, depressedlj' globose, polished, rather solid, 
flat on base; sculpture none; colour pale sienna-brown; spire 
moderately impressed : suture low, apex rounded ; whorls 6, closely 
wound; aperture narrowly lunate ; peristome rather thickened on 
the outer angle ; columellar margin oblique, straight, strong. 

Size : maj. diam. 7"8, min. 7-2 ; alt. axis 3*5, body-whorl 2*7 mm. 

Mackochlamys ? PATANE, Bs. (Plate LIII. fig. 5.) 

Helix patane, Benson, A. M. N. Hist. 1859, iii. p. 270; Pfr. 
Mon. Hel. vol. v. p. 113; Mai. Blat. 185!), p. 22; Conch. lud. 
p. 52, pi. exxx. figs. 5, 6, 7. 

Macrochlamys (sec. D) patane, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 19. 

Nanina patane, Nev. Hand- list, p. 27. 

Locality. Darjiling (ex coll. W. T. Blanford). 

Shell subperlbrate, globosely conoid, shining; sculpture smooth, 
with radiating, rather irregular, transverse ridges ; colour pale dull 
ochre; spire rather high, sides very slightly convex; whoils (?, 
convex, rather closely wound ; aperture semilunate, diagonal ; 
columellar margin oblique, thin, but slightly reflected. 

Size : maj. diam. 10, min. 9-2 ; alt. axis 5-0, body- whorl 3*4 mm. 

Not having seen the auimal of this species I cannot with cer- 
tainty place it in the above genus. 

Original description : — " Testa perforata, suhconoideo-clepressa, 
tenui, fragili, radiatim rugoso-striatula, nitidula, diap>7iana, lutes- 
cente-cornea; spira depresso-conoidea, apice nitido, hyaliao, ohtnso, 
sutura impressa ■; anfractihns 5, convexiuscidis, lente accrescentibus, 
ultimo antice leviter descendente, ad pjeriplieriam rotundato-compresso, 
subtus convexiusculo, ad periomphalum excavato ; apertura obliqiia, 
transverse lunata, pieristomate tenui, acuto, margine basali arcuato, 
columeUari breviter expanso. 

" Diam. major vix 9, minor 8, axis 4 mill. 

" Habitat ad Darjiling, rarissime. 

" Allied to the Tenasserim //. petasus, B., but differing in its 
inferior lustre, irregular rugose sculpture, thinness, absence of 
labiation, and of margiuation at the suture. Mr. W. T. Blanford 
appears to have seen only the single specimen here described, and 
which, although taken in a dead state, is in fair condition." 



212 XAND AND FRESHWATER 

"With globose tumid Vitrina-like shells, the aperture large and 
expanded. Sculpture smooth, or with an irregular, wavy 
surface not amounting to ribbing. 

MA.CKOCHLAMYS FLEMiNGi, Pfr. (Plate LIV". : uuimal, figs. 1, 1 ff, 
16, 1 c ; shell, 1 c?, 1 e.) 

Vitrina feniiiir/i, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 324; Pfr. Mou. Hel. 
p. 790; Pfr. Novit. vol. i. pi. 28. figs. 1-3; lieeve, Conch. Icon, 
fig. 3. 

VUi'ina Jlemingiana, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 29, pi. Ixvi. figs. 5, 6 
(Scinde, this locality is very doubtful). 

HeVicarionJi(;mingi, sec. 1), Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 24 ; Nevill, Hand- 
list, p. 15 ; Nev. Second Yarkand Miss., Moll. p. 14. 

Lomlitij. Murrec (T/ieohald), 6500 ft. 

This is a species I had long wished to see, and again I am 
indebted to Mr. Theobold for the specimens I now figure and de- 
scribe ; the preservation by him of these forms in spirit has proved 
invaluable, and places another species in its true jx)sition. 

Original description : — " V. testa suhchyi-essa, ijeripheria aitri- 
formis ; soUdula superne plicato-striata sirns(iue spiralibus snh lente 
notata, ceneo-micante, olivaceo-fulva ; spira parum elata ; sutnra 
anguste alho^ manjinata ; anfr. 4|, convexiusculis, uUimo magno, 
infra medium ohsoletissime angukito, hast hevigato, nitidinre ; 
apertura diagomdi, lunafo-ovali, intus margaritacea ; perist.simplk-e, 
margine dextro sabrepando colunullari arcuato, superne triangula- 
tim rejiexo, adnato. 

" Diam. maj. 33, minor 24 ; alt. 17-18 mill. 

♦' Hab. Scinde, India (Dr. Alex, Fleming):' 

This locality must be a mistake ; I cannot believe a species so con- 
stituted could live in such a dry country or survive tbe long, rain- 
less summer and its great heat, and the type is in every respect 
identical with specimens from the Murree Hills, Punjab. 

The specimen figured measures : — Major diam. 34-5, minor 
28-0, alt. axis 14-0 mm. 

The animal (figs. 1 and la) on examination proves to be a true 
Macrocldamys and not a Helicarion, as supposed by some con- 
chologists. The right shcU-lobo is well developed, as well as the 
left shell-lobe, tlic left dorsal lobe being simple. The mucous pore 
(fig. 1 b) is large, the orifice not extending to tbe plane of the foot, 
and there is n very distinct overhanging lobe. The pallial line is 
very distinctly marked. The generative organs are almost identical 
with those of (Xryt's orohia {vide PI. XXXIL). The male organ has 
the same disk-like coil where the retractor muscle is given off. The 
kale-sac is rather longer. The amatorial organ is very large. 
Most fortunately the sperraatheca in the specimen examined was 
found to contitin three spermatophores in a most perfect state of 
preservation— two empty, one full. These and those found in 0. 
labiata, described further on, clear up a good deal of uncertainty which 
existed in my mind as to the foim, when entire, and the exact 



M0LLTJ3CA OF INDIA. 213 

position of such fragments of these curious accessoiy organs as I 
have found from time to time when dissecting these spirit speci- 
mens, and which I have figured on Plates XXVIII., XL., and LXI. 
The spermatophore in this species consists of a verj^ elongated bag 
17 mm. in length, with a hard papillate head, fining out to a thin more 
or less bent rod. This bag or sack narrows gradually at the 
basal end, and is inserted into a long, hard, chitinous portion, 
which can l)est be likened to a long piece of house-guttering, which 
instead of being straight is curved, both sides of the gutter being 
fringed as it were with bifid spines. It is this hard portion which 
is commonly preserved and which one generally finds more or less 
broken up into short lengths. The pattern of the spines it is seen 
varies in different species, and gives us another character. 

The Odontojohore. The teeth are arranged thus : — 
62 . 3 . 24 . 1 . 24 . 3 . 62 
89 . 1 . 89 
The central teeth tricuspid, as in the genus ; the median bicuspid, 
the inner tooth much the longest. The outermost laterals very 
minute, bicuspid. Thus we find that although the generative organs 
are like species of O.vi/fes, the odontophore follows the type of 
Macrochlamys. The jaw has a large central projection on the 
concave side. 

I have now before me six examples from Tundiani, near Murree, 
sent me by Mr. Theobald, the same as those referred to by him in 
his paper on the shells from that place, published in 1881. They 
are minutely, regularly, and spirally striate under a lens (like fig. 9, 
PL XXL), the strife being very sharply defined. He named them 
H. austiniaims ; but I consider they are only the young of M. 
jlcmingi. The description of the animal, which is that of a Mn- 
crochlamys, is fortunately given. The animal is furnished with a 
large mucous pore behind, and carries a long linguiform process of 
the mantle capable of extension to the apex, and is one of those 
species which, though so provided, does not possess a polished shell*. 
The texture of the shell (epidermis) is during life delicately 
sericeous, from the fine striation of the epidermis. 

Size: maj. diam. 17'0, min. 13-8, alt. axis 7*0 mm. 

Colour olive-green or olivaceous bro-s\^n. 

Maceochlamts altivagus, Theobald. (Plato LIV. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Helicarion JJeiningii, var. altlvagus, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1878, 
p. 143. 

Locality. Uri, Jhelum valley, below Baramula Kashmir {coll. 
Theobald). 

Original description : — " Of this form I have only a few dead 
shells. The largest measures 31 x 23 x 14 mills., and it differs 
from the type by being much flatter. I only met with it sparingly 
above Uri." 

* Compare this description with thnt of H. _flemuigi, \ar. b, given iu the 
J. A. 8. B. 1878, p. 143, which is certainly another species and genus. 



2L4 lAKD AND FEESHWATKK 

Shell dcpressedly oval, not umbilicated ; sculpture finely plicate, 
crossed by fine longitudinal striation, whicli is most marked near 
the apex ; colour rich olive-green ; spire very flatly conoid ; apex 
blunt ; suture shallow ; whorls 4, the last much expanded ; 
aperture ovate ; peristome simple, columcllar margin subvertical, no^ 
thickened. 

Size: maj. diara. 31, min. 23 ; alt. axis 9, body-whorl 14 mm. 

Animal not observed. 

A small variety of 21. Jtcininf/i (not //. stoliczl-anus, Kevill, as 
named), from Damtour, near Abbottabad, 1 note in Mr. Theobald's 
collection, measuring major diam. 27'5, alt. axis lO'U, of a rich 
olive-green or olive-brown colour. 

MACROCHLAMrs CASSiDA, Hutton and Benson. (Plate LIY. figs, 
3, 3fl.) 

Vitrina cassida, Hutt. & Bens. J. A. S. B. vol. vii. (1838) p. 214 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iii. p. 2 ; Eeeve, Conch. Icon. Vitrina, fig. 10 
(from Benson's specimen) ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 61, pi. clii. figs, 
2, 3 (" The surface is dull, and shows in the type here figured, not 
merely concentric folds, but, also, some faint and distant spiral 
striae"). 

Hdicarion (sec. C) cassida, Theobald, Supp. Cat. p. 24 ; Xevill, 
Hand-list, p. 15. 

Locality. Kashmir {coll. lluohald). 

I am not at all sure, in figuring this species from Kashmir as 
M. cassida, that it is the same in every respect as the form de- 
scribed by Hutton and Benson from near Simla ; it must be very 
close ; but until I can obtain specimens in spirit from the typical 
locality I cannot be certain. The large size of the aperture of the 
shell rather points to a form like F. (? Atistenia) mimticvla, of 
Hutton, from Mussoorie. In fact until these animals are all 
hunted up in the place where they were originally obtained and 
described doubt will shroud any attempt at naming those from other 
parts of the Himalayas. 

Original description :— No. 1, II. cassida, Hutton. " Testa ovato- 
di'prcssa, 2JaUide cornea radiatint sirioIata,juni.oris cpidermide sericta, 
atate nitore orbata, anfractilms {'j^tenuUima etiam intra ajicrturam) 
ventricosiorilnts ; apertura patula, rotundato-ovcda ; spira convexa, 
apice e.rsertiuscula, ininime obtusata ; aufractibus 5, veJociter crescenti- 
hus. (B.) 

" Greatest breadth 1 inch 2 lines. 

" This shell has a more exserted sj^ire tlian any other species 
known to the writers. This character, notwithstanding the great 
size of the aperture, coupled with the ventricose appearance of the 
penultimate ^^horl within the aperture, gives the shell an Helici- 
form air. It is very closely allied in habit to a species lately de- 
scribed from Almorah, but differs from it in its greater size and 
paler colour, and in the want of the i)olish which is observable in 



MOLLUSCA OF INIHA. 215 

the Kumaon shell. It equals in maguitude the iSylhet ' Vitrina 
gigas,' from which singular macrostomatous species it altogether 
differs in form. (B.) 

"At Simla it is not uncommon, during the rains or even after 
heavy showers at other seasons, creeping out from the holes of 
stonewalls and the crevices of rocks, with the grey colour of which 
its own hue assimilates so much when concealed hy its mantle, that 
it is not easily discovered. It occurs from Bhar to iSiutla, hut most 
abundantly between the former place and SubaiJni. 

" Animal varying in colours, sometimes pale brownish, at others 
(lark grey. Two broad leaf-like processes, rising to a point, are 
spread over the shell when the animal is in motion, so as entirely 
to conceal it, and presenting the appearance of a large grey slug 
■with a hump-back : a fleshy anal horn, as in the gciius Nanina ; 
foot very long ; tentacula 4, the superior pair longest, buttoned at 
the tips and bearing the eyes. Orifice on the right side below the 
leaf-like process." This is the respiratory orifice, and the description 
of the animal shows that it is similar to M. Jlcminc/i of the Murree 
Hills. " Shell large, of 5 whorls, ventricose, suddenly increasing ; the 
body-whorl forming nearly all the shell. Transversely wrinkled by 
the lines of growth ; ajierture transverse, ovate, broader than long, 
discovering the previous whorls ; margin acute, interrupted on the 
body-whorl. Epidermis varying in colour from yellowish to olive- 
green. In young specimens lustrous when placed on its spire, the 
aperture appears as if the jiillar-lip had been obliquely sliced off. 
The animal carries the shell horizontally on its back, the spire 
pointing upwards." (H.) 

Macrochlamys AiJSTENiANrs, Kcvill. (Plate LIV. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 6.) 

Helicarion aiistenianus, Kevill, Moll. Second Yarkand Mission, 
p. 14, figs. 22, 24 (1S78) ; Theob. J. A. S. B. 1«8], p. 45; Nevill, 
Hand-list, p. 15. 

Locality. Sonamurg, Kashmir {Stoliczl-a). 

Original description : — " Shell much smaller than that of H. 
Jicmingi, more globose, suture more excavated, and. the spire more 
raised, apex more distinct; more rudely and regularly concentrically 
plicated ; whorls 5, more convex, the last one not nearly so much 
dilated ; texture thinner and more membranaceous, of an equally 
dark but brighter and more glossy colour; aperture about as high 
as broad ; base a shade more convex, imperforate ; columcllar less 
oblique, very short and abrnptly triangularly refiected. 

" Diam. 15g, axis 7^, apert. lat. 9^^, alt. Iji mm. 

" Some dozen specimens, several of which are preserved with the 
animal in spirit, were brought back from Sonamurg, Kashmir." 
They were collected by Ferd. Stoliczka on his way to Yarkand with 
Mr. Forsyth's Political Mission. 

The specimen figured is from the original locality. This lies on 
the extreme limits of the range of the Indo-Malayan molluscan 
fauna and the limit of forest north of Kashmir, near the water- 



218 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

parting. Crossing the Zogi-La into the I;adak district of Dras 
there is a most complete change — one enters a sterile, dry country 
of higher elevation, altogether Tibetan in character. In a two days' 
march every shell belongs to the so-called European molluscan 
fauna. The specimen in my collection is smaller than the type, 
being major diam. only 13, and alt. axis 6-5 mm. The surface is 
smooth ; there is not the slightest trace of spiral striation, which 
specimens from Murree, assigned to this species, possess to a very 
marked extent. 



Subgenus Girasia. (Plates LV., LVI., LVIII., LIX., 
LX., LXL, and LXII.) 

Girasia, J. E. Gray, Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 61 (March 1855). 

Bojjlites, Theobald, Journ. A.. S. B. 18G4, p. 244 ; Godwin- 
Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 291. 

Ibi^/cus (very similar), described from an imperfect specimen by 
Heyneman, Malakoz. Blatt. (18G2),p. 142, pi. i. fig. 3 (Darjiling). 

Vitrina, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. vi. 

Helicarion {IJoj:)Jites, Austen ?), Pfeiifer, ed. Clessin, Nomen. 
Helic. Yivent. p. 30. 

Parmarion, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 13. 

The following original descrijition is imperfect ; no mention is 
made of the mucous gland, save in the synopsis of the generic 
section in which it is placed (/. c. p. 52) : — " Body united to the 
back of the foot, only separated by the convex hinder edges. Shell 
partly exposed, ovate, expanded, with a solid a^jex. Back of the 
neck (under the collar) with three grooves, the central groove 
between the tentacles double-edged ; the lateral one single, bent 
down on each side to the sides of the head at the back of the 
lower tentacles ; the head is only partly retractile, so that the base 
of the upper tentacles, which are completely retracted, are exposed 
on the top of the head like two ])erforations * ; the aperture of the 
generative organs is rather beliind the base of the right tentacle. 
The hinder part of the body attached to the back of the foot 
nearly to its hinder end, which is separated from the deep concavity 
on the back of the foot by a deep lunate cross groove. In all these 
particulars the animal exactly agrees with the Portuguese sjiecics of 
Drusia^f. 

