(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Landmarks in Armenian history"

GIFT OF 




LANDMARKS 

IN 

ARMENIAN 
HISTORY. 

by 
HYLTON B. DALE. 



LAWRENCE HOUSE, 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX. 




PORTRAIT DU ROI TIGRANE II LE GUAND 
(D'apres unc t6tradrachmo du Muse britaanique.) 



LANDMARKS 

IN 

ARMENIAN 
HISTORY. 

by 
HYLTON B. DALE. 



LAWRENCE HOUSE, 

ENFIELD, MIDDLESEX. 




S. 8. M : lll"|. I;. I.I^II^MI.II- l.-h 



His Holiness the Catholicos, 

GEORGE V. 
Elected - - 1911. 



LANDMARKS 

IN 

ARMENIAN HISTORY. 



1000-900 The Armenians (an Aryan race believed to be a branch of the 
B.C. Phrygians) leave Thrace in Greece and migrate to the country 

where they still are, via Asia Minor. Their leader, a man 
named Haig, founds a dynasty. 

1000-800 They assimilate the conquered Chald, Hittite and Semitic or 
B c. Babylonian tribes, the Armenian type proving the stronger. 

700 B.C. The Armenian king and his followers fight on the side of 
Priam at the siege of Troy. 

681 B.C. The sons of Sennacherib assassinate their father and flee to 
Armenia where they found the families of the Arzerunii and 
Genunii. 

620 B.C. The Armenians are at the fall of Ninevah. 

536 B.C. Tigranes, King of Armenia, assists Cyrus to conquer Babylon 
and free the Jews. 

480 B.C. Armenians assist Xerxes in his war against the Greeks. 
447 B c. Herodotus gives an account of Armenia. 

401 B c. Xenophon and his 10,000 escape through Armenia to the 
Black Sea 

328 B c. Vahe, King of Armenia, assists Darius agairst Alexander 
the Great and perishes with the former. 

317 B.C. Ardvates wrests the kingdom of Armenia from the Greeks. 

190 B c. Armenia is divided into two kingdoms of Greater and Lesser 
Armenia. 

94 B.C. Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, marries Cleopatra 
daughter of Alithradates the Great and extends his dominions. 

69 B c. Lucullus defeats Tigranes at the Battle of Tigranocerta but 
his troops revolt and he is recalled by the Senate to Rome. 

67 B.C. Tigranes, attacked by his son and the King of Parthia, sur- 
renders to Pompey and is confirmed as king by the Romans. 

54 B.C. Defeat of Crassus. The Persians and Armenians invade Syria. 

34 B c. Marc Antony breaks faith with Artavazes, king of Armenia, 
and makes him a prisoner. Creates his own son by Cleopatra, 
Alexander, King of Armenia. 

30 B.C. Artaxes (son of Artavazes) drives out Alexander and becomes 
king. Cleopatra has his son beheaded at Alexandria for 
which he beheads all the Romans in his kingdom. 

20 B.C. Artaxes is murdered by his subjects and his brother becomes 
king as Tigranes in. General civil war follows his death. 

2 A.D. Caius Caesar crowns Anobarzanis (king of Media) king of 
Armenia as Artavazes V. 

ii A.D. Tigranes, great grandson of Herod the Tetrarch is made by 
the Romans, king of Armenia but is soon deposed. 

33 A.D. The Persians place Abcar on the throne of Armenia as 
Archak I. 

5374G8 



HO V : r - ; - : 

AP ; .-;,,.;;; ^^ 

LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY. 

34 A.D. According to legend the disciples Thaddeus and Bartholemew 
convert Armenia to Christianity and baptise King Abcar 
and his household at Edessa. 

51 A.D. Mithridates, a Georgian usurper of the Armenian throne, 
is strangled by his nephew Rhadamistes who unites the 
kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia. 

53 A.D. Vologeses, King of Persia, dethrones Rhadamistes and makes 
his own brother Tiridates I, king of Armenia whose dynasty 
lasts nearly 400 years, His appointment is confirmed by 
Nero who crowns him at Rome. 

183 A.D. Hannibal flees to Armenia and plans the city of Ardashat 
for king Ardashes of whom it is said "it rained gold when 
he became king. 

232 A.D. Ardasher (Artaxerxes) king of Persia overruns Armenia. 
240 A.D. Chosroes, king of Armenia, assassinated by Anag. 

259 A.D. Tiridates, educated by the Romans, ascends the Armenian 
throne. 

301 A.D. St. Gregory converts Tiridates to Christianity and establishes 
the Independent Church with a Katolikos (chief priest) at 
Echmiadzin on the site of a temple of Hercules. 

365 A D. Persecution of the Christians by Shaput II. 

385 A.D. Collapse of the kingdom of Greater Armenia under Khosroes 
III. The feudal lords migrate to Byzantium. This is said 
to have been a curse for the wickedness of the last king. 

