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Full text of "The land scare. Arable farming is yet a profitable business in this kingdom.."



THE 









LAND QUESTION 



ITS EXAMINATION 











1 » c 


vl 



SOLUTION 



J\— n—n-J 






REESE LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

m . J JUN 14 1893 a 

Received , log . 



^Accessions No: 



^/?zs 



7 



Class No. 




THE LAND SCAKE. 

ARABLE FARMING IS YET A PROFITABLE 
BUSINESS IN THIS KINGDOM. 

An Agricultural Paradox and " Mine of Wealth" 



ILLUSTRATED HY 



THE RIGHT HON. LORD AND LADY HERBERT OF LEA 

IN THEIR TWENTY-THREE YEARS' OCCUPATION OF WILTON HOUSE 
HOME FARM, NEAR SALISBURY. 



A DEFINITION OF PRODUCE BENT IN ACTION 

DURING THAT PERIOD. 

WITH AN APPENDIX AFFORDING A CEITERION FOR A FAIR RENT 
BASED ON EQUIVALENTS OF PEODUCE AT MARKET OR SALE PRICES, 

And Evidencing that the Fee Simple Value of Land is not necessarily 

affected by the Change of Circumstance*, inasmuch as the Judicial Rent is not affected 

(lowered) by the Abrogation of the, Corn Laws. 

/ 

EDITED BY 

THOMAS J. ELLIOT, M.RA.C, F.H.A.S., 

PROFESSOR OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT AT THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, CIRENCESTER, 

PUBLISHED BY CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED, 
La Belie Sauvage, London, 

COUPLED BY \X'^OR|S/|A 

"THE LAND QUESTION: ITS EXAMINATION ^SNB^^SOLUTION ; " 

• ALSO 

PRODUCTION OF CEREALS AND BUTCHER'S MEAT PROFITABLE TO 
PRODUCERS. THREE ACRES AND A COW ATTAINABLE BY LABOURERS 

Vide B). 
Also Published by CASSELL & COMPANY, Limited. 



r° 



THE LAND SOAEE 



REFERENCES. 



" A"' refers to Folio in " The Land Question : its Examination and Solution." 
"B" „ ,, " Production of Cereals and Butcher's Meat Profitable." 

"C" „ „ " The Land Scare." 



THE LAND SCARE. 

ARABLE FARMING IS YET A PROFITABLE 
BUSINESS IN THIS KINGDOM. 

An Agricultural Paradox and " Mine of Wealth " 

ILLUSTRATED BY 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD AND LAD 7 HERBERT OF LEA 

IN THEIR TWENTY-THREE YEARS' OCCUPATION OF WILTON HOUSE 
HOME FARM, NEAR SALISBURY. 

ALSO 

A DEFINITION OF PRODUCE BENT IN ACTION 

DURING THAT PERIOD. 

WITH AN APPENDIX AFFORDING A CRITERION FOR A FAIR RENT 
BASED ON EQUIVALENTS OF PRODUCE AT MARKET OR SALE PRICES, 

And Evidencing that the Fee Simple Value of Land is not necessarily 

affected by the Change of Circumstance.'', inasmuch as the Judicial Rent is not affected 

(lowered) by the Abrogation of the Corn Laws. 

EDITED BY 

THOMAS J. ELLIOT, M.R A.C., F.H.A.S., 

PROFESSOR OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT AT THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, CIRENCESTER. 

PUBLISHED BY CASSELL dc COMPANY, LIMITED 

La Belle Sauvage, London, E.C. 



COUPLED BY 



"THE LAND QUESTION: ITS EXAMINATION AND SOLUTION;" 

ALSO 

PRODUCTION OF CEREALS AND BUTCHER'S MEAT PROFITABLE TO 
PRODUCERS. THREE ACRES AND A COW ATTAINABLE BY LABOURERS 

{Vide B). 
Also Pvblhfod by CASSELL X- COMPANY. Limited. 




THE LAND QUESTION 

A LAND SCARE. 



The delusive statements made in the London newspapers and echoed by 
the Provincial press for electioneering and party purposes, have pro- 
duced a national scare — disastrous in effect in cases of forced sales and 
uncertain tenures. This scare will be shown to have been unfounded. 
As Professor Elliot has so clearly demonstrated, in his analysis of the 
Wilton House Home Farm accounts, that an inferior type of arable 
land can be profitably farmed, and its fertility maintained, for so long a 
period as twenty-three years, it is purposed in this treatise to afford 
additional evidence that arable farming, notwithstanding the abrogation 
of the Corn Laws, may be relied upon as an investment for capital, skill, 
and commercial enterprise. 

Professor Elliot, in his examination and solution of the " Land 
Question/' demonstrates that Protection afforded to the "land capi- 
talist" an opportunity — through competition — to obtain an increased 
rental, and to the tenant-occupier a substitute for capital, inasmuch as it 
enabled him to obtain 7s. a bushel, or £2 16s. per quarter, instead of 
3s. 9fd. a bushel, or £1 10s. 6d. per quarter, being the cost of its 
production; and other cereals in a like ratio. Moreover, the tenant- 
occupier acquired, as an additional capital, the virgin fertility of the soil 
— which he imperceptibly diluted at his discretion. This is, perhaps, 
the solution of the question, " Why did farming in former years, with 
expensive cultivation, pay best ? " And (on the other hand) it may be 
asked, has this exhaustive farming so deteriorated the natural fertility 
of the country as to justify the giving up by the tenant-occupier into 
the landowners' hands the farms of the country, to be restored to 
fertility at his own expense, now that the fictitious aid of Protection has 
been removed? The investigation of the position of agricultural pur- 
suits in this kingdom during the present century necessitates the 