Type hooJari, Gray. Khasi Hills, described further on. 

Gray added three other species : — 

1. "G-'irosi'fl? ruldlum, Hutton, Afghanistan ; Kandahar. In Ainil 

* This describes tho Btate of tbe Bpirit-epecinien with tlie tentudea 
inverted as usual. 

t It caunot have any rehttionship. 



MOriUSCA OF INDIA. 217 

crepuscular." Which may be a Parmacella, for there is no mention of 
the mucous pore. It is thus described in J. A. S. B. 1849, p. 649 ; 
Arch. Naturg. 1852, p. 239: — "Animal bright gamboge-yellow, 
with four tentacles ; posterior portion of the body behind the shell 
keeled ; shield strengthened internally with a shovel-shaped shell of 
a pearly or nacreous appearance, obtuse and globose at the apex, 
with a deep sinus, covered with a thin, transparent epidermis, 
transversely wrinkled by the lines of growth ; colour white. 
Length ^, breadth about J of an inch." 

Since writing the above I have happily received from Mr. M. 
Ogle, of the Indian Survey Department, who has sent me many 
shells from time to time, a slug-like form from the ranges on the 
Kandahar and Khelat frontier. This, from its keeled foot and 
shovel-shaped shell, cannot be anything else than this species, 
ruteUum of Hutton, or one allied to it. It has no mucous pore ; 
it thus belongs to a group very distinct from Girasia. I have ex- 
amined the animal ; it is unlike any of the eastern forms with which 
I am acquainted, and must be put in a new genus, which I propose 
to call Candaharia, which I shall describe and figure later on. 

2. Girasia eaHranea, Feriissac. Habitat unknown. Hist. Moll. ii. 
96. — " Shell a thin horny pellicle, without any appearance of a 
spire. Mantle with a circular opening showing the brownish 
pellicle. Foot truncated behind, with a subcaudal pore the whole 
length of the truncation, with a very strong keel above to the back 
of the shield. The body encased in a nick in the back." This 
agrees well with the form of the typical species. 

3. G'mfstrt ? j:;»-o?)?«)!n<?Vrt, Ferussac, Hist. Moll. ii. p. 96. Habitat 
unknown. — " Mantle much produced, forming a collar in front. 
Body convex and raised behind. Foot small, shi)rt. Shell yellow, 
convex externally, concave internally, like a half egg-sheU." — Des- 
hcn/es, from Ferussac's figure. This is very unlike the type. 

About the same period Fischer described the genus Fannarion, 
in the Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 1855. (The paper bears 
date June 1855, the part March 1856 ; so that Mr. Gray's 
title would have priority.) Fischer places in it the following 
species : — 

infumatm, Fer. (Gray, Fig. Moll, plate 286. fig. 1). Hab ? 
(Placed in Drusia, by Gray.) 

extrcmeua. For. (Gray, Fig. Moll, plate 286. fig. 2). Hab. ? 

rangianns, Fer. Bourbon and Madagascar. (Placed in Drusia? 
by Gray.) 

prohlematicus, Fer. (Gray, Fig. Moll, plate 286. fig. 4). Hab. ? 

From the drawing of infumatus hy Ferussac, one would be led 
to suppose that the shell is very rudimentary, and entirely con- 
cealed by the mantle-lobes. Unfortunately the habitat of this 
species and extraneus is unknown and never likely to be satisfac- 
torily established. 

Dr. Semper, in his fine work, Reis. Arch. Phil. 1870, p. 9, 
places in Parmarion two specimens, pupillaris, Humbert {jyrohle- 
matica, Fer.?), from Java, and extraneus, Fer., obtained through 



218 LAND AND FRESDWATEK 

Herr Pierre, from Calcutta. I am in great doubts as to the correct 
identification of the latter species, which Semper figures on plate i. 
fig. 5. To my knowledge no forms like the Xhasi-Hill G. hoolceri 
have ever been taken in the country around Calcutta. If it was 
found in the Botanical Gardens there, it may have been brought 
from up the country in baskets of plants. Several imported species 
have been in this way introduced there from time to time ; and 
some may have become established. Again, although sent fiom 
Calcutta it may not have been taken there. 

Yon Martens, in his account of the Land Shells in " Die Preus- 
siche Expedition nach Ost-Asien," follows Pischcr, placing the Javan 
forms in I'annariun, and describes at length F. 2>f'J>ii'(i>'is, Hum- 
bert (pi. 5. figs. 7-8, animal ; and pi. 12. fig. 3, shell), with its three 
varieties ^«/>u-<ato, inarmorata, and vittata. There are also taniatus 
and retitulatus, Hasselt ; luteus a.wdjjlaniis, Mousson. These Javan 
mollusks are evidently extremely close to the Burmese and Indian 
forms, and may eventually have to be included in Girasia. 

Nevill in his Hand-list of tlie Mollusca in the Indian Museum, 
Calciitta (1878), adopts Pannanon for two typical forms of Girasia 
from the Khasi Hills, croceus and hruniiens. 

The subgenus IlopJitcs was proposed for the Ivhasi-Hill slug-like 
forms by Mr. Theobald ; but he gave no description of the genus, 
nor did he indicate the species, beyond saying it was 2 inches long, 
from Teria Chat. It was probably my II. theohaldi, P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 517, = G. hoolceri. 

The following will be an emended description of the genus as 
}>resented in tlie typical sjjecies : — 

Shell rudimentary, horny, narrow, elongate, of one simple 
whorl ; colour olivaceous, apex white, the central portion of the 
inside of the shell covered with a milky-white callus. About 1 inch 
long. (Plate LV. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 h.) 

Animal slug-like, long, mantle largely developed ; shell and dorsal 
lobes are united all round ; and the shell is entirely covered by the 
former, with the exception of a narrow area on the posterior left 
margin. Prom the anterior right margin of this area a well-marked 
cicatricial line runs forward to just above the respiratory and anal 
orifice, and marks the usual distinct division of the shell-lobes in 
Aastcnia and Durgella, and their complete separation, as in Ma- 
crochlamys, into a left (frontal) and right (posterior). The dorsal 
lobes are divided diagonally forward from the respiratory orifice into 
a large left dorsal lobe and (behind and adjacent to the orifices) a 
smaller right dorsal lobe ; on the extreme posterior side a slight 
beading marks the junction of these lobes with the shell-lobes above. 
This portion of the animal is sunk into a deep V-shaped, smooth, and 
unwriiikled depression in the back, where the dorsal ridge of the 
foot terminates suddenly. Extremity of the foot truncate, with a 
large linear mucous gland; the pedal line is ver}' distinct. 

Genital aperture near the lower and outer base of tlie right 
tentacle. 

The foot is divided longitudiijally into thice subequal median iind 



M0LLIT9CA OF INDIA. 219 

lateral areas, and is distinctly segmented, the major divisions on the 
pallial edge of the foot being continued in V-shape from one side to 
the other, the angle being directed backwards in the spirit-specimen ; 
but they are no doubt straight when the animal is alive. 

These mollusks are abundant during the rainy season in Assam 
and other parts of the adjacent country, but in the cold weather are 
very difficult to find, and then only under stones and logs in damp, 
low situations. Some may be found on rocks and on the boles of 
trees in the forest. One species, G. croceus, I found crawling over 
the tall grasses 12 feet from the gronnd; and I should not have 
seen it, only that I was hunting for some butterflies at the time 
which were flying about high over the jungle. 

GiRAsiA HooKERi, Gray. (Plate LV. figs. 1, la, Ih, animal; 2, 
2 a, 2 b, shell ; and Plate LXII. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Girasia hoolceri, J. E. Gray, Cat. Pulm. Brit. Mus. p. 61 (March 
1855) ; Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 291, 292, 294, pi. 
xxvii. figs. 2, 3, 4. 

Hoplites tluohaldi, G.-Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 517. 

Original description : — " Shell oblong, elongate, slender, arched 
concentrically, very thin, horny, wrinkled ; thicker, but equally 
horny, in the upper part of the centre ; the apex thick, white, solid, 
suboblong, elongate ear-shaped, with a lateral submarginal spire of 
half a whorl. 

" Hah. India, Khasya {Dr. Joseph HooTfer)." 

The living animal is of a pale yellowish dull grey, under surface 
of foot pale light yellow. The mantle-lobes completely cover the 
shell ; a w hitish stripe extends from the posterior side forward 
along the edge of the left lobe ; and a like narrow stripe from the 
hinder part of the mantle is conlinued to the respiratory orifice on 
the right side. The animal is in all points of structure similar to 
//. croceus, but larger by ^ an inch ; the shell is very rudimental, 
major diam. 0-56, minor very narrow ; the apex is well developed 
and more calcareous, the rest of the shell being a mere thin horny 
epidermis of a pale green colour. 

This specimen was from Masjerri, N.W. Khasi Hills. Another 
is described in my notebook as follows : — 

Length 3'3 inches, of a pale brown colour. Tentacles 0-2 inch in 
length, the shell-lobes almost entirely covering the shell. The 
centre of exposed shell is situated 0-7 inch from the head. There 
is a strongly marked line from the posterior shell-margin down the 
ridge of the foot, and seen best when this is extended. 

The largest specimens seen were 3-9 and 4*2 inches long. 

Hah. Moyong,iN.W. Khasi Hills. 

The radula (Plate LXII. fig. 1) has a greater number of teeth in 
a row than is seen in Macrocldamys. 

95 . 2 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 2 . 95 
115 . 1 .115 



220 LAND AND PBESHWATEH 

The median teeth have a basal toothlet on the outer margin ; the 
laterals are all biscuspid, the outermost being very small. 

Jaw (PL LXII. fig. 1 a) with only a slight projection on the 
middle edge. 

Generative onjans of G. hookeri, var, shillougensis. — In every way 
similar to Austeaia gigas, Bs. The ovo-testis consists of five 
separate bunches or lobes of very minute globdar follicles, each lobe 
having a separate duct leading to the main hermaphrodite-duct ; 
this gradually widens, and becomes much thickened, with several 
sharp convolutions ; it then suddenly contracts again, leading to 
the junction of the albumen-gland. Here a short pear-shaped 
caecum is conspicuous (only seen in one specimen). 

The albumen-gland was not perfect, but appeared as if formed of 
two lobes (from above specimen). 

The prostate was wide, ribbon-like ; the oviduct with three or 
four great folds, which extend to the posterior termination of the 
spermatheca, which is not so long as to be infolded by it. The vas 
deferens is given off a very short distance below the end of sperma- 
theca, high up the oviduct ; and it extends backwards to near the 
base of the penis and amatory organ, in a loop, to join the former 
close behind a ctecum-liko appendage rounded at the end (the caecum 
calciferum). The penis is bent on itself, where a long process is 
given off, to which the retractor muscle is attached. The amatory 
organ (dart-sac) is a long cjdindrical body, becoming finer towards 
the posterior end ; its retractor muscle has its attachment with that 
of the penis, close below the apex of the shell, in the body-cavity. 

The spermatheca is of the same size as the latter, and in this 
specimen presents a swollen sac below, terminating in a short, thin 
cylindrical point, which is buried amidst the convolutions of the 
oviduct. The form of spermatheca depends entirely on the number 
of spermatophores it contains. 

The si)ermatophore is similar to that of Austenia gigas, but rather 
shorter, the sac being 0*3 inch long. The cervicorn processes at the 
base are strong and numerous, much branched above (P. Z. S. 1880, 
pi. xxvii. figs. 8, 8 a). The basal duct is 0*2 inch in length. Three 
of these were found in the spermatheca examined. 

GiKAsiA HOOKERI, var. BEUNNEA, G.-A. (Plate LX. figs. 3, 4, 
from nature.) 

Girasia hooheri, var. hrunnea, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B, 
1875, p. 5. 

Helicanon (sec. A) hrunneus, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Parmarion hrunneus, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 13. 

Ilelicarion hrunneus, Pfr. ed. Cles. Nomen. Helic. Vivent. p. 30. 

Animal a rich brown, mottled on the mantle with dark sepia, dis- 
tinctly mca'ked ivitli jiurcdkl groovings, that extend from the zigzag 
paUial line running along the side of foot, the margin of which is 
edged below with a series of short, dark, fringe-like markings ; 
foot beneath dark ochre. Large portion of shell exposed, which is 
of same form as that of O. hooJceri, var. shillongense. 



MOLL03CA OF I>rDT\. 221 

Dimensions when fully extended : — 

Incli. 
Extremity of foot to posterior end of mantle . . 1-5 

Mantle 1'6 

Anterior end of mantle to head 0-47 

Total 3-57 

Eye-tentacles 0-32 

Breadth of body 0-56 

Hob. Shillong, Khasi Fills, in grassy localities. 

GiEASiA HooKERi, var., G.-A. (Plate LX. fig. 5, from life.) 

Girasia Jiool-eri, var. shillongensis, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 
1875, p. 4, pi. ii. figs. 1, 1 « ; id. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 234. 

Hdicarion (sec. A) shlllonjensis, Pfr, ed. Clessin, Nomen. Helic. 
Vivent. p. 30. 

Animal ochre-colour, the mantle being slightly paler than the rest 
of the body ; there is no longitudinal grooHng on the side of the 
foot, which, viewed under a lens, is covered with minute protuberances 
evenly distributed ; foot beneath dull ochre-brown. 

Shell horny, thin, long and narrow, pale green in colour. 
Length 0"-9, diam. 0"-28. 

The dimensions of these creatures are not so easily taken, the 
different parts expanding and contracting alternately. 

Inch. 
Extremity of foot to posterior end of the mantle . . 1*9 

Mantle 1"5 

Anterior end of mantle to head 0*9 

Total 4-3 

Eye-tentacles 0*42 

Another (Plate LX. fig. 5, from life) animal dark umber-brown ; 
body concolorous, the mantle a shade lighter, nearly covering the 
shell in both varieties ; the foot beneath is ash-coloured ; in this 
particular specimen there is a slight abnormal indentation at the 
anterior edge of the mantle. 

inch. 

Extremity of foot to posterior edge of mantle 1'70 

Mantle 1-70 

Anterior end of mantle to head 0*95 

Total 4-35 

Eye-tentacles 0*45 

Hab. Shillong. Both those forms are merely local varieties of 
hooJceri. 

A specimen obtained, also at Shillong, in April 1 875 was 4 inches 
long, of an olivaceous brown. An examination of some twenty 



2:i2 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

specimens from the Khasi Hills* shows that they vary very much in 
colour, from pale ochre to dark brown and even pale grey, while 
some arc dappled, and others very much spotted on the mantle and 
sides (var. mactilosus). I notice, too, that while some have the white 
raised rib near the periphery of the shell very well marked, in 
others it is absent, so that this is a most variable and unreliable 
character. It is apparently due, as is also the surface of the body, 
to the amount of atmospheric moisture at the time, and the size of 
the shell-lobes is greatly dependent on the same. 

GiRASiA BURTii, G.-A. (Plate LXI. fig. 2, shell ; and Plate LXII. 
figs. 3, 3 rt.) 

Hclicarion (HopUtes) hurtii, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. 13. 
1870, p. 314, pi. viii. fig. 6. 

Girasia hurtii, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294. 

Orirjiiud description: — ■" Shell dull white, very horny in texture, 
the apex scarcely developed, outline rounded above. Major diam. 
0"-30. 

"Animal grey-brown in colour, the largest measuring as follows : — 
mantle to head 0"-40 ; mantle 0"-80, mantle to extremity of foot 
0*50 ; or total length when moving l"-5." 

Hah. The Borelli Tea Garden, near Tezpur, Assam ; discovered 
by Mr. J. Burt, after whom I name it, and who found it abundant 
on the bark of trees during the rains (July). It is of the true 
typical form of Girasia, but in its very rudimentary, white, horny 
shell it is quite distinct from any of the other species I am ac- 
quainted with. I have since, through the kindness of Mr. D. McT. 
Lumsden, received a number from Pauiputer Tea Garden, in the 
same district, north of the Brahmaputra ; they vary somewhat in 
colour, and a few are mottled. I am thus able to give some further 
details. The generative organs (Plate LXII. fig. 3 h) like type, the 
amatorial organ shorter and blunter. The jaw (Plate LXII. fig. 3 a) 
curved in front, no central projection. The central teeth are narrow 
and long, with the small cusp low down on the outer side ; the 7th 
and 8th are transitional in form, with the point of the outer cusp 
nearer to the main point ; from the 9th outwards all are of the 
simple, evenly bicuspid form, becoming gradually smaller. (Plate 
LXII. fig. 3.) 

