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THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 



CAl'T. FELL 



CAI'T. PHILLIPS COL. O SULLIVAN 




LIEUT. STEKL 



GEN. HARROW GEN. SIR A. GASELEE, K.C.B. 



COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF AND STAFF OF THE BRITISH FORCES 
IN NORTH CHINA 



THE 

LAND OF THE BOXERS 




INDIAN ARMY 



WITH 15 ILLUSTRATIONS AND A PLAN 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1903 

All rights reserved 



TO 

THE OFFICERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN AND BRITISH 

NAVAL AND MILITARY FORCES 

IN CHINA 



PREFACE 

WRITTEN many thousand miles from the 
ever - troubled land of China, with no 
opportunity for reference, this book doubtless 
contains many errors, for which the reader's in- 
dulgence is asked. The criticisms of the various 
armies are not the result of my own unaided 
impressions, but a rtsumd of the opinions of the 
many officers of the different contingents with 
whom I conversed on the subject. 

My thanks are due to Sir Richard Harrison, K.C.B., 
Inspector -General of Fortifications, who served 
with the Allied Army which captured Pekin in 
1860, for his courtesy in permitting me to use 
some of the excellent photographs taken by the 
Photo Section, Royal Engineers. 

THE AUTHOR 
LONDON, 1903 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 

Our transport An Irish padre" Wei-hai-wei harbour by night 
The island by day The mainland On to Taku Taku at last 
The allied fleet The famous forts The Peiho River The Allies 
at Tong-ku The British at Hsin-ho The train to Tientsin A 
motley crowd of passengers The country en route A historic 
railway station .... pages 1-16 



CHAPTER II 
TIENTSIN 

The foreign settlement The Chinese city The linguists in the 
Anglo-Indian army The Tientsin Club A polyglot crowd round 
the bar The English Concession The famous Gordon Hall 
The brawls in Taku Road Dissensions among the Allied troops 
The attack on the Royal Welch Fusiliers' patrol The siege of 
Tientsin Scene of the fighting Accuracy of the Chinese shell- 
fire Soldier life in the streets of Tientsin Tommy Atkins 
Peace and War The revenge of Christianity The " railway 
siding incident " .... pages 17-33 



CHAPTER III 
THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 

The German expeditionary force Out-of-date tactics Failure of 
their transport Their campaigning dress The German officer 
The French troops Improved training and organisation of 
the French army The Russians Endurance and bravery of 
the Russian soldier Defective training The Japanese army 



CONTENTS 

Its transport system in China Splendid infantry The courage 
of the Japanese Excellence of their Intelligence Department 
Its working The East sown with their agents The discipline 
of the Japanese soldiers Their bravery in action Moderation 
in victory Friendship for our sepoys The American troops 
Continental criticism The American army of the future 
Gallantry of the Americans at the capture of Tientsin General 
Dorward's praise Friendship between the American and British 
troops Discomfiture of an English subaltern The Italians 
Holland's imposing contingent The Indian army A revelation 
to the world Indian troops acting alone Fighting qualities 
of the various races The British officers of the Indian army 
Organisation of an Indian regiment Indian cavalry Loyalty 
of the sepoy ..... pages 34-63 



CHAPTER IV 
PEKIN 

To the capital The railway journey Von Waldersee's introduction 
to our Royal Horse Artillery The Temple of Heaven The 
Temples of the Sun and Moon The Centre of the Universe 
The Chien Mn Gate Legation Street The H&tel du Nord 
Description of Pekin The famous walls The Tartar City The 
Imperial City The Forbidden City Coal Hill The Ming Pagoda 
The streets of Pekin A visit to the Legations The siege 
Pekin mud A wet day A princely palace Chong Wong Foo 
A visit to the Forbidden City The Imperial eunuchs Seated on 
the Emperor's throne His Majesty's harem A quaint notice 
A giant bronze The Imperial apartments The Emperor's bed- 
room The Empress-Dowager's pavilion Musical-boxes and 
toys Her Majesty's bed The Imperial Garden The view from 
Coal Hill ..... pages 64-94 



CHAPTER V 

RAMBLES IN PEKIN 

The Peitan Defence of the Cathedral A prelate of the Church 
militant A gallant defence Aspect of Pekin after the restoration 
of order A stroll down Ha-ta-man Street Street scenes 
Peddlers Jugglers Peep-shows and a shock A dancing bear 
Shoeing a pony The sorrows of a Pekin shopkeeper Silk and 
fan shops A pottery store A market-place A chaffering crowd 
Beggars The Legation wall Visit to the Great Lama Temple 



CONTENTS xi 

The outer gate The first court Lama priests Rapacious 
beggars The central temple Colossal statue of Buddha The 
lesser temples Improper gods Photographing 1 the priests 
The Temple of Confucius A bare interior A visit to a Pekin 
cloisonnd factory Method of manufacture Deft artists Firing 
The enamel The humiliation of China The standards of the 
victors ..... pages 95- n 4 



CHAPTER VI 
THE SUMMER PALACE 

Our ponies The ride through the streets Evil-smelling lanes 
The walls The shattered gate-towers The Japanese guard 
The taking of the City and relief of the Legations The paved 
high-road A fertile country The villages A ruined temple 
Bengal Lancers and Mounted Infantrymen A ride through the 
fields Distant view of the palace The ornamental gate The 
entrance The sepoy guard The outer courtyard Bronzes on 
the temple verandah A network of courts Royal Artillery 
mess in the pavilion that had served as the Emperor's prison 
The shaded courtyard Officers' quarters looking out on the lake 
A marble-walled lake Lotos Boats A walk round the lake 
The covered terrace The Bersagliere guard Pretty summer- 
houses The Empress's temples The marble junk A marble 
bridge Lunch in a monarch's prison The hill over the lake 
A lovely view The Hall of Ten Thousand Ages Vandalism 
Shattered Buddhas The Bronze Pagoda The island The 
distant hills Summer quarters of the British Legation The 
ride back Tropical rain Flooded streets A swim pages 115-132 



CHAPTER VII 
A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 

A long journey The junction at Tong-ku Mud flats A fertile 
country Walled villages Mud forts Defended stations The 
canal Tong-shan The refreshment room The coal mines 
Hills Roving brigands Shanhaikwan Stranded at the station 
Borrowing a bed Hunting for a meal A Continental caf'6 
Spatch-cocks A woman without pride A mosquito concert with 
refreshments Rigging up a net A surprise for the British and 
Russian station officers A midnight introduction An admiring- 
Russian Kind hospitality Good Samaritans The Gurkha 
mess Fording a stream A Russian cart The Great Wall of 



xii CONTENTS 

China Snipe The forts The old camp The walls of the city 
On the cliffs by the sea The arrival of the Japanese fleet A 
shock for a Russian dinner-party The sea frozen in winter A 
cricket match Shooting- snipe on the cricket pitch Dining with 
my Russian friends Vodki Mixed drinks The wily Russian 
and the Newchwang railway Tea 4 la Russe Heavy rain The 
line flooded Cossacks on a raft Cut off from everywhere An 
orderly of the 3rd Bombay Cavalry A sowar's opinion of the 
Russian invasion of India Collapsed houses Friendly scene 
between Japanese soldiers and our sepoys The floods subside 
The return Smuggling- arms Lieutenant Stirling, D.s.o. 

pages 133-168 



CHAPTER VIII 

OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 
HONG KONG AND THE KOWLOON HINTERLAND 

Importance of Hong Kong- as a naval and military base An object- 
lesson of Empire Its marvellous rise The constant menace of 
famine Cause of Hong Kongo's prosperity Its geographical 
position An archipelago Approaching Hong Kong- by sea 
First view of Victoria A crowded harbour The mainland 
The Kowloon Peninsula The city of Victoria Queen's Road 
Shops, hotels, banks The City Hall The palatial club The 
Brigade Parade Ground The base Commissariat Officer, Major 
Williams, l.s.c. The Naval Dockyard Sir Francis Powell, 
K.C.M.G. Barracks and Arsenal The Happy Valley A memento 
mori The polo ground Lyeemoon Pass The southern side of 
the Island The Peak The cable tramway View from the Peak 
The residential quarter The floating population of Hong 
Kong- The sampans Their dangers in the past The rising- 
suburb of Kowloon The Hong Kong regiment The docks 
The Chinese city of Kowloon Street scenes in Hong Kong 
Social amusements of the colony Society in Hong Kong and 
Kowloon The Kowloon Peninsula Danger to Hong Kong 
averted by its possession Character of the peninsula The 
frontier The Chinese territory beyond it The taking over of 
the Hinterland in 1898 A small campaign The chances of a 
land invasion of Hong Kong The garrison of Hong Kong 
Advisability of mounted infantry . . pages 169-201 



CONTENTS xiii 



CHAPTER IX 
ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 

A camp on the British frontier Fears of outbreaks in Canton The 
Black Flags Alarm in Hong Kong General Gaselee's troops 
diverted to Hong Kong and Shanghai His authority among the 
Allies weakened in consequence Wild rumours in Canton The 
reform party in the south The Triads Rebellion in the Kwang- 
tung province Admiral Ho Troops despatched from Hong 
Kong to guard the frontier The Frontier Field Force Its 
composition The departure of the column A picturesque 
voyage An Imperial Chinese Customs gunboat The Samchun 
River War junks Our first camp Admiral Ho's army Con- 
sternation among the Chinese troops They march away No 
official maps of the Hinterland A Customs station Britishers 
in danger Chinese-made modern guns A false alarm A phan- 
tom battle Chinese fireworks A smart trick at the storming of 
the Peiyang Arsenal A visit to Samchun A game of bluff 
Taking tea with a mandarin Round the town Cockroaches as 
a luxury A Yankee Chinaman A grateful escort Terrified 
Chinese soldiers An official visit to a mandarin Southern 
Chinese soldiers The Imperial troops in the north A real alarm 
A night raid A disappointment . . pages 202-230 



CHAPTER X 
IN THE PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 

Early history of Macao Its decay A source of danger to Hong 
Kong Fleet of the Hong Kong, Canton, and Macao Steamboat 
Company The Heungshan and its passengers Guarding 
against piracy Macao from the sea An awkward Chinaman 
The Boa Vista Hotel View over the city The Praia Grande 
Around the peninsula In the Public Gardens Administration of 
Macao A night alarm A mutinous regiment Portuguese and 
Macaese society A visit to the Governor An adventure with 
the police An arrest Insolent treatment of British subjects 
Redress An arrest in Japan Chinese gambling-houses Fan- 
tan The sights of Macao . . . pages 231-255 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XI 
A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 

Hostility of Canton to foreigners The scare in 1900 History of 
Canton's relations with the outer world Its capture and occupa- 
tion by the English and French The foreign settlement The 
river journey from Hong Kong to Canton River scenes at 
Canton A floating city Description of Canton The streets 
A visit to the shops Feather workers Ivory carvers Embroi- 
dery shops Temple of the Five Hundred Genii Marco Polo 
among the gods The prison The cangue Insolent prisoners 
Chinese punishments Death of a Thousand Cuts The Temple 
of Horrors The Examination Hall Shameen The English and 
French concessions Foreign gunboats The trade of Canton 
French designs Energy of their consuls Our weak forbearance 
An attack on Canton by river and by land . pages 256-278 

CHAPTER XII 
CHINA PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 

At England's mercy in the past An easy and tempting prize 
Patriotism unknown The Chinaman's wonderful love of his 
family Causes of his want of patriotism His indifference as to 
his rulers The Chinese abroad Hatred of foreigners in China 
Its causes This hatred common to all classes A substitute 
for the non-existent patriotism Can we blame the Chinese? 
A comparison If England were like China Our country in- 
vaded by Chinese, Coreans, Siamese, and Kamschatkans The 
missionaries in China The gospel of love becomes the doctrine 
of revenge The China of the present Tyranny and corruption 
What the future may prove Japan's example Japan in the 
past and now What she is China may become Intelligence of 
the Chinese Their success in other countries The Chinaman 
as a soldier Splendid material Examples: the Boxers; the 
Regulars who attacked Seymour and Tientsin ; the military 
students at Tientsin ; the behaviour of our Chinese Regiment 
under fire Heavy losses among- the Allies in the beginning of 
the campaign Comparison of the Egyptian fellaheen The 
Chinese army of the future A reformed Empire pages 279-298 

INDEX . . . . . . pages 299-307 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF AND STAFF OF THE BRITISH FORCES 

IN NORTH CHINA .... Frontispiece 

PLAN OF PEKIN . . . . . . . Xvi 

EUROPEAN CONCESSIONS, TIENTSIN, AND THE PEIHO RIVER . . 17 

EXECUTION OF A BOXER BY THE FRENCH . . 28 

PUBLIC GARDENS AND GORDON HALL IN THE VICTORIA ROAD, 

ENGLISH CONCESSION . . . ... 28 

FRENCH COLONIAL INFANTRY MARCHING THROUGH THE FRENCH 

CONCESSION, TIENTSIN . . ... 38 

GERMAN OFFICERS WELCOMING FIELD - MARSHAL COUNT VON 

WALDERSEE AT THE RAILWAY STATION, TIENTSIN . . 38 

UNITED STATES CAVALRYMAN . . . 51 

GERMAN AND INDIAN SOLDIERS . . ... 56 

FIELD-MARSHAL COUNT VON WALDERSEE REVIEWING THE ALLIED 

TROOPS IN PEKIN . . . ... 68 

A STREET IN THE CHINESE CITY, PEKIN . . . . 72 

FRONT FACE OF THE DEFENCES OF THE LEGATIONS . 78 

GROUNDS OF THE BRITISH LEGATION, PEKIN . . IO7 

A STREET IN THE TARTAR CITY, PEKIN, AFTER HEAVY RAIN . . 127 

THE MARBLE JUNK . . . ... 127 

THE CANGUE . . . . ... 269 



11 



Tartar City 



11 



aio 



.SiBl 





^! ~1H4 V/3 ^U 

\ 

i 


Chin 


e s 


e 


City 


,3 SI' 2 


15 



14 



an of P e k i 



Gates. 



1. Chien Men Gate. 2. Tung-Chi Gate, attacked by the Japanese. 8. Ha-ta- 
man Gate. 4. The Water-gate, a tunnel in the Wall between the Tartar and 
Chinese cities. By this the Indian troops entered the Legations. 5, 5. Nullah 
draining the Tartar City. 6. The English Legation. 7. The Japanese Lega- 
tion. 8. The Russian Legation. 9. The American Legation. 10. The Hotel 
duNord. 11, 11, 11. Ha-ta-man Street. 12. The Temple of Heaven. 13. Tem- 
porary railway station. 14. Railway line passing through a breach in the Wall 
15. The Temple of Agriculture, occupied by the Americans. 




CHAPTER I 
FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 

OUR transport steamed over a glassy sea along 
the bold and rugged coast of Shan-tung in 
Northern China. Ahead of us, a confused jumble 
of hills dark against the setting sun, lay Wei-hai- 
wei.* A German steamer homeward bound from 
Chifu dipped her flag to the blue ensign with 
crossed swords flying at our peak. Close inshore 
an occasional junk, with weird outlines and quaint 
sail, lay becalmed. On our deck, lying in easy- 
chairs, were a dozen officers of various branches 
of the Service, all bound for Pekin. Some were 
fresh from South African battlefields, others were 
there whose soldiering had been done in India or 
in Burma. 

Among our number was a well-known and 
popular military chaplain, the Reverend Mr. Hardy, 

* Pronounced " Way high way." 

B 



2 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

author of the famous How to be Happy though 
Married. A living testimony to the success of 
his own theory, he was the most genial and delight- 
ful shipmate I have ever met. Dowered with all 
an Irishman's wit and humour, he had been the 
life and soul of everyone on board. He had 
recently arrived in Hong Kong from Europe, 
having travelled across America, where his studied 
carelessness of dress and wild, untrimmed beard 
had been a constant source of wonderment to the 
smart citizens of the United States. "In Salt 
Lake City," he told us, "a stranger addressed me 
one day in my hotel. ' Excuse me, sir,' he said, 
' would you oblige me and my friends at this table 
by deciding a small bet we have made ? ' 'I fear 
I shall be of little use,' replied Mr. Hardy ; ' I 
have only just reached your city.' ' Not at all. 
The bet is about yourself. We can't make out 
which of three things you are a Mormon elder, 
a Boer General, or a Scotchman.' And, faith," 
added our Irish padrt when he told us the tale, 
" I think I felt most insulted at their last guess." 

The sun went down slowly behind a chain of 
rugged hills. But soon before us, set in a silver 
sea, the island of Wei-hai-wei rose dark and 
sombre under a glorious moon. In the glistening 
water lay the dim shapes of several warships, their 
black hulls pierced with gleaming portholes. On 
their decks, bright with electric lamps, bands were 
playing, their strains swelling louder and louder as 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 3 

we drew near. Far off the hills of the mainland 
stood out sharply against the sky, with here and 
there below a twinkling light from the villages or 
the barracks of the Chinese Regiment. 

As our steamer rounded a long, low point, on 
which lay a deserted fort, every line distinct in the 
brilliant moonlight, the town came into view. The 
houses nestled down close to the water's edge, 
while above them the island rose in gentle slope to 
a conical peak. Our anchor plunged sullenly into 
the sea, and we lay at rest in England's most 
Eastern harbour. Considerations of quarantine 
prevented us from going ashore, and we were 
forced to wait for daylight to see what the place 
was like. 

Early on deck next morning we watched the 
mists fade away until Wei-hai-wei stood revealed 
in the strong light of the sun. Our latest posses- 
sion in the East consists of a small island, called 
Liu-Kung-tao, on which stands the town. It lies 
about four miles from the mainland, of which a few 
hundred square miles has been leased to England. 
The harbour is sheltered to the south by the hills 
on the coast, to the north by the island. It affords 
ample anchorage for a large fleet, but could not be 
adequately defended without a large expenditure. 
During the China-Japan War the Chinese fleet 
sheltered in it until routed out by the Japanese 
torpedo boats ; while the Japanese army marched 
along the heights of the mainland, seized the forts 



4 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

on them, and, turning their guns on the island, 
forced its surrender. 

At the end of the island, round which our trans- 
port had passed, was a small peninsula, on which 
stood the fort we had seen. Dismantled now, it 
was unused by the present garrison. Close by, on 
reclaimed land, lay the recreation ground ; and even 
at the early hour at which we saw it, tennis and 
cricket were in full swing. Just above it, in that 
close proximity of life and death found ever in 
the East, was the cemetery, where many crosses 
and tombstones showed already the price we pay 
for empire. Near at hand was the magazine, over 
which a Royal Marine sentry watched. Below, to 
the right, lay the Naval Dockyard with a pier 
running out into the harbour, one destroyer along- 
side it, another moored a short distance out. Along 
the sea-front and rising in tier after tier stood 
well-built stone Chinese houses, which now, large- 
windowed and improved, serve as residences, shops, 
and offices for Europeans. A staring whitewashed 
wall bore the inscription in big, black letters, "Ah 
Ting. Naval Dairy Farm." A picturesque, open- 
work wall with Chinese summer-houses at either 
end enclosed the Club. Farther on, a little above 
the harbour, stone steps through walled terraces led 
up to the Headquarter Office, once the Yamen 
a long row of single-storied houses with a quaint 
gateway, on either side of which were painted grim 
Chinese figures of heroic size. On the terrace in 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 5 

front stood some large Krupp guns with shields, 
taken in the present campaign. The Queen's House, 
as these buildings are called, divides the naval from 
the military quarter of the town, the latter lying 
to the right. A few good European bungalows 
sheltered the General, the Commanding Royal 
Engineer, and the local representative of the famous 
firm of Jardine, Mathieson, and Company. In the 
lines of Chinese houses close by were the residences 
of the military officers and the hotel. To the 
right stacks of fodder proclaimed the presence of 
the Indian Commissariat. Past open ground lay a 
small camp and a few more houses. 

Above the town the island rises in terraced 
slopes to the summit, four to six hundred feet high, 
the regular outline of which was broken by mounds 
of upturned earth that marked the beginning of a 
new fort. On the hillside are long stone walls with 
gates at intervals, which date from the Chinese 
occupation, built by them, not to keep the enemy 
out in time of war, but to keep their own soldiers 
in. Well-laid roads lead to the summit or round 
the island. The slopes are green with small shrubs 
and grass, but nothing worthy of the name of tree is 
apparent. Towards the eastern end were the rifle- 
ranges, near which a fort was being constructed. 

In the harbour was a powerful squadron of 
British battleships and cruisers ; for Wei-hai-wei 
is the summer rendezvous of our fleet in Chinese 
waters. 



6 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

To the south the mainland lay in a semicircle. 
Rugged, barren hills rise abruptly in many places 
almost from the water's edge. Where the ground 
slopes more gently back from the sea lines of sub- 
stantial stone barracks have been erected for the 
Chinese Regiment, with excellent officers' quarters 
and a good mess. Nestling among trees almost 
the only ones to be seen on the iron-bound coast 
lies a large village. East of it a long triangle 
of embrasured stone wall the base on the shore, 
the apex half-way up the hill behind guards the 
original town of Wei-hai-wei, which still owns 
Chinese sovereignty, though all the country round 
is British territory. A few good bungalows and a 
large and well-built hotel mark where the future 
Brighton of North China has already begun to 
claim a recognition ; for in the summer months the 
European residents of Tientsin, Pekin, even of 
Shanghai are commencing to congregate there in 
search of cool breezes and a healthy climate. High 
up above all towers the chain of rugged hills from 
whose summits the victorious Japanese gazed down 
on the wrecked Chinese fleet and the battered 
forts of the island. Behind it, forty miles away, 
lies the little-known treaty port of Chifu with its 
prosperous foreign settlement. 

The day advanced. From the warships in the 
harbour the bugle-calls rang out merrily in the 
morning air, answered by the brazen clangour of the 
trumpets of the Royal Artillery ashore. The rattle 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 7 

of musketry came from the rifle-ranges, where 
squads of marines were firing. Along the sea- 
front tramped a guard of the Chinese Regiment. 
Clad in khaki with blue putties and straw hats, they 
marched with a soldierly swing to the Queen's 
House, climbed the steps, and disappeared in the 
gateway. Coolies laboured at the new fortifications. 
Boats shot out from the pier and headed for the 
warships. Volumes of dense black smoke poured 
from the chimneys of the condensing works for no 
water fit for drinking is found on the island. A 
cruiser steamed out from her moorings to gun- 
practice in the bay. And hour after hour we waited 
for the coming of the Health Officer, who alone 
could allow us to land. But, instead, the Transport 
Officer arrived, bearing orders for the ship to start 
at once for Taku. And so, with never a chance for 
us to go ashore, the anchor rumbled up and out we 
headed by the eastern passage. As we steamed 
out to sea we passed the tiny Sun Island, merely a 
deserted fort, still showing how cruelly battered and 
torn it had been by the Japanese shells. Round 
the steep north side of the island we swung and 
shaped our course for Taku in the track of the 
Allied Fleets that had swept in vengeful haste over 
those same waters to the merited punishment of 
China. All that day we passed along a rocky and 
mountainous coast and in among islands of strange 
and fantastic shape. Here an elephant, there a 
lion, carved in stone lay in slumber on the placid 



8 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

sea. Yonder a camel reposed in Nirvana-like ab- 
straction. On one islet, the only sign of life or 
human habitation we saw, stood a lighthouse, like 
unto lighthouses all the world over. 

Next morning we awoke to find the ship at 
anchor. " Taku at last," was the cry ; and, pyjama 
clad, we rushed on deck. To see what ? Where 
was Taku ? All around a heaving, troubled waste 
of muddy sea, bearing on its bosom the ponderous 
shapes of warships British, French, Russian, 
German, Austrian, Italian, Japanese. Close by, 
a fleet of merchantmen flying the red ensign, the 
horizontal stripes of the " Vaterland," or the red 
ball on white ground of the marvellous little islands 
that claim to be the England of tfie Far East. 
Tugs and lighters were making for a German 
transport, the decks of which were crowded with 
soldiers. But of land not a sign. For the road- 
stead of Taku is so shallow that no ship of any 
considerable draught can approach the shore, and 
we were then ten miles out from the coast. 
Passengers and cargo must be taken ashore in 
tugs and lighters. Only those who have seen the 
place can appreciate the difficulties under which 
the transport officers of the various armies laboured 
in landing men, horses, guns, and the necessary 
vast stores of every description. And Captain 
Elderton, Royal Indian Marine, well deserved 
the D.S.O. which rewarded him for the excellent 
work he performed at the beginning of the 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 9 

campaign ; when, having successfully conveyed 
our expedition ashore, he was able to lend in- 
valuable assistance to the troops of many of the 
Allies. 

The bar at the mouth of the Peiho River, which 
flows into the sea at Taku, can only be crossed 
at high tide ; so we were forced to remain on 
board until the afternoon. Then, embarking on a 
launch that had come out to meet us, we steamed 
in to the land through a rough and tumbling sea. 
As we drew near, the low-lying shore rose into 
view. On each side of the entrance to the Peiho 
ran long lines of solid earthworks the famous 
Taku Forts. Taken in reverse and bombarded 
by the gunboats lying in the river, gallantly 
assaulted by landing parties from the Allied Fleets, 
which, owing to the shallowness of the water, could 
lend no other assistance, they fell after a desperate 
struggle, and now from their ramparts flew the 
flags of the conquering nations. Here paced an 
Italian sentry, there a Russian soldier leaned 
on a quick-firing Krupp gun ; for the forts were 
armed with the most modern ordnance. The red 
coat of a British marine or the white clothing of 
a group of Japanese artillerymen lent a few specks 
of bright colour to the dingy earthworks. 

Close to the entrance of the Peiho stands a 
tall stone building ; near it is the Taku Pilots' 
Club, their houses, comfortable bungalows, close 
at hand. Between flat, marshy shores the river 



io THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

winds, its banks crowded with mud huts. Farther 
up we passed a small dock, in which lay a gunboat 
flying the Russian flag. Then more gunboats 
American, French, and Japanese. A few miles 
from the mouth of the river is Tong-ku, the 
terminus of the Tientsin-Pekin Railway. At the 
outset of the campaign all nationalities, except 
the British, had chosen this for their landing-place 
and established their depots here. As we steamed 
past, we looked on a scene of restless activity. 
Russian, French, German, and Italian soldiers 
were busy disembarking stores and materiel from 
the lighters alongside, loading railway trucks in 
the temporary sidings, entraining horses and guns. 
The English, more practical, had selected a landing- 
place a few miles farther up, at Hsin-ho. Here 
they found themselves in sole occupation, and the 
confusion inevitable among so many different 
nationalities was consequently absent. An ex- 
cellent wharf had been built, large storehouses 
erected, and a siding constructed from a temporary 
station on the railway. Hsin-ho was our destina- 
tion. Our launch stopped at the quay, alongside 
which two shallow-draught steamers and a fleet 
of lighters were lying. Men of the Coolie Corps 
were hard at work ; close by stood a guard of 
the stalwart Punjaub sepoys of the Hong Kong 
Regiment. Overhead flew the Union Jack. 

Our luggage was speedily disembarked. Most 
of our fellow-passengers, learning that a train for 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN n 

Tientsin was due to leave almost at once, hurried 
off to the railway station, about a mile away. Three 
of us of the same regiment were met by a brother 
officer who was in charge of a detachment at 
Hsin-ho. He offered us the hospitality of the 
station mess, composed of those employed on 
various duties at the place ; and, desirous of seeing 
how the work of the disembarkation of a large 
force was carried out, we determined to remain 
for the night. 

We visited Tong-ku that afternoon, and found 
a marked difference in the methods prevailing there 
and at Hsin-ho. The presence of so many different 
nationalities naturally entailed great confusion. At 
the railway station a very babel of languages re- 
sounded on every side. 

One truck with German stores had to be de- 
tached from a goods train and sent down one 
siding ; the next, with French cavalry horses, sent 
down another; a Russian and an Italian officer 
disputed the ownership of a third. Lost baggage- 
guards stood disconsolate or wandered round aim- 
lessly until rescued by their transport officers. 
Detachments of Continental troops stood helplessly 
waiting for someone to conduct them to their 
proper trains. Disorder reigned supreme. 

At Hsin-ho everything proceeded without con- 
fusion. It might have been an up-country station 
in the heart of India. Comfortable huts had been 
built for the detachment responsible for the guard 



12 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

duties; and the various details were equally well 
accommodated. The military officers had estab- 
lished themselves in a stone house that had 
formerly been the quarters of a railway engineer. 
The Royal Indian Marine officers in charge of 
the naval transport had settled down with the 
readiness with which sailors adapt themselves to 
shore life. A line of felt-roofed, mud huts had been 
turned by them into an excellent mess and quarters. 
A raised terrace looked down on a tennis-court, 
on the far side of which a pond in the mud flats, 
stretching away to the horizon, boasted a couple 
of canoes. From a tall flagstaff that stood on 
the terrace floated the blue ensign and Star of 
India of their Service. 

The railway siding ran past large and well-built 
storehouses. On the river bank long lines of 
mules were picketed, looking in excellent condition 
despite the hard work they had gone through. In 
a little cutting in the bank was an old and tiny 
steam tug, which had been turned into a condenser 
for drinking-water. Everything was trim and tidy. 
The work of disembarking the stores from the 
lighters in the river and putting them into the 
railway trucks almost alongside went on in perfect 
order, all in marked contrast to the confusion that 
prevailed at Tong-ku. 

Early next morning we were en route for Tient- 
sin. My brother officers and I tramped down 
through awful mud to the long platform which was 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 13 

dignified by the title of "Hsin-ho Railway Station." 
A small house close by sheltered the railway em- 
ployees and the telegraph staff, signallers of the 
Army Telegraph Department. 

The train from the Tong-ku terminus soon 
appeared, and as it steamed in presented a to 
us novel appearance. Leaning out of the win- 
dows was a motley crowd of many nationalities. 
Out of one appeared the heads of a boyish Cossack 
and a bearded Sikh. The next displayed the 
chubby face of a German soldier beside the dark 
features of an Italian sailor. When the train 
stopped, a smart Australian bluejacket stepped out 
of the brake-van. He was the guard. In the 
corridor cars were Yagers, Austrian sailors, brawny 
American soldiers, baggy-trousered Zouave and 
red-breeched Chasseur d'Afrique. Sturdy little 
Japanese infantrymen sat beside tall Bengal Lan- 
cers. A small Frenchman chatted volubly with a 
German trooper from the Lost Provinces. Smart 
Tommy Atkins gazed in wondering disdain at the 
smaller Continental soldiers, or listened with an 
amused smile to the vitriolic comments of a Yankee 
friend on the manners and appearance of "those 
darned Dagoes." And among them, perfectly at 
his ease, sat the imperturbable Chinaman, appar- 
ently a little bored but otherwise quite uninterested 
in the "foreign devils." 

The first-class carriages were filled with the 
officers of every nation whose flag now waved on 



14 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Chinese soil. Russians in white coats with flat 
caps and gold shoulder-straps sat side by side with 
khaki-clad Britishers ; Italian officers in yellow ; 
Frenchmen in every shade of supposed -to -be 
khaki ; Germans with silver belts and sashes ; 
Japanese with many medals and enamelled decora- 
tions on their breasts. As we entered our carriage 
we touched our helmets to the previous occupants 
a salute which was punctiliously returned by every- 
one present. Settling ourselves in our seats, our 
interest was at first fully absorbed by the various 
uniforms around us ; and it was some time before 
we could devote our attention to the scenery 
through which we were passing. 

The train ran first over wide-stretching mud 
flats, then through a level, monotonous country, 
flooded or covered with high crops; and, barely seen 
above the tall vegetation, here and there roofless 
houses and ruined villages showed the track of 
war. At every bridge and culvert stood a tent 
with a guard of an Indian regiment, the sentry 
presenting arms as the train passed. The stations 
along the line were numerous. Over their stone 
buildings floated the Union Jack, for the railway 
was now in British hands. On each platform the 
same scene presented itself. The English Staff 
Officer in khaki and red-banded forage cap ; the 
stalwart Indian sentry ; a varied mob of French 
and German soldiers, Sikhs, Mussulmans, Chinese. 

The fields of luxuriant, waving grain stretched 



FROM WEI-HAI-WEI TO TIENTSIN 15 

away to the rim of the distant horizon. A trail of 
smoke, the tall masts of junks showed where the 
river wound in frequent bends. At length we 
passed the extensive buildings and high chimneys 
of the Chinese Arsenal, captured by our marines 
and held by the Russians ; and above the trees 
towers and domes told that we were nearing 
Tientsin. Then through a gap in a big earthen 
wall that is twenty miles in circumference, past 
many sidings and long lines of iron trucks and 
waggons with bullet-marked sides, eloquent of fierce 
fighting, we ran into the station. 

A commonplace, uninteresting place at first sight 
just the ordinary railway station with the usual 
sheds, iron bridge, offices, refreshment-room. Yet 
here, not long before, white men and yellow had 
closed in deadly struggle, and the rails and plat- 
forms had been dyed red with the blood of heroes. 
The sides of the iron water-tank, the walls of the 
engine-house, were patched and repaired ; for shells 
from the most modern guns had rained on them for 
days. The stone walls were loopholed and bullet- 
splashed. Many of the buildings were roofless, 
their shattered ruins attesting the accuracy of the 
Chinese gunners. At yonder corner the fanatical 
Boxers had burst in a wild night attack, and even 
European soldiers had retreated before the fury of 
their onslaught. But the men of the hitherto un- 
tried Hong Kong Regiment, sturdy sons of the 
Punjaub plains or Frontier hills, had swept down 



i6 

on them with the cold steel and bayoneted them 
in and under the trucks ; until even Chinese 
fanaticism could stand it no longer and the few 
survivors fled in the friendly darkness. For that 
brave exploit, the Subhedar Major of the corps 
now wears the Star of the Indian Empire. From 
the mud walls of that village, scarce two hundred 
yards away, the European-drilled Imperial troops, 
armed with the latest magazine rifles, had searched 
with deadly aim every yard of open ground over 
which the defenders advanced. Across this ditch 
the Boxers, invincible in their mad belief, had 
swarmed in the face of a murderous fire, and 
filled it with their dead. Not a foot of ground in 
that prosaic railway station but had its tale of 
desperate fanaticism or disciplined valour 



CHAPTER II 
TIENTSIN 

" I ^HE foreign settlement of Tientsin and the 
JL Chinese city are entirely separate, and lie 
some distance apart. The former, resembling more 
a European town than an alien lodgment in the 
heart of the Celestial Empire, boasts wide roads 
and well-kept streets, large offices and lofty ware- 
houses, good public buildings and comfortable 
villas, a racecourse and a polo-ground. It is 
divided into the Concessions of the various nation- 
alities, of which the English, in size and mercantile 
importance, is easily first. The difference between 
it and the next largest the French is very 
marked. The latter, though possessing a few good 
streets, several hotels, and at least one long busi- 
ness thoroughfare with fine shops, speaks all too 
plainly of stagnation. The British quarter, bustling, 
crowded, tells just as clearly of thriving trade. In 
it are found most of the banks, the offices of the 
more considerable merchants, and all the municipal 
buildings. 

The Chinese city, perhaps, has more charm for 
the lover of the picturesque, though it is less in- 
teresting now than formerly, since the formidable 
c 17 



i8 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

embrasured wall surrounding it has been pulled 
flown by order of the Allied generals. In it stands 
a grim memento of another outburst of fanaticism 
against the hated foreigner the ruins of the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral, destroyed by the Chinese in 
1870. The city itself is like unto all other Celestial 
cities. Narrow lanes, low houses, ill-kept thorough- 
fares, gaudiness and dirt intermingled, stench and 
filth abominable. To it, however, was wont to go 
the seeker after curiosities, choice silks, or rich furs 
from Manchuria and Corea. But the retributive 
looting that fell on it after its capture has left it- 
bare indeed. 

On the platform of the railway station almost 
the first friendly face we saw was that of perhaps 
the best-known man in North China, Major Whittal, 
Hyderabad Contingent Interpreter in Russian, 
fluent in French and German, his linguistic abilities 
had been responsible for his appointment to the 
scarcely enviable post of Railway Staff Officer at 
Tientsin. In a town that held the headquarters of 
every foreign army, where troops and stores of all 
kinds were despatched or arrived daily in charge 
of representatives of the different forces, such a 
position required the possession of a genius for 
organisation and infinite tact and patience. Even 
as we greeted him, French, Russian, or German 
officers and soldiers crowded round, to harry him 
with questions in divers tongues or propound 
problems as to the departure of troop trains or 



TIENTSIN 19 

the disposal of waggons loaded with supplies for 
their respective armies. The Britisher is usually 
supposed to be the least versed of any in foreign 
languages. But the Continental officers were very 
much surprised to find how many linguists we 
boasted in our expeditionary force. At every im- 
portant railway station we had a staff officer who 
was an interpreter in one or more European lan- 
guages. There were many who had passed 
examinations in Chinese. A French major re- 
marked to me one day : " Voild, monsieur, we have 
always thought that an Englishman knows no tongue 
but his own. Yet we find but few of your officers 
who cannot converse with us in ours. Not all well, 
certainly ; but, on the other hand, how many of us 
can talk with you in English ? Scarcely any. And 
many of you speak Russian, German, or Italian." 
It was not the only surprising fact they learned 
about the hitherto despised Anglo-Indian army. 

Leaving Major Whittal surrounded by a poly- 
glot crowd, and handing over the luggage to our 
sword orderlies, we seated ourselves in rickshas 
and set out in search of quarters. The European 
settlement is separated from the railway station by 
the Peiho River. We crossed over a bridge of 
boats, which swings aside to allow the passage of 
vessels up or down. At either end stood a French 
sentry, to stop the traffic when the bridge was about 
to open. The stream was crowded with junks 
loaded with stores for the various armies, and flying 



20 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

the flag of the nation in whose service they were 
employed. A steamer lay at a wharf an unusual 
sight, for few ships of any draught can safely over- 
come the difficulties of the shallow river. Along 
the far bank ran a broad road, known as the Bund, 
bordered with well-built warehouses and offices. 
Some of these bore eloquent testimony to the 
severity of the Chinese shell fire during the siege. 
The Tricolour flew over the first houses we passed, 
for the French Concession lies nearest the station. 
At the gates of those buildings, used as barracks, 
lounged men of the Infanterie Coloniale, clad in 
loose white or blue uniforms, with large and clumsy 
helmets. A few hundred yards farther down we 
reached the English settlement, and turned up a 
wide street, in which was situated the fine official 
residence of the British Consul - General. We 
arrived at last at the mess of the Hong Kong 
Regiment, where two of us were to find quarters. 
It stood in a narrow lane surrounded by houses 
shattered by shells during the siege. Close by 
were the messes of the Royal Welch Fusiliers and 
the 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry in dark and gloomy 
Chinese buildings. 

In the afternoon we paid our first visit to the 
Tientsin Club. It was crowded with representatives 
of almost every nationality. Britishers, Americans, 
French, Russians, and Austrians were clinking 
glasses amid a chorus of " A votre sant ! " " Good 
health ! " " Svatches dor6via ! " and " Here's how ! " 



TIENTSIN 21 

Even an occasional smart little Japanese officer was 
to be seen. Naval uniforms were almost as much 
in evidence as military garb ; for the officers of the 
Allied Fleets lying off Taku varied the monotony 
of riding at anchor, out of sight of the land, by 
an occasional run ashore and a visit to Tientsin 
and Pekin. The utmost good fellowship prevailed 
among the different nationalities. French was the 
usual medium of intercourse between Continental 
officers and those of the English-speaking races. 
Britishers might be seen labouring through the in- 
tricacies of the irregular verbs which had vexed 
their brains during schooldays, or lamenting their 
neglect to keep up their early acquaintance with the 
language of diplomacy and international courtesy. 
The bond of a common tongue drew the Americans 
and the English still more closely together, and 
the greatest friendship existed between all ranks 
of both nationalities. The heroic bravery of the 
sailors and soldiers of the great Republic of the 
West earned the praise and admiration of their 
British comrades, who were justly proud of the 
kinship that was more marked than ever during 
those days when the Stars and Stripes flew side 
by side with the Union Jack. The famous saying 
of the American commodore, " Blood is stronger 
than water," and the timely aid given by him to 
our imperilled sailors in this same vexed land of 
China, were green in our memory. The language 
difficulty unfortunately prevented much intercourse 



22 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

with the Japanese officers. Some of them, how- 
ever, were acquainted with English, and these were 
readily welcomed by British and Americans. 

The club stands in the broad, tree-shaded Victoria 
Road. Next to it is the Gordon Hall, a handsome 
structure famous as the refuge of the women and 
children during the bombardment. It contains a 
theatre and a public library, and is the scene of 
most of the festivities in Tientsin. Before its door 
stands an object-lesson of the siege two small 
guns of Seymour's gallant column flanked by enor- 
mous shells captured from the Chinese. The two 
tall towers were a conspicuous mark for the hostile 
artillerymen, as was the even loftier German Club 
facing it. Close by are the small but pretty Public 
Gardens, where, in the afternoons, the bands of the 
various regiments used to play. Nearer the French 
Concession stands a large hotel, the Astor House; 
its long verandah was the favourite resort of the 
foreign officers. The groups in varied uniforms 
sitting round the small marble tables gave it the 
appearance of a Continental cafe an illusion not 
dispelled by the courtesy which prevailed. As each 
new-comer entered he saluted the company present, 
who all rose and bowed in reply. 

Behind the Victoria Road runs the famous, or 
infamous, Taku Road, the scene of so many dis- 
graceful brawls between the Allied troops. For 
part of its length it is lined by commercial build- 
ing's, but towards the French Concession were 

' 



TIENTSIN 23 

many houses tenanted by the frail sisterhood. Their 
presence attracted the worst characters among the 
men of the various armies, and disorder was rife. 
It culminated at length in a wanton attack on a 
small patrol of the Royal Welch Fusiliers by a 
drunken mob of Continental soldiers. A Japanese 
guard close by turned out to the aid of their 
English comrades, and, wasting no time in parley, 
dropped at once on the knee to fire into the 
aggressors. They were restrained with difficulty 
by the corporal in charge of the British patrol, who 
vainly endeavoured to pacify the mob. Forced 
at length to use their rifles in self-defence, the 
Fusiliers did so to some effect. Two soldiers 
were killed, eight others wounded, and the 
remainder fled. Naturally enough, great excite- 
ment and indignation were aroused at first among 
the troops to which these men belonged ; but it 
died away when the truth was known. An inter- 
national court of inquiry, having carefully investi- 
gated the case, exonerated the corporal from all 
blame and justified his action. Such unfortunate 
occurrences were only to be expected among the 
soldiers of so many mixed nationalities, and the 
fact that they did not happen more frequently 
spoke well for the general discipline. At the end 
farthest from the French Concession the Taku 
Road ran through a number of small cafes and 
beer-saloons, much patronised by the German troops, 
whose barracks lay close by. 



24 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

The sights of the city and the foreign settlement 
were soon exhausted. But one never tired of 
watching the moving pictures of soldier life, or of 
visiting the scenes of the deadly fighting memorable 
for ever in the history of North China. The long 
stretches of mud flats lying between the Chinese 
town and the Concessions, over which shot and 
shell had flown for weeks; the roofless villages; the 
shattered houses; the loopholed and bullet-splashed 
walls. There, during long days and anxious nights, 
the usually pacific Chinaman, spurred on by fanatic 
hate and lust of blood, had waged a bitter war 
with all the devilish cunning of his race. There 
the mad rushes of frenzied Boxers, reckless of 
life, hurling themselves fearlessly with antiquated 
weapons against a well - armed foe. There the 
Imperial soldiers, trained by European officers, 
showed that their instruction had borne fruit. 
From every cover, natural or improvised, they 
used their magazine rifles with accuracy and effect. 
Lieutenant Fair, R.N., Flag- Lieutenant to Admiral 
Seymour, told me that he has often watched them 
picking up the range as carefully and judiciously 
as a Boer marksman. And his Admiral, con- 
spicuous in white uniform and dauntlessly exposing 
himself on the defences, escaped death again and 
again only by a miracle while men fell at his 
side. Nor was the shooting of the Chinese 
gunners to be despised. Lieutenant Hutchinson, 
H.M.S. Terrible^ in a redoubt with two of his 



TIENTSIN 25 

ship's famous guns, engaged in a duel at three 
thousand yards with a Chinese battery of modern 
ordnance. Of six shells hurled at him, two struck 
the parapet in front, two fell just past his redoubt, 
and two almost within it. Fortunately none burst. 
Had the mandarins responsible for the munitions 
of war proved as true to their trust as the 
gunners, the Terrible s detachment would have 
been annihilated ; but when the ammunition 
captured afterwards from the enemy was examined, 
it was found that the bursting charges of the 
shells had been removed and replaced by sand. 
The corrupt officials had extracted the powder and 
sold it. A naval "450 Maxim was most unpopular 
in the defences. Its neighbourhood was too un- 
safe, for whenever it opened fire the smoke be- 
trayed it to the Chinese gunners, and shells at 
once fell fast around it. It had finally to be 
withdrawn. 

But the desperate losses among the Boxers 
opposed to Seymour's gallant column, the heavy 
fighting around Tientsin, and the capture of the 
city broke the back of the Chinese resistance. 
And when the Allied Army advanced on Pekin, 
no determined stand was made after the first battle. 
The capital, with its famous and formidable walls, 
fell almost without a blow. A sore disappointment 
to the British Siege Train, who, hurried out to 
South Africa to batter down the forts of Pretoria, 
found their services uncalled for there ; and then, 



26 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

despatched to China for the siege of Pekin, 
arrived to learn that there, too, they were not 
needed. 

The interest of the Foreign Settlement lay in 
the crowds that thronged its streets. Never since 
the occupation of Paris after Napoleon's downfall 
has any city presented such a kaleidoscopic picture 
of varied uniforms and mixed troops of many 
nations. I know few things more interesting than 
to sit for an hour on the Astor House verandah 
and watch the living stream. Rickshas go by 
bearing officers of every army, punctiliously saluting 
all other wearers of epaulettes they pass. An 
Indian tonga bumps along behind two sturdy little 
ponies. After it rumbles a Russian transport cart, 
driven by a white - bloused Cossack. A heavy 
German waggon pulls aside to make way for a 
carriage containing two Prussian officers of high 
rank. A few small Japanese mounted infantrymen 
trot by, looking far more in keeping with the 
diminutive Chinese ponies than do the tall 
Punjaubis who follow them. Behind them are a 
couple of swarthy Bombay Lancers on well- 
groomed horses, gazing with all a cavalryman's 
disdain at the "Mounted Foot" in front of them. 
And surely never was trooper of any army so 
picturesque as the Indian sowar. A guard of 
stolid German soldiers tramps by. A squad of 
sturdy Japanese infantry passes a detachment 
of heavily accoutred French troops swinging along 



TIENTSIN 27 

with short, rapid strides. And at each street corner 
and crossing, directing the traffic, calm and im- 
perturbable, stands the man who has made England 
what she is the British private. All honour to 
him ! Smart, trim, well set-up, he looks a monarch 
among soldiers, compared with the men of other 
more military countries. Never have I felt so 
proud of Tommy Atkins as when I saw him 
there contrasted with the pick of the Continental 
armies ; for all the corps that had been sent 
out from Europe had been specially selected to 
do credit to their nations. He was merely one 
of a regiment that had chanced to be garrison- 
ing England's farthest dependency in the East, 
or of a battery taken at random. In physique, 
appearance, and soldierly bearing he equalled 
them all. Even his cousin, the American, sturdy 
and stalwart as he is, could not excel him in 
smartness, though not behind him in courage or 
coolness in action. The British officer, however, 
in plain khaki with no adornments of rank, looked 
almost dowdy beside the white coats and gold 
shoulder-straps of the Russian or the silver belts 
and sashes of the German. But gay trappings 
nowadays are sadly out of place in warfare. 

And though within a few miles the broken 
Chinese braves and routed Boxers, formed into 
roving bands of robbers, swooped down upon de- 
fenceless villages, and heavily accoutred European 
soldiers trudged wearily and fruitlessly after them 



28 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

over impossible country, life in Tientsin flowed on 
unheeding in all the gay tranquillity of ordinary 
garrison existence. Entertainments in the Gordon 
Hall, convivial dinners, polo, races, went on as 
though the demon of war had been exorcised 
from the unhappy land. Yet grim reminders were 
not wanting ; scarcely a day passed without seeing 
a few miserable prisoners brought in from the 
districts round. Poor wretches ! Many of them 
were villagers who had been driven into brigandage 
by the burning of their houses and the ruin of their 
fields as the avenging armies passed. Some were 
but the victims of treacherous informers, who, to 
gain a poor reward or gratify a petty spite, de- 
nounced the innocent. And, with pigtails tied 
together, cuffed and hustled by their pitiless captors, 
they trudged on to their doom with the vague stare 
of poor beasts led to the slaughter. A hurried 
trial, of which they comprehended nothing, then 
death. Scarce knowing what was happening, each 
unhappy wretch was led forth to die. Around him 
stood the fierce white soldiers he had learned to 
dread. Cruel men of his own race bound his arms, 
flung him on his knees, and pulled his queue for- 
ward to extend his neck. The executioner, too 
often a pitiful bungler, raised his sword. The 
stroke fell ; the head leapt from the body ; the 
trunk swayed for an instant, then collapsed on the 
ground. 

Yet for many of them such a death was all too 




PUBLIC GARDENS AND GORDON HALL IN THE VICTORIA ROAD, 
ENGLISH CONCESSION 



EXECUTION OF A BOXER BY THE FRENCH 



{page 28 



TIENTSIN 29 

merciful. No race on earth is capable of such 
awful cruelty, such hellish devices of torture, as the 
Chinese. And the unfortunate missionaries, the 
luckless wounded soldiers who fell into their hands, 
experienced treatment before which the worst devil- 
tries of the Red Indian seemed humane. Occasion- 
ally some of these fiends were captured by the 
Allies ; often only the instruments, but sometimes 
the instigators of the terrible outrages on Euro- 
peans, the mandarins who had spurred on the 
maddened Boxers to their worst excesses. For 
these no fitting punishment could be devised, and 
a swift death was too kind. But in the latter days 
of the campaign too many suffered an unmerited 
fate. The blood heated by the tales of Chinese 
cruelty at the outbreak of the troubles did not 
cool rapidly. The murders of the missionaries and 
civil engineers, of the unhappy European women and 
children, could not be readily forgotten. The seed 
sown in those early days of the fanatical outburst 
bore a bitter fruit. The horrors that war inevitably 
brings in its train were aggravated by the memory 
of former treachery and the difficulty of distinguish- 
ing between the innocent and the guilty. A very 
slight alteration of dress sufficed to convert into a 
harmless peasant the Boxer whose hands were red 
with the blood of defenceless Europeans, or of 
Chinese Christians whose mangled bodies had 
choked the river. 

The echoes of a greater struggle at the other 



30 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

side of the globe filled the ears of the world when 
the defenders of Tientsin were holding fanatical 
hordes of besiegers at bay. And so, few in Europe 
realised the deadliness of the fighting around the 
little town where hundreds of white women and 
children huddled together in terror of a fate too 
dreadful for words. The gallant sailors and marines 
who guarded it knew that on them alone depended 
the lives and honour of these helpless ones. Day 
and night they fought a fight, the like of which 
has scarcely been known since the defenders of 
the Residency at Lucknow kept the flag flying 
in similar straits against a not more savage foe. 
Outmatched in armament, they opposed small, 
almost out-of-date guns to quick-firing and large- 
calibre Krupps of the latest pattern. Outnumbered, 
stricken by disease, assailed by fierce hordes with- 
out and threatened by traitors within, they held 
their own with a heroism that has never gained 
the meed of praise it deserved. From the walls 
of the Chinese city, a few thousand yards away, 
and from the ample cover across the narrow river, 
shells rained on the unprotected town, and its 
streets were swept by close-range rifle fire. All 
national rivalries forgotten, Americans, Russians, 
British, French, Germans, and Japanese fought 
shoulder to shoulder against a common foe. 
Admiral Seymour's heroic column, baffled in its 
gallant dash on Pekin, and battling savagely 
against overwhelming numbers, fell slowly back 



TIENTSIN 31 

on the beleaguered town. The Hsi-ku Arsenal, a 
few miles from Tientsin, barred the way, guarded 
by a strong and well-armed force of Imperial 
soldiers. The desperate sailors nerved themselves 
for a last supreme effort. Under a terrible fire the 
British marines, under Major Johnstone, R.M.L.I., 
flung themselves on the defences and drove out 
the enemy with the bayonet. Then, utterly ex- 
hausted, its ammunition almost spent, the starving 
column halted in the Arsenal, unable to break 
through the environing hordes of besiegers who 
lay between it and Tientsin. A gallant attempt 
made by two companies of our marines to cut 
their way through was repulsed with heavy loss. 
The Chinese made several attempts to retake the 
Arsenal. A welcome reinforcement of close on 
two thousand Russian troops from Port Arthur 
had enabled the besieged garrison of Tientsin to 
hold out. A relieving force was sent out to bring 
in the decimated column, utterly prostrated by the 
incessant fighting. An eye-witness of their return, 
Mr. Drummond, Chinese Imperial Customs, who 
fought with the Tientsin Volunteers throughout 
the siege, told me that the condition of Seymour's 
men was pitiable in the extreme. Worn out and 
weak, shattered by the terrible trials they had 
undergone, they had almost to be supported into 
the town. For sixteen days and nights they had 
been battling continuously against a well-armed 
and enterprising foe. Their provisions had run 



32 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

out, and they had been forced to sustain life on 
the foul water of the river, which was filled with 
corpses, and on stray ponies and mules captured 
by the way. Out of 1,945 men they had 295 
casualties. As soon as the sailors and marines of 
the returned column were somewhat recovered from 
their exhaustion, the Allied Forces moved out to 
attack the native city of Tientsin, which was sur- 
rounded by a strong and high wall, and defended 
by over sixty guns, most of them very modern 
ordnance. Covered by a terrific bombardment from 
the naval guns, which had come up from the war- 
ships at Taku, the little army, 5,000 strong, hurled 
itself on the doomed city. But so fierce was the 
Chinese defence that for a day and a night it 
could barely hold its own. But before sunrise the 
Japanese sappers blew open the city gate, under 
a heavy fire. The Allies poured in through the 
way thus opened to them, and the surviving de- 
fenders fled, having lost 5,000 killed and wounded. 
The Allies themselves, out of a total force of 5,000, 
had nearly 800 casualties. The enemy's stronghold 
captured, the siege of the European settlements 
was raised after a month of terrible stress. 

