(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Land magnetic and electric observations, 1918-1926"



1 

1 
J 

j 


1 


1 
1 





/ 



a 

/of 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/landmagneticelecOOcarn 



Plate 1 





Station near La Quiaca Observatory,' Argentina 

Kiver transportation in Madagascar 

Station at Cagigal Observatory, Caracas, Venezuela 



Magnetic Stations and Travel Views 



2 Station near Funchal, Madeira Islands 
4 Pack-train, Cuyaba to Goyaz, Brazil 
6 Station near Arequipa, Peru, with Mt. 
feet) in background 



Misti (20.000 



CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON 

Publication No. 175, Volume VI 




1927 



W. F. ROBERTS COMPANY 
WASHINGTON D C. 



RESEARCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 

VOLUME VI 



LAND MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC 
OBSERVATIONS, 1918-1926 



MAGNETIC RESULTS, 1921-1926 



BY 

H. W. Fisk 



MAGNETIC, ATMOSPHERIC-ELECTRIC, AND AURORAL 
RESULTS, MAUD EXPEDITION, 1918-1925 



BY 
H. U. SVERDRUP 



Published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Washington, D. C, October, 1927 



CONTENTS 
LAND MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS, 1918-1926 

PAGE 

Land Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1918-1926 1 

Introduction 3 

Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926, 1 by H. W. Fisk 5 

Summary of land work, 1905-1926 9 

Secular-variation stations 13 

Descriptions of instruments 19 

Reductions to standard instruments. 20 

Methods of observation 26 

Land magnetic observations, 1921-1926 28 

Results of land magnetic observations, 1921-1926 35 

Results of land magnetic observations, secondary stations 105 

Observers' field reports on magnetic work 109 

Special field report 212 

Descriptions of stations 225 

Magnetic, Atmospheric-Electric, and Auroral Results, Maud Expedition, 1918-1925 1 309 

Introduction 313 

Part I. Absolute magnetic observations, 1918-1921, by H. U. Sverdrup and C. R. Duvall 315 

Part II. Absolute magnetic observations, 1922-1925, by H. U. Sverdrup 340 

Part III. Results of photographic records of declination at Cape Chelyuskin and at Four Pillar Island, by 

H. U. Sverdrup 372 

Part IV. Observations of the atmospheric-electric potential-gradient, 1922-1925, by H. U. Sverdrup .... 425 

Part V. Observations of the aurora, 1918-1925, by H. U. Sverdrup 461 

Part VI. Narrative of the expedition, 1918-1925, by H. U. Sverdrup 514 



ILLUSTRATIONS 1 
LAND MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS, 1918-1926 

PAGE 

Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

Text-figures 1 and 2 18, 260 

Plates 1 and 2 Frontispiece, 108 

Magnetic, Atmospheric-Electric, and Auroral Results, Maud Expedition, 1918-1925 

Text-figures 3 to 41 328, 329, 330, 331, 348, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 365, 367, 

368, 368, 369, 373, 389, 391, 392, 408, 409, 410, 415, 418, 421, 

427, 446, 448, 448, 448, 448, 450, 455, 457, 500, 505, 507, 512 

Plates 3 to 15 309, 316, 326, 336, 428, 446, 462, 464, 466, 468, 524 

1 For detailed lists of contents and of illustrations, see pages 6 to 8 and pages 310 to 312. 

IV 



LAND MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC 
OBSERVATIONS, 1918-1926 

By H. W. Fisk and H. U. Sverdrup 



LAND MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC OBSERVATIONS, 1 9 1 8- 1 926 



INTRODUCTION 

This publication is the sixth of the series by the Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, bearing the general title 
" Researches of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism." 

The results of magnetic observations made at land stations are given in 
Volumes I, II, and IV, and are continued in the present publication. Magnetic 
and atmospheric-electric observations made at sea aboard the Galilee and, later, 
on the cruises of the Carnegie are published in Volumes III and V. Reports on 
special researches and constructive work of the Department heretofore published 
in the series are indicated in the following brief synopsis of contents : 

Volume I — "Land Magnetic Observations, 1905-1910," contains the data 
obtained at stations from the beginning of the Department's field work in February 
1905 to the end of December 1910. 

Volume II — "Land Magnetic Observations, 1911-1913, and Reports on Spe- 
cial Researches," contains the results of all magnetic observations made on land 
during the three years, January 1, 1911, to December 31, 1913. The titles of the 
special reports are: Research Buildings of Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
by L. A. Bauer and J. A. Fleming; Magnetic Inspection Trip and Observations 
during Total Solar Eclipse of April 28, 1911, at Manua, Samoa, by L. A. Bauer; 
Results of Comparisons of Magnetic Standards, 1905-1914, by L. A. Bauer and 
J. A. Fleming. 

Volume III — -"Ocean Magnetic Observations, 1905-1916, and Reports on 
Special Researches," presents the final ocean magnetic data obtained aboard the 
Galilee in the Pacific Ocean, 1905-1908, and aboard the Carnegie in the Atlantic, 
Indian, and Pacific Oceans, 1909-1914, together with the preliminary data from 
observations made during 1915 to 1916 on the Carnegie's Cruise IV. The special 
reports are : Results of Atmospheric-Electric Observations made aboard the Galilee 
(1907-1908), and the Carnegie (1909-1916), by L. A. Bauer and W. F. G. Swann; 
Some Discussions of the Ocean Magnetic Work, by L. A. Bauer and W. J. Peters. 

Volume IV — "Land Magnetic Observations, 1914-1920, and Special Reports" 
contains the results of all magnetic observations made on land during January 1, 
1914, to December 31, 1920. The authors and titles of the special reports are: 
J. A. Fleming, Construction of Non-Magnetic Experiment Building of the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism; H. W. Fisk, Dip-Needle Errors Arising from Minute 
Pivot Defects; S. J. Barnett, A Sine Galvanometer for Determining in Absolute 
Measure the Horizontal Intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Field; J. A. Fleming, 
Results of Comparisons of Magnetic Standards, 1915-1921. 

Volume V — "Ocean Magnetic and Electric Observations, 1915-1921," 
presents, besides the main section on the work of the Carnegie, (1) Magnetic Results, 
by J. P. Ault, (2) Atmospheric-Electric Results, by J. P. Ault and S. J. Mauchly, 



4 Introduction 

special reports as follows: The Hudson Bay Expedition of 1914, by W. J. Peters; 
Navigation of Aircraft by Astronomical Methods, by J. P. Ault; The Compass- 
Variometer, by Louis A. Bauer, W. J. Peters, and J. A. Fleming; The Sunspot and 
Annual Variations of Atmospheric Electricity with Special Reference to the 
Carnegie Observations, 1915-1921, by Louis A. Bauer; Studies in Atmospheric 
Electricity Based on Observations Made on the Carnegie, 1915-1921, by S. J. 
Mauchly. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the cordial and valuable assistance so indis- 
pensable to the furtherance of the land magnetic survey received from the magnetic 
institutions, the government officials, and diplomatic representatives of the coun- 
tries visited, from others in public office, from representatives of various organiza- 
tions, and from individuals acting from personal interest. The very abundance 
of assistance so received makes impracticable separate acknowledgments. The 
Director (Louis A. Bauer), the Assistant Director (John A. Fleming), and the 
chief of the Section of Land Magnetic Survey (Harlan W. Fisk) desire also to 
express their appreciation not only to the observers whose names appear in this 
volume in connection with the records of their work, which are ample testimonials 
to their efforts and faithfulness, but also to those who have worked at the less 
conspicuous though highly responsible and equally essential tasks of constructing 
and maintaining the field instruments and of making the reductions and preparations 
for publication, the instrument-makers in the shop, and the computers, revisers, 
and tabulators in the office. 



V 



LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS 

1921-1926 



By H. W. Fisk 



CONTENTS 



LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 1921-1926 



PAGE 

Summary of land work, 1905-1926 9 

Secular- variation stations 13 

Descriptions of instruments 19 

Magnetometers 19 

Dip circles and earth inductors 19 

Reductions to standard instruments 20 

Magnetic standards adopted 20 

Magnetometer corrections 20 

Inclinometer corrections 20 

Methods of observation 26 

Land magnetic observations, 1921-1926 28 

Explanatory remarks 28 

Concerning geographic positions 31 

Observers 34 

Distribution of stations 34 

Results of land magnetic observations, 1921-1926 35 

Africa 35 

Abyssinia 35 

Algeria (including Algerian Sahara) 35 

Cameroun 35 

Egypt 35 

French Somaliland 35 

French West Africa 36 

Gold Coast Colony 37 

Kenya Colony 37 

Liberia 37 

Morocco 38 

Nigeria 38 

Sierra Leone 39 

Tanganyika Territory 39 

Tunisia 39 

Asia 39 

Arabia 39 

China 39 

Indo-China 40 

Japan 40 

Siberia (including Arctic Sea off coast) . . 41 

Straits Settlements 48 

Syria (including Palestine) 48 

Turkey 48 

Australasia 48 

Australia 48 

New Zealand 58 

Europe 58 

Belgium 58 

Denmark 58 

Finland 59 

France 59 

Germany 59 

Great Britain 60 

Greece 60 

Holland 61 

Italy 61 

Portugal 61 

Spain 61 

Turkey 62 

North America 62 

Canada 62 

Central America 63 



PAGE 

Results of land magnetic observations, 1921-1926 
— Concluded 

North America — Concluded 

Greenland 65 

Mexico 66 

Newfoundland (including Labrador 

coast) 67 

United States 68 

South America 75 

Argentina 75 

Bolivia 76 

Brazil 76 

Chile 79 

Colombia 79 

Ecuador 80 

Guiana 80 

Paraguay 81 

Peru 81 

Uruguay 87 

Venezuela 87 

Islands, Atlantic Ocean 88 

Azores 88 

Bahamas 89 

Bermuda 89 

Canary Islands 89 

Falkland Islands 90 

Madeiras 90 

West Indies 90 

Islands, Indian Ocean 92 

Ceylon 92 

Comoro Islands 92 

Madagascar 92 

Zanzibar 93 

Islands, Mediterranean ! 94 

Islands, Pacific Ocean 94 

Bismarck Archipelago 94 

Cook Islands 94 

Ellice Islands 94 

Fiji Islands 95 

Hawaiian Islands 95 

Lord Howe Island 95 

Malay Archipelago 95 

Marquesas Islands 96 

New Caledonia (including Loyalty Is.) . . 96 

New Guinea 96 

New Hebrides 96 

Samoa Islands 96 

Society Islands 98 

Solomon Islands 98 

Tokelau Islands 98 

Tonga Islands 98 

Tuamotu Archipelago 99 

Arctic Region 99 

Arctic Sea 99 

Results of land magnetic observations, secondary 

stations 105 

Bermuda 105 

July to August 1907 105 

July to September 1922 107 



Contents 



PAGE 

Observers' field reports on magnetic work 109 

F. C. Brown 109 

Madagascar, October 1920 to July 1921 109 

Eastern Africa, Western Australia, and 

southern Asia, July to December 1921 121 

Eastern China, July and August 1922.. . 123 
D. G. Coleman 125 

Samoa, Ellice, and Tokelau islands, May 

to September 1921 125 

Fiji Islands, Solomon Islands, and New 
Guinea, September 1921 to Janu- 
ary 1922 126 

Australia, New Zealand, Cook Islands, 
Society Islands, Marquesas Islands, 
and Tuamotu Archipelago, January 
to August 1922. . . •. 130 

Queensland, Australia, including special 
observations during total solar 
eclipse of September 20, 1922 133 

New Caledonia, Loyalty, New Hebrides, 
and Lord Howe islands, November 

1922 to January 1923, and Australia, 
January to April 1923 134 

Southern and eastern Australia, April 

to June 1923 136 

Queensland and northern Australia, 

July to October 1923 138 

Dutch East Indies and farther India, 

October to December 1923 139 

P. H. Dike 140 

Islands in Mediterranean and Mediter- 
ranean countries of Asia, June to 

September 1922 140 

H. W. Fisk and J. T. Howard 142 

Bermuda, July to September 1922 142 

R. H. Goddard 144 

Canada, Labrador, and Greenland, July 

1923 to September 1924 144 

J. W. Green 149 

Bahamas, West Indies, Venezuela, Gui- 
anas, Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and 

Peru, June 1922 to September 1923 149 

Mexico, June to August 1924 156 

H. R. Grummann 160 

West Indies, March and April 1922 160 

J. T. Howard 160 

West Indies and South America, Decem- 
ber 1922 to December 1923 160 

Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador, January to 

October 1924 165 

John Lindsay 168 

Mexico and Cuba, June to September 

1924 168 

Panama and South America, September 

1924 to June 1925 170 

South America, June 1925 to March 1926 173 

Central America, March to July 1926 . . 178 

W. A. Love 180 

Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and Panama, 

June to October 1922 180 

Colombia, November 1922 to January 

1923 181 

Magnetic work and determination of 
geographic positions of certain Maya 
ruins in Guatemala, February to 
April 1923 : 183 

Central America, May to November 1923 188 



PAGE 

Observers' field reports on magnetic work — 
Concluded 

W. C. Parkinson 192 

Northern Africa and Arabia, December 

1921 to March 1922 192 

Comparison observations at certain 
European magnetic observatories, 

March to September 1922 194 

J. E. Sanders, Jr 196 

Azores, Madeiras, Canaries, and Morocco, 

May to August 1925 196 

Sierra Leone and French West Africa, 

August to December 1925 198 

French West Africa from Conakry to Co- 
tonou by way of the Niger River 
and Dahomey, December 1925 to 

April 1926 200 

Guinea Coast and Nigeria, May to 

December 1926 203 

J. Shearer 204 

Western Australia, October and Novem- 
ber 1921 204 

Synopses of additional magnetic surveys, 
1918 to 1926: Carnegie shore stations; 
Pere E. Colin; G. F. Dodwell and A. L. 
Kennedy; eclipse parties; Liberian 
Boundary Survey; J. E. Sanders, Jr., and 
A. H. Kampe; United States Navy; Mac- 
Millan Baffin Island Expedition; Mavd 
Expedition, 1918-1921; Maud Expedi- 
tion, 1922-1925; and standardization 

observations 205 

Special field report 212 

H. W. Fisk, on observations of the Bermuda 

magnetic anomaly, 1907 and 1922 212 
Descriptions of primary stations, 1907 

and 1922 214 

Descriptions of secondary stations, 1907 215 
Descriptions of secondary stations, 1922 219 

Descriptions of stations 225 

Africa 226 

Abyssinia 226 

Algeria (including Algerian Sahara) 226 

Cameroun 226 

Egypt 226 

French Somaliland 227 

French West Africa 227 

Gold Coast Colony 231 

Kenya Colony 231 

Liberia 232 

Morocco 233 

Nigeria 234 

Sierra Leone 235 

Tanganyika Territory 236 

Tunisia ' 237 

Asia 237 

Arabia 237 

China 238 

Indo-China 238 

Japan 239 

Siberia (including Arctic Sea off coast). . . 239 

Straits Settlements 240 

Syria (including Palestine) 241 

Turkey 241 

Australasia 212 

Australia 242 

New Zealand 251 



8 



Contents 



PAGE 

Descriptions of stations — Continued 

Europe 252 

Belgium 252 

Denmark 252 

Finland 252 

France 252 

Germany 252 

Great Britain 252 

Greece 253 

Holland 253 

Italy 253 

Portugal 253 

Spain 253 

Turkey 253 

North America 253 

Canada 253 

Central America 255 

Greenland 259 

Mexico 261 

Newfoundland (including Labrador 

coast) 264 

United States 265 

South America 268 

Argentina 268 

Bolivia 270 

Brazil 270 

Chile 277 

Colombia 278 

Ecuador 280 

Guiana 280 

Paraguay 281 

Peru 282 

Uruguay 283 

Venezuela 284 

Islands, Atlantic Ocean 285 

Azores 285 



PAGE 

Descriptions of stations — Conducted 

Islands, Atlantic Ocean — Concluded 

Bahamas 286 

Bermudas 287 

Canary Islands 288 

Falkland Islands 288 

Madeiras 289 

West Indies 289 

Islands, Indian Ocean 294 

Ceylon 294 

Comoro Islands 295 

Madagascar 295 

Zanzibar 300 

Islands, Mediterranean 300 

Islands, Pacific Ocean 300 

Bismarck Archipelago 300 

Cook Islands 300 

Ellice Islands 301 

Fiji Islands 301 

Hawaiian Islands 302 

Lord Howe Island 302 

Malay Archipelago 302 

Marquesas Islands 302 

New Caledonia (including Loyalty 

Islands) 303 

New Guinea 303 

New Hebrides 304 

Samoa Islands 304 

Society Islands 305 

Solomon Islands 305 

Tokelau Islands 306 

Tonga Islands 306 

Tuamotu Archipelago 306 

Arctic Region 307 

Arctic Sea 307 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 

Plate 1 — Magnetic Stations and Travel Views Frontispiece 

1 — Station near La Quiaca Observatory, Argentina 2 — Station near Funchal, Madeira Islands 
3 — River transportation in Madagascar 4 — Pack-train, Cuyaba to Goyaz, Brazil 
5 — Station at Cagigal Observatory, Caracas, Venezuela 6 — Station near Arequipa, 
Peru, with Mount Misti (20,000 feet) in background. 

OPPOSITE PAGE 

Plate 2 — Views on Magnetic Expeditions 108 

1 — Station near Etah, Greenland 2 — Cable ferry, Quindio trail, Colombia 3 — Station at 
Aden, Arabia 4 — Station at Sinky Bay, Bermuda 5 — Station at Rantabe, Madagas- 
car 6 — Station at Townsville, Australia 7 — Station at Kalgan, China. 



TEXT-FIGURES 

Fig. 1 — Regional distribution of magnetic secular-variation data through December 31, 1926, obtained by 
the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
(Numbers in circles apply for land work and in squares for sea work. Base-map is that 
of J. Paul Goode, copyright by the University of Chicago Press and published with per- 
mission) 

Fig. 2 — Plane-table survey, Refuge Harbor winter-quarters, MacMillan North Greenland Expedition, 1923- 
24 



PAGE 



18 



260 



LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 1921-1926 



SUMMARY OF LAND WORK, 1905-1926 

Much of the material here published in final form has been supplied in manu- 
script to establishments engaged in preparation of magnetic charts or geographic 
maps, and to various organizations interested for industrial or commercial purposes 
in the results of the surveys conducted by the Department. In addition, it has 
been a pleasure to forward to local officials in places where our observers have been 
the magnetic data applying to the immediate locality in return for the assistance 
which these persons have courteously accorded the Department in its work. In 
these ways the immediate needs of the public have, to a considerable degree, been 
met in advance of final publication. 

The general magnetic survey of the globe, to the accomplishment of which the 
Carnegie Institution of Washington, through its Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism, devoted its energies for many years, has been completed for the major 
part of the Earth. While this task has been accomplished largely through the 
labors of the Department, these were directed chiefly to the ocean areas and to 
those countries or regions for which magnetic data would not otherwise be obtained 
promptly. In some regions, required magnetic surveys were accomplished by 
cooperation with existing organizations or with interested investigators. Valuable 
data in polar regions have been obtained by successful cooperation with the Peary 
Arctic Expedition, the Mawson Antarctic Expedition, the Amundsen Arctic expedi- 
tions, and the Baffin Land and North Greenland expeditions of Dr. Donald B. 
MacMillan. 

The observers whose reports appear in this volume have for the most part been 
concerned with securing secular-variation data by the reoccupation of magnetic 
stations established by previous observers. It has been found practicable also to 
visit a few regions not hitherto reached in a course of earlier surveys, for example, 
certain portions of the interior of Brazil, the island of Madagascar, the Bahama 
Islands, and regions covered by arctic expeditions. Thus, at the end of 1926, 
repeat stations fairly well distributed for purposes of secular-variation discussion 
had been occupied in the general region of the South Pacific, in Australia and New 
Zealand, over all of Central America and South America, throughout the West 
Indies, and in parts of Africa including Morocco, West Africa from the mouth of 
the Niger to Lake Tchad, and portions of East Africa. 

Summaries of the numbers of stations occupied in each country and main 
geographical division have been given in preceding volumes, intended to convey a 
general idea of the extent of the operations of the Department and at the same 
time to indicate approximately the density of distribution of the places at which 
observations have been made in the several regions. With the growth of the work, 
the accumulation of reoccupations of varying degrees of exactness, and with the 

9 



10 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



change in the character of the programs at each place, the numbers as carried along 
from year to year have to considerable extent lost their original significance. 
Accordingly, a new enumeration has been made, in which the numbers of stations 
in each of the main geographic divisions are listed on the same basis for each period 
represented by the four volumes in which the results at land stations have appeared. 
Table 1 gives such a summary of the Department's land-survey work during 
1905 to 1926. It differs in some small details with reference to numbers of stations 
for Volumes I, II, and IV as given in corresponding tables in those volumes to 
conform with the finally adopted method of enumeration of stations. 

Table 1 — Summary of Land Operations, 1905 to 1926 



Geographical divisions 


Stations enumerated 


Totals 1905 to 1926 


Volume 


Stations 


Expeditions" 


I 

1905-1910 


II 

1911-1913 


IV 
1914-1920 


VI 
1921-1926 


Africa 


389 
323 
11 
42 
368 
115 

77 
1 
2 

64 


191 
82 

284 
36 
50 

248 

16 
14 
2 
61 
31 


481 
c 405 
336 
32 
139 
369 

20 
33 


113 
d 353 
117 
24 
202 
240 

203 

71 

4 

75 


1,174 
1,163 

748 
134 
759 
972 

316 

119 

8 

261 

31 


22 
23 
23 

5 
43 

27 

12 
3 
3 

12 
1 


Asia* 




Europe 


North America 


South America 


Islands : 

Atlantic 


Indian 


Mediterranean 


Pacific 


106 




Totals 








1,392 


970 


1,921 


1,402 


5,685 


174 





Including expeditions engaged in minor operations and special work. 

6 Including stations occupied by the Maud in the Arctic Sea off the coast of Siberia. 

c Including 41 stations occupied by the Maud during 1918 to 1920 but published in Volume IV. 

d Not including 41 stations published in this volume which were occupied during 1918 to 1920; see preceding footnote. 

During 1921 to 1926 less attention has been given to extending our knowledge 
of magnetic distribution, and more has been devoted to adding to the available 
information relating to the annual change in the magnetic elements. The simple 
enumeration of stations no longer fully represents either the extent of the Depart- 
ment's operations or the density of distribution of the places where observations 
have been made in any region. It often occurs that all the stations credited to a 
large country or subdivision are grouped within one or two limited areas, so that a 
mere statement of the numbers of stations does not properly represent the available 
points useful for secular-variation discussion. As explained in another paragraph, 
auxiliary stations are frequently established in important places which add to the 
value of the work done, and it is desirable to make an enumeration include stations 
of this kind under a separate heading. 

In order to summarize the work and to take into account the changed condi- 
tions, a number of new descriptive designations have been introduced, namely, 
locality," "occupation," "reoccupation," "auxiliary station," "secondary sta- 



u 



Summary of Land Work, 1905-1926 11 

tion," "repeat-locality." That the table may be properly interpreted, these are 
each defined below. 

Station — This designation refers to any position of an instrument used in 
magnetic observations and which, in regions of great local disturbance, may be 
displaced with reference to another station by but a short distance, either hor- 
izontally or vertically. A station is designated "primary" when all three magnetic 
elements are determined, except in certain cases as outlined below. 

Locality — No fixed rule can be laid down with reference to the distance between 
stations regarded as being in the same locality, and each case is decided according 
to conditions. In general, a locality is not taken so large that the value of any 
element changing normally would have appreciably different values at opposite 
limits. The limits for a "proximate" reoccupation have been taken as 5 kilo- 
meters, and thus stations as much as 5 kilometers (3 miles) apart are regarded as 
being in separate localities. In regions of known local disturbance, as, for example, 
in Bermuda, much narrower limits necessarily are taken. 

Occupation — A visit of an observer to a locality for making observations is 
considered an occupation, whether a complete or only a partial program of observa- 
tions has been carried out. Where more than one observer constitutes the party, 
only one occupation is enumerated, but where the observers, traveling as separate 
parties, reach a locality at or about the same time, the number of occupations is the 
number of parties making the observations. For example, when the party from 
the Carnegie and a field observer reach a station simultaneously, two occupations 
are counted. 

Reoccupation — An occupation of a locality previously occupied by a C. I. W. 
observer or party is considered a reoccupation. It has not been possible to include a 
classification for the reoccupation of stations established by observers of other 
organizations, although the number of these constitutes a large and valuable 
source of the available secular-variation data. When an observer returns to a 
locality which he has himself occupied, it is regarded as reoccupation only in case 
other distant localities have been occupied in the interval in general not less than 
one month. Exceptions to this rule are made in the case of base-stations, winter- 
quarters in the polar regions, observatory sites, and other semipermanent stations, 
where observations are made intermittently over long periods. Such stations are 
counted as repeat stations (see definition below), but the number of reoccupations 
is limited according to circumstances. At permanent observatories, the Washing- 
ton Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, and the Watheroo and Huancayo 
magnetic observatories, each year's work is counted as a reoccupation, a wholly 
arbitrary rule, but reasonable, since secular-change data result. Visits to these 
observatories by field parties for comparison of instruments are not regarded as 
reoccupations. The limitations with regard to the number of observers or parties 
are the same as for an occupation. 

Auxiliary station — Whenever an observer makes observations at more than one 
station in a locality at the same visit, an extra station is counted, and these are 
classified as auxiliary and secondary. An auxiliary station is an extra station at 



12 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



which all three elements have been observed. Sometimes, as at observatories, 
different positions are used for the determination of the different elements, and 
these are combined so as to provide one auxiliary station for the complete program. 

Secondary station — Stations employed for the determination of but one or two 
of the elements are classed as secondary stations. Exception is made in case of 
observatories where two or more piers are provided for separate use of -magneto- 
meter and inclinometer, and in a few instances where two or more observers have 
divided the program, using different stations for magnetometer and dip circle or 
earth inductor. If, however, the same element is observed at both points, as D 
and H at one and D and I at the other, a primary and a secondary station are 
recorded. 

Secondary locality — No use has been made of this class of points, relatively 
small in number, at which the observer has been unable to secure observations for 
all elements. An occupation is credited to the observer, though only a secondary 
station is enumerated. 

Repeat-localities — Reoccupations are exact, close, practical, or proximate, 
according to the distance of the new station from the former. The reoccupation 
is regarded as exact when close enough to employ the previously determined azi- 
muths without appreciable error, close when within 30 meters, practical when 
within 300 meters, and proximate when at a greater distance up to 5 kilometers or 
to the limit regarded as defining the locality. 

Table 2 summarizes all of the Department's land results for the past 22 years 
by geographical divisions, including station-occupations under the three definitions 
and number of repeat-localities and repeat-occupations. 

Table 2 — Summary of Land Operations Showing Details of Station-Occupations and of Repeat-Localities, 1905 to 1926 



Geographical division 


Station-occupations 


Repeat-localities 


Primary 


Auxiliary 


Secondary 


Number 


Occupations 


Africa 


1,083 
782 
613 
94 
600 
823 

154 

94 

8 

188 
25 


78 

130 

57 

31 

127 

117 

115 

16 



48 

1 


13 
251 
78 
9 
32 
32 

47 
9 


25 

5 


113 
64 
96 
14 
79 

112 

30 
4 
3 

44 
2 


253 
163 
250 
39 
217 
304 

79 
11 

6 
109 

4 


Asia 1 


Australasia 

Europe 


North America 


South America 


Islands: 

Atlantic 


Indian 


Mediterranean 

Pacific 


Antarctic regions 


Totals 


4,464 


720 


501 


561 


1,435 










5.685 





1 Including stations occupied by the Maud in the Arctic Sea off the coast of Siberia. 



Summary of Land Work, 1905-1926 



13 



SECULAR-VARIATION STATIONS 

The distribution of the secular-variation data now available from the observa- 
tions of the Department only is shown in detail in Table 3, in which the name of 
each locality and the number of times it has been occupied are given. Under the 
heading " Continent" in the first column are given the names of the main geo- 
graphical divisions, which include island groups as well as continents according to 
the classification used throughout the volume. In the second column, headed 
"Country," the name of the subdivision appears under which, in some instances, as, 
for example, in the West Indies and Central America, a number of countries are 
grouped as a matter of convenience. Under the heading "Repeat-localities and 
occupations" the name of each locality appears in the form adopted in the Table 
of Results and elsewhere in this and preceding volumes. Following the name of 
the locality, a number is given which shows the occupations according to the 
definitions adopted in the preceding section. The totals for each country appear 
in the final columns, while a grand total is given at the end of each main geographic 
division or continent. 

Table 3 — Details Regarding Repeat-Localities and Occupations for Determination of Magnetic Secular-Variation, 

1905-1926 



Continent 



Country 



Repeat-localities and occupations 



Totals 



Locali- 
ties 



Occupa- 
tions 



Africa 



Abyssinia 

Algeria 

Algerian Sahara 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan . . 
Angola 

Belgian Congo 

British South and Cen- 
tral Africa 

Cameroun 

Egypt 

Eritrea 

French Equatorial Africa 

French Somaliland 

French West Africa 

Gambia 

Gold Coast Colony 

Kenya Colony 

Liberia 

Morocco 

Mozambique (Portuguese 

East Africa) 
Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Southwest Africa 

Tanganyika Territory . . . 

Tripolitania 

Tunisia 

Uganda 



Addis Abeba, 2; Dire Daoua, 2; Hawash, 2 

Algiers, 4; Oran, 2 

Touggourt, 2 

Port Sudan, 3 

Benguela, 2; Cabinda, 2; Cassoalala, 2; Huambo, 2; 
Loanda, 4; Lobito, 2; Malange, 2; Mossamedes, 2; 
Xinguari, 2 

Banana, 2; Bolobo, 2; Boma, 3; Elisabethville, 2; Kam- 
bove, 2; Leopoldville, 2; Matadi, 2; Ruwe, 2 

Broken Hill, 2; Cape Town, 3; Ginginhlovu, 2; Holle- 
rivier, 2; O'okiep, 2; Victoria Falls, 2 

Douala, 3; Garoua, 3; Olama, 2 

Alexandria, 2; Helwan Observatory, 6; Suez, 5; Tor, 3. 

Asmara, 2 ; Massaua, 3 

Brazzaville, 3 ; Fort Lamy, 2 ; Libreville, 2 ; Port Gentil, 3 

Jibuti, 3 

Abidjan, 2; Ansongo, 2; Bouake, 2; Bourem, 2; Cona- 
kry, 2; Cotonou, 2; Dakar; 2; Gaya, 2; Grand Bas- 
sam, 2; Kayes, 2; Koulikoro, 2; Mamou, 2; Matam, 
2; Mopti, 2; Niafunke, 2; Niamey, 2; Parakou, 2; 
Podor, 2; Save, 2; Segou, 2; St. Louis, 2; Timbuktu, 2 

Bathurst, 2 

Accra, 3; Kumasi, 2; Sekondi, 3 

Kisumu (Port Florence), 2; Makindu, 2; Mombasa, 2; 
Nairobi, 2; Nakuru, 2; Voi, 2 

Cape Palmas, 3 ; Cuttington, 2 ; Harper, 2 

Casablanca, 2; Larache, 2; Mogador, 2; Rabat, 2; 
Tangier, 2 

Chinde, 2; Mopea, 2; Mozambique, 2 

Amar, 2; Ibi, 2; Jebba, 2; Kano, 2; Lagos, 3; Lokoja, 2; 

Yola, 2; Zaria, 2 

Bo, 2; Freetown, 3; Moyamba. 2 

Aus, 2; Gibeon, 2; Keetmanshoop, 2; Seeheim, 2; 

Swakopmund, 2; Windhoek, 2 
Dar es Salaam, 2; Kilossa, 2; Ngere Ngere, 2; Tabora, 2 

Tripoli, 3 

Sfax, 2; Tunis, 2 

Gondokoro, 2; Kiriba (Rejaf), 2 

Totals for Africa 



3 

4 
2 
4 
1 

99 



1 

3 
6' 

3 
5 

3 

8 

3 

6 

4 
1 

2 

2 



6 
6 
o 

3 

20 



13 

8 
16 

5 
10 

3 
44 



2 

8 

12 

7 
10 

6 

17 

7 
12 

8 
3 
4 
4 



113 



253 



14 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



Table 3 — Details Regarding Repeat-Localities and Occupations for Determination of Magnetic Secular-Variation, 

1905-1926— Continued 



Continent 



Country 



Repeat-localities and occupations 



Totals 



Locali- 
ties 



Occupa- 
tions 



Asia. 



Arabia 

Asiatic Russia 

China 



Australasia. 



India 

Indo-China 

Japan 

Siberia (see Asiatic Russia) 

Straits Settlements 

Turkish Empire, includ- 
ing Syria and Palestine 



Australia . 



New Zealand. 



Europe . 



Germany 

Great Britain. . . . 

Greece 

Italy 

Russia (U.S.S.R.) 

Spain 

Turkey 



Aden, 6; Jidda, 3 

Ayon Island (Winter-Quarters 1919-20), 2; Bear Island 

(Winter-Quarters 1924-25), 2; Cape Serdze Kamen 

(Winter-Quarters 1920-21), 2; Kain-ge-skon, 3; No. 

35 (68 N and 165 E), 2; Winter-Quarters 1918-19, 2 

Amoy, 2; Canton, 14; Chengchang, 2; Chengchow, 4; 
Chinchowfu, 2; Chinkiang, 2; Chuanchow, 2; Foo- 
chow, 2; Hangchow, 2; Hankow, 3; Hengchow, 2 
Hongkong, 8; Ichang, 2; Kalgan, 2; Kiukiang, 2 
Lanchowfu, 2; Liangchowfu, 2; Lukiapang, 2 
Mengtsz, 2; Nanchang, 3; Nanking, 2; Newchwang 
2; Ningpo, 2; Peking 1907, 4; Peking 1916, 2; Ping 
fan, 2; Shanhaikwan, 2; Shiuchow, 2; Sianfu, 2 
Soochow, 2; Swatow, 2; Tientsin, 2; Tsinan, 2 
Wuchow, 3; Wuhu, 2; Yochow, 2; Yunnanfu, 2 
Zikawei, 2 

Alibag, 2 ; Dehra Dun ,2 

Phantiet, 3 ; Phu Lien, 2 ; Saigon, 3 

Sugita, 2 



Singapore, 3 

Afiumkarahissar, 2; Aidin, 2; Aleppo, 2; Alexandretta, 

2; Basra, 2; Beirut, 2; Damascus, 3; Dardanelles, 2; 

Horns, 2; Jerusalem, 2; Smyrna, 2 



Totals for Asia. 



Adelaide, 3 ; Albany, 3 ; Albury, 2 ; Ararat, 2 ; Batchelor, 
3; Border Town, 4; Bourke, 2; Brisbane, 3; Broken 
Hill, 2; Broome, 2; Bunbury, 3; Burra, 2; Cairns, 2; 
Carnarvon, 2; Ceduna, 2; Charleville, 2; Cloncurry, 
2; Connel's Creek, 3; Cooktown, 3; Coolgardie, 3; 
Cordillo Downs, 2; Cottesloe, 10; Croydon, 2; Cun- 
namulla, 2; Darwin, 3; Derby, 2; Dubbo, 2; East 
Maitland, 2; Edithburg, 2; Emerald, 2; Eucla, 3; 
Farina, 3; Forsayth, 2; Geraldton, 2; Goondiwindi, 
2; Goulburn, 2; Harden, 2; Hobart, 3; Hughendsn, 
2; Jericho, 2; Katanning, 2; Katherine River, 3; 
Latrobe, 2; Lawlers, 2; Leonora, 2; Longford, 2; 
Mackay, 2; Maree (Hergott Springs), 3; Meekathar- 
ra, 2; Melbourne, 7; Menindie, 2; Merredin, 2; 
Moora, 2; Murray Bridge, 2; Narrogin, 2; Norman- 
town, 2; Norseman, 2; Northam, 2; Oodnadatta, 3; 
Ooldea, 2; Perth, 4; Peterborough, 2; Pine Creek, 3; 
Point Charles Lighthouse, 2; Port Augusta, 2; Port 
Hedland, 2; Port Lincoln, 2; Port Victor, 3; Red 
Hill, 7; Richmond, 2; Rockhampton, 3; Roma, 2 
Rottnest Island, 2; Sorell, 2; Southern Cross, 2 
Southport, 2; Tambo, 2; Tarcoola, 2; Tenterfield, 2 
Thursday Island, 4; Townsville, 3; Wagga Wagga, 
2; Watheroo Observatory, 11; Werris Creek, 2; Wil- 
cannia, 2; Wongan Hills, 2; Yalata Head, 2 

Auckland, 3; Christchurch, 7; Clinton, 2; Eketahuna, 
2; Kingston, 2; Mount Victoria, 2; New Brighton, 2; 
Queenstown, 2; Rotorua, 2 

Totals for Australasia 

Postdam, 2 

Eskdalemuir, 2; Falmouth, 2; Greenwich, 3; Kew, 7; 
St. Anthony, 2 

Kephisia, 2 

Palermo, 2; Rome, 2; Terracina, 3 

Batum, 2; Tiflis, 2 

San Roque, 2 

Rumeli Hissar, 6 

Totals for Europe 



38 



64 



87 



14 



9 
13 



101 



2 


4 


3 


8 


1 


2 


1 


3 


11 


23 



163 



226 



24 



96 


250 


1 


2 


5 


16 


1 


2 


3 


7 


2 


4 


1 


2 


1 


6 



39 



Summary of Land Work, 1905-1926 



15 



Table 3 — Details Regarding Repeat-Localities and Occupations for Determination of Magnetic Secular-Variation, 

1905-1926— Continued 



Continent 



Country 



Repeat-localities and occupations 



Totals 



Locali- 
ties 



Occupa- 
tions 



North America. 



Canada . 



Central America. 



Greenland 

Mexico 

Newfoundland (including 

Labrador) 
United -States 



South America . 



Argentina. 



Bolivia. 
Brazil. . 



Chile.... 

Colombia 

Ecuador. 
Guiana. . 

Paraguay 
Peru. 



Uruguay . . 
Venezuela . 



Agincourt, 2; Ashe Inlet, 2; Bowdoin Harbor, 1; Cape 
Dorset, 2; Cumberland House, 2; Deer's Lake, 2; 
Englehart, 2; Fort William, 2; Lac Seul, 2; Long 
Falls, 2; Mattawa, 2; Missinaibie, 2; Mistassini, 2; 
New Liskeard, 2; North Bay, 4; Ottawa, 2; 
Pelican Narrows, 2; Quebec, 2; St. John, 2; 
Sydney, 6; Winnipeg, 3 

Acajutla, 2; Amapala, 2; Belize, 3; Bluefields, 2; Colon, 
13; Corinto, 2; David, 2; El Cayo, 2; Flamenco 
Island, 2; Flores, 2; Granada, 2; Grey town, 2; 
Guatemala, 3; Managua, 2; Old Panama, 3; Port 
Burchard (Casuna), 2; Prinzapolca, 2; Puerto Barrios, 
2; Puerto Cortez, 2; San Jose (Costa Rica), 3; San 
Jose (Guatemala), 4; San Salvador, 2; Tegucigalpa, 
2; Truxillo, 2; Uvita Island, 2; Zacapa, 2 

Etah, 2; Godhavn, 2; Godthaab, 2; Holstensborg, 2; 

Refuge Harbor, 1 

Chihuahua, 2; Guaymas, 2; Hermosillo, 2; Monterrey, 
2; Nueva Casas Grandes, 2; Oaxaca, 2; Sabinas, 2 

Battle Harbor, 6; Bay of Islands, 3; Gready, 2; Hope- 
dale, 2 ; Port Burwell, 3 ; St. Johns, 3 ; West Turnavik, 2 

Baldwin, 4; Bronx Park, 2; Cheltenham, 6; Goat 
Island, 4; Greenport, 5; Miami, 3; New London, 2; 
Norfolk, 2; Presidio (San Francisco, Fort Scott), 2; 
San Diego, 5; San Rafael, 4; Washington, 16; Way- 
cross, 3 

Totals for North America 



Bahia Blanca, 2; Cipolletti, 2; Colonia Las Heras, 2; 
Corrientes, 2; Florida, 2; La Quiaca, 3; Las Flores, 2; 
Mendoza, 2; Mercedes, 3; Monte Caseros, 2; Pilar, 
6; Puerto Deseado, 2; Puerto Madryn, 2; Santa 
Cruz, 2; Tucuman, 2; Victoria, 2; Zapala, 2 

Guayaramerin, 3; La Paz, 6; Oruro, 2; Uyuni, 4 

Abuna, 2; Alcobaga, 2; Almerim, 2; Bahia (Jaburu), 2; 
Barcellos, 2; Bella Vista, 2; Catalao, 2; Corumba, 3; 
Goyaz, 2; Manaos, 2; Obidos, 4; Pernambuco, 3; 
Pinheiro, 8; Porto Velho, 4; Registro, 2; Rio de 
Janeiro, 2; Rio Grande, 2; Santa Isabel, 2; Santarem, 
3; Santos, 2; Sao Paulo de Olivenca (Amazon 14), 2; 
Vassouras, 5 

Antofagasta, 3; Arica, 4; Calama, 2; Concepcion, 2; 
Copiapo, 2; Coquimbo, 3; Coronel, 4; Corral, 2; 
Iquique, 3; Puerto Montt, 3; Punta Arenas, 3; 
Santiago, 3; Ultima Esperanza, 2; Valparaiso, 3 

Bogota, 3; Buenaventura, 2; Calamar, 2; Cartagena, 
3; Honda, 2; Neiva, 2; Puerto Berrio, 2; Savanilla, 2; 
Tumaco, 2 

Esmeraldas, 2; Guayaquil, 4; Quito, 4; Riobamba, 3. . 

Bartica, 2; Cayenne, 3; Georgetown, 5; New Amster- 
dam, 3; Onverwacht, 2; Paramaribo, 3; Rockstone, 
2; St. Laurent (Albina), 2; Wismar, 2 

Concepcion, 2 ; Trinidad, 2 

Arequipa, 5; Chimbote, 2; Huacho, 3; Huancayo, 2; 
Huancayo Observatory (Huayao), 9; lea, 2; Iquitos, 
2; Juliaca, 5; La Merced, 2; Lima, 7; Masisea, 2; 
Matucana, 2; Mollendo, 5; Oroya, 2; Paita, 2; Pisco, 
2; Piura, 2; Puerto Bermudez, 2; San Lorenzo, 3; 
Tarma, 2; Yurimaguas, 2 

Colon, 3 

Barcelona, 2; Barquismeto, 2; Caracas, 5; Carupano, 
2; Ciudad Bolivar, 2; La Ceiba, 2; La Urbana, 2; 
Maracaibo, 2; Puerto Cabello, 2 

Totals for South America 



21 



26 



79 



17 



4 
9.9. 



14 



2 
21 



46 



69 



5 


9 


7 


14 


7 


21 


13 


58 



217 



40 



15 

60 



39 



20 



13 

24 



4 
65 



3 
21 



112 



304 



16 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



Table 3 — Details Regarding Repeat-Localities and Occupations for Determination of Magnetic Secular-Variation, 

1905-1926— Concluded 



Continent 



Country 



Repeat-localities and occupations 



Totals 



Locali- 
ties 



Occupa- 
tions 



Islands, Atlantic 
Ocean 



Islands, Indian 
Ocean 



Islands, Mediter- 
ranean 



Islands, Pacific 
Ocean 



Antarctic. 



Bermuda. . . 

Canary 

Falkland . . . 
Madeiras. . . 
St. Helena . . 
West Indies 



Ceylon 

Java 

Madagascar 

Zanzibar 

Crete 

Cyprus 

Rhodes 

Bismarck Archipelago . . . 

Cook 

Ellice 

Fanning 

Fiji. . 

Hawaiian 

Lord Howe 

Marianas (Ladrone Is- 
lands) 

Marshall 

New Caledonia (includ- 
ing Loyalty Islands) 

New Guinea 

New Hebrides 

Samoa 

Society 

Solomon 

Tokelau 

Tonga 

Victoria Quadrant 



Agar's Island, 3; Ireland Island, 2; Nonsuch Island, 2; 
Spectacle Island, 3; St. George, 2 

Las Palmas, 4; Santa Cruz, 5 

Port Stanley, 2 

Funchal, 3 

Longwood, 2 

Basse Terre, 2; Bridgetown, 4; Charlotte Amalie, 2; 
Christiansted, 2; Fort de France, 2; Havana, 5; 
Kingston, 6; Kingstown, 2; Matanzas, 2; Pinar del 
Rio, 2; Placetas del Norte, 2; Pointe a Pitre (La 
Jaille), 2; Port Castries, 2; Port of Spain, 4; Roseau, 
2 ; San Fernando, 2 ; Santiago, 2 ; St. Johns, 2 ; Vieques, 
3; Willemstad, 2 

Totals for islands, Atlantic Ocean 

Colombo, 4 

Weltevreden, 3 

Majunga, 2 

Zanzibar, 2 

Totals for islands, Indian Ocean 

Candia, 2 

Larnaka, 2 

Rhodes, 2 

Totals for islands, Mediterranean 

Rabaul, 2 

Avarua, 3 

Funafuti, 3; Nanomana, 2; Nanomea, 2; Niutao, 2; 
Nui, 2; Nukufetau, 2; Nukulailai, 2; Vaitupu, 2 

Fanning, 2 

Suva Vou, 6 

Sisal (Honolulu Observatory), 5 

Lord Howe, 2 

Guam, 2 

Jaluit, 2 

Bourail, 2; Lifu, 2; Mare, 2; Noumea, 2; Paagoumene, 2 

Buna Bay, 2; Cape Nelson, 2; Ipoteto, 2; Mambare, 2; 

Samarai (Kwato), 2; Suau, 2 

Vila, 2 

Apia, 7; Pago Pago, 3; Tau, 2 

Papeete (Fareute Point, Small Coral Island), 8 

Aola (Kumbara), 2; Binskins, 2; Faisi, 2; Gizo, 2; 

Makambo, 2 ; Salicana, 2 ; Tulagi, 2 

Atafu, 2 ; Fakaofu, 2 ; Swains, 2 

Neiafu, 2 ; Nukualofa, 2 

Totals for islands, Pacific Ocean 

Base, 2; Igloo, 2; Commonwealth Bay, 2 - 

Grand total for all land work 



2 
1 
1 
1 
20 



44 



561 



12 

9 
2 
3 
2 
52 



30 


80 


1 


4 


1 


3 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


11 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


6 



2 

3 

17 

2 
6 
5 
2 
2 

2 
10 

12 

2 
12 

8 
14 

6 
4 



109 



1,436 



A comprehensive exhibit of the general uniformity of distribution of the repeat- 
localities is presented by the equal-area map in Figure l, 1 upon which the total 
numbers of repeat-stations for areas of convenient size are represented by numbers 
within circles (the numbers within the squares are the corresponding numbers of 
secular-variation positions derived from the ocean surveys). 

1 The base used for this figure is the "homolosine equal-area projection" prepared by Professor J. Paul Goode, copy- 
right by the University of Chicago and used with permission. 



Summary of Land Work, 1905-1926 



17 



A summary showing the totals of repeat-localities as distributed in the arbitrary 
divisions indicated by the heavy lines in Figure 1 is given in Table 4. 

Table 4 — Summary to Show Regional Distribution of Secular-Variation Magnetic Data Obtained by the Department of 
Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington through December 31, 1926, Arranged Accord- 
ing to Arbitrary Geographical Divisions Indicated on Figure 1 



Geograph- 
ical divi- 



9 
10 



11 



12 
13 



14 
15 



16 



17 
18 



19 
20 
21 
22 



23 



24 



Region or country 



Alaska and Western Canada. . . 

Greenland 

Eastern Canada 16 

Newfoundland and Labrador. . 7 

Western United States 

Eastern United States 

Bermuda 

Mexico 

Central America 26 

West Indies (West) 7 

West Indies (East) 

Colombia 9 

Ecuador 4 

Venezuela 9 

Guiana 9 

Peru 21 

Bolivia 4 

Brazil (West) 5 

Brazil (East) 

Chile 14 

Argentina 17 

Paraguay 2 

Uruguay 1 

Falkland Islands 

Hawaiian Islands 1 

Fanning Island 1 

Cook Islands 1 

Samoa Islands 3 

Society Islands 1 

Tokelau Islands 3 

Tonga Islands 2 

Cape Verde Islands 

Madeira Islands 1 

Canary Islands 2 

Europe (West) 

Europe (East), Batum and Tiflis. 

Mediterranean 

Asia Minor 11 

Arabia 2 

Morocco 5 

Algeria 2 

Algerian Sahara 1 

Tunisia 2 

Tripolitania 1 

West Africa 22 

Gambia 1 

Gold Coast 3 

Sierra Leone 3 

Liberia 3 



No. secular- 
variation 
localities 



23 
5 

8 
5 

7 



33 
13 



31 



30 
17 



34 
1 



10 




3 

12 

2 

3 



13 



11 



32 



Geograph- 
ical divi- 
sion 



25 

26 

27 
28 



29 
30 



31 



32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 



38 
39 



40 
41 
42 
43 
44 

45 



46 



47 
48 



Region or country 



Nigeria 

French Equatorial Africa 4 

Cameroun 3 

Egypt 4 

Sudan 1 

Abyssinia 3 

Eritrea 2 

Somaliland 1 

Belgian Congo 8 

Angola 9 

Uganda 2 

Kenya Colony 6 

Tanganyika Territory 4 

St. Helena Island 

Southwest Africa 6 

British South and Central 

Africa 6 

Portuguese East Africa 3 

Zanzibar 1 

Madagascar 1 

North Siberia 

South Siberia 

India 

North China 

Middle China 

South China 5 

Indo-China 3 

Straits Settlements 1 

Japan 

Marshall Islands 1 

Marianas 1 

East Indies (Java) 

Western Australia . .'. 

Northern Territory 

Queensland 

South Australia, New South 
Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. 

New Zealand 9 

Lord Howe Island 1 

Bismarck Archipelago 1 

Ellice Islands 

Fiji Islands 1 

New Caledonia and Loyalty 

Islands 5 

New Guinea 6 

New Hebrides 1 

Solomon Islands 7 

Antarctic 

Ceylon 

Grand total 



No. secular- 
variation 
localities 



15 



11 

17 



12 

1 



15 



6 


2 

13 

20 



2 
1 

24 
6 

21 

36 



10 



29 
o 



561 



18 



Land Magnetic Obsekvations, 1921-1926 




O CD 

3 ° 

6C 5 

08 <S 



(11 «"T5 



ft 

03 

a 



3 s 

03 -O 
ft .- 

0) <+H 



03 
O 

co 

OS . 



CD 
In 

O 1 



CO 



to 



If J 

M «i n 



WD t* 

^ ft 



to -C 



e3 

03 
73 



03 -S .g 
i J° -° 

^ ^ 33 

03 CD 53 

S a "2 
<u g c 






S3 

GO 

CO 
-t— CD 

S rt CU 

w> 9 
5 2° 

a m g> 

„.gg 

°-%'& 

a osO 
5 r o 
J«3£ 



to 

cd 

> 
'3 

o I CD 



T3-^3 
« 3 



PIS 






DESCRIPTIONS OF INSTRUMENTS 

MAGNETOMETERS 

Since the publication of Volumes I to V, the Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism has not made any further material changes in the designs of magnetometers 
heretofore used. The designations of the types of magnetometers used for the 
work are as follows : 

1. The so-called theodolite-magnetometer type in three designs, viz, (a) and (6) of the 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, similar, respectively, to magnetometers Nos. 3 and 13, and 
(c) of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, similar to C. and G. S. No. 20. 

2. The Kew type of magnetometer in two designs, with auxiliary theodolites for astronomical 
work, viz, (a) the regular design as constructed by Elliott Brothers, similar to No. 73, and (6) the 
Magnetic Survey of India design, similar to No. 36. 

3. The light and portable type used in the Magnetic Survey of France, 2 similar to No. 11. 

4. The universal-magnetometer type in three designs, viz, (a) the design of Eschenhagen 
and constructed with modifications by Tesdorpf, 2 similar to No. 2025 ; (b) the magnetometer-dip- 
circle design of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, similar to Nos. 14, 19, 20, 21, and 22; (c) 
the magnetometer-inductor design of the same Department, similar to Nos. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28. 

The first three types and design (a) of type 4 have been described and illus- 
trated in detail on pages 2 to 7 of Volume I, while designs (6) and (c) of type 4 have 
been described and illustrated in detail on pages 5 to 12 of Volume II. Instru- 
ments specially adapted for use by the Maud Arctic Expedition are described and 
illustrated in Volume IV (p. 8). 

DIP CIRCLES AND EARTH INDUCTORS 

The dip circles used in obtaining the data given in the present volume were of 
the following patterns, of which the first two are fully described and illustrated in 
Volume I, pages 7 to 10, and the last in Volume II, pages 7 to 12: (a) the regular 
Kew land-pattern as made with slight variations by Dover and by Casella; (6) 
the Lloyd-Creak ship-pattern 2 as originally designed by Captain Ettrick W. Creak 
and made by Dover with some modifications introduced by the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey and by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, according 
to L. A. Bauer's specifications; dip-circle attachment of universal magnetometer of 
type 4 (b). 

The types of earth inductor used are fully described and illustrated in Volume 
I, pages 10 to 11, and in Volume II, pages 13 to 15, and include: (a) the design 
originated by Wild 3 and as modified by Eschenhagen represented in the Depart- 
ment's equipment by No. 48 constructed by Schulze and No. 2 constructed by 
Toepfer and Son; (6) earth inductor of the type made by the Department of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism for the determination of inclination at sea and as represented 
by earth inductors Nos. 3, 4, and 7; earth-inductor attachment of universal mag- 
netometer of type 4 (c) . 

A list of the various dip circles and earth inductors which were used, together 
with the needles and their designations, will be found in Table 6. 

2 Not in use during 1921 to 1926. 

3 H. Wild. Inductions-Inclinatorium neuer Construction und Bestimmung der Absoluten Inclination mit demselben 
in Pawlowsk. St. Petersburg, Mem. Ac. Sc, ser. 7, vol. 38, No. 3, 1891. 

19 



REDUCTIONS TO STANDARD INSTRUMENTS 
MAGNETIC STANDARDS ADOPTED 

The Department's extensive intercomparisons of magnetic instruments at 
Washington, in the field, and at magnetic observatories in all parts of the Earth 
have made it possible to refer its data to provisional "International Magnetic 
Standards." Such data obtained during 1905 to 1914 were discussed in detail in 
Volumes II (pp. 21 1 to 278) and IV (pp. 373 to 475) . The "International Magnetic 
Standards," as stated, are provisional and are described fully in Volumes II and IV. 
The numerous comparisons with magnetic-observatory standards and with standard 
electromagnetic magnetometers indicated that these provisional standards approach 
sufficiently close to probable international ones that they may be considered as 
fulfilling all practical requirements of a general magnetic survey of the Earth. 

The instruments used as standards by the Department during 1921 to 1926 
were the same as those used prior to 1921 for results given in Volumes I, II, and IV, 
viz, in declination, C. I. W. magnetometer No. 3 with correction on I. M. S. of 
— 0' 1 to observed values; in horizontal intensity, C. I. W. magnetometer No. 3 with 
zero correction on I. M. S. to observed values; in inclination, earth inductor No. 48 
made by Schulze, with zero correction on I. M. S. to observed values. 

MAGNETOMETER CORRECTIONS 

The corrections of each magnetometer on the adopted standard were deter- 
mined at Washington, before and after use of the instrument in the field, and also, 
whenever possible, in the field by means of intercomparison with other outfits. 
The accuracy of the mean correction is usually within about 0'.2 in declination 
and about 0.0001// in horizontal intensity. The tabulated corrections are to be 
applied algebraically, east declination being reckoned as positive and west declina- 
tion as negative; horizontal intensity is always taken as positive. 

It will be noted that for some of the instruments the //-corrections vary with 
time ; this is because of gradual change with time during field use in the moment of 
inertia, K, of the long magnet system. That such changes take place, particularly 
in the tropics and for magnets sheathed with brass, and that in general they are 
closely linear with time, is clearly shown by discussion of the results from numerous 
intercomparisons at Washington. In some cases the final values of the distribution 
coefficients P and Q, or P', which result from compilations of available data through 
1920, differ from the values used for the original constants and computations; for 
several of the instruments the same remark applies for the final value of logarithm 
■k 2 K. The tabulated //-corrections are shown by Table 5. 

INCLINOMETER CORRECTIONS 

As in the past for determinations of inclination with the dip circle, the polarity 
of the needle is invariably reversed, eliminating any so-called balance-error due to 
eccentric position of the center of gravity of the needle. There remains, however, 
the error due to irregularity of figure of pivot, and this will vary, in general, with 

20 



Reductions to Standard Instruments 



21 



the angle of inclination. Hence the determinations of needle-corrections at a 
base-station, however carefully executed, may not necessarily apply to a region of 
different inclination. Unfortunately, even when reliable comparison-data were 
available, the development of tiny rust-spots on the pivots in the course of field 
work, especially in tropical regions, has made it necessary in almost every case to 
depend for the corrections upon a critical study of observed needle-differences. 
The prime purpose of such a discussion has been to adjust the values obtained from 
each of the needles to the mean of all, and to determine upon the allowable ranges 
in the inclination results for guidance in rejection of any values. The large accumu- 
lation by the Department of well-distributed inclination data during 1914 to 1920 
furnished material for some interesting discussions of the effects of minute pivot- 
defects (see pp. 359 to 371 of Vol. IV). 

Table 5 — Magnetometer Corrections on Adopted I. M. >S. for the Period 1921 to 1926 



No. of 
mag- 
netom- 
eter 


Correction to observed — 


Remarks 


Decli- 
nation 


Horizontal intensity 


3 
5 
6 

7 

8 

8 
10 
12 
13 
14 
16 
17 
18 
24 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
27 
27 
27 

28 

156 c 
Brunner d 


-0.1 
-0.2 
-0.8 
-0.2 
-0.7 
-0.7 
-0.5 
-0.2 
-0.7 
-0.2 

6 -0.5 
-0.3 
-0.2 
-0.3 
-0.2 
-0.3 
-0.3 

6 -0.3 
-0.3 
-0.3 
-0.3 

6 -0.6 

b — 0.2 
0.0 

+5.4 


0.00000// 


Standard instrument. 

Overhauled in field." 

Standard instrument at Watheroo Observatory. 

For the year 1921. 

From January 1922. 

Standard instrument at Huancayo Observatory. 

After remaking in March 1922. 

After remaking in December 1916. 

After overhauling in April 1922. 

From May 1921. 

From August 1919 to March 1922. 
From April 1922 to October 1923. 
From 1925 with new inertia determination. 
From February 1922 to April 1923. 
After remaking April to June 1923 after field accident. 
After remaking August 1921. 
From January to November 1923, new inertia. 
After remaking May 1924, following serious field acci- 
dent of November 1923. 
From April 1921, new inertia. 
For work from May to December 1926. 
For 1920 to 1921. 


-0.00058// 


+0.00016// 


-0 00054// 


-0.00031// 


-0.00032// 


+0.00030/Z + (1920.0 -l) 0.000088// 
-0.00040// 


-0.00100// + (1920.0 -0 0.00012 H 
-0 00078// 


+0.00013J/ + (1921.5 -t) 0.00031 H 

+0.00016// 

+0.00011/Z + (1916.17-0 0.00027 H 
+0.00024/7+ (1921. 37-<) 0.00068 H 
+0.00029// + (1920.0 -t) 0.00040 H 
+0.00015// + U922.3 -t) 0.00038 H 

-0.00039// 

- . 00046// 


+0.00011Z/ + (1924.4 -t) 0.00049 H 
-0.00093// + U921.8 -t) 0.00016 H 
-0.00032// 


-0.00006// + (1924. 39-0 0.00049 H 

-0.00013// + (1921. 32-0 0.00021 H 
-0.0006 H 


-0.0037 H 





° Corrections subsequently determined from simultaneous field comparisons with other C. I. W. instruments at 
Mount Lofty and Port Augusta. 

6 Same correction applied for short magnet when used in determining declination. 

c Kew type Dover magnetometer belonging to the U. S. Navy Department; corrections as determined at Cheltenham 
Magnetic Observatory. 

d Brunner magnetometer belonging to the Tananarive Observatory of Madagascar; corrections determined by com- 
parisons with C. I. W. magnetometer 13 at the Observatory (see Res. Dep. Terr. Mag., v. 4, pp. 459-461). 

On the other hand, the successful and extended use of the Department's design 
of field earth-inductor in difficult expeditions has shown it to be an instrument of 
relatively high precision in absolute determinations. It is noteworthy that the 
numerous intercomparisons, covering extreme ranges in inclination and involving 
various types of inductor, show the corrections on standard for inductors to be 
practically constant for every value of inclination, and certainly well within the 



22 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



limit of accuracy of observation possible with vertical circles of the sizes used. 
Accordingly, the practice of the Department is now to abandon the use of the dip 
circle in favor of the earth inductor, except in regions of very high inclination for 
which the earth inductor is not so well suited primarily because of mechanical 
troubles caused by the intense cold. An inspection of the corrections on standard 
for various earth inductors and comparison with those for various dip circles, as 
given in Table 6, again point forcibly to the desirability of replacing the dip circle 
by the inductor wherever possible, both in the field and at observatories. 

The inclination corrections adopted for the various instruments, used in the 
observations contained in this volume, are given in Table 6; these corrections are to 
be applied algebraically, regarding inclination, north end of needle down as positive, 
and south end of needle down as negative. 

Table 6 also gives the corrections for the compass-attachments of the dip 
circles; these corrections are to be applied algebraically to observed results, regard- 
ing east declination as positive and west declination as negative. 

Table 6 — Inclination Corrections on Adopted International Magnetic Standard for the Period 1921 to 1926 



Instrument 


Type* 


Inclination 


Corrections for needle 


Tabular 
designation 


Correc- 
tion for 
compass 


Remarks 








No. 4 


No. 5 












Dover circle 125 . . . 


(a) 


+55° to +56° 


0!0 


0!0 






125.45 




Property of United States Navy. 




















Used in the survey operations of 




















the U.S.S. Nokomis in December 




















1926. In view of the erratic be- 




















havior of the needles, the means 




















of observed results are taken 




















without correction. 








No. 1 


No. 2 












Dover circle 154. . . 


(a) 


+71° to +86° 


+0!6 


+0!4 






154.12 




For period 1918 to 1921 while used 




















in Asia and the Arctic Sea by the 




















Maud Expedition. Corrections 




















determined by comparison with 




















dip circle 205 in the field and 




















with earth inductor 48 at Stand- 




















ardizing Magnetic Observatory, 




















Washington. 












No. 7 


No. 8 














No. 14X 


No. 15X 


of 242 


of 242 








Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


+49° 


+2!3 
No. 14X 


-3(6 
No. 15X 


-i:0 

No. 7 
of 242 


+6!4 

No. 8 
of 242 


177.2X(78) 




Corrections computed from analy- 
sis of comparison observations 
at Kakioka, Japan, August 1922 






+58° 


-2:2 


-0:6 


-5(0 


+8!0 






Corrections determined by analy- 






+56 


-2.8 


-1.0 


-5.5 


+7.5 






sis of observations in north 






+54 
j +52 










■177.2X(78) 




China during 1922 and used in 
results obtained at Kalgan, Pe- 


-4.2 


-1.6 


-6.4 


+6.5 


Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


+50 


-4.2 


-2.5 


-6.4 


+6.6 






king, Chengchow, Nanking, and 






+48 


-3.4 


-3.2 


-6.3 


+7.0 






Hankow, July 17 to August 4, 






+46 


-2.8 




-5.9 


+7.6 






1922. 






+44 


-2.0 
No. 14X 


No. 15X 


-5.2 

No. 7 
of 242 


+8.0 
No. 8 
of 242 


■ 






Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


+32° 


0:0 


OlO 


OlO 


OlO 


177.2X(78) 




Inclination adopted without cor- 
rection for series of observations 
at Canton, China, December 
1921 to July 1922. Results show 
wide variability for individual 
needles, and the value of the in- 



For explanation of types, see p. 19. 



Reductions to Standard Instruments 23 

Table 6 — Inclination Corrections on Adopted International Magnetic Standard for the Period 1921 to 1926 — Continued 



Instrument 


Type 


Inclination 


Corrections for needle 


Tabular 
designation 


Correc- 
tion for 


Remarks 
















compass 




Dover Circle 177 


















clination gradually decreased, as 


— Continued 






No. 14X 


No. 15X 


No. 7 
of 242 


No. 8 
of 242 






shown by all four needles. No 
cause can be assigned for this 
decrease, and the mean value 
for the whole period of six 
months should be used in any 
discussion of secular variation. 
Needle 15X developed a large 
correction on May 2, 1922, 
which persisted until the ob- 
servations at Chengchow, July 
26, 1922. 


Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


+ 8° to - 4° 


0!0 

No. 14X 


0:0 
No. 15X 


0:0 

No. 7 
of 242 


0!0 

No. 8 
of 242 


177.2X(78) 




Inclination adopted without cor- 
rection for Colombo, Aden, Jibu- 
ti, and Abyssinia, owing to er- 
ratic behavior of individual 
needles during August 31 to 
October 10, 1921. 


Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


-17° 


o:o 

No. 14X 


0:0 
No. 15X 


Oil) 

No. 7 
of 242 


0:0 

No. 8 
of 242 


177.2X(78) 




Inclination adopted without cor- 
rection for Singapore, Novem- 
ber 1921. 






— 24° 


+3(0 


+ i:2 


-4:0 


-3(0 






Corrections determined by analy- 






-26 


+3.8 


0.0 


-4.0 


-4.0 






sis and scaled from smoothed 






-28 


+4.2 


-0.6 


-3.8 


-4.6 


■177.2X(78) 




J graph. Used for observations in 


Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


1 -30 


+4.4 


-0.8 


-3.4 


-5.0 




Tanganyika Territory and Ken- 




] -32 


+4.6 


-0.5 


-3.0 


-5.4 






ya Colony, East Africa, July 13 






-34 


+4.6 


+0.6 


-2.8 


-5.2 






to August 23, 1921. 






-36 


+4.6 


+2.3 


-2.8 


-4.6 












-38 


+4.5 
No. 14X 


+4.0 
No. 15X 


-3.0 

No. 7 
of 242 


-3.8 
No. 8 
of 242 












-44° 


-3:4 


+ l!6 


+5:2 


-3:8 






i 






-46 


-0.7 


+5.2 


+0.1 


-4.7 












-48 
-50 


0.0 

-1.4 
-1.9 

-1.4 


+4.0 
+2.0 
+2.0 

+ 1.2 


+ 0.8 
+3.2 
+4.4 
+6.0 


-4.7 
-4.0 
-4.6 
-6.0 


>177.2X(78) 




1 Corrections determined by analy- 
■i sis of observations in Madagas- 


Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


) — O— 
-54 






{ car, January to June 1921. 






-56 


-0.6 


+2.0 


+6.0 


-7.6 












-58 


-2.4 


+2.6 


+7.2 


-7.5 












-60 


-3.4 


+2.8 


+6.6 


-6.4 












-62 


-3.0 

No. 14X 


+3.0 
No. 15X 


+ 5.4 
No. 7 
of 242 


-5.8 
No. 8 
of 242 








Dover circle 177. . . 


(a) 


-64° 


-0:3 

No. 1 


+ l!9 
No. 2 


+2!6 


-Oil 


177.2X(78) 




Corrections determined by com- 
parison with earth inductor 2 at 
Watheroo Magnetic Observa- 
tory, October 24-26, 1921, and 
used for observations in Aus- 
tralia. 


Dover circle 181 . . . 


(a) 


+42° to +44° 


0:0 


0(0 






181.12 




Property of United States Navy. 




















Used in the survey operations of 




















the U.S.S. Niagara in 1926. In 




















view of the erratic behavior of 




















the needles, the means of ob- 




















served results are taken without 




















correction. 



For explanation of types, see p. 19. 



24 Land Magnetic Obseevations, 1921-1926 

Table 6 — Inclination Corrections on Adopted International Magnetic Standard for the Period 1921 to 1926 — Continued 



Instrument 



Dover circle 201. 



Dover circle 205. 



Dover circle 205. . 



Dover circle 223. 



Dover circle 226. 



Dover circle 241 . 



Dover circle 241. 



Type" 



(a) 



(a) 



(a) 



(a) 



(d) 



(a) 



(a) 



Inclination 



-62° to -67° 



+71° to +86° 



+ 71° to +86° 



+ 4° to - 2° 



-62° to -67° 



+71° to +87 c 



+71° to +87° 



Corrections for needle 



No. IX 


No. 2X 


+i:o 


-014 


No. 1 


No. 2 


-0!2 


-0:2 


No. 3 


No. 7 


+ l!2 


-0:8 


No. 1 


No. 2 


OlO 


OlO 


No. 3 


No. 7 


OlO 


-i:5 


-1.0 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-1.5 



No. 4X 
0:0 



No. 5 

-0:i 

No. 7 

of 178 

-0:7 

No. 3 

of 223 

0!0 



No. 6X 
+0:2 



No. 6 
-0!2 



No. 6 
0!0 



No. 1 No. 2 No. 5 No. 6 
Mean for four needles, 0!0 



No. 2A 
-1(1 



No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 1A 


-0'2 


-2:1 


-6!l 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 5 


-0!2 


+ i:2 


+018 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 5 


OlO 


+0:4 


+0:9 



No. 6 
+0:8 



No. 6 
-0!5 



Tabular 
designation 



201.1246 



205.1256 
205.37(7) 

205.126(3) 



205.37 



223.1256 



226.12(12) 



241.1256 



241.1256 



Correc- 
tion for 
compass 



+2i:2 



-9' 



+2:9 



■4:0 



Remarks 



Corrections determined by com- 
parisons with earth inductor 2 at 
Watheroo Magnetic Observa- 
tory, January 4-14, 1921. Used 
in Australia during 1921. 

Used on the Maud Expedition dur- 
ing 1918 to 1921. Logarithms of 
total-intensity constants for nee- 
dle-pairs 3 and 4, 7 and 8 and 7 
and 8 of 178 are 9.57698, 
9.57664, and 9.62085 (March 
1922). 



Used on the Maud Expedition dur- 
ing 1922 to 1925. Logarithms of 
total-intensity constants for nee- 
dle-pairs 3 and 4, and 7 and 8, 
are 9.57630 + 0.000673 (i- 
1922 . 0) and 9 . 57739 +0 . 000673 
(t- 1922.0). 

For period August 1922 to Febru- 
ary 1924. 

For period March 1924 to July 
1924. 

For period October 1924 to May, 
1925. 

Used in Liberia beginning Decem- 
ber 1922. Corrections deter- 
mined by comparisons with 
earth inductor 48 at Standardiz- 
ing Magnetic Observatory, 
Washington. 

Corrections determined by com- 
parisons with earth inductor 24 
at Mount Lofty and Port Au- 
gusta, February and May 1923, 
and used for observations in 
Australia in 1923. 



Used on the MacMillan Baffin 
Island Expedition of July 1921 
to October 1922. The correction 
for inclinations from needle 7 
deflected by needle 8, — 5! 4. 
Logarithm of total-intensity con- 
stant for needle-pair 7 and 8, 
9.61502. 

Used on the MacMillan North 
Greenland Expedition of June 
1923 to October 1924. The cor- 
rections for inclinations from 
needle 7 deflected by needle 8 
were: +71°, -5(8; +74°, 
-513; +76°, -4!3; +78°, 
-2:9; +80°, -l!7; +82°, 
-l!2; +84°, -l!0; +86°, 
— 0(9. Logarithm of total-in- 
tensity constant for needle-pair 
7 and 8, 9.61553. 



" For explanation of types, see p. 19. 



Reductions to Standard Instruments 25 

Table 6 — Inclination Corrections on Adopted International Magnetic Standard for the Period 1921 to 1926 — Continued 



Instrument 



Dover circle 242 . 



Type" 



(a) 



Dover circle 242. . . 



Brunner . 



Earth inductor 2 . . 

Earth inductor 3 . . 

Earth inductor 3 . . 
Earth inductor 5 . . 



Earth inductor 6A 
Earth inductor 7 . . 



Earth inductor 7 . . 
Earth inductor 48' 

Magnetometer-in- 
ductor 24 

Magnetometer-in- 
ductor 25 



Inclination 



+71° to +87 c 



(a) 



(c) 



4(c) 
4(c) 



+71° to +87° 



Corrections for needle 



No. 1 

+1:1 



No. 1 
+i:9 



-50° to -55° 



All values 

All values 

All values 
All values 



All values 
All values 



All values 
All values 

All values 
All values 



No. 2 
+0:6 



No. 5 
-i:4 



No. 2 

of 240 

-0:8 



+4!5 



OlO 

•0:6 

■0(3 
0.0 



-0.5 
-0.2 



-0.4 
0.0 

-0.4 
0.0 



No. 5 
-l!2 



No. 6 
-0:2 



No. 6 
+0:i 



Tabular 
designation 



242.1256 



242.156(2) 



Brunner 



Correc- 
tion for 
compass 



li:2 



EI 2 



EI 3 



EI 3 


EI 5 


EI 6 


EI 7 


EI 7 


EI 48 


EI 24 


EI 25 



Remarks 



Used on the MacMillan Baffin 
Island Expedition of July 1921 
to October 1922. The correc- 
tions for inclinations from needle 

3 of 202 deflected by needle 4 of 
202, and from needle 1 of 172 
deflected by needle 8 of 202 were 
+0!9 and -2!6. The loga- 
rithms of total-intensity con- 
stants for needle-pairs 3 of 202 
with 4 of 202 and 1 of 172 with 
8 of 202 were 9.58401 and 
9.57078. 

Used on the MacMillan North 
Greenland Expedition of June 
1923 to October 1924. The cor- 
rections for inclinations from 
needle 3 deflected by needle 4 of 
202 and from needle 1 of 172 
deflected by 8 of 202 were: 
+71 ?2, +5:0 and -3:2; 
+85 ?8, +0^5 for the first pair, 
the second not being used. The 
logarithm of total-intensity con- 
stant for needle-pair 3 of 202 and 

4 of 202, 9.57351. 
Medium-size model of the French 

type of dip circle. This circle is 
the property of the Tananarive 
Observatory at Madagascar and 
was used in Madagascar at two 
stations reported upon in this 
volume. The correction in- 
dicated is for the mean of the 
two needles and was determined 
at Tananarive in November 1920 
(see Vol. IV, pp. 459 to 461). 

Used since 1918 at the Watheroo 
Magnetic Observatory, Aus- 
tralia. 

Used as standard in conjunction 
with magnetometer-inductor 25 
at Carnegie shore stations. 

For period May 1922 to March 
1923 after repairs. 

Used since February 1919 at the 
Huancayo Magnetic Observa- 
tory, Peru. 

Used in Bermuda. 

Used as standard in conjunction 
with magnetometer-inductor 25 
at Carnegie shore stations. 

For period March 1922 to Septem- 
ber 1923. 

Standard instrument of the De- 
partment since 1907. 



Standard inclination instrument at 
Carnegie shore stations. 



For explanation of types, see p. 19. 

Wild-Eschenhagen type, as made by Toepfer and Son, with Department modifications. 

Marine type, made by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. 

Wild-Eschenhagen type, as made by Schulze. 

Designated by maker's number; this instrument is serial No. 1 of the Department. 



26 Land Magnetic Obseevations, 1921-1926 

Table 6 — Inclination Corrections on Adopted International Magnetic Standard for the Period 1921 to 1926 — Concluded 



Instrument 


Type a 


Inclination 


Corrections for needle 


Tabular 
designation 


Correc- 
tion for 
compass 


Remarks 


Magnetometer-in- 
ductor 25 

Magnetometer-in- 

Magnetometer-in- 
ductor 27 

Magnetometer-in- 
ductor 27 

Magnetometer-in- 


4(c) 
4(c) 

4(c) 

4(c) 
4(c) 


All values 
All values 

All values 

All values 
All values 


0.0 
-0.2 

0.0 

-0.3 
0.0 








EI 25 
EI 26 

EI 27 

EI 27 

EI 28 




For period April 1922 to October 

1923 and for 1925. 
For period 1925 and 1926. 

For period July 1921 to accident 
at San Jose, November 1923. 

From May 1924 to August 1926. 

































a For explanation of types see p. 19. 

METHODS OF OBSERVATION 

The general methods followed, both for the observational and computational 
work, as well as the instrumental equipments, have continued the same as described 
in Volumes I, II, and IV. The results have been tabulated in accordance with the 
conventions already adopted. The interested reader may be referred to Volumes 
I, II, and IV, for any desired additional information, also for specimens of observa- 
tions and of computations and descriptions of instruments. 

With the change of emphasis from securing distribution data for use in con- 
structing charts and in theoretical discussions, which called for rapid movement of 
the observer in order that the field might be quickly covered, to that of securing 
data for secular-variation studies, which permits a wider separation of stations, it 
has been possible to expand somewhat the program of observations. In arranging 
schedules of stations to be reoccupied, they are placed in three classes according to 
the extent of the program desired at each. A series of stations called " class I" 
stations is first chosen, consisting of localities easily reached, and spaced at intervals 
of 500 to 800 miles, according to circumstances. At these stations, besides the 
usual program of observations, the observer spends one day making observations 
for diurnal variation in declination and horizontal intensity and one day in inclina- 
tion. The observations extend from the early morning to late evening without 
interruption, covering the daylight period of the day, usually from 10 to 13 hours. 

At a second group of stations designated "class II" stations at points inter- 
mediate between the class I stations and usually about 200 miles apart, the observer 
repeats the program of observations on a second day, trying as far as practicable to 
make the observations for each element fall near the time of its maximum value on 
one day and near its minimum on the other. Besides giving some notion of the 
possible range of the diurnal change, this method diminishes the chance that the 
values of any element may be found at a time of disturbance. At both class I and 
class II localities the observer selects a second station, in order to test for possible 
existence of local disturbance, and at the same time to protect the secular-variation 
series from being broken by building or other disturbing operations in the vicinity. 






Reductions to Standard Instruments 27 

Only the usual program of observations is carried out at class III stations, which are 
usually repeat stations easily visited by travel incidental to reaching class I and 
class II stations. 

The observations for diurnal variation of declination and horizontal intensity 
with the field magnetometer consist of deflection observations at one distance only, 
repeated at intervals of 20 minutes. From such observations with instruments of 
the type designed and used by the Department, when properly controlled for 
temperature, and with care to protect against movement of the instrument during 
the progress of the work, both declination and horizontal intensity can be computed. 
The observations for diurnal variation of inclination consist simply in making 
repeated determinations with the earth inductor at intervals of 20 minutes. Since 
the type of the earth inductor used in the field can be relied upon to give values 
within 0(2 to 0'5, a sufficiently accurate curve can be derived from those observa- 
tions to serve the desired purpose of correcting field observations to the mean of 
day when made at long distances from magnetic observatories. 



LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 1921-1926 
EXPLANATORY REMARKS 

Precisely the same conventions have been followed in the presentation of the 
field results obtained during the six years 1921 to 1926 as adopted in Volumes I, 
II, and IV. These conventions, briefly recapitulated, are as given in the following 
paragraphs. 

It has not been deemed advisable to attempt at present to apply corrections to 
the observed results on account of the numerous variations of the Earth's mag- 
netism, e.g., diurnal variation, secular variation, magnetic perturbations, etc. 
Instead, it is believed to be better to publish the observed results as obtained, with 
no corrections applied except the reductions to the magnetic standards of the 
Department, as fully explained in the section on this subject. It will be noticed, 
however, that opposite the magnetic elements appearing in the Table of Results, 
the precise date and local mean time of each observation are given. The reader is 
thus supplied with the required information in case he may find it necessary to 
reduce the observed values to some mean time. 

The arrangement of stations is according to the same main geographic divisions 
adopted for the previous volumes, with the addition of a group of stations in the 
Mediterranean Sea which it seemed expedient to place together, and a division called 
Arctic Sea, which was necessary to provide a place for stations of the Maud Expedi- 
tion. These are properly classed with land results, although made over the Arctic 
basin. The instruments used and the methods of observation were the same as 
those at land stations in the Arctic, a condition made possible by the relatively 
slow movement of the drift-ice upon which the work was done. These main divi- 
sions then are: Africa; Asia; Australasia; Europe; North America; South America; 
Islands, Atlantic Ocean; Islands, Indian Ocean; Islands, Mediterranean; Islands, 
Pacific Ocean; and Arctic Sea. 

These main divisions have not been rigidly followed, and many exceptions will 
be noted. The purpose has been to place each station where it would be most 
readily found or with stations to which it bears a natural relation. Thus Great 
Britain is classed with Europe, Japan with Asia, Greenland and adjacent islands 
with North America, instead of being placed in the classification of islands of Atlan- 
tic or Pacific. Under each main division there are broad subdivisions, sometimes 
comprising a single country, but sometimes grouping several political or physical 
divisions for the sake of convenience. In general these subdivisions remain the 
same in this volume as in those preceding, but changes which have taken place 
make necessary some readjustments. This is particularly true in Asia Minor and 
in Africa. It is believed that where such changes have been made the reasons are 
self-explanatory and will not interfere with the use of these tables in connection 
with the earlier ones. 

The tabular entries under these subdivisions are in the order of decreasing 
north or increasing south latitude; that is to say, in the order of increasing colatitude 

28 



Explanatory Remarks 29 

counting from the North Pole to the South. When there are stations of the same 
latitude, their order is according to increasing east longitude, counting continuously 
from the standard meridian of Greenwich, or from zero to 360 degrees. 

The question whether to give values of the horizontal intensity, exclusively, or 
values of total intensity, was decided, for practical reasons, in favor of the former. 
Usually the horizontal intensity rather than the total is observed, and most likely 
will continue to be for some years at least. Only in high magnetic latitudes, where 
the horizontal intensity is small and hence its observation more or less difficult, 
are total intensities generally obtained. Rather than give total intensities, as 
derived by computation with the aid of the observed horizontal intensity and 
inclination, it is thought a better procedure to compute, in the considerably 
smaller number of cases, the horizontal intensity from the observed total-inten- 
sity and inclination, the resulting values being italicized in order to reveal their 
derivation. 

It was also decided to publish the intensities in C. G. S. units. 3 In magnetic- 
survey work on land the fourth decimal is often uncertain by one or more units and 
in ocean work the error may be five or more units in this decimal place. For these 
reasons it appears inadvisable for field results to adopt so small a unit as a small 
gamma, 7 = 1CH C. G. S. unit; it would be necessary otherwise at times to round 
out the observed value by one or more zeros. If the conditions under which an 
intensity result was obtained were such as not to warrant publishing the fourth or 
fifth decimal, this is shown by stopping with the decimal which indicates the order 
of reliability. In general, however, as will be seen, the value to the fifth decimal 
is given, but it should be understood that no claim is made as to the correctness of 
the last figure ; it has been retained here primarily in order that when all reductions 
to common epoch have been applied on account of the magnetic variations, an error 
of a unit in the fourth decimal, due purely to computation, will not enter. 

The first column in the table is headed "Station"; this gives the name of place 
at which the magnetic elements were observed, the spelling adopted being in 
accordance with the most reliable information at hand and conforming where 
practicable to local usage. 

There are some names for which a system of phonetics other than English is 
locally used, but which have become well known in their anglicized form. In 
these cases the form adopted by American or English authorities has preference to 
the local spelling, for example, Timbuktu instead of Tombouctou and Jibuti instead 
of Djibouti. Accents and diacritical marks in general are omitted. The acute 
accent following the final e in French and Spanish names is usually retained, as is 
the tilde over the a in the diphthong ao in certain Portuguese names. 

The next column gives the geographical position, latitudes, and longitudes, as 
derived in most cases from the observers' local astronomical observations following 
the methods already described in Volumes 1 to IV. When the latitudes are the 
results of fairly complete circummeridian observations of the Sun, or the means of 

3 The capital gamma, I\ was used in Volumes I and II to designate a C. G. S. unit of magnetic intensity; but as it 
is not generally used for this purpose, its use was discontinued beginning with Volume III. 



30 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

several reoccupations of the same station, or are derived from reliable large-scale 
maps, then they are given to the nearest O'l, though it should be distinctly under- 
stood that this accuracy is not guaranteed, as even for these cases the error may be 
as much as 0'5, and even in some instances a whole minute of arc. When the 
latitudes are given only to the nearest minute, there were either no astronomical 
determinations, or they may have been incomplete or defective; these values are 
usually taken from standard atlases and for some regions may be in error by several 
minutes. Owing to the numerous sources of error of a longitude determination, 
and especially because of the uncertainty in more or less unexplored countries of, 
the adopted chronometer-correction on standard time, the longitude in no instance 
is tabulated closer than to the nearest minute of arc. Usually it is derived from 
the observers' astronomical observations. Considerable use was also made of 
reliable large-scale maps, whenever available, and of standard atlases; the values 
in regions but slightly surveyed may be out sometimes by several minutes. By 
far the larger part of the stations which appear in this volume consists of reoccupa- 
tions of stations whose positions have already been published. The value previ- 
ously adopted is usually retained, except when there is good evidence that a revised 
value is more accurate. 

The date on which the magnetic observations were made will be found in the 
fourth column. The following abbreviations have been adopted for the months of 
the year: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec. The 
values of the magnetic elements will be found in the next columns as observed at the 
local mean time, expressed to nearest 0.1 hour, opposite each value. Occasionally 
it has appeared desirable, where diurnal variation in any element was observed or 
where numerous observations were made during a limited interval, to give the local 
mean times of the beginning and of the end of the series and to indicate the number 
of determinations from which the mean value is derived by a number inclosed in 
parentheses; thus, 9 h .l to ll h .3 (7) is to be read "the mean is the result of seven 
determinations made during the interval 9 h .l to 11 h . 3, local mean time, inclusive"; 
6 h .l to 20 h . 3 (dv) is to be read "repeated observations were made regularly at short 
intervals from 6 h .l to 20 h .3, local mean time." For observatories and other fixed 
stations, where observations were made frequently, it has appeared desirable to 
give only the mean values of the magnetic elements as determined at approximately 
the same local mean times on each of the days grouped in the date column (see 
entries for Watheroo Observatory, Huancayo Observatory, and Washington 
Standardizing Magnetic Observatory). 

The local mean times are given according to civil reckoning and are counted 
from midnight as zero hour continuously through 24 hours; 16 h , for example, 
means 4 o'clock p. m. 

The declination and inclination values are in general given in degrees, minutes, 
and tenths of minute of arc. For instruments which are not regarded as capable 
of yielding great accuracy only the nearest minute is given. The tabulation of 
values of the horizontal intensity has previously been explained. 



Explanatory Remarks 31 

The instruments used are shown in the columns "Mag'r" (magnetometer) and 
"Dip Circle." When the number of an instrument in magnetometer column is 
italicized, it means that a dip circle has been used in getting the declination by 
means of the compass attachment, and that total instead of horizontal intensity was 
observed. The instrument used for determination of inclination is indicated in the 
column headed "Dip Circle." With the exception of work done in cooperation 
with other organizations which have provided their own instruments, and of the 
work in the Arctic for which the electric method has not as yet been fully adapted, 
the dip circle has been superseded by the earth inductor as the inclination instru- 
ment. This is indicated by the letters EI followed by the number of the instru- 
ment used. Where no letters are prefixed it is understood that the instrument was 
the dip circle indicated by the first group of figures, the following group representing 
the needles used for the particular observations standing in the same line, for 
example, 205.123 shows that needles No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 were used in dip 
circle No. 205, the mean value only being given; 226.12 (12) shows that needles 
Nos. 1 and 2 were used in dip circle No. 226, together with needles Nos. 1 and 2 
from some other circle as indicated by the parenthesis. Each designation in the 
Table of Results will be found with its corresponding interpretation in Table 6 
entitled "Inclination Corrections." 

CONCERNING GEOGRAPHIC POSITIONS 

Full use in theoretical discussions of accurate magnetic observations requires 
that the geographic coordinates of stations be known with a fair degree of accuracy 
(see Volume I, pp. 22 et seq.). The determination of latitude is comparatively 
simple, and in general, as already stated for the methods followed (see p. 30), the 
error in this coordinate is usually less than 0! 5, and usually within about 0' 2. The 
determination of longitude, on the other hand, is subject to a greater uncertainty. 

Unlike the work of the earlier years of the magnetic surveys of the Depart- 
ment, a relatively small proportion of the stations in this report is in places for 
which no longitude has been previously determined. The requirements of the 
work have not justified the added burden of carrying radio equipment for longitude 
and time determinations. On one expedition only has that been attempted, and 
then for the special cooperative work with the expedition of the Department of Mid- 
American Archaeology to Guatemala in 1923 (see report by W. A. Love on pp. 
183-188). The usual method has been that of transporting time by means of three 
or more high-grade watches, controlled as often as possible either by direct signals 
by radio, telegraph, or cable, or by astronomical observations at stations whose 
positions have been previously determined. 

At all stations, unless prevented by lack of time or by cloudy weather, observa- 
tions on the Sun, or on a star, are made to obtain the correction of the timepiece 
on local mean time. Night work, such as required by observations of occultations, 
or of eclipses of the moons of Jupiter, is usually objectionable, especially in the 
tropical regions, where much of the Department's work has been done, on account 
of risk to the observer's health and to the success of the expedition. Since, further- 



32 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



more, such observations are long and troublesome to reduce, and can only be made 
at predicted times, without opportunity for desired repetitions and checks, no very 
serious attempts have been made to use occultations, or similar astronomical 
methods, for the determination of longitude. Some regions are so well mapped 
that the required longitudes may be scaled from the maps with sufficient accuracy; 
thus, for the extensive work in Australia, satisfactory geographic positions could be 
obtained with the aid of the excellent system of surveys covering most of that 
country. 

As the result of the experiences gained on numerous expeditions, it is found 
that the best of watches often become unreliable when subjected to the trying con- 
ditions of a field expedition extending over several months. In such cases, the 
longitudes of the most important points as obtained from the best available sources 
are accepted, and the intermediate positions are derived, with the aid of the deter- 
mined watch-rates, by interpolation. 

Table 7 — Land Magnetic Observers, 1921-1926 



Observer 


Designa- 
tion 


Observer 


Designa- 
tion 


Observer 


Designa- 
tion 


R. Amundsen" 


RA 


J. E. Sanders, Jr. 


JES 


Green and Love 


G&L 


J. P. Ault 


JPA 


J. Shearer 


JS 


Grummann and Johnston 


G&J 


R. T. Booth 


RTB 


H. U. Sverdrup a 


HUS 


Johnston and Cairns 


J&C 


F. Brown 


FB 


0. W. Torreson 


0WT 


Johnston, Cairns, and Torreson 


J,C,T 


J. Cairns 


JC 


G. R. Wait 


GRW 


Johnston, Cairns, and Wait 


J.C.W 


D. G. Coleman 


DGC 


W. F. Wallis 


WFW 


Johnston and Green 


J&G 


E. Colin* 


EC 


0. Wisting* 


0W 


Johnston and Torreson 


J&T 


J. Courts 6 


JCo 


W. H. Woods 


WHW 


Johnston and Wait 


J&W 


L. C. Daves'' 


LCD 


Amundsen and Sverdrup" 


A&S 


Kennedy and Maddern" 


K&M 


P. H. Dike 


PHD 


Ault and Goddard 


A&G 


Kennedy and Waterford 8 


K&W 


G. F. Dodwell" 


GFD 


Ault and Skilling* 


A&S 


Maud Expedition" 


MEx 


H. W. Fisk 


HWF 


Booth and Coleman 


B&C 


Parkinson and Booth 


P&B 


R. H. Goddard 


RHG 


Booth and Goddard 


B&G 


Parkinson, Booth, and Coleman 


P,B,C 


J. W. Green 


JWG 


Booth, Goddard, and Kampe 


B,G,K 


Parkinson, Kidson," and Shearer 


P,K,S 


H. R. Grummann 


HRG 


Brown and Shearer 


B&S 


Parkinson and Little 


P&L 


H. Hanssen" 


HH 


Cairns and Torreson 


C&T 


Parkinson and Shearer 


P&S 


J. T. Howard 


JTH 


Carnegie Cruise VI' 


CVI 


Parkinson and Wait 


P&W 


G. D. Howell' 


GDH 


Daves and Bussell" 1 


D&B 


Shearer and Cairns 


s&c 


H. F. Johnston 


HFJ 


Daves and Cheeks' 1 


D&G 


Sverdrup and Hanssen" 


S&H 


A. H. Kampe 


AHK 


Dodwell and Maddern e 


D&M 


Sverdrup and Malmgren" 


S&M 


A. L. Kennedy' 


ALK 


Edmonds and Coleman 


E&C 


Sverdrup and Wisting" 


S&W 


E. Kidson" 


EK 


Fisk and Howard 


F&H 


Wait and Cairns 


W&C 


P. Knudsen" 


PK 


Fisk and Grummann 


F&G 


Wait and Shearer 


W&S 


S. E. Latimer* 


SEL 


Fisk and Wallis 


F&W 


Wait, Shearer, and Cairns 


W.S.C 


J. Lindsay 


JL 


Fleming and Nicholson* 


F&N 


Wait, Torreson, and Cairns 


W,T,C 


C. M. Little 


CML 


Goddard and Howell' 


G&H 


Wallis and Little 


W&L 


W. A. Love 


WAL 


Goddard and Kampe 


G&K 


Wallis and Wood 


W&W 


F. Malmgren" 


FM 


Goddard and Parkinson 


G&P 


Wisting and Hanssen" 


W&H 


W. C. Parkinson 


WCP 


Goddard, Parkinson, and Kampe 


G,P,K 


Wisting and Malmgren" 


W&M 



° The observers of the Maud Expedition (Amundsen Arctic Expedition) of 1918-1920, were: R. Amundsen, H. U. Sverdrup, 0. 
Wisting, H. Hanssen, and P. Knudsen; those on the expedition of 1921-25, were: H. U. Sverdrup, 0. Wisting, F. Malmgren, 0. Dahl, 
G. Olonkin, K. Hansen, and S. Syvertsen. 

b Reverend Elie Colin, S. J., Director of the Observatory of Tananarive, Madagascar. 

c Lieutenant (j. g.) Jennings Courts, U. S. N., of the U. S. survey vessel Niagara. 

d L. C. Daves, C. T. Bussall, and C. G. Cheeks, of the Liberian Boundary Survey. 

e G. F. Dodwell, Astronomer, A. L. Kennedy, Assistant Astronomer, C. A. Maddern, and L. M. Waterford, of the Adelaide Obser- 
vatory, South Australia. 

1 G. D. Howell, of the MacMillan Baffin Island Expedition. 

E. Kidson, of the Meteorological Office, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

h Ensign S. E. Latimer, U. S. N., of the U. S., survey vessel Nokomis. 

* Professor W. T. Skilling and Professor N. W. Cummings of the State Teachers' College of San Diego, California, assisted with 
eclipse observations of September 9, 10, and 11, 1923. 

' The observers on Cruise VI of the Carnegie were: J. P. Ault (commanding), H. F. Johnston, R. Pemberton, A. Thomson, H. R. 
Grummann, and R. R. Mills. 

* J. A. Fleming assisted by Seth B. Nicholson of the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory. 



Explanatory Remarks 



33 



Table 8 — Summary Showing the Geographica 


' Distribution of Magnetic Stations 


, 1921-1926 




Countries and 
subdivisions 


No. of 


stations 


C.I.W. 

repeat 
locali- 
ties 


Totals 

by 
coun- 
try 


Countries and 
subdivisions 


No. of 


stations 


C.I.W. 

repeat 
locali- 
ties" 


Totals 
by 

coun- 
try 


Pri- 
mary 


Auxiliary 
and 
secon- 
dary 


Pri- 
mary 


Auxiliary 
and 
secon- 
dary 










113 

394* 

117 
24 

202 


South America 








240 

203 

71 

4 

75 


Abyssinia 


3 

2 
1 
1 
3 
1 

24 
3 
6 
3 
6 
8 
3 

11 
2 


1 

1 
1 

15 
3 
1 
3 
2 

8 
1 


3 

2 

1 
1 
3 
1 
22 
3 
6 
3 
6 
8 
3 
4 
2 


Argentina 


16 

4 

67 

12 

11 

5 

7 

3 

26 

1 

9 


11 
2 

26 

10 
1 
4 
4 
1 

16 
1 
3 


15 
4 
21 
12 
6 
5 
7 
2 

13 
1 

8 


Algeria 


Bolivia 


Algerian Sahara 

Cameroun 


Brazil 


Chile 




Colombia 


French Somaliland. . . . 
French West Africa. . . 
Gold Coast Colony . . . 

Kenya Colony 

Liberia 


Ecuador 


Guiana 


Paraguay 


Peru 


Uruguay 


Morocco 


Venezuela 


Nigeria 


Islands Atlantic Ocean . 






Azores 


4 
11 
5 
3 
3 
1 
41 


5 
3 
105 
1 
2 
3 
16 


6 

2 

1 

1 

18 


Tunisia. ... 


Bahamas 




Bermuda 


Canary Islands 

Falkland Islands 

Madeiras 


Arabia 


4 
7 
2 
1 
61 
1 
9 


2 

2 
303 

2 


2 
6 
2 

6 
1 
9 


China 


Indo-China 


West Indies . . 


Japan 




Siberia 


Straits Settlements . . . 
Australasia 


Ceylon 


1 

1 

62 

1 


1 
1 
4 


1 
1 
1 
1 


Java 


Madagascar 


Zanzibar 


Australia .... .... 


94 

11 


12 


75 

8 


Islands Mediterranean. 


Europe 


Crete 


1 
1 
1 
1 




1 


Cyclades 


Belgium 


1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 

2 


1 
1 




Cypress 




1 
1 


Denmark 


Rhodes 


Finland 




France 






Germany 


2 


1 
3 

1 


Bismarck Archipelago. 
Borneo 


1 
5 
1 
2 

8 
2 
1 
1 
2 

5 
8 
4 
3 
3 
8 
3 
2 

3 




1 


Great Britain 

Greece 








Holland 


Cook Islands 


2 
1 

1 


1 
8 
1 
1 
1 


Italy 


1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


Ellice Islands 

Fiji Islands 

Hawaiian Islands 

Lord Howe Island .... 

Marquesas 

New Caledonia (Loy- 
alty Islands) 

New Guinea 

New Hebrides 

Samoa Islands 

Society Islands 

Solomoan Islands 

Tokelau Islands 

Tonga Islands 


Portugal 


Spain 


Turkey 


North America 


1 

6 
1 

1 


5 

7 
1 
3 
2 
7 
3 
2 


Canada 


24 

41 

8 

22 

10 
36 


8 

18 

2 

16 

2 
15 


3 

31 

5 

7 

5 
8 


Greenland 

Mexico 

Newfoundland (Lab- 
rador) 

United States'* 


1.443 











" The actual number of reoccupied stations is considerably greater than enumerated, since repeat-stations close together 
are counted as one locality and reoceupations of the same station at different times during 1921 to 1926 are counted but once. 

6 Including 41 stations published in this volume which were occupied by the Maud during 1918 to 1920 but not pub- 
lished in Vol. IV. 

c Including stations occupied by the Maud in the Arctic Sea. 

d Including stations in the Standardizing Magnetic Observatory of the Departmentof Terrestrial Magnetism at Wash- 
ington; only the results with standard instruments (magnetometer C. I. W. No. 3 and earth inductor C. I. W. No. 48) in 
connection with the determinations of constants and the standardization of instruments are given. 



34 Land Magnetic Obseevations, 1921-1926 

In general, a careful analysis of the performance of the time-pieces as shown by 
the daily comparisons and the observations for local time will, for short expeditions, 
so control obvious changes in mean rate and occasional abrupt changes that watch- 
corrections on standard time may be derived which will serve the purpose for which 
the observations are made, though falling short of the accuracy desired by the 
geographer. For such expeditions the maximum error is often apparently kept 
within 5 to 8 seconds, though it will doubtless largely exceed this under unfavorable 
conditions. 

OBSERVERS 

In the last column of the Table of Results the observer, or observers, respon- 
sible for the observations are shown, in the case of a single observer, by his initials, 
and where two or more have cooperated, by the last initial of each. Table 7 gives 
the names of the observers thus designated. Where the observer is not a member 
of the regular staff of the Department, a footnote explains his connection. 

The original computations of observations are all made by the observers them- 
selves in the field. The observers have also frequently taken part in making the 
final office computations of one another's observations, but the chief burden of 
the final computations has been borne by the following members of the office 
personnel: J. P. Ault, Ella Balsam, J. J. Capello, C. R. Duvall, H. M. W. Edmonds, 
C. C. Ennis, H. W. Fisk, J. A. Fleming, M. B. Smith, and Emma L. Tibbetts. 
Mention should also be made of the efficient services rendered by the instrument- 
makers of the Department in the construction and repair of field instruments and 
accessories. 

DISTRIBUTION OF STATIONS 

Some idea of the extent of the land work represented in the Table of Results 
may be obtained from the synopsis given in Table 8, showing the geographical dis- 
tribution of the stations occupied during the six years. 



RESULTS OF LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, 1921-1926 

AFRICA 

Abyssinia 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 


Obs'r 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 






O ' 

9 34.9 N 
9 01.7 N 
9 01.7 N 
8 59.0 N 


41 53 
38 47 
38 45 
40 13 


Sep 15, '21 

Sep 11, 21 

Sep 12, 21 
Sep 13, 21 
Sep 8, 21 


h h h 
17.4 

11.2,12.8 

9.4,10.7 

9.0 to 16.1 (dv) 
17.6 


o / 

52.9 W 

1 24.8 W 

59.0 W 

57.6 W 

1 20.4 W 


h h 
18.6 

9.9 

16.7 .... 


/ 

27.1 S 

1 35.7 S 
1 55.0 S 


h h 

17.7 

11.5,12.5 
9.7,10.4 


c. g. s. 
. 34521 

. 34588 

.35172 


13 

13 

13 
13 
13 


177.(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(7S) 


FB 


Addis Abeba, British 


FB 


Addis Abeba, Catholic 


FB 




FB 








17.9 


.34652 




FB 













Algeria (Including Algerian Sahara) 



Algiers, M 

Oran 

Touggourt 



o / 


O ' 


36 48.1 N 


3 02 


35 44.7 N 


359 24 


33 07.8 N 


6 05 



Mar 


20, 


'22 


Mar 


20, 


22 


Mar 


20, 


22 


Mar 


21, 


22 


Mar 


17, 


22 


Mar 


17, 


22 


Mar 


7, 


22 


Mar 


8, 


22 



h h 

9.4,11.1 



9.3,10.7 

8.8, 9.4,10.7 

13.6,15.2,16.4 

13.9,15.2,17.3 

8.7,10.0,11.3 



10 14.6 W 



10 12.8 W 

11 42.2 W 
11 46.8 W 

9 03.5 W 

9 01.7 W 



h 




h 




14 


6 


14 


8 


15 


1 


15 


3 


15 


6 


15.8 


11 


5 


11 


7 


12 


9 


13 


1 


lfi 


4 


16 


8 


m 


8 


11 






O ' 




52 42.2 


N 


52 42.2 


N 


52 43.2 


N 


51 50.7 


N 


51 52.4 


N 


47 38.6 


N 


47 37. S 


N 



h 


h 


c. g. s. 




9.9 


10.8 


.25468 


27 








9.6 


10.4 


. 25478 


27 


9.8 


10.4 


. 25837 


27 


14.0 


14.9 


. 25830 


27 


14.2 


14.9 


.27390 


27 


9.0 


9.7 


. 27393 


27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



Cameroun 



Garoua, B. 



Garoua, A. 



9 18.4 N 



9 17.6 N 



O / 

13 24 



13 24 



Oct 


20, 


'26 


Oct 


22, 


26 


Oct 


25, 


26 


Oct 


21, 


26 



h h h 
8.3, 9.6 ... 



6.9 to 17.7 (dv) 
8.0, 9.2 



7 25.8 W 



7 17.7 W 
7 24.8 W 



h h 
7.2, 7.4 

6.8 to 
16.9 (dv) 



10.6,10.8 



55.8 S 
48.7 S 



54.4 S 



h h 

8.6, 9.3 


c. g. s. 
.32820 


26 


6.9 to 
17.7 (dv) 
8.3, 9.0 


.32734 
.32816 


26 
26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 



JES 

,IES 

JES 
JES 



Egypt 



Suez 

Helwan, N 

Helwan, S. 
Helwan, H 



Tor. 



o / 

29 57.9 N 
29 51.6 N 

29 51.6 N 
29 51.6 N 



28 14.4 N 



o 


/ 


32 


33 


31 


20 


31 


20 


31 


20 


33 


36 



Jan 17, 

Jan 18, 

Jan 19, 

Jan 8, 

Jan 8, 

Jan 8, 

Jan 11, 

Jan 10, 

Jan 10, 

Jan 10, 

Jan 7, 

Jan 7, 

Jan 7, 

Jan 10, 

Jan 11, 

Jan 11, 

Jan 11, 

Feb 5, 



h h h 

14.6,16.0 

6.5 to 17.7 (dv) 

9.0,10.2 

9.3,10.9 

11.2,11.5,12.9 

15.0,16.3 

11.0,12.4 



9.6,11.0 
11.4,12.8 
15.3,16.7 
12.9 



13.8 



59.1 W 
59.0 W 

58.2 W 

1 09.8 W 
1 11.9 W 
1 11.7 W 
1 12.4 W 



1 11.8 W 

1 13.0 W 

1 11.5 W 

1 10.2 W 



46.1 W 



h h 
17.0,17.2 



11.1,11.3 



15.8,16.0 
16.2,16.4 
16.8,16.9 



15.2,15.4 
15.7,15.9 
16.2,16.3 
14.6 



41 22.0 N 



41 18.3 N 



41 19.4 N 
41 19.7 N 
41 20.0 N 



41 20.2 N 

41 20.1 N 

41 20.2 N 

38 32.3 N 



h h 
15.1,15.7 



9.3, 9.9 

9.6,10.3 

11.9,12.5 

15.4,16.0 

11.3,11.9 



9.9,10.6 
11.7,12.4 
15.7,16.3 



14.1 



c. g. s. 
. 30072 



. 30068 
. 29946 
. 29950 
.29944 
. 29930 



. 29932 
.29912 
.29932 



.30953 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 
27 

27 



27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



French Somaliland 



Jibuti (Djibouti) 


o / 

11 34.2 N 


O / 

43 09 


Sep 
Sep 


5, '21 

6, 21 


h h h 

6.4, 7.8 


/ 

32.6 W 


h h 


O / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


13 
13 




FB 




6.8 


4 53.7 N 


6.8, 7.5 


. 35072 


177.2X(78) 


FB 











35 



36 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

French West Africa 





Latitude 


Long 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M..T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




Q 

16 
16 

16 
16 

16 
16 
16 
15 
15 
15 

15 

11 

14 

14 

14 
14 

14 

13 
13 

13 

13 
13 

12 
12 

11 

11 
10 
10 
10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

7 

7 
6 

6 
5 


56.7 N 
46.3 N 

46.3 N 
39.6 N 

39.2 N 
02.9 N 

02.8 N 

55.6 N 

39.7 N 

39.4 N 

39.2 N 
42.0 N 

42.0 N 

29.8 N 

29.8 N 

26.9 N 

26.8 N 

47.4 N 
30.7 N 

30.5 N 

26.9 N 
26.7 N 

52.7 N 
52.5 N 

52.7 N 

52.7 N 

38.8 N 

22.9 N 

22.4 N 

30.9 N 

30.5 N 

21.2 N 

02.1 N 

42 N 

42 N 
21.5 N 

21.5 N 
19 N 


o / 

359 37 
356 58 

356 58 
345 03 

345 03 
343 31 
343 31 
356 00 

30 

346 46 

346 46 
342 34 

342 34 

355 47 

355 47 
348 34 

348 34 

346 22 
2 07 

2 07 

353 43 
353 43 

352 28 
352 27 

3 31 

3 31 
350 06 

347 55 
347 55 

346 16 

346 16 

2 40 

2 31 

355 00 

355 00 
2 25 

2 26 

355 58 


Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Feb 

Mar 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Dec 
Oct 
Dec 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 

Jan 

Apr 
Apr 

Apr 

Apr 
Jan 
Dec 
Dec 
Jan 
Sep 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 

Dec 

Apr 

Apr 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Jul 


22 
4 
6 

8 

5 
16 

17 

\H 

4 

3 

24 

27 

5 

6 

4 

6 

8 

11 

9 

7 

11 

17 

IS 

19 

23 

24 

21 

21 

18 

2 

3 

3 

4 

12 

10 

11 

14 

13 

13 

15 

18 

9 
13 

14 

10 
6 
30 
31 
1 
24 
19 
21 
22 

23 

18 
21 
21 
22 
22 
27 
28 
29 
26 


'26 
26 
26 

26 

26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 

25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 

26 

26 
26 

26 

26 
26 
25 
25 
, 26 
25 
25 
25 
25 

25 

26 

26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
. 26 
26 
26 


h h h 

9.3,10.8 

13.9,15.2 

6.7 to 18.1 (dv) 




11 
12 
12 


01.6 W 
11.1 W 
11.3 W 


h h 
11.3,11.5 
17.2,17.5 


o / 

19 32.3 N 

20 13.3 N 


h h 
9.8,10.4 

14.2,14.9 
6.7 to 

18.1 (dv) 


c. g. s. 
.32158 
.31986 

.31934 


26 
26 

26 


EI 26 

EI 26 


JES 


Timbuktu, A 


JES 








6.3 to 
18.1 (dv) 
11.6,11.8 
14.7,14.8 
10.3,10.5 
12.6,12.8 
11.2,11.3 
15.8,16.0 
11.4,11.6 
10.7,10.8 
14.7,14.9 

9.5, 9.6 
12.2,12.3 
17.4,17.6 


20 12 . 6 N 
20 07.8 N 
26 17.4 N 
26 16.4 N 
26 11.6 N 
26 09.2 N 
26 15.1 N 
18 51.4 N 
16 41.4 N 
23 20.4 N 
23 20.0 N 
23 16.4 N 
23 32.8 N 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 






9.5,10.9 


12 
16 
16 
16 

17 
17 
12 
10 
16 
16 
Hi 
17 
17 


08.0 W 
50.8 W 
48.3 W 
51.0 W 

19.2 W 

24.3 W 
41.0 W 
45.3 W 
36.8 W 
35.0 W 
34.8 W 
57.6 W 
57.5 W 


JES 


Timbuktu, B 


9.8,10.6 
16.1,16.8 

7.8, 8.4 
10.4,11.0 

9.6,10.3 
13.2,13.9 
16.7,16.9 

9.1, 9.7 
16.1,16.8 

7.4, 8.1 

8.1, 8.9 
15.5,16.4 

6.1 to 
17.7 (dv) 


. 32038 
.30788 
. 30820 
. 30864 
.30784 
. 30762 
.31604 
. 32460 
.31114 
.31132 
.31194 
. 30705 

.30731 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 

26 


JES 




15.6.17.1 .. 
7.4, 9.5, 9 

10.1,11.3 .. 
9.3,10.6 .. 

12.8.14.2 .. 
16.4 

8.8,10.0 . . 
15.8,17.2 .. 

7.2, 8.4 .. 

7.7, 9.3 .. 
14.9,16.8 


.7 


JES 


Podor, B 


JES 
JES 




JES 




JES 




JES 




JES 




JES 




JES 
JES 




JES 




6.1 to 17.7 (dv) 






6.3 to 
17.7 (dv) 
11.0,11.1 
15.9,16.0 
10.9,11.1 
13.8,14.1 
11.6,11.8 

9.6, 9.8 
16.0,16.1 
11.0,11.1 

12.7 

15.1,15.4 
11.0,11.1 
13.3,13.5 


24 31.8 N 
24 24.4 N 
24 34 . 6 N 
24 25.0 N 
15 47.5 N 
15 47.4 N 
15 47.8 N 
19 51 . N 
19 47.4 N 
19 38.8 N 
19 41.6 N 
19 45.8 N 
11 17.6 N 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 






9.0,10.3 .. 
12.5,12.7,14 

8.6,10.0 .. 
16.4,17.8 .. 

9.7.11.0 .. 
10.0,11.2 .. 
13.6,15.1 .. 

9.0,10.4 .. 

9.7.11.1 .. 


.2 


17 
18 
17 
13 
13 
13 
16 
lti 
15 


55.4 W 
00.0 W 
56.4 W 
03.4 W 
09.4 W 
01.0 w 
04.4 W 

02.7 W 

56.8 W 


JES 




9.3,10.0 
13.3,13.7 

9.0, 9.7 
16.7,17.5 
10.0,10.7 
10.3,10.9 
13.9,14.7 

9.4,10.1 
10.1,10.8 


. 30693 
.30712 
. 30708 
.31950 
.31980 
. 32020 
.31332 
.31370 
.31498 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 


JES 
JES 




JES 
JES 


Mopti, B 


JES 
JES 




JES 


Kayes, B 


JES 
JES 
JES 


Tambacounda 


7.0, 8.4 .. 
17.6 

5.9, 6.9 .. 
16.6,17.8 .. 

8.8.10.0 . . 

9.9.11.1 . . 
16.3,17.7 .. 

9.4,10.8 . . 
9.4 10.9 .. 
8.4,10.8 .. 




16 
10 
10 
10 
10 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 


48.3 W 
32.9 W 
32.8 W 

33.7 W 
31.2 W 
56.6 W 
57.2 W 
56.0 W 

41.8 W 

44.4 W 


7.4, 8.1 

17.9,18.3 

6.1, 6.6 

16.6,17.5 

9.1, 9.7 

10.2,10.8 

16.7,17.4 

9.8,10.5 

9.8,10.6 

9.8,10.5 

16.5 


.31185 
.32466 
. 32455 
. 32457 
. 32506 
.31878 
.31841 
.31832 
.31746 
.31747 
.31753 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 


JES 
JES 




JES 




15.9,16.1 
10.3,10.5 
11.4,11.7 
14.0,14.2 
11.2,11.4 
11.2,11.4 
11.4,11.6 


11 17.3 N 
11 16.6 N 
14 29.5 N 
14 30.3 N 
14 29.6 N 
13 56.6 N 
13 58.2 N 


JES 




JES 
JES 




JES 




JES 
JES 




JES 




JES 










6.5 to 
17.7 (dv) 


13 58.9 N 


EI 26 






6.5 to 18.1(dv) 
9.5,10.8 


14 
10 


48.2 W 
24.6 W 


JES 




6.5 to 
18.1 (dv) 
9.8,10.6 


.31765 
.32471 


26 
26 






11.1,11.3 
6.3 to 
17.7 (dv) 


7 07.1 N 
7 09 . 8 N 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 








6.3 to 18.0(dv) 
8.9,10.1 


10 

10 
16 

17 
16 

lti 
17 
17 
18 


27.2 W 

24 2 W 
13.8 W 
10.0 W 
55.2 W 
54.7 W 
11.6 W 
11.4 W 
23.2 W 


JES 




6.3 to 
18.0 (dv) 

9.2, 9.8 
10.1,10.8 
14.2,14.9 
14.1,14.7 

9.9,10.6 
17.1,17.9 
14.2,14.8 

9.8,10.6 


. 32447 
.32468 
.31516 
.31412 
.31352 
.31352 
. 27924 
. 28007 
. 28626 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 






10.7,10.9 
11.5,11.7 
16.7,16.9 
16.4,16.6 
11.3,11.5 


7 08.4 N 

10 35.5 N 

11 46.8 N 
11 36.6 N 
11 36.6 N 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 




9.8,11.1 . . 

13.9.16.1 . . 

13.8.15.0 .. 
9.6,11.0 .. 

16.7.18.2 .. 

13.8.15.1 .. 
9.5,10.9 . . 




JES 




JES 




JES 




JES 
JES 




16.4,16.6 
11.4,11.6 

6.5 to 
17.4 (dv) 


11 06.4 N 
11 02.9 N 

11 05.9 N 


EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 


JES 
JES 








6.7 to 17.7 (dv) 
15.9,17.3 


18 

11 
11 
14 
14 
14 
11 
11 
12 
15 


25.4 W 

14.2 W 
29.0 W 
45.0 W 

43.7 W 
43.9 W 

57.8 W 
59.0 W 
01.6 W 
04.8 W 


JES 




6.7 to 
17.7 (dv) 
16.4,17.0 

7.8, 8.5 
16.1,16.8 

9.2, 9.8 
14.2,14.8 
14.7,15.3 

8.7, 9.4 

9.6,10.2 
10.2,10.7 


. 28644 
. 32032 
.31800 
.31249 
.31272 
.31273 
.31334 
.31360 
.31357 
. 30780 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 






15.3,15.4 

9.3, 9.5 
14.1,14.3 
10.4,10.6 
16.1,16.3 
16.3,16.5 
10.1,10.3 

8.8, 9.0 

9.4, 9.6 


1 25.2 N 
1 31. 28 
1 08.0 N 
1 04.5 N 
1 06.8 N 
5 23.2 S 
5 19.0 S 
5 20.7 S 
4 28.4 S 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 


Save 1 


7.5, 8.8 .. 

15.7.17.0 .. 
8.9,10.1 .. 

13.8.15.1 .. 
14.4,15.6 .. 

8.4, 9.7 .. 
9.4,10.4 .. 
9.9,11.0 .. 




JES 




JES 


Bouak6, B 


JES 
JES 




JES 




JES 
JES 




JES 








. 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



37 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Grand Bassam, A 

Grand Bassam, B 


o I 

5 11.8 N 
5 11.5 N 


O / 

356 15 
356 15 


Jul 12, '26 
Jul 13, 26 
Aug 4, 26 


h h h 

16.2,17.3 

9.4,10.7 

9.4,10.7 


O 1 

15 01.0 W 

14 58.8 W 
14 54.8 W 


h h 

14.3,14.5 

9.0, 9.2 

11.1,11.3 


O ' 

5 06.4 S 
5 03.8 S 
5 03 . 2 S 


h h 

16.4,17.0 

9.7,10.3 

9.7,10.3 


c. g. s. 
. 30733 
. 30790 
. 30800 


26 
26 
26 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 

JES 
JES 



Gold Coast Colony 



Kumasi, A. 



Kumasi, B . . . 
Accra, C 

Accra, A 

Accra, B 

Sekondi, 1926 



6 41.0 N 



6 41.0 N 
5 34 . 6 N 



5 32.5 N 

5 32.5 N 
4 56.4 N 



o 


, 


358 


26 


358 


25 


359 


49 


359 


49 


359 


49 


358 


18 



Jun 


18, 


'26 


Jun 


20, 


26 


Jun 


22, 


26 


Jun 


17, 


26 


Jun 


10, 


26 


Jun 


11, 


26 


Jun 


11, 


26 


Jun 


5, 


26 


Jun 


6, 


26 


Jun 


4, 


26 


Jun 


26, 


26 


Jun 


26, 


26 



h h h 

15.9,17.0 

6.7 to 17.4(dv) 



15 


9 


17 


1 . .. 


10 


7 


12 


0,12.2 


8 





9 


2 ... 


14 


3 


15 


2 . . . 


15 


2 


16 


5 ... 


9 


5 


10 


8 ... 


9 


8 


11 


2 ... 


9 


8 


11 


2 ... 


14 


9 







O 


, 






13 


39 





W 


13 


39 


8 


W 


13 


38 


5 


W 


13 


15 


6 


w 


13 


13 


8 


w 


13 


17 


2 


w 


13 


17 





w 


13 


15 


4 


w 


13 


14 


8 


w 


14 


10 





w 


14 


09 


5 


w 



h h 
14.7,14.9 



6.6 to 
15.8 (dv) 
14.4,14.6 

15.5,15.7 



11.1,11.3 
14.0,14.2 
14.3,14.5 
14.5 



2 57.0 S 



2 57 . 4 S 
2 55.4 S 
6 06 . 1 S 



5 58.6 S 

6 01.6 S 

6 00 . 5 S 

7 10. 8S 



h h 
16.2,16.7 

6.7 to 
17.4 (dv) 



16.2,16.8 
11.0,11.7 



15.6,16.2 
9.8,10.4 
10.2,10.8 
10.2,10.9 
16.0 



c. g. s. 
.31192 



.31214 



.31202 
. 30872 



. 30842 
. 30862 
. 30896 
. 30740 
. 30684 



26 



26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



EI 26 

EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



JES 

JES 

JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 



Kenya Colony 



Kisumu. . . 

Nakuru*. . 
Nairobi, B 
Nairobi, A 
Makindu . . 

Voi 

Mombasa . 



05.8 S 

17.1 S 

1 17. 3S 

1 17.5 S 

2 16. 8S 

3 23.8 S 

4 03.3 S 



o 


, 


34 


45 


36 


04 


36 


49 


36 


50 


37 


49 


38 


34 


39 


41 



Aug 15, '21 

Aug 16, 21 

Aug 12, 21 

Aug 11, 21 

Aug 19, 21 

Aug 20, 21 

Aug. 23, 21 



h h 
7.3, 8.6 
10.0,11.3 
10.3,11.7 
16.7,18.0 
10.2,11.5 
10.1,11.4 
7.7, 8.9 





3 


55 


8 


W 


4 


05 





w 


3 


51 


8 


w 


3 


38 





w 


3 


41 


2 


w 


3 


54 


4 


w 


3 


42 





w 



// 

10.5 
14.5 
15.2 
15.8 
15.7 
15.4 
11.5 






, 




23 


24 


4 S 


21 


()'.) 


4 S 


26 


00 


4 S 


25 


39 


1 S 


28 


08 


7 S 


30 


12 


2 S 


31 


08 


9 S 



h 

7.7 
10.4 
10.7. 
17.1 
10.5, 
10.5, 

8.0, 



h 

8.3 
11.0 



c. g. s. 




.31424 


13 


.31167 


13 


. 30908 


13 


. 30900 


13 


. 30602 


13 


. 30098 


13 


.29778 


13 



177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 



FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 



Liberia 



Naama . 



Sanoye . 



Robert Port (Cape 
Mount) 

Bushrod Island (Mon- 
rovia) 

Greenville (Sinu' 



Cuttington, A* 

Cuttington, B* 



7 16 N 



6 58.6 N 



6 45.3 N 

6 21.5 N 
5 00.0 N 

4 23.3 N 
4 23 . 3 N 



o 


, 


350 


37 


350 


01 


348 


38 


349 


12 


350 


05 


352 


19 


352 


19 



Aug 14, '24 

Aug 14, 24 

Aug 15, 24 

Aug 15, 24 

Aug 16, 24 

Aug 16, 24 

Aug 17, 24 

Aug 18, 24 

Jul 4, 24 

5, 24 

6, 24 
19, 24 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 21, 24 



Jul 21, 24 

Sep 3, 23 

Sep 4, 23 

Jun 23, 23 

Jun 24, 23 

Dec 11, 24 

Dec 12, 24 

Dec 16, 24 

Aug 14, 26 

Aug 16, 26 

Aug 17, 26 

Aug 19, 26 



h h h 

7.8,10.4,17.3 

17.4,17.5,17.7 

7.3,18.2 

7.6 to 17.9(dv) 
10 0,12.0,18.4 
19.1 to 

17.7 (dv) 



10.5,13.8 
9.7,14.4 



6.9, 8.1,16.9 
8.5 to 14.5 (dv) 
13.3,16.6 



13.8 

11.1,15.0 
11.0,13.3 



9.7 ,11 6 

15.8,17.1 

9.4,10.6 

14.4,16.5 



16 46.3 W 

16 45.5 W 

16 44.6 W 

16 47.2 W 

16 48.8 W 

16 48.2 W 



16 58.4 W 
16 55.8 W 



16 57.7 W 
16 58.7 W 
16 59.6 W 



17 41.3 W 
17 39.4 W 
17 26.6 W 



17 24.5 W 

17 05.8 W 

17 05.4 W 

16 55.4 W 



15.1 



11.0 

18.0 



11.1 
10.0 



16.9 



17.4 



11.6 

14.2 

14.8,15.0 
9.0, 9.2 
9.2, 9.4 
6.4 to 
17.4 (dv) 



4 29 . 9 N 



4 25.9 N 
3 11.2 N 



3 19.2 N 
3 03 6 N 



3 25.8 N 



3 19.4 N 



1 27.7 S 
1 21.1 S 
5 21. 8S 
5 22.3 S 
4 53.4 S 

4 52.5 S 



h h 
8.7, 9.9 



7.6 to 
17.9 (dv) 



9 2,11.6 



12.4,14.4 



8.5 to 
14.5 (dv) 



14.0,15.6 



12.1,14.3 
11.9,12.9 



10 3,11.2 

16.1,16.8 

9.8,10.4 

15.6,16.2 



c. g. «. 
. 30780 



. 30758 
. 30790 



. 30934 



. 30896 



.31024 



. 30789 
.30736 



. 30734 
. 30284 
.30321 
.30218 



16 

16 

16 
16 

16 

16 



16 
16 



16 
16 



16 



16 
16 
16 



16 
26 
26 
26 









223 


1256 


223 
223 


1256 
1256 


223 
223 


1256 
1256 






223 


1256 


223 


1256 



223.1256 
223.1256 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 



D&C 
D&C 

D&C 
D&C 
D&C 

D&C 
D&C 
LCD 
LCD 
LCD 
LCD 

LCD 
LCD 

LCD 
LCD 

D&B 

D&B 

LCD 

LCD 

LCD 

JES 

JES 

JES 

JES 



* Local disturbance. 



38 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

Liberia — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Cuttington, B* — Con- 


o / 

4 23.3 N 
4 22.2 N 

4 22.2 N 

4 21.6 N 

4 21.6 N 


O ' 

352 19 

352 16 

352 16 
352 16 

352 16 


Aug 21, '26 

Sep 1, 26 
Sep 2, 26 
Sep 9, 26 
Aug 27, 26 
Aug 30, 26 
Aug 30, 26 
Aug 25, 26 


ft ft ft 
6.6 to 17 7 (dv) 

15.4,16.7 


o / 

16 51.7 W 

16 54.4 W 

16 55.2 W 

17 28.1 W 
16 46.2 W 
16 43.5 W 
16 46.3 W 

18 50.9 W 


ft h 


o / 


ft ft 

6.6 to 
17.7 (dv) 
15.7,16.4 

9.3, 9.9 
16.5,17.1 
15.6 

9.2, 9.9 
13.9,14.5 
16.6,17.2 


c. g. s. 

.30266 
. 30394 
.30434 
.31058 
.29089 
.29118 
.29110 
. 28029 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 








14.7,14.9 

8.4, 8.6 

15.0,15.2 


4 24.4 S 

4 25.4 S 

5 30.6 S 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 


Cape Palmas, C* 


9.0,10.2 . . 

16.1.17.4 .. 
15.2 

8.9,10.3 .. 
13.6,14.8 .. 

16.4.17.5 .. 




JES 
JES 
JES 


Cape Palmas, B* 


10.9,11.1 
13.0,13.2 
15.7,15.9 


4 43.4 S 

4 43.7 S 

5 25.2 S 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 
JES 
JES 



Morocco 



Tangier, A 

Larache, B (El Araish) 
Larache, C (El Araish) 
Rabat 

Casablanca (Dar el 

Baida) 

Marakech, A 



Marakech, B. 
Mogador 



o / 


O ' 


35 47 . 8 N 


354 08 


35 12 . 5 N 


353 50 


35 12.5 N 


353 50 


34 01 . 5 N 


353 10 


33 34 . 2 N 


352 23 


31 37.0 N 


352 00 


31 37.0 N 


352 00 


31 31.9 N 


350 16 



Jul 


7, 


'25 


Jul 


10, 


25 


Jul 


10, 


25 


Jul 


16, 


25 


Jul 


17, 


25 


Jul 


17, 


25 


Jul 


30, 


25 


Jul 


20, 


25 


Jul 


21, 


25 


Jul 


24, 


25 


Jul 


22, 


25 


Jul 


27, 


25 


Jul 


28, 


25 


Jul 


28, 


25 



ft ft 
14.3,15.8 

8.3,10.4 
13.3,15.1 
14.0,15.6 

8.8,10.2 



17.2,18.6 
13.3,15.0 
6.0 to 18.1 (dv) 



9.3,13.9,15.6 
13.4,16.0 

9.0, 9.2 

10.7,10.9 



13 05 
13 05. 
13 07, 
13 14. 
13 12. 



13 30.1 W 
13 32.1 W 
13 29.4 W 



13 29.0 W 

14 16.6 W 
14 10.0 W 
14 13.0 W 



ft h 
16.9,17.2 
11.1,11.3 



16.9,17.1 
10.8,11.0 
11.2 



15.8,16.0 



6.3 to 
18.7 (dv) 
16.4,16.6 
15.6,15.8 
11.4,11.6 



52 51.0 N 
51 49.0 N 



50 50.9 N 
50 56.4 N 
50 58 . 2 N 



47 50.3 N 



47 51.6 N 

47 43.3 N 

48 18.2 N 
48 13.5 N 



ft ft 
14.6,15.4 

9.2,10.0 
13.7,14.7 
14.4,15.2 

9.2, 9.8 



17.6,18.3 

13.7,14.6 

6.0 to 

18.1 (dv) 



14.3,15.2 

13.8,14.6 

9.6,10.4 



c. g. s. 
. 25373 
.25851 
. 25646 
.26100 
. 26090 



.26265 
.27108 

. 27083 



.27092 
.26928 
.26937 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 

26 



26 
26 
26 
26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 

JES 
JES 

JES 

JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 



Nigeria 



Kano, A. 



Kano, B . . 
Zaria, A. . 

Zaria, B. . 
Yola, A.. 
Yola, B.. 
Jebba, A. 

Jebba, B. 
Amar 

Ibi, A.... 

Ibi, £.... 

Lokoja, A 

Lokoja, B 
Lagos, A. 
Lagos, B . 



Lagos, C . 



12 01.0 N 



12 00.6 N 
11 06.8 N 



11 06.8 N 
9 16.3 N 
9 16.3 N 
9 07.7 N 

9 07 . 7 N 
8 40.9 N 

8 10.8 N 

8 10.8 N 
7 48.3 N 

7 48.3 N 
6 26 . 9 N 
6 26 . 9 N 



6 26.9 N 



o 


, 


8 


33 


8 


33 


7 


43 


7 


43 


12 


28 


12 


28 


4 


49 


4 


49 


10 


23 


9 


44 


9 


44 


6 


44 


6 


44 


3 


24 


3 


24 


3 


24 



Dec 


22, 


'26 


Dec 


23, 


26 


Dec 


27, 


26 


Dec 


21, 


26 


Dec 


10, 


26 


Dec 


10, 


26 


Dec 


11, 


26 


Dec 


11. 


26 


Nov 


1, 


26 


Oct 


30, 


26 


Dec 


4, 


26 


Dec 


5, 


26 


Dec 


6, 


26 


Nov 


11. 


26 


Nov 


11, 


26 


Nov 


13, 


26 


Nov 


14, 


26 


Nov 


15, 


26 


Nov 


23, 


26 


Nov 


24, 


26 


Nov 


25, 


26 


May 


16, 


26 


May 


16, 


26 


May 24, 


26 


May 26, 


26 


May 


21, 


26 



ft ft ft 
9.0.10.2 



7.2 to 17.4 (dv) 



9.5, 
13.6, 



11.3 
14.7 



8. 
13. 
15. 
10. 
13. 



4 
5 
1 

4 
9.3 
10.0 



9.5 
14.6 
16.3 
11.4 
14.5 
10.5 
11.1 



6.1, 

15.2, 

7.0, 

8.0, 

15.1, 

6.7, 

9.2, 

12.7 

8.6, 



7.4 
16.8 

8.0 

9.1 
16.6 

7.8 
10.3 



10.9 



6.5 to 17.7(dv) 



13.4,14.5 



8 20.7 W 



8 22.7 W 

8 30.1 W 
8 46.7 W 



8 43.6 W 

8 46.0 W 

7 34.8 W 

7 37.3 W 

10 12.9 W 

10 11.4 W 

10 05.4 W 



8 23.5 W 

8 42 . 1 W 

8 42.2 W 

8 39.6 W 

9 53.7 W 
9 53.8 W 

10 10.6 W 

11 34.5 W 
11 34.5 W 



11 47.9 W 
11 36.6 W 



ft ft 
10.6,10.8 

6.8 to 
17.0 (dv) 



11.6,11.8 
10.7,10.9 
15.8,16.0 



11.1,11.2 

10.3,10.5 

15.7,15.8 

16.4,16.6 

7.5, 7.6 

8.9, 9.1 

5.2, 5.4 



9.1, 9.3 
14.0,14.2 

9.4, 9.6 
13.5,13.7 
10.4,10.6 

8.7, 8.9 
14.7,14.9 
11.4,11.6 

6.8 to 
17.3 (dv) 



14.9,15.0 



5 56.8 N 

6 00.6 N 



6 08.9 N 
4 13.9 N 
4 14.5 N 



4 13.6 N 
57.9 S 
57.4 S 
08.0 N 
10.0 N 

10.8 N 

1 57.8 S 



55.7 S 

53.3 S 
54.0 S 

10.8 S 

10.4 S 

50.9 S 
28.9 S 

26.5 S 



5 30.3 S 



5 29.7 S 



ft 
9.4, 



ft 
9.9 



7.2 to 
17.4 (dv) 
10.4,11.0 
13.9,14.4 



8.6, 9.2 
13.8,14.3 
15.4,16.0 
10.5,11.1 
13.7,14.2 

9.6,10.2 
10.2,10.8 



6.6, 7.1 
15.8,16.5 
7.3, 7.8 
8.3 8.8 
15.4,16.2 
7.0, 7.5 
9.5,10.0 

14.0 

10.0,10.6 



6.5 to 
17.7 (dv) 
13.7,14.2 



c. g. 3. 
.32731 



.32648 
. 32782 
.32712 



.32692 
.32690 
.32778 
.32820 
.32140 
.32186 
.32190 



. 32464 
. 32262 
.32288 
.32340 
. 32039 
.32012 
.31747 
.31464 
.31486 



.31451 
.31455 



26 



26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 



EI 26 



JES 

JES 

JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 

JES 

JES 
JES 



•Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



39 



AFRICA 

Siekra Leone 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




/ 

8 29 . 7 N 
8 09.2 N 
7 57.8 N 


O / 

346 44 

347 32 

348 11 


Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 


4, '25 

5, 25 
14, 25 
14, 25 

10, 25 

11, 25 


h h h 

14.9,16.4 

8.0, 9.5, 9.8 

9.3,10.8 

16.2,17.6 

14.4,16.1,16.4 
8.9,10.8 


o t 

17 40.6 W 
17 37.5 W 
17 06.2 W 
17 06.4 W 
17 30.1 W 
17 27.6 W 


h h 
17.5,17.7 
10.4,10.6 
12.2,12.4 


O l 

7 16.8 N 
7 14.7 N 
7 24.7 N 


h h 
15.3,16.2 
8.4, 9.2 
9.7,10.5 
16.6,17.3 
14.8,15.8 
10.4 


c. g. s. 
.31334 
.31352 
. 30947 
. 30920 
.31156 
.31177 


26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 




JES 
JES 




JES 


Bo 


17.0,17.2 
11.4,11.6 


6 30.6 N 
6 24.6 N 


JES 




JES 



Tanganyika Territory 



Kigoma 

Ujiji 

Tabora, A . . . 
Tabora, B. . . 
Malongwe. . . . 

Saranda 

Kilimatinde . . 

Mazengo 

Dodoma 

Ngere Ngere . . 
Dar-es-Salaam 

Kilossa 



52.8 S 
55.1 S 
01.5 S 
02.3 S 
26.7 S 



5 42 . 9 S 
5 51. 4S 

5 52 . 8 S 

6 11. 2S 
6 46 . 1 S 
6 49.0 S 

6 50.3 S 



o 


, 


29 


38 


29 


42 


32 


48 


32 


49 


33 


39 


35 


01 


34 


59 


34 


59 


35 


46 


38 


06 


39 


18 


37 


00 



Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 



25, 


'21 


26, 


21 


28, 


21 


29, 


21 


31, 


21 


1, 


21 


21, 


21 


22, 


21 


23, 


21 


20, 


21 


3, 


21 


13, 


21 


14, 


21 


18, 


21 



h h 

10.3,11.6 . 

9.6,10.4 . 

10.3,11.6 . 

10.1.11.4 . 
10.0,11.3 . 

6.4 to 18.2(dv) 
16.3,17.6 . 
16.4,17.6 . 

7.3, 8.6 . 

10.2.11.5 . 
9.9,11.3 . 

12.6,14.8 . 
6.0 to 18.1(dv) 

7.4, 9.2 



7 08 

7 15 

6 13 

6 13 

5 49 

5 48. 

5 30 

5 31. 

36. 

lti 

59. 

30. 
14. 



8 


W 


6 


W 


9 


W 


'.) 


W 


2 


W 





W 


1 


W 


2 


w 


4 


w 





w 


5 


w 


x 


w 


3 


w 


2 


w 



h 

16.5 
11.4 
14.9 
15.0 
15.9 



14.8 
15.3 
10.9 
14.7 
16.1 
11.3 



10 9 



33 26 . 6 S 
33 16.2 S 
33 48.4 S 

33 53.5 S 

34 30.2 S 



35 07.7 S 
35 22.8 S 
35 10.9 S 

35 51.9 S 

36 49.5 S 
36 40 . 4 S 



36 44 . 3 S 



h h 
10.7,11.3 

10.0 

10.6,11.3 
10.4,11.1 
10.4,11.0 



16.6,17.3 
16.7,17.4 
7.7, 8.3 
10.6,11.2 
10.3,11.0 
13.0,14.4 



7.7, 8.5 



c. g. s. 




. 28436 


13 


.28471 


13 


. 28608 


13 


. 28630 


13 


. 28493 


13 




13 


. 28370 


13 


. 28287 


13 


. 28324 


13 


.28256 


13 


.28071 


13 


.28144 


13 




13 


. 27935 


13 



177 
177 
177 
177 
177 



2X(78) 

2X 

2X(7S) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 



177 
177 

177 
177 
177 
177 



2X(78) 

2X(7) 

2X(7) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 



177.2X(78) 



FB 

FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 



Tunisia 



Tunis. 
Sfax. . 



o / 


O r 


36 45.5 N 


10 07 


34 43.6 N 


10 45 



Feb 


22, 


'22 


Feb 


22, 


22 


Feb 


26, 


22 


Feb 


26, 


22 



h h 
9.3,10.6 

13.7,15.0 
9.2,10.4 

13.8,15.1 



7 47.2 W 
7 48.0 W 
7 24.9 W 
7 26.2 W 



h h 
11.5,11.7 
13.0,13.2 
11.4,11.6 
13.0,13.3 



55.6 N 

53.5 N 

11.6 N 
11.6 N 



h h 
9.6,10.3 

13.0,14.7 
9.5,10.2 

14.2,14.7 



c. g. s. 




.25790 


27 


. 25802 


27 


.26816 


27 


. 26806 


27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



ASIA 
Arabia 



El Wedj 

Yambo 

Jidda, B 

Jidda, A 

Aden, B, Royal Indian 

Marine Station 

Aden, A* 



O ' 


/ 


26 13.0 N 


36 28 


24 04.7 N 


38 03 


21 29.8 N 


39 11 


21 28.3 N 


39 11 


12 49.8 N 


44 58 


12 47.2 N 


44 59 



Feb 


3, 


'22 


Feb 


4, 


22 


Feb 


2, 


22 


Jan 


27, 


22 


Jan 


28, 


22 


Jan 


30, 


22 


Sep 


23, 


21 


Aug 


31, 


21 



h h h 

16.2.17.3 . .. 
7.6 

13.6.14.4 ... 
10.6,14.4,15. 
10.4,11.6 ... 
12.8,14.3 .. . 



7.8, 
6.3, 



9.0 
7.6 



o 



/ 

14 


1 


W 





13 


6 


W 





04 


4 


w 


(1 


00 


6 


w 





01 


3 


w 





01 


1 


E 





03 


9 


w 


1) 


04 


7 


E 



h h 

15.3,15.5 



13.2 

11.6,11.8 
14.6,14.8 
15.2,15.4 

17.5 .... 

17.6 



35 10.6 N 



31 15.9 N 
26 33.0 N 
26 34.2 N 
26 29.6 N 

7 58.8 N 

8 18.4 N 



h h 
16.4,17.0 



13.9 

14.7,15.3 
10.8,11.4 
13.2,13.7 



8.1, 
6.7, 



8.7 
7.3 



c. g. s. 
.31806 



. 32740 
.33601 
. 33644 
. 33642 

. 35304 
. 35376 



27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

13 
13 



EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 

177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 



WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

FB 
FB 



China 



Kalgan 

Peking, 1907. 

Peking, 1916. 
Chengchow, B 
Chengchow, A 



o ' 


o / 


40 51.2 N 


114 51 


39 57.3 N 


116 25 


39 52.5 N 


116 23 


34 44.8 N 


113 42 


34 44.7 N 


113 42 



Aug 4, 

Aug 4, 

Jul 31 , 

Aug 1, 

Jul 29 , 

Jul 29, 



Jul 
Jul 



26, 
26, 



Jul 25, 
Jul 25, 



h h h 
8.2, 8.3 

12.6.12.7 

10.0,12.3 

6.3 to 18.3(dv) 

10.7.11.5 .. . 
13.1,13.2 ... 

7.0, 7.1 ... 

12.6.12.8 . . . 
9.0,10.2 ... 

14.4.14.6 ... 



3 22.8- W 

3 25.2 W 

4 14.4 W 
4 12.1 W 



24.0 W 
25.8 W 
41.8 W 
48.2 W 
45.2 W 
49.0 W 



h h 
13.7,18.1 



13.4 



12.4,17.5 

6.2,13.6 

11.4 



58 33.7 N 



57 18.5 N 
57 07 . 4 N 



50 45.6 N 
50 42.8 N 



h 

9. 
15. 
10. 

6. 
18. 
11. 
15. 

9. 
14 

9. 



h 


c. g. s. 




5,10.1 


.28103 


13 


0,15.6 


.28116 


13 


8,11.5 


. 28770 


13 


5 to 






1 (dv) 


.28814 


13 


0,14.8 


.28814 


13 


4 


. 28835 


13 


1, 9.8 


.31942 


13 


7,15.3 


.31974 


13 


3, 9.9 


.31936 


13 
13 







177.2X(78) 



177.2X(78) 



177.2X(78) 



177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78)» 



FB 
FB 
FB 

FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 



* Local disturbance. ' Needle 15X rejected. 



40 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ASIA 
China — Concluded 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 


Date 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 






















Obs'r 






of Gr. 






Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 






o / 


o / 






h h h 


o / 


h h 


o r 


h h 


c. g. s. 










32 03 . 8 N 


118 48 


Jul 17 , 


'?? 


7.5, 8.2 


2 24.0 W 


12.3,17.9 


46 43.1 N 


7 8, 9 5 


33041 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 
FB 




30 37 . N 


114 20 


Jul 17, 
Jul 21, 


22 


14.2,15.5 

12.5,13.8 


2 28.8 W 
2 07.0 W 






14.6,15.2 
15 0,15 7 


. 33070 
34105 


13 
13 




13.3,18.0 


44 41.6 N 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jul 22 , 


22 


6.0 to 18.0(dv) 


2 04.3 W 






6.3 to 












Jul 24, 

1921 


22 


7.7, 7.9 .... 


2 01.6 W 






17.7 (dv) 
8.2, 8.9 


.34104 
.34114 


13 
13 




FB 






FB 














23 05.8 N 


113 18 


Dec 27 




10.2,11.5 


35.0 W 


14.8 . 


31 56.7 N 


10 6,11 2 


37268 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








1922 
























Jan 7 




9.3 


36.3 W 


11.1 


31 55.9 N 


9.4 .... 


.37261 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jan 14 




10.0 


34.6 W 


16.4 


32 01.8 N 


10.1 


. 37248 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jan 20 




14.6 


35.6 W 


16.6 


31 58.4 N 


14.6 


. 37242 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jan 28 




9.8 


34.4 W 


11.6 


31 55.9 N 


9.8 


. 37256 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Feb 3, 


9, 


























15, 


22 


15.9,17.2 .... 


34.7 W 


15.0 


31 58.5 N 


16.2,16.9 


.37214 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Mar 1, 


8, 


























15, 22, 


28 


16.1,17.3 


35.7 W 


15.2 


31 55.8 N 


16.5,17.0 


.37234 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Apr 5, 


12, 


























18, 


25 


16.2,17.3 


36.2 W 


15.2 


31 53.8 N 


16.5,17.1 


.37234 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








May 2, 


9, 


























16, 


24 


16.4,17.8 


35.8 W 


15.4 


31 54.0 N 


16.8,17.4 


. 37224 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jun 6 




16.6,18.0 


37.6 W 


15.3 


31 53.8 N 


17.0,17.7 


.37214 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jun 13, 


20 


14.9,16.1 


37.2 W 


17.4 


31 53.2 N 


15.3,15.9 


.32741 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jul 3 




16.7,17.8 


36.8 W 


15.5 


31 50.9 N 


17.1,17.6 


.37221 


13 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Jul 4 
Jul 10 

Jul 10 




5.8 to 18.1(dv) 
6.0 to 9.4(dv) 

13.4 to 18.3(dv) 


36.5 W 
33.5 W 

36.4 W 










13 
13 




FB 








6.2 to 
9.5 (dv) 
13.4 to 


.37245 












FB 










23 05.8 N 


113 18 


Dec 28, 


21 


10.3 


37.7 W 


9.4 


31 56.5 N 


18.1 (dv) 
10.6 


.37264 
. 37230 


13 
13 




FB 


Canton, B\ 


177.2X(78) 


FB 








Dec 29, 


21 


11.1 


38.0 W 






10.8 


.37195 


13 




FB 













Indo-China 



Phantiet. 
Saigon. . . 



10 56 . 2 N 



10 46.5 N 



108 03 



106 42 



Dec 


28, 


'23 


Dec 


29, 


23 


Dec 


30, 


23 


Jan 


2, 


24 


Jan 


3, 


24 


Jan 


4, 


24 



h h 
9.3,10.7 

13.6,15.1 
6.8, 8.0 
9.7,11.0 

13.0,14.2 
8.4, 9.6 



55. 
57. 
60 
45. 



43.8 E 
43.2 E 



h 




h 




14 


4 


14 


6 


12 


6 


12 


8 


11 


4 


11 


6 


14 


6 


14 


8 


7 


8 


8 






5 09.0 N 
5 08.0 N 



4 43.0 N 
4 42 . N 
4 42.6 N 



h h 


c. g. s. 




9.7,10.4 


.40080 


24 


14.1,14.8 


.40045 


24 


7.1, 7.6 


. 39998 


24 


10.0,10.7 


.40052 


24 


13.3,13.9 


.40106 


24 


8.7, 9.3 


.40040 


24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



Japan 



Kakioka Observatory,^! 



Kakioka Observatory, B 



Kakioka Observatory.C 



o / 

36 13.8 N 



36 13.8 N 



36 13.8 N 



140 11 



140 11 



140 11 



Aug 17, 

Aug 17, 

Aug 17, 

Aug 18, 

Aug 18, 

Aug 13, 

Aug 14, 

Aug 14, 

Aug 14 , 

Aug 14, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 16, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 16, 

Aug 16, 

Aug 16, 



h h 
10.6,11.6 
11.9,12.1 
12.4,12.6 



11.4,11.7 .. 
12.0,12.4 .. 
12.6,12.9 .. 
16.7,17.1 .. 



17.0,17.3 

17.6,17.8 

18.1,18.3,18.5 
9.7 



5 34.0 W 
5 34.0 W 
5 34.6 W 



5 33.6 W 
5 34.8 W 
5 35.2 W 
5 30.2 W 



5 33.4 W 
5 34.0 W 
5 33.8 W 
5 34.9 W 



12.9,13.9 

14.8 

17.6,18.8 
7.3 .... 



18.8 



49 23.2 N 
49 24.8 N 
49 22.1 N 
49 25.0 N 



49 23 . 2 N 



h h 
16.2,18.4 



6.2, 7.0 

7.7, 8.4 



17.6,18.4 



10.4,11.2 
11.8,12.6 



10.2,10.9 
11.5,12.2 
13.0,13.8 



c. g. s. 
. 29692 



. 29667 
. 29680 



. 29658 



. 29682 
. 29686 



.29669 
.29684 
. 29674 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 



177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 



177.2X(78) 



FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 



2 Where several days are grouped in the date column with but single entries of the magnetic elements the values are the means of determinations made at the 
given local mean times on each day. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



41 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Int 


ensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No. 14 


o / 
78 09 N 
78 06 N 
77 42 N 

77 35.5 N 

77 33 . 8 N 

77 33 . 2 N 

77 32.6 N 


o / 

106 05 
106 45 
103 55 

105 29 

105 43 

105 32 

105 40 


Apr 21 
Apr 23 
Apr 4 
Apr 21 
Jul 15 
Jul 15 
Jul 17 
Jul 17 
Jul 19 
Jul 19 
Oct 1 
Oct 5 
Oct 7 
Oct 10 
Oct 11 
Oct 18 
Oct 19 
Oct 24 
Oct 26 
Nov 1 
Nov 2 
Nov 5 
Nov 13 
Nov 19 
Nov 22 
Nov 25 
Nov 26 
Nov 27 
Nov 28 
Nov 29 
Nov 30 
Dec. 2 
Dec. 2 
Dec. 3 
Dec 4 
Dec 4 
Dec 5 
Dec 5 
Dec 6 
Dec 7 
Dec. 7 
Dec 9 
Dee 9 
Dec 10 
Dec 10 
Dee 11 
Dec 12 
Dec 12 
Dee 12 
Dec 13 
Dec 13 
Dec 13 
Dec 14 
Dec 16 
Dec 16 
Dec 16 
Dec 17 
Dec 17 
Dec 17 
Dec 18 
Dec 18 
Dec 18 
Dec 19 
Dec 19 
Dec 19 
Dec 20 
Dec 20 
Dec 20 
Dec 21 
Dec 23 
Dec 23 
Dec 23 


•19 
. 19 
, 19 
, 19 
, 19 
, 19 
, 19 
, 19 
19 
19 
IS 
18 
18 
, 18 
18 
18 
18 
.18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


h h h 


o / 


h h 
16.9 

15.5 

16.6 

16.6 

15.2 

17.5 .... 

15.1 

17.0 .... 

10.4 

12.3 


o t 

85 30 . 2 N 
85 38.6 N 
85 29 . 5 N 
85 23.1 N 
85 32 . 2 N 
85 32.0 N 
85 32.3 N 
85 33.0 N 
85 33 . 1 N 
85 33.0 N 


h h 

16.6 

16.6 

15.2 

17.5 .... 

15.1 

17.0 

10.4 

12.3 


C. (j. s. 

.04578 
. 04699 
. 04559 
. 04555 
. 04668 
.04543 
. 04536 
. 04533 


206 
205 
205 
205 
205 
205 
206 
205 

8 

8 
205 

8 
206 

8 
205 
205 

8 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.567 
205.123 
205 . 567 
205.123 
205.567 


PJ£ 


No. 15 






PK 


No. 5 






OW 








ow 


No. 16 (Lockwood Is.) 






OW 








OW 


No. 17 (Fram Island) . . 






ow 








OW 


No. 19 






OW 








OW 


No. 4,Winter-Quarters, 


11.4 

10.8,15.8 


26 16.7 E 
26 41.9 E 


HUS 


1918-1919 






12.0,16.0 

13.3 

12.1,15.1 

11.5 

12.2,16.8 

11.6 

13.4 

15.4 .... 


.04592 
. 04522 
.04537 
. O4545 
.04582 
. 04545 
. 04559 
. 04533 




HUS 




13.3 


85 33.4 N 


205 . 123 


HUS 




10.9,16.1 


26 09.4 E 


HUS 




11.5 


85 33 . N 


205.123 


HUS 


\ 


11.0,18.0 


26 49.0 E 


HUS 




11.7 

13.4 


85 33.9 N 
85 31.6 N 


205.123 
205.123 


HUS 








HUS 




11.1 


26 49.4 E 


HUS 




13.9 


85 31.8 N 


205.12 


HUS 




10.3 

11.9 


27 07.8 E 
26 45.5 E 






8 

8 

205 

206 

205 

205 

8 

205 

206 

205 

205 

206 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 


HUS 








15.4,17.8 

16.8 

11.7 .... 

15.7 .... 

10.8 

11.8,16.6 

11.0 

10.8 

10.5 

10.7 .... 

10.9 


. 04606 

. 04589 
. 04605 
.04561 
.04574 
. 04564 
. 04599 
.04614 
.04548 

. 04569 
. 04580 




HUS 




16.8 

11.6 

15.7 .... 

10.8 


85 30.0 N 
85 29 . 1 N 
85 31.8 N 
85 30.9 N 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


HUS 








HUS 








RA 








RA 








HUS 








11.0 .... 

10.8 

10.5 

10.7 .... 
10.9 


85 30.4 N 
85 29.5 N 
85 32.7 N 
85 31.4 N 
85 31.7 N 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205 356 


RA 








RA 








RA 








RA 








RA 




12.3 

10.4,16.2 


26 37.4 E 

27 01.0 E 


RA 




10.9 

15.7 

11.1 

16.2 


85 31.5 N 
85 28.5 N 
85 30.8 N 
85 33.6 N 


11.5,15.5 
10.8,15.7 

11.1 

11.0,15.7 
10.8,11.7 


.04533 

.04618 

. 04574 
. 04567 
. 04679 




RA 




205.127 
205 . 567 
205.123 
205 . 567 


RA 




16.8 

10.0,15.1 


26 24.1 E 
26 43.2 E 


RA 
RA 
RA 




10.2,16.4 


26 42.8 E 


RA 




11.2 

11 4 

10.9 

15.7 

11.2 

15.6 


85 30.4 N 
85 31.2 N 
85 29.9 N 
85 30 . 5 N 
85 32.3 N 
85 26 . 7 N 


205.123 
205 . 567 
205.123 
205 567 
205.127 
205 . 567 


RA 








RA 








10.9,15.8 
11.3,16.0 


. 04580 
. 04594 


206 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

205 

8 

8 

205 

8 

8 

8 

205 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 

8 

8 

8 


RA 




12.0,16.9 


27 18.2 E 


RA 
RA 




12.3 

14.4 


26 23.2 E 
26 23.2 E 


RA 
RA 




11.0,12.4 

15.4,16.7 


85 29.7 N 
85 30.4 N 


11.0,12.4 

15.4,16.7 


. 04608 
. 04604 


205.123 
205 . 567 


RA 








RA 




14.4,17.5 

9.9,12.6 


26 37.9 E 
26 24.2 E 


RA 














RA 




11.5 


85 31.1 N 


11.5 


. 04567 


205.123 


RA 




14.7,16.8 

9.8,12.7 

9.8,12.4 


26 30.6 E 
26 33.6 E 
26 38.7 E 


RA 








10.6,12.1 
10.5,11.8 
15 5 


.04572 
. 04566 
. 04581 
.04B47 
.04559 
. 04559 
. 04601 
. 04558 
.04594 
. 04637 
. 04608 
. 04533 
.04512 
.04568 
.04577 
.04614 
. 04560 
.04527 




RA 










RA 




15.5 

16.8 


85 31.2 N 
85 32.3 N 


205 . 127 
205 . 356 


RA 








16.8 . 
10.4,1 
15.4 . 
16.8 . 
10.5,1 
15.4 . 
16.8 . 
10.4,1 
15.8 . 
15.8 . 
10.4,1 
15.1 . 
16 7 


1.8 
1.9 
1.8 
1.8 


RA 




9.7,12.5 


26 36.8 E 


RA 




15.4 

16.8 


85 31.6 N 
85 28.9 N 


205 . 356 

205.127 


RA 








RA 




9.8,12.5 .... 


26 33.6 E 


RA 




15.4 

16.8 


85 29.5 N 
85 28.0 N 


205.123 
205.567 


RA 








RA 




9.7,12.4 .... 


26 35.8 E 


RA 




15.8 

15.8 


85 31.2 N 
85 35.4 N 


205.123 
205.567 


RA 








RA 




9.7,12.4 


26 53.5 E 


RA 




15.1 

16.7 .... 


85 30.7 N 
85 30.5 N 


205.123 
205 . 567 


RA 








RA 




9.7,12.6 

9.8 

15.7,15.9 

16.1,16.3 


26 46.1 E 
26 58.4 E 
26 32.2 E 
26 08.5 E 


10.4,12.0 
10.5,12.0 


RA 










RA 










RA 














RA 

















1 For Siberia the Table of Results includes, in addition to values determined during the years 1921-1926, the values determined during 1918-1920 obtained by the 
members of the Maud Expedition; the observations for these data were not in hand at the time of publication of Volume IV giving land magnetic results for 1913-1920. 



42 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 



Station 



No. 4, Winter-Quarters. 
1918-1919-Conh'Tiiied 



77 32 . 6 N 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



105 40 



Date 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 



Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 



Jan 10 

Jan 14 

Jan 15 

Jan 16 

Jan 17 

Jan 17 

Jan 20 

Jan 20 

Jan 21 

Jan 21 

Jan 22 

Jan 23 

Jan 24 

Jan 24 

Jan 25 

Jan 27 

Jan 27 

Jan 27 

Jan 28 

Jan 28 

Jan 29 

Jan 30 

Jan 31 

Jan 31 



6 
7 
7 

Feb 10 
Feb 11 
Feb 12 
Feb 12 
Feb 13 
Feb 14 
Feb 17 
Feb 18 
Feb 19 
Feb 20 
Feb 21 
Feb 24 
Feb 25 
Feb 26 
Feb 27 
Feb 27 
Feb 28 
Mar 3 
Mar 5 
Mar 6 
Mar 7 
Mar 11 
Mar 12 
Mar 13 
Mar 14 
Mar 17 
Mar 18 
Mar 19 
Mar 20 
Mar 21 
Mar 24 
Mar 25 
Mar 27 
Apr 4 
Apr 7 
Apr 9 
Apr 11 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



10.5,10.7 
9.2 .... 



10.6 

9.8,11.0 



9.9 .... 
10.2,12.6 



10.5,10.7,10.9 
11.1,11.3,11.5 



9.8,12.3 



26 34.0 E 



10.1,10.3 
9.9,10.1 
9.8,12.2 



10.3 
11.9 



10.1 



10.0,10.2 
10.1,10.2 



10.0,12.7 



14.8,17.6 



14.9,17.9 



9.7,12.8 



16.4,16.6 



10.2,12.7 



14.5,17.2 
14.3,17.0 
14.7,17.4 
14.9,17.4 
14.7,17.0 



26 49.0 E 



28 01.4 E 
26 19.8 E 
26 50.8 E 



26.20.2 E 
26 34.6 E 



26 36.4 E 
26 39.7 E 



26 28.4 E 
26 39.0 E 
26 41.1 E 



26 48.3 E 
26 20.4 E 



26 41.6 E 



26 43.8 E 
26 32.9 E 



26 46 . 1 E 



26 25.0 E 



26 09.2 E 



26 40 . 4 E 
26 38.2 E 



28 18.8 E 
26 53.6 E 



26 25.4 E 
26 35.2 E 
26 26.0 E 

25 53.1 E 

26 20.4 E 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h 
11.2 
16.3 
15.8 
16.3 
16.0 
15.9 
16.1 



16.4 



16.4 



16.3 
15.2 



15.1 
12.8 



16.2 



16.0 



16.1 



16.1 
16.1 



16.1 
15.3 



15.7 
16.0 

15.8 



16.0 
16.2 
16.1 
15.9 
15.9 
15.8 



15.7 
15.7 
15.6 
15.7 
11.2 



16.0 
11.3 
16.1 
15.8 
15.9 



11.4 
16.3 
11.5 
10.8 
10.5 
11.0 
10.4 
10.8 



10.8 



Value 



85 32.8 N 
85 30.2 N 
85 33 . 3 N 
85 34.3 N 
85 30.2 N 
85 31.6 N 
85 31.0 N 



85 31.0 N 



85 32.7 N 



85 30.4 N 
85 32 . 3 N 



85 36 . N 
85 35.7 N 



85 



85 



85 



34.6 
33.5 



31.7 



N 



85 31.5 N 
85 33.6 N 



85 33.1 N 



85 33 . 4 N 



85 32.2 N 
85 32.1 N 
85 32.0 N 



85 34.0 N 
85 29 . 1 N 
85 29.0 N 
85 29.2 N 
85 29.5 N 
85 33.2 N 



85 28.3 N 
85 32 . N 
85 32 . 6 N 
85 31.0 N 
85 31.5 N 



85 28.8 N 
85 31.4 N 
85 30 . 1 N 
85 32.6 N 
85 33.5 N 



85 36.0 N 
85 33.4 N 
85 33.6 N 
85 42 . 4 N 
85 36.1 N 
85 34 . 6 N 
85 30.5 N 
85 41.0 N 



85 32 . 8 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



h 
11.3 



16.9 



16.1 
11.1 
16.2 



16.7 



16.5 



15.1 

12.8 



16.2 

10.5, 

16.1 



10.4, 
16.1 



16.1 
16.1 



16.1 



15.3 



15.8 

16.0 

15.9 

10.8, 

16.1 

16.2 

16.2 

16.0 

15.9 

15.8 

15.5, 

15.7 

15.7 

15.7 

15.7 

11.2 

15.6, 

16.1 

11.5 

16.2 

15.7 



10.4, 



12 



17 



17 



12 



10.8,12 



15.3,16 
15.0,16 
15.6,16 
15.6,16 
15.3,16 



Value 



:. g. s. 

04S40 



04378 



04605 
04519 
04573 



04545 
04590 



04481 
04510 



04523 
04561 
04547 



04526 

04583 



04553 
04545 



04661 



04544 



04554 
04570 
04562 
04548 
04533 
04593 
04611 
04607 
04613 
04547 
04602 
04678 
04564 
04579 
04587 
04601 
04648 
04601 
04574 
04584 
04549 



04538 



04510 



04544 
04758 
04692 
04646 
04650 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



205 



205 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 

206 



205 

205 

8 

8 

205 



8 

8 
205 

8 

8 
205 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 
205 
205 

8 
205 
205 
206 
206 
205 
206 

8 
205 
205 
205 
205 
206 

8 
205 
206 
205 



Dip Circle 



205.123 

205.1 

205.12 

205.12 

205.123 

205.12 

205.567 



205 


3 


205 


123 


205 
205 


567 
12 




205 

205 


3 

7 




205 


356 


205 


127 






205 


567 




205 
205 


356 
127 


205 


567 


205 


127 


205 
205 
205 


123 
567 
123 



205.127 
205.356 
205 . 567 
205.356 
205.123 
205.567 

205.123 

205.567 

205.3 

205.567 

205.127 



205 


356 


205 


127 


205 


356 


205 


567 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 


154 


12 



154.12 



Obs'r 



RA 

RA 

OW 

HH 

S&W 

A&H 

S&W 

A&S 

HH 

RA 

OW 

RA 

HH 

OW 

HUS 

RA 

HH 

W&H 

RA 

RA 

OW 

RA 

OW 

RA 

RA 

RA 

OW 

RA 

RA 

W&H 

W&H 

RA 

W&H 

RA 

HUS 

RA 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HUS 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HUS 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

HUS 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

HUS 

HUS 

OW 

HH 

S&W 

HH 

OW 

HH 

HUS 

HH 

HUS 

HH 

HUS 

RA 

RA 

RA 

RA 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



43 



ASIA 
Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 



Station 






No. 4, Winter-Quarters 
1918-1919-Concluded 



77 32.6 N 



No. 46, Winter-Quar- 
ters 1918-1919 



No. 4c, Winter-Quar- 
ters 1918-1919 



Latitude 



77 32.6 N 



77 32.6 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



105 40 



105 40 



105 40 



Date 



Apr 14, 
Apr 16 
Apr 18 
Apr 21 
Apr 24 
Apr 28 
May 2 
May 5 
May 7 
May 9 
May 12 
May 14 
May 16 
May 19 
May 21 
May 23 
May 26 
May 28 
May 30 
Jun 3 
Jun 6 
Jun 10 
Jun 13 
Jun 17 
Jun 20 
Jun 24 
Jun 27 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Aug 



Aug 11 



Mar 7 
Mar 10 
Mar 11 
Mar 12 
Mar 13 
Mar 14 
Mar 17 
Mar 18 
Mar 19 
Mar 20 
Mar 21 
Mar 24 
Mar 25 
Mar 27 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



Apr 28 
May 28 
May 30 
Jul 11 
Jul 12 
Jul 12 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



h 
14.5, 
14.7, 
15.0, 
15.0, 
14.7, 



9.7, 

9.8, 

9.9, 

9.8, 

9.8, 

9.7, 

9.8, 

9.9, 

9.7, 

9.5, 

9.7, 

9.8, 

10.0, 

9.9, 

14.4, 

14.5, 

10.0, 

9.8, 

14.8, 

14.8, 

14.9, 

9.4, 

14.3, 

14.6, 

9.9 

9.6, 

14.6, 

14.9, 

9.8 



h 
17.0 
17.0 
17.2 
17.2 
16.9 
12.1 



12.5 
11.9 
11.9 
9.9 
12.2 

11.8 
11.9 
12.3 
12.3 
12.0 
12.2 
11.9 
12.3 
12.0 
11.6 
11.8 
12.0 
12.2 
12.0 
16.5 
16.7 
12.2 
12.0 
17.0 
17.0 
17.1 
11.5 
16.5 
16.9 

11.8 
16.9 
17.0 



Value 



33.4 E 
29.0 E 

20.4 E 
58.9 E 
25.6 E 
38.0 E 

23.6 E 

42.7 E 

49.5 E 
48.4 E 

49.8 E 
01. 0E 

06.0 E 

53.7 E 

25.8 E 

45.3 E 

22.1 E 
48.8 E 
52.0 E 

51.4 E 

44.7 E 
15. 3E 

48.6 E 
59.6 E 
59.0 E 
11. 2E 

50.3 E 
55.0 E 
33.0 E 

07.6 E 

48.8 E 

44.7 E 

25.8 E 
57.6 E 

49.0 E 
16. 8E 

32.4 E 
37.6 E 
58.3 E 

40.9 E 

09.1 E 

22.2 E 

14.5 E 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



16.2 
11.6 
11.5 
11.6 
16.2 
11.3 



11.6 
11.2 



11.5 
11.5 
11.4 
15.7 
15.8 
15.7 
16.2 
16.6 
15.3 
16.6 
16.1 
11.3 

11.4 
11.5 
11.1 
11.1 

10.8 
12.7 



Value 



85 33.9 N 
85 33.9 N 
85 33.3 N 
85 32.5 N 
85 32.2 N 
85 31.3 N 
85 39.9 N 
85 34.0 N 
85 34 . N 
85 33 . 2 N 
85 39.0 N 
85 35.2 N 
85 33.6 N 
85 33.3 N 
85 35.6 N 
85 27.6 N 
85 28.0 N 
85 27 . 1 N 
85 33.6 N 
85 31.0 N 
85 33.5 N 
85 33.9 N 

85 35.0 N 
85 34 . 5 N 
85 35.2 N 
85 33.9 N 
85 32.5 N 
85 32.4 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



h h 
15.1,16.4 
15.3,16.5 
15.6,16.7 
15.6,16.7 
15.3,16.4 
10.5,11.6 



10.3 
10.3 
10.3 



10.7 
10.5 
10.3 



111 
lit 



11.0 



10 

1(1 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10.4 

10.5 

10.4 

15.0 

15.0 

10.6 

10.4 

15.4 

15.4 

15.5 

10.0 

14.9 

15.2 

10.2 

10.1 

15.2 

15.4 



11.3 
11.4 
11.4 



11.7 
11.5 
11.3 
11.4 
11.7 

11.4 
11.5 
11.4 
11.7 
11.4 
11.0 
11.3 
11.4 
11.6 
11.5 
16.0 



16.1 
11.6 
11.5 
16.4 
16.4 
16.6 
11 1 
16.0 
16.4 

11.3 
16.4 
16.5 



11.6 
11.5 
11.7 
16.2 
11.3 
11.3 
11.4 
11.6 
11.2 
11.5 
11.4 



15.7 



16.0 
11.4 



11.5 
11.1 
11.1 

10.8 
12.7 



Value 



c. g. s. 
.04532 
.04581 
.04571 
.04632 
.04542 
.04524 



.04519 
.04482 
.04521 



.04558 
.04518 
.04540 
.04521 
. 04505 
. 04497 
.04506 
. 04482 
. 04493 
.04534 
.04496 
.04512 
.04492 
.04636 
.04496 
.04510 
.04560 
.04654 
.04510 
.04548 
.04526 
.04548 
.04678 
.04484 
.04492 
.04712 
2 . 04495 
.04490 
.04576 
.04532 



. U4588 
. 04648 
. 04667 
.04570 
.04427 
.045 l'J 
. 04531 
.04545 
.04437 
.04514 



.04566 



. 04538 
. 04530 



. 04500 
.04524 
.04544 
.04552 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



206 
206 
205 
205 
206 
205 
205 
205 
205 
205 
206 



205 



206 



205 
205 
205 



Dip Circle 



205.12 

205 . 567 

205.127 

205.356 

205.127 

205 . 356 

205.127 

205.356 

205.127 

205.567 

205.127 

205 . 567 

205.12 

205.127 

154.12 

154.12 

154.12 

154.12 

154.12 

154.12 

205 . 567 

205.127 

154.12 

205 . 567 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 

205.567 



Obs'r 



RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 
RA 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

OW 

HH 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

PK 

OW 

OW 

PK 

OW 
OW 
OW 
OW 
OW 



J Oscillations only. 



44 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

ASIA 
Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No. 4c, Winter-Quar- 
ters 1918-1919-Con- 


o / 

77 32.6 N 

77 32 . 1 N 

77 32 N 
77 30.2 N 

77 16 N 
77 05 N 
76 43 N 
76 34 N 
76 32 N 
76 31 N 
76 05 N 
73 30.2 N 

70 43 . 8 N 

70 43.8 N 
70 43 . 8 N 

70 43 . 2 N 


O / 

105 40 

105 45 

102 44 

105 34 

101 45 

106 21 

107 03 

102 47 
101 15 
106 13 
104 11 

80 26 

162 30 

162 30 
162 30 

162 25 


Jul 22, 
Jul 22 
Jul 25 
Jul 29 
Jul 29 
Aug 6 
Jul 21 
Jul 21 
Apr 7, 
Jul 18, 
Jul 18, 
Apr 19, 
May 24, 
May 21, 
May 14, 
Apr 14, 
May 20, 
May 16, 
Sep 2, 
Sep 3, 
Oct 2, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 8, 
Oct 9, 
Oct 9, 
Oct 10 , 
Oct 11, 
Oct 13, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 15, 
Oct 15, 
Oct 15, 
Oct 16, 
Oct 17, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 3, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 14, 
Oct 15, 
Oct 15, 
Oct 15, 
Nov 13, 
Nov 14, 
Nov 20, 
Nov 21, 
Nov 22, 
Nov 25, 
Nov 26, 
Nov 27, 
Nov 28, 
Dec 1, 
Dec 3, 
Dec 4, 
Dec 4, 
Dec 5, 
Dec 6, 
Dec 8, 
Dec 9, 
Dec 10, 
Dec 11, 
Dec 12, 
Dec 12, 
Dec 13, 
Dec 15, 
Dec 16, 


'19 
19 
19 
19 

19 

19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


h h h 


o / 


h h 

15.2 

17.0 

10.3 

10.3 

11.9 

15.7 .... 

14.9 

16.7 .... 

16.7 

15.3 

17.4 

16.0 

10.6 

11.1 

11.4 

16.9 

11.8 

11.4 


o / 

85 26.7 N 
85 21.7 N 
85 35.2 N 
85 35.7 N 
85 34.0 N 
85 32 . 5 N 
85 29 . 6 N 
85 30 . 8 N 
85 25.5 N 
85 00.7 N 

84 59.3 N 

85 09.4 N 
85 24.0 N 
85 15.5 N 

84 59.7 N 

85 03 . N 
85 15.6 N 
85 03.5 N 


h h 
15.1 

17.0 

10.2 

10.4 

11.9 

15.7 .... 

14.9 

16.7 

16.7 

15.3 

17.4 .... 

16.0 

10.6 

11.1 

11.5 

16.9 

11.8 

11.4 

16.5,19.3 
20 . 


c. g. s. 

.04647 
.04714 
. 04503 
.04495 
.04513 
. 04543 
. 04622 
. 04597 
. 04673 
.05131 
.05129 
.04967 
.04712 
.04863 
.05125 
. 06072 
. 04866 
. 05070 
.07512 
.07486 


206 
205 
206 
206 
206 
206 
206 
206 
205 
206 
206 
205 
206 
206 
205 
205 
205 
205 
8 
206 
8 
8 
8 
205 
205 
8 
205 

8 
8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

205 

205 

206 

8 

205 

206 

8 

8 

206 

205 

205 

8 

8 

8 

206 

8 

206 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

205 

8 

8 

8 

8 


205.123 
205.567 
205.123 
205.123 
205.567 
205.567 
205.123 
205.567 
205.567 
205.123 
205.567 
205.567 
205.123 
205.567 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.567 


ow 








ow 








ow 








ow 








ow 


No. 20 






ow 
ow 








ow 


No. 6 . . 






ow 


No. 18... 






ow 








ow 


No. 8 






ow 


No. 13 






ow 


No 12... 






ow 


No. 9 






ow 


No. 7.., 






ow 


No. 11. . 






ow 


No. 10 






ow 


No. 3 (Port Dickson) . . 
No. 360 


12.5,20.2 

18.2 

15.8 

10.5,10.7,11.0 
11.3,11.8,12.0 
14.8,15.1,15.4 
15.7,16.0,16.3 
12.4 


28 41 E 
28 48 E 
13.4 W 
11.4 W 
14.4 W 
15 W 
15 W 
14.7 W 


HUS 


19.4 


82 37.7 N 


205.123 


HUS 
HUS 














FM 














FM 














HUS 














HUS 














HUS 




10.3 


79 14.0 N 


10.2 


.10735 


205.236 


OW 




14.5 to 
14.5 (dv) 

9.0,11.2 

9.5 to 

9.5 (dv) 


13.5 W 
15.1 W 

12.5 W 


MEx 3 








9.6,10.7 


. 10736 




HUS 










MEx 1 








11.4,12.4 

14.0,15.0 

15.8,17.0 

9.8 .... 

11.5 

15.2 


. 10744 
. 10750 
. 10764 
.10747 
.10748 
.10765 




HUS 














HUS 














HUS 








9.8 .... 

11.5 

15.2 


79 14.0 N 
79 13.9 N 
79 12.9 N 


205.236 
205 . 236 
205.236 


OW 








OW 








OW 




9.5 to 

9 . 5 (dv) 

10.4,10.6,11.0 
11.3,11.8,12.0 
14.8,15.1,15.4 
15.7,16.0,16.3 


12.6 W 
12 W 
12 W 
15.4 W 
14.5 W 


MEx 8 


No 3606 












HUS 














HUS 














FM 














FM 


No. 360c 


11.6 

14.5 

16.2 


79 14.6 N 
79 14.6 N 
79 13.0 N 


11.6 

14.4 

16.2 

9.4,10.3 
11.1,12.1 
14.6,15.5 
15.1 


.10739 
. 10734 
. 10767 
. 10756 
.10747 
. 10754 
.10846 


205.236 
205 . 236 
205.236 


OW 








OW 








OW 








HUS 














HUS 














HUS 


No. 360J 






15.1 


79 06.6 N 


205.236 


OW 




9.5 to 16.5(dv) 


18.4 W 


S&M 




11.5 


79 06.0 N 


11.4 


. 10879 


205.236 


OW 




12.7 

10.4,12.6 

11.5 

12.6 

11.6 


13.3 W 
15.1 W 
22.5 W 
16.5 W 
15.3 W 


HUS 








11.0,12.0 


. 10865 




HUS 










FM 














HUS 














FM 




12.1 


79 07.6 N 


12.0 


.10850 


205.236 


OW 




9.8 

12.8 


15.3 W 
17.1 W 


FM 














FM 




11.3 


79 06.4 N 


11.3 .... 


.10872 


205.236 


OW 




12.8 

12.8 

10.1,12.4 

12.7 

12.6 

12.8 

12.2 


16.7 W 
15.4 W 
14.6 W 
15.2 W 
13.5 W 
14.1 W 
10.8 W 


HUS 














FM 








10.6,11.8 


. 10857 




HUS 










FM 














HUS 














FM 














HUS 




11.1 


79 07.9 N 


11.1 


.10845 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.7 

12.9 

12.5 

14.7 


26.4 W 
15.9 W 
15.7 W 

14.1 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 

















3 These 24-hour observations were made by all members of the party in turn. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



45 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No 360d — Continued . . 


o / 
70 43.2 N 

• 


O / 

162 25 

* 


Dec 17 
Dec 18 
Dec 18 
Dec 19 
Dec 20, 
Dec 22, 
Dec 23, 
Dec 25 
Dec 26, 
Dec 27, 
Dec 29, 
Dec 30, 
Dec 31, 
Jan 1 , 
Jan 2, 
Jan 3, 
Jan 5, 
Jan 6, 
Jan 7, 
Jan 7, 
Jan 10, 
Jan 11, 
Jan 13, 
Jan 14, 
Jan 15, 
Jan 15, 
Jan 17, 
Jan 19, 
Jan 20 , 
Jan 21 , 
Jan 22 , 
Jan 22 , 
Jan 23, 
Jan 24, 
Jan 26 , 
Jan 27 , 
Jan 28, 
Jan 29 , 
Jan 29 , 
Jan 30 , 
Jan 31, 
Feb 2, 
Feb 3, 
Feb 4, 
Feb 5, 
Feb 5 , 
Feb 6, 
Feb 9, 
Feb 10, 
Feb 11, 
Feb 12, 
Feb 13, 
Feb 13, 
Feb 18, 
Feb 19 , 
Feb 19, 
Feb 20, 
Feb 21, 
Feb 23, 
Feb 24, 
Feb 25, 
Feb 26, 
Feb 27, 
Feb 28, 
Mar 2, 
Mar 3, 
Mar 4 , 
Mar 5, 
Mar 5, 
Mar 10, 
Mar 11, 
Mar 12, 
Mar 12, 


'24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 


h h h 
12.5 


o / 

14.2 W 


h h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


8 

206 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 




FM 




11.2 .... 


79 06.7 N 


11.2 


. 10867 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.8 

12.9 

12.3 

12.1 

12.8 

12.9 

12.7 

12.4 

12.8 

12.4 

12.6 

12.4 

12.6 

11.5 

12.4 

12.4 


15.1 W 
15.2 W 
19.4 W 
16.2 W 
23.1 W 
15.5 W 
14.6 W 
13.4 W 
12.8 W 
14.7 W 
15.3 W 
14.8 W 
16.4 W 
13.0 W 
15.8 W 
14.5 W 


HUS 














FM 








10.4,11.8 


. 10864 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














HUS 














HUS 














FM 














HUS 














FM 














HUS 














HUS 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 




10.6 


79 08 . 1 N 


10.6 


. 10844 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.3 

12.4 

12.1 

10.8 


13.9 W 
12.8 W 
13.2 W 
14.7 W 
16.8 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 








11.4,12.6 
11.1 


. 10846 
.10838 




HUS 




11.1 


79 08.0 N 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.9 

12.9 

12.2 

12.9 

12.8 


14.1 W 
19.7 W 
28.1 W 
38.0 W 
13.6 W 


FM 














HUS 














FM 














FM 














HUS 




11.2 


79 08.0 N 


11.2 


.10840 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.6 

12.5 

12.0 

14.8 

11.0 

10.0 


15.5 W 
13.5 W 
20.2 W 
15.2 W 
12.8 W 
16.8 W 


FM 














FM 






FM 














FM 














FM 






HUS 


• 


10.5 


79 08 . 2 N 


10.4 


. 108 V 


205.36(3) 


OW 




14.9 

11.4 

9.8,12.0 

14.7 

11.6 

12.6 


14.5 W 
16.6 W 
17.6 W 
14.9 W 
14.4 W 
13.4 W 


FM 












FM 








10.4,11.4 


. 10854 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 




11.2 


79 07 . 7 N 


11.3 


. 10845 


205.6(3) 


OW 




12.8 

12.9 

9.5 

12.6 

12.8 


13.8 W 
14.2 W 
37.7 W 
13.2 W 
20.1 W 
. 17.2 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 






FM 














FM 




10.8 


79 08.6 N 


10.8 


. 10831 


205.36(3) 


OW 




14.7 

10.9,11.1 


19.1 W 
24.8 W 


FM 








10.6 


. 10843 




FM 




10.6 .... 


79 08.5 N 


205.36(3) 


OW 




11.9 

9.9,11.9 

12.8 

16.4 

12.2 

12.9 


15.8 W 
30.4 W 
16.0 W 
16.2 W 
14.9 W 
17.1 W 


FM 








10.5 11.4 


. 10806 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 




11.2 


79 08 . 9 N 


11.2 


. 10830 


205 . 36(3) 


OW 




12.6 

10.0.12.2 

12.7 

12.6 

12.7 


14.2 W 
12.8 W 
09.6 W 
10.8 W 
11.9 W 


FM 








10.6,11.7 


. 10855 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 




10.6 


79 08.2 N 


10.6 


. 10834 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.4 

8.9 

9.6 


14.2 W 
17.4 W 
14.0 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 




10.9 


79 08.6 N 


10.9 


. 10830 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.8 


18.8 W 


FM 




1 










1 


1 





46 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 






Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Date 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No 360<2 — Concluded . . 


o / 

70 43.2 N 

70 43.2 N 
70 43.2 N 

70 03 N 
69 56 N 


O t 

162 25 

162 25 
162 25 

171 15 
170 35 


Mar 13 , '25 


h h h 

15.2 

9.6,11.6 

14.9 

14.7 

15.6 

17.6 

11.0 

12.7 

10.6 


o / 

17.1 W 
12.4 W 
18.0 W 
17.1 W 
17.6 W 
14.7 W 
13.8 W 
13.7 W 
10.0 W 


h k 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
.. 8 




FM 




Mar 14 
Mar 16 
Mar 17 
Mar 18 
Mar 19 
Mar 21 
Mar 24 
Mar 25 
Mar 26 
Mar 26 
Mar 27 
Mar 28 
Mar 30 
Mar 31 
Apr 1 
Apr 2 
Apr 3 
Apr 3 
Apr 4 
Apr 6 
Apr 7 
Apr 8 
Apr 9 
Apr 11 
Apr 14 
Apr 16 
Apr 16 
Apr 17 
Apr 18 
Apr 20 
Apr 21 
Apr 22 
Apr 24 
Apr 25 
Apr 27 
Apr 28 
Apr 29 
Apr 29 
Apr 30 
May 1 
May 2 
May 4 
May 5 
May 6 
May 7 
May 8 
May 9 
May 11 
May 12 
May 13 
May 14 
May 14 
May 15 
May 18 
May 19 
May 14 
May 14 
Oct 22 
Oct 23 
Oct 27 
Oct 28 
Oct 31 
Nov 4 
Nov 5 
Nov 6 
Nov 7 
Nov 7 
Nov 8 
Nov 10 
Nov 11 
Jun 8 
Jun 12 


25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
20 
?0 






10.2,11.1 


. 10840 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 




10.8 .... 


79 08.5 N 


10.8 


.10837 


205.36(3) 


OW 




12.4 

12.8 

9.8,11.7 

12.3 

15.0 

11.6 

17.1 


15.7 W 
10.0 W 
12.2 W 
15.9 W 
15.5 W 
13.0 W 
20.4 W 


FM 














FM 








10.3,11.2 


. 10830 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 




10.7 .... 


79 08.3 N 


10.7 


.10840 


205.36(3) 


OW 




14.9 

10.6 

12.5 

15.7 

9.4 

12.4 

11.7 

11.8,16.7 

9.5 


24.7 W 
13.2 W 
16.2 W 
22.2 W 
11.6 W 
15.2 W 
21.1 W 
15.2 W 
13.8 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 




10.7 


79 08.0 N 


10.7 .... 


10832 


205.36(3) 


OW 




9.9 

9.6,11.7 

12.8 

12.3 

12.8 

17.6 

8.9 

17.0 


04.0 W 
11.0 w 
14.6 W 
16.5 W 
17.5 W 
16.8 W 
07.0 W 
16.1 W 


FM 








10.1,11.1 


. 10830 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 








15.3 


.10860 


205 
8 




OW 




10.5,12.4 .... 


15.8 W 








FM 




15.3 .... 


79 07.1 N 






205.36(3) 


OW 




12.5 

11.2 

9.4,11.4 

9.6 

12.9 

8.8 

15.2 

8.9 

12.4 

8.9 

14.8 

8.8 

10.0,12.0 


12.6 W 
14.9 W 
13.2 W 
05.1 W 
02.3 W 
11.2 W 
16.5 W 
06.2 W 
26.6 W 
07.7 W 
18.7 W 
06.0 W 
12.4 W 






8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

206 
8 
8 
8 

206 
8 
8 

205 

8 
205 

8 

205 
8 

8 

8 

205 
206 


FM 




4 










FM 








10.0,10.9 


. 10835 




HUS 










FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 














FM 








10.5,11.4 
15.2 


. 10816 
.10842 




HUS 




15.3 


79 07.7 N 


205.36(3) 


OW 




8.8 

15.2 

8.9 


07.4 W 
21.1 W 
14.0 W 


FM 














FM 














FM 


No. 360e 


10.7 .... 


79 10.1 N 


10.7 

14.9,15.8 


.10813 
. 10844 


205.36(3) 


OW 








HUS 


No 360/ 


9.5 to 21.5(dv) 


12.6 W 








S&M 




15.5 


79 05.2 N 


15.5 


. 10889 


205.236 


OW 




12.5 to 

14.5 (dv) 


11.2 W 


MEx> 




10.5 


79 06.2 N 


10.4 


.10866 


205.236 


OW 




12.5 to 

12.5 (dv) 


10.8 W 


MEx» 




11.7 .... 


79 07.5 N 


11.7 

10.9,12.0 


. 10906 
. 10853 


205.236 


OW 








HUS 




12.5 to 

12.5 (dv) 

12.5 to 

12.5 (dv) 


10.0 w 
08.9 W 








MEx» 














MEx> 


No. 32 


12.6 

3.0 .... 


78 20.4 N 
78 23.3 N 


12.7 

3.0 .... 


.11680 
.11525 


205.356 
205.123 


OW 


No. 33 






OW 















a These 24-hour observations were made by all members of the party in turn. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



47 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) 1 — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Obs'r 



Dip Circle 



No. 31 

No. 21 (Ayon Island), 
Winter-Quarters 1919 
-1920 



No. 40 (Ayon Island). 



No. 30. 
No. 29. 
No. 39. 
No. 28. 
No. 37. 



O ' 

69 54 N 
69 52.5 N 



69 51.2 N 

69 50 N 
69 27 N 
69 00.8 N 
68 55 N 
68 36.7 N 



No. 36 (Panteleika) ... 68 36. 1 N 
No. 34 68 36 N 



No. 38. 
No. 27. 
No. 35. 



No. 26 

No. 25 

No. 53 (Pitlekai) 

No. 24 

No. 41 (Cape Serdze 
Kamen) , Winter- 
Quarters 1920-1921 



No. 416 (Cape Serdze 
Kamen), Winter- 
Quarters 1920-1921.. 



No. 41c (Cape Serdze 

Kamen). 
No. 41d(Cape Serdze 

Kamen). 



No. 23 

No. 51 

No. 22 (Kain-ge-skon) 



No. 42 (Kain-ge-skon) 

Kain-ge-skon 

No. 50 

No. 49 (Mass-kan) 



68 34.3 N 
68 18 N 
68 13.6 N 



67 49 N 
67 15 N 
67 06.3 N 
67 01 N 



66 53.2 N 



66 53.0 N 



66 53.0 N 
66 53.0 N 



66 32 
66 10 
66 03 



66 03 N 
66 03 N 
65 39 N 
65 31.2 N 



173 30 



167 43 



167 57 

176 30 
178 35 
167 04 
180 31 
163.45 

161 55 

166 00 

165 56 
182 20 
164 52 



184 10 

185 20 

186 29 

187 45 



188 21 



188 21 



188 21 

188 21 

189 00 
183 50 
189 50 



189 50 
189 50 
183 06 
181 25 



Jun 6, '20 



Oct 29 

Nov 5 

Nov 12 

Nov 19 

Jun 18 

Jun 16 

Jun 17 

Jun 4 

Jun 2 

May 7 

May 31 

Apr 11 

Apr 12 

Apr 1 

Apr 2 

Nov 5 

Nov 6 

Apr 28 

May 27 

Dec 24 

Dec 31 

Jan 1 

Jan 7 

Jan 21 

Jan 24 

Jan 28 

Feb 4 

Feb 11 

Feb 18 

Feb 25 

Mar 3 

May 25 

May 24 

Apr 13 

May 22 



Apr 

Apr 

May 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Feb 

Jun 

Mar 

Mar 



Nov 29, 20 

Dec 1, 20 

Dec 2, 20 

Dec 6, 20 



Jan 7, 21 

Jan 12, 21 

Jan 13, 21 

Jan 19, 21 

Jan 22, 21 

Jan 25, 21 

Apr 26, 21 



26, 21 
26, 21 
18, 20 
15, 21 

3, 20 
9, 20 

23, 20 
25, 20 

5, 20 

6, 20 

12, 20 

13, 20 
23, 20 

4, 21 
30, 22 
13, 21 

8, 21 



17.1,19.2 
12.9,14.9 



11.5 



13.7,16.2 
10.1,10.3 
10.8,14.7 
11.9,15.6 



9.0,11.5 



12.8 

10.1,12.9 



11.1 

9.9,12.5 



11.0,13.6 

13.6 

9.6,14.1 

9.9,12.4 

10.8,14.0 

10.0,13.5 



12.7,14.6 



10. o 

10.7 

11.2 

10.7, 

10.8, 



13.8 
13.4 



11.2,13.7 



13.8,16.6 .. 



13.5,17.8 



12.3 



11.0 
12.5 



10.9,12.4 



3 34.0 E 
3 19.0 E 



2 25.5 E 



h 
3.4 



11.1 

11.4 

11.5 

11.5 

11.3,12.6 

20.0 

15.8 

3.9 

4.3 

17.1 .... 
6.3 



16.2 W 

02.6 W 

1 17.2 W 
1 16.2 W 



13.3 
17.1 

16.8 



1 13.5 E 



14.4 
13.6 
15.4 



52.5 E 
30.5 E* 



49.8 E 
46.2 E 



52.0 
47.0 
54.2 
47.6 
42.0 
50.3 



15 03 



16 38 
16 31 
16 36 
16 38 
16 35 
16 32 



E 
E 

E 
E 

E 
E 



16 39.2 E 



16 40 E 



13 29 E 



17 33 
17 00 



12.2 



10.6 
14.8 



15.2 
14.5 



15.0 
12.5 
18.3 
13.7 
15.4 



12.0 
11.5 
11.9 



12.0 
12.6 



12.2 
12.4 



10 09 E 



15.4 
16.1 
16.5 
13.0 
11.6 
12.1 
12.4 
15.6 
15.6 
12.3 
11.9 
11.8 
13.6 
12.4 
13.5 
7.5 
11.7 



78 18.0 N 



78 20.9 N 
78 21.2 N 
78 23.4 N 
78 19.5 N 
78 21.6 N 
78 21.0 N 
78 18.4 N 
78 07.4 N 
77 56.0 N 
77 36.1 N 
77 30.8 N 



h 
3.4 



11.1 



11.5 
11.5 
11.3 

17.7, 

13.5, 
3.9 
4.3 

13.0, 
6.3 

14.4, 



14.4 



15.7 



77 32.4 N 
77 49 . 2 N 
77 48.2 N 



77 33.5 N 
77 32 . 8 N 
77 06.1 N 



12.0,14.0 
12.5,14.6 

14.5 

10.3,11.6 

9.7,10.9 

15.4 



11.8 



77 08.4 N 



11.9 
10.6, 



12.0 



77 10.1 N 
77 08.4 N 



77 10 . 6 N 
77 10.0 N 



77 09.0 N 
76 40.8 N 
76 16.5 N 
76 26 . 2 N 
76 12.9 N 



76 14.0 N 
76 13.1 N 
76 14.1 N 



76 15.8 N 
76 15.4 N 



76 15.8 N 
76 15.2 N 



76 16.9 N 
76 16.2 N 
76 06.0 N 
75 35.7 N 
75 36.6 N 
75 37.3 N 
75 35.4 N 
75 38.7 N 
75 34.8 N 
75 38.0 N 
75 37.3 N 
75 36.9 N 
75 35.5 N 
75 40.2 N 
75 36.8 N 
74 56.5 N 
74 59 . 2 N 



11.6,13.0 
14.3,15.6 
10.5,13.5 
10.5,11.8 
11.4,13.5 



12.8 



10.9, 

12.5 

18.3 

13.7 

15.4 



11.5,12.8 
11.7,11.8 

11.5 

11.9 



12.0 

12.6 

11.9,13.4 

12.2 

11.4,12.8 
12.4 

14.4,15.8 

15.2 

16.2 

16.5 

13.0 

11.5 .... 

12.1 

12.5 

15.6 

15.6 

12.3 

12.0 

11.8 

13.7 

12.4 .... 
13.5 

7.5 .... 
11.7 



c. g. s. 
.11585 



.11583 



.11571 
.11609 
.11551 
.11661 
.11593 
.11741 
.11895 
. 12254 
.12277 
. 12384 



. 12033 
. 12038 
. 12296 
.12304 
. 12389 
.12631 



.12732 



. 12728 
. 12734 



. 12734 
. 12734 
. 12740 
.12722 
. 12730 
.12727 
.13047 
.13460 
.13213 
.13409 



. 13394 
.13380 
.13411 
.13407 



.13346 
.13363 
. 13352 
.13350 
. 13352 
. 13354 

. 13344 

.13330 
.13339 
.13609 
.13949 
.13929 
. 13925 
.13969 
.13899 
.13975 
.13899 



.13924 
.13937 
.13819 
.13907 
.14476 
.14460 



205 



8 
206 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
205 
8 



8 
8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

205 

206 

205 

205 



206 
205 



205 
206 

8 
205 

8 
206 

8 

205 
206 
205 



205 
206 
206 
206 
206 
206 
205 
205 
206 
205 
205 



205.123 



205.123 

205.56 

205.123 

205.356 

205.12356 

154.12 

154.12 

205.356 

205.123 

154.12 

205.356 



154.12 
154.12 
154.12 



154.12 
154.12 
205.123 



154.12 



154.12 
154.12 



154.12 
154.12 



154.12 

205.356 

205.123 

205.123 

205.356 



205.123 

205.123(7) 

205.123(7) 



205.123 
205.123(7) 



205.123(7) 
205.123(7) 



205.123 

205.56(7) 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 

205.356 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 

205.356 

205.123 

205.356 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 

205.123 



OW 



OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

HUS 

HUS 

OW 

OW 

HUS 

OW 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

OW 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

HUS 

OW 

OW 

HUS 

OW 



HUS 
HUS 
HUS 
HUS 



HUS 

HUS 
. HUS 

HUS 
. HUS 

HUS 

. HUS 

OW 

OW 

OW 

HUS 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

HUS 

HUS 

s&w 

s&w 



5 Magnetic storm. 



48 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ASIA 

Siberia (Including Arctic Sea off Coast) — Concluded 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No. 43 (Yan-dang-ai) . . 
No. 52 


o / 
65 30 N 
65 28 N 
65 01.4 N 

64 54 N 
64 50 N 

64 34 N 
64 24 N 


O ' 

188 55 
185 55 

184 12 

187 25 

185 25 
187 28 

186 48 


Feb 9, '21 
Mar 29, 21 
Mar 1, 21 
Mar 21, 21 
Mar 21, 21 

Feb 14, 21 
Feb 23, 21 
Feb 17, 21 
Feb 20, 21 


h h h 
10.3 


o / 

15 16 E 


h h 

11.4 

12.6 

11.8 

14.2 

14.2 

10.5 

12.3 

13.9 .... 
13.9 


o / 

75 09.5 N 
75 05.5 N 
74 15.2 N 
74 16.3 N 
74 15.5 N 

74 40.1 N 
74 26.3 N 
74 24.9 N 
74 13.9 N 


h h 

11.4 

12.6 

11.8 .... 
13.2 

15.2 

10.5 .... 

12.3 

14.0 

13.9 


c. g. a. 
.14266 
.14344 
.15106 
.15076 
. 15094 

.14772 
.14905 
.14861 
.150 40 


205 
205 
205 
205 
205 

205 
205 
205 
205 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.125 
205.36(7) 

205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


S&W 

HUS 
S&W 


No. 48 (An-ma-la) .... 








11.4,16.3 


11 34 E 


S&W 
S&W 


No. 44 (Jan-da-ken- 

nut) 
No. 47 


9.6,11.4 


16 04 E 


S&W 
S&W 
S&W 


No. 45 (Nabba-kotta). . 






No. 46 (Emma Harbor) 


13.1,14.7 


14 29 E 


S&W 



Straits Settlements 



Singapore, Holland 
Road 

Singapore, Botanical 
Gardens 

Singapore Observatory 



1 19.0 N 

1 18.9 N 
1 16.2 N 






' 


103 


47 


103 


49 


103 


49 



Nov 


29, 


'21 


Nov 


27, 


21 


Nov 


30, 


21 


Nov 


27, 


23 


Nov 


28, 


23 


Nov 


29, 


23 



h h h 

7.1, 8.3 

10.0,11.3 

10.2,11.4 

11.9,15.7,17.0 

9.2,10.6 

14.1,15.4 



32 . 2 E 

35.2 E 
33.0 E 
36.7 E 
35.1 E 
38 . 1 E 



h 




h 




9 


4 






14 


8 






12 


3 






10 


3 


10 


5 


11 





11 


2 


15 


7 


15 


8 






' 




17 


20 


2 S 


17 


22 


6S 


17 


27 


4S 


17 


33 


7S 


17 


39 


2S 


17 


37 


OS 



h h 


c. g. s. 




7.4, 8 


. 38956 


13 


10.4,11.0 


. 38986 


13 


10.5,11.1 


. 38966 


13 


16.0,16.7 


. 39024 


24 


9.6,10.3 


.39018 


24 


14.4,15.1 


. 38993 


24 



177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



FB 

FB 

FB 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 



Syria (Including Palestine) 



Alexandretta. 
Aleppo 



Horns 

Damascus. 

Jerusalem. 



36 34 . 8 N 
36 13.7 N 



34 43.9 N 
33 30.3 N 



31 47.8 N 






/ 


36 


11 


37 


08 


36 


41 


36 


19 


35 


13 



Aug 


10, 


'22 


Aug 


14, 


22 


Aug 


15, 


22 


Aug 


16, 


22 


Aug 


18, 


22 


Aug 


23, 


22 


Aug 


24, 


22 


Sep 


1, 


22 


Sep 


2, 


22 


Sep 


2, 


22 



h h h 

9.4,11.2 

10.1,13.2 

5.6 to 17.9 (dv) 



9.8,11.7 

12.6,14.6 

8.3,10.2 

13.0,15.4 

6.1 to 10.3 (dv) 
14.5 to 18.2 (dv) 



36.7 E 

1 12. 2E 
1 12.9 E 



21.2 E 
42.1 E 
47.5 E 
03.1 W 
00.4 W 
01.2 W 



h h 
13.6,13.8 
13.9,14.2 



6.0 to 

17.9 (dv) 

9.0, 9.2 

8.9, 9.2 

12.7,12.9 

10.5,10.8 



50 47 . 3 N 
50 36.0 N 



50 35.7 N 
48 39.2 N 
46 55.2 N 
46 52 . N 
44 19 . 6 N 



h h 
9.9,10.8 

11.2,12.7 
5.9 to 

17 . 6 (dv) 



10.3,11.2 

13.2,14.2 

8.8, 9.8 

13.5,15.0 



c. g. a. 
.27102 
.27246 

.27252 



.28191 
. 28573 
. 28562 
. 29404 



12 
12 



12 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
.12 



PHD 
PHD 

PHD 

PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 



Turkey 



Dardanelles 

Afiumkarahissar 

Smyrna 

Aidin 



> 


O 


, 


40 06 . 8 N 


26 


25 


38 46.0 N 


30 


36 


38 27 . 8 N 


27 


12 


37 51.3 N 


27 


50 



Jun 


19, 


'22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jun 


23, 


22 


Jun 


24, 


22 


Jun 


24, 


22 


Jul 


6, 


22 



h 
,11.3 



h h 

9.4,11.1 

10.0 

13.6,15.0 

6.0tol8.2(dv) 
10.1,11.6 

5.9, 9.1 

13.6,13.8 

8.4, 10.0 



1 26 
31 
42 
37 



3 W 

1 W 

2 W 
W 



1 57.8 W 

1 56.8 W 

2 04.0 W 
1 29.6 W 



h h 
14.7,14.9 

7.6, 7.7 
13.2,13.4 



14.5,14.6 
6.6, 6.7 



10.6,10.8 



54 49 . 4 N 
53 26.2 N 
53 26.8 N 



52 40.9 N 
52 41.4 N 



52 20.6 N 



h h 
10.0,10.7 

8.9, 9.6 
14.0,14.7 



10.4,11.2 
7.9, 8.6 

12.5,13.2 
8.9, 9.6 



c. g. s. 
. 25004 
.25798 
.25822 



.26710 
. 26684 
. 26701 
. 26070 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



EI 7 
EI 7 
EI 7 



EI 7 
EI 7 



EI 7 



PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 
PHD 



AUSTRALASIA 
Australia 



Thursday Island, B. 



10 34.5 S 



142 13 



Sep , 7, '23 
Sep , 8, 23 

Sep 8, 23 

Sep 9, 23 
Sep 10, 23 



h h h 

16.3,17.6 

6.5 to 9.0 (dv) 

11.3 to 17.1(dv) 

6.3 to 17.2(dv) 



4 54.2 E 
4 50.4 E 

4 52.5 E 

4 52.0 E 



6.7 to 
16.7 (dv) 



33 39.6 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




16.6,17.3 


.36625 


24 


6.2 to 






9.0 (dv) 


.36621 


24 


11.6 to 






17.4 (dv) 


. 36669 


24 
24 













EI 24 



DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 

DGC 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



49 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Obs'r 



Dip Circle 



Pt. Charles Lighthouse 
Darwin 



Batchelor 

Pine Creek 

Katherine River 
Cooktown 

Cairns . 



Derby 

Normanton . 



Normanton, Secondary 

Broome, A 

Croydon 

Forsayth 

Townsville 



Port Hedland. 
Cloncurry, A . 



Cloncurry, B . 
Richmond. . . . 
Hughenden. . . 

Mackay 

Rockhampton 

Emerald 

Jericho 

Tambo 

Carnarvon . . . 
Charleville, A 



12 23.4 S 
12 26.7 S 



13 03.6 S 



13 49.6 S 

14 26.1 S 

15 28.6 S 



16 56.0 S 



17 17.8 S 
17 41.4 S 



17 41.4 S 

17 58.4 S 

18 13.1 S 

18 35.1 S 

19 14.6 S 



20 18.8 S 
20 42.4 S 



20 42.4 S 
20 43.8 S 
20 50.4 S 



21 08.8 S 



23 21.8 S 



23 30.5 S 

23 35.7 S 

24 53.1 S 
24 53.2 S 
26 24.4 S 



130 39 
130 50 



131 03 



131 51 

132 17 
145 17 



145 46 



123 38 
141 06 



141 06 
122 14 

142 15 

143 38 
146 50 



118 35 
140 30 



140 30 

143 09 

144 12 



149 11 



150 30 



148 10 
146 08 
146 16 
113 39 
146 14 



Oct 4 

Sep 21 

Sep 22 

Sep 24 



Oct 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Aug 30 

Aug 31 

Sep 1 

Aug 20 

Aug 21 

Aug 22 

Aug 23 

Aug 24 

Nov 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Nov 17 

Aug 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 12 

Jul 13 

Jul 13 

Nov 15 

Jul 24 

Jul 25 

Jul 26 

Jul 27 

Jul 28 

Jul 20 



Jul 18 

Jul 5 

Jul 6 

Jul 7 

Oct 16 

Oct 17 

Oct 17 

Oct 18 

Oct 12 

Oct 10 

Oct 8 

Nov 11 

Sep 8 

Sep 9 

Sep 11 



Sep 11 
Sep 12 



'23 
23 
23 
23 

23 

23 

23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
21 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
21 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 

23 

23 

23 

21 
23 
23 
23 

23 

23 

23 
23 
23 

23 
23 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
21 
22 
22 
22 

22 
22 



h h h 

14.8,16.1 

11.4,13.3 

5.8 to 16.6(dv) 

5.9 to 16.6(dv) 



3 25.0 E 
3 31.8 E 
3 30.8 E 
3 32.6 E 



14. 

7. 
14. 
12. 
11. 
11. 

8. 
14 
15. 
L0. 

8. 
14. 

9. 
18. 
13. 



7,15.0 
8, 9.3 
4,15.7 
0,13.8 
4,13.9 
0,14.9 
8,10.1 
3,16.1 
8,17.0 
3,11.5 
7, 9.8 
7 .... 

2 

4 

9,15.3 
4,10.0 
6,13.6 



14.9 



5. 
13. 
11. 
10 

7. 
13. 



8, 6.5 
7,15.2 
0,14.4 
2,11.4 

2 to 12.2(dv) 
8 to 17.2(dv) 



37.2 
34.9 
39.2 
36.4 
42.8 
45.6 
43.0 

48.6 E 

08.7 E 
6 04.8 E 
6 07.6 E 
6 08.0 E 
6 07.4 E 
2 18.4 E 
5 22.9 E 
5 20.2 E 
5 20.5 E 
5 22.5 E 



1 59.0 E 
5 28.6 E 

5 39.7 E 

6 29.2 E 
6 30.9 E 
6 32.8 E 



7.2 to 12.1(dv) 

13.6 to 16.9(dv) 

15.3,16.5 

14.0,15.4 

6.6 to 17.5(dv) 
6.7 

6.9 to 17.4(dv) 



13.3 

9.5 

14.0 

13.8 

9.5 

10.5 

14.6 

8.9 

14.4 

10.3 

16.1 

10.5 

14.8 

14.7 

13.5 

17.9 

10.4 

5.9 

5.8 



14.6 
10.8 
15.3 
15.0 
10.6 
11.9 
15.8 
10.2 
15.9 
11.8 
16.2 
14.8 
16.1 
16.0 
14.9 

11.8 
to 17 
17.2 



Kdv) 



6.2 to 17.0(dv) 



6 30.6 E 

6 33.7 E 

41.3 E 
4 47.0 E 
4 45.9 E 
4 45.9 E 

4 46.6 E 

4 09.4 E 

5 35.8 E 

6 04 . 1 E 
6 03.0 E 

6 00.8 E 

7 09.1 E 
7 10.8 

7 07.8 

8 01.2 
8 00.0 
8 00.8 
8 00.2 
7 12.0 
6 39.9 

6 55.2 
2 15.4 W 

7 03.2 E 
7 01.9 E 
7 02.0 E 

7 04.6 E 



h h 
14.2,14.4 
10.8,11.0 



38 18.4 S 
38 27.2 S 



h h 
15.2,15.8 
12.4,13.0 



5.6 to 
16.8 (dv) 



6.0 to 
16.7 (dv) 
14.1,14.2 

9.7, 9.9 
14.0,14.2 
11.5,11.7 
10.6,10.9 
10.4,10.6 
10.7,10.9 



38 28.3 S 

39 22.2 S 
39 25.4 S 

39 26.4 S 

40 22.8 S 

41 32.0 S 
41 22.9 S 
41 23.0 S 



15.1,15.8 
8.2, 9.0 
14.8,15.4 
13.0,13.6 
11.7,13.5 
11.3,14.6 
9.1, 9.8 
14.6,15.8 



13.3,13.5 
9.8,10.0 

10.3,10.4 
9.5, 9.6 



43 21.8 S 
43 23.1 S 
43 21.8 S 
43 21.6 S 



16. 1, 

10.6, 
9.0, 

15.0 
9.5 



16.7 

11.2 

9.6 



8.8 



45 20.6 S 



14.3,15.1 

8.8, 9.7 

13.9,14.6 



9.0 



,16.0 



8.7 
13.4 
15.6, 

8.1 .... 
11.4,11.7 
10.4,10.6 

9.6, 9.8 



45 18.8 S 
45 18.6 S 
45 19.0 S 
48 19.2 S 

45 54.3 S 

46 20.0 S 
46 53.2 S 



6.1 

14.1,14.8 
11.3,14.1 
10.5,11.1 



7.0 to 
12.0 (dv) 
13.7 to 
17.0 (dv) 



46 53.9 S 
46 52.8 S 



7.4 
12.1 



to 
(dv) 



17.5 

13.4,13.6 



52 00.4 S 
49 47.6 S 



13.6 to 
17.2 (dv) 



15.6 
14.4 



16.2 
15.2 



7.9 to 
17.6 (dv) 



49 48.6 S 



11.4,11.5 
11.4,11.5 
15.8,16.0 



9.2 

9.9 

14.3 

10.8 

16.5 



15.6,15.8 



49 25.8 
49 23.9 
49 22 
49 26 
49 14 
49 14 
49 14 
51 34.2 
51 32.1 



6.6 
17.5 
13.5 

9.8 
14,3 
14.1 

9.8 
10.8 
14.9 

9.2, 
14.8 
10.7 



to 

(dv) 

14.3 

10.5 

15.0 



9.7 
12.1 
16.4 
12.2 
17.3 

9.8,10.0 



,10.2 
,12.2 
,16.6 
,12.4 



51 33.5 S 

52 35.2 S 

53 01.8 S 

54 21.2 S 
58 31.2 S 
56 16.9 S 



10.9,14.5 
15.1,15.8 
15.0,15.8 
13.8,14.6 

18.3 

10.8,11.5 



6.2 to 
17.0 (dv) 



Charleville, B. 



26 24.5 S 



146 14 



Oct 6, 22 



9.7,11.1 



7 02.8 E 



6.1 to 
16.7 (dv) 
14.1,14.3 



56 16.3 S 
56 20.1 S 



c. g. s. 
. 36057 
. 36083 



. 36064 



. 35732 
.35754 
. 35679 
.35714 
.35414 
. 35258 
. 35279 
. 35266 
. 35042 
. 35066 
. 35087 
. 35069 
.35108 



.34318 
.34315 
. 34332 



.33130 
.34182 
. 34026 
.33874 



. 33877 

. 33860 
. 31486 
. 33398 



.33412 
.33641 
.33144 
. 33064 
. 33062 
. 33053 
. 33008 
. 33008 
.33012 
.32212 
. 32226 



. 32226 
. 31680 
.31638 
.31070 
. 27929 
.30182 



.30181 



24 
24 
24 

24 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
13 
24 
24 
24 
24 



13 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



24 

24 

13 
24 
24 

24 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
13 
24 
24 

24 
24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
177. 2X> 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



177. 2X' 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 14 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
177. 2X' 
EI 24 



10.0,10.8 



.30154 



24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DOC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

FB 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

FB 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
FB 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

FB 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 



i 14X and 15X. 



50 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 

East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Obs'r 



Dip Circle 



Roma . 



Cordillo Downs. 



o / 

26 34.3 S 



26 42.9 S 



Brisbane . 



27 27.1 S 



Uodnadatta. 



Coongoola. 



Cunuamulla. 



27 33.1 S 



27 39 . 2 S 



28 04 . 3 S 



Goondiwindi, A 
Goondiwindi, B 

Geraldton 

Leonora 

Tenterfield 

Marree 

Farina, A 



Bourke . 



Lyndhurst Siding . . . 
Watheroo Observatory 2 



28 33.0 S 
28 32.5 S 
28 47 . S 

28 51.0 S 

29 04.1 S 
29 39.4 S 



30 04.4 S 



30 04.9 S 

30 17.3 S 
30 18.9 S 



O / 

148 48 



140 38 



153 02 



135 28 



145 54 



145 42 



150 18 
150 18 
114 37 
121 18 
152 02 
138 03 



138 17 



145 57 

138 21 
115 52.6 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 

Sep 15 

Sep 16 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 21 

Sep 21 

Sep 21 

Sep 22 

Sep 22 

Sep 22 

Aug 26 

Aug 28 

Aug 29 

Aug 29 

Aug 30 

May 12 

May 13 

May 14 

May 15 

Sep 15 

Sep 20 

Sep 21 

Sep 22 

Sep 30 

Oct 2 



Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 



Oct 24 
Oct 26 
Nov 10 
Nov 19 
Aug 23 
Jun 7 
Jun 8 
May 9 
May 9 
May 10 
May 11 

May 12 



Jun 7 
Jun 8 
Jun 9 
Jun 6 

1921 
Jan 4,11, 

18,25,27 
Jan 8 
Jan 18 
Feb 1, 8, 
Feb 15,22 
Mar 1, 8, 
15,22, 
29 



h h h 

15.9,16.8 

9.1 

11.5,11.6 

14.0,15.4 

10.9,11.2 

9.6,11.7 

9.4,11.2 

10.5 

10.8 to 17.4 (dv) 

17.5 

10.4 

10. 8 to 17.4 (dv) 

17.6 

10.3 

10.8 to 17.4 (dv) 

17.5 

14.2,16.1 

6.9 to 17.9 (dv) 
6.7,17.7 

7.2 to 17.5 (dv) 



38.7 E 

34.3 E 
34.1 E 

38.6 E 

34.4 E 
43.4 E 

40.8 E 

37.3 E 
40.8 E 
41. 2E 

40.7 E 

42.4 E 
42.1 E 
38.1 E 
44.1 E 
43.4 E 

9 03.3 E 
9 00.4 E 
9 03.0 E 

9 04.1 E 



h h 
15.3,15.5 
12.0,12.2 



55 57.8 S 
55 57.4 S 



h h 

16.3 .... 

9.3,10.2 

14.4,15.1 



10.3,10.5 



55 58.6 S 



14.4 



57 19 . 3 S 



10.2,11.3 
10.0,10.8 



11.7,11.9 



56 29.0 S 



14.7,15.7 



7.2 to 
17.5 (dv) 



10.8,12.4 ... 
6.7 to 17.1 (dv) 



4 13. 6E 
4 11. 9E 



6.5 to 
16.2 (dv) 
14.4,14.7 



56 29.7 S 
58 50.2 S 



11.2,12.1 



6.9 to 16.9 (dv) 



4 13.9 E 



6.6 to 
17.1 (dv) 



58 49 . 3 S 



2,16.9 ... 
5 to 17 . 5 (dv) 

4 to 17.8 (dv) 

5 to 17.5 (dv) 
2,16.9 ... 
8,10.3 ... 

5 . . . 
5 ... 
4 . .. 

3 ... 

4 . . . 
3 ... 



2,16 
4, 6 
0,15 
7,11 
2,15 
7,16 

4.15.8 

5.12.9 

5,13.0,15.2 
6,16.2 



6 59 
6 55 
6 58 
6 57 
6 59 
6 52 
6 57 
6 54 
6 58 
6 53 
6 58 
9 09 
9 12 
3 24 
31 
8 59 



2E 
2E 
3E 
2E 
IE 
4 E 
2 E 
6E 
0E 
E 
4E 
8E 
2E 

8 W 

9 W 
2E 



11.1,11.3 



57 53.0 S 



6.6 to 
17.1 (dv) 
15.6,16.5 



11.0,11.2 



58 18.4 S 



16.0,16.5 

9.1,10.0 

15.5,16.2 

14.3,15.1 



10.7,10.9 



58 17.5 S 



14.4,15.1 



12.6,12.8 
10.9,11.1 

11.6 

17.0 

12.5,12.6 
15.8 



58 13.7 S 
58 14.2 S 
62 21.4 S 
61 50.5 S 
58 19.3 S 
60 50.2 S 



9,11.9 ... 
6,16.0 ... 
8,12.7 ... 
6 to 17.0 (dv) 



5 06.8 E 
5 12.0 E 
5 48.6 E 
5 48.9 E 



13.9,14.1 
16.5 .... 



60 51.6 S 

61 15.6 S 



13.9,15.2 

9.0,10.2 

10.0,11.5 

13.7,16.0 



9.5,13.7'. 



9.3,13.5". 

9.2,12.7 s . 



9.4,10.7'. 



7 30 . 5 E 
7 28.6 E 
7 28.6 E 
5 58.3 E 



4 23.2 W 



7.3 to 
17.1 (dv) 
15.6,15.8 
10.7,10.8 



61 13.6 S 
60 30.4 S 
60 30.8 S 



23.2 W 
24.1 W 



4 23.4 W 



10.9 



8.8, 9.2* 
10.2,11.1 
8.7, 9.1 
8.5, 8.8 
8.4, 8.7 



8.6, 9.0 



61 32.9 S 



63 56.3 S 
63 55.4 S 
63 57.2 S 
63 56.6 S 
63 56.8 S 



63 56 . 3 S 



15.1,15.9 
14.8,15.6 

12.7 

13.5,14.8 
15.1,15.8 



10.4,11.2 
15.0,15.7 
11.3,12.4 



7.5 to 
17.5 (dv) 



14.2,14.9 

9.3, 9.9 

10.5,11.2 

14.6,15.5 



10.5,14.2' 



c. g. s. 
. 30274 
. 30264 
. 30274 



. 29609 
. 29675 



. 29880 



. 29881 



.28881 



.28861 
.29314 



. 29074 
. 29094 
. 29094 
. 29066 



.29071 



.29128 
.29140 
. 25790 
.26502 
. 29034 



. 27707 
. 27694 
. 27444 



.27465 



10.8,13.0 
9.7,10.8 



9.9,10.8 



. 27772 
. 27782 
. 27782 
. 27244 



. 24869 



.24876 
.24871 



.24874 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



6 

. 6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

24 

24 

24 
24 



24 
24 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
13 
18 
24 



6 

24 

6 

6 



24 

24 

24 

6 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



226.12(12) 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
177.2X(78) 
201. 4X 
EI 24 
226.12 

EI 24 
226.12(12) 



226.1 
EI 24 
EI 24 



226.1 



EI 2 



2 The declination and horizontal-intensity values were determined at station N m and the inclination values at station Nw. 

3 The second observation on January 11 was at 11*. 2; the first observation on Jan 27 was at ll h .2. 
1 On January 4 the times of observations were at 10 h . 2 and 1 l h . 0. 

6 The second observations on Jan 11, 18 were at 10 h .8 and ll h .5; the observations on January 27 were at 14 b .l and 15 h .7. 

6 The second observation on Feb 15 was at 10l>.4. 

' The second observations on Mar 8, 22, were at 13 h .3 and 12 fc .8 respectively. 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
ALK 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DCC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

, DGC 
DGC 

. DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
FB 
JS 

DGC 
ALK 

. ALK 
DGC 
ALK 

. ALK 

. ALK 

ALK 
DGC 
DGC 
. DGC 
ALK 



P.K.S 
JS 

JS ' 

P&S 

P&S 



P&S 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



51 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Watheroo Observatory 


o / 


O I 


1921 


h h h 


/ 


h h 


/ 


h h 


c, g. s. 










30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Apr 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.2,11.2'.... 


4 21.9 W 


9.1, 9.5 


63 56.3 S 


10.2,11.0' 


.24871 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








May 3,10, 


























24,31 


9.6,13.6'°.... 


4 22.9 W 


8.8, 9.1 


63 58.0 S 


9.7,10.7'i 


.24839 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








May 17 « 


9.8,13.2 


4 24.8 W 


8.8, 9.2 


64 06.2 S 


10.3,11.5 


. 24724 


7 


EI 2 


JS 








May 21 
May 22 
Jun 7,14, 










9.6,10.8 
14.2,15.4 


.24793 
.24816 


7 

7 




JS 














JS 






















21,28 


9.1,10.9 


4 21.9 W 


8.4, 8.6 


63 57.7 S 


9.5,10.5 


.24845 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








Jul 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.4,11.2" 


4 22.5 W 


8.4, 8.7 


63 57 . 6 S 


9.6,10.7" 


. 24838 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








Aug 1, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


8.3,10.1" 


4 21 9 W 


7.5, 8.1" 


63 57 . 7 S 


8.9, 9.8" 


. 24847 


7 


EI 2 


WCP 








Aug 12 






9.3, 9.6 


63 58.0 S 


13.0, 13.7 


.24827 


7 


EI 2 


WCP 








Sep 6,13, 


























20 27 


8. 9,10. 8" 


4 22.8 W 


8.3, 8.6" 


63 58.4 S 


9.4,10.5" 


.24838 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








Oct 4,11 


9.2,11.0 


4 25.5 W 


8.3, 8.5 


63 59 5 S 


9.6,10.6 


. 24820 


7 


EI 2 


P&S 








Oct 17 
Oct 18,19 


13.3,15.2 

13.2,15.1 


4 18.3 W 
4 18.8 W 






13.8,14.8 
13.7,14.7 


. 24828 
. 24834 


7 
7 




JS 




10.6,11.0 


63 58.4 S 


EI 2 


JS 








Oct 21 
Oct 22 
Oct 23 
Oct 24 
Oot 26 
Nov 1 
Nov 2,15 






10.1,10.4 


63 59.2 S 








EI 2 


JS 




13.2 

10.6,15.018 


4 19.2 W 
4 22.1 W 






7 
7 


JS 








8.8 to 15.0 


.24851 




WCP 




15.4,15.9 


63 58.6 S 


EI 2 


WCP 








11.0 


. 24848 


7 


WCP 








9.2, 9.9 


63 59.2 S 


EI 2 


GRW 
















22,30 


9.6,11.3" 


4 22 4 W 


8.4, 8.8 


63 59.1 S 


10.4,10.8" 


. 24838 


7 


EI 2 


I'&W 








Nov 8 
Nov 9 
Dec 6,13, 






9.8,10.3 


63 59 . 5 S 


9.6,11.2 


. 24844 


7 


EI 2 


GRW 




9.0,11.8 


4 20.8 W 


GRW 


















20,27 


9.8,11.8 


4 23.4 W 


8.7, 9.0 


63 59.0 S 


10.1,11.3 


.24835 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Dec 30 
Dec 31 

1922 










14.8,16.2 
9.4,10.7 


. 24825 
.24840 


7 
7 




GRW 














GRW 






















Jan 3,10, 


























17,24, 


























31 


9.7,11.420 ... 


4 22.9 W 


8.9, 9.3" 


63 59.2 S 


10.3,11.0 2 ° 


. 24826 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Feb 7,14, 


























21,28 


9.3,11.6 


4 25.2 W 


8.5, 8.9 22 


64 00.3 S 


9.7,10.9 


. 24805 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Mar 7,14, 


























21,28, 


























29 


9.8,12.4a 


4 22.3 W 


9.0, 9.3* 1 


64 00.4 S 


10.4,11.6 s3 


.24808 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Apr 4,11 


























18,25 


9.0,11.5 


4 22.3 W 


8.5, 8.9" 


64 01.0 S 


9.5,10.7 


.24801 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








May 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


9.4,11.6 


4 21.1 W 


8.6, 8.9 


64 00.4 S 


10.0,11.2 


.24805 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Jun 6,13, 


























20,27 


9.5,11.6 


4 21.7 W 


8.6, 9.0 


64 00.0 S 


9.8,11.1 


.24811 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Jun 28 
Jul 4,11, 










9.0,10.3 


.24816 


7 




GRW 






















18,25 


9.3,11.5 


4 21.2 W 


7.9, 8.2 


64 00.7 S 


9.8,11.0 


.24798 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Aug 1, 8, 


























15,22, 


























29 


9.8,11.6" 


4 22.2 W 


9.0, 9.3 


64 01.0 S 


IQ.3,11.2 28 


.24799 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 



8 The second observation on Apr 19 was at 13 h .0. 

• The second observation on Apr 5 was at 13 h .6. 
10 The second observations on May 10, 24 were at 10 h .8 and ICC 1 . 2. 
"The observations on May 3 were at ll 11 . 1 and 13 h .o. 
12 Magnetic storm in progress during observations this day. 

"The second observation on July 5 was at 13 h .2, with a third observation at 15 h .4. 
" The observations on July 5 were at 13 h .7 and 14 h .9. 

"The observations on Aug 1 were at 13>>.5, 14*. 9 in D; at 13>>.0, 13V2 in J; and at 13>".8, 14>>.6 in H. 
" The observations on Sep 27 were at 13i>.3, 15V5 in D and at 13 h .8, loVO in H. 

17 The observations on Sep 6 were at 13 h .2 and 13 h . 5. 

18 The first observation on Oct 23 was at 7 h . 4. 

19 The second observations on Nov 15, 22 were at 14V 6 in D and at 13 h .9 in H. 

20 The first observation on Jan 10 was at 7 ll .9 in D and at 8 h .4 in H; the second observations on Jan 17 were at 1Q.& in D and 13 h .3 in //. 

21 The observations on Jan 10 were at 6 h .3 and 6 h .6. 

22 The observations on Feb 7 were at 6 h .3 and 6 h .7. 

2 > The observations on Mar 29 were at 13<>.7 and 15V8 in D; at 13>>.0, 13b. 3 in 7; and at 11>>.3, 15>>.4 in //, 

24 The observations on Apr 18 were at 6 h . 5 and 6 h .7. 

28 The second observation on Aug 1 was at 14 h .0 in D and at 13 h .5 in H. 



52 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Inte 


nsity 


Instruments 




Station 






1 










Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Watheroo Observatory 


O ' 


O t 


1922 


h h h 


o / 


h h 


O ' 


h h 


c. g. s. 










30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Sep 5,12 


8.8,10.9 


4 22.7 W 


7.7, 8.0 


64 00.9 S 


9.3,10.5 


. 24804 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Sep 22 , 26 


13.4,15.6 


4 18.1 W 


16.7,17.0 


64 01.8 S 


14.0,15.2 


. 24779 


7 


EI 2 


w&s 








Oct 3,10, 


























17,24, 


























31 


9.2, 10. S 28 


4 21.4 W 


6.4, 6.7" 


64 01 . 1 S 


9.7, 10. 4 2 8 


. 24796 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Oct 4 
Nov 7,14, 


9 4, 9.8 


4 25.3 W 










7 




JS 






















21,29 


9.1,11.2 


4 23.4 W 


8.1, 8.4 


64 01.3 S 


9.7,10.8 


. 24805 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Dec 5,12, 


























19,26 


10.0,11.1". . . . 


4 21.4 W 


8.9, 9.2'° 


64 00.9 S 


10.1,10.7" 


. 24805 


7 


EI 2 


w&s 








1923 


























Jan 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


9.5,11.6 


4 22.1 W 


8.6, 8.9 


64 01.6 S 


10.1,11.2 


. 24800 


7 


EI 2 


W&S 








Feb 6,13, 


























15,20, 


























27 


9.4,11 3 


4 21.9 W 


8.7, 9.0 


64 02.7 S 


9.9,10.9 


. 24783 


7 


EI 2 


w&s 








Mar 2, 6, 


























13,20, 


























27 


9.8,11.9" 


4 20.9 W 


9.1, 9.2 33 


64 03.2 S 


10.2,11.5" 


. 24776 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Apr 5,11, 


























17,24 


10.0, 11. 4» 


4 20.7 W 


9.1, 9.4» 


64 02.8 S 


10.6,10.9" 


. 24775 


7 


EI 2 


s&c 








May 1, 8, 


























15,22, 


























29 


9.6,11.6 


4 20.7 W 


8.8, 9.1 


64 02 3 S 


10.2,11.2 


. 24775 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Jun 5,12, 


























15,19, 


























26 


9.8,11.7 


4 20.8 W 


8.7, 9.13» 


64 02.5 S 


10.2,11.2 


. 24784 


7 


EI 2 


s&c 








Jun 16 
Jul 3 
Jul 4 
Jul 10,17, 










9.3 10.3 


. 24779 


7 




JC 








8.8, 9.5 


64 03.4 S 


EI 2 


GRW 




8.4,10 .7 


4 19.8 W 


8.9,10.2 


. 24780 


7 


GRW 


















24,31 


9.4,11.4 


4 21.1 W 


8.5, 8.9 


64 02.7 S 


9.9,10.9 


. 24784 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Aug 7,14, 


























21,28 


9.8,11.4" 


4 20.7 W 


8.9, 9.2 


64 02.6 S 


10.3,11.0" 


. 24784 


7 


EI 2 


s&c 








Sep 4,11, 


























18,25 


10.2,11.9 4u .. . . 


4 20.8 W 


9.1, 9.5 


64 02.9 S 


10.7, 11. 5« 


. 24774 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Oct 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


9.7,11.5 


4 21.6 W 


9.0, 9.4 


64 03.9 S 


10.2,11.1 


. 24760 


7 


EI 2 


s&c 








Nov 6,13, 


























20,27 


9.7,11.5" 


4 19.7 W 


8.9, 9.2« 


64 03.5 S 


10.2.11.1 43 


. 24774 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Dec 4,11, 




















I 






18,24 


10.0,11.6" 


4 20.1 W 


9.3, 9.6 


64 03.1 S 


10.5,11.3" 


. 24780 


7 


EI 2 


w.s.c 






192 J, 


























Jan 2, 8, 


























15,29 


9.9,11.7" 


4 18.9 W 


8.9, 9.4 


64 03.7 S 


10.4, 11. 2« 


. 24776 


7 


EI 2 


w,s,c 








Jan 21 
Jan 22 
Feb 5,12, 






8.6, 9.2 


64 04.2 S 








EI 2 


OWT 




13.5,15.5 


4 17.4 W 


14.2,15.0 


.24778 


7 


JC 


















19,26 


9.9.11.6 48 


4 19.5 W 


8.8, 9.3 


64 04.8 S 


10.5,11.2" 


. 24758 


7 


EI 2 


W.T.C 








Mar 4,11, 


























18,25 


9.7,11.7 


4 20.6 W 


8.9, 9.3 


64 04.5 S 


10.3,11.1 


. 24768 


7 


EI 2 


C&T 



28 The second observation on Oct 3 was at ll h .8; the observations on Oct 10 were at 14 h . 1 and 16 h .3; the first observation on Oct 31 was at &>.<}. 

27 The observations on Oct 3 were at 9 b 2 and 9 h 5; those on Oct 10 were at 16 h 9 and 17 h .2. 

28 The observations on Oct 10 were at 14 h .6 and 15 h .9; the first observation on Oct 31 was at 8 h 2. 
" The second observations on Dec 12, 26 were at 13 h 8 and 15 h .O. 

30 The observations on Dec 26 were at ll h 3 and ll h . 6. 

51 The second observation on Dec 12 was at 13 h 4, and the observations on Dec 26 were at 13 h .4 and 14 h ,6. 
32 The observations on Mar 2 were at ll 11 . 4 and 14>>.6; the second observation on Mar 6 was at 14 h 9. 
13 The observations on Mar 2 were at lO'.fl and 10 h .9. 

31 The observations on Mar 2 and 6 were at 12 h .7 and 14 h . 1. 

35 The first observation on Apr 5 and the second observation on Apr 11 were at 8V5 and 13 h ,8. 
38 The observations on Apr 5 were at 6*>.9 and 7 h .2. 

37 The first observation on Apr 5 and the second observation on Apr 11 were at 9 b 2 and 13 h .4. 

38 The observations on June 15 were at 13 h .8 and 14 h .2. 

38 The second observations on Aug 7 were at 13 b . 8 in D, and at 13 h . 4 in H . 

40 The second observations on Sep 18 were at 13 h .9 in D, and at 13 h 5 in H. 

41 The observations on Nov 6 were at 13 h 2 and lo h .6; the second observation of Nov 13 was at 14 h .8. 

42 The observations on Nov 6 were at 10 h 9 and ll h . 3. 

13 The observations on Nov 6 were at 14 h .O and 15 h 2, and those on Nov 13 at 13 h 2 and 14 h .4. 

14 The second observation on Dec 18 was at 14 h .O in D and at 13 h .6 in H. 

45 The second observations on Jan 29 in D and H were at 15 h .6 and 13 h .8 respectively. 

48 The second observations on Feb 5 and 26 in D were at 14 h .4 and 14<>.5, and in H at 13 h .8 and 13 h .9. 



Results oe Land Observations, 1921-1926 



53 



AUSTRALASIA 
Australia — Continued 











Declination 




Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 






Latitude 


Long. 

East 


Date 




















Station 




















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M 


. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Watheroo Observatory 


O ' 


/ 


1921, 


h h h 


o / 


h 


h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 








— Continued 


30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Apr 1, 8, 
16,22, 




























29 


9.8,12.0".. . . 


4 18.6 W 


8.7, 


9.1" 


64 04.5 S 


10.4,11.5" 


. 24756 


7 


EI 2 


W,T,C 








May 6,13, 




























20,27 


9.8,11.7" 


4 18.7 W 


8.9. 


9.3" 


64 04.6 S 


10.3, 11. 2« 


. 24750 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








May 21 
Jun 3,10, 






13.6, 


13.9 


64 04.2 S 








EI 2 


JC 


































17,19, 




























24 


9.6,11.6 


4 18.9 W 


8.7, 


9.0 


64 04.5 S 


10 1,11.2 


24760 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








Jul 1, 8, 




























15,22, 




























29 


9.8,11.6 


4 19.1 W 


8.7, 


9.3 


64 04.8 S 


10.4,11.3 


. 24748 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Aug 1 
Aug 5,12, 












10.7,11 5 


. 24755 


7 




JC 
























19,26 


9.5,11.1" 


4 20.3 W 


8.5, 


8.9 


64 05.0 S 


10.0,10.7" 


.24754 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








Sep 2, 9, 




























16,23, 




























30 


9.6,11.5 


4 20.9 W 


8.6, 


9.1 


64 06.0 S 


10.1,11.1 


.24741 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Oct 7,14, 




























21,28 


9.4,11.4 


4 21.8 W 


8.5, 


8.9 


64 06.2 S 


9.9.10.9 


. 24737 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Oct 22 
Nov 5,11, 












9.7,10.6 


24734 


7 




HFJ 






















19,25 


9.2,11.1 


4 21.6 W 


8.4, 


8.7 


64 06.4 S 


9 7,10.2 


. 24738 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Nov 21 
Dec 2, 9, 












9.4,10.3 


. 24752 


7 




HFJ 






















16,23, 




























30 


9.1,10.8 


4 19 6 W 


8.4, 


8.7 


64 05.9 S 


9.6,10.6 


.24747 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Dec 24 

1925 












11.1,11.9 


. 24742 


7 




JC 
























Jan 6,13, 




























20,27 


9.0,10.8 s " 


4 19 3 W 


8.2, 


8.5'» 


64 06.4 S 


9.5,10.46" 


. 24735 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








Feb 3,10, 




























17,24 


9.2,11.4" 


4 20.5 W 


8.4. 


8.8 


64 07.0 S 


9.9,10.9" 


24737 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Feb 20 
Mar 2,10, 












10.4,11.2 


. 24734 


7 




JC 






















17,24 


9 3,11.0 


4 19.9 W 


8.5, 


9.0 M 


64 06.9 S 


10.0, 10. 9« 


.24731 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Apr 1, 7, 




























14,21, 




























28 


9.0,10.5 M 


4 20.8 W 


8.3. 


8.6" 


64 06.7 S 


9.4,10. 1" 


. 24729 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








May 5,12, 




























19,26 


9.1,11.3" 


4 19.2 W 


8.4, 


8.7 


64 07.4 S 


9.6,10.3 s6 


.24721 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Jun 2, 9, 




























16,22, 




























30 


9.2,10.95' 


4 18.2 W 


8.4, 


8.7" 


64 07.3 S 


9.8,10.6" 


. 24723 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Jul 7,14, 




























21,28 


9 . 1 , 10 . 9 


4 19.0 W 


8.4, 


8.7 


64 07.2 S 


9.6,10.5 


.24721 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








Aug 4,11, 




























18,25 


9.1,10.7 


4 19.0 W 


8.3, 


8.6 


64 07.5 S 


9.5,10.3 


. 24727 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Sep 1, 8, 




























15,29 


9.2,11.0 


4 19.8 W 


8.3, 


8.5 


64 08.7 S 


9.6,10.6 


.24712 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








Sep 24 


9.0, 9.2 


4 21.5 W 


8.4, 


8.6 


64 08.0 S 






7 


EI 2 


J&T 








Sep 25 
Oct 6,15, 


9.3,11.2 


4 18.6 W 








9.8,10.8 


. 24674 


7 




OWT 




















20,27 


9.2,10.9 


4 22.1 W 


8.4, 


8.7 


64 09.2 S 


9 6,10.5 


. 24704 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Nov 3,10, 




























17,24 


9.0,10.7 


4 22.0 W 


8.3, 


8.5 


64 09.2 S 


9.5,10.3 


. 24703 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Dec 1, 8, 




























15,22, 




























29 


9.2,10.9 


4 20.9 W 


8.3, 


8.6 


64 09.6 S 


9.6,10.5 


.24712 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








1926 




























Jan 5,12, 


'...,' 


























19,26 


9.2,1I\Q 


4 20.0 W 


8.3, 


8.6 


64 09.4 S 


9.8,10.6 


.24716 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 








Feb 2, 9, 




























16,23 


9.2,10.8 


4 21.8 W 


8.3, 


8.5 


64 10.6 S 


9.6,10.4 


. 24677 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,T 



47 The second observations on Apr 16 in D were at 14V 7 and in H at 14 h . 1: the observations in I on Apr 22 were at 14V and 14V 4. 

48 The observations on May 20 in D were at 13V 4 and 15V 2, and in H at 13V 9 and 14V 7; those in I were at 10V9 and 11V2. 

49 The second observations on Aug 19 in D and H were at 14V and 13V 5 respectively. 

50 The observations in D on Jan 20 were at 14V 4 and 16V 4, those in H at 14V 9 and 16V 0, and those in J at 13''. 5 and 13V 9. 
61 The second observation in D on Feb 17 was at 10V4; the observations in H on Feb 17 were at 9V3 and 10V 1. 

52 The second observation in i" on Mar 17 was at 8V5; the observations in H on Mar 17 were at 9V2 and 9V9. 
63 The second observations in D and H on Apr 21 were at 11V2 and 10 h .8 respectively. 

54 The observations on Apr 1 were at 11V4 and 11V6. 

55 The second observations on May 12 and 19 were at 10V4 and 10V5 respectively. 

56 The second observation on May 26 was at 11V0. 

57 The observations in H on Jun 9 were at 9V2 and 9V9. Those on Jun 22 were, in D, at 141". 2 and 16V0; in /, at 13V4 and 13V7; and in H, at 15V7 and 16V 6. 



54 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 







Long. 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Latitude 


East 


Date 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Watheroo Observa- 


o t 


o * 


1926 


h h h 


o t 


h h 


o * 


h h 


c. g. s. 








tory — Concluded 


30 18.9 S 


115 52 6 


Mar 1 






13.4 to 
























17.0 (12) 


64 09.7 S 








EI 2 


J,C,T 
HFJ 








Mar 2 
Mar 3 


8.0 

7.9 to 17.1(8) 


4 21.2 W 
4 18.2 W 








7 










8.4 to 














Mar 9,16, 










16.7(8) 


. 24682 


7 




J&T 














23,30 


9.0,10.7 


4 21.7 W 


8.2, 8.5 


64 11.1 S 


9.4,10.3 


.24675 


7 


EI 2 


J&T 








Apr 6,13, 


























20,27 


9.1,10.8 


4 19.9 W 


8.2, 8.5 


64 10.4 S 


9.6,10.4 


.24684 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.T 








May 4,11, 


























18,25 


8.9,10.6 


4 18.5 W 


8.2, 8.4 


64 10.3 S 


9.5,10.3 


.24689 


7 


EI 2 


J&C 








Jun 1, 8, 


























15,22, 


























29 


9.0,11.1 


4 18.1 W 


8.3 


64 09.3 S 


9.5,10.6 


. 24702 


7 


EI 2 


J,C,W 








Jul 6,13, 


























20,27 


8.8,10.7 


4 18.0 W 


8.3,11.3" 


64 09.6 S 


9.4,10.3 


. 24700 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.W 








Aug 3,10, 


























17,24, 


























31 


8.8,10.5" 


4 19.0 W 


8.3,10.8" 


64 10.2 S 


9.3,10.1" 


. 24683 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.W 








Sep 7,14, 


























21,28 


8.5,10.4 .... 


4 19.4 W 


8.2,10.6 


64 10.9 S 


9.1,10.0 


.24680 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.W 








Oct 5,12, 


























19,26 


8.9,10.8 


4 21.0 W 


8.4,11.1 


64 11.2 S 


9.5,10.4 


. 24678 


7 


EI 2 


j.e.w 








Nov 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


8.7,10.3 


4 20.6 W 


8.3,10.5 


64 10.9 S 


9.2, 9.9 


.24682 


7 


EI 2 


J&C 








Dec 7,14, 


























21,28 


8.6,10.3 


4 20.8 W 


8.2,10.7 


64 09.9 S 


9.1,10.0 


.24702 


7 


EI 2 


J.C.W 


Watheroo Observa- 






1923 






















30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Apr 5 

Apr 6 
Apr 6 
Apr 7 


13.3,15.1 

8.8,10.6 


4 16.2 W 
4 23.2 W 






13.8,14.7 
9.3,10.2 


.24791 
. 24762 


7 

7 




JS 










JS 








13.5,15.5 


4 16.6 W 






14.1,15.1 


.24790 


24 




DGC 








9.0 to 15.5(4) 


4 19.8 W 






9.5 to 






















15.1 (4) 


.24776 


24 




DGC 


Watheroo Observa- 








30 18.9 S 


115 52 6 


Apr 9 
Apr 9 
Apr 10 
Apr 10 






9.2 to 




















• 




11.6 (6) 
13.6 to 


64 01.6 S 








EI 2 


JS 






















16.1 (6) 
6.8 to 


64 15.1 S 








EI 24 


DGC 






















9.5 (6) 
10.2 to 


64 03.8 S 








EI 24 


DGC 


















1921 






14.6 (8) 


64 02.1 S 








EI 2 


JS 












Watheroo Observa- 




























30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Oct 20,21 
Oct 22 
Oct 23 
Oct 24 
Oct 24 
1923 


13.5,15.3 

8.9,10.9 

16 1 17 5 


4 18.1 W 
4 26.4 W 
4 19 2 W 






13.8,14.8 

9.3,10.3 

16.4,17.1 


.24819 
.24832 
.24834 


7 
7 
7 




JS 










JS 










WCP 








8 4 9 7 


4 25 6 W 






8.7, 9.4 


.24842 


7 




WCP 








10.0,11.4,11.7 


4 24.8 W 






10.4,11.1 


.24834 


7 




WCP 


















Apr 5 


8.5 to 15.1 (4) 


4 19.8 W 






9.2 to 






















14.7 (4) 
14.1,15.1 


. 24773 


24 




DGC 








Apr 6 
Apr 7 


13 5,15 5 


4 17 2 W 






.24790 


7 




JS 








9.0 to 15.5 (4) 


4 20.0 W 






9.5 to 


























15.1 (4) 


. 24777 


7 




JS 








1921 


















Watheroo Observa- 




























30 18.9 S 


115 52.6 


Jan 13 
Jan 13 
Jan 14 
Oct 20,21 
Oct 20 
1923 






9.8,10.5 

13.8,14.3 

9.5, 9.9 

9.2, 9.6 

10.3,11.0 


63 55.8 S 
63 55.6 S 
63 56.4 S 
63 59.2 S 
63 59.4 S 








EI 2 
EI 2 
EI 2 
EI 2 
EI 2 


EK 














JS 














JS 














JS 














JS 






















Apr 9 






9.1 to 
11.6 (6) 
13.6 to 


64 13.9 S 








EI 24 










DGC 








Apr 9 






























16.0 (6) 
6.8 to 


64 02 7 S 








EI 2 


JS 








Apr 10 






























9.6 (6) 


64 02.2 S 








EI 2 


JS 













68 The second observation on Jul 6 was at 8 h .3. 

"The second observations on Aug 10 in D, I, and // were at 14&.3, 14 h .8, and 13 h .7 respectively. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



55 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Dip Circle 



Obs'r 



Watheroo Observa- 
tory Sa — Concluded. . 

Ooldea 

Cook 

Tarcoola 

Deakin 

Mile-Post 632 

Coolgardie 

Southern Cross 

Werris Creek 

Wilcannia 

Northam 

Eucla 



Yalata Head Station 
Broken Hill 

Cottesloe, A 

Ceduna 



Dubbo, A* 

Dubbo, -B* 

Narromine 

Menindie 

Port Augusta, A 



Port Augusta, B . 



30 18,0 S 

30 27.5 S 
30 37 S 

30 43.1 S 
30 46.0 S 

30 49.4 S 
30 57.1 S 



31 13.6 S 

31 21.0 S 
31 33.7 S 

31 38.6 S 
31 43.3 S 



31 56.3 S 

31 57.8 S 



31 59.1 S 

32 08.2 S 



32 14.3 S 
32 14.9 S 
32 15 S 
32 23.9 S 
32 29 . 7 S 



32 29 . 7 S 



Wellington. . . 
East Maitland 

Narrogin 

Peterborough . 



32 33.6 S 
32 45.5 S 
32 55.8 S 
32 56.9 S 



115 52.6 

131 48 
130 25 

134 35 

128 58 

128 25 
121 10 



119 20 

150 39 
143 23 

116 40 
128 53 



132 23 
141 27 



115 45 
133 36 



148 35 
148 37 
148 12 
142 26 
137 46 



137 46 



148 56 
151 35 
117 10 
138 51 



Apr 10, '23 



Mar 30 
Apr 14 
Apr 
Apr 
May 
May 
Apr 
Nov 14 
Nov 15 
Nov 16 
Nov 11 
Nov 12 
Aug 22 
May 30 
May 31 
Nov 10 
Apr 17 
Apr 18 

Apr 19 
Apr 20 

Mar 28 
May 20 
May 20 
May 21 
May 23 
Oct 30 
Mar 23 
Mar 24 

Mar 25 
Mar 26 

Jun 15 
Jun 14 
Jun 12 

May 26 

May 1 

May 1 

May 2 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

Jun 16 

Oct 23 

Nov 7 

May 19 

May 19 

Oct 2 

Oct 3 

Oct 3 



10.4,10.8 .. 

15.2 

16.1 

10.7,14.1 .. 



2 55.8 E 
2 28.8 E 

2 29.5 E 

3 55.0 E 



15.0,16.5 

10.4,14.1 

11.5 

7.2 to 18.2(dv) 

10.8 

16.2 

15.8 

14.6,16.0 

10.4,11.9 



17.2 E 
53.6 E 



1 28.4 W 



.1 



1 31 

1 31.5 W 

2 12.0 W 
2 10.2 W 
9 05.2 E 
6 54.7 E 



10.7,14.5 .. 
10.7,12.5 .. 



4 35.4 W 
I 48.5 E 



6.8 to 17.3(dv) 
7.0 to 17.2(dv) 



9.6,11.3 
11.1,12.7 
16.0,16.2 

9.4 



10.1, 

9.9, 

14.3, 



11.5 
12.2 
15.9 



1 46.2 E 

1 49.8 E 

2 47.9 E 
6 03.9 E 
6 04.7 E 
6 05.3 E 
6 02.2 E 
4 48.8 W 

3 52.4 E 



6.9 to 17.7(dv) 
6.4 to 16.3(dv) 

14.9,16.2 

13.9,15.4 

10.5,14.8 

9.9,12.0 

14.8 



3 51.0 E 

3 50.5 E 

7 02.1 E 

8 48.6 E 
8 45.0 E 
6 45.6 E 

4 53.3 E 



9.3 



4 47.7 E 



10.9,12.8 
14.9,16.9 



4 50.6 E 
4 52.4 E 



15.5,15.7 

14.8 

9.3 

10.9,12.8 
14.9,16.9 



53.0 E 
55.2 E 
48.2 E 

51.1 E 
51. 4E 



15.5,15.7 
10.3,11.6 
12.8,15.5 
13.9,16.9 



4 51. 7E 

8 36 . 4 E 

9 33. 4E 

5 29.1 W 



10.1,12.2 
13.0,14.6 
15.3,16.8 



5 34.1 E 
5 38.3 E 
5 36.3 E 



h h 
10.2 to 
14.6 (8) 
11.1,11.2 



64 02.9 S 
62 41.4 S 



9.9,10.3 
16.0,17.4 



13.3 

13.6,14.1 
15.7 .... 



62 46.0 S 
62 20.4 S 
62 53.4 S 



11.1,11.8 



13.6,13.8 



63 13.0 S 



15.4,16.2 
10.8,11.5 
13.9 .... 



11.9 .. 



63 50.2 S 



14.5 

11.4 11.8 



64 29.1 S 
61 11.6 S 



10.3 .... 

16.7 

11.2 

14.9,15.7 
10.8,11.6 



8.6, 8.8 

16.6 

14.7,14.9 

6.6 to 
17.4 (dv) 



62 20.5 S 
65 10.0 S 

63 51.1 S 

63 51.0 S 



11.2,14.1 
11.3,12.1 



13.7,13.9 
14.8,15.0 



64 26.5 S 
62 41.8 S 



6.7 to 
17.4 (dv) 
10.0,10.9 
11.6,12.4 



9.3, 9.5 

14.6 

13.7,13.9 

5.9 to 
16.8 (dv) 



62 40.6 S 
65 27.4 S 
64 11.2 S 

64 12.1 S 



9.7,10.9 
10.4,11.2 
10.4,11.3 
14.9,15.6 



13.9,14.1 
10.8,11.0 
9.8,10.0 
8.8, 9.0 
10.6,11.0 
11.3,11.9 
14.9,15.1 
15.9,16.2 



61 58.4 S 

62 31.0 S 

62 14.1 S 

63 19.8 S 

64 20.2 S 
64 20.4 S 
64 20 . 2 S 
64 19 . 8 S 



6.0 to 
16.6 (dv) 
15.2,15.8 
14.3,15.1 
10.8,11.5 
10.2,11.0 
15.4 



9.8 



10.2,10.5 
10.7.10.9 
11.4,11.7 
12.0,12.2 

10.6 

16.1 

9.9 .... 
11.7 



64 19.6 S 
64 19.4 S 
64 19.7 S 
64 19.8 S 
64 19.9 S 
64 22.0 S 
64 20.4 S 
64 21.5 S 



11.4,12.3 
15.4,16.5 



11.2 
15.6 



64 20.8 S 
64 20 . 9 S 



10.6 

11.8 

15.8,16.0 
16.2,16.4 
9.6, 9.8 
10.1,10.3 
11.3,11.6 
11.8,12.0 



64 21.2 S 
64 20.3 S 
64 21.0 S 
64 21.2 S 
64 22.0 S 
64 22.0 S 
64 21.9 S 
64 22 . 2 S 



15.4 

9.8 

11.4,12.3 
15.4,16.5 



13.6,13.8 
16.0,16.2 



62 32 . 5 S 
62 21.3 S 
66 36.1 S 
64 16.0 S 
64 15.5 S 
64 15.1 S 
64 14.8 S 
64 14.3 S 



10.6.11.4 
14.0,15.1 
14.5,16.6 



10.7,11.8 
13.4,14.3 
15.7,16.4 



c. g. s. 



. 26538 
. 26290 



. 26499 



. 26304 
. 25937 
. 25209 



.25211 
. 24679 
. 24682 
. 27487 
. 26702 



. 24004 
. 25572 



. 25549 
.25264 
.26490 



. 26496 
. 26520 
.23843 
. 25506 



. 25446 
. 27595 
. 26648 
.26751 
.26100 
.25401 



.25413 



. 25394 
. 25398 



.25435 
.25385 
. 25393 
. 25403 



. 26504 
. 26726 
.23016 



.25368 
. 25390 
. 25400 



24 
6 



24 



6 
24 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
24 
24 



18 
24 



24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
18 
24 



24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



24 



6 
24 



24 
6 
6 

24 
6 



6 
24 
24 
18 



EI 24 
EI 24 



226.12 
EI 24 
226.12 



EI 24 



201. 4X 



201. 4X 
EI 24 



EI 24 
201. 4X 
EI 24 

EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
201. 4X 
EI 24 

EI 24 



24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
21 
24 
24 



EI 

EI 

EI 

EI 

226 

226 

226 

226 



24 

24 

24 

24 

.12(12) 

.12(12) 

.12(12) 

.12(12) 



226 
226 



.12(12) 
.12(12) 



226 

226 

EI 

EI 

EI 

EI 

EI 

EI 



.12(12) 

.12(12) 

24 

24 

24 

24 

24 

24 



EI 

EI 

201 

226 

226 

226 

226 

226 



24 
24 
.4X 
.12(12) 
.12(12) 
.12(12) 
12(12) 
.12 



DGC 

DGC 

D&M 

D&M 

DGC 

GFD 

GFD 

DGC 

JS 

Jg 

JS 

JS 

JS 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

JS 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

B&S 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

ALK 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

ALK 

ALK 

ALK 

ALK 

DGC 

ALK 

ALK 

DGC 

ALK 

ALK 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

DGC 

ALK 

DGC 

DGC 

JS 

ALK 

ALK 

ALK 

ALK 

ALK 



* Local disturbance. 



56 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AUSTRALASIA 
Australia — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o ' 

33 20 . 1 S 

33 20.6 S 
33 41.0 S 

33 41.3 S 
33 44 . 5 S 

33 44.5 S 

34 33 . 6 S 
34 42 . 6 S 

34 45 . 8 S 
34 54 . 8 S 
34 58.5 S 

34 58.5 S 

35 01.2 S 

35 05.9 S 

35 06.2 S 
35 33.7 S 


O ' 

115 37 

115 38 
138 56 

117 34 
151 04 

151 04 

148 22 
135 52 

149 43 
138 36 
138 42 

138 42 

137 36 

137 46 

147 23 

138 35 


Oct 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Nov 

Nov 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Nov 

Jun 

Jan 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Jan 

Mar 

Mar 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jan 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 


31 '21 


h h h 

14.9,16.2 

6.0 to 7.0 (dv) 
8.0 to 18.1 (dv) 
10.6,12.9,13.8 
10.5,13.4,13.7 
16.1,16.8 


o / 

5 39.2 W 
5 47.1 W 
5 44.0 W 
5 43.4 W 
5 31.7 W 
5 29.8 W 


h h 
17.5 


66 32 . 8 S 


h h 
15.2,15.9 


c. g. s. 
. 23060 


18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


201 . 4X 


B&S 




1 

1 

3 

2 

3, 
30 
31 
31 

1 

5 
20 
21 
21 

6 
25 
26 
19 
20 
20 
25 

8 

9 

26 

26 

26 

27 

27 

2S 

28 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

5 

5 

6 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

26 

26 

27 

27 

27 

28 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

5 

5 

6 

6 

6 

7 

20 

21 

23 

24 

27 

29 

30 


21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
23 
23 
23 
23 
21 
21 
21 
21 
22 
23 
22 
23 
23 
23 
22 

23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
22 
24 
24 


B&S 














B&S 












201. 4X 


B&S 




14.8 


66 43.2 S 


10.9,12.9 
16.4 


. 22936 
. 22952 


B&S 




B&S 




14.9 

9.5,12.0 


64 42.7 S 
64 42.8 S 


226.12 
226.12 


K&M 




11.0,11.2,13.6 
15.5,15.7,17.3 

10.5.13.0 

12.5,14.4 

9.5 

9.2, 9.4 

13.3,15.2 

10.6,12.6 

11.2.13.2 

11.8.12.2 

10.9,12.4 

9.5,10.4 

13.5.15.1 

11.4.13.3 

10.3,11.8 

10.2.12.3 


5 53.0 E 
5 53.5 E 
5 51.9 E 

4 31.3 W 
9 11.4 E 
9 09 . 8 E 
9 19.8 E 
9 15.0 E 
9 17.1 E 

8 49.6 E 
3 15. 6E 
3 09 . 2 E 
3 15.9 E 

9 10.6 E 

5 27.2 E 
5 26.5 E 


14.2,15.1 
16.1,17.0 
11.2,12.6 
13.1,14.1 
10.4,11.4 


.25152 
.25150 
. 25107 
. 22896 
.25977 


6 
6 
6 
18 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
6 


K&M 
K&M 










K&M 




11.0 

13.4,13.7 


66 59.6 S 
63 28.6 S 


201. 4X 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


B&S 


Red Hill, A 


DGC 




DGC 


Red Hill, B 


12.7,12.9 
13.8,14.0 
13.7,13.8 
14.0,14.2 
14.9,15.1 
8.9, 9.1 


63 26.6 S 
63 28.8 S 

63 32.3 S 

64 31.4 S 
66 23.2 S 
66 25.3 S 


13.8,14.8 
11.0,12.1 
11.6,12.9 
10.6,11.4 
11.3,12.0 
13.9,14.7 


. 25958 
. 25960 
.25912 
.25253 
. 24082 
.24100 


DGC 




DGC 
DGC 
DGC 


Port Lincoln 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 




14.0,14.2 

13.9,14.2 
12.9,13.3 
14.2,14.6 
15.4,15.8 
11.4,14.8 
15.7,16.6 


64 33.8 S 


12.0,12.9 

10.6,11.5 
10.7,11.9 


.25176 

. 23998 
. 23980 


EI 24 


DGC 


Adelaide, Botanical 
Park 


DGC 


Mount Lofty, A 


66 14.0 S 
66 15.9 S 
66 13.4 S 
66 13.0 S 
66 13.8 S 
66 13.7 S 


226.12 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
226 12 
226.12 


ALK 
DGC 












DGC 














DGC 














ALK 














ALK 




14.9.15.0 

16.0,16.2 

9.3, 9.5 

10.1,10.2 

10.9.11.1 

13.6,13.8,14,3 
14.4,14.8,15.0 


5 00.8 E 
4 58.4 E 
4 53.2 E 
4 53.3 E 

4 54 . 5 E 

5 02 . 1 E 
5 01.9 E 






24 

24 

24 

24 

24 

6 

6 

24 

24 

24 

24 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

24 


DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














ALK 










.24127 
.24158 
.24134 
.24142 
.24122 
. 24134 
.24152 
.24118 
.24140 
.24145 




ALK 








11.2,13.7 

15.0 

11.6,13.5 
14.6,15.6 
10.0,11.2 

14.1 

15.3,16.3 
10.0 .... 
10.6,11.5 
10.7,11.9 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 












DGC 














ALK 














ALK 














ALK 














ALK 


Mount Lofty, B 


10.2,11.8 

10.2,12.3 


4 56.0 E 
4 54.8 E 


13.9,14.2 
13.8,14.0 
13.1,14.4 

15.6 

14.7,14.9 
15.5,15.8 
16.4,16.7 


66 12.0 S 
66 21.5 S 
66 13.8 S 
66 13.2 S 
66 14.2 S 
66 13.8 S 
66 14.5 S 


226.12 
EI 24 
226.12 
226.12 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


ALK 
DGC 
ALK 












ALK 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




16.0,16.2 

9.3, 9.5,10.1 
10.2,10.9,11.1 

13.6,13.8 

14.3,14.4 

14.8,15.0 


4 57 . 9 E 
4 55 . 2 E 

4 55.3 E 

5 02.4 E 
5 03.8 E 
5 03.2 E 






6 

6 

6 , 
24 
24 
24 

6 

6 

6 

6 
24 
24 
24 
24 

6 


ALK 














ALK 














ALK 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 








11.2 

13.7,15.0 
11.6,13.5 
14.6,15.6 
10.0,11.2 
14.1,15.3 

16.3 

10.0 

11.8,14.3 


.24109 
. 24140 
.24122 
.24130 
. 24093 
.24138 
.24136 
.24129 
. 23662 




ALK 














ALK 


/ 












ALK 














ALK 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




11.2,14.8 


4 42.0 E 








ALK 




10.4 

16.4 


66 40.8 S 
66 45.0 S 


226.12(1) 
226 . 12 


ALK 


Edithburgh 


10.3,15.2 

10.3,10.9,13.9 

13.6,15.4 

10.0,12.4 

10.8 

10.3,10.8 


5 00.3 E 
5 00.5 E 
8 31.2 E 
5 37.0 E 
5 35.9 E 
5 35.2 E 


11.0,14.7 


. 23582 


6 
6 
24 
6 
6 
6 


K&M 




K&M 


Wagga Wagga 

Port Victor 


11.2,11.4 
14.3 


65 11.9 S 

66 55.4 S 


14.2,15.0 
10.6,11.8 


. 24845 
.23414 


EI 24 
226.12 


DGC 
K&W 
K&W 






K&W 



















Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



57 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o / 
36 05.1 S 

36 18.5 S 

37 17 S 
37 33.4 S 

37 33.4 S 
37 33.4 S 

37 49.9 S 

41 14.8 S 
41 35.9 S 


/ 

146 55 
140 46 

142 57 
145 29 

145 29 

145 29 

144 58 

146 27 

147 08 


Jan 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 

Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 

Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 


28, '22 


h h h 

13.6.15.3 

16.8 

9.6,11.2 

14.3,15.8 

9.2,10.5 

9.0,10.9 .... 

10.7,12.6 

15.0,16.8 

10.7.12.4 

10.4,12.2 

14.8,16.6 

10.3,12.2 

14.8,16.6 

15.2.17.6 

10.8,11.1 

11.4,11.8 

12.1,12.4 

15.4.15.7 

16.0,16.3 


o / 

8 16.8 E 
6 14.9 E 
6 11.4 E 
6 17.6 E 

6 07.8 E 

7 15.5 E 

8 08.0 E 
8 12.1 E 
8 05.5 E 
8 06.0 E 
8 13.2 E 
8 07.0 E 
8 12.2 E 
8 15.2 E 
8 03.0 E 
8 04.6 E 
8 07.0 E 
8 15.7 E 
8 17.2 E 


h h 
11.1,11.3 


o / 

66 10.2 S 


h h 
14.1,14.9 


c. g. s. 
. 24203 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


EI 24 


DGC 




16 
17 
19 
20 
15 

3 

3 

4 

8 

6 

7 

7 

15 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 

17 

17 

17 

18 

18 

20 

20 

20 

3 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

7 

14 

14 

15 

15 

15 

15 

20 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

9 

10 

10 

11 

13 

13 

13 

13 

14 

20 

20 

22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
22 
23 
24 
25 
25 
26 


23 
23 
23 
23 
23 

22 

22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
, 22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 

22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 


DGC 




11.5,11.7 
9.4, 9.6 


67 21.6 S 
67 20.0 S 


10.1,10.9 

14.7,15.4 

9.5,10.2 

9.6,10.5 

11.2,12.1 
15.4,16.4 
11.1,12.0 
11.0,11.8 
15.4,16.2 
10.9,11.8 
15.4,16.2 
15.9,16.9 


.23333 
. 23374 
. 23336 
.23016 

. 22973 
. 23020 
. 22952 
. 22996 
. 23007 
. 22996 
.23015 
. 22967 


EI 24 
EI 24 

EI 24 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 




16.3,16.5 


67 41.2 S 


DGC 


Toolangi, Magnetome- 


DGC 








DGC 








DGC 








DGC 








DGC 








DGC 








DGC 










DGC 










DGC 












DGC 














DGC 














DGC 












DGC 








10.0,10.8 
11.7,14.5 
15.5,16.3 
9.4,10.2 
11.1,11.9 


.22964 
. 22990 
. 23023 
. 22982 
.22968 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




9.6, 9.9 

10.3,10.5 

10.9,11.2 


8 02.9 E 
8 04.8 E 
8 06.2 E 








DGC 














DGC 














DGC 


Too\angi,Inductor Pier . 


9.8,10.1 
14.3,14.5 

9.8,10 

9.8,10.0 
14.2,14.4 

9.7, 9.9 

14.2,14.3 

15.9,16.1 

16.5,16.7 

. .9.7,10.0 


67 42.0 S 
67 40.2 S 
67 43.2 S 
67 41.9 S 
67 41.8 S 
67 40.8 S 
67 40.6 S 
67 40.4 S 
67 40.5 S 
67 42.6 S 
67 45.2 S 
67 44.4 S 
67 43.8 S 
67 42.9 S 
67 42.2 S 
67 41.8 S 
67 41.2 S 
67 38.8 S 
67 38.8 S 
67 38.6 S 
67 38.8 S 






EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 








10.6,11.0 
11.8,12.1 
12.6,12.8 
12.2,12.4 
11.0,11.2 
11.7,11.9 
12.3,12.6 
15.0,15.2 
15.6,15.8 
16.2,16.4 
16.7,16.9 








DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 


Toolangi, B 












DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 










DGC 














DGC 








11.6,14.2 
15.8,16.7 
10.4,11.3 
10.4,11.3 
15.2,16.1 


. 23006 
. 23034 
. 22996 
.22978 
. 23024 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

24 


DGC 














DGC 




9.8,11.8 

9.8,11.8 

12.2.12.4 

14.5.16.6 

16.9,17.1 

9.5,11.8 

15.2,15.4 

15.8,16.0 

9.7,11.6 

14.7,16.4 

9.8,11.6 

15.0,16.8 

9.8,11.6 

14.6,16.4 

10.5.12.7 

16.8 

10.0,11.7 

5.8, 6.6 

14.5,15.9 

8.5,10.0 


8 05.6 E 
8 02.6 E 
8 09.0 E 
8 14.2 E 
8 12.8 E 
8 03.2 E 
8 14.6 E 
8 12.7 E 

7 51.4 E 

8 00.6 E 

7 53.2 E 

8 02.6 E 








DGC 










DGC 










DGC 










DGC 






DGC 








10.2,11.2 


. 22996 




DGC 










DGC 














DGC 


Melbourne, Earth- In- 
ductor Pier 


9.1 9.2 
13.8,14.0 

9.1, 9.2 
13.9,14.1 
14.2,14.4 

9.0, 9.2 
13.8,14.0 
13.2,13.4 


67 59.2 S 

67 59.5 S 

68 00.3 S 
67 57.6 S 
67 57.6 S 
67 59.6 S 
67 58.4 S 
70 40.0 S 


10.3,11.1 
15.1,15.9 
10.3,11.1 
15.5,16.3 


. 22794 
. 22820 
. 22802 
. 22836 


EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 




Latrobe 


7 53.6 E 

8 02.3 E 

9 26.2 E 
9 36.7 E 
9 26.4 E 
9 28.6 E 
9 38.3 E 
9 25.2 E 


10.3,11.1 
15.1,15.9 
10.9,12.1 


. 22800 
. 22828 
. 20652 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 






15.6,15.8 
14.0,14.2 


70 54.8 S 
70 54.9 S 


10.5,11.3 
14.9,15.6 


. 20360 
. 20390 


EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 




10.4,10.6 


70 55.3 S 


8.9, 9.7 


. 20398 


EI 24 


DGC 



58 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AUSTRALASIA 

Australia — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 

East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Sorell 


o / 

42 47.6 S 

42 52.2 S 

43 25.9 S 


O / 

147 33 

147 21 
147 01 


Jan 30, '23 
Jan 31, 23 
Jan 31, 23 
Feb 1, 23 
Feb 2, 23 
Jan 29, 23 
Feb 4, 23 
Feb 5, 23 
Feb 6, 23 

Feb 7, 23 


h h h 
16.1,16.3 


/ 

9 57.6 E 
9 52.4 E 
9 55.6 E 
9 56.0 E 
9 52.6 E 
8 52.4 E 
10 51.9 E 
10 49.9 E 


h h 


/ 


h h 


c. g. s. 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 




DGC 




9.6,11.3 . 
13.5,16.0 . 
14.2,15.4 . 

8.4,10.7 . 
10.2,11.8 . 
15.9,17.3 . 




12.9,13.1 


71 52.3 S 


10.0,10.9 
14.0,15.6 
14.5,15.1 
9.8,10.4 
10.6,11.5 
16.3,17.0 


. 19650 
. 19689 
. 19704 
. 19657 
. 19678 
. 18721 


EI 24 


DGC 
DGC 


Hobart, D 


15.8,16.0 
11.1,11.3 
14.9,15.0 
17.5,17.6 


71 52.6 S 
71 52.8 S 

71 38.6 S 

72 37.0 S 


EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 
DGC 
DGC 




DGC 




6.0 to 17.6(dv) 


DGC 




5.7 to 
17.4 (dv) 


72 36.6 S 






EI 24 






6.1 to 17.2(dv) 


10 49.0 E 


DGC 




5.8 to 
17.5 (dv) 


. 18703 


24 










DGC 













New Zealand 



Auckland*. 



Rotorua Gardens 

Eketahuna 

Mount Victoria* 

Christchurch, Jarrah 

Peg 

Queenstown 

Cromwell 

Kingston 

Roxburgh 

Clinton 



o ' 


O / 


36 51.7 S 


174 46 


38 09.3 S 


176 16 


40 39 S 


175 43 


41 18.7 S 


174 47 


43 31.8 S 


172 37 


45 02.4 S 


168 42 


45 02.6 S 


169 14 


45 19.6 S 


168 45 


45 33.9 S 


169 19 


46 12.6 S 


169 26 



Mar 


8, 


'22 


Aug 


3, 


22 


Aug 


4, 


22 


Aug 


5, 


22 


Aug 


7, 


22 


Mar 


10, 


22 


Mar 


15, 


22 


Apr 


5, 


22 


Mar 


19, 


22 


Mar 


27, 


22 


Mar 


30, 


22 


Mar 


25, 


22 


Mar 


31, 


22 


Apr 


1, 


22 


Mar 


22, 


22 



h h h 

10.6,15.5 

15.0,17.0 

6.9 to 17.8 (dv) 
6.9 to 17.0 (dv) 



11.0,15.2 
16.0 .... 



7.1, 9.2 
9.6,11.5 

10.2,11.8 
9.4,11.2 

15.3, 16.8 



10.4,12.4 



15 43.8 E 
15 40.5 E 
15 41.8 E 
15 43.7 E 



15 06.8 E 

16 53.7 E 

17 06.6 E 
17 29.6 E 
17 23.9 E 
17 33.8 E 
17 41.9 E 



18 40.8 E 



h h 
16.9,17.2 
14.4,14.6 



6.8 to 
16.8 (dv) 
12.9,13.1 
13.2,13.4 
15.2,15.5 

9.8,10.0 
13.9,14.1 
14.4,14.9 
12.5,12.8 



7.9, 8.2 
14.3,14.5 



62 13.4 S 
62 15.4 S 



62 14.8 S 

63 04 . 2 S 

65 25.1 S 

66 09.9 S 

68 15.8 S 
70 01.6 S 
70 03.4 S 
70 10.2 S 



70 19.8 S 
70 48.4 S 



h h 
11.2,15.1 
15.6,16.5 



7.4 to 
16.8 (dv) 



11.4,14.9 
11.4,12.3 



7.9, 8.8 
10.1,11.0 
10.6,11.4 

9.9,10.8 
15.8,16.5 



10.9,12.0 



c. g. s. 
.26128 
.26102 



.26111 



. 25474 
.24149 



.22243 
.20920 
.20830 
. 20798 
. 20729 



. 20328 



24 
24 
24 

24 



24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 

EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



EUROPE 

Belgium 





50 47.9 N 

50 47.9 N 
50 47.9 N 

50 47.9 N 


4 21 

4 21 
4 21 

4 21 


Aug 21, '22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 24, 22 
Aug 24, 22 
Aug 24, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 22, 22 
Aug 23, 22 
Aug 23, 22 
Aug 23, 22 


h h h 
18.8,19.0,19.4 
17.4,17.6,17.7 
17.9,18.0,18.2 
18.4,18.6,18.7 
18.9,19.0,19.2 


O / 

11 25.2 W 
11 28.7 W 
11 27.7 W 
11 27.5 W 
11 27.6 W 


h h 


O / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 




WCP 














WCP 


t 












WCP 














WCP 














WCP 




8.0, 8.5 

9.0, 9.6 

10.2,10.6 


66 05.0 N 
66 05.0 N 
66 04.8 N 






EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WCP 














WCP 














WCP 


Uccle Pier NW 






11.6,12.2 
12.5,13.0 
15.4,16.0 
16.3,16.9 
11.8,12.4 
12.6,13.1 


. 18856 
. 18863 
. 18872 
. 18876 
. 18866 
. 18874 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 


WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 








13.9,15.1 


66 02.9 N 


EI 27 


WCP 

















Denmark 



Rude Skov, Pier DH . 



55 50.6 N 



12 27 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



5, '22 
5, 22 
5, 22 

5, 22 

6, 22 



h h h 
16.2,16.3,16.5 
16.6,16.8,17.0 

17.1,17.3 

17.5,17.7 

8.8, 9.0 



7 40.8 W 
7 40.1 W 
7 39.1 W 
7 38.4 W 
7 33.2 W 



9.5,10.1 



c. g. s. 



. 17075 



27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



• Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 

EUROPE 
Demark — Concluded 



59 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Cirole 


Obs'r 


Rude Skov, Pier DH 


55 50.6 N 
55 50.6 N 

55 50.6 N 


O / 

12 27 
12 27 

12 27 


Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 


6, 

6, 

20, 

20, 

20, 

6, 

6, 

6, 

6, 

6, 

6, 

20, 


'22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 

22 


h h h 


o * 


h h 


o / 


h h 
10.6,11.1 
11.7,12.2 
14.1,14.7 
15.2,15.7 
16.2,16.7 


c. g. s. 
. 17078 
. 17072 
. 17080 
. 17091 
. 17096 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 




WCP 














WCP 




17.2,17.5 


7 32.8 W 








WCP 










WCP 














WCP 


Rude Skov, Pier I . . . . 






13.9,14.0 
14.2,14.4 
14.5,14.7 
14.8,15.0 
15.2,15.3 
15.5,15.6 


69 03.2 N 
69 03.0 N 
69 02.9 N 
69 02.6 N 
69 02.4 N 
69 02.7 N 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 


Rude Skov, Stone Pil- 


18.0,18.1 


7 31.4 W 








27 


WCP 













Finland 



Sodankyla, Pier S. 



Sodankyla, Pier W. 



o / 

67 22.1 N 



67 22.1 N 



26 39 



26 39 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



12, 


•22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 


13, 


22 



h h h 

11.3,19.4,19.6 
8.6,10.2,10.4 
12.8,13.0,13.4 
13.5,15.8,19.8 
20.0,20.2,20.4 



21. 4E 
23.9 E 
14.4 E 
15.0 E 
19.4 E 



16.6,16.7 
16.9,17.1 
18.2,18.4 
18.5,18.7 
19.0,19.2 
19.4,19.6 



75 39.6 N 
75 39.0 N 
75 37.7 N 
75 37.4 N 
75 37.5 N 
75 38.4 N 



h h 
11.8,19.0 

7.4, 8.2 
10.8,11.4 
11.8,12.4 
13.9,14.5 
14.8,15.4 



c. g. s, 
. 12555 
. 12562 
.12541 
. 12536 
. 12559 
. 12580 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 







WCP 




WCP 




WCP 




WCP 




WCP 




WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 



France 



Val Joyeux. 



o / 
48 49 N 



2 01 



May 25, 
May 25, 
May 25, 
May 25, 
May 26, 
May 26, 
May 26, 
May 26, 
May 26, 
May 26, 



h h h 

8.2, 8.9, 9.0 

10.4,10.6,11.8 

13.6,14.9,15.2 



8.3, 8.7, 9.8 

10.2,10.4 

10.5,10.7 



12 30.2 W 
12 35.6 W 
12 36.1 W 



12 30.3 W 
12 33.8 W 
12 33.7 W 



13.0,13.2 
13.6,13.8 
14.0,14.2 
14.3,14.4 
14.6,14.7 
14.9,15.0 



64 42.6 N 
64 42.0 N 
64 42.2 N 
64 42.0 N 
64 42.1 N 
64 42.6 N 



h h 


c. g. s. 




7.9, 8.6 


. 19646 


27 


9.4,10.1 


. 19652 


27 


10.9,11.5 


. 19646 


27 


13.9,14.6 


. 19646 


27 


7.4, 8.1 


. 19658 


27 


8.9, 9.5 


. 19624 


27 
27 























WCP 




WCP 




WCP 




WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 


EI 


27 


WCP 



Germany 



Potsdam, TP. 



o t 

52 23 N 



13 04 



Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 



1, 


•22 


1, 


22 


2, 


22 


2, 


22 


2, 


22 


2, 


22 


3, 


22 


3, 


22 


3, 


22 


3, 


22 


3, 


22 


3, 


22 



h h h 
10.6,11.2,11.4 
11.7,16.4,16.7 
14.5,16.6 



17.2,17.4 
17.6,17.8 
17.9,18.1 
18.3,18.4 



6 35.9 W 
6 39.4 W 
6 43.6 W 



6 34.3 W 
6 36.8 W 
6 37.2 W 
6 37.6 W 



14.9,15.1 
15.2,15.4 
15.7,15.8 
16.0,16.2 
16.4,16.6 
16.8,17.0 



66 39.8 N 
66 39.4 N 
66 39.1 N 
66 37.6 N 
66 37.6 N 
66 37.6 N 



h h 
14.1,15.1 
15.4,16.0 
14.8,15.4 
15.8,16.3 
16.9,17.6 
17.9,18.5 



c. g. s. 
. 18604 
.18613 
. 18594 
. 18601 
. 18621 
. 18606 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



60 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



EUROPE 
Great Britain 



Station 



Eskdalemuir, Pier 2. 



Eskdalemuir, Pier S. 



Eskdalemuir, Pier 5 . 



GreenwichObservatory, 
Intensity Pier 



GreenwichObservatory, 
Tent 1919 



Kew Observatory, N m 



Kew Observatory, Nw . 



Kew Observatory, O m 
Kew Observatory, O w 



Teddington . 



Latitude 



55 18.9 N 



55 18.9 N 



55 18.9 N 



51 28.6 N 



51 28.6 N 



51 28.1 N 



51 28.1 N 



51 28.1 N 
51 28.1 N 



51 26 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



O / 

356 48 



356 48 



356 48 



00 



00 



359 41 



359 41 



359 41 
359 41 



359 40 



Date 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 

Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 20 

Sep 21 

Sep 21 

Sep 25 

Sep 25 

Sep 25 

Sep 25 

Sep 25 

Sep 25 

Sep 21 

Sep 22 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 22 

Sep 23 

Sep 23 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



10.1,10.4,10.6 
10.8,11.1,11.4 
14.2,14.4 



14.3,14.6,14.8 
15.1,15.3,15.6 
15.8,16.1 



8.8, 
9.3, 
9.9, 
10.4, 
14.5, 
14.8, 
10.8, 
11.7, 
12.4, 
13.0, 
11.0, 



9.0, 

9.4, 

10 1, 



9.1 

9.6 

10.2 



14.2,14.3 

14.7 

15.0 

11.2,11.6 
12.1,12.2 
12.6,12.8 
13.2,13.3 
11.2 



13.3,13.6 

10.9,11.0,11.6 



Value 



16 23 W 
16 23.5 W 
16 26.8 W 



16 24 4 W 
16 25.7 W 
16 26.2 W 



13 45 

13 46 

13 47 

13 50 

13 51 

13 51 

14 07 
14 07 
14 08 
14 08 
14 06 



.7 W 
.2 W 
.3 W 
.3 W 
.9 W 
.3 W 



.2 W 
.9 W 
.2 W 
.4 W 
.7 W 



14 11.6 W 
14 08.0 W 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



10.1,10.3 
10.5,10.6 
11.0,11.1 



11 

11. 

12 



11.4 
11.9 
12.3 



15.8 



13.6,13.8 
14.0,14.2 
14.5,14.6 
14.8,15.0 
15.2,15.4 
15.5,15.7 



10.6,10.8 
11.0,11.2 
11.4,11.6 
11.8,12.0 
12.2,12.3 
12 5,12.6 



14 2,14.4 

14.6,14.8 

15.0,15.2 

15.4,15.6 

9.0, 9.2 

9.4, 9.6 

9.8,10.0 

10.2,10.4 



Value 



69 41.2 N 
69 40.4 N 
69 40.0 N 
69 39.9 N 
69 39 . 9 N 
69 39 . 5 N 
69 40.9 N 



66 51.8 N 
66 51.8 N 
66 52.0 N 
66 51.0 N 
66 51.6 N 
66 52.2 N 



66 58.2 N 
66 58.6 N 
66 58.2 N 
66 57.9 N 
66 56.7 N 
66 56 . 8 N 



66 55 . 4 N 
66 56.5 N 
66 56.8 N 
66 55 . 9 N 
66 56 . 6 N 
66 56.2 N 
66 56.6 N 
66 57.2 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



// h 

9.6,10.2 

10.7,11.3 

11.8,12.3 



15.0,15. 



9.7,10.3 
10.8,11.4 
11.9,12.4 

14.2,15 
15.3,15.8 
8.6, 9.2 
9.5,10.1 
11.0,11.6 
12.8 



9.5,10.2 



12.3,13.0 

8.7, 9.9 

10.4,11.0 



14.9,15.5 
9.5,10.1 



23.6 

00.4,00.8 
01.7,02.5 



Value 



c. g. s. 
.16608 
.16618 
. 16655 



. 16673 



.16641 
. 16638 
. 16656 

. 18430 
. 18430 
.18428 
. 18423 
. 18428 
.18431 



. 18372 



. 18396 
. 18362 
. 18346 



. 18389 
.18367 



. 18446 
. 18443 
. 18449 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 

27 
27 
27 

27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



.27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 



27 
27 

27 



Dip Circle 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



Obs'r 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 

WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



Greece 





o / 

38 04 . 3 N 


O ' 

23 50 


Jul 
Jul 


11, 
11, 


'22 
22 


h h 

8.2, 9.9 

12.8,14.1 


h 


o / 

2 48.9 W 
2 53.8 W 


h h 
10.5,10.7 


52 41.0 N 


h h 

8.6, 9.4 

13.2,13.8 


c. g. s. 
. 25792 
. 25800 


12 

12 


EI 7 


PHD 




PHD 













Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



61 



EUROPE 
Holland 



Station 



De Bilt, Pier 4 ■ 



De Bilt, Pier 8 . 



Latitude 



52 06 N 



52 06 N 



Long. 

East 
of Gr. 



5 11 



5 11 



Date 



Jun 


30, 


•22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jul 


2, 


22 


Jul 


3, 


22 


Jul 


3, 


22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 


Jul 


1, 


22 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



h h h 

10.2,14.8 

15.0,16.4 

11.6.13.2 

15.0,15.2,15.4 
12.8,13.0 

7.8,10.0 

10.1.10.3 



Value 



11 02.5 

11 07.0 

11 07.6 

11 06.1 

11 05.8 

10 59.2 

11 01.1 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



17.0,17.3 
17.5,17.7 

8.7, 8.9 
9.0, 9.2 
9.4, 9.6 

9.8, 9.9 



Value 



66 53.4 N 
66 53 . 6 N 
66 56.0 N 
66 56.0 N 
66 56.3 N 
66 56 . 2 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T 



h h 
10.6,14.5 
15.4,16.0 
12.2,12.9 
14.0,14.7 



8.1, 
9.0, 



8.8 
9.6 



Value 



c. 0. s. 
.18332 
. 18380 
. 18346 
. 18361 



. 18343 
.18332 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



Dip Circle 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



Obs'r 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



Italy 



Terracina, A . 



Terracina, B . 



41 17.0 N 



41 17.0 N 



13 14 



13 14 



May 17, 
May 17, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 16, 
May 16, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 18, 
May 18, 



h h h 

9.4, 9.7, 9.9 

10.2,10.5,10.7 



9.7, 9.9,10 2 
10.4,10.7,11.0 



6 41.4 W 
6 42.6 W 



6 40.2 W 
6 41.9 W 



h 

12.7, 

13.6, 

6.9, 

7.7, 

8.4, 

9.1, 

13.3, 

14.2, 

7.7 

10.3, 

11.1, 

11.8, 

12.4, 



h 

13.0 

13.8 

7.2 

8.0 

8.7 

9.4 

13.6 

14.4 

10.8 
11.4 
12.1 

12.6 



56 48.0 N 
56 48.8 N 
56 49.7 N 
56 49 . 8 N 
56 49 . 7 N 
56 49 . 8 N 
56 46.4 N 
56 47 . 6 N 
56 50.1 N 
56 47 . 6 N 
56 46 . 8 N 
56 46.2 N 
56 45.5 N 



h h 
15.2,15.8 
16.1,16.7 



15.7,16.3 
16.6,17.1 



c. g. s. 
.23752 
.23756 



. 23768 
. 23765 



27 
27 



27 
27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 



Portugal 



Coimbra, A . 



Coimbra, B 



Coimbra, C . 



40 12.4 N 



40 12.4 N 



40 12.4 N 



o 


, 


351 


35 


351 


35 


351 


35 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



18, 


•22 


19, 


20 


19, 


22 


21, 


22 


21, 


22 


17, 


22 


17, 


22 


18, 


22 


18, 


22 


20, 


22 


20, 


22 


20, 


22 


21, 


22 


20, 


22 


20, 


22 


20, 


22 



h 
12.7, 

8.8, 
14.2, 
13.9, 
14.6, 

9.1, 
12.2, 

8.9, 
11.9, 



h 
15.8 
11.6, 



14.3 
14.2 
14.7 
11.8 
14.6 
11.4 
12.2 



12.0 
14.6 



11.7 



15 10.1 W 
15 03.9 W 
15 06 W 
15 05.5 W 
15 05.4 
15 06.6 
15 11.6 
15 05.9 
15 10.2 



9.1, 9.8 
10.3,10.8 
11.3,11.8 



13.2,13.7 
14.1,14.7 
15.0,15.7 



58 17 . 2 N 
58 17.8 N 
58 17 . 2 N 



58 16.4 N 
58 18.0 N 
58 18.5 N 



h h 

13.9,15.2 

9.6,10.9 

12.6,13.5 

11.7,13.0 



10.0,11.1 

12.7,13.8 

9.7,10.8 



.3,10.4 



c. g. s. 
.23092 
. 23074 
. 23090 
.23091 



. 23076 
. 23078 
. 23078 



. 23090 



27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 
wcp 
wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 



Spain 



Tortosa, Pier E. 



Tortosa, Pier M . 



40 19.2 N 



40 19 2 N 



30 



30 



Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Apr 
Apr 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



30, 


•22 


30, 


22 


31, 


22 


31, 


22 


1, 


22 


1, 


22 


30, 


22 


30, 


22 


31, 


22 


31, 


22 


1, 


22 


1, 


22 


2, 


22 



11.4,13.0 
15.9,17.3 
11.6,13.0 
15.3,16.8 
10.7,12.2 
14.2,15.5 
9.4, 9.8 



11 48.8 W 

11 41.2 W 

11 45.0 W 

11 44.2 W 

11 45.8 W 

11 48.2 W 

11 40.4 W 



h h 
14.4,14.8 
15.2,15.4 
13.8,14.0 
14.6,14.8 
12.7,12.9 
13.6,13.8 



57 38.4 N 
57 38.3 N 
57 40 . 3 N 
57 39.0 N 
57 37.8 N 
57 37.4 N 



11.8,12.7 
16.2,16.9 
12.0,12.7 
15.7,16.5 
11.1,11.8 
14.5,15.2 



.23333 
.23298 
. 23320 
.23315 
. 23309 
. 23328 



27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 

wcp 

WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 
WCP 



62 



Land Magnetic Observations. 1921-1926 



EUROPE 

Spain — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


San Fernando, Pier N*. 


o / 

36 27.7 N 

36 27.7 N 
36 27.7 N 


O 

353 48 

353 48 
353 48 


Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 


11, 

11, 

11, 

12, 

12, 

12, 

12, 

8, 

8, 

8, 

7, 

7, 

8, 

8, 

10, 

10, 

10, 


'22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 


h h h 

8.1, 8.3 

8.7, 8.8, 9.2 


o / 

13 40.1 W 

13 40.1 W 


h h 


o / 


h h 

9.9,10.6 

14.3,15.0 

15.5,16.0 


c. g. s. 
. 24960 
.24966 
. 249.54 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 




WCP 








WCP 










WCP 




14.7,14.9,15.2 
15.4,15.6,15.7 

15.9,16.0 

16.4,16.5 


13 48.4 W 
13 48.3 W 
13 48.2 W 
13 45.0 W 








WCP 














WCP 














WCP 














WCP 


San Fernando, Pier NE* 


10.2,10.5 
11.1,11.3 
14.5,14.6 
16.4,16.7 


53 53.2 N 
53 52.2 N 
53 51.2 N 
53 52.5 N 






EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WCP 












WCP 














WCP 


San Fernando, S* 


8.6, 8.9,10.8 
11.0,14.4,14.5 
15.2,16.3 


13 42.0 W 
13 47.5 W 
13 49.7 W 


9.5,10.2 


. 24968 


27 
27 
27 


WCP 
WCP 




8.1,- 8.3 
9.0, 9.2 


53 55.4 N 
53 55.0 N 






EI 27 
EI 27 


WCP 

WCP 




8.4, 8.5 

14.6,14.8,15.0 
15.2,15.4,15.5 


13 43.5 W 
13 49.1 W 
13 49.4 W 


9.0, 9.7 
10.8,11.5 


. 24930 
. 24944 


27 
27 
27 


WCP 










WCP 










WCP 

















Turkey 



Rumeli Hissar. 



41 05.3 N 



29 03 



Jun 


8, 


'22 


Jun 


12, 


22 


Jun 


13, 


22 


Sep 


16, 


22 



h h h 

10.5,13.0 

6.3 to 18.5 (dv) 



11.4,13.2 



33.2 W 
34.0 W 



30.0 W 



h h 
14.2,14.5 



6.1 to 
17.8 (dv) 
10.3,10.6 



o 


/ 




55 46.8 N 


55 


47 


6 N 


55 


49 


4 N 



h h 
11.2,12.7 
6.4 to 
18.3 (dv) 


c. g. s. 
. 24752 

. 24779 


12 
12 


11.9,12.8 


. 24756 


12 



EI 7 



EI 7 
EI 7 



PHD 

PHD 

PHD 
PHD 



NORTH AMERICA 

Canada 



Camp Clay , Cape Sabine 
Albert Harbor 

Albert Harbor, Second- 
ary 

Ponds Inlet 

Ponds Inlet, Secondary. 

Fox Channel 

Baffin Island No. 5. . . . 

Baffin Island No. 3 
(Noovookuok) 

Baffin Island No. 6 

Nauwatta 

Baffin Island No. 4. . . . 

Queen's Cape 

Baffin Island No. 1 . . . . 

Bowdoin Harbor, Abso- 
lute Observatory 



78 45.5 N 
72 41.5 N 



72 41.5 N 
72 41.3 N 

72 41.3 N 
65 52.0 N 
65 24 . 4 N 

65 23.9 N 
65 19.9 N 
65.2 N 
65.1 N 
64 42.0 N 
64.4 N 

64 23.9 N 



o / 






285 44 


May 


7, '24 


282 26 


Sep 


5, 22 




Sep 


5, 22 


282 26 


Sep 


5, 22 


281 58 


Sep 


6, 22 




Sep 


6, 22 


281 58 


Sep 


6, 22 


279 46 


Aug 


22, 21 


283 19 


Apr 


4, 22 


282 27 


Jan 


5, 22 


284 06 


Apr 


8, 22 


282.4 


Jan 


1, 22 


282.3 


Jan 


10, 22 


281 08 


Sep 


3, 21 


282.5 


Dec 


12, 21 


282 08 


Nov 


22, 21 




Nov 


26, 21 




Nov 


28, 21 




Nov 


29, 21 




Dec 


2, 21 




Dec 


24, 21 




Dec 


29, 21 




Jan 


7, 22 




Jan 


13, 22 




Jan 


20, 22 




Jan 


24, 22 




Feb 


17, 22 



h h 
16.1,20.7 
15.6 



12.8 



11.1 
9.4 

12.4 



14.2,17.5 



11.0,14.8 
11.8 



14.3 
15.1 
11.7 



11.4,11.6 
11.4,11.6 
10.8,11.0 
11.1,11.3 



98 09.1 W 
87 50.3 W 



91 19.5 W 



(51 54 W) 
60 08.0 W 

63 09.8 W 
54 44.0 W 



50 45.7 W 



52 48 

53 03 
51 33 
51 54 

51 40 

52 45 
51 55 

51 58 

52 52 
52 05.4 
52 48.6 



h 
18.2 
15.8 
16.8 

14.9 
13.7 
15.4 
15.8 
13.7 
10.5 

14.9 
10.8 
15.5 
15.0 
19.4 
17.4 

13.9 

14.6 
12.9 
13.3 
12.9 
13.5 
13.1 
13.1 
12.4 
12.9 
13.2 



85 54 . N 

86 31.0 N 
86 21.0 N 

86 35.4 N 
86 25.8 N 
86 19 . 5 N 
86 22 . 5 N 
(86 11 N) 
85 33.0 N 

85 35 . 4 N 
85 18.7 N 
85 58.1 N 
85 34.3 N 
85 39 . 3 N 
85 21 



.9 N 



85 31.4 N 



85 30.1 N 
85 28.9 N 
85 27.2 N 
85 32.7 N 
85 32.8 N 
85 28.9 N 
85 28.4 N 
85 42.6 N 
85 31.1 N 
85 34.5 N 



h h 
18.2 



16.8 



13.7 



13.7 
10.5 

14.8 
10.8 



14.9 
15.3, 



11.9,13 
14.4 
12.9 
13.2 



13.1 
13.0 



12.9 
13.2 



17 



c. g. s. 
04033 



03698 



03589 



04060) 
04501 

04707 
04926 



04617 
04628 



04708 
04665 
04759 
04749 



04761 
04763 



04713 
04628 



242 



16 



16 



242 
241 
241 
241 
241 
241 
241 



242.56(3) 

242.5 

242.56(1) 

242.5 

242.56)1) 

242.5 

242.5 

242.12(3) 

242.56 

242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.5 

242.56(1) 

242.1 

242.56 

242.12 



242.1256(1) 

242.1256(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.12 

241.12 

241.12 

241.12 

241.12 

241.127 

241.127 



RHG 
GDH 
GDH 

GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 

GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 

G&H 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



63 



NORTH AMERICA 
Canada — Concluded 



Station 



Bowdoin Harbor, Absc- 
solute Observatory — 
Concluded 



Bowdoin Harbor, B . 



Bowdoin Harbor, C . 



Bowdoin Harbor, Varia 
tion Observatory Site. 

Baffin Island No. 7 

Baffin Island No. 2 
(Shatoito) 

Cape Dorset, A 

Cape Dorset, B 

Araadjuak 

Baffin Island No. 8 

(Etenilk) 

Baffin Island No. 9 

(Sabooyak) 

Baffin Island No. 9, A 

(Sabooyak) 

Lake Harbor 

Lake Harbor, Second- 
ary 1 

Lake Harbor, Second- 
ary 2 

Ashe Inlet, A « . . 

Baffin Island No. 10.. 

Baffin Island No. 11... 

Baffin Island No. 12... 



Sydney . 



Latitude 



64 23 . 9 N 



64 23.9 N 



64 23.9 N 



64 23.9 N 
64 19.3 N 

64 18 N 
64 13.6 N 
64 13.6 N 

64 01.7 N 

63 25.7 N 

63 03.6 N 

63 03.6 N 
62 51.3 N 

62 51.3 N 

62 51.3 N 
62 32.8 N 
62 24.8 N 
62 08.8 N 
61 55.3 N 

46 08.8 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



282 08 



282 08 



282 08 



282 08 
284 50 

282 55 

283 26 
283 26 

287 05 

287 47 

288 45 

288 45 
290 04 

290 04 

290 04 

289 25 

290 56 

292 01 

293 17 

299 48 



Date 



Feb 24, 
Mar 4 
Mar 7 
Mar 16 
Mar 17 
Mar 18 
Mar 25 
Apr 4 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



May 12 
May 18 
May 19 
May 24 
May 26 
Jun 3 



Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Aug 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 9 
Mar 16 
Mar 17 
Mar 18 
Apr 25 
Apr 26 
Apr 27 

Sep 9 
May 11 

Dec 15 
Dec 18 
Aug 5 
Aug 5 
May 18 

May 22 

May 24 

May 24 
Jun 4 
Jun 16 

Jun 4 

Jun 4 

Aug 17 

Jun 18 

Jun 21 

Jun 28 

June 29 

Jul 25 

Jun 30 

Jul 2 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



11.4 .. 

12.2 .. 

12.4 .. 

10.9 .. 

12.0 .. 



11.4 

11.4, 

11.5, 

12.4, 

11.2, 

11.9, 

11.6 

12.0 

11.9, 

12.0, 

11.3, 

14.5. 

17.7, 

11.2, 

11.7, 

14.5, 

11.0, 



11.6 
11.7 
15.9 
14.2 
14.7 



15.8 
15.5 
11.6 
14.8 
17.9 
14.4 
15.1 
17.6 
13.8 



9.8,10.2 
15.0 



11.1 

12.0,12.3 
15.1,15.3 

16.2 



13.3 
15.4 



10.5 



19.0, 
14.9 
9.7 
17.3 
13.1 



19.3 



12.8,16.0 
10.7,13.1 



Value 



51 52.8 W 

52 01.5 W 

51 57.3 W 

52 12.6 W 
50 35.3 W 



52 16 
52 09 
52 16 
52 43 
51 14 

51 23 

52 06 

51 10 

52 17 
51 06 
51 32 

53 48 
53 11 

51 51 

52 30 
51 41 
51 19 



.0 W 
.5 W 
.5 W 
.0 W 



W 
4 W 

8 W 
6 W 

1 W 

9 W 

2 W 
1 W 
9 W 
8 W 



52 47.7 W 
55 01.1 W 



55 17.4 W 

54 23.4 W 

55 10.4 W 
70 26.0 W 

50 27 1 W 

48 50 2 W 



51 58.7 W 



50 54.9 W 

50 49.2 W 
52 45.3 W 

51 48.4 W 
50 40.9 W 



26 10.7 W 
26 03.9 W 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



13.1 



12.7 
13.3 
12.9 
12.8 
13.1 
13.1 



12.9 



13.4 
16.3 



12.9 



16.1 
12.5 
13.0 
13.7 
12.5 
12.7 
13.3 
12.9 
14.4 
12.7 
13.7 



16.3 

19.3 
11.7 
13.8 



17.2 
14.4 

16.6 

14 1 
18.4 
11.5 

17.5 

18.0 
21.6 
15.6 
10.8 
18.2 
14.0 
12.7 
14.8 
12.0 



Value 



85 28 . 4 N 



85 26 . 1 N 
85 29.5 N 
85 28.1 N 
85 28.7 N 
85 28.1 N 
85 30 . 8 N 



85 26 . 1 N 



85 26 . 6 N 
85 30.7 N 



85 26 . 9 N 



85 26 
85 28 
85 28 
85 26 
85 35 
85 27 
85 29 
85 25 
85 25 
85 17 
85 26 



5N 

8 N 

8 N 

N 

N 

5 N 

N 

1 N 

8 N 

9 N 
N 



84 48.0 N 

84 51.8 N 

84 44 . 4 N 

85 09 . 6 N 



84 40.9 N 

83 59 . 1 N 

83 59.9 N 

(83 47 N) 
(83 28 N) 
83 23 . 3 N 

(83 21 N) 

(83 35 N) 
83 26 . 1 N 
82 56 . 8 N 
82 34.3 N 
82 33.1 N 
82 22.7 N 
73 59 . 3 N 
73 55.5 N 
73 57.3 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



h h 
13.1 



12.6 

13.3 

12.9 

12.8 

13.1 

13.1 

13.7,15 

12.2,12 

12.7,14 

12.9 . . 

12.6 . . 

13.0,14 

12.9,14 

13.4 

16.3 



12.9 
12.6,14 
16.1 
12.5 



13.7 



12.7 
13.3 
12.9 
14.4 
12.6 
13.7 



16.2 
19.3 



13.8 
17.2 
14.3 
16.6 



11. 



15.6 
10.8 
18.2 
13.9 



14.8 
11.9 



c. g. s. 

04736 



04770 
047B8 
04744 
04723 
04742 
04690 
04706 
04726 
04695 
04761 
04689 
04733 
04728 
04758 
04685 



04759 
04581 
04757 
047 18 



04781 



04751 
04741 
04812 
04770 
04930 
04754 



05384 
05330 



05045 
05587 
06252 
06233 



06783 



07188 
07674 
07567 
07744 



15616 
15569 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



241 

16 

16 

242 

242 

241 

241 

241 

241 

16 

16 

16 

241 

16 

16 

16 

241 

241 

241 

241 

16 

241 



242 



241 
241 
242 
242 
241 
242 

16 



242 
242 
241 
241 



242 
242 



16 

242 



241 
241 



Dip Circle 



241.127 



242.56(1) 

242.56(3) 

241.127 

241.127 

241.127 

241.127 



241.127 



241.12567 
241 . 12567 



241 . 12567 



241.12567 

241.12567 

242 . 56 

242.56 (1) 

241.12 

241.127 

241.127 

242.56(13) 

242.56(13) 

241.127 

242.56(1) 



242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.56 

241.12567 



242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.5 
242.6 
242.56(1) 

242.6 

242.6 

242.12 

242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.56(1) 

242.12 

241.567 

241.567 



Obs'r 



RHG 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 
GDH 
RHG 
RHG 
RHG 

GDH 
GDH 

GDH 
GDH 
RHG 
RHG 
GDH 

GDH 

GDH 

GDH 
GDH 
GDH 

GDH 

GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
G&H 
RHG 
RHG 



Central America 



Xmakabatun 
Belize, B* . . . 
Belize, A . . . . 



17 31.2 N 
17 29.4 N 
17 28.4 N 






, 


270 


46 


271 


48 


271 


49 



Apr 


15, 


'23 


Feb 


12, 


23 


Feb 


8, 


23 


Feb 


9, 


23 


Feb 


10, 


23 



h h 
13.1,14.5 

9.8,11.5 
10.3,12.0 



7.2 to 18.0 (dv) 



6 55.2 E 
6 23 . 2 E 
5 51.8 E 



5 50 . 3 E 



h h 
12.4,12.6 
13.1,13.4 
14.1,14.6 

7.7 to 
17.6 (dv) 



46 09 . N 
46 38.3 N 
46 21.3 N 

46 20.3 N 



h h 


c. g. s. 




13.5,14.2 


.31438 


12 


10.1.11.2 


.31342 


26 


10.8,11.2 


.31634 


26 
26 


6 9 to 






18.1 (dv) 


.31644 


26 



EI 7 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 



WAL 
WAL 
WAL 

WAL 

WAL 



"Local disturbance. 



64 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 

Central America — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Tim 


i Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o / 

17 23.8 N 

17 10.2 N 

16 58.8 N 
16 56.0 N 
16 56.0 N 

16 23.8 N 
15 55.8 N 

15 55.8 N 
15 53.1 N 
15 51.3 N 
15 44.2 N 

14 59.3 N 
14 51.4 N 
14 50.4 N 
14 38.0 N 

14 38.0 N 
14 06.5 N 

14 06 N 

14 04.9 N 
13 55.5 N 

13 41.4 N 

13 41.4 N 
13 35.2 N 
13 24.7 N 
13 17.7 N 
12 27.2 N 
12 09.9 N 
12 09.4 N 

12 00.1 N 
11 59.5 N 

11 56.1 N 

10 54.9 N 

10 00.1 N 

9 58.0 N 

9 56.6 N 


O / 

270 22 
270 56 

270 38 

269 49 

270 06 

273 38 

274 02 

274 02 
274 50 
272 03 

271 25 

270 30 

268 31 
270 55 

269 30 

269 30 

272 47 

276 26 

272 48 

269 13 

270 49 

270 49 
270 10 
276 25 
272 21 

272 49 

273 44 

273 44 

276 20 
276 16 

274 03 
276 18 
276 58 
276 55 

275 56 


Mar 22, 
Mar 23, 
Feb 22, 
Apr 8 
Apr 5 
Mar 8 
Mar 6 
Mar 10 
Jun 7 
May 28 
May 28 
May 29 
May 30 
Jun 24 
May 23 
May 18 
May 19 
Apr 17 
Sep 25 
Apr 12 
Sep 8 
Sep 9 
Sep 10 
Sep 11 
Sep 12 
Sep 13 

Sep 14 

Apr 23 
Apr 24 

Apr 28 

Sep 15 
Apr 30 
Aug 23 
Aug 23 
Aug 24 
Jul 15 
Jul 16 
Aug 22 
Sep 28 
Sep 29 
May 4 
Aug 11 
Aug 11 
Aug 12 
Aug 12 
May 10 
Jul 13 
Aug 17 
Aug 6 
Aug 3 
Aug 1 
Aug 1 
Aug 2 
Jul 19 
Jul 9 
Jul 9 
Jul 10 
Jul 28 
Jul 22 
Jul 5 
Jul 2 
Jul 3 

Nov 12 
Nov 13 

Nov 14 


"23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
26 
23 
26 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 

23 

26 
26 

26 

23 
26 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
26 
23 
23 
23 
23 
26 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 

. 23 
23 

. 23 
23 
23 
23 

, 23 

, 23 

> 23 
, 23 

, 23 


h h h 
17.0,17.3 


o / 

7 00.0 E 


7i h 


o / 


h h 
17.7 .... 


c. g. s. 
.31515 


12 




WAL 




8.6 


45 


51.0 N 


EI 7 


WAL 


El Cayo 


15.8,17.4 

15.6,17.4 

15.9,17.7 

13.7 

13 0,15.3 

10.4,13.3 

12.7,14.2 

12.9,15.1 


6 47 1 E 
6 55.0 E 

6 57 . 4 E 

7 06 . 6 E 
7 00.0 E 
7 01. 5E 
6 03 . 2 E 
5 55.4 E 






12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
27 
27 


WAL 




13.0 


45 40.4 N 


16.0,16.5 
16.3,17.4 

14.0 

13.8,14.9 
10.8,11.6 
13.0,14.0 
13.3,14.5 


.31472 
.31502 
.31760 
.31700 
.31723 
.31390 
.31458 


EI 7 


WAL 
WAL 










WAL 




11.0,11.5 


45 


10.1 N 


EI 7 


WAL 
WAL 




9.6, 9.9 
10.9,11.3 
16.6,16.9 

12.6,13.0 
13.3,13.8 
14.1,14.8 
16.1,16.5 


45 

•44 
44 

44 
45 
44 
43 


25.0 N 

47.0 N 

49.1 N 

50.0 N 
03.8 N 

15.1 N 
51.4 N 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 


Truxillo, A 


WAL 




WAL 




6.8 to 17.5 (d\ 

10.1,11.5 

9.9,11.4 

10.2.11.5 

13.4,15.1 

6.7 to 17.7 (d\ 

9.6,10.6 

9.4,11.4 

10.6.14.6 

10.3.11.7 

10.9 to 18.1 (d\ 
10.7 to 18.1 (d\ 
10.7 to 18.1 (d\ 
13.7,15.3 


) 5 55.9 E 
5 51.3 E 

5 47.3 E 

6 51.9 E 

6 54.4 E 
) 6 55.4 E 

7 21.4 E 
7 19. 8E 
7 08.4 E 
7 19.8 E 

7 19.9 E 

) 7 20.3 E 

) 7 21. 0E 

7 21.2 E 


7.1, 7.9 
10.4,11.2 
10.3,11.1 
10.5,11.2 
13.8,14.8 


.31452 
.31466 
.31366 
.31738 
.31790 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 


WAL 




EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 




WAL 




WAL 
WAL 
WAL 




9.0, 9.3 

12.9,13.3 

9.5,10.0 


42 
41 
42 


34.9 N 
06.8 N 
26.0 N 


9.8,10.3 

9.8,11.0 

10.9,14.2 

10.6,11.4 


.31937 
. 32240 
.31942 
. 32020 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 




WAL 
JL 




WAL 




10.0,10.2 


41 


48.1 N 


EI 27 


WAL 
WAL 












EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 




16.4,16.7 

6.8 to 

17.7 (dv) 


41 
41 


44.4 N 
44.7 N 


14.0,14.9 


.31990 


WAL 




7.0 to 17.8 (d\ 

9.8,11.0 

6.1 to 17.2 (d^ 


) 7 22 . 5 E 

7 26.8 E 
) 7 27 . 4 E 


WAL 




6.8 to 
18.0 (dv) 
10.1,10.7 

6.1 to 
17.2 (dv) 


. 31980 
. 31826 

.31825 


27 
27 

27 










WAL 






JL 














7.3 to 
18.1 (dv) 
13.0,13.6 
10.0,10.2 
11.5,11.7 
16.2,16.5 


41 
41 
41 
41 

41 


55.0 N 

47.7 N 

52.8 N 
44.8 N 
46.2 N 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 






9.8,11.5 

10.5,11.7 .... 
13.6,15.2 


7 19.0 E 
7 24 . 4 E 
6 25.8 E 


JL 




10.2,11.2 
10.8,11.4 
14.0. 14.9 


. 32024 
.31861 
.32120 


27 
27 
27 


WAL 




JL 

WAL 

WAL 




8.4,10.0 

17.3.17.5 

12.6,14.4 

13.3,14.9 

10.2.11.6 

8.9,11.2 

12.6,14.2 


6 25.6 E 

5 37.6 E 

6 44.5 E 

7 40.6 E 
7 44 . 2 E 
7 49.3 E 
7 09 . 7 E 


8.8, 9.6 


.32136 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 


WAL 










WAL 


10.8,11.4 
10.6,11.0 
8.4, 8.7 
9.2, 9.4 
10.9,11.4 
15.4,15.6 


40 
40 
40 
40 
40 


49.9 N 
46.0 N 
45.8 N 
52.4 N 
55.2 N 
55.8 N 


6.4, 7.2 
13.0,14.1 
13.7,14.6 
10.6,11.4 
10.3,10.8 
13.0,13.9 


.31534 
.31930 
. 32448 
. 32478 
.32310 
. 32425 




WAL 


Tegucigalpa, A 

San Jose (Guatemala) . . 

San Salvador, A* 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

JL 

WAL 

WAL 




7.1, 8.7 .... 

10.2,11.8 

12.8,14.0 

9.8.11.3 

13.3,15.0 

10.2,11.7 

9.8.11.4 .. . 
13.7,15.3 . . . 


7 15.2 E 

6 31.6 E 

7 48.0 E 

5 37.6 E 

6 45.6 E 

7 23 . E 
6 22 . E 
6 28.3 E 


7.5, 8.4 
10.8,11.5 
13.0,13.7 
10.2,11.0 
13.7,14.7 
10.6,11.4 
10.2,11.2 
14.2,14.9 

8.4, 9.1 

9.9,11.1 

13.0,14.0 

6.8, 7.6 
10.6,11.4 

9.4,10.1 
13.0,13.9 
13.2,14.0 

8.0, 9.0 

11.0,12.2 


. 32428 
. 30980 
. 31962 
.31534 
.31502 
.32312 
. 32044 
. 32100 

.32110 
.31670 
.31929 

.31918 
.32115 
. 32227 
. 32628 
. 32196 
.32212 

. 32220 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 


WAL 


San Salvador, B* 


13.6,13.9 
10.8,11.1 

12.7 

11.2,11.8 
13.1,13.8 
12.6,13.2 
11.6,11.8 
16.2,16.4 


41 

11 
42 
3(1 
39 
39 
39 
39 


36.2 N 
03.6 N 
16.4 N 
59.8 N 
32.2 N 
33.1 N 

27.6 N 

28.7 N 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 
JL 




WAL 




WAL 




WAL 




WAL 




WAL 




WAL 




8.1, 9.4 .... 

9.5,11.7 

12.6,14.4 . . . 


6 28.9 E 

5 55.6 E 

6 15. 6E 


WAL 


Bluefields Bluff 


12.8,13.2 
10.6,10.9 
15.2,15.4 


40 
39 
40 


25.1 N 
58.0 N 

01.2 N 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


WAL 
WAL 




WAL 




6.4, 8.0 ... 
10.3,11.6 .. . 

9.0,10.4 ... 
12.6,14.2 . . . 

12.8.14.4 ... 

7.5, 9.4 ... 

10.5.12.5 . . . 


6 18.8 E 
6 58.8 E 
6 08.6 E 

4 43 . 8 E 

5 48.2 E 

5 52.1 E 

6 31. 5E 


WAL 




13.6,13.9 
10.8,10.9 
11.6,12.1 
11.4,11.6 
10.4,10.6 

14.7,15.4 

7.1 to 

17.8 (dv) 


39 
38 
37 
36 
30 

36 

36 


09.6 N 
08.2 N 
17.1 N 

56.1 N 
57.6 N 

38.2 N 
31.1 N 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 

EI 27 

EI 27 


WAL 




WAL 




WAL 




WAL 


San Jos6, B (Costa 


WAL 

WAL 








7.2 to 17.6 (di 


r) 6 26.9 E 


WAL 




6.9 to 
17.7(dv) 


. 32208 


27 










WAL 









* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



65 



NORTH AMERICA 

Central America — Concluded 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Dip Circle 



Obs'r 



San Jose, C (Costa Rica) 
San Jose, Z>(Costa Rica) 



San Jose,i?(Costa Rica) 
San Jose, A (Costa Rica) 

Colon, Washington Hotel 



Colon, Sweetwater . 



Colon, Limon Point . 
Old Panama, A 



Old Panama, Auxil- 
iary A 

Old Panama, B 



Old Panama, C 
Corozal, A . . . . 

Corozal, B . . . . 

Ancon Hill. . . . 
David, A 

David, B 



9 56.6 N 
9 56 . 1 N 



9 56 . 1 N 
9 55.0 N 

9 22 . N 



9 21.3 N 

9 19.1 N 
9 00.2 N 



275 56 
275 54 



275 54 
275 57 

280 05 



280 03 



280 03 
280 31 



9 00.2 N 
9 00.2 N 



9 00 . 2 N 
8 58.9 N 

8 58.9 N 

8 57.4 N 
8 26 . 3 N 

8 25.3 N 



280 31 
280 31 



280 31 
280 26 

280 26 

280 27 
277 35 

277 34 



Nov 15, '23 
May 23, 26 



May 


24, 


26 


May 25, 


26 


May 26, 


26 


May 


22, 


26 


Oct 


30, 


22 


Oct 


31, 


22 


May 30, 


26 


May 


30, 


26 


May 


31, 


26 


Oct 


12, 


21 


Oct 


27, 


22 


Jun 


2, 


26 


Oct 


17, 


21 


Oct 


10, 


23 


Oct 


11, 


23 


Sep 


30, 


24 


Oct 


1, 


24 


Oct 


3, 


24 


Jun 


7, 


26 


Jun 


8, 


26 


Jun 


9, 


26 


Jun 


10, 


26 


Jun 


12, 


26 


Jun 


15, 


26 


Oct 


11, 


23 


Oct 


12, 


23 


Oct 


13, 


23 


Oct 


2, 


24 


Jun 


14, 


26 


Jun 


26, 


26 


Jun 


27, 


26 


Jun 


28, 


26 


Jun 


28, 


26 


Jun 


29, 


26 


Jun 


18, 


26 


Oct 


23, 


23 


Oct 


24, 


23 


Oct 


27, 


23 


Oct 


27, 


23 


Oct 


26, 


23 



14.3,16.6 

10.5,11 7 

7.4 to 17.8 (dv) 



6 07 . E 
6 18.1 E 
6 15.4 E 



10.6,11.6 
12.7 



12.4,14.1 

6.4 to 16 

15.3,15.7 

16.8,17.0 

12.8,13.0 

9.9,11.3 

10.7,13.8 

9.9,12.1 

9.3,10.6 

13.2,15.3 



6(dv) 



13.7,15.2 

6.1 to 17.2(dv) 



10.6,11.7 

5.8 to 17.4(dv) 



7 . to 17.1 (dv) 



11.3,11.6 

12.4,14.0 

6.5 to 17.3(dv) 



,11.4 
,10.7 



10.1, 

9.3, 

15.2 . 
10.4,11.7 
13.1,14.6 

11.3 

9.9 .... 
8.8, 9.9 

12.9,14.4 
7.4, 9.4 



10.1,11.4 



6 12.8 E 
6 18.7 E 



09.0 E 
08.4 E 
09.9 E 
10.4 E 
09.2 E 
5 17.5 

5 19.6 

6 13.9 
5 26.2 
5 28.8 



5 30.0 E 
5 28.9 E 



5 29.4 E 
5 33.0 E 



5 36.4 E 



5 28.0 E 
5 12.0 E 
5 13.9 E 



18.2 E 

11.8 E 
42.7 E 
37.6 E 

40.9 E 
42.2 E 

44.0 E 

20.1 E 



05.8 E 



6 04.2 E 



5 57 . 1 E 



11.2,11.5 
12.4,12.8 



36 43.5 N 
36 27 . 8 N 



14.7,16.1 

10.8,11.4 

7.4 to 

17.8 (dv) 



7.6 to 
17.2 (dv) 
10.1,10.3 



36 30.9 N 
36 37.8 N 



10.8,11.3 



10.5,11.0 



37 09.0 N 



16.3,16.6 



37 31.8 N 



12.8,13.7 
17.3,18.0 



10.9,11.1 
12.8,13.0 
14.6,15.0 
12.6,12.8 
11.2,11.4 
11.2,11.5 
6.8 to 
8.8 (7) 
12.4,12.6 



37 33.6 N 
37 04.2 N 
37 11.2 N 
37 19.7 N 

36 49.4 N 

37 02.4 N 

37 06.1 N 
37 07.9 N 



11.5,12.0 
10.3,11.0 
11.2,13.0 
11.1,11.8 
9.7,10.3 
13.6,14.8 



14.2,15.8 

6.1 to 

17.2 (dv) 



6.9 to 
17.5 (dv) 
10.1,10.3 



37 04.8 N 
37 24 . 3 N 



10.9,11.4 

5.8 to 

17.4 (dv) 



7.3 to 
14.4 (dv) 



37 22.4 N 



7.0 to 
17.1 (dv) 



7.0 to 
17.1 (dv) 



37 20.1 N 



12.8,13.7 
6.2 to 
17.4 (dv) 



6.7 to 
17.5 (dv) 
12.4,12.7 

8.7, 9.0 



36 56.0 N 

36 59 . 6 N 

37 13.8 N 



10.5,11.2 
9.6,10.3 



9.3, 9.6 

14.9,15.2 



37 43.6 N 
37 52.8 N 



S.7, 

S.2, 



8.9 
8 4 



37 19 . 9 N 
37 08 . 6 N 



11.3 

14.3 



9.6 



13.3,14.1 
7.8, 8.9 



8.1, 8.5 
11.5,11.6 
13.4,13.7 



35 11.1 N 
35 10.4 N 
35 10.5 N 



10.4,11.2 



c. g. s. 

.32212 
.32144 

.32149 



.32184 



.31876 
.31674 



.31707 
.31776 
.31739 
.31647 
.31850 
.31743 



.31682 
.31698 



.31574 
.31566 



.31576 



.31826 
.31843 



.31637 
.31560 



.31396 
.31400 
.31646 
.31615 
.31680 
. 32432 
. 32428 



.32218 



27 
27 



27 



27 
27 

26 
26 
27 
27 
27 
25 
26 
27 
25 
27 



27 



27 



27 



27 



27 



27 

27 

27 



27 
27 

27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 26 



EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 7 
EI 27 



EI 27 



EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
KI 27 
EI 27 



WAL 

JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 

WAL 

WAL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

CVI 

WAL 

JL 

CVI 

WAL 

WAL 
JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 
WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 



Greenland 





o / 


O / 








h 


h h 


O ' 


h h 


O t 


h h 


c. g. s. 








Refuge Harbor, Abso- 
































lute Observatory 


78 32.5 N 


287 37 


Oct 


22, 


'23 


13.0 






100 04. 4W 


14.1 


85 46 . 7 N 


14.8 . 




.04143 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Nov 


10, 


23 


12.7 


15.9 .. 




99 36. 0W 


14.1 






85 45.6 N 


14.9 . 




.04155 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Nov 


16, 


23 


12.2 


16.1 




98 36. 2W 


13.7 






85 46.7 N 


14.1 . 




.04129 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Nov 

Nov 


23, 
24, 


23 
23 


22.4 
2.3 






99 47. 9 W 
99 47. 1W 
















241 
241 


241.567 


RHG 




0.4 






85 48.1 N 


0.4 . 




. 04093 


RHG 








Dec 


10, 


23 


13.0 


17.7 .. 




100 08. 6W 


15.5 






85 45.7 N 


15.4 . 




.04119 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Dec 


21, 


23 


1.2 


5.7 . . 




99 40. 2W 


3.6 






85 47.4 N 


3.5 . 




.04130 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Dec 


30, 


23 


15.0 


19.2 .. 




100 05. 6W 


17.2 






85 46.3 N 


17.2 . 




.04148 


241 


241.567 


RHG 








Jan 


10, 


24 


15.2 


19.6 . . 




100 11. 4W 


17.6 






85 44.8 N 


17.6 . 




.04177 


241 


241.567 


RHG 



66 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 
Greenland — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 


Date 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 






Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Refuge Harbor, Abso- 


O 1 


O 


/ 






h h h 


o / 


h h 


o t 


h h 


J g- s. 








lute Observatory-Con- 
































78 32.5 N 


287 


37 


Jan 22 
Jan 26 


•24 
24 


1.1, 5.6 

14.5,18.6 


99 41. 3W 
99 58. 5W 


3.3 . . . 


85 47 . 8 N 
85 46.3 N 


3.3 .... 
16.6 


04125 

04148 


241 
241 


241.567 
241.567 


RHG 




16.6 . . 




RHG 










Feb 14 


24 


14.0,18.3 


99 47. 4W 


16.3 . . 




85 46.7 N 


16.3 


04145 


241 


241 . 567 


RHG 










Feb 25 


24 


14.3,19.3 


99 56. 6W 


16.8 . . 




85 44.8 N 


16.6 


04176 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Mar 1 


24 


13.1,17.0 .... 


99 53. 0W 


15.0 . . 




85 46.8 N 


15.0 


04141 


241 


241 . 567 


RHG 










Mar 6 


24 


12.8,16.8 


100 39. 5W 


14.8 . . 




85 44 . 9 N 


14.8 .... 


0417S 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Mar 15 


24 


13.2,17.2 


100 01. OW 


15.2 . . 




85 46.6 N 


15.2 


04145 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Mar 28 


24 


13.2,17.7 .... 


99 47. 3W 


15.5 .. 




85 46.6 N 


15.4 


04145 


241 


241 . 567 


RHG 










Apr 7 


24 


13.4,17.0 


100 57. IW 


15.3 . . 




85 45.9 N 


15.3 


04157 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Apr 19 


24 


13.0,16.2 .... 


100 01. 2W 


14.7 .. 




85 46 . 5 N 


14.6 


04145 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Apr 26 


24 


13.3,16.4 


99 58. 0W 


14.9 




85 45.2 N 


14.8 


04166 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










May 3 


24 


12.8,15.7 


100 05. 0W 


14.3 . . 




85 45.8 N 


14.3 


04155 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










May 5 


24 


11.2,14.4 


100 15. 0W 


12.9 . . 




85 47.2 N 


12.9 


04134 


242 


242.56(3) 


RHG 










May 17 


24 


12.3,15.2 


100 02. 4W 


13.8 .. 




85 45.0 N 


12.8 


04167 


242 


242.56(3) 


RHG 










May 27 


24 


11.5,14.4 


101 00 0W 


13.0 .. 




85 40.9 N 


13.0 


04220 


242 


242.56(3) 


RHG 










Jun 4 


24 


10.9,13.8 


100 06. 6W 


12.4 . . 




85 40.5 N 


12.4 


04236 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Jun 13 


24 


10.9,13.6 


100 09. 0W 


12.3 




85 48.1 N 


12.2 


04119 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Jun 19 


24 


10.4,13.4 


101 14 4W 


12.0 .. 




85 54.3 N 


12.0 


04014 


241 


241.567 


RHG 


Refuge Harbor, Varia- 
































tion Observatory Site . 
Etah 


78 32 . 5 N 


287 


37 


Aug 18 


%'A 






11.8 




85 47.1 N 








241.56 


RHG 


78 19.5 N 


287 


18 


Aug 10 
Aug 11 


23 
23 


11.2,13.0,16.4 
10.7,13.2 


101 39. IW 
101 20 2W 


14.7 .. 
12.0 . . 




86 00.7 N 
86 02.9 N 


14.7 

12.0 


08927 
03918 


241 
241 


241.567 
241 . 567 


RHG 




RHG 




77 20.5 N 


288 


29 


Aug 5 


24 


9.6,16.3 


90 45. 6W 


10.5,17 





85 57 . 6 N 


11.0 


03994 


241 


241.567 


RHG 


Akpani (Parker Snow 




Point) 


76 06.0 N 
76 06.0 N 


291 
291 


42 

42 


Aug 9 
Aug 7 


24 
24 


11.1,12.6 

14.2,15.6 


82 00. 6W 
80 44. 4W 


12.3 . . 
15.1 .. 




85 03 . 6 N 
85 00.0 N 


12.3 


04830 


241 
241 


241.567 
241.56 


RHG 


Akpani, Auxiliary 


RHG 


Godhavn 


69 15.0 N 


306 


28 


Aug 17 


24 


8.0,11.0 


58 48. 6W 


9.6 . . 




81 40.9 N 


9.6 


08167 


241 


241.567 


RHG 










Aug 18 


24 


9.4,12.2 


59 12. OW 


10.9 




81 38.5 N 


10.9 


08195 


241 


241.567 


RHG 




66 55.9 N 


306 


22 


Aug 23 
Aug 24 


24 
24 


18.2,19.6 

11.0,13.4 


54 02. 8W 
53 46. IW 


19.0 . . 
12.3 . . 




81 38.3 N 
81 38.5 N 


12.2,18.8 


08153 


241 
241 


241.56 
241.567 


RHG 




RHG 










Aug 24 


24 


17.9,19.5 


53 48 5W 


18.8 . . 




81 39.7 N 






241 


241.7 


RHG 




64 11.6 N 


308 


17 


Jul 29 
Jul 29 
Aug 29 


23 
23 

24 


10.3,13.1 .. .. 

16.0,18.5 

12.8,14.4 


50 48. 2W 

51 00. IW 
50 20. 8W 


11.8,17 


2 


79 40.7 N 


11.8,17.2 


10046 


241 
241 
241 


241.567 


RHG 




RHG 




14.1 .. 




79 33.1 N 


14.2 


10105 


241.567 


RHG 



Mexico 



Nueva Casas Grandes 

Hermosillo 

Chihuahua, B* 

Chihuahua, A* 

Chihuahua, C* 



Guaymas, A 

• 

Guaymas, B 

Sabinas, A 

Sabinas, B 

Monterrey, A 



Monterrey, B 



Culican 

Mazatlan, A . 



30 25 . 5 N 
29 04.4 N 
28 38.9 N 
28 37 . 6 N 
28 37.6 N 



27 55 4 N 



27 54.6 N 
27 51.4 N 
27 51.4 N 
25 40.5 N 



25 40.5 N 



24 47.5 N 
23 11.4 N 






' 


252 


05 


249 


03 


253 


56 


253 


55 


253 


55 


249 


03 


249 


08 


258 


54 


258 


54 


259 


40 


259 


40 


252 


36 


253 


35 



Aug 


ie, 


'24 


Aug 


8, 


24 


Aug 


18, 


24 


Aug 


19, 


24 


Aug 


19, 


24 


Aug 


19, 


24 


Aug 


19, 


24 


Aug 


5, 


24 


Aug 


5, 


24 


Aug 


7, 


24 


Aug 


7, 


24 


Aug 


6, 


24 


Jun 


14, 


24 


Jun 


14, 


24 


Jun 


17, 


24 


Jun 


18, 


24 


Jun 


19, 


24 


Jun 


17, 


24 


Jun 


18, 


24 


Jun 


19, 


24 


Aug 


2, 


24 


Jul 


28, 


24 


Jul 


29, 


24 


Jul- 


30, 


24 



h h h 

10.1,11.2 

12.5.15.7 

13.4.14.8 

16.0 

7.4 to 9.0 (8) 

10.6,11.8 

12.6 to 14.2 (8) 

13.3,13.5,17.4 



6.7, 6.9, 7.1 
12.3,13.0,13.6 
10.0,11.3 

10.4.11.7 

14.0, 16.0 

13.4.14.8 

6.4 to 17.8 (dv) 



13.8,15.8 .... 
7 . 1 to 17 . 6 (dv) 
6.6 to 17.7 (dv) 

12.6,13.8 .... 
15.9,17.2 

6.0 to 17.7 (dv) 



12 26.2 E 

13 37.7 E 

13 03.8 E 

14 50.9 E 
14 25.5 E 

14 21.4 E 
14 20.1 E 

12 29.0 E 



12 34.8 E 
12 29.3 E 
12 48.0 E 
10 31.0 E 
10 31.4 E 
9 53 . 2 E 
9 54 . 1 E 



9 54 . E 

9 54 . 9 E 

9 54.5 E 

10 33.0 E 

11 03.0 E 
11 02.6 E 



11.5,11.6 
11.3,11.5 

12.7,12.8 
16.8 



10.3,10.4 
12.3,15.4 

15.9,16.1 



9.0,11.3 



12.4,12.6 
14.5,15.6 
11.4,11.6 
11.2,11.4 



6.3 to 
18.0 (dv) 
11.2,11.5 



11.6,11.7 

14.4,14.6 



6.3 to 
18.0 (dv) 



57 49 . 4 N 

55 47.8 N 

56 21.8 N 
55 03.6 N 



53 29.0 N 

53 29 . 8 N 

54 23.4 N 



54 22 . 1 N 



54 16.0 N 
56 40.6 N 
56 37.4 N 
54 03 . 5 N 



54 08.4 N 
54 03.6 N 



51 26.2 N 
49 44.0 N 



49 44 . 6 N 



10.4 
13.0 
13.7 
16.3 

7.6 

8.8 
10.9 
12.8 
14.1 
14.0 
16.6 

7.7 
12.6 
10.3 
10.7. 
14.6, 
13.7, 

6.4 
17.8 



,11.0 
,13.4 
,14.5 

to 
(6) 

,11.5 
to 
(6) 
,14.6 
.17 1 
, 8.2 
13.3 
11.0 
11.4 
15.5 
14.5 
to 
(dv) 



14.3,15.3 



6.6 to 
17.7 (dv) 
12.9,13.5 
16.3,17.0 

6.0 to 
17.7 (dv) 



c. g. s. 

. 27624 
. 28360 
. 28252 
. 28839 

. 29756 
. 29758 

. 29750 
.28850 
. 28820 
. 28848 
. 28844 
.29016 
.28248 
. 28226 
. 29368 

. 29322 



. 29343 



. 29286 
.30181 
. 30590 

. 30600 



26 
26 
26 
26 

26 
26 

26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
27 
26 

26 



27 
27 

27 
26 
26 

26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 27 
EI 26 



EI 


26 


EI 


27 


EI 


26 


EI 


26 



EI 26 



JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWO 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



67 



NORTH AMERICA 
Mexico — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M.T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Mazatlan, B 




23 

22 
22 

21 
20 

20 
20 

20 

20 
20 
20 
20 

20 
20 
20 
19 

19 

19 

19 

19 
19 

19 
18 
18 

18 
17 

17 


11.3 N 
14.9 N 

08.5 N 

31.3 N 
58.2 N 

58.2 N 

44.3 N 

44.2 N 

41 N 

35.6 N 

35.6 N 
35.2 N 

35.0 N 
34.8 N 

34.8 N 

50.9 N 

44.8 N 

44.8 N 

44.8 N 

11.7 N 
03 N 

03 N 

31.8 N 
09.7 N 

09.7 N 
03.6 N 

03.6 N 


o / 

253 35 

262 08 
259 05 

255 06 
270 24 

270 24 

256 37 

256 37 

271 26 
259 36 
259 36 
259 34 

259 36 
259 35 

259 35 
269 28 

260 49 

260 49 

260 49 

263 55 

261 47 

261 47 
267 21 
265 37 

265 37 
263 16 

263 16 


Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Sep 
Sep 

Sep 

Sep 
Sep 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Sep 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Aug 

Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jul 

Jun 
Jun 
Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 


31, 
22, 
17, 
18, 
25, 
1, 
2, 

3, 

5, 
5, 
18, 
19, 
18, 
18, 
18, 
19, 
19, 
7, 
15, 
15, 
12, 
12, 
13, 
13, 
12, 
15. 
15. 
24, 

27, 

27, 

28, 

1, 

28, 
28, 
30, 

1, 

27, 

26, 

27, 

27, 

28, 

16, 

1, 

1, 

2, 

4, 

11, 

4, 

30, 

1, 

1, 
2, 


'24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


h h h 

11.1,12.2 

10.2,11.8 I... 
16.1,18.2 




10 
9 
9 


59.0 E 
13.4 E 
38.9 E 


h h 

12.6,12.8 

8.8, 9.0 


o / 

49 40.6 N 

50 11.0 N 


h h 
11.4,12.0 
10.7,11.4 

16.7,17.7 


c. g. s. 

. 30680 
. 30806 
. 30776 


26 
27 
27 


EI 26 
EI 27 


JWG 




JL 




JL 




10.6,10.9 
14.4,14.6 
14.0,14.2 


49 22.6 N 
47 31.2 N 
51 05.2 N 


EI 27 
EI 26 

EI 27 


JL 




15.3,16.5 

15.1 

7.4 to 17.7 (dv) 


10 
6 
6 


16.6 E 

37.1 E 

38.2 E 


15.6,16.2 

7.4 to 
17.7 (dv) 


.31343 
.30071 


26 
27 

27 


JWG 


Merida, A 


JL 








8.0 to 
18.3 (dv) 


50 59 . 8 N 


JL 




EI 27 






7.7, 8.9 .... 

10.2,11.3 

13.0,14.1 .... 


6 

6 

10 


41.2 E 
35.0 E 
01. 0E 


JL 




8.0, 8.6 
10.4,11.0 
13.4,13.8 


. 30076 
. 30027 
.31140 


27 
27 
26 


JL 


Merida, B 


11.5,11.7 


51 12.3 N 


EI 27 


JL 


Guadalajara, B 


JWG 




9.8,10.0 
10.6,11.0 

12.4 

15.8,17.4 

8.9,10.2 


47 36.8 N 
47 40.2 N 
47 39 . 5 N 
47 42.0 N 
47 40.2 N 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JWG 


Guadalajara, A 


7.8, 8.0, 9.2 


10 


03.0 E 


8.3, 8.9 


.31219 


26 


JWG 
JWG 




17.2 

12.6,13.4 

13.6,14.3 

9.3,10.8 

8.9 


10 
9 
9 
6 
9 


00.6 E 
57. 8E 
58.8 E 
30.0 E 
22.5 E 


16.3,16.9 

13.0,14.0 
9.7,10.5 
9.3 .... 


.31191 

.31213 
. 30132 
.31514 


26 
26 
26 

27 
27 


JWG 
JWG 
JWG 


Chichen Itza 


11.3,11.6 


50 36 . 8 N 


EI 27 


JL 


Queretaro, C* 


JL 


Queretaro, Secondary C* 


8.9 .... 
14.5,14.7 
17.7,17.9 

8.8,10.6 
11.5,12.3 
17.2,17.3 


47 28.4 N 

48 23.0 N 
48 22.6 N 
48 22.2 N 
48 22.0 N 
47 40.0 N 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 27 


JWG 


Queretaro, A* 


13.0,14.1 


9 


08.0 E 


16.6,17.2 

12.9,13.5 
14,1.15.6 
10.8 


.31038 

.31074 
.31503 
.31380 


26 
26 
26 
26 
27 
27 


JWG 
JWG 


Queretaro, B* 


7.7, 8.0, 8.4 

12.6 

13.4,16.5 

10.4 


9 
9 
9 
9 


14.8 E 
07.5 E 
15.4 E 
38.2 E 


JWG 
JWG 
JL 


Queretaro, D* 


JL 


Queretaro, Secondary D* 


10.7 

10.9,11.1 


48 02 . 2 N 

49 21.1 N 


EI 26 
EI 27 


JWG 


Campeche 


8.3, 9.7 

9.5.11.8 

13.9,15.7 

8.9.10.9 


7 

9 
9 
9 


21. 6E 

16.4 E 
17.4 E 
15.4 E 


8.7, 9.4 

10.2,11.2 

14.4,15.3 

9.5,10.3 


. 30745 

.31576 
.31555 
.31574 


27 

26 
26 
26 


JL 


Teoloyucan Observa- 
tory, B 


JWG 










JWG 










JWG 




13.0 to 
15.5 (12) 


46 29 . 8 N 


EI 26 






11.9,15.1,15.5 
17.3,17.7 .... 
15.3 


9 
9 
9 


12. 6E 
13.7 E 
12.7 E 


JWG 


Teoloyucan Observa- 
tory, Pier A 


13.8,14.5 
16.0,16.8 
15.7,16.4 


.31554 
.31534 
.31552 


26 
26 
26 


JWG 










JWG 










JWG 


Teoloyucan Observa- 
tory, Pier B 


9.7 to 
12.2 (12) 
10.4,10.8 

8.6, 8 9 
15.9,16 1 
13.1,13.4 
11.3,11.6 
11.4,11.6 
17. 1,17.4 


46 30.7 N 
46 36 . 4 N 


EI 26 
EI 27 






11.3,12.5 

12.8,13.2,13.5 
7.2, 7.4, 7.7 

10.6,12.4 

8.5,14.1 

8.4, 8.8, 9.0 


8 
9 
9 


32.6 E 
14.9 E 
17.2 E 


JWG 


Vera Cruz 


13.1,14.0 
16.8,17.6 
12.5,13.4 


.31478 
.31390 
. 31404 


27 
27 
27 


JL 


Puebla, A 


JL 




46 41.1 N 
46 40.4 N 
46 41.1 N 
46 46.7 N 
45 41.0 N 
45 41.4 N 


EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 
JL 


Puebla.fi 

Frontera 


9 
7 
8 


31. 0E 
31.0 E 
20.0 E 


11.1,11.9 
13 1,13.8 

14.5,15.4 


.31456 
.31384 

.31680 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 


JL 
JL 


Puerto Mexico, A 


JL 
JL 




14.1,14.4,14.7 


8 


14.6 E 


JL 








16.6,17.2 
8.8 to 
18.0 (dv) 
10.8,11.4 
17,0.17.7 

12.8,13.5 
11.1,11.9 


.31698 

.31690 
.31734 
.31966 

.31992 
.32017 




JL 




8.8 to 18.0 (dv) 

10.4,11.8 

16.4 

7.1, 7.4, 7.7 

15.2 

10.6,12.4 


8 

8 
8 
8 
8 
8 


16. 7E 

15.8 E 
31. 0E 

34.6 E 

29.7 E 
27.2 E 












8.7, 9.0 


45 37.8 N 


JL 


Puerto Mexico, B 

Oaxaca, A 


EI 27 


JL 
JL 


Oaxaca, B 


9.3, 9 6 
15.8,15.9 
13.1,13.3 


43 32.9 N 
43 37.6 N 
43 35.2 N 


EI 27- 
EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 
JL 
JL 













Newfoundland (Including Labrador Coast) 










Port Burwell, B 


o / 

60 24.8 N 
56 32.8 N 


O / 

295 08 
298 19 


Aug 13, '22 
Aug 13, 22 
Aug 28, 22 
Aug 20, 22 
Aug 20, 22 


A h h 

11.5.11.8 

14.9,15.0 

15.8,16.0 

18.8.18.9 


O / 

40 27. 1W 

40 09. 5W 


h h 
13.3 


81 33 . 7 N 


h h 
13.3 


c. g. s. 
. 08769 


241 
241 


241.12567 


RHG 
RHG 




19.2 

17.4 


81 34.8 N 
77 13.6 N 






242.56 
241.567 


GDH 


Nain 


41 30. 4W 
41 33. 8W 


17.5 


.12778 


241 
241 


RHG 
RHG 















* Local disturbance. 



68 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 

Newfoundland (Including Labrador Coast) — Concluded 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Dip Circle 



Obs'r 



Hopedale, A . 
Hopedale, B. 
Rigoleti .... 



Gready 

Cartwright 

Battle Harbor, C. 



Battle Harbor, D . 



Red Bay.... 
Bonne Bay. . 
St. Johns, C. 



55 27 . 1 N 
55 27 . 1 N 
54 10.9 N 



53 48 . 2 N 
53 41.5 N 
52 16.4 N 



52 16.4 N 



51 43 . 8 N 
49 33.5 N 
47 34.4 N 



299 48 
299 48 
301 33 



303 35 

303 02 

304 25 



304 25 



303 34 
302 02 
307 16 



Jul 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 

Jul 

Sep 

Aug 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Oct 

Oct 



23, '23 

6, 24 

25, 22 

26, 22 
26, 22 
15, 23 

29, 22 
3, 21 
3, 21 

11, 23 

12, 23 

1, 21 

2, 21 

30, 22 

7, 23 
29, 21 

6, 22 

7, 22 



h 
15.8, 
12.9, 
16.0, 



h 
18.5 
14.8 
16.5 



9.6,10.0 

14.2,14.5 

10.0,10.3,13.3 



38 21 
38 32 
36 15 
36 17 
36 18 
36 14 



0W 
3W 
7W 
5W 
7W 
8W 



h 
17.2 
13.9 
17.3 
11.2 



11.8 
15.8 
12.2 



14.7,15.8 
11.3,13.6 
14.0,16.7 



34 33 

34 27 
34 26 



8W 

8W 
8W 



12.5 
15.3 
12.3 



14.1,16.4 

14.0,14.2 17.2 
15.9,18.6 



34 30 
34 28 
34 29 



4W 

8W 

ow 



14.8,15.2 
10.0,10.2 



29 31. 
29 33. 



1W 
4W 



15.5 
17.3 
15.1 
16.6 



78 25.9 N 
78 24.2 N 
78 00.0 N 
78 02.3 N 



h 
17.2 



11.2 



76 33.8 N 

77 32.7 N 
75 53.8 N 



11.8 
15.7 
12.2 



75 51.1 N 
75 48.9 N 
75 53.8 N 



12.5 
15.3 



75 53.2 N 

76 13.7 N 
75 21.7 N 
73 06 . N 



14.7,15 

15.5 

17.4 

15.6 

16.6 



c. g. s. 
11668 



11814 



13607 
12102 
13588 



13585 
13620 



13618 

13596 
13260 
14663 
15871 



241 
241 



241 
242 
242 
16 
241 
241 

16 



241.567 
241.56 
242.56 
242.56(1) 



241 


567 


242 


56(1) 


242 


12(3) 


241 


567 


241 


567 


242 


12 



241.567 
241.567 
242.12 
242.56(1) 



RHG 
RHG 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 
RHG 
GDH 
G&H 
G&H 
RHG 
RHG 
G&H 
G&H 
RHG 
RHG 
GDH 
GDH 
GDH 



United States 



Deering. 



Greenport, Eclipse Ab- 
solute Station 



Washington (Rock 
Creek Park) 

Washington, S. M. O., 
N m i 



66 05.5 N 



41 06.5 N 



38 57 . 5 N 



38 57.4 N 



197 18 



287 38 



282 57 



282 56 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



9, 
9, 

12. 



Jul 12, 
Jul 12, 

Jan 13, 

Jan 21 , 

Jan 25, 

Jan 26 , 

Jan 31 , 

Jun 23, 
Jun 24, 

1921 
Apr 27 
Apr 28, 
May 14 
May 16, 
May 20, 

May 25, 

Jun 3, 
Aug 5 
Aug 8 
Nov 30 
1 
2 
3 
5 
8 



'22 

22 
22 
22 
22 
22 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 

21 
21 



29 

17 

21, 

23 

26, 

27 
4 



Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 

1922 
Sep 8 
Oct 18 
Nov 2 
Nov 4 
Nov 22 
Dec 4 
Dec 6 

1923 
Feb 25 
Mar 2 
May 29 
Aug 4 
Aug 6 
Aug 7 



26 



h h h 

16.7 

11.2,14.3,18.0 



11.8,16.0 

12.3,15.7 

14.4,16.3 

9.3,10.9 

14.4,15.9 



9.5,12.2 
14.0,16.4 



15.5 

9.3-16.3 (6) 
11.3-12.3 (4) 

9.8,14.0,16.1 



9.8-14.6 (7) 



8.5-16.1 (dv) 

13.3-14.2 (4) 

8.3-16.2 (dv) 

9.4-16.4 (4) 

10.1-11.9 (6) 

9.8-15.5 (6) 

9.4-15.0 (6) 

9.7-16.8 (5) 

9.4-15.2 (7) 

11.3,16.4 

13.7,16.0 

9.6-15.8 (6) 



15.8,16.2,16.5 
12.3,12.6,4*7-5 



9.7-15.9 (7) 



21 30.1 E 
21 36.0 E 



21 34.4 E 

21 36.0 E 

12 20.6 W 
12 15.6 W 
12 18.8 W 



12 17.6 W 
3 08. 4W 



4 54. 7W 
4 56.8 W 
4 51.3 W 
4 55.0 W 



4 54.7 W 



4 55.8 W 
4 57.0 W 
4 56.4 W 
4 54.3 W 
4 54.4 W 



00.5 W 
01.5 W 
02.4 W 
01.1 W 
01.8 W 
02.7 W 
04.1 W 



5 04.7 W 
5 06.8 W 



•r.o 

5 0: 



'8 W 



16.6 



13.9 .. 
14.0 .. 



17.2,17.4 
11.6,11.9 



14.5,14.8 
15.2,15.5 



15.2 



76 20 . 2 N 



76 21.1 N 
76 20.8 N 



72 29.2 N 
72 30.5 N 



72 29.4 N 
72 28.8 N 



71 14.4 N 



h h 

16.9 

12.0,13.7 
16.6 



13.9 

14.0 

14.9,15.9 

9.8,10.6 

14.7.15.5 



10.3,11.8 

14.7 .... 
11.2,13.0 



11.2-15.8 
10.4-14.8 

9.1-16.7 

10.9-15.8 
9.4-16.0 

10.0-15.8 
0.4-2 1 

15.5 .... 



9.9-15.8 



9.4-15.9 
10.3-14.7 
10.6-16.4 
10.0-15.7 
13.6,15.6 



1.5-5.6 
1.3-4.7 



10.3-15.8 
11.4,13.9 



c. g. s. 
.13310 
. 13296 
.13318 



.13297 
.13344 

.17451 
. 17434 
. 17439 



. 17430 



. 18668 
. 18652 



. 18678 

.18617 

.18658 

. 18673 
. 18695 
. 18656 
. 18674 
.18671 



. 18655 



. 18598 
. 18602 
. 18596 
. 18594 
. 18609 



. 18582 
. 18595 



. 18570 
. 18578 



205 
205 

26 
26 
26 



26 

16 
16 

3 
3 
3 
3 



205.123 



205.123 
205.67(3) 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



242.123 



HUS 
HUS 
HUS 
HUS 
HUS 
HUS 

A&G 
A&G 
A&G 
A&G 
A&G 

GDH 
GDH 

HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HRG 

HRG 

HRG 

HFJ 

J&G 

HRG 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HWF 

HWF 

HFJ 

HFJ 

WCP 

HWF 

HWF 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HFJ 



• The values given for declination at station Washington, S. M. O., N m , should all be 0'. 1 greater west. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



69 



NORTH AMERICA 
United States — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Washington, S. M. O., 
Nm 1 — Concluded .... 


o ' 

38 57.4 N 
38 57.4 N 


O / 

282 56 
282 56 


1923 
Aug 9,11, 
13 
Oct 5 
Oct 6, 8 

1924. 
Feb 4,5,7 
Feb 13,14 
Mar 1, 3 
Mar 4 
May 23,24 
May 26 
Sep 24 
Oct 8, 9 
Oct 15,16 
Oct 28,29 
Oct 30 
Dec 2 
Dec 3 
Dec 4 
Dec 8 

1925 

Apr 13,14 

Apr 13,14, 

15 

Jul 23 , 24 

Nov 10,11, 

12 

Nov 20,21, 

24 

1926 
Jan 7, 8 
Mar 11,12 
May 20,21 
Jun 21,22 
Jul 8 
Jul 20 
Jul 21 
Aug 3, 4 

1921 
Apr 30, 
May 2 
May 10,11, 
12,13 
May 11,12, 
13,14 
May 27,28, 
31 
Jun 1 
Jun 2 
Jun 4 
Jun 14 
Jun 15,16 
Jun 29,30 
Jul 5, 6 
Jul 6, 7 
Jul 26,27 
Aug 2, 4 
Aug 8 
Nov 17,18, 
19 
Nov 23 
Nov 26,28 
Nov 29 
Nov 30 
Dec 7 

1922 
Feb 21 
Feb 23 
Feb 23,24 
Mar 13,14 
Mar 27,28 
Apr 1 
Apr 24,25 


h h h 

9.1-16.1 (12) 

15.2 

10.4-14.5 (6) 

10.4-14.1 (7) 

10.5-15.0 (9) 

9.4-15.8 (6) 

9.5-16.1 (6) 

10.2-14.8 (6) 

10.4,10.7,11.0 

9.4-16.5 (6) 

9.3-16.1 (7) 

9.1-16.1 (6) 

9.3-15.6 (6) 

14.3,14.7 

15.1 

11.8-15.6 (4) 

9.4 

12.4,13.6,14.1 


O ' 

5 07.4 W 
5 08.9 W 
5 05.1 W 

5 06.6 W 
5 04.7 W 
5 06.5 W 
5 06.1 W 
5 07.0 W 
5 05.0 W 
5 07.7 W 
5 09.0 W 
5 07.1 W 
5 07.7 W 
5 10.2 W 
5 09.1 W 
5 08.7 W 
5 05.2 W 
5 11.2 W 


h h 


O ' 


h h 


c. g. s. 


3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 




HFJ 








15.7 .... 
9.7-13.8 

9.8-15.6 


.18572 
. 18559 

. 18545 




OWT 










OWT 






JWG 








JWG 








10.0-15.3 

10.0-15.7 

9.7-15.3 


. 18550 
. 18545 
.18511 




RTB 










JWG 










JWG 








JWG 








9.9-16.0 
10.3-15.2 
10.2-15.0 

9.8-15.2 


. 18493 
. 18505 
. 18505 
. 18494 




CML 








JWG 










JWG 










JWG 






JWG 














HWF 








9.9-17.0 


. 18514 




HWF 










HWF 














HWF 








9.6-15.2 


. 18497 




JPA 




9.0-16.2 (6) 
9.7-15.3 (6) 

10.6-15.5 (6) 


5 09.4 W 
5 11.3 W 

5 12.2 W 








JPA 








9.4-15.8 

9.9-16.0 

9.9-15.7 

9.7-15.1 

9 . 6-14 . 9 

9.3-15.7 

10.2-15.3 


. 18489 

. 18423 

. 18463 

. 18436 
.18415 
. 18434 
. 18449 




JPA 










HWF 










HWF 




9.2-16.1 (8) 

9.4-15.9 (6) 

9.8-15.3 (6) 

10.8-14.8 (6) 

13.5-15.3 (6) 

9.7,15.2 

10.7,15.9 

9.6,15.6 (7) 

9.7-15.8 (6) 
9.5-16.1 (9) 


5 11.9 W 
5 13.3 W 
5 13.0 W 
5 15.6 W 
5 18.7 W 
5 12.6 W 
5 12.0 W 
5 14.9 W 

4 53.8 W 
4 55.0 W 








WFW 










F&W 










WFW 








HWF 










HWF 








11.2,14.0 


. 18440 


WFW 










WFW 








9.7-14.7 
10.4-15.2 


.18417 
. 18676 




WFW 


Washington, S. M. 0., 

Sm 1 












HWF 








HWF 








9.9-16.0 
10 0-15.9 


. 18687 
. 18659 




HWF 




11.0-16.3(6). 

10.7 

9 3,12.2 


4 57.2 W 
4 54.7 W 
4 56.0 W 






HWF 










HWF 








10.2-16.9 
11.3-11.8 


. 18663 
18659 




HWF 








HWF 




15.9 

10.3-14.8 (6) 
10.4-15.6 (7) 
11.0-14.3 (5) 


4 54.1 W 
4 54.8 W 
4 55.7 W 
4 54.4 W 






HWF 








9.8-15.9 
10.3-15 7 


. 18677 
. 18675 


HWF 








HWF 




' 






HWF 








9.7,16.3 


. 18696 




HWF 




10.4-15.8 (10) 


4 56.9 W 








HWF 








10.0-15.7 
3.5-5.2 

9.6-15.6 


. 18678 
. 18667 

. 18620 




HWF 














HWF 














F&G 




8.4, 9.4 

14.7-15.7 (4) 
8.2-14.8 (dv) 


4 56.1 W 

4 55.0 W 
4 54.2 W 








HRG 








9.6-15.7 
9.7-13.8 


. 18643 
. 18652 




HRG 
HRG 










G&J 








10.2-14.5 


. 18650 




HWF 




11.7,11.9 


4 57.2 W 








HFJ 








10.9-14.5 


. 18648 




HFJ 




9.3-15.9 (4) 
10.5-15.8 (6) 

9.9-16.1 (8) 
10.1,10.6,11.0 

9.8-15.6 (9) 


4 55.7 W 

5 01.8 W 
4 58.8 W 

4 52.7 W 

5 01.6 W 








HFJ 








10.8-15.6 ' 
10.6-15.2 


. 18590 
.18619 




HWF 










HWF 










HWF 








9 . 8-14 . 6 


.18612 




HFJ 













1 The values given for declination at station Washington, S. M. O., Nm and ,S m , should all be o! 1 greater west. 



70 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 

United States — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Dip Circle 



Obs'r 



Washington, S. M. O., 
Sm' — Concluded 



38 57.4 N 



282 56 



Washington. S.M.O., N c 



38 57.4 N 



282 56 



1922 
May 1, 2 
May 8, 9 
May 22,23 
May 22,23, 
25 
7, 8 
16,17 
21,23 
24 

25,26 
27,30 
27,28, 
30 
31, 
1, 2 
1923 
Feb 21,22,23 
Mar 3 
May 29 
May 30,31 
Jun 12 
14 
1 



Sep 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 

Oct 
Nov 



Jun 
Aug 
Aug 2 
Aug 4 
Oct 3 
Oct 4 
192 J, 
Feb 7 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Mar 
May 28 
May 29 
Sep 22,23 



13 
14 

28,29 
5 



Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Dec 
Dec 



10,11 
13,14 
29,30 

4, 5 

8 



1925 
Apr 15,16 



Apr 

Jul 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 
Nov 24 



15,16, 
18 
22,23 
12,13, 
16 
12,13, 
14,16 
19,20 



Jan 

Mar 
Mar 



6, 7 
12,13 
15 



May 19,20 

Jun 22,23 

24 



Jul 8 
Aug 4 
1921 
May 2 
May 3 
May 18 
May 19 
Nov 21 
Nov 22 



Mar 31 
Apr 12 



h h h 

10.8-15.9 (8) 

9.5-16.0 (7) 

11.4-16.1 (8) 



4 58.2 W 

5 02.2 W 
5 00.4 W 



10.1-16.2 (6) 
9.8-16.4 (6) 

10.1-16.1 (5) 

11.0 

10.0,11.1,14.3 
9.6-16.3 (4) 



9.6-15.8 (8) 



5 01.0 W 



16.9,17.1,17.4 
14.9-16.1 (4) 



5 01.4 W 
5 04.4 W 



9.6-16.2 (7) 



5 04.9 W 



11.4,16.0 . . . 
9.6-14.6 (6) 



5 05.8 W 
5 05.0 W 



10.9-16 
13.6-14 
13.5-15 
9.5-15 
9.2-15 
9.3-14 
9.1, 9 
9.3-15 
9.1-16 
9.7-16 
9.2-16 
9.6-15 
9.4-11 



2 (6) 

2 (4) 

3 (6) 
6 (6) 
9 (6) 
9 (7) 
5 . . . 
9 (6) 

(7) 
(8) 
(8) 
(8) 
(6) 



1 W 

6 W 

7 W 
6 W 
6 W 
W 
W 
5 W 



.2 W 
.6 W 



9.3-16.1 (9) 
10.5-16.1 (6) 



5 11.3 W 
5 13.2 W 



9 3-14.5 (7) 



5 13 6 W 



9.2-16.1 (7) 
9.8-15.7 (4) 
9.6,10.0 . . . 
9.8-15.8 (6) 

10.3-14.7 (6) 

9.7-12.2 (7) 

10.8-15.3 (6) 



5 13.5 W 
5 12.2 W 
5 07.3 W 
5 15.7 W 

5 16.2 W 
5 12.7 W 
5 18.4 W 



h h 
10.0-15.4 
10.1-15.0 



10.3-14.8 
10.8-15.6 
10.5-16.0 
11.1-15.5 
10.0,15.3 



10.4-15.7 
10.4-16.0 



1.1- 4.6 
2.8- 5.3 



10.5-14.1 



9.9-13.7 

15.0 

10.2-15.1 

9.8,11.4 



9.7,15.2 
10.3-15.8 



10.3-15.1 
9.6-15.6 
9.8-16.0 



9.7-15.1 
10.5-14.9 
10.7-15.3 

9.7-15.8 
10.1-14.8 



10.3-15.5 



9.4-15.4 
9.8-15.9 



10.1-14.5 
13.7,14.7 

9.7-15.7 
9.3-16.1 



10 3-15.3 



9.7-15.2 



10.0-15.8 



15.3,16 
9.7-11 

15.6 .. 

10.0-13 

10.9-15 
9.5-11 



71 09 



2 N 

N 
6 N 
3N 

3 N 

1 N 



11.8-16.2 
10.0-14.2 



71 12.0 N 
71 12.2 N 



c. g. s. 
. 18625 
. 18608 



. 18643 
. 18565 
. 18596 
. 18598 
. 18596 



. 18589 

. 18581 

. 18594 
. 18596 



. 18567 



. 18556 
.18610 
. 18581 
. 18555 



. 18558 
18531 



. 18535 
. 18540 

.18518 



. 18515 
. 18495 
. 18490 
. 18493 
. 1S504 



. 18488 



. 18479 
. 18426 



. 18438 
. 18462 

. 18432 
. 18398 



. 18435 



. 18422 



.18421 



EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 

EI 48 
EI 48 



HFJ 
HFJ 
JWG 

JWG 
HFJ 
HFJ 
HFJ 
HFJ 
HFJ 
HFJ 

HFJ 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HWF 

HWF 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HFJ 

OWT 

OWT 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

RTB 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

CML 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

HWF 

HWF 

JPA 

JPA 
JPA 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

. HWF 

WFW 
. HWF 
. HWF 
. WFW 

. HWF 
. HWF 
. WFW 

HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 

HWF 
HWF 



1 The values given for declination at station Washington, S. M. O., Nm and Sm, should all be 0'. 1 greater west. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



71 



NORTH AMERICA 
United States — Continued 



Station 



Washington, S. M. O., 
Ne — Concluded 



Washington, S. M. O., 
S« 



Latitude 



38 57.4 N 



38 57.4 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



282 56 



282 56 



Date 



1922 
Apr 13 
Apr 25 
Apr 26 
May 15 
May 26 
Sep 11 
Oct 20 
Nov 9 
Dec 4,5, 



27 
20 
21 
24 



May 7 
May 8 
Oct 10 

1924 
Mar 6 
Mar 7 
Apr 11 
Apr 12 
Apr 14 
May 29 
May 31 
Sep 25 
Sep 26 
Oct 8 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 
Dec 

1925 
Apr 17 
Jul 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 

1926 
Jan 11 
Mar 15 
May 21 
Jun 29 
Aug 5 

1921 
May 3 
May 18 
May 20 
May 23 
Jun 8 

Jun 13 

Jul 5 

Jul 28 

Nov 22 

Nov 25 

Nov 28 

Nov 30 

Dec 1 

Dec 5 
1922 

Apr 26 

May 12 
May 15 
May 26 
Sep 11 
Oct 16 
18 

Oct 24 
26 

Oct 30 



21 

9, 
10 

6,7 
29 
23 
26 



2,3 

6,7 



17, 

19, 

20 

25, 

27, 

28 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h h 

14.0-15.9 

15.3,15.9 

9.8-14.2 

11.0-15.9 

9.9-12.1 

9.1-11.9 

9.7-11.8 

11.3-15.4 

10.2-15.5 

13.5-15.5 
10.4,11.2 
10.9-15.5 

14.5-16.0 

9.2, 9.6 
13.6-15.6 

9.4-12.5 

9.4-11.5 
11.8-16.1 

9.5-10.7 
15.4,15.8 

9.4-10.8 
13.6,15.6 

9.8-15.6 
10.1-15.7 

9.6,11.6 
10.0-10.9 
14.4-16.2 

10.1-14.3 
9.4-11.8 

15.0,16.4 
9.3-12.7 
9.9,11.0 

10.3-15.9 
13.6-15.6 
13.6-15.9 
10.0-13,6 
9.5-15.9 

10.6-16.2 

10.0-14.2 

9.5,13.8 

9.7-16.6 

9.6-16.2 

10.7-15.4 

9.8-16.3 

10.6-15.5 

10.3-15.7 

9.6-16 2 

9.6-12.2 

12.1 

11.2-16.0 
10.0-16.0 



9.6-16.0 

9.4-16.1 

9.5-10.3 

13.7-16.1 

13.5-16.2 



9.4-17.3 



9 . 4-16 . 3 
10.3-14.3 



Value 



71 11.1 N 
71 11.3 N 
71 12.1 N 
71 11.2 N 
71 10.6 N 
71 12.6 N 
71 13.2 N 
71 11.1 N 
71 11.9 N 

71 11.4 N 
71 12.4 N 
71 12.6 N 

71 13.5 N 
71 13.5 N 
71 11.9 N 
71 11.8 N 
71 12.2 N 
71 12.2 N 
71 13.8 N 
71 13.5 N 
71 14.8 N 
71 13.4 N 
71 14.6 N 
71 13.4 N 
71 14.8 N 
71 13.8 N 
71 12.9 N 



14.0 N 

15.0 N 

14.1 N 
15.3 N 
13.5 N 



71 14.9 N 

71 16.1 N 

71 14.5 N 

71 15.3 N 

71 15.3 N 



71 09.8 N 

71 13.0 N 

71 12.8 N 

71 12.4 N 



71 09 
71 09 
71 09 
71 10 
71 11 
71 11 
71 11 
71 11 
71 10 
71 10 



9 N 
.5 N 
.8 N 
.4 N 
.2 N 



.2 N 
.2 N 
.3 N 
.5 N 

.7 N 



71 12.4 N 
71 12.1 N 
71 12.2 N 
71 09.6 N 
71 11.4 N 



71 12.4 N 



71 12.4 N 
71 12.2 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



c. g- 



Instruments 



Mag'r Dip Circle 



El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


is 


El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


El 


48 


El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


4N 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


El 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 


EI 


48 



EI 48 



Obs'r 



EI 48 
EI 48 



HWF 

WAL 

HFJ 

JWG 

JWG 

HFJ 

HFJ 

HWF 

HFJ 

HFJ 
HFJ 
OWT 

JWG 

JWG 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

CML 

CML 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

HWF 

JPA 

JPA 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

WFW 
WFW 
WFW 
HWF 
WFW 

HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 

HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HWF 
HFW 
HFW 



HFJ 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
HFJ 



HFJ 



HFJ 
HFJ 



72 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 
United States — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Washington, S. M. O., 


o / 
38 57 . 4 N 

38 57 . 4 N 

38 44 . N 

38 44.0 N 
37 58.6 N 


o / 
282 56 

282 56 

283 10 

283 10 
237 27 


1922 
Nov 8, 9 

1923 
May 8 
May 29,30, 
31 
Jun 12,14 
Aug 14 
Oct 9,10, 
11 

1924 
Mar 6, 7 
Apr 9,10, 
11 
Jun 2 
Sep 25 
Oct 10,11 
Oct 13,14 
Nov 3 
Dec 5, 6 

1925 
Apr 17,18 
Jul 24 
Nov 19, 20 
Nov 24 

1926 
Jan 9, 11 
Mar 17 
May 22 
Jun 28, 29 
Aug 6 

1921 
Jun 14 
Jun 16 
Jun 17,18 
Jul 1, 2 
Jul 27,28 
Jul 30 
Aug 1 
Aug 9,10 
Nov 23 
Dec 8 
Dec 9 , 10 

1922 
Feb 12 
Feb 21 
Mar 15,16 
Mar 28,29 
Apr 18,19, 
20 
May 2,3,4 
May 3, 4 
May 4,5,6 
May 5, 6 
May 24,25 

1923 
Feb 23,24 
Aug 15 

1924 
May 26,27 
May 31 
Jun 2 

1924 
Mar 18,19, 
20 
Mar 20 
Mar 21 

1924 
Mar 19,20, 
21 
Mar 18, '21 


h h h 


o / 


h h 
9.7-16.1 

13.1-16.0 

9.1-14.7 

9.9-14.2 

11.6-16.0 

9.5-16.3 

10.4-13.8 

9.7-16.0 
10.8-13.6 
11.1,14.4 
10.0-15.3 
10.2-15.8 
11.8-14.6 
10.0-16.8 

9.3-16.4 
12.0-14.8 

9.5-15.4 
13.7,14.6 

9.4-11.7 

14.0-16.1 

9.6-12.0 

9.6-15.2 

12.2-16.1 

9.8-13.8 


o r 

71 11.6 N 

71 11.5 N 

71 13.3 N 
71 12.4 N 
71 11.6 N 

71 13.3 N 

71 14.0 N 

71 12.6 N 
71 13.6 N 
71 14.6 N 
71 14.6 N 
71 14.5 N 
71 14.0 N 
71 13.1 N 

71 13.6 N 
71 13.5 N 
71 15.6 N 
71 14.6 N 

71 15.6 N 
71 15.7 N 
71 16.1 N 
71 13.6 N 
71 14.1 N 

71 10.4 N 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 48 

EI ,48 

EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 

EI 48 

EI 48 

EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 

EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 

EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 
EI 48 

EI 48 


HWF 














HFJ 














HFJ 














HWF 














HFJ 














OWT 














JWG 














JL 














JWG 














CML 














JWG 














JWG 


v 












JWG 










HWF 














JPA 














JPA 














JPA 














JPA 














WFW 














WFW 














WFW 














HWF 














WFW 


Washington, S. M. O., 

Em? 












HWF 




15.7 

9.5-16.2 (6) 
12.1-16.3 (5) 
10.6-16.1 (6) 


4 53.7 W 
4 53.8 W 
4 56.0 W 
4 57.4 W 






3 
3 
3 
3 


HWF 








10.0-15.1 
10.5-15.3 


. 18677 
. 18680 




HWF 










HWF 










HWF 




10.0-12.1 
10.1-11.3 


71 11.0 N 
71 10.6 N 






EI 48 
EI 48 


HWF 














HWF 








10.2-16.4 


. 18661 


3 


HWF 








13.2-15.2 


71 12.6 N 


EI 48 


HWF 




14.2-15.2 (4) 
9.8-15.5 (5) 

15.7 

10.0-11.0 (4) 
9.5-16.4 (6) 
9.7-16.8 (6) 

9.6-15.7 (7) 
10.9-16.1 (8) 


5 00.4 W 
4 56.0 W 

4 58.3 W 
4 58.0 W 

4 59.1 W 

5 02.4 W 

5 02.5 W 
5 02.4 W 




3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 


HWF 








11.0-16.0 


. 18660 




HWF 










HRG 














HFJ 








10.0-15.9 
10.4-16.4 

10.1-16.0 


.18619 
. 18633 

. 18635 




HWF 










HWF 










HFJ 










HFJ 








10.3-15.8 


. 18637 




HFJ 




9.7-16.1 (7) 


5 02.3 W 








HFJ 








10.2-15.3 
10.0-15.0 

1.2- 4.9 


. 18634 
. 18628 

. 18609 




HFJ 




9.4-16.1 (9) 


5 02.6 W 








JWG 










HWF 








10.1-13.8 


71 13.2 N 


EI 48 


HWF 




12.0-16.2 (6) 


5 08.3 W 


10.4-15.2 


. 18532 


3 


JWG 




11.5-12.7 
9.6, 9.9 


71 13.3 N 
71 14.0 N 


EI 48 
EI 48 


JWG 














JWG 


Cheltenham, Bi 






8.2-17.0 


. 18932 


3 
3 
3 


JWG 




10.8-16.7 (8) 
10.9-16.1 (4) 


6 36.0 W 
6 36.4 W 






JWG 








8.5-15.4 


. 18932 




JWG 


Cheltenham, (EI) 


8.0-15.1 
14.6,14.7 


70 59.4 N 
62 13.4 N 


EI 48 
EI 25 


JWG 




10.5,11.9 


18 20.0 W 


11.0,11.6 


. 24736 


25 


CVI 







2 The values given for declination at station Washington, S. M. O., Em, should all be 0'. 1 greater west. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



73 



NORTH AMERICA 

United States — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


San Francisco, Fort 


/ 

37 48.7 N 

37 48.7 N 

36 36.2 N 

34 46.3 N 
34 46.3 N 
34 21.3 N 
34 21.3 N 

34 13.0 N 
34 12.7 N 
34 12.7 N 

32 40.2 N 


/ 

237 31 

237 31 

277 49 

275 02 
275 02 
281 18 
281 18 

241 56 
280 11 
280 11 

242 46 


Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 

Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 

Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 

Mar 

Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
May 
May 

May 
May 
Apr 
Apr 

Aug 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 


26, '21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
1, 21 
1, 21 

1, 21 

2, 21 

2, 21 

3, 21 
3, 21 

3, 21 

4, 21 
4, 21 
4, 21 

7, 21 

8, 21 

8, 21 

9, 21 

10, 21 

15, 21 

26, 21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
28, 21 
1, 21 
1, 21 

1, 21 

2, 21 

2, 21 

3, 21 
3, 21 

3, 21 

4, 21 

10, 21 

11, 21 

14, 21 

16, 21 

16, 21 

17, 21 

4, 25 

5, 25 

2, 25 

2, 25 

21, 25 

21, 25 

26, 26 
20, 25 
20, 25 
20, 25 
5, 23 
7, 23 

7, 23 

8, 23 

9, 23 
9, 23 

10, 23 


h h h 

10.8.12.7 

13.3,13.4,13.8 
14.0,14.5,14.7 
15.1,15.3 

15.6.15.8 

13.0,13.2 

13.5,13.7 


o / 

18 08.0 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 04.5 E 
18 05.2 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 05.4 E 
18 05.8 E 


h h 


o / 


h h 

11.3,12.2 

9.3,10.1 

10.9,11.7 


c. g. s. 
.24714 
. 24738 
.24714 


5 
5 
5 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 




C VI 










C VI 










C VI 










C VI 














C VI 








9.1,10.0 
10.8,11.6 
14.1,14.8 


. 24740 
. 24736 
.24727 




C VI 






C VI 










C VI 








11.1 to 
13.3 (6) 
13.9 to 

15.2 (6) 


62 16.8 N 
62 16.1 N 


EI 25 
EI 26 










C VI 














13.4,13.6,14.0 
14.3,14.7,14.8 
15.4,15.6 


18 06.8 E 
18 06.6 E 
18 06.4 E 


C VI 




9.5,10.6 
11.3,12.9 


.24729 
. 24704 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 
5 

5 


C VI 










C VI 










C VI 








10.0,11.8 
13.9,14.7 

15.2 

9.4 to 

15.3 (7) 
13.9,14.6 

15.1 

10.3 to 
14.9 (6) 


. 24722 
.24725 
.24726 

.24716 
. 24726 
. 24739 

. 24724 




C VI 














C VI 














C VI 


























C VI 






C VI 














C VI 








9.8 to 
15.3 (9) 
11.0 to 
13.9 (7) 


62 15.7 N 
62 16.7 N 


EI 25 
EI 7 










C VI 




10.5 to 13.5(dv) 

10.8.12.7 

13.3,13.4,13.8 
14.0,14.5,14.7 
15.1,15.3 

15.6.15.8 

13.0,13.2 

13.5,13.7 


18 06.9 E 

18 05.1 E 
18 02.5 E 
18 01.9 E 
18 02.2 E 
18 02.6 E 
18 03.4 E 
18 03.4 E 


C VI 








25 

26 
26 
26 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


C VI 


San Francisco, Fort 
Scott B 






11.3,12.2 

9.3,10.1 

10.9,11.7 


. 24694 
. 24728 
.24715 




C VI 










C VI 










C VI 










C VI 














C VI 








9.1,10.0 
10.8,11.5 
14.1,14.8 


.24732 
. 24730 
. 24724 




C VI 










C VI 










C VI 








9.4 to 
13.3 (10) 
13.9 to 
15.2 (6) 


62 19 . 1 N 

62 18.7 N 


EI 26 
EI 25 










C VI 














13.4,13.6,14.0 
14.3,14.7,14.8 
15.4,15.6 


18 03.9 E 
18 03.1 E 
18 03.5 E 


C VI 




9 . 5 , 10 . 6 
11.3,12.9 


.24716 
.24710 


25 
25 
25 
25 


C VI 










C VI 










C VI 








10.0,11.8 


. 24724 




C VI 








10.4 to 
16.0 (14) 
9 2 to 
14.4 (9) 


62 20 . N 
62 18.5 N 


EI 25 
EI 25 










C VI 




12.9,13.8 


. 24736 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
25 

25 
25 
26 
26 
25 

17 
26 
25 
26 
12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 






15.1 to 17.6(dv) 
7.9 to 9.4(dv) 

15.0 to 17.6(dv) 

7.3 to 9.3(dv) 

10.2.13.5 

6.4 to 17.6(dv) 

12.9,15.8 

10.3.13.6 

14.5.15.7 

15.2 

15.1 

12.6 

12.6 

14.0 

10.4,12.6 

10.6 

11.4 to 16.4 (6) 
12.1 

9.2,17.0 

9.6 to 16.2(dv) 
9.0,17.0 


18 02.7 E 
18 06.9 E 
18 04.3 E 
18 08.1 E 
1 17.4 W 
1 10.2 W 

1 47.6 E 

1 47.8 E 

2 13.1 W 
2 34.4 W 

15 13.4 E 

1 36.2 W 

1.38.3 W 

1 35.3 W 

14 44.5 E 

14 37.8 E 

14 40.3 E 

14 39.1 E 

14 45.1 E 

14 43.3 E 

14 49.2 E 


C VI 
C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 




14.9,15.2 


68 41.4 N 


11.4,12.8 
6.4 to 
17.6 (dv) 
13.8,15.0 
11.3,11.7 

15.0 

15.8 

15.8 


. 20708 

. 20736 
. 22324 
.22318 
.21856 
.21886 

. 25720 


EI 25 


AHK 








11.3,11.6 
14.2,14.4 
12.9,13.1 


66 49 . 4 N 
66 47 . 4 N 
66 57.0 N 


AHK 




EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 26 


AHK 


Dalton, B 


JES 


Whiteville, A 


JES 


Whiteville, B. . . 


AHK 


Mount Wilson Observ- 
atory, Magnetic Ob- 
servatory Site 


17.6 


59 45.2 N 


EI 17 


F&N 
JES 














AHK 




17.2,17.4 


67 02.2 N 


14.7,15.9 
10.9,12.3 


.21766 
.26831 


EI 26 


JES 

A&S 










A&S 














A&S 






A&S 














A&S 














A&S 














A&S 

















74 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



NORTH AMERICA 

United States — Concluded 



Station 



Point Loma, A — Con- 
cluded 



Point Loma, B . 



Sweetwater, A . 



Sweetwater, B 

Tucson, B 

Tucson Observatory, 
Inductor Pier 



Tucson Observatory, 

Magnetometer Pier. . 



Waycross, A . 



Waycross, B. 



Jacksonville, A 
Jacksonville, B 
Bunnell, A . . . . 

Bunnell, B 

Miami, A 

Miami, B 



Latitude 



32 40 . 2 N 



32 40.2 N 



32 28.0 N 



32 28.0 N 
32 14.8 N 



32 14.8 N 



32 14.8 N 



31 14.1 N 



31 14.1 N 



30 22.2 N 
30 22.2 N 
29 27.6 N 



29 27 . 6 N 
25 46.3 N 

25 46.3 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



242 46 



242 46 



259 36 



259 35 
249 10 



249 10 



249 10 



277 39 



277 39 



278 20 
278 20 
278 44 



278 44 

279 49 

279 49 



Date 



Sep 10 

Sep 11 

Sep 11 

Sep 13 

Sep 7 

Sep 9 

Sep 9 

Sep 9 
Sep 10 
Sep 10 

Sep 10 
Sep 11 

Sep 11 
Sep 12 
Aug 22 
Aug 23 

Aug 24 

Aug 25 

Aug 11 

Aug 11 

Aug 11 

Aug 12 
Aug 12 
Aug 12 

Aug 12 

Aug 12 

Aug 12 

Aug 13 

Jun 21 
Jun 22 

Apr 22 
Apr 23 

Apr 25 
Jun 21 
Jun 22 

Apr 22 

Apr 23 

Apr 24 

Apr 25 

Apr 30 

Apr 30 

Apr 27 

Apr 28 

Apr 28 

Apr 27 

Apr 28 

Jun 26 

Jun 27 

Jun 27 

Jun 26 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



h h h 
9.6 to 16.2(dv) 
10.9 to 16.2(dv) 

17.0 

8.5, 9.8 



13.2,14.4 



6.3 to 18.0(dv) 

10.1,11.5 

8.5, 9.9,10.2 
11.4,13.0,14.2 



11.1,13.4,13.8 
15.2,15.6,16.9 



6.0 to 17.7 (dv) 

9.7,13.1 

6.4tol7.9 (dv) 

10.8,12.8 

6.0 to 17.5 (dv) 

8.5,11.4 

11.6,15.1 



11.8 


53.9 E 


10.6 


55.2 E 



13.3,15.5 

14.8 

14.0,16.2 
8.9,10.8 



15.9 

9.3 .... 

12.9,13.5 
7.3, 7.6 



10.4,13.1 



14 46.4 E 

14 44.8 E 

14 47.2 E 

14 47.8 E 



10 45.6 E 



10 47.1 E 

10 46.2 E 

13 48.3 E 

13 43.5 E 



13 43.2 E 
13 45.9 E 



13 44.8 E 

1 00.2 E 

1 00.0 E 

52 . E 

53.8 E 

50.6 E 

58.4 E 



56 . 8 E 

57 . 1 E 

1 00.1 E 
1 06 . E 



1 00.0 E 

1 08.1 E 

1 32. 0E 

1 38.1 E 



1 34 . 3 E 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h h 



13.8,14.7 
9.7, 9.9 
10.2 to 
16.2 (dv) 
16.5,16.6 
9.4, 9.7 
10.2 to 
16.2 (dv) 
16.6,16.8 
11.1 to 
16.2(dv) 
16.5,16.7 
16.6,16.7 
12.6,12.7 
6.3 to 
18.0 (dv) 



12.6,12.8 
15.0,15.3 
15.7,16.0 
16.2,16.5 

8.8, 9.1 

9.4, 9.7 

10.1,10.4 



14.5,14.8 



13.8,14.2 



14 6,15.1 

16.6,16.8 

6.2 to 

18.0 (dv) 

15.1,15.6 



6.7 to 
16.9 (dv) 
10.9,11.0 
14.0 



11.4,11.6 
17.2,17.5 

17.3,17.6 
10.4,10.7 
14.5,14.7 
16.0,16.4 
14.4,14.5 



Value 



58 24 . N 
58 22.8 N 

58 24.4 N 
58 24.4 N 
58 24 . 3 N 

58 24 . 1 N 
58 23.8 N 

58 25.6 N 
58 25.2 N 
58 23.8 N 
61 57.0 N 

61 59.3 N 



61 57.8 N 
59 30 . 3 N 
59 30 . 2 N 
59 30.0 N 

59 29.2 N 
59 29 . 2 N 
59 28.9 N 



63 35.6 N 



63 43 9 N 



63 43.8 N 
63 35.8 N 

63 35.7 N 

62 42.4 N 



62 41.9 N 

63 13.3 N 
63 14.6 N 



62 17.8 N 
62 19.0 N 



62 20 . 4 N 
58 22 . 5 N 
58 25.3 N 
58 25.7 N 
58 23.9 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Val 



.8, 9.5 



13.6,14.2 



6.3 to 
18.0 (dv) 
10.5,11.2 

8.9, 9.4 
10.6,11.1 
13.1,14.0 



11.2 
14.2 
15.9 

6.0 
17.7 
10.2 

6.7 
17.7 
11.3 

6.0 
17.5 

9.1 
13.2 



,13.1 
,14.8 
,16.5 

to 

(dv) 
,11.0 

to 

(dv) 
,12.3 

to 

(dv) 
, 10.5 
,14.5 



13.5 
16.7 



13.8,14.5 

15.5,16.1 

14.7,15.7 

9.3,10.2 



16.7 

9.9,11.4 

14.2,15.2 
8.2, 9.2 



11.1,12.1 



c. g. s. 



. 26842 



. 25676 



. 25677 
.25660 
. 26740 
. 26740 
.26751 



.26751 
. 26754 
. 26735 

. 26737 
. 24379 

. 24392 
.24183 

.24172 
.24183 
. 24424 



. 24202 
. 24237 



. 24253 
.24275 
.24691 
. 24688 



.24681 
. 24707 
.26916 
. 26888 



. 26903 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



13 
13 
13 
12 



26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 

26 
25 

25 
26 

26 
25 
26 



25 
25 
25 



26 
25 
26 
26 



25 
25 
25 
25 



26 



Obs'i 



Dip Circle 



EI 7 
EI 7 

EI 7 
EI 7 
EI 7 

EI 7 
EI 7 

EI 7 
EI 7 
EI 7 
EI 26 

EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 25 



EI 26 



EI 25 
EI 26 

EI 26 



EI 25 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 25 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25. 
EI 25 
EI 26 



A&S 
A&S 
A&S 
A&S 
JPA 
JPA 

JPA 
JPA 
JPA 

JPA 
JPA 

JPA 
JPA 
JPA 
JWG 

JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JES 

JES 

AHK 

WAL 

WAL 
AHK 
AHK 
AHK 

JES 

JES 

AHK 

JES 

JES 

JES 

AHK 

AHK 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

WAL 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



75 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina 



Station 



La Quiaca, 1917 

La Quiaca, Magnetom- 
eter Pier 



La Quiaca, B. . 

La Quiaca, C . . 

Tucum&n 

Corrientes, A . . 

Corrientes, B. . 
Monte Caseros 
Pilar, B 



Pilar, Pier 2. 



Pilar, Pier 5. 



Mendoza, A . 



Mendoza, B . . . 

Florida, B 

Mercedes, A 

Mercedes, B . . . . 
Bahia Blanca, A 



Bahia Blanca, B . . . 
Puerto Madryn, A . 



Puerto Madryn, B. 
Colonia Las Heras . 
Puerto Deseado, A . 



Latitude 



22 06.6 S 
22 06.6 S 



22 06.6 S 



22 06 . 6 S 

26 51.1 S 

27 28.7 S 

27 28.7 S 

30 15.4 S 

31 40.1 S 



31 40.1 S 



31 40.1 S 



32 53.6 S 



32 53.6 S 
34 32 . 1 S 
34 40.3 S 

34 40 . 3 S 

38 46.7 S 



38 46.7 S 
42 45.2 S 

42 45.2 S 

46 33.1 S 

47 45.7 S 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



294 25 
294 25 



294 25 



294 25 
294 46 
301 10 

301 10 

302 22 
296 07 



296 07 



296 07 



291 08 



291 08 
301 29 
300 33 

300 33 
297 44 



297 44 
294 58 

294 58 
291 03 
294 05 



Date 



Aug 5, '23 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 
Jan 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 

Aug 6 

Jan 26 

Jan 27 

Jan 28 

Jan 28 

Jan 30 

Aug 3 

Aug 3 

Aug 4 

Aug 4 

Jan 28 

Aug 1 

Jul 2 

Jul 3 

Jul 3 

Jun 30 

Jul 27 

Jul 27 

Jul 27 

Jul 27 

Jul 28 



Jan 15 

Jan 18 

Jan 18 

Jan 20 

Jan 20 

Jan 21 

Jan 21 

Jan 21 

Jan 21 

Jul 29 

Jul 29 

Jul 30 



Jan 19 

Jan 20 

Jan 7 

Jan 8 

Jan 9 

Jan 1 1 

Jul 24 

Jun 22 

Jun 23 

Jun 23 

Jun 13 

Jun 14 

Jun 15 

Jun 16 
May 27 
May 28 
May 29 
May 19 
May 16 
May 17 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



h h 
10.8,12.0 

15.0,16.8 

8.6,10.1 

15.1,16.4 



9.6,11.0 

6 . 3 to 17 . 3 (dv) 



13.6,15.5,15.9 



10.4,10.8,14.2 
14.3,15.7 



12.4,12.7 .. 

9.7, 9.9 . 
13.1,14.3 . . 

9.8,11.3 . 



10.4,12.9 
14.7,17.1 

8.9,11.3 
10.5,12.3 

9.2,11.4 
11.8,13.4 



12.1,15.3,15.8 



.1, 9.7,12 .3 



7.4,10.5 

11.0,12.7 

7.5,10.1 

15.4,16.6 

6.3tol7.5(dv; 



5 36.4 E 

5 38.0 E 
5 38.4 E 
5 39 . 4 E 



5 20.8 E 
5 21.6 E 



5 36.4 E 



5 38.2 E 
5 18.7 E 



1 53.1 E 
1 50.6 E 
1 54 . 6 E 
1 17.2 E 



22.9 E 
23.8 E 
22.8 E 

04.6 E 

04.7 E 
10.5 E 



7 23.3 E 



7 23 . 2 E 



7 01.9 E 

7 07.8 E 

6 58.2 E 

10 57.4 E 

11 00.5 E 



8.9,10.3 
12.0,13.6 

9.7, 9.9 
12.2,12.5 

9.4,10.4 
10.4,11.7 

7.3 to 16.4 (dv) 



9.3,10.5 

9.9,10.1 
13.2,13.4 

8.6, 9.9 

9.7,11.0 
10.6,11.9 

7.7tol6.6(dv) 



10 59 . E 
4 08.2 E 
4 34 . 3 E 
4 36 . 6 E 
4 33.6 E 
8 06.5 E 
8 05 . 9 E 



8 04 . 7 E 
11 33.2 E 
11 37.8 E 
11 39.2 E 
15 04.9 E 
13 41.4 E 
13 42.0 E 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h h 
14.0,14.1 



9.8,10.0 
10.6,10.8 
11.1,12.4 
11.4,11.7 



12.0,12.2 

12.4 

6.3 to 
17.7 (dv) 



16.6,16.9 
17.4 .... 
13.0,13.2 
10.1,10.3 
12.6,12.8 
11.6,11.7 
12.3,12.7 
14.3,14.7 
15.3,15.9 

16.6 

8.0, 8.5 



Value 



12 31.4 S 



12 32.4 S 
12 31. 6S 
12 30.8 S 
12 27.0 S 



12 29.2 S 
12 29.2 S 

12 32.5 S 



11.7,12.3 
12.7,12.8 
8.0, 8.2 
11.2,11.5 
11.8,11 .9 
12.2,12.5 



16.3 to 
17.0 (4) 



7.9, 8.2 



14.1,14.3 



6.6 to 
17.5 (dv) 
10.9,11.2 
11.4,11.5 
10.1,10.3 
12.8,13.0 

9.0, 9.2 
13.4,13.6 



7.5 to 
16.4 (dv) 

8.4, 8.7 
11.6,11.7 
13.8,14.0 
10.3,10.6 
11.4,11.6 

8.5, 8.7 



12 33.3 S 
19 30.8 S 
19 13.5 S 
19 10.7 S 
19 12.7 S 
22 30.7 S 
25 39 . S 
25 41.2 S 
25 42.4 S 
25 42.3 S 
25 41.2 S 



25 34 . 4 S 
25 35.4 S 
25 48.2 S 
25 40.0 S 
25 39 . 4 S 
25 38.4 S 



25 38.9 S 



25 39 S 



28 54 . 8 S 



28 53 . 6 S 
28 51.6 S 
28 07 . 8 S 
28 23.2 S 
28 25.3 S 
28 28.2 S 
33 31.8 S 



33 30.2 S 
33 30.4 S 
38 06 . 5 S 
38 09 . 3 S 
38 11.9 S 

42 39 . 6 S 

43 34 . 2 S 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



h h 
11.2,11.7 

15.6,16.4 

9.0, 9.7 

15.5,16.1 



10.0,10.7 

6.3 to 

17.3 (dv) 



14.1,15.0 

16.4 

9.7,11.3 

13.7 

14.7,15.4 
16.2,16.9 
13.5,14.1 
10.7,11.2 
13.4,14.0 
10.2,11.0 



11.1,12.0 
15.4,16.2 

9.6,10.4 
11.0,11.8 

9.8,10.8 
12.3,12.9 



12.8,14.6 

16.3 

8.8,10.6 

11.4 



8.0, 9.9 
11 5,12.2 

8.0, 9.5 
15.7,16.3 

6.3 to 
17 . 5 (dv) 



9.3,10.0 
12.4,13.2 
10.6,11.2 
13.3,13.8 

9.6,10.2 
10.8,11.5 

7.3 to 
16.4 (dv) 



9.6,10.2 
10.6,11.2 



15.2, 

8.9, 

10.1, 



15.7 
9.6 

10.7 



11.0,11.6 

7.7 to 
16.6 (dv) 



c. g. s. 
. 26483 

. 26434 
. 24647 
. 26458 



26431 



. 26299 



. 26490 
. 26456 
. 26490 
.26477 
. 26329 
. 25687 
. 24680 
. 24708 
. 24688 
.24174 



.25117 
.25114 
.25130 
. 24962 
. 25007 
.25016 



.25119 
.25126 

.25137 
.25129 



. 24947 
. 24972 
. 24980 
. 25430 

. 25463 



. 25474 
. 24340 
. 24387 
. 24345 
. 24368 
. 24732 

.24768 



.24770 
. 25326 
.25323 
. 25326 
.26112 
.25884 

.25895 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



25 

25 
25 
25 



27 



27 



25 
25 
25 
25 
27 
25 
27 
27 
27 
27 



25 
25 
25 
27 

27 
27 



25 
25 



25 
25 



27 
27 

27 
27 

27 



27 
25 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



Dip Circle 



EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 

EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 25 
EI 25 



El 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



Obs'r 



JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JL 

JWG 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JWG 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 

JL 



76 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Argentina — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Puerto Deseado, A — 


47 45.7 S 

47 45.7 S 
50 00.9 S 

50 01.2 S 
53 48 . 1 S 


o r 

294 05 

294 05 
291 30 

291 30 

292 22 


May 22, '25 
May 23, 25 

May 21, 25 
May 9, 25 
May 9, 25 
May 10, 25 
May 11, 25 
Mar 26, 25 


h h h 


o / 


h h 

10.6,10.8 
8.0 to 
16.8 (dv) 
12.5,12.8 
15.0,15.2 


o / 

43 43.2S(?) 

43 34 . 5 S 
43 38.5 S 
45 53.9 S 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 


















10.5,11.8 

13.1,13.4 


13 41.1 E 
15 55.8 E 


JL 


Puerto Deseado, B . . . . 
Santa Cruz, A 


10.8,11.5 
10.4,11.7 
13.9,14.5 
8.8, 9.5 
10.1,10.8 
10.0,11.4 


. 25843 
. 26380 
.26361 
. 26374 
. 26354 
. 26436 


27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 


JL 
JL 
JL 


Santa Cruz, B 


8.2, 8.5 

9.8,11.1 

9.6,11.7 


15 52.4 E 

15 51.9 E 

16 23.0 E 


10.1,10.3 

8.8, 9.0 

13.4,13.6 


45 52.7 S 
45 54 . 2 S 
49 12.1 S 


EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 
JL 
JL 









Bolivia 



Guayaramerin 
La Paz, A 



La Paz, B 
Uyuni, A . 

Uyuni, B . 



10 48.1 S 
16 30.8 S 



16 30.9 S 
20 28.0 S 



20 28.0 S 






, 


294 


41 


291 


47 


291 


47 


293 


11 


293 


11 



Mar 


10, 


'24 


Aug 


13, 


23 


Aug 


13, 


23 


Aug 


14, 


23 


Dec 


12, 


24 


Dec 


16, 


24 


Aug 


14, 


23 


Aug 


9, 


23 


Aug 


10, 


23 


Aug 


10, 


23 


Aug 


10, 


23 



10.4 



h 
11.0 
13.7 
16.2 
10.3 
11.5 



12.8,14.1 
15.7,16.9 
9.0,10.0 
11.0,12.4 
14.1,15.4 



13.2 E 
47.4 E 

47.3 E 
46.8 E 

40.4 E 



5 48.6 E 
5 55.9 E 
5 57.3 E 
5 55.5 E 
5 57.1 E 



h h 
13.1,13.5 
11.5,11.7 



8.9, 9.1 

12.2,12.4 

.9 to 

.4 (dv) 

.4,12.6 

13.4,13.7 

8.5, 8.6 



9. 
18. 
12. 



15.8,16.1 



8 03.4 N 
3 42.4 S 



3 47.6 S 
3 37 . 4 S 

3 39.5 S 
3 45.0 S 
9 55.8 S 
9 58.3 S 



9 56.0 S 



h h 
14.4,15.7 
12.8,13.4 
15.5,16.0 



10.7,11.3 



13.1,13.8 
16.0,18.6 
11.5,12.1 



14.4,15.1 



c. g. s. 
. 28408 
. 27960 
. 27894 



. 27968 



. 27886 
. 26900 
. 26948 



. 26909 



28 
25 
25 
25 
27 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



EI 28 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 



JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JL 

JL 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 



Brazil 



Papagaia Village 

Pata 

Curumuri 

Jawar£ PootoolS Island 

Toure Falls 

Tapiocawa Rapids .... 
Maguary Lighthouse . 

Jawar£ 

Santa Isabel 

Miritipoco Island 

Takara Rapids 

Sao Antonio de Caeho- 
eira 

Soure 

Maracanaquara Rapids 

Muraeeka 

Barcellos, A 

Barcellos, B 

Panama Rapids 

Porteiro Rapids 

Pinheiro, A 



Pinheiro, B. 



Veado . 



37 . N 

24.3 N 
16.0 N 
01.9 N 
01.6 N 
10.4 S 
14.8 S 
16.0 S 
25.0 S 



27.7 S 
28.7 S 



39.9 S 



44.0 S 

44.6 S 

57.4 S 
58.2 S 

58.2 S 

03.7 S 

05.1 S 
17.9 S 



1 17.9 S 



1 19.2 S 



305 43 

306 34 

306 07 

307 03 
306 15 
306 19 
311 40 
306 18 
294 58 



306 27 

307 18 

307 31 

311 34 

306 50 

306 52 

297 07 

297 07 
306 54 

302 58 
311 31 



311 31 



303 31 



Nov 


19 


'23 


Nov 


21 


23 


Dec 


3 


23 


Nov 


26 


23 


Dec 


7 


23 


Nov 


12 


23 


Nov 


7 


23 


Aug 


6 


23 


Oct 


29 


23 


Feb 


9 


24 


Feb 


10 


24 


Feb 


10 


24 


Oct 


26 


23 


Dec 


10 


23 


Dec 


12 


23 


Dec 


13 


23 


Aug 


12 


23 


Oct 


17 


23 


Oct 


20 


23 


Oct 


12 


23 


Feb 


4 


24 


Feb 


4 


24 


Feb 


5 


24 


Oct 


5 


23 


Oct 


6 


23 


Aug 


30 


23 


Apr 


18 


23 


Apr 


18 


23 


Apr 


18 


23 


Apr 


19 


23 


Jul 


15 


23 


Apr 


18 


23 


Apr 


18 


23 


Apr 


19 


23 


Sep 


1 


23 



h h 
13.3 

10.1 

10.4,12.9 

10.2 

9.8, 

15.3, 

14.3 

10.7 

9.8, 



11.4 
15.5 



114 



8.3,10.7 
10 9,12.4 

14.5 

10.6 



10.0 
10 
13 
12 
9 
11 



13.5 



1,11. 
3 .. . 



15.4 



11.2 
13.9 
17.3 



10.9,14.2 
15.4 

7.6 

10.1,14.4 

9.8,11.2 



6.4 to 17.4(dv) 



15.8 

9.6,12.3 
12.8,14.0 



9.6,11.3 



6 49.0 W 

6 46.5 W 

7 35.2 W 
7 14.8 W 
7 49.2 W 
6 41.9 W 

6 04.1 W 
11 01.0 W 

7 00.2 W 



1 38.6 W 
1 37.0 W 
7 10.8 W 
7 52.3 W 



8 05 

10 39 

6 20 

6 18 



1 01 



4 44 
10 30 



.0 W 
.6 W 
.5 W 
.3 W 
.8 W 
.4 W 
.6 W 
.2 W 
.5 W 
.3 W 
.8 W 
.4 W 



10 33.7 W 

10 34.6 W 
10 31.7 W 
10 36.3 W 



5 22.2 W 



16.0 
15.7 



8.0 
13.2 
14.7 
13.2, 

8.3 
13.3, 



13.4 



13.9 



13.8 



14.6,14.9 



8.0, 
8.1, 



14.7 
9.2, 



9.6 



15.1,15.3 
14.5,14.7 



8.2, 8.6 

9.2, 9.4 

13.7,14.1 

15.1,15.6 



10.8,11.1 



14.6,14.8 

7.8 to 
17.3 (dv) 

7.8, 8.1 



27 34 . 7 N 
26 30 . 4 N 



25 50 . 3 N 

24 56.2 N 

25 50.2 N 

24 35.0 N 

25 32.4 N 

26 38.4 N 



25 10.8 N 



24 46 . 7 N 



23 18.0 N 

24 27 . 2 N 



24 30.6 N 
24 57 . 8 N 



24 57 . 6 N 
24 26.6 N 



25 13.6 N 
22 33.8 N 
22 31.2 N 
22 34 . 1 N 



22 31.4 N 



22 35.2 N 

22 31.7 N 
24 40.8 N 



h 
13.7 



10.8,13.3 

10.7 

10.2,11.1 



11.1 
10.7 



8.8,10.2 
11.3,12.0 

14.9 

11.1 



10.4,11.4 
10.4,11.4 
13.9,14.7 



9.8,10.8 
11.8,13.3 
15.8,17.0 
11.4,13.4 
16.0 

8.0 .... 
10.6,11.6 
10.1,10.8 



6.6 to 
17.4 (dv) 

16.2 

10.1,11.0 
13.2,13.8 



10.0,10.8 



c. g. s. 
. 29328 



. 29264 
. 29406 
. 29274 



.29012 
. 29272 



. 29956 
. 29958 
.29381 
. 29390 



.29152 
.29198 
.29419 



. 29290 
. 29862 
. 29822 
. 29858 
. 28745 
. 28781 
. 29258 
.29162 



.29121 
.29119 
.29153 
.29156 



.29378 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 



28 
28 
28 

.28 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
25 



25 
28 
28 
25 



28 



EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 





EI 28 


EI 28 


EI 28 
EI 28 


' 


EI 28 
EI 28 


EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 28 
EI 25 
EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 28 



EI 25 

EI 28 
EI 28 



JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JTH 
JTH 

JWG 

JTH 
JTH 
JWG 

JTH 
JTH 



1 Informed later that iron rails are buried near this spot; see Gujara Mirim, Brazil 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



77 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Brazil — Continued 



Station 



Alraeirim 

Oriximina 

Obidos, A 

Obidos, B 

Santarem, A 

Santarem, B 

San Luis, A 

San Luis, B 

San Luis, Campo do 

Durique 

Bocca do Jutahy 

Victoria (Rio Xingu) . 
Caehoeira Tucuruhy. . 
Manaos, B 

Manaos, A 



Alta Mira 

Sao Paulo de Olivenca 
Alcobaca 

Jatoba 

Sao Sebastiao 

Sao Felix 

Estreeto 

Capivara Caehoeira . . 
Novo Horizonte 

Pernambueo, B 

Pernambuco, A 

Porto Velho, A 



Porto Velho, B 

Joazeiro, A. . . . 

Joazeiro, B. . . . 
Guajara Mirim 

Aracaju 

Bahia, A 



Bahia, B 

Colonia Corazon Jesus 
Cuyaba, A 







Long. 


Latitude 


East 






of Gr. 


o / 




O / 


1 32.0 


S 


307 32 


1 45.7 


S 


304 OS 


1 55.0 


S 


304 32 


1 55.0 


s 


304 32 


2 24.9 


s 


305 21 


2 25.0 


s 


305 21 


2 30.3 


s 


315 43 


2 30.3 


s 


315 43 


2 31.4 


s 


315 43 


2 42 


s 


293 10 


2 53.5 


s 


308 00 


3 01 


s 


307 45 


3 07.6 


s 


299 58 


3 08.5 


s 


300 00 


3 12.5 


s 


307 48 


3 31. 


s 


290 59 


3 45.2 


s 


310 19 


4 51.6 


s 


307 13 


5 48 


s 


307 24 


6 38.8 


s 


308 01 


6 59.1 


s 


308 17 


7 24.3 


s 


308 46 


7 43.6 


s 


308 49 


8 03.6 


s 


325 07 


8 03.7 


s 


325 06 


8 45.6 


s 


296 05 


8 45.6 


s 


296 05 


9 24.1 


s 


319 29 


9 24.1 


s 


319 29 


10 49 


s 


294 41 


10 54.0 


s 


322 55 


13 00.5 


s 


321 29 


13 00.5 


s 


321 29 


15 33.4 


s 


307 02 


15 35.8 


s 


303 54 



Date 



Oct 1 
Aug 28 
Aug 26 
Sep 5 
Sep 8 
Sep 10 
Sep 14 
Sep 11 
May 3 
May 4 
May 3 

May 2 
Apr 17 
Jul 9 
May 16 
Mar 1 
Apr 10 
Jan 24 
Jan 26 

Jan 26 
Feb 19 
Feb 21 

May 18 
Apr 19 
Apr 22 
Apr 23 
May 24 
Jun 30 
Jul 1 
Jul 2 
May 30 
Jun 1 



Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 



May 11 
May 12 
May 12 
Mar 14 
Mar 15 
Mar 20 

Mar 20 
Mar 15 
Mar 16 
May 25 
May 26 
May 26 
Mar 9 
Mar 11 
Mar 11 

May 31 
Jun 1 
May 18 
May 19 

May 20 

May 21 
Sep 24 
Aug 21 
Aug 22 

Aug 24 

Aug 26 

Aug 27 



'23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 

23 
24 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

23 
21 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 

23 
23 
23 
23 

23 

23 
25 
25 
25 

25 

25 

25 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



10.2,13.1 
10.1,11.8 
10.5,13.8 
12.8,14.7 
14.0,17.3 
10.4,14.0 
7.6 to 17 
10.2,11.8 
10.0,11.4 
14.5,15.7 
15.2,16.4 

9.8,11.3 

7.2, 8.4 

12.9,14.9 

10.6 

8.5,10.9 



6(d 



v) 



10.2,12.5 
7.4,17.6 



7.8 to 17.9(dv) 
9.6,12.0 



13.3,15.2 
6.8 

14.6,16.0 
9.6,11.1 

10.0,11.8 



9.1 

7.8, 9.1 

9.6,14.4 

6.9 to 16.7(dv) 

10.4,13.5 

10.5 

11.1,12.9 

6.8 to 17.2(dv) 

16.2,17.5 

9.7,11.0 

14.7,16.0 

13.7,15.5 

8.8,10.7 

7.7 



7.9 to 16.8(dv) 



9.1,11.4 

15.1,15.4,16.6 

9.7,10.0 

13.3,14.6 

10.2,15.4 



10.1,11.6 

6.8 to 17.8(dv) 
13.2,14.6 



6.6 to 17.7(dv) 

10.0,11.8 

9.0,10.3 

9.6,11.2 

7.0 to 17.7(dv) 

7.2 to 17.7(dv) 



7 49 
5 39 
5 44 

5 49 

6 13 
6 15 
6 14 
6 14 

13 07 
13 09. 
13 09 



.6 W 
.4 W 
.4 W 
.0 W 
.8 W 
.6 W 



13 06.4 W 

1 14.2 E 
8 07.0 W 
8 01.9 W 

2 27.6 W 



2 25.8 W 
2 28.4 W 

2 28.0 W 
2 28.0 W 



8 00.0 W 
2 55.6 E 

9 28.4 W 
9 24.4 W 
6 38.0 W 



18 05 

18 02 

18 03 

1 00 

57 

57 



.6 W 
.5 W 
.7 W 
.7 W 
.2 W 
.8 W 
.4 W 
.4 W 
.1 W 
.6 W 
.6 W 
.5 E 
.3 E 
E 



59.6 E 



58.6 E 

14 54.0 W 

14 53.4 W 

14 57.8 W 

2 32.2 E 



16 58.9 W 
16 58.4 W 
16 02.6 W 



16 04.8 W 

15 50.8 W 
5 57.6 W 
3 35.6 W 
3 34.9 W 

3 35.0 W 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h h 

8.3, 8.6 

8.6, 8.8 

16.2,16.5 

10.9,11.2 

13.0,13.3 

9.0, 9.2 



8.4, 8.6 
11.7,11.9 

9.5,16.0 
14.4,14.6 

13.7,13.9 
7.6 .... 



10 



16.7 
8.6 



4 

8.3 
11.8 

9.7,10.0 
13.3,13.6 



13.0,13.4 

8.2 to 

16.8 (dv) 

11.0,11.2 



13.1,13.3 

8.2, 8.4 

13.6,14.8 

16.8,17.0 



.1, 8.3 



9.0, 
11.2 

8.8, 



9.3 



9.1 



10.0,10.2 
11.5,11.7 
16.3,16.5 
11.4,13.0 
14.0 



16.6,17.0 

13.9,14.2 

8.3, 8.6 

15.5,15.7 



7.5,17.0 

8.0 to 
16.6 (dv) 
14.2,14.4 



11.6,11.7 

7.9 to 

17.8 (dv) 



9.4, 9.6 

8.1, 8.4 

11.5,11.7 



7.4 to 
17.6 (dv) 

7.5 to 
17.6 (dv) 



Value 



23 19.4 N 
23 32.6 N 
23 08.5 N 
23 11.1 N 
22 19.2 N 
22 21.0 N 



22 20 . 1 N 
18 33.0 N 
18 32.2 N 
18 32.5 N 

18 25.6 N 

20 35.9 N 

21 24.8 N 

20 57 . 6 N 

21 33.1 N 
21 33.3 N 
21 31.0 N 



21 30.3 N 

21 33.0 N 
21 15.0 N 



18 44.4 N 

18 47.8 N 

18 30.8 N 

15 49.0 N 



14 15.4 N 



14 23.1 N 
12 40 N 
12 12.2 N 



1 08.8 N 

1 06.6 N 

1 11.5 N 

11 41.8 N 

11 40.8 N 



11 39 . 9 N 



3 13.4 N 
3 17.8 N 
3 13.0 N 



7 30.5 N 

7 28.3 N 
1 21.8 S 



3 46.2 S 
3 48.1 S 



3 57.6 S 
1 15.1 S 
39.3 S 



39.6 S 
39.4 S 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



/( h 
10.6,12.7 
10.5,11.4 
11.1,14.3 
13.3,14.2 
14.5,16.6 
10.8,11.8 



10.6,11.5 
10.4,11.0 
14.8,15.4 
15.5,16 1 

10.2,11.0 

8.0 .... 

13.4,14.3 



9.0,10.6 



10.6,12.1 

7.8 to 

17.9 (dv) 



10.1,11 



13.8,14.7 

7.1 

15.0,15.6 
10.0,10.7 
10.4,11.3 



10.8 

8.2 

10.1,11.2 



11.0,15.0 



14.0,15.0 



16.5,17.1 
10.0,10.7 
15.0,15.7 
14.1,15.1 

9 3,10.2 

7.9 to 
16.8 (dv) 



9.6,10.9 
15.7,16.3 
10.4,11 1 
13.6,14.3 
10.7,12.8 



10.5,11.2 
13.6,14.3 



6.6 to 
17.7 (dv) 
10.4,11.4 

9.4,10.0 
10.1,10.8 

7.0 to 
17.7 (dv) 

7.2 to 
17.7 (dv) 



Value 



c. g. s. 
.29192 
.29316 
29296 
. 29258 
.29134 
.29170 



.29182 
. 28926 
. 28904 
. 28876 

. 28954 
. 29967 
.28918 



.29496 
. 29474 
. 29453 
. 29470 



. 28904 
. 30405 
. 28666 
. 28709 
. 28827 



. 28555 
. 28539 
. 28390 



.28319 



.28034 



. 27704 
. 27750 
. 27700 
29006 
.29016 

29002 



. 29082 
. 26858 
. 26864 
. 26946 
. 28752 



. 27096 
. 25994 



. 26030 
. 25933 
.26642 
. 26936 

.26921 

. 26908 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
25 
25 
25 

25 
28 
28 
28 

28 



28 

28 
28 
28 



28 
28 
25 
25 

28 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
25 
25 
25 
28 
28 

28 
28 



28 
25 
25 
25 
28 



25 
25 
25 



25 
25 

27 
27 

27 

27 



Dip Circle 



EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 28 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 25 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 28 

EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 28 
EI 28 





EI 


28 


EI 


28 


El 


28 


EI 


28 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 28 
EI 28 





EI 


28 


EI 


25 


EI 


25 


i;i 


25 



EI 28 

EI 28 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



Obs'r 



JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 

JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 



78 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Beazil — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Dip Circle 



Cuyaba, B 

Cuyaba, C 

Presidente Murtinho 
Rio Manso 

Registro 

Serredina 

Goyaz, B 

Goyaz, A 



Bella Vista.. . 
Caravellas, B 
Caravellas, A 

Catalao, A. . 

Catalao, B . . 
Corumba, D. 

Corumba, E. 

Uberaba 

Victoria, A*. . 

Victoria, D* . . 
Victoria, B*. . 
Victoria, E*. . 
Victoria, C* . . 

Vassouras, A . 



Vassouras, B . 



Vassouras, C. 



Santos, A . 



Santos, B. 



15 35.8 S 
15 35.8 S 
15 39.1 S 
15 40.2 S 

15 43.1 S 
15 53.5 S 
15 56.4 S 
15 56.6 S 



16 59.4 S 

17 44.2 S 
17 44.4 S 



18 10.8 S 

18 10.8 S 

19 00.1 S 

19 00.1 S 

19 45.4 S 

20 19.9 S 



20 19.9 S 
20 20.0 S 
20 20.0 S 
20 20.1 S 

22 24.0 S 



22 24.0 S 



22 24.0 S 



23 57 . 5 S 



23 57.5 S 



303 54 

303 54 
306 06 

304 44 

308 13 

308 59 

309 51 
309 52 



311 05 
320 47 
320 47 



312 07 

312 05 
302 21 

302 21 
312 05 
319 40 



319 40 
319 40 
319 40 
319 40 

316 21 



316 21 



316 21 



313 36 



313 36 



Aug 25 

Sep 2 

Sep 18 

Sep 9 

Sep 10 

Oct 2 

Oct 8 

Oct 17 

Oct 15 

Oct 16 

Oct 18 



Oct 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Nov 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 



Nov 11 
Nov 11 
Nov 11 
Nov 12 
Nov 12 
Nov 12 
Nov 14 
Nov 14 
Nov 14 
Nov 16 
Nov 16 
Nov 16 
Jun 



Jun 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Nov 

Nov 10 

Nov 10 

Nov 14 

Nov 14 

Jul 2 

Jul 2 

Jul 2 

Nov 12 

Nov 12 

Nov 16 

Nov 16 

Nov 16 

Jul 9 

Jul 10 

Jul 10 

Nov 24 

Nov 25 

Jul 9 



h h 
7.9, 9.1 
8.7,10.2 
9.0,10.9 
14.9,16.5 



8.1, 9.4 
7.6, 8.8 
10.9,12.7 
7.9, 9.3 
5.9 to 17.0(dv) 



3 33.3 W 

3 34.2 W 
5 08.2 W 

4 02.6 W 



5 04.9 W 
7 28.2 W 

7 57.8 W 

8 04.4 W 
8 02.5 W 



14. 

7. 
10. 
13. 

8. 

7. 

9. 

8. 
15. 
10. 
12. 
10. 
15. 
13. 
14. 

9. 
11. 
10. 
13. 
15. 



5, 9.1 
0,11.5 
8,12.7 
0,15.3 
3, 8.6 
9, 9.1 
1,14.3 

6, 8.9 
4,10.6 
4,13.6 
8,10.2 
8, 9.3 
9,11.4 
8,12.3, 
5,16.7 

4 

5,13.9 

7 

3 

1,14.5 
9,16.5 
1,10.8 
2,13.4 
4,11.9 
4,15.2 
6,17.3 



13 



3,14.6 
8,15.1 
4,15.6 



2,12.6 
6,16.3 
0,10.8 



0,15.9 

0,12.1 

4,14.9 

0,16.2,16 

6,16.8,17 



3,16.6 
9, 9.8 
0,12.5 
1, 9.3 
4,12.6 
2,11.5 



8 55 
15 13 
15 13 
15 11 
15 13 

9 54 
9 49 
9 56 
1 41. 
1 38 
1 34. 
9 55. 

14 16. 
14 16. 
14 18. 

14 45. 
13 45. 

15 01. 
15 53. 
15 52. 
11 44. 
11 42 

11 44 

12 01 
12 02 
12 04 



W 
4 W 



w 
w 

w 

V, 

w 
w 
w 

8 W 
4 W 

6 W 
4 W 

4 W 
3 W 

5 W 

9 W 

3 W 
8 W 
1 W 

4 W 
W 

7 W 

6 W 
4 W 

8 W 



12 06.4 W 
12 06.2 W 
12 05.2 W 



11 43.6 W 
11 45.0 W 
11 43.6 W 



12 02.6 W 
12 01.4 W 

12 02.1 W 
12 05.7 W 
12 04.4 W 



9 37.4 W 

9 34.8 W 

9 35.6 W 

10 01.6 W 

9 56.5 W 

9 39.4 W 



h h 

9.3, 9.5 

11.2,11.6 

7.6, 7.9 



41.4 S 

39.3 S 

1 06.2 S 



h h 
8.2, 8.8 
9.1, 9.8 
9.5,10.5 
15.3,16.1 



8.0, 8.3 
10.6,10.9 

7.0, 7.2 
10.1,10.4 
10.8,11.1 



57.8 S 
34.7 N 
2 10.4 S 
2 42.8 S 
2 40.2 S 



8.4, 9.1 

7.9, 8.6 
11.2,12.4 

8.3, 9.0 

5.9 to 
17.0 (dv) 



6.7 to 
17.9 (dv) 
10.6,11.0 
13.8,14.0 
10.2,10.3 
14.4,15.6 

9.7,10.0 
12.4,12.7 

9.5, 9.8 
12.2,12.4 
15.9,16.2 
10.6,10.9 

9.6, 9.9 
11.6,11.8 

9.4,14.1 



2 45.6 S 

5 07.2 S 

11 30.0 S 

11 31.8 S 

11 33.7 S 



7.9, 8.8 
10.4,11.1 
11.7,12.3 
16.2,16.9 



7 17.1 

7 14.0 

7 15.6 

6 24.0 

6 24.6 

6 26.5 

10 03.4 

16 01.5 

16 04.0 



7.9, 8.6 
13.2,13.7 

8.0, 8.6 
10.9,11.6 
14.3 14.9 

9.2, 9.8 

8.2, 9.0 
10.3,10.9 
12.7,13.4 
15.8,16.4 



10.8,11.0 



15 45.0 S 



12.9,13.6 



15.1,15.3 



16 26.2 S 



13.4,14.1 
15.3,16.0 
9.6,10.4 
11.6,13.0 
10.7,11.5 
13.9,14.4 
16.1,16.9 



10.5,11.5 
12.0,12.3 
13.4,13.8 



16 25.0 S 
16 25.0 S 
16 26.0 S 



8.9, 9.2 

9.7,10.0 

10.4,10.8 



16 23.9 S 
16 22.9 S 
16 23.0 S 



11.5,11.9 
13.1,13.4 
13.8,14.1 



15 54.4 S 
15 54.8 S 
15 55.2 S 



13.2,14.0 

15.0,15.8 

9.5,10.3 



14.5,15.5 
10.4,11.7 
13.8,14.6 



14.1,14.4 
14.8,15.0 
15.4,15.7 
14.4,14.9 

15 9 

11.6,12.0 
13.0,13.4 
13.8,14.2 
13.9,14.1 
10.4,10.6 



15 56.8 S 
15 56.4 S 

15 57.2 S 

16 24.6 S 
16 23 9 S 
16 22.5 S 
16 23.8 S 
16 23.8 S 
16 48.0 S 
16 50.1 S 



15.6,16.3 
11.5,12.2 



9.6, 9.8 
11.9,12.1 
12.5,12.7 



17 07.6 S 
17 10.0 S 
16 54.2 S 



7.8, 8.7 
13.0,13.7 
10.5,11.2 



c. g. s. 
.26895 
.26916 
. 26780 
. 26794 



.26180 
.26444 
. 26336 
. 26350 

. 26365 



.25886 
.25200 
.25196 
.25164 



.25438 
.25473 
.25418 
.26182 
.26168 
.26157 
. 25002 
.24396 
. 24388 
.24379 



.24536 



. 24902 
.24322 
. 24322 
. 24324 
.24252 
. 24237 
.24224 



. 24294 
. 24274 
. 24336 



.24192 
.24265 
. 24206 



.24119 
.24132 



. 24052 
. 24076 
.24121 



27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



27 
25 
25 
25 
25 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 
27 



25 
25 

25 



25 
25 
25 
27 

27 



25 
25 
25 
27 
27 
25 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 



EI 25 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 



•Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



79 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Brazil — Concluded 








Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Santos, B — Concluded. 
Porto Alegre, A 


o / 

23 57.5 S 
30 02.0 S 

30 02.0 S 
32 01.5 S 

32 01.5 S 


o / 

313 36 
308 46 

308 46 
307 52 

307 52 


Nov 24, '25 
Dec 4, 25 
Dec 5, 25 

Dec 8, 25 

Dec 7, 25 
Dec 12, 25 
Dec 13, 25 
Dec 13, 25 


h h h 

11.9,13.1 

12.7,14.3 

6.1 to 17.6 (dv) 


o / 

10 00.8 W 
4 10.3 W 
4 13.2 W 


h h 
11.4,11.6 

11.4,11.6 


o / 

17 16.1 S 
23 36.9 S 


h h 
12.2,12.8 
13.2,13.9 

6.1 to 
17.6 (dv) 


c. g. s. 
. 24099 
.23744 

.23721 


27 
27 

27 


EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 
JL 




6.1 to 

17.4 (dv) 

11.8,12.1 

14.9,15.2 

9.9,10.1 

8.9, 9.1 


23 38.6 S 
23 38.2 S 
26 03.0 S 
26 05.3 S 
26 08.3 S 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 






10.2,11.4 

15.4.16.8 

10.5.11.9 

7.1, 8.4 


4 11.7 W 
2 45.4 W 
2 45.6 W 
2 46.8 W 


JL 


Porto Alegre, B 


10.6,11.1 

15.8,16.5 

10.8,11.5 

7.4, 8.0 


.23718 
.23444 
.23450 
. 23404 


27 
27 
27 
27 


JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 



Chile 



Arica, A 

Arica, B 

Iquique 

Calama 

Antofagasta, A 



Antofagasta, B 
Copiapo, A . . . . 

Copiapo, B 

Coquimbo, A . . 

Coquimbo, B. . 
Valparaiso, A . , 



Valparaiso, B 

Coronel, A 

Coronel, B 

Corral 

Puerto Montt, A 



Puerto Montt, B 

Ultima Esperanza, A* 



Ultima Esperanza, B* 



Punta Arenas, C. 
Punta Arenas, A . 



Punta Arenas, B . 



18 28.6 S 

18 28.6 S 
20 12.7 S 

22 28.3 S 

23 38.8 S 



23 38.8 S 
27 22.0 S 

27 22.0 S 
29 57.8 S 

29 57.8 S 
33 04.4 S 



33 04.4 S 
37 01.9 S 

37 01.9 S 
39 53.7 S 
41 29.3 S 



41 29.3 S 
51 41.1 S 



51 41.1 S 

53 09.8 S 
53 10.4 S 



289 40 

289 40 
289 50 
291 03 
289 38 



53 10.4 S 



289 


38 


289 


43 


289 


43 


288 


40 


288 


40 


288 


25 


288 


25 


286 


51 


286 


51 


286 


29 


287 


04 


287 


04 


287 


31 


287 


31 


289 


10 


289 


08 


289 


08 



21, 


'24 


21, 


24 


20, 


24 


24, 


24 


4, 


25 


27, 


24 


29, 


24 



Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Jan 
Dec 
Dec 



Jan 2, 25 

Dec 30, 24 

Jan 11, 25 

Jan 12, 25 

Jan 13, 25 

Jan 19, 25 

Jan 20, 25 

Jan 21, 25 

Jan 29, 25 

Jan 30, 25 

Feb 2, 25 

Jan 31. 25 

Feb 8, 25 

Feb 8, 25 

Feb 9, 25 

Feb 11, 25 

Feb 13, 25 

Feb 14, 25 

Feb 16, 25 

Feb 13, 25 

Mar 10, 25 

Mar 10, 25 

Mar 11, 25 

Mar 10, 25 

Mar 11, 25 

Mar 20, 25 

Feb 28, 25 

Mar 2, 25 

Mar 5, 25 

Mar 22, 25 

Mar 6, 25 



h h h 

8.0, 9.2 ... 
10.2,11.5 . . . 
13.0,14.4 ... 

9.7,11.0 ... 
10.0,11.1 ... 
10.0,11.6 ... 

6.4 to 17.6 (dv) 



6 46.6 E 
6 48.2 E 

6 48.4 E 

7 55.6 E 

7 38.8 E 

8 38.8 E 
8 36.7 E 



9.8,11.1 
17.3,17.5 

9.6, 9.9 

9.8,11.5 
16.5,16.8 
10.3,10.6 
10.7,11.8 
10.0,11.6 

6.4 to 17.2 (dv) 



9.5,10.8 
11.1,11.3 
15.6,15.8 
10.6,11.7 
11.4,13.1 
10.7,11.9 

6.3 to 16.4 (dv) 



15.3,16.3 
12.5,12.6 
18.6 



15.8,16.9 



10.2,11.7 

9.8,12.0 

6.2 to 17.2 (dv) 



6.5 to 17.9 (dv) 
10.5,11.8 



8 22.0 E 

9 35.0 E 
9 35.0 E 
9 33.3 E 

10 45.1 E 
10 44.5 E 
10 41. 8E 
12 51.6 E 
12 50.5 E 



12 41. 2E 

14 55.5 E 

14 55.2 E 

15 00.0 E 
15 22.3 E 
15 35.2 E 
15 35.3 E 



15 36.2 E 
18 44.4 E 
18 48.7 E 



19 34.8 E 



18 14.4 E 
18 10.3 E 
18 11. 8E 



18 10.9 E 
18 12.0 E 



h h 
7.6, 7.8 
13.2,13.4 
10.9,11.1 
11.4,11.5 
11.5,11.7 
13.2,13.3 



8 04.1 S 

8 00.0 S 

8 00.6 S 

10 48.1 S 

13 58.4 S 

16 54.9 S 



6.7 to 
17.9 (dv) 
11.4,11.6 
17.9,18.1 
12.6,12.8 
12.0,12.1 
17.3,17.5 
12.7,12.8 
10.3,10.5 
12.7,12.8 



6.7 to 
17.2 (dv) 
11.2,11.4 
10.7,10.9 
15.4,15.6 
10.3,10.5 
13.8,14.0 
13.4,13.5 



7.6 to 
18.1 (dv) 
14.8,15.0 
11.6,11.8 
17.3,17.5 



10.3,10.4 



16 51. 2S 
16 52 . 3 S 
22 24.4 S 
22 16.6 S 
22 17.7 S 
26 02 . 8 S 
25 55.1 S 
25 50.0 S 
30 03.8 S 



30 07.1 S 
29 39 . 2 S 

34 57.4 S 

35 01.5 S 
34 55.8 S 

38 02.0 S 

39 55.8 S 



39 58.0 S 
39 55.3 S 
48 24.3 S 
48 24.4 S 



15.0,15.2 
12.8,13.2 
12.6,12.8 


48 02.4 S 

49 22.6 S 
49 26.2 S 


7.2 to 
17.9 (dv) 


49 27.6 S 



49 26.0 S 



h h 
8.3, 8.9 
10.5,11.2 
13.3,14.0 
10.1,10.7 
10.3,10.8 
10.5,11.2 
6.4 to 
17.6 (dv) 



10.2,10.8 
16.3,17.0 
10.2,11.4 
10.3,11.1 
15.4,16.1 
11.0,11.6 
11.0,11.5 
10.5,11.2 
6.4 to 
17.2 (dv) 



9. 

11. 
16. 



6. 

17. 



9,10.5 
6,12.1 
3,16.9 
10.9,11.4 
11.7,12.8 
11.0,11.6 

3 to 

4 (dv) 



15.5,16.0 
17.7,18.3 



10.7,11.3 
16.1,16.6 



10.6,11.3 

10.9,11.7 

6.2 to 

17.2 (dv) 



6.5 to 
17.9 (dv) 
10.8,11.4 



c. g. s. 
.27892 
. 27922 
.27927 
.27319 
. 26800 
. 26774 

. 26756 



. 26784 
.26238 
. 26303 
.26283 
. 26034 
.26155 
.26162 
.25811 

.25780 



.25870 
. 26024 
. 26000 
. 25998 
.26426 
.26213 

. 26220 



. 26224 
.26741 



. 26723 
. 26832 



. 26622 
.26614 



. 26633 



.26631 
.26613 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 
27 
27 
27 



27 
27 



27 



27 
27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 



EI 27 



JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 













Colombia 


















o / 

10 25.8 N 
10 15.4 N 


c / 

284 27 

285 07 


Nov 7, '22 
Nov 23, 22 
Nov 23, 22 
Nov 24, 22 


h h 
10.0,12.1 
12.4,14.1 


h 


o / 

3 07.6 E 
2 50.0 E 


h h 
13.0,13.5 

9.9,10.2 
15.3,15.7 


o / 

40 25 . 2 N 
39 46.0 N 
39 46.6 N 


h h 
10.7,11.7 
12.9,13.7 


c. g. s. 
.31064 
.31035 


26 
26 


EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


WAL 


Calamar 


WAL 




WAL 




6.3, 7.8 .... 


2 50.8 E 


6.7, 7.5 


.31011 


26 


WAL 











* Local disturbance. 



80 



Land Magnetic Obsekvations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 

C olombia — Concluded 



Station 



La Playona 

Barranca Bermeja 

Infantas 

Puerto Berrio 

Medellin 

Honda 

Bogota, A 



Bogota, B. . . . 
Buenaventura 
Cali 



Latitude 



8 25.6 N 
7 04.6 N 



6 51.7 N 
6 29.0 N 
6 14.6 N 
5 13.1 N 
4 37 . 6 N 



4 37.6 N 
3 54.1 N 
3 26.6 N 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



282 46 
286 09 



286 15 

285 36 

284 25 

285 18 
285 54 



285 54 

282 55 

283 26 



Date 



Nov 14 , '22 

Nov 15, 22 

Nov 29, 22 

Nov 30, 22 

Nov 30, 22 

Dec 2, 22 

Dec 7, 22 

Dec 11, 22 

Dec 18, 22 

Dec 23, 22 

Dee 24, 22 

Dec 25, 22 

Dec 26, 22 

Jan 14, 23 

Jan 11, 23 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



h h h 
12.6,14.5 

6.6 to 16.8 (dv) 
13.3,15.4 

7.4, 9.4 



13.4,15.5 
9.6,11.3 
9.7,11.4 
9.8,11.5 

12.6,14.5 



7.9 to 16.9(dv) 

9.4,11.1 

10.4,11.7 

12.0,14.4 



Value 



5 16.8 E 
5 16.1 E 
3 02.4 E 
3 05.3 E 



2 53.8 E 

3 29 . 8 E 

3 52.2 E 

4 06.8 E 
3 41.0 E 



3 42.4 E 

3 41.9 E 

4 55.0 E 

5 06.2 E 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



h h 
15.4,15.8 



10.0,10.2 
13.3,13.6 
16.4,16.6 



12.4. 
12.6, 
12.8, 
11.6, 



12.6 
12.8 
13.0 
11.8 



7.6 to 
17.1 (dv) 



12.8,13.1 
13.5,13.7 
11.4,11.6 



Value 



36 05.4 N 



35 19.4 N 
35 17.6 N 
34 59,. 6 N 
34 09 . N 
33 12.9 N 
32 08.7 N 
31 06.0 N 

31 02.6 N 



31 05.6 N 
28 48.5 N 
28 34.2 N 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



h 
13.1, 



h 
14.0 



13.7,14.9 
7.8, 8.9 



14.0,15.0 
10.0,10.4 
10.1,11.0 
10.2,11.2 
13.2,13.6 



8.1 to 
16.8 (dv) 

9.8,10.7 
10.8,11.4 
13.4,14.1 



c. g. s. 
.31550 



.31190 
.31206 



.31224 
.31352 
.31660 
.31332 
.31364 



.31384 
.31368 
.31814 
.31730 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 



Dip Circle 



EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



Obs'i 



WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 

WAL 

WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 



i 



ECUADOB 



Quito, A*. 
Quito, B* . 



Biobamba, A* 

Biobamba, B* 
Biobamba, C* 
Guayaquil . . . 



13.1 S 
13.1 S 



1 39.5 S 

1 39.8 S 

1 39.8 S 

2 10.8 S 



o 


t 


281 


29 


281 


28 


281 


18 


281 


19 


281 


19 


280 


09 



Oct 


1, 


'24 


Mar 


13, 


26 


Sep 


26, 


24 


Sep 


30, 


24 


Sep 


30, 


24 


Mar 


10, 


26 


Mar 


11, 


26 


Mar 


12, 


26 


Sep 


17, 


24 


Sep 


18, 


24 


Sep 


20, 


24 


Sep 


20, 


24 


Sep 


10, 


24 


Mar 


7, 


26 



h h h 

10.8,12.9 

10.6,11.6 

12.5,14.4 

8.7 to 16.8(dv) 

9.5,16.6 

15.8,17.0 

6.3 to 17.3(dv) 



11.5,13.7 
10.7,14.0 
10.4,12.4 
16.1 .... 
9.9,11.6 
9.8,11.2 



6 29.3 E 
6 31.1 E 
6 18.0 E 
6 13.9 E 

6 18.1 E 
6 20.2 E 
6 21.2 E 



6 42.4 E 
6 42.6 E 
6 34.0 E 

6 40.5 E 

7 07.5 E 
7 11.6 E 



h h 
10.1,10.3 



15.0,15.2 



6.3 to 
17.0 (dv) 



9.4, 9.5 



22 08.7 N 



21 05.6 N 



21 04.5 N 



17 46.6 N 



h h 
11.2,12.1 
10.8,11.3 
13.0,13.9 

8.7 to 
16.8 (dv) 



16.1,16.6 

6.3 to 

17.3 (dv) 



12.2,13.2 
11.1,13.6 
11.0,12.0 

16.5 

10.3,11.3 
10.3,11.0 



c. g. s. 
.31878 
.31842 
.32313 

. 32296 



.32161 



.32173 



. 33355 
. 33350 
.31796 
.31649 
.31812 
. 31790 



28 
27 
28 

28 
28 
27 

27 



28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
27 



EI 27 



EI 27 



EI 27 



EI 27 



JTH 

JL 

JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 

JL 



GUIANA 



Georgetown, A . . 

Georgetown, B . . 

Bartica 

New Amsterdam 
Paramaribo, C . . . 

Paramaribo, A . . 

Onverwacht 

Saint Laurent, A 

Saint Laurent, B 
Cayenne, A* . . . . 
Cayenne, B 



6 48.6 N 



6 48.0 N 
6 23.8 N 
6 16.3 N 
5 50.0 N 



5 50.0 N 



5 34 . 6 N 

5 29 . 4 N 



5 29 . 4 N 
4 56 . 1 N 
4 56 . 1 N 



o 


, 


301 


51 


301 


51 


301 


25 


302 


29 


304 


51 


304 


51 


304 


50 


305 


59 


305 


59 


307 


40 


307 


40 



Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 
Mar 



6, '23 

7, 23 
7, 23 
7, 23 
9, 23 
9, 23 



Mar 17, 23 

Mar 19, 23 

Mar 20, 23 

Mar 17, 23 

Mar 19, 23 

Mar 20, 23 

Mar 21, 23 

Mar 30, 23 

Mar 31, 23 

Mar 30, 23 

Mar 31, 23 

Apr 9, 23 

Apr 10, 23 

Apr 10, 23 



h h 

13.6,15.5 

9.2,11.0 



10.3.11.5 

10.7.12.6 

15.3.16.7 


5 23.8 W 
5 04.9 W 
5 48.4 W 






10.3,12.1 


6 58.4 W 



7.0 to 18.0(dv) 

9.8,11.2 

11.1,12.9 

9./, 11. 3 

6.8 to 18.1(dv) 

9.8,11.6 

7.1 to 17.6(dv) 
14.4,15.8 

9.3,10.6 

12.0,14.2 



5 27.0 W 
5 24.7 W 



6 58.9 W 

6 58.0 W 

7 08.2 W 

8 03.6 W 
8 06.5 W 

8 03.8 W 

8 06.3 W 

9 16.0 W 
9 13.2 W 
9 15.4 W 



11.8,12.0 
17.0,17.3 
13.5,13.7 

8.8, 9.2 
14.1,14.3 
17.2,17.5 

7.2 to 



14.1,14.4 



16.2,16.4 
11.4,11.6 

16.2,16.6 



36 41.3 N 
36 43.2 N 
36 40 . 6 N 
36 35.4 N 
36 20.0 N 
35 32.1 N 



18.0 (dv) 


35 32 . 4 N 


16.7,16.9 


35 32.0 N 






14.2,14.5 
13.7,13.9 


35 29.0 N 
34 35.8 N 



34 34.6 N 



34 14.7 N 
34 09.0 N 
33 47.2 N 



h h 

14.0,15.0 

9.7,10.6 



10.6,11.2 
11.2,13.0 
15.6,16.4 



10.8,11.7 



7.2 to 

18.0 (dv) 
10.2,10.8 
11.5,12.4 
10.1,10.9 

6.9 to 

18.1 (dv) 
10.4,11.3 



14.8,15.4 

9.6,10.2 

12.5,13.4 



c. g. s. 
.29538 
. 29528 



. 29555 
. 29436 
.29377 



.29279 



. 29289 
. 29308 
.29242 
.29514 

. 29499 
.29531 



. 29285 
. 29294 
. 28933 



28 
28 



25 
28 
25 



28 



25 
25 
28 
25 

25 
28 
28 
25 
25 
28 



EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 25 
EI 28 
EI 25 
EI 28 

EI 28 



EI 


25 




EI 
EI 


28 
25 


EI 


28 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 28 



JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JTH 
JWG 
JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JWG 

JWG 
JWG 
JTH 
JWG 

JWG 
JTH 
JTH 
JWG 
JWG 
JTH 



*Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



81 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Paraguay 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


San Salvador 

Concepcion, A 


o / 

22 49.4 S 

23 24.2 S 

23 24.2 S 
25 15.5 S 


O / 

302 28 
302 34 

302 34 
302 26 


Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 


28, '25 

19, 25 

20, 25 

22, 25 

21, 25 
8, 25 


h h h 

10.1,11.8 

10.6,13.6 

7.3 to 17.3(dv) 


o t 

52.2 W 
39.6 W 
42.0 W 


h h 
13.7,13.9 
14.0,14.2 


o / 

12 24.4 S 

13 31.2 S 


h h 
10.8,11.4 
11.0,13.2 

7.3 to 
17.3 (dv) 

11.2,11.8 
10.7,11 4 


c. g. s. 
. 25359 
.25280 

.25277 

. 25280 
. 24940 


27 
27 

27 

27 
27 


EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 
JL 




7.0 to 
17.3 (dv) 
13.1,13.4 
14.1,14.3 


13 31.8 S 
13 31.0 S 
16 09.8 S 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 




Concepcion, B 

Trinidad (Asuncion). . . 


10.9,12.2 

10.3,11.7 


40.0 W 
03.2 E 


JL 
JL 
JL 



Iquitos, A . 



Iquitos, B 

Chimbote de Amazo- 

nas 

Paita 

Piura, B 

Piura, A 

Quebrada Puma Yaca. . 
Puerto Bermudez, A.. . 

Puerto Bermudez, B. . . 
La Merced, A 

La Merced, B 

Tarma 

Huncaayo Observatory 
Frame 



3 45.6 S 



3 45.6 S 



00 S 
04.7 S 
11.4 S 
11. 7S 
16.9 S 



10 17.8 S 

10 18.9 S 

11 03.9 S 

11 03.9 S 
11 26.0 S 



12 02.7 S 



Peru 



286 45 



286 45 

289 09 

278 54 

279 22 
279 23 
285 10 
285 13 

285 13 
284 39 

284 39 
284 18 



284 40 



Apr 26, '24 
Apr 29, 24 

May 3, 24 

May 15, 24 
Apr 27, 24 



Apr 
Aug 
Sep 
Sep 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



22, 24 

30, 24 

3, 24 

2, 24 
13, 24 

24, 24 

25, 24 

26, 24 

3, 24 

4, 24 

5, 24 
7, 24 
7, 24 



Jun 14, 

Jun 16, 

Jun 17, 

Jun 25, 

Jun 28, 

Jun 29, 

Jun 30, 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



2, 
6, 
9, 
11, 
12, 
13, 
13, 



Jul 14, 

Jul 14, 

Jul 18, 

Jul 18, 

Jul 20, 

Jul 25, 



Jul 
Jul 
Aug 
Aug 



27, 

27, 

1, 

4, 



Aug 4, 

Aug 8, 

Aug 10, 

Aug 10, 

Aug 15, 

Aug 17, 

Aug 17, 

Aug 18, 

Aug 22, 

Aug 23, 



Aug 25, 21 
Aug 29, 21 



h h h 

9.7,11.6 

8. 2 to 17.7 (dv) 



8.0 to 17.2 (dv) 
13.3,14.2 



7.9 

13.6,15.4 

10.6,14.4 

11.3.15.1 

10.8 

15.9 

10.9,12.9 

12.4,14.9 

14.1 

9.6,11.6,11.9 

14.6.16.2 

9.8,11.6 



14.1 



15.9,16.4 
14.3,14.8 
16.3 . 
13.6, 

9.1 

9.2, 
10.0 
10.7, 



11.4 



13.8,14.8 



13.7 .... 
9.7,15.0 
9.3 



.3,16.7 . 



10.5,15.3 
9.4,14 9 



10.8 



9.2,14.6 



8.9,15.9 



10.1,10.5,16.1 
9.2,14.5 



9.6,14.4 
9.3,14.3 



5 06 2 E 
5 06 . 6 E 



5 06 . 8 E 
5 07 . 6 E 

4 08.0 E 
8 11. 2E 
8 10. 8E 
12. 4E 

49.4 E 
15.7 E 
16.6 E 

19.5 E 
40.5 E 
38 9 E 
37.2 E 
58.4 E 



14.7 E 

15.0 E 
13.9 E 

16.1 E 
12.9 E 
14.0 E 

12.8 E 
14.0 E 



8 14.3 E 
8 13. 6E 
8 13.0 E 



8 13.0 E 



8 13.2 E 
8 14.3 E 



8 13.6 E 



8 16.1 E 



8 13.7 E 



8 12.9 E 
8 13.9 E 



8 13.3 E 
8 13.4 E 



h h 
15.6,15.9 



7.7 to 
17.4 (dv) 



11.2,11.5 



9.4, 9.7 
10.4,10.8 
12.4 



10.0,10.2 
10.7,11.0 



13 6,14.0 

17.1 .... 

9.0, 9.3 

14.2,15.5 



11.5 

14.2,16 

9.1, 9.8 

110, 11. 4 



17 14.4 N 



17 12.8 N 



17 15.0 N 



17 43.0 N 



11 18.4 N 

11 10.8 N 

6 01.2 N 



4 19.4 N 
4 18.0 N 



2 42.2 N 
2 46.0 N 
2 02.4 N 
2 01.7 N 



30 . 2 N 
30 4 N 
31.6 N 
31 6 N 







10.1,11 
14.3 . . 


7 






31.5 N 
33.4 N 


9.2,10 

13.6 . . 


8 






34.0 N 
30.6 N 


9.3,10 
11.4 


5 






32.8 N 
33.5 N 


10.0,10 

11.4 


8 






31.7 N 
30.7 N 






10.2 to 

14.1 (5) 





28.7 N 







h h 
10.1,11.2 

8.5 to 
17.7 (dv) 



14.6 

8.2 

14.0,15.0 
11.0,12.8 
11.7,14.8 

11.2 

16.2 

11.2,12.3 
13.5,14.5 
14.5,15.6 
10.2,11.2 
15.0,15.8 
10.2,11.1 



11.0 .... 
10.6,11.4 

10.6 

10.1,15.8 

10.1 

14 2,16 



11.8 .... 
10.5,14.1 



14.5,16.1 



10.0,13.9 



10.0,14.1 



14.0,15.5 
10.6,13.8 



10.5,13.8 
9.9,13.6 



c. g. s. 
. 30842 



. 30872 



.30871 

. 30433 
.31550 
.31639 
.31612 
. 30576 
. 29854 
. 29866 
. 29840 
.29858 
.29878 
.29827 
.29948 



. 29808 
. 29782 
. 29786 
. 29762 
.29806 
.29724 



. 29799 
.29796 



.29749 



. 29776 



.29806 



. 29750 
.29827 



. 29802 
.29830 



28 



28 



28 
28 

28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
28 



10 
10 
10 
10* 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



10 
10 



10 



10 



10 



28 
28 



28 
28 



EI 28 



EI 


28 


El 


28 


EI 


28 


EI 


28 


EI 


28 


EI 


28 


EI 


28 


El 


28 



EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 
EI 28 



EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 





EI 5 
EI 5 


EI 
EI 


5 
5 


EI 
EI 


5 
5 


EI 
EI 


5 

5 




EI 


28 





JTH 

JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 

JTH 

JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 
JTH 

W&W 

W&W 
WHW 
W&W 
W&W 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
W&W 
W&W 
W&W 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 
WHW 

WHW 
WHW 
WHW 



82 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Peeu — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Int 


;nsity 


Instruments 




Station 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Huancayo Observatory, 


t 


o / 


1922 


h h h 


O f 


h h 


/ 


h h 


c. g. s. 








Frame — Concluded. . . 


12 02.7 S 


284 40 


Mar 2, 8, 


























15,21 


8.6,10.9' 


8 12.1 E 


15. 5 2 


34.6 N 


9.3.10.3 1 


. 29800 


10 


EI 5 


WFW 








Apr 11,18, 


























25 


9.0,11.4' 


8 12.3 E 


14.2,15.0 


35.1 N 


9.6,10.8 


. 29824 


10 


EI 5 


WFW 








May 3, 9, 


























16,23 


9.0,11.0*.... 


8 11. 9E 


13.7,14.4" 


36.4 N 


9.5,10.6 


. 29792 


10 


EI 5 


W&L 








May 17 
May 18 
May 18 
Jun 1, 6, 


9.7 to 11.6(4) 


8 11. 5E 










10 
10 
10 




CML 








9.4,11.2 
14.0,16.0 


.29783 
. 29783 




CML 














CML 






















13,20, 


























27 


8.6,12.9 


8 11. 6E 


14.0,14.9 


37.7 N 


9.6,11.2 


.29776 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Jul 1 
Jul 4,10, 






9.3,10.4 


38.6 N 








EI 5 


CML 






















16,24 


9.6,13.1 


8 11. 6E 


13.9,14.7 


39.0 N 


9.6,11.2 


. 29784 


10 


EI 5 


W&L 








Aug 1, 8, 


























15,21, 


























29 


8.6,12.5 


8 10.6 E 


13.7,14.4 


39.2 N 


9.5,11.2 


.29785 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Sep 5,12, 


























18,25 


8.8,13.1 


8 11.1 E 


13.9,14.6 


39.9 N 


9.6,11.4 


. 29798 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Sep 20-21 
Oct 3,10, 


20. 5 to 3.0 (dv)« 


8 10.8 E 










10 




CML 






















17,24, 


























30 


8.9,13.4'.... 


8 11.1 E 


14.1,14.7 


39.5 N 


9.6,11.3 


. 29805 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Nov 6,14, 


























20,28 


8.9,12.0 .... 


8 10.8 E 


13.7,14.3 


40.5 N 


9.7,11.1 


. 29794 


10 


EI 5 


CML 


• 






Dec 3,10, 
18,24, 


























31 


9.1,11.2 .... 


8 10.4 E 


13.9,14.6 


41.1 N 


9.6,10.6 


.29791 


10 


EI 5 


WFW 








1923 


























Jan 8,15, 


























22,29 


8.8,13.1 


8 10.5 E 


13.9,14.6 


41.5 N 


9.6,11.2 


.29805 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Feb 5,12, 


























20,27 


9.1,13.48 .... 


8 09.2 E 


14.2,14.8 


42.6 N 


9.8,11.3 


.29784 


10 


EI 5 


W&L 








Mar 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.0,11.89 .... 


8 09.0 E 


13.9,14.5 


43.9 N 


9.7,11.1 


.29818 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Apr 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 

May 7,14, 


8.9,11.7".... 


8 09.3 E 


13.6,14.2 


44.1 N 


9.7,11.2 


. 29830 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








21,28 


9.3,13.2" 


8 08.2 E 


13.9,14.6 


45.4 N 


10.0,11.4 


. 29770 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Jun 4,11, 


























18,25 


8.8,11.6 


8 07.8 E 


13.9,14.6" 


45.4 N 


9.8,11.3" 


. 29764 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








Jul 2, 9 


9.0,11.5' 


8 09.0 E 


14.0,14.6 


45.5 N 


9.6,11.0 


. 29758 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Sep 5 
Sep 6 


15.6,16.9 

8.7,10.0 


8 08.6 E 
8 05.4 E 






16.0,16.6 


. 29735 


25 




JWG 




14.0 to 




















15.2 (6) 


49.5 N 


9.1, 9.7 


.29795 


25 


EI 25 


JWG 








Sep 6 


10.3,11.6 


8 05.2 E 






10.6,11.3 


. 29794 


25 


EI 25 


JWG 








1924 


























Jul 17,18 
Jul 17 
Jul 18 
Jul 18 
Jul 21 
Jul 21 
Jul 23 
Jul 23 
Jul 27 


8.8,10.3 

13.5,13.9,15.6 
10.5,10.7 


8 03.9 E 
8 04.6 E 
8 02.6 E 






9.3,10.0 
14.4,15.2 


. 29744 
. 29722 


10 
10 
10 
10 
28 
28 
28 
10 




WCP 










WCP 










WCP 








14.0,14.8 
9.4,10.2 

13.8,14.6 
9.6,10.6 

14.6,15.6 


. 29726 
. 29735 
.29715 
. 29740 
.29734 




JTH 




8.9,10.6 

13.4,15.0 

9.1 

14.2,16.0 


8 06.3 E 
8 06.4 E 
8 04.2 E 
8 04.8 E 








JTH 










JTH 










JTH 










RTB 




13.9 to 
15.6 (6) 


55.7 N 


EI 5 










WCP 








Jul 28 






9.1 to 
11.1 (6) 


54.4 N 








EI 28 










JTH 













1 The observations on Mar 2 were at 10 h .3, 14>>.2 in D, and at ll 1 ". 0, 13 h .6 in H. 

2 The observations on Mar 21 were at l&.i and 14>>. 1. 

3 The second observation on Apr 11 was at 13 h .8. 

4 The second observation on May 3 was at 13 h . 5. 

6 There was a second set of observations on May 23 at 15 h .O and 15 b . 8. 

6 One-minute readings during solar eclipse. 

7 The second observations on Oct 3 and 24 were at 11.6 and 11.7 respectively. 

8 The second observation on Feb 27 was at 1 1* . 4. 

9 The second observation on Mar 5 was omitted and on Mar 19 the time of second observation was at 13*. 1. 

10 The second observation on Apr 2 was at 13 h . 2. 

11 The second observation on May 7 was at lib. 8. 

12 The observations on Jun 25 were at 10*>.3 and 10 h .7 in I, and at 8*. 5 and 9 h .4 in H. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



83 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Pektt — Continued 







Long. 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




station 


Latitude 


East 


Date 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Huancayo Observa- 


o / 


o / 


1923 


h h h 


/ 


h h 


/ 


h h 


c. g. s. 










12 02.7 S 


284 40 


Jul 16,23, 


























30 


9.1,13.1" 


8 05.0 E 


13.8,14.2" 


47.4 N 


9.9,11.3 


.29770 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Aug 6,13, 


























20,27 


9.2,11.7's 


8 04.3 E 


13.8,14.3 


47.9 N 


9.9,11.2 


. 29790 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Sep 5 
Sep 6 


15.6,16.9 

8.7 to 11.6(4) 


8 05.4 E 
8 01.8 E 






16.0,16.6 
9.1 to 


.29726 


10 




WCP 




14.0 to 




















15.1 (6) 


49.2 N 


11.2 (4) 


. 29780 


10 


EI 5 


WCP 








Sep 10 
Sep 11,17, 


12.6tol9.1(dv)i« 


8 04.2 E 










10 




CML 






















24 


8.9,10.8 


8 03.8 E 


10.9,11.21' 


47.9 N 


9.3,10.2 


.29812 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








Oct 1, 8, 


























15,22, 


























29 


9.1,11.5 


8 03.4 E 


14.0,14.4 


49.4 N 


9.8,11.0 


. 29782 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Nov 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.2,11.5" 


8 04.6 E 


14.5,14.9 


48.8 N 


9.9,11.1 


.29794 


10 


EI 5 


CML 








Dec 3,11, 


























17,23, 


























31 


8.8,10.5 


8 03.5 E 


10.5,10.718 


51.1 N 


9.3,10.2 


.29766 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








1924 


























Jan 8,15, 


























21,28 


8.6,10.2 


8 03.2 E 


7.2,12.4 


52.0 N 


9.0, 9.8 


.29784 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








Jan 22 
Feb 4,11, 






9.2, 9.5 


51.8 N 








EI 5 


CML 






















18,25 


9.2,11.0 


8 02.5 E 


11.2,11.4" 


52.3 N 


9.6,10.6 


.29770 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








Mar 2, 9, 


























16,25, 


























31 


9.1,11.0 .... 


8 02.4 E 


11.1,11.420 


52.6 N 


9.6,10.5 


.29786 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








Apr 8,14, 




















• 






21,28 


9.0,11.0 


8 01.9 E 


10. 8, 11. 12i 


53.2 N 


9.5,10.6 


.29777 


10 


EI 5 


P&L 








May 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.0.13.5 22 


8 01.4 E 


14.6, 15. 4» 


54.4 N 


9.7,11.3" 


.29759 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








Jun 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


8.9,10.4 


8 01.7 E 


10.8,ll.ia 


55.3 N 


9.3,10.1 


.29735 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








Jun 24 
Jul 7,10, 






9.1 


56.3 N 








EI 5 


RTB 






















11,21, 


























23 
Jul 10,16, 


9.0.10.9 24 


8 01.8 E 






9.6,10.5 


.29744 


10 




P&B 


















18,21 
Jul 10,18, 


13.5,15.2 


8 01.8 E 










10 




WCP 






















21 
Jul 7 
Jul 25 

Jul 25 

Jul 26 

Jul 28 

Aug 3,12 










13.9,14.9 


.29715 


10 




WCP 


4 






13.7,14.0 
8.6 to 
11.3 (6) 
14.1 to 

15.7 (4) 

13.8 to 
15.6 (6) 

9.1 to 
11.1 (6) 
11.2,11.4 


55.8 N 

55.3 N 

54.0 N 

57.0 N 

56.3 N 
55.2 N 


EI 5 

EI 5 

EI 5 

EI 5 

EI 5 
EI 5 


RTB 






















WCP 


















WCP 


















WCP 














9.4,10.6 


7 58.9 E 


WCP 




9.7.10.4 


.29738 


10 


wcp 








Aug 18 
Aug 19 
Aug 20 
Aug 25 
Aug 26 
Sep 1, 8, 


10.2,13.4 


8 02.8 E 










10 
10 




EGC 








13.8,14.7 


.29767 


EI 5 


DGC 








13.8,14.3 


55.7 N 


DGC 




13.6,15.5 


8 01.2 E 


14.1,15.0 


.29736 


10 


RTB 




9.2, 9.9 


55.7 N 


EI 5 


RTB 






















15,21,29 


9.3,11.4 s * 


8 01.2 E 






9.8,11.026 


. 29778 


10 




P,B,C 













i' The declination and horizontal-intensity values were determined at station Em, and the inclination values at station Wm. 
14 The second observation in D on July 16 was at ll*. 8, and on July 30 there was no second observation in I. 
■ s The second observation on Aug 27 was at 13 h .3. 

1 6 Special observations during total solar eclipse. 

17 The observations on Sep 17 were at 13 h .5 and 13l>.9. 

18 The second observation in D on Nov 5 was at 13 h .0; those in I on Dec 11 were at 14 h . 1. 
"The observations on Feb 4 were at 13 h .l and 13 h .5; those on Feb 18 were at 13 h .8 and 14 h .l. 
20 The observations on Mar 2 were at 13>>. and 13 h .3. 
2i The observations on Apr 14 were at l^.S and lS 11 ^; those on April 21 were at 13 h .7 and 14>>.l. 

22 The observations on May 12 were, in D, at 8^.3, 9 h .5; in I, at 7 h . 1, 7*>A; in H, at 8 h .6, 9 h .2. The second observation inZ> on May 19 was at ll h .7. 

23 The observations on Jun 9 were at 13 h .7 and 14 h .l. Only one observation was made on Jun 23, viz, at 13 h .8. 

24 The second observation on Jul 23 was omitted. 

26 The observations on Sep 21 were at 13 b .3 and 14 h .5. 

28 The observations on Sep 15 and 21 were at l&.S, 14 h .8 and 13 h .6, 14 h .2 respectively. 



84 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Peru — Continued 







Long. 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Latitude 


East 


Date 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Huancayo Observa- 


o / 


O / 


1924 


h h h 


O ' 


h h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 








tory 13 — Continued . . . 


12 02.7 S 


284 40 


Sep 1 
Sep 8 
Sep 16,17 
Sep 21 
Sep 29 , 30 
Oct 6,13, 






7.2, 7.4 
14.9,15.3 
10.2 

9.7,10.0 
14.4 


55.6 N 
56 . 8 N 
53.2 N 
56.6 N 
54 . 8 N 








EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 


wcp 












RTB 














DGC 














WCP 














RTB 






















20 


8.8,10.22'.... 


8 00.0 E 


14. 1,14. 6" 


55.4 N 


9.5,10.4 


. 29786 


10 


EI 5 


P.B.C 








Oct 17 
Oct 27 
Nov 7 
Nov 10,17 






8.6, 8.9 
10.2,10.8 


57 . 2 N 
57.0 N 








EI 5 

EI 5 


WCP 














DGC 




13.4,14.9 


8 01. 3E 


13.7,14.6 


. 29724 


10 


WCP 


















24 


8.9,11.1 


8 01.7 E 


13.6,14.2" 


54.8 N 


9.6,10.7 


. 29759 


10 


EI 5 


P,B,C 








Dec 1, 9, 






















, 




15,22, 


























29 


9.0,11.2'° 


8 02.5 E 


13.8,14.2 


57.4 N 


9.7,10.83° 


. 29764 


10 


EI 5 


P,B,C 








1925 


























Jan 5,12, 


























19,26 


9.7,11.0 


8 02 . E 


13.5,13.9 


57 . 9 N 






10 


EI 5 


P,B,C 








Jan 5,12, 


























26 
Jan 20 
Jan 23 










9.7,10.8 
13.6,14.6 


. 29805 
. 29702 


10 
10 
10 




B&C 














RTB 




6.7tol3.0 (dv) 3 ' 


8 00.7 E 








P,B,C 
P,B,C 
P,B,C 








Jan 24 


6. 8 to 13.1 (dv) 3i 


8 00.2 E 










10 










Jan 25 
Feb 2, 9, 


6. 8 to 13.2 (dv) 3 ' 


8 01. 0E 










10 
























16,23 


9.0.11.0 32 


8 00 . 3 E 


14.2,14.4 


59.6 N 


9.3,11.032 


.29761 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








Mar 2, 9, 


























16,23, 


























30 


9.2,10.6 


7 59 . 3 E 


11 1,11.4" 


1 00.4 N 


9.6,10.6 


. 29753 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








Apr 6,14, 


























20 


9.3,11.1 


7 59 . 8 E 


13.6,13.9" 


1 00.4 N 


9.7,10.7 


. 29782 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








Apr 23 
Apr 27 






10.2,10.4 
6.6, 6.8 


59 . 6 N 

1 00.5 N 








EI 5 

EI 5 


WCP 




6.3, 7.1 


7 59.4 E 






10 


WCP 








Apr 28 
May 4,11, 










14.2,14.8 


. 29724 


10 




WCP 






















18 


8.8,10.835 


7 58.6 E 


13.4,13.7^ 


59 . 8 N 


9.1,10.3 


.29735 


10 


EI 5 


P&B 








May 25 
May 26 
.Tun 4, 9, 


7.1, 7.3 .... 


8 00.3 E 






9.3,10.4 


. 29746 


10 




RTB 




10.2,10.5 


1 00.7 N 


EI 5 


RTB 






















15,22 


9.2,10.8 


7 58.5 E 


11.0,11.3" 


1 01.4 N 


9.6,10.5 


. 29749 


10 


EI 5 


G,P,K 








.lun 29 
Jun 30 
Jul 6,20, 


10.3,14.8 


7 59 . 4 E 






11.0,14.0 


.29748 


10 


EI 5 


AHK 




9.6,10.3 


1 02.0 N 


AHK 






















27 


9.1,11.6 


7 57 . 9 E 


14.3,14.9 


1 02.1 N 


9.8,11.3 


.29741 


10 


EI 5 


G&K 








Jul 14 
Jul 17 
Aug 3 , 10 
Aug 4,14 
Aug 17,24, 






13.8,14.5 


1 02.0 N 








EI 5 


AHK 




8.5,11.5 

8.0,10.9 


7 57.4 E 
7 59.3 E 


9.3,10.9 
9.2,10.4 


.29714 
. 29728 


10 
10 


AHK 










B&G 




9.4, 9.8 


1 03.0 N 


EI 5 


B&G 






















31 


9.0,11.1" .. . 


7 57.6 E 


14.4,14.8 


1 02.4 N 


9.6,11.0 


. 29759 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








Sep 6 
Sep 7,23 
Sep 14,21, 


9.7,11.8 .... 


7 59 . 4 E 






10.2,11.3 


. 29784 


10 




AHK 




9.6.10.438 


1 03.8 N 


EI 5 


AHK 
















28 


8.4,10.8 


7 59 . 4 E 


14.0,14.438 


1 02.0 N 


9.0,10.2 


. 29745 


10 


EI 5 


G&K 








Oct 5,12, 


























19,26 


7.8,10.8 


7 58.7 E 


13.8,14.1 


1 03.3 N 


8.9,10.2 


. 29758 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








Nov 2, 9, 


























16,23, 




















' 






30 


8.1,10.7 


7 58.1 E 


14.2.14.7" 


1 03.8 N 


9.0,10.2 


. 29733 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 



27 The second observation on Oct 6 was at 13 h 2. 

28 The observations on Oct 13 were at 7 h . 1 and 7 ll .3. 

29 The observations on Nov 24 were at ll^.O a 11V3. 

3° The observations on Dec 9 were at 12b. 8 an( j I3h 8 in D, and at 13 h .O and 13 h .5 in H. 

31 Special solar-eelipse observations. 

32 The observations on Feb 2 were at 13 h .4,14i>.9 in D, and at 13 h .8, 14k. 6 j n H; those on Feb 23 were at 13 h .3 and 13V 5 in D. 

33 The observations on Mar 9, 23 were at 13 h .6 and 13 h ,5 respectively. 

34 The observations on Apr 14 were at ll h .5 and 11V7. 

35 The observations on May 11 were at 6 b .7 and 7 h 3 in D, and at 10V4 and 10 h .6 in J. 

36 The observations on Jun 22 were at 14 h . 1 and 14 h . 5. 

37 The second observation on Aug 17 was at 13 h .4. 

38 There were no second observations on Sep 21, 23. 

38 The observations on Nov 30 were at ll h .2 and ll h .6. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



85 



SOUTH AMERICA 
Peru — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 

East 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


















Obs'r 






of Gr. 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 




Huancayo Observa- 


o ' 


o / 


1925 


h h h 


o / 


h h 


o f 


h h 


c. g. s. 








tory 13 — Concluded. . . 


12 02.7 S 


284 40 


Dec 8,14, 


























21,28 


8.2,11.0 


7 57 . 8 E 


14.2,14.0 


1 03 . 9 N 


9.0,10.5 


. 29723 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








1926 


























Jan 4,11, 


























18,25, 


























30 


8.2,11.2 


7 59 . 2 E 


13. 8. 14.2" 


1 05 . 7 N 


9.2,10.8 


.29757 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








Feb 8,22 


8.3,10.5 


7 56.9 E 


13.7,14.2 


1 04 . 1 N 


8.8,10.0 


. 29726 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








Feb 10,11, 


























19 

Feb 15 
Feb 16 
Mar 1, 8, 






14.7,15.0 


1 04 . 8 N 








EI 5 


B&G 




7.2,11.7 


7 57.2 E 


9.3,11 .3 


. 29788 


10 


RTB 




9.0, 9.3 


1 07.2 N 


EI 5 


RTB 






















29 


8.2,10.7 


7 56.9 E 


13.8,14.1 


1 05 . 2 N 


8.9,10.1 


.29731 


10 


EI 5 


B,G,K 








Mar 2 
Mar 15,21 
Mar 16,22 
Apr 5,12, 










9.1,10.3 
9.8,10.9 


. 29728 
. 29768 


10 
10 




RHG 




9.4,11.4 


7 57.9 E 






B&G 




9.2, 9.5 


1 09.6 N 


EI 5 


B&G 






















19,26 


8.4,10.7 


7 55.8 E 


13.8,14.2" 


1 07.3 N 


9.0,10 2 


.29743 


10 


EI 5 


G&K 








May 3,10, 


























31 


8.1,10.6 


7 54 . 8 E 


14.3,14.7 


1 09 . 2 N 


8.9,10 1 


. 29690 


10 


EI 5 


G&K 








May 17 
May 18,25 
May 24 
Jun 8,14 
Jun 10 
Jun 15 
Jun 21,28 






14.5,14.8 


1 05.6 N 








EI 5 


RHG 




8.7,10.8 


7 54.2 E 


9.4,10.4 


.29711 


10 


RHG 




10.9,11.4 


1 10.0 N 


EI 5 


AHK 




7.9,11.3 


7 55.3 E 


9.6,10.7 


. 29698 


10 


G&K 




9.3, 9.7 
14.8,15.2 
14.2,14.8* 


1 09 . 2 N 
1 10.8 N 
1 10,4 N 


EI 5 
EI 5 
EI 5 


RHG 














RHG 




8.7,11.4 .... 


7 55.4 E 


9.6,10.8 


. 29749 


10 


AHK 








Jul 5,12, 


























19,26 


8.8,11.1" 


7 53 . 4 E 


8.9,11.5« 


1 12.4 N 


9.4,10.3 


.29721 


10 


EI 5 


G,P,K 








Aug 2, 9, 


























17,23, 


























31 


8.9.11.3 45 


7 53 . 7 E 


8.7,11.5* 


1 12.1 N 


9.4,10.5" 


.29712 


10 


EI 5 


G,P, K 








Sep 7,13, 


























20,27 


9.0,11.2" 


7 54 . 4 E 


8.8,11.5" 


i HON 


9.4,10.3 


.29740 


10 


EI 5 


G,P, K 








Oct 4,11, 


























15,25 


9.0, 9.2'° 


7 55.1 E 


8.8,11.4" 


1 11.9 N 


9.2,10.7*' 


. 29702 


10 


EI 5 


G&P 








Oct 18,21 


6.4, 9.6 


7 54,8 E 


9.9,11.1 


1 12. 7N 


6.2, 6.7 


. 29557 


10 


EI 5 


G&P 








Nov 1, 8, 


























15,22, 


























29 


8.8,11.2**. . . 


7 54 . 8 E 


8.4,11.6" 


1 12.9 N 


9.5,10.7^ 


. 29699 


10 


EI 5 


G.P, K 








Dec 6,13, 


























20,27 


9.1,11.1 s3 


7 55 . 2 E 


8.5,11.5 M 


1 12.9 N 


9.6,10.6" 


. 29740 


10 


EI 5 


G,P, K 


Huancayo Observa- 




























12 02.7 S 


284 40 


Sep 2, '23 
Sep 3, 23 


14.3 to 17.4(4) 
11.1 to 17.0(6) 


8 05.1 E 
8 03.0 E 






14.7 to 
17.1 (4) 
11.4 to 
16.7 (6) 


.29731 
. 29774 


HI 
10 












WCP 














JWG 








Sep 4, 23 






15.6 to 


























17.4 (6) 


46 . N 








EI 5 


JWG 








Sep 3,4, 23 
Sep 5, 23 


8.5,10.5 


8 03.6 E 






9.8,12.0 


. 29808 


10 




WCP 




8.8 to 














Jul 11, 24 
Jul 14, 24 


14.6,16.0 

8.8 to 13.1(4) 


8 01.5 E 
8 01.4 E 


10.7 (6) 


47.9 N 








EI 5 


WCP 




14.9,15.7 
9.2 to 
11.9 (4) 


.29717 
. 29752 


28 
28 


JTH 














JTH 








Jul 15, 24 


9.5,11.8 


7 59.8 E 






9 9,11.5 


.29756 


28 




JTH 













40 The observations on Jan 4 were at 15 h .4 and 15 h .6; those on Jan 30 were at ll b 3 and ll h .7. 
11 The observations on Apr 19 were at 16 h .O and 16 h .6. 

42 The first observation on June 21 was at 8 h .6. 

43 The second observation on Jul 19 was at 9 b . 6. 

44 The observations on Jul 5 were at 14 h 6 and 14 h .9; those on Jul 19 were at 7 h .2 and 9 h .8. 

45 The second observation on Aug 9 was at 9 h 7 and on Aug 31 was at 9 h .4. 

46 The observations on Aug 9 were at 7 h .2 and 9 h .9, and on Aug 31 were at 7 h .2 and 9V6; the second observation on Aug 17 was at 13 b .6. 

47 The second observation on Aug 17 was at 9 h . 1. 

48 The observations on Sep 20 were at 7 b 4 and 9 h .3. 

48 The second observation on Sep 7 was at 13 h .4, and the observations on Sep 20 were at 7 h . 1 and 9 h .5. 

60 The first observation on Oct 11 was at 7 h 3, and the second observations on Oct 4 and 25 were at ll h .0 and ll b .2. 

51 The second observation in H on Oct 11 was at 8^.9; the observations on Oct 15 were, in I, at 6 h 6 and 8 h .8 and, in H, at 7 b .O and 8 b .3. 

"The observations on Nov 1 were, in D, at 6 h .5, 8 b .9; in I, at &A, 8 h 3; in H, at 6 h .8, 8 h .7. Those on Nov 22 were, in D, at 3 b .6, 8 h .8; in I, at 

and in H at 6 h 9, 8 h 5. 
"The observations on Dec 13 were, in D, at 11>».3, 13 h .8; in I at 10 h .9, 14 b .O; and in H at ll h .5, 13 b .5. 



h .5, 9 b .l; 



86 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Peru — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Huancayo Observatory, 


o r 

12 02.7 S 
12 02.7 S 

12 04.3 S 


o / 

284 40 
284 40 

282 58 


Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Oct 

Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 

Nov 

Nov 
Nov 

Nov 
Nov 

Sep 

Sep 
Sep 

Sep 
Sep 

Sep 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Oct 

Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 

Nov 
Nov 
Nov 

Nov 
Nov 

Oct 
Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 


16, 
17 

18 
23 
26 

27 

29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
31 
31 
3 

3 
4 
5 

5 
6 

2 

3 
3 

4 
4 

5 

10 

10 
11 
11 
14 

15 
16 
16 
27 

29 

30 
30 
30 
31 
31 
3 

3 

4 
5 

5 
6 

16 

17 

18 
20 
21 


'24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

24 
24 

23 

23 
23 

23 
23 

23 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 

24 

24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
, 24 

, 24 
, 24 
, 24 

. 24 

. 24 

, 24 
, 24 

. 24 

, 24 

, 24 


h h h 

9.0,10.9 

8.8 to 15.6(5) 

8.8 to 10.7(4) 
14.2 


o / 

8 00.6 E 
8 01.1 E 

7.59.6 E 
8 02.6 E 


h h 


O 1 


h h 

9.3,10.5 

9.4 to 
15.2 (4) 

9.1, 9.9 
14.6.15.7 


c. g. s. 

.29747 

.29706 
.29732 
.29715 


28 

28 
28 
28 




JTH 


















JTH 






JTH 










JTH 




13.8 to 

15.5 (6) 

9.8 to 

11.4 (6) 


54.8 N 
53.3 N 


EI 28 
EI 5 










JTH 














8.8 to 11.6(4) 

15.8.16.0 

11.1,11.3 

15.1,15.8 

10.8.11.1 


8 01.0 E 

7 59.9 E 

8 01.2 E 
8 00.4 E 
8 00.8 E 


WCP 




9.5,10.4 
14.1,14.9 

9.1,10.0 
13.6,14.5 


.29804 
.29711 
.29802 
.29742 


10 

10 
10 
27 
27 
27 
27 


DGC 










DGC 










DGC 






JL 










JL 








9.2,10.1 
15.0,15.8 


.29818 
.29734 




JL 










JL 








8.8 to 
14.1 (6) 
15.1,15.6 
14.9 

13.5 to 

14.6 (4) 
15.3,15.7 

9.0 to 
15.3 (10) 


56.2 N 
57.2 N 
0.54.8 N 

54.5 N 
51.8 N 

56.4 N 


EI 5 
EI 27 
EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 5 

EI 5 










DGC 










JL 














JL 






















JL 










DGC 


















14.3 to 17.4(4) 

8.5,10.5 

11.1 to 17.0(6) 


8 06.1 E 

8 05.4 E 
8 05.2 E 


DGC 


Huancayo Observatory, 
Wm 


14.7 to 
17.1 (4) 
8.8, 9.5 
11.4 to 
16.7 (6) 
10.0,12.0 


.29745 
.29783 

.29768 
.29800 


25 
25 

10 
25 










JWG 






JWG 


















WCP 






JWG 








15.6 to 
17.4 (6) 

8.8 to 

10.7 (6) 


47.0 N 
47.6 N 


EI 5 
EI 25 










WCP 














9.1.10.7 

13.5 

9.1,10.9 

14.6,16.0 

8.8 to 13.1(4) 

9.5.11.8 

8.9.10.9 

13.7 to 14.5(4) 


8 02.4 E 
8 03.3 E 
8 03.4 E 
8 03.0 E 
8 03.4 E 

8 01.9 E 
8 02.4 E 
8 03.2 E 


JWG 




9.6,10.3 
14.0,15.3 

9.5,10.5 
14.9,15.7 

9.2 to 
11.9 (4) 

9.9,11.5 

9.3,10.5 


.29714 
.29716 
.29776 
.29714 

.29747 
.29753 
.29741 


28 
28 
28 
10 

10 
10 
10 

28 


JTH 










JTH 










JTH 










WCP 


















WCP 






WCP 










WCP 










JTH 




9.8 to 
15.6 (12) 


54.8 N 






EI 28 






8.8 to 16.0(6) 


8 02.1 E 


JTH 




9.5 to 
14.9 (4) 

9.1,10.0 
13.6,14.5 


.29761 
.29794 
.29744 


27 
27 
10 
10 
10 
10 










JL 






JL 




11.1,11.3 

15.1,15.8 

10.8,11.2 


8 02.4 E 
8 02.1 E 
8 02.9 E 








DGC 










DGC 








9.2,10.1 
15.0,15.8 


.29812 
.29737 




DGC 










DGC 








8.9 to 
14.1 (6) 
15.1,15.6 
15.0,15.4 

13.5 to 

14.6 (4) 
15.3,15.7 

9.0 to 
15.3 (10) 
12.8,13.0 


1 00.2 N 
56.2 N 
55.0 N 

55.8 N 
55.6 N 

57.5 N 
10.4 N 


EI 27 
EI 5 
EI 5 

EI 5 
EI 27 

EI 27 
EI 27 










JL 










DGC 














DGC 






















DGC 










JL 


















14.0,15.8 

6.3 to 16.9(dv) 

6.3 to 16.9(dv) 


8 31.6 E 
8 31.5 E 

8 30.0 E 


JL 


Lima, D 


14.6,15.4 

6.3 to 
16.9 (dv) 

6.3 to 
16.9 (dv) 


. 30034 
.30064 
.30015 


27 
27 
27 


JL 












JL 










7.4 to 
17.6 (dv) 

6.7 to 
17.3 (dv) 


06.0 N 
07.7 N 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 


JL 


















JL 













Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



87 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Peru — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 




Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o t 

12 04.3 S 

12 05.5 S 
15 30.0 S 

15 30.0 S 

16 22.5 S 

16 22.5 S 

16 23.5 S 

16 23.9 S 

17 01.8 S 
17 01.8 S 


O t 

282 58 

282 49 
289 51 

289 51 

288 27 

288 27 

288 29 
288 29 

287 59 
287 59 


Oct 

Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Dee 
Dec 

Dec 

Feb 
Feb 

Feb 

Aug 
Dec 
Feb 
Aug 
Aug 

Aug 
Nov 
Nov 

Nov 

Feb 
Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Aug 
Nov 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 

Nov 
Nov 

Nov 

Nov 


22, 

26, 
20, 
21, 
21, 
3, 
4, 

5, 

7, 

8, 

9, 

20, 
3, 
11, 
23, 
24, 

25, 
21, 
22, 

24, 

13, 
15, 

17, 

18, 

19, 

25, 
25, 
19, 
19, 
21, 
22, 

15, 
16, 

17, 

18, 


"24 

24 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 

24 

26 
26 

26 

23 
24 
26 
23 
23 

23 

24 
24 

24 

26 
26 

26 

26 

26 
23 
24 
26 
26 
26 
26 

24 
24 

24 

24 


h h h 
10.4,13.9 

11.8 

14.1,16.2 

8.6, 9.4 

11.4,12.6 

10.1.12.6 

6.7 to 17.6(dv) 


o / 

8 33.5 E 

9 26.6 E 
6 34.4 E 
6 33.0 E 
6 35.7 E 
6 30.4 E 
6 26.5 E 


h h 
13.5,13.7 


/ 

08.4 N 


h h 
10.7,12.7 

12.2 

16.6,17.2 
11.7,12.3 


c. g. s. 
. 30090 

.30156 
. 28330 
.28413 


27 

28 
25 
25 
25 
27 

27 


EI 27 


JL 


San Lorenzo Island 
(Callao Harbor) .... 


JTH 


14.3,14.5 
9.1, 9.2 


3 02.6 S 
3 04.4 S 


EI 25 
EI 25 


JWG 




JWG 
JWG 




13.9,14.1 


2 54.4 S 


11.7,12.4 
6.7 to 
17.6 (dv) 


.28408 
.28357 


EI 27 


JL 




6.9 to 
17.6 (dv) 
11.6,11.8 


2 54.8 S 
2 52.0 8 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 






13.9,15.5 

6.6 to 17.3(dv) 


6 18.9 E 
6 21.5 E 


JL 




14.4,15.1 

6.6 to 

17.3 (dv) 


. 28328 
.28331 


27 
27 


JL 




6.5 to 
18.0 (dv) 
13.4,13.6 
16.9,17.0 

8.8, 9.1 
14.3,14.5 


2 49.0 S 

3 02.4 S 
2 56.6 S 
2 46.8 S 

4 57.8 S 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 25 






10.7,12.0 

15.2.16.5 

10.0,11.3 

16.2.17.6 

7.1 to 17.5(dv) 


6 32.2 E 
6 27.0 E 

6 22.4 E 

7 15.2 E 
7 14.0 E 


JL 


Juliaca, B 


11.0,11.7 
15.5,16.2 
10.2,11.0 
16.6,17.2 
7.1 to 
17.5 (dv) 


.28355 
.28301 
. 28375 
. 28392 

.28425 


25 
27 
27 
25 

25 


JWG 




JL 
JL 
JWG 








8.7, 8.9 
14.8,15.0 


5 04.9 S 
4 58.1 S 


JWG 




EI 25 
EI 27 


JWG 




11.0,14.4 

7.5 to 17.3(dv) 


7 09.6 E 
7 06.0 E 


11.4,14.0 
7.5 to 
17.3 (dv) 


.28442 
.28394 


27 
27 


JL 




7.6 to 

17.5 (dv) 
16.8,17.1 

6.8 to 

17.6 (dv) 
6.8 to 

17.7 (dv) 


4 57.8 S 
4 53.4 S 

4 47.7 S 

4 50.7 S 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 

EI 27 

EI 27 






17.5 


7 01.0 E 


JL 




17.9 .... 


.28325 


27 


JL 








JL 














7.2 to 17.7(dv) 

8.0 

10.6,11.9 

10.0,11.3 

10.9,11.9 

16.4 

10.4,11.6 


7 03.5 E 

6 58.7 E 

7 22.7 E 
7 13.6 E 
7 10.0 E 
7 53.9 E 
7 04.4 E 


JL 




7.2 to 
17.7 (dv) 

8.3 

10.9,11.6 
10.4,11.0 
11.1,11.6 


.28387 
.28341 
. 28469 
.28442 
. 28434 


27 
27 
25 
27 
27 
27 
27 










JL 






JL 


Arequipa, B 


13.0,13.2 
13.6,13.7 
10.4,10.7 


5 11.4 S 
5 09.6 S 
4 58.9 S 


EI 25 
EI 27 
EI 27 

EI 27 

EI 27 

EI 27 


JWG 




JL 
JL 
JL 


Arequipa, D 


14.5,14.7 

6.5 to 

17.7 (dv) 

11.0,11.3 


5 41.6 S 

5 35.3 S 

6 31.6 S 


10.7,11.4 


.28238 


JL 








12.6,14.4 

6.6 to 17.3(dv) 


7 28.0 E 
7 27.2 E 


JL 


Mollendo, A 


13.2,13.8 

6.6 to 

17.3 (dv) 


. 27944 
.27961 


27 
27 


JL 








7.1 to 
17.8 (dv) 
12.5,12.6 


6 36.9 S 
6 28.7 S 


JL 




EI 27 
EI 27 






9.9,10.3 


7 26.4 E 


JL 


Mollendo, B 


10.6,11.2 


.28120 


27 


JL 







Uruguay 



Colon, A . 



Colon, B. 



34 48.3 S 



34 48.3 S 



303 45 



303 45 



Dec 


22, 


'25 


Dec 


24, 


25 


Dec 


26, 


25 


Dec 


22, 


25 



h h h 

10.8,14.0 

5.6tol7.0 (dv) 



16.1,17.3 .. 



1 57 . 4 E 
1 54 . 8 E 



1 51. 4E 



h h 
14.4,14.6 



5.8 to 
16.7 (dv) 
15.6,15.8 



28 25. 3 S 



28 26.2 S 
28 29 . 3 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




11.2,13.7 


.24019 


27 


5.6 to 






17.0 (dv) 


. 24003 


27 
27 


16.4,17.0 


. 23959 


27 



EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 



Venezuela 



Castilletes. 
Zapara. . . . 



o / 

11 50.5 N 

10 58.4 N 



288 40 



288 26 



Oct 


30, 


'26 


Oct 


31, 


26 


Nov 


1, 


26 


Jul 


28, 


26 


Jul 


31, 


26 


Aug 


26, 


26 



h 




h 


h 


11 


4 








9 





11 


. . 




8 


9 


10 


9 .. 




8 


8 


11 


1 .. 




10 


1 


12 


8 .. 




7 


7 


10 


8 .. 





37.3 E 
41. 2E 
43.9 E 
56.4 E 
53. 5E 
51.8 E 



13.6 



43 21 N 
41 51 N 



h h 


c. g. s. 




12.7 


. 29835 


156 


9.7,10.5 


. 29850 


156 


9.4,10.3 


. 29898 


156 


10.5,11.7 


. 30322 


156 


10.9,12.6 


. 30366 


156 


9.2,10.5 


. 30360 


156 



181.12 
181.1 



JCo 
JCo 
JCo 
JCo 
JCo 
JCo 



88 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



SOUTH AMERICA 

Venezuela — Concluded 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time 



Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. 



Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r 



Obs'r 



Dip Circle 



Zapara — Concluded . 

Maracaibo 

Carupano 

Isla Pajaro 

Caracas, A 



Caracas, B 

Puerto Cabello 

Barcelona, B 

Barcelona, A 

Barquisimeto 

La Ceiba 

Ciudad Bolivar, A 



Ciudad Bolivar, B . 



10 58.4 N 

10 40.4 N 
10 39.9 N 

10 35.9 N 



10 30.4 N 



10 30.4 N 

10 28.7 N 

10 08.6 N 

10 08.5 N 

10 04.8 N 

9 28.3 N 

8 09.1 N 



8 09 . 1 N 



288 26 

288 25 
296 45 

288 29 



293 04 



293 04 
291 59 

295 18 

295 18 
290 42 
288 57 

296 28 



296 26 



Aug 29, '26 

Sep 2, 26 

Nov 23, 22 

Jan 12, 23 

Jan 13, 23 

Nov 22, 22 

Nov 22, 22 

Nov 22, 22 

Dec 24, 22 

Dec 25, 22 

Dec 26, 22 



Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Jan 
Jan 
Dec 
Nov 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 



27, 22 

14, 22 

15, 22 
7, 23 
7, 23 

19, 22 
25, 22 

14, 23 

15, 23 
15, 23 

20, 23 

14, 23 

15, 23 

16, 23 



7.9,10.4 

13.2,15.4 

12.8,14.6 

8.4, 9.8 

8.3, 8.8 

13.4,14.3 



52.6 

1 16.3 
3 17.5 
3 13.4 
1 12.8 
1 08.3 



12.6,14.2 
6.8 to 17.9 (dv) 



1 04.6 W 
1 04.7 W 



12,8,14.4 . 
10.1,11.6 . 

6.6tol7.8 
15.6,17.4 . 

9.9,11.4 . 
12.5,14.0 . 
15.8,17.0 . 



(dv) 



9.0,10.5 . 
13.6,15.1 . 

9.5 to 17.7 
14.8,19.1 . 

7.8to 17.8 



1 09.6 W 
31.4 W 
32.3 W 

2 19.4 W 
2 16.0 W 

13.2 E 

1 11.2 E 



2 29.4 W 
2 29.8 W 
2 29.9 W 
2 32.0 W 
2 28.6 W 



41 50 N 



c. g. s. 



12.7,12.9 
15.6,15.8 
10.6,10.8 
11.2,11.4 
13.8,14.1 
16.6,16.8 
11.0,11.3 



41 08.4 N 

42 09.2 N 
42 06.3 N 
41 10.6 N 
41 08.8 N 
41 08.4 N 
41 29.0 N 



8.6, 9.8 

13.6,14.3 

13.2,14.1 

8.8, 9.5 

9.7,10.4 

15.3,15.9 



6.6 to 
17.7 (dv) 
10.9,11.1 
13.0,13.2 



13.0,13.8 

7.3 to 

17.7 (dv) 



41 32.3 N 
41 34.7 N 
41 24.1 N 



13.2,14.1 
10.5,11.2 



13.8,14.0 
12.6,12.8 
11.3,11.5 
15.0,15.2 



16.2, 
11.4, 



16.5 
11.7 



41 19.2 N 
41 19.3 N 
40 31.8 N 
39 30.0 N 
38 50 . 2 N 
38 49 . 4 N 



16.0,17.1 
10.3,11.0 
13.0,13.7 
16.1,16.7 



9.4,10.2 
14.0,14.7 



15.7,16.6 



10.4,10.7 



39 01.5 N 



. 30382 
. 30496 
. 29574 
. 29595 
. 30481 
. 30445 



. 29952 
. 29960 



. 29954 
. 30109 



.29710 
. 29729 
. 30310 
. 30602 



. 30107 
. 30094 



. 30058 



156 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



25 



25 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



25 
25 
25 

28 
28 



181.12 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 28 



JCo 

JCo 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG. 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JWG 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN 

Azores 



Santa Cruz* 

Angra* 

Horta* 

Ponta Delgada, C* 

Ponta Delgada Obser- 
vatory, B* 

Ponta Delgada Obser- 
vatory, Central Pier* 



Ponta Delgada Obser- 
vatory, Central Pier 
+ 7* 



Ponta Delgada Obser- 
vatory, Earth-Induc- 
tor Pier* 



Ponta Delgada, A*. 



Ponta Delgada, A + 7*. 



39 26.8 N 
38 38.8 N 

38 31 . 6 N 

37 47 . 2 N 

37 46.4 N 



37 46.4 N 



37 46.4 N 



37 46 . 4 N 



37 44 . 8 N 



37 44 . 8 N 



o 


, 


328 


52 


332 


47 


331 


22 


334 


14 


334 


21 


334 


21 


334 


21 


334 


21 


334 


20 


334 


20 



Jun 


16, 


'25 


Jun 


14, 


25 


Jun 


18, 


25 


Jun 


15, 


25 


Jun 


12, 


25 


Jun 


3, 


25 


Jun 


10, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


8, 


25 


Jun 


10, 


25 


Jun 


1, 


25 


Jun 


8, 


25 


Jun 


2, 


25 


Jun 


8, 


25 


Jun 


10, 


25 


May 24, 


25 


May 25, 


25 


May 25, 


25 


May 


26, 


25 


May 26, 


25 


May 26, 


25 


May 29, 


25 


May 31, 


25 



12.8,15.6 
7.0, 8.9 



15.2, 
14.9, 
13.1 



16.9 
16.8 



14.0,18.0 
9.9,11.8 



13.8,15.4 



17.0,17.2 
14.0 



11.0,11.2 

8.6,10.9 

13.2,13.4 



8.1, 9.0 
14.5,14.8 



21 19.6 

18 17.4 
18 24.4 



19 59.7 W 
19 40.1 W 

23 28.5 W 
23 26.2 W 



18 58.6 W 



18 59.4 W 
18 57.9 W 



21 17.8 W 
21 15.2 W 
21 21.3 W 



21 12.5 W 



21 21.6 W 



h h 
16.5,16.7 
10.5,10.8 

17.8 

13.6,13.9 
16.4 



12.8,13.0 

10.7,11.1 
11.6,11.8 
12.7,13.1 
13.6,13.9 
14.8,15.1 
15.7,16.1 
16.6,17.0 



16.3,16.8 
16.8,17.2 
17.5,17.7 



12.1,12.4 



14.7,14.9 
15.2,15.4 



67 44 . 2 N 
61 35.4 N 
61 32.3 N 
64 42 . 7 N 
60 23.2 N 



62 15.8 N 

60 02.6 N 
60 02 . 4 N 
60 04.8 N 
60 03.0 N 
60 04.3 N 
60 06.2 N 
60 04 . N 



59 54 . 8 N 
59 55.9 N 
59 55.6 N 



59 S8.3 N 



59 56.5 N 
59 56 . 6 N 



h h 
14.2,15.1 

7.4, 8.5 
15.6,16.5 
15.4,16.4 
13.7,14.6 

14.6,17.0 
10.4,11.4 



12.3,13.1 
10.7,13.4 



9.2,10.2 



10.0,11.0 

6.8,17.8 

11.0,12.3 



c. g. s. 
.21976 
.22392 
. 22426 
. 20659 
. 22509 

.21952 
.21922 



. 23150 
.23136 



. 23066 



. 23072 
. 23074 
. 23060 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 

26 

26 



26 



26 
26 



26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 

JES 
JES 

JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 



JES 
JES 



JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



89 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN 
Azores — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o / 

37 44.8 N 


/ 

334 20 


May 26, '25 
May 27, 25 

Jun 4, 25 
Jun 6, 25 
Jun 6, 25 


h h h 


o / 


h h 
16.6 

6.4 to 
18.4 (dv) 

12.0 

16.2,16.5 
16.9,17.2 


o / 

60 00.1 N 

59 59.2 N 

59 59.6 N 

60 00.9 N 
60 00.8 N 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 


JES 






















JES 










JES 














JES 














JES 

















Bahamas 



Governor's Harbor 

Nassau, C 

Nassau, A 

Nassau, B 

Rock Sound 

Fresh Creek 

Bight Settlement 

Green Cay 

Farmer's Cay 

Port Nelson 

Port Nelson, Secondary 

George Town 

Galloway 

Albert Town 



o / 


O f 


25 12.3 N 


283 45 


25 05.5 N 


282 39 


25 04.5 N 


282 39 


25 04 . 5 N 


282 39 


24 51.8 N 


283 50 


24 43.7 N 


282 13 


24 18.5 N 


284 33 


24 02 . N 


282 50 


23 57 . 5 N 


283 42 


23 38.7 N 


285 09 


23 38.7 N 


285 09 


23 30 . 8 N 


284 14 


23 02.7 N 


285 02 


22 36.6 N 


285 39 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



8, 
3, 
4, 
6, 

5, 
15, 



Jul 10, 
Jul 19 



Jul 
Jul 
Aug 
Jul 



29. 

13, 

5, 

31, 



Jul 31, 

Aug 4, 

Aug 3, 

Aug 2, 



h h 
12.9,15 6 



13. 
12. 



1,15.1 

.6,13.1 

6.8, 8.4 

6.0 to 18.1(dv) 

5.9 to 18.2(dv) 

9.5,11 6 
10.9,14.2 
10.5,11.9 

9.7,12.4 
14.1,15.8 
14.2,15.8 

7.4 to 18.2(dv) 

8.9,10.9 

9.0,10.6 

8.8,10.8 



1 11 
10 
09 
02 
06 
06 
57 

25 

1 17 
19 

10 

1 31 
1 30 

11 

1 03 
45 



t 

.2 


W 


.4 


w 


.8 


w 


.8 


w 


.7 


w 


.4 


w 


.3 


w 


.2 E 


.6 


w 


.0 


E 


.8 


W 


.6 


W 


.6 


w 


.4 


w 


.4 


w 


.6 


w 



h h 
11.4,11.6 
11.1,11.3 
15.8,16.0 
10.9,11.2 



13.3,13.6 
15.0,15.2 
14.0,14.4 
13.5,13.8 
16.4,16.6 
11.0,11.4 



12.5,12.6 
11.3,11.5 

11.6,11.8 



58 23.2 N 
58 06.2 N 
58 07.4 N 
58 04 . 6 N 



57 55 . 6 N 
57 48.2 N 
57 50.4 N 
57 07 . 6 N 
57 06.4 N 
56 59 . 2 N 



56 41.0 N 
56 08.5 N 
56 08.2 N 



h h 

14.5,15.3 

13.9,14.8 

13.6,14.5 

7.3, 8.0 



10.0,11.0 
11.4,13.8 



10.9, 
10.3, 
14.5, 
14.6, 



11.6 
11.4 
15.4 
15.4 



9.4,10.5 
9.4,10.2 
9.3,10.4 



c. g. s. 
. 26482 
. 26788 
. 26820 
. 26849 



.26710 
. 27007 
. 26509 
.27256 
. 27064 
. 26990 



.27226 
.27315 
.27244 



26 
26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
25 
26 
25 
25 
26 
26 
25 
26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 26 



WAL 
WAL 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
WAL 
G&L 
WAL 
G&L 
JWG 
WAL 
G&L 
G&L 
G&L 



Bermuda 



St. George* .... 
Nonsuch Island* 
Ireland Island* . 
Agar's Island*. . 



Agricultural Station*. 
Mont Royal, A* 



Mont Royal, C*. 
Spectacle Island* 

Black Bay* 



32 23.1 N 
32 20 . 9 N 
32 19.4 N 
32 17 . 6 N 



32 17.5 N 
32 16.7 N 



32 16.7 N 



32 15.6 N 



32 15. 3 N 



o 


, 


295 


19 


295 


20 


295 


10 


295 


11 


295 


14 


295 


12 


295 


12 


295 


10 


295 


09 



Aug 


H, 


•22 


Aug 


15, 


22 


Aug 


19, 


22 


Aug 


5, 


22 


Sep 


4, 


22 


Sep 


5, 


22 


Sep 


6, 


22 


Sep 


12, 


22 


Aug 


23, 


22 


Jul 


10, 


22 


Jul 


11, 


22 


Jul 


11. 


22 


Jul 


18, 


22 


Jul 


19, 


22 


Sep 


18, 


22 


Jul 


20, 


22 


Jul 


29, 


22 


Jul 


29, 


22 


Jul 


13, 


22 


Sep 


2, 


22 


Sep 


4, 


22 


Sep 


5, 


22 


Aug 


21, 


22 


Aug 


29, 


22 



h h 
13.8,16.4 
11.2,13.7 
13 3,15.7 
11.4,14.8 



7.3 to 17.7(dv) 
7.5 to 18.1(dv) 

ip.9,13.3 .... 

15.6,17.7 



15.2 

10.7,16.7 
12.0,14.2 



11.8,14.4 



12.4,17.3 
15.4 



12 50.4 W 

11 48.6 W 

11 30.0 W 

12 39 2 W 



12 38.7 W 

12 37 4 W 

14 25.6 W 
11 27 8 W 



11 28.4 W 
11 29.0 W 
11 14.0 W 



8 21.4 W 



8 14.4 W 
8 13.6 W 



h 
12.8 
14.5 
11.5 
15.8 

8.9 
18.3 

8.1 
18.7 



to 
(dv) 
to 
(dv) 



15.1 



10.6 
17.2 
14.2 



9.0 



14.9,15.6 
16.2,16.6 



16 1 

9.9 

9.2 

12.7 

11.4 



17.7 



65 04.2 N 

65 27.3 N 

66 22.7 N 

67 55.2 N 

67 55.7 N 
67 55.5 N 



66 17.9 N 



66 25.9 N 
66 26.3 N 
66 25.3 N 



66 27.4 N 



66 23.8 N 
66 23.4 N 



65 27 . 9 N 
65 28.8 N 
65 28.5 N 
65 23 N 
65 26.5 N 



h h 
14.2,15.7 
11 7,13.3 
13.8,15.2 
12.2,14.1 



7.3 to 
17.7 (dv) 

7.5 to 
18.1 (dv) 
11.5,12.9 
16 2,17.3 



12.7,14.9 
15.2,17.7 



12.1,14.0 



13.6,16.4 
17.5 



c g. s. 
.22418 
.21898 
.21485 
20109 



.20120 

.20110 
. 21538 
.21862 



.21854 
.21966 



. 22356 



.22114 
.22155 



17 
17 
17 
17 



17 

17 
17 
17 



14 

14 
17 



17 



14 

14 



El 
EI 
EI 
EI 



EI 3 



EI 3 





EI 3 


EI 


3 


EI 


6 


El 


3 


EI 


3 


EI 


6 


EI 


6 



EI 6 
EI 6 
EI 6 
14.3d 
EI 3 



Canary Islands 



F&H 
F&H 
F&H 
F&H 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

HWF 

JTH 

F&H 

F&H 

F&H 

HWF 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 

JTH 

F&H 



Santa Cruz (La Palma) 
Santa Cruz (Tenerife).. 


o / 

28 41.4 N 
28 28.1 N 


O / 

342 16 

343 45 


Aug 

Aug 
Aug 
Aug 


3, '25 

4, 25 

4, 25 

5, 25 


h h h 

10.4,11.9 

13.4,13.6 

15.2,15.4 

7.2, 8.5 .... 


O / 

20 38.5 W 
12 44.0 W 
12 42.4 W 
12 34.0 W 


h h 
12.8,13.0 
16.0,16.4 


O / 

52 14.4 N 
45 48.6 N 


h h 
10.8,11.6 
14.0,14.8 


c. g. s. 
. 25776 
. 25798 


26 
26 
26 
26 


EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 


JES 
JES 
JES 




9.5, 9.6 


45 46.2 N 


7.5, 8.2 


. 25788 


JES 



* Local disturbance. 



1 See also values at secondary stations in Table of Results in Bermuda magnetic anomaly, pp. 105-108. 



90 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN 

Canaey Islands — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o / 

28 07.7 N 
28 07.2 N 


O / 

344 33 
344 33 


Aug 8, '25 
Aug 13, 25 

Aug 15, 25 

Aug 17, 25 


h h h 

10.5,12.8 

6.2 to 18.3(dv) 


o / 

16 06.1 W 
16 04.8 W 


h h 
13.4,13.5 


o / 

45 15.6 N 


h h 
11.4,12.5 

6.2 to 
18.3 (dv) 

13.8,14.6 


c. g. s. 
. 27586 

. 27567 
. 27530 


26 
26 

26 


EI 26 


JES 




6.3 to 
18.2 (dv) 
16.6,16.8 


45 14.2 N 
45 32.6 N 


JES 




EI 26 
EI 26 






13.2,15.0,15.2 


15 53.7 W 


JES 
JES 



Falkland Islands 



Port Louis 

Port Stanley, A . 



Port Stanley, B. 
Port Stanley, C. 



Bet ween-the-Rocks . 



51 33 S 
51 41.2 S 



51 41.7 S 
51 41.7 S 

51 48.2 S 






/ 


301 


53 


302 


10 


302 07 


302 


07 


301 


40 



Apr 


22, 


'25 


Apr 


3, 


25 


Apr 


4, 


25 


Apr 


6, 


25 


Apr 


7, 


25 


Apr 


8, 


25 


Apr 


9, 


25 


Apr 


10, 


25 


Apr 


14, 


25 


Apr 


14, 


25 


Apr 


15, 


25 


Apr 


18, 


25 



h h h 

11.7,13.4 

12.2,15.1 

6.6 to 17.7(dv) 

6.8 to 17.7(dv) 



6.6 to 17.4(dv) 

10.6,11.9 

16.6 

11.3 

9.8,11.1 



9 13.8 E 
9 05.2 E 
9 02.2 E 

9 02.7 E 



9 02.7 E 

9 03.6 E 
9 02.9 E 
9 02.9 E 
9 33.0 E 



h h 
14.9,15.1 
11.4,11.6 



6.7 to 
17.4 (dv) 

6.7 to 
17.1 (dv) 

6.6 to 
17.4 (dv) 



13.6,13.8 
16.3,16.5 

11.6,11.8 



45 31.8 S 
45 42.0 S 



45 42.2 S 
45 41.4 S 
45 40.9 S 



45 41.5 S 
45 40.8 S 

45 50.4 S 



h h 
12.1,13.0 
14.0,14.8 

6.6 to 
17.7 (dv) 

6.8 to 
17.7 (dv) 



6.6 to 
17.4 (dv) 
11.0,11.6 



10.4,11.0 
10.1,10.8 



c. g. s. 
. 25578 
.25563 

.25580 

.25577 



.25577 
.25562 



. 25568 
.25612 



27 

27 

27 

27 



27 
27 
27 
27 

27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 27 



JL 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 
JL 
JL 
JL 



Madeira 



Funchal, A* 

Funchal, B* 

Funohal, C* 

Funchal, D* ,. 

Havana, C'asa Blanca, 
A 



o / 


O ' 


32 38.0 N 


343 05 


32 37 . 8 N 


343 05 


32 37.2 N 


343 04 


32 37 . 2 N 


343 04 



Jun 23, '25 

Jun 24, 25 

Jun 27, 25 

Jun 30, 25 

Jun 25, 25 

Jun 25, 25 



7.9,11.3 .. 



13 
10. 



,15.2 
11.9 



15 



16.0,16.2 

9.1,10.8 

14.1,15.7 



18 39.0 W 
18 45.1 W 
18 43.2 W 
18 44.3 W 

15 33.8 W 

16 19.6 W 



h h 
12.4,12.7 
16.4,16.7 



15.2,15.4 
11.7,12.0 
17.0,17.2 



52 35.9 N 
52 42.5 N 



51 43.8 N 

52 19.6 N 
51 39.8 N 



h h 


c. g. s. 




9.9,10.8 


. 25696 


26 


13.7,14.7 


. 25736 


26 


10.7,11.5 


.25312 


26 
26 


9.5,10.3 


.25388 


26 


14.5,15.3 


.25463 


26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 
JES 



West Indies 



Havana, Casa Blanca, 
B 

Havana, Casa Blanca, 
Secondary 

Havana, Villa 

Matanzas 

Carenero Cayos 

Pinar del Rio 

Placetas del Norte, B . . 

Placetas del Norte, A . . 
Camaguey, B* 



23 09.4 N 



23 09.4 N 

23 09.4 N 

23 06.4 N 
23 03.6 N 
22 55.1 N 
22 25.6 N 
22 20.9 N 



22 18.6 N 
21 20.6 N 



o 


t 


277 


39 


277 


39 


277 


39 


277 


39 


278 


27 


280 


14 


276 


18 


280 


22 


280 


23 


282 


09 



Aug 


16, 


'22 


Aug 


17, 


22 


Sep 


19, 


24 


Sep 


20, 


24 


Sep 


22, 


24 


Sep 


23, 


24 


Aug 


17, 


22 


Aug 


16, 


22 


Aug 


30, 


22 


Dec 


23, 


26 


Aug 


26, 


22 


Sep 


2, 


22 


Sep 


2, 


22 


Sep 


3, 


22 


Sep 


4, 


22 


Sep 


4, 


22 


Sep 


9, 


22 



12.9,15.2 .... 

6. 6 to 16.0 (dv) 

9.9,11.5 

6.7 to 17.2 (dv) 



9.5,11.7 



13.3,15.1 
9.8,11.6 



12.7,14.2 



12.7,14.4 

6.5tol6. 

6.9, 8.5 

12.6,14.1 

13.5,15.1 



(dv) 



3 19.0 E 
3 22.0 E 

3 20.8 E 
3 19.2 E 



3 06.2 E 



3 24.4 E 

2 48.8 E 



4 17.8 E 



1 11. 4E 
1 13. 8E 

1 18.5 E 

2 53.8 E 
1 15.6 E 



k h 
10.9,11.1 



12.8,13.1 



8.2 to 
17.8 (dv) 

12.8,13.1 

6.7 to 
14.0 (dv) 
15.8,16.0 
13.5,13.7 

15.6 

10.9,11.2 

8.2, 8.4 
15.5,15.7 



11.6,11.7 
15.7,15.9 



55 04.0 N 



55 13.0 N 



55 11.6 N 
55 17.7 N 



55 08.4 N 

54 56.4 N 

55 10 . 4 N 
55 25 N 

53 53.6 N 

54 56.8 N 
54 52.8 N 



54 10.0 N 
54 06.6 N 



13.5,14.6 
6.9 to 

15.7 (dv) 

10.4,11.1 
6.7 to 

17.2 (dv) 



10.5,11.4 



13.7,14.7 
10.2,11.2 



13.1,13.8 
13.1,14.0 



7.3, 8.2 
13.0,13.7 
13.9,14.8 



c. g. s. 

.28381 

.28399 
. 28244 

. 28239 



.28142 



. 28538 
. 28270 



.28811 
.27966 



.27918 
.28350 
. 28343 



26 



26 
27 



27 



27 



25 
26 



26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



EI 26 



EI 27 



EI 27 
EI 27 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 26 
125.4 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 26 
EI 26 



WAL 

WAL 
JL 

JL 

JL 

JL 



JWG 

JWG 

WAL 

SEL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 

WAL 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



91 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN 

West Indies — Continued 



Station 



Latitude 



Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


O 


/ 


282 


09 


284 


13 


284 
284 
289 


13 

52 
18 


287 


48 


287 


18 


287 
289 
290 

287 


43 
28 
23 
41 


287 
282 


41 
04 


290 06 


290 
289 


06 
16 


291 
295 


03 
05 


286 
283 

282 
283 


17 
33 
31 
11 


283 


11 


283 


11 


295 


17 


295 07 


297 
298 


17 
09 


298 27 


298 


38 


298 55 

299 02 


298 


46 


298 46 
300 25 


300 25 



Date 



Declination 



Local Mean Time Value 



Inclination 



L. M. T. Value 



Hor. Intensity 



L. M. T. Value 



Instruments 



Mag'r Dip Circle 



Obs'r 



Camaguey, A* 

Santiago, San Juan 
Hill, A 

Santiago, San Juan 

Hill.B 

Guantanamo Bay. . . . 
Puerto Plata 

Cap Haitien 

Gonaives 

L'Atallye 

La Vega 

Sanchez 

Port au Prince, A ■ . . . 

Port au Prince, B. .. . 
Montego Bay 

Santo Domingo, A . . . 



Santo Domingo, B . . . 
Azua 

La Romana 

Charlotte Amalie 

Aux Cayes 

Port Antonio 

Mandeville 

Kingston, Jamaica, A. 



Kingston, Jamaica, B . . 

Kingston, Jamaica, Sec- 
ondary 

Christiansted 

Frederiksted 

Basse Terre 

St. Johns 

La Jaille 

Roseau 

Fort de France 

Port Castries 

Kingstown, St. Vin- 
cent, A 

Kingstown, St. Vin- 
cent, B 

Bridgetown, A 

Bridgetown, B 



21 20.5 N 



20 00.2 N 



20 00.2 N 
19 54.6 N 
19 49.0 N 

19 46.4 N 

19 25.8 N 

19 21.7 N 
19 14.7 N 
19 14.3 N 
18 34.2 N 



18 34.2 N 
18 28.5 N 



18 27.8 N 



18 27 . 8 N 
18 27.7 N 

18 24.1 N 
18 20.5 N 

18 11.3 N 
18 11.1 N 
18 01. 3N 
17 58.9 N 



17 58.9 N 



17 58.9 N 



45.0 N 

43.1 N 

17.9 N 
07.0 N 

16.0 N 

18.0 N 

35.9 N 

01.1 N 



13 09.2 N 



09.2 N 
04.8 N 



13 04.8 N 



Sep 8, '22 
Sep 9, 22 



Sep 13 

Sep 13 

Sep 14 

Sep 14 

Sep 16 

Oct 14 

Oct 15 

Oct 9 

Oct 10 



Oct 
Oct 
Oct 



Oct 19 

Oct 21 

Sep 18 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 20 

Oct 5 

Oct 6 

Oct 7 

Oct 30 

Oct 30 

Oct 31 

Nov 1 

Oct 31 

Nov 3 

Nov 4 

Oct 26 

Mar 10 

Mar 11 

Sep 25 

Oct 14 

Oct 3 

Sep 4 

Sep 9 

Sep 22 

Sep 28 

Oct 19 

Sep 23 

Sep 28 

Sep 26 

Sep 29 

Mar 18 

Mar 20 

Mar 22 

Mar 23 

Mar 29 

Apr 3 

Apr 4 

Apr 12 

Apr 13 

Apr 17 

Apr 19 

Apr 29 

Apr 25 

Apr 26 

Jan 29 

Jan 29 

Jan 29 

Jan 25 

Jan 26 



Jan 25, 23 



h h h 

13.6,15.3 ... 

7.6, 9.0 ... 

13.4,15.0 ... 

7.2, 8.6 ... 



1 10.2 E 
1 17.6 E 

53.1 E 



56.4 E 



h h 

11.1,11.3 

7.2, 7.3 

12.6,12.8 
16.2,16.4 



53 53.4 N 
53 53.4 N 

52 57.2 N 
52 55.6 N 



4,14.2 

6,17.0 

8,16.4 

0tol7.8(dv) 

9.14.4 

5,11.5 

4,14.0 

9 to 18.1 (dv) 

8.15.0 

3,13.7 

2,10.7 

8.14.5 

1, 8.5 

4,11.7 

4.12.1 

6.16.6 

7tol7.0(dv) 



57. 
02. 

49. 

1 49. 
59. 
54. 
21. 
21. 

44. 

1 27. 

2 13. 
26. 
22. 
25. 
26. 
2 18. 
2 15. 



IE 
W 

3 W 
W 
8 W 

4 W 



11.4,11.6 



53 06.9 N 



13.6,13.8 
15.3,15.5 



53 07.4 N 
52 56.1 N 



h h 

14.0,15.0 

8.0, 8.6 

13.9,14.2 

7.5, 8.3 

12.8,13.8 
16.0,16.7 
15.2,16.0 



11.6,11.7 



52 04.8 N 



13.3,14.1 
12.8,13.6 



9 W 
6 W 
2 W 
W 
2 W 
6 W 
9E 
IE 



15.4,15.6 

11.1,11.4 

8.2, 8.4 

11.4,11.6 



52 30.4 N 
52 04.8 N 
52 16.8 N 
50 59.0 N 



15.5,15.7 
12.6,13.3 



51 01.0 N 
50 59.2 N 



13.3,14.4 
12.7,13.4 

9.5,10.3 
13.2,14.0 

9.0,10.0 



10.8,11.6 
14.9,16.0 



7,13.2 

7.14.2 

4, 8.2, 9.0 
1 to 17.6 (dv) 
0,14.6 

5.17.0 

1 

6.14.1 

8,11.6 

7.15.4 

1,11.6 

4.12.5 

0,11.5 

3,12.5 

to 18.0(dv) 

8.11.3 



6 W 

W 

8 W 
W 

9 W 



10.1,10.5 
11.3,11.5 
16.7,16.8 
10.1,10.3 



50 05.6 N 

51 31.1 N 
51 34.8 N 
51 34.7 N 



15.4, 

7.7, 



16.1 



11.4,11.5 



51 32.3 N 



1 05 

1 04 

2 23 
4 11 
4 14 

40 
2 05 
2 38 

1 09 
1 10 
1 10 



13.4,14.2 
15.8,16.6 



10.6,10.9 
15.1,15.2 



.4 E 
.4 E 
.5 E 
.2 E 
.3 E 
.8 E 



14.0, 
16.2 
12.6, 



14.2 



12.9 



14.7,15.0 
14.0,14.2 
13.2,13.5 



51 26.4 N 
51 39.6 N 
51 35.6 N 
51 39.1 N 
50 31.7 N 
50 41.6 N 
50 07.0 N 
50 03.3 N 



12.9,13.7 
10.3,11:3 
14.1,15.0 
10.5,11.2 
10.8,13.1 
10.4,11.2 
10.7,11.5 



10.2,11.0 



.8,11.7 
.7,11.2 



1 10.4 E 
1 11.4 E 



16.2,16.4 
12.5,12.7 



50 03.7 N 
50 05.2 N 



14.6,14.9 



50 04 . N 



10.3,11.4 
10.1,10.9 



6.6 to 17.5(dv) 



1 15.2 E 



9.6,11.5 

6.7 to 17.0(dv) 
10.8,14.1 



4 42.0 W 
4 43.6 W 
4 23.6 W 



6.4 to 
17.4 (dv) 
14.9,15.2 



6.8 to 
17.4 (dv) 



50 04 . 3 N 

51 04. 9N 



10.1,11.0 



14.9,15.1 



9.5,11.5 

15.0,16.7 



5 53.0 W 

6 27.8 W 



15.0,15.4 



50 53.5 N 
50 22.4 N 



11.3,13.6 

9.6 

10.1,11.1 
15.4,16.3 



9.6, 11.4... 

10.1 

8.2, 8.5 ... 
9.3,11.5 ... 



11.5,11.8 
16.5,16.7 



50 43.4 N 
49 44.2 N 



5 45.8 W 
5 54.7 W 
5 53.8 W 
5 21.8 W 



16.8,16.9 



48 16.1 N 



10.2,11.1 
10.9,14.8 



9.9,12.0 

9.2,10.1,10.9 
13.5,15.2,15.9 

9.7,11.5 

11.4.12.8 

6.9 to 17.9(dv) 

10.7.12.9 



5 06.6 W 

4 50.4 W 
4 57.1 W 

4 45.6 W 

6 20.4 W 
6 19.8 W 

6 19.6 W 



14.8,15.0 
16.6,16.9 



47 17.3 N 
47 23.6 N 



10.1,10.9 



11.6,11.8 
16.8,17.0 

13.4,14.1 
10.5,10.7 



45 41.4 N 
45 43.2 N 

45 41.5 N 
45 33.1 N 



16.4,16.8 



45 32 . 4 N 



10.6,11.6 

9.6,10.5 
13.8,15.6 

10.2,11.1 
11.7,12.4 
7.3 to 
17.7 (dv) 
11.4,12.4 



c. g. s. 
.28615 
.28572 

.28421 



.28404 

. 28336 
. 28332 
.27974 



.28014 



.28718 



. 28440 
. 28236 
.28093 
. 28860 
. 28856 



. 28903 
. 29372 



.28170 
.28164 



.28177 
. 28226 



.28256 
.27948 
.27940 
. 29098 
. 28923 
.29354 
. 29600 



. 29578 



. 29565 
. 29580 



. 29570 



.27971 



. 28057 
. 28032 
. 28258 
.27642 



.28115 
.28316 



. 28502 

. 28358 

. 28708 
. 28684 

. 28702 
.28642 

. 28638 
. 28642 



26 
26 

26 



26 

26 
26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
26 
25 
26 
26 
25 
25 
26 



26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 



26 
26 
26 
26 



26 

25 
25 

28 
25 

25 

28 



EI 26 
EI 26 

EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 


26 


EI 


25 


El 


25 


EI 


25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 25 
EI 26 
EI 26 
EI 25 





EI 
EI 


26 
26 


EI 


26 


El 
El 


26 
26 


EI 


26 


EI 


26 


EI 
EI 


26 
26 


El 


26 


EI 26 
EI 26 



EI 25 
EI 25 

EI 28 
EI 25 



EI 28 



WAL 
WAL 

WAL 

WAL 
WAL 

WAL 
WAL 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
JWG 
HRG 
HRG 
JWG 
WAL 
WAL 
JWG 
JWG 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 
WAL 



WAL 

WAL 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 
HRG 

JWG 
JWG 

JTH 
JWG 

JWG 
JTH 



* Local disturbance. 



92 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ISLANDS, ATLANTIC OCEAN 
West Indies — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Bridgetown, B — Con- 
cluded 


o 

13 
12 

12 
12 
10 
10 

10 

10 

10 
10 
10 
10 


04.8 N 

07.0 N 

06.9 N 
06.5 N 

50.1 N 
40.0 N 

40.0 N 

40.0 N 

18.0 N 
16.8 N 
16.8 N 
05.3 N 


O / 

300 25 
291 04 

291 04 
291 05 
299 04 
298 29 

298 28 

298 28 

298 50 
298 33 
298 33 
298 07 


Jan 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Jun 

Nov 

Nov 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 


26, 

14, 
14, 
15, 
16, 
18, 
16, 
13, 
22, 
16, 
17, 
18, 
18, 
18, 
11, 
12, 
16, 
16, 
27, 
28, 

9, 
10, 
16, 

8, 
19, 
19, 
27, 
28, 


'23 

22 
22 
22 
22 
26 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 


h h h 


/ 


h h 

7.2 to 

18.0 (dv) 

13.2,13.4 

17.1,17.2 


o 

45 
43 
43 


30.1 N 
26.8 N 
29. 7N 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 28 
EI 25 
EI 25 






13.8,14.2 


28.0 


W 


JTH 


Willemstad, A 


15.9,16.6 


.30107 


25 


JWG 
JWG 




6.3 to 17.8(dv) 
8.2, 8.6,10.2 

12.0 

13.7,16.4 

15.3,16.8 

10.7,12.0 

15.1,16.7 

6.5 to 18.0(dv) 
7.9, 9.1 


25.3 
24.2 
46.8 
23.7 
27.8 
4 44.9 
4 22.2 
4 20.8 
4 21.2 


w 
w 

w 
w 

w 
w 
w 
w 

w 






25 
25 
156 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 


JWG 




10.9,11.0 


43 


27.6 N 


9.0, 9.8 

13.3 

15.4,16.0 
15.7,16.4 
11.1,11.7 
15.6,16.4 


. 30097 
. 29736 
. 30060 
. 29966 
. 29273 
.29434 


EI 25 


JWG 
JCo 


Willemstad, B 

Willemstad, 191S 
Toco 


13.0,13.4 
14.0,14.2 
12.3,12.5 


43 
43 

42 


23.9 N 
22.0 N 
32.6 N 


EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 


JWG 
JWG 
JWG 


Port of Spain, A 


JWG 










JWG 




10.5,10.7 
14.2,14.3 
16.8,17.0 


42 

42 
42 


09.5 N 
13.4 N 
12.4 N 


8.2, 8.8 
12.7,13.5 


.29481 
. 29432 


EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 


JWG 
JWG 








JWG 


Port of Spain, B 


7.4 to 17.0(dv) 

11.4,14.2 

9.9,12.9,13.1 


4 20.0 
4 22.2 
4 19.5 


w 
w 
w 






28 
28 
28 
28 
25 
25 
28 


JTH 




15.9 


42 


13.3 N 


12.5,13.7 
10.4,11.5 
15.6,16.6 


. 29442 
.29471 
. 29446 


EI 28 


JTH 
JTH 










JTH 




12.6 to 17.3(dv) 
6.8 to 18.0(dv) 
10.9,16.7 


4 22.7 
4 22.7 
4 19.1 


w 

w 
w 








JWG 














JWG 


Port of Spain, 1905 


13.5,14.2 




13.6,16.1 


.29419 




JTH 




42 


13.2 N 


. .EI 28 


JTH 




10.2,11.8 

12.8,14.2 

13.4,15.0 

14.4,16.4 

13.0 to 17.5(10) 
9.2 


4 20.2 
4 31.1 
4 21.6 
4 19.5 
4 06.5 
4 04.7 


vv 
w 
w 

w 
w 
w 


10.6,11.4 
13.2,13 8 
13.7,14.5 
14.9,15.9 
16.9 


. 29472 
. 29378 
. 29380 
. 29370 
. 29269 


25 
28 
25 

28 
28 
28 




JWG 


Rio Claro 

San Fernando, A 

San Fernando, B 


11.2,11.5 
15.8,16.0 


41 
41 


36.6 N 
42.2 N 


EI 28 
EI 25 


JTH 
JWG 
JTH 










JTH 










JTH 

















ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN 
Ceylon 



Colombo, A 
Colombo, C . 



2 N 
2 N 



79 52 
79 52 



Oct 
Oct 



10. 



h 
14.0, 



h 

15.2 

9.6 



2 34 6 
2 35 2 



h 
16.7 
14.6 



4 12.4 S 
4 16.4 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




14 3,15.0 


. 38392 


13 


9.2 


. 38446 


13 



177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 



FB 
FB 



Comoro Islands 



Dzaoudzi 



12 47.2 S 



45 17 



Jul 



6, '21 



h 
11.2 



6 11 6 W 



h 
13.2 



46 09 . 2 S 



115 



c. g. s. 
. 25687 



13 



177. 2X 



FB 



Madagascar 



Diego-Suarez . . 

Boubavato 
Ampasimbaria. 

Vohemar 

Nosi Be * 

Anjala 

Sambava 

Andempona . . . 

Analalava 

Antalaha 

Manakabahiny 

Maroantsetra . . 

Rantabe 

Majunga, B . . . 

Andronadrona. 
Mandritsara . . . 



12 16.4 S 

12 29.7 S 

12 47.8 S 

13 21.2 S 
13 24.2 S 

13 52.8 S 

14 15.5 S 
14 35.6 S 
14 38.0 S 

14 53.6 S 

15 14.2 S 

15 26.2 S 
15 42.3 S 
15 43.4 S 

15 45.9 S 

15 50.8 S 



o 


, 


49 


16 


49 


27 


49 


39 


49 


59 


48 


18 


50 


06 


50 


08 


50 


10 


47 


45 


50 


15 


50 


03 


49 


43 


49 


38 


46 


19 


49 


12 


48 


49 



May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

Apr 

Jun 

Jul 

Apr 

Apr 



16, '21 

17, 21 
15, 21 
14, 21 
11, 21 

18, 21 
9, 21 
7, 21 
6, 21 

19, 21 
5. 21 

2, 21 

3, 21 
1, 21 

29, 21 

30, 21 
1, 21 

27, 21 

25, 21 



6.3, 7.6 
14.1 

6.7, 7.0, 

7.5,15.2 
13.2,14.5 
12.8,13.6 
15.0,16.2 

13.3 

14.0,14.8 

6.5, 7 9 



8.2 



4, 7.8 

8, 8.0 

2,11.7 

7,14.0 

8 to 18.2 (dv) 

5 

3, 9.6 



3 W 

4 W 
2 W 
8 W 
4E 
4 W 

6 W 

7 W 
6 W 
W 



6 12. 
6 50. 

5 47. 

6 35. 
6 35 
6 39. 
6 00 



h 
17.2 



12.6 
9.6 



16.7 
16.1 
10.8 
17.2 
11.2 
13.1 
10.1 
17.6 



9.2 

13.4 

9.8 



13.2 
11.3 



44 11.4 S 



44 49 . 4 S 

45 01. 8S 
45 55.2 S 
45 03.6 S 
45 44.2 S 
45 51.7 S 
47 13.8 S 
47 34.2 S 

47 27 . 3 S 

48 07 . 2 S 



48 52.6 S 

48 37.2 S 

49 50.5 S 



49 09 . 8 S 
49 31.3 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




6.7, 7.3 


. 25680 


13 


14.4 


.25364 


13 


7.3, 7.9 


.25480 


13 


8.0,14.9 


.24702 


13 


13.5,14.2 


.25316 


13 


13.1 


. 25077 


13 


15.3,15.9 


. 25392 


13 


13.6 


.24795 


13 


14.4 


. 24242 


13 


6.8, 7.6 


.24879 


13 


6.7, 7.5 


.24172 


13 


7.1, 7.7 


.23850 


13 


9.6,11.4 


.23868 


13 


13.0,13.7 


. 23349 


13 
13 
13 


10.9 


. 23670 


8.6, 9.3 


.23268 


13 



177.2X(78) 



177 
177 
177 
177 
177 
177 
177 
177 
177 
177 



2X 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 

2X(78) 



177 
177 

177 



2X(78) 
2X(78) 
2X(78) 



177 
177 



2X(78) 
2X(78) 



FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



93 



ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN 
Madagascar — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Pointe Sada 

Andranokelilalina 

Ambodivelatra 

Andilamena 


/ 

15 59.4 S 

16 20.8 S 
16 39.3 S 

16 43.5 S 

17 00.9 S 
17 22.4 S 
17 25.9 S 

17 49.4 S 

18 03.8 S 
18 09.6 S 

18 10.4 S 
18 11.1 S 
18 30.9 S 
18 56.8 S 
18 57.0 S 

18 57.1 S 

19 00.0 S 

19 12.9 S 
19 20.2 S 
19 42.2 S 

19 53.8 S 

20 05.2 S 
20 17.4 S 
20 17.7 S 
20 23.1 S 

20 23.5 S 

20 34.3 S 

21 03.7 S 

21 14.5 S 

21 21.1 S 
21 24.2 S. 

21 27.7 S 

21 48.4 S 

22 08.6 S 
22 18.2 S 

22 49.4 S 

23 20.8 S 
23 49.7 S 

23 54.5 S 

24 16.6 S 
24 37.1 S 
24 40.8 S 
24 41.2 S 

24 59.4 S 

25 00.4 S 
25 01.7 S 

25 02.1 S 
25 10.6 S 

25 19.1 S 
25 34.0 S 
25 37.1 S 


45 21 

48 50 
48 39 
44 27 

48 34 

49 23 
48 34 

48 24 

44 03 

49 24 

44 03 
44 07 
44 14 

48 14 

49 05 
48 12 
44 13 

44 26 
48 57 
44 32 
48 47 

48 19 
44 15 
44 15 
44 38 

48 15 
48 30 

44 56 

48 19 

43 31 

43 41 

44 20 

48 10 
48 02 
47 57 
47 49 
47 35 
47 31 
43 40 
47 18 
47 10 

43 55 

44 43 

45 09 

46 33 

44 04 

46 58 
46 02 

45 27 
45 30 
45 08 


Jun 26 
Apr 22 
Apr 21 
Jun 24 
Apr 19 
Sep 21 
Apr 17 
Apr 14 
Apr 15 
Jun 20 
Sep 15 
Sep 16 
Sep 24 
Sep 29 
Jun 21 
Jun 18 
Jun 17 
Apr 11 
Mar 21 
Apr 10 
Jun 15 
Jun 15 
Jun 13 
Mar 19 
Jun 11 
Mar 15 
Mar 16 
Mar 17 
Mar 13 
Jun 8 
Jun 8, 
Jun 5 
Jun 6, 
Mar 11 
Mar 9 
Mar 10 
Jun 1 
Jun 2 
Mar 3 
Mar 4 
May 26 
May 27 
May 28 
May 29 
May 30 
Feb 27, 
Feb 25, 
Feb 24 
Feb 21 
Feb 18, 
Feb 15, 
Jan 11 
Feb 13, 
Feb 11, 
Jan 14 
Jan 21 
Jan 23, 
Feb 3, 
Jan 15, 
Jan 16, 
Jan 17, 
Feb 8, 
Jan 31, 
Feb 1, 
Feb 2, 
Jan 29 , 
Jan 27, 
Jan 25, 


'21 
, 21 
, 21 
, 21 
21 
, 21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 


h h h 

13.5.14.8 

12.6,14.0 

6.7, 8.1 

7.3, 8.6 

10.6,12.4 

8.6 

12.6.13.9 

7.9, 9.3 

5.9 to 18.2 (dv) 
9.5,11.1 


o / 

6 24.6 W 
6 30.8 W 

6 58.4 W 

7 23.2 W 

6 42.3 W 
38.1 E 
3 43.4 W 

7 14.0 W 
7 11.4 W 
7 31.4 W 


h h 

16.2 

15.7 

9.3 .... 

10.4 

16.6 

7.9 

16.0 

10.9 


o / 

50 06.2 S 

49 58.1 S 

50 23.7 S 

51 17.2 S 

50 57.2 S 

52 52.3 S 

53 01.6 S 

51 45.5 S 


h It 
13.9,14.5 
12.9,13.7 

7.0, 7.8 

7.7, 8.4 
10.9,11.6 

9.4 

12.9,13.6 

8.2, 9.0 


c. g. s. 
. 23086 
. 23330 
.23062 
. 22504 
.22803 
.22180 
. 22694 
. 22334 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
Br. i 
13 
13 
13 
13 


177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

Brunner ' 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 


FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 
EC 


Imerimandroso 

Ambatondrazaka 


FB 
FB 
FB 


Maintirano, A 


15.2 

10.2 


53 03.0 S 
51 45.6 S 


10.0,10.8 


.21756 


177.2X(78) 
Brunner ' 


FB 
EC 




9.4 

15.5 

7.4 

10.3,11.1,14.6 


7 14.1 W 

6 50.8 W 

7 04.9 W 
7 34.7 W 


9.4 


.22275 


Br.> 
Br.' 
Br. 1 
13 


EC 










EC 














EC 




13.8 

11.6 

12.7 .... 
11.5 .... 

10.5 

10.7 

16.9 


52 48.6 S 

53 09 . 1 S 
53 34.7 S 
53 09.2 S 
53 01.7 S 
53 25.3 S 
53 58.8 S 


11.4 


.21941 


177.2X(78) 
177. 14X 
177. 2X 

177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(8) 
177.2X(78) 


FB 
FB 




12.3 

8.5,10.0 

6.8, 8.3 ...; 

6.9, 8.6 

6.0 to 14.1 (dv) 

14.5,15.9 

10.1,10.9 

9.3,10.6 

10.6,15.6 

14.8,16.1 

6.1 to 18.1 (dv) 


(8 10 W) 
8 15.8 W 
11 08.0 W 
8 35.6 W 
8 17.2 W 
8 13.4 W 
8 25.4 W 
4 29.4 W 

8 31.2 W 

9 18.0 W 
9 17.7 W 


8.8, 9.6 

7.2, 8.0 

7.3, 8.2 
14.9,15.6 


.21594 
.22016 
.21360 
.21209 


177 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


FB 


Moramanga, B 


FB 
FB 


Moramanga, A 


FB 
FB 




FB 




13.0 

13.8 

16.6 


54 13.1 S 
57 24.0 S 
54 43.8 S 


10.4 

9.6,10.3 
11.2,15.2 
15.2,15.8 


.21130 
. 20824 
. 20895 
.21588 


177. 2X 

177.2X(78) 
177.2X(7) 


FB 




FB 


Belo 


FB 




FB 








FB 




8.0 .... 

15.4 

10.3 

15.2 

15.9 


53 42.9 S 
53 24.4 S 
56 17.7 S 
56 16.8 S 
55 27.7 S 






177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177. 2X 
177.2X(78) 

177. 2X 
177. 2X 


FB 


Ambinanindrano 

Morondava, A 

Morondava, B 


12.7,14.1 

6.7, 8.4 

16.3,17.0 


9 52.8 W 
9 13.0 W 
9 27.0 W 


13.1,13.8 

7.1, 8.1 

16.6 


.21724 
. 20302 
. 20297 


13 
13 
13 


FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 




6.9, 8.2 

10.4,11.3 

6.4, 7.9 

10.2,11.6 

5.7 to 18.1(dv) 

9.6,11.0 

6.0 to 18.1(dv) 
8.8,10.2 


8 55.2 W 
11 26.8 W 

6 59.2 W 

9 30.4 W 
9 28.6 W 
9 01.3 W 

8 57.5 W 

9 45.8 W 


7.3, 7.9 
10.8 


. 20506 
.21674 


13 
13 


FB 


Soavina 


13.4 .... 

17.9 


54 00.5 S 

55 56.0 S 


FB 




FB 




6.8, 7.6 
10.6,11.3 


. 20562 
. 20266 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


FB 


Mandabe 


16.1 


56 01.2 S 


177.2X(78) 


FB 




FB 




16.5 


56 40.2 S 


10.0,10.7 


.20473 


177.2X(78) 


FB 




FB 




13.4 .... 

17.0 


56 38.5 S 
56 40.1 S 


9.2, 9.9 


.19913 


177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 


FB 




FB 




6.8 

14.6,16.0 


9 44.1 W 
9 34.4 W 


6.6 

14.9,15.7 


.19917 
. 19953 


13 
13 


FB 








177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177. 2X 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78)2 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 

177.2X(78) 


FB 




7.4 .... 

14.5 

10.9 

15.7 

16.0 

9.7 

18.3 

13.9 

14.3 .... 
18.3 

11.4 

14.0 

18.3 

17.8 .... 


56 32.1 S 

57 21.4 S 
57 11.7 S 

56 02.6 S 

57 17.4 S 

56 29.1 S 

57 11.6 S 

58 40.1 S 
58 09.9 S 

58 24.5 S 

59 22.0 S 
59 16.6 S 
59 19.5 S 
59 0.5.8 S 


FB 


Ambinany-Faraony. . . . 
Manakara 


9.4,10.8 

8.6, 9.5 

12.8 

10.7,14.3 

6.5, 8.0 

15.3,16.8 

9.4,10.8 

6.6, 8.2 

15.7,17.0 

7.9, 9.3 

6.7, 8.3 

15.3,16.6 

15.0,16.3 

17.0,18.4 .... 

5.8 to 18.1(dv) 


10 04.6 W 

11 39.2 W 
11 48.1 W 

13 41.6 W 
15 23.0 W 

14 46.2 W 

11 17.6 W 

12 23.8 W 
11 52.3 W 
11 55.5 W 
11 46.4 W 
11 42.2 W 
11 47.4 W 
11 53.1 W 
11 54.1 W 


9.8,10.5 

9.0 

13.2 

11.1,11.8 

6.9, 7.7 

15.8,16.5 

9.8,10.5 

7.0, 7.8 

16.0,16.7 

8.3, 9.0 

7.0, 7.8 

15.7,16.3 

15.3,16.0 

17.3,18.1 


. 20370 
. 19865 
. 20664 
. 20554 
. 20038 
. 20452 
. 18862 
.19158 
. 18988 
. 18636 
. 18658 
. 18556 
. 18667 
.,18323 


13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 


FB 
FB 




FB 


Farafangana 

Vangaindrano 

Manambondro 


FB 
FB 
FB 
FB 




FB 




FB 




FB 


Ampanihy 


FB 




FB 


Bevilany 


FB 


Androka 


FB 










FB 




17.6 

10.9 


59 55.5 S 
59 04.0 S 






177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 


FB 


Fort Dauphin 

Ambovombe 


7.6, 9.2 

15.8,17.3 

5.8 to 18.1(dv) 


12 01.4 W 
10 19.6 W 
10 24.0 W 


8.0, 8.8 
16.1,16.9 


.18716 
. 18306 


13 
13 
13 


FB 
FB 










FB 




6.7 .... 
10.5 .... 

14.9 

17.0 .... 


SO 18.0 S 
59 19.4 S 
80 50.2 S 
59 31.1 S 






177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 
177.2X(78) 


FB 


Tsihombe 

Faux Cap 

Cap Sainte Marie 


7.1, 8.5 

9.8,11.2 

14.1,15.0 


13 10.2 W 
11 57.9 W 
11 40.0 W 


7.5, 8.2 
10.2,10.9 
14.5 


. 18424 
. 17890 
. 18334 


13 
13 
13 


FB 
FB 
FB 



Zanzibar 



Zanzibar. 



6 10.1 S 



39 11 



Jul 10, '21 



h h 
7.2, 8.6 



4 21.4 W 



h h 
10.6 . . . 



35 30.2 S 



h h 
7.6, 8.3 



c. g. s. 

. 28474 



13 



177.2X(78) 



FB 



1 Brunner magnetometer and dip circle of the Tananarive Observatory. 



2 15X rejected. 



94 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 
ISLANDS, MEDITERRANEAN 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




/ 

37 06.4 N 
36 26.6 N 

35 19.3 N 
34 53.7 N 


O t 

25 23 
28 12 

25 09 
33 38 


Jul 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 


14, '22 

1, 22 

2, 22 
2, 22 

19, 22 

20, 22 

21, 22 

7, 22 


h h h 

7.8, 9.4 

6.1 to 18.3(dv) 
10.8,15.0 


o / 

2 16.5 W 
1 28.1 W 
1 28.0 W 


h h 
9.9,10.0 


o / 

51 22.6 N 


h h 
8.2, 9.0 


c. g. s. 
. 26408 


12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 


EI 7 


PHD 




PHD 




7.8, 8.1 
12.9,13.2 
11.2,11.4 


50 39 . 8 N 
50 38.5 N 
49 12.3 N 


9.5,10.4 

13.8,14.6 

9.3,10.2 

6.2 to 

17.9 (dv) 


. 26770 
.26798 
.27192 

. 27205 


EI 7 
EI 7 
EI 7 


PHD 
PHD 




8.8,10.5 

6.0 to 18.0(dv) 


2 35.8 W 
2 35.0 W 


PHD 




6.0 to 
17.6 (dv) 
13.3,13.5 


49 12.6 N 
48 53. 8 N 


PHD 




EI 7 
EI 7 






10.2,11.9 


06.8 E 


PHD 




10.7,11.6 


. 28298 


12 


PHD 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Bismarck Archipelago 



Rabaul . 



4 12.7 S 



152 12 



Dec 5, '21 
Dec 8, 21 



h h h 
10.1,11.7 ... 
10.5,14.6 ... 



6 10.4 E 
6 10.0 E 



h h 

14.1,14.3 

9.2, 9.4 



o 


/ 




19 


42 


4 S 


19 


42 


8 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




10.6,11.4 


. 36386 


24 


10.9,15.0 


. 36380 


24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 



Cook Islands 



Avarua (Tekeu), B*. . . 

Avarua (Coral Beach), 

C* 



Avarua* (Range Lights) 



21 11.4 S 
21 11.4 S 



21 11.5 S 



200 15 
200 15 



200 15 



Jul 


17, 


'22 


Jul 


10, 


22 


Jul 


10, 


22 


Jul 


12, 


22 


Jul 


13, 


22 


Jul 


13, 


22 


Jul 


15, 


22 


Apr 


16, 


22 


Jun 


19, 


22 


Jun 


20, 


22 


Jun 


21, 


22 


Jun 


22, 


22 


Jun 


22, 


22 


Jun 


27, 


22 


Jun 


30, 


22 


Jul 


3, 


22 


Jul 


3, 


22 



h h h 
10.6,12.7 ... 



10.0,11.8 

8.7,10.4 .... 

15.4,17.0 

7.0 to 18.0(dv) 

12.4,14.0 

10.4,10.6 

6.7 to 17.0(dv) 



6.8,17.2 

7.2 to 17.1(dv) 
6.9 to 18.0(dv) 



6.6,18.0 

7.0 to 17.7(dv) 



11 55.1 E 



12 33.4 E 

12 35.0 E 

12 36.0 E 

12 35.3 E 

11 56.2 E 

11 56.1 E 

11 58.0 E 



11 58.8 E 

11 57.7 E 
11 59.5 E 



11 58.8 E 
11 56.7 E 



h h 
13.8,14.0 

10.8,11.1 
13.4,13.6 



11.5,11.7 
11.1,11.3 



6.9 to 
17.1 (dv) 



5.8 to 
17.4 (dv) 



38 57.4 S 

38 34.4 S 
38 34.8 S 



38 58.6 S 
38 57.6 S 



38 58.2 S 



39 00 . 1 S 



h h 
11.0,12.1 



10.5,11.4 

9.2,10.0 

15.8,16.6 



12.9,13.7 
14.2,15.1 



7.2 to 
17.1 (dv) 



7.0 to 
17.7 (dv) 



c. g. s. 
. 32700 



. 32879 
. 32883 
. 32848 



.32726 
. 32688 



. 32679 



. 32698 



24 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



24 
24 
24 



24 
24 



EI 24 

EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 



DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 



Ellice Islands 



Nanomea Island 

Niutao Island 

Nanomana Island. . . 
Nui Island 

Vaitupu Island 

Nukufetau Island. . . 
Funafuti Island, B . . 

Funafuti Island, A . . 

Nukulailai 



5 40.4 S 

6 06.6 S 

6 17.6 S 

7 15.0 S 

7 29.2 S 

8 01.7 S 
8 31.2 S 

8 31.5 S 

9 22.1 S 



176 08 
i77 21 

176 20 

177 10 

178 41 

178 20 

179 11 

179 11 
179 50 



Sep 14, '21 

Sep 15, 21 

Sep 13, 21 

Sep 9, 21 

Sep 12, 21 

Sep 8, 21 

7, 21 

6, 21 

Sep 17, 21 

Sep 16, 21 

Sep 17, 21 

Sep 19, 21 



Sep 

Sep 



h h 
11.1,13.8 
13.1,14.9 
10.6,12.6 
13.8,15.2 
11.5,11.7 
10.2,13.1 
10.2,13.4 
13.3,16.2 



13.5,15.2 



10.8,14.0 



9 18.0 E 



9 02.7 

8 58.6 

9 16.1 
9 22.2 
9 09.2 
9 16.7 
9 15.3 



9 15.7 E 



8 51.4 E 



h h 
14.5,14.7 
11.1,11.3 
14.3,14.6 



10.6,10.9 
14.0,14.3 
14.2,14.4 



9.7,10.2 



12.8,13.0 
10.2,10.4 



16 34.2 S 
15 45.5 S 

17 00.4 S 



19 04.2 S 

19 02.6 S 

20 20.2 S 



21 14.9 S 



21 06.6 S 

22 27.8 S 



h h 


c. g. s. 




11.5,13.4 


. 35932 


24 


13.6,14.5 


. 36487 


24 


11.1,12.1 


. 36380 


24 


14.2,15.0 


. 36092 


24 
24 


10.7,11.6 


.36154 


24 


10.8,13.0 


. 36202 


24 


13.8,15.8 


. 35338 


24 

"24 
24 


14.0,14.8 


. 35350 


11.2,13.6 


. 36380 


24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



* Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



95 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Fiji Islands 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o r 

17 36.6 S 

18 08.4 S 


o / 

177 26 

178 26 


Oct 8, '21 
Oct 5, 21 


h h h 
7.6, 9.2 

14.5,16.1 


o / 

9 57.8 E 
10 38.6 E 


h h 
10.4,10.6 

16.7,17.0 


i 

38 01.0 S 
38 26.6 S 


h h 
8.0, 8.9 

14.9,15.7 


c. g. s. 
. 34784 

. 34864 


24 

24 


EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 


Suva, Dr. Klotz's Sta- 


DGC 










Hawaiian Islands 



Sisal, Honolulu Mag- 
netic Observatory, 
Pier A 



Sisal, A . 



21 19.2 N 



21 19.2 N 



201 56 



201 56 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



18, 


'21 


18, 


21 


19, 


21 


19, 


21 


21, 


21 


21, 


21 


21, 


21 


22, 


21 


22, 


21 


22, 


21 


22, 


21 


23, 


21 


23, 


21 


15, 


21 


15, 


21 


20, 


21 


20, 


21 


20, 


21 


20, 


21 


21, 


21 


25, 


21 


25, 


21 



8.7, 8.9, 9.4 
9.6,10.1,10.2 



7.9, 8.1, 
8.8, 9.2 



8.2 



9 56.3 E 
9 53.1 E 



10 00.5 E 
9 59.8 E 



9 59.2 E 



9.4,10.3 
10.8,14.0 
14.4,15.1 
9.1, 9.3 
9.4, 9.6 
9.8,10.0 

11.6 

9.7, 9.9 
11.0,11.2 



13.3,14.4 
14.9,15.3 
15.8,16.3 
16.8,17.2 



39 24.5 N 
39 24.2 N 
39 25.7 N 
39 25.7 N 
39 25.4 N 
39 25 . N 
39 25.5 N 
39 25.6 N 
39 24.4 N 



39 26.3 N 
39 28.2 N 
39 28.6 N 
39 29.0 N 



11.0,12.0 
15.2,16.0 
14.4,15.2 



10.4,11.0 



9.4,10.4 
13.9,14.8 



8.6, 9.5 
15.0,15.9 



c. g. s. 



. 28884 
. 28868 
. 28820 



.28810 



. 28790 
. 28806 



. 28832 
. 28808 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 



C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 
C VI 



Lord Howe Islands 



Lord Howe Island . 



31 31 



159 04 



Jan 12, '23 



h 
6.9, 



h 

7.7 



12 18.7 E 



h 
7.3, 



h 
7.4 



59 18.8 S 



h 
7.9 



c. g. s. 
. 28453 



24 



EI 24 



DGC 



Malay Archipelago 1 



Kudat 

Jesselton 

Sandakan 

Labuan 

Bandjermasin 

Makassar 

Weltevreden (Batavia) 
A 

Weltevreden (Batavia) 
C 



Weltevreden (Batavia), 
D 



6 53.3 N 
5 58.4 N 

5 51.7 N 
5 16.5 N 



3 19.7 S 

5 08.0 S 

6 11.0 S 
6 11.0 S 

6 11.0 S 



o 


, 


116 


50 


116 


09 


118 


25 


115 


17 


114 


35 


119 


25 


106 


50 


106 


50 


106 


50 



Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 



9, '23 

6, 23 

10, 23 
8, 23 

11, 23 

12, 23 
12, 23 

16, 23 

17, 23 

8, 23 

9, 23 
9, 23 



Oct 29, 23 

Oct 29, 23 

Oct 30, 23 

Nov 22, 23 

Oct 25, 23 

Oct 26, 23 

Oct 26, 23 

Nov 23, 23 

Nov 23, 23 

Nov 22, 23 



h 



9.6,11.0 

14.4,15.7 

8.7,10.0 

14.9,16.2 

7.0, 7.1 

8.9,10.1 

9.2, 10.4 

8.0, 9.4 

12.4,14.1 

8.0, 9.1 



15. 3 



21.2 to 22.6 (6) 



1 58.8 E 

2 00 . 3 E 
2 03.0 E 
2 00.4 E 
1 57.4 E 

1 58.8 E 

2 06.6 E 
2 05.6 E 
2 27.8 E 
2 24.2 E 



52.0 E 



h 
15. 1, 
9.0, 
16.0, 
10.4, 
16.5, 
10.5, 



h 
15.3 
9.2 
16.2 
10.6 
16.7 
10.7 



8.7, 8.9 



7.5, 
11.3, 



7.7 
11.5 



6 09 



S 

S 

8 S 

5 S 
4 S 

6 S 



24 46.2 S 



27 07 
27 04 



2 S 
5 S 



k I, 

15.6 

9 9,10.6 
14.7,15.9 

9.0, 9.7 
15.2,15.8 

9.1, 9.8 



9.5,10.2 

9.1 

14.4,15.0 
8.3, 8.9 



21.4,22.3 

23.0,23.8 

0.7, 1.5 

23.4,24.2 

20.0,21.0 
21.7,22.6 
23.4,24.2 
1.2, 1.9 
19.7,20.4 



c. g. s. 
. 39365 
. 39399 
. 39366 
. 39283 
. 39362 
. 39400 



. 38046 
. 38027 
. 37789 
. 37780 



. 36838 
. 36848 
. 36874 
. 36878 

. 36894 
. 36882 
. 36870 
. 36869 
. 36866 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



24 
24 

24 
24 

24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

24 



EI 24' 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 



1 The island of Java is included under this group instead of under the general heading, Islands, Indian Ocean, as in Volumes II and III of these Researches. 



96 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Malay Archipelago — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Weltevreden (Batavia) , 
E 


o / 

6 11 S 


o / 

106 50 


Oct 31, '23 
Nov 1, 23 


h h h 


o / 


h h 

22.8,23.0 
0.5 to 

1.8 (4) 


o / 

32 05.0 S 
32 04 . 6 S 


h h 


c. g. s. 




EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 






















DGC 













Marquesas Islands 





O f 

9 46.6 S 
9 48.6 S 


o / 

221 07 

220 58 


May 20, '22 
May 10, 22 

May 12, 22 


h h h 

10.1,15.3 

8.0,10.9 

6.5 to 17.8 (dv) 


O / 

8 49.7 E 

11 58 8 E 

12 08.4 E 


h 


h 


O 1 


h h 

10.6,14.9 

8.8,10.6 


c. g. s. 
. 33826 
. 32398 


24 
24 
24 




DGC 




15.4 


15.7 


21 43.4 S 


EI 24 


DGC 




DGC 

















New Caledonia (Including Loyalty Islands) 



Paagoumene 

Lifu Island (Keppanie) 



Mar6 Inland (Tatyn) . 

Bourail 

Noumea 



20 29.2 S 
20 46.8 S 



21 32.6 S 

21 37 S 

22 16.3 S 



o 


t 


164 


11 


167 


09 


167 


53 


165 


29 


166 


28 



Dec 


4, 


'22 


Dec 


5, 


22 


Nov 


17, 


22 


Nov 


18, 


22 


Nov 


20, 


22 


Nov 


21, 


22 


Nov 


15, 


22 


Dec 


9, 


22 


Nov 


28, 


22 


Nov 


29, 


22 


Nov 


30, 


22 



h h h 

15.1,16.6 

7.5, 9.0 

9.5,11.0 

5.8 to 18.0 (dv) 
5.4 to 17.5 (dv) 



12.6,14.0 

14.0,15.6 

7.1, 9.8 

7.9, 9.3 



9 22.7 E 
9 16.4 E 
9 55.7 E 
9 57.5 E 
9 58.0 E 



9 59.6 E 
10 30.8 E 
10 24 . 9 E 
10 25.3 E 



h h 
14.3,14.6 

9.4, 9.6 
15.4,15.6 



7.1 to 
17.6 (dv) 
15.9,16.1 
11.8,12.1 
13.2,13.4 
10.3,10.6 

7.4, 7.5 



45 48.0 S 
45 49.6 S 
45 31.5 S 



45 31.1 S 
47 02.8 S 

46 43.2 S 

47 23.0 S 
47 19.0 S 
47 23.0 S 



h 
15. 

7. 
9. 



h 
4,16.3 

8, 9.2 
9,10.7 



to 

(dv) 



5,15.2 
0,13.7 
4,15.2 
5, 9.4 
2, 9.0 



c. g. s. 
. 33623 
. 33648 
. 33604 



. 33606 



. 32737 
.33412 
.33196 
. 33226 
.33184 



24 
24 
24 
24 

24 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 

DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



New Guinea 



Mambare 

Tamata Junction 

Buna Bay 

Cape Nelson 

Ipoteto Island . . . 
Kwato Island. . . . 

Samarai, B 

Samarai, A 

Suau Island 



o / 


O / 


8 04.3 S 


148 01 


8 22.1 S 


147 50 


8 40.3 S 


148 25 


9 03.3 S 


149 17 


9 38.0 S 


150 01 


10 37.3 S 


150 38 


10 37.3 S 


150 40 


10 37.4 S 


150 40 


10 42.2 S 


150 15 



Jan 


2, 


'22 


Jan 


1, 


22 


Jan 


4, 


22 


Jan 


6, 


22 


Jan 


7, 


22 


Dec 


24, 


21 


Dec 


22, 


21 


Dec 


16, 


21 


Dec 


17, 


21 


Dec 


20, 


21 



h h 

14.4,15.8 
9.1,10.9 
7.3, 8.8 

12.4,14.7 



12.5,14.2 
14.5,16.2 
15.2,16.8 



10.2,11.7 



5 21. 8E 
5 17. 3E 

5 27.0 E 

6 24 . 8 E 



4 48.0 E 
8 40.0 E 
8 35.1 E 



5 21.1 E 



h h 


16.3,16.6 


15.9,16.1 


9.3, 9.5 


15.2,15.4 


17.4,17.6 


11.2,11.5 


16.7,16.9 


9.6, 9.9 


13.0,13.2 



O 


/ 




28 43.9 S 


29 


04 


7S 


29 


32 


4S 


29 


47 


7 S 


31 


13 


5S 


J2 


40 


6 S 


32 


44 


OS 


33 


12 


4S 


33 


14 


6 S 



h 


h 


c. g. s. 




14.8 


15.4 


. 36846 


24 


9.5 


10.5 


. 36720 


24 


7.7 


8.5 


. 36622 


24 
24 


13.1 


13.8 


. 36693 


24 


15.0 


15.8 


.37152 


24 


15.6 


16.5 


.38016 


24 


10.6 


11.4 


. 36598 


24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



New Hebrides 



Hog Harbor 
Luganville. . 
Ringdove. . . 
Fila 



15 09 S 

15 32 S 

16 38 S 

17 44.3 S 






/ 


167 


07 


167 


09 


168 


10 


168 


19 



Jan 1, '23 

Dec 20, 22 

Dec 19, 22 

Dec 23, 22 

Dec 26, 22 

Dec 27, 22 

Dec 28, 22 



9.6,10.4, 

14.2,15.2 

13.9,15.6 

8.7,10.3 

7.1, 8.7 

14.8,16.2 



15.4 



8 52.8 E 
11 19.3 E 

9 40 . 6 E 
9 36 . 6 E 
9 35.0 E 
9 41.0 E 



h 




h 




14 


6 


14 


8 


15 


9 


16 





15 


8 


16 





10 


8 


11 





15 


8 


16 





9 


1 


9 


3 


14 


3 


14 


5 



O 


/ 




37 


10 


6S 


57 


29 


8S 


40 


06 


6S 


40 


31 


S 


10 


34 


4 S 


40 


34 


2S 


40 


32 


7S 



h h 


c. g. a. 




15.4,16.1 


.35122 


24 


11.2,15.1 


. 35319 


24 


14.6 


. 33974 


24 


14.4,15.2 


. 34732 


24 


9.1,10.0 


. 34767 


24 


7.6, 8.4 


.34738 


24 


15.2,15.9 


. 34728 


24 



El 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



Samoa Islands 



Apia, Samoa Observa- 


/ 

13 48.4 S 


/ 

188 14 


Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 


1, '21 

1, 21 

2, 21 
5, 21 


h h h 


o / 


h 


h 


O 1 


h h 

10.9,11.8 
14.4,15.4 
10.6,11.6 


c. g. s. 

. 35264 
. 35244 
. 35259 


5 
5 
5 
5 




C VI 














C VI 














C VI 




9.8 to 11.6 (6) 


10 11. 8E 








CVI 

















Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



97 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Samoa Islands — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, A — Concluded. . 


' 

13 48.4 S 
13 48.4 S 

13 48.4 S 

13 48.4 S 
13 48.4 S 


O 1 

188 14 
188 14 

188 14 

188 14 
188 14 


Jul 
Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 

Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 
Jun 


6, 
6, 
6, 
7, 
12, 
12, 
13, 
13, 
13, 
13, 
15, 
15, 
15, 
15, 
16, 
18, 
18, 
19, 
19, 
19, 
19, 
20, 

1, 

2, 

5, 

7, 

8, 

8, 

11, 

11, 

11, 

12, 

12, 

13, 

13, 

13, 

15, 

15, 

16, 

18, 

18, 

18, 

19, 

19, 

20, 

7, 

8, 

8, 

9, 

11, 

12, 

12, 

12, 

13, 

13, 

15, 

20, 

23, 
24, 
24, 
25, 
25, 
26, 
28, 


'21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 

21 

21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 

21 

21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 

21 

21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 


h h h 


/ 


h h 


o / 


h h 

10.2,11.0 
13.2,14.0 

14.8 

9.8,10.6 
9.6,10.7 

11.7 

7.8, 9.0 

10.1 

11.6,12.2 

13.8 


c. g. s. 

. 35296 
. 35282 
.35246 
. 35257 
. 35259 
. 35243 
. 35226 
. 35236 
.35216 
. 35245 


24 

24 

24 

24 

25 

25 

25 

25 

5 

5 

. .24 




DGC 












DGC 














DGC 














DGC 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 




8.1, 8.2, 8.6 
8.8, 9.2, 9.3 

15.7,17.4 

15.8 to 17.4 (dv) 


10 12.9 E 
10 12.3 E 
10 13.6 E 
10 13. 8E 








DGC 












24 
24 
24 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




10.6,11.6 
14.4,14.8 
15.4,15.8 
10.4 (3) 
13.3,13.6 
14.0,14.2 
14.7,15.0 
9.5 to 
12.0 (6) 


30 01.6 S 
30 00.8 S 
30 01.4 S 
30 00.0 S 
30 00.2 S 
30 01.0 S 
30 01.0 S 

29 59.9 S 






EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 25 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 

EI 25 


C VI 




10.0,10.1,10.9 
11.1,11.6,11.8 


10 12.1 E 
10 12.5 E 






25 
25 


C VI 
C VI 
C VI 














DGC 














DGC 














DGC 






















C VI 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, B 


14.4,15.4 
10.6,11.7 


. 35244 
.35245 


25 

25 

25 

24 

24 

24 

24 

24 

25 

5 

5 

5 

5 

25 

24 

24 


C VI 














C VI 




9.8 to 11.6(6) 


10 12.3 E 


/ 






C VI 








14.0,14.9 
9.8,10.8 

12.8,15.1 


.35216 
. 35234 
. 35246 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




10.0,10.3,10.8 
11.0,11.6,11.8 


10 12.2 E 
10 11.3 E 








DGC 














DGC 








14.4,15.6 
9.5,10.7 

11.7 

7.7, 9.0 

10.1 

12.2,13.8 


. 35244 
. 35228 
. 35226 
. 35220 
. 35226 
. 35222 




C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 




10.2,10.4,10.9 
11.1,11.5,11.7 


10 12.0 E 
10 12.9 E 








DGC 














DGC 




10.7,11.6 


30 06.2 S 






EI 24 

EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 

EI 25 

EI 7 


DGC 




10.0 to 11.8(6) 


10 12.5 E 






5 


C VI 




14.4,14.9 

15.4,15.8 

9.8,10.9 

11.8 to 

15.0 (7) 

14.9 to 

17.1 (6) 


30 03.8 S 
30 04.6 S 
30 03.6 S 

30 02.8 S 

30 03.5 S 






DGC 














DGC 














DGC 






















C VI 


















C VI 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 


14.0,14.9 
9.8,10.8 

12.8,15 1 
9.7,11.0 


. 35278 
. 35248 
. 35260 
. 35257 


5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

24 

24 

5 

24 

24 

5 


C VI 














C VI 






C VI 














C VI 




10.0 to 11.8(6) 


10 08.7 E 








C VI 








9.6,10.8 
11.8 .... 
14.3,15.6 

7.8, 9.1 
10.1 .... 


. 35279 
. 35293 
. 35258 
.35272 
. 35280 




DGC 














DGC 














C VI 














DGC 














DGC 




10.2 to 11.7(6) 


10 09.0 E 








C VI 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, SB Pier 


14.9 to 
17.1 (6) 


30 04.2 S 






EI 25 










C VI 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, West Pier 2 


14.9,15.6 
14.3,15.0 

15.8 

10.1,10.8 

15.8,16.5 

9.3,10.0 

11.5,13.2 


. 35200 
.35212 
.35189 
. 35227 
. 35232 
.35199 
.35209 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 


E&C 




11.0,11.8 


10 08.0 E 








E&C 










E&C 




9.4, 9.7,11.2 


10 10.1 E 








E&C 










E&C 




9.0,10.4 

11.0,13.6 


10 09.8 E 
10 11.6 E 








E&C. 










DGC 













2 West Pier was examined before these observations and found to be magnetic. 



98 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Samoa Islands — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long" 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


Apia, Samoa Observa- 
tory, West Pier 2 — 


o / 

13 48.4 S 

14 13 S 
14 17.0 S 


O / 

188 14 

190 28 

189 19 


Jun 29, '21 
Jun 30, 21 
Jul 1, 21 
Jul 1, 21 
Jul 2, 21 
Jul 5, 21 
Jul 5, 21 
Jul 6, 21 

Jul 7, 21 
Jul 7, 21 
Jul 8, 21 
Jul 8, 21 
Jul 9, 21 
Jul 11, 21 
Jul 11, 21 
Jul 12, 21 
Jul 13, 21 
Jul 15, 21 
Jul 18, 21 
Jul 18, 21 
Jul 20, 21 
Aug 23, 21 
Aug 24, 21 
Aug 12, 21 
Aug 16, 21 


h h h 

10.8,12.2 

10.9 


o / 

10 08.6 E 
10 10.4 E 


h h 


/ 


h h 
13.4 


c. g. s. 
.35158 


24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 

5 
5 
25 
25 
25 
24 
25 
24 
24 
24 
5 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 




DGC 










DGC 








10.8,12.1 
14.4,15.3 
10.6,11.6 


. 35223 
. 35223 
. 35226 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




9.8,10.0,10.4 
10.6,11.4,11.6 


10 10.2 E 
10 09.8 E 








DGC 














DGC 








9.0 to 
13.9 (5) 

9.8,10.1 
14.0 

9.8,10.8 
12.8,15.1 

9.7,11.0 


. 35244 
.35214 
.35221 
. 35206 
.35212 
.35211 
















C VI 






C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














C VI 














DGC 




10.0 to 11.8(6) 


10 09.0 E 








C VI 








14.4,15.5 
14.3,15.6 
11.6,13.8 


. 35224 
.35218 
. 35224 




DGC 














DGC 














DGC 




8.1 to 9.3 (6) 
10.0,10.1,10.9 
11.1,11.6,11.8 


10 10.0 E 
10 11.3 E 
10 11.7 E 








C VI 














DGC 














DGC 








11.1,11.8 

7.8, 8.7 

10.8,11.9 

9.6,10.6 


.35218 

.34474 
. 36078 
. 36038 




DGC 




14.4,14.7 


9 36.8 E 


16.0,16.2 


30 54.2 S 


EI 24 


DGC 




DGC 








14.3,14.8 
14.1,14.5 


29 14.0 S 
29 14.8 S 


EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 




7.6, 7.9 


9 37.4 E 


DGC 



Society Islands 



Point Fareute, A*. 
Point Fareute, B. . 

Papeete* 

Papeete, Secondary 



/ 


o / 


17 31.5 S 


210 26 


17 31.5 S 


210 26 


17 31.8 S 


210 27 


17 31.8 S 


210 27 



Apr 


24, 


'22 


Jun 


12, 


22 


Jun 


13, 


22 


Apr 


25, 


22 


Apr 


25, 


22 



h h h 

9.4,11.3 . . . 



.6, 7.5 



9.7, 9.9 .. 



o / 

10 11.0 E 



10 15.9 E 



8 23.9 E 



h h 

13.6,13.8 

7.1 to 

17.5 (dv) 



10.6,10.8 



30 54.4 S 
30 55.8 S 



30 05.0 S 



h h 
10.1,11.0 



7.0 

13.6,14.4 



c. g. s. 
. 32377 



. 32378 
. 33277 



24 



24 
24 
24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 

DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



Solomon Islands 



Faisi Island 

Salicana Island . . 
Binskin's Station 
Gizo 

Makambo 

Tulagi 

Aola 

Rere 



7 04.4 S 
7 26.8 S 

7 47.5 S 

8 06.0 S 



9 04.9 S 
9 06.6 S 

9 31.2 S 
9 33.4 S 



o 


/ 


155 


53 


157 


40 


156 


35 


156 


51 


160 


12 


160 


11 


160 


30 


160 


39 



Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Dec 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 



16, 


'21 


18, 


21 


17, 


21 


15, 


21 


19, 


21 


1, 


21 


7, 


21 


23, 


21 


25, 


21 


9, 


21 


10, 


21 



h h 

9 . 7 , 11 . 5 

10.4,14.3 

8.0,10.1 



9.8,11.7 
7.8, 8.0 
10.7,14.5 
16.5,18.0 
9.9,11.4 
12.9,13.0 
11.1,13.4 



6 56.0 E 

7 04.2 E 
7 16.3 E 



00.1 E 
57.2 E 
41.6 E 
55.0 E 
52.8 E 
26.0 E 
41.8 E 



h h 


14.1,14.3 


9.6, 9.8 


11.4,11.6 


8.6, 8.9 


9.1, 9.3 


15.4,15.7 


15.6,15.8 


13.6,13.8 


10.9,11.2 


14.0,14.2 



25 11.0 S 

25 26.6 S 

26 32.2 S 



26 35.8 S 

26 35.6 S 
28 00.5 S 

27 23.2 S 

27 22.1 S 

28 34.6 S 
28 40.4 S 



h h 

10.2,11.2 

10.8,12.6 

8.5, 9.6 

9.0,10.2 

10.3,11.2 



12.1,14.0 
16.9,17.6 
10.2,11.1 
13.3 .... 
11.8,13.0 



c. g. s. 
. 36801 
. 36392 
. 36543 
. 36656 
. 36662 



. 36532 
. 36632 
. 36655 
. 36078 
.36144 



24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 



DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 
DGC 



Tokelau Islands 





o / 

8 32 . 2 S 

9 23.0 S 
11 03 S 


O / 

187 29 

188 45 
188 55 


Sep 21, '21 
Sep 22, 21 
Sep 23, 21 


h h h 


O / 


h h 
13.0,13.2 
13.0,13.2 
10.8,11.0 


O / 

18 37.8 S 
20 28.6 S 
25 49.6 S 


h h 
14.2,15.0 
10.3,11.1 

9.2, 9.9 


c. g. s. 
. 35356 
. 35303 
. 33990 


24 
24 
24 


EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 


Fakaof u Island 


9.8,11.5 

8.8,10.2 


8 43.6 E 

9 12. 5E 


DGC 
DGC 







Tonga Islands 





o / 

18 39 S 
21 07.6 S 


O / 

186 01 

184 47 


Sep 30, '21 

Oct 3, 21 


h h 
14.1,16.0 
10.8,11.6 


h 


O t 

10 47.4 E 

11 18.2 E 


h h 
13.2,13.4 
14.0,14.2 


O / 

37 58.6 S 
41 46.8 S 


h h 
14.6,15.6 
11.9,13.1 


c. g. s. 
. 34202 
. 33600 


24 
24 


EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 




DGC 







"Local disturbance. 



Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



99 



ISLANDS, PACIFIC OCEAN 
Tuamotu Archipelago 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 




o / 

14 48 S 

14 57 S 

15 49.4 S 
15 57.8 S 


O / 

221 10 

215 26 
219 07 
219 51 


May 25, '22 
May 26, 22 
May 3, 22 
May 31, 22 
May 29, 22 


h h h 
14.0,15.7 


/ 

9 45.6 E 


h h 


/ 


h h 
14.4,15.3 


c. g. s. 
. 33080 


24 




DGC 




8.0, 8.2 
10.6,10.8 

7.9, 8.1 
12.7,13.0 


24 56.1 S 
26 38.4 S 
26 47.0 S 
26 37 . 7 S 


EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 
EI 24 


DGC 


Tikei Island 












DGC 


Angatau Island 

Fakahina Island 


9.2,10.9 

8.8,11.2 


10 28.5 E 
10 14.2 E 


9.6,10.5 
9.9,10.8 


. 32992 
.33105 


24 
24 


DGC 
DGC 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea 



No. 351. 

No. 352. 
No. 350. 
No. 358. 
No. 353. 
No. 357. 
No. 359. 
No. 355. 
No. 354. 
No. 356. 
No. 239. 
No. 238. 
No. 234. 

No. 349. 
No. 348. 
No. 347. 
No. 235. 
No. 240. 

No. 233. 
No. 346. 

No. 241a 
No. 2416 
No. 237. 
No. 236. 

No. 345. 
No. 242. 
No. 243. 
No. 244. 

No. 232. 
No. 230. 
No. 344. 
No. 231 . 
No. 229. 

No. 329. 
No. 330. 

No. 328. 
No. 335. 
No. 336. 

No. 333. 
No. 337. 
No. 339a 
No. 332. 
No. 331. 
No. 334. 

No. 338. 

No. 327. 



76 44 

76 43 
76 41 
76 39 
76 39 
76 38 
76 36 
76 34 
76 34 
76 30 
76 17 
76 16 
76 12 



76 11 
76 09 
76 09 
76 09 
76 08 

76 07 
76 06 

76 06 
76 05 
76 04 
76 04 

76 02 
76 01 
76 00 
75 56 

75 56 
75 55 
75 54 
75 54 
75 52 

75 49 
75 49 

75 49 
75 48 
75 48 

75 48 
75 48 
75 48 
75 48 
75 48 
75 48 

75 48 

75 48 








/ 








N 


144 


09 


Jun 


25, '24 








Jun 


25 


, 24 


N 


144 


06 


Jun 


26 


, 24 


N 


145 


08 


Jun 


23 


24 


N 


139 


28 


Jul 


25 


24 


N 


144 


06 


Jun 


27 


24 


N 


140 


38 


Jul 


21 


24 


N 


139 


00 


Jul 


30 


24 


N 


144 


00 


Jun 


30 


24 


N 


144 


01 


Jun 


28 


24 


N 


143 


58 


Jul 


2 


24 


N 


163 


28 


Sep 


7 


23 


N 


163 


28 


Sep 


6 


23 


N 


163 


58 


Aug 


30 


23 








Aug 


30 


23 








Aug 


30 


23 


N 


146 


11 


Jun 


10 


24 


N 


149 


30 


Jun 


5 


24 


N 


149 


45 


Jun 


4 


24 


N 


164 


00 


Aug 


31 


23 


N 


163 


22 


Sep 


11 


23 








Sep 


11 


23 


N 


164 


05 


Aug 


27 


23 


N 


150 


26 


Jun 


3 


24 








Jun 


3 


24 


N 


163 


19 


Sep 


12 


23 


N 


163 


27 


Sep 


12 


23 


N 


163 


50 


Sep 


3 


23 


N 


164 


02 


Sep 


1 


23 








Sep. 


.1 


23 


N 


150 


49 


Jun 


2 


24 


N 


163 


26 


Sep 


14 


23 


N 


163 


26 


Sep 


15 


23 


N 


162 


59 


Sep 


17 


23 








Sep 


17 


23 


N 


164 


32 


Aug 


24 


23 


N 


164 


51 


Aug 


21 


23 


N 


152 


27 


May 


19 


24 


N 


164 


49 


Aug 


23 


23 


N 


164 


52 


Aug 


20 


23 








Aug 


20 


23 


N 


154 


04 


Apr 


11 


24 


N 


154 


06 


Apr 


14 


24 








Apr 


14 


24 


N 


154 


16 


Apr 


10 


24 


N 


154 


01 


Apr 


23 


24 


N 


154 


02 


Apr 


24 


24 








Apr 


24 


24 


N 


154 


03 


Apr 


18 


24 


N 


154 


03 


Apr 


25 


24 


N 


154 


04 


Apr 


30 


24 


N 


154 


05 


Apr 


17 


24 


N 


154 


07 


Apr 


16 


24 


N 


154 


07 


Apr 


21, 


24 








Apr 


21, 


24 


N 


154 08 


Apr 


28, 


24 








Apr 


28 


24 


N 


154 


42 


Apr 


9, 


24 



h h 

16.8,17.3 

18.0 

17.0 

10.8 

9.4,11.2 



14.7,16.7 

9.6,11.6,15.3 



17.4 
17.1 



17.1 



17.6 
16.7 



17.2 



16.3 

17.6 

9.8 

17.1 



17.0 
16.7 



9.1 


2 


21. 9E 


16.2 





36 E 


9.8 

9.0 


4 
5 


48.9 E 
19.6 E 






16.9 

10.0 

17.1 


6 

6 


06 . 5 E 
36 E 

12.6 E 


16.9 

16.7 


6 22.4 E 
3 04 . 7 E 


16.8 


3 


41. 9E 


17.3 


3 


36.1 E 






16.6 

17.8 

17.9 


3 
3 
3 


40.9 E 
51.8 E 
45. 8E 


17.6 


3 


33.9 E 


17.0 


3 


04.7 E 



1 30 E 
1 29 . 9 E 
1 09.1 E 

17 E 

1 16 E 



16 E 

1 07 E 



1 26.4 E 
1 04.7 E 



5 59.4 E 



17 E 
3 34.4 E 



7 23.1 E 



31 E 
40 . 9 E 
7 21.3 E 
5 52.7 E 



3 39 . E 
2 30 . 7 E 



h 
10.6 



10.5 
10.2 
15.7 
10.5 
10.1 



9.9 



15.2 
16.7 



10.4 
10.1 



10.0 



10.8 
10.1 



10.2 
10.3 



10.0 



10.6 
10.1 



10.2 



10.0 
10.5 



10.9 
10.9 



10.5 
11.3 
10.1 



84 32.3 N 



84 44 . 3 N 
84 28.9 N 
84 29 . 8 N 
84 44 . 3 N 
84 25.8 N 



83 36.5 N 



83 27.0 N 
83 28.1 N 



84 07 . N 
83 47.7 N 



83 43.0 N 



83 23 N 
83 45.6 N 



83 13.0 N 



83 16.2 N 
82 34 . 7 N 



82 46 . 9 N 

83 01.0 N 



82 57.3 N 



83 41.8 N 
83 47.7 N 



83 29.0 N 
83 27.3 N 



83 27.9 N 
83 31.7 N 
83 29.1 N 



h h 
10.6 .. . 



10.5 
10.2 
15.7 
10.5 
10.0 



9.8 



9.8,11.0 

15.2 

16.7 

10.4 

10.1 



10.0 



10.8 
10.1 



10.2 



10.3 
10.0 



10.5 
10.1 



10.2 



10.0 



10.5 



10.9 

10.9 



15.7,17.0 
10.6 



11.3 
10.1 



c. g. s. 

.05557 



. 05876 
.05619 
. 05626 
.05384 
. 05668 



. 06453 



.06564 
.06612 
.06602 
. 05999 
. 06337 



. 06481 



. 06696 
. 06350 



. 06867 
.06816 



. 07629 



. 07325 
. 07053 



.07118 



.06441 
.06311 



. 06651 
.06683 



.06779 
. 06656 



.06616 
. 06667 



205 
8 



205 
205 
205 
205 
205 
8 



205 
206 
205 



205 
205 



205 

8 

205 

205 

206 

8 

8 

205 



205 
8 

205 
8 



205 

8 

205 

205 

8 



205 
8 
8 



205.236 



205.236 
205.236 
205.236 
205.236 
205.236 



205.123 



205.123 
205.67(3) 



205.2367(3) 
205.236 



205.123 



205.123 
205.236 



205.123 
205.123 



205.12 



205.123 
205.123 



205.123 



205.236 
205.236 



205.263 
205.17(3) 



205.236 
205.236 
205.236 



s&w 

FM 

FM 

HUS 

HUS 

OW 

HUS 

S&W 

OW 

FM 

FM 

OW 

FM 

S&W 

OW 

OW 

OW 

OW 

FM 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

S&W 

FM 

FM 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

FM 

FM 

OW 

OW 

FM 

HUS 

FM 

OW 

FM 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

OW 

FM 

S&M 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

FM 

OW 

FM 

FM 



100 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea— Continued 



Station 


Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No. 326 


o / 

75 48 
75 47 
75 46 
75 46 
75 46 
75 46 

75 46 
75 43 

75 42 
75 38 

75 38 
75 36 
75 35 
75 34 
75 34 
75 33 
75 32 
75 31 

75 31 

75 30 

75 29 
75 29 
75 28 
75 28 
75 27 
75 26 
75 25 
75 25 
75 24 

75 24 
75 23 
75 23 
75 23 
75 22 
75 22 
75 22 
75 21 
75 21 
75 21 

75 21 
75 20 
75 20 
75 19 
75 19 
75 19 
75 18 

75 18 
75 18 
75 17 
75 17 
75 17 

75 17 
75 17 
75 17 
75 16 
75 16 

75 16 
75 16 
75 15 

75 15 

75 15 


N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 


O 

155 02 
165 04 
153 53 
153 54 

153 54 

162 54 

165 18 

155 38 

154 44 

166 29 

166 38 
166 37 
164 18 
164 12 
166 33 

164 57 

165 00 

164 45 

166 31 

166 39 

163 40 

165 28 

164 30 

165 41 

164 55 

166 45 

163 44 

165 10 

164 38 

167 06 
158 03 

165 25 

167 28 
158 00 
158 02 
167 19 
157 47 
164 32 

166 52 

166 53 

157 51 

158 04 

156 22 

157 55 

158 29 
158 04 

158 34 
158 38 
156 26 
158 01 
158 05 

158 15 

159 16 
164 32 
156 30 
156 46 

158 35 
158 59 
158 16 

158 57 

159 11 


Apr 

Aug 

May 

May 

May 

Sep 

Sep 

Aug 

Apr 

Apr 

May 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Sep 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jul 

Sep 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Dec 

Jun 

Jul 

Dec 

Dec 

Jul 

Apr 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Jul 

Apr 

Dec 

Jan 

Apr 

Dec 

Mar 

Mar 

Dec 

Dec 

Jan 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Nov 

Jun 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Mar 

Dec 

Mar 

Mar 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Nov 


8 

15 

15 

12 

14 

21 

21 

11 

7 

7 

5 

6 

6 

3 

2 

7 

6 

1 

12 

13 

3 

3 

17 

31 

31 

24 

27 

20 

26 

21 

30 

25 

22 

10 

10 

20 

29 

23 

23 

27 

28 

21 

4 

18 

26 

26 

27 

3 

31 

24 

2 

20 

24 

24 

21 

22 

25 

31 

28 

28 

26 

17 

17 

26 

21 

21 

1!) 

5 

22 

22 

7 

7 

19 

19 


'24 
, 23 
, 24 
, 24 
, 24 
, 23 
, 23 
, 23 
, 24 
, 24 
, 24 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
, 23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
23 
24 
24 
23 
24 
24 
2.3 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
23 


h h h 

16.2 

18.0 

16.1 

16.7 


o / 

1 52.4 E 
6 00 . 3 E 

2 28.6 E 
2 22.0 E 


h h 


o t 


h h 


c. g. s. 


g 




FM 


No. 228 










8 

8 

206 

205 

8 

205 

205 

205 

8 

206 

205 

8 

206 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

206 

8 

206 

205 

205 

205 

205 

205 

205 

205 

8 

8 

205 

205 

8 

206 

8 

205 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

205 

8 

8 

205 

205 

8 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

8 

205 

8 

8 

205 

206 

8 




FM 


No. 343 












FM 


No. 341 












HUS 


No. 342 


10.2 


83 39.5 N 


10.2 


. 06 463 


205.236 


OW 
FM 


No. 245 


9.0 


5 17.0 E 




10.3 

10.2 

9.8 


82 44 . N 

82 55.7 N 

83 05.8 N 


10 . 3 

10.2 

9.8 


. 07372 
.07141 
. 07062 


205.123 
205.123 
205.236 

205.236 
205.123 

205.123 


OW 


No. 227 






OW 
OW 


No. 325 








16.2 


2 21.1 E 


FM 


No. 340 


14.8 

10.9 


82 56.3 N 
82 47 . 2 N 


14.8 

10.9 


. 07236 
. 07269 


OW 
OW 
FM 


No. 226 








16.9 


8 58.8 E 


No. 225 


10.3 


82 49.6 N 


10.3 


.07232 


OW 


No. 224 


17.6 

9.7 

17.9 

17.9 

17.1 

18.1 


9 20 . 8 E 
5 53.4 E 
5 33 E 
8 40.3 E 

5 57.6 E 

6 39 E 


FM 


No. 211 












FM 


No. 210 


10.2 


82 42.9 N 


10.2 


. 07387 


205.123 


W&M 




FM 














FM 


No. 214 


11.2 

10.4 


82 43.4 N 
82 40.9 N 


11.1 

10.4 

15.6,16.9 

10.4 

11.1 

11.1 

10.2 


. 07323 
. 07386 
.07409 
. 07306 
. 07329 
. 07326 
. 07376 


205.123 
205.123 


W&M 


No. 209 


OW 








HUS 


No. 215 






10.4 

11.1 

11.1 

10.2 


82 47.4 N 
82 45.3 N 
82 45.2 N 
82 41.6 N 


205.123 
205.123 
205.67(3) 
205.123 


HUS 


No. 222 






OW 








OW 


No. 246 






OW 




18.0 

21.0 

17.9 

18.2 

17.5 

9.1 


7 18 E 

5 46 E 

7 22 E 

6 00 E 

8 14.9 E 
5 23.6 E 


FM 


No. 203 












HUS 


No. 207 


10 . 6 


82 45.6 N 


10 . 6 


. 07281 


205.123 


S&W 




HUS 


No. 221 












FM 


No. 247 


10.7 

10.7 




10.3,11.5 
10.7 

10.7 


.07404 
. 07360 
. 07394 




S&M 


No. 205 


82 41.2 N 
82 40.1 N 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 212 






OW 




17.3 


5 40.3 E 


FM 


No. 2 16 


10.7 


82 35 . 1 N 


10.7 


. 07491 


205.123 


OW 


No. 286 


12.2 

17.8 

17.1 

12.4 


2 19.0 E 

7 14 E 
6 45.7 E 
2 20.1 E 


FM 


No. 206 












HUS 


No. 218 












FM 


No. 284 












FM 


No. 285 


15.5 


82 43.6 N 


15. 5 .... 


.07377 


205 . 123 


OW 


No. 217.. 


18.1 

16.4 


6 12.3 E 
2 17.3 E 


FM 


No. 324 












FM 


No 202 


10.8 

10.7 


82 37.3 N 
82 33.2 N 


10.7 

10.7 


. 07440 

. 07630 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 219 . .... 






OW 




17.5 


6 33.1 E 


FM 


No. 220 






10.7,11.9 

9.8 

11.6 .... 
10.4,11.7 


.07488 
. 07293 
. 07290 
.07373 




HUS 


No 323 . 






9.8 

11.6 .... 


82 46.7 N 

82 47 . 4 N 


205.236 
205.123 


OW 


No. 287. . . 






HUS 


No. 297 


10.4,11.7 

15.6 

15.1 


1 27.8 E 

2 10.4 E 

2 38.8 E 


HUS 


No. 322 








FM 


No. 281 






10.1,11 6 
10 . 4 


.07383 
. 07350 




S&M 


No. 318. . . 


10.4 


82 43.4 N 


205.236 


OW 




15.6 


2 01.8 E 


FM 


No 282 . . . 


10.3 


82 43.1 N 


10.3 


. 07366 


205.123 


OW 


No. 283. . . 


12.8 


2 33.3 E 


FM 


No. 298... 


10.3 


82 46.2 N 


10.3 


. 07294 


205 . 236 


OW 


No. 321 


15.8 


2 04.1 E 


FM 


No. 320 


10.0 


82 43.7 N 


10.0 


. 07338 


205.236 


OW 




15.7 

15.7 

8.9 

17.7 

9.0 


2 26.4 E 
2 19.0 E 
2 57.8 E 
5 38.3 E 
1 20.2 E 


FM 


No. 319 






10.0,11.7 


.07356 




S&M 


No. 266 








FM 


No. 201 












FM 


No. 299... 








. 07346 




FM 


No. 296. .. 


10.4 


82 43.6 N 


10.4 


205.236 


OW 




14.9 

15.3 

9.1 


1 35.5 E 

2 20.4 E 

3 20.0 E 


FM 


No. 316 












FM 


No. 274 












FM 


No. 317. .. 


10.4 


82 42.2 N 


10.4 


. 07360 


205.236 


OW 




15.3 

9.0 


2 07.4 E 
2 51.2 E 


FM 


No. 275 












FM 




10.8 

10.2 


82 38.2 N 
82 40.0 N 


10.7 

10.2 


. 07453 
.07417 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 267 






OW 




16.4 


2 55.6 E 


FM 












1 





Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



101 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No 268 


o / 

75 15 
75 15 
75 15 
75 15 
75 14 
75 14 
75 14 

75 14 

75 13 
75 13 

75 13 
75 13 
75 13 

75 13 
75 13 

75 12 

75 12 

75 12 

75 12 
75 12 

75 12 
75 11 

75 11 
75 11 
75 10 
75 10 
75 10 
75 10 

75 10 
75 09 
75 08 
75 08 

75 07 

75 06 

75 06 
75 05 
75 05 

75 05 
75 05 
75 05 
75 04 

75 04 

75 04 
75 04 
75 03 
75 03 
75 02 
75 02 
74 58 

74 58 
74 57 
74 57 
74 56 
74 55 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 
N 

N 

N 

N 

N' 

N 

N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 

N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 


O / 

159 20 
159 27 
159 31 
159 35 
158 46 

158 50 

159 14 

163 55 

156 32 
156 36 

156 38 
156 45 

158 45 

159 02' 
159 02 

156 57 

158 38 

158 47 

159 01 

159 42 

164 40 

157 39 

158 37 

158 45 
157 20 
157 21 
157 21 
157 23 

157 38 

160 40 
157 30 

159 39 

159 00 
159 27 

164 48 

157 47 
159 01 

161 20 

162 55 
164 44 
159 01 

159 22 

164 41 
164 43 
161 40 
161 43 

161 46 

162 44 

158 46 

164 15 
158 22 

164 20 

165 00 
165 24 


Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Sep 

Sep 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Dec 

Nov 

Nov 

Jun 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Feb 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Nov 

Jan 

Nov 

Nov 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Jun 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Nov 

Oct 

Jun 

Mar 

Mar 

Feb 

Feb 

Jun 

Jun 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Oct 

Jan 

Jan 

Oct 

Jan 

Oct 

Jun 

Jun 


21, 

23 

24 

16 

18 

17, 

3 

3 

28, 

28 

31, 

28, 

28, 

1, 

2, 

17, 

17, 

12, 

13, 

13, 

4, 

4, 

4, 

14, 

14, 

10, 

10, 

14, 

26, 

26, 

15, 

8, 

8, 

12, 

12, 

16, 

18, 

19, 

14, 

14, 

6, 

12, 

12, 

30, 

30, 

22, 

22 

3, 

3, 

13, 

11, 

19, 

19, 

9, 

18, 

11, 

7, 

7, 

25, 

25, 

7, 

8, 

5, 

6, 

7, 

19, 

7, 

7, 

1, 

9, 

15, 

4, 

1, 


'23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
24 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
23 
24 
23 
23 
23 


h h h 


/ 


h h 


/ 


h h 
10.4,11.9 
10.2 


c. g. s. . 
.07455 
. 07369 


8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
206 
205 

8 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 

8 
205 
205 
206 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 

8 
205 

8 
205 
205 

8 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 

8 
205 

8 

8 
205 
205 

8 
205 

8 

8 
206 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 
205 

8 
206 

8 

8 
206 

8 
205 

8 
205 

8 
205 
205 

8 
206 
205 
206 




HUS 


No 269 






10.2 


82 42.0 N 


205. 123 


OW 


No 270 


9.0 


2 57.3 E 


FM 


No. 265 


10.4 


82 38.6 N 


10.4 


. 07482 


205.123 


OW 


No 280 


14.8 


2 39.6 E 


FM 


No. 279 


10.5 


82 44 . 5 N 


10.5 


. 07350 


205,123 


OW 


No 273 


9.0 


2 58.2 E 


FM 




10.6 

10.0 


82 38.7 N 
82 43.0 N 


10.5 

10.0 


.07444 

. 07382 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 248... . 






OW 




15.7 

9.0 


5 26.9 E 
1 29.7 E 


FM 


No. 301 . . 












FM 


No. 300. . . 


10.3 


82 41.8 N 


10.3 


. 07381 


205.236 


OW 




17.7 


1 26.4 E 


FM 


No 302a . . 


10.4 


82 41.0 N 


10.3 


. 07455 


205.236 


OW 


No 3026 . . 


8.9 


1 32.2 E 


FM 


No 315 


10 . 5 


82 38.0 N 


10.4 


. 07442 


205.236 


OW 




15.4 

9.0 


2 22 . 9 E 

2 44 . 7 E 


FM 


No 276 












FM 


No. 277 


11.1 

11.2 .... 
11.2 

11.3 .... 


82 37.3 N 
82 36.9 N 
82 42.3 N 
82 41.7 N 


11.1 

11.1 

11.2 .... 

11.3 .... 
15.8,17.0 
10.7 .... 


.07472 
. 07480 
. 07380 
.07417 
.07378 
.07419 


205.123 
205.67(3) 
205.123 
205.67(3) 


OW 








OW 


No. 303 






OW 








OW 




17.9 


1 42.8 E 


S&M 


No. 314 


10.7 


82 38.6 N 


205.236 


OW 




20.3 


2 20.4 E 


FM 


No. 312 


10.7 


82 38.4 N 


10.7 


. 07422 


205.236 


OW 




19.6 

15.0 


2 19. 8E 
2 42.4 E 


FM 


No. 278 












FM 


No. 271 


10.3 


82 38.7 N 


10.3 


. 07442 


205.123 


OW 




16.5 


2 55.4 E 


FM 


No. 200 


9.8 .... 
10.5 


82 34 . N 
82 37.8 N 


9.8 .... 
10.5 


. 07501 
. 07605 


205.123 
205 . 236 

205.236 

205.236 
205 . 236 


OW 


No. 305 






OW 




17.4 

20.4 


2 08. 8E 
2 13. 2E 


FM 


No. 313 










FM 


No. 306 


10.6 


82 35.0 N 


10.6 


. 07553 


OW 


No. 293 


17.7 


1 51. 5 E 


FM 


No. 294 


10.5 


82 37 . 2 N 


10.5 .... 


. 07456 


OW 


No. 295 


8.9 


1 57.8 E 


FM 


No. 292 


10.4 . . . 


82 41.0 N 


10.4 


. 07384 


OW 




14.8 

17.6 


1 47.5 E 

2 10. 2E 


FM 


No. 304 












FM 


No. 264 


10.3 .... 


82 28.3 N 


10.3 


. 07607 


205.123 


OW 


No. 291 


9.0 

9.0 


1 59.5 E 

2 54. 8E 


FM 


No. 272 












FM 




10.6 

10.2 .... 


82 31.6 N 
82 33 . N 


10.6 

10.2 .... 


. 07564 
. 07624 


205 . 123 
205 . 236 


OW 


No. 308 






OW 




17.9 


2 31 . 5 E 


FM 


No. 310 


10.3 


82 29.3 N 


10.3 


.07578 


205 . 236 


OW 




19.8 

9.4 


2 48.4 E 
6 21.0 E 


FM 


No. 199 












FM 


No. 290 


10.4 

10.6 


82 32.9 N 
82 32.4 N 


10.4 .... 
10.6 


. 07526 
. 07602 


205.236 
205.236 


OW 


No. 307 






OW 




17.9 


2 28.0 E 


FM 




10.3 


82 26 . 1 N 


10.2 


. 07645 


205.123 


OW 


No. 255 


18.3 


4 42.8 E 


FM 


No. 198 


17.3 .... 
11.0 


82 22.3 N 
82 33.7 N 


17.3 

10.9 


. 07705 
.07499 


205.123 
205.236 


OW 


No. 311 






OW 




20.9 


2 27.9 E 


FM 


No. 309 


10.4 


82 28.7 N 


10.3 


. 07666 


205.236 


OW 




19.8 

17.3 

17.7 


2 54 . 3 E 

5 3i?8E 

3 57.4 E 


FM 


No. 196 












FM 


No. 197 

No. 260 


15.9 

10.4 


82 11.0 N 


15.9 


. 07886 


205.123 


OW 
FM 


No. 261 


82 22 . 8 N 


10.4 


.07697 


205.123 


OW 


No. 262 


18.0 


3 59.2 E 


FM 


No. 256 


10.0 


82 13.3 N 


10.0 .... 


. 07885 


205.123 


OW 


No. 288 


9.7 


2 14.2 E 


FM 




15.5 

9.9 


82 29.4 N 
82 14 . 1 N 


15.5 

9.9 


. 07585 
. 07844 


205.236 
205.123 


OW 


No. 249 






OW 


No. 289 


9.4 


2 02.9 E 


FM 


No. 254 


9.9 .... 

10.4 

10.7 


82 08.9 N 
82 10.4 N 
82 12.6 N 


9.9 .... 

10.5 

10.7 .... 


.07916 
.07892 
. 07862 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 195 






OW 


No. 194 






OW 











102 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Oba'r 


No 193 


O 1 

74 55 
74 54 

74 53 
74 50 

74 49 
74 47 

74 45 
74 45 

74 45 
74 43 
74 43 
74 42 

74 42 

74 41 

74 41 
74 40 
74 40 
74 39 
74 39 

74 39 
74 39 

74 38 
74 38 
74 38 
74 29 

74 27 
74 26 
74 26 
74 26 
74 26 
74 25 
74 24 
74 24 

74 22 
74 21 
74 20 
74 20 
74 20 
74 20 

74 20 

74 19 

74 17 

74 16 
74 13 
74 13 
74 12 
74 11 
74 10 
74 10 
74 10 
74 10 
74 10 
74 10 
74 10 
74 09 

74 07 
74 06 
74 06 


N 

N 

N 
N 

N 

N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 


/ 

165 31 
162 10 

161 58 
165 42 

162 23 
165 49 

154 26 
165 00 

165 00 

166 20 
166 24 
166 09 

166 22 
166 10 

166 20 
166 09 
166 09 

165 30 

166 13 

166 14 
166 34 

165 40 

166 18 

166 20 

167 26 

168 56 
167 51 
167 51 
167 50 

167 52 

168 46 

168 35 

169 04 

168 31 
168 31 
168 25 
168 26 
168 28 
168 32 

168 35 

168 28 

169 59 

169 30 
169 43 
169 55 
169 46 
169 42 
169 38 
169 45 
169 49 
169 52 

169 58 

170 03 
170 04 
170 13 

170 05 
170 05 
170 16 


May 31, 
Oct 22 
Oct 22 
Oct 26 
Oct 12 
Oct 12 
Oct 23 
May 29 
May 29 
May 1 
Oct 5 
Oct 5 
Oct 5 
May 8 
May 7 
May 11 
May 11 
May 4 
May 14 
May 14 
May 14 
May 2 
May 25 
May 25 
Oct 8 
May 22 
May 22 
May 24 
Apr 30 
Apr 30 
Oct 9 
May 18 
May 19 
Apr 27 
Apr 27 
Mar 28 
Apr 20 
Apr 23 
Apr 25 
Apr 21 
Mar 30 
Apr 2 
Mar 26 
Mar 26 
Apr 4 
Apr 18 
Apr 12 
Apr 13 
Apr 11 
Apr 6 
Apr 6 
Apr 9 
Apr 9 
Apr 16 
Apr 16 
Feb 20 
Feb 20 
Mar 24 
Mar 23 
Feb 19 
Mar 21 
Mar 20 
Mar 19 
Mar 17 
Mar 16 
Mar 8 
Mar 13 
Feb 23 
Mar 12 
Mar 10 
Mar 10 
Feb 24 
Feb 17 
Feb 12 


'23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

24 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

23 

, 23 

, 23 

■ 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

, 23 

23 


h h h 
17.2 


o / 

6 29 . E 


h h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


8 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 

8 

205 

8 

206 

205 

205 

8 

205 

8 

206 

8 

205 

205 

205 

8 

8 

8 

205 

205 

205 

8 

8 

205 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

8 

205 

206 

8 

8 

205 

205 

205 

8 

8 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

206 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 

8 

8 

206 

8 

8 

205 

8 

205 

205 

8 




FM 


No 257 


10.3 


82 20.5 N 


10.3 


.07731 


205.123 


OW 




17.4 


3 33.5 E 


FM 


No 259 


10.1 

10.4 


82 10.5 N 
82 03.0 N 


10.1 .... 
10.4 


.07896 
.08028 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 253 






OW 




18.1 

17.5 


5 37.1 E 
3 50.7 E 


FM 


No 258 












FM 


No 192 


11.6 


82 02.0 N 


11.6 


.08022 


205.123 


OW 




17.3 


6 03.0 E 


FM 


No 3396 


10.3 

11.3 .... 
11.3 


83 31.6 N 

82 04 . 8 N 
82 04.4 N 


10.3 

11.2 

11.2 

10.5,11.8 
11.5 


. 06609 
.07977 
. 07984 
.07974 
. 08091 


205.236 
205.123 
205.67(3) 


OW 


No 250a . , 






OW 








OW 


No 250b 






HUS 


No 184 






11.6 


81 57.8 N 


205.123 


OW 


No 183 


16.6 


5 44.4 E 


FM 


No 185 


11.1 


82 00.1 N 


11.0 .... 


. 08051 


205.123 


OW 




17.0 


5 33.1 E 


FM 


No 182 


10.6 

10.7 

10.7 .... 


82 05.6 N 
81 59.2 N 
81 58.9 N 


10.6 

10.6 

10.6 


. 07948 
.08077 
. 08074 


205.123 
205.123 
205.67(3) 


OW 


No 186 






OW 




16.6 

16.7 


5 40.8 E 
5 43.8 E 


OW 
FM 


No 181 












FM 


No 19 la .... 






10.1,11.4 

10.9 

10.0 

10.4 


.08080 
. 08077 
. 08084 
. 08043 




HUS 


No. 1916 (tent) 

No 251 






10.9 

10.1 

10.4 


81 58.3 N 
81 59.2 N 
81 59 . 7 N 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


OW 






OW 


No 189 






OW 




17.0 

17.5 


5 35.0 E 
5 41.6 E 


FM 


No 190 












FM 


No 180 


10.0 


82 01.5 N 


10.0 


.08015 


205.123 


OW 




16.6 

20.6 


5 48.6 E 
4 56.4 E 


FM 


No 252 












FM 


No 187 . . 


10.3 


82 03.9 N 


10.3 


. 07991 


205.123 


OW 


No 188 


17.4 


5 40.8 E 


FM 


No 179 . . 


10.7 


81 54. 0.N 


10.7 


.08154 


205.123 


OW 




16.5 

15.9 


6 16.2 E 

7 16.6 E 


FM 


No 165 












FM 


No 176 


10.1 

10.5 


81 52.0 N 
81 47.4 N 


10.1 

10.4 


.08169 
. 08263 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 178a 






OW 


No 1786 


16.4 

15.9 


6 28.1 E 
6 40.5 E 


FM 


No 177 












HUS 


No 166.. 


10.8 

10.8 

10.8 


81 48.6 N 
81 48.5 N 
81 43.0 N 


10.8 

10.8 

10.7 


.08214 
. 08231 
.08314 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 167 






OW 


No 164 






OW 




15.9 

15.8 

16.5 

16.5 


6 49.7 E 
6 55.8 E 
6 43.1 E 
6 42.2 E 


FM 


No 168 












FM 


No 175 












FM 


No 172 












FM 


No 173 


10.8 


81 44.8 N 


10.8 

10.1,11.2 
10.0 


. 08300 
. 08248 
. 08247 


205.123 


OW 


No 171 






HUS 


No 169 






10.0 


81 46.6 N 


205.123 


OW 




15.7 


6 49.0 E 


FM 


No 170 . 


10.8 


81 47.6 N 


10.8 


.08230 


205.123 


OW 




16.6 


6 47.5 E 


FM 


No 174 


10 . 2 


81 46.0 N 


10.3 


. 08262 


205.123 


OW 




16.3 


6 53.5 E 


FM 


No. 145 


11.0 


81 40.3 N 


11.0 .... 


. 08355 


205.123 


OW 




18.3 


7 45.7 E 


FM 


No 163 


10.3 


81 41.5 N 


10.3 


. 08336 


205.123 


OW 


No 162 


15.6 

19.6 

15.7 

15.8 


7 26.8 E 
7 37.7 E 
7 31.1 E 


FM 


No 144 












FM 


No 161 












FM 


No 160 


11.0 


81 38.6 N 


11.0 .... 


. 08367 


205.123 


OW 


No 159 


7 03.6 E 


FM 


No. 158 .... 


11.0 


81 37.7 N 


11.0 


. 08384 


205.123 


OW 


No 157 


15.6 

20.6 


7 35.6 E 
7 51.6 E 


FM 


No 153 












FM 


No 156 


10.6 


81 38.0 N 


10.6 

16.0,17.2 


.08386 
.08348 


205.123 


OW 


No 147 






HUS 


No 155 


15.6 


7 46.7 E 








FM 


No 154 


10.5 


81 38.4 N 


10.5 


. 08385 


205.123 


OW 




15.5 


7 50.1 E 


FM 


No 148 


10.8 .... 
10.1 


81 40.7 N 
81 32.4 N 


10.8 

10.0 


. 08330 
. 08477 


205.123 
205.1 


OW 


No. 143 






OW 


No 140 


17 fi 


7 54.7 E 


FM 



















Results of Land Observations, 1921-1926 



103 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea — Continued 





Latitude 


Long. 
East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declination 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No 149 


/ 

74 05 

74 05 
74 04 
74 02 

74 01 

74 00 
73 59 
73 54 
73 54 
73 53 
73 52 
73 51 
73 50 
73 42 

73 42 
73 40 
73 39 
73 39 
73 39 
73 36 

73 35 
73 34 
73 34 
73 34 

73 34 
73 33 
73 33 

73 33 
73 32 

73 32 

73 31 
73 31 

73 29 
73 28 
73 28 

73 27 
73 26 
73 25 

73 25 
73 25 
73 25 
73 25 
73 24 

73 22 
73 22 
73 21 

73 16 
73 16 
73 15 

73 15 
73 15 

73 15 
73 15 
73 14 
73 14 


N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 
N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 
N 
N 

N 


O / 

170 06 
170 15 
170 10 
170 28 

170 47 

170 32 
170 38 
170 40 
170 49 
170 39 
170 38 
170 39 

170 39 

171 16 

171 25 

171 12 
170 51 
170 54 
170 58 

169 38 

170 06 
170 08 
170 10 
170 10 

170 11 

169 58 

170 24 

172 05 
172 08 

174 25 

172 09 
172 11 

174 26 

172 19 

173 05 

171 07 
171 53 
171 39 

171 44 

172 36 

173 12 

174 21 

171 48 

172 54 

175 05 
174 16 

173 53 
173 54 
173 32 

173 52 

174 01 

174 04 
174 28 
173 32 
173 44 


Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Feb 

Mar 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Jan 

Dec 

Jan 

Jan 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Oct 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 


25, '23 


k h h 
19.7 


/ 

7 45.5 E 


h h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


8 

205 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 

205 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 

206 
8 

205 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 

205 

2p5 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 

205 

205 
8 
8 

205 

205 
8 
8 
8 

205 
8 

205 

205 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 




FM 


No 141 


13 

16 

6 

6 

3 

3 

10 

1 

7 

8 

6 

5 

3 

2 

30 

30 

30 

28 

26 

22 

23 

24 

17 

17 

9 

10 

12 

13 

13 

11 

2(1 

6 

6 

17 

19 

19 

4 

4 

4 

20 

23 

23 

5 

16 

12 

12 

12 

4 

28 

2 

2 

31 

15 

11 

7 

29 

29 

14 

31 

9 

9 

18 

19 

29 

29 

14 

17 

17 

16 

10 

30 

8 


23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
, 23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 
22 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
?,?■ 


11.8 .... 


81 35.9 N 


11.8 


.081,1,3 


205.123 


OW 


No 142 


19.8 


7 50.5 E 


FM 


No 152 


11.3 


81 35.7 N 


11.4 


.08 440 


205.123 


OW 




19.3 


8 02.4 E 


FM 


No 151.. 


10.7 


81 34.7 N 


10.7 


.08J,55 


205.123 


OW 




19.6 


7 59.8 E 


FM 


No 139 


11.0 

11.8 .... 


81 33.7 N 
81 30.3 N 


11.1 

11.8 .... 


. 08480 
.08517 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 150 


19.5 

17.0 

17.2 


8 04.3 E 
7 48.7 E 
7 50.4 E 


W&M 


No 137 


FM 


No 138 












FM 


No 136... 


16.3 


81 27.3 N 


16.3 


.08606 


205.123 


OW 


No 135 


17.2 


7 52.2 E 


FM 


No 134 


11.2 


81 26.7 N 


11.2 


.08611 


205.123 


OW 


No 133 


17.4 


7 53.7 E 


FM 


No 132 


11.9 .... 
11.9 


81 12.3 N 
81 12.3 N 


11.9 

11.9 .... 


. 08846 
. 08834 


205.123 
205.67(3) 


OW 








OW 




16.4 

17.5 


7 36.7 E 
7 32.0 E 


FM 


No 131 












FM 


No 130 


11.0 .... 


81 13.2 N 


10.9 


. 08838 


205.123 


OW 


No 127 


16.8 


7 29.2 E 


FM 


No. 128 


11.4 


81 09.5 N 


11.4 


. 08902 


205.123 


OW 


No 129 


16.7 


7 16.9 E 


FM 


No 125 


11.1 


81 15.9 N 


11.1 ..... 


. 08786 


205.123 


OW 




17.2 

17.4 


7 14. 3E 
7 12. 6E 


FM 


No 120. . . . 












FM 


No. 121 


10.7 


81 09.4 N 


10.6 

10.6,11.9 

10.7 


. 08907 
.08894 
. 08897 


205.123 


OW 


No. 123 






HUS 


No. 124 . . . 






10.7 


81 10.7 N 


205.123 


OW 




17.4 

15.9 

17.4 

9.0 


7 12.0 E 
7 05. 5E 
7 05.2 E 
7 03. 3E 


FM 


No 122 












FM 


No. 126. 












FM 


No. 119 












FM 




10.7 


81 07.5 N 


10.7 


. 08929 


205.123 


OW 


No. 110 


17.5 


8 01. 5E 


FM 


No. Ill 


10.7 


81 05.4 N 


10.7 


. 08938 


205.123 


OW 




14.9 


8 03.0 E 


FM 


No. 83 


11.4 

11.8 .... 


81 05.3 N 
81 04.7 N 


11.2 .... 
12.1 .... 


. 08922 
.08914 


205.123 

205.67(3) 


OW 








OW 




18.3 


10 15.9 E 


HUS 


No. 112 






11.0,12.3 
9.9 .... 


. 08940 
. 09003 




HUS 


No. 113 






10.0 


81 04.4 N 


205.123 


HUS 




17.4 

17.8 

9.0 


8 06 . 9 E 

10 21.2 E 

8 37.4 E 


FM 


No. 84 












FM 


No. 109 










205.123 
205.67(3) 


FM 


No. 106 


11.8 .... 
12.0 


81 03.9 N 
81 04.6 N 


11.6 

12.1 


. 08925 
. 08924 


OW 








OW 




16.3 

16.2 

17.7 


8 55.0 E 
7 23.2 E 
7 40.4 E 


FM 


No. 118 












FM 


No. 114 












FM 


No. 117 


10.3 


81 00.2 N 


10.2 


. 09023 


205.12,3 


OW 




15.0 

16.1 


7 39 . E 
7 42.9 E 


FM 


No. 116 












FM 


No. 108 


15.9 


80 55 . 3 N 


15.9 


.09101 


205.123 


HUS 


No. 105 


16.1 


9 03.7 E 


FM 


No. 85 


11.3 

11.4 


81 01.6 N 
80 58.5 N 


11.3 

11.4 


. 08976 
. 09053 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 115 






OW 




16.7 

15.6 


7 38 . 2 E 

8 38.1 E 


FM 


No. 107 












FM 


No. 82 


10.7 

10.6 


80 56 . 2 N 
80 57.5 N 


10.6 

10.6 


.09016 
. 09084 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 86 






OW 




17.5 

18.3 

17.3 


10 20.7 E 
9 42.2 E 
9 48. 3E 


FM 


No. 94 












FM 


No. 95 












FM 


No. 99 


11.3 .... 


80 49.9 N 


11.4 


.09164 


205.123 


OW 




16.4 


9 07.2 E 


FM 


No. 90 


11.2 

10.8 


80 51.4 N 
80 52.4 N 


11.2 

10.8 


.09145 
.09127 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No. 93 






OW 




17.2 

17.0 

17.4 

16.4 

9.2 


10 00.8 E 
9 58.5 E 

10 22.4 E 
9 26.0 E 
9 32.6 E 


FM 


No. 92 












FM 


No. 87 












FM 


No. 100 












FM 


No. 103 












FM 





















104 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ARCTIC REGION 

Arctic Sea — Concluded 





Latitude 


Long. 

East 
of Gr. 


Date 


Declinat 


on 


Inclination 


Hor. Intensity 


Instruments 




Station 


Local Mean Time 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


L. M. T. 


Value 


Mag'r 


Dip Circle 


Obs'r 


No 89 


o / 

73 14 
73 14 
73 14 
73 14 
73 13 

73 13 

73 13 
73 13 

73 12 

73 12 

73 10 
73 10 
73 06 
73 06 

73 06 
73 05 
73 02 
73 00 
72 58 
72 58 
72 51 
72 50 

72 49 
72 48 
72 42 
72 41 
72 22 
72 19 
72 10 
72 01 
71 58 
71 16 
70 35 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 

N 
N 

N 

N 

N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 

N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 
N 


O / 

174 04 
174 08 
174 28 

174 28 
173 26 

173 34 

173 40 
173 57 

173 41 

173 50 

175 40 
175 40 
175 52 

175 55 

176 07 
176 19 
176 45 

176 58 

177 10 

184 15 
177 14 
177 25 

180 47 
177 36 
179 10 
179 43 

185 36 
188 46 
188 25 
187 20 
184 51 

184 54 

185 40 


Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Nov 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Sep 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Oct 

Aug 

Sep 

Sep 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 


13 

15 

11 

11 

2 

2 

9 

9 

27 

6 

6 

21 

21 

24 

24 

28 

28 

27 

26 

26 

25 

24 

22 

21 

20 

30 

19 

18 

18 

7 

17 

13 

12 

25 

9 

4 

30 

16 

8 

5 


'22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 


h h h 

17.6 

18.2 

18.0 


o / 

9 58.0 E 
9 56.1 E 
9 42.4 E 


h h 


o / 


h h 


c. g. s. 


8 
8 
8 

205 

206 
8 

205 
8 
8 
8 

205 

205 
8 

205 
8 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 
8 

205 
8 

206 
8 

206 
. . 8 




FM 


No 91 












FM 


No 88a.. 






11.5,13.0 

12.1 

11.2 


.09172 
.09176 
. 09201 




S&M 


No 88b 


12.1 .... 

11.2 


80 49.7 N 
80 48.0 N 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 101 






OW 




17.7 


9 21. 2E 


FM 


No 104 


11.1 


80 49.5 N 


11.1 ..... 


.09182 


205.123 


OW 




18.2 

9.7 

9.3 


9 15.6 E 
9 27.2 E 
9 29.7 E 


FM 


No 98 






11.0,12.7 


.09164 




S&M 


No 102 








FM 




11.8 

11.5 


80 49.3 N 
80 49.9 N 


11.8 

11.5 


.09172 
.09169 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 96 






OW 




20.1 


9 37 . 8 E 


FM 


No. 97 


11.6 


80 49.6 N 


11.6 


.09173 


205.123 


OW 




16.9 


9 23.9 E 


FM 


No. 81a 


11.2 .... 


80 50. 1 N 


11.2 

11.0,12.8 


.09140 
.09179 


205.123 


OW 


No 81b 






HUS 


No 80 


18.0 


11 52.8 E 








FM 


No 79 


10.8 

10.7 


80 50.1 N 

81 00.2 N 


10.8 

10.7 

10.0,11.3 

10.8 


.09163 

.09019 
.08938 
.08914 


205.123 


OW 




18.0 

9.0,14.0 


11 54.7 E 

12 03.8 E 


FM 


No 78 




HUS 


No 77 


205.123 
205.123 


OW 


No 75 






HUS 


No 74 






10.8 


81 04.0 N 


OW 


No 73 


9.1 


11 36.2 E 


HUS 


No 63 


12.2 


80 51 . 1 N 


12.2 .... 


.09114 


205.123 


OW 


No 72 


8.9 

11.2 

15.1 

11.7 

19.2 

16.4 

15.8,17.8 

9.1,110 

9.2,11.1 

14.7,16.5 

14 . 

14.5.16.1 

14.7.16.2 


10 42.8 E 
10 55.6 E 
10 59 E 
13 48 E 
10 50.7 E 

12 12.2 E 

13 25 E 
16 54 E 
19 46 E 
19 34 E 
18 25 E 
15 46 E 
15 47 E 


HUS 


No 71 










8 
205 
205 
8 
8 
205 
205 
206 
205 
206 
206 
205 
205 




HUS 


No 64 


16.5 

10.5 


80 24 . 1 N 
80 45.3 N 


16.5 

10.4 


. 09629 
. 09249 


205.123 
205.123 


S&W 
HUS 


No 70 


FM 


No 66 












HUS 


No. 65 


16.8 

10.1 

10.2 

15.6 

15.1 

15.3 

15.5 .... 

9.7 


80 34.9 N 
80 33.2 N 
80 35.7 N 
80 21.6 N 
80 00.9 N 
79 54 . 2 N 
79 27.3 N 
78 58.6 N 


16.7 

10.1 

10.2 

15.6 

15.1 

15.3 

15.5 

9.6 


.09413 
. 09432 
. 09398 
. 09647 
.09917 
.10056 
.10433 
.10893 


205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 
205.123 


HUS 


No 59 


HUS 


No. 62 


HUS 


No 61 


HUS 


No. 60 


HUS 


No. 58 


HUS 


No. 57 ' 


HUS 


No. 56 


HUS 











Results of Bermuda Observations, 1907 



105 



RESULTS" OF LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, SECONDARY MAGNETIC STATIONS 

IN BERMUDA 

July to August 1907, by H. W. Fisk 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 



Station 



Name 



Daniel's Head 

Wreck Hill 

Tudor Hill 

Whitney Bay 

Scaur Lodge .-. 

Cricket Ground 

Mangrove Bay 

Tatem Point 

Port Royal Bay 

Evans' Bay 

Frank's Bay 

Wilson's Island 

Morgan's Island 

Cemetery, Ireland Island 

Sailors' Home 

Ireland Island 6 

Challenger Stone 

Gibbs' Hill 

Spectacle Island, A b 

Spectacle Island, B 

Burt Island 

Hawkins Island 

Nelly Island 

Cobbler's Island, A 

Cobbler's Island, B 

Spanish Point 

Agar's Island, C 

Agar's Island, A b 



Agar's Island, B . 



Small Island No. 1 

Dyer Island 

Small Island SE. of Fein Island 

Clarence Cove 

Point Shares 

Channel Island 

Warwick Church 

Cross Roads 

Swan's Bay 

Ducking Stool, 3 

Ducking Stool, 1 

Ducking Stool, 2 

Mt. Langton (Old Station) 

Mt. Langton (New Station) .... 
Paget (Crow Lane) Church .... 

Poorhouse 

Ducking Stool, 4 

Crow Lane 

Prospect 

Crow Lane 

Doubtful 

Trimmingham Hill 

Camden 

Doe Bay 

Grocery Store 

Devonshire Church 

Sue Wood Bay 



Latitude 
north 



32 



18.39 
16.88 
16.03 
15.60 
17.08 
18.02 
18.64 
17.71 
15.44 
15.66 
15.33 
15.34 
16.28 
19.03 
18.88 
19.40 
19.37 
15.29 
15.58 
15.61 
16.63 
17.28 
17.08 
18.55 
18.53 
18.28 



17 

17 



74 
62 



17.62 

17.42 
17.27 
16 96 
18.46 
17.58 
17.38 
16.10 
16.41 
18.35 
18.40 
18.40 
18.41 
18.21 
18.21 
17.01 
18.01 
18.38 
17.65 
17.93 
17.66 



Longitude 

west 

of Gr. 



17.50 
17.69 
17.57 
18.03 
18.37 
18.15 



64 52.96 
53.22 
52.74 
52.67 
52.50 
52.38 
52.02 
51.89 
52.31 
52.05 
51.35 
50.63 
50.97 
50.87 
50.68 
50.50 
50.40 
50.42 
50.23 
50.21 
49.67 
49.80 
49.54 
49.22 
49.19 
49.08 
48.65 
48.70 

48.70 

48.97 
48 . 73 
48.86 
48.42 
48.52 
48.31 
48.43 
47.45 
47.70 
47.28 
47.24 
47.09 
47.17 
47.17 
46.73 
46.76 
47.36 
46.30 
46.20 
46.03 



46.10 
45.80 
45.45 
45.58 
45.42 
44.85 



Date 



1907 
Jul 18 
Jul 18 
Jul 23 
Jul 24 
Jul 19 
Jul 18 
Jul 17 
Jul 18 
Jul 24 
Jul 23 
Jul 23 
Jul 23 
Jul 10 
Jul 15 
Jul 17 
Jul 15 
Jul 16 
Jul 24 
Jul 22 
Jul 22 
Jul 10 
Jul 13 
Jul 11 
Jul 13 
Jul 13 
Jul 10 
Aug 6 
Jul 6- 
Jul 14 
Jul 8, 
Aug 6 
Jul 10 
Jul 10 
Jul 10 
Jul 20 
Jul 10 
Jul 10 
Jul 24 
Jul 24 
Jul 20 
Aug 1 
Aug 1 
Aug 1 
Aug 3 
Aug 3 
Jul 24 
Jul 31 
Aug 1 
Jul 24 
Jul 31 
Jul 31 



Jul 24 
Jul 31 
Jul 31 
Jul 31 
Aug 2 
Aug 2 



Decl'n west 



L.M.T. 



h 
14.8 
17.9 
13.8 



6.9 

9.2 

17.0 

11.4 



14.3 
18.1 
9.2 
15.8 
15.9 
10.5 
16.4 



16.7 
17.4 



13.8 
16.7 



Various 



14.1 

8.9 

15.5 



15.3 



16.6 



Value 



7 32 
7.23 
9 30 



7 53 
7 48 

7 11 

8 25 



6 45 

8 42 

7 52 

9 26 
9 26 
6 39 
6 28 



7 33 

8 54 

8 10 

10 46 

11 08 

9 37 



10 22 



10 27 



7 53 

8 38 
12 45 

10 22 

11 55 



9 50 

9 31 

9 13 

11 11 

11 11 

10 52 



10 12 



Inclination and intensity 



L.M.T. 



10 39 



h 
14.9 
18.2 
14.4 
15.7 

7.5 
10.1 
17.3 
11.8 
16.3 
12.5 
11.4 
10.4 
14.9 
18.2 

9.8 
11.3 
16.1 
10.7 
17.0 

9.2 
17.2 
17.6 
11.8 
12.1 
14.8 



12.7 

Various 

15.0 
12.8 
11. 
14. 
9. 
10. 
15 
12.5 
14.3 



Incl'n 

north 



11.7 
14.4 
11.7 
14.2 
10.7 
12.8 
15.7 
17.0 
15.8 
17.6 
16.5 
13.6 



16.8 
14.1 
14.7 
15.5 
17.5 
16.8 



65 04 
64 54 
64 35 
64 34 

64 30 

65 06 
65 04 
65 00 
64 17 
64 31 
64 22 
64 40 

64 20 

65 33 
65 47 
65 41 
65 38 
64 38 
64 48 

64 46 

65 39 

65 31 

64 59 

66 36 

66 18 

65 35 

66 27 

67 14 

67 17 
65 56 
65 59 

65 46 

66 07 
66 42 
66 39 

64 48 

65 28 

66 44 
66 25 
66 20 
66 23 
66 44 
66 49 

65 40 

66 01 
66 48 
65.55 
65 37 
65 50 



Hor. 
int. 



65 43 
65 20 
65 18 
65 06 
65 32 
65 05 



c.g.s. 

.2294 

.2314 

.2344 

.2342 

.2352 

.2310 

.2298 

.2323 

.2346 

.2293 

.2339 

.2338 

.2361 

.2271 

.2258 

.2259 

.2255 

.2350 

.2350 

.2342 

.2291 

.2337 

.2344 

.2199 

.2232 

.2283 

.2194 

.2121 

.2116 
.2306 
.2288 
.2295 
.2236 
.2212 
.2222 
.2385 
.2345 
.2131 
.2168 
.2174 
.2169 
.2181 
.2157 
.2308 
.2255 
.2131 
.2258 
.2255 
.2251 



Vert. 

int. 



.2274 
.2283 
.2284 
.2300 
.2272 
.2309 



c.g.s. 
.4937 
.4940 
.4932 
.4919 
.4927 
.4969 
.4942 
.4978 
.4872 
.4809 
.4869 
.4935 
.4912 
.4992 
.4967 
.4991 
.4974 
.4950 
.4978 
.4967 
.5070 
.5127 
.5023 
.5081 
.5081 
.5023 
.5068 

.5052 

.5056 
.5161 
.5132 
.5106 
.5042 
.5131 
.5137 
. 5058 
.5135 
.49,56 
.4959 
.4943 
.4954 
.5068 
. 5033 
.5099 
.5061 
.4968 
.5046 
.4972 
.5013 



.5032 
.4970 
.4961 
.4951 
.4987 
.4966 



a For information regarding instruments used in these observations, see pp. 212-214. 



b Primary station, see Vol. I, p. 95. 



Total 
int. 



c.g.s. 
.5444 
.5455 
.5461 
.5447 
.5459 
.5480 
.5453 
.5493 
.5407 
.5326 
.5400 
.5460 
.5450 
.5484 
.5506 
.5486 
.5461 
.5479 
.5519 
.5490 
.5566 
.5635 
.5541 
.5536 
.5549 
.5518 
.5488 

.5490 

.5482 
.5651 
.5618 
.5589 
.5514 
.5588 
.5597 
.5594 
.5645 
.5394 
.5411 
.5406 
.5408 
.5514 
.5475 
.5597 
.5541 
.5407 
.5529 
.5461 
.5495 



.5522 
.5469 
.5461 
.5460 
.5481 
.5477 



106 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



/ 



RESULTS" OF LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, SECONDARY MAGNETIC STATIONS 

IN BERMUDA 

July to August 1907, by H. W. Fisk — Concluded 



Station 


Latitude 
north 


Longitude 

west 

of Gr. 


Date 


Decl'n 


west 


Inclination and intensity 


No. 


Name 


L.M.T. 


Value 


L.M.T. 


Incl'n 
north 


Hor. 
int. 


Vert, 
int. 


Total 
int. 


57 


Bowen Point 


o / 

20.05 
20.29 
20. 18 
20.03 
19.44 
19.40 
18.83 
21.96 
20.85 
19.79 
19.31 
19.48 
20.11 
19.81 
19.93 
20.30 
20.01 
20.30 
20.09 
23.12 
22.00 
20.16 
20.85 
20.90 
22.29 
21.78 
28.4 


O 1 

44.58 

44.50 

44.33 

44.31 

44.31 

43.71 

43.77 

42.78 

42.54 

42.81 

43.02 

42.80 

42.54 

42.31 

42.12 

42.12 

41.90 

41.78' 

41.75 

40.90 

41.01 

40.91 

40.03 

39.97 

39.64 

39.24 

46.5 


1907 
Aug 2 
Aug 2 
Aug 2 
Aug 2 
Jul 31 
Aug 2 
Jul 31 
Jul 26 
Jul 27 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 30 
Jul 26 
Jul 26 
Jul 27 
Jul 29 
Jul 29 
Jul 27 
Jul 27 
Aug 4 


h 


o / 


h 
12.4 
10.5 
11.1 
11.8 
13.6 
14.9 
15.8 
17.0 
17.9 
13.0 
14.2 
15.1 
15.7 
12.1 
11.4 
16.5 
11.0 
17.4 
10.6 
16.8 
18.2 
15.8 
11.2 

9.6 

12.1 
9.7 


o / 

65 03 
64 20 

64 38 

65 08 
64 51 
64 19 
64 53 
64 18 
64 42 
64 23 
64 14 
64 54 

64 27 

65 08 
64 45 

64 58 

65 06 

64 56 

65 08 
64 26 
64 40 
64 52 
64 49 
64 49 
64 30 

64 49 

65 02 


c.g.s. 
.2281 
.2353 
.2331 
.2305 
.2310 
.2316 
.2312 
.2375 
.2309 
.2333 
.2378 
.2332 
.2350 
.2308 
.2335 
.2313 
.2306 
.2303 
.2266 
.2354 
.2321 
.2310 
.2305 
.2303 
.2335 
.2310 
.2268 


c.g.s. 
.4900 
.4894 
.4916 
.4972 
.4917 
.4814 
.4928 
.4930 
.4878 
.4862 
.4922 
.4974 
.4913 
.4976 
.4947 
.4948 
.4967 
.4920 
.4888 
.4922 
.4894 
.4917 
.4899 
.4899 
.4899 
.4911 
.4875 


c.g.s. 
.5404 


58 


Burchall Cove 


10.2 


9 24 


.5429 


59 


Bean's Shop 

Major's Bay 


.5439 


60 


11.6 
13.4 


10 58 

11 24 


.5480 


61 


Flatts Bridge 


.5433 


6? 


Harrington Road (South) 

Spittal Pond 


.5342 


63 


15.6 
16.5 
10.8 


11 04 

9 26 

10 51 


.5444 


64 


Ferry Point 


.5472 


65 


Walsingham 


.5397 


66 


Harrington Road (East) 

Devil's Hole 


.5393 


67 






.5466 


68 


W. of Mangrove Lake 

Harrington Road (Northeast) 






.5493 


69 






.5447 


70 


Trott's Pond 






.5484 


71 


Tuckerstown (A. M. E.) 

Paynter's Hill 






.5469 


7? 






.5463 


73 








.5476 


74 


Tuckerstown (North) 






.5433 


75 






.5388 


76 

77 


St. George 6 

Jones Island 


16.0 


10 47 


.5454 
.5417 


78 


Surf Bay 


15.2 

8.5 


9 44 
9 39 
9 47 
11 04 
10 10 
8 36 


.5432 


79 
80 


Nonsuch Island (Preston's Station) 

Nonsuch Island 6 


.5413 
.5412 


81 
83 


Smith's Island 

St. David's Lighthouse 


.5427 
.5424 


83 


North Rock 


.5376 









For information regarding instruments used in these observations, see pp. 212-214. 



b Primary station, see Vol. I, p. 95. 



Results of Bermuda Observations, 1922 



107 



RESULTS" OF LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, SECONDARY MAGNETIC STATIONS 

IN BERMUDA 
July to September 1922, by H. W. Fisk, Assisted by J. T. Howard 



No, 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 



49 



Station 



Name 



Wreck Hill 

Hog Bay 

Scaur Lodge 

West Whale Bay 

Grove 

Bassett's Cave 

Polly Dicky Hill 

Green's Hill 

King's Point, A 

Evans' Bay, A 

Rockaway Quarry 

Rockaway Cave (below) . 
Rockaway Cave (above) . 

Mangrove Bay 

Evans' Bay, B 

Rockaway, C 

Rockaway, B 

Monkey Hole 

Jennings' Bay, A 

Glebe Point 

Jennings' Bay, B 

Ring's Point, B 

Tucker's Island (West) . . 
Frank's Bay (West) .... 

Frank's Bay (East) 

Tucker's I. Cave (above) 
Tucker's I. Cave (below) 

Deep Well 

Morgan's Island, B 

Morgan's Island, A 

Port Royal (Church).... 

Wilson's Island 

Grace Island 

Gibbs' Hill 

Sinky Bay 

Perinchief ' s Bay 

Burgess Point 

Hawkins Island 

Burt Island 

Nelly Island 

Riddle's Bay 

Ports Island 

Long Island 

Spanish Point. 

Main and North Roads . 

Spithead 

Fern Island 

Two Rock 

Dyer Island 

Agar's Island, a 

Agar's Island, b 

Agar's Island, c 

Agar's Island, d 

Agar's Island, e 

Warwick Long Bay 



Latitude 
north 



32 16.88 
16.17 
17.08 
15.39 
15.84 
16.50 
15.61 
15.33 
16.35 

15.66 
15.88 
15.88 
15.88 
18.64 
15.69 
15.97 

15.93 

15.82 
15.46 
16.21 
15.51 
16.39 
16.30 
15.29 
15.35 
16.31 
16.31 
15.08 
16.23 
16.28 
15.02 
15.35 
16.49 
15.19 
15.05 
15.48 
16.08 
17.28 
16.63 
17.08 
15.86 
16.99 
17.26 
18.28 
15.88 
16.26 
16.96 
17.52 
17.27 
17.61 
17.60 
17.61 
17.63 
17.70 
15.55 



Longitude 

west 

of Gr. 



64 53.22 
52.70 
52.50 
52.46 
52.42 
52.26 
52.22 
52.19 
52.11 

52.05 
52.03 
52.02 
52.02 
52.02 
52.01 
52.01 

51.99 

51.98 
51.98 
51.96 
51.94 
51.83 
51.60 
51.57 
51.38 
51.32 
51.32 



51 
51 



23 

10 



50.97 
50.81 
50.60 
50.19 
50.16 
50.11 
49.97 
49.87 
49.80 
49.67 
49.54 
49.50 
49.42 
49.08 
49.08 
49.08 
48.90 
48.86 
48.78 
48.73 
48.72 
48.72 
48.66 
48.66 
48.64 
48.66 



Date 



1922 

Aug 30 

Aug 30 

Jul 27 

Aug 30 

Sep 9 

Sep 14 

Aug 30 

Sep 9 

Aug 30 

Sep 11 

Jul 21 

Aug 31 

Sep 15 

Sep 15 

Jul 27 

Aug 31 

Sep 9 

Sep 15 

Aug 31 

Sep 11 

Sep 13 

Jul 27 

Sep 13 

Sep 9 

Sep 13 

Sep 14 

Jul 21 

Aug 31 

Sep 14 

Sep 14 

Aug 31 

Sep 14 

Sep 8 

Aug 30 

Jul 21 

Sep 8 

Jul 27 

Jul 21 

Sep 8 

Sep 8 

Aug 9 

Aug 8 

Aug 9 

Sep 16 

Aug 8 

Aug 8 

Jul 26 

Jul 17 

Jul 17 

Aug 9 

Aug 8 

Aug 9 

Aug 5 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



Jul 21 



Decl'n west 



L.M.T. 



h 
13.7 



16.2 
10.0 



15.6 
10.9 
10.3 
16.7 



14.7 



14.2 



8.3 



15 2 
17.1 
16.6 

9.1 
17.1 

8.0 
15.8 



9.9 



14.5 
17.6 

8.2 
17.2 
16.8 

9.4 
11.0 



14.7 
14.4 
16.9 
10.9 
10.5 
14.9 
14.0 
15.8 
17.1 
15.7 
9.2 
9.8 
16.2 



9.7 



Value 



9 18 



10 00 
12 10 



10 16 
12 42 

11 55 
10 36 



13 42 



9 16 



12 05 



12 37 
11 00 
11 03 
10 55 
10 20 
9 23 
9 47 



8 16 



43 
55 
19 

11 
27 
28 



9 09 



8 32 
10 48 

9 32 
10 29 

9 29 
9 39 

10 20 

11 38 
10 16 
10 03 



10 
11 



9 44 



10 00 



Incl'n north 



L.M.T. 



h 
13.6 
14.6 
16.3 
10.3 
11 
16 
11 
9 
16 



. I 

.2* 

.2 

.8* 

.8 



14.5 

13.4* 

17.3* 

18.2* 

14.0 

17.0* 

14.7* 



16.0* 



15.4* 



16.3* 

8.7* 
17.2* 

8.8* 
16.0 
10.2* 
10.0* 
12.2* 

9.2* 
14.0* 
18.2* 

9.0 
17.6 
16.5* 
10.2 
11.4 
12.0* 
14 0* 
14 5 
17.0 
11.0 
11.0* 
15.0 
14.2 
15.5 
17.3 
16.3 
10.0 
10.0 
16.3 



10.1 



Value 



65 18 
65 21 
64 57 
64 56 

64 56 

65 04 

64 57 

65 00 
65 20 



65 02 
64 12 
64 18 

64 20 

65 47 
64 31 
63 38 



63 35 



63 40 



63 55 
65 09 

64 22 

64 17 

65 12 
65 14 
64 34 

64 35 

65 07 

64 51 

65 02 
65 14 
65 16 
65 46 
65 18 
65 26 
65 06 

65 37 

66 28 
66 07 
65 47 
65 16 

65 44 

66 12 

66 12 
65 05 

65 37 

67 10 

68 16 

66 55 



65 12 



Intensity 



L.M.T 



15.5 
16.0 



11.8 
15.8 



10.0 



16.0* 

14.4* 

14.2 

17.3* 

18.2* 

14.5 

16.8 

14.3 



13.5 
15.0 



16.7 
9.3 

17.2 
8.5 

16.0* 



9.9 
12.2 



14.3 
17.8 

8.8 
17.3* 
16.3 

9.8 
11.2* 



11 
14 
14 
17 
11 



8 

5 

5* 

0* 

3* 



10.7 

15.0* 

14.2* 

15.3* 

17.5* 

16.0* 

10.0* 

16.2* 

16.3* 

(?)* 

(?)* 

(?)* 

(?)* 

(?)* 

9.8 



Hor. 



c.g.s. 



.2230 
.2239 



.2250 

.2258 



.2214 



.2293 
.2178 
.2265 
.2257 
.2256 
.2191 
.2190 
.2306 



.2316 
.2264 



.2346 
.2187 
.2305 
.2301 
.2193 



.2270 
.2262 



.2277 
.2255 
.2213 
.2225 
.2214 
.2220 
.2215 
.2266 
.2248 
.2225 
.2203 
.2234 
.2279 
.2217 
.2198 
.2175 
.2222 
.2187 
.2170 
.2081 
.2185 
.2025 
.2018 
.2040 
.2039 
.2089 
.2256 



Vert. 



c.g.s. 



.4860 
.4790 



.1*10 
.4856 



.4748 



.4992 
.4678 
.4686 
.4690 
.4694 
.4872 
.4594 
.4654 



.4662 
.4574 



.4793 
.4723 
.4805 
.4777 
.4746 



.4771 
.4758 



.4850 
.4842 
.4790 
.4830 
.4920 
.4826 
.4845 
.4883 
.4960 
.5108 
.4975 
.4968 
.4948 
.4917 
.4983 
.4931 
.4784 
.4824 
.5154 
.5221 
.5126 



.4882 



Total 



c.g.s. 



.5347 

.5288 



.5311 
.5356 



.5238 



.5493 
.5160 
.5205 
.5204 
.5208 
.5343 
.5089 
.5194 



.5206 
.5104 



.5336 
.5205 
.5329 
.5302 

.5228 



.5283 
.5268 



.5358 
.5342 
.5277 
.5318 
.5395 
.5312 
.5327 
.5383 
.5446 
.5572 
.5441 
.5447 
.5448 
.5394 
.5446 
.5389 
.5275 
.5296 
.5593 
.5620 
.5572 



.5378 



" The instruments used were universal magnetometer 14 supplemented by earth inductor 3 for inclination and compass-variometer 2 
for horizontal intensity where times for these observations are marked by asterisks. For additional values of intensity at secondary stations, 
see special field report by H. W. Fisk, pp. 212-224. 



108 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



RESULTS" OF LAND MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS, SECONDARY MAGNETIC STATIONS 

IN BERMUDA 

July to September 1922, by H. W. Fisk, Assisted by J. T. Howard — Concluded 



No. 



50 
51 
52 

53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
,88 
89 
90 
91 
92 
93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 



Station 



Name 



Warwick Camp 

Mill Shares 

Warwick Church 

Khyber Pass 

Channel Island 

Deep Bay 

Spectacle Island (Paget) 

Cricket Ground (Warwick). . 

Belmont 

Sand Hill 

Doctor's Island 

Darrell's Wharf 

Fairyland 

Pittsbay & Spanish Point Roads 

Swan's Bay 

Northland Road (West) 

Southland Road 

Northland Road (East) 

A. M. E. Chapel 

Simmons' Beach 

Lazy Corner 

South Shore Hill 

Paget- Warwick Road 

Ducking Stool 

Mount Langton 

Paget School (colored) 

Elba Beach 

Paget Church (St. Paul) 

Mangroville 

Trimmingham Hill, A 

Trimmingham Hill, B 

Hungry Bay, A 

Hungry Bay, B 

Devonshire Church 

Devonshire Bay 

Bowen Point, A 

Bowen Point, B 

Burchall Cove 

Flatts Bridge 

Spittal Pond 

Bailey's Bay 

Holy Trinity Church 

Devil's Hole 

Canton Point (below) 

Canton Point (above) 

Joyce's Cave 

Mangrove Lake 

Shark Hole 

Long Bird Island 

Trott'sPond 

Church Cave (below) 

Church Cave (above) 

Tuckerstown 

St. George Hotel, A 

St. George Hotel, B 



Latitude 
north 



32 15.55 
17.93 
16.09 
15.96 
17.38 
18.38 
17.30 
16.35 
16.68 
15.79 
17.19 
16.86 
17.92 
18.07 
18.35 
18.25 
16.07 
18.20 
16.61 
16.15 
16.41 
16.15 
16.27 
18.39 
18.21 
16.92 
16.45 
17.01 
17.47 
17.30 
17.36 
17.51 
17.33 
18.37 
18.09 
20.10 
20.08 
20.28 
19.44 
18.86 
20.93 
20.74 
19.31 
19.14 
19.14 
21.14 
19.49 
20.31 
21.69 
19.81 
20.2 
20.2 
20.01 
22.90 
22.92 



Longitude 

west 

of Gr. 



64 48.66 
48.46 
48.43 
48.36 
48.31 
48 . 23 
48.17 
48 
48 
48 



.15 

13 

.10 



47.92 
47.90 
47.89 
47.90 
47.70 
47.65 
47.68 
47.62 
47.62 
47.50 
47.45 
47-37 
47.34 
47.26 



47 
47. 



46.88 

46.73 

46.54 

46.23 

46.09 

45.87 

45.79 

45.44 

44.80 

44.57 

44.49 

44.44 

44.31 

43.73 

43.50 

43.25 

43 . 02 

42.93 

42.93 

42.88 

42.85 

42.45 

42.30 

42.31 

41.9 

41.9 

41.90 

40.96 

40.97 



Date 



1922 

Aug 1 

Jul 26 

Jul 17 

Aug 18 

Aug 9 

Jul 26 

Aug 7 

Sep 16 

Jul 17 

Jul 21 
Aug 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 

Jul 
Aug 
Sep 20 
Jul 15 
Aug 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 



Jul 
Jul 
Jul 



7 
17 
26 
26 
26 
26 

1 



1 
15 
15 
15 



Jul 24 

Jul 24 

Jul 15 

Sep 16 



15 
18 
18 



Jul 24 

Jul 18 

Sep 16 

Jul 24 

Jul 24 

Jul 25 

Sep 20 

Jul 25 

Jul 25 

Sep 19 

Jul 25 

Sep 20 

Jul 25 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 19 

Sep 20 

Jul 25 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Sep 19 

Jul 25 

Aug 16 



Decl'n west 



L.M.T. 



10.7 
18.0 
15.2 



14.2 



8.4 
8.4 
9.7 
9.7 



17.8 



7.0 
11.0 

9.8 
15.6 
17.2 
17.3 
14.7 
16.0 
16.2 



8.6 
17.5 
16.4 
14.0 

9.9 
16.4 



14.1 



14.3 
10.7 



10.2 



10.4 



Value 



11 04 
10 22 
10 02 



12 56 



Incl'n north 



L.M.T. 



10 17 

11 39 
11 28 
11 12 



10 15 



11 22 

10 31 

11 04 

12 18 
12 48 

11 57 

12 18 

13 21 
13 13 



13 56 

14 27 
14 19 
13 08 
12 46 
11 28 



13 41 



11 36 

12 33 



11 43 



13 06 



10.8 
18.0 
17.5 
17.5 
14.0 
10.0 
12.0* 
12.0 
9.0 



9 

11 

9 



17.3 



17.0* 



7.5 
11.5 
10.0 
15.5 
17. 
17. 
14. 
16. 
16. 



.3 

.8 

.5* 

.3 

.3 



9.0 
17.6 
16.0* 
13.8 
10.5 
16.5 
15.4 



13.8 
10.0* 



14 . 0* 
11.0 



12.4 
11.5* 



11.4 

14±* 
16±* 



11.4 



Value 



66 37 
65 18 

65 12 

67 41 
67 33 

66 43 
66 06 

66 35 

65 11 

67 02 

66 11 

67 08 



67 32 



67 18 



66 04 
65 38 

65 41 

67 06 
67 31 

66 09 
66 30 
66 10 
66 36 



66 28 
66 14 
66 17 
66 06 
65 39 
65 31 
65 32 



65 35 
65 32 



65 41 
64 22 



65 50 
64 45 



65 23 
65 41 
65 38 



64 48 



Intensity 



L.M.T. 



h 

(?)* 
10.9* 
18.0* 
16.0 
17.5* 
13.8 
10.2* 
12.3 
12.0* 

8.5* 

9.0* 
10.3* 

9.8* 
16.7* 
17.4* 
16.9* 
17.5 
17.5 
12.7* 
(?)* 

7.3* 
11.7* 
10.2* 
15.5* 
17.2 
17.8* 
14.3 
16.2* 
16.2* 
17.0* 

9.0 
17.6* 
16.2 
12.7 
10.0 



Hor. 



15.8* 
16.4* 
14.0 
10.0* 
15.7* 
14.0* 
11.2 
9.0* 
9.2* 
12.7* 
17.3* 
10.5 
11.9* 
11.3 
14±* 
16±* 
10.8* 
12.8* 
10.8 



c.g.s. 
.2244 
.2122 
.2220 
.2280 
.2129 
.2044 
.2145 
.2229 
.2126 
.2254 
.2146 
.2126 
.2095 
.2080 
.2029 
.2008 
.2260 
.2077 
.2243 
.2262 
.2218 
.2251 
.2239 
.2052 
.2053 
.2211 
.2197 
.2213 
.2134 
.2181 
.2153 
.2158 
.2154 
.2160 
.2190 



Vert. 



c.g.s. 



.2191 
.2206 
.2181 
.2193 
.2191 
.2186 
.2310 
.2176 
.2180 
.2182 
.2160 
.2315 
.2233 
.2212 
.2177 
.2188 
.2207 
.2274 
.2268 



.4907 
.4826 
.4935 
.5187 
.4946 
.4985 
.5030 
.4910 
.4874 
.5064 
.4815 
.4967 



.4907 



.4964 



.4996 
.4971 
.4954 
.4857 
.4960 
.5000 
.5052 
.5009 
.4932 



.4944 
.4900 
.4902 
.4875 
.4839 



.4816 



.4820 



Total 



c.g.s. 



.5346 
.'5312 
.5436 
.5607 
.5352 
.5427 
.5501 
.5351 
.5369 
.5500 
.5264 
.5391 



.5310 



.5381 



.5466 
.5457 
.5436 
.5272 
.5368 
.5467 
.5509 
.5476 
.5375 



.5392 
.5354 
.5355 
.5333 
.5312 



.5290 



.4803 
.4819 


.5275 
.5294 


.4837 
.4815 


.5308 
.5341 






.4863 


.5330 


.4908 


.5426 


.4829 
.4818 
.4832 


.5311 

.5287 
.5304 







.5327 



See footnote on preceding page. 



Plate 2 






• 2 
Jo 

s 
•§* 

o o 

o § 

- be 

rs ca . 

r ~ *. 9 

H §-d 

.2 <s d 
3 "g &*> 

r 1 += if 
- 03 CS 

'■" d d 

0j O _0 
^ '+3 -3 

(Tt ^ °? 

,« +^ -4^> 

Occco 



[C 


-d 


2; 


3 


o 


a 


H 


^ 


3 


0) 

pq 


t. 




X 


k™ 


w 


C<3 




W 


o 








a 




>5 


_g 


o 


OQ 


<! 




•— « 




^ 


cS 




_, 


/; 


o 


o 






HJ 


to 


+3 


^ 


X 


a 








i> 


-f 



"2 * 

J 3 " 

3-9 
w § § 

d ^ <s 
d o a 
2-2.2 

"■+3 '43 '43 
c3 e3 c3 



OBSERVERS' FIELD REPORTS 

The following reports, or extracts, will give some idea of the conditions under 
which the various magnetic surveys and magnetic exploratory expeditions, con- 
ducted during the period 1921-1926, have been accomplished. Not infrequently 
the reports as submitted by the observers contain information of interest only to 
the Department and so have not been given in full. It has been the purpose in 
presenting them to retain so much as will enable the reader to judge fairly of the 
care, skill, courage, and thoroughness required of the observer in planning and 
executing some of the more difficult journeys, as well as the pleasant and unpleasant 
experiences incident to the work of collecting the magnetic results published in this 
volume. The reports will be found to contain matter of geographic interest and 
useful information for those planning excursions into the same fields. 

Detailed particulars regarding the stations will be found in the section of this 
volume entitled "Descriptions of Stations", where the arrangement is alphabetical 
according to country in each of the main geographical divisions, also alphabetically 
arranged. The magnetic data are given in the Table of Results in which the 
arrangement of the main divisions and the countries or subdivisions under them is 
the same as that employed for the descriptions of stations, but in which the stations 
themselves are arranged according to latitude. 

The arrangement adopted for the observers' reports is alphabetical under the 
names of the observers. In order that the itinerary of the observer may be more 
readily traced, the names of the stations in the lists appended to each report are 
given in a chronological arrangement with dates and geographic positions. In case 
observations have been previously made in any locality by an observer of the De- 
partment, the name of the station appears in italics. 

F. C. Brown, on Magnetic Work in Madagascar, October 1920 to July 1921 

This report is conveniently divided into sections as follows : 

(1) Majunga to Tananarive. By steamer and launch to Morololo; motor car to 
Maevatanana; by carrier caravan to Tananarive. 

(2) Tananarive to Tulear. By motor car to Ambalavao ; carrier caravan to Tongo- 
bory; river canoe to St. Augustin; outrigger canoe to Tulear. 

(3) Tulear to Fort Dauphin. By carrier caravan. 

(4) Fort Dauphin to Tananarive. By carrier caravan to Ambilo-Lemaitso ; by 
rail to Tananarive. 

(5) Tananarive to Diego Suarez. By rail to Moromanga and Anosiroa; by carrier 
caravan to Diego Suarez. 

(6) Diego Suarez down west coast. By steamer to Ambohibe; carrier caravan to 
Maintirano; by outrigger canoe to Tambororano; by sailing lugger to Majunga. 

(1) Majunga to Tananarive 

In accordance with the Director's instructions of January 10, 1920, supplemented 
by letters of subsequent dates, after finishing the African transcontinental expedition 
at Beira, the Observer landed at Majunga on October 14, 1920, to undertake an exten- 
sive magnetic survey of Madagascar. Majunga is the chief port of the west coast of 

109 



110 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

Madagascar, and is a well laid-out town with two hotels, a cinema, and a number of trading 
stores normally well-stocked with provisions and general goods. 

After making the necessary observations, on October 20 the fortnightly river steamer 
was joined for Maevatanana for the journey to Tananarive. As the wet season on this 
coast is from November to May, at this time the river was at the lowest, and sandbanks 
and shallows were abundant. We left Majunga in the late afternoon and by midnight 
had entered the river channel proper at Maovoay. Soon thereafter the steamer found a 
resting place on one of the sandbanks, and at daylight, the tide being low, was high and 
dry, so that the passengers were able to take a stroll around her. After the tide had 
risen and floated the steamer off, the journey up-stream was continued. This winding 
river, whose channel is here about one-half mile wide, is famous in Madagascar for the 
number of crocodiles in its waters. Often 50 of the brutes could be counted from the 
deck of the steamer. 

The following night was passed at Madirovalo, whence a start was made by day- 
light, but by 8 o'clock the river had become so shallow that further progress was impos- 
sible for the steamer, and the passengers were transferred to two small launches. On 
these we continued from noon throughout the night, a most uncomfortable one for all 
concerned, with people sleeping on boxes and on the floor, arriving at Morololo at dawn. 
At this season launches ascend no further than this point, which is at the junction of the 
Betsiboka and Ikopa rivers, though at high water the large steamers go to Maevatanana, 
23 kilometers above. The journey therefore was continued by motor car over a good 
road, and Maevatanana was reached at 9 o'clock on the evening of October 23. It is a 
small town built on the side of a bare, rocky hill, and is said to be the hottest town in 
Madagascar. A weekly service of motor cars leaves every Sunday for Tananarive, 345 
kilometers distant, but in order to make the desired observations at intermediate places, 
I decided to proceed with carriers. 

Carriers are obtained from the Administration and are paid 1.25 to 1.75 francs a 
day when loaded, and half those rates for the return to their starting-point, empty; this 
charge is inclusive, for they provide their own food. Loads must not exceed 25 kilos, 
and the favorite method of carrying appears to be for two men to combine their loads 
and tie them firmly to a bamboo pole, each taking one end of the pole on his shoulder; 
single loads are usually divided into two bundles, which are tied at each end of a short 
pole, the bearer then balancing this on his shoulder. Apart from baggage, travel can 
be made either by rickshaw or "filanzana." The latter is a seat fixed between two 
poles, with a rest for the feet, and is carried by four men; it is usual for white men to 
take teams of eight, or at least six bearers, in order that they may relieve each other at 
frequent intervals. 

The question of food in Madagascar, except for the desert regions of the south and 
the most out-of-the-way mountain tracks, is one of no difficulty. Rice forms the staple 
food of the majority of the inhabitants, and chickens and eggs can be obtained every- 
where. At large villages beef may be had several times a week, so that no great supply 
of tinned food need be carried. Rest-houses are found on all main routes, or failing 
these a hut is always available, and thus neither a tent nor an elaborate camping outfit 
is necessary. A day's stage is about 40 kilometers on the average, representing 8 hours' 
march. 

From Maevatanana to Mahatsinjo, 144 kilometers, the motor road in general was 
followed, but owing to the heat travel was done either by moonlight or in the early 
morning and late evening. The first day's march of 34 kilometers is through a country 
of bare, rocky hills of most diverse formation, volcanic rocks, basalt, ironstone, quartz, 
granite, and limestone. There is neither timber nor vegetation of any kind. At Andriba 
an elevation of 2,050 feet is attained, and Mahatsinjo, seated on the shoulder of a grassy 
mountain, is 3,050 feet above sea-level. At both these places there are hotels. 



Observers' Field Reports 



111 



On November 1, at Mahatsinjo, the weekly car was joined as far as Ankazobe, 100 
kilometers farther south, but owing to a breakdown with the baggage camion, the instru- 
ments and gear were sent on by carrier and did not arrive until November 4. The 
intervening country is a wilderness of steep-sided grassy mountains and lofty plateaus 
with no villages, and elevations of 5,000 feet are reached where the temperature is cool 
even in the summer. A stay was made at Ankazobe until November 8 in the hope of 
being able to proceed by motor, two cars being under repair in the town, but finally a 
start was made for the capital, Tananarive, 105 kilometers distant, with carriers. Ap- 
proaching Tananarive the lonely mountain slopes and valleys give way to a succession 
of villages and rice-fields ; the former are often very amusing, for the Malgash is at present 
in a state of transition, and every style and shape of house can be seen, the result often 
being a most sad compromise between the ordinary native cottage and a European house 
with verandas. The capital, which was reached on November 10, is a large town built on 
the steep slopes of a ridge-like mountain, rising about 1,000 feet above the surrounding 
plain given over to rice-fields. Under native rule it was an untidy collection of native 
houses, with no roads or sanitation, but now magnificent streets and boulevards have been 
built everywhere, and some pretty gardens and "places" laid out. The town is lighted 
by electricity, water is laid on, and rickshaws and motors ply for hire in the streets. 
There are several hotels and a few large general stores, besides scores of Indian and 
Hova traders. 

Table 9 shows the names of the stations occupied in the first section of the work, 
together with the dates of occupation and the geographic positions. For additional 
details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results in Volume IV of this series. 





Table 9 










No. 


Name 


Date 


Lat. 


South 


Long. East 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 


Majunga, A 


1920 
Oct 18 
Oct 15-16 
Oct 24 
Oct 25 
Oct 27-28 
Oct 29 
Oct 30-31 
Nov 4-5 
Nov 9 
Nov 13-18 
Nov 12-16 
Nov 22 


o 

15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 


42.9 
43.4 
56.4 
56.9 
18.4 
36.3 
44.3 
18.9 
36.2 
55.0 
55.0 
54.9 


o / 

46 19 
46 19 
46 48 
46 48 
46 56 

46 54 

47 00 
47 06 
47 11 
47 32 
47 32 
47 30 


Majunga, B 


Maevatanana, A 


Maevatanana, B 


Antsiafabositra 


Andriba 


Mahatsinjo 


Ankazobe 


Fihaonana 


Tananarive Observatorv, A 


Tananarive Observatorv, B 


Tananarive 





(2) Tananarive to Tulear 

On November 12 the intercomparison of instruments was commenced at Tananarive 
Observatory, which occupies a hill summit outside the town. Arrangements were also 
made for the southern journey to Tulear on the southwest coast, and, thanks to the 
courtesy of His Excellency the Governor General, Monsieur Garbit, every facility was 
granted, so that the departure was made on November 25 by public motor car for 
Antsirabe. 

Antsirabe is 165 kilometers south of the capital with which it is connected by 
biweekly motor service; a railway is also under construction. Being at an elevation of 
5,000 feet, its climate is pleasantly cool, with the added attraction of hot springs and 
medicinal baths; it is referred to as the "Vichy" of Madagascar, and promises to become 
the health resort of South Africa. After a short journey by rickshaw to Betafo, 23 kilo- 
meters distant, to reoccupy Pere Colin's station of 1901, the journey was continued 



112 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



southward over the central mountainous plateau to Ambalavao, which marks the end 
of the motor road, and is the starting-off point for the bush. Supplies can be obtained 
here from the Chinese merchants. 

Leaving on December 11 with carriers, the small town of Ihosy was reached in two 
days, this place marking the commencement of the Bara country. The Baras are a 
pastoral people and can not be made to work. Among themselves they are quarrelsome, 
and their chief occupation seems to be cattle-stealing. Though this latter is punishable 
by law, the natives regard it as a form of sport, and to have successfully stolen a few 
bullocks from another village is a sign of manhood. Anyone who has been convicted 
by the Government and sent to prison, or, as the Baras themselves say, "to work for 
the white man," is quite a hero on his return. 

On December 17 we arrived at Betroka, the capital of the province, 225 kilometers 
southwest of Ambalavao. It lies in the middle of a grassy plain, at an elevation of 
about 3,000 feet, and is a well laid-out little town, with tree-lined streets and fine gardens 
of roses. Supplies are obtainable here from the Chinese merchants. Since November 
the wet season had set in and rain fell almost daily, chiefly in heavy thunderstorms. 
Travel under such conditions was not pleasant, and southward of Ambalavao rain fell 
on some days practically all day long, making it difficult to obtain the necessary astro- 
nomical observations. Another difficulty in traveling during the wet season is the 
crossing of the numerous rivers. These after a storm become raging torrents which are 
quite impassable. Fortunately the water falls almost as rapidly as it rises, so that 
sometimes the traveler is delayed but a few hours. 

Table 10 



No. 



5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 



Name 



Antsirabe, A. . . 

Betaf o 

Antsirabe, B . . . 

Ambositra, A . . . 

Ambositra, B... 
Fianarantsoa, A 
Fianarantsoa, B 

Ambalavao 

Zazafotsy 

Ihosy 

Lalana 

Betroka 

Ankatrafay .... 
Ampasindrasoa . 

Benenitra 

Tongobory 

Tulear 



Date 



1920 

Nov 26 

Nov 27 

Nov 28 

/Nov 30- 



1 
2 

6- 8 
7 
10 
-13 



\Dec 

Dec 

Dee 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 12- 

Dec 14 

Dec 16 

Dec 17-19 

Dec 21 

Dec 22 

Dec 23-24 

Dec 28 
(Dec 31 
\Jan2,1921 



Lat. South 



19 
19 
19 



52.2 
50.0 
51.9 



20 31.8 



20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
23 
23 



32.4 

27.2 

27.2 

49 

12 

23.8 

55.0 

15.9 

20 

24.0 

27.5 

32.0 



23 21.2 



Long. East 



47 00 

46. 50 

47 00 

47 13 

47 14 

47 03 

47 02 

46 54 

46 20 

46 07 

46 06 

46 04 

45 38 

45 11 

45 03 

44 17 

43 37 



Leaving Betroka on December 20 and proceeding westward toward Tulear by the 
main path, Benenitra was reached on December 23, the distance being approximately 
120 kilometers. A day before reaching Benenitra the path suddenly dropped 1,000 
feet from the windy uplands to the valley of the Imaloto River, and the change in tem- 
perature was most depressing. The Bara villages passed through were small, though 
hospitable. The women usually come out to welcome the white man, who is taken to a 
clean hut by the chief. Eggs and chickens are plentiful, and at every village people 
offer them for sale. Flies swarm over everything and are most unpleasant. Food 
can not be left uncovered for a moment, and taking a meal in a native hut is therefore a 
trying experience. At Benenitra it was hoped to be able to find canoes in which to 



Observers' Field Reports 113 

continue the journey down the Onilahy to St. Augustin at its mouth, but as none was 
available, the path to Tongobory was followed with carriers. Christmas day was 
spent at the American mission station of Manasoa, and Tongobory was reached on 
December 27. Here a canoe was obtained for St. Augustin, where we arrived by night- 
fall and spent the evening at the American mission station. On the next day we came 
to Tulear, after a pleasant sail of six hours along the coast, inside the coral reef, in an 
outrigger sailing canoe. This point marked the end of the second stage of the southern 
journey, and during the interval November 25 to December 31, 16 magnetic stations 
had been occupied. 

Table 10 shows the stations occupied on this section of the southern journey, with 
dates of occupation and geographic positions. For additional details see Descriptions of 
Stations and Table of Results in Volume IV of this series. 

(3) Tulear to Fort Dauphin 

Tulear is opposite Durban on the East Africa coast, four days' steam to the west, 
and there is occasional steamer communication. It is likely to become the chief port 
of southern Madagascar, for the gap in the coral reefs allows large steamers to approach 
and gives shelter in bad weather. As there is neither hotel nor rest-house in the town, 
however, the traveler must camp in the bush alongside, unless he has friends to accom- 
modate him. Here arrangements were made for the next stage of the journey to Fort 
Dauphin via Cap Ste. Marie. It is not generally known that southern Madagascar is a 
desert and that its vegetation is cactus, poison-bush, and thorn. The Chef de Province 
at Tulear, Monsieur Guitou, very kindly sent to the interior post of Betoiky for a caravan 
of Mahafaly carriers, their men being considered hard enough to withstand the fatigue 
of the first stage to Androka, seven days' march along the coast. Flooded rivers pre- 
vented the arrival of the carriers until January 8, and the following day a march was 
made back to St. Augustin, 30 kilometers along the coast. 

Next morning the party avoided the cliffs to the south of the mouth of the Onilahy 
River by sailing in outrigger canoes to a fishing village some 5 miles distant and thence 
continuing on foot for two hours over soft sand to the village of Anakao. From here on 
until arriving at Androka on January 15 the journey was very fatiguing on account of 
the loose sand of which the country is formed. The Sun was almost in the zenith at 
noon, and the heat was very great from an hour after sunrise until sunset. Water is 
very scarce and, when obtained, is both dirty and brackish, the water-holes being usually 
in low depressions where a layer of rock acts as a catchment. The hole may be 6 feet 
deep, and the water is scooped out by the native women with a piece of shell. By this 
means the filling of a large earthen pot is a lengthy business, and the women spend most 
of the morning at the holes. It can be readily imagined that the sudden descent of 
some 20 thirsty carriers was an event over which they were not enthusiastic. 

Villages were neither numerous nor large. The natives have cattle and flocks of 
sheep and goats which apparently thrive on a diet of cactus and thorn scrub. These 
Mahafaly are often fine-looking men, tall and well built, with bronze-colored skin and 
straight noses. Like the Bara, they avoid all forms of manual labor, and their chief 
hobby is collecting other persons' cattle. On January 11, observations were made at 
Beheloka, a collection of a dozen miserable huts set down on the sandy shore of Sakoa 
Vay. The water here is clean but very brackish. The following night was spent at the 
village of Vohombe, which is even more miserable than Beheloka. It is hidden away in 
a dense tangle of cactus and thorn, but the chief did not resent our intrusion and offered 
a sheep as a present. My men passed a waterless night after a most fatiguing day, for 
the water, or rather mud, palatable enough to the good folk of the neighborhood no doubt, 
was even too thick and evil-smelling for them. At midnight it rained smartly for half 



114 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

an hour, catching everyone unawares, and to add to the irony of the situation it was 
afterwards ascertained that this was the first rain for a period of three years. Next 
day, January 13, considerable difficulty was experienced in covering the five hours to 
Lambeta Massy, a picturesque cave on the coast where there is a spring of fresh water 
in the rocks, uncovered at low tide. The majority of the men had straggled in by 1 
o'clock, but the last brought news that three carriers had fallen with their loads two 
hours' march distant and were "dying," which with a native is a term which covers any 
accident or disease from a cut finger to malaria. But on hearing this news three men 
were immediately sent in with a water-bag. They returned with the missing men by 
evening, and the night was spent at Itampolo after two hours more of weary plodding 
through the sand. 

Androka is a military post near the mouth of the Uinta River, situated on a sandy 
ridge and backed by mangrove flats. Owing to heavy rains in the interior, the river 
rose so much on January 17 that by evening a roaring noise of waters was heard, and in 
a short time the post was surrounded by water and the Indian trader's village was flooded 
out. It was not until January 19 that the journey could be resumed. The flooded 
Uinta was crossed by means of a canoe, but not without great difficulty. Owing, how- 
ever, to the Menarandra also being in a flooded state, the more direct path could not be 
followed, but a march of 88 kilometers inland northeastward was necessitated to Am- 
panihy, a military post maintained by the French. The latter river was crossed by a 
canoe ferry at Tranoroa, another military post, 33 kilometers distant. Here the Maha- 
faly country was left behind and the Antandroy region entered. These latter people 
are said to be the descendants of some Bara chiefs who were turned out of their own 
country. Thus they resemble in many ways the Bara, though they appear to be inferior 
both in physique and intelligence. This tribe lives on the undulating limestone plateau 
bounded by the Menarandra and Mandrare rivers, a desert region of cactus and strange 
vegetation where sometimes no rain falls for three years. Yet, in spite of this, villages 
appear to be numerous, and the natives own large herds of cattle. On January 22 we 
arrived at the abandoned military post of Tsimilofo and observations were made there the 
same evening, where a government well provided good water, and the next day a halt 
was made at the military post of Beloha. In this region travel during the day is very 
fatiguing, and therefore a moonlight night was taken advantage of to make the final 
stage to Cap Ste. Marie. The village of Betaihboraka was reached next morning and a 
guide obtained for the Cape, the baggage and most of the carriers being left behind to 
rest at the village. It is said that the Cape has been visited by very few white men, and 
it has yet to be thoroughly explored and mapped. Lack of water ordinarily renders 
travel almost impossible, but, strangely enough, during my three-day stay in this region 
rain fell at frequent intervals, while a gale blew with great force from the southeast. 
No latitude observation was obtainable, though a delay was made until nightfall in hopes 
of a star. Rain, however, fell continuously and, having neither food nor shelter for the 
men, a return was made to camp about midnight. 

The question of a supply of water for the carriers having been disposed of by the 
rains, there yet remained the problem of food. Owing to the long drought, the prickly 
pear (cactus) had withered, thus depriving the natives of one of their chief food supplies. 
A little manioc and maize can be grown during the rains, but the former harvest had 
been eaten as w611 as the supply set aside for seed. Thus, to carriers already exhausted 
by famine and drought, marching with loads was doubly hard. At each stop the men 
would consume large quantities of the green fruit of the cactus, which promptly caused 
their stomachs to swell like balloons and rendered them totally unfit for marching. 
Whenever possible, sheep were bought for them, and in one hour from the purchase time 
the only signs of a feast would be a pile of undigested matter cleared out of the stomachs 



Observers' Field Reports 



115 



of the animals and a few bones. A sheep is killed by cutting the arteries in its neck, 
though every drop of blood is carefully collected in a calabash. All the entrails, even 
the spleen, are eaten, and finally the sheep's skin is toasted over a fire, cut into strips, 
and disposed of. Fortunately the animals do not have gqod fleeces, otherwise this 
last item in the repast would be rather a woolly one. 

Around Cap Ste. Marie the natives, though not actively hostile, are not what 
might be termed friendly. The presence of military posts at frequent intervals prevents 
trouble, and the traveler is not in danger. At the villages, however, many of the women 
and children rush into the bush on the approach of a white man. One's own carriers 
do not always act in a manner to inspire the confidence of the villagers. On arrival 
they drop their loads and rush off to the nearest hut, enter unceremoniously, and im- 
mediately drink up any water or milk that may be lying about or help themselves to 
whatever food they see. But this somewhat rough form of "hospitality" appears to 
be perfectly understood by their hosts. Any luckless man who, on the approach of a 
caravan, is not wise enough to hide himself is promptly set on by the carriers, each 
man trying to dispose of his load or at least to have it carried on for him as far as the 
next village. 

Table 11 



No. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 



10 
11 



Name 



Beholoka 

Itampolo 

Androka 

Ampanihy 

Tsimilofo 

Cap Ste. Marie 

Faux Cap 

Tsihombe 

Ambovombe . . . 

Bevilany 

Fort Dauphin . . 



Date 



1920 

Jan 11 

Jan 14 

Jan 15-17 

Jan 21 

Jan 23 

Jan 25 

Jan 27 

Jan 29 

Jan 31, 
Feb 1-2 
Feb 3 
Feb 8 



Lat. South 



23 
24 
25 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 



54.5 
40.8 
01.7 
41.2 
59.4 
37.1 
34.0 
19.1 



25 10.0 



25 
25 



00 
02 



Long. East 



43 40 

43 55 

44 04 

44 43 

45 09 
45 08 
45 30 

45 27 

46 02 

46 33 

46 58 



Leaving Betaimboraka on January 26, Faux Cap was reached the same evening 
after a hard, sandy stage in the pouring rain. There is a gap in the coral reef at this 
latter place which permits the entrance of coasting luggers plying between Tulear and 
Fort Dauphin. From Faux Cap a cart road leads over the sandhills northward for 
30 kilometers to Tsihombe, a military post, where there are Chinese and Indian traders. 
During the war this region flourished because of the high price paid for hides, skins, and 
"pois du cap" (a sort of soya bean), but now the present slump in trade has affected 
even this isolated spot. Leaving Tsihombe on January 29, the journey of some 150 
kilometers to Fort Dauphin was completed by February 5, and the southern journey 
was ended. It now remained to return northward by the east coast, but as the next 
steamer was not due for three weeks, and as the few ports touched were unsheltered 
and inaccessible in bad weather, it was decided to continue with carriers. 

Table 11 gives list of stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
magnetic elements, see Table of Results. 



(4) Fort Dauphin to Tananarive 

Fort Dauphin is a most picturesque place, built on a rocky promontory jutting out 
into the sea and terminated by the remains of the fort built by Flacourt, a French adven- 
turer, in 1648. His old powder-magazine and the gateway to the fort remain to this 



116 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

day. The town is now of little importance, though it is linked with Tamatave by a 
monthly coasting steamer. 

Leaving Fort Dauphin on February 10, the semi-desert waterless country was 
exchanged for a coast where rain fell daily during the greater part of February and 
March and where the conditions approximated a tropical rain forest. At Fort Dauphin 
the mountains come right down to the coast, but as one proceeds north they recede 
gradually until at Farafangana the plain and foothills are over 50 kilometers wide. 
The coastal route is both unhealthy and uninteresting; the country undulates and is 
covered with clumps of bush and "travelers' palms," the latter being a graceful palm 
shaped like a fan. Very wet weather prevailed, and the mosquitoes of an evening were 
both numerous and ferocious, particularly so at Vangaindrano, where one must sit in 
a sack reaching to the waist if any peace is desired after sundown. 

A glance at the map of the east coast will show that it has neither bays nor points 
and is unbroken save for the many rivers which, rising in the eastern line of mountains 
parallel to the coast, are often less than 100 kilometers long, though, at their mouths, 
as much as 5 kilometers wide. No difficulty was experienced in crossing any of these 
waterways. On the smaller rivers, canoes are attached to either bank by an endless 
rope, so that a ferryman is not necessary, while on the larger ones government ferrymen 
are maintained. It is curious that the outrigger canoe is unknown on this coast, for 
it would save the traveler much anxiety; to see one's precious instruments placed in 
some flimsy "dug-out" which will perhaps be half-full of water by the time the other 
bank is reached, not to mention the personal risk in the crocodile-infested water, is 
not a pleasant experience. Very few of the rivers are of any consequence, and the bar 
of sand at the mouth, erected by joint action of stream and surf, excludes entrance 
from the sea for anything but canoes; sometimes the river mouth is quite land-locked, 
and on several occasions the party arrived just as flood waters were breaking through. 

The question of a sheltered port in this part of the coast is a matter which is now 
engaging the attention of the Government. Between Tamatave and Fort Dauphin, a 
distance of some 500 miles, there is no sheltered anchorage, and in bad weather the 
coastal steamers of the Messageries Maritimes may pass and repass a port several times 
before being able to discharge either passengers or cargo. In fair weather the steamers 
lie from 1 to 3 miles off the coast and await the barges into which to discharge, but 
oftentimes the sea rises suddenly and the barges are lost in attempting to recross the bar. 
At Manakara there is a gap in the reef which offers a possibility of this estuary being 
made into a port, offering shelter in bad weather. Between Farafangana and Mananjary 
are many waterways and creeks, running parallel to the coast and separated from the 
sea by a belt of bush often not more than 50 yards wide. These "pangalanes," as they 
are termed by the French, are practically continuous, and a few connecting canals have 
already been cut through, so that with the completion of others, it will be possible to 
travel on the east coast for great distances by canoe. 

The work was completed at Mananjary by March 7, and the next day the party 
left for Mahanoro, which was reached on March 15 after a detour to the west through 
Soavina, 60 kilometers inland. The coast was then followed to the village of Ambilo- 
Lemaitso, where the railway turns westward into the interior, and on March 22 the mail 
train was joined for Tananarive. The repeat observations at Tamatave of Pere Colin's 
observing-points were unfortunately not possible, owing to an outbreak of plague at that 
town, which was, of course, promptly quarantined. 

The capital was again reached on the evening of March 22 after an absence since 
November 25. During the period of four months, 44 magnetic stations had been estab- 
lished and a distance of 2,960 kilometers traveled, of which only 750 kilometers had been 
made by rail or automobile. A warm welcome back was extended by Bishop Kestell- 



Observers' Field Reports 



117 



Cornish and his wife, of the Anglican mission, whose hospitality was thoroughly enjoyed 
through Easter until April 9, the interval being fully occupied with reduction of observa- 
tions and arrangements for future work. 

Table 12 shows stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for magnetic 
data, see Table of Results. 



Table 12 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name 



Iabako 

Manantenina 

Manambondro 

Vangaindrano 

Farafangana 

Nangatsiotra 

Manakara 

Ambinany-Faraony 

Mananjary 

Nosivarika 

Soavina 

Ambinanindrano . . . 

Mahanoro 

Vatomandry 

Andevorante 



Date 



1921 
Feb 11 
Feb 13 
Feb 15 
Feb 18 
Feb 21 
Feb 24 
Feb 25 
Feb 27 
Mar 3-4 
Mar 9-10 
Mar 11 
Mar 13 
Mar 15-17 
Mar 19 
Mar 21 



Lat. South 



24 
24 
23 
23 
22 
22 
22 
21 
21 
20 
20 
20 
19 
19 
18 



37.1 
16.6 
49.7 
20.8 
49.4 
18.2 
08.6 
48.4 
14.5 
34.3 
23.5 
05.2 
53:8 
20.2 



57.0 



Long. East. 



47 10 

47 18 

47 31 

47 35 

47 49 

47 57 

48 02 
48 10 
48 19 
48 30 
48 15 
48 19 
48 47 

48 57 

49 05 



(5) Tananarive to Diego Suarez 

This was a very hurried trip on account of the necessity of joining the S. S. Dupleix 
for a journey down the west coast. One can not afford to miss steamer connections in 
Madagascar, where it may mean a delay of one to three months awaiting the next boat. 
Leaving the capital on April 9, the first 210 kilometers were traveled by rail to Anosiroa 
via Moramanga. From Anosiroa the journey north was continued by rickshaw to 
Ambatondrazaka and thence along the east shore of Lake Alaotra to the town of Imeri- 
mandroso. From Moramanga northward to the lake extends a large plain which at one 
time was part of the lake. The soil is very productive, and the swampy areas around the 
present lake are naturally utilized for rice fields. The actual lake has now dwindled to 
a weed-choked expanse of water 40 kilometers long and with an average breadth of 
10 kilometers. Canoes are able to navigate in the channels of open water among the 
weeds, and from the northeast corner the Maningory River flows eastward to the sea. 
Mosquitoes are, of course, very numerous, and at places the rest-houses fairly hummed 
with their angry buzzing throughout the night. The lake region is peopled by the 
Sihanaka tribe, a pleasant, docile type of native, who is said to be a mixture of Hova 
and Betsimasaraka (a coast tribe), with also a little Arab and European corsair blood. 

Beyond Imerimandroso the road enters a lonely mountainous region, climbs steeply 
over grassy or rocky mountain sides, and dips suddenly into narrow valleys in which 
are streams or swampy rivers; at Ambodivelatra it comes upon forested hills which 
continue to Marotandrano, where it makes a steep descent of 1,500 feet; thence it crosses 
open country to Mandritsara, a trading center and an important government post lying 
in a mountain-inclosed basin at an elevation of some 900 feet. After the cold drizzle of 
the hilly plateau, the climate was hot and depressing. 

Here an easterly route was taken to the coast. Leaving Mandritsara on April 26, 
Amanza, on the eastern limit of the basin, was reached that afternoon. A start was made 
by moonlight at 2 o'clock the following morning, and by daybreak a steep ascent of 
nearly 2,000 feet was accomplished to the pass over Mount Mahalaina. Thence the 
road descended over undulating hills to the Rantabe River at Andronadrona. From 



118 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



this point to the sea, a distance of some 80 kilometers, the scenery was very beautiful, 
the path winding up and down through the gorge in which flows the river with many 
rapids and cascades. The forest is thick and tropical, with feathery, whiplike bamboos 
arching across the path and the cries of the lemurs echoing down the gorges. 

Ceming down to the west coast of Antongil Bay at Rantabe, the path follows 
that coast to the capital of the province at Maroantsetra, thence follows the river gorges 
overland, across the pass, and down to the sea again at Antalaha. From this point 
the coast was followed to the important port of Vohemar, a trading center exporting 
cattle and also precious wood, coffee, and vanilla. Numerous rivers and streams empty 
themselves into the sea on this coast, and as in the south, though often only about 50 
kilometers long, they open out into large estuaries which must be crossed by canoe. 
Near Vohemar are large, grassy valleys in which feed large herds of cattle. Swampy 
hollows and the banks of rivers are usually converted into rice fields. Nearing Diego 
the country becomes more mountainous, and fantastic limestone crags alternate with 
hills which are of volcanic origin. The natives of this region are rather difficult to deal 
with at the villages, where it is necessary to bully the chief to obtain wood and water 
and food at the rest-houses. 

Table 13 , 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



Name 



Moramanga, A . . 
Moramanga, B. . 
Ambatondrazaka 
Imerimandroso . . 

Andilamena 

Ambodivelatra . . 
Andranokelllena . 

Mandritsara 

Andronadrona. . . 

Rantabe 

Maroantsetra. . . . 
Manakabahiny. . 

Antalaha 

Andempona 

Sambava 

Anjala 

Vohemar 

Ampasimbaria . . 

Boubavato 

Diego Suarez .... 



Date 



1921 

Apr 10 

Apr 11 

Apr 14-15 

Apr 17 

Apr 19 

Apr 21 

Apr 22 

Apr 25 

Apr 27 

Apr 29 



1 
2-3 

5 
6 

7 



May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 9 
May 11 
May 14 
May 15 
May 16-17 



Lat. South 



18 
18 
17 
17 
17 
16 
i6 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
14 
14 
14 
13 
13 
12 
12 
12 



57.1 
56.8 
49.4 
25.9 
00.9 
39.3 
2Q.8 
50.8 
45.9 
42.3 
26.2 
14.2 
53.6 
35.6 
15.5 
52.8 
21.2 
47.8 
29.7 
16.4 



Long. East 



48 12 

48 14 

48 24 

48 34 

48 34 

48 39 

48 50 

48 49 

49 12 
49 38 

49 43 

50 03 
50 15 
50 10 
50 08 
50 06 
49 59 
49 3.9 
49 27 
49 16 



Antsirane, or, as it is popularly called, "Diego Suarez," situated at almost the 
extreme north end of the island, is a port of call for the mail steamers between Mauritius 
and France and, besides being a naval base, is the headquarters of the Messageries 
Maritimes coasting steamers, which, in normal times, leave about once a month for the 
south. 

Table 13 shows stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for other 
details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

(6) Diego Suarez Down West Coast 

The coastal steamer Dupleix, with the Governor-General, who was making a tour of 
inspection, left for the west coast ports the day following our arrival at Diego Suarez 
on May 16, and thus time was only found to reoccupy the magnetic station established 
by Fave in 1887. On May 18 observations were made at Hellville on the island of 
Nossi Be, which is of volcanic origin and quite tropical in appearance. Next day, a 
few hours' delay at Analalava allowed another French station to be reoccupied, and 



Observers' Field Reports 119 

thence the journey was continued southward, calling at Majunga, Maintirano, and 
Morondava, and finally Ambohibe, where the vessel was left to continue her way to 
Tulear. At Maintirano the anchorage is about 2 miles from the surf-bound coast, and 
there is no shelter. The sea was quite rough, and for some hours no canoes could reach 
the ship and most of the passengers and all the cargo for this place were carried on to 
Morondava. Ambohibe was reached on May 25, but disembarkment there would 
have been quite impossible had not a large schooner come out for cargo. The steamer 
anchored some 2 miles from shore and, though a few canoes got through the surf, they 
refused to accept the responsibility of landing a white man. On the departure of the 
steamer, the schooner beat to and fro along the coast for two hours and finally got safely 
across the bar with a rising tide, the passage through the two lines of surf being quite 
thrilling. During the voyage Monsieur H. Garbit, the Governor-General, had been most 
interested in the objects of the work and at the various ports touched had asked the 
authorities to provide every facility for getting ashore without delay. 

The return journey to Majunga from Ambohibe was made first overland with car- 
riers and the latter portion in a sailing lugger, during which period 16 magnetic stations 
were occupied. On May 27, in the early morning, the carriers arrived from their villages, 
singing in unison as they trotted in a compact body over the sand, strong, lusty fellows 
all about 6 feet tall, with their hair dressed up into little balls stuffed with tallow and 
grease. This mode of hairdressing is best appreciated on a hot day with a wind blowing 
from ahead; the traveler, seated in his "filanzana," then gets the full benefit of the stale 
greasy smell proceeding from the heads of the two front chair-bearers. 

The main route north leads via Manja, a post some 95 kilometers to the east, which 
was reached on May 29. Leaving the coast it was necessary to proceed south by a 
raised roadway through the mangrove swamps, and in so short a distance as 2 kilo- 
meters some 30 bridges were crossed. During the day two arms of the Mangory delta 
were crossed by canoe, but on the second day the road soon entered thick mimosa scrub 
with clumps of giant baobab trees. These latter are called by the natives "pearls of 
the forest" because they are higher than any other tree, but surely they are the ugliest 
trees of the world. The fruit is rather tart and is appreciated on a long march when one 
is thirsty, while the trunk, shaped like a huge bottle, is nothing more than a mass of 
pulp which is valuable for the manufacture of paper. In the north of the island the 
weather had been hot, but down in the south the nights were cold and the days sunny 
and pleasantly warm at this season. 

Continuing northward from Manja on May 30, the post of Mandabe was our next 
station, after a pleasant two-day journey over gently undulating country in which 
villages are not very numerous, but the people are friendly enough and make up for the 
crudeness of their rest-houses by the warmth of their hospitality. Between Mandabe 
and Mahabo the same type of country is crossed and very few villages encountered; 
the people have large herds of cattle and, like their brothers of the south, consider it 
quite lawful to increase the size of these herds at the expense of their neighbors. On 
the evening of June 4 the swampy bank of the Morondava River was reached, but, 
though its bed was very wide, the actual channel did not exceed 250 yards and was only 
waist deep. From Mahabo to the coast at Morondava is a distance of 45 kilometers 
through the wooded valley of the river, which is crossed by a ford some 15 kilometers 
from the latter place. Here villages are numerous, and a cart road has been constructed 
between the two places. 

Leaving the Morondava on June 9, a march of seven and one-half hours was made 
to the village of Tunitsi, and Belo, a trading center served by sailing-cutters from Moron- 
dava, was reached next evening. Beyond Belo, after first crossing some low wooded 
hills covered with tombs of Sakalava chieftains, the path soon drops again to the typical 



120 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



bush. In one place the forest was particularly dense, and great excitement prevailed 
when the chair-bearers succeeded in shaking a young lemur off a sapling on which he had 
taken refuge. By evening of the 14th the Manambolo River was reached and safely 
crossed by a canoe which was as shallow as a hollowed-out plank. It is necessary to 
kneel in a crouched-up position and to remain perfectly still during the crossing, the large 
crocodiles visible on the sandbanks not encouraging the traveler to move, even should 
he become cramped, as he is almost sure to do. The night was spent at the village of 
Abohazo, where the mosquitoes were particularly ferocious. It is at the head of the 
river delta, and next day, after a short forest stage, Benjavilo was reached by canoe. 
Having reoccupied Pere Colin's station of 1898, a glad departure was made from such 
a depressing spot, and after a stage by canoe the mangroves were left behind and a 
region of wooded hills entered as far as Cape Kimby, whence the long, curving beach 
was followed to Soahanina. 

Table 14 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 



Name 



Nosi Be 

Analalava 

Ambohibe 

Anosibe 

Manja 

Mandabe 

Mahabo 

Morondava, A 

Moronava, B 

Belo 

Ankororiky 

Benjavilo 

Tondrolo 

Ankatoky 

Maintirano, A 

Maintirano, B 

Marofotsy 

Pointe Sada 

Majunga, B 

Dzaoudzi, Comoro Islands 



Date 



1921 
May 18 
May 19 
May 26 
May 27-28 
May 29-30 



June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 15 
June 17 
June 18 
June 20 
June 21 
June 24 
June 26 
/June 30 
[July 1 
July 6 



1- 
5- 

8 

8 
11 
13 



Lat. South 



13 
14 
21 
21 
21 
21 
20 
20 
20 
19 
19 
19 
18 
18 
18 
18 
16 
15 



24.2 

38.0 

21 

24 

27 

03 

23 

17 

17 

42 

12.9 

00.0 

30.9 

11 

03 

10 

43 

59 



15 43.4 
12 47.2 



Long. East 



48 18 

47 45 

43 31 

43 41 

44 20 
44 56 
44 38 
44 15 
44 15 
44 32 
44 26 
44 13 
44 14 
44 07 
44 03 
44 03 

44 27 

45 21 

46 19 
45 17 



At Maintirano news was received that the steamer Dumbea was due to leave Majunga 
for Zanzibar on June 29. The overland journey from Maintirano is one of ten days' 
hard travel, and therefore it became necessary to continue by sea. A missed connection 
with the steamer would have caused a delay of about two months, there being no other 
boat scheduled. At Tambohorano a lugger with a cargo of hides and "pois du cap" 
was joined, and leaving at daylight next morning a fair wind carried us up the coast to 
Marofotsy, which serves as a landing-place for Besalampy, an administrative post some 
miles inland. By evening the lugger ran up past Cap St. Andre, which is very low and 
sandy and is given a wide berth by coastwise shipping. This whole coast is very danger- 
ous, the coral reefs and banks making navigation very difficult. In places it is usual 
for the coastal steamers to anchor for the night, there being no light on the coast from 
Majunga to Cap Ste. Marie. On June 26 we were contending with tides and head winds 
into the bay at Pointe Sada; the following day was spent rolling, becalmed off Cap 
Tanjona. A passage on the top of a cargo hatch of a small lugger, with no shelter from 
the Sun, is not recommended to tourists. 

Finally, on the morning of June 28, the day before the date set for the Dumbea 
to sail, we beat into the Bay of Bonbetora up to Majunga, thus ending a voyage of some 
500 kilometers by sea. The Dumbea, due the same day, was delayed and finally did not 



Observers' Field Reports 121 

leave until July 5, reaching Dzaoudzi on Mayotte Island in the Comoro group next 
day. A four-hour stay here afforded time to reoccupy the French hydrographic station, 
the Administrator very kindly placing his gig and rickshaw and some prisoners at our 
disposal. This act was typical of the courtesy and assistance rendered by the French 
officials throughout Madagascar. 

On arrival at Majunga a telegram of welcome was received from His Excellency 
the Governor-General of Madagascar, Monsieur H. Garbit, who also by telegraph 
requested all "chefs de province" to give every assistance. Throughout the island all 
the administrators, military officers, and "chefs de postes" were most courteous and 
hospitable. It was this spirit of cooperation which made possible the completion of the 
work. 

In all, 266 days were devoted to this work; 96 stations were occupied at a total field 
expense of $887, making the cost per station a little more than $9 and the time per 
station less than three days. The total distance traveled within the island was nearly 
5,000 miles, of which more than one-half was by carrier caravan. 

F. C. Brown, on Magnetic Work in Eastern Africa, Western Australia, and 

Southern Asia, July to December 1921 

On the completion of the Madagascar work, I left Majunga, July 5, 1921, and after 
a stop at Dzaoudzi, Mayotte Island, arrived at Zanzibar on July 8. The English port 
officer and the director of public works were very cordial and cooperated fully in the 
prosecution of my work there. The station was well marked and will be used by the 
Admiralty for testing compasses. 

The landing regulations at Dar es Salaam are very strict, and one is supposed to 
cable in advance for permission to enter the colony. I was able to get ashore on a 
temporary pass, and through the courtesy of the chief secretary, I was provided with a 
written permit to observe in any part of the Tanganyika Territory. All of the officials 
were most courteous and manifested great interest in the work. As at Zanzibar, the 
station was well marked and will be used by the Department of Public Works. 

On July 16, I left on an overland trip by rail to Ujiji, on the eastern bank of Lake 
Tanganyika. Professor J. T. Morrison traveled over the railroad so far as then con- 
structed in 1909, and the line of the present railway was intersected at Tabora by the 
route followed by Dr. J. C. Beattie on his trip from Victoria Falls to Gondokoro in the 
same year. The present expedition was to determine secular variation by reoccupying 
stations of these earlier observers and at the same time to complete a chain of distribution 
stations across the continent by meeting the line of C. I. W. stations established by D. M. 
Wise, who reached the west bank of the lake in 1914 by way of the Belgian Congo. 

The trip was made without incident, the stations shown in the appended list having 
been occupied, and Dar es Salaam was again reached on August 4. On August 6, I 
sailed for Mombasa, Kenya Colony. Professor Morrison traversed the railway line 
from Mombasa to Port Florence on Lake Victoria in 1909, observing at a number of 
stations, of which I was able to reoccupy 6. Those at Mombasa and at Nairobi were 
especially well marked for future reoccupations, the local authorities in each case having 
taken an active interest in their preservation. An unfortunate necessity for haste pre- 
vented taking additional time for securing local interest at other stations and discharging 
the accompanying obligation of supplying the data resulting from the work. 

On the afternoon of August 24, I embarked for Aden and found the sea journey on 
a comfortable steamer most enjoyable and an agreeable change and rest after the hurried 
work in the interior of the past few weeks. Observations in the vicinity of the former 
station at Aden were made August 31. The Sun at this season was nearly vertical at 



122 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



noon, and the weather was almost unbearably hot. The usual diurnal-variation obser- 
vations for the first of the month had to be omitted because of extreme risk of sunstroke 
during the exposure of such an extended series through the worst hours of the day. I 
left Aden for Jibuti, Italian Somaliland, on September 3, after a delay of almost a day 
awaiting steamer's departure. This was unfortunate, because thereby the connection 
with the biweekly train to Abyssinia was missed, resulting in an enforced stay of three 
days in Jibuti. Observing conditions here are bad at this season. Apart from the 
heat and glare, at 7 o'clock each morning a strong northwest wind arises which soon 
fills the air with blinding sand; observing is impossible while this lasts. 

Table 15 



No. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

32 

33 

34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 

40 
41 

42 



Name 



Zanzibar, Zanzibar 

Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika Territory . . . 

Kilossa, Tanganyika Territory 

Dodoma, Tanganyika Territory 

Saranda, Tanganyika Territory 

Kilimantinde, Tanganyika Territory. . . . 

Mazengo, Tanganyika Territory 

Kigoma, Tanganyika Territory 

Ujiji, Tanganyika Territory 

Tabora, A, Tanganyika Territory 

Tabora, B, Tanganyika Territory 

Malongwe, Tanganyika Territory 

Ngere Ngere, Tanganyika Territory 

Nairobi, A, Kenya Colony 

Nairobi, B, Kenya Colony 

Kisumu, Kenya Colony 

Nakuru, Kenya Colony 

Makindu, Kenya Colony 

Voi, Kenya Colony 

Mombasa, Kenya Colony 

Aden, A , Arabia 

Jibuti, French Somaliland 

Hawash, Abyssinia 

Addis Abeba, Legation, Abyssinia 

Addis Abeba, Mission, Abyssinia 

Dire Daoua, Abyssinia 

Aden, B, Arabia 

Colombo, A, Ceylon 

Colombo, C, Ceylon 

Watheroo Observatory, Western Australia 
Cottesloe, A, Western Australia 

Bunbury, A, Western Australia 

Katanning, Western Australia 

Narrogin, Western Australia 

Geraldton, Western Australia 

Carnarvon, Western Australia 

Port Hedland, Western Australia 

Broome, A, Western Australia 

Derby, Western Australia 

Straits Settlements: 

Singapore, Botanical Gardens 

Singapore, Holland Road 

Singapore, Observatory 



Date 



1921 

July 10 

July 13-14 

July 18 

July 20 

July 21 

July 22 

July 23 

July 25 

July 26 

July 28 

July 29 

/July 31- 



1 
3 

11 

12 



\Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 15 
Aug 16 
Aug 19 
Aug 20 
Aug 23 
Aug 31 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 

/Oct 

\Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 10 
Nov 11 
Nov 15 
Nov 17 
Nov 18 

Nov 27 
Nov 29 
Nov 30 



5-6 

8 
11 
12 
15 
23 

9 
10 

23-26 
30 
31- 

3 

5 

7 



Lat. South 



10.1 S 

49.0 S 
50.3 S 
11. 2S 
42.9 S 
51. 4S 
52.8 S 
52.8 S 

55.1 S 
01.5 S 
02 . 3 S 



5 26.7 S 



46.1 S 
17.5 S 
17.3 S 
05.8 S 

17.1 S 
16.8 S 

23.8 S 
03.3 S 

47.2 N 
34.2 N 

59.0 N 
01.7 N 

01.7 N 

34.9 N 

49.8 N 
54.2 N 
54.2 N 

18.9 S 

59.1 S 



6 

1 

1 





2 

3 

4 
12 
11 

8 

9 

9 

9 
12 

6 

6 
30 
31 

33 20.1 S 



33 
32 
28 
24 
20 
17 
17 



41. 3S 
55.8 S 
47.0 S 
53.2 S 

18.8 S 
58.4 S 
17.8 S 



1 18.9 N 
1 19.0 N 
1 16.2 N 



Long. East 



39 11 

39 18 

37 00 
35 46 

35 01 
34 59 
34 59 
29 38 
29 42 
32 48 

32 49 

33 39 

38 06 

36 50 
36 49 

34 45 

36 04 

37 49 

38 34 

39 41 
44 59 

43 09 

40 13 
38 45 
38 47 

41 53 

44 58 
79 52 
79 52 

115 53 

115 45 

115 37 

117 34 

117 10 
114 37 
113 39 

118 35 

122 14 

123 38 

103 49 

103 47 

103 49 



Three days are required to reach Addis Abeba from Jibuti by rail, stops for the 
night being made at Dire Daoua and at Hawash. At these places the observations were 
made during the little available daylight morning and evening. I had hoped to find time 
to complete the observations at Hawash on the return, but owing to a delay the place 
was not reached until after dark. As the railway was strongly guarded by troops 
because of an expected attack on the train by bandits, it would have been unwise to 



Observers' Field Reports 123 

attempt to work out on the plain by lamplight. At Addis Abeba I was most hospitably- 
received by the British minister and plenipotentiary, and considerable interest was 
shown by the officers of the legation in the work undertaken. Heavy rains and storms 
marked the whole of the four-day stay at the capital, and the observations were made 
in mud ankle-deep. September should be avoided by observers visiting this locality, 
the rains continuing until the end of the month. The work in Abyssinia was hastened 
in the hope of returning to Aden to connect with a steamer leaving on September 19 
for Fremantle, Australia. Unfortunately the connecting steamer from Jibuti, instead 
of leaving on September 17, was delayed until the 20th, and soon after leaving port ran 
aground on a coral reef, narrowly escaping total loss. Fortunately we were but a short 
distance off Zeila in British Somaliland, and a fleet of dhows sailed out and took off cargo 
to lighten the ship. After 24 hours on the reef the captain succeeded in getting the 
vessel into deep water, and we arrived at Aden on September 22, too late for the Austra- 
lian connections. 

The delay in Aden made possible the occupation of the British Admiralty station of 
1909, which is on a saline flat across the harbor. Though difficult of access, the magnetic 
values obtained will probably be more nearly normal than those obtained in the town, 
where all the C. I. W. stations have hitherto been established. The port officer placed 
a launch at my disposal and granted me every assistance. 

There being no further direct sailing for Australia for a month, I booked passage 
for Bombay, sailing on September 26 and going thence by train to Madras and from 
there to Colombo in time to connect with the steamer for Fremantle leaving on October 
10, after making a reoccupation of stations established here by the Carnegie. 

I arrived at Fremantle on October 20 and at Watheroo on the 22d, where my instru- 
ments, which had been in continuous field use since May 1919, were compared with the 
observatory standards. At the conclusion of the comparisons a few stations in Western 
Australia were reoccupied with Mr. Shearer of the observatory staff in order to furnish 
him experience in methods of field observations. Returning to Fremantle, I took passage 
on the steamer Charon for Singapore. The numerous stops of this vessel at ports in 
Western Australia furnished opportunity for hurried reoccupations of several more 
stations from Fremantle to Derby. At Singapore both old stations were reoccupied, 
and a new station in a more favorable locality was established. On December 7, I 
arrived at Canton, China, where my field work terminated July 1922. 

Table 15 shows the list of stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; 
for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

F. C. Brown, on Magnetic Work in Eastern China, July and August 1922 

After an extended furlough at Canton, China, during which I had made observations 
each week at the magnetic hut on the grounds of the Canton Christian College, I left 
on July 11, 1922, for a brief trip in eastern China for the purpose of making a few reoc- 
cupations for secular variation on my way to Washington. 

Outrunning a threatened typhoon at Hongkong, we came soon into smoother weather 
and arrived at Shanghai on July 15. A brief call was made at the Zikawei Observatory 
for news of Pere de Moidrey, who was then engaged in a magnetic survey of the coast of 
China at the request of the Government, which had been approached on the subject by 
the Japanese, who wished the data to make more complete the magnetic survey of Japan 
and its dependencies. 

The journey to Nanking was made by rail. The original station of 1907 was now 
found to be within a few feet of a building, and a new position was secured on the recrea- 
tion grounds of the Nanking University. 



124 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



The journey to Hankow was by river steamer, whose stops at intermediate points 
were never long enough to permit going ashore for observations. In spite of the heat, 
the journey up the mighty Yangtse was more enjoyable than sailing through the 1- or 
2-mile flood of swirling brown water flowing through a flat country could be expected 
to be. We reached Hankow on July 21, though the possibility of being able to do so was 
quite unexpected. The region was peaceful, through the failure of military plans of the 
contending armies. 

The central provinces between Hankow and Peking, though not at war, were infested 
with brigands, and consequently there were large movements of troops on the railway. 
Foreigners were advised to travel on the biweekly express, which carried sleeping and 
dining cars, but this was not possible because of the limited time at our disposal, and the 
journey was made on the daily trains, mostly monopolized by soldiers, and most dirty 
and uncomfortable in consequence. The tedium was relieved by the amusing manner 
in which the occupants of the combination first and second class coach were continually 
shifted. The Chinese officer of highest rank would take for himself most of the first- 
class space, turning all other officers into the second and third class cars. After perhaps 
an hour of this comfort a superior officer would board the train and proceed to turn out 
the earlier occupant. Being a foreigner, one is allowed to remain, and with such constant 
changes of traveling companions a journey does not lack interest. 

Table 16 



No. 



Name" 



Canton, As. . . . 

Nanking 

Hankow 

Chengchow, A . . 
Chengchow, B. 
Peking, 1916. . 

Peking, 1907.. 



Kalgan 

Kakioka Observatory . 



Date 



1922' 
July 10 
July 17 
July 21-24 
July 25 
July 20 
July 29 
July 31- 
Aug 1 
Aug 4 
Aug 13-18 



Lat. North 



23 05.8 

32 03 . 8 

30 37.0 

34 44.7 

34 44 . 8 

39 52 . 5 

39 57.3 



40 
36 



51.2 
13.8 



Long. East 



113 18 
118 48 

114 20 
113 42 

113 42 
116 23 

116 25 

114 51 
140 11 



All of the stations are in China except No. 9, which is in Japan. 

After a stay of two days at Chengchow, where we were entertained by the American 
Baptist mission, Peking was reached on July 27. Here both the 1907 and the 1916 
stations were reoccupied. The former had been plowed over and the marker removed. 
The stone at the latter had been removed and a new one inscribed in Chinese and English 
was placed by cooperation with the director of the Observatoire Central de Peking, 
who expressed a purpose to make observations there annually. There are no magnetic 
and few astronomical observations made at the observatory at the present time, though 
there is a modern meteorological equipment. A magnetic observer is being trained for 
this position at Lukiapang, and it is to be hoped that the critical political and financial 
situation in China may not defeat the plans for the establishment of magnetic work here. 

Kalgan was visited on August 4. There is now a frequent automobile service 
between Kalgan and Urga by the telegraph road, and it is possible to continue by car 
to the Siberian Railway. 

The journey from Peking to Tokyo was undertaken by rail via Mukden and Seoul, 
there being no suitable sailing from Tientsin in early August. It had been announced in 
Peking that the Manchurian war lord, Wu Pei Fu, had consented to allow trains to run 
through to Mukden, making the journey to Tokyo in four days. Delays causing a 
missed connection and a washout extended this time by two days more, and Tokyo was 
not reached until August 12. 



Observers' Field Reports 125 

A very cordial welcome was extended by the authorities of the Central Meteorological 
Observatory, and arrangements were made to proceed the next day to Kakioka, where 
intercomparisons were made with the observatory standards and with the electric 
magnetometer of Professor Watanabe. These were completed, and on August 18 the 
party returned to Yokohama. The opportunity of living among the Japanese entirely 
in Japanese style was much appreciated. On two nights of our stay there was the 
observance of an annual religious festival, with street illumination, dances, and cere- 
monies that added to the interest and delight of the visit. 

The return to Washington was by way of Vancouver and Minneapolis, and thence 
to Washington, where a final comparison of instruments, which had been in the field 
since early in 1919, was made on September 7 to 11. 

Table 16 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
additional details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in the Samoa, Ellice, and Tokelau Islands, 

May to September 1921 

In accordance with the Director's instructions of May 21, 1921, I left Washington 
on May 23, 1921, for Apia, Samoa Islands, where I was to take up the work of reoccupying 
a series of stations in Australasia and among the Pacific Islands for secular-variation 
data, under the direction of Dr. H. M. W. Edmonds, stationed temporarily at the 
Apia Observatory. We arrived at Apia on June 15, and the remainder of the month 
and most of July was spent in getting comparisons at the observatory, making com- 
parison observations in connection with the standardization of the instruments aboard 
the Carnegie, which came to port while I was there, and in making plans for travel among 
the islands. 

By special arrangement with representatives of the London Missionary Society, 
I secured passage on their ship, the John Williams, on a tour of the Ellice and Tokelau 
Islands. As the port of Apia was closed because of an epidemic of measles, I obtained 
permission to go to Pago Pago, American Samoa, where I remained under medical obser- 
vation until August 15, when the vessel was scheduled to arrive. The trip to Pago 
Pago from Apia was made in a small native launch, and though it is only 65 miles, it 
consumed 18 hours to cover the distance against a stiff head wind. On August 22, I 
received a message from Dr. Edmonds that the John Williams was being held at Sydney 
because of influenza among her native crew. I immediately secured permission to go 
aboard the naval ship Fortune, which was leaving that night for her monthly copra trip 
to Manua Island. Arriving at Manua the following day, I succeeded in achieving a safe 
landing through the surf with the instruments; and with the help of the only white 
inhabitant of the island, a German trader, I located the eclipse station of 1911. The 
latter was a difficult task, as the hurricane of 1915 had practically destroyed every tree 
and building; however, from the ruins and the information from the natives, I succeeded. 
By spending the night in a native hut, and beginning work at daybreak, I completed my 
program in time to return to the ship with the last load of copra. The Fortune made 
no other stop long enough to secure further observations. Lieutenant Kehler, in com- 
mand of the vessel, showed me every courtesy, even to premitting me to share the only 
cabin with him. 

On Saturday, August 31, the John Williams, 17 days overdue, arrived at Pago 
Pago, and we sailed that night for the Ellice Islands, arriving at Funafuti Atoll on the 
afternoon of September 6. This island and others of this and neighboring groups are of 
low coral formation, having at no point an altitude greater than about 10 feet above the 
sea. There are groups of coconut palms, an occasional banana plant, and a few native 
huts. The British commissioner and a trader, both of whom live on Funafuti Atoll, 



126 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



constitute the white population of the Ellice Islands. The visit of the mission ship 
being an annual event, and the vessel being the only one to visit some of the islands, 
we were accorded an interesting reception. As we came into view of one of these islands, 
we were met by scores of grass-attired natives in long canoes hollowed from tree trunks. 
Rowing round and round the ship, they sang and shouted all the time, until we were 
near enough to stop, when they left their canoes and swarmed up the sides and all over 
the ship. Those who had no canoes would swim out to meet the ship, sometimes a 
distance of 2 miles or more. 

At each island stop the missionaries went ashore, and with the local native mis- 
sionaries, held a church service and conducted the annual school examination, the 
latter consuming several hours, depending upon the number of pupils to be examined. 
My work had to be adjusted to that of the missionaries, who never knew in advance of 
landing how long they would remain. I always went ashore with them, and it was 
no easy matter to get ashore with the instruments safe and dry. The process of landing 
usually consisted of about a 20-minute row in the whale-boat from the ship to the outer 
edge of the reef, where we would transfer to native canoes as the only type of boats able 
to successfully ride the enormous surf. Once through the surf we made a second transfer, 
this time to the back of a native who would bear us through the rough knee-deep coral 
reef to the shore. From my position on the back of a native I had a good view through 
the clear water of the brilliant coral formations and the hundreds of young octopi 
squirming into the crevices at our approach. At some of the islands I was unable to 
carry out the complete program of observations on account of the short time it took for 
the missionaries to complete their work. I reoccupied as closely as possible all the 
stations established in 1915 in the Ellice and Tokelau groups, and returned to Pago 
Pago on September 24. 

Table 17 



No. 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name 



Apia, Samoa Observatory . . . 

Pago Pago, American Samoa 

Tau Island 

Funafuti Island, B 

Nukufetau Island 

Vaitupu Island 

Nui Island 

Nanomana Island 

Nanomea Island 

Niutao Island 

Funafuti Island, A 

Nukulailai Island 

Atafu Island 

Fakoafu Island 

Swains Island 



Group of Islands 



Samoa Islands. 

Samoa Islands. 
Samoa Islands. 
Ellice Islands . . 
Ellice Islands. . 
Ellice Islands . . 
Ellice Islands. . 
Ellice Islands . . 
Ellice Islands . . 
Ellice Islands. . 
Ellice Islands . . 
Ellice Islands. . 
Tokelau Islands 
Tokelau Islands 
Tokelau Islands 



Date 



1921 

/June 5- 

\July 19 

Aug 12-16 

Aug 23-24 

Sep 6-17 



7 
8 
9-12 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 

Sep 13 

Sep 14 

Sep 15 

Sep 16-17 

Sep 19 

Sep 21 

Sep 22 

Sep 23 



Lat. South 



13 48.4 



14 
14 

8 
8 
7 
7 
6 
5 
6 
8 
9 
8 
9 
11 



17.0 
13.4 
31.2 
01.7 
29.2 
15.0 
17.6 
40.4 
06.6 
31.5 
22.1 
32.2 
23.0 
03 



Long. East 



188 14 

189 19 

190 28 
179 11 
178 20 

178 41 
177 10 
176 20 

176 08 

177 21 

179 11 
179 50 

187 29 

188 45 
188 55 



Table 17 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for further details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in the Fiji Islands, Solomon Islands, and 
New Guinea, September 1921 to January 1922 

The mission ship, the John Williams, was to remain in port at Pago Pago for several 
days, and as the little launch on which I had come over from Apia was again in port, I 
decided to return with her to Apia in hopes of catching the monthly New Zealand steamer 
for the Fiji Islands. This was a fortunate decision, and I was able to sail, the evening 



Observees' Field Reports 127 

of my arrival, for Suva, after a hurried conference with Dr. Edmonds, and attention to 
passport arrangements, fumigation, banking, and mail details necessary before departure. 

En route to Suva, I was able to stop at Nukualofa, Tongatabu Island, of the Tonga 
group, September 30, where I had the assistance of two surveyors of the Department of 
Public Works, who volunteered to have a permanent marker made for the station and 
the position made a part of the public records. Neiafu, Vavau Island, was visited, but 
Lifuka had to be omitted, as it was under quarantine at the time. I arrived at Suva, 
Fiji Islands, on October 5, and there learned that the connecting steamer for Sydney 
would arrive in two instead of four days, as I had been informed in Apia. In the short 
time available, I was able to reoccupy the station known as Dr. Klotz's Station, despite 
the continual rain, and on the following day, starting at 5 o'clock in the morning, I 
went to the Hospital Hill Station with my equipment. The rains had washed the hill- 
side until it was too steep to allow a foothold, and the station marker had been washed 
out and was found lodged in the debris near the foot of the hill. After wading and 
slipping about for an hour, hoping to find a spot for an approximate reoccupation, I was 
forced to take refuge from a tropical downpour. As the rain continued, the attempt was 
abandoned. The following morning I left Suva for Sydney, Australia. A stop at 
Lautoka enabled me to establish a new station about 80 miles west of Suva. 

On arrival at Sydney on October 14, I interviewed all the shipping and missionary 
agencies which are in communication with or have transportation facilities among the 
western island groups of the South Pacific, and decided to take passage on the Burns, 
Philp and Company steamer, the Mindini, on October 29, for Tulagi, in the Solomon 
Islands. The interval before the sailing of the vessel allowed opportunity for reoccupying 
the station at the Red Hill branch of the Sydney Observatory. Magnetic work has 
been suspended at this station, owing to shortage of funds and because of the destruction 
of the observing hut by the falling of a very large tree some months before. On October 
19 the Government astronomer, Dr. W. I. Cook, drove out to the Red Hill station with 
me, and with the assistance of the observer-in-charge, we managed to get the tree clear 
of the pier, which was found to be undamaged, though the hut which had protected it 
was demolished. On the following days I secured observations on the pier with some 
difficulty, climbing over the tree trunk throughout the observations. 

After a hurried trip by rail to East Maitland, I embarked on the Mindini and 
arrived at Makambo, Solomon Islands, on November 7. The reoccupations of the 
stations of 1915 were rather difficult, due to the limited time the steamer remained at 
each port, and this time was never known in advance, as it was determined by the amount 
of copra to be loaded. Generally we anchored off an island at daybreak, and I went 
ashore with the first copra boat, climbing down a rope ladder with my instruments. 
Once ashore, some time was required to relocate the previous station before work could 
be started. In no case did we stay more than one day in a place. About an hour 
before the last boat returned to the ship, I was notified, so that work was always being 
done against time. Working in this way, and handicapped by the terrific tropical rains, 
I reoccupied 6 of the former stations in the Solomon Islands, and returned to Tulagi in 
time to connect with the Melusia, another steamer of the same owners, for Rabaul, 
Bismarck Archipelago, on November 27. 

I arrived at Rabaul on December 3, having made stops at several ports, only one of 
which permitted opportunity for work. An arrangement was made to visit the Admiralty 
Islands, but on boarding the steamer, announcement was made that the sailing had been 
postponed three days. This delay would have made it impossible to return in time to 
connect with the Marsina for New Guinea, and the arrangements for the trip were can- 
celed. On December 14, I took passage for Samarai, New Guinea, where I arrived two 
days later. Here I learned that the vessel used in 1915 to reach the New Guinea stations 



128 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

had been taken out of the service since I had left Sydney, on account of the failure of 
the gold mines and of the low price of copra. The only means of getting to these out- 
lying stations would be by small sail or gasoline launches, and these were not plentiful. 
My attempt to charter a small boat met with no success. I did manage to get a very 
poor boat to make the Suau Island station, 30 miles distant from Samarai. A man who 
had waited at Samarai a month for a chance to get over to the island accompanied me 
as passenger and bore one-half the cost of the trip, which was an extremely uncomfortable 
one and required three days. In general, the cost of chartering boats, when they can be 
obtained at any price, is excessive, and greatly out of proportion to the value of the 
work that can be accomplished by them. 

I finally learned of what seemed to be an exceptionally fortunate opportunity of 
reaching stations along the north coast of the island, to the mouth of the Mombare 
at the boundary of German New Guinea, but what in the sequel came near bringing 
my expedition to disaster. A 6-ton launch from which the owner, a pearl fisher, had 
mysteriously disappeared, was held by the Government pending investigation, and in 
the meantime was chartered for short trips. A miner returning to his properties some 
distance up the Mombare River would use the launch to transport his supplies and send 
it back with its crew of native boatmen. Returning with it, I could make the desired 
stops and detours, and it seemed too good an opportunity to miss. Therefore, on 
Christmas morning, I went aboard with my contribution to the cargo. The launch 
being the first boat in several months, carried the Government mail; she also carried 15 
natives belonging to the miner, 4 native boatmen, one native cook, and the miner and 
myself, the only white men, and every inch piled high with general cargo. I knew it 
would be no pleasure trip, but I did not expect the boat to be so crowded. However, 
I threw my mattress on top of a couple of boxes, and proceeded to hang on all the way 
to Mombare. The weather was rough, and the engine in charge of the native boy gave 
no end of trouble, consuming far more fuel than the old miner had expected. There 
were numerous reefs along the coast and no lights, so travel was possible only during 
daylight. It was at daybreak on December 29 when we started the ascent of the swampy 
tropical river. Hardly had we entered the mouth of the river when we became lodged 
on the sand; a wait of five hours brought high tide, and we proceeded until nightfall, 
when we camped in midstream, where the sand flies and mosquitoes came through our 
nets and made sleep impossible. The following day the launch ran aground a second 
time on a sand-bar, and this time all efforts to pull her off were of no avail. We put the 
native boys off in the river and made them pull, which they did in mortal fear, as the 
river fairly teemed with alligators ; in fact one boy was kept on top of the launch, rifle in 
hand, ready to shoot any menacing alligator. At dark we were still fast on the bar, and 
it looked as though we should remain until the next flood would raise the water and 
deliver us, which at this season might be a month or more. We were 67 miles from the 
nearest white man, in a country none too friendly, where the natives deserted their 
villages and took to the bush on our approach. In such a manner I spent New Year's 
Eve in the middle of the Mombare River. 

During the night the unexpected happened. A severe rain passed over us and 
along the mountains back of us, so that at 3 o'clock in the morning I felt the launch 
make a slight lurch, and, crawling forward from my perch on the boxes, by the light of a 
hurricane lamp I saw great masses of foam, and then great logs and debris coming swiftly 
down the river. I called the crew, and before dawn we were out of our predicament 
and on our way, arriving at Tamata Junction on New Year's Day. The next day the 
cargo had been discharged, and the launch turned over to me for the return trip to 
Samarai, 350 miles away. 



Observers' Field Reports 129 

The outward trip had been exciting at times, uncomfortable always; the return 
was a continual gamble with fate, with odds all against us. I had quite naturally 
accepted the judgment of those familiar with the conditions, in the matter of supplies 
and fuel for the trip. Without attempting to place the blame, the fact remains that 
I was expected to get that launch back with only 5 cases of benzine and kerosene, whereas 
it had required 15 to bring us out. There were no stores or known places where I could 
secure fuel; there was no regular sail fitted to the launch. Should I be able to reach 
Buna Bay, the nearest white settlement, there was no regular communication, and 
overland travel through the jungle, filled with hostile tribes, was out of the question. 
To remain was equally impossible. There was but one thing to do, and that is what 
we did. 

At daybreak we drifted with the current down the river to the sea and headed for 
Buna Bay. The sea was rough, and we had constant trouble with the engine. Fortu- 
nately, we reached Buna Bay, the first white settlement, on about the last drop of our 
fuel. The settlement consists of 5 white men, a magistrate, a miner, and 3 recruiters 
of native labor for the plantations. When I arrived at dark, the place had all the appear- 
ance of having been deserted. After entering several empty huts, I reached the Govern- 
ment hut, and there I found four-fifths of the population still in the grip of a New Year's 
celebration. The miner was absent, and I made a native lead me to his hut, 4 miles 
inland, where I found him very ill with a fever. He chanced to have 2 tins of benzine 
which he sold me, and feeling like a heartless wretch, I took the fuel, and left him to his 
suffering, lying there unattended in his dirty, leaky thatch, and hurried back to Buna 
Bay. I now had fuel enough so that with good luck I should be able to reach Cape 
Nelson, 60 miles farther down the coast, where there is a Government station. 

Starting at about 2 o'clock, and being so low in fuel, the boat crew determined to 
steer the shortest course directly across the bay. When 20 miles out the engine broke 
down and could not be repaired before dark. Then a storm arose. I had the crew rig 
a sail out of an old tarpaulin, and a sort of jib out of my observing tent. The storm contin- 
ued, darkness came on, we had no compass, but by use of my small pocket compass read by 
the light of the flashes of lightning, we retained a general sense of the direction of the 
land. The boat seemed to roll almost- completely over, and at all times I had to hold 
on with both hands to keep from being washed or thrown overboard. A sudden twist 
of the boat and the sail boom snapped square off, and we were completely helpless, with- 
out engine, without sail, and a strong wind blowing off shore carrying us farther out into 
a sea where vessels never pass and hope of rescue was impossible. One of the drunken 
recruiters at Buna Bay had forced himself upon me as a passenger and now became 
violently seasick; the boat boys, though good sailors, were terrified and crawled into 
the corners to hide, and I had to force them to take down the tent, which was a failure 
as a jib, and rig a sea anchor; I also had them drop our tiny anchor in the hope it might 
snag a reef and hold us until our engine could be repaired. There was nothing more to 
be done but to hold on until morning, when the engine must be fixed. After seven long 
hours, the storm abated, and at daybreak land was just visible. It took five hot steamy 
hours' work in the engine cabin for me and the engine boy to get one cylinder to work, 
and on that we chugged into Cape Nelson at dusk, a second time completely out of fuel. 

The settlement at Cape Nelson consists of two white men, a magistrate and an old 
trader, neither of whom could supply me with sufficient fuel to carry me to Samarai. 
I learned of an old beach comber whose launch had been taken for debt, and on the 
chance of getting a little from him, I walked through the bush to his hut. From him I 
secured one tin and a gourd full of benzine, his entire supply. The magistrate drained 
the tank in his launch to add to my supply, but warned me that the trip to Samarai 
could not be accomplished on the fuel on hand, with the engine in its present condition. 



130 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



My passenger was now sick with fever and was indifferent whether he went or stayed. 
The engine boy told me that he sometimes made the engine run on leaner mixture of 
kerosene and benzine, but that it would not always work. There was no telling when 
a boat would arrive at Cape Nelson, certainly not for a month, and even then it might 
not be able to supply me with fuel. So against the judgment of the Cape Nelson men 
I set out at daybreak for Samarai, more than 200 miles distant. Once more using the 
tent as a jib, and using a two-thirds mixture of kerosene and benzine in an engine designed 
to burn it half and half, we just managed to get into Samarai harbor on January 9; we 
did not have fuel enough to reach the wharf. 

At Samarai there was still no possibility of getting passage to the remaining stations, 
so I decided to go to Port Moresby and visit the points in that vicinity. I was informed, 
however, that Port Moresby was under a strict quarantine for measles, and that if I 
went there I should have to suffer a 21-day strict quarantine, and thus miss the next 
Sydney steamer. I therefore could do nothing but go direct from Samarai to Sydney, 
and this I did, arriving in Sydney January 19, 1922. 

Table 18 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



Name 



Neiafu 

Nukualofa, Togatabu Island 
Suva, Dr. Klotz's Station. . . 

Lautoka 

Red Hill, A 

Red Hill, B 

East Maitland 

Makambo Island 

Aola 

Rere, Guadalcanar Island . . 

Faisi Island 

Binskin's Station 

Salicana Island 

Tulagi 

Gizo 

Rabaul 

Samarai, A 

Suau Island 

Samarai, B 

Kwato Island 

Tamata Junction 

Mambare 

Buna Bay 

Cape Nelson 

Ipoteto Island (Secondary) . . 



Continent or 
Group of Islands 



Tonga Islands 

Tonga Islands 

Fiji Islands 

Fiji Islands 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

Solomon Islands 

» 

Bismarck Archipelago 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 

New Guinea 



Date 



1921 
Sep 30 



Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 10 
Nov 16 
Nov 17 
Nov 18 
Nov 23-25 
/Nov 15,19 



3 
5 

8 

20 

21 

23 

7 

9 



\Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 20 
Dec 22 
Dec 24 
1922 



1 

5- 8 
16-17 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 



Lat. South 



18 

21 

18 

17 

33 

33 

32 

9 

9 

9 

7 

7 

7 

9 



39 

07.6 

08.4 

36.6 

44.5 

44.5 

45.5 

04.9 

31.2 

33.4 

04.4 

47.5 

26.8 

06.6 



8 06.0 



4 
10 
10 
10 
10 



12.7 
37.4 
42.2 
37.3 
37.3 

22.1 
04.3 
40.3 
03.3 
38.0 



Long. East 



186 01 

184 47 

178 26 

177 26 

151 04 

151 04 

151 35 
160 12 
160 30 
160 39 

155 53 

156 35 

157 40 
160 11 

156 51 

152 12 
150 40 
150 15 
150 40 
150 38 

147 50 

148 01 

148 25 

149 17 

150 01 



Table 18 shows the stations occupied, the dates of occupation, and their geographic 
positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in Australia, New Zealand, Cook Islands, 
Society Islands, Marquesas Islands, and Tuamotu Archipelago, 

January to August 1922 

On my return to Sydney from the Solomon Islands and New Guinea, I received a 
letter informing me that I should thereafter report direct to the Office as my own chief 
of party, instead of to Dr. Edmonds as before, and also instructions under date of Sep- 
tember 12, 1921, to cooperate with Dr. J. M. Baldwin, Government astronomer, at the 
Melbourne Observatory, in instrument and station comparisons necessary to a transfer 
of the magnetic observatory from Melbourne to the new site at Toolangi. I at once 



Observers' Field Reports 131 

informed Dr. Baldwin that I should be in Melbourne about February 1, and ready to 
assist in such program as might be agreed upon. 

En route to Melbourne I reoccupied 4 stations of 1911 and 1913 in New South 
Wales. At Melbourne a program of approximately simultaneous observations was 
arranged at the Melbourne and the Toolangi stations, so that a comparison of instru- 
ments was obtained and at the same time a satisfactory station difference necessary for 
a transfer of the observatory absolute observations. At the same time the recording 
instruments were installed at the new location. 

After a conference with Captain Edward Kidson, formerly in charge of the magnetic 
survey of Australia for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, I decided to carry out 
the work in New Zealand first, and then take up the Society Islands and neighboring 
groups. Accordingly I returned to Sydney on February 28, and arrived in Auckland, 
New Zealand, on March 6. At Christchurch I met Mr. H. F. Skey, in charge of the 
magnetic observatory there, and in consultation with him arranged a list of stations 
in the North Island and the South Island for reoccupation. Owing to the infrequent 
train service on the New Zealand railroads at that time, the number of stations was 
necessarily smaller than I should have desired otherwise, as I wished to finish in time to 
connect with the steamer from Wellington for Tahiti, sailing April 11. The month of 
March proved a very unsatisfactory one for work, as there were but two really good 
days for observations, the others being invariably rainy or cloudy. 

I arrived at Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands, on April 19, 1922, and after attending 
to official formalities, and having reoccupied the C.I. W. station there, I received instruc- 
tions by cable to visit such island groups in the vicinity as I was able. I found an 
opportunity to take passage for the Marquesas Islands on a very small copra schooner 
of about 60 tons. 

The schooner left Papeete on April 29, with a crew of 4 natives and a Tahitian 
captain, 4 native women passengers, and myself. The captain was the only one of the 
natives who spoke English, and his vocabulary was very limited. There were no accom- 
modations for the passengers, and we were all put together in the one small cabin, but 
the bilge stench and the copra fumes made it impossible to stay in the room, so I camped 
on the hatch on deck; there was no room to exercise, and the boat rolled so that I had 
to hold to something all the time. At noon the hot tropical sun blazed down on us so 
that our luncheon of native food could not be enjoyed. The old captain had been 
gathering copra for many years, but always in the same island group, where a knowledge 
of navigation was not essential. It took him about three hours to work out a simple 
longitude, so I took his sights and worked out his positions by the aid of my pocket 
chronometer. This pleased the old seaman so much that he gave me his cabin and he 
went forward and slept in the forecastle with the crew. This was very fortunate for 
me, as we ran into some very bad weather, the deck being awash for four of the ten 
days required for the trip. 

En route we stopped at Tikei, a small uninhabited island of the Tuamotu group, 
and this being the last land seen before reaching the Marquesas, the crew and I went 
ashore through the heavy surf and onto the coral reef, where they speared fish and I 
got an inclination observation. On May 9 we arrived at Atuona, Hiva Oa Island, 
Marquesas Islands, this being at present the seat of government. It had been my 
intention to remain with the schooner while she gathered copra among the islands and 
thus reach Nukahiva, where the former C. I. W. station was made in 1907. However, 
her agents instructed the captain to tie her up at Atuona on account of the continued 
low price of copra. There were no hotels in Atuona; however, I was able to secure 
quarters in the rear room of a native store. There was nothing I could do but wait the 
chance arrival of a trade schooner, which might not be for one, two, or even three months. 



132 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



This was on May 10, and by rare good fortune a trade schooner put in on May 13; I 
promptly made arrangements to take passage with her as she traded among the Tuamotu 
Islands en route to Tahiti. We were supposed to sail on the 15th, but mere tropical 
inertia delayed us until the 17th, when after a few hours at sea we were forced by heavy 
weather to return to Atuona to remain until the 19th. This schooner, though small, 
was somewhat larger than the one I had come out on and was fitted up with a small 
store of overalls, hats, axes, calico, perfume, and trinkets to trade with the natives for 
copra. As I was the only white man and the only passenger, the captain cleared one of 
the shelves of merchandise and gave it to me as a bunk. 

We arrived at Puka Puka Island on May 25, and here the captain took 42 native 
passengers, men, women, children, with dogs, cats, turtles, pigs, goats, fishnets, and 
other belongings, to Fakaina Island, where we arrived on May 29. After long delays 
because of calms, the captain decided to omit the remaining islands and steered direct 
for Tahiti, where we arrived on June 9. I had spent the entire month of May in reach- 
ing a few islands of the Marquesas and Tuamotu groups. To reach by trading-schooners 
the remaining island where repeat observations were desired, would require, in the 
present condition of the copra market, more than six months' time. 

Table 19 



No. 



1 
2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 

28 
29 
30 



Name 



Goulburn 

Harden 

Wagga Wagga 

Albury 

Toolangi 

Melbourne 

Auckland 

Rotorua Gardens 

Ekelahuna Domain 

Christchurch, Jarrah Peg. 

Clinton 

Kingston 

Queenstown 

Cromwell 

Roxburgh 

Mount Victoria 

Avarua 

Point Fareuta 

Papeete (Secondary) .... 

Tikei Island 

Atuona 

Puamau 

Puka Puka Island 

Fakahina Island 

Angatau Island 

Point Fareute 

Avarua 

Avarua, C (Coral Beach) 

Avarua, B (Tekeu) 

Auckland 



Continent or 
Group of Islands 



Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

New Zealand 

Cook Islands 

Society Islands 

Society Islands 

Tuomotu Archipelago 
Marquesas Islands. . . 
Marquesas Islands. . . 
Tuomotu Archipelago 
Tuomotu Archipelago 
Tuomotu Archipelago 
Society Islands 

Cook Islands 

Cook Islands 

Cook Islands 

New Zealand 



Date 



1922 
Jan 25 



Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 

Mar 22 

Mar 25 

Mar 27 

Mar 30 

Mar 31 

Apr 



26 
27 
28 

3-20 
20-24 

8 
10 
15 
19 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
May 



1 

5 
16 
24 
25 

3 



May 10-12 

May 20 

May 25-26 

May 29 

May 31 

June 12-13 
/June 19- 
\July 3 

July 10-15 

July 17 

Aug 3- 7 



Lat. South 



34 
34 
35 
36 
37 
37 
36 
38 
40 
43 
46 
45 
45 
45 



45.8 

33.6 

06.2 

05.1 

33.4 

49.9 

51.7 

09.3 

39 

31.8 

12.6 

19.6 

02.4 

02.6 



45 33.9 



41 
21 
17 
17 
14 
9 
9 
14 
15 
15 
17 



18.7 

11.5 

31.5 

31.8 

57 

48.6 

46.6 

48 

57.8 

49.4 

31.5 



21 11.5 



21 

21 
36 



11.4 
11.4 

51.7 



Long. East 



149 43 

148 22 

147 23 

146 55 

145 29 

144 58 

174 46 
176 16 

175 43 
172 37 
169 26 
168 45 

168 42 

169 14 

169 19 

174 47 

200 15 

210 26 

210 27 

215 26 

220 58 

221 07 
221 10 
219 51 
219 07 
210 26 

200 15 

200 15 

200 15 

174 46 



The Tuamotu Islands are similar to the Ellice Islands — mere coral atolls, surrounded 
by high red coral reefs, making landings extremely difficult and very dangerous. I had 
several good drenchings, but always managed to reach the reef with my instrument 
safely. At every island one or more copra boats were capsized in attempting to make 
the reef. Only the semiannual mail steamer and occasional trading schooners go to 



Observers' Field Reports 



133 



the Austral Islands, and as I had been instructed to reach the assigned station in Queens- 
land, Australia, in time for the total solar eclipse of September 22, I did not attempt to 
visit that group. I therefore went back by steamer to Rarotonga in the Cook group. 
As sailings from there to New Zealand are monthly, I should have to wait there a month 
for the sailing of about July 15. I hoped in this interval to find an opportunity to visit 
the Manihiki group. In this hope I was disappointed, as the interisland schooners 
were at that time all out and would not return in time to make another trip before I 
should have to leave for Australia. I learned that a government steamer was about to 
leave for one of the nearer islands, and I presented a letter of introduction obtained for 
me by the Christchurch Observatory to the resident commissioner and asked permission 
to go along. The permission was refused, and I was forced to content myself with re- 
peated diurnal-variation observations until the next sailing for Wellington. On the 
arrival of the Maunganui from Wellington to San Francisco, I had the pleasure of 
meeting the Director, Dr. L. A. Bauer, returning from an inspection trip after attending 
the meeting of the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union at Rome. 

Table 19 shows the stations occupied, the dates of occupation and the geographical 
positions. For additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in Queensland, Australia, Including Special 
Observations During the Total Solar Eclipse of September 20, 1922 

I arrived from Rarotonga at Wellington, New Zealand, on July 30, 1922, having met 
on board Dr. Campbell and Dr. Moore of the Lick Observatory eclipse party. I left 
Auckland for Sydney on August 11, arriving in Sydney on the 15th, and had the pleasure 
of again meeting Dr. Baldwin, of Melbourne, and the Reverend Dr. Piggott, returning 
from their visit to Washington. On arrival at Sydney, plans for the work of the Sep- 
tember eclipse were discussed with these gentlemen and with Professor Von Wilier of 
the Sydney University. 

Table 20 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Name 



Werris Creek 

Tenter field 

Brisbane 

Roma 

Charleville, A 

Coongoola (Eclipse) 

Cunnamulla 

Charleville, B 

Tambo 

Jericho 

Emerald 

Rockhampton 

Goondiwindi, A 

Goondiwindi, B . . . . 
Red Hill, B 



Date 



1922 
Aug 22 
Aug 23 
Aug 26-30 
Sep 2-5 
8-12 
15-22 



Sep 

Sep 
/Sep 30- 
\Oct 4 

Oct 



Oct 
Oct 



6 
8 
10 
Oct 12 
Oct 16-18 
Oct 24 
Oct 26 
Nov 6 



Lat. South 



31 

29 
27 
26 
26 
27 



21.0 
04.1 
27.1 
34.3 
24.4 
39.2 



28 04 . 3 



26 
24 
23 
23 
23 
28 
28 
33 



24. 

53. 

35. 

30. 

21.8 

33.0 

32.5 

44.5 



Long. East 



150 39 

152 02 

153 02 
148 48 
146 14 
145 54 

145 42 

146 14 
146 16 
146 08 
148 10 
150 30 
150 18 

150 18 

151 04 



After occupying stations en route, I arrived at Brisbane, where I made extended 
observations and completed arrangements for time signals to control the special eclipse 
observations. By special courtesy of the officers in charge, I was to have the exclusive use 
of the telegraph line from Brisbane to my eclipse station at Coongoola, 500 miles distant, 
for 10 minutes on September 19, 20, and 21. This plan was modified later by the decision 
of Mr. Fraser, the State time-observer, to organize a party for eclipse photographic 
observations at a station about 10 miles west of Coongoola. Signals were received by 



134 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

telephone from Mr. Fraser's party, who had a sidereal chronometer from the Brisbane 
Observatory, rated nightly by star observations. Unfortunately, an accident to this 
chronometer later has introduced a little uncertainty as to the final correction. Crowds 
of people came to view the eclipse by special trains, but they were kept entirely away 
from my station by the police from Cunnamulla. 

Following the eclipse, the month of October was spent in reoccupying widely dis- 
tributed stations in Queensland. Going first to Charleville, I went overland across a 
desert country to Tambo by automobile, and thence by mail coach to the railway at 
Blackall, where I took a train to Jericho. Following the railway eastward, I went to 
Emerald, Rockhampton, thence southward through Maryborough to Brisbane. No 
work was possible at Maryborough, as by an error of the railway officials my observing 
tent and instrument tripods had been taken on to Brisbane. After locating the lost 
articles, I went to Goondiwindi to make a reoccupation of the station where Mr. Kidson 
had made his eclipse observations, and arrived at Sydney on October 28. 

Table 20, shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in New Caledonia, Loyalty, New Hebrides, 

and Lord Howe Islands, November 1922 to January 1923, and in 

Australia, January to April 1923 

I sailed from Sydney on November 9, 1922, on the French mail steamer, the Pctcifique, 
for Noumea, New Caledonia, where I arrived November 13. On the following day I 
joined the 100-ton copra-gathering steamer for Lifu Island of the Loyalty group, stopping 
en route at Mare Island. I arrived at Lifu Island on the 17th and was courteously 
given accommodation at the French Protestant mission, as there were no hotels on 
the island. The missionary in charge was no stranger to my work, as he had entertained 
Mr. Brown on his African expedition in the Cameroun. I rejoined the copra steamer on 
her return and two days later arrived again at Noumea. 

I next took passage with the monthly mail steamer for Paagoumene on December 1, 
where I arrived on the 4th, proceeding later by the same vessel to Bourail, arriving three 
days later. The stops en route by this vessel were too short to permit work at any 
of the intermediate points. From Bourail, which is the terminus of the only road in 
New Caledonia, I went overland to Noumea. On this visit to Noumea I spent time 
explaining my work to the local officials, as the suspicion that I was a spy had been com- 
municated to the police. I was permitted to leave on the 16th on the Pacifique, which 
was sailing for the New Hebrides. By remaining aboard as this vessel gathered copra 
I was able to visit three of the 1915 stations. However, the stay at Port Sandwich was 
curtailed, owing to bad weather, no passengers being permitted to go ashore, and the 
vessel returned to Fila on December 22, when I disembarked, and on the 29th took 
passage on the British steamer Makambo for Sydney. En route I was able to stop for 
observations at two stations ; at the third, Norfolk Island, the stop was less than one-half 
hour and no work was possible. I arrived in Sydney on January 14, 1923. 

Traveling by rail to Melbourne, Victoria, I took passage across to Launceton, 
Tasmania, and went thence by rail to Latrobe, where I made the first reoccupation 
on January 22. 

Between my arrival in Tasmania on January 20 and my departure on Feburary 10 
I reoccupied 5 stations. The weather was very unfavorable, cloudy and rainy nearly 
the whole time. Time was lost in searching for the precise location of the former station 
markers, while the extended program of observations called for in the new instructions 
for class I and class II stations makes the time at each station much longer than hitherto. 



Observers' Field Reports 135 

After making two reoccupations in Victoria, I traveled by train to Adelaide, South 
Australia, and called on Government Astronomer G. F. Dodwell with reference to 
comparisons between my outfit and those at the observatory there. After inspecting 
the sites of the former stations at Adelaide, a station for the intercomparisons was 
selected at Mount Lofty, 14 miles distant. The comparisons were carried out between 
February 26 and March 7, Mr. A. L. Kennedy, assistant astronomer, and former mag- 
netic observer in this Department, using the observatory instruments. At the conclu- 
sion of the comparisons, I made observations at the old station in the Botanical Park, 
while Mr. Kennedy observed at Mount Lofty, in order to obtain the station difference. 

The standardization observations completed, and Port Lincoln reoccupied as a 
class II station, I took the weekly train on March 21, from Port Lincoln to Ceduna, the 
present terminus of the railway. This section was suffering from a severe drought, so 
that at Ceduna the amount of drinking-water per person was limited. The journey 
required two days to cover 268 miles, over a newly constructed road on which only 
second-class accommodations were provided. It was the roughest railway journey I 
ever made, the jars and jolts at times making it positively dangerous. 

The long class I program was completed here under very trying circumstances. 
The time was limited, as the work must be finished in time to join the weekly automobile 
mail truck westward. The diurnal-variation observations in horizontal intensity were 
made on March 26, the day before my departure, in a very severe dust-storm. The 
station was on a sand-hill, where it received the full force of the storm. It was necessary 
to keep the tent tightly closed, and even so the instrument was soon covered with a 
coating of fine red desert sand. It became very hot and close in the tent, so that between 
readings I had to lie face down on the sand until time for the next reading. Fortunately, 
toward evening the wind shifted and the dust cleared so that I could get a mark reading. 
It was undoubtedly the most strenuous observation day I have ever experienced. 

On the following day at daylight I left Ceduna by mail car for Yalata Head Station, 
a large sheep ranch, 100 miles distant over a semi-desert country. While there I was 
the guest of the manager of the ranch, and reoccupied the station of 1911. I was now 
more than a week's overland journey from Adelaide, with no way of proceeding farther 
into the desert. The best way seemed to be overland to the water station at Ooldea 
on the transcontinental railway, and directly to Perth and Watheroo, reaching Eucla 
and other stations along the line on the return. This was further rendered advisable 
because of an accident to the pocket chronometer. To take it back to Adelaide would 
involve great loss of time, and to await a replacement from Watheroo on requisition by 
telegraph was impossible, as there was no accommodation to be had along the railway 
while awaiting its arrival. 

On March 28 I hired a Ford automobile and undertook the sixth trip ever made by 
motor across the desert from Fowler's Bay to the line of the Transcontinental Railway. 
The distance is 119 miles, and cost slightly less than a shilling a mile, which was very low, 
considering the risk involved and the condition of the track. The driver had a companion 
accompany him, as he would not venture on the return trip alone. Food and blankets, 
as well as shovels and picks, were provided. Arrangements were made for a searching 
party to look for us if not heard from at the end of four days. The track led through 
dense mallee scrub, and at times over perfectly level, treeless sand-plains. No human 
being was seen in the entire distance, though, despite the complete absence of water, 
lizards and snakes, as well as dingoes and foxes, were seen along the route. We had to dig 
the car out of the sand on three occasions, and many times we had to push. Ooldea is 
merely a water-tank stop on the railway, and here I was guest of the water-tender while 
waiting the arrival of the triweekly train for the west. 



136 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



I reached Perth on Easter Sunday, and on Tuesday arrived at the Watheroo Ob- 
servatory, where I immediately took up the comparison of my instruments with those 
of the observatory standards, thus completing the indirect comparison of the C. I. W. 
standards with those at Melbourne and at Adelaide. 

Table 21 shows stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic positions; 
for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 21 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

15 
16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



Name 



Mare Island 

Lifu Island 

Noumea 

Paagoumene 

Bourail 

Ringdove 

Luganville 

Fila 

Hog Harbour 

Lord Howe Island 

Latrobe 

Longford 

Hobart, D 

Sorell 

Southport, A 

Ararat 

Border Town 

Mount Lofty, A 

Mount Lofty, B 

Adelaide, Botanical Park 

Port Lincoln 

Ceduna 

Yalata Head Station. . . . 

Ooldea 

Watheroo Observatory 



Group of Islands 
or Continent 



Loyalty Islands. . 
Loyalty Islands. . 
New Caledonia. . . 
New Caledonia. . . 
New Caledonia. . . 
New Hebrides. . . . 
New Hebrides. . . . 
New Hebrides. . . . 

New Hebrides. . . . 
Lord Howe Island 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 

Australia 



Date 



1922 
Nov 15 
Nov 17-21 
Nov 28-30 
Dec 4- 5 
Dec 9 
Dec 19 
Dec 20 
Dec 23-28 

1923 



Lat. South 



21 32.6 
20 46 . 8 



Long. East 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
/Jan 
\Feb 
Feb 



1 
12 
22 

23-26 
29 
30- 
2 

4- 7 
Feb 14-15 
Feb 16-20 
("Feb 26- 
\Mar 9 
/Feb 26- 
\Mar 7 
Mar 8 
Mar 19-20 
Mar 23-26 
Mar 28 
Mar 30 
Apr 5-10 



22 
20 
21 



16.3 
29.2 
37 



16 38 
15 32 

17 44.3 



15 

31 
41 
41 
42 



09 

31 

14.8 

35.9 

52.2 



42 47.6 

43 25.9 
37 17 
36 18.5 

34 58 . 5 

34 58 . 5 



34 
34 
32 
31 
30 
30 



54.8 
42.6 
08.2 
56.3 
27.5 
18.9 



167 53 

167 09 

166 28 

164 11 

165 29 

168 10 

167 09 

168 19 

167 07 

159 04 

146 27 

147 08 
147 21 

147 33 

147 01 

142 57 

140 46 

138 42 

138 42 

138 36 

135 52 

133 36 

132 23 

131 48 

115 52.6 



D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in Southekn and Eastern Australia, 

April to June 1923 

Upon completion of the comparisons of magnetometer-inductor No. 24 with the 
standards at the Watheroo Observatory, I went by rail to a station called Mile-Post 
632 on the Transcontinental Railway. Here I joined a camel wagon party for the trip 
across the desert to the Eucla telegraph station, situated 78 miles south, on the seacoast. 
The wagon was drawn by four camels in charge of two native black Australians, who, 
with myself, constituted the party. 

The country traversed is perfectly flat salt-bush desert, not a tree being seen in 
the entire distance. The novelty of the mode of travel furnished interest to offset the 
wearisome monotony of the landscape and relieved the tiresome jolting of the wagon. 
At night the dingoes circled about the camp-fire and howled continuously from dark to 
daybreak. The blackfellows lay down behind their windbreaks of salt-bush and went 
quickly to sleep ; after the first night, I did likewise. At Eucla, a telegraph relay station 
given prominence on all maps of Australia, there was a total of 14 inhabitants. Class I 
observations were made here April 17 to 20, and then I immediately returned to Mile- 
Post 632, where observations were made on April 24. Continuing eastward by the tri- 
weekly train to Tarcoola, a defunct mining town in South Australia, I reoccupied the 



Observers' Field Reports 



137 



station of 1914 and went on to Port Augusta, where I again met Mr. A. L. Kennedy and 
made further comparison observations with the dip needles of the Adelaide Observatory 
instruments. 

Leaving Petersburgh and Farina to be reoccupied by Mr. Kennedy, I went northward 
on the South Australian Railway to Marree (formerly Hergott Springs) and then took 
the fortnightly train to the rail terminus at Oodnadatta, which was designated as a 
class I station. The proposed trip to Nilpinna was necessarily omitted on account of 
the remote situation requiring elaborate preparation and excessive expense. Fortunately, 
I escaped a week's waiting for return of the train by joining the caretaker of a special 
stock-train for Adelaide. After a tedious 32-hour ride in a box car, I reached Petersburgh, 
where I connected with the passenger train for Broken Hill and Menindie, New South 
Wales, and thence by mail coach to Wilcannia. The journey of 200 miles from Wilcannia 
to Bourke by auto mail-coach proved to be very slow and trying. The region had been 
suffering from a severe drought, there having been no rain for more than two and one- 
half years, and the roads had been reduced to deep beds of dust under the heavy camel 
and bullock traffic which radiates into the "backblocks" from Bourke, the railway 
terminus. When we were about half-way between Wilcannia and Bourke, fortunately 
for the country but unfortunately for travelers, the long drought broke; 167 points of 
rain fell, and the roads became impassable. The auto-coach bogged time and time 
again. We waded through mud about 4 miles to a deserted wool-shed and spent the 
night there, covered with some pieces of old woolsacks we found in the place, but not 
until we had killed five great centipedes which had also sought the shelter of the wool- 
shed. The British Royal Mails have to move despite weather conditions, and in seven 
hours we succeeded in moving about 10 miles, when more rain fell and we were forced 
again to take shelter, this time in a bogged camel-wagon. With the rain came the 
Australian winter. We were muddy, wet, and cold, and I was without bedding; however, 
I spent that night, June 5, in the same bed with a very generous though extremely dirty 
Afghan camel-driver in his wagon. The next day the three of us stood about a campfire 
knee-deep in the cold mud and waited for the liquid road to dry. Shortly before dark 
a new high-powered coach came out from Bourke, where the rain had been less, and I 
transferred to the new car and arrived at Bourke on the morning of June 7, having been 
nearly a week on the track. 

Table 22 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 



Name 



Eucla 

Mile-Post 632.. . 

Tarcoola 

Port Augusta, A . 
Port Augusta, B 

Marree 

Oodnadatta 

Broken Hill 

Menindie 

Wilcannia 

Bourke 

Narromine 

Dubbo, B 

Dubbo, A 

Wellington 

Red Hill, B 



Date 



Apr 

Apr 

May 

May 

May 



1923 
Apr 17-20 
24 
26 
1- 5 
1- 5 
9 

May 12-15 
May 20-23 
May 26 
May 30-31 
June 7- 9 
June 12 
June 14 
June 15 
June 16 
June 25 



Lat. South 



31 
30 
30 
32 
32 
29 
27 
31 
32 
31 
30 
32 
32 
32 
32 
33 



43.3 



49 

4:-! 

29 

29 

39 

33 

57.8 

23.9 

33.7 

04.9 

15 

14.9 

14.3 

33.6 

44.5 



Long. East 



128 53 

128 25 

134 25 
137 46 

137 46 

138 03 

135 28 

141 27 

142 26 

143 23 
145 57 
148 12 
148 37 
148 35 
148 56 
151 04 



On the rail journey eastward toward Sydney I stopped for observations at Nar- 
romine, Dubbo, and Wellington, paying particular attention to the distribution in the 



138 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



vicinity of Dubbo, where the observations of 1913 indicated a pronounced local magnetic 
disturbance. The weather at the last six stations was very unfavorable for observations 
due to the breaking of the long drought, each day being either rainy or cloudy. After 
a further and final reoccupation of the Red Hill station near Sydney, I obtained passage 
on a coastal steamer sailing on June 26, 1923, for Mackay, Queensland. 

Table 22 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
additional information, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in Queensland and Northern Australia, 

July to October 1923 

The series of stations outlined for reoccupation in the northern portions of Australia 
were found to be much more difficult of access than ten years previous at the time of the 
first visit of C. I. W. observers. Many of the towns have disappeared, the train service 
where there are railroads is less frequent, coastal service has been curtailed, and oppor- 
tunities for getting about by other irregular means have very greatly diminished. I 
went from Sydney by coastal steamer as far as Mackay and Townsville, and thence by 
rail westward to Cloncurry, the rail terminus, making stops for observations at Hughen- 
den and Richmond. I next traveled northward by horse-coach for 300 miles to Nor- 
manton on the Gulf of Carpentaria. The journey required five days, during which 
70 horses had been used. Only six ranch houses had been passed on the way, and at 
each of these the approach of the coach could be distinguished when a dozen or more 
miles distant across the barren, treeless plain on account of the huge cloud of red dust 
raised by the five coach horses. 

Table 23 



No. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 



Name 



Mackay 

Townsville 

Hughenden 

Richmond 

Cloncurry, A 

Cloncurry, B 

Nornianton 

Normanton, Secondary . . 

Croydon 

Forsayth 

Cairns 

Cooktown 

Thursday Island, B . . . . 

Katherine River 

Pine Creek 

Darwin 

Batchelor 

Point Charles Lighthouse 



Date 



19SS 
July 5- 7 

July 10-13 

July 16-18 

July 20 

July 24-27 

July 28 
Aug 6- 9 
Aug 8 

Aug 14 

Aug 16 

Aug 20-24 

/Aug 30- 

7-10 
16 

17 
21-24, 

2 
26-27 

4 



\Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
/Sep 
\Oct 
Sep 
Oct 



Lat. South 



21 
19 
20 
20 
20 
20 
17 
17 
18 
18 
16 



08.8 
14.6 
50.4 
43.8 
42.4 
42.4 
41.4 



41.4 



13. 

35. 



56.0 



15 28.6 



10 
14 
13 



34.5 
26.1 
49.6 



12 26.7 



13 
12 



03.6 
23.4 



Long. East 



149 11 

146 50 

144 12 
143 09 
140 30 

140 30 

141 06 

141 06 

142 15 

143 38 

145 46 

145 17 

142 13 

132 17 

131 51 

130 50 

131 03 
130 39 



From Normanton to Croydon, a defunct mining town, the journey was by the weekly 
railway train, and the 250 miles overland to Forsayth was made in the Royal Mail 
auto truck. From Forsayth a weekly railway train was again available to Cairns, 
where I arrived and made observations August 20 to 24. From Cairns I went to Cook- 
town by coastal steamer. As the latter is a deserted mining town, I was fortunate in 
making connection with the monthly mail steamer for Thursday Island, where I arrived 
on September 7. I was able in the limited time to complete class I observations, and 
continue westward with the mail steamer to Darwin, Northern Territory, arriving on 



Observers' Field Reports 



139 



September 15. Immediately on my arrival I availed myself of an opportunity to go on 
a special race train to Katherine River, the rail terminus, September 16, and returned 
to Pine Creek by the same train and made the necessary observations while the train 
halted for the rural race meeting at that place. This opportunity was particularly 
advantageous, as the regular service is fortnightly. After the regular class I work at 
Darwin, I took the scheduled train to Batchelor, joining the train again on its return. 
Aside from the trip to Point Charles Lighthouse, it was not practicable to attempt other 
excursions from Darwin on account of the distances involved and the lack of transporta- 
tion, which present much greater difficulties than at the time of the previous visit in 1914. 
Table 23 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
additional details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

D. G. Coleman, on Magnetic Work in the Dutch East Indies and Farther India, 

October to December 1923 

On October 16, I left Port Darwin via the S. S. Marella, arriving at Batavia, Java, 
on October 24, where intercomparisons were begun between C. I. W. magnetometer- 
inductor No. 24 and the instruments of the Royal Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observatory at Weltevreden. Dr. W. A. Visser made the observations with the Observa- 
tory instruments during the comparisons on October 25 to November 1. In order to 
improve an opportunity of visiting Borneo and Celebes afforded by the sailing of the 
Royal Dutch Navigation Company S. S. Meyer, I left Batavia by rail on November 3 
for Sourabaya and on the following day from that port took passage for Bandjarmasin, 
Dutch Borneo, where a close reoccupation of the Dutch East Indian survey station of 
1907 was made. I returned on the same vessel to Sourabaya and there joined the S. S. 
Schrodercroon for Makassar, Celebes, at which place another Dutch East Indian station 
was reoccupied. From Makassar I returned by boat to Batavia and completed the 
intercomparison observations. 

Table 24 



No. 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 



Name 



Weltevreden (Batavia), Java, A, C, D, and E 

Makassar, Colebes 

Bandjermasin, Borneo 

Weltevreden, A, C, and D 

Singapore, Straits Settlements 

Jesselton, British North Borneo 

Sandakan, British North Borneo 

Kudat, British North Borneo 

Labuan Island, British North Borneo 

Phantiet, Indo-China 

Saigon, Indo-China 



Date 



1923 
Oct 25- 
Nov 1 
Nov 8- 9 
Nov 16-17 
Nov 22-23 
Nov 27-29 
Dec 6,10 
Dec 8 
Dec 9 
Dec 11-12 
Dec 28-30 

1924 
Jan 2- 4 



Latitude 



6 11 S 



5 
3 
6 
1 
5 
5 
6 
5 
10 



08.0 S 
19.7 S 
11 S 

16.2 N 

58.4 N 
51.7 N 

53.3 N 

16.5 N 
56.2 N 



10 46.5 N 



Long. East 



106 50 

119 25 

114 35 
106 50 
103 49 
116 09 
118 25 
116 50 

115 17 
108 03 

106 42 



From Batavia I next went to Singapore, Straits Settlements, where I arrived on 
November 25 and obtained class II observations at the C. I. W. station of 1922. On 
December 1, I sailed from Singapore on the S. S. Delhi for Sandakan, British North 
Borneo. After making observations for a class II station on December 8, I returned to 
Singapore via the S. S. Selangor and established en route stations at Kudat, Jesselton, 
and Labuan, British North Borneo. 

From Singapore I next went by steamer to Saigon, French Indo-China, where I 
arrived on Christmas Eve, 1923. After securing necessary permits from the French 
authorities, I proceeded by rail to Phantiet, where the C. I. W. station of 1912 was 



140 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

closely reoccupied as a class II station. The reoccupation of Saigon as a class II station 
completed the field work assigned, and I returned to Washington via Suez and Europe, 
arriving on March 1. 

Table 24 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for addi- 
tional information, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

P. H. Dike, on Magnetic Work in Islands in Mediterranean, and Mediterranean 

Countries of Asia, June to September 1922 

The instrumental outfit consisted of magnetometer 12, marine earth-inductor 
7, and galvanometer 30X in separate cases, 2 chronometers and 2 watches, and 
the usual accessories. These instruments were sent to me at Robert College, Con- 
stantinople, by the Director, who had taken them with him to Rome, Italy, and the 
chronometers were brought over under the personal supervision of Mr. N. O. Meisenhelter, 
second officer of the steamship Ossa, from Philadelphia. 

My instructions of March 7, 1922, gave a somewhat wide choice of routes to be 
followed in securing well-distributed reoccupations of the stations established by W. H. 
Sligh in 1910-11. Military operations in Asia Minor rendered it inexpedient to attempt 
inland work from Constantinople, and the route toward Palestine and Syria by sea was 
chosen. On account of a state of war existing between Greece and Turkey, there were 
many obstacles to travel in these regions, and a great many passport visas, letters of 
introduction from high commissioners and other officials to officers in command in the 
field had to be secured. As assistant and interpreter I engaged Mr. Robert Pasche, a 
Swiss, as no native of any of the eastern countries would be allowed to enter all the 
countries I hoped to visit. As a graduate of the Engineering School of Robert College, 
and on account of his familiarity with the languages of the Near East, he was particularly 
well fitted for the position. 

Having made observations at Rumeli Hissar, near Robert College, as a class I 
station, we went on June 17 to Dardanelles, where we found that all landmarks of the 
previous occupation had been destroyed by military operations. At Smyrna, the next 
port, a large amount of time was consumed in official formalities required by martial 
law. Here we found the station marker had been removed by the natives for fear it 
might have been an attempt of foreigners to establish a claim to the ground. A personal 
letter from one of the Greek staff in Constantinople to the military governor was the 
means of securing for us permission to go inland to Afiumkarahissar (or Afion Kara 
Hissar), and other special courtesies. We were met by officers with automobiles and 
taken to quarters specially requisitioned for our use, furnished with local transportation, 
and interpreters who also acted as guards for our apparatus during the night. As the 
station was almost within sight and hearing of the firing at the front line, these provisions 
for our comfort and safety were highly appreciated. The destruction of Smyrna and the 
intervening territory did not occur until some time after our departure. 

After our return to Smyrna, and a short trip to Aidin, we sailed for Piraeus, going 
thence to Kephisia, near Athens, where Mr. Sligh made observations in 1911. On 
July 12 we took passage from Piraeus to Naxos where observations were made on the 
site of an ancient temple, the cylindrical marble base of an old column serving as platform 
for the tripod. Having missed the steamer that should have taken us to Crete, and no 
sailboat owner being willing to make the trip, we got over to Santorin, and from there 
hired a sloop to take us across to Candia, Crete. The harbor at Santorin is the crater 
of an ancient volcano with an active cone in the center. When we were ready to start 
it became dead calm in this harbor, and great difficulty was experienced in getting out 
against a very light head wind which had finally arisen. We reached Candia July 18, 
and carried out the class I program. The observations were carried out under excellent 



Observers' Field Reports 



141 



conditions, but with the handicap of a hotel in which it was impossible to sleep, the 
observing-tent being a preferable lodging. 

At the conclusion of the observations at Candia, it was found that no boat was 
available for Rhodes for two weeks, and further, for some reason Mr. Pasche's passport 
was missing and it would be impossible for him to proceed without one, so it was advisable 
to return to Athens. Before the new passport could be secured, the last steamer for Rhodes 
for two weeks sailed, and I proceeded without my assistant, arriving July 29. After 
the work was completed I proceeded to Alexandretta. The stops of steamer were not 
long enough to permit observations, and furthermore, I did not have Turkish (Kemalist) 
visas. At Larnaka, Cyprus, a longer stop was made, and it was possible to reoccupy the 
station there. 

From Alexandretta to Aleppo I shared the expense of a Ford car with an Armenian 
traveling salesman. The trip was a slow one, as we had at least 12 blow-outs on the way, 
and once were forced into the ditch by a camel. We arrived at Aleppo on August 11, 
and I carried out the class I program in most exhausting heat, the temperature in the 
tent mounting nearly to 50 ° C. 

Table 25 



No. 



5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 



Name 



Rumeli Hissar, Turkey . . 

Dardanelles, Turkey 

Smyrna, Turkey 

Afiumkarahissar , Turkey 

Aidin, Turkey 

Kephisia, Greece ........ 

Naxos, Naxos 

Candia, Crete 

Rhodes, Rhodes 

Larnaka, Cyprus 

Alexandretta, Syria 

Aleppo, Syria 

Horns, Syria 

Damascus, Syria 

Jerusalem, Palestine 

Rumeli Hissar, Turkey . . 



Date 



1922 
June 8, 

12-13 
June 19 
June 23-24 
/June 30 , 



July 
July 
July 
July 



1 

6 

11 

14 



July 19-21 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Sep 
Sep 



1- 2 

7 
10 

14-16 
18 
23-24 

1- 2 
16 



Lat. North 



41 05.3 

40 06.8 

38 27.8 

38 46 . 



37 
38 
37 
35 
36 
34 
36 
36 
34 
33 
31 
41 



51.3 
04.3 
06.4 
19.3 
26.6 
53.7 
34.8 
13.7 
43.9 
30.3 
47.8 
05.3 



Long. East 



29 03 

26 25 

27 12 

30 36 

27 50 
23 50 
25 23 
25 09 

28 12 
33 38 

36 11 

37 08 
36 41 
36 19 
35 13 

29 03 



The trip from Aleppo to Damascus was made by rail, stopping over 24 hours at Horns 
for observations. At Damascus there was a little delay in starting the work on account 
of a fever brought on by too much sun. Further delay was caused by non-arrival of 
needed supplies. On August 30 I started for Jerusalem by rail, and was obliged to spend 
one night at Haifa, arriving the next day, when regular observations were made, followed 
on the succeeding day by the diurnal-variation observations in declination. 

As my time for returning to Robert College was growing short, it was decided to go 
on immediately to Beyrut without stopping at Haifa for observations, traveling by public 
automobile up the coast. All through Syria and Palestine at present there are auto- 
mobile lines, using principally American cars of the heavier models. The ride from Haifa 
to Beyrut is a rough one, the first part being along the sandy beach or in the river bed 
with the wheels hub deep in water. Both the instruments and myself had a serious 
jolting, and my face bears the scars of a collision with a rib of the automobile top when we 
went at full speed over a culvert. Arriving at Beyrut, I learned that the steamer on which 
I had engaged passage to Constantinople had advanced its sailing date two days, and I was 
obliged to omit observations and go aboard at once. 



142 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

Fortunately the steamer did not stop at Smyrna, or we should have become involved 
in the evacuation of the Greek refugees, which was then beginning, and the trip would 
have been extended indefinitely. As it was, I arrived in Constantinople just in time to 
take up my duties at the beginning of the college year. 

All the stations occupied on this expedition except that at Naxos were repeat stations. 
In occupying them I had traveled about 4,200 miles, an average of about 280 miles per 
station, the mean time per station being about 6 days. The field expense per station 
was about $65. Every possible courtesy had been extended to me in spite of the dis- 
turbed condition of the countries where the work was done, particular mention being 
deserved by Generals Vlahopoulos and Tricoupis, who were involved in the disaster at 
Smyrna soon after our departure. 

Table 25 shows the magnetic stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geo- 
graphic positions ; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

H. W. Fisk and J. T. Howard, on Special Magnetic Work in Bermuda, 

July to September 1922 

We left Washington on the evening of July 2, 1922, en route to Hamilton, Bermuda, 
for the purpose of conducting some special investigations of the magnetic anomaly in 
those islands, as well as to secure secular-variation observations at points where observa- 
tions had been made in 1907 and 1910. Two complete instrumental outfits were provided 
for the work, consisting of magnetometer 17 with marine earth-inductor 7, as the first, 
and universal magnetometer 14 with Schulz earth-inductor 6 with galvanometer, as the 
second outfit. Universal magnetometer 14 was supplied with needles for both dip and 
intensity to use if occasion required. In addition to these instruments, compass-vario- 
meter 2 was taken for rapid survey for changes in horizontal intensity within limited 
fields. 

A base-station was first occupied near Mont Royal in Paget West, across the harbor 
from Hamilton, where the party made its headquarters. The first task thereafter was 
the recovery and exact reoccupation of five primary stations, selected and permanently 
marked in 1907. The recovery in each case was believed to be sufficiently exact to meet 
the requirements, though recourse was had to measurements in the case of two of the 
stations. A large number of secondary stations had been occupied in 1907, and the 
recoveries of these were doubtful, though some had been described in sufficient detail 
to make recoveries very close. One of the purposes of the expedition was to study 
secular changes during the intervening 15 years and to determine, if possible, whether 
changes were identical at all points regardless of the absolute values of the elements, 
that is, whether there had been any variation in the character of the anomaly. The 
results of this study point very strongly to such a change having occurred with respect to 
the declination, but with respect to the other elements there is less ground for such a 
conclusion. 

For studying the question whether any measurable difference in diurnal variation 
exists between two stations located in regions having respectively high and low values of 
that element, simultaneous observations were carried on by the two observers over the 
daylight portions of several days at points so selected as to satisfy that condition. For 
the study of the diurnal changes in declination the stations chosen were at the agricultural 
experiment farm southeast of Hamilton and at Black Bay in Southampton, near Gibbs' 
Hill Lighthouse. Simultaneous observations were made August 22, 24, and 26. For 
the study of the changes in inclination a similar arrangement was made between Agar's 
Island and Spectacle Island. These observations were made with the two earth-inductors 
at 20-minute intervals September 4 and 5. The greatest range in horizontal intensity 
was found to exist between the station on Agar's Island and near a villa called Rockaway, 



Observers' Field Reports 



143 



west of Little Sound, in Sandy's Parish. Observations were made at these points Sep- 
tember 6 and 12. If a difference in range of variation exists, it is too small to be detected 
by the methods used. 

It is generally assumed that the soils of the islands have all been derived from the 
decomposition of the coral rocks with the additions of vegetable decay, since there are 
no visible outcrops of volcanic matter. As the soil in places seems to be the source of 
considerable local disturbance, some experiments were conducted to determine whether 
the coral rock itself contained sufficient iron in the magnetic form to be appreciable. 
The compass-variometer was taken August 2 to a place where a quantity of quarried 
coral stone was available in sizes convenient for easy handling. The instrument was 
kept in a fixed position and the stones placed in piles of various arrangements around 
it, the reading being recorded for each arrangement. Another test for the same purpose 
was made in a rock-cut locally known as Khyber Pass. The cut is very narrow, being 
from 8 to 10 feet wide at the bottom, and with nearly vertical sides about 25 feet high at 
the deepest part. The soil at the top is very light and apparently not in sufficient quantity 
to have any magnetic effect. Observations were made August 18 at the bottom and at 
the top of this crevasse for comparison. Opportunity to determine whether the rock 
in large masses produced any shielding effect was afforded by the limestone caves present 
in considerable number. While some of these have been exploited for commercial 
purposes and the owners were unwilling that they should be used for experiments of the 
sort, there were others not so commercialized and which had the advantage of freedom 
from iron fixtures of various kinds present in the commercialized caves. In three of 
these, observations were made at the bottom and again as nearly as possible vertically 
over the same point, at the surface. In none of these experiments was it possible to 
ascribe any effect to the iron components of the coral rock. 

Table 26 



No. 



1 
2 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 



Name ° 



Mont Royal, A 

Spectacle Island or Hunt's Island 

Mont Royal, C 

Agar's Island 

St. George 

Nonsuch Island 

Ireland Island 

Black Bay 

Agricultural Station 



Date 



1922 

July 10-11 
/July 13 
\Sep 2 

July 20 

Aug 5 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



14 
15 

19 



Aug 21,29 
Aug 23 



Lat. North 



32 16.68 
32 15 . 58 



32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 



16.68 
17.61 
23.12 
20.86 
19.40 
15.31 
17.47 



Long. West 



64 47.59 
64 50.23 



64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 
64 



47.57 
48.70 
40.90 
40.03 
50.50 
50.63 
45.94 



° All these stations except Nos. 5, 6, and 7 were occupied for diurnal variation on other 
days than those listed. 

A condition was found on the western shore of Little Sound in Sandy's Parish, 
extending from Evans' Bay to King's Point, that seemed to warrant detailed study. 
During September 10 to 15 a large number of observations, covering this region along 
the sound and for a considerable distance inland, were made with the compass-variometer, 
supplemented at points of greatest interest with observations with the earth inductor; 
from the variometer observations it was possible to sketch the lines of equal horizontal 
intensity. It was found that the field changed with a fair degree of uniformity through 
about 1,400 gammas in the distance of about one-half mile along this shore, revealing a 
center of maximum intensity near Rockaway and one of minimum intensity near Evans' 
Bay. (See special report on compass-variometer in Volume V of this series.) A similar 
survey was made of a very small area near the base-station at Mont Royal, where there 
was evidence of an intense local field and no reason to suspect any artificial source of 
disturbance. 



144 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

Cordial cooperation was received in the prosecution of the work by the civil, military, 
and naval authorities in the colony, as well as by private citizens in positions of influence. 
Conditions for carrying out such work are favorable during the summer months because 
of the small amount of rainy weather and the moderate but refreshing winds. The 
smaller number of visitors and tourists during those months also makes the limited means 
of transportation more readily available and securing suitable boarding accommodations 
less difficult. 

The list of secondary stations occupied, together with their geographical coordinates 
and the values obtained for the magnetic elements, is given in the Table 26 (a detailed 
discussion of the results and of the magnetic anomalies will be published later). The 
primary stations, with dates of observations and adopted geographic coordinates are given 
in this table. For additional details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

r. h. goddard, on magnetic work in canada, labrador, and greenland, 

June 1923 to September 1924 

In accordance with preliminary instructions dated June 8, 1923, and instructions 
dated June 20, 1923, I was assigned under the command of Dr. Donald B. MacMillan 
as a member of his North Greenland Expedition of 1923 to 1924 to take charge of the 
magnetic survey and magnetic and electric observatory work undertaken by the Depart- 
ment of Terrestrial Magnetism in cooperation with the Expedition. 

The instrumental outfit and equipment was as follows : (a) Instruments for observa- 
tory use, including magnetograph 5 complete with declination, horizontal-intensity, 
and vertical-intensity variometers; quadrant electrometer 19284 and registering 
apparatus with silver-chloride batteries and appurtenances for recording the electric 
potential of the atmosphere; (b) instruments for field and standardization use, including 
Dover dip circles 241 and 242 for determining magnetic declination, inclination, and 
total intensity, and bifilar electrometer 20 for potential-gradient observations, with 
necessary appurtenances, including two marine chronometers, watches, tents, etc. 

The expedition left Wiscasset, Maine, on June 23, 1923, on the auxiliary schooner 
Bowdoin after all stores and equipment had been received on board and stowed for sea. 
The Bowdoin proceeded from Wiscasset, Maine, to Sydney, Nova Scotia, where magnetic 
observations were made in Victoria Park. Water, fuel oil, and fresh meats were taken 
on board, and the vessel proceeded on her way northward through the Strait of Belle 
Isle and up the Labrador coast as far as Jack Lane's Bay, where Mr. Abraham Bromfield, 
the interpreter for the expedition, was taken on board. Various stops were made in the 
passage from Sydney to Jack Lane's Bay, owing to adverse weather conditions. Oppor- 
tunity was afforded for making magnetic observations at Red Bay, Battle Harbor, 
Gready, and Hopedale. From Jack Lane's Bay the vessel was squared away for the 
southern end of Greenland, the intention being to water up at Godthaab. On the evening 
of July 28 the vessel dropped anchor in Godthaab Havn after a very favorable passage 
from Labrador. Magnetic observations were made on the following day. Mention 
should be made of the deep impression made on most of the members of the expedition 
by the little Danish-Eskimo settlement of Godthaab. The affairs of government are 
administered by the Danish authorities in such a manner that prosperity, good health, 
and happiness reign in this little settlement of 200 Eskimos. The village is spotlessly 
tidy and the natives are clean, healthy, and happy-faced. 

From Godthaab the Bowdoin proceeded to Cape York, stopping one night in a small 
harbor near the entrance to South Strom Fiord to take on water and to repair a broken 
bowsprit. On August 2, 1923, the Arctic Circle was crossed, and that night it was 10 
o'clock before the Sun disappeared below the horizon. A meridian altitude of the Sun 
at lower culmination was obtained shortly after midnight of August 5, ship time. Despite 






Observers' Field Reports 145 

the fact that this altitude was very small (2° 35' 30"), the latitude obtained from it 
(75° 33' north) was in very good agreement with the ship's position by dead reckoning. 
The observer's personal log for that morning reads: "Soon after midnight we began to 
encounter open field ice, and by 6 a. m. were working in towards the northeast shore of 
Melville Bay through fields of pan ice and small bergs that often sent Mate McCue to 
the foremast head. The whole aspect of the land in sight in the distance was one to make 
the viewer automatically reach for an extra sweater." 

On August 8 the Bowdoin anchored in the fiord at Etah. Magnetic observations 
were made at the C. I. W. station established by C. C. Craft in 1908. After a few days 
of hunting around for a suitable harbor in which to winter, the Bowdoin dropped anchor 
in Refuge Harbor August 17, 1923, and the Expedition began to prepare for the long 
winter, the beginning of which was already indicated. Two families of Eskimos had 
joined the Expedition a few days before at the request of Dr. MacMillan. The men 
were to be our dog drivers and their wives were to help us in making our skin clothing 
for the winter. These people busied themselves erecting an igloo (house), hunting walrus 
and seal, and helping the Expedition to land its winter's supply of food. 

After making appropriate observations with dip circle 241 to determine the magnetic 
meridian, the observer started August 18 to stake out the temporary observatory and 
to excavate for the pier and building foundations. On the evening of August 22, all the 
cement work had been completed and it was none too soon, for the following three days 
were cold, stormy ones with strong northeasterly winds and snow. The concrete used 
for building foundations and instrument piers, and for tripod bases at the absolute 
station, was mixed in the following proportions: One bag of cement, 3 bags of bank 
gravel, and 8 pounds of "Cal" (a trade preparation facilitating mixing and placing of 
concrete at temperatures below freezing), mixed with sea water heated to a temperature 
of 120° F. Before further work was done, the vessel got under way and proceeded to 
Peteravik, about 50 miles to the southward, to get a load of walrus meat that our Eskimos 
had cached there. The Bowdoin returned to winter-quarters August 28, dropping her 
anchor at 10 h 30 m p. m. Construction of the observatory was resumed on the following 
day. Throughout the long job of building the temporary observatory under very un- 
favorable conditions, Mr. Mix, the wireless operator, worked with the observer, rendering 
every assistance possible. From time to time, when Mate McCue was not otherwise 
occupied with his duties on the Bowdoin, he also helped in the building of the observatory. 
His efforts were particularly helpful when the concrete work was in progress and also 
when the roofing was being laid. When the building was ready for the stone-and-bag 
walls, the greater part of the personnel of the expedition assisted, finishing that part of 
the building on September 15, 1923, in less than two and one-half days. 

On the night of September 15 Deneb and Vega and a few more of the brighter stars 
were visible at Refuge Harbor. From that time on, the darkness at midnight became 
more and more pronounced and the long arctic day was over. With the coming of 
darkness, radio communication was again established. Mr. Mix, the operator, had 
succeeded in raising Canadian and American amateurs on the passage northward until 
the Bowdoin reached the latitude of midnight Sun. Then all "south-bound" transmis- 
sion had ceased until the middle of September, when the operator was able to resume two- 
way communication. On Sunday evening, September 23, 1923, we were happy to find 
it was possible to tune in religious services from Omaha (Nebraska), Dallas (Texas), and 
Davenport (Iowa). There were times when practically every word could be under- 
stood, but these times, often very brief, were rare. Generally about one word in ten was 
understood, so that the mind of the listener was unable to bridge the gaps between words. 
In such cases not even the gist of the program was gained. More often than not, it 



146 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

was with difficulty that sufficient was understood to allow us to say without question to 
what station we were listening. 

On September 20 many stars were visible in the rapidly increasing darkness at night, 
first-magnitude stars, Polaris, and the stars forming the big dipper being easily recognized. 
At this time the harbor began to skim over with ice. Once formed, in a few hours of low 
temperature and no wind, this ice rapidly increased in strength and thickness. On 
September 28 we were able to walk three-quarters of the way ashore from the vessel. 
There were mild days, however, usually accompanied by a fall of large-flaked, soggy 
snow, which weakened and rotted the ice so as to make it treacherous for those who 
lacked extreme caution. It was not until October 10 that the ice was solid enough to 
warrant running the lighting cable from the vessel to the observatory. On October 19, 
1923, the observatory went into operation and registered continuously for a period of 
eight months the declination, horizontal intensity, and vertical intensity of the Earth's 
magnetic field, and the electrical potential-gradient of the atmosphere. 

During the eight months that the observatory was in operation, 26 sets of absolute 
magnetic observations and five sets of absolute potential-gradient observations were 
taken. Latitude, longitude, and azimuth observations were taken at the absolute 
station with theodolite 2 in the autumn before the Sun left us and again in the summer 
when the Sun had returned. The final revised location of the absolute station is as 
follows: Latitude, 78° 32/5 north; longitude, 72° 22/8 west. Magnetic observations 
were made at the absolute station approximately three times each month during the 
dark period and once each week during the spring and early summer, using Dover dip 
circle 241 for all observations with the exception of those made immediately before 
and after the spring sledge-trip to Cape Sabine. On this trip a magnetic station was 
established at Camp Clay, the 1884 winter-quarters of the ill-fated Lady Franklin Bay 
Expedition, under command of General A. W. Greely, then lieutenant in the United 
States Army. Dover dip circle 242 was used at Camp Clay; it was compared indirectly, 
both before and after the trip, with standard dip-circle 241, the results with the two circles 
being referred to the same time by the magnetograms. 

The observatory, as previously designed by Mr. Goddard, was constructed in accord- 
ance with the specifications and blue-prints supplied by the Department. The observer 
found that on the whole the building quite successfully answered the purpose for which 
it was intended and at very small expenditure. Considering the number of difficulties 
that might have arisen to embarrass the observer, really very little in the way of serious 
trouble was encountered in the operation of the observatory. This was largely due to 
the very complete equipment which the Department sent for the Expedition's use. For 
example, two driving-clocks were sent for each recorder. The original clock of the poten- 
tial-gradient recorder, although it would run without a load, was found insufficient to 
drive the recording drum; this caused no embarrassment, as there was a reserve driving- 
clock to fall back upon. The observer feels that, in all cases where duplicate parts of 
apparatus can be sent with isolated expeditions, such as this one, without increasing the 
expense beyond reason, it should be done. 

The lamp-sockets provided for the 12- to 16- volt, 4-candlepower lamps of the 
magnetograph were not found satisfactory and should be replaced by sockets of more 
sturdy construction. 

Some trouble was experienced in connection with frost crystals collecting within the 
conducting tube of the potential-gradient wall-insulator. On February 15 it was found 
necessary to remove the wall-insulator and take it to the Bowdoin for inspection. Exces- 
sive leaks had been experienced for several days, but weather conditions had hindered 
the removal and inspection of the insulator. Upon taking off one side of the conducting 
tube there was found a huge ball of frost crystals, filling the tube about a foot from the 



Observers' Field Reports 147 

inside end of the insulator. These crystals established a contact between the conducting 
wire and the walls of the tube, thus grounding the electrometer system. It appeared 
that as the relatively warm air from the observatory, containing more or less moisture 
due to the combustion of the heating-lamps and the observer's breath while in the passage- 
way between the walls of the building, worked out towards the cold outside air, it was 
gradually chilled until it reached a temperature at which it was saturated. At this 
point the moisture sublimated, and as a result finally grounded the electrometer system. 
The tube was cleaned and dried out, the rubber surfaces were polished, and the suphur 
surfaces were smoothed up a bit. A jacket of "balsam wool" was lashed about the tube, 
and the insulator was once more put in place. Leak-tests showed a leak of 8 per cent 
at the end of five minutes, using a charge of +300 volts. It was found necessary to 
repeat this cleaning process in April, but on the whole the insulation system worked quite 
efficiently under the existing conditions. In the second week of November a pink plant- 
growth was discovered on the emulsion side of some of the traces which were in the drying- 
rack over the observer's bunk in the forecastle. The same sort of thing was found 
growing on the damp under sides of some of the mattresses in the forecastle bunks. Just 
what is the nature of the growth no one in the party could say, but it would doubtless be 
of interest to students of that form of plant life. 

Time-breaks were recorded once per month. An interval of two hours and a break 
of five minutes were used; in a few cases it was found more expedient to use a four-hour 
interval. A knife-switch located in the Bowdoin's hold made it possible to open and close 
the observatory circuit without leaving the vessel. This feature, simple in itself, materially 
lessened the work of recording time-breaks over a 24-hour interval during the dark season. 

The two electric leads to the observatory were 500 feet long and of rubber-insulated 
copper wire, with M4-inch insulation. The electric lamps installed were two 12- to 16- 
volt, 4-candlepower lamps in the building and one telltale, 12- to 16-volt, 4-candlepower 
lamp in the Bowdoin's hold, all three lamps in series on the 32-volt line. On December 26 
another lamp was added to the circuit, making four 12- to 16-volt lamps in series on the 
32-volt line. This last lamp was added because the sending apparatus of the Bowdoin's 
radio appeared to induce an additional voltage on the observatory lighting-line whenever 
the transmitting key was closed. When the ship's station, WNP, was transmitting, the 
lamps in the observatory circuit pulsated from normal brilliancy to a much increased 
brilliancy. The radio battery and the battery from which the observatory line drew its 
power were entirely separate and distinct, so that quite probably the effect was due to 
induction from the antenna. 

During the winter the actual observing-time for a complete set of dip-circle observa- 
tions, including two declinations, inclination with two needles, and total-intensity observa- 
tions (loaded dip and deflections), has been as great as five hours. This was due to the 
darkness, poor lighting facilities, cold and frosted lenses, and, more often than not, to a 
thoroughly chilled observer. The difficulties of observing were much less than in Baffin 
Land, when the observer used similar equipment not provided with celluloid covers for 
tangent screws, clamping screws, eye-pieces, etc. The advantages of these celluloid 
caps can not be over-emphasized for polar work when observations must be made at very 
low temperatures. In the spring a complete set of observations was easily possible in 
three hours and a quarter. With the return of the Sun on February 20, after an absence 
of about 120 days, out-of-door activity on the part of the members of the expedition 
increased by leaps and bounds. In one month the length of day and night was equal, 
a truly rapid transition, but not any greater than was to take place in the following 
month, for on April 20 the Sun came above the horizon not to disappear below it until 
August 23 at Refuge Harbor. A change from no direct Sun's rays to 24 hours per day of 



148 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

direct sunlight in two months' time is a sufficiently abrupt change to disarrange the 
schedule of the most phlegmatic individual. 

It was not until May 2 that the first series of absolute potential-gradient observations 
was obtained. The site selected for these observations was on the ice at about the center 
of Refuge Harbor. In order to relieve the silver-chloride batteries from calibration duty 
in the observatory, so as to have them always ready for use in taking observations with 
bifilar electrometer 20, three 90-volt units of "B" batteries were made up for calibra- 
tion duty. Four 22.5-volt "B" batteries wired in series to form one "90-volt unit" 
would generally show a closed circuit voltage very close to the rated amount; the three 
made at winter-quarters for observatory use showed 89, 88, and 92 volts, respectively, 
when tested with Weston voltmeter 32702 at a temperature approximately +13°C. 

It is thought that when the winter potential-gradient records are studied in con- 
junction with the wind and weather records a direct correlation will be found to exist 
between the abnormally high values of potential-gradient and fresh wind (generally 
northeast at Refuge Harbor) laden with fine snow (practically frost crystals) and drift, 
blowing past the collector. 

In the early summer of 1924 the observer undertook a plane-table survey of Refuge 
Harbor and the adjacent coast-line. The work of erecting rock cairns on the prominent 
hilltops and at other commanding locations was begun as soon as weather conditions 
would permit in the spring. Our Eskimo women were very happy to make the necessary 
station-flags of red and white cotton cloth. When they were finished, we had half red 
and half white vertically striped flags, half white and half red horizontally striped flags, 
white flags with red centers, and red flags with white centers. These flags were tacked 
on poles and stuck up in the snow at salient points along the shore-line to act as dummy 
rodmen, the survey being almost entirely a one-man undertaking. When the points at 
which the flags had been placed had been located on the plane-table sheet, the flags were 
moved to new locations, and so the survey progressed. The plane table was somewhat of 
a makeshift, but answered the purpose fairly well. An ordinary light camera tripod 
with a flat board approximately 12 by 16 inches mounted upon it made the instrument, 
which was leveled by means of a pair of levels. The alidade consisted of a 1-inch square 
ruling stick with a sight-vane mounted on each end. The engineer, Mr. Jaynes, very 
kindly made the sight-vanes from a piece of aluminum which he salvaged from an old 
pulley found at Etah near the site of the quarters of the Crocker Land Expedition. The 
resulting map covers an area of about 3 square miles and contains about 6 miles of shore- 
line (see Fig. 2 with description of station at Refuge Harbor). 

On June 20 the magnetic and electric observatory was discontinued, and the task of 
repacking the instruments and equipment was begun. By June 25 the work was so 
nearly completed that the observer felt free to go to Littleton Island with Engineer 
Jaynes, Operator Mix, and two families of Eskimos on an eider-duck and egg hunt. The 
Expedition's food supplies were reaching a low ebb at this time, so that additions to the 
larder were much needed. 

The remaining time to August, when we started southward, flew by rapidly. There 
were extra Sun-observations to be obtained, records to be put in a little more finished 
state, a few loose ends of the plane-table survey to be picked up, and a few odd pieces of 
equipment to be packed or crated. 

And then with the thoughts that soon we would be homeward bound came the realiza- 
tion that we would be saying good-bye to our Eskimo companions, perhaps forever. For 
about a year we had been in intimate contact with these people, with whom we could 
converse but little, owing to the fact that neither race thoroughly understood the tongue 
of the other, and between us there had grown up a companionship which did not require 
a great deal of verbal exchange of ideas in order that it might thrive. We had come to 



Observers' Field Reports 



149 



look upon the Eskimos as our friends and, I believe, they looked upon us as their friends. 
The friendships that had been formed were of a rugged, hardy type ; they had been tested 
by the rigors of a dark arctic winter, and they were of firmer woof and warp because of 
that. It was with a great deal of reluctance, therefore, that we exchanged the last silent 
handshakes with our friends of the north. 

The passage southward was more or less uneventful, according to the imagination of 
the particular individual. Refuge Harbor was left behind August 1, 1924. On the home- 
ward voyage opportunity was afforded to make magnetic observations at the following 
places: Keate, Akpani, Godhavn, Holstensborg, and Godthaab in Greenland, and a 
partial set of observations at Hopedale, Labrador. The Bowdoin arrived at Wiscasset, 
Maine, September 20, 1924. 

Table 27 gives names of field stations where magnetic and astronomic observations 
were made by the Expedition, with dates of occupation and geographic positions. 

Table 27 



No. 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



Name 



Sydney, Nova Scotia 

Red Bay, Labrador 

Battle Harbor, C, Labrador 

Gready, Labrador 

Hopedale, A, Labrador. . . . 

Godthaab, Greenland 

Etah, North Greenland. . . . 

Camp Clay, Cape Sabine. . 
Keate, North Greenland . . 
Akpani, North Greenland. 

Godhavn, Greenland , 

Holstensborg, Greenland . . . 

Godthaab, Greenland 

Hopedale, B, Labrador. . . . 



Date 



1923 
/June 30 
\July 2 

July 7 

July 11-12 

July 15 

July 23 

July 29 

Aug 10-11 
1924 



May 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



7 
5 

7, 9 
17-18 



Aug 23-24 
Aug 29 
Sep 6 



Lat. North 



46 08.8 



51 
52 
53 
55 

64 

78 

78 
77 
76 
69 
66 
64 
55 



43 
16 
48 
27 
11 
19 



45.5 
20.5 
06.0 
15.0 
55.9 
11.6 
27.1 



Long. East 



299 47.8 

303 33.8 

304 25 
303 30 . 9 

299 48 

308 17.3 

287 18.2 



285 
288 
291 
306 
306 
308 
299 



44.4 
29.3 
42.2 
26.0 
21.8 
17.3 
48 



It is a pleasure to make record of the cordial cooperation and effective assistance 
received from Dr. MacMillan and the members of his party (particularly Messrs. Mix, 
McCue, and Jaynes). Without this enthusiastic support, the execution of the observer's 
instructions would have been much more difficult and certainly less complete. 

J. W. Green, on Magnetic Work in the Bahamas, West Indies, Venezuela, Gulanas, 
Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru, June 1922 to September 1923 

The report on the work of this expedition is conveniently presented in four sections, 
as indicated in the following synopsis : 

(1) The Bahamas and Havana, Cuba, in which Observer W. A. Love assisted. 

(2) West Indies, including Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Curacao, and northern 
Venezuela. 

(3) Trinidad, Barbados and St. Vincent in the British West Indies, the Orinoco, and the north- 
ern coast of the three Guianas to Para, Brazil. In this work Observer J. T. Howard assisted. 

(4) Along the eastern coast of Brazil, across Argentina and Bolivia to the Huancayo Observa- 
tory in Peru. 

(I) THE BAHAMAS, JUNE TO AUGUST 1922 

In accordance with instructions from the Director dated June 10, 1922, accompanied 
by Observer W. A. Love, I left Washington, D. C., June 19 following. My instrumental 
outfit consisted of magnetometer-inductor 25, pocket chronometer 50110, and three 
watches, together with observing-tent and complete outfit of accessories; Mr. Love's 



150 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

consisted of magnetometer-inductor 26, pocket chronometer, and three watches, observing- 
tent, and complete outfit of accessories. 

Leaving Washington by rail, we first reoccupied the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey stations at Waycross, Georgia, and Miami, Florida, and established auxiliary 
stations at both places, carrying out the class I program at Waycross. From Miami we 
crossed to the Bahama Islands, arriving at Nassau on July 1. After observing at Nassau 
and at Hog Island near the 1903 station of the Baltimore Geographical Society, a short 
side trip was made to the island of Eleuthera on a large gasoline launch which made the 
trip every two weeks carrying mail. Mr. Love disembarked at Governor's Harbor, while 
I went on to Rock Sound, where the boat remained two days, giving ample time for 
observational work. On the return, Mr. Love rejoined us at Governor's Harbor, and we 
reached Nassau July 12. The same day permission was secured for Mr. Love to join a 
party just starting on a four-day hunting expedition to Green Cay, about 65 miles south 
of Nassau. Pending his return, I endeavored to make arrangements for a more extensive 
trip through the outer islands of the Bahama group. Transportation on a mail schooner 
which made occasional trips was promised, but for some reason the sailing date was 
postponed a week or two, and arrangements were finally made to charter a small sailboat 
with auxiliary power. In the meantime, Mr. Love had returned from Green Cay and 
had then gone with a timber trader to Fresh Creek on Andros Island. Upon his return 
from this latter place, preparations were completed for the outer island trip. 

The better class of power boats are not available except at prohibitive prices on 
account of the demand for such boats in the highly lucrative liquor trade. The boat 
finally secured was a 35-foot sloop with gasoline auxiliary engine of 16 horsepower. The 
crew consisted of a captain, an engineer, a cook, and a deck hand, all negroes. The 
accommodations were of the crudest. The top of a gasoline barrel served as table upon 
which we ate our unappetizing meals, prepared under wretched conditions. I spent 
all of the ten nights on the deck with the canvas of my observing-tent as bedding and 
cover, while Mr. Love endured the discomforts of the cabin, which was also used by the 
crew. Our agreement provided that we should pay for all the gasoline and engine oil 
required, furnish our own provisions, pay a lump sum of $40 for the subsistence of the 
men, and $20 per day for the use of the boat and crew. 

The course from Nassau, which we left on the morning of July 27, lay to the south- 
east against heavy head winds and rough seas, across the north end of Exuma Sound, to 
the southmost point of Eleuthera Island, where we anchored for the night. On the 
following day we reached Bight Settlement on Cat Island, where arrangements for obser- 
vations were made. Two nights were spent at Port Nelson on Rum Cay in order to 
permit a series of diurnal-variation observations in declination. On account of the 
approach of rougher weather and the hurricane season, it was considered inadvisable to 
cross over to Watling's Island (San Salvador), but the passage to Crooked Island was 
made and the night of August 1 spent at anchor there. The following morning we pushed 
on to Albert Town on Fortune Island, where the most southerly station in the Bahamas 
on this trip was established on August 2. On the return northward we made stations 
at Galloway on Long Island, at George Town on Great Exuma, and at Farmer's Cay, 
arriving at Nassau late on August 6. A more extended survey was prevented by lack 
of a suitable means of reaching more distant places, and by the limit of endurance of the 
observers, which was severely tested by this ten-day trip, both having suffered serious 
attacks of dengue or "breakbone fever" during the journey, and both being worn out 
by the physical hardships imposed by the life on the boat, the poor food, and the loss of 
sleep occasioned by roughness of the water in which they were compelled to anchor on 
the majority of the nights. We had sailed more than 450 nautical miles, and had made 
observations at six different places in the ten days. 



Observers' Field Reports 



151 



Not being able to go directly from Nassau to Havana, we returned to Miami, Florida, 
going thence to Havana, where two repeat stations were reoccupied, at one of which the 
class I program of observations was followed. 

Throughout the work in the Bahamas the most cordial assistance was rendered by 
the officials of the colony, and the observers acknowledge their obligation to the resident 
commissioners at the outlying points for indispensable assistance. 

Table 28 shows the magnetic stations occupied by both observers, their geographic 
positions, and the dates of occupation; for further details, see Descriptions of Stations 
and Table of Results. 

Table 28 



No. 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 
20 
21 



Name 



United States: 

Waycross, A 

Waycross, B" 

Miami, A 

Miami, B" 

Bahamas: 

Nassau, C 

Nassau, A 

Nassau, B 

Governor's Harbor ° 

Rock Sound 

Green Cay ° 

Fresh Creek a 

Bight Settlement 

Port Nelson 

Port Nelson, ° Secondary 

Albert Town ° 

Galloway 

George Town " 

Farmer's Cay 

Cuba: 

Havana, Casa Blanca," A 

Havana, Villa 

Havana, Casa Blanca, Secondary 



Date 



June 
June 
June 
June 

July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 
Aug 

Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



21-22 
21-22 
26-27 
26 

3 

4, 6 

5,15 

8 
10 
13 
19 
29 
31 
31 

2 

3 

4 

5 

16-17 

16 

17 



Lat. North 



31 
31 
25 
25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
24 
24 
24 
24 
23 
23 
22 
23 
23 
23 



14.1 
14.1 
46.3 
46.3 

05.5 
04.5 
04.5 
12.3 
51.8 
02.0 
43.7 
18.5 
38.7 
38.7 
36.6 
02.7 
30.8 
57.5 



23 09.4 
23 06.4 
23 09.4 



Long. East 



277 39 

279 39 

279 49 

279 49 

282 39 

282 39 

282 38 

283 45 

283 50 
282 50 

282 13 

284 33 

285 09 
285 09 
285 39 
285 02 
284 14 

283 42 

277 39 

277 39 

277 39 



■ Magnetic observations made by Observer W. A. Love. 



(2) HAITI, CURACAO, AND VENEZUELA, SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1922 

After completing the work at Havana, Cuba, I turned over to Mr. Love the outfit 
assigned to him, and left him to complete the remaining work in Cuba according to 
instructions he had already received from the Office. I then went by rail to Santiago de 
Cuba, hoping to find transportation direct to Port au Prince, Haiti. In this I was 
disappointed, as the monthly boat for that port had sailed two days before my arrival. 
As no schooner or chance vessel was available without long delay, I obtained passage on 
a steamer bound for Kingston, Jamaica, in the expectation of meeting a vessel advertised 
to sail direct from Kingston to Port au Prince about September 1. After waiting until 
September 8 for this vessel, information was given out that for lack of sufficient cargo the 
sailing to Port au Prince was canceled. However, another vessel sailing direct was 
announced for September 12, and with this definite information I was able to use the inter- 
vening time in making regular and diurnal-variation observations at the old station, 
which would be occupied later by Mr. Love. 

I arrived at Porfau Prince, Haiti, on September 16, and after a day spent in attend- 
ing to formalities required for entering the outfit and securing police registration, I 
established two stations. On September 22 I went to Aux Cayes, a point easily reached 
by regular vessels. Having been advised by officers of the United States marines stationed 
at Port au Prince that it was impracticable to reach the desired inland station at Las 



152 



Land Magnetic Obsekvations, 1921-1926 



Gaobas at that season, but that an inland trip from Gonaives was feasible, I went by 
boat to the latter point, where observations were made on October 2. Hiring a Ford 
car, I set out for Hinche, 75 miles distant, but on account of the heavy rains and the 
condition of the roads and the streams to be forded, I was only able to go about 40 miles, 
to a ranch about 4 miles beyond St. Michel, called L'Attalye, and there the observations 
were made. In order to avoid a wait of about 10 days at Gonaives for a boat to take me 
around to Cap Haitien, I again hired a Ford car for the trip overland, whence, again by 
the same form of transportation, I went to Santiago, Dominican Republic, a distance of 
150 miles, arriving October 11. Leaving Santiago, I easily reached Puerto Plata, La 
Vega, and Sanchez by rail, then by good fortune I found a boat that took me to La 
Romana, and the following day the sugar company's boat took me to Santo Domingo, 
arriving on the evening of October 27. The trip to Azua, 145 kilometers distant, and 
return was made by automobile, as waiting for regular sailing for that port would involve 
a long delay. 

Table 29 



No. 



2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 
14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

25 
26 

27 



Name 



Jamaica: 

Kingston, 1906 . . . 
Haiti : 

Port au Prince, A . 

Port au Prince, B . 

Aux Cayes 

Gonaives 

L'Atallye 

Cap Haitien 

Dominican Republic: 

Puerto Plata 

La Vega 

Sanchez 

La Romana 

Santo Domingo, A 

Santo Domingo, B 

Azua 

Curacao: 

Willemstad, 1913. . 

Willemstad, A . . . . 

Willemstad, B 

Venezuela: 

Isla Pajaro 

Maracaibo 

La Ceiba 

Puerto Cabello 

Barquisimeto 

Caracas, A 

Caracas, B 

Barcelona, A 

Barcelona, B 

Carupano 



Date 



1922 
Sep 4 

Sep 18-19 
Sep 20 
Sep 25 

2- 3 

5 

9-10 



Oct 
Oct 
Oct 



Oct 14-15 
Oct 19 
Oct 21 
Oct 26 
Oct 30-31, 
Nov 1 
Oct 31 
Nov 3- 4 

Nov 13 
Nov 14-16 
Nov 16 

Nov 22 
Nov 23-25 
Nov 25-26 
Dec 14-15 
Dec 19-20 
Dec 24-26 
Dec 27 
1923 
Jan 7 
Jan 7 
Jan 12-13 



Lat. North 



17 58.9 



18 
18 
18 
19 
19 
19 

19 
19 
19 
18 



34.2 
34.2 
11.3 
25.8 
21.7 
46.4 



49.0 
14.7 
14.3 
24.1 



18 27.8 



18 
18 

12 
12 
12 

10 
10 
9 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 



27.8 
27.7 

06.5 
07.0 
06.9 



35.9 
40.4 
28.3 
28.7 
04.8 
30.4 
30.4 

08.5 
08.6 
39.9 



Long. East 



283 11 

287 41 

287 41 

286 17 

287 18 
287 43 

287 48 

289 18 

289 28 

290 23 

291 03 

290 06 

290 06 

289 16 

291 05 
291 04 
291 04 

288 29 
288 25 
288 57 
291 59 

290 42 
29i3 04 
293 04 

295 18 

295 18 

296 45 



The monthly sailing for Curacao from Santo Domingo had been discontinued, and 
as no other vessel sailing direct was available, I found it necessary to go to San Juan, 
Porto Rico, which I was able to do in time to make a good connection with a regular line 
steamer for Curacao, arriving at the latter place on November 12. Three stations were 
occupied in the immediate vicinity of Willemstad, but it was found impracticable to 
attempt observations on other islands of the group. Direct transportation was secured 
to Maracaibo, Venezuela, where observations were made on November 23 and 24, after 
two days', delay in completing arrangements with officials for the requisite permission. 



Observers' Field Reports 153 

Through the kindness of the officials of the Venezuela Sun Oil Company, I was enabled 
to reach La Ceiba, near the upper end of Lake Maracaibo, on one of their launches, secure 
observations there, and return to Maracaibo on the weekly mail steamer the following 
day. This accommodation was highly appreciated, as La Ceiba is situated on low, 
marshy ground, and is infested with malarial mosquitoes. 

A short delay was experienced in reaching Puerto Cabello from Maracaibo, going 
by way of Willemstad, Curacao, and a further delay was occasioned by the refusal of 
the civil authorities at Puerto Cabello to permit my taking any observations without 
an official government permit. It was therefore necessary for me to go to Caracas and 
secure permission from the Minister of the Interior before doing the observational work 
at Puerto Cabello. Although observations at La Ceiba were completed on November 26, 
because of this delay it was December 14 before work was begun at Puerto Cabello. The 
remaining stations in Venezuela, including Caracas, which was made a class I station, 
were occupied with but the ordinary delays of coastwise travel in that country, and Port 
of Spain, Trinidad, was reached January 15, 1923. 

The work in Haiti and the Dominican Republic was greatly facilitated by the courte- 
sies and assistance rendered by the United States marines stationed on the island, and 
especial acknowledgment is made of the personal interest taken by the United States 
Minister at Caracas in securing official permission to make observations in Venezuela. 

Table 29 shows the stations at which magnetic observations were made, with dates of 
occupation and geographic positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations 
and Table of Results. 

(3) TRINIDAD TO PARA, JANUARY TO APRIL 1923 

At Port of Spain, Trinidad, I was joined by Observer J. T. Howard, who was to 
work with me while acquiring experience in field work before taking up independent work 
on the Amazon and tributaries. In addition to the reoccupation of C. I. W. stations at 
Port of Spain and San Fernando for secular variation, distribution stations desired by the 
Crown Survey Department were occupied at Toco, near the northeast corner of the island, 
Rio Claro, in the central part, and Cedros, in the southwestern part. Mr. J. W. Mac- 
gillivray, crown surveyor, afforded us every facility for carrying out this work at times 
most convenient for us, and the expenses of local travel between these stations and Port 
of Spain were defrayed by his office. 

From Port of Spain a side trip was made, and C. I. W. stations at Bridgetown, 
Barbados, and Kingstown, St. Vincent, were reoccupied for secular variation. 

Supplementary instructions of December 23, 1922, provided for a few additional 
stations in Venezuela, along the Orinoco River. Accordingly we left Port of Spain 
February 10 and reached Ciudad Bolivar February 13, after having been delayed about 
30 hours en route by the vessel getting stuck on a sand-bar. 

From Ciudad Bolivar the intention was to proceed to San Fernando de Apure and 
La Urbana, and possibly as far as San Fernando de Atabapo, but circumstances prevented 
any further ascent of the Orinoco. It was the season of low water. Above Ciudad 
Bolivar it was possible to navigate only vessels of very shallow draft. There were but 
two such vessels in commission at that time, both very small. Furthermore, some 
malcontents in the vicinity of La Urbana and San Fernando de Apure had taken advantage 
of the difficulty in transporting government troops, due to the low water, and had started 
a small revolt. The two small vessels had been commandeered by the Government for 
transportation of troops, and the only other available means of transportation was a 
chartered sailboat. The time necessary to make the river trip by such means was 
so excessive that the project was abandoned, and we returned to Port of Spain. 



154 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



From Port of Spain we then proceeded along the coast of British Guiana, Dutch 
Guiana, and French Guiana, thence to Para, Brazil, which point was reached April 16. 
Six of the stations of 1908 were reoccupied en route, one of which, Paramaribo, was 
made a class I station, and the diurnal-variation observations in declination and hori- 
zontal intensity were made at a new station at St. Laurent, during an enforced delay wait- 
ing for an opportunity to reach Cayenne. 

Transportation facilities are meager and unsatisfactory through the regions just 
mentioned, and we were particularly fortunate in securing passage on a small tramp 
cattle steamer from Cayenne to Para. From the experiences of this trip, it appears that 
stations along the north coast of South America are more readily reached by going by 
way of the West Indies direct to Cayenne, working westward from there. Vessels of 
the Royal West Indian Netherlands Line frequently touch at ports along this coast-line, 
westbound, and upon reaching Barranquilla or Puerto Colombia, proceed directly to Europe 
without touching at north coast ports on the homeward journey. Communication 
between Cayenne and Para is very infrequent, being confined to chance trading-vessels. 
Indeed, Para is not easily reached either from Guiana or the West Indies. 

The secular-variation station at Pinheiro, near Belem, Para, was jointly occupied as 
a class I station, and while Mr. Howard began preparations for his independent Amazon 
work, I reoccupied the 1915 station at Alcobaca on the Tocantins River. Returning to 
Belem, I left Mr. Howard in charge of the work outlined for him and proceeded southward 
on April 25. 

Table 30 shows the stations at which magnetic observations were made, with dates of 
occupation and geographic positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations 
and Table of Results. 

Table 30 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

1,2 

13 

14 



Name ° 



Port of Spain {1905) 

Port of Spain, A 

San Fernando, A. . . 

Toco 

Bridgetown, A 

Kingstown 

Ciudad Bolivar 

Georgetown, B 

New Amsterdam .... 

Paramaribo 

St. Laurent, A 

Cayenne, A 

Pinheiro, A and B . . 
Alcobaca 



Date 



1923 
Jan 16 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 



16-18 

19 

22 



Jan 25-26 
Jan 29 
Feb 14-20 
Mar 7 
Mar 9 
Mar 17,19-20 
Mar 30-31 
Apr 9-10 
Apr 18-19 
Apr 22-23 



Latitude 



10 

10 

10 

10 

13 

13 

8 

6 

6 

5 

5 

4 

1 

3 



40.0 N 

40.0 N 
16.8 N 

50.1 N 

04.8 N 

09.2 N 
09.1 N 
48.0 N 

16.3 N 

50.0 N 

29.4 N 

56.1 N 

17.9 S 

45.2 S 



Long. East 



298 28 

298 29 

298 33 

299 04 

300 25 
298 46 
296 28 

301 51 

302 29 

304 51 

305 59 
307 40 
311 31 
310 19 



° The stations are located in the following countries: Nos. 1 to 6, West Indies; No. 7, Venezu- 
ela; Nos. 8 to 12, Guianas; Nos. 13 and 14, Brazil. 

(4) PARA TO HUANCAYO OBSERVATORY, PERU, APRIL TO SEPTEMBER 1923 

My work in eastern Brazil was to consist mainly of the occupation of certain stations 
at which observations had been made by the Brazilian Commission in 1903 and 1904, 
and to secure a comparison of my instruments with those in use at the Vassouras Ob- 
servatory. 

Leaving Belem, Para, on April 28, traveling by coastwise vessel, I reached San 
Luis May 2, but on account of a malignant yellow-fever epidemic I was obliged to omit 
Fortaleza, which was designated as a class I station. Proceeding by the same class of 
vessels, I reached Pernambuco and Bahia, occupying both primary and auxiliary stations 



Observers' Field Reports 155 

at both ports, the latter being a class I station. Joazeiro, a station of the Commission, 
on the Rio de San Francisco, was reached by railway from Bahia, a distance of about 
440 kilometers. On the return connection was made with a train for Aracaju on the coast, 
where the station of the Commission was also occupied. After a trip by boat to Cara- 
vellas, I found it necessary to return to Bahia in order to get passage to Victoria. Vic- 
toria was discovered to be in a region of great local magnetic disturbance. An electric- 
car line has been built near the station of the Commission and it could not be reoccupied, 
but three other well-separated stations were established from which a mean value may 
quite probably be taken to represent the normal distribution for the region. I left 
Victoria June 25 and arrived at Rio de Janeiro the following day. 

At Rio de Janeiro I received cabled instructions to omit the greater part of the work 
outlined for central and southern Brazil and proceed to Buenos Aires, because of the 
necessity of an ear her return to Washington than was originally intended. After having 
compared my instrument with those of the Vassouras Observatory, I established a station 
at Santos. I then returned to Rio de Janeiro in order to reach Buenos Aires by an earlier 
vessel, and arrived at the latter port July 21. At Buenos Aires I received supplementary 
instructions dated June 6, 1923. 

Leaving Buenos Aires July 26, I encountered little or no delay in transportation, 
and reached Mollendo, Peru, on the Pacific side, August 27, having secured observations 
at seven repeat stations en route, including comparison observations at magnetic observa- 
tories of the Argentina Meteorological Service at Pilar and La Quiaca. Two stations 
were reoccupied in Bolivia, and two in southern Peru. At Mollendo I was able to transfer 
directly from the train to a vessel of the Grace Line, and two days later, August 29, I 
arrived at Callao and Lima. 

The Huancayo Observatory was reached September 1, instrumental comparisons 
made during the ensuing four days, following which a series of simultaneous observations 
for station difference between the standard observatory piers in the new absolute building 
and the station designated as "Frame" were made. 

I left Huancayo Observatory September 7, arrived at Lima September 8, sailed from 
Callao September 12, and reached New York September 24. Proceeding at once to 
Washington, I reported at the Office September 25. 

In all, 61 stations were occupied, not counting a few that were occupied jointly 
with Mr. Love and Mr. Howard, and the cahiers forwarded under their names. Of 
these 61 stations, there were 8 class I stations, 21 class II stations, 12 class III stations, 
16 class IV stations, and 4 were comparisons at observatories. Also there were forwarded 
from these 61 stations 89 cahiers of results. 

The total distance covered from the time of leaving Washington until returning 
thereto was 23,811 miles, exclusive of local travel to and from magnetic stations, of which 
4,107 miles was travel to and from the field. Of the total distance traveled, 14,889 
miles were by steamer, 7,274 miles by railways, 868 miles by automobile, 690 miles by 
sailboat, and 90 miles by small launch. The average distance covered per station, includ- 
ing travel to and from the field, was 390 miles. Excluding travel to and from the field, 
the average distance per station was 323 miles. 

The total cost of the entire trip was $4,760.83, an average of $78.05 per station, or 
excluding the cost of travel to and from the field, the average cost per station was $71.41. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the cordial reception and courteous treatment accorded 
me at each of the United States consulates visited during the course of the work. My 
work in Brazil and Argentina was greatly facilitated by the cordial cooperation of Dr. 
Henrique Morize, director of the National Observatory of Brazil, and of Mr. G. O. Wiggin, 
chief of the Meteorological Office at Buenos Aires. 



156 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



Table 31 shows the stations at which magnetic observations were made, with dates 
of occupation and geographic positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of 
Stations and Table of Results. 



Table 31 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 



Name " 



San Luis (Campo do Durique) 

San Luis, A 

San Luis, B 

Pernambuco, B 

Pernambuco, A 

Bahia, A 

Bahia, B 

Joazeiro, A 

Joazeiro, B 

Aracaju 

Caravellas, A 

Caravellas, B 

Victoria, B 

Victoria, C 

Victoria, A 

Vassouras, A, B, and C 

Santos, B 

Santos, A 

Florida, B 

Pilar, Pier B 

Pilar, Pier 5 

Tucumdn 

La Quiaca, B 

La Quiaca, Magnetometer Pier. 

La Quiaca, Station 1917 

Uyuni, A 

Uyuni, B 

La Paz, 1917 

La Paz, B 

Juliaca, A 

Juliaca, B 

Arequipa, A 

Arequipa, B 

Huancayo Observatory, W m 
Huancayo Observatory, E m . . . 
Huancayo Observatory, Frame 



Date 



1928 

May 2 

May 3- 4 

May 3 

May 11 

May 12 

May 18-20 

May 21 

May 25-26 

May 26 

May 31- 

June 1 

June 11-12 

June 12 

June 21 

June 21-22 

June 22-23 
/June 30- 
\July 2 



Lat. South 



July 
July 



9 

9-10 
July 24 
July 27-29 
29-31 



July 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Sep 

Sep 

Sep 



1 

3- 4 

4- 6 
5 
9-10 

10 

13-14 

14 

20-21 

20 

23-25 

25 

2- 5 

3- 4 

5- 6 



2 

2 
2 
8 
8 
13 
13 
9 
9 



31.4 
30.3 
30.3 
03.6 
03.7 
00.5 
00.5 
24.1 
24.1 



10 5.40 



17 
17 
20 
20 
20 



44.4 
44.2 
20.0 
20.1 
19.9 



Long. East 



22 24 . 



23 
23 
34 
31 
31 
26 
22 
22 
22 
20 
20 
16 
16 
15 
15 
16 
16 
12 
12 
12 



57, 
57 
32. 



40.1 



40. 

51. 

06. 

06. 

06.6 

28.0 

28.0 

31.0 

31.1 

30.0 

30.0 

22.5 

22.5 

02.7 

02.7 

02.7 



315 43 

315 43 

315 43 
325 07 
325 06 
321 29 

321 29 
319 29 

319 29 

322 55 

320 47 
320 47 
319 40 
319 40 
319 40 

316 21 

313 36 

313 36 

301 29 

296 07 

296 07 

294 46 

294 25 

294 25 

294 25 

293 11 

293 11 

291 47 

291 47 

289 51 

289 51 

288 27 

288 27 

284 40 

284 40 

284 40 



° The stations are located in the following countries: Nos. 1 to 18 are in Brazil; Nos. 19 to 25 
are in Argentina; Nos. 26 to 29 are in Bolivia; and Nos. 30 to 36 are in Peru, 

J. W. Green, on Magnetic Work in Mexico, June to August 1924 

In accordance with instructions from the Director dated June 7, 1924, I left Wash- 
ington, accompanied by Observer John Lindsay, on the evening of June 8, for magnetic 
work in Mexico. 

We were instructed to proceed directly to Mexico City, stopping en route for observa- 
tions only at Sabinas and Monterrey in northern Mexico. We crossed the international 
boundary at Eagle Pass, arriving at Piedras Negras on June 12. There we found the 
way had been cleared for us through the kindness of Professor Joaquin Gallo, director 
of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in Mexico City, who had advised the customs 
officials of our coming. Our instrumental outfits and personal baggage were passed 
through the custom-house with only formal inspection and no delay whatever. 

Sabinas was occupied as a class III station and Monterrey as a class I station. Going 
thence directly to Mexico City, we were met on Sunday morning, June 22, by Professor 
Gallo, director, and Mr. R. O. Sandoval, magnetic observer, of the National Observatory. 



Observers' Field Reports 157 

Professor Gallo accompanied us to a hotel, and then after breakfast as his guests we had 
the very enjoyable experience of visiting the parks and interesting places in the city 
with him as our guide. 

The following day Professor Gallo secured for us an audience with the Secretario de 
Agricultura y Fomento. After explaining the nature of our work to this official, we were 
each given a letter calling upon all civil and military authorities in Mexico to give us 
every facility and assistance in the work we proposed doing in that country. This 
letter proved to be a very great aid in securing permission from local authorities every- 
where we went. 

Tuesday, June 24, on Professor Gallo's invitation, we visited the magnetic observa- 
tory at Teoloyucan, which is 36 kilometers by rail north of Mexico City. A very profit- 
able day was spent in looking through the observatory, made particularly enjoyable 
by the excellent picnic dinner arranged by Professor Gallo, at which several distinctly 
Mexican dishes new to us were served. 

The following day, June 25, I went with Mr. Lindsay to Puebla, 210 kilometers 
south of Mexico City. After assisting him in locating a station site and in starting the 
program of observations, I returned to Mexico City. Mr. Sandoval and I then took 
up the intercomparison observations between, the observatory instruments, consisting 
of a Dover magnetometer and a Fauth dip circle, and C. I. W. magnetometer-inductor 
26, the instrument I was using for field work. Several days were spent making these 
comparisons and carrying out the computations. 

In view of the fact that Professor Gallo has ordered from the Precise Instrument 
Company of Brooklyn a magnetometer-inductor of the type in use in our own field work, 
another day was spent in explaining in detail the construction and working principles 
of the instrument, and in having Mr. Sandoval make some practice observations with 
it. Testing their inductor and the practice observations by Mr. Sandoval were carried 
on at the Observatorio Nacional in Tacubaya. During my stay of between two and 
three weeks in Mexico City, Professor Gallo gave me every possible assistance and did 
everything possible to make my stay in the city pleasant and enjoyable. 

By July 11, the work of comparison at Mexico City had been finished, Mr. Lindsay 
had returned from the south after completing work at Puebla, and reoccupying the C. I. 
W. station at Oaxaca; having completed the necessary computations, we traveled 
together to Queretaro and jointly occupied a class II station at that place. 

As Mr. Lindsay had now become sufficiently familiar with the work to be able to 
continue alone, we separated at Queretaro. Mr. Lindsay went to San Luis Potosi, 
Tampico, Vera Cruz, and thence along the Gulf coast to Yucatan, occupying several 
additional stations en route, while I proceeded westward, stopping first at Guadalajara. 
From Guadalajara to the west coast, a choice of one of two routes was proposed. The 
first was to go by rail to Colima and then on to Manzanillo, in case the boat schedules 
would permit, and from Manzanillo proceed by steamer to Mazatlan. However, while 
in Guadalajara, I learned from the steamship agencies that a vessel was leaving Manza- 
nillo on the day I finished observing at Guadalajara and the next vessel for Mazatlan 
would be two weeks later. I, therefore, chose the alternate route, which was to go 
overland from Guadalajara to Tepic, substitute Tepic for Colima, and proceed to Mazat- 
lan by rail. 

The trip overland was made in three stages. Leaving Guadalajara early in the 
morning of July 22 and traveling by motor stage, I reached La Quemada, 120 kilometers 
distant, about the middle of the afternoon. Arrangements were made with a mule 
driver for saddle and pack animals to start at daylight the next morning for Ixtlan del 
Rio, 70 kilometers distant. 



158 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

My traveling companions were three Italians and much bargaining was necessary 
between these Italians and the mule driver in order to reach an agreement as to the 
charge for each animal. Long before daylight the next morning we were up, had roused 
the Chinese proprietor of the "hotel and restaurant," and had eaten some breakfast. 
Evidently the mules refused to be caught. Six o'clock came and went. At 7 h I was 
getting anxious, at 8 h I gave them up, and at 9 h I was trying to feel resigned to spending 
another day with the Chinese host when suddenly, about 9 h 30 m , the driver with the mules 
put in an appearance. After some further negotiations, about 10 h 30 m , we finally got 
started. Being the rainy season, the trails were bad; the mules were slow and seemed 
utterly indifferent as to whether they reached their destination that day or the next week. 
We stopped at another Chinese inn by the wayside for lunch, then plodded on. About 
5 p. m. I began to suspect that we would not reach Ixtlan del Rio that night. Upon 
putting the question to the driver my fears were confirmed, as he answered indifferently, 
"manana." However, we had covered the worst part of the trail, had crossed the "Bar- 
ranca," a deep gorge into which we descended, and made our way up and out again on 
the same side after traversing it for several miles. Toward evening we arrived at the 
village called La Barranca, where we were to spend the night. Unfortunately for us, 
a half hour earlier, a mule train going in the opposite direction had arrived, and the 
rooms were all taken at the so-called hotel. Two of my companions found a room in a 
house across the street from the hotel; the third, having a blanket roll, proposed to sleep 
on the hotel porch, while I started down the street inquiring at every likely looking house 
for a night's lodging. The owner of a small shop accommodated me and by paying one 
peso in advance, I secured a very good room with a bed equipped with a mosquito net. 

We were up at 4 o'clock the next morning, and after a meager breakfast started in 
the gray light of early dawn in a drizzling rain, which, however, did not last long, and at 
9 a. m. we reached Ixtlan del Rio without further incident. I was terribly stiff and lame, 
being unaccustomed to the saddle. The change from the mule to a seat in the stage, a 
Ford truck equipped with seats having some homemade, excelsior stuffed cushions, 
seemed a welcome one indeed, for the truck seemed luxurious compared to the homemade 
saddle and the mule; but before we reached Tepic, 150 kilometers farther on, I would 
have been glad to get out of the truck and back on the mule. 

The road was merely a trail, but the driver was an optimist with lots of faith in 
that Ford truck. He imagined the road was there, and all right, and drove accordingly. 
We left Ixtlan del Rio on this 150-kilometer trip with a badly leaking radiator and not 
a single extra tire. Rock-strewn stretches of trail, gullies, swamps, and mudholes were 
all alike treated with indifference by the driver of that truck. That my instrument 
escaped damage is a miracle, but I had so packed it that it could not bounce, and with 
plenty of padding underneath, it came through safely. Toward evening we passed an 
autotruck, fitted up as a stage, being ignominiously dragged out of a swamp by five 
yoke of oxen, while our car ploughed through under its own power and continued. 
As darkness came on, our driver saw the lights of the other stage behind us and set out 
to arrive first in Tepic. There seemed to be a loose connection in our lighting system 
and our lights were on part of the time and part of the time we drove in darkness. But 
"faith will accomplish wonders"; our driver had it and we arrived in Tepic at 8 p. m., 
ahead of the other stage. 

From Tepic on there are continuous rail connections and I encountered no further 
difficulties of travel. Observations were made at Tepic, Mazatlan, Culican, and Guay- 
mas, all on or near the west coast of Mexico. After occupying Hermosillo, I proceeded 
directly to Tucson, Arizona, where I arrived Saturday, August 9, and was met by Mr. 
A. K. Ludy, observer-in-charge of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey magnetic 
observatory. 



Observers' Field Reports 



159 



Intercomparison of my field instruments with those of the observatory was made 
here and also a series of observations with the magnetometer for diurnal variation in 
declination and horizontal intensity by deflections. I then proceeded to El Paso, 
Texas, arriving August 14. Upon inquiry I found that I could reach Nueva Casas 
Grandes the next day and return late the following day, and this I did. 

Leaving El Paso early in the morning, I encountered little or no delay at the Mexican 
custom-house and Casas Grandes was reached at 4 p. m. There being no hotel at Casas 
Grandes, I walked back 2 miles to Colonia Dublan, an American colony of Latter Day 
Saints, where I found very satisfactory accommodations. Observations were made the 
next day, August 16, and completed at 3 p. m., the return train being expected at3 h 30 m . 
It came at 6 p. m., and we reached Ciudad Juarez at 2 h 30 m a. m., four hours late. 

The next afternoon I left Juarez again and arrived the same evening at Chihuahua, 
where observations during the next two days were made. At Sweetwater, Texas, the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey station of 1910 was reoccupied August 22, and an 
auxiliary station was established about a mile to the westward. This completed my 
list of stations and I returned to Washington, arriving early in the morning of August 30, 
having been absent from the Office 83 days. 

Table 32 



No. 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name 



Sabinas A, B " 

Monterrey, A, B a 

/TeoloyucanObs'y. B, Pier A 
\ Pier B 

Queretaro, A, B a C, D 

Guadalajara," A, B 

Tepic 

Mazatlan, A , B 

Culican 

Guaymas, A, B 

Hermosillo 

Tucson Obs'y * 

Nueva Casas Grandes 

Chihuahua, A, B, C 

Sweetwater, 6 A 

Sweetwater, B 



State 



Coahuila 

Nueva Leon . . 

/Mexico 

Queretaro . . . . 

Jalisco 

Nayarit 

Sinaloa 

Sinaloa 

Sonora 

Sonora 

Arizona 

Chihuahua. . . . 
Chihuahua. . . . 

Texas 

Texas 



Date 



1934 

June 14 

June 17-19 
/June 27- 
\July 1 

July 12-13 

July 18-19 

July 25-26 

July 28-31 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 



5- 7 

8 
11-13 
16 

18-19 
22-24 



Aug 25 



Lat. North 



27 
25 



51.4 
40.5 



19 44.8 



20 
20 
21 
23 
24 
27 
29 
32 
30 
28 
32 
32 



35 

44 

31.3 

11 

47.5 

55 

04.4 

14.8 

25.7 

38 

28.0 

28.0 



Long. East 



258 54 

259 40 

260 49 

259 35 

256 37 

255 06 

253 35 

252 36 

249 03 c 

249 03 

249 10 

252 05 

253 56 
259 36 
259 35 



a Observations at stations B at Sabinas, Monterrey, and Queretaro were made by Observer 
John Lindsay. See his separate report. c Longitude for Guaymas, B, is 249° 08' 

6 Nos. 11, 14, and 15 are in United States; all other stations are in Mexico. 

Throughout my work in Mexico I was treated with the greatest kindness every- 
where. I was shown numerous courtesies and given every possible assistance by the 
Mexican officials. In particular, I wish to mention Senor Francisco Salazar, captain 
of the port at Guaymas, and Senor Tomas Fregosa, C. E. , of the cadastral office, Guay- 
mas. These gentlemen assisted me in locating a site for a new station at Guaymas and 
also placed at my disposal a launch for going back and forth to the island in the bay on 
which is located the station of 1906. 

The total distance traveled on the entire trip was 8,378 miles, of which 7,999 miles 
were by rail, 339 miles by auto stage, and 40 miles by mule train. 

The total expense of the trip was $958.12, and 20 stations were occupied in 14 
localities. Of these stations, two were for intercomparison of instruments, and three 
were class I stations at which diurnal-variation observations were secured. 

Table 32 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation, and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 



1G0 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



H. R. Grummann, on Magnetic Work in West Indies, March and April 1922 

In accordance with instructions of the Director, the observer left New York on 
March 4, 1922, on the steamer Fort St. George of the Quebec Steamship Company for 
St. Thomas, for the purpose of reoccupying stations in the West Indies, at which the 
last previous observations had been made in 1905. The instrumental outfit consisted 
of magnetometer-inductor 26 with the usual accessories for field work. 

The station previously known as Charlotte Amalie, later called St. Thomas, was 
reoccupied on March 10 and 11. Transportation between the islands is infrequent, 
especially to and from the smaller and less important ports, but fortunately a schooner 
provided passage from St. Thomas to St. Croix, where the 1905 station at Christiansted 
was reoccupied on March 18, and a new station established at Fredericksted March 
22-23. A Clyde Line freighter furnished transportation to St. Christopher (St. Kitts), 
and after the observations at Basse Terre, the Quebec steamer Guiana was available 
for the passage to St. Johns, Antigua. Again taking passage on a freighter, the island 
of Guadeloupe was reached on April 11. Here the. old station was found entirely un- 
suitable, and a new one was selected about 5 kilometers from Pointe a Pitre, on the experi- 
mental farm. Dominica and St. Lucia were easily reached by regular sailings, but in 
order to reach Martinique without excessive delay it was necessary to employ a sloop. 
After the occupation of stations at these last places, illness of the observer made an 
immediate return imperative, and accordingly passage was taken for New York on May 1. 

Table 33 shows the stations occupied, with the dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 33 



No. 



Name 



Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas 

Christiansted, St. Croix 

Fredericksted, St. Croix 

Basse Terre, St. Christopher. 

St. Joh?is, Antigua 

La Jaille, a Guadeloupe 

Roseau, Dominica 

Port Castries, St. Lucia 

Fort de France 



Date 



1922 
Mar 10 
Mar 



11 
18,20 



Mar 22,23 
Mar 29 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 



3- 4 
12-13 
17,19 
25-26 
29 



Lat. North 



18 
17 
17 
17 
17 
16 
15 
14 
14 



20.5 
45.0 
43.1 
17.9 
07.0 
16.0 
18.0 
01.1 
35.9 



Long. East 



295 05 

295 17 

295 07 

297 17 

298 09 
298 27 

298 38 

299 02 
298 55 



a About 5 kilometers from the station of 1905. 



J. T. Howard, on Magnetic Work in West Indies and South America, 
December 1922 to December 1923 

(1) as a member of j. w. green's party in west indies and northeastern coast of 

south america 

In accordance with instructions from the Director dated December 23, 1922, I left 
Washington for New York City on December 26 to begin work in South America, first, 
under the direction of Mr. J. W. Green as a member of his party and, later, working 
independently reporting directly to the Office at Washington. 

My outfit consisted of magnetometer-inductor 28, pocket chronometer 50,098, and 
three watches, observing-tent, camera, and the usual field accessories. After attending 
in New York to the necessary passport formalities, I embarked December 2 on the 
Mar aval of the Trinidad Line directly for Port of Spain, Trinidad, British West Indies, 
where I arrived on January 7, 1923. 



Observers' Field Reports 161 

After first calling upon the crown surveyor, Mr. J. W. Macgillivray, who was 
greatly interested in this as well as in earlier expeditions of the Department which have 
visited Trinidad, I proceeded with observations at the station of 1905 and vicinity until 
the arrival of Mr. Green, who was just completing observations along the coast of 
Venezuela. Mr. Green arrived on January 15, and our joint operations are further 
described in his report (see pp. 153-154). 

As the surveying in the wooded portions of Trinidad is done by use of the compass, 
the crown surveyor requested that distribution stations be occupied in remote parts of 
the island. Over a country of rough topography and covered with rank tropical vegeta- 
tion, compass surveys are most expeditious, provided there is little or no local disturbance. 
The success of the surveys in Trinidad undertaken in the past by this method indicated 
the absence of such disturbance. The presence of two magnetometer outfits by which 
simultaneous observations in widely separated parts could be made presented a favorable 
opportunity for determining the matter definitely. Stations at Port of Spain and San 
Fernando, first occupied in 1905, were reoccupied in January, and new stations at Rio 
Claro and Toco were established. On the return of the party from the Orinoco River 
trip I made extended observations of declination at Cedros February 27 and 28, while 
Mr. Green carried out diurnal-variation observations at Port of Spain, thus securing 
simultaneous observations at the two places. 

At Bridgetown, Barbados, a class I station was made January 25-26, the diurnal 
variation in horizontal intensity and declination being made by Mr. Green while I 
made the observations for variation in inclination at an auxiliary station, thereby getting 
simultaneous variations of all elements. After completing this work we obtained trans- 
portation by means of a small sloop to Kingstown, St. Vincent, where the station of 
1905 was reoccupied. Returning to Port of Spain, preparations were made for work on 
the Orinoco. Leaving Port of Spain on a Venezuelan steamer, we arrived at Ciudad 
Bolivar, Venezuela, after a slow voyage caused by the unusually low stage of water in 
the river, which made travel at night impracticable. Here we landed and entered our 
outfits after a brief and courteous inspection by the customs officials. We were able to 
exactly reoccupy the C. I. W. station of 1913, and, though the station has been given the 
name of Ciudad Bolivar in the State of the same name, it is actually across the river in 
the State of Bermudez. Further progress up the Orinoco being impracticable, as ex- 
plained in detail in Mr. Green's report (see p. 154), we returned to Port of Spain. The 
water in the river was lower even than when we came up. The steamer, loaded with 
cattle and carrying many passengers, grounded on a bar. Such an accident going 
down-stream and the water rapidly falling promised to be a serious matter, but fortunately 
with the timely assistance of another boat we were drawn off without great damage. 

From Trinidad we sailed to Georgetown, British Guiana, where we reoccupied the 
C. I. W. station on March 6 and 7. I reoccupied also the station of 1908 at Bartica 
while Mr. Green reoccupied the station of 1908 and 1918 at New Amsterdam as support- 
ing stations. We proceeded thence by French mail steamer to Paramaribo ; as a support- 
ing station, we reoccupied jointly the station of 1908 at Onverwacht. We then took 
passage on a local steamer for St. Laurent on the French Guiana side of the Maroni 
River. The formalities of entering our baggage and equipment were very numerous 
and difficult; however, once our mission was explained, the military and civil officials 
were most cordial and helpful. French Guiana is a penal colony, and the visitor can not 
fail to be interested in the various types of men with whom he must deal. The man who 
carts his baggage may have been a desperate criminal, or may be a man of education 
and culture whose fault has been political. The fishing trade is controlled by Annamese 
who have brought with them their peculiar traditions and living habits, while transporta- 
tion on the river is largely in the hands of the "bush niggers," descendants of African 



162 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



slaves who long ago escaped their Dutch and French masters and have reverted to their 
tribal life in the jungle. After reoccupying the station at Cayenne, we fortunately 
obtained passage on a cattle boat for Para, Brazil. We jointly reoccupied the station 
at Pinheiro as a class I station, after which Mr. Green went to Alcobaca to reoccupy 
the station of 1915, and I began preparations for the work on the Xingu River. 

Table 34 shows the stations occupied by me with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions, those occupied by Mr. Green being given in a table appended to his report; 
for additional details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

Table 34 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name 



Port of Spain, 1905, Trinidad. . 
Port of Spain, B, Trinidad. . . . 
San Fernando, B, Trinidad . . . 

Bridgetown, B, Barbados 

Kingstown, B, St. Vincent. . . . 

Rio Claro, Trinidad 

Ciudad Bolivar, B, Venezuela. 

Cedros, Trinidad 

Georgetown, British Guiana. . . . 

Barlica, British Guiana 

Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana . . . 
Onverwacht, Dutch Guiana. . . . 
St. Laurent, B, French Guiana 
Cayenne, B, French Guiana. . . 
Pinheiro, B, Brazil 



Date 



1928 
Jan 9-10 
11-16 
19 

25-26 
29 



Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 



14-16 

27-28 
6- 7 
9 



Mar 17-20 
Mar 21 
Mar 30 

10 

18-19 



Apr 
Apr 



Latitude 



10 

10 

10 

13 

13 

10 

8 

10 

6 

6 

5 

5 

5 

4 

1 



40.0 N 
40.0 N 
16. 8N 
Q4.8 N 

09.2 N 

18.0 N 

09.1 N 

05.3 N 
48.6 N 

23.8 N 

50.2 N 
34.6 N 
29. 4N 
56.1 N 

17.9 S 



Long. East 



298 28 

298 28 

298 33 

300 25 
298 46 
298 50 
296 26 
298 07 

301 51 
301 25 
304 50 

304 50 

305 59 
307 40 
311 31 



(2) IN BRAZIL, ON XINGU AND FRESCO RIVERS, MARAJO ISLAND, TROMBETAS, PARU, AND 

JARY RIVERS 

As Mr. Green, with whom I had been associated, began his work along the eastern 
coast, going southward to Argentina, I began preparations for work on some of the 
Amazon tributaries along which there had been no previous magnetic observations. 
The first of these was the Xingu River, which lies between the Araguaya River on the 
east, traversed in 1915 by Observer D. W. Berky, and the Tapajoz on the west, ascended 
by Observer Allan Sterling in 1918. The Xingu River is navigable by steamers to 
Victoria; from there one goes by mule train over the portage to Alta Mira, avoiding three 
large, impassable rapids. At Alta Mira I secured passage on a launch belonging to a local 
rubber company to the head of launch navigation at Sao Felix. From this point I was 
able to arrange a canoe trip up the Rio Fresco, a tributary of the Xingu, to Novo Hori- 
zonte at the edge of the plains or "campos." Long delays occurred on the return to Alta 
Mira because of the low stage of the water. Stations were established as opportunities 
afforded, both on the outward and return journeys. At Victoria I was fortunately able 
to catch a steamer again for Para, where I arrived July 13. The entire trip had taken 64 
days, during which nine new stations had been estbalished. 

At Para an opportunity was presented of accompanying Mr. Fischer, of the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Natural Arts, to the island of Marajo. This expedition started 
from Para August 3 and returned August 14, during which time stations were established 
at Soure and at Maguary Lighthouse. 

As there seemed no present possibility of making the ascent of the Paru River, I 
made preparations to proceed up the Amazon. After making observations at Obidos, 
an opportunity was found to ascend the Trombetas River about 150 miles to the first 
cataract at Porteiro Rapids, three new stations being occupied. I then returned to 
Santarem and, after reoccupation of that station, I learned that official permission would 



Observers' Field Reports 163 

be given for ascending the Paru and Jary rivers. I accordingly returned to Para to 
secure the necessary outfit and to make up the party. My party was composed of 
native Brazilians except one, who was an American prospector from San Francisco. 
We left Para on September 26 for Almeirim, where we picked up two more natives and 
the real hard work began. 

We had no maps or other reliable information, and the journey was very slow and 
laborious on account of the numerous rapids (we encountered 53 on this trip), the first 
at Panama Rapids being reached on October 6. On the way we met an old rubber trader, 
who gave me a helpful introduction to the Indians and furnished us with very valuable 
information and assistance. Guided by the Indians, I arrived on November 26 at the 
border of the campos country. Here the guides talked of dangers ahead, of enormous 
beasts and savage tribes, and refused to go farther. This point was about 0° 16' north 
latitude, and without the assistance of the Indians I could not well proceed. So I 
persuaded them to show me the trail across the mountains to the Jary River, which they 
said was a two days' journey. I was obliged to abandon my canoes, cable, and heavy 
gear, and started across the trail with my Brazilian boys guided by the Indians who 
spoke no language but their own. Instead of the expected two days, we walked over a 
very rough country for four days. There was no trail, only a very indistinctly blazed 
line. Our provisions were about gone, and we lived largely on game, mainly monkeys, 
and Indian bread. The streams were small, and there were no fish. Arriving at the 
Indian village on the Jary side of the divide, I was able to arrange with the chief to take 
us down to a larger place, where canoes could be obtained for the descent to the Amazon. 

In accordance with agreement, we arrived at the village of the Chief Creshapee on 
the Potinga River. This old chief was a man of distinguished ability who carries on a 
trade with the French in Guiana by way of the upper Maroni. He had himself on one 
occasion been over to St. Laurent. The tribes of this region deal very little with the 
Brazilian traders, preferring rather to trade with the tribes from over the Tumac Humac 
range. The Brazilian Indians raise large numbers of dogs, while the Indians of French 
and Dutch Guiana raise very few and are willing to pay excellent prices for them in 
barter — beads, knives, cloth, etc. After paying Chief Creshapee about all of my remaining 
barter for the trip, I proceeded with my observations, while the women of the village 
made up a great quantity of a sort of hardtack for provisions on the next stage of the 
journey. On the day following, December 4, with my men (five Indians) and two canoes, 
we started for San Antonio, a Brazilian rubber-trading post. It was a pleasant trip 
down-stream, with few rapids and only one portage. We were well supplied with food, 
the climate was pleasant, and the course lay through a rich, untouched country. At 
the end of eight days we came to San Antonio, where there is a tremendous cataract, but 
the Brazilians have built a good road and burros are provided to carry baggage. Here 
I paid off my Indian boatmen, made them presents, and bade them farewell. They 
departed in a cheerful mood, and I am sure that a future observer will find a hearty 
welcome among them. 

The director of the rubber station, Senhor Lopes, received me and my white companion 
very cordially and found a house where we could get board while waiting' for the launch. 
The Brazilian boys were well sheltered and cared for themselves with food I bought for 
their use. On the arrival of the launch on December 16, we were able to proceed down 
the river as far as Arumanduba at the mouth of the Jary, built in a half-submerged 
swamp, where the houses are set up on posts, and where malarial fever is abundant and 
mosquitoes innumerable. At that time the food-supply had run short and we lived 
largely on fish, though I managed to secure a few chickens for variety. After a few days' 
delay we secured passage for Para, where we arrived December 26. Here the boys 
were paid off and the party disbanded. In spite of the continual use of quinine, I had 
contracted malaria and was obliged to go to the hospital, where I was on New Year's Day. 



164 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



A word of appreciation should be added for the Brazilian boatman. He is tough 
and elastic as the rubber with which he commonly deals. He will go anywhere if he 
has plenty of farina and tobacco; without either, he is lost. Moreover, as a rule, he 
will not steal, though he sometimes twists the facts in his stories. His greatest virtues 
are courage and cheerfulness; he sits down to his monkey meat and farina, and chats 
happily with his comrades and goes to bed singing, whether or not he knows where his 
next meal is coming from. 

In the Paru River region it is probable that the lava which overlies the river bed 
causes local disturbance. The Indians have a tradition that the river issues from a 
circular lake of unknown depth, but the source of their information is uncertain, as they 
are afraid to go up there. It is interesting, however, to observe that, while the Trom- 
betas, the Cumana, and the Jary are very nearly dry in November, there is an abundance 
of very clear water in the Paru. Moreover, it is natural to suppose that the shining, 
brittle, red and black enamel which overlies the granite in the valley has flowed down 
from its source in the mountains. In the lower river this overlying material is not seen. 

Table 35 



No. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 



Name 



Cachoeira Tucuruhy 

Alta Mira 

Jatoba 

Sao Felix 

Estreeto 

Novo Horizonte 

C'apivara Cachoeira 

Sao Sebastiao 

Victoria 

Pinheiro, A 

Maguary Lighthouse 

Soure 

Obidos, A 

Oriximina 

Porteiro Rapids 

Veado 

Obidos.fi 

Sanlarem, A 

Santarem, B 

Almeirim 

Panama Rapids 

Muraeeka 

Maracanaquara Rapids. . . 

Miritipoco Island 

Jaware 

Tapiocawa 

Toure Falls 

Papagaia Village 

Curumuri 

Pata 

Jaware Pootoole Island. . . 

Takara Rapids 

Sao Antonio de Cachoeira 



Date 



1923 

May 16 

May 18 

May 24 

May 30- 

June 1 

June 8 

June 14-15 

June 18 
/June 30- 
\July 2 

July 9 

July 15 

Aug 6 

Aug 12 

Aug 26 

Aug 28 

Aug 30 

Sep 



1 
5 

8-14 
11 
1 

5- 6 
12 

17,20 
26 
29 
7 

Nov 12 
Nov 19.21 
Nov 26 
Dec 3 
Dec 7 
Dec 10 
Dec 12-13 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 



Latitude 



01 S 

12.5 S 

51.6 S 



6 38.8 S 

6 59 . 1 S 

7 43.6 S 
7 24.3 S 

5 48 S 



53.5 S 
17.9 S 

14.8 S 
44.0 S 

55.0 S 
45.7 S 

05.1 S 

19.2 S 



OS 
9S 
OS 
OS 
7S 
4S 
6S 
7S 
OS 
4S 
01. 6N 
37.0 N 
16. ON 
24.3 N 
01.9 N 
28.7 S 
39.9 S 



55 
24 
25 
32 
03 
57 
44 
27 
16 
10 



Long. East 



307 45 

307 48 

307 13 

308 01 

308 17 

308 49 

308 46 

307 24 

308 00 
311 31 
311 40 
311 34 
304 32 
304 08 

302 58 

303 31 

304 32 

305 21 

305 21 
307 32 

306 54 
306 52 
306 50 
306 27 
306 18 
306 19 
306 15 

305 43 

306 07 

306 34 

307 03 
307 18 
307 31 



It is a pleasure to acknowledge the uniformly courteous assistance rendered by 
officials and others in position to help with the work of the expedition. Especial mention 
must be made of the assistance rendered by the American consul at Para, Mr. George H. 
Pickerell, and by Mr. Edgar Chermont and Mr. Bento Chermont. 

Table 35 shows the list of stations occupied after leaving Mr. Green's party (all in 
Brazil), with dates and geographic positions; for additional details, see Table of Results 
and Descriptions of Stations. 



Observees' Field Reports 165 

J. T. Howard, on Magnetic Work in Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador, January to 

October 1924 

During 1924, as late as October 27, when I returned to Washington, I continued 
work under instructions of December 23, 1922, and supplementary instructions of 
November 1923. On the completion of the expedition up the Paru and Jary rivers,, at 
the end of December 1923, I was compelled to take hospital treatment at Para, before 
going on with the work. As soon as able, I went direct from Para to Manaos, where I 
reoccupied the repeat station on January 23, 1924. Here I found the facilities for 
working along the major tributaries very meager, and such work as I was able to do was 
accomplished with great loss of time, waiting for transportation. 

On February 1, I embarked on a launch for a trip up the Rio Negro, one of the 
major tributaries entering the Amazon from the north, said to be nearly 40 miles 
wide at its mouth and about 10 miles wide at Santa Isabel, about 400 miles up from 
Manaos. These great widths are hidden from direct observation because of the numer- 
ous large islands which divide the water-course into various channels. The division of 
the year into seasons of widely different amounts of rainfall causes a very great change 
in the water-level, reported to be as much as 70 feet at Manaos. The water is discolored 
by the large amount of decayed tropical vegetation, until it has much the appearance 
of coffee where it breaks at the forefoot of the boat. The stations at Santa Isabel and 
Barcellos were reoccupied on this trip. 

On my return from the north side of the Amazon, I immediately made arrangements 
to go to Porto Velho on the Madeira River, the mouth of which, where it enters the 
Amazon from the south, is almost opposite that of the Rio Negro. I left Manaos on 
March 2, and arrived at Porto Velho on March 6, where I was met by Mr. MacDonald, 
of the Madeira-Mamore Railway Company. Porto Velho is headquarters for the rail- 
way company. All the buildings are on the company's property, forming the new 
town quite separate from the old town, which has much in common with all Brazilian 
towns. Active work on the railway began about the time the Panama Canal was nearing 
completion, and it is evident that much of the style of building and the methods of 
engineering have been adopted from the experience obtained at Cristobal and Balboa. 

On the day following my arrival I took the train for Guajara Mirim, on the Bolivian 
frontier, arriving there on the night of March 8. Observations were made at Guajara 
Mirim on the Brazilian side, and at Guayaramerin on the Bolivian side. The latter is 
the original Indian name and means "the little noise" in distinction from larger rapids 
farther down called "the big noise." The existence of these two towns, named respec- 
tively from the Portuguese and the Spanish, accounts for the variations in the spelling 
of the name on maps and in other publications. 

I returned to Porto Velho as quickly as possible in order to catch the steamer for a 
return to Manaos. But the steamer had met with a mishap and did not come for 18 
days. I occupied two stations at Porto Velho, and was obliged to spend a few days in 
a hospital, so that it was April 5 when I got back to Manaos. 

There is but one steamer per month from Manaos to Iquitos on the upper Amazon 
in Peru, and therefore little opportunity for stopping for observations at intermediate 
points. I embarked on April 10 on one of the largest of these Amazon steamers, the 
Belem, a very comfortable boat, though slow, and planned to take chances on making 
observations at wood stations en route. This steamer burned wood and required 10,000 
sticks every 24 hours, a considerable quantity when seen in one pile. This wood was 
replenished once each day, but as the stops for refueling were generally in the night, or 
in a pouring rain, little observational work was possible. Nevertheless, at three stations 
I got ashore and did a little work, and at Sao Paulo I got an approximate reoccupation 
of an old station. 



166 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

On April 24 we arrived at Iquitos, Peru, which I occupied as a class I station. 
There was under consideration a government project to build a railway from the Pongo 
de Manseriche over to Piura. An English engineer had been sent over from Lima to 
go through the upper Maranon and over the Andes on a preliminary survey. The 
authorities, learning of my plans to go on through to the Pacific coast, had requested me 
to accompany this man, who had no equipment for determining geographical position, 
so I waited, expecting to leave on May 9. A local insurrection made it impossible for 
us to make use of the navy launch and the project had to be postponed. My delay had 
caused me to miss the monthly mail boat up the Ucayali River, and there was nothing 
to do but wait for the next one on June 1. On that date I left Iquitos on the launch 
Esploradora. It is a big launch, but it was crowded with passengers, all of whom had 
to sleep on the deck. There was not much room to walk around at night. Most of 
these passengers got off at points en route. Arriving at Bafios, we found a rapid 
that the big launch can not pass at low water, so all remaining passengers were transferred 
to a very dilapidated craft, by courtesy called a launch. The mail sacks, made of light 
material, were carried in a canoe lashed alongside, where they were often splashed with 
water, a circumstance not intended to improve the legibility of the letters. 

On Friday, June 13 (quite appropriately) the ancient engine broke down, giving an 
opportunity for observations at the mouth of a small stream called Puma Yaca. The 
next day we came to the remnants of the American colony of Californians who were 
persuaded to join in a scheme to raise cotton on the Pachitea River, where a concession 
had been obtained by the promoter. But there had been internal dissensions and 
nearly all who had means to leave had done so. Finally, on June 15, the old engine 
expired with a blaze of fireworks and a great noise, and we started on at the streak of 
dawn in one of the canoes. We had been adequately fed on the big launch, scantily fed 
on the launch which we had just abandoned, and now we were limited to bananas and 
salt fish. To this I was able to contribute a small amount of game. Nine days in the 
canoe brought us to Puerto Bermudez, a collection of palm-thatched sheds, the head of 
navigation of the Pachitea River. Observations were made at two stations, though the 
station of 1912 could not be recovered exactly, because, in 1914, Indians had destroyed 
the town and burned the buildings. On June 30 we took mules for the overland portion 
of the journey. The first day it poured rain and the first river crossing was impossible. 
The mules were unpacked and made to swim over, while our outfit was taken across on 
a raft or "baka." After eight days of mule travel we arrived at La Merced, and an auto 
bus was taken to the railway at Oroya, whence the journey was quickly made to the 
Huancayo Observatory, where I arrived on July 8. Thus the journey from Iquitos to 
Huancayo had taken more than five weeks, and was in many ways an unpleasant ex- 
perience. 

Careful comparisons were made with the standards at the Huancayo Observatory. 
These were extended over an unusually long time, because of the extra observations 
required of the limited personnel at the observatory. After taking a short vacation and 
making observations at Tarma, La Merced, and at San Lorenzo Island near Callao, 
passage was taken for Paita, northern Peru, where I arrived on August 29. Here the 
climate is perfectly dry and during my stay the wind blew with great force every after- 
noon. This was the cause of an unfortunate accident to the earth inductor which pre- 
vented further observations for inclination. Nevertheless, I went to Piura and occupied 
two stations, /Omitting inclination, and then proceeded to Guayaquil, Ecuador, where I 
arrived on September 6. 

There was an insurrection or revolution in progress in the interior, and my going 
on to Quito was hindered on that account. I finally got to Riobamba on the railway 
on September 15, and reoccupied the station there. The region is highly disturbed 



Observers' Field Reports 



167 



and a precise reoccupation was very important. The station was on a little hill which 
is the personal property of a man who demanded 50 sucres for the privilege of reoccupying 
it. On securing his pledge to see that the station marker was undisturbed, I paid the 
price. I then proceeded to Quito, where I interviewed the American minister and 
other officials, reoccupied the station as far as possible with my damaged instrument, 
and returned to Guayaquil on October 4, 1924. I took passage on October 7 for New 
York and arrived in Washington on October 27, after an absence of 22 months. 

Table 36 shows the stations occupied in 1924, with dates of occupation and geo- 
graphic positions; for additional details see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 36 



No. 



1 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
12 
13 

14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 



Name " 



Manaos, A 

Barcellos, A 

Barcellos, B 

Santa Isabel 

Manaos, A (see No. 1) 

Guajara Mirim 

Guayaramerin 

Porto Velho, A 

Porto Velho, B 

Manaos, B (see Nos. 1 and 5) 

Bocca do Jutahy 

Sao Paulo de Olivenca 

Chimbote de Amazonas 

Iquitos, A 

Iquitos, B 

Quebrada Puma Yaca 

Puerto Bermudez, A 

Puerto Bermudez, B 

Huancayo Obseroatory 

La Merced, A 

La Merced, B 

Tarma 

San Lorenzo Island 

Paita 

Piura, 1912 

Piura, B 

Guayaquil 

Riobamba, A 

Riobamba, B 

Riobamba, C 

Quito, B 

Quito, A 



Date 



1924 

Jan 24-26 

Feb 4 

Feb 5 

Feb 9-10 

Feb 19,21 

Mar 9-11 

Mar 10 

Mar 14-15 

Mar 15 

Mar 1- 

Apr 10 

Apr 17 

Apr 19 

Apr 22 
/Apr 26- 
\May 15 

Apr 27 

June 13 

June 24-25 

June 26 

July 10-28 

Aug 3- 4 

Aug 4- 5 

Aug 7- 8 

Aug 26 

Aug 30 

Sep 2 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 



3 

10 

17-18 



Sep 20 

Sep 20 

Sep 26-27 

Oct 1 



Lat. South 



3 



3 
10 
10 
8 



08 
58 
58 
25 
08 
49 
48 
45 



8 45.6 

3 07.6 

2 42 

3 31 

4 00.0 

3 45.6 



3 

9 

10 

10 

12 

11 

11 

11 

12 

5 

5 

5 

2 

1 

1 
1 





45.6 
16.9 
17.8 
18.9 
02.7 
03.9 
03.9 
26.0 
05.5 
04.7 
11.7 
11.4 
10.8 
39 5 
39.8 
39.8 
13.1 
13.1 



Long. East 



300 00 

297 07 

297 07 

294 58 

300 00 

294 41 

294 41 

296 05 

296 05 

299 58 

293 10 

290 59 

289 09 

286 45 

286 45 

285 10 

285 13 

285 13 

284 40 

284 39 

284 39 

284 18 

282 49 

278 54 

279 23 

279 22 

280 09 

281 18 
281 19 
281 19 
281 28 
281 29 



" Of the above stations, Nos. 1 to 12 are in Brazil, except No. 7, which is across the river in 
Bolivia; Nos. 13 to 26 are in Peru; Nos. 27 to 32 are in Ecuador. 



SUGGESTIONS 

Considerable time could be saved and more accurate longitudes determined in 
the field if the observer carried a radio outfit. Small powerful sets are now available 
which could be carried without adding much weight to the observer's baggage. Much 
time could be saved in obtaining signals directly and the constant worry and trouble of 
carrying many watches in the field could be done away with. If chronometers and 
watches are used, care should be taken to see that they are in good condition before 
leaving the observatory, i. e., that they have been oiled and cleaned within at the most 
six months. At the best, the pocket chronometer is too fine an instrument for carrying 
on mule-back trips, as the chances are that it will stop or have a very irregular rate, due 
to the constant jolting. 



168 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

John Lindsay, on Magnetic Work in Mexico and Cuba, June to September 1924 

In accordance with instructions from the Assistant Director dated June 7, 1924, 
I left Washington on June 8 with Mr. J. W. Green, who was chief of party, for magnetic 
work in Mexico. My instrumental outfit consisted of magnetometer-inductor 27, 
pocket chronometers 50,107, and 260, watches 811, 8282, and 105, observing-tent 38, and 
miscellaneous equipment. 

We entered Mexico at Piedras Negras, crossing the Rio Grande from Eagle Pass, 
Texas. From Piedras Negras we went to Sabinas and reoccupied the magnetic station 
of 1907, notwithstanding the extreme heat, the temperature rising to 111° F. The 
intendente or mayor of the town was most courteous in extending permission and placing 
several policemen and an automobile at our disposal. We thanked him and accepted 
the services of one policeman. Sabinas itself was a small "puebla" typical of the 
northern Mexican villages, being hot, dry, and dusty. On arrival we moved into the 
only hotel, where we were given a large room and told by the senora that there would be 
electric light installed "manana;" meanwhile she would see if she could find a candle. 
After a night, during which little sleep was possible, due to the heat, noises of animals, 
and the clanging of a church bell during the early morning hours, we proceeded to 
Monterrey, where a class I station was established. 

On June 22, at Mexico City, we were met by Professor Juaquin Gallo, director of 
the National Astronomical Observatory, who had very kindly made all arrangements 
for our stay. After a conference with Dr. Gallo and Mr. Sandoval, his assistant, Mr. 
Green and I proceeded south 131 miles to Puebla. It was decided that I should occupy 
Puebla and Oaxaca as class II stations, while Mr. Green returned to Mexico City to 
carry out a series of intercomparison observations with the standard instruments of the 
observatory. After completing the work at Puebla I proceeded to Oaxaca by rail on 
June 29. 

At Oaxaca a close reoccupation was made of the C. I. W. station of 1907. Oaxaca 
itself was interesting in that it contains an old Spanish cathedral built in 1537, and near 
the city is the great tree of Tule, 120 feet in diameter and 160 feet high; here also are the 
ruins of Mitla. 

I returned to Mexico City and went over my records with Mr. Green for further 
suggestions as to my future field work. The comparisons at the National Observatory 
having been completed, we left for Queretaro on July 11, where we established a class IV 
station and several auxiliary stations in the immediate vicinity on account of local 
disturbance. 

The methods of carrying out the work of magnetic survey in the field having been 
acquired under Mr. Green's direction at stations already occupied, we separated at 
Queretaro, Mr. Green proceeding to Guadalajara and northwest Mexico to occupy 
several stations before returning to Washington, while I turned eastward, going first 
to San Luis Potosi, at which place I obtained a close reoccupation of the Mexican mag- 
netic station of 1922. I then proceeded to Tampico, where I established a class IV 
station on the grounds of the American hospital about 6 miles from the center of the city. 
Much time was saved in selecting the site for my magnetic observations here by an air- 
plane trip over the city, given through the kindness of Mr. Mallory. On July 25 I em- 
barked on a Ward Line steamer for Vera Cruz, where a new station was established. 

On inquiry, I found there were two routes available for the journey from Vera Cruz 
to Puerto Mexico, the next stop on my itinerary, one being by rail and the second by 
small boat on the Mexican Gulf. The officials at the American consulate strongly 
advised me to make the trip by water. Word had been received of the poor condition 
of the railroad to Santa Lucretia, where the road from Mexico City by way of Cordoba 



Observers' Field Reports 169 

joins that across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. No information was available concerning 
the Santa Lucretia-Puerto Mexico portion of the Tehuantepec road, which comprised 
the second lap of the overland journey. Bandits had been active in that section and 
several trains had been stopped and the passengers robbed and in some cases killed. 
However, after hearing the usual "manana" from the captain of the only available 
small sailing craft, when I would make daily inquiries as to the date of sailing, I finally 
decided on the rail route and left on the train for Santa Lucretia at 6 a. m. on July 29. 
The road bed was poor and Pullman cars were not known on the line. The first-class 
passengers were a Spanish family traveling with a four-months-old baby, a Senor Laza, 
and myself. After a hard day's ride the train was stopped for the night in a swamp 
somewhere in the state of Vera Cruz. Senor Laza and I arranged a resting-place by 
reversing a wooden bench and adjusting a mosquito net, then, after obtaining some 
"tortillas" and "frijoles" from a ragged peon vendor, endeavored to obtain some much 
needed rest. The mosquitoes were numerous and the net of little use. The second-class 
passengers were walking back and forth endeavoring to avoid the bites of the insects. 
Finally, when the confusion made sleep impossible, Senor Laza and I followed the 
example of the other passengers in an all night parade. 

• The following day at noon, after passing through dense growth and jungle, we arrived 
at Santa Lucretia, the junction-point on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The train for 
Puerto Mexico was due at 1 p. m. It arrived at 7 p. m., to the surprise of every one, as 
it was not really expected until the following day. Senor Laza and I were now the only 
first-class passengers, and boarding the train found four cars having board seats over 
which many roaches were running, to add to the discomfort caused by the mosquitoes 
and other insects. We both managed to fall asleep, only to be rudely awakened by 
the sudden stopping of the train and by a rush of the second-class passengers through our 
coach. We immediately thought of bandits, but kept our seats until the rush of peons 
had ended. Darkness enveloped everything, as the swaying of the train had extinguished 
the oil lamps. Reaching the rear platform, I discovered that a peon had been struck 
by the train and both legs severed above the knees. The passengers were unwilling to 
offer assistance for fear of being arrested, according to the laws of the country, in case 
the man should die. Nevertheless, I rendered such first aid as I was able and placed 
the man in the car, where he was taken to Puerto Mexico. 

My work at Puerto Mexico was greatly facilitated by Dr. John J. Sparks, the 
British consul and by Mr. Paul Weaver, chief geologist of the Aguila Oil Company. 
After several days' delay, I obtained passage on a small coastwise boat for Frontera, 
arriving on August 15 and establishing a class IV station the following day. I then 
left on a river steamer for Ciudad del Carmen. The trip to Campeche was made by sail- 
boat, on which, as soon as we lost sight of Ciudad del Carmen, we were met by a thunder- 
storm. The lightning was intense and the rough sea was too much for the small craft, 
which was tossed upon a sand-bank near Isla Aguada. There we remained until mid- 
night, when we finally managed to get afloat again with the assistance of a fishing-boat. 
Campeche, which is one of the oldest pueblas in Mexico, was reached the next evening, 
August 22. 

It was a pleasure to travel on a modern fast train to Merida and on arrival to find 
such a pleasant and clean city as the capital of Yucatan. After recovering from a week's 
illness, caused by drinking bad water on the boat from Carmen to Campeche, a station 
was established on the grounds of the agricultural school at Chuminopolis, a suburb of 
Merida. Diurnal-variation series in all three elements were obtained and an auxiliary 
station was established. 

An inland station was occupied at Chichen Itza, where the archaeological expedition 
under Dr. S. G. Morley had commenced operations in the study of the ancient Maya 



170 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



ruins. As work had been discontinued for the summer, due to the advent of the rainy 
season, I met none of the archaeological party. On September 15, I left Progreso on the 
S. S. Monterrey for Havana, Cuba. A station was reoccupied at Casa Blanca, and diurnal- 
variation observations were made in all three elements. 

Throughout the trip every assistance and courtesy was extended by the officials 
of the countries visited. The total distance traveled on the trip was 5,550 miles, of 
which 4,420 miles were by rail, 790 were by steamer, 300 were by small sailing-boat, and 
40 were by automobile. The total time required was 106 days, thus the average time 
per station being 5.6 days. Of the total distance, 1,980 miles were traveled in reaching 
Eagle Pass, Texas. 

Table 37 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 37 



No. 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 



Name" 



Sabinas, B 

Monterrey, B . . . . 

Puebla, A 

Puebla, B 

Oaxaca, A 

Oaxaca, B 

Queretaro, B 

San Luis Potosi . . 

Tampico 

Vera Cruz 

Puerto Mexico, A 
Puerto Mexico, B 

Frontera 

Campeche 

Merida, A 

Merida, B 

Chichen Itza 

Havana, A 

Havana, B 



Date 



1924 

June 14 

June 17-19 

June 26,27 

June 28 
/June 30- 
\July 1 

July 2 

July 12 

July 17-18 

July 22 

July 27 



Aug 
Aug 
Aug 



1-11 
4 
16 



Aug 24 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 



1- 5 

5 

7- 8 
19-22 
23 



Lat. North 



27 
25 
19 
19 

17 

17 
20 
22 
22 
19 
18 
18 
18 
19 
20 
20 
20 
23 
23 



51.4 
40.5 
03.0 
03.0 

03.6 

03.6 
35.0 
08.5 
14.9 
11.7 
09.7 
09.7 
31.8 
50.9 
58.2 
58.2 
41.0 
09.4 
09.4 



Long. East 



258 54 

259 40 
261 47 

261 47 

263 16 

263 16 

259 36 

259 05 

262 08 

263 55 
265 37 
265 37 
267 21 

269 28 

270 24 

270 24 

271 26 
277 39 
277 39 



" The stations are in the following countries: Nos. 1 to 17, Mexico; Nos. 18 and 19, Cuba. 

John Lindsay, on Magnetic Work in Panama and South America, September 1924 

to June 1925 

Leaving Havana, September 24, 1924, I arrived at Cristobal, on the Atlantic side 
of Panama Canal, on September 28 and proceeded to Panama City by rail on the same 
day. After obtaining official permission from the Governor of Panama and locating 
the C. I. W. magnetic stations at Old Panama, observations were commenced on Sep- 
tember 30, during which diurnal-variation observations were obtained for all three 
elements. The soil was found to be slightly magnetic, causing a marked station-differ- 
ence between the primary and secondary stations. Considerable trouble was caused 
by the sudden temperature changes during the diurnal-variation work, although an 
extra canopy was used over the tent and other means employed to keep the temperature 
of the magnets as nearly constant as possible. 

Completing observations, I spent the few remaining days in bringing computa- 
tions and accounts to date while waiting for a Grace Line steamer for Lima, Peru. 
The voyage was pleasant even when crossing the equator because of the cold Humbolt 
Current coming up along the coast from the south. At Callao the steamer anchored 
offshore, as is the custom at the ports along the west coast of South America, and the 
passengers were taken ashore by small boats or launches. 



Observers' Field Reports 171 

The hipodromo C. I. W. stations at Lima were reoccupied. Two series of diurnal- 
variation observations of horizontal intensity, inclination, and declination were made, 
as well as regular observations at both primary and auxiliary stations. Special 
interest attaches to the variation curves at Lima, near sea-level, on account of the 
opportunity afforded for comparisons with simultaneous magnetograph records at 
Huancayo Observatory at about 11,000 feet elevation. A general strike took place 
during my stay at Lima and all transportation, including trams, autos, and busses, 
ceased. However, I was able to hire a bicycle, so that my observational program was 
not interrupted. The two stations occupied at Lima were permanently marked by 
concrete monuments. 

Arriving at Huancayo, October 28, I was greeted by Mr. Booth, of the observatory 
staff. We immediately drove out to the observatory, where I was met by the observer- 
in-charge, Mr. Parkinson, and his assistant, Mr. Coleman. Intercomparison observa- 
tions were made with the observatory instruments. 

Returning to Lima by rail, I proceeded south to Mollendo by steamer, arriving on 
November 14. Stations were established at Mollendo, Arequipa, and Juliaca, at sea- 
level, 7,500 feet, and 12,000 feet above sea-level respectively. Thus data were secured 
which will be used in the study of a possible difference in the values of the magnetic 
elements at different altitudes. At Arequipa an unusual range was found in the inclina- 
tion curve, the difference between maximum and minimum for the day exceeding 12 
minutes. 

After leaving Juliaca I proceeded to La Paz, Bolivia, crossing Lake Titicaca by 
steamer. This lake is the highest steam-navigated lake in the world, being at an altitude 
of 12,648 feet above sea-level. The steamer made voyages across the lake before the 
railroad was completed, the parts having been brought from sea-level by mule. Thus 
the Indians saw water transportation by steam before they became acquainted with 
the railroad. The banks of the lake are cultivated by the natives, and it is interesting 
to note the sites of the old Inca ruins on the islands, especially that of the famous Temple 
of the Sun. After an attack of mountain sickness, and having completed observations 
at Alto de La Paz, I proceeded to Arica, Chile, by rail. The Governor of Arica was 
most courteous in extending permission for my observations and in facilitating the work. 

Sailing on the S. S. Lautaro, a Chilean steamer, I arrived at Iquique on December 
23 and thence made observations along the Chilean coast at Iquique, Antofagasta, 
Copiapo, Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Coronel, Corral, and Puerto Montt. From Coronel 
south the green grass and the trees and shrubbery are a most pleasing change from the 
barren coast to the north, where, due to the lack of rain, there is no vegetation and one 
sees only the sand and the bare mountains rising from the shore. 

At Puerto Montt, a quaint fishing village and resort, I was awakened in the early 
hours of the morning on February 27 by a great clamor and noise caused by the ringing 
of all the church bells and fire gongs in the town. On arising and dressing I discovered 
that a dangerous fire had started which threatened the entire town, as all the houses 
and buildings were constructed of wood. The sight was very unusual, the reflection of 
the fire on the water and the snow-covered mountains in the background making a 
beautiful though tragic picture. The fire was finally controlled, but not until it had 
destroyed several blocks of wooden houses and had left many poor families homeless. 

Completing observations at Puerto Montt, I took passage on the S. S. Santiago 
for Punta Arenas, the southernmost town in the world. The voyage took eight days and 
came near being disastrous. During a terrific storm on a dark night the captain en- 
deavored to take the steamer into the inside channels of southern Chile from the Gulf 
of Penas, with the result that the vessel was carried onto a rock, where it rested momen- 
tarily, partially out of water, until the following wave washed us clear and we headed 



172 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

out to sea. The scenery in the channels resembles that of the fiords of Norway. The 
snow-covered Andes rise out of the water on each side of the ship and present a most 
impressive sight. 

At Punta Arenas, the Argentine Meteorological Service station of 1913 was reoccu- 
pied and permanently marked, and two auxiliary stations were established, one near the 
primary, the other several miles distant, on the grounds of the Jockey Club. The station 
at Ultima Esperanza established by Mr. Sterling in 1917 was reached after a 210-mile 
trip by a Ford automobile. There are no roads, but simply tracks made by the repeated 
passage of automobiles over the ground, which during the rainy season became impas- 
sable. Through the hospitality of Mr. Morrison, an "estancia" or sheep ranch owner, 
the stay at this inland point was very enjoyable. 

On return to Punta Arenas, I obtained passage on a small cattle boat for the Falk- 
land Islands. The steamer was flat-bottomed, so that the terrific gales and rough seas 
so prevalent in that section of the world made the trip a rather trying one. Our first 
port was Rio Grande, on the island of Tierra del Fuego, where I took advantage of the 
stop to establish a magnetic station on shore. On return to the ship I found it completely 
out of the water, due to the unusually large fall of the tide. This explained the use of 
the flat-bottomed boat. 

On March 31, 1925, we arrived at Port Stanley, the only town and the seat of govern- 
ment of the Falklands. It was very different from the small towns of Latin America, 
having the aspect of a small English village. The inhabitants of these islands are 
English and are noted for hospitality. In my case they certainly upheld their reputa- 
tion. After making diurnal-variation observations at the old British Admiralty mag- 
netic station at Navy Point, which is across the bay from Port Stanley, I established 
distribution stations at " Between-the-Rocks " and Port Louis. The trips to these two 
latter points were made by pack train. The plain is extremely treacherous for riding 
because of the many marshes and the generally boggy ground. In order to reach Port 
Louis it was necessary to cross the Wickham Heights, a mountain range running across 
the west island. The ride was a difficult one on account of gales with snow and hail, 
and the steep, rocky trails. At Port Louis, through the kindness of Mr. Robson, I was 
able to make an exact reoccupation of a magnetic station which had been established by 
the party from H. M. S. Terror in 1832 and which was later occupied by the party from 
H. M. S. Challenger in 1876. 

Passage was obtained on the freight steamer Laguna for Punta Arenas, where I 
changed to an Argentine boat which arrived at Santa Cruz, Argentina, on May 8. From 
the latter point I went to Puerto Deseado by sea, and then to Las Heras by rail, reoccupy- 
ing Mr. Sterling's C. I. W. station of 1917 at each place. On return to Puerto Deseado I 
carried out diurnal-variation observations under the unpleasant conditions of the south- 
ern winter, with short daylight hours and low temperature. I was glad to reach Puerto 
Madryn at a more northerly latitude on May 26, and after making class II observations, 
proceeded by steamer to Buenos Aires, and thence to Bahia Blanca by rail. On return 
to Buenos Aires on June 17, I spent several days in bringing my accounts to date, in 
planning my contemplated expedition to the north, and in discussing the work with 
Dr. Burmeister, the director of the Argentine Meteorological Service. 

The total distance traveled on the trip was 12,866 miles, of which 8,585 miles were 
by steamer, 3,777 by rail, 420 by auto, and 84 by pack train. The total expense of the 
trip was $2,729.39, and 47 stations were occupied in 28 localities. Of these, 12 were 
class I stations, 7 were class II, 5 were class III, 3 were class IV, and one was an inter- 
comparison station. Thus the average expense per station was $58.07. The total time 
required was 267 days, the average time per station being 5.7 days. 



Observers' Field Reports 



173 



Table 38 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Description of Stations and Table of Results. 



Table 38 



No. 



3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 

23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 

43 

44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



Name a 



Old Panama, A 

Old Panama, C 

Lima, D 

Lima, E 

Huancayo Observatory 

Mollendo, A 

Mollendo, B 

Arequipa, A 

Arequipa, B 

Juliaca, A 

Juliaca, B 

La Paz, A 

Arica, A 

Arica, B 

Iquique 

Antofagasta, A 

Antofagasta, B 

Calama 

Copiapo, A 

Copiapo, B 

Coquimbo, A 

Coquimbo, B 

Valparaiso, A 

Valparaiso, B 

Coronet, A 

Coronel, B 

Corral 

Puerto Monti, A 

Puerto Montt, B 

Punta Arenas, A 

Punta Arenas, B 

Ultima Esperanza, A. . . 
Ultima Esperanza, B . . . 

Punta Arenas, C 

Rio Grande 

Port Stanley, A 

Port Stanley, B 

Port Stanley, C 

Between-the-Rocks 

Port Louis 

Santa Cruz, A 

Santa Cruz, B 

Puerto Deseado, A 

Puerto Deseado, B 

Colonia las Heras 

Puerto Madryn, A 

Puerto Madryn, B 

Bahia Blanca, A 

Bahia Blanca, B 



Date 



1924 
/Sep 30 
\Oct 1 

Oct 2 

Oct 

Oct 

Nov 

Nov 



16-21 

22 
3- 6 

15-17 
Nov 18 
Nov 21-24 
Nov 25 

3- 5 
3 

12,16 

21 

20 

24 

27-29 

2,1925 

30 



Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 
/Dec 
\Jan 

Dec 
1925 

Jan 4 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Jan 
/Jan 
\Feb 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 
/Feb 



11-12 

13 

19-20 

21 

29-30 

2 
31 

8 

9 
11 

13-16 
13 
28 
\Mar 2,5,22 
Mar 6 

10-11 
10-11 



Mar 
Mar 
Mar 20 
Mar 26 
Apr 



Apr 
Apr 
Apr 
Apr 

May 



3-10 
14 

14-15 
18 
22 

9-10 



May 11 
/May 16-17 
\May 21-23 

May 21 

May 19 

May 27,28 

May 29 

June 13-15 

June 16 



Latitude 



9 00 . 2 N 



9 
12 
12 
12 
17 
17 
16 
16 
15 
15 
16 
18 
18 
20 

^23 

23 

22 
27 
27 
29 
29 



33 
37 
37 
39 
41 
41 



53 
51 
51 
53 
53 
51 
51 
51 
51 
51 
50 
50 



47 
46 
42 
42 
38 
38 



00.2 N 
04.3 S 
04.3 S 

02.7 S 
01. 8S 
01. 8S 
22.5 S 

22.5 S 
30.0 S 
30.0 S 

30.8 S 

28.6 S 

28.6 S 

12.7 S 

38.8 S 
38.8 S 

28.3 S 
22.0 S 
22.0 S 
57.8 S 
57.8 S 



33 04.4 S 



04.4 S 
01.9 S 
01.9 S 
53.7 S 
29.3 S 
29.3 S 



53 10.4 S 



10.4 S 
41.1 S 
41.1 S 
09.8 S 

48.1 S 
41. 2S 
41. 7S 
41.7 S 

48.2 S 
33 S 
00.9 S 
01. 2S 



47 45.7 S 



45 
33 
45 
45 
46 



7S 
1 S 
2S 
2S 
7S 



46.7 S 



Long. 


East 





/ 


280 


31 


280 


31 


282 


58 


282 


58 


284 


40 


287 


59 


287 


59 


288 


27 


288 


27 


289 


51 


289 


51 


291 


47 


289 


40 


289 


40 


289 


50 


289 


38 


289 


38 


291 


03 


289 


43 


289 


43 


288 


40 


288 


40 


288 


25 


288 


25 


286 


51 


286 


51 


286 


29 


287 


04 


287 


04 


289 


08 


289 


08 


287 


31 


287 


31 


289 


10 


292 


22 


302 


10 


302 


08 


302 


08 


301 


40 


301 


53 


291 


30 


291 


30 


294 


05 


294 


05 


291 


03 


294 


58 


294 


58 


297 


44 


297 


44 



" The stations are located in the following countries: Nos. 1 and 2, Panama; Nos. 3 to 11, 
Peru; Nos. 12, Bolivia; Nos. 13 to 34, Chile; Nos. 35, 41 to 49, Argentina; Nos. 36 to 40, Falkland 
Islands. 

John Lindsay, on Magnetic Work in South America, June 1925 to March 1926 

On return to Buenos Aires from Bahia Blanca on June 17, 1925, I proceeded to 
Mercedes, 60 miles by rail due west of the capital, to make class II observations, return- 
ing to Buenos Aires on June 24. After completing arrangements and supplying myself 



174 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

with necessary field equipment, including a .44 Winchester rifle, I started out on the 
first leg of a long trip into the interior of Paraguay. 

Leaving Buenos Aires on the international train, which is itself very good, though 
the road-bed was poor, we crossed over the Parana River by means of a ferry, which 
carried the train up the river about 4 miles. The route then followed the general course 
of the Uruguay River approximately 350 miles through a lightly wooded country. The 
small trees along the river were used for fuel, and at night the sky was lighted by the 
glow of many fires where farmers were clearing the brush from their land. Just before 
noon on June 30 I arrived at Monte Caseros, my first station, just across from the point 
where the boundary between Uruguay and Brazil joins the Uruguay River. After 
making the desired observations, I continued northward by rail to Corrientes, on the 
Paraguay River. From this time I frequently met persons who remembered Theodore 
Roosevelt, as I was now following the route of his famous expedition. At Corrientes I 
took passage on the river steamer and after a pleasant trip arrived at Asuncion, the 
capital of Paraguay, on July 6. 

Asuncion, although the capital of Paraguay, is rather inaccessible. The native 
women smoke cigars in the streets; the peons are exceptionally poor, most of them 
going about in rags and barefoot; every one drinks "yerba mate" or native tea. I 
obtained permission to work on the grounds of the botanical garden at Trinidad, a 
suburb, from the director, Dr. Fiebrig, who courteously aided me in locating the 1913 
C. I. W. station. On July 16, I continued up the Paraguay River on the S. S. Cuyaba 
as far as Concepcion, the second largest town in the republic. When I had completed 
my work there I continued northward on a smaller boat to San Salvador in Alto Paraguay, 
where I established a class IV station. Through the kindness of the owner, I stayed 
at the ranch of Mr. Tibbett, an Englishman, for several days, while waiting for the 
river steamer for Corumba. The farther north one goes the wilder the country appears. 
During my few days stay at San Salvador we caught several snakes, shot a fox, and had 
rather interesting sport shooting "jacarays" or alligators along the river banks. The 
tropical heat was becoming intense, which made field work extremely difficult in the 
afternoons. 

Dr. Roderiquez-Albes, the Brazilian minister at Asuncion, had supplied me with 
letters of introduction to the customs officials and to the president of Matto Grosso, so 
that on arriving at Corumba, my first Brazilian station, I had no difficulty in getting 
my instruments and baggage through the custom-house. This was my first experience 
with the Portuguese language, which, despite its similarity to Spanish, had many phrases 
to which my ear had not become accustomed, so that my pleasure on meeting Mr. 
Ramsey, his son, and Mr. Gow-Smith, all of whom were Americans, was especially 
great. Mr. Ramsey, who was formerly a Texas sheriff, had charge of a large cattle ranch 
at Descavades, a point some miles north of Corumba. Mr. Gow-Smith, an explorer who 
had come down from the Explorers Club of New York to make a study of the Indians 
and to visit the unexplored territory in the heart of Brazil, decided to join my expedi- 
tion as far as Goyaz. After completing observations at Corumba and dispatching my 
trunk with all unnecessary baggage to Sao Paulo, we left August 10 on the small river 
steamer for Cuyaba. 

The trip took nine days. The boat was poor and extremely dirty. The heat was 
intense and the mosquitoes were thick. If the heat had not kept us from using the small 
cabin we had obtained, it would have been impossible to sleep in it anyway, due to the 
fleas and numerous other insects which infested the place, not to mention the smells 
from the galley and the continual grinding of the wood-burning engines. We therefore 
used it to store our instruments, rifles, and equipment, while we slung our hammocks on 
the deck. There were several civilian passengers, including two women; most of the others 



Observers' Field Reports 175 

were soldiers who spent their time discussing the revolution which was reported to be 
in full swing near Cuyaba. Meanwhile, Mr. Gow-Smith and I discussed our probable 
route and spent the remaining hours in playing checkers on a board we had made, using 
cartridges for men, trying thus to forget the intense heat and the continual insect pests. 
On August 13 we reached the San Lorenzo River and the following day entered the 
Cuyaba River. Here our troubles commenced. The river was extremely low and 
our boat would no sooner clear one sand bank than it stuck on a second. This necessi- 
tated several of the crew wading out with a cable, attaching it to a tree farther up and 
across the stream, and by means of a small donkey-engine dragging the boat several 
hundred feet farther up the stream. It was a slow, monotonous process. 

By this time the food-supply was getting low and we were reduced to the usual rice 
and beans and supplied with a kind of hardtack to take the place of bread. We had 
reached wild country. The bush was quite dense along the banks of the river and 
alligators could be seen along the shore, and monkeys and beautifully colored birds 
appeared in the trees. 

On August 18 our system of cabling up the river had become useless, the water being 
now but 4 feet deep, and we seemed permanently established on the sand. The next 
day we transferred to a small motor-boat which had come down from Cuyaba, and 
continued our journey northward. By 3 o'clock the motor-boat stuck, so that we had 
to change again, this time to native canoes. It was very precarious traveling, as a small 
sideward movement might send passengers as well as baggage and instruments into the 
water. By midnight we reached a place on the bank which our paddlers told us was the 
Cuyaba landing. It was pitch dark. The landing proved to be some rocks at the water's 
edge. After much confusion and shouting some one brought a lantern and we arranged 
for transportation in an old Ford automobile to the "Great Hotel Gaima." Tired and 
hungry, we reached the hotel to find no rooms available. However, after much discus- 
sion with the proprietor, I obtained permission to sling my hammock in the room of a 
Turk and obtained a disturbed although much needed sleep. 

In making a general survey of the town the following day in order to determine the 
most suitable location and site for a station, I visited the Catholic priests who had 
established a college on the outskirts of the city, at which Padre Ricardo Remetter 
was carrying on meteorological observations, and the Brazilian magnetic station estab- 
lished on the college grounds in 1904. The site of the station was especially desirable, 
being in the shade of a large mango tree and well marked by a small pillar. I established 
my main station at this point, making two daily runs for diurnal variation of each element 
as well as the usual observations. The heat made the field observations very trying. 

The organization of a "comitiva" or pack train for the overland trip to Goyaz 
proved to be an extremely difficult task. Almost all of the desirable mules had been 
taken over by the Government for the soldiers and the few remaining ones were being 
held by the owners at an almost prohibitive price, since the natives there as elsewhere 
had the idea that all Americans have an unlimited supply of money. Finally we were 
fortunate in meeting Colonel Jao Albino, a Brazilian who was one of Theodore Roose- 
velt's guides, and who at this time owned several good mules. After much discussion 
he consented to let us hire six animals. 

Cuyaba had the appearance of an enterprising little city. Considering its location 
so far from centers of civilization and its difficulty of approach, the long river journey 
from Corumba being the only available route, many things were noticeable. For 
instance, almost every home was supplied with a piano ; there was a rather neat appear- 
ing plaza on which the municipal band gave concerts every Sunday evening, when the 
parade of sefioritas and jovenes occurred; a cathedral was under construction, and the 
moving pictures had found the place. 



176 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

After completing the arrangements for our animals, we secured the services of an 
Indian guide named Militao, and bought the necessary gear, such as saddles and camp 
equipment; then, taking a supply of rice, beans, and coffee to last us approximately four 
weeks, we rode off from this outpost of civilization for our trip into the little-known 
territory of Matto Grosso and Goyaz on September 5. As we did not leave town until 
3 o'clock in the afternoon, by nightfall we had covered only about 12 miles and made 
camp by the side of a small pool. We tried sleeping on the ground, but the biting of large 
red ants and the numerous mosquitoes kept us wide awake, so we gave that up for our 
hammocks, in which we obtained the needed rest. Our animals had been turned loose in 
order that they might graze during the night, so that in the morning Militao had to 
"campiar" or track them down. At this he proved very efficient, and after the Sun 
had been up for an hour we had again started on our eastward trail, and by sundown we 
were in sight of a mountain range which was the beginning of the Matto Grosso plateau. 
In the morning we passed many large ant hills, some of which were fully 18 feet high. At 
the side of the trail that afternoon we stopped to examine a wooden cross, probably 
erected for his opponent by the survivor of a fight. In the interior a man's gun is law 
and the best man survives. 

On September 10 we reached a clearing in the brush known as Rio Manso, con- 
sisting of several mud huts and 10 or 12 natives. All interest seemed to be centered 
around one of these huts on our approach. After we had made camp by the small 
stream we learned that 12 bandits or bad men had arrived a little ahead of our comitiva 
and had also decided to spend the night there. These men had been freed from the jail 
at Cuyaba by the President of the State on condition that they find and kill Morbeck, 
the diamond king, who at that time was in rebellion against the Government, and con- 
siderable fighting had taken place between his men and the State troops. The next 
day I made magnetic and solar observations and we proceeded on our journey late in 
the afternoon. 

The following afternoon the 12 bad men overtook our train, and after taking a good 
look at our rifles and goodly supply of ammunition, "invited" us to accompany them 
on their mission. We spent the next two days with them, and it was with great relief 
that we finally parted company, as they headed south in their endeavor to locate Morbeck's 
camp, while we took a northerly route. We knew that we were extremely fortunate in 
still having our ammunition and food-supply. Two weeks later at Registro we were 
told by natives that Morbeck's men had killed all of our late "companheiros." 

Our Indian guide, Militao, on the evening of September 15 built a fire which he 
kept burning throughout the night, explaining that it was a precaution against wild 
animals, but adding that many such fires had been extinguished by the " surcucudof ogo " 
snake, which is attracted by the light and beats the fire out with its tail. On September 
17 we reached Sangredoura or Presidente Murtinho, where the padres have established 
a colony. These priests, entirely isolated from the rest of the world, are accomplishing 
a great work in the civilizing of the Bororos, formerly a wild tribe of head-hunting Indians. 
I established a magnetic station at the colony while the animals rested and we enjoyed 
the hospitality of the priests. 

After five days of continuous riding through the Chevante Indian territory, we 
arrived at the second colony, which was known as "Colonia Corazon Jesus." The 
priests there told us that we were very fortunate in our trip, as the Chevantes are a 
savage tribe and consider the white man a deadly enemy. They are also at war with 
the semicivilized Bororos. Completing observations, we continued eastward. The 
next day we were fortunate in cornering two "ongas" or Brazilian tigers, and I had my 
first experience of killing game of this kind. After many days in the thick bush, where 
we encountered many varieties of snakes, the deadly tarantula spider, ant-eaters, 



Observers' Field Reports 177 

"tigers," and many kinds of birds with beautiful plumage, we arrived at Registro on 
the Araguaya River, October 1. 

While resting the animals a few days I established a magnetic station. After 
crossing the Araguaya River on October 4, we proceeded on the trail to Goyaz, arriving 
on October 12, having made magnetic observations at Serredina en route. After dis- 
posing of our saddles and equipment, I said goodbye to Mr. Gow-Smith, who was anxious 
to get to Sao Paulo immediately, and then started diurnal-variation observations on the 
former C. I. W. station site at Goyaz, completing the work by October 21. 

I then proceeded to Bella Vista, the trip taking two days by Ford automobile over 
mountain trails through wooded country. Completing observations at Bella Vista, I 
continued my trip southward to Catalao by auto and rail, arriving on October 26, and 
reoccupied the station of 1915. 

On November 4 I reached Sao Paulo, and after making observations at Uberaba 
en route, I obtained my trunk and other baggage, which had been dispatched from 
Cuyaba, and proceeded to Rio de Janiero for a conference with the Director of the Brazil- 
ian Meteorological Service. At his request I made intercomparison observations at the 
Vassouras Magnetic Observatory from November 9 to 16. On my return to Rio de 
Janiero I received my first mail in five months, and after reporting the results of the 
intercomparison work to Drs. Morize and Lemos, I proceeded southward again to Buenos 
Aires, stopping at Santos, Porto Alegre, and Rio Grande, to make observations. 

On receiving instructions from the office to proceed to Washington by the west 
coast route, I arranged my journey so that I was able to stop at Pilar, the Argentine 
Magnetic Observatory, for a set of intercomparison observations, at the request of Dr. 
Burmeister, director of the Argentine Meteorological Service. After obtaining diurnal- 
variation series at Mendoza, I was able to make good rail connections to the observatory, 
where I enjoyed the hospitality of Messrs. Wolf and Lutzo-Holm, director and assistant 
director of the observatory. 

On January 22, 1926, I left Pilar for La Quiaca to make a reoccupation of the C. I. 
W. magnetic station near the Observatory at 12,000 feet elevation. On January 26 
a magnetic storm occurred which continued throughout that day and part of the next, 
making observations useless. Through the kindness of Mr. Valentiner, the assistant 
director of the observatory, I was able to obtain a set of the magnetograph curves 
showing the interesting course of the magnetic storm. He was also very glad to obtain 
my results, as the absolute instrument at the Observatory had been sent to Buenos Aires 
several months before for repairs. He was able to obtain approximate base-line values 
from the observations I made. 

After crossing Bolivia on the new railroad from La Quiaca to La Paz, I retraced 
my former route across Lake Titicaca to Juliaca, where I reoccupied my 1924 stations, 
obtaining class I observations. On February 12 I arrived at Arequipa, where I con- 
tinued the special study of the interesting and unusual diurnal variation in inclination 
and established several new stations at which I obtained the daily curves. Sailing from 
Mollendo on the S. S. Palena, a Chilean steamer, I proceeded directly to Guayaquil, 
Ecuador. There, through the kindness of Mr. A. Ashton, I was able to reoccupy Mr. 
Howard's station and proceed at once to Quito, where a class I reoccupation was 
made. 

On receipt of cabled instructions to proceed immediately to Guatemala City to meet 
Dr. S. G. Morley, in order to cooperate with him by making some special solar observa- 
tions at the old Maya ruins at Copan, Honduras, I returned to Guayaquil by rail and 
sailed on the S. S. Mantara for Balboa, arriving on March 25. 

The total distance traveled on the trip was 10,455 miles, of which 4,830 miles were 
by railroad, 3,300 by ocean steamer, 1,050 by river steamer, 100 by lake steamer, 675 by 



178 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



mule, and 500 miles by automobile. The total expense of the trip was $3,912.12, and 
47 stations were occupied in 29 localities. Of these 10 were class I, 6 were class II, 
4 were class III, 7 were class IV, and 2 were intercomparisons. Thus the average field 
expense for each locality was about $135. The time required was 278 days, the average 
time per station being 5.9 days. 

Table 39 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Description of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 39 



No. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

18 

19 

20 
21 

22 



23 

24 

25 
26 

27 

28 
29 



Name " 



Mercedes, A, B 

Monte Caseros 

Corrientes, A, B 

Trinidad 

Concepcion, A, B 

San Salvador 

Corumba, D, E 

Cuyaba, A , B, C 

Rio Manso 

Presidente Murtinho.. 
Colonia Corazon Jesus 

Regislro 

Serredina 

Goyaz, A, B 

Bella Vista 

Catal&o, A, B 

Uberaba 

Vassouras 

Santos, A, B 

Porto Alegre, A, B . . . . 
Rio Grande, A, B 

Colon, A, B 

Mendoza, A, B 

Pilar 

La Quiaca 

Juliaca, A, B 

Arequipa, A, B, C 

Guayaquil 

Quito, A, B 



Date 



1925 
June 22-23 
June 30 
July 2- 3 
July 8 
July 19-22 



July 
Aug 
Aug 

Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Nov 
/Nov 



28 

6, 8 
21-22, 
24-27, 

2 

9-10 
18 
24 

2 



15-18 
23 

27-28 
1 

9-12, 
\ 14,16 

Nov 24-25 
Dec 4-5,7-8 
Dec 12-13 
/Dec 22,24, 
\ 26 

1926 
Jan 7-9,11 
15,18, 
19-21 
26-28, 
30 
7-9,11 



Jan 



Jan 



Feb 
'Feb 



Mai- 
Mar 



13,15, 
17-19. 
21-22 
7 
10-13 



Lat. South 



34 
30 
27 
25 
23 
22 
19 



40.3 
15.4 
28.7 
15.5 
24.2 
49.4 
00.1 



15 35.8 



15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
16 
18 
19 



40.2 

39.1 

33.4 

43.1 

53.5 

56. b b 

59.4 

10.8 

45.4 



22 24 . 



23 
30 
32 



57.5 
02.0 
01.5 



34 48.3 



32 53 . 6 


291 


08 


31 40.1 


296 


07 


22 06.6 


294 


25 


15 30.0 


289 


51 



16 22.8 



10.8 
13.1 



Long. East 



300 33 
302 22 

301 10 

302 26 
302 34 
302 28 

302 21 

303 54 



304 
306 
307 
308 
308 
309 
311 
312 
312 



313 
308 
307 



44 

06 

02 

13 

59 

52 b 

05 

06 b 

05 



316 21 



36 
46 
52 



303 45 



288 28 " 

280 09 

281 28 b 



The stations are in the following countries: Nos. 1 to 3, and 23 to 25, Argentina; Nos. 4 to 
6, Paraguay; 7 to 21, Brazil; 22, Uruguay; 26 and 27, Peru; 28 and 29, Ecuador. 
6 Mean of two stations. 
c Mean of three stations. 



John Lindsay, on Magnetic Work in Central America, March to July 1926 

The S. S. Mantara docked at Balboa at 11 p. m. on March 25, the voyage from 
Guayaquil averaging 7 knots, due to boiler trouble and poor fuel. On arrival I imme- 
diately made inquiries concerning boats to Guatemala and found that the motorship 
City of San Francisco was sailing the following day, and that I could arrive at Guatemala 
City about April 5 (no definite information is given by any of the steamship companies). 
I had missed a fast boat for San Jose which had sailed the previous day. I managed to 
obtain passage, a Guatemalan vise for my passport and funds from the bank, to dis- 



Observers' Field Reports 179 

patch my baggage, to notify the Office and Dr. Morley by cable of my movements, and 
was able to reach the dock just before the gangway was lifted. , 

On March 31, at La Union, Salvador, while still on board the steamer, I received 
cabled instructions from Dr. Morley to disembark and proceed overland in order to 
reach Copan, Honduras, on April 9, the day on which the astronomical observations 
were to be made. On landing I had many difficulties to overcome. I had no ready cash 
(most of my funds being in letter of credit form), and no vise for Salvador; I found that 
a four- or five-day Easter fiesta had commenced, which meant that all banks were 
closed, most of the railroads had stopped running trains, and that it was next to impos- 
sible to get any of the natives to do any kind of work (they consider it a sin to work on 
holidays). However, I managed to make the 5 h 30 m train the next morning (the last 
one that ran), and after traveling 12 hours, arrived at San Salvador. No trains were 
running to Santa Anna, and only after four hours of search I managed to hire an auto- 
mobile at a fairly reasonable price to make the trip directly to Guatemala City. I 
will never forget that trip and hope never to experience another like it. The road was 
bad, the car overloaded, and at every puebla the road was barred and crosses erected. 
By daylight we had passed Santa Anna, and although the road was slightly better, the 
car was stoned and we were hooted for driving on Good Friday. Finally, after 24 
hours of continuous driving, the trip came to an end and, I had the pleasure of meeting 
Dr. Morley and several of his staff at the Grace Hotel at Guatemala City on the night 
of April 2. 

Dr. Morley left the following morning for Copan, while Mr. Franks and I remained 
in Guatemala City in order to obtain the boiling-point apparatus, aneroid barometer, 
chronometers, and watches from the post-office. On April 5 we reached Zacapa by rail. 
The next morning I obtained a chronometer correction from solar observations, and by 
noon Mr. Franks and I had arranged our pack train, consisting of five mules, and set 
forth on the trail. On the morning of April 8 we arrived at Copan, Honduras, where I 
made observations to determine the azimuth of the line between stelae 10 and 12 at the 
ruins, determined the latitude and longitude at both points, the difference in elevation 
between them and the elevation of the main ruins at the old Maya Plaza. Then making 
a set of magnetic observations at the latter point, I returned to Zacapa on April 17 and 
made a close reoccupation of the C. I. W. station of 1907. 

Leaving the same afternoon, I reached Guatemala City by rail that night. After 
completing class I observations and marking the stations permanently by lettered 
concrete monuments, I proceeded to San Jose and reoccupied the C. I. W. station of 
1923. On May 7 I sailed for Puntarenas, Costa Rica, on the motorship City of San 
Francisco, arriving on May 20. The steamer was delayed at Acajutla for a week, as 
the rough seas made loading and unloading impossible and landing very dangerous. 
However, on May 10, I got my tent and instrument ashore and made an approximate 
reoccupation of the magnetic station there. The tropical heat was oppressive and it was 
a relief to reach the higher elevation of San Jose de Costa Rica on May 21. The site 
of the C. I. W. station was unsuitable, due to the proximity of a tram line; therefore, 
new stations were established on the grounds of the golf club and class I observations 
completed, May 26. I obtained passage on a Dutch steamer leaving Porto Limon the 
following day and arrived at Colon, Panama, on May 28, where class II observations 
were made. Crossing the isthmus by rail, I made my headquarters in Panama. After 
a conference with Governor Walker, of the Canal Zone, and Mr. Malsbury, chief of the 
Bureau of Surveys, I reoccupied my 1924 stations at Old Panama, and established a 
distribution station on top of Ancon hill. 

From June 18 to 25, as delegate for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, I 
attended the Bolivarian Congress at Panama. Then after establishing two new stations 



180 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



at Corozal, I sailed on the S. S. Tivives for New York, arriving at the Office in Washington, 
July 12, 1926. 

The total distance traveled on the trip was 4,547 miles, 3,640 of which were by 
steamer, 617 by rail, 150 by automobile, and 140 by mule train. The total expense of 
the trip was $1,390.43, and 14 stations were occupied in 10 localities. Of these 3 were 
class I, 2 were class II, 3 were class III, and 2 were class IV stations. Thus the total 
average expense per station was $99.32. The time required was 109 days; therefore the 
average time per station was 7.8 days. 

Table 40 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional data, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 40 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name ° 



Copan 

Zacapa 

Guatemala, A 

Guatemala, B 

San JosS (Guatemala) . . . 

Acajutla 

San Jose, E (Costa Rica) 
San Jos6, D (Costa Rica) 
Colon, Washington Hotel. 

Colon, Limon Point 

Old Panama, A 

Old Panama, C 

Ancon Hill 

Corozal, A 

Corozal, B 



Date 



1926 
Apr 12 
Apr 17 
Apr 23-28 
Apr 30 
May 4 
May 10 
May 26 
May 23-25 
May 30-31 
June 2 
June 7-12 
June 14 
June 18 
June 26-28 
June 28-29 



Lat. North 



14 
14 
14 

14 
13 
13 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
8 
8 
8 



50.4 
59.3 
38.0 
38.0 
55.5 
35.2 
56.1 
56.1 



22.0 



19.1 
00.2 
00.2 
57.4 
58.9 
58.9 



Long. East 



270 55 

270 30 

269 30 

269 30 

269 13 

270 10 
275 54 
275 54 
280 05 
280 03 
280 31 
280 31 
280 27 
280 26 
280 26 



° The stations are located in the following countries: No. 1, Honduras; Nos. 2 to 5, Guate- 
mala; No. 6, Salvador; Nos. 7 and 8, Costa Rica; Nos. 9 to 15, Panama. 

W. A. Love, on Magnetic Work in the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and Panama, 

June to October 1922 

In accordance with the Director's instructions dated June 10, 1922, I left Wash- 
ington, D. C, on June 19, 1922, in company with my chief of party, Mr. J. W. Green. 
My instrumental outfit consisted of magnetometer-inductor 26, pocket chronometer and 
three watches, observing-tent, and complete outfit of accessories. En route to Nassau, 
Bahama Islands, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey stations at Way cross and Miami 
were occupied. From Nassau, under Mr. Green's direction, I made trips to Governor's 
Harbor on Eleuthera Island, Green Cay, Fresh Creek on Andros Island, and Hog Island, 
where stations were established. All other work in the Bahamas, and the reoccupations 
of the stations at Havana, Cuba, was in company with Mr. Green, and is described in 
detail in his report (page 149). 

On August 25, after completion of observations at Havana, in accordance with 
my original instructions I was put in charge of work to be carried out in Cuba, Colombia, 
and Central America. The stations of 1905 at Pinar del Rio in the western end of Cuba 
and at Matanzas were reoccupied as closely as circumstances would permit. At Placetas 
del Norte, where the 1909 station was occupied, the alcalde or mayor provided a special 
detail of police to keep away the crowd, who thought that I was a geologist and brought 
me samples of minerals for examination. 

Two stations were established at Camaguey, on the grounds of the Agricultural 
College, where Dr. Luoces, the president, courteously assisted in every way possible. 
At Santiago the 1909 station was closely reoccupied, and an auxiliary station established 



Observers' Field Reports 



181 



on the summit of the historic San Juan Hill. The stretch between Placetas and Santiago 
proved to be magnetically slightly disturbed, possibly because of the character of the 
soil, which everywhere was of a red ferrous nature. A new station was established on 
the grounds of the U. S. Naval Station at Guantanamo Bay, where the commandant 
and officers provided quarters, mess, and facilities for the work. 

All points in Cuba can be easily reached by rail or automobile, so that both traveling 
and living conditions compare favorably with conditions in North America. 

From Santiago passage was engaged on the small steamer for Kingston, Jamaica, 
where the station first occupied in 1905 by J. P. Ault and later by other parties was 
reoccupied. New stations were established in Jamaica, at Mandeville, Montego Bay, 
and Port Antonio, all reached by railroad through the picturesque Jamaican mountains. 
The colonial and local authorities of Jamaica were everywhere most cordial and helpful. 
Because of the difficult character of the country in which the government surveyors 
have to work, declination values are of great interest. No opportunity was found to 
reach Turk Island and the southern Bahamas from Jamaica, so that project had to be 
abandoned. 

On October 23, passage was taken on the United Fruit Company's steamer for Colon, 
where I arrived two days later and reoccupied C. I. W. stations at Sweetwater and at 
Washington Hotel, the port officials courteously providing a launch for use in Colon 
Harbor. 

The list of stations occupied while in company with Mr. Green will be found in 
Table 28, in connection with his report (see page 151). Additional stations, with dates 
of occupation and geographic positions, are given in Table 41; for further details, see 
Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 41 



No. 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 



Name " 



Pinar del Rio 

Matanzas 

Placetas del Norte, B. . . . 
Placetas del Norte, A . . . 

Camaguey, A 

Camaguey, B 

Santiago de Cuba, A. . . . 
Santiago de Cuba, B. . 
Guantanamo Bay 

Kingston, 1905 

Kingston, B 

Kingston, Secondary . . . . 

Mandeville 

Montego Bay 

Port Antonio 

Colon, Sweetwater 

Colon, Washington Hotel 



Date 



1922 
Aug 26 
Aug 30 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sop 



2- 4 
4 

8- 9 
9 



Sep 13-14 

Sep 14 

Sep 16 

/Sep 22,28, 

\Oct 19 

Sep 23,28 

Sep 26,29 

Oct 3 

Oct 5- 7 

Oct 14 

Oct 27 

Oct 30-31 



Lat. North 



22 
23 
22 
22 
21 
21 
20 
20 
19 



25.6 
03.6 
20.9 
18.6 
20.5 
20.6 
00.2 
00.2 
54.6 



17 58.9 



17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
9 
9 



58.9 
58.9 
01.3 
28.5 
11.1 
21.3 
22.0 



Long. East 



276 18 

278 27 

280 22 

280 

282 

282 

284 

284 

284 



23 
09 
09 
13 
13 
52 



283 11 



283 
283 
9X9. 



11 
11 

31 



282 04 

283 33 
280 03 
280 05 



" Stations Nos. 1 to 9 are in Cuba; Nos. 10 to 15 are in Jamaica; and Nos. 16 and 17 are in 
Canal Zone. 



W. A. Love, on Magnetic Woek in Colombia, November 1922 to January 1923 

Arriving in Cartagena, Colombia, from Colon on November 3, 1922, I occupied 
the 1909 C. I. W. station. I then accepted an invitation of Mr. C. Bekker Hansen, of 
the Cartagena Water Works, Ltd., to make a trip with him to a coconut plantation 
called La Playona, about 10 miles south of the Panama-Colombia boundary-line. The 
trip was made in a 50-foot schooner equipped with an old-fashioned kerosene engine. 



182 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

La Playona is only 180 miles from Cartagena, but it required 77 hours to make the 
journey. While still in sight of Cartagena the engine failed, and for 30 hours we lay 
there becalmed. Conditions on the little boat were not pleasant, crowded as we were, 
with the negro crew and native passengers with all their belongings, including cattle, 
pigs, dogs, and all descriptions of furniture. There was but little food on board except 
what Mr. Hansen and I had brought for our own use. Gradually a slight breeze came 
up, and after three days on the Caribbean, we anchored in a small cove, tired, hungry, 
and in an irritable humor. The rainy season for that section of the world had set in, 
and conditions on the plantation were bad. The manager of the plantation was very 
kind to me during the week's stay of the schooner, providing quarters, help, and a horse, 
the latter being necessary, as the mess-hall was about 2 miles away from the quarters. 
The return to Cartagena was a succession of engine breakdowns and calms. 

The trip up the great Magdalena River was next undertaken. Calamar, the first 
stop, was reached by rail from Cartagena, and here poor accommodations, the terrific 
heat, and swarms of malarial mosquitoes made the stay unpleasant. On November 24, 
passage was engaged on the "palatial" river steamer Ivor, propelled by a rear paddle 
wheel, as were the early Mississippi River boats. Each cabin contained only a bare 
cot, the passengers providing all other necessaries. The heat, mosquitoes, unaccustomed 
cooking of characteristic native foods, chiefly of meats, made the journey most uncom- 
fortable. An 8-mile current, due to the heavy rains in the interior, was running, and 
it took all the pilot's ability to keep the boat in the channel and to avoid the many 
snags and uprooted trees brought down by the torrent. A number of stops were made 
to repair the damaged paddle, while every three hours it was necessary to tie up to the 
bank and load on wood for the burners. Numerous alligators along banks provided 
amusement for the passengers, who shot at them from the decks. 

A stop for observations at Puerto Wilches was impossible, as the whole section was 
submerged, and the trip was continued about 20 miles upstream to Barranca Bermeja, 
where the refinery of the Tropical Oil Company is located. The management kindly 
provided me with quarters and mess. Home did not seem so far away on Thanksgiving 
Day, when a real American turkey dinner was served to all hands. A trip to Infantas, 
39 kilometers away, where the company has its oil fields, was made in one of their trucks, 
and an auxiliary station established. 

From Barranca Bermeja the trip was continued by river steamer to Puerto Berrio, 
where the 1909 C. I. W. station was reoccupied. Medellin was reached by a railroad 
journey of 14 hours, interrupted where the railroads from the east and west sides of the 
divide have not been joined, and all passengers and freight must be transshipped around 
by mules and trucks. After official respects were paid, a new station was established 
here. The difference between the native people on the coastal regions and those in the 
higher altitudes is at once noticeable. The mixed racial type of the low lands, indolent, 
ignorant, and careless, is replaced in the higher regions like Medellin by a finer type of an 
industrious and highly developed people. 

Returning to Puerto Berrio, the trip up the Magdalena River was continued by 
steamer to the rapids at La Dorada. Passengers and freight are here transferred to a 
railroad running around the rapids to Beltran. En route to Beltran, the C. I. W. 
station at Honda was reoccupied. From Beltran the journey was continued by a smaller 
type of river boat to Giradot, some 500 miles from the coast, and the last steamer stop 
on the Magdalena River. 

The trip by rail from Giradot to Bogota is interesting in every respect. One passes 
from torrid climate to that enjoyed in the northern states in October. The grade on 
this well-built and well-managed road is very steep, three switch-backs being used in one 
section. We ascend from banana plantations to coffee fields, and finally into the pine 



Observers' Field Reports 



183 



belts of temperate zones, and one sees apples and peaches for the first time. Over- 
coats are put on when the savanna at an altitude of 9,000 feet is reached at Facatativa. 
From Giradot to Facatativa the road is a 3-foot gage; thence to Bogota it is a meter 
gage, thus necessitating a change for both passengers and freight. Shortly after 
leaving Facatativa the road leads on to a broad plain, and one can see miles of fields of 
wheat and fine pasture lands bordered with tall eucalyptus trees. The cool atmosphere 
is refreshing and exhilarating after the long, hot river trip through the monotonous 
jungles. Bogota is a fairly modern city, of which the Colombian speaks with pride. 
Observations were made in close proximity to the 1909 C. I. W. station, when cabled 
instructions directed me to be in Belize, British Honduras, by February 15. 

Accordingly, I left Bogota on January 1, 1923, for Ibague, which was reached by 
rail via Giradot, and there, in company with an American coffee buyer and a Colombian, 
final preparations were made for the trip to Buenaventura, on the Pacific Coast. Experi- 
enced travelers in that section warned us against attempting the Quindio pass over the 
Andes at that time of the year, due to the condition of the trail caused by the heavy 
rains, but it was decided to go this route. It was not long after leaving Ibague that we 
were convinced they were right. The train consisted of three riding mules and three pack 
mules. The trail was a perfect quagmire, and time was spent repeatedly in extricating 
ourselves and the pack animals from deep mud holes. The "posadas" or houses where 
one can find shelter are 12 hours apart, and one must make them or sleep on the narrow 
trail with a wall of rock behind and a perpendicular cliff in front. Oxen laden with 

Table 42 



No. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 



Name 



Cartagena 

La Playona 

Calamar 

Barranca Bermeja 

Infantas 

Puerto Berrio 

Medellin 

Honda 

Bogota, A 

Bogota, B 

Cali 

Buenaventura 



Date 



1922 



Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Nov 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 

192S 
Jan 11 
Jan 14 



7 
14-15 
23-24 
29-30 

2 

7 
11 
18 

23-25 
26 



Lat. North 



10 
8 

10 
7 
6 
6 
6 
5 
4 
4 

3 
3 



25.8 
25.6 
15.4 
04 6 
51.7 
29.0 
14.6 
13.1 
37.6 
37.6 

26.6 
54.1 



Long. East 



284 27 

282 46 

285 07 

286 09 
286 15 
285 36 

284 25 

285 18 
285 54 
285 54 

283 26 
282 55 



coffee were met on the trail at intervals, and in some cases it was necessary to retrace 
our steps to find a place wide enough to permit the oxen to pass. On the second day 
we reached the summit at an elevation of 12,500 feet, and thence the trail steadily 
descended until it reached the tropical forests of the Cauca Valley. At Armenia a stop 
was made to obtain new mules, as several that we had been using were played out after 
two days on the muddy trail. When possible, we would ride in advance of the pack 
animals, and on one occasion the pack animal carrying my magnetometer slipped down 
hill and went over a small cliff. The mule arose, seemingly unhurt, dragging his load 
after him. The accident was seen only by the mule-man, who reported the incident 
that evening. The case was badly broken, and the theodolite, although repaired suffi- 
ciently to permit its use at Cali and Buenaventura, was badly out of adjustment. After 
five days on the trail, we reached Zarzal on the Cauca River, and then an all-night auto 
ride brought us into Buga in time to catch the train for Cali. Observations were made 
at Cali, and the 1909 station in Buenaventura, which was reached by rail from Cali, 
was closely reoccupied. The trip farther south to Ecuador and Peru had to be abandoned 



184 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

in order to reach Belize, British Honduras, by February 15. Accordingly, I left Buena- 
ventura January 16 and arrived in Colon, Canal Zone, three days later. Direct trans- 
portation to Belize was impossible, two routes only being available, one via New Orleans 
and the other via Kingston, Jamaica. At Balboa I used preventive measures by taking 
inoculations against yellow fever, as the ports of Central America next to be visited 
were subject to outbreaks of that disease. After a delay of four days at Kingston, I 
secured passage for Belize, where I arrived on February 5, 1923. 

Table 42 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
further details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

W. A. Love, on Magnetic Work and on Determination op Geographic Positions 
of certain Maya Ruins in Guatemala, February to April 1923 

After my arrival at Belize, as instructed by cablegram received at Bogota, I received 
supplementary instructions dated February 3, 1923, under which I was to cooperate 
with a party sent out by Dr. Sylvanus G. Morley, Associate in Middle American Archae- 
ology, for the special purpose of determining within an accuracy of one-half minute the 
positions of the main group of ruins of Maya cities in the Lake Peten region in northern 
Guatemala. These ruins had been previously visited by Dr. Morley and other archae- 
ologists, and it was desirable to fix the geographic positions as accurately as possible to 
prevent their becoming hidden by the rapid tropical growths and so lost to subsequent 
investigators. The light theodolite and methods ordinarily used in magnetic work were 
thought to be sufficiently accurate for the desired latitude determination, and for observa- 
tions for longitude determination a suitable time control was provided. In such a 
region, and so far from reliable signals, chronometers were not to be depended upon, 
and it was decided to attempt the use of a radio receiving outfit. As the region in 
question was in one of the centers of static disturbance, success lay in the use of a long- 
wave receiving-set. Storage batteries were out of the question, and it was uncertain 
whether dry batteries would withstand the climatic conditions. The instrument selected 
was a standard United States Navy destroyer set with two steps of radio frequency and 
one of audio frequency amplification, adapted to wave-lengths from 600 to 25,000 meters, 
and modified to use dry instead of storage cells for the A batteries. The dry cell used 
was the No. 6 Reserve dry cell of the National Carbon Company, which does not begin 
to deteriorate until water has been added, thus making it possible always to have a fresh 
supply. 

Mr. O. G. Ricketson, the leader of the party, and Mr. J. O. Kilmartin of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, who had been assigned to make a topographic survey in the region 
about Lake Peten, arrived in Belize from Washington on February 14, 1923, with 
the instrumental equipment. This consisted of magnetometer 12 and marine earth- 
inductor 7 to replace the instrument damaged by the accident in Colombia, theodolite 
12 to be used as a reserve instrument, aneroid barometer and boiling-point apparatus 
for altitude determinations, two pocket chronometers and four watches for time control 
in case the radio outfit failed, and finally the radio equipment in four boxes of 316 
pounds gross weight. 

A preliminary trial of the radio outfit at Belize was unsatisfactory, owing partly 
to the proximity of the electric plant and partly to the fact that the dry cells used as A 
battery were not up to full strength after the addition of water. A second trial on the 
following day at the government radio station with the assistance of the native operator 
was entirely successful. The entire 500 feet of antenna were put up, and no trouble was 
experienced in receiving on all wave-lengths; Arlington, Balboa, Pawtucket, and Nauen 
(Germany) were heard distinctly. Late in the evening a concert broadcast from Bir- 



Observers' Field Reports 185 

mingham, Alabama, was picked up. The operator interpreted the call signals for us, and 
gave us much valuable information as to the use and care of the instrument. 

Having satisfied ourselves that our equipment was in good order, and having provided 
supplies of food and camp necessities, we were ready for the long trip into the bush of 
northern Guatemala. A flat-bottomed launch with a kerosene engine was chartered, 
and at 7 o'clock in the evening of Saturday, February 17, we shoved off. After 12 hours 
we were out of the deep water and had come to a succession of rapids. From Belize to 
El Cayo it is about 65 miles on a direct line, but is 180 miles by the continuously winding 
Belize River. At the rapids the launch was warped by a line fastened to a tree 100 
feet or more ahead and returned to the windlass on the launch, the crew working mean- 
while in the water or with poles to keep the boat off the rocks. At one place we tore a 
hole in the bottom, but quickly repaired it again by use of a piece of kerosene tin, one of 
the crew doing the work under water. 

After 49 hours on the river, during which it rained continuously, we landed at El 
Cayo. Here the District Commissioner kindly provided quarters for us in the Govern- 
ment house, and a place to again try the radio equipment, which as before worked 
perfectly. A magnetic and astronomical station was established close to that of 1909, 
and marked by a concrete post. This was to be used as a base station, particularly in 
case the radio failed. A delay in making the necessary astronomical observations, 
caused by the heavy rains, was utilized in securing mules, guides, and help. Finally, 
on February 25, the party started for Flores, that little-known place across the Guatemala 
frontier. We passed the customs without difficulty, thanks to the geniality of the 
newly appointed chief, at Plancha Piedra, on the boundary between the two countries. 
It was here that an incident occurred that cast a gloom over the party. From the 21 
mules in the train, one of apparently docile temperament had been chosen to carry the 
bulky but precious radio instruments. But appearances are deceitful in a mule. No 
sooner had the box been placed on his back than he began to plunge and threw it over 
his head. It landed on a corner, splitting the case. All thought that to be the end of 
the receiver, remembering the operator's caution regarding its delicate mechanism. 
Thereafter a man was assigned to that mule, leading him at all times, and clearing a 
passage for him through the tangled bush trails. While on the trail all hands arose at 
4 o'clock in the morning, so as to start at daybreak. Camp was pitched again about 3 
o'clock in the afternoon, while yet there was time for the mulemen to chop down bread- 
nut trees for their animals, and to hunt water-holes. The leaves of the bread-nut tree 
are the only forage for mules in the jungle. 

After six days on this comparatively open trail we reached Trapishe, on the mainland, 
across from Flores. Native canoes brought us across the lake to the quaint, picturesque 
island town of some 3,000 inhabitants. The party immediately registered with the 
military commander of the district, and then called on the governor of Peten to pay their 
respects and to secure permission to set up the radio outfit. The governor did not 
recognize our credentials and ordered the set to be placed in his office until permission 
was secured from the central Government at Guatemala City. Telegrams were imme- 
diately sent to the American Minister and to Mr. P. W. Shufeldt, a friend of Dr. Morley's 
at Guatemala City, to secure the instruments. Two days passed and no answer came. 
Mr. Ricketson then outlined a plan for the work, in accordance with which, after mag- 
netic observations were completed at Tayasal, the ruins on the mainland opposite 
Flores, I started for the ruins called Itsimte, accompanied by a guide. Itsimte was 
reached the next morning, and I set a magnetic station in sight of the pyramid and the 
group of wonderfully carved stone monuments scattered throughout the bush. Mag- 
netic and astronomical observations were made at this point, using time as carried by 
the chronometer and watches from El Cayo, and I returned to Flores. Meanwhile, 



186 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

permission had been secured from Guatemala City, and Mr. Ricketson and Mr. Kil- 
martin had set up the radio outfit in the Government telegraph office, with practically 
all the antennae stretched out over the quartel ; they could pick up no signals what- 
soever, but noises in the receivers were terrific. After working all day without success, 
and remembering the accident at Plancha Piedra, they concluded that the receiver had 
been seriously damaged and sent a cablegram via Guatemala City to Washington to that 
effect. On my return to Flores, the apparatus was taken apart, and the condenser 
plates, which were out of alignment, were readjusted. That night, to our great joy, the 
Arlington time signal was picked up distinctly, and a second cablegram conveying the 
good news was sent to Washington. Thereafter, the time signals both from Balboa and 
Arlington were received distinctly with but little trouble from static. 

The night before we left, the people gave a dance in our honor, the music being 
supplied by a native marimba orchestra. Everybody attended, and we were highly 
entertained. The mulemen, guides, and help also enjoyed themselves so much that it 
was noon the next day before Mr. Ricketson could find them, coming out of the effects, 
and start the expedition on its way. 

Ten more ruins were to be visited, so, leaving Mr. Kilmartin to his assignment of 
making a topographical survey of the Lake Peten region, Mr. Ricketson and I started 
for the eastern end of Lake Peten in a dugout canoe propelled by an Evinrude motor 
loaned by Dr. Boburg of Flores, while the mules came around by land. Camp was made 
at a clearing called Ixpop, and the Arlington and Balboa signals were easily obtained. 
The ruins of Ixlu were about 5 miles away and in the thick jungle. A clearing had to 
be made for astronomical observations. In order to chop down one tree, it is necessary 
to chop down several others to let the first fall, on account of the tangle of vines of all 
descriptions. After making astronomical observations, I returned to Remati, where 
Mr. Ricketson had moved the camp in my absence. In the dusk we inadvertently 
set up the radio instruments over a group of ant-hills, and receiving the signal that night 
was torture. Our route was now through the actual jungle. No villages were en- 
countered, and we followed as nearly as possible the trails made by chicleros, or natives 
who go into the jungle to tap the sapoti tree for its chicle gum, from which chewing-gum 
is manufactured. It was through these men that the existence of the ruins was first 
brought to the attention of the archeologists. The chicleros work in the rainy season, 
and we met but a few belated stragglers. We followed these trails until we came to a 
clearing near the ruins to be visited. Near each clearing or camp site made by the 
chicleros there was always a water-hole, usually only a swamp, as the streams were rare 
in this section. It was on account of this scarcity of water that no camps were made 
at the site of the ruins. Man might be able to provide himself with enough for several 
days, but mules must have a large quantity every day or they will wander off by them- 
selves in search of it. The lack of water was our most serious problem. In this region 
less than the usual amount of rain had fallen, and even the swamps were almost dry. 
What water we did get was black, stagnant, and repulsive. We boiled this mixture, 
made tea with it in an attempt to disguise the taste and odor, and it was thus made to 
suffice for the trip. 

Three days on the trail brought us to Tikal, where there are many pyramids, averag- 
ing 100 to 150 feet high, built of rubble masonry. On top of each there is a limestone 
temple of heavy construction, the walls 3 or more feet thick, and the beams of heavy 
carved sapoti wood. Considering their age and the climatic conditions, they are in a 
wonderful state of preservation. The jungle growth has wrought havoc in the con- 
struction of the pyramids, tearing the masonry apart, but the temples in some cases 
are intact. Observations here were made on the top of one of the pyramids at the base 



Observers' Field Reports 187 

of the temple. In the short time permitted at each site it was impossible to obtain 
bearings of the chief lines of the ruins as was desired. To open lines of sight and clear 
the debris from the pyramids so as to find their exact form, at a place like Tikal, would 
be a season's work in itself. Observations were made at Uolantun close by, and the 
party proceeded to Uaxactun. Here we found the large aguada or water-hole bone-dry. 
Water was then brought to this site in every available utensil and container, and we 
remained to work the station while the mules were sent back to the last water-hole, five 
hours' riding away, with directions to call for us the second day after. Complete mag- 
netic and astronomical observations were made, and radio time-signals received. 

Noachtun, our next objective, was three days' riding to the north. We were doubt- 
ful about the wisdom of attempting the journey on account of the water question, and 
while debating it a chicle train met us coming from the north. They reported that they 
had been without water for two days. That settled it, and we began to retrace our 
steps to the south, intending to go by way of Nakum and Naranjo to El Cayo. Three 
days' riding brought us to Nakum, and two more to Naranjo. Complete observations 
for position were made at both places. Leaving Naranjo, we lost the trail, and after ten 
hours' wandering, arrived in Benque Viejo, just east of the boundary-line of Guatemala, 
instead of at El Cayo. Here we indulged in the luxury of a long-wanted bath in the 
river, and after a good night's rest under shelter we were ready to go out again, but the 
mulemen were not. It was Easter, and they had to have their fiesta. As a result, we 
lost two days waiting for them. 

Ucanal was easily reached by following a good trail along the Mopan River. The 
heat was intense, 105° F. in the shade, melting the insulation from the wires. A canopy 
of palm leaves and canvas was placed over the instruments to protect them from the 
heat. A complete set of magnetic and astronomical observations was obtained at this 
site. A young jaguar, the only animal of the kind seen on the trip, came too near this 
camp and was shot by the guide. Previously, we had seen plenty of monkeys of many 
kinds, wild hogs, various species of snakes, besides the deer and wild game in great variety 
which replenished our food-supply on many occasions. 

We returned to El Cayo, where check astronomical observations were made, and a 
new mule train hired for the last stage of the trip. We loaded up with the last of our 
provisions and headed for Xmakabatun, where we arrived in five days and made a 
complete set of magnetic and astronomical observations. My riding mule became sick 
and could not be used. As a result, Mr. Ricketson and I alternated riding and walking 
until we had eaten enough of the food to relieve a pack mule of its load and use it for 
riding. Xultun is about 10 miles west of Xmakabatun, but it took three days by the 
roundabout trails to reach it. Astronomical observations were made at Xultun, and 
three days more of riding brought us again to El Cayo, where observations for position 
were repeated on April 24. The following day we left El Cayo in a pitpan towed by 
a launch, and after a hot, uneventful trip arrived in Belize April 28, 70 days after our 
departure on February 17, 1923. 

Except for the omitted visit to Naachtun, and the more detailed survey of the align- 
ment of the ruins, the expedition had accomplished what it set out to do. The latitude 
and longitude of 11 sites of the ancient Maya Empire are now known. The determina- 
tion of the longitude with desired accuracy was possible only by use of the radio. On 
reaching a clearing, that outfit was set up first, and it was always a problem how to get 
enough antenna out. Often this consumed a considerable time, but occasionally it 
was only a question of throwing a rope over a limb and hauling the wire up. In some 
places we had about 300 feet out, but generally it was less, and in one case only 50 feet. 
But withal the set worked admirably, and signals were received daily before and after 
astronomical observations. Only the station at Itsimte depends upon time carried by 



188 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



watches, and these were corrected by signals received the following day at Flores. By 
means of comparisons made twice daily between the various time-pieces carried, it is 
believed the desired accuracy of one-half minute of arc has been obtained. The value 
of radio in surveys of this kind is unquestioned. The set used in this work functioned 
satisfactorily at all times. Static was always bad, but interference from this cause 
could be so reduced that every signal was heard without interruption. Probably no 
set ever received rougher usage or was subject to such handling and climatic conditions 
as this one. Yet it functioned perfectly throughout the trip. The same three vacuum 
tubes were used throughout, and the batteries were still good. The only drawback 
was its bulk, the complete set making two and one-half mule loads. It is hoped that a 
more compact and equally serviceable outfit will be developed, and that a form of loop 
antenna can be substituted for the long wire in places where it is impossible to stretch 
a wire suitably. Exposed wires should have a covering designed to withstand the high 
temperatures often encountered in the tropics. The same is true of the composition 
used in the cells of the dry batteries. 

Table 43 



No. 



4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 



Name 



Belize, A, British Honduras. 
Belize, B, British Honduras. 

El Cayo, British Honduras. . 

Flores (Tayasal), Guatemala 

Itsimte, Guatemala 

Ixlu,° Guatemala 

Tikal,° Guatemala 

Uolantun," Guatemala 

Uaxactun, Guatemala 

Nakum," Guatemala 

Naranjo," Guatemala 

Ucanal, Guatemala 

Xmakabatun, Guatemala. . . 
Xultun," Guatemala 



Date 



1928 
Feb 8-10 
12 
22, 

8 



6,10 



Feb 
/Feb 
I Apr 

Mar 

Mar 8 

Mar 13 

Mar 18 

Mar 19 

Mar 22-23 

Mar 26 

Mar 29 

Apr 5 

Apr 15 

Apr 20 



Lat. North 



17 
17 



28.4 
29.4 



17 10.2 



16 
16 
16 
17 
17 
17 
17 
17 
16 
17 
17 



56.0 
56.0 
58.6 
13.3 
10.8 
23.8 
10.3 
07.5 
58.8 
31.2 
30.5 



Long. East 



271 49 
271 48 

270 55.9 



270 
269 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 
270 



06.5 
48.6 
18.3 
21.5 
23.2 
21.6 
33.7 
44.3 
38.2 
45.8 
35.5 



a At these stations no magnetic observations were made. 

The greatest care was taken in transporting the instruments. The radio receiver 
was placed alone on a mule and received the attention of a man at all times; the mag- 
netometer was placed in a large kyack, with the blankets and hammocks to protect it 
from bumps against trees and possible falls. The trails were tough and very often had 
to be opened with axes and machetes before the instrument cases could pass. Handling 
18 mules in the jungle is in itself quite a problem. They would constantly wander off 
the trails for a coveted blade of grass, and with almost human intelligence would wedge 
themselves between two trees close together, then kick and struggle until free from 
their load, scattering it throughout the bush. 

Personal discomforts were many. The difficulty of obtaining refreshing drinking- 
water has already been described. Immediately on entering the bush we were covered 
with the garapates or ticks. Bottle flies and other insects constantly assaulted us, until 
our bodies were completely discolored with red and blue bites from which we could get 
no relief. As soon as we had adjusted ourselves in camp, we would dive into our ham- 
mocks and under the mosquito net to keep out these pests and escape the fleas left by 
the chicleros. Owing to the lack of water, baths and shaving were out of the question, 
until we struck the Mopan River, a branch of the Belize River. At each site it was 
necessary to ride from one to three hours from the jato or camp to a place at the ruins 
suitably cleared to permit solar observations, forenoon, noon, and afternoon. 



Observers' Field Reports 189 

Magnetic elements were determined at five sites, thus giving a fair distribution 
over the area covered. Observations for altitude above sea-level by means of aneroid 
and boiling-point apparatus were made at each site visited. The distance covered was 
approximately 430 miles. 

At Belize I was later met by Mr. Kilmartin, who had just finished his assignment. 
All the excess equipment was returned to Washington with him, and after all computations 
were brought to date, I left Belize on May 15 on the steamship Gansfjord with mag- 
netometer 27 and chronometer 50,107 to complete my Central American assignment. 

Table 43 shows the stations at which magnetic observations were made, and those 
at which only the geographic positions were determined, with dates of occupation and 
geographic position; for further details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of 
Results. 

W. A. Love, on Magnetic Work in Central America, May to November 1923 

On the completion of my work in northern Guatemala in cooperation with the expedi- 
tion for the study of mid- American archaeology, I resumed my program of reoccupying 
magnetic stations under my original instructions of June 10, 1922. It was my intention 
to work from Belize, British Honduras, down the Caribbean coast, then to cross over- 
land, reoccupy stations accessible from the Pacific side, and go thence into Mexico. 
Difficulties in securing suitable transportation made it impossible to carry out this 
plan entirely. 

The magnetometer and earth inductor used in northern Guatemala had been replaced 
by magnetometer-inductor 27 at Belize. By going first to Puerto Barrios, and 
thence by a small launch to Puerto Cortez, then by using another launch and an auxiliary 
power sailboat, I managed to reach Truxillo, Honduras, on May 26. Travel along this 
coast of Central America is rough and uncomfortable, transportation is meager, and to 
reach ports along the north coast of Honduras one has to use native launches and sail- 
boats with all the attendant inconveniences and close association with a distasteful 
assortment of passengers. The only communication with Cape Gracias a Dios and 
thence down the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua was by the infrequent and irregular 
chance sailboats. On the strength of hearsay only, I waited a week in Truxillo for a 
labor-carrying sailboat to put in from the Cape. It did arrive, and the captain said 
that within another week he would return, but in the meantime he was going to Bay of 
Islands. I went with him and made a station at Oak Ridge, Roatan Island, but on 
returning to Truxillo the captain informed me that he could not go to the Cape. I 
next arranged to charter a boat, but had to wait for the owner to find a captain who 
knew the coast. Neither boat nor captain ever turned up. A lumber schooner with 
cross-ties for the United Fruit Company arrived, and its return seemed assured. In 
the interval, opportunity was courteously furnished by the United Fruit Company to 
go to Casuna, about 100 miles east of Truxillo, where they were building a railway; and 
after establishing a station, I returned and went aboard the lumber schooner. While 
waiting for it to sail, a Hamburg-American steamer arrived, and I learned that it would 
sail in a few hours for Costa Rica. The steamer had been chartered by the Costa Rica 
Red Cross to return about 100 Costa Rican laborers who had been stranded here in 
Honduras as I was. The uncertainty of the time required to reach Cape Gracias a Dios, 
and the more serious uncertainty of securing transportation beyond that point, led me to 
decide to secure transportation on the steamer, if possible. I went out to the steamer 
in a launch kindly provided by the fruit company, and arranged for a passage to Port 
Limon, Costa Rica, where I arrived on June 30, the entire month having been spent in 
the exasperating effort to make the journey from Truxillo. I learned later that the 
lumber schooner was three weeks in reaching Cape Gracias d, Dios, that the captain had 



190 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

died on the voyage, and that the crew were without food or water for several days; so 
Fortune was not altogether unkind to me. 

With little delay after making the necessary observations at Port Limon, I embarked 
on an auxiliary power schooner for Bluefields, Nicaragua, and thence by the same 
schooner I proceeded farther north to Prinzapolca. The rainy season had set in, and 
the voyage was exceedingly rough and the weather squally. The sand-bar had closed 
the entrance to the Prinzapolca River and we entered the Walpasicsa River, five miles 
farther north. By ascending this river 30 miles, we met the Prinzapolca, and then sailed 
30 miles down that stream to Prinzapolca, a detour of 60 miles. After a stay of half a 
day, we returned as we came. From the mouth of the Walpasicsa we went northward 
to the Wawa River, and after crossing a dangerous bar, ascended that stream 20 miles 
to a mahogany camp called Wawa Saw-Mill, arriving at 4 p. m. on July 15. Only 
incomplete observations were possible here on account of the short stay, as we left the 
following morning shortly after daybreak. After reoccupying the station of 1909 at 
Bluefields Bluff on July 19, I again took passage on a small sloop for Grey town, which 
we entered on July 22, after an exciting passage over the bar with the sea full of hungry- 
looking sharks. 

During the half day waiting for the boat up the river to Lake Nicaragua, I estab- 
lished a station at Greytown. The boat was a flat-bottomed, shallow-draft boat pro- 
pelled by a gasoline engine. Travel was slow, due to the swift current and numerous 
stretches of rapids. The boat was crowded and one slept in his seat during the night, 
there being no room to stretch out. On the third day we reached San Carlos, and left 
shortly for Granada on the lake steamer without time for any observations, arriving on 
July 27. Observations were also made at Corinto and at Managua, where the work was 
greatly facilitated by the officers of the U. S. Marine Corps who were stationed there. 
From Corinto passage was taken directly for La Libertad, Salvador, from which place a 
25-mile automobile ride brought me to San Salvador. I went to La Union by rail, 
chartered a launch to Amapala, the Pacific port of entry of Honduras, on August 17, 
and after crossing to San Lorenzo by launch, I reached Tegucigalpa by truck over a good 
road 84 miles long. Returning to Amapala, I took passage on the Mexican steamer 
Chiapas by way of Corinto, to San Juan, Guatemala, arriving September 1. • 

From September 8 to 12, I made special magnetic observations at Guatemala City 
in connection with the investigation of the total solar eclipse on September 10. After 
the computations of that work had been completed and forwarded to Washington, I 
went by rail to Mulna, and there hired an automobile to take me to Quesaltenango. 
The road was in wretched condition, and the trip was made in a downpour of rain. 
Observations were made at the latter place, where the altitude is about 8,000 feet and 
the climate quite cold. The return to Mulna was an interesting experience. The trip 
was made in the dawn of early morning, while the country roundabout was brightly 
lighted by the fires from the volcano Santa Maria, then in eruption. The wreck of the 
regular ship for the south compelled me to proceed to San Jose by rail. After observa- 
tions I caught the tourist ship Venezuela direct to Panama, where the station of the 
Carnegie party of 1921 was reoccupied. 

I took advantage of my visit to Panama to receive special treatment at the hospital 
for the malaria that had been troubling me during the past few months. A few days 
spent there practically rid me of that trouble, and on October 22 I left Panama on the 
small steamer David for Pedrigal, from which port the town of David was reached by 
rail. Returning to the canal, I went to San Jose, Costa Rica, by way of Port Limon. 
The occupation of this station completed the list of available stations in Central America, 
and an unfortunate accident to the instrument made it impossible to go on with the 
Mexican work before extensive repairs were made. With the instrument set up for the 



Observers' Field Reports 



191 



latitude observations on a hill outside the city, a sudden gust caught up the hat from 
the head of a native who was assisting me with the luggage, and in attempting to recover 
it, he ran into the tripod and upset the instrument. On making a report of the affair 
by cable to Washington, I was authorized to return with the instrument to the Office 
before going on with the Mexican work, and accordingly I left San Jose on November 16, 
and reported in Washington on November 26, 1923. 

Table 44 shows the stations at which magnetic observations were made, with 
geographic positions and dates of occupations; for additional details, see Descriptions 
of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 44 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 



Name 



Puerto Barrios, Guatemala 

Puerto Cortez, Honduras 

Truxillo, A Honduras 

Truxillo, B, Honduras 

Oak Ridge, Honduras 

Casuna (= Port Burchard), Honduras 

Port Limon, Costa Rica 

Uvita Island, Costa Rica 

Bluefields, Nicaragua 

Prinzapolca, Nicaragua 

Wawa Saw-Mill, Nicaragua 

Bluefields Bluff, Nicaragua 

Greytown, Nicaragua 

Granada, Nicaragua 

Managua, B, Nicaragua 

Managua, A, Nicaragua 

Corinto, Nicaragua 

San Salvador, A, Salvador 

San Salvador, B, Salvador 

Amapala, Salvador 

Tegucigalpa, A, Honduras 

Tegucigalpa, B, Honduras 

Guatemala, A, Guatemala 

Guatemala, B, Guatemala 

Quesaltenango, Guatemala 

San Jose, Guatemala 

Old Panama, A, Panama 

Old Panama, B, Panama 

David, A, Panama 

David, B, Panama 

San Jose, B, Costa Rica 

San Jose, C, Costa Rica 



Date 



1923 
May 18-19 
May 23 
May 28-29 
May 30 
June 7 
June 24 
July 2- 3 

5 

9-10 



July 
July 



July 13 
July 15-16 
July 19 
July 22 
July 28 



Aug 
Aug 

Aug 



1- 
3 

6 



Aug 11-12 

Aug 12 

Aug 17 

Aug 22 

Aug 23-24 
8-14 
15 
25 

28-29 
10-11 
11-13 
23-27 
26 

Nov 12-14 

Nov 15 



Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 
Oct 



Lat. North 



15 
15 
15 
15 
16 
15 
9 
10 
11 
13 
14 
12 
10 
11 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
13 
9 
9 
8 
8 
9 



44.2 

51.3 

55.8 

55.8 

23.8 

53.1 

58.0 

00.1 

59.5 

24.7 

06 

00.1 

54.9 

56.1 

09.4 

09.9 

27.2 

41.4 

41.4 

17.7 

04.9 

06.5 

38.0 

38.0 

51.4 

55.5 

00.2 

00.2 

26.3 

25.3 

56.6 

56.6 



Long. East 



271 25 

272 03 
274 02 
274 02 

273 38 

274 50 
276 55 
276 58 
276 16 
276 25 
276 26 
276 20 

276 18 

274 03 
273 44 
273 44 
272 49 
270 49 
270 49 
272 21 
272 48 
272 47 
269 30 
269 30 

268 31 

269 13 
280 31 
280 31 

277 35 
277 34 

275 56 
275 56 



SUMMARY 

In all eighty-six stations were occupied, not counting the few occupied jointly with 
Mr. Green in the Bahamas. Of these, ten were occupied while in Mr. Green's party and 
six were astronomical stations only for determining the geographic positions in Peten, 
Guatemala. 

Of the eighty stations, seven were class I stations with eight auxiliary stations, thir- 
teen class II stations with nine auxiliary stations, seventeen class III stations, and 
twenty-six class IV stations. Special eclipse observations were carried out at Guate- 
mala City September 8 to 12 inclusive, under special instructions. 

The total distance covered from time of leaving Washington until returning thereto 
was 17,633 miles, of which 2,617 miles was travel while in Mr. Green's party and 2,300 
miles was travel from the field. Of the total distance covered, 4,543 miles were by 
railroad, 10,398 miles by steamer, 1,020 miles by sailboat, 716 miles by launch, 435 miles 
by automobile, and 521 miles by mule, 430 of the last being in the Peten trip. 



192 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

Excluding the work done on the assignment in Peten for geographic position only, 
and the travel to and from the field, the average distance per station was 185 miles. Of 
the mileage in the field, a good deal was due to doubling back on my original track 
caused by transportation difficulties in Central America. 

The total cost of the trip from the time I parted with Mr. Green in Havana to my 
return to Washington was $3,768.03, not including the expenses of the Peten trip. 

Counting only the cost in the field of the magnetic stations occupied while alone, 
the average cost per station for 85 stations was about $50, while if the principal station 
and its auxiliary in the same vicinity are counted as but one, the cost is about $68 per 
station. 

Throughout the trip every possible courtesy and assistance was given me, par- 
ticularly by the American consular and diplomatic services, and also by many govern- 
ment officials and private individuals and concerns, particular mention being made of 
the United Fruit Company, the Tropical Oil Company, the Carib Oil Company, and port 
authorities of the Canal. 

W. C. Parkinson, on Magnetic Work in Northern Africa and Arabia, 

December 1921 to March 1922 

Acting upon instructions dated August 20, 1921, I handed over charge of the 
Watheroo Magnetic Observatory, Western Australia, to Dr. G. R. Wait on December 1, 
1921, and left Watheroo the following day, sailing from Fremantle westward by steamer 
Mantua on December 9, 1921. The instrumental equipment carried consisted of mag- 
netometer-inductor 27, with tripods, observing-tent, pocket chronometer, watches, and 
the usual accessories. 

My instructions included the reoccupation of the C. I. W. magnetic stations at 
Jidda and Tor in the Red Sea. From inquiries made at Bombay it was learned that 
it would be more expeditious, and therefore cheaper, instead of transshipping to a trading- 
vessel at Aden, as was first intended, to continue to Suez by the Mantua and return to 
the Red Sea ports by the Khedival mail steamer. I arrived at Port Said on January 2, 
and, while waiting for the Red Sea steamer, proceeded to Helwan Observatory, near 
Cairo, where, with Mr. H. Knox-Shaw, the superintendent, a series of comparisons 
with the Helwan magnetic standards was carried out between January 7 and 11. Leaving 
Helwan on January 14, I proceeded by rail to Suez, where the C. I. W. secular-variation 
station was reoccupied on January 17 to 19. 

On January 21, I left Suez by the Khedival mail steamer Mansourah, and Jidda, 
the pilgrim port for Mecca, was reached on January 25. Upon landing, a visit was 
first paid to the acting British vice-consul, Mr. Grafty Smith, who at once offered me 
all the assistance in his power. Before any steps could be taken with regard to observa- 
tional work, it was necessary to obtain the permission of His Majesty King Hussein of 
the Hedjaz, who was, at the time, in Mecca. The permission was sought through 
Rushti Bey, the prime minister, who telephoned to His Majesty, and, luckily finding the 
King in an amiable mood, received a reply which said, in effect, that he felt highly honored 
by my presence and that every facility was to be accorded me in the furtherance of my 
important mission. Mr. J. C. Dilley, manager of the Jidda branch of Messrs. Gellatly, 
Hankey and Company, offered me hospitality for the duration of my stay, and this 
being gratefully accepted, I was free to bring ashore my equipment and undertake 
observational work while the Mansourah called at Port Sudan and Suakin and returned 
to Jidda. After completing the observations, I planted a permanent marking-stone to 
facilitate reoccupations in the future. It may be remarked here that in countries such 
as the coastal districts of Arabia or Egypt, where wood for fuel is scarce, it is not advisable 



Observers' Field Reports 193 

to mark the station with a wooden peg in the hope that it will remain there until some 
future reoccupation of the station. A stone pillar offers the best chance of permanency, 
but permission from some authority to erect the stone should always be obtained before- 
hand, if possible in writing. 

The Mansourah returned to Jidda on February 1, and I left by her the same day 
to return northward. King Hussein had caused orders to be telegraphed along the 
coast that, wherever I wished to land to make observations, I was to be given every 
assistance. At Yambo, where I called upon Amir Ali, heir apparent to King Hussein, 
at El Wedj, where I was accorded a military reception, and at Tor, the Egyptian quaran- 
tine station on Sinai Peninsula, I was able to make observations during brief stops of 
the steamer. The work at these three stations was greatly facilitated by the assistance 
of the wireless operator of the Mansourah, Mr. C. Sharps, to whom I gratefully acknowl- 
edge my obligation. 

From Suez I proceeded direct to Alexandria by train, arriving there the evening of 
February 6. My time in Alexandria was so taken up with passport matters and in 
arrangements for a passage to Tunisia that I found it impossible to do any observational 
work there. My intention had been to take a small coasting steamer from Alexandria 
to Tripoli, and there to connect with another vessel on to Sfax or Tunis, but the Italian 
Consul at Alexandria, in view of the unrest prevailing in Tripolitania at that time, 
refused to vise my passport without written authority from Tripoli. As the time 
involved in getting this authority, even had it been forthcoming, would have been 
considerable, I decided to omit the visit to Tripolitania and endeavor to proceed direct 
to Tunisia. 

There was no direct connection between Alexandria and Tunis by sea, and I was 
advised to ship to Malta, where I should be able to get a steamer to some Tunisian port. 
Luckily, after some inquiry, I found a British steamer sailing for Malta on February 11, 
and I secured a passage by this vessel, arriving in Malta on February 15. By what 
appeared at the time to be a lucky chance, a small vessel was, after an extensive mechani- 
cal overhaul, scheduled to leave Malta that day for Tunis, and she was confidently 
expected by the owner-captain to arrive in Tunis, 300 miles distant, in something 
less than 22 hours. I booked my passage and was all prepared, with the other pas- 
sengers, for departure, when we were informed that the engines would require a little 
more tuning up and the sailing was postponed until the next day. On the following 
day we left Valetta Harbor at about 4 p. m., and two hours later put into Gozo Harbor, 
17 miles away, with a broken steam valve. We left Gozo Harbor at about noon on 
February 17, and after buffeting a very strong head sea for four hours, the Captain, 
acting in deference to the wishes of those of the passengers who were still able to express 
themselves, turned the ship once more into Gozo Harbor and remained there until 7 h the 
next morning, when the storm had to a certain extent abated. At 10 a. m. on Sunday, 
February 19, we finally arrived at Tunis. 

On February 24 I traveled to Sfax by rail, returning to Tunis the following day, 
and on March 1, I left Tunis for Touggourt, an oasis village at the extreme southern 
limit of the Algerian railroad system. En route it was found necessary to break the 
journey for three days at Constantine, and the enforced spending of a portion of a day 
at Biskra, both in going to and coming from Touggourt, enabled me to get a glimpse of 
this interesting little town which caters to those tourists who desire to get a first-hand 
idea of Saharan desert "atmosphere" without depriving themselves - of the comforts of 
a European hotel. I left Touggourt on March 9, arriving in Algiers on March 12. 

After visiting the Bouzareah Observatory, Algiers, and arranging for some coopera- 
tive observation there, I went to Oran for observations and returned to Algiers the same 
evening. On March 19, 1 observed diurnal variation of magnetic declination at the 



194 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



magnetic station in the grounds of the Bouzareah Observatory, and on the two following 
days I made a series of magnetic observations at the "Moureaux" station nearby, 
while M. Baldet, of the Bouzareah Observatory, observed at the observatory station. 
I left Algiers in the evening of March 23 by steamer for Marseilles, arriving there in the 
morning of March 25, and reached Barcelona, Spain, the following morning. Owing, 
however, to a blunder on the part of a railroad porter at Marseilles, my heavy baggage 
had been sent to another destination, and a day was consumed in returning to the French 
frontier station, where it was held until the customs formalities had been complied with. 
Table 45 gives the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 45 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



Name 



Helwan Observatory, Egypt 

Suez, Egypt 

Jidda, A, Arabia 

Jidda, B, Arabia 

Yambo, Arabia 

El Wedj, Arabia. 

Tor, Egypt 

Tunis, Turrsia 

Sfax, Tuni ia 

Touggouri, Algerian Sahara 

Oran, Algeria 

Algiers, M, Algeria 



Date 



1922 
Jan 7-11 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Feb 
Feb 
Feb 



17-19 

30 

27-28 

2 

3- 4 

5 



Feb 22 

Feb 26 

Mar 7- 8 

Mar 17 

Mar 20-21 



Lat. North 



29 
29 
21 
21 
24 
26 
28 
36 
34 
33 
35 
36 



51.6 
57.9 
28.3 
29.8 
04.7 
13.0 
14.4 
45.5 
43.6 
07.8 
44.7 
48.1 



Long. East 



31 20 

32 33 
39 11 
39 11 
38 03 
36 28 

33 36 
10 07 
10 45 

6 05 

359 24 

3 02 



W. C. Parkinson, on Comparison Observations at Certain European Magnetic 

Observatories, March to September 1922 

On my arrival at Barcelona, after the completion of the reoccupations for secular 
variation in northern Africa, I went immediately to the Observatorio del Ebro at Tortosa, 
Spain. This was the first of a series of magnetic observatories with whose standards 
I was to compare magnetometer-inductor 27, which in turn had been compared with 
the standards at Washington and at Watheroo, and would be finally compared at Wash- 
ington at the close of the expedition. On the afternoon of my arrival, I discussed with 
Father Rodes the program of comparisons to be made. This program was carried out 
between March 30 and April 2, and on April 4 I left Tortosa, greatly impressed with 
the efficiency and zeal of the staff of the observatory, the good condition of their equip- 
ment, and the prompt, but at the same time careful, manner in which the resulting data 
are made available for publication. 

My next objective was the observatory at San Fernando, near Cadiz, and in order 
to reach it I had to travel by a rather circuitous route through Valencia and Madrid, 
changing trains frequently en route. I arrived at Cadiz on April 6, and the same after- 
noon took my equipment out to the observatory at San Fernando, about 12 miles distant. 
Comparison observations were made at San Fernando between April 7 and 12. Mag- 
netically, San Fernando is a very disturbed station, owing to the close proximity of 
electric-car lines. Partly, I suppose, owing to this disturbance, and because the nautical- 
astronomical work of the observatory is of more practical importance, the magnetic 
work takes a secondary place. With the equipment used, and under the prevailing 
conditions, high observational accuracy is not to be expected. 

The route from Cadiz to Coimbra, Portugal, via Seville and Badajos, involved 
changing of trains seven times during the 36 hours of travel, but notwithstanding, I 
arrived at Coimbra on April 15 with my baggage intact. The same afternoon I took 



Observers' Field Reports 195 

my equipment out to the Coimbra Observatory and conferred with Dr. Carvalho. In 
spite of an inferior instrumental equipment, I found the magnetic work there on a very 
satisfactory footing. Although the electric-car lines are not more than 400 meters 
distant at the nearest point, yet there is hardly any appreciable effect from them when 
making observations at the magnetic station in the observatory grounds. Comparison 
observations were made at Coimbra between April 17 and 21, and I left for Paris the 
following day by the Lisbon-Paris express. 

Acting on supplementary instructions, I interrupted my observatory comparisons 
at this point in order to attend the meetings at Rome of the International Geodetic and 
Geophysical Union, May 2 to 10, and to assist the Director, Dr. L. A. Bauer, in his duties 
as Secretary of the Section of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity. This visit also 
provided an opportunity for making comparisons with the instruments of the Italian 
Magnetic Survey, in cooperation with Professor L. Pallazo, at Terracina, Italy. On the 
return to Paris, comparisons were made at Val Joyeux on May 25 and 26, and going 
thence to Berlin, I made a series of observations on June 1 to 3 on pier 5 of the Potsdam 
Observatory, the station used by Mr. Pearson in 1910. After a short leave of absence, 
comparisons were made at De Bilt, near Utrecht, in Holland, and at Rude Skov, Den- 
mark. To reach Sodankyla, where the next comparisons were to be made, I went first 
to Stockholm, and thence by steamer to Abo, Finland, at which place I arrived on the 
morning of July 9. Then followed a railroad journey of about 700 miles to Rovaniemi, 
the capital of Finnish Lapland, near the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. Rovaniemi is the 
northernmost point of the Finnish railroad system, and the magnetic observatory of 
Sodankyla lies about 85 miles farther north by road. Twice a week, when weather 
permits, a mail automobile runs from Rovaniemi to Ivalo, a settlement in Lapland 
nearly 200 miles distant, passing close to the Sodankyla Observatory. I found on my 
arrival at Rovaniemi that there was an automobile scheduled to start that evening at 
10 o'clock. At this latitude, of course, there is no darkness in July. Accordingly I 
booked my passage, and the start was made punctually at the time advertised. There 
were fifteen passengers besides the driver and a postal official, and at the rear of the 
auto there was piled a great quantity of mail, parcels, and general merchandise. I had 
some difficulty at the outset in convincing the driver that the magnetometer could not 
be thrown in with the general cargo, and only decided the matter by carrying it on my 
knees for the whole journey. It was well, from the instrumental point of view, that I 
did, for though the roads were in very bad order, the driver kept up a consistently high 
speed. 

I was set down from the auto in the neighborhood of the Sodankyla Observatory 
at about 3 o'clock in the morning on July 12. Walking down to the River Kemi from 
the road, I could see the observatory on the farther bank, but there was no means of 
getting across. The letter announcing the date of my arrival had not been received, 
and it was not until nearly four hours later that I was able to make my presence known 
and was rowed across to the observatory. After some needed rest, comparisons with 
the Sodankyla magnetic standards were begun, being completed the following day, 
July 13. The staff of the observatory, Mr. E. Hyyrylainen, his wife, and one aid, deserve 
great credit for their operation of the instruments, both magnetic and meteorological, 
under rather trying climatic conditions at such an isolated post. Owing to the unre- 
liability of the communication, I deemed it advisable at the first opportunity after the 
completion of the comparisons, to take the post auto back to the rail-head, and I there- 
fore left Sodankyla at midnight on July 13, arriving at Rovaniemi the next morning and 
at Helsingfors in the evening of July 15. Here it was my privilege to meet Professor 
Melander, Director of the Finnish Meteorological Bureau and chairman of the com- 
mittee of the Finnish Academy of Science under whose auspices the Sodankyla Magnetic 



196 



Land Magnetic Obseevations, 1921-1926 



Observatory is operated. I arrived again at Copenhagen on July 20, completing the 
comparisons at Rude Skov Observatory the same day, and reached London late in the 
following evening. 

Beginning on August 1, comparisons were made successively at the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, at the Eskdalemuir Observatory, Scotland, at the Royal Observatory 
of Belgium at Uccle, and at the Kew Observatory. 

At Teddington, during the early hours of the morning of September 23, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. F. E. Smith, F. R.S., Director of Scientific Research at the British Admiralty, 
I made a comparison of values of horizontal intensity obtained with magnetometer- 
inductor 27 and the Schuster-Smith electromagnetometer. 

On September 30, I sailed from Liverpool for New York, arrived in Washington on 
October 9, and reported to the Office the following day. 

Table 46 shows the observatories at which comparisons were made, with geographic 
positions and dates of the observations. To the list of European observatories have been 
added, for the sake of completeness, the Watheroo comparison at the beginning of the 
expedition, the comparison at Helwan, Egypt, during the African work, and the com- 
parison at Washington, which closed the series. Further details will be given in a special 
report on Observatory Standards in a future volume of these Researches. 

Table 46 



No. 



Name 



Date 



Latitude 



Long. East 



10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 

17 



Watheroo Observatory, Watheroo, Western Australia. 
Helwan Observatory, Helwan, Egypt 

Ebro Observatory, Tortosa, Spain 



1922 



Marine Observatory, San Fernando, Spain 

Meteorological Observatory, Coimbra, Portugal . 

Terracina, Italy 

Val Joyeux Observatory, Villepreux, France 

Potsdam Observatory, Berlin, Germany 

De Bilt Observatory, Utrecht, Holland 



Rude Skov Observatory, Copenhagen, Denmark. ..... 

Sodankyla Observatory, Sodankyla, Finland 

Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England 

Eskdalemuir Observatory, Eskdalemuir, Scotland 

Royal Observatory, Uccle (Brussels), Belgium 

Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey, England 

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, England. . 
Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, Washington, D. C.. 



Jan 7-11 
Mar 30- 
Apr 2 
Apr 7-12 
Apr 17-21 
May 16-18 
May 25-26 
June 1- 3 
June 30, 



30 18.9 S 
29 51.6 N 

40 19.2 N 



36 
40 
41 

48 
52 



27.7 N 
12.4 N 
17.0 N 
49.4 N 
23 N 



July 
July 



1- 3 
5- 6,20 



52 06 . 5 N 



July 12-13 



Aug 
Aug 



1- 3 
13-16 



U. S. A.. 



Aug 21-24 
Sep 19-25 
Sep 22-23 



55 
67 
51 
55 
50 
51 
51 
38 



50.6 N 
22.1 N 
28.6 N 
18.9 N 
47.9 N 
28.1 N 
26 N 
57.4 N 



115 53 

31 20 

30 

353 48 

351 35 

13 14 

2 01 

13 04 

5 11 

12 27 

26 39 

00 

356 48 

4 21 

359 41 

359 40 

282 56 



J. E. Sanders, Jr., on Magnetic Work in the Azores, Madeiras, Canaries, and 

Morocco, May to August 1925 

In accordance with the instructions of the Assistant Director dated April 20, 1925, 
I left New York on May 14, and arrived at Ponta Delgada, San Miguel Island, Azores, 
on May 23, 1925. My instrumental outfit consisted of magnetometer-inductor 26, two 
half-second chronometers, watches, and accessories. I was met aboard the ship at 
Ponta Delgada by Colonel F. A. Chaves, Director of the Meteorological Service of the 
Azores. In conference with him a plan for instrumental comparisons and reoccupations 
of selected stations in the islands was outlined. It was decided to make use of pillars 
previously erected by Colonel Chaves, from which known azimuths had already been 
determined. In accordance with that plan, complete comparisons were made at Ponta 
Delgada, and reoccupations made of Meteorological Service stations on Terceira, Flores, 
and Fayal Islands, the party returning to Ponta Delgada June 18. There are but two 



Observers' Field Reports 197 

boats each month between the islands, and these usually stop one day at each port, but 
the stay in port was much shorter on this trip. Only hasty observations at each station 
are possible under such conditions unless one is willing to spend two weeks at each island. 
It was possible to make observations for declination on this trip only because well- 
marked stations were available where marks of known azimuth could be used. Astro- 
nomical observations were quite impossible because of cloudiness at this season. In 
addition to the clouds at higher altitudes, each day a very heavy fog covers the islands, 
often making it impossible to see a mark as close as 30 meters. I was told that from 
August to November the conditions in this respect in the Azores are much better. 

The native tongue is Portuguese, though one can find many on each island who are 
able to speak English. While illiteracy is common, the people are very shrewd when it 
comes to bargaining with the foreign traveler. None of the islands have docking facilities 
in the harbors for the larger vessels, and it is necessary to go ashore in launches or row- 
boats. On these small boats each of the crew will attempt to collect for the passage, 
while the proper person to receive payment is the head boatman ashore. Another 
difficulty which the traveler must meet is the existence of two money systems, the 
insular or "weak" money and the Portuguese or "strong" money. The difference 
between the two systems, using the same denominations, is about 20 per cent. Natives 
are quick to take advantage of the traveler's ignorance or confusion, to the latter's dis- 
advantage. It is best to keep all money in the strong exchange, as the corresponding 
value in the weak can be readily calculated. 

Throughout the work in the Azores, most courteous and generous assistance was 
received from Colonel Chaves and his assistants at the various island stations. He 
accompanied me on the trip among the islands and our work was greatly expedited by 
the provision of a boat, for which he had made arrangement in advance, waiting to take 
us ashore at each stop. 

From the Azores I arrived at Funchal, Madeira, on June 22, reoccupied the two 
former C. I. W. stations, and left for Morocco on July 4. Here the military authorities 
and other officials were most courteous in the assistance given and showed great interest 
in the work of the Department. On July 4, I was fortunate in being able to secure 
passage direct to Tangier, Morocco, where I arrived at noon on July 6, though rough 
weather delayed landing until evening. Magnetic observations at Tangier were made 
on July 7 and a start was made by autobus for Larache on the following day. Owing 
to mechanical troubles, small cars had to be substituted for the bus when but a short 
way out, and as these could not accommodate both passengers and luggage, I returned 
to Tangier and made the trip the following day. Building operations made impossible 
the exact recovery of the station of 1912 at Larache, where two stations were occupied 
on July 10. The following day I left for Rabat. Again finding it impossible to carry 
all my baggage, I left the trunk to follow the next day, but was obliged to return for it 
after waiting until the 14th. 

The conditions in Morocco at this time made entrance into the French zone some- 
what difficult. The thoughtfulness of Colonel Chaves in notifying the Chief of the 
Meteorological Service in advance of my coming, furnished an introduction that proved 
quite helpful. After the holidays of July 13 and 14, the requisite official pass was 
obtained, and the C. I. W. station of 1912 was reoccupied. After completing work at 
Rabat, I went to Casablanca, and then directly to Marakech, occupying a class I station, 
and returning to Mogador on July 26. At Casablanca I found that a steamer was 
about to leave for the Canary Islands and that the next was 20 days later. I therefore 
abbreviated the work at that station, and sailed for the Canaries on July 31. 

Throughout the work in Morocco, all travel was by automobile. There are excellent 
roads from Tangier to Marakech and Mogador. There is also a railroad paralleling 



198 



Land Magnetic Obseevations, 1921-1926 



the highway, but it can not compete with the excellent bus lines which operate daily 
between all points. In spite of the Riffian difficulties, the coast towns are carrying on 
an enormous export trade, Casablanca, according to statistics for 1924, ranking seventh 
among the ports of France and her possessions. 

The first stop in the Canaries was at Santa Cruz, La Palma Island, not hitherto 
visited by observers of the Department. A new station was established there on August 
3. The old station at Santa Cruz, Tenerife, was reoccupied August 4 and 5, and that 
at Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, on August 7. My instructions called for stations in the 
Cape Verde Islands and a reoccupation at Rio de Oro on the west coast of Africa. No 
feasible way was found of reaching the Cape Verde Islands from the Canary Islands. 
There was one boat a month to Rio de Oro, but the length of the stay there was insufficient 
for the desired observations, and absence of opportunity for observations en route 
either way made it impracticable to make that trip. 

On August 22, I left the Canary Islands for Freetown, Sierra Leone, and arrived 
there on August 28. 

Table 47 is a list of the stations occupied, with dates of occupations and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 47 



No. 



2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 



Name " 



Ponta Delgada, A 

Ponta Delgada, Observatory . . 

Ponta Delgada, C 

Angra 

Horta 

Santa Cruz 

Funchal, A 

Funchal, C, D 

Funchal, B. 

Tangier, A 

Larache, B, C 

Rabat 

Marakech, A, B 

Mogador 

Casablanca 

Santa Cruz, La Palma Island 
Santa Cruz, Tenerife Island. . 
Las Palmas, A, B 



Date 



1925 
(May 24-26 
\June 6 

June 2-10 

June 12 

June 14,18 

June 15 

June 16 

June 23,24 

June 25 

June 27,30 



July 
July 
July 



7 
10 
16,17 



July 20-24 

July 27,28 

July 30 

Aug 3 

Aug 4 , 5 

Aug 8-17 



Lat. North 



37 44.8 



37 
37 
38 
38 
39 
32 
32 
32 
35 
35 
34 
31 
31 
33 
28 
28 
28 



46.4 
47.2 
38.8 
31.6 
26.8 
38.0 
37.2 
37.8 
47.8 
12.5 
01.5 
37.0 
31.9 
34.2 
41.4 
28.1 
07.7 



Long. East 



334 20 

334 21 

334 14 

332 47 

331 22 

328 52 

343 05 

343 04 

343 05 

354 08 

353 50 

353 10 

352 00 

350 16 

352 23 

342 16 

343 45 

344 33 



° The stations are in the following countries or island groups: Nos. 1 to 6, Azores Islands; Nos. 
7 to 9, Madeira Islands; Nos. 10 to 15, Morocco; Nos. 16 to 18, Canary Islands. 



J. E. Sanders, Jr., on Magnetic Work in Sierra Leone and French West Africa, 

August to December 1925 

From the Canary Islands I went directly to Freetown, Sierra Leone, arriving there 
on August 28. Unfortunately, September is one of the months of maximum rainfall, 
and this made the task of securing magnetic observations very slow and difficult. During 
the month the stations at Freetown, Bo, and Moyamba were reoccupied. On September 
22 I went to Conakry, French Guinea. Here also rain fell constantly. Magnetic 
observations were made, but astronomical observations were impossible. I decided, 
therefore, to return to Dakar, Senegal, where conditions were not so bad. At Dakar, 
slight showers followed by occasional tornadoes late in the afternoon, signified that the 
rainy season there was about over. Two weeks were spent in making observations and 
preparing for a trip into the interior. I took advantage of my presence at the capital 



Observers' Field Reports 199 

of French West Africa to secure from the Governor-General, M. Card, a letter of intro- 
duction to the lieutenant-governors and administrators throughout French West Africa, 
which afterwards proved to be most helpful. The services of Mr. Clarence Macy, 
American consul, were of great value in presenting my requests before the government 
officials, as well as in arranging the details of my work. I was also fortunate in meeting 
Mr. Constant Southworth, an economist from Washington, who also desired to make 
a trip into the interior in the course of his investigations of the economic conditions of 
the African colonies. It was to our mutual advantage to make the trip together and, 
accordingly, we set out by rail from Dakar on October 13, for Kayes on the upper Senegal 
River. 

Our first destination was Tambacounda, the mid-point of the Dakar-Kayes rail- 
way. The train arrived at that station about 3 o'clock in the morning, while all members 
of our party were asleep. We were wakened by the noise of the engine in leaving the 
station, and were able hurriedly to leave the train with only hand baggage. Other 
parts of the equipment had been carried on. It was not until October 19, therefore, 
that we were able to finish the work and proceed to Kayes. 

At Kayes there was no hotel, and we spent the first night, from the time of our arrival 
about midnight, in the railway station. The next day the French deputy very graciously 
gave us quarters in one of the government houses. After the conclusion of our work, 
arrangements had to be made for our descent of the Senegal River. As the last trip 
for the season of the river steamer, the Bani, had been made, it was necessary to go 
by native sailboat or "chaland." There were many of these leaving Kayes, but an 
owner willing to take white passengers was not so easily found. The space necessary 
for two whites, according to the black skipper, was enough for six or seven black pas- 
sengers; hence he wanted a good price for our passage. On October 29, we left Kayes 
for Matam, French Soudan, on a chaland which carried as fellow-passengers about 30 
blacks with their many goats, dogs, monkeys, and sundry other pets. 

On November 3, the chaland left us at Matam, and proceeded on down the river. 
The administrator gave us the only quarters available, a very small one-room house 
which proved to be only large enough for our baggage. This was not a great hardship, 
for eating and sleeping under the trees was pleasanter, on account of the heat. Because 
of the myriads of mosquitoes it was necessary to eat early and to retire under our nets 
before dark. On November 8, we took passage on another chaland for Podor, and this 
leg of the journey was one of lasting memory. Throughout the trip we encountered 
contrary winds, and our little sailboat was obliged to tack continually in the narrow 
river, thereby doubling the distance traveled. Of greater annoyance, however, was the 
smallness of the boat, which made it impossible to escape intimate contact with the 
countless cockroaches with which the chaland was infested; at night they fairly covered 
the walls of the boat and sleep was disturbed by their crawling over our bodies and their 
nibbling at our toes. After one week in this craft we arrived, on November 15, at our 
next destination, and left without regret the dirty little boat for the clean quarters 
given us by the French administrator. 

On the three following days observations were made at Podor repeat and auxiliary 
stations, and preparations were all made for leaving on the Bani on Sunday morning. 
As the steamer was not to leave until 7 a. m. we slept ashore, and arrived at the wharf 
with all baggage an hour before that time, only to find that the steamer had left in the 
night. It would have been little trouble for the commissaire to have told us the change 
in plans, but he did not, and we were apparently doomed to another trip on a native 
chaland. On November 27 we secured passage on a large sailboat belonging to one of 
the commercial houses. The winds this time were most favorable, so that we arrived 



200 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



at St. Louis, at the mouth of the Senegal River, on the morning of December 1, concluding 
a trip of 1,000 kilometers on the Senegal River. 

Throughout the trip I had been accompanied by Mr. Southworth, whose companion- 
ship was greatly appreciated, and to whose valuable services as interpreter I am much 
indebted. As cook-boy I had taken a Calaba from Nigeria who rendered fair service. 
There were few vegetables to be had, so that chickens, eggs, and rice constituted the 
chief items of food, and these were often hard to get. Frequently the natives would 
refuse to sell to white men. On approaching several of the villages they retired to their 
huts, taking with them their chickens and goats, and declined to come out as long as 
we remained in the village. Notwithstanding the great discomfort of some parts of the 
journey, there was partial compensation in the opportunity afforded of observing the 
living habits of the black people as they were exhibited in the close quarters aboard the 
chaland. 

Everywhere on the journey most courteous attention and every possible assistance 
were extended by the French authorities. Besides invaluable assistance given by his 
excellency the Governor-General and by the American Consul, already mentioned, special 
mention should be made of the helpful services so freely given by M. Joseph Court, 
Secretaire General du Senegal, St. Louis, and M. Jouve, Fonctionnaire at Kayes. 

From St. Louis I went at once by way of Dakar to Conakry and completed the 
work which had been interrupted by the incessant rain in September. Plans were 
here made for undertaking a more extended trip, first to the headwaters of the Niger, 
thence down that river by way of Timbuktu to Lagos, Nigeria. After completing 
the observations and spending Christmas day with friends at Conakry, I was ready on 
December 29 to take the weekly train for Kankan. Just before the train pulled out I 
received the season's greetings cabled by the Department, and my mail, which Mr. 
Smith, of Elder Dempster Company, was so kind as to send to the train. Thus at the 
close of the year I was ready for the extended inland expedition on which I was to reoccupy 
stations of Berky and Sawyer along the course of the Niger River. 

Table 48 shows the stations occupied, with dates of occupation and geographic 
positions; for additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Table 48 



No. 



Name ° 



Freetown 

Bo 

Moyamba 

Dakar, A, B. . . 

Tambacounda . 
Kayes, A, B. . . 
Matam, A, B. . 
Podor, A, B... 
St. Louis, A, B 



Date 



1925 
Sep 4, 5 
Sep 10,11 
Sep 14 

6-11 
9,11 
Oct 18 
Oct 21-24 
Nov 4- 6 
Nov 16-18 
Dec 3, 4 



/Oct 
\Dec 



Lat. North 



8 29.7 

7 57.8 

8 09.2 

14 42.0 

13 47.4 

14 26. 8 6 

15 39.3 h 

16 39. 4 6 
16 02. 8 6 



Long. East 



346 44 
348 11 

347 32 

342 34 

346 22 

348 34 
346 46 
345 03 

343 31 



a The stations are in the following countries: Nos. 1 to 3, Sierra Leone; Nos. 4 to 9, French 
West Africa. 

b Mean of two stations. 



J. E. Sanders, Jr., on Magnetic Work in French West Africa, from Conakry to 
Cotonou, by Way of Niger River and Dahomey, December 1925 to April 1926 

Sailing from Dakar, I arrived at Conakry December 18, 1925, and completed there 
the magnetic observations which had been prevented during September by the continuous 
rains. I spent Christmas Day with friends, and December 29 took the weekly train for 



Observers' Field Reports 201 

Kankan. On arriving there after an intermediate stop for observations at Mamou, it 
was found that, because of the low stage of the water, no steamers were going down to 
Bamako, French Soudan, and it would be necessary to go overland by automobile. This 
overland route lies between Kouroussa and Bamako, a distance of about 400 kilometers, 
and the tariff for this trip, often made in a single day, is 2,500 francs, about equal to 
the fare by rail to Conakry, by sea to Dakar, and thence to Bamako by rail through 
Senegal. Fortunately, the American Mission at Kankan wass ending a camionette to 
Bamako to get other members of the Mission for the annual convocation to be held at 
Kankan, and passage was secured upon it. While at Kankan an option was secured on 
a wooden chaland belonging to the Mission for use in descending the Niger. 

Returning at once to Kouroussa from Kankan, a magnetic station was occupied in 
time to leave January 7 for Bamako, where we arrived the following evening. Interest- 
ing features of this trip were the stop at Yirikiri, where one of the few saw-mills in French 
West Africa is located, and where fresh grapefruit and strawberries were to be obtained. 
We spent the night at Sigiri at the American Mission, and attended one of their religious 
services. It was held in the mission chapel and well attended, though twice interrupted 
by the general exit of all, first because of a native dance with tom-toms at the front of 
the chapel, and then by a shower of stones on the metal roof overhead (said to be of 
common occurrence). 

At Bamako, final arrangements for the long descent of the Niger River had to be 
made. The navigation company advised either buying or renting a chaland for the 
entire trip. But there was none for sale at Bamako, and owners of chalands for rent 
would not permit their boats to go below the rapids of Labbezanga. The chaland for 
which provisional arrangements had been made at Kankan with the American Mission 
was sent for and, while waiting for its arrival, I went to Koulikoro and made magnetic 
observations, returning to Bamako January 20. Here I met Mr. Leland Hall, of Harvard 
University, who had just returned from a two-months' stay at Timbuktu and who was 
anxious to make the trip down the Niger. An arrangement to make the journey together 
was fortunate for me, for in addition to being a most amiable companion, Mr. Hall 
spoke French easily and rendered valuable service as interpreter. The chaland arrived 
from Kankan on the last day of the month, and as the water was too low to pass the 
rapids between Bamako and Koulikoro, it was necessary to ship it over the railroad. 
We arrived February 5 at Koulikoro and again met the Commandant of the Circle of 
Bamako, who was there for the day. He had given valuable assistance in the earlier 
preparations and now put me under additional obligation in arrangements for unloading 
the chaland and for necessary repairs. These were considerable, as exposure to the Sun 
on the rail trip from Bamako had opened the seams and made a complete recalking 
imperative. This is usually a ten-day job for the black man; but with two black men 
working day and night under constant supervision, the chaland was launched at 2 p. m., 
Sunday, February 7, and at 5 h 15 m Mr. Hall and I, with Momo, our cook boy, and 14 
black punters or laptots, went aboard and the descent was begun. 

At Segou, where there is a large cotton-experiment station in charge of an American 
agricultural expert, we made an exact reoccupation of the C. I. W. magnetic station of 
1913. At Mopti, at the junction of the Bani River with the Niger, where the extensive 
rice-growing plantations are protected by dikes extending many miles along the river, 
we were not so fortunate, as, because of the growth of the villages, the former station 
could not be recovered, and two new ones were established. Beyond Mopti, the green- 
ness of the fields began to give way to barren, sandy soil, and it was evident that we were 
approaching the sand-dunes of the desert. The first night out of Mopti we had our first 
bad luck. We had been traveling both night and day and often ran upon sand-banks 
and other obscured obstructions. About 9 o'clock on the evening of February 19 the 



202 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

boat ran upon a hidden log. The laptots pushed off and continued down stream. We 
had gone to bed, but were wakened a little later with about 10 inches of water in the 
bottom of the boat. Upon investigation we found that a large hole had been made in 
the bow. The rest of the night was spent ashore, where we were serenaded from time to 
time by the hyenas in the bush near at hand. Fortunately, extra tar and oakum had 
been placed aboard, so that by noon we had repaired the damage and were on our way 
again. 

February 24 was spent in reoccupying the magnetic station at Niafunke. We 
continued the next morning on the last leg of our journey to Timbuktu, where we arrived 
on the last day of the month, three weeks to the hour from the time we left Koulikoro. 
In the dry season one must leave the river at Kabara and make the 10 remaining kilo- 
meters to Timbuktu by horse; we were able, however, to ascend the canal with the 
chaland to our destination. Timbuktu, although still very interesting, is no longer the 
mysterious city of days gone by. No longer one of the great Arab teaching centers and 
no longer under the rule of the Pasha of Morocco, Timbuktu is now on the decline. 
The hospitality, however, with which we had been met at other posts was not lacking 
here. We were given rooms in the governor's palace and every courtesy for our personal 
comfort and facility for the prosecution of our work by the French officials. We left 
this interesting old city with regret March 12 to continue our trip down the Niger. At 
11 o'clock we arrived at Kabara by horse, having sent the chaland on ahead, and an 
hour later the 14 black laptots poled us out into the stream and took up their paddles. 
From Timbuktu on the water is very deep and paddles replaced the poles by which we 
descended the shallower waters above. 

On the evening of March 20 we arrived at Burem, the first French post after leaving 
Timbuktu. We were glad of the opportunity of discharging the Timbuktu laptots, who 
were getting restless on account of the length of the trip. Observations were made 
here while Mr. Hall got the new crew of laptots ready to go, so that at 1 o'clock we 
resumed the descent. We found it advisable to again change laptots as soon as possible, 
and so stopped at Gao long enough to take on a new crew for the trip to Ansongo, where 
we arrived on the afternoon of March 26. 

Observations were made on the following morning while Mr. Hall assembled a new 
crew, with which we left in the afternoon for Niamey. Between Ansongo and Tilla- 
berry we changed crews three times. The first crew accompanied us to the head of the 
rapids of Labbezanga, where we took on the second, who knew the river well from the 
village. They carried us only through the rapids, one chute of 100 yards being the most 
difficult. The fact that we passed the rapids safely, while an iron chaland just behind us 
hit the rocks several times proved that we were fortunate in securing the Labbezanga 
men to take us through. The Administrator at Gao had informed us that the village of 
Labbezanga was a little hostile to the French at the time, having refused to serve the 
Governor-General a short time before. However, when we arrived at Labbezanga we 
sent the chief of our crew over to see the chief of the village with a few kola nuts as a 
gift, and asked for the laptots to put us through the rapids. Either the kola nuts or a 
reputation for treating our men justly, or both, brought the men in a short time, apparently 
anxious to serve us, and doubtless they would have been glad to continue had we not 
already arranged by telegram from Tillaberry for the crew to be sent up the river to 
meet us just below the rapids. 

We arrived at Niamey, Niger Territory, April 2, and were cordially received by 
the French Administrator. Owing to changes in laying out the village and the construc- 
tion of new houses, the former station was impracticable, and two new ones were estab- 
lished. After engaging new laptots, we set out on the afternoon of April 4 for Gaya, at 
which place our journey by river would terminate. Fortunately, the Government was 



Observers' Field Reports 



203 



in need of a chaland and arrangements were readily made at Niamey for the sale of our 
boat, to be delivered to the Government officials upon reaching Gaya. At Gaya, Mr. 
Hall, who was eager after ten months in French Soudan to return to France, left immedi- 
ately for Cotonou. It had been just two months that we had traveled together from 
Koulikoro, and it was with regret that I bade him good-bye after our most enjoyable 
journey together. After carrying out the magnetic program at Gaya, I left by the 
weekly autobus, April 16, for Cotonou. Intermediate stops for magnetic observations 
were made at Save and Parakou. Cotonou was reached April 22. 

At Kandi in Dahomey the first rain for several months was encountered. The 
quick descent from the sandy, dry regions to the hot and humid coast at Cotonou made 
the change in the climate most noticeable, and to this I attribute the return of mild 
attacks of fever. The work at Cotonou was completed and I left for Lagos, Nigeria, 
May 4. Throughout the journey in French West Africa, every possible courtesy, 
private and official, was extended, and every lone post entertained us most hospitably. 

Table 49 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 



Name ° 



Conakry, A, B . . 

Mamou, A, B. . 

Kouroussa 

Koulikoro, A, B 
Segou, A, B. . . . 
Mopti, A, B. . . . 

NiafunkS, 

Timbuktu, A, B 

Bourem 

Ansongo 

Niamey, A, B. . 
Gaya, A, B . . . . 

Parakou 

Save 

Cotonou, A, B . . 



Date 



1925-26 
Dec 19-23 
30- 
1 



(Dec 
\Jan 

Jan 

Jan 

Feb 

Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 22 

Mar 27 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 



6 
13-18 
10-12 
17-19 
24 

4-8 



2- 4 
9-14 

18 

21 

27-29 



Lat. North 



9 30.9 
10 22.9 



10 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
16 
15 
13 
11 
9 



38.8 

52.5 

26.7 

29.8 

55.6 

46. 

56. 

39. 

30. 

52. 

21. 

02.1 

21.5 



Long. East 



346 16 

347 55 

350 06 

352 27 

353 43 

355 47 

356 00 
356 58 
359 37 

30 

2 07 

3 31 
2 40 



31 
25 



" All stations are in French West Africa, 
for A is taken. 



Where positions of stations A and B differ, that 



There are hotels and buffets along the railroads and the Niger River as far as Kouli- 
koro, and traveling is a simple matter. Below Koulikoro from August to January, the 
flood season, there is a weekly steamer as far as Timbuktu. But if one is to go below the 
latter point it is better to buy or rent a boat at Koulikoro for the entire trip. If pur- 
chased, there is usually a ready sale for it at the end of the journey in Niger Territory. 
A chaland 12 meters long and about 3.5 meters wide was found ample for two white men 
to live aboard. It was quite large enough for two X-type camp-beds to be placed in the 
forward half at night, and for two deck-chairs and a folding table in the day. Baggage, 
equipment, and supplies were kept aft and still left room for the cook-boy to perform his 
duties. One needs the usual camping outfit, except the tent. European goods and foods 
can be purchased at all the posts, but it is advisable to purchase these as near the coast 
as possible, as the cost of transportation to the interior makes such goods come high. 
During the fall and winter months one may obtain fresh vegetables from the splendid 
gardens at all the French posts. Chickens, eggs, fish, and fresh milk are usually obtain- 
able at the native villages along the river. A rifle and shot-gun (12-bore), while not 
necessary, may be carried with advantage, as the number of ducks along the river is 
astonishing. These are found delicious at first, though after having eaten a few one 
senses a feeling of disgust for all fowl; however, it keeps up the spirit of the laptots to 



204 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



add the game to their chop. Deer and antelope are plentiful and delicious. It is always 
best to wire ahead for laptots or other required labor, and it is usual to find the request 
fulfilled upon arrival. Above Timbuktu an interpreter is not essential, but below that 
post one finds few natives speaking French, and an interpreter becomes a necessity. 

From the time of leaving Dakar in the middle of December until arrival at Cotonou, 
Dahomey, at the end of the following April, 25 stations in 15 localities were occupied, 
making the average time for each locality about 9 days and the field cost about $32. 
Of about 3,000 miles of travel, 500 were by sea, about 700 by railroad, and the same by 
automobile, the remainder being by river chaland. Thus the average travel for each 
locality occupied was about 200 miles. 

Table 49 shows the stations occupied, with geographic positions and dates of occupa- 
tion ; for additional details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

J. E. Sanders, Jr., on Magnetic Work in Guinea Coast and Nigeria, May 

to December 1926 

Mr. Sanders continued in the field after the work described in the preceding reports 
through the remainder of the year 1926. After reaching Lagos, Nigeria, he began a 
series of reoccupations westward along the coast of Upper Guinea, but as the rainy 
season had set in his progress was greatly hindered. Leaving Lagos May 30, he occupied 
stations in 3 localities in Gold Coast Colony, followed by 3 in Ivory Coast, an inland 
station at Bouake being included among the latter. Delays because of incessant rains 
and occasional attacks of fever, as well as the inevitable delays in securing transportation, 
retarded his progress so that it was August 8 when he arrived at Cape Palmas, Liberia. 
Known local disturbance in the vicinity of Cape Palmas required the establishment of a 
group of stations within a comparatively small area there. Continued unfavorable 
weather and infrequent communication made it advisable to omit the proposed visit to 
Sino and Monrovia, and he sailed again for Lagos, September 11. Prevented by con- 
tinual rains from making further observations, he decided to go at once to the head- 

Table 50 



No. 



1 
2 

3 

4 



10 
11 

12 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



Name" 



Lagos, A, B, C 

Accra, A, B, C 

Kumasi, A, B 

Sekondi, 1926 

Grand Bassam, A, B . . 

Bouake, A, B 

Abidjan 

Cuttington, A, B 

Cape Palmas, A, B, C 

Harper 

Garoua, A, B 

Yola, A, B b 

A mar 

Ibi, A, B 

Lokoja, A, B 

Jebba, A, B 

Zaria, A, B 

Kano, A, B 



Date 



1926 
May 16-26 
June 4-11 
June 17-22 
June 26 



/July 

\Aug 



Aug 
/Aug 
\Sep 

Sep 

Oct 
/Oct 
\Nov 

Nov 



12-13, 

4 

July 21-22 
July 26 

14-21 
25- 

9 

1, 2 
21-25 
30, 

1 
10-11 



Nov 13-15 
Nov 23-25 



Dec 
Dec 
Dec 



4- 6 
10-11 
21-27 



Lat. North 



6 
5 
6 
4 



26.9 
32.5 
41.0 
56.4 

11.8 

42 
19 
23.3 



4 21.6 



22.2 
17.6 



9 16.3 



7 

9 

11 

12 



40.9 
10.8 
48.3 
07.7 
06.8 
01.0 



ijong. East 



3 24 

359 49 

358 26 

358 18 

356 15 

355 00 

355 58 

352 19 

352 16 

352 16 

13 24 

12 28 

10 23 

9 44 



44 
49 
43 



8 33 



° The stations are located in the following countries: Nos. 1, 12 to 18, Nigeria; Nos. 2 to 4, 
Gold Coast Colony; Nos. 5 to 7, Ivory Coast, French West Africa; Nos. 8 to 10, Liberia; 
No. 11, Cameroun, Where positions of stations A and B differ, that for A is taken. 

6 Yola is a proximate reoccupation of Jimeta, 1914. 



Observers' Field Reports 



205 



waters of the Benue River and work down that stream while the stage of the water was 
sufficient for navigation. Mr. Sanders accordi gly left for Burutu September 26, took 
the river steamer directly to Yola, and made the short overland journey thence to 
Garoua, Cameroun, on horseback. He arrived at Garoua, October 17, and after the 
completion of the desired observations returned to Yola, and began the descent of the 
Benue River, November 3. Stops were made for observations at Amar (November 10 
and 11), at Ibi (November 12 to 15), and at Lokoja (November 20 to 26). From Lokoja, 
where the Benue River joins the Niger River, he ascended the latter as far as Baro by 
river steamer, and completed the journey to Jebba by railroad, going by way of Minna. 
Again by means of the railway he went northward to Zaria, where observations were 
made, and thence to Kano, near the northern limits of the colony. Here it was found 
impracticable to go farther northward and plans were made to start about January 1, 
1927, on an overland trip to Fort Lamy on Lake Tchad, and from there to work south- 
ward to the Congo River. 

The stations occupied are given in Table 50, together with dates of occupation and 
geographic positions; for further details, see Table of Results and Descriptions of 
Stations. 



J. Shearer, on Magnetic Work in Western Australia, October to November 1921 

Acting under instruction of the Director, I was detached from the Watheroo Observa- 
tory for a month's field work, at first with Mr. F. Brown, and later alone, reoccupying 
secular-variation stations in Western Australia. After arriving in Perth on the morning 
of October 29 and completing official business, I proceeded to Cottesloe and assisted 
Mr. Brown in the reoccupation of the C.I.W. station there. At Bunbury, the next 
station visited, evidences of local disturbance were present, so that a new station had 
to be chosen, and the usual monthly diurnal-variation observations were made jointly 

Table 51 



No. 



1 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 



Name 



Cottesloe, A . . . 

Bunbury, A . . . 

Bunbury, B . . . 
Katanning . . . . 

Narrogin 

Northam 

Southern Cross 
Coolgardie . 
Leonora 



Date 



1921 
Oct 30 
Oct 31- 
Nov 3 
Nov 2- 3 
Nov 5 
Nov 7 
Nov 10 
Nov 11-12 
Nov 14-16 
Nov 19 



Lat. South 



31 59.1 
33 20.1 



33 
33 
32 
31 
31 
30 
28 



20.6 
41.3 
55.8 
38.6 
13.6 
57.1 
51.0 



Long. East 



115 45 
115 37 



115 
117 
117 



38 
34 
10 



116 40 
119 20 



121 
121 



10 

18 



with Mr. Brown. Complete observations were made at Narrogin on November 7, 
after which Mr. Brown left for Perth, and I proceeded alone to Northam. Leaving 
Northam, I turned eastward and visited successively Southern Cross, Coolgardie, and 
Leonora, completing work at the last place on November 21. Because of the necessity 
of returning to Watheroo within the month, and because of the infrequent train service, 
I was obliged to omit two points which were designated for secular-variation observa- 
tions, Norseman and Laverton. Leaving Leonora on November 22, I arrived at Perth 
the following day and reported back at the Observatory at Watheroo on Saturday, 
the 26th. 

All the travel had been by rail, the total distance being about 1,700 miles, or the 
distance in the field about 1,450 miles, an average of about 180 miles per station. The 



206 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



field cost per station was about $25. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the valuable 
assistance rendered by the Government Astronomer, H. B. Curlewis, in the matter of 
obtaining time signals. 

Table 51 shows the stations occupied, with dates and geographic positions; for 
additional details, see Descriptions of Stations and Table of Results. 

Synopses of Additional Magnetic Surveys, 1921 to 1926 

Carnegie Shore Stations — A complete report of the work done on Cruise VI has 
been published in Volume V of this series, and that portion accomplished up to the 
end of 1920 at shore stations has also been published in Volume IV. The Carnegie 
left Washington in October 1919, and after cruising in the Atlantic, the Indian, and 
the Pacific oceans, arrived at San Francisco, California, February 19, 1921, where she 
remained until March 28 undergoing repairs. She then put in successively at Honolulu, 
Hawaiian Islands; at Apia, Samoa Islands; and at Balboa, Canal Zone. 

Table 52 shows the stations occupied at each of these ports during the year 1921, 
with the dates of occupation and geographic positions. The magnetic results and the 
details regarding the shore stations are repeated in this volume for the sake of complete- 
ness and will be found under Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 

Table 52 



No. 


Name 


Date 


Latitude 


Long. East 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


San Francisco, Fort Scott," A, B 


1921 
/Feb 26- 
\Mar 17 

Mar 18 

Apr 15-25 

July 1-20 

Oct 12 

Oct 17 


o / 

W 48.7 N 

37 58.6 N 

21 19.2 N 

13 48.4 S 

9 21.3 N 

9 00.2 N 


o / 

237 31 

237 27 
201 56 
188 14 
280 03 
280 31 


San Rafael 


Honolulu * 


Apia * 


Colon, Sweetwater 


Old Panama, A 





a At San Francisco the station at Fort Scott was substituted for that at Goat Island, which 
was no longer available. 

6 At Honolulu, observations were made at Sisal, Honolulu Magnetic Observatory Pier A, 
and stations A and B. 

c At Apia, observations were made at the Apia Observatory, North Pier, S. E. Pier, and West 
Pier, and at stations A and B. 

Fere E. Colin — In the general survey of Madagascar, Mr. Brown found it impossible 
to visit Tamatave on the east coast on account of conditions requiring a quarantine 
against that place when he reached that vicinity. In order to fill in the gap in the line 
of stations along that coast caused by this omission, Pere E. Colin, late director of the 
Tananarive Observatory, volunteered to make the observations when opportunity 
presented itself. This he was able to do, and he observed at Fenerive also on the same 
occasion, and kindly supplied the Department with his results. The dates of these 
observations and the geographic positions are given in Table 53. Additional details 
are given in the Descriptions of Stations and the Table of Results. 

Table 53 



No. 


Name 


Date 


Lat. South 


Long. East 


1 
2 




1921 
Sep 15-29 
Sep 21 


o / 

18 09.6 
17 22.4 


o / 

49 24 
49 23 


Fenerive 





G. F. Dodwell and A. L. Kennedy — The Department has been fortunate in the con- 
tinued cooperation of the Government Astronomer, G. F. Dodwell, of South Australia, 



Observers' Field Reports 



207 



and the Assistant Astronomer, A. L. Kennedy. Mr. Dodwell secured some data on a 
trip to the western boundary of the state, and Mr. Kennedy made observations during 
the eclipse of September 1922, near the northeast corner of South Australia, and carried 
out extensive comparison observations with Mr. Coleman at Port Augusta. 

The names of the stations, with dates of occupation and geographic positions, are 
given in Table 54; additional details may be found in Table of Results and Descrip- 
tions of Stations. 

Table 54 



No. 


Name ° 


Date 


Lat. South 


Long. East 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 


Cook 


Apr 14-15, 1921 

Mav 2- 3, 1921 

June 6, 1922 


o / 

30 37 
30 46 
30 17.3 

29 39.4 
26 42.9 
34 58 . 5 

34 54 . 9 
32 29 . 7 

30 04.4 

32 56 . 9 

33 41.0 

35 01.2 
35 05.9 
35 33.7 


o / 

130 25 
128 58 
138 21 
138 03 
140 38 
138 42 
138 37 

137 46 

138 17 
138 51 
138 56 
137 36 

137 46 

138 35 


Deakin 

Lyndhurst Siding 

Marree 


June 7,1922, May 9,1923 

Sep 15-22, 1922 

Feb 26-Mar 9, 1923.. . . 

Mar 9, 1923 

May 1-5, 1923 

Mav 9-12, 1923 

May 19, Oct 2-3, 1923.. 

June 20-21, 1924 

June 23-24, 1924 

Nov 29-Dec 1, 1924.... 


Cordillo Downs 

Mt. Lofty, A 

Adelaide, Botanical Park 

Port Augusta, A, B 

Farina 

Peterborough 

Burra 


Yorketown 


Edithburgh 


Port Victor. . 





° Stations Nos. 1 and 2 were occupied by Mr. Dodwell, the remainder by Mr. Kennedy; C. 
A. Madern and L. M. Waterford, of the observatory staff, assisted. 

Eclipse Parties — Wherever field parties have been working near the path of totality 
of a solar eclipse, the observers have carried out the program of special observations so 
far as possible with the field equipment. During the Australian eclipse of September 20, 
1922, D. G. Coleman occupied a station in its path at Coongoola, Queensland, Australia, 
and the cooperating party of A. L. Kennedy made observations at Cordillo Downs, in 
northeastern South Australia. On the same occasion C. M. Little made continuous 
observations at Huancayo, Peru, from 20 h 5 on September 20, to 3*0 September 21, local 
time, the Observatory not then being in operation. 

At the time of the eclipse of September 10, 1923, W. A. Love was in Guatemala, and 
carried out the three-day program, while a special party, consisting of J. P. Ault and 
H. F. Johnston, went to Point Loma, California, with apparatus for both magnetic and 
atmospheric-electric observations. Cooperation was also arranged by Captain Ault 
with observers at Mount Wilson. 

A party was organized for observations during the eclipse of January 10, 1925, 
under Captain J. P. Ault, who chose a station at Greenport, Long Island, New York. 
For this occasion a special temporary observatory was erected and magnetograph instru- 
ments installed. These were in charge of R. H. Goddard, assisted by J. E. Sanders, jr., 
while atmospheric-electric recording instruments were established in a second temporary 
building, in charge of C. B. Goldsmith. 

Liberian Boundary Survey — Arrangements were made with L. C. Daves, the chief 
engineer of the Liberian Boundary Survey, to make magnetic observations during the 
progress of the work of that expedition. To that end, he and his chief assistant, 
C. T. Bussell, were given instruction in the use of instruments which were loaned them, 
in November and December 1923. The observations, the records for which have been 
received, were made chiefly by Mr. Daves, who was assisted by Mr. Bussell, and by 
C. G. Cheeks, who received instruction from Mr. Daves. 



208 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



Table 55 shows the stations, with dates of occupation and geographic positions; 
additional details are given under Table of Results and Descriptions of Stations. 



Table 55 



No. 


Name 


Date 


Lat. North 


Long. East 


1 
•> 

3 

4 
5 


Monrovia (Bushrod Island) 


June 23-24, 1923 
Sep 3- 4, 1923 
July 4-21, 1924 
Aug 14-18, 1924 
Dec 11-16, 1924 


o / 

6 21.5 
6 45.3 

6 58.6 

7 16 
5 00 


o / 

349 12 
348 38 

350 01 
350 37 
350 55 


Robert Port (Cape Mount) 


Sanoye 

Naama 


Sino 





J. E. Sanders, Jr., and A. H. Kampe — In April 1925, before undertaking field assign- 
ments, observers J. E. Sanders, Jr., and A. H. Kampe carried out observations at a 
few of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey stations in southeastern United 
States, under the direction of H. W. Fisk. The purpose of the expedition was to obtain 
desired secular- and diurnal-variation data in the region visited while securing for the 
observers the necessary experience in field practice, with especial reference to methods 
for controlling diurnal-variation observations made with field instruments. 

The names of the stations, with dates of occupation and geographic positions, are 
given in Table 56; additional details will be found in Table of Results and Descriptions 
of Stations. 

Table 56 



No. 



Name 



Florence, South Carolina 

Whiteville, A, B, North Carolina 

Wayeross, A, B, Georgia 

Bunnell, A, B, Florida 

Jacksonville, A, B, Florida 

Dalton, A, B, Georgia 

Bristol, Virginia 



Date 



1925 
Apr 20 
Apr 21 
Apr 22-25 
Apr 27-29 
Apr 30 
May 2 
May 4, 5 



Lat. North 



34 
34 
31 
29 
30 
34 
36 



12. 

21. 

14. 

27. 

22. 

46.3 

36.2 



Long. East 



280 11 

281 18 

277 39 

278 44 
278 20 
275 02 
277 49 



United States Navy — The officials of the Hydrographic Office of the United States 
Navy have arranged to extend their program of magnetic observations in connection 
with chart surveys of shore-lines beyond the boundaries of this country. The Depart- 
ment has been glad to cooperate in two of these expeditions, one by the U. S. S. Niagara 
to the northern coast of Venezuela, on which the magnetic work was done by Lieutenant 
Jennings Courts; and the second by the U. S. S. Nokomis to the northern coast of Cuba, 
the magnetic work being in charge of Ensign S. E. Latimer. 

MacMillan Baffin Island Expedition- — The Department was fortunate in being able 
to assign one of its observers, R. H. Goddard, to the expedition organized by Dr. 
Donald B. MacMillan for exploration and scientific investigations in Baffin Island. 
G. Dawson Howell, Jr., of Dr. MacMillan's staff, was also trained at the Department 
in the methods of magnetic field-observations and use of other scientific instruments. 
Dr. MacMillan's auxiliary power schooner Bowdoin, of about 63 tons, was outfitted for 
the expedition and carried, besides the necessary supplies, the essential materials for 
constructing a temporary magnetic observatory in which the magnetograph instruments 
were operated. The Bowdoin, with its crew numbering seven men in all, left Wiscasset, 
Maine, on July 16, 1921, and made stops at Sydney, Nova Scotia; Bonne Bay, Newfound- 
land; Battle Harbor, Labrador; Ashe Inlet, Baffin Island; and at two stations in Fox 



Observers' Field Reports 



209 



Channel before reaching winter-quarters. The objective of the Expedition was the 
vicinity of Fury and Hecla Straits. Ice conditions prevented penetrating so far and the 
Bowdoin finally anchored for the winter in latitude 64° 24' north and longitude 77° 52' 
west, in a natural harbor on the southwest of Baffin Island and named Bowdoin Harbor 
by Dr. MacMillan. 

The observatory was set up at this place and continuous photographic registrations 
of the usual three magnetic elements and the electric potential-gradient were made from 
about November 1 to about the middle of June 1922, with the necessary control observa- 
tions in the interval. Observations were also made of the tides, polar lights, and meteoro- 
logical conditions. 

During the time of the December full moon, Mr. Howell made a sledge trip to Cape 
Dorset, about 50 miles to the east, and in January traveled northward about 100 miles 
to the vicinity of Cape Dorchester. A second trip was made by Mr. Howell in this 
region in April, but penetrating inland some 40 miles farther. Early in May he under- 
took a sledge journey eastward along the southern coast of Baffin Island to Lake Harbor, 
and thence 110 miles farther and return by canoe. He was then able to join the Hudson's 
Bay Company's ship Bayeskimo to the north coast of Baffin Island, making observations 
at Albert Harbor and Pond's Inlet. Mr. Howell, having been detached from the Bowdoin 
for this special work, returned to St. John's, Newfoundland, on the Bayeskimo, making 
two stops in Labrador on the way. 

On the return voyage of the Bowdoin stops were made at a few points along the 
coast, and these were utilized as far as possible by Mr. Goddard for obtaining observations. 

Table 57 shows the stations occupied by the party aboard the Bowdoin, with dates 
and geographic positions. 

Table 57 



No. 



9 
10 
11 
12 



Name 



Sydney, Nova Scotia 

Bonne Bay, Newfoundland 

Battle Harbor, D 

Battle Harbor, C 

Ashe Inlet, A 

Fox Channel 

Queen's Cape 

Bowdoin Harbor 

Cape Dorset, A, B 

Port Burwcll, B 

Nain 

Battle Harbor, D 



Date 



1921 
July 25 
July 29 



Aug 1- 2 
Aug 3 
Aug 17 
Aug 22 
Sep 3 
Nov to 
June 1922 

1922 
Aug 5 
Aug 13 
Aug 20 
Aug 30 



Lat. North 



46 09 
49 34 



52 
52 



16 
16 



62 33 

65 52 

64 42 

64 24 



64 14 

60 25 

56 33 

52 16 



Long. East 



25 
25 

9S 



299 48 
302 02 
304 
304 
289 
279 46 

281 08 

282 08 



283 26 

295 08 

298 19 

304 25 



Table 58 shows the stations occupied by Mr. Howell when on expeditions away 
from the Bowdoin, with dates and geographic positions. 

Maud Expedition, 1918-1921 — Cooperative arrangements were made with Captain 
Roald Amundsen to secure magnetic observations during this expedition in the Arctic 
north of Russia and Siberia. The Maud, with a personnel of ten men, left Vardo, Norway, 
July 18, 1918, and sailed along the north coast until she had passed Cape Chelyuskin, the 
most northerly point of Siberia. Here progress was stopped by the ice on September 13, 
and preparations were made for passing the winter about 25 miles east of the cape. During 
the stay at this place some sledge journeys were made about Chelyuskin Peninsula, and 
late in 1919 the vessel, after much difficulty, was made free from the ice and proceeded 
eastward. The attempt to penetrate the drift-ice here and move with it across the polar 



210 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



sea was unsuccessful, and quarters for the second winter, 1919-20, were established 
at Ayon Island. During this winter Dr. H. U. Sverdrup made some excursions inland, 
traveling and living with the nomadic Chukchi, a number of whom were found living at 
Ayon at the time of the vessel's arrival. The Maud left Ayon Island on July 6, 1920, 
and arrived at Nome, Alaska, on July 27, 1920. After a short stay, the Maud again left 
for the Arctic, to make a third attempt to pierce the drifting ice-fields, but was again 
frustrated by the unusually large quantity of ice, in struggling with which the propeller 
shaft was broken, and a third winter was passed, this time at Cape Serdze Kamen, about 
70 miles west of Bering Strait. During this winter, sledge journeys by Dr. Sverdrup 
and Mr. Wisting to Holy Cross Bay on the south and to Pitlekai on the north of Chukotsk 
Peninsula. The Maud left her winter-quarters on July 1 and arrived at Seattle, Wash- 
ington, on August 31, 1921. 

Table 58 



No. 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 



Name 



Baffin Island No. 1 

Baffin Island No. 2 

Cape Dorset 

Nauwatta 

Baffin Island No. 3 (Noovooknok) 

Baffin Island No. 4 

Baffin Island No. 5 

Baffin Island No. 6 

Baffin Island No. 7 

Amadjuak 

Baffin Island No. 8 (Etenilk) 

Baffin Island No. 9 (Sabooyak) . . . 

Lake Harbor 

Baffin Island No. 10 

Baffin Island No. 11 ] . . 

Baffin Island No. 12 

Albert Harbor 

Ponds Inlet 

Rigolet 

Cartwright 

St. John's, C 



Date 



1921 
Dec 12 
Dec 15 
Dec 18 

1922 



1 
5 

10 
4 
8 

11 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Apr 
Apr 
May 
May 18 
May 22 
May 24 
June 4, 
June 18 
June 21 
June 28- 
Sep 
Sep 
Sep 



10 



Sep 
Oct 



-29 

5 

6 
25-26 
29 

6- 7 



Lat. North 



64 25° 

64 18° 

64 14 

65 12" 
65 24 
65 06° 
65 24 
65 20 
64 19 
64 02 
63 26 
63 04 
62 51 
62 25 
62 09 
61 55 
72 42 
72 41 
54 11 
53 42 
47 34 



Long. East 



282 30 ° 

282 55 ° 

283 26 



282 
282 
282 
283 
284 
284 
287 
287 
288 
290 
290 
292 
293 
282 
281 
301 
303 
307 



24" 

27 

18" 

19 

06 

50 

05 

47 

45 

04 

56 

01 

17 

26 

58 

33 

02 

16 



a These positions are not sufficiently well determined to warrant an accuracy greater than 
0°.l in either latitude or longitude. 

(Magnetic data gathered on this expedition were not received in time for inclusion 
in Volume IV of this series, and are accordingly published with those of the following 
expedition with Land Results of 1921-1926. The more complete narrative will be found 
with Dr. Sverdrup's full report on pages 514-524.) 

Maud Expedition, 1922-1925 — The Maud left Seattle, Washington, under command 
of Captain Oscar Wisting, June 3, 1922, Captain Amundsen having made plans for 
explorations by means of an all-metal airplane. The attempt was, as on the previous 
expedition, to force the vessel into the ice, this time at a point in the vicinity of Wrangell 
Island, and to drift across the Arctic Sea to the vicinity of Spitzbergen. The vessel was 
closed in by the ice on August 8 in latitude 71° 16' north, longitude 184° 54' east of Green- 
wich. Magnetic observations were made in improvised shelters during the winter, 
and while made over the sea, the conditions were such that the results are comparable 
with land observations, and they are accordingly included in the Table of Results of 
land stations in this volume. The hope to drift northward across the Arctic was 
defeated by the occurrence of a series of very heavy winds, which carried the ice, with 
which the vessel was drifting, about 100 miles to the south, so that the winter of 1923-24 



Observers' Field Reports 211 

was spent in the general vicinity of latitude 75° north and longitude 158° east. In 
August 1924, the vessel was freed from the ice which had held her for the two winters, 
and the attempt was made, in accordance with a radio message from Captain Amundsen, 
to get away from the ice and return to Bering Strait. The attempt to pass around the 
eastern side of the New Siberian Islands having proven unsuccessful, these islands were 
passed on the western side and the mainland was reached at the bay off the Kolyma 
River, on August 8, 1924, and after futile attempts to proceed eastward, winter-quarters 
of comparative safety were secured close to Four Pillar Island of the Bear Island group. 
On July 13, 1925, the ice broke again around the Maud, and it was possible to proceed 
eastward, so that on August 22 the expedition was terminated at Nome, Alaska. A 
fuller report of this expedition will be found in the report of Dr. Sverdrup, on pages 
519-524. 

Standardization observations — Wherever feasible, field observers compare their field 
instruments with those of other organizations in the regions covered. References to 
such occasions will be found under the work of each observer. In 1922, W. C. Parkinson, 
on his return to the Office from the Watheroo Observatory, made a trip through western 
Europe, for the chief purpose of comparing his instruments with the standards of the 
principal European observatories. His itinerary is outlined in detail in his report. 

Each field outfit is compared with the standard instrument at Washington before 
it is sent out, and again on its return. The results of the observations with the standards 
are given in Table of Results under Washington S. M. O. (Standardizing Magnetic 
Observatory) ; those obtained by the instrument compared are not given, as a correction 
is adopted to reduce them to the values obtained by the standards. In March 1924 
J. W. Green took magnetometer 3 and earth inductor 48, the Department's standard 
instruments, to Cheltenham to secure a direct comparison with the standards of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. In December 1924, W. E. W. Jackson, of the 
Meteorological Service of Canada, visited the Department and made comparisons 
between the standards of that service (magnetometer C. I. W. 15, and earth inductor 
Toepfer 89) with the Department's standard instruments. Magnetometer-inductors, 
made after the C. I. W. pattern, by the Precise Instrument Company, Nos. 102 and 105, 
for the Meteorological Office of Argentina, No. 103 for the San Fernando Observatory of 
Spain, and No. 107 for the National Observatory of Mexico, were compared at the 
Standardizing Magnetic Observatory to determine their correction on the provisional 
International Magnetic Standards of the Department. 



SPECIAL FIELD REPORT 

H. W. Fisk, on Observations of the Bermuda Magnetic Anomaly, 1907 and 1922 

Two expeditions have been sent by the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism to 
Bermuda to study the magnetic anomaly known to exist there. The first of these was 
in 1907, the results of which have been published only in part; the second was in 1922, 
and is further described in the observer's field report on page 142. In 1905 a detailed 
survey of the distribution of the declination was made throughout the entire colony by 
J. F. Cole, 1 in cooperation with Dr. E. L. Mark of Harvard University, director of the 
Bermuda Biological Station. To supplement this valuable work, Dr. Mark invited the 
Department to send an observer as a member of the biological party of the summer of 
1907 who should make a similar survey to include particularly the values of the magnetic 
inclination and horizontal-intensity. In response to this invitation, H. W. Fisk carried 
out the survey of 1907, making his headquarters with the party at Agar's Island, and 
enjoying the use of the facilities of the station. 

The plan of this survey included the establishment of five primary stations at 
widely separated places, observations being made with usual field instruments and 
stations being permanently marked for use of future expeditions. The results of the 
observations at these stations and their detailed descriptions are published in Volume I, 
pages 95 and 178. In addition to these primary stations, it was the purpose to make 
observations at numerous other points, by a method which would permit of rapid work, 
but still yield results of sufficient accuracy, when the large change in the magnetic field 
with slight change of position was taken into account. The best instrument available 
at that time was a Dover dip circle, having provision for making deflections for the 
determination of total intensity by the Lloyd method, and a compass-attachment for 
obtaining declination. During a stay of about five weeks, besides the primary stations, 
78 supplemental stations were occupied, and eye-observations for diurnal variation of 
declination were made on three days. Inclination was determined from the intensity 
observations with the deflected dip-needle, which often was used also as a regular dip- 
needle. Intensity observations were often abbreviated by the omission of the loaded- 
dip observations, but the latter were made often enough to control the changes in mag- 
netic moment. Where the means of transportation permitted, a theodolite was carried 
in addition to the dip circle and at such times azimuths were obtained for reliable determi- 
nations of the declination, except at those stations reached near the middle of the day, 
when the position of the Sun was unfavorable. As the distances between stations were 
generally short, the observer most frequently walked, carrying the instrument and 
tripod. On those days, when the position of the Sun and the state of the weather per- 
mitted, approximate declinations were obtained by allowing the image of the Sun to 
fall through the slits in the sighting-vanes of the compass attachment. By use of azimuth 
tables and corrections obtained by experiment, fair values of declination resulted. 

In selecting supplemental stations, an attempt was made to include as many of 
those occupied by the Challenger in 1873 as could be identified. Owing to the meager 
descriptions and the frequent change of names of islands or localities, close recovery was 
seldom possible, though in some cases it is believed close approximations were made. 
At the dock-yard the fragment of a stone marker of the Challenger station was pointed 
out by an officer, but the presence in the vicinity of structures and loose magnetic material 
makes that position of questionable value. Some of the other stations at which fairly 

1 Terr. Mag., vol. 13 (1908), pp. 49-56. 
212 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 213 

close reoccupations were made are: Wreck Hill (No. 2), Cricket Ground, Somerset 
(No. 6), Barge Island (Spectacle Island, No. 19), Tatem Island (Hawkins Island, No. 
22), Spanish Point (Cobbler's Island, A, No. 24), Clarence Cove (No. 33), Ducking 
Stool (No. 39 or 40), Governor's Garden (Mount Langton, No. 42). 

To identify the points of observation, a descriptive name has been applied, and a 
brief description given. To further assist in identification, the geographic coordinates 
are given to 0.01 minute of arc in both latitude and longitude, the position being scaled 
from the large-scale maps of the Ordnance Survey (6 inches = 1 mile) , which comprise 
six large sheets, and show sufficient detail to permit very accurate plotting. No coordi- 
nate lines were printed on the maps and these were supplied; the starting-point for the 
plotting of these lines was the signal mast at the Ireland Island Dockyard, the position 
of which was courteously supplied by Captain H. P. Douglas, R. N., who was in charge 
of the resurvey for the revision of the charts in 1922 to 1923. The position given for 
this point by Captain Douglas is latitude 32° 19! 51 north and longitude 64° 50! 28 
west. Transfer of positions obtained from this point of reference to adjoining sheets 
was difficult, some inaccuracy being inevitable because of difference in shrinkage of the 
paper for the different sections; it is believed, however, that errors from this source 
are of no practical consequence. 

The results from the observations of 1907 of the Bermuda magnetic anomaly are 
given in the Table of Results (see pp. 105-106). 

In 1922 two observers, H. W. Fisk and J. T. Howard, made observations amplifying 
the former survey in important particulars. Several regions had been shown by the 
results obtained in 1907 to be of particular interest, and detailed attention was directed 
to these. The equipment was better adapted for rapid as well as accurate work. The 
use of the compass-variometer to determine horizontal intensity quickly at stations 
close together, varying according to circumstances from but a few feet to a quarter of 
a mile apart, made possible the detailed studies of local conditions not practicable with 
the usual field magnetometers. For an account of such work see Volume V, pages 355- 
357. The method of observing at supplementary stations found most satisfactory 
was as follows. The universal-type magnetometer 14 (see Vol. II, pp. 7-9, for descrip- 
tion) was first set up as for deflections, and the four deflection-angles at a single distance 
were read. If the position of the Sun and the state of the weather permitted, four 
readings of altitude and azimuth of Sun were next made. The mean deflection-angle 
and a knowledge of the magnetic moment of the deflecting magnet provided means 
for computing the horizontal intensity; the mean magnetic meridian obtained from the 
deflections and the altitude and azimuth readings of the Sun supplied the data to deter- 
mine the declination. While one observer set up and adjusted the galvanometer on its 
tripod, the other replaced the magnetometer by the earth inductor, and a few moments 
only were required for finding the value of the inclination. The whole process could be 
completed within a half hour. The dip-circle feature of magnetometer 14, both for 
inclination and intensity by the Lloyd method, was found much inferior and was not 
used at the later stations. 

When weather or other conditions were unfavorable, the compass-variometer became 
the intensity instrument. It was found desirable to use it in addition to the magneto- 
meter at stations where there was a wide range of value in intensity. Occasional com- 
parisons with the magnetometer were made to control changes in its calibration which 
did not remain constant. 

The coordinates of the stations of 1922 were found, as were those of 1907. The 
results for the survey in 1922 at the primary stations and at the supplementary stations 
are given in the Table of Results on pages 107-108. The values of the horizontal inten- 
sity determined by the compass-variometer made in Sandy's Parish, east of Main Road, 



214 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



extending from Evans' Bay to King's Point, and the geographical positions, together 
with brief descriptions, are given in Table 59. 

Table 59— Results of Observations for Magnetic Horizontal Intensity Obtained with Compass-Variometer 



Date and 
designation 


Latitude 
North 


Longitude 
West 


Hor. int. 


Description 


1922 




O / 


O / 


c. g. s. 




Sep. 11, 


a 


32 15.66 


64 52.05 


0.2177 


Evans' Bay, A, repeat, see No. 10. 


11, 


b 


15.69 


52.01 


.2188 


Evans' Bay, B, repeat, see No. 14. 


11, 


c 


15.75 


51.98 


.2231 


Half-way along path from Evans' Bay, B, to Monkey Hole. 


11, 


d 


15.82 


51.98 


.2275 


Monkey Hole, see No. 17. 


11, 


e 


15.87 


51.97 


.2306 


Old quarry south of house at Rockaway. 


11, 


f 


15.93 


51.99 


.2316 


In path above Rockaway, close to Rockaway, B, see No. 16. 


11, 





16.02 


51.92 


.2331 


East of first building north of Rockaway, between water and 
house. 


11, 


h 


16.06 


51.95 


.2332 


About 30 feet north of second boundary wall north of Rockaway, 
35 feet from the water's edge. 


11, 


i 


16.13 


52.00 


.2334 


About 50 feet south of boundary-line in small bay, the third im- 
mediately south of King George's Bay, 35 feet from the water. 


11, 


J 


16.20 


52.00 


.2320 


About 10 feet from water at head of long, narrow bay, the second 
south of King George's bay. 


11, 


k 


16.21 


51.96 


.2339 


On end of second point south of King's Point, see No. 19. (The 
highest value of horizontal intensity observed.) 


11, 


I 


16.24 


52.03 


.2315 


At head of first bay south of King George's Bay. 


11, 


m 


16.30 


51.96 


.2319 


Near end of point on south side of King George's Bay. 


11, 


n 


16.38 


52.02 


.2298 


Northwest corner of King George's Bay, 25 feet from water's 

edge. 
Extreme end of King's Point, see No. 21. 


11, 





16.35 


51.83 


.2295 


11, 


V 


16.37 


52.12 


.2293 


Reoccupation of No. 9. 


11, 


Q 


16.32 


52.15 


.2300 


Road intersection west of King's Point. 


11, 


r 


16.22 


52.40 


.2262 


Top of hill on King's Point Road, about 150 yards from Main 
Road. 


11, 


s 


16.19 


52.49 


.2246 


Intersection of Main Road and King's Point Road. 


11, 


t 


15.94 


52.31 


.2270 


On Main Road at entrance to Grove estate. 


11, 


u 


15.85 


52.23 


.2265 


On Main Road at entrance to Rockaway. 


Sep. 13, 


a 


32 15.81 


64 52.20 


.2226 


Opposite small shop near entrance to Rockaway. 


13, 


b 


15.76 


52.16 


.2237 


On Main Road opposite north end of Evans' Pond. 


13, 


c 


15.64 


52.14 


.2202 


On Main Road at junction with road to public wharf at Evans' 

Bay. 
Half-way between pond and house east of pond, 30 feet north 


13, 


d 


15.72 


52.04 


.2193 












of stable. 


13, 


e 


15.79 


52.08 


.2212 


Point on top of hill one-third way from pond to east-west road. 


13, 


f 


15.83 


51.99 


.2244 


Top of ridge about 100 feet north of house, between sound and 
pond. 


13, 


Q 


15.86 


52.07 


.2259 


On ridge at Rockaway boundary, 150 feet southeast of Rock- 
away Quarry, see No. 11. 


13, 


h 


15.88 


52.03 


.2264 


On edge above quarry. 


13, 


i 


15.88 


52.03 


.2266 


In quarry, see No. 11. 


13, 


3 


15.89 


52.09 


.2267 


In road to Rockaway opposite quarry. 



In addition to the compass-variometer results as given above, values were read at a large number of points in the 
vicinity of Mont Royal in Paget; these will be described and discussed elsewhere in connection with special investigations of 
local variations in that locality. 



Descriptions or Primary Stations, Bermuda, 1907 and 1922 1 

Black Bay, 1922 — South of main road between Black Bay and east end of Wilson's Island, in 
old roadway running along high terrace above main road, 14 paces east of boundary wall and about 
90 feet (27.4 meters) from road below. True bearing: left clock-tower, 184° 19 '3. 

Ireland Island, 1907, 1922 — On Moresby's Plain within small mound surrounded by old stone 
coping, 51.7 feet (15.76 meters) and 54.3 feet (16.55 meters) respectively from southeast and south- 
west corners of larger platform marked "911 yards", and 71.4 feet (21.76 meters) from north corner 
of shed used as players' club-house on the cricket-field. True bearings : left wireless mast at Daniel's 
Head, 59° 52'A; right wireless mast, 62° 06:4; west corner target bank west of fort, 202° 37^5. 

1 See Res. Dep. Terr. Mag., Vol. I, p. 178, for more detailed descriptions as regards stations of 1907; see also pp. 287-288 
of this volume for more detailed descriptions as regards stations of 1922. 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 215 

Spectacle Island or Hunt's Island, 1907, 1922 — In an open area in western part of the island where 
there is quantity of soil, surrounded by trees, but open northward to the sea. True bearings : right 
wireless tower at Daniel's Head, 141° 16 !5; left edge tank at Boaz bridge, 159° 14 '1; left clock-tower 
at dockyard, 180° 34! 2; vane on Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 351° 28! 2. 

Agar's Island, 1907, 1922 — Near west end of low southern portion of island, over marking-stone 
set in 1907. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 27° 52'7; old beacon on south side of Two-Rock 
Passage, 44° 46 '0; left wireless mast on Daniel's Head, 100° 53 '5; left clock-tower at dockyard, 
146° 52:5. 

Mont Royal, A, 1922 — On vacant lot once planting-ground east of house at Mont Royal, 18 
feet (5.5 meters) west of path leading down to Main Road, 48 feet (14.6 meters) from boundary of 
lot where line to lighthouse passes over south gate-post west of house. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill 
Lighthouse, 56° 24(9; spire on A.M.E. Chapel, 26° 35(1; north corner Mont Royal, 92° 35 'A; right 
wireless mast, 110° 21 '3; flagpole near house on hill, 351° 47'6. 

Mont Royal, C, 1922 — On hill under shade of large trees near boundary to Mount Pleasant, 
104 feet (31.70 meters) east of Mont Royal, A, on line from south edge of false chimney on north 
corner cf Mont Royal produced through station A. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 56° 
37 '.2; south edge north chimney on Mont Royal, 89° 23! 7. 

Agricultural Station, 1922 — In experiment gardens south of offices, south of east-west cross- 
driveway and northwest of old shed surrounded by high hedge, 10 feet (3 meters) south of edge of 
cross-road and 76.5 feet (23.32 meters) west of fence bounding grounds on east, under group of trees 
which provide shade for greater portion of day. True bearings: north corner at top of chimney on 
superintendent's residence, 138° 56 '. 1 ; near corner of farmhouse, 216° 35 '. 5; east corner of same house 
217° 53:i; apex of dormer of Southsea, 358° 00! 6. 

Nonsuch Island, 1907, 1922 — On top of ridge about 100 meters west of west hospital building, 
just west of limit of low scrub that covers that portion of island, about 35 feet (10.7 meters) from 
cliff that drops abruptly to sea on northwest, and about 50 meters from water's edge down more 
gradual slope to south. The stone left to mark station in 1907 was later found 15 feet (4.6 meters) 
northeast of point occupied in 1922 and 10 feet (3.0 meters) north of line from station to roof of 
women's ward at hospital. The marker of 1907 was buried beneath pile of loose stones. True 
bearings: observation tower called "The Peak", 62° 49!8; left edge of Martello Tower, 110° 38^4; 
signal mast Fort George, 156° 14! 5; top of roof of women's ward, 241° 35 '.8; sharp pinnacle in left 
portion of Gurnet Rock, 345° 59^7. 

St. George, 1907, 1922 — On park lands north of town between Poorhouse and Fort Victoria 
26 feet (7.9 meters) west of edge of cut through which road passes northward from park gate, 68 
feet (20.7 meters) southwest of boundary stone at north end of cut on east side of road, and exactly 
in line with signal mast at Fort George and south edge of Poorhouse, and in line from St. David's 
Lighthouse and square church tower on hillside toward town; marked by coral stone coated with 
cement in top of which diagonal lines were drawn and lettered "CIW XXII". True bearings: 
southeast corner of St. George Hotel, 4° 44!2; south corner of Poorhouse, 59° 52 '6; flagpole at Fort 
Victoria, 242° 23 'A; St. David's Lighthouse, 311° 27(2. 

Descriptions of Secondary Stations, Bermuda, July and August 1907 

(1) Daniel's Head, 1907 — On extreme southwesterly projection of promontory as near edge 
as it was convenient to work. True bearing: Somerset church, 329° 20' 

(2) Wreck Hill, 1907 — On summit of hill at point 31.5 feet (9.60 meters) southeast from south- 
east corner of old pilot lookout house; pilot mast stands about midway on line joining station and 
southeast corner of house. Approximate true bearing: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 302° 24' 

(3) Tudor Hill, 1907 — Among bushes, as near summit of Tudor Hill as could be attained. 
Approximate true bearings: Somerset church, 184° 20' ; Hogfish beacon, 225° 51' ; lighthouse, 289° 
39: 

(4) Whitney Bay, 1907 — Near south shore of Whitney Bay, in unused roadway marked by 
military monuments. A monument stands near fence about 150 feet (46 meters) west of station. 

(5) Scaur Lodge, 1907 — On lawn before lodge, 55 feet (16.8 meters) west of wall bounding 
grounds along highway, 19 feet (5.8 meters) south of driveway leading into dooryard, and 30 feet 
(9.1 meters) east of concrete platform standing near driveway. Approximate true bearing: light- 
house, 313° 01 : 



216 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

(6) Cricket Ground, 1907 — Near center of south side of Somerset Cricket Grounds or Naval 
Recreation Park, 104 feet (31.7 meters) from southeast corner of players' shelter, 63 feet (19.2 
meters) from southwest corner of concrete cricket-pitch, and 83 feet (25.3 meters) and 82.5 feet 
(25.2 meters) from two large trees standing by wall to southwest and southeast respectively; these 
trees are 42 feet (12.8 meters) apart. True bearings: southeast corner of pavilion, 76° 51'; tele- 
graph-post in line with cottage chimney, 145° 33'; monument at northeast corner, 244° 58'; nearest 
corner of large house, 314° 44! 

(7) Mangrove Bay, 1907 — Near extremity of point extending across north side of Mangrove 
Bay, in line through signboard on point and central pier of drawbridge between Somerset and Boaz, 
about 29 feet (8.8 meters) from bank on north, 55 feet (16.8 meters) from bank on south in line with 
wharf, and 12 feet (3.7 meters) northwest of mound used as firing-point in target practice. True 
bearings: northwest corner of shed at pier, 26° 02'; signal mast at fort, 239° 25'; east gable of red 
roof, 296° 03! 

(8) Tatem Point, 1907 — Near extremity of Tatem Point, about 100 feet (30 meters) west of 
channel which is filled at high-water, making island of extreme point, about 15 feet (4.6 meters) from 
north and south shore-lines, and large flat rock is about 4 feet (1.2 meters) west and smaller one 
about the same distance east of station. Approximate true bearings: cathedral at Hamilton, 
269° 00'; lighthouse, 328° 44 '. 

(9) Port Royal Bay, 1907 — Between Whale Bay and Evans' Bay, in by-road leading from 
Whitney Bay station to main road, about half-way up hill from Port Royal Bay, at point where 
road forks. 

(10) Evans' Bay, 1907 — -Under some trees on west side of Evans' Bay, about 10 rods (50 
meters) from end of bay, where by-road runs up hill to some small cottages to west. 

(11) Frank's Bay, 1907 — In open space near shore on east side of Frank's Bay, about 20 rods 
(100 meters) north of road and east of large residence, at point where there is an old stone house 
used as stable. The point is just below where ground begins to slope toward bay. 

(12) Wilson's Island, 1907 — West of Port Royal, on shore opposite Wilson's Island, at point 
just north of clump of bushes along north side of road. 

(13) Morgan's Island, 1907 — -Near eastern extremity of island, about 120 feet (36 meters) 
from most easterly point, about 150 feet (46 meters) from shore-line to southward, and 35 feet 
(10.7 meters) south of southeast corner of old pit. True bearings: west clock-tower, 190° 50'; 
Hogfish beacon, 207° 22'; south tower on cathedral, 245° 28'; lighthouse, 325° 37 '. 

(14) Cemetery, 1907 — Along west shore, 115 feet (35 meters) west of northwest corner of 
cemetery and south of Masonic Building; two cedar trees, 42 feet (12.8 meters) apart are respectively 
45 feet (13.7 meters) northeast and 27 feet (8.2 meters) southeast of station, and telephone-pole 
stands 12 feet (3.6 meters) northwest. True bearings: flagpole, King's Point, 73° 08'; "T piece," 
138° 04'; magnetic station, Moresby's Plain, 219° 40'; west corner of cemetery, 298° 2T. 

(15) Sailors' Home, 1907 — In open space just north of grounds of Royal Sailors' Home, south- 
east of old quarry pit, 85 feet (25.9 meters) from line of palings around some wooden buildings to 
northeast, and 35 feet (10.7 meters) from stone wall, topped with broken glass, along south. Three 
small trees are 15 feet, 10 feet, and 10 feet (4.6 meters, 3 meters, and 3 meters) to southeast, south, 
and southwest, respectively. True bearings: center of north entrance to Home building, 5° 36'; 
west corner of paling, 191° 07'; north gable of building, 304° 03'. 

(17) Challenger Stone, 1907 — About 400 feet (122 meters) distant from large steel floating 
dock and close to road, over fragment of stone with cemented top flush with surface in place where 
building material had been stored, and where ground was thickly strewn with debris containing 
much iron. The portion of stone remaining bears the letters " — ENGER — 873". About 75 feet 
(23 meters) southward from house (possibly the "Mitchell's Store" of the Challenger description) 
and 50 feet (15.2 meters) eastward from fence along cliff overlooking Moresby's Plain. ("Moresby's 
Plain" station not visible on account of hill and fence.) True bearings: signal mast, 221° 09'; 
Hogfish Beacon, 310° 50'; east gable of red roof, 316° 38'. 

(18) Gibbs' Hill, 1907 — Near old pilot mast on summit of Gibbs' Hill, about one-fourth mile 
(0.4 km.) west of lighthouse, on east edge of abandoned quarry pit, about 25 feet (8 meters) 
east of old boundary wall, and about 35 feet (11 meters) from trees and shrubs to southward. True 
bearing: lighthouse, 272° 20'. 

(21) Burt Island, 1907 — On narrow neck near northwest corner of island, at edge of clump of 
cedars about 20 feet (6 meters) southward from group of high rocks, 75 feet (22.9 meters) from water 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 217 

to northeast and about 200 feet (61 meters) to water westward; the extreme northern point is about 
150 feet (46 meters) distant, and an old concrete pier at water's edge is in line with channel south of 
Marshall Island. True bearings: lighthouse, 17° 43'; flagpole, Ports Island, 212° 51'; south tower of 
cathedral, 243° 41'. 

(22) Hawkins Island {Tatem Island of Challenger report), 1907- — At summit above concrete 
steps about midway of north side of island, on highest point 25 feet (7.6 meters) south of second 
turn of roadway, where line to Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse passes midway between two cedars about 14 
feet (4 meters) distant. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 9° 20'; west clock at dockyard, 
171° 33'; magnetic station at Agar's Island, 250° 14'; channel range board near World's End, 264° 53'. 

(23) Nelly Island, 1907 — Near middle of summit of bare knoll, standing rather higher than 
adjacent lands, between two artificial reservoirs, about 10 feet (3 meters) east of highest point of 
island. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 16° 19'; magnetic station at Agar's Island, 233° 30'. 

(24, 25) Cobbler's Island, 1907 — Station A is near center of island over government marker 
about 2 feet (0.6 meters) high with letter "A" and crowfoot on western face. True bearings: 
Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 13° 27'; Hogfish Beacon, 233° 02'; flagpole near house on adjacent mainland, 
291° 35'. Station B is about 125 feet (38 meters) east along axis of island toward flagpole south of 
large stone house on main island. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 13° 45'; flagpole on 
mainland, 248° 25'. 

(26) Spanish Point, 1907 — ^On Plaice's Point, one of smaller points that are included in large 
locality known as Spanish Point, very nearly in line from station on Agar's Island to Commissioner's 
House on headland at northern extremity of Ireland Island. Along this line it is 126 feet (38.4 
meters) to edge of bank toward southeast and 106 feet (32.3 meters) to edge of bank to northwest, 
and about 150 feet (46 meters) to water's edge westerly, measured over ruins of old stone structure. 
True bearings : Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 16° 36'; clock-tower at dockyard, 143° 46'; magnetic station 
at Agar's Island, 332° 45'. 

(30) Small Island No. 1, 1907— At center of small islet, south of Two-Rock Passage, nearest 
islet to Long Island in chain joining Agar's Island and Long Island. True bearings: lighthouse, 
28° 01'; clock-tower at dockyard, 160° 59'; station at Agar's Island, 225° 31'; station at Dyer Island, 
318° 43'. 

(31) Dyer Island, 1907 — Approximately 250 feet (76 meters) from western extremity of island, 
about 150 feet (46 meters) from north shore, and about 100 feet (30 meters) from south shore. It 
is in by-road which runs along top of ridge through sage and cedar brush; line joining Shares Point 
station and Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse passes through station. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 
30° 46'; magnetic station at Agar's Island, 187° 20'; south tower of cathedral at Hamilton, 252° 34'. 

(32) Small Island southeast of Fern Island, 1907 — At center of small islet, southeast of Fern 
(or Sin) Island, and south of Marshall Island. True bearing: lighthouse, 32° 28'. 

(33) Clarence Cove, 1907 — -To westward from landing on rather high, rocky table along water's 
edge, 24 feet (7.3 meters) to edge of cliff northward, 108 feet (32.9 meters) to pipe standing out of 
ground westward, and 70.5 feet (21.49 meters) to edge of cliff eastward. True bearings: signal 
mast, Admiralty house, 40° 12'; clock-tower, 125° 03'; St. David's Lighthouse, 246° 26'; signal mast, 
Government House, 282° 27'. 

(34) Point Shares, 1907 — On point about 15 feet (4 meters) from water's edge, and about 
10 feet (3 meters) from small lone cedar tree. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 30° 51'; 
magnetic station at Agar's Island, 99° 49'. 

(35) Channel Island, 1907 — Near north end of small islet by which is placed range marking 
Two-Rock Passage, about midway of northern part, where bare rock meets grass-covered soil, and 
southeast of rock sometimes called "World's End"; in line joining station on Dyer Island and south 
tower of cathedral. True bearings: lighthouse, 35° 05'; magnetic station at Agar's Island, 125° 03'; 
south tower of cathedral, 252° 34'. 

(36) Warwick Church, 1907 — Across small garden northeast of Warwick Church, on north 
margin of by-road where it crosses boundary-line marked by fragments of stone wall. 

(37) Cross Roads, 1907 — Observations were made under group of cedars in southeast angle of 
intersection of road south of Poorhouse with road marking boundary between Paget and Warwick 
parishes. 

(38) Swan's Bay, 1907 — West of Swan's Bay, north of road, at point where the rocky margin 
between road and sea is unusually wide, north of grove of shrubby cedars, 80 feet (24.4 meters) 



218 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

northwest of gateway where cart track leaves road. The cliff is 60 feet (18.3 meters) north, 75 
feet (22.9 meters) east, and 150 feet (46 meters) west of station. 

(39) Ducking Stool, 8, 1907 — About 81 paces west of Ducking Stool, 1, in line with chimney 
near Swan's Bay. 

(40) Ducking Stool, 1, 1907 — North of highway west of bathing-pool, 107 feet (32.6 meters) 
from end of hedge west of by-road leading to pier, 13 feet (4 meters) west of an old quarry pit, 112 
feet (34.1 meters) from top of steps down to landing, and 34 feet (10.4 meters) northwest of sign- 
board. True bearings: chimney on house near Swan's Bay, 82° 40! 6, •flagstaff at Admiralty House, 
91° 57' .1; clock at dockyard, 114° 28: 1. 

(41) Ducking Stool, 2, 1907 — About 225 paces east of Ducking Stool, 1, 21 paces south of 
high picket fence, and 40 paces north of road. 

(42) Mount Langton (old station), 1907 — Over pedestal in garden, 17.5 feet (5.3 meters) from 
wall, and is covered with coating of cement plaster, in top of which is drawn set of grooves to receive 
tripod. 

(43) Mount Langton (new station) , 1907 — On high knoll in garden just south of west entrance to 
grounds, in pathway around western crest of knoll, 67.5 feet (20.6 meters) from wall, along cut on 
north, 63 feet (19.2 meters) southwest of pedestal; is 15 feet (4.6 meters) from cedar on east side 
of path southward, and 14 feet (4.3 meters) from cedar on west side of path northward, and a little 
south of line from pedestal to lighthouse. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 40° 26(0; center 
of signal mast (approximate), 161° 25'; chimney on east end of house across valley, 325° 08(4. 

(44) .Paget (Crow Lane) Church, 1907 — In meadow west of Paget (Crow Lane) Church, about 
50 and 65 paces from east and south sides respectively. 

(45) Poorhouse, Hamilton, 1907 — North of Pembroke Poorhouse. 

(46) Ducking Stool, 4, 1907 — About 254 paces west of Ducking Stool, 1, in line with chimney 
at Swan's Bay. 

(47) Crow Lane, 1907 — At eastern extremity of Crow Lane or Hamilton Harbor between water 
and road to Salt Kettle, where road makes a turn at southeastern corner of harbor. 

(48) Prospect, Hamilton, 1907 — At intersection of two roads southwest of Prospect Camp. 

(49) Crow Lane, Hamilton, 1907 — -About one-fourth mile (0.4 km.) from water along road 
running east from eastern extremity of Crow Lane Harbor. 

(51) Trimmingham Hill, 1907 — In west edge of garden patch on south side of south road, 
just east of by-road from Hamilton to Hungry Bay. 

(52) Camden, 1907 — Opposite Camden gate, along road running east from eastern extremity 
of Crow Lane Harbor. 

(53) Doe Bay, 1907 — East of parish-line at Doe Bay. 

(54) Grocery Store, 1907 — On middle road east of grocery store. 

(55) Devonshire Church, 1907 — In an open space beside road west of Devonshire church. 

(56) Sue Wood Bay, 1907 — On south side of road opposite Sue Wood Bay, at east end of row 
of palmettos, and near junction with by-road leading northwesterly. 

(57) Bowen Point, 1907 — Near extremity of Bowen Point, on narrow ridge between two old 
quarries; eastern one is a pit, western one extends down hill to shore; the point is about 20 feet 
(6.1 meters) from eastern edge of latter. 

(58) Burchall Cove, 1907 — On high point near shore north of Burchall Cove, about 150 feet 
(46 meters) from channel entering cove, and about 12 feet (3.7 meters) from very narrow chasm 
forming inlet north of cove. The point is about 80 feet (24 meters) from water in cove, measured 
down slope. 

(59) Bean's Shop, 1907 — On knoll, under two cedars, 82 paces southeast of Bean's Shop, and 
33 paces east of road in front of Davis's store. 

(60) Major's Bay, 1907— On south side of Major's Bay, in pathway about 10 paces from 
water and about 50 paces from west end of bay. 

(61) Flatts Bridge, 1907 — East of road and north of bridge, 8 paces west of southwest corner 
of small quarry pit, 8 paces southeast of tree, and 30 paces north of north end of wall. 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 219 

(62) Harrington Road (south) 1907 — On slight elevation south of main road, south of Harrington 
Sound, and just north of junction with by-road leading over hill toward Spittal Pond. 

(63) Spittal Pond, 1907 — Near east side of military road, about halfway from its juncture 
with south road and point where it turns east along pond. 

(64) Ferry Point, 1907 — On main island of St. George's, nearly opposite Rogue Island, at point 
on old ferry road about 50 paces east of wall bounding War Department lands on east. 

(65) Walsingham, 1907 — Near shore on point north of Walsingham Bay. 

(66) Harrington Road (east) 1907- — South of road along east side of Harrington Sound, at 
intersection with by-road leading to Mangrove Lake. 

(67) Devil's Hole, 1907 — Near Devil's Hole, south of intersection of two main roads. 

(68) Mangrove Lake, 1907 — West end of Mangrove Lake, at junction with by-road over hill 
to Devil's Hole. 

(69) Harrington Road (northeast), 1907 — Along road on east shore of Harrington Sound, at 
intersection with road leading to Trott's Pond. 

(70) Trott's Pond, 1907 — North of Trott's Pond, east of intersection with road running north. 

(71) Tucker stown, (A. M. E.), 1907 — South of road leading west from Tuckerstown, and at 
junction with road leading to Paynter's Hill. 

(72) Paynter's Hill, 1907 — Near summit of Paynter's Hill. 

(73) Tuckerstown (west), 1907 — Beside road west of village of Tuckerstown. 

(74) Tuckerstown (north), 1907 — On shore north of Tuckerstown and east of Paynter's Hill. 

(75) Tuckerstown Landing, 1907 — North of Tuckerstown Landing. 

(77) Jones Island, 1907 — On north shore of Jones Island, on margin of sand beach. 

(78) Surf Bay, 1907 — On narrow isthmus, very high and apparently formed of drifted sand, 
between Castle Harbor and Surf Bay, immediately above sheltered cove and sand beach on Castle 
Harbor side. True bearing: St. David's Lighthouse, 220° 36:2. 

(79, 80) Nonsuch Island, 1907 — Station B is about 6 feet (2 meters) south of E. D. Preston's 
station of 1890, 80 feet (24.4 meters) northwest of flagpole, 56 feet (17.1 meters) from northwest 
corner of new kitchen, 100 feet (30.5 meters) from northwest corner of men's ward, 22 feet (6.7 
meters) from edge of path to landing, and 67 feet (20.4 meters) from southeast corner of keeper's 
house. True bearing: St. David's Lighthouse, 212° 50 '.0. 

(81) Smith's Island, 1907 — On east end of Smith's Island, about 4 rods (20 meters) from shore. 

(82) St. David's Lighthouse, 1907 — On hillside 76 paces south of St. David's Lighthouse, 47 
paces southeast of tank, and 49 paces northwest of corner of Fox's house. True bearing: mast, 
Tuckerstown, 48° 37(8. 

(83) North Rock, 1907 — At North Rock, at low tide, on shoal slightly awash, a few feet south- 
west of main rock. True bearing: extreme left of visible land, 316° 25(2. 

Descriptions of Secondary Stations, Bermuda, July to September 1922 

(1) Wreck Hill, 1922 — On summit of hill on flat space north of ruins of old fort. 

(2) Hog Bay, 1922 — Northeast of Spring Benny Hill on low ground between two fields, on 
south side of low graded path or roadway, in line of cedar row near its west end, about 50 meters 
west of roadway leading south to some houses on low hill. 

(3) &caur Lodge, 1922 — Very close reoccupation of station of 1907. On lawn before the 
lodge, 55 feet (16.8 meters) west of wall above road, 19 feet (5.8 meters) south of drive leading to 
house and 30 feet (9.14 meters) from concrete platform near driveway. 

(4) West Whale Bay, 1922 — In edge of grove of cedars south of roadway leading to beach, 
about 100 meters from high water-line. 

(5) The Grove, 1922 — Just west of northwest corner of large field, under some unusually large 
cedars, about 150 meters south of estate called The Grove, and is reached by turning west from 
main road about 250 meters north of Salvation Army Hall. 



220 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

(6) Bassett's Cave, 1922 — In pasture land on hillside about 150 feet (45.7 meters) from water's 
edge, and 300 meters west of Bassett's Dock. 

(7) Polly Dicky Hill, 1922 — On hill about 500 feet (152 meters) west of point where road 
turns in to Evans' Bay public wharf, southeast of farm buildings, in bush, about 100 feet (30 meters) 
down slope from summit. Lighthouse bears 282° 49' west of south. 

(8) Green's Hill, 1922 — On side hill in cart road about 120 meters west of buildings called 
Bel Air, west of west end of marsh. 

(9) King's Point, A, 1922 — On brow of hill south of road leading to extremity of point, about 
30 feet (9.1 meters) west of boundary wall running southward to western extremity of George's Bay. 

(10) Evans' Bay, A, 1922 — Over stump 33 feet (10.06 meters) west of road leading to public 
wharf, about 50 feet (15.2 meters) from bay, near point where path leading by stone steps up hill 
to house joins the road to wharf. 

(11) Rockaway Quarry, 1922 — In quarry pit on land belonging to Mr. Adcock, and from which 
hard stone is being quarried for road repairing. 

(12) Rockaway Cave, 1922 — At mouth and on hill over site of Mr. Adcock's fresh-water cave 
near south boundary of his property; also in hole about 20 feet (6.10 meters) below surface at 
mouth. 

(13) Mangrove Bay, 1922 — Close reoccupation of the station of 1907, 12 feet (3.66 meters) 
west of coping of old firing-stand on rifle-range, 29 feet (8.84 meters) from bank to north, and 55 
feet (16.76 meters) from bank southeast. True bearings; northwest corner of shed at public wharf 
at Mangrove Bay, 27° 23'; signal mast at Ireland Island, 238° 33'; east gable of Paynehurst in 
Paget, 296° 18'. ' 

(14) Evans' Bay, B, 1922 — North of public wharf, in old quarry near bay, about 15 feet (4.6 
meters) from west wall of pit. 

(15) Rockaway, C, 1922 — On hill west of house across wall in adjoining property, in small 
clump of cedars at south corner of cultivated field. 

(16) Rockaway, B, 1922 — On hill side, in roadway leading up from house, about 20 meters 
above first turn to left, on west side of road, under small cedar. 

(17) Monkey Hole, 1922 — Among bushes in footpath above small cove called Monkey Hole. 

(18) Jennings' Bay, A, 1922 — Declination observations were made on north side of Main 
Road about opposite Jennings' Bay, in bush about 50 meters from road through gap in wall, west of 
large field, and opposite a small field lying between two hills on south side of Main Road. 

(19) Glebe Point, 1922 — Near extremity of second point south of King's Point, on glebe-lands, 
in southeast corner of cultivated garden land. 

(20) Jennings' Bay, B, 1922 — At north corner of field opposite end of Jennings' Bay, in scrub 
cedars at end of cart trail entered at station A. 

(21) King's Point, B, 1922 — Among the bushes on sloping ground at extremity of King's 
Point. (Two localities are called King's Point; Nos. 9 and 21 are opposite Tucker's Island.) 

(22) Tucker's Island, West, 1922 — Near south shore of island about 200 meters from western 
extremity just west of concrete drain from old prison ruins to water's edge. 

(23) Frank's Bay, West, 1922 — About 250 meters west along shore from head of bay, in cartway 
which leaves Main Road just east of old stone storehouse, about 100 feet (30.5 meters) from the 
water and 30 feet (9.14 meters) west of clump of oleanders. 

(24) Frank's Bay, East, 1922 — On point at east side of bay, north of Glasgow Lodge, in quarry 
pit, 6 feet (1.83 meters) north of quarry wall, and about 100 feet (30.5 meters) from water's edge. 

(25) Tucker's Island, Cave, 1922 — On level ground just above entrance to cave, about 20 
feet (6.10 meters) north of wire fence along the steep bank at cave's mouth; also within cave on 
level area just above water standing at approximately sea-level. 

(26) Deep Well, 1922 — In edge of trees at southwest corner of field which lies just east of the 
site of deep well. 

(27) Morgan's Island, B, 1922 — Near south shore of island somewhat to west of middle of 
that side, just west of old concrete oven which is part of prison ruins. 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 221 

(28) Morgan's Island, A, 1922 — At eastern extremity of island near water's edge, just north 
of group of buildings, east of quarry pit. 

(29) Port Royal Church, 1922 — Across road west of church under some large cedars, 23 feet 
(7.01 meters) from large tree to south and 18- feet (5.49 meters) from one to north, 40 feet (12.19 
meters) from wall around church yard. 

(30) Wilson's Island, 1922 — On mainland on narrow grassy plot near water's edge north of 
Main Road, where line to bridge joining Boaz and Ireland islands touches the eastern edge of 
Wilson's Island. 

(31) Grace Island, 1922 — On west side of island near center of patch of red earth in slight 
depression between high, rocky portions toward north and south ends of island. 

(32) Gibbs' Hill, 1922 — In an old quarry pit down slope to south of lighthouse 6.5 feet (1.98 
meters) from angle in north wall of pit, and 11 feet (3.35 meters) from west wall. (An artificial 
disturbance may arise from nearness of lighthouse to this station.) 

(33) Sinky Bay, 1922 — On narrow terrace down steep slope south of Military Road, immedi- 
ately above head of Sinky Bay. 

(34) Perinchief's Bay, 1922 — North of Main Road, east of house occupied by Mr. White, and 
nearly opposite house of Fred Simmons. 

(35) Burgess Point, 1922 — On north side of point, about 200 meters east of its extremity, and 
50 meters from water's edge, well up slope, among bushes. 

(36) Hawkins Island, 1922 — Reoccupation of station of 1907 on hill on north side of island, 
25 feet (7.62 meters) south of second road above concrete steps, 14 feet (4.27 meters) north of each 
of two trees standing near together apart from other trees. True bearings: Left clock-tower, 
Ireland Island, 171° 21'; beacon at east end of Long Island, 266° 32'. 

(37) Burt Island, 1922 — Near northwest corner of island, about 100 feet (30.5 meters) from 
shore to west, 6 paces from a concrete platform which stands 10 paces from shore to north, and 6 
paces from pile of whitewashed stones to eastward. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 17° 14'; 
left edge of tank on Boaz Island, 138° 22'. 

(38) Nelly Island, 1922 — On high knoll between two water-catches near south end of island, 
19 paces south of edge of more northerly, and about 150 feet (45.7 meters) northeast of edge of 
other. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 15° 50'; beacon north side of Two-Rock Passage, 
232° 15'. 

(39) Riddle's Bay, 1922 — West of golf club-house on north side of small bay, west of old founda- 
tion, south of road, under some small cedars. 

(40) Ports Island, 1922 — On slope near southwest corner of island, 15 paces from shore, and 
just below footpath. Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse bears 20° 01' west of true south. 

(41) Long Island, 1922 — Near eastern end of Long Island, about 300 feet (91.4 meters) from 
shore to north and about 150 feet (45.7 meters) from shore to south. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill 
Lighthouse, 24° 30'; left clock-tower, Ireland Island, 158° 25'. 

(42) Spanish Point, 1922— On Plaice's Point, south of Peter Tucker's Bay, 40 feet (12.19 meters) 
southwest of corner of old quarry pit, and 30 feet (9.14 meters) southeast of foundation of old ruins 
measured in line to clock-tower on Ireland Island. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 16° 44'; 
clock-tower in dock-yard, 144° 34'; northwest corner Belmont Hotel nearly in line with station 
on Agar's Island, 332° 50'. 

(43) Main and North Roads, Warwick, 1922 — On plot of open grass-land in northeast inter- 
section of the two roads, about 30 and 50 feet (9.1 and 15.2 meters) from boundary walls to south 
and east, respectively. 

(44) Spithead, 1922 — About 1,000 feet (305 meters) along the North Road, west of house on 
Spithead on by-road turning up hill to south through narrow cut in rock, about 125 feet (38.1 
meters) from south side of North Road, directly opposite stable back of farm-house across small field 
to westward. 

(45) Fern Island, 1922 — Not on Fern Island, but on unnamed island southeast of Fern Island 
and south of Marshall Island, near middle of the highest ground. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill 
Lighthouse, 32° 44'; left gable of Paynehurst, 278° 43'. 



222 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

(46) Two-Rock, 1922 — About 20 paces east of western extremity of small island on south side 
of Two-Rock Passage, 25 paces southwest of beacon. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 
26° 35'; left clock-tower at Ireland Island, 149° 47'. 

(47) Dyer Island, 1922 — Near west end of island, in footpath, 83 paces from western extremity* 
and about 50 paces from north shore. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 25° 59'; left clock- 
tower, Ireland Island, 151° 41'. 

(48) Agar's Island, 1922 — -Readings with compass-variometer 2 at following points: (a) on 
stone marking primary station; (6) at Carnegie B, 103 feet (31.39 meters) west of primary station; 
(c) near east end of low peninsula which forms southern portion of island; (d) about in middle of 
low isthmus joining southern portion to main island at foot of hill below quarters; (e) north of 
magazine, southwest of laboratory. 

(49) Warwick Long Bay, 1922 — South of Military Road, near monument marked "W. D. 15" 
where the road leading westward makes a sharp turn to the right, 45 feet (13.72 meters) south of 
gap in oleander hedge somewhat east of monument, 40 feet (12.19 meters) down slope from oleanders 
to eastward, 30 feet (9.14 meters) north of offset in military trench, and about 30 feet (9.14 meters) 
east of branch of trench. 

(50) Warwick Camp, 1922 — In same general locality as preceding station. 

(51) Mill Shares, 1922 — In roadway above place known as "Undercliff," near south side of 
road, at junction with road leading north, about 50 feet (15.2 meters) west of near corner of tank 
at foot of small catch. True bearings : Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 28° 21'; flagpole at Undercliff, 54° 53'; 
northwest spire of cathedral, 280° 11'. 

(52) Warwick Church, 1922 — On hill among bushes north of east end of church, 25 feet (7.62 
meters) north of offset in wall around outbuilding, 15 feet (4.57 meters) northwest of a cedar tree. 

(53) Khyber Pass, 1922 — Near east side of road at. upper end of pass opposite quarry; also 
in pass 91 feet (27.74 meters) down hill near east wall, and at point on top of cut directly above 
second point. 

(54) Channel Island, 1922 — Near center of small rocky islet a short distance southeast of smaller 
rock known as "World's End." 

(55) Deep Bay, 1922 — East of Deep Bay, about 45 feet (13.72 meters) north of North Road, 
30 feet (9.14 meters) east of cliff on east side of bay, and 36 feet (10.97 meters) from cliff over sea 
at north. True bearings: flagpole at Admiralty House, 101° 13'; flagpole at Commissioner's House, 
Ireland Island, 132° 33'; signal mast at Mount Langton, 278° 49'. 

(56) Spectacle Island (Paget Parish), 1922 — On west end of island, about 50 feet (15.2 meters) 
east of water's edge. 

(57) Cricket Ground, Warwick Parish, 1922 — In roadway near wall on southwest side of cricket 
field, about 100 feet (30.5 meters) from Main Road. 

(58) Belmont, 1922 — Six paces south of flagpole at entrance to Belmont Hotel from Harbor 
Road, more commonly called the North Road. 

(59) Darrell's Wharf, 1922 — About 100 feet (30.5 meters) west of Angel's Grotto, 5 paces south 
of North Road, behind an oleander hedge, 5 paces north of stone wall, 5 paces west of stone steps 
leading up from road, and 12 paces west of boundary-wall of Rosemeath. 

(60) Sand Hill, 1922— About one mile west of Paget-Warwick boundary, along South or 
Military Road, on sandy hill in pasture lands south of road, about 125 feet (38.1 meters) south of 
road, 15 feet (4.57 meters) north of cliff above beach, and about 40 feet (12.2 meters) east of deep 
gully leading through from road to sea. 

(61) Doctor's Island, 1922 — On highest point of island about 75 feet (22.9 meters) west of small 
bath-house. True bearings: Gibbs' Hill Lighthouse, 44° 26'; left edge tank on Boaz Island, 131° 38 ' 

(62) Fairyland, 1922 — In lot in northeast angle between Serpentine and Pittsbay roads, 25 
feet (7.62 meters) north of wire fence along Serpentine Road and 15 feet (4.57 meters) south of 
north corner of fence, and about 10 meters east of gate. 

(63) Pittsbay (North), 1922 — About 100 meters east along Spanish Point Road from its inter- 
section with Pittsbay Road. 

(64) Swan's Bay, 1922 — About 150 meters west of intersection of Northland Road with North 
Shore Road, north of road on point where there is more than usual distance to the water, about 



Special Report, Bermuda Anomaly 223 

20 feet (6.10 meters) north of group of cedar scrubs, about 60 feet (18.29 meters) north of wall 
along road and 60 feet (18.29 meters) from cliff above sea. 

(65) Northland Road, West, 1922 — On west side of road, on summit of hill, near gateway and 
entrance to private grounds; driveway passes along north side of residence to stables and outbuildings 
at rear. 

(66) Southland Road, 1922 — At intersection of South Military Road and road leading north- 
ward passing to east of Southland estate to Main Road at Presbyterian church, and within triangle 
formed at this road intersection. 

(67) Northland Road, East, 1922 — About 50 feet (15.2 meters) east of Northland Road, south 
of summit of hill between Spanish Point Road and North Shore Road, opposite stone shed, in old 
overgrown quarry. 

(68) A. M. E. Chapel, 1922 — On west side of Paget-Warwick boundary road, at entrance to 
A. M. E. chapel. 

(69) Simmons Beach, 1922 — On south side of south Military Road, in by-road leading past 
Simmons's cottage to path leading down cliff to bathing-beach, between oleander hedge on east and 
cultivated field on west. 

(70) Lazy Corner, 1922 — In southeast intersection of Paget-Warwick boundary road and 
road between Main Road and South Military Road, in group of small cedars. 

(71) South Shore Hill, 1922 — On summit of hill on south shore, just west of Paget-Warwick 
boundary, among low cedar bushes, north of footpath, and 7 paces northwest of edge of quarry pit. 

(72) Paget-Warwick Road, 1922 — On east side of road, about 100 meters north of South Military 
Road, 14 paces east of edge of road from point 14 paces north of gateway through wall to George 
De Shield's premises. 

(73) Ducking Stool, 1922 — North of North Shore Road, 33 paces west of wall in line with west 
side of road leading past Mount Langton to Hamilton, 12 paces from north side of road. (A battery 
of field guns inclosed by iron fence has been mounted over 1907 station.) 

(74) Mount Langton, 1922 — Garden pedestal has disappeared and place is overgrown and 
inaccessible; station is near site of pedestal, in roadway, about 10 meters south of edge of cut through 
which road to Government House and grounds passes. 

(75) Colored School, Paget, 1922 — East of road north of school-house which stands at inter- 
section of north-south road with Main Road. 

(76) Elba Beach, 1922— South of Military Road opposite Elba Beach, south of Middleton 
Hill, where road makes a 45-degree turn, in row of large cedars bordering road, with cultivated field 
on low ground to southward. 

(77) Paget Church, 1922 — In south corner of open field southwest of chapel of St. Paul's Church, 
16 paces from wall along Main Road, and same distance from wall along east side of Valley Road. 

(78) Mangroville, 1922 — East of Red Hole where Shore Road makes sharp turn, between road 
and shore, 42 feet (12.80 meters) southwest of flagpole standing in triangle in road intersection in 
front of Mangroville, 28 feet (8.53 meters) southwest of end of sea-wall, 30 feet (9.14 meters) 
northeast of large cedar tree. 

(79) Trimmingham Hill, A, 1922 — North of Main Road, just east of summit north of Bellevue 
and south of Trimmingham Hill. 

(80) Trimmingham Hill, B, 1922 — Near foot of hill, on north side of Main Road, about 300 
meters east of station A, about 100 feet (30.5 meters) from road, east of boundary line of trees 
between two fields running northward from point opposite old shed with iron roof; house to which 
shed belongs stands close to road farther eastward. 

(81) Hungry Bay, A, 1922 — North of Main Road, in east corner of field on farm, just east of 
Public Garden, about 50 feet (15.24 meters) north of road, in cart track along wall east of which 
is dense grove; balustraded wall bounds road on south side. 

(82) Hungry Bay, B, 1922 — In pasture on southwest side of mouth of Hungry Bay, about 50 
feet (15.2 meters) up slope from water, and about 30 feet (9.1 meters) from wire fence. 

(83) Devonshire Church, 1922 — Between Old Devonshire Church and new church, on north 
edge of curved road joining them, southwest of group of four large cedars, opposite junction with 
intersecting road from south. 



224 Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 

(84) Devonshire Bay, 1922 — At head of bay, in north edge of roadway, along foot of steep 
embankment, about 50 meters west of old house. 

(85) Bowen Point, A, 1922 — North of Shelly Bay, west of race-track, south of east end of small 
cove, between two old quarry pits 10 paces apart, north one opening into cove and other into water 
on the west, 5 feet (1.52 meters) from north edge of latter. 

(86) Bowen Point, B, 1922 — In west end of race-course, south of roadway leading east into the 
oval within course from point opposite breach in wall opening out to beach on Shelly Bay. 

(87) Burchall Cove, 1922 — About 15 feet (4.6 meters) west of road between two cedars, about 
100 meters east of 1907 station. 

(88) Flatts Bridge, 1922 — North of bridge on east side of road, 4 paces north of footpath, 
7 paces west of corner of old quarry. 

(89) Spittal Pond, 1922 — North of Military Road, on hill above west end of pond, in cedar 
scrub, about 50 feet (15.2 meters) west of edge of planting-ground, about 60 feet (18.3 meters) east 
of stone "W. D. 4," under cedar tree about 10 inches (25 cm.) in diameter. 

(90) Bailey's Bay, 1922 — South of North Shore Road, west of Bailey's Bay, about 150 feet 
(45.7 meters) west of Seaward, in roadway through stone wall entering grove on south side of road. 

(91) Holy Trinity (Hamilton Parish) Church, 1922 — On west side of road, opposite west entrance 
to church, in semicircular space where carriages turn; declination and azimuth about 40 feet (12.2 
meters) south, in edge of banana patch. 

(92) Devil's Hole, 1922 — East of Devil's Hole, on east side of Tuckerstown road, 15 paces 
northwest of nearest corner of house, 5 paces from road, and 40 paces from sea-wall. 

(93) Canton Point, 1922 — On north side of South Shore Road, where road runs close to bank 
above shore on south, and where there is high bank of hard limestone on north showing strata of 
high coloration at foot and at top of bank. 

(94) Joyce's Cave, 1922 — On north side of road, behind clump of bushes to left of sign advertising 
Shakespeare's Tempest Cave, just west of deep sink-hole. 

(95) Mangrove Lake, 1922 — On south edge of road to Devil's Hole, about one-fourth mile 
(0.4 km.) west of Lake, under cedar tree on hill above banana field. 

(96) Shark Hole, 1922 — About 150 meters north of sharp turn of road at foot of hill at Shark 
Hole at corner of Harrington Sound, on low, flat point west of road, 12 paces west of coping by 
roadside, 4 paces from water's edge, and 5 paces west of a tree. 

(97) Long Bird Island, 1922 — On west end of island, about one-quarter mile (0.4 km.) east of 
end of island, about 200 feet (61 meters) west of point where road enters shallow rock-cut, on south 
side of road. 

(98) Trott's Pond, 1922 — On Mid-Ocean Golf Course, north of pond where road branches, in 
clump of trees, on east side of road. 

(99) Church Cave, 1922 — By courtesy of engineer-in-charge of improvements at Mid-Ocean 
Golf Course, at sea-level, in unimproved cave known as Church Cave. 

(100) Church Cave Hill, 1922 — On hill, as nearly as possible directly over observation-point in 
cave; estimated difference in altitude about 125 feet (38 meters). 

(101) Tuckerstown, 1922 — In acute angle formed by two roads leading north and south re- 
spectively of Trott's Pond, about 160 feet (48.8 meters) west of stones marked "W. D. 99" and 
"W. D. 100," respectively. 

(102) St. George Hotel, A, 1922 — On hillside north of Hotel, under grove of small cedars. 

(103) St. George Hotel, B, 1922— Northwest of station A, in clump of Pride-of-India trees, 40 
feet (12.19 meters) north of corner post of tennis-courts, in south edge of roadway that meets road- 
way from hotel little further west, 8 feet (2.44 meters) from tree to west, and 16 feet (4.88 meters) 
from tree southeast. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF STATIONS 

As stated in the previous volumes, one of the chief difficulties experienced by 
the observers of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, in the reoccupation of 
old stations for secular-variation data, has been the lack of necessary information 
to permit precise recovery of the point where the previous observations were made. 
Owing to the frequent occurrence of local disturbance, it may readily happen that 
erroneous secular-variation data will result from non-recovery of exact station. 
Accordingly, the observers of the Department are instructed to furnish as complete 
descriptions as possible of stations occupied, especially of such as give promise of 
future availability. Information additional to that contained in the published 
descriptions or copies of station-sketches or of photographs of surroundings will 
gladly be furnished those who are interested in the reoccupation of any of the 
stations. 

The descriptions are given in alphabetical order under the same geographical 
divisions as adopted in the Table of Results. The general form followed in the descrip- 
tions is: Name of station, year when occupied, general location, detailed location, 
distances and references to surrounding objects, manner of marking, and finally 
the true bearings of prominent objects likely to be of permanent character. All 
bearings, unless specifically stated otherwise, are true ones, and are reckoned con- 
tinuously from 0° to 360°, in the direction south, west, north, east. For some 
expeditions, owing to the absence of surrounding objects to which reference could 
be made and to the nature of the country traversed, the descriptions of stations 
naturally could not be made very full or precise; for some stations the data were 
necessarily so meager that worth-while descriptions could not be made up at all. 
When no mention is made of marking of station, it is to be understood that the 
station was either not marked at all or not in a permanent manner. For those 
stations which could properly be designated under more than one name, or which 
had several names locally, appropriate cross-references have been made. 

When distances were measured originally in the English system, the conversions 
into the metric system are also given, but inclosed in parentheses, so as to show that 
they are converted figures. The following rules have been adopted in the conver- 
sions: Distances given to 0.1 foot are converted to the nearest 0.01 meter, 1 foot to 
the nearest 0.1 meter, estimated feet or yards to nearest meter, estimated fraction 
of a mile to nearest 0.1 kilometer, estimations of more than a mile to nearest kilo- 
meter. Short and important reference distances, when measured accurately, have 
been converted into nearest 0.1 centimeter; such measurements, however, as, for 
example, dimensions of marking-stones, etc., which are not of great importance, 
have been converted to the nearest centimeter. When a distance precedes a bear- 
ing, this is usually the observer's estimate of the distance from the station to the 
mark; such estimates naturally may be largely in error, but nevertheless will be of 
value in the future identification of the mark. 

225 



226 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

Abyssinia 

Addis Abeba, British Legation, 1921 — Close reoccupa- 
tion of C.I.W. station of 1914, on grounds of 
British legation, in large field known as "The Pad- 
dock," southeast of main drive of legation, 
214 feet (65.2 meters) south of and exactly 
in line with northeast post of iron gate opening 
into field and ornament on quarters occupied by 
Oriental Secretary of Legation, and 202.2 feet (61.63 
meters) southeast of fence along main drive; 
marked by stone block 10 by 12 by 20 inches (25 by 
30 by 51 cm.), its top face left about 1 inch (2.5 cm.) 
above surface of ground, and lettered "C.I.W. 
1921." True bearings: conical hill of range, 38° 
30' .9; south edge of lodge, 200 meters, 71° 06'.1; 
north edge of lodge, 74° 48' .5; northeast post of 
gate in fence, 158° 36'. 1 ; top of south gable of 
legation residence, 400 meters, 215° 41' .1; prom- 
inent mountain summit, 351° 39'.0. 

Addis Abeba, Catholic Mission, 1921 — Exact reoccupa- 
tion of C.I.W. station of 1918, on land belonging 
to Roman Catholic Mission School for Girls, just 
inside entrance to school grounds, 25 meters south 
of gate, and 2.5 meters west of row of eucalyptus 
trees on east side of grounds; marked by a block 
of stone 6 by 12 by 18" inches (15 by 30 by 45 cm.), 
its top face sunk level with surface of ground. 
True bearings: west side of east window of white 
residence, 800 feet (244 meters), 58° 39'. 1; tall 
eucalyptus tree near residence, 59° 33' .0; bottom 
of west gate-post of mission, 25 meters, 217° 56' .5. 

Dire Daoua, 1921— Slightly south of C.I.W. station 
of 1914, at west end of Dire Daoua, near hospital 
buildings, in open space southeast of hospital. This 
site was covered with material for building. True 
bearings: prominent tree on plain, 2 kilometers, 
112° 07'.3; southwest corner of stone building in 
southwest corner of hospital compound, 112° 46' .8; 
east spike on roof of nearby building, 100 meters, 
186° 58' .9. 

Hawash, 1921 — On level plain near C.I.W. station of 
1914, 175 paces northwest of and at right angles to 
railway line at a point 300 paces southwest of west 
corner of wall around Railway Hotel and 51 paces 
northeast of small isolated tree. True bearings: 
curve-marking pole on railway line, 0.4 kilometer, 
27° 24'.0; top of highest peak of Mt. Fantahli, 16 
kilometers, 88° 06'. 2; south edge of railway water- 
tank, 0.4 kilometer, 244° 21'.4. 

Algeria 

Algiers, M, Algiers, 1922 — As in 1912, intercomparison 
observations at the Bouzareah Observatoire dAlger 
were made at the Moureaux station, designated M, 
on leveled space on hillside about 150 meters west 
of observatory grounds, and at station in observa- 
tory grounds; marked by new peg. True bearings: 
ornament on equatorial coude, 200 meters, 261° 26' .8; 
Dome de Kouba, 6 kilometers, 322° 46'.7 ; monument 
to African soldiers, 2 kilometers, 330° 26' .8. 

Oran, Oran, 1922 — Practical reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1912, about 6 kilometers northeast of Oran, 
54 feet (16.5 meters) south of south side of road 
forming southern boundary of new public park be- 
tween main Oran road and cliff, about 200 feet (61 
meters) east of edge of cliff, and in line with eastern 
edge of road running at right angles to southern 
boundary; marked by peg left 3 inches (8 cm.) above 
ground, covered by cairn of stones. True bearings: 
east gable end of red-roofed cottage, about 1 kilo- 



AFRICA 

Algeria — concluded 

Oran, Oran, 1922 — continued 

meter, 3° 32' .2; east edge of cairn on near hill, 25° 
15' .5; dome on Oran Cathedral, 53° 34' .9; tower of 
Santa Cruz Chapel on mountain near old port, 7 
kilometers, 64° 48' .9; lighthouse on extreme head- 
land, about 8 kilometers, 98° 02'.9; highest peak of 
mountain, about 12 kilometers, 248° 20' .4; base of 
sign-post at corner of main Oran road, about 200 
meters, 287° 27'.7. 

Touggourt, 1922 — Close reoccupation of C. I.W. station 
of 1912, about 1 mile (1.6 km.) north of north end 
of village, on top of barren roll of hard sand, 662 
feet (202 meters) east of nearest point of caravan 
route to Biskra, north of sandstone quarry; marked 
by wooden peg left 5 centimeters above surface and 
covered with cairn of stones. True bearings: cross 
on east end of Catholic church in Touggourt, about 
1 mile (1.6 km.), 18° 18' .0; spire on tower of Arabic 
mosque in Touggourt, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km.), 24° 
32'.8; stone beacon on hill, about three-fourths mile 
(1 km.), 92° 06'.4; north dome of Marabout of Za- 
wit Imnuawar, about one-half mile (0.8 km.), 218° 
38' .8; Arabic mosque of Tebesbest, about three- 
fourths mile (1 km.), 300° 45'.0. 

Cameroun 

Garoua, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A 
is a practical reoccupation of C.I.W. station A of 
1919; it is 60 meters northwest of north bank of 
Benue River, about 150 meters southwest of Niger 
Company's warehouse, about 100 meters west of river 
wharf, 48.0 meters south of old customs storehouse, 
and 40.0 meters south of nearest native hut at base 
of small knoll; marked by peg. True bearings: west 
gable of Niger Company's warehouse nearest wharf, 
209° 55' .6; stone pier of wharf in Benue River at 
water's edge, 248° 36' .0; lone dead tree on south bank 
of Benue River, 321° 14' .2. 

Station B is a practical reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion B of 1919, the pillar marking which has been 
destroyed. It is near middle of military grounds, 
about 1.5 kilometer northwest of station A, north of 
native market square and west of road to river port, 
24.5 meters east of east end of second barricade from 
south across training course, and 41.6 meters west of 
inner edge of race-track measured on line to small 
palm by road 51.3 meters distant; marked by sand- 
stone and cement monument 50 by 50 centimeters on 
top set flush with surface, lettered "C.I.W. 1926" with 
hole in center; a second monument 86.45 meters dis- 
tant between race-track and road marks north end of 
meridian. True bearings: flagpole at government 
bureau, 100° 50' .5; west gable of government house 
on highest hill to northwest, 115° 15' .1; northeast 
corner of butcher shop, 304° 00' .3; northwest corner 
of long building at market, 326° 56' .3. 

Egypt 

Helwan, 1922 — Observations for declination and horizon- 
tal intensity were made on the stone pier in the 
small wooden hut, designated H, of the Helwan 
magnetic observatory, and on the north pier in the 
porch or absolute room, designated N ; inclination 
observations were made in the hut and on the south 
pier in the porch, designated S. 

Suez, Lower Egypt, 1922 — Exact reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1908, 1911, 1914, and 1918, on low, boggy, 
salt-desert flat west of town of Suez, on embankment 
road leading southwest from town to Asiatic Petro- 



Descriptions of Stations 



227 



AFRICA 

Egypt — concluded 

Suez, Lower Egypt, 1922 — continued 

leum Company, north of road, and 116 meters north 
of small brick house at navigation beacon; marked 
by brass bolt set in cement in top of sandstone post 
20 by 25 by 80 centimeters. True bearings : mosque 
in Arbain, 207° 39' .4; mosque in Ibrahim Bey Gili- 
dan, 213° 54'.7; mosque of Abul-Eef, 238° 32' .3; 
mosque in Port Tewfik, 311° 20'.1; spire of Catholic 
church in Port Tewfik, 313° 13'. 2. 

Tor, Sinai Peninsula, 1922-^Practical reoccupation of 
C.I.W. stations of 1911 and 1918, near extreme point 
of curved sand-spit opposite village of Tor and 
northwest of quarantine station, about 100 feet (30 
meters) north of temporary fisherman's hut. True 
bearings: most distant navigation beacon, about 1.5 
miles (2 km.), 6° 44'.8; mosque in northwest part of 
Tor, about 1 mile (1.6 km.), 218° 03' .4; mosque in 
southeast part of Tor, about 1 mile (1.6 km.), 234° 
52'.4; flagpole on main quarantine building, about 
1 mile (1.6 km.), 285° 45- .4. 

French Somaliland 

Jibuti (Djibouti), 1921 — Exact reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1918, on sandy waste land north of Ambouli 
Gardens, 3 kilometers south-southwest of town of 
Djibouti, 54 meters east of center of road, measured 
from point 4 meters north of 3-kilometer post, and 52 
meters east of this post, which is a portion of a steel 
"I" beam mounted in a square masonry base on east 
edge of road, about 150 paces north of northwest cor- 
ner of Ambouli Gardens, where road turns to east; 
marked by a black stone, its upper face an acute tri- 
angle pointed northward, and projecting about 15 
centimeters above ground. True bearings: top of 
lighthouse tower, 1 kilometer, 29° 49' .6; flagstaff at 
residency, 4 kilometers, 201° 05'. 5; prominent mosque 
in town, 3 kilometers. 210° 26' .3; eastmost wireless 
mast, 2 kilometers, 218° 15'.4. 

French West Africa 

Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1926 — A proximate reoccupation of 
C.I.W. station of 1914, about 2.5 kilometers north of 
lagoon, about 1 kilometer east of railway station, and 
about 400 meters northeast of hotel; it is 33.5 meters 
north of center of road leading eastward from railway 
station past hotel, 4 meters east of center of first 
street east of hotel ; marked by cement brick 20 by 
20 by 51 centimeters set even with surface with cross 
marking center. 

Ansongo, French Soudan, 1926 — A close reoccupation of 
C.I.W. station of 1913, near center of level tract of 
clay soil, about 100 meters southeast of commander's 
residence, about 100 meters northeast of post- and 
telegraph-office, about 150 meters northeast of mar- 
ket, and about 190 meters west of barracks for Sene- 
galese soldiers; it is 31.4 meters, 28.0 meters, and 36.2 
meters from thorn trees to southwest, west, and north 
respectively; marked by large irregular sandstone 
projecting 10 centimeters above surface, having small 
indentation in top to mark center. True bearings: 
steel telegraph-pole standing against east side of post- 
and telegraph building, 61° 31'. 1 ; steel telegraph-pole 
to north about 250 meters, 173° 20' .8. 

Bouake, Ivory Coast, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. 
Station A is about 2.5 kilometers northeast of rail- 
road station, about 50 meters east of gate into com- 
pound inclosing officers' quarters at military camp, 3 
meters east of native foot-path, 19.5 meters north of 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

Bouake, Ivory Coast, 1926 — continued 

center of road leading into camp, and 10.0 meters 
west of center of road to Bouake ; marked by con- 
crete monument 40 by 40 by 80 centimeters lettered 
"A-CJ.W. 1926" set with top about 20 centimeters 
above surface. True bearings: station B, 250 meters, 
22° 21'.5; telegraph-pole in front of Military Bureau, 
39° 00' .3; northwest corner of mud soldier barracks, 
297° 43'.4. 

Station B is about 250 meters southwest of station 
A, 29.0 meters southeast of center of road to Bouake, 
1 meter south of center of native path to huts of 
black soldiers, in line with fence southwest side of 
military compound ; marked by concrete monument 
40 by 40 by 80 centimeters lettered "B-C.I.W. 1926" 
set with top about 15 centimeters above surface. 
True bearings: base of flagpole in compound, 150° 
59'.8; station A, 202° 21'.5; tip on black soldiers' 
round mud hut No. 2, 228° 03'.2. 

Bourern, French Soudan, 1926 — A proximate reoccupation 
of C.I.W. station of 1913, on north bank of the Niger 
River, about 11 meters north of water's edge, about 
200 meters east of river port, about 100 meters south- 
east of administrator's residence, about 800 meters 
southwest of fort, 6.7 meters south and 10.4 meters 
west of thorn hedge which forms right angle east of 
station; marked by cross in native brick 15 by 30 by 
50 centimeters. True bearings: steel telegraph-pole, 
179° 06' .0; flag on fort, three-fourths kilometer, 220° 
31'.6; northwest corner of new building, about three- 
fourths kilometer, 264° 00' .6. 

Conakry, French Guinea, 1925 — Two stations were 
occupied. Station A is 6.04 meters north of C.I.W. 
station of 1914, exact reoccupation being prevented 
by the erection of a concrete building whose north 
wall stands about 15 centimeters from the point, on 
west side of Boulevard Maritime opposite steps to 
Treasury, 6.40 meters from northwest corner, and 6.71 
meters from northeast corner of concrete house, and 
13.05 meters west of curb along boulevard measured 
on line tangent to south side of palm tree near curb ; 
marked by peg. True bearing: triangulation monu- 
ment on west side of boulevard, 199° 02' .7. 

Station B is west of Boulevard Maritime, about 
two-thirds kilometer south of station A, nearly in 
extended line of north curb of Second Avenue, north- 
east of concrete house, and about 4 meters from 
bank above rocky shore ; it is 10.4 meters from end of 
curb on west side of boulevard and 9.35 meters 
from coconut palm near end of curb, 3.8 meters 
south of palm near shore and 14.0 meters northwest 
of palm near west edge of boulevard; marked by 
cement post 20 by 20 by 70 centimeters extending 
10 centimeters above surface and marked "C.I.W. 
1925." True bearings: triangular marker monu- 
ment on most northerly point of island, 96° 67'.4; 
southwest edge of small concrete building between 
boulevard and sea, 190° 21'. 1. 

Cotonou, Dahomey, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. 
Station A is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. station 
of 1913, north of road to Ouidah, about 125 meters 
west of 1-kilometer stone and about 120 meters east 
of concrete aqueduct crossing Ouidah road, 400 
meters southwest of railroad repair shops, 47.5 meters 
west of center of road to Transition Depot de 
Dahomey, 16.2 meters north of Ouidah road, mea- 
sured along line past coconut palm 9.8 meters dis- 
tant ; marked by cement brick 15 by 25 by 60 centi- 






228 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

Cotonou, Dahomey, 1926 — continued 

meters lettered "C.I.W." with cross marking exact 
point and set slightly above surface. True bearings: 
tip on native hut among soldiers' barracks (Transi- 
tion Depot de Dahomey), 175° 31'.4; flagpole at 
bureau compound of Transition Depot de Dahomey, 
193° 02'.5. 

Station B is on southwest corner of property 
belonging to John Holt Company, south of Ouidah 
road, about opposite stone one-half kilometer marker 
west of town, 65 meters south of center of Ouidah 
road, 6.5 meters east of tree in southeast corner of 
grove of fir trees, and 9.4 meters from next tree 
north. True bearings: flagpole on building of John 
Holt Company, 257° 17' .9; flagpole on end of pier in 
harbor, 288° 11'.5. 

Dakar, Senegal, 1925 — Two stations A and B were occu- 
pied. Station A is about 200 yards (183 meters) 
southwest of C. I. W. station of 1912, 1913, latter being 
no longer desirable on account of presence of mag- 
netic material. It is north of town, about 1.8 kilo- 
meters east of electric power-house, on point of land 
known as Bel-Air, 16 feet (4.9 meters) east of hedge 
around field, 30 feet (9.1 meters) north of center of 
deep unused road and 43.3 feet (13.20 meters) north 
of small iron pin in center of cement marker on 
south side of old road ; marked by stone 5 by 5 by 24 
inches (13 by 13 by 61 cm.), set with surface about 2 
inches (5 cm.) above ground, cross in top marking 
exact point. True bearings: flagpole on dome of 
governor-general's palace, 11° 09' .2; top of wireless 
mast, 26° 57'. 7; point on smoke-stack seen through 
opening in bush hedge, 162° 15' .3; signal light on end 
of mole in harbor, 345° 24'.2. 

Station B is on point of land known as Bel-Air, 
about 0.6 kilometer west of station A and about 
1 kilometer northeast of electric power-house, about 
200 meters northwest of small battery, about 100 
meters northwest of by-road leading to small battery, 
in an old field surrounded by a bush hedge southeast 
of a large sand dune, 6.6 feet (2.01 meters) west of 
path through field, 56 feet (17.1 meters) west of east 
hedge, 54 feet (16.5 meters) south of north hedge, 
and 59.1 feet (18.01 meters) south of tree in north- 
east corner of field; marked by a quart bottle buried 
flush with ground. True bearings: flagpole on gov- 
ernor-general's palace, 4° 40' .8; top of wireless mast, 
21° 46' .9; tip on signal lighthouse on mole in harbor, 
332° 40' .0. 

Gay a, Niger, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station 
A is about one-fourth mile (0.4 km.) north of Niger 
River, on level sandy spot north of government 
compound, 33.95 meters and 48.15 meters from north- 
east and northwest corners of compound wall respec- 
tively, and 22.25 meters north of northwest corner of 
kitchen where it joins compound wall; marked by 
native sandstone set in mud mortar flush with sur- 
face and lettered "C.I.W. 1926," with cross marking 
center. True bearings: flagpole on cliff in front of 
commander's residence, 87° 38' .4; northwest corner 
of market building, 269° 22' .0; flagpole on east 
entrance gate to government compound, 324° 47' .7. 
Station B is a proximate reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1913, north of Niger River, about 150 meters 
southeast of government compound, and about 125 
meters southwest of post- and telegraph-office, 12.9 
meters southwest of center of raised road, 9.85 meters 
southwest of tree at roadside, 13.85 meters south of 
tree on near side of ditch, 16.50 meters from lone 
tree to southeast ; marked by cross in large flat sand- 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

Gaya, Niger, 1926 — continued 

stone set flush with surface. True bearings: flagpole 
on cliff edge near commander's residence, 107° 41'.6; 
flagpole on east entrance gate to government com- 
pound, 146° 45'. 1; tip on native hut on right side of 
road, 309° 40'.7. 

Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast, 1926 — Two stations were 
occupied. Station A is on north side of lagoon, 
about 400 meters east of narrow-gage railroad 
bridge, across lagoon from pier of Chargeurs Reunis, 
between two small inlets, 11.5 meters north of 
native foot-path, 26.5 meters west of west corner of 
foot-bridge leading to native village, and 23 meters 
east of small palm t;ree ; marked by concrete monu- 
ment 15 by 15 by 22 inches (38 by 38 by 56 cm.) 
lettered "A-C.I.W. 1926" set with top about 3 
inches (8 cm.) above surface. True bearings: front 
gable on C. G. M. A., 10° 14' .2; gable on lawyer 
M. Clement's office, 65° 39'.4; lighthouse, 177° 26' .6. 
Station B is south of lagoon, about 400 meters 
west of highway bridge, in northward extension of 
property line along street passing office of I. T. 
Williams and Sons, 200 meters beyond school build- 
ing, 16.0 meters northwest and 28.2 meters south- 
west of corners of concrete tennis court; marked by 
peg. True bearings: telephone-pole in center of 
concrete lagoon bridge, 262° 46' .0; west gable of 
adjutant's house, 345° 30' .4. 

Kayes, French Soudan, 1925 — Two stations, A and B, were 
occupied. Station A is in division known as Kayes- 
Ville, and is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. station 
of 1913, the portion of the bank where the latter was 
located having been carried away by the stream. It 
is 10 feet (3.0 meters) from bank of Senegal River, 
east of Ballay Avenue, about 0.5 kilometer east of 
administration buildings, nearly in line of center of 
Rue du Lieutenant Carnier intersecting Ballay Ave- 
nue, 58.2 feet (17.74 meters) northeast of sea-wall; 
marked by peg. Tine bearings : stone post in corner 
of stone fence around orphanage on Ballay Avenue, 
108° 06' .8; peak of gable of large house across Sene- 
gal River, 123° 28'.2; north edge of lone square con- 
crete hut among round straw huts across river, 264° 
37'.0. 

Station B is in division known as Kayes-Plateau 
about one-half mile (0.8 km.) southwest of Station 4, 
about midway between the Palais du Government 
and the Maison du Fonctionnaires, 2.1 meters north- 
west of center of native path, 13.05 meters, 8.05 
meters, and 13.35 meters from centers of three trees 
on opposite side of path to northeast, east, and south- 
oast respectively, 19.25 meters east of nearest of group 
of seven locust trees, and 11.4 meters southeast of a 
lone tree; marked by peg. True bearings: base of 
support of light on west pillar at entrance to palace 
grounds, 130° 41'. 8; top north corner of northmost 
railroad barracks seen between trees east of path, 0.7 
kilometer, 297° 38' .7; south top corner of southmost 
railroad barracks, 0.7 kilometer, 310° 35' .3. 

Koulikoro, French Soudan, 1926 — Two stations were oc- 
cupied. Station A is about 700 meters north of rail- 
road, on hill north of two large stone hotel buildings, 
20 meters northwest of intersection of road from 
depot and road to commandant's residence, 17.65 
meters from tree near road, 8.8 meters east of large 
tree ; marked by small round hole in top of stone 75 
by 75 centimeters, extending 75 centimeters above 
the ground, with the letters "S.L." on upper face, this 
stone being third of a row of granite and cement 
markers extending from the commandant's residence 



/ 



Descriptions of Stations 



229 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

Koulikoro, French Soudan, 1926 — continued 

parallel with road, the second of row being 27.10 
meters northwest. True bearings: outside edge of 
northeast corner post of red brick wall, 32° 23'. 1; 
southwest edge of large stone pillar at west end of 
gate at entrance to commandant's residence, 220° 
17' .3; southeast edge at top of stone hotel, 347° OO'.l. 
Station B is an exact reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1913, on the north side of the Niger River, 
on a ledge of solid rock on first terrace below com- 
mandant's house, 18.2 meters from center of road 
leading up-hill, 5.7 meters from lower edge of rock 
ledge, and about 60 meters northeast of telegraph 
line; marked by a cross in top of granite post 20 
centimeters square set in concrete bed, the edge being 
lettered "Point Astronomique 1905." Tine bear- 
ings: base of flagpole on stone hotel, 55° 41'.2; base 
of flagpole on wall of French commandant's res- 
idence, 142° 21'.6; south tip of steel-roofed build- 
ing along river, 351° 39'. 4. 

Kouroussa, French Guinea, 1926 — About 1.25 kilometers 
east of railroad station and about 1 kilometer south 
of railroad bridge over the Niger River, 250 meters 
west of river bank, in open plaza east of the French 
commandant's residence, and west of administra- 
teur's residence. It is in line defined by six medium- 
sized trees, 18.05 meters southwest of southwest tree 
of row, 22.0 meters northwest of nearer of two large 
trees 11 meters apart, and a group of small newly 
planted trees are distributed around the station, 4.8 
meters to northeast, 10.1 meters to southeast, 6.68 
meters to southwest, and 10.7 meters to northwest, 
respectively; marked by peg to be replaced by 
cement pillar. True bearings: front tip of gable on 
commandant's residence, 72° 46' .2; tip of gable in 
most northern large tin building to northwest (engine 
house), 146° 26' .6; southwest corner of administra- 
teur's residence, 242° 27' .1. 

Mamou, French Guinea, 1925 — Two stations were occu- 
pied. Station A is a practical reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1912, about 1 kilometer south of railroad 
and about 200 meters north of old hospital, 19.0 
meters west of path to hospital, 21.0 meters and 28.5 
meters respectively from two trees to northeast and 
east ; marked by peg. True bearings : northwest cor- 
ner of ruins of old hospital wall. 13° 05'.2; northeast 
gable of railroad station, 185° 42'.7; pinnacle on most 
easterly railroad building, 229° 36' .7. 

Station B is about three-fourths kilometer north of 
railroad in European section of town, about one- 
fourth kilometer north of Administrateur's Bureau, 
within acute intersection of a harrow road bearing 
northeastward with wide road leading up-hill, 7.08 
meters south of papaw tree, 7.7 meters southwest of 
large tree west of narrow road, and 9.5 meters north- 
west of large tree on farther side of narrow road. 
True bearings: west gable of tin roof of large store, 
9° 33' .9; tip on hut on mountain across railroad, 10° 
54'.8; tip on very large hut, 173° 32'.0. 

Matam, Senegal, 1925 — Two stations were occupied. Sta- 
tion A is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. station of 
1913, on west bank of Niger River, 133.0 feet (40.54 
meters) north of brick and concrete monument mark- 
ing lot corner, 39.0 feet (11.89 meters) west of center 
of Rue de la Poste, and 272.2 feet (82.97 meters) 
southeast of southeast corner of new residence of M. 
la Coue, a fonctionnaire ; marked by cross in top of 
brick and concrete monument 20 by 20 inches (51 by 
51 cm.) extending 5 inches (13 cm.) above ground. 
True bearings: fourth steel telegraph-pole, counting 



AFRICA . 

French West Africa — continued 

Matam, Senegal, 1925 — continued 

west from post- and telegraph-office, 103° 13'. 1 ; south- 
east corner of large two-story building on Rue de 
la Poste, 164° 02'.6. 

Station B is about one-fourth mile (0.4 km.) south 
of main part of town, about one-third mile (0.5 km.) 
southwest of A, over a brick and concrete monu- 
ment marking street corner on south side of wide 
road south of administrative grounds, and about 150 
yards (137 meters) west of intersection of this road 
with Rue de la Poste. It is 19.88 meters west of 
monument marking corner of grounds of the fonc- 
tionnaires, 29.95 meters from monument on street 
line running south, and 35.95 meters north of center 
of large tree; marked by cross in top of brick and 
concrete monument 8 by 8 inches (20 by 20 cm.) 
projecting 10 inches (25 cm.) above ground. True 
bearings: top of leaning steel telephone-pole, about 
400 yards (366 meters), 88° 09' .2; south gable of 
administrateur's building, 185° 31'.1 ; gable of two- 
story house, 320° 08' .1. 

Mopti, French Soudan, 1926 — Two stations were occupied 
Station A is about 300 meters north of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1913, on the right bank of Bani River, on 
southwest end of strip of land between raised road 
from commandant's residence to Mopti and river, 
6.70 meters east of edge of river bank, 13.4 meters 
west of fourth tree on east side of raised road south 
from intersection of road with by-road, and 11.5 
meters southwest of first tree from south on west side 
of raised road ; marked by roughly constructed cement 
pillar placed flush with surface of ground, lettered 
"C. I.W. 1926," with cross in top marking center. 
True bearings: pinnacle on southwest corner of mud 
house near commandant's residence, 201° 58'.7; sta- 
tion B, 202° 15'.6; flagpole on military headquarters 
in town, 334° 56'.7. 

Station B is about 150 meters northeast of station 
A, on the right bank of Bani River on strip of land 
between river and road parallel to river running from 
commandant's residence to village, about midway 
between the two places, almost north of intersection 
of a by-road with main road, 17.8 meters west of cen- 
ter of road, measured from a point midway between 
fourth and fifth trees west of road and north of road 
intersection, 15.5 meters and 16.3 meters from these 
trees respectively, and 3.3 meters from river bank. 
True bearings : pinnacle on southwest corner of mud 
house near commandant's residence, 201° 55'.9; flag- 
pole on military headquarters in town, 352° 32'.3. 

Niafunke, French Soudan, 1926 — A close reoccupation 
C.I.W. station of 1913, in the yard at rear of French 
commandant's residence, 5.0 feet (1.52 meters) north- 
east of northeast corner of astronomic pier of 1911. 
40.0 feet (12.19 meters) northeast of main part of 
commandant's residence measured along line tan- 
gent to mud railing of rear steps and passing 2.0 
feet (0.61 meter) east of astronomic pier. 

Niamey, Niger, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Sta- 
tion A is about 75 meters south of C.I.W. station 
of 1913, on summit of bluff overlooking Niger River, 
about 350 meters south of Bureau of Subdivision 
building, about 130 meters southeast of French res- 
idence, and about 150 meters northwest of small 
building used as garage, 28.4 meters southwest of cen- 
ter of driveway to garage, in a break in line of 
acacia trees parallel to drivewav. 6.5 meters and 4.5 
meters from nearest tree to northwest and southeast 
respectively ; station is to be marked by local authori- 
ties by a cement pillar. True bearings: flagpole on 
French residence to northwest, 122° 07'. 1 ; flagpole 



230 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

Niamey, Niger, 1926 — continued 

on Bureau of Subdivision to north about 350 meters, 
174° 00' .9; east edge of pillar near east end of wall 
around cliff edge, 346° 30' .5 

Station B is on top of plateau on east bank of 
Niger River, 24.3 meters south of center of road to 
Zinder, about one-fourth kilometer east of Bureau of 
Subdivision building, nearly in line with the east side 
of large white building used as travelers' quarters 
and 18.3 meters south of small tree near roadside. 
True bearings: flagpole on Bureau of Subdivision 
building, 83° 05' .2; tip of first hut among soldiers' 
barracks, 170° 02'.2; tip of post at southwest corner 
of cemetery wall, 311° 04'.8. 

Parakou, Dahomey, 1926 — A close reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1913 in angle bounded on north by road 
to Nikki and on west by road to Save, about 200 
meters southeast of French residence, and about 50 
meters northeast of post-office, 38.25 meters east of 
northeast corner of school building, 20.0 meters south 
of road to Nikki, measured along line through small 
mango tree at roadside 11.35 meters distant, and 13.9 
meters southeast of large mango tree. True bear- 
ings: edge of east gate-post at entrance to French 
residence, 115° 07'. 6; northeast edge of government 
store and school building on north side of Nikki 
road, 161° 16'.0. 

Podor, Senegal, 1925 — Two stations, A and B, were occu- 
pied. Station A is probably 10 or 15 meters south- 
west of de Vanssay's station of 1895, near the north- 
west corner of a street intersection, southwest of fort, 
4.95 meters northeast of brick monument marking 
street line and lot corner and over which C.I.W. 
observations were made in 1913 (an exact reoccupa- 
tion being prevented by erection of a mud wall) ; it 
is 9.9 meters west of mud fence between military 
grounds and street, and 25.50 meters northwest of 
brick and cement monument marking northeast cor- 
ner of street intersection; marked by peg. True 
bearings: flag support on south top edge of main 
building at fort, 210° 08'. 1 ; northeast corner of build- 
ing of Colonial Transit Company at water-front, 298° 
07'.2; pinnacle on red-tile roof of building of Oldani 
Merchants on water-front, 317° 20' .6. 

Station B about 1 kilometer southwest of main vil- 
lage and station A, about one-fourth kilometer south- 
east of residence of commandant, and about 40 meters 
east of hospital compound near bank of river, 10.5 
meters southwest of nearer of two trees, 15.7 meters 
west of tree near river bank, and 8.0 meters from 
tree to south ; marked by quart bottle placed mouth 
up flush with surface. True bearings : southwest cor- 
ner of small kitchen south of doctor's office, 79° 18'.1; 
north pinnacle of two on commandant's residence, 
135° 52' .0. 

St. Louis, Mauretania and Senegal, 1925 — Two stations 
were occupied. Station A is a close reoccupation 
of C.I.W. station of 1912, about 2 kilometers north 
of main bridge connecting Senegal and Mauretania, 
on west side of Little Senegal River in Mauretania, 
about 1 kilometer north of military hospital, about 
one-half kilometer southeast of rifle range, about 
one-fourth kilometer southeast of foundations of two 
houses near palm grove ; it is 68 meters west of river 
bank, 9.35 meters north of a concrete marker, 8.0 
meters southeast of nearest of four bunches of cac- 
tus; marked by peg. True bearings: west edge at 
top of tall brick smokestack on point extending into 
river, 227° 08' .2; spire of church on Sohr Island, 324° 
13' .0; flagpole on lighthouse, 355° 57'.0 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — continued 

St. Louis, Mauretania and Senegal, 1925 — continued 

Station B is in Senegal, on east side of Big Sene- 
gal River, on Sohr Island, in center of first large open 
space northeast along river from big bridge, bounded 
on east and south by large marigot, about 200 meters 
north of walled cemetery, roughly in line approx- 
imately parallel with river bank joining two cement 
markers, being 25.65 meters southwest and 6.95 
meters northeast of these markers respectively; it is 
25.55 meters southeast of a third marker and 1.4 
meters southwest of native path ; marked by a quart 
bottle buried mouth up flush with surface. True 
bearings: west edge at top of tall brick smokestack 
on point extending into river, 164° 09' .6; spire on 
church on Sohr Island, 357° 50' .9. 

Save, Dahomey, 1926 — A practical reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1913, about 100 meters south of French 
residence in line with west end of building, 14.5 
meters west of center of shaded walk running south- 
ward from residence, about 40 meters east of north- 
south road to Sabarou, 10.00 meters southwest of 
fourth tree on west side of shaded walk counting 
from residence, and 12.45 meters northwest of fifth 
tree, marked by rough granite stone with cross in top 
and extending 50 centimeters above surface. True 
bearings: southwest edge near top of French res- 
idence, 166° 23' .4; northwest edge of small granite 
stone building used as store and about 100 meters to 
northeast, 216° 10' .9. 

Segou, French Soudan, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. 
Station A is an exact reoccupation of C.I.W. station 
of 1913, up river from boat-landing between Hotel de 
Passage and river, 10.0 meters north from mud fence 
around hotel, 74.0 meters southwest of upper end of 
river gage, and southwest from pillar "Service Geo- 
graphique Mission Astronomique" marked by cross 
in top of native stone 20 by 15 by 40 centimeters 
placed in center of concrete block 1 by 1 meter flush 
with ground. True bearings: tall steel tower across 
Niger River, 1.5 miles (2.4 km.), 224° 24' .2; station 
B, 239° 17' .5; flagpole on building of Deves-Chaumet 
nearest river, 239° 28' .6. 

Station B is on the south bank of the Niger River, 
about 350 meters east of station A, northeast of 
the French commandant's residence, 4.5 meters from 
water's edge, 18.45 meters northwest of nearer of two 
large trees east of wide native path, 30.3 meters 
northeast of northeast corner of large stone wall 
extending from commandant's residence to river; 
marked by native brick 10 by 15 by 30 centimeters 
flush with surface with cross marking point. True 
bearings: station A, 59° 17'.5; tall tree on opposite 
bank of Niger River, 142° 25'.9; steel tower on rock 
pier on opposite side of river, 223° 49'.4. 

Tambacounda, Senegal, 1925 — About one-third mile (0.5 
kilometer) northeast of railroad station, on summit 
of hill, on west side of main road to Gambia, opposite 
administrator's palace, over cement pillar marking 
north side of intersection of street from west, 16.5 
meters west of wall of palace yard, 20.95 meters north- 
west of southwest corner of large pillar north of en- 
trance gate; marked by cement pillar, 11 by 11 centi- 
meters, extending 11 centimeters above ground, being 
the north pillar of two 30 meters apart, set by road 
surveyors to mark the street intersection. True bear- 
ings: northmost of four small spires on railroad build- 
ings, 29° 27'.6; northwest corner of adjutant's 
residence, 188° 02'.5 ; east spire of two on administra- 
tor's palace, 277° 2W2. 

Timbuktu, French Soudan, 1926 — Two stations were 
occupied. Station A is north of circular garden in 



Descriptions of Stations 



231 



AFRICA 

French West Africa — concluded 

Timbuktu, French Soudan, 1926 — continued 

government square, south of government palace, 
about midway between two small trees, 17.8 feet (5.42 
meters) and 23.3 feet (7.10 meters) from tree to 
southwest and northeast respectively, 97.4 feet (29.70 
meters) south of southwest corner of mud wall around 
government palace, 84.6 feet (25.79 meters) southeast 
of southeast corner of wall around post-office, and 
54.8 feet (16.70 meters) north of pillar in wall around 
circular garden; marked by brick and cement pillar 
buried somewhat below surface, lettered "C.I.W. 
1926" with cross marking center. True bearings: 
post on southwest corner of Fort Bonnier, 8° 34'.4; 
pinnacle of old mosque, 114° 50' .4; flagpole on Poste 
de Police, 303° 51'.4; telegraph-post in center of 
street 357° 29'.9. 

Station B is a practical reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1913, about 100 meters west of commander's 
residence, 14.0 feet (4.27 meters) south of center of 
astronomic pillar and 23 feet (7.01 meters) southwest 
of monument to Lieutenant Bonnier. True bearings : 
west corner of top of large lone building, 5° 40' .4; 
pinnacle on old Moorish mosque, 228° 41'.4; post on 
northwest corner of Fort Bonnier, 302° 37' .6. 

Gold Coast Colony 

Accra, 1926 — Three stations were occupied. Station A 
is a close reoccupation of the C. I.W. station of 1914, 
on golf-links, midway between the seashore and the 
main road to Christiansborg, 175 meters southwest 
of second bungalow from the cross-roads, 18.5 meters 
west of road leading from main road to seashore, 
and 8.5 meters south of tee No. 8 of golf-course ; 
marked by concrete pillar 20 by 20 by 75 centimeters 
inscribed "C.I.W. 1926." True bearings: tip on 
lighthouse, 50° 23'.5; spire on Church of England, 
64° 42'.4; flagpole on Secretariat, 110° 53'.3; peg at 
station B, 122° 40'.1. 

Station B is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1919, on the Victorian golf-course just north 
of the ninth fairway, in line with fence on east side 
of Public Works Department offices, 70.5 meters 
southeast of the southeast fence corner and across 
the main road to Christiansborg from these offices, 
and 24.15 meters south of the southwest edge of con- 
crete base of rainfall gage; marked by concrete pil- 
lar 20 bv 20 by 75 centimeters inscribed "C.I.W. 
1926." True bearings: dome of lighthouse, 43° 05' .2; 
spire on Church of England, 50° 55'. 2; dome on 
post-office building, 61° 25'.2. 

Station C is about 3.5 miles (5.63 km.) northeast 
of Accra on West Ridge at military cantonments, 
300 meters west of officers' mess house, 75 meters 
south of governor's lodge, and 45 meters south of 
Circle Road to cantonments. It is 28.60 meters 
south-southwest of cement pillar marking governor's 
lodge triangulation point of the Gold Coast Survey 
and in line with this pillar and spire on Basel (now 
Scottish Mission) church in Christiansborg, and 8.35 
meters northwest of small cement property beacon; 
to be marked by cement pillar. True bearing of 
Scottish Mission church spire as furnished by GoM 
Coast Survey, 21° 44'.6. 

Kumasi. 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A 
is about 50 feet (15.2 meters) south of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1914, on ridge in European section, about 1 
mile (1.6 km.) south of central part of town, on 
northeast edge of polo-grounds in line between two 
Gold Coast Survey monuments, 24.50 meters south of 
monument or northeast edge of polo-grounds, marked 



AFRICA 

Gold Coast Colony — concluded 

Kumasi, 1926 — continued 

"GCS.CTS2," and 175 meters north of monument 
on southwest edge of grounds, marked "GCSCTS- 
135," 25.6 meters and 28.7 meters respectively south- 
west of two royal palms near edge of grounds; 
marked by Gold Coast Survey monument 8 by 9 by 
12 inches (20 by 23 by 30 cm.) marked "GCS.CSI" 
set with top 10 inches (25 cm.) beneath surface of 
ground. True bearings: flagpole at bungalow of 
chief commissioner of Ashanti, 40° 06'.8; flagpole 
in front of old fort, 181° 52' .6; cross on Basel Mis- 
sion church in Kumasi, 200° 22'.4. 

Station B is about one-third mile (0.5 km.) north- 
west of A near southeast end of proposed polo- 
ground, 8.8 meters northwest of boundary of lot 
between bungalow of chief justice and that of 
district commissioner, 24.4 meters northeast of 
large tree at north corner of commissioner's lot, 
and 40.8 meters west of northwest corner of serv- 
ant's house on chief justice's lot; marked by cross 
in top of concrete block 4 by 8 by 20 inches (10 
by 20 by 51 cm.) set with top 4 inches (10 cm.) 
above surface. True bearings: left edge of pro- 
vincial commissioner's house, 69° 49'.4; steel tele- 
phone-pole on north-west end of proposed polo- 
ground, 113° 32'.2; left edge of servant's house, 
237° 16'.8. 

Sekondi, 1926— About 2 miles (3.2 km.) northeast of 
Sekondi, northwest of road to Chamah, on property 
belonging to Dr. Marsters, one-half mile (0.8 km.) 
east of Nyiasia, at top of round knoll, 27.6 meters 
east of southeast corner and 30.0 meters northeast 
of southwest corner of bungalow occupied by Mr. 
Courtiss; marked by concrete monument 8 bv 8 bv 
24 inches (20 by 20 by 61 cm.) lettered "CI.W. 
1926" set with top about 2 inches (5 cm.) above 
surface. True bearings: flagpole on old fort in 
Sekondi, 17° 43'. 1 ; flagpole of West African Lighter- 
age, 23° 41'0; southeast corner of bungalow of Mr. 
Courtiss, 108° Ol'.O. 

Kenya Colony 

(Note: Earlier occupations of repeat stations in this 
section were listed under British East Africa, in 
Volume I of this series.) 

Kisumu, 1921 — About 100 feet (30 meters) southeast of 
C. I.W. station Port Florence of 1909, east of rail- 
way station, 250 yards (229 meters) southeast of 
cotton ginnery, in range with its northeast end and 
highest point of a ridge to northwest, 196.2 feet 
59.80 meters) north of southeast veranda-post of 
Indian store, 153.4 feet (46.76 meters) east of nearest 
telegraph-pole and 41 paces from road to southeast. 
True bearings: bottom of east veranda -post of 
Indian store, 19° 54'.6; northeast end of roof of 
cotton ginnery, 139° 33' .3; prominent tree across 
gulf, 3 miles (5 km.), 162° 55' .8; top of prominent 
rock at east end of range, 236° 54'.3; front gable 
of Indian store, 287° 24'.3. 

Makindu, 1921 — Close reoccupation of C.I.W. station of 
1909, in thick thorn scrub about 100 yards (91 
meters) southwest of new railway residences, 410 
yards (375 meters) southwest of railway station, on 
prolongation of short roadway leading directly from 
station building. True bearings: prominent tree, 3 
miles (5 km.), 145° 56'; top east edge of railway 
water-tank, one-fourth mile (0.4 km.), 219° 17' 5- 
west spike on roof of northmost of two red-roofed 
residences, 600 feet (183 meters), 228° 45' .7: large 
rock on summit of saddle-backed hill, 304° 28'. 



232 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

Kenya Colony — concluded 

Mombasa, 1921 — About 150 feet (45.7 meters) southwest 
of English Point, Mombasa, C. I.W. station of 1909, 
9 paces north of point in path 250 paces northeast 
of English Point, and 27 paces beyond point where 
light railway crosses path ; marked by concrete block 
12 inches (0.3 meter) square, and standing about 

2 feet (0.6 meter) above surface, its top face lettered 
"C.I.W. 1921." True bearings: top of east corner 
of wall of old fort, one-half mile (0.8 km.), 16° 
17'.6; top of Vasco da Gama monument, one-half 
mile (0.8 km.), 28° 08' .8; northmost of two wireless 
masts, 2 miles (3 km.), 95° 12'.9; ornamental urn 
on southeast comer of high-school, 133° 09'.0; coco- 
nut palm in direction of navigation mark, 47 feet 
(14.3 meters), 152° 44'. 

Nairobi, 1921 — Two stations were occupied. Station A 
is probably about 30 yards (27.4 meters) south of 
the C.I.W. station of 1909, southeast of railway 
station, 82 paces east of road, and 150 feet south- 
east of corner pole of transmission line. 

Station B is on open grassy land between White- 
house Road and Fifth Avenue, about one-fourth 
mile (0.4 km.) southwest of general post-office, 203 
paces southeast of Treasury and 37 paces southwest 
of water channel; marked by a concrete pillar 4 
feet (1.2 meters) high, 18 inches (46 cm.) at base 
and 9 inches (23 cm.) at top, lettered "C.I.W. 1921," 
erected by Land Survey Department. True bear- 
ings: bottom of northeast concrete pillar of Secre- 
tariat buildings, 22° 24' .5; cross on west end of 
church, 95° 04'. 0; tip of roof of Treasury building, 
153° 43'.5; east gable of Scotch church, one-half 
mile (0.8 km.), 169° 56'. 1 ; top of post-office clock- 
tower, 205° 48' .4; top of church-steeple, one-fourth 
mile (0.4 km.), 244° 34' .4. 

Nakuru, 1921— Near the C.I.W. station of 1909, north 
of railway, opposite east end of station house, and 
350 yards (320 meters) north of site of former fence 
inclosing station and sidings. True bearings: top 
of church-steeple, 900 feet (274 meters), 44° 35'.3; 
lone tree on skv-line, 5 miles (8 km.), 98° 12'.6; 
flat peak on ridge, 15 miles (24 km.), 290° 28' .6;. 
geodetic beacon on hill, 5 miles (8 km.), 314° 22' .7; 
spike on front gable of eastmost railwav residence, 
600 feet (183 meters), 354° 13' .1. 

Port Florence, 1921 — See Kisumu. 

Voi, 1921— Close reoccupation of C.I.W. station of 1909, 
on grassy flat southeast of railway inclosure, 117 
paces northeast of junction of two paths 90 paces 
north of river bank and 300 paces southeast of 
railway along path toward river which crosses tracks 
106 paces east of railwav inclosure. True bearings: 
bottom of cliff-like hill, 15 miles (24 km.), 76° 05' .6; 
southmost pillar of water-tank, one-fourth mile (0.4 
km.), 79° 58'. 8; northeast corner of flat roof of 
railway rest-house, one-fourth mile (0.4 km), 91° 
19'.8; flagstaff at government station, 1 mile (1.6 
km.), 113° 16' .5: south end of roof of railway native 
quarters, 127° 20' .2; rockv summit of highest hill, 

3 miles (5 km.), 167° 56\ 

Liberia 

Bushrod Island (Monrovia), Montserrado, 1923 — On 
Bushrod Island, 5 kilometers north of Monrovia. 
225 kilometers southeast of mouth of St. Paul 
River, 100 meters southeast of Parini Farm, and 
100 meters from high-water mark on the beach ; 
marked by empt3' .30 caliber cartridge shell sunk 
in top of concrete block 24 by 30 by 80 centimeters, 



AFRICA 

Liberia — continued 

Bushrod Island (Monrovia), Montserrado, 1923 — cont'd, 
lettered "C.I.W. 1923" and set in an irregular mass 
of concrete about 1 cubic meter in volume buried 
flush with ground. The station is identical with 
a primary control station of the Boundary Survey 
designated as "MAG." True bearings: monument 
in Monrovia, 5 kilometers, 15° 53'.7; south mast 
French wireless, 6 kilometers, 16° 36'. 1; spire in 
Monrovia, 17° 45' .4; conspicuous palm tree, 1.6 
kilometers, 151° 49'. 

Cape Palmas, Maryland County, 1926 — Because of the 
large local disturbance known to exist in the vicin- 
ity of Cape Palmas, several stations were occupied. 
These are: station A on Russwurm Island; station 
B, immediately across channel from A; station C, 
west of B in vicinity of lighthouse; and Harper, 
on north side of Hoffman River. Two stations were 
also established at Cuttington, about 8 miles 
(13 km.) northeast of Harper. See separate de- 
scriptions of Cuttington and Harper. 

Station A, on Russwurm Island, is a close re- 
occupation of C.I.W. stations of 1914 and 1919, 
on level space on top of rocky ridge, about mid- 
way between east end of island and its highest 
point, about 6 meters north of barren rocks of 
south side of island and 2 meters south of dense 
vines and bush on north side of island; marked 
by rough stone about 18 by 22 by 14 inches (46 
by 56 by 36 cm.) extending about 8 inches (20 
cm.) above surface, lettered "C.I.W." with cross 
marking center. True bearings: tip on lighthouse, 
129° 24' .6; flagpole on front of Elder Dempster's 
bungalow and office, 173° 52'.2; north spire of 
two on Protestant Episcopal church, 234° 47'.9; 
south spire on Protestant Episcopal church, 235° 
05'.6. 

Station B is near the shore opposite station on 
Russwurm Island, 10 meters southwest of fresh- 
water spring, on grassy spot surrounded by solid 
rocks, 2.4 meters, 1.2 meters, and 1.7 meters from 
rock to east, south, and west respectively, about 
25 meters east of small sandy beach, and south of 
south end of old rock wall in rear of homes of two 
Liberians across street from Elder Dempster's bunga- 
low; marked by peg. True bearings: sham pointed 
pinnacle-shaped stone on west end of Russwurm 
Island, 40° 27' .0; split between two huge rocks on 
east end of Russwurm Island, 348° 38' .4. 

Station C is about 100 meters southwest of light- 
house near extremity of cape, about 15 meters north 
of edge of rock on shore of channel, near edge of 
grassy plot. 3 meters and 5 meters from youner oil 
palms southwest and southeast respeotivelv ; marked 
by peg. True bearings: pinnacle-shaped rook on 
west end of Russwurm Island, 4° 15'.6; tip on light- 
house. 215° 44' 6; southeast corner of girls' mission 
school, 241° 35' .0. 

Cuttinaton, Man/land County. 1926 — Two station's wf>re 
occupied. Station A is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1919, on grounds of Cuttington College, 
68.0 meters south of southwest, corner of Epiphany 
Hall, 20.1 meters southwest of southwest corner of 
president's cottage, east of path passing front of 
Epiphany Hall, 10.1 meters north of center of middle 
one of three large mango trees ; marked by rough flat 
native stone set even with surface, lettered on top 
"C. I.W." with cross marking center. True bearings: 
split in center of middle of three large mango trees 
to south, 13° 31' .4; northwest corner of Epiphany 
Hall at the ground, 162° 00' .8; southwest comer of 
main foundation of president's cottage, 189° 54' .7. 



Descriptions of Stations 



233 



AFRICA 

Liberia — continued 

Cuttington, Maryland County, 1926 — continued 

Station B is on grounds of Cuttington College on 
crest of narrow ridge, east of Epiphany Hall, 5.4 
meters north of center of path to Hope Cottage, 9.4 
meters south of center of narrow footpath leading 
northeast to college gardens, and 8.5 meters west of 
intersection of two paths; marked by rough native 
stone set even with surface lettered "C.I.W. 1926" 
with cross at center. True bearings: south gable of 
president's cottage, 28° 53' .5; south edge of abut- 
ment at south end of Epiphany Hall, 51° 49' .1 north 
edge of abutment at north end of Epiphany Hall, 
76° 57'.1. See Cape Palmas. 

Greenville (Sinu), Sinu, 1924 — Close reoccupation of 
' C.I.W. station of 1913-14, on sandy beach, about 
35 meters north of north edge of west end of street 
terminating at Government custom-house at its east 
end. True bearings : highest peak of rock off point, 990 
meters, 26° 52' .2; tangent to Grand Butu Point, 6 
nautical miles (11.1 km.), 117° 58' .7; southern and 
larger of two cotton trees, about 100 meters, 219° 18'; 
astronomical station, 1.8 kilometers, 357° 23'. 1; Sinu 
lighthouse, 1.8 kilometers, 358° 00' .5. 

Harper, Maryland County, 1926 — Close reoccupation of 
C.I.W. station of 1919, in cleared field on north side 
of Hoffman River, on military grounds, about 150 
meters west of commanding officer's house, about 90 
meters northeast of beach nearly in line between north 
side of commanding officer's house and stranded 
"Yaroba," 29 meters south of three-stemmed bread- 
fruit tree, and 80 meters north of tall Ronnier palm 
standing north of road; marked by barrel-shaped 
block of cement extending 15 inches (38 cm.) above 
surface of ground, lettered "C.I.W. 1926" with cross 
in center. True bearings: light on top of Elder 
Dempster's bungalow, 4° 23'.3; tip on lighthouse, 17° 
07'.4; tall Ronnier palm, 21° 31'.5; spire on Method- 
ist church, 329° 56' .4. 

Monrovia, Montserrado — See Bushrod Island. 

Naama, Montserrado, 1924 — South of town at the south- 
west corner of the District Commissioner's compound 
on the south side of the road; marked by cross in a 
metamorphic stone, 25 by 30 by 110 centimeters, set 
to project 5 centimeters above ground. True bear- 
ings: Yepaulo triangulation station, 107° 45'.0; large 
tree near market, about 250 meters, 111° 48'; large 
tree north of town, about 300 meters, 178° 47' • stake 
at east edge of compound, about 90 meters, 220 49" '.5; 
large tree southeast of town and at east edge of Man- 
dingo quarter, about 200 meters, 252° 33'. 

Robert Port (Cape Mount), Montserrado, 1923 — On low 
marshy ground on east side of lagoon at edge of man- 
grove, about 350 meters northeast of A.I.C. factory, 
about 100 meters northwest of most northern group 
of native huts, about 20 meters northeast of canoe 
landing and trail to native village, and 9.5 meters 
from high-water line; marked by hardwood stake 
driven flush with ground. True bearings: flagstaff 
on R. A. Sherman's uptown house, 63° 09' .0; 'flag- 
staff in front of Masonic building, 70° 20' .4; flag- 
staff at custom-house, 79° 20'.5; point of Tamielo 
Island, 147° 18'; north palm of two at point of 
Tamielo Island, 147° 56' .4. 

Sanoye, Montserrado, 1924— At west edge of Govern- 
ment compound, 230 meters along the road leading 
north 15° east from native village, and 63 meters 
west of road at right angles ; marked by cross in top 
of diorite stone, 25 by 30 by 60 centimeters, set flush 
with ground. Bearings not taken to buildings in the 



AFRICA 

Liberia — concluded 

Sanoye, Montserrado, 1924 — continued 

compound, as compound is to bei moved and build- 
ings rebuilt within a few months. True bearings: 
Bong triangulation station, 13.9 kilometers, 48° 42' .1; 
flagpole on native house in Sanoye, 360 meters, 346° 
34' .0; white trunk of tree on north slope of hill, 2 
kilometers, 350° 00' .0; JTJ triangulation station, 2.65 
kilometers, 350° 37'. 7. 

Sino, 1924 ('also spelled Sinu) — See Greenville. 

Morocco 

Casablanca (Dar el Baida), 1925 — A practical reoccupa- 
tion of C. I.W. station of 1912, about 3 kilometers 
south of Casablanca, east of 3-kilometer mark on east 
side of road to Bourouska, near center of field belong- 
ing to an old Arab and behind some native stores, 
about midway between hut belonging to owner of 
field and white concrete house farther east, in front 
of which are three white pillars; it is 2 meters from 
southeast corner of mound apparently an old house 
foundation and 38 meters north of center of native 
road meeting road to Bourouska at right-angles 
between native stores and group of concrete native 
houses south of intersection. True bearings: left edge 
at rear of concrete houses south of road, 33° 25' .0; 
most easterly of three wireless towers, 167° 20'. 1 ; 
tallest Moorish mosque, 2 kilometers, 245° 42'.6. 

Larache (El Araish), 1925 — Close reoccupation of Laraish 
B 1912, Laraish A being unavailable, about 1 kilo- 
meter southwest of town square, in an old garden 
spot partly surrounded by cactus hedge, just opposite 
the soldier barracks, about 225 meters southwest of 
the residence of the Duke of Vernes, not visible from 
station, 8 meters from hedge on north, 12.5 meters 
west of wooden fence, and 28 meters from hedge on 
south of garden. True bearings: spire on lighthouse, 
89° 02'.4; center one of three ornaments on Hotel 
Diasturias, 216° 29' .2. 

Station C is about 200 meters southwest of station 
B, on public ground, formerl}- property of Mr. Guag- 
nino, 6 meters east of path, 32.5 meters southeast of 
telephone-pole on sunken ground, 38 meters from 
next pole to south (lighthouse is seen about midway 
between these two poles) ; marked by peg. True bear- 
ings: spire on lighthouse, 93° 57'.4; station B, 211° 
19M); center one of three ornaments on Hotel Dias- 
turias, 213° 44' .5. 

Marrakech, 1925 — Two stations were occupied about 2 
kilometers west of Marrakech on road to Minara 
Gardens. Station A is near east edge of an old field, 
about 200 meters north from intersection of north- 
south road with main road, and 9.5 meters west of 
center of north-south road, in line of row of china- 
berry trees along edge of field, 3.7 meters and 6.2 
meters from trees in row to north and south respec- 
tively; marked by stone 20 by 20 by 61 centimeters 
marked "C.I.W. 1925," with hole at center. True 
bearings; tip on green roof of water-house in Minara 
Gardens, 61° 25' .4; spire on mosque of Koutoubia, 
247° 33'.1. 

Station B is 66.6 meters southwest of station A, 8.6 
meters south of an east-west irrigation ditch, 24.6 
meters east of base of group of palms near north- 
south ditch, and 6.9 meters northeast of a bunch of 
bamboos. True bearings : tip on green roof on water- 
house in Minara Gardens, 61° 07'.3; mosque of Kou- 
toubia, 247° 40' .5; station A, 249° 43'.4; mosque 278° 
07'.9. 

Mogador, 1925 — Close reoccupation of C.I.W. station of 
1912, about 2.5 kilometers along shore north of Moga- 



234 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 
Morocco — concluded 

Mogador, 1925 — continued 

dor, on Moorish grounds known as Taffa, outside the 
Marrakech gate and between caravan route and sea- 
shore, 99 meters south of well near seashore which is 
in direct line to rock in sea farther north, about 86 
meters from beach and about 85 meters northwest of 
near corner of brick warehouse, 2.8 meters from bank 
on west, and 6.1 meters from bank on north; marked 
by concrete block, 15 by 20 by 56 centimeters with 
cross cut in top buried flush in sand and packed in 
place with small stones. True bearings: tower of 
Smaa in Mogador, 44° 17'.2; seaward edge of well 
near shore, 199° 56' .3; seaward edge of Moorish house, 
4 miles, 241° 01 '.0; northeast corner of small concrete 
hut attached to back of larger hut, 75 meters, 283° 
51'.4. 

Tangier, 1925 — Since the exact position of stations A and 
C could not be identified, a new station designated C 
was established as near the old location as possible, 
on property formerly owned by Mr. Levison, about 
midway between the Levison residence and Jew's 
River, ,about 75 meters below rock wall marking south- 
east boundary of Mr. Levison's present property, 
about 100 meters south of concrete hut on cliff east 
of house of British consul and about 50 meters south- 
west of concrete hut farther down slope near mouth 
of river, on ridge of a terrace, 53.5 feet (16.31 meters) 
northwest of second, and 28.0 feet (8.5 meters) south- 
west of third cedar in first row of cedars below prop- 
erty wall, counting from south. True bearings: right 
top of concrete hut on sea cliff, 149° 18' .3; left cor- 
ner at top of concrete hut down slope, 208° 28' .7; 
Moorish castle across harbor seen over top of small 
red-topped hut near cliff, 251° 33' .8; right top of 
square front of concrete hut on opposite side of Jew's 
River at right of a group of exposed rocks, 273° 
56' .6. 

Rabat, 1925 — Station of 1912 was closely reoccupied, 
about 2.5 kilometers south of center of city on prop- 
erty of M. Leriche, near southwest corner of field 
bounded on south and west by cactus hedge, east 
of road to Rabat, adjacent to junction with road 
leading south to home of M. Leriche, 47 feet (14.3 
meters) north of cactus hedge along south bound- 
ary, 100 feet (30.5 meters) from hedge along west 
boundary of field, 112 feet (34.1 meters) from south- 
west corner of field, and 67 feet (20.4 meters) west of 
pear tree; marked by stone 20 by 20 by 61 centi- 
meters, buried flush and marked "C.I.W. 1925." True 
bearings: tower of Mulai Sleiman, 94° 15'.6; tower 
of Hassani, 184° 16' .7; flagpole on house of M. 
Leriche, 321° 28' .9. 

Nigeria 

Amar, Muri, 1926 — On north side of Benue Rivei*at river 
port near village of Amar, about 300 meters west of 
former C.I.W. station of 1914, 7.0 meters north from 
top of high river bank, and 3.0 meters east of path 
leading to village of Amar. 

Ibi, Muri, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A 
is on government grounds about three-fourths mile 
(1.2 km.) from river port, 20.6 meters north of center 
of main road near government rest-house, in front of 
police station, and in line of south side of rest-house 
foundation extended 46.45 meters east of southeast 
corner ; to be marked. True bearings : southeast cor- 
ner of foundation of government rest-house, 61° 25' .2 ; 
north gable of Niger Company's bungalow, 205° 
33'.6; northeast comer of doctor's bungalow, 310° 
05' .4. 



AFRICA 

Nigeria — continued 

Ibi, Muri, 1926 — continued 

Station B is a close reoccupation of C.I.W. sta- 
tion of 1914. On property of Sudan United Mis- 
sion, between north-south raised road leading to 
Benue River and a hedge along west boundary of 
compound, at opening of hedge, 3.5 meters east of 
center of road, 26.2 meters north of cement beacon 
marking southwest corner of mission compound, 
and 12.4 meters south of center of driveway enter- 
ing west side of compound; to be marked. True 
bearings: southwest corner of main bungalow in 
mission compound, 222° 31' .1; northwest comer of 
iron store-building in compound, 246° 37'.4. 

Jebba, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A is 
on hill east of railway station in compound of 
government rest-house, 37.5 meters northwest of 
northwest corner of rest-house, 11 meters southwest 
of center of old walk, nearly in line with two nut 
trees, 1.9 meters northwest of the nearer and 4.5 
meters northwest of farther tree. True bearings: 
right gable of two on southeast end of railway en- 
gineer's bungalow, 133° 32'.1; flagpole on east edge 
of hill, 167° 09'.9; southwest comer of rest-house, 
304° 32'.4. 

Station B is a practical reoccupation of C. I.W. 
station of 1914. On hill nearest south end of rail- 
road bridge, west of point where north road reaches 
summit and east of Niger Company's bungalow, 4.0 
meters west of main gravel walk parallel with hilltop, 
6 meters north of walk entering Niger Company's 
compound, 11.5 meters south of walk to tennis-court, 
and 22 meters north of small tree at west side of 
main gravel walk ; marked by circular pile of stones. 
True bearings : east gable of Niger Company's bunga- 
low, 51° 59'.3; railway rail at southeast comer of 
tennis-court, 125° 51 '.4; southwest corner of railway 
station, 278° 59' .7. 

Kano, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A is 
a reoccupation of C. I.W. station of 1914, about 1.5 
kilometers northeast of raijway station, north of Bom- 
pai road, about 400 meters northwest of Kano Club 
house, 75 paces north of boulder 10 meters high 
standing north of Bompai road, within cluster of 
boulders, 3 meters west of large boulder, 2.2 meters 
north of small boulder, 6.5 meters southeast of north- 
east end of boulder 11 meters long, 5 meters wide, 
and 1.5 meters high; marked by Nigerian Survey 
beacon with point of arrow in top marking exact 
point. True bearings: fork of small acacia tree, 66° 
41' JO; west chimney of two on French Company's 
bungalow, 68° 57' .2; steel telegraph-pole on north 
side of Bompai road, 326° 42'.2. 

Station B is about 300 meters south of Kano Club 
house, east of Bompai road, 12.0 meters east of east 
boundary of polo grounds, in line with east edge of 
raised side of foundation for stands extending north 
15.6 meters from its northeast corner, and 20.45 
meters northeast of its northwest corner; marked by 
Nigerian Survey beacon numbered 169 with small 
hole in top. True bearings: steel telegraph-pole, 53° 
58' .0; flagpole on railway station in Kano, 60° 37'.4; 
east post supporting net on tennis-court of Kano 
Club, 190° 39'.7. 

Lagos, 1926 — Three stations were occupied. Stations A 
and B being exact reoccupations of C.I.W. station 
of 1914, and station C is close reoccupation of C.I.W. 
station of 1915. Station A is 20 chains (402 meters) 
north of Lagos Observatory, about 3 miles (4.8 km.) 
from port of Lagos, in subdivision called Ikoye, about 
one-half mile (0.8 km.) east of tennis-club, about one- 



Descriptions of Stations 



235 



AFRICA 

Nigeria — continued 

Lagos, 1926 — continued 

third mile (0.5 km.) southeast of home of Dr. Mar- 
tin, over a pier about 1 meter high, marked "220P. 
IKP." True bearing: plumb-line over line-marker 
(station B), 180° 00' .2. It was found that cross 
marking station is in top of an iron bar 1 inch (2.5 
cm.) in diameter and not less than 12 inches (30 cm.) 
long. 

Station B is over pier marked "265P. IKP," which 
is north end of meridian line of Southern Nigerian 
Survey, south end being pier described as station A, 
6 chains (120.7 meters) distant. True bearing: pier 
220P. IKP (station A), 0° W2. 

Station C is about 2.5 miles (4 km.) northeast of 
Lagos, 31.5 meters north of metaled road to Ikoye 
opposite new barracks for black soldiers, and about 
200 meters east of cemeteries, about 250 meters south 
of lagoon, on line through two cement pillars 60 
meters apart marked "200P. IKP" and "651. PB," 
27.5 meters east of latter or more easterly one. True 
bearing: west wireless mast in Lagos, 72° 50\8. 

Lokoja, Kabba, 1926 — Two stations were occupied which 
are proximate reoccupations of C. I.W. station of 
1914. Station A is at north corner of golf course 
across avenue south from marine officers' bungalow, 
31.2 meters northwest of northwest corner of veranda 
pillar of station magistrate's office, 10.2 meters west 
of nearest of three mango trees at boundary of golf 
course, 15.2 meters southwest of mango tree near ave- 
nue, within fork formed by two paths, 10.4 meters 
from path to north and 4.1 meters from path to east; 
marked by cement brick 15 by 15 by 30 centimeters 
set flush with surface, with cross in top. True bear- 
ings: northwest corner of bungalow number 14, 50° 
34'. 1; flagpole in marine bungalow compound, 198° 
07'. 1; northwest corner of police office building, 295° 
39'.4; northwest corner of magistrate's office, 335° 
00' .2. 

Station B is at west end of golf-course, southwest 
of golf-house, beyond small stream which cuts across 
west corner of golf-course, 18 meters southwest of 
gravel path along west side of stream, 18.8 meters 
east of southeast end of bunker, and 2.5 meters west 
of large tree; marked by cement brick 20 by 20 by 
50 centimeters set flush with surface with cross at 
center. True bearings: flagpole at marine bungalow, 
254° 20' .6; flagpole at residence, 337° 09'.3. 

Yola, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A is 
south of polo-grounds, in northeast corner of medical 
officer's compound, 15.0 meters south of center of 
road along south side of 'polo-grounds, 12.5 meters 
west of center of narrow walk along east side of com- 
pound, and 10.1 meters southeast of center of drive- 
way leading to medical officer's residence ; marked by 
rough stone extending 6 centimeters above surface 
of ground with cross marking center. True bear- 
ings: southeast corner of medical officer's residence, 
49° 12'.0; east gable on small tin-roofed house on 
north side of polo-grounds, 162° 50* .9; flagpole at 
residence north of polo-grounds, 200° 06' .5. 

Station B is in Yola-European reservation on 
recreation field and is 19.75 meters east of north- 
east corner of concrete tennis-court in line with 
north edge. True bearings: southeast corner of 
medical officer's residence, 45° 05' .8; flagpole at res- 
idence, 169° 55'.5; center of sun-dial in front of pro- 
vincial officer's bureau, 330° 02'.4. 

Zaria, 1926 — Two stations were occupied. Station A is 
a practical reoccupation of C.I.W. station of 1914, at 
southeast corner of golf-links, about 300 meters west 



AFRICA 

Nigeria — concluded 

Zaria, 1926 — continued 

of railway property fence, nearly west of point mid- 
way between railway rest-house and bungalow of 
foreman of works, and at south edge of fairway to 
golf-green nearest railway property; marked by con- 
crete brick 20 by 20 by 35 centimeters, extending 15 
centimeters above surface. True bearings: right edge 
of monument to Nigerian soldiers killed in World 
War, 91° 07' .9; survey triangle marker on high hill, 
138° 09/ .2; west gable of railway station, 252° 43'.6. 

Station B is about 350 meters west of A at south 
end of golf-links, about 175 meters southwest of only 
mud bungalow on links, about 150 meters north of 
main road, within a circular arrangement of trees, 
10.5 meters southeast of only mango tree in the circle, 
15 meters northeast of path through circle, and 40 
meters southwest of fourth tree from native path. 
True bearings: steel telegraph-pole, 35° 48'.4; north- 
west corner of court-house, 331° 41'.6. 

Sierra Leone 

Bo, 1925 — Close reoccupation of C. I.W. station of 1912, 
about three-fourths mile (1.2 km.) north of railway 
station, in compound of United Methodist Mission, 
about 300 feet (91 meters) west of chief mission- 
house, about 200 feet (61 meters) west of small ten- 
nis-court, 70 feet (21.3 meters) southwest of lone oil- 
palm tree, 75 feet (22.9 meters) west of native tree, 
130 feet (39.6 meters) northwest of nearest guava 
tree, and 60 feet (18.3 meters) east of line of high 
bush which is present west boundary of mission 
grounds; marked by cross in top of stone projecting 
1 inch (2.5 cm.) above ground. A similar stone was 
placed 130 feet (39.6 meters) southeast, under and 5 
feet (1.5 meters) east of trunk of the nearest guava 
tree in the orchard. True bearings: lone palm, 1 
mile (1.6 km.), 78° 46' .0; oil palm, 250 yards (229 
meters), 187° 05'.8; oil palm, 70 feet (21.3 meters), 
210° 42' (approx.) ; second stone marker, 130 feet 
(39.6 meters), 317° 27'.2. 

Freetown, 1925 — Close reoccupation of C. I.W. station of 
1912, on parade grounds on King Tom Peninsula, 
about 1% miles (2.4 km.) by road west of Freetown. 
It is 148 feet (45.1 meters) north of Freetown road 
through parade ground, opposite the football-field, 
112.2 feet (34.20 meters) northeast of northeast cor- 
ner of concrete cricket alley, 183 feet (55.8 meters) 
southwest of large cotton tree ; marked by native 
brick, 8 by 10 by 20 inches (20 by 25 by 51 cm.) let- 
tered "C.I.W. 1925," and set 2 inches (5 cm.) below 
surface. Two crosses cut in the north end of the con- 
crete cricket alley are in line joining station with 
northeast corner of stone guard-house. True bear- 
ings: southeast corner of concrete cannon-house, 48° 
03'.8; northeast corner of guard-house, 61° 00' .5; tip 
on north wireless tower, 266° 19' .9; north flagpole of 
two on African East Trading Company, 269° 13' .8. 

Moyamba, 1925 — Practical reoccupation of C. I.W. station 
of 1912, about one-half mile (0.8 km.) east of railway 
station, about 150 yards (137 meters) west of new 
building of United Brethren mission, about 100 yards 
(91 meters) north of huts used as barracks by court 
messengers, 100 feet (30.5 meters) from middle of 
road on southwest, 42 feet (12.8 meters) west of pa- 
paw tree at corner of Creole cemetery, and 18 feet 
(5.5 meters) west of road along front of this ceme- 
tery; marked by cross and letters "C.I.W. 1926" in 
top of concrete block set in concrete. A second con- 
crete block with cross cut in top was placed about 
200 feet (61 meters) southwest of magnetic station in 



236 



Land Magnetic Observations, 1921-1926 



AFRICA 

Sierra Leone — concluded 

Moyamba, 1925 — continued 

comer of mission compound just outside of mission 
fence. True bearings : small tree used as north gate- 
post of Creole cemetery, 185° 40' .4; tip of most east- 
erly of messenger barracks, 330° 12' .8; second con- 
crete block, 332° 12'. 

Tanganyika Territory 

(Note: Earlier occupations of repeat stations in this sec- 
tion will be found listed under German East Africa 
in Volume I of this series.) 

Dar-es-Salaam, 1921 — On coast east of Governor's palace, 
between main road along water-front and beach, 
135.8 feet (41.39 meters) north of northeast corner of 
former German magnetic observatory, in which the 
C.I.W. observations of 1909 were made, and 38.1 
feet (11.61 meters) east of center of main road; 
marked by stone block, 6 by 6 by 18 inches (15 by 
15 by 46 cm.), firmly embedded in a mass of coral 
rock and cement, its top face left slightly above 
surface of sand, and lettered "C.I.W. 1921." True 
bearings: northeast corner of observatory, 9° 26' .9; 
red tower at south end of meteorological observa- 
tory, one-fifth mile (0.3 km.), 118° 16' .0; distant 
point of land, 5 miles (8 km.), 171° 34' .5; top of 
lighthouse tower, 2 miles (3 km.), 239° 21'. 4; east- 
most point of land, 10 miles (16 km.), 269° 33' .8; 
navigation mark on rock, 2 miles (3 km.), 274° 04' .7; 
signal-staff on pilot's house, one-half mile (0.8 km.), 
333° 51'. 6. 

Dodoma, 1921 — On public common between railway line 
and market place, on west side of main road leading 
from boma (government post) to market place, 36.5 
feet (11.13 meters) west of hedge on west side of 
main road, measured from point 210 paces north of 
railway-line crossing, and 22 feet (6.7 meters) east of 
foot-path; marked by a rough block of granite, its 
top face projecting slightly above surface of ground. 
True bearings: bottom of north arm of railway sig- 
nal, 250 yards (229 meters), 57° 26' .3; east end of 
roof of market building, 180 paces, 190° 10' .2; west 
gable end of railway station, one-half mile (0.8 km.), 
311° 33' .0; top of chimney appearing above roof of 
boma, one-fourth mile (0.4 km.), 352° 45' .2. 

Kigoma, 1921 — On open grassy slope southeast of railway 
terminus and northeast of Afrika Hotel, 264.1 feet 
(80.50 meters) west of southwest corner of fence 
around residence of Belgian contractor, and 71 feet 
(21.6 meters) south of southmost of two mango trees 
in line; marked by a cement block 6 by 6 by 24 
inches (15 by 15 by 61 cm.), its top face buried 3 
inches (8 cm.) below surface and covered with a 
cairn of rock. True bearings: top of red-roofed 
house on hill, three-fourths mile (1.2 km.), 59° 09'.0; 
wireless mast, 2 miles (3.2 km.), 105° 52' .5 ; flagstaff 
outside terminus, 600 feet (183 meters), 111° 37'.2; 
top of chimney on railway station, 120° 15'.3; south- 
most of two mango trees, 194° 49' ; top of front gable 
of contractor's residence, 239° 54' .6. 

Kilimatinde, 1921 — In small level clearing on hillside, 
about 600 feet (183 meters) northeast of residence of 
district political officer in northeast corner of market 
place, just east of kopje of granite boulders, and 41 
paces north of prominent bushy tree. True bearings: 
prominent bushy tree, 24° 46'; south veranda-post 
of prison, 800 feet (244 meters) , 39° 57'.8; south cor- 
ner of political officer's residence, 62° 19' .4; top of 
prominent baobab on hillside, 1 mile (1.6 km.), 359° 
03'.7. 



AFRICA 

Tanganyika Territory — continued 

Kilosa, 1921 — About 47 paces north of C.I.W. station of 
1909, on west side of main road leading north from 
railway station, just beyond north end of native vil- 
lage and just south of point where small road turns 
off northwest into bush to residence of Captain Turn- 
ley, about 670 paces north of railway station, and 9 
paces west of main road; marked by peg to be 
replaced by stone by local authorities. True bear- 
ings : south edge of tower of house on hillside, 1 mile 
(1.6 km.), 37° 10' .0; north gable end of residence on 
hill, 1,000 yards (914 meters), 64° 17'.9; large baobab 
tree, 150 feet (46 meters), 179° 41'; mimosa tree, 62.5 
feet (19.05 meters), 268° 46' .2. 

Malongwe, 1921— On grassy flat about 600 feet (183 
meters) north of railway station, and in line with its 
western side, about 150 feet (46 meters) east-north- 
east of native water-hole, 13 paces west of native 
path from village to railway statioD, and 4 paces 
south of path leading from water-hole to small vil- 
lage to east. True bearings: east end of roof of rest- 
house, 21° 11'. 7; top of stone at west end of roof of 
railway station, 33° 06'. 1 ; la