186 . 2 . 6 . 1 . G . 2 . 186 
194 . 1 .194 
being many more than in G. hookeri. 

Girasia radha, G.-A. (Plate LX. figs. 6, 6 a, living animal.) 

Hdicarion (HopUtes) radha, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 1876, 
p. 314, pi. viii. fig. 4. 

Girasia radha, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294. 

Original description : — " Shell similar to that of H. shillongensis. 

* Since sent me by Mr. M. Ogle. 



Moi.r,TjscA or India, 223 

Animal rich ochre, sparsely dappled with grey-black on the mantle 
and tail. 

" Length 3"-0, head to mantle 0"-50, mantle l"-3, mantle to end 
of foot l"-0, tentacles 0"-38. 

" Hah. Banks of Radha Pokri (tank), near Narainpiir, Darrang 
district, Assam; only one specimen was fonnd, in the early 
morning." 

It is a close ally of the Khasi-Hill forms O. Jiooheri, &c., but its 
very different coloration and markings distinguish it. The shell 
is more rudimentary than in that species, being extremely thin and 
membranaceous, and is only a local variety on this side of the Brah- 
maputra of 6r. hurtii. 

GiRAsiA. CROCEA, G.-A. (Plate LX. fig. 2, drawn from life by the 
author, and Plate LXII. fig. 6.) 

Hi'limrion (HopUtes) croceus, Godwin-Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 517, pi. XXX. figs. 9, 9a. 

Helicarioa croceus (sec. A), Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23 ; PfeifFer, ed. 
Cless. Nomen. Helic. Vivent. p. 30. 

Parmarion croceus, jS^evill, Hand-list, p. 13. 

Original description : — " Shell very flat, rudimentary, oblong, thin, 
horny, transparent, pale yellow-green, with a longitudinal band of 
dark green, most intense on the outer margin, extending from near 
the pale^coloured apex to the edge of the peristome ; spire very 
short, apex flatly curved ; peristome membranous, very thin, trans- 
parent ; within the single body-whorl the colour is pale milky with 
some blue reflections. 

" Diam. major 0*75, minor 0'35 inch. 

" Animal is of a fine bright saff'ron -yellow colour ; when contracted 
it has a richer gamboge tint ; mantle mottled with pale yellow ; a 
narrow edging of yellow extends round that portion of the mantle 
covering the shell ; another narrow band extends from the posterior 
left side of the mantle towards the anterior left side, fining out and 
terminating about f inch from the edge. From the posterior right 
side a short line of yellow extends as far as the respiratory orifice ; 
outside edge of foot very pale yellow, and almost white below ; ex- 
tremity of foot truncate, with a gland as in H. f/i{/(is. Length of 
animal 2^ to 3 inches ; tentacles pale yellow, 0-45. 

" This very handsome species is very abundant during the height 
of the rains in the valleys below Cherra Poonjee ; and in the living 
animal the small portion of shell not hidden by the mantle-lobes is 
of a jet-black colour." I first found it crawling over the tall grasses 
high above the ground, by the side of the road a few hundred feet 
above Teria Ghat. In the odontophore (Plate LXII. fig. 6) of 
this species we find considerable modification when compared with 
the type species, and there is a distinct approach to what is seen in 
Durgella khasiaca, viz., an even bicuspid central tooth. The first 
9 median teeth are indistinctly bicuspid, while all the outer are 
evenly biscuspid. The whole series decreases gradually in size to 

PAET VI. X 



22-i LAND AND FRESHWATER 

the outermost laterals, and the teeth arc numerous, arranged 
thus : — 

100 . 9 , 1 . 9 . 100 

110 . 1 . no 

GiRASiA NAGAENsis, G.-A. (Plate LXI. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 6, 3c.) 

Helicarion nagaense, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B, 1875, p. 5, 
pi. ii. figs. 3, 3 rt, 3 6, 3<". 

Oirasia nar/aensis, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294. 

Helicarion (sec. A) nacjaensis, PfeifFer, ed. Cless. Nomen. Helic. 
Yivent. p. 30. 

Original descriptioir. — " Animal ochre-colour, prettily mottled and 
dotted with a darker shade of the same ; the mantle covers nearly 
the whole shell ; a narrow white line, commencing near the 
posterior margin of the slit disclosing the shell, extends round 
towards the respiratory orifice on the right-hand side, and in front 
another line curves round to the loft anterior side. Mucous gland 
as in H. f/ir/as. Length about 3 inches. Shell ovate, exceedingly 
thin and brittle. 

" Major diam. 0'90, minor diam. 0-55 inch." 

GiRASiA DALHorsi^, n. sp. (Plate LXI. figs. 1, 1 a, and Plate 
LXII. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

The Station of Dalhousie, Chamba Hills ( W. Theobald). 

The animal in spirit is of a very pale ochre tint, with no markings 
of anj' kind. The mantle as in typical Girasia, the thin shell show- 
ing in an oval opening of the shell-lohcs. 

The shell is of an olive-brown colour, convex above, oval on the 
periphery, membranaceous, broader than in the type, or in G. crocea, 
with a very thin, white, shelly lining. 

Major diam. 13-0, minor 8-0 mm. 

Length of animal in spirit 0-30 mm. 

The radula is arranged thus (Plate LXII. fig. 4) : — 

128 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 128 
144 . 1 . 144 

It differs somewhat from the eastern species ; the central tooth is 
very long, narrow, and tricuspid ; the median teeth are much curved, 
the points directed somewhat outwards, they are tricuspid, but not 
sharply so, the inner cusp being indistinct ; the laterals are bicuspid, 
the outer cusp being larger and rounder in form than the inner. 

Jaw straight in front, with only a very slight central projection 
(Plate LXli. fig. 4 a). 

This is the first species of the genus Girasia I have seen from the 
N.W. Himalaya, and it is therefore of interest as regards distribu- 
tion : there was only a single specimen in the bottle sent me by 
Mr. Theobold, so that it will be important to find it again in the 
same locality ; the species associated with it (i. e. in same bottle) 
were all N.W.-Himalayan forms. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA, 225 

QuRASiA PAyK:\BARiEN"3rs, 11. sp, (Platc LIX. figS. 1, I rt, 1 6, 
animal.) 

Paiikabari, foot of Darjiling Hills (coll. F. Stoliczha). 

Animal with the right and left mantle-lobes united, the line of 
junction well seen, as in the Khasi-Hill typical form ; the mantle 
appears to he slightly speckled. The shell is deeply sunk in a 
depression, the ridge of the foot behind being on a level with the 
shell. It is the first true Qirasia I have seen from the Darjiling 
countr}'. 

Shell has been removed and is in the Calcutta Museum. 

Generative organs immature. 

Odontophore : + 100 . 2 . IG . 1 . 16 . 2 . 100 + 

118 . 1 . 118 

Teeth gradually decreasing in size from centre to margin. 

Jaw straight, with a very slight central projection. 

GlKASIA CINEREA, G.-A. 

Qirasia cinereus, G.-A., J. A. S. B. 1876, p. 314, plate viii. 
fig. 2. 

The shell was not described when taken, and it has since been 
mislaid. The desci'iption of the animal, which is of more importance, 
is as follows : — 

Original description : — " Animal, when fully extended, long and 
narrow, colour dusky grey, mantle with a papillate surface slightly 
spotted, the spotting being coarser on the body and tail. Tentacles 
short and blunt, with the oral ones very close below them. 

" Length 0"-75, mantle 0"-40. 

" Hah. On the Darpang river, foot of the Dafla Hills, under old 
logs in the forest." 

GiRAsiA MAGxiFicA, Nev. & G.-A. (Plate LVI. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
animal ; 5, 5 a, shell.) 

Helicarion magmficus, Nevill, Journ. A. S. B. 1877, p. 24. 

Hdicarion (Aastenia) magnijiciis, Nevill, J. A. S. B. 1881, p. 129, 
pi. V. figs. 23, 23« (shell). 

Qirasia magnijlca, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294, pi. xxiv. 
figs. 1 and 2 (animal). 

Helicarion (Austenia) magnijictis, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. 

Ne\dirs paper, " List of the Mollusca brought back by Dr. J. 
Anderson from Yunnan and Upper Burmah," contains the 

Original description : — " I am indebted to Major Godwin-Austen 
for pointing out that this magnificent slug, the largest yet known 
of the genus, is quite distinct from Benson's Helic. gigas (Khasi Hills) ; 
Godwin-Austen has kindly undertaken to describe the animal with full 
details and a figure, so that it is only necessary for me here to state 
that it is very closely allied to the Assam species, but that the shell 
is much larger, of a brown (not green) colour, with the body-whorl 
much more flatly expanded, and the spire less convoluted and more 

i2 



226 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

depressed, and that, looked at from imderneatli, verj- mucli less of 
the reflected body-whorl is visible. The largest specimen in spirit 
measures 70 mills. 

" Shell, diam. maj. 4G, axis 11^-, apert. lat. 401, alt. 29-i- mil. 

" Tolerably abundant at Momein, in Yunnan, at 5500 ft.'' 

Teiig-Yue-Chow is the locality given by JS'evill in his Hand-list. 

This giant of the genus was first figured by me in the P. Z. S. 
1880, from a drawing I had made when in Calcutta of a specimen 
in the Museum there, but at the time I subsequently described the 
genus Girasia 1 had no specimen of it by me to examine. I after- 
wards received one from Mr. Geoffrey Nevill, and this I have figured 
again in this work. As will be seen by the uniting of the shell- 
lobes the shell is almost completely covered by the mantle, the 
cicatrix marking the junction of the right and left being well 
displayed. The extremity of the foot behind is sharply keeled, and 
ends abruptly just behind the shell, which is sunk in a depression, 
as it were, anterior to the keeled foot. The mucous pore is a long 
vertical slit behind. In the odontophore the centrals are of the 
usual form in this group, but the laterals are long, curved, and 
pointed, the outer cusp being situated very much below the apex. 
In this respect it is like the labial ribbon of a species described by 
me as G. yigas var. minor of the Burrail Range, Naga Hills 
(J. A. S. B. vol. xliv. 1875, p. 10, plate iii.), a species which I have 
renamed bidleri, as it is a Girasia, not an Austenia, 

The generative organs of G. mac/nijica are as in the type ; the 
amatorial and male organs are only smaller in comparison to the 
size. Spermatophores were present in the spermatheca and were 
about 35 mm. in length, in every respect similar to those figured by 
me in the P. Z. 8. 1880, fig. 4, pi. xxvi., with some modification 
in the number and form of the cervicorn processes, as represented in 
fig. 5. 

Girasia btjtleri, G.-A. (Plate LX. fig. 7.) 

Helicarion gif/as, small var., Journ. A. S. B. vol. xliv. 1875, p. 6, 
plate iii. (animal, nat. size). 

Austenia (jigas, var. minor, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294, 
plate XXV. figs. 1, 5, plate xxvii. figs. 9 and 10. 

? IlcJicarion {Austenia) resplenclens, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. 

This species is thus described in my note-book : — " Animal dark 
ochre-brown, with very dark marking, particularly noticeable along 
the margin of the foot." 

Hah. Between Samaguting and Ivohima, Xaga Hills. 

Shell: major diam. 21-5 mm., minor diam. 18 mm. 

,, 0-84 inch „ 0'55 inch. 

Of the same form as A. gigas, but with a fine glassy lustre and 
olivaceous brown. I have now only the shell in my possession, and 
it would be very desirable to obtain more specimens from this 
locality and examine them more closely. In its shell-lobes it is 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 227 

very like A. f/igas, from Teria Ghat, but the hinder part of the foot 
is more like that of Girasia hooTceri. 

In size the shell is that of Helicarion resplendeus, described by 
Nevill, J. A. S. B., from specimens collected by Dr. J. Anderson at 
Sawady, on his journey to Yunnan ; but I have never examined the 
original specimens ; it is possible they are one and the same species. 

Girasia peguejtsis, Theob. (Plate LIX. figs. G, 6 a, 6 b, animal ; 
6 c, 6 d, shell.) 

Ob'cisia peguensis, Theob. Journ. A. S. J3. 186-i, p. 244. 

Vitrina j^eguensis, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 29, pi, Ixv. figs. 2, 3. 

Helicarion (sec. B) pegucnsis, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Girasia? peguensis, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. 1880, p. 294. 

Helicarion (Austenia) peguensis, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. 

Original description : — ■" Animale pallide lutescente anteriori parte 
virescente ; posteriori tamtn luteo-flavescente. Tentaculis superiorihus 
loiigis et cum cervice virescentibus ; inferioribus parvidis ; pallio 
granulato, cutis anseriiue modo ; fusco, testum omnino fere obtegente. 
Caudali papilla nidla, Longitudina 80 mills. 

" Testa elongata, halicoidea, p>olita, subdiaphana ; margine tenui, 
virescente ; reliqua parte Jlavesctnte, et juxta apicem sulicUssimwn 
albescente. Long. 15, lat. 9, alt. 4 mills. 

" Habitat in humidis locis prope Pegu. This species belongs to the 
same section as V. gigas, B., which it resembles in miniature, and 
is remarkable for its solid columella and apex." 

Description from spririt-specimen (length 50 mm.) : — The posterior 
part of the shell rests in a depression of the hinder part of the foot, 
though it is not so distinctly of V-shape, or so deep as in Girasia 
Jwokeri. The colour is a ruddy brown, the mantle somewhat greyer 
and a good deal mottled ; the sides of the foot are speckled with dark 
grey. Individuals of all these species, as may be noted, differ very 
much in coloration, and in this species quite unspotted specimens no 
doubt occur. There is a very distinct, pale, ridge-like line or bar 
extending from near the respiratory orifice backwards, and fo'low- 
ing the edge of the right sheU-lobe ; another similar bar runs 
along the left margin of the left shell-lobe. The mantle and its 
lobes are exactly as in Austen ia gigas, and it thus forms a very 
perfect link between the two subgenera Girasia and Austenia*. 
The shell has the apex more developed than in Ibgcus and is like 
that of Austenia. 

The long retractor muscle of the left eye- tentacle and the buccal 
mass are joined together and have their attachment posterior to the 
shell and body-cavity ; and this is different from A. gigas, where the 
same muscles have their attachment on the frontal margin of the 
body-cavity. The right eye-tentacle is separate, its attachment ia 
on the posterior margin of the body-cavity, and the penis retractor 
muscle attachment is also here but posterior to it. The generative 

* I pLice it ill the first at the end of the series. 



228 LAND AND FRESHWATEB 

organs are immature in all the specimens I received from Jlr, 
Theobald, but enough to show that they are like Girasia. Jaw and 
radula as in A. gigas. 

32 . 3 . 18 . 1 . 18 . 3 . 32 
53 . 1 . 53 

GiKASiA ? KUBRA, G.-A. (Plate LXI, figs. 4, 4 a, 4 6, -i r, 4 d.) 

Parmarionl rubrum, Godwiu-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 1875, p. b*, 
pi. ii. figs. 4, 4«, 4 Z), 4r, 4 d. 

Orir/imd deSi'riptioH: — "Animal of a fine orange-pink, gi-ey on 
underside of the foot ; tentacles short, mantle entirely covering the 
shell, with only a slight trace of a longitudinal opening running 
back from the anterior left side, three parallel bands of greenish grey 
along the buck of the nock, the eye-tentacles being of the same 
colour. The gland at the extremity of the foot with a long, over- 
hanging lobe. 

inch. 
" Extremity of foot to posterior end of mantle .... 0-9 

Mantle 0-8 

Anterior edge of mantle to head 0*4 

Total length when moving 1*8 

"Shell quite rudimentary, minute, granular: major diam. 0-14 
inch. 

" Habitat. Kohima, Naga Hills, in brushwood. 

" The mucous gland in this species differs considerably from that 
of H. g'ujas and its allies, the upper lobe projecting and hanging 
over so as to present, when viewed sideways, a narrow slit." 

The exceedingly small rudimental shell, so completely enveloped by 
the mantle, almost entitles this form to siibgeneric rank ; but as only 
one specimen has been obtained, and was not fully examined as to 
its internal anatomy, I place it for the present at the end of the 
series of Girasia. 



Subgenus Austenia {continued : vide p. 148, Part IV.). 

All with smooth or polished shells. 

AusTEXiA GiGAs, Benson. (Plate LV. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, animal 
from si)irit-specimcn ; Plate LX. tigs. 1 and 1 a, from living animal ; 
Piute LXll. fig. 8, radula.) Type of the genus. 

Vitrina [/iffcis, Benson, J. A. S. B. 1836, p. 350. 

Austenia (jigas, Godw.-Aust. P. Z. S. ] 880, pp. 294-298, pis. xxiv., 
XXV., xxvi, 

Helicarion (jiyas, Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. 1875, pi. iii. ; Pfr. Mou. 
Hel. vol. ii. p. 490. 

Vitrina (jiqas, Kceve, Conch. Icon. fig. 13 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 29, pi. Ixv'i. figs. 2 & 3. 



MOLLUSC A OF INDIA. 229 

Helkarion (sec. B) (jigas, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Austenia gigas, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. 

Helicarion (sec. B) gigas, Pfeifler, ed. Clessin's Nomeu. Helic. 
Vivent. p. 30. 

Localhij. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

Shell ovate, broad, depressed ; body-whorl large and expanded, 
with a shining lustre, quite smooth, excepting the irregular lines of 
growth ; colour olivaceous, with sienna-brown, paler at the apex, 
somewhat nacreous within (one specimen is entirely sienna-brown, 
and milky white within); apex fiat; whorls about 1^ ; columellar 
margin very short and very oblique. 

Largest specimen: maj. diam. 1-7, min. 1*2 inch ( = 42-5 and 
30 mm.). 

Another: maj. diam. 38-3, min. 24-5 mm. 
1-53, „ 0-95 inch. 

" Animal.— The left dorsal lobe * {J.d.l. plate xxiv, figs. 3, 4, 5) 
is large in ivont, and extends from the respiratory orifice to the lelt 
margin. The right dorsal lobe {r.d.l.) extends from the same part 
to the posterior right margin. The shell-lobes are connected all 
round the periphery of the mantle-zone, but are reduced in size, and 
present two distinct right and left contractile lobes ; the right 
extends to and covers the apex of the shell, while the left extends 
over the edge of the body-whorl for a distance of 0*3 to 0-5 inch,^ 
leaving the posterior and the greater portion of the upper surface of 
the shell uncovered (we have here a true approach to what is seen 
in the subgenus Macrocldamys). The posterior margin of the shell 
is not sunk in a depression of the hinder part of the foot, but the 
upper surface of the foot extends in an unbroken ridge to the mantle- 
zone." 

In Plate LY. figs. 3 and 3 a, the animal is shown with the shell 
removed ; fig. 3 6 gives the position of the shell-lobes viewed from 
behind; the apex of the shell and all it contains sliced off". 

" Extremity of the foot truncate, with a large linear mucous gland, 
the pedal line very distinct, as well as the lateral markings on the 
surface of the body. 

" Genital aperture at the lower and outer base of the right tentacle. 

" Animal reaches quite 4 inches in length. 

''Descrijitionof Genital Organs of A. gigas.— Small var., Khasi Hills 
(plate XXV. fig. 'l).— The ovo-testis was not seen ; the hermaphro- 
dite duct {h.d.) is much convoluted at the anterior end, where it 
divides ; the shape of the albumen-gland was also unobserved, and 
had apparently not been preserved in the spirit. The oviduct (ov.) 
Avas very closely convolute, and arranged in four sharp folds npon 
the posterior portion of the spermatheca (sp.), to which it is appa- 
rently held by muscular tissue. The prostate is wide, regular, and 
ribbon-like, much and closely convolute, giving off the vas deferens 
not far above the junction of the spermatheca with the oviduct ; this 

* Refers to pnper and plates in P. Z. S. 18S0, pp- -'sy-i'OU. 



23U LAND AND FRESHWATER 

is very long, extending forward between the inverted ej'e-tentacles, 
forming a loop among the muscles of the buccal mass, 

" The penis is bent on itself at the point where the retractor muscle 
is given off (Fc. fig. 4) : and a short, blunt, rounded portion extends 
beyond the insertion of the vas deferens (;«/.) corresponding to the 
flagellum in some species, or the Kalksack of Semper (the cnecum 
ealciferuQi vasis deferentis). 

"The retractor muscle of the penis has its attachment, together with 
the eye-tentacles, in the usual position, close below the apex of the 
shell, near the posterior margin of the body-cavity (plate xsiv. 
fig. 3 m)." 

Detailed Anatonn/ of Penis of A. gigas (plate xxvi. figs. 2, 3). — 
"On the removal of the outer muscular sheath, the anterior end is of a 
hollow cone-shape (a), which, on being cut away, presented within a 
cup-shaped depression (a), and exposed the duct of the penis. It 
contracts suddenly, and continues as a smooth stout tube of e(]ual size 
for about 0'25 inch, where it expands again (/*) into a stouter portion 
of cylindrical form, which is 0*o5 inch long, and continues, with gra- 
dually lessening thicliness, up to the part where it is turned suddenly 
backwards, and close to where the retractor muscle is given off (c). 
On removing the outer layer a chitinous sheath was exposed lying 
against the thin membrane beneath [h' b) ; and following this down, 
it was found to be the basal end of the spermatophore, with the 
peculiar cervicorn processes at the base, in situ whei'e developed. 
On opening the membratious sac, it was found to consist of one con- 
tinuous thread coiled down on itself (fig. 3), and pressed closely 
together, and was in such good preservation as to be easil}' unravelled. 
I drew out and measured a portion jL. inch in length, and found it 
to contain IS'l inches; the whole length of this part being 0-55 
inch in length, would give nearly 7 feet for the total contents of 
the sac. It is, in fact, a spermatic thread of hardened spermatozoa, 
poured out from the vas deferens *. 

" On further examining the part near c, this cylindrical portion 
was found to end in a conical cap, which again gave off a thin rod, 
which bending sharply back, is evidently in communication with 
the extcTision of the vas deferens towards d. Behind the junction 
of this last is a short gland rounded at the end (e), which contained 
some very microscopic transparent crystalline bodies of oval form 
(fig. 2 a), This is the Kalksack mentioned above, and secretes the 
material for the formation of the spermatophore. 

" This spermatophore, which is an organ of a very complicated and 
curious form, may be thus described : — The basal or anterior end 
consists of a chitinous strap about ()*4 inch long, with the sides more 
or less turned over, forming a sort of trough or long spout, which, 
after it has ])assed into the spermathecaof the other individual, will 
be found opening into the lower part of the oviduct. At the other 
ei:d the sides at last meet and form a tube ; it then thickens and 

* " Tliis thread is similarlj- described by M. Uaudeldt, Ann. Sci. Nat. 18<>o, 
p. 1(15, in bis description of the capriohie of Avion ri/fus." 



M0LLU8CA OF INDIA. 



231 



widens, giving off several strong cervicorn or more or less branched 
processes, which are directed backwards : they serve, I think, to aid 
in the expulsion of the spe matophore from the penis, and, when 
once Avithin the spermatheca or vagina, serve as holding-hooks to 
prevent its withdrawal. The part above this consists of a very long 
thin mtinibranous ba<; 0-4 inch long, terminating in a hard conical 
cap, from which jjroceeds a thin rod, which is found to extend to the 
hard rounded apex of the spermatic sac, whore it bends over or ends 
in a few separate filaments within the tube of the vas deferens. In 
one specimen of this species (;/i<j((s) no less than seven perfect 
spermatophores were counted, closely packed together side by side 
within the spermatheca. (Van Benedcn observed two in a Parma- 
cella, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1857, p. 371.) 

" It would appear that in these creatures even one act of copulation 
would fertilize for a very considerable period ; for it woxild be some 
time before the conteuts of a spermatophore became exhausted. 

" This organ, as situated in the penis, presents the character of a 
perfect spring [vide plate xxvi. figs. 2, 3) ; and it can be imagined 
that when it enters the wider and very elastic sac of the spermatheca, 
and is then gradually released, it will tend to become quite straight, 
and that, the recurved processes holding it at one point, the longer 
portion will bend round to the long axis of the sac, bringing the end 
of the shorter portion (plate xxvi. fig. 3 a) to the aperture within 
the vagina and ovo-testis (plate xxvi. fig. 4,j. sp.). 

" Macrochlamys decussata, of which I have a drawing, taken when 
the animals were in coitii, protruded a large white bladder-like sac, 
which expanded and contracted from time to time as if inflated with 
air ; this I now think may have been the spermatheca drawn out 
and receiving the penis and capreolus. 

" In the two specimens I examined, the spermatheca (sp.) was 
elongate, smooth, lying close to and partly enveloped by the con- 
volutions of the oviduct ikc, with its posterior end near the junction 
of the hermaphrodite-duct and albumen-gland. This posterior 
termination is bent over on itself, presenting a smooth rounded end 
(plate xxv. figs. 2 & 4), which coiling round, terminated, and was 
covered with what was apparently muscular tissue buried in the 
prostate and oviduct. The form of the spermatheca is due to its 
contents ; and the rounded end is produced by the bending-over of 
the fiagellum-like terminations of the enclosed spermatophores. 

" In one specimen of G. hookeri which I examined, probably taken 
in the cold weather, all the generative organs are small and con- 
tracted, the spermatheca only represented by an attenuate sac. 

" The amatorial organ or dart-sac (D)* is a long cylindrical body 
narrowing towards the genital aperture, and again swelling there 
into a large orifice : it has a very thick and muscular striicture, and 
in these spirit-specimens is very hard and unyielding. When cut 
open longitudinally, the dart or spicidum amoris was found to be a 
simple cylindrical rod, sharply pointed (plate xxvi. fig. 7). This 

* " Glandula mucosa cum sagitta ainatoria." 



232 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

organ has a strong retractor muscle, with its attachment near that 
of the penis." 

Relative Position of the different Parts in A. gigas. — " On cutting 
through the skin of the upperside of the back, commencing from 
between the eje-tentacles, the penis is seen lying iii the middle line 
between the inverted eye-tentacles (plate xxv. tig. 2); on the proper 
left of it are seen three large convolutions of the intestine (?) ; and 
on laying it over to the right side the salivary glands of flattened 
form are seen spreading over these, and a distinct connexion with 
the central convolution was very clearly made out (fig. 5, a). Pro- 
ceeding from the sides of the buccal mass will be noticed two strong 
muscles, which have their attachment on the Irontal margin of the 
body-cavity, at the point (plate xxiv. fig. 3) m ; these are the re- 
tractor muscles of the head and buccal mass. 

*' The spermatheca lies on the right side of the animal, covered 
partly by the oviduct ; and a large expansion of the intestine occu- 
pies the posterior portion of the cavity, narrowing suddenly to enter 
that of the shell above. 

" A very large mucous gland lies next the sole of the foot along the 
whole length of the body-cavity : and two large pedal nerves are 
conspicuous and traverse it, throwing off nerves to the epidermis, 
and extend on to the caudal gland." 

The teeth of the radula (Plate LXII. fig. S) are numerous, 
arranged thus : — 

69 . 3 . 22 . 1 . 22 . 3 . 69 
94 . 1 . 94 
presenting a large number of broad central teeth, the central bluntly 
bicuspid, the first 6 central on either side show only a blunt cusp 
on the outer base, but from the 7th to the 25th an inner notch 
becomes apparent. The inner laterals are long, curved, pointed 
teeth, with a cusp low down on the outer margin ; this disappears 
about the 50th, and thence to the edge of the radula they are simple 
unicuspid teeth, hecomiiig gradually shorter in length. It is thus 
very distinct from the odontophore of any sjjecies of Girasia. The 
jaw (Plate LXII. fig. 8 a) is much curved antei'iorly, and has a 
well-marked notch on the middle edge. 

AUSTENIA SCUTELLA, Bs. (Plate LIl. figs. 1-1 ('.) 

Locality. Xasmaua, in the Chinab valley, on the direct road from 
the Panjal to Sealkote (from W. Theobald's collection). 

Vitrina scutdla, Bs. A. & M. N. Hist. 1859, vol. iii. p. 188 ; 
Pfr. Mon. Hcl. vol. iv. p. 798; Reeve, Vitrina, f. 13; Hanley, 
Conch. Ind. p. 29, pi. Ixvi. f. 4 (it is not known whether this figure 
represents the Khasi or Kashmir specimen ; from its size // must he 
the latter (vide original descr.). Hanley considers this the variety, 
but on what grounds it is not clear). 

lltlicarion (sec. B) sciitella, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Ilelicarion scutdla, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 15 (8 specimens, Assam, 
Stol. : these certainly must belong to another species ; tliough 



MOILUSCA OF INDIA. 233 

collected bv Stoliczka they were not determined by him) ; Theob. 
J. A. S. B. 1878, p. 143. 

Original description : — " Testa valde depressa, peripheria ohlongo- 
ovata, arcuatim strlatuJa, nitente, iranslncente, paUide viridi-lute- 
scente ; spira valde p)lanata, apnce promhudo, sutura impressa, mar- 
ginata ; anfractihus 3^ rapide accrescentihus, ultimo antice latissimo, 
siip>erne antrorsum arruato, hor'izontaliter cornpresso, non descendente, 
jyeriplieria valde rotundata ; apertura valde ohliqua, ovato-lunari ; 
peristomate simpl'tci, marginihus conniventibus, columellarl oblique 
descendente, hasali leviter arcuato. 

" Diam. major 18, minor 13, axis 6 mill. \ tt- -u • 

)5 »> -LOj 5> -Li) )) ^ »» J 

" Apert. lat. 12, alt. 7 mill. 1 ,„ • ^, ,, 
^ , ' p \ leria (jrhat. 

" Habitat ad Teria Ghat, montium Khasioe ; necnon ad Nasmana, 
regionis Kashmir. 

" Ot this species the larger example from Kashmir was first sent 
by Mr. Theobald, and subsequently another specimen, obtained by 
him at Teria Ghat, was received. The non-occurrence of the form 
ill the intermediate mountains of Sirmore, Kemaon, and Sikkim, 
where other species take its place, is worthy of note. It is remark- 
able for its depressed form and lengthened aperture, which at once 
distinguish it from its ally, V. monticola, occupying the mountain 
region between the rivers Sutlej and Gagra. The Khasia specimen 
has a few remote spiral dei)ressions on the last whorl near the 
suture ; they are probably accidental." 

It is evident that Mr. lieusou had before him two distinct species. 
The shells of this genus are so very similar they may easily be 
confounded. I have now received several spirit-sjiecimens of un- 
doubted A. scutella from Mr. Theobald, collected by him in the 
N.W. Himalaya, at Murree and Dalhousie, taken out of bottles 
with other undoubted species from the above localities, and referred 
to on (I. c.) ]). 1-13. I can state there is no form at all ap])roaching 
it at Teria Ghat, in tlie Khasi Hills, nor have I seen anything like 
it either from Darjiling or Assam. 

Mr. Benson's largest specimen (and it agrees in size with the 
shell I figure) is true scutella, the one he first obtained from Mr. 
Theobald; the other remains to be determined, and I think I have 
the species in my collection. The shell figured (Plate Lll. figs. 1 c, 
1 d, and I e) is from IVlr. Theobald's collection, from typical locality 
Nasmana, Chinab valley, on direct road from Islamabad over the 
Pir Panjal mountains to Sealkote. 

The chief interest attached to this species is its close resemblance 
on the one side to Macrochlamys, and on the other to the Helicarion- 
like group ; it thus forms a link between them through M.jlemingi 
and species like A. gigas, and we have presented to us an excellent 
example of the gradual growth of shell- lobes, completely altering 
and modifying the form of the animal and shell. 