Between the railway station and the river lies a 
small stretch of waste ground, a few hundred yards 
in extent. Here arose the famous " Railway Siding 
incident." The Russians claimed it as theirs "by 
right of conquest," although it had always been 
recognised as the property of the railway company. 



TIENTSIN 33 

An attempt to construct a siding on it from the 
station brought matters to a crisis. A Russian 
guard was promptly mounted on it, and confronted 
by a detachment of Indian troops under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant H. E. Rudkin, 2Oth Bombay 
Infantry. The situation in which this young subal- 
tern was placed demanded a display of tact and 
firmness which might well have overtaxed the 
resources of an older man. But with the self- 
reliance which the Indian Army teaches its officers 
he acquitted himself most creditably in a very 
trying position. Then ensued a period of anxious 
suspense when no man knew what the morrow 
might bring forth. But calm counsels fortunately 
prevailed. These few yards of waste ground were 
not judged worth " the bones of a single grenadier," 
and the question was taken from the hands of the 
soldier and entrusted to the diplomat. 



CHAPTER III 
THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 

r I "O a soldier no city in the world could prove as 
-L interesting as Tientsin from the unequalled 
opportunity it presented of contrasting the men 
and methods of the Allied Armies. And the 
officers of the Anglo-Indian forces saw with 
pride that they had but little to learn from their 
Continental brothers - in - arms. In organisation, 
training, and equipment our Indian Army was 
unsurpassed. Clad in the triple-proof armour of 
self-satisfaction, the soldiers of Europe have rested 
content in the methods of 1870. The effects 
of the increased range and destructive power of 
modern weapons have not been appreciated by 
them. Close formations are still the rule, and 
the history of the first few battles in the next 
European war will be a record of terrible slaughter. 
The lessons of the Boer campaign are ignored. 
They ascribe the failures and defeats of the British 
forces to the defective training and want of morale 
of our troops, and disdain to learn from a " nation 
of farmers." 

The world has long believed that the German 

34 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 35 

Army is in every respect superior to all others. 
But those who saw its China expeditionary force 
composed though it was of picked troops and 
carefully selected officers will not agree with this 
verdict. Arriving too late for the serious fighting 
for there were no German troops in the Allied 
Army which relieved the Legations it could only 
be criticised from its behaviour in garrison and 
on a few columns which did not meet with very 
serious opposition. All nationalities had looked 
forward eagerly to the opportunity of closely observ- 
ing a portion of the army which has set the fashion 
in things military to Europe during the past thirty 
years. But I think that most of those who had 
hoped to learn from it were disappointed. 

The German authorities are still faithful to the 
traditions of close formations and centralisation of 
command under fire. Unbroken lines in the attack 
are the rule, and no divergence from the straight, 
forward direction, in order to take advantage of 
cover lying towards a flank, is authorised. The 
increased destructive power given by low trajectory 
to modern firearms does not seem to be properly 
understood by them. The creeping forward of 
widely extended and irregularly advancing lines 
of skirmishers, seizing every cover available within 
easy reach, is not favoured ; and the dread of the 
effect of cavalry charges on the flanks of such 
scattered formations still rules the tactics of the 
attack. The development of the initiative of the 



3 6 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

soldier, of his power of acting for himself under 
fire, is not striven after. In steady, mechanical 
drill the German private is still pre-eminent, but 
in wide extensions he is helpless without some- 
one at his elbow to give him orders. One of 
the Prussian General Staff sent out as a Special 
Service Officer argued seriously with me that 
even when advancing over open ground against 
an entrenched enemy armed with modern rifles, it 
would be impossible to extend to more than an 
interval of one pace, "as otherwise the- captain 
could not command his company." 

Those in high places in Germany probably 
appreciate the lessons of the South African cam- 
paign. But the difficulty of frontal assaults in 
close formations on a well-defended position, the 
impossibility of battalion or company commanders 
directing the attack in the firing line at close ranges, 
the necessity of training men to act for themselves 
when near the enemy, have not struck home to the 
subordinate grades. Viewed in the light of our 
experiences in the Boer War and on the Indian 
Frontier, their adherence to systems that we have 
proved disastrous before modern weapons stamps 
their tactics as antiquated. " Entrenching," another 
staff officer said to me, is contrary to the spirit 
of the German Army. Our regulations now force 
us to employ the spade, but our tradition will 
always be to trust to the bayonet." And I thought 
of another army, which also used to have a decided 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 37 

liking for the same weapon, and which had gone 
to South Africa in the firm belief that cold steel 
was the only weapon for use in war ! 

The German officers were very smart in their 
bearing and dress. Their khaki uniforms were 
similar to ours, the coats well made; but the clumsy 
cut of their riding breeches offends the fastidious 
eyes of the horsey Britisher, who is generally more 
particular about the fit of this garment than any other 
in his wardrobe. The product of despotic militarism 
in a land where the army is supreme and the civilian 
is despised, the German officers are full of the pride 
of caste. In China they were scarcely inclined to 
regard those of the other allied troops as equals. 
The iron discipline of their army does not encour- 
age intercourse between the various ranks. The 
friendly association of English officers with their 
men in sports is inexplicable to them ; and that a 
private should excel his superior in any pastime is 
equivalent, in their opinion, to the latter at once 
forfeiting the respect of his subordinate. When a 
team of British officers in Tientsin were training 
for a tug-of-war against those of the Pekin garrison 
in the assault-at-arms at the Temple of Heaven, 
they used to practise with a team of heavy non- 
commissioned officers. A German captain said to 
a British subaltern who was taking part : 

"Is it possible that you allow your soldiers to 
compete against officers even in practice ? " 

" Certainly," replied the Englishman. 



38 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

" But of course you always beat them ? " 

" Not at all," was the answer. " On the contrary, 
they generally beat us." 

" But surely that is a mistake," said the scandalised 
Prussian. "They must in that case inevitably lose 
all respect for you." And nothing could convince 
him that it was not so. 

As the German military officer does not as a rule 
travel much abroad, the realisation of England's 
predominance beyond the seas seemed to come on 
those in China almost as a surprise. One remarked 
to a member of the staff of our Fourth Brigade : 

" Our voyage out here has brought home to most 
of us for the first time how you English have laid 
your hands on all parts of the earth worth having. 
In every port we touched at since we left Germany, 
everywhere we coaled, we found your flag flying. 
Gibraltar, Malta, Aden, Colombo, Singapore, Hong 
Kong all British." 

" Yes," added another, " we have naturally been 
accustomed to regard our own country as the 
greatest in the world. But outside it we found 
our language useless. Yours is universal. I had 
said to myself that Port Said, at least, is not British ; 
but there, too, your tongue is the chief medium of 
intercourse. Here in China, even the coolies speak 
English, or what they intend to be English." 

The German organisation perfect, perhaps, for 
Europe, where each country is a network of roads 
and railways was not so successful in China. For 




FRENCH COLONIAL INFANTRY MARCHING THROUGH THE 
FRENCH CONCESSION, TIENTSIN 




GERMAN OFFICERS WELCOMING FIELD-MARSHAL COUNT VON WALDERSEE 
AT THE RAILWAY STATION, TIENTSIN 



38 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 39 

the first time the leading military nation was brought 
face to face with the difficulties involved in the 
despatch of an expedition across the sea and far 
from the home base. And its mistakes were not 
few. Their contingent found themselves at first 
devoid of transport and dependent on the kindness 
of the other armies for means to move from the 
railway. One projected expedition had to be long 
delayed because the German troops could not 
advance for this reason, until the English at 
length furnished them with the necessary trans- 
port. The enormous waggons they brought with 
them were useless in a country where barrows are 
generally the only form of wheeled transport 
possible on the very narrow roads. Their know- 
ledge of horse-mastership was not impressive, their 
animals always looking badly kept and ill-fed. 

The first German troops despatched to China 
were curiously clothed. Their uniform consisted 
of ill-fitting tunics and trousers made of what 
looked like coarse, bright yellow sacking, with 
black leather belts and straw hats shaped like 
those worn by our Colonials, the broad brim caught 
up on one side and fastened by a metal rosette 
of the German colours. Later on all were clothed 
in regular khaki, and wore helmets somewhat 
similar to the British pattern, but with wider 
brims. The square portion covering the back of 
the neck was fastened by hinges, so that the 
helmet was not tilted over the wearer's eyes when 



40 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

he lay down to fire, which is the great disadvantage 
of our style of headgear. Some of the officers 
wore silver sashes and belts which looked out of 
place on khaki, the embodiment of severe simplicity 
in campaigning dress. 

The physique of the German soldiers was very 
good, but they were members of a comparatively 
small contingent picked from an enormous army. 
To those used to the smart and upright bearing of 
the British private their careless and slouching gait 
seemed slovenly. But on parade they moved like 
automatons. A curious phase in the relations of 
the Allies was the intimacy which prevailed between 
the men of the French and German troops. In the 
French Concession numbers of them were to be 
constantly seen fraternising together, strolling arm- 
in-arm in the streets, or drinking in the cafes. This 
was chiefly owing to the fact that many in either 
army could speak the language of the other. But 
this intimacy did not extend to the commissioned 
ranks. 

The vast increase in their mercantile marine of 
late years enabled the Germans to transport their 
troops in their own vessels. The Russians, on the 
other hand, were frequently forced to employ British 
ships, although the bulk of their forces in North 
China did not come from Europe by sea, but was 
furnished by the Siberian Army. 

The German Navy took a prominent part in the 
China imbroglio. The Iltis was well to the fore 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 41 

in the bombardment of the Taku forts by the gun- 
boats in the Peiho. In the assault by the storming 
parties from the Allied Fleet 130 German sailors 
shared, and lost 6 killed and 1 5 wounded ; 200 
more accompanied Seymour's column on the ad- 
vance to Pekin. The Navy of the Fatherland 
possesses the immense advantage of being very 
modern and homogeneous, and is consequently 
quite up to date. Even at its present strength it 
is a formidable fighting machine. If the Kaiser's 
plans are realised, and it is increased to the size he 
aims at, Germany will play a prominent role in any 
future naval complications. 

English officers are frequently accused of a lack 
of interest in their profession from not acquainting 
themselves with the problems which arise in con- 
temporary campaigns, the course of which many 
persons believe that they do not follow. But we 
found a singular want of knowledge of the history 
and events of the South African campaign among 
the commissioned grades of the Allied Armies. 
I understood the crass ignorance of Continental 
peoples with regard to the Boer War after a con- 
versation with a foreign staff officer. I had asked 
him what he thought had been the probable strength 
of the Republican forces at the beginning of the 
campaign. 

"Ah, that I know precisely," he replied. "I 
have heard it from an officer in our army, now 
in China, who served with the Boers. I can state 



42 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

positively on his authority that your antagonists 
were never able to put into the field, either at the 
beginning of the war or at any other time, more 
than 30,000 men. The total populations of both 
States could not produce any greater number 
capable of carrying a rifle." 

"And how many do you think they have in the 
field now ?" I asked. This was in August, 1901. 

" About 25,000." 

''But surely," I argued, "after nearly two years 
of fighting their losses must amount to more than 
5,000 between killed, wounded, and captured." 

" Not at all. Perhaps not even that." 

"Then you apparently do not know," I said, 
" that we have about 30,000 or 40,000 prisoners 
or surrendered men in St. Helena, South Africa, 
Ceylon, and India." 

" Oh, but you have not," he said, with a politely 
incredulous smile ; " two or three thousand at most. 
In our army we are not ignorant of the course of 
the campaign. We read our newspapers carefully." 

I ceased to wonder at the ignorance of his 
nation when he, a Staff and Special Service Officer, 
was so ill-informed. 

The French Army in China suffered some loss of 
prestige in the beginning through their first contin- 
gent, composed of Infanterie Coloniale and others 
sent up from I* Indo-Chine. Long service in un- 
healthy tropical climates had rendered the men 
debilitated and fever-stricken. They were by no 



43 

means fair samples of the French soldier, and 
certainly not up to the standard of the troops which 
came out later from France. The Zouaves and 
Chasseurs d'Afrique, particularly, were excellent. 
Both are crack corps, and were much admired, 
the physique of the men being very good. The 
latter were fine specimens of European cavalry, 
good riders, well mounted ; but their horses seemed 
too heavily weighted, especially for service in hot 
climates. 

The infantry were weighed down by an extra- 
ordinarily heavy pack, which they carried on nearly 
all duties mounting guard, marching, even in 
garrison. They were trained in the same obsolete 
close formations as the Germans ; but, with the 
traditional aptitude for loose fighting which dates 
from the days of Napoleon's tirailleurs, they can 
adapt themselves much more rapidly to extended 
order. 

The French officers, though not so well turned 
out as the Germans, were much more friendly and 
agreeable. There was a good deal of intercourse 
between them and the Britishers. Their manner 
of maintaining discipline was very different to our 
ideas on the subject. I have seen one of them 
box the ears of his drunken orderly who had 
assaulted the Indian servant of an English officer, 
and who, considering himself aggrieved at being 
reprimanded by his master, had staggered up to 
him to tell him so. 



44 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

The training and organisation of the French 
Army has immensely improved since the disastrous 
campaign of 1870. A soldier serves first in the 
Active Army, then in the Reserve of the Active 
Army, where he is called up for training somewhat 
on the lines of our Militia. He is then passed 
into the Territorial Army, where he is not allowed 
to forget what he has learned with the colours. 
Finally he is enrolled in the Reserve of the Terri- 
torial Army, and is still liable to be summoned to 
defend his country in emergency. A regiment has 
all its equipment and stores in its own keeping ; 
so that, when suddenly ordered on active service, 
there is no rush to indent upon the Commissariat 
or Ordnance Departments. Its reservists join at 
regimental headquarters, where they find every- 
thing ready for them, and take their places as 
though they had never quitted the colours. In 
marching powers, at least, no troops in Europe 
surpass the French ; and legs are almost as useful 
as arms in modern warfare, where wide flanking 
dttours and extended movements will be the rule 
in future. 

France's long experience of colonies and wars 
beyond the sea rendered the organisation and fitting 
out of her expeditionary force an easier task than 
some other nations found it. The men were always 
cheerful ; and the French soldier is particularly handy 
at bivouacking and fending for himself on service. 

The Russian troops were composed of big, 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 45 

heavy, rather fleshy men. Unintelligent and slow, 
for the most part, they were determined fighters, 
but seemed devoid of the power of initiative or 
of thinking for themselves. I doubt if the Mus- 
covite soldier is much more advanced than his 
Crimean predecessor. The men of the Siberian 
army may be best described as cheerful savages, 
obedient under an iron discipline, but not averse 
to excesses when not under the stern hand of 
authority, especially when their blood has been 
heated by fighting. The great power of the 
Russian soldier lies in his wonderful endurance 
under privations that few other European troops 
could support. I should be sorry to offer English- 
men the meagre fare on which he manages to exist. 
His commissariat rations were anything but lavish 
in China, and had to be supplemented by the 
men themselves by foraging. Yet those whom I 
saw in North China and Manchuria looked well fed 
and almost fat. 

Their respect for, and faith in, their officers is 
admirable. Their religion is a living force to their 
simple natures. Once, in Newchwang, in Manchuria, 
I passed a small Russian church in which a number 
of their troops were attending a Mass of the 
gorgeous Greek ritual. Their rifles were piled 
outside under the charge of a sentry. Helmet in 
hand he was devoutly following the service through 
the open window, crossing himself repeatedly and 
joining in the prayers of the congregation inside. 



46 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

I am afraid that such a sight would be very rarely 
seen at a church parade in our army. 

Of the courage of the Russians there can be no 
doubt. Their behaviour during the stern fighting 
around Tientsin was admirable. The European 
settlements owed their preservation largely to the 
timely reinforcements which arrived from Port 
Arthur at a time of deadly peril. When Admiral 
Seymour started on his desperate attempt to relieve 
the Legations, he left behind at Tientsin a small 
number of British sailors and marines under Cap- 
tain Bayly, H.M.S. Aurora, with orders to hold the 
town, so that his column, if defeated, might have 
some place to fall back on. When, after his depar- 
ture, the Concessions were suddenly assailed, the 
commanding officers of the other Allies were of 
opinion that the defence of the settlements was 
hopeless, and advocated a retirement on Taku. 
Captain Bayly pointed out the peril to which the 
Relieving Column would be exposed if repulsed 
and forced to fall back only to find Tientsin in the 
hands of the Chinese. His remonstrances had no 
effect. Then the dauntless sailor, with true British 
grit, declared that the others might go if they 
wished. He had been ordered to remain in Tient- 
sin, and remain he would. He would not desert 
his admiral even if left alone to hold the town 
with his handful of Britishers. I have it on his own 
authority that the Russian commander was the first 
to applaud his resolution and declare that he and 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 47 

his men would stay with the English to the end. 
His action turned the scale, and all remained to 
defend Tientsin and save Seymour's gallant but 
unfortunate column. 

Though the Russian officers exceed even the 
Germans in the severity with which they treat 
their men, there is, nevertheless, more of a spirit 
of comradeship existing between the higher and 
lower ranks. This is truer, perhaps, of the Euro- 
pean army than the Siberian, which was more 
employed in the China campaign, and is inferior 
to the former, especially the splendid Guards corps. 
The officers were fine men physically, but seemed 
in military training rather behind those of the other 
Allies. 

Profiting by the experience gained in their 
previous campaign against China, the Japanese 
Army arrived well equipped in 1900. As long as 
road or river was available, their transport system 
of carts and boats was excellent ; but when it came 
to flying columns moving across country the Indian 
mule train was superior. Beginning the war in 
white uniform, the disadvantages of such a con- 
spicuous dress were soon evident, and khaki was 
substituted. The men were well clothed, and 
carried a horsehide knapsack containing the usual 
necessaries and an extra pair of boots. 

The cavalry, consisting as it does of small men 
on undersized animals, would be of little use in 
shock tactics. It would be far more useful con- 



48 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

verted into mounted infantry, for their infantry 
earned nothing but praise. Small, sturdy, easily 
fed, and capable of enduring an extraordinary 
amount of hardship, they were ideal foot soldiers. 
Recruited among an agricultural population, in- 
habitants of a mountainous country, they were 
inured to toil and fatigue. Under a load that few 
white men could carry they tramped long distances, 
arriving at the end of the march apparently not 
in the least exhausted. Their racial respect for 
superiors has bred a perfect spirit of unquestioning 
discipline. Their high patriotism and almost 
fanatical courage endow them with an absolute 
contempt of death, and their heroic bravery ex- 
torted the admiration even of such unfriendly 
critics as the Russians. Trained in German 
methods, their army suffers from all the defects 
of the hide-bound Teutonic system. In the attack 
on some fortified villages held by banditti, after 
Major Browning's death in a preliminary skirmish, 
two Japanese companies advanced in line with the 
4th Punjaub Infantry. Under a fierce fire from 
4,000 brigands, armed with Mannlichers and en- 
sconced behind walls, the Indian troops extended 
to ten or twelve paces. The Japanese came on in 
single rank, almost shoulder to shoulder. They 
lost four times as many as the Punjaubis, but never 
wavered for an instant, closing in mechanically as 
their comrades fell, and almost outstripping our 
sepoys in the final charge that carried the position. 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 49 

Though many of their officers have realised that 
the day of close formations is past, they have not 
sufficient confidence in the ability of their men to 
fight independently yet ; while they know that no 
amount of slaughter will dismay them in an attack. 
Besides, in China they were anxious to blood them 
well and to show to their European critics the 
splendid fighting quality of their soldiers, and 
prove that they were worthy to combat with or 
against any troops in the world. 

The organisation, equipment, and material of the 
Japanese Army leave little to be desired. Their 
engineers and artillery are well trained, and both 
rendered good service to the Allies in 1900. Their 
Intelligence Department had been brought to a 
high standard of efficiency ; and its perfection 
astonishes those who are permitted to gain a 
glimpse of its working. The whole East is sown 
with its spies. When the Legations were threatened, 
Japanese who had been working at inferior trades 
in Pekin came in and revealed themselves as military 
officers who for months or years had been acquaint- 
ing themselves with the plans, the methods, and the 
strength of China. 

The discipline of Japanese soldiers in small 
things as well as great is admirable. I have often 
watched crowded troop-trains arriving at the Shim- 
bashi railway terminus in Tokio. The men sat 
quietly in their places until the order to leave the 
carriages was given. Then, without noise or con- 



50 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

fusion, they got out, fell in on the platforms, piled 
arms, fell out, and remained near their rifles without 
chattering ; indeed, with hardly a word except in an 
undertone. Prompt and unquestioning obedience 
in everything is the motto of the Japanese soldier. 
Their courage at the storming of Tientsin city, on 
the march to the capital, and at the capture of Pekin 
won the admiration of all the Allies, and their 
behaviour and self-restraint in the hour of victory 
were equalled only by their gallantry in action. 
No charges of cruelty to inoffensive peasants or 
women and children could be substantiated against 
them; and they treated the conquered Chinese with 
great kindness. They employed their prisoners to 
work for them and paid them liberally for their 
labour. Their conduct in garrison was admirable. 
Well armed and equipped, well officered and led, the 
Japanese Army is now a powerful fighting machine, 
and would prove a formidable enemy or a useful 
ally in the field. 

Throughout the campaign a remarkable spirit of 
comradeship existed between the Japanese and the 
Indian troops. The Gurkhas were their especial 
friends. So like in appearance that it points to 
a common ancestry in the past, they hailed each 
other as relatives, and seemed quite puzzled to find 
no resemblance in the languages. This did not 
seem to slacken their friendship; and it was 
amusing to see a mingled group of the two races 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 51 

chatting together in an animated manner, neither 
understanding a word of the other's tongue. 

The men of the American Army were equalled 
in physique only by the Australian Contingent 
and our Royal Horse Artillery. Their free-and- 
easy ideas on the subject of discipline, the casual 
manner in which a private addressed an officer, 
astonished and shocked their Continental critics. 
I heard the remark of a German officer who, 
after a slight acquaintance with their ways, ex- 
claimed, " That an army ? Why, with the Berlin 
Fire Brigade I would conquer the whole of 
America ! " The speech was so typically German ! 
But the men, accustomed to think and act for 
themselves, were ideal individual fighters ; and for 
scouting, skirmishing, and bush-whacking could not 
easily be surpassed. Their troops in China con- 
sisted at first mainly of marines and regiments 
diverted when on their way to the Philippines, and 
consequently were not well equipped for a long 
campaign. But soon after the outset of the expe- 
dition all deficiencies were made good and ample 
supplies were forthcoming, their hospitals especially 
being almost lavishly furnished with all requirements. 

The new American Army, like their excellent go- 
ahead Navy, is a force to be reckoned with in the 
future. We hear much of the effects of " influence" 
in our army. It is nothing compared to what goes 
on in the American. With them to be the near 
connection of a Senator or a prominent politician 



52 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

is infinitely more advantageous than to be the scion 
of a ducal line or the son of a Commander-in-Chief 
with us. 

If the Continental troops suffer from too rigid a 
discipline, which destroys the power of thinking for 
themselves in the lower ranks, the Americans, per- 
haps, err on the other side. They are too ready 
to act on their own responsibility, to question the 
wisdom of the orders they receive, and act, instead, 
as seems best to themselves. This was particularly 
evident in the case of the volunteer regiments in 
the Philippines ; but instances of it were not want- 
ing among the regulars and marines in North 
China. Democracy is impossible in an army. But 
the material at the service of the United States is 
unquestionably magnificent ; and when the pressure 
of events in the future has called into being and 
welded together a really large army in America, 
there are few nations that can hope to oppose it 
successfully in the field. How rapidly the sons of 
the Star-spangled Banner acquire the art of war 
was evidenced in Cuba and in the more difficult 
and trying guerilla campaign in the Philippines. 
Their faults were those of inexperience. 

Of their courage there can be no doubt. At the 
taking of Tientsin city nearly a thousand American 
infantry and marines served with the British under 
General Dorward. In a letter to their commander 
this officer warmly expressed the honour he, in 
common with all his men, felt in serving alongside 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 53 

the American troops. In his own words, "they 
formed part of the front line of the British attack, 
and so had more than their fair share of the righting. 
The ready and willing spirit of both officers and 
men, their steady gallantry and power of holding on 
to exposed positions, made them soldiers of the 
highest class." What greater praise could be given 
them ? And well they deserved it ! Two companies 
of the Qth Infantry (U.S.A.), attacked in front and 
flank by a merciless fire, held gallantly to their 
ground until nightfall with a loss of half their 
number in killed and wounded, including their 
brave leader, Colonel Liscum, who met a hero's 
death at the head of his men. In all the actions 
of the campaign the American troops distinguished 
themselves by conspicuous bravery; and the British 
recognised with pride and pleasure the gallantry of 
their cousins. May we always fight shoulder to 
shoulder with, but never against, them ! 

Great camaraderie existed between the Ameri- 
cans and the English troops. The sons of the 
Stars and Stripes amply repaid the disdain of the 
Continental officers with a contempt that was almost 
laughable. They classified the Allies as white men 
and " Dagoes." The former were the Americans 
and the British, the latter the other European con- 
tingents. They distinguished between them though, 
and the terms " Froggie Dago," " Sauerkraut 
Dago," "Macaroni Dago," and "Vodki Dago" 



54 

left little doubt in the hearer's mind as to which 
nationality was meant. 

I heard a good story of an encounter between a 
young English subaltern and an American in North 
China. I fancy the same tale is told of a Colonial 
in South Africa ; but it is good enough to bear 
repetition. The very youthful Britisher, chancing 
to pass a Yankee soldier who was sitting down and 
made no motion to rise, considered himself affronted 
at the private's failure to salute him. He turned 
back indignantly and addressed the offender. 

" Look here, my man, do you know who I am ? " 

" No o o," drawled the American. 

"Well, I'm a British officer." 

" Air ye naow ? " was the reply. " Waal, sonny, 
you've got a soft job. See you don't get drunk 
and lose it." 

The subaltern walked on. 

Of the Italian Expeditionary Force, which was 
not numerically very strong, I saw little ; but all 
spoke well of them. The famous Bersagliere, the 
cocks' plumes fluttering gaily in their tropical 
helmets, were smart, sturdy soldiers. 

I regret never having had an opportunity of 
seeing the contingent which Holland, not to be 
outdone by the other European Powers, despatched 
to the East. This nation was also determined to 
show its power to the world. So a Dutch Expe- 
ditionary Corps was equipped and sent out. It 
consisted of a sergeant and ten men. 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 55 

The Indian Field Force was a revelation to 
Europe. Friend and foe realised for the first time 
that in the Indian army England has a reserve of 
immense value. While our Continental rivals 
fancied that our hands were tied by the South 
African war, and that we could take no part in the 
Chinese complication, they were startled to see 
how, without moving a soldier from Great Britain, 
we could put into the field in the farthest quarter 
of the globe a force equal to any and superior to 
most. It was mobilised and despatched speedily 
and without a hitch. The vessels for its transport 
were all available from the lines that ply from 
Calcutta and Bombay, and no ship was needed 
from England. The bluejackets and marines with 
half a battalion of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, 
already on the spot, and two batteries with some 
Engineers were all the white troops we had until 
gallant Australia sent her splendid little contingent 
as an earnest of what she could and would do if 
required. 

Previous to the expedition of 1900, the Indian 
army was never allowed to engage in war without 
a strong backing of British troops. And even its 
own officers scarcely dared to allow themselves to 
believe that without such leavening their men 
could successfully oppose a European army. But 
now that they have seen them contrasted with the 
pick of Continental soldiers, they know that they 
could confidently lead their Sikhs, Gurkhas, 



56 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Rajputs, Pathans, or Punjaubis against the men 
of any other nation. Not only is the Indian 
army as well equipped and organised as any it 
could now be called upon to face, but also the fight- 
ing races of our Eastern Empire, led by their 
British officers, are equal to any foe. The despe- 
rate battles of the Sikh War, when, as in the fierce 
struggle of Chillianwallah, victory often hung 
wavering in the balance, the determined resistance 
of the mutinous troops in 1857, show that skilful 
leadership is all that our sepoys need to enable 
them to encounter the best soldiers of any nation. 

India is a continent not a country composed 
of many races that differ far more than European 
nationalities. A Russian and an Englishman, a 
Swede and an Italian are nearer akin, more alike 
in appearance, manners, and modes of thought than 
a Gurkha and a Pathan, a Sikh and a Mahratta, 
a Rajput and a Madrassi. It follows that the 
fighting value of all these various races of India is 
not the same. No one would seek among the 
Bengali babus or the Parsees of Bombay for 
warriors. The Madras sepoy, though his prede- 
cessors helped to conquer India for British rule, 
has fallen from his high estate and is no longer 
regarded as a reliable soldier. Yet the wisdom of 
the policy which relegated him of late years alto- 
gether to the background during war may be 
questioned. For the Madras sappers and miners, 
who alone of all the Madras army have been con- 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 57 

stantly employed, have always proved satisfactory. 
But the fiat has gone forth ; and the Madrassi will 
be gradually replaced even in his own presidency 
by the men of the more martial races of the North. 
The Mahratta, who once struck terror throughout 
the length and breadth of Hindustan, is considered 
by some critics to be no longer useful as a fighting 
man. But they forget that not so long ago in the 
desperate battles near Suakin, when even British 
troops gave back before the mad rushes of fanati- 
cal Dervishes, the 28th Bombay Pioneers saved a 
broken square from imminent destruction by their 
steadfast bravery. And they were Mahrattas then. 
Of the excellence of the gallant warrior clans of 
Rajputana, of the fierce Pathans inured to fighting 
from boyhood, of the sturdy, cheerful, little 
Gurkhas, the steady, long-limbed Sikhs, none can 
doubt. Hard to conquer were they in the past ; 
splendid to lead to battle now. To Lord Roberts 
is chiefly due the credit of welding together the 
Indian army and making it the formidable fighting 
machine it is. 

One great factor of its efficiency is the excellence 
of its British officers. Early placed in a position 
of responsibility, they rapidly learn to rely on 
themselves and act, if need be, on their own 
initiative. In a British regiment an officer may 
serve twenty years without commanding more than 
a company ; whereas the Indian army subaltern, 
before he has worn a sword three years, may find 



58 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

himself in command of his battalion on field-days, 
in manoeuvres, sometimes even in war. In the 
stern fighting at the Malakand in the beginning of 
the Tirah campaign, one Punjaub regiment was 
commanded by a subaltern, who acquitted himself 
of his difficult task with marked ability. Unlike 
the system of promotion that exists in the British 
army, the English officers of the native corps 
attain the different grades after a certain number 
of years' service nine for captain, eighteen for 
major, twenty-six for lieutenant-colonel and may 
occupy any position in their regiments irrespective 
of the rank they hold. 

An Indian infantry battalion consists of eight 
companies, each under a native officer, termed a 
subhedar, with a jemadar or lieutenant to assist 
him. He is responsible for the discipline and in- 
terior economy of his company. The senior native 
officer is known as the subhedar-major. Instead of 
the terms lance-corporal, corporal, sergeant, and 
sergeant-major, lance- naik, naik, havildar, and 
havildar-major are the names of the correspond- 
ing grades. 

The British officers practically form the staff of 
the regiment. The former number of eight has 
been recently increased to eleven, twelve, and 
thirteen, according to the presidency to which the 
corps belongs, those of the Punjaub being nearest 
the danger zone of frontier wars and threatened 
invasion possessing the largest number. The 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 59 

eight companies are grouped in four double com- 
panies the double company commander (a British 
officer) having almost complete control of his unit. 
The commanding officer of the battalion mainly 
restricts himself to seeing that the training of each 
portion of the regiment is identical and efficient. 
Each corps possesses a commanding officer, four 
double company commanders, an adjutant, a 
quartermaster, and the remainder are known as 
double company officers. 

The organisation of a native cavalry regiment is 
very similar, the terms squadron and squadron- 
commander replacing double company and double 
company commander. In most of the corps the 
sowar, as the Indian cavalry private is called sepoy 
being employed to denote an infantryman is 
usually the owner of his horse ; and direct com- 
missions to native gentlemen are of more frequent 
occurrence in the cavalry than in the infantry. 
Regimental transport consists of baggage-ponies 
or mules, so that an Indian mounted corps is 
particularly mobile. 

Foreign officers in North China at first made 
light of our Indian soldiers ; but they were not 
those who had seen them fight in the early days 
of the campaign. For one arm, however, there 
was nothing but praise. All agreed that our native 
cavalry was excellent. Even German officers ac- 
knowledged that in smartness, horsemanship, and 
efficiency it could not easily be surpassed. The 



60 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

work done by the ist Bengal Lancers in the advance 
on Pekin and afterwards could not be underrated. 
With the exception of a few Cossacks and Japanese, 
they were the only mounted troops available at 
first. They were in constant demand to accompany 
columns of Continental troops, and they won the 
admiration of all the foreign officers with whom 
they were brought in contact. In fact, the only 
persons who failed to appreciate their merits were 
the Tartar horsemen who ventured to oppose them 
in the march on the capital. Their opinion is not 
recorded, but I think that it would not be fit for 
publication except in an expunged and mutilated 
form. The 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry as good 
a regiment as any that Bengal can show won 
many encomiums for its smartness from all who 
saw its squadrons at Tientsin, Shanghai, or Shan- 
haikwan. 

But Indian officers were at first surprised and 
puzzled at the unflattering criticisms passed on our 
native infantry. Those who had seen our sepoys 
in many a hard-fought struggle on the frontier 
could not understand the frequent remarks of foreign 
officers, that " our men were very unequal." 

"Some of them," they said, "are tall, well-built, 
and powerful, and should make good soldiers ; but 
others are old, feeble, and decrepit. We have seen 
in the streets of Tientsin many who could not 
support the weight of a rifle." But it was soon 
discovered that these critics failed to comprehend 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 61 

the distinction between fighting men and followers, 
since in China both were clad somewhat alike. 
The coolie corps, bheesties, syces, and dhoolie- 
bearers were all dressed in khaki ; and Continental 
officers were for a long time under the impression 
that these were soldiers. The error was not un- 
natural, and it accounted for the unfavourable 
reports on the Indian troops which appeared in 
many European journals. But those who under- 
stood the difference were struck by the fine physique 
and excellent training of our native army. When 
we compared our Sikhs, Pathans, Gurkhas, and 
Punjaubis with the men of most of the Allied 
forces, we recognised that, led by British officers, 
they would render a good account of themselves 
if pitted against any troops in the world. And our 
sepoys return to India filled with immeasurable 
contempt for the foreign contingents they have 
seen in China. As the ripples caused by a stone 
thrown into a lake spread over the water, so their 
opinion will radiate through the length and breadth 
of the land ; and this unexpected lesson of the 
campaign will have a far-reaching and beneficial 
effect throughout our Eastern Empire. 

India is essentially a soldier's country. Its army 
is practically always on a war footing, the troops 
near the frontier especially being ready to move at 
a few hours' notice. The rapid despatch of the 
British contingent for Natal and the China ex- 
peditionary force are object-lessons. The peace 



62 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

establishment of a native regiment is greater than 
the strength required for active service. Hence on 
mobilisation no reserves have to be called up to 
fill its ranks ; recruits and sickly men can be left 
behind, and it marches with only fully trained and 
seasoned soldiers. In India vast stretches of 
country are available for manoeuvres, which take 
place every winter on a scale unknown in England. 
Not a year passes without its little war. In con- 
sequence, the training of the troops is thorough 
and practical. The establishment of gun and rifle 
factories is all that is needed to make India abso- 
lutely self-containing. It produces now all other 
requisites of war. Ammunition, clothing, and ac- 
coutrements are manufactured in the country, and 
it was able to supply, not only the needs of the 
expedition in China, but also many things required 
for the troops in South Africa. 

To the pessimists in England and the hostile 
critics abroad, who talk of the possibility of another 
mutiny, the answer is that a general uprising of the 
Native army can never occur again. The number 
of British troops in India has been more than 
doubled since 1857, and the proportion between 
white and coloured regiments in each large station 
more equalised. The artillery is altogether in 
English hands, with the exception of the rank and 
file of a few mountain batteries and the smooth- 
bore guns maintained by native princes for show. 
Communication has been enormously quickened by 



THE ALLIED ARMIES IN CHINA 63 

the network of railways that covers the country, 
enabling a force to be moved in two or three days 
to a point where formerly as many months were 
required. 

And the Indian army is loyal to the core loyal, 
not to the vague idea of a far- distant England, 
not to the vast impersonal Sircar* but loyal to 
itself; loyal to its British officers, who, to the 
limited minds of the sepoys, represent in concrete 
form the Power whose salt they eat. And those 
officers, speaking to each in his own tongue be 
he Sikh, Rajput, or Dogra stand in the relation 
of fathers to their men. To them in sorrow or 
perplexity comes the sepoy, sure of sympathy 
or aid. In their justice he reposes implicit con- 
fidence. And as in peace he relies on these men 
of alien race, so in war do they trust in him. 
And the tales of the struggle of the Guides round 
Battye's corpse, of the gallant Sikhs who died 
at their post in Saragheri, of the men who refused 
to abandon their dead and dying officers in the 
treachery of Maizar, show that our trust is not 
misplaced. 

* i.e. Government. 



CHAPTER IV 
PEKIN 

TIENTSIN is but a stepping-stone to Pekin 
one a mere modern growth, important only 
in view of the European commercial interests that 
have made it what it is ; the other a fabled city 
weird, mysterious. The slowly -beating heart of 
the vast feeble Colossus, that may be pierced and 
yet no agony, thrills through the distant members. 
Pekin, the object of the veneration of every China- 
man the world over. Pekin, which enshrines the 
most sacred temples of the land, within whose 
famous walls lies the marvellous Forbidden City, 
the very name of which is redolent of mystery ; 
around it history and fable gather and scarce may 
be distinguished, so incredible the truth, so con- 
ceivable the wildest conjecture. The Mecca to 
which turn the thoughts of every Celestial. The 
home of the sacred, almost legendary, Emperor, 
whose word is law to the uttermost confines of 
the land, and yet whose person is not inviolate 
against palace intrigue ; omnipotent in theory, 
powerless in reality, a ruler only in name. Wor- 
shipped by millions of his subjects, yet despised 

64 



PEKIN 65 

by the least among the mandarins of his court. 
The meanest eunuch in the Purple City is not more 
helpless than the monarch who boasts the proud 
title of Son of Heaven. 

Pekin, the seat of all power in the land, whence 
flows the deadly poison of corruption that saps the 
empire's strength ; the capital that twice within 
the last fifty years has fallen before the avenging 
armies of Europe, and yet still flourishes like a 
noxious weed. 

One morning as the train from Tong-ku came 
into Tientsin Station and disgorged its usual crowd 
of soldiers of the Allied Forces, I stood on the 
platform with four other British officers, all bound 
for Pekin. We established ourselves in a first- 
class carriage, which was a mixture of coup6 and 
corridor-car. The varied uniforms of our fellow- 
passengers no longer possessed any interest for 
us ; and we devoted our attention to the scenery 
on each side of the railway. From Tientsin to 
Pekin the journey occupies about five hours. The 
line runs through level, fertile country, where the 
crops stand higher than a mounted man ; thus 
the actions on the way to the relief of the Lega- 
tions were fought blindfold. Among the giant 
vegetation troops lost direction, corps became 
mixed, and the enemy could seldom be seen. As 
the train ran on, the tops of the tall stalks rose 
in places above the roofs of the carriages, and 
shut in our view as though we were passing 



F 



66 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

through a dense forest. Here and there we 
rattled past villages or an occasional temple almost 
hidden by the high crops. There were several 
stations along the line ; the buildings solidly con- 
structed of stone, the walls loopholed for defence. 
On the platforms the usual cosmopolitan crowd 
of soldiers, and Chinamen of all ages offering for 
sale bread, cakes, Japanese beer, bottles of vin 
ordinaire bought from the French, grapes, peaches, 
and plums in profusion. In winter various kinds 
of game, with which the country teems, are 
substituted for the fruit. At Yangsun were a 
number of Chasseurs d'Afrique, whose regiment 
was quartered in the vicinity. Trains passed us ; 
the carriages crowded with troops of all nations, 
the trucks filled with horses, guns and military 
stores, or packed with grinning Chinamen. 

At last, between the trees, glimpses of yellow- 
tiled roofs flashing in the sunlight told us that 
we were nearing the capital. Leaning from the 
windows we saw, apparently stretching right across 
the track, a long, high wall, with buttresses and 
lofty towers at intervals. It was the famous Wall 
of Pekin. Suddenly a large gap seemed to open 
in it ; the train glided through, and we found 
ourselves in the middle of a large city as we 
slowed down alongside a platform on which stood 
a board with the magic word " Pekin." We had 
reached our journey's end. On the other side of 
the line was a broad, open space, through which 



PEKIN 67 

ran a wide road paved with large stone flags. 
Over it flowed an incessant stream of carts, rick- 
shas, and pedestrians. Behind the station ran 
a long wall which enclosed the Temple of Heaven, 
where, after General Gaselee's departure, the British 
headquarters in Pekin were established. 

On the platform we found a half-caste guide 
waiting for us, sent to meet us by friends in the 
English Legation. Resigning our luggage to him 
and directing him to convey it to the one hotel 
the capital possessed, we determined to begin our 
sightseeing at once and walked towards the gate- 
way of the enclosure in which stands the Temple 
of Heaven. On entering, we found ourselves in 
a large and well-wooded demesne. Groves of tall 
trees, leafy rides, and broad stretches of turf made it 
seem more like an English park than the grounds 
of a Chinese temple. Long lines of tents, crossed 
lances, and picketed horses marked the camp of 
a regiment of Bengal cavalry ; for in the vast 
enclosure an army might bivouac with ease. 
Here was held the historic British assault-at-arms, 
when foreign officers were roused to enthusiasm 
at the splendid riding of our Indian cavalry and 
the marvellous skill of the Royal Horse Artillery 
as they swung their teams at full speed round the 
marks in the driving competitions. 

Apropos of the latter corps a story is told of 
Field - Marshal Von Waldersee's introduction to 
them at the first review he held of British troops 



68 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

at Tientsin. When the horse gunners came 
thundering down towards the saluting base in a 
cloud of dust, their horses stretching to a mad 
gallop, the guns bounding behind them like things 
of no weight but with every muzzle in line, the 
German Commander-in-Chief is said to have burst 
into admiring exclamation: "Splendid! Marvel- 
lous ! " he cried. As they flew past the old man 
huddled up on his charger, he started in surprise 
and peered forward. 

" Donnerwetter ! " he exclaimed, "why, they 
actually have their guns with them ! " The pace 
was so furious that he had been under the im- 
pression that they were galloping past with the 
teams only ; for he had thought it impossible for 
artillery to move at such speed drawing their 
field-pieces. The other officers of the Allied 
Armies were equally amazed at the sight. 

"It is positively dangerous !" said a German. 

" C'est incroyable ! Ca ne peut pas ! " cried an 
excited Frenchman. 

" Say, that'll show the Dagoes that they've got 
something still to learn," said a pleased Yankee. 

The Temple of Heaven consists of long, low 
buildings of the conventional Chinese architecture, 
with wide, upturned eaves. We found it empty 
but for a few memorial tablets of painted or gilded 
wood. Emerging through a small gate and cross- 
ing a tiny marble bridge, we strolled through the 
park to another temple, the conical roof of which 



PEK1N 69 

rose above the trees. It was known to the British 
troops in Pekin as the Temple of the Sun ; whether 
the name is correct or not I cannot say.* 

Passing the cavalry camp we came to a flight of 
steps, which led up to a terrace. On ascending this 
we found a huge gateway to the left. We passed 
through, and then, little susceptible as we were to 
artistic emotions, we stopped and gazed in silent 
admiration as the full beauty of the building stood 
revealed. The temple, circular in shape, stands on 
a slight eminence, surrounded by tiers of white 
marble balustrades. Its triple roof, bright with 
gleaming blue tiles and golden knob, blazed in the 
sun, the spaces between the roofs filled with gay 
designs in brilliant colours. The walls were of 
carved stone open-work with many doors. It rose, 
a dream of beauty and grace, against a dark green 
background of leafy trees, the loveliest building in 
Pekin. Within, all was bare. An empty altar, a 
painted tablet, a few broken gilt stools were all that 
pillaging hands had spared. The massive bronze 
urns which stood outside, too heavy to be carried 
away, had lost their handles, wrenched off for the 
mere value of the metal. Quitting the temple and 
passing through a door in a low wall, we came to a 
broad open space, in which stood a curious con- 

* Lord Curzon, in his interesting book, Problems of the Far East, 
refers to this building as " The Temple of Heaven " and calls what 
I have described as "The Centre of the Universe" "The Altar of 
Heaven." He is more likely to be correct than the officers of the 
armies of occupation, but I give the names which they used. 



70 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

struction which bears the proud title of " Centre of 
the Universe." Three circles of white marble balus- 
trades, one within the other, rose up to a paved 
platform, round which were large urns. Here once 
a year the Emperor comes in state to offer sacrifice 
to the manes of his ancestors. Close by was the 
Temple of the Moon, in design similar to that of 
the Sun, but much smaller and with only a single 
roof. 

This exhausted the sights of the Temple of 
Heaven. We returned through the park to the 
railway station, where we procured rickshas to take 
us to the hotel. Strong, active coolies whirled us 
along over the wide, flagged road that runs through 
the Chinese town. We passed crowds of Celestials 
trudging on in the awful dust, springless Pekin 
carts drawn by sturdy little ponies, an occasional 
Bengal Lancer or German Mounted Infantryman, 
through streets of mean shops, the fronts hung with 
gaudy sign-boards, until we reached the wall of the 
Tartar city. Before us stood the Chien Men Gate, 
the brick tower above it roofless and shattered by 
shells, the heavy iron-studded door swung back. 
We rumbled through the long, tunnel-like entrance, 
between rows of low, one-story houses, and soon 
reached the famous Legation Street, the quarter in 
which lie the residences of the Foreign Ministers 
and the other Europeans in Pekin. We passed 
along a wide road in good repair, by gateways at 
which stood Japanese, French, and German sentries, 



PEKIN 71 

by the shattered ruins of the Hong Kong and 
Shanghai Bank. All around the Legations lay 
acres of wrecked Chinese houses, torn by shells and 
blackened by fire a grim memento of the outrage 
that had roused the civilised world to arms. At 
length we reached a broad street leading from the 
Ha-ta-man Gate, turned to the left down it, and 
drew up before a small entrance in a line of low, 
one-story houses. Above it was a board bearing 
the inscription, " Hotel du Nord." Jumping from 
our rickshas, we paid off the perspiring coolies, 
and, walking across a small courtyard, were met by 
the proprietor and shown to our quarters. The 
hotel, which had been opened shortly after the 
relief of the Legations, consisted of a number of 
squalid Chinese houses, which had been cleverly 
converted into comfortable dining, sitting, and bed- 
rooms. An excellent cuisine made it a popular 
resort for the officers of the Allies in Pekin, and we 
found ourselves as well catered for as we could have 
done in many more pretentious hostels in civilised 
lands. 

A short description of the chief city of China 
may not be out of place ; though recent events 
have served to draw it from the obscurity that en- 
shrouded it so long. It is singular among the 
capitals of the world for the regularity of its out- 
line, owing to the stupendous walls which confine it. 
These famous battlements are twenty-five miles in 
total circumference, and the long lines, studded with 



72 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

lofty towers and giant buttresses, present an im- 
posing spectacle from the exterior. 

Pekin is divided into two separate and distinct 
cities, the Tartar and the Chinese. The latter, 
adjoining the southern wall of the former, is in 
shape a parallelogram, its longer sides running 
east and west. It grew as an excrescence to the 
capital of the victorious Manchus, and was in 
ancient times inhabited by the conquered Chinese 
as the Tartar City was by the superior race, though 
now this line of demarcation is lost in the practical 
merging of the two nationalities as regards the 
lower orders. The wall of the Chinese city is 
thirty feet high and twenty feet thick. 

The Tartar city, in shape also a parallelogram, 
with the longer sides north and south, is sur- 
rounded by a much more imposing wall, which if 
vigorously defended would prove a truly formid- 
able obstacle to any army unprovided with a 
powerful siege train. It is forty feet high, fifty 
feet broad at the top, and sixty-four feet thick at 
the base, and consists of two masonry walls, made 
of enormous bricks as solid as stone, that on the 
external face being twelve feet thick, the interior 
one eight feet, the space between them filled with 
clay, rammed in layers of from six to nine inches.* 
A practicable breach might be effected by the 
concentrated fire of heavy siege guns, for shells 

* These dimensions were given me by Lieutenant Pearson, R.E., 
who had to tunnel the wall to allow the passage of a railway line. 



PEKIN 73 

planted near the top of the wall would probably 
bring down bricks and earth enough to form a 
ramp. From the outside seven gateways lead into 
the Chinese city, six into the Tartar, while com- 
munication between the two is maintained by three 
more. They can be closed by enormously thick, 
iron-studded wooden gates, which in ordinary times 
are shut at night. The Japanese effected an 
entrance into the Tartar city by blowing in one 
of these. At the corners of the walls and over 
each gateway are lofty brick towers several stories 
high, the intervals between them being divided 
by buttresses. These towers are comparatively 
fragile, and at the taking of Pekin those attacked 
suffered considerably from the shell fire of the 
field guns of the Allies. Outwards from the base 
of the walls a broad open space is left. 

The Tartar City is by far the more important. 
It holds most of the temples, the residences of the 
upper and wealthier classes, the important build- 
ings and larger shops. In the centre of it is the 
Imperial city, in shape an irregular square, en- 
closed by a high wall seven miles in circumfer- 
ence, the top of which is covered with yellow 
tiles. Here are found the public buildings and 
the houses of the official mandarins ; and in its 
heart lies the Purple or Forbidden City, the resi- 
dence of the Emperor and his Court. All the 
buildings inside the limits of the Imperial city are 
roofed with gleaming yellow tiles, that being the 



74 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

sacred colour. To the south-east, near the wall 
of the Chinese city, lies the Legation quarter, 
where most of the European residents live. 

The only high ground in Pekin consists of two 
small eminences, just inside the northern boundary 
of the Imperial city. One, facing the gateway, is 
known as Coal Hill. Tradition declares it to 
consist of an enormous quantity of coal, accumu- 
lated in former times to provide against a threat- 
ened siege. It is covered with trees, bushes, and 
grass. On the summit is a pavilion, from which 
an excellent view over all Pekin is obtained. At 
one's feet the yellow roofs of the buildings in the 
Imperial and Forbidden cities blaze in the sun 
like gold. To the right is the other small tree- 
clad hill, on which stands the quaintly shaped 
Ming Pagoda. Below it, to the right of the 
Imperial city, lies a gleaming expanse of water, 
the Lotos Lake, crossed by a picturesque white 
marble bridge, with strange, small, circular arches. 
Near it is the Palace of the Empress- Do wager. 
To the south of the sacred city is the Legation 
quarter, where the European-looking buildings of 
the residences of the Foreign Ministers and the 
other alien inhabitants seem curiously out of keep- 
ing with their surroundings. Far away the high, 
many-storied towers over the gateways between 
the Tartar and the Chinese city rise up from the 
long line of embattled wall. Looking down on it 
from this height Pekin is strangely picturesque, 



PEKIN 75 

with a sea of foliage that surges between the 
buildings ; and yet on descending into the streets 
one wonders what has become of the trees with 
which the city seemed filled. The fact is that 
they are extremely scattered, one in one court- 
yard, one in another, and in consequence are 
scarcely remarked from the level. The Palace, 
the Legations, and the towers are the only build- 
ings that stand up prominently among the mono- 
tonous array of low roofs, for the houses are 
almost invariably only one-storied. 

The Tartar City is pierced by broad roads running 
at right angles to the walls. From them a net- 
work of smaller lanes leads off, usually extremely 
narrow and always unsavoury, being used as the 
dumping-ground of all the filth and refuse of the 
neighbouring houses. The main streets even are 
unpaved and ill-kept. The centre portion alone is 
occasionally repaired in a slovenly fashion, apparently 
by heaping on it fresh earth taken from the sides, 
which have consequently become mere ditches eight 
or nine feet below the level of the middle causeway 
and the narrow footpaths along the front of the 
houses. After heavy rain these fill with water and 
are transformed into rushing rivers. Occasionally 
on dark nights a cart falls into them, the horse 
unguided by a sleepy driver, and the occupants 
are drowned. Such a happening in the principal 
thoroughfares of a large and populous city seems 
incredible. I could scarcely believe it until I was 



76 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

once obliged almost to swim my pony across a main 
street with the water up to the saddle -flaps, and 
this after only a few hours' rain. A Chinaman, by 
the way, will never rescue a drowning man, from 
the superstition that the rescuer will always meet 
with misfortune from the hand of the one he has 
saved. 