bearing in view the influence of private and public Inclosure Acts of 
Parliament, and their tendency to curtail feudal practices, in moulding 
the country into its present position as regards regulating the size of 
farms, and in fitting them for occupation, in manufacturing and populous 
districts, as well as ordinary farms in rural localities. This influence, 
moreover, had a tendency to lessen the cost of agricultural buildings 
— manual and horse labour — as well as allocating suitable areas for 
farming, in accoi'dance with the nature or character of the district and 
extent of capital employed during the last half century, by occupying 
tenants (aided by bankers' assistance, who, for the present, have with- 
drawn their support, until the Land Laws of the country have been 
adjusted to afford security), who have wisely abandoned an interest in 
fee simple of three per cent, (acquired mainly by Acts of Parliament), 
and accepted a tenancy yielding ten per cent. This suggests the 
question whether or not the Irish tenant-farmers are jumping out of the 
frying-pan into the fire by trying to acquire freeholds yielding three 
per cent., which, as a matter of course, would soon revert into the 
possession of the capitalist ; and may not subdivisions of freehold in 
Ens-land soon run into this delusive groove ? The ancient race of 
yeomen, who held their freeholds and farmed them, has thus given 
place to a class of agriculturists who may be said to have drawn into 
force such societies as the Royal Agricultural Society of England. 
And when we contemplate the amount of money now invested in 
improving the breeds of our cattle and the manufacturing of implements 
of husbandry fitted mainly for capitalists, we must for ever abandon 
the idea of this country again reverting to " smock-frock " farming. 

Again, the increased quantities of food now produced for the people 
of this country by the class of farms encouraged by the prizes of the 
Royal Society, will soon evidence their superiority over the expensive 
scheme so generally advocated of laying down hastily, and imperfectly, 
arable land to grass at the cost of the landowners, whose responsibility 
is thereby increased, besides lessening the trade of the nation, by the 
suppression of labour and the consumption of merchandise. These 
circumstances, coupled with the inadequate or exhausted capital now 
employed in farming, induce the question, whether it becomes the duty 
of the " land capitalists " to increase their stake in the country's 
welfare by lessening the price of food for the general consumer; or 
whether the Land Laws should be so adjusted as to deprive them of their 
claim for priority of rent in case of bankruptcy by allowing the 
occupying tenant to mortgage the cost of crops produced by giving 
pccuritv to the money-lender?. 



Of course, under such circumstances, justice to the land should 
admit the urgent claim for readjustment of taxation. 

With these preliminary observations, prompted by a due considera- 
tion of the general question, it will be necessary to show the bearing of 
the Wilton House Home Farm on the suggested " eight-acre " farm 
now proposed as a test to the conclusions arrived at by Professor Elliot's 
analysis of the farm accounts. It will be remembered that the farm 
consisted of 200 acres of arable land, of an inferior type to the average 
of the kingdom, with sixty- six acres of Down, or Sheepwalk. The 
cropping averaged, for twenty-three years, four-ninths cereals and five- 
ninths in hay, root, and green crops, or meat products ; being about 
the proportion which the arable land in the kingdom bears to the 
pasture or grass (excepting mountain sheepwalks or pasture). The 
quality of the soils of the farm are minutely described in Professor 
Elliot's work ; the normal products being estimated at 18 or 20 bushels 
of wheat, 28 of barley, and from 32 to '36 of oats ; the average soils in 
the kingdom being considered by Sir J. Lawes to stand relatively : 
Wheat, 28xo ; barley, 37^; oats, 47yo ; beans, 31to- 

The eight-acre farm now contemplated as a test of the analysis of 
Wilton House Home Farm is considered as a type in quality of soil and 
in circumstances of down pasture, but confined to purely farming 
results, and irrespective of proximity to game coverts, which this Home 
Farm had to contend with, and for damages from which no compensation 
is claimed in this account. The cropping of the eight acres is, however, 
varied to four-eighths cereals and four-eighths meat products, with 
a view to assimilate comparatively with the light and heavy soils in this 
country. 

The following six diagrams denote the four acres cereals and four 
acres meat products. The quantities per acre produced, and the prices 
realised for each, are on the average of the twenty-three years — 
1850-1873. The cereals are shown by Professor Elliot to have been 
produced on the Wilton Home Farm at a profit of £4< 17s. 5d. per 
acre. The meat products, however, cost more in their production than 
the amount realised by their sale, and this loss being £2 18s. 8d. per 
acre, consequently reduced the ultimate profit of the cereals. " k" dia- 
gram accordingly represents the gross amounts, and " A I" the nett prices. 

" B " represents the agricultural pivot on which the abrogation of the 
Corn Laws was achieved by the Peel Ministry, and successfully worked 
out on Wilton House Home Farm. The cereals are shown by Professor 
Elliot to have been produced at the prices quoted in the diagram, yielding 
a profit of 10 per cent, on the extensive capital employed by the producer. 



8 

The meat products stand at their relative cost of production, which 
exceeds the sale prices, as evidenced in the diagrams, and thus 
proving the Scotch adage, " To grow corn you must produce meat," 
notwithstanding the market prices may not realise the cost of produc- 
tion ; the local average market prices, however, evidence profit. The 
results evidenced in Schedule B may therefore he taken as the key to 
future progress in agriculture in this country. 

Diagram C gives the criterion of yields or produce aimed at in the 
Wilton House Home Farm scheme for increased production; and had 
the farm accounts been continued, there were reasonable indications of 
the fulfilment of the object in view, as by it a lessened cost of the 
meat products was to be anticipated. 

Diagram D shows the average gazetted prices for cereals in the years 
1883-4-5, and also the like average prices for meat products in Smith- 
field Market, as quoted in the Royal Agricultural Journal for the same 
period. 