DescripAion of the Animal (Plate Lll. fig. 1 a). The shell does not 



234 LAND AND FKKSHWATER 

rest in a depression in the foot, the ridge of the foot runs directly 
away from the mantle-zone to the mucous pore. The right dorsal 
lobe is well developed ; the left dorsal lobe extends in one continuous 
flap round to the left posterior margin, where it ends abruptly. The 
right shell-lobe is very large, broad and triangular, covering and 
])laying over a large area of the shell on the riglit margin of the 
penj)hery, but not enclosing it in any way. The left shell-lobe 
commences from near the respirafory orifice and overlaps the edge 
of the peristome ; it gradually widens, and finally becomes broad 
and tongue-shaped (fig. 1 a), corresponding to the narrow left shell- 
lobe seen in M. j^etrom {vide Plate XIX. fig. 1) and to the still 
more similar reduced shell-lobe of M. decassata (fig. 6 of the same 
plate). The posterior portion of the foot is very long and sharply 
keeled. The pedal margin of the foot wide, with the pedal line 
strongly marked and segmented. 

Generative Organs. Are very similar to those of MucrocJdamys 
{vide Plate XVII. fig, 6). The amatorial organ is present, and is 
large and swollen at the basal end ; the kale-sac is longer than in 
most species. 

Spermato/ihore. Is long and sac-like (10-5 mm. in length), but 
the chitinous portion at the base has several recurved strong bifid 
spines, those above are straight and minute. 

Odontophore : — 

30 . 2 . 14 . 1 . 14 . 2 . 30 
46 . 1 . 46 

Of usual form, the outermost teeth of moderate size, bicuspid. 

Jaw. Has a strong central projection. 

Description of specimen Jitjured : — Shell depressed, ovately oblong, 
umbilicated ; sculpture quite smooth, covered with a thin epidermis, 
crossed by faint lines of growth ; colour pale olivaceous ochre ; spire 
very flat; apex subpapillate ; suture shallow; whorls 4J, rapidly 
increasing ; aperture elongately oval ; columellar margin vertical, 
becoming suddenly very oblique. 

Size : major diam. IT'S, min. 13-0 ; alt. axis 5-5, body-whorl 
8-5 mm. 

Atjstenia ? MONTicoLA, Bcnsou, M8S. {in coU. H. Cuminq). 
(Plate LII. fig. 2, 2«.) 

Vitrina monficola, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1848, p. 107 : Bs. MSS., Pfr. Mon. 
Hel. vol. ii. p. 497 ; Peeve, Conch. Icon. fig. 11 ; Hanley, Conch. Ind. 
p. 61, pi. clii. figs. 1, 4 (is H. stoJiczlamis, Xevill). 

Vitrina (sec. PhenacoUmax) monticola, Pfr. Xomen. Helic. Viveut. 
1881, p. 27. 

Helicarion (sec. B) monticola, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

HeUcarion monticola, Pfr. Xevill, Hand-list, p. 15. 

Locality. Mussoorie {coll. G.-A.) *. 

* These specimens were shown to Captain Iliitton, and n!iin(?d by liiin as 
above ; and there can be no doubt tins' is the species known to him and Benson 
under this title. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 235 

The animal was thus described by me in my note-book of 18G3 
when at Mussoorie, where it is abundant during the rains, in suitable 
places : — 

Animal long, too large for complete retraction into shell, which 
is further from the head than tail ; mantle reflected over the margin 
of the shell. It would appear to be very similar to A. scutella, but 
I have not yet obtained the species in spirit from the original 
locality, and I am therefore not certain to what extent it differs. 

Original description by Pfeiffer : — " Vitrina. IWta depressa, tenia, 
striatida, nitida, peJlucida, Intcscenti-cornea ; spira plana, medio vix 
prominnla; sutura leviter impressa ; anft-actibus 4, cclenter accre- 
scentihus ; planiuscidis, ultimo depresso, noii deseendente ; apertura 
ohliqua, rotundato-ltrnari ; peristomate simpliee, marginibus conni- 
ventibus, callo tenui^simo junctis, sitpero antrorsum, arcuato-dilatato, 
columellari cum basali am/idum obtusum fonnante. 

"Diam. 18, alt. 7| mill. 

" From Bengal, Landour, Himalaya, Almorah." 

The shells from the Hill Station of Mussoorie, and Landour at its 
eastern end, are olivaceous, with spire more or less depressedly 
conoid ; suture shallow ; whorls 5 ; aperture ovate ; columellar 
margin oblique. 

Largest specimen : major diam. 27*0, min. 21'0, alt. axis 10-0, 
body-whorl 14"0 mm. 

The four localities given above by Pfeiffer in sequence might 
puzzle some people not well versed in Indian geography. The two 
definite localities, Landour and Almorah, leave the exact habitat 
of the typical shell in doubt, and they are 100 miles apart. Almorah 
shells of this group that I have do not compare with those from 
Mussoorie. 

Considerable confusion exists with regard to monticoh, cassida, 
and scutella, and the localities in which they were originally collected. 
I think I may be able to clear this up, to a certain extent, having 
had the advantage of naming and comparing shells now in my col- 
lection, at the time they were collected by me at Mussoorie, with 
those in Captain Hutton's collection, and that officer well knew the 
shells he and Benson had described together. There can be no doubt 
that the large IJelicarion-like snail of Mussoorie and Landour is 
monticola. 

It therefore docs not much signify what shell Pfeiffer described 
out of the Cuming collection, for it is impossible now to discover 
the identical type shell in the British Museum, for there are several 
specimens placed together under this title monticola. Nor do we 
arrive at any clear decision on comparing the figures of Hanley and 
Reeve ; the first is taken from a shell in the Benson collection, and 
this cannot be traced, because the shells that have been figured are 
not marked, and Mr. Hanley sometimes selected shells for figuring 
from Benson's collection, sometimes from his own, from specimens 
sent home to him from India by Mr. Theobald from localities other 
than the original. These very similar shell forms from Burmah, Assam, 
and the N.W. Himalayas have got thus very much muddled up. 



236 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

AirsTEKiA theobaldi, n. sp, (Plate LII. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 6.) 

Heli carton fiemingi, var. 6, Journ. A. S. B. 1871, p. 143 ; IS'evill, 
Hand-list, p. 15. (All these shells with exceptioa of the Naini-Tal 
specimen, which is the tj-pe of stoUczhanm, I refer to this species.) 

Localiti/. Bichlari, Chinab valley {Theohald). 

Theobald did not distinguish this form from J/. Jtcminr/i, and 
under var. h of that species described it briefly as follows : — 

" This race runs considerably smaller than the last, the largest 
specimen of some hundreds measuring 22x17x12 mm. It is a 
miniature of the last, and occurs abundantlj' in the Chinab valley, 
above the junction of the Bichlari River, and also at Dharmsala in 
the Kangra valley. The shell is almost wholly enveloped by tho 
mantle when the animal is in motion." 

AtJSTENIA THEOBALDI (? STOLlCZKANTJs). 

Localiti/. Chinab valley, above Bichlari River. 

Shell globose, imperforate; sculpture none, surface polished and 
glassy ; colour olivaceous or pale yellowish green ; spire subconoid ; 
suture well marked ; whorls 4, tumid, convex, the last ample ; aper- 
ture nearly circular ; columellar margin thin, horny. 

Size : major diam. 19-5, minor diam. lG-0, alt. axis 8-0, alt. 
body-whorl 12-0. 

Five specimens were sent to me by !JIr, Theobald, from the typical 
locality Bichlari. The description of the animal shows that it has 
no relationship to Jleiningi and it allies. It is distinct from A. 
monticola from Mussoorie, with which I have compared it, being 
much more globose, and the whorls more convex, and its colour is 
of a yellowish tint, the spire less closely wound. 

Mr. Theobald sends three other specimens from the Chinab valley, 
the exact locality not given, which differ from the type in being 
much more polished and of a darker richer olivaceous tint, and are 
somewhat more depressed. This may be the shell of an animal 
with more distinctly marked differences, or may be due to some 
local condition. 

I have another species received from F. Stoliczka, and referred 
by him to monticola with doubt ; this I think is 

AusTENiA STOLiczKANus, NeviU. (Plate LII. fig, 3, 3 a, 3 h.) 

? Vitrina, sp., from Almorah, Hutton & Benson, Journ. A, S. B. 
vol. vii. p. 214. 

Aiistenia stoliczl-amis, Nevill, Second Yarkand Mission, Moll. p. 15. 

? Vitrina monticola, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 61, pi. clii. figs. 1 & 4; 
Nevill, Hand-list, p. 15. 

The three species from the Kashmir side are, I suspect, A. theobaldi. 

Localiti/. Aertoole', near Almorah, beyond Hawul Bngh. 

This species is rather more tumid than A. monticola, and its tints 
of a yellower olive ; it assimilates somewhat to the form of //. 
theohaldi, but is not so globose. 

Size : maj. diam. 21-0, min. 16-0, alt. axis 7"0 mm. 



MOLLTISCA OF INDIA. 237 

A precisely similar shell I note in Mr. Theobald's collection from 
Sat Tal, near Naini Tal. 

Size : maj. diam. 18'5, min. 14'5, alt. axis 8-0 mm. 

AusTENiA ? SERAHANENsis, G.-A. (Plate LII. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 b.) 

LocaJiti/. Serahan, Sutlej valley (Stoliczl-a). 

Shell deprcsscdly ovate, strong, not transparent, quite smooth, with 
a thick epidermis ; colour deep ochre ; spire and apex fiat ; suture 
shallow ; whorls 3|, rapidly increasing ; aperture narrowly ovate ; 
peristome very sinuate above : columellar margin oblique. 
Size : maj. diam. ll'o, min. 8*5, alt. axis 4-0, body-whorl .5'75 mm. 

This shell was given me by Stoliczka without a name ; it may be 
the same as the ten shells placed in II. montlcoln by Nevill in his 
Hand-list, ]>. 15. I have compared it with the young, very glassy 
shells of mordicola of same size from Mussoorie, and it is very 
different. A description of the animal of this Sutlej valley form is 
much to be desired, should any conchologist again visit that part of 
the Himalaj-as. 

AtjstejStia ? vExrsTA, Theob. (Plate LIX. tigs. 5, 5 a.) 

Locality. Arakan (Theoh.). 

Hilicarion venustum, Theob. Journ. A. S. B. 1870, p. 400 ; 1877, 
p. 24 (is another species ). 

Vitrina venusta, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. Gl, pi. clii. fig. 5, from 
Arakan Hills, between Tongoop and Prome *. 

Helicarion (sec. B) veniistus, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Vitrina (sec. 2. Phenacolimax) venusta, Pfr. Cless. Nomen. Helic. 
Vivent. p. 27 (1881). 

Helicarion (Austenia) ventifttiis, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. no. 32, 
from Arakan, Yunnan, and Kakhyen Hills : as No. 33 (H. solida, 
G.-A.) is referred to this shell with a query, I doubt if the identifica- 
tion of these species is correct ; typical venustus is quite different 
from cacharica=:solida, which is the species Nevill had before him. 

Original description : — " Vitrina ? venusta. Testa ovato-auri- 
forme, supra vix conve.va, dlaphana, tenuissima, polita, subrugose 
striata, la'te Jlave scent e brunnea ; anfractibus Ig celerissime crescenti- 
bi(s ; apertura latissima. 

" Diam. major 0-30, diam. minor 0*17, alt. 0*10 inch. 

" Habitat prope ' Chuegale Sakan, montibus Arakan ' dictis inter 
Tonghup et Prome." 

Mr. Theobald compares it with, and considers it closely allied to, 
the Nilghiri V. aurifonnis; but a comparison of the shells alone will 
show they are quite different, while now we know the slug-like 
forms of Southern India are a widely divergent group. 

Under this species Nevill writes as follows, in his paper on the 
Mollusca of Upper Burmah and Yunnan : — 

" Dr. Anderson brought back from Pousee, in Yunnan, numerous 

* Sent me by Mr. Theobald. 



238 



LAND AND FRESHWATER 



specimens (preserved in spirit) of a small form, the shell of which 
I am unable to distinguish from typical Arakan specimens of Ilelic. 
vcnusfum, only differing in apparently being of a smoother and more 
polished texture, and in the spire being a shade more distinctly 
convoluted ; a single specimen of Helic. soliduni from the Naga 
Hills is quite undistinguishable from the above Arakan specimens 
The figures in the 'Conch, Indica'of the two forms are, however, so 
distinct, that the tj^pes will have to be re-examined." I am now 
able to do this, having received from Mr. Theobald two specimens of 
H. vennstum (Plate LIX. figs. 5 &5 «), which prove on comparison 
to be {]uite a different form from my H. soliduni, or even cacJiarica. 
Mr. Xevill had before him this last species from the Naga Hills, 
which I have since separated from the species from Hengdan Peak, 
on the Burrail llange. Dr. Anderson's specimens are no doubt very 
like, as regards the shell, to the Xaga-Hills form ; but I should doubt 
its being the same species, and ranging so far to the eastward, 
knowing as we do how very limited is the range of the better known 
forms. The Yunnan shell I therefore must distinguish by the title 
G. pomieu'is (Xo. 32 of Xevill's List). The single specimen from 
Nampura, Kakhyen Hills, is probably another local form, while the 
two specimens from Arakan, evidently not like typical venusta, but 
similar to Naga-Hill shells, require naming when a description of 
the animal is recorded. 

"We next have some forms which can still be grouped in Girasia, 
but differing somewhat. The hinder portion of the foot is short. 
The shell rests in a more or less V-shaped depression below the 
ridge of the foot ; the shells more developed ; the shell-lobes reduced 
in size. The odontophore with much fewer teeth in the row. 



Subgenus Ibycus, Heynemann. 
Ihijcus, Hoynem. Malakoz. Blatter, 1862, p. 142, pi. i. fig. 3. 

Original description : — " The only specimen not belonging to 
Anadentjs seems to me to be also new, but unfortunately it was in 
such a condition, the back part and pieces of the mantle entirely 
wanting, that a diagnosis is impossible ; still the remaining part, 
although badly preserved, showed sufliciently that it did not belong 
to any known species. While the jaw by its prominent centre 
pointed to relationships with Lima.v, the regular and inner shell 
shows a completely different formation. Even the mantle-lobes 
show so pronounced a papillate surface that it probably did not 
possess the wavy rings of Limax. The mantle covers the fore half 
of the body, which is grown together with the sole as in Linuw ; it 
contains a curved, horny, brittle, transparent amber -coloured, 
strongly lustrous inner shell, with elegant rings of growth. (The 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 2:59 

oldest portion including the nucleus was not preserved.) The 
lung-opening seems to lie far to the front; the cross rows of the 
radula form an angle in the middle, and run like the sides of an 
isosceles triangle to the back, so that a separate row with its accom- 
panying somewhat prominent middle tooth looks like a flock of 
herons ; tooth-plates small, and do not touch each other, except in 
the middle. From them the shovel-like {i. e. the pointed kind) 
tooth rises high up and over the plates ; middle tooth-plate 
above and below much widened, the shovel rises up like a spoon 
and is connected with the plate by a kind of bridge. The first side 
teeth are similarly shaped, and have on the side near the edge, far 
below, an attachment, which through the bridge is also connected 
with the plate, but soon this attachment rises higher and becomes 
an equally good point. This form continues towards the end, 
where I observed in the not fully developed teeth a third point 
rather far down ; this rises on the following teeth higher and higher 
up, culminating finally in the next adjacent tooth. I know of no 
similar tooth-formation among the slugs or other snails, and while 
Awidenua rej^resents our Avion in the Himalaya, this species is 
probably there a type peculiar to the country.'' 

GiEAsiA (Ibycus) sikkimensis, n. sp. (Plate LIX. figs. 2, 2 «, 
animal ; 2 6, shell.) 

? Ibicits Jlssidens, Heynemann. 

The animal, from the spirit-specimen, appears to be of a pinkish 
grey when living. The mantle finely papillate, and finely sprinkled 
with small black spots, a few similar distant markings on the side 
of the foot behind. 

Hab. About a mile south of Chungthang, on the Chakang 
stream, about 9500 feet. Independent Sikkim, December 1883 
( W. Robert). 

The Generative Organs. The male organ has an elongate kale- 
sac ; the amatorial organ is stout, short, and blunt. 

