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Full text of "Landmarks of Orleans County, New York"

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974.701 

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1206109 



OENEALOGY COL-LBCTION 



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LANDMARKS 



ORLEANS County 



NEW YORK 



1fllU5tl•ate^ 



EDITED BY 



HON. ISAAC S. SIGNOR 

OF ALBION, N. Y. 



ASSISTED BY H. P. SMITH AND OTHERS 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

D. MASON & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

1894 



r4 



INTRODUCTORY. 12061G9 



^, 



\(^; In presenting this historical and biographical record of Orleans county 
!to its readers, the editor and his associates feel that no apology is de- 
manded, either for the motives which first prompted the undertaking or 
for the accomplished results. While several more or less incomplete 
works treating upon the history of this locality have been published prior 
to the inception of this volume, it is true that the field has never been 
properly occupied. This fact was realized and appreciated by the rep- 
resentative people of the county, most of whom had long entertained 
the desire that a work worthy of the subject, and comprehensive and 
reasonably correct, might be published before many of the sources of 
information should become extinct, 

No person unfamiliar with work of this kind can properly appreciate 
its difficulties. Were it otherwise, and could the many who will turn 
these pages have followed the long course of the task, their censure 
would fall very lightly upon the heads of the editor and his helpers. 
No writer ever has — probably never will — ^produce such a volume, con- 
taining a great mass of material and thousands of names and dates, 
without numerous errors. For this reason, if for no other, absolute 
accuracy will not be expected herein. It is believed that all who may 
read these pages will feel kindly disposed and pass over the occasional 
flaw, to the perusal of that which fully meets their expectations. 

A great amount of time and space has been devoted to the record of 
the earliest purchases of the land in Orleans county and it is confidently 
believed that this will be found an exceedingly interesting and impor- 
tant part of the work, not only as giving, as nearly as could be done, a 
complete record of the earliest owners of each lot, but also as giving 



iv INTRODrCTORY. 

the names of hundreds of the very earliest settlers in the county, many 
of whose names might otherwise be forgotten. 

To all who have aided in the preparation of this work (and they are 
so numerous as to render it impracticable to name them here), the grat- 
itude of editors and publishers is due and hereby expressed. No worthy 
history of this county could have been written without such aid. Es- 
pecialh^ valuable has been the volume published long ago by Judge 
iVrad Thomas; the manuscripts embodying the researches of Dr. 
Thomas F. Gushing, which he has generously placed in the custody of 
the Orleans County Pioneer Association ; the work of Prof. Freeman 
A. Greene in aiding in the preparation of the history of the educational 
institutions of the county; the history of Free Masonry by George A. 
Newell; the account of the Odd Fellows Order by John H. White; the 
History of the Town of Clarendon recently published by David S. Cope- 
land, and the personal assistance of county and town officers, newspaper 
editors, and many others. 

The editor of the work desires to make especial acknowledgment of 
the great assistance rendered him in his part of the labor by Edwin L. 
Wage and Herbert T. Reed, and to render due acknowledgment to 
Dr. Thomas Gushing for his part in the preparation of the articles on 
the land purchases, and for several articles, some of which were pre- 
pared especially for this work and others of which were prepared bv 
him for other works and rewritten, in whole or in part, by him and used 
in this work by his permission. 



CONTENTS- 



CHAPTER I. 

Original Counties — Montgomery County and its Subdivisions— Act Erecting 

Orleans Count}-— Map of Original Genesee Count}-- The County Seat_ 1 

CHAPTER 11. 

General Topography of the County— " The Ridge "—Geological Formations 

— Tonawanda Swamp — SaltSprings — Streams. 8 

CHAPTER HI. 

Original Occupants of the Soil — Cessions of Lands— Pre-Historic and Indian Re- 
mains — Review of Events Leading to Settlement by White Men. 20 

CHAPTER IV. 

Original Claims and Titles — Boundaries of the Province of New York — Gradual 
Encroachment of White Men upon Indian Territory — Conflicting Claims of 
New York and Massachusetts — The Dispute Settled at Hartford — The Phelps 
and Gorham Purchase — The Morris Reserve — The Transit Line— The Con- 
necticut Tract — The Holland Land Company — Indian Title Extinguished — 
Survey of Orleans County — Policy of the Holland Land Company 81 

CHAPTER V. 

Indian Trails — The Ridge and the Ridge Road — The Lake as an Early Avenue 
of Transportation and Travel — Construction of Early Roads — Building of 
Mills — Legislation in relation to Roadmaking — Map of 1809. _ . 50 

CHAPTER VI. 

Early Settlements— Character of the Pioneers— Their Hardships and Privations , 
—The War of 1812-15— Effects of the ' ' Cold Summer "—Early Mills and Man- 
ufactures—The Morgan Case— The Lake and its Traffic— Town Organiza- 
tions and Formation of the County — Establishment of Schools and Churches. 55 



vi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Modes of Transportation and Travel in Early Years — Opening of the Erie Canal 
— Changes Wrought by this Waterway — Early Public Legislation — The First 
and Second Locations of the County Seat — The First Banks — Railroads — The 
' ' Hard Times " of 1837-38— A Deplorable Accident. 61 

CHAPTER YIII. 

Outbreak of the Great Civil War — Enthusiasm of the People — The First Organi- 
zation to Leave this County for the Seat of War — Formation of Other Organ- 
izations—Number of Volunteers from the Various Towns — Death Roll of 
Orleans Volunteers. 70 

CHAPTER IX. 

Sin ce the War — Business Activity and Plentitude of Money — Establishment of 
Various Business and Public Undertakings — County Statistics— Civil List 
— Political — Orleans County Pioneer and Historical Association 91 

CHAPTER X. 

Comparison of State Law with the Common Law — Evolution of the Courts— The 
Court of Appeals — The Supreme Court — The Court of Chancery — The Coimtj- 
Court — The Surrogate's Court — Justice's Court — District Attorneys — Sheriffs 
— Court House — Judicial Officers — Personal Notes , 98 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Medical Profession 133 

CHAPTER XII. 
The Press of Orleans County. 145 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Quarrying Industrj^— Its Development and Present Proportions— First 

Quarry Opened — Operators and Owners — Statistics 152 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Secret Societies, Public Institutions, etc 161 



CONTENTS. vii 

CHAPTER XV. 
Schools of Orleans County 1 m; 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The Town and Village of Albion. -jk; 

CHAPTER XVn. 
The Town of Ridgeway and Village of Medina. _ _ J'.i'J 

CHAPTER XVni. 
The Town of Murray ,. 378 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Town of Gaines. 410 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Town of Barre. 4(51 

CHAPTER XXI. 
The Town of Shelby. •'••'■^ 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Town of Clarendon 556 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Town of Yates 588 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
The Town of Carlton ^-^ 

CHAPTER XXV. 
The Town of Kendall - ^^'"^ 



viii CONTENTS. 

PART II. 
Biographies, 1-48 

PART III. 

Family Sketches, . 1-230 

Index to Part I 331-234 

Index to Part II ^335 

Index to Part III 235-241 

Index to Portraits 241-242 



Landmarks of Orleans County. 



CHAPTER I 



Original Counties — Montgomery County and its Subdivisions— Act Erecting Orleans 
County — Map of Original Genesee County — The County Seat. 

The original ten counties of what is now the State of New York 
were created November i, 1683, and named Albany, New York, 
Dutchess, Kings, Queens, Orange, Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster, and 
Westchester. On the nth of March, 1772, Montgomery county was 
erected under the name of " Tryon," in honor of William Tryon, 
governor of New York in 1771. The change in name was made in 
1784, on account of the odium that attached to Tryon's name. He 
was made a colonel in 1772 and a major-general in 1777, and led in 
person the expeditions that destroyed Danbury, Fairfield, and Norwalk, 
Conn. Montgomery county embraced nearly the whole of the western 
and central part of the State. In 1789 all that part of the State lying 
west of Phelps and Gorham's "pre-emption line," was erected into the 
county of Ontario. In 1802 Genesee county was formed from that 
part of the State lying west of the Genesee river. At the same time 
the town of Northampton, which had theretofore embraced the whole of 
the great Holland purchase, was divided into four towns, of which 
Batavia included all of the State west of the west transit line, to be 
described a little further on. In 1804 Batavia was likewise divided 
into four towns, the easternmost one retaining the original name and 
embracing the territory as far west as a line crossing the State from 
Lake Ontario southward through the middle of what are now the towns 
of Yates, Ridgeway, and Shelby, in Orleans county. The town next 
west of this was named Willinck. 
1 



2 LANDMARKS OF 

From Genesee county was erected Orleans county by the following 
act of Legislature : 

" Be it enacted by the people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, That all that part of the County of Genesee comprising the territory herein- 
after mentioned, viz., the towns of Gaines, Barre, Murray, Clarendon, Ridgeway, 
Yates and Oak Orchard, in the County of Genesee, shall, from and after the first day of 
January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, be a 
separate and distinct county of the State of New York, and shall be known and distin- 
guished by the name of "Orleans," and the freeholders and other inhabitants of the 
County of Orleans shall have and enjoy all and every the same rights, powers and 
privileges, as the freeholders and inhabitants of any of the counties of this State are by 
Idw entitled to have and enjoy. 

II. And be it further enacted, That there shall be held in and for the said county of 
Orleans, a Court of Common Pleas and a Court of General Sessions of the Peace, to be 
held in three terms, to commence as follows, to wit: The first term of the said courts 
shall begin on the third Tuesday of February, the second term shall begin on the third 
Tuesday of May, and the third term shall begin on the third Tuesday of September in 
each and every year; and each of the teims of said courts may continue to be held 
until the next Saturday following the third Tuesdays inclusive. And the said Courts 
of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace shall have the same jurisdiction, 
powers and authority in the said county, as Courts of Common Pleas and General 
Sessions of the Peace in the other counties of the State in their respective counties: 
Provided, That nothing in this act shall be construed to affect any writ or action in 
any court or action whatsoever already commenced, or which shall be commenced 
before the third Tnesday of May, 1826, so as to work a wrong or to prejudice the 
parties therein, or to affect any criminal or other proceeding on the part of the people 
of this State; but all such civil and criminal proceedings shall and may be prosecuted 
to trial, judgment and execution, as if this act had not been passed. 

III. And be it further enacted, That Samuel G. Hathaway, of the county of Cort- 
land, Philetus Swift, of Ontario county, and Victory Birdseye of Onondaga county, 
shall be commissioners for the purpose of examining and impartially determining the 
proper site for a court house and gaol to be erected in the said county of Orleans; and 
when the said commissioners, or any two of them, having so determined, shall put 
their determination in writing, with their signatures and seals affixed thereto, and 
cause the same to be filed in the clerk's office of the said county of Orleans, such deter- 
mination shall be final and conclusive in the premises ; and it shall be the duty of the 
said commissioners to meet and examine, and to make known their said determination 
of the site of the said court house and gaol, on or before the first Monday of June, 
1826. And the said commissioners shall be entitled to receive the sum of three dollars 
per day for every day they may be necessarily employed on said service, which sum 
shall be levied, collected and paid, as part of the contingent expenses of the said county 
of Orleans. 

IV. And be it further enacted. That the first term of the Court of Common Pleas 
and General Sessions of the Peace for the said county, shall be held at the house of 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 3 

Selah Bronson, in the town of Gaines, and all of the subsequent terms of the said 
Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace in and for the said county, 
at such place within the said county of Orleans as the Judges of the Courts of 
Common Pleas in and for said county shall from time to time appoint, until the court 
house in and for said county shall be erected, and so far furnished as to be, in the 
opinion of the Judges, convenient to hold their courts therein, and said Courts of Com- 
mon Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace shall thenceforth be holden in and for 
said county in said court house. 

V. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for all courts and 
officers in said county of Orleans, in all cases civil and criminal, to confine the prisoners 
in the gaol of the county of Genesee; and it shall be the duty of the sheriif of the 
county of Genesee to receive the said prisoners into custody, and retain them until such 
time as there shall be a sufficient gaol prepared in the county of Orleans, or they shall 
be discharged by due course of law. 

VI. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the Judges of the Court 
of Common Pleas and General Sessions of the Peace in and for the said county of 
Orieans, as soon as a site of the court house and gaol shall be fixed and determined 
on by said commissioners appointed for that purpose, to lay out the gaol liberties in 
such manner as they shall deem most suitable and convenient for the prisoners who 
may be confined thereon, not exceeding one hundred acres, in a square or parallelo- 
gram, as near as may be. 

VII. And be it further enacted, That the said county of Orleans shall be entitled to 
elect one Member of Assembly, in the same manner as the other counties of this State 
are by law entitled to elect; and the county of Genesee shall be entitled to elect three 
Members of Assembly. 

VIII. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the supervisors and 
county treasurers of the counties of Genesee and Orleans, to meet on the first Monday 
of June, 1826, and at the court house in the town of Batavia, in the county of Genesee, 
and apportion and divide all debts belonging to the county of Genesee, and apportion 
such part thereof as shall be just and equitable to the said county of Orleans. 

IX. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the supervisors of the said 
county of Orleans, to meet at the house of Selah Bronson, in Gaines, on the first Mon- 
day of June, 1826, and that the supervisors, or a majority of them, shall there appoint 
commissioners to supervise the erection and building of a court house and gaol, on such 
site within the county of Orleans, as the commissioners for that purpose in and by this 
act appointed, shall designate; Provided, that a suitable and convenient lot or lots 
therefor shall have been first conveyed to the supervisors of said county of Orleans, and 
to their successors forever : and whenever a gaol shall be so far completed, as, in the 
opinion of the sheriff of the said county it will be safe to remove the prisoners thereto, it 
shall and may be lawful for the said sheriff to remove all his prisoners then confined 
in the gaol of the county of Genesee, to the gaol of the county of Orleans, and such 
removal shall not be considered or deemed an escape. 

X. And be it further enacted, That the first annual meeting of the Board of Super- 
visors for said county shall be held at the house now occupied by the said Selah Bron- 



4 LANDMARKS OF 

son, in Gaines aforesaid, on the first Tuesday of October, 1826, and being so met they 
sliall cause to be assessed, levied, collected and paid into the treasury of the said county, 
the sum of $3,000, and at the first annual meeting thereafter, the further sum of $3,000, 
over and above the ordinary fees of collection and distribution, in like manner as taxes 
to defray the contingent charges and expenses of said county are assessed, levied and 
collected. 

XI. And be it further enacted, That said commissioners, or a majority of them, may 
contract with workmen, and purchase materials, for building the said court house and 
gaol, and shall from time to time draw upon the treasurer of said county for such sums 
of money, for the purpose aforesaid, as shall come into the treasury by virtue of this 
act; and the treasurer is hereby required, out of the monies aforesaid, to pay to the 
order of said commissioners, or a majority of them, the several sums of money to be by 
them drawn for : and it is hereby made the duty of the said commissioners to account 
with the supervisors of the said county of Orleans for the monies which they shall 
have received from the treasurer, when thereunto required. 

• XII. And be it further enacted. That the commissioners appointed in and by this 
act, for the superintending the erection of the public buildings in and for the said 
county of Orleans, shall, before they enter upon the duties of said office, give bonds, 
with approved sureties, to the supervisors of said county, for the faithful expenditure 
of the monies committed to their charge for that purpose ; and they shall each of them 
be entitled to receive the sum of two dollars per day for each day they may be employed 
in the duties of that office : and the amount of their charge shall be levied and collected 
in like manner as other contingent expenses of said county are levied and collected. 

XIII. And be it further enacted, That the sheriff of the county of Orleans shall be 
liable to the supervisors of the county of Genesee for the maintenance of all criminal 
prisoners which he may commit for confinement in the gaol of the county of Genesee, 
and that the supervisors of the said county of Orleans are required to levy the amount 
of the charges for the maintenance of such persons in the same manner as other con- 
tingent expenses are levied and collected in the said county, and to order the treasurer 
to pay over the same to the sheriff for the payment of the supervisors of the said 
county of Genesee. 

XIV. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the supervisors and 
judges of the court of Common Pleas of the county of Orleans to meet at the house of 
Selah Bronson, in said county, on the third Monday of May, 1826, for the purposes of 
nominating justices of the peace in said county, and when thus assembled, they shall 
proceed in the manner directed by the act entitled, "An act regulating the time and 
manner of electing general State officers, justices of the peace, and prescribing the num- 
ber of coroners to be elected in each county, by the people," passed April 12, 1822, and 
the proceedings therein shall be as valid and effectual as if the same had taken place at 
the time prescribed in said act ; and that the presentjustices of the peace in said county 
shall hold their offices until the new appomtments are made. 

XV. And be it further enacted, That an election for sheriff, clerk and coroner in said 
county shall be held therein on the first Tuesday of April, 1826, and the two succeed- 
ing days, which election shall be conducted in all respects in the manner now prescribed 



ORLEANS COrNTY. 5 

by "An act to regulate elections," passed April 17, 1822 ; and the sheriff, clerk and 
coroner then elected shall hold their respective oiBces for the same time as if they had 
been chosen at the last election held in this State agreeably to the requirements of said 
act. 

XVI. And be it further enacted. That the clerk of said county of Orleans shall do 
and perform all the duties enjoined by law on county treasurer, until there shall be a 
treasurer appointed. 

XVII. And be it furtherenacted, That the said county of Orleans shall be a part of 
the Twenty-ninth Congressional District, and shall remain a part of the eighth Senate 
District of this State. 

XVIII. And be it further enacted, That the inhabitants of the territory by this act 
incorporated into a new county, shall until the organization of the same as such, be 
exempted from all taxes, other than the contingent and ordinary taxes which may 
hereafter be assessed or imposed upon the said county of Genesee. This act was passed 
November 12, 1824. 

The town of Shelby was annexed to Orleans county from Genesee 
county, April 5, 1825. Later subdivisons of the territory in this region 
have left the present boundaries of this county as follows : On the 
north by Lake Ontario; on the east by Monroe county; on the south 
by Genesee county, and on the west by Niagara county. The county 
seat was at first established in the town of Gaines, and the act provided 
for the organization of courts and the county government, as described 
in a later chapter. 

The whole of the county west of the transit line (all embraced in the 
Holland Purchase) was originally included in the town of Ridgeway, 
which was erected from the great town of Batavia June 8, 18 12. Mur- 
ray was taken from the old town of Northampton April 8, 1808, and 
originally included Kendall, which was taken from it April 7, 1837. 
Clarendon was taken from Sweden February 23, 1821 (then in the 
county of Genesee.) Ridgeway was first divided by setting ofif the 
town of Gaines February 4, 1816, the latter then including the present 
towns of Barre (taken off March 6, 1813); Albion, (taken off from Barre 
in 1875) ; and a part of Carlton. Carlton was formed from Gaines and 
Ridgeway April 3, 1825. Shelby and Yates were taken from Ridge- 
way, the former March 6, 18 18, and the latter April 17, 1822. 

The first meeting of the Board of Supervisors of Orleans county was 
held at the house of Selah Bronson, in the village of Gaines, in pursu- 
ance of the act above quoted. A joint meeting of the Boards of Super- 
visors of the counties of Genesee and Orleans was held in Batavia on 



LANDMARKS OF 



the 7th of June, 1825, for the purpose of efifecting a settlement between 
the two counties. An agreement was there consummated that the 
county of Orleans should be considered one-fourth of the whole valua- 
tion of both counties, and the moneys and indebtedness of the two 
counties was apportioned on that basis^. 




Outlines of the Original County of Genfsee, from the NORxnEAST corner of which Orleans County 

WAS TAKEN. 



ORLEANS COUXTY. 7 

Gaines was made the county seat of the new county, but only for a 
short time. Commissioners, consisting of Victory Birdseye, of Onon- 
daga county; Philetus Swift, of Ontario county; and Samuel G. Hath- 
away, of Cortland county, were appointed to locate the county seat, 
and the public buildings, as before stated. Gaines was then the most 
prosperous village in the new county, while Albion had the advantage 
of being located on the new canal as well as on the Sandy Creek. There 
was considerable strife over the matter, but the activity and persistence 
of the leading men of Albion finally prevailed, and the county seat was 
fixed at that village. It has since been sufficiently demonstrated in 
various ways that this was a wise choice.^ 

The first meeting of the Board of Supervisors held in Albion took 
place on the i6th of June, 1826, at which steps were taken towards 
providing court and other county buildings, as described in the chapter 
devoted to the legal profession. 

1 " The commissioners came to consider the claims of the rival villages about the middle of the 
dry season. Mr. Nehemiah IngersoUj Philetus Bumpiis, Henry Henderson, and a few other 
Albion men determined to use a little strategy to help Albion. Knowing when the commissioners 
would be here, the creek would be too low to move the saw mills, and foreseeing the advantage 
a good mill stream would give them, they patched the two dams and flumes and closed the gates 
to hold all the water some days before the commissioners would arrive ; sent some teams to haul 
logs and lumber about the saw mill and mill yard in the village, to mark the ground and give the 
appearance of business there. When the commissioners came to see Albion, having been gener- 
ously dined and wined by hospitable people, they were taken in a carriage to see the place, and in 
the course of the ride, driven along the creek and by the saw mill, then in full operation, with men 
and teams among the lumber, with a good supply of water from the ponds thus made for this 
occasion. The commissioners were impressed with the importance of this fine water power, and 
gave the county buildings to Albion before the ponds ran out."— Judg-e Thomas. 



LANDMARKS OF 



CHAPTER II. 

General Topography of the County — "The Ridge" — Geological Formations — Tona- 
wanda Swamp — Salt Springs — Streams. 

Physical Characteristics. — The surface of Orleans county is 
nearly level with a general slope to the north. It may be divided into 
three levels, or stages: That lying between the shore of Lake Ontario 
and " The Ridge," having a width of about eight miles and a descent 
from the summit of the ridge of i88 feet ; from the summit of the ridge 
south to the Niagara Limestone Terrace, a breadth of two to four miles 
and an ascent from the ridge of about 120 feet; and from this terrace 
to the southern boundary of the county, an ascent of about fifty feet. 

The summit of the county lies between the terrace and Tonawanda 
swamp, which extends east and west along the southern boundary of 
the county. The general elevation at the county seat is 521 feet above 
the sea. This " lake ridge," as it is termed is an interesting superficial 
deposit, extending from Sodus in Wayne county to the Niagara River,, 
and forms the foundation for a traveled highway most of the distance. 
Throughout its whole extent in New York State it bears the marks of 
having been the boundary of a large body of water, is well defined 
most of its length, and indicates a process of formation similar to that 
of the elevated beaches bordering the ocean or the larger lakes. The 
ridge follows the general course of Lake Ontario, at a minimum distance 
from the shore of about three miles and a maximum of about eight 
miles. Its seaward side is usually covered with coarse gravel and often 
with large pebbles, resembling the shingle of the sea beaches. The top 
is generally of coarse sand and gravel, though sometimes of fine sand, 

as if blown up by the wind, similar to modern beaches 

It is sometimes so contracted upon the top as to offer only space for a 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 9 

broad carriage road, and again expands to a width of two or three 
hundred feet, being scarcely defined on the inland side. 

If anything were wanting in the external appearance of this ridge to 
convince the observer of the mode of its formation, every excavation 
made into it proves conclusively its origin. Fragments of wood, 
shells, etc., are found in digging wells, and cutting channels to drain 
the marshes on the southern side. 




Map of liake Iroquois. 

Showing the line of the present lake shore, the original shore line, the former supposed outlet of the lake by the Mohawk 
River, and the situation of the great northern ice sheet.' 

The elevation of this ridge above Lake Ontario has been variously 
estimated at from lOO to 200 feet. The following levels as well as the 
other information relating to the ridge, are from the State geological 
work of James Hall : the ridge road, opposite Lockport is below the 
bottom of the canal, 106 feet ; opposite Middleport, Niagara county, 
79 feet ; opposite Albion, Orleans county, 'j6 feet ; opposite Brockport, 



" From The Niagara Book," Underhill 
2 



Nichols, Buffalo, 1893. 



10 LANDMARKS OF 

Monroe county, jG feet. The bottom of the canal at Lockport is 264 
feet above Lake Ontario, giving the elevation of the ridge road above 
the lake, 158 feet; at Middleport, 185 feet; at Albion and Brockport, 
188 feet. The bottom of the canal at Brockport is about two feet 
lower than at Lockport. The difference in the elevation of the ridge 
road at these places is readily accounted for. The point opposite Lock- 
port is where the ridge declines towards the Eighteen-mile Creek, and 
is plainly much lower than the same a mile farther east. Middleport 
is ten miles east of Lockport, and the difference between the ele- 
vation at this place and the others still farther east, is little more than 
the difference in the elevation of the bottom of the canal. The meteor- 
ological department gives the elevation to the top of the canal at 
Albion as 521 feet above sea level. 

Hall in his Natural History of New York says in reference to the 
falls at Niagara : 

The conclusion seems inevitable, that the river has been the great agent in excavating 
its own channel from near the escarpment between Lewiston and Queenston to the 
present position of the cataract ; that the recession has been aided by the character of 
the rocks, presenting alternate hard and soft strata, and that the descent was overcome, 
not by one perpendicular fall, but by several. In support of this latter assertion, a 
single analogous case will furnish stronger evidence than a long argument. The course 
of the Oak Orchard Creek in Orleans county is over the same strata and exhibits the 
succession of falls and rapids, precisely in the manner I have just enumerated. The 
quantity of the water, however, in this stream is too small to produce anything like a 
degree of recession to compare with the Niagara River. 




Section along the Oak-orchard creek. 

I. Lower part of Medina sandstone. 2. Quartzose sandstone 3. Alternating, shaly and hard 
sandstone. 4. Greyband, termination of the Medina sandstone. 5. Green shale of Clinton jjrou]). 
6. Limestone of Clinton group. 7. Niagara shale. 8 Niagara limestone, falls at Shelby.' 

The Medina sandstone is the first underlying formation from Lake 
Ontario to a line running easterly and westerly through the county 

I From Hall's Natural History of New York. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 11 

about two miles south from the Erie Canal. Along this line runs the 
outcropping ledge of the Niagara limestone, which is the formation that 
underlies portions of Clarendon and Shelby, and nearly the whole of 
Barre. Between these formations occurs the Clinton group, which in 
this county is so thin and variable in its character that it is usually 
considered with the Niagara limestone, which is a more stable forma- 
tion. It is the group which furnishes the thin, flat limestone so abund- 
ant in some places for a short distance north from the Niagara limestone 
ledge, affording what has been manufactured into an inferior quality of 
hydraulic cement. Except a few transported fragments, it is only 
seen along the base of the Niagara limestone terrace. 

The Medina sandstone is a formation of particular interest in this 
county, because the quarrying and exportation of it has grown to be so 
important a branch of industry; it is also of much interest to those who 
have a taste for geological history 

In the report of the geological survey of the State of New York, it is 
said that this formation has been found to have a thickness of 350 feet, 
and that it may be greater than that. It has since been found that at 
some points its thickness is i,ooo feet, and it is believed that it may be 
found to reach 1,500 feet of depth. 

It is a sedimentary rock, and its upper strata were deposited at the 
bottom of a shallow sea, as the ripple marks which occur in all these 
strata show. Geologists make a fourfold division of this rock as it ap- 
pears in Orleans and Niagara counties. The lower division is a red 
marl and marly or shaly sandstone. In its structure it is very uniform . 
and evenly deposited, having never been disturbed by local uplifts. 

The third division is a repetition of the first. The character changes 
from below upward, the shaly matter diminishing and the sandstone 
and quartzose sandstone increasing. The color, also, is mottled with 
gray and green lines and spots. This is without doubt due to an 
alteration in the oxidation of the iron which colors the rock. 

Between the first and third occurs the second, which is termed the 
gray quartzose sandstone. It is not seen east from Orleans county. 
It becomes thicker toward the west till, at the Niagara River, it has a 
thickness of twenty- five feet. Between Lewiston and the Whirlpool 
it forms the projection that juts out between the softer rocks above and 



12 LANDMARKS OF 

below, which have been worn away. It forms a sHght terrace through 
this county north from the mountain ridge or great Hmestone terrace, 
and is composed of layers which are variable in thickness, smooth on 
the surface, as though each had been water worn before the succeeding 
one was deposited. 

The Medina sandstone is not rich in minerals. Iron, copper and 
manganese are the only metals known to exist in it, and these in very 
small quantities, combined with other elements. Carburetted hydrogen 
gas, in small quantities, is discharged from it in a few localities. The 
small amount of organic matter in it and the next rock below it pre- 
cludes the possibility of a large amount of carbon in any form in it. 
Salt water has been found in many places where borings have been 
made in this rock, and in some instances it has appeared at the surface, 
and salt has been manufactured from it. 

Fossils are rare in this sandstone, the only one found being the 
Fucoides — the F. Harlani and the F. auriformis. The former is every- 
where typical of the Medina sandstone. It occurs in the third district 
at Fulton, Oswego county, and in the fourth district in Wayne county, 
at Rochester, Medina, and on the Niagara River. The F. auriformis 
is also found at Medina. 

Clinton Group. — Next above the Medina sandstone lies the Clinton 
group of strata, which is thinner in this county than it is east or west 
from it. In many localities just north from the escarpment of the 
Niagara limestone terrace, it is found in thin layers or scattered frag- 
ments, and it is often called bastard limestone. In the bed of Oak 
Orchard Creek it is seen in thin layers with slate between them. 

Niagara Limestone. — This is the formation that underlies the 
whole of the county south from the escarpment or terrace spoken of, is 
constant and uniform in its character. It is better seen in Clarendon 
and at Shelby Falls than elsewhere in the county. It has a thickness 
of about 260 feet at Niagara Falls, and a little more than 200 feet in 
this county, as nearly as can be ascertained. 

The bowlders which are found on and just beneath the surface of the 
earth in this county are of much interest. They are all of northern 
origin, and they are seen most abundantly deposited just south from 
the outcrop of the formations whence they were torn. Occasional 



ORLEANS COUNTY. l;i 

bowlders of granite, popularly known as "hard heads," are found scat- 
tered over all parts of the county, more abunduntly in some localities 
than in others. 

Bowlders of Medina sandstone also are found in all parts of the 
county south from where this formation crops out. The strata from 
which they were torn had less thickness than the jrranite, and the 
bowlders are smaller. Many of them are less rounded than the granite 
bowlders. Often their surfaces are flat and their angles sharp. Thin 
and flat bowlders of the Clinton formation are occasionally found south 
from its outcrop at the base of the limestone terrace, and in some local- 
ities these appear in large numbers. Bowlders of Niagara limestone 
appear in great numbers south from the escarpment of the limestone 
terrace, but never north from it. In some localities areas of several 
acres are found almost completely covered with them. These are 
moraines, or deposits by the melting away of the glacier. At a dis- 
tance of about six miles from Lake Ontario, is what is known as the 
•' Ridge." There is every reason for believing that this was once the 
beach of the lake or of an arm of the ocean which filled the valley of 
the St. Lawrence. This ridge has an almost uniform height above the 
lake of 1 88 feet, and it is only interrupted by the passage through it of 
streams. Probably when the lake subsided, after throwing up this 
barrier, it left on its landward side many ponds which were fed by 
streams from the higher lands. At their points of outlet the waters of 
these ponds carried away the materials of this ridge, till in some cases 
wide chasms were excavated in it. The old level of some of these 
ponds is still traceable, though but small streams run at the bottoms of 
what were once their beds. In the case of Oak Orchard Creek the 
ancient pond extended several miles along the south side of the ridge 
from near Ridgeway to where it passes through, and terraces at different 
heights above the present banks of the stream are distinctly traceable. 

The soil varies in character in the different parts of the county. Im- 
mediately north from the ridge it is sandy and thin, showing plain 
traces of the effect of the undertow when the waters beat against this 
ancient barrier. Farther north, sand ceases to predominate, and the 
soil becomes a clay loam. South from the ridge it is less sandy, and 
here, as on the southern limestone range, its character is influenced by 



14 LANDMARKS OF 

deposits vvhicli have taken place in former periods, and which, as before 
stated, were brought from the shales of the formation below. In the 
town of Barre is a tract including about 1, 200 acres which consists of 
sandy elevations, and which, from the kind of timber which once grew 
there, is called Pine Hill. 

Tonawanda swamp extends along the southern edge of the county, 
and covers portions of the towns of Clarendon, Barre and Shelby. 
It has its outlet on the west through Oak Orchard Creek, and on 
the east through the west branch of Sandy Creek. There are in the 
southern part of the county many other smaller areas of swampy or 
marshy land, some of which have outlets which discharge into this 
swamp. A few of these are known to have been small, shallow lakes 
which have gradually filled with peat or muck and changed to swamps 
or marshes. 

The principal streams are Oak Orchard Creek on the west, and 
Sandy Creek on the east. Johnson's Creek runs from Niagara county 
across the northwestern part of Orleans. In some places these streams 
have worn away the strata over which they have passed, thus affording 
good facilities for studying their character. 

These streams are not rapid, for the surface of the county is com- 
paratively level. Tonawanda swamp, at the southern boundary of the 
county, is about 350 feet higher than Lake Ontario, and these streams 
pursue a tortuous course diagonally from one to the other. 

As before stated, salt springs have been found in different parts of 
the county, but always upon the Medina sandstone. "During the ex- 
treme drouth of the summer of 1841," according to Mr. Hall, "the wells 
situated upon this rock in many towns in Orleans county became dry, 
and they were in consequence, excavated or bored to a greater depth ; 
and in nearly all cases the water proved to be in some degree saline, 
and in one case so much so as to warrant the erection of fixtures for the 
manufacture of salt." Salt was manufactured in the town of Ridge- 
way, one and a half miles north of Medina, near Oak Orchard Creek, 
between 1820 and 1830. On lot 137 there is a spring where salt was 
formerly made ; also in the town of Yates, near what were known as 
Scofield's Mills on Johnson's Creek, salt was made from a spring which 
was long ago filled up. A Mr. Bennett made salt from a spring in the 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 15 

east bank of Oak Orchard Creek, at the village of Oak Orchard. He 
bored to a depth of 140 feet and obtained a stronger brine, but the quan- 
tity was not increased. At Holley were three springs from which salt 
was made ; they were near together in the bed of Sandy Creek. "About 
the year of 1821," says Mr. Hall, "considerable salt was made at these 
springs and was sold at five dollars a barrel." The opening of the 
Erie Canal brought the Onondaga salt in this county at so low a price 
as to render home production unprofitable. 

It occasionally happens that springs are characterized by the presence of free mineral 
acids, such as sulphuric and hydrochloric. The Rio Yinagie in South America, is sup- 
plied by such sprmgs ; and it is stated that this stream carries to the ocean daily an 
amount of acid equal to 82,720 pounds of oil of vitrol and G9.638 pounds of concen- 
trated muriatic acid. There is a celebrated spring of this character in New York State 
known as the Oak Orchard Acid Spring, an analysis of which i.s here presented.' 

Analysis of Oak Orchard water by Professor Porter: 
One gallon contains : 

Sulphuric acid 133.312 

Proto sulphate of iron 32.216 

Sulphate of magnesia 8.491 

Sulphate of lime 13.724 

Sulphate of alumina 6.413 

Sulphate of potash 2.479 

Sulphate of soda 3.162 

Chloride of sodium 1.432 

Silicic acid ..3.324 

Organic matter , 6.654 

Total grains 211.207 

About three and one half miles north of Albion is a small tract of 
from one quarter to one half acre where the salt comes so near the sur- 
face that no vegetation appears In early days this "salt lick," as it 
was called, was a resort for deer and Mr. Jedediah Phelps, formerly of 
Albion, now of Rochester, relates that he has sat in a tree with his rifle 
many times waiting for a shot at them as they came. 

Bog iron ore has been found in several localities, but not in sufficient 
quantity to be extensively utilized. It has been found in solid masses 
a mile west of Albion Small quantities are found a mile east of 

' From Johnson's Cyclopedia, vol. 8, p. 413. This spring is located a few rods south of Shelby, in 
the town of Alabama, Genesee county 



16 LANDMARKS OF 

Ridgevvay Coiners and also about the same distance west of the 
Corners. 

The principal streams of the county are: Oak Orchard Creek, John- 
son's Creek, and Sandy Creek. The first named stream received its 
name from the original oak forest along its banks. It has its source in 
the Tonawanda swamp, flows northward across Shelby and part of 
Ridgeway ; thence northeasterly across the town of Carlton, reaching 
the lake at Oak Orchard harbor. It receives the water of many small 
streams, among them being Otter Creek, which rises in Barre and 
flows north across the towns of Albion and Gaines, reaching Oak Or- 
chard Creek at Waterport in Carlton, and Marsh Creek which is foimed 
by the union of several small streams arising in Gaines and Murray, 
enters the Oak Orchard. Johnson's Creek (see history of the town of 
Yates) rises in the eastern part of Niagara county, enters Orleans county 
in Ridgeway, whence it flovvs north and northeasterly across that town, 
Yates, and the northwest corner of Carlton to the lake. Sandy Creek 
comprises two branches, one of which rises in Clarendon and flows 
northerly; the other and larger one rises in the north part of Barre, 
flows through Albion village and thence northeasterly to the hamlet of 
Sandy Creek in the town of Murray, where the two branches unite; 
thence the creek flows northeast and out of the county at Kendall Mills 
in the town of Kendall. 

At the time of the first settlement of this locality by white men these 
streams abounded with fish. Salmon ran up Oak Orchard and John- 
son's Creeks in great numbers and Judge Johnson stated that they were 
caught once in a small stream in the western part of Gaines. 

The territory of this county was originally covered with a thick forest 
of hard wood trees, such as oak, hickory, beech, birch and maple, with 
some hemlock, white wood, tamarack and cedar on the low lands. The 
cutting away of this forest by the pioneers was a task of great magni- 
tude; but it gave them a source of cash income at a time when there 
was almost no other, through the manufacture of potash from the ashes 
of the burned logs, and in later years from the timber and firewood. 
The forests were filled with wild animals — deer, bears, wolves, all of 
which were numerous, with such smaller animals as the beaver in very 
early years, the raccoon, hedgehog, squirrels, etc. While the bears and 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 17 

wolves were destructive of domestic animals, the former two and the 
numerous deer furnished an ever ready source of food to the settlers. 

Parts of the southern tier of towns of the county are covered by the 
northern section of the great Tonawanda swamp, which extends down 
into Genesee county, and is drained by Oak Orchard Creek. The 
swamp originally covered about 25,000 acres. Most of its surface was 
too wet for tillage; but sections have been reclaimed. In 1828 the 
Holland Company, sold a part of the wet lands to an association who 
expended about $12,000 in enlarging the outlet. In April, 1852, the 
Legislature appointed Amos Root, John Dunning, Henry Monell, and 
David E. E. Mix, commissioners to lay out and build a highway across 
the swamp, on the line between ranges i and 2 of the Holland Purchase. 
This was done at a cost of about $2,700. The association finally sold 
out their swamp lands to various persons, nothing further being done to 
drain or reclaim the tract until April 16, 1855, when an act was passed 
by the Legislature appointing Amos Root, S. M. Burroughs, Ambrose 
Bowen, Robert Hill, John B. King, and Henry Monell, commissioners 
to drain the swamp. The commissioners were authorized to estimate 
the cost of their proposed work, which should be assessed upon the 
several owners of the lands to be benefited. When the estimate of 
$20,000 was made, such active opposition was manifested by the land 
owners that the law was repealed in the following winter. 

Attempts were continued with partial success to drain the low lands 
of the county after the close of the war. On the 1st on May, 1865, an 
act was passed by the Legislature providing for the appointment of two 
commissioners " for draining certain low lands in the town of Barre." 
This act was framed by Judge Bessac, of Albion, and like the others of 
similar character, empowered the commissioners to construct ditches and 
drains, and assess the cost upon the owners of lands benefited thereby. 
Alvah Mattison and Floyd Starr were made commissioners under this 
act. Their labors were so successful that another similar act was passed 
in April, 1 867, for draining a larger tract in the same town with Charles 
S. Allen and L. Grinnell, commissioners. The success of this enterprise 
was also quite marked. Further effort in this direction has been thus 
described : 
3 



18 LANDMARKS OF 

On the 12th of May, 18C9, the Legislature enacted a general drainage law, the essential 
features of which were almost identical with those of these foregoing special acts. This 
law, with some amendments, passed by subsequent Legislatures, is still in force ; and it is 
estimated that under its operation 4,670 acres of land have been reclaimed or generally 
benefited. 

The right under the Constitution to confer upon the commissioners appointed under 
the law the powers with which it invested them, was predicated on the assumption that 
the drainage of such lands is conducive to the public health ; and it authorized them 
to assess municipalities through or near which drains were constructed. Accordingly 
in two among the five cases under the law the commissioners assessed a portion of the 
expense upon the town of Barre. An appeal was taken by the supervisor, C. H. Mat- 
tinson, and the cases were tried before the county judge and justices of sessions, who 
sustained the action of the commissioners, thus affirming the assumption upon which 
these powers were conferred. 

Since the above was written, numerous proceedings have been had in 
this county under the general act and many farms and locahties 
benefited. 

Tonawanda swamp includes a large area in the southern part of the 
county, in the towns of Clarendon, Barre and Shelby ; a portion of this 
is covered with timber, of which cedar and black ash are the most 
valuable varieties. Other portions are what is termed open swamp or 
prairie. Hitherto this swamp meadow has been considered entirely 
valueless, but recently successful efforts have been made to utilize it 
for pasture. Large droves of cattle have been herded during the pas- 
turing season on portions of it, and the results of these experiments . 
have been so favorable that those whose farms include more or less of 
this hitherto useless swamp have enclosed it with such fences as the 
annual fires will not destroy, and are pasturing their cattle on it. 

An act was passed appointing commissioners who were empowered to 
assess the lands benefited, to an amount not exceeding $20,000, for 
draining this swamp. So strong a feeling of hostility to the measure 
was aroused that the act way repealed. Subsequently an act was passed 
appropriating about $16,000 for excavating the outlet of the swamp on 
certain conditions, which were never complied with. 

Oak Orchard Creek is the property of the State, owned as a canal 
feeder to the Erie Canal. 

An artificial channel has been cut across from Tonawanda Creek in 
Genesee county to the natural channel of Oak Orchard Creek in the 



ORLEAXS COUNTY. 19 

southern part of the town of Shelby. The swamp lands on Oak Orchard 
Creek cover an area of some 23,000 acres. The watershed drained by 
this creek is about 88,000 acres and is about seventeen miles long east 
and west and some nine and one-half miles broad at the widest part. 
The drainage of the swamp lands along the Oak Orchard Creek, through 
the swamp, is to the west, with the average fall of about one and eight- 
tenths feet to the mile. 

The Legislature of 1893, appropriated $35,000 for the improvement 
of Oak Orchard Creek and canal feeder. The contract for the work 
was let in September, 1893, and the work, now well underway, consists 
of the excavation of a new channel in the bottom of the old bed of the 
creek, twelve feet wide at the bottom and about twenty feet at the top, 
with an average cutting of three and three quarters feet through solid 
rock, from a point three-quarters of a mile south of Shelby Center, up 
to the swamp; also the deepening and general repairing of the feeder 
leading from Tonawanda to Oak Orchard Creek. 

The result of this work, when completed, will be that the spring high 
water in the Oak Orchard swamp, will continue for a much shorter 
period than it formerly did, and that the average condition of the 
swamp will be very much improved. The lowering of the channel 
will undoubtedly increase the summer flow from Oak Orchard swamp 
and the work on the feeder will greatly add to the advantage of the 
Erie Canal and water power of Medina. It is expected the work will 
be completed this fall (1894). The engineer in charge is D. D. Waldo, 
of Medina. 



20 LANDMARKS OF 



CHAPTER III. 

Original Occupants of the Soil — Cessions of Lands — Pre- Historic and Indian Re- 
mains — Review of Events Leading to Settlement by the White Men. 

The first white man who penetrated the wilderness that ooce covered 
what is now the State of New York, found its northern and western part 
inhabited and dominated by nations of that remarkable race of copper- 
colored people whom we call Indians — in reality, the native Americans. 
The question whence they originated is shrouded in mystery, and so 
must remain ; but we well know whither they are going. Unnum- 
bered ages hence, their disappearance from the earth may be enveloped 
in the deep oblivion that now hides their origin. 

The detailed history of this race cannot be followed in this volume, 
nor is it desirable that it should be ; for it is writ upon the glowing 
records of the past by many gifted pens. As to the right or wrong of 
their conquest and rapidly approaching extinction, wise men differ. 
At the foundation of the question is the fact that in the world's history 
civilization must advance at whatever cost to the uncivilized ; the 
ignorant must go down before the educated ; the weak before the 
strong ; might, if not right, will triumph. If the Indians, their undis- , 
ciplined passions fired by the white man's rum, armed with the guns 
placed in their hands in exchange for valuable furs at a ten- fold profit, 
driven from their hunting grounds when no longer a source of gain 
to the invaders, finally retaliated and committed barbarities, the 
record of which fills the pages of history with horror, what else 
should have been expected ? The fact remains that there is not an 
instance on record where the natives did not receive the first visit of 
the white man with hospitality and kindness. We may well, therefore, 
give a thought to what it was that produced the great change in the 
attitude of the Indian towards his Caucasian superior. The former 
never desired to part with his lands; so the latter stole what he could 
not buy.i The Indians retaliated by murdering the thieves. 

'As late as July, 1755, an Iroquis chief in addressing Sir William Johnson, said: "Brother- 
Yon desire us to unite and live together, and draw all our allies near us ; but we shall have no 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 21 

With Champlain shooting with his terrorizing gunpowder upon the 
guileless Iroquois in 1609 on the Lake that bears his name ; 1 with the 
Jesuits beguiling the natives to secure their allegiance — and their furs ; 
with the sagacious Dutch following Hendrick Hudson up the great 
river that bears his name, within a year or two after Champlain killed 
his first Indian a little farther north ; and with the English landing on 
the Atlantic shores a few years later to hoodwink the natives out of 
their lands — with all this going on, it is scarcely a marvel that the 
gradually aroused Indians became revengeful. 

The Iroquois Indians, as they were called by the French, known as 
the Five Nations (subsequently the Six Nations) by the English, were 
established across the State of New York, beginning with the Mohawks 
on the east, with the Oneidas (with whom the Tuscaroras were subse- 
quently practically amalgamated), the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and 
and the Senecas next in the order here given. 

Nothing is known of their history previous to the settlement of the 
country by the white men. According to their traditions they once 
occupied a region north from the St. Lawrence, where they were weak 
in numbers and subject to the Algonquins, who occupied the country 
still farther north. Having been vanquished in a war with the Adiron- 
dacks they fled from the country and came by way of the St. Lawrence 
and Lake Ontario to the Oswego River, through which they entered 
Central New York. As nearly as can be learned from their traditions, 
they lived together for a time near Seneca River. As they increased, 
however, they sought new territory. A portion went to the region 
of the Mohawk and became the Mohawk nation. They were termed 

land left either for ourselves or them, for your people when they buy a small piece of land of 
us, by stealing they make it large. We desire such things may not be done and that your people 
may not be suffered to buy any more of our lands. Sometimes it is bought of two men who 
are not the proper owners of it. The land which reaches down from Oswego to Schanandowana 
(Wyoming) we beg may not be settled by Christians. The governor of Pennsylvania bought a 
whole tract and only paid for half, and we desire that you will let him know that we will not 
part with the other half, but keep it." This seems a reasonable speech for a savage regarding 
what he believed to be his own property ; and even an Indian is likely to fight when he is robbed. 

' The moment they saw me they halted, gazing at me and I at them. I raised my arquebus, 
and aiming directly at one of the three chiefs, two of them fell to the ground by this shot; one 
of their companions received a wound of which he died afterwards. I had put four balls in my 
arquebus. The Iroquois were greatly astonished seeing two men killed so instantaneously.— 
Fiom Chaiiiplaiti's Journal He "put four balls in his arquebus," The artless old French writer 
—and murderer ! 



22 LANDMARKS OF 

Ga-nea-ga-o-no, or people who possessed the fluit. Another portion 
migrated to the east and resided for a time, but subsequently separated 
into two bands, one of which occupied the region at the eastern 
extremity of Oneida Lake, and the other settled in wliat is now the 
Onondaga Valley. The former were known as the 0-na yote-ka- 
o-no, or granite people (Oneidas), and the latter as O-nun-da-ga-o- 
no, or people of the hills (Onondagas). The remainder subsequently 
separated. A portion located on the eastern bank of Cayuga Lake. 
They were termed Gwe-ra-gweh-o-no, or people at the mucky land 
(Cayugas). The other portion spread westward to the Genesee River 
and made their capital at the head of Canandaigua Lake. They were 
called Nun-da- wa-o-no (Senecas), or great hill people. 

This appears to be the substance of their traditions concerning their 
migrations to the regions occupied by them, of a fanciful or poetic 
character. 

The recollection of their common origin, and a wise prevision of 
what would conduce to their common welfare led to the establishment 
among them of the confederation or league, which insured harmony 
and prosperity among them, and rendered them a terror to surround- 
ing nations, and also in later time challenged the admiration of legisla- 
tors and statesmen. When this confederacy was established is not 
known. It has been surmised that it was early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and some fix the date at 1635 ; but probably it was long previous 
to that. This league was not simply an offensive and defensive alliance 
of the nations, liable to dissolution at any time. It resembled in many 
respects the union of the States in our government. When the confed- 
eracy was organized, fifty offices were created and names were given to 
each. They were distributed among the nations unequally. The Mo- 
hawks had nine, the Oneidas nine, the Onondagas fourteen, the Cay- 
ugas ten, and the Senecas eight. Although these offices were heredi- 
tary, no one could become a ruler or sachem till he was raised to that 
dignity by a council of the sachems of the confederacy, and when so 
raised he dropped his own name and assumed that of the sachemship. 
To some of these sachemships was attached greater dignity than to 
others, yet this was purely honorary, and each sachem had an equal 
voice in the affairs of the confederacy. These sachems, who, when in 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 2.". 

council, constituted the legislative body of the league, were also the 
rulers in their respective nations. 

Each nation of the confederacy was entirely independent of every 
other in all matters of a purely local character, and each sachem was 
the peer of every other in council except so far as ability made him 
the superior of his fellows. Such was the law of descent among the 
Iroquois that a sachemship could never pass from the tribe and family 
to which it was originally assigned. An inferior class of officers came 
into existence during the later years of the confederacy, even after in- 
tercourse with the whites commenced. These were the chiefs who 
were elective, and their numbers were not limited. At first their func- 
tions were circumscribed and local, but their influence has gradually 
increased till, in some respects, it is equal to that of the sachems. The 
powers of both are of a purely civil character. A sachem or chief went 
on the war path as a common warrior. Indeed, the Iroquois had no 
class military chiefs or war leaders, though many of their war captains 
were elected chiefs to reward them for their valor. Their war methods 
were singular and difficult of comprehension and explanation. They 
had two military chieftaincies, the functions of which were to supervise 
and direct warlike matters when two or more nations were engaged in 
warlike undertakings, but the chieftains were not, by virtue of their 
offices, commanders in the field. Any individual might organize a war 
party and engage in hostilities against any nation with whom they 
were not positively in alliance. The two war chieftaincies, like the 
sachemships, were hereditary, and were assigned to the Seneca nation. 

In their warlike operations, the policy of the Iroquois seems always 
to have been, not the extermination of their foes, but their subjugation 
and adoption, and it is said the Kahkwas and Eries were offered the 
alternative of extinction or adoption. The result of this policy was the 
extension of their power and influence until about 1700 they dominated 
a large portion of the territory now embraced in the United States. 
Tradition says that when the nations separated from the parent stock, 
a portion wandered away and settled" on the Neuse River in North 
Carolina, and when, about 1712, they were expelled from their south- 
ern home they sought a habitation among the Ho-de-no-saunee, because 
of their common origin, and after their adoption the confederation was 
known as the Six Nations. 



24 LANDMARKS OF 

In addition to the division of the Iroquois nations, a tribal division 
existed. Each nation was divided into eight tribes, named : Wolf, 
Bear, Beaver, Turtle, Deer, Snipe, Heron and Hawk. This division 
into tribes and the relation of members of these tribes to each other, 
regulated many of the institutions of the Iroquois. 

All property rights and titles descended in the line of the female 
instead of the male. The son of a sachem, therefore, "could neither 
succeed his father as a sachem, nor inherit from him his medal or his 
tomahawk." 

At the commencement of the Revolution, the council of the con- 
federacy could not agreee to make war against the States, and each na- 
tion was left free to act on its own responsibility. 

Their councils were of three kinds: civil, for the transaction of busi- 
ness pertaining to the nations ; mourning, for lamenting the death of 
their sachems and the investiture of their successors: and religious, for 
religious observances. 

The chief sources of enjoyment for the Iroquois appeared to be the 
chase, the war path and the council fire. 

As has been seen, the Iroquois made themselves the dreaded masters 
of all their neighbors east of the Mississippi, and carried their victorious 
arms far to the north, the south and the east. 

The- original habitat of the Senecas was between Cayuga Lake and 
the Genesee River. They named themselves " Nun- da- wa-o- no," or 
people of the hill. They knew nothing of the name Seneca, except as 
applied to themselves by outsiders, as with other Indian proper names, 
the spelling for a long time varied ; the nation for a long time being 
called " Sennikes," and also being called some sixty other names, 
mostly similar. The later classical form of the word is certainly an 
improvement. 1 

When the Senecas were first known to the white men, their villages 
were scattered from Seneca Lake half way to the Niagara. In 1669, 
when La Salle made his first visit to their country, their four principal 
villages were from ten to twenty miles south of the falls of the Genesee, 

' A ti'adition of the Senecas says that at the time of their greatest prosperity a census of the 
nation was taken "by placing a kernel of white flint corn in a husk basket which, from the 
description of its size, would hold ten or twelve quarts. Taking the smallest size and making 
the estimate accordingly will give the number of Senecas alone at 17,760." 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 25 

and to the eastward of that river. Mention is made of the cabins of 
the Senecas on the Niagara in 1678 and 1736. General Amherst, 
writing in 1763, mentions the " Kanadaseegy and Canadaraggo " 
castles, the former of which, more commonly spelled " Kanadareagy," 
stood on the site of Geneva. These are presumably the villages which 
Sir William Johnson, in his enumeration of the Indians in 1763, calls 
" Kanadasero " and " Kanadaragey," and mentions as being in the 
English interest, while the rest of the nation was hostile. There were 
in Sir William's time two castles of the tribe, at " Chennesio " (Geneseo), 
once their western outpost, and a village called " Chenondonah," stood 
on the west bank of the Genesee some fifteen miles from its mouth. 

Previous to the settlement of this country by white men, the Indians 
passed from one point to another over trails. These consisted of paths 
sometimes from twelve to eighteen inches in width, and often they 
were worn to a depth of from six to twelve inches, according to the 
character of the soil. These trails connected village with village, and 
many of the main ones ran along the sides of the rivers, in or near the 
valleys of whicii these villages sprang up. The routes were determined, 
as were the locations of the villages, by a sort of natural selection, and 
the habits and customs of the Indians were not such as to effect changes 
that would in their turn require changes in these locations; and they 
very nearly coincided with the present main avenues of travel through 
the State. A main trail extended through the site of Albany to that 
of Buffalo, over almost the same route subsequently followed by the 
main turnpike, and later, generally, by the Central Railroad. From 
this the other trails branched, the traces and memory of many of which 
are now obliterated. 

Along the southern shore of Lake Erie, west of the Senecas, dwelt 
the powerful " Eries, or cat nation," as the French, for an unknown 
reason, called them. About 1654, or 1655, they fell victims to the 
conquering Iroquois. 

It is remarked in the life of Mary Jamison that perhaps no people 
were more exact observers of religious duties than those Indians among 
the Senecas who were denominated pagans, in contradistinction from 
those who, from having renounced some of their former superstitions 
have obtained the name of Christians. They had several yearly feasts 



26 LANDMARKS OF 

or assemblings for thanksgiving and for soliciting a continuance of the 
favors of their deities. 

As far as relates to the immediate territory of which this work treats, 
it almost wholly escaped the effects of the wars which at various times 
during more than one hundred and fifty years continued between the 
French, the English and the Indians. The territory of what is now 
Orleans county was, without a doubt, a part of the domain of the 
Senecas, who were the most intelligent as well as the most warlike of 
the Iroquois nations. Here they undoubtedly trod the deep forests in 
quest of game, or followed the trails to and from the great lakes ; but 
as far as known, no conflict occurred in this immediate region. While 
the Mohawks and other easterly nations of the Iroquois were as a rule 
loyal to the English or neutral in their long struggle with France, the 
pov/er of the French constantly increased among the Senecas. But in 
spite of this, the French never obtained a foothold in what is now New 
York State ; the English arms, allied with the greater part of the Iro- 
quois, prevented such a result. With equal facility had France, Eng- 
land, and Spain as well, parceled out vast provinces in the new world. 
The French established a fortified trading post on the Niagara River in 
1683-4, but it was captured for the English under Sir William Johnson 
in 1759, and surrendered to the United States in 1796, after the Revo- 
lution. In 1722 a trading house was built on the site of Oswego, under 
administration of the colonial government of New York, and five years 
later it was strengthened into a considerable fort. The place was cap- 
tured by the French in 1756 and destroyed. The works were rebuilt 
in 1758 by the English and continued in their possession until 1796. 
Bloody wars continued until the final extinction of the French power 
in 1763. There was strife from the beginning to gain the fealty of the 
Indians. They were not only extremely useful as fighters for either 
power, but their friendship was equally desirable for purposes of trade. 
Of course they were regularly swindled by either party toward which 
they leaned. 

When the Revolutionary War broke out and England was to be 
taught that there were some small portions of the earth whose people 
would not submit to practical slavery, the provincials held a council 
with chiefs of the Six Nations at German Flats (now in Herkimer 



ORLEANS roUNTY. 27 

county), and secured from the Indians a promise to remain neutral 
through that struggle ; but through the influence of Sir John Johnson 
and other prominent tories, the Iroquois, with the exception of the 
Oneidas and the Tuscaroras, violated their pledge and adhered to 
the cause of England through the war. The barbarities of the 
tories and Indians in the Mohawk Valley and elsewhere in this 
State are too familiar to need attention here. To punish the Indians, 
and especially the Senecas, and to capture Fort Niagara, Sullivan's 
campaign was organ"zed in 1779. Under that general, a large force 
met the enemy near Elmira and defeated them with great loss. Thence 
northward through the villages in Livingston county to Canandaigua, 
the victorious American army marched, destroying everything belong- 
ing to the Indians on the route. Although not many of the Senecas 
were killed after the battle mentioned, they were thoroughly humbled 
and frightened into submission to their white neighbors. Abandoning 
from that time their villages cast of the Genesee River, they settled 
down near Genesee, Mount Morris and at other points in Western New 
York. 

Relics of Indian life are found in many places in Orleans county, as 
they are throughout the western part of the State. The "ridge" 
which extends from Rochester to the Niagara River, and which, in 
a former geologic period, was the shore of the lake, passes through 
the middle tier of towns. This was a convenient and natural thor- 
oughfare between the east and west, over which war parties could 
pass on their hostile excursions, or bands of hunters on their hunting 
expeditions. Fortified camps and villages were a necessity, protecting 
them against the former, and temporary camping places, occupied 
on successive journeys during many years, were doubtless used by the 
latter. 

There are no mounds here, such as are found in the Western States. 
The remains of only one ancient fortification are known to exist in this 
county. An imperfect description of this, by the late Hon. S. M. 
Burroughs, was published some years ago. It was also briefly described 
by the eminent archaeologist, Squier, in 185 1. 

The subjoined description was written in 1874, by F. H. Gushing, 
of the Smithsonian Institute, a native of the town of Barre, whose 
subsequent ethnological researches in the Southwest are well known : 



28 LANDMARKS OF 

In the town of Shelby. Orleans county, N. Y., about three miles southwest from the 
village of Medina, are the remains of one of the most interesting earthworks in the 
State. This work is situated at the summit of a slight and not abrupt elevation. It 
consists of two mural embankments, which are now about two feet in height, parallel 
and twelve feet distant from each other. They describe an almost exact circle, having 
a diameter of four hundred and thirty feet, and an area of three and one third acres. 
Two fences on original lines, running one north and south, the other east and west, 
divide this enclosure into four nearly equal parts or quadrants. Those portions of (he 
work included in the northeastern and southwestern quadrants have for many years been 
under cultivation, and the embankments are nearly obliterated. The northwestern and 
and southeastern portions are still covered with forest trees. In these portions the 
walls are interrupted only by two sally ports or openings for passage. These openings 
occur at nearly opposite points in the circle. The passage in the outer wall is not, in 
either, exactly opposite to that in the inner. In one they are sixteen and in the other 
thirty feet apart. To avoid two large boulders of Niagara limestone the inner wall at 
one point makes a slight deflection from the regular circular course. 

Upon these embankments are standing trees, and the stumps of trees, that had 
commenced their growth long before the Jesuit fathers had explored the region now 
comprising Western New York. Traces of a moat which once encircled this work 
are still discernable at intervals. This moat is broad in proportion to its present 
depth, and in this respect is not regular. It was probably made by the removal of 
the earth for the construction of the walls, and perhaps it was not intended as an 
additional defense, though it must, to some extent have served as such. 

Three features of this work add much to its interest: First, it is almost circu- 
lar in form; secondly, it consists of two parallel embankments; thirdly, the open- 
ings for passage are not opposite in the two walls: These three peculiarities dis- 
tinguish this from all other earthworks east of Ohio. 

Ten rods south of this work lies a peat fwamp two miles in length by one in 
breadth. This swamp is, or has been, covered by a heavy growth of black ash timber. 
A vertical section of seven feet in this swamp shows first the remains of trees to 
the depth of two feet , next below, the remains of marsh plants, gradually becom- 
ing peat, which, as the depth increases, changes in color from dark brown to light 
blue. At all depths in this peat are to be seen the remains of leaves, evidently brought 
by the winds from the forests of the surrounding land. Underlying the peat is a 
stratum, from three to four inches in thickness, composed entirely of fresh water shells, 
mostly univalves, some of which are apparently species of Pauludina. Beneath this 
stratum there occurs another composed of blue clay intermixed with sand, containing 
occasionally the remains of shells, among which have been found specimens of the 
fresh water clam (Urio). 

These facts lead to the conclusion that this peat swamp was probably a shallow lake 
at the time when the works were constructed. This conclusion is also strengthened by 
the fact that there is no evidence of the existence of a permanent supply of water else- 
where within a mile of the works. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 29 

It is proper to state that the supply of fish in this lake was abundant ; replenished 
in the time of high water, in the spring of the year from Lake Ontario, thirteen miles 
distant, through Oak Orchard Creek, into which its outlet flowed. 

West from the work, at a distance of half a mile, on the eastern slope of a sand hill, 
is a large bone pit where the bones of many hundreds have been deposited. It is said 
by old settlers that those portions of the work now included in the cultivated fields 
spoken of originally presented the same features now seen in those which the forest 
includes. 

Of course exaggerated stories are told of the relics that have been plowed up in 
these fields. Without doubt many which would be of great interest to an ethnologist 
have been found, kept for a while, and then given to the children as playthings by 
those who knew nothing of their value as relics. 

On making excavations in those portions still uncultivated many specimens of great 
interest are found. They are usually from six to eighteen inches beneath the surface, 
often embedded in charcoal and ashes. They consist of hammers, sinkers, stone orna- 
ments, pipes, pottery ; also implements and ornaments of bone, such as bone splinters, 
awls, needles, daggers or dirks, cylindrical ear ornaments, implements for the ornamen- 
tation of pottery, perforated metatarsals, and perforated teeth. These bone implements 
are found in all stages of manufacture, from the rude splinter to the ground or polished 
implement or ornament. 

What was the original height of these works can now be only a matter of conjec- 
ture. It is probable, however, that the embankments were from four to five feet in 
height, and surrounded by palisades. 

Vegetable mold has accumulated to the depth of six inches on the most exposed 
points, and beneath this stratum the relics occur to the depth of eighteen inches. The 
inference, therefore, is that since the work was abandoned time enough has elapsed for 
the accumulation of this six inches of soil by the slow process of growth and deposit on 
dry land. It was inhabited or used long enough for twelve inches to acf^umulate. It 
was probably abandoned when the lake was so nearly filled that it ceased to afford 
either fish or a permanent supply of water. Since the time when timber commenced 
to grow at the surface of the lake, two feet of soil has accumulated. 

De Witt Clinton argued as follows for the prehistoric earthworks. 
" On the south side of the great ridge (the ridge road) in its vicinity, 
and in all directions through the country, the remains of numerous 
forts are to be seen ; but on the north side, that is the side toward the 
lake, not a single one has been discovered, although the whole ground 
has been carefully explored. Considering the distance to be, say 
seventy miles in length and eight in breadth and that the border of the 
lake is the very place that would be selected for a habitation, and con- 
sequently for works of defense, on account of the facilities it would 
afford for subsistence, for safety, and all domestic accommodations and 



30 LANDMARKS OF 

military purposes, and that on the south shore of Lake Erie these 
ancient fortresses exist in great numbers, there can be no doubt that 
these works were erected when this ridge was the southern boundary 
of Lake Ontario, and, consequently, that their origin must be sought in 
a very remote age." 

The weight of evidence is largely in favor of the theory that such 
remains and relics as have been found were the work of the same race 
that occupied the territory at the first coming of white men, though 
that race may have undergone important changes in character, habits, 
and even in physical respects between the time when such works as 
that described were made, and the beginning of the present century. 
Indian relics have been found, also, in the town of Yates in large num- 
bers, as well as to some extent in other towns of the county, but none 
of so much significance as the one above described. All these indica- 
tions point unmistakably to the fact before noted, that the Indians 
roamed over the territory of this county, defended it against their 
enemies, and possibly lived here in homes more or less transient; but 
it is not probable that any permanent Indian village was ever located 
within the county limits. In early years they came over from Canada 
and wintered in Carlton for hunting purposes ; but as game became 
scarce, their visits were discontinued. Families or single Indians often 
traveled about among the pioneers, begging or selling various articles ; 
but they were generally harmless, their once proud spirits broken. 
Various Indian trails led across the territory of the county, which will 
be sufficiently described in another chapter. 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 31 



CHAPTER IV. 1 

Original Claims and Titles — Boundaries of the Province of New York — Gradual En- 
croachment of White Alen upon Indian Territory — Conflicting Claims of New York and 
Massachusetts — The Dispute Setttled at Hartford — The Phelps and Gorham Purchase — 
The Morris Reserve— The Transit Line— The Connecticut Tract— The Holland Land 
Company — Indian Title Extinguished — Survey of Orleans County— Policy of the Hol- 
land Land Company. 

As we have already intimated in a preceeding chapter the early 
white settlers on the western continent set up their territorial claims 
and parceled out the country without much regard to the rights which 
the laws of civilization would ascribe to the original occupants of the 
soil. The foreign adventurer went through the form of taking posses- 
sion of the country in the name of his soverign, set up the emblems of 
foreign authority and invoked divine blessing on the robbery. Under 
the pretense of civilizing and christianizing the savage, the native was 
contaminated with all the vices of civilization, debased by strong drink, 
artfully despoiled of his possessions, hunted from his home and is now 
fast being swept from the earth. 

The title thus acquired was conveyed by charters to royal favorites, 
or to companies by the soverigns who had usurped them. In the case 
of a large portion of North America, these charters came from the crown 
of England, and thus was laid the foundation of the title to the soil 
here. It is true that in many instances the show of a purchase from 
the Indians was made; but such purchase was often effected by meth- 
ods that would not bear scrutiny, and for trifling considerations. The 
acquisition and succession of title to the land in Western New York is 
shown by what follows : 

In 1664 the province of New York was granted by charter to the 
Duke of York, although, as will be seen hereafter, the same territory 

1 The description of the title to the soil of Western New York, the various great purchases con- 
tained in this chapter, was prepared by Dr. Thomas Cushing, of Barre Center, for a work pub- 
lished some years since and, as it cannot be improved upon, is reproduced in these pages under 
his authority, and without material change. 



32 LANDMARKS OF 

had been previously granted to others. This was the domain of the 
Iroquois Indians. 

"A memorial prepared by the Commissioners of Trade and Planta- 
tations, in 1697, relating to the rights of the crown of Great Britain to 
soveriegnty over the five nations of Indians bordering on the Province 
of New York," recites that those nations had "by many acknowledg- 
ments, submissions, leagues, and agreements been united to or depend- 
ent on that colony;" that they, "being the most warlike in those parts 
of the world, held all their neighboring Indians in a manner of tribu- 
tary subjection;" that in prospect of an invasion of their territory in 
1684 by De Le Barre, governor of Canada, Governor Dongan of New 
York warned that French official, "that those Indians are the king of 
England's subjects, and also sent the Duke of York's (to whom the pro- 
vince had been granted by the crown) arms to be set up in every one 
of the Indians' castles as far as Oneygra (Niagara), which was accord- 
ingly done and Mons. De Le Barre retired." 

Governor Tryon in 1774, in a "Report on the Province of New York," 
said : 

The boundaries of the Province of New York are derived from tvi^o sources : first, 
the grants from King Charles the Second to his brother, James, Duke of York ; 
secondly, from the submission and subjection of the Five Nations to the crow^n of Eng- 
land. . . . It is uncertain to this day to what extent the Five Nations carried their 
claim to the westward and northward, but there is no doubt that it went to the north 
beyond the forty-fifth degree of latitude, and westward to Lake Huron, their beaver 
hunting country being bounded to the west by that lake, which country the Five Na- 
tions, by treaty with the governor of their province at Albany, in 1701, surrendered to 
the crown, to be protected and defended for them. 

Such was the English claim to soverignty over the territory of the 
Iroquois. They, themselves, never recognized the claim in the sense 
in which it was put forth, and the French always denied it and 
scoffed at it, but the British government had the power to maintain 
it, and up to the Revolution continued to assert it. 

The encroachment of the white people on the territory of the Iro- 
quois gave the latter great uneasiness, to allay which, a very numerously 
attended council was held with them at Fort Stanwix (Rome) in 1768, 
to agree on a line beyond which settlements should not be permitted. 
The line decided on in the State of New York, " ran along the eastern 



ORLEANS CUCNTY. 33 

border of Broome and Chenango counties, and thence northwestward 
to a point seven miles west of Rome." . . . The close of the Revo- 
lution left the hostile Iroquois unprovided for by their British employers, 
and at the mercy of the United States. Conquered after waging a long, 
bloody, and destructive warfare against the patriots of New York, they 
had forfeited their territory and had little cause of complaint. 

Every reader of English colonial history knows how ignorantly or 
how carelessly grants of American territory were made by the crown to 
individuals and companies, the same tracts being in some instances 
given at different times to different parties, laying the foundation of 
conflicting claims. Thus the province of New York when granted to 
to the Duke of York, in 1664, covered part of Massachusetts as defined 
by the charter given to the Pl3'mouth Company in 1620. The terri- 
tory of both provinces under their charters also extended indefinitely 
westward; but New York in 1781, and Massachusetts four years later, 
relinquished to the United States their claims beyond the present west- 
ern boundary of this State, and Massachusetts contented herself with 
claiming that portion of New York west of the meridian which now 
forms the eastern line of Ontario and Steuben counties — some 19,000 
square miles. New York of course also asserted jurisdiction and owner- 
ship of this vast tract. 

The dispute was compromised by a convention of commissioners 
from the two States, held at Hartford in December, 1786. It was 
agreed that the sovereignty of the disputed region should remain with 
New York, and the ownership with Massachusetts, subject to the Indian 
proprietorship, which had been recognized by the general government. 
•'That is to say, the Indians could hold the land as long as they pleased, 
but were only allowed to sell to the State of Massachusetts or her 
assigns." The meridian bounding the Massachusetts claim on the east 
was called the " pre-emption line," because it was decided to allow that 
State the right of pre-emption, or first purchase, of the land west of it. 
There was one exception : New York retained the ownership as well 
as the sovereignty of a strip a mile wide along the Niagara River. 

In 1788 the State of Massachusetts sold to Oliver Phelps and Nathan- 
iel Gorham, two of its citizens, and to others for whom they acted, its 
pre-emption right to Western New York for $i,ooo,000, to be paid in 



34 LANDMARKS OF 

three annual installments, in certain securities of the State which were 
then worth about one fifth of their face The next thing with these 
gentlemen was to complete the title by buying the Indian interest. 
For this purpose Phelps had a conference with the Iroquois at Buffalo 
early in July, 1788, and bought, for $5,000 down and a perpetual 
annuity of $500, about 2,600,000 acres, bounded on the east by the 
pre-emption line. Part of the western boundary was a meridian from 
Pennsylvania to the junction of Canaseraga Creek with the Genesee 
River. Thence northward the line followed the course of the Genesee, 
" to a point two miles north of Cannawagus village ; thence running 
due west twelve miles; thence running northwardly so as to be twelve 
miles distant from the western bounds of said river, to the shores of 
Lake Ontario." The tract thus defined constituted the famous "Phelps 
and Gorham's Purchase." 

In securing their vast estate Phelps, Gorham and company encoun- 
tered the opposition of another set of land sharks who also had a 
covetous eye upon this magnificent domain. These were the capital- 
ists forming the New York and Genesee Land Company, engineered 
by one John Livingston ; and its branch the Niagara- Genesee Company, 
headed by Colonel John Butler, and consisting almost entirely of Cana- 
dians. As we liave seen, the Indians were barred from selling their 
lands except to Massachusetts or her assigns. Butler, Livingston and 
their associates proposed to get possession of them by a long lease ; 
hence they are spoken of as the "lessee companies." Chiefly through 
the influence of Butler they obtained from part of the Iroquois chiefs 
and sachems a nine-hundred-and ninety- nine years' lease of most of 
their territory for $20,000 and an annual rent of $2,000. Their scheme 
fell through, the Legislatures of New York and Massachusetts declaring 
a lease of that length equivalent to a purchase, and as such null and 
void. Butler, however, profited by the purchase of Phelps and Gorham. 
He was one of the three to whom the Indians referred the question of 
the price they should charge those gentlemen, and is said to have had 
20,000 acres placed at his disposal by the purchasers in consideration 
of the advice he gave the confiding red men. The " lessees" continued 
their intrigues until they succeeded, in 1793, in getting from the 
Legislature a grant of one hundred square miles east of the pre-emption 



ORLEANS COUNTY. ^ r\r^r^M r^ ^ 35 

line, instead of obtaining twenty thousand miles and founding a new 
State, as there is reason to suppose the Niagara-Genesee Company, at 
least, intended, with the co-operation of the Senecas, whom Butler and 
other Canadian officials were always embittering against the people of 
New York. 

Before Phelps and Gorham had half paid for the entire preemption 
right they had bought of Massachusetts, the securities of that State, in 
consequence of the adoption of the Federal Constitution, had risen 
nearly to par; and finding that they should be unable to fulfill their 
contract, they induced the State to resume its right to the portion of its 
original New York claim which they had not yet bought of the Indians, 
and release them from their contract as to that part, leaving on their 
hands the tract since called Phelps and Gorham's Purchase and bounded 
as above described. This agreement was reached on the loth of 
March, 1791. 

Two days later Robert Morris, the illustrious financier, whose services 
were of such vital importance to the nation during ihe Revolution, con- 
tracted with Massachusetts for the pre-emption right to all of New York 
west of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase. About this time he also bought 
1,264,000 acres of Phelps and Gorham (paying ^^"30,000 in New York 
currency), which he soon sold to three English gentlemen. Sir William 
Pultney, John Hornby, and Patrick Colquhoun for ^^"35,000 sterling. 
It was only after much difficulty and delay that Mr. Morris completed 
his title to the tract of which he had purchased the pre-emption right 
from Massachusetts. It was necessary to buy the interest of the 
Indians, and this was accomplished by a council at Geneseo in Septem- 
ber, 1797, when he was enabled to purchase all of the State west of 
Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, except that the Indians retained eleven 
reservations, amounting to about three hundred and thirty eight square 
miles. 

It was by his speeches in the councils affecting the title to the lands 
of Western New York that the Seneca chief Red Jacket came into 
prominence. He figures in history as a crafty demagogue, vain, 
ambitious and dishonest, a coward in war and a sot in peace ; chiefly 
noted for his harangues against parting with the lands of the Seneca 
nation and the bitterness he usually manifested against the power by 
the grace of which the nation had any lands after the Revolution. 



3G LANDMARKS OF 

The conveyance from Massachusetts to Mr. Morris was made May 
II, 1 79 1, by five deeds. The first conveyed the land between the 
Phelps and Gorham Purchase and a line beginning twelve miles west of 
theirs, on the Pennsylvania border, and running due north to Lake 
Ontario. The next three embraced as many sixteen mile strips crossing 
the State north and south, and the fifth what remained to the westward 
of these. 

The tract covered by the first deed was what has been called ''Mor- 
ris' Reserve," from the fact that he retained the disposition of this sec- 
tion in his own hands when he sold all west of it. He sold it in large 
tracts, though small compared with his purchase. 

To Le Roy, Bayard and McEvers he conveyed the triangular tract 
bounded on the north by Lake Ontario, on the southeast by so much 
of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase as lay west of the Genesee River, 
and on the west by a north and south line between the southwest corner 
of Phelps and Gorham Purchase and Lake Ontario. 

He next sold to Watson, Cragie and Greenleaf lOO.OOO acres 
bounded on the east by the west line of the triangular tract, on the 
north by Lake Ontario, on the west by a line six miles west from the 
west line of the triangular tract and parallel with it, and on the south by 
an east and west line far enough south from Lake Ontario to include, 
with the other boundaries, lOO.OOO acres. 

It was supposed, when this sale was made, that all the land conveyed 
was included in the Morris Reserve, but when, afterward, the transit 
line was run this supposition was found to be erroneous. 

This tract was several times transferred, and finally in i8oi,itwas 
purchased by the State of Connecticut and Sir William Pultney, each 
becoming the owner of an undivided half. In iSii it was divided be- 
tween them, each having portions in different parts of the tract, and 
these were called respectively Connecticut lands and Pultney estate 
lands. The whole tract is known either as the Connecticut Tract or the 
Hundred Thousand Acre Tract. 

The next sale from the Morris Reserve was to Andrew Cragie, and 
it comprised sixty thousand acres next south from the Connecticut 
Tract and lying between the eastern boundary of the Holland Land Com- 
pany's land and a line running due south from the southern angle of the 




Oileaiis Coviiity 



NSERT 
LD-OUT 
R MAP 
iERE! 



ORLEANS COUNTY. ;]7 

the triangular tract. This sale was made after that to the Holland Land 
Company. The land thus conveyed has been known as the Cragie 
Tract. South of this were the Ogden and Cotringer Tracts. 

Mr. Morris subsequently sold to Wilhelm and Jan Willink a tract 
bounded on the east by the Genesee River, west by a line running due 
south from the southern point of the triangular tract, north by Phelps 
and Gorham Tract west of the Genesee River, and south by an east and 
west line at a sufficient distance from the last named boundary to in- 
clude 40,000 acres ; hence known as the Forty Thousand Acre Tract. 

These sales and others, as well as that to the Holland Land Company, 
were made before the Indian title to the land was extinguished, and 
Mr. Morris agreed to effect that object, which he did at the treaty of 
Big Tree, in 1797. 

The western boundary of the Morris Reserve, separating it from the 
Holland Purchase, was the "east transit" line, so called because it was 
run with a transit instrument in connection with astronomical observa- 
tions, the variation of the magnetic needle disqualifying the surveyor's 
compass for running a meridian line. It is called the "east" transit to 
distinguish it from a similarly surveyed meridian passing through 
Lockport, which is called the "west" transit. The laying down of this 
line was a slow and laborious operation. It involved nothing less than 
felling a strip of timber three or four rods wide most of the way across 
the State, to give unobstructed range to the small telescope of the 
transit. This required, besides three surveyors, a considerable force of 
axe- men. On most of the line all hands camped where night overtook 
them in the unbroken wilderness. All of the summer and autumn of 
1798 was consumed in running the first eighty miles of the transit 
meridian, there being about thirteen miles remaining undone on the 
twenty- second of November. 

The starting point for this line was carefully established in accord- 
ance with the first conveyance to the Holland Land Company, at a 
point in the line between Pennsylvania and New York twelve miles 
west from the eighty-second mile stone. Running north from that 
point the line was found to pass through the Cotringer, Ogden, and 
Cragie tracts about two miles east from their west boundaries as de- 
scribed in their deeds : but their titles were of a later date than the con- 



38 LANDMARKS OF 

veyance to the Holland Company, and no deviation from the meridian 
was made. 

At the south line of the Hundred Thousand Acre or Connecticut 
Tract, the title to which was prior to that of the Holland Land Com- 
pany's land, the meridian was found to cross that line at a point i66 
chains and thirty links east from the southwest corner of the tract. 
It was necessary, therefore, to remove the position of the meridian that 
distance to the west, which was done, and the line was continued to 
Lake Ontario. The point in the transit line where this removal was 
made is in the twelfth township and first range, in the present town of 
Stafford. 

The celebrated "Holland Land Company," which has been blessed 
and cursed, besought for favors and denounced for refusal, as much 
perhaps as any other institution in America, had its origin in the pur- 
chase before mentioned from Robert Morris of all the land lying west 
of the transit line, excepting the Indian reservations, amounting to 
about 3,600,000 acres. The purchase was made in 1792 and 1793, by 
agents of the following persons, merchants and capitalists of Amster- 
dam; Holland : Wilhelm Willink, Jan Willink, Nicholas Van Staphorst, 
Jacob Van Staphorst, Nicholas Hubbard, Pieter Van Eeghen, Christian 
Van Eeghen, Isaac Ten Cate, Hendrick Vollenhoven, Christiana Cos- 
ter (a widow), Jan Stadnetski, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpennick. In 
a legal sense there was never a Holland Company or a Holland Land 
Company. It was simply an association of individuals for business 
purposes. 

The Indian title to the land in question was extinguished in 1797, 
and early in 1798 the New York Legislature authorized those aliens to 
hold land within the State, and in the latter part of that year the 
American trustees conveyed the Holland Purchase to the real owners. 
It was transferred, however, to two sets of proprietors, and one of these 
sets was soon divided into two, making three in all. Each set held 
its tract as joint tenants; that is, the survivors took the whole. The 
shares could not be the subject of will nor sale, and did not pass by in- 
heritance except in case of the last survivor. But there was no incor- 
poration and no legal company. All deeds were made in the name of the 
individual proprietors. The three sets of owners appointed the same 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 39 

general and local agents, who in their behalf carried out one system in 
dealing with settlers, though apportioning the expenses among the 
three sets according to their respective interests and paying to each the 
avails of their own lands. At the first transfer by the trustees the 
whole tract excepting 300,000 acres, was conveyed to Wilhelm Wil- 
link, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Pieter Van Eeghen, Hendrick Vollen- 
hoven, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpennick. The 300,000 acres were 
conveyed to Wilhelm Willink, Jan Willink, Wilhelm Willink, jr., and 
Jan Willink, jr. Two years later the five proprietors of the main tract 
transferred the title of about 1,000,000 acres so that it was vested in 
the original five, and also in Wilhelm Willink, jr., Jan Willink, jr., Jan 
Gabriel Van Staphorst, Roelif Van Staphorst, jr., Cornelius Vollen- 
hoven, and Hendrick Seye. Pieter Stadnitski was also made a part- 
ner in some sense. 

In the hands of these three sets of owners the title remained during 
the most active period of settlement, only, as men died their shares 
passed to the survivors and their names were dropped from the deeds. 
Some twenty years later, new proprietors were brought in, but the 
three sets remained as before. The first general agent of the company 
was Theophilus Cazenove, a Hollander, and he employed Joseph 
Ellicott as surveyor. The survey system adopted was substantially 
the same as had before been followed on the Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase. The tract was divided into ranges six miles wide, running from 
the Pennsylvania line to Lake Ontario, and numbered from east to 
west, beginning, of course, at the transit line in what is now Orleans 
county. These ranges were subdivided into townships six miles in 
width, numbered from south to north. These were sold in parcels to 
suit purchasers. The townships in Orleans county are all subdivided 
into lots and the towns of Carlton and Yates into sections and lots. 
The county of Orleans contains the north parts of ranges i, 2, 3, and 
4, and the east parts of townships 14, 15, and 16, and the part of the 
Connecticut tract before described, and contains about 405 square 
miles. (See outline map.) 

The survey, in Orleans county, commenced in the summer of 1798. 
From the minutes of the surveyors it appears that the transit line was 
followed and measured by a surveyor named Geo. Burger, in July, 




A±Nnoo vyvoviN 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 41 

1798. No encampments were made along this line, which had been 
previously established 

Amzi Atwater surveyed the shore of Lake Ontario, beginning at the 
east transit line and continuing west. July 26 his party encamped at 
the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, which was their stopping place 
during some days. Their next place was at a provision camp which 
had previously been established at the mouth of Johnson's Creek. This 
was their home for a long time; for the next camp was made September 
1 1, 1798, on the shore of the lake just west from the fifth meridian, or 
line between the fourth and fifth ranges. 

The next line surveyed was the one between the third and fourth 
ranges. This line was run by Warham Shephard, in November, 1798. 
On the iithof that month the party encamped at the corner of the 
thirteenth township and third range. On the 12th they encamped on 
lot 3, fourth range, fourteenth township, in the town of Shelby. 
November 13, 1798, they made their camp on lot 9 of the same town- 
ship and range, within the limits of the present village of Medina. On 
the 14th their camp was on lot 47, town 15, range 3, in Ridgeway ; 
and on the 15th, it was a short distance north from Yates Center, in 
the third range. 

The next range line run was that between the second and third 
ranges, the third meridian, by Amzi Atwater. The party encamped 
November 25, 1798, on lot 57, fourteenth township, range 2, in the 
southwest corner of the town of Barre ; on the 26th on lot 8, third 
range, fourteenth township, town of Shelby ; on the 27th and 28th, on 
the site of the present village of Knowlesville ; and on the 30th on the 
shore of the lake, in the northwest corner of the town of Carlton. 

The second meridian, or line between the first and second ranges was 
run by Amzi Atwater, in July, 1779. On the i8th of that month the 
camp was in Elba, Genesee county, near the second meridian and the 
county line, in the first range. On the 19th they encamped on lot 5 of 
the Second Range, just south of Barre Center. July 22, 1779, the 
camp was located on the west side of the second meridian, just north 
from the village of Albion, and on the 25th in Carlton, at Two 
Bridges. 



42 LANDMARKS OF 

The west line of the fourth range and the west line of the county 
was run by Amzi Atwater, in September, 1799. His camp on the ist 
of that month was just opposite the southwest corner of the town of 
Shelby, in Genesee county. On the 2d, it was in the town of Shelby, 
near the southwest corner ; from the 4th to the 6th in Niagara county, 
near the northwest corner of Shelby; on the 7th, in Niagara county, 
near Jeddo ; on the 9th in the northwest corner of Ridgeway ; and on 
the lOth on the lake shore in the northwest corner of Yates. 

The township lines in this county, running west from the east transit 
line, were surveyed by Amzi Atwater in the summer and early autumn 
of 1799; but it does not appear that any one of those lines was com- 
menced at that line and run through the county in regular sequence of 
time. Across the first range they were evidently run by Mr. Atwater 
while he was surveying the second meridian. In running the line 
between townships 13 and 14, the south line of the county, the first 
camp was on an island (in Tonawanda swamp) on lot i, of township 14, 
range i, in the southeast corner of Barre, July 17, 1799. July 18 and 
August 12 they encamped in Genesee county, on the east side of the 
line between the first and second ranges. August 9, ii, and 13, they 
encamped in Genesee county, opposite the southeast corner of Shelby. 
August 10 the camp was in Genesee county, just across the line from 
lot 17, fourteenth township, third range, and August 15 and 17, near 
the southwest corner of Shelby. 

July 23 and 24 the camp was in Gaines, on lot 12, fifteenth township, 
first range ; and August 2, in the same town on lot 16, fifteenth township 
and second range. August i, 3, and 4, they encamped in the south- 
west corner of Carlton ; September 8, in Ridgeway, on the north 
border of lot 28, town 15, range 4; and September 9, in the northwest- 
corner of the same town and township. 

The price at first charged for the company's lands was $2.75 per 
acre, one-tenth to be paid down. It was found very difficult to obtain 
ten per cent advance payment. It was extremely desirable to secure 
settlers for the tract, for every pioneer who located made the country 
more attractive to those who contemplated a similar movement. Lands 
could be had very cheap in parts of the State nearer the centers of 
population, and also in Ohio, while farms in Canada were offered by 



ORLEANS COUNTY. . 43 

the British government at sixpence per acre. The competition among 
owners of large tracts was thus so strong that the proprietors of the 
Holland Purchase often waived all advance payment by actual settlers, 
and reduced the price to an average of $2 per acre. Even so their 
lands at first , were sold but slowly. The rate of sales, however, con- 
stantly increased. In i8oi there were 40; in 1802, 56; in 1803, 230; 
in 1804, 300; in 1805, 415 ; in 1806, 524; in 1807, 607; in 1808, 612 ; 
in 1809, 1 160 

The Holland Land Company's policy in selling lands at a high 
price and giving long credits has often been criticized, both in its bear- 
ing on the company's interests and those of the settlers on these lands. 

It has been insisted that a lower cash price would have brought to 
this region a different class of settlers having money with which to pay for 
their lands, and that the relations between the company and the settlers 
would have terminated sooner, and that the difficulties that arose be- 
tween them would have been averted. It has been held that this policy 
caused Western New York to be settled by a poorer class of emigrants, 
and that the development of its resources was thus many years retarded ; 
that easy terms of payment tended to encourage laxity and indolence 
among the settlers, and that more active and energetic pioneers went 
beyond the Holland Purchase, where lands could be purchased much 
cheaper for ready cash or shorter credits. 

The reply to this has been that though the settlers in Western New 
York were in many cases poor young men, a larger proportion of them 
possessed that energy and self reliance which fitted them for successfully 
grappling with and surmounting the difficulties and obstacles which they 
encountered in the untamed wilderness where they sought to make their 
homes, than of those who had been reared in the midst of comfort and 
luxuries which they did not create, who were not inured to hardships 
and privations, and whose energies stern necessity had never called 
forth. 

It has also been stated that the company gave longer credits, thus 
enabling a poorer class of immigrants to procure homes and lay the 
foundations of future independence. It is not true that the average 
price at which the lands were sold was greater than that charged by 
the government. It is unknown to many that the price of government 



44 LANDMARKS OF 

lands in the States west of New York was at that time $2 per acre. 
No one could purchase less than a quarter section (i6o acres). An 
immediate payment of $80 was required, and an annual payment of 
$80 thereafter, and the land was forfeited if the whole were not paid 
within five years. In the depression which succeeded the War of 1812 
the lands of many settlers were forfeited, and though Congress passed 
acts for the relief of such, many lost their lands. 

According to the books of the company, the settlers were very dila- 
tory in making their payments, and many, without doubt, forfeited 
their lands. Many others, after remaining some time on the lands 
which they had purchased, sold their "betterments" and went else- 
where. The process of " natural selection " was not, in the end, detri- 
mental to the country. 

It must be remembered that many of the settlers on the Holland Land 
Company's land were poor young men, who, from their scanty wages, 
had saved a sum barely sufficient to purchase teams, defray the expenses 
of their journey hither, and make small payments on their purchases. 
They had then to encounter the stern realities of pioneer life. The 
heavy timber that grew on their lands was to be cut and cleared away 
with little help, beyond that of their brave and hopeful young wives. 
When their farms came to produce a small surplus beyond their domestic 
wants, this found no market except among new settlers. 

In their dealings with the early settlers the agents of the Holland 
Land Company often displayed great kindness and generosity. An 
instance of this w^ seen in this county, where an area of a few hundred 
acres was covered with excellent pine timber. A portion of this land 
they refused, during many years, to sell. Applicants were uniformly 
told that it was not in market, and when the agents were informed that 
the settlers were stealing the timber they replied, " They ought not to 
do that " or, " We must see to them." One applicant, on being refused 
said, "If you won't sell me any of this land I shall be compelled to 
steal timber there." "I hope you will steal no more than you want," 
replied the agent laughingly. It was afterward learned that this land 
had been withheld from market that settlers might procure timber from 
it for their buildings, and the only prosecution for trespass on this land 
that was ever instituted was in the case of a man who attempted to cut 
and carry away timber for sale. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 45 

Another instance of liberality was the donation of lands to religious 
societies. In a note to his history of the Holland Purchase, Mr. Tur- 
ner says : 

In the fall of 1820 Mr. Busti was visiting the land office at Batavia. The Rev. Mr. 
R. T. Rawson, of Barre, Orleans County, of the Presbyterian sect, called on Mr. Busti 
and insisted on a donation of land for each society of his persuasion then formed on 
the Holland Purchase. Mr. Busti treated the reverend gentleman with due courtesy, 
butshowred no dispo-iition to grant his request. Mr. R., encouraged by Mr. Busti's 
politeness, persevered in his solicitations day after day until Mr. Busti's patience was 
almost exhausted. And what finally brought that subject to a crisis was Mr. R.'s 
following Mr. Busti out of the office when he was going to take tea at Mr. Ellicott's 
and making a fresh attack on him in the piazza Mr. Busti was evidently vexed, and 
in reply said: 'Yes, Mr. Rivvson, I will give a tract of 100 acres to a religious society 
in every town on the Purchase, and this isjinis." " But," said Mr. Rawson, "you will give 
it all to the Presbyterians, will you not? If you do not expressly so decide the sec- 
tarians will be claiming it, and lue shall receive very little benefit from it." ''Sectar- 
ians, no," was Mr. Busti's hasty reply. " I abhor sectarians. They ought not to have 
any of it, and to save contention I will give it to the first religious society in each 
town." Mr. Busti hastened to his tea and Mr. Rawson home (about sixteen miles dis- 
tant), to start runners during the night or the next morning to rally the Presbyterians 
in the several towns in his vicinity to apply first, and thereby secure the land to them- 
selves. 

The land office was soon Hooded with petitions for land from societies organized 
according to law and empowered to hold real estate, and those that were not ; one of 
which was presented to Mr. Busti before he left, directed to General Poll Busti, on 
which he insisted it could not be from a religious society, for all religious societies read 
their Bibles and knew thatp double I does not spell Paul. Amid this chaos of appli- 
cations it was thought best not to be precipitate in granting these donations, the 
whole responsibility now resting upon Mr. Ellicott to comply with this vague promise 
of Mr. Busti ; therefore conveyances of the "Gospel land" were not be executed for some 
space of time, notwithstanding the clamor of petitions for d' eds of "our land," during 
which time the matter was taken into consideration and systematized, so far as such 
an operation could be. Care was taken to ascertam the merits of each application, and 
finally a tract or tracts of land, not exceeding 100 acres in all, was granted free of 
expense, to one or more religious societies regularly organized according to law in each 
town on the Purchase where the company had land undisposed of, which embraced 
every town then organized on the Purchase, except Bethany, Genesee county, and Shel- 
don, Wyoming county ; the donors always being allowed to select out of the unused 
farming land of each town. In some towns it was all given to one society, in others 
to two or more societies separately, and in a few towns to four different societies of 
diSerent sects, twenty-five acres to each. 

Though at first the policy of the company toward the settlers was 
very generous and lenient, as time went on the relations between them 



46 LANDMARKS OF 

came to be less cordial. Evidence of the disposition on the part of the 
company to assist the settlers in making their payments was seen in the 
fact that in many instances cattle and grain were received on their con- 
tracts, as appears by the credits on the old books of the company. To 
those greatly in arrears the offer was made to deduct a portion of the 
money due in case of prompt payments. This was looked on by those 
who had met their payments as a sort of premium on the slackness of 
their thriftless neighbors 

Another measure adopted was that of charging, at the end of ten 
years, where but little had been paid, " increase," or a sum added to 
what was due. The addition was sometimes greater than the original 
purchase price. This was regarded by the settlers as a charge for 
improvements which they had made, and it gave great umbrage. 

It has been stated that the members of the Holland Land Company 
were compelled to make their orignal purchases through trustees, because 
of their alien disabilities. Not only were these disabilities removed by 
an act of the Legislature, but the company was exempted from taxa- 
tion. The opinion came to prevail that this discrimination in favor of a 
foreign company was unjust, and that this company, that had grown 
rich under the protection of the State that had favored them above its 
own citizens, should contribute something toward the expenses of the 
government of the State. It was held that the Erie Canal, in the con- 
struction of which the company had not aided, had enhanced the value 
of their property to the amount of some millions ; and that the realiza- 
tion of this and the nature of the securities which the company held 
were involved in the stability of laws toward the support of which that 
company contributed nothing. With this feeling prevalent the Legis- 
ture was asked to pass an act repealing this exemption, and such an act 
was passed in 1833. 

Pending the passage of this act the threat was made, by one who 
represented the interest of the company, that if it passed " it would be 
worse for the settlers." After the act was passed the company, through 
their agents, served notices on delinquents that they must either pay 
or " satisfactorily arrange" their indebtedness or vacate their premises 
within a specified time (two months). This measure was regarded as 
retaliation on the settlers, and it intensified their hostility toward the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 47 

company. Articles were published in the newspapers, meetings were 
held and measures for resistance were discussed. About this time the 
company sold their interest in portions of the purchase, and the new 
proprietors announced their policy to be an advance of from one to 
three dollars per acre on lands, the articles for which had expired or 
should expire with arrearages due on them. The settlers deemed this 
advance on the prices of their lands unreasonable, and in Chautauqua 
county their indignation found vent, on the 6th of February, 1836, in 
the demolishing of the land office and burning of the books, records, 
etc., by a mob of about 250 men. 

The excitement did not terminate with the demolition of the land 
office at Mayville. Encouraged, probably, by the success of the raid 
on that office-, the malcontents prepared for and attempted an assault 
on the one at Batavia. 

For this purpose a mob that has been variously estimated at from 
300 to 1,000 men, mostly armed with rifles, gathered in the town of 
Alexander, whence they proceeded to Batavia on the 14th of May, 1836. 
Information of the approaching mob preceded them and the citizens 
prepared to offer determined resistance. Aid was requested and came 
from Le Roy and other villages, and a large force rallied to the defense 
of the land office and court house. When the mob reached Batavia, 
their number was about 300. As they entered the village they were 
met by a number of the leading citizens of the place and earnestly en- 
treated to disperse; they were at the same time informed that any 
attempt to destroy public property would be met with prompt re- 
sistance and blood would be shed. Meanwhile the court house, land 
office and other buildings had been prepared for vigorous defense. The 
mob proceeded after their short halt to a point near the land office, the 
windows of which bristled with bayonets. Mr. Evans, the agent of the 
land company, was in one window with a loaded gun. The company 
of militia, which had been hastily organized, marched down on the 
flank and near the mob and halted. At the same time the sherifl" and 
others, mingled with the mob and ordered them to disperse. Several 
rifles were raised to shoulder to fire upon the land agent. The situ- 
ation was most critical. After a few moments' suspense, four of the 
mob came out and asked for an interview with the agent. He replied 



48 LANDMARKS OF 

that he would hold no converse with them under the circumstances, 
and defied them. The crisis was passed and in a short time the mob 
withdrew a distance of half a mile, and soon afterwards dispersed. 

After this attempt the people of Batavia procurred cannon for their 
defense, and built and garrisoned two block-houses, covering the land 
office; apprehending another possible visitation, they induced Governor 
Marcy to issue a proclamation by which they were provided with ad- 
ditional artillery and ammunition. 

On being informed that Captain Norris, of a military company in 
Bennington, had said that he with his company and gun — a brass three 
pounder — were ready at a moment's notice to turn out and attack 
Batavia, the governor directed that Captain Norris be ordered to 
deliver the gun to the keeper of the arsenel at Batavia forthwith. To 
this order he at first demurred ; but, fearing the consequences of diso- 
bedience, he finally obeyed. These precautionary measures effectually 
extinguished all hopes on the part of the malcontents of obtaining a 
redress of their greviances by a resort to lawless violence, and allayed 
the fears of the people of Batavia. 

An interesting exhibit of business in Western New York in 1804 is 
afforded in "A Description of the Genesee Country" by Robert Munroe. 
From it the following is extracted: 

Trade is yet in its infancy and has much increased within a few years. Grain is sent 
in considerable quantities from Seneca Lake and the Conhocton, Canisteo, Cowanesque, 
and Tioga Rivers to markets on the Susquehanna River, and flour, potash, and other 
produce to Albany, and a considerable quantity of grain has for some years past been 
exported by sleighs in winter to the Avest of Albany. Whisky is distilled in con- 
siderable quantities, and mostly consumed in the country and is also exported to 
Canada and to Susquehanna. The produce of the country is received by shop keepers 
in payment for goods, and, with horses and cattle, is paid for land. Several thousand 
bushels of grain have been purchased in the winter beginning this year, 1804, for 
money at Newtown (Elmira), and at the mills near Cayuga Lake. Hemp is raised on 
Genesee River, and carried to Albany. Droves of cattle and horses are sent to differ- 
ent markets, and a considerable number of cattle and other provisions are used at the 
markets of Canadarcjua (Canandaigua), and Geneva, at Niagara, and by settlers emi- 
grating into the country. Cattle commonly sell for money at a good price, and as this 
country is very favorable for raising them they will probably become the principal 
article for market; many being of opinion that the raisnig of stock is more profitable as 
well as easier than any mode of farming. The following is a list of prices of articles 
and the rate of wages since January, 180L 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 49 

Wheat, from 62 cents to $1 a bushel ; corn, from 37 to 50 cents a bushel ; rye, from 
50 to 62 cents a bushel ; hay, from $6 to $12 a ton ; butter and cheese, from 10 to 16 
cents a pound; a yoke of oxen, $50 to $80; milk cows, from $16 to $25; cattle for 
drivmg, $3 to $4 a hundred pounds; a pair of good working horses, $100 to $125; 
fvheep, from $2 to $4 ; pork, fresh killed, in winter, $4 to $6 a hundred, and salted, in 
spring, $8 to $10; whisky, from 50 to 75 cents a gallon ; salt, $1 a bushel, weighing 
56 pounds; field ashes, 4 to 9 cents a bushel. 600 bushels have been manufactured 
into a ton of pot or pearl ash, which has been sold at market at $125 to $150, and 
some persons, by saving their ashes or by manufacturing them have nearly cleared the 
cost of improving land ; the wages of a laborer, $10 to $15 a month and board ; a suit 
of clothes made, at $4 to $5; a pair of shoes, $1.75 to $2.50. Store goods are sold at 
very moderate prices, the expense of carriage from Albany to New York being about 
$2 a hundred weight. 

The War of i8i2 almost entirely arrested sales of land by the com- 
pany, and at that time it was said that more settlers went out than came 
into the Holland Purchase. The war closed in 1815, and the tide of 
entigration again set in this direction, and from that date until 1820 the 
increase of population was large, coming particularly from the New 
England States. 

On the return of peace a surplus of labor, which the current prices of 
produce would not remunerate, flooded the land. The heavy duties 
which had been imposed for the support of the war had stimulated 
domestic manufactures. On the removal of these imposts the country 
was flooded with foreign goods, manufacturing industries became stag- 
nant, the country was depleted of specie, and the currency greatly 
depreciated. Under such circumstances it was not wonderful that the 
company's clerks were not fatigued by entering credit in the books, or 
that the early snows of winter showed the tracks of many little naked 
feet. 

The families of these settlers were clad in cloth which the industry 
of their wives produced ; for the wheel and loom contributed a part of 
the furniture of nearly every house, and " black salts," extracted from the 
ashes into which the forests were burned were almost their only resource 
for money with which to pay taxes and purchase a few indispensable 
supplies. The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 ameliorated to 
some extent the condition of these settlers, but still the land debts of 
many weighed heavily on them. 



50 LANDMARKS OF 



CHAPTER V. 

Indian Trails — The Ridge and the Ridge Road — The Lake as an Early Avenue of 
Transportation and Travel — Construction of Early Roads— Building of Mills — Legisla- 
tion in Relation to Road-making — Map of 1809. 

The details of making the first paths through a trackless wilderness 
by the adventurous pioneer become deeply interesting to the reader 
who can imagine the condition of the face of the country at that time. 
Where now the vision of the observer sweeps over a cultivated land- 
scape, showing all the familiar evidences of civilized occupancy by 
closely associated and busy people, the cleared fields presenting an area 
far greater than that of the woodland, the pioneer might at any given 
point in his toilsome journey try in vain to see more than a few rods 
from his position, unless it were heavenward. Hemmed in on every 
side by the monarchs of the wood, he would, unless he had learned the 
mysteries of woodcraft like his native predecessor, or had a guide in 
man or compass, be as much lost as if he were in mid ocean. Yet, by 
the exercise of patient industry and untiring perseverance, the pioneer 
found his way through the wilderness, and while his heart was light and 
his spirits exalted, he laid the foundations of his home beside Indian 
trails or the rude roadways he was able to make. 

In their journeyings hither and thither through their domain the 
Indians, in the course of time, by a sort of natural selection, adopted 
the nearest and most available routes of travel. To these they adhered, 
and they came to be permanent trails, which the white settlers adopted 
as their first roads. As time went on the routes of many of these trails 
were adopted for the great thoroughfares which now traverse the 
country, as may be learned by an inspection of a map prepared by the 
renowned ethnological and Indian investigator, the late L. H. Morgan. 

The principal trail of the Six Nations traversed the State of New 
York between the Hudson and Niagara rivers on the route subsequently 
utilized for the Erie Canal and Central Railroad, though not exactly 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 51 

coincident with these thoroughfares at all points. Passing west from 
Batavia it left the Tonawanda swamp, according to Turner, " nearly 
southeast of Royalton Center, coming out on the Lockport and Batavia 
road in the valley of Millard's brook, and from thence it continued on 
the chestnut ridge to the Cold Springs. Pursuing the route of the Lew- 
iston road, with occasional deviations, it struck the Ridge road at 
Warren's. It followed the Ridge road until it passed the Hopkins 
marsh, when it gradually ascended the mountain ridge, passed through 
the Tuscarora village and then down again to the Ridge road which it 
continued to the river. This was the principal route into Canada, 
crossing from Lewiston to Queenston, a branch trail, however, going 
down the river to Fort Niagara. During the latter years of the last 
century and early in the present one this road was used as a route over 
which to drive cattle for the supply of the soldiers on the Niagara 
River and the settlers on the border. At about the close of the last 
century the Holland Land Company improved this road so that sleighs 
might traverse it in winter, and a weekly mail was carried over it, and 
it was the first road laid out north from the main roads between Batavia 
and Buffalo. 

The existence of " the Ridge " was, of course, known to the Indians, 
and it is said that Augustus Porter learned of it from them and caused 
a road to be traced along it in 1798. The historian, Turner, says that 
it was first discovered by the whites in 1805, and that " it was not, 
however, known in its full extent throughout that region until some 
years after." He says, "The Ontario trail " came west from Oswego 
and followed the ridge " west to near the west line of Hartland, Niagara 
county, where it diverged to the southwest, crossing the east branch of 
the Eighteen-Mile Creek, and forming a junction with the Canada or 
Niagara trail at the Cold Springs." 

This route was utilized by the early immigrants, but the want of 
bridges, and obstructions by large trees, rendered travel over it some- 
what difficult. The Legislature of New York in April, 18 14, appointed 
commissioners and made an appropriation of $5,000 for the improve- 
ment of this road. This appropriation and the labor of the inhabitants 
along the road rendered it passable. It was first surveyed by Philetus 
Swift and Caleb Hopkins under an act of the Legislature passed Feb- 



52 LANDMARKS OF 

ruary lo, 1815 ; and on the 22d of March, 1852, an act was passed for 
its re- survey. John Le Valley, Governor Daniels, and William J. 
Babbitt were the commissioners and Darius W. Cole, of Medina, was 
the surveyor. It is a six rod road and is one of the pleasantest in 
Western New York. 

Prior to the construction of the Erie canal the lake was the avenue of 
transportation between this region and the east, and in that early time 
it was naturally supposed that the excellent harbor at the mouth of 
Oak Orchard Creek would make that an important port. The agents 
of the Holland Land Company, therefore, early discerned the impor- 
tance of opening an avenue of communication to that place. Accord- 
ingly, in 1803, ^ survey was made of what has since been known as the 
Oak Orchard road, from Batavia to the mouth of Oak Orchard Creek. 
It was run on the general route of an Indian trail, over which the 
natives had passed to and from their fishing places on the lake. It was 
laid out tour rods in width, the timber was cut away, and the rough, 
primitive road was early constructed. This and the Ridge road were 
the routes by which the early settlers came, and to the country along 
these roads the settlements were for some time limited. The Oak 
Orchard road was the first laid out in the county. 

About 18 1 3 Andrew A. Ellicott established a mill on the Oak 
Orchard Creek at what is now Shelby Center. To promote the sale 
of the land in that vicinity, by facilitating access to this mill, a highway 
was cut by the company from Shelby Center to the Oak Orchard road 
near the county alms house. This was the first east and west road that 
was opened south of the Ridge road, and it is still in use. 

In 1805 the Holland Company established works north from Medina 
for the manufacture of salt, and to afford access to these works two 
roads were opened ; one running south to the old Buffalo road, and the 
other southeasterly to the Oak Orchard road. They were called the 
Salt Works roads ; and after the manufacture of salt was abandoned 
they were discontinued. 

About the year 1824 the inhabitants along the Ridge road celebrated 
the 4th of July by cutting out a highway from the ridge north to 
Waterport, which is now the road leading from Eagle Harbor to Water- 
port. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. ,•;,;] 

An act of the Legislature passed April 2, 1827, appointed John P. 
Patterson, Almon H. Millerd, and Otis Turner commissioners, and Jesse 
P. Haines, of Lockport, surveyor, to locate a highway four rods in 
width between Rochester and Lockport "on or near the banks of the 
Erie canal." This road was surveyed, and the survey was recorded 
in the counties and towns through which it passed. Only such portions 
as the pubHc convenience required were opened, and the franchise 
lapsed by non-use. It was called the State road, and that portion of 
it which traverses Albion is now known as State street. 

An act of the Legislature of April 7, 1824, authorized the overseers 
of highways in Shelby to " open the road leading through the said 
town, from Batavia to Lockport, four rods wide in addition to present 
width, on that, part of the Indian Reservation lying on the south side of 
said road, from the house of John Wolcott . . as far west as the 
road is laid out on the north line of the Indian Reservation." 

On the 5th of April, 1828, commissioners were appointed by the 
Legislature to lay out the highway "from the center of the town of 
Sheldon, Genesee county, to the Erie canal in Orleans county," passing 
through Bennington, Pembroke, and Gerrysville. And again, on the 
27th of April, 1829, a road was opened under similar legislation from 
Albion to Olean, by way of Batavia, Attica, etc. In April, 1852, the 
road across Tonawanda swamp from Elba to Barre was laid out on the 
line between the first and second ranges of the Holland Company's 
survey. The various other minor highways followed as they were 
needed, and were soon supplemented by plank roads, the Erie Canal 
and the railroads, which will be noticed as we progress. 

The early inhabitants bridged the various streams in a primitive 
manner, which sufficed until the increased travel demanded something 
better, when legislation was invoked for the purpose. On the 15th of 
April, 1825 the supervisors of Orleans county were authorized by the 
Legislature to raise $1,000 by tax to bridge Oak Orchard Creek at the 
head of the still water in the then town of Oak Orchard. Silas Joy, 
Asahel Byington and Robert M. Brown were the commissioners ap- 
pointed. March 21, 1828, similar authority was granted to raise 
$1,000 to bridge the same stream "at the place where the State road 
leading from Rochester to Lockport crosses the creek," Otis Turner, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 55 

William C. Tanner, and Harry Boardman were the commissioners. On 
the 25th of April, 1829, the supervisors were authorized to raise 
$1,500 to bridge Oak Orchard and Marsh Creeks in Carlton, "in such 
manner as to unite the three sections of the town now divided by the 
said creeks." In the same year the supervisors were authorized to 
build a bridge over Sandy Creek in the town of Murray at a cost of 
$1,000. Later improvements of this character will be noticed in the 
histories of the several towns. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Early settlements— Character of the Pioneers— Their Hardships and Privations— The 
War of 1812-15— Effects of the '^ Cold Summer "—Early Mills and Manufactures— 
The Morgan Case— The Lake and Its Traffic— Town Organizations and Formation of 
the County— Establishment of Schools and Churches. 

The great purchase by the Holland Company which we have de- 
scribed, and the easy terms offered by them to buyers of small tracts, 
was instrumental in promoting settlement in the western part of the 
State. But the counties lying upon Lake Ontario, or parts of them at 
least, were not settled so early as the territory a little farther south. 
At the first the sales of the Holland Company were not numerous, but 
they rapidly increased as the beauty and fertility of their lands became 
better known. As far as Orleans county is concerned, it was almost 
an unbroken wilderness down to the beginning of the present century. 
A writer who passed through Western New York in 1792, left the fol- 
lowing record : 

Many times did I break out in an enthusiastic frenzy, anticipating the probable 
situation of this wilderness twenty years hence. All that reason can ask may be ob- 
tained by the industrious hand ; the only danger to be feared is that luxuries will flow 
too cheap. After I had reached the Genesee River, curiosity led me on to Niagara, 
ninety miles— not one house or white man the whole way. The only direction I had 
was an Indian path, which sometimes was doubtful. At eight o'clock in the evening 
I reached an Indian town called Tonnoraunto ; it contains many hundreds of the sav- 
ages, who live in very tolerable houses, which they make of timber and cover with 



56 LANDMARKS OF 

bark. By signs I made them understand me, and for a little money they cut me 
limbs and bushes sufficient to erect a booth, under which I slept very quietly on the 
grass. The next day I pursued my journey, nine miles of which lay thi'ough a very 
deep swamp; with some difficulty I got through, and about sundown arrived at the 
Fort of Niagara. 

Turner writes that two or three log and one framed hut at Buffalo, 
and two or three tenements at Lewiston, were all the improvements on 
the Holland Purchase before the close of 1799; and at the end of the 
century there was little more accomplished than the addition of a few 
families along the Buffalo road. The sales of the Holland Company in 
1 801 were 40 in number; in 1802, 56; 1803, 230; 1804, 300; 1805, 
415 ; 1806, 524 ; 1807, 607 ; 1808, 612 ; and in 1809, 1 160. 

In 1803 Joseph EUicott laid out a village at the mouth of Oak 
Orchard Creek, which he named " Manilla," hoping that a harbor 
might be established there for lake transportation. In the spring of 
that year James Walsworth settled there as the pioneer of Orleans 
County,! and the first settler on the lake shore between Braddock's 
Bay and Fort Niagara. 

Referring to Mr. Walsworth's settlement and a few others of the first 
decade of the century, Mr. Turner wrote as follows: 

Walsworth and the few others that located at Oak Orchard, were all the settlers in 
Orleans before 1809, except Whitfield Rathbun, who was the pioneer of all that part 
of the Ridge road in Orleans county embraced in the Holland Purchase (that is, west of 
the transit line.) . . . Settlement had just begun at the mouth of Eighteen-Mile 
Creek, in Niagara, and at Johnson's Creek in Orleans, in 1806. Burgoyne Kemp 
settled at the Eighteen-Mile Creek in 1808. There was then settled there William 

Chambers and Colton, and there was one family at Johnson's Creek on the 

Lake. At that period there was no settler between Lake and Ridge in Niagara or 
Orleans. 

West of Oak Orchard and on the Ridge the earliest settlers of prom- 
inence were Ezra D. Barnes, Israel Douglass (the latter the first mag- 
istrate north of Batavia), Seymour B. Murdock and his sons, and Eli 
Moore. Besides these, George Houseman settled at the site of Lyndon- 
ville, in Yates, in 1809 i a Mr. Gilbert in Gaines about the same time; 
Epaphras Mattison in Murray in 1809, and others in the following 

' In order to avoid confusion the name "Orleans County " will be often used in referring to the 
history of the first quarter of thi.s century, and, of course, prior to the organization of the county. 
It will be understood that when the county is thus mentioned, reference is had to the territory 
afterwards and now embraced within its limits. 



ORLEAXS COUNTY. 57 

year ; Alexander Coon in Shelby in 1810 ; and the first clearing on the 
site of Albion village ( then in Barre ), was made in 1 8 1 1 , prior to which 
a few families had come into that town. Further settlements in the 
several towns will be followed in detail in the town histories in later 
pages. 

The first settlers in the county were chiefly natives of New England, 
and possessed the traditional Puritan energy, thrift and economy. 
They came, sometimes by single families, and occasionally two or more 
families in company, secured their lands, built their primitive log houses 
in which so many eminent Americans have been cradled, neighbor 
aiding neighbor, cleared away sections of the forest and began life 
under circumstances scarcely to be appreciated by their descendants of 
to-day. Hardship and privation were everywhere present during the 
early years. Money was scarce and markets were distant, while the 
products which would bring money were few in number and limited in 
quantity. To get grain ground the settlers were obliged to carry it to 
Niagara or to Genesee Falls, until mills were built within the county. 
Sickness, especially fever and ague, was prevalent, and the doctors were 
often far away. The scarcity of breadstuff, at least in a ground state, 
was perhaps felt during the first ten years of settlement more than any 
other privation. 

Buying his land on easy terms, and inspired with the vigor of young 
manhood, the pioneer thought the road to independence would not be 
a long nor a very hard one; but many of them were disappointed in 
this. The meagre crops raised on the small clearing were needed for 
home consumption ; or, if there was a small surplus, it could not be 
sold. The roads to market were often impassable for teams ; sickness 
demanded the time and the resources of the well members of the family; 
interest accumulated, and it is not a wonder that many wanted to sell 
and go away. The number of the discouraged and helpless would have 
been much greater had not the Holland Company been extremely 
lenient with its debtors. 

Orleans County was sparsely settled at the outbreak of the war of 
18 1 2-1 5, the few inhabitants being chiefly located along the Ridge 
road. This is one of the reasons, and probably the principal one, why 
it suffered so little from the effects of that war. It requires people and 



58 LANDMAKKS OF 

property to satisfy the ravages of war, and it is not known that a single 
hostile incursion was made into what is now Orleans county. But it 
was a period of anxiety and fear for those who had settled here, which 
was aggravated by the proximity of the frontier at and near Bufifalo. 
In that vicinity the conflict was actively carried on at times, and the 
Ridge road became the highway of flight for many refugees eastward. 

The first news of what seemed to be an impending attack on this im- 
mediate locality in the winter of i8 13-14, was brought by William 
Burlingame. He lived near the western border of the town of Gaines, 
and John Proctor, who lived four miles farther east, has left it on record 
that Burlingame came to his house, called him out of bed and asked 
him to arouse the people on to the eastward. Proctor mounted his 
horse and before daylight had visited all the inhabitants as far east as 
Clarkson. The efifect of this action was prompt and a large company 
of men were on the move early the following morning to check the 
expected enemy. The organization marched to near Lewiston, where 
they remained on duty about two weeks. Mr. Proctor, with several 
others, went to Fort Erie in September , 18 14, and performed excellent 
service there. One of the company named Howard was killed ; one 
named Sheldon was wounded, and Moses Bacon was taken prisoner. 
Several bullets passed through Proctor's clothing. 

Not long after the breaking out of the war the people of Gaines or- 
ganized a company and elected Eleazer McCarty, captain. Of the 
operations of this company in the campaign Judge Thomas wrote as 
follows : 

In December, 1813, the British burnt Lewiston and news was brought to Captain 
McCarty by the fleeing inhabitants, that the British and Indians were coming east on 
the Ridge. He sent a messenger to John Proctor, the only man who had a horse in 
the settlement, to carry the news to Murray, and call the men together to resist them. 
The next morning the company was enroute towards the foe. The next night they 
came in sight of Molyneux Tavern, ten or twelve miles east of Lewiston, and saw a 
light in the house. Captain McCarty halted his men and advanced himself to recon- 
noiter. Approaching the place he saw British and Indians in the house, their guns 
standing in a corner. He returned to his men and brought them cautiously forward ; 
selected a few to follow him into the house, and ordered the remainder to surround it 
and prevent the enemy from escaping. McCarty and his party rushed in at the door 
and sprang between the men and their guns and ordered them to surrender. The British 
soldiers and Indians had been helping themselves to liquor in the tavern, and some 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 59 

were drank and asleep on the floor. The surprise was complete. Most of the party 
surrendered: a few Indians showed fight with their knives and hatchets, and tried to 
recover their guns, and several of them were killed in the melee. One soldier made a 
dash to get his gun and was killed by McCarty at a blow. The remainder surrendered 
and were put upon the march towards Lewiston, near which our army had then 
arrived. One prisoner would not walk. The soldiers dragged him forward on the 
ground a while, and getting tired of that, Henry Luce, one of McCarty 's men, declared 
with an oath that he would kill him, and was preparing for the act when McCarty in- 
terfered and saved his life. McCarty encamped a few miles east of Lewiston. While 
there he went out with a number of his men and captured a scouting party of British 
soldiers returning to Fort Niagara laden with plunder they had taken from the neighbor- 
ing inhabitants. McCarty compelled them to carry the plunder back to its owners and 
then sent them prisoners of war to Batavia. After fifteen or twenty days' service, 
McCarty's company was discharged and returned home. Most of his men resided in 
Gaines, and comprised nearly all the men in town. 

Most of the inhabitants of Orleans county who did not go to the 
frontier, fled from their homes. Among other settlers within the limits 
of this county who took part in that war were Justus Ingersoll, who 
lived in Shelby and Medina ; who joined the army in i8i2, as ensign in 
the 23d Infantry, was in the celebrated charge on Oueenston Heights, 
was twice wounded and received promotion to a captaincy. Allen 
Porter, who settled in Barre in 18 16, was drafted in 1812, and was 
present in the memorable sortie at Fort Erie in September, 18 14, also 
Reuben Root and his father, of Yates. Samuel Tappan, of Yates, 
afterwards a judge in the county, who was in the service as adjutant 
and captain, and took part in the fighting at Fort Erie and in the battle 
of Lundy's Lane; Joseph Hart of Barre, Robert Treadwell, of Gaines, 
Hubbard Rice and Chauncey Robinson, of Murray, Amos Barret, David 
Hood and Jeremiah Brown, of Ridgeway, all called out one or more 
times to defend the frontier against the enemy. The latter (Mr. 
Brown) left the following record : 

In the war of 1812 I was called to the lines to defend my country. I received 
notice on Friday night ( 1812 ) about 9 o'clock, to be in Canandaigua on the next Mon- 
day morning at 10 o'clock to march to Buffalo. I hired a man and woman to take care 
of my sick wife and child during my absence, while I responded to the call. I was 
then an officer in the militia, and I marched on foot with the rest o* the officers and 
men to Buffalo, where we arrived the second day after the battle. Our company was 
the first that arrived and assisted in collecting the dead. 

Others of the inhabitants probably took part in the war ; but the 
number of settlers within the limits of the country was then small, and 



60 LANDMARKS OF 

consequently the effects of the war were less conspicuous than at many- 
other points. With the return of peace those who had left their homes 
returned, immigration revived and prosperity was restored, except as 
it was temporarily checked by the remarkably cold season of i8i6. 
The crops of this year were almost wholly destroyed and provisions of 
all kinds became very scarce and prices abnormally high. Flour 
reached $15 a barrel and wheat $3 a bushel, while money was also 
scarce. These conditions continued through the year 1817. Live 
stock almost starved in many instances Gideon Freeman of the town 
of Gaines, chopped over fifty acres of woodland for his cattle to browse 
during the winter of 1816-17, and six of them died from starvation. 
The family of Levi Davis had nothing to eat for three weeks before 
harvest time but some small potatoes, milk and a little butter. In the 
month of June, 1816, Jeremiah Brown, of Ridgeway, who has been 
mentioned as a soldier of the war of 18 12, went to Farmington to get 
food for several families who were in danger of starvation. He ob- 
tained a load of corn at one dollar a bushel, which gave temporary 
relief to many. There was much sickness in the county in early years, 
and this was aggravated by the scarcity of food. Mr. Brown made 
another journey to Farmington in the winter of 1816-17, and bought 
two tons of pork, at ten dollars per hundred, and paid three dollars per 
barrel for salt. Levi Davis, of the same town, has left the record with 
Judge Thomas that previous to the opening of the Erie Canal he paid 
seventy- five cents a yard for sheeting and the same for calico, and on 
one occasion paid fifteen dollars a barrel for salt. But the summer of 
18 1 7 brought good crops, and by 1821, so active had been the farmers 
in raising wheat, and so difficult was it to get it to market, that it fell 
in price to twenty- five cents a bushel. 

But better times and conditions were near at hand. The energetic 
clearing away of the forests and further tillage of the soil, both gave the 
settlers larger crops and more area to cultivate, and at the same time 
diminished sickness. Mills, schools and churches were founded ; news- 
papers were established, the Gazette in Gaines in 1822, and the Newport 
Patriot in 1824; the roads were improved; the formation of the several 
towns progressed — Ridgeway and Murray in 18 12, Gaines in 18 16, 
Barre and Shelby in 18 18, Yates and Carlton in 1822, and Kendall in 



ORLEANS COUNTY. Gl 

1837. The details of all these subjects will receive proper treatment in 
later pages of this volume. 

Meanwhile the all-important topic of the Erie Canal had absorbed 
public attention during many years, and the great project was nearing 
completion when Orleans county was organized under the act of 
November 12, 1824, as before noted. The first election of county 
officers was held with the following result : Elijah Foot, first judge ; 
S. M. Moody, Cyrus Harwood, Eldridge Farwell and William Penni- 
man, judges; William Lewis, sheriff; Orson Nicholson, county clerk. 



CHAPTER VII. 



Modes of Transportation and Travel in Early Years — Opening of the Erie Canal 
— Changes Wrought by this Waterway — Early Public Legislation — The First and 
Second Locations of the County Seat — The First Banks — Railroads — The •' Hard 
Times" of 1837-38— A Deplorable Accident. 

Before the building of the Erie Canal and the railroads, public travel 
was mainly by the old stage coaches, which were driven over the princi- 
pal thoroughfares of the State. Stage lines existed early in the century 
westward from Canandaigua, either direct to Buffalo, or by way of the 
Ridge road, Lewiston and the Falls. The latter route was established 
in 18 16. Coaches ran one each way every day and carried great num- 
bers of passengers. They were kept running until about 1850, the 
rivalry between them and the packet lines on the canal being very 
spirited. In 1828 a number of men living principally in Rochester, 
who looked upon the running of stages on Sunday as a violation of that 
day, organized an opposition line to run on week days only ; it was 
called " The Pioneer Line," and the route left the Ridge road at 
Wright's Corners for Lockport, and thence west to the Falls and Buffalo. 
The competition between these rival lines was very active ; but the first 
mentioned company reduced its fares, and when the second company 
failed to get the contract to carry the mails, it closed its business. 
Gaines, in this county, was a point for changing horses, the stopping- 



62 LANDMARKS OF 

place being the old Mansion House, which was succeeded by the 
Gaines House. Gaines is 250 miles from Albany and the trip usually 
required about forty-three hours. With the opening of the railroads, 
the glory of the stage and packet lines departed ; but there are men 
still living who delight to talk of the coaching days and the pleasures of 
bowling along over the turnpike behind spirited horses guided by a 
skillful driver, the sharp crack of whose whip echoed in the forest by 
the roadside. But time in those days had not acquired the value 
ascribed to it in these later years. 

A detailed history of the conception and building of the Erie Canal 
is not required in these pages; every person of intelligence who knows 
aught of the history of his own State of New York is conversant with 
it. The subject of water communication between the Hudson and the 
great lakes was discussed early in the present century, 1 and even 
before that the great necessity for better ways of transporting goods to 
and from Albany westward led to the organization of the Western 
Inland Lock Navigation Company in 1792 and the improvement of 
water communication up the Mohawk River, through Wood Creek, 
Oneida Lake and Seneca River, a work in itself of vast benefit to the 
State at large. 

The project of a canal from the Hudson to Buffalo seems to have 
found its inception in the mind of Jesse Havvley in 1805. A native of 
Bridgeport, Conn., he was in 1805 and some years afterward, buying 
wheat in the Genesee Valley, transporting it east to Seneca Falls, where 
there was a large grist mill, having it ground and then shipping the 
flour to Albany. He wrote a series of newspaper articles in favor of 
the project which created considerable favorable influence. 

The claim is also made that Gouverneur Morris suggested the canal 
to Simeon De Witt, then surveyor general, as early as 1803, and that 
De Witt, like most others at that time, considered the scheme wholly 
visionary. He talked with James Geddes, of Syracuse, about it and 

1 Governor Golden as early as 1724 expressed the hope that sometime the western part of the State 
might be penetrated by boats independent ot Lake Ontario. In his memoir on the fur trade, writ- 
ten in that year, occurs the following remarkable passage : There is a river which comes from the 
country of the Sinnekes and falls into the Onnondage River, by which we have an easy carriage 
into that country without going near the Cataracqui (.Ontario) Lake. The head of this river goes 
near to Lake Erie and probably may give a very near passage into that lake, much more advan- 
tageous than the way the French are obliged to take by the way of the great fall of lagara. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 63 

Mr. Geddes, who was a practical surveyor, believed the plan feasible, 
and corresponded with surveyors and engineers on the subject. Gen- 
eral interest was awakened and the project worked its way into a 
political issue and was taken in hand by Hon. Joshua Forman, of Syra- 
cuse, who was elected to the Assembly on the "canal ticket." Mr. 
Forman from that time on until the canal was an accomplished fact, was 
its enthusiastic advocate and to him as much as to any other person is 
due the credit for the great work. He secured a small appropriation of 
$600 and Mr. Geddes received authority to make a preliminary survey. 
As between the two proposed routes, the one by way of Lake Ontario 
and the other direct to Lake Erie, Mr. Geddes reported in favor of the 
latter. This took the line directly across Orleans county, and we quote 
as follows regarding the local features of the project: 

Mr. Geddes suggested that there might be found some place in the Ridge that bounds 
the Tonavvanda Valley on the north, as low as the level of Lake Erie, where a canal 
may be led across and conducted onward without increasing the lockage by rising to 
the Tonawanda swamp. The latter difficulty was involved in the route that had been 
contemplated by Joseph Ellicott. He supposed the summit on that line would not be 
more than twenty feet above Lake Erie, and that upon it a sufficient supply of water 
might be obtained from Oak Orchard Creek and other streams. In this he was mis- 
taken ; the suTDmit was found to be seventy-five feet above Lake Erie, and to be sup- 
plied with no adequate feeder. 

It is entirely probable that the canal could never have been a success 
through Western New York, except for the discovery through the 
great genius of Mr. Geddes, that it could follow the course finally 
adopted, permitting a continuous flow eastward from Lake Erie. 

Commissioners were appointed at the Legislative session of 1810 to 
thoroughly explore the proposed routes of water communication across 
the State, which they did and reported on the 2d of March, 181 1. 
They recommended the route favored by Mr. Geddes. The estimated 
cost of the work was $5,000,000. The Legislature approved this report 
by continuing the commission and voting $15,000 for further opera- 
tions. Attempts to obtain congressional aid for the undertaking failed 
and in the following year the Legislature authorized the commissioners 
to borrow it>5, 000,000 on the State credit, for the construction of the 
canal. The oncoming of the war with Great Britain put a stop to the 
undertaking; but in 181 5, it was revived and public meetings were 



64 LANDxMARKS OF 

held in various parts of the State where enthusiastic speakers advocated 
the speedy completion of the work. The Legislature of i8i6 appoint- 
ed a new canal commission and in the next year Mr. Clinton prepared 
an act authorizing the beginning of the work. The canal was divided 
into three sections, eastern, middle and western, Mr. Geddes being 
made chief engineer of the western section. Up to the year 1820 
nothing but the survey had been accomplished on this division, aside 
from the adoption of the route advised by Mr. Geddes. In 1820 he 
was succeeded by David Thomas, who in that year made an examin- 
ation of the course adopted from Rochester to Pendleton and made 
some modification east of Oak Orchard Creek. A more important 
change was made in reference to the point of passing the mountain 
ridge in Niagara county, and which determined the site of the city of 
Lockport. The whole western part of the canal was put under con- 
tract in 1 82 1. The work was pushed energetically and during the 
autumn of 1823 the canal was navigable as far west on the western 
section as Holley and during the following season reached the foot of the 
ridge at Lockport. The great rock cutting at the latter place was the 
last piece of work finished between Buffalo and Albany. William C. 
Bouck, afterwards governor of the State, was the commissioner in 
charge of the construction of the western portion of the canal. On the 
29th of September, 1825, he wrote from Lockport to Stephen Van Rens- 
selaer, another commissioner, as follows : 

Sir : — The unfinished parts of the Erie Canal will be completed and in a condition to 
admit the passage of boats on Wednesday, the 26ih day of October next. It would 
have been gratifying to have accomplished this result as early as the first of September, 
but embarrassments which I could not control delayed it. 

On this grand event, so auspicious to the character and wealth of the citizens of New 
York, permit me to congratulate you. 

By extra exertion the final filling was finished on the 25th of 
October, and in the forenoon of the next day a flotilla of five boats left 
Buffalo, laden with the highest State officers and other prominent men. 
Cannon had been stationed a few miles apart along the whole line of 
the canal, to be discharged in order as fast as they were reached by 
the boats. A few boats had started westward from Lockport, about 
the time of the sailing of the flotilla from Buffalo, and met the latter in 
Tonawanda Creek, convoying the flotilla from there eastward. En- 



ORLEAXS COUNTY. G5 

thusiastic crowds of people, among them many who had from the first 
condemned the project as impracticable/ met the fleet at the various 
villages, Lockport, Medina, Albion, Holley and Brockport, in a gener- 
al celebration of the great event. 

The Erie Canal was then 363 miles long, and its original cost was 
$7,143,780.86. Under an act of May, 1835, the canal was enlarged 
from a width of forty feet at top and twenty-eight at bottom, to seventy 
at top and fifty-two and a half at bottom, and so straightened as to re- 
duce its length to 3507 miles. The cost of the enlargement was more 
than $30,000,000. 

The effects of the opening of this great waterway are too well known 
to need recapitulation. It immediately became a means of transporta- 
tion to and from the eastern markets of all kinds of produce and mer- 
chandise, in which capacity its value can never be estimated. The set- 
tlers of Orleans county, as well as elsewhere, saw the beginning of a 
new era of prosperity for them, and their anticipations were measur- 
ably realized. Passenger travel by the packet boats was also made 
delightful and more rapid than by the former stage coaches. These 
boats, while not large, were fitted up with all necessary comforts for 
passengers during a protracted ride, and one can hardly imagine a 
more agreeable voyage than on one of those packets from Albany to 
Buffalo. Seymour Scovell built the first packet west of Montezuma, 
which he called the " Myron Holley," and Oliver Culver the second 
one, called "William C. Bouck." 

Of the immediate consequences of opening the canal. Judge Thomas 
wrote as follows : 

To no part of the State of New York has the Erie Canal proved of more benefit 
than to Orleans county. Although the soil was fertile and productive, and yielded 
abundant crops to reward the toil of the farmer, yet its inland location and the great 
difficulty of transporting produce to market, rendered it of little value at home. Settlers 
who had located here, in many instances, had become discouraged. Others who desired 
to emigrate to the Genesee country, were kept back by the gloomy accounts they got 
of life in the wildernes.s, with little prospect of easy communication with the old East- 

' It was considered an impossibility to make the Erie Canal. People said it might be possible to 
make water run up hill, but canal boats, never. Some said they would be willing to die, having 
lived long enough when boats in a canal should float through their farms ; but afterwards when 
they saw the boats passing by, they wanted to live more than ever to see what would be done 
next. — Reminiscences of George E. Mix. 



G6 LANDMARKS OF 

ern States. As soon as the canal became navigable, Holley, Albion, Knowlesville, and 
Medina, villages on its banks, were built up. Actual settlers took up the unoccupied 
lands and cleared them up. No speculators came here and bought up large tracts and 
left them w^ild to rise on the market. The lumber of the country found a ready market 
and floated away. Wheat was worth four times as much as the price for which it had 
been previously selling. Prosperity came in on every hand ; the mud dried up, and 
the mosquitos, and the ague, and the fever, and the bears left the country. Farmers 
paid for their lands, surrendered their articles and took deeds from the company. Good 
barns and framed houses, and houses of brick and stone, began to be built as the com- 
mon dwellings of the inhabitants. " The good time coming," which the first settlers 
could not see, but waited for with a faint and dreamy but persistent hope, had come in- 
deed. The price of lands rose rapidly, making many wealthy, who happened to locate 
farms in desirable places, from the rise in value of their lands. From this time forward 
rich men from the Eastern States and older settlements began to come in and buy out 
the farms and improvements of those who had begun in the woods and now found 
themselves, Hke Cooper's Leather Stocking, "Lost in the Clearings," and wished to 
move on to the borders of civilization, where hunting and fishing were better, and 
where the ruder institutions, manners and customs of frontier life, to which they had 
become attached, would be better enjoyed among congenial spirits. 

During the progress of these events Orleans county was advancing 
in many other material respects. A legislative act of April i8, 1826, 
gave to the county, one member of assembly and made it a part of the 
eighth senatorial district, and in the following year both the village of 
Albion and the Gaines Academy were incorporated. The new court 
house and jail were finished in 1828, and an act of April 18, of that 
year, directed that the Courts of Common Pleas and General Sessions of 
the Peace, "shall after the passage of this act, be held at the court house 
in Albion on the third Mondays of January, June and September." 
The subject of railroad communication was also rapidly becoming a 
prominent one in the minds of progressive people, and although it was 
several years before a line was constructed through this county, there 
are early indications that the project was under consideration. On the 
17th of April, 1832, the Albion and Tonawanda Railroad Company 
was incorporated by David E. Evans. Gains B. Rich, Henry Edgerton, 
Alexis Ward, and Nehemiah Ingersoll. The object of the company 
was to construct a single or double track road from Albion to the Ton- 
awanda Creek at Batavia. The capital was $200,000. Again on the 
5th of May, 1834, the Medina and Darien Railroad Company was in- 
corporated, its purpose being to build a road between the village of 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 67 

Medina and the Alexander or Buffalo road. The company was ob 
ligated to spend $ 10,000 in two years from incorporation and to 
complete the road in five years; the capital was $100,000. This com- 
pany established a horse railroad running from Medina to Akron, in 
Erie county in 1826. The enterprise did not prove profitable and the 
track was taken up in a short time. In the same year the enterprising 
people of Medina projected a railroad to run from their village to the 
mouth of Oak Orchard Creek. For this purpose the Medina and 
Ontario Railroad Company was incorporated; but the line was never 
built. These and many other projects were at least temporarily aban- 
doned wholly or partly on account of the financial distress of 1837-8. 

Meanwhile in 1832-33 the cholera swept over the country leaving 
death and despair in its track. Orleans county, while it did not suffer 
greatly from the scourge, had its share of anxiety and fear, for it was 
well known that the disease was approaching from the East and West 
along the line of the canal. 

The general law of June 22, 1832, made it the duty of the common 
councils of cities and the trustees of villages in all counties bordered by 
any of the lakes or canals of the State, where there was not an existing 
board of health, to forthwith appoint one of not less than three nor 
more than seven members, with a competent physician as health officer. 

Communities which were essentially agricultural in character suffered 
less from the financial overthrow of 1836-38 than the commercial 
centers. The causes of that memorable revulsion lay in the very found- 
ation of the government, as developed in the policy of President Jack- 
son, and in antagonism to that policy by the United States Bank and 
its connections. The period of speculation and dazzling expectations 
began about two years before the crash, and in cities and large villages 
prices of real estate were forced upward beyond reason, amid a fever of 
financial delusion that now seems to have been absolutely unaccounta- 
ble. Buffalo, for example, was a veritable hot- bed of speculation and 
wild anticipation. Banks multiplied, money was plenty and recklessly 
spent, rates of interest rapidly advanced, and the demand for money, 
even at the high rates, was unprecedented, through the mania for bor- 
rowing funds with which to speculate, and the prices of various goods 
rose in proportion with the rest. Everybody, professional men, teach- 



68 LANDMARKS OF 

ers, lawyers, doctors, even ministers, as well as the rank and file, were 
drawn into the whirlpool, and the crash was proportionately over- 
whelming. ^ 

As before indicated, Orleans county did not suffer in this period of 
stringency equally with localities where business interests were larger, 
or where expectations of a large influx of population to build up com- 
mercial centers were indulged. The Bank of Orleans, at Albion, had 
been organized in 1834, and it passed successfully through the crisis. 
It was "hard times" with the community in general ; but actual busi- 
ness disaster and suffering were not prevalent. 

Many years since a railroad between Batavia, Albion and Oak 
Orchard Harbor was talked of and some preliminary surveys were 
made. In 1884 a company was organized, a route was surveyed, and 
much of the right of way secured. Nothing more was done, and the 
project still sleeps. ^ 

In 1835 the Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad Company began 
building a railroad between those two points. The road was built in 
the same manner as the Albany and Schenectady line, opened in 1831, 
and the Schenectady and Utica, opened in 1835. Sills were laid length- 
wise of the road and flat rails thereon. The cars were small, holding 
either sixteen or twenty- four persons, and with only four wheels. On 
the loth of December, 1850, the Rochester, Lockport and Niagara 
Falls Railroad Company was organized, and in 1851 purchased the 
Lockport and Niagara Falls line. The track of the latter company was 
taken up and subscriptions opened to build a new road. About $225,- 
000 were secured and the road was built. The first board of directors 
were Joseph B. Varnum, Edward Whitehouse, of New York ; Watts 
Sherman, of Albany ; Freeman Clarke, Silas O. Smith, A. Boody, of 
Rochester; Alexis Ward, Roswell W. Burrows, of Albion; and Elias 
B. Holmes, of Brockport. The directors and a few others passed over 
the road by train June 25, 1852, and regular trains began running on 

'It is related thatia Buffalo doctor whose brain was dazed by his exalted expectations from his 
various real estate investments, called to leave medicine for a patient. When asked how it was 
to be taken , the physician replied in a preoccupied manner: "One-third down and the remainder 
in three quarterly installments." 

2 There is, however, at this time (1894) much talk of building such a road and about $60,000 has 
been subscribed toward its capital stock. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. GO 

the 30th of that month. This road went into the consoHdation which 
formed the New York Central May 7, 1853. The branch from Lock- 
port Junction to Tonawanda was built by the Rochester, Lockport and 
Niagara Falls Company in 1852, and opened in January, 1853. 

Western New York, in common with most other parts of the country, 
had its period of what may be termed the plank road mania, beginning 
about 1845 ^^^ continuing several years. These roads, built at a time 
when most country highways were even worse than at present, and ex- 
tending into localities where railroads were not likely to go, were of 
considerable benefit, especially to farmers. A few of them paid 
reasonable dividends, through collection of tolls, but more Vvere losing 
investments and soon abandoned. 

In October, 1856, the Orleans County Agricultural Society was or- 
ganized ; it was destined to be of great benefit to the farmers and others 
in the county. A proper account of it is given in another chapter. 

The year 1859 was made memorable by a terrible accident which 
happened in the village of Albion. The date was September 28, when 
the annual fair of the Agricultural Society was in progress, to attend 
which a large crowd of people were present. A young man from 
Brockport had stretched a rope across the canal, from the Dyer block 
to the Mansion House and advertised a rope walking exhibition. To 
witness this a crowd of people gathered on the canal bridge. The 
bridge fell with its living load, precipitating about 250 persons into the 
water, many of them beneath the timbers. Fifteen persons were killed 
and as many more injured. Following is a list of those who- lost their 
lives : Jane Lavery, Albion ; Lydia Harris, Albion ; Joseph Cade, 
South Barre; Perry Cole, Barre ; Annie Viele, Gaines; Edwin Still- 
son, South Barre ; Adalbert Wilcox, West Kendall ; Sarah Thomas, 
Carlton; Caroline A. Martin, Carlton; Harry Henry, Carlton; Ran- 
som L.Murdock, Gaines; Thomas Alchin, Canaan, Can.; Thomas Handy, 
Yates; Sophia Pratt, Toledo, O.; Charles Roosevelt, Sandy Creek. 
This disaster cast a pall of sadness and regret over the entire com- 
munity which was not wholly lifted-in many years. 

During the period under consideration in the foregoing chapter, the 
stone quarrying industry, which has since been of such paramount im- 
portance to the county, was thoroughly established and several quarries 



70 LANDMARKS OF 

were in active working. The opening of the canal made the shipment 
of the valuable sandstone east and west comparatively easy and cheap, 
and a rapidly spreading demand for paving and flagging purposes was 
inaugurated. This industry will be further described in later chapters. 
But a cloud was gathering in the southern sky, soon to burst with 
overwhelming fury upon the prosperous country. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



Outbreak of the Great Civil War — Enthusiasm of the People — Prompt Response to 
Calls for Volunteers — The First Organization to Leave this County for the Seat of War — 
Formation of other Organizations — Number of Volunteers from the Various Towns — 
Death Roll of Orleans Volunteers. 

The long reign of prosperous peace in America was rudely and 
ruthlessly closed when citizens of one of the Southern States fired the 
first hostile gun upon Fort Sumter in i86i. Almost before the echoes 
of that cannonade had died away, a tide of patriotic enthusiasm and in- 
dignation swept over the entire North, and the call to arms found an 
echo in every loyal heart, while thousands, young and old, rich and 
poor, native and alien, sprang forward to offer their services and their 
lives at the altar of their country. 

The history of the civil war has been written and rewritten, and al- 
most every intelHgent citizen is familiar with the story of the great 
contest. Were this not true, it would manifestly be impossible in a 
work of this character to follow the course of the various campaigns in 
which Orleans county soldiers bore arms, or to trace in detail the 
career of those brave officers and privates who fell on the field of battle. 
Such historical work must be left to the general historian, who has un- 
limited space at his command. It remains for us here only to give such 
brief notes of the several mihtary organizations in which the large 
majority of Orleans county men enlisted as our space will admit, and 
such statistics and information as will be valuable for reference. 

Prior to the actual outbreak of the Rebellion the president issued a 
proclamation calling forth " the militia of the several States of the 



ORLEANS COUiNTY. 71 

Union, to the aggregate number of 75,000, in order to suppress com- 
binations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed." Following this 
and the first gun of the great conflict, the principal villages in this 
county became at once centers of military activity and enthusiasm. 

On Monday, April 15, 1861, the State Legislature passed a bill ap- 
propriating $3,000,000 and providing for the enrollment of 30,000 
men to aid the general government. The volunteers under this call 
were to enlist in the State service for two years and to be subject at any 
time to transfer into the Federal service. This measure caused intense 
excitement throughout the State and the villages of Orleans county 
were ablaze with enthusiasm. In Albion the air seemed colored with 
flags ; the young ladies of the seminary wore zouave jackets and aprons 
of red, white and blue, and made and hoisted a large flag over the in- 
stitution ; the ladies in Albion Academy followed this example, and 
similar scenes were being enacted at other places in the county. 

Immediately following the president's first call for 75,000 volunteers 
a public meeting was ordered in Albion for the evening of the i8th of 
April. It was largely attended and public enthusiasm characterized 
the proceedings. Speeches were made by Judge Sanford E. Church, 
Judge Davis, and others, and on motion of the latter a committee of 
three, consisting of H. L. Achilles, O. F. Burns, and H. J. Van Dusen, 
was appointed to adopt measures to secure enlistments in the county. 
The organization of three companies promptly followed, one of which 
had its headquarters at Medina. The first Albion company completed 
its enrollment and organization on the 22d of April, by the election of 
David Hardie, captain ; James O. Nickerson and William M. Kenyon, 
lieutenants. The second company elected H. L. Achilles, jr., captain; 
W. H. Coann and Henry J. Hannington, jr., lieutenants. The Medina 
company completed its organization about the same time by electing 
E. A. Bowen, captain (afterward lieutenant-colonel of the 151st), and 
George Davis and Chafife, lieutenants. 

An immense public meeting of citizens of all parts of the county was 
held on the 23d of April at Albion, which was addressed by H. R. 
Selden, Sanford E. Church, J. H. Martindale, N. Davis, jr., O. F. 
Burns, J. H. White, P. Salisbury, and others. Previous to the meeting 
a parade of the three military companies, the fire department, with 



72 LANDMARKS OF 

bands of music, was made through the streets. The meeting was 
called primarily to raise funds for aid of families of volunteers. About 
$20,000 were subscribed, which was distributed, and collected, by com- 
mittees. This meeting was soon followed by a similar one held in 
Medina, at which nearly as large a sum was raised for the same pur- 
pose. 

On the 3d day of May, 1861, a large part of the balance in the treas- 
ury of the Albion Lecture Association (then amounting to $171), was 
appropriated for the purchase of rubber blankets, to be presented to 
volunteers from Albion. On the 5th of June the women of Albion 
organized a ladies* volunteer association for the aid of soldiers and their 
families. Similar associations were organized in Medina and other vil- 
lages of the county and were the means of raising money and providing 
comforts and luxuries for the soldiers throughout the war. 

Meanwhile, on the 13th of May, Captain Hardie's Company left Al- 
bion for Albany, and was followed by Captain Bowen's Company. 
Both were assigned to the 28th Regiment, under command of Colonel 
Dudley Donnelly, of Niagara. Captain Achilles' Company left for 
Elmira on the 20th of May and was there incorporated into the 27th 
Regiment. Each of these companies was presented with beautiful flags 
by the ladies. 

The 28th Regiment was mustered in at Albany on the 22d of May, 
and on the 26th was ordered to Camp Morgan near Norman's Kill, 
where the men were uniformed and armed. On the 25th of June it 
left for Washington, arriving on the 28th. On the 5th of July it was 
attached to General Patterson's command at Martinsburg, Va. The 
regiment participated during its two years of service in engagements at 
Point of Rocks ; marched twenty-two miles in five hours to join in the 
fighting at Ball's Blufif, but was too late ; at Winchester and Harrison- 
burg ; at Cedar Mountain, where Colonel Donnelly was mortally 
wounded and Lieutenant-Colonel Brown was shot through the arm, 
and Adjutant Sprout killed ; at Antietam, where the regiment per- 
formed heroic service, and after working on the fortifications at Harper's 
Ferry, wintered at Stafford Court House. The deaths in the regiment 
in 1862 were sixty-three. In its last battle at Chancellorsville, the 
regiment lost in three days of fighting seventy-eight in killed, wounded 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 73 

and missing. The 28th returned to New York about the middle of 
May, 1863, 3nd was mustered out. 

The 27th Regiment, in which Company K was the one commanded 
by Captain Achilles, before mentioned, was organized at Elmira, May 
21, 1 86 1, was mustered in on July 5th, and left for Washington on the 
following day. It participated in the battle of Bull Run. On May 7, 
1862, while its position was the first regiment of the first brigade of the 
first division of the first corps of the army, it was engaged in fighting 
on the York River, in which the losses of that part of the army were 
large, and afterwards camped at White House Landing, the 27th being 
on the extreme right of McClellan's army. During about a month in 
May and June of 1862, the regiment was often actively engaged, much 
of the time as skirmishers. It participated in the battle of Gaines* 
Mills on the 27th of June, losing 179 men in killed, wounded and miss- 
ing. On the iith of September, Company K suffered an irreparable 
loss in the death of their gallant lieutenant, W. H. Coann, of Albion, 
who died at Washington while the regiment was at Georgetown. At 
South Mountain on September 14, the 27th was engaged on the skirm- 
ish line, and on the 17th at Antietam. In December the regiment 
marched to share in the ordeal at Fredericksburg where so many heroes 
fell. From this field the 27th returned to White Oak Church. In the 
last week of April, 1863, it was again engaged at Fredericksburg under 
General Sedgw^ick, and soon afterward in the disastrous battle of Chan- 
cellorsville. After this the regiment was guarding Banks's Ford until 
the end of its term, May 13, 1863. In the order mustering out the 
regiment it was specially commended by General Sedgwick. During 
its term of service, Company K had sixteen men discharged, seven died, 
eight were killed, three deserted, three were dismissed, and two were 
transferred. 

The nth Regiment of Infantry, organized in New York to serve 
three years or during the war, was joined in the latter part of 1861 by 
nine volunteers from Orleans county; they were Henry J. Van Dusen, 
Ora Van Dusen. Daniel Wells, Benjamin C. Marsh, Henry Burbank, S. 
Hunnant, Henry Harden, and two others. The first of these men lost 
an arm at Gaines' Mills ; the second was detailed on account of ill 
health ; Wells died of disease, and one of those not named died of 
10 



74 LANDMARKS OF 

wounds. The others with a single exception, were all killed in battle. 
It was this regiment that the gallant Ellsworth commanded. 

The Eighth Regiment of Cavalry was mustered into service Novem- 
ber 28, 1 86 1, to October 4, 1862, and the organization was perfected 
at Rochester. Company F, of forty men, was from Orleans county, 
commanded by F. T. Gallett, of Albion ; first lieutenant, Thomas Bell, 
of Albion; second lieutenant, W. M.Bristol, of Wayne county. The 
regiment reached Washington on the 30th of November, 1861, and 
there remained through the winter. In the spring they were placed at 
Conrad's Ferry on the Potomac, guarding twenty- five miles of the 
river ; and on April 6 took possession of Harper's Ferry. While guard- 
ing the railroad out of that station the regiment shared in the rout of 
Banks's army. The men were not mounted or decently equipped until 
June, 1862. From this time onward, like other gallant cavalry organi- 
zations, this regiment was almost constantly on the move and shared in 
numerous encounters of varied character. Its services in the fall of 
1862 were especially arduous and dangerous. On June 9, 1863. in 
the great cavalry raid near the Rappahannock, the regiment was con- 
spicuously engaged and lost several men, among them the brave Colonel 
Davis, who had taken command in June, 1862. Sergeant Daniel Has- 
kell, from Orleans county, was badly wounded. The details of the in- 
numerable raids of the regiment from this time onward cannot be fol- 
lowed here, but it took active part at Gettysburg, and in the engage- 
ments at Locust Grove, Hawes' Shop, White Oak Swamp, Opequan, 
Cedar Creek and Appomattox, besides those before mentioned. The 
original members of the regiment were mustered out in 1864, and the 
veterans and recruits June 27, 1865. 

The Third Cavalry, organized at New York and mustered in in the 
summer of 1861, contained a company raised by Captain Judson Downs, 
of Murray, which left for Washington August 23, 1861 — the fourth 
company to leave the county. In Captain Fitzsimmons's company in 
this regiment were nine men from Ridgeway. The battle flag of this 
regiment bears the names of Burns's Church, Young's Cross Roads, 
Williamston, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro, Ball's Bluff, Weldon Rail- 
road, Edward's Ferry, Stony Creek, Petersburg, Malvern Hill, New 
Market, and Johnson's House. On the 5th of November, 1861, the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 75 

company from Orleans county was detailed for duty at the polls at 
Emmettsburg, and was there presented with a flag by the ladies of the 
place. At the close of the term of service the original members of the 
regiment were discharged and the veterans and recruits retained. It 
was consolidated with the First Mounted Rifles, July 21,1865, and desig- 
nated the Fourth Provisional Cavalry. 

A regiment called the Second Mounted Rifles, otherwise the " Gov- 
ernor's Guard," was raised in the summer of 1863, mainly in the 
western part of the State. The first company filled was Capt. Joseph 
N. Rushmore's of Lockport, and by February, 1864, the regiment was 
ready for the field. While its volunteers were recruited in the full ex- 
pectation of being mounted, such expectation was not realized until 
near the close of the war, and the regiment saw the most eventful and 
arduous service on foot during its whole term. The regiment was 
under command of Col. John Fisk, of Niagara Falls, and Orleans 
county furnished Company L, numbering ninety- eight men. N.Ward 
Cady was its first captain. From December, 1863, to the following 
March, the regiment was stationed in Fort Porter, Buffalo, under in- 
struction. While stationed at Buffalo Captain Cady was promoted 
major, and when the regiment went to the front the officers of Company 
L were Henry B. Barnard, captain ; H. J. Arnold, first lieutenant ; 
Earnest Mansfield, second lieutenant ; and Dr. S. R. Cochrane was 
hospital steward. From that time it was near Washington at Camp 
Stoneman until May 5th, when it was ordered to the front with the 
Army of the Potomac. From that time on through the intensely 
active campaign of the last year of the war, this noble organization 
bore an honorable share in all the prominent engagements. It partici- 
pated in the battle at Spottsylvania the next day after leaving Camp 
Stoneman ; this was followed by the engagement at North Anna, but 
the loss was light in both these events. Then followed fighting at 
Tolopotomoy Creek, and at Bethesda Church, the loss at the latter 
place being considerable. The regiment was now under command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Raymond, of New York. Next came the battle of 
Cold Harbor, after which the regiment moved across the James River 
with the army, was in a charge on the Petersburg works on the 17th of 
June ; was in the advance ©n the Weldon Railroad on the i8th, captur- 



76 LANDMARKS OF 

ing the road and participating in a charge on the enemy which resulted 
in severe loss — between 200 and 300 killed and wounded. Captain 
Williams and Lieutenant De Long, the latter of Lockport, were among 
the killed. From this time until July 29, the regiment lay in the rifle 
pits constantly under fire. On the morning of the 30th occurred the 
mine explosion in front of Petersburg and the regiment shared in the 
succeeding assault, under command of Major Mapes. The final charge 
was made by the division containing this regiment and two lines of 
works were captured, with a loss to the regiment of nearly 150 men 
killed, wounded and prisoners. Among the most severely wounded 
was Captain Barnard while leading his company against the enemy's 
works. A few days later at Pegram's Farm where a battle took place, 
Major Mapes, Captain Stebbins, Lieutenants Mansfield, Bush, and be- 
tween forty and fifty others, were taken prisoners, while the killed and 
wounded numbered between fifty and seventy- five, Lieutenant Casey, 
of Lockport, being among the killed. In the engagement at Hatcher's 
Run in October, the loss to the regiment was light. In November the 
regiment was sent to City Point, where the long delayed horses were 
supplied, and orders received to report to Gen. Charles H, Smith, of the 
Third Brigade, Second Cavalry Division. On the second day after joining 
the cavalry, the regiment shared in a raid to Stony Creek Station, and in 
December took part in the raid on the Weldon Railroad and destroyed 
it. At this time the regiment was divided and a part of it sent back 
to participate in the second engagement at Hatcher's Run, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant Newman. When the regiment returned to camp 
it was detailed as rear guard of the Fifth Corps. Breaking its winter 
camp on the 29th of March, 1865, the regiment started with Sheridan 
in tne final pursuit of Lee, sharing in the almost continuous fighting, at 
Dinwiddle Court House, Five Forks, Jetersville, Sailor's Creek, and 
Appomattox. After the surrender the regiment was detailed to escort 
General Grant to Burkville Junction and then returned to Petersburg. 
After starting to reinforce Sherman in North Carolina, the regiment 
was sent to Buckingham county, Va., where it performed provost duty 
until August, 1865. On the I2th of that month it reached Buffalo and 
was mustered out, at the close of a most honorable career. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 77 

The 8th New York Heavy Artillery was one of the most notable 
organizations of the war. During its term of service it lost nearly 1,200 
men in killed, wounded and missing; of these 22 officers were killed and 
21 1 men; 29 officers and 653 men were wounded, and five officers and 
250 men missing. A volume could not tell the story of which that is a 
ghastly record. The regiment was recruited in Orleans, Niagara and 
Genesee counties, by Col. Peter A. Porter, of Niagara Falls, and was 
mustered in at Lockport August 22, 1862. Companies A, C, and K, 
were raised in Orleans County. The regiment was organized as the 
129th Volunteers, but never did any duty as such, the name being 
changed to the 8th Heavy Artillery in February, 1863 ; two additional 
companies were raised for the regiment in 1864. From the time of its 
muster the organization served until the spring of 1864 in the Baltimore 
defenses, except a short campaign to Harper's Ferry and in Western 
Virginia. On May 15, 1864, the regiment was ordered to Washington, 
where it arrived in the afternoon, and on the morning of the 17th was 
on the march for Fredericksburg, where a halt was made for supper. 
At 10 o'clock the march was again taken up and did not end until the 
Army of the Potomac at the front was reached. The regiment was now 
attached to Tyler's Division, Second Corps. On the night of the 19th 
the regiment was first under fire, and lost thirty- three in killed, wounded 
and missing. On the 20th the regiment started on a march that ended 
on the 23d at North Anna River, where the rebel fortifications were 
stormed and captured by part of Birney's Division, the 8th taking part 
in the cannonading. On the 2d of June the regiment reached Cold 
Harbor. The great battle was in immediate prospect and this regiment 
had its orders to be ready for a charge at 4 o'clock ; but the order was 
countermanded on account of a rain storm, and night settled down, 
while many took their last sleep. In the morning the distance between 
the lines of the 8th and the rebels was about half a mile. The sharp 
engagement that followed has been thus vividly described : 

The first battalion on the left of the regiment was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bates; the second, in the center, by Captain McGinnis (Major Spalding being sick;) 
the third, on the extreme right, by Major Willett. Tiie batteries in the rear of the 
regiment opened a heavy fire simultaneonsly with the advance of the charging column, 
and the enemy replied no less vigorously. One after another went down beneath the 
storm of iron and lead which swept the plain. As the ranks thinned they closed up 



78 LANDMARKS OF 

sternly, and with arms at trail and bayonets fixed they pressed forward on a run with- 
out firing a shot. Down went the colors, the staff splintered and broken, as well as the 
hand that held it. Brave hands seized them again and bore them onward until the 
enemy's works were close at hand. Colonel Porter fell, crying, " Close in on the colors, 
boys!" Major Willett was wounded; a large number of line officers lay dead and 
dying; one-third of the rank and file were hors du combat ; a part of the regiment was 
floundering in the mud ; the rebels were pouring in double charges of grape and canister 
at less than point blank range, sweeping away a score every moment. The line having 
lost its momentum, stopped from sheer exhaustion within a stone's throw of the enemy's 
works. All this transpired in a short ti ue. The supporting line failed to come up, old 
soldiers declaring that it was foolhardiness to advance under such a fire ; so the brave 
men of the 8th had to look out for themselves. They began to dig, and every man was 
working himself into the ground. Every stump, mole-hill, bush and tree was a shelter. 
Thus the regiment lay all day, under the very noses of the rebels, and came away in 
squads under cover of the darkness. This seemed as hazardous as the charge itself, for 
no sooner did the rebels detect a movement in their front than they opened a murderous 
fire of both musketry and artillery. Some were killed in attempting to come out, among 
them Captain Gardner of Company I. An officer in describing the fire says: "It was 
either more severe than in the morning, or the darkness made it seem more terrible." 

At nine o'clock in the evening the regiment was back in its old posi- 
tion, but sadly shattered. The body of Colonel Porter was discovered 
on the 4th about midway between the pickets of the opposing lines. 
It was secured in the night of the 4th. . The following figures tell the 
story of what this regiment suffered in that battle : 9 officers and 146 
men killed ; 14 officers and 323 men wounded ; i officer and 12 men 
missing. After Cold Harbor, the regiment went to Petersburg under 
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Bates, arriving on June 16, afterwards 
sharing the fighting at Reams's Station, Deep Bottom, Hatcher's Run 
and Appomattox, suffering losses of 13 officers and 65 men killed ; 15 
officers and 230 men wounded; and 4 oflEicers and 238 missing. On 
June 4, 1865, Companies G, H, I, and K, were transferred to the 4th New 
York Artillery; Companies L and M were transferred to the loth New 
York Infantry, and the remaining six companies were mustered out 
June 5, 1865. 

In August, 1862, just after the departure of the 8th Artillery for the 
front, Col. William Emerson, of Albion, began an effort to raise a regi- 
ment of infantry to be numbered the 151st. So prompt were the re- 
sponses that by the middle of October the organization was ready for 
inspection. It was recruited from Orleans, Niagara, Genesee, Monroe 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 79 

and Wyoming counties, Companies A and D, and a part of G being from 
this county. On the 22d of October the regiment left Lockport for 
Elmira, where it was armed and then proceeded to Baltimore ; there it 
remained until the following spring. On the 22d of April, 1863, it was 
ordered to West Virginia, and during May and June was at Clarksburg, 
Buckhannon, Weston, Winchester, Martinsburg, Monocacy and Mary- 
land Heights. Thence a march was made to Frederick City, where the 
regiment was a part of the reserve during the fighting of the battle of 
Gettysburg. On the 4th of July a rapid march was made to the South 
Mountain Pass, which was reached the same night. On the 8th the 
main Army of the Potomac arrived there and all made the march 
through the Pass during the succeeding two days. The 151st was then 
assigned to the 3d Corps. After the execution of Lee's well known 
ruse by which he escaped across the Potomac, when Meade thought he 
had him bagged for successful battle, the disappointed Federals march- 
ed on the 15th of July, under a broiling sun, into Virginia. Scores fell 
out of the line and at night when the 1 5 1st went into camp, only ninety- 
seven men answered to their names; they came in afterward, straggling 
and foot sore. On the i6th the regiment camped at the base of 
Maryland Heights. The remainder of the campaign of 1863 was a se- 
ries of maneuvres without decisive action on either side. On the 26th 
and 27th of November the regiment shared in the battles at Locust 
Grove and Mine Run, the first severe fighting in which the 151st was 
engaged, the loss to the brigade being about 1000 in killed, wounded 
and missing, the loss being the greatest on the left of the line where our 
men made a charge through a piece of timber, driving the enemy 
from behind a rail fence at the point of the bayonet. It was here that 
Captain Wilcox, of Niagara county was killed. The regiment camped 
for winter at Brandy Station, occupying log houses that had been built 
by the enemy. In the spring of 1864 the reigment became a part of 
the Sixth Corps under Sedgwick, and on the 4th of May, the Army of 
the Potomac started towards Richmond. On the following day began 
the great battle of the Wilderness, in which the 1 5 1st suffered its heaviest 
loss. This was followed by the battles of Spottsylvania and Cold Har- 
bor, in which the regiment bore an active and honorable part. On 
the 15th of June the regiment crossed the James with the Army of the 



80 LANDMARKS OF 

Potomac for its new field of operations before Petersburg. Remaining 
in front of Petersburg two weeks, the regiment on the ist of July start- 
ed for Washington to head off Early, but it was saved the trouble by 
other troops, and marched to Baltimore and then to Monocacy, where 
it shared in sharp fighting on the 9th. The following day, after a retreat 
of twenty miles, the regiment went to Baltimore and camped near the spot 
where it passed its first winter. A few weeks later, with Sheridan in 
Shenandoah Valley, the 151st shared in the fighting at Opequan, Fish- 
er's Hill and Cedar Creek, and in November was ordered back to Peters- 
burg. Here the winter camp was made. In the short campaign of the 
spring of 1865 the regiment saw little fighting, and early in April was 
ordered to Danville to join Sherman's forces. After Johnston's sur- 
render the regiment proceeded to Richmond and thence to Washington, 
and in July, 1865, were mustered out of service. This regiment was 
engaged in eighteen battles, some of them the most severe of the war, 
and as an evidence of what they did, it is only necessary to state that 
when they entered the service they numbered over 1,000 men and at 
the close of the war mustered out only 302 men. The regiment holds 
an annual reunion at the present time, and can now muster only about 
sixty men at these gatherings. The rank and file of the companies 
from this county in this regiment contained many men of education and 
ability, and represented some of the best families in this section. Of 
the privates and non-commissioned officers, Charles H. Mattinson was 
promoted first lieutenant and adjutant; Harmon Salisbury, Albert 
Waring, and Samuel A. Tent, second lieutenants; Edwin L. Wage, 
captain and assistant provost-marshal at New Orleans ; and Eugene A. 
Barnes, second lieutenant, who late in the war had command of the 
troops at Fort Sumter. The old regimental flag is sacredly preserved 
by the surviving members and being but shreds and tatters, is unfurled 
only at their annual reunions. 

Company M of the First Light Artillery was raised in Niagara and 
Orleans counties, thirty-eight men being from Orleans county, mostly 
recruited by Charles E. Winegar, who was first lieutenant in the battery 
and afterward promoted captain Battery " I." The regiment was mus- 
tered in for three years from the 30th of August, 1861, and was or- 
ganized at Elmira, proceeded to Washington, where it was equipped 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 81 

and remained there to about January i, 1862. Thence it proceeded to 
Fredericksburg, Md., to join Banks. From April, 1862, to August, 
1863, the battery (M) was fighting with the Army of the Potomac, 
participating in the battles of Antietam, Second Bull Run, Cedar 
Mountain, Winchester, and Gettysburg. In August the battery went 
to Chattanooga to relieve Rosecrans; and under Hooker fought at Look- 
out Mountain and Wahatchie Valley. In the following winter the regi- 
ment went to Bridgeport, Alabama, and there its term of service expired. 
The original members enlisted as veterans and joined Sherman. Battery 
M was assigned to the Twelfth Corps in the Army of the Cumberland. 
From the time of the capture of Atlanta by Sherman until the close of 
the war, the battery remained with that general's troops, shared in the 
march to the sea and through North Carolina, and in the capture of 
Raleigh. After Johnston's surrender the battery proceeded to Wash- 
ington and took part in the grand review. They participated in forty- 
five engagements. The original roll numbered 156; at the end of the 
war twenty-six of them survived, and to-day but nineteen of them are 
alive. 

The Fourth Artillery was originally composed of eight companies 
and was formed in New York city; it was mustered in between De- 
cember 13, 1861 and October 25, 1862. In July, 1862, while the regi- 
ment was in the forts at Georgetown, Captain Barnes began recruiting 
to fill its ranks. His success was such that on the 20fh of August, a 
company, containing forty- five Orleans county men, was ready. On 
the day mentioned they went to Albany and on September ist, left for 
Washington, where they arrived on the 4th and went into Fort Cor- 
coran. The Albion men were placed in Company C, under Captain 
Barnes. September 28, the regiment went to Fort Rumsey, Va., and 
thence a few miles to Fort Ethan Allen. Here it remained a long time 
as a garrison. Finally in June, 1863, the changes in the operations of 
the great armies brought the Fourth into more active service; but the 
organization did not encounter the severe and continued fighting that 
fell to many others. The regiment remained in Fort Ethan Allen dur- 
ing the winter of 1 863-4 and on the 27th of March, 1864. was sent to 
the front, participating but sufifering no casualties, in the battles of the 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomoy, and Cold Har- 
11 



82 LANDMARKS OF 

bar. The long period of inaction of the regiment following that battle 
was brought to a close by the mine explosion in front of Petersburg on 
the 30th of July, immediately following which the Fourth took part in 
the charge. At Deep Bottom the regiment was engaged, and on the 
25th of August, at Reams's Station on the Weldon Railroad, the regi- 
ment was engaged and suffered severely. Out of the 900 who went 
into the fight, only 503 came out. Nineteen officers were killed, wound- 
ed or missing. Company C lost about fifty men out of eighty. After 
this the regiment went into camp on the Jerusalem Plank Road ; after- 
wards to the vicinity of Fort Hell, and thence to the left of the line be- 
fore Petersburg, where the winter was passed. The regiment was 
mustered out June 2, 1865. 

After Orleans county had promptly filled her quota under the call 
of the president for 300,000 volunteers early in 1862, another call was 
issued for an equal number. Under this call the quota of the county 
was 442. It was at this time that Capt. George T. Anthony, of Ridge- 
way, began recruiting for the 17th New York Independent Battery, to 
enter the service for three years. He soon enlisted 170 men and in 
August they went to Camp Church at Lockport, where the organiza- 
tion was completed and the following officers elected : Captain, George 
T. Anthony, Ridgeway ; first lieutenants, Hiram E. Sickels, George C. 
Cook, Ridgeway ; second lieutenants, Irving M. Thompson, Barre ; 
Hiram D, Smith, Ridgeway. The battery left for Washington October 
23, and remained there and at Miner's Hill, Va., through the succeed- 
ing winter. On July 18, 1863, the battery joined Corcoran's Brigade 
and served with it through that season, on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, afterwards going into winter quarters at Fairfax Court House. 
On July 4, 1864, the battery was ordered to the front and on the 6th 
reached City Point. On the 8th two sections were ordered to occupy 
two small earth works within 350 yards of the rebel line. Here they 
were under fire constantly and became thoroughly accustomed to the 
whiz of the bullets. On the night of July 25, while superintending the 
cutting away of trees to unmask one of the guns in advance of the re- 
mainder of the battery. Lieutenant Thomson received a ball through 
his thigh while at the head of his squad. The battery occupied the 
trenches before Petersburg during the most important engagements of 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 83 

the campaign, and during the winter of 1864-5, was quartered at Signal 
Hill, where it remained until the close of the war. The battery reached 
Rochester June 14, and was there paid off and mustered out. 

In addition to the organizations thus described, Orleans county sent 
men to the war in various other organizations, but in comparatively 
small numbers. For example, in the 105th Infantry, mustered in 
March, 1862, and after consolidation in 1863 with the Ninety-fourth 
Regiment was mustered out July 18, 1865. In the 14th Artillery, 
mustered in November 24, 1862, to July 8, 1863 ; and the 25th Battery 
of Light Artillery, organized at Lockport in 1862, to serve three 
years ; and in many other organizations were enlistments singly or in 
small numbers. 

It is much to the credit of Orleans county that under the prompt 
action of committees and the liberal action of the supervisors, her sev- 
eral quotas under the different calls for volunteers, were quickly filled. 
Early in the fall of 1862, the enlistments were greatly in excess of the 
calls, and when the draft was ordered for July, 1863, through the 
efforts of E. T. Coann, secretary of the war committee, the county was 
given credit for the excess; this credit was secured by Mr. Coann visit- 
ing Washington and bringing the matter forcibly before the military 
authorities, and presenting an alphabetical list of the volunteers from 
each town in the county, duly certified by the several supervisors and 
enrolling officers. He showed the excess to be 278 men, which when 
properly recognized, saved the county taxation of more than $83,000. 

The facility with which enlistments were secured in this county was 
largely due to the efficient supervision of the war committee, which was 
composed of Sanford E. Church, chairman ; Ezra T. Coann, secretary ; 
Noah Davis, E. R. Reynolds, D. N. Hatch, George T. Anthony, D. B. 
Abell, and Thomas Foster. 

The appended roll of honor for Orleans county tells the story of 
sacrifice of life for the maintenance of the government. The cost in 
money was great, also, but was met with brave trust that it was a good 
and a necessary investment The county paid out in bounties during 
the rebellion, $484,875, and the several towns the sum of $271,441, 
making a total of %y66,ii6. The contribution of each town was as 
follows: Barre, $50,000; Carlton, $14,556; Clarendon, $20,128; 



84 



LANDMARKS OF 



Gaines, $24,820; Kendall, $22,245; Murray, $27,000; Ridgeway, 
$58,520; Shelby, $40,365; Yates, $13,807. 

List of Union soldiers from Orleans county who died from injuries 
received or disease incurred in the suppression of the Rebellion : 



Charles Allen, 8th H. Art. 

Francis H. Ashby, 8th H. Art. 

Samuel Ashby, 8lh H. Art. 

Greorge Acker, 8th Cav. 

Arnold Axtell, 131st Inf. 

John T. Andrews, 2d Vols. 

Silas B. Amidon, 159th Inf. 

Lieut. James T. Anson, 43d U. S. Col'd 

Troops. 
James M. Armstrong, 14th Vols. 
E. F. Austin, 151st Inf. 
Corp. Uriah Applin, 8th H. Art. 
Frederick Andrews, 46th 111. Vols. 
Hiram Allen, 8th H. Art. 
Lester Atkins, 14th Art. 
Henry Allen, 28th Inf. 
Harrison Allen, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Charles Ashby, 27th Inf. 
Charles H. Briggs, 8th H. Art. 
Henry L. Beebe, 105th Ohio Vols. 
Wesley Bonnett, 8th Cav. 
Byron Bates, 8th H. Art. 
Sergt. Henry Bennett, 8th H. Art. 
Lewis Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
Lorenzo Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
Lyman Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
George Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
John Brown, 17th Bat. 
Sergt. Manly Bannister, 4th Art. 
William Bonnett, 151st Inf. 
Orrin L. Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
Charles Bowers, 8th H. Art. 
Corp. Ryan Barber, 8th H. Art. 
Col. Willard Bates, 8th H. Art, 
Samuel VV. Baruum, 8th H. Art. 
Edwin L. Blake, 8th H. Art. 
Leatider Bacon, 49th Inf. 
Corp. Henry Bennett, 28th Inf. 
Henry C. Bayne, 8th Art. 



Frederick Bayne, 14th H. Art. 
Jonas S. Bayne, 14th H. Art. 
Sergt. Charles H. Beals, 3d Cav. 
Sergt. Orrin Babcock, 8th H. Art. 
William Bragg, 8th H. Art. 
Levi Bentley, 8th H. Art. 
Corp. Albert Brown, 151st Inf. 
George Bennett, 1st Sharpshooters. 
Henry M. Bennett, 4th H. Art. 
Wesley Blanchard, 147th Inf. 
G-eorge P. Beam, 8th Cav. 
Byron E. Bates, 8th H. Art. 
Charles Blakely, 151st Inf. 
Hiram D. Baldwin, 151st Inf. 
Fordyce Brace, 151st Inf. 
James M. Berry, 12th Bat. 
Corp. Francis Balcom 151st Inf. 
James Brown, 27th Inf. 
James Booth, 17th Bat. 
Corp. E. F. BrowQ, 8th H. Art. 
Chester Bidwell, 8th H. Art. 
Homer Bush, 14th Art. 
Alexander Butterfield, 14th Art, 
George A. Bennett, 14th Art. 
James Black, 28th Inf. 
Orson Barber, 28th Inf. 
Charles Bacon, 108th Inf. 
Myron H. Bacon, 8th H. Art. 
George A. Barnett, 1st Vols. 
Sergt. George Bidelman, 8th H. Art. 
M. R. Bowen, 151st Inf. 
Capt. E. F. Brown, 18th Art. 
Silas A. Bird, 8th H. Art. 
William Barker, 8th H. Art. 
John Bathwick, 8th H. Art. 
George Bird, 8th H. Art. 
William Buck, 3d Cav. 

Barnes, 8th H. Art. 

Charles H. Clark, 8th H. Art. 



ORLEANS COUNTY 



Sergt.-Maj. C. P. Crowell, 151st Inf. 
Lieut. William H. Coann, 27th Inf. 
Asa Clark, 4th H. Art. 
Cornelius Churchwell, 8th H. Art. 
Charles H. Churchwell, 8th H. Art. 
Sergt. William S. Cole, 151st Inf. 
J. Chapin, 28th Inf. 
Jeremiah Corbin, 8th H. Art. 

Patrick Connors, Art. 

James Clark, 151st Inf. 

Samuel Coleman, 17th Bat. 

Corp. James Collins, 14th H. Art. 

John Cunningham, 3d Mich. Cav. 

John F. Curtiss, 14th H. Art. 

Charles Cliff, 5th Mmn. Vols. 

William Churchill, 8th H. Art. 

William H. Cook, 151st Inf. 

Jeremiah H. Cole, 8th Miss. Vols. 

Hiram Cady, 105th Inf. 

William H. Chatman, 151st Inf. 

Allen W. Case, 8th H. Art. 

Edgar B. Culver, 31st Iowa. 

Michael Collins, 17th Bat. 

James Collins, 14th H. Art. 

Hoaace W. Curtiss, 14th H. Art, 

Caleb P. Cornell, 14th H. Art. 

Thomas Collins, 14th H. Art. 

Asst. Q. M. Sergt. Daniel A. Clark, 3d Cav. 

Isaac Churchwell, 151st Inf. 

Moses Collins, 151st Inf. 

Amasa Cups, 151st Inf. 

Dwight Cook, 27th Inf. 

James Cook, 14th Art. 

Frederick Cruise, 8th H. Art. 

William Crittenden, 8th H. Art. 

Sergt. John B. Curran, 8th H. Art. 

Ira Clark, 8th H. Art. 

Joseph Cook, 27th Inf. 

Delos Curtis, 27th Inf. 

Lieut. Joseph Caldwell, 8th H. Art. 

Oliver Clark, 8th H. Art. 

George R. Clark, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William H. Chapin, 28th Inf. 

Charles Cole, 151st Inf. 



Orlando Clark, 8th H. Art. 

Charles Cowell, jr., 8th H. Art. 

Daniel Calin, 8th H. Art. 

Patrick Carey, 14th H. Art. 

G-eorge W. Culver, 49th Inf. 

Ezra M. Cartwright, 8th Vols. 

James Caldwell, 151st Inf, 

John Dean, 151st Inf. 

Peter Dolan, 8th H. Art. 

Sergt. John Dwinnell, 151st Inf. 

Thomas Davis, 1st H. Art. 

Safford Dean, 151st Inf. 

John Darwin, 12th Bat. 

William Donaldson, 151st Inf. 

Walter Doty 8th Cav. 

Corp. J. R. Dunham. 8th H. Art. 

Asst. Surg. Joseph C. Dancet, 20th Md. 

Vols. 
Daniel Donovan, 8th Cav. 
Leander Davis, 1st Art. 
Edward Douglas, 28th Inf. 
Russell Dunham, 8th H. Art. 
Oscar Doane, 27th Inf. 
Hugh Doyle, 27th Inf. 
Sergt. Edwin Eddy, 27th Inf. 
Seneca J. Egleston, 8th H. A. 
James Ennis, 8th H. Art. 
Thomas Elsom, 8th Cav. 
Stephen Elliott, 151st Inf. 
Joseph Edick, Sth H. Art. 

Ellicott, 1st Art. 

Richard Easton, 19th Inf. 

Charles Eddy, 151st Inf. 

Edmund Everett, 8th H. Art. 

William Foreman, 17th Bat. 

Asa J. Forley, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

James Feeney, 140th Inf. 

Sergt. Gardner C. Freeman, 4th Art. 

Michael Fields. 151st Inf. 

Corp. James Fisk, Sth H. Art. 

John Furness, Sth H. Art. 

Peter Frink, 140th Inf. 

Corp. Thomas Flaherty, 15 1st Inf. 

Michael Flaherty, 17th Bat. 



86 



LANDMARKS OF 



Henry C. Fuller, 17th Bat. 
Corp. Cass Fuller, 8th H. An. 
Oliver French, U. S. Navy. 
Michael Fields, 8th H. Art. 
George Follett, 8th Heavy Art. 
Cassius Fuller, 129th Inf. 
George W. Fuller, 17th Inf. 
Ira J. French, 8th H. Art. 
Orville Flanders, 22d Cav. 
William H. Freeman, 151st Inf. 
Thomas Flattery, 151st Inf. 
Joseph Flynn, 8th H. Art. 
John Furness, 151st Inf. 
Samuel Frier, 151st Inf. 
William T. Fearby, 8th H. Art. 
Bruce Fortinance, 151st Inf. 
Henry J. FuUer.lTth Bat. 
William Felstead, 14th Art. 
Ira J. Finch, 8th H. Art. 
Milo Forbush, 24th Cav. 
Franklin Fursy, 8th H. Art. 
Edmund Furndon, 28th Inf. 
William Gilstead, 8th H. Art. 
George C. Gerndon, 28th Inf. 
Myron Gibbs, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Mortimer Gibson, 49th Inf. 
Simeon Gilbert, 49th Inf. 
Perry Gilbert, 28th Inf. 
George Gage, 14th Art. 
Corp. Daniel Goose, 8th H. Art. 
Christopher Garbois, 8th H. Art. 
William Gilloore, 8th H. Art. 
Corp. Leander Gillespie, 151st Inf. 
Joseph Gerou, 105th Inf. 
Delora Graves, 151st Inf. 
Mason Greeley, 151st Inf. 
Patrick Garry, 14th Art. 
David Gallarnaun, 8th H. Art. 
Patrick Geny, 8th H. Art. 
Peter J. Goodwin, 8th H. Art. 
George Gould, 151st Inf. 
George Gage, 14th Art. 
Thomas W. Green, 14th Art. 
Harmon Hopkins, 151st Inf. 



George D. Hollister, 8th H. Art. 

Albert H. Harkinson, 4th Art. 

Sergt. George C. Harvey, 17th Art. 

Charles House, 151st Inf. 

John L. Hard, 8tb H. Art. 

Sergt. H. R. Harrington, 8th H. Art. 

Corp. Willis Hinman, 8th Cav. 

Corp. John J. Hoyt, 66th Ohio Vols. 

WilHam Hardy, 8th H. Art. 

Capt. George A. Hoyt, 8th H. Art. 

William Hubbard, 151st Inf. 

Sergt.-Maj. Delos Howe, 25th Bat. 

Myron H. Hills, 25th Bat. 

Sergt. Patrick J. Hayes, 151st Inf. 

Corp. William S. Holmes, r29th Inf. 

Lucius Hickey, 105th Inf. 

Reuben D. Harrington, 105th Inf. 

Stephen Holley, 21st Cav. 

John Hubbert, 22d Cav. 

Edwin S. Holsenberg, 8th H. Art. 

Wallace D. Hard, 8th H. Art. 

Corp. Alexander Harbury, 8th H. Art. 

Corp. George A. Hugh, 8th H. Art. 

Capt. A. C. Holden, 36th 111. Vols. 

George S. Hunt, 17th Bat. 

Charles Hatch, 1st Art. 

Peter J. Hayes, 151st Inf. 

Corp. Alexander Hasberry, 4th Art. 

Lieut. James T. Hayman, 4th Art. 

Matthew Hennessey, 1st Sharpshooters. 

George Howes, 33d Inf. 

Solomon Hannett, 11th Inf. 

George A. Hunton, 8th H. Art. 

E. J. Hunt, 17th Bat. 

Edgar Hoagland, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

F. A. Harrington, 27th Ind. Vols. 
Melville Hatch, 17th Bat. 
August Hankey, 28th Inf. 
Eaton Harris, 8th H. Art. 
Henry J. Hunt, 8th H. Art. 
John Ilarburger, 8th H. Art. 
Lieut. James Harmon, 4th H. Art. 
Charles Hills, 8th H. Art. 
William Handy, 8th H. Art. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



Corp. Pulaski Jerome, 11th Art. 
William Johnson, 17th Bat. 
Edwin Johnson, 151st Inf. 
Andrew Johnson, 13th Wis. Vols. 
William Jordan, 13th Wis. Vols. 
Edwin Jenkins, musician, 11th H. Art. 
Joseph Jeroll, 105th Inf. 
Alfred T. Johnson, 8th H. Art. 
Charles A. King, 8th H. Art. 
James L. Kenyon, 4th H. Art. 
Durham Kenyon, 8th H. Art. 
Edson Kimball, 8th H. Art. 
George Kelley, 1st Sharpshooters. 
Burt Kelloo-g, 27th Inf. 
Oscar A. King, 8th H. Art. 
Peter Kelly, 8th Cav. 
Ezra M. Keys, 105th Inf. 
John H. King, 27th Inf. 
Lawrence P. Keegan, 1st Art. 
J. B. Keeler, 25th Regulars. 
Andrew Larwood, 27th Inf. 
James T. Lowery, 8th H. Art. 
William H. Luther, 8th H. Art. 
William Lee, 108th Inf. 
Wesley Locke, 24th Inf. 
James R. Lyon, 6th Mich. Cav. 
Major Lamont, 8th H. Art. 
Milton Ludwig, 28th Inf. 
Charles Loveland, 151st Inf. 
Sergt. George Ireland, 28th Inf. 
Hugh Lavery, 28th Inf. 
Abel C. Lane, 26th Inf. 
John Lowell, 28th Inf. 
Delos Lewis, 28th Inf. 
Ephraim La Riviere, 151st Inf. 
Levi M. Lawrence, 151st Inf. 
Sergt. John McFarlain, 129th Inf. 
William H. Morse, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
James Madill, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Corp. Clinton Murphy, 27th Inf. 
Alex. McCandlish, 151st Inf. 
George K. Mason, 90th Inf. 
Sheppard Malone, 90th Inf. 
Corp. Chauncey D. Mears, 90th Inf. 



Samuel Male, 28th Inf. 
Henry Murray, 8th ' . Art. 
James Murray, 8th H. Art. 
Milton Mull, 28th Inf. 
William Marlow, 18th Ohio Vols. 
Thomas Morrison, 8th H. Art. 
George W. Moore, 8th H. Art. 
Charles McOmber, 23d Vols. 
Lorenzo McOmber, 17th Bat. 
Eben Morehouse, 8th H. Art. 
WiHiam Moore, 8th H. Art. 
Corp. William Milligan, 94th Inf. 
Charles N. Miller. 14th Art. 
William C. Mason, 151st Inf. 
Sergt. Miles McDonald, 8th H. Art. 
John Marron, 14th Art. 
Robert McCuUough, 28th Inf. 
James McCullough, 28th Inf. 
James McWeeny, 28th Inf. 
Thomas Moffat, 28th Inf. 
Ora B. Mitchell, 3d Art. 
James K. Morrissey, 8th H. Art. 
John McCarty, 8th H. Art. 
Arthur McKinney, 28th Inf. 
John McPherson, 27th Inf. 
George McKendry, 3d Cav. 
Corp. J. T. McNeil, 8th H. Art. 
James Morrison, 8th H. Art. 
Darius Maxwell, 8th H. Art. 
Milton H. Merrill, 151st Inf. 
Samuel McKay, 8th H. Art. 
John McKenchy, 3d Cav. 
Eben Mann, 8th H. Art. 
George A. Marshall, 8th H. Art. 
James Mann, 8th H. Art. 
George Moore, 17th Bat. 
John Martin, 8th H. Art. 
John Newton, 8th H. Art. 
Benj. F. Nicholas, 8th H. Art. 
John J. Odekink, 4th Art. 
Patrick O'Connor, 4th Art. 
Abram C. Pierson, 8th H, Art. 
WiHiam Powles, 151st Inf. 
Arthur H. Prescott, 8th H. Art. 



88 



LANDMARKS OF 



William H. Peaslee, 151st Inf. 

G-eorge G. Plumbly, 151st Inf. 

Corp. Orrin Parker, 8th H. Art. 

Henry Perry, 129th Inf. 

William H. Phillips, 1st Sharpshooters. 

Sergt. Ira Poole, 1st Sharpshooters. 

D. J. Plant. 8th H. Art. 

R. W. Pierce, 151st Inf. 

Franklin B. Porter, 8th H. Art. 

William M. Parser, 8th H. Art. 

Daniel W. Pullis, 8th H. Art. 

George W. Pangburn, 151st Inf. 

Mandeville Phelps, 151st Inf. 

George W. Palmer, 28th Inf. 

Newell Phelps, 151st Inf. 

Lucien Riggs, 3d Cav. 

Patrick Rowen, 3d Cav. 

Corp. James Robinson, 8th H. Art. 

William Riley, 151st Inf. 

Cyrus E. Root, 14th H. Art. 

James Robinson, 14th H. Art. 

Corp. Albert Reed, 8th H. Art 

Edward Reed, 151st Inf. 

Lewis Rice, 151st Inf. 

James Rose, 151st Inf. 

Ambrayel Reed, 151st Inf. 

Adelbert Root, 151st Inf. 

Jacob Ross, 151st Inf. 

James Roach, 164th Inf. 

Orlando Reynolds, 14th Art. 

Lysander Robbins, 8th H. Art. 

Ovid P. Randall, 8th H. Art. 

Ogden J. Reed, 8th H. Art. 

Mace Raymond, 8th H. Art. 

Oliver Rowley, 27th Inf. 

George Snow, 14th Art. 

Lieut. James Swain, N. J. Regt. 

James M. SafiFord, N. J. Regt. 

Charles Sawyer, N. J. Regi. 

Samuel StaflFord, 8th H. Art. 

Charles Stock, 8th H. Art. 

Henry Stock, 8th H. Art. 

Martin Smith, 129th Inf. 

Leonord Simmons, 4th Art. 



C. Spaulding, 151st Inf. 

Salem Squires, 151st Inf. 

Corp. Williard E. Stearns, 151st Inf. 

Alonzo T. Salsbury, 151st Inf. 

Sebastian Stearns, 105th Inf. 

Henry Shipp, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Corp. Franklin M. Stone, 8th H. Art. 

Elijah Smith, 8th H. Art. 

Elisha Smith, 8th H. Art. 

Harvey Smith, 8th H. Art. 

Elisha D. Sanderson, 8th H. Art. 

E. Squires, 27th Inf. 

Surg. Arthur K. St. Clair, 1st Mich. Cav 

Albert Stanton, 8th H. Art. 

Zachary Smith, 8th II. Art. 

George Lytle, 8th H. Art. 

Thomas Strogan, 8th H. Art. 

Neville H. Snyder, 105 Inf. 

Henry Smith, 105th Inf. 

William E. Stevens, 8th H. Art. 

Oscar Stewart, 4th Art. 

Eugene Stearnes, 28th Inf. 

David Sanderson. 28th Inf. 

Charles Yates Smith, 17th Bat. 

William Soules, jr., 17th Bat. 

George Soule, 1st Art. 

George A. Sutton, 8th H. Art, 

John Simmons, 37th Inf. 

John Stewart, 27th Inf. 

Eastman Thompson, 8th H. Art. 

Allen Tompkins, 8th H. Art. 

Edward Tompkins, 8th H. Art. 

Lieut. B. B. Tanner, 151st Inf. 

Zenas Tracy, 46th Inf. 

Sergt.-Major Strinson Tirrill, 46th Inf. 

Herbert C. Taylor, 140th Inf.^ 

Lewis Teyrrell, 8th H. Art. 

Samuel Thorn, 151st Inf. 

Ira Thornton, 27th Inf. 

Asa Tooley, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

John Tooley, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Lorenzo Toney, 100th Inf. 

John H. Tower, 8th Cav. 

William B. Taylor, 129th Inf. 



ORLEANS COUNTY 



89 



George W. Turrell, 8th H. Art. 

William Trow, 8th H. Art. 

John Travis, 8th H. Art. 

Giflford L. TufF, 8th H. Art. 

William H. Terry, 8th H. Art. 

John Temple, 8th H. Art. 

Charles W. Tibbetts, 27th Inf. 

Freeman Vaughan, 14th Art. 

Robert Voerhies, 14th Art. 

Peter Vandyke, 8th H. Art. 

Edwin H. Vedder. 3d Cav. 

Henry Van Dresser, 8th H. Art. 

Henry L. Van Dresser, 8th H. Art. 

Corp. John M. Van Camp, 2d Mounted 

Rifles. 
Edgar Venton, 8th H. Art. 
Richard H. Vedder, 17th Bat. 
Alexander J. Vedder, 25th Bat. 
Abram Vreeland, 28th Inf. 
James Waterson, 8th Cav. 
Stephen Williams, 8th H. Art. 
Edward Williams, 94th Inf. 
Albert T. Wilcox, 94th Inf. 



Alden H. Warren, 151st Inf. 

Albert Woodhull, 151st Inf. 

John Wheeler, 151st Inf. 

Wellmgton Wilsea, 76th Inf. 

Capt. Carlos L. White, 8th H. Art. 

Sergt. Amos P. Wetherbee, 8th H. Art. 

Lieut. C. H. West, 8th H. Art. 

George W. Weed, 151st Inf. 

Charles Washburn, 151st Inf. 

William Watson, 121st Inf. 

Daniel Wilcox, 151st Inf. 

Nathan S. Warren, 94th Inf. 

Asa Williams, 94th Inf. 

Clark E. Wolfrom, 151st Inf. 

Sergt. John Wetherbee, 151st Inf. 

Corp. John Welch, 28th Inf. 

Asa Williams, 8th H. Art. 

Lieut Albert A. Waring, 151st Inf. 

William E. Wilson, 151st Inf. 

Mark Ward, 14th Art. 

George W. Wilson, 8th H. Art. 

Patsey Welch, 8th H. Art. 

Leonard A. Wilson, 64th Inf. 



There are at present four G. A. R. posts in Orleans county — one at 
Albion, one at Medina, one at Lyndonville, and one at Kendall. The 
Orleans County Veteran Regiment was organized a number of years 
ago by the veterans from each town, each of which constituted a com- 
pany. At the first meeting they had over 300 men in line in parade. 
In June, 1892, its present name, the Orleans County Veteran Associa- 
tion, was adopted, and on June 21, 1894, the organization was made 
a permanent one, with the resolution that its meetings hereafter be 
held at the court house in Albion on the third Thursday in June of 
each year, which is designated Soldiers' Day. Every veteran of the 
county is, by virtue of his residence or citizenship, a member of the 
association. The present officers are as follows : President, Albert 
J. Potter, Clarendon; first vice-president, John Lake, Ridgeway ; sec- 
retary, Henry J. Babbitt, Albion ; town vice presidents, Albion, William 
H. Nichols ; Barre, George Stockton ; Carlton, W. R, Curtis ; Claren- 
don, O. T. Cook; Gaines, Frank Ellicott ; Kendall, M. W. Kidder; 
Murray, J. W. Dalton ; Ridgeway, S. M. Hood ; Shelby, Ziba Roberts ; 
Yates, Thomas Strouse. 



LANDMARKS OF 



CHAPTER IX. 



Since the War — Business Activity and Plentitudeof Money — Establishment of Vari- 
ous Business and Pubhc Undertakings — County Statistics — Civil List— Political — 
Orleans County Pioneer and Historical Association. 

The close of the great civil war, which had cost the country so many 
lives and such vast treasure, left the country, strange as it may seem, 
in what appeared to be a flourishing and active condition, as far as 
business was concerned. Of course this was a fictitious appearance. 
Money was plenty; industrial undertakings of various kinds had been 
inaugurated and were thriving ; and there was a prevailing fever and stir 
in all circles and relations where finance was involved. The majority of 
people felt a thrill of joy and hopefulness when the conflict was ended, 
and it was only natural that with the general exaltation should be 
mingled confidence in the continuation of the superabundance of money 
and the prosperity of all business interests. The severe stringency of 
1872-3 awakened the people from this delusion, and it was learned that 
recovery from the effects of inflated currency and over-production is al- 
ways slow and costly. Agricultural communities did not share in the 
extravagant expectations or the ill effects of disappointment like the 
great business centers — a statement which applies directly to Orleans 
county. 

The Orleans Savings Bank was incorporated in March, 1867, and the 
village of Holley in the succeeding month. On the 27th of April, 1868, 
an act was passed authorizing the canal commissioners to build vertical 
stone walls on the berm bank of the canal in the villages of Albion and 
Medina, at an expense of $3,000 in Medina, and $4,000 in Albion ; 
this was a substantial and welcome improvement. Under an act of May 
9, 1870, for extra canal repairs, the swing bridge on Main street in 
Albion was constructed. An act of incorporation of the Orleans County 
Soldiers' Monument Association was passed March 26, 1868, after the 
proposition had been voted upon by the people of the county with a 
favorable result. A further account appears in the chapter devoted to 
the town of Albion, 



ORLEANS COUNTY 



91 



In the spring of 1868 the Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company 
was organized at Oswego, with the intention of building a railroad along 
the south shore of the lake, which should in time become part of a trunk 
line from Boston to the west The towns of Kendall and Yates gave 
their bonds in aid of the undertaking for $60,000 in the former town, 
and $100,000 in the latter; towns in Niagara county also were bonded 
in large sums. The work of construction proceeded slowly, and litigation 
over the town bonds checked their sale and so crippled the company 
that it could not complete the road. In 1875, the Rome, Watertown 
and Ogdensburg Company assumed the undertaking and the work pro- 
gressed. The track through Orleans county was laid in the fall of 1875 
and reached Lewiston the next spring. The first passenger train ran 
over the road June 12, 1876. Outside of the cost of the town bonds, 
this road has been of material benefit to the county. It passes through 
the three north towns of the county and is now operated by the N. Y. 
C. & H. R. R. R. upon a lease of the road. 

The population of Orleans county as shown in the census taken at 
various dates since the organization of the county is as follows : 1850, 
28,501; i860, 28,717; 1870, 27,689; 1880, 30,128; 1890,30,803. 

Wheat was formerly the chief product of the county ; but in recent 
years this cereal has been superseded largely by other grains and veg- 
etables and especially fruits. The number of acres of improved land in 
the county is now something over 200,000; in i860 it was 181,948 
acres. This is divided into about 3,000 farms. The following table shows 
the equalized valuation of real and personal estates for 1893 : 







Assessors' 


Assessors' 


Assessors' 






TOWNS. 


Acreage. 


Real. 


Personal. 


Total. 


Sup. Real. 


Sup. Total. 


Albion 


16,337 


$2,682,952 


$561,100 


$3,244,052 


$3,057426 


$3,618,526 


Barre 


33,764 


1,167,570 


37,850 


1,205,420 


1,176,032 


1.213,882 


Carlton . . , 


26,385* 


1,196.876 


55,575 


1,252,451 


1,148,106 


1,203,681 


Clarendon. . 


21,656 


942,670 


89,800 


1,032,470 


803,188 


892,988 


Gaines 


21.138 


1,112,820 


158,100 


1,270.920 


1.349,746 


1,507,846 


Kendall. .. 


19,944 


898,466 


61,550 


960,016 


842,469 


904,019 


Murray .... 


18,633 


1,868 937 


159,025 


2,027,962 


1,592,562 


1,751,587 


Ridgewav. . 


30,956 


2,997,468 


406.050 


3,403,518 


3,127,312 


3,533,362 


Shelby 


28,628 


1,827,515 


88,850 


1,916,365 


1,633,940 


1,722,790 


Yates 


22,559i 


967,205 


40,855 


1,014,060 


931,698 


978,553 


Total 


240,001 


$15,662,479 


$1,664,755 


$17,327,234 


$15,662,479 $17,327,234 



02 LANDMARKS OF 

The climate and soil of Orleans county are especially adapted to the 
growth of fruit, particularly apples. This industry has been largely 
developed. During the first half of the century fruit-growing, while 
not the chief occupation of farmers, gradually increased and it became 
thoroughly established that herein lay a source of profit. About 1845, 
when the demand for winter apples in the new Western States became 
active, the farmers of Orleans began grafting their trees with choice 
varieties, and planting new orchards. From that time on, at least until 
very recent years, there has been a steady and rapid increase in the 
orchard acreage. The fruit has flourished exceedingly in most parts of 
the county, the climatic influence of the winds, which from the north, 
northwest and northeast pass over open water before striking this terri- 
tory, becoming thereby tempered and raising the average of winter 
temperature, and at the same time serving as protection against late 
spring and early autumn frosts. The atmosphere of the county is also 
comparatively dry and the rainfall light, while the cool autumn winds 
from the lake region retard the ripening of winter fruits, greatly en- 
hancing the value of the apples. As a rule farmers have found excel- 
lent market for their apples and at remunerative prices. For the last 
ten years there has been shipped from the county an average of about 
525,000 barrels of merchantable apples each year, the average price 
paid being $1.50 per barrel. In addition to this there is a large quan- 
tity of the inferior fruit that is evaporated and shipped in packages of 
about twenty-five pounds each and the poorest fruit is manufactured 
into cider in large quantities. There are now several large vinegar 
factories in the county. The total receipts from the apple crop each 
year will average about one million dollars, although the crop varies 
largely from year to year, some years being almost a failure. 

Another prominent feature of the agriculture of the county is the 
growing of beans. This industry has been developed from a beginning 
made in 1836 by Ira Winegar, who brought a small quantity of white 
beans from Rensselaer county and gave some to Mr. Coe, of Yates. He 
planted them and divided the three pecks which he harvested among 
his sons and others. They planted two acres in 1838, and the crop 
was sold to H. V. Prentice, of Albion, for $1.75 per bushel. In 1843 
it is said that more than one hundred acres were planted in the town 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 9;] 

of Yates, with a considerable acreage in other towns. With the advent 
of the weevil in wheat, reducing the acreage of that grain, beans be- 
came a staple product. Since 1880 there has been an average crop 
raised each year in the county of 375,000 bushels, usually bringing 
from $1.50 to $2.00 per bushel, the usual yield per acre being about 
twelve to twenty bushels. In some parts of the county onions and in 
others tomatoes are largely raised. 

The following items are of interest as bearing on the general pros- 
perity of the county : For the fiscal year of 1893 the expense of sup- 
porting the poor of the county was $9,705.39. The amount of county 
audits was $13,787.15, The number of school districts in the county 
is 141, and the number having school houses within the county is 126; 
the number of teachers employed, 180; number of persons of school 
age living in the county in June. 1893, 8,477. The receipts for school 
purposes were: Public money, $26,644. 1 1 ; by tax, $37,575.08 ; trees 
planted in 1892, 152. 

Civil List. — When the State was divided by the second constitution 
into eight senatorial districts, each entitled to four senators, Orleans 
county was made a part of the eighth district. The present constitution 
provides for thirty-two districts. Orleans, Niagara and Genesee consti- 
tuted the Twenty-eighth District until 1857, when the number was 
changed to the twenty-ninth. In 1879 the district was composed of 
Monroe and Orleans, retaining the number the twenty-ninth. By the 
act of 1892 the twenty- ninth is composed of the counties of Niagara, 
Wyoming, Orleans, Livingston and Genesee. 

State senators from this county. — Gideon Hard, 1842-47; A. Hyde 
Cole, 1848-49; Ben Field, 1854-55 ; Almanzor Hutchinson, 1862-63; 
Dan H. Cole, 1864-65, and 1874-77; Edmund L. Pitts, 1880-81, and 
1882-83, and 1886-87. 

On the formation of Orleans county it was united with Genesee in 
the Twenty-ninth Congressional District. In 1832 Niagara and Orleans 
became the Thirty- third District; in 1842, the Thirty fourth District ; 
and in 185 i the Thirty-first District. An act of 1862 united Orleans 
and Monroe to form the Twenty- eighth District, which was renumbered 
the Thirtieth in 1873. In 1893 the Thirtieth District was rearranged 
and now consists of the counties of Niagara, Orleans, Livingston, W^yo- 
ming and Genesee, the same counties comprising the senatorial district. 



94 LANDMARKS OF 

Members cf Congress from Orleans County. — Alfred Babcock, Albion, sessions of 
1841-44; Gideon Hard, Barre, 1833-37; Lorenzo Burrows, Albion, 1849-53; Silas M. 
Burrows, 1857-60 (died at Medina on June 3, 1860, and was succeeded by Edwin R. 
Reynolds, of Albion, who completed the second term of Mr. Burroughs) ; Noah Davis, 
Albion, 1869-70; resigned and was appointed United States district attorney for the 
Southern District of New York in 1870 and Charles H. Holmes, Albion, was elected to 
fill vacancy, serving from 1870 to 1871 ; E. Kirke Hart, 1876-78. 

Assemblymen. — Orleans county has always constituted one Assembly district, and 
has been represented as follows : In the session of 1826, L. A. G. B. Grant ; 1827, 
Abraham Cantine, Holley ; 1828, Lyman Bates, Ridgeway ; 1829, George W. Fleming, 
Albion; 1830 and 1831, John H.Tyler, Yates; 1832, William J. Babbitt, Gaines; 1833, 
Asahel Byington, Gaines; 1834 and 1835, Asa Clark, jr., Murray; 1836, John Cham- 
berlain, Albion ; 1837, Silas M. Burroughs, Medina; 1838 and 1839, Horatio Reed; 
1840, John J. Walbridge, Gaines; 1841, Richard W. Gates, Yates; 1842, Sanford 
B. Church, Albion ; 1843, Elisha Wright, Barre Center; 1844, Sands Cole, Knowles- 
ville; 1845, Gardner Goold, West Carlton; 1846, Dexter Kingmar, Medina; 1847, 
Abner Hubbard, Murray ; 1848, Arba Chubb, Gaines ; 1849, Reuben Roblee, Kendall ; 
1850, 1851, and 1853, Silas M. Burroughs, Medina; 1852, George M. Copeland, Claren- 
don; 1854, Jeremiah Freeman; 1855. Elisha S. Whalen, Medina; 1856, Dan H. 
Cole, Albion; 1857-59, Almanzor Hutchinson, Gaines; 1860, Abel Stilson, Barre 
Center ; 1861, Gideon Randall, Kendall ; 1862, Nicholas E. Darrow, Clarendon ; 
1863, John Parks, Medina ; 1864-1868, Edmund L. Pitts, Medina ; 1869, Marvin Har- 
ris, Kendall; 3870 and 1871, John Berry, Holley; 1872, E. Kirk Hart, Albion; 1873- 
75, Elisha S. Whalen, Medina; 1876 and 1877, J. D. Billings, Carlton ; 1878, Charles 
H. Mattison, Barre; 1879, Henry A. Glidden ; 1880-81, Marcus H.Phillips, Holley; 
1882-83. Henry M. Hard, Lyndonville ; 1884-85, J. M. Dibble ; 1886-7, Samuel A. 
Bates; 1888-89, Ira Edwards; 1890-91, Wallace L'Hommedieu, Medina; 1892-93, 
Adelbert J. McMcCormick ; 1894, Samuel W. Smith. 

Sheriffs of Orleans Coonty. — Oliver Benton, 1825 ; William Allis, 1828 ; Harmon 
Goodrich, 1831 ; Asahel Woodrufi", 1835 ; John Boardman, 1838 ; Horace B. Perry, 
1841 ; Aram Beebe, 1844; Aus'.in Day, 1847 ; Rufus E. Hill, 1850; Ferdinand A. Day, 
1853; George W. Bedell, 1856; Danly B. Sprague, 1859; Robert P. Bordwell, 1862; 
Erastus M. Spaulding, 1865 ; Robert P. Bordwell, 1868 ; Benjamin F. Van Camp, 1871 ; 
Thomas Parker, 1874; Oscar Munn, 1877; Erastus M. Spaulding, 1880; Sullivan E. 
Howard, 1883 ; Edward P. Searle, 1886 ; A. Wilson Shelley, 1889 ; John G. Rice, 1892. 

County Clerks.— Orson Nichoson, 1825; Abraham B.Mills, 1828; Timothy C. 
Strong, 1834; Elijah Dana, 1843; Harmon Goodrich, 1848 (appointed vice Dana, de- 
ceased) ; Dan H. Cole, 1848 ; Willard F. Warren, 3 854 ; John P. Church, 1857; George 
A. Porter, 1858 (appointed vice Church deceased) ; James M. Palmer, 1859; Edwin F. 
Browne, 1862; George A. Porter, 1865; George D. Church, 1868; Marcus H. Phillips, 
1871; Lucius R. Post, 1874; George A. Newell (twice re-elected), 1877; Wihiam F. 
Ross, 1886 ; Alvin R. Allen, 1889, re-elected 1892. 

County Treasurers. — John H. Denio, 1848; Ambrose Wood, 1851 ; Joseph M. Cor- 
nell, 1857 ; Ezra T. Coann, 1863 ; Samuel C. Bowen, 1866 ; Albert S. Warner, 1869 ; 
Augustus W. Barnett, 1872 ; Joseph A. Wall, 1875 ; Augustus W. Barnett, 1887 ; 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 95 

Joseph A. Wall (re-elected), 1881 ; Howard Abeel, 1887 ; R. Titus Coann, 1890 ; 
George A. Newell, 1893. 

By the act of April 17, 1843, board of supervisors were directed to 
appoint county superintendents of schools. The office was abolished 
by the constitution of 1846. The following persons held the office in 
this county : Edwin R. Reynolds, Jonathan O. Wilsea, John G. Smith, 

Prior to 1857 school commissioners were appointed by the board of 
supervisors ; since then they have been elected on a separate ballot. 
The first election under the act creating the office was held in Novem- 
ber, 1859; the term is three years, and the following have held the of- 
fice in Orleans county : Oliver Morehouse, Marcus H. Phillips, Mon- 
traville Root, Abel A. Stilson, James H. Mattison, William W. Phipps, 
Edward Posson, Charles W. Smith, Elbert O. Smith, 

In addition to the foregoing official notes, it should be added that 
Judge Sanford E. Church was elected lieutenant-governor November 
5, 1850; comptroller of the State, November 3, 1857; was a delegate 
to the constitutional convention of 1867, ^"<^ chief judge of the Court 
of Appeals in 1870. Judge Church's colleague in the constitutional 
convention from this county was Ben Field ; and the county was repre- 
sented in the convention of 1846 by William Penniman. 

Lorenzo Burrows was elected State comptroller November 7, 1855, 
and appointed regent of the university February 7, 185 i, serving with 
distinction in both stations. 

Asa Clark was chosen a presidential elector in 1832, John D. Per- 
kins in 1844, George H. Sickels in 1872, and H. Eugene English in 
1884. 

Gideon Hard, of Albion, was appointed canal appraiser April 4, 
1848; George B. Church, of Albion, was appointed superintendent of 
the insurance department May 13, 1872, and deputy state treasurer 
1 890- 1 894. Myron L. Parker was elected in 1893 a member of the 
constitutional convention of 1894. Edwin L. Wage was supervisor of 
the census for the Tenth District in 1890. 

The following is a statement of the votes cast for the principal candi- 
dates at important elections since the organization of the county : 

1826, Governor— De Witt Clinton, National Republican, 884; William B. Rochester, 
Democrat, 945. 



06 LANDMARKS OF 

1828, Governor— Solomon Southwick, Anti-Mason, 1,467 ; Smith Thompson, Na- 
tional Repubhcan, 566 ; Martin Van Buren, Democrat, 839. President— John Q. Ad- 
ams, National Republican, 936; Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 1,584. 

1830, Governor— Francis Granger, Anti-Mason, 1,663 ; Enos T. Throop, Democrat, 
933. 

1832, Governor— Francis Granger, Anti-Mason, 1,680 ; William L. Marcy, Democrat, 
1396. President, Andrew Jackson, Democrat, 1,424 ; Henry Clay, Whig, 1,656. 

1834, Governor— William L. Marcy, Democrat, 1,918 ; William H. Seward, Whig, 
1,862. 

1836, Governor— William L. Marcy, Democrat, 1,869; Jesse Buel, Whig, 1,826. 
President— Martin Van Buren, Democrat, 1,825 ; William H. Harrison, Whig, 1,829. 

1838, Governor— William H. Seward, 2,236 ; William L. Marcy, Democrat, 1,830. 

1840, Governor— William H. Seward, Whig, 2,579; William C. Bouck, Democrat, 
2,082; Gerrit Smith, Liberty, 75. President — William H. Harrison, Whig, 2,606; 
Martin Van Buren, Democrat, 2,031. 

1842, Governor— Luther Bradish, Whig, 2,143 ; William C. Bouck, Democrat. 2,103; 
Alvan Stewart, Liberty, 91. 

1844, Governor—Millard Fillmore, Whig, 2,609; Silas Wright, Democrat, 2.359; Al- 
van Stewart, Liberty, 249. President — Henry Clay, Whig, 2,006 ; James K. Polk, 
Democrat, 2,311 ; James G. Birney, Liberty, 276. 

1846, Governor— John Young, 2,300 ; Silas Wright, 2,097 ; Henry Bradley, Liberty, 
154. 

1848, Governor— Hamilton Fish, Whig, 2,472; John A Dix, Free Soil, 1,736; Reu- 
ben H. Walworth. Democrat, 922. President— Zachary Taylor, Whig, 2,402 ; Lewis 
Cass, Democrat, 1,722; Martin Van Buren, Free Soil, 918. 

1850, Governor — Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 2,491; Washington Hunt, Whig, 
2,635. 

1852, Governor— Washington Hunt, Whig, 2,762; Horatio Seymour, Democrat^ 
2,284; President, Winfield Scott, Whig, 2,586; Franklin Pierce, Democrat, 2,267. 

1854, Governor— Myron H. Clark, Whig, 1,533; Daniel Ullman, American, 1,985 ; 
Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 626. 

1856, Governor — Erastus Brooks, American, 1,502; John A. King, Republican, 3,065; 
Amasa J. Parker, Democrat, 1,013. President — John C. Fremont, Republican, 3,075; 
James Buchanan, Democrat, 1,053 ; Millard Fillmore, American, 1,425. 

1858, Governor — Edwin D. Morgan, Republican, 2,579; Lorenzo Burrows, Ameri- 
can, 976; Amasa J. Parker, Democrat, 1,190. 

1860, Governor — Edwin D. Morgan, Republican, 3,835; William Kelley, Democrat, 
2,230. President— Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 3,859 ; Stephen A. Douglass, Demo- 
crat, 2,246. 

1862, Governor— James Wadsworth, Repubhcan, 3,237; Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 
2,078. 

1864, Governor — Reuben E. Fenton, Republican, 3,769 ; Horatio Seymour, Demo- 
crat, 2,442. President— Abraham Lincoln, Republican, 3,752 ; George B. McClellan, 
Democrat, 2,458. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 97 

1866, Governor— Reuben B. Fenton, Republican, 3,585 ; John J. Hoffman, Democrat, 
2,106. 

1868, Governor— John A. Griswold, Republican, 3,882; John T. Hoffman, Democrat, 
2,482. President — U. S.Grant, Republican, 3,904; Horatio Seymour, Democrat, 2,446. 

1870, Governor—John T. Hoffman, Democrat, 2.380; Stewart L. Woodford, Repub- 
lican, 3,607. 

1872, Governor — John A. Dix, Republican, 3,872 ; Francis Kernan, Democrat, 2,518. 
President- — U.S. Grant, Rei)ublican, 3,857; Horace Greeley, Democrat and Liberal 
Republican, 2,391. 

1874, Governor — John A. Dix, Republican, 3,147; Samuel J. Tilden, Democrat, 
2,567. 

1876, Governor — Edwm D. Morgan, Republican, 4,222; Lucuis Robinson, Democrat, 
3,133. President — R. B. Hayes. Republican, 4,253; Samuel J. Tilden, Democrat, 
3,117. 

1879, Governor — Alonzo B. Cornell, Republican, 3,445; Lucius Robinson, Democrat, 
1,677. 

1880, President — James A. Garfield, Republican, 4,581 ; Winfield S Hancock, Demo- 
crat, 3,104. 

1882, Governor — Charles J. Folger, Republican, 2,549; Grover Cleveland, Demo- 
crat, 3,118. 

1884, President — Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 2,908; James G. Blaine, Republican, 
3,997. 

1885, Governor — Ira Davenport, Republican, 3,121 ; David B. Hill, Democrat, 2,495. 
1888, Governor— Warner Miller, Republican, 4,226 ; David B. Hill, Democrat, 3,243. 

President, Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 4.277 ; Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 3,214. 

1891, Governor — J. Sloat Fasset, Republican, 3,387 ; Roswell P. Flower, Democrat, 
2,269. 

1892, President — Benjamin Harrison, Republican, 4,013 ; Grover Cleveland, Democrat, 
3,065. 

1893, Secretary of State— John Palmer, Republican, 3,302; Cord Meyer, Democrat, 
2,299. 

The Orleans County Pioneer and Historical Association was organ- 
ized in June, 1859, as the Orleans County Pioneer Association, the 
present name being adopted at the annual meeting in June, 1893. At 
its organization only residents of Western New York who had settled 
here prior to January, 1826, were eligible to membership; this restric- 
tion was subsequently removed, and now the requirements are that 
members shall reside in Orleans county and be thirty- one years of age. 
The inception of this society was mainly due to the energetic efforts of 
Judge Arad Thomas, who was long its president and moving spirit. 
Its aims were to collect and preserve the pioneer history of the several 
13 



1)8 LANDMARKS OF 

towns, foster thorough research mto hiatorical and biographical sub- 
jects pertaining to the county, and encourage and advance personal 
acquaintance and mutual interests. Annual meetings have been held 
at the court house in Albion ever since its organization, and nearly 
every year pioneer picnics have occurred at suitable places. Its work 
has been thorough, interesting and valuable, and it has efficiently car- 
ried out the designs of its originators. Through its influence several local 
historical societies or clubs have been started in various towns, a more 
extended notice of which appears in their respective town histories. 
The officers elected in June, 1894, are as follows: Ezra T. Coann, 
Albion, president : Capt. Henry Tanner, first recording secretary ; Os- 
sian Goodwin, second recording secretary ; Prof. Freeman A. Greene, 
Albion, corresponding secretary ; John Bidleman, treasurer. The as- 
sociation also has a vice president residing in each town ; and for the 
historical department a committee of three is appointed for each town 
in the county. 



CHAPTER X. 



Comparison of State Law with the Common Law — Evolution of the Courts — The 
Court of Appeals — The Supreme Co..rt^The Court of Chancery — The County Court — 
The Surrogate's Court — Justice's Court — District Attorneys — Sheriffs — Court House — 
Judicial Officers — Personal Notes. 

The statement is commonly made that the judicial system of the 
State of New York is largely founded upon the common law of Eng- 
land. While this is true to a great extent, there are important differ- 
ences revealed by a close study of the history of the laws of this State, 
showing that our system is in many important respects an original 
growth. In the simple yet initiative matter of entitling a criminal 
process, for example, there is a radical difference between our method 
and that which must be followed in England. Here it is " the people 
versus the criminal; " there, " rex versus the criminal." In the one, it 
is an independent judiciary, responsible directly to the people; in the 
other the court is subservient to the king. 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 0!^) 

This principle of the sovereignty of the people over our laws, as well 
as their dominance in other respects, has had a slow, conservative, yet 
steadily progressive and systematic growth. In the early history of 
the State the governor was in effect the maker, interpreter, and en- 
forcer of the laws. He was the chief judge of the court of final resort, 
while his councillors were generally his obedient followers. The execu- 
tion of the English and colonial statutes rested with him, as did also 
the exercise of royal authority in the province ; and it was not until the 
adoption of the first constitution in 1777, that he ceased to contend for 
these prerogatives and to act as though the only functions of the 
court and councillors were to do his bidding as servants and helpers, 
while the Legislature should adopt only such laws as the executive 
might suggest and approve. By the first constitution the governor 
was wholly stripped of the judicial power which he possessed under the 
colonial rule, and such power was vested in the lieutenant-governor 
and the Senate, the chancellor and the justices of the Supreme Court; 
the former to be elected by the people, and the latter to be appointed 
by the council. Under this constitution there was the first radical 
separation of the judicial and the legislative powers, and the advance- 
ment of the judiciary to the position of a co-ordinate department of the 
government, and subject to the limitation consequent upon the appoint- 
ment of its members by the council. 

But even this restriction was soon felt to be incompatible, though it 
was not until the adoption of the constitution of 1846 that the last con- 
nection between the purely political and the judicial parts of the State 
government was abolished ; and with it disappeared the last remaining 
relic of the colonial period as regards the laws. From this time on the 
judiciary became more directly representative of the people in the elec- 
tion by them of its members. The development of the idea of the 
responsibility of the courts to the people, from the time when all its 
members were at the beck and nod of one well-nigh irresponsible 
master, to the time when all judges, even of the court of last resort, are 
voted for by the people, has been remarkable. Yet, through all this 
change there has prevailed the idea of one ultimate tribunal from whose 
decision there can be no appeal. 



100 LANDMARKS OF 

Noting briefly the present arrangement and powers of the courts of 
this State and the elements from which they have grown, we see that 
the whole scheme is involved in the idea of, first, in actions at law, a 
trial before a magistrate and jury — arbiters respectively of law and 
fact — and in equity actions before the court without a jury, and then a 
review by a higher tribunal of the facts and the law, and ultimately of 
the law by a court of last resort. To accomplish the purposes of this 
scheme there has been devised and established, first, the present Court 
of Appeals, the ultimate tribunal of the State, perfected in its present 
form by the conventions of 1867 and 1868, and ratified by a vote of 
the people in 1869, and taking the place of the old " court for the trial 
of impeachment and correction of errors " to the extent of correcting 
errors of law. As first organized under the constitution of 1846, the 
Court of Appeals was composed of eight judges, four of whom were 
elected by the people and the remainder chosen from the justices of the 
Supreme Court having the shortest time to serve. As organized in 
1869, and now existing, the court consists of the chief judge and six 
associate judges, who hold office for a term of fourteen years, from and 
including the first day of January after their election. This court is 
continually in session at the capitol in Albany, except as it takes recees 
from time to time on its own motion. It has full power to correct or 
reverse the decisions of all inferior courts when properly before it for 
review. Five judges constitute a quorum, and four must concur to 
render judgment. If four do not agree the case must be reargued; 
but no more than two rehearings can be had, and if then four judges do 
not concur, the judgment of the court below stands affirmed. The 
Legislature has provided by statute how and when proceedings and 
decisions of inferior tribunals may be reviewed in the Court of Appeals, 
and may, in its discretion, alter or amend the same. Upon the re- 
organization of the court in 1869 its work was far in arrears, and the 
law commonly known as the " Judiciary Act " provided for a Commis- 
sion of Appeals to aid the Court of Appeals. And still more recently, 
in 1888, the Legislature passed a concurrent resolution that Section 6 
of Article 6 of the constitution be amended so that upon the certificate 
of the Court of Appeals to the governor of such an accumulation of 
causes on the calendar of the Court of Appeals that the public interests 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 101 

required a more speedy disposition thereof, the governor might desig- 
nate seven justices of the Supreme Court to act as associate judges, for 
the time being, of the Court of Appeals, and to form a second division 
of that court, and to be dissolved by the governor when the necessity 
for their services ceased to exist. This amendment was submitted to 
the people of the State at the general election of that year and was 
ratified, and in accordance therewith the governor selected seven Su- 
preme Court justices, who were constituted the second division of the 
Court of Appeals. 

The only incumbent of the high office of judge of the Court of Ap- 
peals from Orleans county was Sanford E. Church, elected chief justice 
in 1870, a sketch of whose life is given a little further on in this 
chapter. 

Second to the Court of Appeals in rank and jurisdiction stands the 
Supreme Court, which as it now exists, is made up of many and widely 
different elements. It was originally created by the act of the Colonial 
Legislature May 6, 1691, and finally by ordinance of the governor and 
council, May 15, 1699, and empowered to try all issues to the same 
extent as the English courts of king's bench, common pleas and ex- 
chequer, except in the exercise of equity powers. It had jurisdiction 
in actions involving ;{J"20 ($100) and over, and to revise and correct the 
decisions of inferior courts. An appeal lay from it to the governor and 
council. The judges — at first there were five of them — annually made 
a circuit of the counties, under a commission naming them, issued by 
the governor and giving them nisi priiis, oyer and terminer, and jail 
delivery poweis. Under the first constitution the court was reorgan- 
ized, the judges being then named by the council of appointment. All 
proceedings were directed to be entitled in the name of the people, in- 
stead of that of the king. 

By the constitution of 1821 many and important changes were made 
in the character and methods of this court. The judges were reduced 
in number to three and appointed by the governor, with the consent of 
the Senate, to hold office during good behavior, or until sixty years of 
age. They were removable by the Legislature when two-thirds of the 
Assembly and a majority of the Senate so voted. Four times each 
year the full court sat in review of their decisions upon questions of 



102 LANDMARKS OP 

law. By the constitution of 1846 the Supreme Court as it then existed 
was abolished, and a new court of the same name, and having general 
jurisdiction in law and equity, was established in its place. This court 
was divided into general terms, circuits, special terms and oyer and 
terminer. Its members were composed of thirty- three justices, to be 
elected by the people, and to reside, five in the first and four in each of 
the other seven judicial districts into which the State was divided. By 
the judiciary act of 1847 general terms were to be held at least once in 
each year in counties having more than forty thousand inhabitants, and 
in other counties at least once in two years ; and at least two special 
terms and two circuit courts were to be held yearly in each county, ex- 
cept Hamilton. By this act the court was authorized to name the 
times and places of holding its terms, and those of oyer and terminer; 
the latter being a part of the circuit court and held by the justice, the 
county judge and two justices of sessions. Since 1882 the oyer and 
terminer has consisted of a single justice of the Supreme Court. 

It is proper at this point to describe one of the old courts, the powers 
of which have been vested in the Supreme Court. We refer to the 
Chancery Court, an heirloom of the colonial period, which had its origin 
in the Court of Assizes, the latter being invested with equity powers 
under the duke's laws. The court was established in 1683, and the 
governor, or such person as he should appoint, assisted by the council, 
was designated as its chancellor. In 1698 the court went out of exist- 
ence by limitation ; was revised by ordinance in 1701 ; suspended in 
1703, and re-established in the next year. At first the Court of Chan- 
cery was unpopular in the province, the Assembly and the colonists op- 
posing it with the argument that the crown had no authority to establish 
an equity court in the colony, and doubtful of the propriety of consti- 
tuting the governor and council such a court. Under the constitution 
of 1777 the court was recognized, but its chancellor was thereby pro- 
hibited from holding any other office except delegate to Congress on 
special occasions. Upon the reorganization of the court in 1778 by 
convention of representatives, masters and examiners in chancery 
were provided to be appointed by the Council of Appointment ; regis- 
ters and clerks by the chancellor. The latter licensed all solicitors and 
councillors of the court. Under the constitution of 1821 the chancellor 



ORLEANS COUNTY. IO.3 

was appointed by the governor and held office during good behavior, 
or until sixty years of age. Appeals lay from the Chancery Court to 
the Court for the Correction of Errors. Under the second constitution 
equity powers were vested in the circuit judges, and their decisions were 
reviewable on appeal to the chancellor. But this equity character was 
soon taken from the circuit judges and thereafter devolved upon the 
chancellor, while the judges alluded to acted as vice-chancellors in their 
respective circuits. But, by the radical changes made by the constitu- 
tion of 1846, the Court of Chancery was abolished, and its powers, 
duties and jurisdiction vested in the Supreme Court, as before stated. 

By act of the Legislature adopted in 1848, and entitled the "Code 
of Procedure," all distinctions between actions of law and suits in equity 
were abolished, so far as the manner of commencing and conducting 
them was concerned, and one uniform method of practice was adopted. 
Under this act appeals lay to the general term of the Supreme Court 
from judgments rendered in mayor's or recorder's, and county courts, 
and from all orders and decisions of a justice at special term of the 
Supreme Court, as well as from trials at Circuit and from criminal mat- 
ters in courts of record. 

The judiciary article of the constitution of 1846 was amended in 
1869 authorizing the Legislature, not oftener than once in five years, to 
provide for the organization of General Terms, consisting of a presiding 
justice and not more than three associates ; but by Chapter 408 of the 
laws of 1870 the then organization of the General Term was abrogated 
and the State divided into four departments and provision made for 
holding General Terms in each. By the same act the governor was 
directed to designate from among the justices of the Supreme Court a 
presiding justice and two associates to constitute a General Term in each 
department. Under the authority of the constitutional amendment 
adopted in 1882, the Legislature in 1883 divided the State into five 
judicial departments, and provided for the election of twelve additional 
justices to hold office from the first Monday in June, 1884. 

In June, 1887, the Legislature enacted the Code of Civil Procedure 
to take the place of the code of 1848. By this many minor changes 
were made, among them a provision that every two years the justices 
of the general terms and the chief judges of the superior city courts 



104 LANDMARKS OF 

should meet and revise and establish general rules of practice for all the 
courts of record in the State, except the Court of Appeals. 

Such are, in brief, the changes through which the Supreme Court of 
this State has passed in its growth from the prerogative of an irrespon- 
sible governor to one of the most independent and enlightened instru- 
mentalities for the protection and attainment of the rights of citizens 
of which any State or nation can rightfully boast. So well is this fact 
understood by the people, that by far the greater amount of business, 
which might be done in inferior courts at less expense, is taken to this 
court for settlement. 

To the office of judge of the Supreme Court Noah Davis, then a resi- 
dent of Albion, was chosen April 3, 1857, and Henry A. Childs, a 
resident of Medina, in 1883. 

Next in importance to the Supreme Court is the County Court, held 
in and for each county of the State at such time and places as its judges 
may direct. But at least two terms must be held each year for the 
trial of issues of law and fact. This court had its origin in the English 
Court of Sessions, and, like that court, had at first criminal jurisdiction 
only. By an act passed in 1683 a Court of Sessions, having power to 
try both civil and criminal causes by jury, was directed to be held by 
three justices of the peace in each of the counties of the province twice 
a year, with an additional term in Albany and two in New York. By 
the act of 1691 and the decree of 1699, ^'^ civil jurisdiction was taken 
from this court and conferred upon the Court of Common Pleas. By the 
sweeping changes made by the constitution of 1846, provision was made 
for a County Court in each county of the State, excepting New York, 
to be held by an officer to be designated the county judge, and to have 
such jurisdiction as the Legislature might prescribe Under authority 
of this constitution the county courts have been given, from time to 
time, jurisdiction in various classes of actions which need not be enu- 
merated here, and have also been invested with certain equity powers 
in the foreclosure of mortgages ; to sell infants' real estate ; to partition 
lands; to admeasure dower and care for the persons and estates of 
lunatics and habitual drunkards. The judiciary act of 1869 continued 
the existing jurisdiction of county courts, and conferred upon them 
original jurisdiction in all actions in which the defendants lived within 




^ 



J^T'^^^^^^t-^^-^Ds? 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 105 

the county, and the damages claimed did not exceed $i,ooo. Like the 
Supreme Court, the County Court now has its civil and its criminal side. 
In criminal matters the county judge is assisted by two justices of 
sessions, elected by the people from among the justices of the peace in 
the county. It is in the criminal branch of this court, known as the 
Sessions, having jurisdiction of all offenses not punishable by death, 
that all the minor criminal offenses are now disposed of. All indict- 
ments of the grand jury, excepting for murder or some very serious fel- 
ony, are sent to it for trial from the Oyer and Terminer. By the codes 
of 1848 and 1877, the methods of procedure and practice were made 
to conform as nearly as possible to the practice in the Supreme Court. 
This was done with the evident design of attracting litigation into these 
courts, thus relieving the Supreme Court. In this purpose there has 
been failure, litigants much preferring the shield and assistance of the 
broader powers of the Supreme Court. By the judiciary act the term 
of office of county judges was extended from four to six years. Under 
the codes the judges can perform the duties of a justice of the Supreme 
Court at chambers. The County Court has appellate jurisdiction over 
actions arising in justice's courts and courts of special sessions. Ap- 
peals lay from the County Court to the General Term. County judges 
were appointed until 1847, after which they were elected. 

First Judges of the Court of Common Pleas. — Elijah Foot, April 22, 
1825; Alexis Ward, February 10, 1830; Henry Angevine, January 
27, 1840; Benjamin L. Bessac, February 7, 1841 ; James Gilson, Janu- 
ary 10, 1846. (This office was abolished by the new constitution of 
1846, as before described.) 

County Judges. — Henry R. Curtis, June, 1847; Dan H. Cole (ap- 
pointed vice Curtis deceased), September 24, 1855; Gideon Hard, 
November, 1855; Arad Thomas, November, 1858; Edwin R. Rey- 
nolds, November, 1863 ; John G. Sawyer (re-elected), November, 1867 ; 
Isaac S. Signor, November, 1883. Re-elected in 1889 and now occu- 
pying the position. 

Surrogate's Courts, one of which exists in each of the counties of 
the State, are now courts of record having a seal. Their special juris- 
diction is the settlement and care of estates of persons who have died 
either with or without a will, and care of the person and estates of in- 



lOG LANDMARKS OF 

fants. The derivation of the powers and practice of the Surrogate's 
Court in this State is from the Ecclesiastical Court of England through 
a part of the Colonial Council, which existed during the Dutch rule 
here, and exercised its authority in accordance with the Dutch and 
Roman law, the custom of Amsterdam, the Court of Burgomasters 
and Scheppens, the Court of Orphan Masters, the Mayor's Court, 
the Prerogative Court, and the Court of Probates. The settle- 
ment of estates and the guardianship of orphans, which was at 
first vested in the director-general and Council of New Netherlands, 
was transferred to the burgomasters in 1653, and soon afterwards to 
the orphan masters. Under the colony the Prerogative Court controlled 
all matters in relation to the probate of wills and settlement of estates 
and granting marriage licenses. This power continued until 1692, 
when by act of legislation all probates and granting of letters of ad- 
ministration were to be under the hand of the governor or his delegate; 
and two freeholders were appointed in each town to take charge of the 
estates of persons dying without a will. Under the duke's laws this 
duty had been performed by the constables, overseers, and justices of 
each town. In 1778 the governor was divested of all this power ex- 
cepting the appointment of surrogates, and it was conferred upon the 
Court of Probates. Under the first constitution surrogates were ap- 
pointed by the Council of Appointment ; under the second constitution 
by the governor with the approval of the Senate. The constitution of 
1846 abrogated the office of surrogate in all counties having less than 
40,000 population, and conferred its powers and duties upon the county 
judge. By the Code of Civil Procedure surrogates were invested with 
all the necessary powers to carry out the equitable and incidental re- 
quirements of their office. 

Surrogates. — (Under the second constitution surrogates were ap- 
pointed by the governor; since that they have been elected). William 
White, April 19, 1825; Alexis Ward, April 3, 1829; John Chamber- 
lain, March 8, 1833; Thomas S. Clark, January 21, 1836, and January 
21, 1844; Dan H. Cole, January 21, 1840. Since which time the 
county judge has acted as surrogate. 

The only remaining courts which are common to the State are the 
Special Sessions held by a justice of the peace for the trial of minor 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 107 

oftences, and Justice's Courts with limited jurisdiction. Previous to 
the constitution of 1821, modified in 1826, justices of the peace were 
appointed ; since that date they have been elected. The office and its 
duties are descended from the English office of the same name, but are 
much less important here than there, and under the laws of this State 
are purely the creature of the statute. 

The office of district attorney was formerly known as assistant attor- 
ney-general. The districts then embraced several counties in each and 
were seven in number. At first the office was filled by the governor 
and council during pleasure. The office of district attorney, as now 
known, was created April 4, iSoi. By a law passed in April, 1818, 
each county was constituted a separate district for the purposes of this 
office. During the era of the second constitution district attorneys 
were pppointed by the Court of General Sessions in each cou-nty. 

District attorneys in Orleans county. — Under the second constitu- 
tion, adopted in 1822, the district attorneys were appointed by the 
Court of General Sessions, which practice was followed until 1846, since 
which year they have been elected, as follows: George W. Fleming, 
1828; Henry R, Curtis, 1831; George W. Fleming, 1832; Henry R. 
Curtis, 1836; Sanford E. Church, 1846 (and June, 1847); William K. 
McAllister, 1850; Benjamin L. Bessac, 1853; Henry D. Tucker, 1856; 
John W. Graves, 1859; John G. Sawyer, 1862 ; Irving M, Thompson, 
1865; Henry A. Childs (twice re-elected), 1868; Charles A. Keeler, 
1877; Isaac S. Signor, 1880; Clark D, Knapp, 1883; William P. L. 
Stafford, 1886 and 1889; and Edward B. Simons, 1892, 

The act of Legislature creating Orleans county provided for the holding 
of courts of common pleas and general sessions of the peace three terms 
in each year, the first term to begin on the third Tuesday of February ; 
the second on the third Tuesday of May, and the third on the third 
Tuesday of September. It also appointed Samuel G. Hathaway, of 
Cortland county ; Philetus Swift, of Ontario county, and Victory Birds- 
eye, of Onondaga county, as commissioners to determine upon a site 
for a court house, and " to make known their determination on the first 
Monday in June, 1826." The act also directed the supervisors of Or- 
leans county to meet at the house of Selah Bronson, in Gaines, on the 
first Monday in June, 1826, and appoint commissioners to superintend 



108 LANDMARKS OF 

the building of the court house, and to assess and collect $3,000 for 
that purpose. Pending the erection of court house and jail, criminals 
were to be sent to Genesee county for confinement. The supervisors 
and judges of Orleans county were directed to meet at Selah Bronson's 
on the third Monday in May, 1826, to nominate justices of the peace; 
and the election of sheriff, county clerk and coroners was directed to be 
held on the first Tuesday of April, of that year. 

The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held at the house 
of Hiram Sickles, in Albion, on the i6th of June, 1826, "for the pur- 
pose of accepting a deed of the land on which the public buildings were 
to be built." At this meeting a committee consisting of Robert Ander- 
son and Jeremiah Brown, was appointed "to examine the title and 
make a survey." The committee made their report to an adjourned 
meeting on the 22d of June. This land was donated by Nehemiah In- 
gersoll, and comprised about one- half of the square now occupied by 
the public buildings. The title was accepted and it was resolved " that 
$500 of the money now in the hands of the treasurer be appropriated 
to the use of building the court house and jail." 

Previous to the location of the county seat in Albion and the build- 
ing of the court house, the courts were held at the hotel of Mr. Bron- 
son, in Gaines, as before stated. It was then believed that the county 
seat would remain permanently in that town, and the most active and 
prosperous village grow up there ; for some years after the county seat 
was fixed in Albion, the enterprising people of Gaines kept up the com- 
petition between the two places; but they were soon compelled to ac- 
knowledge defeat. The tide turned as far as the county seat was in- 
volved when the commissioners visited Albion and Nehemiah Inger- 
soll offered to donate the finest lots in the village for the public build- 
ings. No more eligible or beautiful site could have been selected. 

At a meeting held in October, 1827, the sum of $300 was appropri- 
ated "for finishing the court house and jail." 

The act authorizing the building of the first court house named Gil- 
bert Howell, of Ridgeway ; Elihu Mather, of Gaines, and Calvin 
Smith, of Barre, commissioners to erect the building and a jail, pro- 
vided that "a suitable and convenient lot or lots for said court house 
and jail shall have been first conveyed to the supervisors of Orleans 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 109 

county." The supervisors were authorized to raise $6,000 for this pur- 
pose, to be paid in annual instalments of $500. The court house erec- 
ted under these provisions was of brick, about half as large as the pres- 
ent one, and served its purpose until 1857-8, when it had become 
wholly inadequate for the public business, and the present one was 
built at a cost of about $20,000. 

An act of the Legislature of April 18, 1828, directed that the county 
courts *■ shall after the passage of this act be held at the court house in 
Albion, on the third Mondays of January, June and September." Cells 
for prisoners were provided in the court house, which sufficed until 
1838, when the first jail was built of hewn timbers ; it stood on the site 
of the present jail. 

The first Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions held for the 
county, was at the house of Mr. Bronson, July 22, 1825. Present — 
Hon. Elijah Foot, first judge ; Eldridge Farwell, William J. Moody, 
William Penniman and Cyrus Harwood, judges. The members of the 
grand jury at this court were Ralph H. Brown, William Love, Harvey 
Goodrich, Hiram Sickels, Henry Carter, Hiram Frisbie, David Sturges, 
Joseph Hamilton, Levi Preston, John Proctor, Robert Anderson, Ze- 
lotes Sheldon, Silas Benton, Ebenezer M. Pease, L. A. G. B. Grant, 
Benjamin Howe. Elijah Bent, Abraham Cantine, Eri Wood and Oliver 
Bennett. 

William Lewis, sheriff. Orange Butler, district attorney. Orson 
Nicholson, clerk. 

The brief record of the opening of the first circuit court is as follows : 

At a Circuit Court iield at the house of Selah Bronson, in the town of Gaines, in and 
for the county of Orleans, on Thursday, the 13th day of October, 1825, present: His 
Honor, Williann B. Rochester, judge eiglith circuit. 

David Strickland, 
William Gates, 
Abel Tracy, 
Montgomery Percival, 
E. Perrigo, 
Zardius Tousley, 

Constables. 

The following persons appeared and were sworn as traverse jurors, 
to- wit : 



no 



LANDMARKS OP 



Martin Hobart, Oliver Brown, Samuel Norton, Joshua Raymond, 
Nathan Whitney, Curtis Tomlinson, Zebulon Packard, Thomas Annis, 
Zardius Tousley, Dudley Watson, Seymour Murdoch, Ephraim Masten, 
Oliver Booth, 2d ; Daniel Gates, Archibald L. Daniels, Richard M'Om- 
ber, Timothy Ruggles Daniel -Reed, Ethan Graham, John Hall, Philo 
Elmer, Joseph Davis, John Sherwood. 

There were four cases tried by jury, namely : Moses Bacon vs. Ger- 
shom Proctor. Samuel Finch vs. Charles Sayres. Benjamin Babcock 
vs. Curtis Tomlinson and Sophia Kingsbury. Irene Leach vs. Henry 
Drake. 







] III J 


m 


.^- 




?^^H 


Blllillailim 




^^^^^^i^%a 




^S 


i^S 



Public Buildings, Albion, 1840.— From an old print. 



For about ten years after the building of the court house the county 
records were kept in a room in that building, in the northeast corner of 
the basement. On the 5th of March, 1836, the supervisors were 
authorized by an act of Legislature to raise $2,000, and erect a fire- 
proof clerk's office. Abraham B. Mills, Harvey Goodrich and Roswell 
S. Burroughs were the commissioners to determine the site " on or near 
where the present clerk's office now stands," as the act stated it. The 
building erected under this act was used until 1882, when measures 
were adopted to build a larger structure. 

In 1882 the erection of the present county clerk's and surrogate's 
office was commenced. The grounds formerly occupied by Phipps 



ORLEANS COUNTY. Ill 

Union Seminary was purchased for $10,000, of which the county paid 
$7,000 and the village of Albion $3,000. The building cost from 
$20,000 to $25,000. The basement is Medina sandstone and the 
superstructure of brick trimmed with granite. The floors are marble, 
the ceilings of iron and the roof of slate. It is a fire proof structure. 
The lower floor is used as a county clerk's office and the upper floor as 
a surrogate's office. It is about 35x60 feet in dimensions and for the 
size of the county is one of the most convenient and commodious build- 
ings in the State. 

Bar Association. — The Orleans County Bar Association was or- 
ganized at a meeting called for the purpose at the suggestion of John 
H. White on the 12th of March, 1877, during a term of the County 
Court. Henry A. Childs, of Medina, and ex-Judge Arad Thomas, of 
Albion, supported the suggestion of Mr. White, and the following 
named attorneys were enrolled as members : Arad Thomas, John H. 
White, John G. Sawyer, I. M. Thompson, E. Porter, O. A. Eddy, 
Charles A. Keeler, Albert W. Crandall, H. A. Childs, George Bullard, 
John W. Graves, S. E. Filkins, Clark D. Knapp, Seth S. Spencer, 
Andrew C. Harwick, E. R. Reynolds, C. J. Church, D. N. Salisbury, 
H. S. Goff and John Cunneen. An election of officers was held and 
John H. White chosen president ; Henry A. Childs, O. A. Eddy and 
George Bullard, first, second and third vice-presidents, respectively ; 
with Mr. Bullard, treasurer, and John Cunneen, secretary. The next 
meeting was held on September 13, 1877, at the Orleans House, Oak 
Orchard Harbor, when a constitution and by-laws were adopted, and 
L. R. Sanford, H. A. GHdden, E. L. Pitts, George A. Newell, H. C. 
Tucker, W. P. Hovey and Edward Posson were added to the member- 
ship. The second annual meeting was held at the Orleans House in 
Albion in March, 1878, and the original officers were re-elected. There 
have been occasional meetings since, but for several years past no 
regular meetings have been held. Irving M. Thompson is at the pres- 
ent time president of the association. 

The following are the present attorneys in Orleans county: 

John H. White Albion John G. Sawyer Albion 

George Bullard " Edwin R. Reynolds 

Irving M. Thompson '• Edwin Porter 

Seth S. Spencer " Calvin J. Church " 



112 



LANDMARKS OF 



Leroy R. Sanford 

Henry C. Tucker 

Isaac S. Signer 

Edwin L. Wage 

Dean F. Currie 

William P. L. Stafford.. 
W.Crawford Ramsdale. 
Benjamin E.Williams.. 

Gurdon W. Fitch 

Pearl Coann 

Albert C. Burrows 

John C. Knickerbocker. 

Henry Armstrong 

Thomas A. Kirby 

Sanford T. Church 

Thomas L. Hughes 

Frederic M. Thompson . 
Warner Thompson 



Albion Edmund L. Pitts Medina 

Henry A. Childs " 

" Stanley E. Filkins " 

" Edward Posson " 

" Hosea B. Dayton " 

" Charles Whedon •' 

'' George A. Newell '' 

" Morgan L. Brainard " 

" Fred L. Downs " 

" Leon M. Sherwood " " 

'• John J. Ryan " 

'' Edwin B. Simonds " 

" Irving L'Hommedieu . " 

Albert J. Coe " 

" James Swart " 

WiUiam E. Hobby Holley 

'• Harry 0. Jones '' 

" D. S. Copeland Clarendon 



PERSONAL SKETCHES. 



There were few lawyers, and certainly none of great prominence, in 
what is now Orleans county, at or before the date of the formation of 
the county. Lawyers naturally gravitate towards a county seat, and 
this fact alone would have kept the villages of Orleans county nearly 
destitute of them when the county seat was at a distant point. But 
with the erection of the new county, attorneys began to locate therein 
and especially at Albion and Medina. The bar of this county has al- 
ways been a reputable one, numbering among its members many 
attorneys of widely- recognized ability and honor, while a few reached 
the highest positions in the judiciary of the State. 

At the head of the roll of honor of the attorneys of this county must 
be placed the name of Sanford E. Church. A son of O. S. Church, he 
was born at Milford, Otsego county, April i8, 1815, came to Monroe 
county with his parents when young and there was educated. At the 
age of twenty-one they removed to Albion. He had made the most 
of his educational opportunities, and had also taught a number of 
terms. At Albion his professional and political career began. He 
served as deputy in the county clerk's office in Orleans county three 
years, then began the study of law, and was admitted to the bar at the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 113 

age of twenty-five. A year later he was elected as Democratic mem- 
ber of Assembly from Orleans county, being the youngest member of 
that body, which included the names of John A. Dix, Horatio Seymour 
and other distinguished men. At the close of his legislative term he 
resumed his law practice at Albion, and in 1844 formed a partnership 
with Noah Davis, jr., later the distinguished Judge Davis of New York. 
This firm continued for thirteen years, when Mr. Davis was appointed 
to the supreme bench. In 1850 Mr. Church was elected lieutenant- 
governor on the Democratic ticket by a majority of 8,000. In 1852 he 
was re-elected, with Horatio Seymour as governor, and in the fall of 
1857 Mr. Church was elected comptroller of the State. In 1867 he 
was elected chief justice of the Court of Appeals by 90,000 majority, 
which position he held until his death, in 1880. In 1868 he was pre- 
sented for the presidential nomination by the State delegation in the 
National Democratic Convention. Judge Church was of impressive 
appearance, broad and deep in his knowledge of law, earnest in man- 
ner, and cogent in his reasoning, added to which he was an eloquent 
orator. He married Ann Wild of New Hampshire, a descendant of 
one of the oldest families of New York. They had two children, Hon. 
George B. Church, of whom an extended notice is given on a subse- 
quent page of this volume, and Helen A., the wife of Dr. S. R. Coch- 
rane of Albion. 

Noah Davis came to Albion in his childhood and found employment 
in early life in copying under Judge Church in the clerk's office. His 
parents were poor and unable to give him good opportunities to secure 
an education, but he was an industrious student, walking to Gaines to 
attend the Academy and copying in his spare hours. He studied law 
in Lewiston, and after his admission to the bar began practice in 
Buffalo. Not meeting with his anticipated success he returned to 
Albion, by an arrangement with his friend. Judge Church, and the 
result was the formation of the successful firm before mentioned. 
Though of opposing politics, the two men were sincere friends and 
continued so. Judge Davis rose to distinction at the bar and in the 
judiciary; was elected to Congress in 1869, resigned in 1870, removed 
to New York City and practiced with Judge Davies. There he gained 
further honors at the bar, was appointed U. S. district attorney by Presi- 



114 LANDMARKS OF 

dent Grant and was elected jud^c oi the Supreme Court. He was also a 
candidate for the United States Senate against Roscoe Conkling 
and nearly reached election. He is now engaged in practicing law in 
New York City. 

Gideon Hard located in Albion in 1826, when he was twenty- nine 
years of age and began the practice of his profession. He was elected 
school commissioner of Barre in 1827, and in the autumn of that year 
was appointed county treasurer, which office he held six years. He 
was elected to Congress in 1832, as a Whig, and re-elected in 1834. In 
the spring of 1837 he returned to Albion and to his practice. In 1841 
he was elected State senator, which body then comprised the Court for 
the Correction of Errors, of which court Mr. Hard became a member. He 
was re-elected in 1845, ^n*^ i" 1848 was appointed canal appraiser, 
holding the office two years. In 1850 he again returned to Albion and 
continued in practice until 1856, when he was elected county judge, 
serving as such four years. After the expiration of his term Mr. Hard 
lived a life of retirement until his death. He was an able lawyer, an 
active and incorruptible legislator, and an upright judge. 

Henry R. Curtis was born in Rensselaer county, N. Y., in 1800, 
studied law in Skaneateles and Elbridge, N. Y., and settled in Albion 
in the fall of 1824. He formed a partnership with Alexis Ward, who 
had previously been admitted to the Supreme Court. In 1831 he was 
appointed district attorney, in which office he continued by successive 
appointments (excepting 1832) until June, 1847, when he was elected 
county judge and surrogate — the first judge chosen under the constitu- 
tion of 1846. He was re elected in 1850 and died before the expiration 
of his second term Before his election as judge he had held the office 
of examiner and master in chancery, and many civil town and village 
offices. For twenty- five years he was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian 
church. As a counselor he was a peacemaker, judicious, cautious and 
sound. He died September 20, 1855. 

Alexis Ward was born in Addison, Vt., May 18, 1802. He studied 
law with Judge Wilson, of Auburn, N. Y., was admitted to the bar in 
1823, and the next year settled in Albion, where he was soon afterward 
appointed a justice of the peace. On the retirement of Judge Elijah 
Foot, the first judge of Orleans county, Mr. Ward was appointed to the 



ORLEANS COUNTr. 115 

office, February, 1830, and held the position by re-appointment until 
January, 1840. In 1834-5 ^^ was instrumental in procuring the charter 
of the Bank of Orleans, the first bank in the county, and in 1836 was 
chosen its president, which position he held until his death, November 
28, 1854. Mr. Ward was active in public affairs; aided in founding 
the Phipps Seminary and Albion Academy ; was conspicuous in pro- 
moting the Rochester, Niagara Falls and Lockport Railroad ; projected 
the plank roads of the county, and with Roswell and Freeman Clarke 
built the stone flouring mill in Albion. He was a member of the 
Presbyterian church and an exemplary Christian. In November, 1854, 
he was elected to the Assembly, but his death prevented his taking the 
seat. 

Judge Arad Thomas was born at Woodstock, Vt., in 1807. He re- 
mained at home and labored with his father till he was seventeen years 
of age, and in 1830 graduated at Union College. He was deputy 
secretary of state for Vermont in 1831, and in 1832 removed to Gaines, 
where he studied law with Hon. W. W. Ruggles. He was admitted to 
the bar of the Supreme Court, and in 1836 removed to Albion. He 
was elected a justice of the peace in 1843 ^"d held the office during 
eight consecutive years. He was elected county judge and surrogate, 
and held the office from i860 to 1864. He was an active member of 
the Orleans County Pioneer Association, and the success of that society 
was largely promoted by his intelligent labors. At the urgent solicita- 
tion of his fellow members he prepared and published, in 1871, at a 
pecuniary sacrifice, his excellent Pioneer History of Orleans county. 
He died several years since. 

William Penniman was born in Hillsborough county, N. H., August 
5> 1793* ^nd died near Albion. After his school days he removed to 
Ontario county, N. Y., in September, 18 16, and thence came to Albion ; 
two years later he settled on a farm near Eagle Harbor, He was not a 
lawyer by profession, but in 1825 was appointed a judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas and was one of the first bench of judges of the 
county. He held the office five years and in 1831 was elected justice 
of the peace at Barre and served until his removal to Eagle Harbor. 
He taught school many years in this county and was very successful in 
that vocation. He was school commissioner and inspector of schools 



116 LANDMARKS OF 

during the eight years he lived in Shelby, and was town superintendent 
of schools three years in Barre. It has been written of him that "as a 
judge he was firm, upright and impartial, and in all his official and 
social relations sustained a character marked for sound views of men 
and things, honest, faithful, and true." 

Edwin Ruthvin Reynolds was born in Fort Ann, Washington 
county, February i6, 1816, and was the oldest of four children of Li- 
nus J. and Alice (Baker) Reynolds. The father was a minister of the 
Baptist church and also a practical printer and editor. The son learned 
the printing trade while young, in his father's office of the Northern 
Spectator, at East Poultney, Vt, at the same time with the late Hor- 
ace Greeley. Mr. Greeley and young Reynolds were firm friends in 
youth, and their acquaintance was maintained until the death of the 
great journalist. Mr. Reynolds prepared for college and entered Brown 
University in the class of '39, afterward receiving the degree of A. M. 
While still engaged in his college studies, and at the age of twenty-one, 
he came to Albion, as principal of the old Albion Academy. His in- 
cumbency of that position continued from January, 1838, to December, 
1846, and the institution under his charge was in every way successful 
and prosperous. In 1840, while teaching, he began a course of law 
studies under the direction of A. H. & D. H. Cole, and was admit- 
ted to practice in 1843. He was the first county superintendent of 
schools in Orleans county, in 1842-43, and then established the first 
normal school in the State. In 1846 he began practice in Albion, and 
has since been a prominent member of the county bar. Among his 
law partners was the late George H. Stone, and during twelve years, 
beginning in 1867, Albert W. Crandall. Mr. Reynolds was for five 
years a justice of the peace of the town of Barre, and clerk of the board 
of supervisors three years. He was elected to Congress and served in 
i860 and 1 861, and was one of the war committee of Orleans county, 
from i860 to 1865. While in Congress he was the friend and supporter 
of President Lincoln, and this and his early acquaintance and life-long 
friendship with Horace Greeley are among the most valued of his past 
associations. His term of service was at the outbreak of the secession 
movement and the beginning of the war of the rebellion. While there 
he had the honor and pleasure of standing near Abraham Lincoln when 



ORLEANS COUNTY. II7 

he delivered his first inaugural address. He also had the satisfaction 
of casting several votes of which he has always been proud : i. Vot- 
ing for the admission of " bleeding Kansas " as a free State. 2. Voting 
with Roscoe Conkling, Burlingame, Washburn, Lovejoy, Wade and the 
others of " the old guard " of 65 members who stood out against every 
project for extending slavery to the Pacific on the line of 2,6 degrees, 
30 minutes, or on any other line whatever. 3. Voting for the Morrill 
tariff bill, which furnished the sinews of war to enable the country to go 
safely through the conflict with the slave- holding confederacy. He also 
introduced and advocated a bill to abolish slavery in the District of Co- 
lumbia, at that time as unpopular a measure as a public man could pro- 
ject. In 1863 Mr. Reynolds was elected county judge and surrogate, 
and served one term of four years. During thirteen years he was 
chairman of the Republican county committee, and also served on the 
State committee, and was one of the three members of the executive 
committee in 1858. In 1868 he was an elector on the Grant ticket, and 
in 1872, was a Greeley elector, and has been a delegate to the State 
convention four times. In 1858 and 1859 he owned and published the 
Orleans American, and has written much for that and other journals, 
besides several pamphlets, speeches and addresses. He was married, 
in November, 1847, to Elizabeth Ann Gale, and they had two children, 
one of whom is living — Grace, wife of John M. Phillips, of Hulberton, 
N. Y. 

Benjamin L Bessac was a native of New Baltimore, Greene county, 
born March 12, 1807, and was the son of Lewis Bessac. In early 
life his father was a blacksmith, but later became a farmer in Chenango 
county where he took up a farm of 160 acres. However, previous to 
this time, he had started for Ohio with the intention to settle, but be- 
came snow-bound at Tonawanda Creek, and it was there he began to 
work as a blacksmith. At a later date he returned to Chenango 
county. When Benjamin was twelve days old his mother died, and- he 
was brought up in the family of an aunt in Greene county. After re- 
ceiving a common school education he taught for a time, then attended 
the Greenville Academy. He prepared for college, intending to enter 
the sophomore class at Union, but went to New York where he was 
employed in a store for a time. Later on he went to Alabama where 



118 LANDMARKS OF 

his wife founded the Mobile Female Seminary, and where he worked as 
clerk in the United States Bank. In March, 1832, Mr. Bessac returned 
north, and after traveling for a time began a course of law study at 
Cairo, Greene county, with Amasa Mattoon, and later was with Judge 
Hiram Gardiner, at Lockport. In 1835 he was admitted to practice, 
and in June of that year became a resident of Albion. Mr. Bessac is 
remembered as having been one of the leading lawyers cf his time. At 
the Orleans county bar he was associated in business with some of the 
best lawyers of the county, among whom may be mentioned the names 
of the late Daniel H. Cole, George Stone and Judge Church. The lat- 
ter read law in Mr. Bessac's office and afterward became his business 
partner. His last law partner was George Bullard, Esq. Mr. Bessac 
was master in chancery for many years and was appointed first judge 
of the county, receiving his appointment from Governor Bouck, in 
1844. In 1853 he was elected district attorney and served one term. 
His law library was one of the best and most extensive in Western New 
York, and naturally his office was the resort of many of his legal asso- 
ciates and law students. Mr. Bessac died December 23, 1871, his 
wife surviving him and dying July 7, 1890. He was brought up in 
the Reformed Dutch church, having united with the society at the age of 
fourteen. In Albion he was a member of the Presbyterian church af- 
ter 1842. His wife was Deborah, daughter of Rev. Simeon Dixinson, 
of East Haddam, Conn. They were married April 11, 1830. De- 
borah Bessac died suddenly in December, 1831, and on June 18, 
1835, Mr. Bessac married Caroline G. Baker. The children of this 
marriage were : Benjamin L., who died an infant ; Addison G., who 
died at the age of thirty eight; Sanford C, of Albion, and Cornelia, 
wife of F. E. French, of Albion. 

Almeron Hyde Cole was born in Cayuga county, N. Y., April 20, 
1798. He prepared for college at Auburn and entered the sophomore 
class of Union College in 18 15. Two years later he left school in con- 
sequence of the death of his mother, and in the fall of 1817 entered the 
law office of Judge Joseph L. Richardson, of Cayuga county, as a stu- 
dent. He was admitted attorney in the Supreme Court in his twenty- 
first year, formed a partnership with Judge Richardson, which was dis- 
solved a few months later, and then made a new business connection 



ORLEANS COUNTY. HO 

with George W. Fleming, at Seneca Falls. In the spring of 1825 both 
came to Albion and practiced together until 1832, meeting with de- 
served success. After leaving Mr. Fleming, he was for a time partner 
with his brother, Hon. Dan H. Cole. He served seventeen years as 
justice of the peace of Barre, and in November, 1847, was elected State 
senator, served one term and declined a re-election. He resumed prac- 
tice in Albion, but a large amount of business connected with the set- 
tlement of an estate in Cayuga county, of which he was executor, he 
gave up his time to those duties and the management of a large farm 
in Gaines. Judge Thomas says of Mr. Cole: "Although a good ad- 
vocate and a strong and logical reasoner at the bar, Mr. Cole was not 
so fluent and polished a speaker as his partner, Mr. Fleming. In their 
earlier years of practice together, Mr. Cole furnished his quota of brains 
to the firm, while Mr. Fleming furnished the tongue." Mr. Cole was 
never married. Coming to the county when it was first organized, he 
was prominent in public affairs and well known to the people of the 
county. He died October 14, 1859. 

William J. Babbitt was a native of Providence, R. I., born in Septem- 
ber, 1786. He learned the blacksmith's trade and worked at it until 
he settled in Gaines, where in 1812 he took up the farm where he ever 
afterwards lived, and moved his family thereto in 18 13. No profes- 
sional lawyer lived in the county for several years after that and Mr. 
Babbitt being a fluent talker, was frequently called on to try the occa- 
sional law suits of the people in justice's court. He improved in this 
practice and became the most noted pettifogger north of the Tona- 
wanda swamp He was prominent in the measures for erecting the 
town of Gaines in 18 16 and and on the 1st of July of that year, apphed 
for and secured a post-office at Gaines and was made postmaster. He 
held the office five years. In 183 1-2 he represented the county in the 
Assembly ; was appointed justice of the peace in 181 5 and held the of- 
fice in all twenty- three years ; was several times supervisor of the town 
and held other town offices. He acquired a character for uncompro- 
mising fidelity in business matters, and by a life of industry and econ- 
omy, accumulated much property. His wife was Eunice Losey. He 
died July 20, 1863. 



120 LANDMARKS OF 

Ben Field, born at Dorset, Vt., in i8i6, removed with his parents to 
Albion in 1828. He was educated at Albion, Brockport, in the schools 
of those villages and at Burr Seminary, Vt. He worked in his father's 
marble shop till he was about seventeen years of age, read law with 
Alexis Ward and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced. He 
was for a while engaged in constructing on railroad work with Tousley, 
Lee & Company. In company with a Mr. Ferry, of Syracuse, he put 
sleeping cars on the Michigan Central Railroad and the Northwestern 
Railroad and continued in this business till i860, when, in company 
with George M. Pullman, he was interested in putting sleepers on the 
St. Louis and Alton Railroad, continuing with Mr. Pullman until 
December, 1865, during which time many valuable patents were 
obtained. Mr. Pullman purchased his interest and he retired from the 
business. Mr. Field was for many years one of the foremost men in 
State politics, and had a very extensive acquaintance. He was State 
Senator in 1854-55, member of the commission to settle the Connecticut 
boundary in 1856, and for many years secretary of the Republican 
State Committee. He was a pleasing conversationalist and a man of a 
large amount of general information and was especial authority on State 
and National politics. He died at Albion in 1879. 

William W. Ruggles was born in Hardwick, Mass., January i, 1800. 
He began the study of law when eighteen years old in Salem, N. Y., 
finishing in Albany. When admitted" to the bar he settled in Albion 
and formed a partnership with Judge Moody. In 1824 he removed to 
Gaines and began practice. He aided in founding the Gaines Academy 
and the bank at that place. He held the offices of master in chancery, 
Supreme Court commissioner, judge of the Court of Common Pleas, just- 
ice of the peace and various town offices, and was several times candi- 
date for the State Legislature, but was defeated with his party. He died 
in Gaines, April 22, 1850. 

Reuben Bryant was born in Worcester county, Mass., July 13, 1792, 
and graduated from Brown University about 1815. After spending 
some time teaching he removed to Livingston county, N. Y., and there 
studied law. After being admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court, 
he settled for practice in Holley about 1823, where he was the pioneer 
lawyer. In the fall of 1849 he removed to Albion, where he practiced 



ORLEANS COUNTY. ]21 

until 1855 ; in that year he removed to Buffalo to aid his son William 
C. Bryant, now a veteran of the Buffalo bar. Fie was appointed mas- 
ter in chancery by Silas Wright, and held the office until it was abol- 
ished in 1846. He was a thorough scholar, well learned in Greek 
and Latin, and as a lawyer had a clear perception of the facts and the 
law in their bearing upon cases; but too exact, cautious, and diffident 
to be a successful advocate. He died in Buffalo in January, 1863. 

Hiram S Goff was a native of Winfield, Herkimer county, N. Y., 
born in 1802 and settled in Albion in 1831, in which year he had been 
admitted to the bar. He began practice with Gideon Hard, and the 
firm continued until 1839. After practicing for a time alone he was 
associated with several other partners, among them John H. White, 
who was with him from 1863 to 1869. Mr. Goff held the office of mas- 
ter in chancery, and was a careful, able and conscientious lawyer. He 
died in 1893. 

Edwin Porter located in Albion in 1856, having been admitted to 
practice at the General Term held in Albion in the fall of that year ; 
he was then twenty-nine years old. He formed a partnership with S. 
S. Spencer, which continued three years, and then practiced with I. M. 
Thompson, of Albion, until the beginning of the war, when Mr. 
Thompson enlisted. Mr. Porter practiced alone until 1876, when he 
formed a partnership with Calvin J. Church. In 1854 Mr. Porter was 
elected school commissioner and served two years. During the John- 
son administration he was appointed internal revenue assessor, and held 
the office about three years ; he was also president of the village one 
year. Mr. Porter's legal education was secured under severe difficulties, 
his law studies being intermitted with teaching school to defray his 
expenses. 

Robert H. Brown studied law with Judge Bessac and was admitted 
to the bar of Orleans county in 185 i. He practiced with Hon. W. K. 
McAllister and subsequently removed to Detroit, where he remained 
in practice a few years and held a judicial office. In 1868 he removed 
to Atlanta, Ga., and practiced for some years. He held the office of 
attorney-general for that State and was one of a committee to revise 
the State code. He afterwards returned to Albion but did not resume 
practice. 



122 LANDMARKS OF 

John Hull White was born in Stanford, Dutchess county, N. Y., Feb- 
ruary 29, 1820, and is the third of seven children of Walter and Mary 
(Avery) White. His father was a farmer and the son lived on the 
farm during his youth, and later was employed as clerk in a store in 
New York. Three years later he returned home, the family having in 
the mean time moved to Mendon, Monroe county, N. Y. He attended 
school at the Macedon and Waterloo Academies, read law with Denton 
G. Shuart, of Honeoye Falls, A. P. Kimball, of Penfield, and finished 
his course with Houghton & Sprague, in Buffalo. Mr. White was ad- 
mitted to practice July 2, 1848, and soon after located in Albion, where 
he has since remained. He has generally practiced without a partner, 
but was associated for a time with Reuben Bryant, and later with 
Hiram S. Goff. While his practice has been of a general character, he 
is especially prominent as a trial lawyer and has been connected with 
many important cases in this region, particularly in railroad litigation. 
In politics Mr. White is a conservative Democrat and has been the 
candidate of his party for the offices of district attorney, county judge, 
and representative in Congress; and while the majority in the county 
and district has always been largely against his party, the vote he has 
received has been a source of gratification to himself and his friends. 
Mr. White has been president of the village, and president of the 
Board of Education thirteen years and a member sixteen years. Mr. 
White has been many years conspicuously identified with Odd Fellow- 
ship, his membership in the order beginning in 1848. He has advanced 
through all the various lodge and encampment degrees to the position 
of grand master of the State, and in 1887 was elevated to the high 
position of grand sire of the order — the greatest honor that the order 
can confer. He has also been a member of the Sovereign Grand Lodge 
since 1865. He is the author of a valuable digest pertaining to Odd 
Fellowship, a work that has attracted much attention in the order 
throughout the country. He has also been a contributor to other 
works on the same subject. Mr. White was married on January 19, 
1850, to Temperance, daughter of Matthias B. Miller, of Dutchess 
county. After the death of his wife Mr. White married Mrs. Mary A. 
Miller, widow of Capt. John B. Miller. She died in 1 891, and in June, 
i8q2. he married Frances M. Noble, of Albion. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 123 

John Gilbert Sawyer is a native of Vermont and born at Brandon 
June 5, 1825. He is the eldest but one of seven children of John F. 
and Mary J. Sawyer. In 1831 the family removed to Western New 
York, settling at Knowlesville, where the father was a carpenter and 
joiner. John G. Sawyer was educated in the district schools and at the 
Hillville Academy, in preparation for a collegiate course. To secure 
the latter he went to Kentucky and later to Arkansas, where he taught 
school nearly three years to obtain means to pay his college expenses. 
In the fall of 1846 he returned home with the intention of entering 
college, but for personal reasons the plan was abandoned and in the 
spring of 1847 he settled in Albion and began a course of law study in 
the office of Curtis & Stone, finishing with Judge Bessac. He was ad- 
mitted to practice in 1852, but prior to that time, in 1848, he was 
elected superintendent of public schools for this county ; the duties of 
this office interfered somewhat with his law study and delayed the 
date of his admission. In 1851 he was elected justice of the peace and 
held the office about five years In the fall of 1855 he formed a part- 
nership with the late Judge Church, which business connection was 
not practically ended until the death of Judge Church. In the fall of 
1862 Mr. Sawyer was elected district attorney, and in 1863 was elected 
county judge, in which capacity he served sixteen years, having been 
twice re-elected. In the fall of 1884 Judge Sawyer was elected to 
Congress and served in that body three consecutive terms. Politically 
Judge Sawyer is well known as a stalwart and staunch Republican. He 
was originally a Whig, and was one of the organizers of the Republi- 
can party in Orleans county. As a lawyer and a judge he has won 
merited distinction, while his character as a man has made him a large 
circle of friends. On the 27th of June, 1855. Judge Sawyer was mar- 
ried to Eliza A. Shaw, of Plainfield, Mass. They have five children, 
two of whom are living. 

Seth S. Spencer left the town of Barre in the spring of 1852, when 
he was twenty-one years old and settled in Albion to study law. He 
was at first in the office of William R. McAllister, and finished with 
Church & Davis. He was admitted to practice in the fall of 1856, and 
began in association with Edwin Porter, continuing thus until the spring 
of 1862. He was then elected justice of the peace and served in that 



124 LANDMARKS OF 

office until December, 1875. While in that office he formed a partner- 
ship with Holmes & Thompson under the name of Holmes, Thompson 
& Spencer, afterwards Thompson & Spencer, and now Thompson, 
Spencer & Thompson. He was appointed clerk of the Board of Super- 
visors, and filled the position most acceptably during twelve years. 
He was appointed postmaster under President Harrison. 

Irving M. Thompson settled in Albion in 1852, from Carlton, and 
began the study of law in the office of Judge Bessac ; he was then 
twenty-one years old. Four years later he was admitted and began 
practice with Charles H. Holmes; his next partnership was with Wil- 
lard F. Warren, which continued until 1861, after which and until the 
war he was associated with Edwin Porter. He enlisted and served in 
the 17th Battery, and three years later returned to Albion and formed 
a second copartnership with Mr. Holmes; in 1871 S. S. Spencer be- 
came a member of the firm. Mr. Thompson was district attorney in 
1866-69, and also held the office of postmaster of the village. He has 
been many years a member of the Board of Education of the village 
of Albion. 

W. Crawford Ramsdale was born in Malta, Saratoga county, March 
5, 1856, and is the youngest and only son of six children of William 
and Parthenia (Crawford) Ramsdale. The family removed to Orleans 
county and live in the town of Gaines. The subject passed his youth 
on a farm, was educated in the district schools, Albion Academy, at- 
tended Miss Foster's select school and graduated from the University 
of Rochester in the class of '79. Mr. Ramsdale studied law with John 
H. White, of Albion, and was admitted as an attorney in 1881, and as 
counselor at a later date. He has always practiced at the county seat 
and though still comparatively young in years and in professional ex- 
perience, Mr. Ramsdale is regarded as one of the leading men at the 
bar of the county. In politics he is Democratic and is an important 
factor in the councils of his party. He has been the nominee of the 
Democracy for the offices of county treasurer and county judge and 
surrogate, in the canvass for the former office being defeated by only 
180 votes. In January, 1884, Mr. Ramsdale married Ellen J., daugh- 
ter of the late Andrew Wall, of Albion. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 125 

Dean F. Currie was born in Clinton, Oneida county, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 17, 1847, ^"d is a son of Earl S. and Wealthy B, Currie. Of 
the three children of these parents, Dean F. is the only son. His 
father was a farmer and the son was brought up on the homestead ; was 
educated at the Clinton Liberal Institute and Dwight's Rural High 
School and took a special course at Hamilton College, graduating from 
the law department. Mr. Currie was admitted to the bar in 1870 and 
during the next ten years practiced in Clinton. In 1881 he removed 
to Albion, where he has since been in practice. While constantly de- 
voted to his profession, Mr. Currie has always been prominent in local 
politics and one of the Democratic leaders in Western New York. He 
was the nominee of his party for the Assembly in 1883, and was de- 
feated by only twenty- nine votes. In 1884 he again ran for the office 
and was defeated by sixty-eight votes. In 1885 he was elected police 
justice of the village of Albion and served three years. On February 
10, 1888, Mr. Currie was appointed by President Cleveland United 
States consul at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, where he served in that posi- 
tion until July 1st, 1892. In the fall of this year he was Democratic 
candidate for the senatorship of the thirty- first district and ran ahead 
of his ticket. As a lawyer Mr. Currie has been connected with some 
of the most important cases tried at the local bar, including three 
murder cases, in one of which while defending Emery B. Butler, in 
1887, he was stricken down with paralysis. While his practice is of a 
general character, he has been particularly successful in criminal causes. 
On July 3, 1873, Mr. Currie married Florence A. Stafford, of Clinton, 
Oneida county, N. Y. They have one child. 

Thomas Lawrence Hughes was born in Albion October 27, 1865, 
and is the third of eleven children born to Patrick and Elizabeth 
Hughes. Thomas attended the district schools, but received his edu- 
cation principally at St. Raphael's Academy (a parochial school). He 
graduated from the Albion Free School in 1886 and was the orator of 
his class. He read law with John H. White and was admitted in 
Rochester at the June General Term in 1891. In the same month he 
formed a partnership with Thomas A. Kirby. Mr. Hughes is a strong 
Democrat and is active in the councils of the party in Orleans county. 
When he had just reached his majority he was elected town clerk and 



126 LANDMARKS OF 

re-elected a second term. He has been a delegate to both county and 
State Democratic conventions, and in 1890 was clerk of the Assembly 
cities committee He has also been clerk of the Senate judiciary com- 
mittee. Mr. Hughes was one of the founders of the Weekly News, an 
Albion newspaper, and was its editor two years. 

Thomas Austin Kirby was born in Albion March 22, 1868, and is 
the eldest of three children of John and Catherine (Moynihan) Kirby. 
Until he was fifteen years old Thomas attended the village schools, 
then worked one year as an iron moulder, which is his father's occupa- 
tion. In 1886 he began studying law with John Cunneen, in Albion 
(now of Buffalo), and was admitted to practice in Rochester in 1889. 
Previous to his admission he taught school at South Barre and later 
attended the Cornell University Law School, from which he graduated 
in 1889. He began practice in Albion in July, 1889, and in June, 1891, 
became one of the present firm of Hughes & Kirby, who are both able 
trial lawyers. Since attaining his majority Mr. Kirby has been an ar- 
dent Republican and has closely identified himself with the work of his 
party in the county, and was chairman of the Republican county com- 
mittee for two terms. In the Democratic village of Albion he has been 
three times elected police justice, first in 1892. He is the only Pvcpub- 
lican ever elected to any village office for three successive terms. He 
has before him a promising future. 

Hon. Charles H. Holmes was born in Albion, Orleans county, N. Y., 
on the 24th day of October, 1827. He acquired a good English edu- 
cation in the common schools and Albion Academy, and in his twenti- 
eth year commenced the study of the law in the office of Hon. Henry 
R. Curtis at Albion, and continued his studies with Church & Davis. He 
entered the Albany Law School in 1853 and graduated in 1854. He 
was married to Miss Mary A. Spencer on the 13th day of June, 1854. 
Mr. Holmes was a self-made man, struggling against poverty and re- 
sorting to manual labor and school teaching to procure means to defray 
his expenses in securing an education. He was in partnership with 
Henry D. Tucker from January, 1858, to 1863 in the practice of the 
law. In July, 1865, he formed a partnership with Lieut. Irving M. 
Thompson, which continued till Mr. Holmes's death, Seth S. Spencer 
joining the firm in the spring of 1871. Mr. Holmes possessed a good 




<\-J^ClCie O. ^^^fy-yv^rr^ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 127 

legal mind and was very successful as a jury lawyer. He was a man 
of indomitable energy and perseverance. His practice became quite 
extensive, and regardless of his health, he put all of his vitality and 
energy in his cases. While trying a complicated suit in the Orleans 
circuit in March, 1873. before Judge Lamont and a jury, he fell to the 
floor from an attack of epilepsy. He never fully recovered from this, 
and was stricken down with apoplexy on the 30th day of September, 
1874, and died the next day. His funeral was attended by a large 
assemblage of friends and acquaintances. Mr. Holmes was elected to 
Congress in 1870, representing the congressional district composed of 
the counties of Monroe and Orleans, and while holding that position, 
represented his constituency in a satisfactory manner. He joined the 
Presbyterian church in Albion in his twentieth year, and continued a 
member till his death, during all of that time being connected with the 
Sabbath school in some capacity. 

Isaac S. Signor was born at Skaneateles, N. Y. His family were 
originally from Dutchess county. He attended Elbridge Academy and 
graduated from Hamilton College in 1870, taking the first Kingsley 
prize in debate at the end of the senior year. At the end of 1871 he 
graduated from the law school and the same year commenced practice 
at Albion, where he remained for two years. He then went to New 
York city and v/as in the office of Davies & Work, and still later with 
Judge Hawes. The firm of Griggs & Signor was then formed and they 
did business at 237 Broadway for over three years. In 1878 he re- 
turned to Albion and since 1879 the firm of Signor & Wage has been 
in existence. Judge Signor was elected district attorney on the Re- 
publican ticket and served from 1881 to 1884. He was then elected 
county judge and was reelected. He was married in 1878 to Mary 
Grierson, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Edwin L. Wage was born in Providence, Saratoga county, January 
27, 1836, and was the eldest of three children of William and Julia 
Wage. The family came to East Gaines in 1844 and thence moved to 
Barre. In the latter town the mother died, and the father in Albion. 
After an elementary education at Albion Academy, Edwin spent his 
early life on a farm and also taught school. In July, 1862, he enlisted 
as a private in Company D., 151st N. Y. Volunteer Infantry, and on 



128 LANDMARKS OF 

the organization of the company was made sergeant. In January, 
1863, he passed an examination before Gen. Casey's board and was 
commissioned captain in the 20th Regiment of U. S. Col. troops, 
upon which he joined the command in New York harbor and proceeded 
to New Orleans. Here he was permanently detached from the regi- 
ment and appointed assistant provost marshal and stationed at Carroll- 
ton, La. Capt. Wage resigned and was mustered out of service in 
August, 1865. Returning home he engaged in fire and life insurance, 
about eight years, after which he read law with Reynolds & Crandall, 
after which he entered Hamilton Law School and was graduated from 
there and admitted to practice in 1879. In this year the law partner- 
ship of Signor & Wage was formed, which has continued to the present 
time. In politics Mr. Wage is a strong Republican and was supervisor 
of the Eleventh Census for the Tenth District, N. Y. He married in 
1865, Helen M. Comstock, daughter of Arnold Comstock, of Carlton, 
N. Y. 

Irving L'Hommedieu was born in the town of Shelby, Orleans 
county, N. Y., January 12, 1865. He is a son of Hon. Wallace 
L'Hommedieu of this county, his mother's maiden name being Frances 
M. Berry, a daughter of the late Colonel John Berry, of Holley, N. Y. 
He was educated in the common schools and the Medina Academy. 
In 1884 he began studying law, entering the office of Hon. Edmund L. 
Pitts at Medina. He taught school during the winters of 1883-84 
and 1884-85. He graduated from the Albany Law School in 1886 and 
was admitted to the bar the same year. From 1886 to 1888 he re- 
sided at Omaha, Nebraska: returning to Medina in 1888 the law firm 
of Simons & L'Hommedieu was formed, which partnership still exists. 
June 29, 1887, he married Christina Breed, a daughter of Charles H. 
Breed, of Medina. Mr. L'Hommedieu is a prominent Freemason, 
being a member of the lodge, chapter, council, commandery and Lodge 
of Perfection, having held many Masonic offices, and is at present the 
master of the council He is also an Odd Fellow, and is a member of 
the Alert Hose Company of Medina, of which he is now president. He 
was appointed village attorney of Medina in March, 1893, and was 
elected a member of the Board of Education in August, 1892, both of 
which positions he still occupies. Mr. L'Hommedieu is an ardent Re- 
publican and takes an active interest in politics. 




(is^^^w"^^^' 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 129 

Edwin B. Simons was born in Shelby, Orleans count}-, and is a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Simons & L'Hommedieu He was elected dis- 
trict attorney in 1893. He is a prominent lawyer and politician 

Orange A. Eddy was among the prominent men of HoUey, and was 
born in Barre, February 20. 1832. He was a son of Samuel Eddy, of 
Barre, who was a farmer. Orange A was educated in the district 
schools of his native town and at Albion Academy. He studied law in 
the ofiice of Church & Davis, of Albion, and May 17, 1867, was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He immediately began the practice of law in Holley 
and continued the same until his death, May 13, 1884. In politics he 
was a Democrat, for several years was justice of the peace. He was a 
man of sterling integrity, and commanded the respect and trust of his 
fellow townsmen to a remarkable degree. A certain attorney was once 
remarked that he was the only honest lawyer he ever knew. He was 
known tor his kindness of heart, being always ready to listen to and aid 
those in distress. In 1866 Mr. Eddy married Harriet M. Hendrick, 
daughter of David Hendrick, of Holley, who survives him. They had 
two children, Grace Augusta, who died young, and Mary Louise, who 
married Frank W. Cady, D. D. S., and resides in Albany, N. Y. 

John W. Graves was reared in the southern part of this State, and 
during his professional career lived and practiced in Medina, where he 
died about three years ago. He was admitted to the bar in this 
judicial district. No man in Orleans county ever possessed a greater 
degree of native ability, and no one excelled him in summing up cases. 
Large in stature, and endowed with exceptional powers of endurance, 
he was regarded as one of the most powerful trial lawyers in the State ; 
his adroitness in managing cases and his ability for cross-examining 
witnesses were seldom equaled. At one time he was a partner of Hon. 
E. L. Pitts, and upon the creation of the office of United States internal 
revenue assessor he was the first to receive an appointment to that 
position. During several of the latter years of his life he was a justice 
of the peace in Medina. 

Hiram E. Sickels began the practice of law in Orleans county and 
for several years followed his profession in Medina, being a partner of 
John W. Graves. In 1871 he was appointed reporter in the Court of 

17 



130 LANDMARKS OF 

Appeals, a position he still holds. He is a first-class lawyer, and is 
conceded to be the ablest reporter that judicial body ever had. 

Adna Bowen was a native of Shelby, studied law and was admitted 
in this county, and died in Medina, where he had always practiced. 
He was an exceptionally good trial lawyer and possessed a thorough 
knowledge of law. 

James De Puy, a native of this State and a partner of Adna Bowen in 
Medina, was both a popular and kind-hearted gentleman and a good 
legal practitioner. During the latter years of his life he entered with 
others into oil speculation, and died in Canada. 

Archibald Servoss was one of the earliest attorneys in Medina. After 
practicing there many years he removed to Rochester, where he died. 

Silas M. Burroughs was a colonel in the State militia, and for many 
years a very able lawyer in Medina, where he died. He was member 
of Congress and held a number of other offices of trust and 
responsibility. 

Ephraim Garter practiced law in Medina during his early life, but 
about 1849 l"*^ removed to California, where he became a judge of one of 
the higher courts, and where he died. His brother, Reuben Garter, 
was also an attorney in Medina, but finally abandoned the practice of 
law and moved away. 

Stanley E. Filkins was born in Bethany, Genesee county, February 
19, 1836. Educated at the Grand River Institute in Ohio, he began the 
study of law with Brown & Glowackie, of Batavia, N. Y., and finished 
with Merrill T. Jenkins, of East Randolph, Cattaraugus county, being 
admitted to the bar in Erie county in 1857. I" the spring of i860 Mr. 
Filkins commenced the practice of his profession in Medina, where he 
has ever since resided. Excepting a partnership of four years with A. 
J. Coe he has alwaj^s practiced alone. Although he has frequently 
been offered public office he has steadfastly refused to accept the same, 
preferring instead to devote his time and talents to his legal profession, 
in which he has attained a distinguished position. He is regarded as 
one of the best lawyers in Western New York. 

Harry Orlando Jones was born in 1859 in Holley. His father, Harry 
O., was a son of Reuben D. Jones, who was a native of Boston, Mass. 
Reuben D. Jones resided in Holley several years and conducted a hotel, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 131 

then remov^ed to Chicago, where he engaged in the wholesale dry goods 
trade. His son, Harry O., was engaged in business with his father for a 
number of years, then engaged in the oil trade in New York. In 1854 
he married Cornelia E., daughter of Hiram Frisbie of Holley. Their 
son, the subject, was educated in the common schools, and entered the 
Brockport school, graduating from the academic department in 1878. 
He entered Hamilton College, graduating in 1882, began the study of 
law in Syracuse, and was admitted to the bar in 1885. From then until 
1888 he was engaged in the practice of his profession in Rochester. 
He was one of the organizers of the Holley Electric Light Co, and was 
its first president. In 1 893 he was elected supervisor of Murray on the 
Democratic ticket, and the same year was a candidate for member of 
Assembly from Orleans county. 

William E. Hobby, a prominent member of the Orleans county bar, 
has for many years been in practice at Holley and has had an extensive 
business. During the war he was in the navy. He is a prominent 
citizen of the county. 

Gurdon W. Fitch, son of Dr. W. R. Fitch, was a member of the law 
firm of Sawyer & Fitch, and several years was clerk of the Surrogate's 
Court. He was among the most prominent of the younger members 
of the bar. 

Several citizens of Orleans county in early years held judicial offices 
who were not educated for the legal profession. John Lee, ancestor of 
the Lee family in Barre, was a native of Massachusetts, migrated to 
Madison county, N. Y., and thence to Barre in 18 16, where he took up 
a tract of land. He was an intelligent and energetic man and foremost 
in public affairs. He was appointed a judge in the Court of Common 
Pleas of Genesee county and filled the ofifice with ability. He died in 
October, 1823. 

Abraham Cantine, a native of Ulster county, N. Y., was a soldier in 
the war of 18 12, returned to Ulster county and was appointed sheriff, 
soon after which he settled in Murray, Orleans county. He was elected 
to the Assembly for 1827, and served five years as an associate judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. He was also collector of tolls on the canal 
in Albion in 1835. He lived in the latter place several years before his 
death, which took place in 1840. 



132 LANDMARKS OF 

Eldridge Farwell, the conspicuous pioneer of Clarendon, a record of 
whose life is given in the history of that town, was appointed a judge 
in the Court of Common Pleas in 1825, and held the office five years He 
died October 15, 1843. 

Robert Anderson, a pioneer of Gaines, was appointed a justice of the 
peace in 1817 and held the office until 1822, and in the winter of that 
year was appointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas; he held the 
office two years and resigned. He held the office of supervisor many 
years before and after the organization of Orleans county, and was in 
the Legislature in 1822. 

Austin Day, a native of Vermont, settled in Murray in 181 5 ; served 
as constable several years, and practiced pettifogging considerably. He 
held the office of judge of the Court of Common Pleas about five years, 
and was elected sheriff of the county in 1847. He removed to Albion in 
1848, and died October 15, 1858. 

Elijah W. Wood was a native of Massachusetts and settled in Murray 
at an early day. He served many years as constable and justice of the 
peace, and practiced pettifogging. During one term of five )'ears he 
served as a judge of the Court of Common Pleas. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

The pioneers of any locality have always been followed by the " good 
physician." This is one of the unpleasant necessities of human ex- 
perience. In the early years of the present century the State of New 
York, unlike Pennsylvania and the New England States, had done very 
little to encourage science, and there was no school of medicine worthy 
of the name nearer than Boston or Philadelphia. Few young men 
could then afford to go so far to qualify themselves for a profession, 
whatever inducements its future seemed to promise him. This led to 
the prevailing custom among young aspirants for medical practice to 
enter the office of a neighboring physician, study his books two or three 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



133 



years, and at the same time accompanying his tutor in professional 
visits. At the end of the term the young doctor felt qualified to begin 
his professional career. The laws then governing the admission to 
practice of physicians were practically worthless, but in 1806 the 
Legislature passed an act repealing former laws applying to the 
medical profession, and authorizing the formation of a general State 
Medical Society and county societies This action was immediately 
productive of great benefit to both the physicians and the public. 
Charlatans were excluded and a standard fixed for the admission of 
students to the county societies which insured the public against mal- 
practice by uneducated persons. 

The Orleans County Medical Society was organized Januarys, 1873, 
at a meeting held in the office of Dr. J. W. Randall, in Albion ; he was 
the chief actor in promoting the organization. There were present 
at the meeting, Drs. Randall, H. W. Lewis, H. C. Tompkins, E. R. 
Armstrong, R. W. Smith, William McKennan, E. P. Squier, Thomas 
Cushing, C. S. Pugsley, J. H. Taylor, W. Noble, J. D. Warren, S. R. 
Cochrane, R. E. Cochrane, and James Chapman. 

Dr. Randall presided over the meeting and Dr. Chapman acted as 
secretary. The name as given above was adopted and a committee 
appointed to prepare and report a constitution to a subsequent meeting. 
The second meeting was held on the 5th of February, at which the con- 
stitution was adopted. Among its provisions was one establishing the 
place for holding the regular meetings in Albion (unless otherwise 
voted) on the third Wednesday of January, April, July, and October of 
each year, the first one in each year to be the anniversary meeting. 
The first officers elected were as follows : President, Dr. J. W. Randall ; 
vice-president. Dr. Thomas Cushing; secretary and treasurer, Dr. James 
Chapman; executive committee, Drs. William McKennan, E. P. Squier, 
and C. S. Pugsley. The official term was fixed by the constitution at 
one year. 

The anniversary meeting of 1875 was held publicly in the court 
house, the previous meetings having usually been held in the offices of 
members of the society. The attendance at the anniversary meeting 
was large, and the members of the society enjoyed a banquet after the 
exercises at what is now the Orleans House. At the meeting of July 



134 LANDMARKS OF 

1 8, 1877, it was voted that subsequent meetings should be held on the 
first Thursday of May and November, the election of officers to take 
place at the latter. 

The meetings of this society since its organization have been, as a 
rule, well attended and many of the members have taken an active in- 
terest in the proceedings, as shown in numerous papers and essays that 
have been prepared and read. 

The present officers of the society are as follows: President, Dr. 
George J. Lund, of Medina; vice-president, Dr. F. B. Storer, of Holley ; 
secretary and treasurer, Dr. Daniel H. Brennan, of Albion ; censors, 
Dr. Charles E. Fairman, Lyndonville ; J. J. Simonds, Barre Center; 
William Eman, Gaines; and F. L. June, Waterport. The annual 
meetings are now held in Albion ; the spring meetings in Medina ; the 
summer meetings in Holley. Following is a list of the members in 
1894: Albion, Drs. Daniel H. Brennan, J. G. Dolley, Willard R. 
Fitch, Harriet Watson, S. R. Cochrane, J. E. Sutton, Elizabeth M. 
Squier, and M. L. Caverly. Barre, J. J. Simonds. Carlton, F. L. 
June, Edward Wittier. Gaines, William Eman. Kendall, R. W. 
Bamber. Holley, F. B Storer, John H. Taylor, Edwin R. Armstrong. 
Ridgeway, George J. Lund, Edward Munson, James Chapman, John T. 
James, Edward M. Tompkins, James F. Stokes. Yates, Charles E. Fair- 
man. Shelby, Harvey L. James. 

Orson Nichoson was one of the earliest physicians of Orleans county, 
and a man of character and prominence both in and out of his pro- 
fession. He was a native of Saratoga county, where he was born March 
2, 1795. In August, 1 8 19, he settled in the then town of Barre, and in 
1822 removed to the village of Albion, where for many years he had a 
large practice. When his health became impaired by his arduous 
labors, he joined with Dr. L. C. Paine, another early doctor, and they 
carried on a drug business, books, etc., until a few years before his 
death. Dr. Nichoson was chosen clerk of the county in November, 
1825. He was the first regular physician to settle in Albion. His 
death occurred May 7, 1870. 

Jesse Beech was born in Montgomery county, N. Y., March 20, 1787. 
His son. Dr. John H. Beech, of Michigan, furnished Judge Thomas 
with some data regarding his father and early times in this county. He 



ORLEANS COUNTY. I35 

said, " In those days medical colleges were not accessible to students of 
ordinary means " (as we have explained on a preceding page.) "There 
was a public prejudice against dissections, and the students of the two 
doctors (with whom his father studied) occupied a room in the steeple 
of a church in Charleston, N. Y., where they dissected bodies. One of 
the class would stay in the steeple all day Sundays with their cadavers, 
to keep the hatch fastened down to exclude intruding boys." Dr Jesse 
Beech began practice at Esperance, N. Y., in 18 13. In the fall of 1815 
he located in Gaines, which it was then thought would ultimately be a 
county seat for a new county. In the years 1817, 18 18 and 18 19 it took 
him three or four days to make the circuit of his patients. Dr. Beech 
was a strong advocate of temperance, a fine horseman and often officiated 
as marshal on public occasions. It the later years of his life he kept a 
drugstore in connection with his practice. He died March 4, 1829. 

John H. Beech was born September 4, 18 19, and in his youth served 
as clerk for Fanning & Orton, of Albion. He afterwards attended the 
Gaines Academy until he was eighteen years old, when he began 
studying medicine with Drs. Nichoson and Paine, in Albion. He 
graduated at the Albany Medical College in 1841. He practiced from 
his old homestead until 1850, when he removed to Coldwater, Mich. 
He was the only son of Dr. Jesse Beech. 

William White, whose name we have already mentioned, was probably 
the first physician who settled in Orleans county, and came very early 
in the century. Little is now known of his nativity and early years. 
He first settled in the town of Ridgeway, but in a few years removed to 
Albion village and built a saw-mill on Sandy Creek a little south of the 
village. As the place became more thickly settled, Dr. White gave 
more of his time to medical practice, had a large business and about the 
time of the opening of the canal, opened a small drug store in connec- 
tion with other business, and for a time practiced in partnership with 
Dr. Green Nichoson. He was appointed the first surrogate of Orleans 
county. Later he managed boating operations on the canal, was on a 
farm in Carlton a while, and about 1842 returned to Albion and re- 
sumed practice, adopting the homeopathic system. He was not very 
successful, and removed to Holley. While there he served as justice of 
the peace several years, and died there. 



136 LANDMARKS OF 

Christopher Whaley was born in Connecticut, June i6, 1798, and 
settled with his parents at Verona, N, Y., in 1803. He was educated 
as a physician at the medical school at Fairfield, N. Y., and graduated 
in June, 1819. In September of the same year he located at Shelby 
Center. In February, 1832, he removed to IMedina, where he continued 
in practice and died October 26, 1867. ^^- Whaley was a very suc- 
cessful physician and devoted his entire energies to his profession. It 
was truly said of him that "he never refused his services to any one in 
need of them, whether they were rich or poor, and without taking into 
consideration the possibility of losing his fee," Dr. Whaley was suc- 
ceeded in Shelby in early years by Dr. George Norton. 

Elisha Bowen was an early and successful physician of the town of 
Yates. He was born in Windsor county, Vermont, in 1791 and was 
educated at Dartmouth College. He married and settled first in Pal- 
myra, N. Y., where his wife died, and in 1820 he removed to Yates, 
locating between Yates Center and the lake. He was the first and for 
many years the only physician in the town. Dr. Bowen was the father 
of twelve children, having been married three times. He was one of the 
thirteen persons who formed the Baptist church in Yates in 1822, and 
continued a member through his life. He was a conscientious and kind 
hearted man and a good physician. He died April 6, 1863. 

Willard R. Fitch, who since about 1867 has been a practicing phy- 
sician residing in the western part of Albion, but who came to the town 
to retire from professional work and engage in farming for a limited 
time, was born in Otsego, February 16, 1 826. He received an academic 
education, and also attended the Albany State Normal School. After a 
course of medical study with Doctors Manley, Thayer and Cummings, 
he attended a medical college ai Pittsfield, Mass., and still later was 
graduated from the New York City University Medical College. Dr. 
Fitch began practice at Oneida, N. Y., and with the exception of one year 
in the army, practiced in that town eighteen 3'ears. Dr. Fitch entered 
the service as assistant surgeon of the Second N. Y. Militia (82d 
Regiment) and served about thirteen months. After the war, being in 
poor health, he spent two years in Mobile, Ala., and in 1867 bought 
and came to the old Perkins farm in Albion, and although intending to 
remain there for a short time only, the doctor has been kept in constant 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 137 

practice during his residence in this locality. However, for two years 
he was in a drug store in Lockport. In 1852 Dr. Fitch married Maria, 
daughter of Rev. D, D. Ransom, and they have had five children . 
Evaline.who died aged seven ; Gurdon W., a lawyer of Albion ; Freddie, 
who died in infancy ; Edward H., who died at twenty ; and Luella. He 
is a strong Republican, and has been justice of the peace eight years. 
He is now one of the deacons in the Knowlesville Baptist church. He 
was one of the United States examining surgeons for pensions for 
Orleans county nearly two years. 

Horace Phipany, son of Joel, was born in Hindsburgh, Vermont, 
February 9, 1806, and learned the shoemaker's trade of his father. He 
moved to Sheldon, Wyoming county, thence to Millville in this county, 
and in 1824 settled in Gaines, where he followed shoemaking for a short 
time. He soon took up the study of medicine with Dr. Elisha Whaley 
and later with his uncle, Dr. Richard Gates, both of Medina, teaching 
school occasionally to meet his pecuniary expenses. In 1827 he began 
the practice of his profession in Lyndonville as the second physician in 
town, where he continued until his death October 28, 1850. He was 
school inspector many years, held several minor town offices, and was 
supervisor of Yates in 1847 ^"^ 1848. He married Elizabeth Blanchard 
and their children were Arthur H., born November 13, 1834; A. Hal- 
ler, born September 4, 1836, who enlisted in Company C. 3d N. Y. 
Cavalry August 3, 1861, and served until August 3, 1864 ; Mary E. 
(Mrs. Walter E. Smith); Carroll, born July 9, 1842, who enlisted in 
Company A, 8th N. Y. H. A., promoted corporal May 19, 1894, 
wounded in front of Petersburg, and discharged May 6, 1865; and 
Catherine E. (Mrs. E. B. Brown). Arthur H. Phipany is a merchant 
in Lyndonville, the firm being Phipany & Gale, succeeding Hon. Henry 
M. Hard. 

Hervey Blood, who for many years was well known to the older resi- 
dents of the northern part of Orleans county as a minister of the gospel, 
and later as practicing physician, was a native of Conway, Mass., born 
about 1804. Coming to this State he located at Broadalbin, where he 
taught school several years, then moved to Whitesboro and Hamilton, 
at the latter attending Colgate Academy. He afterward engaged in 
missionary work in Western New York under the direction of the Home 

18 



138 LANDMARKS OF 

Mission Board, and in connection with his labors he came to Carlton in 
1825. Here he bought land and built a house, and although he was 
afterward stationed at various other places, Carlton was considered the 
home of Mr. Blood and family. As the result of hard and constant 
ministerial work, his voice failed, and he was compelled to change his 
avocation. He read medicine in Gaines, and was graduated from a 
medical institution at Willoughby, Ohio. Dr. Blood practiced in Carl- 
ton and Yates about ten years, until the time of his death, July 27, 
1864. He married EHza Cooley, and to them one child was born, Ad- 
oniram Judson, who settled in Missouri and died there in 1892. After 
the death of his wife, Mr Blood married Gracilla, daughter of Anthony 
Miles, a pioneer of the town. The children of this marriage were : 
Francis Wayland, Cornelia Ann and Francis W. (all of whom died 
young), and Hervey, of Albion. 

William Noble was a native of Weathersfield, Conn., born May 9, 
1803, and was the son of Elnathan and Mary Noble. The family left 
Connecticut about 1805, and settled at Geneva. William Noble was 
educated at Albany and New York city, at the latter in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, and completed his medical education at Cas- 
tleton, Vt. He studied medicine in New York city under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Valentine Mott and other well known and equally distin- 
guished physicians. He began practicing in Albany, and thence 
moved to Hudson, Ohio, from the latter place coming to Albion, in 
1840. From this time until his death. Dr. Noble was in continuous 
practice in Orleans county, and was a physician of much prominence 
among the local practitioners, while as a surgeon was perhaps un- 
equaled in the county. Dr. Noble died in Albion, April 18, 1878. 
His wife, whom he married at Albany, June 2, 1829, was Amelia Stiles 
Denio. 

Harriet Noble Watson, better known as Mrs. Dr. Watson, was 
educated at Phipps Seminary, and received her medical education at 
the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, New York 
City, from which she was graduated. She practiced medicine parts of 
two years in New York and has visited the noted hospitals of Europe. 
She entered the medical profession in answer to her father's desire that 
she should continue practice in Albion as he had done. Dr. Harriet 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 139 

Watson is a member of the Orleans County Medical Society and has re- 
cently been appointed physician at the Western House of Refuge for 
Women in Albion. 

John Jacob Simonds,M.D., was born in Shelby, January 14, 1857, and 
was the son of Egbert B. and Arvill (Zimmerman) Simonds, the eldest 
son of their five children. His father was a carpenter and joiner and 
wheelwright, later a farmer, in which pursuit John J. was brought up. 
He was educated in the common schools and had always a great de- 
sire to study drugs and medicines which he kept constantly before him, 
and attended the university in Buffalo together with his brother, another 
physician in Akron, N. Y., and graduated from that university in 
March, 1 890. He practiced one year in Buffalo and a like time in 
Shelby and then located in Barre Centre, N. Y., where he has had a 
large clientage and is successful in his professional work ; is a member 
of the County and State Medical Societies ; was married April 12, 1882, 
to Abbie Moratty, of Shelby. He has had two children born to them, 
one of which is now living. 

Joseph Bullock Brown, son of Rufus and Margaret (Bullock) Brown, 
was born in Albany July 26, 1822, His early education was acquired 
at the Albany Medical College, and he was a graduate from that insti- 
tution. In 1845 ^^- Brown was appointed physician at Clinton Prison, 
where he remained three years, and then practiced surgery at Detroit 
one year. In 1849 he received an appointment as surgeon in the regu- 
lar army, and previous to the war of 1861-65 was stationed in Oregon, 
Texas, and Washington Territory. At the outbreak of the Rebellion 
he was ordered east and assigned to the Army of the Potomac, then 
under General McClellan. Later on he was made chief ofificer in the sur- 
geon-general's office in the Army of the Cumberland, and served in 
that capacity until the close of the war, and for meritorious service at 
Fort Columbus Colonel Brown was promoted to brigadier-general, and 
thereafter he was commonly known as General Brown. The next three 
years following the war General Brown was stationed at Governor's 
Island, followed by six years in Nebraska, and the remaining thirteen 
years of his active service were spent in New York, where he was pres- 
ident of the Medical Examining Board. In 1886, then being sixty- 
four years of age. General Brown was retired from active duty and 



140 LANDMARKS OF 

service. He lived a few years at Tarrytown and in 1887 came to Al- 
bion, and during the remainder of his life occupied the old Bullock 
homestead. Here he died October 21, 1891. When not engaged in 
his regular duties, General Brown devoted himself to the study of the 
classics or photography, in which he was proficient. As an artist he 
attained more than passing prominence, and with his other attainments 
was schooled in scientific work. April 20, 1848, he married Catharine 
R., daughter of Jotham and Selecta Crawford, then of Saratoga Spa, 
and they have had four children, the first of whom died in infancy : 
Alice and Warren C. and Louisa M. Brown. 

Dr. William McKennan came to Albion in the fifties, while a young 
man, and during his professional career attained a high eminence in the 
practice of medicine. He was also considered a good surgeon, but was 
especially distinguished as a physician. He married, first, Miss Harriet 
P. Guild, a teacher in the old Albion Academy, by whom he had two 
children — one now deceased and a son living in the West. He married 
for his second wife Miss Helen Gale, of Albion, who resides in Roches- 
ter, Dr. McKennan died here in the prime of life. 

Dr. Walter R. Sanford, son of Wait Sanford, was born in Pawlet, 
Vt, April 30, 18 12. He was educated in the public schools he be- 
gan the study of medicine with Dr. J. V. C. Teller in Marion, Wayne 
county, was afterward with Dr. William W. Gardner, Walworth, attended 
Professors Delamater & Loomis's Medical School at Palmyra, took 
lectures at Fairfield Medical College, and received a diploma from the 
Herkimer County Medical Society. He came to Kendall in 1836 to 
commence the practice of his profession, which he continued for over 
fifty years, until recently, when old age compelled him to retire. For 
some time he was an inspector of common schools and was postmaster 
of Kendall from 1845 to 1853. In May, 1838, Dr. Sanford married 
Abigail S. Higby, of Chapinville, N. Y., who died in 185 1. Their 
children were: Elizabeth B., of Canandaigua ; William R., Amelia J. 
(Mrs. W. F. McEuen), of Chicago; Sherrill H., and Elbert A., deceased. 
His second wife was Mrs. Catherine V. S. Saunders, by whom he has 
one child, Annie L. (Mrs. R. Howard Wallace.) Sherrill H. Sanford, 
born October 12, 1846, married Margaret Ashmun, of Cosmopolis, 
Wash., and has four children. He began mercantile business in 1872 



ORLEANS COUNTY, 141 

in a store south of the hotel, but the next year moved to his present 
location. He has been town clerk four terms and was postmaster under 
Cleveland's first administration. 

Thomas Gushing, M. D., the son of Enos Gushing and the grandson 
of Thomas Gushing, was born near Gazenovia, N. Y., in December, 
1 82 I. His father and grandfather came from Hingham, Mass., in 1790, 
his father being then ten years of age. They were of the family of 
Gushings who were quite numerous in Massachusetts, whence they have 
spread to all parts of the country. His father was a teacher, a civil en- 
gineer and surveyor, and a farmer. Dr. Gushing received his academic 
education at the Ghittenango Polytechny, in his native county, and sub- 
sequently studied some of the higher branches and languages without 
a teacher. He studied medicine at Gazenovia, where he commenced 
practice in partnership with his preceptor. He attended a course of 
lectures at Albany and another at Buffalo, where he graduated. He 
removed to Brocton (then Salem Gross Roads), Ghautauqua county, 
N. Y., in 1848 ; thence to North East, Erie county, Pa., in 1853, and in 
1 860 came to Barre in this county, where he has since resided. In 1 848 
he was married to S. A. Grittenden, by whom he has three sons and a 
daughter. One of the sons is a dentist, one a farmer, and one is the 
ethnologist of the Smithsonian Institution. During the war of the Re- 
bellion he served first as assistant surgeon 28th N. Y. Volunteers in 
Virginia and Maryland, and afterwards as surgeon 29th U. S. G. In- 
fantry in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi and Alabama. He was at the 
battle of Second Bull Run, South Mountain and Antietam. At the 
close of the war he purchased a farm near Barre Genter, where he has 
since resided. In addition to professional matters Dr. Gushing has 
always manifested a lively interest in the progress of science, and has 
written several monographs on scientific subjects. In 1878 he aban- 
doned the practice of his profession, and he has since been engaged in 
historical, literary, and scientific labor. He is somewhat noted for his 
eccentricities. Liberality of thought, loyalty to his convictions, and 
fearlessness in the expression of his opinions, are his distinguishing 
characteristics. 

Gharles E. Fairman. — The ancestors of the Fairman family came 
from Scotland and were among the early colonists of Gonnecticut 



142 LANDMARKS OF 

John Fairman married Emma Streeter, and died August 6, 1826. 
Their son Charles, born in Northfield, Mass., August 6, 1823, was edu- 
cated in Townshend (Vt.) Academy, Black River Academy, Hancock 
(N. H.) Literary and Scientific Institute, and Waterville (Me.) College 
(now Colby University), from which he was graduated in 1850. In 
1852 he came to Yates as a teacher in Yates Academy, of which he 
became principal in 1853, which position he held ten years. From 
1863 to 1867 he had charge of Medina Academy and then for one 
year of Nunda Academy. In 1868 he was elected to the chair of 
mathematics in Shurtleff College in Alton, 111., which in 1873 conferred 
upon him the degree of LL. D., and with which institution he is still 
connected. In June, 1853, he married Mary Gambell, of Yates ; chil- 
dren — Dr. Charles Edward, Willis L., Grace E, Bertha J., Agnes L., 
and Alice M. Dr. Charles E. Fairman, born December 28, 1856, fol- 
lowed the fortunes of his father until 1873, when he entered the senior 
class of Rochester University at the age of sixteen, from which he 
graduated as A. B. in 1874, the youngest graduate that institution ever 
turned out. After studying medicine in the offices of Dr. B. T. Smel- 
zer, of Havana, N. Y., and Dr. John D. Warren, of Lyndonville, he en- 
tered the St. Louis Medical College, graduating therefrom as M. D. in 
1877. He also received the degree of A. M. from the University of 
Rochester in 1877. He then located in practice in Lyndonville, where 
he has since resided. February 5, 1878, he married Lois C , daughter 
of Dr. J. D. Warren. Dr. Fairman is a member of the Orleans County 
Medical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science and corresponding member of Rochester Academy of Science. 
He is a terse and scholarly writer and is the author of several valuable 
medical papers and pamphlets. 

Hiram W. Lewis, son of Shubael, was born in Orleans county Feb- 
ruary 13, 1823. His preparatory studies were pursued at Brockport, 
Monroe county and at Millville Academy. He taught school, pursuing 
the study of medicine at the same time. His medical education was 
thorough and complete. He studied at Harvard Medical School, Rush 
Medical College and Buffalo Medical College. The first five years he 
practiced in his native town of Clarendon. In 185 1 he removed to 
Albion and continued in practice till his death in 1887. He married 



ORLEANS COUNTY. I43 

Melissa P., daughter of Orson Tousley, of Clarendon, in 1847 who sur- 
vives him. His career as a physician was marked by pecuHar fidehty, 
patience and an increasing interest. The confidence which he won 
from the pubHc was very gratifying to him, even to the end of hfe. The 
poor always found in him a friend and confidential adviser. He said 
that the practice of medicine was of increasing moment to him as it 
afforded such opportunities to relieve human suffering. 

Dr. Dana Shaw was born in Massachusetts in 1798. In his youth he 
received a common school education, and afterward studied medicine, 
attending lectures at Castleton, Vt. In 1827 he removed to Orleans 
county and settled at South Barre, where he practiced his profession 
some years. He removed to Barre Center, where he died in 1852. 
He was a skillful physician and a highly esteemed man. His wife, to 
whom he was married in 1827, was Elizabeth Whiting, of Massachu- 
setts. She died in 1883. Their children were two daughters; one, the 
wife of Hon. J. G. Sawyer, of Albion, died in 1850; the other, unmar- 
ried, died in 1852. 

Dr. Abiel Bowen was born at Guilford, Vt., in 1798, and came to 
Western New York with his father's family early in the present century. 
He studied medicine at Middleport, N. Y., and graduated at Fairfield 
Medical College. He engaged in practice in Shelby, and in 1828 
established himself at West Shelby, where he purchased a farm. He 
practiced medicine there till about 1840. He died in 1847. ^^ 1826 
he married Anna S. Cone, a native of Vermont, born in 1803. She 
died in 1852. They had seven children, of whom two died young. 
Anna S. Bowen was a teacher in the West during many years, and was 
literary teacher in the Institution for the Blind for nine years. Adna was 
an able lawyer, and practiced in Medina, N. Y., where he died in 1883. 
George is an eminent lawyer in Batavia. Abiel, a successful dentist, is 
a resident of Medina, where he has practiced his profession during 
many years. Marian J., who married H. C. Finch. 

John Hale Taylor, M. D., was born at Rome, Oneida county, N. Y., 
August 1 8th, 1844 His father, Mortimer H., was a native of Glaston- 
bury, Conn., and came to Oneida county, where he married Mary 
Brainard. In 1850 he moved to Orleans county, and settled upon a 
farm in Clarendon. Dr. Taylor was educated at the Holley Academy 



144 LANDMARKS OF 

and Brockport Collegiate Institute. He studied medicine with Drs. 
Horace Clark and William B. Mann, of Brockport, N. Y., and gradu- 
ated at the University of Buffalo February 24, 1869. He settled in 
HoUey, where he has since remained, and secured a large practice. In 
1889 he took a post-graduate course in medicine at the New York 
Polyclinic College and Hospital, and at the same time took a private 
course of instruction in gynecology under Dr. James R. Gofife, of New 
York; also a course in operative surgery under Dr. Robert H. M. Daw- 
barn, of New York. He is a member of the Orleans County and Cen- 
tral New York Medical Societies and the New York State Medical As- 
sociation. Dr. Taylor was elected president of the Orleans County 
Medical Society in 1892, and was coroner for fifteen years. He is a 
member of Murray Lodge, No. 380, F. and A. M., and was master in 
1883 and 1884 and secretary several years. He is also a member of 
Orleans Chapter, No. 175, Royal Arch Masons, and of Monroe Com- 
mandery, No. 12, Knights Templar. In 1870 Dr. Taylor married Har- 
riet A. Hartwell, of Medfield, Mass., and they have two sons, John M. 
and Forrest E. 

Dr. William F. Eaman is a grandson of George Eaman, who was 
born in Pennsylvania, of German parentage, and died August 16, 1847, 
aged sixty. The latter married Janette Grant, of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, who died March 7, 1852, aged sixty- five. George I., father of 
our subject, was born in Amsterdam, May ii, 1825, and now lives at 
Ransomville, Niagara county. His wife was Sara J. Sickels, who was 
born in Buffalo, November 20, 1825, who is still living. Dr. Eaman 
was born in Dunville, Canada, in 1853, and attended the public schools 
of Ransomville, and later the Wilson Union School at Wilson, Niagara 
county, and the Lockport Union School, meantime pursuing studies in 
anatomy and physiology, after which he taught school three winters, 
still keeping up his studies in medicine, and attending school during the 
spring terms. He next entered the office of Dr. M. S. Kittinger, of 
Lockport, who is widelj' known through Niagara county, and remained 
with him over five years, during this time, however, spending two years 
at the Buffalo Medical College. He then attended Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College in New York city, where he graduated in February, 
1877, and immediately began practice in Gaines, where he has been 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 145 

eminently successful. September 30. 1880, he married Anna M. 
Kemp, daughter of Simon Kemp of this town. She was born October 
I3> i859> ^"d they have had four children : Howard, born October 13, 
1884; Bessie L , born December 17, 1886; Marjory D., born March 
20, 1889; and Myron B., born October 13, 1891, who died March 10, 
1893- 

Andrew J. Eaton, M. D., is a son of Ebenezer Eaton, and was born 
in Laona, Chautauqua county, January 19, 1824. He attended the old 
Fredonia Academy and began the study of medicine with Dr. Charles 
Smith of Laona, continuing with his cousin, Dr. Willard Eaton, of 
Eagle Harbor, Orleans county. He took lectures at the Central Eclec- 
tic Medical College of Rochester, received a degree of M. D. from the 
Eclectic Medical College of the city of New York, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Palmyra, Wis., in 1848. One year later he re- 
moved to Hillsdale, Mich., whence he came to Millville, Orleans 
county, in 1852, but in 1864 settled permanently at Kendall Mills, 
where he has since resided and continued his professional career. Dr. 
Eaton is a member of the Western New York Medical Society of 
Buffalo, a member and formerly vice-president of the Genesee Valley 
Eclectic Medical Society, long a member of the I. O. O. F. and an 
active member of Murray Lodge and Orleans Chapter of Masons. He 
married Ruth A., daughter of Ebenezer K. Webster, of Kendall Mills, 
and has one son, Carl Simon, who is pursuing the study of dentistry. 



CHAPTER Xn. 

THE PRESS OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 

The reader has learned in these pages that the village of Gaines was 
once the leading place in the county, and came very near being the 
county seat. It is this fact that accounts for the first newspaper in the 
county being established at Gaines, Judge Thomas places the date of 
the first issue about the year 1824; while other authorities make it as 
early as 1822. The paper was called The Gazette, and it was con- 

19 



146 LANDMARKS OF 

tinued about four years by Seymour Tracy. In July, 1827 (probably 
after the discontinuance of The Gazette), John Fisk established The Or- 
leans Whig at Gaines. It was continued regularly several years, but 
the date of its death is lost, as far as we know. 

The first newspaper published in what is now Albion, was called The 
Newport Patriot, and was issued by Franklin Cowdry in 1823. It took 
its name from the little hamlet of Newport, which afterwards received 
the name of Albion. In February, 1825, Timothy C. Strong became 
the proprietor and changed the name of the paper to The Orleans Ad- 
vocate. In the year 1828, amid the anti- Masonic excitement, Mr. 
Strong espoused the cause of anti-Masonry and changed the name of 
the publication to The Orleans Advocate and Anti- Masonic Telegraph, 
and in February of that year shortened the title to The Orleans Anti- 
Masonic Telegraph. In June, 1828, another change was made to The 
Orleans Telegraph, and a little later the name of the paper was made 
The American Standard. The establishment was transferred to J. 
Kempshall, who conducted it about two years, when it again passed 
into possession of Mr. Strong, who changed the name of the paper to 
The Orleans American. In 1844 the property passed to possession of 
J. & J. H. Denio, who continued the business until 1853, when it was 
purchased by S. A. Andrews. With various partners, he continued 
the publication until January, 1861, when the establishment was pur- 
chased by D, S. & H. A. Bruner. This firm continued until July i, 
1868, when H. A. Bruner became sole owner, and has ever since con- 
ducted the paper with signal ability and success. In December, 1868, 
the entire estabhshment was burned, but was promptly rebuilt by Mr. 
Bruner, and equipped with modern machinery and fixtures. Since the 
formation of the Republican party The American has been a staunch 
supporter of the political principles of that party and wields a strong 
influence throughout Orleans and adjoniing counties. P^or nearly 
thirty- five years Mr. Bruner has faithfully and ably filled the editorial 
chair. 

Henry A. Bruner, the editor and proprietor for over thirty years 
past of The Orleans American, is a son of Jacob and Esther Arwine 
Bruner, and was born in Danville, Pa. While yet a lad the family 
moved to Yates county, New York. 




^V^s— -^-t^-^ ^yh^ ^^ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 147 

Mr. Bruner in his childhood and youth had no other than the hum- 
blest opportunities for education afforded to every child in our common 
schools. But he diligently improved what chances he had for learning. 
Upon the death of his parents, being left poor, he first learned the trade 
of harnessmaking, but soon afterward managed to attend a select school 
and the public schools in Penn Yan, commenced teaching, and subse- 
quently finished his education at the State Normal School in Albany, 
where he graduated in the spring of 1847, and again taught school for 
a number of years, with such reputation and success, that, in June, 
1856, he was appointed the first school commissioner of Yates county, 
and the next year, 1857, was elected to the same position, holding it in 
all for four and a half years. 

In January, 1861, Mr. Bruner came to Albion, and, with his brother, 
David S. Bruner, bought of Andrews & Ray the Orleans American, tak- 
ing possession January 17. His brother's health failed, and July i, 1868, 
Henry A. Bruner became and has ever since been sole proprietor. His 
course as editor of the first-established and leading newspaper in Or- 
leans county, has been to assert and maintain the principles and ascend- 
ancy of his party with uniform loyalty and consistency, steadily holding 
a leading position and wielding a more or less efficient influence in its 
councils. His services have been to some extent recognized by his polit- 
ical friends. He was postmaster at Albion four and a half years, 
1871-1875, appointed by President Grant. 

Mr. Bruner was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 
1880, which nominated Garfield, and was a special inspector of customs 
under Harrison's administration. 

He was married in October, 1852, at Starkey, Yates county, to Je- 
rusha Maria Pierce, who died February i, 1865. In September, 1866, 
he married Sara S. Smith, of Albion. His only surviving child, Liz- 
zie, is the wife of Dr. John E. Sutton, a practicing physician in Albion. 

There is a tradition that a few numbers of a Democratic newspaper 
were published in Albion prior to 1829. In that year Anti-Masonry 
was flourishing in Western New York ; the Democratic party was in 
the minority and without an organ. Chiefly through the influence of 
Alexis Ward, Cephas S. McConnell came to Albion, and on the 21st of 
October, 1829, issued the first number of the Orleans Republican. He 



148 LANDMARKS OF 

continued the publication with a fair degree of success until 1841, when 
he sold out to a Mr. De Puy, and removed to Rochester. He returned 
in 1847 ^"d started the Orleans Democrat, which he soon discontinued 
and bought back The Republican. He sold the property to Mr. J. O. 
Willsea in 1848, and removed to Chicago where he died in 1855. In 
1850 Calvin G. Beach became associated as partner with Mr. Willsea, 
and the firm of Willsea & Beach conducted the business with success 
until i860, when Mr Willsea retired. Mr. Beach continued the publi- 
cation alone until his death, which occurred July 8, 1868. Mr. Beach 
was born in Rochester, on June 30, 1830, and learned the printer's 
trade with Shepherd & Graves, of that city. He came to Albion in 
1850, and had just reached his majority when he became partner with 
Mr. Willsea. In the conduct of his paper, Mr. Beach was assisted by 
his wife, a woman of rare literary attainments, who was a contributor 
to many of the papers and magazines of that day. Since the death of 
Mr. Beach, his widow has continued the publication of the paper. La- 
fayette H. Beach, the present editor and manager of The Republican, 
was born in Albion, on April 2, 1856; was educated at the old Albion 
Academy and graduated when fifteen years of age. Abandoning his 
desire for a college course, he entered his mother's printing office in 
1 87 1 and served a full apprenticeship. In 1878 he became associated 
with an older brother in the editorship of The Republican, and in 1882 
was made sole editor and manager. Two other sons of the late Calvin 
G. Beach are engaged in journalism — Fred G. Beach, holding a prom- 
inent position with The Rochester Democrat, and Robert K. Beach, 
being editor of The Rochester Morning Herald. Editor Beach of The 
Republican is married and is the father of five children. He is iden- 
tified officially with the Methodist Episcopal Church of Albion, and has 
been superintendent of its Sunday- school for fourteen consecutive years. 
He has also been secretary of the Orleans County Agricultural Society 
for a period of sixteen years. 

The Republican is the Orleans county organ of the Democratic party 
and wields a powerful influence in that direction. 

The Saturday Chronicle was started in Albion in the autumn of 
1876, by William B. Young, who was a practical printer. It v^as neu- 
tral or independent in politics. The paper was discontinued after about 
two years. 



ORLEANS COUNTS. I49 

The first number of the Orleans County Herald was issued Septem- 
ber 4, 1888, by Frank E. Kittredge. It was started as a nine- column 
folio. In 1889 it was purchased by Clark D. Knapp. After several 
changes in proprietorship, the establishment recently (1894) passed to 
Ben A. Osborn and William B. Young. It is Republican in politics, 
is ably conducted and liberally patronized. 

The Weekly News was established in Albion in 1888, by John 
Cunneen. The success of this publication has led to its being severa] 
times enlarged, until it reached the eight-column quarto size. Tlie 
paper is independent in politics and pays particular attention to local 
news. In 1890 Pearl Coann became editor and proprietor of the paper 
and it is now owned and edited by A. M. Eddy. Mr. Coann has 
established and now edits The Albion Free Lance, a weekly publication. 

The Young Oologist, a monthly publication devoted to birds, their 
nests, eggs and habits, was started in Albion in 1884. Two years later 
the name was changed to The Oologist. The editor and publisher is 
Frank H. Lattin, with Neil J. Posson, of Medina, as associate editor. 
The magazine has been very successful and has a large circulation, 

Previous to the establishment of permanent newspapers in the village 
of Medina, several publications were started and soon added to the 
great newspaper death-roll. The first of these was The Medina 
Herald, which was begun in 1832 by Daniel P. Adams; it lived only 
two or three years. 

In 1837 J- & J- H. Denio began the publication of The Medina 
Sentinel. In the next year the name of the paper was changed to The 
Orleans Sentinel and it lived until [842. 

A paper called The Bucktail was started just previous to the suspen- 
sion of The Herald, and afterward its name was changed to The 
Medina Democrat. It expired after two or three years of existence. 
S. M. Burroughs was the publisher. 

In 1850 H. A. Smith began the publication of The Medina Citizen. 
In 1855 the title was changed to the Medina Tribune, which it still 
retains. Samuel H. Clark succeeded Mr. Smith as publisher, con- 
tinuing to January i, 1871, when the establishment was purchased by 
John P. Gates and Frank H. Hurd. On January i, 1874, Mr. Hurd 
purchased his partner's interest, and a year later Fred. M. Taylor be- 



150 LANDMARKS OF 

came a partner in the business. On January i, 1877, ^^- Hurd again 
became sole proprietor and has continued the business alone to the 
present time. The Tribune is Republican in politics and under Mr. 
Kurd's able conduct has become a powerful factor in the councils of the 
party, gaining a large circulation. 

Frank H. Hurd was born in the town of Yates August 7, 1847, ^"d 
received his education at the Yates Academy. At the age of sixteen 
he began to learn the trade of printer and has been connected with the 
printing and publishing business ever since. He was first with The 
Orleans Republican in Albion, a year in Syracuse and then with The 
Auburn Morning News, After two years in Auburn he returned to 
Albion and had charge of the mechanical department of the Orleans 
Republican for a year. In 1871 he purchased The Medina Tribune, 
and has been its proprietor and editor ever since. Mr, Hurd is a 
prominent Mason, belonging to the Chapter at Albion and the Genesee 
Commandery at Lockport, N. Y. He is active in politics and has been 
secretary of many conventions. In 1874 he married F. Louise Williams, 
of Rome, N, Y., who died in 1883. In 1885 he married Dolores E 
Frary, of Medina. His father was Seymour A. Hurd, a merchant of 
Yates, son of the late Isaac Hurd, of that town. His mother was Mary 
Frost Hurd, daughter of the late Chester Frost, of Shelby. His ances 
tors, on both sides came from New England to this county in 
pioneer days. 

The first number of The Orleans Democrat was issued in Albion in 
May, 1870, by W. W. Malay, who removed the establishment to 
Medina in February, 1871. In 1872 W, W, Mount purchased a half 
interest in the business, but withdrew a year later. In 1873 C, W. 
Tucker became a partner and was succeeded six months later by A, M, 
Thistlewaite, In 1874 Mr. Malay again became proprietor of the 
concern and in the fall of that year sold a half interest to Adna Bowen. 
The paper was suspended in 1876, but was revived soon afterwards 
under the title of The Medina Democrat, by Bowen & O'Brien. Five 
months later W. W, Malay became sole editor and proprietor, and per- 
manently discontinued the paper in 1877. 

The Medina Register was started in the month (April, 1877,) 
that saw the death of The Democrat by Beach Brothers, who used the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 151 

type and apparatus of The Democrat. In August of that year Joel B. 
Svvett became sole proprietor of the establishment and successfully con- 
ducted the business until i88i, when he was succeeded by the present 
editor and proprietor, M. A. Bowen. Mr. Bowen was born in West 
Shelby November 7, 1859. He began work at the printing business 
before he finally left school, at first in the office of the Orleans Democrat. 
When he took possession of The Register he was fully equipped for the 
successful practical conduct of an able Democratic newspaper. He is a 
fluent and forcible writer and possesses business qualifications of a high 
order. He has made the Register an influential organ in the politics of 
Western New York as well as a welcome news medium in a large num- 
ber of homes. In 1882 Mr. Bowen was married to Harriet Green ; they 
have a son and a daughter. Mr. Bowen's father was Adna Bowen, also 
a native of Medina ; his mother was Eunice Post. 

The only village in Orleans county, other than Albion and Medina, 
to boast a newspaper is the sprightly place of Holley. The first paper 
published in Holley was called The Holley Bulletin, and was issued in 
the fall of 1868 by Jay Densmore. It was a small weekly sheet, but 
after a few issues was changed to a semi monthly and quadrupled in 
size. Before the completion of the first volume the paper was discon- 
tinued and the office removed elsewhere. 

The Monthly Advertiser, devoted to general reading and advertise- 
ments, was first issued in Holley in the fall of 1869, but only a few 
numbers were issued. 

In the autumn of 1870 the publication of The Holley Standard was 
begun by Cyrus Marsh. The paper was continued with fair success 
until 1874, when the office was burned. Mr. Marsh then purchased 
The Brockport Democrat office and issued a paper called The Demo- 
crat and Standard, and designed to represent both villages. This plan 
was not successful and Mr. Marsh established a new office in Holley 
and resumed the publication of The Standard. In 1877 he sold out to 
Frank A. Lanstrom, who in turn sold to Frank A. Hayden a year 
later. He continued the paper until the spring of 1882, when he sold 
to the present proprietor, C. C. Hayden. The office was burned in 
January, 1885, but was re-established at once. The Standard is inde- 
pendent in politics. C. C.' Hayden was born in Sennett, Cayuga county. 



152 - LANDMARKS OF 

N. Y., February 12, 1858; received his education in district schools 
and Auburn High School. He learned the printing trade in the offices 
of The Brockport Democrat and The Holley Standard, also acting as 
local reporter. In 1880 he went to Titusville, Pa., remaining nearly two 
years, as reporter on The Daily Herald and Daily World, and in 1882 
purchased The Holley Standard. Mr. Hayden is a fluent writer and 
possesses the natural qualities that make the successful journalist. 

In 1878 a monthly paper called The Agitator was established in 
Holley, as the organ of the Good Templars of Orleans county. It sur- 
vived only a short time. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



The Quarrying Industry — Its Development and Present Proportions — First Quarry 
Opened — Operators and Owners — Statistics. 

In a previous chapter, describing the geology of Orleans county, 
special reference has been made to the formation of the celebrated 
Medina sandstone, a stratum that underlies nearly all that area be- 
tween the Niagara limestone terrace and Lake Ontario. This forma- 
tion was so named because it was best shown at Medina, along the 
shores of Oak Orchard Creek, where it was first discovered and utilized 
for building and other purposes. It seems to be divided into four 
different bands, the most valuable rock being found from five to thirty 
feet below the surface. It is characterized by its extreme hardness, 
compared to similar substances, and by contractors and builders is re- 
garded as one of the best varieties of stone found and utilized in the 
United States for building purposes. It is devoid of any granite quali- 
ties, however, is easily cut and fashioned into the most artistic of 
architectural shapes, and for durability it surpasses the average build- 
ing stone, the action of climatic changes having little influence upon its 
disintegration. It can be hewed and split, will not crack or break like 
limestone, and does not wear smooth and slippery like granite. It is 
usually found in layers of from one inch to four feet in thickness and 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 153 

varies in color from a light gray to a deep or brownish red. Naturally- 
rich in beauty, which is enhanced by the artistic conception of the archi- 
tect or designer, it is susceptible of a variety of uses and unexcelled for 
architectural purposes. 

In Orleans county the business of quarrying this stone has developed, 
next to agriculture, into the leading industry, especially along the lines 
of the Erie Canal and New York Central Railroad, where the opera- 
tions are almost entirely confined In many ways it has had a material 
influence upon various other industries, some of which are directly 
tributary to this, and from a financial standpoint it has brought numer- 
ous benefits to the whole population. From an insignificant beginning 
it has grown to enormous proportions, and that, too, in the last quarter 
century. This development is mainly due to the excellent transporta- 
tion facilities afforded by the canal and railway, which compete so 
briskly for shipments that distant markets are opened almost to the 
very quarry pits. Nearly all the quarries in the county lie within a few 
rods of the canal, while many are supplied also with special switches 
from the railroad. The old method of drilling by hand, though still 
employed to some extent, has been generally superseded by the steam 
drill, and many other labor saving devices have been introduced in re- 
cent years. In the larger quarries the work is nearly all executed by 
machinery driven by steam — steam derricks, steam drills, steam pumps, 
and steam crushers — employing hundreds of men and turning out 
thousands upon thousands of cords of stone each season. The product 
is shipped to all parts of the United States and Canada, and utilized for 
every purpose for which rock is used, the demand in many cases ex- 
ceeding the supply. 

Bowlders of this rock were utilized at a very early day for building 
and other purposes, but it is not known that any quarries were opened 
or worked during the first quarter of a century after the settlement of 
this region commenced. As previously stated this sandstone was first 
employed for building purposes in the vicinity of Medina, and there also 
the first regular quarry in Orleans county seems to have been opened. 
It was located north of the canal, where the Medina Manufacturing 
Company's factory now stands, and was opened by John Ryan in 1837. 
This quarry furnished a good quality of building stone, but the flags 



154 LANDMARKS OF 

taken from it were rough and unsuitable for use. A year later Mr. Ryan 
found good flags at a locality some distance northwest from the Shelby 
street canal bridge. Not wishing to develop this quarry then he filled 
the excavations he had made and in 1844 he purchased one hundred 
and fifty acres there and opened the quarry. He owned and operated 
it till 1865, was in charge of it until 1870. He sold it in 1865 to Chase 
& Howell, and it is now owned and operated by the widow of Mr. 
Howell. Seventy men are employed in it and stones for street work 
are mostly produced. 

In 1845 James Kearney purchased land lying between this quarry 
and the canal, and opened a quarry on it. He operated this until his 
death some thirty years ago, and it has ever since been owned and 
worked by his heirs. It is not now extensively operated. 

As early as 1827 Isaac Bennett procured stone for building purposes 
on the east side of Oak Orchard Creek, at and in the vicinity of what is 
known as Laurel Hill, or " Paddy Hill." 

In 1839 James Cullen opened a quarry on Mr. Bennett's land, which 
he worked until his death in 1847, after which it became the property 
of Patrick Horan. The quarry property included twenty- four and one- 
half acres when purchased by Mr. Horan, and he since added to it 
forty-eight and one-half acres. The number of hands employed in this 
quarry has varied in different years, ranging from forty to one hundred 
and fifty. Mr. Horan died in 1893, and it has since been worked by 
his estate. All varieties of stone are produced. 

In 185 I the Holloway Brothers, John, Isaac and William, stone deal- 
ers in Buffalo, purchased eight acres of land east from Oak Orchard 
Creek and north from the canal, and opened thereon a quarry. From 
time to time parcels of land have been added to this original purchase 
until the tract now includes seventy-eight acres. This quarry has ever 
since its first purchase been worked by the Holloway Company, al- 
though the original brothers are dead and the property belongs to their 
heirs. One hundred and twenty men are employed, and the product is 
almost exclusively what is known as street work. 

In 1868 a quarry was opened by George Rand on the farm of Nelson 
McCormick, a mile east from Medina and north of the canal. Mr. 
Rand operated it two or three years, since which Mr. McCormick, and 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 155 

his son Adalbert J., the present proprietor, have worked it. Fifty- 
hands are employed, and all varieties of stone are produced. 

The Reynolds quarry was opened in 1873, on the farm of Hiram D. 
Reynolds, north of the canal and one mile and a half east from Medina. 
It was opened by Arnold & Cushman, who operated it under a lease 
eight years. Mr. Reynolds then operated it a year, when it was worked 
for a time by Noble & Lyle. The operator is H. D. Reynolds, who 
has recently resumed the proprietorship. All kinds of stone are pro- 
duced in this quarry and twenty men are employed. 

There are several quarries about three miles west from Medina. One 
of these, the Levalley quarry, was first worked between thirty and forty 
years since. 

In Albion stone was quarried for local use at an early day, but the 
business of quarrying for shipment did not commence prior to about 
i860. For the first few years the industry developed quite slowly. In 
this town quarries have been worked in the formation known as the 
Clinton rock, which lies between the Medina sandstone and the Niagara 
limestone ; but the products of these were only utilized for local pur- 
poses. 

The De Graff Quarry — In 1877 L. R. Sanford opened a quarry in 
Sandy Creek, and George Clyde and L. M. Loss opened another a short 
distance east and north on State street. These quarries were worked 
about a year and afterwards nothing more was done there till May, 1890, 
when De Graff and Roberts purchased nineteen and one-half acres north 
from the railroad and commenced operations. They now own another 
quarry at Eagle Harbor, and in both about lOO men are employed. 
All kinds of stone are produced. The stone for the Pullman church are 
from the Eagle Harbor quarry. 

The Goodrich & Clark Stone Company purchased twenty-six acres 
of land between the canal and railroad east from Albion village in 1885, 
and at once commenced quarrying stone there. From this place stone 
had been taken for the building of the gristmill on State street in 1833, 
and also for the county jail ; but no work had been done there for many 
years. Messrs. Goodrich & Clark commenced in a modest way, employ- 
ing only six men the first year, but their business has steadily increased 
till the number of men employed reaches 250. All varieties of stone are 



156 LANDMARKS OF 

produced here, and the products are sent to all parts of the country. 
In 1890 this firm quarried about one-fifth of the entire product of the 
Medina sandstone belt. 

The Albion Stone Company. — About i860 H. J. Sickels was the 
owner of a quarry next east from where Goodrich & Clark are now 
operators. The quarry became the property of Eugene Sullivan and 
Thomas f^odge, and was worked by them till the autumn of 1874, when 
it was purchased by the Albion and Medina Stone Company, a corpor- 
ation formed under the laws of Ohio. In 1885 the company was re- 
organized under the name of the Albion S^one Company, of which H. 
M. Claflin of Cleveland, Ohio, is president. About 150 men are em- 
ployed in this quarry ; a few years ago the number reached as high as 
500. All varieties of stone are produced here, with paving, curbing and 
block stone as specialties, of which the Claflin Paving Company con- 
sume large quantities. The company has some 1200 feet of dockage on 
the canal and a branch track from the railroad. Thomas Hallifax of 
Lockport, is the general manager. 

The Gilbert Brady Quarry. — About i860 Burt Lake opened a quarry 
on his farm, one and one-half miles east from Albion. He was succeed- 
ed by Whitmore, Rathburn & Carson in 1873. In 1878 the firm became 
Brady & Rathburn, and in 1880, after the death of Mr. Rathburn, Gil- 
bert Brady became sole proprietor. To the original property he has 
added from time to time till about seventy five acres are now included. 
The strata of rock are worked to a depth of sixteen feet. He employs 
150 men. Two thirds of the products of this quarry are the different 
varieties of building stone, and one-third is street work. Most of the 
stone produced is sold west of Buffalo. Mr. Brady has about 800 feet of 
dockage on the heel path side of the canal and a switch from the rail- 
road. James D. O'Brien has been foreman of this quarry since 1891. 

Charles A. Gorman and Stanley E. Filkins, in the spring of 1894, 
opened a quarry on thirty acres of the Tanner farm, east of Albion, be- 
tween the railroad and canal. They bought the property in April, 1893. 
They employ about twenty- five or thirty men and produce building 
and paving stone. Mr. Gorman individually deals in stone, taking the 
entire product of several other quarries. With Joseph Stork, under the 
firm name of Gorman & Stork, he leases a quarry in Albion of ex- 
County Clerk Ross, in which some twenty-five men are employed. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. I57 

Martin Scanlon opened a quarry on a tract of fifteen acres, on the 
south side of the canal, in 1891. He employs about twenty-five men 
and produces mainly stone for street work. 

Garrett & Atkinson opened a quarry near that of Scanlon's in 1892, 
on sixteen acres bought of C. H. Bidwell. They employ twenty five 
men, produce stone for street work, and like Mr. Scanlon ship by both 
canal and railroad. 

Chadwick Brothers (Allen and Thomas) reopened a quarry in 1885 
which was formerly operated by Samuel Weir. Their tract embraces 
forty seven and one half acres on the south side of the canal, and their 
quarry produces both flag and building stone. About thirty men are 
employed. On the opposite side of the canal from the Chadwick 
quarry is another owned by Maynard A. Jaquith and leased by Nicholas 
Brayer, of Rochester. It has not been operated since the fall of 1893. 

William Newsome opened his present quarry on the north side of the 
canal in the spring of 1894. It covers about six acres, and mainly 
stone for street work. From twelve to fifteen men are employed. Mr. 
Newsome formerly owned a quarry one mile from Murray which he 
worked out in 1893. 

The first quarry opened in the town of Murray was on the farm of 
Samuel D. Copeland in 1853 by a Mr. Streeter, of Buffalo. It was 
opened and worked to procure building stone for St. Paul's (Episcopal) 
Church on Delaware avenue in Buffalo. Stone were not in as great 
demand then as now, and being at some distance from the canal the 
quarry ceased to be worked. 

In 1865 Alfred J. Squire opened a quarry on his farm on the north 
side of the canal, east of Hulberton. He still owns the property, but 
has recently leased the quarry interests to his sons, G. H. and A. R. 
Squire. They have in all three quarries, only two of which are 
operated, in which from forty to fifty men are employed. From the 
quarry originally opened on this place were taken the stone for the com- 
pletion of the tower of St. Paul's Church in Buffalo. 

The third quarry opened in Murray was in Brockville, or Brock- 
way's Bridge, in 1873. No more were opened till about ten years later, 
but in the last decade the business has developed to enormous pro- 
portions. Beginning on- the west side of the town they are found about 
in the following order : 



158 LANDMARKS OF 

Thomas Chadwick, X., as he writes his name to distinguish it from 
that of one of the same appellation previously mentioned, has a quarry 
on the north side of the canal, where he employs from ten to fifteen 
men. 

On the same side L. G. Burns opened another in 1888. They own 
four acres and employ about ten men. Their product consists of 
street stone. 

Baldwin & Hinds (George B. and Fred N. H.) opened a quarry on 
leased land in 18S9 and another on their own property in 1894, both 
on the north side of the canal. They employ about forty men altogether 
and produce mainly street stone. 

Downing & Company (James and Mark Downing, John and Patrick 
Donovan, and James Calahan) opened a quarry adjoining the above in 
1893, on leased land belonging to M. K. Hinds. They employ about 
fifteen men and turn out stone for street work. 

John Chadwick opened a quarry on leased land on the north side of 
the canal in November, 1893, where they employ some fifteen men, pro- 
ducing mostly street stone. 

Carlson & Anderson, in the spring of 1894, opened a quarry on 
leased land east of Hindsburg, on the north side of the canal, and em- 
ploy about fifteen men. 

C. F. Gwynne is one of the largest quarrymen in the county. He 
opened his first quarry in 1886 on the farm his father settled upon in 
1844, his second in 1890, another in 1891, and a fourth in 1892, 
utilizing about twenty-five acres for the purpose — all on the paternal 
homestead. One of these quarries Mr. Gwynne leases to Charles J. 
Hamilton, who employs about forty or forty-five men. A second he 
leases to Reed & Hollingworth, who furnish employment to from forty 
to fifty men. The other two quarries he operates alone and employs 
from fifty to seventy five men. These quarries produce all kinds of 
stone, which are shipped by canal at the works and by rail from Murray 
Station. 

Fancher & Cornwell (Edward F. F. and Lafayette C.) bought of 
George Hebner a quarry of six acres north of the canal in 1893, where 
they employ from forty to fifty men and produce all kinds of stone, 
making a specialty of that for building purposes. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. I59 

Edward F. Fancher purchased thirty- two acres of Eri Stiles in 1888 
and opened a quarry, in which he employs from forty to sixty men. 
He produces all kinds of stone, and, like the others, ships by both 
canal and rail. 

Charles J. Hamilton, in 1893, bought the quarry opened by H. F. 
Smith in 1890, which he operates in addition to the one he leases of 
C. F. Gwynne. In this he employs thirty or forty men. 

Mooney Brothers, of Medina, in 1891, purchased of G. J. & D. C. 
Hebner a quarry on the north side of the canal, east of Hindsburg, 
where they employ about forty men, and from which they produce all 
kinds of stone. 

Constantine Van York opened a quarry west of Hulberton in 1889 on 
land bought of Thomas Hooker. He employs some fifteen men and 
turns out stone utilized for street purposes. 

John Hebner opened his quarry in 1877 on land purchased of Henry 
Burns. He has about seven acres and employs some twenty men. His 
son, Henry Hebner, leases a quarry on the south side of the canal from 
Hon. Marcus H. Phillips. 

Bernard O'Reilly opened a quarry east of Hulberton, north of the 
canal, in 1882, where he employs thirty-five or forty men and produces 
all kinds of stone, making a specialty of selected varieties. He also 
owns fourteen acres of quarry land at Brockway's Bridge. 

A. H. Ford has eight acres upon which he opened his present quarry 
in 1888. He employs twenty or twenty-five men and turns out 
principally dimension stone. 

Sturaker & Sullivan opened their quarry on the north side of the 
canal in the fall of 1884. The land, comprising six acres, is owned by 
Mr. Sturaker, who leases it to the firm. They employ about twelve 
men and ship altogether by canal. 

Balmforth Brothers (John, Arthur and William H.), in 1892, leased 
of Marcus H. Phillips a quarry on the south side of the canal in which 
they employ from twenty to thirty men. They quarry all kinds 
of stone. 

A. Hamilton & Son lease a quarry of Henry Roraback, on the south 
side of the canal, and employ twenty or twenty-five hands. They 
began work here in 1893. Their specialty is building stone. 



160 LANDMARKS OF 

Thomas Campolicti leased in 1893 the quarry formerly run by Joseph 
Christopher, on the south side of the canal. He employs about 
twelve men 

In 1870 Patrick Horan opened a quarry on the south side of the 
railroad, a mile east from the station at Holley. He was succeeded by 
Peck & McRae, and they by Chase & Roarke, and they by Camp & 
McRae. In 1881 the property was purchased by Timothy O'Brien, and 
the business is now conducted by his heirs under the firm name of 
O'Brien & Co. They also have another quarry at Hulberton. About 
140 men are employed in these quarries. The property consists of 160 
acres on both sides of the railroad, and all kinds of stone are produced. 

In 1885 Charles A. Gorman and Michael Slack purchased twenty 
acres on the south side of the railroad, about a mile east from Holley 
Station, and in the spring of 1886 opened a quarry there. In 1887 Mr. 
Slack purchased the interest of Mr. Gorman and has since worked the 
quarry. He employs from eighty to lOO men. 

In 1887 Hiram B. Joslyn commenced work in a quarry that had been 
opened by Camp & McRae, on the east side of Sandy Creek, a mile 
south from Holley. In the spring of 1890 the quarry was purchased 
by John Downs and Charles Gorman, who employ in working it fifty 
men, and produce all kinds of stone. 

In the summer of 1889 Thomas Denby leased land for a quarry on 
the Keys estate, a mile north from Holley. Soon afterward M. M. 
McCrillis and Frank R. Glidden became partners of Mr. Denby, and they 
opened the quarry. It is now operated by W. A. Keys, who employs 
about twenty- five men. 

Craven, McCarthy & Co. opened a quarry on the McCarthy farm in 
1891 and now employ some twenty men. 

In the foregoing account of the stone quarrying interests in Orleans 
county it is not intended to give a complete list of the various operators 
or firms engaged in the business, but rather to record in a permanent 
form the more important concerns and to show the phenomenal 
development of the industry. Quarries are being opened continually 
and others are exhausted or abandoned, yet the business keeps increas- 
ing in magnitude and the supply of valuable stone appears inexhaustible. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 161 



CHAPTER XIV. 

SECRET SOCIETIES, PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS, ETC. 
FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. 1 

On the 20th day of February, i8i2, a petition was addressed to the 
Grand Lodge of the State of New York, asking that a warrant be 
granted for a Masonic lodge in the town of Murray, and on the 3d of 
June following, the petition with a recommendation of Genesee Lodge 
No. 130 was read at the annual communication of the Grand Lodge and 
referred to the grand officers. On June 12 a dispensation was granted 
to the petitioners under the name of Fredonia Lodge No. 246, under 
which it continued to work until September, 8, 18 15, when a warrant 
was granted to the lodge. For some years its meetings were held at 
the house of Abel Baldwin, in the present town of Clarkson, Monroe 
county, which was then a part of Murray, On July 13, 1820, a reso- 
lution was passed by the lodge to remove from Clarkson to Sandy 
Creek, in the present county of Orleans, and on the 6th of September, 
1820, the following is recorded in Grand Lodge records: 

'' Communication from Fredonia Lodge No. 246, stating that by a, division of the 
town of Murray, that part of the township in which the lodge was held had become 
the town of Clarkson, and praying for leave to remove from the said town of Clark- 
son, the present place of its meetings, to the village of Sandy Creek, in the said town 
of Murray, was read and leave granted accordingly." 

The last return made to the Grand Lodge was in December, 1822, 
and at the annual communication of the Grand Lodge in June, 1833, 
the warrant was ordered to be taken up, thus ending the existence of 
Fredonia Lodge 246. The warrant was probably lost in the exciting 
times of 1826 to 1833. The following persons were masters of this 
lodge: 18 16, Arnold Markham ; 1817, Adney Penfield ; 18 18, Aretas 
Haskell; 1816 to 1821, Elijah W. Wood; 1822, Solomon C. Wright. 

' The following account of Free Masonrj- in Orleans county is condensed from a fuller account 
prepared by George A. Newell, of Medina, the use of which is kindly permitted for these pages. 
21 



1G2 LANDMARKS OF 

Under date of Ridgeway, county of Genesee, and State of New York, 
November 2, A. L., 5815, a petition was sent to the Grand Lodge for 
a lodge in that town to be called Alluvion Lodge. The petitioners 
recommended Oliver Booth, 2d, to be the first master ; William White, 
senior warden ; and David Hooker, junior warden of the new lodge. 
The signatures to this petition, besides those of the above named offi- 
cers, were : 

Nehemiah Gardner, Ray Marsh, James Brown, Jeremiah Brown, Ira Webb, all of 
Ridgeway ; James Mather, Jesse Beach, Griles Slater, Paul S. Brown, William Perry, 
Elliott Bassett, all of Gaines; Joseph Hart, Artemus Houghton of Barre. 

The petition was endorsed by a certificate signed by the officers of 
Fredonia Lodge. On March 12, 18 16, a warrant was issued by the 
Grand Lodge to Alluvion Lodge No. 257, and the first lodge meeting 
was probably held July 10, 1816. The officers of this lodge, as far 
as their names are obtainable, were as follows for the years 18 16 to 
1824, inclusive, excepting the year 1822, the names given in the order 
of the years : 

Oliver Booth, 2d (three years), Elijah Hawley, David Hooiier, John Lewis, Edward 
Arnold, William Hughes, Masters; William White (three years), David Hooker 
John Ripley, Alexander Coon, senior wardens ; David Hooker (two years), Oliver R. 
Bennett, Alexander Coon, John Lewis, Noel Potter, junior wardens; James Mather 
(1818), Jeremiah Brown, Amos Barrett (two years), treasurers; James Brown, Horace 
Church, Nirum Allen, Cotton Nash, Jeremiah Brown, Samuel Tappan, secretaries. 

The meetings for the first few years were held at Murdock's Tavern, 
just west of Murdock's Corners, and afterward at the hotel at Ridgeway 
Corners. It is also probable that the lodge held meetings at other 
places in the town, and during the Morgan excitement some meetings 
were held at the houses of the brethren. The first person initiated in 
this lodge was Zerah Webb, of Ridgeway, August i, 18 16. Alexander 
Coon was initiated September 5, 1816 ; Cornelius Ashton, January 30, 
1817; Amos Barrett, March 11, 1819. Others who were initiated in 
this lodge were Israel Murdock, Seymour B. Murdock, and Aaron Par- 
ker. The lodge was seldom represented at the Grand Lodge. From 
the by-laws of this old lodge, which are in possession of Mr. Newell, it 
is learned that every candidate paid for initiation $6 ; for passing the 
degree of fellowcraft, $4 ; and for raising to the degree of master 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 163 

Mason, $4. That no officer except the tiler received compensation for 
his services. That each member, excepting the treasurer, secretary, 
stewards and tiler, paid twelve and a half cents at each regular com- 
munication, in addition to the quarterly dues required by the constitu- 
tion. That visiting brethren, after the first visit, paid a like sum. That 
the tiler received $1 per evening and fifty cents from each candidate 
initiated, and was subject to fines for neglect of duty or absence. On 
the 27th of December, 1823, there were ninety-four members in good 
standing. 

From the membership of Alluvion Lodge sprang Niagara Felicity 
Lodge No. 375, at Wilson ; Morning Sun Lodge No. 377, at Middle- 
port, and Hartland Lodge No. 443, at Hartland, all of which disap- 
peared in the Morgan excitement. 

On the 9th day of March, 18 19, a petition was signed and sent to the 
Grand Lodge, asking for the grant of a warrant to form a lodge to be 
known as De Witt Clinton Lodge, to be held in the town of Gaines, 
with John Lee, as master ; Ithamar Hebard, senior warden, and Asa- 
hel Lee as junior warden, which was recommended by Alluvion Lodge 
by resolution passed March 1 1, 18 19. The petitioners finding that the 
fee for a charter was more than they had supposed, withdrew the peti- 
tion before it was acted upon by the Grand Lodge. 

Another petition was, however, drawn June 15, 1820, recommended 
by Alluvion Lodge No. 257, August 17, 1820, and on November 22, 
1820, a warrant was granted by the Grand Lodge to John Lee, master; 
Oliver Booth, 2d, senior warden, and Asahel Lee, junior warden, 
to hold a lodge in the town of Gaines, in the county of Genesee, by the 
name of Genesee Union Lodge No. 332, for which the fee was $75. 
The meetings were held in the house of Pardon Macomber, in the vil- 
lage of Gaines. The officers of this lodge, as far as obtainable, from 
1820 to 1824 inclusive, were : 

Masters, John Lee, Asahel Lee; the senior wardens, Oliver Booth, 2d, and Elisha 
Blount; the junior wardens, Asahel Lee, Nathan Whitney, and Simeon Butcher; the 
treasurers, William Perry and John Proctor ; the secretaries, James Mather, Haw- 
kins, and Oliver Booth. 

The last return from this lodge on file with the Grand Lodge was 
made to June, 1827, and its charter was forfeited in 1834, for failure to 
pay Grand Lodge dues. 



164 LANDMARKS OF 

The next lodge in what is now Orleans county was Charity Lodge 
No. 376, the petition for which was dated March 25, 1824 Alluvion 
Lodge gave its consent May 6, 1824, and Genesee Union Lodge May 
13, 1824. On June 4, 1824, a warrant was granted by the Grand 
Lodge to Jacob S. Flint, master ; Charles Lee, senior warden ; and 
John A. Buckland, junior warden, to hold a lodge in the town of Barre, 
by the name of Charity Lodge No. 376. The record book of this 
lodge is now in possession of Renovation Lodge No. 97. It shows 
that the following were the first officers of Charity Lodge: 

Jacob S. Flint, master; Charles Lee, senior warden; John A. Buckland, junior war- 
den ; 0. H. Gardner, treasurer; I. K.Brown, secretary; Nathan Whitney and R. S. 
Smith, deacons; Ora Lee and OHver Benton, stewards; Orange Starr, tiler. 

Besides these, D. P. Bigelow, Pliny Hitchcock, and Joshua Raymond 
were present at the first meeting, Mr. Newell is in possession of in- 
teresting transcripts from the record book of this early lodge, for which 
space cannot be spared in this work. It may be added that there were 
in all thirty-three communications of the lodge, and among all the peti- 
tions, only one was rejected. The last return was made to the Grand 
Lodge in 1827, and the charter was declared forfeited at the annual 
communication of Grand Lodge in 1834. 

On the 5th day of February, 1824, at the annual convocation of the 
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons held at Albany, a warrant was 
granted to Comps. Simeon Dutcher, H. P., William Hughes, K., and 
Stephen V. R. Holmes, S., to hold a chapter at Gaines, county of Genesee, 
by the name of Gaines Chapter No. 82. At the next annual con- 
vocation in February, 1825, the chapter was not represented. Feb- 
ruary, 1826, the chapter was represented by Robert Anderson ; in 
1827 by Elihu Mather, and in 1829 by Oliver Benton. There seems 
to be no further reference to this chapter in the records of the Grand 
Chapter. In one of the pioneer histories of Orleans county it is stated 
that Dr. Jesse Beach was high priest in 1826. In another, the son of 
Dr. Beach states that his father organized Gaines Chapter. It has been 
impossible to verify either of these statements. 

This brings us to the time when the alleged abduction and death of 
William Morgan put a quietus on nearly all the lodges in Western New 
York. The year 1826 opened with dissensions still existing between 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 165 

the two grand lodges which had been carried on for a number of years. 
The annual communication of both grand bodies passed without a re- 
union or settlement of the existing differences, and these bodies ap- 
peared as far apart as ever. Among the subordinate lodges, especially 
in Western New York, scanty support was furnished ; dues were in 
arrears to the lodges and from the lodges to the grand lodges ; the 
year of the "great sickness" was at hand and the brethren were in 
very many cases in sore straits. At this time and in such a situation 
the great blow to masonry was struck. 

For some time rumors of the publication of an alleged expose of 
Freemasonry had been rife. Attempts to suppress it had been made, . 
but apparently without success. Then came the alleged abduction of 
William Morgan and the commencement of the bitter fight which raged 
violently for several years. Families were disrupted, churches were 
the scenes of crimination and recrimination, and political contests were 
fought on the basis of Masonry and anti- Masonry. The long friend- 
ships of the early settlers were blown to the winds ; children of prom- 
inent Masons were sneered at and reproached with being the children 
of murderers ; ministers of the gospel were excommunicated and ex- 
pelled ; some brethren, unable to withstand the contumely heaped 
upon them, renounced the institution and the meetings of the lodges 
ceased. Brethren were arrested, indicted and tried for the abduction of 
Morgan, and the fight continued in the courts for years. 

In Orleans county Elihu Mather was indicted and tried, but after a 
trial lasting ten days, with eminent special counsel arrayed against him, 
was acquitted, and the questions arising therefrom are found in the 
legal reports of this State. Avery Downer, a schoolmaster residing in 
the town of Gaines, was also indicted, but before the trial the indict- 
ment was nolle prosequied. The courts of Niagara county were more 
burdened with trials arising out of the abduction. One of the charter 
members of Medina Lodge, Brother Jeremiah Brown, was tried therein, 
and after a great deal of trouble and expense to him, was acquitted. 
Brother Simeon Dutcher, the junior warden of Genesee Union Lodge 
No. 332, an elder of the Baptist Church in the town of Gaines who had 
for many years administered acceptably to the spiritual needs of the 
early settlers, and had been by them much respected, was excommuni- 



166 LANDMARKS OF 

cated and dismissed from his church because he would not renounce 
Free Masonry. Many of the brethren, disapproving the character of 
the Morgan affair, deprecated the action of the leaders and became 
lukewarm. 

But amidst all this excitement and ill-feeling, there were brethren 
whose love for the fraternity was so strong, whose zeal in the good 
work was so fervent, and whose faith in the principles of the order was 
so firmly established, that although surrounded by enemies of the in- 
stitution and of themselves, they kept up in secret their fraternal meet- 
ings and preserved the embers which in later years kindled the present 
prosperous condition of the fraternity. 

The following sketch of " Morganism in Orleans County " is from 
the pen of Robert Morris, LL. D., Masonic historian, and adequately 
presents the subject : 

The relation which Orleans county bears to the celebrated Morgan deportation of 
September, 182G, is found in two things. First, the great road westward from Roches- 
ter traverses the county from east to west, and it was along this route on the morning 
of Wednesday, September 13, that the noted Morgan was brought on his way to Can- 
ada. Second, Oak Orchard Creek, which enters the lake near the center of the water 
hne of Orleans county, was the scene of theamusing.procedure a year later, when the 
body of Timothy Munroe was drawn from the water and made for electioneering pur- 
poses to pass for the cadaver of William Morgan. 

A full explanation of the part taken by citizens of Orleans county in the removal of 
Morgan requires a statement in some detail of Morgan himself. For the popular opin- 
ion on this subject is as far from the truth as the granite statue, so conspicuous in, the 
old burying ground at Batavia, is unlike the appearance of Morgan while in the flesh. 

From the year of my initiation into masonry ( 184G ) I have earnestly sought the 
truth in relation to this affair, not to vindicate Free Masons who were responsible for it, 
but to place on record the facts as they occurred. For nearly foity years I have forbore 
publication, preferring to continue my gleanings that my successor might be the better 
able to finish the work ; nor should I have gone into print at all but for the utterly false 
and scandalous charges against our brethren made by Thurlow Weed in the last days of 
his life. Blind, bed-ridden, paralytic, a wreck in mind and body, the old politician reiter- 
ated from the memories of fifty years statements so detrimental to Masonic history and 
so adverse from the truth, that I should have been recreant to my trust as historian had 
I not accepted the challenge and placed in bold lines the falsity of the story. 

From 1846 to 1860 I spoke to a hundred persons, more or less, citizens of Batavia, 
Canandaigua, Rochester, Medina, Albion, etc., who had been personally acquainted 
with William Morgan. The united testimony of these persons was that he was a low- 
minded man, a sot, a bummer, unprincipled, an ignoramus, a worthless fellow. In 1824 
he came to Rochester as ajourneyman bricklayer, bringing with him from Canada a 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 167 

Masonic certificate ( " diploma " ) of membership. This proved afterward a forgery, 
but enabled him at the time to gain admission into the lodges, and even during two 
years to visit a number of lodges through Western New York as a sort of instructor. 

Morgan was a drunken fellow, and in his cups boastful aud loquacious. In a frenzy 
of his falsehood he had claimed to be a captain in General Jackson's army at New Or- 
leans. Needless to say, the lie was cut from whole cloth. In another carousal he 
sneered at Free Masonry, and acknowledged that he had got into the lodge by fraud. 
This was serious, and the order entered upon a series of inquiries which fully ex- 
posed him as an imposter. The surrounding lodges were warned of the discovery. 
Morgan was threatened with severe penalties if he persisted in his imposition, and early 
in the summer of 1826, the matter seemed to be quieted down, but then it was dis- 
covered that Morgan was engaged with a printer named Miller in the preparation of an 
exposition of Masonry. 

The governor, De Witt Clinton, an ardent Mason and an astute, sagacious man, ad- 
vised the brethren to pay Morgan for the work as far as finished, destroy the printed 
sheets and offer him sufficient inducement to return with his family to Canada. This 
was done ; the printed sheets were cremated in presence of witnesses, and a receipt for 
the money paid him ($100) was given by Morgan. A farther sum of $400 was 
promised if he wo'ild leave this State. But an obstacle was interposed here which 
those who study this curious bit of history do not take into consideration. Morgan 
was in jail at Batavia, or rather in the jail limits for debt. It was known, too, that 
several creditors wf^re preparing to present claims upon him the moment he was re- 
leased, the amount approaching a thousand dollars. A tavern keeper in Canandaigua 
had charged Morgan with the theft of a garment some months before, and to get 
Morgan away from the jail limits at Batavia, he swore out a criminal warrant and 
placed it in the hands of a sheriff's officer to execute. Taking with him a small posse, 
the officer went to Batavia, arrested Morgan and brought him to the jail in his own 
county. This was Monday, September 11. It has been clearly established that the 
whole movement was undertaken by consent of Morgan, who on the Sunday night 
previous, had accepted the plan, " to prepare a home in Canada, and to lay aside all 
pretence of being a Mason." The Masonic fraternity on their part agreed to send his 
family to him as soon as he had a home for them, and to pay him |400. 

Arrived at Canandaigua, the charge of theft was withdrawn and Morgan was further 
detained by virtue of an execution for a debt of $1.65, due to a person in that place. 
This was 7 p. m. of September 11, and thus ended the first act of the drama. 

During the Monday, Tuesday and Tuesday evening the Masonic brethren, in confer- 
ence with Morgan, perfected their plans and engaged carriages and drivers for the de- 
portation. About 9 p M., the execution having been lifted, Morgan was released from 
the prison, entered a carriage and was driven that night, with several stoppages, as far 
as Rochester and Hanford's tavern, four miles beyond. There the party turned west 
over what is well known as the Ridge road. At the change of horses, breakfast was 
had, and about 6 a. m. the second movement began. 

Conversing with citizens of Orleans county twenty-five years afterward, I inquired 
particularly whether Morgan was hoodwinked, bound, or under any restraint whatever. 



168 LANDMARKS OF 

Jeremiah Brown, a member of the Legislature, who drove the carriage from Ridgeway 
ten miles west of Gaines, declared with vehemence that lie was not. He kept a hand- 
kerchief over his eyes when the sun was hot, as they were much inflamed; but no 
restraint whatever was placed upon him. He sung, walked, slept and drank gin at the 
taverns at his discretion. He got out where he pleased and when he pleased. He 
helped to stop a runaway yoke of oxen. He picked up and petted a little child who 
had fallen and was crying. " Never did maiden leave parents more willingly to ac- 
company her lover than Morgan left New York. He bad escaped his creditors. His 
pockets were full of money. A new career was open to him. He was as happy as a 
gin-sodden creature of that stamp could be." 

The persons who drove the carriage to Rochester and from Lewiston to Youngstown 
gave the same sort of testimony. Orson Parkhurst, who acted as coachman from 
Rochester to Gaines, made similar declarations. James Mather lent his horses to the 
party as they came to his residence, and his brother Elihu got on the box. For this 
they were indicted, and during three years Elihu was put to much trouble and cost 
to clear himself of the charge of abduction, while James, for refusing to testify against 
his brother, was attached for contempt of court and fined $25. 

Isaac Allen, two miles west of Clarkson, had lent his horses to the party to be used 
until they reached Mather's, and for this he was severely questioned by the Grand 
Jury of Orleans county. Refusing to reply, he was committed for contempt of court, 
detained in prison a few days, and then discharged. The State prosecutor announced 
that this estimable citizen was punished as an example to other contumacious wit- 
nesses. 

Another witness (in Niagara county) submitted to a fine of $100 and four months 
imprisonment rather than pander to the popular excitement. 

Jeremiah Brown had, to use his own expressive language, " a heap of trouble." As 
early as February, 1827, he was subpoenaed as a witness at Batavia, tried at Lock- 
port June, 1830, and not for a year or two after that was he freed from the entangle- 
ments of " this pesky case." 

This is all the Morgan history, as far as Orleans county is concerned. 

He arrived at Youngstown on Thursday, 1 a. m., and was confined for a short time in 
the old disused powder magazine of Fort Niagara. At a conference with Colonel 
King, he expressed his consent, in the most explicit terms, to the deportation thus far 
carried out. On Sunday night, the I7th, a party of Canadian Masons took charge of 
him and conducted him into the interior of the country. There the wretched man 
who had betrayed every one who trusted him, betrayed them. No sooner did they 
leave hira than he changed his name, purchased a horse and struck down the river as 
far as Montreal. There he sold his horse, and from that point he fades out of history. 
There is not a paVticle of evidence as to his course afterwards. 

The second introduction of Orleans county into the ^lorgan affair is connected with 
the amusing episode of Timothy Munroe. It seems that, stimulated by the hope of re- 
ward, emissaries of the anti-Masonic party had for months during the fall and winter 
of 1826-27 been engaged in dredging the bed of the Niagara River near its mouth in 
hopes to secure the body of William Morgan. Daily canards were sent forth from the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 169 

scene of operations and the public mind kept in a state of agitation on this subject. 
Even while the trials were going on in Canandaigua a handbill was circulated, " that 
the body of Morgan was on its way, fish-eaten, ironed, gagged, etc.," but nothing was 
found, and after May and June it was admitted that the body, if there, must have fallen 
to pieces. 

But now new food was supplied the public appetite, and for a few days Orleans 
county was alive with intelligence. At Oak Orchard Harbor, forty miles east of 
Niagara River, a body was found on Sunday morning, October 7, 1827, which at once 
was accepted as that of William Morgan. It was in a frightful condition, horrible to 
eye and nostril, and the carrion birds were preparing to pounce on it, when some per- 
sons watering their horses, discovered the body and gave the alarm. The coroner was 
summoned and, assisted by a jury of twenty-four persons, performed his duty. De- 
scription of the body : " Length, 5 feet, 10. No scars or noticeable marks. About 
46 years of age. Remains of heavy whiskers and thick hair on the head. Teeth of 
ordinary character and sound. Package of religious tracts in pocket. Verdict, found 
drowned. Body decently coffined and interred." 

Newspaper notices of the affair were made as usual. One of these fell under the 
eye of Thurlow Weed. His instant decision Avas that the body was that of William 
Morgan. Collecting a number of persons who had known Morgan, he hastened to 
the spot, and on October 13 the body was taken up and removed to Carlton. Mrs. 
Morgan was sent for and came in company with a number of friends. On Monday 
morning the little village was thronged with visitors. Another coroner, one Robert M. 
Brown, was employed who, with his twenty-four jurymen, opened the coffin and in- 
spected the body, which was now " black, bloated, putrid and offensive beyond any- 
thing conceivable." By this time the bunch of whiskers had disappeared (for Morgan 
wore no whiskers). All the hair from the top of his head had been removed (for Mor- 
gan was a bald man). The ears were filled with long white hairs (for Morgan's ears 
were thus adorned). But none of the witnesses on the first inquest were questioned. 
Mrs. Morgan, after a hasty glance at the carrion, turned away and signed a sworn 
statement, "that she was fully convinced in her own mind that this was her hus- 
band." 

Coroner's verdict: " That the said William Morgan came to his death by drowning." 

So a grand funeral prosession was formed in which representatives from every town- 
ship in Orleans county participated ; and right through that Groshen of Western New 
York, along the lanes that were sweet with ripe apples, and past houses where httle 
boys, playing, asked their mothers the meaning of the ceremony, and through the upper 
half of Genesee county, went the crowd loudly proclaiming that Morgan was found 
at last, and the mystery was solved. Circular notices were scattered on the wind de- 
nouncing his murderers, and throwing out horrid threats against the Free Masons. 
One James Cochrane occupied the steps of the Court House and made a funeral sermon. 
But the principal citizens of Batavia, both Masons and anti-Masons, refused to give 
credence to the supposed discovery, and in a very few days more the truth was brought 
to light. The body was that of Timothy Munroe, a resident on the Canada shore, opposite 
Fort Niagara, who had been drowned while crossing the river (September 24), two 
22 



170 LANDMARKS OF 

weeks before the Oak Orchard developments. His wife and son, seeing the newspaper 
accounts, came to Orleans county and thoroughly identified the clothing, boots, tracts, 
etc. Going on to Batavia, a third inquest was held, the body being again exhumed, and 
the matter established beyond all controversy by the verdict, " This is the body of 
Timothy Munroe, who was drowned in the Niagara River, September 26, 1827." 

But these things have passed away. Not a person is left who participated in either 
of those three examinations. A third generation is occupying the land thus strangely 
agitated. Free Masonry has revived and hard feelings we may have entertained are 
forgotten. But let it stand on record in Orleans county, that the principles of Masonry 
neither justify murder nor abduction ; that all our dealings with William Morgan were 
for his benefit, as well as our own security ; that the course pursued with him was 
under counsel of the wisest and most prudent men of the day, and that to his own 
breach of contract is due all that is of mystery and uncertainty in the whole affair. 

In this connection it is proper to quote the following preamble and 
resolutions from the minutes of Genesee Commandery No. lo, K. T., 
then located at Le Roy and now at Lockport, under date of April 20, 
1827. 

Whereas, The principles of national and personal rights secured to us by our fore- 
fathers are the best calculated to secure the peace and happiness of mankind; and, 
whereas, in a firm adhesion to these principles depend the welfare and safety of indi- 
viduals and our government; and, whereas, the great principles first taught in our insti- 
tutions are "Thy first homage thou owest to the deity ; the second to the authority of 
civil society ; honor the father of the State ; love thy country, be religiously scrupulous 
in fulfilling all the duties of a good citizen ;" therefore 

Resolved, That the duty we owe to those principles is paramount to all others, and 
any deviation from them meets with our entire disapprobation ; 

Resolved, That the late outrages perpetrated on the person and property of William 
Morgan and David C. Miller are a violation of the laws of our country and this institu- 
tion, and that we will hold any member of this order who will not use all lawful means 
to discover the fate of the said William Morgan and bring the perpetrators thereof to 
justice, as an unworthy member and one who ought to be expelled. 

Resolved, That we as a body disclaim any knowledge or participation in these un- 
paralleled outrages ; 

Resolved, That we disapprove the conduct of the editors of public journals, who have 
refused or neglected to pubhsh any facts in their knowledge, respecting those outrages, 
and who have endeavored to palliate them by publishing falsehoods and vague reports ; 

Resolved, That we approve the independent stand of those editor.s who have published 
all the facts within their knowledge in regard to the Morgan affair, and that we will 
cordially support them in their efforts to promote the end of public justice. 

Resolved, That John Hascall, C. A. Smith, and T. D. Moore be a committee to corre- 
spond with other committees to discover the fate of the said William ]\[organ and bring 
the guilty to punishment ; 

Resolved, That these proceedings be published in the Le Roy Gazette. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 171 

The first revival of Free Masonry in Orleans county took place in 
the latter part of the year 1843, when seventeen brethren, nearly all 
probably members of Fredonia Lodge No. 246, signed and forwarded 
to the Grand Lodge, stating substantially that they were residents of 
the towns of Clarendon, Murray and Kendall ; were Master Masons and 
had been in good standing; that no lodge existed nearer than thirty or 
forty miles of them ; that "the times are propitious ; anti- Masonry is 
dead. The acrimony of our fiercest enemies has subsided into apathy ;" 
and that therefore they were desirous of forming a new lodge in the 
town of Murray, to be called Renovation. The signers further stated 
that in hope of a favorable reply to the petition, they had elected 
Aretas Haskell, first master ; Elijah W. Wood, first senior warden, and 
Jeremiah Aver\% first junior warden. The warrant was issued June 8, 
1844, to the above named officers, excepting that Aaron Baldwin was 
made junior warden, and the lodge was called Renovation No. 97. 
The first meeting was held April i, 1844. The records of the Grand 
Lodge show that Joseph Nixon, said to be a Knight Templar, installed 
the officers of Renovation Lodge on August 12, 1844. It appears as 
far as records show, that meetings of the lodge were not held very fre- 
quently for some time, nor with regularity ; the place of meeting for 
installation was at Sandy Creek. Meetings were held at other points — 
in 'Medina, August 13, 1846; at Eagle Harbor in 1850, and after 
August, 1850, in Albion; on December 8, 1845, E. VV. Wood was 
elected master; Abel Baldwin, senior warden, and S. Lewis, junior war- 
den ; on November 30, 1846, the following officers were elected : 

Elijah W.Wood, master ; Alexander Coon, senior warden ; Silas Knapp, junior warden ; 
Oren Britt, treasurer; Levi Davis, secretary ; C. C. Phelps, senior deacon ; B. F. Tow- 
ner, junior deacon; Isaac Knapp, and Ora Lee, stewards. 

In 1848 the officers were the same as during the preceding year, ex- 
cept secretary. 

The next record of election gives the following officers for December 
4, 1848: 

Silas Knapp, master; Alexander Coon, senior warden ; B. F. Towner, junior warden ; 
Oren Britt, treasurer ; Isaac Knapp, secretary ; C. C. Phelps, senior deacon ; H. Farwell, 
junior deacon ; H. N. Beers and Joseph Nixon, stewards ; S. T. G-rummond tiler. 

The record for 1850 is not given, but the officers were as follows : 



172 LANDMARKS OF 

Elijah W. Wood, master; 0, C. Phelps, senior warden ; L. Pullman, junior warden ; L. 
D. Spaulding, treasurer; W. H. Drew, secretary. 

The officers elected December i6, 1850, were: 

Elijah W Wood, master; W. H. Drew, senior warden ; Lewis Pullman, junior war- 
den ; L. D. Spaulding, treasurer; Charles A. Danolds, secretary. 

On December 8, 1851, the following officers were elected : 

William H. Drew , master ; Lewis Pullman, senior warden; Lorenzo Spaulding, 
junior warden ; Elijah W. Wood, treasurer; Ozias S. Church, secretary. 

On December 20, 1852, the following were elected : 

William H. Drew, master; Lewis Pullman, senior warden; J. Downs, junior war- 
den ; J. Starkweather, treasurer ; A. G. Beebe, secretary. 

On December 12, 1853, the following were elected : 

Elijah W. Wood, master; S. F. Benjamin, senior warden ; A. J. Weeks, junior war- 
den ; John Young treasurer ; E. R. Tanner, secretary. 

On the records of February 6, 1854, appears the following : 

" The undersigned would respectfully state that we wish to withdraw from this 
lodge for the purpose of organizing a lodge at Medina. Silas Knapp, Isaac Knapp, 
P. D. Beecher, Curtis Barnes, S. F. Benjamin." 

Permission of withdrawal was granted, and on March 13, 1854, 
similar consent was given to request for withdrawal from H. N. Beers, 
S. T. Grummond, James Sheppard, and C. Ashton. This led to the 
organization of Medina Lodge No. 336, noticed a little further on. The 
masters of Renovation Lodge No. 97, from and including 1854 to the 
present time, have been as follows : 

Elijah W. Wood, 1854; A. J. Weeks, 1855; EHas Beach, 1856-57; E. R. Tanner, 
1858; George Mather, 1859-63, and 1868, 1872 and 1873; Orlando Hardy, 1864; Wil- 
lard H. Storms, 1865 ; George W. Barrell, 1866 and 1876-79; Thomas Bell, 1867, 
and 1869-71 ; Samuel H. Taylor, 1874-75 ; Albert S. Warner, 1880-81 ; Alexander 
Hayes, 1882-84; Samuel R. Cochrane, 1885 ; Charles D. Ross, 1886-89; Gurdon W. 
Fitch, 1890-92; W. Crawford Ramsdale, 1893-94. 

The officers for 1894 are as follows: 

W. Crawford Ramsdale, W. M.; Lyman S. Linson, S. W.; Byron V. Botsford, J. W.; 
George S. Hutchinson, treasurer; Alph H. Sears, secretary ; Orville H. Taylor, S. D.; 
Wells D. English, J. D.; Charles E. Hart, S. M. C; William D. Enghsh, J. M. C; Rev. 
F. S. Dunham, chaplain ; John B. Bordwell, organist ; R. 0. Smith, tiler. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 173 

Medina Lodge No. 356. On the i ith of January, 1854, the following 
Master Masons petitioned for a dispensation to organize a lodge with 
the above name : 

Samuel F. Benjamin, Curtis Barnes, Peyton D. Beecher, H. Beecher, H. M. Beers, 
William Bidleman, Silas Knapp, Isaac Knapp, James Sheppard, S. T. Grummond. Ira 
Barnes, John W. Culver, Alexander Coon, and Jeremiah Brown. 

The petition was recommended by Cataract Lodge No. 295, of 
Middleport, and granted February i, 1854, with the following officers: 

Samuel F. Benjamin master ; Curtis Barnes, senior warden ; Peyton D. Beecher, 
junior warden. 

At the annual communication of the Grand Lodge for 1854 a 
warrant was granted to Medina Lodge No. 336, the warrant being 
dated June 20. 

Following are the officers of this lodge for 1894: 

Everett M. Baker, W. M.; Irving L'Homraedieu, S. W.; Henry Pease, J. W.; George 
W. Frary, treasurer; George A. Newell, secretary ; Edward W. Tripp, S. D.; Edward 
E. Crook, J. D.; Louis E. Henion, S. M. C; George S. Helenbolt, J. M. C; Peter F. 
Hevenor, tiler. 

The following are lists of the masters, senior wardens, and junior 
wardens since the formation of this lodge : 

Masters — Samuel F. Benjamin, 1854-55; Silas Knapp, 1856; Christopher Whaley, 
1857-58; Benjamin C. Blake, 1859-60; Christopher Whaley, 1861-62-63; Ira 
Barnes, 1864; Benjamin C. Blake, 1865; Samuel F.Benjamin, 1866; Benjamin C. 
Blake, 1867; Homer Belding. 1868; William H. Watson, 1869; Jacob Gorton, 1870; 
Benjamin C. Blake, 1871; Henry A. Childs, 1872-73-74; Lyman F. Zimmerman, 1875; 
Samuel C. Brownell, 1876-77; Edmund L. Pitts, 1878-79; George A Newell, 1880; 
Henry A. Childs, 1881; Edward Posson, 1882-83-84; W^illiam P. Tanner, 1885 ; Ed- 
ward Posson, 1886-87-88-89 ; Francis Barker, 1890; John Cunningham, 1891; Edwin 
B. Simonds, 1892; Everett M. Baker, 1893. 

Senior Wardens — Curtis Barnes, 1854-55; Christopher Whaley, 1856; Benjamin C. 
Blake, 1857; Ira Barnes, 1858; William C. Brown, 1859-60; George C. Cook, 1861; 
George F. Welch, 1862; John Allen 1863; M.L.Barrett, 1864; Christopher Whaley, 
1865; Nelson Deline. 18G6 ; George Ward, 1867; Wilham C. Brown, 1868-69; L 
Morris Knapp, 1870; Erwin A. Bowen, 1871; Lyman F. Zimmerman, 1872-73-74; 
Samuel C. Brownell, 1875; Edmund L. Pitts, 1876-77; Jacob Gorton, 1878; George 
A. Newell, 1879 ; Edward Posson, 1880 ; John T. Cothran, 1881 ; William P. Tanner, 
1882-83-84; George Snaith, 1885-86; Francis Barker, 1887-88; John Cunningham 
1889 ; Edwin B. Simonds, 1890; Everett M. Baker, 1891-92 ; Irving L'Hommedieu, 1893' 



174 LANDMARKS OF 

Junior Wardens — Peyton D. Beecher, 1854; John W. Graves, 1855; Benjamin C. 
Blake, 1856; Ira Barnes, 1857; William C.Brown, 1858; J. T. Rindge. 1859; George 
C. Cook, 1860; R. J. Bordwell, 1861 ; M. S. Barrett, 1862 ; A. J. Fay, 1863 ; John N. 
Sherwood, 1864; George Ward, 1865; George H. Alford, 1866; D. A. Van Wie, 1867; 
Silas A. Snell, 1868 ; Jacob Gorton, 1869; Henrjr A. Childs, 1870; N. G. Brown, 1871; 
Samuel C. Brownell, 1872-73-74; Edmund L. Pitts, 1875 ; Myron S. Newell, 1876-77; 
George Schemerhorn, 1878; Edward Posson, 1879; John C. Thurston, 1880; William 
P. Tanner, 1881; George Snaith, 1882 83-84 ; Francis Barker, 1885-86; John Cun- 
ningham, 1887-88; Frank R. Downs, 1889; Everett M. Baker, 1890; Irving L'Homme- 
dieu, 1891-92; Henry Pease, 1893. 

Murray Lodge No, 380, F. & A. M., was organized in the village of 
Holley May 16, 1855, and received its charter in June following. The 
number of charter members was twenty, and the first officers as fol- 
lows : D. D. Sprague, W. M. ; O. Hardy, S. W. ; George N. Bowman, 
J. W. In the fire of October 25, 1866, the lodge lost all of its prop- 
erty, but it was fully insured. Again in July, 1874, fire destroyed the 
lodge property at a loss of $600, the charter being burned. The offi- 
cers of the lodge for 1894 are as follows : 

George H. Sheffield, worshipful master; Henry J. Buell, senior warden; Courtney 
P. King, junior warden ; George N. Bowman, treasurer; Hiram B. Joslyn, secretary ; 
Alfred M. Potter, senior deacon; Bruce B. Atkins, junior deacon; William A. Bissell, 
senior master of ceremonies; David H. Partridge, junior master of ceremonies; S. 
Fisk Manly, tiler ; Rev. A. D. Abrams, chaplain ; Webster E. Howard, marshal. 

Yates Lodge No. 675, F. & A. M., Lyndonville, worked under a dis- 
pensation from October 29, 1867, to June 20, 1868, when a charter 
was obtained with Noah Shepardson, W. M. The masters of this lodge 
have been : 

S. G. Johnson, 1869; Uriel Timmerman, 1870, 1874, 1878-79; A. B. Fisk, 1871, 
1873, 1875-76, 1892; Joseph S. Spalding, 1872, 1877; George A. Waterbury, 1880- 
81, 1885-86, 1889, 1893-94; Morell Dates, 1887; H. B. Fuller, 1890-91. 

The lodge has now 150 members. The officers of this lodge for 
1894 are as follows : 

George A. Waterbury, W. M. ; B. M. Beecher, S. W. ; R. Cummings, J. W. ; A. B. 
Waterbury, treasurer; C. E. Thurber, secretary; H. B. Fuller, S. D. ; Truman Thoms, 
J. D. ; J. 0. Stokes, S. M. of C. ; Thomas Erskins, J. M. of C. ; S. G. Johnson, chap- 
lain ; A. B. Fisk, marshal ; W. C. Sawyer, tiler. 

Social Lodge No. 713 (Kendall). This lodge was instituted January 
28, 1871, with thirty-eight members, under dispensation to the fol- 
lowing ofificers : 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



175 



William S. Jewett, W. M. ; Oscar Munn, S. W. ; John W. Simkins, J. W. ; James 
Whitehouse, S. D. ; Ira B. Bates, J. D. ; Sumner Austin, secretary ; Samuel A. Bates, 
treasurer. 

This lodge was incorporated under State law in 1874, the first Board 
of Trustees being William S. Jewett, Alonzo Egelston, and Samuel 
A. Bates. The lot and stone building formerly owned by the Sons of 
Temperance was deeded to the trustees of Social Lodge December 14, 
1874. The officers of the lodge for 1894 are as follows: 

C. S. Bridgeman, W. M. ; Joseph Mann, S. W. ; W. W. Morey, J. W. ; S. B. Bayer, 
treasurer ; E. 0. Smith, secretary ; R. W. Bamber, S. D. ; Alonzo Egelston, Cornelius 
Fenner, and J. Mann, trustees. 

The following are past masters of the lodge : 

William S. Jewett, Oscar Munn, John W. Simkins, James Whitehouse, Ira B. Bates, 
William N. Spicer, and C. S. Bridgeman. 

Social Lodge now has about fifty-five members. 

Orleans Chapter No. 175. Royal Arch Masons. On the 3d day of 
May, 1862, a dispensation was issued to a number of companions living 
at or near Albion for a chapter of Royal Arch Masons to be known as 
Orleans Chapter, in which George Mather was named as high priest, 
Charles H. Adams as king, and Hiram Preston as scribe, and to be 
located at Albion, At the annual convocation of the Grand Chapter, 
held on the 4th day of February, 1863, a charter was granted to 
Orleans Chapter No. 175, and the officers named therein were the same 
as in the dispensation. The ruling officers have been as follows : 



Year. High Priest. 

1862 George Mather, 

1863 

1864 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 Samuel H. Taylor, 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 



King. 
Charles H. Adams, 



George S. Hutchinson, 
L. C. Paine, 
Samuel H. Taylor. 

Henry R. Curtis, 
u 

Orlando Hardy, 
Abram H. Goodman, 
George Mather, 
George W. Barrell, 
George Mather, 



Scribe. 
Hiram W. Preston, 



Martin Slussor, 
Henry R. Curtis, 
Orlando Hardy, 

Abram H. Goodman 
Simon Adler, 
Abram H. Botsford, 
Robert 0. Wilkins, 
Charles B. Cowles, 



176 



LANDMAEKS OF 



Year. 
1876 

1877 
1878 
1879 


High Priest. 
Samuel H. Taylor, 


King. 
George N. Bowman, 
George W. Barrel!, 


Scribe. 
Abram H. Goodman, 

Ro'-ert 0. Wilkins, 


1880 
1881 


George W. Barrel!, 


Robert 0. Wilkins, 
George A. Newell, 


Oscar Minn, 
Albert S. Warner, 


1882 


« 


a 


(( 


1883 


George A. Newell, 


A. S. Warner, 


George B. Church, 


1884 
1885 
1886 


a 


I. M. Thompson, 


u 


1887 


a 


u 


« 


1888 


a 


l( 


Robert Clark, 


1889 
1890 


(C 


If 


Robert Clark, 


1891 
1892 


C( 


Gurdon W. Fitch, 


Irving L'Hommedieu, 


1893 


u 


Gurdon W. Fitch, 


Irving L'Hommedieu 


1894 


u 


Orville H. Taylor, 


Robert Clark. 



The officers for 1894 are : 

George A. Newell, E. H. P.; Orville H. Taylor, king ; Robert Clark, scribe ; George 
S. Hutchinson, treasurer ; Alph H. Sears, secretary ; James J. Mustill, C. of H.; Irving 
L'Hommedieu, P. S.; Homer J. Luther, R. A. C; John G. Rice, Lyman S. Linson 
Byron V. Botsford, M. of Vs.; Rev. F. S. Dunham, chaplain ; John B. Bordwell, or- 
ganist: R. 0. Smith, tiler. 

Alph-Omega Council No. 71 of Royal and Select Masters. — October 
18, 1878, a dispensation was granted by Most Illustrious George M. 
Osgoodby, grand master, to Robert H. Brown as thrice illustrious mas- 
ter, George W. Barrell as illustrious deputy master, and Albert S. 
Warner as illustrious principal conductor of the work, to hold a council 
of Royal and Select Masters at Albion to be known as Alph-Omega 
Council No. 71. The council was instituted by the grand master on 
the evening of November 22, 1878, and a warrant was granted by the 
grand council September 2, 1879. Its ruling officers have been as 
follows : 



Year. 


Master. 


Deputy Master. 


P. C. of W. 


1878 


Robert H. Brown, 


George W. Barrell, 


Albert S. Warner 


1879 


u 


» 


(( 


1880 


u 


« 


u 


1881 


« 


» 


« 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



'ear. Master, 

882 Albert S. Warner, 

883 George A. Newell, 
884 

885 

886 

887 Charles D. Ross, 

888 

889 George A. Newell, 

890 

891 

892 « 

893 

894 Irving L'Horaraedieu, 



Deputy Master. 
George A. Newell, 
Alex. Hays, 



P. c. of w. 
Alex. Hays. 
Charles D. Ross. 



Charles D. Ros«, Roberi R. Wilkins. 

George S" Hutchinson, Irving M. Thompson. 



John Cunningham, 
Irving L'Hommedieu, 



James J. Mustill, 



The officers for 1894 are as follows: 

Irving L'Hommedieu, T. I. M.; James J. Mustill, I. D. M.; Irving M. Thompson, 
I. P. C. of W.; Alph H. Sears, recorder; George S. Hutchinson, treasurer; Homer J. 
Luther, C. of G.; Lyman S. Linson, C. of C; William D. English, steward ; Rev. F. S. 
Dunham, chaplain ; John B. Bordwell, organist ; Arthur Harris, sentinel. 

A number of the brethren, residents of Orleans county, have been 
honored with higher official station beyond the subordinate bodies, as 
follows : 

In Grand Lodge. — Hon. Henry A. Childs, district deputy grand master 1871, com- 
missioner of appeals 1878-1883 ; Hon. Edmund L. Pitts, commissioner of appeals 
1885-1890 ; George W. Barrell, district deputy grand master 1878 ; Albert S. Warner, 
district deputy grand master 1881 : George A. Newell, grand steward 1882-1883, district 
deputy grand master 1885-86 ; Charles D. Ross, district deputy grand master 1889- 
1890 ; Edwin B. Simonds district deputy grand master 1894, assistant grand lecturer 
1893 ; Edward Posson, assistant grand lecturer 1887-1891. 

In Grand Chapter. — George A. Newell, grand master of second veil 1889. 

In Grand Council — George A. Newell, most illustrious grand master 1894. 

THE INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 

As preliminary to the history of the order in this county, it may be 
appropriate to state that the American branch of the order was organ- 
ized at Baltimore, Maryland, April 26, 18 19, by five English Odd Fel- 
lows belonging to the branch known as the Manchester Unity in En- 
gland. From this small beginning the order has extended into almost 
all parts of the habitable globe, and numbered January i, 1893, 773,- 
481 adult males and 96,312 females, making a total of 869,793. The 



178 LANDMARKS OF 

Manchester Unity at the same time numbered 709,405 adult males and 
82,243 juveniles, both orders combined giving a grand total of 1,561,- 
439 members, the most numerous and wealthy secret order in the 
world. 

The first lodge organized in this county was at Medina. At one 
time five lodges existed in the county. One of these has long been de- 
funct, another was merged in the lodge at Albion, and another remained 
dormant thirteen years, but was revived and is now a prosperous lodge. 
Owing to divisions of the order in this State but two lodges, Albion 
and Holley, maintained their integrity, and these have experienced 
their seasons of adversity. The three subordinate lodges in the county 
are now prosperous. The Encampment branch is also in a flourishing 
condition and the Rebekah lodges are doing finely. 

SUBORDINATE LODGES I. O O. F. H. E. HATCH, D. D. G. M. 

Orleans Lodge No. 217 was the first lodge chartered in the county. 
The petition was for Red Jacket Lodge No. 139, and was signed by 
James W. Otto, R. S. Castle, William Fonda, I. W. Swan and F. W 
Barlow, and the charter was voted to it as Red Jacket No. 139, the 
petitioners being the first charter members. It is supposed that the 
charter when issued to them was, as Orleans Lodge No. 139, but no 
record can be found as to when or how the change was made. The 
charter bore date February 18, 1845, ^^^ the lodge was instituted 
March 14 of the same year by D. D. G. M. Edgar C. Dibble, of Bata- 
via. It ceased to work in 1856 and remained dormant for thirteen 
years. It was resuscitated and reinstituted July 21, 1869, and the fol- 
lowing, who were former members, are the names in the charter : D. 
W. Cole, E. Fuller, jr., John G. Bateman, Henry Williams, George 
Sutter, George W. Frary, John Alcorn and Hiram E. Sickels, now re- 
porter of the Court of Appeals. The first elective officers under the 
new dispensation were : D. W. Cole, N. G. ; D. Sherwood, V. G. ; D. O. 
Phelps, secretary ; and George W. Frary, treasurer. The present officers 
are : Ora Pratt, N. G ; J. Klino, V. G. ; C. C. Hopkins, secretary ; H. M. 
Colby, treasurer. Since its reinstatement the lodge has prospered con- 
tinuously and is now an active and energetic lodge. It has purchased 
the Potter lot on Center street at a cost of over $3,000, and intends to 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 179 

erect thereon a fine lodge building. It will be seen from the lists given 
above that the lodge is and has been composed of prominent and influ- 
ential citizens. Among those not mentioned above are the venerable 
John Ryan, Dr. Christopher Whaley, Elisha S. Whalen, a member of 
the Assembly, Andrew Ellicott, Roswell Star, William Russ, W. W. 
Potter, and Henry Williams. Of these older members R. S. Castle, 
John Ryan, Henry Williams, George W. Frary still survive. 

Albion Lodge, No. 58, was the second lodge instituted in the county 
by dispensation from the Grand Lodge of New York. The ceremony 
took place at Albion, March 13, 1846, and was conducted by James 
W. Otto, special deputy. Its chartered number was 212 and the 
charter members were: H.J. Van Dusen, A. S. Delano, Charles James, 
Olney Gold, William K. McAllister, WiUiam Noble, S. E. Church, John 
Tanner and John B. Lee. Large delegations attended the institution 
from Lockport and Medina. The first officers were : 

H. J. Van Dusen, N. Gr. ; Charles James, V. G. ; A. S. Delano, secretary ; W. K. Mc- 
Allister, P. secretary ; Ben Field, treasurer ; William Noble, W. ; John B. Lee, C. ; 
A. R. Quinby, 0. Q. ; John L. Moulthrop, I. (J-. ; Olney Gould, R. S. N. G. ; Howard 
Abeel, L. S. N. G. ; S. E. Church, R. S. V. G. ; John Tanner, L. S. V. G ; George H. 
Stone, R. S. S. ; Charles Baker, L. S. S. ; M.^Ballard, chaplain. ; 

These lists contain the names of many who afterwards distinguished 
themselves. Sanford E. Church, late chief judge of the Court of Ap- 
peals ; Col. James, Gen, John B. Lee, Dr. William Noble, W. K. Mc- 
Allister, late judge of the Supreme Court of Illinois; ex-Senator 
Ben Field and Howard Abeel. A room was fitted up in Swan's 
block, corner of Batavia (now Main) and Bank streets, at a cost of $700. 
The lodge room was over the north half of the block until the Orleans 
Republican newspaper removed from the south half, and since that 
time it has occupied the whole upper story of the block, except for a 
short time in 1882, after the block was burned, it occupied temporary 
quarters in Burrow's block, until the Swan block was rebuilt, when it 
returned to its old quarters, where it now remains. In the division of 
the State, which occurred soon after its organization, it attached itself 
to the Grand Lodge of Northern New York. After the reunion in 
1865, its number was changed to fifty- eight. The prosperity of the 
lodge has been varied. Its membership was at one time reduced to 



180 LANDMARKS OF 

fifteen, all told, but its present membership is 146. Its revenue during 
the past year was $1,068, and it expended for relief during the same 
period, $357. The lodge has an invested fund of over $2,500, and its 
furniture and paraphernalia are valued at about $2,000. Among the 
oldest and best known members of the lodge during its existence, in 
addition to those above named, are : 

Hon. Noah Davis, late justice of the Supreme Court, and ex-M. C. ; Dan H. Cole 
ex-county judge and State senator; Henry A. Glidden, ex-clerk of the State Senate; 
John H. White, past grand sire of the order, past grand representative to the Sovereign 
Grand Lodge for nineteen years and author of the digest of the laws of Odd Fellow- 
ship, known as White's Digest ; William J. Hanington, George H. Owen, William H. 
Pells, John Tanner, Charles H. Moore, Ward Buel, John H. Denio, Peter Galarnau, 
David Hardie, George W. Ough. The present officers of the lodge are: George W. 
Caswell, N. G. ; Thomas Graves, V. G. ; John B. Bordwell, secretary ; John Bidelman 
permanent secretary ; W. J. Hanington, treasurer. The trustees are : John H.White, 
James Blott and Charles Bidelman. 

Ridgeway Lodge, No. 283, was the third lodge chartered in this 
county. The charter was granted May 17, 1847, to B. Hix Mills, 
Robert L. Hill, J. McMartin, L. C. Grover, A. M. Frost, Folsome Rich- 
ardson, William Wood, A. V. Belding, Joseph S. Swan, William North 
and Isaac Smith. This lodge was located at Knowlesville and con- 
tinued to work until about 1856 when it ceased to work and has never 
been revived. 

Holley Lodge, No. 42, comes next in order. It was chartered, 
November 17, 1848, the charter members being Dr. John W. Titus, 
Franklin Hinds, Jacob Sawyer, Jabez Allison and Nicholas E. Darrow, 
the latter of whom is the only survivor at this date, July, 1894. Col. 
Darrow still survives and resides at his home in the town of Clarendon 
honored and beloved by all who know him. He still retains his mem- 
bership, and is, as he always has been, an ardent Odd Fellow. Dr. 
Titus was the first noble grand; Hiram S. Frisbie, secretary; Jacob 
Sawyer, permanent secretary; Jabez Allison, treasurer. 

Immediately after the division in this State and in 1850 the number 
of the lodge was changed to 140. and after the reunion was again 
changed, this time to its present number, forty- two. In ib62 the lodge 
was incorporated by special act of the Legislature. Its original place 
of meeting was in the old Frisbie block on the east side of the square. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 181 

This block was burned in October, 1866, at which time the lodge lost 
its furniture and records. It then purchased of J. W. Robb and fitted 
up the second story of the building on the corner of State street and 
the public square, and occupied it until September, 1871, when it was 
again burned out, and suffered a total loss, including its charter. It 
occupied successively for various periods the Newton block, the Bliss 
block and the Buel block. In 1891 the lodge purchased a lot on the 
square and erected a hall at a cost of $6,000, which is entirely paid for 
and is now occupied by the lodge, except the first story which is 
rented. Its furniture and paraphernalia are valued at $1,000. This is 
one of the most prosperous lodges in the county and is emphatically a 
farmer's lodge, many of the members residing in the surrounding towns. 
Its present membership is 157. 

Eagle Harbor Lodge, No. 387, was chartered July 23, 1849, with the 
following charter members : L. S. Whitney, A. S. Delano, John Cornes, 
L. A. Hitchcock, David H. Danolds, Charles A. Danolds, John Stark- 
weather. Arthemas Chase, John M. K. Hilton, A. O'Harrow and Albert 
M. Lawrence, and was instituted at Eagle Harbor. The lodge ceased 
to work in i860, and was afterwards merged in Albion Lodge. 

SUBORDINATE ENCAMPMENTS, I. 0. 0. F. — W. J. RANDS, D. D. G. P. 

Orleans Encampment No. 28 was instituted at Albion, January 25, 
1848, as No. 60 and has continued its existence to the present time. 
In the division of the order in this State it has attached itself to the 
Grand Encampment of Northern New York and at the reunion of the 
order was numbered 28. Its first officers were: 

H. J. Van Dusen, C. P. ; Marcena Ballard, H. P. ; Stephen Gates, S. W. ; John B. 
Lee, J. W. ; George H. Stone, scribe ; Thomas J. Clark, treasurer. 

Most of the prominent members mentioned as belonging to Albion 
were or are members of the encampment, besides the following from 
other lodges : 

Jabez Allison, Charles Craig, 0. C. Wright, Asahel Merriman, Rev. P. P. Kidder, N. 
E. Darrow, Charles A. Danolds, Ransom P. Orr, Daniel S. Ross, John B. Feezlear, 
Nathan 0. Warren. 

The encampment now numbers fifty- two members and has a good 
financial standing. Its present officers are : 



182 LANDMARKS OF 

Frank Tyler, C. P. ; E. W. Bronson, S. W. ; John W. Shourds, J. W. ; John Mattinson, 
H. P. ; John Bidelman, scribe, and Ward Buel, treasurer. 

Medina Encampment No. io6, was instituted at Medina, October 4, 
1887, by E. O. Caldwell, grand patriarch. The charter members were : 

C. C. Hopkins, M. A. Bowen, C. S. Hoag, John E. Clark, F. C. Wilson, C. E. Shisler, and 
A. S. Broughton. 

Nineteen were exalted at the institution. The first officers were : 

C. E. Shisler, C. P. ; F. E. Wilson, H. P. ; John E. Clark, S. W. ; C. C. Hopkins, 
scribe ; M. A. Bowen, treasurer, and C. S. Hoag, J. W. 

The present membership is fifty-seven, and its present officers are: 

Thomas Piatt, C. P. ; F. C. Wilson, H. P. ; J. Klino, S. W. ; C. C. Hopkins, scribe ; 
M. H. Colby, treasurer, and J ames Evans, J. W. 

REBEKAH LODGES, I. O. O. F. — MRS. JENNIE GOFF, D. D. G. M. 

Charity Rebekah Lodge No. 27 was instituted at Holley, June 29, 
1 87 1, by Henry A. Glidden, D. D. G. M. The charter members are: 

John B. Feezlear, and Eliza his wife ; Alvinza L. James, and Almira his wife; Will- 
iam N. Pratt, and Lucretia his wife ; Nathan 0. Warren, and Eliza his wife ; D. R. 
Wright, and Betsey his wife ; Ransom P. Orr and Elsie his wife ; Daniel S. Ross, and 
Melina his wife. R. P. Orr was the first noble grand. 

The present elective officers are : 

Emma Bradford, N. G. ; Anna Hard, V. G. ; Eva Warren, Sec. ; Emma Bronson, F. 
Sec. ; and Mary Gaylord, Treas. 

It has a present membership of one hundred and fifty. 

Abeel Rebekah Lodge No. 131 was instituted at Albion, May 8, 
1891, by William R. Spooner, G. M., with forty-four charter members. 
It was named in honor of Howard Abeel, then lately deceased, an old 
and zealous member of the order. Its first officers were : 

Miss Maggie Hardie, N. G. ; Mrs. Jennie Goff, V. G. ; Mrs. Alma Caswell, Sec. ; Mrs 
Mary Woolford, Treas. 

The present officers are : 

Mrs. Anna L. Wilkins, N. G. ; Mrs. Hattie Vandell, V. G. ; Mrs. Dora Richmond, 
Sec; Miss Maggie Hardie, Fin. Sec, and Mrs. Charlotte F. Griswold, Treas. 

The present membership is ninety-one. Fifty brothers and forty-one 
sisters. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 183 

Welcome Rebekah Lodge No. 146, was instituted at Medina, Febru- 
ary 6, 1893, by Charles H. Morgan, G. M. The charter members were : 

Mrs. Alice Waterson, Mrs. Hattie Culver, Mrs. Helen Swart, Mrs. Emily Hamlin 
Mrs. Ellen B. Evans, Mrs. Emma C. Callaghan, James Swart, Frank D. Hamlin, C. S. 
Hoag, James Evans, William Boyd, J. H. Klino, W. J. Culver, and James Waterson. 

The first officers were : 

Mrs. Ella Colby, N. G. ; Mrs. Helen Swart, V. Gr. ; Mrs. Alice Waterson, Sec. ; Mrs. 
Emily Hamlin, Treas. 

The present officers are : 

Mrs. Helen Swart, N. G. ; Miss Jennie Begole, V. G. ; Mrs. Charles Sikes, Sec. ; and 
Mrs. William Wheeler, Treas. 

The present membership is seventy, thirty-eight brothers and thirty- 
two sisters. 



Orleans County Agricultural Society. — In years past and 
prior to 1850 there was an agricultural society in existence in this 
county, but no records of its operations are in existence, as far as can 
now be learned. This society never owned any real estate, but held 
annual fairs for some years north of the canal in Albion on a lot after- 
wards used for circus performances and other exhibitions, tents being 
used for shelter and protection. An annual plowing match was one of 
the features of the fairs. There was no race track on the ground. While 
this society was an unpretentious organization and its exhibitions were 
insignificant when compared with later societies, it was sufficiently suc- 
cessful to pay its current expenses. 

In October, 1856, the present society was organized, with T. C. 
Bailey president and Hiram S. Goff, secretary. In 1857 the society 
purchased twelve acres of the present grounds, situated on the south 
side of State street, in the western part of Albion village, and there 
erected rude and inexpensive buildings for the accommodation of ex- 
hibitors at its annual fairs. A half mile track for trials of speed and 
other purposes was graded. These so called trials of speed gradually 
became more and more prominent in the annual fairs of the society, 
while exhibitions of stock and other products attracted less and less 
attention, became steadily smaller, and the fairs ultimately seemed to 



184 LANDMARKS OF 

merit the term often applied to them of " agricultural horse races.' 
Large premiums were awarded to winning animals in the races, and 
competitors from all parts of the country were invited. These large 
premiums kept the treasury of the society depleted, while the races 
drew hither large numbers of very undesirable characters. For a long 
time the farmers of the county permitted this course to be followed, but 
they finally protested and determined to inaugurate a different kind of 
administration. They elected officers pledged to carry out their wishes ; 
more and larger premiums were offered for farm products and stock, 
and the fast horse was placed in the subordinate position to which he 
was in their estimation entitled. Predictions of early failure of this 
policy were freely made by its opponents, but the farmers of the county 
came forward in force to support their representatives, and during more 
than twenty years the prosperity of the society has been remarkable. 
A debt that had long existed against the society was soon paid off; 
new and commodious buildings replaced the original rude structuies; 
sheds and pavilions for the convenience of e.xhibitors were erected ; 
large additions were made to the area of the grounds; a new track 
was graded and a new and more capacious grand stand was erected. 
The exhibitions of the annual fairs steadily increased in quantity and 
advanced in quality, until they are now rivalled by few in surrounding 
counties. The sale of intoxicating beverages at the fairs is prohibited, 
and the farmers of the county feel a laudable pride in the prosperity 
of the society. The grounds of the society now comprise about twenty- 
six acres. There are now (1894) 241 life members, who in reality own 
the property of the society, though the annual members have a voice 
in elections. The officers of the society for 1894 are: 

George S. Clark, president; OraLee, first vice-president ; La Fayette H. Beach, sec- 
retary ; Augustus W. Barnett, treasurer ; William G. Mack. Elijah B. Lattin, Peter B. 
West, lletvey Blood, William Whipple, S. E. Howard, directors. Besides these offi- 
cers there are ten vice-presidents, one from each town in the county. 

Orleans County Poorhouse. — The first action taken in this county 
towards the erection of a county poorhouse was at the fall meeting of 
the Board of Supervisors in 1829. A special meeting to consider this 
subject was called for the next February At this meeting Nehemiah 
Ingersoll, Elisha Wright, and Avery M. Starkweather were appointed 
superintendents of the poorhouse, and the sum of $2,000 was appro- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 185 

priated for the use of the " county poor establishment." The superin- 
tendents were directed to contract for a lot and to erect a building 
thereon. At another special meeting of the board on June 22, 1830, 
it was " Resolved, That the distinction between the town and the 
county poor be and the same is hereby abolished, and that the expense 
of maintaining all the poor shall be a county charge." 

In pursuance of this action a farm was purchased about three miles 
south of Albion village, and there the first buildings were erected. 
These served their purpose until 1878 when the present building was 
erected. 

Western House of Refuge for Women.— In 1890 an act was 
passed by the Legislature for the establishment of a reformatory insti- 
tution under the above name, by the provisions of which the location 
was to be determined by the Board of ^Managers, of which Hon. E. 
Kirke Hart, of Albion, was president. Several places in the western 
part of the State competed for the site of the institution, and after 
ample consideration of the claims of each, the board fixed upon Albion 
as the most eligible. About ninety-seven acres of land adjoining the 
western boundary of the village corporation were purchased, and in 
1892 the first buildings were erected at a cost of $62,000. In the next 
year additional structures were erected at an expense of about $30,000. 
A. J. Warner, of Rochester, was the architect. These buildings, all of 
which are of brick, have a total capacity of 150 inmates, the present 
number being about forty. The buildings are constructed on what is 
known as the cottage plan, viz. : A refuge, or prison building, and four 
isolated cottages, the latter being graded and occupied according to the 
deportment of the inmates; besides this, a regular order of promotion 
is maintained. There is also an administration building and a hospital. 
The institution is supported by the State and the officers are appointed 
by the governor. The Board of Managers for 1894 consists of: 

William B. Dye, of Albion, president ; Sarah J. Fee, of Rochester, secretary ; George 
Sandrock, of Buffalo, treasurer ; Hon. C. E. Walker, of Batavia, and Mrs. Ellen ^ . 
Ramsdale of Albion. The hospital physician is Mrs. Harriet Watson, M. D., and Mary 
K. Boyd is the superintendent. 



186 LANDMARKS OF 



CHAPTER XV. 

SCHOOLS OF ORLEANS COUNTY. 

BY FREEMAN A. GREENE, A. M. 

Early Schools. — The district school in pioneer days was quite un- 
like the common school of to-day. The neat, well painted, well fur- 
nished, well ventilated, wood or brick school building now stands 
where the little log school house stood, with its high desks on three 
sides of the room, with seats behind for the big boys and girls, low 
seats in front for the small girls and boys, a big box stove in the 
center of the room, and the teacher's high desk in one end, usually op- 
posite the front door. Slate and pencil instead of blackboard, quill 
pens, made by the teacher, took the place of the fine Spencerian or 
Gillott steel pens now in common use. Books were few. Daboll's 
arithmetic, Webster's spelling book, the old English reader and Porter's 
rhetorical reader, and an atlas with a geography proper separate, used 
by the older boys and girls, completed the list. Later came Colburn's 
mental arithmetic, Sanders's reader's, Brown's grammar and Mitchell's 
geography, still in strong contrast with the beautifully illustrated text 
books in the hands of every school boy nowadays. 

Only small children attended school in the summer season, in winter 
both large and small. The large boys prided themselves more upon 
their physical strength than upon their ability to cipher or parse. 
Physical culture was acquired in those days by wrestling, jumping and 
running. The teacher must be a man of muscle as well as courage and 
brains, for the great sturdy, full grown boys too often would pick him 
up and pitch him out of the door or window. 

Mr. J. B. Swett in writing of the district schools of forty years ago 
tells this true story : 

A compactly built man by the name of Harman J. Tilden, now residing in Niles, 
Alameda county, Cal., was called to teach in the old brick school house, still standing, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 187 

but unoccupied, among the old oaks on the Ridge road, a mile east of Ridgeway Cor- 
ners. His predecessor had been turned out. 

The first morning Mr. Tilden called the school to order, and every seat was filled. 
That day went well, as the boys were sizing him up. About the middle of the after- 
noon of the next day six burly fellows rose from their seats and began a march around 
the big box stove. A mild remonstrance from the teacher was followed with whistling, 
singing and stamping as they marched. The next instant Mr. Tilden was among them 
like an untied thunderbolt. He caught one of the biggest by the coat collar and the 
seat of his pants, and, raising him at arms length over his head, threw him against the 
other five, who were standing, open-mouthed, watching this wonderful display of 
strength. As a consequence four of the bullies at once lay sprawled in a heap upon 
the floor. The other two faced the teacher with fists drawn to strike, and were at once 
promptly knocked down. By this time the other four regained their feet and started 
for the door, but Mr. Tilden was there first. 

Backing up against the door, he spoke in a very mild and pleasant manner, while a 
sweet persuasive smile played upon his features. 

"My young friends, will you now take your seats and remain there, or shall I be 
compelled to use force? I came here to teach and manage this school, and it pains me 
to find so many of the scholars insubordinate." 

Taking out his watch and glancing at it, he continued : "It is now two minutes past 
3 o'clock. If you are not in your seats in two minutes and six seconds past 3 o'clock 
I will proceed to administer to each of you the severest whipping you ever endured." 
At the word six seconds each one of the bullies started for his seat, and the school ex- 
ercises proceeded as quietly as though nothing had occurred to disturb them. It is al- 
most useless to say that Mr. Tilden's success was assured. 

The above circumstance shows the condition of the district schools 
many years ago, for the older boys made it their main business to turn 
out the teacher it they could. 

The general atmosphere of the school was sport and physical de- 
velopment, rather than mental excellence. Another instance occurs to 
us where the big boys rose in a mass and filed out in line to carry out 
the teacher, who pitched three of them out of the window before the 
rest concluded to take their seats. 

Nowadays, we think that it is gambling to play marbles for keeps, 
but what would we think to see boys and girls gambling for pins in the 
good old-fashioned way. Who does not remember the little square 
top with the letters A, N, P and T, one on each square face ? With a 
good supply of pins and a top all was ready. Each one spun the top, 
and if A was up when it stopped the lucky spinner took all the pins put 
down on the desk, chair or floor ; if N, none : if T, one, and if P. 



188 LANDMARKS OP 

he put one down. All, often including the teacher, engaged in this 
game, morning, noon, recess and night. 

There were many good features in the schools of long ago. Difficult 
problems were given out, and often days were spent in solving them. 
Independence of thought and much self-reliance were the result. 

The old-time spelling schools awakened a deep interest in this im- 
portant subject. The school exhibitions and debating clubs aroused 
ambition in those who became our prominent jurists and statesmen. 
Often the teacher was a college graduate or a man of unusual ability, 
as well as a man of muscle, and he would manage a school of seventy 
or ninety pupils. 

Algebra, geometry, physics and physiology were among the subjects 
taught. Of course the younger children received more attention dur- 
ing the summer term. Many can remember the large and excellent 
schools taught by Hon. Abel Stilson, Almanzar Hutchinson, Nelson W. 
Butts, Hon. Henry A. Glidden and others. 

To-day the attendance is much smaller, and the pupils found in our 
district schools are young. Many rural schools have but six or seven 
children in them and none exceed forty or fifty. The older children 
are sent to the village or union schools, a fact that makes the union 
school stronger and the district school weaker. Too often a young, in- 
experienced girl of fourteen or sixteen years of age is employed to 
"keep school," so that the average district school of to-day is not as 
strong as was the school of fifty years ago. 

The Early Academies and Phipps Union Seminary. — The 
following are the six early academies with the year in which each was 
organized : 

Gaines Academy, organized in 1827 ; Albion Academy, organized in 1837 ; Mill- 
ville Academy, organized in 1839 ; Yates Academy, organized in 1841 ; Medina Academy, 
organized in 1850 ; HoUey Academy, organized in 1850 ; Phipps Union Seminary was 
organized in 1837, just before the Albion Academy. 

Gaines Academy, 1827. — A select school was conducted success- 
ively by Miss Clarissa Burbank, a Mr. Hooey, Hon. Alamanzar Hutch- 
inson and others. Gaines Academy, the first in Orleans county, was 
the outgrowth of this select school, and was incorporated April 14, 
1827, and admitted by the Regents of the University of the State of 



ORLEANS COtTNTT. 189 

New York, January 26, 1830. William J. Babbitt was among the more 
prominent citizens who secured the charter and promoted the welfare 
of the school. 

The academy was very prosperous for several years, especially under 
the principalship of Professors Julius Bates and Gazley. Hon. Noah 
Davis attended this academy one year, and each day walked back and 
forth to and from his home in Albion. 

Albion Academy, 1837. — The organization of the Albion Academy 
in 1837 and its history, are necessarily intimately connected with that 
of Phipps Union Seminary, for both had a common origin and were 
built under the same subscription. To Miss Caroline Phipps, more 
than to any other one person, was due the establishment of the sem- 
inary, which led so soon to the organization of the academy. 

The act incorporating the Albion Academy was passed May i, 1837. 
The school was opened on the first Monday of February, 1838, in the 
basement of the old Baptist Church on Main street (afterwards known 
as Concert Hall). 

The first Board of Trustees chosen were : 

Orson Nichoson, president, John B. Lee, Harvey Ball, Roswell S. Burrows, Hugh 
McCurdy, Freeman Clarke, Abram Cantine, Thomas S. Clark, Franklin Doty, Sidney 
Burrell, Abram S. Mills, and Alexis Ward. 

Hon. Edwin R. Reynolds, then a junior in Brown University, was the 
first principal. The following thirty-six students were in attendance 
the first term : 

Isaac B. Beadle, Ezra Brown, Wm. C. Burrell, Charles R. Burrows, William Burrows, 
Freeman Butts, Elias Freer Burns, Ebenezer H. Brink, William Church, Warren Clark 
Lamont Deland, Norman Davis, David M. Farr, Samuel B. Hard, Henry Wood, Corliss 
B. Gardner, Aaron Orr, Williau. Gr. Swan, Charles Strong, Robert Stockdale, Henry 
Strong, George H. Ward, Norman Wadhams, Orville Leonard, Thomas Ledyard, Roscoe 
McConnell, Cyrus F. Paine, Orpheus A. Root, James Rathbun, Achilles Terry, Asher 
Terry, Oscar Wilcox, George H. Sickels, Francis Ball, William Kent, A. Phillips — 36. 

Latin, Greek, French, with English and mathematics were among the 
subjects arranged to be taught. In the fall of 1838 the school was 
transferred to the second story of a frame building, now standing on 
the corner of West Bank and Liberty streets. In the fall of 1839, it 
occupied the then unfinished academy building now used by the Albion 
High School. 



190 LANDMARKS OF 

An entire square of three acres had been purchased in 1839, and on 
it a four story brick building forty by sixty feet was finished in 1840. 
The funds for the purchase of lot, and erection of building were obtained 
in the following manner : 

The enterprising citizens of Albion, in April, 1836, raised by sub- 
scription about $4,500 1 and loaned it to Miss Caroline Phipps, for the 
purpose of founding Phipps Union Seminary. Miss Phipps gave a 
mortgage on the seminary property, when the building was erected, for 
the above amount to secure the loan, which subsequently she paid in 
full. This mortgage was sold and the proceeds used in the purchase of 
the acadamy lot and the erection of the building. 

The entire cost of real estate, bell, furniture and apparatus was about 
$6,000. 

Mr. Reynolds having been elected to the newly created office of county 
school superintendent in the fall of 1841, resigned as principal and Rev. 
Justus W. French became his successor. 

Following is a list of the principals and assistant teachers of the 
academy from 1837, to the establishment of the Albion Union School 
in 1876: 

1. Edwin R. Reynolds, principal from February 1, 1838, to July, 1840. Assistants, 
Samuel B. Taylor, Jonathan O. Willsea, Orlina M. Sturges, and James M. Kellogg. 

2. Rev. Justus W. French, A. M., principal, 1841-44. Assistants, George W. Coann, 
since missionary to Persia for thirty-five years ; Seth B. Cole, since county judge of 
Rockland county, N, Y.; Levi S. Fulton, since superintendent of House of Refuge, 
Rochester, N. Y.; Miss Judson. 

3. Associate principals, 1844 to July, 1846, Rev. Justus W. French, A. M.; Edvi^in 
R. Reynolds. Assistants, Orlina M. Sturges, since Mrs. Governor J. T. Lewis, 
Columbus, Wis.; Ann Eliza French, since Mrs. Judge Seth B. Cole ; George W. Coann, 
Nelson W. Butts, afterwards a popular common school teacher. 

4. Edwin R. Reynolds, principal fall term of 1846. Assistants, Oliver P. Henion, 
Martha Stone. Number of pupils in 1845, 232 ; number of pupils in 1846, 258. 

5. Frederick R. Ward, A. M., principal from December, 1846, to February, 1848. 
Assistants, Rev. Justus W. French, for a time ; Veramus Morse, A. B.; Abel Stilson, 
spring and fall of 1847. 

6. Peres Brown, A. M., principal from February, 1848 to November, 1851. Assist- 
ants, Oliver Morehouse, Mortimer L. Brown, Florilla S. Reed. 

7. Hiram Wheeler, A. M., principal with Mr. Brown, 1849 to 1852. Assistants, Ann 
Clarke, Florilla S. Reed, Emma N. Beebe. 

' See Phipps Union Seminary. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 191 

8. Joel Whiting, principal 1852-60. Assistants, Harriet P. Guild, since Mrs. Dr. 
William McKennan ; Philana A. Foster, three and a half years; Frances Thrall, Ann 
Clarke, Helen M. Baker, Alonzo J. Howe, OHver Morehouse, Frederick Probst, teacher 
in German. 

9. Franklin S. Lyon, A. M., began fall term 1856, assistant to Mr. Whiting four 
years, principal to 1864. Assistants, Alma 0. Briggs, preceptress; Helen Prescott, pre- 
ceptress; Emily H. Grinnell, since Mrs. Samuel W. Smith; Nelson W. Butts, Samuel 
W. Smith, W. Martin Jones. 

10. James K. Bellamy, A. M., principal 1864 to spring term 1866. Assistants, Oliver 
Morehouse, George R. Smith, since a Presbyterian clergyman ; Morell D. Dusenberre, 
Ellen Gates. 

IL Oliver Morehouse, principal 1866-71. Assistants, Albert W. Morehouse, George 
W. Buck, Ann Clarke, Lelia J. Wood, Raymond Benedict, John V. B. Lewis, Mary 
Cauldwell, George W. Billings, Ellen Gates, since Mrs. Deming Sherwood; Sarah 
Sweet, since Mrs. W. R. Smith. Mr. Morehouse served, in all. twelve years as teacher 
and principal. Number of pupils in 1867, 368. 

12. Theodore T. Chapin, A. M. principal, 1870-74, since professor in Cook Academy 
Havana. Assistants. Philana A. Foster, preceptress ; Mrs. Mary Jane Prudden, since 
Mrs. C. F. Curtis ; Carrie R. Baker, Mary Letchell. 

13. William T. Mills. A. M., principal, 1874-75. 

14. Abel Stilson, principal, 1875. 

15. Francis W. Forbes, A. M., principal one year to spring term of 1876. 

The general act establishing State Normal Schools in this State was 
passed in i866, and its effect, as now well known, was disastrous to the 
old academies and seminaries. 

The State made larger appropriations to these institutions, thus 
diverting from academies and seminaries a portion of the funds which 
had been appropriated to them and establishing rival schools. In 
several places the academies became normal schools. Brockport 
Collegiate Institute was converted into a normal school. 

The tuition and books were furnished free by the State in all normal 
schools, which the academies could not do. This necessitated the dis- 
continuance in this State of over eighty prosperous academies. The 
principle of supporting by tax the common school with its academic 
department was soon adopted. Only those academies which had a 
sufficient endowment fund could be self supporting. This gave rise to 
the establishment of our present system of union schools, which has so 
generally taken the place of academies. 

The friends of the academy were constantly contributing liberally to 
its support. The following citizens of Albion subscribed for shares, at 



192 LANDMARKS OF 

$25 each, in the school property as stockholders, to the amount of 
$5,850. 

Franklin Doty, 5 shares ; Harvey Goodrich, 4 ; C. W. Swan, 5 ; Hugh McCurdy, 6 
Freeman Clarke, 10 ; Elizar Hart, 2; 0. Nichoson, 4 ; L. Burrows, 32 ; D. Swan, jr., 2 
L. Warner, 7; S. Fitch, 2; A. Wall, 1 ; John B. Lee, 4 ; P. Dyer, 2; L. Bailey, 2; H. S 
Goff, 2 ; Oliver] Brown, 1 ; R. S. Burrows, 50 ; John Green, 1 ; Artemas Loveland, 1 
I. U. Sears, 1 ; Christopher Paine, 1 ; Asa L. Gale, 1 ; J. A. Lattin, 1 ; B. Farr, 1 
Aaron Phipps, 1 ; Charles Lee, 1 ; B. Clapp, 1 ; Oliver Benton, 1 ; A. Hyde Cole, 1 
William Gere, 1 ; Arad Thomas, 1 ; J. Jewett, 1 ; H. V. Prentice, 1 ; George Dorranee, 
1 ; S. Field, 1 ; H. D. Tucker. 1 ; W. A. West, 1 ; J. C. Ledyard, 1 ; E. Piatt, 2 ; Alexis 
Ward. 22 ; L. C. Paine, 5 ; Joseph M. Cornell, 31 ; Z. Clarke, 4 ; G. H. Sickels, 8. Total, 
234 shares. 

The above shareholders donated their shares to the village, when the 
property was purchased by the village trustees in the fall of 1876, for 
$2,500, provided the village pay a mortgage resting on the academy 
building of $2,000 and an accrued interest of about $200. The Albion 
Academy was discontinued in the spring of 1876. 

The Alumni Association of the Albion Academy, at whose instance 
Mr. E. R. Reynolds compiled his invaluable pamphlet, was organized 
in 1882. Since that time meetings have been held nearly every year, 
old friendships renewed, and congratulations tendered, and several 
valuable addresses have been delivered before the association, notably 
those of Rev. Corliss B. Gardner, of Rochester (1887), Rev. Dr. J. C. 
French, of Newark, N. J. (1888), Professor Lyon, of Fredonia (1889), 
and Hon. Rufus B Bullock, ex Governor of Georgia (1891). 

The officers of the association for 1894 are : 

Hon. Marcus H. Phillips, Hulburton, N. Y., president; Hon. Samuel W. Smith, 
Albion, N. Y., vice-president; E. Clark French, Rochester, N. Y., secretary; Frank 
Wood, Albion, N. Y., assistant secretary. 

MiLLVILLE Academy, 1839 — Millville Academy was organized in 
1839 3.nd in the same year erected a stone building. It was incor- 
porated in 1840 under the State laws and recognized by the Board of 
Regents. 

The academy was very prosperous for a number of years, receiving 
aid from the Regents annually, as high at one time as $2,000. It was 
very popular and largely attended. In time a new sti"ucture was added 
to supply more room. The first corps of teachers consisted of James 
F. Cogswell, Charles G. Ilazeltine, and Miss Clara S. Montague. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 193 

Hon. John G. Sawyer obtained a large part of his education at this 
popular institution and always speaks of it in the highest terms. The 
number of academies in different parts of the county increased and then 
this institution declined and finally forfeited its charter. District No. 7 
of Shelby afterwards used the building for school purposes. 

Yates Academy. — Yates Academy, the fourth academic institution 
in the county, was organized in October, 1841, largely through the 
earnest and liberal efforts of Peter Saxe, brother of the poet, John G. 
Saxe. Mr. Saxe was a successful merchant at Yates Center for many 
years, and was always a faithful friend of education and contributed 
liberally to the support of the academy. 

The academy was incorporated by the Regents of the University in 
August, 1842. 

The first Board of Trustees weie: 

Peter Saxe. Thomas Jewett, esq., Eichard Barry, James Parmelee, John L. Lewis, 
Philo Warner, B. H. Gilbert, esq., Gen. Grosvenor Daniels, James Lum, Chester Frost, 
Joel C. Parsons, Warren Chase and Joseph Cady. 

Officers of the board. — Rev. Arab Irons, M. D., president; Thomas Jewett, esq., sec- 
retary ; Peter Saxe, treasurer. 

First corps of teachers. — Benjamin Wilcox, jr., A. B., principal ; Silas Gilbert, assistant 
principal; Miss Harriet E. Rogers, preceptress; Burt Van Horn, Sluraan S. Bailey, 
assistant pupils. 

Attendance first year. — Ladies, 81 ; gentlemen, 80 ; total, 161. Attendance second 
year.— Ladies, 114 ; gentlemen, 119 ; total, 233. Attendance in 1845.— 338. 

Teachers of Yates Academy, from 1842 to 1856 as nearly as could 
be ascertained : 

1. Benjamin Wilcox, A. B., principal from August 1841, to June 1845 ; Silas Gilbert, 
assistant principal, 1841-43 ; Levi Reuben, assistant principal, 1843-46 ; Miss Elizabeth 
F. Flagler, preceptress, 1841-44 ; Miss Fidelia M. Arthur, preceptress, 1845 ; Miss Julia 
Gage, assistant, 1843 ; Miss Adeline E. Nichoson, assistant, 1845 ; Paris O. Dolley, 
assistant, 1844. 

2. William F. Bascom, A. M., principal, 1845 ; J. 0. Willsea, assistant, 1845 ; Miss 
Roxena B. Tenny, preceptress, 1845 ; Mrs. Anna F. Bascom, teacher of music, 1845. 

8. J. O. Willsea and Andrew G. Riley, A. B., associate principals, 1846-47 ; J. Collier 
Cobb, assistant ; Mrs. A. F. Willsea, preceptress ; Mrs. H. Gray, teacher of music. 

4. William B. Brunnell, A. M., principal, 1848-53; Andrew G. Riley, A. M., M. D., 
assistant, 1848 ; Mrs. E. L. Bunnell, preceptress, 1848-53; Miss L. M. Clark, assistant, 
1848-51; Miss Mary J. Blair, teacher of music; Miss Adalaide M. Harrington, teacher 
of music; B. L. Knowlton, A. B., assistant principal, 1850; Charles Fairman, A. B., 



194 LANDMARKS OF 

assistant principal, 1852 ; Miss Eliza A. McClay, assistant, 1852 ; Samuel G. Stone, 
teacher of penmanship. 

5. Charles Fairman, A. M., principal, 1S53-62 ; William C.Pratt, assistant; Miss 
Mary E. Tappan, assistant; Miss Jessie H. Pratt, assistant; Mrs. Mary E. Fairman, 
preceptress, 1855-60; Mrs. Elizabeth A. McClay, preceptress, 1853-54; Miss Eliza R. 
Eastman, teacher of music; Miss Elizabeth C. Rees, teacher of music; Mr. George R. 
Frise, teacher of penmanship ; Mr. George H. Shattuck, teacher of penmanship ; Miss 
Cynthia A. Weld, preceptress. 

The first year, in November, the school was divided into two Hterary 
societies, known as the Cieosophic and the Euglossian. These societies 
met alternately every Tuesday evening in the term for mutual criticism 
and encouragement. Those two co-organized societies constituted a 
single association called the Adelphic Union, the object of which was 
reciprocal assistance in all that pertained to their general interest, as 
members of the academy. 

A quadrennial catalogue of the officers and members of the Adel- 
phic Union, published in 1845, shows a membership of 565. 

The academy was very prosperous for many years, and educated many 
eminent men and women. Hon. Burt Van Horn, of Lockport ; Chaun- 
cey H. Lum, of Lyndonville ; Hon. Edmund L. Pitts, of Medina, N. Y.; 
Hon. Eli S. Parker, of Washington, so intimately associated with Gen. 
Grant during the Civil War ; Irving M. Thompson, esq., of Albion ; Hon. 
Myron L. Parker, Hon. Henry M. Hard and Prof A. B. Evans, so many 
years principal of Lockport Union School, were among the students 
here. The first principal was Prof. Benjamin Wilcox, and the last, 
Prof Sherman Burroughs. Prof. William B. Bunnell, associate author 
of Adam's arithmetic ; Dr. Charles Fairman, now professor of mathe- 
matics and acting president of Shurtleff" College, Upper Alton, III. ; 
F. A. Greene, A. M., Burr Lewis, A. M., and Augustus Tuttle, were 
among the principals. 

The Board of Trustees for the academic year, 1853-54, contain the 
names of many of the founders of the academy, and its life long friends. 

Grosvenor Daniels, president ; Asahel Johnson, secretary ; Jonathan Blanchard, col- 
lector; Henry Barry, treasurer; Worthy L. Mead, Tunis H. Coe, Cyrus Clark, Philetus 
Snyder, Edwin St. John, Edwin Rockwell, A. Onderdonk, Grosvenor D. Church, Lyman 
Bates, Daniel Haner, Jefferson Edmunds, James Edmunds, Sherman Dibble, Abner 
Ray, Burt Van Horn, Henry T. Flagler, and Byron Densmore. Among its Board of 
Visitors were : Rev. Abel Haskell, Dr. Israel Chamberlayne, Merritt Hard, esq., Hon. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 195 

Samuel Tappan, Prof. Raymond, H. L. Achilles, esq., Rev. James 0. Stokes, Rev. E. 
Savage, and Col. Jasper Grow. Dr. Hervey Blood was clerk of the Board for several 
years. 

Board of Instruction, 1853-54: 

Charles Fairman, A. M., principal, ancient languages, mathematics and German; 
William C. Pratt, assistant, natural sciences and mathematics; Elizabeth A. McClav, 
preceptres.s modern languages, natural sciences, drawing and painting ; Mary E. Fair- 
man, teacher of English and French ; Gerge P. Fnse, teacher of penmanship. 

Students came from abroad, so well-known was Yates Academy. 
They came this year from Connecticut, Vermont, New York city, Il- 
linois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Canada, and Tennessee. 

Attendance 1853-54.— Males 108, females 107 ; total, 215. Spring term, 124; fall 
terra, 90; winter term, 125. 

Students pursuing ancient languages G. Students pursuing modern languages 23. 
Students taking drawing and painting 31. 

Board in good families at $1.75 per week, including all expenses. 

Academic year embraced three terms of fourteen weeks each. Tuition per term : 
Primary department, $3.00; common English, $4.00; higher, $5.00; ancient languages, 
French and double entry book-keeping, $6.00. Extras per term: Spanish, German, 
Italian, and drawing from cards, $2.00; crayon and other fine drawing, $4.00; paint- 
ing in water colors, $6.00; painting in oil colors, $10.00; music, $8.00; incidental 
charge, 25c; penmanship by a master, for twelve lessons, $1.50. 

This institution for forty-eight years educated many young men and 
women for college and for life, and was the last academy in the county 
to surrender its charter. The last Board of Trustees consisted of: 

E. E. Woolston, president; Edward L. Brininstool, secretary; Stephen A. Coe, A. 
B. Millis, John W. Day, Chauncey H. Lum, Walter A. Tuttle, Henry E. Breed, David 
Coon, Henry H. Vosseler, Charles Pettis and Hon. Henry M. Hard. 

In 1886 it was combined with the district, and in 1889 the academy 
was discontinued. The building has since been unoccupied. 

Medina Academy, 1850. — Medina academy was incorporated by 
special act of the Legislature in 1850. The authors of this act were wise 
in establishing this academy on a solid basis. The schools of the village 
still continue under the same organization, known as the joint district 
number twelve of Ridgeway and Shelby. The trustees appointed 
under this act were: Christopher Whaley, Silas M. Burroughs, John 
Ryan, Daniel Starr, Isaac M. Swan, and Archibald Servoss, who consti- 
tuted the first Board of Education of the village of Medina. They 



196 Landmarks op 

were granted the power to establish and organize a classical school to 
be known as Medina Academy, with the same obligations and privileges 
of any other academy incorporated in the State. A three- story stone 
building was built on a lot, donated by Hon. Silas M. Burroughs, at the 
head of Pearl street, and fronting on Catharine street, where the present 
academy building now stands. 

The first school was opened in 185 1 with the following corps of 
teachers : 

Thales Lindsey, A. M., principal; David H. Devoe, assistant principal; Ann D. Day, 
preceptress; Martha D. Lyman, primary department; H. Amanda Clark, assistant 
primary department; Eunice E. Husted, 2d assistant primary department; Mary E. 
Fargo, teacher of music. 

Principals since the academy was opened in 185 i : 

Thales Lindsley, A. M., 1851-55; Ira Buell, 1855; Marvin M. Baldwin, 1855-61; 
Robert L. Thatcher, 1861-62 ; Levi D. Miller, 1862-63 ; Charles Fairman, LL. D., 1863- 
68; Hon. Ira D. Edwards, 1868-69; M. H. Paddock, 1869-73; M. J. Keeler, 1873-75; 
Frank J.| Squires, 1875-70; P. K. Pattison, 1878-80; John T. Cothran, A. M., 
1876-78, 1880-82 ; Ralph H. Bowles, 1882-83 ; W. S. Smith, 1883-84 ; Charles E. Allen, 
A. M., 1884-91 ; Henry Pease, A. M., 1891- 

The academy has been prosperous from the time of its organization 
and steadily grown in favor and strength, for it was founded upon the 
modern system of maintaining an academic department by tax upon the 
assessed valuation of the district, It has always been a free academy, 
by which title it is popularly known now. In 1884 the building was 
enlarged to nearly double its capacity to meet the needs of the school. 
It now has eight grades in which eight teachers are employed, besides 
the academic department. 

Teachers in Academy. — Henry Pease, A. M., principal ; Greek, History, Civics, 
Economics. Ida A. Clark, Natural Sciences. Emma L. Stone, French, German, Latin. 
Mary E. Phelps, English. Harriet A. Lounsbury, Mathematics, Bookkeeping and Pen- 
manship. 

Grades. — Ada Bennett, 8th grade ; L. Alice Torrey, 7th grade ; Hattie L. Pettit, Gth 
grade ; Marian L. Brace, 5th grade , Ella N. Colby, 4th grade ; Constance A. Bowen 
3d grade ; Frances C. Gilford, 2d grade ; Mary D. Hood, 1st grade. 

Oak Orchard Street School. — Melinda C. Smith, principal; Kate L. Ryan, Margaret 
Lenahan, Hattie E. Prudden. 

Laurel Hill School. — Margaret Ryan, principal; Kittie Tuohey. 

Eagle Street School. — Hannah Tuohey, principal ; Emma M. Griffin. 

Elizabeth Street School — Carrie L. Sutter. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 197 

Board of Education 1894-95, — Edward Munson, president; M. A. Bowen, secretary; 
Rev. William J. McNab, Roswell N. Post, John J. Ryan, Michael Slack, Seth G. Row- 
ley, Hon. Edmund L. Pitts, Irving L'Hommedieu. Officers: George A. Newell, treas- 
urer ; William Comerford, collector ; Charles N. Hood, district clerk ; F. T. Latham, 
regent's examiner. Visiting Committee: Miss Julia Merritt, chairman ; Mrs. L. Bren- 
nan, Mrs. A. F. Bush, Mrs. A. T. Smith, Mrs. J. N. Kersburg, Mrs. M. Cooper, Mrs. 
M. A. Bowen, and Mrs. H. A. Acer. 

Former members of the Board of Education since 1861. — James Kearney,. A. Bancroft, 
L. W. Merritt, A. K. Tuthili, Hon. Henry A. Childs, Oscar Whedon, J. C. Davis, A. J. 
Lyon, John Furguson, M. W. Ryan, William S. Tamblin, William Headley, Charles H. 
Headley, Dr. James Chapman, Lewis J. Ives, Bernard O'Reilly, Darwin Fuller, 0. K. 
Johnson, C. A. McCormick, Albert L. Swett, Dr. R. S. Bishop, Albert J. Hill, Dr. E. 
P. Healey, B. Fairman, C. Farnham, C. S. Hoag, Hon. E, S. Whalen, J. C. Sheppard, 
Richard Becker, Albert Ball, M. McDonald, Owen Boyland, Col. Erwin A. Bowen, S. 

C. Brownell, J. K. Burroughs, Edward Posson, Albert M. Berry, E. Fitzpatrick, D. H. 
Abell, C. S. Murdock, William H. Lee, W. W. Patten, John W. Graves, Hon. John 
Parks, Dr. C. Whaley, S. C. Bowen, B. M. Anthony, Edward Davey, M. C. Bignall, J. 

D. Kearney, S. G. Purdy, John N. Kennan, S. E. Filkins, Jacob Gorton, Michael Cooper, 
L.Robinson, Manley Gaylord, Aaron B. Hunt, H. A. Fairman, Seth G. Rowley, Samuel 
E.' Clark— 61. 

Twenty teachers are now employed in all the schools. In 1875 the 
Board of Education, by vote, made the schools wholly secular. For 
many years a parochial school was maintained but was discontinued in 
1865, and since then all the children have regularly attended the public 
schools. 

The district library contains about one thousand volumes and is val- 
ued at $1,200. The philosophical, chemical and astronomical apparatus 
is estimated at eight hundred dollars. In 1889 and '90 1,100 children 
attended school out of a school population of 1,400, and about one 
hundred non-resident pupils some portion of the school year. 

HOLLEY Academy, 1850 — In the fall of 1846 Worden Reynolds 
opened a select school in an old hotel building near the northwest cor- 
ner of the public square. This led to the founding of HoUey Acad- 
emy, as other select schools had done elsewhere in the county. The 
citizens of Holley felt the need of an institution, at home, that would 
furnish instruction in branches higher than were then taught in common 
schools. 

A public meeting was called for March 29, 1847, and at this meet- 
ing Hiram Frisbie, Augustus Southworth, and William Hatch were 



198 LANDMARKS OF 

chosen a committee to solicit subscriptions for the founding of an 
academy. They succeeded in securing the required amount in money, 
lumber, lumber at mill, timber, lime, brick, building stone, plows, 
village lot, boots and shoes, teaming, and "my work," so that the follow- 
ing summer a two-story brick building was erected on a lot donated by 
Hiram Frisbie, situated on Wright street, and valued at $300. 

It was conducted as a private school until March 28, 1850, when it 
was incorporated by the Regents as Holley Academy. The building 
cost $2,406 ; library, $161.25 i apparatus, $153.78 ; lot valued at $300 ; 
total, $3,021.25. The academy started free from debt. The first 
Board of Trustees were : Augustus Southworth, president ; Col. John 
Berry, secretary; Luther D. Hurd, treasurer; James Benjamin, Hora- 
tio N. Keys, H. B. Perry, and Ransom P. Orr. 

The first principal was Chandler T. Ford, A. B., a graduate of Will- 
iams College. His successors down to 1868, when the academy was 
changed to Holley Union School and Academy, were : 

Loren Barnes. A. B., Edward 0. Hall, William L. France, William D. AUe, A. M., 
Joseph Gile, Peter J. Carmichael, Hon. Ira Edwards, and George R. Smith. The pres- 
idents up to this time were : Augustus Southworth, H. N. Bushnell, William Hatch, 
Chaunoey Robinson and H. N. Keyes. Secretary from 1850 to 1868, Col. John Berry. 

For eighteen years this institution did most excellent work, but like 
many other academies was not financially a success. 

The population of Holley had so increased that the common school 
accommodations were insufficient. It was therefore decided to unite 
the public school and the academy. April 6, 1868, the trustees of the 
academy turned over the academy property to the trustees of the 
Union Free School, " upon the express condition that an academical 
department shall be kept up therein without any vacation to exceed at 
anyone time more than one year; and upon the failure to keep up 
said academical department as above provided, said academy property, 
both real and personal, shall revert back into the hands of the original 
contributors or their representatives." The institution was to be known 
as the Holley Union School and Academy. The first trustees chosen 
were: George W. Pierce, president; Jeff"rey Harwood. secretary; Dr. 
E. R. Armstrong, James Farnsworth, Nelson Hatch, and D. H. Par- 
tridge. Col. John Berry, Augustus Southworth, and Horatio M. Keys 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 199 

were made honorary members for their long and faithful labors for the 
benefit of the academy. 

The following principals have served since 1868 : 

Professor G-age, Burr Lewis, A. M.; D. J. Sinclair, A. B.; Abel Stilson, Lott Farns- 
worth. Marvin M. Baldwin, A. M.; A. W. Dyke, A. M.; George H. Kneeland, H. J. 
Pease, Henry Pease, A. M.; Willis E. Bond, A. M.; Herbert Reed, A. M.; and Henry 
D. Hopkins, A. M., the present principal. The presidents of the Board of Education 
since 1880 have been Hardni Beebe, Mrs. D. M. Partridge, Ira Edwards, J. D. Cogs- 
well, C. A. Chase, Dr. E. R. Armstrong, and E. D. Bronson. 

In 1882 the increased attendance necessitated better accommodations. 
An addition was then made to the building at a cost of $4,500. In 
1889 the board purchased the Coy house and lot adjoining the school lot 
for $2,200. Two rooms were arranged for school use, but this was in- 
sufficient. In 1868 three teachers were employed for 100 pupils. There 
are now eight teachers and the number of pupils has increased to 
over 350. 

The present Board of Education are : 

C. A. Chase, president; George H. Savage, W. T. Pettingill, M. M. McCrillis, C. D. 
Bronson, and Horace Farewell. 

Teachers — Henry D. Hopkins, A. M., principal ; Anna L. Potter, preceptress ; Jennie 
A. Coles, 7th Grade ; Caroline E. Ridler, 5th and 6th Grades ; Lina L. Warren, 4th 
Grade; Susan L. Love, 3rd Grade; Mary A. Maynard, 2nd Grade; Helen M. Orr, 
1st Grade. 

Phipps Union Seminary, 1837 — The founder of this once famous 
institution was Miss Caroline Phipps, daughter of Joseph Phipps, one 
of the early pioneers of Orleans county. She attended the district 
school at Eagle Harbor, and at the early age of fourteen taught her 
first school at Gaines Basin. In 1832 she attended the Gaines Academy 
and later the Nichols Ladies' School at Whitesboro, N. Y. In 1833 
she began a select school in the old Eagle Tavern building in Albion, 
on the lot where her seminary afterwards was built (now a part of the 
Court House Square), near where the county clerk and surrogate's 
office now stands. She was an ambitious woman, with progressive ideas 
and great self-reliance. 

In August, 1833, she boldly issued a circular letter announcing her 
intention of founding a female seminary in character similar to the 
famous Willard Seminary of Troy, N. Y. She met with considerable 



200 



LANDMARKS OF 



opposition from leading citizens, who believed it better to establish an 
academy for boys and girls. It was not until April, 1836, that a sub- 
scription of about $4,500 was raised for the purpose of founding the 
seminary, 

The amount was loaned to Miss Phipps, who gave a mortgage on the 
seminary property and subsequently paid the debt in full. 

Following is the original subscription, containing the names of many 
citizens who have been conspicuous for good works in Orleans county • 



Alexis Ward ; |200 

Franklin Doty 100 

James Stevens .... 100 

Hugh McCurdy 100 

Henry J. Sickels 50 

Freeman Clarke 200 

Norman Bedell 50 

J. J. Orton 50 

William James 100 

Franklin Fenton. 100 

James Hazen 75 

Seymour Treadwell 100 

0. Nichoson 100 

D. Holt,jr 25 

Alpheus Barrett 25 

George Champlin 50 

Abel R. Torrey. . 50 

David Swan 50 

E. T. Noble , 25 

Alderman Butts, 75 

Sheldon Hopkins 25 

Moses Bacon . 50 

Andrew Wall 25 

Benjamin Greig 25 

John B.Lee 100 

Samuel Fitch 50 

William Fisher .30 

John Henderson 25 

Pierpont Dyer 25 

Lansing Bailey 50 



Jacob Iden $ 25 

Hiram S. Goff 50 

T. H. Blackwell 25 

Samuel Whitcomb 25 

Roswell S. Burrows 200 

Thomas C. Fanning 100 

Harvey Goodrich 100 

C. W. Swan 100 

Joshua Rathbun 100 

A. PI. McKinstry 100 

Roswell Clark 100 

Elizur Hart 50 

Thomas S. Clark 100 

Abram Cantine 100 

T. and S. Burrell 100 

James Holmes 50 

A. B. Mills 100 

F. Holsenburg 25 

Cyrus Farwell 50 

Eliza Dana 25 

Harvey Ball 50 

Lorenzo Burrows 100 

Hiram Sickels 25 

Rice Warner 50 

Lewis Warner (goods) 100 

Calvin Church 50 

Oliver Brown 25 

N. M. Miller 25 

J. M. Andrews 25 

William H. Watson 25 



Some more subscriptions were afterwards made, and by this fund and 
the public spirit and liberality of the above named citizens of Albion, 
the seminary and Albion Academy grew. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 201 

Miss Phipps erected a four-story brick building, 40x60 feet. The 
cost of the real estate was $14,000, and the school furniture was valued 
at about $3,000. The school opened in January, 1837. I^ "^^t with 
signal success from the beginning. It soon had an attendance of 100 
boarders and 100 day scholars. They came from far and near from all 
parts of the country. Miss Phipps was married in 1839 to Henry C. 
Achilles and they, assisted by her two sisters, Misses Mary and So- 
phronia Phipps, conducted the seminary about nine years. In July, 
1848, it was sold to Rev. Frederick James, but soon reverted to its first 
managers. They continued again with flattering success until July, 
1866, when it was sold to Rev. G. A. Starkweather. Three years later 
it again came back into the hands of its first managers. It steadily in- 
creased in popularity, and for over twenty years it ranked among the 
first institutions of its kind in the State. They employed ten teachers, 
whose salaries amounted to $2,000. 

In 1857 a large addition was made to the seminary building to meet 
the needs of the school on account of the increased attendance. The 
grounds were also enlarged. 

A fire occurred in the seminary building in the autumn of 1874, and 
another in the spring of 1875 which so crippled the institution that it 
was discontinued. The property was purchased by the county and 
now forms a part of the Court House square. Following is a list of 
teachers of the seminary, as nearly as could be compiled by Mr. E. R. 
Reynolds. 

Caroline Phipps, Sophronia Phipps, Mary A. Phipps, Martha A. Ballard, Helen Phelps, 
C. E. Church, Amelia F. Barnard, Damie A. Colburn, Jane M. Cole, H. M. Ellsworth, 
Martha Everts, L. H. Reed, Mary Jane Pratt, Alzina Farr, Mary White, Helen Doty, 
Jane Seaton, Harriet Stewart, Sarah Green, Charlotte Crittenden, Louisa Metcalf, Mary 
F. Waterbury, Maria Sheldon, Carrie Anderson, Louisa F. Sawyer, Minerva O'Harrow, 
Caroline B. Hoyt, Etta Alderson, Harriet M. Marshall, Francis H. Miller, Julia Paine, 
Mary Ingoldsby, Sarah Smith, Mary Jane Anderson, Minnie Hodge, Harriet Smith, 
Charlotte Goodell, Sarah Stewart, Anna P. Sill, Abba Barnard, Sarah E. Baker, Pamelia 
Grey, Catharine C. Abeel, Maria Pollock, Ellen A. McKinstry, Mary Everts, Mary 
Salisbury, Camelia Leach, Mary Buell, Mary Howland, Martha Achilles, Anna C. Peak, 
Ellen H. Avery. 

Albion Union Free School, 1876. — At the regular school meet- 
ing, the second Tuesday in August, held at the village hall, in Albion, 



202 LANDMARKS OF 

Hon. Sanford E. Church was chosen chairman and the following officers 
elected : 

N. Z. Sheldon, trustee ; Fred G. Beach, clerk ; George Freame, collector, David 
Hardie, librarian. 

On motion of Hon. John G. Sawyer, John H. White, Abel Stilson, 
Charles H. Moore, E. R. Reynolds, and Seth L. King were appointed a 
committee to examine the general laws on the subject of organizing a 
Board of Education and of procuring such amendments thereto as might 
be necessary for the organization of a Board of Education and the estab- 
lishment of a Union School in the village of Albion. On motion of 
J. H. White, Hon. John G. Sawyer was added to the committee. 

The following Monday evening a meeting of School District No. i, 
of the town of Albion was held at the Court House, to take action in 
organizing a Union School. Hon. Daniel H. Cole was chosen chairman 
and Hon. Henry A. Glidden offered the following resolution : 

Resolved, That a Union Free School be established within the limits of School District 
No. 1, in the town of Albion, Orleans county, pursuant to the provisions of title 9, 
chapter 555, laws of 1864, of the acts relating to public instruction as amended by the 
laws of 1876. 

This resolution was adopted. A Board of Education, consisting of 
nine members, was nominated by Edward Porter, esq., and elected by 
a nearly unanimous vote : 

For one year, Charles H. Moore, Henry A. Glidden ; for two years, Joseph M. Cor- 
nell, George W. Ough, Charles A. Keeler ; for three years, John N. Proctor, Abel Stil- 
son, Abram H. Goodman. 

Upon the organization of the above board, John H. White was 
elected president, and Abel Stilson clerk. 

The Union School was organized with a course of study extending 
through twelve years, and divided into three departments, viz. : Primary 
Department, Grammar School, and High School, each embracing four 
years of the course of study, and therefore embracing four grades. The 
schools were then placed under the charge of a superintendent appointed 
by the Board of Education. 

In August, 1876, the Board of Education purchased for $2,500 the 
real estate of the Albion Academy. The academy occupied an entire 
square of three acres, bounded by West Bank, West State, Academy 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 203 

and West Academy streets. The High School and Grammar School 
were placed in this building, and the primary schools in the four dis- 
trict school buildings, owned by the district. In 1878 an addition was 
made to the High School, 120 by 60 feet, and again in 1885, another 
forty by twenty feet. A fine two-story brick building just south of the 
Court House square was afterwards built, now known as the Central 
Primary. The Public and Town Libraries are on the second floor of this 
building. 

School opened September 11, 1876, with the following corps of 
teachers : 

Freeman A. G-reene, A. M., principal, Latin, Greek and natural sciences (served as 
principal from 1876 to 1883, superintendent since 1883, eighteen years). James H. 
Mattison, assistant principal, mathematics and hterature. Una Stilson, French, Ger- 
man and mathematics. Jennie J. Brown, reading and mathematics. Grammar School : 
Ella Wirt, Margaret McGuire, Fannie A. McCraken. Primary Department : Eliza C. 
Gillette, Cora M. Willsea, Libbie M. Fuller, Fannie E. Hubbard, Addie J. Briggs. 

Superintendent and teachers 1894-5, with title and college from 
which they are graduates : 

Freeman A. Greene, A. M. (University of Rochester), superintendent. High School: 
Charles Hamilton, A. M., University of Rochester, principal, Latin, Greek and mathe- 
matics. Anna F. Barrett, A. B., Cornell University, graduate of Albion High School, 
1888, modern languages, literature and mathematics. Frances Olmstead Abbott, Nor- 
mal, science, history and composition. Elizabeth Grace Fisher, A. B., Vassar College, 
German, Latin, rhetoric and history. Elvira 0. Cousins, 0. B. Emerson College,^elocu- 
tion, physical culture and vocal music. Carrie R. Baker, principal Intermediate De- 
partment. Sarah L. Hatfield, teacher of drawing throughout Union School. Gram- 
mar School : Teachers, with year of graduation from Albion High School. Lolah M. 
Barren 1881, principal seventh and eighth grades. Alice L. Harris. 1886, assistant. 
A. Grace Harris, 1887, assistant. Etta Alderson, principal, sixth grade. Jennie H. 
Mattinson, 1880, principal fifth grade. Minnie B. Glenn, 1888, assistant. Primary 
Department : Anna L. Mason, 1889. Ida M. Bratt, 1884. Florence M. English, 1892. 
Mary F. Dowd, 1889. Nellie M. Bowles, 1893. Le Vanche Gallanneau, 1887. Cora 
R. Byington, Ella M. Hill, 1885. M. Jeannette Robertson, 1890. 12 teachers employed 
in 1876. 22 teachers and 1 superintendent in 1894. 

Twenty-eight difi'erent teachers employed in Albion High School since 1876 with de- 
gree, college from which they graduated, and term of service. —Freeman A. Greene, A . 
M., Univ. of Rochester, principal 7 years, superintendent 11; James H. Mattison, 1 
year: Una Stilson, 2 years; Jennie J. Brown, 3 years; Frances W. Forbes, A. M., 
Univ. of Rochester, 1 year, resigned to accept a professorship in Buffalo Normal 
School ; Mary J. Hawthorne, 3 years ; William P. L. Stafford, A. M., Hamilton, 3 



204 LANDMARKS OF 

years ; Frank H. Hall, A. M., Hamilton, 2 years ; Alice L. Hulburd, A. M., Vassar, 5 
years ; Helen M. Farrand, A. M,, Univ. of Michigan, 3 years ; Julia A. Sawyer, one 
year at Wellesley, 5 years; Helen L. MoChesney, A. M., Ingham, preceptress 12 years, 
resigned June, 1894, to travel abroad; Lowell C. Smith, A. B., Hamilton, 1 year; 
William J. Rushmore, A. M., Harvard, 1 year; George W. Benton, Univ. of Indiana, 
3 years ; Abigail K. Wolcott, A. B.. Elmira, 3 years ; Emma J. Haney, 4 years ; S. 
Ida Price, 2 years, taught 3 years in the Grammar School; Carrie R. Baker, 6 years, 
taught in Union School since 1878 ; Charles A. Hamilton, A. M., Univ. of Rochester, 
6 years; Katharine M. Cochran, A. B., Vassar, 4 years, resigned to accept a position as 
teacher of Latin in New York Teachers' College ; Albert C. Burrows, B. S., Univ. of 
Rochester, 1 year ; Cora F. Ilerrick, 2 years, taught in Union School from 1878 to 
1889; Seymour Olmstead, 2 years; Frances 0. Abbott, 2 years; EUzabeth Smith, 2 
years ; Harriet C. Paul, 2 years ; Sarah L. Hatfield, 3 years. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

Sarah J. Hale, '79, graduate of Albion High School, died March 22, 1883 ; Fannie 
Hubbard, died September 23, 1883 ; Margaret M. McGuire, died February 22, 1885 ; 
Sarah E. Wall, '85, died March 2, 1889; Mamie E. Hubbard, '86, died May 22, 
1892. 

Board of Education 1894, with term of service. — John H. White, 16 years, presi- 
dent; Irving M. Thompson, 14 years, clerk; George W. Ough, 18 years; Franklin 
Clarke, 1 year; Albert C. Burrows, 1 year; Ezra T. Coann, 12 years; William B. 
Dye, 1 year; Orville H. Taylor, 4 years; Isaac S. Signor, 4 years. 

Other members of the board since 1876.^ — Albert S. Warner, 5 years; Thomas Hales, 
1 year; Seth S. Spencer, 7 years; John Bidelman, 1 year; John Cunneen, 5 years; 
Joseph M. Cornell, from 1876 till he died, July 4, 1890, trustee of Albion Academy for 
many years and contributed liberally to its support; Abram H. Goodman, 13 years, 
from 1876 till he died, Februaiy 17, 1891 ; Abel Stilson, 4 years ; Henry A. Glidden, 
6 years; Charles A. Keeler, 1 year; John W. Proctor, 4 years; E. Kirk Hart, 4 
years, from 1889 till he died, February 18, 1893; Charles H. Moore, 17 years, from 1876 
till he died, August 4, 1893. Twenty-two have served on the board since 1876. 

Officers of board with term of service. — Presidents: John H. White, 1876-77, 1882- 
94; John N. Proctor, 1878-9; Charles H. Moore, 1880; Albert S. Warner, 1881. 

Clerks— Abel Stilson, 1876-80; Henry A Glidden, 1880-2; Seth S. Spencer, 1882- 
9; Irving M. Thompson, 1890-4. 

Rev. A. 0. Osborn, D.D., Regents' Examiner. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

Members of the Board of Education. — Thomas Hales, died July 20, 1884 ; John N. 
Proctor, died February 1 1, 1889 : Joseph M. Cornell, died July 4, 1890 ; Abram H. 
Goodman, died February 17, 1891^; E. Kirk Hart, died February 18, 1893 ; Charles H. 
Moore, died August 4, 1893; Henry A. Glidden, died January 31, 1894. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 205 

But one year was needed to convince the people that the graded 
system of public schools was the best. The first year's school closed 
June 28, 1877, with promotions, awarding of prizes, appropriate public 
exercises and a picnic in the Court House Park. The following is the 
programme of the first closing exercises of the High School : 

Piano solo, Minnie Powers. Quartette, Misses Tanner and Chester and Messrs. How- 
ard and Stebbins. Essay, ''Cross Roads," Fannie W. Burleigh. Essay, "Fences" 
Clinton Clark. Essay, "Improvement of Time," Clara Goodwin. Essay, "Envy," 
Dora Hannington. Oration, H. W. Lattin. Essay, "The End not Yet," Mollie Lattin. 
Piano duet, Minnie Powers and Clara Proctor. Essay, " Fate," Lena Van Voorhies. 
Essay, "Pleasures of Memory," Mary Tanner. Essay, "Labor," Jessie Thatcher. Es- 
say, "Mysteries," Ida C. Young. Essay, "Footprints of Time," with valedictory, Carrie 
E. Thompson. 

Eight of the above pupils afterwards graduated from the High 
School, and Miss Ida C. Young taught several years in the public 
schools of Albion and Rochester. 

At the opening of the second year two rival literary societies were or- 
ganized, known as the Kappa Phi and Alpha Phi, which did much to 
awaken a deeper interest in rhetorical work, The first public exercises 
the Kappa Phi had was October 10, 1877, with the following pro- 
gramme : 

Singing by the school. Declamation, "Columbus," Warren Gordis. Recitation, 
" Her Letter," Grace Wirt. Essay, " Flies," Mollie Houghtaling. Song, " The Wolf 
at the Door," Clara Van Camp. Recitation, " The Messenger," Alice Torrey. Recita- 
tion, Nellie Winch. Declamation, " Lessons of History," Lewis Rogers. Song, " Gently 
Down the Stream of Time," Lizzie King. Recitation, " Our Folks," Addie Gibson. 
Recitation, " Song of Home," Lena Phelps. Song, '' Jennie, the Flower of Killdare," 
Hattie Clark. Declamation, "Wounded," W. S. Hunt. Poem, " Make the Best of It," 
Carrie Thompson. Singing by the school. Recitation, '' The Blue and the Gray," Liz- 
zie King. Recitation, Mittie Straight. Essay, " Trip to the Moon," Gussie McGerald. 
Song, '' Among the Hay," Alice Torrey. Declamation, Charles Gushing. Essay. " Drift- 
w^ood," Sarah Hale. Recitation, Annie Lawrence. Declamation, Bennie Williams. 
Singing by the school. 

John H. White, president of the Board of Education, was present and 
addressed the school. 

October 27, 1877, occurred the first public exercises of the Alpha Phi 
society. Hon. Sanford E. Church addressed the school at the close of 
the following programme : 



206 LANDMARKS OF 

Song, " G-eneveive," Getty Lewis. Declamation, "Sheridan's Ride," Henry Glenn. 
Essay, " Faith." Ide C. Young. Recitation, " Launching the Ship," Lillie Northrup. 
Song, '' Take This Letter to My Mother," Minnie Mason. Declamation, H. W. Lattin. 
Essay, " I," Fannie Burleigh. Recitation, •' Widow of Glen Cove," Julia A. Sawyer. 
Song, "Old Folks at Home," Louise Diem. Declaration, "Picturesque of Rome," 
George Glenn. Recitation, " Parson Avery,"' Clara Mason. Song, "Drifting With the 
Tide," Hattie Warner. Essay, " Good Breeding," Milo Root. Declamation, "Queer 
People," Louis Landauer. Poem, '' Kiss Me First," Alice Daniels. Recitation, "Cur- 
few," Kessie Buell. Select reading, Getty Lewis, Song, " Patriotic," Quartette. Se- 
lect reading, Prof. Forbes. Song, Louise Diem. 

Two literary papers were edited, one by each society, Sarah Hale 
was first editor of the Kappa Phi Herald, and N. S. Dibble of the Alpha 
Phi Scrap Box. 



Through the liberality and interest taken in the public schools by our 
citizens, over $ioo every year is distributed in prizes. The first prizes 
awarded were at the close of the first year, June, 1877. 

The president's prize, a gold badge, gift of John H. White, esq., for highest standing, 
scholarship, deportment and attendance for the year, awarded to Fannie W. Burleigh ; 
second prize, Bancroft's complete history of the United Slates, Sarah Hale; third prize, 
Dickens' complete works, Ida C. Young; fourth prize, Dickens' complete works, Carrie 
E. Thompson. Best declamation, Shakespeare's works and Life of Napoleon, George L. 
Glenn; second best declamation, Pope's poetical works, Eldridge Crego ; third best 
declamation, Character Sketches, John Latta. Best recitation, four books, Getty Lewis 
[Miss Lewis took the prize at the Interacademic State prize contest held in Albany, 
N. Y.] ; second best recitation, Tennyson's poems, Sarah Hale ; third best recitation, 
" Starling," Clara Tanner. Best essay, f( ur books, Jessie Thatcher ; second best essay, 
two books, Fannie W. Burleigh ; third best essay, Milton's poems, Ida C. Young. 

June, 1880, William C. Bailey, M. D., now residing in Knoxville, 
Tenn., established a prize, $10 in books, for excellence in physiology ; 
(discontinued, June, 1892). In June, 1882, Ezra T.Coann, estabhshed two 
prizes $5 each for the best oration and the best essay given at Commence- 
ment. June, 1885, Clark D. Knapp, esq., offered Webster's Unabridged 
Dictionary for proficiency in civil government. (Discontinued June, 
1894.) June, 1889, Hon. Isaac S. Signor, three prizes $5 each for ex- 
cellence in rhetorical work in the High School. June, 1891, W. P. L, 
Stafford, esq., offered a prize of $10 in books for proficiency in 
1st year Latin. June, 1892, Lyman S. Linson, offered a prize in botany, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 207 

$iO in books. Charles H. Moore a prize in drawing $io (discontinued 
June, 1894). Edwin L. Wage, esq., prizes in spelling amounting to $15. 
June, 1893, Rev. E. H. Rudd, a prize of $5 for best scholarship for the 
year in the High School to the student pursuing a regular course. 
George W. Barrell, a prize of five dollars in chemistry and laboratory 
work. The following persons have won the above prizes given in the 
order of the year in which the awards were made : 

Bailey Prize — Jennie H. Mattinson, Milo Root, Franlc H. Lattin, George P. More- 
house, Edith B. Winch, Minnie Gcodnow, Luella Parmalee, Hattie M. Porter, Burrit A. 
Hunt, Nellie Osborn, Martha Braley, Gertrude Cardus, Edward Reade, Oscar Kenney, 
with honorable mention of William Allen and Blanche Harris. 

Coann Prizes — Best Oration : Andrew Snyder, Warren Gordis, a graduate of Uni- 
versity of Rochester; George P. Morehouse, Charles P. Worden, James Swart, Frederic 
M. Thompson, a graduate of Georgetown University School of Law ; Homer B. Thomp- 
son, Edwin W. Hellaby, attending Hillsdale College; Thurlow W. Buxton, attending 
University of Rochester; Kirke G. Bumpus, and Ralph Mosher. Best Essay : Julia 
A. Pendry, Josie C. Robertson, a graduate of Wellesley, assistant librarian of Chicago 
University ; Edith B. Winch, Nellie M. Eaton, Florence H. Beach, Minnie B. Glenn, 
Kittie B. Rowley, Anna L. Cole, a graduate of Syracuse University, in 1894 ; Florence 
Merrick, Stella Robertson, attending Chicago University ; Nellie M. Bowles, Gertrude 
Hubbard. 

Knapp Prize.— Anna F. Barrett, graduate of Cornell University, teacher in Albion 
High School; Frank J. Tanner, Anna L. Cole, Franc E. Barnett, Nettie A. Shook, Edna 
A. Young, Howard Chester, attending Colgate University ; Margaret Toulson, Ethel 
Skinner. 

Signor Prizes. — Best Declamation : Homer Thompson, Frederic M. Thompson, hon- 
orable mention ; Lou's Pickett, William H. Lennon, Thurlow W. Buxton, Kirke 
Bumpus, Ralph Mosher, George Galarneau, Charles Harding. Best Recitation : Arta 
Trow, two special prizes of $5 each awarded to Anna Cole, and Belle Higgerson by the 
committee; Belle Higgerson, Florence Merrick, Sadie Smith, a special prize, Shake- 
speare's works to Hattie Squier, by the committee ; Beth Reynolds, Bertha Baldwin, 
Velma Blobb, Lizzie Baldwm. Best Essay : Minnie Goodnow, (honorable mention of 
Addie Goodnow and Cora Cass), Belle Higgerson, Homer B. Thompson, Robert J. Cole, 
graduate of Columbia College ; Jessie Allen, Ralph Mosher, Louise S. Hart, Clarence 
Abbott. 

Stafford Prize. — Edward H. Reade,Lizzie Baldwin, Fred Millspaugh, Jennie Tibbetts. 

Linson Prize. — Jessie D. Allen, Edward H. Reade, Frances Clark. 

Moore Prizes.— 1892 : Lillian Francis $5, Martha Braley $3, Daisy English $2. 
1893: High School, William Allen; Grammar School 8th grade, Lelia Martineau ; 7th 
grade, Robert Beresford ; 6th grade, Jessie Haight; 5th grade, Gussie Nichols. 

Wage Prizes. — 1893: High School, Ralph Mosher; Grammar School 7th and 8th 
grades, Clark Babbitt; 6th grade, Joseph Bentley; 5th grade, Charles Brown, and 



208 LANDMARKS OF 

81 books awarded to pupils in the Primary schools. 1894. : High School 1st, Mary 
Amelia Bates ; 2d, Arthur Thomas; 3d, Florence Mattinson. Grammar School 8th 
grade, 1st, Ethel Bowlee ; 2d, Robert Beresford ; 7th grade. 1st, Joseph Bentley ; 2d, 
Lenna Burke ; 6th grade, Nellie Cahoon and Daisy Brown ; ."ith grade, Leon Beach, 
George Brown, Julia Miller, Beatrice Signer, Lalie Knott. Books were awarded to 
thirty-eight pupils in Primary Department. 

The schools are well furuished with apparatus and reference books 
used in the several departments. 

Department of Science. — There is a well- equipped laboratory for in- 
struction in the sciences, where each student can perform experiments 
himself The appointments in this department are valued at $2,ooo. 

There is also a museum, consisting of a large number of natural his- 
tory specimens and a nearly full set of duplicates of the fossils and 
minerals of the State collection, presented to the school by Professor 
Hall, of Albany, State geologist, at the request and influence of Hon. 
Lorenzo Burrows, so long an honored member of the Board of Regents, 
and Hon. Henry A. Glidden, who was then a member of the State 
Legislature. 

Department of Literature. — The increasing attention given to the 
study of the English language in all our public schools as well as in 
our higher institutions of learning, is one of the marked and hopeful 
signs of the times. It is the aim of the literature department of the 
High School, so long under the direction of Mrs. H. L. McChesney, 
not only to instruct the organized classes, but as far as possible to direct 
the reading of the whole school. The Board of Regents furnish a 
course in English reading and literature which is very valuable. 

Teachers' Department. — By appointment from the State superin- 
tendent of public instruction a course of instruction in the art and prac- 
tice of teaching is given for a period of thirty- two weeks each year. 
This training class is under the direction of Mrs. Frances O. Abbott, 
and has furnished a large number of teachers for the common schools. 
Its membership in one term has been composed of representatives from 
each town in the county. 

Libraries. — Albion is justly proud of her excellent libraries. They 
consist of the public and town libraries located in the second story of 
the Central Primary Building, Miss Lillian Achilles librarian, and the 
school library, more especially for school use, in the second and third 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 209 

stories of the High School building, Prof. C. A. Hamilton librarian. 
They contain 7,230 volumes. A dictionary catalogue, including 
author, subject and title, prepared by the librarian, has been published 
by the Board of Trustees, and a supplement of the 450 volumes re- 
cently added is in preparation. The number of books circulated from 
June, 1893, to June, 1894, was 9,000. There are about 500 regular 
patrons. A course of home reading required in all grades of the pub- 
lic schools makes the library in greater demand. It is an important 
factor in all school work at the present day. 

The Albion Literary Association raised funds by entertainments and 
by subscription and accumulated a large library. This was burned, 
and the insurance money, about $600, the association gave to the 
Board of Education, who put the money with an equal amount fur- 
nished by the Board of Regents, and thus added $1,200 worth of 
books to the public and school libraries. The following programme 
was given for the benefit of the association in the village hall in Novem- 
ber, 1887, by the " Old School Boys " : 

The Well of St. Keyne, E. R. Reynolds. Hohenlinden, Ezra T. Coann. Speech of 
Sempronius, Norman S. Field. Vocal Music, Dr. Balcom, Gr. W.Mitchell, Misses Diem 
and Northrup. Connecticut in 1776, W. W. Beckwith. Lochiel's Warning, E. R. Rey- 
nolds and Abel Stilson. Hunting Tower, Nellie Hale and Johnnie Bordwell. Napo- 
leon Bonaparte, John H. Denio. Recitation, Hymn, Henry A. Glidden. Rhetorical 
Medley, R. H. Brown. Vocal Music, Messrs. Straight and Mitchell, Mrs. Higgerson 
and Miss Ella Wirt. The Death of Hamilton, John N. Proctor. Declamation, L. C. 
Hill. The Destruction of Sennacherib, Rufus B. Bullock. Song, James Lewis. 

The farce "Box and Cox" concluded the entertainment, and the association realized 
nearly $140 for the library. 

Albion High School has had 194 graduates from 1879 to 1894. 
Twenty-one different colleges are represented by them as graduates or 
students. The Alumni Association was organized in June, 1880. 

Officers, 1894. — Charles G. Mack, '89, president; Louis F. Greene, '93, vice-presi- 
dent; Florence M. English, '92, secretary; A. Grace Harris, '87, treasurer; Henry 
W. Fox, jr., '90, orator; Mrs. Florence Beach Church, '86, poet; Grace A. Crandall, 
'91, essayist; Franc E. Barrett, '88, statistician. 

Knowlesville Union School. — Dr. H. C. Tompkins and A. L. Hill 
circulated a petition in 1859 in three districts, including the Knowles- 
ville district, to unite and organize a union free school, under the gen- 



210 LANDMARKS OF 

eral act. At a meeting held the same year, the voters decided to or- 
ganize. 

In 1887 a fine, convenient and well furnished brick school building 
was erected. 

The present Board of Education consists of Dr. H. 0. Tompkins, A. L. Hill and 
Daniel Hitchcock. Officers: Dr. E. M. Tompkins, district clerk; E. E. Woodford, 
treasurer ; J. H. Filer, librarian ; principal, John H. Filer. 

Lyndonville Union Free School. — The Lyndonville Union School 
House occupies a lot purchased of Samuel Tappan, in 1845, by the 
trustees of the district. June 25, 1835, Samuel Clark donated a plot of 
land in the rear of the Methodist Church for school purposes. This 
was sold and a new lot purchased, and the present building erected 
thereon by Elisha Sawyer and Simeon Hale, at a cost of $1,149. The 
first trustees were Cyrus Clark, Calvin P. Clark, and Henry McNeal. 
Among the first teachers were: D. M. Kelsey, Louisa M. Brown, 
Caroline Close, Rowena L. Parks, Mrs. Ann Tappan Lee. Mrs. Cor- 
nelia Johnson Tuttle taught here early for $2.00 a week. 

The school was admitted by the Regents in the winter of 1893. 
Chauncey H. Lum, the president of the Board of Education, and for 
many years an active trustee of Yates Academy, was the prime mover 
in securing the charter. 

The present board is: Hon. Henry M. Hard, president ; Walter A. Tuttle, secretary ; 
Charles E. Fairman,A. M., M. D., David S. Fraser, M. D., and R. S Wright, D. D. S. ; 
principal, Edson L. Moore. 

Mr. C. H. Lum, August 21, 1894, says : 

We have enlarged our school building in Lyndonville, and are gomg to try and make 
a first-class union school, also to supply a great need in our vicinity. We ought to do 
something to regain what we have lost, since the Yates Academy has ceased its great 
work in our town and vicinity. We must do what we can to fit our boys and girls for 
the responsible duties of life and citizenship. 

The cause of education will not suffer where such strong friends of 
education reside. 

Waterport Union School was organized at the annual meeting in 
1887. Admitted by the Regents, June, 1893. First principal, John 
H. Filer, first president of board, G. S. Wilson. 

The present board is D. D. Bromley, W. H. Parker, and F. G. Miller. Teachers : 
Augustus W. Behrand, principal; Miss Oatman, assistant. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 211 

County Supervision of the Common Schools. — In 1841 the Legislature 
provided for the election of county superintendents of common schools. 
Edwin R. Reynolds became first superintendent and served from 1841 
to 1843 Jonathan O. Willsea, 1844-5. John G. Smith, 1846 

In 1847 the office was abolished by the Legislature, and the duties 
of the position devolved upon what was known as town superintendents 
chosen in each town. 

In 1856 the office of school commissioner was created with jurisdic- 
tion throughout the Assembly district. That position has been filled 
by the following persons : 

Oliver Morehouse, 185G-60. Marcus H. Phillips, 1861-65. Montraville S. Root, 
1865. Abel Stilson, 1866-69. James H. Mattison, 1870-72. William W. Phipps, 
1873-75. Edward Posson, 1876-85 ; 1890-93. Charles W. Smith, 1886-90. Elbert 
0. Smith, 1894. 

Freeman G. Greene, A, M., has been superintendent of the Albion 
public schools since 1883. Since 1887 Albion has received $800 a 
year for superintendent from the common school fund. 

School Commissioner Posson in his annual report for 1893 to the 
State superintendent says : 

The towns in the county with number of districts with school houses, 
and amount of money raised by local tax, are : 

Albion, 10 $10,204 

Barre, 13 2,106 

Carlton, 17 3,053 

Clarendon. 9 1,445 

Gaines, 12 2,929 

Kendall, 10 1,960 

Murray, 12 6,105 

Ridgeway, 16 10,964 

Shelby, 14 3,085 

Yates, 13 2,370 

Total $44,221 

Amount of public money received from State, $24,165; total expended for support 
of schools, $68,386; assessed valuation of districts in county, $17,159,363; number of 
trees planted in 1893, 104; value of school buildings and sites, $185,810; whole num- 
ber of children attending school, 6,529 ; aggregate days attendance during the year, 
683,714; number of teachers employed, 185; number of official visits by Mr. Posson, 
368. 



212 LANDMARKS OF 

The schools of Orleans are in a fairly prosperous condition. The 
village schools are doing excellent work, owing very largely to the 
employment of trained and experienced teachers. The rural schools 
cannot accomplish the best of work until the trustees employ a better 
grade of teachers and retain them as long as their work shows satis- 
factory results. 

I believe that nearly all the teachers of this county are keeping them- 
selves informed in the best methods of teaching, as seven are now at- 
tending State Normal Schools after having taught from three to five 
terms each. 

EARLY DISTRICT SCHOOLS IN THE SEVERAL TOWNS. 

Judge Thomas, in his excellent history of Orleans county, furnishes 
the following interesting facts of the early schools of the several towns 
of the county : 

Albion and Barre. — Albion formed a part of Barre in the time of 
early schools. Dr. Gushing writes that the first school within the pres- 
ent limits of the town of Barre was taught by Sally, daughter of John 
Lee, in a log house at Lee's Settlement in 1818 and 1819. Miss Lee 
married Andrew Stevens, and died at Towanda in 1828. The de- 
struction of the town records in 1866 prevents other knowledge of the 
formation of districts. 

Luther Porter, of Porter's Corners, says : " There was no school in 
my neighborhood for several years after 1820. The first school house 
there was erected at Sheldon's Corners. The district was afterwards 
divided and a log school house built about a mile north of Ferguson's 
Corners. Again the district was divided, and in 1871 stood as district 
No. 12, with a good school house. The town of Albion now has ten 
good school houses and Barre thirteen. 

Carlton, 1810-11. — The first school in Carlton was taught by Peleg 
Helms in the winter of 1810-11. This was the first school in Orleans 
county. At the present time Carlton has seventeen school houses, and 
with their sites are valued at $13,000. 

Clarendon, 18 13. — Mrs. Amanda Bills had the honor of teaching the 
first school in the town of Clarendon, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 213 

Clarendon Village, 1813. — The first school building, 14 by 18 feet, 
was built in 1813, of logs, on a lot a short distance south of Farwell's 
Mills, now Clarendon village. In the summer of 18 18 a frame school 
house was built at Farwell's Mills, near the site of the present stone one 
built in 1846, and Horace Streeter taught the first school there the fol- 
lowing winter. In the summer of J 81 5, Minerva Tousley taught in the 
first school house in district No. 4, which was built of logs in 18 15. 
Erastus S. Coann, in the winter of 1815-16 taught the first school in 
district No. 13, in a log school house built in the fall of 181 5, just east 
of the Holley road near where A. L. Salisbury resided in 1878. The 
town of Clarendon contained nine school districts at the time of its or- 
ganization. It now has nine school houses, which with their sites are 
valued at $7,350. 

Gaines, 1813-14. — Orin Gleason, in the winter of 1813-14, taught 
school in the first building used for school purposes in the town of 
Gaines. It was a log cabin built by a settler on the premises, since 
known as the Ezra Hunter farm. Miss Rebecca Adams taught the 
first summer school here. 

East Gaines, 18 15. — In 18 15 Hannah Strickland taught the first 
school at East Gaines in a log school house south of the Ridge Road on 
the west branch of the creek near where William Billings lived in 1878. 
On what was Albert Randall's farm in 1878 stood the first school house 
in the adjoining district south. 

Bullard District, 18 16. — Miss Anna Frisbie taught the first school 
in the Bullard district in a log school house built in 18 16, on the farm 
north of the Ridge Road, which was owned in 1878 by John Hyde. 
In 1822 a substantial brick building was built on a new site. This 
was superseded by a stone building a little further west. 

Gaines Village. — Ira H. Beach taught the first school in the vil- 
lage of Gaines, in a log house. Miss Lucretia Downer taught in a new 
school house built in 1832, near the residence (in 1878) of Simon 
Kemp. 

Five Corners, 18 17. — Miss Ruth Haywood in 18 17 opened a school 
at Five Corners in Frederick Holsenburgh's corn house. Four years 
later, on the site of the present building, was erected the first school 
house in that district. 



214 LANDMARKS OP 

Fair Haven, 1817. — Near the site of the present school building at 
Fair Haven, a school house was built in 1 8 1 7. John McOmber was one 
of the first teachers. About this time the citizens of Gaines and Fair 
Haven districts united and built a school house a short distance west of 
the Burgess residence. The first school house in district nnmber five 
was built a few rods east of where the Otter Creek crosses the Ridge. 
It was a board structure, rudely finished with two windows on each 
side, a door at one end, and a chimney at the other. 

Gaines Basin, 1832. — On the east side of the road where the canal 
now passes, was built, in 1832, the first school house at Gaines Basin. 
It was nothing but a log shanty, with a shed roof and a floor of loose 
boards. Miss Nancy Bullard was the first teacher in that primitive 
school building. Miss Caroline Phipps, founder of Phipps' Union Sem- 
inary, taught her first school here at the early age of fourteen. 

Eagle Harbor, 1822. — The first school house at Eagle Harbor stood 
on the west side of the street and was built in 1822. In 1841 a second 
house was built on the site of the present house, which was built in 
1846. 

Kendall, 18 19. — Gordon Balcom taught the first school in the town 
of Kendall in a log school house on lot 123, built in 18 19 This was 
burned in a few years, and a frame building placed on the same lot. 
The present stone building was built in 1839. At the organization of 
the town in 1837 there were thirteen districts, four of which were parts 
of other districts extending into other towns. The number of children 
taught the first year after the organization was 631. In 1850, 652. In 
1878 there were sixteen districts, seven of which were joint districts. In 
1 894 there were ten school houses and 332 children were taught. About 
1820 the first log house in district number five was built on lot 130. 
Miss Sarah Rice was the first teacher in summer and Owen Miner in 
winter. Emily Bassett taught the first school in district number nine, 
in a shed belonging to William R. Bassett. 

Kendall Village. — The first school in Kendall village was taught in a 
part of a double log house on the northeast corner of lot 1 19, about the 
summer of 1824, on the site of the Baptist Church. Orin Miner, Salo- 
ma Roblee and Cornelia Merrill were among the very early teachers. 

Murray, 18 14. — The first school house in the town of Murray was 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 215 

built in district No. 12, in 18 14, and school was taught the same year 
by Fanny Ferguson. 

Holley, 1815. — The first school house in the village of Holley was 
made of logs and built about 1815, and stood near the site of the rail- 
road depot. Lydia Thomas was the first teacher. In 1840 a stone 
school house was built on the corner of Albion and North streets, which 
served for several years. 

Hulburton, 1822. — In about 1822 the first school house was built of 
logs in Hulburton. Alfreda Smith and Ryan Barber were among the 
first teachers. This building was burned in the winter of 1827-8. The 
following summer school was taught in a barn on Main street, south of 
the canal, and the next winter in a log dwelling, north of the village. 
In 1828 a frame school house was built nearly opposite the one in 
present use, which was built in 1840. In 1894 Murray had twelve 
school houses, value $6,105, and 705 children attending school. 

Ridgeway, 1814. — In 1814 the town of Ridgeway was divided into 
seven school districts ; district No. i was bounded on the east by Oak 
Orchard Creek, and on the west by the county line, making the district 
about eight miles long, and it extended as far each side of the 
Ridge road, as there were inhabitants. The first log school house was 
built in 181 5 on lot 24, and the first school was taught there by Miss 
Lucy Judson. Daniel's district — Samuel Salisbury says in Judge Thomas' 
hi.story (page 224), that he attended school two miles south of what is 
now Lyndonville ; this school house was built of logs and was used for 
many years as a place of worship. 

Knowlesville, 18 17. — At Knowlesville the first log school house was 
built in 1817, a little north of where the brick school house was after- 
wards built, on the west side of the street north of the canal. Districts 
Nos. 5, 6 and 15 form the Union Free School. In 1894 Ridgeway had 
sixteen school houses, valued at $10,964, and 1,700 children taught. 

Shelby, 1815. — Cornelius Ashton taught the first school in the town 
of Shelby in the winter of 1815-6. Judge Penniman taught near Mill- 
ville about 1820, and continued for several years. The first school 
house was south of Shelby Center, near Wordon's tannery. The first 
brick building in the town was the brick school house at Shelby Cen- 
ter. This was given to Robert Drake in payment for collecting the tax 



216 LANDMARKS OF 

for building the new school house. In 1894 there were fourteen school 
houses, valued at $3,085, and 481 children attended school 

Yates. — The first brick building in the town of Yates was the first 
brick school house, now (1894) occupied by Arthur Phipany for a 
dwelling in Lyndonville, Yates has thirteen school houses, valued at 
$2,370, and 490 children attended school during the school year end- 
ing July 31, 1893, 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE TOWN AND VILLAGE OF ALBION. 

The town of Albion was erected from Barre in 1875 ^^d was named 
from the village of the same name — the county seat of Orleans county. 
The name is derived from that of the largest of the British islands. One 
ancient writer (Agathemerus) calls the largest two of these islands 
Hibernia and Albion ; and Pliny says, " the island of Great Britain 
was formerly called Albion, the name of Britain being common to all 
the islands around it." In poetry the name is still retained ; the "hills 
of Albion," and "Albion's sons," are not uncommon forms of expres- 
sion. Philologists are not agreed as to its etymology. According to 
some it is derived from a Greek word which means white, and the name 
was given to this island because of the white, chalky cliffs on its coast. 
Others derive it " from a giant, the son of Neptune, mentioned by several 
ancient writers ; some from the Hebrew alben (white) ; others from the 
Phoenician alp or alpin (high and high mountain), from the height of 
the coast. Sprengle, in his Universal History of Great Britain, thinks 
it of GaeHc origin, the same with Albyn, the name of the Scotch 
highlands. It appears to him the plural of alp, or ailp which signifies 
rocky mountains, and to have been given to the island, because the 
shore which looks toward France looks like a long row of rocks. The 
ancient British poets call Britain Inis Wen the white island." What- 
ever view is adopted with regard to the etymology of the name, it is 
certain that it was the name of ancient England, and probably that fact 
or its poetic use led to its adoption here. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 217 

The town is bounded on the north by Gaines, on the east by Murray 
and a small portion by Clarendon, on the south by Barre, and on the 
west and a small portion on the north by Ridgeway, a small portion is 
also bounded west by Shelby It has an area of 16,337 acres, and is 
traversed from east to west by the Niagara Falls branch of the New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad. The Erie Canal also traverses 
the northern part of the town except for about two and one- half miles 
immediately west of Albion village, which is in Gaines. Flowing 
northerly through the west part of the township is Otter Creek, while 
through the center flows Sandy Creek, which courses through the 
eastern edge of the village. These are the only streams of importance 
in the town. Grain and fruit are the chief agricultural productions, and 
the soil is a clay loam. The surface is generally level and the soil is 
very productive. About two miles east from Albion village are a num- 
ber of sandy hills, which have been utilized for the tasteful cemetery of 
Mount Albion. The town is especially noted for its extensive quarries 
of Medina sandstone, a stratum that underlies nearly its whole area. 

During several years the question of holding the town elections in 
Albion instead of Barre Center, (which was near the geographical center 
of the town of Barre) had been periodically agitated. This change was 
favored by the political party that was strongest in Albion, and was 
opposed by the party that was dominant in the town ; and a majority 
could not be induced to vote for the change. In 1875 a majority of 
the Board of Supervisors were of the same political party as a majority 
in the village, and a proposition was made to divide the town. After a 
bitter contest this was carried and the new town was erected from the 
north part of Barre. The line established between the two towns 
divided the northern tier of lots in the first and second ranges of the 
fourteenth township, leaving about one-third of each of these lots in the 
town of Barre. This location of the line was determined by party con- 
siderations. The meeting at which the supervisors voted to divide the old 
town of Barre, was held January 3, 1875. The first board of town officers, 
elected April 8 of that year, consisted of Norman S. Field, supervisor ; 
Jay H. Sweet, town clerk ; George A. Porter, Andrew L, Dibble, 
Arnold Gregory, and Leroy R. Sanford, justices of the peace ; George 
Edmonds, collector; Hiram Reed, assessor; William A. Tanner, high- 
28 



218 LANDMARKS OF 

way commissioner ; David Olmstead, overseer of the poor. The super- 
visors of Albion have been as follows : 

Norman S. Field, 1875-77; John H. White, 1878-79; William B. Dye, 1880; Will- 
iam Hallock, 1881-82; David Hardie, 1883-84; Charles 0. Hartwell, 1885-8G; Kirk 
D. Sheldon, 1887 ; Henry D. Reed. 1888-90; Robert Clark, 1891-92 ; Coley P. Wright, 
1893-94. 

Originally the lands in the town were largely apportioned to settlers 
or purchasers by articles, which were negotiable, and in many instances 
these instruments were assigned several times before the purchase price 
was paid and deeds secured. They were not recorded, and therefore 
the records in the county clerk's office give no reliable information as 
to the first settlers. From original entries in the books of the Holland 
Land Company, however, the following account of sales by articles and 
deeds is gleaned. It must be remembered that the town includes the 
south three-fourths of the north tier of lots in the first and second 
ranges of the fourteenth township, and the north three tiers ot lots in 
the same ranges of the fifteenth township, except lots 57, 58 and 59 in 
the fifteenth township and second range, which lie in Ridgeway : 

The north part of lot 8, town 14, range 1 was sold to Charles E. Dudley January 26, 
1828. G-eorge A. Love purchased by article 75 acres next south from the above, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1823 ; and William Love purchased 97i acres, including this, October 28, 1831. 
This land was deeded in parcels to the Bank of Monroe, John D. Maxon, Leonard 
Williams and Thomas Grant, 1835-37. Philip Frederick purchased by article 100 acres 
of lot 8, March 22, 1822. December 30, 1830, a part, 55 acres, of this was transferred 
to Nathan Bathrick. and December 20, 1833, was deeded to Elijah Root. The south 
part, 100 acres, of lot 8 was articled to Orrin Fuller, January 5, 1822. It reverted, 
and on the 24th of December, 1831, 80 acres were articled to Jonathan Fiench. De- 
cember 8, 1833, this tract was deeded to Gershom Holdridge. November 3, 1832, 42-J 
acres were articled to Daniel B. Austin, and afterward transferred to John D. Maxon. 

The middle part, 100 acras, of lot 1, town 15, range 1, was sold by article to Alban 
Spencer, April 16, 1820. It was deeded to him November 29, 1833. The east middle 
part, 100 acres, of lot 1, was taken up by Joel Newman, April 11, 1820. It was 
deeded to Joseph A. Wright June 1, 1834. Alvah Benedict purchased by article the 
east part, 76 acres, of lot 1, April 25, 1820. It was again aiticled to John Minckley, 
January 18, 1828. It was deeded to Orson Nichoson and Abraham B. Mills, October 
11, 1833. John J. Andrews took up the western middle part, 100 acres, of lot 1, March 
22, 1820. It was transferred to Salmon Dibble, January 18, 1828, and deeded to him 
November 6, 1833. The western part, 100 acres, of lot 1, was articled to William 
Wright. May 7, 1816, and deeded to him Augu.-t 27, 1835. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 219 

The northeast part, 190 acres, of lot 2, was sold by article to Artemus Thayer April 
28, 1815. September 10, 1824, 100 acres of this were articled to Moses Smith, and 
deeded to hira December 6, 1833. The rest of the northeast part of lot 2 was several 
times transferred in parcels, and was deeded as follows : 50 acres to Washington 
Thayer, October 14. 1833 ; 44^ acres to John Minckley, December 23, 1834 ; and 30 
acres to Joel Minckley, January 1, 1836. The west part of lot 2, 128 acres, was arti- 
cled to James P. Harkness, May 11, 1815. It was articled to John P.Andrews, Au- 
gust 4, 1825, and to Joseph Bentley, January 31, 1828. The south part, 78 acres, of 
this was transferred to Ezekiel Root, February 12, 1832, and was deeded to him 
August 3, 1832. Fifteen acres were transferred to Moses Smith, February 12, 1833, 
and were deeded to him January 30, 1837. Thirty-five acres (north pait) were deeded 
to Jedediah Phelps, February 12, 1833. The southeast part of lot 2, 88 acres, was sold 
by article to James P. Harkness, May 11, 1815, and transferred to Hix & Minckley 
December 29, 1824. It was divided between these partners and was finally deeded as 
follows: To Amma Whiteraarsh, May 31, 1833 ; to Samuel Hoag, November 23, 1833 ; 
and to William Minckley, December 10, 1835. 

Joseph Butterfield purchased by article the southeast part, 100 acres, of lot 3 Decem- 
ber 9, 1814. He received a deed for 49 acres of this July 5, 1826. On the same day 
51 acres were transferred to George W. Hetsler, and were deeded to him May 6, 1827. 
The northeast part, 100 acres, of lot 3, was articled to James Hicks December 9, 1814. 
December 14, 1822, the article was renewed to John Nichols. March 6, 1828, it was 
transferred to Archibald Mahon, and was deeded to him November 28, 1833. John 
Mansfield purchased by article the northwest part, 140 acres, of lot 3, November 24, 
1815. April 8, 1825, 50 acres of this were articled to Orra Clark, who received a deed 
for 23-^ acres November 13, 1830. Of the 50 acres transferred to Orra Clark 26^ acres 
were transferred November 19, 1833, to Cyrus Lagnith, who received a deed for the 
same November 29, 1835. April 8, 1825, 90|^ acres of the northwest part of lot 3 were 
transferred to Jesse Munson and were deeded to Thomas Jones January 30, 1828. 
The southwest part, 142 acres, of lot 3, was articled to John Phelps April 12, 1816, and 
deeded to him March 7, 1828. 

The west part, 100 acres of lot 16, town 14, range 1, was taken up April 9, 1817, by 
Zerah Fenner and Johnson Carpenter, transferred to Daniel Furguson April 4, 1828, 
and deeded to Joseph House November 7, 1833. Fifty acres of lot 16 were articled to 
Jacob Howe April 29, 1817, to Ira Bartholomew November 10, 1829, and deeded to 
Peter Storms December 21, 1832. November 5, 1817, Isaac Beech bought 50 acres of 
lot 16, and November 29, 1827, it was articled to John Grant. It was deeded to Philip 
Green January 28, 1832. November 5, 1817, 100 acres of lot 16 were articled to Row- 
ley Beech, and again to Zebediah Heath March 10, 1828. The tract was deeded to Mr. 
Heath January 18, 1833. The east part, 62| acres of lot 16, was taken up by John P. 
Babcock June 11, 1818. September 5, 1828, it was articled to Thomas Grant, and 
September 8, 1835, it was deeded to Philip Green. 

John Wright took up the northeast part, 100 acres, of lot 9, town 15, range 1, Sep- 
tember 26, 1815. It was articled to Barry Chase October 17, 1827, and deeded to him 
October 29, 1833. The northwest part, 100 acres, of lot 9, was sold by article to 



220 LANDMARKS OF 

George Griffith September 26, 1815. June 14, 1826, 50 acres of this were transferred 
to Justus Olmstead. The whole was deeded to Asa Williams November 8, 1833. Cal- 
vin Rich took up the southwest part, 69 acres, of lot 9. May 7. 1816. March 2, 1829, 
49 acres of this were articled to Joel Smith, and 20 acres to Joseph Davis. The whole 
tract was deeded to John Chase November 13, 1833. Jonathan Rich purchased by 
article the southeast part, 69 acres, of lot 9, December 2, 1817. It was articled to 
Jacob Wright November 20, 1827, and deeded to him November 15, 1832. 

The north part, 100 acres, of lot 10, was sold to Nehemiah Blanchard April 16, 1816. 
Seventy-five acres of this were articled to Jacob Annis May 28, 1828, and deeded to 
him November 7, 1833. Twenty- five acres of this north part were articled to Willard 
Blanchard May 28, 1828, and to Samuel BIoss November 27, 1833. Mr. Bloss received 
a deed for this and a part of lot 11 November 27, 1833. The middle part of lot 10, 100 
acres, was articled to Jacob Annis August 26, 1816. Fifty acres of this were trans- 
ferred to Jerome B. Annis October 7, 1824; to Thomas Annis December 28, 1831, and 
were deeded to Jacob Annis November 29, 1833. Fifty acres were transferred to 
Thomas Annis December 28, 1831, and deeded to him November 15, 1836. Josiah 
Shattuck took up the south part, 144 acres, of lot 10, December 2, 1820. Twenty- five 
acres of the west portion of this were transferred to Caleb Van Ness October 19, 1829 ; 
to Elijah Root November 18, 1833 : and were deeded to Francis Root September 10, 
1835. The east portion of the south part of lot 10, 119 acres, was transferred to Jacob 
Annis October 19, 1829, and 50 acres of this were deeded to Freeman N. Chase Decem- 
ber 21, 1833. Sixty-nine acres were deeded to John F. Bisby December 21, 1833. The 
west part of lot 11, 208 acres, was articled, to John Phelps April 12, 1816. April 14 the 
south 71 acres was transferred to Samuel N. Tanner, and deeded to him March 27, 1826. 
April 13, 1828, 137 acres were transferred to Joseph Van Camp, and were deeded to 
him November 23, 1833. 

The west part of lot 11, 130 acres was taken up by Abijah Newton, April 1, 1816 ; 
March 30, 1825, was transferred to Nathan F. Clark. It was articled to Josiah Bloss, 
April 2, 1828, and a portion transferred to Cyrus Jaquith, November 19, 1830. It was 
deeded to him November 27, 1833. Seventy-one acres of this west part were deeded 
to Samuel Bloss, November 27, 1833. 

The east part, 120 acres, of lot 24, town 14, range 1, was taken up by William Hig- 
bee, October 31, 1816. It was articled in two parcels to Lancaster Gordon, August 22, 
1828, and March 3, 1829. Several payments by Mr. Gordon were in wheat. The 
whole was deeded to William Hoit, January 7, 1835. William Higbee also took up 116 
acres of lot 24, February 22, 1817. The tract was articled to Samuel Williams, March 
31, 1828, and was deeded to him November 23, 1833. Jordan Smith purchased the 
west part, 120 acres, of lot 24, February 22, 1817. It reverted, and the east 60 acres 
were articled to Experience Cass, November 25, 1829, transferred to Jeremiah Gates, 
December 4 1830, and deeded to Davis Bailey, September 6, 1836. The west 60 acres 
were deeded to Renssela^ Fuller, February 11, 1830. 

The southwest part, 153 acres, of lot 17 was taken up by John Mansfield, November 
23, 1815. The southeast part, 100 acres, was articled to Arthur Barnes, October 17, 
1815. The north part was taken up by John Barnes, September 26, 1815. These 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 221 

parts were variously subdivided and transferrer], and the lot vs^as deeded as follows: 
Seventy-six and one-half acres to Anthony Tripp, April 2, 1830; 56 acres to William 
Chase, August 31, 1833; 49t} acres to Warren Chase, August 31, 1833; 50 acres to 
James Gibbs. September 6. 1833 ; 50 acres to Zophar Willard, October 11, 1833 ; 50+ 
acres to Julius Coy, November 23, 1833; 15 acres to William Wright, December 6, 
1833; and 50 acres to Arthur Barnes, June 1, 1834. 

The east part, 150 acres, of lot 18 was articled to Jonathan Rich, September 26, 
1815. The northwest 50 acres of this was transferred to Dyer F. Wickham, and was 
deeded to him June 25, 1829. Sixty acres were transferred to Dyer F. Wickham, and 
were deeded to him June 25, 1829. Sixty acres were transferred to Lyman Burley, 
and were deeded to him October 28, 1833. Forty acres were transferred to Anthony 
Johnson, and were deeded to him November 22, 1834. The middle part, 100 acres, of 
lot 18 was taken up by Enoch Hyatt, May 1, 1816, and on the 31st of October, 1831, 
the south 50 acres of this part were deeded to him. The north portion, 50 acres, of 
this part was finally deeded, along with the north portion of the west part of the lot to 
Lyman 0. Patterson, October 14, 1833. Isaac Rockwell took up the west part of lot 18, 
and after some subdivisions and transfers it was deeded ; a portion to him, 50 acres to 
Phineas Briggs, November 23, 1833, and 35 acres to Elizabeth Barnes, December 6, 
1833. 

The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 19 was articled to Hiram Johnson, May 1, 1816. 
March 7, 1825, the east half of this was transferred to Aaron Fuller, and was deeded 
to him January 6, 1834. The west half was transferred to Cyrus Angell, March 7, 
1825, and was deeded to him June 1, 1834. Christopher Crandall took up the north 
part, 141|- acres, of lot 19, May 1, 1816. Of this the west 911-2 acres were deeded to 
him April 1, 1831. The east 50 acres were deeded to Francis B. Tanner, September 9, 

1828. The north part, 150 acres, of lot 19 was articled to William Yates, April 9, 1816. 
The east 100 acres of this were transferred to Samuel N. Tanner, April 14, 1824, and 
were deeded to him January 3, 1825. The west 50 acres were transferred to Benja- 
min Green April 14, 1824, and were deeded to him September 29, 1827. 

The west part, 164 acres, of lot 32, town 14, range 1, was taken up by James Healy 
March 18, 1816, and deeded to Thoda Garret November 19, 1833. The east part, 100 
acres, of lot 32 was taken up by Abraham Matteson November 16, 1816. One-half was 
articled to Horace Fitch October 1, 1829, and the remaining 50 acres to Reuben Pierce, 
November 16, 1829. The east half was deeded to Henry Ingals September 14, 1835, 
The middle portion, 114 acres, of lot 32 was articled to Jacob Howe April 12. 1818. 
and again articled in parcels to Horace Fitch and to George Dorrance January 26, 

1829. It was deeded to Horace Fitch January 6, 1834. 

October 6, 1815, John Jones purchased by article the east part, 105 acres, of lot 25, 
town 15, range 1 ; July 13, 1824, the north half of this was articled to Curtis & 
Sprague April 13, 1830, a part of this north portion was transferred to Ezra S. Curtis, 
then to Isaac Pope, and on the 13th of November, 1833, it was deeded to Nathaniel 
Root. Another parcel of this north portion was transferred to Vine Sprague April 30, 

1830. and was deeded to him November 18, 1833. The south portion of this east part 
was deeded to Anthony Tripp July 13, 1824. The west part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was 



222 LANDMARKS OF 

taken up by Charles Crittenden August 24, 1815, and was deeded to Solomon Hartwell 
July 22, 1823. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was articled to Peter Robinson 
August 24, 1815. It was transferred to Solomon Hartwell November 5, 1823, and the 
north 50 acres of it were deeded to him December 14, 1832. The south 50 acres were 
transferred to William Hartwell December 3, 1827, and were deeded to him June 10, 
1833. 

The north part, 100 acres, of lot 26 was articled to William McAllister December 21, 
1810. It was transferred to Orrin White November 21, 1822, and the west portion, 50 
acres, of it to Robert Caswell October 6, 1828. This portion was deeded to Mr. Cas- 
well June 6, 1834. The east 50 acres of this north part were transferred to Jonathan 
Hitchcock October 6, 1828, and were deeded to Samuel N. Tanner November 27, 1833. 
The middle part, 105 acres, of lot 26 was articled to Lewis Hawlev July 18, 1816. It 
was deeded to Philetus Bumpus June 30, 1829. The south part, 100 acres, of lot 26 
was taken up by Jonathan Biown October 7, 1816. The west portion, 50 acres, of 
this was transferred to Philetus Bumpus June 30, 1829, and was deeded to Robert Cas- 
well June 1, 1834. Twenty-five acres of the east half of this tract were transferred to 
Isaac Pope October 2, 1830, and deeded to Nathan Root November 13, 1833. The 
other twenty -five acres of this east half were transferred to Seneca Barnes October 30, 
1830, and deeded to Phineas Briggs November 23, 1833. 

The south half, 151 acres, of lot 27, was taken up October 16, 1810, by Abishai 
Annable. The east portion, 101 acres, of this half was transferred to Eleazer Risley 
October 17, 1820, and was deeded to him October 5, 1826. The west portion, 50 acres, 
was transferred to S. and B. Hudson October 17, 1820, and was deeded to Samuel B. 
Hall August 3, 1826. The north half of lot 27, 151 acres, was articled to Anderson 
Rowland May 30, 1815, and June 12, 1815; was transferred to Oliver Brown Novem- 
ber 15, 1825, and was deeded to him December 21, 1829. 

The north part of lot 40, town 14, range 1, was taken up by Oliver Benton Novem- 
ber 2, 1812. Mr. Benton's deeds for this were dated May 28, 1814, and August 12, 1826. 
Thomas Langley purchased bv article 54 acres of lot 40 September 16, 1815. The land was 
articled to Joseph H. Brown March 24, 1825, and deeded to him November 23, 1827. 
The south part of lot 40, 100 acres, was taken up by Philip Bonesteel October 16, 1815. 
It was deeded to John W. Holland September 1, 1824. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 33, town 15, range 1, was taken up by Anthony 
Tripp, October 19, 1811, and was deeded to him September, 16, 1819. Nathan Whit- 
ney purchased by article the middle part, 160 acres, of lot 33, October 27. 1813. It 
was deeded to Jonathan Whitney February 19, 1822. Jacob Young purchased by 
deed the north part, 100 acres, of lot 33, June 7, 1813. Joseph Hart took up lot 34, 
358 acres, November 11, 1811. It was deeded to him November 12, 1819. 

Lot 35, 358^ acres, was articled to William McAllister, December 11, 1811. De- 
cember 3, 1819. 266-J acres, the north and east part, were deeded to William and the 
southeast part to Joel Bradner. 

The north part, 120 acres, of lot 8, town 14, range 2, was taken up by Eleazer West, 
October 29, 1813. August 11, 1825, the west portion, 80 acres, of this north part 
was articled to James Storms, to whom it was deeded December 9, 1833. August 11, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 223 

1825, the east portion, 40 acres, of this north part was articled to Andrew Rawson, and 
was deeded to him March 31, 1829. The middle part, 125 acres, of lot 8, was taken 
up by John Doak, May 21, 1815. It was articled to Andrew Rawson August 11, 
1825, and was deeded to Alvah Lewis October 12, 1835. The south part, 120 acres, of 
lot 8, was taken up by Bela Benton, May 29, 1815. The west portion, 60 acres, of 
this was articled to Clara Munsee. August 9, 1826, to Alvah Lewis, December 3, 1828, 
and to Sherman Wells, November 15, 1824. It was deeded to him, with a part of lot 
7, November 12, 1836. The east portion, 60 acres, of this south part, was articled to 
Angell Paine August 9, 1826, and was deeded to him March 1, 1835. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 1, town 15, range 2, was taken up by Oliver Ben- 
ton June 12, 1812. The east 50 acres of this part were articled to James Brisban June 
13, 1823, and the west 50 acres to ^Bela Benton June 13, 1823. The last was trans- 
ferred to John Mervin, September 13, 1826, and was deeded to him March 12, 1828. 
Of the east portion, 20 acres were deeded to Eldridge Hubbard, September 24, 1835, 
and 30 acres to William H. Smith, December 10, 1835. The middle part, 100 acres, of 
lot 1, was articled to Reuben Darrow March 20, 1813, and deeded to him March 9, 1824. 
The north part of lot 1, and south part of lot 2, 303 acres, was articled to Nathan Whit- 
ney, jr., November 23, 1813, and was deeded to him November 23, 1815. 

The middle part, 110 acres, of lot 2, was articled to Frederick Holsenburg April 20, 
1812, and was deeded, April 21, 1820, to Ebenezer Rogers. Silas Benton took up the 
north part, 110 acres, of lot 2, April 20, 1812. It was deeded to John Bradner April 
21, 1820. 

The south part, 200 acres, of lot 3, was taken up by Elijah Darrow, April 20, 1812. 
The south half of this was deeded to Horace Bishop, April 21, 1820. The north half 
was deeded to John Hortsbarger, April 21, 1820. The north half of lot 3 was articled 
to Jesse Bumpus August 12, 1815. The article was renewed to Philetus Bumpus, 
August 13, 1823, and the land was deeded to Roswell Burrows October 11, 1825. 

Gregory Storms took up the east part, 120 acres, of lot 16, town 14, range 2, No- 
vember 21, 1814. The north portion, 94 acres, of this was deeded to John H. Tyler 
and others, supervisors of the towns in Orleans county, November 28, 1833, The south 
portion, 28 acres, was articled to Nehemiah Ingersoll. December 7, 1833, and deeded to 
Norman Ward November 17, 1836. The middle portion, 121| acres, of lot 16, was 
articled to Selah Belding, November 11, 1814. It was transferred to Asa Paine, No- 
vember 26, 1822, and was deeded to him May 3, 1831. The west part, 122 acres, of 
lot 16, was articled to Christopher Paine, November 26, 1822, and 96^ acres were 
deeded to him November 9, 1833. The balance had been deeded to him May 25, 1832. 

The west part, 117 acres, of lot 9, town 15, range 2, was articled to Windsor Paine 
November 6, 1815. The south 60 acres of this were transferred to Jonathan Sheldon 
November 7, 1823, and were deeded to him July 5, 1836. The north 57 acres were 
transferred to John J. Brown November 7, 1823, and 50 acres of this to Richard Strat- 
ton September 13, 1828. Forty- five acres were deeded to Ebenezer Rogers Novem- 
ber 12, 1834. Seven acres were deeded to Christopher Benjamin September 13, 1828, 
and five acres to the same party November 11, 1834. The east and middle parts, 238 
acres, of lot 9, were articled to Samuel Goodrich June 3, 1815. One half of this tract 



224 LANDMARKS OF 

was deeded to John Melvin September 23, 1836, and the other half to Orrin Crane Oc- 
tober 14, 1833. 

The east part, 150 acres, of lot 10, was articled to Bardwell Farr March 10, 1815. 
Seventy-five acres of this were transferred to Thomas Hebard May 10, 1823, and deed- 
ed to him August 30, 1830. The middle part, 103^ acres, of lot 10, was taken up by 
Eddy B. Paine July 26, 1815. Fifty-six and one-half acres of this were deeded to 
Lansing Bailey June 8, 1833, and 47 acres to George Howland September 3, 1833. The 
west part of lot 10, 100 acres, was articled to Isaac Leland June 27, 1823, and deeded 
to him July 31, 1826. 

The south part, 11 acres, of lot 11, was taken up by Stephen Abbott August 26, 

1814, and deeded to Caleb C. Thurston August 24, 1821. The south middle part, 60 
acres, of lot 11, was articled to Elijah Devereaux December 10, 1814, and deeded to 
Lansing Bailey December 14, 1821. The north middle part of lot 11 was articled to 
James St. Clair August 31, 1815, and deeded to him June 11, 1834. The north part, 
77 acres, of lot 11, was deeded to Lansing Bailey April 22, 1823. 

The west part, 200 acres, of lot 24, town 14, range 2, was taken up by William Gill 
May 2, 1815. April 29, 1825, 100 acres of this were articled to Adonijah Bond, jr., and 
of this last 50 acres were transferred to Caleb Sailesbury September 8, 1828. This 
50 acres was deeded in parts to Hugh McCurdy February 21, 1833, and to Gideon Hard 
February 25, 1833. The other 50 acres was deeded to Adonijah Bond, jr, November 
13, 1833. April 29, 1825, 100 acres were transferred to Isaac Mason, and after several 
transfers this portion and the balunce of lot 24 were deeded as follows: 70 acres to Ste- 
phen A. Knapp January 10, 1832; 76 acres to Jesse Mason February 15, 1833; 30 
acres to Jonathan D. Sheldon December 18, 1835; 50 acres to Isaac Clark February 15, 
1833 ; 19i acres to ElishaD. Brown February 15, 1833, and 5 acres to Elijah P. Sill Feb- 
ruary 15, 1833. 

The north part, 150 acres, of lot 17, town 15, range 2, was taken up by Truman Mason 
October 11, 1815, and 100 acres were deeded to him January 7, 1829. Fifty acres were 
transferred to Asa Parker March 5, 1824, and were deeded to Isaac Parker June 1, 
1833. The south and middle part of lot 17 was articled to Jesse Mason October 1, 

1815. October 15, 1823, 129 acres of this were transferred to Nathaniel Brooks, and 
February 14, 1829, to David and Stephen Knapp. This parcel was deeded to David 
Knapp September 7, 1832. October 15, 1823, 50 acres were articled to Artemas Love- 
land, and were deeded to him October 29, 1825. October 15, 1823, 78 acres of the same 
were articled to Crosby Maxwell, and this portion was deeded as follows; 28 acres to 
Edward Dunham November 10, 1831, and 50 acres to Crosby Maxwell August 1, 1833. 

The east part, 150 acres, of lot 18, was articled to Eddy B. Paine September 12, 
1815. September ] 1, 1823, it was deeded to Thomas Parker. The west part, 88 acres, 
of lot 18, was articled to Enos Rice June 7, 1816. It was transferred to Asa Parker 
February 11, 1825, to Youngs A. Brown November 1, 1830, and was deeded to Thomas 
Parker June 1, 1833. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 19, was deeded to the trustees of the First Congre- 
gational Society of the town of Barre, March 8, 1822. The middle part of lot 19, 153 
acres, was taken up by Thomas Witt, and John Shirley, February 27, 1822. October 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 225 

16, 1830, 76i acres of tliis were transferred to Thomas Witt, and were deeded to O. 
and A. N. Ropers, June 1, 1834. Seventy-six and one-half acres of the siirne were 
arti'Med to Azariah Loveland October IG, 1830, and deeded to Sleiihen B.Thurston 
November 25, 1833. The north middle part, 50 acres, of lot 19, was articled to Jo^eph 
Carr, February 22, 1822. It was transferred to Stephen Sanderson June 24, 1831, and 
deeded to Davis Bailey April 10, 1835. The south part, 50 acres, of lot 19, was taken 
up by Alfred Denn, February 27, 1822, and transferred to Artemus Loveland, October 
IG, 1830. It was deeded to him January 7, 1834. 

Lot 32, town 14, range 2, 240 acres, was purchased June 24, 1815, by Nathan Com- 
stock. July 31, 1815, the article was cancelled by mutual consent, and on the same 
day the lot was articled to Daniel C. Miller. October 22, 1830, 70 acres of this were 
transferred to Abiathar Mix, and June 1, 1834, to Charles and David Mix; and Sep- 
tember 24, 1829, 120 acres were articled to David Dunham and Cyrus Houghton. The 
lot was deeded as follows: Sixty acres to Edward Dunham, ]r., February 15, 1833; 
GO acres to Obadiah Luce, October 5, 1835 ; and 145 acres (including a part of lot 31) 
to Charles and David Mix, June 1, 1834. 

The south part, 172 acres, of lot 25, town 15, range 2, was articled to Nathan Comstock 
June 24, 1816, but the article was cancelled by mutual agreement. It was again arti- 
cled to David C. Miller, July 31, 1816. May 22, 1828, 70 acres were transferred to 
Anson Mason, and were deeded to Gideon Hard February 25, 1833. October 28, 1831, 
85i acres were transferred to Artemus Chase, and were deeded to him and Walter 
Sherwood November 2, 1832. December 27, 1833. 16^ acres were deeded to Abiathar 
Mix. The middle of the north part of lot 25, 100 acres, was articled to Lemuel Willard 
November 15, 1815. September 27, 1825, 50 acres of this were transferred to Luther 
Parmly, and November 25, 1833, to Urban Thurston, to whom they were deeded No- 
vember 25, 1833. November 25, 1825, 50 acres of the same were articled to Horace B. 
Hibbard, and May 11, 1829, to Daniel Prout, to whom they were deeded October 7, 
1833. November 15, 1815, the northeast part, 120 acres, of lot 25, was sold by article 
to Caleb C. Thurston. November 15, 1823, 64 acres of this were transferred to William 
Thurston, and were deeded to Lydia Thurston and others, February 12, 1829. No- 
vember 15, 1823, 56 acres of the same were transferred to Scott Parker, and December 
6, 1833, to Rufus Reed, to whom they were deeded December, 6, 1833. The west 
middle of the north part of lot 25, 100 acres, was articled to Lemuel Willard, April 9. 
1816, and 50 acres of this were transferred to David Wescott, June 2, 1828. They 
were deeded to him November 1, 1833 ; fifty acres were transferred to David Williams, 
1829, and were deeded to Leonard and Houghton Warner December 1. 1838. The 
northwest part, 107 acres, of lot 25, was articled to Silas Williams April 11, 1816. De- 
cember 3 1827, 67 acres of this were transferred to Leonard Warner, and September 2, 
1833, to Leonard and Houghton Warner, to whom they were deeded, with 25 acres 
more, September 2, 1833. Forty acres of the same were transferred to Samuel Bailey 
December 3, 1827, and to Daniel Parker December 2, 1833. This land was deeded to 
him July 9, 1832. 

The south middle part, 100 acres, of lot 26, was taken up by Asa Kelley, May 5, 
1816. November 29, 1834, it was articled to George C. Davis, and February 13, 1829, 



22G LANDxMARKS Of 

to Jonathan Delano and others. It was deeded to Elijah Darrow. The north part, 122 
acres, of lot 26, was articled to Israel Hale, April 13, 1816. It was deeded to Asahel 
Fitch February 20, 1821. The north middle part of lot 26 was sold by article to Levi 
Hall, April 13, 1816. It was transferred to Arnold Pain February 27, 1828, and deeded 
to Archibald Daniels December 19, 183^. Sixty acres of lot 26 were articled to Henry 
S. Allen June 18, 1816, and transferred to William S. Flint June 17, 1825. They were 
deeded to him December 12, 1835. The south part, 70 acres, of lot 26 was taken up 
by William Sherwood November 29, 1819. February 12, 1829, it was articled to Elihu 
Mosher, to whom it was deeded June 17, 1833. 

The east part, 124 acres, of lot 40, town 14, range 2, was sold by article to Joshua 
Porter, December 7, 1815, and the article was renewed to Allen Porter, December 6, 
1823, and to Elkanah Porter, December 4, 1827. It was deeded to the latter Novem- 
ber 29, 1833. The west part, 205 acres, of lot 40 was articled to Joseph Rockwood, 
December 7, 1815. December 8, 1823, 102 1-2 acres were transferred to Stephen Por- 
ter, and were deeded to his heirs November 19, 1834. December 8, 1823, 102^ acres 
were transferred to Elisha Lazenby, to whom they were deeded November 20, 1832. 

The west part of lot 33, town 15, range 2, 95 acres, was articled to John Rose, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1817, ard was deeded to William Sherwood, January 1, 1828. The east and 
middle part, 170 acres, of lot 33 was taken up by Joshua Porter, December 7, 1815, and 
was. deeded to Elkanah Porter, December 6, 1823. 

Silas Williams purchased by article. May 25, 1816, 80 acres of the west middle part 
of lot 34, and the land was transferred May 26, 1824, to Jarvis M. Skinner, and was 
deeded to him, May 10, 1832. The east part, 200 acres, of lot 34 was articled to Almon 
A. Sweeting and Alexander Terrell, January 4, 1816. March 6, 1824, 63 acres of this 
were articled to Silas Williams, and December 20, 1827, to Aaron Phipps, to whom they 
were deeded, November 9, 1833. March 6, 1824, 77 acres were articled to Elijah Warner, 
and were deeded to him November 29, 1831. March 6, 1824, 60 acres were articled to 
Jonathan Delano, jr., and were transferred to Michael C. Atwell, January 12, 1831. 
The land was deeded to Daniel R. Daniels, December 19, 1834. The middle part, 100 
acres, of lot 34 was articled to Silas Williams, April 22, 1816, and transferred to Har- 
vey Mosher, May 9, 1825. It was deeded to him February 9, 1830. The west part, 78 
acres, of lot 34 was taken up by Windsor Pame, October 18, 1819. October 17, 1827, it 
was deeded to Jarvis M. Skinner. 

The east part, 100 acres, of lot 35 was articled to Horace Rood, October 6, 1815. 
Fifty acres of this was transferred to Edward Durfee, October 6, 1824, to Charles Car- 
penter, January 31, 1829, and to Amos A. Samson, December 23, 1833. He received 
his deed December 22, 1836. October 6, 1824, 50 acres of the same were transferred to 
Ezra B. Delano, and December 23, 1830, to Norton Briggs. The west part. 100 acres, 
of lot 35 was articled to Durfey Delano, April 3, 1816, and was deeded to him December 
16, 1831. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 35 was taken up by Avery M. Stark- 
weather, April 3, 1816, and was deeded to him November 28, 1823. The east middle 
part of lot 35, 57 acres, was articled to John Granger, April 24, 1816, and to Norton 
Briggs, June 8, 1824. Twenty- five acres of this were deeded to Avery M. Stark- 
weather, May 19, 1830. The balance, with 50 acres more, was deeded to Daniel R. 
Daniels, July 16, 1833. 



ORLEANS C0UNT7. 227 

The west part of lot 48, and the east part of lot 56, town 14, range 2, 100 acres, were 
articled to Joseph Stoddard. July 6, 1815. The article was renewed to William H. 
Bigelow, May 26, 1823, and to James Ferguson, December 30, 1830. The tract was 
deeded to the latter June 1, 1834. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 48 was taken up 
by Joseph Stoddard, July 6, 1815. The land was divided and transferred, and was 
deeded, 50 acres to Henry Jewell Wirt, December 29, 1829, 25 acres to the same, June 1, 
1834, and 25 acres to James Ferguson, June 1, 1834. The east part, 231 acres, of lot 
48 was taken up by Wdliam Hutchinson, September 20, 1816. Fifty-eight acres of 
this were transferred to Henry R. Loomis, September 21, 1824, and deeded to him, Sep- 
tember 2, 1833. Fifty acres were transferred to Russell Loomis, September 21, 1824, 
to Eh'za Hart, December 30, 1830, and deeded to Walter Holmes, June 1, 1834. One 
hundred and fifteen acres were transferred to James Hutchinson, September 1, 1824, 
and 00 acres were deeded to him, January 10, 1833. Fifty-five acres were deeded to 
John Church, December 24, 1833. 

Lot 41, town 15, range 2, after being variously divided and subdivided and transferred 
was deeded as follows: The north part, 4:7^ acres, to David Carr ; the north middle 
part, 50 acres, to Henry Root, December 17, 1833 , the middle part, in two parcels of 
50 acres each, to William Breed, and Sally Raymour, both November 16, 1833; the 
southwest part, 86i acres, to Elizur Hayes December 19, 1832 ; the southeast part, 50 
acres, to Enos Rice October 7, 1835, and 11 acres to Enos Rice December 3, 1833. 

Lot 42 was deeded: Tue northeast part, 56 acres, to Jotham Moore May 15, 1835 ; 
50 acres east and south from that part to Joshua Ferris May 15, 1835 ; 50 acres next south 
from Amos S. Sampson January 1, 1835 ; 51 acres, southeast part, to Joseph Hart Janu- 
22, 1834; 25 acres, northwest part, to Jonathan Clark June 4, 1833; 50 acres, next 
south, to Caleb Case January 9, 1834; 58 acres, south middle of the west part, to 
Benjamin F. Foot November 11, 1836; and 50 acres southwest part, to William Foot 
September 1, 1835. 

The northwest part, 75 acres, of lot 43 was articled to Reuben Clark June 2, 1819. 
It was deeded to Luke Hitchcock October 12, 1824. The southwest part. 75 acres, of 
lot 43 was taken up by Zenas Lowry June 17, 1811. It was articled to Benjamin F. 
Foot June 18, 1819, and was deeded to him June 18, 1819. The middle part, 70 
acres, was articled to Philip Davenport December 11, 1815, and again to Asher Free- 
man January 24, 1827. It was deeded to Stephen and John Case January 25, 1833. 
The east part, 140 acres, of lot 43, was deeded to Robert Allen November 26, 1823. 

Jason Brundage took up the west part, 200 acres, of lot 56, town 11, range 2, April 
28, 1815. Of this 86 acres were deeded to Warner Perkins April 10, 1834, and 14 
acres to William Willets December 14, 1835. One hundred acres were articled to 
Ehzur Coon June 12, 1823, and were deeded to him December 31, 1837. Thomas 
Bennett took up the east middle part, 100 acres, of lot 56, July 1, 1815, and received 
his deed June 1, 1834. The east part of lot 56, with the west part of lot 48, was 
deeded to James Ferguson June 1, 1834. 

The northeast part, 100 acres, of lot 49 was taken up by Joshua Ferris January 8, 
1816. March 14, 1825, 50 acres of this were articled to Joseph Root, and were 
deeded to him March 12, 1829. March 14, 1825, 50 acres of the same were articled to 



228 LANDMARKS OF 

Levi Root, and were deeded to him March 12, 1829. The southeast part, 100 acres, of 
lot 49 was articled to Jonathan Ferris, jr., January 8, 181G. It was transferred to 
Samuel B. Perkins December 24, 1827, and was deeded to him December 31. 1833. 
The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 49 was taken up by Joshua Bailey Match 12, 181G 
The north portion, 64 acres, of this was deeded to John M. Ferris September 19, 1832. 
The south portion, 3G acres, was deeded to William E. Cook December 1, 1827. The 
west part, 113 acres, of lot 49 was deeded : The north 88 acres to Jonathan Ferris, and 
south 25 acres to Jonathan Morse, both May 14, 1824. 

The north part, 50 acres, of lot 50 was articled to Elijah Shaw August 1, 1816. and 
was deeded to Jonathan Clark March 3, 1823. The middle part, 200 acres, of lot 50 
was taken up by Elijah Shaw August 1, 1816. November 17, 1827, 50 acres of this 
were articled to David Foot, and January 20, 1834, deeded to Josiah Shaw. The 
balance, 150 acres, was deeded to Elijah Shaw November 19, 1833. The south part, 80 
acres, of lot 50 was articled to Joseph Root February 29, 1820, and was deeded to 
him December 29. 1835. The south middle part, 62 acres, of lot 50 was taken up by 
Gideon Freeman December 13, 1819. It was articled to Cyrus Stewart January 13, 
1830, and was deeded to James Butts May 15, 1835. 

Lot 51, 249 acres, was taken up by Gideon Freeman December 18, 1811. April 19 
1811. 90 acres of this were articled to William Stoddard. October 12, 1824, the middle 
part of the lot. 145^ acres, was deeded to Luke Hitchcock. April 19, 1819, 55+ acres 
of this lot were articlt d to Michael Atwell, and May 6, 1828, to Obadiah Luce. This 
land was deeded to Luke Hitchcock November 4, 1830. April 19, 1819, 48 acres of 
lot 51 were articled to Jonathan Clark, and were deeded to him March 3, 1823. 

The west part, 179i acres, of lot 64, town 14, range 2, was articled to Elihu Church 
June 13, 1815. Of this part 50 acres were articled to Robert McK. Burns June 14, 
1823, and to Joshua Ferris December 24, 1827. Forty-eight acres were transferred to 
Roswell Burton June 14, 1823. Eighty-one and one-half acres of the same were 
articled to Thomas S. Hill June 14, 1823. The lot was deeded: 75 acres to Alpheus 
French September 1, 1830; 27 acres to William Willetts September 1, 1830; 50i acres 
to John Stevens October 27, 1831; 98 acres to George Taylor May 8. 1832; and 25 
acres to John Stevens February 20, 1833. 

Not only is the area of the town of Albion, outside of the village, less 
than that of any other town in the county, but it immediately surrounds 
the village corporation and for this reason the territory has been kept 
largely in the condition of a suburban district. Its history, therefore, 
compared with that of other towns, is meager. 

It will be observed from the foregoing list of grantees that the first 
article for land in what is now the town of Albion was recorded 
December 21, 1810, and conveyed to William McAllister the north 100 
acres of lot 26. township 15, range one. In 1822 the east 50 acres of 
this were transferred to Orrin White and in 1828, the west 50 acres to 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 229 

Robert Caswell. The first deed given by the Holland Land Company, 
in this town was given to Jacob Young, by original purchase, June 7, 
1813, for the north 100 acres of lot 33, township 15, range one, on the 
east side of the Oak Orchard Road about one and one-half miles 
south from Albion village. Mr. McAllister also took an article for 
358^ acres of lot 35, township 15, range one, December 11. 181 1, and 
the same day Joseph Hart took up 358 acres of lot 34. William 
McAllister evidently settled here in the year 181 1 and became the first 
permanent white settler in the town. He made the first clearing in 
the village of Albion and built the first house, a log structure, in the 
township, and in that rude cabin his wife died in 181 2, which was prob- 
ably the first death of a white person in the town. No clergyman was 
present to conduct the funeral obsequies and no coffin could be obtained 
in which to encase the remains. A substitute for the latter was impro- 
vised by splitting and hewing out a few rough planks and fastening 
them together with wooden pins. A few other articles for land were 
taken out in 181 1 and 1812, and it is presumed that the purchasers 
settled upon their grants, but the war which broke out in the latter 
year, caused the westward tide of immigration to cease temporarily. 
The proximity of this section to the scenes of depredation and battles, 
rendered actual settlement very precarious, yet those who had come, 
braved the uncertainties of the frontier, and as soon as the war ceased, 
settlers began to arrive in large numbers. The famous ridge guided 
them into the vicinity, whence they turned to the southward into this 
town over the Oak Orchard road, which the Holland Land Company 
had caused to be surveyed as early as 1803 as far as the forks below 
Barre Center, mainly over an old Lidian trail, but which, when they 
came, had become so thickly covered with an undergrowth that it was 
almost impassable. By the year 1819 nearly all the land in town had 
been articled cr deeded. Improvements were rapidly prosecuted and 
the wilderness quickly blossomed into productive farms and comfortable 
homes. 

Up to the time when the Erie Canal was constructed no villages had 
come into existence in what is now the town of Albion. What were 
thought to be the nuclei of two had been established. In 18 18 Abiathar 
Mix commenced the business of making potash at Porter's Corners, in 



230 LANDMARKS OF 

the u'estern part of the town. He also opened a store for the sale of 
dry goods and groceries, and a tavern for the entertainment of way- 
farers. His brother, Ebenezer Mix, a clerk in the land office at Batavia, 
furnished a part of the capital for these enterprises. This was the 
pioneer store and the first ashery in the town; and people living where 
the village of Albion now is went there to purchase goods. The pio- 
neer saw mill was built by Dr. William White, in i8i6, on lot 26, 
southeast from the village, on the east branch of Sandy Creek About 
1824 a grist mill was built at the same place by a Mr. Caswell. These 
were subsequetly destroyed by fire, and in their place a Mr. Collins 
erected a stone building for a grist mill. No machinery was ever put 
in this structure and it has gone to ruin. A tannery and shoe shop 
were established just north from Porter's Corners about 18 19 by Will- 
iam Sherwood, and quite a business in both branches was carried on 
for some years. The canal, and the location of the county seat, gave 
the death blow to the prospects of a city here, and no trace of these 
places of business now remains. The store and ashery have gone to 
ruin, and the tannery buildings have been removed. Two saw mills 
were built just north of this place, on Otter Creek, which runs by it, 
but both have long since been demolished, and the stream since the 
clearing away of the forest has dwindled to a brook. In 1819 Orris H. 
Gardner established a store at Benton's Corners, and continued the 
mercantile business there till he changed his location to Albion, when 
that village sprang up. In 181 5 Abram Mattison opened a tavern on 
the west side of the Oak Orchard road, about one-fourth of a mile north 
from the " Poorhouse road." It was a double log house floored with 
'' puncheons." At this primitive hostelry early settlers were entertained 
as they journeyed from the Ridge road to their future homes in the 
wilderness, and here, after the organization of the town of Barre, town 
meetings were held. Here, on the Fourth of July, 18 19, the first ball in 
this region was held. Probably all of the company present on that occa- 
sion have passed away. This was the first tavern in town. Afterward 
another was kept at Benton's Corners by Oliver Benton, who was born 
in Ashfield, Mass., in 1791, and died in 1848. He came to Barre (now 
Albion) in 1812 and took up a large tract of land at what is still known 
as Benton's Corners, where he ever afterward resided. After some 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 231 

years he built a large and commodious house and for a long time kept 
a tavern, at which town meetings, balls, and other gatherings were held. 
He was the first postmaster in the old town of Barre and held the office 
many years. He was the second sheriff of the county and served three 
years. 

William Bradner came from Palmyra, N. Y., to Gaines, and soon 
afterward purchased from William McAllister his article for a part of 
lot 35 on the east side of Main street in Albion. On the 3d of 
November 18 19, the Holland Land Company deeded 266^ acres of 
this lot to him, and 92 acres of the southwest corner of the lot to Joel 
Bradner. In 1822 William Bradner sold 100 acres of the northwest 
part of his tract to Ingersoll, Smith & Bucklen. 

Anthony Tripp was a native of Rhode Island. In his childhood he 
went with his parents to Columbia county, N. Y., where he remained 
till adult age and married. He went thence to Delaware county 
and in 181 1 came to Orleans county and purchased one hundred 
acres of land two miles south of the village. His was the sec- 
ond article for land in the town of Albion. By reason of the war 
he did not at once occupy his land. In 1817 liis eldest son built 
a log house there, and in 1824 Mr. Tripp moved his family to the place, 
where he remained till his death. His wife was Mary Brown. Their 
children were : Samuel, Tabitha (Mrs. Sylvester Patterson) ; Stephen 
R,, who married Ruth Mott ; Anthony, Alvah, who married Jane H. 
Blakeley ; Mary (Mrs. Psalter S. Mason); and Almeron, who married 
Sylvia Bruno. The wife of Alvah was killed in 1866 by the fall of a 
chimney through the roof of a store where she was trading. 

Joseph Hart came to Albion in the fall of 1811 and purchased by 
article, on December 1 1, a part of lot 34. In 1812 he moved his fam- 
ily hither and remained during the war of 18 12, in which he was several 
times called out to do military service. He was a very prominent man 
in the new settlement. At his barn the First Congregational Church of 
Barre was organized and services held there for some time. Subsequently 
he was largely influential in the organization of the Presbyterian Church 
of Albion, in which he was long a ruling elder. He became very 
wealthy. His son, Elizur Hart, became a constable at the age of 
twenty, and while performing the duties of that ofifice judiciously in- 



232 LANDMARKS OF 

vested $500 of his own money and a like sum belonging to his brother 
William. By shrewdness and remarkable business tact he accumulated 
considerable property, and in i860, in partnership with Joseph M. 
Cornell, he founded the Orleans County Bank, which five years later 
became the Orleans County National Bank, of which he was president 
until his death. He left a large fortune, and in his will bequeathed to 
the Presbyterian Church in Albion for a church edifice the munificent 
sum of $50,000. and $5,000 for a Sunday-school fund. His son, E. 
Kirke Hart, succeeded him as president of the bank and held the posi- 
tion until his death, when his son, Charles E. Hart, the present incum- 
bent, became the chief executive officer. 

Stephen B. Thurston was born in Oneida county, N. Y., in 1808. In 
the spring of i8i4he removed with his father, Caleb Thurston, to 
what is now the town of Albion. In 1830 he purchased seventy-six 
acres of lot nineteen, about a mile and a half west from the village, and 
resided there till 1865, when he removed to Albion. His wife, to whom 
he was married in 1832, was Julianna Williams, who was born in Ot- 
sego county, N. Y., in 18 12. 

Lansing Bailey, a native of Rensselaer county, N. Y. , at the age of 
seven removed with his father's family to Whitestown, N. Y. In 1809 
he married Loda Parmelee, and in the autumn of 181 1 came on foot to 
Orleans county, and purchased by article 250 acres on lot 12, range 2, 
a mile west from Albion, and soon returned home. In February, 1812, 
with his wife and child, and his brother, he came to settle on his pur- 
chase. They came on a sled drawn by two yoke of oxen, and they 
drove five other cattle. They lived in a shanty on their farm till the 
fall 18 1 2, when they built a rude log house, cut a road to the ridge, 
where Mrs. Bailey had staid with a relative, and moved the family to 
the farm. The next winter their stock were kept on browse. In the 
fall of 1813 Mr Bailey was one of the Election Board. The polls were 
opened at four places, several miles distant from each other, and the 
board traveled from one to another on foot. There was not then a 
horse in the town His first children — a pair of twins — were cradled in 
the half of a hollow log. In August, 18 13, his wife and brother died, 
and some two years later he was married to MiiS Sylvia Pratt, of 
Whitestown. During the war of 18 12 the few settlers in this county 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 233 

were often alarmed by the reports of the approach of hostile parties, 
and on two or three occasions Mr. Bailey went out with a mihtary com- 
pany, on one of which occasions he was out a month. By industry and 
frugality Mr. Bailey acquired a competence. Of his twelve chil- 
dren nine lived to adult age. He was a prominent and influential man, 
and was ten times chosen supervisor of Barre. Many years before his 
death he sold the land where he first settled, which was in Gaines, and 
purchased the northeast part of lot lo, near the village of Albion, 
where he died in 1866. 

Gideon Freeman was born in Saratoga county, N. Y., in 1787. In 
1799 he went with his father to Cayuga county, and in 1812 came to 
Albion and settled in the northwest part of the town. He was the first 
settler there, and the place was called from him the Freeman Settle- 
ment. He removed to Ypsilanti, Mich., where he died in 1832. His 
son, Chester Freeman, was born in Cayuga county in 1807, ^"^ came 
to Orleans county with his father in 18 12. During most of his life he 
resided on lot 31, 2d range, in Barre. 

Nathan .Paine, the father of Stephen (the first settler in Barre), 
Nathan, Samuel, Christopher and Asa, was a resident of Rhode Island, 
where his sons were born. He removed with his family to Richfield, 
N. Y., whence, after some migrations, they came to Orleans county. 
Asa Paine was noted for his ready wit Samuel finally moved to 
Yates, where he died. 

Elijah Shaw, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1787, came to Or- 
leans county in 18 12, but returned to Cayuga county, and was drafted 
in the war of 1812-15, in which he served until its close. In 181 5 he 
settled permanently in Albion, on lot 50, in the west part of the town, 
where he died. 

Nathan Whitney was born in Massachusetts in 1791, came to Or- 
leans county in 1813, and took up a part of lot 33, one mile south from 
Albion. In 18 14 he was at the taking of Fort Erie. He was the first 
supervisor of the town of Barre, and held the office of justice of the 
peace several years. He was active and efficient citizen, was often 
placed in positions of trust, and always discharged his duties faithfully. 
In 1827 he removed to Elba, Genesee county, and afterward to Illinois. 



234 LANDMARKS OF 

Rev. Francis B. Tanner, a Baptist clergyman, came to Orleans county 
in 1815, and took an article for 100 acres of lot 29 in Gaines, northeast 
from Albion village. He removed to Albion in 18 18, and located on 
lot 19, east from the village. He was the first of the Tanner family 
that came to the town. After a few years he removed to Chautauqua 
county, where he died. His nephew, Samuel N. Tanner, came to Al- 
bion in 1 8 19, and purchased a part of lot 19, opposite Mt. Albion 
Cemetery, where he died. His father, William Tanner, a shoemaker, 
also died here, as did also his grandfather, William Tanner, sr. 

Jesse Mason, a native of Cheshire, Mass.. settled on lot 17, range 2, 
in Albion, in 18 15, but subsequently removed to Ohio, where he died. 
He was an able and energetic man, and public spirited in all social 
matters. 

Jonathan Clark was born in Rockingham county, N. H., in 1790 
At the age of fifteen he went to live with an uncle in Salem, Mass., 
whence, in 1812, he started on a voyage to the East Indies. He had 
his share of the experiences of sea life, and reached Salem on his return 
January i, 18 16. In July of the same year he started on foot for 
Western New York. After reaching Auburn, he rode to Gaines with 
Gideon Freeman. He soon purchased the farm on which he afterward 
resided, a part of lot 50, in the western part of Albion. On this he 
cleared a small area, built a log house and returned to Salem. In that 
autumn he was married to Abigail Simonds, a native of Salem, and 
they returned to their future home with a span of horses and a wagon, 
making the journey in twenty-one days, and arriving January i, 1817. 
They had neither table, chairs, nor bedstead, but Mr. Clark made these 
" in true genuine pioneer style." Mrs. Clark died in 1824, and he 
married, in 1825, Elizabeth Stevens. In the same year they moved 
" out of the old home into the new," where they afterward resided. 
They became members of the M. E. Church in 1829. 

Christopher Crandall came from Truxton, N. Y , in 18 16, and settled 
on lot 19, east from Albion. He had then a young but numerous 
family, most of whom grew to adult age. One of his daughters died 
young, and it is remembered that her coffin was made of a wagon box 
cut up for the purpose. Mr. Crandall resided on the farm where he 
first settled till 1 840, when he removed to the western part of the town 
of Gaines, where he died. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 235 

Ebenezer Rogers, a native of Norwich, Conn., was born in 1769. 
His wife, also a native of Connecticut, was Betsey Lyman. They re- 
moved to Onondaga county, N. Y., in 18 12, and to the place where he 
passed the rest of his life, in the south part ot the village of Albion, in 
18 16. There were but few settlers in the present town then, and many 
who came afterward made their homes with him while building their 
cabins, in some instances several miles away. Of a strong physical 
constitution, he lived to the great age of ninety- six. He had strong 
religious convictions, and was active in the formation of religious so- 
cieties of the New England creed, and was one of the constituent mem- 
bers of the First Congregational Church of Barre, afterward located at 
Barre Center, and subsequently of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Albion, of which he was long a ruling elder and a deacon. 

Joshua Porter, the father of Allen, Elkanah and Samuel Porter, pur- 
chased by article for these sons nearly 300 acres on lot 40, 14th town- 
ship, and lot 33, 1 5th township, 2d range, west from the county almshouse 
at what was afterward known as Parker's Corners. Samuel died early, 
and the land became the property of the other brothers. Allen Porter 
served in the War of 1812 under Maj.-Gen. Brown and Col. Peter B. 
Porter at Buffalo, and volunteered to assist in the defence of Fort Erie. 
He came to Albion in the spring of 1816, and during the remainder of 
his life lived on a portion of the land purchased by his father. Stephen 
Porter, a brother of Joshua, moved to Chenango county, N. Y , from 
New England, about 18 12, with his wife and six children, and one 
year later came to Ontario county, whence he removed in the fall of 
181 5 to Albion, where he settled on 100 acres of lot 40, range 2, to 
which he brought his family in 1820. Luther Porter, second son of 
Stephen, was born in Ashfield, Mass., in 1805. He came to the farm 
in Albion, which his father purchased, and passed his life there. He 
was for five consecutive years supervisor of the town of Barre, and was 
twice married. His wives were Miss Lydia Scott, of Ontario county, 
and Caroline, daughter of Orange Culver, of Barre. Amos Porter, a 
half brother of Joshua and Stephen, was born in Tolland county. Conn., 
in 1788. He was drafted in the War of 18 12, and served a short time. 
In 181 5 he married Mary Geary, also of Connecticut, They removed 
to Orleans county in 1836, and located on lot 38, three miles west from 
Barre Center. There he died in 1866. His wife died in 1868. 



236 LANDMARKS OF 

Avery M. Starkweather, a native of Connecticut, came to Albion in 
i8i6 and located on lot 35, near Eagle Harbor. For thirteen years he 
was an assessor in Barre and was supervisor of that town in 1842 and 

1843- 

Zenas F. Hibbard was of Scotch descent and was born in Scroon, 
N. Y., in 1804. His father afterward removed to Brandon, Vt., whence 
he came with his family to Albion in July, 1 8 16, and settled on lot 10, 
one mile west of the village, where he lived sixteen years, when he 
moved to Barre Center, where he died in 1853. Zenas F. Hibbard at- 
tended the first school taught in this town where Albion village now 
stands. In 1828 he married Amanda Wrisley, in Barre, who was born 
in Massachusetts in 1809. 

Jacob Annis, a son of Thomas Annis, of New Hampshire, was one 
of eighteen children. He was born in New Hampshire in 1790, and 
served three months as a teamster in the war of 1812. He came to 
Albion in 18 17, and took up 100 acres of lot 10, two and one-half 
miles southeast from Albion village. On this, in 18 18, he built a log 
house without nails, glass, door, or chimney ; roofed it with bark and 
split the plank for a floor. In 18 19 he married Mary Loudon, of Mont- 
gomery county, N. Y., and they commenced life together on the farm 
where they passed the rest of their lives. Their son, Joshua W. An- 
nis. inherited the old homestead where he was born. He married Mary 
Hill, of Barre Center. He is now dead. 

John Minckley was born on Grand Island, in Lake Champlain, in 
1794. In 1817 he came to Orleans county, and in 1819 took an article 
for a part of lot 2, on the Transit line, four miles west from Albion. 
He afterward purchased other land on the same lot, and resided there 
till his death in 1875. In 1820 Mr. Minckley married Miss Amy 
Smith, a native of Massachusetts, who died in i860. In 1820 Joel, 
Enoch, William and Elijah Minckley came to Albion. Of these the 
first remained about fifteen years and went west. Elijah died here in 
1829. 

Artemas Loveland, born in Massachusetts in 1795, removed to Smith- 
field, Madison county, N. Y., where he married Phoebe Paine, who was 
born in 1794. In 1817 they came to Albion and settled two miles west 
from the village, where they remained till their deaths. He came with 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 237 

a yoke of oxen and a sled, and on his arrival had $6 in money. He 
died in 1888. Azariah Loveland came some time after Artemas, and 
at first worked for him. He finally settled in the same neighborhood 
and remained during his life. He was twice married ; the last time to 
Celestia Wells, of Shelby. They had five sons Mr. Loveland was 
drowned in the canal in 1858. Mrs. Loveland died in 1871. 

Mrs. Mabel Peck, a widow with six sons, settled in the town of Al- 
bion two and a half miles west of the Oak Orchard road in the autumn 
of 1 8 18. They lived in a rude cabin, twelve by sixteen feet, during 
the first winter. Her elder sons labored to clear their land, and she, 
with her spinning wheel and loom, earned the means to gradually im- 
prove their buildings and surround her family with such comforts as 
could then be procured. She reared her sons to respectable and worthy 
manhood. 

Nathaniel Braley was born in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, in 
1796. In 1802 he removed with his parents to Palmyra, N. Y., where 
his father soon afterward died. He resided with married sisters till the 
age of six years, when he and his mother resumed housekeeping. In 
1 8 19 they returned to their home on what was afterward known as the 
Cady place. They built a log house, covered with bark, and which 
when first occupied had neither door, \^'indow, nor chimney. Mr. Bra- 
ley married Sarah Wickham, who was born in Columbia county, N. Y., 
in 1799, and came to Gaines in 18 16 with her brother, Dyer Wickham, 
and her uncles, Daniel and Jonathan Brown. They had ten children, 
seven of whom were born in their original log house. These were : 
Charlotte, William S., John W.. Alfred, N. Russell, Mrs. Cynthia E. 
Packard, J. Duane, Jeanette R., Mrs. Sarah B. Nichols, and Byron B. 
Byron B. Braley is now the owner and occupant of the paternal home- 
stead. Nathaniel Braley brought with him a quantity of apple seeds, 
which he had washed from some pomace at a cider mill, and these fur- 
nished many of the pioneers with their first orchards. To his first pur- 
chase of eighty acres he added an adjoining lot of fifty acres, and on 
this built a frame barn and a substantial brick house. In 1836 he and 
Alfred H. Rice purchased the clothiery and saw mill of Smith & Lee. 
This afterward became the woolen factory of Braley & Northrup, suc- 
ceeded by Braley & Sons, and latterly the grist mill of Robert Van 



238 LANDMARKS OF 

Stone. In 1837, by an exchange with Palmer Cady, Mr. Braley be- 

came the owner of what had been the Crandall farm, on which he re- 
sided till his death in 1880. There also his mother died in 1841, at the 
age of eighty seven, and his wife in 1870. 

Joseph Root, a native of Connecticut, and a Revolutionary soldier, 
moved to Whitestown, N. Y., where he married, and came thence to 
Genesee county, whence he removed in 1820 to Albion. He settled 
on lot 50, in the west part of the town, where he died. He had 
ten children. 

William Penniman was born in Hillsboro county, N. H., in August, 
1793, nnd received there a good common school and classical educa- 
tion. In 1 8 16 he emigrated to Ontario county. N. Y., and in 1820 to 
Shelby. After eight years' residence in that town he removed to the 
village of Albion, and two or three years later to a farm near Eagle 
Harbor, where he ever afterwards resided. He was appointed a judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas in 1825 and served five }ears. He 
also held the offices of justice of the peace, and commissioner, in- 
spector, and town superintendent of common schools. He was a 
member of the constitutional convention of 1846. He was much in- 
terested in the subject of common schools and was for many years a 
teacher. He was a firm, just and impartial judge, and was upright, 
sagacious, and true in all his relations. 

Alban Spencer was born in Litchfield, Conn., in 1786. He came 
first to Alexander, Genesee county, and in 1820 removed to Albion. 
He purchased a portion of lot i, in the southeast part of the town. 
He married Miss Abigal Griswold, of Litchfield, prior to his removal 
to Alexander, and reared nine children to adult age. Of these S S. 
Spencer, an attorney and the present postmaster in Albion, is the only 
surviving son. Mr. Spencer died in 1861. His wife died some two 
years later. 

Thomas W. Allis was born in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1798, but 
was reared from the age of seven years in Hampshire, Mass. With a 
younger brother, became to Kendall in 1820, and located a mile east 
of the Transit line and three and one-fourth miles north from the Ridge 
road. They kept bachelors' hall on their ranch four years. In 1824 he 
married Miss Elizabeth Clements, of Warren county, N. Y. He added 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 239 

to his first purchase of lOO acres till he was the owner of 250 acres of 
land, on which he made substantial improvements and acquired a com- 
petence. He held various town offices, including that of justice of the 
peace. In i860 he sold his farm in Kendall and removed to Albion, 
where he passed his declining years. 

Adonijah Bond was born in Conway, Mass., in 1788. In 1802 he 
went to Lenox, N. Y.. and in 18 16 he married Sally Jennings, of Sara- 
toga county. N. Y. In 1820 he came to Albion and located on lot 24, 
a mile west from the County Almshouse, where he resided till his 
death, in 1854. His wife died in 1874. They reared seven children. 

Mrs. Caroline T. Achilles, the daughter of Joseph Phipps, was born 
in Rome, N. Y., and came, with her father's family, to Albion at an 
early age. She was educated at home under the superintendence of her 
father, and afterward at the Gaines Academy, and at a ladies' school in 
Whitesboro, N. Y. She had already been a teacher in a common 
school, and on leaving Whitesboro she became an assistant in a classical 
school in Albion. This school, which was kept in a building on the 
present site of the county clerk's office, was transferred to her, and, with 
an elder sister, she commenced teaching on her own account in 1833. 
The school was at once a success, and was soon converted into a female 
seminary. By the aid of prominent citizens of Albion a large brick 
edifice was erected in 1836, and the Phipps Union Seminary was in- 
corporated in 1840. Miss Phipps was married to Colonel H L. 
Achilles in 1839, ^"^ ^•^'' ^^^ years they resided in Boston. In 1849 
they returned and she resumed charge of the seminary, which became 
again prosperous under her administration. In 1866 she again trans- 
ferred it to others, and three years later took charge of it once more. 
In 1 88 1 the property was sold to the county of Orleans. The build- 
ings were torn down, the grounds were graded, and the county clerk's 
and surrogate's office was erected thereon. Mr. and Mrs. Achilles both 
died in 1881. 

Luke Hitchcock came to Albion at the beginning of the construc- 
tion of the Erie Canal, of which he was a contractor on that portion 
passing through the western part of the town. In 1821 he bought a 
part of lot 51, but after finishing his work he returned to Oneida 
county, where he died His farm here descended to his son, Lee A. 
Hitchcock, who still owns and occupies it. 



240 LANDMARKS OF 

Jeremiah Iiigersoll was born in Dutchess county, New York, in 1876. 
At the age of thirty he removed to Batavia, and a year or so later to 
Elba, Genesee county. In company with James T. Smith and Chil- 
lian J. Buckley he purchased from William Bradner for $4,000 100 
acres of land in Albion, fronting on Main street one-half mile, bounded 
on the north by the south line of Gaines and extending east 100 rods. 
Mr. Ingersoll soon became the sole owner and had a large part of it 
laid out ill village lots. He erect;ed a warehouse at the foot of Pratt 
street, which was for a time carried on by him and Lewis T. Buckley. 
He also erected a wooden store building on the corner of Main and 
Canal streets, and in company with Dudley Wells conducted mercan- 
tile business there several years. He was active in procuring the loca- 
tion of the county seat at Albion, and donated to the county the grounds 
where the court house stands. He came to Albion to reside in 1826, 
and remained till 1835, when he removed to Detroit; thence, in 1845, 
he went to Oneida county, New York, where he remained till his 
death in 1868. He always manifested a deep interest in the welfare of 
Albion and Orleans counties, and at his request his remains were in- 
terred in Mount Albion Cemetery. His first wife was Miss Polly Hal- 
sey, of Columbia county, New York. She died in 1831. His second 
wife was Miss Elizabeth C. Brown, of Oneida county, who died in 1869. 
She shared her husband's attachment to Albion, and in her will be- 
queathed $10,000 to the Episcopal church of that village, of which she 
and her husband were members. 

Justus Ingersoll, a brother of Jeremiah, was born in Dutchess county. 
New York, in 1794. In his youth he learned the trade of a tanner. In 
18 18 he removed to Elba and soon afterward to Shelby Center, where 
he conducted a tannery and shoe shop. On the completion of the canal 
he removed to Medina and erected there a large tannery. In 1835, 
after the destruction of his tannery by fire, he went with his brother to 
Detroit, where they engaged largely in the leather business, but were 
not successful. He was a magistrate at Shelby Center, an Indian agent 
and a postmaster while at Medina, and was also a judge in Orleans 
county. He was an active, upright and courteous man. He died in 
1845. Of his military career Judge Thomas says : "On the breaking 
out of the war with Great Britain in 18 12 he entered the army as an 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 2U 

ensign in the 23d Regiment of Infantry. He served on the northern 
frontier in several engagements, and was in the celebrated charge on 
Oueenston Heights. He was promoted to the rank of captain for meri- 
torious service. In one of the battles in Canada in which he served as 
captain of infantry, he was wounded in the foot. Refusing to leave his 
company and being unable to walk, he mounted a horse and continued 
witli his men. In another engagement he was shot through the body, 
the ball lodging in a rib. He refused to have it removed, as he was in- 
formed that a portion of the rib would have to be cut away, which 
would probably cause him to stoop ever after in his gait. He was a 
favorite with his company and much esteemed by General Scott, under 
whom he served." 

Abraham Cantine was born in 1790, in Ulster county, N. Y., served 
as a captain in the war of 18 12, and was wounded in the sortie at F'ort 
Erie. After the war he served a term as sheriff of his native county, 
and about 1822 removed to Murray. In 1827 he was a member of the 
State Legislature, and in 1829 was appointed to resurvey the land be- 
longing to the Pultney estate in the 100,000-acre tract. He was an 
associate judge of the Orleans County Court of Common Pleas during 
five years, and in 1835 was collector of canal tolls at Albion, to which 
place he had several years before removed, and where he died in 1840. 

Asa Parker, a brother of Thomas, sr., came to Albion in 1821, and 
settled on the same lot (18) with his brother. Some years afterward 
he removed to Shelby, and still later to Michigan, where he died at the 
age of ninety-three. Elisha Parker, another brother of Thomas, sr., 
came to Orleans county ten years later, and settled near the line be- 
tween Barr and Shelby, where he died. Richard Parker, son of 
Thomas, sr., was born in 181 5, and came with his father's family to 
Albion when eight years of age. In 1848 he married Angeline Love- 
land, who was born in 1823, and who survives him He died in 1894, 
Thomas Parker, another son of Thomas, sr., was born in Albion, and 
was sheriff of the county and postmaster of the village. 

Jonathan Sheldon, a native of Massachusetts, settled in Albion on a 
farm west of the county almshouse in 1823, where he and his wife both 
died. The place where he located has since been known as Sheldon's 
Corners. 



242 LANDMARKS OF 

Roswell S. Burrows was born in Groton, Conn., in 1798. At the age 
of twenty he entered Yale College, but because of ill health did not 
complete his college course. The honorary degree of A. M. was con- 
ferred on him by his alma mater in 1867. His first business enterprise 
was in the manufacture of cotton, but this did not prove profitable, and 
in the sale of his factory he was defrauded of the capital he had in- 
vested. He came to Albion in 1824, and established a store in a small 
wooden building on the east side of Main street, on the present site of 
the Burrows block. In the same year his younger brother, Lorenzo, 
came, and in 1826 the firm of R. S. & L. Burrows was formed. In 1827 
Mr. Burrows built the warehouse on the canal, next east from Main 
street, and the firm added warehousing and produce dealing to their 
mercantile business. About 1837 they sold their stock of goods. They 
established the Bank of Albion in 1834. which was the first bank in 
Orleans county. In 1863 Mr. Burrows founded the First National 
Bank of Albion, the first bank organized in the State west of Syracuse 
under the national banking system Of both these banks Mr. Burrows 
owned a majority of the stock, and was their president and principal 
manager. During his long business career he was concerned in many 
business enterprises, and was director and trustee in several corpora- 
tions His clear-headedness, sagacity and coolness alwa}s led him to 
safe investments, and he accumulated an immense fortune. He was a 
munificent benefactor of the Rochester Theological Seminary. After 
the death of Professor Neander, of Germany, he purchased the library 
which that eminent scholar had collected, and presented it to that in- 
stitution. He also donated to that seminary the sum of $100,000 as 
an addition to its endowment. Lorenzo Burrows, previously mentioned, 
is noticed at length on another page of this volume. He was county 
treasurer in 1840, assignee in bankruptcy for Orleans County Bank 
under the law of 1841, supervisor of Barre in 1845. t'lccted to Congress 
in 1848 and re-elected in 1850, elected comptroller of the State in 1855, 
became one of the Regents of the University of the State of New York 
in 1858, and was appointed one of the commissioners of Mt. Albion 
Cemetery in 1862. He discharged the duties of all these positions with 
singular ability and strict fidelity. 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 243 

Harvey Goodrich, a son of Zenas Goodrich, who was a native of 
Massachusetts, was born in Herkimer county, N. Y., in 1791. While a 
young man he removed to Auburn, N. Y., where he worked at his trade 
of a hatter. In partnership with his brother-in-law, George W. Stand- 
art, he became a contractor on the Erie Canal, and in 1824 they came 
to Albion and engaged in the mercantile business. After the death oif 
his partner, he was for many years a hatter and furrier and produce 
dealer in Albion. He was active and energetic and was an earnest 
Christian, and was active in the organization of the Presbyterian Church 
in Albion, and from the time of its formation till his death he was one 
of its ruling elders. He was commonly known as " Deacon Goodrich," 
though he was never chosen to that office. He was particularly noted 
for his kindness to the poor and to the sick, and was highly esteemed 
by all who knew him He was stricken with apoplexy in i86i,and 
died in 1863. 

Hiram Sickels, a hatter by trade, came to Albion village in 1824 and 
opened a hotel. Later he became a merchant and still later went into 
partnership with Harvey Goodrich in the manufacture and sale of hats. 
More is said of Mr. Sickels and of his family elsewhere. William G. 
Sickels, a brother of Hiram and the father of Perry Sickels, was also an 
early resident of Albion. Peter F. Sickels, another brother of Hiram, 
settled in Albion in 1828, and was for many years a grocer. His son, 
Henry J. Sickels, was long a prominent citizen and an active business 
man, and was also an influential Democratic politician. He died about 
1880. 

Asa Howard came to Albion in 1825 and engaged in business as a 
cabinet-maker. From 1831 till 1838 he resided in Genesee county, but 
excepting that period he lived here until his death. In 1843 h^ en- 
gaged in the produce and forwarding business in a warehouse on the 
canal at the foot of Clinton street. 

Timothy C. Strong was born in Massachusetts in 1790. At the age 
of sixteen he became a printer. At the age of twenty-one was mar- 
ried to Amelia Goodell, of Litchfield, Conn. In 1825 came to Albion 
(then Newport) and purchased from Mr. Cowdry the Newport Patriot. 
He published this paper under different names till 1844. Was chosen 
county clerk in 1834, and held the office by re-election three terms. 
He died in 1844. 



244 LANDMARKS OF 

Ambrose Wood was born in Saratoga county, New York, in 1803. 
In 1825 removed to Albion and engaged in shoemaking. After a few 
years became a grocer's clerk, and later engaged in the grocer}' busi- 
ness. In 1846, in partnership with J. H. Hollenbeck, he engaged in 
the hardware business. He held the office of county treasurer from 
1850 to 1857; retired from active business in 1863, and died in 1881. 
He was a prominent member of the Baptist Church. In 1838 he mar- 
ried Mary C. Reynolds, of Albion. They reared four daughters and a 
son, Frank Wood, now of Albion. 

Andrew Wall was born in London, England, November 22, 181 1. In 
March, 1833, he left his native country and came to America, landing 
in New York city April 23, and arriving in Albion May 3. He went 
to work in David Swan's bakery, whose business he purchased two 
months later, and eventually established a large trade. At a point east 
of the bridge on the tow-path of the canal he built an oven and ice 
house, and about 1850 a candle factory, all of which he was obliged to 
abandon when the canal was enlarged, and from there he moved " up 
town" and established a similar business. For about forty years he was 
vestryman or warden of Christ Episcopal Church. He was a man 
widely known and greatly respected. He died November 21, 1882. 

Joseph Woolford, who was born in Bath, England, October 26, 1808, 
is said to have been the first English settler in Albion, whither he came 
in 1830. A baker by trade, he was a brother-in-law of Andrew Wall, 
with whom he was associated in business. He died here March 23, 1886. 

William Gere was born in Galway. Saratoga county, in February, 
1799, being one of ten children born to Hon. Isaac Gere, at one time 
State senator. William married in Galway Miss Fanny Swan, moved 
to Albion at an early day, and was long a prominent merchant. For a 
time, and at his death, he was associated in the business with his son 
Isaac and his son-in-law, J. N. Proctor, who continued it after his de- 
mise. Their store was on Main street near the canal. His only son, 
Isaac Gere, died here about 1866. 

Thomas S. Foster, son of John, was born in Herkimer county, N. Y., 
August 27, 1806. In 1810 he moved with his parents to near Penn 
Yan and in 18 14 to Palmyra, where he married Hannah D. Alexander 
on January 29, 1826. He was a blacksmith by trade, but during the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 245 

construction of the Erie Can?l was a foreman of excavation, and during 
his active life was always engaged in canaling in various capacities. In 
1837 he came to Rochester, where he was a station keeper, one of the 
appraisers of horses, and superintendent of horses between Albany and 
Bufifalo four years. He moved to Fairport, and thence in 1852 to Clar- 
endon, after which he was appointed superintendent of the canal be- 
tween Brockport and Sulphur Springs, a position he held four years. 
In 1866 he removed to Albion, where he has since resided. He retains 
a memory rich in personal reminiscence. His daughter, who resides 
with him, was long a teacher in the Albion High School, and for some 
time has had a private school of her own. 

Rice Warner, son of Lewis, was born in Conway, Mass., in 1797. 
With his father's family he removed to Phelps, Ontario count)', where 
in 18 1 8 he married Rebecca Scott Carson. In 1831 they came to Or- 
leans county and located in Albion village, where they remained till 
the death of Mr. Warner in 1885. For many years he worked at the 
business of tanning, currying and shoemaking, in partnership with his 
brother Lewis. Their tannery was where the gas works are now lo- 
cated. In the later years of his life he engaged in lighter work, and he 
was for many years an overseer of the poor. He was noted for the 
cheerfulness and kindness of his nature. He died in 1885, his wife in 
1879. They reared eight children, of whom Mrs. Edward Baker and 
Mrs. I. M. Thompson reside in Albion. Lewis Warner, a brother of 
Rice Warner, was born in 1803. He came to Albion in 1829. In the 
latter years of his life he was not engaged in active business. He died 
in 1887. He was twice married. His first wife died early, and his sec- 
ond wife died in 1873. He died some years ago. 

Leonard Wai ner, a cousin of Rice, Lewis and De Witt C. Warner, was 
born in Orleans county, N. Y., in 1801. His wife was Lavina Thur- 
ston. They came to Albion in 1825 and settled on lot 25, a mile and 
a half from Eagle Harbor. Otter Creek passed through his farm, and 
he and his brother Houghton built on that stream a saw mill which they 
operated many years. He died on the farm where he settled in 1848. 
His wife died in 1883. They had seven children. Houghton Warner 
was born in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1808. He was married in 1831 
to Mary Frary, and in the same year they removed to Albion and set- 
tled on lot 25. There Mrs. Warner died in 1854, and he in 1859. 



246 LANDMARKS OF 

Elihu Mosher, a brother of Harvey Mosher, came to Albion about 
1827, and settled on lot 34, some two miles south of Eagle Harbor. 
His son, William Mosher, died May 17, 1894. 

Noah Davis was a native of Connecticut. In his youth he removed 
to Massachusetts, and while there he was married to Mrs. Freclove 
Barber, of St. Johnsbury, Vt., a daughter of Dr. Arnold, of that place. 
In 1826 they came to Albion, where he established a drug, grocery 
and dry goods store. His store was burned after a few years, and he 
never resumed the business. He was for many years a constable and 
the collector of the town He died in 1858. His children were : Judge 
Noah Davis, born in Massachusetts, Naman, Freelove, Ellen, Sarah and 
Lorenzo, born in Albion. 

Spafiford Field was born in Vermont in 1779. At the age of seven- 
teen he became an apprentice to a tanner and shoemaker, named Col- 
lins. In 181 I he married Sarah, the daughter of Mr. Collins, and re- 
mained with his father in law till 1 822, when he removed to Weeds- 
port, N. Y., and there worked at shoemaking. In 1828 he came to 
Albion, and engaged in the marble business. While a resident of Ver- 
mont he had been incidentally connected with the production of com- 
mercial marble, and one of his sons, Ben Field, had learned the business 
of marble cutting. He continued in this business till i860, when he re- 
tired. He died in 1869; his wife died in 1875. Of their children, 
Loraine, Jane, Ben, Norman S. and Huldah, were born in Vermont ; 
Sarah in Weedsport, and Allen and Agnes in Albion. Loraine became 
the wife of Elizur Hart, and Jane married Henry A. King. Ben Field 
continued in the marble business till 1838, after which he read law and 
was admitted to the bar in 1842. He never engaged in the active 
practice of his profession, but became a prominent and influential poli- 
tician. He served one term as State senator, and was for many years 
an active member and secretary of the New York State Republican 
Committee. He died in 1879 at the age of sixty-three. He was not 
married. Norman S. Field was also engaged in the marble business 
many years at Albion and Lockport, and for three years was a hard- 
ware merchant. He retired from active business in 1878. 

Orrin D. Crane was born in Canandaigua, N. Y., in 1798. In 1830 
he removed to Orleans county and settled in Albion on lot 9, opposite 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 247 

the county alinhouse, where he died in 1878. In 1826 he married 
Sarah Warner, who died in 1882. They reared three daughters: Mary 
A. (Mrs. George Mather), Caroline A., deceased, and Charlotte E., 
now Mrs. D. Brockway Day. 

Mark H. Beecher was born in Connecticut in 1807. He entered the 
United States Navy in 1841, and was in active service during the Mexi- 
can war. In 1848 he became professor of mathematics, with the rank 
of captain in the Naval Academy at Newport, R. I., and was afterward 
on duty at the observatory in Washington, D. C. At the age of sixty- 
two he was retired from active duty and made his residence in Albion 
till his death in 1882. 

Elsewhere in this volume will be tound many other biographical 
notices of early settlers and prominent citizens of the town and village 
of Albion, and among them may be noted here the names of Dr. Or- 
son Nichoson, Hon. Henry R. Curtis, Alexis Ward, Judge Noah Davis, 
Hon. Sanford E. Church, Judge Arad Thomas, Hiram S Gofif, Benja- 
min L. Bessac, Hon. Gideon Hard, Hons. A. Hyde and Dan H. Cole, 
Rev. Solomon Hartwell, Orra Clark, Aaron Phipps, Samuel Wright, 
Enos Rice, Jervis M. Skinner, Jeremiah Bailey, Ezekiel Root, Joseph A. 
Lattin, Cyrus Jaquith, Samuel Williams, and Harvey Mosher. 

In the early settlement of this town almost the only method by 
which the pioneers could get money to pay their taxes, or to make the 
necessary payments on their lands, was by burning the timber and con- 
verting the ashes into black salts or potash, which was drawn to the 
mouth of Oak Orchard Creek, and shipped thence to Montreal. Trans- 
portation by land was slow and arduous, and only ceased upon the com- 
pletion of the Erie Canal, which gave a decided impetus to all agri- 
cultural and business interests. New markets were opened up to the 
struggling inhabitants, and better communication with the outside world 
was henceforth enjoyed. The long strings of wagons and the old stage 
coaches then became things of the past, and villages sprung up and 
created new avenues of industry. Gradually the wilderness was trans- 
formed into beautiful homes and re- echoed with the civilizing influences 
of a new era. The final spoke in the wheel of commerce came in the 
form of the railroad, which afforded still greater facilities for general 
traffic, and which materially hastened a development of the town's re- 



248 LANDMARKS OF 

sources, whose birth was contemporaneous with the construction of the 
canal. 

The first highway in the town was the Oak Orchard road, which 
runs north and south through Albion village, where it is known as 
Main street. Intersecting this, near what is now the line between Barre 
and Albion, is the Salt Works road, which was opened by the Hol- 
land Land Company at a very early day to the salt works north of 
Medina. This highway has long since been discontinued. 

The town of Albion has been the home of and still contains the dust 
of a goodly number of honored Revolutionary soldiers, the names of 
many of whom are mentioned in the foregoing pages of this chapter. 
During the War of 1812 the few inhabitants here courageously went to 
the front at the call of duty, and many more who served in that struggle 
afterward became citizens. In the great Rebellion large numbers of 
men gallantly volunteered and served with distinction on the field of 
battle. The ladies were equally as patriotic, and did all in their power 
to provide the comforts and even the necessaries of life for those at the 
front. The first public meeting in Albion to take action on the war 
assembled April 18, 1861, when flags were unfurled on several build- 
ings in the village. On May 13, the first company of infantry — Captain 
Hardie's — left and was followed on the 20lh by another. The town 
always responded promptly to calls for troops and invariably filled her 
quota. The first draft came July 15, 1863, and Barre (including also 
what is now Albion) was given a quota of 197 men. With the end of 
the war came a sense of relief and the surrender of Lee was signalized 
here by an appropriate celebration. The town of Albion then formed 
a part of Barre, and in separating the names in the single list compiled 
for that township under State authority, it is quite possible that mistakes 
have been made, notwithstanding the care which has characterized the 
work. The soldiers who went out from what is now Albion were as 
follows : 

William H. AUard, 17lli Bat. Edwin BrumOeld, 15ist Inf. 

H. L. Achilles, 105th Inf. Henry B. Barnard, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

H. L. Achilles, jr., 27th Inf. Joel P. Barnes, 151st Inf. 

George Anabler, 17th Bat. Joel P. Barnes, jr., 4th II. Art. 

Oliver C. Benton, 17th Bat. Albert L. Barnes, 8th Cav. 

Jonathan Broit, 17th Bat. William H. Barnes, 4th H. Art. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



2^19 



Addison G. Bessac, 17th Bat. 
Clark R. Baker, 6th Sharpshooters. 
Frederick Butler, 9lh H. Art. 
Frederick H. Baker, 8th Cav. 
John Bradley, 4th H. Ait. 
Charles Beuham, 8th H. Art. 
Henry C. Beach, 8th H. Art. 
Lewis AL Blackwell, 8ih H. Art. 
George W. Blackwell, 27th Inf. 

Cassius Blanchard, — 

Orrin L. Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
Lyman P. Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 
George D Blanchard. 1st Art. 
Daniel D. Blanchard. 8th H. Art. 
Charles H. Beach, 8th Cav. 
Hiram J. Buck, 17th Bat. 
Frederick P. Buck, 151st Inf. 
Thomas Bell, jr., 8th Cav. 
Charles Carpenter, 151st Inf. 
Hiram H. Bidwell, 17th Bat. 
Horace W. Curtiss, 9th H. Art. 
William N. Crann, 27th Inf. 
Henry B. Cleveland, 17th Bat. 
Thomas Carruthers, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Lewis M. ClifTord, 27th Inf. 
William Collins, 16th Cav. 
Julius Connor, 8th H. Art. 
George D. Curtiss, 8th Cav. 
John H. Cole, 8th H. Art. 
Daniel T. Deveraux, 8th H. Art. 
William U. Dorrance, 27th Inf. 
Henry J. Danforth, 8th II. Art. 
Orson P. Derby, 151st Inf. 
Lucian Dean, 8th H. Art. 
William Emerson, 151st Inf. 
Charles D. Elliott, 17th Bat. 
William H. Elliott, 8th H. Art. 
Charles W. Few, 151st Inf. 
Stephen C. Gifford, 8th H. Art. 
Lewis Gallaraugh, 8th Cav. 
George S. Gaskill, 27th Inf. 
David Hardie, 28th Inf. 
Isaac Halleck, lolst Inf. 
George Harvey, 17th Bat. 
32 



Thomas Hales, 17th Bat. 
William W. Hunt, 151st Inf. 
George J. Holems, 58th Eng. 
Henry Harrington, 27th Inf. 
Charles B. Howard, 27th Inf. 
George S. Hunt, 17th Bat. 
William H. June, Sth H. Art. 
Marcus M. June, 17th Bat. 
Truman M. Jones, 151st Inf. 
Samuel B. Joslyn, 33d Inf. 
Sylvester King, 151st Inf. 
Charles Albert King, 151st Inf. 
John Kirby. 8th Cav. 
Amasa Kellogg, Sth Cav. 
George W. King, 151st Inf. 
Stephen Lane, 28th Inf., loth Cav. 
Abel C. Lane, 26th Inf. 
John J. Larwood, Sth H. Art. 
James H. T. Lowry, Sth H. Art. 
Henry Myers, Sth H. Art. 
John Moye, Sth H. Art. 
William C. Moore, Sth H. Art. 
John Henry McCarthy, Sth H. Art. 
William Henry Nichols, 17th Bat. 
Jerry O'Brien, Sth H. Art. 
George W. Pier, 28th Inf. 
Joel Green Phillips, Sth H. Art. 
Charles Phillips, Sth Cav. 
William B. Redfield, 33d Inf. 
Charles Willard Sickles, 27th Inf. 
Charles H. Spencer, 17th Bat. 
Robert SafFord, Sth Cav. 
Manly Safiford, Sth Cav. 
William Safford, 22d Cav. 
George H. Stockton. Sth H. Art. 
George H. Stone, Sth H. Art. 
Warren Stone, 17th Bat. 
Cyrus Eli Snyder, Sth Cav. 
John Smith, 104th Inf. 
Irving M. Thompson, 17th Bat. 
Charles Henry Tucker, 27ih Inf. 
Henry V. VanDusen, 11th Inf. 
A. N. Van Antwerp. 
Charles W. Wall, 151st Inf. 



250 LANDMARKS OF 

James Wilson, Sth Cav. George W. Whitney, 22d Cav. 

Martin G. Wood, 27ih Inf. Hobert Williams, 151st Inf. 

George W. Wilson, Sth Cav. Charles M. W^riglit. Sth II. Art. 

In 1890 the town of Albion, outside of the village, contained a popu- 
lation of 1,304. In 1893 it had a total assessed valuation on real estate, 
including the village, of $2,682,952 (equalized $3,057,426), and on per- 
sonal property of $561,100. The total tax on roll aggregated $24.- 
191.72, which was apportioned as follows: State schools, $3,038.68; 
State care of insane, $1,033.57 ; general purposes and canals, $3,927.54 ; 
county audits and appropriations, $7,379.62 ; town audits, $4,023.68 ; 
roads and bridges, $2,231.87; support of poor, $1,000; incidentals^ 
$1,547.06. The rate per cent, was .00737939. The corporations 
owning real estate in the village or town were assessed in 1893 as fol- 
lows : Albion Gas Light Company, $6,000 ; Albion Electric Com- 
pany, $13,000; Albion Waterworks Company, $22,000; Albion Stone 
Company, $12,000; Albion Loan Association, $1,100 ; Blanchard Vine- 
gar Company, $8,000 and personal property, $5,000; Bell Telephone 
Company, $4,500 ; Curtis Manufacturing Company, $8,000; Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, $1,1 00; New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad Company, $335,000 ; Postal Telegraph Company, $3, 500 ; 
Rochester Medina Sandstone'Company, $2,700; Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, $9,000. The town officers for 1894 are: Coley P. 
Wright, supervisor; William G. Taylor, town clerk ; Justus W. Wright, 
C. M. Church, W. C. Ramsdale, R. L. Thatcher, justices of the peace; 
William E. Frank, collector; George S. Clark, commissioner of high- 
ways; Alexander Cary, Spencer N. Tanner, Washington Simmonds, 
assessors ; George Edmunds, overseer of the poor. 

Eagle Harbor — This village had no existence prior to the con- 
struction of the Erie Canal. A Mr. Richardson, the contractor, who 
built the culvert and embankment over Otter Creek, established a store 
for the convenience of his employees, and that was the nucleus of the 
present village. An extended account of Eagle Harbor appears in the 
chapter devoted to the town of Gaines. 

Eagle Harbor Station is a station on the New York Central railroad, 
west of Albion and south of Eagle Harbor village. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 251 

Rich's Corners — This place was named from five brothers : Jona- 
than, Joseph, Calvin, Arad, and Joshua Rich. Jonathan came in 1815 
and the others at different times soon afterward. They remained till 
about 1830, when they removed to Cattaraugus county. 

The hamlet contains a post- office and a small cluster of houses. Here 
was organized the first Methodist Episcopal society in the present town 
of Albion. In 18 18 a young clerg) man, Rev. Joseph Sheppard, came 
to Rich's Corners and stopped at the house of Joshua Rich, who was at 
that time an exhorter. There was no school house there then and 
religious services were held in the dwelling of Mr. Rich, and a society 
was organized. It has been related that the clergyman's horse was fed, 
on the night of his arrival, with straw taken from a bed, and the next 
morning on browse. When he departed he crossed the run north 
from the corners on a foot-bridge, which was made for him, while his 
horse was led through the mud. 

The First Christian church of Barre (now Albion) was formed about 
1820. Among the constituent members were Jotham Morse, Jonathan 
Ferris, Mr. Cook (a deaf mute), Mr. Bonner, Dr. Willard, Eaton, Mr. 
Wetherell, and their wives. Rev. Jotham Morse, a very excellent man, 
was the first pastor. Services were first held in school houses and barns, 
but a church edifice was erected about 1830, where it still stands, a 
mile west from Porter's Corners. 

The society has always pursued a very liberal policy, and has exerted 
a good influence. 

ALBION VILLAGE. 

The village of Albion, after which the town was named, lies mainly 
in the town of Albion and partly in the town of Gaines. It is in latitude 
43"^ 41' north and longitude i° 18' west from Washington, By rail it 
is distant thirty-one miles west from Rochester and fifty- one miles east 
from Buffalo. The village was first named Newport, after Newport, R. 
I. There was another post-office of the same name in the State, and the 
trouble and confusion in receiving mail induced the inhabitants to change 
the name at the time the village was incorporated. By the people in 
Gaines it was derisively termed Mudport, because of the condition of its 
streets in wet weather. 



2;j2 Landmarks of 

By reference to the record of sales by the Holland Land Company 
in Albion it will be seen that lot 34, a portion of which lies in the 
southern part of the corporation, and lot 35, the whole of which the 
village includes, were taken up, the former by Joseph Hart on Novem- 
ber II and the latter by William McAllister on December 11, 181 1. 
Mr. McAllister, it has been stated, articled 100 acres of lot 26, town 15, 
range i, December 21, 18 10, but whether he ever settled on that pur- 
chase, or ever made any improvements on it, cannot be detei mined. It 
is quite certain, however, that he became a permanent settler in Albion 
in 181 1, and was the first in the village as well as in the town, clearing 
the first land and erecting the first house. His primitive log cabin stood 
where the county clerk and surrogate's office now stands, and in it, as 
previously mentioned, his wife died in 18 12, which was the first death 
of a white person in the village or town. Her funeral was attended by 
her sorrowing husband and three men, who then comprised all the in- 
habitants for many miles around. Shortly afterward Mr. McAllister sold 
his land to William Bradner, who soon cleared that portion on the east 
side of Main street north of the canal. Mr. Bradner sold 92 acres 
of the south part of his purchase to his brother, Joel, and both received 
deeds for their land from the Holland Company. Joel Bradner first 
built his log cabin just south from where the railroad now is. William 
sold 100 acres of the northwest part of his tract to Nehemiah Ingersoll 
and others. That portion of this purchase which bordered Main street 
and the canal was laid out in village lots, and Mr. Ingersoll, who had 
purchased the interest of his partner, and had employed Orange Risden 
to make a survey, opened streets and sold these lots to settlers in the 
village. 

In 1 81 5 Jesse Bumpus took up the land on the west side of Main 
street between Park street and the north bounds of the town, and in the 
same year built his cabin and commenced clearing his land. He after- 
ward sold a large portion of his tract to Roswell Burrows, the father of 
Roswell S. and Lorenzo Burrows. He laid off and sold lots to meet 
the wants of purchasers and not according to any general plan. In 
1812 Elijah Darrow took up 200 acres on the west side of Main street, 
south from the tract purchased by Mr. Bumpus. The north half of 
this Mr. Darrow sold to John Holtzbarger, and the south half to Hor- 
ace Bishop. 




^^^^^^n'"'^^ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 253 

During the construction of the Erie Canal a small village (then New- 
port) sprung up here, but it was insignificant compared to the village 
of Gaines, near the junction of the two great thoroughfares — the Ridge 
and the Oak Orchard roads. This latter place, as has been stated, was 
the first village of importance in Orleans county, and until the comple- 
tion of the canal it continued to attract the principal business of this 
whole section. In the days of teaming and stage coaches it was espe- 
cially favored, but as soon as these began to disappear it rapidly lost its 
piestige. Albion was nearer the geographical center of the county, 
and from all appearances, it promised greater facilities in the way of 
transportation and communication with the outside world. The rail- 
road was not then thought of, but a canal in those days was even more 
coveted than is the steam locomotive now. The people of Gaines did 
their best to retain their commercial importance, and when the county 
was organized they put forth every effort to secure the county seat. 
The canal, however, may be said to have decided the questions then agi- 
tated. Enterprising men saw the advantages offered by their village 
over those of the older town, and they eagerly availed themselves of 
valuable opportunities by selecting locations here. When the great 
ditch was completed the future of Albion was assured. It gave the 
embryo village a new and permanent impetus, and developed it steadily 
into one of the principal points between Rochester and Niagara Falls. 
It opened an immense trade in lumber, which consisted largely of white- 
wood, and the canal warehouse and store soon became im[)ortant fac- 
tors in the business community. 

The land on which the village stands was originally very swampy. 
Over what is now M-ain street from Canal street north to the corpora- 
tion limits a causeway of logs was laid at an early day for the conven- 
ience of travel, and even in later times large portions of the present 
Main street (then the Oak Orchard road) were made passable with cor- 
duroy. Subsequently stone was used to fill in the wet places. This 
condition early gave the place the derisive name of Mudport. 

The first court in the county was held at Gaines in June, 1825, but in 
that year the county seat was located in Albion, and this, together with 
the completion of the canal, gave the village an assured importance it 
has ever since maintained. They brought hither a large influx of set- 



254 LANDMARKS OF 

tiers and opened up new avenues of industry. Warehouses sprang up 
along the south bank of the canal, and stores soon became numerous. 
The village then was largely confined to Main street, and the buildings 
were mostly wooden structures. The only brick building was the north 
end of the Burrows block, which was two stories high exclusive of the 
basement. The first warehouse stood about twenty rods east of Main 
street, and was built by Jeremiah Ingersoll. The next was erected by 
Carey & Tilden west of Main street. In 1826, according to the pub- 
ished recollections of an early resident, south of the Barrows block 
"was a row of wooden tenements several feet below the sidewalk. One 
of the occupants in this row was a shoemaker nam.ed John Green. The 
west side consisted of a warehouse on the dock, which was afterward 
burned, and one or two brick stores, extending as far as Beaver alley, 
on the corner of which Harvey Goodrich kept a hat store. The Albion 
Hotel stood on the lot where now is the store of Sickels, Day & Col- 
lins, and a frame store was on the side of Swan's block. Opposite 
stood a large frame dwelling and next to it the harness shop of Hugh 
McCurdy. Robert Shadders had a cabinet shop, in which McCurdy, 
who was postmaster, attended to the duties of his office. Across the 
street was Butts' tavern, and on the hill stood the old Eagle tavern." 
Judge Thomas says: 

The first hotel was kept on the northwest corner of Alain and Canal streets, by 
Churchill. The next hotel, called the Albion Hotel, was built by Philetus Bum- 
pus, about twenty rods south of the canal, on the west side of Main street, and kept 
several years by Bumpus & Howard, succeeded by Hiram Sickels. Mr. Bumpus then 
built the Mansion House, a hotel standinjj on the north side of the canal, on Main 
street, which he kept several years. Philetus Bumpus and his father, Jesse Bumpus 
built the first frame dwelling house in Albion, on the west side of Main street, between 
Bank and State streets. 

The Mansion House was subsequently kept by Calvin Church. The 
old Eagle tavern was erected on what is now the site of the County 
Clerk and Surrogate's office, and afterward moved further south by 
H. S. Goff and changed into a dwelling. Among the earliest mer- 
chants were Goodrich & Standart, O. H. Gardner, John Tucker, and 
Roswell S. & Lorenzo Burrows. The first saw- mill was built by Wil- 
liam Bradner in 1819. He also erected the first grist-mill, the "mill- 
stones for which he cut in person from a rock in Palmyra." These 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 255 

mills were taken down after a few years. The first tan-yard was estab- 
lished by Jacob IngersoU about 1825, and was located on the lot now 
occupied by the gas works, which superseded it in 1858. In September, 
1825, John Henderson started the first carriage and wagon shop; in 
1834 he opened the first livery stable, and in 1837 he brought out the 
first horse and cart for public accommodation. Besides these, being a 
mechanic, he erected a dozen or more dwellings, barns, business shops, 
etc. The first blacksmiths were John Moe, Phineas Phillips and Rodney 
A. Torrey. Theophilus Capen was the first lawyer and Dr. Orson Nicho- 
son the first physician in Albion. The latter came to the township in 
1 8 19, but removed to the village in 1822. About two years later Dr. 
William White, who had been in practice at Oak Orchard in Ridgeway, 
came here and opened a drug store and went into a professional and 
business partnership with Dr. Nichoson. The first school was taught 
by Mrs. Silas Benton, who is said to have " kept boarders, kept house, 
and kept school in the same building." In 1824 Franklin Cowdry com- 
menced the publication of the Newport Patriot, which in February, 
1825, passed into the possession of Timothy C. Strong, who changed 
its name to the Orleans Advocate. In February, 1828. he again 
changed it to the Orleans Advocate and Anti Masonic Telegraph. 

The village of Albion was first incorporated by the Legislature April 
2 1, 1828, and the boundaries designated in that act were: " Beginning 
three-fourths of a mile west of the Batavia road on the south line of 
the town of Gaines, running thence south to and including a road run- 
ning cast and west to the southwest corner of Horace Bishop's lot of 
laud ; thence east, including said road, one and a half miles ; thence 
north to the south line of Gaines ; thence west on said line to the place 
of beginning." The first officers elected were: Franklin Fenton, Free- 
man Clark, William Bradner, Orson Nichoson and Alexis Ward, trustees ; 
Hugh McCurdy, Lewis P. Buckley and Sheldon Hopkins, assessors ; 
Philetus Bumpus, Benjamin Henshaw and John Henderson, fire war- 
dens ; Isaac F. Benedict, treasurer; Abraham B. Mills, clerk; Alvin T. 
Grossman, collector ; Borden Wilcox, Jr., constable ; William G. Sickels, 
pound keeper; Truxton Burrell, overseer of the highway. Alexis 
Ward was chosen president of the board of trustees for 1829. 



256 LANDMARKS OF 

In 1827 the first court house was built, of brick, on the site of the 
present structure, and on land donated for the purpose by Nehemiah 
IngersoU. The building committee consisted of Gilbert Howell, Elihu 
Mather and Calvin Smith. This building was superseded by the pres- 
ent court house in 1856, which cost $20,000, the building committee 
being Lyman Bates, Charles Baker and Henry A. King. The archi- 
tect was W. V. N. Barlow. The first county clerk's office was built in 
1836 and the jail in 1838. The first fire company was organized in 
1831. In 1833 Ward & Clark erected a flouring mill on the canal. 
About the same time the old Orleans House was built on the corner 
of Canal and Main streets, and for those days it was regarded as an im- 
posing structure. 

The following description of Albion village was given in 1836: 

IL contains one Presbyterian and one Methodist Church, a high scliool, a seminary for 
females, a court house of brick, a neat edifice, in which are the county ofKces, erected 
upon the pub'ic square; a prison of hewn logs, a bank, incorporated in 1834, with a 
capital of $300,000 ; fou- forwarding and commission houses, thirteen dry goods stores, 
one wholesale hardware store, two druggists stores, two shoe and leather stores, one 
book store, two tanneries, one ashery, two gristmills, three saw mills, one carding and 
cloth dressing mill, one furnace for ca.^ting iron, four taverns, one wholesale and se\- 
eral retail groceries, various mechanics, nine lawyers, and five physicians, two printing 
offices, two hundred and twenty-one dwellings of brick and wood, many of which are 
large, neat and commodious. 

The population then was about 1,100. 

Among the more important items recorded in the proceedings of the 
Boards of Trustees, as published in the Orleans Republican from year 
to year, the following are gleaned: 1842 — Clerk, S. G. Barr ; $130 
contingent expenses ; $70 appropriated for engine house bell ; $100 to 
improve and beautify academy grounds. 1843 — John B. Lee, clerk ; 
land for original Mt. Albion Cemetery purchased and $125 voted to 
improve same. 1845 — $90 voted to pay old village debt ; $60 appro- 
priated for reservoir; $100 contingent fund ; clerk, Jehiel Clark. 1846 
— West end of State street opened; $150 contingent fund; $i,ooo 
voted to buy lot and premises of H. W. Lee on State street for fire de- 
partment. 1847 — West Academy street opened. i848--New bridge 
built over canal ; resolution passed authorizing an application to the 
Legislature for permission to raise $1,000 to buy an engine and equip 
a second fire company. 1849 — W. G. Swan, clerk. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 257 

1850 — W. G. Swan, clerk; $500 contingent fund to pay debts; 
Board of Health organized. Among the industries recorded in the 
Orleans Republican, J. O. Willsea editor and proprietor, were G. H. 
Sickels & Co., merchants; Munger & Dorrance, jewelers ; Nichoson 
& Paine, drugs; Boston City Store ; C. S. Potter, 10 Burrows Block ; 
W, Emerson, pine lumber; C. R. Berry, dry goods ; William Haywood, 
wool carding and cloth dressing at Eagle Harbor; Agricultural Soci- 
ety, P. Dyer secretary; Beebe & Remington, books (sold out in 185 i 
to G. M. Harvey) ; Ezra T. Coann & Co , merchants ; Dr. H. Gumold, 
botanical medicines for the blood ; A. Gilmore, Orleans book and drug 
store ; Dr. J. Randall, " attended four courses of lectures," Prentice 
Block ; Piatt House, corner Canal and Market streets, Harry Gould, 
proprietor; M. L. Warner, boots and shoes; Mrs. L. Hall, milliner, 
Main street ; A. D. Armstrong, paint shop ; Millville Academy, Mat- 
thew Gregory secretary; Dr. S. Gates, at home after absence; G. M. 
Harvey, daguerreotypes ; Yates Academy, G Daniels president ; Royce 
& Morehouse, hardware in vessel (and other goods), 

With haste and speed, o'er dale and mead, 

Come quick to Albion. 
When you draw near there will appear 

A sign with " Hardware " on ; 

Swan & Cornell, paints, etc. ; M. A. & S. A. Harrington, lumber ; Be- 
noni Bennett, jr., harness, saddles, etc., over Joslyn's dry goods store ; 
J, H. Hollenbake had recently associated with him Ambrose Wood, 
hardware and groceries ; C. H. Smith & Co., clothing ; C. A. Har- 
rington & Co., dry goods and groceries ; George Sipes, general stock 
and real estate ; A. R. Torry, Torry Hall, hats ; B. E. Van Buren, 
bookbinder, successor to A. C. Beebe ; Phelps & Harvey, books and 
paper ; H. P. Cooley, watchmaker; G. W. Bedell & Co., hats and caps, 
removed from " Goodrich Block to Hopkins' attractive block " (became 
Miller & Bedell and sold in 1851 to G. H. Sickels) ; E. R. Benson, sash 
and blind manufacturer; Peak Family Concert ; E. Piatt & Co., stages 
to Rochester ; Alexis Ward, money to loan ; M. L. Fuller, Fairless 
saloon; markets — wheat, 94 cents; corn, 40; barley, 56; oats, 34; 
potatoes, 25 ; butter, 15 ; cheese, 6 ; lard, 8 ; eggs, 12 ; wool, 24 to 34 ; 
notice in December of meeting at court house to consider method of 



258 LANDMARKS OF 

enlarging canal in village ; " we have now two fire companies — Cham 
pion and Albion — and a hook and ladder company. The engines are 
of the best manufacture, and the men are of the best kind to manage 
them. No 2's men, we may say, are a gallant set of fellows, while at 
the same time we think No. i can compete with the rest;" town audits. 
$241 71. 

1851. — Applied to Legislature to raise additional $1,000 to make 
reservoir and improve fire department ; large reservoir placed in front 
of the Episcopal Church ; contingent fund indebtedness, $669 49 ; con- 
tingent and cemetery expenses, $353.38; gross receipts, $1,258.47. 
January 8, " Our village presents indeed a businesslike aspect. The 
streets are literally choked with sleighs, of which at least 100 can be 
counted from our office window. Smiling faces, prancing horses, and 
noisy urchins pass in rapid and continuous procession before us. 
Everything bears the appearance of prosperity, and we may safely 
challenge any county of nine towns in the State to show a more thriv- 
ing village than Albion. Vive la petite Orleans !" February 3, book's 
for subscribers to plank road opened (to be built under act of 1847 
from Batavia to brick school house in Barre), signed by R. E. Mix ; 
October, Beebe & Hooker purchased the American ; November, '• Ed- 
itor visited furnace and plow factory of Hiram Curtiss ;" three furnaces 
were in operation — King & Root's on Canal street, makmg chiefly 
stoves, over 4,000 yearly, car wheels, etc., employing thirty- three men ; 
Bedell & Berry's on Canal street, making twelve stoves daily, employ- 
ing twenty men ; and the Curtis foundry on Batavia street, Albion, 
making plows, employing fourteen men ; three school districts, each 
having a substantial school house of two departments, average attend- 
ance 400 ; poplation of village about 3,000. 

1852. — W. G. Swan, clerk ; June 30, first train on the Rochester and 
Niagara Falls Railroad. 

1853. — W. G. Swan, clerk; $875 contingent fund; Hook and Ladder 
Company reorganized and made a permanent feature of the fire depart- 
ment ; H. J. Sickels, postmaster. 

1854. — Hard times commenced and extended to 1857 ; wheat, $2.25 ; 
W. G. Swan, clerk ; $150 for fire department; $250 contingent fund; 
$25 for charge of clock; $15 to fire wardens; $150 to pay indebted- 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 259 

ness ; $230 for additional hose ; street signs put up by Mr. Fell ; Alexis 
Ward died. 

1855 — W. G. Swan, clerk; Peter F. Sickels died January 10; Hon. 
Henry R. Curtis died September 20. 

1856 — H. S. Goff, clerk ; sewer in State street, cost $176 ; resolved 
to purchase lot north of engine house for not more than $1,000, and to 
apply to the Legislature to raise money to build engine house and 
hall; lighting village by gas proposed by Henry Fuller, of Chicago; 
Gas Company formed ; new court house finished in Septemper. 

1857. — H- S. Goff, clerk ; $i,ooo contingent fund and to pay officers ; 
ordinance enacted to prevent cattle running in the streets ; reservoir 
forty feet long, eight feet wide, six feet deep, built in front of Mr. Pull- 
man's ; prospects of a run on bank and doors closed September 11 and 
12 as a precaution ; thousands of bills offered for redemption. A few 
days later it suspended. " Since the suspension of the Bank of Or- 
leans there has been a perfect stagnation in business; nobody is buying 
goods; nobody paying debts; nobody has work." 

1858. — S. A. Andrews, clerk; first horse show August 27; first gas 
distributed November 25. 

1859. — A R. Patterson, clerk ; $1,000 to be raised by taxation ; A. 
R. Harrington bought Piatt house ; first flagman at railroad crossing in 
May ; Packet Company to Rochester organized and first boat, City of 
Buffalo, ready in August ; boat launched September 2, captain, William 
Waters, of Eagle Harbor; dividend of 35 per cent, from Bank of Or- 
leans declared in March, and banking house sold to J. M. Cornell in 
November ; O . Bennett, formerly proprietor of the Mansion House, 
took the Kingsland House, near depot, in October ; bridge over canal 
on Main street fell September 28, killing fifteen people ; new bridge 
erected ; Pierpont Dyer killed in his grocery December 24. 

i860. — George BuUard, clerk; bell for clock and fire alarm at 
$360; new Baptist Church dedicated in January; sewer in Clinton 
street and reservoir north of canal constructed ; another dividend of 35 
per cent, from the Bank of Orleans declared January 26 ; Orleans 
County Bank opened in February; "not three vacant houses inside 
corporation ; " everything is prospering ; theater at Kingsland Hall ; 
Gen. John B. Lee died September 10 ; apple crop enormous. 



•iGO LAi^DMARKS 0'& 

1 86 1. — A.F. R. Braley, clerk; $ 1,000 raised by tax; sewer con- 
structed in south side of Water street ; in July resolved to raise $1,600 
for roads. 

1862. — A. G. Bessac, clerk ; charter amended; Fire Company No. 2 
reorganized ; June 7 fire started in Piatt House stables, burned Piatt 
House and barn, went south on Market street, thence on Canal street, 
also west from hotel, burning J. Bordwell's large house, a wagon shop 
and paint shop ; engines came from Medina, Gaines and Brockport ; 
loss over $20,000; insurance about $10,000. 

1863. — A. G. Bessac, clerk; Bordwell block erected; public meeting 
June 12 to provide for police protection, and resolution passed asking 
tiustees to organize night police, which was done, and Aaron L. Van- 
dekar was made the first chief; O Tousley died June 5 ; fall of Vicks- 
burg celebrated July 7; 87,462 barrels of apples were shipped from 
Albion this year ; First National Bank organized in December 23, as 
the successor of the old Bank of Albion, which passed safely through 
the crisis of 1857. 

1864. — S. C. Bessac, clerk; sewer on south side of park constructed ; 
public meeting to consider a revision of the charter February 2 ; Man- 
sion House burned March 29; post-office made a money order office; 
Albion Petroleum Company organized December 27. 

1865. — Jerome Porter, clerk ; last remains removed to new cemetery ; 
William Gere died July 22 ; meeting and celebration on close of Civil 
War; owners of "Albion Peat Bed" began operations; Masonic Hall 
dedicated, June i, by P. P. Murphy; apples high ; J. A. Lattin sold his 
orchard of 100 acres for $12,000 ; Linus J. Peck sold apples for $5 25 
per barrel. 

1866 — Jerome E.Porter, clerk; $1,200 contingent expenses ; $3,000 
for roads; act of Legislature enlarged village limits by taking in the 
Rogers farm ; Mechanics' Fire Company No 3 organized in May with 
Thomas Beebe foreman ; June 3 fire broke out in rear of Field's block ; 
burned twenty stores ; loss nearly $75,000. 

1867. — Jerome E. Porter, clerk, at $50 per year. 

1868. — J. E. Porter, clerk ; Albion House bought in January by D. 
A.Wilkinson, of Batavia; about $2,000 collected for Monument Asso- 
ciation ; Nehemiah Ingersoll, founder of village, died February 21 ; Har- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 261 

rington House being kept by R. Pattin ; fire on corner of Canal and 
Main streets burned several stores and shops, including American of- 
fice; loss about $35,000; Sawyer & Gould's planing mill on Canal 
street burned December 31 ; loss $8,000; rebuilt. 

1869. — Charles A. King, clerk ; attempt to bore for oil three and one- 
half miles from South Barre in August developed mineral spring ; en- 
gine house built ; $2,300 turned over in June to the Monument Asso- 
ciation, of which H. A. King was made president; E. K. Hart, secre- 
tary, and J. M. Cornell, treasurer, and plans for monument secured. 

1870. — Charles A. King, clerk; contingent fund, $2,000; $1,500 for 
roads ; sewers placed in King, West and Park streets ; business interests 
advertised or mentioned in village papers at this time were buildings 
erecting or just finished — M. J. English, two story block ; Royce's 
block, with hall ; Sickels's " Hemlock store " soon to give place to new 
building, and W. D. Perry, Charles Baker, G. H. Sickels, J. Harris; J. 
D. Cook and Sawyer & Gould all building residences ; C. F. Curtiss, 
successor to Barnett & Curtiss, dry goods, 47 Main ; N. E. Gilbert, con- 
fectionery and toys, two doors from post-ofifice ; Landauer & Brother, 
dry goods. Main and Canal ; C. T. Foster, third store from Main, on 
canal ; O. Royce & Sons, agricultural tools, hardware, etc., ^J Main ; 
H, A. King, insurance, 1 1 Canal ; George P. Hopkins, photos, Sickels 
block ; E. Bradshaw, hats and caps, 57 Main ; Batles & Millard, liquors, 
two doors north of Bank of Albion ; Franklin S. Wood, nurseries ; 
Mrs. W. W. Hufif, sewing machines, over G. H. Sickels's new store ; 
George A. Porter, money to loan; L. W. Bingham, dry goods, 71 
Main ; D. Hardie, books, P. O. newsroom ; Mrs. M. F. Kelsey, Wheeler 
& Wilson sewing machines, one door west of Sickels ; J. T. Brown, 
watches and jewelry, 6(j Main ; Mason, Barnard & Co. (A. J. Mason, 
manager), closing out clothing, i Canal ; Rivenburg & Hopkins, dry 
goods, 15 Canal; A. Turner's band; Wilbsr lumber yard ; George S. 
Hutchinson & J. Bidleman, grocers ; Thomas Bell, insurance ; N. Z. 
Sheldon, hats, 62 Main ; H. W. Preston, watches ; G. W. Ough, furniture 
and crockery, " new brick block east side of Main "; P. J. Mathewson, 
photos, successor to J. R. Porter, 71^ Granite block ; G. E. Lockwood, 
clothing, 53^ Main ; A. H. Goodman, successor to Goodman & Farn- 
ham, clothing and tailor, Burrows block ; A. B. Bailey, paints, fruit 



262 Landmarks of 

jars, etc., 6i Main ; Sickels & Co , "for past twenty years at Main street, 
have removed to Bank street till new store can be erected "; C. C. Tan- 
ner, Orleans Insurance agency ; J. L. Northrup, dentist, 54 Main ; 
Doolittle & Straight, dentists, over Orleans County National Bank ; 
Beckwith & Miller, stoves and hardware, 72 Main ; Darrow & Foster, 
Densmore's block. Canal ; S. D. Shrouds, coal yard, opposite Harring- 
ton House ; J. W. Randall, A. B. Botsford, (A. L. L. Potter homeo.), 
physicians ; H D. & H. C. Tucker, Leroy R. Sanford, S. S. Spencer, 
Henry Armstrong, lawyers; Charles D. Ross, insurance; M. Duffy, 
barber; Warren's flour store, Sickels block ; B. June, shoes, 64 Main ; 
Bingham Brothers, carpets, wall paper and dry goods, 71 Granite block; 
Glidden & Waterman, hardware. 50 Main ; Littlefield & Fravel, tools, 
64 Main. " The village of Albion wants its 6,000 inhabitants. Ever 
since it was built it has grown steadily in size and importance, and let 
any one now come within its limits on any day, and he cannot fail to 
perceive the signs of commercial and social prosperity on every hand. 
It is a Democratic stronghold. Main street is a miniature Broadway on 
Saturdays." Philetus Bumpus, son of Jesse Bumpus, the pioneer, died 
February 13; bill for swing bridge passed Legislature; Dr. Orson 
Nichoson died May 7 ; Hiram Curtis, proprietor agricultural works, 
died May 17 ; Elizur Hart, banker, died August 16 

1 87 1. — John V. Lewis, clerk; Main street improved; arrangements 
made to build new engine house on corner of Piatt and Canal streets, 
two stories high, with basement and tower, and town hall in second 
story ; steps taken to establish public library. 

1872. — Isaac S. Signor, clerk; Norman Bedell died in October; 
levied by tax $6,500. 

1873 — D. N. Frye, clerk ; first cry for a water system ; Lemuel C. 
Paine, druggist, died January 2 ; Hiram E. Sickels died at Albany Oc- 
tober 3 i ; ground broken for new engine house in September, and corner 
stone laid October 18 ; Albion Library Association organized March 24. 

L874. — -John Cunneen, clerk ; soldiers' monument commenced ; vil- 
lage hall subject discussed, and hall opened November 14 ; extension of 
village limits agitated; Presbyterian church building; steps taken to 
macadamize West State street from Clinton street to fair grounds, and 
East State street from McKinstry street to Hall's Corners ; fire depart- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 263 

ment reorganized ; eftbrt made to divide town of Barre ; Hon. Charles 
H. Holmes died October i ; apples $1.95 per barrel. 

1875. — F. G. Beach, clerk; scenery put into village hall, and build- 
ing dedicated by Rochester Opera Company March 21 ; new depot 
erected ; $8,000 voted for contingent fund ; resolved to raise $800 for 
hook and ladder truck ; meetings in December at Two ]5ridges and 
Fairhaven to organize railroad from Batavia to Oak Orchard Harbor. 

1876. — J. J. Larwood, clerk ; hook and ladder truck purchased in 
March ; George A. Porter died May 9 ; Union School building erected ; 
$6,000 voted to improve streets ; $2,000 contingent fund. 

1877. — J.J. Larwood, clerk ; $6,000 road fund; $500 divided be- 
tween fire companies; $2,500 contingent fund. 

1878. — J. J. Larwood, clerk; Central steam flouring mill erected on 
Main street by John H. Denio and the Messrs. Collins ; Dr. William Noble 
died April 18; Waldo Joslyn, merchant, and Nelson W Butts, teacher, 
died February i ; new high school building finished and dedicated No- 
vember 9; John N. Proctor, president Board of Education; Charles A, 
Danolds & Son built new flouring mill at Eagle Harbor. 

1879. — New village charter passed in March; H. C. Tucker, police 
justice; Sylvester King, chief of police, two officers and two night 
watchmen; March 26, voted to raise $3,000 for steamer and $2,000 for 
hose, and same bought and tested August 23 ; Albion Steam Fire com 
pany No. 2 organized; Dr. William McKennan died August 21 ; total 
village receipts, $19,25391; road fund paid out, $4,01 i. 71 ; contin- 
gent expenses, $2,470.73; school fund, $11,09440; fire, $340.28; R. 
S. Burrows, banker, died March 30. By the act of incorporation passed 
this year the corporate limits were made to include 

All that district of country in the towns of Albion and Gaines in the county of Orleans, 
and being lot number 35 and parts of lots numbered 26, 27. 28, 34 and 36 in township 
15 and range 1, and lot numbered 3 and parts of lots numbered 2 and 4 in township 
number 15 and range 2 of the Holland company's land. Also that part of the town of 
Albion aforesaid, being part of lot number 18. township number 15 and first range of 
the Holland Land company's land and now owned by the village of Albion and used 
by said village for the burial of the dead and known as Mount Albion cemetery. The 
act also provided that "whenever any additional land shall be purchased by the village 
of Albion contiguous to said cemetery for the uses and purposes of a cemetery, the land 
so purchased shall thereupon become and form a portion of the corporate limits of the 
village of Albion." 



2G4 LANDMARKS OF 

1884. — S. C. Bessac, clerk: Stone sewer in Albion street con- 
structed, cost $1,600; one night policeman; contingent fund, $9,000; 
$7,000 for schools. 

1885. — Reservoir built for $800; contingent and road fund, $9,000, 

1886. — Resolved to enter into contract with some company for the 
construction of water works; April 22 resolved to entertain application 
from Bassett Brothers and others to organize a water works company, 
pursuant to law and to agreement between said proposed company and 
the village of Albion ; company must give bond for $15,000; accepted 
and agreement executed July 25 ; later the Lattin spring was approved. 

1887. — Appropriations, gas for streets, $1,275 ; police, $800 ; streets, 
$500; salaries, $825; contingent fund, $3,000; schools, general, 
$2,500 ; building, $2,000. 

1888. — Electric light company organized; October ii, resolution 
adopted accepting the water works, first contract dated August i ; ac- 
cepted for fire protection at $3,000 annually, beginning October i ; 
company required to maintain signal bell between fire department and 
pump house ; October 29, George B. Bassett complimented by resolu- 
tion ; Charles Diem died in November; annual estimates: making and 
improving streets, $2,000; water rents, $3,000; police justice, $600; 
contingent, $3,000. 

1889 — East Bank street extended ; November 11, Edwin L. Wage 
appointed sewer commissioner for five years, J. E. Barrett for four 
years, J. H. White for three years, Peter Gallarnau for two years and 
Franklin Clarke for one year ; Wage and White did not qualify and 
W. G. Swan and George VV. Barrett were appointed in their places, 

1890. — George L. Baker, clerk; Clark D. Knapp, village attorney; 
estimated tax to be raised, gross, $18,625 ; Edwin Van Stone ap- 
pointed chief of police and poundmaster ; Sandstone Hose Company 
admitted a member of fire department; water mains extended ; Park 
street sewer laid. 

1 891 — Estimated budget, $19950; schools, $7,200; May 4 com 
mittee wanted permission to extend water mains ; pound lot sold; elec- 
tric fire alarm instituted ; Hart Protectives housed in Maloney building 
in January; W. C. Ramsdale, village clerk. 1892 — Estimated budget, 
$19,500; steamer advertised for sale in April. 1893 — Bailey street 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 265 

water main extended; stone crusher purchased. 1893 — Estimated 
budget. $2,300. 

The boards of trustees of Albion village, and the presidents of the 
same, have been as follows : 

1829 — Alexis Ward, president; Orson Nichoson, William Bradner, Freeman Clarke, 
Franklin Fenton. 

1830— Alexis Ward, president ; William Bradner, Franklin Fenton, Hugh McCurd}', 
Harry Gilmore. 

1831 — Henry R. Curtis, president; Hugh McCurdy, Lewis Warner, Franklin Fenton, 
Philip Nichols. 

1832 — Henry R. Curtis, president; Hugh McCurdy, Lewis Warner, Isaac F. Bene- 
dict, Roswell Clark. 

1833 — Harvey Goodrich, president; John Hubbard, Freeman Clarke, Hugh Mc- 
Curdy, Abraham B. Mills. 

1884 — Harvey Goodrich, president; John Hubbard, Hugh McCurdy, Rodney A. 
Torry, Alderman Butts. 

1835 — Harvey Goodrich, president ; Hugh McCurdy, John Chamberlain, Hiram 
Cowles, John B. Lee. 

1836 — Harvey Goodrich, president; John B. Lee, Benjamin L. Bessac, Franklin Fen- 
ton, Coddington W. Swan. 

1837 — Benjamin L. Bessac, president ; John B. Lee, Abraham Cautine, Henry R. 
Curtis, Orson Nichoson. 

1838 — Jonathan Elkins, president; Benjamin L. Bessac, John Boardman, Gideon 
Hard, Truxton Burrell. 

1839 — Benjamin L, Bessac, president ; Abraham Cantine, Jonathan Ivingsley, Calvin 
Church, Alderman Butts. 

1840 — Arad Thomas, president; Jonathan Kingsley, Coddington W. Swan, David 
Holt, jr., Elijah Dana. 

1841 — Arad Thomas, president; Elijah Dana, Roswell Clark, Aruna Smith, Hiram 
Baker. 

1842 — Arad Thomas, president ; Roswell Clark, Jonathan Kingsley, Asher Flint, jr., 
Abner Sheldon. 

1843 — Henry A. King, president ; Charles Baker, John B. Lee, Lorenzo Burrows, 
John Boardman. 

1844 — Henry A. King, president ; Lorenzo Burrows, Henry J. Van Deusen, Abra- 
ham B. Mills, William V. N. Barlow. 

1845 — Henry A. King, president; Zephaniah Clark, Abraham B. Mills, Jonathan 
Edgcomb, Asher Flint, Jr. 

1846 — Henry A. King, president ; George H. Stone, Lewis Warner, Robert Lewis 
Lorenzo Burrows. 

1847 — George H. Stone, president; Seth L. King, Roswell Clark, William G. Gard- 
ner, Aruna Smith. 
34 



266 LANDMARKS OF 

1848 — George H. Stone, president ; Benjamin L. Bessac, Aruna Smith, William But- 
ler, Seth L. King. 

1849 — Joseph M. Cornell, president ; Lewis Pullman, Roswell Clark, Charles H. 
Moore, Ze^-ah Webb. 

1850 — Charles H. Moore, president ; William K. McAllister, Erastus Root, A. R 
Quimby, Horace Washburn. 

1851— Henry J. Sickels, president ; Roswell Clark, David Bettis, John B. Lee, 
Charles Baker. 

1852 — Joseph M. Cornell, president ; Charles Baker, Henry A. King, Roswell Clark, 
Lewis Pullman. 

1853 — Joseph M. Cornell, president ; Henry A. King, Aruna Smith, Roswell Clark, 
Charles Baker. 

1854 — John H. White, president ; Aruna Smith, Henry A. King, Charles Baker, 
Roswell Clark. 