D I denotes the same as D in cereals ; but in meat products is an 
estimate of the prices realised in local markets, in order that it may be 
compared with A, which shows local prices realised by Wilton House 
Home Farm between 1850 and 1873. 



THESE SIX DIAGRAMS, MINUTELY DESCRIBED IN PRECEDING FOLIOS 6, 7, 8, ARE IN RESPECT OF MEAT PRODUCTS, AND HERE DEFINED. 



Description of Crop, 
viz., Yetrhes, Clover, 
Turnips, Rape, Swedes. 

and Mangolds. 

The Relative Produce 

grown per Acre. 


Quantity 


£t 


Amounts 


Totals 


Profits. 


Quantity 


Jft 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


,-to. 


— 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Qunntity 
per Acre. 


JA 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 


per lb. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


L „ss. 


Quantity 


J* 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Mutton 

Beef 

Poultry 


lbs. 

L551 

75 
69£ 
61 


S. d. 

8} 
7} 
5} 
8 


£ s. d. 

5 7 
2 5 3 
1 13 2 
3 8 






155} 
If 


10} 
9} 

7| 

1 


6 13 0} 
2 17 91 
2 4 8J 
5 6" 






155} 
75 
69} 
54 


10} 

9} 

7} 

1 


6 13 0} 
2 17 94 
2 4 SJ 
5 






155} 
75 
69} 

"i 


91 
8! 

7} 

1 


6 6 6) 
2 14 8j 
2 1 8 
5 6 






155} 
75 

It 

Oo 


"-fr 
6-Jj 

5} 

1 


1 12 lj 

1 18 1, 
1 10 3j 
5 6" 








155} 
75 
69} 

H 


8} 
7} 
5} 
8 


5 7 0} 
2 5 3j 
1 13 2 
3 8 


£ s. d 


£ s. d. 


Wool 


3051 
Ml 


7} 

1 4J 


9 9 2 
17 10 


3055 
12} 


9} 

1 


12 1 0} 

12 9 


3054 
12} 


9} 

1 


12 1 0} 
12 9 


3054. 
12} 


9} 

1 


11 8 43 
12 9 


305; 
12} 


-\ 

1 


8 6 0} 
12 9 


3054 
124 


n 

1 4J 


9 9 24. 
17 lOj 




Hay, Root, and Green Crops sold to Dairy Stock in 
Fold Yards otherwise available for conversion into 

Ditto consumed by Working Horses 


10 7 1} 

14 10J 
6 10" 

11 8 9| 


12 13 9} 

14 lOJ 

6 10* 


12 13 9} 

14 10J 

6 10" 


12 4 6j 
14 10k 

10" 


8 18 9| 

14 104 
6 10" 


10 7 lj 

14 10: 

6 10" 




Total per Acre 


13 15 55 


13 15 6} 


13 2 10^ 


10 63 


11 8 93 




Total per 4 Acres 


45 15 3 


5 ] 






11 7 6), 


55 1 11 

46 10 2 


9 11 9 






11 7 64 


56 1 11 

45 10 2 


9 11 9 






11 7 64 


52 11 5 
45 10 24 


7 1 3 






11 7 64 


40 2 1 
15 10 2 




5 8 1 






11 7 64 


45 15 3 
15 10 2 




Cost of Production. 

Manual Labour 

Manure purchased 

Seed purchased and of home growth... 

Horse forage (exclusive of straw and chaff) 

Market and Fair expenses 

Cost and wear and tear of implements 

Bad debts 

Agistment .. 




2 12 11} 
11 11{ 

11 2 

1 1 1 
3 91 
2 9} 
7 6J 
3 3" 
6} 
1 9} 




Feeding stuffs .„ 


5 16 10 
4 5} 




Rente, tithes, rates and taxes 


9 17 3i 
1 10 3 




Cost of Production on 1 Acre 

Ditto on 4 Acres 


11 7 64 
45 10 2" 




Total Profit or Loss on 4 Acres 




5 1 


Yielding producer a P 
or £14 9 


rofit per ce 


lit. on £116 

fed ... 


15s. 8d., 


- 


1 4} 










8 5 7} 










8 5 7} 








6 1 4J 












4 13 4 






1 4 4! 



THESE SIX DIAGRAMS, MINUTELY DESCRIBED IN PRECEDING FOLIOS 6, 7, 8, ARE IN RESPECT OF CEREALS, AND HERE DEFINED 



Description of the Cr.'p. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


per Bushel. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 


per Bushel. 
1 & SO. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


or Busli.i 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 
per Acre, 


per Bushel. 


Amounts 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


".-r BuslH.i. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits 


Quantity 
pee Acre. 


per Bushel. 




Totals. 


Profits. 


Cereal Products at realised prices 
on an average of 23 years. 

'Wheat per acre 

Barley „ 

Oats or Dredge „ 

Beans or Pulae 

Straw saleable or consumable 
taken into Fold Yards, bu 
longing to the Farm 


Bushels. 

36 

SO 
61 
41 


s. d. 

7 0} 

4 7} 
3 3} 

5 6J 


£ s. d. 

12 12 9 
11 10 25 
9 19 6} 

11 7 24 


£ ». d. 
1 16 0} 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 

36 
50 
61 
41 


s. d. 

4 8} 
3 1 

2 2} 

3 8i 


£ s d 

8 8 9 
7 14 2 

6 13 5} 

7 12 0J 


£ s. d. 
7 19 8.3 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 
36 

.',11 

61 

41 


s. d. 

3 93 

1 9} 
3 43 


£ s d 

6 17 3 
5 19 94 

5 10 6| 

6 16 8 


£ s. d. 
6 13 8J 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 

40 
54 
65 
45 


s, d. 