Odontophore. The centre tooth of the radula is strongly tricuspid ; 
the median are as usual, the laterals, as in A. gi(/as, bicuspid ; the 
inner point much longer than the outer ; in other words, the outer 
cusp is situated some distance below the apex of the tooth. The 
extreme outside laterals become very small. 

Jaw with a prominent central projection. 

I have very little doubt that this and similar forms from Darjiling 
represent the genus Ibtjcus described by Heynemann from a specimen 
collected by one of the brothers Schlagintweit in the same neigh- 
bourhood. Heynemann unfortunately had only an imperfect specimen 
to describe, which wanted the entire hinder part and portion of the 
mantle, and even the shell had lost the apex. Nevertheless, from 
certain characters, such as the papillate surface of the front part of 
the mantle, the type of shell (shovel-shaped), and the jaw with 
prominent centre, and the description of the radula, his species 
would como in here. Although the generic position can be cleared 

PART VI. Y 



240 LAND AND FUESHAVATER 

up, it will be impossible to distiuguish his species where several 
exist ; and as this group is certainly a remove from the typical 
Girasia in at least three points of structure (shell-lobes, shell, and 
radula), Ibyctjs might be retained for it, and quite as well, if not 
better, than placing it in a section distinguished by a letter of the 
alphabet. 

GiEAsiA (Ibtcus) sikkimensis, var. mainwaringi, n. sp, (Plate 
LIX. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, animal.) 

Hab. Darjiling. 

This animal, when living, must have been very dark-coloured ; 
the mantle-lobes finely papillate throughout ; the right shell-lobe is 
somewhat narrow, and is united to the left, which shows a small 
tongue-shaped expansion on the left frontal margin ; the dorsal lobe 
is very largely expanded. The foot is very short behind and cut 
ofi' square. The shell is, like that of siJcl-imi-nsis, broad in front. 

I have only a single specimen, which was obtained by Col. Main- 
waring ; it is small, the papillation of the mantle is coarser than in 
siMii7nensis and its colour distinct ; yet it is of similar form, and I 
can only consider it a dark variety. 

The jaw has a central projection. 

GiKASiA (Ibycds) cacharica, u. sp. (Plate LIX. figs. 4, animal, 
4 fl, 4 b, shell ; Plate LXII. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b, and 5 c.) 

Helicarion soUdum, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 1875, p. G, 
pi. ii. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 6, 5 c, 5 d. 

Helicarion (Austenia) solidus, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. One from 
Naga Hills, collected by Major Godwin- Austen. 

Localifi/. North Cachar Hills. 

Shell fiat, horn)', smooth, shining, with concentric lines of growth ; 
colour pale olivaceous brown (in type) or green, mature specimens 
more shelly and milky white withiu ; apex very small and rather 
closely wound ; of one single whorl ; aperture ovate. 

Size: maj. diam. 10*0, min, G'O mm. 

Animal. Is much speckled throughout, and with black bars on 
the side of the foot. The dorsal lobe very ample, extending round 
to the left posterior side : the right dorsal lobe rather small. The 
right shell-lobe is expanded over the apex, but is hardly connected 
bebind ; the left shell-lobe is narrow, and laps over the peristome, 
but does not join the other lobe. The posterior margin and apex 
of the shell rests in a V-shaped depression of the ridge of the foot 
as in Girasia Jiookeri, and the hinder part of the foot thence to the 
mucous gland is very short. 

Generative Organs (Plate LXII. fig. 5 c). The amatorial organ is 
present, and the point of the dart is bent nearly at right angles to 
the main portion {vide fig. 5 b, Plate LXII.). 

Odontoj^hore (Plate LXII. fig. 5). The large number of broad 
central teeth is peculiar ; they have a well-formed cusp on the outer 
basal side. All the laterals arc very pointed and curved, with the 



MOLLUSCA OP IN^DIA. 241 

outer cusp low down, quite basal, so that they are almost unicuspid; 
these become very small on the outer margin. 

40 . 15 . 1 . 15 . 40 
55 . 1 . 55 

The jaw with a large central projection (Plate LXII. fig. 5 a). 

This is the form I described in 1875 as Helicarion solidum. It 
has somewhat the form of a small G. lioolceri when alive. A 
specimen from Kohima was dark umber, pinker below, with no 
mottling on the body; tentacles dark. 

In another specimen from the Dunsiri valley, Assam, the animal 
was pinkish grey with dark mottling, the mantle covered the whole 
shell and had a slight indentation on the extreme anterior margin 
(an individual peculiarity) ; the mucous gland with small lobe above, 
the extremity of foot cut off rather square. 

Total length 2-70, mantle 1-3, mantle to head 0-5 in. 

Shell : major diam. 0*44 in. 

GiRAsiA (Ibyctis?) cinerea, G.-A. (Plate XL. fig. 8, from life.) 

Helicarion {Hoplites) cinereus, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 
1876, p. 314, pi. viii. fig. 2, animal. 

The shell was not described when taken, and it has since been 
mislaid. The description of the animal, which was made at the 
time, is as follows : — " Animal when fully extended long and 
narrow, colour dusky grey ; mantle with a papillated surface slightly 
spotted, the spotting being coarser on the body and tail. Tentacles 
short and bluish, with the oral very close below them. 

" Length 0*75, mantle 0-40 in. 

" Habitat. On the Darpang river, at foot of the Dafla Hills, under 
old logs in the forest." 



GiRASTA (IbXCTJS?) SOLID A, G.-A. 

Helicarion {Hoplites 'i) solidus, Godwin- Austen, P. Z. S. 1872, 
p. 518, pi. XXX. fig. 10. 

Helicarion solidum, Godwin-Austen, Journ. A. S. B. 1875, p. 6 
(pi. ii. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 cl, is a diff'erent species, vide cacharica). 

Vitrina solida, Hanley, Conch. Ind. p. 61, pi. clii. fig. 6 (bad 
drawing). 

Helicarion (sec. B) solidus, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23, not from hills 
below Cherra Poongee. 

Helicarion (Austenia) solidus, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16, from Naga 
Hills, is 6r. cacharica. 

Locality. Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills. 

Original description : — " Animal not seen. 

" Shell flatly convex, periphery oval, solid, not horny ; epidermis 
reddish brown ; spire short, apex very flat ; one single body-whorl ; 
peristome simple, thin. 

t2 



242 L.VND AND FRK3UWATER 

"Diam. maj. 14*0, minor 8*0 mm. 
„ 0-57, „ 0-32 inch. 

" This shell was found at Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills, 
but I never obtained a living specimen. I have, however, figured 
the shell, with the hope that a description of the animal may some 
day follow." 

The shell differs much from caclianca in form of apex and its 
solidity, but the animal is, I have no doubt, very similar in form. 



Subgenus Dekhania, Godwin-Austen. 

Type D. heddomei, G.-A. 

Animal. In general form like Girasia hooheri of the Khasi Hills, 
the posterior portion of the body being about equal to the part of 
the mantle covering the shell. Tlie dorsal and shell-lobes are all 
united in an oval mantle or shield, leaving only a minute orifice like 
a pinhole in the posterior median side ; the shell is only shown to 
this extent in the contracted spirit-specimens, so that in life and 
fresh it must be completely hidden. From this small opening a 
distinct line or cicatrix runs towards the respiratory aperture on 
the right side, indicating that it is the remnant of a form, perhaps 
extinct, in which the shell-lobes were originally separated into 
right and left lobes. The whole mantle rests dee])ly below the ridge 
of the posterior portion of the foot, in a depression which is square 
behind, not V-shaped. The pedal groove or line is not so deep and 
well shown as in Girasia, and the segmented margin is narrower. 
The extremity of the foot is cut off square, the mucous pore being 
a narrow vertical slit, extending to the sole of the foot. 

The generative aperture is posterior to the right tentacle. 

The shell. This is of an extremely solid, shelly character, oval in 
form, dextral, white, marked with close, concentric lines of growth, 
flatly convex above, flat and smooth beneath, its internal side is 
thus completely filled with shelly matter ; apex solid. 

The generative organs are like those of Girasia, save that the 
amatorial organ is not so large. 

The odontophore (Plate LXII. figs. 7, 7 a) presents a considerable 
departure from Girasia, bolh in the shape and far greater number 
of the teeth in the row. The centrals are broad and triangular, with 
small basal cusps ; the median evenly bicuspid, the lateral becoming 
very minute on the margin. 

The teeth are arranged as follows : — 

122 . 5 . 21 . 1 . 21 . 5 . 122 
148 . 1 . 148 
Tlie jaw is solid, semicircular in form, with a slight projection on 
the concave cutting-edge. 

There seem to be many local varieties in the collection, differing 
in coloration only (just as Avion of our European area is seen to 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 243 

vary) from very pale ochre to black or dark blue, spotted and un- 
spotted, and all except one specimen have a very noticeable dark 
line on the foot-ridge, extending from the mucous pore to the 
depression in which the shell and mantle rest. 

This interesting mollusk I have named after its discoverer, Colonel 
R, Beddome, who most kindly placed all his spirit-specimens at my 
disposal. 

It adds another genus to the rich store in natural history and 
botany that were brought together by him, when Superintendent 
of the Southern Indian forests, and which, but for his zeal as a 
collector and knowledge of zoology, would still be buried in those 
wilds unknown to science. There are many new si^ecies, if not genera, 
still to be described in this collection, and I can only repeat that I 
have not sufficient time to bring them to notice more quickly than 
I have hitherto done. 

This genus is a most interesting one, from its similarity to Girasia 
of the N.E. frontier of India, to which it is closely related, as shown 
in its internal anatomy, while it yet shows such strong variance of 
form in the remarkable shell, and its almost complete envelopment 
by the mantle, and the great difference in which this portion is set 
upon the foot, a departure pointing to very long separation under 
distinctly different conditions of life. 

GiEASiA (Dekhania) beddomei, n. sp. (Plate LVIII. figs. 1, 1 a, 
1 b, animal, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 6, shell ; Plate LXII. iigs. 7, 7 a.) 

Locality. Travancore Hills. 

Size of shell figured : maj. diam. 1-37, min. 6*5 ; alt. axis 
2-0 mm. 

Animal. Would be probably 4 inches long when alive. Of a 
uniform ochre colour throughout. Mantle not papillate ; a narrow 
dark line on the keeled ridge of the foot behind. 

Gieasia (Dekhania) beddomei, var. nigra. (Plate LVIII. fig. 5.) 

Localitif. Travancore Hills. 

Animal. The specimen drawn is smaller than the last. It is of 
a deep grey-black colour over aU the upper surface, the sole of 
the foot being alone colourless. 

Girasia (Dekhania) beddomei, var. magtjlosa. (Plato LYIII. 
figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Very similar in colouring to the first described, with the addition 
of blotchy spottings on the mantle, which are more run together on 
the hinder part of the foot. 

Girasia (Dekhania) beddomei, var. maculosa. (Plate LVIII. 
figs. 6, 6 a, 6 b.) 

Is taken frosn a much less mature individual. The mantle ia 
somewhat larger in front and expanded, covering the head. 



244 LAND AND FEESHWATEE 



Genus Afeicaeion {continued from p. 154, Part IV.), 

Afeicarion atek, n. sp. (Plate LYII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 ?>, 1 c, 
animal ; figs. 2, 2 a, 2 h, shell.) 

Locality. Tiavancore and Tinevelly Hills {Col. R. Beddome). 

Animal. About 50 mm, or 1-9 inch in length, when living, the 
hinder part of the foot apparently long and narrow, with a small 
linear miicous pore overhung by a small lobe, the pallial line and 
margin very narrow. The rounded dorsal surface of the posterior 
portion of the foot is divided at its anterior end into tAvo well- 
developed lappets forming a deep V-shaped depression, and in this 
the shell is sunk, and the two lappets envelope on both sides the 
dorsal lobes. The right shell-lobe is small, obtusely angiilate, 
extending towards the apex, and continuous round to the left pos- 
terior margin, gradually narrowing ; neither extend to the posterior 
margin. The right dorsal lobe is very small, extending from the 
respiratory orifice to the posterior right margin. The left is ample 
in front, but contracts in breadth gradually up to the left posterior 
margin, where it becomes a meie thread in size, and passes round 
behind to join the right dorsal lobe, just on the margin of the 
very thin membranaceous extension of the shell. The foot has a 
central and marginal area, divided into three equal parts, the edge 
being segmented *, 

The shell is flat above, dextral, broadly ovate, smooth, shiny, colour 
green, white at the apex and within the shell ; whorls about 1| ; the 
edge of the expanded aperture is very thin ; attached to and continuous 
with the flat more shelly portion is a curtain-like membrane which 
falls over and covers the posterior part of the body of the animal. 
It is exceedingly difficult to remove the harder shelly portion with- 
out breaking away tliis portion of it, but I show il in figs. 4, 4 a. 

Major diam. 12-5, minor diam. 7'0 mm. 

Odontoj^Jtore. The radula has the centrals and laterals on both 
sides nearly equal in number ; tlie centrals are elongate tricuspid 
teeth ; the laterals rather small and bicuspid, as in the African 
species figured Plate XLII. fig. 6. 

The formula is 

24 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 1 . 24 
44 . 1 . 44 

The jaw (Plate LYII. fig. 3f) is dark coloured, with a central 
projection. 

The generative organs (Plate LYII. figs. 5, 5 a) are simjile, with 

* On remoTiiig the shell it is seen that this mollusk lias at the apex the 
dextral coil in a much more pronounced degree than is usual in the slug-like 
forms ; the small hooked process of the liver-lobes which fills the ajjex of the 
shell is not so developed in Girasia, &c., or even in the Afi-icau species I have 
preyiously described. Although very distinctive, I have not considered it of 
sufficient importance to separate it generically from this last. It indicates 
relationship lo some form possessing a more developed spiral shell. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 245 

no dart-sac, the spermatheca short, a globular sac on a short tube ; 
the male organ simple, bent on itself at the retractor muscle. The 
spermatophoi'e is very peculiar, and is formed in an expansion of 
the tube, where the vas deferens unites with it. The albumen- 
gland very large. 

This is an extremely interesting species, for in many respects it is 
similar to A. pallens, from Abyssinia, the differences that are to 
be found being only modifications of the same parts in the latter. 

There are several varieties in Colonel Bi^ddome's collection, from 
the same hills, differing only in colour : these I indicate as follows : — 

Var. ATEKRiMA. (Plate LVII. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 h, animal ; figs. 4, 
4 rt, shell.) 

This would appear, when living, to be a rich grey-black, the sole 
of the foot, which in ater is entirely pale, is in tliis variety bordered 
with black, only the ambulatory central area being pale brown ; on 
each side of the extremity of the foot there is a blacker band of 
colour. 

Var. ciNEEEXTS. (Plate LVII. fig. 8, animal.) 

Is of a pale ash colour, with a distinct dark band on the side of 
the foot behind, which is again seen on the side of the head ; the rest 
of the body and mantle are mottled throughout. 

Var. CASTANEUS. 

Is a rich chestnut, with dark markings similar to the last two. 

These varieties (divergency confined to coloration alone) are just 
what we find in such forms as Arion ater in Europe. 

To Colonel R. Beddome conchologists are indebted for the collec- 
tion of this extremely interesting species, and its preservation in 
spirit, which has enabled me to now give them its description ; and 
I take this opportunity of thanking him for placing it and so many 
other shells in my hands. 

To this must be allied — 

Aeeicakion auriformis, W. T. Elf. (Plate LVII. figs. 7, 7rt, 
figured from type in Mr. Blanford's collection.) 

Vitrina auriformis, W. T. Blanford, Journ. A. S. B. 1866, p. 36. 

Helicarion (sec. B) auriformis, Theob. Supp. Cat. p. 23. 

Helicarion {Austenia) auriformis, Nevill, Hand-list, p. 16. 

Original description : — " Shell very depressed, irregularly ovate, 
• ear-shaped, very thin, striated, polished, with a membranaceous 
epidermis, greenish or brownish yellow in colour, paler at the 
nucleus. Spire flat, suture slightly impressed. Whorls 1^. Aperture 
oval, occupying the whole under part of the shell, and exposing the 
interior to the apex ; peristome membranaceous. 

♦' Length 13*0, breadth 80, height 2^ mm. 
0-52, „ 0-32, „ 0-1 inch. 

''Habitat. Sispara Ghat, Nilghiri Hills, Southern India." 



246 I.AKD ANU FUKSHMATER 

" This species is verj' near V. gi(/as, Bens., and still more closely 
allied to V. 2^([/ue7isis, Theob., being, however, a more depressed 
species than either, and more open. It is also less solid than the 
last-named species. I have not met with the animal, which may 
possibly differ from those of other Vitrhicc. 

" If the animal resemble those of V. (jiijas and V. pc</ve7isis, the 
occurrence of this mollusk ou the western flank of the Nilghiri 
Hills will be one of the most anomalous with which I am acquainted 
amongst the land-shells of India, since 1 know of no other instance 
of a Malayan type, uniepresented on the Himalayas, of which 
species occur on the hills of Southern India. 

"A small auriform shell such as this may, however, have bceu 
easily overlooked, and the Himalayan moUuscan fauna is probably 
far from thoroughly known. 

" The animal of V. peijmnsis has been partly described by Mr. 
Theobald, who, however, has unfortunately not mentioned the form 
of the mantle, the presence or absence of lobes covering the shell, 
nor the existence of a caudal gland, unless the expression ' caudali 
papula nulla ' is intended to imply its absence ; more probably 
Mr. Theobald's meaning is that the overhanging lobe, so con- 
sj^icuous in some forms of Nanina, is absent, the gland existing as 
in Arioj^hanta, &c. 

" This Viirina is not the only South Nilgiri species. A larger 
membranaceous form also occurs, which requires comparison with 
Mr. Benson's F. memhranacea from Ceylon.'' 

These remarks of Mr. Blanford, written when so very little was 
comparativel}' known of the Indian land-shells, may noM- be read with 
interest, and show that he was then impressed with the remarkable 
diversity and distinctness of form that is to be found between the 
Southern Indian and Malayan types. A. per/uensis, as I shall show 
further on, is widely different from this Nilgiri genus, as well as 
from gigas. But more remarkable is the fact that this South-Indian 
mollusk is so similar in its organization to the African form 
which I have fully described, so similar that there is no character 
of importance to separate them generically. This is only another 
proof, which Mr. Blanford has shown us long ago, of the remarkable 
relationship in the fauna of Eastern Africa and Southern India, 
and their probable former land-connection. 



Subgenus Bensonia, Pfeiffer. (Plate LXI.) 

As a 5th subgenus of Nanina, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. 1855, p. Uii ; 
type taken and the lirst on the lists, N. lahiuta, Pfr. 

Bensonia, Nevill's Hand-list, p. 4!) (1878), type N. monticola = 
lahiuta; Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Vivent. p. 41 (1H78), type N. lahiata. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



247 



PfeifFer did not deecribe this subgenus, which was based on shell- 
characters alone. He included in it the following species : — 

Nanina lahiata, Pfr. 

orobia, Bens.,= Oif!/^^s. 

tugurium, liens., = 3Iacroc7ilaim/s. 

spJendens, Unit., = Macrochhimi/s. 

afra, Pfr. 

The last, from the Cape of Good Hope, is not likely to be in any- 
way related subgeucrieally to a Himalayan form. 

Specimens of the Mussoorie species labiata have been most kindly 
sent me by Mr. J. B. N. Hennessey, F.R.S., of the Indian Survey 
Department ; I am thus able to give a description of the animal. 

Animal. The mucous pore has a broad overhanging lobe. The 
right dorsal lobe simple, with no right shell-lobe ; the left dorsal 
lobe is divided into two parts, as in the genus Oa'i/tes ; the posterior 
portion is isolated and not well develojied, yet somewhat larger than 
in 0,1'i/tes cycloplax. The animal is also similar to Oxijles in its 
markings and in the form of the extremity of the foot. 

The generative organs (Plate LXI. fig. 5) are on the same plan, 
and may be compared with those shown on Plate XXXI. fig. 7 
and Plate XXXII. fig. 5, particularly well seen in the male organ. 
There is therefore no necessity for repeating the description : the 
amatorial organ (D) is long and there is a lengthened pointed caecum 
or kale-sac (K). I examined two specimens and was rewarded 
by finding in the spermatheca (sp) of the specimen on Plate LXI. 
fig. 5, a bundle of perfectly developed spermatophores of beautiful 
structure; this was a most interesting discovery, for the form this 
organ assumes in this group of land-shells I do not think has yet been 
described. The single spermato])hore or capreolus is a long, narrow, 
chitinous ribbon, folded on itself longitudinally to form a shallow 
gutter (see fig. 5 e, which is magnified 4 times) ; the edge or rim of 
the gutter is set at regular intervals with little spikes bifid at the 
point ; they increase in size from one end (/'") towards the broader 
end of the spermatophore (/'), which at last widens into a spatula- 
like or probe-like end (5 /). Here the long bag or sack is attached 
and the thin membrane is probably continuous over the open part 
of the gutter-like portion below ; this bag terminates in a hard 
nipple-like end or capsule. 

The odontophore does not compare with that of Oxytes in any 
way, either in general form (as a set) or number in each row, the 
central and median teeth being much more like the ordinary form seen 
in Macrocldamys ; and yet the unicuspid laterals that come in about 
the 8Gth tooth are, however, similar to those teeth in Oxytes, a sort 
of passage, as it were, from one to the other. The central tooth 
(5«) is strongly tricuspid, the median with an inner high cusp and 
an outer lower cusp ; the lateral (5 a') are bicuspid, with the outer 
remote from the point disappearing at the 3Gth to 3Sth tooth (5 «") ; 
unicuspid teeth follow, and the outermost laterals (.5 a") are very 
minute. 



248 LAND AND FEESHWATER 

The formula is 

70 . 2 . 19 . 1 . 19 . 2 . 70 
or 
91 . 1 . 91 + 
Jaw with central projection. 

OXYTES (BeNSONIa) MONTICOLA, Hutton. 

Nanina monticola, Hutt, & Bens. J. A. 8. B. vol. vii, (1838), 
p. 215 (Mahasu, Hutton). 

Heliv lahiata, Pl'r. P. Z. S. 1845, p. Go (locality unknown, ex 
mus. Cuming) ; Pl'r. Monogr. Helic. Vivcut. vol. i. p. 73 (Landour, 
Hutton). 

Heliv monticola, Pfr. Monogr. Helic. Yivcnt. vol. i. p. 130 (Mahasu, 
Hutton ; Landour, Benson). 

Hemiplceta lahiata, Pfr. ; Albers, Die Heliceeu, 1850, p. 61. 

Xesta lahiata, Pfr. ; Albers, Die Heliceen, 18(51, p. 51. 

Orobia monticola, Hutton ; Albers, Die Heliceen, 1861, p. 58. 

Helij: monticola, Hutton ; Han. & Theob. Conch. Ind. p. 25, pi. Hi. 
f. 3 (Huttu and Mahasu) *. 

Helix lahiata, Pfr.; Han. & Theob. Conch. Ind. p. 13, pi. xxvii. f. 5, 
good figure (Landour). 

Hemiplecta m,onticola, Hutton, sec. C, = lahiata, Pfr. Theob. Cat. 
Supp. p. 22. 

Hemiplecta monticola, Theob. J. A. S. B. 1878, p. 142. 

Nanina (Bensonia) monticola, Hutton, = labiaia, Pfr. JS'ev. Hand- 
list, p. 49. 

Bensonia lahiata, Pfr. Xomen. Helic. Yivent. p. 41. 

Bensonia monticola, Hutton ; Pfr. Nomen. Helic. Vivent. p. 42. 

Mussoorie, N.W. Himalaya. 

The first record of a shell of this subgenus is in a paper by 
Hutton and Benson, published in 1838 on the land and freshwater 
shells of the Himalaya, named Nanina monticola, Hutton. 

Original description : — " Testa suhcliscoidea, j^'ilUde vel saturate 
brunnea, epidermide radiatim et concentrice rve/osula ; spira deprresso- 
conoidea, apice ohtusata; peripheria minime anr/ulata, suturis laviter 
impressis, apertura transversa, lunata, lahro costa interni suhmar- 
ginali albida minnto. Diam. 1*75 inch. (B.) 

" Umbilicus as in the genus. The shell has a moderate polish, 
and is sufficiently distinguished from vitrinoides on the one hand, 
and from decussata on the other, by the radiating wrinkles inter- 
rui^ted by concentrically disposed, dej^ressed lines, which give tho 
surface of the sheila rough aspect, very different from the dt-cussated 
surface of decussata. . . . The larger specimens of N. monticola 
attain a considerable thickness, and there are visible three or four 
internal varices at various distances, occasioned by the ribs at the 
apertures of former growths. 

* Is a good figure of tlie Mussoorie form. I think Hanley has transposed 
the localities of the shells he figured on pis. xxvii. and lii. {vide Q.Nevill. Moll. 
Yark. Exped. p. 17). 



MOLLtrsCA OP INDIA. 249 

"... The colour of the auimal is a dirty brown. The dark 
coloured variety is the more frequent of the two, although both 
occur of every size. They are abundant at Mahassu under fallen 
timber, and in the rainy season they climb the stalks of plants, 
feeding upon the leaves. The largest specimens occur at Hattii, 
among the ruins of the old forts which crown the mountain. Young 
specimens were met with among junipers at Liti, at an elevation 
not much under 14,000 feet. (B.)." 

This species has a very wide range over the N.W. Himalayas. I 
am not at all certain that the very large Mussoorie form lahlata is 
the same exactly as Hutton's montieola. 1 have never seen any 
shells of large size from the Simla neighbourhood, to be able to 
compare the two. I have a fine series from Mussoorie, all with a 
low spire ; periphery well rounded, not subangulate, and often 
banded. I think labiata should stand as a variety of montieola. 
The following are the measurements of Mussoorie specimens : — 

1. Banded : maj. diam. 43-0, min. diam. 37'0, alt. axis 17'0 mm. 

2. Plain: „ 41-0, „ 34-5, „ 19-3 mm. 

3. Plain: „ 38-5, „ 33-0, „ 15-0 mm. 

4. Young specimens with 5 whorls: maj. diam. 22*5, min. diam. 
19*5, alt. axis S'o mm. 

A sketch made in my note-book of the extremity of the foot of 
this specimen shows it to have a long horn-like lobe above the mucous 
gland. 

" Animal yellowish green, foot very long." 

A specimen from Simla collected and given me by Stoliczka agrees 
well with the original description, and also with that in Pfeilfer, 
and this shell is also like two specimens in Mr. W. T. Blanford's 
collection. 

OxYTEs (Bensonia) monticola, Huttou. 

Simla (Stoliczlca). 

Shell depressedly conoid ; sculpture longitudinal well cut lines, 
crossing the more irregular lines of growth, but not decussate ; colour 
pale sienna-brown, with darker brown edging near the peristome ; 
spire subconoid, moderately high, the sides flat ; suture shallow ; 
whorls 7, not convex, closely wound, the last obsoletely angulate ; 
aperture lunate; peristome sharp and strong; columcllar margin 
oblique. 

Maj. diam. 26-0, min. 22*5, alt. axis 12-8, alt. body-whorl 9-8 mm. 

Description in Pfeifter : — 

" 338. Helix monticola (Nanina), Hutton. 

" T. perforata, depressa, suhdiscoidea, fusco-cornea, striata, lineis 
concentricis, confertis minutissime reticulata ; spira vix elevata, apice 
obtusata ; anfr. 6, vix convexiuscidi, idtimus obsolete angidatus ; 
sutura leviter impressa ; ap>ertura lata, lunaris ; perist. simpdex, 
rectum, iutus callo albido late labiatuni, margine colamelkoH vix 
rejiexo. Diam. maj. 26, min. 17 (? 22), alt. 10 mill. (spec. Mus, 
Britt.). Diam. 1-75 poll. (Hutt.). [Min. diam. 17 must be a 
mistake. — G.-A.] 



250 LAND AND FEESHATATER 

" Nanina monticola, Hutt. in Journ. As. Soc. vii. p. 1, p. 215. 
" JVanina convexa, Bens, in sched. Cuming. 
" Habitat in Himalaya ad Mahassu {Hutt.), Landour {Bens.). 
" Ohs. tSiniilis II. labiatce (no. 1(J4) forsan hoc loco enumciaiidiE ; 
diflPert anfractuum numero, sculptura, etc." 

" IG-i. Helix labiata, Pfr, 

" T. ajjerte perforata, depressa, tenuis, striatula, superne lineis 
concentricis obsolete decussata, basi lccvi</ata, nitida, fulva ; spira 
planiusctda ; anfr. 6 subptlanidati, ultimus dilatatus, dejrressus ; 
apertura lata, lunaris ; perist. acutum, p)leru'ii}que rvfesccns, intus 
calloso-labiatum, margine super o antrorsum rotimdato, basal i jjiane 
subarcuato, cohimella vix rejlexiuscula. Diam. maj. 40, miu. J35, 
alt. 20 mill. (coll. No. 93). 

"■ JJelir labiata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. GS (localily un- 
known) ; Chemn. cd. ii. Helix, iv. p. 182, t. 35. f. (5-8. 

" Nanina bensonis, Hutt. in sched. Cuming. 

'* Habitat prope Landour, Indite Orientalis {Ilutton). 

" Obs. 1. Similis H. citrino', ditfert sculptura, anfractuum arctio- 
rum numero, perforatione aperta, in adultis merabraml teuui clausa, 
et labio. 

" Obs. 2. Huic affinis videtur //. monticola, Hutton (iS^o. 338), 
forsan hie colloeanda. 

" The banded vai'iety which is common at Mussoorie is precisely 
the same in every respect, but not quite so numerous as the other 
described above ; the band is situated just above the periphery, and 
is near 4 mm. in width.'' 

Theobald writes under — 

Hemiplecta monticola, Hutton. 

" Generally distributed throughout the Western Himalayas. In 
the valley of the Eichlari Eiver, an aflBuent of the Chenab, this 
species occurs remarkably fine and in incredible numbers in the 
fissures of rock, though few live specimens were procurable at the 
time of my visit. The colour of the shell is dark chestnut, both 
above and below, and thei'e are four or live prominent pale bars or 
transverse stripes, marking the seasonal arrest of growth and the 
position of successive ejjiphragms, formed during the period of 
hybernation. The epidermis is very thin and a ])ale yellow, and (he 
shell does not attain nuiturity under seven or eight years. The first 
five whorls are minutely shagrecned ; the remaining ones smooth, 
but more or less transversely rugose. 

" My largest specimen measures 47 X 39 x 23 mm. The species is 
particularly common below Nachihina in the Bichlari valley.'' 

There is a small variety in !Mr. Blanford's collection, also from 
Stoliczka, from Pagu, near Simla, with the same well-marked 
varices of growth ; it has the full number of whorls, but only 19*25 
mm. in mnj. diam. 



MOLLDSCA OF INDIA. 251 

From Kotgurh, ou the rivor Sutloj, I possess another variety, 
similar in type of sculpture, but of darker colour and closer, more 
regularly wound whorls, and very depressed in form ; it has 7 
whorls, and is 19-0 mm. in maj. diam. This differs more from the 
type than any I have examined ; but as it is a single specimen, it is 
better not to name it. 

G. Nevill in his Hand-list of shells in the Indian Museum, Cal- 
cutta, gives the following species : — 

" 'No. 267. Bensoxia monticola, var. murriensis, Nevill, Second 
Yarkand Mission, Mollusca, p. 17. 

"... differs in the characters which separate it from the type, 
namely open umbilicus, compressed whorls, more vertical aperture, 
and peculiar, abruptly raised apical whorls," Only one specimen 
was found at Changligulli, near Murrec. A series is wanted from 
this locality. 

" Ko. 2G7. Var. ? 
" From Kumaon. 

" No. 269. Bexsonia, n. sp. 

" From Narkanda, Mussooric, and N.W. Himalayas. 
" This T suspect is only one of the many forms of monticola, not 
worthy of a specific name. 

" No. 273. Bensonia kuluensis, Nevill, MS. in epist., 22nd Aug., 
1880. 
" Kulu. 

" No. 273 a. Bensonia theobaldiana, Nevill, MS. 

" This shell was sent me in Sept. 1880, and referred to in the 
above letter as distinct from liihiensis ; it appears to me to be only 
a slight variety of monticola^ 

OxYTEs (Bensonia) jamuensis, Theob. 

Hemiplecta jamucnsis, Theob. Journ. A. S. B. 1878, p. 142. 

Original description : — " Testa solida, convexa, anguste umbilieata, 
supra levisdme granulosO'Corrugata (H. Iigutala3 modo), suhtus Icevi- 
gata. Colare supra paUide brunnea, sidjtus ulbida. Anfractihus sex, 
lente crescent lb us. Labio intus incrassaio simplici. Attinet ad 27 X 
23 X 14 mm. 

" Habitat in ' valle Tawi, inter Chineni et Adampur.' " 

This is in the Jamoo Hills, north of Sealkote, in the Panjab ; and 
Adampur must be Udampur. 

Theobald says : — " This species might be regarded by some as an 
impoverished race of the last (monticola), from which, I have little 
doubt, it is proximately derived, but it differs too much in size, 
colour, form, and range to bo properly united. I have unfortunatelj^ 
no live shells, but the type of coloration in my best specimens is 
more of the type of ligulata than of monticola, being white below. 



252 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

It is, I fcliink, clearly a species desceuded from H. monticola, and 
modified to meet the climatal conditions of the Jawi valley, below 
Chineui, where the winter cold and summer heat are both more 
intense than is suitable for monticola on the one hand, or liijidata on 
the other." I quite agree with Mr. Theobald as to this being a dwarf 
variety of monticola, which he found in great numbers and of large 
size in the damper valley of the Chenab, not many miles away. In 
the dry, hot sandstone hills near Udampur it could not attain to a 
great size. It is not likely to have any relationship to U. Ugulata, 
a form from Peninsular India. 

Another species of this genus is possibly : — 
Helix angelica, Pfr. 

Helix angelica, Pfr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 33 (Panjab) ; Pfr. Mon. 
Helic. vol. iv. p. 123 ; id. Novit. Conch, i. p. 76, pi. xxi. f. 5-6. 

3Iacrochlami/s (sec. A) angelica, Pfr. Conch. Ind. p. 36, pi. Ixxxvi. 
f. 5 & 6 ; Thcob. Cat. Suppl. p. 17. 

Nanina (Bensonia) angelica, Nev. Hand-list, p. 49 ; id. Tark. 
Mission, AIoll. p. 18. 

If, as Mr. Nevill writes, angelica is allied to splendens, it cannot 
be put into Bensonia. The animal of 31. splendens is quite distinct. 

Oxytes (Bensonia) convexa, Peeve. 

Helix convexa. Conch. Icon. Hel. pi. 127. f. 762, for if. monticola; 
Reeve, Pfr. Mon. Hel. vol. iv. Addenda, p. 636 ; Reeve, Han. & 
Theob. Conch. Ind. p. 36, pi. Ixxxv. f. 1-4 ; Kiist. ed. Chemn. Hel. 
pi. clx. f. 3-5. 

Hemiplecta (sec. C) monticola, Hutton, convexa, Reeve (juv.), 
Theob. Cat. Supp. p. 22. 

A good deal of confusion regarding this species is evident, and I 
think has arisen from Huiton"s habit of transferring a name to 
another species when he found it preoccupied. I have this species 
in my collection (No. 54 of my note-book) giving Hutton's identifi- 
cation as monticola, dwarf variety, in pencil, in ink on the side con- 
vexiuscula (perhaps the origin of Reeve's name) ; monticola appears 
on the label, altered some years after to convexa. Reeve. N. lahiata 
was his identification of the common large Mussoorie form, showing 
that he accepted Pfeiffer's name for it, and not his own monticola — 
the Simla species — and considered the species convexa a dwarf form 
of the last *. I collected at Mussoorie for many months and never 
found convexa there, while it was most abundant on the Nagtiba 
Ranges to the north, and which are higher. I thus described it at 
the time : — " Shell of a pale brown-pink hue, with irregular dark 
mottlings ; peristome pink edged. 

" Animal light brownish green, brown near head ; tentacles 
greenish grey. Foot rather short. Very plentiful under old logs 
at 9000 feet." 

* The young specimens which Hutton noted at Liti were no doubt convexa. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 253 

The following is a fuller description of it : — 

OxYTES (Bensonia) convexa, Eeevo. 

Locality. Xagtiba ridge, Mussoorie Hills. 

Shell subglobosely conoid, not urabilicated ; sculpture very fine, 
regular, wrinkly, longitudinal ribbing, both above and below ; colour 
bright straw-colour, or umber-brown, a bright ochre transverse band 
at the peristome ; spire moderately high, subconical ; apex rounded ; 
suture well impressed ; whorls 7, convex : aperture lunate, sub- 
vertical ; peristome thin, slightly reflected near the columellar 
margin, which is subvertical. 
Size : maj. diara. 16-5, min. 14-75, alt. axis 8-0, body-whorl 7 mm. 

Small var. from Kulu : maj. diam. 11-2, min. 9-2, alt. axis 5-75 
mm. 

_ This has six whorls, the lines of growth being fine and very regular 
give the surface a more decussate texture. It was obtained and 
given me by Ferd. Stoliczka. There are examples of this species in 
Mr.Blanford's collection from Xamaon, and one from Simla. 



A Classification of Families and Genera treated of in the preceding 
pages, with the exception of some genera ivhose relative position 
is still doubtful, such as Kaliella and Sitala. 

Fam. ZONATID^. 
Subfam. Arionphantin^. 

Genus Ariophanta. Peninsular India and Lower Bengal. 
OxYTES. Eastern Himalaya to Burniab. 
Bensonia. N.W. Himalayas. 
NiLGiRiA, n. g.*, a.-A. ; solata, Bs. (type). Peninsular India. 

Subfam. Macrochlamin^. 

Genus Macrochlamys. India throughout, Burmah, Malayana, and Africa. 
MiCROCYSTiNA. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Hemiplecta humphreysiana t, Lea (type). Malay Peninsula and 
Islands. 

Subfam. Helicarionin^. 
Genus Girasia. "I 

Austenia. I N.W. Himalaya to Assam and Burmab. 

Ibycus. J 

Cryptosoma. Burmah. 

Helicarion. Australia. 

Dekhania. Peninsular India, South. 

Africarion. Africa and Peninsular India. 

Subfam. Durgellin^. 
Genus Durgella. Assam, Burmah, and Tenasserim. 



* This will be fully described in the next Part. 

t This species, from Singapore, will be described with some of its allies. 



3, 3 a. 


3 b. 


4, 4 a. 


4h. 


5, 5 a, 



254 LVND A\D FUESnWATER 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIL* 

Fig. 1, \a. Aasfcnia scutella, Bs., X 2-4. Muri-ee, Punjab. Animal 
viewed from right and left sides. 
1 h. Ditto : the extremity of foot viewed from behind, X 4. 
1 c, \d. Ditto : shell, X 2-4." Chinab valley. 
\e. Ditto: shell, natnral size. Chinab valley. 
2, 2 ff. Anstenia? monticola, Bs., natural size. Mussoorie, N.W. 
Himalaya. 

"i stvlicz}canus,T^e\\\], x I'C. .4/)Mor«A, N.W. Himalaya. 

, natural size. 

-? serahanensis, G.-A., X Vfi. Sutlej Valley, N.W. 

Himalaya. 

, natural size. 

? tlwoh'ihU, G.-A., X 1-G. Bichlari, Chinab Valley, 

N.W. Himalaya. 

5 h. , natural size. Bichlari, Chinab Valley, N.W. 

Himalaya. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIII. 

Fig. L Macrochlamysl consepta, Benson, x 2 4. Moulmain.Tenasserim. 

2. woodiiuisoni, Nevill, MS., x4. LittleCoco Island, Bay 

of Bengal. 

3. hrpathmi, G.-A., X 2-4. Habiang, S.W. Khasi. 

4. 4 «, 4 /). , X 2 4. Dada Hills. 

5. pafane, X 4. Darjiling. 

6. petasus, Bs., X 4. PhieThau,Tenasserim. 

7. siihpetasus, G.-A., X 4. Arakan. 

8. 8 a. lafiis, G.-A., X 2-4. Teria Ghat, Khasi. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIV. 

Fig. 1. MacrocMami/.'i flemhiffi , Pfr. Miirree. Hight side. From 

spirit-.specimen, natural size. 

1 a. Ditto : left side. 

I b. Ditto : posterior view of the mucous gland, X 4. 

1 r. Ditto : the head, siiowing position of the generative orifioe 

and the groove running back from it, under the mantle- 
lobes. 

\d, 1 r. Ditto: shell, natural size. 

2, 2rt. Macrochlamijs altivayus, Theob., natural size. LTri, 
Kashmir. 

3,3 a. ca5s?(f a, Bs., natural size. Kashmir. 

4. • a;<si'e«irt»«,s, Nevill, natural size. Sonamurg, Kashmir. 

4a, Ah. Ditto, x 2 4. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LV. 

Fig. 1. Girasia hookeri, Gray. Spirit-specimen, natural size. 

Khasi Hills. Vicvsf of right side: c, cicatricial Hue 
marking the junction of the right and left .shell-lobes. 

1 a. Ditto: left side. 

1 h. Ditto : dorsal aspect. 

2, 2 a, 2 b. Ditto : shell of. 



* Plates LIL-LXII. published September 1887. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 255 

Fig. 3. Aiisf.enia gigu^^, Bs. Right side uf auiiual froui spirit 

specimen, natural .size. 

3 a. Ditto : view of left side. 

3 b. Ditto : viewed from tlie back, the jiortion within the apex 

of the shell cut off, to show more clearly tlie shell-lobes 
on the posterior margin : hd, hermaphrodite duet, 
position of, passing back to the ovo-testes. 

4, 4 a, 4 h. Ditto : shell natural size. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVI. 

Fig. L Girasia niagnijica, Nev. & Gr.-A., natural size. Momein, 

Yunnan. View of right side. 

2. Ditto: viewed from above, showing the cicatricial junction of 

the right and left shell-lobes (c). 

3. Ditto : view of left side. 

4. Ditto: viewed from behind. 

5. 5 a. Shell, natural size. Copied from J. A. S. B. 1881, plate v. 

Drawn and lithographed by Jules Schaumburg, Calcutta. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVII. 

Fig. 1. Africarion ater, G.-A. Travancore and Tinevelley Hills, S. 

India. View of i-ight side, X 2-4. Shell removed. 
1 a. Ditto : view of dorsal side, X 24. 
1 h. Ditto : view of left side, position internally of the nmsole- 

attachment of the retractor penis (m), x 24. 

1 c. Ditto : portion of sole of foot, X 24. 

2. 2 a. Shell, from above and below, X 24. 

2 b. Ditto : natural size. 

3. Africarion ater, var. aterrimus, natural size. 

3 a. Ditto : viewed from behind, x 2'4. 

3 ft. Ditto: sole of foot, anterior portion, X 2^4. 
3c. Ditto: jaw, x 12. 

4. 4 rt. Ditto : shell, X 4. Showing the membranaceous peristome (;>). 

5. Ditto : generative organs of var. aferriiun.s, X 2"4. 

5 rt. Ditto : male organ of ater, X 4. Showing the spermatophore 
in process of formation (s). 

6. Africarion ater, var. cinereus, natural size. 

7. Shell of Africarion, auriformis, Blf., X 2'4. Sispara Ghat, 

Nilgiri Hills. 
7 a. Ditto : natural size. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LVIII. 

Fig. 1, 1 «, 1 b. Girasia {Dekhania) heddotnai, G.-A., natural size. Tra- 
vancore Hills. Viewed from above and on the right and 
left sides. From spirit-specimen. 

Shell of ditto, X 2-4. 

Ditto, young, X 2'4, 

Girasia beddomei, var. maculosa, natural size. Viewed 
from above and right side. 

Ditto, var. nigra, natural size. View of right side. 

Ditto, var., natural size. Viewed from above and on righfc 
and left sides. 







2, 


2 a, 


2b. 






3. 










4, 


4rt. 








fy. 










6, 


(Sa, 


6 6. 


PART 


VI 









256 LAND AND FRESHWATER 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LIX. 



Fig. 1, 1 «, 1 h. Girasia pankaharknsts. G.-A. ; animal, X 1'5. Viewed 
from right side, above, and left side respectively. 

2, 2 «. {Ilii/ciis) sikimciistg, G.-A. : animal, X 2*4. Viewed 

from right side and above. 
2 Ik Shell of ditto, x 24. 

3, 'Sa,3b. Girasia {Ih/cKs) sikimcnsls, var. mainwaringi, Nevill, MS. : 

animal, X 4. 

4, • ( ) cacharica, G.-A. : animal, X 2'4. 

4 «, 4 b. Shell of ditto, X 2-4. 

T). 5«. AiiKfniia? vc» usf a. Theohnld, X 2'4. 

li, (i«, fi A. Girai:ia pcffiicvgis, Theobald : animal, natural size. Viewed 

from right side, above, and left side. 
6 c. Shell of ditto, X 2-4. 

6 d. Ditto, natural size. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LX. 

Fig. 1, \<i. Aufifcnia yigas, Ha. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hills. 

2. Girattia crocca, G.-A. Teria Ghat, Khasi Hill?;. 

.">. kookcri, \ar. hnciinca. Shilloiig, Khasi Hills. 

4. Ditto, ditto. Shillong, Khasi Hills. 

5. Ditto, ditto. Shillong, Khasi Hills. 

(i, 6 rt. Girasia radha, G.-A. Durrang Distfict, Assam. 

7. Imtleri, G.-A. Naga Hills. 

8. cinerea, G.-A. Dafla Hills. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXI. 

Fig, 1. Girat>ia dalhoiisi(B,G:.-X.: view of right side, X 1'5. 

I a. Ditto : viewed from above. 

2. Giruiiia harfii, G.-A. : shell, natural size. 

'6. nagaensis, G.-A. : view of right side of mantle, 

3 a. Ditto : view of mantle seen from above ; j'l posterior end. 

3 b. Ditto : extremity of foot, showing mucous gland. 

3 c. Ditto : shell, natural size. 

4. Girasia rubra, G.-A. ; view of left side, fi'om life. 

4 a. Ditto : the right side ol' mantle and head, from life. 
ih. Ditto: njantle viewed from above ; />, posterior end. 
4 ('. Ditto : extremity of foot, from life. 

4d. Ditto: shell, enlarged and natural size, 

b. O.ri/tes (Bn/sovia) lahiata, Pfr, Generative organs, X 2'4 

(lettering as in former Plates) : sj), the spernialheca is seen 

filled with a bundle of spermatophores. 
5ff. Diltu: central teeth of odontophore ; 5 «', IDth to 23rd median 

teeth ; 5 «", 36th to 40th lateral : ba'", the outermost laterals, 

X 185. 
b r. Ditto: pcrtion of spermatophore, X 4; /', basal end. 
.'■)/. Ditto, ditto, anterior end. X 12. 
f) /'. Ditto, dilto, middle portion, 
bf". Ditto, ditto, basal end, X 12. 
b g. Ditto, (lie anterioi- portion of eapKUJar cud. 



5I0LLUSCA OF INDIA. 257 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE LXII. 

Fig. 1. Girasia hookcri, Gray: central, no. 34, 35, 36, and outermost 
lateral teeth of odontophore, X 185 ; 1 a, jaw, enlarged. 

2. magnijica, Nevill : central and lateral teeth, X 185. 

3. radha, G.-A. ; central, median, and lateral teeth, x 185 ; 3 «, 

jaw, X 12 ; 'Sb, generative organs, enlarged. Lettering as in 
former Plates. 

4. dalhovsice, G.-A. : central, nos. 12-16, and outer lateral 

teeth, X 185 ; 4 a, jaw, X 12. 

5. {IbycKs) cacharica, G.-A. : median teeth, 12-15, and the 

outermost laterals ; 5 a, jaw, X 12 ; bb, the basal end of the 
amatorial organ, X 12 ; 5 c, part of the generative organs. 

6. crocea. G.-A.: central, median, and some of the lateral 

teeth, X 185. 

7. Dekhania beddomei, G.-A. : central, lateral, and outermost laterals, 

X 185; 7 a, jaw, x 4. 

8. AustetHagigas, Benson: central, median, and lateral teeth, x 185; 

8a, jaw, x 4. 



'i