The houses are mostly one story high, dingy 
and squalid. The shops, covered with gaudy red 
and gold sign-boards, have little frontage but much 
depth, and display to the public gaze scarcely any- 
thing of the goods they contain. All along the 
principal streets peddlers establish themselves on 
the narrow side-walks, spread their wares on the 
ground about them, and wait with true Oriental 
patience for customers. The houses of the richer 
folk are secluded within courtyards, and cannot be 
seen from the public thoroughfares. 

On the whole, Pekin from the inside is not an 
attractive city ; and as the streets in dry weather are 
thick with dust that rises in clouds when a wind 
blows, and in wet are knee-deep in mud where not 
flooded, they do not lend themselves to casual 
strolling. The broad tops of the walls are much 
preferable for a promenade. Access to them is 
gained by ramps at intervals. They are clean, not 
badly paved though often overgrown with bushes, 
and afford a good view over the surrounding houses, 
and in the summer offer the only place where a 
cooling breeze can be found. 



PEKIN 77 

Comfortably installed in the Hotel du Nord, we 
determined to devote our firt afternoon in Pekin 
to a visit to the quarter of most pressing, though 
temporary, interest, the Legations, on which the 
thoughts of the whole civilised world had been 
concentrated during their gallant defence against 
a fanatical and cowardly foe. As the distance was 
short, we set out on foot. The courtyard of the 
hotel opens on to the long street that runs through 
the Tartar city from the Ha-ta-man Gate, leading 
into the Chinese city. As the wall was close at 
hand, we ascended it by one of the ramps or 
inclined ways that lead to the top, and entered the 
tower above the gateway. It was a rectangular 
three-storied building with the usual sloping gabled 
roofs and wide, upturned eaves of Chinese architec- 
ture. The interior was bare and empty. The lower 
room was wide and lofty, the full breadth and depth 
of the tower, and communicating with the floor 
above by a steep ladder. From the large windows 
of the upper stories a fine view over both cities was 
obtained. We looked down on the seething crowds 
passing along Ha-ta-man Street and away to where, 
above the Legation quarter, the flags of the Allies 
fluttered gaily in proud defiance to the tall yellow 
roofs of the Imperial palace close by. Descending, 
we emerged upon the broad paved road that ran 
along the top of the wall, and found it a pleasant 
change from the close, fetid streets. The side 
towards the Chinese city, the houses of which run up 



78 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

to the foot of the wall, is defended by a loopholed 
and embrasured parapet. We soon found ourselves 
over the Legation quarter and looked down on the 
spot where the besieged Europeans had so long 
held their assailants at bay. A broad ditch or 
nullah with walled sides, which during the rains 
drains the Tartar city, ran towards the wall on 
which we stood, passing beneath our feet through 
a tunnel in it, which could be closed by an iron 
grating. This was the famous water-gate by which 
the Anglo- Indian troops had entered, first of the 
Allies, to the relief of the besieged. The nullah was 
crossed by several bridges, over one of which passes 
Legation Street, along which we had ridden in our 
rickshas that morning. On the left bank of the 
nullah, looking north, stands the English Legation, 
surrounded by a high wall enclosing well-wooded 
grounds. Opposite it, on the right bank, is the 
Japanese Legation, similarly enclosed. During the 
siege the two were connected by a wall built across 
the watercourse, which is generally dry, and they 
thus formed the front face of the defence. A 
portion of the city wall, cut off by breastworks 
on the summit, became the rear face, which was 
held by the Americans, who were attacked along 
the top of the wall itself. The French, German, 
and Belgian Legations lay to the right and rear 
of the Japanese ; while the Russian and American 
stood between the British Legation and the wall. 
All around the limits of the defence were acres of 




o -a 



PEKIN 79 

wrecked and burnt Chinese houses, destroyed im- 
partially by besiegers and besieged. 

After a long study of the position from our coign 
of vantage, we descended to the left bank of the 
nullah ; and, passing the residences of the American 
and Russian Ministers guarded by stalwart Yankee 
soldier or heavily built Slav, we came to where the 
imposing gateway of the English Legation opens 
out on the road running along the bank. Inside 
the entrance stood the guardroom. To the right 
lay the comfortable residences of the Minister and 
the various officials spread about in the spacious, 
tree-shaded grounds. We passed on to a group 
of small and squalid Chinese houses, which served 
as the quarters for the officers and men of the 
Legation Guard, chiefly composed of Royal Welch 
Fusiliers. The officers in command, all old friends 
of ours, received us most hospitably, and enter- 
tained us with grateful refreshment and the news 
of Pekin. We were cynically amused at learning 
from them an instance of the limits of human 
gratitude. The civilian inhabitants of the English 
Legation have insisted that a wall should be built 
between their residences and the quarters of the 
guard, lest, perchance, the odour of "a brutal and 
licentious soldiery " should come betwixt the wind 
and their nobility. They gladly welcome their 
protection in time of danger, but in peace their 
fastidious eyes would be offended by the sight 
of the humble red-coat. Our hosts showed us 



8o THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

round the grounds and the enceinte of the defence, 
and explained many points in the siege that we had 
not previously understood. 

When, our visit over, we walked back to the 
hotel down Legation Street, we were interested 
in noticing that the walls and houses bordering the 
road were covered with bullet splashes ; while 
the ruins of the Chinese houses, of the fine building 
that had once been a branch of the Hong Kong 
and Shanghai Bank, and of some of the Legations 
spoke eloquently of the ravages of war. On the 
wreckage around notices were posted, showing the 
increased areas claimed for the various foreign 
Legations in the general scramble that ensued on 
the fall of Pekin. Little Belgium, with her scanty 
interests in China, has not done badly. Every- 
where were to be seen placards bearing the legend, 
"Occupe" par la Legation Beige," until she promised 
to have almost more ground than any of the great 
Powers. Vae Victis, indeed ! And the truth of it 
was evident everywhere, from the signs of the 
game of general grab all around the Legations to 
the insolent manner of a German Mounted Infantry- 
man we saw scattering the Chinese foot-passengers 
as he galloped along the street. 

When we entered the dining-room of the hotel 
that evening, we found it filled with Continental 
officers, who, as we bowed to the groups at the 
various tables before taking our seats, rose politely 
and returned our greeting. Britishers unused to 



PEKIN 81 

the elaborate foreign courtesy found the continual 
salutes that were the custom of most of the Allies 
rather a tax at first ; and the ungraciousness of 
English manners was a frequent source of comment 
among those of our European brothers-in-arms who 
had never before been brought in contact with the 
Anglo-Saxon race. But they soon regarded us as 
almost paragons of politeness compared with our 
American cousins, who had no stomach for the 
universal "bowing and scraping," and with true 
republican frankness, did not hesitate to let it be 
known. Our proverbial British gruffness wore off 
after a little time, and our Continental comrades 
finally came to the conclusion that we were not 
so unmannerly as they deemed us at first. In the 
beginning some offence was given as they did not 
understand that in the English naval or military 
services it is the custom where several officers are 
together for the senior only to acknowledge a 
salute ; for in the other European armies all would 
reply equally to it. 

The three leading characteristics of Pekin are 
its odour, its dust in dry weather, and its mud after 
rain. The cleanliness introduced by the Allies did 
wonders towards allaying the stench ; and I do not 
think that any place in the world, short of an 
alkali desert, can beat the dust of the Long Valley. 
But though I have seen "dear, dirthy Dublin" in 
wet weather, have waded through the slush of 
Aldershot, and had certainly marvelled at the mire 



82 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

of Hsin-ho, yet never have I gazed on aught to 
equal the depth, the intensity, and the consistency 
of the awful mud of Pekin. We made its acquaint- 
ance on the day following our arrival. Heavy rain 
had kept us indoors until late in the afternoon 
when, taking advantage of a temporary cessation 
of the deluge, we rashly ventured on a stroll down 
Ha-ta-man Street. The city, never beautiful, 
looked doubly squalid in the gloomy weather. 
Along the raised centre portion of the roadway 
the small Pekin carts laboured literally axle-deep 
in mire. It was impossible for rickshas to ply. 
On either side the lower parts of the street were 
several feet under water, while gushing torrents 
rushed into them from the alleys and lanes. We 
struggled with difficulty through the awful mud, 
wading through pools too broad to jump. Once 
or twice we nearly slipped off the edge of the 
central causeway, and narrowly escaped an un- 
welcome bath in the muddy river alongside. As 
we splashed and skipped along like schoolboys, 
laughing at our various mishaps, our mirth was 
suddenly hushed. Down the road towards us 
tramped a mournful cortege a funeral party of 
German soldiers marching with reversed arms 
behind a gun-carriage on which lay, in a rough 
Chinese coffin, the corpse of some young conscript 
from the Vaterland. As we stood aside to let the 
procession pass, we raised our hands to our helmets 
in a last salute to a comrade. 



PEKIN 83 

In sobered mood we waded on until, in the 
centre of the roadway, we came to a mat-shed that 
marked the site of a monument to be erected 
on the spot where the German Minister, Baron 
Kettler, was murdered at the outbreak of the 
troubles. Foully slain as he had been by soldiers 
of the Chinese Imperial troops, his unhappy fate 
proved perhaps the salvation of the other Europeans 
in the Legations. For it showed that no reliance 
could be placed on the promises of the Court which 
had just offered them a safe-conduct and an escort 
to Tientsin. And on the ground stained by his 
life-blood the monument will stand, a grim memento 
and a warning of the vengeance of civilisation. 

Weary of our struggles with the mud, we now 
resolved to go no farther and turned back to the 
hotel, but not in time to escape a fresh downpour, 
which drenched us thoroughly. 

Next day we changed our abode, having found 
accommodation in the portion of Pekin allotted to 
the English troops ; for the city was divided into 
sections for the allied occupation. Some officers 
of the Welch Fusiliers had kindly offered us room 
in their quarters in Chong Wong Foo. This 
euphonious title signifies the palace of Prince 
Chong, who was one of the eight princes of China. 
Our new lodging was more imposing in name than 
in fact. The word " palace " conjured up visions 
of stately edifices and princely magnificence which 
were dissipated by our first view of the reality. 



84 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Seated in jolting, springless Pekin carts that 
laboured heavily through the deep mire, we had 
driven from the hotel through miles of dismal, 
squalid streets. Turning off a main road, which 
was being repaired, or rather re-made, by the 
British, we entered a series of small, evil-smelling 
lanes bordered by high walls, from the doorways 
of which an occasional phlegmatic Chinaman re- 
garded us with languid interest. At length we 
came to a narrow road, which the rain of the 
previous day had converted into a canal. The 
water rose over the axles of the carts. Our sturdy 
ponies splashed on indomitably until ahead of us 
the roadway widened out into a veritable lake 
before a large gate at which stood a British sentry. 
As we approached he called out to us to turn down 
a lane to the right and seek a side entrance, as 
the water in front of the principal one here was 
too deep for our carts. Thanks to his directions, 
we found a doorway in the wall which gave 
admittance to a large courtyard. Jumping out of 
our uncomfortable vehicles, we entered. Round the 
enclosure were long, one-storied buildings, their 
fronts consisting of lattice-work covered with paper. 
They were used as barrack-rooms, and we secured 
a soldier in one of them to guide us. He led us 
through numerous similar courtyards, in one of 
which stood a temple converted into a gun-shed, 
until we finally passed through a small door in 
a wall into a tangled wilderness of a garden. At 



PEKIN 85 

the far end of this stood a long, low building with 
the conventional Chinese curved roof. It was con- 
structed of brick and wood, the latter for the most 
part curiously carved. The low -hanging eaves 
overspreading the broad stone verandah were 
supported by worm-eaten pillars. The portico and 
doorways were of fragile lattice-work, trellised in 
fantastic designs. It was the main portion of Prince 
Chong's residence and resembled more a dilapi- 
dated summer-house than a princely palace. Here 
we were met and welcomed by our hosts, Major 
Dobell, D.S.O. and Lieutenant Williams, who 
ushered us into the anything but palatial interior, 
which consisted of low, dingy rooms dimly lighted 
by paper-covered windows. The various chambers 
opened off each other or into gloomy passages in 
bewildering and erratic fashion. Camp beds and 
furniture seemed out of keeping with the surround- 
ings ; but a few blackwood stools were apparently 
all that Prince Chong had left behind him for his 
uninvited guests. Thanks to our friends' kindness, 
we were soon comfortably installed, and felt as 
much at home as if we had lived in palaces all 
our lives. It took us some time to learn our 
way about the labyrinth of courts. The buildings 
scattered through the yards would have afforded 
ample accommodation for a regiment ; and a whole 
brigade could have encamped with ease within the 
circumference enclosed by the outer walls. 

The place of most fascinating interest in the 



86 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

marvellous capital of China is undoubtedly the 
Forbidden City, the Emperor's residence. With 
the wonderful attraction of the mysterious its very 
name, fraught with surmise, is alluring. Nothing 
in all the vastness of Pekin excited such curiosity 
as the fabled enclosure that had so long shrouded 
in awful obscurity the Son of Heaven. No white 
man in ordinary times could hope to fathom its 
mysteries or know what lay concealed within 
its yellow walls. The ambassadors of the proudest 
nations of Europe were only admitted on suffer- 
ance, and that rarely, to the outermost pavilions 
of that sacred city, the hidden secrets of which 
none might dare reveal. But now the monarch 
of Celestial origin was an exile from the palace, 
whose inmost recesses were profaned by the im- 
pious presence of his foes. The tramp of an 
avenging army had echoed through its deserted 
courts ; barbarian voices broke its holy hush. 
Foreign soldiers jested carelessly in the sacred 
chamber where the proudest mandarins of China 
had prostrated themselves in awe before the Dragon 
Throne. Within its violated walls strangers wan- 
dered freely where they listed; and Heaven sent not 
its lightnings to avenge the sacrilege. Surely the 
gods were sleeping ! 

While the capital of the Celestial Kingdom 
languished in the grasp of the accursed barbarian, 
admittance to the Forbidden City was granted to 
anyone who obtained a written order from one of 



PEKIN 87 

the Legations. This was readily given to officers 
of the armies of occupation. Provided with it and 
a Chinese-speaking guide, a party of us set out 
one day from the British Legation to explore the 
mysteries of the Emperor's abode. A short ricksha 
ride brought us to the Imperial city. A rough 
paved road through it led to the gateway of the 
Palace, at which stood a guard of stalwart Ameri- 
can soldiers. Quitting our rickshas, we presented 
our pass to the sergeant in command. The gates 
were thrown open, and we were permitted to enter 
the sacred portals. Before us lay a large paved 
courtyard, the grass springing up between the stone 
flags, leading to a long, single-storied pavilion, 
seemingly crushed beneath the weight of its wide- 
spreading yellow-tiled double roof. To one who 
has imagined undreamt-of luxury and magnificence 
in the residence of the Emperor of China the 
reality comes as a sad disappointment. The Palace, 
far from being a pile of splendid and ornate archi- 
tecture, consists of a number of detached single- 
storied buildings, one behind the other, separated 
by immense paved courtyards, along the sides of 
which are the residences of the servants and at- 
tendants. The outer pavilions are a series of throne 
rooms, in which audience is given according to the 
rank of the individual admitted to the presence in 
inverse ratio to his importance. Thus, the first 
nearest the gate suffices for the reception of the 
smaller mandarins or envoys of petty States, the 



88 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

next for higher notabilities or ambassadors of 
greater nations, and so on. 

The description of one of these throne rooms 
will serve for all. 

A raised foundation, with tier above tier of carved 
white marble balustrades, slopes up to a paved ter- 
race on which stands a large one-storied pavilion. 
Its double roof blazes with lustrous yellow tiles ; the 
gables are ornamented with weird porcelain mon- 
sters. The far-projecting eaves, shading a deep 
verandah, are supported by many pillars. From 
the courtyard steps on either side of the sloping 
marble slab, curiously carved with fantastic designs 
of dragons and known as the Spirit Path, lead up 
to the terrace, on which are large bronze incense- 
burners, urns, life-size storks, and other birds and 
animals, with marble images of the sacred tortoise. 
From the verandah many doors lead into the vast 
and gloomy interior. A lofty central chamber, 
supported by gilded columns, contains a high dais, 
on which stands a throne of gilt and carved wood 
with bronze urns and incense-burners around it. 
The dais is surrounded by gilded railings and led 
up to by a flight of half a dozen steps. Behind it 
is a high screen of carved wood. Screen, walls, 
and pillars are gay with quaint designs of writhing, 
coiling dragons in gold and vivid hues, or hung 
with huge tablets inscribed with Chinese characters. 
The ceiling is gorgeously painted. The whole a 
wonderful medley of barbaric gaudiness. From 



PEKIN 89 

the principal chamber a few smaller rooms lead off, 
crammed with wooden chests containing piles of 
manuscripts. 

As we wandered about this pavilion our move- 
ments were closely watched by the custodians ; for 
many of the Imperial eunuchs had been permitted 
to remain in the palace and entrusted with the keys 
and charge of the various buildings. As, after the 
fairly exhaustive looting that took place on the 
capture of the city, no further plundering was 
allowed, these men were instructed to watch over 
the safety of the contents of the palace that had 
escaped the first marauders ; and they kept a 
sharp eye on visitors who endeavoured to secure 
mementoes. Despite their vigilance, one of our 
party succeeded in carrying off a little souvenir 
which he found in a chamber off the throne room. 
It was a small, flat candlestick, which its finder 
hoped would prove to be gold. It was only of 
brass, however, as he subsequently discovered ; and 
he commented disgustedly on the parsimony of a 
monarch who could allow so mean a metal within 
his palace. 

In the usual spirit of tourists, to whom nothing 
is sacred, we each reposed for a few moments in 
the Emperor's gilded chair, so that we could boast 
of once having occupied the Throne of China. I 
doubt if future historians will record our names 
among those who have assumed that exalted 
position. 



90 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Passing through this building, we emerged upon 
another courtyard, at the far end of which stood a 
similar pavilion. Its interior arrangement differed 
but slightly from the one which I have just described. 
There were several of these throne rooms, one 
behind the other, all very much alike. Along the 
sides of the intervening courts were low buildings 
of the usual Chinese type, which had served as 
residences for the palace attendants. 

We came to a large joss-house, or temple, the 
interior filled with gilded altars, hideous gods, 
memorial tablets, bronze incense-burners and can- 
delabra, silken hangings, and tawdry decorations. 
Here the reigning monarch comes to worship on 
the vigil of his marriage. 

In amusing proximity was the Emperor's seraglio. 
The gate was closed during the allied occupation, 
and on it was a notice to the effect that " the cus- 
todian has strict orders not to admit any person. 
Do not ill-treat him if he refuses to open the gate 
for you. He is only obeying orders." It was 
signed by General Chaffee, United States Army, 
and was significant of many things. So the hidden 
beauties still remain a mystery to the outer world. 

Near one of the pavilions a giant bronze attracted 
our attention. It represented an enormous lion, 
with particularly ferocious countenance, reposing 
on a square pedestal, one long-clawed fore-paw 
resting on the terrestrial globe. Beneath the other 
sprawled in agony a very diminutive lion, em- 



PEKIN 91 

blematic of China's enemies crushed beneath her 
might. The sculpture seemed rather ironical at 
that epoch. 

Passing onwards through a puzzling maze of 
courtyards, we reached at length the most interest- 
ing portion of the palace, the private apartments 
of the Emperor, the Empress-Consort, and that 
notorious lady the Empress- Dowager. Like all 
the rest of the Forbidden City, they were merely 
one-storied, yellow-roofed pavilions separated by 
courts. 

The interior of the Emperor's abode consisted 
of low, rather dingy rooms opening off each other. 
The appointments were of anything but regal 
magnificence. The furniture was of carved black- 
wood, with an admixture of tawdry European chairs 
and sofas. On the walls hung a weird medley 
of Chinese paintings and cheap foreign oleographs, 
all in gorgeous gilt frames. The latter were such 
as would be found in a fifth-rate lodging-house 
horse races, children playing at see-saw, con- 
ventional landscapes, and farmyard scenes. Jade 
ornaments and artificial flowers in vases abounded ; 
but all around, wherever one could be hung or 
placed, were European clocks, from the gilt French 
timepiece under a glass shade to the cheapest 
wooden eight-day clock. There must have been 
at least two or three hundred, probably more, 
scattered about the pavilion. The Chinese have 
a weird and inexplicable passion for them, and a 



92 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

man's social respectability would seem to be 
gauged more by the number of timepieces he 
possesses than by any other outward and visible 
signs of wealth. What a costly collection of rare 
masterpieces of art is to the American millionaire, 
the heterogeneous gathering of foreign clocks 
apparently is to the* Celestial plutocrat. The 
Imperial bed was a fine piece of carved blackwood ; 
but the most magnificent article of furniture in 
the pavilion was a large screen of the famous 
Canton featherwork, made of the green and blue 
plumage of the kingfisher. The design, which 
was framed and covered with glass, represented 
a pilgrimage to a sacred mountain. On its summit 
stood a temple, towards which crowds of wor- 
shippers climbed wearily. As a work of art it 
was excellent. It was the only thing in the 
Imperial apartments which I coveted. The rest 
of the furniture and fittings were tawdry and 
apparently valueless. 

The pavilion of the Empress-Consort was rather 
more luxuriously upholstered than that of her 
husband and contained some splendid embroideries. 
In her boudoir, besides the inevitable collection of 
clocks, oleographs, and artificial flowers, were a 
piano and a small organ, both very much out of 
tune, presented, we were told, by European ladies 
resident in China. 

The pavilion of the Empress- Dowager, a much 
finer abode than that of the reigning monarch, 



PEKIN 93 

contained a long, glass-walled room crowded with 
bizarre ornaments of foreign workmanship. Musi- 
cal boxes, mechanical toys under glass shades, 
vases of wax flowers, stood along each side on 
marble-topped tables ; and all around, of course, 
clocks. On the walls of her sleeping apartment 
hung a strange astronomical chart. The bed, an 
imposing and wide four-poster, was covered and 
hung with rich embroideries. And, as tourists 
should do, we lay down in turn on the old lady's 
couch, where I warrant she had tossed in sleepless 
agitation in those last summer nights when the 
rattle of musketry around the besieged Legations 
told that the hated foreigners still resisted China's 
might. And little slumber must have visited her 
there when the booming of guns, during the dark 
hours when Russian and Japanese flung themselves 
on the doomed city, disturbed the silence even in' 
the sacrosanct heart of the Forbidden City and 
told of the vengeance at hand. 

Having thoroughly inspected the Imperial apart- 
ments, we visited a very gaudily decorated temple, 
crowded with weird gods and hung with em- 
broideries, and then passed on to the small but 
delightful Emperor's garden. It was full of quaintly 
shaped trees and shrubs, bizarre rockeries and 
curious summer-houses, gorgeous flowers and plants, 
and splendid bronze monsters. These last abso- 
lutely blazed in the brilliant sunlight as though 
gilded ; for they are made of that costly Chinese 



94 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

bronze which contains a large admixture of gold. 
The garden closed the catalogue of sights to be 
seen in the palace ; and though we visited a few 
more of the dingy buildings of the Forbidden City, 
there was nothing else worthy of being chronicled. 
We passed out through the northern gateway and 
climbed up Coal Hill close by for a long, compre- 
hensive look over Pekin from the pavilion on the 
summit. 

All around us the capital lay embosomed in trees 
and bathed in brilliant sunshine, the yellow roofs of 
the Imperial Palace at our feet flashing like gold. 
To the right lay the pretty Lotos Lakes of the 
Empress- Do wager, the white marble bridge span- 
ning them stretching like a delicate ivory carving 
over the gleaming water. Through the haze of 
heat and dust the towers of the walls rose up boldly 
to the sky. And far away, beyond the crowded 
city, the country stretched in fertile fields and dense 
groves of trees to a distant line of hills, where the 
tall temples of the Summer Palace stood out 
sharply against a dark background. 



CHAPTER V 
RAMBLES IN PEKIN 

WHEN the treachery of the Empress- 
Dowager and the mad fanaticism of the 
Chinese ringed in the Legations with a circle of 
fire and steel, all the world trembled at the danger 
of the besieged Europeans. When Pekin fell and 
relief came, the heroism of the garrison was lauded 
through every nation. But few heard of a still 
more gallant and desperate defence which took 
place at the same time and in the same city when 
a few priests and a handful of marines in the 
Peitan, the Roman Catholic cathedral of Pekin, 
long held at bay innumerable hordes of assailants. 
Well deserved as was the praise bestowed on the 
defenders of the Legations, their case was never 
so desperate as that of the missionaries, nuns, and 
converts penned up in the church and schools. On 
the Peitan fell the first shock of fanatical attack ; 
no armistice gave rest to its weary garrison, and 
to it relief came last of all. For over two months, 
with twenty French and eleven Italian marines, the 
heroic Archbishop, Monseigneur Favrier, and his 
priests all honour to them! held an almost im- 
possible position against overwhelming numbers. 

95 



96 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

The enceinte of the defence comprised the cathe- 
dral, the residences of the priests, the schools, and 
the convent, and contained within its straggling 
precincts, besides the nuns and the missionaries, 
over 3,000 converts men, women, and children. 
The buildings were riddled with shot and shell. 
Twice mines were exploded within the defences 
and tore away large portions of the protecting wall, 
besides killing or wounding hundreds. 

The Chinese occupied houses within a few yards 
of the cathedral, and on one occasion brought a 
gun up within forty paces of its central door. A 
few rounds would have laid the way open to the 
stormers. All hope seemed lost ; when the daunt- 
less old Archbishop led out ten marines in a 
desperate sally, drove off the assailants, and, 
capturing the gun, dragged it back within the 
church. A heroic priest volunteered to try to 
pierce the environing hordes of besiegers and 
seek aid from the Legations, not knowing that 
they, too, were in deadly peril. In disguise he 
stole out secretly from the defences, and was never 
heard of again. One shudders to think what his 
fate must have been. It is still a mystery. Under 
a pitiless close-range fire the marines and priests, 
worthy of their gallant leader, stood at their posts 
day and night and drove back the mad rushes of 
the assailants. Heedless of death, the nuns bore 
water, food, and ammunition to the defenders, 
nursed the wounded and sick, and soothed the 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 97 

alarm of the Chinese women and children in their 
care. Disease and starvation added their grim 
terrors to the horrors of the situation. 

Desirous of seeing the scene of this heroic 
defence, I set out one day to visit the cathedral 
in company with some officers of the Fusiliers and 
of my own regiment. The ground being dry, we 
chose rickshas for our vehicles in preference to 
Pekin carts, which are as uncomfortable a form of 
conveyance as any I know. Our coolies ran us 
along at a good pace, for the Pekinese ricksha-men 
are exceedingly energetic ; indeed, the Chinaman 
is the best worker I have ever seen, with the 
possible exception of the Corean boatmen at 
Chemulpo. The Hong Kong dock labourers are 
a model that the same class in England would 
never copy. One day in Dublin I watched three 
men raising a small paving-sett a few inches square 
from the roadway. Two held the points of crow- 
bars under it while the third leisurely scratched at 
the surrounding earth with a pickaxe, pausing 
frequently to wipe his heated brow and remark 
that " hard work is not aisy, begob ! " I wondered 
what a Chinaman would have said if he had seen 
that sight. 

Close to the Peitan we found ourselves in a 
broad street which was being re-made by the 
French, who had named it " Rue du General 
Voyron" after their commander -in -chief. In it 
were many newly-opened cafes and drinking-shops, 

H 



98 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

placarded with advertisements of various sorts of 
European liquors for sale within. Turning off this 
road into a narrow lane, we suddenly came upon 
the gate of the Peitan. 

The cathedral is a beautiful building of the 
graceful semi -Gothic type of modern French 
churches, lightly constructed of white stone. It is 
crowned by airy pinnacles and looks singularly out 
of place among the squalid Chinese houses that 
crowd around it. At first we could not discern any 
marks of the rough handling it had received, and 
marvelled at its good preservation. But on 
approaching closer, we saw that the masonry was 
chipped and scarred in a thousand places. Scarce 
a square yard of the front was without a bullet 
or shell-hole through it. The walls were so thin 
that the shells had passed through without ex- 
ploding ; and it seemed almost incredible that any 
being could have remained alive within them during 
the hellish fire to which they had so evidently been 
subjected. 

We were met at the entrance by Monseigneur 
Favrier's courteous coadjutor-bishop, who received 
us most hospitably, took us over the cathedral and 
round the defences, and explained the incidents of 
the siege to us. He showed us the enormous hole 
in the compound and the breach in the wall caused 
by the explosion of one of the Chinese mines, 
which had killed and wounded hundreds. The 
ground everywhere was strewn with large iron 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 99 

bullets and fragments of shells, fired by the be- 
siegers. The Bishop smiled when we requested 
permission to carry off a few of these as souvenirs, 
and remarked with truth that there were enough 
to suffice for visitors for many years. We in- 
spected with interest the gun captured by the 
Archbishop. Then, as he spoke no English, and 
I was the only one of the party who could con- 
verse with him in French, he handed us over to 
the care of an Australian nun, who proved to be 
a capital cicerone and depicted the horrors they 
had undergone much more vividly than our pre- 
vious guide had done. Her narrative of the 
sufferings of the brave sisters and the women and 
children was heartrending. Before we left we 
were fortunate enough to have the honour of being 
presented to the heroic prelate, whose courage and 
example had animated the defenders. A burly, 
strongly built man, with genial and open counten- 
ance, Monseigneur Favrier is a splendid specimen 
of the Church Militant and reminded one of the 
old-time bishops, who, clad in armour, had led 
their flocks to war, and fought in the forefront of 
battles in the Middle Ages. His bravery was 
equalled by his modesty, for he resolutely declined 
to be drawn into any account of his exploits 
during the siege. Long may he flourish ! A 
perfect specimen of the priest of God, the soldier, 
and the gentleman. As we parted from him we 
turned to look again on the man so modestly 



ioo THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

unconscious of his own heroism, that in any army 
in the world would have covered him with honours 
and undying fame. 

When we looked at the extent of the defences 
and compared it with the paucity of the garrison, 
we could scarcely understand how the place re- 
sisted attack for an hour. By all the rules of 
warfare it was absolutely untenable. It is sur- 
rounded on all sides within a few yards by houses, 
which were occupied by the Chinese who from 
their cover poured in an unceasing and harassing 
fire upon the garrison. The defenders were too 
few to even attempt to drive them out,* and so 
were obliged to confine themselves to defeating the 
frequent assaults made on them. Their successful 
and gallant resistance was a feat that would be a 
glorious page in the annals of any army. "Palmam 
qui meruit ferat !" 

Not the least remarkable of the many curious 
phases of this extraordinary campaign was the 
rapidity with which, when order had been restored, 
the Chinese settled down again in Pekin. A few 
months after the fall of the capital its streets, to 
a casual observer, had resumed their ordinary 
appearance ; but the wrecked houses, the foreign 
flags everywhere displayed, the absence of the 
native upper classes, and the presence of the 
soldiers of the Allies marked the change. Burly 
Russian and lithe Sikh, dapper little Japanese and 

* They had only forty rifles all told. 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 101 

yellow - haired Teuton roughly shouldered the 
Celestial aside in the streets, where formerly the 
white man had passed hurriedly along in momen- 
tary dread of insult and assault. But in the 
presence of the strict discipline of the troops after 
the first excesses the Chinaman speedily recovered 
his contempt veiled though it was now perforce 
for the foreign devil. Ricksha coolies argued over 
their fare, where not long before a blow would 
have been the only payment vouchsafed or ex- 
pected. Lounging crowds of Chinese on the side- 
paths refused to make way for European officers 
until forcibly reminded that they belonged to a 
vanquished nation. 

Shops that had any of their contents left after 
the fairly complete looting the city had undergone 
opened again, the proprietors demanding prices for 
their goods that promised to rapidly recoup them 
for their losses. Vehicles of all kinds filled the 
streets, which were soon as interesting as they had 
been before the advent of the Allies and a great 
deal safer. Pekin carts rattled past strings of laden 
Tartar camels, which plodded along with noiseless 
footfall and the weary air of haughty boredom of 
their kind. Coolies with streaming bodies ran their 
rickshas over the uneven roadway. Heavy trans- 
port waggons, drawn by European and American 
horses or stout Chinese mules, rumbled through 
the deep dust or heavy mud. And, thanks to the 
cleansing efforts of the Allies, the formerly most 



102 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

noticeable feature of Pekin was absent its over- 
powering stench. 

Engaging the services of a guide and interpreter, 
a party of us set out one afternoon to view the 
shops, with the ulterior purpose of purchasing some 
of the famous pottery and silks. We went in 
rickshas to Ha-ta-man Street, which is a good 
commercial thoroughfare. Arrived there, we dis- 
carded our man-drawn vehicles and strolled along 
the high side-walks, pausing now and then to gaze 
at the curious pictures of Chinese street life. Here 
peddlers sat surrounded by their wares. An old- 
clothes merchant, selecting a convenient space of 
blank wall, had driven nails into it, and hung on 
them garments of all kinds, from the cylindrical 
trousers of the Chinese woman to the tarnished, 
gold-embroidered coat of a mandarin, with perhaps 
a suggestive rent and stain that spoke all too plainly 
of the fate of the last owner. Another man sat 
amid piles of footgear the quaint tiny shoes of 
women that would not fit a European baby, the 
slippers of the superior sex, with their thick felt 
soles, the long knee boots for winter wear. Here 
a venerable, white-haired Chinaman, with the beard 
that bespoke him a grandfather, dozed among a 
heterogeneous collection of rusty knives, empty 
bottles and jampots, scraps of old iron, and broken 
locks of native or European manufacture. Another 
displayed cheap pottery of quaint shape and hideous 
colouring, or the curious, pretty little snuff-bottles, 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 103 

with tiny spoons fitted into the stopper, that I 
have never seen anywhere but in China. Another 
offered tawdry embroidery or tinselled fan-cases. 
Piles of Chinese books and writing-desks, with 
their brushes and solid blocks of ink, were the 
stock-in-trade of another. 

And true Oriental haughty indifference marked 
the demeanour of these cheapjacks when we 
searched among their curious wares for souvenirs 
of Pekin. They evinced not the least anxiety for 
us to buy, although they knew that the lowest price 
that they would extract from us was sure to be 
much more than they could obtain from a Chinese 
purchaser. Their demands were exorbitant for 
the commonest, most worthless article ; and they 
showed no regret if we turned away exasperated at 
their rapacity. One asked me fifteen dollars for a 
thing which he gave eventually, after hard bargain- 
ing, for one, and then probably made a profit of 
fifty cents over it. 

Farther on we stopped to gaze at a small crowd 
assembled round a fortune-teller. A stout country- 
woman was having her future foretold. The 
prophet, looking alternately at her hand and at a 
chart covered with hieroglyphics, was evidently 
promising her a career full of good fortune and 
happiness, to judge from the rapt and delighted 
expression on her face. 

A bear, lumbering heavily through a cumbrous 
dance to the mournful strains of a weird musical 



THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

instrument, was the centre of another small gather- 
ing. Farther down the street a juggler had attracted 
a ring of interested spectators, who, when the per- 
former endeavoured to collect money from them, 
melted away quite as rapidly as a similar crowd in 
the streets of London scatters when the hat is 
passed round. 

We had noticed many peepshows being exhibited 
along the side-walk, with small, pig-tailed urchins, 
their eyes glued to the peepholes, evidently having 
their money's worth. Curious to see the spec- 
tacles with which the Chinese showman regales his 
audiences, we struck a bargain with one, and for 
the large sum of five cents the whole party was 
allowed to look in through the glasses. The first 
tableau represented a troupe of acrobats performing 
before the Imperial Court. Then the proprietor 
pressed a spring ; by a mechanical device the scene 
changed, and we drew back from the peepholes ! 
The Chinese are not a moral race. None of us 
were easily shocked, but the picture that met our 
gaze was a little too indecent for the broadest- 
minded European. We moved on. 

Outside a farrier's booth a pony was being shod. 
Two poles planted firmly in the earth, with a cross- 
piece fixed between them, about six feet from the 
ground, formed a sort of gallows. Ropes passed 
round the animal's neck, chest, loins, and legs, and 
fastened to the poles, half suspending him in the 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 105 

air, held him almost immovable. The most vicious 
brute would be helpless in such a contrivance. 

Our guide, on being reminded that we desired 
to make some purchases, stopped outside a low- 
fronted, dingy shop, and informed us that it 
belonged to one of the best silk merchants in 
Pekin. We entered, and found the proprietor deep 
in conversation with a friend. The guide addressed 
him, and told him that we wished to look at some 
silks. Hardly interrupting his conversation, the 
merchant replied that he had none. Irritated at 
his casual manner, our interpreter asked why he 
exhibited a sign -board outside the shop, which 
declared that silks were for sale within. " Oh, 
everything I had was looted. There is nothing 
left," replied the proprietor nonchalantly ; and he 
turned to resume his interrupted conversation as 
indifferently as if the plundering of his goods was 
too ordinary a business risk to demand a moment's 
thought Not a word of complaint at his mis- 
fortune. How different, I thought, from the torrent 
of indignant eloquence with which the European 
shopkeeper would bewail the slackness of trade or 
a fire that had damaged his property ! 

We were more successful in the next establish- 
ment we visited, for a new stock had been laid in 
since the capture of the city. But the silks were 
of very inferior quality, the colours crude and 
gaudy, and the prices exorbitant. So we purchased 
nothing. 



io6 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

We next inspected a china shop, which was 
stacked with pottery from floor to ceiling. To my 
mind the patterns and colouring of everything we 
saw were particularly hideous, though some of our 
party who posed as connoisseurs went into raptures 
over weird designs and glaring blues and browns. 

I was equally disappointed in a visit to a fan 
shop. China is pre-eminently the land of fans, 
and I had hoped to find some particularly choice 
specimens in Pekin. But all that were shown me 
were very indifferent badly made and of poor 
design. The prettiest I have ever seen were in 
Canton, where superb samples of carved sandal- 
wood and ivory can be procured at a very reason- 
able price. But Canton is far ahead of the capital 
in manufactures, and its inhabitants possess a keen 
commercial instinct. Its proximity to Hong Kong 
and the constant intercourse with foreigners have 
sharpened their trading faculties, and there are few 
smarter business men than the Canton shopkeeper. 

Strolling along the street we reached a market- 
place filled with open booths, in which food of 
all kinds was exposed for sale. Dried ducks, split 
open and skewered, hung beside sucking - pigs. 
Buckets of water filled with wriggling eels stood 
on the ground. Salt fish, meat, and vegetables lay 
on the stalls, which were surrounded by a chaffering 
crowd. Sellers and buyers argued vehemently, and 
the din of the bargaining so dear to the Oriental 
heart filled the street. Women, with oiled hair 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 107 

twisted into curious shapes and wound round long, 
flat combs that stood out six inches on either 
side of the back of their heads, toddled up on tiny, 
maimed feet, and plunged into heated discussions 
with the dealers. Beggars exhibited their hideous 
deformities to excite the pity of the crowd, and 
clutched insolently at the dresses of the passers-by 
to demand charity. 

Close by, a group of urchins drew water from 
a well. It was in the middle of the side- walk, 
and was covered with a large stone slab, pierced 
with four holes only just large enough to permit 
of the passage of the buckets. 

On our way back to Chong Wong Foo that 
afternoon we passed close to the Legation quarter, 
and stopped to watch the progress of the wall 
which was being built around it as a protection 
against future attacks. It is simply a high wall 
constructed of the enormous Pekin bricks, easily 
defensible against infantry attack, but I should 
doubt if it would long resist artillery fire. 

The most famous place of Buddhist worship in 
Pekin is the Great Lama Temple, which was, 
perhaps, the wealthiest monastery in China until 
Buddhism fell out of fashion. As it is still well 
worthy of a visit, I made an excursion to it one 
day in company with a small party. The monks 
had the reputation of being extremely hostile to 
foreigners ; and although Europeans could now go 
in safety to most places in the capital, I was 



io8 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

warned not to venture on a visit to this temple 
alone. 

Outside the principal entrance stands a fine 
specimen of those curious Chinese structures, half 
gateway, half triumphal arch. The lower portion 
was of stone, the superstructure of wood. It was 
crowned with three small towers, roofed with 
yellow tiles, and painted with gaudy designs in 
glaring colours. On either side, on stone pedestals, 
were enormous lions that looked like the nightmare 
creations of a demon-possessed artist. On passing 
through the front gate, we found ourselves in a 
paved courtyard surrounded by low, one-storied 
temples standing on raised verandahs. In the 
centre was a double-roofed square belfry with a 
small gate in each side. On entering the court 
we were at once surrounded by a clamorous crowd 
of shaven-headed, yello .v-robed men of a villainous 
type of countenance. These were the famous 
or infamous Buddhist monks. Their dress con- 
sisted of a long, yellow linen gown, confined at 
the waist by a sash, trousers, white socks, and 
felt-soled shoes. A more repulsive set of scoundrels 
I have never seen. Their former truculence was 
now replaced by a cringing servility. They 
crowded round us, demanding alms, or, holding 
out handfuls of small coins, offered to change our 
good silver dollars into bad five- and ten - cent 
pieces. Since Buddhism has ceased to be the 
fashionable religion in China, its ministers have 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 109 

fallen upon evil times, and subsist on charity and 
the offerings of the comparatively few followers 
of their creed. So visitors are vociferously assailed 
for alms ; and the wily monks, with a keen eye 
to business, had hit upon the idea of making a 
little money by tendering small coins of a debased 
currency in change for good silver pieces. 
Shouldering the clamorous crowd aside, our in- 
terpreter seized on one ancient priest to act as 
our guide. This worthy cleric aided us to drive 
off his importunate fellows, and led us through 
several courts to the principal temple. Like all 
the other buildings around, it was covered with a 
quaint, yellow-tiled roof, and on the corners of 
the gables and the projecting eaves were weird 
porcelain monsters ; while below hung small bells, 
which clanked dismally when moved by the wind. 
The temple was high and the interior particularly 
large and lofty ; for it contained a colossal image 
of Buddha, seated in the traditional posture, with 
crossed legs and hands holding the lotus flower 
and other sacred emblems. On its face was the 
abstracted expression of weary calm that is 
supposed to represent the attainment of Nirvana 
content. Stairs led up to galleries passing round 
the interior of the building to the level of the 
head of the deity, so that one could gaze into 
his countenance at close range. The statue is not 
so large or artistically so meritorious as the similar 
images of Daibutsu at Kamakura or Hiogo in 



i io THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Japan, each of which is hollow and contains a 
temple in its interior. On the walls of the stair- 
case, ranged on shelves, were thousands of little 
clay gods, crudely fashioned and painted. Our 
priestly guide refused to sell us any of these 
figures, though evidently sorely tempted by the 
sight of the almighty dollar. He evidently re- 
frained from doing so only through fear of being 
found out, not through any respect for his sacred 
images. Having gazed into Buddha's face and 
vainly endeavoured to experience the feeling of 
rapture that it is supposed to produce, we passed 
out to a balcony that ran round the exterior of 
the building. We were high up above the ground, 
and we looked down upon the jumble of quaint, 
yellow gables, the courtyards with their lounging 
groups of bullet-headed priests, and away over the 
panorama of Pekin to where the tall buildings of 
the Imperial city rose above a sea of low roofs. 

On descending again into the temple, we looked 
at the altars with tawdry ornaments, artificial 
flowers, faded hangings, and fantastic gods, and 
then passed out to the court. Our guide, having 
extracted alms from us, led us to another but 
smaller temple, and handed us over to its custodian 
priest, who unlocked the door and led us within. 
Round the walls were life-sized gilt images all 
of one design, and an exceedingly indecent design 
it was ; and we had little respect for the morals 
of the ancient Chinese deified hero it represented. 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN in 

After visiting several other buildings containing 
little of interest, we induced some of the monks 
to let us photograph them. They were pleased 
and flattered at the idea, and posed readily ; indeed, 
one who had been standing at the other side of the 
courtyard, seeing what was going on, rushed across 
and insisted on joining the group, anxious that his 
features, too, should be handed down to posterity. 
Throwing them a handful of small coins, which 
caused a very undignified scramble, we passed out 
of the gate. Seating ourselves in our rickshas, we 
drove to the Temple of Confucius, close by. It 
is devoted to the present Chinese faith, which is a 
mixture of ancestor-worship and Confucianism, and 
consists of several buildings standing in pretty, 
tree-shaded courts. The main temple contains long 
altars, on which are nothing but tablets with 
Chinese inscriptions maxims of the worthy sage. 
Larger tablets hang on the walls. Confucian 
chapels are not interesting ; and we were dis- 
appointed at the bareness of the interior. Similar 
but smaller buildings stood at the end of avenues 
in the grounds, but none repaid a visit. 

The cloisonn^ of Pekin is famous, and specimens 
of it command a good price throughout China. It 
is, however, decidedly inferior to Japanese work, 
which is much better finished and of far greater 
artistic merit. As I had never seen how the cloi- 
sonnd is made, I paid a visit to the principal factory 
in the capital. I was received by the proprietor, a 



ii2 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

very amiable old gentleman, who took our party 
round his establishment and showed us the process 
through all the stages from the raw material to the 
finished article. The place consisted of a number 
of small Chinese houses, some of which served as 
workshops, some were fitted up with furnaces for 
firing, others occupied as residences by the em- 
ployees and their families. In the first courtyard 
two men were seated before a small table, making 
European cigarette cases. In front of them lay the 
design to be reproduced, flanked by small saucers 
containing liquid enamel of various colours and tiny 
brushes. One man held a square plate of copper, 
and with a sharp scissors cut very thin strips from 
its edges. These he seized with a pair of pincers 
and deftly bent and twisted them into patterns to 
correspond with the lines of the design before him. 
They were then fixed on to the side of the case 
with some adhesive mixture. As soon as they 
were firm, the other man filled in the spaces be- 
tween these raised lines with the coloured enamels 
by means of a fine brush. The work was then 
left to dry before being fired in the furnaces to 
fix the colours. With their rude instruments these 
artists for such they were fashioned the most 
complicated designs of foliage, flowers, or dragons 
with a marvellous dexterity, judging altogether by 
eye, and never deviating by a hair's breadth from the 
pattern given them. We entered a room, in which 
others sat round long tables, fastening designs on 



RAMBLES IN PEKIN 113 



copper vases, plates, or bowls. Ornaments of all 
kinds, napkin-rings, and crucifixes these, needless 
to say, for foreigners were being made. Show- 
cases with specimens of the finished work stood 
round the walls, and the proprietor exhibited with 
pardonable pride the triumphs of his art. With 
rude appliances in dimly-lit rooms, these ignorant 
Chinese workmen had achieved gems that the 
European artist could not excel. 

He then showed us the large blocks of the raw 
stone which had to be ground up to form the 
enamel, and explained the processes it had to under- 
go before it became the brightly coloured paste that 
filled the saucers on the tables. We were then 
shown articles being placed in the furnaces or 
withdrawn when the firing was complete. Before 
leaving we purchased some specimens of the work 
as souvenirs of an interesting visit, and bade good- 
bye to the grateful proprietor. 

Such were our rambles through the vastness of 
that wonderful city so long a mystery to the outside 
world. Even in these days of universal knowledge 
its inmost recesses were a secret till fire and sword 
burst all barriers and the victorious foreigner ranged 
where he listed. The gates of palace and temple 
flew open to the touch of his rifle-butt. The abodes 
of monarch, prince, and priest sheltered the soldiers 
of the conquerors, and the proudest mandarin drew 
humbly aside to let the meanest camp-follower pass. 

To me the most fascinating spectacle in Pekin 



ii 4 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

was the ever-changing life of the streets. The end- 
less procession of strange vehicles, from the ricksha 
to the curious wheelbarrow that is a universal form 
of conveyance for passengers or goods on the 
narrow roads of North China. The motley crowds 
Manchu, Tartar, white man, black, and yellow, 
dainty, painted lady of high rank and humble coolie 
woman, shaven-crowned monk and long-queued 
layman, all formed a moving picture unequalled 
in any city in the world. And above their heads 
floated the flags of the conquering nations that had 
banded together from the ends of the earth to 
humble the pride of China. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE SUMMER PALACE 

EIGHT or ten miles from Pekin lies the loveliest 
spot in all North China, the Summer Palace, 
the property of the Empress -Do wager. When 
burning heat and scorching winds render life in 
the capital unbearable, when dust-storms sweep 
through the unpaved streets and a pitiless sun 
blazes on the crowded city, the virtual ruler of 
China betakes her to her summer residence among 
the hills, and there weaves the web of plots that 
convulse the world. When the feeble monarch of 
that vast Empire ventured to dream of reforms that 
would eventually bring his realm into line with 
modern civilisation, the imperious old lady seized 
her nominal sovereign and imprisoned him there 
in the heart of her rambling country abode. Twice, 
now, in its history has the Summer Palace fallen 
into the hands of European armies. English and 
French have lorded it in the paved courts before ever 
its painted pavilions had seen the white blouses of 
Cossacks or the fluttering plumes of the Bersagliere ; 
when Japan was but a name, and none dreamt that 
the little islands of the Far East would one day send 



ii6 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

their gallant soldiers to stand shoulder to shoulder 
with the veterans of Europe in a common cause. 

Passed from the charge of one foreign contingent 
to another in this last campaign, the Summer Palace 
was at length entrusted to the care of the British 
and Italians. Desirous of visiting a spot renowned 
for its natural beauty as for its historical interest, 
a party of us sought and obtained permission to 
inspect it. And so one morning we stood in the 
principal courtyard of Chong Wong Foo and 
watched a procession of sturdy Chinese ponies 
being led up for us. The refractory little brutes 
protested vehemently against the indignity of being 
bestridden by foreigners ; and all the subtlety of 
their grooms was required to induce them to stand 
still long enough for us to spring into the saddles. 
And then the real struggle began. One gave a 
spirited imitation of an Australian buckjumper. 
Another endeavoured to remove his rider by the 
simpler process of scraping his leg against the 
nearest wall. A third, deaf to all threats or en- 
treaties, refused to move a step in any direction, 
until repeated applications of whip and spurs at 
length resulted in his bolting out of the gate and 
down the road. After a preliminary circus perform- 
ance, our steeds finally determined to make the best 
of a bad job ; and, headed by a guide, we set out for 
the palace. 

Our way lay at first through a very unsavoury 
part of the capital. Evil-smelling alleys, bordered 



THE SUMMER PALACE 117 

by open drains choked with the refuse of the 
neighbouring houses ; narrow lanes deep in mire ; 
squalid streets of tumbledown hovels the worst 
slums of Pekin. Gaunt and haggard men scowled 
at us from the low doorways ; naked and dirty 
babies sprawled on the footpaths and lisped an 
infantine abuse of the foreign devils ; slatternly 
women stared at us with lack-lustre eyes ; and 
loathsome cripples shouted for charity. Splashing 
through pools of filthy water, dodging between carts 
in the narrow thoroughfares, we could proceed but 
slowly. The heat and stench in these close and 
fetid lanes were overpowering, and it was an intense 
relief to emerge at last on one of the broad streets 
that pierce the city and which led us to a gateway 
in the wall. One leaf of the wooden doors lay on 
the ground, the other was hanging half off its hinges. 
Both were splintered and torn, for they had been 
burst open by the explosion of a mine at the taking 
of Pekin. The many-windowed tower above was 
roofless and shattered. On either hand, on the 
outer face of the wall, deep dints and scars showed 
where the Japanese shells had rained upon them 
in the early hours of that August morning, when 
the gallant soldiers of Dai Nippon* had come to the 
rescue of the hard-pressed Muscovites. 

When the Allied Armies arrived at Tung-Chow, 
thirteen miles from Pekin, a council of war was held 
by the generals on the i3th August, at which it was 

* Japan. 



n8 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

decided that the troops should halt there on the 
following day, to rest and prepare for the attack on 
the capital which was settled for the i5th. For 
the stoutest hearts may well have quailed at the 
task before them. A cavalry reconnaissance from 
each army was to be made on the I3th, with orders 
to halt three miles from Pekin and wait there for 
their main bodies to reach them on the i4th. 

But the Russian reconnoitring party, eager to 
be the first into the city and establish their claim 
to be its real captors, pushed on right up to the 
walls and attacked the Tung Pien gate. They 
thus upset the plans for a concerted attack, and 
precipitated a disjointed and indiscriminate assault. 
For they stumbled on a far more difficult task than 
they had anticipated, and it was indeed fortunate 
for the wily Muscovites that the Japanese, probably 
suspicious of their intentions, were not far off. For 
the Chinese flocked to the threatened spot and 
from the comparative safety of the wall poured 
a devastating fire upon the Russians. The fiercest 
efforts of their stormers were unavailing. General 
Vasilievski fell wounded. In vain the bravest 
officers of the Czar led their men forward in 
desperate assaults. Baffled and beaten, they re- 
coiled in impotent fury. Retreat or annihilation 
seemed the only alternatives ; when the Japanese 
troops attacked the Tong Chih gate. There, too, 
a terrible task awaited the assailants. Again and 
again heroic volunteers rushed forward to lay a 



THE SUMMER PALACE 119 

mine against the ponderous doors, only to fall 
lifeless under the murderous fire of the defenders. 
But the soldiers of the Land of the Rising Sun 
admit no defeat. As men dropped dead, others 
stepped forward and took the fuses from the nerve- 
less fingers. The gate was at length blown open. 
Fierce as panthers, the gallant Japanese poured 
into the doomed city. The pressure relieved, the 
Russians again advanced to the assault. An entry 
was effected at last ; and, furious at their losses, 
they raged through the streets, dealing death with 
a merciless hand, heedless of age or sex. 