3 9} 

2 4J 
1 9| 

3 4} 


7 12 6 
ti 9 1 '. 
5 13 11" 
7 12 93 


7 I 9) 




Bushels. 

36 
50 
61 
41 


s. d. 

4 7 
3 10} 

2 7i 

3 81. 


£ s. d. 

8 5 

9 12 8,'. 
7 18 2j 
7 12 0| 

33 7 111 

1 10 7 


£ s d. 
8 14 71 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 

36 
50 
61 
41 


s. d. 

4 7 
3 10} 

2 ;; 

3 Si 


£ s. d. 

8 5 

9 12 Si 
7 IS 2i 
7 12 OS. 


£ i. i. 

8 14 75 


£ s d. 


188 

by Stock 
. not be- 


45 9 8} 
1 10 7 


30 8 4| 

1 10 7 


25 4 31 
1 10 7 


27 8 7} 
1 10 7 


33 7 11* 
1 10 7 




Total per Acre 


















, Total on Four Acres 

Cost of Production. 

Manual Labour 

Manure purchased {as per exposition) 

Seed purchased, and of home growth 

Horse forage {exclusive of straw and chaff) 

Market and Fair expenses 

Cost and wear and tear of implements, being an 

excess on Wilton House Home Farm 

Sundries 

Bad debts 


1 16 9J 
12 1 

16 64 
13 10J 
2 0* 
1 5} 

4 7 
3 3 
6} 


7 3} 

• ... 
24 6 7 


22 14 81 


~ 




6 1 43 


31 IS 115 
24 5 7 


7 13 43 






6 1 4J 


26 14 10} 
24 6 7 


2 9 3} 






6 1 4.3 


28 19 2J 

24 5 7 


4 13 7} 






6 1 43 


34 18 61 
24 5 7 


10 12 US 






6 1 i\ 


34 18 6J 
24 :. 7 




Rent, rates, tithes, and taxeB ... 


4 11 15 
1 10 3 




Total per Acre 

Total on Four Acres 

Total Fronts on Four Acres 


6 1 4} 


Hi 12 UJ 


Yielding producer a Profit per 
or £14 9b. 6Jd., the Capital e 


ent. on £1 
mployed 


5 15s. 8d. 






19 12 8} 










6 12 53 










2 2 6J 










4 10 










9 3 11 










9 3 11 



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T PRODUCTS, AND HERE DEFINED. 







D 












DI 






•uantity 
ir Acre. 


Price 
per lb. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Loss. 
£ s. d. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


Price 
per lb. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


lbs. 

155| 
75 
69i 
5i 


s. d. 

7-1- 
6 t l 

5| 

1 


£ s. d. 

4 12 If 

1 18 H 
1 10 3A 
5 6" 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


lbs. 

155J 

75 
69i 

5i 


s. d. 

8} 
7i 

5| 

8 


£ s. d. 

5 7 Of 
2 5 3| 
1 13 2 
3 8 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


3051 
129 

1-4 


7£ 

1 


8 6 0| 
12 9 


305i 
12* 


7i 

i n 


9 9 21 
17 lOf 






8 18 9f 

14 lOi 
6 10" 


10 7 li 

14 10i 

6 10" 






10 6| 


11 8 9J 








11 7 6| 


40 2 1 
15 10 2 


... 


5 8 1 






11 7 61 


45 15 3 
45 10 2 


5 1 








... 




4 13 4 


... ... 




4 41 



11 



3 
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o 

« 
o 

o 

Eh 
O 
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M 
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co 

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ccw 




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12 

The entire- aspect of the six foregoing diagrams evidences their 
paradoxical characters ; and to those persons who have not given their 
issues due consideration, they may be said (when comparatively viewed) 
to form an agricultural " chess-board/' the game having been played 
out, without the production of the crops, by the producer being check- 
mated. For instance : A shows that a profit of £19 17s. Ofd. per cent. 
on an ample capital employed might have been obtained through high 
cultivation, at Protection prices, though the next quotations appear so 
low ; but this result is clearly demonstrated in the third section of 
Professor Elliot's work. B denotes the lowest prices at which cereals 
can be profitably produced in this kingdom, the meat products stand- 
ing at a loss ; the cost of production, which is shown to be greater 
than the realised sale quotations on the average of 23 years, as well as 
in the test eight-acre farm. 

This position is evidently the moving pivot of the British farmer, 
as it enables him to sell profitably, and also to hold and compete with 
the importation of foreign grain (to the extent of the shipping freight 
at least), provided he has adopted, in practice, the principle of increased 
production. 

The results evidenced in D and D I, on the average of 1883-4-5, are 
remarkable in their contrasts with A and A I, the averages of I860 to 
1873. For instance: the nett realised price for wheat in D is 4s. 7d. 
per bushel, or £1 16s. 8d. per quarter; and in A I, 4s. 81/1., or 
£1 17s. 6d. per quarter ; while the meat products are practically iden- 
tical, averaging 7|d. and 7|d. per lb. in D and A respectively. 

Moreover, through increased production .the six diagrams evidence 
profits ; D alone not producing the estimated 5 per cent, for skill in 
farming and commercial enterprise. The decadence in prices for agri- 
cultural produce, however, has been great between 1850 and 1885, and 
will require minute inquiry before the disastrous effects of the last five 
or six years can be developed. C is a foregone conclusion, inasmuch 
as the Wilton House Home Farm experiments were abandoned in 1873; 
though originally intended to be aimed at as the Norfolk standard 
for the growth of 40 bushels of wheat per acre. The attainment of this 
object, as shown by the diagram in question, would not only have 
lessened the cost-price of meat, but would have yielded a profit of 10 
per cent, on the capital employed in realising the projected products. 



13 



Tabula of Average Realised Prices between 1850-1873 and Average of Gazetted 
Prices in respect of Cereals for the Years 1883-4-5; also Smithfield and 
Local Prices for Meat Products for the same Periods, showing the Relative 
Depreciations in the Averages of 23 Years up to 1873 and the Averages of 
1883-4-5, which comprise the disputed prices by the press of decadence. 







Standard Prices 








Description of the 
Products. 


Quantity 


realised between the 


Cereals 


as Gazetted 


Cereals as Gazetted 


per 


years 1850 to 1873 in 


"Meat Smithfield" for 


" Meat Local " for 




Acre. 


excess of 


18S3-4-5. 


1883-4-5. 






Production Scale. 










Bushel. 


£ a. d. 




£ s. d 


£ b. d. 


Wheat 


36 


@ 7/0J = 12 12 9 


@4/7 


= 850 


,S) 4/7 =8 5 


Barley 


50 


@4/7i = ll 10 21 


@ 3/101 


= 9 12 8i 


@ 3/1 04= 9 12 8£ 


Oats or Dredge .. 


61 


@ 3/3f = 9 19 6| 


& 2/7i 


= 7 18 2i 


@ 2/7J = 7 18 2| 


Beans or Pulse 


41 


@ 5/64 = 11 7 1\ 


@3/8J 


= 7 12 0| 


@ 3/8£ = 7 12 04 


Hay, Root, and 


lbs. 










Green Crops 


305i 


@Q/7£ = 9 5 4| 


@0/7i 


= 9 10 11^ 


@ 0/7i = 9 5 4f 


Wool 


12J 


@ 1/4J = 17 lOf 


@l/0 


= 12 9 


@l/4§ =s 17 10J 






56 12 llf 




43 11 7| 


43 11 3 


Depreciation per Acre on the Standard of the 








test Eight-acre Farm. Prices of the Eight- 








acre Farm, £55 12s. llfd 




12 1 4 


12 1 8| 


Decrease per cent, from the Standard Prices, 








£21 13s. 8d. and £21 14s. Id 




21 13 8 


21 14 1 



Consequently, the depreciation in prices only is £21 13s. 8d. per 
cent, in D, and £21 14s. Id. in D I ; but this fall on a fair produce 
rent of £100 per annum will be shown in the Appendix to be only 
£13 2s. 6d. per cent., showing" that constituents of rent are not dependent 
on price only. 



15 



The following Schedules point out Sir John Lawes' estimate of the 
yields per acre of the cereal crops generally grown in this country, to 
which are attached sale prices in accordance with the relative quotations 
used in the two preceding relations to the Wilton House Home Farm 
accounts. The estimate here made of the meat products is founded on 
the proportion which Sir John's estimates bear to the realised quantities 
of produce realised by the Wilton Farm ; for instance, Sir John esti- 
mates wheat 28yo bushels per acre, while the attainment on the Wilton 
Farm was 36 bushels (the requisite in the scheme of production). Con- 
sequently, the difference has been adopted as the ratio of products, and 
the estimate for meat products stands accordingly : mutton, 121 £ lbs. 
per acre in proportion to 155f lbs. Thus, taken for granted the ratio of 
decrease as equivalents, and confirm the adoption of the estimate for 
hay, root, and green crops and cereals as equivalent in ratio. 



AN APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE OF SIR JOHN LAWES' AVERAGE YIELDS OF CEREAL CROPS IN THIS KINGDOM, COUPLED WITH AN ESTIMATE FOR HAY, ROOT, AND GREEN CROPS, OTHERWISE 

MEAT PRODUCTS, ON THE LINE OF PRODUCTION AND PRICES REALISED ON THE WILTON HOUSE HOME FARM. 



Description of Crop. 


Quantity 


Price 
per Bushel. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Lobs. 


Quantity 
rier Acre. 


Price 

per Bu-h.l 


— 


Totals 


Profits. 


Los, 


Quantity 


Price 

ier Bushel. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits 


Loss. 


Quantity 


Price 
per Bushel. 


Amount,. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Loss. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


>er Bushel. "" ' 


Totals. 


Trofits. 


^ 


TVheat per Acre 

Barley 

Oats or Dredge , 

Beans or Pulse ,, 


Bushels. 
31 J, 


s. d. 

7 0} 
4 7J 
3 3} 
o 6} 


£ a. a. 
9 17 3} 

sue 

7 14 8} 

8 12 4 


£ 8. d. 
9 1 7 


£ B. d. 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 

28-5% 

37} 

4"fii 
31-Jjj 


s. d. 

* 8i 
3 1 

2 2} 

3 8i 


£ s. (1. 

6 11 S> 
5 14 10} 
.) 3 7! 
5 15 3| 


£ s. d. 
4 0} 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


Bushels. 

SStV 
37} 

!", , 


s. d. 

3 9J 

2 4| 
1 il 

3 43 


5 7 1 '. 
4 9 '2j 
t 2 !>| 
3 5 7} 


5 i' 93 




£ B. d. 


Bushels. 

••!",'„ 
37J 
1 T , '. . 

:;1 1', 


s. d. 

4 7 
3 10} 

2 71 
:; tl 


£ s, d. 

i, 8 :i 
7 3 6j 
6 3 10 
5 15 3} 


£ s. d. 

6 15 o; 


t s d. 


il s. d. 


2SJjj 
37} 

:; 1 ,',. 


4 7 

:; "-'! 

3 sj 


6 S 9j 

7 ■: <;] 
6 :: HI 

:, 1.". :;; 


6 15 6} 






Straw saleable or consumable by -Stock taken into 
Fold Yards, but not belonging to the Farm 


34 16 9| 

1 10 7 


23 5 6 
1 10 7 


19 4 83 
1 10 7 


25 11 6 

1 in 7 


25 11 6 
1 10 7 




Total per Acre 


36 C 4J 


24 16 1 


20 15 3} 


27 2 1 


27 -' 1 




Total per 4 Acres ... 

Cost of Production. 

Manual Labour... ... 

Manure purchased (as per exposition) 

Seed purchased, and of Home Growth 

Horse Corn 

Horse Forage (exclusive of straw and chaff) 
Market and Fair expenses 

Cost and wear and tmi ••{' implements, being an ex- 
cess on Wilton Home Farm ... 

Sundries ... 

Bad Debts 


1 16 9J 
12 1 

16 6} 
13 10} 
2 0} 
1 5j 

4 7 
3 3 
6} 


i6 6 4j 

27 4 7 


9 1 9} 








6 1G 1} 


24 16 4 
27 4 7 




2 8 6 






6 16 lj 


20 15 3| 

27 4 7 




6 8 3} 






6 16 lj 


27 2 1 
27 1 7 




2 6 






G li; 1; 


27 2 1 

27 1 : 






Rent, rates, tithes, and taxes taken at the estimate 
of the 85 producers in 11 counties, as shown in 
contrast with "Wilton Home Farm 


4 11 lj 
2 5 




Total per Acre 

Total per 4 Acres 

Total Profit or Loss on 4 Acres 


6 16 1| 


2 6 


Profit or Loss per cent, yield: 
or loss per cent, on £80* Capi 


ng produc 
al employ 


^r a profit 
ed 






11 7 3 














3 7! 












8 4 












3 1} 








... 3 lj 






ESTIMATE— {Continued), AND IN RELATION TO MEAT PRODUCTS. 



'srrii'irion nf Criip, viz.. Clover, 
■t.'l.--., Tumi].-. Rape, Swe-ies. 
■1 M,i lipoids. The Kelutive Pro- 
ducts grown per Acre. 


Quantity 


ss. 


Amounts. 


Totals. Profits. 


- 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


a 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


L „ss. 


Quantity 


SSS. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Loss. 


Quantity 
per Acre. 


per lb. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profits. 


Loss. 


Quantity 


pS. 


Amounts. 


Totals. 


Profit-. Loss. 


utton 

eef 


lbs. 

121 i 
65| 
53J 

4 


e. d. 

8J 
71 
8* 
8 


4 3 01 
1 13 8 
1 6 9 
2 8 








lbs. 

121) 

55j 
53} 
4 


s. d. 

101 
9} 

7} 

1 


£ s d 

5 3 91 
2 2 llj 

1 M 8| 

4 0' 


£. s. d. 


£ s. d. 


I 1 1. 


lbs. 

1214 
56j 

53J 
4 


s. d. 

101 

91 

7} 

1 


5 3 91 
2 2 llj 
1 14 8J 

4 








lbs. 

121". 
55} 
•53} 
4 


s. d. 

(I 7/ 

51 

1 


3 11 It)'. 

1 8 4" 
1 3 4 
4 








lbs. 
1211 

53} 

4 


s. d. 

81 
71 

o ei 

8 


i. s. d. 

4 3 6} 
1 13 8 

1 5 9 
2 8 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. £ s. d. 


'ool 


235 
12| 


71 

1 l i 


7 5 7} 
17 10} 


235 
121 


9 -J 

1 


9 5 6f 
12 9 


235 
12} 


9J 

1 


9 5 51 
12 9 


235 
12} 


7.'. 

1 o" 


6 7 61 
12 9" 


235 

12} 


' 71 
1 4-i 


7 5 7J 
" 17 10} 




ay, Root, and Green Crops sold to Dairy Stock in 

Fold Yards 

tto consumed by Working Horses... 


8 3 6 

M 10 1 

6 10" 

J i 2! 


9 is 2| 

14 10J 
6 10' 


9 18 21 

14 10$ 
6 10" 


7 3J 

14 10), 
6 10" 


8 3 6 

14 lOi 
6 10 




Total per Acre 


10 19 10} 


10 19 10} 


8 2 


9 5 2 J 






Total on 4 Acres 




7 10 
38 7 4 




1 6 6 






9 11 10 


43 19 7 
38 7 4 


.5 12 3 








9 11 10 


43 19 7 
38 7 4 


5 12 3 








9 11 10 


32 8 

38 7 4 




5 19 4 






9 11 10 


37 10 

38 7 4 






Cost of Production. 

anual Labour 

anure purchased 

;ed purchased, and of Home Growth 

orse Forage (exclusive of straw and chaff) 

arket and Fair expenses 

ost and wear and tear of Implements 

ad Debts 

jistment 


2 12 11; 
11 llj 

11 2 

1 1 1 
3 9J 
2 91 
7 6i 
3 3" 
6J 
1 9} 




ceding stuffs 

ents, tithes, rates and taxes ... 


6 16 10 

1 10 

2 5 




ost of Production on 1 Acre 

itto on 4 Acres 

Total Profit or Loss 


9 11 10 


1 6 6 


rofit or loss per cent, yieldi 
or loss per cent, on £80 Capi 


ig product 

al employ 


t a profit 
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Totals. 



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37 10 



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1 6 6 



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21 



Detailed analysis of the four former statements of accounts, viz., 
A and AT, the Wilton House Home Farm standard, 1850-1873 (gross 
and nett prices) ; B, the future standard at nett prices for cereals, and 
gross for meat products ; D, the average gazetted prices for cereals, 
1883-4-5, and declared nett prices for meat in Smithfield ; and D I, the 
average of local markets. An approximate estimate for the average 
production of the kingdom in cereals and in meat products, in accordance 
with Sir John Lawes' quotation for cereals, and on the lines of the 
Wilton House Home Farm for cereals and meat products, is added, to 
show the bearing of the one to the other. 



23 



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25 



Recapitulation of the Results Deduced from the Test Farm of Eight Acres, 
Conducted on the Lines of Procedure (Absolutely Realised as Facts) on the 
Wilton House Farm, and the Average Cropping of the Kingdom — the Result 
of Cereals being Estimated from Sir J. Lawes' Deductions ; and the Conversion 
of Hay, Root, and Green Crops into Meat are taken from a Comparative Ratio 
of Averages for Meat Products Realised on the Wilton House Home Farm, 
the Ratio of Cereals being Sir J. Lawes' Estimates. 



AI 



1) 



DI 



Definition of Test. 



Total Gross 

Products at 

Realised 

Prices, 

1850 to 1873 



Total Nett 

Products at 

Realised 

Prices, 

1850 to 1873. 



Total Nett 

Products 

being at 

Cost of 

Production 



Criterion 
aimed at in 
the Scheme 

for 
Increased 
Production 



Total 
Products at 

Gazetted 
Prices with 
Smith field 
Quotations 

for Meat. 



Total 

Products at 

Gazetted 

Prices with 

Local 
Quotations 
for Meat. 



Percentage realised"" 
on an 8- Acre Farm 
for Cereals and 
Meat Products 
combined in com- 
parison with Pro- 
fessor Elliot's 
Analysis of Wil- 
ton Home Farm 
Account of £115 ] 
15s. 8d., or £14 
9s. 5 Jd. per Acre, 
employed as per 
Folios 9 and 10... 

Percentage realised 
in an Estimate for 
the Average Pro- 
ducts for Cereals 
and Meat Pro- 
ducts in the king- 
dom on a Capital 
of £80, or £10 an 
Acre, employed as 
perFols.l7&18C 



Profit 



19 17 Of 



14 18 1 



10 8 If 



£ s. d. 



10 2 9| 



& s. d. 
4 10 7 



d. 



9 8 3§ 



Loss, 



Profit 



9 14 \\ 



3 19 8\ 



Loss. 



19 0i 



7 12 3i 



1 16 3 



Notwithstanding the foregoing (varied circumstances as they stand) 
facts, the national scare on the Land Question, which has so universally 
prevailed throughout the kingdom, the records of which are here criticised, 
does not satisfactorily account for the consequences which have arisen. 
The Corn Laws were abrogated in 1846, but Protection prices in cereals 
were kept up until 1873, and subsequently to 1883 ; while in this latter 
period the meat products were augmented in price, as shown in Professor 
Elliot's analysis in the second section of the Wilton House Home Farm 
account. This transition period may, however, be said to have set in 
between 1873 and 1883, while the importations of cereals and meat 
products were so excessive as to induce farmers working upon borrowed 
capital to abandon their holdings, being convinced that with extreme 
low prices they could no longer follow their occupation. 

These results were precipitated by money-lenders withdrawing their 
aid from the farmer, seeing that with low prices bankruptcy would be 
the inevitable result. The delusion arising through Protection prices is 
made manifest by widespread facts, and it becomes evident that ample 
capital is essential in profitable farming. 



26 



CONCLUSIONS. 

The " outcome " arising from Professor Elliot's analysis of Wilton 
House Home Farm account and the pamphlet, " Production of Cereals 
and Butcher's Meat Profitable in England/' coupled with this treatise, 
confirm by minute details the principle upon which the Peel Government 
founded the abrogation of the Corn Laws ; and this circumstance is 
demonstrated by the eight-acre test of the two publications before- 
mentioned, and achieved on the farm in question. During an experience 
of twenty-three years, Professor Elliot shows by his work that the 
production of cereals was attained with a profit of £4- 17s. 5d. per acre on 
the cost of their production; but he also shows that a loss of £2 18s. 8d. 
per acre was the result of producing the hay, root, and green crops, or 
conversion into meat products. This loss was sustained through an 
excessive expenditure of £6 19s. l|d. per acre in feeding stuffs designedly 
employed in testing how far fertility could be maintained in an inferior 
type of soil, in conjunction with increased production. This result — the 
loss of £2 18s. 8d. — was attained, as the eight-acre test demonstrates, 
by an expenditure of £4- Os. 5|d. per acre in feeding stuffs, the like 
amount having been profitably expended during the twenty-three years' 
experiment, as well as borne in the eight-acre test, where the meat 
products are shown to be profitable to the extent, in A, of Is. 3fd. per 
acre; and in A I, £2 7s. ll^d., and not at a loss of £2 18s. 8d., as shown 
in the twenty-three years' experience ; and, consequently, evidencing the 
result of the application of an abundance of plethoric food, in main- 
taining fertility and stiffness in the straw of the crops grown. This 
result should, however, be weighed in conjunction with the course of 
cropping adopted in the eight-acre test, i.e., four-eighths and not five- 
ninths of the area is employed in the production of hay, root, and green 
crops, thus affording a more general average in respect of light and 
heavy soils. The main feature in the scheme for increased production, 
is increasing the products grown by augmenting and keeping afloat 
agricultural capital in the cost of production, provided the Land Laws 
of the country afford security to the tenant-occupier for investment of 
his money. Moreover, as regards the cost of production in the expenses 
incurred in "Protection times," not only that is kept up, but increased; 
thus affording a support to the mercantile transactions of the country. 



27 

Again, in the eight-acre test it is shown that the judicial rent 
fixed in 1850 is not affected in the calculation per cent, under the 
changes in circumstances, thus exonerating the landowner from an 
abatement in rent, as the calculation alluded to is shown to yield a 
profit of ] per cent, on the cost of producing cheap food for the popu- 
lation of this country. Although the production of cereals and meat 
products is thus declared to be manifestly profitable, it remains to be 
shown how the necessary capital (£14 9s. 5£d.) per acre (more or less) 
is to be acquired, as the average real farming capital of the kingdom 
cannot be estimated at one-third of the amount suggested. 

The alternative seems to be a complete alteration in the Land 
Laws, as the consequence of the changed times, so as to allow the 
landowners to virtually mortgage their estates, by giving security to 
the tenant-occupier for acquiring the means to farm profitably before 
his normal farming capital is completely exhausted. 

As matters stand at present, the landowner's estate is robbed of its 
virgin fertility by the application of chemicals and other deteriorators, 
which exhaust the soil through not being supported by permanent 
fertilisers, and while the sewage of our towns and populous districts is 
flowing towards the sea instead of being used upon the land. More- 
over, the tenant-occupiers' remaining normal capital is frittered away by 
an unfair scale of taxation, while suffering from foreign competition in 
the production of food for the population of the country, and while the 
fund holder is exempt from taxation to which he was not liable while 
the land reaped the advantages of Protection. 

N.B. — It will be observed that the foregoing diagram (Folio 25) 
amounts to a definition of High and Low Farming, and consequently it 
follows that one moiety of the cultivation of the country is conducted 
profitably notwithstanding low prices, and the other moiety is depreciated 
to ruinous consequences requiring immediate attention to the adjustment 
of the Land Laws and of the Taxation of the country. 



£1 


10 


3 


£ 

11 
9 


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7 

17 


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29 



APPENDIX. 



DEFINITION OF A FAIR RENT. 

A pair rent is that deduced as legitimate in. tlie Wilton House Home Farm 
account, and is shown (as below) by taking the cost of detailed items in 
expenditure from the total cost of production as per Folio 9 " C," leaving 
the remainder for rent (which is £1 10s. 3d.) per acre, as extra parochial 
and tithe free. 

As regards cereals — £ s d 

Total cost of production per acre .. . ... ... ... 6 1 4f 

Cost of detailed items, as per Folio 9 " C " ... ... 4 11 1J 

Leaving for rent ... 

As regards meat products — 

Total cost of production per acre ... 

Cost of detailed items, as per Folio 10 " C " 

Leaving for rent ... 

Or, in other words, a fair rent is the balance remaining between products 
and the necessary cost of production, as evidenced in statements. (Vide 
Folios 9 and 10 " C-") 



A PRODUCE RENT. 

A Criterion for a Produce Rent Deduced from the Wilton 

House Home Farm Account. 

A produce rent at market prices for a district or average of the kingdom is 
considered to be what a " Landed Capitalist " is entitled to, and such as an 
occupying tenant possessing ample capital and skill should not object to ; 
under a judicial contract between landlord and tenant (under the circum- 
stances of the abrogation of the Corn Laws, which changed the relative 
position of landlord and tenant). 

The following diagrams are identical in result with those given in the 
test of the eight-acre farm, and shown on Folios 17 and 18 "G." Based in 
principle on the results of Wilton House Home Farm. 

The produce scheme which governed the rental of the farm in question 
for twenty-three years, as demonstrated in " A," Folio 35, including a manure 
clause, introduced with a view to elicit increased production — the necessary 
increase on wheat, for instance, being eight bushels per acre, and other crops 
in the like ratio. Moreover, it evidences that such a scheme is essential in 
England, Scotland, and Wales, to avoid the present consequences in Ireland, 
and also to show that landed capitalists and competent tenant occupiers are 
better fitted for the agricultural race we are running than by returning to the 
out-grown yeoman class which abandoned freeholds yielding three per cent, 
interest on their capital and adopting the improved Norfolk principle of 
tenancy, shown to be profitable, as exemplified in the Wilton House Home 
Farm. 



30 



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•s.innaoHj xvaj\[ 



32 

A Produce Rent, nevertheless, may be made applicable to the products of 
an estate, district, or kingdom, in accordance with its productions, provided 
the returns of market prices are secured by Parliamentary authority and 
sufficient detail. 

p.S. — Since the foregoing Schedules of Prices were obtained, the Royal 
Agricultural Society's Journal has published the prices for 1886, which give 
the following results when compared with the cost of their production, as 
deduced in the Eight- Acre Test Farm : — 



Description of 
Crop. 


Average for 1883-4-5, 




Average cost of pro- 


as contained in D and D I, 


Average for 1886. 


duction, as contained in 


Folios 9 and 10 " C." 




B, Folios 9 and 10 " O." 




s d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


Wheat 


4 7 


3 10^ 


3 9f 


Barley ... 


2 4£ 


3 3f 




Oats or Dredge... 


1 9| 


2 4i 




Beans and Pulse 


3 4$ 


Not recorded. 






Lowest. Highest. 


Lowest. Highest. 


Price. 


Mutton 


4| 8§ 


*A 8J 


10jd. 




Mean. 


Mean. 






6| 


&k 




Beef 


n n 


3| 6| 


9Jd. 




Mean of 


Mean 4f 




Swine ... 




Not recorded. 


7|d. 


Poultry ... 




>> )> 


V- 



As regards cereals, the market price is not yet reduced to the average cost 
of production. And as regards the meat products, the declared market prices 
stand as shown in comparison with the cost of their production deduced in 
Professor Elliot's work, as well as in the test of the Eight-Acre Farm — both 
being a loss. 



o 






c 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY