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QL 

mG59 

1882 

V.3.PT=1 

TEXT 

MOLL. 



Godwin-Austin 1^20 

Land and freshwater Mollusca of India 
vol. 3, Pt. 1 TEXT 



LAND AID FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 



OF 



T iwT x^ T A Division oi^rt^fc^^ 

INDIA, Sectioned Inbmty j 



INCLUDING 

SOUTH ARABIA, BALUCHISTAN, AFaHANISTAN, 
KASHMIR, KEPAL. BURMAH, PEGU. TEMSSERIM, 
MALAY PENINSULA, CEYLON, AND OTHER 
ISLANDS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TO MESSRS. THEOBALD AND HANLEY'S 

CONCHOLOGIA INDICA. 



BY 
LiEUT.-CoLONEL H. H. GODWIN-AUSTEN, 

F.R.S., F.E.G.S., F.Z.S., &c., 

l.ATE DEPUTY SUPElilNTEKDF.NT TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OP INDIA, IN CHARGE OF 
THE KHASy, GARO, AND NAGA-HILLS SURVEY PARTY. 



Vol. III. 



Part I NOVEMBER 1920. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 

1920. 



^^%m m FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA 



OP 



I N D T A^ 1^^^ 



X <Ni,«flaOt^^ l<.^ff^ 



INCLUDING 

SOUTH ARABIA, BALUCHISTAN, AFaHANISTAN, 

KASHMIR, NEPAL, BURMAH, PEGU, TENASSERIM. 

MALAY PENINSULA, CEYLON. AND OTHER 

ISLANDS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TO MESSRS. THEOBALD AND HANLEY'S 

CONCHOLOGIA INDICA. 

BY ,U<^vv 
LiEUT.-CoLONEL h! H: GODWIN-AUSTEN, 

F.E.S., F.E.G.s'.,' F.Z.S., &c., 

LATE DEl'UTY SUPERINTENDENT TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OP INDIA, IN CHARGE OP 
THE KHASI, GARO, AND NAGA-IIILLS SURVEY PARTY. 

Vol. III. 



Part I.— NOVEMBER 1920. ( ^AY % {Sgg 

LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED TJON COURT, FLEET STREET. 

1920. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FKANCIB, 
KED LION COURT, FLEET STIIKKT. 



LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSC A 



OF 



INDIA. 

VOL. III. 



Part I.— NOVEMBER 1920. 



(Plates CLIX.-CLXV.) 



INTEODUCTION. 



In spite of the very limited interest which is taken in the animals 
of the land mollusca, I am induced to commence Volume III. of 
this work; for until the species in the many Oriental genera 
are collected, their anatomy made known, and their true habitat 
recorded, any attempt to use them for classification or any deeper 
research is not possible. The work of the Conchologist is simply 
useless unless this is done and the physical features of India are 
taken into account. During the war I have not been able to 
carry on this publication, begun 37 years ago and ended m 
two volumes in 1U14. On the other hand, I have had leisure 
to do much with the material in my hands, and to add to it, 
especially specimens preserved in spirit, and have described the 
animals of many Indian Genera previously unknown. I have 
had much support — more than I had hoped to receive — and from 
many quarters : for this I cannot express my thanks too strongly. 
I must especially notice Dr. N. Anuandale, with Messrs. H. W. 
Kemp and F. H. Graveley of the Indian Museum. 1 feel it a duty to 
those who have supplied material, to put what I have brought 
to light on record, as a startiug-point for those who will follow 
me in this wide and difficult held of research, so full of deep 
interest to anyone who enters it. 

PAKX I. ^ 



2 LA>D AM) FKESUWATER 

I am most fortunate in having as a neighbour ^r, J. S, Gladstone, 
an excellent and skilful photographer. Without his valued aid 
1 could not give the tigures of tjpes and shells from typical 
localities, which show far better than any description the direction 
their subtle dittcrences take. For instance, how distinctly photo- 
graphy shows the ditference between G. ienimpirn of Teria Ghat 
(Plate CLIX. tig. 3) and the species tor long regarded as the same 
from Sikhim (Plate CLIX. figs. 1 & 2). Mr. Gladstone made 
])hotographs of 60 shells, which fill three Plates. 1 may say here, 
but for this generous assistance, the publication of this Monogra])h 
would not have been possible. As an example of Zoological 
llesearch it has been met, and by private means alone. 



Genus Glessula. 



"While I have been studying this genus, particularly the animal, 
as specimens were slowly obtained in spirit, knowledge of its 
taxonomy has increased. This has led me to look at many species 
very closely, for much had been left incomjilete by Colonel Eeddome, 
particularly the species from the North-East Frontier of India, of 
which I possessed a very tine series. 

Some of this work on the genus Glessula might have been 
])ublished long ago in the second volume of the 'Fauna of British 
India' — some of it, anatomical, had been done ready for it: 
but I found I could not, under the conditions in which I was 
expected to work, complete it in time. I had reached an age when 
extra correspondence was to be avoided, when indcpeiident con- 
chological work was pleasanter to do. It was not to be expected 
1 could place my collection at the service of others, neither could 
I hand over original work on the animals of the genus on which I 
had spent so much time and expense during many years. I 
could not give the public the run ©f collections I had deposited 
in the Natural History Museum under certain well-defined and 
very reasonable conditions, reserving to myself the right to work 
on them during my lifetime. 

At the end of A^ol. II. (p. 435) I mentioned the genera I was 
engaged upon and trusted to deal with. Of these Glessula has 
been completed and is now presented in Part I. of this new 
volume. The anatomy of several species has been made known, 
and, when working out the collections made when the piinitive 
expedition entered the Abor country and the Tsanspu Valley 
(1911-12), I took the op])ortunity of publishing the anatomy of 
a new species from Sikhim to elucidate that of the genus, 
as I did not see at the time, with the war going on, any chance of 
publishing it at all. The animals of other genera have come 
to hand and have been described and figured in the following 



MOLr.rsf'A or ixdta. 3 

orrler : —Anadenns and Opens fboth very well represented in my 
collection), SiveUa, Harpalus, I'lanispira, and Plectotropis (many 
species have been worked out in these four genera). 

Among the earlier writers on Glessalu — Pfeitier, Benson, and 
both Henry and William Bianford — Geoffrey Nevill undoubtedly has 
the highest claim to notice ; he had made a special study of the 
genus, and knew it better than anyone I have come in contact 
with. Much of Beddome's knowledge was obtained from him in 
correspondence and exchange of specimens from Southern India, 
This is well shown in his copy of the ' Hand-List,' being a 
catalogue of all the Gasteropoda in the Indian Museum when his 
health compelled him to retire. This is not a mere reprint 
of the first original edition of 1878 contaiidiig 338 pages, but 
there is added to every species the work in which it was originally 
2)ublished ; all additional species (in this genus 28) are given with 
descriptions of those Nevill considered new, while in hundreds of 
cases throughout the book the dimensions of type shells are given. 
One point which must not be forgotten is Nevill's great accuracy 
in the records of habitat and the collectors through whom the species 
were obtained. The title-page is headed " Proof for new Edition,'' 
"For the Trustees Indian Museum — G. Nevill, 1-11-81." On 
another page, " To be offered to Trustees Indian Museum if they 
consider it may be of any practical value to them ; if not, to be 
given to Col. Godwin-Austen. — Signed, G. Nevill, London, July 5th, 
1879." Shortly after Nevill's death at Davos in Switzerland, 
I received the copy with other books and valuable notes, and did 
all I could to get it published. 

On 23rd December, 1885, 1 first approached the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, strongly advising the publication of a Second 
Edition ; in February 1886 I received a reply from the Honorary 
Secretary, Mr. H. B. Medlicott, of which this is the concluding- 
paragraph : " The Trustees consent to your keeping present custody 
of and using the valuable copy of the Hand-list of Mollusca con- 
taining Mr. Nevill's notes and additions. There is no immediate 
prospect of special work in that branch of the collections." In 
fact, the post which Nevill held has never been filled up to this 
day : for 40 years the collections of Mollusca have been in many 
hands, and in the course of many moves some species catalogued 
by Nevill could not be found when I have applied for them. It 
says much for those who have had charge that the collection is not 
in a worse state. 

I next took the book to Dr. John Anderson, the retired Super- 
intendent of the India Museum, under whom Nevill had served. 
He could effect nothing, although, if I remember right, he went to 
the India Office : it was the old story — no funds ! 

In 188:5, in a final attempt to see it through the press myself, 
I obtained from Messrs. Taylor & Francis an estimate for 672 pages, 
500 copies unbound, .£221 10s. Qd. This sum was not to be 
got — I had it not to give, but would have given what knowledge 
1 had towards publication. 

B 2 



4 lAND AND FRE>nWATER 

Much has lately appeared in the public press on " Research." 
It is of interest to put a case like this on record (if only to show how 
valuable scientific worlc and knowledge is lost for ever for want of 
Government support.) To show how research is vahiod and 
rewarded, Museums are built at an enormous known cost and hlled 
with specimens at an enormous unknown cost; then a proper 
scientific Staff to deal with them is grudged, expenses are cut down, 
and tlie record is never utilized. lu this instance Nevill lost the 
credit which many years of close study should have brought him — 
not among those he had w^orked with, but among the general public. 
I am glad I have the opportunity of bringing his labours to notice. 

The l)est account of the genus is to be found in the ' Manual of 
Concliology,' ser. 2, xx. 1908, commencing p. 50 — the excellent 
■work of Dr. Henry A. Pilsbry, with copious good illustrations, not 
only of the shells, but of the sculpture and of the embryonic apex. 
He says (p. 52) : — " From the purely conchological standpoint we 
may be said to have an extensive knowledge of Glessula, j'et various 
characters of the first importance have been neglected. The 
embryonic ivhorls of the types must he all 7-e-e.vamined, and their 
sctdpture described. Our ignorance of the embryonic sculpture of 
many forms prevents any natural classification of the species. 
The surface of the later whorls in all the species should be 
examined under high power, since some species have a minute 
sculpture not visible wnth an ordinary lens." Further on, he 
adds : " No natural classification of the species of Glessula can be 
attempted until the sculpture of the apices of the shells and 
the anatomy of a number of representative species are studied." 
Bearing this truly excellent advice in mind, I have endeavoured to 
follow it when describing the many species of the genus now known 
from the Eastern Frontier of India and Burma. 

Pilsbry* has given a good resume of what has been done in this 
gonus and all that was known of the anatomy at that time. For 
this last we are indebted to the research of Professor C, Semper, 
■who published, in his ' llcisen im Archipel der Phili])])inen,'" 1873, 
p. 13^, pi. xii. figs. 14-16 to pi. xvi. fig. 10, an anatomical, descrip- 
tion of Glessula orophila, Benson, said to have come from ^ladras, 
but it might have been collected in any part of Peninsular India. 

It is unfortunate Semper's determination is open to doubt: we 
shall never know whether the shell of the animal he dissected was 
compared with the type of Benson's orophila., or what has become 
of that t,ype described by Reevo. The species is not recorded in the 
' Conchologia Indica,' so Hanley never could have seen it. There 
are no specimens assigned to G. orophila in either the William or 
Henry Blanford collections. Beddome records the species from the 
AnamuUay Hills; South Canara; Golconda Hills, east side of 
the IVIadras Presidenc}', and says, " !My Golconda specimens were 
labelled by II. Nevill G. subbrevia, but I cannot see how they 

* Man. Couch, ser. 2, xx. li)08, pi. xviii. 



MOI.LUSCA OF INDIA, 5 

differ." Nevill, I think, only saw young examples ; Eeeve's figure 
copied by Nevill (?. e. G. Nevill), is good. 

Geoffrey Nevill, in a paper on new or little-known Mollusca of 
the Indo-Malayan Fauna *, gives a description of the shell. He 
writes, under Stenogyra (Glessula) oropliila, Benson MS.: — 
" lieeve, Conch. Icon. 1850, fig. 105, anl'r. 7, long. 14 mill., as 
Achatina orophila, Nilgiris and Colombo ; Jide Pfr., = his 
A. ceylanica. I give a copy of Reeve's original magnified 
figure of his A. orophila, as I am by no means convinced 
Dr. PfeifFer is right in uniting it to his A. cei/lanica ; to judge from 
the figures, I should say they were quite distinct species. It may be 
that Reeve confused two distinct forms — the one figured (probably 
from the Nilgiris) a good and distinct species, the other from 
Ceylon a mere variety of St. ceylanica which may have been sent 
or shown to Dr. PfeifFer as A. orophila and caused him to unite 
the two species. I have not myself seen any species of the group, 
St. nitens, ceylanica, p>iinctogallana, etc., from Continental India." 

Semper shows all the interesting details of the genitalia of his 
O. orophila, especially what he terms the flagellum, which is of 
very peculiar form, elongate and comb-like, a character thus 
typical of the genus. It is, I consider, the sac in which the 
spermatophore is developed. In the teeth of the radula the shape 
of the marginals is not given. 

The genus, as recently as 1914, has been treated by Mr. G. K. 
Gude in the ' Fauna of British India.' Ho approached it with 
a great knowledge of conchology, bibliography, and especially 
synonymy — the last most useful to Avorkers, but unattractive. 
They have to thank Mr, Gude for undertaking such labour. 
It shows, like so much work of its kind and of the series to 
which it belongs, that he had never been a collector in India 
and knew little of its physical features and all that that comprises. 
There is an absence of original matter, such as Dr. Jerdon, the 
Blanfords, Lj^dekker, Gates, Day, and others brought to bear on 
and embellished the history of the Mammals, Birds, and Fishes 
of India which they had collected and which had passed through 
their hands. 

It is easy to find fault, and it may appear I do so with Glide's 
work. I am only animated by the desire and striving to make the 
record of Geographical Distribution as correct as possible ; thus 
under G. tennisplra, p. 37!-^, I notice all the errors of determination 
which Blanford, Theobald, Nevill, Beddome, and myself have per- 
petuated. I have to point out that these determinations were made 
40 to 60 years ago, much too long ago for such data to be reliable. 
I am able to say they were often made without sufficient material at 
hand, or on shells erroneously named in the first instance. I tnke, 
for example, G. baculina, p. 379, Khasi Hills (Godiuin- Austen), 
evidently on the authority of Nevill in the ' Hand-list,' p. 170. 
It is a distinct species, which he did not notice ; I have named 

* J. A. S. B. pt. i. 1881, p. 137, pi. V. fig. 19. 



b LAND AND FRKSUWATKR 

it suhhactdina, for I cannot find in my collection from the Khasi 
Hills any Glessula that matches the type in the Henry Blauford 
collection. 

Classification and Distribution. 

Mr. G. X. Gude, in the ' Fauna of British India,' puts Glessula 
into the family Ferussacidse (p. 373), immediately following 
the genera Ciwelioides, type acicida, Miill., Oeostilbia, type 
caledonica, Crosse, and halaims, lleeve, together with a neAV 
s])ecie8, G. hensoni (p. 375). 

With these genera I cannot agree that Glessula has affinity ; 
the animals are unknown, the shells very different, tlie 
conditions of life and extent of range very distinct, llnnge is 
an important factor in questions of this kind. C. acicida is 
Pahearctic, spreading to the far South. Glessula is Oriental 
and in comparison limited in its area of distribution. Commencing 
with Southern India, it is absent from the N.W. Himalaui, 
bordering on the eastern margin of the Pahearctic, coming in 
(in Nepal?) in Sikhim and extending through the North-East 
Himalaya, Assam with the Assam Ilange, and thence to Burma, 
China, and Sumatni. All these are forest-ciad countries with 
considerable rainfall, or country which was once much more 
forest-clad than at present, before man arrived to destroy the 
ancient forests. The Khasia Hills, with the Jaintia on the East, 
Avere once much more wooded than they are at present and formed 
a tract of country of great extent. Geostilhia halanus, on the other 
hand, may be called a desert species, standing great heat and great 
dryness for months. A knowledge of the animal would be of 
extreme value in every way. I cannot find that it has ever been 
seen alive. 

1 prefer to place Ghssida and its subgenera in a family of 
its own, the Glessulidas. 

Concliologically Glessida possesses many very distinct characters. 
It comprises shells which have the coluniellar margin abruptly trun- 
cate at the base, which in the majority of the species forms a short 
gutter and holds a part of the mantle near the riglit dorsal 
m:irgin. A well-defined division with shells of all sizes is found 
having elongate, turreted, and flat-sided shells, the major diameter 
diiferii.g little from that of the small aperture. Typical Bacillnm 
cassiaca falls under the above shell description, and I shall have to 
refer to this subgenus — it is much more solid and opaque, with 
stronger regular sculpture and larger apex ; the animal (December 
1919) still remains to be deseiibed. 

A departure from the BacUlum type of shell character is met 
with in Glessida tenuis/>ira (Plate CLIX, fig. 3) ; the shell is thin, 
transparent, more or less finely striate, the aperture larger, and 
that and the body-whorl together are much larger than the shorter 
spire above. 

This proportion of parts is intensified in species like Plate CLX. 
fig. 1 hurradensis, fig. 2 do., fig. 3 do., fig. 4 do., fig. 5 var. viaxweUI ; 
still more iu iig. 9 butleri, fig. 14 crassilabris, or what may be 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 7 

accepted as true Oles^nla. The animal of GJessida ochracea, G.-A., 
of Sikhim, has been dissected and published in ' Eecords Indian 
Museum,' vol. viii. pt, xii. p. 617. It was found to agree with 
6r. oroi)hila as described by Semper. Until many of the smaller 
species are anatomically examined, they must all be placed in 
Glessula ; the smallest species, such as G. gemma, may possibly 
have characters of subgeneric value. 

The classification as given in ' Fauna British India,' vol. ii. {vide 
Systematic Index, p. x) requires moditication. BncUliim is placed 
in the Achatinidse subfamily Stenoijyriam, whereas Glessida is 
put in the Family Ferrusacidae Genus 3. I can find very little 
diiference between the animals of Glrssida and Bacillum (January 
1920), and consider the tirst should come next the other in the 
Stenogyrince. 

Conch. Ind. p. 17, " the subgenus Bacillum is proposed by 
Mr, Theobald for this (A. obtasa, 15lf.), the preceding \a. cassiaca, 
lis.), and other allied forms." 

It was left to Mr. Henry A. Pilsbry to describe the Genus 
conchologically, which he does in Man. Conch, ser. 2, xviii. 190(3, 
p. 1, as follows. Ho mentions 4 species and 1 subspecies. 

BacUlum. — " Shell rather large, solid, imperforate, turreted, 
many-whorled, a little contracted near the obtuse, rounded summit; 
the embryonic shell cylindric ; sculi)ture of vertical rib-striiB 
beginning somewhere upon the hist whorl (PI. i. fig. 12) ; the post- 
embryonic whorls being obliquely, regularly nb-striate. Aperture 
obli(iue, Achatinoid, the columellar concave, truncate at the base, 
outer lip simple. Internal axis slender, strongly sigmoid within 
each whorl. Soft anatomy unknown. 

" Type, B. cassiacuin. Distribution, Eastern India." 
The very recent and extended knowledge of the animals of 
Bacillum and Glessula shows that the two genera come next 
each other ; further, that the animals of the latter present two 
very distinct divisions. This was first seen on dissecting a 
well-known species from Darjiling and Sikhim long known as 
G. teniiispira in early Catalogues, such as Jfevill's ' Hand-list.' 
The specimens dissected came from the Kishetchu, a tributary of 
the Teesta, and the anatomy is figured on Plate CLXV. figs. 1-1 c. 
On this I found a new Subgenus, with the following characters: — - 

Subgenus Rishetia, uov. 

Shell large, thin, transparent, imperforate, turreted, many- 
whorled, tapering gradually to a rather acute embryonic apex, 
first 2 whorls smooth ; sculpture regular, rather coarse striation. 
Aperture oblique, columellar concave, truncate at base. 

Animal. Uvotestis tightly convoluted, close to the albumen 
gland. Prostate and oviduct compact cylindrical, with closely- 
packed follicles. Spermatheca large on long duct. Penis with a 
distinct simple gland or flagellum retractor muscle on side. 

It is also apparent, with the gradually accumulating knowledge 
of the animal combined with form of the shell, the genus Glessula 
admits of subdivision — Glessula as a subgenus to include all those 



a LAND AND FRESHWATER 

si)ecies possessing ihe comb-]ike nppondage to the penis (flagellum). 
Unfortunately, np to date 191!) the animal of a true BaciUnm has 
never been obtained, never even seen alive. Still 1 am inclined to 
think this genus eomes in close to Gles-sala, in fact far closer than 
does Curvella or Bmyalus. The comb-like flagellum (PI. CLXV. 
fig. 2 c) is replaced by a short, pointed, simple one (PI. CLXV. 
fig. 1 a), while in a Ceylon species it is massive, with an in- 
distinctly tripartite outline (PL CLXV. fig. 7 «,/.)• 

Distribution. — The absence of Glessula in the North- West 
Himalaya and the Punjab is very remarkable, viz. from all the 
old valleys of the Punjab Rivers and the Ganges. Whether this 
feature extends to the Kali lliver and through Xepal to its eastern 
boundary, the valley of the Tambur, which Sir Joseph Hooker was 
the first to explore and describe, has to be discovered when that 
country becomes better known and is collected in. 

The only exception to the above distribution is the reported 
occurrence of one species, G. hiu/eli Pfr. in Kashmir. I have never 
seen or heard of its being found there ; I was always collecting, 
and no man in my time saw so much of Kashmir Territory 
than I did. 1 am inclined to be sceptical, for Kashmir has been 
fairly collected in by zoologists such as Stoliczka and Theobald, 
who were not likely to miss finding so large and conspicuous 
a shell, 37 mm. in length. 

Mr. Gude says (p. 387): — "When first described, its origin 
was unknown. Kashmir was first given as its habitat by Hanloy 
and Theobald. The species is allied to Glessula chessoni, but 
more solid in texture. The Cuming Collection contains three 
specimens from Kashmir, with a label in Pfeifter's hand-writing." 

It is, moreover, on the authority of Haiilej' and Theobald, 
Conch. Indica, p. 33 ; this means " Hacley," who had little regai d 
for Geographical distribution. I saw a good deal of Hanley 
about 1869. He never grasped the enormous size of India : 
how different is the climate on its north and south, its vast 
plains and mountains. Consequently I am led to think, on 
learning that von Hiigel had visited Kashmir, any shell con- 
nected with him Hanley assumed from that part of India. 

With Eastern Nepal a great change takes place in the orogra])hy 
of the Himalays ; the most elevated peaks, Mt. Everest among 
thorn, lie ])ai'allel to the plains at about SO miles distant, and a 
chain glaciated and covered with snow is continuous for 600 miles 
as far as the Kali Piver. This must affect, even at the present day, 
the temperature of tlie valleys draining to the plains, and surely 
would have sufficed during the Glacial period to limit the Land 
^lollusca to the base of the hills, from which many species would 
never have returned or survived the change. It produced con- 
ditions thus far to the East similar, but on a small scale, to 
the disturbance of the fauna and flora in Europe caused by 
intense cold. Proceeding to the K.W. to the latitude of Kashmir, 
these conditions would have been intensified, for enormous glaciers 
4<) miles long once filled the main valleys. 

Tlie genus ranges all over Peninsular India, is more abundant 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 9 

in the South, extending to Ceylon, a few species being found 
common on both sides. It has been studied by H. A. Pilsbry, 
who cites 58 species ; G. K. Gude, in Faun. Brit. India, raised tho 
number to 80; Colonel R. H. Beddome (1906) gives 53; while 
Nevill in his Proof Copy ' Hand-list' (1881) records 05. 

The species are very distinct ; none are found outside the 
Peninsula, as far as my investigations go, and I have been 
able to correct several incorrect determinations. 

The subgenus Rishetia docs not extend to South India, appa- 
rently. Beddome has recorded li. teniiiftpira from North Canara, 
based only on a single specimen without any history : see what I 
say of this under the title of hwjisjnra No. 2, Sikhim and the 
Teesta valley. 

Going back in time, it has not been recorded from the Inter- 
trappean beds of the Peninsula — those of Nagpur, for instance ; 
but I see no reason why it should not be found in them, especially 
the smaller species, and it should be looked for. We do not 
half know the genera preserved in this old formation *. Tho 
llev. Stephen Hislop, in the ' Proceedings ' of the Geological 
Society, 1859, p. 154, describes the " Tertiary Deposits associated 
with Trap-Rock in tho East Indies," and the fossil shells are 
described and figured by him. Having very recently received 
through Dr. N. Aunandalea collection of these fossils from Nagpur, 
I have been led to read tlie paper. An interesting paragraph 
I quote from is on p. 104 : — " I have shown my frephwater shells 
to Mr. Benson, the highest authority on the Molluscs of our 
Indian lakes, and he gives it as his opinion that not one of the 
specimens submitted to him exactly corre8])onds to anything he 
has seen." This was written 60 years ago ; it is in accordance 
with my conclusions expressed in a letter to Dr. Annandale 
dated 31st March, 1920: "I have had an hour's look at them, 
and can say they are all unknown forms to me." This rich 
fauna of Upper Cretaceous age should no longer lie thus neglected, 
for since Hislop wrote an enormous advance has been made in o\ir 
knowledge and treatment of the Land and I'lX'shwater Mollusca. 

"The Zoological llesults of the Abor Expedition, 1911-li^.'' 
puldished in the ' Records Indian Museum,' vol. viii., have con- 
siderably modified our ideas of distribution and led to the records of 
the past (nearly forgotten ) being looked up. It points to a migration 
of raoUuscaulife from the far South. Perhaps no more interesting 
history can be recalled than my finding on Shengorh Peak, 7000 feet, 
in the Dafia Hills, a species I named and described as Staffordia. 
daflaensis, Moll. Ind. pt. x. April 1907, p. 184, pi. cxiii. In 
expectation of receiving other material, 1 did not refer to my 
description of DiaJcia striata, var., from Siara, in Proc. Malacolog, 
Society, vol. vii. pt, 2, p. 93, pi. x. June 1900. There is no doubt 

* In a paper on some Freshwater Fossils from Central South Africa (Annals 
& Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. v. March 1920) Mr. R. Bullen Newton on p. 246 refers 
to certain species in the Nagpur beds. Also my contribution in " Beoords of 
two Indian Jluseums" 1919, Oct. vol. xvi. pt. vi. on the genus Mysorellu of 
Southern India, pointing out the necessity for their generic revision. 



10 LAND AND FHESHWAIT.R 

as to the close relationship, especially shown in Ihe genitalia. 
Diukia did not occur among the Abor collections, unless it shall 
eventuall)- turn out that Bensonia('l) ahorensiis, Kec. Ind. Mas. 
vol. viii. p. 596 (text-tig. 1), has similar anatomy. In shell 
character it is unlike that of any Indian Genus 1 have seen ; but 
1 had onlj^ one specimen to deal Avith. 

For a knowledge of the peculiar anatomy of Dialda, we have to 
go to Semper, wht're he deals witli what was then known as 

Ariujilianta ruinpJiii in lieisen, pi. iii. tig. 18. 

rareijuttata, var. sj^irsa „ ,, tig. 17. 

nemoren-iti ,. ,, tig. 19. 

striata, (jnay = naninoides, Es. „ tig. 21 a-h. 

He gives hcautiliil ligures of the genitalia, so unlike those of any 
strictly Indian Genus. 

Our knowledge of the Assam Land Mollusca is very imperfect ; 
much has still to be done, with small chance of our knowing more 
under present conditions. In fact, discovery of species of great 
interest is sheer luck ; unless the conditions are exceedingly good, 
perfect in fact, nothing is found. To exemplify this, I will give 
an expeiience of my own when in the Dafla Hills. 

Shengorh Peak was one of ray Trigonometrical Stations, and 
I had to clear tiie forest before I could commence observations. 
Kain set in soon after pitching camp ; so I had plenty of leisure to 
collect in Natural Historj'. The wet brought out the shells and 
slug-like forms, and I liad a busy time making drawings and taking 
notes of colour and size. 1 secured what in drier weather I should 
never have got, certainly not alive ; among them was this unique 
Genus Stajf'ordia, whose nearest relative known to us is found at 
Chantaboon in Siam. It doubtless occurs at many intermediate 
places which have j'et to be discovered, when its possible ancient 
connection with Assam may be explained. 

This is the history of a visit to one high point, one which over- 
looked the great broad valley of the Subaiisiri, extending far back 
to the base of the suowy range, away to hundreds of peaks covered 
with primeval forest. The imagination fails to picture what the 
result of exploration would be, combined with knowledge of how 
and what to collect. In tliese solitudes N;iture reigns supreme ; 
one does not often find such a spot — seldom visited by man, 
never lived in by him. 

The birds on this Peak were fearless. I was quite struck by the 
behaviour of a beautiful little Suthora. which kept hovering about 
my head and would perch on a twig a yard from my face. 

Starting with Sikhim and the valley of the Teesta, where sj)ecies 
are numeious, I tike in succession going eastward the great valleys 
of the Eastern Hiuialaya to the lirahmaputra, they go far back 
in geological time — are older, in fact, than the Sivaliks, for down 
their courses all the waste of the Himalaya has passed either to the 
sea, as in the case of the Teesta, or to build up the above formation. 
The vast thickness of these Tertiary rocks, originally deposited not 
far above sea-level, the basement beds being even marine, as near 
Saraaguting, is Avell seen on the Assam Range south of the Brahma- 



MOLLtlSCA OF INDIA. 11 

putra, where they are elevated to 10,000 feet in the Patkai and 
Naga Hills. In the Garo Hills this dimishes to 3000 feet, hut they 
are there in force with a thickness of some oOOO-(3000 feet : vide 
'Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal,' vol. xxxviii. pt. 2, no. 1, 
1869, with a Geological Map of a portion of the Khasi Hills 
near longitude 91° E. 

Connected with this range of the genus, two facts stand out : — 
(1 ) The extreme age of the great valleys ; (2) the great difference 
between the Molluscan fauna of Sikhim and that of the Dafla Hills, 
still more when it is compared with that of the Arbor country. 
Til ere are very few species common to both. Few Sikhim species 
are found in either : all is new, even new genera come in. The 
reason for this is no doubt due to the physical features of the 
great valleys : some, such as the Monass and Subansiri, are very 
broad ; they go back far into the Range ; their sources glacial, 
they are separated one from the other by lofty snow-covered 
louijitudinal ranges, which continue high to the plains. They are 
thus completely isohited one from the other, allowing evolution to 
go on independently within them and form " specific centres." 

The rich flora and fauna of Sikhim is in direct relationship to 
its position at the head of the Bay of Bengal, and for ages has 
received accessions from that, the Southern side ; so with species 
ot Glesstda, when those at present living between the Teesta and 
the Monass are compared with those of the Khasi and Garo Hills, 
100 miles to the south, how small and yet how defined is the 
difference. 

Himalaya area : Represented in the Khasi-Garo area : 

loiuiispira. tenuispira. 

liastula. suhliastnla. 

baciiUna. suh-handina. 

Between these two areas there is an indication of a once more 
continuous land-surface higher that at present. All this delta area 
has gone through considerable depression with denudation. This 
is so well exemplified by the isolated, weathered masses of intrusive 
granite rising abruptly out of the alluvium by which they are 
surrounded at Clianda Dinga, opposite Gwalpara and Doobri. My 
Survey work took me to the top of several such hills. Granite 
intrusion is frequently seen ; it is to be noted at Tura and Kiwuk 
on the Assam Range, and similar intrusions occur further east and 
north intimately connected with the forces of upheaval. Those near 
Gwalpara, on the north side of the Brahmaputra, no doubt originally 
passed up and through stratified rocks long since denuded (perha])s 
of Cretaceous age) which cover so large an area in the Garo Hills, 
where they have also suffered great denudation. 

Numbers, followed by the letters B.M,, refer to specimens 
catalogued in three collections presented to the British Museum, 
viz. those of 1. W, T. Blanford and H. F. Blanford combined, 
2. Colonel H. Beddome. '3, Godwin-Austen ; they cannot fail 
to assist those who may study this group or have to name specimens 
from India. 



12 L\ND AND FRESHWATER 

1. NorlJi-Weat Himalaya. (No species as yet found). 

Distribution of tiie Genus Glessula in the Gangetic Delta, 
North East Frontier of India, and IJur.ma. 

2. SiUilin and the Teesta Vnlleij, iviih Western Bhutan, 
includiwj the Delta. 

Long. 8S'' to 89° East. 

^, , ,ni,s, ■ ■ JPl.CLIX. figs. 1,2. 

tT/cssitfa (hifhefia) (oiiffispira, n. ep. ] V) OF TV i\'y<. 1-1 • 

baculma,'n.enry'B\nn['ord. PI. CLIX. fig. 7. 

var. exilis. PI. CLIX. figs. 13, 11. 

ri!>so7nens7S, n. sp. PI. CLIX. fig. 6. 

, , , „ fPl. CLIX. figs. 10, 17. 

hastula, Benson. | p,_ cLXIII figs. «.), 9 a. 

roherti, n. sp. PI. CLXIII. fig. 10. 

rarldcnM^, n. sp. PI. CLXIl. fig. 23. 
Glessula ochracea, Godwin-Austen. PI. CLX. fig. 8. 

orohia, Benson. PI. CLXII. figs. 5, G. 

var. major. PI. CLXII. fig. 7. 

small var. PI. CLXII. fig. 9. 

, -p, fPl. CLXIT. fig. 24. 

crassula, Eeere. | pj_ ^.^XI 7. fTgs. ] 4, 1 5. 

From the Delta. 

Glessula sarrissa, Bs. PI. CLXI. fig. 10. 

gemma, Bs. PI. CLXI. figs. 20, 27, 28, 29. 

var. mimita, Gr.-A. 



Glessula. (Uishetia) longispiea, n. sp. (Plate CLIX. figs. 1, 2, 
shells ; Plate CLXV. ligs. 1-1 c, anatomy.) No. 552 13.M. 

Locality, llisett Chu, Sikhim ( Wm. Robert). 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture : line, regular and rather 
coarse striation ; colour ruddy ochraceous ; spire very long, sides 
straight, apex attenuate: suture shallow; whorls 13, sides flat, 
proportion of length to last whorl lUU: ti4; aperture small, oval; 
peristome thin ; columellar margin slightly convex. 

Size; maj. diam. 9-5; length 44 mm. 

In the Elanford collection (No. 23S.U6.2.2) one specimen measured 
47*5 mm. in length, and is the largest I have seen. 

Shell of animal dissected 40 x 'i)h mm. ; whorls 13 (No. 552 
P.M.). 

The generative organs (PI. CLXV. fi.gs. la, Ih). — These are 
naturally very elongate and twisted ; the hermaplirodite duct is 
long and closely coiled. The albumen gland elongately oval, uterus 
and oviduct very long, compact, cylindrical, the oviduct showing 
broad, close convolutions (follicles). The penis is a simple sheath. 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA, 13 

wibh the vas deferens given off at the extreme distal end, close to the 
gland (/) which represents the llagellum. In the second si^ecimen 
dissected this is well shown (fig. 16); it is small, short, slightly 
hooked, not flat and notched as in G. ocJiracea. Further on, in a 
species from Cachar, a small variety of O. garoense (tuireted and 
elongate) a similar short fiagellum was found (Plate CLXV. fig. H). 
The spermatheca {sp.) is an elongate sac on a long stalk. The 
retractor muscle is given off ahout half-way down the side of the 
sheath. 

The animal (fig. 1) can withdraw into the shell as far back as 
tlie three last whorls. The sole of the foot is widely segmented 
fiom side to side. Contracted in spirits the animal has about 8 
whorls (fig. 1 c). There are narrow right and left dorsal lobes, 
and on the columellar side a muscular cylindrical mass fills the 
characteristic groove. 

Glesstjla longispira, n. sp. (Plate CLIX. fig. 2.) 

Locality, llarhichu, Sikhim ( IF. Robert). No. 3593 P. II. 

Animal. Foot short, rich grey black, surface minutely papillate, 
in strong contrast with the sole, which is pale ochraceous, narrowly 
segmented transversely. 

Length to last whorl 100 : 39. 

The jaw is slightly convex, very thin and transparent, and under 
high power is seen to be made up of very numerous narrow 
elongate plates. 

Size : length 37 ; raaj. diam. 8'75 mm. 

From the Kechila Peak on Sikhim border and Western Pliutan, 
Mr. Wm. Pobert sent me five specimens (No. 28 P.M.), sepia- 
brown in colour, and with far stronger sculpture, which may be 
considered a local variety. The largest has 12 whorls, and 
measures 37*75 x 9*25 mm. 

Anatomical investigation shows that there are two very distinct 
sections of Glessida, and so far they conform to shell character — for 
how great conchologically is the difference between the turreted 
very long species and the glossy, oblong-conoid forms ? The short 
oblong species, such as G. gemma, have yet to bo examined — they 
may have some character of their own, viewed anatomicalh". 

In this genus and this particular species it may be said I am 
liiying considerable, even undue stress, on variation in a single 
organ — the penis —and of that only a part. This will be noted and 
felt even more by conchologists, some explanation therefore seems 
necessary for entering into physiological details. The fiagellum is a 
very small organ, hut one of great importance ; in the developmental 
life of the animal it has a most important part to play. Within it 
is formed the sjjermatophore, which is filled with spermatozoon, and 
eventually, in the act of copulation, is transferred to the spermatheca 
of the other individual — its spines keep it in position on its passage 
and retain it there. In different genera, it takes on more or less 
very complicated forms and becomes a very important character, 



14 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

often far more easily described than the shell itself. In the South 
African genera, I'dtatus and Eerkoj>horus, it is a beautiful object 
in the microscope. 

Under Glcssida tenuispira, Benson, Colonel Beddome in his notes 
on Indian and Ceylonese species of G'lessula in the ' Proceedings of 
the Malacological Society of London,' vol. vii., Sept. 1906, p. 160, 
says : " lull grown ones collected in the Teesta Valley near 
Darjiling and in North Canara measure 44 mm. in length (vide 
Plate CLIX. fig. 1 ) and have fourteen whorls." The single example 
recorded from N. Canara is now in the Natural History lluseum 
and is befoi-e me. This is a part of India which was well known 
to Colonel Beddome — in fact, where his work as head of the Forest 
Department lay. It is noticeable there should be no history, no 
renuirk on the very remarkable occurrence of this species in 
Southern India, and that only a single specimen was secured. 
Until it is rediscovered very considerable doubt must attach to the 
accuracy of the habitat. The specimen may even have been 
purchased. 

Glessula canaraensis, n. sp. (Plate CLIX. fig. 8.) No. 681 
Bedd. Coll B.M. 

Locality. N. Canara, collector unknown. (A single specimen, 
if found again.) 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture : irregular fine striation ; 
colour pale ochraceous; spire long, apex rather blunt, rounded ; 
suture impressed, very slightly notched on lower margin by the 
striation; whorls 14, flatly convex; aperture oblique, ovate; 
columellar margin slightly concave, truncate below. 

Size : maj. diam. 8*5; length AV"2b mm. 

After very careful comparison with all the specimens in the 
Blanford and my own collection, 1 believe this to be a fine, 
more attenuate example of G. loncjiisjm'a, and that it really came 
from the neighbourhood of Darjiling. It is a single specimen, and 
its presence in Southern India has to be confirmed and the animal 
examined. 

Glessula bacttlina, H. F. Blanford, No. 9-9.iii.l5 B.M. (Plate 
CLIX. fig. 7.) 

J. A. S. B. xl. 1871, p. 4;3, pi. ii. fig. 6. 

Original description:- — " Testa elongato-iurrita, gracilis, temiis- 
cula, obli(jiie striata, fusco vel fidvo cornea, ejndennide nitescciile 
indufa. Spira iiirrita, apice ohtusidt. Anfractus 13, parum 
convexi ; inferiores subceqitales ; sutura impressa, minute denticulatu. 
Aijertura ohliq>ia, ovatu-triangularis ; 'peristonta simplex, actum. 
Columella abrapte arcitata, oblique producta, ad basin verticaliter 
truncata. 

" Alt. 38 mm. ; diam. 6'."3-7'") mm.; aporturoc alt. 7. lat. 4 mm. 

" Ccpit Dr. F. Stoliczka apud Khersiojig Himalaya; Sikkimeusis. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. ]5 

" This species appears to Iiave escaped the notice of all previous 
collectors in Sikkim ; it was tound in association with its near ally 
6^. tenaispira, Bens., by Dr. Stoliczlia during a recent visit. It is 
easily disiinguiaiied from the latter species by its slenderness (tlie 
diameter being- ^ of the length), and the comparative narrowness of 
its whorls ; moreover, by the form of the columella, the lower part 
of which is bent abruptly almost at right angles with the slope of 
the inner lip ; while in G. tennisjnra, G. eros/i, and other allied 
forms, the curvature is at the utmost obtuse. JSpecimeus, the shell 
of which had been slightly weathered, show fine spiral markings, 
but these are not visible unless the shell has become somewhat 
opaque. Tlie animal is dark leaden grey, somewhat paler at the 
sides of the foot. 

" The following is a list of the species now known from Sikhim : — ■ 
6r. tenii'isinra, Bens., G. crassula, Bens., G. hastida, Beus.. G. orobia, 
Bens., G. erosa, nob., G. hacuUna, nob." 

When going through Henry Blanford's collection, bequeathed to 
the British Museum by his brother, I came on the type specimens 
of the above species ; these I had not seen for 46 years. At the 
time I was staying with him in Calcutta, he phiced them in my 
hands to figure for a paper he was preparing for the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, vol. xl. pt. 2, 1871, p. 39. It is a very distinct species. 
I have quite a large series obtained since from different localities 
in Sikhim and Western Bhutan. Beddome (Pro. Malacol. Soc. 
1906), in his paper on the genus, considers it only a more slender 
form of 6^. Unuispira, Bs., a view most difficult to fall in with and 
support. There is a very considerable difference in general form — 
that is, when compared with the so-called tentcispira of Sikhim, 
Mr. Gude credits me with having found it in the Ivhasi Hills 
(F. B. Ind. ii. p. 379), probably on the authority of Geoffrey 
Nevill, in his Hand-list, p. 170. The Khasi form is quite distinct 
and described further on. 

In the Beddome collection put up in the same box are four shells 
under this name, with two labels in Beddome's hnndwriting. One 
has on it (three in pencil) " Darjiling, H. F. Bl.," the other (one 
in })encil) " Thyet Myo." It is easy to see the difference in this 
last from the others, the apex is much more attenuate, the aperture 
larger and broader. The Darjiling shells are quite typical, and I 
have compared them with Henry Blanford's types. 

G. haculina was found by Mr. Wm. Robert at Zemo Samdong 
in Sikhim, some 60 miles up the Sikhim Valley — there smaller, 
28 X 6-25 mm. (I^o. 553 B.M.) 

Glessula (Rishetia) baculina, H. Blf. var. ex'dis. (Plate 
CLIX. tigs. 13, 14.) 

Locality. Rissom Peak, Sikhim (3595 B.M.) — Type. Damsan"- 
Sikhim (3594) (rr. ii'oJerO- 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture : rather close rnised 
striation, oblique; colour umber-brown; spire long, apes fine, 



16 LAND AND FRESH WATEE. 

first three whorls ncarlj^ same diameter ; suture impressed ; whorls 
12, flatly convex, body whorl and aperture g of total length ; 
aperture ovate, small ; peristome thin ; columella sharply curved, 
truncate. 

Size (Damsang) : maj. diam. 5-5 ; length 24-75 mm. 
(Rissom): „ 57 „ 30-00 „ 

This is close to G. bacuUna, but the whorls are not so flat as in 
that species, and it is very much smaller. 

Glessttla (Rishetia) kissomensis, n. sp. (Plate CLTX. fig. 6 
of a Damsang shell.) No. 3.570 B.M. 

Locality. Rissom Peak and Damsang, east of the Teesta Valley 
( W. Bohert). 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture: close irregular striation 
well marked; colour dull white with a pale ochre tint; spire: 
ai)ex blunt and rounded, sides nearly straight ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 10, the embryonic large and rounded smooth, sides flatly 
convex; aperture o\a1e; outer lip with a good deal of convexity ; 
coll mellar margin very slightly convex. 

Size (Ptissom Peak) : maj. diam. 6-25 ; alt. axis 24*5 mm. 

I have this preserved in spirit ; the animal is pale coloured 
throughout. The specimens are not fully grown, the larger apex 
distinguishes it at once from G. haculina. It approaches 
G. harmuttiensis of the Dafla Hills, but the apex of that shell is 
finer, the embryonic whorls being closer together. Specimens 
were also obtained on Rissom Peak. 

Glessttl A (Rishetia) hastula, Benson. (880.06.1.1.) (Plate CLXI. 
fi-. 16); (No. 16.9.iii.lo B.M.) (Plate CLXI. fig. 17); (for apex 
enlarged, Plate CLXIII. figs. 9, 9 a, 10.) 

Achatina hastula, Benson, A. M. N. H. ser. 3, vol. 5 (1860) p. 461. 

Original description : — " Testa tiwrito-suhulata , tenui, ohllc/ve 
capillaceo-striata,fusco-cornea, niiidula; sjiira suhulata, apice ohtuso, 
sittura 2n-ofundiuscula ; anfractihus 9, primis convexis, posiremis 
rouvexmscuUs, ultimo f testcp attingente ; apertura vix ohliqna, 
orato-elUptica, pcristomatis marginihus caJlo, tenia juuciis, dextrali 
recto acuta columellari arcuato calloso alhido, basi oblique truncata. 

'• Long. 12;^, diam. 3| mill. ; long. a])ert, 3| mill. 

" Habitat ad Pankabari, prope Darjiliug, raro. Teste W. T. 
lilant. 

" Of a more slender form than the large Acli. tenuispira, B., the 
whorls increasing very gradually, and not attenuate towards 
llic upper part of the spire as in that species." 

This species was originally found by W. T. Blanford at Punkabari 
at the foot of the Darjiliug Hills. 

It has been recorded ])y Theobald and Stoliczka as occurring in 
Burma, Kumah Hill and Mali, Saudway District, Arakan (repeated 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 17 

T>y Glide ill Fauna. B. India, vol. ii. p. 414). In a paper by tliem in 
the Journal of the Asiatic Society otEengal (vol. xli. 1872, p. .-541) 
they say: "somewhat larger than the Sikhiintype shell." This 
record is of little value, whea one considers how cursorily some 
shells, particularly of GUssula, have been looked at and how little 
time is often bestowed upon them. Novill in his Hand-list, 
p. 169, only gives the Darjiling locality. Theobald, it would appear, 
never gave specimens to the Calcutta Museum, and it is impos^ible 
to say where these shells of his went to. 

In W. T. lilan ford's collection is a single typical specimen 
(No. 880. 06. 1.1), and on a label in Hanley's handwriting a note 
"Identical with the large one tigured in the Conch. Indica" 
(Plate XVIII. fig. 4). Two specimens were in the Henry Blaniord 
collection which may be considered also typical, as the two brothers 
were constantly exchanging specimens. 

I find Glcssula lutstulci, Bs., does not extend to the Garo and 
Khasi Hill ranges, its place being taken by a shell at first sight very 
similar to it, but which on close examination is found to differ 
sufficiently to describe, making it all tlie more improbable that 
G. hastula extends to Arakan. G. hastiila of Darjiling is more 
attenuate with more costulate scul[)ture than in the Khasi form. 

Apex enlarged of (880.06.1.1 B.M.) Plate CLXIII. tigs. 9, 9 a, 
Darjiling, and of (557 B.M.) fig. lU. Kichila. 

It may be noted that the ajiex of the last differs very much from 
that of a typical hastula, a good character and sufficient to create 
a species which I name after Mr. W. Robert, late of the Indian 
[Survey, who made for me such a splendid collection when he was 
working in Sikhim. There are only two specimens and one 
other from Ilissom Peak (No. 2483 B.M.). It is very possible 
01 her examples will be found among my spirit-specimens. 

Gi-EssuLA (Rishetia) roberti, n. sp. 

Locality. Richila Peak, Western Bhutan (No. 557 B.M.) — Type. 
Rissom Peak, Sikhim (No. 2483 B.M.) ( W. Robert). 

Shell subulately turreted ; sculpture : very regular, close well- 
raised striation, commencing on apex (Plate CLXIII. fig. 10) ; 
colour chestnut-brown ; spire elongate, side flattened, apex blunt, 
rounded; suture slightly impressed; whorls 8^, very regularly 
increasing, sides flatly convex; aperture small, ovate; columellar 
niargiu concave. 

Size : maj. diam. 3*5 ; alt. axis 11 mm. 

Glessula RAEiiiENsis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 23.) 

LocalUy. Rarhicliu Valley, Sikhim (10 specimens) (No. 3335 
B.:\[.) ( W. lioheit). 

Shell elongately conical, shiny ; sculjjture : distant irregular 
strife ; colour dark umber-brown ; spire high, sides flatfish, apex 
blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 8, flatly convex, rather regular 

PART I. c 



18 LAND AKD FRESHWATER 

in size, ?'.<'., increasing very gradual!)'; aperture narrowly oval; 
coluniellar margin very slightly convex. 

Size: tuaj. diam. 4*0; alt. axis 11*20 mm. 

This is more elongate than G. crassula, but similar in coloration 
and sculpture. It is certainly more than a variety of the Darjiling 
shell. 

In Wm. Blanford's collection is a single specimen, which I refer 
to tliis species, found by him on the Chola range at 11,000 ft. 

Glessula ochracea, Godwin-Austen. (Plate CLX. fig. 8.) 

Records Indian Museum, vol. viii. pt. xii. p. 617, 1918, fig. ix. 
A. B.C. (genitalia). 

LocaUty. Earhichu, 8ikhim. Type. (No. 3592 B.il.) Richila 
Peak, var. (No. 555 B.M.) ( W. liobert). 

Shell conically turreted and elongate, solid, smooth, and shining : 
sculpture: verj' regular sharp striation; colour dark rich ochre, 
a paler margin to the peristome; spire higli, sides slightly convex, 
apex blunt ; suture imjiressed ; whorls 7|, fiatly convex, tlie 
last tumid; aperture oval; peristome well thickened; columellar 
margin strong, curved, notch at base deep. 

Size : maj. diam. 9*25 ; length 21'25 mm. 

Animal (VlaXe CLXV. fig. 2a). With short foot, the sole of 
which has a central groove each side closely segmented. 

The buccal mass (Plate CLXV. fig. 2 b) is globose and small 
with a very stroiig retractor muscle; the salivary gland is in a 
single bilobed mass, one side long and pointed. 

In the generative organs (Plate CLXV. fig. 2 c) the herma])hro- 
dite duct is conspicuous by its size, is verj' long and strongly and 
closely convoluted. The albumen gland is very globose. The 
uterus and closely convoluted oviduct shoit. The ])euis is a folded 
sheath, and what I take to represent the flagellum is a flattened 
mass, straight on one side, having a serrate edge on the othei', 
consisting of a short terminal and ten longer notches, very cha- 
racteristic and unusual in form. A similar flagellum is met with 
in orophiJa, lis. , as figured by Professor Semper (Reis. Archipel. 
1873, p. 133, Taf. xii. figs. 14-16, under Cionella) there is one 
terminal and 30 notches, givirg it a feather-like form. The vas 
deferens joins the penis close to this at the distal end. 

The spermatheca is oblong, rather short, on a short thick 
base. 



Glessdla ochracea, G.-A., var. 

Locality, liichila Peak (IF. Itohert). 

Is larger and a much darker ochre than the tyi)c. 

Maj. diam. 10 ; length 24-25 mm. 



MOLLrSCA OF INDIA. 19 

Glfssitla orobia, Es. (No. 17.9.iii.lo R.M.) (Plate CLXII. 
figs. 5, 6; Plate CLXIII. lig. 4, apex of No. 17; Plate CLXv! 
tigs. 4-4 b, genitalia). 

Achatina orohia, B. A. M. N. H. ser. 3, v, p. 4G1 (1880). 

Lomlitif. Senchal and Darjiling. 

Original descri])tion : — " Testa ovata-ohlonga, solid'mscn/a, keri- 
fjata, leviter striata, striis non-nallis remotinsciilisprofuiule impre-^sis 
sculpta, nitida, olivaceo-cornea ; spira coyivexe py rnniidata, apice 
obtuso, sutura impressa ; anfractibus 6|-7| convexhisc-ulis, ad 
hwnerum angidatis, crenulatis, ultimo ^ test(e saperante ; upi'rtura 
verticali semiovaU, columella valde urcuata, callosa, basl oblique 
iruncata, jjeristomaie recto, crassiusculo, obtuso. 

" Long. 11, diam. 5 mill. ; apert. 4 mill, longa, 3 lata. 

" Habitat ad Sinchul et Darjiliiig (alt. ped. 85U0 et 7000) 
Teste W. T. Blanford. 

" Distinguished from the larger Khasia species, A. crassilabris, B., 
by its peculiar sculpture, and by the formation of the whorls below 
the suture." 

The specimen figured is from Hy. Blanford's collection No, 17, 
O.iii.lo, and measures ll-'2r) x o mm. There are two other 
examples, and in another box (No. 243, 06.2.2 B.M.) are four others 
all alike and from Darjiling. 

Mr. Glide, in ' Fauna British India, Mollusca,' ii. 1914, says : 
" Some specimens in the Boddome collection from the Naga Hills, 
composed of 6| whorls, measure 8 x 3-5 mm., and refers to another 
shell also from the same locality, possessing only six whorls, with 
rather conxex sides, measuring 6-5 x 3 mm." I have now seen 
these (No. 768 of my catalogue of the shells selected out of the 
Beddome collection). They are Glessula proiviensis, roihi, and very 
different in every way. The apex of one is given on Plate CLXIII. 
fis. 4 ; also that of G. oro'na from the Henry Blanford collection, 
No. 17, fig. 8. 

Glessula ororia, Bs., var. major. (Plate CLXII. fig. 7.) 

Bichila Peak, Sikhim. Type. (No. 556 BM.) 

Dam sang, Hikhim. (No. 3336.) 

This is a much larger shell, yet has all the characters of the 
Darjiling examples in its general form and increase of the whorls. 
It is, however, a dark uuiber-brown, and in this respect is like 
crassida from the same peak, which is a much smaller shell. 

Var. major measures : maj. diam. 5"2 ; length 13'0 mm. 

Glessula orobia, var. major. (No. 556 B.M.) Damsang, 
Sikhim. (Plate CLXV, fig. 4.) 

The generative organs were seen complete and proved of great 
interest. The ap])endage given off near the junction of the vas 
deferens at head of the penis is small and hand-shaped ; it consists 



20 I AND AND FRESHWATER 

of finger-like lobes, one short, and three united together longer 
(tigs. 4a and 4.h). It represents in a shorter form the same appendage 
in G. ochraccci, in which there is one short and ten corab-hke 
notches, and the still longer one as represented by Semper in 
6r. 07-ojihih(, Avliich has led to its being described as a feather-like 
gland and typical of the genus ; a better knowledge of the 
animals shows it will only apply to a section of the genus. The 
elongate forms certainly form another, and may possibly have to 
be included in Bacillum. 

The ])rostate (fig. 4) is round, short, and solid ; thehermaplirodite 
duct, much convoluted and thickened, forming a mass close to the 
albumen gland. The teeth of the radula do not differ from those 
of other species dissected. The formula is 

16 . 5) . 1 . 9 . 16 
or 25 . 1 . 25. 

Glf.ssula 0R0T5IA, Bs., Small var. (Plate CLXII. fig. 9.) 

Localiti/. Ilichila Peak, Westerii District. (No. 558 B.M.) 
( W. Eobert). 

Shell elongately conical, shining, somewhat tumid; sculpture: 
irregular distant striation ; colour umber-brown with a greenish 
tint ; spire rather short ; suture impressed ; whorls 6g ; columellar 
margin slightly curved, truncate at base. 

Size : figured shell, maj. diam. 3-75 ; alt. axis 8'0 mm. 
largest „ 4-0 „ «0 „ 

Glesstjia crassula, Keeve, Bs. MS. (Plate CLXII. fig. 24.) 

Locality. Darjiling No. 18.9.iii.l5, B.M. Typical from Hy. 
Bhui ford's collection. 

Shell elongately conical, smooth and shining, slender ; sculpture : 
"ery few and distant stiise ; colour umber-brown ; whorls 6^. 

Size : maj. diam. 3'0 : alt. axis. 7*5 mm. 
largest ,, 8-0 „ 

These are all small and shorter than dimensions given in the 
original description, viz., 9 mm. 

In the Beddume collection are three specimens (No. 75;i) from 
the Naga Hills which bear a label in Col. Beddome's handwriting, 
G. crassida. I have compared them carefully and drawn the apex 
(IMate CI<XIV. tig. 18) much enlarged ; it difi"ers altogether in 
the sculpture from typical Darjiling examples of crassida (Plate 
CLXIV. fig. 14) in tlie Blanford collection (No. 18) (Plate CLXIV. 
tig. 15). No. 753 is G. barakensis. 

From the Ilarhichu in Sikhim I have 7 examples (No. 2481), 

which I consider a variety of the Darjiling form. The whorls have 

flatter sides, and the apex is much more blunt (Plate CLXIY. 

fig. 15). The largest measures a little over 9 mm. in length. 

In the ' Fauna ot British India, Mollusca,' vol. ii. p. 429, under 



MOLLUSCA OP INDIA, 21 

this species, " Khasi, Dafla and Naga Hills" is given as the range 
of this species and as collected by me. I hope soon to see these 
examples, not having found them in my own collection. The 
identification is Geoffrey Nevill's. I do not think he looked 
sufhcientlj' closely at them. Mr. Gude has simply copied from 
Nevili's 'Hand-list,' p. 169, " 30 specimens." These I trust are 
not now all mixed together. Jaintia Hills (Beddome) is also 
given on p. 429. These I have seen, they are No. 751 of my 
catalogue (5 examples). They are not crassula, but a small var. 
of crassilahi-is. 



Glessula subjerdoni, Beddome, Nevill MS. 

Under this title the species is recorded by Geoffrey Nevill in his 
amended co-pj of the ' Hand- list' facing page 167. Four specimens 
from the Jeypur Hills, Madras, received from Col. R. H. Beddome. 
Nevill gives the measurement as : long. 9, diam, 3| mm. ; anfr. 7. 
This would be the var. minor of Boddome. 

In the 'Fauna British India, Mollusca,' 1914, p. 434, Mr. Gude 
gives Darjiling as a habitat of this species from specimens he had 
found in the Beddome collection. These are jN'o,'814 of my catalogue 
of that collection : the name suhjerdoni had been written by Bed- 
dome in pencil, a sign he had not determined it to his satisfaction ; 
nor had I, when I came across it first in 1912, when under the 
direction of the British Museum authorities I commenced working 
at the shells in the Beddome collection and making a catalogue of 
them. In August 1914, when duty in the country prevented my 
going as usual to town, Mr, Gude obtained access to the Beddome 
collection of Glessula through those who had charge of it — very 
improperly, I consider, when it had been placed in my charge and a 
catalogue was in progress. Thus Mr. Gude was working at this 
collection, quite unknown to me, for a considerable time — some 
tliree months, — and when seen again by me was in a new state of 
arrangement, as put on record in my catalogue. 

In the interests of the distribution of Indian species it would 
not be fair treatment to overlook such record. I have, therefore, 
gone carefully over all the specimens of suhjerdoni in the Beddome 
collection, so as to arrive at some better knowledge of them. I 
have had photographs made of the shells and made myself enlarged 
drawings with camera lucida of the apical whorls of the following 
three specimens, a better means of showing differences than any 
description : — 

No. 812. Bedd. coll. G. subjerdoni, Bedd., Golconda Hills. 

(Plate CLXIV, apex fig. 7.) 
No. 809. Bedd. coll. G. suhjerdoni, Bedd., Teunevelly Valley. 

(Plate CLXIV. apex fig. 6.) 
No. 811. Bedd. coll. G. subjerdoni, var. minor. Typical Jeypur 

Hills. (Plate CLXIV. apex fig. 5.) 

By this test the so-called G. subjerdoni of Darjiling (No. 814 of 



99 



LAND AND TRESH WATER 



the Beddome collection) (Plate CLXIV. iig. 13) does not agree with 
the species from the topical locality, the Gokond;i Hills. Jt is, in 
my opinion, a large variety of Glessnla crassnla, Bs. 

Glessula sarissa, Eensoii. (Xo. 1596 E.M.) (Plate CLXI. 
fig. 10.) 

Faguirubaiula, Jessore, Lower Bengal [Godivin - Austen) 
(270.0(3.2.2) Diamond Harbour, Hoogly Biver (IT. T. BJanford). 

Size: maj. diam. 68 ; length LS-8 mm. 

This is a finer specimen tiian the type described by Benson hy 
nearly 3 mm. 1 give enlarged figure of the apex (Plate CLXIII. 
tig. 18). 

Achathia sariasa, B. A.M. X. H. ser. 3, vol. v. p. 4G3 (i860). 

Original description : — " 2'csta elomjafo-couica, temd, lavigata, 
striatula. anfraciihus ultiniis sub lenle confcrtim obsolete decussatis, 
iii(klif!si))ia, oJivaeeo-cornea ; sjnrci efA»i(j(iio-pi/ran)h(ata, apice obtuso, 
S'itura imiiressa ; anfraciibus 7 i convecciusculis,tdtivio ^ iestce super- 
ante ; aiiertura subverticali, ovato-ellipdica, columella obliqua, leviter 
ai'C'uata, albido-callosa, basi oblique triincata, jyeristomate recto, 
tenui. 

" Long. 16, diam. 5| mill. ; apert. 5 mill, longa, 3^ lata.' 

" Habitat prope Comercolly, Bengaliic, ad ripas ilaminis Gangis — ■ 
Detexit Dr. Theodore Cantor." 

Glessula gemma, Bs.; Betve, Conch. Icon. Achatina, pi. 22. f. 123, 

Origitial description : — " I'esta ovafo-oblongn, solidmscula, hevi- 
gata, nitidn, pelhicida, purpurascentl-cornea ; sjnra elato-conica, 
apice acutiitscidd ; sutura profunda ; anfr. 6 conve.viuscidi ; tdlimtts 
I longitndinis requans, basi rotiindatus ; columella arciiata, subcallosa, 
perisf. simplex, rcclnm, margine dextro et l>asali leviter arquatis. 

"Long. 8-8.J, diam. 4 mill., ap. 3 mill., longa 2 lata." 

As a subgenus of Cionella it was made the tv])e by Von ^Martens. 

Xo. 3559. From Khoostia, Bengal. (Plate CLXI. fig. 26.) 

4. Hy. Blf. (y.iii.l5). From Bengal; authentic sp. (Plate 

CLXI. fig. 27.) 
No. 3382. From Chandanagore. (Plate CLXI. fig. 28.) Ke- 
ceived from Xevill. 

5. Hy. Blf. (9.iii.l5). From Chiitagong, var. (Plate CLXL 

fig. 29.)^ 
Xo. 3391. From Garo Hills. I have two s])eciiuens, much 
smaller and less tumid than the ty])ical shell, measuring 
6x3 mm. Six w^horls. This I distinguish as var. viinida. 
It is dark umber in colour. 
This species is thus spread over the whole front of the Delta of 
the Ganges and Hralimaputra. 



MOLLUSCA OP IN^DIA. 23 

3. The Dafla Hills, 
with the Phiiii of the Brahmaputra on south. 

Glessula {Rlshctia) harmuffiensis, n. sp. PI. OLXX. fig. 5, 

sarissa, Bs., \ai: PI. CLXI. fig. 8. 

sarissa, Bs., var. PL CLXIII. figs. 16, 17, 19. 

,, ,. ^T n HTQ i PI- CLXI. fig. 6. 

sithheois, J^eviU M.S., n. sp. j „, „, vjv fir 1 

PI. CLXI. fig. 11. 
nevM'Mna, n. sp. \ PL CLXI. figs. 12, 13. 



PL CLXIV. fig. 3. 
diki-angenae, n. sp. PL CLX. figs. 7, 7«. 

{Dikrangia) ncvlUi, G.-A. 
Glessula crassilabris, Bs. var. PL CLXIV. fig. 17. 

See oil, uuder this species — Khasi Hills. 

Glessula (Rishetia) harmuttiensis, n. sp. (Plate CLIX. fig. 5.) 

Locality. — Hannutti, hase of Dafla HiUs, No. 446 B.M. {Godivin- 
Ai'sten). 

Shell elongate])' lui-reted ; sculpture quite sinooth to the naked 
eye, but under magnification distant obscure striation is seen ; 
colour pale ochre to dull umber-brown ; spire ver)' long, sides flat, 
apex blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 12, sides flab ; aperture 
oval ; peristome outer lip thin ; columellar margin curving evenly. 

Size: maj. diam. 7*0 ; alt. axis 31'9 mm. 

This takes the place in the Dafla Hills of G. haculina of Sikhim. 
It is very similar in all respects, but the apex is more obtuse and 
the sculpture is very different : there are four specimens. 

Two young specimens, unnamed, were found in Henry Blanford's 
collection, given to him by me. 



Glessula (PtisHExiA?) sarissa, Bs. var. No. 445 B.M. 

Localitif. Burroi Gorge, Dafla Hills, four specimens (Gochuia- 
Austen). 

Shell elongately conical, smooth, and glossy ; sculpture variable, 
rather regular fine striation, in some it is less and more distant; 
colour very pale ocliraceous ; spires elongate, sides slightly convex, 
apex finer than in the type (PL CLXIII. fig. 16) ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 9|, sides flatly convex; aperture ovate; peristome thin; 
columellar margin sharply concave. 

Size: maj. diara. 7"0 ; length 20*0 mm. 

Fakirabanda, Jessore 1 -,. no ^ .i-ioo 

,. ■ ^ X > ma], diam. 6-b ; length 18-8 mm. 

(typical spec.) J ' » 

Moisraka Ghat, Bengal, do. ,, 7 5; ,, 21-5 ,, 

The figure in the ' Conchologia Indica,' pi. xxxvii. fig. 2, is a 

very good one, and undoubtedly of Benson's species. 

The Blanford collection (Xo. 844, 06.1.1, B.M.) contained 

3 specimens from the Dafla Hills, sent to him by me, but probably 



24 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

not tlie SMtne locality. They are about the same size, and had been 
labelled G. temiis/wrn? by liianford, bnt tbev are not like the 
Teria Ghat examples with which 1 have coini)ared them. 

Gr.EssuLA (RisnETiA ?) SARISSA, Bs., var. No. ;35GG H.^I. 

LociiiU)/. Barowli Gorge, Durrang District, Assam (Godwin- 
Austen). 

Shell as in last; sculpture indistinct, fine longitudinal ribs 
follow below the suture ; colour pale dull ochraceous, two closely 
]iarallel whitish bauds below the suture ; suture impressed ; whorls 
8, regularlj' increasing ; coluniellnr margin concave. 

Size: maj. diaui. 6"0 : length IG'25 mm. 

Only a single specimen. 

GlESSULA (lllSHETlA ?) SAEISSA, Bs., Vat. 

From Koliagluir, Granite Tila, nearXezpur, on the left bank of 
the Brahmaputra, a single specimen very close to this species was 
found by me ; smooth, with little sculpture. Xo. 3oG8 B.M. 
(PlateCLXI. fig.8.) 

Apex (PI. CLXITI. fig. 19). 

From Gowhathi (No. 3383 B.M.), two specimens, the apex is yet 
more aeuitiiuate {vide PI. CLXIII. fig. 17), but there is little 
difference to be noted in the general shape. 

Glessula subhebes, Nevill MS., n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 6 ; 
Plate CLXIV. apex, fig. 1.) 

LocaVty. Pichola nulla, Dafla Hills. Xo. 1G18 B.^l. Type. 
Five examples (Godivia-Ansien). No. 3341 li.M., Dafla, typical. 

Shell oblong tnrreted, thin, smooth, glassy; sculpture: rather 
distant and tine striation, slight tendency to crenulation at suture; 
colour very pale ochraceous ; spire long, sides slightly convex, apex 
blunt, 3 tirst whorls nearly equal ; suture impressed ; Avhorls 10, 
with well-marked flat convexity ; aperture narrowly ovate ; 
columella with a very slight curve downward. 

Size : maj. diam. 5*0 ; length 15'75 mm. 

From the eggs in tube containing shells it is oviparous. 

This species is entered by Nevill in the interleaved copy (facing 
]). 1G7) he left to me shortly before his death, from the above 
locality. lie gives the dimensions of a specimen in the Indian 
Museum which he received from me : " 15.| x 5 mm., anfr. 9." 

It is the Achdtina (Ghssula) hehcs in my paper on the Hclicidje 
of the Dafla Hills (.tour, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlv. pt. 2, 1876, 
p. 315), and was a common shell. 

Very fortunately I have received from the Indian Zklusenm, for 
which I have to thank Dr. N. Annandale, the specimens of Glessula 
included under No. 80 of Nevill's ' Hand-list,' i. p. 170. They 
comprise ten glass-tubes, numbered : — 



JIOLLXISCA OF IKDIA. 25 

3631 and 3G33, from Chittagong, both labelled " naja,'^ a name 

1 retain, 
3632, from Cachar. 

3636, Dikrang, 2000 ft., Dafla Hills : true stMehes, G.-A. 

3634, no locality: '■'■ macera" Blf., Assam; name retaiued and 
described. (Type.) 

3338, Xaga, Assam : is mastersi, G.-A. 

3637, no locality: mcoitersi G.-A. 

3339, Assam, W. Blf. " macera " : is mastersi, G.-A. 

3635, no localitj': naj((, G.-A. 
3640, Xaga Hills : is mastersi, G.-A. 

When Nevill wrote he considei«d them all the same and a new 
species ; but it must be remembered that when Nevill was working 
at this genus the same critical examination was not made of the 
shells, such as Pilsbry advised and adopted. The apex and sculp- 
ture was never looked at except with a hand-lens ; a microscope 
was never in use. I was employed for six months in 1876-1877 
in the Indian Museum, and saw Nevill constantly at work and 
occasionally worked with him. 

This has caused much confusion, for he also a]ipears to have dis- 
tributed them under the name of " naja." Under this title he sent 
a specimen to Mr. Pilsbry, who describes and figures it in 'ifanual 
of Conchology,' 2nd Serie-;, Pulmonata, p. 90, pi. 12. f. 10, as 
'■'■naja" from "Assam." This turns out to be the Chittagong 
species. Pilsbry's shell is undoubtedly frcm Assam ; his descriji- 
tion as well as the figure is so good, it verities the locality. He 
says, as to tlie sculpture : — " Glimpses of excessively weak close 
spiral granule-lines may be seen in places." I had not noted this 
myself, but I now see the chaiaciter in my type-specimen of a 
Dafla Hill OJessula suhhcJes, an MS. name of G. JNTeviU's which I 
had adopted. 

On the other hand, the receipt of these shells in exactly the 
state Nevill left them (and he did a great deal of work on the 
genus, before he had to retire from the Service, es])ecially on 
species from Southern India sent to him by Colonel Beddome) has 
cleared up the history and brought to light another species. In 
August 1880, Nevill, writing to me, said, No. SO of his ' Hand-list ' 
was G. macera, and I took this to be his MS. name for the lot 
until he should describe it. I have not come across the name in 
the Blanford collection nor in Blanford's original catalogue. It is 
interesting to record tliat Nos. 3634 and 3339 both bear this name 
on the labels in the glass tubes, and on that in 3634 Nevill has 
written "A. macera, Blf.,'" so we know the author. It turns out 
that the two tubes contain different species, and 3634 is a mixed 
lot of two species ; for the very elongate, flat-sided form of one of 
these the name masera is most applicable, while it is not so for the 
more tumid shape of the other, which is mastersi. This fixes the 
habitat as Assam, and on looking through the Blanford collection I 
find two unnamed GJpssulo' (No. 842.06.1.1 B.M.), the habitat 
Assam, agreeing well in size and form with " macera.'^ 



2o LAND AND FKK.SHWATER 

GtESsuLA NEviLLiANA, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. figs. 11, 12, 13; 
Plate CLXIV. fig. 3, apex.) Ko. 4-t9. Type. 

Localhy. Toruputu Peak, Datla Hills (-I si)ecimcns) {G'odwin- 
Auslen). 

iShell elongately conical ; sculpture, coarse soraewhat irregular 
striation ; colour : two ruddy, two dull ochraceous ; spire liigli, 
apex blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 9, sides flatly convex ; 
aperture narrowly ovate ; peristome thin ; columella rather straight, 
curved, short. 

Size: Type maj.diam. o'O length 17"0 mm. whorls 9. 

Nevill gives for specimens in Indian Museum : — 

maj. diam. 4'0 length 13'0 mm. whorls 8. 

Small ruddy sp.(fig. 13) „ 4-0 „ 12-0 „ 

Large sp. with apex 1 ^.^ -^^.q 

broken J 

7 whorls left (tig. 12). 

In this last, from last suture to base of aperture 7 mm., as against 
5i in the Type. 

This species is recorded by Nevill in his revised copy of the 
' Hand-list,' opposite page 170, &&'•'■ IStenogyra [Glessula) austeuiaiut, 
Nevill — whorls 8, length 13, diam. mm., one Toruputu, Dafla 
Hills (Type), coll. Godwin-Austen." The specimen thus named is 
probably in the Indian Museum. I cannot find that it was ever 
published : therefore it is now named after my old friend. His 
earlv death was a great loss, for he possessed a great knowledge 
of Indian MoUusca, and had made a close study of the genus 
Glessula. 



Glessxjla dikraxgense, n. sp. No. 448 B.M. (Plate CLX. fig. 7.) 

Localitif. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills — in primeval forest. Type. 
( Godwin- Austen.) 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture very fine and close regular 
striation ; colour ochraceous with a strong green tinge ; spire long, 
sides very flatly convex, apex blunt; suture impressed; whorls 9, 
convexity of side very slight ; aperture oval, vertical ; peristome 
strong; columcllar margin curving. 

Size : maj. diam. 7"75 ; length 19'0 mm. 

In a pa])cr on " The Helicidae of the Dafla Hills " (Jour. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, vol. xlv. ])t. ii. 1870, p. 315) I included Glessula illustris, 
the type of which Avas found on Heugdan Peak in the JS'aga 
Hills. This was a hasty determination ; after a far more critical 
one, and a comparison of the photographs of both, it shows con- 
siderable difference, sufficient to constitute a new species. The 
proportion of the last whorl to the length of the axis is very 
different to that of typical G. illustris — taking the axis as 100, it 
is 100:52. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 27 

Glessfla dikrangense, n. sp. jS^o. 3404 B.M. (Plate CLX. 
fig. 7«.) 

Locnhtif. Tornpufcu Peak, Didla Hills (Godioi a- Austen). 

Shell oblongl}^ turreted ; sculpture rather strong striation, close 
and regular; colour dull umber-brown; spire high, apex blunt, 
side straight ; suture impressed ; whorls 8, side nearly flat, spire to 
last whorl 100:52-2; aperture oval; cohimellar margin slightly 
convex. 

Size: maj. diam. 7"0 ; length 17'25 mm. 



" DiKRANGiA," genus nov. 

Shell very elongate, small, transparent, delicate, turreted with 
many whorls closely wound and nearly equal in diameter, aperture 
very small, ovate ; animal not known. 



Glessula (" Dikeangia") nevilli, G.-A. 

When describing the Helicidie of the Dafla Hills (J. A. S. B. 
1876, vol, xlv. pt. 2, pi, viii. f. 12, p. 315) I put this species into 
the genus Opeas. Tliis determination has been followed by 
Mr, G. K. Gude in the ' Fauna British India, Mollusca,' vol. ii. 
1914, p. 360, Closer attention shows the aperture to be decidedly 
that of a Glessula, but the general form departs much from that 
genus — so much so, it might well be placed in a distinct sub- 
section. This would be better left to be done when the anatomy 
of the animal is known to us. I think it better to consider it a 
new subgenus, and name it " Dil-raiu/vi" coming after G. hamJina 
and G. (jdroense. 

I'he original description, which is as follows, was short and 
requires amendment — it was not drawn up on one-type shells, but 
on a set — often done in those early days. 

Original description: — "Shell turreted, very elongate, pale, silky 
with a (irfcn tinge, older specimens of a pale straw-colour, covered 
with a thin epidermis, hemitifuVy striate under lens. Whorls 11-12, 
moderately rounded and very gradually diminishing in size to the 
apex, which is bluish ; suture impressed ; aperture angular above, 
outer lip thin. 

"Alt. 0*o5" ; major diam. 0-10". Largest specimens 0"90". 

" HaJntat. This very delicate elongate shell was common on 
Toru])utu Peak, hut far finer specimens, equal in size to the figure, 
were obtained on the banks of the Pichola Nnlla out in the plains. 
I am not satisfied with this figure, the whorls being rather too 
flat and the apex too shar}). 

" I have named this shell after my friend Mr. G, Nevill, with 
whom I have now so long been associated in the study and 
collection of Indian land -shells," 



28 LAND AND I'RE^UWATER 

Amended description. 

Glessula nevilli, G.-A. No. 447 B.M. 

Loraliti/. Toruputu Peak, Dafla Hills {Godwin- Ansien). 

iShell finely elongate, turreted ; sculpture, well-mnrked close 
irregular striatioii ; colour white; spiro very slender and lengthened, 
apex blunt; suture impressed; whorls 12, the six last almost 
equal in diameter ; aperture small, narrowly and vertically ovate ; 
coluinellar margin convex. 

Size : maj. diam. 2"25 ; length 14 mm. 

Var. major, G.-A., Pichola Nulla, Durrang District. This has a 
very smooth surface with very indistinct striation, and has a green 
tinge. The largest specimen measures 17*75 mm. in length hy 
3"5, and has 12 whorls. 

Although I refer to the Toruputu habitat of the Granite Peak on 
the main mountain mass 7322 feet above sea-level, and the Pichola 
Nulla low down and (luite out in the plains, I now note, 40 years 
later, there is a difference something more than " far finer speci- 
mens," and that those from the Granite Peak are very different, 
particularly in size, proportion, and sculpture. Many conchologists 
would consider them distinct species — however, it is sufficient that 
G. nevilli stands for the mountain form, the one first found by me, 
and that of the plains be considered a variety major. 



3 a. The Miri Hills. 



From the great Valley of the Subansiri no species of Glesxula 
have been received ; it is a large uuwoi'ked area of 2oUU sq. miles. 



4. Eastern Assa7n ivith the Kiincjpho Hills and Pathoi lian(/e. 

Glessula maiamcnsis, ii. sp. PI. CLX. figs. 10-11. 

dihingensis, i\. sp. PI. CLXIV. fig. 4 (apex). 

Glessula maiajiensis, n. sp. No. 1737. (Plate CLX. fig. 10.) 
Type. 

Localili/. Maiam Peak, Singpho Hills ; a single specimen 
{M. Ogle). 

Shell oblongly turreted, rather tumid ; sculpture : strong, 
rather distant, engraved striation, showing strong near suture; 
colour ochraceou3 with a greenish tint ; spire elongately conoid, 



MOLLUSCA. OF INDIA. 29 

apex very blunt and rounded, sides flatly convex; suture mode- 
rately impressed ; whorls 7, sides very flatly convex ; aperture 
oval ; peristome outer tip thickened ; columellar margin slightly 
convex, nearly straight. 

Size: maj. diam. U'o ; length 22 mm. 

The above peak, a trigonometrical station, is situated on the 
watershed of the Patkai Eange and is 6900 feet in altitude. It 
was first visited in the cold season of 1884-85 by Colonel Wood- 
thorpe, R.E., with his jissistnnt Mr. Ogle, and they were 
accompanied by IMr. Tom D. La Touche of the Geological Survey, 
who published an excellent account of Geology of the Upper 
Dihing Basin, Singpho Hills. 

Glessula MAiAMENsis, u. sp. (Plate CLX. fig. 11.) No. 29 13.M. 

Localittf. Divung Vallev, Singpho Hills; two specimens (J/. 2\ 
Ocjle). 

Shell is more elongate than the type ; colour is greener; side of 
spire rather flatter ; aperture rounder, from the outer lip having 
more convexity. All the kind of diversity the shells of this genus 
])resetjt, particularly when a large series is obtainable. 

Size : maj. diam. 8"5 ; alt. axis 20'8 mm. 

Glessula bihingeksis, n. sp. 

Localiti/. Dihing Valley, Assam (type No. 3251 B.M.); some ten 
specimens (31. T. Ogle). No. IGOU B.M. from Souari Tea Garden, 
near Sadiya. (Plate CLXIV. fig. 4, apex.) 

Shell elongate, turreted ; sculpture : very smooth generally, fine, 
close, rather strong ribbing near and below^ the suture ; colour 
umber-brown; spire long and fine ; suture impressed ; whorls 10, 
the last short ; aperture ovate, small ; columellar margin well 
curved. 

Size: maj. diam. 5*0; length 180 mm. 

This is not unlike G. mucera, but the whorls are not so close 
and the last is longer in proportion to those above, i.e., a more 
tumid basal one. Specimens from Sadiya (No. 8151 B.M., 10 in 
number, collected by my old assistant Mr. Ogle) differ in colour, 
being a very pale ash, the largest of 9 whorls measures 
21 X 5'25 mm. I have also two examples from Souari Tea 
Garden, 15-5 mm. in length, sent me by Mr. S. E. Peale, very 
finely and closely striated. 



4 a. Ahor Hills and Tsansjyu Valleij. 

Glessula oakesi, n. sp. PI. CLX. fig. 15. 

aborensis, n. sp. PI. OLXIt. fig. 4. 



30 LAND AND FKESHWATRR 

Glesstjla oakest, G.-A. 

Records of the Indiau Museum, vol. viii. pt. xii. No. 49, p. G17, 
figs. 8A, B, C, 1). 

Locality. Abor Hills {Captain G. F. T. Oales, II. E.) Ko. 3G00 
B.M. Type. (Plate CLX. fig. 15 x 1-56.) 

Original Description : — " iSliell oblong turrcted, .shining surface ; 
sculpture : regular somewhat distant incised lines; colour ochra- 
ceous one umber brown ; spire high, sides very tlatly convex ; suture 
impressed; whorls 7, flatly convex, proportion of body whorl 
to length 100: 2*5; aperture rather narrowly oval, peristome 
outer lip thickened ; columellar margin slightly convex." 

"Size: raaj. diam, 7'0 ; alt. axis 16-5 mm." 

" Two specimens of this species, though rather smaller in size 
and not fully grown, were sent to me from Brahniakund by Mr. 
M. Ogle, No. 8578 B.M. coll. The largest measures 11 x 5 mm. 
The species was received alive in 1913, from Captain Oakes with 
other species and dissected." No doubt the first Glexsida so 
received in this country ; a few lived for some months until the 
winter set in, feeding on lettuce, etc. 

" Animal of Glessula oaJiesi from llotung (Oakos). The sole of 
the foot is crossed by coarse ridges, there is a very distinct 
peripodial margian (text-fig. 3 A). The genitalia (figs, 8 B, C, D) 
was fairly well seen in one specimen, but more material Avas sadly 
wanted. The hermaphrodite duct is conspicuous from its size and 
close convolution, bound closely together at its junction with the 
albumen gland. The penis is very short with a short stout flagel- 
luui terminating in three blunt knots ; it thus difters from wKut 
1 have been able to see in other species. The vas deferens is 
given off from near the head of the penis, the spcrmatheca was not 
seen." 

" This species (G. oahesi) is the same as the one recorded from 
Botung as G. botellus, Bs., of Southern India by Mr. H. B. Preston 
in the ' Records of the Indian Museum/ vol. viii., Nov. 1915, 
p. 539 ; it is a bare record, in any case remarkable as regards 
range. As I had not noticed this South Indian species among the 
large series sent me from the Abor Hills, I was anxious to see the 
shells which had gone to Calcutta. Dr. Annandale very kindly 
sent these to me (October, 1916), and I have compared them with 
specimens of Glessula botellus in the llenr}- Blanford collection 
from the Nilgiris, with the result that I cannot confirm Mr. Pres- 
ton's determination. This Abor Glessula (oalesi) is decidedly 
huialler than G. hotelhis, and not so tumid, the whorls are closer 
wound, the outer lip is much more thickened than in botellus, the 
larger shell. I have com])ared the embryonic whorls and made 
enlarged drawings of botellus, Nilgiris (PI. CXLllI. fig. 1), of 
^\r. Preston's specimen (PI. CXLIII. fig. 3), and of the type 
specimen of o«/i.-esi (PI. CXLllI. fig. 2); the difterence between 
tlie first and the two last is very marked, it is unmistakable." 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 31 

An example ratlier more tumid was received from Capk Oakes 
(No. 31.58 B.M.), and one came from uear the Serpo iUver bridge 
(No. 3053 U.M.). 

Glessfla ABoRENsis, G.-A. 3103 B.M. Type. (Plate CXLII. 
fig. 4.) 

Rec. Indian Museum, 1918, vol. viii. pt. xii. No. 49, p. 618. 

Localihj. Abor Hills ; five specimens (Crt/>^. O. F. T. Oakes, R.E.). 

Orif/iudl description: — "Shell elongatelj^ turreted, sides nearly- 
straight ; sculpture : very regular striation, less apparent on the 
last whorl ; colour dark chestnut-brown in the type-shell, more 
ochraceous in others ; spire attenuate, apex blunt ; suture im- 
pressed; whorls 8, sides flatly convex ; aperture ovate; peristome 
outer lip thin, with strong convexity ; columellar margin nearly 
straight, feeble, slightly truncated. 

" Size : raaj. diara. 5'0 ; alt. axis 16'25 mm. 

" This species varies in form, some being less attenuate, but all 
have the blunt apex and similar sculpture." 



5. Garo, Kasi, and Jaintia HiUs. 

Glessula tenuispira, Bs. PI. CLIX. fig. 3. 

subaculina, n. sp. PI. CLIX. figs. 4, 9. 

— theobaldi, Hanley MS. 

garoense, n. sp. PI. CLIX. fig. If). 

small var. PI. CLIXX. fig. 11. 
manipurense, var. 

suLMsfula,n.sp. { S SSlI.'fiflo. 

( PI. CLX. figs. 14, 17, 18, 10,20. 
crassilabris, Bs. \ PI. CLXIV. figs. 16, 17. 

I PL CLX. fig. 17. 
var. nana. PI. CLXII. fig. 23. 

pyramis, Bs. PL CLX. fig. 24. 

ha.nleyi, n. sp. PL CLXII. fig. 16. 

solidus, n. sp. PI. CLXII. fig. 8. 

Jadu/camia ahnormis, n. sp. PI. CLX. figs. 22, 23. 

Glessula tenuispira, Benson. 

Colonel Bcddome, in his Monograph of the Genus (Pro. Malaeol. 
Soc. vol. vii. 190G, p. 160), records this species from many localities 
all very distant from each other, viz., Darjiling, Pegu, N. Canara, 
Khasi, and Dafla Hills. In a paper by Benson in the 'Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History' (1860), he gives a list of all the 
Continental-Indian species of Achatina — in which A. teniiispira 
appears as from the Khasia Hills, Darjiling, and Burma ; he says 
also "In Burmah Mr. Theobald got a variety of A. tennispira on 
the banks of the Irawady." I have for long doubted that this 
species has such an e.vtended range. Beddome even goes further 



32 LAND AND FRESHWATKR 

and considers G. haculina, Hy. Blanford "only a more slender 
form of tenuisitira" (Tl. CLIX. tigs, 1, 2); he could not possibly 
have seen the types of the former species — the shell from the 
Khasi Hills (Teria Ghat) (PI. CLIX. tig. ;i) differs altogether 
from the Sikhim one, and when they are placed side hy side the 
points of difl'erence are seen at once. I still more doubt the 
extension of ienuisjnra to Xorth Canara as well as to Pegu. 
In J. A. S. B. 1865, p. Do, BLinford says AcJinf inn <€nnis/n>-«, Bens., 
of small size is common at Akouktoiing and farther south. I refer 
to this under GUssida pertenids, No. 8, East of Bay of Bengal. 
1 have not at present the shells to examine. Geoffrey Nevill, 
'Hand List,' i. 1878, p. 169, records Darjiling, also Khasi and Datla 
Hills ; from these two last localities the shells were of my 
collecting, for when Nevill was studying the genus 1 supplied him 
liberally with specimens. 

The first record of G. tenuisj>ira appears in a paper entitled 
"Descriptive Catalogue of Terrestrial and Fluviatile Testacea, 
chiefly from the North-East Frontier of Bengal," by W. H. Benson, 
Journal of Asiatic Society Bengal, June 1836, p. 350. 

(The Collection was purchased by the Asiatic Society in 1833.) 

!No. 11. in the List. — Achalhia tenuis][)ira. 

Ori""inal description: — '■^ Testa elongata iarrita, cornea, longi- 
tudinaliter st7'iata, versus apicem attemiata, cohimnari, anfracta 
ultimo interdum fac'dis, qidhusdam albidis transcersis ornato, 
stituris imjjressis apice ohtuso. 

" Long. 1 poll, circiter ; Lat. 0"55. 

"Tins Achatina, belonging to De Ferussac's subgenus CochKcoj>a 
and to his group of Hyloides, is remarkable for the attenuated 
columellar form of the terminal whorls of the spire." 

(Followed by No. 12, Crassilabris). 

At the time this description -was written, Benson had not seen 
a Darjiling s])ecimen ; he was tlien Magistrate and Collector of 
Svlhct, and there can be no doubt whatever typical temdspira 
came from that district — most probably from that rich collecting 
place Teria Ghat, Avhich lies on its northern boundary, where 
Benson also obtained the very well-marked 8])ecics G. crassi!al»-is. 

We are apt to forget how much we owe to Benson and Hutton, 
tlie pioneers in Indian Malacology, who, with little assistance and 
encouragement, did so much. Looking back to the early thirties 
and the many papers Benson lived to publish, it is noticeable liow 
much his remarks increase the interest in the species he discovered, 
how much is 8U<rgcsted as to relationship and distribution. The 
l)rothers Blanford followed with the same scientific treatment. In 
comparison the record of to-day, with few exceptions, is bald to a 
decree owing to a want of knowledge of the physical features of 
the country, its size, and varying climatic conditions. 



MOLLUSCA or INDIA. 33 

Glkssula TENuisriRA, Bs. Coll. Hy. Blf,, No. ll.O.iii.lo B.M. 
(Plate CLIX. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, Khasi. 

Henry Blanford's collection contains 4 specimens from that 
])hice, and I have 10 others (Xo. 1G16 B.M.) collected by myself. 
The largest of these measures 31 mm. long by 8| breadth at the 
aperture. It differs in form very considerably from what has been 
liitherto known as tetmispira of Darjiliug and iSikhim, which 
I have named and separated as longisjjira. 

Glessula (Kishetia) TEXtJispiKA, Bs. 11.9.iii.l5 B.M. (Plate 
CLIX. fig. 3.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat, foot of Khasi Hills (ex coll. H. F. Blan- 
ford). 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture striation distant, closer, 
finer, and regular towards the apex ; colour ochraceous, with 
decided green tint; spire long, apex rather blunt, sides nearly 
straight, slight convexity; suture impressed; whorls 10-5, slightly 
convex, proportion of spire to last whorl 100: 29; aperture oval; 
columellar margin rather straight. 

Size: major diam. 9*0; length 29*0 mm. 

I obtained this species at Teria Ghat and also in the West 
Khasi Hills, some dozen specimens (No. 1582 B.M.), the largest 
being 33 mm. in length. 



GiEssuLA (Eishexia) tenuispira, Bs., var. Xo. 3332 B.M. 

Locality. Garo Hills, a single specimen {Godwin- Aitsten). 

Shell more slender in form; sculpture smoother than the Teria 
Ghat examples of temdspira ; colour ochraceous umber-brown ; 
spire, apex fine; whorls 11, 100: 40'4 ; aperture narrowly ovate. 

Size: maj. diam. 8*0; length 27*25 mm. 

Specimen from above Tura, 10 x 29*8. 

It is of considerable interest to note that Mr. S. W. Kemp, of 
the Indian Museum, has recently collected Glessula tenuis2nra 
at Tura in the Garo Hills, extending its range from Teria Ghat 
thus far to the west some 100 miles. Throughout this distance, 
the conditions are the same (tropical forest and for half the year 
excessive rainfall) on the steep spurs overlooking the great 
marshes of Sylhet and Mymensing. Dissection shows the animal 
to have all the characters of the species I describe under longispira 
of Darjiling and Sikhim. It marks the western extension of the 
subgenus — this also falls in with the geological evidence we 
possess, that the Garo-Khasi area was in early Tertiary time much 
more intimately connected with the South- Eastern Himalaya on 
the north and not so markedly cut off' as now by the broad low 
valley of the Brahmaputra, filled with alluvial deposits of great 
thickness. 

PABT I. D 



34 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Gl'essula (Rishetta) stTBAcuLiNA, D. sp., Coll. G.-A. No. 3555 
B.M. (Plate CLiX. fig. 9.) 

Locality. Landomodo Trigonometrical Station. Type. N. Khasi 
Hills (7 specimens); The Maotheric-han Ridge (No, ^556) (4 speci- 
mens) ; South Jaiiitia (1 specimen ). Tura, Garo Hills {^. W. Kemp). 

Shell elongately lurreted ; sculpture irregular, well-developed 
rather coarse striation, but varying much in different shells ; 
colour ochraceous; spire elongate, sides flatly convex, apex blunt; 
suture rather shallow; whorls 12, sides not quite flat; aperture 
narrowly ovate ; columella curving subobliquely, broadly truncate. 

Size: maj. diam. 7*25; length 31*0 mm. 

This approaches the Sikhim G. haculina Bs., but is rather 
broader than that species, the whorls near apex increasing more 
rapidly. It is not so smooth and shiny. 

No. 77 of Nevill's ' Hand-list,' p. 170, Gless. haculina — 3 Khasi 
Hills, presented by me, are suhaadina ; they have been sent home 
(1916) b}"^ Dr. N. Auuandale and compared by me. 

Glessttla (Rishetia) subaculina, G.-A., No. 1580 B.M. (Plate 
CLIX. fig. 4.) 

Conch. Ind. pi. xvii. fig 5 as G. ilieohaldi, Hanley MSS. 

Locality. Teria Ghat, foot of Khasi Hills (Godwin- Austen). 

Shell elongately turreted, slender; sculpture: striation of growth 
strongest below the suture and most regular on the 5th and 6th 
whorls ; colour umber-brown or dull ochraceous ; spire elongate, 
apex tine ; suture shallow ; w^horls 12, sides flat, proportion spire 
to last w^horl 100 : 24*4 ; aperture narrowly ovate ; peristome 
outer lip thin ; columellar margin regularly convex, not solid. 

Size: maj. diam. 9'5 ; alt. axis 34'75 mm. 

There are two specimens in my collection now in the Natural 
History Museum (No. 1580 B.M.); their history is of interest and 
important with regard to the exact habitat of G. tJieohaldi, 
Hanley. 

Considerable confusion surrounds this species, owing to the 
authors of the 'Conchologia Indica' working apart when it was 
passing through the press — one (Mr. Hanley) in England, the other 
(Mr. Theobald) in India, dealing with shells from two very diiTcrent 
localities. Hanley first describes the shell vcrj' briefly of Achatina 
theobaldi. Conch. Ind. p. 9, 1870 ; in explanation of pi. xvii. flg. 5, 
from " Near the Salwen," he says, "Differs from A . cassiaca, of which 
it has been considered a variety, by its smoothness, more convex 
whorls, &c." The shell was therefore a Bacilhim, and we can 
presume the species recorded by Theobald from the Shan States was 
also a Bacilhim, vide a paper in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal,' 1870 (not 1871 as given by Gudo), vol. xxxix. p. 395. 
On land-shells from the Shan States and Pegu as Achatina (Glessida) 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 35 

tJu'oUddiana, Hanley, the footnote Conch. Iiidica, pi. xvii. fig. 5, 
shows us that that woi'k was published and liad been seen by him. In 
'Nevill's Hand-list,' p. 172, we lind "No. 102 Stenogijra (Glessuhi) 
theuhaldi, Hanley, 2, Salween, coll. Mr. Theobald. " Nevill puts 
them in Bacillam. It is to be hoped these specimens are still in the 
Indian Museum, for they are very valuable; they would clear up 
where true Glessula th^ohaldi comes from. Hanley figured it on 
1)1. xvii, but in the index to Achatina in the Conch. ludica, p. xii, to 
ilieobaldi there is a footnote "2" "from Teria Ghat." Itlooks as if 
Hanley had substituted another species for figuring, and not taken 
the Shan one, under the impression they were one and the same. I 
am glad I am able to clear this up to a certain extent, and show how 
a Khasi Hill form has got introduced. When Hanley was engaged 
on the 'Conchologia Indica' I sent him a number of species of 
Glessula both named and unnamed, which he afterwards returned 
to me. Among them I have two specimens of a Glessuld named 
Theobaldi — in Handley's handwriting — from Teria Ghat (No. 15.80, 
Godwin-Austen Collection, British Museum). At the time I lent 
Hanley my Glussuhe I had not a single species of the genus in my 
collection from the Salween Valley, so there could be no mingling 
of specimens. Turning to pi. xvii., it may be noted at once that the 
shells are all enlarged ; take, for example, G. orohia (fig. 7) and 
G.py-cdustris (fig. 6). G. theobaldi (fig. 5) has a very considerable 
likeness to the Teria Ghat shell which Hanley returned to me with 
that name, allowing for similar enlargement with the sculpture 
also somewhat exaggerated. At the same time fig. 5 has not at all 
the form of a Bacillam, measuring 42 mm. as given by Mr. Gude 
(ex icon) ; on the contrary, it has a fine attenuate apex and not the 
characteristic blunt rounded one of BaeiUuyn [vide drawing by same 
artist, Mr. G. B. Sowerby, of B. cassiaca with its flat sides). 
All tliis points to fig. 5 representing the Teria Ghat specimen, and 
it is quite possible the one photographed for mo by Mr. T. S. Glad- 
stone (PI. CLIX. fig. 4) is the identical shell. 

Theobald's shells from the Salween, in the Indian Museum, 
cleared this up ; for on making application for them to Dr. N. Annan- 
dale, the present Superintendent, he has most obligingly sent them 
to mo (March 1916) ; the label is in type, a cutting from p. 172. 
They belong, as Nevill records them, to the genus Bacillum ; they 
are both immature, the largest of 9 whorls, measuring 23*25 mm. 
in length, with sides of greater convexity than in B. cassiaca, 
distinguishing it at once. The tj^pical specimen sent home by 
Theobald to Hanley would appear to have been lost ; it is fortunate 
that about the same time Theobald gave specimens to the Indian 
Museum. 

I found in the Beddome Collection (No. 121) a single, also 
immature shell, with a label " sent by Theobald as ' Sabvlniana.' " 
On comparison with' the specimens of B. theobaldi, Hanley, from 
Calcutta, I consider it the same ; it is only 21 mm. in length. 
Mr. Gude had marked it "young of cassiaca Bs." 

d2 



36 LAND AND FKESHWATBR 

Glesstjla (Rishetia) garoense, n. sp. (Plate CLTX. fig. 15.) 

Lomlity: South Garo Hills. Tj-pe. ^o. 1505 i3.M. {Godwin- 
Austen). 

Shell attenuately turreted, sides flat, thin ; sculpture, surface 
very smooth, a few distant transverse shallow engraved lines, 
difl:ering from the usual raised striae ; colour pale umbor-brown ; 
spire fine ; apex very attenuate, first 4 whorls with same diameter 
(PI. CLXIY. fig. 5); suture shallow ; whorls 13, sides flatly convex, 
there is but little diflference in the diameter at the Dth whorl and 
tlielast; aperture narrowly ovate; peristome thin, a callous on 
the body whorl ; columellar margin oblique, very slight in structure. 

Size: maj. diara. 5'0 ; total length 27'25 mm. 

In form it is similar to G. baculina, var. exilis of Sikhim ; the 
apex is not so attenuate, the whorls are flatter, and the sculpture 
differs considerably. In the Sikhim form there is much raised 
striation. 

Under No. 68, p. 169, of ' Nevill's Hand-list,' 2 specimens from 
the Garo Hills are recorded under G. pertenuis ; they were presented 
unnamed by me. These have been kindly sent home for comparison 
by Dr. N. Annandale, to whom my best thanks are due ; they are 
this species garoense. On this data in the ' Hand-list,' Mr. Gude 
in ' Fauna British India ' extends the range of G. pertenuis, a Pegu 
species, to the Assam Hange ; such record ot distribution is valueless. 

Glesstjla (Rishetia) GAEOEifSE, G.-A. 

Locality. South Jaintia; 4 specimens, No. S5Q2 (Gochvin- Austen). 

Shell attenuately turreted ; sculpture, striation very fine and 
close, disappearing in full-grown shells ; colour dull umber-brown ; 
spire tapering evenly ; whorls 12. 

Size: maj. diam. 5*5; length 26-75 mm. 

At first sight there is a remarkable similarity between this 
species and O. pertenuis, Wra. Blanford, of Bassein, but it dis- 
appears under the microscope. The apical Avhorls are not alike, 
and the aperture differs still more on the columellar margin and^ 
truncation. 

Gi-EssrLA (Rishetia) garoense, G.-A., small var. (Plate CLIX. 
fig. 11.) 

Localitij. jSTaraindhur, Cachar; 11 specimens. Type. No. 1657 
(F. Ede). 

This measures 20*5 mm. in length and 4*5 mm. in maj. diam. 
It is of a darker umber than typical garoense, and has the very 
smooth surface of that shell; 12 whorls, sides slightly more 
convex ; apex very fine, first 4 whorls hardly increase at all 
(PI. CLXIV. fig. 6). 

lam fortunate in having specimens in spirit of a small elongate 
many-whorled species from Silchar, Cachar, sent me by Mr. I\ Ede. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 37 

(The sole of the foot very closely segmented.) I have been successful 
in getting out the genitalia, but in a detached state. The specimen, 
contained 8 well-formed eggs in the oviduct ; they measure 1-5 mm. 
in diameter, perfect globes. The penis (Plate CLXV. fig. 6) 
has an elongate simple sheath, with a very small flagellum, close 
to the vas deferens attachment at the distal end. The spermatheca 
(fig. 6 a) was elongate with a bulbous end ; the penis is thus similar 
to that of O. lonr/ispii-a of Sikhim, and it may ultimately be found 
that all the elongate turreted Ghssidce will have this type of male 
organ distinguishing them from that of G. odiracea, &c. The 
formula of the radula is : 

20 . 7 . 1 . 7 . 20 or 27 . 1 . 27. 

The centre tooth has a long narrow plate with a small cusp at the 
base ; the admedian are of the same shape as in G. longispira ; the 
marginals are very numerous, becoming very minute on the outer 
edge. There are no intermediate teeth ; the admedian merge into 
the marginals. 

Glesstjla sttbhastula, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 18 ; Plate 
CLXIIT. fig. 15, apex.) 

Locality. Nongsingriang, North Ivhasi Hills ; No. 3551 B.M. 
Type {Godwin- Austen^. 

Shell elongatelyjconoid ; sculpture irregular, fine close, very well- 
defined transverse striation (not so regular as in G. hastula) ; 
colour dark ochraceous ; spire long attenuate (less so than Jias^tida), 
apex fine (larger than in hastula); suture impressed; whorls 71, 
sides flatly convex ; aperture very narrow, vertical ; peristome 
thin ; columellar margin nearly straight. 

Size: Type. Maj. diam. 3*25 ; length 9*0 mm. apex. 
N. Khasi sp. (3546' BM.) „ 3-5 „ 10-75 „ 

largest (3557 B.M.) „ 3-50 „ 12-0 „ 

I first found this species (No. 3549 B.M., enlarged apex, 
PI. CLXIII. fig. 14), which I then took to be hastida of Benson, in 
the deep valley to the east of Cherra Poonjee the first summer I 
passed there. Two specimens were returned to me by Mr. Sylvanus 
Hanley, in whose hands I placed a number of species of Ghssida 
when lie was working on the ' Conchologia Indica' — this No. 3546' 
(PL CLXI. fig. 19) was returned to me with a note in pencil 
" aWieAto subfnsiforiuis, W. Blf ." A single specimen of subhastula 
was also found in the Dunsiri Valley below Samaguting. 

I have received a specimen from Mr. S. W. Kemp found at Tura, 
Garo Hills. 

Glessula subkasttjla, G.-A., var. type (Plate CLXI. fig. 19.) 

Locality. North Khasi ; No. 3546 {Godwin-Axisten). 

Shell elongately conoid ; sculpture regular, quite strong striation ; 
colour rich umber-brown : spire long, sides flattened, apex blunt 
rounded; suture impressed ; whorls 7g, sides flattened ; aperture 
rather narrow ; peristome slightly thickened ; columellar margin 
nearly vertical, not truncated. 



88 LAND AND FKKSHWATER 

Size: maj. diam. B-H ; alt. axis 10'4 mm. 

This is much stouter and with a much bhintcr apex than typical 
suhhastula, with the aperture not so narrow ; 9 specimens were 
found on Hinriutinoh Peak, Nortli Cachar Hills. 

No. 2026 B.M., apex enlarged (PI. CLXIII. fig. ]2). 

Xo. 3557, Xorth Kliasi, apex enlarged (PL CLXIII. fig. 11). 

Glesstjla illtjstris, G.-A. 3076 B.M. type. 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv. 2, 1875, p. 3. (Plate i. fig. 5.) 

Figured in ' Conchologia Indica,' 1875, pi. cii. fig. 9. 

Xevill, ' Hand-list,' i, 1878, ]>. 170, 7 sp., Hengdan. 

Original description: — " Shell elongatel)' ovaL greenish hornv, 
finely striated loiigitudinaliy ; whorls 7, very slightly rounded; 
suture moderately impressed ; the lip tliickened ; columellar margin 
slightly curved and strong: apex blunt." 

" Lengtli 0'75 ; maj, diam. 0*3; length of aperture 0*3 in. 

llab. Henglan Peak, North Cachar Hills, at 6843 feet, in forest, 
also near Xeuglo, at 6000 feet, and in the Lukah Valley, Jaintia 
Hills, at 1000 feet. 

" This species is an elongate and larger form of Glessula crassi- 
lahris, Bs., of which G. pyramis is a closer variety ; but its much 
more elongate form and stronger striation make it a good connect- 
ing species with G. hdleri, de.scril)ed further on. The form from 
the Lukah Valley is a tumid departure from the type figured 
(var, tumida, G-A.). 

" One specimen — alt. 0'75; maj. diam. 0*38 in. 
Another „ „ 0'65 „ 0-35 ,, 

" I look on all these species as proper varieties, and G. crassi- 
Icdiris, very abundant in p11 the grass country of the Khasi Hills, 
may be taken as the type ; a difference in elevation and condition 
ot' liabitat, from damp dark forest to hot grassy slopes, having 
produced modificatious of form." 

Amended description. 

Glessi'la iLiusTEis, G.-A. Tvpc. Xo. 3070 B.M. (Plate CLX. 
fig. 12.) 

Locality. Hengdan Peak, North Cachar Hills (Godivin-Aiisfen). 

Shell clongately oval, rather solid, smooth; scnijjture: distant, 
fine irregular strije, fine on the apical whorls ; colour deep olivaceous, 
with an ochre tint ; spire liigh, sides fiatly convex, apex blunt; suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 7, very flatly convex, rather tumid ; 
aperture rather narrowly oval, vertical; peristome thickened, but not 
so strongly as in G. crassilahris ; columellar margin straightly curved. 

Size: maj. diam. 8'0; length 19-2 mm. 

The last whorl up to the suture is ample ; it measures from the 
base of the columella in front to the suture 11*50 mm., proportion 
in terms of 100 is 100 : 60. The range on which it wa3 found 
was covered for miles with magnificent forest. 



MOLLCTSCA OF INDIA.. 39 

GleSSULA ILLtrSTEIS, G.-A. 

I have looked at the type after reading Pilsbry's remarks on 
this species (Man. Conch, ser. 2, xx. 1909, p. 95, pi. ii. figs. 13-16). 
The vertical striation and grooving is irregular, but this is generally 
the case in the genus ; on the apical whorls it is more regular. 
There is certainly fine spiral striation, but it is indistinct and not 
tb be seen in some specimens ; the suture is also not always 
crenulate. The striation on the embryonic whorls is very similar 
to that in erassilahris. The examples from the Luka Valley in the 
Jaintia Hills (3078 J3.M.) may be very well considered a var. 
tumida. 

Beddome erroneously considered it the same as G. faciila of 
Southern India. 

Glbssula illijstris, var. tttmida, G.-A. (Plate CLX. fig. 13.) 

Locality. Lukah Valley, Jaintia Hills. No. 3078 B.M. (God- 
win-Austen). 

Shell ovate : sculpture : regular, incised striation, somewhat 
distant ; colour strong ochraceous with slight olivaceous tint ; 
spire moderately high, conic, sides flatly convex ; suture rather 
shallow ; whorls 71, the last tumid, sides sliglitly convex ; aperture 
widely oval, vertical ; peristome slightly thickened ; columellar 
margin rather short, subvertical. 

Size: maj. diam. 13*75; length 16'2 mm.; length to body 
whorl 100 : 62. 

Glessula crassilabris, Bs. 3435 B.M. (Plate CLX. tig. 17.) 

Locality. Teria Ghat {Godwin- Ajisteri). 

Shell couically turreted, glassy ; sculpture : distant, strong, 
transverse striae, very irregular as regards distribution and relief, 
near suture, very fine ; colour bright ochraceous with a green 
tint; spire fine and pointed, sides flatly convex; suture well 
impressed; whorls 7|, with considerable convexity; aperture ovate; 
peristome outer margin well thickened ; columellar margin concave. 

Size : (Sp. figured) maj. diam. 6-0 ; alt. axis 13*4 mm. 
The largest „ „ 7-2 ; „ 14*75 „ 

Note from Field Boole . — Animal with tentacles black throughout, 
body short, under side of foot pale yellow. The largest specimens 
were obtained in North Khasi, near Simleng on the Lubah Biver, 
in the high grass of old jooms, i. e. the clearings of virgin forest, 
fiirst cut down, then burnt and cultivated. 

This species has locally an extended range, compared with other 
species, and it varies much in size, form, and colour. It is a very 
common species at Teria Ghat, the original locality, and I found 
it in the following places, specimens from which are figured. 

No. 3552. From North Khasi. 

One very large specimen figured 16 x 8-25 mm. (Plate 
CLX. tig. 14.) 



r 

40 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

3435 B.M. Teria Ghat. Typical locality. (Plate CLXIV. 
fig. 16, apex.) 

Specimen fii^ured 13 x 0-25 mm., apex very fine, ochraceou3. 
(Plate CLX. iig. 17.) 

452 B.M. Shengorh Peak, Dafla Hills. 

crassilabris, var. : the sculpture differs from that of tyjiical 

shells in being much closer. 
Specimen figured 13-50 x 6'25 mm.; four obtained, all of a 

pale chrysophase green tini. (Plate CLX. fig. ISJ.) 

3553 B.M. Jaintia. 

Largest specimen fio-ured 14-5 x 0-20 mm., strong ochraceous, 
sculpture distant striatiou. (Plate CLX. fig. 18.) 

3390 B.M. Garo Hills. 

Specimen figured 9 x 4-50 mm., very small, ovately turrot'-d, 
dark umber-brown with a green tinge. (Plate CLX. 
fig. 20.) 

From other localities I have : — 

3372 B.M. Garo Hills. 

Largest specimen 14-20 x 7-0 mm., dark ochraceous. 

3428 B.M. North Cachar. 

Largest 13-25 x 6-0 mm., ochraceous with slight green tint. 

3388 B.M. Gowhathi, Assam. 

lO-jiO X 5-0 mm., ochraceous with slight greenish tint. 

3569 B.M. Naga Hills, under Laisom Peak. 

15-0 X 6-75 mm., apex blunt, more elongate than type, 
greenish ochre ; 7 whorls. 
452" B.M. Dafla Hills, Shengor Peak. (Plate CLXIV. fig. 17, 
apex.) 

Very fine spiral stria? on the apical whorl (not shown in fig.). 

453 B.:M. Dafla Hills, in the Burroi Gorge. 

10-50 X 4-80 mm., dark umhcr, with green tinge decidedly 
olivaceous, more elongate, very distinct spiral striae on ihe 
apical whorl. 

913 B.M. Khasi. 

10-25 X 50 mm., 7 w^horls, ochraceous, apex rather blunt. 

Blanford writes (J. A. S. B. 1865, p. 95): " A small variety of 
A. crassilahris, Bs., occurs in Arakan, and another form perhaj)s 
distinct, but closely allied, was found in the Shan Hills near Ava." 

Specimens of the first I found unnamed in Henry Blanford's 
collection collected by Mr. Kaban of the Indian Civil Service. I 
consider them distinct and have named them G. rahani. Those 
from the Shan Hills have come to light in Wm. 'Blanford's 
collection (No. 261-06.2.2), five specimeiis. They are undoubtedly 
difitinctj and I have named the species G. feddeni after Mr. 
Feddon of the Geological Survey of India, who collected largely in 
that part of Burma. 



MOLLTTSCA OF INDIA, 41 

Glessula CRA8SILA15KIS, Bs., var. NANA.. (Plate CLXII. fig. 23.) 
No. 1609 B.M. 

Locnlity. North Khasi (2 specimens) (Godwin- Austen). 

Shell oblong turrefced, smooth and shiny ; sculpture : a few 
incised lines; colour ochraceous with a green tinge; spire elongate, 
sides convex, apex blunt; suture impressed; whorls 7, slightly 
convex ; aperture narrowly ovate ; peristome outer lip thickened 
slightly ; columellar margin short, truncated, rather straight. 

ISize ; maj. diam. 3"8 ; length 8 mm. 

This shell, evidently fully grown, has much the form of G. crassi- 
lahris, and the sculpture is of similar character, but it is so very 
much smaller. There being only two specimens it is better to 
consider them a dwarf variety than to give a specific title. A 
single specimen was also found in the Jatinga Valley, N, Cachar 
(No. 3412 li.M.), another on Koliaghur Hill on the L.B. of the 
Brahmaputra (No. 35(57 B.M.), while yet another from the Dunsiri 
Valley, also at a low elevation (No. 3392 B.M.). 



Glessula ptramis, Bs. (Plate CLX. fig. 24; Plate CLXIV. 
fig. 23, apex.) 

Localitij. Teria Ghat. 3550 G.-A. coll. [Godwin- Austen). 

Achatina pyramis, Bs. 

Original description : — " Testa ohlongo-turrita^ soliduda, Icevigata, 
striatida, niiida. luteo-corneo ; spira turrita, lateribus convexiusculis, 
apice ohtusiuscido, sutura impressa ; anfraetihus 8, convexiuscuJis , 
ultimo ^ testce cfquante, antice obsolete plicato ; apertura subverticali, 
elliptico-semiovali, columella arcuata, callosa, basi oblique trancata, 
peristomate recto obtuso, inius albido-lahiato. 

" Long. 15, diam. 6 mill. ; apert. 5 mill, longa, 2| lata. 

" Habitat ad Teria Ghat Montiura Khasi. Detexit W. Theobald. 

" Allied to the smaller Ach. crassula, B., from Darjiling, but 
distinguished from it by its colour, smoother sculpture, more convex 
and numerous whorls, by the characters of the peristome, and by 
the convex and not planate sides of the spire. 

" A large variety of AcJi. cmssula, collected by Mr. W. T. Blan- 
ford near Darjiling, is 12 mill, in length by 5^ in breadth, and, 
like the type, possesses only seven whorls." 

E. pyramis is very smooth and glassy. The largest specimen 
from Tiria Ghat figured measures 14-5 x 5*75, slightly smaller than 
the specimen described by Benson. 

In the Beddome collection I found a single specimen (No. 747) 
named pyramis by Colonel Beddome ; he does not refer to it in his 
notes on the genus, ahhough its habitat is Ponsee. It measures 
17 X 6-8 mm. 

This is no doubt the Glessula pyramis, var. major, of Geoffrey 
Nevill, 6 sp., Ponsee coil. Dr. J. Anderson, vide ' Hand-list,' i. 
p. 169. In the copy which he gave to me, Nevill has written 



42 LAND ANB FRESHWATER 

•* var. major, Nevill, 20 x 8 mm. anfr. 9." Bcs.des its much 
larger size, it diflers in many respects from typical pyramis in the 
general shape of the spire, the convexity of the whorls, and the 
form of the coluracllar margin, which is more curved and stronger 
than in pyramis, and I therefore name it G. ponsiensis. Since 
writing the ahove 1 have received from the Indian Museum the 
specimens which Nevill dealt Avith, and have compared them 
with typical specimens of O. 'pyramis from Teria Ghat, and drawn 
the apex of both. There is no doubt the Ponsi shell in quite distinct, 
and has no connection with 'pyramis whatever. 

Description of the living animal made in ray Field Book of one 
taken at Teria Ghat is " 0"35" long, almost colourless, the eye- 
tentacles only dark coloured, a black line extending from tlie base 
of each along the upper side of the neck (this, of course, is the 
line of the retractor muscle), foot short.'"' 



Glessdla hakleyi, n. sp. No. 3547 B.M. (Plate CLXII. 
fig. 16.) 

Locality. North Xliasi. Type {Godwin-Austen). 

Shell elongate ; sculpture : lew and distant extremely fine striae ; 
colour pale ocliraceous ; spire high, sides with slight convexity, 
apex blunt ; suture well impressed ; whorls 8, side flatly convex ; 
aperture narrow ; peristome outer lip thickened ; columellar margin 
vertical, strong, sinuate. 

Size : maj, diara, 4'75 ; length 12 mm, 

Tliis shell was seen by Mr. Sylvanus Hanley, after whom I 
name it ; he returned it to me undetermined. It is a single shell, 
but having a history I am constrained to distinguish it, as I cannot 
find anything like it, I at first placed it wnth G. baralensis. 

Glessula solida, n. sp. No. 3548, B,M. (Plate CLXII, fig. 8.) 

Locality. North Khasi Hills and valley east of Cherra Poonjee 
(^Godwin- Austen). 

Shell oblong conoid, short, solid ; sculpture: distant, irregular, 
fine striation ; colour ocliraceous ; spire elongately conoid, sides 
convex ; suture well impressed ; whorls G, sides convex ; ai)erture 
ovate, vertical ; peristome outer lip very thickened ; columellar 
margin short, convex, well truncated- 
Size : maj. diam. 4-0 ; length 8*0 mm. 

On finding this shell I considered it to be the same as Benson's 
orohia, of Darjiling, but it was not at the time compared with 
typical specimens. I find now it is very much smaller, very 
different in its shape and proportions, the side of the spire being 
much more convex than in the Darjiling shells, with which 1 have 
compared it, in the Hy. Blanford collection (No. 17. O.iii.lS B.M.). 
(Plate CLXII. fig. 6.) 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 43 

Jadtjkamia, subgeu. nov. 

Shell small, short, solid, regularly ribbed, almost coshilate ; 
spire eloiigately conoid : apex bluntly pyramidal, very rounded ; 
columellar margin abort, concave, and abruptly truncate. 

Gltisstjla (Jadukamia) abnormis, d. sp. (Plate CLX. fig. 22.) 
No. 1034, 06. 1-1. 

Locality. Khasi Hills {Godwin- Austen). 

Shell ovate; sculpture: close, regular, strong ribbing, almost 
costulate ; colour ochraceous, shiny ; spire elongately conoid, apex 
bluntly pyramidal ; suture well impressed ; wborls 4, sides flat, 
the first large ; aperture ovate, not fully developed ; columellar 
margin vertical. 

Size: maj. diam. 4*0; alt. axis 7'10 mm. 

This shell, together with two specimens of G. crassilahris, was 
sent bv me to Wm. Blanford many years ago, as recorded in his 
catalogue ; its peculiar form was not noticed. I then put it on one 
side under the impression it was an accidental variety of some 
species. When going through the collection of Glessulce collected 
by me in the Dafla Hills, Assam, I came on another specimen 
among some found on the Shengorh Peak, almost identical with 
the Khasi Hill shell. When one considers the enormous areas — in 
Assam, for instance — asyetunvisited by a conchologist, and compares 
them with the small scattered sjiots, miles apart, where often only a 
hurried search was possible, on one day in the year, there must 
be many a species yet to be discovered. More extensive diligent 
search in both the Khasi and Dafla Hills would lead, doubtless, 
to more specimens of this curious shell being found. 

Glessula (Jadtjkamia) abnormis, n. sp. (Plate CLX. fig. 23.) 

Locality. Shengorh Peak, Dafla Hills. No. 3370 {Godwin- Austen). 

Shell elongately ovate ; sculpture fine, very regular raised 
ribbing; colour pale ochraceous; whorls 4, the first very ample ; 
aperture ovate ; columellar margin nearly vertical. 

Size : maj. diam. 4-0 ; alt. axis 7'20 mm. 

This Glessula is so distinct in shell character from all as yet 
known that I am induced to put it in a new subgenus, which I 
describe above. 



44 LAXD AND FRESHWATER 

6. North CacJutr, Naga Hills, and Manipur. 

Glessula burrailensis, G.-A. PI. CLX. figs. 1, 2. 

hurraile/isis, var. PI. CLX. fig. 4. 

biirraliensis, var. PI. CLX. fig. 3. 

burrailensis, var. maxwelli. PI. CLX. figs. 5, 6. 

butleri, G.-A. PI. CLX. fig. 9. 

illusfris, G.-A. PL CLX. fig. 12. 

illustris, var. tumida, G.-A. PI. CLX. fig. 18. 

stramencolor, n. ep. PL CLIX. fig. 12. 

mumipurensis, n. sp. | ^J; gLxuPfigs^' 13. 13 a. 

imphalensis, n. sp. PL CLXII. fig. 24. 

oglei, n. sp. PL CLXII. fig. 10. 

prowiensis, n. sp. PL CLXII. fig. 13. 

kehefata, n. sp. PL CLXII. fig. 26. 

barakensis, n. sp. PL CLXII. figs. 12, 17. 

lahupaeusis, n. sp. PL CLXI. fig. 23. 

kohimacnsis, n. sp. PL CLXI. fig. 24. 

shirohiensis, n. sp. PL CLXI. fig. 21, 22. 

Ihotaensis, n. sp. PL CLXI. fig. 2.5. 

masters!, n. sp. Type. j ^- cLXIli.^figJ.'20, 22. 

viastersi, var. PL CLXII. fig. 3. 

'macera, G.-A. 

Glessula (Rishetia) buerailexsis, G.-A. (Plate CLX. figs. 1, 2.) 
Type. i\o. 1722 B.M. 

J. A. S. Bengal, xliv. 1875, p. 3, pi. i. fig. 6. 

Locality. Khunho Peak, Naga Hills, Trigonometrical Station 
( Godvjin- Austen). 

Original Description :— " Shell tiirrcted, elongate, solid, in fresh 
state hrown and lustrous, finely longitudinally striated; whorls 10, 
rather tlat, suture shallow, apex blunt ; aperture subvertical, fusi- 
form, angular above ; peristome very thick, paler brown on margin ; 
columella strong. 

Alt. 1*37 ; major diara. 0-4 in. 

The finest specimens were collected under the Peak of Xhunho, 
Eastern Burrail llangc ; they were also abundant under Japvo at 
about 70UU feet. 

Size (Type, the largest) : major diam. 9"o ; length 33-8 mm* 
100 : 44, spire to last whorl. 

This beautiful species is found in the old damp and shady 
primaeval forest. 

Glessula (Rishetia) burrailensis, G.-A., var. (Plate CLX, 
fig. 4.) No. 1585 B.M. 

Locality. Kopamedza Peak, 8375 ft., Naga Hills, Trigonometrical 
Station [^Godwin- Austen). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 45 

Shell rather more tumid in form ; colour ochraceous, with a 
strong green tint ; whorls 8 ; columellar margin nearly straight, 
compared with type. 

Size (specimen ligured) : major diam. 9-25 ; length 26-25 mm. 

Glessttla (Rishetia) burrailensis, G.-A,, var. (Plate CLX. 
fig. 3.) Ino. 1586 B.M. 

Locality. Japvo Peak, Naga Hills, at 8-9000 feet {Godwin- 
Austen). 

Shell much more slender in form ; apex blunt, shining ; sculpture 
well marked, regular striation, extending to the apex ; colour 
strong ochraceous, with a greenish tint ; spire elongate, sides 
flatly convex, suture impressed ; whorls 9| ; aperture ovate ; 
peristome on outer margin slightly thickened ; columellar margin 
slight! 5^ coucave. 

Size (specimen figured) : mnjor diam. 7'0 ; length 25'2o mm. 

Plentiful in the forest, covering the Peak on all sides. 

Glessttla (Rishetia) butleri, G.-A. No. 1583 B.M. (Plate 
CLX. fig. 9.) 

J. A. S. B. xliv. ] 875, p. 4, pi. i. fig. 7. 

Locality. Eastern Burrail Range {Godwin- A^isten). 

Original description : — " Shell eloiigately turreted, very thin and 
brittle, tumid, pale corneous, glassy, very minutely striated, 
apex very blunt; whorls 8, rather rounded, suture deep, body- 
whorl much swollen and capacious ; aperture vertical, pear- 
shaped, lip rather thin. 

" Alt. 1'13, major diam. 0-45 in, 

" Hab. Eastern Burrail Eange, at 6000 feet ; not a common 
form. 

"I name this shell after Captain J. Butler, Political Agent 
in the Naga Hills, with whom I had the fortune of being 
associated when mapping that very interesting and beautiful 
district." 

Size : Largest specimen, major diam. 12-75 ; alt. axis 28-0 mm. 
Specimen figured, „ 11-0; „ 26-25,, 

Proportion of length to body-whorl, 100 : 54. 

Glessula (Rishetia) bitrrailensis, var. maxwelli. (Plate CLX. 
figs. 5, 6.) No. 1717 B.M. 

Locality. Naga Hills, exact locality unknown, but East of 
Kohima [Col. H. St. P. Maxwell). Somra, Khulen Post. West of 
Kyendwin or Chindwin River, Upper Burma {F. Ede). 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture coarse, close, irregular 
ribbing (fig. 6) ; colour rich sienna-brown (fig. 6) : spire long, 
sides nearly flat; 100 ; 47-6 ; suture shallow; whorls 10, sides 
nearly flat ; aperture narrowly oval, outer lip strong; columellar 
margin nearly straight, solid. 



46 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Size : Fif?. 5, Type, major diam. 8-5 ; alt. axis 32-0 mm. 

Larajest bleached shell, „ 9*2 ; „ 35"0 „ 

This s])ecies was givcu to me hy Colonel Max-^vell ; obtained on 
one of bis tours in the Naga Hills, East of the Aughami ^aga 
tribe. 

Glessula (Eishetia) MASTERsr, n. sp. Type. (Plate CLXII. 
fig.].) 

= maccra, Nev. MS. from Assam. 

Locality. Golaghat, Assam ; 3 specimens found. Blf. Coll. 
843.06.1.1 B.M. (il/«.s?^r*). Same locality. 40.06.3. B.M., 2 ex- 
amples ; 837.06.1.1 B.M., 5 examples. 

Shell clongately turreted; sculpture distant striation ; colour 
pale ochraceous ; spire long, sides flat ; apex is fine, increasing 
gradually (PI. CLXIII. fig. 20 ; another specimen No. 837.06.1.1 
B..M., Blf. Coll., from same locality, PI. CLXIII. fig. 22), suture 
shallow ; whorls 9, very flatly convex ; proportion of spiro 
to last whorl 100 : 49, having a slight shoulder below the suture ; 
aperture rather narrow ; columcllar margin nearly vertical. 

Size : major diam. Q'b ; length 17"5 mm. Largest specimen, 
apex broken, major diam. 7'0. 

It is very close to G. sarissa, Bs., but side of spire differs. 

This species was found in Dr. W. T. Blanford's collection and 
unnamed. It was sent to him with other shells found by 
Mr. Masters in 1860, on the low spurs near the hot spring at 
the Falls of the Namba liiver, the home of that fine species 
Bhiostoma mastersi, figured in the ' Conchologia Indica,' 1870, 
pi. v. fig. 1, without description, as Plerocyclos (Spiracuhan) 
mastersi, Blanford MSS., afterwards described by Wm. Blanford in 
Journ. Asiat. See. Bengal, 1877, pt. 2, p. 313, as from hills south 
of the Assam Valley not far from Golaghat. Some years later 
I ha])pencd to encamp at the exact locality as given above. The 
shell is hairy in fresh specimens, as stated by Blanford. 

Among the Glessuhe since recorded from the Indian Museum, 
under No. 80, Nevill, ' Hand-list,' p. 170, no. 3639, are some 
12 examples of mastersi from Assam, labelled W. Blf. with the 
name '■'macera" in Nevill's handwriting. Writing to me in 
August 1880, Nevill gave this name to all the shells catalogued 
under No. 80. G. macera is a very distinct and attenuate species. 

Glessura (IIisuetia) MASxioESi, n. sp., var. (Plate CLXII. fig. 3.) 
No. 3339 B.M. 

Localiti/. Augaoluo Peak, 6777 ft., Naga Hills, 2 specimens 
(M. Of/h). 

Sculpture: the embryonic whorls (Plate CLXII. fig. 21) are 
strongly costulate next the smooth apex, and regularly so to 
the last whorl ; colour dark umber-brown ; whorls 9, 

Size : major diam. 7'0 ; alt. axis 20*0 mm. 

Agrees with the Golaghat specimens. 

5 other specimens were obtained in the Naga Hills ; precise 
locality not noted. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 47 

Glessula (Rishetia) macbra, G.-A. W. B1£. MS. Type. No. 
3673 B.M. 

Locality. Assam, probably near Golaghat. Ex Coll. Indian 
Museum, No. 36:34 (TF. T. Blanford). 

Shell elongately turreted, thin ; sculpture regular, close subdued 
costulation ; colour pale ochraceous ; spire very long, sides flat ; 
apex rather blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 12, very gradually 
increasing, flatly convex, body-whorl short ; aperture small ; 
columellar margin flatly curved. 

Size : major diam. 5-7o ; length 20-0 mm. 

Under No. 68, 'Hand-list,' p. 169, Nevill records 10 specimens 
from Assam under G. pertenuis^ presented by Stoliczka — a faulty 
determination ; they are G. macera, and from the same source as 
No. 842.06.1.1 coll. Elf. B.M. 

Glessula (Rishetia) stramexcolor, n. sp. (Plate CLIX. fig, 12.) 

Locality. Burrail Range. 6 specimens. Type. No. 1535 B.M. 
(^Godwin-Austen^. 

Shell elongately turreted, thin, shiny ; sculpture rather coarse, 
well-marked, regular transverse striation ; colour very pale ochra- 
ceous, or straw-colour ; spire long, side flat, apex very blunt ; 
suture impressed; whorls 11, sides flat; aperture small, pear- 
shaped ; peristome thin, outer lip vertical ; columella curving 
downwards. 

Size: major diam. 6-0 ; length 25'0 mm. 

The general form and blunt apex of this species is more that of 
a Bacillum than of Glessida. 

Glessula (Rishetia) imphalensis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 24.) 

Locality. Munipur. l^o. ^'SdS'Q.^. {Godwin- Austen). 

Shell elongately turreted, with glassy surface ; sculpture irre- 
gular striation ; colour dull strong ochraceous ; spire elongate, apex 
fine, sides very slightly convex ; suture impressed ; whorls 8, rather 
flattened ; aperture narrowly oval ; outer lip slightly thickened ; 
columellar margin short, truncate, very slightly concave. 

Size : Largest, major diam. 7*75 ; length 18-0 mm. 
Ordinary, „ 7-50 ; „ 16-17 „ 

Glessula (Rishetia) munipurense, n. sp. (Plate CLIX, fig. 10.) 

Locality. Munipur ; over 20 specimens collected. Tj-pe. No. 
1584 B.M. {Godwin- Austen). 

Shell elongately turreted, thin, shiny ; sculpture regular 
striation, showing strongly below the suture as a crenulate edge ; 
colour pale umber-brown ; spire long, sides with sliglit convexity ; 
apex fine, blunt (Plate CLXIV. fig. 8, apex), as compared with 
G. gnroense of Cachar (Plate CLXIV. fig. 7, No. 1657 B.M.); 
suture impressed ; whorls 11, sides flatly convex ; aperture small, 



48 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

siibovate angular above and below ; peristome thin ; columella 
with rather a sharp turn, truncate below. 

t^ize : major diam. 20"52 ; leniith 20"5 mm. 

The sculpture distinguishes this species from G. (jaroense, small 
var., in being much coarser. 

G. munipurense, n. sp., var. (3366 B.M.), Diyung Yalley, !N^aga 
Hills, differs very slightly from the type. 

Glessula stjbhastula, var. 

Locality. Munipur. 3 specimens. No. 3572 B.M. {Godwin- 
Austen). 

Shell elongately conoid ; sculpture well marked, some irregular 
striie ; colour sienna-brown; spire high, sides somewhat flat, 
apex rather blunt (Plate CLXIII. figs. 13, 13a) ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 8, sides flatly convex ; aperture narrow, almost straight 
on the outer margin ; peristome a little thickened ; columellar 
margin slightly convex. 

Hize: major diam. 3-3 ; alt. axis 10-0 mm. 

Differs slightly from the Khasi Hill form in being less attenuate, 
the sides of the spire being more convex above the larger body- 
whorl, more particularly in the sharper apex, which is very 
costulate throughout (Plate CLXIII. figs. 13, 13 a). 

G. siihJiastula, n. sp. (jS'o. 1591 B.M.), Lhota Naga Hills, 
four examples, similar to the type. 

Glesstjla oglei, n. sp. Type. (Plate CLXII, fig. 10.) 

Locality. Naga Hills. No. 820 P.M. (if. T. Ogle). 

Shell elongate, oblong turreted ; sculpture regular striation ; 
colour bright ochraceous ; spire high, sides flatly convex ; suture 
well impressed; whorls Tg, tiatly convex ; aperture ovate; peristome 
well thickened on outer margin; columellar margin short and sharply 
concave. 

Size : major diam. 5-5 ; length 14-0 mm. 

Somewhat like G. oalcesi of the Abor Hills, but more slender and 
attenuate, apex finer, and aperture more oval. More elongate than 
G. crassilahris, and the sculpture is not so incised as in that species 
and its varieties. 

Glesstjla oglei, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 11.) 

Locality. Naga Hills, l^o. ?>m'd ^.11. {Godwin- Avxten). 

Sculpture rather coarse striation, not incised ; whorls 7. 

Size: major diam. 6-5 ; alt. axis 14-25 mm. 

The figure of this species is somewhat more tumid than the 
type, but found with it are two quite similar; they are not to be 
separated. 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 49 

Glessula hebetata, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 26.) 

Locality. '^VLni\mv {Godwin- Austen). No. 3396 B.M. 

Shell oblong conoid ; sculpture irregular, rather close striation ; 
colour dull ochraceous brown ; spire elongately conic, sides flatly 
convex, apex blunt; suture shallow; whorls 6, rather flattpned ; 
aperture narrowly ov;il ; peristome outer lip slightly thickened; 
coluraellar margin short, slightly concave, terminating abruptly. 

Size: maj. diam. 6-0; alt. axis 13 mm. 

No. 1539 B.M. hebetata, n. sp., from the Burrail Range: larger 
than type, 16'5 x 7*5. 

No. 3340 B.M. hebef'ita, n. sp., from the Augaoluo Peak, Nagu 
Hills ; dark umber in colour. 

Glessijla carakensis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 12.) 

Localitif. Munipur, south of the Barak Yalley (Godwin- Austen). 
Type. No. 3355 = 3349. 

Shell elongately conoid, smooth to eye ; sculpture : fine, distant, 
regular, distinct strise ; colour dull ochraceous; spire high, sides 
flattened ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 7, sides very flatly 
convex, 100 : 58 ; aperture very narrowly ovate ; peristome outer 
Jip moderately thickened ; columellar margin very slightly concave. 

Size : maj. diam. 4-75 ; length 12-0 mm. 

This is a common species in Munipur. I have it from Nongmai- 
chirig Peak (No. 3354 B.M. Coll.), from the Lahupa Naga Hills on 
the north-east (No. 821 B.M.), and from the Naga Hills, exact 
places unknown, but somewhere on the line of the Burrail llange. 
These last (No. 3364 B.M.), are rather shorter, more tumid, and of 
an umber-brown colour — 10 x 4'75 mm. 

In the Beddome Collection (Ikitish Museum No. 753) were 
originally four specimens (now three) from the Naga Hills, no 
doubt received from Mr. Muspratt of the Assam Police — which 
Colonel Beddome had named crassida, Bs. : they agree with this 
species. G. crassula, Bs., does not extend to the Naga Hills — see 
what I say under that species. 

Glesspla barakensis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 17.) 

Locality. Burrail Range, Naga Hills (Godwin-Austen). No. 
3349. 

Shell ovately oblong, tumid ; sculpture regular, somewhat coarse 
striation, but not incised ; colour dull ochraceous : spire high, sides 
flatlv convex, apex very blunt and rounded ; suture very weU. 
impressed; whorls 6, decidedly convex; aperture rather widely 
oval : peristome outer lip well thickened ; columellar margin 
convex just above the truncation. 

Size : Type, maj. diam. 4*75 ; length 11-0 mm. 

Rather smaller than the type. 

There is one specimen from Tellizo Peak, Naga Hills (No. 3344 
B.M.), near the watershed of the Burrail Range. 

TART I. ^ 



50 LAXB AXD FRKSHWATKR 

Glesstjla KOHiMAENsia, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 24.) 

Locality. Kohima, Augharai Naga Hills, twelve examples 
{Godwin- Austen). Type. oJ^o. 3395 E.M. 

Shell ovately oblong, slender, smooth, shiny ; sculpture : sparse, 
distant strije ; colour dull ochraceous with green tinge; spire high, 
curving on columellar side particularly ; suture impressed; whorls 7, 
fairly convex ; a])erture rather narrow, vertically oval ; peristome 
outer lip thickened ; columella gradually curving, truncate below. 

Size : maj. diam. 3"75; alt. axis 9'75 mm. 



Glesstjla prowiensis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 13.) 

Locality. Prowie, Lahupa, Xaga Hills, N.E. Munipur, two speci- 
mens {Godwin- Austen). Type. No. 3565 E.M. 

Shell elongately ovate, rather solid, glassy ; sculpture : very 
slight striation, distant ; colour pale greenish ; spire high, sides 
flatly convex, apex very blunt and rounded ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 6, sides slightly convex ; aperture narrowly ovate, vertical ; 
peristome outer lip thickened ; columellar margin short, straight, 
not truncate. 

Size : maj. diam. 3"75 ; length 9-0 mm. 

I have six other specimens from the Burrail Kange (No. 1608 
B.M.). From North Khasi Hills I collected two examples of a 
shell very like this (No. 3551), more ovate in form, with stronger 
truncate columella 8 mm. long, and with an ochraceous tint — this 
is suhhastula. 

It is very variab in size. Specimens from the Lahupa 
Naga Hills (No. 3378 B.M.) (Sikhami), six in number, are only 
7 mm. in length ; of the same size are five from Tellizo Peak 
(No. 3345 B.M.). Was also found on Laisen Peak in Munipur. 

No. 768 12.4.16 B.M. of the Beddorae Collection is this species 
from the Naga Hills, five specimens no doubt collected by 
Mr. Muspratt. These were labelled by Colonel Beddome G. orohia ; 
jdaced in the box is a label in Mr. Gude's handwriting " 1 sit6- 
jerdoni" the four other specimens are prowiensis. See what I 
say under G. orohia. 

No. 3356 B.M. j^^'owiensis was collected south of the Barrail, 
Munipur. 

No. 3362 B.M. prowiensis was collected on Khunho Peak, 
Naga Hills. 

No. 3384 B.M.proit'ie»sis was collected at Kezamch, Naga Hills^ 

Glessula sniROBiENSis, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 22.) 

Localiiij. Sbiroifurar Trigonometrical Station, Lahupa Naga 
JliWs (Godwin- Austen). Type. No. 3571 B.M. 

Shell elongately conoid, rather solid ; sculpture regular, fairly 
strong striation ; colour ash-brown, paler on apex; spire elongate, 



MOLLTTSCA OF IXPTA. 51 

sifles nearly flat, a])ex very blunt; suture impressed; Avhorls 6.4, 
flatly convex ; aperture narrowly oval, vertical, milky-whito 
inside; peristome thickened; columellar margin nearly vertical. 

Size : Types maj. diam. 3-0 : length 8*0 mm. 

of larger bleached specimen, „ 8*25 ; „ 9'0 „ 

Glessula. LHOTiENSE, u. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 25.) 

Localiti/. Lhota ]N'aga. Small, elongate (Godwin-Austen). No. 
1590 BSi. 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture: distant irregular striatioii, 
with broad smooth intervals ; colour pale ochraceous ; spire high, 
apex blunt; suture well impressed; whorls 7|, sides flattened, 
j)roportion of length to body-whorl 100: 49; aperture narrowly 
elliptical; peristome thin; columellar margin perpendicular, nearly 
straight. 

Size : maj. diam. 3'8 ; alt. axis 10'25 mm. 

Glessula lahupaense, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 23.) 

Locality. Phunggam, Lahupa Xaga Hills {Godivin- Austen). 
Type. No. 3381 B.M. 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture regular, rather distant strige; 
colour pale umber-brown ; spire high, subulate, apex rounded, large, 
blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 6, sides somewhat flattened, 
proportion 100 : 46 ; aperture oval, well rounded below, vertical ; 
peristome outer lip thickened ; columellar margin nearly perpen- 
dicular, with very slight curvature. 

Size: maj. diam. 3"25 ; alt. axis 9'25 mm. 



7. Arakan and Cldttayon'j. 

Glessida forum, n. sp. PI. CLXI. fig. 15. 

rabani, n. sp. PI. CLX. fig. 21. 



Glessula eoetjm *, n. sp., is naja, G.-A., Blf. MS., not naja of 
Pilsbury from Assam, which is subhebes, G.-A. (Plate CLXI. 
fig. 15.) 

Locality. Hathagori, north of Chittagong. Ex Hy. Blf. Coll., 
six specimens (//, C. B. G. Rahan). No. 14.9.3.15. 

Shell elongate ; sculpture : surface smooth, rather weak distant 
striation ; colour ruddy ochraceous ; spire long, sides slightly 
convex, tapering gradually to apex, then sharply at the 3 apical 
whorls; suture shallow; whorls 10, very slightly convex, pro- 
portion of spire to last whorl 56*2: 100; aperture widely oval; 
columellar margin, with slight convexity. 

Size : maj. diam. 7-5 ; length 22*25 mm. 

* From the uame of the place il came from, which means the " market 
village."' 

E 2 



52 LAND AND FRESHWATER 

Approachps G. tennis/m-a, Bs., which has been recorded from 
Sylhet (j)robably the typical locality), from Pegu, Akouktoung, and 
farther south, Tliis is a species which would have been likely by 
some of the early collectors to be considered temiisj)i}-a, hut it does 
not agree either with Teria Ghat examples I have, nor with Gless. 
mastasi from Assam. 

Glessula eabani, n. sp. (Plate CLX. fig. 21.) 

Locality. Chittagong. Ex Coll. Henry F. Blanford {H. Rahan). 
No. 6.9.8.15. 

Shell ovately conical, turreted ; sculpture : coarse distant striation 
partly incised ; colour rich sienna-brown; spire conic, sides slightly 
convex, apex blunt ; suture impressed ; whorls 7, sides flatly 
convex ; aperture narrowly oval ; peristome thickened on outer 
lip : columellar margin short, convex, thickened, truncate. 

Size : maj. diam. 5*0 ; length 10*25 mm. 

This is very close to G. crassilahris, but the spire is not so high, 
the aperture is narrower, and the coloration different from any 
specimens I have seen from the Khasi Hill Ranges. I name it 
after Mr. H. C. B. C. Raban, of the Indian Civil Service, who 
collected assiduously in the districts in which he served. 



8. Burmese. 

Glessula pertemns, W. Blf. Tl. CLXI. figs. 1, 2. 

... (PL CLXI. ilg. 3 

bassemensis, n. sp. | ^^ CLXIV.Iig. 10. 

nathiana, n. sp. 

akouJdoungensis, n. sp. 

blanfordiana, Nevill. PI. CLXIA^ fig. 21. 

peguensis, W. Elf. PI. CLXII. figs. 2U, 21. 

pousiensis, n. sp. PI. CLXIV. figs. 19, 20. 

8 a. Tenasserim. 
Glessula limhorgi, n. sp. PI. CLXI. fig. 5. 

Glessula pertenitis, W. Blf. (Plate CLXIV. fig. 11, apex; 
Plate CLXI. figs. 1, 2.) 

Locality. Tongoop, Arakan ; and Henzada. Ko. 289.06.2.2. 
{W. T. Blanford). 

Oriyinal description: — -'■'■ A. pcrlnmis, n. sp. Shell very slendei', 
turreted, thin, light horny, polislied, closely, minutelj', and rather 
irregularly striated. Spire subulate, somewhat acunjinate towards 
the blunt ajjex ; suture imjjressed, subcrenulate. A\ horls 11-12, 
convex, the last about 1/5 the length of the spire. Aperture 
oblique, ovately pyriform, peristome thin margins united by a thin 
callus, columella moderately curved, obliquely truncated. 



MOLLUSCA OP INDIA. 53 

millim, inch. 

" Length 20 0-8. 

Diameter 4i O'lS. 

Leugth of aperture 4 0"i6. 

" Habitat. Toiigoop, Arakan. 

" Var. major, leugth 2()| mm. ; diameter 6 ; length of aperture 6, 
Of another specimen; length 23 mm.; diameter 5| ; length of 
aperture 5|. 

"■ Ilabitat. Pyema Khj'oung, Bassein District, Pegu. 

" A much more slender species than A, tenuispira, Bens, (a 
variety of which also abounds in parts of Pegu), though there are 
signs of a passage. The present appears to replace A. tenuispira 
in Arakan and Bassein. Mr. Benson, to whom I sent a specimen, 
observes that it is intermediate between A. tenuisjiiya and 
A. Tiastida, Bens." 

No. 239.06.2.2 of the Blanford collection is represented by seven 
examples of this species, with this pencil note by Blanford, " very 
like temdspira," from two localities, Tongoop, in Arakan, and 
Henzada on the Irrawady, the respective locality was not indi- 
cated ; but they are all alike, two are of the same length as given 
in the description — viz., 20 mm., white. The largest specimen now 
figured is 22-25 x 5 mm. 

Portunately I have from Henry Blanford's Collection (No, 
20.9.3.15) two specimens from Henzada, one of which I figure ; it is 
22-0 mm. long X 5 in major diameter, which settles the matter of 
habitat. They no doubt were given him by his brother. 

Under G.periemds, var. major, William Blanford gives the dimen- 
sions of a larger form from the Bassein District, which is farther to 
the south. Three examples from thislocality are in the Henry Blan- 
ford collection ; they do not agree with, jjertenuis, the general shape 
is different, the apex particularly being much blunter. It cannot be 
therefore considered a variety — I name and figure it as G. bafsein- 
ensis (Plate CLXIV. fig. 10 for apex). 

In Col. Beddome's Collection (No. 682) is a single large speci- 
men, 26-75 in length x 7 mm., from Thyetmyo, named by him 
G. haculina ; it agrees best with G. nathiana ; it has much tlie 
general form of pertenuis, but is larger, is ash-coloured, with 
rough strong striation. A hasty examination recalls so-called 
tenuispira of Darjiling, but a closer shows quite a different increase 
of the whorls, and that they are by no means so flat. It is also 
milky white within the aperture, quite a distinguishing character, 
which I note is to be seen also in the typical specimen of G. per- 
tenuis from Henzada. Nevill records pertenuis from Akouktoung 
and Thyetmyo. This large form must be the variety of tenuispira 
referred to by \Vm. Blanford as abounding in parts of Pegu, and in his 
''Contributions to Indian Malacology," 1865, J. A. S. B. vol. xxxiv. 
p. 95, he says: '■'■ Achat ina tenuispira, B., of small size, is common 
at Akouktoung and farther south." 

On the same glass slip in the Blanford Collection (No. 
238.06.2.2) were gummed five specimens, labelled G. tenuispira, 



54 LAXl) AXl) KKKSHWATKR 

Pegu and Darjiling ; four were certainly from the latter place, but 
one was quite a different species and smaller, and may have come 
from Pegu. 

Nevill gives the Garo Hills on two specimens from my collection ; 
this cannot be an accurate determination, as 1 have nothing like 
it. The ten specimens from Assam are something else. 

llecently (July 1917) further material has come to hand: when 
going thnnigh Wm. Blantord's collection of duplicate shells, I came 
on tour pill-boxes containing Glessula from Pegu, with true locality 
and named as follows : — 

No. 1 contained Achatina lenui^pira from Bassein District, 14 
examples; No. 2 from Akouktoung, 18 examples; No. 3 Achatma 
pertenuis fromTongoop, which is on the Arakan Yoma, 3 examples ; 
No. 4 " intermediate between tfnuispirasLDd pertenuis" from Pyema 
Khyoung, Eassein District, 20 examples. These clear up doubts 
on distribution and show so well what Blanford's views were at 
the time he was describing Pegu (jlessulas. No. 4 is G. hasseinensis, 
described further on. No. 2 differs from this in many respects, 
duo, no doubt, to its habitat on the Limestone rocks, which the 
name implies, "Akouk" being lime and "toung" a hill in 
Burmese ; I remember the place well. I adopt it as the specific 
name. No 1 is a well-defined species differing from the preceding, 
which I name G. ndtkiana. from the Burmese name " nath '*' for 
spirits or fairies of woods and hills. 

Glesstjla BAssKixEXsis, u. sp. (Plate CLXIV. fig. 12, apex ; 
Plate CLXr. fig. S.) 

LocaUtij. Bassein, Pegu, three specimens. Pyema Khyoung, 
Bassein, six specimens (IT. T. Blanj^rd). Type. No. 19.9.3.15 

B.M. 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture close, fine, regular, rather 
coarse; colour ochraceous ; spire elongate, sides nearly straight, 
verv slightly acuminate near the blunt apex, 100: 33*7; suture 
moderately impressed ; whorls 11, sides very flatly convex ; aper- 
ture narrowly ovate; columellar margin curved slightly. 

Size: major diam. (r25 ; alt. axis 25-0 mm. 

This is the var. mnjor oi j^ertemds Blanford alluded to above ; it 
is not so attenuate in general form, the apex is much stronger 
and blunter, fewer whorls, white, longer, and the sculpture 
coarser; a comparison of figure (No. 3) with those of true temti- 
spira from Teria Ghat and hustula shows, better than any 
description, how much it ditfors. 

Glessttla (Rishettta) natuiana, n. sp. 

Locality. Bassein Distiict (IF. T. BJanfovJ). Type. No. 
2206 06.l'.l B.M. 

Shell elongately turreted; sculpture regular, fine, raised, close 

strite (hroughoulj colour strong, ochraceous ; spire elongate, sides 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 55 

nearly flat, apex vei}^ blunt; suture well impressed; whorls 11, 
sides flatly couvex ; aperture broadly ovate ; coluinellar margin 
very convex. 

Size : maj. diam. 7"0 ; length 22-75 mm. 

This species was found among Blanford's duplicate shells, the 
box marked with above locality and with the note " intermediate 
between te an isjjira and jjertenuis" ; it differs quite sufficiently from 
both and from basseinenais to be distinguished. From the last, it is 
far longer at the body-whorl, which is very swollen, its sides more 
convex, and the apex is much larger. 



GlESSIJLA AKOFKTOUjrGENSIS, n. Sp. 

Locality. Akouktoung on Irawady, Pegu (Tf. T. Blanford). 
Type. No. 2207.06.1.1 B.il. 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture scarcely any, just a trace 
near apex below the suture; colour umber-brown; spire long, sides 
flat, apex blunt; suture impressed ; whorls 10, sides flatly convex ; 
aperture ovate. 

Size : maj. diam. 5*75 ; length 20-5 mm. 

This species occurred among the duplicates in the Blanford 
Collection. Compared with G. basseinensis, it ditf'ers in sculpture, 
in colour, and the last whorl is more tumid in proportion to the 
length. 



Glesstjla peguensis, W. Blf. (Plate CLXII. figs. 20, 21.) 

Locality. Pegu. No. 8.9.3.15 {Hij. Blanford). 

Original description : — " A. I'xgtunsis, n. sp. Shell oblong ovate, 
rather solid, dark reddish brown, horny, marked with distinct and 
regular impressed lines. Spire convexly conic-al ; apex obtuse ; 
suture impressed, subcrenulate. AVhorls 6^, slightly convex ; the 
last ascending a little towards the mouth, and exceeding ^ of the 
shell in length ; aperture vertical, truncately semicircular ; peri- 
stome obtuse, slightly thickened; margins joined by a callus; 
columella very much curved, projecting forwards at the base, sub- 
vertically truncated within the peristome. 

luillim. inch. 

" Length 7 0*28. 

Diameter 3i 0-14. 

Length of aperture 2^^ 0*1 1, 

" Ilahitat. Irawady Valley, Pegu: common. 
" A pretty little species, darker in colour than any of its allies, 
except perhaps A. gemma, Bens., and easilj^ distinguished from all, 
by the columella being more arcuate, also by its more acuminate 
spire and blunter apex, and its much stronger sculpture." 

I give two figures of this shell, from authentic specimens in 
Hv. Blanford's Collection, as there is some variation in form. 



56 LAND AND FRESUWATER 

In the Blaiiford Collection (No. 262.06.2.2) are three specimens 
from Arakan, near Tongoop, much larger than the type described, 
bein<; 10x4 8 mm., but they do not difi'er iu any other respect, 
and may be considered a larye variety. 

Glesstjla ponsikn(<is, n. sp. (Plate C'LXIV. fig. 19, apex.) 

Local it I/. Ponsee, Yunnan. Coll. Indian Museum [Dr. John 
AndtH'sun). 

Shell oblong turreted, solid, smooth to eye; apex very rounded 
with flattened sides ; sculpture : none discernible ou the two apical 
whorls, slight striaj on 3rd regularly, distantly, and finely costulate 
on the 4th; colour pale ochraceous ; spire tapering, apex blunt, 
sides ver}- slightly convex ; suture shallow ; whorls 9, sides flatly 
convex ; aperture ovate, vertical ; peristome somewhat thickened ; 
columellar margin strong, concave. 

Size : maj. diam. 7*75 ; alt. axis 20*0 mm. 

This is Slenoyyni {Glessula) pijramis, Bs., var. major, of Nevill, 
' Hand-list,' i, p. 169, reierred to under G. pyra^nis by me. I am 
fortunate in getting the type-shells for examination. I always 
doubted the extension of G.jn/ramis so far to the eastward, when it 
had never occurred in the Naga Hills or Munipur, or even Eastern 
Assam. 

Glessula hlanfordiana, l:^evi\l: Vonsee (Dr. J. Anderson). lam 
able to state that this is No. 85 of Nevill's ' Hand-list,' p. 171, as 
entered in Geoffrey Nevill's amended copy in his own handwriting ; 
that he did not at that time consider it had any close relationshii) 
to G. 2^^y^<'^nsis, is shown by the two lines crossed out, and 
" 6, Loo ? coll. \V. Theobald," Ehamao, is entered as the habitat. 

The type from Ponsee, Yunnan (Plate CLXIV. fig. 20, apex), 
has been sent me from Calcutta by the Director of the Zoological 
Survey of India, Dr. N. Ann an dale, with one other example. 
This type is, I should say, abnormally thickened, particularly on the 
columella and tip of the peristome. Nevill's descri])tion is excellent . 

I closely compared these with the specimens also collected by 
Dr. John Anderson at Bhamao (Plate CLXIV. fig. 21, apex), six in 
number, and made drawings of their respective species, which show 
considerable variation not amounting to specific difference. 

The sculpture of the Ponsee shell is distinctly costulate, wdnle 
it is very finely so in those from Bhamao (Plate CLXIV. fig. 21, 
apex), and this extends to the whole apex, as in the type (fig. 20). 

As Glessula 'peyuensis has been referred to as an allied species, I 
compared and figured the apex, which is of very different form 
and sculpture (Plate CLXIV. fig. 22, apex) — the s])ecimen selected 
being one in the Wm. Blanford Collection from Tongoop, Arakan. 

Glessula limborgi, n. sp. (Plate CLXI. fig. 5.) 

Locality. Tenasserim (Ossian. Limhory). 

Shell elongately turreted, with shining surface ; sculpture : very 



MOLLUSCA OF IXDIA. O/ 

regular striation, less apparent on the last whorl; colour rich 
umber with a green tinge; spire elongate, sides nearly flat; apex 
somewhat attenuated, blunt ; suture shallow ; whorls 11 , increasing 
very gradually in size, sides flattened, the last with a sign of a keel 
above the aperture ; aperture rather narrow, ovate, straight ou 
inner margin ; outer lij) flatly convex ; columellar margin sharply 
convex, then straight not solid, feeble truncation. 

Size : maj. diam. G'5 ; alt. axis 26 mm. 

This single specimen was among the shells collected by Mr. O. 
Limborg in 1877, and I name it after him ; it has remained un- 
described ever since. The species is of delicate form, and quite 
distinct from any Glessula 1 have from Pegu. 

Mr. Ossian Limborg was a particularly fine strong young man, 
son of a Swedish minister, and a keen naturalist. He arrived in 
Calcutta in the winter of 1876, and called on me one morning at 
the Museum anxious to collect and exjdore anywhere. I took him 
up, and together with Lord Tweeddale, Dr. John Anderson, 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum, and Mr. Wood Mason, we 
fitted him out with all that was necessary and sent him to 
lyfoulmein to collect in Tenasserim, from whence he returned in 
May 1877, with an interesting lot of Birds, Mollusca, and Insects, 
which he was instructed to pav particular attention to. Very much 
material was obtained on the Peak of Mooleyit and its vicinity; of 
the mollusca he brought back were some very interesting and 
valuable species preserved in spirits. I am sorry to say he suft'ered 
much from malarial fever and had to return to Europe, otherwise 
he was to have been employed in some other parts of IJurma. 



7 a. SJuin Stiifes and Siara Frontier. 

Glesfula 'kentuiigcnsis, u. sp. 

loundthorpi, u. sp. PI. CLXII. fig. 19. 

ptianqenais, n. sp. PI. CLXII. fig. 18. 

fedd'eni. n. sp. PL CLXI.. fig. 15. 

feddeni, var. Pi. CLXII. fig. 14. 

iiifdifKs, n. sp. 
pcrlevis, n. sp. 

GlESSTTLA KEXrUNGENSIS, U. Sp. 

Localihi. Mong Sing, Siara Boundary (Li. -Col. E. WoodiJiorpe, 
Jl./iJ.). Type. No. ;5650 B.M. 

Shell elongately turreted ; sculpture: smooth, with irregular 
subdued ribbing, showing stronger and curvilinear below the 
suture, apex quite smooth, faint sculpture on 2nd and 3rd whorls ; 
colour dull ochraccous ; spire elongate, flat-sided, apex very blunt, 



58 L\ND AND FllESUWATER 

largp ; suture well impressed ; whorls 9, sides nearly flat ; aperture 
small, ovate ; columellar margin very convex. 

Size : maj. diam. 8*0; length 30*25 mm. 

This species was also found on the Mekong River, paler in 
colour, with an ashy tint. No. 3748 B.M. 

Glerstjla woodthorpei, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 19.) 

Localit)/. Shan States. Nine specimens {Lt.-Col. R.Woodthorpe). 
Type. No. 1628 B.M. 

Shell oblong conoid, shiny, very smooth; sculpture: distant, 
rather coarse indistinct irregular strije ; colour olivaceous ; spire 
elongately conic, apex blunt; suture well impressed; whoils 7, 
gradually increasing, body-whorl to length lOU : 55"6 ; aperture 
ovate, vertical ; peristome outer tip thickened ; columellar margin 
slightly concave, short, strong, truncate. 

Size: maj. diam. 5-75; length 13'5 ram. 

This shell has a likeness to G. crassildhris, but the aperture is 
smaller in proportion to the length ; it is n'ot so pointed in the spire, 
and the sculpture is different. 

A specimen (bleached) No. 3655, is from the Siam N.W. 
boundary. 

Glessttla fedbeni, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 15.) 

Locality. ^\iz.nW\\\s {Wm.Blanfordcoll.). Type. No.261.06.2.2. 

Shell elongately conoid, tumid, very glassy; sculpture: rather 
distant striation, closer and stronger on the apical whorls ; colour 
rich ochre ; spire conic, flatly convex, apex blunt ; suture impressed ; 
whorls 7, sides convex, the last very ample ; aperture oval ; 
peristome outer lip thickened; columellar margin short, with 
considerable convexity. 

Size: maj. diam. 6-75; alt. axis 13-2 mm. 
„ 6-0 ; „ „ 14-75 mm. 

This is the sliell Blanford refers to as perhaps distinct from 
crass il'ihris, Bens., J. A. S. B. 1865, p. 95 ; it much resembles that 
species, but placed side by side the points of variation are readily 
seen. Another single specimen (No. 41.06.3 3.) occurs in the 
Blanford collection, much more slender in form, but with similar 
sculpture, which 1 consider a variety (Plate CLXilL fig. 14). 

Glassula ineditcs, n. sp. 

Localit)/. Shan Hills. Three specimens not named ( TF. T. Blan- 
ford collection). Type. No. 88.06.5.5. 

Shell oblong turreted ; sculpture : transverse close regular raised 
striation, embryonic whorls smooth; colour: the type and best 
preserved rich ochraceous on last whorl ; spire elongate, sides flat ; 
suture impressed ; whorls 7, regularly increasing, slightly convex ; 
aperture ovate, small; peristome outer margin thickened; 
columellar margin short, terminating abruptly. 

Size: maj. diam. 4*5; alt. axis 95 mm. 



MOLLUSC A OF INDIA. 59 

This species was found quite recently (July 1919) in a pill-box 
labelled " 81ian Hills," toj^-ether with anotlier very distinct species 
and a Biihi/nia, 3\i\y 1919. It thus remained unsorled and un- 
noticed for so many years, until my attention was called to the 
Mollusea of the Salween Valley. 

Glesstjla peklevis, n. sp. 

Locality. Shan Hills, five specimens (2 mature) (IF. T. Blaii- 
ford Golledioti). Type. No. 89.06.5.6. 

Shell ovately oblong; sculpture: smooth on last whorl, only a 
trace of transverse striation on other whorls, and distant, high- 
power, close, spiral striation; colour dull umber-brown; spire 
short, sides flatly convex, apex rounded, very blunt; suture 
impressed ; whorls 6,tiatly convex, last the largest; aperture ovate 
or semicircular, outer margin evenly convex, vertical ; peristome 
outer lip thickened; columellar margin short, strong, concave. 

Size: maj. diam. 4'75 ; alt. axis 9'5 mm. 

This species recalls G. jjegunisis in its shape and blunt apex, 
but its colour and great smoothness distinguishes it at once. It 
probably comes from the Shan States near Mandalay and was 
collected by Fedden. 

Glesstjla yuangensis, n. sp. (Plate CLXII. fig. 18.) 

Locality. Yuang Ha, Siam boundary, only one specimen {Tj.- 
Col. li. Woodtliorpe). 

Shell oblong turreted or conoid ; sculpture : strong regular 
distant striae, approaching costulation ; colour ochraceous ; spire 
elongately conic, apex very blunt and rounded ; siituro impressed ; 
whorls 7, sides flatly convex, 100 : 47; aperture narrowly ovate; 
peristome outer lip thickened ; columellar margin very slightly 
convex, strongly truncate. 

Size : maj. diam. 6 ; alt. axis 12-8 ram. 

I was atyirst inclined to consider this a variety of woodfJiorpel, 
but it differs in many respects, in the proportion of the body- whorl 
to the height, the strong sculpture as compared with the smoothness 
and the difference in the aperture. A single bleached shell 
from the Iventung State (No. 1156 B.M.) is near this. 

Glesstjla latestriata, Mollendorff. 
Locality. Shan States. 
This I have never seen. 



60 LAND AND FKESUWATKK 



Glessula (Rishetia) sundekt, n. sp. 

Localitij. Aniiii Gaoii, Gowliathi, Assam. Only one example 
(Sunder Lall flora). Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Shell very elongately turreted ; sculpture : smooth to eye, rather 
distant striation in low relief, the tirst two embryonic wliorls 
smooth ; colour pale umber-brown ; spire long, very regularly 
tapering, apex fine; suture well impressed; whorls 14, sides flatly 
convex, proportion of last whorl to length, 100 : 32'5 ; aperture 
narrowly ovate ; peristome simple, thin ; columellar margin 
concave, shar])ly truncate. 

Size: maj. diam. Q-o ; alt. axis 41*5 mm. 

This is a beautiful and new species, the single specimen is in 
most perfect state. Its nearest ally is G. haciilina, Hy. Bhindford, 
of Darjiling, compared with whicli it differs in its greater length 
and number of whorls, 14 to 13, and general tumidity, more 
convex whorls, with suture more impressed, sculpture not so full, 
side of spire not so straight and flat, last whorl larger and more 
swollen. 

Compared with G. subacidina, G.-A., of the Kliasi Hills and 
South Jaintia, another near ally, it differs considerably as follows : 
It is much longer, 14 whorls to 12, length 41 to 34-75 mm.; more 
alternate with finer apex ; tapering very regularlj', side of spire 
quite straight : sculpture far less ])ronounced ; columellar margin 
shorter and with more convexity. Considerable interest is attached 
to the finding of this Glcssuhx at Amiii Gaon, 4(l0 yards from the 
Ilailway Station, where Sunder Lall of the Indian iluseum, 
returning from Munipur, was detained for six hours ; he made the 
best of the opportunity, obtaining at the same time six specimens 
of another Glessula, a variety of sarissa. 

Regarding the range of G'. hacaliua, it is of interest; 400 miles 
cast of Darjiling, at the base of the Dafla Hills, 450 feet, I found 
that G. harinutliensis took its place; the apex is more obtuse and 
tlie sculpture is very dift'erent from that of Hy. Elan ford's 
species. It comes from a low elevation compared with Darjiling ; 
Harmutti is' some 150 miles east from Gowliathi ; 50 raiks north 
of that place, near Dewangiri, at the base of the Bhutan Hills, 
the Datia species, or one very close to it, in all ])robability is 
to be found, indicative of the area and side from which G. sanderi 
was derived. The intrusive granite at Gowliathi extends thence 
for some distance north, exposed and rising at intervals above 
the deep alluvial of the Bramaputra, which evidently covers 
much more, pointing to a once close connection of low hill)' 
countr}^ by which land-mollusca could travel far out into the 
plain of Assam. Such former connection with the Assam Range 
or the Khasi and Garo Hills is more pronounced between Gowhathi 
and Dubri, trending towards the great mass of granite of Gipmochi 
Peak into the Western Bhutan Hills (see also page 11). 



MOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 61 

I have not hitherto aeea any elongate Glessula (llishetia) of the 
baculina type i'rom so low aii elevation as Gowhathi (only about 
3uU feet) and so tar from the base of the eastern Himalaya, all have 
come from quite high habitats of 3-50U0 feet. This is not sur2)rising 
when we consider that from Gowhathi westward up to the Garo 
Hills, an area of 135 miles by '62, or over 41u0 sq miles, no land- 
nioUiisca have been collected, until the high ground in the Khasi 
Hills is reached, where G. subhaculina is abundant. Eastward it 
is the same up to the Mikir Hills, a tract mostly of hill-country, 
(j-l miles long by '62 broad or some 2000 sq. miles. North of the 
lirahraaputra, for the distance of 190 miles, another GOOO sq. 
mihs, no collecting has been made. I trust Sunder Lall will 
before long be given the opportunity of collecting all along the lino 
of the Assam railway and visit places contiguous to it, particularly 
the isolated low granite hills north of the Brahmaputra River. 

Glessula bureailensis, G.-A., var. maxwelli, G.-A. 

Localiti/. Somra Tracts, Somra Khulen Post, Upper Burma, 
S.-1-.19. About L. 25° 20' N., L. 90° 45' E. No. 3742 B.M. 

Shell elongate cylindro-conoid, turreted, solid, rather shining ; 
sculpture : on the protoconch ribbing, approaching line costulation, 
merges into liner, more irregular, and curvilinear on the succeeding 
whorls ; just below the suture this sculpture is stronger, giving the 
a[)pearance of crenulation ; colour a rich ochre, some are chestnut; 
s[)ire long, gradually increasing, sides with slight convexity, apex 
blunt; suture moderately impressed; whorls lOj, flatly convex, 
the last the largest ; aperture oval, rather narrow for size, milky 
white within; .peristome outer margin well thickened, white; 
columella strong, concave, truncate. 

Size: maj. diam. 10-0 ; alt. axis 32*75 mm. 

The longest and | f. ^^ „., _ 

most attenuate I " " ^ ^5 ; „ „ 33-5 mm. 

This very interesting shell was collected by Captain L. 11. Maw- 
son, 1st Lushai Hills Battalion, Assam Rifles, and is a more 
attenuate form of G. hurraUenus from the Naga Hills, this easterly 
locality extending the range to the hill-slopes of the Ivyengdwen 
Valley. 



62 



LAND AND FRKSHWATEE 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLIX. 



Fig. 1. Glessi 

2_ 

3. — 

4. — 

5. — 

6. — 

7. — 

8. — 

9. — 
10. — 
H. — 

12. — 

13. — 

14. — 

15. — 



la {liishetia) loiujispira, n. sp. 

— ) , 11- sp. 

— ) ienuisp/ra, Bs. 

— ) subaadina, n. sp. 

— ) hartiiutliensis, n. sp. 

— ) rii^somensls, n. sp. 

— ) bucuUna, H. Bit. (Type). 

) canaraense, n. sp. ? 

— — ) subacuiina, n. sp. 

) muuipurense, n. sp. 

) garoense, n. sp., siuall var. 

) strameiicolar, n. sp. 

) bacnlina,!!. Blf., Tar.,«.?v7i,s 

) , „ ^,. (Type). 

) yaroeusc, n. sp. (Type). 



Eisliettclm, Sikliim. X I'^f). 

Kaslicliii, Sikbiiii. X l"oO. 

Teria Gliat, Kliasi. X „ 

Kbasi Hills. X „ 

Dada Hills. X „ 

Dam.-iaiig, Sikliim. X „ 

Darjiling. X lo. 

N. Canara. X I'lb. 

North Khasi. X I'oO. 

Muiiipur. X ,, 

Naraiiidlmr, Cachar. X „ 

Naga Hills. X ,, 

Damsang, Sildiim. X ,, 

Kissoiu i'eak, Sikliim. X ,, 

Garo Hills. X „ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLX. 



Fi-r. 1. 



3. 
4. 
b. 
6. 
7. 
7 a. 
S. 
0. 
10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
If). 
IG. 
17. 
18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23! 

24. 



Glessula (Risheda) biirrailensis, G.-A. 

(-I'ype)- 

( ) maxwelli, n. sp. ( 1 st Type). 

( ) . (,2.id Type). 

( ) dikranyense, n. sp. 

ochracea, n. sp. 

hutleri, G.-A. 

maiamensis, 11. sp. (Type). 

, n. sp. (Type). 

illusiris, G.-A. (Tyjie). 

, var. tiimida, G.-A. 

crussilabris, Bs. 

oakesi, n. sp. 

crassilabris, Bs. (Typical). 



rccbani, n. sp. 

(Jadukamia) abnorviis, u. sp. 



KLiunhoPk.,Naganills 


. X 1-25 


J. ,, 


X „ 


Japvo Pk., ,, 


X „ 


KopamedzaPk., ,, 


X „ 


Naga Hills. 


X „ 


,, 


X ., 


Dafla Hills. 


X i-.:-o. 


^j 


X „ 


Sikbira. 


X „ 


Naga Hills. 


X ,, 


Patkai iiange. 


X „ 


Siugpho Hills. 


X „ 


Hengdan Peak, Naga. 


X „ 


Jaiiitia. 


X „ 


N. Kbasi. 


X 2. 


Abor Hills. 


X loO. 


Bramakund, E. Assam 


X „ 


Teria Gbat, Kbasi. 


X 2. 


Jaintia Hills. 


X ,, 


Sbeugurk Peak, 


X „ 


Dada Hills. 




Garo Hills. 


X „ 


Obitlagong. 


X ,, 


Kbasi Hills. 


X 3. 


Dafla Hills. 


X „ 


Teria Gbat, Kbasi. 


X 1-50. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXI. 

Fig. 1. Glessula (Risketia) pertenuis, W. Blf. Pegu. X 1"5. 

2. ( ) , Heiizada, Pegu. X „ 

3. ( ) basf^einensis, n. sp. Basscin, „ X „ 

4. ( );^eri;c?<«//s,W. Blt'.,largeTar. Tliyetniyo. X „ 

5. ( ) Imboryi, 11. sp. Tenasserim. X ,, 

(i. ( ) subhebes, n. sp. (Type). Dafla Hills. X 2. 

7. ( ) . Naga. X 1"5. 

j^. ( ) . Assam. X „ 

•J. ( ) . Koliliugur, X ,, 

near Tezpur, Assam. 



IIOLLUSCA OF INDIA. 



63 



Pig. 10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
l(i 



19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23! 
24. 



Glessula {Bishei/a) sar/ssa, Bs. 
( ) nevilUana, a. sp. 

( ) masiersi, n. sp. 

( ) forum, n. sp. 

{ ) hasttila, Bs. 

17. ( ) (Typical). 

1<S. ( ) suhhasiuia, n. sp. (Type). 

( ) , var. (Type;. 

■ ( ) shiroieiisis, 11. sp. 

■ ( ), n. sp. 

( ) lahupaensis, n. sp. 

( ) kohiniacnsis, u. sp. 

( ) Ihotueusis, n. sp. 

I gemma, Bo. 

(su'o-genus?) J ,, 



2(i. 

27. 
28. 
29. 



Lower Bengal. 


X 2. 


Dafla Hills. 


X „ 


,, „ 


X „ 


>i f) 


X 2-5. 


» j> 


X 2. 


Cbittagong. 


X lo. 


Darjiling. 


X 2. 


,, 


X ,, 


North Khasi. 


X ,, 


•' !1 


X „ 


Muuipur. 


X „ 


„ 


X „ 


,, 


X „ 


,, 


X „ 


Naga Hills. 


X „ 


Lhota, Nuga Hills. 


X „ 


Khoostia, Bengal. 


X „ 


Bt-ngal (authentic). 


X ,, 


Oliandauagur. 


X „ 


Chitlagoug. 


X „ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXII. 



'ig. 1. 


Glessula [Bishetia) masiersi,n. s 


'P-CType; 


). Assam. 


X 1-50. 


2. 


( )subhebes, G.-A . ( var 


.tumida) 


1. Golaghat, Naga. 


X „ 


3. 


( ) . 


,, 


Naga. 


X .., 


4. 


( ) aborensis, G.-A. 




Abur Hills. 


X „ 


5. 


orohia, Bs. 




Darjiling. 


X 2. 


6. 


(Type). 




,, 


X „ 


7. 


(var. major). 




Eichila Pk., Sikhim. 


X 1-5. 


8. 


■ solida, n. sp. 




North Khasi. 


X 2. 


9. 


crassula, Bs., var. 




Sikhim. 


X ,, 


lu. 


oylei, n. sp. 




Naga HiUs. 


X 1-50. 


11. 


— . 




j> )> 


X „ 


12. 


barakeiisis, n. sji. 




Muuipur (Type). 


X „ 


13. 


• prowiensis, n. sp. 




,, ,, 


X 1-50. 


14. 


feddeni, n. sp., var. 




Shan States. 


X 1-50 


15. 


) )i 




M 


X „ 


16. 


hanleyi, n. sp. 




North Khasi. 


X 2. 


17. 


harakensis, u. sp. 




Naga. 


X „ 


18. 


yua-ngensis, n. sp. 




Shan States. 


X 1-5. 


19. 


woodthorpei, n. sp. 




,, „ 


X „ 


20. 
21. 
22. 


■ peguensis, W. Blf. 




Thyetmyo, Pegu. 


X 2. 
X ,, 
X 2. 


crassilahris, Bs. (var. nana). 


North Khasi.. 


23.' 


rarkiensis, n. sp. 




Sikhim. 


X 1-5. 


24. 


imphalensis, n. sp. 




Muuipur. 


X „ 


25. 


crassula. Eve. (Type). 




Darjiling. 


X 2. 


26. 


hebitata, n. sp. 




Munipur. 


X lo. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXIII. 
(Enlargements of original Drawings.) 

Fig. 1. Glessula hoteUus, Bs. Nilghiris. 

2. oakesi, G.-A. (Type). Abor Hills. 

3. botellus, Bs., of i'reston. ,, ,, 

4. prowiensis, i\.sp.(orobia, Beddome).Naga Hills. 

5. siibjerdouiBedd. {var. minor, sub- Jeypur. 

jerdo/u ofNevill). 

6. . Tinnevelly Hills. 

7. . Golcduda. 



X 12-5. 

X „ 

X „ 

X „ 

X ,. 

X ,, 

X ,, 



64 



LAND AXD FKESnWATrR 



Fig. 8. Glessula orohia, Bs. 

9. {Bishstia) hashtia, Bs. 

9 a. ( ) (apex more enlarged). 

It). ( ) roherti, n. sp. 

] 1. ( ) subhagtida, n. sp. 

12. ( ) (var.). 

12a. ( ) . 

13. ( ) suhhastula, var. 

13a. ( ) . 

14. guhka^tuta, n. sp. 

1.-,. -(Type). 

]f>. (Risfietia) sarissa, Bs. (var.). 

17. ( ) (var.). 

18. ( ) (Typical). 

19. . ( ) (var.). 

20. ( -) maifersi, n. sp. (Type). 

21. ( ) (var.). 



Darjiling. 



Ricliila, Sikhiin. 
IS'orth Khasi. 
IS'orth Cacliar. 

Munipur. 

CherraPoonjee, Kliasi 
North Khasi. 
Burroi Gorge, Dafla. 
Gowhatlii. 
Jessore. 
Koliaghur, Tezpur, 

Assam. 
Golaghat, Assam. 
Aiigaolno Pk., Naga. 
Golaghat, Assam. 



X 12-0. 

X „ 

X 24. 

X ,, 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
X 
X 



12-5. 

24. 

12-5. 

24. 

24. 
12-.5. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXIV. 

(Original drawings all xl25 and reduced \.) 



Fig. 1. 


Glessula suhhehes (Type). 


Dafla Hills. 




2. 




Abor Hills. 




3] 


austeniana, Nevill (Type). 


Dafla. 




4. 


(Biahetia) dihingcims, n. s-p. 


Sonari Tea Garden, 


Assam 


5. 


( ) garoense, n. sp. (Type). 


Garo Hills. 




6. 


( ) (small var,). 


Caehar. 




7. 


( ) macera, W. Blf. MS. 

(Type). 


Assam. 




8. 


iminipurcnsis (Type). 


Munipur. 




9. 


prowiensis. 


Naga Hills. 




10. 


(Bishetia) pcrtemds (large var.). 


Thyetmyo, Pegu. 




11. 


( ) • 


Pegu. 




12. 


( ) bassei/iensis, n. sp. 


Bassein, Pegu. 




13. 


crassula (large var.). 


Darjiling. 




14. 


(Typical). 


„ 




15. 


(var. with incised lines). 


Rarhichu, Sikliim. 




16. 


crassilahris, Bs. 


Teria Ghat, Khasi. 




17. 




Dafla Hills. 




18. 


(small var.). 


Naga Hills. 




19. 


jjonsiensis, n. sp. pj/ramis (var. 








major). Nevill. 


Ponsee, Yunnan. 




20. 


hlanfordiana (Type), X 1 2. 


1) !) 




21. 


,X12. 


Bauiao, Burma. 




22. 


pegucnsis, W. Blf. 


Arakan. 




23. 


pyramis, Bs. 


Teria Ghat. 





EXPLANATION OF PLATE CLXV. 

Glessula (Risheiia) longispira, n. sp. Risetchu, Sikliim. 

Fig. 1. Aperture, with foot jjrotruding, X 8. 

[rdl-ldl, right and left dorsal lobes, cp, fleshy cnlumellar pillar 
ujjon and around which the coluniellar margin is built. 
5, peristome] 

1 a. Generative organs, X 4-5. 

1 /}. Penis of 2nd specimen examined. 

1 c. The visceral sac, showing coils, back and front views. 



MOLLTJSCA OF INDIA. 65 

Glessula ochracca, G.-A. Sikliim. 

2 A. Aperture with foot protruding, showing sole of foot, X 4. 
2 E. Buccal mass, with intestine and salivary glands, X 8. 

2 C. Genitalia nearly complete, X 4'5. 

Glessula oakesi, G.-A. Abor Hills. 

3 A. Side of foot, X 6. 

•3B. Albumen gland, berniaphrodite duct, and oviduct to vas deferens, XH. 
.'3 0. Vas deferens to penis, X 6. 
3D. ,, „ another view, X 6. 

Glessula orohia, Bs. 

4. Generative organs, X 8. 
4a. Penis, with flagellum, X 12, 
46. „ ant)ther view, X 8. 

Glessula iiior/iafa, Pfr. 

.'i. Part of genitalia, X 45. 

5a. ,. ,, another view, X 45. 

n b. Penis, coiled view of, X 4'5. 

5 c. Jaw, X 24. 

Glessula garoense, n. sp. Silchar, Cachar. 

6. Penis, with simple flagellum, X 12. 

6 a. Spermatheca, X 12. 

Glessula species ? Buddula, Ceylon. 

7. Penis, to show flagellum, X 8. 

7 a. „ view of other side, X 8. 
7 b. Folliclea of the prostate, X 24. 



I'ART I. 



PAMPHLET BINDERS 


This is No. 1 524 


also carried in stock in the fallowing sizes 


HI6H WIDE THICKNESS 


HIGH WIDE THICKHESS 


1523 9 inrhM 7 inche* H incb 
1624 10 " 7 " 
1525 9 " 6 " 
152« $H " 7H " 

1527 WH " 7H " 

1528 11 " « " 


1529 12 iDcfae* 10 inehec H iocb 

1530 12 " 9H " 

1932 13 " 10 " 

1933 U "11 

1934 16 " 12 " 


Other sizes made to order. 


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