Meanwhile the other Allies, roused by the sound 
of heavy firing, were lost in amazement as to its 
meaning ; and dawn came before the truth was 
known. The British and Americans then attacked 
the Chinese city and met with a less stubborn 
resistance. An entry effected, the Indian troops 
wandered through the maze of streets until met 
by a messenger sent out from the Legations to 
guide them. He led them through the water- 
gate, the tunnel in the wall between the Tartar 
and the Chinese city, which serves as an exit for 
the drain or nullah passing between the English 
and the Japanese Legations, and so right into 
the arms of the besieged Europeans. Thus they 
arrived first to the relief, while the Japanese and 
Russians were still fighting in the streets. But 
every nation whose army was represented in the 
Allied Forces claims the credit of being foremost 



120 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

of all into the Legations. I have read the diary 
of the commander of the Russian marines in the 
siege, in which he speaks of the arrival of the 
Czar's troops to the relief and completely ignores 
the presence of the other Allies. And in pictures that 
I have seen in Japan of the entry of the relievers, 
the besieged are shown rushing out to throw them- 
selves on the necks of the victorious Japanese, 
whose uniform is the only one represented. But, 
while the brunt of the fighting fell on them and the 
Russians, the Indian troops were actually the first 
to reach the Legations. 

As we rode up to the gate through which the 
soldiers of Japan had fought their way so gallantly, 
a guard of their sturdy little infantrymen at it 
sprang to attention. For it and the quarter near 
was in the charge of their contingent, and their 
flag, with its red ball on a white ground, was to 
be seen everywhere around. The sentry brought 
his rifle to the present with the jerky movement 
and wooden precision of an automatic figure. 
Returning the salute, we clattered through the 
long tunnel of the gateway and emerged beyond 
the walls of the city. 

Here began a wide road, paved with large stone 
flags, which runs for an immense distance through 
the country, stopping short at the threshold of the 
capital. It was bordered in places by hedges of 
graceful bamboos with their long feathery leaves. 
Elsewhere a narrow ditch divided the roadway 



THE SUMMER PALACE 121 

from the fertile fields, where tall crops of kowliang 
(a species of millet) rose higher than a mounted 
man's head, almost completely hiding the houses 
of tiny hamlets. Over the stone flags, sparks 
flashing from under our ponies' hoofs, we clattered 
past crowds of coolies trudging towards the city, 
long lines of roughly built carts laden with country 
produce, or an occasional long -queued farmer 
perched on the back of his diminutive steed. 

By fields of waving grain, past groves of thick- 
foliaged trees, through trim villages that showed 
no trace of the storm that had swept so close to 
them. But here and there signs of it were not 
wanting. A wayside temple stood with fire-scorched 
walls and broken roof. On the threshold lay the 
shattered fragments of the images that had once 
adorned its shrine. But from the doorways of the 
houses we passed the inhabitants looked out at us 
with never a vestige of fear or hate, and as little 
interest. In the stream of travellers setting to- 
wards Pekin came a patrol of Bengal Lancers, 
spear-point and scabbard flashing in the sun as 
they rode along with the easy grace of the Indian 
cavalryman, their tall chargers towering above our 
small Chinese ponies as the sowars saluted. Farther 
on we passed two men of the German Mounted 
Infantry, their tiny steeds half hidden under huge 
dragoon saddles. A brown dot in the distance 
resolved itself into a British officer as we drew near. 
He was Major De Boulay, R.A., who had charge of 



122 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

the treasures of the Summer Palace. For when 
the English took the place over these were collected 
and locked up for safe keeping in large storehouses. 
When the palace was handed back to the Chinese, 
the Court sent a special letter of thanks to this 
officer for his careful custody of the valuables. This 
campaign was not Major De Boulay's first experi- 
ence of the Far East. As an authority on the 
Japanese army, when few in Europe suspected its 
real efficiency as a fighting machine, he had been ap- 
pointed military attache" to it when it first astonished 
the world in the China- Japan War ; and he accom- 
panied the troops that made the daring march that 
ended in the capture of Wei-hai-wei. 

Our meeting him on his way in to Pekin was a 
distinct disappointment to us ; for the keys of the 
godowns in which the treasures of the palace were 
stored never left his keeping, and in his absence we 
had no chance of seeing them. With many expres- 
sions of regret for this unfortunate circumstance, he 
continued on his way to the capital. 

Trotting on, we reached a long village bordering 
the road on each side. It was quite a populous and 
thriving place. The inhabitants looked sleek and 
content ; and shops stocked with gay garments or 
weird forms of food abounded. Half-way down on 
the left-hand side a narrow lane led off from the 
highway. At the corner stood a sign-post with the 
words, "Au palais de l'6teV' It was our road. We 
turned our ponies down it, nothing loth, I warrant, 



THE SUMMER PALACE 123 

to exchange the hard stone flags for the soft ground 
now underfoot. We were soon clear of the houses 
and among the fields. Passing a belt of trees that 
had hitherto obstructed our view, we saw ahead of 
us a long stretch of low, dark hills. Far away to 
our left front, from a prominent knoll a tall, slender 
pagoda rose up boldly to the sky, and straight 
before us, standing out on the face of the hills, was 
a confused mass of buildings the Summer Palace. 
We broke into a brisk canter, the canter became a 
gallop, and we raced towards our goal. As we 
drew nearer, and could more clearly distinguish the 
aspect of the buildings, we slackened speed. On 
the summit was a temple which, so one of our 
party who had visited the place before told us, was 
known as the Hall of Ten Thousand Ages. Below 
it stood a curious circular edifice, with a triple yellow 
roof. It was built on a huge square foundation, on 
the face of which were the lines of a diamond- 
shaped figure. These we afterwards found to be 
diagonal staircases ascending to the superstructure 
which was the Empress -Dowager's own particular 
temple. Trees hid the lower portion and concealed 
from our view a lovely lake that lies at the foot of 
the hills. Passing onwards by a high-walled en- 
closure, we reached a wide open space, at the far 
end of which were the buildings of the palace 
proper. Out in the centre of it stood one of those 
Chinese paradoxes a gateway without a wall, similar 
to the one at the Great Lama Temple. It was 



i2 4 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

gaily painted with weird designs in bright colours. 
We rode past it and reached the entrance to the 
outer courtyard. At it was a guard of an Indian 
infantry regiment which was quartered in the 
Summer Palace. Dismounting, we passed through 
the gate and found ourselves in a large court. 
Facing us was a long, low building of the conven- 
tional Chinese type. It was a temple. On the 
verandah stood large bronze storks and dragons. 
We had seen too many similar joss-houses to care 
to visit it ; so we secured a sepoy to guide us 
through the labyrinth of courts to the pavilion 
that was occupied as a mess by the officers of the 
troops garrisoning the palace a British Field 
Battery and the Indian regiment. Here we were 
warmly welcomed and ushered into a building of 
particular historical interest; for in this very pavilion 
the Emperor had been confined. 

The interior was elaborately furnished. Large 
mirrors covered the walls. Marble-topped tables 
with the inevitable clocks and vases of artificial 
flowers were placed round the sides. European 
chairs and Chinese blackwood stools stood about 
in curious contrast. But the piece de resistance was 
a lovely screen. An inner chamber was used as a 
mess-room ; and a long table covered with a white 
cloth, on which stood common Delft plates and glass 
tumblers, looked out of keeping with the surround- 
ings. But, more regardful of the thirst induced by 
a hot ride than artistic proprieties, we threw our- 



THE SUMMER PALACE 125 

selves into comfortable chairs and quaffed a much- 
needed, cooling drink. 

In front of the pavilion was a square, paved yard, 
in which stood a curious scaffolding of gaily painted 
poles, which had served to spread an awning above 
the court. For here the imprisoned Emperor had 
been permitted to walk ; and as we sat on the 
verandah and gave our hosts the latest news of 
Pekin, we gazed with interest on the confined space 
in which the monarch of the vast Empire of China 
had paced in weary anticipation of his fate. 

As it wanted an hour or two to lunch-time, one 
of the officers of the garrison volunteered to guide 
us round the palace. We eagerly accepted his 
offer and were led out into a maze of courts sur- 
rounded by low houses. He brought us first to his 
quarters in a long, two-storied building. From the 
upper windows on the far side a lovely view lay 
spread before our eyes. Below the house was a 
large lake, confined by a marble wall and balustrade 
that passed all round it. Close to us, on the right, 
the long, tree-clad hill, on which stood the Empress- 
Dowager's temple and the Hall of Ten Thousand 
Ages, rose almost from the brink. To the left a 
graceful, many-arched bridge stretched from the 
bank to a tiny island far out in the placid water. 
On it stood a small pavilion. Near the shore a 
flotilla of boats was anchored. It comprised 
foreign -designed barges, dinghies, and a half- 
sunken steam launch. Patches of lotus leaves lay 



126 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

on the tranquil surface. And away, far beyond the 
lake, a line of rugged and barren hills rose up from 
the plain. 

Emerging from the building, we walked along by 
the low wall and carved balustrade bounding the 
water, towards the side above which stood the 
Empress- Dowager's temple. At the corner of the 
lake was a gateway, at which stood a guard of 
Bersagliere, clad in white with cocks' feathers 
fluttering gaily in their tropical helmets. The 
Italians, as I have said, were joined with the 
English in the charge of the Summer Palace. 
Returning the sentry's salute, we passed on and 
found a roofed and open-pillared gallery running 
along beside the lake. Its shelter was grateful in 
the burning sun ; for the breeze was cut off by the 
hill that rose almost perpendicularly above us. 
The slender, wooden columns supporting the tiled 
roof were painted in brightly coloured designs. 
On the cornices were miniature pictures of con- 
ventional Chinese scenery. Here and there the 
gallery widened out or passed close to pretty little 
summer-houses built above the wall of the lake. 
We reached the square white mass of masonry on 
which stood the temple. Before it massive gates, 
guarded by bronze lions, opened on a broad stair- 
case leading to the foot of the substructure. But 
reserving the sacred edifice, which towered above 
us at an appalling height, for a later visit after 
lunch, we passed on around the lake until we 




A STREET IN THE TARTAR CITY, PEKIN, AFTER HEAVY RAIN 




THE MARBLE JUNK 



[page 127 



THE SUMMER PALACE 127 

reached the strangest construction in the Summer 
Palace. 

One of the former Empresses, whose life had 
been passed far from the sea, complained that she 
had never beheld a ship. So a cunning architect 
was found, who built in the lake close to the bank 
an enormous marble junk. The hull, which has 
ornamented prow and stern and small paddle-boxes, 
rests, of course, on the bottom. On the deck he 
erected a large two-storied pavilion ; but as the 
Chinese are seldom thorough, this he constructed 
of wood painted to look like marble. It formed 
an ideal and picturesque summer-house, for the 
sides, between the pillars, were open or closed only 
by blinds. But at the time of our visit it looked 
dismally dilapidated ; for the paint was blistered and 
peeling off. The Marble Junk resembles a white 
house-boat at Henley, and at a little distance across 
the water looks quaint and graceful. Close to it, 
spanning a small stream that runs into the lake, is 
a lovely little covered bridge with carved white 
marble arches and parapets. Venice can boast no 
more perfect gem of art on its canals. 

Our conductor, looking at his watch, tore us 
from our contemplation of this masterpiece and 
insisted on our returning to the mess for lunch. 
And in the pavilion where the powerless monarch 
of a mighty empire had lain a helpless prisoner, a 
victim to the intrigues of his own family, British 
officers sat at table ; and the conversation ranged 



128 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

from the events of the campaign to sport in India 
or criticisms of the various contingents of the 
Allied Army. 

A recent occurrence, thoroughly typical of the 
readiness with which the Court party snatched at 
every opportunity to "save face," was alluded to. 
The British Minister in Pekin, at the humble 
request of Li Hung Chang, who was negotiating 
about the return of the Summer Palace to the 
Chinese, had removed the Field Battery garrison- 
ing it to the capital. An Imperial Edict was 
immediately issued, which stated in grandiloquent 
terms that the Emperor had ordered this removal. 
Sir Ernest Satow, who was fast proving himself a 
far stronger man than had been anticipated and 
well fitted to cope with Oriental wiles, promptly 
commanded the return of the battery as the fitting 
answer to this impudent declaration. It was almost 
the first strong action taken by our diplomats in 
a wearisome series of "graceful concessions"; and 
great satisfaction was occasioned among the officers 
of the British forces, who hailed it as a hopeful 
prelude to a firmer policy. 

After lunch we ascended the tree-clad hill on 
which stood the Hall of Ten Thousand Ages. 
From the summit a beautiful view over the sur- 
rounding country was obtained. Below us was the 
confused jumble of yellow-roofed buildings that 
constituted the residential portion of the Summer 
Palace. At our feet lay the gleaming lake, hemmed 



THE SUMMER PALACE 129 

in by its white marble walls, the tiny island united 
to the shore by the graceful arches of the long 
bridge. The bright roof of the pretty little 
pavilion on it shone in the brilliant sunlight. 
Along the far bank stretched a tree-shaded road 
that ran away to the right until lost in thick foliage 
or fertile fields. A thin line marked the crowded 
highway to the capital. The plain was dotted with 
villages or lay in a chessboard-pattern of cultiva- 
tion interspersed with thickets of bamboos or dense 
groves of trees. Far away the tall towers of the 
walls of Pekin rose up above the level sea of roofs, 
broken only by the lofty buildings of the Imperial 
city, the temples or the residences of the Euro- 
peans in the Legation quarter. Over the capital a 
yellow haze of smoke and dust hung like a golden 
canopy. Away to the right lay a long stretch of 
dark and sombre hills, among which nestled the 
summer residence of the members of the British 
Legation. Here in the hot months they hie in 
search of cooling breezes not to be obtained in the 
crowded city. 

The grandiloquently named Hall of Ten Thou- 
sand Ages was a rectangular, solidly constructed 
building with thick walls. But inside a sad scene 
of ruin met our eyes. Enormous fragments of 
shattered colossal statues choked the interior, so 
that one could not pass from door to door. Huge 
heads, trunks, and limbs lay piled in fantastic con- 
fusion. The temple had contained a number of 



130 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

giant images of Buddha. Some troops, on occupy- 
ing the palace, had been informed that these were 
hollow and filled with treasures of inestimable 
value. The tale seemed likely ; so dynamite was 
invoked to force them to reveal their hidden secrets. 
The colossal gods were hurled from their pedestals 
by its powerful agency ; and their ruins were eagerly 
searched by the vandals. But it was found that 
the interiors of the statues, though indeed hollow, 
were simply modelled to correspond with the in- 
ternal anatomy of a human being, all the organs 
being reproduced in silver or zinc. And the gods 
were sacrificed in vain to the greed of the spoilers. 

The Empress -Do wager's temple had escaped 
such rough treatment, as it held nothing that 
tempted the conquerors. Under its huge shadow 
lay a lovely little structure, the Bronze Pagoda. 
On a white marble plinth and surrounded by a 
carved balustrade of the same stone, stood a deli- 
cately modelled, tiny temple about twenty or thirty 
feet high. Roof, pillars, walls all were of the same 
valuable material. From the corners of the spread- 
ing, upturned eaves hung bells. The whole struc- 
ture was a perfect work of art ; and one sighed for 
a miniature replica of the graceful little building. 

But while we wandered among these quaint 
temples we had failed to notice dark masses of 
clouds that had gradually climbed up from the 
horizon and overcast the whole sky. One of the 
heavy storms of a North China summer was 



THE SUMMER PALACE 131 

evidently in store for us. So, anxious to regain the 
capital before it could break, we returned to the 
palace, bade a hurried farewell to our kind hosts, 
and mounted our ponies. Back through the fields 
and on to the paved highway we rode at a steady 
pace, our ponies, refreshed by the long halt and 
eager to reach their stables, trotting out willingly. 
The storm held off, and as we came in view of the 
gate of Pekin, we congratulated ourselves on our 
good fortune. But suddenly, without a moment's 
warning, sheets of water fell from the dark sky. 
In went our spurs, and we raced madly for the 
shelter of the gateway. But long before we 
reached it we were soaked through and through. 
Our boots were filled with water, the broad brims 
of our pith hats hung limply over our eyes, and we 
were as thoroughly wet as though we had swum 
the Peiho. 

Under the tunnelled gateway we dismounted. 
The water simply poured from us, and formed in 
pools on the stone flags where we stood. We 
found ourselves in a damp crowd of jostling, grin- 
ning Chinamen, who were cheerfully wringing the 
moisture from their thin cotton garments or laugh- 
ing at the plight of others caught in the storm 
and racing for shelter through the ropes of rain. 
Coolies, carts, ponies, mules, and camels were all 
huddled together under the archway. Jests and 
mirth resounded on every side ; for the Celestial is 
generally a veritable Mark Tapley under circum- 



132 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

stances that would depress or irritate the more 
impatient European. 

We waited for an hour beside our shivering 
ponies for the deluge to cease ; then, seeing little 
prospect of it, we mounted again and rode on into 
the city. But short as was the time the rain had 
lasted, the streets were already almost flooded. 
The ditch-like sides were half filled with rushing, 
muddy torrents ; and in crossing one of the prin- 
cipal roads the water rose up to our saddle-girths 
in the side channels. In one place my pony was 
nearly carried off his feet and I feared that I 
would be obliged to swim for it. From the shelter 
of the verandahs of the houses along the streets 
crowds of Chinese laughed at our miserable plight, 
as our small steeds splashed through the pools and 
their riders sat huddled up in misery under the 
pitiless rain. With heartfelt gratitude we reached 
at last the welcome shelter of Chong Wong Foo. 
So ended our visit to the famous Summer Palace, 
which is once more in the possession of its former 
owner. The courts that echoed to the ring of 
artillery horses' hoofs, the rumble of our gun- 
wheels, the deep laughter of the British soldier, or 
the shriller voices of his sepoy comrades, are now 
trodden only by silent-footed Celestials. The white 
man is no more a welcome guest. 



CHAPTER VII 
A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 

THE railways throughout North China and 
Manchuria were originally constructed chiefly 
by British capital ; and England had consequently 
priority of claim upon them. The line from Pekin 
runs first to the sea at Tong-ku, at the mouth of 
the Peiho River, thence branching off northward 
along the coast to Newchwang, the treaty port of 
Manchuria. Its continuation passes southward 
from Newchwang to Port Arthur. At the begin- 
ning of the campaign in North China it was seized 
by the Russians and held by them until diplomatic 
pressure loosened their grasp. Instead of restor- 
ing it direct to the British, they handed over to 
the Germans the railway as far north as Shanhai- 
kwan, a town on the coast where the famous Great 
Wall of China ends in the sea ; but they retained 
in their own possession that portion between Shan- 
haikwan and Newchwang. The Germans then 
held on to the remainder until they were eventually 
restored to the British. 

Shanhaikwan thus became the natural boundary 
between the territory under the sway of the 



134 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Russians and the country in the combined occupa- 
tion of the Allies. The Czar's servants had laid 
covetous eyes upon it ; for its position and a 
number of strong and well-armed forts which had 
been constructed by the Chinese rendered it an 
important point d'appui whence to dominate North 
China. So a powerful Russian force was de- 
spatched by land to seize these fortifications ; but 
it was forestalled by the smart action of the 
British Admiral, who sent a gunboat, the Pigmy, 
to Shanhaikwan. The captain of this little craft 
audaciously demanded and actually received the 
surrender of the forts ; so that when the Russians 
arrived they found, to their intense surprise, the 
Union Jack flying from the ramparts. Eventually, 
to avoid dissensions, the various forts were divided 
among the Allies. 

Previous to my departure on a long-projected 
trip to Japan seeing a little of Manchuria and 
Corea en route I joined a small party of officers 
who had arranged to pay a flying visit to Shanhai- 
kwan. With light luggage and the roll of bedding 
without which the Anglo-Indian seldom travels in 
the East, we entrained at Tientsin. A couple 
of hours sufficed to bring us to Tong-ku, where the 
railway branches off to the north. The platform 
was thronged with a bustling crowd of the soldiers 
of many nations, the place being the disembarka- 
tion port for the Continental, the American, and 
the Japanese troops. In the station buildings the 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 135 

British officers in charge of that section of the 
railway and of the detachments guarding it had 
established a mess. As we had some time to wait 
before the departure of the train to Shanhaikwan, 
they warmly welcomed us within its hospitable, 
if narrow, walls. 

When the warning bell summoned us to take our 
places, we established ourselves in a comfortable 
first-class carriage partly saloon, partly coupe. 
I may mention that during the occupation of North 
China by the Allies the wearers of uniform travelled 
free everywhere on the railways. Among our 
fellow-passengers were some Japanese naval officers, 
a German or two, a few Russians, and an old friend 
of mine, Lieutenant Hutchinson, of H. M.S. Terrible, 
who had served with the Naval Brigade in the 
defence of Tientsin. He had just returned from 
a trip to Japan, and was full of his adventures in 
the Land of the Geisha. 

The railway to Shanhaikwan runs at first close to 
the sea through a monotonous stretch of mud flats, 
and then reaches a most fertile country with walled 
villages and substantially built houses. It was 
guarded by the 4th Punjaub Infantry, detachments 
of which occupied the stations along the line. Not 
long before, this fine regiment had been engaged 
in a punitive expedition against the brigands who 
had slain Major Browning. After a severe fight 
they captured the fortified villages held by 4,000 
well-armed banditti, and terribly avenged their 



136 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

officer. As the country was still infested by roving 
bands of robbers who raided defenceless villages, 
the station buildings were put in a state of defence, 
the walls loopholed and head-cover provided by 
means of sandbags until each resembled a miniature 
fort. But the brigands, after practical experience 
of the fighting qualities of the gallant Punjaubis, 
evinced no desire to come in contact with them 
.again ; and the detachments along the line were 
left to languish in inglorious ease and complain 
bitterly of the want of enterprise on the part 
of the robbers. 

For some distance alongside the railway runs 
a canal, which is largely used by the Chinese for 
transporting grain and merchandise. As our train 
rattled along, we passed numbers of long, shallow 
boats, fashioned like dug-outs and loaded down 
until the gunwale was scarcely a few inches from 
the water. The half-naked boatmen toiling at their 
oars paused to gaze with envy at the swift-speeding 
iron horse, which covered the weary miles with such 
apparent ease. 

The crops here were even more luxuriant than 
on the way to Pekin. Fields of ripe grain stretched 
away on either side of the line, interspersed with 
groves of trees or dotted with villages surrounded 
by high walls, significant of the continual insecurity 
of life and property in this debatable land. Here 
and there were deserted mud forts. 

The journey from Tientsin to Shanhaikwan occu- 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 137 

pied about twelve hours. About midway the train 
stopped for a short time at Tongshan, a town im- 
portant for the coal mines near, which are worked 
under the direction of Europeans. From the win- 
dows of our carriage we could see the tall buildings 
and the machinery at the mouths of the pits, which 
gave quite an English character to the landscape. 
For the convenience of travellers, the British officers 
quartered in the place had established a refreshment 
room in some Chinese buildings near the station, 
and lent some Indian servants to it. As our train 
was due to wait some little time, we all descended 
in search of lunch, and were provided here with 
quite a good meal at a very reasonable rate. Our 
German fellow-passengers, ignorant of Hindustani, 
found some difficulty in expressing their wants 
to the Indian waiters, whose knowledge of English 
was very limited. We came to the rescue and 
interpreted, and gained the gratitude of hungry 
men. 

As we journeyed on to Shanhaikwan the country 
began to lose its flat appearance. Low, tree-clad 
eminences broke the level monotony of the land- 
scape ; and the train passed close to a line of rugged 
hills. In their recesses bands of brigands were 
reported to be lurking, so we had the pleasant 
excitement of speculating on the chances of the 
train being held up by some of these gentry. But 
without mishap we reached our destination about 
half-past six o'clock in the evening. 



138 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

The railway station of Shanhaikwan was large 
and well built, with roomy offices and a long plat- 
form. There were, besides, engine sheds, machinery 
shops, yards, and houses for the European em- 
ployees, all of which had been seized by the 
Russians. We were met on our arrival by some 
officers of the Gurkha Regiment in garrison, to 
whom we had written from Tientsin to ask if they 
could find quarters for us. But as they were 
exceedingly short of accommodation for themselves, 
being crowded together in wretched Chinese hovels, 
they received us with expressions of regret that 
they were unable to find room for all our party. 
The two junior ones must seek shelter for them- 
selves. I, unfortunately, was one. There was no 
hotel or inn of any sort. My companion in dis- 
tress, luckily for himself, had a friend in a squadron 
of the 3rd Bombay Cavalry, quartered in one of 
the forts, and set off to request his hospitality. So 
our party separated ; and I was left stranded on the 
platform with no prospect of a bed, and, worse 
still, not the faintest idea as to where to get a 
meal. On appealing to a British railway employee, 
I found that there were two military officers in 
charge of the station one English, the other 
Russian ; for the portion of the line held by the 
latter nationality began, as I have said, at Shan- 
haikwan. Both had quarters in the station, but 
both, unfortunately, had gone out to dinner ; and 
there was no likelihood of their return before mid- 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 139 

night. Taking pity on my distress, this employee 
promised to send me down a Chinese cane bed 
from his house, and then went off, leaving me to 
brood over the hopelessness of my situation. I 
sat down on a bench and cursed the name of 
Shanhaikwan. The lunch at Tongshan seemed 
by now a very far-off memory ; and I endeavoured 
to allay the pangs of hunger with a cigar. As I 
meditated on the inefficacy of tobacco as a sub- 
stitute for food, I saw the door of a room marked 
" Telegraph Office " open and a smart bombardier 
of the Royal Marine Artillery emerge. On see- 
ing me he saluted, and, snatching at every straw, 
I called him over and asked him if he knew of any 
place where I could get anything to eat. He told 
me of the existence of a low cafe", patronised by the 
Continental soldiers of the garrison, where I might 
possibly obtain some sort of a meal. I jumped 
eagerly at the chance ; and, calling one of the 
Chinese railway porters to guide us, he offered to 
show me the way. Quitting the station, we entered 
a small town of squalid native houses and pro- 
ceeded through narrow and unsavoury lanes until 
,we reached a low doorway in a high wall. Passing 
through, I found myself in a small courtyard. On 
the muddy ground were placed a number of rickety 
tables and rough benches. Here sat, with various 
liquors before them, groups of Cossacks and 
German soldiers, who stared with surprise at the 
unusual sight of a British officer in such a den. 



140 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

At the far end of the court was a tumbledown 
Chinese house, on the verandah of which sat the 
proprietor and his wife, evidently Italian or Austrian. 
The lady, a buxom person of ample proportions, 
was attired in a very magnificent, but decidedly 
ddcolletd evening dress. Her wrists were adorned 
with massive bracelets, her fingers covered with 
rings. Altogether she looked a very haughty and 
superb beauty and more fitted to adorn a cafe in 
the Champs Elysees than a rough drinking-booth 
in the heart of China. Her husband came forward 
to meet me ; and on my stating my wants in im- 
ploring tones, he seemed at first in doubt as to 
whether he could supply them. My heart sank. 
He turned to consult the lady. To my intense 
astonishment this magnificent personage sprang up 
at once, called to a Chinese servant to bring her a 
chicken, and then, pinning up the skirt of her rich 
dress, plunged into a kitchen which opened off the 
verandah, and then and there, with her own fair 
hands, spatch-cocked the fowl, and served me with 
a welcome and appetising meal. 

My hunger satisfied thus unexpectedly, I strolled 
back to the station in a contented frame of mind, 
indifferent to anything Fate had in store for me. 
Nothing could harm me ; I had dined. I was 
quite ready to wrap myself in a blanket and sleep 
on a bench, or on the ground for that matter. 
But my star was in the ascendant. I found a com- 
fortable camp-bed of a Chinese pattern awaiting 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 141 

me, sent by the kind-hearted employee. Placing 
it on the platform, I spread my bedding on it, 
undressed, and lay down to sleep. 

But I had reckoned without the merry mosquito. 
I have met this little pest in many lands. I first 
made his acquaintance on the night of my arrival in 
India with a raw, unsalted regiment from home ; 
when he could batten on seven hundred fresh, 
full-blooded Britishers and feast to the full on their 
vital fluid unthinned by a tropical climate ; when 
next morning the faces of all, officers and men 
alike, were swollen almost beyond recognition. 
I have remonstrated with him as to his claim 
to the possession of the interior of a mosquito 
net and failed to move him. I have scarcely 
doubted when a friend vowed that he had broken 
the back of a hairbrush over the head of one of 
the giant, striped species we knew as " Bombay 
tigers " or questioned the truth of the statement 
that a man had lain on his bed and watched two 
of them trying to pull open his curtains to get 
at him. I have cursed him in the jungle when 
sitting up in a machdn over a "kill" waiting for 
a tiger. I have wrestled with him when out on 
column and bivouacked beside a South China river, 
where his home was ; but never have I seen him 
in such wonderful vigour and maddening persistence 
as during that night on the station platform of 
Shanhaikwan. In vain I beat the air with frenzied 
hands ; in vain I smoked. I tried to cover my 



142 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

head with a sheet ; but the heat was too great, 
and I emerged panting to find him waiting for me. 
As Thomas Atkins says : "It h'isn't the bite of the 
beggar I 'ates so much as 'is bloomin' h'irritatin' 
buzz " ; and the air was filled with his song. It 
was a concert with refreshments. / was the re- 
freshments. To make matters worse, I had the 
tantalising knowledge that I had mosquito curtains 
with me, which I had been unable to fix up as the 
bed was without poles. 

At last, maddened by the persistent attacks of 
the irritating pests, I sat up and reviewed the 
situation until I hit upon a plan. I shoved the 
bed under the windows of a room which looked 
out on the platform and which happened to be the 
quarters of the British Railway Station Officer. 
The Venetian shutters opened outward. About ten 
feet away was a telegraph-pole ; and a short distance 
from the foot of the bed stood a lamp-post. Taking 
the cords of my Wolseley valise, the straps of my 
bedding and my luggage, and some string which 
I looted from one of the railway offices, I contrived 
to suspend my curtains from the shutters, the pole, 
and the lamp-post. It was really an ingenious con- 
trivance, and I lay down in triumph and security. 
The bafHed mosquitoes uttered positive shrieks of 
rage. 

Somewhere about midnight I was awakened by 
the sounds of revelry in a foreign tongue. Peering 
through the curtains, I saw by the dim light of the 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 143 

turned-down station lamps two figures in uniform 
advancing along the platform. One was a very 
drunken but merry Russian officer, who was being 
carefully helped along by a sober and amused 
British subaltern. They suddenly caught sight of 
the white mass of my mosquito curtains, which 
swayed in ghostly folds in the wind and looked 
uncanny in the uncertain light. 

" What the devil is that ? " exclaimed the 
Englishman. 

The Russian hiccoughed a reply in words that 
sounded like a sneeze. 

The former, gently propping up his companion 
against the lamp-post to which he clung lovingly, 
advanced to my bed. I recognised him by his 
uniform to be our Railway Station Staff Officer. 
Peering through the curtains, he asked me who on 
earth I was and what I was doing there. In a few 
words I explained myself and my situation. With 
a soldier's ready hospitality he said 

" My dear fellow, I am so sorry that I was absent. 
Get up and move your bed into my quarters. I 
shall be delighted to put you up." 

I thanked him, but assured him that I was very 
comfortably fixed for the night. 

" But you can have had no dinner. Did you get 
anything to eat ? " he asked. 

I recounted my successful search for a meal ; 
whereat he laughed and again expressed his regret 
at his absence, explaining that he had gone to a 



144 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

dinner-party given by the wife of a Russian colonel 
on her husband's name-day. 

Meanwhile his companion, still clinging tightly to 
the lamp-post, had been regarding with wonder my 
contrivance for the support of the mosquito curtains, 
shaking his head, and muttering to himself. 

The Britisher, informing me that he was the 
Russian Railway Staff Officer, then spoke to him 
in his own language, and introduced me to him, 
mentioning a name that ended in itch or sky. 
I sat up in bed and bowed. But my new acquaint- 
ance, still holding to the friendly support of the 
post, stared solemnly at the network of straps and 
cords. At last he broke silence. 

" Ver' good ! Ver' practical ! You English is 
ver' practical nation." Then he hiccoughed sadly, 
" I am ver' drink ! " 

Thoroughly awakened, I got up, and we ad- 
journed to the British officer's quarters, where we 
drank to our better acquaintance in an iced whisky 
and soda ; for the night was distressingly hot. 

The hospitable Englishman was Lieutenant Kell, 
South Staffordshire Regiment. He was a good 
specimen of the linguists in our army who surprised 
our Continental allies. A passed Interpreter in 
Russian and Chinese, he spoke French, German, 
and Italian fluently ; and, as I discovered after- 
wards, although he had never been to India, he 
was rapidly picking up Hindustani from the sepoys 
with whom he was brought in contact through 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 145 

his station duties. He had served on General 
Dorward's staff during the hard fighting in Tientsin 
and had been mentioned in his despatches. His 
linguistic powers had caused him to be appointed 
as Railway Staff Officer at Shanhaikwan, where 
his ready tact and genial qualities endeared him 
to the Russians and contributed greatly to the 
harmonious working of affairs in that debatable 
garrison. 

Before we parted for the' night our Russian 
friend gave us both a cordial invitation to dine 
with him the following night and meet some of his 
comrades. And then I retired again to bed, feel- 
ing no longer a lost sheep and a homeless orphan. 

In the morning I was awakened by Lieutenant 
Kell's servant, who brought me my chota hazri, the 
matutinal tea and toast dear to the heart of the 
Anglo-Indian. He had taken my luggage into his 
master's quarters, where a bath and a dressing- 
room awaited me. I found my host busily engaged 
in his railway work, interviewing soldiers of every 
nationality. As I was in the act of wishing him 
"Good morning" we suddenly observed a heavy 
transport waggon, drawn by two huge horses, being 
driven across the line and right on to the platform 
by a Cossack, who thus thought to save himself a 
ctttour to the level crossing at the far end of the 
station. It was done in flat defiance of well-known 
orders. Kell spoke to him in his own language, 
and told him to go back. The soldier, muttering 



146 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

some impertinent remark, took no notice and drove 
on. At that moment a Russian colonel entered the 
station. Kell immediately reported the man's dis- 
obedience to him. The officer flew at the culprit, 
abused him in loud and angry tones ; and if the 
Cossack had not been out of reach where he sat 
perched up on the waggon, I am sure he would 
have received a sound thrashing. Crestfallen, he 
turned his horses round and drove away; while the 
colonel apologised profusely to Kell for the fault of 
his subordinate and promised that the man would 
receive a severe punishment for his disobedience 
and impertinence to an English officer. 

After breakfast one of my companions, Captain 
Labertouche, 22nd Bombay Infantry, who, like 
me, had been unable to find quarters among the 
Gurkhas the night before, but who had been given 
shelter by the officers of the 3rd Bombay Light 
Cavalry, rode up to look for me. Sending away 
his horse, we set out on foot to hunt up the rest 
of our party in the Gurkha mess. 

Our way lay first along the railway line. On the 
right-hand side were the station yards, engine sheds, 
and machinery shops, all now in the hands of the 
Russians, who had removed the spare rolling stock 
and plant found there and sent them to Port Arthur. 
The Muscovite believes in war being self-support- 
ing. To the left, behind the station, lay the rookery 
of squalid Chinese houses, where I had hunted 
for a dinner the night before. Farther away lay 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 147 

Shanhaikwan. High battlements and lofty towers 
enclosed the city, the sides of which ran down to 
the Great Wall of China. For ahead of us, a mile 
away athwart the railway, lay a long line of grass- 
grown earthworks, with here and there fragments 
of ruined masonry peering out among the herbage 
and bushes that clothed it. It was that wondrous 
fortification which stretches for more than a thou- 
sand miles along the ancient boundary of China, 
climbing mountains, plunging into valleys, and 
running through field and forest a monumental 
and colossal work that has never served to roll 
back the tide of war from the land it was built to 
guard. Through a wide breach in it the railway 
passes on to the north, to Manchuria where the 
Russian Bear now menaces the integrity of the 
Celestial Kingdom. Before reaching the Wall our 
way turned off sharp to the right ; so, leaving the 
railway, we followed a rough country road which 
led to the Chinese village that sheltered the 
Gurkhas. It was crossed by a broad stream two 
or three feet deep. As we were grumbling at the 
necessity of taking off boots and gaiters in order to 
wade it, a sturdy Chinaman strolled up and looked 
extremely amused at our distress. We promptly 
seized him, and made signs that we wanted him to 
carry us across. The Celestial smilingly assented, 
and kicked off his felt-soled shoes. Hoisting my 
companion on his back, he waded with him to the 
other side, and then returned to fetch me. When 



148 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

we rewarded him with a small silver coin he seemed 
extremely surprised ; and he made frantic signs, 
which we interpreted as meant to express his desire 
to remain on the spot in readiness to ferry us 
over on our return. Without further difficulty we 
reached the Gurkha mess, where we found our 
friends on the point of setting out to visit the Great 
Wall. So the whole party walked back along the 
road by which Labertouche and I had come, and 
at the stream found our ferryman awaiting us with 
a beaming smile. He eagerly proffered his services, 
and conveyed us all across in turn. Payment being 
duly made, he expressed his gratitude in voluble, if 
unintelligible, language. 

Reaching the railway, we proceeded along it in 
the direction of the Wall. The country between it 
and us was flat and cultivated, though at its foot 
lay a strip of waste ground. To our left ran a 
rough road leading out, through the same gap as 
the line, towards some forts to the north. Along it, 
behind three sturdy little ponies harnessed abreast, 
sped a Russian troiscka t driven by a Cossack and 
containing two white-coated officers. 

Arrived at the inner face of the Wall, we climbed 
its sloping side and found ourselves on a broad and 
bush-grown rampart. We were twenty or thirty 
feet above the ground. The outer face of this 
ancient fortification, which was begun in B.C. 241, 
was in a better state of preservation than the inner ; 
though in places it bore little resemblance to a wall. 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 149 

From the ruins of an old bastion we had a splendid 
view of the surrounding country. Before us a level 
plain stretched away to the horizon, broken by the 
ugly outlines of forts or patched with cultivated 
fields and small woods. To the right the Great 
Wall ran to the cliffs above the sea, which sparkled 
in the distance under a brilliant sun. On its bosom 
lay the ponderous bulks of a number of Japanese 
warships ; for their fleet had arrived unexpectedly 
at Shanhaikwan the night before. The Russian 
dinner-party, which Lieutenant Kell had attended 
the previous evening, had been given in the open 
air, on the cliffs over the sea. The numerous guests, 
nearly all officers of the Czar, could look out over 
the blue water as they smoked the cigarettes with 
which every Russian meal is punctuated. While 
the feast was proceeding merrily trails of smoke, 
heralding the approach of a fleet, appeared on the 
horizon. The Russian officers gazed in surprise as 
the ships came into view, and wonder was expressed 
as to their nationality and the purpose of their 
coming. In those troublous times, when national 
jealousies were rife, no one knew that war might 
not suddenly break out among the so-called Allies ; 
and Slav, Teuton, Frank, and Briton might be 
called on without a day's warning to range them- 
selves in hostile camps. So something like con- 
sternation fell upon the dinner - party when the 
approaching ships were seen to be the Japanese 
fleet. For the relations between Russia and Japan 



150 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

were very strained at the time ; and all present at 
the table wondered if the unexpected arrival of this 
powerful squadron meant that the rupture had come. 
But no hostile signs were made by the ships ; and, 
with the motto of the trooper all the world over 

" Why, soldiers, why 
Should we be melancholy, boys, 
Whose business 'tis to die ? " 

the interrupted revelry was renewed. 

Between us and the sea lay the strong and well- 
armed forts that had fallen before the audacious 
challenge of the little Pigmy. From their walls 
floated the flags of the Allies ; and Cossacks, 
German, Japanese, and Indian troops could be seen 
upon their ramparts. Behind us lay the ruins of 
what must have been a large fortified camp just 
inside the Wall. 

To the left the town of Shanhaikwan lay penned 
in by its lofty but antiquated fortifications. Past it 
the Great Wall ran away to the west until lost to 
our sight among the slopes of a range of hills. 
Here and there the climbing line was seen topping 
the summit of a steep eminence, and one could 
appreciate the magnitude of the task of its builders 
when they set themselves to fence China from the 
ravaging hordes of the unknown lands. 

And away north and south stretched the thin 
shining line of the railway, along which the soldiers 
of the Czar hope to swarm one day to plant their 
eagles once more in Pekin, never again to be 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 151 

removed. As we stood on the Great Wall flocks 
of snipe and duck flew past us to the south, already 
fleeing before the approach of the dread winter of 
Northern Asia. 

We went on to pay a visit to the forts, which, 
when they were held by the Chinese, had been 
armed with powerful and modern guns. Concerning 
one of these forts an amusing story, illustrative of 
foreign guile, was told. The place was occupied 
by one Power, who had quartered in it a battery 
of artillery. In the re-arrangement of the garrison 
of Shanhaikwan, at a council of the allied com- 
manders, it was decided that this fort should be 
handed over to the English. But although the 
foreign General agreed at the time, all the subse- 
quent endeavours of the British to induce him to 
name a day for the evacuation and transfer were 
fruitless. Regrets, excuses, indefinite promises 
were freely made ; but some unexpected and insur- 
mountable obstacle invariably intervened. At length 
when the surrender of the fort could no longer be 
refused, a certain date for the foreign troops to 
march out and the place to be handed over to the 
English was fixed. The day arrived. The re- 
lieving British garrison marched up to the gate. 
There they were met by the apparently bewildered 
foreign commander, who expressed considerable 
astonishment at their presence. When reminded 
that this was the day agreed upon, he smiled 
politely, and assured the British officers that they 



152 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

had made a mistake. He pointed out that they 
had apparently calculated by the modern style 
calendar, forgetting that the old style was still in 
vogue in some countries and had been adopted 
by him in his reckoning. Consequently the day 
had not yet come. Lost in unwilling admiration at 
this clever instance of duplicity, the British were 
obliged to withdraw. 

On the eve of the day on which he declared that 
the fort would really be evacuated, the battery 
garrisoning it marched out with much pomp and 
publicity. The British smiled as they watched 
them go, well pleased at having got rid of them at 
last. They plumed themselves on their moral 
victory ; and they marched up next morning to the 
fort in triumph. But the other flag was still 
flying, and inside they saw the same battery whose 
departure they had witnessed the evening before. 
They stared in bewilderment. They could recog- 
nise some of the officers and men. Then an 
explanation was angrily demanded. It was readily 
forthcoming. This was not the same battery as 
before. Far from it. That was by this time well 
on its way to the North. But by an extraordinary 
coincidence another battery had suddenly and most 
unexpectedly arrived during the night to the 
foreign General's utter astonishment, as no intima- 
tion of their coming had been vouchsafed him. 
And as he had no other place to quarter them in 
but the fort, he had been obliged most reluctantly 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 153 

to send them there. He was desolated at the 
unfortunate necessity. He offered his profoundest 
regrets, and trusted that his dear allies would 
realise that he was helpless. So the outwitted 
British had again to withdraw. As a matter of 
fact the battery had simply marched out of sight 
in the evening and come back during the night. 
So with baffling ingenuity the foreign General 
contrived to retain the fort for some time longer 
in his hands ; though he was forced to surrender 
it in the end. 

After inspecting several of the forts, some of our 
party went off to pay a visit to the town, while 
others walked down to the shore and gazed out at 
the Japanese fleet and the long hull of H.M.S. 
Terrible, which was lying at anchor. As we looked 
at the water sparkling in the bright sunlight, it was 
difficult to realise that in the winter the sea here is 
frozen for several miles out from the shore. From 
this fact one can form some idea of the intense cold 
of the winter months in North China. And yet the 
Indian troops, natives of a warm climate, suffered 
comparatively little and the percentage of admis- 
sions into hospital from our contingent was remark- 
ably small, so well were they looked after by their 
officers and so generous was the free issue of warm 
clothing by the Indian Government. 

In the afternoon some of us attended a cricket 
match between the crew of the Terrible and the 
British garrison. Hardly had the stumps been 



154 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

drawn and the players gone into the refreshment 
tent when some snipe settled on the pitch. An 
officer quartered in a fort close to the cricket ground 
sent for his gun, and secured a couple then and 
there. 

I dined that night with the Russian Railway Staff 
Officer in his quarters in the station. They con- 
sisted of two or three large and comfortable rooms. 
The furniture, which had been supplied to him by 
his Government, was almost luxurious, in marked 
contrast with the indifferent tables and the camp 
chairs with which Lieutenant Kell had to provide 
himself. All through the combined occupation the 
Continental Powers endeavoured to enable their 
officers to present a good appearance among the 
other nationalities. The Germans were especially 
generous in the pay and allowances they gave to 
the commissioned ranks of their expeditionary 
force. 

The guests that evening comprised, besides Kell 
and myself, three Russian officers, one of whom 
spoke English, one French, while the third could 
converse only in his own language, so the conver- 
sation was of a polyglot character. The dinner 
began by the preliminary sakouski that is the 
nearest approach I can make to its name a regular 
little meal in itself of hors d'ceuvres. Caviare, stur- 
geon's roe, very salt ham, brawn, and a dozen other 
comestibles were served. My host asked me if I 
had ever tasted vodki, and although I assured him 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 155 

that I had, proceeded to make me try five differently 
flavoured varieties of the national liquor With the 
regular dinner the nauseatingly sweet champagne, 
so much in favour with Continental peoples, was 
served. On my declaring that champagne was a 
wine I never drank, I was allowed to have a de- 
canter of whisky and a syphon of soda-water and 
permitted to help myself. Kell adhered faithfully 
to claret and soda throughout the evening ; but our 
Russian comrades indiscriminately mixed cham- 
pagne, beer, and red or white wines, with the result 
that they soon became exceedingly merry. We 
were served by Chinese and a Russian soldier, 
whose manner of waiting at table was perfection. 
The best -trained London butler could not have 
moved with more noiseless tread, or decanted the 
wine more carefully. 

As the meal wore on and the bottles were emptied, 
the conversation waxed somewhat noisy. Our 
friends were filled with the most generous senti- 
ments towards England and lamented the estrange- 
ment of our nations. They confessed that they had 
come to China prepared to dislike the British officers 
intensely ; but, in common with all their comrades 
who had been brought in contact with us, their 
feelings had entirely changed. They said frankly 
that the hostility to England was mainly owing to 
the continual opposition she offers to the natural 
desire of Russia to find an outlet to the sea. As 
they pointed out with truth, a great and rising nation 



156 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

like theirs will not submit to be confined for ever 
to the land ; that it was intolerable that their vast 
Empire had not a single port free from ice all the 
year round or entirely at their own disposal. For 
Odessa is practically an inland harbour ; and the 
Baltic is frozen in winter. Their ambition to reach 
the Mediterranean entangled them in the campaign 
against Turkey ; and one can understand their in- 
dignation against England, who stepped in at the 
last moment when Constantinople was almost in 
their grasp and despoiled them of the fruits of 
victory achieved at the cost of many sacrifices and 
a long and bloody war. Foiled in the attempt to 
reach the open sea there, they embarked on the 
marvellous career of conquest which carried them 
across Asia to the Pacific. And there they found 
their first port, Vladivostock, useless in winter. 
And if other nations had had the courage of their 
convictions, they would never have been suffered 
to retain Port Arthur. 

But although the talk was largely political, there 
was absolutely no bitterness on the part of our host 
and his comrades. The conversation passed on to 
a comparison of the various systems of the armies 
of the world and a frank criticism of our own as 
well as the other contingents of the Allied forces. 
They were not very much impressed by our Indian 
army. They admired the regiments they had seen, 
but pitied us for the necessity we were under of 
having coloured troops at all. They forgot that 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 157 

a large portion of their own army can scarcely be 
called European. Like all the Russians I have 
met, from a Grand Duke to a subaltern, they ex- 
hibited a rancorous hatred to Germany. What 
they had seen of her troops in this campaign had 
added neither to their respect nor their love for that 
nation. In fact, the Germans did not succeed in 
making themselves cordially liked by those with 
whom they were brought in contact ; just as their 
country may find, when her day of trouble comes, 
that her friends are few. Our friends betrayed a con- 
tempt, not altogether unmixed with fear, for the 
Japanese ; and they marvelled at our friendship for 
them. They acknowledged their bravery in the 
present campaign, but doubted if they would exhibit 
the same courage when pitted against white troops. 
Their doubts will be resolved when the time comes. 

The wine passed freely between our Russian 
comrades ; but with the truest hospitality they for- 
bore to press us to drink against our wish. The 
dinner was extremely good, even luxurious ; and 
Kell laughingly lamented to me his inability to 
entertain his friends as well as his Russian colleague 
could contrive to do. But here, again, I think he 
was helped by his Government, for I fancy that he 
received an entertainment allowance. As the wine 
circulated rapidly our companions became boisterous 
and showed some signs of inebriation. 

Beside me sat an officer who filled the post of 
military director of the railway between Shanhai- 



158 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

kwan and Newchwang. I had long been desirous 
of visiting Manchuria by this route, but had always 
been assured that the Russians were very unwilling 
to allow any foreigner, especially a British officer, 
to use it ; that it was hopeless to try to obtain their 
permission. As my neighbour's tongue seemed a 
good deal loosened by his potations, I determined 
to get him off his guard and sound him as to the 
possibility of my proceeding northward to Man- 
churia from Shanhaikwan. I began by telling him 
that I hoped to sail in a few days from Taku for 
Newchwang, and remarked that it was a pity that 
the Russian authorities were so averse to British 
officers visiting Manchuria. He waxed quite in- 
dignant at the idea, and assured me that they were 
sadly misrepresented. 

"But," said I, "we would not be allowed to travel 
from here to Newchwang by your railway." 

"Not be allowed? Absurd! Of course you 
would," he replied. " I am the director of that 
section of the line ; it is under my charge. Surely 
I know best." 

"Oh, come," I said chaffingly, "you know that if 
I wanted to travel by it you would not permit me." 

" Most certainly I would. I should be delighted." 

I shall pin you to that, I thought. I felt very 
pleased at achieving a result that everyone had told 
me was impossible, Kell among them ; so I glanced 
in triumph at him. He smiled. 

" Do you mean to say that I could go to New- 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 159 

chwang whenever I liked by your line?" I con- 
tinued to my neighbour. 

"Certainly you could," he replied, draining his 
glass, which I had taken care had not stood idle 
during our conversation. Wine in, wit out, I 
thought. 

" Well, in that case," said I, " I will cancel my 
passage by steamer and start by rail from here to- 
morrow." 

" Eh ? Oh ! You are serious ? You really wish 
to go by train ? " he stammered, taken aback. 

" Yes ; I shall telegraph to the Steamship Com- 
pany at Tientsin in the morning, and start by the 
first train I can get." 

For a second my friend seemed disconcerted. 
The other Russians had been following our conver- 
sation with interest. Suddenly sobered, my neigh- 
bour spoke to them in a low tone ; and a muttered 
colloquy took place. Then he turned again to me 
and said, with a smile of innocent regret 

" I am so sorry. It would be impossible for you 
to start so soon. The railway has been breached 
in several places by floods, and three bridges have 
been washed away. The line is broken and all 
traffic suspended. It is most unfortunate." 

I realised that I had caught my Tartar. 

" How soon do you think I could travel ? " I 
asked. 

" Oh, not for several days, I am afraid," was the 
answer, in a tone of deep sympathy for my dis- 



160 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

appointment. " The repairs will take some time 
as the damage is extensive." 

I saw that I was no match for Russian wiliness, 
and retired from the contest. 

" It is very unfortunate. But perhaps, after all, 
it would be best to go by sea." 

"Yes, yes," he assented eagerly. " It would be 
very difficult, even dangerous, by the railway." 

Then the host interposed and changed the con- 
versation. But at the end of the evening, when all 
the Russians had imbibed freely, my neighbour for- 
got his caution. When bidding me good-night, he 
insisted on giving me his address in Newchwang, 
where he usually resided, being then only on a visit 
to Shanhaikwan. He cordially invited me to come 
and see him. 

"But I fear that I shall have come and gone be- 
fore you can possibly arrive there," I said. "We 
leave Taku in three or four days ; and it is not 
twenty-four hours' sail from there to Newchwang. 
So I shall have left before you can get there." 

" Oh, not at all," he said unguardedly. " I am 
leaving Shanhaikwan for Newchwang to-morrow 
morning by a train starting at ten o'clock. So be 
sure to come and see me." 

I smiled to myself as I shook his hand. No 
wonder Russian diplomacy prospers. 

That dinner was the merriest function at which I 
had assisted for a long time. Our friends were 
excellent boon companions, and the conversation 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 161 

in divers tongues never flagged. Tiny cigarettes 
were handed round between each course; and the 
menu comprised many delicacies that came as a 
pleasant surprise in the wilds of China. When the 
meal was ended and cigars were lit, my host asked 
me whether I would prefer coffee or th a la Russe. 
As I had always understood that this latter bever- 
age was prepared from a special and excellent 
blend of tea and flavoured with lemons, I voted 
for it. To my horror, the soldier-servant brought 
me a long tumbler filled with an amber-coloured 
liquid and proceeded to stir a large spoonful of 
jam in it. The mixture was not palatable, but 
courtesy demanded that I should drink it. I de- 
clared the concoction delicious, drained my glass and 
set it down with relief. The attendant promptly 
filled it up again, my host insisting that as I liked it 
so well, I must have more. It nearly sufficed to 
spoil my enjoyment of the whole dinner. 

During the evening, whenever our companions 
were not observing me, I replenished my glass with 
plain soda-water, and my brother officer had re- 
mained faithful to his weak beverage. Consequently, 
at the end of dinner we were perfectly sober ; while 
our host and his friends who had imbibed freely were 
well, the reverse. Conscious of their own state 
and contrasting it with ours, they gazed at us in 
admiration, and exclaimed, " These English officers 
have the heads of iron." We parted at a late hour. 
With many expressions of mutual friendship and 

M 



162 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

goodwill, the party broke up ; and so ended a very 
interesting and enjoyable evening. No longer a 
homeless outcast, I retired to rest in the friendly 
shelter of Kell's quarters. 

During the night I was dimly conscious of heavy 
rain but slept on unregarding. When I rose in the 
morning I found that a change had come over the 
scene. A burning sun no longer blazed overhead. 
The sky was dark with leaden clouds ; the rain was 
falling with tropical violence, and all the landscape 
beyond the station was almost invisible. Already 
the line was covered with water; and fears were ex- 
pressed by the staff that a freshet might occur in 
the hills and the railway be rendered impassable 
and possibly be breached. As the day wore on, 
these apprehensions became intensified. In the after- 
noon the train from Tong-ku steamed in, literally 
ploughing its way through the water. The driver 
reported that not many miles from Shanhaikwan the 
floods were out and as his engine passed through 
them the fires were nearly extinguished. Another 
hour would render the line impassable. Pleasant 
tidings these for me; for our party purposed return- 
ing to Tientsin on the morrow, and some of us were 
starting for Japan the day after. 

My rambles that afternoon were confined to the 
station platform and the house of some friends of 
Kell's, who, learning of my forlorn state, had most 
kindly asked him to bring me there for lunch and 
dinner. They were connected with the railway; 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 163 

and the ladies of the family had passed through an 
anxious time during the troubles, but had bravely 
refused to seek safety in flight. 

Next day the rain still continued. Reports came 
in that the line was impassable. The station was 
completely isolated from the rest of the world. 
Those of my party who were living with the 
Gurkhas, ignorant of the fact that no train could 
start, essayed to drive down to it in native carts. 
The stream over which the friendly Chinaman had 
carried us was in flood ; and as they endeavoured to 
cross it, horses, vehicles, and passengers were nearly 
swept away. One smaller cart with their luggage 
was carried some distance down from the ford ; and 
kit-bags and portmanteaus were only rescued with 
the greatest difficulty. An invaluable collection of 
films and negatives belonging to one of the party, 
who was an expert photographer, was entirely spoilt. 
It was a real loss, as they contained a complete 
pictorial record of North China. 

The low ground behind the station was flooded. 
I watched with amusement the antics of a number 
of Cossacks, who, heedless of the rain, had got 
together planks and old doors torn off ruined houses, 
and, using them as rafts, had organised a miniature 
regatta on the pond thus formed. Exciting races 
took place ; and a friendly dispute over one resulted 
in a naval battle full of comic incidents. Like 
schoolboys, they charged each other's rafts and 
if capsized continued the struggle in the water. 



164 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

One, diving beneath the surface, would suddenly 
reappear beneath an enemy's vessel, tilt it on end, 
and precipitate the occupants into the muddy flood, 
to be immediately grappled by them and ducked. 

In the morning a letter from Captain Labertouche 
was brought me by a trooper of the $rd Bombay 
Light Cavalry, who had been forced to swim his 
horse across a swollen stream in order to reach the 
station. I chatted for some time with the man a 
fine, lithe specimen of the Indian sowar. Anxious 
to hear every expression of the impression which 
the Russian troops had made upon our native rank- 
and-file, I asked him his opinion of them. 

" They are not bad, sahib," he replied in Hindu- 
stani. Then, with an expressive shrug, he added, 
" But they will never get into India." 

The remark was significant, for it showed not 
only what our men thought of the soldiers of the 
Czar, but also that the possibility of the Russian 
invasion is occasionally discussed amongst them, 
only to be dismissed with contempt. 

Our Indian contingent, one and all, have con- 
ceived a wonderful disdain of most of the troops 
of the other nationalities with whom they were 
brought in contact in China. They had the 
greatest admiration and affection for the gallant 
little Japanese, but considered their training obso- 
lete. The Russians they regarded with little 
respect and no dread, and looked upon them as 
scarcely civilised. The Infanterie Coloniale, of 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 165 

whom they saw a good deal, filled them with the 
greatest contempt, undeserved though it was, for 
the whole French army. And I wish that the 
armchair critics, who condemn our forces and hold 
up the Germans as models to be slavishly followed 
in every respect, could have heard the opinion 
formed of them by these shrewd fighting men, 
Sikh, Gurkha, and Punjaubi, whose lives have been 
passed in war. 

An instance of the friendship existing between 
our sepoys and the Japanese came under my notice 
that day. On the railway platform some Gurkhas 
and a few of the 4th Punjaub Infantry were loiter- 
ing or sitting about watching the heavy rain. 
Three or four Japanese soldiers came into the 
station and promptly sat down beside the Gurkhas, 
greeting them with effusive smiles. I was struck 
by the similarity in feature between the two races. 
Dressed in the same uniform, it would be difficult 
to distinguish between them. They are about the 
same height and build, and very much alike in face ; 
though the Japanese is lighter coloured. Before 
long the mixed party were exchanging cigarettes 
and chatting away volubly ; though the few words 
of English each knew, eked out by signs, could 
have been the only medium of intercourse. 

A Pathan sepoy was sitting alone on a bench. 
To him came up another little white- clad soldier 
of Dai Nippon. He proffered a cigarette and 
gesticulated wildly. Before I realised his meaning, 



166 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 



he had removed the Pathan's /a^rz from his head, 
replaced it with his own cap, and donned the 
borrowed headgear himself. Then he strutted up 
and down the platform amid the laughing applause 
of his comrades and the Gurkhas. The Pathan, 
highly amused, joined in the merriment. I had 
noticed a Dogra sepoy standing by himself with 
eyes fixed on the ground, lost in deep thought. 
Suddenly a cheery little Japanese soldier, motion- 
ing to the audience on the benches not to betray 
him, stole up quietly behind the Dogra, seized him 
round the waist, and lifted the astonished six-foot 
sepoy into the air. Then with a grin he replaced 
him on his feet, and with mutual smiles they shook 
hands. 

When the day comes for our Indian army to 
fight shoulder to shoulder with its comrades of 
Japan, a bond stronger than a paper alliance will 
hold them ; and their only rivalry will be as to which 
shall outstrip the other in their rush on the foe. 

All that day reports of houses used as barracks 
half collapsing under the heavy rain reached the 
station. My friends who were living with the 
Gurkha officers were nearly washed out. 

Once during the occupation of Shanhaikwan, 
when a similar deluge rendered the Chinese huts 
occupied by some foreign troops there untenable, 
their commander sought the aid of the colonel of 
the Gurkha Regiment, who offered to share the 
village in which his men were quartered with the 



A TRIP TO SHANHAIKWAN 167 

others. The offer was gratefully accepted. The 
Gurkhas made their guests welcome ; but the latter 
soon began to jeer at and insult them, and call 
them coolies the usual term of reproach which 
the Continental troops hurled at our sepoys. Now, 
the Gurkhas are not naturally either pacific or 
humble ; and it was only with the greatest difficulty 
that the fiery little soldiers were restrained from 
drawing their deadly kukris and introducing the 
guests to that national and favourite weapon. 
On the conduct of his men being reported to the 
foreign commander, he sent a written, but not 
very full, apology to the Gurkha colonel. 

Towards evening the rain ceased, and the floods 
subsided as rapidly as they had arisen. So the 
following day saw us on our way back to Tientsin. 
At one of the stations an old friend of mine entered 
our carriage. He was an officer of the 4th Pun- 
jaub Infantry, Captain Gray, the son of a well- 
known and very popular Don of Trinity College, 
Dublin. He had just received a report from the 
native officer commanding a detachment in a village 
near the canal which runs beside the railway. This 
jemadar had been sitting in front of his quarters 
watching the boats pass, when something about one 
of them aroused his suspicion and caused him to 
order the boat to stop and come into the bank. 
Three Chinamen in it sprang out and rushed away 
into the high crops. The boat was laden with cases, 
which, on search, proved to contain eighty new 



168 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

barrels of Mauser and Mannlicher magazine rifles. 
Besides these there were five boxes of cartridges 
and several casks of powder. This is but a small 
instance of the enormous extent to which the 
smuggling of arms goes on. The brigands were 
provided with weapons of the latest pattern and 
excellent make. The Germans are the chief 
offenders here as in Africa and elsewhere. 

Another officer of the 4th Punjaub joined our 
train later on. He was Lieutenant Stirling, who 
worthily gained the D.S.O. for his brave exploit 
when Major Browning, of his regiment, fell in an 
attack with eighty men on walled villages held by 
thousands of brigands. Stirling refused to abandon 
the body, and carried it back, retiring slowly over 
seven miles of open country, attacked by swarms 
of mounted robbers, who feared to charge home 
upon the steady ranks of the gallant Punjaubis. 
He was wounded himself in the fight. 

In the evening we arrived at Tientsin. 



CHAPTER VIII 
OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 

HONG KONG AND THE KOWLOON HINTERLAND 
HONG KONG 

EOGRAPHICALLY, of course, Hong Kong 
is very far from North China. But it was 
the base of our expeditionary force in the recent 
campaign. From it went the first troops that helped 
to save Tientsin ; and one brigade of Indian regi- 
ments was diverted from General Gaselee's com- 
mand to strengthen its garrison. For in the event 
of disturbances in Canton, or a successful rebellion 
in the southern provinces, it would have been in 
great danger. As our base for all future operations 
in the Far East, it is of vast military as well as 
naval and commercial importance and well merits 
description. In complications or wars with other 
Powers, Hong Kong would be the first point in 
the East threatened or assailed. Lying as it does 
on what would be our trans- Pacific route to India, 
it is almost of as much importance to our Empire 
as Capetown or the Suez Canal. Its magnificent 
dockyards, which are capable of taking our largest 
battleships on the China station, are the only ones 

169 



i;o THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

we possess east of Bombay ; and so it is of equal 
value to our fleet, besides being the naval base for 
coal, ammunition, and supplies, without which the 
finest ship that floats would be helpless. 

Looked at from other than a military point of 
view, Hong Kong is an object-lesson of our Empire 
that should fill the hearts of Imperialists with 
pardonable pride. A little more than half a century 
ago it was but a bleak and barren island, tenanted 
only by a few fisherfolk. It produced nothing, and 
animal life could scarce be supported on it. But 
now, touched by the magic wand of British trade, 
how wonderful is the transformation ! A magnifi- 
cent city, with stately buildings climbing in tier 
after tier from the sea. The most European town 
between Calcutta and San Francisco. The third, 
some say the second, largest shipping port in the 
world. The harbour to which turn the countless 
prows of British, American, German, French, 
Austrian, and Japanese vessels ; where the vast 
current of the trade of the world with the Far 
East flows in, to issue forth again in an infinitude 
of smaller streams to every part of China and the 
Philippines. 

Yet, though the barren hillsides are covered with 
houses, though a large population of white men 
and yellow inhabit it, and its harbour is crowded 
with shipping, the island itself is still as unpro- 
ductive as ever. Not merely is mineral wealth 
unknown and manufactures practically nil, but 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 171 

Hong Kong cannot provide enough of foodstuffs 
to support its inhabitants for half a day. From 
Canton, almost a hundred miles away up the Pearl 
River, comes everything required to feed both 
Europeans and Chinese. Each morning the large, 
flat-bottomed steamers that ply between the two 
cities carry down meat or cattle, fish, rice, vege- 
tables of all kinds, fruit, even flowers ; and were 
communications interrupted by storm or war for 
a few days, Hong Kong would starve. For neither 
the island nor the couple of hundred square miles 
of adjacent mainland, the Kowloon Hinterland, 
which we took over in 1898, could produce enough 
to feed one regiment ; and although two months' 
supply of provisions for the whole population, white 
and yellow, is supposed to be stored, it is never 
done. Therein lies Hong Kong's great danger. 
Let Canton refuse or be prevented from feeding 
her, and she must starve. 

The secret of her rapid rise and present great- 
ness lies in the fact that she is the great mart, the 
distributing centre, whence European or American 
goods, arriving in large bottoms, are sent out again 
in small coasting steamers or junks to reach the 
smallest markets for Western commerce. And her 
prosperity will continue and be vastly increased if 
the long - projected railway to Canton, to meet 
another tapping the great inland resources of 
China, is ever built ; although the Americans fondly 



172 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

hope that Manilla under their energetic rule will 
one day rival and even excel her. 

Hong Kong is an island of irregular shape, about 
nine miles in length and six miles broad in its 
widest portion, and consists of one long chain of 
hills, that rise almost perpendicularly from the sea. 
Scarcely the smallest spot of naturally level ground 
is to be found. Around are countless other islands, 
large and small, all equally mountainous. It lies 
close to the Chinese mainland, the Kau-lung, or 
Kowloon Peninsula; and the portion of sea en- 
closed between them forms the harbour. At one 
extremity of the island this is a mile across ; and at 
the other it narrows down to a strait known as the 
Lyeemoon Pass, only a quarter of a mile broad. 
In the centre the harbour is about two miles in 
width. The high hills of island and mainland for 
the latter is but a series of broken, mountainous 
masses rising two or three thousand feet shelter it 
from the awful typhoons that ravage the coast. 

Approaching Hong Kong by steamer there lies 
before us a confused jumble of hills, which gradually 
resolve themselves into islands fronting the moun- 
tainous background of the mainland. All, without 
exception, spring up from the water's edge in steep 
slopes, with never a yard of level ground save 
where an occasional tiny bay shows a small stretch 
of sparkling sandy beach. Granite cliffs carved 
into a thousand quaint designs, or honeycombed 
with caverns by the white - fringed waves ; steep 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 173 

grassy slopes, with scarcely a bush upon them, 
rising up to a conical peak ; here and there a 
fisher's hut, the only sign of human habitation- 
such are they almost all. At last one larger than 
the others. On the long ridge of the lofty summits 
of its hills the slated roofs and high walls of Euro- 
pean buildings outlined against the sky, and we 
know that we are nearing Hong Kong. Swinging 
round a bluff shoulder of this island, we enter the 
land - locked harbour. On the right the myriad 
houses climbing in terraces above each other from 
the water's edge, long lines of stately buildings, the 
spires of churches come into view. It is the city of 
Victoria, or Hong Kong. The harbour, sheltered 
by the lofty hills of island and mainland, is crowded 
with shipping. The giant bulks of battleships and 
cruisers, the tall masts of sailing vessels, the gaily 
painted funnels of passenger and merchant steamers, 
the quaint sails and weird shapes of junks, the 
countless little sampans or native boats, a numerous 
flotilla of steam launches, rushing hither and thither. 
Ahead of us the hills of island and mainland ap- 
proach each other until they almost touch, and 
tower up on either hand above the narrow channel 
of the Lyeemoon Pass. On the left a small, bush- 
clad, conical isle, with a lighthouse Green Island ; 
another, long and straggling Stonecutters' Island, 
with the sharp outlines of forts and barracks and 
the ruins of an old convict prison. 

Behind them the mainland. A small extent of 



174 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

comparatively level land covered with houses, the 
curving line of a pretty bay, low, pine-clad hills. 
This is the very modern suburb of Kowloon, which 
has been created to take the overflow of European 
and Chinese population from Hong Kong. Here 
will be the terminus of the railway to Canton 
when it is built. And behind, towering grim and 
dark to the sky, stands a long chain of barren 
mountains that guard the approach from the land- 
ward side. Behind them range upon range of 
other hills. Such is the Kowloon Peninsula. 

Hong Kong, with the blue water of its harbour, 
the dark hills towering precipitously above the 
town, the walls of whose houses are gaily painted 
in bright colours, is one of the loveliest places on 
earth. After long days on board ship, where the 
eye tires of the interminable monotony of sea and 
sky, it seems doubly beautiful. And one marvels 
to find this English lodgment on the coast of China 
a city of stately buildings, of lofty clubs and many- 
storied hotels, of magnificent offices and splendid 
shops, of well-built barracks and princely villas. 

The town of Victoria for Hong Kong, though 
used for it, is really the name of the island stretches 
for miles along the water's edge, being for the most 
part built on reclaimed ground ; for the hills thrust 
themselves forward to the sea. Up their steep sides 
the houses clamber in tier upon tier until they end 
under the frowning face of a rocky precipice that 
reaches up to the summit. And there along its 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 175 

ridge, which is called the Peak, 1,800 feet above the 
sea, are more houses. Large hotels, villas, and 
barracks for it is fast becoming the residential 
quarter for Europeans are perched upon its nar- 
row breadth, seemingly absolutely inaccessible from 
below. But a thin, almost perpendicular, line against 
the face of the hill shows how they are reached by 
a cable tramway, which, in ten minutes, brings its 
passengers from the steamy atmosphere of Victoria 
to the cool breezes of the Peak another climate 
altogether. 

The city practically consists of one long street, 
which runs from end to end of the island and is 
several miles in length. On the steep landward 
side smaller streets run off at right angles and 
climb the hills, many of them in flights of steps. 
On the slopes above the town are one or two long 
roads parallel to the main street and consisting alto- 
gether of residential buildings, churches, convents, 
and schools. 

But this main street Queen's Road as it is 
named is wonderful. At the western extremity 
near Belcher's Fort, the end of the island round 
which our steamer passed, it begins in two or three- 
storied Chinese houses, the shops on the ground 
floor being under colonnades. Then come store 
and warehouses, offices, and small Chinese shops 
where gaudy garments and quaint forms of food are 
sold, interspersed with saloons, bars, and drinking- 
shops of all kinds, which cater for merchant sailors, 



176 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

soldiers, and bluejackets of every nationality, the 
well-paid American tars being most in evidence 
among their customers. Beyond this the Queen's 
Road is lined with splendid European-looking shops 
with extensive premises and large plate-glass fronts, 
finer than many in Bond Street or Regent Street, 
though not as expensive. Some of them, mostly 
kept by Chinamen, sell Chinese or Japanese curios, 
silver-work or embroideries, pottery or blackwood 
furniture. Others, generally, though not always, run 
by Europeans, are tailoring and millinery establish- 
ments, chemists, book or print shops. The side- 
walks run under colonnades which afford a grateful 
shade. Here are found a few of the smaller hotels ; 
and the magnificent caravanserai of the high Hong 
Kong hotel stretches from the harbour to the street. 
Then come some fine banks, the building of the 
Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation 
being a splendid piece of architecture. Opposite it 
a sloping road, with lovely fern-clad banks and trees, 
leads upward to the cathedral and to Government 
House. Past the banks, a little back from the 
thoroughfare, is the fine City Hall, which contains 
a museum and a theatre, as well as large ball and 
concert rooms, in which most of the social gaieties 
of Hong Kong take place. 

Here occurs the one break in the long line of 
the Queen's Road. On the seaward side, fenced 
in by railings, lies the cricket-ground with its pretty 
pavilion. Between it and the harbour stands the 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 177 

splendid structure of the Hong Kong Club, a mag- 
nificent four-storied building. Few clubs east of Pall 
Mall can rival its palatial accommodation. From 
the ground-floor, where billiard-rooms and a large 
bowling alley are found, a splendid staircase, 
dividing into two wings, leads to a magnificent 
central hall on the first floor. Off this is a large 
reading-room, where a great number of British, 
American, and Continental journals are kept. 
Electric fans, revolving from the ceiling, cool the 
room in the damp, hot days of the long and un- 
pleasant summer. On the same floor are the 
secretary's offices, a luxurious public dressing-room, 
and a large bar, which opens on to a wide verandah 
overlooking the harbour. From it one can gaze 
over the water, crowded with shipping, to the 
rugged hills of the mainland. In front lie the 
warships of many nations. Close inshore is a 
small fleet of sampans crowded together, their 
crews, male and female, chattering volubly or 
screaming recriminations from boat to boat. From 
a tiny pier near the Club the steam pinnace of an 
American man-o'-war shoots out into the stream, 
passing a couple of gigs from British warships 
conveying officers in mufti ashore. 

On the next floor are the dining-rooms and a 
splendid library. Above these again are the 
members' bedrooms, bath and dressing rooms. 
Altogether, internally and externally, the Club is 



178 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

worthy to rank with almost any similar institu- 
tion in the Empire. 

On Queen's Road, facing the cricket-ground, is 
a small, square open space below the cathedral, 
raised above the level of the street, as the ground 
slopes upward. It is known as the Garrison 
Brigade Parade Ground. During the recent cam- 
paign it was used as the store-ground of the Indian 
Commissariat, where huge mat-sheds covered enor- 
mous piles of supplies for the troops in China. 
Here the hard- worked base commissariat officer, 
Major Williams, watched the vast stores arriving 
daily from India, and despatched the supplies for 
the army in the North and the Indian brigades at 
Shanghai and Kowloon. Beside the parade ground 
a road climbs the hill and passes the station for the 
cable tramway, which is but a short distance up. 

Beyond this one gap in its continuous fencing of 
houses the Queen's Road runs on past the Naval 
Dockyard where Commodore Sir Francis Powell, 
K.C.M.G., had such heavy labour all through the 
troublous time in China and the Provost Prison 
on the seaward side, and the barracks of the British 
troops and the arsenal on the other. Then the 
military hospital and the ordnance yards, crowded 
with guns, from the twelve-inch naval monsters to 
the stubby howitzers or long six-inch on field-car- 
riages. Then more barracks. Then it runs on 
again into Chinese shops, their upper stories used 
as boarding-houses for Celestials ; and, turning down 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 179 

to the harbour and following the shore line, it is 
bordered with coal-yards, godowns, and warehouses. 
Near this end are the two open spaces of the 
island, where the hills, retreating from the sea, have 
left valleys which the sport-loving Britisher has 
seized upon for recreation grounds. The first and 
larger one, known as the Happy Valley, is a lovely 
spot. All around the tree-clad hills ring it in, rising 
precipitously from its level stretch on which is a 
racecourse, its centre portion being devoted to other 
games. A fine grand stand is flanked by a block 
of red -brick buildings, the lower stones of which 
are used during race meetings as stables for the 
horses and ponies running. The upper, with open 
fronts looking out on the course, are used as 
luncheon rooms, where the regimental messes, the 
members of the clubs, and large hongs (or merchant 
firms) and private residents entertain their friends 
during the meetings. Surely no other racecourse 
in the world is set in such lovely scenery as this in 
its arena, surrounded by the mountains that tower 
above it on every side. And that a memento 
mori may not be wanting in the midst of gaiety, 
just behind the grand stand lie the cemeteries 
Christian, Mussulman, Hindu, and Parsee. Up 
the sides of the steep hills the white crosses and 
tombstones gleam amongst the dark foliage of the 
trees ; and the spirits of the dead can look down 
from their graves upon the scene of former 
pleasures. 



i8o THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

A little farther on is another and smaller valley 
used as a polo ground. Previous to the advent of 
the Indian troops in 1900 the game was played 
here almost exclusively on Chinese ponies. But the 
Arabs used by the officers of the 22nd Bombay 
Infantry, by that excellent sportsman, H. H. Major, 
the Maharajah of Bikanir, and other members of 
the China expeditionary force, so completely 
outclassed the diminutive Chinese ponies that a 
revolution was caused in the class of animals re- 
quired for the game. Small Walers from Australia 
and Arabs from India have been freely introduced, 
much to the benefit of polo in Hong Kong. 

At the polo ground the city ends at present ; 
though every day its limits are extending. From 
here the road runs along close to the sea, protected 
from the waves by a wall, and clinging to the flanks 
of the hills. It passes an occasional row of Chinese- 
occupied houses, a lone hotel or two, the site of 
the immense new docks in process of construction, 
large sugar works, with a colony of houses for its 
employees, and an overhead wire tramway leading 
to their sanatorium on the high peak above, until 
it reaches the Lyeemoon Pass. Here the hills 
narrow in and press down to the sea, thrusting 
themselves forward to meet the hills of the main- 
land on the other side. A strait, only a quarter of 
a mile broad, separates them ; and here on either 
hand, high above the water, stand modern and 
well-armed forts, which, with a Brennan torpedo, 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 181 

effectually close the narrow entrance of the harbour 
to any hostile ships that venture to force a passage. 

Thus ends the northern and more important side 
of the island. On the southern and ocean-ward 
shore lie the ill-fated and practically deserted 
towns of Stanley and Aberdeen, where many years 
ago the British troops garrisoning them were so 
decimated by fever and disease that this side of 
the island was abandoned, and Victoria has become 
practically Hong Kong. 

The Peak is altogether another world from the 
city that lies in the steamy atmosphere below. 
Let us ascend in one of the trams that are dragged 
up to the summit by the wire cables. Seated in 
the car, we are drawn up rapidly at a weird and 
uncomfortable angle ; for the slope of the line is, in 
places, i in 2. Up the steep sides of the hill we 
go, feeling a curious sensation as we are tilted back 
on the benches and see the trees and houses on 
each side all leaning over at an absurd angle. 
Even such a respectable structure as a church 
seems to be lying back towards the hillside in a 
tipsy and undignified manner. This curious optical 
effect is caused by the inclined position of the roof 
and floor, as well as of the passengers, with the 
horizontal. We pass over a bridge across a pretty 
road lined with stone villas, by large and well-built 
houses that grow fewer and fewer as we mount 
upward. Here and there we stop at a small plat- 
form representing a station, where passengers come 



182 

on or leave the tram. The down car passes us 
with a rush. The long ridge of the Peak, crowned 
with houses, comes into view. Turning round in 
our slanting seats we look down on the rapidly 
diminishing city and the harbour, now a thousand 
feet below us. At last we reach the summit and 
step out on a platform with waiting-rooms, the 
terminus of the line. Now we see how the wire 
cable runs on over pulleys into the engine-house 
and is wound round the huge iron drums. 

As we stand on the platform there towers above 
us, on the left, a large and many-windowed hotel, 
the Mount Austin. Along the fronts of its three 
stories run verandahs with arched colonnades. This 
is a favourite place of resort for visitors ; and many 
residents, unwilling to face the troubles of house- 
keeping, take up their permanent abode here. 

Outside the station is a line of waiting coolies, 
ready to convey passengers in their open cane 
sedan chairs with removable hoods. A Sikh 
policeman standing close by keeps them in order 
and cuts short their frequent squabbles. The road 
and paths, which are cemented and provided with 
well-made drains running alongside to carry off the 
torrential rains of the summer and thus prevent the 
roadway from being washed away, are too steep in 
their ascents and descents to make the ricksha 
Hong Kong's favourite vehicle useful up here. 

Standing on the narrow ridge of the Peak, we can 
look down upon the sea on either hand. A wonder- 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 183 

ful view unfolds itself to our gaze. On the northern 
side the city of Victoria lies almost straight below 
us, its streets and roofs forming a chessboard- 
pattern. We can easily trace the long, sinuous line 
of the Queen's Road. From this height the largest 
battleships and mail steamers in the harbour look no 
bigger than walnuts. Beyond, the suburb of Kow- 
loon lies in sharp lines and tiny squares ; and behind 
it rise up the hills of the mainland, dwarfed in size. 
Now we can see plainly the interminable ranges 
of mountains chain after chain of the Kowloon 
Peninsula, with the lofty peaks of Tai-mo-shan and 
Tai-u-shan over 3,000 feet high. The coastline is 
straggling and indented with numerous bays, the 
shores rising up in steep, grassy slopes to the hills 
or presenting a line of rocky cliffs to the waves. 
Here and there pretty cultivated valleys run back 
from the sea to the never-far-distant mountains. 

Turning round, we look down the grass-clad 
slopes of the south side of the island to tiny, sandy 
bays and out over the broad expanse of the sea, in 
which lie many large and small islands. Over a 
hundred can be counted from the elevation of the 
Peak. Close by, to the west, is the largest of them 
all the barren and treeless Lantau, which was once 
nearly chosen instead of Hong Kong as the site 
of the British settlement. Below us, on the southern 
shore of our island, lie the practically abandoned 
towns of Stanley and Aberdeen. 

Along the ridge the road passes by large and 



184 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

well-built villas, barracks, the Peak Club, a church, 
and many boarding-houses. The European inhabi- 
tants of Hong Kong are rapidly abandoning the 
lower levels and taking up their residence here, 
where the climate, with its cool and refreshing 
breezes, is delightful in the long summer when 
Victoria swelters in tropical heat. During the rainy 
season, however, the Peak is continually shrouded 
in damp mists; and fires are required to keep rooms 
and spare garments dry. The saying in Hong Kong 
is : "If you live on the Peak your clothes rot ; if in 
Victoria you do. Choose which you value more 
and take up your habitation accordingly." 

The cable tramway is a comparatively recent in- 
stitution ; so that when the houses on the summit 
were being built all the materials had to be carried 
by coolies up a steep, zigzagging road from below. 
Even now most of the supplies for the dwellers on 
the heights are brought up in the same primitive and 
laborious fashion. In the morning the trams are 
crowded with European merchants, bankers, solici- 
tors and their clerks, descending to their offices in 
the city. In the afternoon they are filled with the 
gay butterflies of society going up or down to pay 
calls, shop, or play tennis and croquet at the Ladies' 
Recreation Ground, half-way between the Peak and 
Victoria. The red coats of British soldiers are seen 
in the cars after parade hours or at night, when they 
are hurrying back to barracks before tattoo. 

The harbour of Hong Kong is remarkable for 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 185 

the large " floating population " of Chinese, who live 
in sampans and seldom go ashore except to pur- 
chase provisions. Their boats are small, generally 
not twenty feet in length, with a single mast, decked, 
and provided with a small well, covered with a hood, 
where passengers sit. Under the planking of the 
deck, in a tiny space without ventilation, with only 
room to lie prone, the crew consisting, perhaps, of 
a dozen men, women, and children sleep. Their 
cooking is done with a brazier or wood fire placed 
on a flat stone in the bows. The children tumble 
about the deck unconcernedly in the roughest 
weather. The smaller ones are occasionally tied to 
the mast to prevent them from falling overboard. 
The babies are bound in a bundle behind the 
shoulders of the mothers, who pull their oars or 
hoist and lower the sail with their burdens fastened 
on to them. Thus they live, thus they die ; never 
sleeping on land until their corpses are brought 
ashore to be buried amid much exploding of 
crackers and burning of joss-sticks. 

These sampans are freely used to convey pas- 
sengers to and from ships or across the harbour. 
Formerly cases of robbery and murder were 
frequent on board them ; and even now drunken 
sailors occasionally disappear in mysterious fashion. 
The hood over the passengers' seats could be 
suddenly lowered on the occupants of the well ; a 
few blows of a hatchet sufficed to end their efforts 
to free themselves ; the bodies were then robbed 



186 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

and flung overboard, and their fate remained a 
secret to all but the murderers. But stringent 
police regulations now render these crimes almost 
impossible. At night all sampans must anchor at 
least thirty yards from the shore. If hailed by 
intending passengers they are allowed to come only 
to certain piers where European or Indian police 
officers take their numbers as well as the names 
and destinations of those about to embark on them. 
So that the Hong Kong sampan is now nearly as 
safe a conveyance as the London hansom. 

Communication between Victoria and Kowloon 
is maintained by a line of large, two-decked, double- 
ended steam ferries, that cross the mile of water 
between them in ten minutes. The suburb on the 
mainland is of very recent growth. Ten years ago 
the Observatory, a signal station, and a few villas 
were almost the only buildings ; and the pinewoods 
ran uninterruptedly down to the sea. Now Kow- 
loon possesses large warehouses, two hotels, two 
fine barracks, long streets lined with shops chiefly 
for Chinese customers, and terraces of houses 
occupied by Europeans. These are generally em- 
ployees in the dockyards or clerks, or the families 
of engineers and mates of the small steamers that 
have their headquarters in Hong Kong. New 
streets are continually springing up, connecting it 
with Yaumati, a large Chinese suburb, or spreading 
down towards Old Kowloon City, three miles off. 
Near the ferry pier long wharves run out into the 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 187 

harbour, alongside which the largest vessels of the 
P. and O. or Norddeutscher- Lloyd can berth and 
discharge their cargo. Close by is a naval yard, 
with a small space of water enclosed by stone piers 
for torpedo craft. Beside it are huge stacks of coal 
for our warships. Just above rise the grass-covered 
ramparts of a fort. Near this are the fine stone 
and brick barracks built for the Hong Kong 
Regiment a corps raised and recruited in Northern 
India about ten years ago for permanent service 
in this Colony. It was recently disbanded when 
Hong Kong was added to the list of places over- 
seas to be garrisoned by the Indian army. Its 
material was excellent ; for the high rate of pay 
eighteen rupees a month with free rations as com- 
pared with the nine rupees and no rations offered 
to the sepoy in India gave its recruiting officers 
the pick of Mussulman Punjaub, for it was a com- 
pletely Mohammedan regiment. But it suffered 
from the disadvantage of being permanently 
stationed in one cramped-up garrison with much 
guard duty, and of being officered by men coming 
at random from various Indian regiments rarely of 
the Punjaub, or, worse still, by others from British 
regiments, who knew absolutely nothing of the 
sepoy and were attracted chiefly by the higher pay. 
On the Kowloon side two companies have built 
large and ample docks, which can take the finest 
battleships we have in the China seas. H.M.S. 
Goliath, Ocean, Albion^ Glory; U.S. S. Brooklyn 



i88 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

and Kentucky have all been accommodated there. 
As they are the only docks in the Far East, with 
the exception of those at Nagasaki in Japan, they 
are used by all foreign as well as British warships 
and merchantmen ; and the dividends they pay are 
very large. Small steamers and a yacht for the 
King of Siam have been constructed in them. In 
Yaumati and Kowloon many Chinese boat-building 
yards have sprung up, where numbers of large junks 
and sampans are turned out every year. 

Past the Kowloon Docks, above which tower a 
couple of forts, the open country is reached. The 
road runs down through patches of market-gardens 
to Old Kowloon City, a quaint walled Chinese 
town, with antique iron guns rusting on ks bastions. 
This was the last spot of territory in the peninsula 
handed over to the British by the Chinese. 
" Handed over " is, perhaps, hardly an accurate 
description. Although ordered by their Govern- 
ment to surrender it, the officials refused to do so. 
A show of force was necessary ; and a body of 
regular troops, accompanied by the Hong Kong 
Volunteers, marched upon the place. The Chinese, 
locking the gates and throwing away the keys, dis- 
appeared over the walls and bolted into the country. 
It was necessary to effect an entry by burglary. 
High hills tower above the city; and just beyond it 
they close in to the Lyeemoon Pass. 

To one unused to the East, Hong Kong is 
intensely interesting. The streets, lined with 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 189 

European-looking shops, are crowded with a strange 
medley of races white, black, or yellow. Daintily 
garbed English ladies step from their rickshas and 
enter milliner) 7 establishments, the windows of 
which display the latest fashions of Paris and 
London. Straight-limbed British soldiers, clad in 
the familiar scarlet of the Line and blue of the 
Royal Artillery or in the now as well-known khaki, 
stroll along the pavement, bringing their hands to 
their helmets in a smart salute to a passing officer. 
Sturdy bluejackets of our Royal Navy walk arm-in- 
arm with sailors from the numerous American 
warships in the harbour. A group of spectacled 
Chinese students move by, chattering volubly. 
Long, lithe Bengal Lancers, in khaki blouses reach- 
ing to the knee, blue putties, and spurred ankle- 
boots, gaudy pugris and bright shoulder -chains, 
stop to chat with sepoys of a Bombay infantry 
regiment or tall Sikhs of the Asiatic Artillery. 
Neat, glazed-hatted Parsis, long-haired Coreans, 
trousered Chinese women, and wild, unkempt Pun- 
jaubi mule-drivers go by. German man -o'- war's 
men, with flat caps and short jackets covered with 
gilt or silver buttons, turn to look back at a couple 
of small but sturdy Japanese bluejackets. Pig-tailed 
Chinese coolies push their way roughly along the 
side-walk, earning a well-deserved cut from the 
swagger-cane of a soldier against whose red coat 
they have rubbed their loads. Even the weird 
figure of a half-naked Hindu fakir, his emaciated 



THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

body coated with white ashes, the trident of Vishnu 
marked in scarlet on his ghastly forehead, carrying 
his begging-bowl and long-handled tongs, is seen. 
Europeans, in white linen coats and trousers or 
smartly-cut flannel suits, rush across the road and 
plunge hurriedly into offices. These are probably 
brokers, busily engaged in floating some of the 
numerous companies that spring up daily in Hong 
Kong like mushrooms. Globe-trotters, in weird 
pith hats, pause before the windows of curio-shops 
which display the artistic efforts of Japan or Can- 
ton. The street is crowded with rickshas bearing 
ladies, soldiers, civilians, or fat Chinamen in bowler 
hats and long, blue silk coats. Carriages are sel- 
dom seen, for horses are of little use in the colony, 
owing to its hilly character. Queen's Road is almost 
the only thoroughfare where they could be employed. 
Tall Sikh and Mussulman policemen in blue or red 
pugris direct the traffic or salute a white-helmeted 
European inspector as he passes. 

Society in Hong Kong is less official than in 
India, where almost every male is to be found in 
either the Army or the Civil Service List. The 
Governor and the General are, of course, the 
leaders, and in a small way represent Royalty in the 
colony. The merchant class is supreme, and their 
wives rule society ; naval and military people being 
regarded as mere birds of passage in a city where 
Europeans practically settle for life and England 
seems a very far-off country indeed. Altogether 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 191 

life in Hong Kong is of a more provincially English 
character than it is in India. The warm-hearted 
hospitality of the Anglo- Indian has but a faint echo 
in this very British colony. One is not brought into 
such daily contact with friends and acquaintances. 
In every station, large and small, throughout the 
length and breadth of Hindustan there is always a 
club which acts as the rallying-place of European 
society. Ladies as well as men assemble there in 
the afternoons when the sun is setting, and polo, 
tennis, and cricket are over for the day. The 
fair inhabitants of the station sit on the lawn, 
dispense tea to their friends, talk scandal or flirt ; 
while their husbands play whist, bridge, and bil- 
liards, or gather in jovial groups round the bar and 
discuss the events of the day. 

But in Hong Kong, despite the large European 
population, there is no similar institution or gather- 
ing-place. The clubs are sternly reserved for men. 
Save at an occasional race meeting or gymkhana, 
one never sees all the white inhabitants assembled 
together. In the summer the climate is far too hot 
for indoor social functions. Even tennis parties are 
too exhausting. So hospitable hostesses substitute 
for their "At Homes" weekly mixed bathing 
parties ; and in the comparative cool of the after- 
noons gay groups gather on the piers near the 
club and embark on the trim steam launches that 
lie in shoals alongside. Then out they go to some 
sandy bay along the coast, where mat-sheds have 



192 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

been erected to serve as bathing-boxes for the 
ladies, who go ashore and attire themselves for 
the water. The gentlemen of the party don their 
swimming costume in the cabin of the launch, and, 
plunging overboard, make their way to the beach 
to join their fair companions. When tired of 
bathing, the ladies retire to the mat-sheds, the men 
to the launch. Then, dressed again and reunited, 
all steam back to Hong Kong, refreshing them- 
selves with tea and drinks on the way. This is 
the favourite form of amusement in Hong Kong 
society during the summer. 

In the cold weather dances at Government House, 
Headquarter House (the General's residence), and 
in the City Hall are frequent ; and theatrical com- 
panies from England and Australia occupy the 
theatre. Picnics, walking or by launch, to the 
many charming spots to be found on the island 
or the mainland are given. Polo, racing, cricket, 
tennis, and golf are in full swing ; and, as the 
climate during winter is cold and bracing, life is 
very pleasant in the colony then. 

To the newly arrived naval or military officer 
society in Hong Kong is full of pitfalls and sur- 
prises. The English merchant or lawyer over seas 
is usually a very good fellow, though occasionally 
puffed up by the thought of his bloated money- 
bags ; but his wife is often a sad example of British 
snobbery, the spirit of which has entered into her 
soul in the small country town or London suburb 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 193 

from which she came. Society in the boarding- 
houses of West Kensington is a bad preparation 
for the role of grande dame in the hospitable East. 
And so the naval or military officer, accustomed 
to broader lines of social demarcation in England, 
is puzzled and amused at the minute shades of 
difference in Hong Kong society. He fails to see 
why Mrs. A., whose spouse exports tea, is to be 
considered quite of the haut ton of the colony ; 
while Mrs. B., whose husband imports cigars, and 
who is by birth and breeding a better man than 
A., is not to be called on. 

" Big fleas have little fleas upon their backs to bite 'em, 
And little fleas have lesser fleas, and so, ad infinitum." 

And Hong Kong looks down on Kowloon with all 
the well-bred contempt of Belgravia for Brixton. 
And even in the despised suburb on the mainland 
these social differences are not wanting. The wives 
of the superior dock employees are the leaders of 
Kowloon society ; and the better half of a ship 
captain or marine engineer is only admitted on 
sufferance to their exclusive circle. When the 
first Indian troops to strengthen the garrison of 
Hong Kong in 1900 arrived, they were quartered 
in Kowloon ; where the presence of a number of 
strange young officers, who dashed about their 
quiet suburb on fiery Arabs and completely eclipsed 
the local dandies, caused a flutter in the hearts of 
anxious mothers and indignant husbands. The 



194 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

fires of civilian prejudice against the military 
burned fiercely ; and I verily believe that many 
of the inhabitants of Kowloon would have pre- 
ferred an invasion of ferocious Chinese. 



THE KOWLOON HINTERLAND. 

The island of Hong Kong was ceded to England 
in 1841. Later on a strip of the adjacent mainland, 
from two to three miles deep, running back to a 
line of steep hills from 1,300 to 2,000 feet high, 
was added. Then for many years the colony 
rested content under the frowning shadow of these 
dangerous neighbours ; until it dawned at last upon 
our statesmen that the Power who possessed this 
range of hills had Hong Kong at its mercy. For 
heavy guns planted on their summits could lay the 
city of Victoria in ruins at the easy range of two 
or three miles ; and no answering fire from the 
island forts so far below them could save it. So 
in 1898, by a master-stroke of diplomacy, China 
was induced to lease to England the Kowloon 
Peninsula, about 200 miles square ; and our frontier 
was removed farther back to the safer distance of 
about twenty miles from Hong Kong. 

The peninsula is an irregularly shaped tongue of 
land with rugged and indented coast-line jutting 
out from the province of Kwang-tung. It is of 
little value except to safeguard the possession 
of Hong Kong. It consists of range after range 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 195 

of rugged, barren hills, grass-clad, with here and 
there tangled vegetation but with scarcely a tree 
upon them, separated by narrow valleys thinly 
occupied by Chinese. It could only support a 
small population ; for arable land is scarce, and 
the few inhabitants are forced to add to their scanty 
crops by terracing small fields on the steep sides 
of the hills. Villages are few and far between. 
Those that exist are well and substantially built ; 
for, as in Hong Kong, granite is everywhere 
present on the mainland, the soil being composed 
of disintegrated granite. Cattle-breeding and even 
sheep-raising seem difficult ; for the rank grass of 
the hills will scarcely support animal life. Experi- 
ments made on the islands near Hong Kong, which 
are of similar nature to the mainland, seem to bear 
this out. 

Winding inlets and long, narrow bays run far into 
the land on both sides and considerably diminish 
the space at the disposal of the cultivator. Occa- 
sionally narrow creeks are dammed by the villagers, 
and the ground is roughly reclaimed. The supply 
of fresh water is limited to the rainfall and the 
small streams that run down the hillsides. The 
presence of mineral wealth is unsuspected and un- 
likely. Altogether the Hinterland is poor and 
unproductive. Efforts are being made to develop 
its scanty resources ; and if cattle, wheat, and vege- 
tables could be raised, a ready market would be 
found for them in Hong Kong. 



196 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

The present frontier line is exceedingly short 
about ten miles if I remember aright as at the 
boundary the sea runs far into the land on each 
side of the peninsula in two bays Deep Bay on 
the west, Mirs Bay on the east. The latter is being 
used as the winter training-ground of the ships of 
our China squadron. The former is very shallow, 
being almost dry at low tide, and earns its name 
from the depth of its penetration into the land. 

One strongly defined portion of the boundary is 
the shallow, tidal Samchun River which runs into 
Deep Bay. Across it the Chinese territory begins 
in a fertile and cultivated valley surrounding an 
important and comparatively wealthy market-town, 
Samchun. Beyond that again rises another line 
of rugged hills. I have never penetrated into the 
interior here farther than Samchun, so cannot speak 
with accuracy of what the country is like at the 
other side of these hills ; but I have been told that 
it is flat and fertile nearly all the way on to Canton. 
The English firm in Hong Kong who projected 
the railway to Canton employed a Royal Engineer 
officer to survey the route for the proposed line. 
He told me, as well as I can remember, that he 
had estimated the cost from Kowloon to about ten 
miles north of Samchun at about ^"27,000 a mile, 
and from there on to Canton at ,7,000 a mile. 
That seems to show that the country beyond 
these hills is flat and easy. The cutting, tunnel- 
ling, and embanking required for the passage of 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 197 

a railway line through the continuous hills of the 
Kowloon Hinterland would be a very laborious 
undertaking. There is no long level stretch from 
Hong Kong harbour to the frontier ; and the hills 
are mainly granite. 

Since the Hinterland has come into their posses- 
sion the colonial authorities have made an excellent 
road from Kowloon into their new territory. It is 
carried up the steep hills and down again to the 
valleys in easy gradients. It is of more importance 
for military than for commercial purposes ; as the 
peninsula produces so little and wheeled transport 
is unknown. 

The cession of the Hinterland in 1898 was very 
strongly resented by its few inhabitants. Owing to 
their poverty and inaccessibility, they were probably 
seldom plagued with visits from Chinese officials ; 
and they objected to their sudden transfer to the 
care of the more energetic " foreign devils." So 
when the Governor of Hong Kong arranged a 
dramatic scene to take place at the hoisting of the 
British flag on the frontier, and invitations were 
freely issued to the officials and their wives and the 
society in general of the island to be present on 
this historic occasion, the evil-minded inhabitants 
prepared a surprise for them. The police and the 
guard of honour went out on the previous day to 
encamp on the ground on which the ceremony was 
to take place. To their consternation they found 
that the new subjects of the British Empire had 



ig8 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

dug a trench on the side of a hill close by, not 
800 yards from the spot on which the flagstaff was 
to be erected, and had occupied it in force, armed 
with jingals, matchlocks, Brown Besses, and old 
rifles antique weapons certainly, but good enough 
to kill all the ladies and officials to be present next 
day. Information was immediately sent back to 
Hong Kong; and quite a little campaign was in- 
augurated. Companies of the Royal Welch Fusi- 
liers, the Hong Kong Regiment, and the Hong 
Kong and Singapore Battalion Royal Artillery, 
with detachments of bluejackets, chased their new 
fellow-subjects over the hills, exchanged shots with 
them, and captured enough ancient weapons to 
stock an armoury. Lieutenant Barrett, Hong 
Kong Regiment, while bathing in a pond in a 
Chinese village, discovered a number of old smooth- 
bore cannons, which had been hurriedly thrown in 
there. Little resistance was made ; but the picnic 
arrangements for the dramatic hoisting of the flag 
did not come off. 

The inhabitants of the peninsula were speedily 
reconciled to British rule and have since given no 
further trouble. A few European and Indian police 
constables, armed with carbines and revolvers, are 
stationed in it and patrol the country in pairs, 
frequently armed with no more lethal weapon than 
an umbrella. 

The possession of the Hinterland has strengthened 
enormously the defence of Hong Kong from the 



199 

landward side. Three passes, about 1,500 feet 
high, cross the last range of hills above Kowloon ; 
and these can be easily guarded. The situation of 
a hostile army which had landed on the coast some 
distance away and endeavoured to march through 
the difficult and mountainous country of the main- 
land, would be hopeless in the presence of a strong 
defending force. Entangled in the narrow valleys, 
forced to cross a series of roadless passes over 
which even field-guns must be carried bodily, fired 
at incessantly from the never-ending hilltops, it 
would be unable to proceed far. A couple of regi- 
ments of Gurkhas or Pathans would be invaluable 
in such a country. Moving rapidly from hill to 
hill they could decimate the invaders almost with 
impunity to themselves. 

The garrison of Hong Kong previous to 1900 
consisted of a few batteries R.A. to man the forts, 
some companies of the Asiatic Artillery or Hong 
Kong and Singapore Battalion Royal Artillery (a 
corps of Sikhs and Punjaubis raised in India for 
the defence of these two coast ports), one British 
infantry regiment, the Hong Kong Regiment (ten 
companies strong), and the Hong Kong Volunteers, 
Europeans, and Portuguese half-castes. The Asiatic 
Artillery were armed with muzzle-loading mountain 
guns. Such a force was absurdly small for such a 
large and important place. General Sir William 
Gascoigne, K.C.M.G., was forced to still further de- 
nude it of troops in order to send men hurriedly 



200 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

to North China to defend Tientsin. He was left 
with his garrison companies of Royal Artillery, half 
of the Royal Welch Fusiliers and Asiatic Artillery, 
and four-fifths of the Hong Kong Regiment. The 
situation would have been one of extreme danger 
had a rising occurred in Canton and the southern 
provinces ; and two regiments of General Gaselee's 
original force were stopped on their way to the 
North. The 3rd Madras Light Infantry, under 
Lieutenant - Colonel Teversham, was composed of 
men of that now unwarlike presidency. But the 
22nd Bombay Infantry, under the command of 
Lieutenant - Colonel R. Baillie, was formed from 
the fighting races of Rajputana and Central India 
and won many encomiums for their smartness in 
manoeuvres over the steep hills and their satisfac- 
tory work altogether. 

A story is told of a War Office official who, 
ignorant of the mountainous character of Hong 
Kong, wished to add a regiment of British cavalry 
to its garrison. The general in command at the 
time, being possessed of a keen sense of humour, 
gravely requested that the men should be mounted 
on goats, pointing out that no other animal would 
prove useful on the Hong Kong hills. But even in 
the mountainous country of the mainland mounted 
infantry would be of great use to enable command- 
ing points to be speedily gained. When stationed 
in Kowloon I organised mounted infantry on mules 
captured in North China splendid animals most of 



OUR STRONGHOLD IN THE FAR EAST 201 

them, one standing fifteen hands high. Even in 
that broken and rugged country I found that the 
men could move swiftly around the bases of the 
hills, across the narrow valleys, and up the easier 
slopes at a speed that defied all pursuit from their 
comrades on foot. In an advance overland to 
Canton, mounted infantry would be invaluable when 
the flat and cultivated country past Samchun was 
reached ; for cavalry would be useless in such closely 
intersected ground. 



CHAPTER IX 
ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 

A SHALLOW, muddy river running between 
steep banks. On the grassy slopes of a 
conical hill the white tents of a camp. Before the 
quarter-guard stands a Bombay Infantry sentry in 
khaki uniform and pugri, the butt of his Lee- 
Metford rifle resting on the ground, his eyes 
turned across the river to where the paddy-fields of 
Southern China stretch away to a blue range of 
distant hills. Figures in khaki or white undress 
move about the encampment or gather round the 
mud cooking-places, where their frugal meal of 
chupatties and curry is being prepared. A smart, 
well-set-up British officer passes down through the^ 
lines of tents and lounging sepoys spring swiftly to 
attention as he goes by. On the hilltop above a 
signaller waves his flag rapidly; and down below in 
the camp a Madrassi havildar spells out his message 
to a man beside him, who writes it down in a note- 
book. Coolies loaded with supplies trudge wearily 
up the steep path. Before the tents four wicked- 
looking little mountain guns turn their ugly muzzles 
longingly towards a walled town two thousand yards 

202 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 203 

away across the stream, where spots of red and 
blue resolve themselves through a field-glass into 
Chinese soldiers. All around on this side of the 
river the country lies in never-ending hills and 
narrow valleys, with banked paddy-fields in chess- 
board pattern. And on these hills small horseshoe- 
shaped masonry tombs or glazed, brown earthen- 
ware pots containing the bones of deceased 
Chinamen fleck the grassy slopes. Across the 
stream the cultivation is interspersed with low, tree- 
crowned eminences or dotted with villages. There 
on the boundary line, between China and the 
English territory of the Kowloon Hinterland, a 
small column guards our possessions against rebel 
and Imperial soldier, both possible enemies and 
restrained from violating British soil by the bayonets 
of the sepoys from our distant Eastern Empire. 
Twenty miles away Hong Kong lies ringed in by 
sapphire sea. From the land it has no danger to 
dread while a man of this small but resolute force 
guarding its frontier remains alive. 

The outburst of fanaticism in North China, the 
attacks on the foreign settlements in Tientsin and 
Pekin, the treachery of the Court, had their echo 
in the far-off southern provinces. Canton, turbulent 
and hostile, has ever been a plague-spot. Before 
now English and French troops have had to 
chasten its pride and teach its people that the outer 
barbarian claims a right to exist even on the sacred 
soil of China. In the troublous summer of 1900 



204 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

10,000 Black Flags, the unruly banditti who long 
waged a harassing war against the French in 
Tonkin, were encamped near this populous city. 
Fears were rife in Hong Kong that, fired by ex- 
aggerated accounts of successes against the hated 
foreigners in the North and swelled by the fanatical 
population of the provinces of the two Kwangs, 
they might swarm down to the coast and attack 
our possessions on the mainland, or even endeavour 
to assail the island itself. Li Hung Chang, the 
Viceroy of Canton, had sounded a note of warning. 
Purporting to seek the better arming of his soldiery 
to enable him to cope with popular discontent, he 
induced the colonial authorities to allow him to 
import 40,000 new magazine rifles through Hong 
Kong; but there was no security that these weapons 
might not be turned against ourselves. As it was 
well known that the Imperial troops in the North 
had made common cause with the Boxers, the 
wisdom of permitting this free passage of modern 
arms may be questioned. Rumours of a rising 
among the Chinese in Victoria itself, of threatened 
invasion from the mainland, were rife ; and the in- 
habitants of our colony in the Far East were badly 
scared. The first Indian brigade under General 
Gaselee passed up to the more certain danger in 
the North ; but representations made to the home 
authorities caused the stopping of his two line-of- 
communication regiments, the $rd Madras Light 
Infantry and 22nd Bombay Infantry, to strengthen 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 205 

the denuded garrison of Hong Kong. This and 
the subsequent detention of his 2nd Brigade to 
safeguard Shanghai left his command in the Allied 
Armies on the march to Pekin numerically weak 
and forced him into a subordinate position in the 
councils of the Generals. Hong Kong was by no 
means in such imminent peril ; and the troops thus 
diverted would have made his force second only to 
the Japanese in strength, and enabled him to assert 
his authority more emphatically among the Allies. 

Pekin fell on August i4th, 1900. But long after 
that date this was not credited in Canton ; and 
the wildest rumours were rife as to the splendid 
successes of the Chinese, who were represented as 
everywhere victorious. This large southern city 
is situated well under a hundred miles from Hong 
Kong, either by river or by land. It has constant 
intercourse with our colony ; and large, flat-bottomed 
steamers with passengers and cargo pass between 
the two places every day. Yet it was confidently 
stated in the vernacular newspapers, and every- 
where believed, that two regiments from India 
arriving in Hong Kong Harbour had heard such 
appalling tales of the prowess of the Chinese braves 
that the terrified soldiers had jumped overboard 
from the transports and drowned themselves to a 
man. They had preferred an easy death to the 
awful tortures that they knew awaited them at 
the hands of the invincible Chinese. Long after 
the Court had fled in haste from Pekin and the 



206 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

capital had been in the hands of the Allies for 
months, their columns pushing out everywhere into 
the interior, it was asserted that all this apparent 
success was but a deep-laid plan of the glorious 
Empress -Dowager. She had thus enticed them 
into the heart of the land in order to cut them off 
from the sea. She now held them in the hollow 
of her hand. The luckless foreigners had abjectly 
appealed for mercy. Her tender heart had relented, 
and she had graciously promised to spare them in 
return for the restoration of all the territory hitherto 
wrested from China. Tientsin, Port Arthur, Kiao- 
Chau, Shanghai, Tonkin, even Hong Kong, were 
being hastily surrendered. And such preposterous 
tales were readily believed. 

But another confusing element was introduced 
into the already sufficiently complicated situation. 
Canton and the South contains, besides the anti- 
foreign party, a number of reformers who realise 
that China must stand in line with modern civilisa- 
tion. Only thus will she become strong enough to 
resist the perpetual foreign aggression which de- 
prives her of her best ports and slices off her most 
valuable seaboard territory. The energetic inhabi- 
tants of Canton freely emigrate to Hong Kong, 
Singapore, Penang, Australia, and America. There 
they learn to take a wider view of things than is 
possible in their own conservative country. When 
they return they spread their ideas, and are the 
nucleus of the already fairly numerous party of 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 207 

reform, who justly blame the misfortunes of China 
on the effete and narrow-minded Government in 
Pekin and work to secure the downfall of the 
present Manchu dynasty. In the southern provinces 
they have their following ; and rumours of a great 
uprising there against the corrupt officialdom, and 
even the throne itself, were rife in the autumn of 
1900. The much-talked-of but little-known Triad 
Society who claimed to advocate reform, but who 
were regarded with suspicion, their tenets forbidden, 
and their followers imprisoned in Hong Kong 
started a rebellion in the Kwang-tung province. 
They were supposed to be led, or at least abetted, 
by Sun Yat Sen, an enlightened reformer. As the 
revolt began close to the Kowloon frontier, fears 
were expressed lest, despite their advertised views, 
the rebels should prove unfriendly to foreigners and 
invade our territory. Little was known of the 
progress of the movement The Chinese Imperial 
Government, through the Viceroy of Canton, sent 
Admiral Ho with 4,000 troops to Samchun to 
suppress the rising. The rebels, hearing of his 
coming, moved farther inland. The soldiers, having 
no great stomach for bloodshed, generously forebore 
to follow, and settled themselves comfortably in and 
around the town. Lest either party should be 
tempted to infringe the neutrality of our territory, 
the Hong Kong newspapers urged the Governor 
to take immediate measures to safeguard our 
frontier. After some delay a small, compact column 



208 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

was despatched to the boundary under the command 
of Major E. A. Kettlewell, an officer of marked 
ability and energy, who had seen much service in 
Burma and in the Tirah, and who had had long 
and intimate connection with the Imperial Service 
troops in India. The composition of the force, 
known as the Frontier Field Force, was as under : 

Commanding Officer, 
Major E. A. Kettlewell, 22nd Bombay Infantry. 

Staff Officer. 
Lieutenant Casserly, 22nd Bombay Infantry. 

Troops. 

Three Companies, 22nd Bombay Infantry, under Captain 
Hatherell and Lieutenants Melville and Burke. 

Four mountain guns and 50 men, Hong Kong and Singa- 
pore Battalion Royal Artillery, under Lieutenants 
Saunders and Ogilvie. 

Detachment Royal Engineers (British and Chinese sappers), 
under Lieutenant Rundle, R.E. 

Maxim Gun Detachment, 22nd Bombay Infantry, under 
Jemadar Lalla Rawat. 

Signallers, 3rd Madras Light Infantry, under Captain 
Sharpe. 

Section of Indian Field Hospital, under Captain Wool- 
ley, I. M.S. 

With the mobility of Indian troops the column 
embarked within a few hours after the receipt of 
orders on a flotilla of steam launches, which were 
to convey us along the coast to Deep Bay, and 
thence up the Samchun River to the threatened 
point on the frontier. Stores, tents, and a few 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 209 

mules to carry the Maxim and ammunition, as well 
as to supplement coolie transport, were towed in 
junks. 

Our tiny vessels loaded down with their living 
freight, the sepoys excited at the prospect of a fight, 
we steam away from Kowloon and out through the 
crowded harbour. We pass a number of torpedo- 
boat destroyers and a small fleet of obsolete gun- 
boats rusting in inglorious ease. To our right, 
with its huge cylindrical oil-tanks standing up like 
giant drums and its docks containing an American 
man-o'-war, lies the crowded Chinese quarter of 
Yaumati. Above it towers the long chain of hills, 
their dark sides marked with the white streak of 
the new road that crosses their summit into the 
Hinterland. On the left is Hong Kong, the Peak 
with the windows of its houses flashing in the 
sun, the city at its feet in shadow. We pass the 
long, straggling Stonecutter's Island, with the solid 
granite walls of its abandoned prison, the tree-clad 
hills and the sharp outlines of forts. In among 
an archipelago of islands, large and small, we steam ; 
and ahead of us lies the narrow channel of the 
Cap-sui-moon Pass between Lantau and the lesser 
islet of Mah Wan. On the latter are the buildings 
of the Customs station the Imperial Maritime 
Customs of China. High hills on islands and 
mainland tower above us on every side. The lofty 
peak of Tai-mo-shan stands up in the brilliant sun- 
light. The coast is grim with rugged cliffs or gay 



210 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

with the grassy slopes of hills running down to 
the white fringe of beach. Bluff headlands, black, 
glistening rocks on which the foam-flecked waves 
break incessantly, dark caverns, and tiny bays line 
the shore. A lumbering junk, with high, square 
stern and rounded bows on which are painted 
large eyes, that the ship may see her way bears 
down upon us with huge mat sails and its lolling 
crew gazing over the side in wonderment at the 
fierce, dark soldiers. A small sampan dances over 
the waves, two muscular women pushing at the 
long oars and the inevitable children seated on its 
narrow deck. 

Along the coast we steam, gazing at its inter- 
minable masses of green hills, until it suddenly 
recedes into a wide bay surrounded on every side 
by high land. This is Deep Bay, an expanse 
twenty-five miles in extent which, though now 
covered by the sea, becomes at low tide one vast 
mud flat, with a small stream winding through the 
noisome ooze. Towards the land on the right we 
head. Far out from shore lies a trim, white gun- 
boat. From the stern floats the yellow Imperial 
standard of China with its sprawling dragon ; for 
the vessel belongs to the Maritime Customs 
Service. On the decks brass machine-guns glitter. 
A European in white clothing watches us through 
binoculars from the poop. The Chinese crew in 
blue uniforms, with pigtails coiled up under their 
straw hats, are spreading an awning. 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 211 

At length we reach the mouth of the Samchun 
River, a small tidal stream, which, when the sea is 
low, is scarcely eighteen inches deep. Up between 
its winding banks we steam. High hills rise up 
on each side. We pray that neither rebel nor 
hostile Imperial soldier is waiting here to stop our 
coming ; for a machine-gun or a few rifles would 
play havoc with our men crowded together on the 
little launches. Up the river we go in single file, 
playing "follow my leader" as the first launch 
swings sharply round the frequent curves. By 
virtue of my position "on the Staff," I am aboard 
it and am consequently resentful when a bump and 
a prolonged scraping under the keel tell us that 
we have gone aground. The next launch avoids 
the shoal and passes us, its occupants flinging 
sarcastic remarks and unkind jibes at us as they 
go by. But "pride cometh before a fall," and 
a little farther on their Chinese steersman runs 
them high and dry. Then the others leave us 
behind until by dint of poling we float again and 
follow in their wake. Round a bend in the river 
we swing ; and ahead of us we see a number of 
weird - looking Chinese war -junks. From their 
masts stream huge pennants and gaudy flags of 
many colours ; on their decks stand old muzzle- 
loading, smooth-bore cannon. Their high, square 
sterns tower above the banks. The motley-garbed 
crews are squatting about, engaged with chop-sticks 
and bowls of rice. The sudden appearance of 



212 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

our flotilla crowded with armed men startles them. 
They drop their food and spring up to stare at 
us, uncertain whether to bolt ashore or continue 
their interrupted meal. Seeing no signs of hostility 
on our part, they grin placatingly and shout re- 
marks to us, the tenor of which it is perhaps as 
well that we do not understand. These are Govern- 
ment war-junks and, like the Customs steamer 
outside, are stationed here to prevent assistance 
reaching the rebels from the sea ; but anyone who 
had successfully forced their way past the gunboat 
would have little to fear from these ill - armed 
Noah's Arks. Close by stand a few substantial 
buildings a Customs station. From the verandah 
of a bungalow two white men in charge of it watch 
us as we go by. 

As evening was closing in we reached the spot 
selected for our first camping-ground and disem- 
barked. On our side of the river a few hundred 
yards of level ground ran back to the steep, bare 
slopes of a straggling hill which rose to a conical 
peak five hundred feet above our heads. All 
around lay similar eminences, their grassy sides 
devoid of trees. Behind us the Hinterland stretched 
away to the south in range after range of barren 
mountains divided by narrow, cultivated valleys. 
Beyond the river lay a plain patched with paddy- 
fields or broken by an occasional low hill. In it, 
little more than a mile away, stood the walled town 
of Samchun. The British and Indian police in 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 213 

the new territory had been instructed to give 
us intelligence of any hostile movements in the 
neighbourhood ; and from them we learned that no 
immediate danger was to be apprehended. Never- 
theless all precautionary measures to guard against 
a possible surprise were taken ; for Admiral Ho's 
troops still lingered in Samchun, and considerable 
doubt existed as to their attitude towards the British. 
Piquets having been posted and a strong guard 
placed over the ammunition and supplies, the men 
cooked their evening meal and bivouacked for the 
night. But sleep was almost impossible. The heat 
was intense. We had evidently intruded upon a 
favourite haunt of the mosquitoes who attacked us 
with malignant persistence until dawn. 

The following day was employed in strengthening 
our position, reconnoitring our surroundings and 
laying out our camp. Our arrival had evidently 
taken the Chinese army across the river completely 
by surprise. From the hill, on which our tents 
stood, Samchun was plainly visible about 2,000 
yards away ; and our field-glasses showed a great 
commotion in the town. Soldiers poured out of the 
gates or crowded on to the walls and gazed in con- 
sternation apparent even at that distance at the 
British force that had so suddenly put in an appear- 
ance on the scene. They were evidently extremely 
dubious as to our intentions ; and we watched the 
troops falling in hurriedly and being marshalled 
under an imposing array of banners. When the 



214 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Hinterland had been ceded to us, Samchun had at 
first been included, and was for a short time occupied 
by us ; but the boundary was afterwards fixed at the 
river as being a natural frontier, and the town was 
restored to the Chinese. They apparently feared 
that we had changed our minds and contemplated ap- 
propriating it again. As our column made no move 
for our orders had been not to enter Chinese territory 
or take any hostile action unless attacked they 
soon disappeared into the town again. Later on, on 
a hill that rose close to the river on their side of the 
boundary-line, a regiment appeared and observed us 
narrowly all day, endeavouring to keep out of sight 
themselves as much as possible. It was very tan- 
talising to see the materials for a pretty little fight 
ready to hand being wasted, and we longed for the 
smallest hostile act on their part to give us an excuse 
for one. But none came ; and we sighed discon- 
tentedly at the loss of such a golden opportunity. 
Although the Chinese force numbered 4,000, armed 
with guns, Mausers and Winchesters, and our column 
counted barely 400 all told, we felt little doubt as 
to the result of a fight between us. 

By the following morning Admiral Ho and his 
mandarins had evidently come to the conclusion that 
we were more dangerous neighbours than the rebels ; 
so he proceeded to move off from our vicinity. All 
that day and the next we watched bodies of troops, 
clad in long red or blue coats, with enormous straw 
hats slung like shields on their backs or covering 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 215 

their heads like giant mushrooms, marching out 
of the town and stringing out into single file along 
the narrow paths between the paddy-fields as they 
moved off into the mountains beyond Samchun. 
Above their heads waved innumerable banners 
green, red, blue, parti-coloured, or striped in many 
lines horizontally or vertically. By the following 
evening all had disappeared, with the exception 
of about 400, as we afterwards ascertained, left 
behind to garrison the town. This forlorn hope, 
I doubt not, were none too well pleased at remaining 
in such unpleasant proximity to us. 

Our arrival at the frontier was undoubtedly 
responsible for the retirement of Admiral Ho's 
army. For he had been for some time comfortably 
settled in Samchun without evincing the least anxiety 
to follow up the rebels, who were reported to be 
laying waste the country farther on, pillaging the 
villages, torturing the officials, and levying taxes on 
the inhabitants. His departure removed a constant 
source of danger ; for his undisciplined troops might 
have been tempted to cross the boundary into our 
territory and harass the villagers under our pro- 
tection. 

We now employed ourselves in patrolling the 
frontier, exercising the troops and making sketches 
to supplement the very inadequate information as 
to the surrounding country in our possession. Al- 
though the Hinterland had been ceded to the British 
two years before, and although it lies in such close 



216 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

proximity to Hong Kong, no accurate survey of it 
had ever been made. The only map which could 
be found to provide the expedition with was one 
done by a Jesuit missionary in 1840. It was fairly 
correct as regards outlines, but contained absolutely 
no details except a number of names, which might 
refer to villages or to features of the ground. For 
instance, at the spot on the map where our camp 
stood, we read the word " Lo-u." This, before we 
arrived there, we concluded referred to a village. 
But there was not a house in the vicinity, and we 
found that it was the name of the hill on which our 
tents were pitched. Our energetic commander em- 
ployed himself in surveying and filling in the details 
of the surrounding country, marking the positions 
of the hamlets and paths for roads there were 
none and ascertaining the ranges and heights of 
the various prominent features around us. 

About a mile away down the river lay the Chinese 
Customs station that we had passed on our way up. 
I strolled there one afternoon and made the acquaint- 
ance of the officers in charge. They were both 
Britishers. One of them, Mr. Percy Affleck- Scott, 
told me that our arrival had been a great relief to 
them. When the rebels had been in the vicinity 
they had received several messages from the leaders 
who threatened to march down upon their station, 
burn it, and cut their heads off. In view of the 
repeated declarations of the Triads, that no hos- 
tility is felt by them to foreigners, these threats are 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 217 

significant. As they had little reliance on the 
prowess of the Chinese soldiers if attacked by the 
rebels, these two Britishers had been considerably 
relieved at the arrival of our force, in whose neigh- 
bourhood they knew that they would be safe. 

The position of the European Custom House 
officials in the Outdoor Branch, stationed as they 
generally are in out-of-the-way places in Chinese 
territory with no society of their own kind, is 
scarcely enviable. Their work, which consists in 
levying duty on imports into the country, frequently 
brings them into unpleasant contact with Chinese 
officials, who regard the existence of their service 
with intense dislike, as it robs them of chances of 
extortion. Those employed in the Indoor Branch 
are generally stationed in cities like Hong Kong, 
Shanghai, Pekin, or other large centres where life 
is enjoyable. 

When visiting the Samchun Custom House on 
another occasion, at a later period, I saw a number 
of small, two -pounder rifled breechloading guns 
belonging to Admiral Ho's force being embarked 
on a war-junk. I examined them with interest. 
They were mounted on small -wheeled carriages 
and bore the stamp of the Chinese arsenal where 
they had been made. The breech ends were 
square, with a falling block worked by a lever at 
the side. They were well finished ; for the work 
turned out at these arsenals by native workmen, often 
under European supervision, is generally very good. 



218 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Early one morning, a few days after Admiral Ho's 
departure, the camp was roused by a sudden alarm. 
About four a.m., when it was still pitch dark, we 
were awakened by the sound of heavy firing in 
the Chinese territory. The continuous rattle of 
small arms and the deeper booming of field-guns 
were distinctly audible. We rushed out of our 
tents and the troops got ready to fall in. The 
firing seemed to come from the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Samchun ; and it appeared that a 
desperate fight was in full swing. Our impression 
was that the rebels, learning of Ho's departure, 
had eluded his force and doubled back to attack 
the town, which, being wealthy, would have proved 
a tempting prize. We gazed from the hillside in 
the direction from which the sound came ; but a 
thick mist lay over the fields beyond the river and 
prevented the flashes from being visible. We 
waited impatiently for daylight. The rattle of rifle- 
firing now broke out suddenly from around the 
Customs station ; and we trembled for the safety 
of Affleck-Scott and his companion. As the sound 
came no nearer in our direction, it became evident 
that no hostile movement against us was intended. 
We cursed the tardy daylight. At last day broke ; 
but still the low-lying mists obscured our view of 
the town and the plain beyond the river. Then 
the sun rose. The fog slowly cleared away. We 
looked eagerly towards Samchun, expecting, as the 
firing still continued, to see the contending forces 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 219 

engaged in deadly battle. But to our surprise, 
though every house in the town, every field and 
bank around it, stood out distinct in the clear light, 
scarcely a human being was visible. Before the 
gates a few soldiers lounged about unconcernedly. 
But the firing still continued. We could see 
nothing to account for it and began to wonder if it 
was a battle of phantoms. Gradually it died away 
and left us still bewildered. Later on in the day 
came the explanation. In view of our imaginary 
combat it was simple and ludicrous. The day was 
one of the innumerable Chinese festivals; and the in- 
habitants of Samchun and the neighbouring villages 
had been ushering it in in the usual Celestial 
fashion with much burning of crackers and ex- 
ploding of bombs. To anyone who has heard 
the extraordinary noise of Chinese fireworks, which 
accurately reproduces the rattle of musketry and the 
booming of guns, our mistake is excusable. At 
the attack on the Peiyang Arsenal outside Tientsin, 
on June 27th, 1900, by the British, Americans, and 
Russians, the Chinese defenders, before evacuating 
it when hard pressed, laid strings of crackers along 
the walls. As our marines and bluejackets, with 
the Americans, advanced to the final assault these 
were set fire to. The explosions sounded like a 
very heavy fusillade and the assailants took cover. 
The Chinese meanwhile bolted out of the arsenal 
and got safely away before the attackers discovered 
the trick and stormed the place. 



220 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

A week or two after this false alarm, I obtained 
permission to cross into Chinese territory and visit 
Samchun. The town looked very interesting at a 
distance, with its high walls and two square stone 
towers, which were in reality pawn-shops. For these 
establishments in China are looked upon as safe 
deposit offices. A rich man about to leave home 
for any length of time removes his valuables to the 
nearest pawn-shop and there stores them. They 
are the first places attacked when a band of robbers 
seizes some small town, as frequently happens. So 
they are built in the form of strong towers with the 
entrance generally several feet from the ground, in 
order that the proprietor and his friends may retire 
within and defend them. 

Accompanied by Captain Woolley, I.M.S., I set 
out to visit the town, having received many injunc- 
tions to be careful not to embroil ourselves with the 
inhabitants or the soldiery, who were not likely to 
prove over friendly. We were provided with inter- 
preters in the persons of a Chinese policeman in 
British employ and a Sikh constable who had 
learned to converse very well in the language of the 
country. As we intended to make a formal call on 
the mandarin in command of Samchun and had 
heard that in China a man's importance is gauged 
by the size of his visiting-card, we wrote our names 
on sheets of foolscap the largest pieces of paper 
we could find. Red, however, is the proper colour. 
In mufti and taking no weapons, we left the camp 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 221 

and crossed the river in a small, flat-bottomed ferry- 
boat. Landed on the far side, we set off along the 
tops of the mud banks between the paddy-fields, 
the only roads available. Those which are used as 
general paths are laid with flat stones, which, not 
being fastened in any way, occasionally tilt up and 
slide about in a disconcerting manner. As we 
neared the town we were observed with interest by 
a number of Chinese soldiers lounging about in 
front of the principal gateway. We felt a little 
nervous as to our reception but putting a bold face 
on the matter directed our way towards them. We 
were stopped, however, by our Chinese policeman, 
who told us that we should not approach this en- 
trance as it faced the mandarin's Yamen and was 
reserved for important individuals. We being merely 
foreigners this although he was in British employ- 
ment ! must seek admittance through the back gate 
into the town. Irritated at his insolent tone, the 
Sikh constable shoved him aside, and we approached 
the guard. The soldiers, though not openly hostile 
for the white tents of our camp, plainly visible 
across the river, had a sobering effect treated us 
with scarcely-veiled contempt. On our Sikh inter- 
preter informing them that we were English officers 
who had come to visit their mandarin, they airily 
replied that that dignitary was asleep and could not 
see us. Annoyed at their impertinent manner, we 
ordered them to go and wake him. Rather im- 
pressed by our audacity, they held a consultation. 



222 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Then one went into the Yamen. He returned in a 
few minutes with a message to the effect that the 
mandarin regretted that he could not see us as he 
was not dressed. Seeing the effect of our previous 
curtness, we haughtily bade the soldier tell the 
mandarin to put on his clothes at once ; see him we 
must. Visibly impressed this time, he hastened in- 
side again and promptly returned with an invitation 
to enter the Yamen. We passed through the gate 
with as important an air as we could assume. It 
had been a game of bluff on both sides and we had 
won ; for on the verandah of the house inside the 
entrance we were received by the mandarin, cor- 
rectly attired. With hands folded over each other, 
he bowed low and led the way into the interior. 
The room was small and plainly furnished. High- 
backed, uncomfortable chairs stood round a square 
blackwood table. On the walls hung crude pictures 
or tablets painted with Chinese characters. Our 
host, who was really a most courteous old gentle- 
man, bowed again and, pointing to the chairs, 
begged us as we judged from his manner to be 
seated. We politely refused until he had taken a 
chair himself. He then addressed us in sing-song 
Chinese words, which our Sikh interpreter assured 
us were an expression of the honour he felt at our 
condescending to visit such an unworthy individual. 
We framed our reply in equally humble terms. He 
then inquired the reason of the coming of our force 
to the frontier. We informed him that it was 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 223 

merely to guard our territory from invasion and 
assured him that we had no evil designs on Sam- 
chun. He pretended to feel satisfied at this, but 
doubt evidently still lingered in his mind. The 
conversation then dragged on spasmodically until 
we asked his permission to visit the town. He 
seemed to hail our request with relief as a chance 
of politely ridding himself of us and ordered four 
soldiers to get ready to accompany us as an escort. 
One of the attendants, at a sign from him, then left 
the room and returned with three little cups covered 
with brass saucers. 

" Now we shall taste really high-class Chinese 
tea," said Woolley to me in an undertone. 

We removed the saucers. The cups were filled 
with boiling water. At the bottom lay a few black 
twigs and leaves. Imitating the mandarin's actions, 
we raised our cups in both hands and tried to drink 
the hot and tasteless contents. The Chinese tea 
was a distinct failure. 

A few black, formidable-looking cigars were now 
placed upon the table. Mindful of the vile odours 
that inevitably possess the filthy streets of the 
native towns in China, we took some. Then as 
our escort appeared in the courtyard in front of the 
house, we rose. Expressing profuse thanks to our 
courteous host through the interpreter, we folded 
our hands and bowed ourselves out in the politest 
Chinese fashion. 

Following our military guides, we entered the 



224 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

town. They led us first to the house of a lesser 
mandarin, whom we visited. He was as surly as 
his superior was amiable. He very speedily ordered 
tea for us as a sign of dismissal. However, as a 
mark of attention, he sent two lantern-bearers to 
accompany us. Quitting him with little hesitation, 
we followed our escort and plunged again into the 
town. The streets were narrow and indescribably 
filthy. Deep, open drains bordered them, filled 
with refuse. Extending our arms, we could nearly 
touch the houses on each side. On either hand 
were shops, some with glass - windowed fronts, 
others open to the street. Some were fairly exten- 
sive, filled with garments or rolls of cloth. Others 
exhibited for sale clocks, cheap embroidery, tinsel 
jewellery, or common pottery. Every third one 
at least sold food, raw or cooked. Dried fish or 
ducks split open, the heads and necks of the latter 
attached to the bodies ; pork, meat, and sucking- 
pigs ; rice, flour, or vegetables. Near one shop 
stood a grinning Chinaman who spoke to us in 
pidgin- English. Beside him was an open barrel 
filled with what looked like dried prunes. I pointed 
to them and asked what they were. 

" That ? " he said, popping one into his mouth 
and munching it with evident relish. " That belong 
cocky-loachee. Velly good ! " 

They were dried cockroaches ! 

Farther on another pig- tailed individual spoke to 
us in fluent English with a Yankee twang. 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 225 

" Do you live in Samchun ? " I asked him, in 
surprise. 

" Not much, you bet ! " he replied. " I don't 
belong to this darned country any more. I live in 
'Frisco." 

He explained that he had come to Hong Kong 
as a sailor on an American vessel, and had wandered 
out to Samchun to see a relative. With a " So long, 
boss ! " from him we passed on. 

Every fifth or sixth house was a gambling-den. 
Around the tables were seated Chinamen of all 
ages engaged in playing fan-tan, that slowest and 
most exasperating of all methods of " plunging." 
The interiors of these establishments were gay 
with much elaborate gilt carving. 

It was now growing dark, and our lantern-bearers 
lighted the paper lamps swinging at the end of long 
sticks they carried. We directed our escort to lead 
us out of the town. We wished to dismiss them at 
the gate ; but they assured the interpreter that their 
orders were strict not to quit us until they had 
seen us safely out of Chinese territory. So we made 
our way to the river. Arrived there, my companion 
and I discussed the question as to whether we 
should reward our escort with a tip or whether 
they would be insulted, being soldiers, at the offer. 
Finally we resolved to give them a dollar. If they 
did not look satisfied, we would increase the amount. 
So a bright English dollar was handed to the Sikh 
to be given to them. Satisfied ! They seemed as 
Q 



226 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

if they had never seen such wealth before. They 
crowded round us with voluble thanks ; and with 
quite an affecting farewell we went down to the 
water's edge. To our surprise we found our com- 
manding officer with a party of armed sepoys cross- 
ing over to us in the ferry-boat. Alarmed at our 
long absence, he had feared that something un- 
toward had happened to us and was coming in 
search of us. When we arrived at the camp we 
found the others rather uneasy about us ; though 
some cheerfully assured us that they had been 
hoping that the Chinese had at least captured us 
to give them an excuse for attacking and looting 
Samchun. 

Shortly afterwards, interested at our description 
of our adventures, our commanding officer deter- 
mined to visit Samchun. A letter in Chinese was 
sent to the mandarin to acquaint him with our 
chief's intention. Next morning we were surprised 
by the sight of eight Chinese soldiers, armed with 
carbines and accompanied by the Sikh interpreter, 
crossing the river and ascending the path to the 
camp. As they approached the tents our sepoys, 
anxious to see the redoubtable warriors at close 
range, rushed out and flocked round them. Terri- 
fied at the sight of these strange black men, the 
Chinese soldiers dropped on their knees, flung their 
carbines on the ground, and held up their hands in 
abject supplication, entreating the interpreter to beg 
the fierce-looking foreign devils not to beat them. 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 227 

The sepoys roared with laughter, patted them on 
the backs, and bore them off to their tents to soothe 
them with tea and cigarettes. The Sikh constable 
was the bearer of a message from the mandarin, 
expressing his pleasure at the intended visit of our 
commandant and informing him that an escort had 
been sent as a mark of honour. Accompanied by 
twenty of our tallest sepoys we crossed the river 
and set out for Samchun. 

As we approached the town we found that the 
whole garrison of 400 men had been turned out to 
welcome us and were formed up to line the road 
near the gate of the Yamen. Fourteen huge 
banners of many colours waved above the ranks. 
In front of the entrance stood the mandarin and 
his suite in their gala dress, waiting to receive us. 
Our commanding officer had ridden up on his Arab 
charger, which must have seemed an immense horse 
to the Chinamen present, accustomed only to the 
diminutive ponies of their own country. The man- 
darin came forward to welcome our chief and 
apologised for not receiving him with a salute of 
cannon, as, he said, he had been afraid of startling 
his steed ! 

While compliments were being exchanged, I 
walked down the ranks of the Chinese troops and 
inspected them closely. They were nearly all small 
and miserable-looking men, clad in long red or blue 
coats, with huge straw hats. They were armed 
with single-loading Mausers or Winchester repeating 



228 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

carbines. I looked at a few of these. The outside 
of the barrels were bright and had evidently been 
cleaned with emery paper ; but inside they were 
completely choked with rust and the weapons were 
absolutely useless. The men were evidently merely 
coolies, hurriedly impressed by the mandarins when 
called upon by the Viceroy of Canton to produce 
the troops for whom they regularly drew pay. This 
is a favourite device of the corrupt Chinese officials, 
who receive an allowance to keep up a certain 
number of soldiers. They buy and store a corre- 
sponding number of uniforms and rifles. When 
warned of an approaching inspection by some 
higher authority, they gather in coolies and clothe 
and arm them for the duration of his visit. The 
superior official his own palm having been well 
greased forbears to inspect them too closely, and 
departs to report to the Viceroy of the province 
that the troops are of excellent quality. Then the 
uniforms and rifles are returned to store, and the 
coolies dismissed with or more probably without 
a few cents to recompense them for their trouble. 

Latterly in the North this does not always occur; 
and some of the troops, trained by foreigners and 
armed with the latest quick-firing guns and magazine 
rifles, are very good. The Imperial forces which 
opposed Admiral Seymour's advance and attacked 
Tientsin were of very different calibre to those 
employed in the suppression of the Triad rebellion. 
The shooting of their gunners and riflemen was 



ON COLUMN IN SOUTHERN CHINA 229 

excellent. The army of Yuan- Shi -Kai, who was 
Governor of the province of Shantung during the 
troubles in the North, is a good example of what 
Chinese soldiers can be when well trained. 

The interview between the mandarin of Samchun 
and our commanding officer was an elaborate repeti- 
tion of my own experience. The visit over, we 
entered the town, inspected some of the temples, 
and bought some curiosities in the shops. Then, 
escorted by our original party of Chinese soldiers, 
we returned to the river. 

At the end of November we were roused one 
night by urgent messages from the British police 
in the Hinterland to the effect that parties of rebels 
were hovering on the frontier and it was feared 
that they intended to raid across into our territory. 
In response to their request, a strong party was sent 
out at once to reinforce them. About four a.m. a 
European police sergeant arrived in breathless haste 
with the information that the rebels had crossed the 
boundary and seized two villages lying inside our 
border. They had fired on the police patrols. Two 
companies of the 22nd Bombay Infantry, under 
Captain Hatherell and Lieutenant Burke, fell in 
promptly and marched off under the guidance of 
two Sikh policemen sent for the purpose. Pre- 
ceded by scouts and a strong advanced guard, 
under a Pathan native officer, Subhedar Khitab 
Gul, they bore down at daybreak on the villages 
reported captured. But the rebels had apparently 



230 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

received information of their coming and had fled 
back across the border. The troops, bitterly dis- 
appointed at being deprived of a fight, returned 
about nine a.m. to camp, where the remainder of the 
force had been ready to support them if necessary. 

No further attempts were ever made against our 
territory, and shortly afterwards the Frontier Field 
Force returned to headquarters. 



CHAPTER X 
IN THE PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 

FORTY miles from Hong Kong, hidden away 
among the countless islands that fringe the 
entrance to the estuary of the Chukiang or Pearl 
River, lies the Portuguese settlement of Macao. 
Once flourishing and prosperous, the centre of 
European trade with Southern China, it is now 
decaying and almost unknown killed by the com- 
petition of its young and successful rival. Long 
before Elizabeth ascended the throne of England 
the venturesome Portuguese sailors and merchants 
had reached the Far East. There they carried 
their country's flag over seas where now it never 
flies. An occasional gunboat represents in Chinese 
waters their once powerful and far-roaming navy. 

In the island of Lampacao, off the south-eastern 
coast, their traders were settled, pushing their com- 
merce with the mainland. In 1557 the neigh- 
bouring peninsula of Macao was ceded to them in 
token of the Chinese Emperor's gratitude for their 
aid in destroying the power of a pirate chief who 
had long held sway in the seas around. The Dutch, 
the envious rivals of the Portuguese in the East, 
turned covetous eyes on the little colony which 

231 



232 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

speedily began to flourish. In 1622 the troops 
in Macao were despatched to assist the Chinese 
against the Tartars. Taking advantage of their 
absence, the Governor of the Dutch East Indies 
fitted out a fleet to capture their city. In the June 
of that year the hostile ships appeared off Macao 
and landed a force to storm the fort. The valiant 
citizens fell upon and defeated the invaders ; and 
the Dutch sailed away baffled. Until the early 
part of the nineteenth century the Portuguese paid 
an annual tribute of five hundred taels to the 
Chinese Government in acknowledgment of their 
nominal suzerainty. In 1848, the then Governor, 
Ferreira Amaral, refused to continue this payment 
and expelled the Chinese officials from the colony. 
In 1887, the independence of Macao was formally 
admitted by the Emperor in a treaty to that effect. 

But the palmy days of its commerce died with 
the birth of Hong Kong. The importance of the 
Portuguese settlement has dwindled away. Macao 
is but a relic of the past. Its harbour is empty. 
The sea around has silted up with the detritus from 
the Pearl River until now no large vessels can 
approach. A small trade in tea, tobacco, opium, 
and silk is all that is left. The chief revenue is 
derived from the taxes levied on the numerous 
Chinese gambling-houses in the city, which have 
gained for it the title of the Monte Carlo of the 
East. 

Macao is situated on a small peninsula connected 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 233 

by a long, narrow causeway with the island of 
Heung Shan. The town faces southward and, 
sheltered by another island from the boisterous 
gales of the China seas, is yet cooled by the re- 
freshing breezes of the south, from which quarter 
the wind blows most of the year in that latitude. 
Victoria in our colony, on the other hand, is cut off 
from them by the high Peak towering above it; and 
its climate in consequence is hot and steamy in the 
long and unpleasant summer. So Macao is, then, 
a favourite resort of the citizens of Hong Kong. 
The large, flat-bottomed steamer that runs between 
the two places is generally crowded on Saturdays 
with inhabitants of the British colony, going to 
spend the week-end on the cooler rival island. 

The commercial competition of Macao is no 
longer to be dreaded. But this decaying Portu- 
guese possession has recently acquired a certain 
importance in the eyes of the Hong Kong author- 
ities and our statesmen in England by the fears 
of French aggression aroused by apparent en- 
deavours to gain a footing in Macao. Attempts 
have been made to purchase property in it in the 
name of the French Government which are sus- 
pected to be the thin end of the wedge. Although 
the colony is not dangerous in the hands of its 
present possessors, it might become so in the power 
of more enterprising neighbours. Were it occu- 
pied by the French a much larger garrison would 
be required in Hong Kong. Of course, any 



234 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

attempt to invade our colony from Macao would 
be difficult ; as the transports could not be convoyed 
by any large warships owing to the shallowness of 
the sea between the two places until Hong Kong 
harbour is reached. One battleship or cruiser, even 
without the assistance of the forts, should suffice 
to blow out of the water any vessels of sufficiently 
light draught to come out of the port of Macao. 
If any specially constructed, powerfully armed, 
shallow-draught men-o'-war which alone would be 
serviceable were sent out from Europe, their 
arrival would be noted and their purpose suspected. 
Still an opportunity might be seized when our 
China squadron was elsewhere engaged and the 
garrison of Hong Kong denuded. On the whole, 
the Portuguese are preferable neighbours to the 
aggressive French colonial party, which is con- 
stantly seeking to extend its influence in Southern 
China. In 1802 and again in 1808 Macao was 
occupied by us as a precaution against its seizure 
by the French. 

When garrison duty in Hong Kong during the 
damp, hot days of the summer palled, I once took 
ten days' leave to the pleasanter climate of Macao. 
I embarked in Victoria in one of the large, shallow- 
draught steamers of the Hong Kong, Canton, and 
Macao Steamboat Company, which keeps up the 
communication between the English and Portuguese 
colonies and the important Chinese city by a fleet 
of some half-dozen vessels. With the exception of 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 235 

one, they are all large and roomy craft from 2,000 
to 3,000 tons burden. They run to, and return 
from, Canton twice daily on week-days. One starts 
from Hong Kong to Macao every afternoon and 
returns the following morning, except on Sundays. 
Between Macao and Canton they ply three times 
a week. The fares are not exorbitant from 
Hong Kong to Macao three dollars, to Canton 
five, each way ; between Macao and Canton three. 
The Hong Kong dollar in 1901 was worth about 
is. lod. 

The steamer on which I made the short passage 
to Macao was the Heungshan (1,998 tons). She 
was a large shallow-draught vessel, painted white 
for the sake of coolness. She was mastless, with 
one high funnel, painted black ; the upper deck 
was roomy and almost unobstructed. The sides 
between it and the middle deck were open ; and 
a wide promenade lay all round the outer bulkheads 
of the cabins on the latter. Extending from amid- 
ships to near the bows were the first-class state- 
rooms and a spacious, white - and - gold - panelled 
saloon. For'ard of this the deck was open. Shaded 
by the upper deck overhead, this formed a delight- 
ful spot to laze in long chairs and gaze over the 
placid water of the land-locked sea at the ever- 
changing scenery. Aft on the same deck was the 
second-class accommodation. Between the outer 
row of cabins round the sides a large open space 
was left. This was crowded with fat and prosperous- 



236 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

looking Chinamen, lolling on chairs or mats, smoking 
long-stemmed pipes with tiny bowls and surrounded 
by piles of luggage. 

Below, on the lower deck, were herded the third- 
class passengers, all Chinese coolies. The com- 
panion-ways leading up to the main deck were 
closed by padlocked iron gratings. At the head of 
each stood an armed sentry, a half-caste or Chinese 
quartermaster in bluejacket-like uniform and naval 
straw hat. He was equipped with carbine and 
revolver ; and close by him was a rack of rifles and 
cutlasses. All the steamers plying between Hong 
Kong, Macao, and Canton are similarly guarded ; for 
the pirates who infest the Pearl River and the net- 
work of creeks near its mouth have been known to 
embark on them as innocent coolies and then 
suddenly rise, overpower the crew and seize the 
ship. For these vessels, besides conveying specie 
and cargo, have generally a number of wealthy 
Chinese passengers aboard, who frequently carry 
large sums of money with them. 

The Heungshan cast off from the crowded, 
bustling wharf and threaded her way out of Hong 
Kong harbour between the numerous merchant 
ships lying at anchor. In between Lantau and the 
mainland we steamed over the placid water of what 
seemed an inland lake. The shallow sea is here 
so covered with islands that it is generally as 
smooth as a mill-pond. Past stately moving junks 
and fussy little steam launches we held our way. 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 237 

Islands and mainland rising in green hills from the 
water's edge hemmed in the narrow channel. In 
about two and a half hours we sighted Macao. 
We saw ahead of us a low eminence covered with 
the buildings of a European-looking town. Behind 
it rose a range of bleak mountains. We passed 
along by a gently curving bay lined with houses 
and fringed with trees, rounded a cape, and entered 
the natural harbour which lies between low hills. 
It was crowded with junks and sampans. In the 
middle lay a trim Portuguese gunboat, the Zaire, 
three-masted, with white superstructure and funnel 
and black hull. The small Canton-Macao steamer 
was moored to the wharf. 

The quay was lined with Chinese houses, two- 
or three - storied, with arched verandahs. The 
Heungshan ran alongside, the hawsers were made 
fast, and gangways run ashore. The Chinese pas- 
sengers, carrying their baggage, trooped on to the 
wharf. One of them in his hurry knocked roughly 
against a Portuguese Customs officer who caught 
him by the pigtail and boxed his ears in reward 
for his awkwardness. It was a refreshing sight 
after the pampered and petted way in which the 
Chinaman is treated by the authorities in Hong 
Kong. There the lowest coolie can be as im- 
pertinent as he likes to Europeans, for he knows 
that the white man who ventures to chastise him 
for his insolence will be promptly summoned to 
appear before a magistrate and fined. Our treat- 



238 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

ment of the subject races throughout our Empire 
errs chiefly in its lack of common justice to the 
European. 

Seated in a ricksha, pulled and pushed by two 
coolies up steep streets, I was finally deposited at 
the door of the Boa Vista Hotel. This excellent 
hostelry which the French endeavoured to secure 
for a naval hospital, and which has since been 
purchased by the Portuguese Government was 
picturesquely situated on a low hill overlooking the 
town. The ground on one side fell sharply down 
to the sea which lapped the rugged rocks and 
sandy beach two or three hundred feet below. On 
the other, from the foot of the hill, a pretty bay with 
a tree-shaded esplanade called the Praia Grande 
stretched away to a high cape about a mile 
distant. The bay was bordered by a line of houses, 
prominent among which was the Governor's Palace. 
Behind them the city, built on rising ground, rose 
in terraces. The buildings were all of the Southern 
European type, with tiled roofs, Venetian-shuttered 
windows, and walls painted pink, white, blue, or 
yellow. Away in the heart of the town the gaunt, 
shattered facade of a ruined church stood on 
a slight eminence. Here and there small hills 
crowned with the crumbling walls of ancient forts 
rose up around the city. 

Eager for a closer acquaintance with Macao, I 
drove out that afternoon in a ricksha. I was 
whirled first along the Praia Grande, which runs 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 239 

around the curving bay below the hotel. On the 
right-hand side lay a strongly built sea-wall. On 
the tree-shaded promenade between it and the road- 
way groups of the inhabitants of the city were 
enjoying the cool evening breeze. Sturdy little 
Portuguese soldiers in dark-blue uniforms and kdpis 
strolled along in two and threes, ogling the yellow 
or dark-featured Macaese ladies, a few of whom 
wore mantillas. Half-caste youths, resplendent in 
loud check suits and immaculate collars and cuffs, 
sat on the sea-wall or, airily puffing their cheap 
cigarettes, sauntered along the promenade with 
languid grace. Grave citizens walked with their 
families, the prettier portion of whom affected to be 
demurely unconscious of the admiring looks of the 
aforesaid dandies. A couple of priests in shovel 
hats and long, black cassocks moved along in the 
throng. 

The left side of the Praia was lined with houses, 
among which were some fine buildings, including 
the Government, Post and Telegraph Bureaus, 
commercial offices, private residences, and a large 
mansion, with two projecting wings, the Governor's 
Palace. At the entrance stood a sentry, while the 
rest of the guard lounged near the doorway. At 
the end of the Praia Grande were the pretty public 
gardens, shaded by banyan trees, with flower-beds, 
a bandstand, and a large building beyond it the 
Military Club. Past the gate of the Gardens the 
road turned away from the sea and ran between 



240 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

rows of Chinese houses until it reached the long, 
tree-bordered Estrada da Flora. On the left lay 
cultivated land. On the right the ground sloped 
gently back to a bluff hill, on which stood a light- 
house, the oldest in China. At the foot of this 
eminence lay the pretty summer residence of the 
Governor, picturesquely named Flora, surrounded 
by gardens and fenced in by a granite wall. Con- 
tinuing under the name of Estrada da Bella Vista, 
the road ran on to the sea and turned to the left 
around a flower -bordered, terraced green mound, 
at the summit of which was a look-out whence a 
charming view was obtained. From this the mound 
derives the name of Bella Vista. In front lay a 
shallow bay. To the left the shore curved round 
to a long, low, sandy causeway, which connects 
Macao with the island of Heung Shan. Midway 
on this stood a masonry gateway, Porta Cerco, 
which marks the boundary between Portuguese and 
Chinese territory. Hemmed in by a sea-wall, the 
road continued from Bella Vista along above the 
beach, past the isthmus, on which was a branch 
road leading to the Porta, by a stretch of cultivated 
ground, and round the peninsula, until it reached 
the city again. 

After dinner that evening, accompanied by a 
friend staying at the same hotel, I strolled down 
to the Public Gardens, where the police band was 
playing and the "beauty and fashion" of Macao 
assembled. They were crowded with gay pro- 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 241 

menaders. Trim Portuguese naval or military 
officers, brightly dressed ladies, soldiers, civilians, 
priests and laity strolled up and down the walks or 
sat on the benches. Sallow-complexioned children 
chased each other round the flower-beds. Opposite 
the bandstand stood a line of chairs reserved for 
the Governor and his party. We met some ac- 
quaintances among the few British residents in 
the colony ; and one of them, being an honorary 
member of the Military Club situated at one end 
of the Gardens, invited us into it. We sat at one 
of the little tables on the terrace, where the e"lite of 
Macao drank their coffee and liqueurs, and watched 
the gay groups promenading below. The scene 
was animated and interesting, thoroughly typical of 
the way in which Continental nations enjoy outdoor 
life, as the English never can. Hong Kong, with 
all its wealth and large European population, has 
no similar social gathering-place ; and its citizens 
wrap themselves in truly British unneighbourly 
isolation. 

The government of Macao is administered from 
Portugal. The Governor is appointed from Europe; 
and the local Senate is vested solely with the muni- 
cipal administration of the colony. The garrison 
consists of Portuguese artillerymen to man the forts 
and a regiment of Infantry of the Line, relieved 
regularly from Europe. There is also a battalion 
of police, supplemented by Indian and Chinese 
constables the former recruited among the natives 



242 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

of the Portuguese territory of Goa on the Bombay 
coast, though many of the sepoys hail from British 
India. A gunboat is generally stationed in the 
harbour. The troubles all over China in 1900 had 
a disturbing influence even in this isolated Portu- 
guese colony. An attack from Canton was feared 
in Macao as well as in Hong Kong; and the utmost 
vigilance was observed by the garrison. One night 
heavy firing was heard from, the direction of the 
Porta Cerco, the barrier on the isthmus. It was 
thought that the Chinese were at last descending 
on the settlement. The alarm sounded and the 
troops were called out. Sailors were landed from 
the Zaire with machine-guns. A British resident 
in Macao told me that so prompt were the garrison 
in turning out that in twenty minutes all were at 
their posts and every position for defence occupied. 
At each street-corner stood a strong guard ; and 
machine-guns were placed so as to prevent any 
attempt on the part of the Chinese in the city to 
aid their fellow-countrymen outside. However, it 
was found that the alarm was occasioned by the 
villagers who lived just outside the boundary, firing 
on the guards at the barrier in revenge for the con- 
tinual insults to which their women, when passing 
in and out to market in Macao, were subjected by 
the Portuguese soldiers at the gate. No attack 
followed and the incident had no further conse- 
quences. At the close of 1901 or the beginning of 
1902, more serious alarm was caused by the con- 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 243 

duct of the regiment recently arrived from Portugal 
in relief. Dissatisfied with their pay or at service 
in the East, the men mutinied and threatened to 
seize the town. The situation was difficult, as they 
formed the major portion of the garrison. Eventu- 
ally, however, the artillerymen, the police battalion, 
and the sailors from the Zaire succeeded in over- 
awing and disarming them. The ringleaders were 
seized and punished, and that incident closed. 

The European-born Portuguese in the colony are 
few and consist chiefly of the Government officials 
and their families and the troops. They look down 
upon the Macaese as the colonials are called 
with the supreme contempt of the pure-blooded 
white man for the half-caste. For, judging from 
their complexions and features, few of the Macaese 
are of unmixed descent. So the Portuguese from 
Europe keep rigidly aloof from them and unbend 
only to the few British and Americans resident in 
the colony. These are warmly welcomed in Macao 
society and freely admitted into the exclusive official 
circles. 

On the day following my arrival, I went in 
uniform to call upon the Governor in the palace 
on the Praia Grande. Accompanied by a friend, I 
rickshaed from the hotel to the gate of the court- 
yard. The guard at the entrance saluted as we 
approached ; and I endeavoured to explain the 
reason of our coming to the sergeant in command. 
English and French were both beyond his under- 



244 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

standing ; but he called to his assistance a function- 
ary, clad in gorgeous livery, who succeeded in 
grasping the fact that we wished to see the aide-de- 
camp to the Governor. He ushered us into a 
waiting-room opening off the spacious hall. In a 
few minutes a smart, good-looking officer in white 
duck uniform entered. He was the aide-de-camp, 
Senhor Carvalhaes. Speaking in fluent French, he 
informed us that the Governor was not in the 
palace but would probably soon return, and invited 
us to wait. He chatted pleasantly with us, gave 
us much interesting information about Macao, and 
proffered his services to make our stay in Portu- 
guese territory as enjoyable as he could. We soon 
became on very friendly terms and he accepted an 
invitation to dine with us at the hotel that night. 
The sound of the guard turning out and presenting 
arms told us that the Governor had returned. 
Senhor Carvalhaes, praying us to excuse him, went 
out to inform his Excellency of our presence. In a 
few minutes the Governor entered and courteously 
welcomed us to Macao. He spoke English ex- 
tremely well ; although he had only begun to learn 
it since he came to the colony not very long before. 
After a very pleasant and friendly interview with 
him we took our departure, escorted to the door 
by the aide-de-camp. 

On the following day I paid some calls on the 
British and American residents and then went down 
to the English tennis-ground, which is situated close 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 245 

to Bella Vista. Here, in the afternoons, the little 
colony of aliens in Macao generally assemble. The 
consuls and their wives and families, with a few 
missionaries and an occasional merchant, make up 
their number. Close by the tennis-courts, in a high- 
walled enclosure shaded by giant banyans, lies the 
English cemetery. 

That night a civilian from Hong Kong, Mr. Ivan 
Grant- Smith, and I had an unpleasant adventure 
which illustrates the scant respect with which the 
segis of British power is regarded abroad. We are 
prone to flatter ourselves that the world stands in 
awe of our Empire's might, that the magic words, 
" I am an English citizen ! " will bear us scatheless 
through any danger. The following instance by 
no means an isolated one of how British subjects 
are often treated by the meanest officials of other 
States may be instructive. 

We had dined that evening at the house of one 
of the English residents in Macao. The dinner, 
which was to celebrate the birthday of his son, was 
followed by a dance ; so that it was after one o'clock 
in the morning before we left to walk back to the 
hotel, about a mile away. Leaving the main streets, 
we tried a short cut along a lonely road hemmed in 
by high garden walls. The ground on one side 
sloped up, so that the level of the enclosures was 
but little below the top of the wall fronting the road. 
As we passed one garden some dogs inside it, roused 
by our voices, climbed on the wall and began to 



246 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

bark persistently at us. In the vain hope of silencing 
them, Grant- Smith threw a few stones at the noisy 
animals. They barked all the more furiously. A 
small gate in the wall a little distance farther on 
suddenly opened and a half-dressed Portuguese 
appeared. I had happened to stop to light a cigar, 
and my companion had gone on ahead. The new- 
comer on the scene rushed at him and poured forth 
a torrent of what was evidently abuse. My friend 
very pacifically endeavoured to explain by gestures 
what had happened ; but the Portuguese, becoming 
still more enraged, shouted for the police patrol and 
blew a whistle loudly. An Indian constable ran up. 
The infuriated citizen spoke to him in Portuguese 
and then returned inside his garden, closing the 
gate. The sepoy seized Mr. Grant- Smith by the 
shoulder. I asked him in Hindustani what my 
friend had done. The constable replied that he did 
not know. I said, " Then why do you arrest the 
sahib ? " 

" Because that man " pointing to the garden 
"told me to do so." 

" Who is he ? " I demanded, naturally concluding 
that we must have disturbed the slumbers of some 
official whom the sepoy recognised. 

To my astonishment he replied 

" I do not know, sahib. I never saw him before." 

As Grant- Smith was ignorant of Hindustani and 
the Indian of English, I was forced to act as inter- 
preter. 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 247 

" Then," said I, "as you don't know of what the 
sahib is guilty or even the name of his accuser, you 
must release him." 

" I cannot, sahib. I must take him to the police- 
station." 

Another Indian constable now came on the scene. 
I explained matters to him and insisted on his 
entering the garden and fetching out the com- 
plainant. He went in, and in a few minutes returned 
with the Portuguese hastily clad. He was in a very 
bad temper at being again disturbed ; for, thinking 
that he had comfortably disposed of us for the night, 
he had calmly gone to bed. 

We all now proceeded to a small police-station 
about a mile away, passing the hotel on the road. 
Furious at the unjust arrest and irritated at the 
coolness of the complainant and the stupidity of the 
sepoy, my friend and I were anxious to see some 
superior authority. We never doubted that a prompt 
release and apology, as well as a reprimand to the 
over-zealous constable, would immediately follow. 
British subjects were not to be treated in this high- 
handed fashion ! 

Arrived at the station, we found only a Portuguese 
constable, with a Chinese policeman lying asleep on 
a guard-bed in the corner. The accuser now came 
forward and charged my companion with " throwing 
stones at a dwelling-house," as the Indians informed 
me. Using them to interpret, I endeavoured to 
explain the affair to the Portuguese constable. He 



248 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

simply shrugged his shoulders, wrote down the 
charge, and said that the prisoner must be taken to 
the Head Police Office for the night. He added 
that, there being no charge against me, I was not 
concerned in the matter, and could go home. 

However, as my unfortunate friend required me 
as interpreter, I had no intention of abandoning 
him, and accompanied him when he was marched 
off to durance vile. The Portuguese policeman at 
first wished to send him under the charge of the 
Chinese constable, whom he woke up for the pur- 
pose ; but we explained that if such an indignity 
were offered us we would certainly refuse to go 
quietly with the Chinaman and might damage him 
on the way. He then allowed the Indian sepoys, 
who were very civil, to escort us. My luckless 
companion was then solemnly marched through the 
town until the Head Police Office was reached, 
over two miles away. It was a rambling structure 
in the heart of the city, with ancient buildings and 
tree-shaded courts. Down long corridors and across 
a grass-grown yard we were led into a large office. 
A half-open door in a partition on the left bore the 
inscription, " Quarto del Sargento." On the right, 
behind a large screen, a number of Portuguese 
policemen lay asleep on beds. The sepoys roused 
a sergeant, who sat up grumbling and surveyed 
us with little friendliness. The scene was rather 
amusing. My friend and I in correct evening dress, 
as haughtily indignant as Britishers should be under 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 249 

such circumstances, the Indian sepoys standing erect 
behind us, the surly complainant, whom the light 
of the office lamps revealed to be a very shoddy 
and common individual, the half-awakened police- 
men gazing sleepily at us from their beds, would 
have made a capital tableau in a comedy. The 
sergeant rose and put on his uniform. Seating 
himself at a table in the office he read the charge. 
Without further ado he ordered a bed to be brought 
down and placed for the prisoner in the empty 
" Quarto del Sargento." He then rose from the 
table and prepared to retire. I stopped him and 
demanded that our explanation should be listened 
to. I told him, through the interpreters, that if the 
ridiculous charge against my friend was to be pro- 
ceeded with, he could be found at the hotel. There 
was no necessity for confining him for the night, 
as he could not leave Macao without the knowledge 
of the authorities. The sergeant curtly replied that 
as there was no complaint against me I had better 
quit the police-station as soon as possible. If I 
wished to give evidence for my friend, I could 
attend at the magistrate's court in the morning 
and do so. I informed him that I was an officer 
in the British Army, and demanded to see a Portu- 
guese officer. He replied that he was a sergeant, 
and quite officer enough for me. His manner 
throughout was excessively overbearing and offen- 
sive. I then threatened to appeal to the British 
Consul. I am afraid that this only amused the 



250 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Portuguese policemen, who had left their beds to 
come into the office and listen to the affair. They 
laughed amusedly; and the sergeant, smiling grimly, 
bade the interpreting sepoy tell me that he did not 
care a snap of his fingers for our Consul. I then 
played my trump card. I demanded that a message 
should be immediately conveyed to the aide-de- 
camp of the Governor, to the effect that one of 
his English friends with whom he had dined the 
previous night had been arrested. The effect was 
electrical. As soon as my speech had been trans- 
lated to them, all the Portuguese policemen became 
at once extremely civil. The sergeant rushed to 
a telephone and rang up the police officer on duty. 
I caught the words "ufficiales Inglesos" and 
" amigos del Senhor Carvalhaes." After a long 
conversation over the wire he returned smiling 
civilly, saluted, and said that my companion could 
leave the station at once. Would he have the 
supreme kindness to attend at the magistrate's court 
at ten o'clock in the morning? If he did not know 
where it was, a constable would be sent to the hotel 
to guide him. 

We marched out with the honours of war. With 
profuse courtesy we were escorted out of the police- 
station, a sentry shouldering arms to us as we 
passed ; and the sergeant accompanied us to the 
outer gate, where he parted from us with an 
elaborate salute. 

We reached the hotel about 3.30 a.m. Before 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 251 

nine o'clock I presented myself at the palace, where 
I interviewed Senhor Carvalhaes and recounted 
the whole affair to him. He was indignant at the 
conduct of the police. He told me that we need 
not attend the court, as he would settle the matter 
himself. Later on my friend and I saw the British 
Consul, whom we knew personally, and told him 
all that had happened. He said that he could not 
have helped us in the least had we appealed to 
him. Some time previous an English colonel, in 
company with several ladies, had been arrested by 
the police for not removing his hat when a religious 
procession passed. As this officer happened to be 
a Roman Catholic, his action was not meant to 
be disrespectful. He was not released until the 
British Consul had interviewed the Governor. By 
a curious coincidence I met this colonel some months 
later in Seoul, the capital of Corea. 

That afternoon Grant- Smith and I were invited 
to the Portuguese Naval Tennis Club ground 
near Flora, the Governor's summer residence. 
Carvalhaes, who was present, came to me and 
told me that the affair was settled. The trumpery 
charge had been dismissed ; and the Indian con- 
stable who had arrested Grant-Smith had been 
punished with six weeks' imprisonment. As the 
unfortunate sepoy had only done what he con- 
sidered his duty and had been very civil throughout, 
as well as helping me considerably by interpreting, 
I begged that the punishment should be transferred 



252 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

from him to the discourteous Portuguese sergeant. 
On my representations the Indian was released; but 
I doubt if the man of the dominant caste received 
even a reprimand. 

Our adventure was now common property. We 
were freely chaffed about the arrest by the Portu- 
guese officers and the British residents present at 
the Tennis Club. The wife of the Governor laugh- 
ingly bade one of the English ladies bring up the 
"prisoner" and present him to her. 

When one reflects that this quaint and old-world 
little Portuguese colony is only forty miles from 
Hong Kong with its large garrison, our treatment 
by its insolent subordinate officials does not say 
much for the respect for England's might which we 
imagine is felt throughout the world. 

I had another experience of an arrest in Japan. 
The spy mania is rife in that country; and no photo- 
graphing is permitted in the fortified seaports or in 
large tracts of country ''reserved for military pur- 
poses." In the important naval station of Yuko- 
suka, an hour's journey by train from Yokohama, 
an American gentleman and I were taken into 
custody by a policeman for merely carrying a 
camera which, knowing the regulations, we had 
been careful not to use. We found afterwards that 
our ricksha coolies had given information. I was 
fortunately able to speak Japanese sufficiently well 
to explain to our captor that we had no intention of 
taking surreptitious photographs of the warships in 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 253 

the harbour. I pointed out that as most of these 
vessels had been built in England it was hardly 
necessary for a Britisher to come to Japan to get 
information about them. Our little policeman 
with the ready capacity of his countrymen for see- 
ing the feeblest joke was immensely tickled. He 
laughed heartily and released us. But shortly after- 
wards an Italian officer, on his way to attend the 
Japanese military manoeuvres, innocently took some 
photographs of the scenery near Shimoneseki. He 
was promptly arrested and subsequently fined forty 
yen (4) for the offence. A few days later an 
Englishman at Moji was taken into custody for the 
same crime. Moral : do not carry a camera in 
Japan ; content yourself with the excellent and 
cheap photographs to be obtained everywhere in 
that country of delightful scenery. 

To return to Macao. Its greatly advertised 
attraction is the famous Chinese gambling-houses, 
from the taxes on which is derived a large portion 
of the revenues of the colony. Most visitors go to 
see them and stake a dollar or two on the fan-tan 
tables. I did likewise and was disappointed to find 
the famed saloons merely small Chinese houses, the 
interiors glittering with tawdry gilt wood carving 
and blazing at night with evil-smelling oil lamps. 
On the ground floor stands a large table, at the 
head of which sits the croupier, generally a very 
bored-looking old Chinaman. Along the sides are 
the players, who occasionally lose the phlegmatic 



254 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

calm of their race in their excitement. On the 
"board" squares are described, numbered i, 2, 3, 
and 4. On them the money is staked. The croupier 
places a handful of "cash," which are small coins, 
on the table and covers them with an inverted 
bowl. The number of them is not counted, as he 
takes them at random from a pile beside him. As 
soon as all the stakes are laid down, he lifts the 
bowl and with a chopstick counts the coins in fours. 
The number left at the end, which must be one, 
two, three, or four, represents the winning number. 
The bank pays three times the stake deposited, less 
ten per cent., which is kept as its own share of the 
winnings. In a gallery overhead sit European 
visitors and more important Chinamen who do not 
wish to mix with the common herd around the table. 
Their stakes are collected by an attendant who 
lowers them in a bag at the end of a long string, 
and the croupier places them where desired. Fan- 
tan is not exciting. The counting of the coins is 
tedious and the calculations of the amounts to be 
paid out to the winners takes so long that the game 
becomes exceedingly wearisome. 

Other attractions of Macao are the ruins of the 
old cathedral of San Paulo, built in 1602 and de- 
stroyed by fire in 1835, of which the fagade still 
remains in good preservation ; and the Gardens of 
Camoens, with a bust of the famous Portuguese 
poet placed in a picturesque grotto formed by a 
group of huge boulders. Camoens visited Macao, 



PORTUGUESE COLONY OF MACAO 255 

after voyaging to Goa and the East by way of the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

In the basements of some of the older houses in 
Macao are the Barracoons, relics of the coolie 
traffic suppressed in 1874. They are large chambers 
where the coolies, to be shipped as labourers to 
foreign parts, were lodged while awaiting exporta- 
tion. Among other points of interest near the city 
is the curious natural phenomenon known as the 
Ringing Rocks. They are reached by boat to 
Lappa. They consist of a number of huge granite 
boulders, supposed to be of some metallic forma- 
tion, picturesquely grouped together, which, when 
struck, give out a clear bell-like note, which dies 
away in gradually fainter vibrations. Altogether 
Macao is well worthy of a visit. The contrast 
between the sleepy old-world city, which looks like 
a town in Southern Europe, and bustling, thriving 
Hong Kong, all that is modern and business-like, 
is very striking. For the moneymaker the English 
colony ; for the dreamer Macao. 



CHAPTER XI 
A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 

CANTON is, to foreigners, probably the best- 
known and most frequently visited city of 
China. Its proximity to, and ready accessibility 
from Hong Kong, whence it is easily reached by 
a line of large river steamers, renders it a favourite 
place with travellers to the East to spend a portion 
of the time the mailboats usually stop in the English 
harbour. A small colony of Europeans, consuls 
and merchants of several nationalities, reside in its 
foreign settlement. Its considerable trade and its 
occupation by the Allies after the war of 1856-7 
directed much attention to it. Owing to its easy 
access, no other city in the Chinese Empire has 
been so frequently described by European writers. 
Rudyard Kipling, in his fascinating " From Sea to 
Sea/' paints a marvellous word-picture of the life 
in its crowded streets. But it is so bound up with 
the interests of Hong Kong, its constant menace 
to our colony, and the suspected designs of French 
aggression, that still something new may be said 
about it. Despite its constant trade intercourse 
with Europeans, Canton remains anti-foreign. Its 
inhabitants have not forgotten or forgiven its 

256 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 257 

capture and occupation by the English and French 
in the past. After the Boxer movement in the 
North in 1900, many fears were entertained in 
Hong Kong lest a still more formidable out- 
break against foreigners in the South might be 
inaugurated by the turbulent population of the 
restless city. The Europeans in Canton sent their 
families in haste to Hong Kong and Macao; 
wealthy Chinamen transferred their money to the 
banks in the former place ; gunboats were hurried 
up; and the garrison of our island colony stood ready. 
The history of Canton's intercourse with for- 
eigners dates as far back as the eighth century. 
Two hundred years later it was visited by Arab 
traders, who were instrumental in introducing 
Mohammedanism, which still remains alive in the 
city. In 1517 Emmanuel, King of Portugal, sent 
an ambassador with a fleet of eight ships to Pekin ; 
and the Chinese Emperor sanctioned the opening 
of trade relations with Canton. The English were 
much later in the field. In 1596, during the reign 
of Elizabeth, our first attempt to establish inter- 
course with China ended disastrously, as the two 
ships despatched were lost on the outward voyage. 
The first English vessel to reach Canton arrived 
there in 1634. In the light of the present state of 
affairs in the East, it is curious to note that an 
English ship which visited China in 1673 was subse- 
quently refused admittance to Japan. In 1615 the 
city was captured by the Tartars. 



258 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

About half a century later the famous East India 
Company established itself under the walls of 
Canton, and from there controlled the foreign trade 
for nearly one hundred and fifty years. After much 
vexatious interference by the native authorities, the 
influence of the Company was abolished early in 
the nineteenth century. The conduct of the Chinese 
Government as regards our commerce led to our 
declaring war in 1839. In 1841 a force under Sir 
Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough surrounded Canton 
and prepared to capture it. But negotiations were 
opened by the Chinese, which ended in their being 
allowed to ransom the city by the payment of the 
large sum of six million dollars. The war was 
transferred farther north and ended with the Nan- 
king Treaty of August, 1842, which threw open to 
foreign trade the ports of Shanghai, Ning-po, 
Foochow, and Amoy. It was further stipulated 
that foreigners were to be permitted to enter the 
city of Canton. This provision, however, the 
Chinese refused to carry out. More vexatious 
quarrels and an insult to the British flag by the 
seizure of a Chinaman on the Arrow, a small vessel 
sailing under our colours, led to a fresh war in 1856. 
The outbreak of hostilities was followed by the 
pillaging and destruction of the " factories " of the 
foreign merchants in Canton by an infuriated mob 
in the December of that year. In 1857 the city 
was taken by storm by a force under Sir Charles 
Straubenzee. For four years afterwards it was 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 259 

occupied by an English and French garrison. The 
affairs of the city were administered by three allied 
commissioners two English and one French officer 
under the British General. They held their court 
in the Tartar General's Yamen, part of which is still 
used by the English Consul for official receptions. 
Since the allied garrison was withdrawn Canton has 
been freely open to foreigners. 

On the conclusion of peace it was necessary to 
find a settlement for the European merchants whose 
factories had been destroyed. It was determined to 
fill in and appropriate an extensive mud-flat lying 
near the north bank of the river and south-west of 
the city. This site having been leased, was con- 
verted into an artificial island by building a massive 
embankment of granite and constructing a canal, 
100 feet wide, between the northern face and the 
adjacent Chinese suburb. The ground thus re- 
claimed measures about 950 yards in length and 
320 yards broad in its widest part. It is in shape 
an irregular oval, and is called Shameen, or, more 
proper, Sha-mien, i.e. sand-flats. The island is 
divided into the English and the French Conces- 
sions. On it the consulates and the residences of 
the foreign merchants are built. The canal is 
crossed by two bridges, called respectively the 
English and the French, which can be closed by 
gates. They are guarded by the Settlement police. 
The cost of making the island amounted to 325,000 
dollars (Mex.); of which the English Government 



260 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

paid four-fifths and the French one-fifth. At first 
foreigners hesitated to occupy it ; but after the 
British Consulate was erected in 1865, our mer- 
chants began to build upon it with more confidence. 

The journey from Hong Kong to Canton is very 
comfortably performed on the commodious shallow- 
draught steamers that ply between the two cities. 
I left the island one afternoon with a party of 
friends. The scenery along the rugged coast and 
among the hilly islands to the flat delta at the 
mouth of the estuary with its countless creeks, still 
haunted by pirates, is charming. As we steamed 
up the river we could see, moving apparently among 
the fields, the huge sails of junks which in reality 
were sailing on the canals that intersect the country. 
After dinner I sat on deck with a very charming 
companion and watched the shadowy banks gliding 
past in the moonlight. Turning in for the night 
in a comfortable cabin, I slept until eight o'clock 
next morning, and awoke to find the steamer along- 
side the river bank at Canton. 

The scene from the deck was animated and 
picturesque. On one side lay the crowded houses 
and grim old walls of the city. The wharves were 
thronged with bustling crowds. On the other, 
beyond the island suburb of Honam, the country 
stretched away in cultivation to low hills in the 
distance. The river was thronged with countless 
covered boats ; for the floating population of Canton 
amounts to about a quarter of a million souls, and 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 261 

the crowded sampans lying in a dense mass on 
the water form a separate town from the city on 
the land. It is almost self-containing and its in- 
habitants ply every imaginable trade. Peddlers of 
food, vegetables, fruit, pots, pans, and wares of all 
kinds paddled their boats along and shouted their 
stock-in-trade. Here and there a sampan was 
being extricated with difficulty from the closely 
packed mass, its crew earning voluble curses from 
their neighbours as they disentangled their craft 
and shot out into the stream. 

I gazed over the steamer's side at the crowded 
wharf. Chinese or half-caste Portuguese Customs 
officers rapidly scanned the baggage of the pig-tailed 
passengers as they landed, now and then stopping 
one and making him open the bundles he carried. 
Opium-smuggling is the chief thing they guard 
against, for Hong Kong is a free port. 

The city of Canton lies on the north bank of the 
Pearl River, about seventy or eighty miles from the 
sea. It is surrounded by an irregular masonry wall, 
twenty-five feet high, twenty feet thick, and six 
or seven miles in circumference. This fortification 
is by no means as strong as the famous Wall of the 
Tartar city in Pekin and could be easily breached 
by the fire of heavy guns. Good artillery positions 
are to be found all round. A few miles north of 
the city lie hills rising 1,200 feet above the river. 
As the southern wall is only a few hundred yards 
from the bank, it could be destroyed and the city 



262 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

bombarded without difficulty by gunboats, some of 
which English, French, and German are nearly 
always lying off Shameen. The Chinese, however, 
are reported to be quietly erecting modern, well- 
armed forts around the city ; but were a powerful 
flotilla once anchored opposite it, it would be 
doomed. 

Canton is divided into the old and the new city. 
The latter, the southern enclosure, was added in 
1568, extending the ramparts almost to the river 
bank. The wall of the older portion still divides 
the two as in Pekin. On the north this wall rises 
to include a hill. On the other three sides Canton 
is surrounded by a ditch, which is filled by the rising 
tide. There are twelve outer gates and four in the 
partition wall. Two water-gates admit boats along 
a canal which pierces the new city east and west. 
The gates are closed at night ; and in the daytime 
soldiers are stationed near them to preserve order. 
As the policing of the city is very bad, the in- 
habitants of streets and wards frequently join in 
maintaining guards for the protection of their re- 
spective quarters. 

The old city, which is very much the larger of the 
two, contains most of the important buildings. In 
it are the yamens of the Viceroy, the Major- General, 
the Treasurer, the Chancellor, the Tartar General 
and Major-General, and of the British Consul, as 
well as the prisons, the Examination Hall, the 
pagodas, and the numerous temples, of which there 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 263 

are over 120 in or about Canton. The streets 
number over 600 in both cities. 

In the new town facing the river is the French 
Missions Roman Catholic Cathedral, a beautiful 
building of the perpendicular Gothic style of archi- 
tecture with lofty spires. It is embellished with 
magnificent stained-glass windows and polished 
teak- wood carvings. It is built on the site of the 
old residence of the Governor-General, destroyed 
during the bombardment by the Allies. 

On the south, west, and east sides of the city 
and across the river on Honam Island, suburbs 
have sprung up, and including them it has a circum- 
ference of nearly ten miles. The houses stretch for 
four miles along the river ; and the banks of boats 
extend for four or five miles. Out in the stream 
may often be seen huge junks 600 to 1,000 tons 
burden, which trade with the North and the Straits 
Settlements. 

In 1874 the population of Canton was 1,500,000, 
including the floating town of 230,000, and the in- 
habitants of Honam 100,000. The number has 
probably largely increased. 

Going ashore we installed ourselves in long-poled 
open chairs, borne by energetic coolies. As they 
went along rapidly at a shambling half-trot, they 
shouted loudly to the lounging crowds to clear the 
way. Into the network of narrow streets in the 
city we plunged. The houses are different to those 
in Pekin. They are generally of more than one 



264 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

story, well built of brick, with thick walls and veran- 
dahs along the fronts of the upper floors. The 
shops have little frontage, but extend far back. 
The streets, paved with stone or brick, are dark- 
ened by overhead reed matting, supported by 
wooden frames, which stretch across them to shade 
them from the sun. So narrow are even the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares that two chairs can hardly pass 
each other. With much shouting and sing-song 
abuse the coolies carrying one are forced to back 
into the nearest shop and let the other go by. The 
vistas along these narrow, shaded streets, with their 
long, hanging, gilt-lettered sign-boards red, white, 
or black are full of quaint charm. The busy 
crowds of Chinese foot passengers hurry silently 
along, their felt-soled shoes making no sound on 
the pavement. Contrary to what I had always 
heard of them, the Canton populace struck me as 
not being so insolent or hostile to Europeans as 
they are reputed. As our chairs moved along, the 
bearers thrusting the crowds aside with scant cere- 
mony, very little notice was taken of us. A few 
remarks were made by the bystanders, which one 
of our party, who spoke Cantonese, told me were 
anything but complimentary. But all that day 
throughout the city I found the demeanour of the 
people much less offensive than a Chinaman in the 
lower quarters of London would. 

The shops were filled with articles of European 
manufacture. Clocks, cloth, oleographs, lamps, kero- 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 265 

sene oil tins, even sewing-machines were for sale. 
Eating-houses, tea shops, stalls covered with the 
usual weird forms of food, raw or cooked, abounded. 
The Chinaman has a catholic taste. Horseflesh, 
dogs, cats, hawks, owls, sharks' fins, and birds' nests 
are freely sold in Canton for human consumption. 
Carpenters were busy making the substantial furni- 
ture to be found in almost every Chinese house. 
Blacksmiths and coppersmiths added the noises of 
their trades to the din that resounded through the 
narrow streets. Peddlers with their wares spread 
about them on the ground helped to choke the con- 
gested thoroughfares. Beggars shouted loudly for 
alms and drew the attention of the passers-by to 
their disgusting sores and deformities. 

Canton is famous for its ivory carvers and the 
artists in the beautiful feather work, the making of 
which seems to be confined to this city. As I 
wished to purchase some specimens of this unique 
art, our party stopped at an establishment famed 
for its production. The shop was lofty but dark. 
The owner came forward to receive us, and spread 
on the counter a large selection of ornaments for 
our inspection. Trinkets of all kinds, lace -pins, 
pendants, brooches were exhibited, all evidently 
made for European purchasers. The designs were 
very pretty. Large butterflies shone with the re- 
flected lights and golden lustre of the beautiful 
green and blue plumage of the kingfisher. Tiny 
fishes delicately fashioned, birds of paradise, flowers 



266 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

were all reproduced in flimsy gold or silver work. 
Learning that I was anxious to see the process of 
the manufacture, the proprietor led me over to 
watch one of the workmen who sat around busily 
employed. On a metal ground-work with raised 
edges and lines the feathers are fastened to repro- 
duce the colours of the designs. With nimble 
fingers and delicate pincers the tiny strips of plum- 
age are laid on and cemented. Keen sight is 
required for the work ; and the proprietor told me 
that the eyes of the workmen engaged in it soon 
fail. It takes five years for an apprentice to 
thoroughly learn the art ; and after he has laboured 
at it for two years more his vision becomes so ob- 
scured that he has to give it up and seek some 
other occupation. It is little wonder ; for the shops 
in these narrow, shaded streets are always dark, 
and the artificial light generally used is furnished 
only by the cheapest European lamps. The prices 
of the various articles are very moderate, when one 
considers the delicacy and beauty of the work. 
Butterflies an inch across can be purchased for two 
or three dollars. 

Our next visit was paid to the workers in ivory. 
Here, in a similarly dark shop, men were employed 
in carving most exquisitely delicate flowers, scenes, 
and figures. Brushes, mirror-frames, fans, glove- 
stretchers, penholders, card-cases, and boxes of all 
sizes were being fashioned and adorned. I was par- 
ticularly interested in the making of those curious 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 267 

Chinese puzzle - balls, which contain one within 
another a dozen or more spheres, all down to the 
innermost one covered with beautiful carvings which 
can be seen through the round holes pierced in the 
sides. The owner of the shop showed me an 
apprentice learning how to make them and prac- 
tising on an old billiard ball. Holes are drilled 
down to the depth which will be the circumference 
of the second outermost ball. A graving tool, 
hooked like a hoe, is introduced into them and 
worked round until there is a complete solid sphere 
detached inside. It is then carved in designs, every 
part being reached by turning the ball round until 
each portion of the surface has come opposite one 
of the holes through which the carving instrument 
can reach it. Then a similar process is gone 
through at a greater depth from the outside, which 
gives the third outermost sphere ; and so on until 
the innermost ball is reached, which is carved and 
left solid. There are sometimes as many as twenty- 
four of these graduated spheres. To one who has 
never seen how they are made it seems impossible 
to understand how these balls within balls are 
carved. Sections of elephants' tusks lay about in 
the shop to prove to the customers that only real 
ivory is employed ; but bone is often used in the 
making of cheaper articles. 

In this trade, too, good sight is necessary; and 
the proprietor of this establishment told me that the 
eyes of his workmen soon give out. Here, again, 



268 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

the bad light was responsible. In Kioto, in Japan, 
I have watched men engaged in damascene or inlay 
work in dingy attics lighted only by small, smoky 
oil lamps, and was not surprised to learn that their 
sight did not last long. 

We next inspected some embroidery shops, where 
specimens of wonderful work, both new and old, 
were to be seen. The latter come chiefly from the 
numerous pawnshops, the tall towers of which rise 
everywhere throughout the city ; for they receive 
annually large quantities of old garments, sold by 
members of ancient but impoverished families who 
are forced to part with the wardrobes that have 
come down to them through many generations. 
Magnificent mandarins' , state costumes may be 
obtained for from forty to eighty or a hundred 
dollars. Some of the embroidery is undoubtedly 
antique and valuable ; but a good deal of it sold 
as old consists of new and inferior substitutions and 
even of European -manufactured imitations of the 
real article. This the white man in his innocence 
buys and goes on his way rejoicing, until some 
connoisseur among his female friends points out his 
error and leaves him abashed at his own ignorance. 

Porcelain, jade, blackwood furniture, silk, bronze, 
and curio shops abound in the city. The contrast 
between the energetic, business-like tradesmen of 
Canton, always ready to cater for the European 
market, and the phlegmatic shopkeepers of Pekin 
is very marked. 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 269 

We now visited the Flowery Forest Monastery 
or Temple of the Five Hundred Genii, which is 
said to have been founded in A.D. 500, and which 
was rebuilt some forty years ago. It stands out- 
side the western wall of the city. It comprises 
many buildings and courts ; but the most interesting 
portion is the hall, which contains the images of the 
five hundred disciples of Buddha. The statues are 
life-size. Their countenances are supposed to re- 
present the supreme content of Nirvana ; but their 
weird and grotesque expressions and the air of 
jollity and devil-may-careness on some of them is 
unintentionally ludicrous. Among the images is 
one said to represent Marco Polo, one of the 
earliest pioneers of discovery in the East. No one 
knows why the celebrated Italian traveller is in- 
cluded among the immortals. 

A more interesting sight was the prison in the 
old city. On a stone outside the open gate sat 
a criminal weighted down with the cangue, a heavy 
board fastened round the neck. It prevents the 
luckless wearer from using his hands to feed him- 
self or brush away the tormenting swarms of flies 
which settle on his face. He cannot reach his 
mouth, and must starve unless a relative or some 
charitable person can be found to give him food. 
As the cangue is never removed night or day he 
cannot lie down, but is forced to sit on the ground 
and prop himself against a wall and snatch what 
sleep he can in that uncomfortable and constrained 



270 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

position. I must say that this particular gentleman 
seemed very indifferent to his wooden collar. He 
was chatting pleasantly with some passers-by in the 
street and turned his head to survey us with mild 
curiosity. The cangue, by the way, is only a minor 
penalty used for thieves, petty larcenists, and such 
small fry. For the punishment of graver crimes 
much more elaborate tortures have been reserved. 
As we passed into the prison we saw a few offenders 
chained to iron bars in the outer court. A Chinese 
warder unlocked a gate leading into a small yard 
crowded with prisoners, who rushed towards us 
and insolently demanded alms ; for the Government 
waste no money in feeding their criminals who are 
obliged to rely on the kindness of the charitable. 
One particularly cheeky youth a pickpocket, I 
was told coolly demanded the cigar I was smoking. 
When I gave it to him he put it in his mouth and 
strutted up and down the yard to the amusement 
of his companions in misfortune. His gratitude 
was not overpowering, for he uttered some remarks, 
which my Cantonese-speaking friend told me were 
particularly insulting. As the prisoners became very 
troublesome in their noisy demands, the warder 
pushed them back into the yard and shut the gate, 
having to rap some of them over the knuckles with 
his keys before he could do so. There were no 
especial horrors to be seen. The prisoners seemed 
cheerful enough ; and none of the awful misery I had 
always associated with Chinese jails was apparent. 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 271 

But when the Celestial authorities wish to punish 
an offender severely they have a varied and in- 
genious collection of tortures on hand. The ling- 
cki, or death of a thousand cuts, is hardly to be 
surpassed for fiendish cruelty. The unfortunate 
criminal is turned over to the executioner, who 
stabs him everywhere with a sharp sword, carefully 
avoiding a vital spot. Then he cuts off fingers, 
toes, hands, feet, arms, and legs in succession, and 
finally severs the head, if the unhappy wretch 
has not already expired. If the doomed man is 
possessed of money he can bribe the executioner 
to kill him at the first blow ; and the subsequent 
mutilations are performed only on a lifeless corpse. 
Another ingenious device is to place the criminal 
naked in a net and trice it up tightly around him, 
until his flesh bulges out through the meshes. 
Then, wherever it protrudes the executioner slices 
it off with a sharp knife. The unhappy wretch is 
taken back to prison, released from the net and 
thrown into a cell. No attempt is made to staunch 
the blood or salve the wounds unless death is 
feared. This must be averted ; for a week or so 
later he has to be brought out again and the 
process repeated. Along the river bank near Can- 
ton criminals were exposed in cages, through the 
top of which their heads protruded in such a 
fashion that the weight of the body was supported 
only by the chin and neck. The feet did not touch 
the bottom of the cage, but a sharp spike was 



272 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

placed to rest them on when the strain on the neck 
became unendurable. Here the poor wretches 
were left to expire of exhaustion or die of starva- 
tion. After such tortures beheading seems a 
merciful punishment. 

When I considered the Chinaman's innate love 
of cruelty, I could understand why the next spot 
we visited was a very popular place of worship 
and a favourite resort for all the loafers of the city. 
It was the Temple of Horrors. Along each side 
of the principal court ran sheds, divided by parti- 
tions. In them behind wooden palings was a 
weird collection of groups of figures modelled to 
represent the various punishments of the Buddhist 
hell. The sheds were dark and it was difficult to 
see the interiors plainly. But quite enough was 
visible. In one compartment a couple of horrible 
devils were sawing a condemned wretch in two. 
In another, demons were thrusting a man into a 
huge boiler. Judging from the agonised expres- 
sion on his face, the water must have been uncom- 
fortably warm. In a third, the condemned soul or 
body was being ground in a press. Others were 
being roasted before huge fires, stuck all over with 
knives, having their eyes gouged out, being torn 
limb from limb. I fancy that the artist who de- 
signed these groups could have commanded a large 
salary as Inventor of Tortures from the Chinese 
authorities of his day. 

Another place of interest is the Examination 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 273 

Hall, where every three years candidates from all 
parts of China assemble to compete for Govern- 
ment appointments. Young men and old, boys of 
eighteen and dotards of eighty, attend, eager to 
grasp the lowest rung of the official ladder which 
may lead them, though with soiled hands, to rank 
and wealth. The coveted buttons which mark the 
various grades of mandarin are here dangled before 
their eyes. 

When one reflects that success in these competi- 
tions will lead to posts, not only as magistrates, but 
also as officers in the army, as officials of modern- 
equipped arsenals, of departments of customs and 
telegraphs, or to positions which will bring them 
into contact with foreigners, one naturally thinks 
that the previous course of studies of the candidates 
will have fitted them for such appointments. Far 
from it. At the examinations a single text from 
Confucius or some other ancient author is set as a 
subject for a lengthy essay. For twenty-four hours 
or longer the candidates are shut up in their cells 
to expand upon it. The examiners then read the 
result of their labours and recommend them on 
their proficiency in composition and acquaintance 
with the ancient classics of China. Even an 
English university curriculum is better fitted to 
equip a student for success in the world. 

The Examination Hall consists of rows of closely- 
packed lanes of small brick cells (about 12,000 in 
number) running at right angles off a long paved 



274 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

causeway, which is approached through an archway 
called the Dragon Gate. At the far end of this 
causeway are apartments for the examiners twelve 
in number, two chiefs and ten juniors who have 
been sent from Pekin. Quarters are also provided 
for the Viceroy and the Governor of the province, 
who are both obliged to be present during the 
examinations. The cells in which the candidates 
are immured are 6 feet high, 5^- feet long, and less 
than 4 feet broad, and open only on to the narrow 
lanes between the rows of sheds. From a high 
tower strict watch is kept to prevent any collusion 
between the competitors. 

Tired of sight-seeing, our party now returned to 
the river and crossed into Shameen by the small 
English Bridge spanning the canal between island 
and shore. A good lunch at the pretty little hotel 
prepared us for a stroll around the foreign settle- 
ment. 

Shameen is now a pretty island with fine avenues 
of banyan trees, charming gardens, a row of excellent 
tennis-courts, and handsome, well-built houses, the 
residences of the foreign consuls and merchants. 
A tree-shaded promenade lined the southern bank 
along the river. Moored to the shore were several 
English, American, French, and German gunboats. 
Their flags and the European-looking houses made 
us almost forget that we were still within a stone's- 
throw of a large Chinese city. But the swarms 
of sampans, the curious country-boats moved by 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 275 

stern -wheels worked by men on a treadmill -like 
contrivance, the banging of crackers and booming 
of gongs in a temple behind the island recalled us 
to the remembrance. We walked along by the 
river bank, crossed the canal by the French Bridge, 
and returned on board our steamer. 

Canton, with its acres of crowded houses, its old 
walls, and ancient shrines, is a curious contrast to 
modern, up-to-date Hong Kong. Yet each in its 
way is equally alive and humming with busy trade, 
for the Chinese city exports and imports largely. 
It is the channel through which the commerce of 
Europe flows in and the products of China find their 
way out to the foreign markets. It manufactures 
largely glassware, pottery, metal work, paper, black- 
wood furniture, preserved ginger, medicine, etc. It 
is the granary and supply depot of Hong Kong. 
The Cantonese merchants are keen business men 
and cater largely for the European customer. Nearly 
all the native silver work, embroidery, silks, and 
curios in the large shops of our colony come from 
Canton. 

The focus of trade with Southern China, the pro- 
posed terminus of the railway to Kowloon, the 
food-supplier of Hong Kong, its development and 
retention in Chinese hands is of vast importance to 
English commerce. The French are freely credited 
with designs upon it. Their determined efforts to 
firmly establish their own influence there and dis- 
place the British favour the suspicion. In their Con- 



276 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

cession on Shameen they have established, without 
the consent of China, their own post office, where 
they use their colonial stamps surcharged " Canton." 
Their gunboats anchor where they like in the river, 
the commanders calmly ignoring the efforts of the 
Chinese officials to restrict them to the part allotted 
to foreign warships. On the occurrence of any out- 
rages on their subjects or the converts of their 
missionaries, the French consuls act with energy and 
determination. When any such happen in the 
vicinity of Canton or up the West River, not content 
with complaints or remonstrances to the Chinese 
authorities, which usually have little effect, they 
insist on immediate redress. They generally ac- 
company in person the official deputed to proceed 
to the scene of the outrage and investigate the 
affair. This energetic conduct is in marked contrast 
to the supineness of some of our consuls. A late 
British representative aroused much disgust among 
naval and military officers and our merchants by his 
want of resolution and his tender regard for Chinese 
susceptibilities. When one of our gunboats was 
fired on up the river, its commander immediately 
reported the matter to him. Our official feebly 
remonstrated with the authorities, and instructed 
the commander to return with his ship to the 
village near the scene of the outrage and fire off a 
Maxim into the river-bank ! This was to show 
the misguided peasantry of what the gunboat was 
capable, if action were necessary. As the Orientals 



A GLIMPSE OF CANTON 277 

respect only those who can use as well as show their 
power, the Chinese are not much impressed with us. 
The contrast between our forbearance and the deter- 
mined conduct of the French is too marked. Their 
gunboats patrol the rivers and show the flag of their 
country everywhere. Their efforts seem directed 
towards spreading the region of their influence in- 
land from the south to meet the Russian sphere in 
the north. This is to cut us off from our possessions 
in Burma and prevent any British railway being 
constructed from that country to the eastern coast 
of China, thus tapping the hitherto undeveloped 
resources of the interior. 

An attack on Canton from the sea would be a far 
more difficult task now than formerly. The Bogue 
forts on the Pearl River, up which an invading 
flotilla must force its way, have been modernised 
and re-armed with powerful guns. Hills are found 
within easy range of the river, from which the gun- 
boats and shallow -draught vessels, which alone 
could attempt the passage, could be shelled at a 
range precluding any response from their feebler 
weapons. And the Chinese gunners are not all to 
be despised, as Admiral Seymour's column and the 
gallant defenders of Tientsin found to their cost. 

The land approach would not be much easier. 
The country near the mouth of the river is inter- 
sected by creeks and canals. Even farther up, no 
roads are available for wheeled transport. An ad- 
vance from the British territory of the Kowloon 



278 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Hinterland would probably be preferable to a land- 
ing on the coast, though the route is longer. The 
hills beyond Samchun might prove a formidable 
barrier ; but those once passed the difficulties would 
not be insuperable. The inhabitants of the southern 
provinces are not warlike ; and the troops there 
have not been reorganised and disciplined like 
some in the north. 



CHAPTER XII 
CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 

E OK ING upon the map of China to-day, Eng- 
land might well say with Clive, " I stand 
amazed at my own moderation." If thirty years ago 
she had seized upon the whole of that vast empire, 
no other Power in the world would have dared to 
say her nay. She was undisputed mistress of the 
Eastern seas. Russia had not then reached the 
shores of the Pacific and her hands were busily 
employed in the centre of Asia. Germany had 
only just become a nation, and had not yet dreamt 
of contending with England for the commerce of 
the world. France lay crushed beneath the weight 
of an overwhelming defeat ; and her voice was un- 
heard in the councils of the nations. The United 
States of America had no thought of realms beyond 
the sea ; their fleet was small, and the markets of 
Asia held no temptation for their merchants. 
Japan was but a name. The Meiji, the eventful 
revolution that freed her from the iron fetters of 
hide-bound ignorance, was scarcely ten years old ; 
and even its authors scarce dared to hope that their 
little islands would one day rank high among the 
civilised Powers of the world. 

279 



2 8o THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

And China itself, that unwieldy Colossus, lay 
a helpless prey to any strong nation that placed 
aggrandisement before the claims of abstract justice. 
The prize was tempting. An immense empire that 
stretched from the snows of the North to the burn- 
ing heats of the torrid zone ; a land of incredible 
fertility, of vast mineral wealth, the value of which 
can even now be only vaguely guessed at ; a teem- 
ing population of industrious and easily-contented 
millions ; an enormous seaboard with natural har- 
bours that could shelter the navies of the world; 
navigable rivers that pierced to the heart of the 
land and offered themselves as veritable highways 
of commerce ; all the riches that the earth could 
bear on its surface or hide in its bosom what a 
guerdon to the victor ! 

The conquest of China might daunt the faint- 
hearted from the apparent immensity of the task ; 
but few countries would have proved an easier 
prize. Her army was composed of a heterogeneous 
collection of ill-armed militia, whose weapons were 
more frequently the spear and the bow than the 
modern rifle. The Chinaman is, by nature, a lover 
of peace. War he abhors ; and the profession of a 
soldier, honoured among other races, is held by him 
in utter contempt. Unpaid, uncared for, ill-treated, 
and despised, the troops had to be driven to battle 
and could not withstand a determined attack. And 
behind them was no high-spirited nation ready to 
risk all in the defence of the motherland. Patriot- 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 281 

ism is unknown. The love of country, so strong in 
other peoples, is non-existent in the heart of the 
average Chinaman. With aught beyond the limits 
of his village, he has no concern^ No other race 
in the world can boast so deep a love of family. 
To save his relatives from poverty, the Celestial 
will go willingly to his death. According to their 
laws a criminal cannot be slain unless he has con- 
fessed his crime. To wring this confession from 
him, tortures inconceivable in their fiendish malig- 
nity are heaped upon him. A speedy death would 
be a boon. But to acknowledge his guilt and die 
by the hands of the public executioner would en- 
tail the forfeiture of all his property to the State, 
and his family would be beggared. So, grimly un- 
complaining, he submits for their sake to agonies 
that no white man could endure. A rich man con- 
demned to death can generally purchase a substi- 
tute, can find a poverty-stricken wretch willing to 
die in his stead for a sum of money that will place 
his starving relatives in comparative affluence. 

All this the poor Chinaman will do for those he 
loves. How many white men would do the same ? 
But why should he die for his country ? he asks. 
Why sacrifice himself and those near and dear to 
him for the honour of a shadowy Emperor? Why 
should he lay down his life that the officials who 
oppress the poor and wrest his hard-earned money 
from him may flourish unmolested ? He is told that 
the Japanese, yellow men like himself, have invaded 



282 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

the land and defeated the Imperial troops. Well, 
the enemies are thousands of miles away from him, 
and the soldiers are paid to fight. What is it to 
him that strangers have seized upon some seaport, 
the name of which he has never heard before ? Let 
those whom it concerns go out and fight them. His 
duty is to stay at home and till the ground that his 
family may not lack food. 

A few of the more enlightened Chinamen of the 
upper classes, those who have lived abroad in 
Europe or America, in Australia, Hong Kong, and 
the Straits Settlements, or who have been educated 
in European colleges, may be inspired with the 
love of country as we understand it. But have the 
leaders of the nation, the nobles and the mandarins, 
ever been ready to sacrifice themselves for China ? 
They batten on its misfortunes. The higher in 
rank they are the readier they prove themselves to 
intrigue with its enemies and sell their country for 
foreign gold. They drive the common folk to battle 
and stay at home themselves. The generals and 
the officers, with few exceptions, are never found 
in front of their troops in action, unless when a 
retirement is ordered. Occasionally isolated cases 
occur when a defeated commander commits suicide. 
But it is generally because he prefers an easy death 
by his own hand to the degradation and tortures 
that await the vanquished general. 

To prate of the patriotism of the Chinese is as 
though one spoke of the "patriotism of India." 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 283 

Still, the latter is a favourite phrase of some of our 
ignorant politicians who pose as the champions of 
"the down-trodden black brother." They talk of 
India being made self-governing and wish to fill its 
Civil Service with " enlightened natives." They fail 
to see why a Calcutta Babu or a Bombay Parsee, 
who boasts a university degree and has passed a 
brilliant examination, should not be set to rule over 
a Punjaub district or to deal with the unruly Pathans 
on the frontier. They do not realise that English- 
men would sooner submit to be governed by the 
knout of a Russian official than the haughty Sikh or 
fierce Pathan would endure the sway of men they 
regard as lower than dogs. Our Indian Empire is 
composed of a hundred warring nations, all different 
in speech, in blood, almost in religions. We, the 
dominant race, hold them all in the Pax Britannica, 
and keep them from each other's throats. 

In like manner few realise that China is not a 
united and homogeneous nation. It consists of 
many provinces, the inhabitants of which belong 
practically to different races and speak in different 
tongues. They have little intercourse or sympathy 
with each other. Inter- village wars are almost as 
frequent as among Pathans. Rebellions are common 
occurrences. The Mohammedans hold themselves 
aloof and regard the other Chinese with little love. 
The written language is the same throughout China; 
but the man of Canton cannot speak with the in- 
habitant of Pekin or the coolie from Amoy. Occa- 



284 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

sionally the curious sight may be seen of two 
Chinamen from different provinces holding converse 
with each other in pidgin-English, the only medium 
of intercourse intelligible to both. 

In the outbreak of 1900 the Boxers and the 
Pekinese showed themselves almost as hostile to 
the Cantonese trading or residing in the north as 
they were to Europeans. They considered that 
the southern city's long intercourse with the white 
man must have rendered its inhabitants favourable 
to foreigners ; though, indeed, this is very far from 
the truth. 

So the Chinaman can have no patriotism. To 
any but the most enlightened or the mandarins 
from more sordid motives it is a matter of com- 
parative indifference who rules the Empire. Pro- 
vided that he is allowed to live in peace, that taxes 
do not weigh upon him too heavily or his religion 
be not interfered with, the peasant cares not who 
reigns in Pekin. Justice he does not ask for ; he 
is too unused to it. All that he demands is that 
he be not too utterly ground down by oppression. 
Patient and long-suffering, he revolts only against 
the grossest injustice. Not until maddened by 
famine or unable to wring a bare living from the 
ground does he rise to protest against the unjust 
officials, whose exactions have kept him poor. If 
he once realised the fairness of European rule, 
he would live content under any banner, happy 
in being allowed to exist in undisturbed possession 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 285 

of the fruit of his toil. The Chinamen in our 
possessions in the East are satisfied and happy 
under the mild law of England. Large numbers 
of them make their home there, content to live 
and die under a foreign government, and ask only 
that their corpses may be conveyed back to China 
to be interred in its sacred soil. 

The average Celestial in his own land feels no 
pride or interest in the glory of his country. In 
its government he has no voice. Of its history, 
its achievements in the past, he is ignorant. He 
is content with it because it is the only one he 
knows and so must be the best. Of other lands 
beyond its confines he has dimly heard. But their 
inhabitants are mere barbarians. Those of them 
who have intruded themselves into his country are 
uncivilised according to his standard. They worship 
false gods ; their manners are laughable. All they 
do is at variance with his customs, and so must 
be wrong. They cannot read his books and know 
nothing of the maxims of Confucius. So they 
must be illiterate as well as irreligious. Yet these 
strange beings are content with themselves, and 
scorn his ways ! This proves their ignorance and 
their conceit. How can they boast, he asks, of the 
superiority of their own countries when they cannot 
stay there and, in face of contempt and hostility, 
seek to force their way into his ? And as their 
coming means interference with customs hallowed 
by age and the uprooting of his dearest prejudices, 



286 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

he resents it. They strive to introduce innovations 
which he can very well do without. What sufficed 
for his father and his father's father is good enough 
for him. The barbarians come only to disturb. 
They wish to defile the graves of his worshipped 
ancestors by constructing railways over the soil 
in which their bones rest. The shrieks of the 
chained devils in their engines disturb the Feng 
Skui, the tutelary deities of his fields, and hence 
follow drought and famine. And that these 
accursed, unneeded iron highways may be con- 
structed, he is forced to sell the land which has 
been in the possession of his family for generations. 
The price for it passes through the hands of the 
mandarins and officials, and so but little reaches 
him. Has he not heard that to secure the safety 
of their bridges little children are kidnapped and 
buried under their foundations ? Out upon the 
accursed intruders ! China has flourished through 
countless ages without their aid, and wants them 
not. 

And so, in a measure, hatred of foreigners sup- 
plies the place of patriotism. It binds all classes 
together. The ruling clique dread them for the 
reforms they seek to introduce ; for these would 
overthrow the frail structure of oligarchical govern- 
ment in Pekin and hurl the privileged class from 
power. The mandarins tremble at their interference 
with the widespread corruption and unjust taxation 
on which the officials now batten. The educated 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 287 

hate them for their triumphs over China in the past, 
their continual territorial aggression, and their con- 
stant menace to the integrity of China. The fanatical 
hatred of the white man exhibited by the lower 
classes is the result of the blindest ignorance. It is 
stirred into mad rage by the exhortations of the 
priests, who naturally resent with true clerical bigotry 
the introduction of other creeds. The zealous but 
too often misdirected efforts of the missionaries, who 
tactlessly trample on his dearest beliefs, rouse the 
Chinaman to excesses against the strangers who 
seem to have intruded themselves upon him only to 
insult all that he holds most sacred. Every mis- 
fortune, whether it be drought and subsequent 
famine or devastating floods, storm or pestilence, 
is ascribed to the anger of the gods, irritated at the 
presence of the unbelievers. If the crops fail or 
small-pox desolates a village, the eyes of the frenzied 
peasants turn to the nearest mission house where 
live the accursed strangers whose false teachings 
have aroused the anger of the immortals. Urged 
on by the priests and mandarins, they fall upon it 
and slay its inmates. But retribution comes swiftly. 
Their own Government are forced by dread of 
foreign interference to punish the misguided wretches 
who have, as they consider, wreaked only a just re- 
venge. The officials are degraded. Heads fall and 
houses are razed to the ground. The Imperial 
troops quarter themselves on the luckless villagers 
who pay dearly in blood and silver for the harm 



288 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

they have wrought in their madness. And a sullen 
hatred of the white man spreads through all classes 
and bears bitter fruit in subsequent graver out- 
breaks. 

Can we justly blame them ? Would we act 
differently in their place ? What if the cases were 
reversed ? Suppose England to be a weak and 
backward country and China wealthy and power- 
ful, with a great navy and a large army. Her 
merchants are enterprising and seek to push their 
trade into other countries, even against the wish of 
the inhabitants. Chinese vessels force their way up 
the Thames and sell the cargoes they carry to our 
merchants in defiance of the laws we have passed 
against the importation of foreign commodities. 
Refusing to leave, they are fired upon. Chinese 
missionaries make their way into England and 
preach ancestor-worship and the tenets of Buddha 
in the East End of London. The scum of White- 
chapel mob them as the Salvation Army has often 
been mobbed. A missionary or two is killed. The 
Chinese Government seeks revenge. A strong 
fleet is sent to bombard the towns along the South 
Coast. Bristol is seized. A demand is made that 
the Isle of Wight should be ceded in reparation 
for the insult to the Dragon flag. We are forced 
to surrender it. A Chinese town grows up on it ; 
and the merchants in it insist that their goods 
should have the preference over home-made articles. 
The Chinese Government demands that tea from 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 289 

the Celestial Kingdom should be admitted duty free 
and a tax put upon Indian growths. A criminal or 
an anarchist, fleeing from justice, takes refuge on a 
small Chinese ship, which is boarded and the fugi- 
tive seized. We are only an ignorant people, and 
do not understand the Law of Nations. We are 
soon instructed. Again China sends a fleet ; a 
force is landed and Liverpool captured. To re- 
deem it we must pay a large ransom. To obtain 
peace we are obliged to grant the Chinese settle- 
ments in Liverpool, Bristol, and Southampton. 
This inspires other Asiatic Powers Corea, Kams- 
chatka, and Siam, which we will imagine to be as 
progressive and powerful as our supposititious China 
to demand equal privileges and an occasional 
slice of territory. Kent, Hampshire, and Norfolk 
pass into their hands. 

Buddhist and Taoist missionaries now flood the 
land. The common people regard them with fear 
and hatred. The clergy of the Church of England 
preach against them. The ignorant peasantry and 
the lowest classes in the towns at last rise and expel 
them. A few of them are killed in the process. 
The flame spreads. The settlements of the hated 
intruders are everywhere assailed. The Asiatic 
Embassies in London are attacked by the mob. 
Our Government, secretly sympathising with the 
popular feeling, are powerless to defend them. 
Even if they wished to do so, the soldiers would 
refuse to fire on the rioters. 



290 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

Then the Allied nations of Eastern Asia band 
together ; a great army invades our unhappy 
country. A dire revenge is taken for the out- 
rages on the missionaries and the attacks on the 
Embassies. Middlesex is laid waste with fire and 
sword ; neither age nor sex is spared. The brutal 
Kamschatkans slay the children and violate the 
women. London is captured and looted. The flags 
of China, Corea, Kamschatka, and Siam fly from 
the roofs of Buckingham Palace ; Marlborough 
House shelters the invaders ; Windsor Castle is 
occupied by a garrison of the Allied troops. Flying 
columns march through the land, pillaging and 
burning as they go ; the South of England is 
occupied by the enemy. Before the Allied nations 
evacuate the devastated land a crushing war 
indemnity is laid upon us. 

Would we love the yellow strangers then ? 
True, we are backward and unprogressive. They 
are civilised and enlightened ; and even against our 
will our country must be advanced. Still, I fear 
that we should be ungrateful enough to resent their 
kind efforts to improve us and persist in regarding 
them as unwelcome intruders. 

All this that I have imagined as befalling 
England has happened to China. For similar 
causes Canton was bombarded and captured. The 
treaty ports were forced to welcome foreign trade. 
Hong Kong, Tonkin, Kiau-chau, Port Arthur, all 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 291 

have been torn from China. Fire and sword have 
laid waste the province of Chi-li. Death to the 
men and disgrace to the women have been un- 
sparingly dealt. Can we wonder that the Chinese 
do not love the foreigner ? 

Our missionaries go forth to earn the crown of 
martyrdom. But if they gain it their societies 
demand vengeance in blood and coin from the 
murderers. The Gospel of Love becomes the 
Doctrine of Revenge. "Forgive your enemies!" 
O ye saintly missionaries who are so shocked at the 
ungodly lives of your sinful fellow-countrymen in 
foreign lands, will you not practise what you 
preach ? Think of the divine precept of the Master 
you profess to serve and pardon the blind rage 
of the ignorant heathen ! 

So much for the China of the present. What of 
the future ? She is now fettered by the shackles 
of blind ignorance, by the prejudices and retrogres- 
sive spirit of the tyrannical Manchu oligarchy who 
rule the land. Her strength is sapped by the poison 
of corruption. The officials, almost to a man, are 
mercenary and self-seeking. Extortion and dis- 
honesty are found in every class. Suppose a tax 
is laid upon a certain province. The Viceroy orders 
the mandarins to collect it from their districts. 
They send forth their myrmidons to wring it from 
the people, by threats and torture if need be. 
Enough must be raised to satisfy the many vultures 



THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

through whose claws it will pass before it reaches 
Pekin. Twice, three times the amount of the sum 
asked for originally must be gathered from the 
unfortunate taxpayers, in order that each official 
through whose hands it goes on its way to the 
Imperial Treasury may have his share of the spoil. 
And how is all the money raised in the vast Empire 
spent? Not on the needs of the land, certainly. 
Few roads or bridges exist. They have mostly 
been constructed by charity. The railways and 
there are not many were built by foreign capital. 

Is there no hope for China ? Must she remain 
for ever the spoil of the strong ? Or will she one 
day recognise the secret of her weakness, reform 
and become a power too formidable to be lightly 
offended ? She has an example always before her 
eyes. Forty years ago Japan was as ignorant and 
prejudiced. Foreigners were hated ; the country was 
closed to them. The Mikado was then as power- 
less as the Emperor of China is now. The spear 
and the sword were the weapons which the soldiers 
of Japan opposed to the cannons and rifles of the 
Europeans. Foreign fleets bombarded the coast- 
towns and wrung concessions from the rulers of the 
helpless land. The country was divided between 
powerful chieftains of warlike clans. 

Yet at one stroke of a magic wand all was 
changed. Japan now ranks among the Great 
Powers of the world. Her army commands respect 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 293 

and fear ; on war-footing it numbers over half a 
million and the Japanese have always been gallant 
soldiers. Her navy is as modern and well-equipped 
as any afloat. The resources of the country have 
been developed. A network of railways covers the 
land ; telegraphs and telephones link the important 
towns. Her manufacturers compete with Europe in 
every market in Asia. Her merchant ships are all 
but built in her own dockyards. The fleets of her 
steamship companies, such as the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha, would not discredit Liverpool or New 
York. Lines of splendid passenger steamers, some 
of them over 6,000 tons, run to Europe, America, 
and Australia. Smaller lines keep up communica- 
tion between Japan and the coasts of Siberia, 
Corea, and China. Education is widespread ; uni- 
versities and schools abound. Manufactures are 
encouraged by a liberal policy. The forest of 
factory chimneys in Osaka gives that town the 
semblance of Birmingham as one approaches it in 
the train. The water-power universal throughout 
the islands is utilised freely. Electric light is found 
in almost every city in the empire. It is installed 
in even the smaller private houses. Automatic 
public telephone kiosks dot the streets of the 
capital. In provincial towns like Nagoya electric 
trams run. 

All that Japan has become, China may yet be. 
Nay, more. The former is poor, her territory small, 



294 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

the greater part of the country encumbered with 
unprofitable mountains. The undeveloped wealth 
of the latter is enormous. Gold, silver, copper, iron, 
and coal are all found. Vast stretches of forest 
cover the interior. The soil is incredibly fertile ; 
and her people are naturally intelligent. The 
Chinese in Hong .Kong and elsewhere, as mer- 
chants, as shipowners, as professional men, prove 
it. The schools and colleges of our island colony 
are filled with the clever, almond-eyed students. 
In the Straits Settlements, as in Hong Kong, they 
compete with the Europeans in commerce and vie 
with them in wealth. All that he is in other 
countries the Chinaman can become in his own 
under the liberal rule of an enlightened Govern- 
ment. The foreigners who trade with the Chinese 
say that the latter are far more trustworthy in 
business than many a white man. The Chinese 
merchant's word is his bond. The Japanese are 
not so reliable ; and their artisans are by no means 
as industrious as their Celestial neighbours. The 
latter, under no compulsion, will toil day and night 
to complete some work by the time they have 
agreed to finish it. 

The Chinese soldier is regarded with universal 
contempt. His achievements in the past, when 
pitted against European troops, have not exalted 
his name. But in 1900 he first showed what splen- 
did material he is. With the passive courage of 
fatalism, incomprehensible to more highly strung 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 295 

races, the Chinaman will face death without a 
struggle. When roused by fanaticism he will fight 
blindly to the end ; but in cold blood he has no 
ambition for military glory. When led to battle 
for a cause of which he knows or cares nothing, he 
is ready to save his life by a timely flight with no 
feelings of shame or self-reproach. He has never 
been taught otherwise. In China moral suasion or 
deceit are looked upon as more glorious weapons 
than sword or gun. 

But if he were well disciplined and led to under- 
stand the meaning of esprit de corps> well treated 
and well led, he would prove no contemptible 
soldier. The Boxers who with knives and spears 
charged up to within fifty yards of Seymour's well- 
armed men and faced the withering fire of magazine 
rifles with frenzied courage ; the Imperial troops 
who harassed his brave column day and night ; 
the students who fought their guns to the last 
when the Tientsin Military College was taken by 
the Allies were these cowards ? 

What the Chinaman can be made to do with 
proper leading may be seen in the behaviour of our 
Chinese Regiment, little more than a year raised, all 
through the campaign of 1900. When the British, 
American, and Russian stormers had captured the 
Peiyang Arsenal, on June 27th, an attempt to cut 
them off from Tientsin was made by a large body 
of Imperial troops and Boxers who tried to get 
between them and the river, across which they had 



296 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

to pass on their return. Lieutenant-Colonel Bower, 
intrepid explorer and gallant soldier, led out his 
Chinese Regiment and drove off the enemy. The 
conduct of the men under fire was excellent. 

It is absurd to suppose that the Chinaman cannot 
learn the art of modern warfare. The example of 
the Imperial troops who attacked Seymour and 
besieged Tientsin amply proves this statement. 
They took advantage of cover with cleverness 
and knowledge. They used their magazine rifles 
with accuracy and effect. Their gunners were ex- 
cellently trained. Their shooting was so good that 
at first it was falsely supposed that the guns were 
served by renegade Europeans. The arms with 
which they were equipped were excellent. The 
troops were well supplied with quick-firing Krupps 
and magazine rifles. That they could use these 
weapons was proved by the heavy losses among 
the Allied sailors and soldiers in the early part of 
the campaign. 

The Chinese offered so little resistance to the 
Allies on the march to Pekin, the war collapsed so 
suddenly on the fall of the capital, that scant justice 
has been done to the courage displayed on both 
sides during the heavy fighting with Seymour's 
column and around Tientsin. The losses among 
the Europeans show how desperate it was. Admiral 
Seymour's column, out of less than 2,000 men, 
lost 295 killed and wounded in sixteen days. The 
casualties among the British contingent of 900 blue- 



CHINA PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE 297 

jackets and marines, amounted to 27 killed and 97 
wounded. The Americans out of 120 men lost 4 
killed and 25 wounded. The stormers of the Taku 
forts also lost heavily. 

In the beginning of the attack on the Peiyang 
Arsenal by the Russians, they lost over 200 men 
and had to send for help to the Americans and the 
British. 

In the Boxer night attack on Tientsin railway 
station in July, the British, French, and Japanese 
defending it had 150 casualties. 

Out of a total of 5,000 men engaged in the 
taking of Tientsin native city on July I3th and 
1 4th, the Allies lost nearly 800 men. 

The Egyptian fellah was once considered to be 
utterly hopeless as a fighting- man. But British 
officers nursed him, strengthened his moral fibre, 
and then led him into battle. Witness his behaviour 
at the Atbara and at Omdurman. The army that 
the genius of Lord Kitchener had moulded so skil- 
fully proved invincible ; and the fellah did his fair 
share of the fighting. 

The Chinaman in natural courage, in physique, 
and in stamina is far superior to the Egyptian. 
Why should he not become a more formidable 
fighting-man ? Think what the Celestial Empire 
could do if its soldiers were properly armed, trained, 
and led ; if the spirit of self-respect were instilled 
into them and their natural passive courage fanned 
into active bravery ! Think of a warlike army 

V 2 



298 THE LAND OF THE BOXERS 

recruited from a population of 400,000,000 ; and at 
its back a reformed China, its resources developed, 
its immense wealth properly utilised, its people free 
and filled with patriotic pride ! 

What Japan has accomplished, China, once her 
leader and her conqueror, may yet achieve. And 
signs of the Great Awakening are at hand ! 



INDEX 



Aberdeen, 181 

Admiral Ho, 201, 214, 215 

Admiral Seymour at the siege of 
Tientsin, 24 ; his advance on 
Pekin, 30 

Affleck-Scott, Mr., 216 

Ah Ting, Naval Dairy Farm, 4 

Alarm in Hong Kong, 204 

Alarm in Macao, 242 

Allied Armies, men and methods 
of, 34 

Allied Commissioners in Canton, 
259 

Allied Fleet at Taku, 8 

American Army, Continental criti- 
cism, 51 ; excellence of the men, 
51 ; elastic discipline, 51 ; cour- 
age of, 52 ; gallantry at Tientsin, 
53 ; comradeship with British 
troops, 53 ; contempt for Con- 
tinentals, 53 ; discomfiture of 
British subaltern, 54 

Army, American, 50; Chinese in 
the past, 280 ; of the future, 
298 ; Dutch, 54 ; French, 42 ; 
German, 34 ; Indian, 55 ; Japan- 
ese, 47 ; Russian, 44 ; Italian, 54 

Arrest, in Japan, 252 ; in Macao, 
246 ; of an English colonel in 
Macao, 251 

Arrow, incident of the, 258 

Astor House Hotel, Tientsin, 22 

Barracoons in Macao, 255 
Barrett, Lieut, Hong Kong Regi- 
ment, 199 



Bathing parties in Hong Kong, 
191 

Bayly, Captain, R.N., gallantry at 
Tientsin, 45 

Belcher's Fort, 176 

Belgian Legation in Pekin, 78, 80 

Bella Vista, Macao, 240 

Bengal Lancers, ist, 59 

Bersagliere, 54, 176 

Bikanir, H.H. the Maharajah of, 
1 80 

Black Flags, 204 

Boa Vista Hotel, 238 

Boer Campaign, lessons of, 34 ; 
foreign ignorance respecting, 41 

Bogue Forts, 277 

Bombay Light Cavalry, 3rd, 60 ; 
a sowar's opinion of the Rus- 
sians, 164 

Bombay Infantry, 22nd, 200, 204, 
208, 229 

Bombay Pioneers, 28th, 57 

Bower, Lieut.-Col., Chinese Regi- 
ment, 296 

Boxers, night attack on Tientsin 
station, 15 ; courage of, 24, 295 ; 
losses, 25 ; hostility to Canton- 
ese traders, 284 

Brigands, 136 

Bridge of boats at Tientsin, 19 

Bridge, marble, at Summer Palace, 
127 

Bronze Pagoda, 130 

Bronzes in Forbidden City, 90, 93 

Browning, Major, 48, 135, 168 

Buddha, images of, 109 



299 



300 



INDEX 



Buddhist monks, 1 08 
Buddhist temple, 107 
Burke, Lieut, 22nd Bombay In- 
fantry, 208, 229 

Cable tramway to the Peak, 181 
Camoens, Gardens of, 254 

Cangue, punishment of the, 269 

Can ton, history of intercourse with 
foreigners, 257 ; food supplier to 
Hong Kong, 171 ; projected rail- 
way to, 171, 196 ; turbulence, 
204 ; reformers in, 206 ; land and 
riverapproach,278 ; description, 
261 ; population, 263 ; its streets, 
264 ; its shops, 265 ; prison, 269 ; 
its trade, 275 ; its importance to 
English commerce, 275 ; an 
attack on,277 ; energy of French 
consuls in, 276 

Cap-sui-Moon Pass, 209 

Carvalhaes, Senhor, A.D.C. to 
Governor of Macao, 244, 250, 
251 

Casserly, Lieut., 208 

Cathedral, Roman Catholic, in 
Pekin, 95 ; its siege, 97 ; at 
Canton, 263 ; San Paulo at 
Macao, 254 

Cavalry, French, 43 ; Japanese, 47 ; 
Indian, 59 ; in Hong Kong, 200 

Cemetery at Wei-hai-wei, 4; 
Macao, 245 

Centre of the Universe, 70 

Cession of the Kowloon Hinter- 
land, 197 

Chasseurs d'Afrique, 43, 66 

Chifu, 6 

China an easy prize, 280 ; her 
sufferings in the past from 
foreigners, 290 ; of the present- 
291 ; of the future, 293 

Chinese Army of the past, 280 ; 



want of patriotism, 281 ; family 
love, 281; Mohammedans, 283 ; 
difference in languages, 283 ; 
dislike to foreigners, 286 ; extor- 
tion of mandarins, 291 ; as 
merchants abroad, 294 ; trade 
honesty of, 294 ; splendid ma- 
terial for soldiers, 296 ; in modern 
warfare, 296 ; soldiers in the 
South, 227 ; in the North, 228 ; 
examinations, 273 
Chinese Arsenal at Tientsin, 15 ; 

guns made at, 217 
Chinese Regiment, guard at Wei- 
hai-wei, 7 ; barracks, 6 ; be- 
haviour in action, 295, 296 
Chinese workmen, 97 
Chong Wong Foo, 83 
City Hall, Hong Kong, 176 
Clocks in Emperor's palace, 91 
Club, Hong Kong, 176 ; Tientsin, 
20 ; German at Tientsin, 22 ; 
English Tennis at Macao, 244 ; 
Portuguese Naval Tennis Club, 
Macao, 251 ; Military Club, 
Macao, 241 

Cloisonn^ in Pekin, its manu- 
facture, in 
Coal Hill, Pekin, 74 
Cockroaches as an article of diet, 

224 

Concessions, European, in Tient- 
sin, 17 ; in Canton, 259, 274 
Confucius, Temple of, 1 1 1 
Consulate, British, at Tientsin, 20; 

foreign, at Canton, 274 
Coolie Corps, 10 
Cossacks at play, 163 
CustomSjImperial Chinese, station 
on Mah Wan, 209 ; at Samchun, 
212 ; officers of, 217 
Curzon, Lord, Problems of the 
Far East, 69. 



INDEX 



301 



Dagoes, 53 

Daibutsu at Kamakura and Hiogo, 

109 

Death of a thousand cuts, 271 
De Boulay, Major, R.A., 121 
Deep Bay, 196, 210 
Development of Japan, 293 
Dobell, Major, D.S.O., Royal Welch 

Fusiliers, 85 
Docks, Kowloon, 187 
Dockyard, Royal Naval, at Wei- 
hai-wei, 4 ; at Hong Kong, 178 
Dorward, General, his eulogy of 

American troops, 52 
Dowager-Empress, her pavilion 
in the Forbidden City, 92 ; palace 
in Pekin, 74 ; Summer Palace, 
115; seizure of the Emperor, 
115; supposed plan to entrap 
the Allies, 206 

Dragon Gate in Canton, 274 
Drummond, Mr. Ivor, C.I.C., 31 
Dutch Expeditionary Force, 54 ; 
their envy of the Portuguese 
colonies in the past attempt 
on Macao, 232 

East India Company in Canton, 
258 

Efficiency of British officers of 
the Indian Army, 57 ; of the 
Japanese Intelligence Depart- 
ment, 49 

Egyptian fellah compared to the 
Chinaman, 297 

Elderton,Commander,D.s.o.,good 
work at Taku, 8 

Embroidery in Canton, 268 

Emperor, his powerlessness, 64 ; 
his palace, 89 ; throne room, 
89; harem, 90; private apart- 
ments, 91 [17 

English Concession at Tientsin, 



English Legation at Pekin, 78 
English officers, friendship with 
the Americans, 21 ; linguists in 
China, 19; supposed ungracious- 
ness of manners, 81 ; plain cam- 
paigning dress, 27 
Examinations, Chinese system of, 

273 

Examination Hall in Canton, 273 
Examiners, Chinese, at Canton, 

274 
Executions at Tientsin, 28 ; in 

Canton, 271 
Extortion of mandarins, 291 

Fair, Lieut., R.N., Flag-Lieutenant 
to Admiral Seymour, 24 

Family love of the Chinese, 281 

Fans, 1 06 

Fan-tan in Samchun, 225 ; in 
Macao, 253 

Fares from Hong Kong to Canton 
and Macao, 235 

Favrier, Archbishop, defends the 
Peitan gallantly, 95 ; captures 
a Chinese gun, 96 ; introduction 
to him, 99 , 

Ferreira Amaral, Governor of 
Macao, refuses to pay tribute 
to the Chinese, 232 

Fighting races of India, 56 

Fireworks, Chinese, 219 

Flags of Chinese troops in Sam- 
chun, 215, 227 

Floating population of Canton, 
260 ; of Hong Kong, 185 

Flora, Governor's summer resi- 
dence, 240 

Flowery Forest Monastery, 269 

Forbidden City, 73, 86 

French Army, 42 ; intimacy be- 
tween French and German sol- 
diers in Tientsin, 40 ; Infanterie 



302 



INDEX 



Coloniale, 42 ; infantry, 43 ; 
officers, 43 ; method of main- 
taining discipline, 43 ; training 
and organisation, 44 ; Zouaves 
and Chasseurs d'Afrique, 43 
French colonial party, suspected 
designs on Macao, 233 ; on 
Canton, 275 

French post-office in Canton, 276 
Frontier Field Force, 208 
Frontier of the Kowloon Hinter- 
land, 196 

Fusiliers, Royal Welch, attack on 
a patrol, 23 ; in the Hinterland, 
198 ; Hong Kong garrison, 200 

Garrison of Hong Kong, 199 ; 
of Macao, 241 

Gascoigne, Major-General Sir W., 
199 

Gaselee, General Sir A., K.C.B., 
204 

German Army, 34 ; adherence to 
close formations and antiquated 
tactics, 35 ; campaigning dress 
in China, 39 ; failure of trans- 
port, 39 ; soldiers, 40 ; their 
friendship with the French, 40; 
officers of, 37 

German Club at Tientsin, 22 

German Imperial Navy, 40; mer- 
cantile marine, 40 

Gordon Hall, Tientsin, 22, 28 

Gough, Sir Hugh, attacks Canton, 
258 

Government of Macao, 241 

Governor of Macao, 244 

Grant-Smith, Mr. Ivan, 245, 252 

Gray, Captain, 4th P. I., 167 

Green Island, 173 

Gunboats, allied, at Taku, 9, 10 ; 
at Canton, 274 ; British fired 
at, 276 



Gurkhas,friendship with Japanese, 
50, 1 66 ; ingratitude of foreign 
troops sheltered by them, 166 ; 
officers at Shanhaikwan, 138 

Hall, Examination at, Canton, 273 
Hall of Five Hundred Genii, 269 
Hall of Ten Thousand Ages, 123 
Happy Valley, 179 
Hardy, Rev. Mr., i 
Harem, Emperor's, in Pekin, 90 
Ha-ta-man Street, 102 ; Gate, 77 
Hatherell, Captain, 22nd Bombay 

Infantry, 208, 229 
Heaven, Temple of, 67 
Heungshan, s.s., 235 
Heung Shan, Island of, 233 
Hinterland, Kowloon, 194 ; char- 
acter and description of, 195 ; 
projected railway through, 196 ; 
cession, 196 ; advantages to 
Hong Kong, 1 98 ; column guard- 
ing it, 202 ; want of maps of, 
216 ; British police in, 198 
Honam, Cantonese suburb of, 260, 

263 

Hong Kong, importance as a 
naval and military base, 167 ; 
harbour, 184 ; menace of fam- 
ine, 170 ; commercial import- 
ance, 171 ; geography, 172 ; de- 
scription, 174-184; Club, 177; 
climate, 184 ; society in, 190 ; 
value of dollar, 235 
Hong Kong Regiment, bravery at 
Tientsin, 15 ; barracks, 187 ; 
disbanded, 187 
Hong Kong, Canton to Macao 

Steamboat Co., 234 
Hong Kong and Singapore Artil- 
lery, 199 

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, 
ruins in Pekin, 71 ; building in 
Hong Kong, 176 



INDEX 



303 



Hong Kong Volunteers, 188, 199 
Horrors, Temple of, 272 
Hotel du Nord, Pekin, 71 
Hsi-ku Arsenal, 30 
Hsin-ho, British landing-place at, 

10 
Hutchinson, Lieut., R.N.R., 25, 135 

Imperial apartments, 91 

Imperial Maritime Customs, Chin- 
ese, gunboat, 210 ; officers, 217 ; 
station at Samchun, 212 

Imperial troops, Chinese, 24, 296 

Indian Army, 5 5 ; fighting races of, 
56 ; Lord Roberts chiefly respon- 
sible for its efficiency, 57 ; its 
British officers, 57 ; organisation 
of a regiment, 58 ; foreign criti- 
cisms, 59 ; Russian opinion of, 
1 56 ; cavalry, 59 ; infantry, 60 ; 
impossibility of another Mutiny> 
62 ; loyalty of the sepoy, 63 

India as a training -ground for 
troops, 6 1 

Indian Expeditionary Force, 33, 55 

Indian Commissariat at Wei-hai- 
wei, 5 ; at Hong Kong, 178 

Indian Marine, Royal, officers of, 
12 

Infanterie Coloniale, 42 

Infantry, excellence of Japanese, 
48 ; Indian, foreign criticisms 
of, 60 ; composition of a native 
regiment of, 58 

Intelligence Department, Japan- 
ese, 49 

Italian Expeditionary Force, 54 

Ivory carving in Canton, 266 

Japan in the past, 292 ; its modern 
development, 293 ; arrests in, 
252 

Japanese Army captures Wei-hai- 



wei,3 ; transport, 47 ; campaign- 
ing dress, 47 ; cavalry, 47 ; in- 
fantry, 48 ; infantry in action, 
48 ; organisation, 49 ; Intelli- 
gence Department, 49 ; officers 
as intelligence agents in Pekin, 
49 ; excellent discipline, 49 ; 
courage and moderation, 50 ; 
friendship for Indian troops, 50, 
165 
Japanese Fleet, arrival at Shan- 

haikwan, 149 

Johnstone, Major, R.M.L.I., 30 
Junks, marble junk, 127 ; junks 
in Hong Kong harbour, 210 ; 
war junks, 211 

Kell, Lieut., S. Stafford Regt., 144 
Kettler, murder of Baron, 83 ; 

monument, 83 
Kettlewell, Major, commands 

Frontier Field Force, 208 
Kipling, Rudyard, his description 

of Canton, 256 
Kowloon, 174, 1 86 ; docks, 187 ; 

society, 193 

Kowloon, Chinese city of, 186, 188 
Kowloon Peninsula, 172, 183, 194 
Kowloon Hinterland, see Hinter- 
land. [207 
Kwang-tung, 194 ; rebellion in, 

Labertouche, Captain, 22nd Bom- 
bay Infantry, 146 

Ladies' Recreation Ground, Hong 
Kong, 184 

Lama Temple, Great, Pekin, 107 

Lampacao, Portuguese settlement 
on, 231 

Language, difference in Chinese 
languages in various provinces, 
283; polyglot, 20 ; British officers 
as interpreters, 19 



304 



INDEX 



Lantau, Island of, 183 
Legation Street, Pekin, 70, 80 
Legations, Pekin, 78 ; defence of, 

78 ; visit to English Legation, 

79 ; guard, 79 ; new defensive 
wall, 107 

Li Hung Chang, 128, 204 
Ling-chi, torture of, 271 
Liscum, Colonel, U.S. Army, his 

death, 53 

Liu-kung-tao, Island of, 3 
Losses of Allies at Tientsin, 296, 

297 
Lo-u, 216 

Macao, 231 ; its past history, 231; 
its present decay, 232 ; danger 
to Hong Kong, 233; passage 
to, 236 ; description, 237-40 ; 
public gardens, 240 ; govern- 
ment, 241 ; society, 243 ; affair 
with police, 245 ; gambling 
houses, 253 ; sights, 254 

Madrassis, decay of, 56 

Madras Sappers and Miners, 56 

Madras Light Infantry, 3rd, 200, 
204, 208 

Mandarins at Samchun, 222 ; 
corruption of Chinese, 228 ; 
extortion, 291 

Manchuria, Russian soldiers in, 

45 

Map of Kowloon Hinterland, 216 
Marble junk, 127 
Marble bridge at Summer Palace, 

127 

Marco Polo, 269 
Melville, Lieut., 22nd Bombay 

Infantry, 208 
Mikado, 292 

Military Club, Macao, 241 
Military College, Tientsin, 295 
Moji, 253 



Monte Carlo of the East, 232 
Moon, Temple of, 70 
Mosquitoes, 141 
Mount Austen Hotel, 182 
Mounted Infantry in Tientsin, 26 ; 

usefulness in Hong Kong, 200 
Mud of Pekin, 82 
Mutiny in Macao, 242 
Mutiny, impossibility of another 

Indian, 62 

Nagoya, electric cars in, 293 
Naval Dockyard at Wei-hai-wei, 

4 ; at Hong Kong, 178 
Navy, German, 40 
Newchwang, Russian church 

parade in, 45 ; railway to, 133 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 293 

Ogilvie, Lieut., R.A., 208 
Old Kowloon City, 186, 188 
Osaka, 293 

Outrages on foreigners in China, 
287 

Pagoda, bronze, 130 

Patriotism, want of, 281 ; of India, 
282 

Peak in Hong Kong, 175, 181, 183 

Pearl River, 236, 261 

Peddlers in Pekin, 102 ; in Can- 
ton, 261 

Peiho River, 9, 19 

Peitan,Roman Catholic Cathedral, 

95 5 sie & e > 97 
Peiyang Arsenal, taking of, 219, 

295 ; Russian losses at, 297 
Pekin, journey to, 65 ; station, 66 ; 

description, 71 ; walls of, 72 ; 

Tartar and Chinese cities, 72 ; 

Tartar city, 72 ; Legations, 78 ; 

mud, 82 ; Allied occupation of, 

83 ; Forbidden City, 87 



INDEX 



305 



Pigmy, H.M.S., takes Shanhai- 
kwan forts, 1-34 

Pioneers, 28th Bombay, 57 

Police of Macao, 241 ; affair with, 
246 

Police of new territory, British, 
213 

Polo ground in Victoria, 180 

Polo in Hong Kong, 180 

Ponies, troublesome Chinese, 116 

Population of Canton, 263 

Port Arthur, reinforcements from, 
46 ; retention of, 1 56 

Portuguese colony of Macao, 231 ; 
tribute to China, 232 ; police, 
246 ; Naval Tennis Club, 251 

Powell, Sir Francis, R.N., 178 

Pottery, 106 

Praia Grande, 238 

Punjaub Infantry, 4th, in action 
with Japanese troops, 48; guard- 
ing the railway, 135 ; under 
Lieut Stirling, D.S.O., 168 

Purple or Forbidden City, 73 

Puzzle-balls, Chinese, 267 

Quarto del Sargento, 248 
Queen's House, Wei-hai-wei, 5 
Queen's Road, Hong Kong, 248 

Railways in North China, 133 ; 

from Tong-ku to Pekin, 13, 65 ; 

to Shanhaikwan, 135 
Railway, projected, to Canton, 196 
Railway Siding incident, 32 
Railway Staff Officers, British, 14 
Reformers in Southern China, 206 
Ringing Rocks at Macao, 255 
Roberts, Lord, 57 
Royal Indian Marine Officers, 12 
Royal Welch Fusiliers, attack on 

patrol, 23 ; in the Hinterland, 

198 ; Hong Kong garrison, 200 



Rudkin, Lieut, 2oth Bombay In- 
fantry, his tact and firmness, 

33 
Rue du General Voyron, Pekin, 

97 

Rundell, Lieut, R.E., 208 

Russian Army, 44 ; troops, 44 ; 
endurance of soldiers, 45 ; piety, 
45 ; courage, 46 ; comradeship 
between officers and men, 47 

Russian Railway Staff Officer at 
Shanhaikwan, 144 

Russians seize railways in North 
China, 133 ; seize rolling stock 
at Shanhaikwan, 146 ; dinner 
party at Shanhaikwan on the 
cliffs, 149 ; a dinner with Rus- 
sian officers, 1 54 ; causes of 
dislike to England, 155 

Samchun, 207, 212, 214 ; visit to, 

221 ; river, 217 
Sampans in Hong Kong, 185 
San Paulo, ruined cathedral of, 

254 

Satow, Sir Ernest, 128 
Saunders, Lieut, R.A., 208 
Sepoys, opinion of foreign con- 
tingents, 6 1, 164 ; loyalty of, 

62 
Seymour, Admiral Sir Edward, 

courage in Tientsin, 24 ; his 

advance on Pekin, 30 
Shameen, 259, 274 
Sharpe, Captain, 3rd Madras 

Light Infantry, 208 
Siberian Army, 45 
Siege of Tientsin, 30 
Siege of the Peitan, 97 
Siege train, disappointment of 

British, 26 
Sikhs, 6 1 
Silks in Pekin, 105 



306 



INDEX 



Shanhaikwan, 138 ; strategic im- 
portance of, 134; railway jour- 
ney to, 135; town of, 146; 
Great Wall of China at, 148 ; 
arrival of Japanese Fleet at, 
149; forts at, 151; Japanese 
and Indians at, 167 

Society in Hong Kong, 190, 192 ; 
Kowloon, 193 ; in Macao, 243 

Spirit Path, 88 

Stanley, abandoned town of, 181 

Stirling, Lieut, D.S.O., 4th Pun- 
jaub Infantry, 168 

Straubenzee, General Sir Charles, 
258 

Streets of Canton, 263 

Streets of Pekin, 75 

Summer Palace, 115 

Sun Yat Sen, 207 



Tai-mo-shan, 183 

Tai-u-shan, 183 

Taku, 8, 9 ; forts, 9 

Taku Road, 23 

Tartar City, 72 

Temple of Heaven, 67 ; Sun, 69 ; 

Moon, 70 ; in Forbidden City, 

90, 93 ; Lama, 107 ; Confucius, 

in; Five Hundred Genii, 269 ; 

of Horrors, 272 
Terrible, H. M.S., at Shanhaikwan, 

155 ; gunners, 25 
Tientsin station, 1 5 ; concessions, 

17; Chinese City, 17; Club, 20; 

siege of, 30 

Tommy Atkins in Tientsin, 27 
Tong-ku, 10, ii ; Allies at, II ; 

station, 134 
Tong-shan, 137 
Tortures, Chinese, 271 
Traders, Chinese as, 294 
Transport officers, 8 



Transport of Germans defective, 
39 ; of Japanese, 47 ; Indian, 

55 

Treaty Ports, 258 
Triad Society, 207, 216 
Tung Chow, 117 

Valley, Happy, 179 

Vasilievski, General, wounded at 

Pekin, 118 

Victoria, Hong Kong, 173 
Victoria Road, Tientsin, 22 
Vladivostock, 156 
Vodki, 154 
Von Waldersee, Count, and our 

Royal Horse Artillery, 68 

Wall, Great, of China, 147 

Walls of Canton, 261 

Walls of Pekin, 72, 76 

Walls of Wei-hai-wei, 5 

Want of patriotism among the 
Chinese, 281 

Water-gate of Tartar City, 78; 
of Canton, 262 

Wei-hai-wei by night, 2 ; by day, 
3 ; Chinese village of, 6 ; taken 
by Japanese, 3 

Welch Fusiliers, Royal, 79, 85, 
198, 200 

West River, 276 

Whittall, Major, Hyderabad Con- 
tingent, 1 8 

Williams, Major, Base Commis- 
sariat Officer, 178 

Woolley, Captain, I.M.S., 208, 220 

Workmen, Chinese, 97 

Yamen, Wei-hai-wei, 4 ; Canton, 
262; Samchun, 221; British 
Consuls in Canton, 259 



INDEX 



307 



Yangtsun, 66 

Yaumati, 186, 209 

Yuan Shi Kai, army of, 229 



Zaire, Portuguese gunboat, 237 ; 

lands sailors, 242 
Zouaves, 43 



H Classified) Catalogue 

OF WORKS IN 

GENERAL LITERATURE 

PUBLISHED BY 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.G. 

91 AND 93 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK, AND 32 HORNBY ROAD, BOMBAY 



CONTENTS. 




PAGE 


PAGE" 


BADMINTON LIBRARY (THE). - 12 


MENTAL, MORAL, AND POLITICAL 




BIOGRAPHY, PERSONAL ME- 


PHILOSOPHY 


If 


MOIRS, &c. g 


MISCELLANEOUS AND CRITICAL 




CHILDREN'S BOOKS - - - 32 


WORKS 


38 


CLASSICAL LITERATURE, TRANS- 
LATIONS, ETC. 1 - 22 


POETRY AND THE DRAMA - 


23 


COOKERY, DOMESTIC MANAGE- 


POLITICAL ECONOMY AND ECO- 




MENT, &c. - - . - 36 


NOMICS 


20 


EVOLUTION, ANTHROPOLOGY, 


POPULAR SCIENCE - 


3 


&c. 21 






FICTION, HUMOUR, &c. - - 25 


RELIGION, THE SCIENCE OF 


21 


FINE ARTS (THE) AND MUSIC - 36 


SILVER LIBRARY (THE) 


33 


FUR, FEATHER AND FIN SERIES 15 


SPORT AND PASTIME - 


12 


T T T cnr/~\T? V "Df\T TTTf"* C "DOT TTV 

I^TWTAAT MBWrtToe / UL11Y ' STONYHURST PHILOSOPHICAL 




POLITICAL MEMOIRS, &c. - - 3 SERIES 


10 


LANGUAGE, HISTORY AND 




SCIENCE OF 20 TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE, THE 




LOGIC, RHETORIC, PSYCHOLOGY, 


COLONIES, &c. 


II 


&c. 17 WORKS OF REFERENCE - 


31 


INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS. 




Page Page 


Page 


Page 


Abbott (Evelyn) 3,19,22 Balfour (A. J.) -13,21 


Burke (U.R.) - - 3 Crozier (J. B.) - 


9, 17 


(J. H. M.) - 3 Ball (John) - - 11 
(T. K.) - -17,18 Banks (M. M.)- - 24 


Burne-Jones (Sir E.) 36 Cutts (Rev. E. L.) - 
Burns (C. L.) - - 36 i Dabney (J. P.) - 


6 
23 


(E. A.) - 17 Baring-Gould(Rev.S.)2i,38 


Burrows (Montagu) 6 ; Dale (L.) - 


4 


Acland (A. H. D.) - 3 Barnett (S. A.andH.) 20 Butler (E. A.) - - 30 i Dallinger (F. W.) - 


5 


Acton (Eliza) - - 36 Baynes (T. S.) - - 38 i Campbell (Rev. Lewis) 21 ! Dauglish (M. G.) - 


9 


Adelborg (O.) - - 32 Beaconsfield (Earl of) 25 Casserly (G.) - - 3 


Davenport (A.) 


25 


jEschylus - - 22 Beaufort (Duke 01)12,13, 14 Chesney (Sir G.) - 3 


Davidson (A. M. C.) 


22 


Albemarle (Earl of) - 13 ; Becker (W. A.) - 22 Childe-Pemberton(W.S.) 9 


(W. L.) - 17,20,21 


Alcock (C. W.) - 15 Beesly (A. H.) - - 9 


Chisholm (G. C ) - 31 


Davies (J. F.) - 


22 


Allen (Grant) - - so Bell (Mrs. Hugh) - 33 


Cholmondeley-Pennell 


Dent (C. T.) - 


14 


Allgood (G.) - - 3 Bent (J. Theodore) - n (H.) - - - 13 


De Salis (Mrs.) 


36 


Alverstone (Lord) - 15 Besant (Sir Walter)- 3 


Christie (R. C.) - 38 


De Tocqueville (A.) - 


4 


Angwin (M. C.) - 36 Bickerdyke(J.) -14.15 


Churchill (Winston S.) 4,25 


Devas (C. S.) - 


19,20 


Anstey (F.) - - 25 , Bird (G.) - - - 23 


Cicero - - - 22 


Dewey(D. R.)- 


20 


Aristophanes - - 22 Blackburne (J. H.) - 15 
Aristotle - - - 17 Bland (Mrs. Hubert) 24 


Clarke (Rev. R. F.) - 19 
Climenson (E. J.) - 10 


Dickinson (W. H.) - 
Dougall (L.) - 


38 

35 


Arnold (Sir Edwin)- 11,23 Blount (Sir E.t - 9 


Clodd (Edward) - 21,30 


Dowden (E.) - 


40 


(Dr. T.) - - 3 ; Boase (Rev. C. W.) - 6 


Clutterbuck (W. J.)- 12 


Doyle (Sir A. Conan) 


25 


Ashbourne (Lord) - 3 Boedder (Rev. B.) - 19 


Cochrane (A.) 23 


Du Bois (W. E. B.)- 


5 


Ashby (H.) - - 36 Bonnell (H. H.) - 38 


Cockerell (C. R.) - n 


Dunbar (Mary F.) - 


25 


Ashley (W. J.) - - 3,20 Booth (A. J.) - - 38 
Atkinson (J. J.) - 21 Bottome (P.) 25 


Colenso(R. J.) - 36 
Conington (John) - 23 


Dyson (E.) 
Ellis (J. H.) - 


26 
15 


Avebury (Lord) - 21 Bowen (W. E.) - 9 


Conybeare(Rev.W.J.) 


(R. L.) - - 


17 


Ayre (Rev. J.) - - 31 Brassey (Lady) - n 


& Howson (Dean) 33 


Erasmus - 


g 


Bacon - - -9,17 Bright (Rev. J. F.) - 3 


Coolidge (W. A. B.) 11 


Evans (Sir John) - 


38 


Bagehot (W.) - 9, 20, 38 Broadfoot (Major W.) 13 


Corbett (Julian S.) - 4 


Falkiner (C. L.) 


4 


Bagwell (R.) - - 3 Brooks (H. J.) - - 17 


Coutts (W.) - - 22 


Farrar (Dean) - 


2O, 26 


Bailey (H. C.) - - 25 Brough (J.) - - 17 


Cox (Harding) - 13 


Fitzmaurice (Lord E.) 4 


Baillie (A. F.) - - 3 Brown (A. F.) - - 32 


Crake (Rev. A. D.) - 32 


Folkard (H. C.) 


15 


Bain (Alexander) - 17 Bruce (R. I.) - - 3 


Crawford (J. H.) - 25 


Ford (H.) - 


16 


Baker (J. H.) - - 38 Buckland (Jas.) - 32 
(SirS. W.) -11,12 Buckle (H. T.) - - 3 


Creed (S.) - - 25 Fountain (P 
Creiffhton (Bishop) - 4, 6, 9 Fowler (Edith H.) - 


it 
26 


Baldwin (C. S.) - 17 Bull (T.) - - ... . -jjl 


Cross (A. L.) 5 Francis (Francis) - 


16 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS continued. 



Page 


Page 


Page 


Page 


Francis (M. E.) - 26 


erome ( Jerome K.) - 27 


Nansen (F.) - - 12 


Stanley (Bishop) - 31 


Freeman (Edward A.) 6 


ohnson (J. & J. H.) 39 


Nash (V.) 7 


Stebbing (W.) - - 28 


Fremantle (T. F.) - 16 


[ ones (H. Bence) - 31 


Nesbit (E.) - - 24 


Steel (A. G.) - - 13 


Frost (G.)- - - 38 


[ oyce (P. W.) - 6, 27, 39 


Nettleship (R. L.) - 17 


Stephen (Leslie) - 12 


Froude (James A.) 4,9,11,26 


ustinian - - - 18 


Newman (Cardinal) - 28 


Stephens (H. Morse) 8 


Fuller (F. W.) - - 5 


Kant (I.) - - 18 


Nichols (F. M.) - 9 


Sternberg (Count 


Furneaux (W.) - 30 
Gardiner (Samuel R.) 5 


Kaye (Sir I. W.) - 6 
Keary (C. F.) 23 


Oakesmith (J.) - - 22 
Ogilvie (R.) - - 22 


Adalbert) - - 8 
Stevens (R. W.) - 40 


Gathorne-Hardy (Hon. 


Kelly (E.)- - - 18 


Oldfield (Hon. Mrs.) 9 


Stevenson (R. L.) 25,28,33 


A. E.) - - 15, 16 


Kielmansegge (F.) - 9 


Osbourne (L.) - - 28 


Storr (F.) - - - 17 


Geikie (Rev. Cunning- 


Killick (Rev. A. H.) - 18 


Packard (A. S.) - 21 


Stuart- Wortley (A. J.) 14, 15 


ham) 38 


Kitchin (Dr. G. W.) 6 


Paget (Sir J.) - - 10 


Stubbs (J. W.) - - 8 


Gibson (C. H.)- - 17 


Knight (E. F.) - - n, 14 


Park(W.) - - 16 


(W.)- - - 8 


Gilkes (A. H.) - - 38 


Kostlin (J.) - - 10 


Parker (B.) - - 40 


Suffolk & Berkshire 


Gleig (Rev. G. R.) - 10 


Kristeller (P.) - - 37 


Payne-Gallwey (Sir R.) 14,16 


(Earl ot) - - 14 


Graham (A.) - - 5 


Ladd(G. T.) - - 18 


Pears (E.) - - 7 


Sullivan (Sir E.) - 14 


(P. A.) - - 15, 16 


Lang (Andrew) 6 ,13, 14, 16, 


Pearse (H. H. S.) - 6 


Sully (James) - - 19 


(G. F.) - - ao 


21,22, 23,27, 32,39 


Peek (Hedley) - - 14 


Sutherland (A. and G.) 8 


Granby (Marquess of) 15 


Lapsley (G. T.) - 5 


Pemberton (W. S. 


(Alex.) - - 19, 40 


Grant (Sir A.) - - 17 


Laurie (S. S.) - 6 


Childe-) - - 9 


Suttner (B. von) - 29 


Graves (R. P.) - - 9 


Lawrence (F. W.) - 20 


Penrose (H. H.) - 33 


Swinburne (A. J.) - 19 


(A. F.) - - 23 


Lear (H. L. Sidney) - 36 


Phillipps-Wolley(C.) 12,28 


Symes (J. E.) - - 20 


Green (T. Hill) - 17, 18 


Lecky (W. E. H.) 6, 18, 23 


Pierce (A. H.) - - 19 


Tait(J.) --- 7 


Greene (E. B.)- - 5 


Lees (J. A.) - - 12 


Pole(W.)- - - 17 


Tallentyre (S. G.) - 10 


Greville (C. C. F.) - 5 


Leighton (J_. A.) - 21 


Pollock (W. H.) - 13, 40 


Tappan (E. M.) - 33 


Grose (T. H.) - - 18 


Leslie (T. E. Cliffe) - 20 


Poole ( W. H . and Mrs.) 36 


Taylor (Col. Meadows) 8 


Gross (C.) - - 5 


Lieven (Princess) - 6 


Poore (G. V.) - - 40 


Theophrastus - - 23 


Grove (Lady) - - n 


Lillie (A.) - - - 16 


Portman (L.) - - 28 


Thomas (J. W.) - 19 


(Mrs. Lilly) - 13 


Lindley (j.) - - 31 


Powell (E.) - - 7 


Thomson (H. C.) - 8 


Gurnhill(J.) - - 18 


Locock (C. D.) - 16 


Powys (Mrs. P. L.) - 10 


Thornhill (W. ].) - 23 


Gwilt (J.) - - - 31 


Lodge (H. C.) - - 6 


Praeger (S. Rosamond) 33 


Thornton (T. H.) - 10 


Haggard (H. Rider) 


Loftie (Rev. W. J.) - 6 


Pritchett (R. T.) - 14 


Thuillier (H. F.) - 40 


ii, 26, 27, 38 


Longman (C. J.) - 12, 16 


Proctor (R. A.) 16, 30, 35 


Todd(A.)- - - 8 


Halliwell-Phillipps(j.) 10 


(F. W.) - - 16 


Raine (Rev. James) - 6 


Tout (T. F.) - - 7 


Hamilton (Col. H. B.) 5 


(G. H.) - - 13, 15 


Ramal (W.) - - 24 


Toynbee (A.) - - 20 


Hamlin (A. D. F.) - 36 


(Mrs. C. J.) - 37 


Randolph (C. F.) - 7 


Trevelyan (Sir G. O.) 


Harding (S. B.) - 5 


Lowell (A. L.) - - 6 


Rankin (R.) - 8, 25 


6. 7, 8, 9, 10 


Hardwick (A. A.) - n 


Lucian - - - 22 


Ransome (Cyril) - 3, 8 


(G. M.) - - 7, 8 


Harmsworth (A. C.) 13, 14 


Lutoslawski (W.) - 18 


Reid (S. J.) - - 9 


(R. C.) - - 25 


Harte (Bret) - - 27 
Harting(J. E.) - - 15 


Lyall (Edna) - - 27, 32 
Lynch (G.) - - 6 


Rhoades (J.) - - 23 
Rice (S. P.) - - 12 


Trollope (Anthonvl- 29 
Turner (H. G.) ^- 40 


Hartwig (G.) - - 30 


(H. F. B.)- - 12 


Rich (A.) - - - 23 


Tyndall (J.) - - 9, 12 


Hassall(A.) - - 8 


Lytton (Earl of) - 24 


Richmond (Ennis) - 19 


Tyrrell (R. Y.) - - 22, 23 


Haweis (H. R.) - 9, 36 


Macaulay (Lord) 6, 7, 10, 24 


Rickaby (Rev. John) 19 


Unwin (R.) 40 


Head (Mrs.) - - 37 


Macdonald (Dr. G.) - 24 


(Rev. Joseph) - 19 


Upton(F.K.and Bertha) 33 


Heath (D. D.) - - 17 


Macfarren (Sir G. A.) 37 


Riley (J. W.) - - 24 


Van Dyke (J. C.) - 37 


Heathcote (J. M.) - 14 


Mackail (J. W.) - 10, 23 


Roberts (E. P.) - 33 


Vanderpoel (E. N.) - 37 


(C. G.) - - 14 


Mackenzie (C. G.) - 16 


Robertson (W. G.) - 37 


Virgil - - - 23 


(N.) - - - ii 


Mackinnon (J.) - 7 


Roget (Peter M.) - 20, 31 


Wagner (R.) - - 25 


Helmholtz (Hermann 


Macleod (H. D.) - 20 


Romanes (G. J.) 10, 19,21,24 


Wakeman (H. O.) - 8 


von) - - - 30 


Macpherson(Rev.H.A.) 15 


(Mrs. G. J.) - 10 


Walford (L. B.) - 29 


Henderson (Lieut- 


Madden (D. H.) - 16 


Ronalds (A.) - - 17 


.Wallas (Graham) - 10 


Col. G. F. R.) - 9 


Magniisson (E.) - 28 


Roosevelt (T.) - - 6 


(Mrs. Graham)- 33 


Henry (W.) - - 14 


Maher (Rev. M.) - 19 


Ross (Martin) - - 2 


Walpole (Sir Spencer) 8, 10 


Henty (G. A.) - - 32 


Mallet (B.) - - 7 


Rossetti (Maria Fran- 


(Horace) - - 10 


Higgins (Mrs. N.) - 9 


Malleson (Col. G.B.) 6 


cesca) - - - 40 


Walrond (Col. H.) - 12 


Hill (Mabel) - - 5 


Marbot (Baron de) - 10 


Rotheram (M. A.) - 36 


Walsingham (Lord)- 14 


(S. C.) - - 5 


Marchment (A. W.) 27 


Rowe (R. P. P.) - 14 


Ward ( Mrs. W.) - 29 


Hillier (G. Lacy) - 13 


Marshman (J. C.) - 9 


Russell (Lady)- - 10 


Warner (P. F.) - 17 


Hime (H. W. L.) - 22 


Maryon (M.) - - 39 


Sandars (T. C.) - 18 


Warwick (Countess of) 40 


Hodgson (Shadworth) 18 


Mason (A. E. W.) - 27 


Sanders (E. K.) 9 


Watson (A. E. T.) 12, 13, 14 


Hoenig(F.) - - 38 


Maskelyne(J.N.) - 16 


Savage- Armstrong(G.F.)25 


Weathers (J.) - - 40 


Hogan (J. F.) - - 9 


Matthews (B.) - 39 


Seebohm (F.) - - 8, 10 


Webb (Mr. and Mrs. 


Holmes (R. R.) - 10 


Maunder (S.) 31 


Selous (F. C.) - - 12, 17 


Sidney) - - 20 


Homer 22 
Hope (Anthony) - 27 


Max Miiller (F.) 
10, 18, 20, 21, 22, 27, 39 


Senior (W.) - - 13, 15 
Seton-Karr(SirH.)- 8 


(Judge T.) - 40 
(T. E.) - - 19 


Horace 22 


May (Sir T. Erskine) 7 


Sewell (Elizabeth M.) 28 


Weber (A.) - - 19 


Illusion (D. F.) - 5 


Meade (L. T.) - - 32 


Shadwell (A.) - - 40 


Weir (Capt. R.) - 14 


Howard (Lady Mabel) 27 


Melville (G.J.Whyte) 27 


Shakespeare - - 25 


Wellington (Duchess of) 37 


Howitt (W.) - - ii 


Merivale (Dean) - 7 


Shaw (W. A.) - - 8 


Wemyss(M. C. E.)- 33 


Hudson (W. H.) - 30 


Mernman 'H. S.) - 27 


Shearman (M.) - 12, 13 Weyman (Stanley) - 29 


Huish (M. B.) - - 37 


Mill (John Stuart) - 18, 20 


Sheehan (P. A.) - 28 


Whately(Archbishop) 17,19 


Hullah (J.) - - 37 


Millais (I. G.) - - 16, 30 


Sheppard (E.) - - 8 


Whitelaw (R.) - - 23 


Hume (David) - - 18 


Milner (G.) 40 


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Lothair. 
Endymion. 

NOVELS AND TALES. THE HUGH- 
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Vivian Grey. 

The Young Duke ; 
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Alroy ; Ixion in 
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Tancred. 



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Churchill. SAVROLA : a Tale of the 
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Crawford. THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF 
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tions. Crown 8vo., 55. net. 

Creed. THE VICAR OF ST. LUKE'S. 
By SIBYL CREED. Crown 8vo., 6s. 

Davenport. BY THE RAMPARTS OF 
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Israel. By ARNOLD DAVENPORT. With 
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Dougall. BEGGARS ALL. By L. 
DOUGALL. Crown 8vo., 35. 6d. 

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Huguenots. With 25 Illustrations. Cr. 

8vo., 35. 6d. 
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Author of 'Rhymes from the Mines,' etc. 
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COLONEL QUARITCH, V.C. With 
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THE PROFESSOR'S CHILDREN. With JOAN HASTE. With 20 Illustrations. 



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SHE. With 32 Illustrations. Crown 
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MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 27 



Fiction, Humour, &e. continued. 



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DESIRE. By H. RIDER HAGGARD and 
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Howard. THE FAILURE OF SUCCESS. 

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Joyce. OLD CELTIC ROMANCES. 
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Good for Nothing. 
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Digby Grand. 
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28 MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 



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%* For Mr. William Morris's other 
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Somerville 

(MARTIN). 



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MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 29 



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3 o MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 



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Butler. OUR HOUSEHOLD INSECTS. Hudson (W. H.). 
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MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 31 



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32 MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 



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MESSRS. LONGMANS & CO.'S STANDARD AND GENERAL WORKS. 33 



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Murray. FLOWER LEGENDS FOR 
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Penrose. CHUBBY : A NUISANCE. 

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THE ADVENTURES OF TK^ THREE 
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