1855— John H. White, president ; Henry Sears, Harvey Cxoodrich, Harlow W. Lee, 
David Smith. 

1856 — Henry L. Achilles, president; Henry Sears, Nelson W. Butts, Waldo Joslyn, 
Andrew J. Chester. 

1857 — Henry Sears, president ; N. W. Butts, Jerome Lee, Waldo Joslyn. F. A. Day. 

1858— Arad Thomas, president ; P. W. Collins, Robert P. Bordwell, Willard F. War. 
ren, Jerome Lee. 

1859 — Henry J. Sickels, president ; R. P. Bordwell, Howard Abeel, Hiram W. Lewis, 
Calvin G. Beach. 

I860— Walker Mattinson, president ; A. F. R. Braley, Dan H. Cole, H. J. Sickels. 
R. P. Bordwell. 

1861 — Roswell Clark, president ; John Smith, Isaac Lee, George L. Burrows, Jona- 
than Blott. 

1862 — Henry A. King, president; Nelson W. Butts, Howard Abeel, Simon Adler, 
John N. Proctor. 

1863 — Henry A. King, president; Andrew J. Chester, Alexander Stewart, Jeremiah 
Smith, Cornelius Ward. 

1864 — John N. Proctor, president; Walker Mattinson, Simon Adler, Seth L. King, 
Jerome Lee. 

1865— H.J. Van Deusen, president; H. A. King, George S. Hutchinson, A. B. Bailey 
Merritt Brooks. 

1866 — H.J. Van Deusen, president; H. A. King, G. S. Hutchinson, A. B. Bailey, 
Henry J. Danforth. 

1867— Charles H. Moore, president; Ferdinand A. Day, A. J. Chester, Jesse P. Bum- 
pus, Patrick Glenn. 

1868— Edwin Porter, president ; Simon Adler, Thomas S. Porter, Jesse P. Bumpus, 
G. W. Ough. 

1869 — Seth L. King, president; G. S. Hutchiuson, George W. Wilcox, Martin E. 
Rawson, Edwin R. Tanner. 

1870— H. A. King, president; Howard Abeel, J. N. Proctor, Owen McCarthy, Isaac 
Gould. 



ORLEANS C0UNT7. 267 

1871 — J. N. Proctor, president ; H. A. King, Howard Abeel, Horatio A. Ball, E. 
Kirke Hart. 

1872— John Bidleman, president; G. W. Ough, Isaac Gould, John A. Higgerson, 
Charles Vandekar. 

1873 — John H. White, president ; Simon Adler, Lewis M. Loss, Georee L.Baker, 
H. J. Reynolds. 

1874— John H. White, president ; Simon Adler, L. M. Loss, G. W. Ough, G. M. 
Waterman. 

1875 — George S. Hutchinson, president; Nelson Warner, H. W. Preston, E. R. Tan- 
ner, Thomas Hales. 

1876 — George M. Waterman, president; William S. Pierson, William B. Dye, John 
Bidleman, Thomas Hales. 

1877 — H. J. Danforth, president ; John Bidleman, G. M. Waterman, David Hardie, 
L. D. Mitchell. 

1878 — David Young, president; Simon Adler, Ashley Blake, G. M. Waterman, Mor- 
ris Landauer. 

1879 — (Under the new charter the president is elected for three years and the trust- 
ees for four years each) J. N. Proctor, president; E, K. Hart, four years; J. E. Bar- 
rett, three years ; P. Gallarneau, two years; Hiram W. Preston, one year. 

1880— J. N. Proctor, president; E. K. Hart, J. E. Barrett, P. Gallarneau, Edward C. 
Cole. 

1881— J.N. Proctor, president; E. K Hart, J. E. Barrett, George W. Barrell, Edward 

C. Cole. 

1882— William B. Dye, elected president ; E. K. Hart, George W. Barrell, George B. 
Church, Edward C. Cole. 

1883— W. B. Dye, president; George W. Barrell, George B. Church, E. K. Hart. 
Edward C. Cole. 

1884— William B. Dye, president; George W. Barrell, W. S. Danolds, George B. 
Church, E. K. Hart. 

1885— William B. Dye, re-elected president ; Charles Diem, E. K. Hart, W. S, 
Danolds, George B. Church. 

1886— William B Dye, president ; George B. Church, E. K. Hart, W. S. Danolds, 
Charles Diem. 

1887 — William B. Dye, president; W. S. Danolds, Charles Diem, H.Eugene English, 
George B. Church. 

1888 — William B. Dye, re-elected president; H. Eugene English, George B. Church, 
Robert W. Van Stone, Charles Diem. 

1889 — William B. Dye, president; H. Eugene English, Robert W. Van Stone, Lorenzo 

D. Leonard, George B. Church. 

1890 — William B. Dye, president; R. W. Van Stone, L. D. Leonard, H. Eugene 
English, G. L. Merrill. 

1891— H. Eugene English, elected president ; R. W. Van Stone, G. L. Merrill, Patrick 
Maloney, L. D. Leonard. 

1892— H. Eugene English, president ; John W. Hart, G. L. Merrill. Charles C. Downs, 
Patrick Maloney. 



268 LANDMARKS OF 

1893— H. Eugene English, president; John W. Hart, C. C. Downs, George H. Wil- 
son, appointed in place of L. D. Leonard, deceased ; Patrick Maloney. 

1894 — H Eugene English, re-elected president; John Beyhan, C. C. Downs, John 
W. Hart, Patrick Maloney. 

The other village officers for 1894 are : 

Thomas A. Kirby, police justice ; James E. Barrett, Ozro H. Bates, Ashley Blake, 
assessors; G-eorge S. Hutchinson, treasurer ; W. C. Ramsdale, clerk ; Richard Dumphy, 
street commissioner ; Henry Brmk, collector ; Adam Shoemaker, James A. Kennedy, 
John Cain, fire wardens ; Sylvester King, Arthur Harris, Dwight M. Brush, Board of 
Health; Dr. Daniel H. Brennan, health physician. 

Budget for 1894: For improvement of streets, $3,500; water rent- 
als, $3,550 ; police justice's salary, $480 ; contingent expenses, $5,470; 
fire department, $1,000; schools, $9,000; total tax. $23,000. Assessed 
valuation of real and personal estate $2,214,965 ; population about 
5,000. 

In 1829 the Board of Trustees of Albion village adopted an ordinance 
defining the powers and duties of the fire wardens, and prescribing regu- 
lations to be observed by the inhabitants. The only means for extin- 
guishing fires then were the leather fire buckets, which each householder 
was required to keep in case of fire. In 1831 Champion Engine Com- 
pany, was organized. The first engine with which this body was pro- 
vided was what was called, from the shape of the spout or pipe on the 
top of it, a goose neck engine. Subsequently an engine of more modern 
construction was purchased from Button & Co., of Waterford, N. Y. 
With this machine the first hose cart was procured. In 1838 the trust- 
ees voted $2,000 to build an engine house. Spartan Hook and Ladder 
Company was organized in 1843. Subsequently several of what were 
known as Babcock fire extinguishers were purchased for the use of the 
hook and ladder companies. A chemical engine was afterward procured 
and it is still in use. In 1879 a steam fire engine was bought and 
remained in use till the water works were completed, since which time 
suitable hose has been sufficient. The hose and hook and ladder com- 
panies were then made more efficient and now constitute one of the best 
volunteer fire departments in western New York. These companies 
are : Young America Hook and Ladder Company No. i, George 
Whelan, foreman ; C. D. Knapp Hose Company No, 2, Lewis Gallar- 
neau, foreman ; Hose Company No. 3, Hart Protectives, Conrad Rem- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 269 

inger, foreman ; Warner Chemical Company No. 4, Philip Stock, cap 
tain ; Dye Hose Company No. 5, George Lee. foreman ; Sandstone 
Hose Company No. 6, John Cuddy, foreman. The chief engineers of 
the department since 1881 have been: Albert Achilles, 1882; George 
Waterman, 1883-84; George N. Taylor, 1885; Harry Hendricks, 
1886-87; James Bailey, 1888-89; Frank O'Brien, 1890-91 ; Ward S. 
Buell, 1892-93 ; Frank P. Maloney, 1894. 

In 1873 a lot was purchased on the northwest corner of Bank and 
Piatt streets, and a tasteful and capacious brick building erected upon 
it for a village hall, which opened November 14, 1874. In the second 
story is a large auditorium for meetings and entertainments. The 
ground floor is used for village offices, a public reading room, and for 
the storage of the fire apparutus. 

The Albion Water Works Company was organized in 1887. A con- 
tract was made with the corporation for a supply of water fire pro- 
tection and street and sewer flushing, and the company bound itself to 
supply pure water for domestic and sanitary purposes. These works 
were completed in the autumn of 1888. The supply of water is ob- 
tained from a gang of twelve wells north from the canal, and a mile 
west from the village. Here is a pumping station with two engines, 
each having a daily capacity of one million gallons. A street water 
tower, seventy five feet in height, and having a capacity of 250,000 
gallons, was built near the south bounds of the corporation and a few 
rods west from Main street The top of this tower is 160 feet above 
the level of Bank street, giving a pressure of sixty- five pounds to the 
square inch. Ten miles of cast iron water mains have been laid, lead- 
ing from this tower to all parts of the village, and loi hydrants have 
been set, each with two outlets capable of throwing inch streams to a 
height of 100 feet. There are now 540 private consumers. The stock 
of the company is $100,000, and tlie value of the plant is $105,000. It 
was placed in operation by Messrs. Bassett Brothers, of Buffalo. The 
treasurer is George B. Bassett, of Buffalo, and the local superintendent 
is Oscar D. Eddy. 

In 1856 the Albion Gas Light Company was incorporated with a 
capital of $30 000, which was subsequently increased to $40,000, Ros- 
well Clark was president and V. V. Bullock superintendent. A plant 



270 LANDMARKS OF 

was established in an old tannery building, near the foot of Ingersoll 
street, and mains were laid so that gas was first distributed November 
25, 1858. At first the length of the mains aggregated no more than a 
mile and a half, and gas was furnished at $5.00 per 1,000 meters. From 
a few street lamps the number increased to about sixty when electric 
lights were introduced, and the annual consumption aggregated 2,000,- 
000 feet. The original building occupied by the plant was replaced by 
the present brick structure in 1 870. In June, 1894, a majority of the 
stock passed into the control of New York parties. The new president 
is Andrew L. Fennessy, of New York city, and the local superinten- 
dent is William R. Curry. The works have a capacity of about 16,000 
cubic feet of gas every 24 hours. There are about five miles of mains 
and some 200 consumers. 

August 37, 1888, Philip K. Stern proposed to put into operation five 
arc and eiglity-two incandescent electric lamps, with sufficient power 
to run them, the former twenty nights each month, and the latter every 
night, for $2,000 per year, but his proposition was not accepted. It 
opened an animated agitation of the question, however, and in the sum- 
mer of 1889 active steps were taken to organize a company. Early in 
the year 1890 the Albion Electric Light Company was incorporated 
with the following officers and stockholders: William G. Swan, presi- 
dent ; E. K. Hart, treasurer ; and G. W. Barrell, secretary. The 
works were immediately erected on the south side of the canal, and are 
equipped with two Westinghouse compound condensing engines of 
forty- five horse power each, two boilers of 210 horse power, one 750 
and one 500 light incandescent dynamos, one si.xty arc lamp, 2,000 
candle power alternating current dynamo, and other apparatus. There 
are now fifty arc street lamps and 2,346 incandescent lamps in opera- 
tion, supplying 120 patrons. There are twelve miles of incandescent, 
and thirteen and one-half of arc wire. The capital is about $45,000, 
owned by William G. Swan, president; G. T. S Focte, secretary, and 
Charles E. Hart, treasurer. The superintendent is J. Herbert Rollins. 

In the summer of 1890 the authorities ordered a survey of the village 
for a system of sewers. This was made and the maps and plans were 
approved by the State Board of Health, but so far the system has not 
been put in operation. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 271 

It is not known when the first school district in the village of Albion 
was organized. A record now in existence shows that in 1826 school 
district No. i of the town of Barre had within its limits 105 children of 
school age. The public schools of the village continued under the 
common school system without special registration or change"till 1876. 
A more complete sketch of the educational institutions of Albion ap- 
pears in a previous chapter. 

Initiatory steps were taken November 27, 1871, towards establishing 
a public library, and in December it was suggested that the school 
hbrary be added. During the year 1872 entertainments were given for 
the purpose of raising funds and on March 24, 1873, the Albion Library 
Association was incorporated, the first trustees being E. K. Hart, John 
A. Straight, F. D Ingersoll, A. B. Bailey, C. A. King, J. V. Lewis, 
and G. F. Sawyer. Five hundred shares of stock of $10 each were 
issued and taken, and by July of that year the association had over 
1,000 volumes. The library was opened to the public in rooms in the 
Hemlock Sickels block on Main street on August 6, 1873. This library 
was afterward burned with the block. A village library now occupies 
quarters in the Union Free School building in connection with the 
regular school library, which contains 4,000 volumes. The public 
hbrary comprises 2,500 volumes, and both are under the supervision ot 
the Board of Education. A portion of this library was purchased with 
insurance money from the old library. In 1892 a charter was granted 
under the laws of the State to J. H. White, George W. Ough, Charles 
H. Moore, I. M. Thompson, John Cunneen, E. T. Coann, E. K. Hart, 
O. H. Taylor, and Isaac S. Signor, members of the Board of Educa- 
tion, and their successors in office, and the library is now a village 
library under the State law, subject to the rules and regulations of the 
Regents of the University. 

The Albion Historical Society was instituted in 1871 chiefly through 
the active instrumentality of Rev. Dr. Walsworth, then pastor of the 
Presbyterian church. At the meetings of this society papers and 
essays were presented and oral discussions were had on historical and 
literary topics, and these exercises were so fruitful in good results that 
the society soon came to number more than a hundred members, too 
many for the greatest mutual profit that might be derived from such an 



272 LANDMARKS OF 

association. It was therefore deemed proper to divide the society, and 
to hmit the membership to fifty. Accordingly, in 1876, 

The Albion Historical Conversation Club was formed, and both 
societies have since been highly prosperous, and they are exceedingly 
popular among the most highly cultivated gentlemen and ladies of the 
place. The last named limits its exercises, as indicated, by its name, to 
conversations on and oral discussions of such topics as are deemed of 
historical, literary, or scientific interest The first president of the 
original society was Rev. Dr. Walsworth, followed by George H. Sickels, 
Irving M. Thompson, and Freeman A. Greene, who now occupies the 
position at present. E. T. Coann has been president of the Conversa- 
tion Club from its organization. 

Mount Albion Cemetery. — During more than thirty years after 
the first settlement in Albion interments were made in the dififerent 
burial places that were established in the vicinity, in accordance with 
the custom of those times. The people of this village buried their dead 
in the old graveyard near the stone mill ; but as time went on the un- 
suitableness as well as the narrow limits of this burial place became evi- 
dent. At that time, too, people were coming more than ever before 
awake to the propriety of selecting for places of sepulture localities, the 
natural beauty of which rendered them desirable for this purpose, and 
of establishing cemetery associations on a financial basis that would 
render certain the proper care of these cemeteries in future time. The 
project of starting such a cemetery here was for some time talked of, 
but no definite action was taken till early in 1842, when a meeting was 
held and a committee consisting of Arad Thomas and Lorenzo Burrows 
was appointed to formulate such amendments to the village charter as 
would authorize the trustees to purchase land without the limits of the 
corporation for cemetery purposes. Instead of proposing amendments 
the committee drew up an entire new charter, which was passed by 
the Legislature April i, 1842. Soon afterward, at another meeting of 
the citizens, Alexis Ward and Lorenzo Burrows w ere appointed a com- 
mittee to select a locality for the proposed cemetery. After the lapse 
of nearly a year they decided to recommend the ground since occu- 
pied, some two miles east and south from the village. They learned 
the terms on which the property could be purchased, and at a meeting 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 273 

called for the purpose made their report^ and recommended an im- 
mediate purchase. The meeting ahiiost unanimously adopted the re- 
port and passed a resolution authorizing the trustees to make the pur- 
chase, which they did in May, 1843. The ground included twenty-five 
acres, and was purchased of Jacob Annis and Lyman O. Patterson at 
forty dollars per acre. It consisted of sand hills and glens, and a por- 
tion of it had never been improved. A more beautiful locality for a 
cemetery could not be found in this region. The cemetery was laid 
out and was dedicated on the 7th of September, 1843. Lots were 
at once sold, and the sales aggregated an amount nearly equal to the 
cost of the tract. The first lot graded and occupied was prepared for 
the burial of Coddington VV. Swan, esq., in October, 1843. During the 
first nineteen years the cemetery was in charge of the trustees of the 
village. The grounds were enclosed, but the improvements in the way 
of grading and ornamentation of lots was done by the owners of such 
lots, without supervision, and what little was done was not in accord- 
ance with any regular plan. A receiving vault was built, and also a 
keeper's house. 

The necessity for a reform in the administration of the affairs of the 
cemetery became apparent, and in 1862 an amendment to the charter 
was procured authorizing the appointment by the trustees of three 
commissioners to manage these affairs, and defining their powers and 
duties. These commissioners are appointed one each year, and each 
holds office during three years. The first commissioners were : Lem- 
uel C. Paine, for one year; Lorenzo Burrows, two years; and Henry J. 
Sickels, three years. These have been succeeded as vacancies have 
occurred by death or otherwise, by Charles H. Moore, Hon. E. Kirke 
Hart, William Hallock and others. The present commissioners are : 
William Hallock, president; William G. Swan, treasurer ; and C. M. C. 
Reynolds. The secretary is W. C. Ramsdale. 

The first act of the commissioners was the appointment of Michael 
Hanley as superintendent of the grounds. Under an arrangement with 
the trustees he had previously occupied this position, and was recently 
succeeded in it by John Bidelman. In 1874 fifteen acres were added 
on the west side of the original purchase, and in 1884 thirty acres lying 
west from that were purchased, making a total of seventy acres. The 



274 LANDMARKS OF 

grounds are beautifully laid put and ornamented, and are traversed in 
all directions by walks and drives. A chapel has been built for burial 
services, and in the rear of this, and opening into it, is a capacious re- 
ceiving vault. An acre of land on the opposite side of the road from 
the cemetery has been purchased, and on it a house and barn have been 
erected, and the house on the cemetery lancj, which the sexton previ- 
ously occupied, has been removed. This cemetery is the place of burial, 
not only for the people of Albion, but for those of a large region adja- 
cent. Many costly and imposing monuments have been erected by 
surviving friends in honor of those interred here, and on the highest 
ground in the cemetery stands a turreted monument eighty- five feet in 
height, erected in honor of the soldiers and sailors of the county who 
were killed or died in service. " This was erected in 1874-76. An 
association was formed for the purpose in 1864 and an attempt was 
made to raise the necessary funds for its erection. It was slow work, 
and the amount raised was small. Finally an organization, which in 
1868 was incorporated as the ' Orleans County Monument Association,' 
was formed. The corporators were : E. T. Coann, H. J. Vandusen, E. 
K. Hart, J. M. Cornell, C. G. Beach, J. N. Proctor, C. A. Harrington, 
J. H. White, Walker Mattison, S. S. Spencer, H. A. King, H. E. 
Sickels. The work was commenced in 1874, the association then hav- 
ing on hand about $3,000, which amount was supplemented by $2,000 
from the Cemetery Association. The monument was dedicated in the 
spring of 1876. From its top, which is reached by spiral stairs inside, 
and at an altitude of 400 feet above the waters of Lake Ontario, 
may be seen the shores of Canada on the north, the villages of Le Roy 
and Batavia on the south, Holley and Brockport on the east, and the 
mists of Niagara on the west. On tablets on the inner walls of the 
monument are inscribed the names of the soldier dead of Orleans 
county." 

The Ladies' Union Charitable Society was organized September 9, 
1864, to aid in contributing relief to soldiers' families in the village and 
vicinity. The first officers were Mrs. Julia A. Smith, president; Mrs. 
Spencer, first vice-president; Mrs. Charles Harrington, second vice- 
president; Mrs William G. Swan, treasurer, and Miss Lena Graves, 
secretary. The first Board of Managers consisted of Mrs. Lorenzo 




^.^.jI^^ 



ORLEANS C0UNT7. 275 

Burrows, Mrs. Roswell S. Burrows, Mrs. J. Roraback, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. 
A. J. Grover, Mrs. William Beckwith and Mrs. H. W. Preston. Dur- 
ing the first year it aided thirty-five families, and so important a factor 
did it become as a charitable institution that it continued its operations 
after the war closed, and on April 19, 1883, was incorporated under 
the laws of the State of New York. Since then the society has received 
two legacies — one of $50 from Abram H. Goodman and another of 
$100 from Mrs. Julia Smith. The present membership is about forty, 
and from twenty- five to forty families are aided each year Mrs. Will- 
iam G. Swan served as treasurer from the organization till 1887, since 
which time she has been the secretary. Mrs. G. H. Sickels, sr , the 
present president, succeeded Mrs. S. P. Morehouse in that position in 
1883. The other officers are Mrs. H. W. Preston, first vice president ; 
Mrs. Charles E. Millspaugh, second vice president. 

The Bank of Orleans was incorporated April 30, 1834, with a capital 
stock of $300,000. It was the first banking institution in Orleans 
county, and was established by Roswell S. and Lorenzo Burrows under 
the so-called safety fund system. Its place of business was in a build- 
ing on the present site of the Orleans County National bank, and it con- 
tinued in operation until it suspended in 1857. 

The Bank of Albion, organized and incorporated under the general 
banking law, commenced business July 15, 1839, and, according to its 
charter, was to continue operations until January i, 2039. December 
23, 1863, however, it was reorganized and incorporated as the First Na- 
tional Bank of Albion, with a capital of $100,000, which was the first 
national bank formed in Orleans county. Of both these banks Roswell 
S. Burrows owned a majority of the stock, and of the latter he was 
president until his death in 1879, when Alexander Stewart succeeded to 
the position. He died in 1884, and Albert S. Warner became presi- 
dent. The bank failed in 1884. 

The Orleans County National Bank was incorporated August 9, 1865, 
with a capital of $ioo,000, and with the following officers : Elizur Hart, 
president; J. M. Cornell, cashier. Upon the death of Mr. Hart Mr. 
Cornell became president, and was succeeded at his death in 1890 by 
Hon. E. Kirke Hart. He died in February, 1893, when his son, Charles 
E. Hart, became the executive officer and still holds the position. J. 



276 LANDMARKS OF 

W. Cornell is cashier and George T. S. Foote is teller. This bank has 
now a capital stock of $100,000 and a surplus of $80,000, and is re- 
garded as one of the most substantial financial institutions in Western 
New York. Its place of business is on the southwest corner of Main 
and West Rank streets. 

Coann's Bank. — October 11, 1870, E. T. Coann commenced business 
as a private banker. His first place of business was on the north side 
of Bank street, a few doors east from Main. Thence, in 1875, he re- 
moved to the Granite block and subsequently to Swan's block. In 1884 
the increase of his business had come to require more ample accommo- 
dations, and he removed to the place that had been occupied by the 
First National Bank of Albion in the Burrows block, on the east side 
of Main street, where he has since been located. E. T. Coann is presi- 
dent and R. T. Coann is cashier, and C. R. Sawyer is teller. 

In 1833 Ward, Clark & Rathbun built the stone grist mill where the 
canal crosses Sandy Creek. They operated it for a time and were suc- 
ceeded by Alexis Ward. It then became the property of Ward & Wil- 
son, who were succeeded by Orson Tousley and John B. Lee. James 
Lee succeeded Mr. Tousley in this firm, and afterward Jerome Lee, son 
of James, became the sole owner. The property then passed to Hannah 
Smith, who, in 1885, sold it to its present owner, George Sprague, who 
refitted it in 1886. 

In 1877 John H. Denio built the Central flouring mill. It was a 
stone structure three stories in height, and it had four runs of stones. 
It was conducted for a time by Collins & Collins, but it has ceased to 
be used as a mill, and the building is utilized for a shoe manufactory 
and for mercantile purposes. It stands on the east side of Main street, 
between State and Bank streets. R. W. Van Stone has a small frame 
grist mill on Sandy Creek, in the east part of the village. 

About 1845 Hiram Curtis built a foundry on the southeast corner of 
Main and Orchard streets, north from the canal. In addition to a gen- 
eral foundry business he engaged in the manufacture of plows, which 
were long in general use among the farmers of Orleans county. Dur- 
ing the latter years of his life he also manufactured mowing machines. 
He died in 1870, and for the period of a year the business was con- 
ducted by the administrator of his estate. In the spring of 1871 the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 277 

Curtis Manufacturing Company was organized with a capital of $50,000, 
and they purchased the Curtis property. They engaged in the manu- 
facture of agricultural implements, including mowers and reapers, and 
to some extent of general machinery. The works have been twice de- 
stroyed by fire, but were each time promptly rebuilt. The company 
failed a year or two ago, and the property has been purchased by Clark 
& Willyoung, who have since conducted the establishment. 

In 1 88 1 H. F. Cady built a dry dock near where the canal crosses 
the west branch of Sandy Creek. This consists of two slips, each capa- 
ble of receiving boats of the largest size drawing seven feet of water. 
At this dock Mr. Cady follows the business of building and repairing 
boats. He has built eleven here, and has made repairs on an average 
of 500 each year. From ten to twenty hands are employed. Mr. Cady 
has built two other hydraulic docks on the Rochester level — one at 
Lockport and another at Middleport. He is the oldest boat builder on 
the canal, and since 1846 has constructed a total of 290 canal boats. 

Sears Brothers' wagon and carriage manufactory was established in a 
part of their present building by their father, Henry Sears, in the fall 
of 1840. The present proprietors assumed sole charge upon the death 
of the father in February, 1893. 

The Rogers evaporator and cider-mill was built in 1886 by L. R. 
Rogers, on McKinstry street, in the eastern part of the village. It was 
at first an evaporator only, but machinery for making cider was added 
in 1889, and a large business is done in both branches. 

The Blanchard Vinegar Company was organized in the autumn of 1 889 
by seven citizens of Albion, with a paid-up capital of $16,000, which 
has since been increased to $25,000, all paid up. The company pur- 
chased a plant which Kirk S. Blanchard had established in the preced- 
ing summer. The business of this company is the manufacture of cider 
and pure cider vinegar, and the evaporation of fruit. The works have 
a capacity for producing daily 300 barrels of cider and three tons of 
evaporated fruit. Eighty hands are employed during the working sea- 
son. The officers of the company are William Hallock, president; Kirk 
D. Sheldon, vice-president; Webster D. Hatch, secretary, and E. L. 
Wage, treasurer. 



278 LANDMARKS OF 

September i, 1888, the Albion Shoe Manufacturing Company was 
organized with a capital of $10,000. William G. Swan was president 
until December, 1890, when D. W. Blood and George W. Potter pur- 
chased the business. December 7, 1892, Mr. Blood became sole owner, 
and has since conducted it. Children's and infants' shoes are made ex- 
clusively. 

In 1 88 1 E. D. Skinner erected a warehouse opposite the depot. 
This was burned in 1885, and the present structure was built on the 
same site, and to it a feed-mill was added in 1890. Mr. Skinner carries 
on business as a wholesale dealer in produce and as a retail dealer in 
coal, wood and feed. 

The Albion Mineral King Spring was opened on the old Bailey farm 
by its present owner, John H. Denio, in 1889. The water from this 
spring compares favorably with the celebrated " steel water " and " iron 
springs" of Pyrmont and Wiesbaden in Germany, and is not dissimilar 
as a drink to the Apollinaris water of that country. A confirmed anal- 
ysis of this water presents the following medicinal character : Water 
Alkaline and Chalybeate. One gallon of the same contains the min- 
eral substances named and the quantity of each and all as specified : 

Sulphate of Iron 7.75 

Sulphate of Magnesia 2.50 

Carbonate of Calcium 2 

Sulphate of Sodium 5.25 

Phosphate of Allumina 2 

Chloride of Stanus 1.25 

Organic Matter 2.55 

Potassium Arseniate traces 

Carbonic Acid G-as ; , fair quantity 

Grains : 23.00 

The water is bottled and used for medicinal and table purposes. 
C. M. Mallory started a factory for the manufacture of the "Victor" 
carpet stretcher in January, 1889. He also makes cabinets and tables, 
and occupies a building 36 by lOO feet, an engine house 22x25, and a 
storage 20x50, and when in full operation employs fifteen to twenty 
men. Mr. Mallory is also lessee of the Albion Mineral King Spring. 

In 1887 B. Frank Morgan succeeded Warner & Sheldon as proprie- 
tor of a warehouse near the depot, and in 1891 he admitted Lyman S. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 279 

Linson under the firm name of Morgan & Linson. Mr. Morgan built 
their present elevator in 1888. The firm are extensive dealers in coal, 
mason's supplies, and produce, and handle large quantities of beans 
each season. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Albion. — The First Congregational 
Society, of Barre was organized at the house of Joseph Hart on the 5th 
of November, 18 16. Some of the members of this church preferred 
Presbyterian form of government, and the village of Newport had begun 
to give promise of future importance. It was therefore resolved to 
form a Presbyterian Church here, which was done on the 22d of July, 
1824, and the place of worship of the Congregational Society was 
changed to "Benton's Corners," two miles south. The constituent 
members of the First Presbyterian Church of Albion were : Jedediah 
Phelps and Deborah, his wife ; Joseph Hart and Lucy, his wife ; Ebe- 
nezer Rogers and Elizabeth, his wife ; Harvey Goodrich and Lucy, his 
wife; Franklin Cowdry and Amanda, his wife ; James Smith and wife, 
Artemas Thayer, Fay Clark, Lavina Bassett, and Miss Betsey Phelps 
In 1849 ^^''- Phelps, in whose house the church was organized, died at 
the age of ninety years. One week after the organization of this 
church Jedediah Phelps, Joseph Hart, and Harvey Goodrich were 
chosen elders, and Joseph Hart deacon. On that occasion Alpheus 
Barrett, the first person received into the church on profession of faith, 
was admitted. Mr. and Mrs. Milton W. Hopkins were received by let- 
ter, and their infant daughter (Flora Ann) was baptized — the first in- 
fant baptism. At the close of 1824, or six months after the organiza- 
tion of the church, the number of members was twenty- two. The 
place of worship was then a school house standing on the west side of 
Main street, a few rods north of the railroad. Subsequently it was at times 
held in a barn till 1827, when an arrangement was made for the use of 
the court house. In 1826 the society connected with this church was 
first organized. Sixty- six persons subscribed their names, agreeing to 
become supporters of public worship in connection with this church. 
Of these none are living. In 1830 the first move was made in the 
direction of building a house of worship. In February of that year, 
at a meeting held for the purpose, it was resolved to erect a brick 
church edifice, the cost of which should be within $4,000. The corner 



280 LANDMARKS OF 

stone was laid in August of that year ; the basement was used for serv- 
ice in October; and the house was dedicated in the autumn of 1831. 
It stood on the west side of Main, between State and Park streets, and 
in 1845 it was sold to the Episcopalians, who still occupy it. In 1845- 
46 the society erected their second church building. It stands on the 
north side of State street, opposite the court house, and has been con- 
verted into a chapel, a large Sunday-school room, and a suite of parlors. 
The expense of erecting this building was $9,160, and among its fur- 
nishings were an organ and bell costing $1,950. East from this, on 
the corner of State and Piatt streets, stands the parsonage ; west, and 
adjoining the brick church building, stands the large stone church on 
the corner of State and Main streets. It was built in 1872, at a total 
cost of $80,000. B. C. Deane, of Buffalo, was the contractor, and A. 
J. Warner, of Rochester, the architect. The erection of this magnifi- 
cent edifice was largely due to the munificence of Elizur Hart, who, in 
his will, bequeathed to the society the sum of $50,000 for this purpose, 
and an additional $5,000 as a permanent fund for tlie Sunday-school. 
The church edifice is of Medina sandstone quarried from the immediate 
vicinity, and is surmounted by a symmetrical spire. It is of the but- 
tressed Gothic style of architecture, and stands on a lot purchased by 
the society for $10,000. The interior is tastefully decorated and fur- 
nished and supplied with a powerful pipe organ. The old brick par- 
sonage was replaced by the present structure in 1893 at a cost of $20,- 
000, a large part of which was subscribed by E. Kirk Hart and John 
W, Hart. It is one of the finest parsonages in Western New York. E. 
Kirk Hart, John W. Hart, and Jane E. Luther comprised the building 
committee. 

The pastors of this church have been • 

Revs. William Johnson, Lewis Cheeseman, B. J. Lane, Luke Lyon, Gilbert Crawford, 
F. D. Ward, E. R. Beadle, John Keep, John Buckridge, D. D.; W. H. McHarg, A. L. 
Brooks, J. T. Coit, B. R. Welch, H. E. Niles, Lyell T. Adams, Samuel F. Bacon, Anson 
Gr. Chester, E. B. Walsworth, D. D., and George F. Cain. Mr. Cain died in the pulpit 
September 21, 1890. Rev. Edward Huntting Rudd has been pastor since April, 1891. 
The ruling elders are G. H. Sickels, William H. Pendry, C. J. Day, Alexander Cary, 
Henry Bingham, D. S. Beckwith, and Veder Cole. The constituent members of this 
church at its formation numbered sixteen ; the present membership is about 400. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 281 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Albion, — The first Methodist 
preaching in the district embracing Albion was in i8i6, by Revs. D, 
Sheppardson and W. Locke; and in 1818 a class of twenty members 
was formed in what was known as the Brown district. In 1826 Rev. 
John Copeland preached in the village school house, and three years 
later, through the efforts of Hon. Gideon Hard, the court house was 
secured as a place of worship. The first class and society, consisting 
of eleven members, was soon afterward organized, and the result 
of a revival at about that time was the conversion of about lOO 
persons. The first quarterly meeting in the village was held by Rev. 
Asa Abell P. E., of Buffalo, in 1830. Measures were soon afterward 
adopted for the erection of a church building, and a sufficient sum was 
subscribed to warrant the undertaking. Nehemiah Ingersoll donated 
for the purpose a lot on the corner of State and Market (now Piatt) 
streets, and the house was completed and dedicated in 1832. In 
1833 Albion became a station under the pastorate of Rev. Philo Wood- 
worth, and in 1844 it was part of the Niagara district. In 1845 ^ 
parsonage on State street was purchased. The membership was 192 in 
1852, but in 1854 discord entered the society, and in 1859 a large num- 
ber seceded. In i860 61 the church was rebuilt at an expense of 
$6,000, and in the latter year the Genesee Conference held its session 
in Albion. In 1865 the old parsonage was exchanged for a lot on State 
street, adjoining the church, and on this a parsonage was erected at a 
cost of $3,500. In 1873 the Western New York Conference held its 
session here. In 1876 there was a large addition to the membership, 
which then came to number more than 300. This increase necessitated 
larger accommodations, and in 1877 78 the church building was en- 
larged and refurnished at an expense of $8,ooo. It was dedicated as 
enlarged April iith of the latter year. The present membership is 
about 350. The following pastors have served this society since 1832 : 

Revs. P. Woodworth, S. P. Keyes, W. J. Kent, E. B. Fuller, D. P, Parsons, C. S. 
Davis, A. M. Fillmore, D. Nutting, J. F. Arnold, H. N. Seaver, P. E. Brown, A. D. 
Wilbur, J. M. Fuller, C. D. Burlingame, P. Woodworth, W. C. Kendall, B. T. Roberts, 
Loren Stiles, G. De La Matyr, Schuyler Seager, S. Hunt, G. G. Lyon, Allen Steele, H. 
R. Smith, E. C. Rice, A. D. Wilbur, R. E. Brownlee, S. McGerald, E. E. Chambers, E. 
H. Latimer, J. W. Sanborn, Thomas Cardus, and Charles E. Millspaugh, the present in- 
cumbent. L. H. Beach is superintendent of the Sunday-school. 



282 LANDMARKS OF 

The Baptist Church of Albion. — The first church of any denomina- 
tion organized in Orleans county was a Baptist Church, organized in 
Gaines in 1820. From this grew the Baptist Church of Albion, and by 
the church at Albion it was finally absorbed. In 1824 the Baptists and 
Congregationalists of the county united in building a house of worship 
in Gaines. Gaines, at that time located on the Ridge road, the main 
thoroughfare then between the east and west, was the chief center of 
population and influence in the county. After the opening of the Erie 
Canal in 1825, the center of population and influence began to change, 
and Albion soon became the more important point. A few Baptists 
were living there. Rev. Arab Irons, pastor at Gaines, came occasion- 
ally to Albion and conducted worship in the school house, that then 
stood on the west side of Main street (then Batavia street), a little north 
of where the railroad now crosses. 

Desiring more regular services the Baptists living in Albion proposed 
to the church at Gaines to join with them in the support of a pastor, 
whose time and labor should be divided between the two points. The 
spirit of rivalry then prevailing between the two villages, and the de- 
sire of the Gaines church to have the undivided services of a pastor, 
caused them to decline the proposition. Measures were then taken to 
organize a separate church in Albion. The first meeting toward such 
organization was a conference of resident Baptists held on April 2, 1830, 
at the residence of Alderman Butts, on Main street near the school 
house. After the appointment of a committee to request letters of dis- 
mission from the Gaines church, the meeting adjourned to meet in 
the court house on April 17. The church at Gaines acceded to the re- 
quest, and in the Orleans county court house, on April 17, 1830, the 
organization of the First Baptist Church at Albion was effected. Eddy 
B. Paine was elected clerk and Phinehas Briggs and Barnuel Farr were 
elected deacons, and a formal call was extended to Rev. Arab Irons to 
become pastor of the new organization, he having at that time been 
succeeded in the pastorate at Gaines by the Rev. Hervey Blood. At 
the same meeting an ecclesiastical council was called for the formal 
recognition of the newly organized church. The council met in the 
court house May 6. Rev. Zenas Case, jr., was moderator; Rev. Calvin 
Bateman, clerk. Rev. Jirah D. Cole preached from Ps. 20, 5 : "In 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 283 

the name of our Lord we will set up our banners." The First Baptist 
Church of Albion was duly recognized. The following twenty-six 
persons were the constituent members : 

Rev. A.rah Irons, pastor ; Phinehas Briggs and Barnuel Farr, deacons ; Eddy B. Paine, 
church clerk ; Alderman Butts, Lydia Butts, Hannah Farr, Sally Paine, Isaac F. Leland, 
Rachael Leland, Veluria Leland, William Irons, Jesse Mason, Hannah B. Mason, Unice 
L. Mason, Jesse Bumpus, Sarah Bumpus, Alphens French, Nancy French, David Dun- 
ham, Sarah Dunham, Robert Beaver, Eleazer Risley, Lydia Loomis, Matilda Loveland, 
Phoebe Loveland, 

The church was legally incorporated as a religious society on De- 
cember 22, 1830, with Alderman Butts, Lewis Warner, Barnuel Farr, 
Roswell S Burrows and Sydney Barrell as the first Board of Trustees. 
The first Sunday school was held in January, 1831, with Barnuel Farr 
as superintendent. For several months after the organization all ser- 
vices were held in the school house. After that the court house was 
used until the first house of worship was dedicated in 1832. The first 
Baptist meeting house of Albion stood on the west side of Main street, 
on the lot next north of the Burrows mansion. The church worshiped 
in this edifice twenty-eight years, until i860, when under the pastorate 
of Rev. A. C. Barrell the present fine edifice was dedicated. 

The following tabulated statement shows the purchases by the church 
of real estate and chief improvements : 

First church lot, bought of Sidney Barrell March 80, 1831 $ 400 

First church edifice on said lot, 1832 ; first cost 7,000 

First parsoaage, State Street, bought of M. L. Warner October 8, 1850 2,625 

Present church lot, Park street, bought of Presbyterian Churcli August 4, 1858 3,000 

Present church edifice, built 1860 ; first cost 22,107 

Present parsonage, Park street, bought of 0. Nichoson, 1865 4,500 

Organ built by House, 1883 4,200 

Chapel, Sunday school room, parlors, etc. , built 1887 9,800 

The present church edifice with chapel, organ and furniture, cost 
about $40,000. Since the organization of the church to July, 1894, 
there have been received into its membership as communicants 2,239 
persons. The present number of communicants is 537. The church 
has been greatly favored with a succession of able devoted and success- 
ful pastors. The following have filled the pastoral office during the 
time and for the terms given , 



2g4 LANDMARKS OF 

Arab Irons, May 1, 1830, to May 1, 1833 ; Whitman Metcalf, May 1, 1833, to January 
1, 1838; John E. Maxwell, August 1, 1838, to May 1, 1839 ; Eleazar Savage, May 1, 
1839, to May 1, 1840; Aaron Jackson, May 1, 1840, to May 1, 1844; John Smitzer, 
January 1, 1845, to January 1, 1846; John N. Murdock, January 1, 1846, to September 
1, 1848; Silas Ilsley, July 1, 1849, to January 1, 1854; Almond C. Barrel, January 1, 
1855, to January 1, 1863; John B. Jackson, May 1, 1863, to January 1, 1867; Everett 
R. Sav?yer, June 1, 1867, to December 1, 1869 ; J. W. B. Clark, April 27, 1870, to 
April 28, 1879; William H. Sloan, October 1, 1879, to October 1, 1884; Abraham C. 
Osborne, January 1, 1885, present incumbent. 

Those who have served the church as deacons are the following with 
the date of their election to the ofifice : 

Phinehas Brigg, April 17, 1830; Barnuel Farr, April 17, 1830; Rufus Reed, April 
15, 1840; Archibald L. Daniels, October 26, 1842; Samuel Williams, October 26, 1842; 
Lemuel 0. Paine, October 26 1842; Justus Barber, October 26, 1842; Ambrose Wood, 
April 5, 1848; Paul Pratt, February 2, 1856; William P. Morgan, February 2, 1856; 
James H. Oetty, March 5, 1864; Nelson W. Butts, March 5, 1864; Solmon L. Farr, 
February 1, 1873; W. H. Dorrance, February 9, 1873; J. Madison Barker, February 1, 
1873 ; Nelson J. Hale, April 30, 1881 ; Andrew J. Robinson, April 30, 1881 ; Eldredge 
S. Chester, March 3, 1883 ; Franklin Goodnow, March 3, 1883 ; Vinton Walworth, 
March 3, 1883; George R. Williams, July 3, 1886; George W. Barrel!, June 3, 1891 ; 
B. Franklin Morgan, January 3, 1894. 

Of the above the following are at present time (July, 1894) in ofifice: 

James H. Getty, Solmon L. Farr, Nelson J. Hale, Eldredge S. Chester, George R. 
Williams, George W. Barrell, B. Franklin Morgan. 

The Sunday school superintendents have been : 

Barnuel Farr, Sidney Burrell, Ambrose Wood, William D. West, Hiram S. Golf, 
Joseph M. Cornell, Henry L. Achilles, Oliver Morehouse, Franklin S. Lyon, John G. 
Sawyer, George W. Barrell, Edwin L. Wage, B. Franklin Morgan, Lyman S. Linson, 
Gurdon W. Fitch. 

The present Board of Trustees (July, 1894) are William G. Swan, 
chairman, E. L. Wage, W. E. Barker, A. Loveland, B. F. Morgan. The 
clerk of the board and also clerk of the church is George W. Barrell. 

Christ Church (Protestant Episcopal) of Albion. — In June, 1844, 
Rev. Orrin Miller and Rev. Samuel Bowles, the latter rector of 
St. James's Church, Batavia, visited Albion with a view of estab- 
lishing an Episcopal church. They at first found but two church 
people and the outlook was not encouraging. Nevertheless, they 
resolved to make the effort. Mr. Miller removed his family to Al- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 285 

bion and engaged earnestly in the work of seeking out church fami- 
h'es and others who favored the organization of a church. On the i6th 
of June service was held in the assembly room of the gentlemen's 
academy, but for some reason now difficult to appreciate an opposition 
to the formation of a society was developed among other denominations, 
and the trustees of the academy "unceremoniously shut the building 
against the service of the church without giving previous notice of their 
intention." The congregation met on the common and retired to a pri- 
vate house (the residence of the late Charles A. Harrington, then resid- 
ing on Bank street), where services were held. This act aroused public 
sympathy, and the friends of the church rallied, rented a room, filled it 
with seats, railing, altar, pulpit, etc. At the meeting held to organize 
the parish July 29, 1844, the following named gentlemen were elected 
wardens and vestrymen : 

Senior warden, Marsena Ballard; junior warden, William Walker; vestrymen, 
Thomas S. Clark, Joshua Rathbone, John Mattinson, Edwin Wilbur, Charles A. Har- 
rington, George W. Bedell, Hercules Reed and Charles Thurston. 

At this meeting there were present, beside those elected officers, 
Henry C. Woolford, Andrew Wall, Miles Sill, W. D. Gale, Thomas Lar- 
wood and Zephaniah Clark, Charles A. Harrington being appointed sec- 
retary. At the diocesan convention which met that year on the 31st 
of August, the parish was admitted into union with the diocese. So 
efficiently did the vestrymen and friends of the parish work that within 
four months a lot was purchased and preparations were made to build a 
church. At that time the Presbyterian society had grown too large for 
its house of worship and they proposed to exchange their "meeting 
house" for the lot and materials which Christ Church had procured. 
The exchange was made, the building on Main street was remodeled to 
accord with the requirements and tastes of its purchasers, and it is still 
the place of worship of Christ Church. 

"August 18. Baptism was administered to three infants." A list 
of thirty-three communicants "admitted and received at this time, 
most of whom were present," as given by the Rev. Mr. Miller, is as fol- 
lows : 

Males : Marsena Ballard, Ebenezer Lockwood, Thomas S. Duning, William Walker, 
John Mattinson, Hercules Reed, Romuel Rawdon. Females: Mrs. Lavinia Ballard 



286 LANDMARKS OF 

Mrs. Mary Louisa Wilbur, Mrs. Sophia E. Wall, Mrs. Nancy A. Benjamin, Mrs. Caroline 
Hardin, Mrs. Elizabeth Walker, Miss Margaret Walker, Mrs. Hannah Harrington, Miss 
Angeline St. Clair, Mrs. Joanna Larwood, Mrs. Lucinda Reed, Mrs. Hardin, Mrs. Sarah 
Sill, Mrs. Margaret Walker, Mrs. Ann Mary Woolford, Mrs. Eunice Lockwood, Mrs. 
Matilda Bingham, Mrs. Mary Mattmson. Miss Hannah Mattmson, Mrs. Mary Jane 
Benton, Mrs. Patience St. Clair, Mrs. Sarah Rathbone, Mrs. Ann Miller, Mrs. Mary 
Rawdon, Mrs. Elizabeth Dochery, Miss Jane Bird. 

The congregation has gradually increased, and now (1894) numbers 
208 cotnmunicants. To the church there is attached a guild house, and 
the parish possesses a rectory. It has an endowment of $1 i,ooo- The 
church property is valued at $15,000, and the parish has a Sunday- 
school of over 100 scholars. The present wardens are Franklin Clarke 
and W. Crawford Ramsdale. The rectors of the parish have been Revs. 
Oren Miller, Pascall Pembroke Kidder, Malcolm Douglass, William 
M. Carmichael, Andrew Mackey, Robert N. Park, Levi Ward Smith, 
George W. Southwell, Edwin Coann, Michael Scofield, Reynold M. 
Kirby, Francis Gelbart, Elihu T. Sanford, James H. Barnard and 
Francis S. Dunham. 

The Rev. Francis S. Dunham became rector of this parish Septem- 
ber 15, 1883. The following summer the spire was remodeled and 
other improvements made both to the exterior and interior of the 
church. 1885, a chapel was erected, the late Mrs. Abby Lord Bruen 
having left a request that $500 from her estate be devoted to that pur- 
pose. At the laying of the corner stone there were present of the 
reverend clergy, besides the rector, the Rev. Dr. Doty, Dr. Seibt, W. 
W. Walsh, S. H. Cook, G. W. Southwell, Noble Palmer and Sidney 
Wilbur. 1888, the ceiling of the church, which was of plaster, was re- 
moved, and replaced by one of wood, at a cost of over $1,000, and a 
surpliced choir was introduced. 

" Very mindful have been the families and friends of those dear de- 
parted ones who for years were laborers in our spiritual vineyard, and 
who now are at rest. We here give a list of the memorials which 
loving hearts have given to the parish in their honor : 

1. The font — an unusually beautiful one — was given by the parish in memory of 
Thomas S. Clark, who was for many years a warden of this church. 

2. A white marble altar is the gift of Dr. Samuel R. Cochrane in loving remem- 
brance of his father, William Cochrane. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 287 

3. The altar shelf or gradine is from Mr. and Mrs. William W. Alray, commemorat- 
ing a daughter, Eliza Almy, who early "fell on sleep." 

4. The beautiful altar cross, the loving tribute of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Moore to 
their daughter, Alice Kidder Moore. 

5. The first pair of vases, tbe gif t of a bereaved mother, and which at both Christ- 
mas and Easter are filled with rarest flowers, is in memoriam Frank Green, aged six 
years. 

6. The alms basin, given by the Sunday school in memory of the faithful Sunday 
school teacher, Mrs. Vienna Howard Stiles, who left a legacy of $1,000 to the parish. 

7. An altar book-rest, a memorial presented by Mrs. Lydia Green Warner. 

8. The artistic and costly altar rail, given by the late Charles H. Moore, to com- 
memorate the devotion and love for the church of his wife, Marcia Harrington Moore. 

9. The lectern, in memory of Nehemiah IngersoU and Mrs. Elizabeth C. Ingersoll. 

10. A pulpit lectern in memory of the rectors of Christ Church parish who " rest 
from their labors." 

11. The font cover, a memorial of Mrs. Bel'a Wilson, presented by her husband, 
F rank Adelbert Wilson. 

12. A brass ewer for the font, in memory of two lambs of the fold, Louis and Edna 
Brown, from their parents, Mr. and Mrs. George Brown. 

13. A solid silver communion service, the loving memorial gift to the parish of Mrs. 
Samuel R. Cochrane of her parents, the Hon. Sanford E. Church and Ann, his wife. |;^ 

14. A stained glass window erected to the memory of Zephaniah Clark by his 
children. 

15. A stained glass window, the gift of Mrs. Hiram W. Preston, in remembrance of 
her husband and daughter. 

16. An organ for the chapel and Sunday school, in memory of Emma Blott, the 
loved and cherished daughter of Jonathan and Sarah Blott, the donors. 

17. The church organ, in memory of Jonathan Blott. 

18. The service books, given by Mr. and Mrs. Howard Abeel, memorials of their 
deceased children. 

19. Edward H. Clark, M. D., of New York, the eldest son of the late Mr. Zephaniah 
Clark, a number of years ago gave to the parish a valuable silver communion service — 
paten, chalice and flagon — to be used in administering the blessed sacrament to the sick. 
Accompanying it was a complete set of linen, corporal, pall and chalice veil. 

20. Two mural tablets perpetuate the memory of three of the first members of the 
church, who were identified with its best interests until from the church mihtant they 
found rest in the Church in Paradise. The first was erected to the memory of Charles 
A. Harrington and Harriet J. Harrington his wife, the other to Jonathan Blott. 

21. A copy of the Holy Scriptures — the Oxford edition, "appointed to be read 
in churches," given by Mrs. W. Crawford Ramsdale — in memory of her parents, Mr. 
Andrew and Mrs. Sophia Elizabeth Wall. 

22. The beautifnl hymn tablet is in memory of the late Miss Lizzie Wall, a 
greatly loved teacher in the village schools. It was erected by her fellow pupils in 
Miss Foster's Bible class. 



288 LANDMARKS OF 

The first marriage was solemnized by the Rev. Orrin Miller, October 27, 1844, and 
was that of Eunice Edmund to Cyrus Hull. The second marriage recorded, dated 
April 14, 1846, was that of Mary Jane Ballard to Freeman Butts, solemnized by 
the Rev. Pascal P. Kidder. During the past fifty years three hundred and fifty- 
eight burials are recorded in the parish register. The first was a child — Joseph A. 
Latin Lount, died August 2, 1844." ' 

St. Joseph's Church (Roman Catholic). — Two Cathohc families, those 
of John Welch and John Creen, were residents of Albion in 1829, and 
soon afterward Felix McCann and Samuel McCafifery with their families 
came. In 1833 the first mass was celebrated here, in a private house, 
by Rev. Father Weingan, of Lockport. A mission was established, 
here in that year, and it was attended at first from Lockport and after- 
ward from Medina. Mass was celebrated at first once a month in a 
private house, but as the congregation increased a room over one of the 
stores was hired. In June, 1849, ^t. Rev. Bishop Timon paid his first 
visit and selected the site for the church, which Rev. Father O'Connor 
completed in 1852, and the first mass was celebrated in it on Palm Sun- 
day, March 20, in that year. The first resident pastor was Rev. Father 
Byrne, who came in February, 1858 ; succeeded in November follow- 
ing by Rev. Father Bradley : followed in April, i860, by Father Barker 
and he in December, 1861, by Father Stevens. The latter remained 
till the appointment of the present pastor, Rev. John Castaldi, in Jan- 
uary, 1862. In the same year the present house was built, and was 
used as a pastoral residence till 1870, when it was occupied as a convent 
by the Sisters of Mercy, who came to Albion in that year, and Father 
Castaldi occupied a small office in the rear of the church. In 1876 the 
residence of Mrs. M J. English, with eight acres of land, on the west 
side of Main street, was purchased at a cost of $10,000, and the house 
is occupied as a convent by the Sisters. The Sisters took charge 
of the parochial school in 1870, and it still continues in their care. The 
Sister Superior, Sister Mary Alacogne, died in July, 1876, and Sister 
Mary Austin has ever since been at the head of the convent. 

The first religious reception and profession of a Sister of Mercy in 
St. Joseph's church took place in February, 1871. In March, 1876, 
two others were received here and two were also received in May, 1878. 

1 From memorial sermon by Rev. Francis S. Dunham. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 289 

The original cost of the school house and furniture, in 1870, was $3,000. 
An addition was made to it in 1872 at a cost of $1,500. In 1862 the 
church was repaired, in 1864 an addition to it was built, in 1867 the 
interior was tastefully decorated, and in 1884 it was again thoroughly 
repaired. Father Castaldi visited Europe in 1868, Rev. P. Moynihan 
officiating in his absence. He went again in 1881, Rev. Michael Cun- 
ningham acting as pastor, and again, in 1887, he, in company with 
Bishop Ryan, went to Europe and the Holy Land, Rev. A. R. Barlow 
taking charge in his absence. On the 26th of March, 1888, Father 
Castaldi and Bishop Ryan were made Knights of the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem. In 1887 the pastor of St. Joseph's church was made 
irremovable except with his own consent. The church now numbers 
about 1,000 members, or 800 communicants. April i, 1874, a tract 
of land covering 26 acres was purchased for burial purposes, and was 
consecrated the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery. 

The Free Methodist Church of Albion.— In the fall of 1859 
Rev. Loren Stiles, jr., pastor of the Methodist church in Albion, and a 
member of the Genesee Conference of the M. E. church, was expelled 
from the conference and church during what were known as the 
'• Genesee Conference troubles." He soon after organized a new church, 
and 185 members of the church from which he was expelled became 
members of the new organization. It was at first called the " Congre- 
gational Free Methodist church," but about a year after its formation 
it joined the Free Methodist Conference and dropped the word " Con- 
gregational " from its title. The first place of worship was the old 
academy, but the society at once proceeded to erect a church edi- 
fice, and in the spring of i860 they occupied the basement. The house 
was soon completed and was dedicated on May 18 in that year. It 
stands on the southeast corner of State and Piatt streets. Its cost in- 
cluding lot and sheds, was $I0,000. In 1875 a parsonage was pur- 
chased at a cost of $1,800. It stands on the west side of Piatt street, 
south from the jail. The pastors of this church have been : Revs. 
Loren Stiles, jr., Cornelius D. Brooks, John D. Reddy, A. O. Curry, 
James Matthews, George W, Coleman, George W. Marcellus, William 
Jackson, Anthony N, Moore, Joseph Travis, Samuel K. J. Chesbrough, 
Wilson T. Hogg, M. D. McDonald, J. G. Terrill, A. H. Bennett, C. C. 



290 LANDMARKS OF 

Eggleston, and John O'Regan. The society now has about 120 mem- 
bers and a Sunday-school with an average attendance of seventy-five, 
and with W. H. Grinnell as superintendent. Rev. A. K. Bacon, a 
charter member of this church, has been its local preacher most of 
the time since the organization. 

The Pullman Memorial Universalist Church of Albion was legally in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of New York on August 18, 
1891, with about lOO members, and with the following Board of Trus- 
tees : Three years, Charles A. Danolds, John Lattin, Mrs. Joseph S. 
Hart; two years, Sheldon E. Warner, Mrs. S. S. Spencer, William A. Tan- 
ner ; one year, J. D. Billings, AdelbertP. Chapman, Mrs. F. E. Kittredge. 
George Reed was treasurer and F. E. Kittredge clerk. This incorpor- 
ation was the result of a Universalist conference held in the court 
house on the 15th and i6th of July of the same year, when a tempo- 
rary organization was effected. Since then the society has had oc- 
casional preaching, but has never had a settled pastor. Shortly before 
the conference convened in Albion, Charles A. Danolds was a guest of 
Mrs. E. C. Pullman, at her summer home on the St Lawrence River. 
Her son, George M. Pullman, was visiting her at the time, and the sub- 
ject of Universalism in Orleans county, and the prominent part taken in 
it by his father, came up for discussion. The result was an offer by Mr. 
Pullman to build a church here as a memorial to his parents, on con- 
dition the Universalists would raise a fund adequate to provide for its 
care and maintenance. The requisite sum of $5,000 being subscribed 
by December, 1892, Mr. Pullman was formally advised to that effect, 
and 4n July, 1893, be bought as a site the residence lot of Mrs. Charles 
Burrows, on the corner of Main and Madison streets, at a cost of $7,500. 
This is one of the best locations in Albion. The house was removed, 
and early in the year 1894 the construction of the edifice was com- 
menced after plans drawn by S. S. Beman, the well-known architect of 
Chicago. On May 19, 1894, the corner stone was laid with Masonic 
ceremonies, the ritualistic exercises being performed by Grand Master 
Frederick A. Burnham, Grand Marshal E. A. Miller and Grand Treas- 
urer John J. Gorham, all of New York city ; Acting D. G. Master E. J. 
Taylor, of Lockport ; S. G. Warden William A. Sutherland, of Roches- 
ter ; Acting Grand Secretary George A. Newell, of Medina ; and Act- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 291 

ing Grand Deacon G. W. Fitch and Grand Chaplain F. S. Dunham, of 
Albion. The ceremonies were concluded at the court house, where the 
Rev. Dr. Royal H. Pullman, of Baltimore, delivered the address of the 
day, taking as his theme, " Character Building." In closing he said : 
" The desire of my brother in the erection of this church is to estabHsh 
a memorial of the father and mother who believed in the doctrines of 
the Universalist Church, and who lived their religion among the people 
of this community." 

The building is of rock- faced sandstone, and the style is old English 
Gothic. It will seat 400 persons. In the west transept is a memorial 
window. The structure represents an expenditure of some $6o,000, 
and when finished will be deeded to the society organized to receive it. 

St. Jacob's Evangelical Lutheran Church (N. A. C.) of Albion. — In 
October, 1886, Rev. A. T. Hanser, of Lockport, held the first Luth- 
eran service in Albion in the Sunday school chapel of the Presbyterian 
church, and a society was afterward organized. In 1887 Rev. G. 
Bartling took pastoral charge. In 1889 the people of Albion presented 
to this society the so-called Quarry chapel for a place of worship, and it 
was dedicated in December of that year. The parish is connected with 
the Medina charge of this denomination. 

The African A. M. E. church of Albion had its nucleus in a mission 
started in 1873 for the benefit of the colored population of the village 
and vicinity. The prime mover was Judge Arad Thomas and the first 
trustees were Stephen Dickus, William Mclntyre, and Jacob Carter. 
In the fall of 1888 it was recognized and attached to the Bethel A. M. E. 
Conference, to which it has ever since belonged. The first settled pastor 
was Rev. Peter Stewart, his successor (in January, 1894,) and the 
present incumbent being Rev. William J. Johnson. The society now 
has about sixty members. Services have been held in a school house. 
In 1893 the society purchased a frame parsonage on the north side of 
the canal. In the spring of 1894 this building was moved a few feet 
south and the erection of a frame church edifice commenced, which 
will cost about $i,8oo. 

St. Mary's Assumption Church (Polish Roman Catholic) was started 
as a mission about 1890, and on July 21, 1891, was regularly organ- 
ized by Rt. Rev. Bishop Ryan, of Buffalo. The first and present resi- 



292 LANDMARKS OF 

dent priest, Rev. Bart. Svvinko, was appointed in December, 1892. 
Services were held in school houses until the present brick edifice was 
erected in 1892, and dedicated February 8, 1893. The lot cost $3,500 
and the church building $14,000. At the organization the parish had 
150 families, which number has since decreased to 100. Connected 
with the church is a parochial school for Polish children, taught by 
the priest and one assistant. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
THE TOWN OF RIDGE WAY AND VILLAGE OF MEDINA. 

Ridgeway derives its name from the Ridge, which traverses it in an 
easterly and westerly direction. The town was erected from Batavia, 
Genesee county, June 8, 181 2, and included the present towns of Shelby, 
Ridgeway, Yates, Barry, Albion, Gaines and Carlton, or all of Orleans 
county within the limits of the Holland purchase. It now includes 
ranges 3 and 4 of the 15th township and the west tier of lots in the 
2d range, which last were added in 183G in order that the village of 
Knovvlesville might be altogether in one town. Its area is about forty- 
six and one half square miles. Population in 1892, 5,882. The sur- 
face is generally level, and the soil is a sandy loam. The town is crossed 
by Oak Orchard Creek, which affords excellent mill privileges, and in 
the northwest corner by Johnson's Creek. 

The first town meeting in Ridgeway was held at the house of John G. 
Brown, at Oak Orchard, April 6, 18 13, at which the following officers 
were chosen : 

Oliver Booth, supervisor ; Israel Douglass, town clerk ; Lansing Bailey, James Car- 
penter, Henry Lovewell, assessors; John Proctor, collector; John Anderson, Otis Tur- 
ner, overseers of the poor ; Samuel Clark, Gideon Freeman, William White, overseers of 
highways; John Proctor, Minoris Day, Otis Turner, Robert Garber, constables; James 
Mather and Eli Moore, pound keepers. 

Three weeks later, at a special town meeting held at the house of 
William Sibley, Eli Moore was elected assessor to fill the vacancy occa- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 293 

sioned by the death of Henry Lovewell. Israel Douglass was a justice 
of the peace for the town of Batavia prior to the organization of 
Ridgeway. There were then sixteen road districts in the town and 
seven school districts in 1814. When it is remembered that the town 
then included all of Orleans county west of the east transit line, now 
divided in seven towns, an idea of the size of these districts can be 
formed. 

The supervisors of Ridgeway, have been as follows : 

Oliver Booth, 1813 ; Samuel Clarke, 1814-15 ; Israel Douglass, 1816-17 ; Elijah Hawley, 
1818; Jeremiah Brown, 1819; Israel Douglass, 1820-21; Jeremiah Brown, 1822-24; 
Lyman Bates, 1825 ; Jeremiah Brown, 1826 ; Lyman Bates, 1827-31 ; William C. Tanner, 
1832-34; Seymour B. Murdock, 1835; Lyman Bates, 1836; WiUiam V.Wilson, 1837; 
Nathan S. Wood, 1838-39; Josias Tanner, 1840-41 ; Job Fish, 1842 ; William V. Wilson, 
1843; Dexter Kingman, 1844-45; Roswell Starr, 1846 ; Allen Bacon, 1847 ; William C. 
Tanner, 1848 ; John F. Sawyer, 1849-50 ; Christopher Whaley, 1851 ; Allen Bacon, 1852 ; 
Mason Weld, 1853 ; Borden H. Mills, 1854 ; John R. Weld, 1855 ; Lyman Bates, 1856 ; 
Alexander H. Jamison, 1857 ; Luther Barrett, 1858-59; Dyer B. Abell, 1860-61; Hezekiah 
Bowen, jr., Stephen Barrett, 1862; Henry A. Grlidden, 1863-64; Samuel C. Bowen, 
1865; WiUiam W. Potter, 1866-67; Allen T. Scott, 1868-69; Henry A. Glidden, 
Daniel D. Tompkins, 1870 ; E. S. Whalen, 1871-72 ; Allen P. Scott, 1873-74; E. S. 
Whalen, William H. Watson, 1875; Allen P. Scott, 1876; E. J. Potter, 1877; Julius 
Harris, 1878-81 ; Henry Webster, 1882; Adelbert J. McCormick, 1884-86; Henry 
S. Ostrander ; 1887-88; Joseph Stork, 1889-90; Adelbert J. McCormick, 1891 ; Henry 
S. Ostrander, 1892-94. 

From the records of the Holland Land Company it appears that 
the land lying in this town was conveyed to purchasers as follows : 

Lot 57, 408 acres, in the second range was taken up by Darius Comstock, June 24, 
1815. This lot was divided, subdivided, and transferred many times; and was ulti- 
mately deeded as follows : 79 acres to Charles Wickham, January 1, 1836 ; 30 acres to 
Thaddens Kirkham, December 26, 1835 ; 49 acres to Morehouse B. Thorp, December 
26, 1835 ; 30 acres to Azel H. Shepard, October 26, 1833 : 50 acres to Stephen Welsh, 
November 14, 1833; 20 acres to A. H. Shepard, February 11, 1832; 20 acres to Jane 
Welsh and others, June 31, 1837; 25 acres to Joseph Willetts, November 17, 1832 ; 30 
acres to Robert M. Burns, January 3, 1837, and 25 acres to Eli Farr, November 27, 
18.32. 

The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 58 was taken up by John Canniff, March 21, 1815 
May 11, 1824, 6| acres were deeded to Peter Clark and on the same day, 93^ acres were 
articled to CannifF & Cook. This last tract was deeded to John Aldrich, May 11, 1830. 
The north part, 100 acres, of lot 58, was taken up by John Canniff, March 21, 1815, and 
articled to William Nash June 14, 1827. Sixty-nine acres of this were deeded to Hiel 



294 LANDMARKS OF 

Brockway, November 11, 1833, and 5 acres to William Ilnowles on the same day. 
Twenty-six acres were on the same day articled to Truman Shaw, and were deeded to 
Roswell Burton April 16, 1839. Andrew Stevens took up the south part, 153 acres, of 
lot 58, and it was deeded to him November 5, 1831. 

Lot 59, 101 acres, was taken up by John Severs October 7, 1815. June 30, 1828, it 
was articled to William Knowles. November 23, 1833, 50 acres were deeded to Charles 
Ryan ; and on the same day 51 acres were deeded to Harvey Elwell. 

The north part, 150 acres, of lot 60 was taken up by Andrew Jacobs February 24, 
1810. The south part, 147 acres, of lot 60, was taken up by John Hood Septembers, 

1810. The lot was deeded as follows : The west part, 90 acres, to Josiah Hood January 
31, 1834, and the east and middle part, 207 acres, to Nancy Hood and others January 
30, 1837. 

Lot 61, 149 acres, was taken up by William Sibley February 24, 1810. January 27, 
1823, 49 acres of this lot were articled to Giles Slater, and were deeded to Samuel 
Stanley October 25, 1828. January 27, 1825, 100 acres were articled to Giles Slater, 
and January 15, 1829, to Eleazer T. Slater, jr., to whom this land was deeded Novem- 
ber 15. 1831. 

The west part, 50 acres, of lot 62 was articled to Dyer Sprague October 20, 1810. to 
Ichabod Perry October 21, 1820, to Samuel Grant November 24, 1829, to Josiah Wat- 
kins December 25, 1833, and was deeded to Azor Rowley May 15, 1835. The 57 
acres of lot 62 next east from the above was articled to Newbury Chaffee March 18, 

1811, to Dyer Sprague March 19, 1819, to Joshua Church November 9, 1830, and was 
deeded to the latter November 10, 1836. The west middle part, 51 acres, of lot 62, 
was taken up by Cornelius M. Vanderhoef September 10, 1811. It was articled to 
Robert Anderson July 11, 1822, to Smith Stevens December 6, 1830, and was deeded 
to him Novembers, 1833. The middle part, 106 acres, of lot 62, was taken up by Elijah 
Daniels May 30, 1814, and was articled to Abishai Gleason July 3, 1823. De- 
cember 26, 1829, 40 acres of this were transferred to John McAllister, and were 
deeded to Zelotes Sheldon October 25, 1832. December 26, 1829, 66 acres of the 
same were transferred to Zelotes Sheldon, and with 49 acres of the northeast part of 
the lot were deeded to him October 5, 1831. The east part, 100 acres, of lot 62, was 
articled to Elijah Daniels June 5, 1813, and transferred to Zelotes Sheldon September 
29, 1823. The southwest part, 51 acres, of the lot was deeded to Samuel Stanley Oc- 
tober 3, 1831. 

The east part, 100 acres, of lot 63, was taken up by James Barber October 21, 1813. 
It was articled to Ray Marsh June 17, 1823. December 31, 1829, 50 acres of this part 
were transferred to Zelotes Sheldon, and December 31, 1833, to Lewis Soper, to whom 
they were deeded Octobers, 1834. December 30, 1831, 50 acres of the same part 
were transferred to John Simpson, and were deeded to him May 15, 1835.] [,The mid- 
dle part, 100 acres, of lot 63, was taken up by Levi Wilson March 15, 1815. After be- 
ing divided and transferred it was deeded as follows : 50 acres to Samuel Grant, Novem- 
ber 5, 1834; and the balance to Reuben L. Gunn December 7, 1835. The east part, 70 
acres, of lot 63, was taken up by Ira Webb June 27, 1815, and was articled to Victor 
Briggs January 18, 1833. It was deeded to Reuben L. Gunn December 7, 1835. The 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 295 

west middle part, 70 acres, of lot 63, was articled to Orange F. Fargo December 9, 
1815, and to William NcAllister October 29, 1830. It was deeded to him May 15, 1835. 

Lot 64, 105 acres, was deeded to Jesse Smith March 1, 1833. 

The east part of lot 65, 120 acres, was articled to Eobert Power June 5, 1815. The 
west part, 22 acres, of the same lot was articled to Elliot and William Bassett Septem- 
ber 18, 1815. The lot was deeded as follows: The east part, 120 acres, to Reuben L. 
Gunn January 19, 1836; the south portion of the middle part, 54 acres, to Samuel 
Danolds October 29, 1833 ; the north portion of the middle part, 66 acres, to Simeon 
Cummings and Amasa Jackson, June 16, 1835; the south portion, 44 acres, of the west 
part to Robinson S. Lockwood August 22, 1834 ; and the north portion, 56 acres, of the 
west part to John Rose September 12, 1835. 

In the second range of the fifteenth township: The south part of lot 1, 120 acres, 
was articled to Benjamin Boots April 12. 1815. March 9, 1825, 70 acres of this were 
articled to Gideon Hawley, and of this 50 acres were deeded to Samuel A. Anderson 
December 3, 1833. The balance, of 20 acres, was deeded to Reuben Haines December 
3, 1833. The east part, 119 acres, of lot 1 was articled to David Hood March 9, 1825, 
and deeded to him January 30, 1837. The north part of lot 1, 119 acres, was taken up 
by Jacob Dinturf April 11, 1815. March 9, 1825, the west 50 acres of this were 
transferred to Dennis Kiagsley, and, with 30 acres of lot 2, were deeded to him May 
28, 1832. 

The east part of lot 2, 111 acres, was articled to Thomson Rideout May 10, 1815. 
May 5, 1825, 71 acres of this were articled to Chauncey Brinsmaid, and were deeded 
to him December 20, 1833. The south portion, 40 acres, of this part was articled to 
William Braman May 5, 1825. December 20, 1830, 19 acres of this portion were 
articled to Charles Harback, and were deeded to him October 31, 1831. December 30, 
1830, 21 acres of the same portion were articled to Theodore Wickman, and were 
deeded to William Parker December, 1836. The middle part, 160 acres, of lot 2 was 
taken up by Joseph Pennock March 5, 1816. February 19, 1827, 80 acres of this part 
were articled to Dennis Kingsley, and were deeded to him May 28, 1832. February 19 
1827, 80 acres of the same were articled to Edward Raymour, and were deeded to him 
November 22, 1833. The west part, 100 acres, of lot 2 was taken up by Joseph Pen- 
nock March 26, 1816. It was articled to John G. Dane June 18, 1827, and 70 acres 
were deeded to him December 3, 1833. Thirty acres were deeded to Dennis Kingsley, 
with 80 acres of the middle part. May 28, 1832. 

The north part, 200 acres, of lot 3 was taken up by William Knowles January 26 
1815. Sixty acres of this were deeded to Amos Breed May 6, 1829. The south part, 
141 acres, of lot 3 was taken up by Newbury Chaffee July 13, 1815. May 11, 1824, 41 
acres of this were transferred to Eli Gates, and were deeded to Benoni Grover October 
5, 1832. The balance of lot 3 was deeded to William Knowles as follows: 140 acres 
May 10, 1824; 40 acres August 27, 1830; and 60 acres October 21, 1835. 

The north part, 100 acres, of lot 4, was taken up by Philip Matoon December 20, 
1814. It was articled to Jonathan Stevens February 26, 1828, and, with 50 acres ad- 
ditional, was deeded to Charles Edwards and Nathan S. Wood September 29, 1835. 
The south part, 100 acres, of lot 4 was articled to Thomas Bennett April 22, 1815, and 



296 LANDMARKS OF 

transferred to John Stevens July 19, 1823. It was deeded to Eufus Humphrey De- 
cember 31, 1832. The middle part, 150 acres, of lot 2 was taken up by Ezekiel Brown 
October 30, 1815. February 27, 1828, 50 acres of this were articled to David Stevens, 
and were deeded to William N. Gage October 15, 1835. February 27, 1828, 58 acres 
of the same were transferred to William Parker, and ware deeded to him December 

3, 1833. 

The middle of the north part, 100 acres, of lot 5 was articled to Thomas Hawley, 
October 25, 1810, and deeded to Lyman Turner, October 26, 1820. The northwest 
part, 100 acres, of lot 5, was taken up by Joseph Kellogg, October 25, 1810. It was 
articled to Orrin White, November 21, 1822; to Zerah Webb, February 24, 1830, and 
was deeded to him, December 26, 1833. The southeast part, 100 acres, of lot 5, was 
taken up by Cyrus Daniels, August 3, 1811, and articled to Amasi L. McConnel, August 

4, 1819 ; September 8, 1828, 50 acres were transferred to Simeon Jewett, and were 
deeded to Jesse Wandell, May 20, 1829; November 12, 1828, 50 acres were transferred 
to Daniel Thurston, jr., and were deeded to Franklin Frost, November 12, 1834. The 
northeast part, 113 acres, of lot 5, was taken up by Zelotes Sheldon, August 18, 1813 ; 
November 21, 1821, it was articled to Abraham Perry, and December 14, 1829, 63 
acres were transferred to Abel Perry, to whom they were deeded December 29, 1836. 
December 24, 1833, 50 acres were transferred to James Wilkins, and were deeded to 
Marvin Burton, November 4, 1834. The southwest part, 76 acres, of lot 5 was taken up 
by Joseph Vickery, July 14, 1815. September 8, 1829, 38 acres were articled to Sarah 
Ward, and December 12, 1829; 38 acres were articled to Elijah Fitch, jr. The whole 
was deeded to Israel Salter, March 12, 1833. 

The west part, 200 acres, of lot 6, was articled to Horace Church, July 3, 1813, and 
deeded to Richard Talcott June 28, 1821. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 6 was 
articled to Ira Webb June 15, 1815, and transferred to JosephJudson January 7, 1826. 
It was deeded to him December 28, 1830. The east middle part, 100 acres, of lot 6 
was articled to Ira Webb June 15, 1815, and transferred to Joseph Judson December 
28, 1830. October 3, 1834, it was transferred in parcels of 50 acres each to Daniel 
Fellows and David Crippen, and the whole was deeded to D. Burnett, jr., September 
18, 1835. The east part, 127 acres, of lot 6 was taken up by George Anderson January 
15, 1815. December 8, 1829, 63| acres of this w^ere articled to Daniel Thurston, jr., 
and January 9, 1834, to Asa Rowe, who received a deed May 15, 1835. April 7, 1831, 
63^ acres were articled to Samuel Leming, and were deeded to Abraham M. Schermer- 
horn Dec 7, 1835. 

Lot 7, 146 acres, was articled to Stephen Gleason October 4, 1828, and deeded to 
John Lowber May 1, 1835. 

The south part, 195 acres, of lot 8 was articled to George Oman June 20, 1815. The 
north part, 101 acres, of the same lot was articled to Joseph Parker August 1, 1815. 
The whole lot was deeded to Samuel Danolds October 29, 1833. 

The south part, 220 acres, of lot 9 was taken up by Reuben Haines July 14, 1815. 
The east portion, 120 acres, of this part, with 20 acres of lot 1, was deeded to Mr. 
Haines December 3, 1833; The west porlion, 100 acres, of the same part was articled 
to Peter Hoag December 27, 1824, and was deeded to him December 4, 1835. The 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 297 

north part, 142 acres, of lot 9 was articled to William Tanner March 30, 1816. It was 
transferred to Josias Tanner March 24, 1826, and was deeded to him November 14, 
1833. 

The east part, 105 acres, of lot 10 was articled to Oliver Wolcott April 30, 1816. It 
was transferred to Parley Gillett May 30, 1828, and was deeded to him November 25, 
1835. The middle part, 118 acres, of lot 10 was taken up by Oliver Wolcott April 12, 
1816; five acres of this were deeded to Thomas Bayne May 30, 1828. Eighty-three 
acres were articled to David Bayne May 30, 1828 ; to Cynthia Bayne January 1, 1834, 
and were deeded to Sidney S. Starkweather December 14, 1835. Twenty-nine acres, 
the north portion of this part, were deeded to John Howe March 12, 1833. The west 
part, 128 acres of lot 10 was taken up by William and Stephen Simonds April 23, 1816. 
It was articled to Joseph Vickery January 5, 1830, and deeded to Archibald Mclntyre 
December 17, 1833. 

The east part of lot 11, 1331 acres, was taken up by Andrew Jacobs March 14, 1816. 
January 31, 1828, 83| acres were articled to William C. Tanner, and November 25, 1833, 
to John Howe, to whom they were deeded May 15, 1825. January 31, 1838, 5 acres 
of this were articled lo Moses Cole, and were deeded to Russell Doane, February 14, 
1834. 

The middle part, 123 acres, of lot 11, was taken up by Flint T. Keith, May 18, 1816. 
It was articled, February 6, 1827, to John Howe, to whom 61^ acres were deeded, 
March 12, 1833. September 27, 1833, 61| acres were articled to Richard Fancher, and 
were deeded to Catherine Fancher September 25, 1837. The west part, 112 acres, of 
lot 11, was taken up by Henry Wilcox, April 16, 1316. June 23, 1825, 62 acres of this 
were articled to Avowry V. Andrews, and were deeded to him October 19, 1830. June 
23, 1825, 50 acres of the same were articled to Felix Guild. Thirteen acres of this 
were deeded to Avowry V. Andrews December 1, 1830. On the same day 37 acres 
were transferred to Samuel Stanley, and were deeded to Luther Parker December 2, 
1836. 

November 8, 1827, William Ellsworth took up the east part, 105 acres, of lot 12. He 
received his deed July 2, 1829. The west part, 80 acres, of lot 12, was articled to 
Martin Hiesrodt June 21, 1827, and was deeded to him December 1, 1837. The middle 
part. 52 acres, of lot 12, was articled to him February 11, 1833. 

The west part, 711 acres of lot 13, was articled to Artemas Houghton December 27, 
1811. It was transferred to Milo Bennett December 29, 1819, to Warren Thompson 
June 14, 1831, and to De Witt C. Warner November 28, 1833. It was deeded to Mr. 
Warner March 16,1836. The east part, 380 acres, of lot 13, was articled to Aaron 
Adams June 25, 1812. It was deeded to Isaac Bennett June 26, 1820. 

Lot 14, 422 acres, was taken up by John 0. Brown December 25, 1811. It was di- 
vided and transferred, and was deeded as follows : Sixty-two acres in the south part 
of the lot to Gilbert Howell, November 6, 1815 ; the north 100 acres and 110 acres of 
the southern part to Samuel Danolds, October 29, 1833 ; and the middle part, 140 acres, 
to Alfred Achilles, December 22, 1837. 

The south part, 56^ acres, of lot 15, was taken up by George Mills, jr., April 4, 1815. 
September 20, 1831, it was articled to John Aldrich, and October 29, 1833, to Samuel 



298 LANDMARKS OF 

Danolds. The north part, .318^ acres, of lot 15, was articled to Levi Davis April 4, 1815, 
and the middle part, 100 acres, vi^as transferred to William Vanhousea November 25, 

1829. It was deeded to him February 14, 1834. February 7, 1833, the balance of the 
lot was transferred to David Danolds, and October 29, 1833, the south 106i acres and 
the north 164 acres of lot 15 were deeded to Samuel Danolds. 

The east part of lot 16, 100 acres, was taken up by Richard Stoddard May 21, 1816. 
The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 16, was articled to George Mills, jr., October 7, 1816. 
Both parts were deeded to Samuel Danolds October 29, 1833. The west part, 99 acres, 
of lot 16, was deeded to Jesse Smith March 1, 1833. The middle part, 130 acres, of lot 
16, was taken up by William Tanner June 15, 1815. August 31. 1826, 80 acres of tliis 
were articled to Ephraim Martin and were deeded to him October 29, 1836. August 
31, 1826, 50 acres of this middle part were articled to Jonah Hoyt, and October 19, 

1830, to Ephraim Masten, to whom they were deeded October 10, 1836. 

The west part, 100 acres, of lot 17 was articled to John Peterson June 15, 1815, 
December 31,1825, it was transferred to John Keith, to whom it was deeded November 18 
1833. The east part, 133 acres, of lot 17 was taken up by William Tanner June 15, 1815. 
It was articled to William C. Tanner January 4, 1825, and was deeded to him Decem- 
ber 29, 1828. 

The west part, 167 acres, of lot 18 was taken up by James Himes May 1, 1815. 
December 2, 1829 the west half of this was articled to Sylvester Himes, and was deeded 
to him January 6, 1834. The south half of this part was articled to Nathan B. Peter- 
son December 2, 1829, and was deeded to him January 6, 1834. The east part, 139 
acres, of lot 18 was articled to Josias Tanner April 11, 1816, and was deeded to him 
June 8, 1826. The middle part, 151 acres, of lot 18 was taken up by William and 
Stephen Simonds April 23, 1816. It was deeded to Jonah Hoyt March 17, 1824. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 19 was taken up by Calvin C. Phelps June 8, 1816. 
It was transferred to WiUiam Hicks, jr., April 7, 1826, and after several divisions and 
transfers was deeded: 65 acres to WilHam Hicks; 30 acres to Nathan Peterson; and 
10 acres to Avowry V. Andrews, all on the 23d of December, 1833 ; and 25 acres to 
Avowry V. Andrews December 5, 1836. June 1, 1816, Isaac Craw took up the south 
middle part, 50 acres, of lot 19. June 7, 1826, it was articled to Geo. W. Wright, and 
December 28, 1830 to William C. Tanner. It was deeded to Avowry V. Andrews 
October 7, 1833. Danforth Bugbee took up the middle part, 100 acres, of lot 19 June 

I, 1818. It was articled to Calvin Chapman June 2, 1824, to Gordon Case February 

II, 1833, and was deeded to him January 7, 1834. The north part, 100 acres, of lot 19 
was articled to John F. Taylor January 1, 1816, was transferred to John H. Tildeii 
February 8, 1827, and was deeded to Delazon Tomlinson January 7, 1834. 

The south part of lot 20, 120 acres, was articled to Anson Jackson April 22, 1816_ 
It was deeded to Levi Blackman March 19, 1824. The south and middle part of lot 20 
and middle part of lot 21, 100 acres, were deeded to the trustees of the first Presby- 
terian Church of Ridgeway September 6, 1822. 

The east part of lots 20 and 21, 197 acres, was articled to Reuben Rowley August 28, 
1813. The east part of lot 21, 32 acres, was articled to David Pratt June 14, 1833. and 
was deeded to Charles Butler January 26, 1837. The east part of lot 20 was conveyed 



ORLEANS C0UNT7. 299 

to Keyes Wilder by two deeds: January 13, 1832, 100 acres, and January 3, 1834, 65 
acres. The west part of lot 20 and 21, was articled to 'ienjamin Severns September 6, 
1822. It was deeded to Parley Gillett November 3, 1835. 

The west part of lot 22 and south part of lot 23 were deeded to Jesse Smith March 1, 
1833. The east part of lot 22, 60 acres, was articled to Zephaniah H. Judson July 5, 
1815. The 60 acres next west from this were articled to John McMillan October 13, 
1815. Both parcels were transferred to Dorus Curtis May 9, 1833. They were deeded 
to Edward A. Nicoll May 1, 1841. The east middle part, 100 acres, of lot 22, was 
taken up by Gilbert Howell November 6, 1815. January 20, 1833 it was articled to 
John Gr. Brown, and June 16, 1835. it was deeded to Simeon Oummings and Amasa 
Jackson. The west middle part, 100 acres, of lot 22 was taken up by James Brown 
December 15, 1815. September 30, 1830, 49 acres of this were articled to Friend 
Curtis, and June 16. 1835, were deeded to Simeon Cummings and Amasa Jackson. Jan- 
uary 26, 1833, 55 acres of this west middle part were articled to Solomon Jordan, and 
were deeded to Charles Butler and Bowen Whiting March 15, 1841. 

The north part, 50 acres, of lot 23 was articled to William McCollister January 2, 
1828, and was deeded to John Lowber May 1, 1835. 

The east part, 126 acres, of lot 24 was taken up by Hugh Alexander January 28, 
1828. November 15, 1833, it was articled to Joseph Aixson, and was deeded to John 
McKay, jr., December 29, 1837. The west part, 150 acres, of lot 24 was taken up by 
John Frisbee May 23, 1819. It was articled to Michael Norton March 3, 1831, and was 
deeded to Jesse M. Schofield July 16, 1832. 

The north part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was taken up by George Bayne June 29, 1815. 
December 5, 1825, the east portion, 60 acres, of this was articled to Thomas Bayne, and 
was deeded to him October 7, 1833. December 5, 1825, the west portion, 40 acres, 
of the same part was articled to Samuel L. Hastings. November 27, 1829, it was 
transferred to Ephraim Masten and was deeded to him November 17, 1835. The 
south middle part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was taken up by Ezra Whitney September 29, 
1815. March 7, 1829, 75 acres of this part was articled to Arnold G. Lewis, and April 
16, 1832, were deeded to Elisha Boardman. March 7, 1829, 25 acres of the same were 
articled to Amasa Fitch, and December 24, 1833, transferred to John Bayne, to whom 
they were deeded January 1, 1836. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 25, was taken 
up '^y Nahum Loring September 27, 1815. November 14, 1827, 50 acres of this were 
articled to Orrin Carpenter, and were deeded to him January 6, 1834. November 14, 
1827, 50 acres of the same were articled to Thomas Penn, and were deeded to Isaac 
Barnes December 6, 1831. The north middle part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was taken up 
by Nathaniel Loomis April 27, 1815. April 25, 1828, 30 acres of this part were arti- 
cled to Thomas Bayne, and were deeded to him September 20, 1831. April 25, 1828, 
70 acres of this part were articled to Sylvester Loomis, and were deeded to John Kirby 
November 13, 1833. The south part, 88 acres, of lot 25, was taken up by Joseph Hoag 
February 24, 1819. December 7, 1829, the east portion, 50 acres, of this was arti- 
cled to Horace Perkins, and November 1, 1834, to Norman Herrick, to whom it was 
deeded October 6, 1837. December 7, 1829, the west portion, 38 acres, of this same 
part, was articled to Samuel Bostwick, and was deeded to Hannah Bennett December 
13, 1833. 



300 LANDMARKS OF 

The east part, 123 acres, of lot 26 was taken up by Jessie B. Brand April 10, 1815. 
January 6, 1825, it was deeded to EUery Hicks. The west and middle part, 261 
acres, of lot 26 was taken up by Charles Palmer March 20, 1816. November 20, 1827, 
80i acres of this were articled to Dudley Watson, and were deeded to Hiland Hibbard 
April 6, 1832. June 4, 1828, 50 acres of this part were articled to Elisha Boardman, 
and were deeded to him June 2, 1834. December 4, 1829, 131 acres of this east and 
middle part were articled to Charles Palmer and were deeded to Horace Hubbard Sep- 
tember 7, 1831. 

The west part, 147 acres, of lot 27 was articled to Joseph Willett March 27, 1815, 
and was deeded to Lyman Bates March 28, 1833. The east and middle part, 294^ 
acres, of lot 27 was articled to Harry Boardman March 17, 1815. March 28, 1823, the 
article was renewed to Elisha Boardman, who received his deed June 4, 1828. 

The west parts of lots 28 and 29, and the east parts of lots 36 and 37, 140 acres, were 
articled to Elijah Brown June 5, 1811, and were deeded to Otis Turner. The west 
middle part of lots 28 and 29, 118 acres, was taken up by Hezekiah Coon July 1, 1811. 
December 31, 1828, that portion lying in lot 28 was articled to Milo Coon, and was 
def'ded, with the part in 29, to Otis Turner April 16, 1836. The middle part of lots 28 
and 29 was taken up by William White January 11, 1812. March 13, 1824, it was 
articled to Orlando Bates. December 1, 1835, the portion lying in lot 28, 40 acres, was 
deeded to William V. Wilson, and on the same day the part lying in lot 29, 10 acres, 
was deeded to Obed Hubbard. The west middle part of lots 28 and 29, 126 acres, was 
taken up by Hezekiah Coon July 1, 1811. December 31, 1828, that portion in lot 28, 
71 acres, was articled to Milo Coon, and December 20, 1823, was deeded to Samuel 
Whittaker. May 7, 1837, the portion in lot 29, 55 acres, was deeded to Obed 
Hubbard. 

The east part of lot 28, 192 acres, was taken up by Orlando Bates April 18, 1822 
May 20, 1824, the west portion, 100 acres, of this was deeded to Irene Bates. June 24, 
1830, 92 acres of this was articled to Lyman Bates, and was deeded to Harry Scott 
February 19, 1832, 

The west part of lot 30, 160 acfes, was taken up by Stephen Titus June 27, 1819, 
November 9, 1832, 100 acres of this were articled to Burrage Bulkley, and deeded to 
Friend Curtis January 20, 1834. The middle part, 160 acres, of lot 30 was taken up 
by Amos Satterlee June 27, 1814. May 24, 1823, it was articled to Lanson Watkins, 
and March 12, 1833, it was with 60 acres of the west part, deeded to Mr. Watkins. 
The east middle part, 61 acres, of lot 30 was taken up by Eli Moore November 25, 
1814. It was articled to Betsey Sprout March 13, 1833, and, with 31 acres of lot 29, 
was deeded to John Wilson January 13, 1836. The east part, 100 acres, of lot 30 was 
taken up by Solomon Gould June 15, 1815. It was articled to Justus Welch April 13, 
1830, to Richard Wilkins May 12, 1835, and was deeded to John N. Fish November 
3, 1837. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 31 was taken up by Farley Coon October 8, 1833. 
It was articled to Friend Curtis October 8, 1833, and was deeded to Walter Durkee 
October 27, 1838. November 22, 1821, Nathaniel Fisher took up the north part, 50 
acres, of lot 31. December 28, 1830, it was articled to Curtis W. Stockwell. It was 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 301 

deeded, with the south part of lot 32, to Mr. Stockwell December 9, 1835. The north 
middle part, 60 acres, of lot 31 was articled to Eliphalet Lewis March 29, 1823. It was 
transferred to Philo Elmer October 14, 1831, and to Curtis B. Stockwell December 6, 
1833. It was deeded to Philo Elmer November 17, 1836. The middle part, 96+ acres, 
of lot 31 was taken up by Nathaniel Fisher April 2, 1823. April 5, 1832, it was articled 
to Daniel H. Seeley, and December 6, 1834, to Daniel Tolford, to whom it was deeded 
December 6, 1837. 

The north part, 150 acres, of lot 32 was articled to William Parker April 22, 1816. 
The article was renewed June 29, 1824, to Asel Parker, who received his deed May 20, 
1833. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 32 was articled to HoUis Maynard September 
13, 1816. It was transferred to Electa Maynard January 16, 1834 and was deeded to 
her March 15, 1839. 

The south part, 52 acres, of lot 32 was taken up by Hollis Maynard January 4, 1817. 
November 6, 1829, it was articled to Curtis W. Stockwell, and was deeded to him 
December 1, 1835. 

Lot 33 and the south part of lot 34, 425 acres, was articled to Otis Turner January 
22, 1822. This land was deeded as follows: 222 acres to Isaac Bennett and Hannah, 
his wife, January 28, 1830 ; and 148 acres to Jacob B. Bennett June 4, 1835. 

Joseph Hoag took up the middle part, 125 acres, of lot 34 January 21, 1822. Decem- 
ber 28, 1830, it was articled to Isaac Hoag, and December 14, 1833, to William Wilson, 
March 9, 1835, it was, with 100 acres of lot 42, deeded to Philander Corset. The north 
part, 85 acres, of lot 34 was articled to Elisha Sheldon January 30, 1822. It was trans- 
ferred to Elisha Boardman January 18, 183], and was deeded to Adam Kingman No- 
vember 27, 1833. 

The south part of lot 35, 158 acres, was taken up by Joseph Willitt March 27, 1815. 
March 28, 1823, it was articled to Lyman Bates, and September 7, 1831, 58 acres were 
deeded to Adam Kingman. September 7, 1831, 100 acres of this part were deeded to 
Charles Palmer. The south part, 150 acres, of lot 35 was taken up by Thomas Bills 
March 11, 1815. It was articled to Otis Turner June 10, 1823, and to Bennett Bates , jr. 
December 3, 1830. Fifty acres were deeded to Adam Kingman February 12, 1833, and 
100 acres to Job Fish December 1, 1837. 

The middle part of lots 36 and 37, 105 acres, was taken up by Israel Douglass March 
13, 1811. It was deeded : 66 acres to David Hooker April 10, 1816, and 39 acres to 
Gideon Hard July 20, 1830. The west part, 01 acres, of lots 36 and 37 was taken up 
by Ezra Barns June 26, 1810. It was articled to Israel Douglass September 5, 1823, 
and to Harry Boardman December 28, 1830. The portion, 25 acres, in lot 37 was trans- 
ferred to Samuel Perry October 23, 1834, and deeded to Perley H. Hooker September 
15, 1837. The portion, 36 acres, in lot 36 was transferred to Samuel Perry January 10, 
1835. and deeded to him April 24. 1835. 

The east part of lots 36 and 37, and west part of lots 28 and 29 were articled to Elijah 
Brown June 5, 1811, and deeded to Otis Turner April 16, 1816. 

The west part of lot 38, 100 acres, was taken up by John Jinks. It was articled to 
William Campbell June 7, 1819, and was deeded to WilHam Murdock December 22, 
1833. The middle part, 100 acres, of lot 38 was articled to Jonathan Cobb July 24, 



302 LANDMARKS OF 

1811, and was deeded to David Hooker July 26, 1810. The east part, 78 acres, of lot 
38 was taken up by Roswell Kelsey July 20, 1812. It was articled to Koxana Kelsey 
July 20, 1822, and to Jonathan Swett November 22, 1830. It was deeded to Mr. Swett 
October 13, 1832. 

The north part, 150 acres, of lot 39 was articled to Orange Walker May 16, 1816. 
January 20, 1827, the article was renewed to David Talford, who received a deed Octo- 
ber 13, 1830. 

James Briggs purchased by article 42^ acres of lot 39 November 25, 1822. On the 
same day George Dodge took up the south part, 42 acres, of the same lot. Both par- 
cels were deeded to James Briggs January 24, 1833. 

June 27, 1815, the south part, 120 acres, of lot 40 was articled to Enoch Richardson. 
On the same day the north part, 119 acres, of the aame lot was articled to Jeremiah 
Wilson. The lot was deeded as follows: 159 acres to Philo Elmer October 13, 1830, 
and 80 acres to William Cobb November 11, 1830. 

The south and west part of lot 41, with a small part of lot 42, 230 acres, was taken 
up by Benjamin ElJicott June 26, 1821. It was deeded to Joseph Ellicott October 14, 
1824. The northeast part, 130^ acres, of lot 41 was taken up by William Cook January 
18, 1823. It was articled to Joanna Cook December 28, 1830, and to Jacob Bennett 
November 29, 1833. It was deeded to Mr. Bennett November 12, 1834. 

The north part, 153 acres, of lot 42 was taken up by William Cook January 18, 1823. 
January 2, 1831, 50 acres of this were articled to Remington Whitney; December 14, 
1833, to John Kirby, and were deeded December 29, 1836, to James 0. Stokes. June 
11, 1832, 103 acres of this north part were articled to Salmon Rutherford. June 19, 
1833, this portion was articled in equal halves to Mordecai Leighton and Enoch Leigh- 
ton. It was deeded: 51i acres to Joseph Nixon January 9, 1837, and 51+ acres to 
Joseph Ross November 1, 1838. 

The south part of lot 42, 100 acres, was articled to William Cook January 2, 1823. 
It was deeded, with 125 acres of lot 34, to Philander Corset March 9, 1835. 

The north part of lot 43 was taken up, 75 acres, by Henry Boardman January 29, 
1822, and 26 acres by Otis Turner June 10, 1823. Of this the east portion, 50^ acres, 
was articled to Mordecai Leighton December 14, 1830, and deeded to Smith W. Nelson 
May 11, 1833. The west portion, 50| acres, was articled to Enoch Leighton October 
18, 1831, to Daniel Ostrom December 18, 1833, and was deeded to James H. Knapp 
December 12, 1836. The south part, 100 acres, of lot 43, was taken up by John Conant 
November 18, 1822. December 17, 1833, the east portion of this, 50 acres, was arti- 
cled to William Clark, and was deeded to Abner Bixbe October 31, 1835. The west 
portion, 50 acres, of this south part was articled to Farley F. Coon November 17, 1831, 
and was deeded to him December 2;!, 1833. The middle part, llOi acres, of lot 43, was 
taken up by Ephraim Darling and William Pixley March 20, 1823. May 6, 1831, 55f 
acres of this were articled to Elisha Sheldon, and were deeded to Silas Winchester De- 
cember 26, 1835. July 11, 1831, 55f acres of the same were articled to Solomon Gere, 
and were deeded to John Alcorn March 16, 1836. 

Lots 44 and 45, 173 acres, were articled to Ebenezer Mix July 10, 1811. 

The west part, 175 acres, of lot 40 was articled to Eli Moor April 5, 1810, and was 
deeded to Peter Covert March 17, 1818. The east part, 171 acres, of lot 46 was sold 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 303 

by article to Isaac Slieldon August 5, 1811. It was transferred to Elijah Hawley 
August 6, 1819, to William Campbell November 26, 1832. and was deeded, 150 acres 
to John Morse, April 29, 18;>4, and 20 acres to William Campbell, May 3, 1834. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 47, was articled to Robert Simpson June 16, 1815. 
The article was renewed to Samuel Church June 27, 1823, and the land was deeded to 
him December 19, 1833. June 16, 1815, Grosvenor Daniels took up the north part, 14" 
acres, of lot 47. March 10, 1824,50 acres of this were articled to Betsey Toal, and 
were deeded to her December 19, 1833. March 10, 1824, 92 acres of the same were 
articled to Orange Walker, and 70 acres .were deeded to him November 16, 1835. 
Twenty-two acres of this north part were deeded to Grosvenor Daniels November 18, 
1830. 

The north part, 97 acres, of lot 48, was articled to David D. Owen May 1, 1815, and 
to Jacob L. Wild October 30, 1828. It was deeded to him May 20, 1833. 

The south part, 150 acres, of lot 48, was taken up by Eliphalet Lewis April 21, 1815. 
Seventy-five acres of this were deeded to him September 29, 1831. March 22,1825, 
75 acres of the same were articled to Damer Lewis and were deeded to him February 
26, 1829. 

Lots 1 and 2, 500 acres, range 4, township 15, were articled to William Peacock 
September 14, 1821, and were deeded to Joseph Ellicott October 14, 1824. 

The east part, 160 acres, of lot 3, was articled to Ebenezer Mix April 30, 1821, and 
was deeded to Joseph Ellicott October 14, 1824. The northwest part, 100 acres, of lot 
3, was taken up by Carter Wright November 23, 1821. July 15, 1830, it was deeded to 
Chauncey Mears. The southwest part, 90 acres, of lot 3, was taken up by Edward 
Wright November 23, 1821. August 3, 1832, 50 acres of this were articled to Oren 
Britt, and were deeded to him December 29, 1832. December 24, 1833, 40 acres of the 
same were articled to Horace Hubbard, and were deeded to Ebenezer Daniels Sep- 
tember 30, 1836. 

The south part, 100 acres, of lot 4, was articled to Arunah Lewis November 10, 1821, 
and transferred to Jarvis Hurd December 30, 1829. It was deeded to him December 
28, 1835. The north part, 88i^ acres, of lot 4, was articled to Richard Combs May 6. 
1822. The west portion, 53A acres, was deeded to Frederick McCord January 12, 1837, 
The east portion, 35 acres, of this north part, was articled to Henry Hammond De- 
cember 23, 1833, and was deeded to J oseph Nixon January 9, 1837. 

Jonathan Brown took up lot 5, April 2, 1814. After several divisions and transfers 
it was deeded : 44 acres to Julia Ann Perry October 15, 1832 ; 100 acres to Joseph L. 
Perry June 27, 1833 ; 36 acres to Jasper Murdock November 14, 1833 ; 87 acres to 
Ezra Pennell January 6, 1834; and 100 acres to Samuel Bachelder March 4, 1834. 

The east part, 189 acres of lot 6 was articled to Eli Moore June 11, 1810. One hun- 
dred and seventeen acres of this were deeded to him January 3, 1818. November 26, 
1824, 72 acres of the same were articled to Mr. Moore, and October 18, 1828, to Joseph 
L. Perry. They were deeded to Julia Ann Perry July 6, 1882. The west part, 184 
acres of lot 6 Avas taken up by Abel P. Sheldon May 27, 1810. May 25, 1819 it was 
deeded to Elijah Hawley. 

Lot 7 and the south part of lot 8, 150 acres, were articled to Hiram Doolittle June 
8, 1812. The land was deeded to David Talmadge June 10, 1820. The north part, 133 



304 LANDMARKS OF 

acres, of lot 8, was articled to Peter Ryther June 18, 1812 The article was renewed 
to William A. Preston November 1, 1821, and December 30, 1833, to Willston Pres- 
ton, to whom 52 acres were deeded November 11, 1836. Sixty-one acres of the same 
were deeded to Grosvenor Daniels November 11,1836. The south middle part, 200 
acres, of lot 8 was articled to Peter Ryther June 18, 1812, and 50 acres were deeded 
to Benedict Alford, jr., June 19, 1820. Oh the same day 50 acres were deeded to 
Daniel F. Hunt, and 100 to Grosvenor Daniels. 

The south part, 75 acres, of lot 9 was articled to Eli Moore June 24, 1812, and the 
article was renewed to Hiram Nichols June 26, 1820. August 15, 1828, it was articled 
to Grosvenor Daniels, to whom it was deeded August 12, 1834. The south middle 
part, 100 acres, of lot 9 was articled to James T. Hill April 20, 1815, The article was 
renewed June 27, 1823, to William Cochran, who received his deed November, 16, 1833. 
The north middle part, 100 acres, of lot 9 was taken up by Luther Hill April 20, 1815. 
Aprir25, 1829, it was articled to Luther and James Hill. Fifty acres were deeded to 
John Lewis November 14, 1853; and 50 to Eliphalet Lewis on the same day. 

The north part, 106 acres, of lot 9 was articled to Thomas Weld March 20, 1816. 
November 26, 1833, it was articled to Elias Weld, to whom it was deeded September 
14, 1835. 

Lot 10, with lot 20, was taken up by Justus Ingersoll April 2, 1821. November 21, 
1829, 53 acres of this were articled to Nathan Bancroft, and were deeded to him 
October 25, 1832. November 21, 1829, 75 acres were deeded to Anthony Mason, and 
were deeded to him January 7, 1832. December 28, 1829, 25 acres were articled to 
Orin Butt. December 21, 1830, 69 acres were articled to John Knapp, and, with the 
last mentioned 25 acres, were deeded to him November 28, 1831. December 25, 1830, 
50 acres were articled to Nathaniel Tupper, and were deeded to John C. Osborn 
March 23, 1836. December 24, 1833, 50 acres were sold to James Jackson, and were 
deeded, with 100 acres of lot 20, to William Jackson, December 24, 1833. 

Lots 11 and 12 were articled to David E. Evans August 2, 1821. December 22, 
1829, 200 acres of lot 11 were articled to Thomas Dunlap, and deeded to him Decem- 
ber 22, 1829. December 22, 1829, 100 acres of lot 11 were articled to Daniel Brown 
and were deeded to John C. Osborn December 17, 1835. January 12, 1831, 126 acres 
were articled to John J. Snell a.^d were deeded to Hezekiah and Ambrose Bowen Janu- 
ary 31, 1834. Lot 12, 135 acres was articled to Artemus Allen December 22, 1829, 
and was deeded to Otis Turner December 25, 1832. 

The south middle part, 93 acres, of lot 13 was taken up by Amadou Holden Novem- 
ber 2, 1821. November 12, 1830, 47 acres of this part were articled to George Jared, 
and were deeded to Lewis Marshall June 6, 1832. The south part, 100 acres, of lot 13 
was taken up by Amadon Holden November 2, 1821. December 21, 1830, it was 
articled to John Gambel, and was deeded to Isaac L. Ostrom November 27 1833. The 
west part, 75 acres, of lot 13 was taken up by Amos Barrett November 15, 1821, 
November 12, 1830, 45 acres were articled to George Dodge, to whom they were deeded 
January 6, 1834. September 3, 1832, 30 acres were ai-ticled to John Willets, jr., and 
were deeded to him December 15, 1835. The west middle part, 100 acres, of lot 13 
was taken up by Amos Barrett November 15, 1821. This part, and a portion of the 
south middle part were deeded to Nathaniel Fisher January 6, 1834. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. :;"-, 

The middle part, 50 acres, of lot 14 was taken up by Thomas Bayne Augusi 20, 1829^ 
September 3, 1832, it was articled to William Willits, and was deeded to Luther Barrett 
March 21, 1834. The west part, 100 acres, of lot 14 was articled'to Amos Barrett July 
31, 1821, and was deeded to Lucius Barrett November 25, 1833. The east middle part, 
44 acres, of lot 14 was articled to George Jarred November 16, 1821. It was again 
articled Septembers, 1832, to Jeremiah Hill to whom 25 acres were deeded July 2, 1836. 
On the same day 19 acres were deeded to Milo Coon. The east part, 50 acres, of lot 14 
was taken up by Joseph Asherd November 22, 1821. February 2, 1831, it was articled 
to Joseph Willets, and January 10, 1835, to George Dodge, to whom it was deeded 
December 10, 1835. 

Jonathan Cobb took up lot 15, 378 acres, September 6, 1810. After many divisions 
and transfers it was deeded: 50 acres to Amos Barrett November 25, 1833; 61 acres 
to Zimri Murdock November 25, 1833 ; 90 acres to Luther Barrett December 25, 1833 ; 
100 acres to Calvin Barrett February 25, 1834 ; and 80 acres to Betsey Breed December 
23. 1835. 

Jonathan Cobb also took up lot 16, 363^ acres October 2, 1810. It was articled to 
Bastion Weatherwax October 3, 1820. It was divided and subdivided, and finally was 
deeded as follows: 100 acres to Amos Barrett November 25. 1833; 100 acres to 
Stephen E. Angevine December 12, 1833 ; 100 acres to Amos Angevine January 18, 
1834 ; and 63 acres to Amos Barrett December 1, 1838. 

George Shephard took up lot 17, 139 acres, June 20, 1817. October 10, 1833, 89 
acres of this were articled to Daniel F. Hunt, and were deeded to him November 30,1835. 
The balance, of 50 acres,was articled to Daniel F. Hunt May 26, 1834, and was deeded to 
Ezra Pennell August 28, 1837. 

Lot 18, 332 acres, was sold by two articles to Bastion Weatherwax October 25, 1816. 
After being divided and transferred it was deeded: 132 acres to Joseph L. Perry July 
6, 1832; 100 acres to Grosvenor Daniels September 20, 1832; 50 acres to Asa Hill 
June 20, 1834; and the balance with a part of lot 19, to William Foster August 
1, 1834. 

The east part, 127 acres, of lot 19 was taken up by Charles Dufoe June 16, 1815- 
September 22, 1829, 100 acres of this were articled to Daniel F. Hunt, to whom they 
were deeded December 2, 1833. November 19, 1830, 27 acres of the same part were 
articled, with 50 acres of lot 18, to William Foster, and were deeded to him August 
1, 1834. The middle part, 127 acres, of lot 19 was taken up by Ransom Prentice June 16, 

1815. June 29, 1824, it was articled to Elisha Weld, and was deeded to him May 20, 
1833. The west part, 127 acres, of lot 19 was taken up by Thomas Lowden August 4, 

1816. January 1, 1831, 63+ acres of this were articled to William Lowden, and Novem- 
ber 30, 1832, the other half, 63^ acres was articled to him. The whole was deeded to 
Allen J. Culver November 25, 1833. 

Lot 20, with lot 10, was taken up by Justus Ingersoll August 2, 1821. February 10, 
1830, 100 acres were articled to James Jackson, and with 50 acres of lot 10 were deed- 
ed to him December 24, 1835. August 26, 1830, 235 acres of lot 20 were articled to 
Christopher Servoss and were deeded to him December 24, 1833. 
39 



30G LANDMA-RKS OF 

July 27, 1821, John H. Stone took up the south part, 100 acres, of lot 21. January 
12, 1831, it was articled to Christopher Servoss, and December 24, 1833, 60 acres were 
deeded to Archibald Servoss, December 24, 1833 ; 40 acres of the same part were 
deeded to Montraville A. Harrington. Christopher Timmerman took up the south middle 
part, 50 acres, of lot 21, November 14, 1821. November 1, 1830, it was articled to 
Samuel Price, and March 21, 1884, was deeded to Daniel Flagler. The north part, 100 
acres, of lot 21 was articled to Joseph Brmk November 10, 1821, and transferred to 
William Jackson September 10, 1830. It was deeded to Mr. Jackson October 25, 1832. 
The north middle part, 100 acres, of lot 21 was articled to Cornelius Ashton July 5, 
1822. October 12, 1830, it was transferred lo William Jackson, to whom it, with the 
north part of the lot was deeded October 25, 1832. 

The nofth part, 90 acres, of lot 22 was taken up by Ira Brown August 23, 1821, 
It was articled to Osgood Kittredge December 28, 1830, and was deeded to Francis 
M. Davis May 7, 1834. The south middle part of lot 22, 100 acres, and the north mid- 
dle part, 50 acres, were articled to Ziba Needham August 11 and 13, 1821, and the 
south 100 acres were articled to Levi B. Pratt July 31, 1821. The tract thus articled 
was deeded as follows: 150 acres to Isaac Kittridge September 19, 1833 ; 50 acres to 
Thomas De Mott September 19, 1833 ; 25 acres to Alvah Flagler November 26, 1835 ; 
and 25 acres to Lewis Marshall December 14, 1835. 

July 5, 1820, Jeremiah Brown took up lot 28, 127i acres, and it was articled to 
Joseph Davis May 28, 1829. It was deeded to him May 25, 1835. 

The west part, 134 acres, of lot 24 was sold by article to Boaz Lambson May 22, 
1810. November 10, 1821, it was articled to Henry Reynolds, and March 6, 1828, to 
Seymour B. Murdock, to whom it was deeded November 14, 1833. The middle part, 
134 acres, of lot 24 was articled to Seymour Murdock October 24, 1809, and was 
deeded to John Huggins June 27, 1827. The east part, 130 acres, of lot 24 was taken 
up by Seymour Murdock May 21, 1810, and was deeded to him May 22, 1820. 

Stephen Lombard took up the west part, 133 acres, of lot 25 November 16, 1810. It 
Avas deeded to John Weld July 29, 1818. The east part, 100 acres, of lot 25 was arti- 
cled to Amos Barrett June 5, 1815. It was deeded to Roswell Reed November 24, 
1827. The west middle part, 61 acres, of lot 25 was articled to Isaac Penoyer Decem- 
ber 4, 1815. It was again articled to John Weld February 14, 1833, and with 10 
acres next west from it that were taken up July 29, 1318, by Mr. Weld, was deeded to 
him October 15, 1835. Charles De Witt took up the east middle part, 98 acres, of lot 
25 November 26, 1818. April 4, 1833, it was articled to Amos Barrett, and 49 acres 
were^deeded to Seymour B. Murdock December 28, 1837. The balance of 49 acres 
was deeded to Sidney Barrett December 28, 1837. 

Lot 26. 130 acres, was articled to Nathaniel M. Lombard March 6, 1819. November 
12, 1832, it was again articled to Calvin Barrett, and was deeded to Amos Barrett De- 
cember 6, 1838. 

The east part, 100 acres, of lot 27, was articled to Samuel Smith, May 25, 1816. 
December 3, 1832, it was transferred to Alsop Palmer, to whom 273i acres of the lot 
were deeded January 7, 1834. George Robinson purchased by article the west part, 
100 acres, of lot 27, July 15, 1818. January 19, 1833, 50 acres were articled to Alsop 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 307 

Palmer. The other parcel of 50 acres were articled to Henry Fox January 10, 1834, 
and was deeded to Harvey G. Fox December 1, 1835. George Robinson also took up 
the middle part, 123i acres, of lot 27, July 15, 1818. October 17, 1832, it was articled 
to Alsop Palmer, and, with other tracts amounting to 273-^ acres was deeded to him as 
before stated. 

The west part, 100 acres, of lot 28, was articled to Stephen Lowden, November 11, 
1815. September 12, 1832, it was transferred to Darius Hill, and was deeded to him 
December 19, 1833. Thomas Lowden took up the east part of lot 28, 274 acres Novem- 
ber 11, 1815. It was deeded to him September 27, 1822. 

October 13, 1821, David E. Evans and Joseph Ellicott, jr., took up lots 29, 30 and 31. 
These lots were deeded as follows: 148 acres of lot 29 to Jacob L. Taylor, October 17, 
1833 ; 150 acres of the same and a part of lot 30. to John Drew, January 20, 1835 ; 91^ 
acres of lots 29 and 30 to John Le Valley, May 25, 1836 ; 100 acres of lot 30 to Calvin 
Russell, October 23, 1832; 80 acres of lot 30 to Gardner Salisbury, October 25, 1832 ; 
50 acres of the same to Hiram Barrett, January 14, 1836; 50 acres to David Balch, 
September 19, 1833 ; 100 acres of lots 30 and 31 to Osgood Kitteridge, October 25, 
1832; 169 acres of lot 31 to Orin Arnold, June 8, 1833; and 131 acres of lot 31 to 
Joseph B. Arnold, June 8, 1833. 

William Davis purchased by article the east part 134^ acres, of lot 32, November 
19, 1809. It was deeded to Israel Murdock, April 16, 1816. The middle part, 100 
acres, of lot 32, was articled to Israel Murdock, July 31, 1821, and was deeded to Sally 
Murdock, June 4, 1835. April 4, 1822, Milton Warner took up the west part, 107 acres, 
of lot 32. November 16, 1830, it was articled to Edward Miller, and it was deeded to 
Samuel Hoag July 1, 1834. 

The east two-thirds, 256 acres, of lot 33 was taken up by John Murdock June 25, 
1810. It was articled to Israel Murdock June 26, 1820, to Jessie M. Scofield, Decem- 
ber 3, 1832, and was deeded : To Sally Murdook 54 acres, June 4, 1835; 122 acres to 
Abraham M. Schemerhorn, December 11, 1837; and 80 acres to Jonathan E. Robinson 
February 1, 1840. The west one-third, 129 acres of lot 33 was articled to Goodwin & 
Mix November 27, 1811, and deeded to Jeremiah Brown April 16, 1816. 

The north part, 100 acres, of lot 34, was taken up by Joseph Davis, July 27, 1822. The 
north middle part, 66 acres, of the same lot was taken up by Aaron Parker, November 20, 
1822. Both were articled to Daniel Morris, September 30, 1833, and were deeded as 
follows: 60 acres to Cyrus Clark, November 19, 1835; 40 acres to Elizur Coann, 
December 2, 1837, and 63 acres to William Mudge, November 5, 1839. Aaron Parker 
took up the south middle part, 100 acres of lot 34, November 20, 1822. It was articled 
to Joseph Perry, January 29, 1834, and deeded to Gideon Hard, October 19, 1835. 
Aaron Parker took up the south part, 100 acres, of lot 34, November 20, 1822. October 
3, 1832, 50 acres of this were articled to Daniel Dodge ; and on the same day 50 acres 
to Seth Churchill. October 11, 1834, the whole tract, 100 acres, was articled to Sey- 
mour B. Murdock, and was deeded to Daniel Burnett, jr., September 17, 1835. 

February 21, 1823, George Robison purchased by article the south middle part, 5"0 
acres, of lot 35. December 12, 1833, it was transferred to Seth Warren. November 
13, 1822, the .south part, 100 acres, of lot 35 was articled to John Moore. It was 
articled to Major Churchill September 28, 1832, and, with the preceding 50 acres, was 



308 LANDMARKS OF 

deeded to Daniel Burnett September 17, 1835. William Robinson purchased by article 
the north part, 50 acres, of lot 35 May 10, 1825. May 9, 1833, it was articled to 
Furman Case, and December 28, 1827, to William Murdock. It was deeded to John 
S. Barry December 28, 1837. December 26, 1837, Emery W. Dennison took up a part, 
50 acres, of lot 35. It was articled to Addison Grow February 26, 1834, and De- 
cember 1, 1835, was deeded to him. The north middle part, 42 acres, of lot 35 was 
articled to Henry Williams November 27, 1832. It was deeded to John Lowber May 
1, 1835. The middle part of lot 35 was deeded to Jesse Smith March 1, 1833. 

The west part, 50 acres, of lot 36 was taken up by John Grow September 23, 1834. 
tSeptember 12, 1832, it was articled to Addison Grow, and September 9, 1835, to 
Newell A. Hubbard. It was deeded to Andrew Weld August 24, 1838. W^illiam 
Annett took up the east part, 100 acres, of lot 36 August 5, 1816. June 25, 1832, it 
was articled to William Dodge, and November 10, 1834, to Silas Wood, to whom it 
was deeded November 9, 1837. The east middle part, 100 acres, of lot 36 was articled 
to Jacob Houseman April 25, 1825. April 3, 1833, it was articled to Simeon Case, and 
December 20, 1837, it was deeded to Allen F. Culver. 

John H. Stone took up the east part, 129 acres of lot 37 July 24, 1821. May 19, 
1832, the north portion, 95^ acres, of this was articled to Alden Baker, and December 

14, 1833, it was deeded to Jeremiah Porter. December 29, 1830, 24 acres of the south 
portion of this east part v ere articled to Orrin Abbot, and December 30, 1830 9^ acres 
were articled to Reuben Wright. This portion, which lay south from the canal, was 
deeded to Jerome Phillips December 14, 1833. The west part, 129 acres, of lot 37 
was taken up by John H. Stone July 24, 1821. December 22,1830, it was articled to 
Francis B. Lane, and 115^ acres were deeded to him December 28, 1833. 

The south part of lot 38 was taken up by John H. Stone July 27, 1821. September 

15, 1828, it was articled to Lemuel H. Ames, and December 3, 1833 was deeded to 
John Levally. The north part of lot 38, 182 acres, and south part, 98 acres, of lot 39 
were taken up by William J. Shippen October 4, 1821. The part of lot 38 was articled 
to Joseph Shippen December 27, 1830, and was deeded to him February 8, 1834. 
December 27, 1830, the part of lot 39 was articled to Jacob Shippen, and was deeded 
to him January 30, 1834. 

The north part, 109 acres, of lot 39 was articled to James Sheldon August 4, 1821. 
November 1, 1830, it was transferred to Jeremiah Brown, and was deeded to him 
January 8, 1834. 

September 14, 1821, the east part, 190 acres, of lot 40 was articled to Seymour Mur- 
dock. It was deeded to Jeremiah Brown November 1, 1830. James Sheldon purchased 
by article, August 4, 1821, the west part, 100 acres, of lot 40. November 22, 1830, it 
was articled to Joseph Wheeler, and was deeded to him January 28, 1834. February 
20, 1822, Samuel P. Judson took up the middle part, 106 acres, of lot 40. December 
29, 1830, it was articled to Grosvenor Daniels and was deeded to James Edwards, jr. 
October 2, 1835. 

The east part, 200 acres, of lot 41 was articled to Zephaniah Judson September 26, 
1811. It was deeded : 100 acres to Charles Webb, jr., September 7, 1821; and 100 
acres to Jeremiah Brown September 14, 1821. The west middle part, 80 acres, of lot 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 309 

4] was articled to Amos Spencer February 8, 1812. February 9, 1820, the article was 
renewed to Martin Lambert, and the land was deeded to Daniel Miller November 5, 
1825. The west part, 66 acres, of lot 41 was sold by article to William McCormick 
July 28, 1821, and was transferred to Hiram Dolittle November 26, 1830. January 15,' 
1834, 23 acres of this were articled to Otis Heartwell, and were deeded to William 
Johnson April 28, 1836. September 21, 1835, 43 acres of the same were deeded to 
James Salisbury. 

The south part, 60 acres, of lot 42 was taken up by John Cool June 17, 1822. Feb- 
ruary 21, 1831, it was articled to Benjamin J. Cornwall, and Nov. 7, 1835, to John 
Levally. The north part, 61 acres, of lot 42 was articled to John Cool September 9, 
1822. It was again articled to Amelia Sheldon October 14, 1833. Both parts were 
deeded to John Drew December 27, 1837. 

Samuel Bullen, jr., took up the north part, 100 acres, of lot 43 June 8, 1816. It was 
articled to Peter Warner, December 1, 1829, and was deeded to him May 15, 1835. 
The north middle part, 100 acres, of lot 43 was sold by article to Grassal Robinson July 
22, 1822. Twenty-five acres of this were articled to Joseph Bullen December 23, 1830, 
and to Levi Woodford January 7, 1835. This parcel was deeded to Robert L. Benson 
October 22, 1835. The balance of the lot, 250 acres, was deeded to John B. Lee, Sep- 
tember 1, 1834. 

Samuel Bullen, jr., took up the west part, 200 acres, of lot 44 April 20, 1815. De- 
cember 1, 1S29, the south portion of this was articled to Ambrose G. Morehouse, and 
was deeded to him July 7, 1837. December 1, 1829, the north portion of the same was 
articled to Samuel Hawkins, who received his deed January 8, 1834. The west middle 
part, 100 acres, of lot 44 was articled to Chester Perry September 17, 1818. It was 
again articled to James Seamans September 14, 1832, and was deeded to Samuel B. 
Kittridge May 15, 1835. The east part, 74 acres, of lot 44 was articled to John Grow, 
jr., December 14, 1825, and was deeded to Dewitt Clark December 27, 1833. 

July 5, 1817, Simeon Spencer took up the west part, 100 acres, of lot 45. December 
3, 1834, the south portion, 50 acres, of this was articled to Samuel Pierce, and was 
deeded to William A. Pierce November 15, 1836. May 15, 1835, the north portion, 30 
acres, of the same part was articled to William Jackson, and was deeded to him May 
15, 1835. The east middle part, 100 acres, of lot 45 was articled to Thomas Wheeler 
May 15, 1820. December 22, 1829, it was transferred to Thomas Dunlap, and was, 
with 60 acres more, deeded to him November 12, 1833. The east part, 100 acres, of 
lot 45 was taken up by Henry Shaver August 9, 1820. September 12, 1832, 70 acres, 
of this part were articled to John Grow, jr., who received his deed November 1, 1836. 
November 22, 1830, the west middle part, 60 acres, of lot 45 was articled to Samuel 
Wheeler, and was with the east middle part deeded to him November 12, 1833. Sixty- 
six acres of lot 45 were deeded to Jesse Smith March 1, 1833. 

In 1 8 14 there were in Ridgeway 681 inhabitants, of whom 130 were 
electors, and five were freeholders or owners of property to the value of 
$250. A bounty of $5.00 per head for wolves taken in the town was 
voted in 1816; in 1817 this was increased to $15.00. In 1813 there 



310 



LANDMARKS OF 



were 178 taxable inhabitants in Ridgeway, and according to the as- 
sessment roll of the "real and personal estates" completed on July 1st 
of that year, by Eli Moore and Lansing Bailey, assessors, these were as 
follows : 



Description o 


E Real Estate 




Description of Real Estate. 


Names of 






ii 






Names of 




d 



¥ 






persons or re- 
puted owners. 








bJD 
a! 


i 




persons or re- 
puted owners. 





M 
§ 


t 






hJ 




a; 


< 






hJ H 


»i 


< 




Arnold, David, 


wp3 


14 


4 


100 


3 -70 


Chamberlin, Fitch, 


5 6, Sec. 6 


16 


2 


175 


5.65 




ep4o 


14 




100 


3 40 


Delevergene, Theodorus R., 










Adains, Joseph. 


m p 14 


15 


2 


116 


3-5° 




Sec. 8 


14 


4 


50 


3-45 


Anderson, Robert, 


m p 22 


5 


2 


100 


3 90 


Demara David, 


nP34 


14 


4 


150 


4-90 


Adams, Aaron, 


w p 23 


5 


2 


100 


3.48 


Davis, Sumner, 


wp 14 


15 


2 


40 




Alcorn, John, 


SP35 


5 


I 


58 j^ 


3.65 


Daniels, Elijah, 


e p 62 


15 


2 




3.00 


Abbott, Stephen, 


SP36 


15 


2 


150 


495 


Devereaux, Elijah, 


m p 36 


15 


2 


TOO 


4.05 


Atwell, Levi, 


W p 44 


15 


2 




4-15 


Darrow, Elijah, 


m p 2 




2 




3.20 


Anderson, John, 


w p 22 


15 


2 


TOO 


3-3° 


Darrow, Reuben, 


m p I 


15 


2 


100 


2.50 


Ashton, Cornelius, 


w p 19 


14 


4 


100 


4-05 


Downer, Elijah, 


m p 38 


15 


2 


166 


7.40 


Barrett, Amos, 


wp 15 


15 


4 


50 


2 10 


Drake, Henry, 


28 


15 


2 


996 


34-15 


Barnes, Ezra D., 


m p 16 




4 


50 


1-5° 




Sp27 










Belding, Nathaniel, 


e p t6 


15 


4 




3- 50 


" " 


wp 24 










Bullock, Hezekiah, 


28 2q 


15 


3 


50 


1.50 


" " 


m p 23 










Brown, John G., 
Brown, Elijah, 


14 


15 


3 


470 


15.66 


" " 


s w p 38 










13579" 


16 




206 


7.40 


" " 


n wp37 










Brown, James, 


I 3 5 79 II 


16 


2 


329 


14-50 


11 11 


m p 22 










Brown, Paul, 


13579" 


16 


2 


103 


405 


Durkee, Ebenezer, 


ep46 


15 


2 


175 


5.60 


Brown, Robert, n p 


1 3 5 7 9 II 


6 


2 


206 


7- 05 


Davis, William, 


ep32 


15 


4 


1.34 


7.00 


Brown, Widow T., 


15 


16 


2 


2H 




Delevergene Egbert 


WP24 


15 


4 


136 


4.10 


Birdsley, Siba, 
Bent, Elijah, 




16 


2 


116 


3-85 


Douglass, Israel, 


WP36 


14 


3 


36 


2.00 


m p8 


14 


4 


g8 




Dunham, Matthew, 




16 


2 


480 


21.50 




s p 18 


14 


4 


100 


3-95 


Day, Minor, 


Sec. 16 


16 


2 


92 


5-00 


Benet, Frankling, 


sp 9 


4 


4 


100 


3-9° 


Eaton, John, 


m p I 


16 


3 


iqi 


4.80 


Belinger, Adam, 


m p 35 


14 


4 


200 


6.50 


Ellicott, Andrew A., 


38 


14 


3 


800 


35.60 


Bentley, Caleb, 


SP37 


14 


4 


336 


15.00 


Far, Chester W., 


sps 


15 




118 


3 75 


Bradner, William, 


w p 33 


15 


2 


310 


12.60 


Fairfield, Walter, 


mp5 


15 


2 


59 


1-75 


Burgess, Noah, 


ep6 


IS 


2 


190 


7.30 


Fairfield, Ezra, 


np 5 


15 


2 


59 


1-75 


Booth, Oliver, 


wp 15 


15 


2 


200 


8.40 


Freeman Gideon, 


52 


15 


2 


377 


18.65 


Bullard, William, 


W p 22 


15 


2 


100 


3-25 


Foot, William, 


SP45 


15 


2 




6.55 


Blak, David, 


m p 29 


15 


2 


100 


7-55 


Frary, Eleazer, 


np29 


14 


4 


185 


6.8s 




w P30 


15 




100 




Freeman, Samuel, 


mp38 


14 


4 




2.95 


Brundage, Jason, 
Bricon, Moses, 


w p 39 






100 


5'75 


Freeman, Jacob, 


sp.39 


14 


4 


210 


6.05 


SP37 


15 




200 


6.75 


Fuller, Reuben, 


1 2, Sec. 3 


16 


2 


238 


8.95 


Benton, Sii.ts, 


n p2 


15 




210 


6.15 


Fuller, John, 2 


4 6, Sec. 8 


16 


2 


259 


16.65 


Boothe, Oliver Gee, 


e p 23 


15 




100 


5.26 


Fuller, Thomas, 2 


4 6, Sec. 8 


16 


2 




3.20 


Benton, Oliver, 


m p 40 


14 




no 


3.00 


Foster, Adam, 


2 


16 


2 


123 


2.95 


Benton, Elijah, 


n P40 


14 






2.80 


Poster, Chris John, 


4, Sec. 12 


16 


2 


128 


4.00 


Bailey, Lansing, 


s w p 12 


15 




125 


5-25 


Foster, Jacob, 


6, Sec. 12 


16 


2 


126 


3.65 


Braley, Joel C. 


s e p 12- 


15 




125 


3-55 


Poster, George, 


8, Sec. 12 


16 


2 


n8 


2.9s 


Brooks, Clarkson P., 


ep39 


15 




117 


2.90 


Foster, Coonrod, 


ep8 


16 


2 


240 


10.50 


Blane, Joseph, 


e p 24 






75 


4.80 


Griffing, John W.. 


wp3o 


14 


4 


100 


3-7° 


Burlingham, Wm., 


m P53 


15 




120 


8.00 


Gates, Daniel, 


np3o 


15 


2 


100 


3-90 


Brigga, John, 


sp 14 


14 




99 


2.90 


Garter, Henry, 


n p 16 


14 


4 


200 


6.80 


Brigs, James, 
Coon, Alexander, 


m p 14 


14 




75 


2.65 


Gleason, Grin, 


WP64 


15 


2 


60 


2.80 


sp 17 


14 




200 


9.00 


Gleason, Thomas P., 


m p 64 


15 


2 


40 


1.20 




sp 18 


4 




184 




Gorham, Herman, 


m p 22 


15 


2 


50 


1.50 


Carpenter, James, 


s p 28 


4 




150 


5-30 


Hart, Joseph, 


34 


15 


I 


358 


10.77 


Carpenter, Samuel, 


n P36 


14 




250 


7 45 


Holsenburgh, Frede 


■ick, s p 3 


15 


2 


200 


5-60 


" " 


s P37 


14 




100 




Huff, John, 


mp7 


15 


I 


100 


5-25 


Chaffee, Noah, 


SP36 


15 




200 


5-45 


Hawley, M., 


mp5 


15 


3 


300 


10.05 


Cass, Ephraim, 


wp 53 


15 




50 


2 


70 


Hagerman, Joseph, 


n wpi4 


14 


4 


130 


4-75 


Clark, Jane, 


w p 23 


15 




100 


4 


05 


Houghton, Artemas 


wpi4 


16 


3 




4S 


Clark, Reuben, 


n w p 43 


15 




75 


3 


50 


Hooker, David, 


37-36 


16 


3 


66 


2.88 


Curtis, James, 


m p 6 


15 




200 


6 


90 


Hunt, John, 


2 


16 


2 


225 


4-05 


Crippen, Darius, 


tn P37 


IS 




59 


2 


80 


Hunt, Elijah, 


12, Sec 9 


16 


2 


130 


s-ss 


11 11 


m P30 


15 




100 


3 


30 


Hausman, John, 


ii 


16 


2 


120 


3.00 


Chaffy, Newberg, 


m PS3 


15 




75 




45 


Jacops, Andrew, 
Judson, Zephaniah, 


ep53 


IS 


2 


100 


3-7S 


Cobb, Jonathan, 


15 16 


IS 




541 


19 


25 


41 


15 


4 


200 


7.80 


Coon, Hezekiah, 


28 29 


15 




118 


3 


70 


Jenks, John. 
Kelsey, Roswell, 


WP38 


'5 


3 


100 


3.85 


Coon, Farley F., 


np8 


14 




166 




95 


ep38 


15 


3 


17s 


6.60 


Clark, Samuel, 468 


lo, Seen 


16 




481 


14 


25 


Lambert, Stephen, 


WP25 


IS 


4 


'34 


4.15 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



311 



Description o 


f Real Estate 




Description of Real Estate 




Names of 






6 






Names of 






6 






persons or re- 


■/ 


5 


be 


i 




persons or re- 


• 


be 


S 




puted owners. 








a 







puted owners. 








^ 






^J 


b* 


OS 


< 






J 


^ 




< 




Lowell, Henry, 


S, Sec. 9 


16 




150 


12.30 


Stodard, Joseph, 


53 


15 




248 


8.45 


Leopard, Samuel, 


npi3 


14 








50 


Sibley, Samuel, 


e p 6i 


15 








00 


Losey, James, 


6 


15 




344 


33 


05 


Sheldon, Petolomy, 


e P30 


15 




'87 


3 


25 


Lovewell, Zacheus, 


eP33 


15 




50 


I 


95 


Simmons, Isaac, 


m p 29 






10 J 




50 


Luse, Henry. 


ep7 


'5 






8 


40 


Simmons, Isaac, jr.. 


SP29 


14 




100 


2 




McAHster, William, 


np35 


15 




400 


13 


00 


Scoot, Jacob, 


ni p 36 


14 




100 


2 


75 


Mather, James, 


CD 14 


15 




537 


17 


80 


Smith, Nicholas, 


S P3i 






100 


3 


70 


Matoon, Phillip, 


wp6i 


15 




49 




50 


Turner, Otis, 


2628 


15 




70 




70 


Maxwell, Crosby, 


WP53 


'5 




40 


2 




Thomas, John. 11 9 7, Sec. 13 


16 




336 


9 


30 


McCarte, Eleazer, 


»1 P 37 


15 




120 


4 


80 


Tobey, Elnathan, 


sp9 
spi6 


15 




75 


4 


85 


Murdock, John, 


ep33 


15 




256 


9 


20 


Timmerman, John, 


14 




185 




90 


Murdock Seymour, 


e p 24-7 


15 




414 


16 


45 
















Moore, Eli, 


e p 6 


15 




189 


16 


15 


Wads worth, James, 


37 


15 




444 


24 


85 


Mix, Ebenezer, 


44 45 


15 




180 


6 


15 


Walker, Levi, 


m P 37 


14 




166 


4 


15 


Mansfield, Joseph, 


ep8 


16 




124 


3 


85 


Whitherwax, Peter, 


n P25 


14 




150 


5 


50 


Miles, Anthony, 


m p 8 


16 




124 


3 


85 


Whitherwax, David, 


n 26 


14 






8 


70 


Nelson, John, 


n P25 


14 






2 


25 


Wing, Thomas, 


\v p 53 


15 




50 




65 


O'Ber, William, 


n ep 14 


14 




100 


3 


55 


Witherel. John, 


e p IS 


15 




79 
70 


3 


35 


Pichsley, Ebenezer, 
Perry, Joseph, 
Prockter, John, 


sp38 


14 






5 


75 


White, William, 


3736 


15 




2 


70 


m p 40 


14 




100 


2 


50 


Woodard, Joshua, 


np 31 


14 




lOO 




50 


ep23 


15 




200 






White, Turman, Hooker & Co. 












Rowley, Reuben, 


ep45 


15 






4 55 




3636 


15 




63 


J 


90 


Reynolds, Simon, 


np37 


14 




200 


5 75 


Wilcox, Harry, 


w P M7 


IS 




100 


4 


35 


Read, William, 


up 17 


14 




203 


6.05 




s P 34 


14 




50 




25 


Rosure, Samuel, 


ep29 


15 








Nickerbocker, Denni 




14 




230 


6 


20 


Root, Moses, 


8 Sec. 12 


16 




123 


10.00 


" " 


Wt 


16 




50 






Spensor. Amos, 
Shelding Abel, 


m P4I 
wp6 


15 
15 




70 
189 


2.40 

6.65 


NON-RESIDENT LANDS 






Sheers, James, 


46 


15 




175 


6.15 


Bennet. Isaac, 


ep6 14 15 


15 


I 


907 


27.21 


Shelding, Isaac, 


ep46 


15 




178 


Its 


" " 


epi3 


15 


3 


38 




I- 


Shipman, Job, lo 


12, Sec. 2 


16 


2 


173 


Bassett, John, w p 30, p 31 


15 




210 


7 


50 


Sliehter, Kbenezer, 


2, Sec. 12 


16 


2 


123 


3-03 




m p 62 


15 


2 


50 




40 


Slighter, Giles, 


13, Sec. 6 


16 


2 


114 


3-75 




n p4 


15 






5 




Sheldon. Zelotes, 


m p 45 


15 


2 


100 


5-75 




np 36 


15 


2 


100 


2 


i 


Sibley, William, 


ni P45 


•5 


2 


147 


6.60 




np3o 


15 


2 


50 




Sprague, Dyer, 


w p 62 


15 


2 


50 


2.50 




e P7 


15 




50 


I 


95 


Shilley, Aaron. 


ep83 


15 


2 




5-45 




WP39 


15 


I 


67 


2 


StiUwell, Elijah, 


ni P 53 


15 


2 


70 


30J 




e P33 


15 


I 






50 


Shaw, Elijah, 


ep44 


15 


2 


268 


6 


70 




e m p 30 


15 


I 


TOO 


3 





The first permanent settler in Ridgeway was Seymour Murdock, who 
was born in Dutchess county, N, Y., in 1764. His wife was Miss Cath- 
erine Brick, of the same county, born in 1768. It is stated in Thomas's 
Pioneer History that Mr. Murdock first came to Ridgeway in the spring 
of 1 8 10, and purchased from two brothers named Sampson their rights 
to a portion of lot 24, fourth range, which they had taken up. In this 
statement there is evidently a confusion of dates. Mr. Murdock first 
purchased by article a part of that lot in October, 1809. May 21, 18 10, 
he took an article for another portion adjoining this, and the next day, 
May 22d, Boaz Sampson took an article for another portion of the same 
lot. In the spring of 18 lO Mr. Murdock's family, consisting of twelve 
persons, come to Ridgeway with an ox- team and a Pennsylvania 
wagon. Their journey lasted more than a month. From the Genesee 
River west the forest was almost unbroken. Only at long intervals had 
clearings been commenced and settlers' cabins erected. No bridges 



312 LANDMARKS OF 

spanned the streams, and fording was sometimes quite difficult. After 
their arrival they hved nearly six weeks in their wagons till they could 
build a log house. 

The entire region was then a dense forest. East on the Ridge the 
nearest clearing was two miles east from Oak Orchard Creek; west, at 
Johnson's Creek. Five miles distant, was a log house and a small 
clearing ; south the families of Mr. Coon and Mr. Walsworth, near 
Tonawanda swamp, were their nearest neighbors; and north there was 
no one till the lake shore was reached. The nearest store and post- 
office was at Batavia, the nearest gristmill at Niagara Falls, and the 
nearest school house was near Lockport. Such were the surroundings 
into the midst of which Mr. Murdock brought his family. They had 
eight sons and four daughters. The sons were Israel, John, Seymour 
B., Henry, Zimri, Jasper, Hiram, and William. In 1813 Mr. Murdock 
erected the first frame barn in the town, a portion of which is still stand- 
ing. It was a heavy frame and there were not settlers enough to raise 
it. Mr. Murdock asked General Izard, who was in command of troops 
on their way to the Niagara frontier, to furnish men to assist in the 
raising, which he did. In the summer of the same year Betsey Mur- 
dock, a daughter of Seymour, taught the first school in Ridgeway, in 
this barn. Mrs. Murdock died in 1823. His death occurred ten years 
later. 

Seymour B. Murdock was born in Dutchess county in 1796, and 
came with his father to Ridgeway in 18 10. At the taking of Fort 
Niagara he, with others of the family and neighbors who were capable 
of bearing arms, went to the defence of the country. June i, 1825, 
just fifteen years after his arrival in Ridgeway, he was married to Miss 
Eliza Reed, of Cayuga county, N. Y., and they took up their residence 
near where his father built his first cabin. There they passed the bal- 
ance of their lives. 

William Davis took up land on the lot next west from Mr. Murdock 
in the autumn of 1809, and began the erection of a log house on it in 
the spring of 18 10, but did not bring his family to the place till the 
the autumn of the same year. 

Soon after the advent of Murdock and Davis two men came and 
occupied a log house that had been erected at the salt springs on the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 313 

bank of the Oak Orchard Creek, south from the Ridge road. In the 
same summer Ezra D. Barnes came and boarded with Mr. Murdock 
while he built his house, some two miles farther east, on lot 37 ; for his 
board he worked two days each week. There were at that time in the 
town of Ridgeway only five horses, two yoke of oxen and three cows, 
all brought by Mr. Murdock. 

Eli Moore purchased a portion of lot 5, at Ridgeway Corners, in the 
summer of 1810. On this, in 181 1, he erected a block house, or house 
of hewed logs, which he opened as a tavern. This stood upon the site 
of the present hotel at that place. In the same year he started a store, 
the first in Ridgeway, and probably the first in the county. Another 
store was soon afterward opened at Oak Orchard. In 18 12 Colonel 
Howell kept a tavern in a log house at Oak Orchard. In the same 
year a tavern was kept at Jeddo, then Batesville, in a small log house. 

The first death in the town was that of a daughter of William Davis, 
in 1 8 10. She died of hydrophobia and was buried in the cemetery 
west of Ridgeway Corners. The first birth was a daughter of John 
Murdock. The first tanner and currier was Isaac A. Bullard, who was 
also the first shoemaker. His tannery was erected in 1812, a short 
distance west of the Corners. A tannery was built at Oak Orchard in 
181 3, by Zera Webb. There is now no tannery in town. A distillery 
was built in 181 1, a short distance west of Ridgeway Corners, and soon 
afterward one at Knowlesville. Several others have been carried on, 
but all have long since ceased operation. Sholes and Cheny were the 
first blacksmiths, followed by Blanchard Douglass, and others. 

Otis Turner came from Wayne county, N. Y., and settled on the 
Ridge road, east from Ridgeway Corners, in 181 1. He was an intelli- 
gent and able man, and was often placed in official positions. He was 
a judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Genesee county before the 
formation of Orleans and was a member of Assembly for that county in 
1823. He was one of the constituent members of the Baptist church 
of Medina. Soon after coming to Ridgeway he, in company with his 
brother-in-law. Dr. William White, and David Hooker, built a saw- 
mill between the Ridge and Medina. This was the second mill in the 
town. He died in Rochester in 1865. Dr. William White, who came 
to Ridgeway soon after Mr. Turner, was distinguished as the first resi- 



314 LANDMARKS OF 

dent physician in Orleans county. A sketch of him appears elsewhere 
in this volume. 

It has been said that a saw mill was built in 1805 by the Holland 
Land Company near Medina. In view of the fact that there was not a 
white settler in Ridgeway or Shelby till four or five years later, there is 
reason to suspect an error in the date. In 1812 Colonel Howell erected 
a saw mill at Oak Orchard, and during the same or the next year 
Turner, White and Hooker built another further up the stream, near 
where one was afterward established by Dunbar & Clark. In 1827 
Orlando Bates built one at what is now Jeddo. In 1838 S. M. 
Spencer erected one at Oak Orchard. This was burned in 185 1, 
and at once rebuilt. In 18 13 a clothiery was built by Lyman Turner 
on a small stream crossing the Knowlesville road east of Oak Orchard 
Creek. Like all old clothieries, it has gone to decay. 

The town was divided into school districts in 18 14. One of these 
districts extended on the Ridge from the west line of the town, a dis- 
tance of about seven miles, and indefinitely on the north an.d south, 
and in this district, in 18 15, the first school house, a log building, was 
erected. 

Israel Douglass, a native of New Milford, Conn., was born in 1777, 
and removed to Scottsville, Monroe county, N. Y., in 1806. In 18 10 
or 181 1 he came to Ridgeway, which was then Batavia. He was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace for the last named town prior to 18 12, 
and held the of^ce three terms. At the first town meeting in Ridge- 
way he was chosen town clerk, the first town ofificer elected in the 
county, and was several times elected supervisor of Ridgeway. He 
was regarded as honest and candid, and was one of the best business 
men in the county. He resided on the Ridge road, near Oak Orchard 
Creek, till his death in 1844. 

Amos Barrett was born in New Hampshire in 1778. In 1802 he 
married Lucy Thayer. His first wife died, and in 1807 he married 
Huldah Winegar. In 181 1 he purchased 50 acres of lot 15, a mile west 
from Ridgeway Corners. For this he paid $3 per acre. Foreseeing 
the appreciation in the price of land he bought other parcels and after- 
ward sold them at an advance. He brought his family here early in 
the spring of 18 12. They were the guests of his neighbor, Jonathan 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 315 

Cobb, till he built a log house on his own lot. Mr. Cobb's house was 
18x24 feet in size, and at this time had twenty- six inmates. On 
their journey hither with horse and OK-teams, one of his oxen broke his 
leg. He made a single yoke for the other ox and drove him by the 
side of a horse through the balance of the journey. The yoke is still 
preserved as a relic Mr. Barrett was one of the party that went with 
Captain McCarthy to the defense of the frontier in the war of 1812. 
He reared to adult age seven sons and one daughter, and lived to see 
twenty- two grand-children. He died in i860. 

Sidney S. Barrett, eldest son of Amos, was born in Fabius, N. Y., in 
1804, and came with his father's family to Ridgeway in 1812. In 1828 
he and two younger brothers purchased a portion of lot 24, west from 
Ridgeway Corners. After a few years this land was divided among 
them, and Sydney ever afterward resided on his portion. In 1832 he 
married Miss Lydii H. Fox. 

Lucius Barrett, a son of Amos, was born in Fabius, N. Y., in 1807. 
At the age of five years he came with his father to Ridgeway. In 1831 
he purchased the farm on which he ever afterward resided. In 1833 he 
married Electa B. Chase, of Clarkson, N. Y. 

Nathan Barrett, a brother of Amos, born in New Hampshire in 1777, 
married Sally Bennett, of the same State, in 1805. In 1815 they re- 
moved to Tioga county, N. Y., where she died in 1820 In 1828 he 
removed to Ridgeway, where he died the same year. 

Luther Barrett, son of Nathan, was born in Windham county, Vt., 
in 1806. He went with his father's family to Tioga county, in 181 5, 
and in 1825 came to Ridgeway, where he labored by the month till 
1831. In that year he purchased the farm on which he afterward re- 
sided, three-fourths of a mile west from Ridgeway Corners. In 1835 
he married Miss Almira Flood, a native of Vermont, born in 1807. 
Their children were : Sylvester J., Elsie A. (Mrs. Henry Tanner), 
Medora P., and Lodema A. (Mrs. Andrew Weld). In 1857-58 he was 
the supervisor of Ridgeway. 

Hezekiah Coon, a native of Rhode Island, removed to De Ruyter, 
N. Y. In 1811 he came to Ridgeway and took an article for 100 
acres of lots 28 and 29, a mile east from Ridgeway Corners. His son, 
Milo Coon, who was born in De Ruyter in 1799, came with him. 



316 LANDMARKS OF 

He married Edith Willetts in 1823, and purchased a portion of his 
father's farm. 

David Hooker, a native of Connecticut, was born in 1771, and was 
married to Betsey Sanders in 1795. She died in 18 13, and in 18 14 he 
married Polly Pixten. He came to Ridgeway in 18 12 and settled on 
lot 37, east from Oak Orchard. He served in the war of 18 12, 
and was at the battle of Fort Erie. Soon after he settled in Ridgeway, 
he, in company with Dr. William White and Otis Turner, built 
the mills on Oak Orchard Creek that were afterward known as the 
Morris Mills. He died in 1847. Perley H. Hooker, a son of David, 
was born in Wayne county, N. Y., in 1804, and came to Ridgeway 
with his father in 1812. He married in 1835 Lydia J. Craine, of Cay- 
uga county, and succeeded his father in the ownership of the place. 

George Bayne came from Scipio, N. Y., in 18 12, and located near 
Middleport, Niagara county. The war which then came on rendered 
residence here undesirable, and after a year he went back. Subse- 
quently he returned and purcl\ased a farm on lot 25, a mile east from 
Medina, where he died about 1825. His wife, Mehittebel (Davis) 
Bayne, died here in 1864. John Bayne came to Ridgeway with his 
father and died here in 1843. ^'s brothers, David, Thomas, George 
and Jonas, came soon afterward, and all settled in the vicinity. The 
wife of Jonas Bayne was Mary Runciman, to whom he was married in 
1836. Of their six children two were killed in the army daring the 
civil war. 

William Knowles was born in Sanderfield, Mass , July 19, 1790. In 
1 8 14 he came to the residence of his brother in Riga, Monroe county, 
N. Y., and a year later, or early in 181 5, to Ridgeway. He took an 
article for 200 acres of lot 3 where is now Knowlesville, which was 
named from him. He afterwards received deeds for 240 acres of this 
lot and built a rude log house more than a mile from any other house 
or highway, or even foot path. His first summer was one of severe 
labor. His housekeeper, the wife of a hired man, died, and his hired 
help left him. Late in the autumn of 18 15 he returned to Massachu- 
setts, and early in 18 16 was married to Miss Mary Baldwin. They re- 
moved to the house he had built, and brought with them what was 
then regarded as a great luxury — a set of splint-bottomed chairs ; but 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 317 

their first sleeping place was a " Genesee bedstead," and their first table 
a board laid on the end of a barrel. In the summer of 1816 the. sur- 
veyors of the route for the canal made their camp for a time on his 
farm, and the line was finally established through the center of it. He 
was a contractor on the canal east of Holley. The first framed house 
in Knowlesville, south of the canal, was built by him in 1825, and was 
several years kept by him as a hotel. In the same year he built the 
first warehouse in Knowlesville, and from this he shipped the first boat 
load of wheat that was sent from Orleans county. He helped to erect 
the first log school house in Knowlesville, and this house was also used 
as a place of worship. When the brick church in that place was erect- 
ed, in 1830, he furnished fully one-half of the funds for building it. 
Mr. Knowles never had any children, but he adopted and educated 
several, among them Rev. T. O. Fillmore, on whom he bestowed a lib- 
eral education. In 1820 Mr. and Mrs. Knowles became members of 
the Presbyterian Church at Knowlesville, and for forty years he was a 
ruling elder in that society. In 1861 his first wife died, and he after- 
ward married Mrs. Sarah Crippen. He died some years since. 

William C. Tanner was born in Rutland county, Vt., in 1793. In 
the spring of 181 5 he came west to " look land," and in June took an 
article for a part of lot 17, two miles southwest from Knowlesville. 
Early in 18 16 he and his brother, Josias, came and took possession of 
the land he had purchased, and kept bachelor's hall there two years. 
In the autumn of 18 17 he returned to Vermont, and brought back with 
him, the next spring, a younger sister for a housekeeper. She after- 
ward became the wife of Avery V. Andrews, and the mother of a large 
family. Mr. Tanner was commissioned a lieutenant in the militia in 
1 8 17, and was promoted in regular gradation till in 1826, he was made 
a brigadier- general. In 1821 he married Esther, a daughter of Judge 
John Lee, of Barre. She died in 1835, and he afterward married Julia 
A., daughter of Rev. J. S. Flagler, of Genesee county. Mr. Tanner 
died in 1869. Josias Tanner was born in Rutland county, Vt., in 1795. 
He came to Ridgeway in 18 16, with his brother, William C, and ever 
afterward resided there. In 1825 he married Miss Lucy Baldwin, and 
they had four children. Their youngest son, Lieut. B. B. Tanner, of 
the 151st N. Y. Volunteers, in the civil war, died in the service. 



318 LANDMARKS OF 

Grosvenor Daniels was a native of Pembroke, N. H., born in 1793. 
His first wife, to whom he was married in 1813, was a native of Ver- 
mont. She died in 1854, and in 1855 he married Florinda Hicks. In 
the spring of 1815, in company with Robert Simpson, he came to 
Ridgeway and took up a part of lot 47, a mile and a half north from 
Ridgeway Corners, and Mr. Simpson took up a parcel adjoining his. 
They built a camp and commenced clearing their land, but hard times 
and fever and ague compelled Mr. Daniels to return to Vermont in the 
fall. The next winter he brought his family to his new home, arriving 
after a tedious journey without money and in debt. The famous cold 
season of 18 16 was a hard time for all settlers on the Holland Purchase, 
and Mr. Daniels found it difficult to provide food for his family. He 
was a prominent man, and was chosen to various town offices. He had 
a taste for military exercises, and soon rose to the rank of brigadier- 
general in the militia. James Daniels, a brother of Grosvenor, settled 
in North Ridgeway, and after many years remove.d to Michigan. 

Eleazer T. Slater was a native of Massachusetts, whence he removed 
to Geneseo, Livingston county, at an early day. In 18 15 he came to 
Orleans county and settled on lot sixty-one, north from Knowlesville, 
where he remained till his death, some forty years since. His wife was 
Polly Taft, a native of Connecticut. Their children were: Levira (Mrs. 
Wilder), Eleazer T., jr., and Melissa Ostrander. 

Peter Hoag, a native of New Jersey, was born in 1822. When quite 
young he removed with his father's family to Ontario county, where he 
received a good education for those times, and taught district school 
several terms. In 18 15 he came to Ridgeway and took up a part of 
lot 17, two miles east from Medina, and built thereon a log house. In 
the following winter he married Hannah Vanduzer, of Ontario county, 
and in the spring of 18 16 they removed to the home which he had pre- 
pared. They came with a yoke of oxen and a sled, bringing a few 
necessary articles of furniture. Mr Hoag died in 1876. His first wife 
died in 1 83 1. In the same year he married Maria Palmatur. She died 
in 1866. 

Elijah Hawley, born in Bridgeport, Conn., in 1782, was married to 
Rhoda Spencer in 1805, and in 18 15 settled on lot 46, near Ridgeway 
Corners. He was one of the earliest land surveyors in the county. He 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 319 

was appointed a justice of the peace in 1816, and in i8i8ajudgeof 
the Court of Common Pleas in Genesee county, which position he held 
at the time of his death. He was also supervisor of Ridgeway in 18 18. 
October 22, 18 16, the post-office of Oak Orchard (the second in the 
county) was established at Ridgeway Corners and Mr. Hawley was 
appointed postmaster. This was the first post-office in what is now 
the town of Ridgeway, Mr. Hawley died in 1820, leaving a widow 
and six children. 

Grindal Davis was a son of Rev. Paul Davis, who was a Revolution- 
ary soldier. He was born in Massachusetts in 1786. He was a soldier 
in the war of 1 812, and participated in the battle of Plattsburg as well 
as in other engagements. His wife was Suviah Corbin, a native of 
Vermont. In 18 16 they came with their three children and a few 
household goods in a lumber wagon, drawn by a yoke of oxen to 
Ridgeway Corners. A year later he removed to Yates and remained 
there till 1869, when he came to Medina and died in that village the 
same year. He was an efficient member of the Baptist church of Yates, 
was an active temperance worker, and a man of sterling integrity. His 
daughter, Mrs. Clorinda Harper, became a resident of Medina. 

Joseph Davis, born in Massachusetts in 1782, was also the son of 
Rev. Paul Davis. In 1809 he was married to Dolly Maynard, also a 
native of Massachusetts. The same year they went to Vermont, 
whence, in 1820, they removed to Ridgeway. They came in a wagon 
drawn by two yoke of oxen and a horse, and loaded with a few house- 
hold goods, necessary farming utensils, and the family, which consisted 
of five children. They brought with them also a cow and were twenty 
days on the road. They located two miles north from Shelby Basin, 
on lot 23, where they erected their log cabin covered with bark, in 
which they resided two years. On this place they remained till the 
death of Mr. Davis, in 1869. 

Their children were Francis M , Almira (Brown), Paul H., Dolly A., 
(Arnold), Joseph C. (drowned in 1887), Henry G., Sarah V. (Reuben), 
Seraphine M. (Le Valley), and Simeon C. The youngest of these was 
born in 1831. 

Levi Davis, the son of a Revolutinary soldier, was born in Wards- 
borough, Vt., in 1793. With his father's family he went to New Salem, 



320 LANDMARKS OF 

Mass., and in 1 8 14 served a short time as a soldier in the war with 
England. In 18 16 he was married to Miss Lorana Hunt, and soon 
afterward started, with an ox team, for Chautauqua county, N. Y., 
where they arrived after a journey of thirty-five days. He cleared and 
improved a farm there, and reared a family of eight children. Business 
reverses overtook him, and in 1833 he removed to Ridgeway, where 
for several years he worked at the trade of a mason. 

Jeremiah Brown, the son of a Revolutionary officer, was born in Che- 
shire, Mass., in 1780. In 1799 he made a journey on foot to Farming- 
ton, Ontario county, and again in 1807. In 1809 he married Abigail, 
daughter of Rev. Paul Davis, of New Salem, Mass., and in 181 1 they 
removed to Farmington. He was an officer in the militia, and in the 
war of 1812 he was called into service and went to Buffalo. In 18 15 
he removed to Massachusetts, and the next year came to Ridgeway. 
During the first few years they suffered much from sickness, and en- 
countered many privations. They sometimes subsisted on unripe 
grain, boiled, and on the flesh and fat of raccoons. Mr. Brown related 
that in the sickly summer of 1828 he did not undress at night during 
eight consecutive weeks, being constantly engaged in the care of the 
sick. In 1 8 16 he was chosen commissioner of highways, and assisted 
in laying out five roads from the ridge to the lake. At different times 
he was elected to all the offices in the town except clerk, constable and 
collector. In 1822 he erected a furnace in which he cast the first 
iron plough ever made in the State west of Rochester. He was a man 
of large stature, with a firm and vigorous constitution. He was the 
father of Albert F. Brown, once mayor of Lockport, and of Colonel 
Edwin F. Brown, of the 28th Regiment New York Volunteers. He 
died in 1863. 

Daniel F. Hunt was a native of Vermont, born in 1790. His wife 
was Abigail Batcheller, a native of New Hampshire. They came to 
Ridgeway in 18 16, and located three and one half miles north from 
Ridgeway Corners, where they remained till their deaths. She died in 
i85i,andhein 1878. Of their nine children who hved to adult age 
Daniel F. settled near his father, Aaron B. in Medina, and Hannah 
(Mrs. John H. Mean) on the Ridge road west of Ridgeway Corners. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 321 

Andrew Stevens was a native of New Hampshire, born in 1789. In 
1 8 10 he removed to Riga, Monroe county, N. Y.,and in 18 16 to Ridge- 
way, where he took up a part of lot 58, at Knowlesville. His father, 
Jesse, and his mother, Martha (Seaton), came with him and remained 
till their deaths. He died in 1826, and she in 1837. In 1819 Andrew 
Stevens married Sally, daughter of Judge John Lee, of Barre. Their 
children were : Charles L., Sarah W. and Clarissa O. Charles L. be- 
came the owner of a portion of the old homestead. He was born in 
1820 and was the first white male child born in the village of Knowles- 
ville, and was during all his life a prominent citizen of that village, and 
for many years a justice of the peace. Mrs. Stevens died in 1828, and 
in 1829 he married Sophronia Harding, of Barre. They had five 
children, of whom the youngest, John, settled on a part of the home- 
stead. Mr. Stevens died about 1870. His wife had died ten years 
previously 

David Hood, a native of Pennsylvania, was born in 1794. When he 
was three years of age his parents removed to Romulus, N. Y. In 18 13 
he was drafted and served three months. In 18 16 he came to Ridge- 
way, and in 18 17 purchased an article for 119 acres of land. In 181 8 
he built a log house, and in 18 19 was married to Miss Elizabeth Bur- 
roughs, of Shelby. 

Samuel Church settled in North Ridgeway in 18 16. His wife was 
Ann Daniels, and they reared four sons. 

William Cobb and his wife, who was Hannah Heminway, were natives 
of Massachusetts, and settled on lot 40, north from Ridgeway Corners, 
in 1817. In 1855 Mr. Cobb died at the age of sixty- six years. His 
family consisted of four sons and one daughter. 

William M. Alcorn was born in Northumberland county. Pa., in 1808. 
In 1817 he came to Ridgeway with the family of Judge Turner, to 
whom he had been bound. They settled on the Ridge, about a mile 
east from Ridgeway Corners, and he remained there till the age of 
twenty- six, when he removed to Palmyra, N. Y., where he married 
Electa B. Howland of that place. They at once came to Medina. Tney 
reared three daughters: Frances (Mrs. David Parks), Mary A. (Mrs. 
Charles E. Clark), and Helen A. (Mrs. Edward O. Draper). 



322 LANDMARKS OF 

Edward Raymour, a native of Vermont, was born in 1801. At the 
age of thirteen he removed to Ontario county, N. Y., and in 1818 to 
Ridgeway. In 1825 he married Almira, daughter of George Bayne. 
She died in 1835, and in the same year he married Abigail Davis, a 
native of Connecticut, who came to Ridgeway in 18 17. 

William N. Preston, born in Lyme, N. H., in 1781, married Sarah 
Daniels, who was born in Pembroke, N. H., in 1785. They came to 
Ridgeway and settled a mile and a half north from the Ridge in 1819. 
Their sons were Isaac, Samuel and Williston. Mrs. Preston died in 
1 83 1, and he died ten years later. 

Ephraim G. Masten and his wife, Nancy G., were married in 1815, 
and settled in Bethlehem, Albany county, N. Y. In 1819 Mr. Masten 
came to Ridgew^ and purchased an article for land on lot 17, two 
miles east from Medina. He made some improvements, and in the 
same year moved his family there. They lived in a log house till 1831, 
when they built a stone residence on the same site. Mr. Masten died 
in i860. 

William Cochrane, a native of New Hampshire, was born in 1781. 
He married Rhoda Wright, of the same State, and they settled in Ridge- 
way in 1819. Their family consisted of four sons and three daughters. 
The eldest son, William, became a resident of Waterport in Carlton. 

Lyman Bates, or Judge Bates, as he was commonly called, was born 
in Palmyra, N. Y., in 1798. In 18 19 he came to Ridgeway and began 
the career of a farmer, which he afterward followed when not discharg- 
ing official duties, He was a justice of the peace several terms, nine 
years swpervisor of Ridgeway, five years a judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, was a member of the Assembly in 1828, and president of 
the Farmers' Bank of Orleans. His wife, to whom he was married in 
1821, was Abinerva Kingman, who was born in Palmyra in 1796. 

Avery V. Andrews was born in New Hampshire in 1798. In 1802 
his father removed with his family to Vermont, and in 18 17 to Gaines, 
where they arrived after a journey of thirty days with two yoke of 
oxen. In 1 8 19 Avery V. purchased an article for 50 acres of land in 
Ridgeway, and in 1821 another for 62 acres, the last parcel having on 
it a small log house. Seventeen years later he built a stone residence, 
in which he passed the balance of his days. His wife was the sister of 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 323 

Gen. William C. and Josias Tanner. She came to Ridgeway with her 
brothers in 1818. 

Parley Gillette was born in Madison county, N. Y., in 1805. He 
removed with his parents to Dansville, N Y., in 18 16, and to Ridgeway 
in 1820. He afterward purchased a farm on lot 20, one and a half 
miles northwest from Knowlesville. He was first married in 1835 to 
Miss Emeline H. Bottom, of Vermont. She died in 1853, and in 1854 
he married Miss Sarah Whittaker. She died in 1855 and in 1856 he 
married Mrs. P. Dow,who died in 1881. He had four children: Willis, 
Dyer, Mrs. Mary Brace, and Emma. Nelson and Joab Gillette, brothers 
of Parley, came to Ridgeway with him, and all first settled on lot 10, 
one and one- half miles southwest from Knowlesville. Joab died more 
than twenty years since, and his widow and three children moved to 
Kansas. Nelson died in 1882, leaving a widow (second wife) and five 
children. 

Richard Fancher was born in Montgomery county, N. Y., in 1793. 
He came early to Ridgeway and took an article for a pert of lot 12, a 
mile and a half northwest from Knowlesville, and resided on that farm till 
his death in 187 1. His son, William, removed to Knowlesville. and a 
daughter, Mrs. Jennie Ough settled at Eagle Harbor. Mr. Fancher 
was twice married. His last wife died in 1875. 

Solomon Newell was a native of Massachusetts, born in 1778. His 
wife was Sarah Stedman, a native of Rhode Island. They went to 
Chenango county, N. Y., then came to Gaines in 1820, whence they 
removed to Middleport, Niagara county, and in 1845 settled in Medina. 
He died in 1846, she in 1875. A grandson, George A. Newell, was 
nine years county clerk, is cashier of the Union Bank of Medina, and 
eminent in the Masonic fraternity and now county treasurer. 

Joseph L. Perry was a native of Huntington, Conn., born in 1794. 
With his father's family he removed to near Auburn, Cayuga county, 
N. Y., in 1804, and in 18 19 was married to Julia Ann Reed. In 1820 
they removed to Ridgeway and located on lot 24, half a mile west from 
Ridgeway Corners. He held offices in the town prior to the organiza- 
tion of the county of Orleans, and was a deputy sheriff in this and 
Genesee counties In 1825 he became a merchant and hotel-keeper at 
" the Corners " and continued to keep a tavern many jears. He was 



324 LANDMARKS OF 

also a manufacturer of potash, a partner in the old stage line on the 
Ridge road, postmaster, mail contractor, and produce dealer. He 
owned, ran, and sometimes commanded boats on the Erie Canal, and 
was noted for shrewdness, wit, and joviality. He died in Ridgeway in 
1S45. 

James Jackson was born in Duanesburg, N. Y., in 1798. He re- 
moved with his mother's family to Onondaga county, and in 18 19 mar- 
ried Maria Marlette. In 1823 they came to Ridgeway and settled on 
lot 20, west from Medina, where their six sons and four daughters were 
born. His wife died in 1870. Of their ten children two sons and three 
daughters settled in and near Medina. Mr. Jackson was a man of 
energy and industry, and achieved success as a farmer. 

William Jackson was born in Duanesburg, N. Y , in 1799, and was 
married to Martha Comstock in 1822. They had eleven children. In 
1826 he came to Ridgeway and bought an article for a part of lot 2 1, 
north from Shelby Basin. He built a log house, returned to Onondaga 
county for his family, and brought them to their new home the next 
year. He remained on this place till about 1880, when he removed to 
Holley. 

Richard Gordineer, son of a colored woman, Jacob Gordineer's slave, 
was born in 1794. He and his mother were sold when he was two 
months old to Joseph Grant, the father of L. A. G. B. Grant, of Shelby, 
and both were made free by law in 1825. In 1823 he came to Medina 
and was a cook in the family of Walter Grant, on a farm south of that 
place. He remained with the Grants till 1824, after which he worked 
on the canal till 1 839, when he settled in Medina. He was a good cook, 
and his services in that capacity were often required on important occa- 
sions. He was a cartman and whitewasher many years, and by indus- 
try and frugality accumulated a comfortable property, but in 1862 he 
lost everything. He lived to be over ninety-two years of age. 

Benjamin Jackson was born in Duanesburg in 1803, and removed to 
Onondaga county, N. Y., with his mother's family in 1805. At the age 
of twenty-two, or in 1825, he came to Ridgeway, returned to Onon- 
daga county, and in 1828 came again to Ridgeway, and resided on dif- 
ferent farms west from Medina till 1842, when he removed to the vil- 
lage. He first married Wealthy Ann Terry, of Onondaga county, in 



ORLEANS COUNTr. 325 

1823. She died in 1842, and in the same year he married Clarissa 
McCormick. They had five daugliters. 

Simeon Bathgate was born in Scotland in 1788. In his native country 
he learned the trade of a millwright, which he followed there till 18 18, 
when he came to America. He first lived at Caledonia, afterward in 
Batavia, and early in 1825 he came to Medina. In that year he built 
the machiner)' for D. E. Evans's mill, and afterward established a foundry 
and machine shop near the canal for the manufacture of mill machinery. 
In this business he continued till his retirement in 1850. He died in 
1865. He was married in Scotland to Euphemia Atchinson. They 
had ten children, three of whom died in infancy. Allison, the oldest 
daughter, born in Scotland, married C. R. Ganson, and died in Buffalo 
in 1890. George succeeded his father in the foundry, and died in 
Medina in 1854. William, a partner with George in the foundry, sailed 
for California in 1852, and died at sea of yellow fever. Sarah Atchin- 
son, who married Reuben Castle, was born in Medina in 1826, and was 
the first white child born in that village. Margaret married George 
Shattuck and resided on the Bathgate homestead. Jane Ann married 
Waldo Stebbins, and died in Medina in 1858. Cornelia Euphemia 
settled in Medina. Mrs. Bathgate died in 1869. 

Simeon Downs was born in Vermont in 1800. In 1825 he removed 
to Medina, where he engaged in general blacksmithing. He afterward 
became a manufacturer of edged tools, and subsequently a daguerrean 
artist, and finally an insurance agent, in which business he continued till 
his death in 1876. His wife, to whom he was married in 1826, was 
Sophronia Bailey, born in Essex county, N. Y., in 1808. She came to 
Medina in 1826. Of their four children three lived to adult age : Les- 
ter C. married Susan Garter, and died in 1861, leaving two sons, Frank 
and Fred; Henrietta married M. W. Ryan, of Medina, and Pleuma 
P, married Edwin H, Sanborn. 

Chauncey Brinsmaid was born in Cayuga county, N. Y., in 1799. 
In 1823 he married Rachel Cannon and in 1825 they came to Ridge- 
way and located on lot 2, near Knowlesville, where he remained till 
his death in 1883. His first wife died in 1840, and in 1842 he married 
Eunice Stevens. She died in 1858, and in 1859 he married Susan A. 
Taylor, who after his death removed to Salt Lake City. He had eight 



326 LANDMARKS OF 

children. Samuel Brinsniaid, a younger brother, came here in 1836. 
He was born in 181 1. 

John Ryan was born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1801. In 18 10 he went 
to Lycoming county, where he learned the trade of a mason, at which 
he worked there till 1825, when he removed to Batavia, N. Y., and in 
the same year to Medina, He followed his trade and was a contractor 
from time to time. He built all the bridge abutments on the enlarged 
canal between Lockport and Albion, and had many other large jobs. 
He was for five years superintendent of repairs on the canal. His wife 
was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 181 1. They were married in 
1837. Ten children lived to adult age. 

Moses S. Hicks was born in Rhode Island in 1804. With his father's 
family he removed in succession to Oneida county, N. Y., to Onondaga 
county, to Wayne county, and in 1825 to Ridgeway, and followed the 
trade of a carpenter and joiner. He was first married in 1833 to Mary 
Adams. She died in 1847, and in 1850 he married Ellen Barlow. He 
resided in Knowlesville. 

Stephen Welch was a native of New England. In his childhood he 
was adopted by a Quaker in Pennsylvania and remained with him till 
he reached his majority. In 1823, with his wife and one son, he re- 
moved to Western New York and located within what is now the city 
of Lockport. In 1825 they removed to Ridgeway, near Knowlesville, 
and in 1833 he purchased a part of lot 57, a mile south from that vil- 
lage. He died there in 1835. His wife was Jane Jacobs, a native of 
New England. She continued to reside on this place till her death in 
1866. Their children were John and Benjamin, who settled on the old 
homestead, and Elizabeth, who died in 1866, 

Botsford Fairman, born in Massachusetts in 1806, was educated in 
the common schools of his native State, and early in life became a clerk. 
In 1823, he removed to Cooperstown, N. Y., and in 1826 to Medina. 
He at once engaged in mercantile business, which he followed about 
thirty- five years, and in that time, in company with T. R. Austin, he 
built the Medina Falls mill. He was then a banker and produce dealer 
till 1870, when he removed to New York city and was again engaged 
in mercantile business till 1885. He then retired from business, removed 
to Albany and resided with his daughter, Mrs. H. E. Sickels, till his 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 327 

death, in 1889. His wife, to whom he was married in 1828, was Delia 
A. Austin, Otego, N. Y. Their children were : Carrie (Mrs. H. E. 
Sickels), of Albany ; George, of Chicago ; Henry, of Medina ; Delia, 
(Mrs. L. J. Ives) ; Charles, Elizabeth, Richard, and Susan. 

Joseph Nixon was born in England in 1796. He received a liberal 
education and graduated at Cambridge. He then studied theology for 
a time, but abandoned the idea of becoming a clergyman and studied 
medicine. He came to America in 18 19, landing at Baltimore, where 
for a time he practiced as a physician. He there became acquainted 
with the Seneca chief Red Jacket, and was by him adopted, in the 
presence of a large concourse of people, into the Seneca tribe. The 
name given him was " Wy-nish-e-u, signifying "a fair day," the name 
by which he was ever afterward known by the Senecas, who visited him 
in Medina. He removed to Brownsville, Pa., and thence, in 1824, to 
Batavia, where he engaged in teaching. In 1826 he came to Medina 
and erected a brewery and distillery and also the stone tenement house 
long known as the nunnery. He continued in business till 1848, and 
died in 1850. In 18 19 he was married, in England, to Mary Anderson 
who died in 1848. Of their seven children who lived to adult age, 
Elizabeth married George H. Thatcher; Mary married Benjamin Thorn, 
and died in Albion ; Sarah married Louis Isbel, and died in Albany; 
Joseph Carr Nixon died in Medina; Alice married Daniel Clark; 
Alderson Nixon settled in Medina; and William H. died in Nebraska. 

Isaac Caswell was born in Herkimer county, N. Y., in 1800. In 1825 
he married Betsey Sternberg, and in 1827 they came to Murray, in this 
county. During the first few years of their residence here they suffered 
much from sickness and endured many privations. In 1849 he removed 
to Ridgeway, where his wife died in 1852. In 1854 he married Adaline 
Tuttle, a native of New London county, Conn. Mr. Caswell died in 
the autumn of 1872. 

Henry A. Hess was born in Herkimer county, N. Y., in 1791. His 
great-grandfather, John Hess, a relative of John Hess, Landgrave of 
Hesse-Cassel, came from his native country to Dutchess county, N. Y., 
in 1709. where the grandfather of Henry, Augustin Hess, was born in 
1719; his father was also born in that county. .They removed to Herki- 
mer county and during the Revolution his father was engaged in the de- 



328 LANDMARKS OF 

fense of Fort Stanwix, and at the battle of Oriskany received a wound 
which caused his death in 1805. His grandfather was killed in the 
defense of Fort Herkimer, their buildings were burned, and their stock 
killed or driven away. In 1798 they moved to Onondaga county, N. 
Y., where his father died in 1805. On the breaking out of the war with 
England in i8i2,he enlisted in the army and became a first lieutenant. 
He was honorably discharged in 18 14. In 181 5 he married Prudy Har- 
vey, of Herkimer county. His mother died in 1821, and in 1822 he 
removed to Clarendon. In 1847 he came to Ridgeway and located about 
midway between Medina and Knowlesville. The farm which he pur- 
chased there he sold to his son, James Hess, in 1865. 

Mrs. Ann McKean was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., in 1799, 
and was married to Pierce N. McKean in 1828. She settled in Medina 
and lived on Orient street, in a log house where the nunnery now 
stands. Joseph Nixon lived in the house north. All woods around 
there then. On the other side of the race was a slaughter house and 
a brewery built of logs, also a saw mill belonging to Joseph Ellicott. 
Mr. McKean removed to Middleport, then to Ridgeway, and in 1839 
returned to Medina, where he died in 1854. Their youngest daughter 
married J. N. Card, of Medina village. 

Nathan Bancroft was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1803. His father's 
family removed to Avon, N. Y., in 1806. In 1823 he removed to 
Elba, N. Y., and thence, in 1828, he came to Ridgeway and purchased 
land just west of Medina. He engaged, during several years, in the 
manufacture of brick, and was afterward a farmer. In 1867 he removed 
to a place within the present limits of the village of Medina, where he 
died in 1886. In 1826 he married Hulda E. Turner, of Elba. They 
reared five sons and two daughters to manhood and womanhood. Of 
these the daughters settled on the place where he died. Mrs. Bancroft 
died in 1888. 

James Kearney was a native of Tipperary, Ireland, born in 1810, and 
in his youth he learned the trade of a stonemason. He removed to 
to Canada in 1828, and to Medina in 1830. He worked at his trade 
there for some years, then became the proprietor of a quarry, which he 
operated till within a few years of his death. He died in 1866. His 
wife was Ann Kelly, also a native of Tipperary, born in 18 15. She 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 329 

came to Canada in 1824, and to Medina in 1825. Of their eleven chil- 
dren nine lived to adult age. John D. married Jennie Mead and died 
in 1882; Ellen married, hrst, Michael Shanley, then Patrick Horan, and 
died in 1876; James A. married Kate Lahey, and removed to Cali- 
fornia; Anna E, married Daniel Barret, of Niagara Falls; Michael is 
deceased ; William E. married Mary E. Smith and moved to Pennsyl- 
vania ; Richard married Evangeline Gardner and settled in Boston ; 
Sara M. became a resident of Medina with her mother ; and Margaret 
A. (now deceased) married Charles A. Gorman. 

John Parsons was born in the city of New York in 1809. His father 
was an Englishman and a sea captain, and his mother was a native of 
Scotland. They became residents of New York in 1804. The son 
learned the trade of a coppersmith in his youth, and in 1832 he re- 
moved to Medina, where he followed the trade of a copper, tin, and 
sheet iron worker. In 1832 he married Elizabeth Cogswell, a native of 
Monroe, county, N. Y. They reared two children : Mary and John C. 
The latter died at the age of twenty. Mrs. Parsons died in 1888. 

Lewis Marshall was a native of Dutchess county, N. Y., born in 1806. 
In 1826 he married Sarah Angevine, also a native of Dutchess county, 
born the same year. In 1831 they removed to Palmyra, N. Y., and in 
1832 to Ridgeway, two miles north from Medina. Thence he removed 
to Jeddo, where he was many years the owner of the mills at that 
place, and where he died in 1888. His wife died there also in 1879, 
Five of their children were : Susan (Smith), John L., Edward, William 
H., and Angevine. 

David Danolds came to Avon in 18 16 and was engaged for two years 
in making brick. He then removed to Stafford, Genesee county, where 
he became a hotel keeper, a merchant, a miller, a distiller, and a manu- 
facturer of potash. He removed thence to Batavia, where he remained 
two years, then went to Elba, where he became a merchant and a 
manufacturer of potash, having four asheries in different towns, and 
also carried on a flouring mill, clothiery, saw mill, distillery, and ashery 
at Rushville. At his distillery he did a large business buying, fattening 
and selling cattle and swine. In 1832 and 1833 he purchased 2,600 
acres of land near Oak Orchard, in Orleans county, and engaged on a 
large scale in clearing land, farming and getting out timber, lumber, and 

42 



330 LANDMARKS OF 

staves. He built two single mills and a double one, built and carried 
on a large ashery, where he made potash from the ashes of the timber 
which he burned the first year, and cleared and sowed to wheat about 
200 acres in one year. He employed many men ; and built a school 
house and employed a lady teacher for their children. He furnished 
most of the timber for the Medina and Akron horse railroad. He con- 
tinued his large business here till 1835, when, by reason of circumstances 
which he could not control, he was compelled to make an assignment, 
and his extensive property was sold at a sacrifice. He then went to 
Black Rock, where he engaged in brick making, but lost heavily by the 
failure of Rathbone, the great contractor and builder. He returned to 
Oak Orchard for a time, then went to Galena, 111., prospected for lead, 
and struck the best claim ever found there, but became involved in liti- 
gation with those to whom he sold his claim, and pending this he died. 
His son, Charles A. Danolds, cared for his father's family, and during 
ten years kept a hotel at Oak Orchard, while the Ridge road was still a 
thoroughfare for stage coaches and emigrants. In 1848 he removed to 
Eagle Harbor, where he sold goods and run four canal boats. In 
1850 he became a contractor, and continued in that business for thirty- 
five years. He had large contracts on the Welland Canal, and he has 
probably constructed more miles of canal than any other man in the 
State of New York. He was for a time engaged in the milling business 
at Eagle Harbor, but is now living comfortably on a farm at that place. 

Allen Breed was born in Stonington, Conn., in 1793. In 1817 he 
married Betsey Lincoln, also a native of Connecticut, and in the same 
year they removed to Chenango county, N. Y. In 1827 they came to 
Parma, Monroe county, and thence, in 1834, to Ridgeway. He pur- 
chased an article for a portion of lot 15, on the Ridge, a mile west from 
Ridgeway Corners. In 1834 he died, and the land was deeded to his 
widow. They had six children, whom she reared to maturity, and two 
of those are David A. Breed, the eldest, and Mrs. Marietta French. 

Levi L. Childs, a native of New Hampshire, was born in 18 12, and 
there learned the trade of a blacksmith, removed to Wyoming county, 
N. Y., thence, about 1834, to Carlton, in Orleans county. He died in 
Gaines in 1857. ^is wife was Ann M. Wright, a native of Vermont, 
born in 1803. She died in Buffalo in 1887. Their children were: 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 321 

Louisa F.,who married Calvin P. Hazard, of Bufifalo ; Hon. Henry A., 
of Medina, now a judge of the Supreme Court ; and Mary, now de- 
ceased, who married Edwin Wilson. 

Moses M. Nash, a descendant of Thomas Nash, who settled in New 
Haven in 1640, was born in Madison county, N. Y., in 181 5 ; was mar- 
ried in 1836 to Esther E. Porter, and in the same year settled in Yates. 
In 1847 ^^ removed to Ridgeway. He filled various town offices, and 
was for some time postmaster at Ridgeway Corners. 

George Kennan, the celebrated Siberian traveler, lecturer and writer, 
spent a number of his earlier years in Medina, where he held the posi- 
tion of cashier of the Union Bank at a period when his brother, John 
M., was president of that institution. Mr. Kennan was born in Nor- 
walk, O,, February 16, 1845. His father was a lawyer ; his mother was 
the daughter of a Connecticut clergyman and a relative of Prof. Samuel 
F. B. Morse. In 1879 he married here Miss Emeline Rathbone Weld, 
a daughter of an eminent citizen of Medina. 

Numerous other biographical sketches of early settlers and promi- 
nent citizens of Ridgeway and Medina appear on other pages of this 
volume, and among these will be found the names of Hon. Henry A. 
Childs, Edmund Fuller and Edmund Fuller, jr., Arthur W. Newell and 
his son, George A., Dr. Christopher Whaley, Thomas and Andrew 
Weld, the Parker family, John Levalley, and many others. 

The town of Ridgeway, according to the census of 1890, contained a 
population, exclusive of Medina village, of 2,902. The total assessed 
valuation of real estate in 1893 was $2,997,468 (equalized $3,127,312), 
and of personal property $406,025. The total tax on roll aggregated 
$20,902.14, which was distributed as follows: State: Schools, $2, - 
907,16 ; State care of insane, $1,009 24; general purposes and canals, 
$3i835- 10 ; county audits and appropriations, $7,205.94 ; town audits, 
$4,097.67; roads and bridges, $1,132.74; other purposes, $684.29. 
The corporations doing business in the town are assessed on real estate 
as follows: Postal Telegraph Company, $6,370 ; Bell Telephone Com- 
pany, $10,458 ; Western Union Telegraph Company, $4,940; Union 
Bank of Medina, $2,000, and personal property, $48,000 ; New York 
Central and Hudson River Railroad Company, $20,500 ; Niagara Grape 
Company, $5,700; Bignall Manufacturing Company, $15,000, and per- 



332 LANDMARKS OF 

sonal property, $15,000; Medina Gas and Electric Light Company, 
$17,000; Medina Water Works Company, $25,000. 

As early as 1805 the salt springs on lot 3, north from Medina, were 
operated by the Holland Land Company, but without great success. 
It is elsewhere noted that roads, called salt spring roads, were opened 
by the company to these springs from different directions. From 1818 
to 1823 Isaac Bennett conducted these works and furnished most of 
the salt used in the northern part of the Holland Purchase. He sunk 
a well 150 feet, and obtained brine of greater strength than had ap- 
peared at the surface. He contracted with Israel and Seymour B. 
Murdock to furnish him sixty- four kettles by a certain date. They pur- 
chased the kettles at Utica, and sent them by lake to the mouth of Oak 
Orchard Creek, where they arrived only the day before the time stipu- 
lated for delivery. The Messrs. Murdock hired a sufficient number of 
teams to bring the kettles to the works at one trip, and thus fulfilled 
their contract and received their pay in gold. In 1823 Mr. Bennett 
sold the works to Henry Boardman, but they were abandoned on the 
completion of the Erie Canal, by which salt from Salina (now Syracuse) 
could be more cheaply brought here. A salt spring was early dis- 
covered near where Oak Orchard Creek crosses the Ridge, and salt was 
manufactured there by Mr. Bennett in 18 13, but the enterprise was not 
successful. 

The first highway through the town was the famous Ridge road, 
from which the Holland Land Company cut a thoroughfare south to 
their salt works in 1805. In 18 13 $250 were voted for roads and 
bridges. The first public conveyance run through this locality was 
owned and operated by a Mr. Hildreth, who also carried the mail be- 
tween Lewiston and Rochester. In 18 16 he had four four-horse 
coaches in daily use. In 1873 the town constructed an arched stone 
bridge across the Oak Orchard Creek at Medina at a cost of $4,000, 
and in 1876 an iron bridge was erected at Oak Orchard on the Ridge 
road at an expense of $i,ooo. Since then a large number of substan- 
tial iron bridges have been built in various parts of the town. The 
Ridgeway, Medina and Alabama plank road was chartered in 1850. 
For a few years this road proved a failure, but that portion (three miles) 
between Medina and Ridgeway Corners was purchased by William 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



333 



Pells, who covered it with stone, earth and gravel, and continued its 
operation as a toll road until the expiration of its charter in 1880. He 
made it one of the best roads in town. 

In the great War of the Rebellion the town of Ridgeway contributed 
a large number of brave volunteers to fight the nation's battles, and to 
each call for troops nobly and promptly responded with a full quota. 
The amount of money expended by the town for war purposes aggre- 
gated $95,125 The following is the list of soldiers from Ridgeway 
and Medina : 



Elon L. Andrews, lolst Inf. 
Oliver M. Allen, 151st Inf. 
Alfred Achilles, 151st Inf. 
Sylvester T. Axtell, 151st Inf. 
Arnold Axtell, 151st Inf. 
Frank R. Axtell, 17th Bat. 
Reuben Andrews, 17th Bat 
Wallace Aldridge, 8th H. Art. 
George R. Achilles, 8th Cav. 
Williano Andrews, 17th Bat. 
Peter Allen, 3d Cav. 
Robert A. Allen, 14th Art. 
James Arnold, 14th Art. 
Nicholas Albro, 14th Art, 
Peter Arnold, 14th Art. 
Edward S. Aiken, 17th Bat. 
George E. Allen, 17th Bat. 
John P. Andrews, 2d Bat. 
Charles Andrews, U. S. Navy. 
John F. Andrews, U. S. Navy. 
Anson Ackley, U. S. Navy. 
Samuel Ames, 17th Bat. 
Miles B. Araeden, 149th Inf. 
Albert Angevine, 28th Inf. 
George T. Anthony, 17th Bat. 
Lineus T. Alford, 19th Inf. 
Thaddeus Antis, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Alexander Antis, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Hurlbert Bowen, 8th H. Art. 
Martin Bookner. 
IraBreighton, 8th H. Art. 
Almon Breighton, 8th H. Art. 
Braddock, 8th H. Art. 



John Baker, 14th Art. 
A. Erwin Bowen, 151st Inf. 
Dennis Bowden, 28th Inf. 
Frederick Boyne, 14th Art. 
Robert Boyne. 14th Art. 
James Burns, 14th Art. 
Michael Burns, 14th Art. 
Nathaniel Briggs, 17th Bat. 
George H. Boyne, 8th H. Art. 
Frank Bennett, 17th Bat, 
William Becks, 8th Cav. 
Warren Bent, 31st Inf, 
James Baker, 8th H. Art. 
John Bucknell, 164th Inf. 
William Barton, 164th Inf. 
Philo Buroh, 8th Cav. 
Hezekiah Bowen, ISlst Inf. 
H. C. Boyne, 8th H. Art. 
Edwin T. Brown, 8th H. Art. 
Lucas William Berry, 8th H. Art. 
Charles Beales, 3d Cav. 
John Bolster, 17th Bat. 
Charles Bogardus 151st Inf. 
Albert Benjamin, 151st Inf. 
Tabor Benjamin, 151st Inf. 
Roman Barnes, 151st Inf. 
Eugene Barnes, 151st Inf. 
James Ballyman, 151st Inf. 
John Brown, 8th Cav. 
James Burrill, 8th H. Art. 
John Boothraid, 25th Cav. 
Lewis Burch, 8th Cav. 
John Bolt, 3d Cav. 



334 



LANDMARKS OF 



Peter Bradt. 

Seth Beman. 151st Inf. 

Henry R. Bliss. 

Arba Bridgeman, 90th Inf. 

Travatt Bayne, 9th Inf. 

Franklin Bowen, 90th Inf. 

James Balla.d. 90th Inf. 

Josiah Brown. 

Seymour Burton, 90th Inf. 

James S. Bayn, 157th Inf. 

WiUiam 0. Barrett, 65th Inf. 

Abbott Bent, 3d Cav. 

George Bacon, 17th Bat. 

James C. Brown. 

Leander Bacon, 49th Inf. 

Henry Bennett, 26th Inf. 

Edward A. Bowen, 28th Inf. 

Rich Bark, 8th Pa. Col. Inf. 

Ovid Barry. 

Alle H. Braddock, 8th Cav. 

Peter Brackett. 

Ezedor Bass. 

William H. Brown. 

Byron G. Bartlett. 

Thomas H. Brickford. 

Peter Brice. 

William Breen. 

John Bates. 

Richard Butler. 

Robert Barclay 

Aseph Brown. 

Edwin F. Brown, 18th Art. 

Philo N. Barnes, 17th Bat. 

Franklin Bennett, I7th Bat. 

Owen Boyland, 4th Art. 

Charles E. Bentley, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Charles V. Brown, 8th H. Art. 

Charles Bland, 17th Bat. 

Edwin F. Brown, 28th Inf. 

William L. Bathgate, 25th Inf. 

Linn Barker, 3d Cav. 

Charles W. Boyce, 28th Inf. 

Thomas Collins, 14th Art. 

Charles E. Clark, 17th Bat. 



Lewis J. Chase, 17th Bat. 

Michael Collins, 17th Bat. 

Thomas Collins, 14th Art. 

Charles E. Clark, 17th Bat. 

Henry G. Chamberlain, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Thomas Carroll, 90th Inf. 

Henry G. Clemmons, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Lyman A. Cook, 151st Inf. 

Milo M. Conklin, 151st Inf. 

Job Croos, 129th Inf. 

Cornelius Collins, 17th Bat. 

James Clark, 151st Inf. 

George C. Cook, 17 th Bat. 

Samuel Coleman, 17th Bat. 

John Conham. 9th Art. 

Elijah Cooper. 

John F. Cole, 151st Inf. 

Patrick Connor, 14th Art. 

Erwin J. Cook, i4th Art. 

John Connell, 14th Art. 

Charles Clark, 8th H. Art. 

James Collins, 14th H. Art. 

Henry B. Cleveland, 17th Bat. 

Truman J. Cook, 17th Bat. 

Patrick Carey, 14th H. Art. 

James B. Coleman, 3d Cav. 

Amasa Cops, 151st Inf. 

Edson Clark. 

Albert Chichester, 20th Inf. 

John Cox. 

John Co'eman. 

Henry Cox. 

Cornelius R. Case, 90th Inf. 

Marcus Caswell, 05th Inf. 

William J. Cooper, 90th Inf. 

Robert Canham, 90th Inf. 

Henry Culver, 90th Inf. 

John Crout, 90th Inf. 

Felix Caten. 

Charles Church. 

John Cleary. 

John Copeland. 

William Carr. 

John Craft. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



335 



William Cobb. 

Edgar Demary. I51st Inf. 

Edwin B. Dewey, 14th H. Art. 

Edwin 0. Draper, 17th Bat. 

John Davis, 8th H. Art. 

Faber Davis. 8th H. Art. 

George Dykeman, 151st Inf. 

William H. Davis, 151st Inf. 

William E. Donaldson, 151st Inf. 

Proctor Davis. 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William F. Deline, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William Davis. 8th H. Art. 

Mark Downing. Sth H. Art. 

Abram Dorrey. 

John W. Deitz. 90lh Inf. 

George Douglass, £'Oth Inf. 

Morris Davis, 160th Inf. 

Albert Demary. 

George W. Davis. 

Denison Dolly, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

James Duffy. 

Rev. George De La Matyr, 8th H. Art. 

Byron A. Davey, 17th Bat. 

Jacob William Delong. 

Samuel Demming. 

George DavH, .^8th Inf. 

George S. Douglass. 

Michael Dockery. 

John Doyle. 

Patrick Donohue. 

William Emperor, 124th Inf. 

Thomas Elliott, 94th Inf. 

Thomas Englesby. 2!)th Inf. 

James W. Elwood, 29th Inf. 

Elon M. Elmer, 151st Inf. 

Charles Eaton, 23d Cav. 

Joseph Enhorn. 

Thomas F. Enterta, 25tb Bat. 

George G. Ellicott, 17th Bat. 

John Fifer, 14th Bat. 

John Fifer, jr., 11th Inf. 

Francis H. Finch, 1st Art. 

Henry C. Fuller, 17th Bat. 

Thomas Ferguson, 17th Bat. 



Henry J. Fuller, 17th Bat. 

John C. Flanders, 25th Inf. 

Thomas Flaherty, 151st Inf. 

Patrick Flaherty, Sth H. Art. 

Otis Fuller. Sth H. Art. 

John Ferrule, 25th Bat. 

H. J. Fox, 25th Bat. 

James Fitzgerald, 151st Inf. 

Johnson Flattery, 94th Inf. 

David M. Frazier, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Judson P. Fret, 21st Cav. 

John Furnace, Sth H. Art. 

James Furnace, 12th Inf. 

Welcome Fish, 7th Cav. 

Winifield Fuller, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William Fuller. 

Brian Finney, 17th Bat 

William Felsted, 14th H. Art. 

Eugene French, 3d Cav. 

George H. Fox. 

James Fanning. 

George W. Fish. 

James Ford, 17th Bat. 

John Flattery, 94th Inf. 

John W. Foot, Sth H. Art. 

George Forbes, 151st Inf. 

John Fifer, 90th Inf. 

James Fitzpatrick. 

Patrick Fallen. 

John Ferarkie. 

Elinore Gage, i51st Inf. 

Nathaniel Gillott, 22d Cav. 

Egbert B. Goodwin, Sth H. Art. 

Walter Gray, 127th Inf. 

Edwin G. Gillen, 3d Cav. 

Edward M. Gillott, 3d Cav. 

John W. Grow, 25th Bat. 

Benjamin Grimes. 

William H. Graham. 

Simon Graliam. 

Jacob Gallus. 

Oliver M. Goold, 17th Bat. 

Daniel Goos, Sth H. Art. 

Delos A. Graves, 17th Bat. 



336 



LANDMARKS OF 



George Goold, 151st Inf. 

Eugene A. Gulham, 13th In*'. 

Dyer Gillott. 103d Ohio Inf. 

Jerome Gorra. 

George Gage, 14th H. Art. 

Patrick Gulbra. 

Lewis Grampner. 

James Graham. 

John Geary, 17th Bat. 

Patrick Geary. 

Robert Geary, 90th Inf. 

George Genan, 8th H. Art. 

Jesse Genan, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Monroe R. Grammon, 19th Inf. 

Samuel Gott, 17th Bat. 

Wilham T. Healy, 21st Cav. 

Allen D. Hevenor. 17th Bat. 

Thomas Hart, 21st Cav. 

Daniel C. Haines, 17th Bat. 

Henry C. Hill, 8th H. Art. 

Harron P. Hurst, 17th Bat. 

Levi Hurst. 

Edwin A. Hewes, 3d Cav. 

Charles C. Holden, 90th Inf. 

Charles K. Hawkins, 3d Cav. 

Isaac S. Hawkins, 54th Inf. 

Edward Hartford. 

Patrick Hamilton. 

Mortimer Hanson. 

Charles Harkneth. 

Horace Harrington, 8th H. Art. 

Franklin H. Hunt, 8th H. Art. 

Ruel Hawley, 151st Inf. 

Robert Haywood, 8th H. Art. 

James Hart, 164th Inf. 

Edward Horan, 17th Bat. 

James Hanlon, 17th Bat. 

Samuel Hood, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Silas M. Hood, 3d Cav. 

George M. House, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Charles H. Hulbert, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Sabina Hun, 8th H. Art. 

Willis Herman, 8tb Cav. 

George W. Hinds, 14th H. Art. 



Thomas Hart, 21st Cav. 

William Heath. 

Ezra Howell, 1st Bat. 

Silas S. Hill, 8tn Cav. 

Thomas Heath, 90Lh Inf. 

James Hastings, 90th Inf. 

Thomas Hudson, 9th Art. 

William Heth, 9th Art. 

Minot Hill, 192d Inf. 

Andrew Harper, Mich. Regt. 

Frank S. Haddin, 29th Inf. 

William G. Hunt. 

James Ireland, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

H. M. Johnson, Bat. M. 

Peter Johnson. 

William Johnson. 

Thomas Jackson, 

George Jackson, 8th H. Art. 

Edwin W. Johnson, 151st Inf. 

Daniel Johnson, 3d Cav. 

Peter Johnson, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William Johnson, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Thomas P. James, 2d Inf. 

John C. James, 155th Inf. 

William J. JefFers, 3d Cav. 

Henry Johnson, 17th Bat. 

James A. Johnson, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Quintow Jeckson, 8th H. Art. 

John Kennedy, 17th Bat. 

Henry Ketchum. 

Charles Kate, 17th Bat. 

Morris B. Kenyon, 8th H. Art. 

Dewitt C. Keeier, 28th Inf. 

James Kelley, 8th H. Art. 

Peter Kelly, Sth Cav. 

J. B. Keeier. 21st Rat. 

Patrick Kirby, 14th Art. 

William Kinney. 

Edward Kinna. 

Robert Kirby. 

John Kelley. 

Peter Kelley, Sth Cav. 

Charles Koykendall, 8th H. Art. 

Henry J. Knapp, 151st Inf. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



337 



Martin Kerwin, 17th Bat. 
John Keeler. 28th Inf. 
William Lewis, jr., 17th Bat. 
John Lake, 151st Inf. 
George Laphlen, 102d Inf. 
William Lewis. 2Sth Inf. 
James Lewis, 17th Bat. 
Daniel Lyon, 90th Inf. 
Hugh Lyon, 90th Inf. 
Patrick Laneton, 8th H. Art. 
Napoleon Lockhart, 90th Inf. 
William Lott, 90th Inf. 
Frank Laywut, 5th Inf. 
James Lyou, 6th Inf. 
John Lettes, 164th Inf. 
Patrick Lavin, 28th Inf. 
William Lozier, 17th Bat. 
Harmon H. Lozier, 17th Bat. 
Michael Leahy, 17th Bat. 
John McGurn, 8th H. Art. 
James McGurn, 14th Art. 
Edwin B. Miles, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Phihp McGrath, 164th Inf. 
James Maloney, 17th Bat. 
Henry J. Merwin, 17th Bat. 
Robert Montgomery, 17th Bat. 
Wesley Mclntyre. 
William Mclntyre. 
John McDonald, 17th Bat. 
Patrick Murphy, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
Horatio H. McGowen, 17th Bat. 
Edwin Morton, 17th Bat. 
Angervine Marshall, 15th Inf. 
John Murphy, 14th H. Art. 
Milton H. Merrill, 151st Inf. 
John McCarty, 17th Bat. 
James McQueny, 14th H. Art. 
Martin Maloney, 28th Inf. 
Patrick McCarin, 17th Bat. 
Michael McBride, 14th H. Art. 
James McBride, 3d Cav. 
Henry H. Martin, 90th Inf. 
Daniel 0. Sullivan, 17th Bat. 
Thomas Oderkirk, 3d Cav. 
43 



James O'Maley, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

William O'Brien, 16th Cav. 

James Oaks, 90th Inf. 

William Onderdonk. 

Edwin A. Olds, 17th Bat. 

Charles Oecobock, 3d Cav. 

Patrick O'Maley, 66th Inf. 

Silas W. Pitts, 17th Bat. 

Charles Pine,' 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Winslow W. Paddock, 8th H. Art. 

John Paul, 17th Bat. 

David Parks, 25th Art. 

Eugene Perkins, 9th Inf. 

William M. Park, 8th H. Art. 

Alexander Parnell, 17th Bat. 

Charles Pitts. 

Henry Palmer. 

Matthew H. Paupen. 

Henry Peckham, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Orrin Parker, 8th H. Art. 

James Pepper, 17th Bat. 

Thomas Purcell, 28th Inf. 

Archibald 0. Paul, 17th Bat. 

John Pettengill, 3d Cav. 

Lyman R. Patterson, 17th Bat. 

Patrick Pendergast, 90th Inf. 

Elisha W. Pratt, 19th Inf. 

Henry Perry, 8th H. Art. 

Burns Parkhurst, 14th Inf. 

Charles Peas, 1st Bat. 

Charles Pentany. 

John Rose. 

WiUiam J. Rubedaux, 17th Bat. 

Mason Raymond, 8th H. Art. 

James Roach 164th Inf. 

Jerry Reed, 31st Inf. 

Samuel Root, 94th Inf. 

William H. Reily, 151st Inf. 

David Rose, 151st Inf. 

Guy C. Rix, 8th H. Art. 

David W. Reno, 17th Bat. 

Peter Russell, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Charles Reghnaldt, 8th H. Ar . 

Godfrey Reghnaldt, 8th H. Art. 



338 



LANDMARKS OF 



William Rowley, 151st Inf. 
Albert Rukraan, 24tli Cav. 
Michael Ryan, 14th H. Art. 
Joseph J. Rogers, 2d Mounted Ritles. 
Josiah A. Roght, 8th H. Art. 
George Reed. 
James P. Robinson. 
Preston Ryan, 151st Inf. 
Charles W. Riley, 114th Inf. 
Charles Starks, 8th H. Art. 
John W. Shelly, 8th H. Art. 
William A. Shepard, 17th Bat. 
Morris Sullivan, 164th Inf. 
Henry D. Smith, 17 th Bat. 
John Steele, 151st Inf. 
John Simnons, 17th Bat. 
Matthew Stillwell, 151st Inf. 
Christopher Spaulding, 151st Inf. 
Solomon S. Story, 151st Inf. 
James Small, 151st Inf. 
John Stevens, 151st Inf. 
James Spaulding, 8th H. Art. 
Frank Seywick, 14th H. Art 
Thomas Shorton, 28th Inf. 
Daniel Stockwell, 28th Inf. 
Eugene Sheppard 28th Inf. 
Whiton Southworth, 8th Cav. 
Zachariah Smith, 8th Cav. 
Alexander Swenson, 8th Cav. 
Charles Smith. 
Charles Stone. 
Charles Scraggs. 
George W. Smith. 
John Stuart, 90th Inf. 
George Swan, 90th Inf. 
George Stratton, 90th Inf. 
Thomas Simons, 90th Inf. 
Mortimer Spaulding, 8th Cav. 
John Smith, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
James Swartout, 14 h H. Art. 
Joseph Spoor, 90th Inf. 
Moses Strickland, 90th Inf. 
William Shaver, 90th Inf. 
Jonathan Salisbury, 14tli II. Ar . 



David Spaulding, 90th Inf. 

John A. Soper 90th Inf. 

Albert Saber. 

Henry Shelton. 

Joseph Smith. 

John B. Stren. 

Martin Stanley, 36th Inf. 

John J. Serviss, 90th Inf. 

Cyrenus Snell, 97th Inf. 

WiUiam H. Salisbury, 151st Inf. 

William Simpson, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Henry M. Starr, 8th H. Art. 

Michael Slack, 17th Bat. 

Linns G. Sutler, 17th Bat. 

David Shanley, 17th Bat. 

Charles Stratton, I7th Bat. 

Hiram E. Sickles, 17th Bat. 

William Sterry. 

Charles H. Stocking, 17th Bat. 

Hiram D. Smith, 17th Bat. 

Henry Smith, 151st Inf. 

Orin Smith, 8th Cav. 

John 0. Swan, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Lorenzo Smith, 17th Bat. 

Michael Smith, 94th Inf. 

Bartley Salmond, 28th Inf. 

George A. Smith, 3d Cav. 

John Slade, 79th Inf. 

Hiram Slack, 14th Art. 

Erwin Starr, 3d Cav. 

Jonathan Storks, 14th Art. 

Charles H. Temple, 50th Cav. 

William Taylor, 8th H. Art. 

Benjamin B. Tanner, 151st Inf. 

John C. Temple, 8th H. Art. 

Frank Ticknor, 17th Bat. 

James Ticknor, 90th Inf. 

Samuel S. Thorn, 151st Inf. 

Andrew H. Todd. 

Henry Turner, 93d Inf. 

William Trow, 151st Inf. 

James E. Tompkins, 

James P. Thorn, 8th Cav. 

Jacob Tilliidi. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



339 



Abraham Thomas. 

Richard Taylor. 

Peter Vandyke, 8th H. Art. 

James Valentine, 75th Inf. 

Robert Vorhess. 14th H. Art. 

James Vaugn, 154th Inf. 

John S. Vosburgh, 17th Bat. 

Richard Vedder, 3d Cav. 

Willard Waldron, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Alden H. Warren, 151st Inf. 

Napo'eon Webber, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

George N. Wilkinson, 90th Inf. 

George Warner, 17th Bat. 

Luke Waldron, 17th Bat. 

Calvin Warner, 8th H. Art. 

Reuben F. Wickham, 90th Inf. 

Gilbert Woodhall, 151st Inf. 

Henry Whipple, 17th Bat. 

George Ward, 100th Inf. 

Asahel P. Weld. 

Mortimer Wilson, 3d Cav. 

Joseph Welch, 90th Inf. 

James Westbrook. 

Charles West, 8th H. Art. 

Ralph Wood, 90th Inf. 

Henry A. Williams, 90th Inf. 

William Ward, 90th Inf. 

Knowlesville took its name from the pioneer settler and founder of 
the place, William Knowles, of whose life a full sketch is given in the 
preceding pages. In 1825 he built the first warehouse in the place, and 
in it the first store was kept by William Van Dorn. In the same year 
Nathan S. Wood and O. H. Gardner opened other stores there. In 
1825 Moses Huxley kept a small grocery store on the bank of the 
canal, and in 1840 he opened another of the same kind. In 1830 
Andrew Betts was engaged in tanning and shoemaking here. Black- 
smithing was carried on by Daniel Batty, and the carpenter and joiner 
trade by Henry Ryan. Mr. Knowles built an ashery in 18 16, and for 
about four years manufactured potash solely for black salts. In 1827 
he shipped the first boat load of wheat from Orleans county. The first 
school house at this place was built in 18 17. It was a log building and 
stood a short distance north from where the brick school house was 



Charles S. Williams. 90th Inf. 
Charles Ward, 90th Inf. 
John Wells, 2d Mounted Rifles. 
James Walworth, 14tli H. Art. 
V. Wilson, 151st Inf. 
Henry Walters, jr., 151st Inf. 
William E. Wilson, 151st Inf. 
Jeremiah Wait, 17th Inf. 
George A. Weldon, 31st Inf. 
John Wilson, Sth H. Art. 
Christopher Waterbury, r25th Inf. 
Christopher Wireman, 129th Inf. 
James Wiggins, 120th Inf. 
H. H. Whiting, 25th Bat. 
Joseph Woodroe, 151st Inf. 
John Welsh, 28th Inf. 
Henry Warland, 9th Inf. 
F. M. Walworth, 17th Inf. 
George Weldcn, 116th Inf. 
Robert Watkins, Sth Cav. 
George Warland, 9th Cav. 
Wallace Weld. 

William Wanorke, 151st Inf. 
David L. Waring. 
William Walsh. 
Alonzo P. Wilson. 



340 LANDMARKS OF 

built, on the west side of the street, north of the canal. The post- 
office was established in 1826, and was called Portville, but the name 
was soon changed to Knowlesville. The village now .contains three 
stores, three churches, one blacksmith shop, a cooperage, an evaporator 
and feed mill, a steam saw and planing mill, two warehouses, one hotel, 
and other business establishments usually carried on in villages of its size. 
It has a union school, and three teachers are employed during each 
term. 

Jeddo is a small village located on the Ridge road, where that high- 
way passes between lots 40 and 41, in the west part of Ridgeway. 
The original grantees of lot 40 were Seymour Murdock, James Sheldon, 
and Samuel P. Judson. Zephaniah Judson in 181 1, Amos Spencer in 
18 1 2, and William McCormick in 1821 were original purchasers of 
land on lot 41. Jeremiah Brown, Daniel Miller, Joseph Wheeler, James 
Salisbury, and James Edwards afterward received deeds for the land on 
these lots. In 1827 Orlando Bates built a grist mill at this place, with 
two runs of stones. The building was of stone, and is still standing, 
having been several times repaired. It has now two runs of stone for 
grinding feed and rollers for the manufacture of flour. It is considered 
one of the best mills in the county. A saw mill was built here at about 
the same time, and there is now one on the same site. An evaporator 
has recently been established near this saw mill. The water which 
runs these mills was obtained by cutting a ditch across the Ridge at 
this place and draining the large swamp that lay on the south side of it, 
thus utilizing the water and at the same time reclaiming hundreds of 
acres that has since become some of the best farming land in the county. 
Formerly a portion of the water of this swamp ran through Oak 
Orchard Creek. The fall here is a little more than ten feet, furnishing 
ample power for the mills. This village was first known as Batesville. 
When a post-office was talked of a meeting of the citizens was held to 
decide on a name for the office. Several names were proposed, but 
none were unanimously agreed on until a school boy named Warren 
proposed that of Jeddo. As a joke the name was adopted by the 
crowd and the meeting dispersed, no one thinking that this would be 
the name ; but soon afterward Zechariah Haskins received a commission 
as postmaster at Jeddo, which settled the question. 



ORLEANS COUNTf. 341 

Ridgevvay (locally known as Ridgeway Corners). — The first pur- 
chaser of land at Ridgeway Corners was Eli Moor, who received an 
article for 189 acres on the north side of the Ridge in 181 1. Subse- 
quently Joseph L. Perry became the owner of 22 acres of this. A 
year later Abel P. Sheldon took up 184 acres lying next west from 
Mr. Moore's tract, and in 18 19 it was deeded to Elijah Hawley. The 
land on the south side of the Ridge, lot 5, was taken up by Jonathan 
Brown in the spring of 1814. Of this 144 acres were afterward deeded 
to Julia Ann Perry and to Joseph L. Perry. The first house was built 
by Eli Moore, where the east wing of the hotel now stands, and was 
used for a tavern and store. Previous to 1820 the village contained a 
tavern, currier, blacksmith, and boot and shoe shops, doctor's and 
lawyer's ofifices, and a few other buildings. At present there is a 
church, a school house, a store, two blacksmith shops, a post-office, and 
about thirty other buildings. The first post-office in the town of 
Ridgeway was established here October 22, 18 16, under the name of 
Oak Orchard, with Elijah Hawley as postmaster. William J. Babbitt 
had been appointed postmaster at Gaines the July previous. These 
two were the first post-offices in what is now Orleans county. Previous 
to this the settlers went to Batavia for their mail. 

Oak Orchard. — By reference to the account of original sales of land 
in Ridgeway it will be seen that the land on the south side of the Ridge 
at Oak Orchard was taken up by Artemas Houghton in 181 1, and by 
Aaron Adams in 1812 ; and that on the north side by John G. Brown 
iniSii. The latter became the property of Gilbert Howell in 1815. 
The east part of that on the south side was deeded to Isaac Bennett 
in 1820, and the west part was transferred successively to Milo Bennett, 
Warren Thompson and De Witt C. Warner. For more than a decade 
after its first settlement this was the business place of the town. Here 
were a tannery, a distillery, a grist mill, a saw mill, an ashery, three 
taverns and three stores ; and here, in 18 13, was held the first town 
meeting for Ridgeway, which at that time included all of Orleans 
county west of the east Transit line. At Colonel Howell's tavern in 
this place Capt. Wilber Stewart quartered his men over night while on 
his way to the Niagara frontier in 1812. Here the Presbyterian So- 
ciety of Knowlesville was organized and its " gospel lot " was located 



342 ' LANDMARKS OF 

about a mile up the creek from the village. When the Erie Canal was 
opened and Knowlesville came into existence, business left the flourish- 
ing village ot Oak Orchard, and it now contains only a church, two 
stores and a few scattered dwellings. A post-office was established here 
August 24, 1 81 7, with James G. Brown as postmaster. 

The Presbyterian Church of Knowlesville was organized August 27, 
1817, with eleven members, mostly New Englanders. It was first a 
Congregational Church, but on June 10, 1820, it adopted the Presby- 
terian form of church government, and it now belongs to the Presbytery 
of Niagara. The first ruling elders were John Hood, Zelotes Sheldon 
and Archie B. Lawrence, and the last named was the first clerk. The 
society was organized July 22, 1 821, with Gilbert Howell, Amzi L. Mc- 
Connell, John Hood, Abel Perry, Lyman Turner and Daniel Hooker as 
trustees. It was the first religious society organized in the town, and 
as such received the donation of 100 acres of land (the gospel lot) from 
the Holland Land Company. For several years meetings were held 
alternately at Knowlesville and Oak Orchard in school houses ; but in 
1832 a brick church edifice was erected at Knowlesville. The original 
building committee consisted of William Knowles, A. H. West and 
Dennis Kingsley. The structure ha*s since been remodeled and much 
improved. The society also owns a good parsonage in the village. 
The pastors of this church have been : 

Revs. Eleazer Fairbanks, David Pratt, Kendrick, David Page, E. Mead, John 

Thalimer, John Partington, S. Payne, David Ames, J. J. Ward, R. S. Eggleston, I. 
0. Fillmore, A. A. G-raley, A. L. Greene, T. M. Hodgeman, S. A. Whitcomb, William Mc- 
Beth, E. T. Salmon and Seth Cook. 

The Baptist Church of Knowlesville. — As early as the decade be- 
tween 1820 and 1830 several Baptists resided in Knowlesville and its 
vicinity, and preaching was occasionally had. In 1832 the number had 
so increased that it was thought a church here should have public 
recognition, which was done in that year. Of the constituent members 
at that time Mrs. Clarissa Hicks was the last survivor. 

The first pastor was Rev. William Sawyer, followed in succession by Revs. E. P. 
Griswold, S. Marshall, A. H. Stowell, William Sawyer again, W. F. Parrish, E. P. Gris- 
wold again, H. Fish, J. Withall. C. A. Skinner, William Darker, P. Goo, William Elgin, 
J. H. Langville, J. M. Jones, C. B. Parsons, H. H. Thomas and Spencer Fisher. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 343 

Since the organization of the church there have been periods when 
it has been destitute of a pastor and was served by supplies. Since 
1832 about 800 have been received into the church, very largely by 
baptism. The present membership is about 200. The church edifice 
was erected within two years after the organization of the society. It 
had only ordinary repairs till 1872, when it was remodeled and enlarged 
by the addition of a session room, and a baptistery was placed in it. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Knowlesville was legally organ- 
ized in 1833, and Dennis Kingsley, Sidney Starkweather, George An- 
drews, Edward Reymour and John Page were elected trustees. The 
society at Eagle Harbor, which has always been a part of this charge, 
was organized several years previously. The first Board of Trustees 
was made a building committee, and in 1835 ^ church edifice was com- 
pleted. It was a wooden structure and stood on the site of the present 
brick edifice. In 1863 it was burned and the present church building 
was erected. Since the organization of this society the Knowlesville 
and Eagle Harbor charges have been served by the following pastors, 
in the order named : 

Hiram May, Josiah Towler, Josiah Brakeman, John B. Lankton, S. Salsbury, E. C. 
Sanborn, P. Powers. J. W. Vaughn. D. Nichols, Amos Worcester, W. D. Buck, J. B. 
Hoyt, A. W. Luce, D.. B. Lawton, Allen P. Ptipley, D. F. Parsons, B. F. McNeal, K. D. 
Nettleton, R. E. Thomas, E. S. Furnham, J. McClelland, Philip House Kinecht, L. 
Packard, C. D. Burlingham, Zenas Hurd, Gr. W. Terry, J. 0. Willsea, J. Timmerman, 
Philo E.Brown, C. B. Sparrow, William Barrett. William Wolgemuth, A. Staples, E. 
S. Furman, J. D. Requa, L B. Hudnut. E. Cook and L. T. Hawkins. 

The Universalist Church of Ridgeway. — It is remembered that Revs. 
Glezen Fillmore and Z. Paddock, itinerant Methodist clergymen, labored 
in this region prior to the organization of the Universalist Church at 
Ridgeway, and that this was one of their preaching stations. After the 
formation of the Universalist Church most of those who had constituted 
the Methodist society here became attendants at that church. It was 
organized December 14, 1833, at the house of Jasper Murdock. Philo 
Elmer, Daniel F. Hunt, Samuel Bidleman, Nathan Sawyer, and Sey- 
mour B. Murdock were the trustees chosen at the organization. The 
pastors, in the order of their pastorates, have been : 

Revs. Charles Hammond, Russell Tomlinson, M. B. Smith. L. L. Spaulding, Thomas 
J. Smith, William B. Cook, D. C. Tomlinson, Joseph Hemphill, Alanson Kelsey, Nelson 



344 LANDMARKS OF 

Snell, James Amies, Henry B. Howell, J. P. Maclean, W. B. Randolph, William Knott, 
O. F. Alvord. 

The church edifice was erected in 1834 at Ridgeway Corners on a 
site donated by Mrs. Julia A. Perry. In 1854 it was repaired, and in 
1 87 1 it was again remodeled and improved. 

The Seventh day Adventist Church of Jeddo was organized in 1871 
with twenty-eight members. Worship was held in the houses of mem- 
bers of the society till 1887, when a church edifice was erected. Al- 
though this belonged to the Adventists, it is free to all other denomina- 
tions, when not used by them. The society has occasional preaching, 
but no regular pastor is employed. 

The Baptist Chapel at Jeddo. — Prior to 1887 the Baptists in Jeddo, 
who were somewhat numerous, were members of the Baptist Church 
at Johnson's Creek, Niagara county, but held services in the school 
house at Jeddo. in that year they erected a chapel there, a tasteful 
wooden edifice, with a seating capacity of 150. Services are held 
weekly in this house by the pastor of the Baptist Church at Johnson's 
Creek. 

The Baptist Chapel at Oak Orchard. — Previous to 1876 there was no 
house of worship in the village of Oak Orchard, but the people attended 
church at Knowlesville, and had occasional preaching in the school 
house here. In that year a revival occurred, and the result was the 
erection soon afterward of a chapel by the Baptists. It is a brick struc- 
ture, with a seating capacity of about 300. The society here is a por- 
tion of the church at Knowlesville. 

Within a few years a Methodist class has been formed at Oak 
Orchard, with William Kenyon as leader. Their place of worship is a 
hall, built by the Good Templars in 1880. 

VILLAGE OF MEDINA. 

Medina is centrally located at the point where the lines between 
townships 14 and 15, and ranges 3 and 4 cross each other. No village 
existed here prior to the construction of the Erie Canal. At the time 
when the Holland Land Company's land was surveyed it was believed 
that the falls of the Oak Orchard Creek at Shelby Center gave promise 
of becoming an important village, and Joseph Ellicott secured for him- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 345 

self and his relatives a large portion of the land in that vicinity. When 
the canal was located two miles north from that point, it became evident 
that this was the place where a village must spring up, and Mr. EUicott 
and other agents of the company, at once took articles for the land 
here. The west part of lots 39 and 40, 14th township and 3d range, was 
articled to Joseph Ellicott, jr., in 1820, and was deeded to Joseph EUi- 
cott in 1822. The west part of lot 41, 15th township and 3d range was 
articled to Benjamin Ellicott in 1821, and was deeded to Joseph Ellicott 
in 1824. These purchases included the course of Oak Orchard Creek 
through the present corporation and through the next lot south from 
it. Lots I and 2, 15th township and 4th range, which include the north- 
west quarter of the village and the land through which Oak Orchard 
Creek runs north from it, were articled to William Peacock in 1821, 
and were deeded to Joseph Ellicott in 1824. Seventy-seven acres west 
from Gwinn street and south from West Center street were articled to 
Cornelius Ashton in 18 16, to D. E. Evans and J. B. Ellicott in 1825, 
and were deeded to David E. Evans in 1833. The dates of these pur- 
chases show that it was the project of a village here that^prompted 
them. 

It has been said that a saw mill was built here in 1805 by Samuel F. 
Gear. That such a mill was built here is certain ; for many now living 
remember having seen its ruins. There was not, however, a settler in 
the present towns of Ridgeway or Shelby till four or five years after 
that date, and there is little probability that a mill was built four years 
before a white man lived within twenty miles of it. The date was 
probably some years later. It was a rude structure, and it soon went 
to decay. The salt works north from the village have been elsewhere 
spoken of. 

The houses in Medina were at first unsubstantial structures, built for 
the laborers on the canal. These remained after settlement commenced, 
and some of them were temporary residences of permanent settlers. 

Trade began here before the opening of the canal. In 1824 Sylva- 
nus Coan opened a small store, and others soon followed ; but of course 
only a limited business could be done before navigation commenced. 
The village began on the bank of the canal east from Shelby street and 
north from Center street. This was the point where passengers disem- 



346 LANDMARKS OF 

barked from boats and landed their goods, where merchandise was re- 
ceived and where the surplus produce of this region was shipped. 

In i824Ebenezer Mix was employed by Mr. EUicott to survey and 
lay out a village here. He commenced this survey in that year and 
completed it later. Some of the principal streets were laid out and 
named as early as 1826. It is said that he gave the place the name, 
probably because of its euphony ; but the story was told that the name 
was suggested by his saying to a colored woman who was frightened at 
his sudden appearance in the hotel : " It's me, Dinah !" 

Of the beginnings in Medina Judge Thomas says : 

Mr. Sylvanus Coan opened the first store in 1824, before the canal was finished, and 
some small establishments for selling goods to those working on the canal soon fol- 
lowed; but the opening of navigation was the signal for improving the water power on 
the creek and building up the town. Uri D. Moore kept the first hotel on Shelby 
street in 1824. Asahel Woodruff and brother were merchants here in 1826. Artemas 
Allen came to Medina in 1822, and was the first mason who settled in the village. He 
had charge as master mason in building the aqueduct for the Erie Canal over Oak Or- 
chard Creek. The stone for this work were mainly obtained from the bank of the 
creek, north of the canal. The remaining stone were from Shelby Center or from 
Clarendon, and a few from Lockport. Mr. Allen built a large brick tannery and dwell- 
ing for Justus Ingersoll, and a large stone building called the Eagle Hotel, which was 
burned some years since. 

John Ryan, mason, came here in 1825 ; Simeon Downs, blacksmith, in 1825; Dr. Rum- 
sey, the first regular physician, in 1827 ; Dr. Lathrop soon afterward. The first attorney 
was Nathan Sawyer ; the first carpenter was Samuel F. Gear ; the first iron founder was 
Simeon Bathgate. The post-office was established in Medina in 1829, and Justus In- 
gersoll was the first postmaster. The present official is J. D. Brennan. 

David Ford and John Parsons were tinsmiths ; Otis Turner and Chase Britt were 
grocers ; Clark & Fairman were early merchants. The first fire company was organ- 
ized August 16, 1832. The first bell in a steeple was raised on the Presbyterian Church 
in 1836. This was the first bell in the village and the only church bell between Albion 
and Lockport for several years. It was rung several times every day to regulate the 
hours of labor and rest of the inhabitants. A town clock was afterward procured and 
placed in the steeple of the Methodist Church to serve in place of so much bell ringing. 
The clock proving a poor machine was soon given up. 

Justus Ingerioll moved to Medina in 1826 and built a large brick building for a tan- 
nery west of the creek, on the north side of East Center 'street. This was afterward 
converted into a flouring mill, and was burned in 1858. Mr. Ingersoll was justice of the 
peace, postmaster, Indian agent, and judge of the Court of Common Pleas of the county 
and an active man in village afi'airs. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 347 

In 1832 the village had between forty and fifty dwellings, stores, 
sliops, etc., and of these twenty- six were on Shelby street north from 
the railroad. Since that time the village has had a healthy, though not 
a steadily uniform growth. It has been visited by many destructive 
fires and in periods of financial depression that have prevailed in the 
country, it has suffered as well as other places. With the return of 
better times it has promptly recovered from temporary business depres- 
sion, burned buildings have been replaced by better structures, others 
have been torn away to make room for the spacious and elegant blocks 
which increasing business demanded, and good taste dictated, and now 
Medina, in all things, compares quite favorably with any place of its size 
in Western New York. 

In 1849 William Hedley purchased 78 acres of unoccupied land in 
in the southwest part of the village, laid out streets, surveyed lots, and 
erected dwellings thereon. These have been sold as well as other lots 
on which the purchasers have erected houses, and the area is covered 
with tasteful and pleasant residences. In 1871 Henry Bancroft made a 
similar addition in the northwest part of the village, and others in differ- 
ent quarters have disposed of village lots as the increasing population 
has required, and the expansion of the place is now as rapid as at any 
period in its history. Its principal business streets are bordered by 
blocks of buildings most of them erected on sites that have been burned 
over once or more, which are a credit to the enterprise of the citizens. 
Among the more conspicuous of these are French's block. Bent's block, 
the Fuller block, J. D. Kearney's building. 

Medina was incorporated by an act of the Legislature, passed March 
3, 1832. Its limits were defined as : 

All that district of country in the town of Ridgeway and county of Orleans contained 
within the following buundaries, that is to say : Commencing at the point where the 
Erie Canal crosses Oak Orchard Creek ; thence south along the west margin of said 
creek to the south line of Oak Orchard street ; running thence west to the mill race ; 
thence north along said race to the south line of Mill street; thence west to the west 
line of Prospect street, thence north to the canal, thence westwardly along the south 
margin of said canal to the place of beginning. 

This charter was from time to time amended to meet exigencies 
arising by reason of changing circumstances and to keep pace with im- 
proved methods in municipal government. In 1874 a commission was 



348 LANDMARKS OF 

appointed to revise the charter and the several acts amendatory thereof, 
to recommend such changes as they might deem expedient, and to con- 
dense the whole into a single charter. The result was the present 
charter, which was enacted by the Legislature on the 28th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1874. This charter with some amendments and supplementary 
provisions, is still in force. 

OFFICERS OF THE VILLAGE OF MEDINA FROM ITS ORGANIZATION TO THE PREEENT TIME. 

1832. — Trustees, Justus Ingersoll, Nathan Sawyer, Asahel Woodruff, James C. 
Evans, Halsted H. Parker; clerk, H. Yerrington (part of the term), Henry Phelps 
(vacancy). 

1833. — Trustees, Botsford Fairraan, Roswell Starr, Justus Ingersoll, Uri D. Moore, 
John Bagley, jr.; clerk, Henry Phelps; treasurer, Henry Phelps, 

1834. — Trustees, Artemus Allen, Otis Turner, Orin Britt, Botsford Fairman, Simeon 
Balhgate ; clerk, Henry Phelps ; treasurer, Nathan Sawyer. 

1835. — Trustees, Justus Ingersoll, Uri D. Moore, Artemus Allen, Orin Britt, John A. 
Ross; clerk, Silas M. Burroughs; treasurer, Nathan Sawyer. 

1836. — Trustees, Joseph Nixson, Silas M. Burroughs, John A. Ross, Charles Warner, 
Roswell Starr; clerk, Charles J. Rum.«!ey ; treasurer, Nathan Sawyer. 

1837. — Trustees, Orin Britt, Halsted H. Parker, John A. Ross (resigned), Charles 
Warner, Joseph Nixson, Justus Ingersoll (appointed); clerk, R. C. Baker; treasurer, 
Cornelius M. Van Doren ; attorney, Charles J. Rumsey. 

1838. — Trustees, Samuel F. Geer, Horace Chase, William R. Gwinn, Botsford Fair- 
man, Myron P. Hopkins; clerk, A. Hogeland (resigned), George H. Thatcher (ap- 
pointed); treasurer, Christopher Whaley ; attorney, Henry Angevine. 

1839. — Trustees, John A. Ross (died), John Patterson (died). Joseph Craig (resigned). 
Green R. Lewis (appointed to fill vacancy), William Walsh (appointed), Silas M. 
Burroughs (appointed), Orin Britt (appointed), Charles Warner; clerk, Nathan Sawyer 
(resigned), R. C. Baker (appomted) ; treasurer, Christopher Whaley; attoi-ney, Charles 
J. Rumsey. 

1840. — Trustees Joseph Craig, John Parsons, Simeon Bathgate, Caleb Hill, James 
Hamilton ; clerk, J. H. Denio ; treasurer, Christopher Whaley ; Attorney, Henry 
Angevine. 

1841. — Trustees, William R. Gwinn, Roswell Starr, Simeon Bathgate, Green R. Lewis 
William Bidleman ; clerk, Elisha S. Whalen ; treasurer, Christopher Whaley; attorney, 
Charles J. Rumsey. 

1842. — Trustees, Char-les J. Rumsey, Orin Britt, Charles Warner, Roswell Starr, 
William Walsh ; clerk, T. C. Smith, L F. Taft (last half of term) ; treasurer, Elisha S 
Whalen ; attorney, Ephriam Garter. 

1843.— Trustees, Simeon Bathgate, William Bidleman, Charles Warner, Silas M 
Burroughs, John Ferguson ; clerk, Elisha S. Whalen ; treasurer, Ephraim Garter ; at 
torney, Ephraim Garter. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 349 

1844. — Trustees, William Baker, William Walsh, Roswell Starr, James Hamilton, 
Levan W. Merritt ; clerk, Alexander Pike ; treasurer, Christopher Whaley ; attorney. 
George C. Northrop. 

1845.— Trustees, William Baker, M. W. Clark, Silas M. Burroughs, Roswell Starr, 
Chandler Farnham ; clerk, Alexander Pike; treasurer, George C. Northrop; attorney, 
Silas M. Burroughs. 

1846.— Trustees, Silas M. Burroughs, John Ryan, Charles Warner, Roswell Starr, 
George Bathgate; clerk, Edwin Masten (resigned); William M. Gibson (appointed) ; 
treasurer. Smith Vibbard ; attorney, Silas M. Burroughs. 

1847. — Trustees, John Ryan, Roswell Starr. George Bathgate, Silas M. Burroughs, 
George C. Northrop ; clerk, William L. Gibson ; treasurer. Smith Vibbard ; attorney, 
Silas M. Burroughs. 

1848. — Trustees, Archibald Servoss, Cabel Hill, Isaac W. Swan, William Baker, 
Charles Warner ; clerk, I. F. Taft ; treasurer, Hiram M. Beers ; attorney, Archibald 
Servoss. 

1849.— Trustees, Levan W. Merritt, Elisha S. Whalen, Isaac W. Swan, Oliver E. 
Watson, George Bathgate; clerk, Horatio Stewart; treasurer, Edmund Fuller, jr.; 
attorney, George C. Northrop. 

1850.— Trustees, George Bathgate, P. V. Fox, Elisha S. Whalen, William Brown, 
William P. Foster; clerk, L. Timmerman (removed), William L. Bathgate (appointed) ; 
treasurer, John S. Jennings; attorney, George C. Northrop. 

1851. — Trustees, Asa P. Stanford, Charles Warner, Abram Stratton, Solomon G. 
Purdy, William Van Keuren ; clerk, James Depuy ; treasurer, John S. Jennings ; at- 
torney, James Depuy. 

1852. — Trustees, Charles Warner, Solomon G. Purdy, Abram Stratton, Darius W. Cole, 
William A. Bent; clerk, Daniel D. White; treasurer, John S. Jennings; attorney, 
James De Puy. 

1853.— Trustees, Robert L. Hill, Edward Hedley, Chandler Farnham, William A. 
Bent, Benedict H. Alford ; clerk, Lafayette Carver ; treasurer, John S. Jennings ; at- 
torney, Lafayette Carver. 

1854.~Trustees, Benedict H. Alford, Elisha S. Whalen, John W. Graves, William 
Brown, Mortimer W. Ryan; clerk, Curtis Barnes; treasurer, Absalom F. Bush ; at- 
torney, John W. Graves. 

1855.— Trustees. Robert L. Hill, Solomon G. Purdy, John R. Weld, William S. 
Tamblin, Jonah Allen ; clerk, Curtis Barnes ; treasurer, Absalom F. Bush ; attorneys, 
Sickels & Graves. 

1856. — Trustees, John Ryan, Henry Flagler, John Firth, Sylvester S. Sherman, 
Benjamin M. Anthony ; clerk, Prentiss D. Knight ; treasurer, Alexander Pike ; attorney, 
Archibald Servoss. 

1857. — Trustees, Samuel C. Bowen, Benedict H. Alford, Edward Davey, Joseph 
Clyde, Hiram E. Sickels ; clerk, Solomon G. Purdy; treasurer, Alexander Pike; at- 
torneys, Sickels & Graves. 

1858. — Trustees, John Ryan, Erastus B.'Knapp, Edwin F. Brown, William W. Pot- 
ter, Arthur Newell ; clerk, Erastus B. Knapp ; treasurer, Marcus Chase ; attorneys, 
Sickels & Graves. 



350 LANDMARKS OF 

1859.— Trustees, John Ryan, John Parks, William W. Potter, Eugene Smith, Thur- 
man S. Shaw ; clerk, Simeon Downs ; treasurer, Marcus Chase ; attorneys, Sickels & 
Graves. 

I860.— Trustees, John Ryan. John Parks. William W. Potter, Eugene Smith, Daniel 
Starr; clerk, Simeon Downs; treasurer, Alexander Pike; attorneys, Sickels & Graves. 

1861.— Trustees John Ryan, x\.ugustus M. Ives, John Parks, Eugene Smith, William 
W. Potter; clerk, Simeon Downs; treasurer, James C. Sheppard ; attorney, Hiram E. 
Sickels. 

1862.— Trustees, John Ryan, Augustus M. Ives, John Parks, Elisha S. Whalen, 
Henry A. Childs ; clerk, Simeon Downs; tieasurer, John M. Kennan ; attorney, John 
W. Graves. 

1863. — Trustees, Richard Becker, Benjamin M. Anthony, John D. Kearney. Soloman 
G. Purdy, Elisha S. Whalen ; clerk, Simeon Downs; treasurer, Henry A. Fairman ; 
attorneys, Bowen & Pitts. 

1864.— Trustees, Marcus Chase, Spencer Jackson, Edwin F. Brown, Benjamin M. 
Anthony, Samuel C. Bowen; clerk, Simeon Downs; treasurer, John M. Kennan; 
attorney, Henry A. Childs. 

1865.— Trustees, Darius W. Cole, B. C. Blake, John M. Pitts, John D. Kearney. 
Soloman. G Purdy; clerk, John W. Card; treasurer, John M. Kennan ; attorney, Adna 
Bowen. 

1866. — Trustees, Mortimer W. Ryan, Hiram E. Sickels, Edwin P. Healy, Soloman 
G. Purdy, B. C. Blake ; clerk, Simeon Downs ; treasurer, Henry A. Fairman ; attor- 
ney, Henry A. Childs. 

1867.— Trustees, Henry A. Childs, Edwin M. Card, Absalom F. Bush, Edward Davey, 
James Kearney ; clerk, Simeon Downs ; treasurer, John M. Kennan ; attorney. Hiram E. 
Sickels. 

1868.— Trustees, Elisha S. Whalen, Edward Davey. Oscar Whedon. Henry A. Childs, 
John Kearney ; clerk, Simeon Downs ; treasurer, Jacob Gorton ; attorney. Stanley E. 
Filkins. 

1869.— Trustees, John R. Weld, George W. Frary, Henry A. Childs, Hiram Deuel, 
John Bacon ; clerk, Simeon Downs, treasurer, Jacob Gorton ; attorney, Henry A. 
Childs. 

1870. — Trustees, George W. Frary, James S. McCormick, Alfred Dawson, John D. 
Kearney, Henry A. Childs; clerk, Simeon Downs; treasurer, Jacob Gorton: attorney, 
Henry A. Childs. 

1871. — Trustees, John Filer, John Bacon, William Lozier, James A, Hanlon, Fred M 
Ives (failed to qualify) ; clerk, Burrie Swift ; treasurer, Jacob Gorton ; attorney, Henry 
A. Childs. 

1872. — Trustees, John Bacon, John R. Weld (failed to qualify), Jacob Gorton, Samuel 
C. Brownell, John W. Graves (appointed), Patrick Horan ; clerk, Burrie Swift (part of 
term), George A. Newell (appointed) ; treasurer. Smith Tucker ; attorney, Henry A. 
Childs. 

1873. — Trustees, Lewis J. Ives, John Bacon, Lafayette Robinson, Isaac M. Knapp, 
John Kearney; clerk, Thomas A. Burke; treasurer. Smith Tucker ; attorney, Henry A. 
Childs. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 351 

1874, village officers elected and appointed under the new charter. — President, Henry 
A. Childs ; trustees, Timothy O'Brien, Michael Cooper, Jacob Gorton, Lyman F. Zim- 
merman, George W. Frary, James Chapman; clerk, George A. Newell; treasurer, 
Smith Tucker; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts; chief of police, Edmund Fuller. 

1875. — President, Joseph Clyde (failed to qualify), Henry A. Childs (appointed) ; 
trustees, Michael Slack, Michael Cooper, Jacob Gorton, Erwin A. Bowen, George W. 
Frary, James Chapman ; clerk, George A. Newell ; treasurer. Smith Tucker ; attorney, 
Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of police, Edmund Fuller. 

1876. — President, Edward Posson ; trustees, Graham H. Hill, Erwin A. Bowen, 
Jacob Gorton, Michael Cooper, Michael Slack, James Chapman ; clerk, George A. 
Newell ; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of police, 
Edmund Fuller. 

1877. — President, George W. Frary; trustees, Graham "H. Hill, Edward Davey, 
Jacob Gorton, Michael Cooper, Michael Slack, Alfred Dawson ; clerk, George A. 
Newell; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of police, 
Edmund Fuller. 

1878. — President, George W. Frary ; trustees, Michael Cooper, Graham H. Hill, 
Alfred Dawson, Edward Davey, Oscar K. Johnson, Jacob Gorton ; clerk, John Allen ; 
treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts; chief of police, Edmund 
Fuller. 

1879. — President, George W. Frary ; trustees, Graham H. Hill, Edward Davey, 
Alfred Dawson, Michael Cooper, Oscar K. Johnson. Jacab Gorton ; clerk, Myron S. 
Newell ; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of police, 
Edmund Fuller. 

1880. —President, Edward Posson ; trustees, Alfred Dawson, Graham H. Hill, Edward 
Davey, Charles H. Hedley, Michael Cooper, Oscar K. Johnson ; clerk, Myron S. Newell ; 
treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Henry A. Childs ; chief of police, Edmund 
Fuller. 

1881. — President, Edward Posson ; trustees, Alfred Dawson, Graham H. Hill, James, 
Chapman, Charles H. Hedley, Michael Cooper, Oscar K. Johnson ; clerk, Myron S. 
Newell ; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Henry A. Childs ; chief of police, 
Edmund Fuller. 

1882. — President, Edward Posson ; trustees, James Chapman, Alfred Dawson, 
Graham H. Hill, Oscar K. Johnson, Charles H. Hedley, Isaac Landauer ; clerk, Myron 
S. Newell ; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Henry A. Childs ; chief of policee 
Edmund Fuller. 

1883. — President, George W. Frary ; trustees, Graham H. Hill, James Chapman, 
Michael Griffin, Isaac Landauer, Oscar K. Johnson, John R. Weld; clerk, Myron S. 
Newell ; treasurer, E. Chapin Bennett ; attorney, Henry A. Childs ; chief of police, 
Edmund Fuller. 

1884. — President, George W. Frary; trustees, Michael Griffin, Graham H. Hill, James 
Chapman, John R. Weld, Isaac Landauer, William Comerford ; clerk, Myron S. Newell ; 
treasurer, Homer J. Luther ; attorney. Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of police, Edmund 
Fuller. 



352 LANDMARKS OF 

1885. — President, Nelson McCormick ; Trustees, Soloman H. Goodman, David Mc- 
Donald, James Chapman, Fred L. Downs, Michael Griffin. William Comerford ; clerk, 
Myron S. Newell; treasurer. Homer J. Luther; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts; chief of 
police, Edmund Fuller. 

1886. — Prei-ident, Oscar K. Johnson; trustees, George A. Beach, Fred L. Downs, 
James Chapman, William Callaghan, Soloman H. Goodman, William Comerford ; clerk, 
Frank J. Kearney ; treasurer. Homer J. Luther ; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts ; chief of 
police, Edmund Fuller. 

1887. — President, Oscar K. Johnson ; trustees, Lawrence Brennan, George A. Beach, 
Fred L. Downs, William Comerford, William Callaghan, Soloman H. Goodman ; clerk, 
Frank J. Kearney; treasurer. Earl VV. Card; attorney, Edmund L. Pitts; chief of 
police, Edmund Fuller. 

1888. — President, 0. K. Johnson ; trustees, Robert Nichol, Joseph Stork, William 
Comerford, William Callaghan, George A. Beach, Lawrence Brennan ; treasurer, 
George A. Newell ; clerk, F, J. Kearney ; attorney, E. L. Pitts ; chief of police, Ed- 
mund Fuller. 

1889.— President, Albert J. Hill ; trustees, William Callaghan, James M, Frary, 
Robert Nichol, Joseph Stork, Lawrence Brennan, William Comerford; clerk, F. J. 
Kearney ; treasurer, George A. Newell ; attorney, E. L. Pitts ; chief of police, E. Fuller. 

1890. — President, Albert J. Hill ; trustees, William Comerford, Charles A. Gorman, 
James M. Frary, Robert Nichol, William Callaghan, Joseph Stork ; clerk, F. J. Kearney ; 
treasurer, George A. Newell ; attorney, E. L. Pitts ; chief of police, E. Fuller. 

1891.— President, Albert J. Hill ; trustees, William Comerford, Robert W. Nichol, 
James M. Frary, J. D. Brennan, Charles A. Gorman, William Callaghan ; clerk, F. J. 
Kearney ; treasurer, George A. Newell ; attorney, E. L. Pitts ; chief of police, E. Fuller. 

1892. — President, Fred L. Downs; trustees, William Comerford, Charles A. Gorman, 
R. W. Nichol, John D. Brennan, Edward Maloney, Fred C. Wilson ; clerk, F. J. 
Kearney ; treasurer, George A. Newell ; attorney, E. L. Pitts ; chief of police, E. Fuller. 

1893. — President, Fred L. Downs ; trustees, William Comerford, Charles A. Gorman. 
R. W. Nichol, John D. Brennan, Edward Maloi.ey, Fred C. Wilson ; clerk, J. W. 
Cooper; treasurer, George A. Newell; artorney, E.L.Pitts; chief of police, E. Fuller. 

1894. — President. Fred L. Downs; trustees, William Rands, Joe Brook, William 
Comerford, Charles A. Gorman, Fred 0. Wilson, Edward Maloney; clerk, J. W. Cooper ; 
attorney, Irving L'Hommedieu; treasurer, George A. Newell; collector, Edmund Ful- 
ler ; street commissioner, George E. Allen ; assessors, Reuben S, Castle, Michael Walsh, 
Roswell W. Post ; police justice. Morgan L. Brainard ; chief of police, Peter Arnold,; 
board of health, I. H. Geballe, president; F. E, Colborn, secretary; D. F. Butts, treas- 
urer ; health officer. Dr. F. W. Scott. 

There was not even an informal fire organization in Medina till after 
the incorporation of the village in 1832. The canal and the race af- 
forded an abundant supply of water for the extinguishment of fires, but 
buckets constituted the only means for utilizing this water. On August 
16, 1832, some six months after the village was incorporated, a fire 




(]^!>u^ Xi ooiy<^o-iUJ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 353 

company was organized with the following members : Rufus Ingersoll, 
Simeon Downs, Frederick Comstock, M. S. Harrington, Eleazer 
Thomas, John Parsons, Leander Woodruff, Marcena W. Clark, William 
Hotchkiss, jr., Richard Martin, Simeon Bathgate, Alexander Clum, 
James E. Evans, A. W. Eddy, M. P. Hopkins, Henry Phelps, Sylvanus 
Coan, Uri D. Moore, David Dudley and George Willoughby. Of this 
company John Parsons was chosen foreman, Simeon Bathgate, assistant 
foreman, and James E. Evans, secretary. This company was equipped 
with one of the primitive crank engines which was necessary to supply 
with water by buckets passed from hand to hand along lines of men. 
It was called the Mercury, and were it now in existence it would be an 
interesting relic of olden times. In 1835 a larger and better engine, 
called the Neptune, was purchased. The next engine procured was 
the Cataract, afterward known as the Frary engine. At times for want 
of systematic organization, the leadership fell on a few, among whom 
were John Parsons, S. G. Purdy and E. M. Card. The foremen of the 
original company, after Mr. Parsons, were Andrew Ellicott, M. W. Clark, 
George Bathgate and others. For a long time engines were supplied 
with water directly from the canal or race, but after some years a water 
main with hydrants was placed in Shelby street through the business 
part of the village. This main was supplied with water when neces- 
sary by pumps driven by the power in Becker's flouring mill, near the 
railroad. In 1874 the pumps were changed to the Bignall works, and 
the mains were extended on Center street to Orient street on the east 
and Catherine street on the west. By the use of these pumps and 
mains water could be thrown directly from hydrants on fires in their 
immediate vicinity, or supplied to engines at some distance through 
hose. 

In 1880 the fire department of Medina was incorporated by an act 
of the Legislature, and the control of it was vested in a Board of Trus- 
tees, for which the act made provision. As at present constituted the 
department consists of the following companies: 

Alert Hose Company, first organized in 1859, and reorganized in 
1875. Officers: President, I. L'Hommedieu ; vice-president, F. T. 
Gates; secretary, M. L. Brainard ; treasurer, M. L. Brainard ; fore- 
man, C. F. Hurd ; ist assistant, Fred H. Meade. 
45 



354 LANDMARKS OF 

Citizens' Hook and Ladder Company (successor to the Dawson Hook 
and Ladder Company, which was organized in 1877 ^"^ disbanded). 
Officers: President, George L. Owens; vice-president, J. W. Cooper; 
secretary, M. B. Sutter; treasurer, Thomas O'Malley; foreman, J. D. 
Brennan ; 1st assistant, Thomas Owens; 2d assistant, John B. Gri- 
fith. 

Gorman Hose Company. — Officers : President, Michael Kearney ; 
vice-president, Myron Chase; secretary, Thomas F. Owens; treas- 
urer, Thomas F. Owens; foreman, Owen Boyland ; ist assistant, H. 
Nurenberg ; 2d assistant, Fred Ryan. 

Protective Hose Company. — Officers: President, John Keebler ; 
vice-president, B. L. Servoss ; secretary, Charles Fletcher ; treasurer, 
Arthur Cheney; foreman, William Dewey; ist assistant, H. M. See- 
ley. This company is the successor of the Protective Company which 
had charge of a chemical engine, organized in 1877 and disbanded 
when the new water works were established. The Frary Engine 
Company, successor of the old Cataract Company, was also disband- 
ed when the water works were completed. 

The chief engineers of the department have been, as nearly as can be 
determined, prior to 1880, Simeon Bathgate, John Parsons, S. G. Pur- 
dy, E. M. Card, E. A. Bowen, and probably others. Since 1880 they 
have been Myron S. Newell, Thomas Hale, Edward Hanlon, Fred M. 
Ives, Fred C. Ryan, Michael Kearney, The present assistant chief is 
T. O'Malley ; fire wardens, R. W. Nichol, F. R. Downs, C. N. Hood. 

Many years since a small gas plant was constructed by William Bent 
near the canal, a short distance south from the foot of Pearl street. 
Mains were laid for the supply of gas along Shelby street, but not else- 
where at first. Some years later a stock company was formed, the 
works were purchased and enlarged, and the mains were extended so as 
to supply gas to most of the principal streets of the village. Gas was 
supplied from these works during more than fifteen years, in which 
time changes occurred in the company and a serious explosion took 
place at the works. In 1890 the plant was sold to the Medina Gas 
Light Company. The same year works were erected by the Medina 
Electric Light Company for the purpose of supplying the village with 
electric light. In April, 1891, the two companies were consolidated 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 355 

under the name of the Medina Gas and Electric Light Company, the 
control of which, by a transfer of a majority of the stock, passed into 
the hands of New York parties in April, 1894, the new officers being 
A. L. Fennessy, president; J. F. Mofifett, vice-president ; C. E. Fen- 
nessy, secretary. William R. Curry is local manager. The electric 
plant is equipped with one incandescent and two arc light dynamos and 
two engines and two boilers of lOO horsepower each. There are about 
sixteen miles of wire used in the arc direct system, supplying fifty-eight 
lamps, and ten miles in the incandescent alternating system, using some 
800 lights. The plant occupies a modern fire-proof building just north 
of the railroad, between Shelby and Church streets. The gas plant has 
a capacity of about 40,000 cubic feet of gas every twenty-four hours, 
though it is not necessary to reach that amount. There are some four 
miles of mains and nearly 150 consumers. The electrical plant has 
over 100 patrons. 

Water Works. — The lack of an ample supply of pure water for domes- 
tic and fire extinguishing purposes was felt in Medina many years before 
the present works were established. The village had suffered from 
several disastrous fires, one on September 19, 1869, causing a loss of 
about $100,000; another December 26, 1870, destroying the Presby- 
terian church and other property, besides numerous others, and public- 
spirited citizens finally determined to inaugurate a better condition of 
affairs in this respect. A public meeting was called July 15, 1889, to 
consider the subject and decide upon the most feasible plans. On 
October 14 of that year a meeting was held at which authority was 
voted to the trustees to contract with parties for water works, and on 
the 17th of the same month John J. Neagle, of Washington, D. C, and 
Frederick Collin, James H. Costello, P. H. Dempsey, Lewis M. Smith, 
John B. Stanchfield, and P. J. Neagle, of Elmira, submitted a proposal 
to organize a company with a capital of $70,000, and establish water 
works for the village, to be supplied from wells or springs in the south- 
west part of the village. This application was granted, but the action 
was rescinded on November 25. Resolutions were afterwards adopted 
to publish in the local newspapers proposals for bids to establish a water 
system, bids to be delivered to E. L. Pitts on December 17, the works 
to be built according to contract and specifications on file in his office. 



356 LANDMARKS OF 

Several bids were offered, among them that of Bassett Brothers, of 
Buffalo, who proposed to build the works, put in eighty hydrants, and 
supply the village for $3,000 annually. Their bid was accepted, and 
work was begun by driving wells and experimenting, continuing through 
the summer of 1890, without satisfactory results. They then proposed 
taking water from Fish Creek and were granted an extension of time to 
complete the works. After further abortive experiments, their time was 
again extended to the spring of 1891 ; but the unsatisfactory outlook 
for the whole enterprise led to its transfer to the Medina Water Works 
Company, as it is at present organized, and on February 3, 1892, the 
Board of Trustees resolved to contract with this company, cancelling the 
former action. The company were to take the water supply from the 
Ross farm near Knowlesville, and this source of supply was approved 
March 18, 1892. The plant was promptly established, including a large 
standpipe on the high ground in the southwest part of the village, the 
streets laid with pipe, hydrants set and every facility provided to give 
the people a splendid supply of pure water and the authorities an ample 
supply under sufficient pressure to extinguish fires at any point in the 
village. The officers of the company are : William F. Ross, president ; 
Thomas A. Smyth, vice-president ; James L. Bruff, secretary ; Charles 
F. Pond, treasurer. 

Drainage. — It may be safely said that no village in the State similar 
in size to Medina is better drained. This desirable result has been 
accomplished quite recently ; indeed, the work is still in progress. The 
first Sewer Commission was selected at a meeting held August 16, 1889, 
to act under provisions of the general law. This commission was com- 
posed of Graham H. Hill, one year; Roswell W. Post, two years; 
William U. Lee, three years; Morton A. Bowen, four years; A. L. 
Swett, five years. The commission employed Olin C. Gillette to map 
the village, showing the lines of the old sewers and all the proposed 
new ones. This map was approved December 14, 1889, and sent to the 
State Board of Health, by which it was approved April 9, 1890. After 
the adoption of resolutions locating sewers on all the principal streets 
of the village, work was begun on their construction, and is not yet 
wholly finished. The drainage is into Oak Orchard Creek and under 
such conditions as to make it a perfect system. The Board of Sewer 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 357 

Commissioners in 1894 is as follows : M. A. Bovven, president ; Thomas 
Cleary, C. S. Hoag, Roswell W. Post, Darwin Fuller ; Edward Posson, 
clerk. 

Public Houses. — One of the earliest taverns in Medina was the Me- 
dina House, which was built by Otis Turner, who kept it many years. 
It stood about on the site of the present Union Bank. Another promi- 
nent early hostelry was the Eagle Hotel, built in 1838, on the corner 
of Canal and Main streets, south of the present White's Hotel. It was 
burned in the winter of 1841-42. At a very early date, probably in 
1828, a wooden hotel was built where Ives' produce warehouse now 
stands. It was begun by the father of Grant Decker, and was kept by 
various persons before it was finally burned. 

The building that is now White's Hotel was originally without the 
tower and was occupied by three stores. H. N. Bancroft erected the 
tower and changed it into a hotel, naming it the Bancroft House. H. 
N. Hopkins kept the house some years and in 1886 it was purchased 
by A. H. White, the present proprietor. 

The present Hart House was built by Jacob Gorton, who kept it sev- 
eral years, and upon his failure the property passed to E. Kirk Hart. 
H. N. Hopkins became its manager and continued to February, 1892, 
when W. Babcock & Son took it. Under their management it has been 
refitted and is kept as a first-class hotel. There are several other pub- 
lic houses in the village besides these. 

The Medina Driving Park Association was organized in 1871. The 
first officers were M. Harmon, president; N. T. Healy, secretary; S. 
Tucker, treasurer. Grounds were laid out about one mile west of the 
village, and for some years the association flourished, but it finally dis- 
banded. The property is now owned by James McCargo. 

Banks in Medina. — John M. Kennan, who had been a banker in 
Lockport, came to Medina in 1854 and organized the Medina Bank, 
which was chartered under the laws of the State of New York. This 
was conducted, with varying success, till 1 861, when it failed. Soon 
after the establishment of the national banking system the First Na- 
tional Bank of Medina was organized, but after an existence of a few 
years it also failed, and its depositors lost heavily. Prior to the failure 
of the Medina Bank Mr. Kennan had withdrawn from it, and before the 



358 LANDMARKS OF 

incorporation of the National Bank he organized the Union Bank of 
Medina, with an authorized capital of $100,000. William W.Potter 
was the first president of this bank. He died in 1871 and was suc- 
ceeded by John M. Kennan who, some five years later was succeeded 
by William H. Watson. After the death of Mr. Watson, in 1888, Hon. 
E. L. Pitts became the president. The career of the bank to the pres- 
ent time has been successful. The present officers of the bank are: 
George A. Newell, president; Homer Luther, cashier; Harry F. Wel- 
ton, assistant cashier. The capital is now $50,000 and the surplus the 
same amount. It is a State bank. 

In 1880 Earl W. Card & Co established a private bank in Medina. 
Its business was conducted in the second story of a building on the 
east side of Shelby street till the summer of 1890, when the firm re- 
mo.ved to their present quarters in the first story of the McKnight 
block. This institution is, in the present year (1894), being changed to 
a national bank, under the name of the Medina National Bank, with 
the following officers : E. W. Card, president ; Watson F. Barry, first 
vice-president ; J. W. Card, second vice-president ; B. D. Timmerman, 
cashier. The capital is $50,000. 

Mercantile. — From its first inception Medina has contained mercantile 
establishments conducted by men of enterprise and progress. One of 
the first of these, if not the first merchant in the place, was Sylvanus 
Coann, who accumulated wealth in his business. Agur Clark and 
Botsford Fairman were long associated in successful trade, and Richard 
Yarrington also. On the corner now occupied by Landauer & Co., 
where has always been located a leading store, Asel Woodruff carried 
on business in 1829. William Baker was a merchant there a longtime, 
as was also A W. Newell, father of George A. Newell ; he began busi- 
ness where the Eagle Hotel burned. Heath, Gillette & Bennett suc- 
ceeded at that location, and were followed by Landauer & Marshall, and 
that firm by Mr. Landauer. Fairman & Wiswell were early merchants 
in hardware ; and Wiswell & Hulburd were traders in that line early ; 
James Otto, also, who came here from Batavia, and was located where 
the Boston store is now. At the present time the village of Medina 
has among her business men a number of firms and individuals whose 
establishments are conducted upon modern lines and whose success is 
commensurate with their efTorts. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 359 

Water power, mills, and manufactories. — At the time of the construc- 
tion of the canal the State authorized the building of a dam across Oak 
Orchard Creek and a race from it to the canal for a feeder. It was 
afterward found that the elevation of this was not sufficient, the banks 
of the canal having been raised, and it was abandoned. Some relics 
of this dam are still to be seen. In 1825 David E. Evans entered into 
a contract with the State for the construction of a dam farther up the 
creek. This was built and it is still standing. A race conveys the 
water from this pond to the canal ; and it is utilized for driving the 
machinery of many mills and manufactories. 

At about the same time the State built a dam across Tonawanda 
Creek, below Indian Falls in Genesee county, and excavated a race 
from this dam to Oak Orchard Creek, about four miles distant. This 
was for the purpose of diverting so much of the water from Tonawanda 
Creek as should be necessary to furnish a sufficient supply for the canal 
at all times. It was found that this dam was some three feet higher 
than was necessary, and that consequently a large area was, in times of 
high water, overflowed. It was therefore contemplated to destroy this 
dam altogether. It was found, however, that at the time this dam was 
constructed the State had entered into a contract with the Holland 
Land Company, by the terms of which the latter conveyed to the 
former a large tract of land in consideration of the improvement which 
the turning of this water into Oak Orchard Creek would make in the 
water power of that creek as it passed through Orleans county. A 
legal controversy followed, and the State abandoned the project of re- 
moving this dam. It was, however, made three feet lower to prevent 
the overflow of lands which had been complained of, and thus it has 
continued till the present time. 

The first mill for which the water from the race which Evans ex- 
cavated was utilized was a stone flouring mill built by Mr. Evans. The 
foundations were laid in 1825, and it was completed in 1826. John 
Ryan was the master mason, Simeon Bathgate the millwright, and 
Captain Samuel F. Gear the carpenter. From this mill a raceway 
was excavated to the canal. This raceway had a sufficient breadth and 
depth to float boats to the mill, which had an elevator for taking grain 
from the boats. This mill became the property of William R. Gwinn, 



360 LANDMARKS OF 

and was operated by him many years. It was finally purchased by T. 
W. Swan, A. M. Ives, and Elisha S. Whalen, and soon afterward, in 
1859, was burned. 

Just south from the site of this mill, and close to the railroad, on the 
east side of Shelby street, an oil mill was built in 1862, and was con- 
ducted for some years by Richard Becker, who converted it into a grist- 
mill, and it was burned in 1873. 

The stone mill near Race alley, north from East Center street, was 
built by Mr. Gwinn in 1830. The contractor was John Ryan. It was 
afterwards owned by Levan Merritt, Simeon Bathgate, Robert Hill, 
Wilcox & Alcorn, John Alcorn alone, and by him was sold to B. A. 
Gilbert about 1863. He operated it until 1887, when he sold'to O. K. 
Johnson, who now operates it. 

A wool carding and cloth-dressing mill was built at an early date on 
the east side of Orient street, just north from the railroad, and it was 
afterward, during some years, conducted by Daniel Starr. With the 
decline of domestic manufactures in the country, this establishment 
went out of use ; was changed to a custom flouring mill, and was 
operated by Mr. Starr. It was purchased by A. A. Lowber, who ad- 
ded to it a kiln for drying corn. Mr. Lowber sold it to A. S. De Lane, 
who enlarged it and converted it into a merchant and custom flouring 
mill. It was burned some years since. William A. Wetmore built a 
pail factory on the site of it, and this was also burned. The site is now 
occupied by one of the departments of Maher Brothers' lounge factory. 

In an early day a saw mill was built on the south bank of the canal 
near the aqueduct. It was for many years supplied with logs from the 
canal, as well as from the surrounding country. It was owned and 
used by William Hedley. It was burned about 1877, and in place of 
it was erected a stone planing mill. Adjoining this Mr. Hedley built a 
custom flour mill. This was burned in 1884, but was repaired and used 
as a machine shop. 

About 1826 Justus IngersoU built a large brick tannery on the 
south side of East Center street, just west from Oak Orchard Creek. It 
was afterward converted into a flouring mill by T. S. Wilcox & Co., 
and was burned in 1858. In 1880 William A. Wetmore built a custom 
flouring mill on the same site. This was burned in 1883, and in the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 361 

same year C. S, Hoag built another on the same site and conducted it, 
both as a stone and a roller mill. 

The Medina Falls Mill was built in 1840 by Botsford Fairman and 
T. R. Austin, They conducted it till 1846, when it became the prop- 
erty of Mr. Fairman, alone. In 1848 John R. Weld came to Medina, 
and in 1 85 3, in company with Asa P. Stanford, purchased the mill. L. 
A. G. B. Granr became a partner in 1854, R. L. Hill in 1867, and the 
style of the firm was changed to Weld & Hill in 1868. Mr. Hill died 
in 1 87 1, leaving his interest in the business to his sons, A. J. and G. H. 
Hill. In the summer of 1872 the mill was burned, and in the winter of 
1872-73 was rebuilt with seven runs of stones. G. H. Hill withdrew 
from the firm some years since, but the firm name continued the same. 
In 1882 the roller process was adopted. The firm received the award 
for farina at the centennial exhibition in 1 876. From fifty to seventy 
thousand barrels of flour have been annually manufactured at this mill, 
the firm making their own barrels. 

Nixon's brewery and distillery was built in 1826 by Joseph Nixon, 
It stood east of Orient street and near the foot of Starr street. It was 
a substantial stone building, and the brewery and distillery were in 
different parts of it. It was twice burned and rebuilt. Distilling was 
finally abandoned and the distillery part was converted into a wood 
turning shop. In connection with this was at one time a large wooden 
building, in the lower part of which Mr. Nixon kept a store, and the 
upper stories were used for storage. Just south from this brewery, 
fronting on Orient street, Mr. Nixon built a long stone structure di- 
vided into eight tenements, each with a basement opening to the east. 
This was for the residence of his employees and others. It was known 
as " The Nunnery," though many of the dwellers there were anything 
but religious recluses. But little of this quaint old structure remains, 

Remde's brewery was built in 1868 by Frederick Remde on the cor- 
ner of Orient and Oak Orchard streets. He operated this brewery till 
1 672, when he was succeeded by his cousin, William Remde, the pres- 
ent proprietor. In place of the original wooden structure Mr. Remde 
has erected a substantial brick building, and his machinery is driven by 
a steam engine. He manufactures some sixteen hundred barrels of 
beer annually. 



3G2 LANDMARKS OF 

Bathgate's Foundry. — At a very early date Simeon Bathgate built 
and operated a foundry on what was then known as Center alley (now 
Race alley). It was conducted by Mr. Bathgate and his sons many 
years. Shaw & Oliver succeeded the Bathgates in 1855 ; William Ben- 
nett succeeded them in 1859, and John W. Mount became proprietor 
in 1861. After the death of Mr. Mount, in 1873, Oscar K. Johnson 
conducted the works till 1886. The establishment was burned, and 
rebuilt by the Mount estate in 1886. In 1887 the property was pur- 
chased by Hanlon Brothers. It is not now operated. 

The Bignall Manufacturing Company was begun in 1850, when Ben- 
jamin M. and George T. Anthony established a foundry east of the 
junction of Orient and Starr streets. Their business at first was mainly 
the manufacture of stoves and agricultural implements. In 1861 the 
Messrs. Anthony sold their foundry to M. C. & L. C. Bignall, who 
changed it to a manufactory of iron pumps, sinks, barn door hangings 
and wagon trimmings. Their machinery was propelled by water from 
the canal feeder. In 1865 Lewis J, Ives became a partner in the com- 
pany, which was known as Bignall & Co. In 1869 a joint stock com- 
pany was organized under the name of Bignall Manufacturing Com- 
pany. This company at once commenced the erection of a factory a 
short distance below Medina Falls, and that has been their place of 
business since 1871. At the organization of the company W. H. Wat- 
son was chosen president and L. J. Ives secretary and treasurer. 
John M. Kennan succeeded Mr. Watson as president, and soon after- 
ward Mr. Watson was again chosen. W. J. Chatham became president, 
treasurer and general manager in 1876, and Mr. Watson again became 
president in 1876. He was succeeded by F. A. Burke in 1881, and he 
by James Jackson, jr., in 1890. The present officers of the company 
are: E. L. Pitts, president; L. C. Bignall, vice-president; W. B. Rob- 
bins, secretary and treasurer. The company now manufactures princi- 
pally pumps, sinks, soil pipes and fittings, and wagon skeins and boxes. 
Seventy hands are employed, and the goods manufactured are sold in 
all parts of the country. 

Staves and Heading. — In 1859 Charles M. Simmonds established in 
Medina the first manufactory of staves and heading in the the county. 
His first manufactory was on Church street in a building that had been 




C^^^/:' ^. ^^Wt^ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 363 

a saw mill. In that he placed machinery for sawing and turning head- 
ing. He made several changes in the location of his manufactory, and 
finally, in 1867, purchased land and established his manufactory on 
Church street just north from the railroad. There he introduced ma- 
chinery for cutting staves and soon afterward established his present 
heading factory on East Center street. 

Ide's planing mill was established by Warren Ide on the site of the 
old Gwinn mill at the race near the railroad. He continued business 
there till his mill was burned in 1873. He then erected a stone build- 
ing just south from the railroad, on Shelby street, where he still con- 
tinues business. In the spring of 1890 he established a foundry in the 
rear of his mill, and there plumber's ware is manufactured. 

Medina Manufacturing Company. — In 1873 Albert L. Swett and 
William H. Samson, who had been employees of the Bignall Manufac- 
turing Company, established in the old works of that company, east of 
Court street and north of the railroad, a manufactory of light hard- 
ware. They started with a capital of $2,500 and employed one hand 
besides themselves. Their business increased steadily and in 1879 they 
found it necessary to build a factory with greater capacity, and they 
purchased the next water privilege north from the present Bignall man- 
ufactory. They at once erected their works there and commenced op- 
erations in the spring of 1880. In January, 1890, Mr. Swett pur- 
chased the interest of his partner, and he conducts the business under 
the style of the A. L. Swett Iron Works. From the modest beginning 
in 1873 the business has increased till now more than 100 hands are 
employed. Some of the specialties made are steel door hangers, door 
rails, chain pumps, tire benders, tuyere irons, bolster plates, etc. 

The Ives Paper Pail Company. — In 1875 the Ives and Hubbard Pail 
Company was organized with a capital stock of twenty thousand dollars. 
A. M. Ives, L. J. Ives, F. M. Ives and E. Hubbard were the owners of 
this stock. A manufactory was erected on the east side of Shelby 
street, a short distance north from Pearl street, and operations were 
commenced in the same year. The power for running the machinery 
was transmitted by cable from the Bignall works. Straw pulp was at 
first used, but in 1887 wood fiber was added. The daily capacity of 
the factory is eighty dozen pails, and about forty hands are required 



364 LANDMARKS OP 

to operate it. A. M. Ives was the president of this company. In 1877 
it was changed to a private firm, known as the Ives Paper Pail Com- 
pany. In 1889 A. M. Ives died, and afterward L J. and F. M. Ives 
purchased the interest of Mr. Hubbard. Since then it has been operated 
by a company, but at present is not in operation. 

Johnson-Nichols Paper Pail Factory. — In 1880 Herbert A. Johnson 
and John S. Higley commenced the manufacture of paper pails in an 
old plaster mill on the north side of East Center street, near Oak 
Orchard Creek. A year later the manufactory was removed to the op- 
posite side of the street, in a part of the flouring mill. In 1882 R. W. 
Nichols purchased the interest of Mr. Higley, the firm becoming John- 
son & Nichol. On November i, 1891, the Johnson Pail Company was 
organized, which continued to April i, 1892, and was succeeded by 
Cottrell & Culbane. November i, 1892, S. R. D. Cottrell bought out 
his partner. May i, 1893, he removed the works to what was the 
Simmonds heading factory. About twenty hands are employed, and 
the capacity of the factory has been greatly extended. Straw pulp, 
rag stock and wood fibre are used in the manufacture of pails for all 
purposes. 

Bowen & Beach manufactory of plumbers' ware was established in 
1880 by Erwin A. Bowen, La Fayette Robinson and George A. Beach, 
on the north side of East Center street, and on the west bank of Oak 
Orchard Creek. Mr. Robinson withdrew from the firm in 1885. Mr. 
Bowen died in January, 1889, but his estate maintains its interest in 
the business. The products of this factory are plumber's iron goods ; 
forty hands are employed. 

Maher Brothers' Manufactory of Upholstered Furniture. — In 1882 
John, Francis, Joseph and Robert Maher removed from Middleport to 
Medina and opened a furniture store on Main street. In 1886 they 
commenced the manufacture of lounges in the same building where 
their store was kept. This business so increased as to necessitate 
greater facilities, and in 1887 they commenced business on Orient street, 
just south from the railroad. A building one hundred by forty feet, 
two stories in height, was erected, and this is used for the upholstering 
department. The old Bignall factory was used as a manufactory of 
woodwork. In 1888 a building was erected just north of the rail- 




c>^ 



'G^^yVCA-^ 



^Ah^'t^^L^ M^o^j(L-^ 



J /kjaAfyr- 






ORLEANS COUNTY. 365 

road on the east side of Orient street, and in this machinery was placed 
for manufacturing, the old Bignall mill being used for storage and pack- 
ing. In 1889 the Messrs. Maher erected still another building in the 
rear of the one first built. It is 100 by 40 feet, three stories in height, 
and it is used for manufacturing parlor furniture. On an average 100 
hands are employed in this establishment, which is only exceeded in 
the amount of work produced by one similar manufactory in the State 
of New York. The work is sold in about twenty States of the Union. 
The works of this firm were all burned in the spring of 1894, but are be- 
ing rebuilt on a still larger plan It is one of the most prosperous and 
important industries in Western New York. 

Empire Manufacturing Company. — In 1882 Edward Maloney, Thomas 
Maloney, Lewis Wood and Frederick Wilson formed a copartnership 
for the manufacture of plumbers' supplies. They first established their 
works at the old Bignall factory, at the foot of Starr street. Within the 
first year Messrs. Wood and Wilson retired, and the firm has ever since 
been E. & T. Maloney. In the spring of 1887 they removed to their 
present works, on the east side of Shelby street, north from the railroad, 
where a prosperous business is carried on 

In 1888 L. F. Zimmerman built an evaporator on the north side of 
the railroad, a short distance east from Oak Orchard Creek. The ma- 
chinery in this evaporator is driven by an engine of four horse-power, 
and steam is passed through about 9,000 feet of gas pipe to furnish heat 
for evaporating. The daily capacity of the evaporator is 500 bushels of 
apples, and twenty hands are employed in the busy season. 

Bidwell Bean Thresher. — In 1885 Charles H. Bidwell commenced the 
manufacture of bean threshers in Albion. In 1889 he established a 
manufactory in Medina, on the north side of East Center street, near 
Oak Orchard Creek, where J. L. Spencer had manufactured separators. 
The industry has been successful from the start and sales of the machine 
have greatly increased. Various other agricultural implements are also 
manufactured. 

The Swett & Card Manufacturing Company was started in the 
autumn of 1889, with a capital of five thousand dollars. The business 
is the manufacture of condensed mince meat. They commenced in the 
Hanlon Brothers' foundry building, between the canal and Shelby street 



366 LANDMARKS OF 

on Race alley, but in the fall of 1890 they removed to a building which 
joins the Medina Manufacturing Company's works on the north. Owing 
to sharp competition and other causes this industry was abandoned. 

Carriages. — On the 4th of March, 1849, Edward Davey began making 
wagons about on the site of the Medina House, East Center street. 
From the beginning has grown one of the important industries of the 
village. A handsome three story brick block, sixty by ninety feet, is 
occupied as a repository, offices, finishing rooms, etc., and several other 
large buildings are in use for other parts of the business. The work 
turned out is generally of a light grade and is sold largely to livery men 
and actual consumers. A large share of the present responsibility of 
the business rests upon the shoulders of Mr. Davey's son, Edward H. 
Davey. 

Produce buyers. — The Ives Produce Company was organized in 
1892 for the purchase of all kinds of produce. The company consisted 
of Fred M. and Lewis J. Ives, sons of the late A. M. Ives, who was 
identified with the leading business interests of Medina nearly a half a 
century. Among these were the foundry business, begun in 1875 by 
Ives & Son ; the succeeding firm of Ives & Hubbard, which manufac- 
tured pails, and the buying of produce of all kinds. In the latter busi- 
ness Mr. Ives was a member of the firm of Swan, Ives & Whalen ; later 
Ives & Whalen, and still later Ives & Sons. The foundry business 
mentioned was closed out about 1875. 

Samuel C. Bowen, who had previously kept a store in Lyndonville, 
came to Medina, where he carried on business a few years, and in 1857 
began produce buying, and in 1S90 erected his handsome and com- 
modious structure at a cost of $16,000. Mr. Bowen is a son of Dr. 
Elisha Bowen, one of the prominent early physicians of the county, and 
a native of the town of Yates. 

Cemeteries. — The first place of burial in Medina was near the 
southeast corner of Center and West streets, nearly opposite the Bap- 
tist church. This was never set apart or dedicated as a place of inter- 
ment, but was used informally by the early inhabitants. In 1830 David 
E. Evans, by his agent, W. R. Gvvinn, donated an acre of ground on 
the east side of Gwinn street, south from the railroad, for burial pur- 
poses. The first interment here was of Mrs. Edmund Fuller, mother 




""^/Pf^W^^z^^^ ^2y<^ 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 367 

of Edmund Fuller, jr., now of Medina. The forest was then unbroken 
there, and the lady was carried over a footpath that passed near the 
place. The ground has been used only as a burial place since that 
time, though but few bodies have been buried there for many years. 
Many memorial stones stand there, some of them mossy with age, and 
bearing the names of those who sought their homes here when the 
wilderness was almost unbroken. The area is partly surrounded by a 
stone wall. The surface is thickly carpeted with laurel, and a dense 
growth of young trees shades it. An appropriation of $500 has 
recently been made to pay for removal of remains from the grounds. 

A short distance north from Medina, on the east side of the road 
leading to Ridgeway, is Boxwood Cemetery. The land was purchased 
in 1848, while yet a forest, for cemetery purposes by Messrs. S. M. 
Burroughs, George Northrup, Caleb Hill, and others. It was sold to 
the village for $600, and was laid out and opened for burials in 1850. 
The first person buried in it was David Card, in 1849. It is the prin- 
cipal burial place for the village and vicinity, and many bodies have 
been removed to it from other cemeteries. The revised village charter 
of 1874 named a board of commissioners for the government of the 
cemetery, and provided for the appointment of their successors by the 
Board of Trustees. The commissioners named were Elisha S. Whalen, 
Edward Davey, George A. Newell, Albert L. Swett, and Joseph C. 
Davis. The presidents of this commission have been : Elisha S. 
Whalen, Albert L. Swett, and George A. Newell. 

The cemetery commissioners for 1894 are as follows : A. L. Swett, 
president; E. H. Hill, treasurer; G. A. Newell, secretary; J. R. Weld, 
G. H. Shattuck. 

St. John's Episcopal church was incorporated November 12, 1827, 
under the name of St. Luke's Episcopal church, but the name was 
afterward changed to St. John's. The first Episcopal service by a 
bishop in Orleans county was held in this church by Bishop Hobart 
September 7, 1828, and the first confirmation in the county was of 
seventeen persons by Bishop Onderdonk August 19, 1831. The first 
officers of the church were : Justus IngersoU and Richard Van Dyke, 
wardens ; Christopher Whaley, Elijah Beach, John B. Ellicott, Joseph 
Nixon, Henry Yerrington, Benjamin W. Van Dyke, Jonas S. Billings, 



368 LANDMARKS OF 

and Hezekiah Warner, vestrymen. During the first five years of its 
existence the church had several places of worship. One of these was 
in a house opposite the present site of the church, another in an un- 
finished room of a dwelling on Church street, and another in an upper 
room of a house on Shelby street, near the Presbyterian church. In 
1828, when the number of communicants was only fifteen, steps were 
taken for the erection of a house of worship, and a site was donated by 
David E. Evans. In 1832 more active measures were adopted, and in 
the autumn of 1833 the present stone church had been enclosed and 
the basement was fitted up for service. The contractor who built this 
church was Joseph Nixon. The building was completed in 1836, and 
on the 13th of September, in that year. Bishop Onderdonk baptized 
five persons, confirmed eleven and consecrated the church. A costly 
communion service had been presented to the church by Mrs. David E. 
Evans in 1828. The period of greatest depression in this church was 
from 1848 to 1 85 1, when the parish was embarrassed by a heavy debt 
and the church was closed. The rectors of this church have been : 
Revs. Richard Salmon, B. Northrup, J. M. Rogers, James O. Stokes, 
William Allenson, Stephen Douglass, Philemon E, Coe, R. D. Stearns, 
Warren W. Walsh, Edward Dolloway, John J. Andrew, and George W. 
West. At the present time the church is without a rector. Of these 
Rev. Mr. Stearns was rector during seventeen and one half years. At 
the close of his rectorship the number of communicants was ninety- 
three. In the latter part of Mr. Stearns' rectorship a memorial font of 
Caen stone was donated by Mrs. J. R. Weld, and a bishop's chair by 
George H. Shattuck. Memorial windows were also placed in the 
church: One by Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Weld, in memory of their daugh- 
ter; one by the ladies of the church, in memory of Rt. Rev. W. H. 
De Lancey, D. D.; one by Mrs. Edwin L. Blake, in memory of her 
husband. Major Blake, who was killed in the War of the Rebellion ; one in 
memory of Mrs. Elizabeth B. Stokes, by her children ; one in memory 
of Andrew B. Cook, by his widow, Mrs Sarah Cook ; one in memory of 
William R. Stearns, infant son of the rector, Rev. Mr. Stearns; one in 
memory of Dr. Christopher Whaley, by his widow ; and one in memory 
of Dr. C. Whaley and Sophronia, his wife, by their children. In 1869 
a bell weighing 2,100 pounds and costing $900 was placed in the tower. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. ?,G3 

In 1890 Mrs. J. R. Weld donated a new and elegant altar, and in the 
same year a new organ was purchased at a cost of $1,800. For some 
years the church has had a surpliced choir. The present number of 
communicants is 120., 

The First Baptist Church of Medina was organized in 1829 There 
had been, for some years, a Baptist church in Ridgeway, about two 
two miles east of Ridgdway Corners, but this had become too weak to 
support a pastor. There were then a few Baptists in Medina, and after 
consulting together it was resolved to call a meeting of the church at 
Ridgeway and of other Baptists in the vicinity. The meeting was held 
at the house of Cook Hotchkiss, and it was resolved that the meetings 
of the church at Ridgeway should be held in Medina, and that it should 
thereafter be known as the First Baptist Church of Medina. The con- 
stituent members were Charles Warner, John Knapp, Rufus Reed, 
Lorin Hotchkiss, Lewis Warner, Faren Wilson, Mamri Knapp, Hannah 
Knapp, Polly Reed, Louisa Reed, Hannah Gamble, Sally Farnham, 
Sally Bullard, E, Pees and wife, Bennett Baker and wife, and R. Nick- 
erson and wife. The first deacons were Charles Warner and Cook 
Hotchkiss. Social worship was held in the houses of members, and 
public worship in a building that had been erected for a barn near the 
southwest corner of Center and Shelby streets. This served them till 
their first church building was completed, which was in 1832. The 
present elegant church edifice was erected between 1870 and 1873, at a 
total cost, including site and furniture, of more than forty-five thousand 
dollars. Members have been dismissed from this church to form three 
others : One at Knowlesville, in 1831 ; and two in Michigan, in 1835. 
Several members have become clergymen. The pastors and supplies 
of this church have been Revs. E. Savage, E. Weaver, J. Chadwick, 
S. Wilkins, Rev. Mr. Otis, Rev. Mr. Irons, R. K. Bellamy, C. T. John- 
son, S. Gilbert. C. B. Smith, P. C. Dayfoot, Rev. Mr. Murphy, Daniel 
Reed, P. B. Haughwout, D. Van Alstyne, E. W. Lounsbury, C. E. 
Becker, Wm. F. Taylor, Seth F. Farnham, F. G. McKeever, and Frank 
T. Latham. The membership is 400. A new bell and interior re- 
pairs have recently been added at a cost of $1,200. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Medina was organized March 19, 
1829, with Theophilus Cook and wife, Thomas Fenn and wife, Colton 
47 



370 LANDMARKS OF 

Denio and wife, Ephraim Scovell and wife, Orin ScoveU, Vina Scovell, 
John Burden, Titus Coann, Mrs. E. A. Bathgate, Miss Adeline Warner, 
Miss Sally Hotchkiss, Miss Anna Jewell, and Miss Huldah M. Moore 
constituent members. It became a part of the Niagara Presbytery in 
1830. The first church edifice was built in 1832. It was a frame 
building, and stood on the north side of Cross street, near the corner of 
West, and it was the first building erected for public worship in Medina. 
After the erection of its successor it was occupied as a school house for 
several years, and was finally sold to the Roman Catholics who removed 
it to their church lot, enlarged it, used it as a place of worship, and 
finally converted it into a school. We quote from a former historical 
sketch of this church : 

The story of the erection of this church is an interesting one. It is related that 
Deacon Theophilus Cook commenced alone and unaided getting out the timber for this 
house, and that seeing his zeal showing itself in both faith and works Mr. Ephraim 
Scovell joined him in his labors. Others followed with aid and contributions till a 
building about thirty by forty-five feet was erected in which the Presbyterians wor- 
shiped until 1836, when it gave place to a stone edifice which was dedicated February 
17th of that year. The first bell in the village was raised in the steeple of this church 
in the year last mentioned. For several years it was the only one between Lockport 
and Albion, and it was rung several times each day to regulate the hours of labor and 
rest. The stone church was destroyed by fire December 26. 1871, and the pre.'^ent 
church building was erected the same year ; the congregation meeting for the first time 
in the audience room March 13, 1872. 

The pastors of this church have been : Revs. George Coan, Maltby 
Gaston, H. A. Read, Milton Buttolph, Rev. Mr. Danforth, C. E. Furman, 
Edgar Clark, L. I. Root, C. R. Wilkins, Alfred A. Graley, George P. 
Merrill, Henry T. Miller, William K. Tully, George Harkness, J. D. 
Countermain. E. P. Gardner, Charles H. Lester. The society is without 
a regular pastor at the present time. 

The Methodist Episcopal church of Medina was organized on Septem- 
ber 27, 1830. An informal organization had existed several years, but 
on that day a legal legal organization was eftected, and Halstead H. 
Parker, Ephraim Masten, Cyrus Rumsey, Elijah Bent, and Seth Morris 
and H. Morris were chosen trustees. A stone church building was erected 
in 1833, by Messrs. Ryan and Schuyler, contracting masons The build- 
ing covered an area of forty-five by sixty feet. Of the eighty- one sub- 
scribers for funds to buiki this church the following gave $50 or more, 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 371 

and the first two subscribed three hundred dollars each : James Jack- 
son, Elijah Bent, H. H. Parker, Cyrus Rumsey, Jonah Hoyt, Daniel 
Tiinmerman, Ephraim Masten, Thomas Payne, George Codd, James 
Hamilton, Mercy Day, Joseph Zimmerman, David Zimmerman, Cor- 
nelius Ashton, John Ryan, J. V. Schuyler, John Zimmerman, David E. 
Evans, Phebe Drew, Philo Gregory, and S. Gregory. In 1850, this 
church was taken down and the stones of which the walls were composed 
were used for the basement of a wooden structure which was built in its 
place. It was fifty by eighty feet and its cost was $7,000. In 1868 
the same sum was expended in reconstructing it. It was burned in 
1874. It stood on the west side of Shelby street, in the heart of the 
business part of the village. The lot was sold, another on West Center 
street was purchased, and the present brick edifice, sixty-five by one 
hundred and twelve feet and two stories in height was erected, at a cost 
of $32,000. It was dedicated December 8, 1876. In 1888 it was re- 
paired, renovated and refurnished, at an expense of $3,000. In 1894 a 
new bell was presented by Mrs. William Underhill. The pastors of this 
church have been : Revs. Thomas Harker, Rev. Mr. Durham, A. N. 
Fillmore, John Gulie, J. B. Lancton, D. F, Parsons, Jonathan Benson, 
H. R. Smith, S. C. Church, E. E. Chambers, A. P. Ripley, P. E. Brown 
John Bowman, J. McEwen, J. G. Miller, G. De Lamatyr, A. Steele, E. 
M. Buck, J. B. Wentworth, K. D. Nettleton, P. R. Stover, S. McGerald, 
James E. Bills, G. W. Paddock, J. E. Williams, G. E. Jones, G. W. 
Peck, G. H. Dryer, C. E. Winchester, L. E. Rockwell. The member- 
ship is 300. 

St. Mary's Church, Medina, N. Y. — About sixty-three years ago 
Rev. P'r. McNamara, on his way to Lockport, stopped here and 
celebrated mass for the first time at the home of William Wel.sh, father 
of Mrs. James Kearney, now the residence of Mrs. Colonel Bowen, 
Main street. He baptized the first Catholic child, Margaret Welsh, sis- 
ter of Mrs. James Kearney. Rev. Bernard O'Reilly visited here and 
said mass at the residence of William Welsh on Center street, now the 
home of Dr. Everett Baker, and also officiated at the first Catholic 
marriage. The parties were Miss Anna Kelly and James Kearney. 
Father O'Reilly afterward became bishop of Hartford, Conn. On a 
voyage to Europe he was lost at sea. 



372 LANDMARKS OF 

Over fifty years ago Rev. Fr. Mannion celebrated mass at the home 
of James CuUen on Laurel Hill. In 1848 and 1849 Fr. McMuUen, of 
Lockport, occasionally attended to the spiritual wants of the people. 
He was succeeded by Rev. John Boyle, of Youngstown, N, Y. Rev. 
Edward Dillon came from Batavia about 1847, ^"<^ services were held 
every two months for two years. Fr. Fitzgerald was here a short time. 
In 1837 there were about ten or twelve Catholic families We will 
mention those of James Cullen, Cornelius A. Hern, William Welsh, 
Dennis Bradley and James Kearney. Hon Silas M. Burroughs do- 
nated a lot on Orient street to the Catholics, which was afterward sold, 
and a committee composed of the following gentlemen, viz. : Dennis 
Bradley, James Cullen, John Rodgers, Michael Roche, John Clark and 
William Welsh, bought a small Presbyterian Church located on Pearl 
street, between Main and West streets, and it was moved on to a lot 
bought by Fr. Dilon on West street, or where E. S. Sutphen's house 
now stands. Services were held in it about two years, when it was 
again moved to the church property bought of James Skinner, on 
Eagle street. About the year 1849 Rt. Rev. John Timon visited this 
parish for the first time and celebrated mass, assisted by Fr Boyle, in 
the church located where Herbert Johnson's residence now is. At a 
later period the bishop confirmed a class of children in the Beecher 
house, corner of Park avenue and West street. Rev. Richard Har- 
mon, a strong temperance advocate, came in 1850. He was the first 
resident priest. He died of fever at the Vandemark Hotel, on the cor- 
ner where now stands the Union Bank. Rev. Martin O'Connor, a very 
charitable and zealous clergyman, came in April, 1851, and remained 
until January, 1855. During his pastorate the present stone edifice 
was commenced. He was assisted by Rev. William Hughes for a few 
months in 1856, and in 1857 by Rev. George McMahan, and also by 
Rev. Fr. Clark, formerly of Wellsville. Fr. O'Connor was given charge 
of St. Bridget's parish, Buffalo, for several years, and while on a visit 
to the Seminary of Angels, Suspension Bridge, he died suddenl3^ In 
the summer of 1854 the corner stone of the church was laid by Bishop 
Timon, and it was finished and dedicated in November of the same 
year. In the sancctuary beside Bishop Timon, were Rev. Martin 
O'Connor, Rev. Edward O'Connor, and Mr. Thomas Hynes, now pas- 



ORLEANS COUNTS. 373 

tor of St. Raphael's Church, Suspension Bridge. The choir for the 
occasion came from Bufilalo. The first child baptized in the church was 
Adelia Shanley, by Rev. Edward O'Connor. The stone used in build- 
ing the church was taken from the Kearney quarry and Matthew Welsh 
was principal mason. Rev. Fr. O'Connor purchased six acres of land 
at $50 per acre, on the gravel road, from Austin O'Malley, for a cem- 
etery. About $100 was paid for right of way in the burying ground, 
and Dennis Bradley donated $37.50 to pay a mortgage on the same. 
It has been enlarged and beautified by the present pastor. Fr. O'Con- 
nor attended to the spiritual wants of the people at Middleport, Gas- 
port, Somerset, Holley and Albion, and built the church at the latter 
place. He organized the first Catholic school and the first teacher was 
Mr. Quinn. Thomas Hynes, John Ryan, and from 1855 to 1857 Miss 
Kate Maloney also taught. In 1855 a melodeon was bought. Professor 
Werner, of Buffalo, was first organist. His brother Anthony was or- 
ganist of the cathedral at Boston and also compiled a music book called 
the Memorare. In 1857 he was succeeded by Miss Maria Cooper un- 
til 1864, when Miss Helen Pike, now Mrs. Seneca Baker, took charge 
of the choir. Miss Margaret Mehan, from Seneca Falls, played the 
organ a short time. January, 1855, to June, 1859, Rev. Nicholas 
Byrnes, the dignified and warm hearted pastor, took charge. He was 
followed by Rev. Thomas McGuire, who remained about six months. 
Rev. Thomas Brady was pastor from 1859 to i860. He went to 
Grand Rapids, Michigan, and afterward became chaplain in the 
army. His nephew, John Brady, was a physician here. In the win- 
ter of 1858 Sisters Angela McKay and Bridget, of the Bridgetine 
order, and a young lady, Miss Magin, came to teach school under the 
supervision of Fr. Byrne. The gentlemen who acted as trustees at 
different periods from 1851 to 1S60 were Thomas Owens, Dennis Brad- 
ley, Peter Shanley, John Rodgers and James O'Brien. 

In i860 Rev. John O'Mara came here and left for Lockport in 1867. 
He remained there about two years and then took charge of the Im- 
maculate Conception Church, Buffalo. From there he went to Owego, 
where he died in 1884. Fr. O'Mara was very generous. The poor 
and helpless found a friend in him, and the words of scripture, " And 
if a man take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him," were car- 



374 LANDMARKS OF 

ried out to the letter by him. The first trustees were appointed by 
Bishop Timon, and they were: Dennis Bradley, Patrick Horan and 
John Rodgers. They served three years and were re-elected by the 
people for another year. In 1863 the transept of the church was built 
by Fr. O'Mara, and Patrick O'Grady was the architect. Among the 
workmen were Martin Hickey, James Casey, Cornelius Hoy, Michael 
Kearney and Joseph Doyle, of Albion. The altar was consecrated by 
Bishop Timon the first Sunday in Advent, 1864. 

About the year 1866 a pipe organ was purchased at a cost of $750. 
The organists at this time and to 1873 were Misses Anna Summers and 
Kate Hays, of Lockport, and Mr. Walters, a fine musician, of Buffalo. 
The teachers were Mrs. Smith and Miss Anastasia Finegan, of BufTalo. 
Miss Margaret Hanlon taught school and also had charge of the Sun- 
day-school for eleven years. 

Joseph O'Connor, a graduate of Rochester University, now the ed- 
itor of the Post Express, taught for a few months in 1863. Thomas 
J. Neville, of Rochester, who for eight years did reportorial and ed- 
itorial work on the Democrat and is now clerk of the Executive Board, 
taught from 1863 to 1866. Rev. Martin McDonnell became pastor 
July 12, 1867, and left tor Buffalo August 29, 1873. In 1872 he 
bought the property of Mark Chase, corner of West and Eagle streets. 
The price was $3,500. It became the convent of a branch of the 
Grey Nuns of Buffalo. They established an academy for young ladies, 
and also had charge of the parochial school for some years. In the 
academy the advanced English course was taught, beside French, mu- 
sic, painting, crayon work and needlework, The superiors were Sis- 
ters Shanley, Theresa and Mary St. Patrick. The sisters were here 
until 1884. The Misses Ellen Sullivan and Cecilia Dwyer, of Roches- 
ter, Miss Cummings, of Elmira, Miss Anna Kelly, Mr. Manning, Mr. 
Condon and Mr. Case were teachers during Fr. McDonnell's time pre- 
vious to the coming of the Sisters. Miss Cecelia Dwyer and Mr. Smith, 
of Lockport, were organists for a short time. From January, 1872 to 
1873, John Slack and Owen Boyland were trustees. In 1872 two fine 
sanctuary windows were given by Patrick Horan. In the same year 
two beautiful statutes one of the Blessed Virgin and the other of St. 
Joseph, were bought in Munich, Germany, and placed in the church by 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 375 

Fr. McDonnell. He also organized a temperance society which lasted 
three years. The good effects of this work were very soon seen. Fr. 
McDonnell resides in lona, Minn. He has established the Home of 
the Sacred Heart for boys, and has compiled two volumes called "The 
Echo," published forthe home. Rev. William J. McNab took charge of 
the parish August 29, 1873. In 1875 he was assisted by Rev. Thomas 
Carragher for a few months. Rev. Patrick O'Meara was assistant 
about one year. Rev. John Fitzpatrick was here from September, 
1876, to April, 1877. Rev. John O'Reilly came April, 1877, and re- 
mained until December of the same year. Rev. Dennis Daly came 
September, 1884, and left for Buffalo in 1885. 

In 1873 and for a few years after, at different times, the Misses Mar- 
garet Sennett, Mary O'Brien and Alice O'Hara, William Kirby and 
Frank Gallagher were teachers in the parochial school. From Decem- 
ber 7, 1873 to 1883 Catherine Hanlon was organist. She also held the 
same position a year and nine months in Fr. Donnell's time. She was 
succeeded by Miss Margaret Ryan until 1886, when Miss Margaret 
O'Brien, the present organist, took charge of the choir. Among the 
many singers of St. Mary's choir, who have very excellent voices, are 
the Misses Mary Hanlon, Ellen Murphy, Anna Slaclc, Josephine Sut- 
ter, Carrie Sutter, Catherine Gallagher, Kate Sutter, Sarah Smith, 
Joseph Maher, Thomas Smith, William Cooper, Joseph Kearney, Ed- 
ward Hanlon and James Hourigan. From the fall of 1885 to 1892 the 
Misses Elizabeth Conley, Ellen Gribben, Margaret Leahey, Emma 
Griffin and Hannah Toughey, also Edward O'Malley, were the teachers. 

An Altar Society was formed January, 1874. A society of the Chil- 
dren of Mary organized January 25 of the same year. It was composed 
of a large number of young ladies. From 1873 to 1877 Fr. McNab 
attended Middleport. He purchased the Presbyterian Church at Mid- 
dleport March, 1875, at a cost of $1,750, and it was dedicated in the 
summer of the same year by Rt. Rev, Bp. Ryan. Rev. W. J. McNab 
celebrated mass at the dedication. In the sanctuary were Rev. Patrick 
Cannon, Rev. Matthew Darcy, Rev. Thomas Brougham and Rev. J. A. 
Lanigan. Middleport was made a separate parish December, 1877, ^"^ 
Rev. John C. O'Riley appointed pastor in the same year. The 
sanctuary was frescoed in 1878 at a cost of $300, which was paid by 



376 LANDMARKS OF 

Rev. W. J. McNab, Mrs. James Hanlon, James Kennedy and Patrick 
Dockery, and $50 given by the congregation. 

The Catholic Mutual Benefit Association was organized here in Feb- 
ruary, 1878, with thirteen members. There are now one hundred and 
twenty. Rev. W. J. NcNab spiritual adviser. The Ladies' Catholic 
Benefit Association was organized March, 1891, also the Sacred Heart 
Society on June 13 of the same year. The Catholic Benevolent Legion 
was formed August 21, 1887. New stations of the cross were bought 
in 1886. A new main altar was donated by James Kennedy in 1889, 
and Miss Bridget Kelly, of Buffalo, gave beautiful statues of the Sacred 
Heart, St. Patrick and Adoring Angels. A handsome residence was 
built by Rev. W. J. McNab in the spring of 1887. It is surrounded by 
a spacious lawn and well laid walks, while pretty white birch and moun- 
tain ash trees gave the home a picturesque appearance. Rt. Rev, Bp. 
Ryan visited Medina for the first time in 1869. He was accompanied 
by Fr. McNabb, then his secretary. He was met at the station by a 
large concourse of people. The following day he confirmed a class of 
children. 

During Rev. Fr. McNab's pastorate a great many of the clergy have 
assisted him on several occasions. We will mention Rev. Fr. Conway 
and Rev. Fr. Osterrath of Canisius College, Buffalo; Rev. Fr. Rice, one 
of the founders of the Mutual Benefit Association (who died in Europe 
and was buried at the Seminary of Angels on the bank of Niagara 
River); Rev. Francis Sullivan, of Perry; Rev. James Roche, of Mid- 
dleport ; Rev. Jeremiah McGrath, of Portageville ; Rev. Richard Story, 
of Brockport ; Rev. Fr. Sullivan, of Williamstown, Mass.; Rev. John 
Stewart, of Rochester ; Rev. F'r. Hennelly, Rev. Fr. Grace and Rev. 
Fr. Miller of the Seminary of Angels; Rev. Dr. Quigley, of Buffalo; 
Rev. Fr. Hendricks, of Livonia ; Rev. M. Kean, of Bergen ; Rev. 
Michael Pyne, of Elmira ; and Rev. John Castaldi, the zealous pastor 
of Albion. Rt. Rev. Bp. Ryan gave a fine lecture on " Christian Edu- 
cation" in 1876. Rev. Patrick Cronan, the brilliant editor of the Catho- 
lic Union and Times, also gave a lecture on the Blessed Virgin in 1878. 
Rev. Fr. Koop also assisted us. He was an eloquent speaker, a fine 
theologian, and one of the best critics on mental philosophy. He went 
West where he afterward died. We have had several excellent and fruitful 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 377 

missions given by Rev. Fr. Shaw in 1874, Rev. Frs. Turner and O'Neil 
in 1886, Rev. Fr. Dunphy in August, 1878, Rev. Fr. Riordan in No- 
vember, 1 88 1, and Rev. Frs. Kreidt and Best, of Falls View, Septem- 
ber 20, 1 89 1. 

Rev. Fr. McNab, the beloved and very charitable pastor of St. Mary's, 
who had labored faithfully for nineteen years, celebrated the twenty - 
fifth anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood on January 20^ 
1892. The occasion was welcomed by clergy and people. Fr. McNab 
was born in New York city, and graduated at the college of St. Francis 
Xavier. He studied theology at the Seminary in Montreal, Can., and 
also at the college of Our Lady of Angels at Niagara Falls. He was 
ordained by Bishop Wood, of Philadelphia. He was one of the first 
members of the C. M. B. A., and is now one of the five members of the 
State Board of Grand Trustees. 

The congregation of St. Mary's numbers about 1,400, and the Sun- 
day school 300. The tie which has bound pastor and people for these 
many years has been strong. We only hope that it may not be broken 
until we all meet in that beautiful city not made with hands. 

During Fr. McNab's administration the following young men of 
parish have been ordained to the priesthood : Rev. James McNally, 
now of Elkton, S. Dak. ; Rev. Jeremiah McGrath, now at Buffalo, N. 
Y. ; Rev. James Hennelly, now at Chicago, 111. ; Rev. Michael J. Pyne, 
now of Elmira, N. Y. ; Rev. David J. Ryan, now at Niagara Falls, and 
Rev. Edwin Morgan, at Erie, Pa. 

The following young ladies of the parish have become members of 
the following religious bodies : Miss Elizabeth Flannigan, of the Sisters 
of St. Joseph ; Miss Mary O'Brien, of the Grey Nuns ; and Miss Anna 
Peel, of the Dominican Sisters. ^ 

Evangelical Lutheran Trinity Church (U. A. C.) of Medina. — In 
May, 1885, the first German Lutheran service was held in Loke's Hall, 
on Shelby street, Medina, by Rev. A, T. Hanser of Lockport, and a 
society of Evangelical Lutherans was formed. The constituent members 
were F. Boots, C. Lindke, H. Lindke. H. Ewald, H. Rahn, E. Koch, 
K. Greier, H. Pronalth, J. Kams, H. Vieritz, J. Stube, and Aug. 

' The foregoing article is kindly furnished by Catherine Hanlon, of Medina. 
48 



378 LANDMARKS OF 

Ewald. In 1887 Rev. G. Bartling was called from Concordia Seminary, 
St. Louis, Mo., to the pastorate of this church. The corner stone of 
the church building was laid in April, 1889, and the edifice was dedi- 
cated in July of the same year. It is a neat Gothic structure, with a 
seating capacity of 350. The society numbers forty- two active mem- 
bers, and 450 souls. The church property has a value of $4,500. 
Rev. Paul Graupner assumed the pastorate in 1892. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE TOWN OF MURRAY. 

In 1802 the town of Northampton was erected. It included the 
three eastern towns of Orleans county and a large portion of the western 
part of the county of Monroe. April 8, 1808, the town of Murray was 
formed from Northampton, and when organized included the towns of 
Murray, Kendall, Clarendon, Sweden, Clarkson, and Hamlin. Sweden, 
including Clarendon, was setoff in April, 18 13; Clarkson, including 
Hamlin, in April, 18 19; and Kendall in April, 1837, leaving Murray 
with its present area of 18,033 acres. It was named in the honor of 
John Murray, who was a merchant of New York city, and who was 
large land owner in the town when it was erected. It lies wholly within 
the Connecticut or Hundred Thousand acre tract, and is bounded on the 
east by Monroe county and a small part of Kendall, on the south by 
Clarendon, on the west by Albion and Gaines, and on the north by 
Kendall. Thus it is seen that Murray is the senior town in Orleans 
county. 

The surface is generally level, and drainage is afforded by Sandy 
Creek, the two branches of which unite at the village of the same name, 
in the north part of the town. In some places this stream has worn a 
deep channel. At Holley the gulf is crossed by an embankment over 
seventy-five feet high. The soil is a clayey and sandy loam, underlaid 
with Medina sandstone, which in many instances approaches near the 
surface. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



379 



The land in Murray was owned jointly by the State of Connecticut 
and the Pultney estate, and that belonging to the latter was not sur- 
veyed and put in market until 182 1. The Connecticut lands were sold 
earlier. No records of articles or contracts with the early settlers on 
the Hundred Thousand acre tract are accessible, hence it is possible to 
give only a list of the first deeds. The lots in the town north from the 
Ridge road, and one tier of lots south of the same, are numbered from 
west to east and from north to south. South from that road, except the 
one tier, they are numbered from south to north and from east to west; 
and the same order in each case is followed here regardless of chrono- 
logical arrangement. These lots were deeded as follows : 

Lot 184, Oliver Van Kirk, 74, 14 acres, L. 225, Franklin Hines and others, exrs,, 

Sept. 1835. 98, 53 a., Oct. 1, 1853. 



L. 185, Joseph Fellows, 120, 47 a., Apr- 
10, 1835. 

L. 189, Barnard Sewyer, 19, 23 a., Jan. 
1, 1862. 

L. 190, William H. Ward, 95, 57 a. 

L. 199, Daniel Young, 100, 12 a., July 
9, 1850. 

L. 201, Elizabeth Nichols, 65, 36 a., 
Oct. 1, 1840; Bank of Orleans, 65, 31 a., 
June 1, 1839. 

L. 202, Hooker Sawyer, 98, 86 a. 

L. 210, Hooker Sawyer, 49, 73 a., May 
21, 1817; Wm. Weyburn, 49, 73 a., Aug. 
22, 1823. 

L. 211. Wm. Weyburn, 57, 32 a.; Ansel 
Frost, 57, 82 a., June 20, 1836. 

L. 219. Paris Eddy, 5 a., Nov. 1, 1848; 
David C. Foster, 46, 41 a., May 1, 1850. 

L. 220, Eri Wood, 114, 68 a., Feb. 1, 
1836. 

L. 221, Isaac Clark, 108, 18 a., Oct. 24, 
1851; Robert S. Perry, 4, 39 a., Oct. 8, 
1828; Alpha 0. Rose, 10 a., Dec. 25, 1841. 

L. 222, Abraham M. Schermerhorn, 107, 
28 a., Apr. 2, 1839; WiUiam H. Ward, 
50 a., Dec. 8, 1821. 

L. 223, Ebenezer K. Webster, one-half 
of 98. 47 a.; July 1, 1829; David Arnold, 
one-half of 96, 47 a., Jan. 1, 1835. 



L. 226, John Hartshorn, 25 a., Dec, 10, 
1853. 

L. 227, Ebenezer K. Webster, 98, 98 a., 
July 1, 1848. 

L. 228, David Arnold, 4, 41 a., Jan. 1, 
1835; Calvin Churcn, 29, 99 a., June 1, 
1860; Calvin Church, 3, 9 a., June 1, 1860. 

L. 229, Arthur Harris, 100 a.. May 1, 
1852. 

L. 230, Thomas Turner, 25 a , Jan. 9, 
1828; John Dusett, 25 a., Aug. 12, 1835. 
■ L. 232, Asa and Stephen Jennings, 49, 
67 a., Sept. 2, 1854. 

L. 234. AUyn Boardman, 48, 36 a., 
June 23, 1826; Napoleon B. Reed, 11, 36 
a., Nov. 23, 1858. 

L. 235, John Clapp, 100 a., Nov. 8, 
1842. 

L. 236, Harley N. Bushnell, 51. 05 a., 
Apr. 1, 1845; Giles B. Cropsey, 19, 37 a., 
Nov. 1, 1853; T. J. Jewett, 6 a., March 1, 
1853; Nathan Birdsey, 25, 08 a., Nov. 1, 
1850. 

L. 237, William H. Ward, 24, 47 a.; 
Ezra Brainard, 75 a. 

L. 238, John Dikeman,jr., 105, 02 a., 
Feb. 9, 1826. 

L. 239, Giles B. Cropsey, 42, 25 a., Nov. 



380 



LANDMARKS OF 



1, 1858; Zimri Perrigo, 7, 75 a., Nov. 1, 
1853. 

L. 240, Guy Gibson, 6G, 19 a., Dec. 1. 
1851. 

L. 241, Enoch Eastman, 50, 96 a , Sept. 
26, 1826; Jonathan Wilcox, 50, 96 a., 
March 4, 1841. 

L. 242, John Dikeman, 105, 02 a., July 4. 
1825. 

L. 243, Theophilus Tayler, 22, 63 a.. 
May 12, 1827; Jonathan H. Taylor, 32, 
63 a., Apr. 15, 1828. 

L. 244, Peleg Sisson, 113, 02 a., Apr. 
. 27, 1812. 

L. 245, Harrison Hatch. 141, 44 a., Jan. 
1, 1835. 

L. 246, Harry J. Hollister, 157 a., Apr. 

1, 1836. 

L. 273, Oliver Van Kirk, 50 a.. May 15, 
1824; Oliver Van Kirk, 42, 79 a., Jan. 16, 
1838. 

L. 274, Joseph Fellows, 80, 62 a., Apr. 
10, 1835; Heirs of John Barker, 83, 63 a., 
Aug. 18, 1838. 

L. 275, James F. Penniman and Lewis 
K. Bridge, 125, 48 a., Aug. 1, 1845. 

L. 276, Richard B. Rhodes, 75, 39 a., 
Oct. 1, 1856; Percy Eddy, 9, 35 a.. May 
5, 1851; Percy Eddy, 32, 04 a., May 1, 
1859; Nathaniel P. Rhodes, 32 a,. May 1, 
1852. 

L. 277, Richard B. Rhodes, 60, 38 a., Oct. 
10, 1850; Lewis D. Ferry, 60, 37 a., Nov. 

2, 1854. 

L. 278, Ontario Bank, 60, 32 a. ; Levi A. 
Ward, 60, 33 a., Apr. 12, 1856. 

L. 281, Phena Phelps, 30 a., Apr. 12, 
1837; Charles Kelley, 20. 23 a., Apr. 16. 
1834; Lyman Colt, 50, 73 a., Oct. 28, 
1839. 

L. 282, Henry Van Wornier, 85, 01 a.. 
May 29, 1818. 

L. 283, Lyman Purdy, 48, 51 a., Jan. 2, 
1833 ; R. S. Perry, 13 a. ; K. Adams, 32, 



9 a., June 1. 1855; Robert S. Perry. 17, 
50 a., Jan. 1, 1835. 

L. 284, Eri Wood, one-half of 97, 70 a., 
March 1, 1849 : Daniel Smith, one-half of 
97, 70 a. 

L. 285, Daniel Smith, 19, 27 a , Apr. 11, 
1839; John Dussett, 19. 97 a,, Aug. 12, 
1835 ; Richard S. Jewell, 19, 97, Aug. 1, 
1846. 

L. 286, Aaron Baldwin, 35 a., Sept. 22, 
1826; A. & M. Hard, 19, 24 a., March 10, 
1853. 

L. 287, John Ducett, sr., 86, 17 a.. May 
2, 1833. 

L. 288. Hiram Densmore, 40, 05 a., May 
31, 1828 ; Epaphras Pennell, 40, 24 a.. May 
31, 1828. 

L. 289, John Dalton, 2, 20 a., Oct. 1818; 
Samuel Clark, 25, 43 a., Dec. 1. 1841. 

L. 290, Nathan Birdseye, 17 a., Oct. 3, 
1846; Daniel Reed, 33 a., Oct. 16, 1827. 

L. 291, William James, 58, 78 a., Jan. 
30, 1829. 

L. 292, William James, 68, 52 a., June 
30, 1829. 

L. 293, Ozro T. Hill, 23, 03 a.. Dee. 6, 
1833 ; Theophilus Taylor, 23, 33 a., Aug. 
9, 1831 ; William and Eri Jennings and 
Jacob Coursen, 43, 33 a., Sept. 28, 1832 ; 
J. H. Taylor, 10 a., June 12, 1832. 

L. 294, Russell Farwell, 2 a., June 12. 
1833 ; Enoch McComber, 9 a. ; Roland 
Farnsworth, 31, 75 a., Oct. 13, 1835 ; Chas. 
Farnsworth, 2, 25 a., June 12, 1832; Sally 
and Roland Farnsworth, 50, 06 a., Apr. 16, 
1834. 

L. 295, Harrison Hatch, 74, 80 a., Nov. 
1, 1824. 

L. 296, Susannah Perry and others, 62 
16 a., Dec. 20, 1820. 

Commencing now in the southeast corner 
of the town and proceeding northward and 
westward : 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



381 



L. 13, Thos. G. Carpenter, 51, 27 a., May 
3, 1822; Spencer C. Higgins, 51, 27 a. 

L. 14, Thomas O. Carpenter, 97, 49 a., 
Feb. 22. 1825. 

L. 15, Selee Potter, 53, 33 a., June 12, 
1832; Chester Brace, 7 a., Thomas K. 
Roby and Ralph W. Gould, 42, 32 a., June 

20, 1836. 

L. 16, William James, 93, 29 a , Feb. 
23, 1830. 

L. 17, Levi Beardsley, 6, 20 a., Aug. 21, 
1837; Libeus Austin, 1 a., Nov. 15, 1855 ; 
Thomas W. Avery, 17, 70 a., Sept. 20, 
182G. 

L. 18, Thomas W. Avery, 51, 20 a., 
Sept. 20, 1836 ; Jeremiah Acker, 51, 21 a., 
Nov. 1, 1849. 

L. 19, Asahel Whited, 39 a., Oct. 11, 
1832; Robert S. Perry, 20 a., Sept. 29, 
1834; David Northrup, 56, 62 a., Feb. 12, 
1828. 

L. 32, Carpenter, 104, 16 a. 

L. 33, Harley N. Bushnell, 20 a., Jan. 

21, 1839; Levi Ward, jr., 80, 16 a., Dec. 
19, 1814. 

L. 34, Roswell H. Woodbridge, 34, 18 a., 
Oct. 15, 1832 ; James Orr, 50 a., June 16, 
1831; D. W. Read, 10, 84 a., Apr. 22, 
1848; James Orr, 12 a., Feb. 11, 1824. 

L. 35, Roswell H. Woodbridge, 47, 19 a., 
Oct. 15, 1832 ; John Lake, 47, 19 a., June 
12, 1832. 

L. 36, John Lake, 96, 65 a., June 12, 
1832. 

L. 37, Knoch Eastman, 101, 80 a., March 
28, 1814. 

L. 38, Joanna Hill, 59, 78 a., Apr. 10, 
1835; Gustavus Clark, 50 a., Sept. 3, 
1828. 

L. 51, Levi Ward, jr., 101, 83 a., Dec 
19, 1814. 

L. 52, Levi Ward, jr., 99, 63 a., Dec. 19, 
1814. 

L. 53, Harley N. Bushnell, 24, 07 a., Aug. 
21, 1833; Samuel Clark, 27, 76 a., Apr. 



16, 1834; J. H. Taylor, 26, 16 a., Feb. 22, 
1825 ; Charles T. Whippo, 26, 27 a., Apr. 
1, 1829. 

L. 54, Joseph Baker, 70, 51 a., June 12, 
1832; Jesse Evarts, 25 a., March 3, 1823. 

L. 55, Henry Ketchum, 50 a., June 20, 
1836 ; Enoch Eastman. 49, 21 a. 

L. 56, Nancy Starr, 92, 88 a., July 4, 
1842; Asa Sprague, 10 a., Oct. 8, 1831. 

L. 57, Paul king. 57, 59 a , Oct. 8, 1831 ; 
Samuel Clark, 50 a., Sept. 8, 1831. 

L. 58, Alvinzo L. James, 48 a., May 1, 
1837. 

L. 71, William Hatch, 50, 75 a., Sept. 21, 
1843 ; Luby Eldridge, 52, 49 a., Apr. 10, 
1828 

L. 72, Lyman N. Warren, 10 a. ; Law- 
rence Brainard, 88, 71 a., March 22, 1834; 
Hiram Frisbie, 1, 28 a., Dec. 29, 1828. 

L. 73, David Hume, 61, 75 a., Aug. 14, 
1847; Charles T. Whippo, 45 a., Apr. 1, 
1829. 

L. 74, Charles T. Whippo, 73, 75 a., Feb. 
22, 1825. 

L. 75, Henry Ketchum, 49, 41 a., Aug. 
31. 1837; George W. Tift, 49, 56 a., March 
15, 1836. 

L. 76, Morris Sprague, 104 a., Sept. 7, 
1815. 

L. 77, Theodore Ellis, 55, 14 a., June 12, 
1832 ; William Burnham, 50 a., Aug. 3, 
1823. 

L. 78, Daniel Reed, 32, 46 a., Jan. 20, 
1846; Daniel Reed, 69 a., Apr. 17, 1834. 

L. 79, Eli Wait, 96, 63 a., July 8, 1845. 

L. 80, John B. Fuller, 53, 69 a., Jan. 5, 
1847. 

L. 93, Geo. McCrilhs, 54, 11 a., June 12, 
1832 ; William Hatch, 50 a., Apr. 13, 1832. 

L. 94, Moses N. Stoddard, 100, 84 a., 
Sept. 14, 1841. 

L. 95, Silas Sanborn, 52, 38 a., Feb. 13, 
1840 ; Austin Day, 52, 37 a.. May 4, 1847. 

L. 96, Austin Day, 93, 36 a., Apr. 5, 
1831. 



382 



LANDMARKS OF 



L. 97, Paphyrus Beebe, 97, 96 a., Apr. 
5, 1831. 

L. 98, Morris Sprague, 52, 25 a., June 

12, 1832; Darius Sprague, 32, 25 a., June 
12^ 1832. 

L. 99, Morris Sprague, 25 a., June 12, 
1832; Davis Ingals, 79, 63 a., Oct. 8, 
1831. 

L. 100, Medad Ferry, 60, 32 a.. Nov. 1 , 
1845 ; William James, 40 a., June 15, 
1827. 

L. 101, Cornelius Cole, 50 a., Sept. 1, 
1838; Cornelius Cole, 23, 82 a., Sept. 1, 
1838; Cornelius Cole, 23, 81 a., Nov. 1, 
1850. 

L. 102, John B. Fuller, 50 a., Jan. 1841 ; 
James D. Coolidge, 57, 08 a., Apr. 1, 1841. 

L. 115, Cyrus Hood, 51, 15 a., June 20, 
1836; Alexander Milliken, 51, 15 a., Aug. 
21, 1833. 

L. 116, James Masten, 50, 18 a., Sept. 2, 
1853 ; Amos Ludden and others, 50, 18 a., 
Sept. 24, 1852. 

L. 117, Horatio N. Perry, 52, 09 a„ 
Samuel Rundle, 52, 07 a.. May 12, 1827. 

L. 118, Austin Day, 46, 88 a., Apr. 25, 
1825. 

L. 119, Oliver Day, 49, 76 a., June 12, 
1832 ; Austin Day, 20 a., June 12, 1832 ; 
Austin Day, 30 a., Apr. 6, 1826. 

L. 120, Darius Sprague, 105, 17 a. 

L. 121, Jonathan Sprague, 109, 19 a., 
Nov. 12, 1814. 

L. 122, William Burnham, 42, 85 a., Apr. 
20, 1833; Eli Wait, 58 a., Dec. 22, 1854. 

L. 123, Cornelius Cole, 79, 40 a., Jan. 
29, 146 ; George Squire, 18 a. 

L. 124, Justin Day, 106, 59 a.. May 15, 
1824. 

L. 125, Cornelius Cole, 12, 33 a., Apr. 

13, 1839; Horace Stiles, 26, 76 a.. May 24, 
1847; Horace Stiles, 49, 09 a., June 12, 
1832. 

L. 138, Abraham -Cantme, 101, 62 a., 
June 1, 1839. 



L. 139, Abraham Cantine, 100, 70 a., 
July 18, 1822. 

L. 140, Abraham Cantine, 102, 10 a., 
Jan. 14, 1824. 

L. 141 John B. Mills, 93, 50 a., Feb 
23, 1826. 

L. 142, Austin Day, 50 a., Feb. 23, 1828; 
James Budd, 49, 40 a.. May 1. 1857. 

L. 143, William Alderson, 50 a., July 1, 
1852. 

L. 144. Robinson T. Garrison, 105, 30 
a.. Sept. 1, 1845. 

L. 145, Joseph Budd, 105, 05 a., June 12 
1833. 

L. 146, George Squire, 84, 71 a., Apr. 1, 
1836; George Squh-e, 9, 30 a., July 1, 
1835: Joseph Napoleon Bonapart Graham, 
1 a., May 1, 1830. 

L. 147, C. Gascoin, 8 a., Jan. 1, 1861. 

L. 148, Horace Stiles, 50,29 a., March 1, 
1838; Abner Trumbull, 50, 29 a., Nov. 1, 
1845. 

L. 161, Isaac Smith, 101, 06 a., July 1, 
1841. 

L. 162, Aretas Pierce, jr., 49. 84 a., Feb. 
1, 1836; Daniel Pierce, 50, 44 a., Feb. 1, 
1836. 

L. 163, Sarah J. Daggett and others, 50, 
80 a., Aug. 10, 1830; Sarah J. Daggett, 
50, 80 a., Dec. 20, 1830. 

L. 164, Catherine Rundell and others, 
47, 27 a., Dec. 20, 1830 ; Joseph Hard, 47, 
27 a., Nov. 1, 1847. 

L. 165, James B. Wood, 98, 63 a., July 
20, 1831. 

L. 166, Wm. Alderson, 13, 04 a., Oct. 1. 
1851 ; Wm. Alderson, 24, 06 a., Oct. 1, 
1837 ; Ezra H. Keys, 26, 07 a., July 1. 
1851 ; Jos. Hard, 15 a., June 1, 1853. 

L. 167, Amos Hard, 39, 19 a., July 1, 
1847; Edward Mulford, 60 a., Jan. 1, 
1844. 

L. 168, Noah Newman. 78, 50 a., July 8, 
1847 ; Noah Newman, 25 a., Nov. 15, 1836 ; 
Isaac M. S. Hurlburt, 3 a., June 12. 1832. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 



383 



L. 169, Joseph Budd, 24, 50 a. Aug. 28, 
1844; Garrett Barry, 20 a., Oct. 11, 1852. 

L. 170, William Densmore, 103, 53 a. 

L. 171, Isaac Underbill, 50, 44 a., Jan. 2, 
1851 ; Abijah Reed, 50, 44 a., May 9, 
1845. 

L. 172, Charles Kelly, 83, 81 a., Apr. 5, 
1831. 

L. 186, Joshua Garrison, 101, 44 a., Sept. 
1, 1838. 

L. 187, Joshua Garrison, 50, 37 a., Oct. 
1, 1853;David Carpenter, 50, 37 a., Oct. 1, 
1853. 

L. 188, D. Carpenter, 20 a., Nov. 1, 
1855. 

L. 189, Warren Webster, 106, 26 a., 
Nov. 1, 1836. 

L, 190, Warren Webster, 25 a., Jan. 1, 
1839; Horace Balcomb, 20, 34 a., May 1, 
1851 ; Jeffrey A. Harwood, 60 a., May 1, 
1851. 

L. 191, James Budd, 10 a., Sept. 1, 1845. 

L. 191 and 192, Skilman D. Dickinson, 
89, 75 a., Sept. 1, 1845 ; CorneHus Thomas, 
108, 07 a., Dec. 1, 1853. 

L. 193, David Moore, 4 a., July 1, 1853 ; 
David Moore, 30 a., Dec. 1, 1851 ; Polly 
Mansfield, 11, 91 a., Sept. 1, 1858. 

L. 194, Samuel M. Harwood, 4 6, 50 a., 
July 1, 1853; Chauncey Harwood, 58, 54 
a., Nov. 1, 1849. 

L. 195, Samuel M. Harwood, 57, 43 a., 
July 1, 1863; Chauncey Harwood, 45, 19 
a., Nov. 1, 1849. 

L. 196, Thomas E. Hooker, 103, 28 a., 
Dec. 2, 1861. 

L. 197, Daniel Young, 78, 94 a., March 
1, 1849. 

L. 210, Fortunatus Hubbard, 50, 04 a, 
Nov. 1, 1880; Caleb Hallock, 50, 04 a., 
Aug. 1, 1850. 

L. 211, Wm. W. Woodworth, 50, 34 a., 
Oct. 1, 1853. 

L. 212, Isaac Smith, 50, 85 a.. May 1, 
1840; Aretus Pierce, 25, 41 a., May 1, 



1847; Joshua Garrison, 25, 43 a., Nov. 1, 
1849. 

L. 213, John Caswell, 96, 74 a., Aug. 1, 
1833. 

L. 214, Elijah Root, 102, 80 a., Feb. 1. 
1836. 

L. 215, Martin Loomis, 111, 34 a., Aug. 
1, 1839. 

L. 216, Joseph F. Lee, 101, 35 a., Dec. 
1, 1834. 

L. 217, Horace Balcom, 50 a.. May 21, 
1817; Horace Balcom, 50 a., Sept. 22, 
1826. 

L. 218, Gurdon Balcom, 97, 40 a,, Sept. 
9, 1815. 

L. 219, Alanson Mansfield, 117, 17 a., 
June 12, 1832. 

L. 220, Aaron Warren, 26, 04 a., Sept. 
1, 1840; Hiel Brockway, 25 a., Sept. 13, 
1835 ; Oliver VanKirk and Andrew Weld, 
executors, 51, 05 a., June 30, 1836. 

L. 221, Daniel Young, 51, 14 a., Sept. 
29, 1841 ; Abner Balcom, 29, 09 a., Jan. 7, 
1859; Jonathan Church, 25, 05 a., April 
23, 1853. 

L. 222, H. D. Williams, 25 a. ; Justus 
W. Williams, 53, 30 a., May 3, 1822. 

L. 235, Amos W. Rowley, 49, 81 a., 
Aug. 1, 1850. 

L. 236, Abraham Cantine, 100, 70 a., 
Feb. 1, 1826. 

L. 240, Esther Brockway, and others, 25 
a., Dec. 1, 1837; Levi Smith, 78, 31 a., 
Nov. 1, 1837. 

L. 241, Ira Ducett, 49, 37 a., July 1, 
1835 ; Warham Whitney, 49, 37 a., Apr. 
1, 1836. 

L. 242, Francis Love, 107, 70 a., Nov. 
7, 1825. 

L. 243, Jonathan Church, 46, 29 a., Nov. 
1, 1845; Jacob Hinds, 45, 54 a., Jan. 1, 
1861. 

L. 244, Jonathan. Church, 47, 31 a., Nov. 
1, 1845; ZivaMartin, 51, 31, Nov. 1.1837. 



384 LANDMARKS OF 

L. 246, Franklin Hinds and others, ex- L. 266, Samuel Clark. 70, 56 a., Jan. 1, 

ecutors, 95, 31 a., Oct. 1, 1853. 1845; Dan. Stockdale, 25 a., Aug. 23, 

L. 247. Nathanial P. Rhodei=, 72, 80 a., 1821. 

Oct. 1, 1840. L. 267, Joel Hirids, 58 a., Sept. 11, 

L. 260, Oree Crittenden, 49, 43 a., Nov. 1832 ; P. G. Child«, 34, 41 a., Ransom 

1, 1853 ; Daniel P. Baldwin, 49, 44 a., Rowley, 15, 17 a., May 12, 1827. 

Nov. 1, 1849. L. 268, Samuel N. Othout & Richard 

L. 261, James L. Prouty, 71, 01 a, Thorp, +, and Wm. Mansfield, ^ of 91, 51 

Sept 1, 1854; Warham Whitney, 30 a., a., Jan. 16, 1838. 

Dec. 1, 1838. L. 269, Samuel Mansfield, 108, 07 a., 

L. 262, Sylvester Brown, 79, 29 a., Nov. March 23, 1815. 

1, 1849. L. 270, Dan. Stockdale, 103, 57 a., Aug. 

L. 2G3, Ira M. Randal, 42 a., June 1, 19, 1831. 

1861. L. 271, E. Harris, 50, 86 a,. Sherman 

L. 265, John Lyon, 50 a., March 22, Dibble, 50, 88 a., Aug. 8, 1844. 

1832 ; Caleb Thayer, 54, 70 a., March 1, L. 272, Dan. Stockdale, 50 a., July 13, 

1841. 1832; Ohver VanKirk, 29, 71 a., June 12, 

1832. 

The first town meeting in the old town of Murray was held in the 
barn of Johnson Bedell, about four miles south from Brockport. The 
names of the officers chosen cannot be learned, for the records prior to 
i88o are lost. The supervisors since the formation of Orleans county 
have been : 

Asahel Balcom, 1826; William Allis, 1827; Amos Randall, 1828; Hiram Frisbie, 
1829; William James, 1830; Asa Clark, 1831, '32, '33, '34; Robert Nicholson, 1835, 
'36; George Squires, 1837, '38; Joshua Garrison, 1839. '40; Cornelius Thomas, 1841, 
'42; John Berry, 1843; George Squires, 1844; Alijah Reed, 1845; Hercules Reed, 
1846 ; Abner Balcom, 1847, '48; Harrison Hatch, 1849; Benjamin F. Van Dake, 1850; 
Jabez Allison, 1851, '52; Ezra N. Hill, 1853 ; Danly D. Sprague, 1854, '55; Benjamin 
F. Van Dake, 1856; Jabez Allison, 1857, '58, '59; Ezra N. Hill, 1860 ; Jabez Allison, 
1861 ; Linus J. Peck, 1862 , Roland Farnsworth, 1863, '64, '65, '66, '67, '68, '69, '70, 
'71; Danly D. Sprague, 1872, '73; Edwin Bliss, 1875, '76; Danly D. Sprague, 1877; 
Burton Keys, 1878, '79, '80 ; Robert McCargo, 1881; Ira Edwards, 1882; George N. 
Bowman, 1883, '84; Hoflfman Ruger, 1 885, '86 ; John Alderson, 1887, '88; Lott Farns- 
worth, 1889,'90; Nathaniel Rhodes, 1891, '92 ; Harry O. Jones, 1893 ; Nervill E. Cole, 
1894. 

The first settlements in the town were made on the great natural 
thoroughfare, the ridge. Sandy Creek, where it crosses the ridge, af- 
fords eligible mill sites, and mills were erected there soon after settle- 
ment commenced. The establishment of these mills attracted mechanics 
and business men to the place, an*d a village sprang up there called 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 385 

Murray. It was the chief business center of the town till the construc- 
tion of the Erie Canal brought Holley into existence. 

The first permanent settler in the town was Epaphras Mattison, who 
came in 1809 with his family. He located on the ridge near the town's 
east line, where he built the first log house and afterward opened it as 
a tavern. 

In 18 10 Peleg Sisson, Daniel Wait, Joshua Rockwood, Samuel Dag- 
gett and Channcey Woodworth were settlers. Mr. Sisson located on 
lot 244, Mr. Daggett near Sandy Creek, and Mr. Woodworth on lot 
286. 

John Johnson and John Stivers were settlers in 181 1. The former 
came from Vermont and located on lot 38 ; he left ten years later. The 
latter settled on lot 57. He remained about two years and then re- 
turned to Cayuga county, whence he came. In the same year Ira Car- 
ter came and built a house on lot 74, near Holley. He remained only 
two years. William Rice and Stephen Lewis, brothers-in-law from 
Onondaga county, came and took up lots 72 and 73. The latter passed 
the winter of 18 1 2-1 3 in the house with Mr. Carter. 

William Rice came from Pompey, Onondaga county, in 18 12, and 
settled on a lot near Holley. There he remained till about 1830, when 
he went to Ohio and afterward died there. Mr. Rice was a native of 
Massachusetts, where his wife, Polly Anger, was born. Hubbard Rice, 
their son, was born in Onondaga county in 1795, and came with his 
father to Murray in 18 12. In 1 813 he was a volunteer in the party that 
went to Lewiston to repel the British forces, but the village had been 
burned before their arrival. He married Irena Day, of Murray, in 1819. 
She died in 1831, and in 1833 he married Mrs. Mary Van Winter. In 
1825 he removed to Clarendon, where he had purchased a farm of 100 
acres. In 1863 he returned to Holley. He was known as Colonel Rice, a 
title which he acquired in the militia. 

Artemus Daggett located on lot 163 in 1813. Ebenezer Fox came 
in 181 5 and settled east from Murray Station. In the celebrated cold 
season of 18 16 his family suffered greatly for want of food. Charles 
Kelly, from Delaware, and Aaron Warren, from Vermont, settled near 
Balcom's mills in 181 5 and 18 16, and David Tryon, William Alexan- 
der and Holden Eldred were early settlers at or near Hulberton. 



386 LANDMARKS OF 

Horace Styles was born in Massachusetts in 1791. In 1816 he came 
with his father and brother from Vermont, and all settled near Sandy 
Creek. Horace purchased 100 acres of land on which they lived till, 
late in life, he retired from active business and resided in the village of 
Sandy Creek. In 181 7 he married Hannah Shaffer, of Murray. She 
died about 1820, and he afterward married Hannah Stedman. 

Horace Balcom was born in Ontario county, N. Y., in 1791. In 18 12 
he came to Murray and purchased land a mile and a quarter west from 
Hulberton. The dangers of the war induced him to go back, but he 
returned the next year and remained till his death, in 1861. He was 
one of a party of volunteers to start for Fort Niagara. He was mar- 
ried in 18 13, and reared to maturity seven children, of whom Darwin 
resides on the farm which his father originally took up, and Julia, wife 
of Hon. Marcus H. Phillips, resides in Hulberton. 

Abner Balcom was born in 1796, and was reared in Ontario county, 
N. Y. In 18 1 2 he came to Orleans county and settled first in Ridge- 
way, but removed to Murray prior to the construction of the Erie 
Canal. In company with Hill Brockway he built the saw mill and 
grist mill on the west branch of Sandy Creek, since known as Balcom's 
Mills. He was a prominent citizen of the town and, it is said, held 
every town office except that of clerk. He was supervisor in 1847-48, 
and was a member and a deacon of the Transit Baptist Church. He 
was three times married; to Ruth Williams, in 18 16; to Philotheta 
Baker, in 1822 ; and late in life to Mrs. Philina Waring. His son, Fran- 
cis, was a volunteer in the Civil War, and was killed in battle. 

Solomon Carpenter, born in Rensselaer county, N. Y., in 1787, came 
early to Murray, and took up land joining Holley on the east. In 1823 
he moved to Wisconsin, where he died in 1846. Of his eight children 
only David is living. 

Elijah W. Wood, born in Pelham, Mass., in 1782, removed to Murray 
at an early day, and for many years served as constable and justice of 
the peace, and during a term of five years he was a judge in the old 
Court of Common Pleas of Orleans county. " He was a shrewd and 
successful pettifogger in justices' courts, where he made up in wit and 
natural sagacity any lack he may have suffered in legal attainments." 
He died in Murray at the age of eighty years. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 387 

Abijah Dean, a son of Luther Dean, was born at Danbury, Mass., in 
1800, and removed with his father's family to New Hampshire. Dur- 
ing his residence in that State he worked by the month eight years. 
On the breaking out of the war with England he volunteered in the 
United States service, and at Portsmouth was a waiter to Capt. Kimball. 
In 1813 he came to Murray. In 1818 he married Susan Clough, of 
Brattleboro, Vt., and they had one child. 

John Lake came to Murray from Hoosac, N. Y., at an early day, and 
purchased a farm of 140 acres on lots 35 and 36, where he remained 
till his death, in 1871, at the age of eighty-five years. His wife died 
in 1876, aged eighty-six. Mr. Lake was a soldier in the War of 18 12. 
His character through life was that of a good man. 

Abram Bradley was a native of Vermont. In 18 14 he came to Mur 
ray and located on the Ridge, near Sandy Creek. He was a millwright 
and worked on many of the mills in this region. He died in Michigan 
about 1840. His eldest daughter became the wife of Epaphrias Pennel, 
and another daughter, Elvira, is the wife of Clinton Sheldon, of Holley. 

Joshua Vincent, a native of Rensselaer county, N. Y., settled in 
Holley in 18 16, when the site of the village was mostly covered by the 
forest, which he aided in subduing. He was a carpenter and in 18 19 
he built a saw mill on Sandy Creek, near where the pumping station 
now is. He was a public spirited citizen. He organized the first mili- 
tary company in town, and at a later day he became a brigadier general 
of militia. He had charge of the cannon here when the completion of 
the Erie Canal was celebrated. 

Linus Jones Peck was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., in 1816, and 
in 1817 his father's family removed to Clarendon. In his childhood he 
was subjected to all the privations incident to pioneer life. He was 
educated in the common schools of his town, and in the Middlebury 
Academy at Wyoming, N. Y. He read law in the office of his brother, 
Luther Peck, of Nunda, N. Y, In 1848 he first became a canal con- 
tractor, and he followed the business of jobbing till 1861. In 1856 he 
became a resident of Holley. 

George W. Peck was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., in 181 1, and 
came with his parents to Clarendon in 18 17. In 1834 he married 
Anna A. Peck, of Clarendon, a native of Connecticut. In 1844 he be- 



388 LANDMARKS OF 

came a hotel keeper in Clarendon village, and in 1853 a contractor on 
public works. When the canal was enlarged the construction of the 
embankment over Sandy Creek at Holley was awarded to him. He 
removed to Holley in 1855, and twenty years later to a farm some dis- 
tance west from that village. 

Aaron Baldwin was born in Connecticut in 1790. In 1806 he came 
alone to Churchville, Monroe county, and apprenticed himself to a 
tanner and shoemaker. He continuel till the breaking out of the war 
of 1 8 12, when he became a government express messenger between 
Clarkson and Fort Niagara. In 18x7 he purchased and located on a 
farm a short distance southwest from Sandy Creek, where he remained 
till his death, and where his son, D. C. Baldwin, succeeded him. Soon 
after he came here he built a tannery and for many years carried on 
tanning and making shoes for the Canadian and western markets. 

David Arnold was born in Saratoga county, N. Y., in 1803. At an 
early age he was left an orphan and was reared by an elder brother. 
At about eighteen years of age he came to Murray and settled about a 
mile north from Sandy Creek, where he died in 1877. His wife was 
Sally Webster, a native of Saratoga county. She died at the age of 
eighty-two. Three of their sons are now living : William resides in 
Sandy Creek, and John and George W. Hve in Holley. 

Judson Downs was born in Scipio, N. Y., in 1797. With his father's 
family, he removed to Clarkson, Monroe county, in 1809, and to 
Sandy Creek in 18 19. He learned the trades of tanner and shoe- 
maker and carried on both till his health failed, after which he was for 
several years a constable. In 18 14 he enlisted in a company of cavalry 
and served in the U. S. army on the Niagara frontier till the close of 
the war of 18 12. He afterward became an active officer in the militia 
and was for a time a brigade inspector of cavalry, with the rank of 
major, from which he was called Major Downs. On the breaking out 
of the Rebellion, notwithstanding his sixty -four years, he raised a com- 
pany of cavalry at the head of which, as captain, he served some time 
in Maryland and the vicinity of Washington, shrinking from no hard- 
ship or danger. Failure of his health compelled him to resign and re- 
turn home, where he died in 1864. 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 389 

Major Downs was of a proud, ardent spirit, always ready to do what duty required. 
He was thorough and energetic as a constable, and was always entrusted with all the 
business he eould do. Asa mihtary officer he was beloved by his men. Though a 
strict disciplinarian, resolute and wideawake when anything was to be done, he would 
never require his men to go where he would not lead. As a citizen he was affable, 
courteous, and obliging, and he gained and kept many friends. 

Austin Day was born in Vermont in 1789. He married Polly Chap- 
man in 1 8 10, and moved to Murray in 1815.- He was made a constable 
and prior to the advent of professional lawyers he did quite a business 
pettifogging in justice's courts. For some years after the completion 
of the Erie Canal he was engaged in buying and shipping wheat. He 
held the office of judge of the Court of Common Pleas five years, and 
was elected sheriff of Orleans county in 1847. He removed to Albion 
in 1848, and was supervisor of Barre in 1852. His wife died in 1858. 
He died in 1874. His son, Ferdinand Austin Day, served one term as 
sheriff and nine years asunder sheriff of Orleans county. 

Oliver Day came from Bennington, Vt., in 1815, when he was 
twenty-one years of age. He came with his brother-in-law, Paphyrus 
Beebe, and at first lived with him. In 18 17 he purchased lot 1 19, ad- 
joining that on which Mr. Beebe settled, and resided there during the 
remainder of his life. In 18 18 he married Lydia, daughter of Thomas 
Stedman, who came in the spring of that year. 

Ambrose Ferguson was a native of New Jersey, and the son of Eph- 
raim Ferguson, who was killed and scalped by the Indians while 
scouting. When about fifteen years of age Ambrose became the ser- 
vant of an officer in the Revolutionary army, and drifted into Vermont, 
where he was followed by the rest of the family after the close of the 
war. In Vermont he married Hannah Perry, a native of Massachusetts, 
and they removed to Murray in 18 15. They settled a mile and a half 
east from Sandy Creek, on the Ridge, and there he died in 1823. Mrs. 
David Hatch is a granddaughter of Ambrose Ferguson. 

Capt. Paphyrus Beebe and his family removed from Bennington, Vt., 
to Murray in the spring of 181 5. His brother-in-law, Oliver Day, came 
with them. They came with two yoke of oxen and a horse, drawing a 
wagon which bore the family and their goods. They were thirty days 
making the journey. They left the Ridge road about a mile east from 
Sandy Creek, and cut their road through the woods to where Mr, 



390 LANDMARKS OF 

Beebe had purchased a lot, No. 97, a mile northwest from Holley. On 
this there had been partly built a log house, into which they all moved. 
This was the permanent residence of Mr. Beebe. 

Reuben Bryant was born in Massachusetts in 1792, and graduated 
from Brown University, R. I., about 1815. He removed to Livingston 
county, N. Y., studied law in Caledonia and became the pioneer lawyer 
in Holley in 1823. He was appointed a master in chancery and held 
that position when the Court of Chancery was abolished in 1846. He 
removed to Albion in 1849, and in 1855 to Buffalo, where he died in 
1863. He was a thorough classical scholar. Judge Thomas says of 
him : " As a lawyer he had a clear perception of the law and the facts, 
and their bearing on his cases ; but he was too exact, cautious and dif- 
fident of himself to be an advocate. All his life he suffered from a mal- 
ady which was a perpetual burden and cross to him, and annoyed him 
in his business." 

Augustus Southworth, born in Massachusetts in 1801, came from 
Palmyra to Holley in 1822, as an assistant engineer on the canal under 
Myron Holley, who was commissioner of the western division. In 1823 
he engaged in mercantile business here and continued about fifteen 
years. He was an active and useful citizen of Holley, and died here 
in 1879. His first wife, also a native of Massachusetts, was Marilia 
Bull. They were married in 1823, and she died in 1867 at the age of 
sixty-nine. Of their seven children William Southworth died in Holley 
in 1889. In 1868 Mr. Southworth married Margaret Lothrop, of 
Rochester. She died in 1874. 

Harley A. Bushnell was born at Starksborough, Vt., in 1796. At the 
age of fifteen he was apprenticed to his brother, a clothier, in Connect- 
icut, and served five years. In 1817 he came to Batavia, Genesee 
county, worked at his trade, and did business as a constable and justice 
of the peace till 1823, when he removed to Holley and located just 
north of where the canal now runs. He at once built a house, and by 
the first of May, 1824, he completed a saw mill. In company with 
Samuel Clark he built a clothiery, and in 1828 purchased the interest 
of his partner. He conducted the business till 1833, when he sold the 
clothiery and purchased a farm. After a few years he sold his farm 
and removed to Holley, where he followed the business of an insurance 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 391 

agent. He was one of the founders and for many years the president 
of the Orleans County Pioneer Association. He was genial, kind- 
hearted, benevolent and philanthropic. He died in 1868. 

Isaac H. S. Hulbert was born at Pittsfield, Mass., in 1804. In 1824 
he removed to Murray and located at Sandy Creek, whence he went to 
Hulberton in 1825. At the latter place he was a dealer in produce, 
etc., in which business he was prosperous. His wife, to whom he was 
married in 1825, was Margaret Plumb, of Albany. Mr. Hulbert was 
a prominent citizen and was for many years a justice of the peace. 
From him the post-office at Hulberton received its name, which has 
also been applied to the settlement there. 

Bishop Cramer was a native of Connecticut, born in 1776. He mar- 
ried, in 1805, Charlotte Raymond. They removed to Granville, N. Y., 
where they had ten children, all born in the same house and the same 
room. In 1826 he came to Holley, where he followed his trade as a 
cabinetmaker. He died in Holley in 1857. His wife died in 1848. 

James Miller was born in Cooperstovvn, N. Y., in 1797. He removed 
to St. Lawrence county, where he kept a hotel; and in 1826 to Holley 
where he was a grocer and farmer. He died in Holley in 1871. In 
1826 he married Caroline Cramer. They had three sons, of whom 
James H. Miller resides in Holley. His first wife died in 1837, and in 
1838 he married Adeline Cramer, a native of Washington county, N.Y. 

Chauncey Robinson, a native of Durham, Conn., was born in 1792. 
In 1794 his father's family removed to Oneida county, N. Y., and in 
1 8 13 he came to Clarendon. In 185 i he removed to Holley and re- 
sided there till his death in 1866. In 18 14 he was in the military ser- 
vice and was in the battle and sortie of Fort Erie. He was active in 
public matters, was an advanced thinker, and was zealous in the pro- 
mulgation of his views. He was industrious, frugal, and temperate. 
In his old age he said : " I have never used one pound of tea, coffee, or 
tobacco, and but little liquor; none for the last thirty years. My con- 
stant drink at home and abroad is cold water." 

Levi Smith was born in Oneida county, N. Y., in 1801. In 1826 he 
married Laura Chase, a native of Oneida county and the same year 
they removed to Murray and settled three-fourths of a mile west from 
Murray Station. There Mr. Smith died in 1872. Seven of their 
children lived to adult age. 



392 LANDMARKS OF 

Hannibal Hitchcock was born in Herkimer county in 1799. He 
removed to Ontario county and thence in 1827, to Murray. He pur- 
chased a farm on lot 143, where he remained till his death in 1838, which 
was caused by the falling of a tree. He married, in 1825, Margaret 
Newman. His son, Hannibal N. Hitchcock, succeeded him on the 
farm where he settled. 

H N. Keys was born in 1805 in Windham county, Conn. He went 
thence to Waterville. Oneida county, N. Y., and in 1827 came to Holley. 
He was a tailor, and carried on his business there till 1870, when he 
retired to a farm a mile northwest from that village. His first wife, to 
whom he was married in 1832, was Marietta Beebe. She died in 1836, 
and in 1837 he married Althea Beebe. His son, Ezra, was killed in the 
battle of Fredericksburg ; and another son, Paphyrus, was captain of a 
company of Illinois volunteers. 

Thomas E. Hooker was born in Oneida county, N. Y, , in 18 13. In 
1 8 18 he removed with his father's family to Tioga county, thence in 
1823, to Ontario county. In 1827 they came to Murray and settled 
six miles northwest from Holley. On this place his father and mother 
died in 1856. In 1839 he married Lucy Hyde, a native of Wayne 
county. She died in 1861 at the age of forty two, leaving eight 
children. In 1863 he married Susan Brown of Rochester. She died in 
1886, leaving three children. 

John B. Fuller, of English descent, was born in Connecticut, and was 
a soldier in the war of 18 12, in which he was wounded and made a 
prisoner. About 1828 he came to Murray and settled on lots 80 and 
102, where he remained till his death, in 1848. His son. Nelson Fuller, 
became the owner of the paternal farm and died on it in 1862. His 
son, John B. Fuller, is now the owner of this place. 

Sherman Dibble was born in Connecticut in 1807. In 1830 he was 
married to Caroline Holcomb of the same State, and on the day of their 
marriage they started for Orleans county. After their arrival he pur- 
chased a farm in Murray on the Transit line, one and a fourth miles 
south of the Ridge, where he died in 1867. Their children were John 
A., Thomas T., James L , and Judson. 

Sylvester Brown was born in Broome county, N. Y., in 1807. His 
wife was Betsey Maxson, a native of Vermont. Soon after their mar- 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 393 

riage they came to Murray and settled on the Transit road in the south- 
west part of the town. There they made their home in the woods, 
cleared their farm, and remained till their deaths. She died in 1869, 
he in 1873. They had nine children. 

James Dalton, a native of Ireland, was born in 1789. In 1830 he 
came to America and settled at once in Murray, three-fourths of a mile 
east from Sandy Creek, where he remained till his death, in 1867. He 
was married in Ireland to Margaret McNamara, who died in 1877. 
They reared six children : One son, James, was a soldier in the civil 
war and lost a leg at the battle of Cedar Creek. 

William Alderman was born in Westmoreland, England, in 18 10. 
In 1835 he came to America, and in the same year located half a mile 
south from Hulburton. His father, Jonathan Alderman, came a year 
later and settled on the same lot, where he remained till his death, in 
1878. Some eight years after he came here Mr. Alderman married 
Mary Kerr, a native of Scotland. They reared seven children. 

Amos M. Rowley was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1805. At the 
age of seven he was left an orphan, and when quite a young man came 
to Sweden and lived with an uncle. In 1826 he was married to 
Clarissa Preston, of Clarendon. In 1835 they removed to Murray and 
settled near the southwest corner of the town, where they remained till 
their death. He died in 1871, she in 18 14. Their only daughter, 
Mrs. Lucinda Whitbeck, afterwards resided on their old homestead. 

Daniel B. Baldwin was born in Dutchess county, N. Y., in 1796. When 
a young man he married Susannah Hall, a native of that county, born 
in 1803. They removed to Wayne county, thence to Monroe county, 
and in 1840 to Murray, locating in the southwest corner of the town, 
where he died in 1855 and she in 1884. They had three sons. 

Nathan Birdsey was a native of Connecticut. At early day he re- 
moved to Oneida, county, N. Y., thence in 1840 to Oswego county 
and in 1844 to Murray, and located on the Ridge, three- fourths of a 
mile east from Sandy Creek. He died there in 1872 at the age of 
seventy-six. His wife, Irene Parmelee, was born in Oneida county in 
1800. She died in 1882. They had four children, of whom the only 
only survivor is Noah P. Birdsey who owns the farm which his father 
purchased in 1844. 



394 LANDMARKS OF 

Biographical notices of many other early settlers and prominent 
citizens of the town appear on succeeding pages of this volume, and 
among those may be mentioned here Alanson Mansfield, Daniel and 
Daniel W. Reed, Harrison Hatch, Aretas Pierce, Aaron and Aaron 
Warren, jr., Medard Ferry, Hiram Frisbie, George Squire, Jacob 
Hinds, Daniel Young, Nathaniel Rhodes, Col. John Berry, the Potter 
family, Samuel Copeland and many others. A Dr, Hill came from 
Vermont in 1817 and settled on lot 245, where he erected a distillery, 
which was the first one built in town. The first house was Epaphras 
Mattison's log cabin, which he opened as a tavern. Solomon C. 
Wright and Tryphena Farnsworth were the first couple married ; the 
second was Zimri Perrigo and Lucetta Spofibrd, whose wedding oc- 
curred January 17, 1815. Mrs. Daniel Reed died in 18 14, which was 
the first death in town. The first birth was that of Betsey Mattison. 
Aaron Baldwin erected the first tannery in 1817. 

Thr advent of the Erie Canal, the actual development of the town's 
valuable resources, and the beginning of the present village of Holley 
may be considered as cotemporaneous. Transportation, until then con- 
ducted by slow moving wagons, was quickened, and settlers seeking 
homes were not slow in taking advantage of the many opportunities 
this beautiful section afforded. The pioneers, like those of other towns, 
were a hardy, resolute class of men and women, many of them of New 
England birth or parentage, who imparted to their children and grand- 
children sterling traits of character and habits of thrift and industry. 
The fruits of their labors are seen on every hand — in the well-tilled 
fields, the luxurious homes and the pretty villages of the present gen- 
eration. About a quarter of a century after the canal came the rail- 
road, and the two have ever since afforded the inhabitants of Murray 
fine transportation privileges. 

All through the dark years of the Rebellion large numbers of brave 
volunteers from this town fought and bled on Southern battlefields. 
Some were starved to death in Confederate prisons, some were killed 
or maimed for life in the fierce conflict, and others have died since the 
closing scenes of 1865, but a few still remain, honored and respected, to 
tell the story. Murray sent her quota to the front, a list of which is 
as follows : 



ORLEANS COUNTY 



395 



Robert Aggas, 8th H. Art. 

Micliael Anderson, 8th H. Art. 

John Anderson. 

Robert Alongton. 

Samuel Anderson. 

James A. Austin, 8th II. Art. 

Christian Burger. 8th H. Art. 

Henry Briggs. 

Lewis N. Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 

Orrin L. Blanchard, 8th H. Art. 

George Bradley, lolstlnf. 

Gary Brace, 105th Inf. 

William S. Ball, 4th F. Art. 

James H. Bushnell, 105th Inf. 

Daniel M. Burnett, 151st Inf. 

Francis Balcom, 151st Inf. 

Henry Bidwell, 97th Inf. 

Henry B. Bacon, 8th H. Art. 

Elisha D. Bronson, 151st Inf. 

George Blym, 151,st Inf. 

George Blyth, 1st Mounted Rifles. 

Michael Calligan. 

John Corbett. 

Edward Coleman. 

Henry Carter. 

Joye H. Clark. 

Charles D. Cornell. 8th H. Art. 

George F. Clark, 14th Inf 

Daniel Caton, 8th H. Art. 

William H. Chapman, 151st Inf. 

Orrin B. Coville, 4th H. Art. 

George F. Copeland, 8th H. Art. 

Michael Collins, 105th Inf. 

Hiram J. Cady, 105th Inf. 

Nathaniel Conner, 105th Inf. 

William Davis. 

Charles Deleman. 

William Dailey. 

James Droyer. 

William Dreary. 

Joseph Doyen. 

James Dalton, 151st Inf. 

Ira G. Davis, Ind. Sharpshooters. 

William Dewolf, 151st Inf. 



Joseph Dows, 105th Inf. 
Judson Downs, 3d Cav. 
Charles Delow, 8th H. Art. 
Jeremiah Enright. 
Thomas Enright, 151st Inf. 
William Ely, 94th Inf. 
Alexander Falkner, 22d Cav. 
O'Neil Flandens, 22d Cav. 
Samuel C. Francis. 151st Inf. 
Bruce Fortinance, 151st Inf. 
Lyman J. Glazyer, 105th Inf. 
John Gwynne, 151st Inf. 
Patrick Glancy. 
John Gibson. 

Myron S. Hooker, 8th H. Art. 
W^illiam Harden. 
J. B. Hutchinson. 
William Holmes. 
George House. 
Leonard Henry, 8th H. Art. 
Reuben Harrington, 105th Inf. 
Wallace B. Hard, 8th H. Art. 
John W. Hulbert, 22d Cav. 
Alexander Hosbury, 28th Inf. 
Edwin S. Housington, 105th Inf. 
George E. Harwood, 151st Inf. 
George Haggard, 151st Inf. 
Lyman Howe, 8th H. Art. 
Joseph Jerol, 105th Inf. 
Martin Knight, 8th H. Art. 
John Kelly, 112th Inf. 
Patrick Kelly. 
Patrick Kmney. 
Ezra Keyoy, 105th Inf. 
John Kelly, 151st Inf. 
Cyrus M. Knight, 17th Bat. 
Darwin S. Littlefield, 151st Inf. 
Nelson Lee. 
Albert Lanfield, 7th Inf. 
John Longhney, 151st Inf. 
Levi M. Lawrence, 151st Inf. 
Hosea Lawrence, 151st Inf. 
Orrin Mansfield, 8th H.Art. 
James McNinney, 3d Art. 



396 



LANDMARKS OF 



Francis Murphy. 

James Morrison. 

Peter Meyer. 

John Mahon. 

John Murphy. 

William E. McGuire, 1st Art. 

William Mil'er, 105th Inf. 

William H. Mason, 151st Inf. 

Benjamin F. Miller, 151st Inf. 

John Niston. 

Thomas Nolan. 

Benjamin F. Nichols, 8th H. Art. 

Michael O'Brien. 

George E. Ostrander, 14lh H. Art. 

James B. Pratt, 8ih H. Art. 

Reed A. Pierce, 8th H. Art. 

Charles E. Roake. 

Daniel Ram. 

James Rodney. 

Samuel Reed, 105th Inf. 

Lyman A. Reed, 105th Inf. 

Lewis Rice, 105th Inf. 

John H. Reigar, 151st Inf. 

William Ryan, 22d Cav. 

Michael Ryan, 22d Cav. 

Edward Reed, 8th Art. 

John A. Ross, 151st Inf. 

Walter B. Rhode.s, 151st Inf. 

William Smith. 

Samuel Smith. 

The town of Murray, including the village of HoUey, had a popula- 
tion in 1890 of 3,465, an increase since 1880 of 653. Its real estate in 
1893 was assessed at $1,868,337 (equalized to $1,592,562) and its per- 
sonal property at $159,025. The taxes aggregated ^11,601.72; the 
rate per cent, that year was .0054216. ' The following incorporated 
companies doing business in town were assessed on real estate : Bell 
Telephone Company, $1,770; N. Y. Life Insurance Company, $3,- 
725 • N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Co., $226,000 ; Postal Telegraph' Com- 
pany, $3,120 ; Western Union Telegraph Company, $2,280 ; Brock- 
port Loan Association, $750; Holley Electric Company, $3,500; Hol- 
ley Water Works Company, $4,000 ; Rochester Milling Company, 



Sabastain Stearns. 105th Inf. 

Robert Sjiamsburg, 8th Cav. 

Thomas Strogan, 8th H. Art. 

Lowell Snyder, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Elijah Smith, 105th Inf. 

Henry E. Snyder, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

Arrill H. Snyder. 8th H. Art. 

Henry Smith, 105th Inf. 

Peter Shipp, 97th Inf. 

Henry Shipp, 2d Mounted Rifles. 

George H. Snow, 1st Bat. 

Henry E. Smith, 105th Inf. 

Franklin M. Stone, 8th H. Art. 

Alonzo Stedman, 105th Inf. 

James F. Trumble. 22d Cav. 

Daniel K. Trumble, 22d Cav. 

William Thompson. 

Wellington Tibbitts, 151st Inf. 

Edward T. Vallance, 151st Inf. 

Charles S. Wood, 8th H. Art. 

John Welch. 

Joshua Wood. 

Michael Welch. 

William Warren. 

Andrew Willson. 

Edgar J. Wiat, 105th Inf. 

Mark Ward, 14th Inf. 

William Wood, 8th H. Art. 

Joseph White, 8th H. Art. 



ORLEANS COUNTV. 397 

$6,000; Genesee Fruit Company, $12,000. The town audit for 1893 
amounted to $2,067.29, of which $2,009.14 was allowed. 

The town officers for 1894 are : Nervill E. Cole, supervisor ; Jay D. 
Burns, town clerk ; Danly S. Webster, George W. Arnold, L. G. Burns, 
James H. Rowe, justices of the peace ; L. J. Whitney, collector; Frank 
D. Petrie, commissioner of highways ; Charles A. Tillman, overseer of 
the poor ; Delos Smith, Huffman Ruger, Lott Farnsworth, assessors. 

Sandy Creek. — This village is located at the confluence of the east 
and west branches of Sandy Creek, from which streams the place re- 
ceived its designation. The name of the post-office here is Murray, 
but the original name of the village still clings to it. As early as 18 15, 
prior to any other hamlet in the town, it began to assume the appear- 
ance of a village, and it was for a time the principal business place in 
this region. In 1815 Isaac Leach erected and opened a store here, 
which was the first in the town, and soon afterward Orlando Keys en- 
gaged in mercantile business. In 1816 Robert Perry and Henry Mc- 
Call built a grist mill, but it was soon afterward abandoned. Ephraim 
Rose erected another in 1828, and it was in use till about 1850. In 
1836 Southworth, Frisbie & Adams erected the present mill, which is 
now conducted by S. B Pike. McCall & Perry, at an early day, built 
a saw mill and a distillery and operated both for a time. The first saw 
mill in the town was built here by Simeon Daggett in 181 1. A cloth- 
iery was erected here about 18 19 by Wyman & Clark, which was the 
first of the kind in town, but with the decline of domestic manufactures 
it ceased operations. The first hotel was built and kept by Elijah and 
Eli Root. It stood on the site of the present one. In 18 18 Dr. Wood- 
worth built another. Hotel keeping was then a brisk business. A 
plank school house was built here about 18 17, and among the first 
teachers in it was Benjamin Allen. 

Sandy Creek was at first a very unhealthy place. Judge Thomas says: 
" Mr. Andrew H. Green, of Byron, Genesee county, relates that several 
families were settled at Sandy Creek in 1 8 1 1 . In the fall of that year set- 
tlers in Byron heard that these people in Sandy Creek were nearly all sick 
and in great suffering, and they made up a company of six or eight and 
went over to help them, carrying a load of necessaries. They found 
them the most helpless company they ever saw." Again he says : 



398 LANDMARKS OF 

"In 1817 some fifteen or twenty families had located at Sandy Creek, 
and in that year Henry McCall and Robert Ferry built mills on the 
creek, raising the water so as to overflow eighteen or twenty acres, 
then covered with heavy trees which were left standing. The water 
killed the timber, and as a result a terrible sickness followed among the 
inhabitants, about one quarter of whom died in one season. The well 
persons were not numerous enough to take care of the sick and bury 
the dead, and settlers from other neighborhoods came and helped the 
needy ones. The mill dam was taken down and the sickness disap- 
peared." But for several years it was regarded as a very unhealthy 
locality. The first physician in town was Dr. Eri Wood, who came to 
Sandy Creek in the fall of 18 16, and the first post-office was established 
here under the name of Murray, which designation it has always re- 
tained. The present postmaster is A. H. Dusett, who has held the 
office since 1864. The village now has a Baptist church, a store, one 
hotel, two blacksmith shops, a grist mill, and some thirty houses. The 
store kept by George Arnold was burned in 1880. It was a stone 
building, and was replaced by a wooden structure, which was also 
burned in 1888. The present frame store was erected on the same site. 

HOLLEY. — The village of Holley is conveniently located on the Erie 
Canal and on the Niagara Falls branch of the New York Central Rail- 
road, nine miles east from Albion and four miles west from Brockport, 
Monroe county. It stands mostly on lots 52, 53, 72 and 73. The east 
branch of Sandy Creek runs through a portion of the village and its 
water power was utilized at a very early date. Judge Thomas says 
that the site of the village was originally covered with a heavy growth 
of hemlock timber, most of which was standing when the route for the 
canal was surveyed. The first settlers here were Stephen Lewis on lot 
72, and William Rice on lot 73, born in the spring of 181 2. 

Prior to the commencement of work on the canal settlement here had 
not been rapid, for in the spring 1822 there were only two framed resi- 
dences and four log houses. The salt springs, which existed on lot 52, 
near where the railroad crosses the creek, were thought to be valuable, 
and the land was for a time withheld from market by the State of Con- 
necticut, and when it was sold all minerals, mines and salt springs were 
reserved. By an arrangement with that State, under which he was to 




CO^zt^ (-O^cL^c^^i^^ 



ORLEANS rOUNTY. 390 

share half the avails, John Reed, in 1814, commenced the manu- 
facture of salt here, and at one time he had sixteen kettles in use. The 
works were continued till the opening of canal navigation, when they 
were abandoned. Though much salt was made from the comparatively- 
weak brine which this spring afforded, the business was never profitable. 
Erastus Cone, several years later, bored for stronger brine to a depth of 
about 100 feet, but his effort proved futile. The sulphur springs were 
never developed. In 1827 Areovester Hamlin purchased this lot con- 
taining 100 acres, and in the same year built a framed house and an 
ashery and opened a store. In 1822 he employed Elisha Johnson, a 
surveyor of Rochester, to lay out a village. He erected a warehouse 
on the canal, and procured the establishment of a post-office, in which 
he was the first postmaster. "He was an enterprising, active business 
man, but he attempted to do more business than his means would per- 
mit and failed." 

In 1828 Hiram Frisbie and James Seymour purchased what then 
remained unsold of Mr. Hamlin's real estate, and Mr. Frisbie afterward 
purchased the interest of Mr. Seymour, and continued to sell village 
lots during many years. He commenced the mercantile business here 
on his removal to this place from Clarendon in 1828, and continued in 
trade most of the time till his death. John VV. Strong became a mer- 
chant here soon after Mr. Hamlin, and failed at about the same time. 
Major William AUis was a clerk in the store of Mr. Strong. After the 
failure of the latter Mr. Allis became a produce dealer, and was after- 
ward sheriff of Orleans county. Mower & Wardwell, and Selby & 
Newell were also early merchants here. Samuel Cone and his brother 
erected a brick building which they opened as a tavern in 1823 ; then 
a Mr. Barr built and kept another at about the same time. Both these 
hotels were established prior to the opening of canal navigation. Al- 
vah Hamlin, George A. Porter, S. Stedman and E. Taylor were among 
the first carpenters and joiners. John Avery and his brother were the 
first blacksmiths, and John Onderdonk was the first tailor. Reuben 
Bryant was the first lawyer, and Dr. McCIough was the first physician. 

In the spring of 1824 Harley N. Bushnell built a saw mill, and in 
1825 he and Samuel Clark erected a carding and cloth-dressing mill. 
The first grist mill was built about 1836 by Jonathan Waddams, who 



400 LANDMARKS OF 

carried on distilling in the same building. A few years later David 
Morris succeeded Mr. Waddams and used the mill as a distillery exclu- 
sively. About 1846 it became the property of Thomas Rutherford, 
who converted it into a tannery and used it as such till about 1 853. Like 
other tanneries in this region it ceased operations when the supply of 
bark failed. 

Prior to the commencement of work on the canal there was no ap- 
pearance of a village here. A great embankment, the highest on the 
line of the canal, was required over Sandy Creek, and Col. Ezra Brain- 
ard was the contractor. Many men were required to do this work, and 
while it was in progress many settlers established themselves here. 
The nucleus which was then formed has expanded till the present beau- 
tiful and thriving village occupies the site where seventy five years since 
the wind sighed through the branches of the giant hemlocks that 
shaded the soil. The first warehouse was built by Areovister Hamlin 
at an early date. It was owned by various parties and was burned in 
1866. The second was built by Darwin Hill soon after the erection of 
the first. This was burned in the great fire that destroyed the south 
part of the village. In 1836 another was built which was also burned 
in the same fire. A warehouse was erected early on the point between 
the slip and the old canal. After a few years it was converted into a 
canal grocery and was burned in the great fire. After the conflagra- 
tion of 1866 Simon and Jeff"rey A. Harwood built what is known as 
the stone warehouse at the junction of the old and new canals. Two 
warehouses were erected about 1850, one by H. H. Goff and the other 
by Augustus Southworth. About 1862 John Berry and D. H. Part- 
ridge erected a fruit warehouse and excavated a basin with about 250 
feet of dockage. In 1890 it was converted into a cheese factory. 

In 1834 Hiram Frisbie and Augustus Southworth built a flouring mill 
on the east side of Sandy Creek, just north from the present line of the 
railroad. At first it had three runs of stone, to which another was 
soon added. Messrs. Frisbie and Southworth conducted this mill 
about ten years. Mr. Frisbie then purchased the interest of Mr. South- 
worth and carried on the mill till 1853, when it was purchased by 
Edward Farrell, Colonel John Berry and others under the firm name 
of Farwell, Berry & Co. Four years later Mr. Farwell purchased the 



ORLEANS COUNTY. 401 

interest of his partners, and a few years afterward he sold the property 
to Charles Pratt and Byron Gilbert. Mr. Pratt afterward became sole 
proprietor, and in 1869 he sold to Elijah Drake, W. H. Bull, and VV. 
K. Moore. In 1870 Mr. Moore sold his interest to Drake & Bull, who 
conducted it till 1885, when the Rochester Milling Company purchased 
the property, and they still own it. 

In 1867 Luther Gordon, of Brockport, established a lumber and coal 
yard in Holley, and in 1879 erected a planing mill and grist mill. He 
died in 1 881, and his son, George C. Gordon, succeeded him as pro- 
prietor. Edwin Bliss has been the manager of these mills since their 
establishment. 

Holley has suftered much from the ravages of fire. October 25, 
1866, nearly all the business places on the southeast corner of the pub- 
lic square, together with a warehouse in the rear of these buildings, 
were burned. These places were speedily rebuilt. In 1871 all the 
business buildings at the south end of the square were destroyed. 
July 23, 1874, nearly the same territory was burned over, and again in 
1885 the buildings on the same ground were a third time destroyed. In 
1888 a block at the south end of the east side of the square was 
burned. 

At an early day a very rude fire engine was purchased, and this was 
the only apparatus here for protection against fire during many years. 
A second hand engine, with a hose cart and a quantity of partially worn 
hose were purchased in Rochester, and this, with the old machine, was 
the only apparatus till 1887, when a Remington horse-power engine 
and 100 feet of hose were purchased by subscription and the use of 
these was tendered to the village. In 1888 a fire organization was 
completed and the corporation purchased two hose carts and the neces- 
sary apparatus for a hook and ladder company, which, as well as two 
hose companies, was then formed. These have since been superseded 
by the present system of water works, which require only suitable hose, 
and which have sufficient pressure to throw a stream of water above 
any building in the village. 

The Exchange bank of Holley was established as a private banking 
institution by C. W. Gibson and George N. Bowman in January, 1868. 
A year later G. VV. Stoddard took the place in the bank of Mr. Gib- 

51 



402 LANDMARKS OF 

son, and in 1873 L. W. Hurd succeeded Mr. Stoddard. In 1882 John 
Downs and O. A. Eddy purchased the interest of Mr. Hurd, and on 
the death of Mr. Eddy, in May, 1884, Mr. Downs purchased from his 
estate his interest, and the firm has since been Downs & Bowman. 
They transact a general banking and insurance business. The capital 
aggregates $150,000. The bank has occupied its present quarters 
since 1868. 

In 1889 the corporation entered into a contract with the Holley 
Water Works Company, which was organized for the purpose of sup- 
plying the village with water. This company made an arrangement 
with the Brockport Water Works Company whereby the villages were 
to be supplied from the same source. A supply of water was found in 
the town of Clarendon, about a mile south from Holley, where two 
wells were sunk. In 1890 the company converted an old mill on the 
bank of Sandy Creek into a pumping station, and erected a wrought 
steel water tower on a height of 1 00 feet above the village. This 
tower has a capacity of 190,000 gallons, and at a height of seventy-five 
feet a similar tower was erected near Brockport. Connected with the 
pumping station and water tower a system of cast ir