387 A.D. Armenia partitioned between Rome and Persia. 

404 A.D. The Armenian alphabet is invented by S. S. Sahag and 
.Mesrop, based partly on the Greek and Phoenician, (this 
alphabet is still in use). 

410 A.D. The Bible is translated into Armenian. 

428 A.D. The Persians overrun Armenia. 

451 A.D. Persia endeavouring to convert Armenia to fire worship or 

to Nestorianism is finally defeated by Vartan at Averair. 

This war prevents the Armenians from attending the 

Council of Chalcedon. 

484 A D. The Katolikos moves from Echmiadzin to Douine. 

491 A.D. A General Synod condemns the heresy of Nestorius and 
Eutyches. 

551 A.D. Moses II reforms the Armenian calendar. 
609 A D. The Georgeians secede from the Armenian Church and 
join the Greek Church. 

623 A D. Armenians assist Heraclius to drive back the Persians from 
Constantinople. 

627 A.D. Megege Gnouni and the Armenians enable Heraclius to 
utterly defeat Persia and sack the capital. 

630 A D. The Arabs overrun Persia. 
636 A.D. The Arabs overrun Armenia. 



LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY. 

650 A. D. Constantine seeks in vain to unite the Armenian and Greek 
Churches. 

885 A.D. Ashot I (first lung of the Bagratid dynasty), crowned king of 
Armenia by the Caliph Motamid. 

915 A.D. The Moslems massacre the Armenians. 

960 A.D. Ashot III is given the title of Shahinshah of Great Armenia. 

982 A.D. The Katolikos moves from Douine to Ani. 

989 A.D. Tiridates, an Armenian architect, rebuilds the dome of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. 

1021 A,D. Senekerim offers his kingdom consisting of 72 fortresses, 
4000 villages and 8 towns to the Byzantine Emperor Basil 
II therefore becoming cursed by all Armenians. 

1040 A.D. The Turks under Toghrul Bey invade Armenia. 

1045 A.D. The Greeks (jealous of the Armenians) league with the 
Saracens and overthrow the Armenian dynasty. 

1064 A.D. Alp Arslan captures Ani and massacres the population. 

1080 A.D. Rhupen, cousin of the Bagratonian kings, sets up on Mount 
Taurus (over looking the Mediterranean Sea) the kingdom of 
New Armenia which lasts 300 years. 

1099 A.D. Gostandin I, Baron of Armenia, takes part in the first 
crusade and is knighted at the fall of Jerusalem. 

nSoA.D. Nerses calls a conference of the Armenian and Greek 
Churches but war preveftits its meeting. 

1187 A.D. The Armenians assist the troops of Barbarossa. 

1 190 AD. Leo the Great of Armenia takes part in the Third Crusade 
and receives his crown from the Emperors of the East 
and West. 

1239 A.D. The Tartars under Genghiz Khan sack Ani. 

1250 A.D. Isabel, Queen of Armenia, (granddaughter of Isabel 
Plantagenet) marries Hetoum (Otho) who converts the 
Khan of Tartary to Christianity. 

1268 A.D. The Sultan of Egypt captures Antioch but makes peace with 

Hetoum. 
1271 A.D. Fresh invasion by the Mamlouks. Capture of Ai'as. 

1281 A D. The Tartars and Armenians are vanquished at Horns by 
Malik Mansur Sultan of Egypt. Leo II makes peace. 

1295 A.D. Marco Polo visits the ruins of Ani. 

1299 A.D. The Tartars and Armenians beat the Mamlouks at Horns and 
capture Damascus but four years later are in turn vanquished. 

1308 A.D. Otho, king of Armenia, makes a Treaty with the kings of 

Sicily and Cyprus. 
J 335 A . D - The Qniat- Armenians exchange colonists with Italy and form 

an United-Armenian Church to which they alone consent. 



LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY. 



1342 A.D. The Rhupenian line fails, again said to be due to a curse, and 
a Latin member of the French family of Lusignan succeeds 
as Gostandin IV but he and his successors alienate their 
subjects. 

1356 A.D. Sir John Mandeville of St. Albans' writes an account of the 
country and History of Armenia. 

1375 A.D. Leo VI (Lusignan) coming from Cyprus makes a final 
attempt to restore the Armenian kingdom but fails and 
surrenders at Sis to the Sultan of Egypt. He is ransomed 
by Spain but fails to get any nation to assist him in freeing 
his kingdom from the Moslems. Becomes a pensioner of 
Richard II ot England and of the King of France and dies, 
and is buried in Paris in 1393. 200,000 Armenians flee to 
Lemburg in Poland and found a colony still extant ; others 
flee to Hungary. A remnant settle at Zeytoon in Cilicia and 
the colony survives until the general massacre by the Turks 
in 1917. This colony lias been known as "the British of 
Asia Minor, unsubdued and unsubduable". 

1401 A.D. Tamerlane over runs Armenia. 

1410 A.D. The Polish Armenians fight on the side of Ladislaus Jagello 
against Prussia. 

1433 A.D. Bertrandon de la Brocquiere, Esquire Carver to the Duke of 
Burgundy, writes an account of New Armenia and Cilicia. 

1441 A.D. The Katolikos. is re-established at Echmiadzin. Armenians 
and Italians exchange colonists. 

1453 A.D. Joakim founds an Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople 
which still survives, subject to the Katolikos. 

1488 A.D. The Armenians print books in their language at Venice and 
later at Padua and Amsterdam. 

1514 A.D. Selim I, captures Armenia for the Osmanli Turks and settles 
it with Kurds. 

i <^8o AD. Queen Elizabeth of England founds an English factory at 
Aleppo in Syria to tap the trade with Armenia. This is still 
extant. 

1604 A.D. Shah Abbas invades Armenia not wholly successfully and 
transplants thousands of Armenians to Ispahan whence they 
spread to Calcutta and found an University there. 

1635 A.D. The Turks surrender Erivan to Persia, 
1640 A.D. Philip consolidates the power of the Katolikos. 
1666 A D l' ne Bible is printed in Armenian at Amsterdam by order of 
the Katolikos. 

1668 A.D. The Royal Exchange is built again in London after the 
Great Fire and is provided with an Armenian Walk on the 
North East Side. 

1671 A.D, 10,000 Armenians emigrate to Transylvania where they still 
form a large colony, with the Armenian towns of Elizavetpol, 
Gerla (or Armenopol) and others. 



LANDMARKS IN ARMENIAN HISTORY. 



1683 A.D. 5,000 Armenian Soldiers assist Sobieski to defend Vienna 
against the Turks. 

1780 A.D. iooor Armenians emigrate to Russia. Mekitar founds an 
Armenian Catholic monastery on the Island of St. Lazaro, at 
Venice which is still extant. 

1794 A.D. The first periodical in Armenian is published at Madras. 

1828 A.D. Russia promises to re-establish the Armenian State and 
being consequently largely helped by the Armenians wrests 
Erivan from Persia and takes Echmiadzyn. But Russia fails 
to keep her promise. 

1838 A.D. Russia issues regulations to control the Armenian Church. 
1848 A.D. Protestant Armenians form a Church. 

1863 A.D. The Sultan consents to give the Armenians a National 
Constitution. 

1878 A D. Sultan Abdul Hamid proclaims a constitution for Turkey 
drawn up by Krikor Odian, an Armenian, secretary to Midhat 
Pasha but almost immediately revokes same. 

1868 A.D. Loris Melikoff, the Armenian General, leads the Russian 
troops who utterly defeat the Turks in the Caucasus. 
Large numbers of Armenians serve under him. Attempts to 
form an United Armenian State. 

v,88i A.D. Russia attempts to russify the Armenians. 

1895 A D. The Turks massacre 50,000 Armenians, the country having 

been stirred up by political agitators from outside. 

1896 A.D. Armenia, deserted by the Powers of Europe, turns to 

America for assistance but finds her held back by the Monroe 
doctrine. 

1898 A D. Russia attempts to blot out the Armenian language and faith 
in her dominions, quite unsuccessfully. 

1908 A.D- Ephrem Davidian the Armenian attempts to set up a 

constitution for Persia but is assassinated. 

1909 A.D. The Turks massacre 20,000 Armenians at Adana. 100,000 

Armenians emigrate to America. 

1914 A.D. General Samsanoff (an Armenian) sacrifices the Russian 

Army in East Prussia for the Allies' cause. 

1915 A.D. The Turks and Kurds, egged on by Germany, massacred 

one quarter of the Armenian nation. 

1918 A.D. General Andranik and the Armenians defend the Caucasus 

against the Turks and Bolshevists and so assist the British 
army in Mesopotamia. 

1919 A.D. The United States of America decline the mandate for 

Armenia under the League of Nations. 

1920 A.D. Armenia, overrun by the Bolshevists, is compelled to set 
APPENDIX. U P a Soviet Government. 

824 B.C. Shalmaneser wars with Artasari, king of Armenia near 
Lake Van. 



14 DAY USE 

RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED 



LOAN 

This book is due on the lasi 
on the date to w 
Renewed books are subje 

_ . 


DEPT. 

: date stamped below, or 
lich renewed, 
ct to immediate recall. 

. 


EET f* r-- 1 \ / r- i-v 




rrnoA'p*^ rp 




__ - u ,-' ' f*-p 




- LOAN DEPT. 




nil ifii975. 

































- 






MI 






LD 21A-60m-7,'66 


General Library 
University of California 
Berkeley 

NTtll t i 


(G4427slO)476B 


/Au; ...-: Myv ^" 6 -^ 


-TSBu -^ L AN DgPT - 


^^1 i mmr\ 



MAC, HAKDY & Co., LTD., PRINTERS, KIXG'S CROSS, w. 



I IUIUII IUU II I 

Pamphlet 

Binder 
Gaylord Bros. 

Makers 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

PAT. JAN 21, 1908 



537-168 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY