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HYLTON B. DALE.
PORTRAIT DU ROI TIGRANE II LE GUAND
(D'apres unc t6tradrachmo du Muse britaanique.)
HYLTON B. DALE.
S. 8. M : lll"|. I;. I.I^II^MI.II- l.-h
His Holiness the Catholicos,
Elected - - 1911.
1000-900 The Armenians (an Aryan race believed to be a branch of the
B.C. Phrygians) leave Thrace in Greece and migrate to the country
where they still are, via Asia Minor. Their leader, a man
named Haig, founds a dynasty.
1000-800 They assimilate the conquered Chald, Hittite and Semitic or
B c. Babylonian tribes, the Armenian type proving the stronger.
700 B.C. The Armenian king and his followers fight on the side of
Priam at the siege of Troy.
681 B.C. The sons of Sennacherib assassinate their father and flee to
Armenia where they found the families of the Arzerunii and
620 B.C. The Armenians are at the fall of Ninevah.
536 B.C. Tigranes, King of Armenia, assists Cyrus to conquer Babylon
and free the Jews.
480 B.C. Armenians assist Xerxes in his war against the Greeks.
447 B c. Herodotus gives an account of Armenia.
401 B c. Xenophon and his 10,000 escape through Armenia to the
328 B c. Vahe, King of Armenia, assists Darius agairst Alexander
the Great and perishes with the former.
317 B.C. Ardvates wrests the kingdom of Armenia from the Greeks.
190 B c. Armenia is divided into two kingdoms of Greater and Lesser
94 B.C. Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, marries Cleopatra
daughter of Alithradates the Great and extends his dominions.
69 B c. Lucullus defeats Tigranes at the Battle of Tigranocerta but
his troops revolt and he is recalled by the Senate to Rome.
67 B.C. Tigranes, attacked by his son and the King of Parthia, sur-
renders to Pompey and is confirmed as king by the Romans.
54 B.C. Defeat of Crassus. The Persians and Armenians invade Syria.
34 B c. Marc Antony breaks faith with Artavazes, king of Armenia,
and makes him a prisoner. Creates his own son by Cleopatra,
Alexander, King of Armenia.
30 B.C. Artaxes (son of Artavazes) drives out Alexander and becomes
king. Cleopatra has his son beheaded at Alexandria for
which he beheads all the Romans in his kingdom.
20 B.C. Artaxes is murdered by his subjects and his brother becomes
king as Tigranes in. General civil war follows his death.
2 A.D. Caius Caesar crowns Anobarzanis (king of Media) king of
Armenia as Artavazes V.
ii A.D. Tigranes, great grandson of Herod the Tetrarch is made by
the Romans, king of Armenia but is soon deposed.
33 A.D. The Persians place Abcar on the throne of Armenia as
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LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY.
34 A.D. According to legend the disciples Thaddeus and Bartholemew
convert Armenia to Christianity and baptise King Abcar
and his household at Edessa.
51 A.D. Mithridates, a Georgian usurper of the Armenian throne,
is strangled by his nephew Rhadamistes who unites the
kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia.
53 A.D. Vologeses, King of Persia, dethrones Rhadamistes and makes
his own brother Tiridates I, king of Armenia whose dynasty
lasts nearly 400 years, His appointment is confirmed by
Nero who crowns him at Rome.
183 A.D. Hannibal flees to Armenia and plans the city of Ardashat
for king Ardashes of whom it is said "it rained gold when
he became king.
232 A.D. Ardasher (Artaxerxes) king of Persia overruns Armenia.
240 A.D. Chosroes, king of Armenia, assassinated by Anag.
259 A.D. Tiridates, educated by the Romans, ascends the Armenian
301 A.D. St. Gregory converts Tiridates to Christianity and establishes
the Independent Church with a Katolikos (chief priest) at
Echmiadzin on the site of a temple of Hercules.
365 A D. Persecution of the Christians by Shaput II.
385 A.D. Collapse of the kingdom of Greater Armenia under Khosroes
III. The feudal lords migrate to Byzantium. This is said
to have been a curse for the wickedness of the last king.
387 A.D. Armenia partitioned between Rome and Persia.
404 A.D. The Armenian alphabet is invented by S. S. Sahag and
.Mesrop, based partly on the Greek and Phoenician, (this
alphabet is still in use).
410 A.D. The Bible is translated into Armenian.
428 A.D. The Persians overrun Armenia.
451 A.D. Persia endeavouring to convert Armenia to fire worship or
to Nestorianism is finally defeated by Vartan at Averair.
This war prevents the Armenians from attending the
Council of Chalcedon.
484 A D. The Katolikos moves from Echmiadzin to Douine.
491 A.D. A General Synod condemns the heresy of Nestorius and
551 A.D. Moses II reforms the Armenian calendar.
609 A D. The Georgeians secede from the Armenian Church and
join the Greek Church.
623 A D. Armenians assist Heraclius to drive back the Persians from
627 A.D. Megege Gnouni and the Armenians enable Heraclius to
utterly defeat Persia and sack the capital.
630 A D. The Arabs overrun Persia.
636 A.D. The Arabs overrun Armenia.
LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY.
650 A. D. Constantine seeks in vain to unite the Armenian and Greek
885 A.D. Ashot I (first lung of the Bagratid dynasty), crowned king of
Armenia by the Caliph Motamid.
915 A.D. The Moslems massacre the Armenians.
960 A.D. Ashot III is given the title of Shahinshah of Great Armenia.
982 A.D. The Katolikos moves from Douine to Ani.
989 A.D. Tiridates, an Armenian architect, rebuilds the dome of St.
Sophia at Constantinople.
1021 A,D. Senekerim offers his kingdom consisting of 72 fortresses,
4000 villages and 8 towns to the Byzantine Emperor Basil
II therefore becoming cursed by all Armenians.
1040 A.D. The Turks under Toghrul Bey invade Armenia.
1045 A.D. The Greeks (jealous of the Armenians) league with the
Saracens and overthrow the Armenian dynasty.
1064 A.D. Alp Arslan captures Ani and massacres the population.
1080 A.D. Rhupen, cousin of the Bagratonian kings, sets up on Mount
Taurus (over looking the Mediterranean Sea) the kingdom of
New Armenia which lasts 300 years.
1099 A.D. Gostandin I, Baron of Armenia, takes part in the first
crusade and is knighted at the fall of Jerusalem.
nSoA.D. Nerses calls a conference of the Armenian and Greek
Churches but war preveftits its meeting.
1187 A.D. The Armenians assist the troops of Barbarossa.
1 190 AD. Leo the Great of Armenia takes part in the Third Crusade
and receives his crown from the Emperors of the East
1239 A.D. The Tartars under Genghiz Khan sack Ani.
1250 A.D. Isabel, Queen of Armenia, (granddaughter of Isabel
Plantagenet) marries Hetoum (Otho) who converts the
Khan of Tartary to Christianity.
1268 A.D. The Sultan of Egypt captures Antioch but makes peace with
1271 A.D. Fresh invasion by the Mamlouks. Capture of Ai'as.
1281 A D. The Tartars and Armenians are vanquished at Horns by
Malik Mansur Sultan of Egypt. Leo II makes peace.
1295 A.D. Marco Polo visits the ruins of Ani.
1299 A.D. The Tartars and Armenians beat the Mamlouks at Horns and
capture Damascus but four years later are in turn vanquished.
1308 A.D. Otho, king of Armenia, makes a Treaty with the kings of
Sicily and Cyprus.
J 335 A . D - The Qniat- Armenians exchange colonists with Italy and form
an United-Armenian Church to which they alone consent.
LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY.
1342 A.D. The Rhupenian line fails, again said to be due to a curse, and
a Latin member of the French family of Lusignan succeeds
as Gostandin IV but he and his successors alienate their
1356 A.D. Sir John Mandeville of St. Albans' writes an account of the
country and History of Armenia.
1375 A.D. Leo VI (Lusignan) coming from Cyprus makes a final
attempt to restore the Armenian kingdom but fails and
surrenders at Sis to the Sultan of Egypt. He is ransomed
by Spain but fails to get any nation to assist him in freeing
his kingdom from the Moslems. Becomes a pensioner of
Richard II ot England and of the King of France and dies,
and is buried in Paris in 1393. 200,000 Armenians flee to
Lemburg in Poland and found a colony still extant ; others
flee to Hungary. A remnant settle at Zeytoon in Cilicia and
the colony survives until the general massacre by the Turks
in 1917. This colony lias been known as "the British of
Asia Minor, unsubdued and unsubduable".
1401 A.D. Tamerlane over runs Armenia.
1410 A.D. The Polish Armenians fight on the side of Ladislaus Jagello
1433 A.D. Bertrandon de la Brocquiere, Esquire Carver to the Duke of
Burgundy, writes an account of New Armenia and Cilicia.
1441 A.D. The Katolikos. is re-established at Echmiadzin. Armenians
and Italians exchange colonists.
1453 A.D. Joakim founds an Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople
which still survives, subject to the Katolikos.
1488 A.D. The Armenians print books in their language at Venice and
later at Padua and Amsterdam.
1514 A.D. Selim I, captures Armenia for the Osmanli Turks and settles
it with Kurds.
i <^8o AD. Queen Elizabeth of England founds an English factory at
Aleppo in Syria to tap the trade with Armenia. This is still
1604 A.D. Shah Abbas invades Armenia not wholly successfully and
transplants thousands of Armenians to Ispahan whence they
spread to Calcutta and found an University there.
1635 A.D. The Turks surrender Erivan to Persia,
1640 A.D. Philip consolidates the power of the Katolikos.
1666 A D l' ne Bible is printed in Armenian at Amsterdam by order of
1668 A.D. The Royal Exchange is built again in London after the
Great Fire and is provided with an Armenian Walk on the
North East Side.
1671 A.D, 10,000 Armenians emigrate to Transylvania where they still
form a large colony, with the Armenian towns of Elizavetpol,
Gerla (or Armenopol) and others.
LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY.
1683 A.D. 5,000 Armenian Soldiers assist Sobieski to defend Vienna
against the Turks.
1780 A.D. iooor Armenians emigrate to Russia. Mekitar founds an
Armenian Catholic monastery on the Island of St. Lazaro, at
Venice which is still extant.
1794 A.D. The first periodical in Armenian is published at Madras.
1828 A.D. Russia promises to re-establish the Armenian State and
being consequently largely helped by the Armenians wrests
Erivan from Persia and takes Echmiadzyn. But Russia fails
to keep her promise.
1838 A.D. Russia issues regulations to control the Armenian Church.
1848 A.D. Protestant Armenians form a Church.
1863 A.D. The Sultan consents to give the Armenians a National
1878 A D. Sultan Abdul Hamid proclaims a constitution for Turkey
drawn up by Krikor Odian, an Armenian, secretary to Midhat
Pasha but almost immediately revokes same.
1868 A.D. Loris Melikoff, the Armenian General, leads the Russian
troops who utterly defeat the Turks in the Caucasus.
Large numbers of Armenians serve under him. Attempts to
form an United Armenian State.
v,88i A.D. Russia attempts to russify the Armenians.
1895 A D. The Turks massacre 50,000 Armenians, the country having
been stirred up by political agitators from outside.
1896 A.D. Armenia, deserted by the Powers of Europe, turns to
America for assistance but finds her held back by the Monroe
1898 A D. Russia attempts to blot out the Armenian language and faith
in her dominions, quite unsuccessfully.
1908 A.D- Ephrem Davidian the Armenian attempts to set up a
constitution for Persia but is assassinated.
1909 A.D. The Turks massacre 20,000 Armenians at Adana. 100,000
Armenians emigrate to America.
1914 A.D. General Samsanoff (an Armenian) sacrifices the Russian
Army in East Prussia for the Allies' cause.
1915 A.D. The Turks and Kurds, egged on by Germany, massacred
one quarter of the Armenian nation.
1918 A.D. General Andranik and the Armenians defend the Caucasus
against the Turks and Bolshevists and so assist the British
army in Mesopotamia.
1919 A.D. The United States of America decline the mandate for
Armenia under the League of Nations.
1920 A.D. Armenia, overrun by the Bolshevists, is compelled to set
APPENDIX. U P a Soviet Government.
824 B.C. Shalmaneser wars with Artasari, king of Armenia near
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