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Full text of "Land tenure in the United States : with special reference to Illinois"

STECJJART.CL. : 

Ld^nd Tenure in the 

United States ojitb 

Special Reference 
to Illinois 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/landtenureinunitOstew 



\ 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



THE GRADUAf E SCHOOL 



Way 15, 1915 



1 HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER MY SUPERVISION BY 
Charles Leslie Stewart 
ENTITLED Land Tenure in the United States With Special 

Reference to Illinois 

BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING THIS PART OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE 



DEGREE OF 



Doctor of Philosophy 




Recommendation concurred in: 




Final Examination 



Committee 



on 



LAND TENURE IN THE UNITED STATES WITH 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ILLINOIS 



BY 



CHARLES LESLIE STEWART 

A. B. Illinois Wesleyan University, 1911 
A. M. University of Illinois, 1912 



THESIS 

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the 

Degree of 
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 

IN ECONOMICS 
IN 

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
1915 



Prefaoo 



This thesis is based largely upon United States census 
statistics, the reliability of which need seldom be questioned. 

Illinois is regarded here as a suitable state in which 



study arises from : (1) its size and importance in the production 
of grain; (3) the variety of conditions in its agricultural 
economy; (3) its location in the great farming region of the 
Mississippi valley; (4) the ease of access its farmers have to 
large local markets as well as to other domestic and to foreign 
markets; and (5) the fact that, agriculturally, Illinois is neither 
an old nor a new state, the tenure statistics beginning at the 
time when nearly all of the present farm area had just been put 
into cultivation. 



circumstances have permitted. There is need for cost accounting 
studies in the relative profitableness of various forms of tenure 
to the landlords .and to the operators. The need for a thorough 
investigation of the relation of tenure to co-operative enterprise, 
roads, schools, churches, and social life is equally pressing. 



to make a type study of land tenure. 



Its value for such a 



It was planned to carry on more field investigation than 




University of Illinois, 
May 12, 1915. 



UlUC 







ii 








I 


. A Sketch of Land Tenure in the United States. 




A. General characteristics of American land tenure 


1 




The public domain 


2 


B . The 


trend of tenure, 1850 to 1880 


5 




The estimates of Dr. L. G. Poirers criticized 


6 


C. The 


trend of tenure, 1880 to 1910 


8 




Changes in the relative prominence of different 






tenures 


9 




Summary of tenure statistics 


11 




The importance of renting by part owners 






The size of farms of each form of tenure 


14 




The corrections resulting from employing the 






acreage basis of presentation 


19 




Mortgage encumbrance on ovmed land, 1890 to 1910 


30 


Conclusion 


23, 


II 


. The Causes and Characteristics of Tenure Status. 






Introduction 


34 


A. The 


owners and operators of the land 


34 




1. Owners 


24 




Landlords by relative necessity 






Attitude toward holding land 






Retiring of owners from operation 


26 




Part ownership 


26 




3. Tenants 


28 




Racial characteristics of Southern tenants 


ou 




Characteristics of farms operated 


Ox 




Basis of renting 


32 




Tendency to improve economic status 


33 


B. The 


relation of tenure to farm practice 


35 




The place of part owners 






Statistics on principal source of income of farms 


oo 




The types of farming to which the forms of tenure 






are adapted 


36 



iil 



C. The relation of tenure to the relative ease of land 

acquisition 38 

Statistics of change in fundamental land ccnditione 39 

^ Conclusion 41 

III. Tendencies in the Agricultural Economy of Illinois. 

1. Physiography and timber 43 

2. Effect of timber on early settlement and farm 

practice 45 

3. Growth of population and decline of portion in 

agriculture ' 47 

Recent absolute decline in rural population 50 

4. Growth of total and improved area of land in farms, 

and number of farms 51 

5. Changes in value of elements of farm property 54 

6. Changes in the place occupied by various kinds of 

(a) domestic animals, and (b) productions 57 

7. The significance of the period beginning with 1880 61 
IV. The Changes in Land Tenure in Illinois. 

Before 1880 62 

Tenure statistics for the state as a whole 63 

Decennial changes on basis of farms 36 

Chajiges, 1900 to 1910, on basis of acreage 67 

Maps based on number of farms 69 

Maps based on acreage 73 

The sectional aspects of tenure 76 
Relation to: 

Values of products 82 

Size of farms and holdings 83 

Land prices 84 

Absence of timber 85 



Iv 

Historical tendencies and tenure 86 

Improvement of land 86 

Values of products 89 

Land prices 90 

Conclusions 93 

V. A Description of Farm Operators in Illinois. 

The relation between the number of farm operators 

and the number of farm families 96 

The relative prominence of the different bases 

of renting 97 

The correlation between the size of farms and 

various forms of tenure 100 

A description of farm properties and practice of 

operators of specified forms of tenure 105 

The percentage of land improved 105 

Value of various items of property 106 
Farm animals: percentage of farms reporting; 

value 109 
Value of products, and average expenditures 

for labor and expenditures 112 
Distribution by tenure of farms of specified 

principal sources of income 115 
The production of ten selected crops: per- 
centage of farms reporting; acres per 
farm; percentage of acreage; yields per 

acre 118 

Mortgage encumbrance of owned land 124 

Percentage of farms free and mortgaged 124 

Ratio of debt to equity 126 

Color and nativity of farmers 129 

Residence of owners in relation to rented farms 132 

The ownership of rented farms 137 

Age of operators 140 

Owners compared with tenants 140 

Free owners compared with encumbered owners 143 

Summary 146 



V 



VI. The Felatlon of Tenure to Rural Economic and Social 
Conditions in Illinois. 

The decline in rural population in relation 

to tenure 149 

Co-operative activity among Illinois farmers 

as related to tenure 153 

Churches and schools, as affected by conditions 

of tenure 155 

The relation of tenure to the state of farm 

structures 156 

The effect of tenure upon the concentration 

of production on money crops 157 

The importance of physiographic features in 

the agricultural economy of Illinois 158 

Renting an important consideration in the 

theory of rents 159 

The significance of changes in land prices 160 

The significance of low fam loan rates 161 

The penalization of speculation in land 162 

Some forecasts 163 

An exhibit of illustrative maps 165 

Appendices 235 

Bibliography 246 



vl 



LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS 
Plates 

I. Population of Illinoia 
II. Illinoia farms and farm lands, 1850-1910 



Following page 
48 



III. Diagram showing changss in the average value per acre 
of farm property, Illinois, 1850-1910 

IV. Diagram showing the percentage of the value of farm 

property per acre comprised by each element thereof, 
1850-1910 



V. Diagram showing the distribution of farm operators among 
age-groups, Illinois, 1890-1910 



VI. Diagram showing the percentages of farmers in each age- 
group operating as owners and as tenants, Illinois, 
1890-1910 



Maps 

United States 

Farm tenure - number of farms operated by tenants, 
April 15, 1910 

Percentage of farms operated by ten3.nts, 1910 

Percentage of all land in farms operated by tenants. 



1910 



Illinois 

A small general map 
District division 
Soil map 

Timber map, 1880 

Percentage of land area in farms. 
Average number of acres per farm. 



1850 
1880 
1910 

1850 
1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 



53 
54 

56 

141 

143 



166 
167 



168 

158 

169 

170 

171 
173 
173 

174 
175 
175 
177 
178 



1 



vll 



Percentage of farms operated by tenants, 1880 179 

1890 180 

1900 181 

1910 182 

Percentage of increase in the percentage of farms 

operated by tenants, 1880 to 1910 183 

Percentage of farm acreage, 1910, operated by Tenants 184 

Managers 185 

Part owners 186 

Percentage of land in partly owned farms operated 

under lease, 1910 187 



Percentage 


Ol 


farm acreage, 1910, hired by 






Part ovv-ners 


188 






Part owners and tenants 


189 


Percentage 


of 


fann acreage, 1910, owned by 








Part owners 


190 






Owners proper 


191 






Part owners and owners proper 


±y £j 


Percentage 


of 


farm land improved, 1880 


ly o 




iyj.0 


TO/ 


Percentage 


of 


improved land devoted to the production of 






Six leading cereals, 1880 


195 






1890 


186 






1900 


197 






1910 


198 






Corn, 1880 


199 






1890 


200 






1900 


201 






1910 


202 


Average value 


of products per acre, 1830 


203 






1890 


204 






1900 


205 


Average value 


of land and buildings per acre, 1880 


206 






1890 


207 






1900 


208 






1910 


209 



Percentage of increase in the average value of land 

and buildings per acre, 1880-1910 210 

1S80-1900 211 

1900-1910 212 



vlll 



Percentage of tenant farms rented for cash, 1880 213 

1890 214 

1900 215 

1910 316 

Percentage of non-cash rented farms rented on the 

share-caah basis, 1910 317 

Percentage of owners operating under mortgage, 1910 218 

Percentage of value of mortgaged farms covered 
by mortgage, 1910 219 

Percentage of change in the unincorporated 
population. 



Value of buildings per acre 



1890- 


1910 


220 


1900- 


1910 


221 


1890- 


1900 


222 




1900 


223 




1910 


224 



LAND TENURE IN THE UNITED STATES 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ILLINOIS 



CHAPTER I 

A SKETCH OF LAND TENURE IN THE UNITED STATES 

General Character! 3 tics of American Land Tenure 
From the earlieat date of colonization the land in the 
territory of the United States has been held under a system of 
tenure distinguished for its simplicity. The feudal tenure of 
Europe never obtained much footing in the United States and was 
influential chiefly in that Americans reacted against it.^ In 
place of a complicated system of legal fictions and customary 
relations and charges, the land system of the United States may 
be said to consist simply of two forms: ownership; and tenancy, 
whether on a cash, share or combined basis. The ownership is 
that which is known technically as allodial, that is, ownership 
in fee simple, free from any rent, services, or other restriction 
except that reserved by the state in its right to tax, exercise 
police power, and force sales by virtue of the power of eminent 
domain . 

Between the years 1783 and 1790, six of the seven con- 
federated states which had claims to lands west of the Appalachian 

1. Taylor, H. C: Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, 
IV, pp. 174-175. 



3. 

mountains had their cessions accepted by Congress. 1 This placed 
upon Congress the responsibility of disposing of the Western lands. 
Congress in 1785 and 1787 passed resolutions which established the 
foundations of the national land policy. The principles laid down 
were that the land should be alienated by the government to 
settlers, that non-resident land owners should not be taxed higher 
than resident land holders, the New England rectangular surveying 
system should be employed, the lands surveyed prior to settlement, 
the price low, minimum parcels small, registry cheap, conveyance 
simple, and that the property of persons dying intestate should be 
equally distributed among the children. These provisions, togeth- 
er with the abundance of the lands, have exercised a most demo- 
cratic influence upon the agricultural, social and political life 
of the nation.^ 

The public domain of the United States grew by conquest 
and purchase at a most phenomenal rate. The follo-iring table 
summarizes and illustrates this expansion: 

1. New York, 1783; Virginia, 1784; Massachusetts, 1785; 
Connecticutt, 1786, and North Carolina, 1790. The offer of 
Georgia was made and rejected in 1783 and a satisfactory agree- 
ment was not reached until 1803. See Treat, P.J., The 
National Land System, 1785-1830, p. 15. 

3. Treat, P.J.: op .cit. , chapter II. 



Table ahowing the growth of the public domain^ 

Square 

Datea miles Acres 

Cession by States Mar. 1, 1781 404,955.91 259,171,787 

Apr. 24, 1802 

Louisiana Purchase Apr. 30,1803 1,182,752.00 756,961,280 
East and West 

Florida Purchase Feb. 22, 1819 59,268.00 37,931,520 

Ceded by Mexico Feb. 2, 1848 522,568.00 334,443,520 

Texas Purchase Nov. 25, 1850 101,767.00 65,130,880 

Gadsden Purchase Dec. 30, 1853 45,535.00 29,142,400 

Alaska Purchase Mar. 30, 1867 577,390.00 369,529,600 

Total 2,894,235.91 1,852,310,987 

(1) Sato, Shosuke: History of the Land Question in the 
United States, p. 76. 

The following table illustrates the rate at which the 

public lands were disposed of by the Government. 1 

Number of acres 
Period sold per annum 

1787-1310 200,000 

1811-1820 1,530,000 

1821-1830 1,010,000 

1831-1840 6,230,000 

1841-1860 3,430,000 

1861-1880 4,710,000 

1881-1888 12,400,000 

(l) Taylor, H. C. Syllabus of Lectures on Agricultural 
Economics, Pt. I, p. 78. 



4. 

Kroni 1338 to 1900 the annual amount of land taken up 
underwent a rapid decline, and since 1900 very little land has 
been taken up.''' 

Under such conditions there is little wonder that during 
the earlier days the major part of the population devoted itself 
to agriculture. The census enumerations show that in 1830, 
83.0, and in 1840, 77.5 per cent of the "occupied" population was 
engaged in agriculture.^ 

Not only did agriculture employ the energy of the larger 
part of the American people up to the middle of the last century, 
but the great portion of the free farm fsunilies was undoubtedly 
in full possession of their farms and homes. The land was taken 
up, in most cases, in tracts of a size suitable for almost every 
one to ovm a farm; the owners were usually in such an economic 
condition that they needed the full return from their land instead 
of the small fraction which they could receive as rental income; 
and finally, the development of urban life had not yet gone to 
such a point as to invite landowners in any great measure to leave 
their farms to reside in the cities. Under such conditions 
tenancy must not have had any great place in American agriculture. 

The path to land ownership needed at most to have no 
more than three stages, that of farm l-aborsr, followed by a period 
of operating leased land, and ending in the Ovvnership of one or 
more farms. The passage from a propertyless to a propertied 

1. Taylor, H. C. Syllabus of Lectures on Agricultural 
Economics, Pt, I, p. 78. 

3. See Appendix I, pages 32S-338. 



5. 

condition was one almost certain in its possibility of accomplish- 
ment by any able-bodied and industrious individual. In many 
cases, the laborer entered land directly without having to pass 
through the tenant status. Where tenancy was resorted to as a 
step to land ownership, it was a status from which the individual 
could usually rise in a few years. 

Rents were competitive, to be sure, but with good lands 
existing in excess of the demand, rents could not have been ex- 
cessive. 

The Trend of Tenure, 1850 to 1880 
Whether tenancy was becoming more prevalent or less 
prevalent during the generation before 1880 is a question. The 
estimates and opinions on tenancy before 1880 are hard to free 
from the pre judicata which were prevalent at the time when they 
were expressed. 

Possibly the most definite opinions offered on the 
trend of tenure before 1880 were those of Dr. L. G. Powers who 
supplied some statistics on land tenure for the period 1850 to 
1870.1 Estimates for 1880 are also given, which bear some 
relation to the tenure statistics of the census of that date. 
The estimates are as follows: 

1. Used before the meeting of the International 
Statistical Institute at Petrograd in August, 1897, and 
reported in the American Statistical Association Publica- 
tions, Volume 5, 339-344. 



6. 



Year 1850 1860 1870 1880 

Total farm families 2,458,000 3,358,750 4,082,700 4,935,000 

Farm ovming; families 1,325,000 1,850,000 2,220,000 3,068,000 

Families of tenants, 

laborers and slaves 1,133,000* 1,508,750 1,862,000 1,367,000 

Families of slaves 481,500* 595,000 

Families of tenants 

and laborers 672,500* 913,750 1,862,000 1,867,000 

Families of tenants 1, 325,000+ 

Families of laborers 542,000 



AmericanStatistical Association Publications, V, p. 344. 

♦An error of 100 was made somewhere in these figures. 
+This is 300,000 in excess of the number of tenant 

farms as reported by the Tenth census. See below, p. 9. 

From these estimates it appears that the increase in 
the number of farm owning families was over twice as large as the 
increase in the number of families of tenants and laborers, 
(including slaves in 1850). The percentage of farm families 
owning their farms increased, according to the view of Dr, Powers, 
from 53.9 in 1850, to 62.2 in 1880. 

It is probable that the estimate that only 54.0 per 
cent of the farm families o^/nied their farms in 1850 is an under- 
emphasis of the extent to which ovaiershlp prevailed at that time. 
Several reasons can be offered to show that tenant-farming must 
have been much less prevalent in 1850 than in 1880, as against 
the view of Dr. Powers that the trend was in the opposite direc- 
tion. In the first place, in 1850, the cotton lands were 
operated largely by the O'-mers, of whom those who were too poor 



to own slaves were too poor to live without cultivating their ovm 
land, and. those who had slaves seldom leased the land to others 
to operate. Outside of the cotton belt, land was being taken up 
in the North and West at a rapid rate, particularly during the 
sixties. Those who took up new land were to some extent former 
tenants, and by changing to owners must have tended to reduce the 
percentage of tenancy. Since the area of recently occupied land 
was being rapidly extended in the Fest, the influence of that 
section must have been more strongly against tenancy in the 
seventies than in the fifties. There seems, certainly, to be no 
evidence that the trend of conditions between 1850 and 1880 was 
enough different from the trend since 1880 to cause a movement 
toward ownership before 1880 and toward tenancy after that date. 

On the other hand it is true that large farms were 
characteristic of some parts of the country, and that we are 
accustomed to think that the prevalence of large fanns is con- 
ducive to tenant operation. The large farms of the early days, 
however, were chiefly in the newer country, where land ownership 
was easy to acquire. In the older parts of the country the 
areas of farm land cultivable by a family were made larger by 
the increasing use of machinery, but the farms were becoming 
better improved and smaller in all except the Southern states. 
The tendency to subdivide the older farms probably stayed some- 
what the trend toward tenant farming, though it would be diffi- 
cult to say that it overcame that tendency. 

Between 1850 and 1880, it is probable that the tendency 
in the South was towards tenancy, in the West tov/ards ownership. 



8. 



and in the North and East, to.varda tenancy. In the country as 
a whole the trend towards tenancy was getting under way. 

The Trend of Tenure, 1830 to 1910 
Beginning with the Tenth census, 1880, we have reliable 
statistics on tenancy for every county in the United States. 
These data have been taken with the farm^ as the basis for the 
Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth, and Thirteenth enumerations. At the 
Eleventh census, additional data were gathered on farm and home 
ownership. In the Twelfth and Thirteenth census reports tenure 
statistics are also offered on the basis of acreage of land in 
farms . 

When the results of the Tenth census were published 
considerable surprise was evinced at the extent to which the 
farms of the nation were operated by tenants. Since that time, 
however, tenancy has become more and more prevalent in the country. 
The statistical evidence of this tendency is summarized in the 
next two tables. 

The first table gives an analysis of the population 
engaged in agriculture. 

1. See Appendix II, pp. 239-331. 



9. 



Number of all farms and of those operated by ovmers and by 
tenants; number of persons 10 years old and over employed In 
agriculture and the number of such persons in excess of the number 
of farms, with proportional number; summary, 1880 to 1910.^ 

Census Year 1910 1900 1890 1880 

Number of farms 

Total 6,361,503 5,737,373 4,564,641 4,008,907 

Operated by 

Ovmers, part 

owners and 

managers 4,006,826 3,712,408 3,259,738 2,984,306 

Part ovmers .... 593,825 451,376 

Tenants 2,354,676 2,024,964 1,294,913 1,024,601 

Persons employed 

in agricuiture3 12,373,159 10,268,138 9,057,365 8,183,732 
Excess over the 

number of farms 6,011,657 4,530,766 4,492,724 4,174,825 



Number to 1000 
persons in agricul- 
ture of 

Farms of owners, 

part O'ATiers and 

managers 323.8 

Part owners .... 48.0 

Tenants 190 . 3 

Persons without 
tenure 485.9 



Thirteenth census, V, 



361.5 361.0 364.6 

44.0 . 

197.2 J43.0 125.2 

441.3 496.0 510.2 
122, and Appendix III, page 232. 



1. The table presented here is a correction and con- 
tinuation of one in the introduction to the Twelfth census 
report on agriculture. (Twelfth Census Statistics of Agri- 
culture, Ixxxviii). The effect of the correction is to in- 
crease the number and relative prominencf of ttie "persona 
not owners or tenants". The illustrative table given in the 
census left out all females. In addition it eliminated a 
fraction of the males in agriculture under 16 years of age, 

a method which could not be employed in the case of the 1910 
census data, and which probably should not have been employed 
at all. 

2. Exclusive of apiarists, woodchoppers, lumbermen, 
raftsmen, fishermen, oystermen, foresters, owners and mana- 
gers of log and lumber camps, and those in other agriculturs^l 
and animal husbandry pursuits so far as separately reported. 



All of the elements of the farm population ahowed an 
increaae in number in 1910 when compared with 1880, but the 
increase in the relative prominence of the tenants is the out- 
standing feature of the table. The percentage of increase in 
the number of farms was 60; in the number of tenants, 130; owners 
part owners and managers, 35; all persons engaged in agriculture, 
40; and persons other than owners, part O'lWiers, tenants and 
managers, 20. The relative decrease in prominence of the latter 
class, the farm employees, is probably due to the increased effi- 
ciency of all farm v^orkers. The total acreage per male in 
agriculture increased from 65.5 in 1880 to 71.0 in 1910, an in- 
crease of 8.4 per cent.^ The improved acreage per individual 
In agriculture was 38.7 in 1910 as compared with 34.8 in 1880, 



1. Improved and unimrjroved land in farms. 
United States, 1880 to 1910. 

Average number 
of acres per 
Acres of land in farms. individual in 

agriculture . 

Cen- 
sus Im- Unim- 
Year Total Improved Unimproved Total proved proved 

1910 878,798,325 478,451,750 400,346,575 71.0 38.7 32.3 

1900 838,591,774 414,498,487 424,093,287 81.7 40.4 41,3 

1890 623,218,619 357,615,755 265,601,864 68.8 39.5 29.3 

1880 536,081,835 284,771,042 251,310,793 65.5 34.8 30.7 

United States census rex^orts: Twelfth, V, xviii, and 
Thirteenth, V, 28. 

The extra large acreage per individual in 1900 was due 
to the record acreage of unimproved land in farms at that 
date, that being the only census since 1870 in which over 
half of the land was reported unimproved. 



11. 

an increase of 10.0 per cent. The cause of this increase la to 
be found mainly in agricultural machinery, the use and labor- 
saving efficiency of which haa undergone a considerable increase 
during the period since 1880.^ 

The table on the next page summarizes the existing data 
on the tenure of farms and acreage. 

Taking the country as a whole the percentage of farms 
operated by tenants increased from 25.6 in 1880 to 37.0 in 1910, 
the decade during which the major part of the increase took place 
being the one from 1890 to 1900. Every division of the country 
outside of New England showed an increase in the percentage of 
tenant farms. In the North Central group the percentage rose 
from a little over 20 in 1880 to somewhat less than 30 in 1910; 
in the South Central states, from about 36 in 1880 to a little 
over 50 in 1910; and in the South Atlantic group from 36 to nearly 
46 in 1910. 

The old New England farms and the new Western farms each 
showed small percentages of tenancy, the former chiefly because 
of the agricultural depression which drove tenant farmers to other 
sections, and the latter largely on account of the chance for one 
to become owner of land for himself. 

One characteristic of the trend in tenant farming in the 
United States is that the divisions of the country seem to present 

1. Quaintanoe, H. W. Cyclopedia of American Agricul- 
ture, IV, p.lOSf; and Publications of the American Economic 
Association, Third Series, Volime V, separately printed. 



12. 



Percentage of farms and of the farm acreage operated under 
various forma of tenure. United States, 1880-1910. 



Geographical divisions 





United 


New 


i.l 1 u.— 




U C O u 


O U L.I u XL 




T7(a nt 

Vf w O u 


Mm m-" 


Pa- 






States Fne- 


ell d 


i\UX Oil 




ii li 


O U U Li 11 


O <J U. u 11 




O X X 














vjCXl— 


T PI Tl — 


wCll 






i n 












u X ex J. 


U X CLX 


1/ X o 


Ki X CbX 


traT 








FARMS 
























Tenants 
























1910 


37.0 


8.0 


22 3 


27 


30 ^ 


45.9 


50 7 


52 8 


10.7 


17 


.2 


1900 


35.3 


9.4 






29 6 


4-4. 2 


Afi T 


49 1 


12 2 


19 


7 


1890 


28.4 




22.1 


22.8 


24.0 


38.5 


38.3 


38.6 


7.1 


14 


.7 


1880 


25.6 


o » %J 


19.2 


20.5 


20.5 


36.1 


36,8 


35.2 


7.4 


16 


.8 


Part owners 






















1910 


9.3 






11 7 


16 1 


6 A 


6 9 

w • w 


7 6 


8 6 

w • w 


10 

X w 


9 


1900 


7.9 




4- 4. 


TOO 


X** . fc.' 


A Q 


R 


«J . V.' 


fi 


XX 




Managers 
























1910 


0.9 


2. fi 


1 9 


1 


fi 


7 


3 


R 


1 fi 


2 


fi 


1900 


1.0 


2 5 


1 7 


1 

X • V 


fi 


Q 


^ 


7 


A 

W • ^ 


2 


q 


Owners proper 






















1910 


52.7 


OVJ . J. 


70 . 3 


60 . 3 


52 . 3 


46 .9 


42 .1 


39 1 


79 .1 


69 


.1 


1900 


55.8 






62 S 




AO q 


46 3 


4A fi 


76 1 


66 

^ w 


T 


ACREAGE 
























Tenants 
























1910 


25.8 


7 fi 




'^0 


27 


30 1 


27 9 


26 7 


10 6 


19 


fi 


1900 


23.3 


9.4 


28 6 


27 3 


23 6 


"^0 6 


27 4 


19 


9 4. 


19 


5 


Part owners 






















1910 


15.2 


A P 


7 4 


13 <=i 


23 9 


6 3 


8 


13 8 

X w • W 


16 7 


21 


7 


1900 


14.9 


A. P 




IT 7 

X X . 1 


P*^ 7 


A 7 


S ft 


T 7 7 
X r . 1 


22 


T Q 

X«7 


c 
. o 


Rented by- 






















part OTvners 






















1910 


7.4 


1 R 
X . O 


2 "1 


R P 


X X , o 


2 A 


2 7 


fi A 


fi Q 


T 

X 


T 

. X 


1900 


7.1 




X • o 


R P 


IT 4. 

XX • '7 


T fi 
X . o 


P 


fi 2 


T P R 

X u . C 


T 
X 


n 


Owned by 
























part owners 






















1910 


7.8 


2.6 


o • o 


7 7 


1 P A 
Xo . ft 


O . f 


o . o 


7 A 


7 fi 


PO 


. O 


1900 


7.8 


2.6 


*± . o 


fi R 


IP 

Xw • O 


P Q 


7 fi 






T fi 

xo 


. o 


Owners proper 






















1910 


52.9 


82.5 


S2 7 


1 

tJ^r • J. 


47 


60 A 


fiP, T 


A7 ^ 




A"^ 


, X 


1900 


51,4 


82.5 


62.2 


59.0 


49.4 


61.4 


64.8 


37.1 


33,0 


42 


.9 


Managers 
























1910 


6.1 


5.5 


4.0 


2.0 


2.1 


3.2 


2.0 


11.6 


18.5 


15 


.4 


1900 


10.4 


3.9 


3.3 


2.0 


3.3 


3.3 


2.0 


26,2 


35.6 


18 


.0 


All lessees 






















1910 


33.2 


9.4 


28.0 


36.2 


38.5 


32.5 


30.6 


33.1 


19.5 


20 


, 9 


1900 


30.4 


11.0 


30.2 


32,5 


35.0 


32.4 


29.4 


27.2 


21.9 


20 


!5 


All deed- 


holders 




















1910 


50.7 


85.1 


68.0 


61.8 


59.4 


64.3 


67.4 


55.3 


62.0 


63 


.7 


1900 


59.2 


85.1 


66.5 


65.5 


61.7 


64.3 


68.6 


46,6 


42.5 


61 


.5 



Authority: United States census reports: Twelfth, V, 308; 

and Thirteenth, V, 114, 122 and 123. 



13. 



a wider range of peroentagea each succeeding decade, that the per- 
centage of tenant farms has moved forward most where it was high- 
est previously, and has shown least positivenesa in increasing 
where it was already low. Taken as a whole, however, the increase 
has been persistent, although not fast, especially during the 
decade following 1900. 

The farms operated by part ovmers and managers were 
doubtless classified with those of owners proper in 1880 and 1890. 
There has been a tendency to adopt the same practice in presenting 
the tenure statistics for 1900 and 1910, especially where compari- 
sons with the earlier dates were being made. So far as the 
managed farms were concerned, the error involved in counting them 
in with the farms operated by owners is not great. In no section 
did the managed farms constitute more than three per cent of all 
farms in that section in 1910, and, after all, the farm manager 
is in a sense a representative of the owner. The inclusion of 
the partly owned farms with the farms of owners proper is also 
partially excusable. In 1900 the farms of part owners contained 
on the average nearly 5 acres more of owned land than the average 
farm entirely owned at that date.-^ The part owners constituted 
9.3 per cent of all farm operators in 1910. 

While the tenure statistics on the basis of "farm.s" give 
a fairly correct impression of the distribution of the various 
kinds of operators, placing the data on the acreage basis gives 
some interesting variations from the previous impressions. The 

1. 139.6 to 134.7. See below, p, 38. . 



14. 

oause of the variations ia the differences that exist in the size 
of farms of various tenures and in different sections. 

The table on the next page shows the average acreage of 
all farms and of farms of various tenures for 1900 and 1910. 

It will be seen that the average acreage of all farms 
declined from 146.3 in 1900 to 138.1 in 1910, and that only the 
North Central States showed any tendency toward an increase in the 
size of farms. The movement was not, therefore, toward a farm of 
standard size for the whole country, inasmuch as the divisions 
where small farms prevailed in 1900 underwent a still further re- 
duction in the size of the operating units. 

As a rule, the tenants operated farms less than two-thirds 
as large as those operated by the O'vvners, the ratio in acres being 
96 to 139 in 1900 and 96 to 135 in 1910. In the North East 
quarter of the country and in the Mountain and Pacific divisions 
the reverse is the case, the size of tenant farms being greater 
than that of the farms operated by the owners. The most striking 
case is afforded by the South Central states where the tenant farms 
are between a third and a half as large, on the average, as the 
farms of owners. 

The farms of part owners were approximately twice as 
large as those of owners proper in 1900, but fell off nearly 30 
per cent by 1910, while the farms of owners proper underv/ent a 
slight increase during that period. The enormous farms of managers 
were in the territory west of the Mississippi river, where the 
farms of all tenures, except tenants in the T7est South Central 
states, were much above the general average in size. 



15. 



Average number of acres per farm. 

Geographical dlvlalona. 



U.S. riew Mid- East West South East West 

Eng- die North North At- South South 

Cen- Cen- Ian- Cen- Cen- 
tral tral tic tral tral 



Moun- 
tain 



Pac- 
ific 



land At- 
lan- 
tic 



Total 
1910 



138.1 104.4 92.3 105.0 309.6 93.3 78.3 179.3 



1900 146.2 107.1 92.4 102.4 189.5 108.4 89.9 233.8 



Tenants 

1910 96.2 102.5 107.4 116.4 183.4 61.3 43.1 
1900 96.3 107.1 104.5 106.3 150.6 75.0 51.1 



Owners 

proper 
1910 138.6 100.0 82.2 
1900 134.7 103.7 83.8 

Owners 
and 
part 
owners 

1910 151.6 101.5 85.3 
1900 152.2 105.4 86.1 



94.7 188.4 120.1 115.1 
97.1 170.5 133.7 135.9 



90.6 
90.3 



220.1 
194.2 



324.5 
457.9 



318.1 
349.6 



223.0 
201,5 



270.3 
334.8 



310.1 
331.9 



169.0 
218.0 



99.2 317.1 116.5 111,9 
99.7 199.3 130.7 123.8 



236.7 
255,2 



Part 
owners 

1910 225.0 142.2 135,2 134.8 311.3 91.7 90.9 324.2 

1900 276.4 153.2 122.3 120.2 310.5 104.4 103.3 755.8 

Mana- 
gers 

1910 924.7 202.3 188.9 317.0 597.0 405.5 487.5 4194.7 
1900 1481.2 167,8 179.1 202.3 785.3 379.8 345.8 9330.0 



262.8 
298,8 



625,0 
1196.7 



3778.8 
4833.2 



319.0 
270.3 



538.1 
581.2 



1512,0 
3049.4 



Thirteenth census, V, 114, 137, 

On the "basis of farms, the prevalence of tenancy was most 
marked in the Southern states. The number of tenant farms and 
the percentage of farms operated by tenants in the states of those 
divisions has been so great and increasing so rapidly as to give 
more or less alarm to some students of the situation. 

1 . See next page . 



16. 



(1) The following table shows the number of tenant farms 
in the eight states leading in that respect in 1910. 

111. N.C. S.C. Ga. Ala. Miss. Ark. Texaa 

1910 104,379 107,287 111,231 190,980 158,526 181,491 107,266 219,575 

1900 103,598 93,008 94,889 134,570 128,874 137,852 81,140 174,991 

1890 81,833 60,890 63,580 91,594 76,631 76,260 40,054 95,510 

1880 80,344 52,722 47,219 62,175 63,649 44,558 29,188 65,468 



Thirteenth census, V, 210-213. 





Rank of 


each state in 


number of 


all 


tenants . 








111. 


N.C. 


S.C, 


Ga. Ala. 


Miss 


Ark. Texas 




1910 

X a. V/ 


8 


6 


5 


2 4 


3 


7 


1 




1900 


5 


7 


6 


3 4 


2 


10 


1 




18<^0 

Jto V.J V/ 


3 


8 


7 


2 4 


5 


17 


1 






1 


7 


8 


4 3 


11 


17 


2 






The table below 


shows 


the percentage 


of farms 


operated 


bv tena.nt'a! 


in the 


thirteen states (including the District of 




Holumbia ^ 


leading 


in that 


respect in 1910 




















Rank 


among all 


states in 




Percentage of 


farms 


rented. 


percentage of 


farms 


rente 




1910 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1910 


1900 


1890 


1880 


Illinois 


41.4 


39.3 


34.0 


31.4 


11 


13 


10 


11 


Delaware 


41.9 


50.3 


46,9 


42.4 


10 


6 


5 


5 


Dist. Col. 


38.7 


43.1 


36.6 


38.2 


13 


10 


8 


6 


N. Carolina 


42.3 


41.4 


34.1 


33.5 


9 


11 


9 


10 


S. Carolina 


63.0 


61.1 


55.3 


50.3 


3 


2 


1 


1 


Georgia 


65.6 


59.9 


53.5 


44.9 


2 


4 


3 


3 


Tennessee 


51,1 


40.6 


30.8 


34.5 


12 


12 


13 


9 


Alabama 


60.2 


57.7 


48.6 


46.8 


4 


3 


4 


2 


Mississippi 


66.1 


62.4 


52.8 


43.8 


1 


1 


3 


4 


Arkansas 


50.0 


45.4 


32.1 


30.9 


8 


8 


11 


13 


Louisiana 


55.3 


58,0 


44.4 


35.2 


5 


4 


6 


8 


Oklahoma 


54.8 


43.8 






6 


9 


49 


49 


Texas 


52.6 


49.6 


41 !9 


37!6 


7 


7 


7 


7 



Thirteenth census, V, 122-127. 



17. 



When, hovever, the atatlstics of tenure are placed on 
the acreage basis, the percentage of tenancy in the South loses 
much of its alarming magnitude. This is due to the smallnesa of 
the tenant farms in that region. The significance of tenancy in 
the South, however, is not minimized but rather augmented, perhaps, 
by the fact that the great numbers of tenants operate small farms. 
On the acreage basis the Fast North Central division is nearly 
abreast with the South Atlantic division in the percentage of 
tenancy, while the West North Central states stand bet7/een the 
East and West South Central groups.^ As a whole, tenancy appears 

to be much more nearly uniform throughout the country v:hen regarded 
from the acreage point of view. 

The portion of the farm acreage operated by part owners 
and by managers is, because of the largeness of their farms, much 
greater than their relative numbers simong farm operators. 

Part oivners operated three-fifths as much farm land as 
tenants in the United States in 1910, and nearly half of what they 
operated was rented. Considering the rented land in partly owned 
farms, the surprising fact appears that in 1910 the percentage of 
tenancy was greatest, not in the Southern states, but in the North 
Central states. The percentage of tenancy in the country as a 
whole is somewhat smaller than indicated by the data based on the 
number of farms, but was increasing between 1900 and 1910 faster 
than the respective percentages of farms operated by tenants would 
indicate . 



1. See next page. 



(1) states leading in the percentage of farm land 
operated under leaae, 1900 and 1910.' 

Census State Percentage of farm land rented by Rank 

year among 

Tenants Part All all 

ovmers lessees states 





Delaware 


58.7 


0.8 




59.5 


1 




Illinois 


38.6 


6 . 6 




45.2 


3 


1900 


Maryland 


41.9 


1.3 




43.2 


3 




Oklahoma 


34.0 


8.8 




42.8 


4 




Iowa 


33.6 


6.4 




40.0 


5 




Oklahoma 


43.1 


20.01 




> 63.1(d; 


1 




Delar/are 


52.1 


0.71 




1 52.8(d 


2 


1910 


Illinois 


43.6 


6.4( 




1 51.0(d 


3 




Georgia 


42.0 


4.0( 




1 46.0(d 


4 




Iowa 


39,0 


6.31 


iai 


45.3(d; 


1 5 



Thirteenth census, V, 130, 131; and 
Twelfth census, V, 142, 308. 



(a) Estimates based as follows on changes from 1900 to 1910. 



State Change in Change in Index 

number of partly average size of 

owned farms of all farms change 

Oklahoma +211.4 -28.7 +150.7 

Delaware -0.3 -12.9 -13,3 

Georgia +63.4 -21,2 +50,0 

Iowa -8,4 +3,4 -8.1 



Thirteenth census, V, 830, 124-126, 



The index is multiplied by the percentage of acreage 
leased by part owners in 1900. 

(b) See below, page 65. 

(c) Percentage in 1900, 2.7. 

(d) Sums subject to error in preceding column. 



19. 

Managers controlled 6.1 per cent of the farm land in 
1910. In the West South Central and Mountain divisions they 
operated "between 10 and 30 per cent of the land. 

In nearly all discussiona of land tenure in the United 
States, only the statistics on farms operated by tenants have been 
employed, and the reader is naturally inclined to consider the 
farms not operated by tenants as cultivated by their ovvners. As 
a consequence, it would most naturally be suggested by the data on 
the percentage of farms operated by tenants that 

(1) Ownership was least prevalent in the Southern states; that 
(3) The farms of the Mountain and Pacific states were almost 
exclusively in the hands of owners; and that 

(3) The relative prevalent of operation by corners was declining 
between 1900 and 1910, 

Considering that part owners owned only a little more 
than half the land they cultivated and that managers are not to be 
identified with ovTners, the standpoint of the land requires a cor- 
rection of the three impressions just enumerated. Ownership of 
operated acres, outside of the New England and Middle Atlantic 
states, was most prevalent in the East South Central and South 
Atlantic states. Ownership was least common in the ^est South 
Central and '^eat North Central groups. In the territory east of 
the I-Iississippi river, ovmership was less prevalent in the (East) 
North Central states than in any other division. 

The percentage of operation by the deedholders, while 
sho^TO to be smaller by the acreage data given here than might be 
inferred from the data on farm tenure usually employed, was, for 



20. 

the country as a vvhole, larger in 1910 than in 1900. It would 
thu3 appear that, while the trend in the tenure of farms '.vaa some- 
what toward tenancy, the trend in the tenure of farm land has been 
toward a relative increase of both the leased and the owned 
acreage at the expense of the acreage controlled by managers. This 
was true especially in the West South Central, Mountain and Pacific 
divisions. In the Tiiddle Atlantic states the trend was toward 
ownership because of the decline in the percentage of farms run by 
tenants. In the i-Jorth Central states, however, both east and 
west of the Mississippi river, and in the East South Central states, 
the trend was toward land leasing and a'vvay from operation by the 
owners. 

On the basis of the acres operated under the various 
forms of tenure, there is a much greater uniformity between the 
various parts of the country than might be supposed to be the 
case should one consider only the tenure statistics based on farms. 

Mortgage Encumbrance on O'raed Land . 
Although approximately 6 out of 10 acres on the average 
are operated by the ovmers in the United States, in many cases the 
nominal owners hold, in reality, only an equity in the land. 
Statistics on farm mortgages were gathered in 1890, 1900 and 1910. 
They related only to farm land operated by the owners, the part 
O'.vners in moat cases having limited their reports to the land owned 
by them.l 

The following table sumjnarizes the results of those 
enumerations. 

1. Thirteenth census, V, 157. 



21. 



Division. 



Percentage of All Farms 
(for which Mortgage Re- 
ports were Obtained) 
Encumbered by Mortgage. 



Mortgaged Farms 
or Farm Homes. 
Ratio of debt to 
value (per cent) . 





1910 


1900 


1890 


1910 


1890 


United States 


33.6 


31.0 


28.2 


27.3 


35.5 


New England 


34.9 


34.1 


28.2 


31.8 


40.4 


Middle Atlantic 


38.3 


40.3 


37.0 


34.5 


43.2 


East North Central 


40.9 


39.4 


37.6 


28.6 


33.3 


West North Central 


46.1 


44.3 


48.0 


25.8 


33.6 


South Atlantic 


18.8 


16.8 


7.4 


27.2 


40.2 


East South Central 


23.7 


17.0 


4.5 


29.4 


43.3 


West South Central 


30.6 


18.2 


4.8 


25.1 


42.8 


Mountain 


20.8 


14.4 


14.1 


23.9 


31.8 


Pacific 


36.8 


27.6 


28.7 


23.4 


30.1 


Thirteenth census. 


V, 150 


, 162. 









(1) Covers only farms which consisted wholly of land 
owned by the operator and for which the value of land 
and buildings and the amount of mortgage debt were 
reported. 

(2) Covers all owned farm homes, estimates being made 
for all farms with defective reports; the statistics 
cover only the land owned by the farmer in the case of 
farmers renting additional land. 



From the table it appears that in the country as a whole 
the percentage of owned farms free from mortgage declined from 

71.8 in 1890 to 66.4 in 1910. The percentage of o^vned farms 

under mortgage in 1910 was greater in the West North Central group 

of states than in any other division, although that division was 

the only one in which there was a decline from the percentage 

prevailing in 1890. The district of highest percentage of owned 

farms mortgaged east of the Mississippi was the East North Central 



22. 

clivi--iion. Mortp-aging of farmg operated by ownera appears to have 
been least common In the Southern states, although compared with 
the percentages prevailing in 1890, in those divisions, the prac- 
tice appears to have been growing with remarkable rapidity. 

Outside of the two North Central groups, there appears 
to be no correlation between the amount of land renting and the 
extent to which the owned land is mortgaged. In those divisions, 
however, we find the highest percentage of the farm land operated 
under lease, and the highest percentage of the remainder of the 
farm land owned under mortgage . 

In all sections of the country there was a decline in 
the ratio of debt to value of farm property between 1890 and 1900. 
The equity increased from 64.5 per cent in 1890 to 73,7 per cent 
in 1910, This was in spite of the increase of 40,1 per cent in 
the ajnount of indebtedness on the average American farm between 
the two dates. The amount of equity increased 106,0 per cent. 
It seems, therefore, that the rise in the value of mortgaged farms 
was 30 great that the increase in mortgage debt could not keep up 
with it. This was less true of New England and the Middle Atlantic 
states, perhaps, than of the remainder of the country, the portion 
of the value of mortgaged farms covered by mortgage being highest 
in 1910 in those divisions. 

By way of general summary for 1910, it is evident that 
for the country as a whole 33,3 per cent of the farm acreage was 
operated under lease, 6,1 by salaried managers, about 30.4 by 
owners under mortgage to the extent of 27.3 per cent of the value 
of their places, whereas approximately 40 per cent of the farm 



23. 

of the country waa operated by OTmerji clear of mortgage encumbrance 



24. 

CHAPTER II 

THE CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TENURE STATUS 

The reasons why the various forma of tenure hold the 
place they do in American agriculture may, for the sake of con- 
venience, "be considered from three points of view. It is impor- 
tant to understand the point of view of the tenants, part ov/ners 
and managers as well as tha.t of the owners whose land they operate 
and of the ovmers who operate their own land. A consideration of 
the question which form of tenure best conserves the 1-and and 
improves farm production requires a somewhat different outlook. 
The relation of the various forms of tenure to the general economic 
conditions of the nation is a third point of vantage from which to 
study tenure. 

Owners 

We may take up first the standpoint of the operators and 
owners. There are number of cases where the owners of land could 
not well keep from being landlords. In the case of women and 
children inexperience or immaturity as a rule unfits them for 
operating farms. Owners of land in extraordinarily large tracts, 
or in tracts widely distant,! frequently find that it pays them 
best to rent some and operate the rest of their soil, or rent all 
of it and devote their time to other interests, such as those of 

1. See next page. 



25. 



travel, politics, "buainesa,-^ health, or some special service. 
Other interests of this kind .vould operate as effectively , perhaps, 
in the c^se of landovmers with no more land than they should or- 
dinarily be able to operate, and may in some cases cause suspen- 
sion of farm operation for a few seasons -^rhere they would not 
cause the owner to give up for good the cultivation of his land. 

(1) The following table summarizes the available statistics 
on this point. 



The percentage of owners of rented farms who 
O'.med farms of specified numbers; 1900. 



Division 


One 


T//0 


Three 


Five 


Ten 


Twenty 




farm 


farms 


and 


and 


and 


farms 








under 


under 


under 


and 








five 


ten 


twenty 


over 








farms 


farms 


farms 




United States^ 


80.0 


11.4 


5.4 


2.3 


0.7 


0.2 


North Atlantic 


92.8 


5.5 • 


1.3 


0.3 


0.1 


(2) 


South Atlantic 


70.4 


15.5 


8.6 


4.1 


1.1 


0.3 


North Central 


88.4 


9.3 


2.5 


0.7 


0.1 


(3) 


South Central 


70.3 


15.1 


8.6 


3.9 


1.5 


0.6 


T?estern 


91.1 


5.9 


1.9 


0.8 


0.2 


0.1 


Alaska and Hawaii 


96.5 


2.6 


0.9 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


Foreign countries 


88.6 


6.1 


3.0 


1.0 


0.9 


0.4 



1. Percentage for foreign countries was less than 0.1. 
(2) Less than 0.1. 



Twelfth census, V, Ixxxviii. 



1. A large number of country bankers, for instance, 
are so-called "banker-farmers". Not all of these were 
farmers before they were bankers. (See Stewart, C. L., 
"An Analysis of Rural Banking Conditions in Illinois," pp. 4-5.) 



36. 

!Then owners and the wives of owners become advanced in age, their 
Increasing dependence on hired help in the field and home often 
makes it advisable for them to give up personal operation of their 
land. 

A second class of owners consists of those who become 
land holders through inheritance or purchase. In the case of 
heirs the probabilities are that others share the inheritance, and 
that the heirs will arrange to have the inherited land operated by 
a renter, possibly one of their own number. The few who obtain 
land through the foreclosure of mortgages probably value the land 
in most cases from the speculative point of view. Many others 
who purchase land are to be regarded as speculative buyers. Such 
land owners, awaiting a favorable turn in the price of land, would 
hardly be inclined to incur the expense of installing the manager- 
ial system and would prefer short-lease tenants. When owners are 
corporations, such as coal, railway, gas, oil, or land improvement 
companies, the cultivation of the land must usually be of inciden- 
tal importance to them, even though the land be more or less 
permanently in their hands. A condition of this kind is conducive 
either to managerial or tenant cultivation. It would be valuable 
if we knew what portion of land changing hands goes to persons 
who take up its operation. 

Perhaps the most numerous class of landlords is made up 

of those who seek retirement from the farm."^ Many owners leave 

the farm so that the children may start operating the home place, 

unhampered by lack of house room, and with greater freedom to work 

out their problems. It frequently happens that the parents move 
1. See next page. 



27 



to tovm 30 that the children may be at home with them while 
launching into their school, buaineaa or society careers. Parental 
considerations, hoivever, are often of no more influence than the 
desire to get away from the objectionable features of rural life, 
and to get easier access to the institutions and facilities of the 
city. When retirement is thus made, the land is usually rented, 
either to a relative by birth or marriage, or to a trusted farm 
hand . 



1. The extent to which absenteeism prevails among American 
landlords may be judged somewhat roughly from the following 
table based on an investigation made^'in 1900, 

Percentage of rented farms whose ovmers 
resided in specified locations with 
respect to the farms: 1900. 



Division 


In same 


In other coun- 


In other 


Not 




county 


ties of the 


states 


repor 






same state 






United States 


75.2 


15.2 


5.1 


4.5 


North Atlantic 


76.0 


14.5 


4.7 


4.8 


South Atlantic 


77.3 


15.2 


3.7 


3,3 


North Central 


69.6 


17.2 


7.3 


5.9 


South Central 


78.8 


13.4 


4.1 


3,7 


Western 


61.7 


22.9 


6.8 


8.6 


Twelfth census, 


V, Ixxxvii. 









No doubt there are instances where the landlords living 
in adjoining counties are closer to their farms than some living 
in the saime county in which their places are located. The same 
thing doubtless applies in the ca,3e of o'^/mers living in other 
states. On the other hand, the residence of o-roers in the same 
county does not guarantee a close interest in operations carried 
on by their tenants. 



28. 

Part ovmer8 

The part ovmera should probably be claaslfled 'J7ith 

owners rather than with tenants. The number of acrea oultivated 

by part ovmera ia compared with the acreages operated by ovmers 

and tenants in the following table. 

Average Number of Acres Percentage 

of Partly 

Census Operated Hired by Owned by Owned 

year by part Part Ten- Part Owners Land 
owners Owners ants Owners Proper Hired 

1910 235.0 111.4* 96.2 113.6* 138.6 49.5* 

1900 276.4 136.8 96.3 139.6 134.7 49.5 

♦Estimated as appears in the last column. 

United States census reports, Thirteenth, V, 
and Twelfth, V, 3 

Though practically half of the land in the farms of 
part owners was hired the owned acreage is so nearly comparable 
to that of operators owning their entire farms that it seems 
natural to assign the part owners an economic status even higher, 
on the average, than that of owners proper. ^ It is gratifying 
to note, therefore, that in spite of the falling off in average 
acreage of partly owned farms, the percentage of all land operated 
by part owners increased from 14.9 in 1900 to 15.2 in 1910.^ The 
percentage of their land that was improved was 45.5 in 1900 and 
56.9 in 1910, as against a percentage of 50.6 at the latter date 
for the land of operators owning their entire farms. 3 

1. See next pa^e. 

2. See above, page 12. 

3. Thirteenth census, V, 97. 



1 l l 



Tenancjs when praotlaed by part owners aeema, In general, 
to be a matter of choice. By renting additional land they 
practically double the scale of their operations without requiring 
any gre.it increase in the amount of money they have invested. 
They are limited in the area from which they may choose land to 
rent, but in many cases they afford almost the only means an 
owner can find to get a piece of land operated without equipping 
it with buildings. The part owners, therefore, may often rent 
good land at favorable terms. On the other hand, since part 
owners .vould not ordinarily be expected to build up the fertility 
of the land they hire as carefully as that of the land they own, 
some landlords doubtless discriminate against them. 

Often the farm of a part owners is the area formerly 

(1) Sectional differences are illustrated in the follov/ing 
table ; 



Division 


1910 




1900 








Total 


Total 


Hired 


Ovmed 


The United States 


235.0 


276,4 


136.8 


139 


.6 


New England 


142.2 


153.2 


58.2 


95 


.0 


Middle Atlantic 


125.2 


122.3 


33.3 


89 


.0 


East North Central 


124.8 


120.2 


53.7 


66 


.5 


West North Central 


311.3 


310.5 


149.7 


160 


.8 


South Atlantic 


91.7 


104.4 


38.9 


65 


.6 


East South Central 


90.9 


103.3 


34.8 


68 


.6 


West South Central 


334.2 


755.8 


351.3 


404 


.5 


Mountain 


625.0 


1196.7 


689.1 


517 


.6 


Pacific 


538.1 


581.2 


29.3 


551 


.9 



United States census reports: Thirteenth, 7, 114; and 
Twelfth, V, 308, Ixxxiv. 

One sees at once that part owners are operators of 
large tracts of land, particularly in the territory west 
of the Mississippi river. 



30. 



comprlaed in an estate divided ajnong heirs, one of whom rents 
from the others. In such cases the partition of a farm at the 
death of the former ovmer destroys the ur.ity of ownership -.vithout 
destroying the unity of operation. 

The large size of the partly owned farms affords evidence 
that increased investment in farm operations is held by a number of 
experienced farmers to be best made on an extensive rather than an 
intensive scale of cultivation. Since an economy is gained by 
having operators who own their farms hire pieces of land whose 
size is too small to justify separate sets of buildings, any ten- 
dency to reduce the size of holdings in districts of large scale 
farming should result in an increase in prominence of part owner- 
ship . 

Tenants 

In a number of the Southern states the place of colored 
tenants is one of great significance. In four states, Mississippi 
South Carolina, Alabama and Georgia, over half of the tenants in 
1910 were colored, and their nujubers aggregated 415, 947. ^ Ten 
years previously the number of colored tenants in the same states 
was 324.964. The white tenants in these states were outnujnbered 
by colored tenants nearly 2 to 1 in 1910. 

The tenants of the Southern states must be sharply dis- 
tinguished from those in other parts of the country. For the 
most part they operate cotton farms of twenty acres, are under the 
supervision of the owner of the farm, are in debt for most of the 

1. See next page. 



31. 



one or two hundred dollars worth of property they own, and are 
dependent upon lien holders for their subsistence from season to 
season. In the Northwest the tenant is practically as independent 
as if he owned the land, owns property worth thousands of dollars, 
conducts his farm and business operations entirely as suits hira. 
In the Fast the tenant must engage in highly intensive farming, 
while in the newer West he is operating land recently taken up from 
the public domain,^ 

Somewhat of an indication of the economic status of 
tenants is afforded by the kind of basis on which they pay rent. 
The census did not report share-cash tenants separately before 1910 
and until that date followed the practice of including the tenant 
farms whose basis of rental payment was unspecified with the cash 
tenant farms. The follov/ing table shov/s the difference between 
the kinds of farm properties operated by the two classes of tenants 



1. The data for the seven Southern states where colored 
tenants were prominent are as follows: 



Number of tenants 



Percentage of 

White 



State 










Tenants 


farmers 






Colored 


White 


Colored 


Tenants 






1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


Alabama 


93,309 


79,901 


65,017 


48,973 


58.3 


63.0 


43.5 


37 


.9 


Arkansas 


48,885 


34,953 


58 , 381 


46,178 


45.8 


43.1 


38.6 


35 


.1 


Georgia 


106,738 


71,343 


84,343 


63,317 


55.9 


53.9 


50.0 


44 


.5 


Mississippi 


139,605 


107,599 


41,886 


30,353 


76.9 


78.0 


38.3 


37 


.9 


N. Carolina 


44,139 


37,333 


63,148 


55,785 


41.0 


40.0 


33.6 


33 


.9 


S. Carolina 


76,395 


55,351 


34,936 


38,633 


68.6 


69.8 


43.9 


40 


.9 


Texas 


48,505 


45,306 


170,970 


139,685 


33.5 


35,0 


49.3 


45 


.3 



Thirteenth census, V, 310-313. 

3. Hibbard, B. H. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 35, 
710-711. 



32. 



which, for the sake of brevity, we may call ahare and cash. 

Acreage Value of Farm Property 



Share and 
share-cash 

1910 
1900 

Cash and 
unspecified 

1910 
1900 



Total Im- Total 
proved 



Land 



Build- 
ings 



93.2 69.1 f5222 $3945 §615 
92.4 65.0 J2647 -51853 1386 



101.7 51.3 ,^5613 
102.9 56.7 :f3003 



U139 

§2100 



$710 
^^423 



Imple- 
ments 
and 
ma- 
chin- 
ery 

^131 

$89 



^146 

S92 



Live 
stock 



f530 
,^319 



S620 
S388 



Thirteenth census, V, 100. 



1. The relative numbers of the tenants in these classes, 
and their increase have been as follows: Percentage 

Percentage of in- of all 
Gen- Number of tenants creaae over pre- tenants 

sus ceding census renting for 

Year Total Share^ Cash^ Total Share^ Cash^ Cash^ 



1910 
1900 
1890 
1880 



2,354,676 
2,024,964 
1,294,913 
1,024,601 



1,528,389 
1,273,299 
840,254 
702,244 



826,287 
751,665 
454,659 
322,357 



16.3 
56.4 
26.4 



20.0 
51.5 
19.7 



9.9 
65.4 
41.0 



35.2 
37.3 
35.2 
31.4 



1. Includes "ahare-cash" , separately reported in 1910. 

2. Includes "unspecified", separately reported in 1910 

Thirteenth census, V, 102. 



It appears that the cash tenants have been operating 
larger and more valuable farms than the share tenants. The differ- 
ence in values, however, is not a great one per farm and a still 
smaller one per acre. 



33. 

The problem from the point of view of the tenant is how- 
ever, not 90 much how valuable a property he operates, but what 
chances he himself has for accumulating a fund of wealth in the 
land. There is little doubt that there are tenants '/vho are not in 
a financial position to o\m any farm land, though they would regard 
the buying of land as a desirable and natural step to take. On 
the other hand there are tenants who, though financially able to 
own farm land, prefer to invest their expanding capital in other 
ways than in land. 

Ordinarily the members of the first class may be able 
to choose between operating land as renters, hiring out as farm 
laborers, or of seeking a livelihood in some pursuit other than 
agriculture. Outside of the loss and trouble connected with a 
change from their present status, it may be supposed that they 
remain farm tenants because of the favorableness of the terms they 
are able to make with the landlord. Some of these tenants 
succeed in saving money. Others live such a shiftless, hand-to- 
mouth existence that they show little evidence of every being able 
to make much improvement in their condition. The most striking 
cases of this class of tenants are probably to be found among the 
poorer negro tenants of the South. Since the owners of the more 
valuable farmland prefer to rent to the more capable tenants, ^ 
those who stand lowest in the scale of non-ovming tenants will 
ordinarily tend to gravitate toward the less valuable lands. 

1. Taylor, H. C. Introduction to the Study of Agricul- 
Economics, pp. 59-65. ^ (tural 



34. 



The aecond class of tenants includes some of a high 
economic type, those who regard tenant operation a better means 
than land ownership for accumulating money. They are in a 
financial position to seek for, and are of such a character as to 
attract the attention of owners desiring the higher class of 
tenants. Once well established, however, they are likely to 
prefer and to be able to secure longer leases and fairly permanent 
tenure. Tenants of this class are found mainly in the districts 
where land prices are high through the acquiescence of owners in a 
conservative rate of return in annual rent from the land. 

On the whole it seems that the transition of which 
tenancy is the middle stage has, for most farmers, been toward 
higher rather than toward lov/er economic conditions.-^ It is the 



1. A certain amount of evidence on this problem is 
afforded by the table below showing the tenure status of farm 
operators and home occupiers of different age groups. The 
percentage of farmers who were renters exceeded 50 in the two 
age groups under 35 in 1890, 1900, and 1910. The older age- 
groups 3hoY/ed a constantly declining percentage of farmers 
who were renting, and a corresponding increase in the percen- 
tage of farmers who were ov/ning. The indication is, there- 
fore, that advance in age has been associated with advance in 
status of tenure. The percentage of ownership in the younger 
age-groups, however, was less in 1910 than in 1900 and less in 
1900 than in 1890. It seems that the greater burden of the 
decline in ownership was being borne by the younger farmers. 
Owning farmers have been "encumbered" with greater disregard 
for their age, except that those 55 and over are relatively 
free from that practice. The age group with the highest 
percentage of owners encumbered in 1830 was that between 25 
and 34, while in 1900 and 1910 the age group, 35 to 44, had the 
highest percentage, with an increasing concentration on it in 
1910. There has been an increasing percentage of the farmers 
over 55 who have been owners. It is probable that resort to 
mortgaging by middle-aged farmers has contributed somewhat to 
this fact. 



35. 



prevailing belief, however, based upon atatistica of tenant farms, 
"that the stepping-stones of tenancy are getting soraev/hat farther 
apart and the passage over them to ownership beyond becoming corres- 
pondingly more difficult of accomplishment . 

Relation of Tenure to Farm Practice 
The tenancy practiced by part ov/ners is renting in as 
true a sense as that carried on by tenants proper. The part 
owners, however, are usually more fixed to the community and are 
bound by deed to a part of the land they operate . In the case of 
"estates" regard for the "old place" and for the othsr heirs may 



Percentage of Farm 



Age 
group 



Opera- 
tors 
o'.vn- 



mg 



f armsl 



Families 
owning 

farm 
homes 



Opera- Families 
tors hiring 
who home s 

were 
ten- 
ants 



Opera- Families 

tors owning 
o'/ming Encuraberec 
enown- farm 
bered homes 
f arms^ 



1910 1900 1890 1910 1900 1890 1910 1900 1890 



Aggregate 


52 


.7 


64.4 


65.9 


36 


.1 


35.6 


34 


.1 


31 


.7 


31.3 


28 


.2 


Under 






























25 years 


18 


.6 


27.8 


32.6 


76 


.5 


72.2 


57 


.4 


30 


.3 


29 .3 


21 


.9 


25 to 34 


34 


.7 


45.3 


49.8 


55 


.1 


54.7 


50 


.2 


29 


.5 


35.5 


31 


.9 


35 to 44 


50 


o 


64.4 


64.0 


37 


.3 


35.6 


36 


.0 


38 


.4 


36.6 


31 


.8 


45 to 54 


61 


.4 


70,7 


72.3 


26 


.8 


29.3 


27 


.7 


32 


.9 


31.8 


30 


.2 


55 and over 


73 


,7 


81.4 


82.2 


19 


.0 


18.6 


17 


.8 


22 


.8 


24.6 


22 


.6 


55 to 64 


70 


,0 


79.0 


• • « • 


21 


.1 


21.0 


« • 




26 


.1 


27.6 




• • 


65 and over 


79 


.7 


84.9 


• • • • 


15 


.1 


15.1 


• « 


• • 


16 


.8 


20.6 


« • 


* • 


Unknown 


57 


.9 


55.6 


• • • • 


31 


.8 


44.4 


• • 


• • 


12 


.6 


23.8 


• • 


• • 



1 . Excluding part owners . 



United States census reports: 

Thirteenth, Bulletin on Age of Farmers, 9, 22; 
Twelfth, Population, Part II, ccxi . 

1. Hibbard, B. H., Annals of the American Academy, 
40, 29-39. 



36 



prevent the heir In charge of the estate from varying the treatment 
between the land he o\vn8 and that which he rents. The expectation 
of eventual ownership of the rented land la usually greater in the 
case of part owners than in the case of most tenants, and this exerts 
an influence in the same direction. Farming by part owners, In 
such cases, surely differs little from that conducted by those 
owning all the land they operate . 

At the Twelfth census farms were classified according to 
principal source of income, and by various forms of tenure.^ From 
this investigation it appears that in 1900 managerial operation was 
relatively most prominent In the case of farms whose principal 
source of income was fruits, dairy produce, rice, sugar, flowers, 
plants, and nursery products. Tenants were relatively most 
prominent in the production of vegetables, tobacco and cotton. In 
the case of hay and grain farming part owners and share tenants 
operated more than their share. Livestock farming was carried on 
by "owners and tenants", by part owners and by owners, to a dis- 
proportionately large extent. The table on the next page affords 
the basis for the statements made in this paragraph. 

It appears that while hay and grain was given greatest 
relative emphasis by the share tenants and part owners, livestock 
raising was more la-rgely practiced by the "owners and tenants", 
owners proper, and part owners; and dairying was carried on chiefly 

1. The percentage of farms listed under each principal 
source of Income was as follows: hay and grain, 33.0; vegetables, 
2.7; fruits, 1.4; livestock, 27.3; dairy produce, 6.2; tobacco, 
1.9; cotton, 18.7; rice, 0.1; sugar, 0.1; flowers and plants, 
0.1; nursery products, less than 0.1; and miscellaneous, 18.5. 



Percentage of farms of specified principal 
source of income, operated under specified 
forms of tenure, United States, 1900. 



Own- 
ers 





All 




Part 


and 




Cash 


Share 




ten- 


Own- 


ov/n— 


ten- 


Mana- 


ten- 


ten- 




ures 


ers 


ers 


ants 


arer s 


ants 


ants 


All farms 


100 .0 


54.9 


7.9 


0.9 


1.0 


13.1 


33.3 


Hav and Grain 


100.0 


48 .0 


10.7 


0.9 


1.1 


10 .1 


39.2 


Vegetable s 


100 .0 


60 .4 


7.3 


0.7 


1.3 


18.9 


11 .5 


Fruits 


100.0 


71.7 


6.5 


0.8 


4.5 


7.6 


8.9 


Livestock 


100.0 


66.9 


10.3 


1.3 


1.3 


7.6 


13.7 


Dairy Produce 


100.0 


69.9 


5.4 


0.7 


1.7 


13.5 


10.8 


Tobacco 


100.0 


44.6 


5.4 


1.5 


0.6 


8.9 


39.0 


Cotton 


100.0 


38.3 


3.4 


0.3 


0.4 


39.4 


38.3 


Rice 


100.0 


44.3 


7.0 


0.4 


3.7 


34.3 


31.5 


Sugar 


100.0 


50.6 


8.0 


0.6 


5.7 


15.3 


19.8 


Flowers and Plants 


100.0 


77.3 


4.6 


0.6 


3.8 


13.3 


1.5 


Nursery Products 


100.0 


68.4 


14.6 


0.4 


3.9 


10.0 


3.7 


Taro 


100.0 


47.8 


7.3 


• • • 


0.5 


38.5 


5.9 


Coffee 


100.0 


34.3 


8.4 


« • • 


3.5 


49.6 


4.3 


Miscellaneous 


100.0 


66.9 


6.4 


1.0 


0.8 


8.7 


16.3 



Twelfth census, V, Iv. 



by the owners. The tenants, therefore, have been tending to 
concentrate on the production of staple products, managers in the 
lines requiring great emphasis on supervision of labor force, 
'vvhile ownership seems to have been associated with a more highly 
diversified and capitalized form of farming industry. From the 
point of view of farm practice, tenure is an expression of the 
adaptation of the operator to the requirements of the type of 
farming, and to some extent, doubtless, the adjustment of farm 
practice by the operators to suit the requirements of their form 
of tenure . 

Land makes demands upon farmers either for capital to 
own it or for capital and skill to operate it. High prices for 



the land do not in themselves induce tenant- farming,-'' unless the 
purposes to which such land may be put are such that tenants can 
qualify as operators. If large-scale production is at a premium 
on the high-priced land, then the standardization of farming method 
and the costliness of farm ownership may make for tenant cultiva- 
tion. In any case, financial and technical qualifications of 
the tenants to carry on the type of farming to which the land is 
adapted are prerequisite to the prevalence of tenancy. 

The importance to the tenant of technical knowledge and 
of capital goods is especially to be noted when there is a change 
in the type of farming prevailing in a region. The introduction 

of cereal growing into certain parts of the South has caused a 

2 

temporary withdrawal of tenants from operation there. Cereal 
growing, where an established feature of the agriculture of a 
region, is ordinarily practiced to a high degree by the tenants. 
As the methods of grain farming become widely known in the Southern 
districts introducing it and the investments in equipment establish- 
ed, we may expect the same association between tenancy and cereal 
growing there as in other parts of the country. 

Lack of adequate capital to invest in the ownership of 
land tends to increase the supply of tenants when the methods of 
farming the land are standardized and well known. Persons with 

1. The price of land and the size of farms are given 
considerable emphasis in the writings of most of those treat- 
ing the subject of tenancy. See particularly Taylor, H. C, 
Introduction to the Study of Agricultural Economics, 344-250; 
Hibbard, B, H., Annals of the American Academy, 40, 29-39, 
and Quarterly Journal of Economics, 25, 712-719; 26, 107-109, 
364-339; 27, 483. 

2. Community Service Week in North Carolina, p. 44. 



adequate knowledge of farming method seek to manage, rent or own 
in part (possibly under mortg-age) farms for the complete and un- 
encumbered ovraership of which they lack sufficient capital. 

The inportance of the influence of both these factors, 
the lack of capital for land purchase in increasing tenancy and 
the lack of operating capital and efficiency in decreasing tenancy, 
must continue to grow as heavier demands are made for capital and 
operating efficiency. The annual gain to the landlord from 
unearned increment must constitute a diminishing percentage of the 
value of the land and of the total annual increase in the landlord* 
wealth.-^ Great emphasis must, therefore, be placed upon operat- 
ing efficiency in increasing farm incomes. The landlords may be 
expected to apply more thorough-going tests of the farming ability 
of the tenants. This will not only tend to hold tenancy in 
abeyance, but will accompany a regime of better farming by those 
operating under all forms of tenures. 

Recent Changes in Fundamental Land Conditions 
Land tenure may, in a general way, be regarded as an 
expression of the relation of the population to the supply of 
cultivable land. From 1850 to 1880 the acrea,ge of improved land 
in American farms increased 151.9 per cent, while population 
increased 116.3 per cent.^ The improved acreage per capita was 
4.9 in 1850 and 5.7 in 1880. From 1880 to 1910 the population 
increased 83.4, while the percentage of increase in the improved 

1. See below, pages 92 and 163. 
3. See table on next page. 



40. 





Per 


Percentage of 


increase 


over preceding census 




cap! ta 










Value 


of Farm Property 




acreage 






Acreage 




Imple- 






of land 




Num- 


of land 




Land 


ments 




Cen- 


in farms 


Pop- 


ber 


in : 


farms 




and 


and 




sus 


Im- 


ula- 


of 




Im- 




build- 


mach- 


Live 


Year 


Total proved 


tion 


farms 


Total 


proved 


Total 


i HP'S 


inery 


stock 


1910 


9.6 5.3 


21 


10 .9 


4,8 


15.4 


100 .5 


109 .5 


68.7 


60.1 


1900 


11.0 5.5 


20.7 


25,7 


34.6 


15.9 


27.1 


25.1 


51.7 


33,2 


1890 


9.9 5.7 


25.5 


13.9 


16.3 


26.6 


33.0 


30.2 


21.6 


45.4 


1880 


10.7 5.7 


30.1 


50.7 


31.5 


50.7 


36.2 


37.0 


50.1 


28,2 


1870 


10.6 4.9 


22.6 


30.1 


0.1 


15.8 


12.1 


12.0 


10.1 


12.9 


1860 


13.0 5.2 


35.6 


41.1 


38.7 


44.3 


101.2 


103.1 


63,4 


100.2 


1850 


12.7 4.9 


• • • • 


• • • • 


• « • • 


• • • • 














During thirty year periods 








1880 


- 1910 


83.4 


58.7 


63.9 


68.0 


236.5 


241.3 


221,2 


212.3 


18b0 


- 1880 


116.3 


176.7 


82.6 


151.9 


207.0 


211.7 


168,2 


189.0 



Thirteenth census, V, 51, 57. 



farm acreage was 68.0, while the percentage of increase in the 
improved land per capita in 1910 was 5.2. The improved acreage 
represented 53,1 per cent of the land in farms in 1380 as against 
38.5 per cent in 1850 and 54.4 per cent in 1910. But for an extra- 
ordinary expansion in the unimproved acreage just preceding 1900, 
the acreage of all land in farms per capita would probably have 
shown a tendency to decline after 1380 in the same way as the 
improved acreage. The evidence seems to indicate that a coming 
scarcity was evident in the supply of land capable of being cheaply 
brought into profitable cultivation and the expansion of the farm 
area between 1890 and 1900 was probably due, in a measure, to the 
belief on the part of some persons that it was best to get desirable 
new land before it became too late.^ From 1900 to 1910 the 



1. The percentage of the land area in farms in 1910 was 
45.2, 1900, 44.1, and 1890, 32.7. More significance is to be 



41. 

expansion of the farm area probu.bly neoeaaitated resort to some- 
what inferior types of soil, and aa a comsequenoe more attention 
was paid to improving the acreage already in farms. The relative 
increase in the ratio of improved land to all farm, land was greater 
between 1900 and 1910 than for any deoade ending after 1880. An 
increasing demand for the products of a given area of land is 
indicated by the rise in price of farm products, which affected 
the profits of farming and the price of farm land. The relative 
increase in the value of land and buildings per acre was greater 
during the decade 1900 to 1910, than during any other census de- 
cade of the sixty years. 

The effect upon land prices was probably greatest in the 
case of land producing staple products the area of production of 
which had previously been expanding more nearly in response to the 
demand for the products. The effect was not so important, there- 
fore, in the case of cotton lands, but was very pronounced in the 
case of land producing the important cereals. 

The relation of land prices to tenure during the recent 
decades can be best examined, therefore, in the case of cereal- 
growing districts. That will be done here for the state of 
Illinois, 

attached to the smallness of the increase between 1900 and 
1910, perhaps, than to the fact that over half of the land 
has not been included in farms. 



43. 



CHAPTER III 

TENDENCIES IN THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY OF ILLINOIS 

It is ImpossilDle to understand the agricultural economy 
of a state like Illinois without keeping constantly in raind the 
physical features and soil conditions which give character to the 
state. The accompanying physical and soil mapa, therefore, 
should be given frequent reference in reading this discussion. 

Physiography and Timber 

The surface of Illinois, for the most part, slopes gently 
from the north to the south, except in the extreme Southern part 
of the state where a spur of the Ozark hills rises rather abruptly 
from the plains to an altitude of approximately one thousand feet. 
The altitude along the rivers in the Southern part of the state is 
about three hundred feet above sea level, in the Central part be- 
tween seven and eight hundred feet, and in the Northern part about 
one thousand feet. 

The state has a variety of soils, as indicated by the 
soil map.^ Unglaclated areas are to be found in three portions of 
the state - in the Southern part, where the Ozark hills appear to 
have obstructed the progress of the glaciers; in the point of land 
between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; and in the Northwestern 
corner of the state. All the rest of the state has been glaciated 
at least once, and some sections were covered a number of times. 

The profound influence of the glaciers upon Illinois 

agriculture was exerted through their effect upon the topography 
1. See belov;, page 169. 



44. 



and to a less extent, perhaps, upon the quality of the soil. The 
difference in yields per acre in the various glaciated districts 
is considerable, but the difference in land prices is much greater. 
The unglaciated regions, being more broken, are less suited to 
cultivation by modern farm machinery and to hauling heavy loads. 
The glaciated regions have better water supply, and suffer less 
change in the fertility of the soil because of erosion. 2 

The extent of the timber growth in the various parts of 
the state affords a good index of the general physiographic con- 
ditions. The mere presence of natural timbers usually implies 
that the land is either broken or swampy. This fact alone would 
tend to cause the timber land to be less easily cultivated, even 
when cleared. There is the further fact that timber operated 
against the accumulation of the organic elements so important for 
the growing of crops. This is attested by the fact that while 
the productiveness of the timber land was somewhat improved after 
it was cleared, the distinction between the old timber land and 



1. The dominant soil type in a.ll but Southern Illinois, 
is a dark brown to black silty loaan underlaid by a yellow 
gray, or drab stiff silty loam subsoil. Associated with it, 
and particularly in the timbered areas along the streams, is 
a yellow to yellowish-broan silty loam surface underlaid by a 
yellow silty subsoil. 

In Southern Illinois the deposit of loess over the 
underlying glacial materials is thin. The soil in Southern 
Illinois is principally a gray silt loam underlaid by a 
stiff gray silty clay. 

See Thirteenth census, V, 897-398. 

3. Hosier, J. G., Effect of Glaciers on Illinois Agri- 
culture. Illinois Agriculturist, June, 1914, pages 533 and 
534. 

3. Upon the withdrawal of the last glacial sheet the 
presumption is that the grasses were first among the vegetation 
growths to cover the land of the state. The area covered by 
trees, first limited to the unglaciated district, came to 
include more and more of the glaciated soil. The previous 



45. 



that of the old prairie land atill stands out with appreciable 
sharpness. Just what portion of the difference in fertility in 
different sections is due to the fact of former timber influence 
and what portion is to be explained by geological formation, is, 
of course, indeterminate. The sharpest line of demarcation 
between soils in Illinois, when considered from the point of view 
of productiveness, is found, however, where the same line divides 
an old timbered from an old prairie district, and at the same time 
a district of a later from that of an earlier glaciation.-^ 
This line may be roughly indicated as running from East St. Louis 
to Shelbyville, the seat of Shelby county, and thence east to the 
northwest corner of Clark county. South of this line the country 
was once nearly all covered with timber, while to the north the 
original forest was for the most part confined to the belts follow- 
ing the principal waterways. 2 



The Timber Farm Economy 
The timber was not only an index and feature of the 
physiography of the Illinois country, but was important in its 



occupation of the land by the grasses made it more difficult 
for the seeds of trees to get into the soil, and the fires 
which burnt the grass periodically tended to destroy the in- 
cipient timber growth. The organic elements which worked 
into the soil as a consequence of the decay of the grasses are 
said to have made the soil still less hospitable to the growth 
of timber. The hardier, scrubbier types of woodland growth 
could make their way somewhat better through this soil than 
the more characteristic types of timber. As the hardier 
types gained possession of the land, they reduced the hostile 
elements and made it possible for the other types to follow 
them. The expansion of the timber over the grass lands must 
have been very slow for it lacked much of being complete when 
the settlement of the prairie stopped it. 

1. Hall and Ingall, Forest Conditions in Illinois, 

p. 195. 

3. Ibid, 195. 



46 



Influence upon early settlement and pioneer farm economy. The 
decided preference of the early settlers for woodland Is supported 
"by evidence in the recorded history of nearly every Illinois 
county. 1 For the raising of hogs the mast of the woods and for 
the raising of oattle woodland shade and pasture were, during most 
of the year, superior to the natural or cultivated products which 
might, with satisfactory drainage, have "been produced on the 
prairie. To be sure, a certain amount of hay and grain was 
necessary to tide the horses, hogs and cattle over the winter 
season, and some grain and hemp or flax was needed to feed and 



1, This is explained by a number of facts. The early 
settler had to have some land which was higher than the general 
level. This was necessary, first, to escape the ponds which 
covered the flat lands during the rainy seasons, producing 
malaria and making travel in and out difficult, and second, to 
be safe from the fires which swept the prairies in the dry 
seasons. Where high spots were found, timber was usually on 
them. The better drained land was ordinarily more broken and 
timbered. The woods afforded the source of fuel and of 
materials for stockades, houses, barns and fences, the overland 
transportation of which, whether as logs or rails, was a 
difficult matter, particularly in the wet seasons. The woods 
were usually to be found associated with rivers, springs and 
salt licks. The rivers were often the avenues by means of 
which settlers pushed on and by which they communicated with 
the markets and post offices. The springs afforded the source 
of water for the settlers and for the animals they kept or 
hunted. The salt licks provided a necessary article for the 
household and for the domestic animals, and of all places in 
the woods were probably the most strategic for killing wild 
game. Furthermore, the surrounding woods provided shelter 
from the extremes of the weather for both man and beast. 

Among settlers for whom the woodland held such a 
monopoly of the indispensable conditions of pioneer life it 
is little wonder that a prejudice arose against the open 
prairie. Some of this prejudice may have been brought with 
them from their former homes farther East. The kind of 
economic life to which lack of drainage and transportation 
facilities subjected them would only tend to strengthen such 
prejudice. 



clothe the aettlera themselves. The amount of arable land 
aufficient to these purposes, hov/ever, was easily cleared, or 
fenced in from a natural clearing in the woods or from the edge 
of the prairie. It was the timber, nevertheless, that was the 
indispensable basis of the pioneer agricultural economy, while 
the prairie, beyond what lay contiguous to the timber, afforded 
menaces by fire and by water, in the shape of disease and death. 
There is little wonder, then, that the prairie was looked upon by 
the pioneers as a hopeless waste. ^ 



Tendencies in Population in Illinois 
In order to sketch the development of Illinois we may 
employ several lines of census data. 

From the population statistics in the following table 
sAi^ireTimirfe^.4i^,,4^§,.^ 

a fair notion of the rate of this development may 

be drawn. 



1. It is sometimes said that the early settlers held 
the theory that the prairie was less fertile than the timber 
land, because the prairie grew vegetation that was much 
smaller. Owing to the conditions confronting the settlers, 
hov/ever, this theory could not have restrained them much until 
the improvements took place in transportation, in agricultural 
machinery and in drainage. When it became possible to till 
the land, to produce extensively and to market products other 
than those which could be driven on foot, cultivation of the 
prairies became at once possible and profitable. It is, of 
course, possible that some farmers should have insisted on 
clearing timber land, thinking that they would thus farm the 
richest land, v/hen a vast area of richer prairie lay all ready 
to be tiled and broken up, but the view that the prairies were 
less fertile than the timber land probably did not restrain 
prairie cultivation to any great extent. 



Cenaua 
Year 



Population 



Increase over 
preceding census 
Number Per cent 



Per cent of 
increase for 
United States 



1910 


5,o3o , oyi 


Ol f , U^± 


1 P> 
xo 









lyuu 


^ , O o X , D OU 








30 


,7 


1890 


3,836,353 


748,481 


24 


.3 


25 


,5 


1880 


3,077,871 


537,980 


31 


.3 


30 


.1 


1870 


3,539,891 


837,940 
860,481 


48 


.4 


33 


.6 


1860 


1,711,951 


101 


.1 


35 


.6 


1850 


851,470 


375,387 


78 


.3 


35 


,9 


1840 


476,133 


313,738 


303 


.4 


32 


.7 


1830 


157,445 


103,334 


185 


.3 


33 


.5 


1820 


55,311 


42,929 


349 


.5 


33 


.1 


1810 X 


13,383 


9,834 


399 


.7 


36 


.4 


1900 XX 


2,458 








• • 


• • 



Thirteenth census, I, 24, and V, 436. 

X From 1809 to 1818 Illinois was a "territory". 
XX For the three counties of the "Territory of Indiana", 
embracing the area known as Illinois since 1809. 
* Corrected figures, as explained. Census, 1900, I, 24. 



The population multiplied 459 times between 1810 and 
1910. The periods of most marked absolute growth in population 
were from 1850 to 1870, and from 1890 to 1910. In relative 
increase the decades prior to 1840 took the lead, although a 
remarkable increase occurred from 1850 to 1860. The period of 
least relative increase in population was the one between 1900 and 
1910. Until 1870 the rate of increase in population in Illinois 
exceeded that of the nation as a whole during each decade. This 
was likewise true of the decade 1890 to 1900. From 1870 to 1890 
and from 1900 to 1910, however, the rate of increase of population 
fell below that of the United States. The percentage of increase 
in the population of Illinois was least from 1900 to 1910 of any 
decade in the history of the state. As a whole, however, the 
population growth was very great, especially until about 1870. 



POPULATION OF ILLINOJG, 1800- 1910. 



PLATE 1 



Absolute nuinlDers( thousands) . 
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 



1800 ' 
1810 • 
1620 ■ 
1830 - 
1840 - 
1850 - 
1860 - 
1870 - 
1680 - 
1890 - 
1900 - 
1910^H 



1800-1810 - 
J.810-1820 — 

1820-1830 

i8JS0-1840 

1840-1850 

1850-1860 

14860-1870 — 
1870-1880 — r 
1880-1890=^ 
^890-1900 — 
1900-1910 



Decennial increases( thousands) . 
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 



Lai increasesfpercehtAgesi . 
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 



1800-1810 
1810-1820 
1820-1830 
1830-16401 

^40-1850 
1850-1860 

3.860-1870 

-1870-1880 
1880-1890 
1890-1900 



mm 




182CrrE 

1830:'^ 

stfc:r] 1840 -w 



3E 



IpO 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 50C^ 



1850' 
I860' 
1870- 
1880 ■ 
1890' 
1900' 
1910' 



«5" 



. OF I. S. i.. FOHM 3 



49. 



It i8 possible to determine the extent of the agricul- 
tural population of the state in only a rough way. 

Statistics of occupations were taken in 1830 and from 
1840 to 1910. The table on the next page has been prepared from 
the limited data at hand. 

In Illinois in 1820, and from 1870 to 1910 the percentage 
of population in the occupations was below that of the entire 
country, rising steadily, however, from 24.7 in 1820 to 40.7 in 
1910. 

Starting with 90.9 per cent of the occupied population 
engaged in agriculture in 1820, this predominance of the agricul- 
tural occupation in Illinois has suffered a remarkable decline. 
The virtual absence of slaves in Illinois in 1850 and 1860 leaves 
a greater comparative value in the occupation statistics for those 
dates in the case of Illinois than for the country as a whole. 
The decline in the percentage of occupied persons who were in 
agriculture was less abrupt in Illinois between 1860 and 1870, 
due no doubt to the fact that the number of persons in Illinois 
agriculture had its greatest decennial increase during that 
period. Up to and including 1870 a larger portion of the popu- 
lation of Illinois had been engaged in agriculture than in the 
country as a whole. Between 1870 and 1880, however, the growth 
of other industries in the state was so marked, and since 1880, 
the number engaged in agriculture has undergone so little change 
that from 1880 to 1910 the percentage of population devoted to 
agriculture in Illinois was less than the corresponding percentage 
for the United States, and was decreasing much more rapidly. From 



50. 



Percenta[^e of 

Occupied 
population 
Population in 
Cen- Number Persona occupied agriculture 

aus Total In all in agri- United 1111- United 1111- 

Year population occupatlona culture States^ noia Statea^ noia 



1910b 


5,638,591 


2,296,778 


444,242 


41.5 


40.7 


32. 


4 


19. 


3 


1900b 


4,821,550 


1,804,040 


461,014 


38.3 


37.4 


35. 


3 


25. 


6 


1890b 


3,826, 352 


1,353,559 


430,134 


35.1 


35.4 


37. 


2 


31. 


8 


1880b 


3,077,871 


999,780 


433,312 


34.7 


32.5 


44. 


1 


43. 


6 


1870b 


2,539,891 


742,015 


376,325 


32.4 


29.2 


47. 


4 


50. 


7 


1860c 


1,711,951 


395,937 


301,893 


26.4 


23.1 


40. 


4 


51. 





1850d 


851,470 


215,359 


141,099 


23.2 


25.3 


44. 


8 


65. 


5 


1840e 


476,183 


124,204 


105,337 


21.8 


26.1 


77. 


5 


84. 


8 


18206 


15^,445 


13,635 


12,395 


« • • • 

25.8 


• • « • 

24.7 


83! 


6 


96! 


• 

9 





















1. See Appendix, page 

(a) Excluaive of lumbermen, raftamen, woodchoppera, apiariste, 

fishermen, oyatermen, foresters, owners and managers of 
log and timber camps, and those in other agricultural and 
animal husbandry pursuits, so far as separately reported. 

(b) Males and females over ten years of age. 

(c) Free males and females over fifteen years of age. 

(d) Free males over fifteen years of age. 

(e) Males and females, free and slave, all ages. 



United States census reports as follows: 



1910: Thirteenth, I, 30-31, and IV, 91 and 97. 
1900, 1890, 1880 and 1870; Twelfth, Occupations, Introduction, 
1 (following xlix); also 

1900: Twelfth, Occupations, 124. 

1890: Eleventh, Part II, Population, 304 and 314. 

1880: Tenth, Population, 777 and 793. 
1870: Ninth, Population and Social Statistics, 704 and 731. 
1860 and 1850: Twelfth, Occupations, Introduction, 1111; also 

1860: Eighth, Population, 104-105, and 680. 

1850: Seventh, Ixx-lxxix, and 727. 
1840 and 1820: Twelfth, Occupations, Introduction, xxx; also 

1840: Sixth, 396 and 475. 

1820: Fourth, Sheet 40. 



1820 to 1910 the percentage of the total papulation In Illinois in 
agriculture decreased from 90.9 to 19.3. 

The changes in the population of Illinois from 1890 to 
1910 are analyzed in the following table. ^ 



1. See below, page 244 , for a different set of figures. 



51. 













Percentage 


of 














population in 








Population in 






Other 






TT T* V\ O T\ 

u r Ocin 


places of 


Other 


Urban 


Places 


rural 


sua 

o u a 


A V K' 


t errl — 


under 3500 


rural 


terri- 


- under 


terri- 


Year 


lation 


tory 


inhabitants 


territory 


tory 


2500 


tory 


1910 


5,638,591 


3,476,929 


675,340 


1,486,422 


61.7 


12.0 


26.4 


1900 


4,831,550 


2,616,368 


306, 797 


1,598,385 


54.3 


12.6 


33.2 


1890 


3,826,353 


1,714,323 


485,220 


1,626,909 


44.8 


12.7 


42.5 



Thirteenth census, II, 438. 



In this table it appears that, while the urban and small 
town population has been growing, both relatively and absolutely, 
the population in strictly rural territory has been both relatively 
and absolutely declining. The number of inhabitants of strictly 
rural territory per square mile of the total land area was 29.1 in 
1890 and 24.8 in 1910. There were 16.2 per cent more people in 
the strictly rural territory in 1890 than in 1910. 



The Increase in Farms and Farm Area 
Of the thirty-two million acres of land in Illinois farms 
probably not over two million were taken up by 1820.^ During the 
next thirty years approximately ten million acres were added to the 
farm area. As may be inferred from the data on page 171 most of 
the land taken into Illinois farms during the first half of the 
nineteenth century was in the wooded districts of the state. The 



1. In American State Papers, Public Lands, Volume III, 
p. 533, it appears that the five land agencies in Illinois, 
located at Shawneetown, Kaskaskia, Edwardsville, Palestine, and 
Vandalia, had reported to October 1, 1821, as follows: 

Lands surveyed 13,799,040 

Reservations - private claims. 529,046 

Amount sold 1,458,993 

Unsold 12,160,992 



following table shows the agricultural development of the state 
beginning with 1850. 



Land in farms 









Per 






Per 




Cen- 


Total 




cent 


Improved 


cent 




sus 






of , 






1 


date 


Acres 


inc.-L 


Acres 


inc.-'- 


ISIO 


3S,522, 


937 


-0.8 


28,048,323 


8.0 


1.3 


1900 


32, 794, 


728 


7,5 


27,699,219 


12.7 


7-1 


1890 


30,498, 


277 


-3.7 


25,689,030 


-5.9 


-1.1 


1880 


31,373,645 


22.4 


26,115,154 


28.6 


3s:i 


1870 


25,882,861 


23.8 


19,329,852 


21.1 




1830 


20,911,989 


73.7 


13,096,374 


16.0 




1850 


12,037,412 




5,039,545 


• • « • 






Per cent of 


Number of 


farms Average 




Cen- 


Land 


Farm 






Per 


number 




sus 


area 


land 


Total 


cent 


of acres 


date 


in 


im- 






1 


per 






farms 


proved 






mc . 


farm 




1910 


90.7 


83.2 


251, 


872 


-4,6 


129.1 




1900 


91.4 


84.5 


264,1.51 


9.8 


124.2 




1890 


85.0 


84.2 


240,681 


-5.9 


126.7 




1880 


88.3 


82.5 


255,741 


26.1 


123.8 




1870 


72.2 


74.7 


202,803 


41.5 


127.6 




1860 


58.3 


62.6 


143,310 


88.1 


145.9 




1850 


33.6 


41.9 


76,208 


• • • • 


158.0 





(l) A minus sign (-) denotes decrease. 



Thirteenth census, VI, 412-413. 

The percentage of land in farms increased from 33.6 in 
1850 to 91.4 in 1900, falling back to 90.7 in 1910. The per- 
centage of farm land that was improved increased steadily from 
41.9 in 1850 to 86.2 in 1910. 

During the decades before 1880 the amoiint of land in 
farms grew by large decennial increments, the total increase from 
1850 to 1880 being 163.1 per cent. During the thirty years 



PLATE 11. 

ILLINOIS FARMS AND FARM LANDS, 1850-1910. 



Niiinbor of farms (ten thousands). 

25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 

1900 ■ 
1910 



Total numljer of acres in fancsdnillions) • 
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 

1850 

1860 

1870 -r 

1880 "jl^ p«t 

1890 

1900 




H C. FORM 3 



LibHArtY 
OF THE 
UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 



53. 



following 1880 the area of land in farms increased only 3.7 per 
cent, and actually declined during two decades. The acreage of 
improved land increased 418.3 per cent between 1850 and 1880, and 
only 7.4 per cent from 1880 to 1910. The farms were decreasing 
in average size from 1850 to 1880, but have been increasing some- 
what since 1880.^ 

The year 1880, therefore, stands as the turning point 
in the direction in which the average acreage of farms was moving 
and marked the end of the large relative decennial increases in the 



1. The following table shows the distribution of farms 
among the different size-groups in Illinois from 1860 to 1910. 





All 


Under 


3 


Under 


10 


20 


50 


100 


175 


350 


100 


500 Over 




sizes 


3 


to 


10 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 1000 








9 




19 


49 


99 


174 


349 


499 


499 


1000 


1910 


100.0 


0.3 


3.6 


3.9 ' 


4.1 


13.3 


23.0 


32.0 


15.2 


7.7 


54.9 


0.7 0.1 


1900 


100.0 


0.7 


3.7 


3.4 


4.0 


15.6 


34.9 


30.8 


13.5 


6.9 


51.3 


0.8 0.1 


1890 


100.0 


• ■ • 


• • • 


1.8 


2.9 


15.9 


28.6 








49.7 


1.0 0.2 


1880 


100.0 


0.1 


1.6 


1.7 


3.3 


18.3 


39.7 








45.6 


1.3 0.3 


1870* 


100.0 


(1) 


1.8 


1.8 


5.0 


36.3 


33.6 








33.5 


0.7 0.1 


1860* 


100.0 


• • • 


1.3 


1.3 


4.6 


36,8 


34.4 








33.0 


0.7 0.1 



(1) Less than 0.05. 

* Improved land only. The total number of farms con- 
taining improved land in 1860 was l-^fS^Ng^d^^S^ short of the total 
number of farms . 



United States census reports: Thirteenth, VI, 415; 
Eleventh, Agriculture, 118, and 
Tenth, Agriculture, 26, 27. 

It will be observed that from 1880 to 1910 the per- 
centage of farms under 20 acres in size increased from 4.9 to 
8.0; those between 20 and 100 acres declined from 47.9 to 36.3; 
those between 100 and 500 acres increased from 45.6 to 54.9, 
and those over 500 acres declined from 1.6 to 0.8. In 1910 
approximately one-third of the farms had between 100 and 175 
acres . 



54. 



total and Improved farm acreagea, and the number of farms and of 
persons engaged in agriculture. Until 1880 the changea in Illinois 
agriculture were mainly in the area of farm land and the number of 
farms and farmers; since 1880 the greater changes have been in 
productions and values. 

Values of Farm Properties 
To illustrate the tendencies in the elements which went 
to make up the values in farm properties, the following table has 
been prepared. 



Average value per acre of land in Illinois farms of 





All 


Per 


Land 


Per 


Imple- 


Per 


Live 


Per 


Index 


Cen- 


farm 


cent 


and 


cent 


ments 


cent 


stock 


cent 


num- 


sus 


prop- 


of 


build- 


of 


and 


of 




of 


ber 


date 


erty 


incr . 


ings^ 


inor . 


mach 'y 


incr . 




incr 




1910 


1130.08 


96.5 C108.33 


101.3 


^3.37 


65.7 


^9.49 


50.6 


107.9 


1900 


61.13 


36.3 


53.84 


30.0 


1.37 


31.2 


5.91 


0.3 


91.3 


1890 


48.45 


30.5 


41.41 


39.9 


1.13 


5.6 


5.93 


41.6 


93.3 


1880 


37.13 


8.7 


31.87 


13.0 


1.07 


0.0 


4.18 


9.7 


106.9 


18703 


34.15 


43.3 


38.45 


45.4 


1.07 


30.5 


4.63 


33.4 


117.3 


1850 


33.85 


136.5 


19.56 


144.8 


0.83 


54.7 


3.47 


73.6 


100.0 


1850 


10.53 




7.49 




0.53 


• • • • 


3.01 


• • • » 


101,0 



Thirteenth census, VI, 413. 

1. Land and improvements, except buildings: 1910, $95. 03; 
1900, $46.17; percentage of increase, 104.3. 
Buildings, alone: 1910, |!13.30; 190C, 17.67; percentage 
of increase, 70.6. 

3. Computed gold values, being 80 per cent of the currency 
values reported. 

3. The index numbers presented here follow the Falkner 
series from 1850 to 1900. A number for 1850 is 
supplied from the calculations of G. H. Knibbs as 
employed by Irving Fisher. A ratio of comparison 
between the Falkner series and that used in the in- 
vestigation of the United States Department of Labor 
was derived for 1890 and 1900 and a number as of the 
Falkner series calculated for 1910. 
(See Fisher, Irving: Why is the Dollar Shrinking, 
150-163; Aldrich Report on Wholesale Prices, Wages, 
and Tranaportation; Bulletin of the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics, Wholesale Prices, 1890 to 1913). 



PLATE 111, 

DIAGRAM SHOWING CHANGES IN THE AVERAGE VALUE PER ACRE OF 
FARM PROPERTY, ILLINOIS, 1850-1910. 



1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 




C OF I. S. S. i^ORM 3 



55. 



The data on average value per acre of the properties 



under coneideration indicate a peraiatent rise. Even though the 
rise in these values may have been promoted from 1860 to 1870 and 
from 1900 to 1910 by the fall in ths purchasing power of money 
during those decades of 17.3 and 18.3 per cent respectively, the 
movement of farm values was much more rapid than that of the 
general price level. During the period 1870 to 1900 the farm 
property values underwent increases in spite of the fall of 32.3 
per cent in the general price level. 



each item of property took place between 1900 and 1910, and the 
percentages of increase during that decade, even after allowance 
is made for the rise in the general price level, was greater than 
those of any other decade since 18S0. In both absolute and 
relative increase in all items the decade, 1870 to 1880, stands 
lowest ajDong ths periods. The period, 1870 to 1890, was one of 
small increases, compared with the twenty year periods preceding 
and following it. During the thirty year period, 1850 to 1880, 
the increase in the value of land and buildings exceeded that 
which took place between 1880 and 1910, although the increase in 
the value of implements and machinery and of live stock was 
greater during the latter period.^ During ths entire sixty years 



The largest decennial increments of value in the case of 



1. 



Percentage of increase in the value of 



Periods 



All farm Land and 
property buildings 



Implements Live 
and machinery stock 



1890 - 1910 
1870 - 1890 
1850 - 1870 
1880 - 1910 
1850 - 1880 



147.8 
41.9 
334.3 
323.5 
353.4 



161.6 
45.5 
356.1 
341.8 
398.9 



101.9 
113.1 
101.9 



100.9 
5.6 



60.3 
37.9 
130.3 
137.0 
108.0 



56. 



all farm property underwent an increase in value per acre of 1040 
per cent, and the component items increased as follows: land and 
buildings, 1253 per cent; implements and machinery, 328; and live 
stock, 372. 

The rise in the value of farm property appears to have 
been accelerated about 1880 and again about 1900. This was more 
especially true of the land than of the other forms of farm 
property. 

No less significant, perhaps, is the change in the rela- 
tive prominence of value per acre of the different forms of farm 
property in Illinois. The following table shows for each of the 
last seven census dates the percentage of the total value of farm 
property contributed by specified kinds. 



Census 


All 


Land 


Imple- 


Live 


Year 


farm 


and . 


ments 


stock 




property 


buildings"'' 


and 










machinery 




1910 


100.0 


90.2 


1.9 


7.9 


1900 


100.0 


88.1 


2.3 


9.7 


1890 


100.0 


85.5 


2.3 


12.2 


1880 


ICO.O 


85.9 


2.9 


11.3 


1870 


100.0 


83.3 


3.1 


13.6 


1860 


100.0 


82.0 


3,5 


14.5 


1850 


100.0 


75.9 


5.1 


19.1 




Thirteenth 


census, V, 93. 






1. 


Date 




1910 1900 





Land and improvements .. 79.1 75.6 

(except buildings) 
Buildings 11.1 12.5 



The prominence of implements and machinery and of live 
stock as measured by their portion in the total value of all farm 
property was two and a half times greater in 1850 than in 1910. 
The part taken by the value of the land, however, rose from 



I 



PLATE IV. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING THE FERCRNTAOE OF THE VALUE OF FARM 
PKOFERTY PER ACRE REPRESENTED EY EACH ELEMENT, 
ILLINOIS, 1850-1910, 



1850 1860 18?0 1880 1S90 1900 1910 



100 




70 




U. OF t, s. S. FOBM 3 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 



57. 



three-fourths in 1850 to nine-tenths in 1910 



Changea in the Character of 
Farm Practice in Illinois 

A general notion of the character of the farming practice 
in Illinois may be derived from the agricultural statistics 
published by the census. 

Comparison with the dates before 1880 is not satisfactory 
because of the absence of data on crop acreages before the Tenth 
census. Production statistics of one kind or another, however, go 
back as far as 1840. The data on land in farms began with 1850 
and it will be more useful, therefore, to limit the comparisons 
in moat cases to the dates 1850 SLnd 1910. 

The first table shows for 1850, 1880, and 1910 the 
number of domeatic animals and of units of selected productions 
for each 1000 acres of Illinois farm land. 

Census Date 1910 1880 1850 



Domestic Animals 
Head o'f 

Cattle 

Dairy or milch cows 
Horses 

Mules, asses, and burros 

Swine 

Sheep 

Productions 
Pounds of 

Butter 

Cheese 

Maple Sugar 

Tobacco 

Wool 
Bushels of 

Irish potatoes 



75.0 75.3 75.8 

32.3 27.3 24.5 

44.7 32.3 22.2 

4.6 3.9 0.9 

144.1 163.2 159.1 

32.6 32.7* 74.3 



1433.0 1594.0 1040.5 
2.5 3.3 106,2 
0.2 2.5 20 . 7 
31.7 124.2 69.9 
153.4 192.4 178.6 

374.1 327.3 208.9 



* Except spring lambs. 
Above, p. 52 , and Appendix IV, below p. 233. 



58 



The diatriljution of produotions la made here on the 

land. 

baaia of both improved and unimproved Were only improved farm 
land considered the figurea for 1850 would he multiplied by 2.40, 
thoae for 1880 by 1.31, and those for 1910 by 1.16. 

Taking the figurea as they atand, however, the following 
conoluaions may be drawn for area a of the aame aize : 

YThile the number of cattle remained the aame, the number 
of dairy cattle increased relatively about 25 per cent. The 
number of horses doubled, and the number of mulea, assea and burros 
increased fourfold. The number of swine remained about constant, 
while the number of aheep declined in 1910 to less than half what 
it waa in 1850. 

The production of butter on farms increased between 1850 
and 1880, and though less in 1910 than in 1880 waa 40 per cent 
greater in 1910 than in 1850. Cheeae production on farms, while 
occupying a considerable place in 1850 had almost disappeared in 
1910. The aame thing is true of maple sugar. The production of 
tobacco and of wool waa greater in 1880 than in 1850, but the 
figures for 1910 were amaller than at either of the other datea. 
The production of Irish potatoes increased nearly once again during 
the sixty year period. 

In the following table the increase in the prominence of 
the cereals may be compared with the growth in the area of farm 
land. 



59 



The comparative production of the cereals and the 
comparative acreage of farm land, 1850 to 1910. 







X c \> 


1890 


1880 


1870 


1880 


1850 


















Total 


270.2 


272.4 


253.3 


263.1 


215.1 


173.7 


100.0 


Improved 


556.6 


551.6 


509.4 


518.1 


383.6 


259.9 


100.0 


Bushels of 
















All cereala 


749.4 


774.0 


604.5 


573.5 


268.2 


201.9 


100.0 


Corn 


1490.8 


1787.3 


1364.3 


526.4 


424.1 


150.9 


100.0 


Oats 


401.8 


210.3 


397.1 


542.9 


320.0 


253.2 


100.0 


Wheat 


1456.1 


619.6 


1080.5 


1109.7 


2238.5 


953.3 


100,0 


Barley 


36.9 


35.3 


58.0 


96.9 


91.5 


175.6 


100.0 


Buckwheat 


944.6 


1325.1 


3152.3 


3744.6 


2946.9 


1141.1 


100.0 


Rye 


483.8 


515.1 


704.8 


412.2 


435.3 


220 . 3 


100.0 



United States census reports: Thirteenth, VI, 446; Twelfth, VI, 
53-93. All of the cereals except barley had larger aggregate 

productions in Illinois in 1910 than in 1850. The increase in the 
production of oats and rye during the sixty years was greater than 
the increase in the area of all farm land, but was less than the 
increase in the area of improved land. The increase in the pro- 
duction of buckwheat was a little less than twice as great as that 
of the improved acreage. The corn and wheat productions under- 
went most phenomenal growth, increasing nearly three times as 
rapidly as the area of improved land. It is evident that cereals 
have been occupying an increasingly prominent place in Illinois 
agriculture. 

The relative prominence of the different crops can be 
measured for the dates between 1840 to 1870 only on the basis of 
productions. Beginning with 1880, however, the census reports 
show the number of acres devoted to the various crops. The 
following table shows the tendencies prevailing in crop acreages 



60. 



from 1880 to 1910. 



Percentage of improved land occupied by- 
principal crops, Illinois, 1879 to 1909. 



Crop 


All 


Corn 


Oats 


IVheat 


Other 


Hay and 


Year 


cereals 








cereals 


forage 


1909 


59.0 


35.8 


14.9 


7.8 


0.5 


10.9 


1899 


60.5 


37.1 


16.5 


6.6 


0.4 


11.9 


1889 


55.3 


30.6 


15.1 


8.7 


0.8 


13.8 


1879 


55.4 


34.5 


7.5 


13.3 


1.0 


9.5 



Thirteenth census, V, 554, 556. 

The percentage of improved land devoted to hay and 
forage decreased between 1889 and 1909, and the percentage of 
improved land devoted to other crops decreased from 11.3 in 1899 
to 9.2 in 1909.1 

A marked concentration on the cereals is evident. The 
percentage of improved land occupied by cereal crops in Illinois 
in 1879 was exceeded by the percentage in Nebraska, Minnesota, 
and Iowa; in 1889 by North Dakota and Minnesota; in 1899, by 
Nebraska and Minnesota; but in 1909 the percentage of improved 
land devoted to cereals in Illinois exceeded that of any other 
state . 

Though acreage data are lacking for the period preceding 
the Tenth census the production statistics already cited seem to 
confirm the impression that the concentration on oereal-fe.rming in 
Illinois received its impetus about 1880. Up to that time the 
cereal productions had grov/n at a slower pace than that with which 
the improved acreage had expanded. From 1880 on, however, cereals 
both in acreages and in productions have grown faster than the 

1. Thirteenth census, V, 556. 



61. 



expansion in the area of improved farm land. 

The reason offered for the peculiar importance assigned 
to the period around 1880 is that it was about that time that the 
end of the free land in the United States began to come into viev/. 
The result was an increasing premium and pressure on the food- 
producing land of the country. The effect is seen in the accelera- 
tion given to the rise in farm proper values, and in the concen- 
tration on grain production on the lands of great natural fertility. 



CHAPTFR FOUR 
THE CHANGES IN LAND TENURE IN ILLINOIS 

The early agricultural economy de3ori"bed in the previous 
chapter may be regarded as one in which there existed a heavy 
dependence upon timber. As late as 1850 possibly 45 per cent of 
the land in farms was "woodla.nd" .1 By 1870 the percentage of farm 
land classed as woodland had dropped to 20, by 1880 to less than 
16, and by 1910, to 10.2 Although timber determined the desira- 
bility of a district for occupancy by the pioneers, it has come to 
be regarded as more or less in the way, except that a small amount 
is desirable for shade, ornament and source of wood for farm pur- 
poses. 

The days when the farming of the state was based upon 
woodland must have been characterized by a very small amount of 
tenant farming. Land was then plentiful not only in other parts 



1. In 1850 58.1 per cent of the farm land of Illinois was 
"unimproved". Certainly as much as three-fourths of this unim- 
proved land was "woodland". The percentage of unimproved land 
classified as woodland in 1870 was 77.7, in 1880, 89.1 and in 1910, 
70.7. The absolute figures were as follows: 

Acreages 1870 1880 1910 

Woodland 5,061,578 4,935,575 3,147,879 

Other unimproved 1,491,331 622,916 1,326,735 

Total u-nimproved 6,552,909 5,558,491 4,474,614 

Tenth census. Agriculture, 3, 11; Thirteenth census, V, 77. 

2. The original timbered area of the state is said to have 
comprised about thirty per cent of the total land area, or about 
ten or eleven million acres. At least 4^- or 5 million acres of 
timber land were in farms in 1850. In 1910 about 3 million acres 
of the old timber land were still classed as farm l8.nd, and at 
least 4-^ million more of the old timber acreage must have been 
chiefly in the part called "improved", while the portion of the old 
timber area in farms probably rose from about half in 1850 to three- 
fourths in 1910; at the latter date a large proportion of it had 
been cleared and converted into "improved" land. 



63. 



of the continent, but even within the state itself. The land 
was taken up pretty generally by heads of families seeking to 
establish farm homes. ^- Some renting was carried on in the case 
of tracts owned by non-residents, but, under the circiomstances the 
rents charged were usually very small. ^ 

Tenure Statistics for the State as a Whole 
The census of 1880 showed the number of tenant farms in 
Illinois to be larger than in any other state of the Union, and 
comiderable capital was made of her "eighty thousand tenants. "3 
In 1910, Illinois had 104,379 tenant farms, although her rank among 
the states in this respect had sunk to eighth. ^ Texas, with 
219,575 tenant farms held first rank. At that date Illinois was 
second in the number of white tenants, having 103,761 against 
170,970 in the state of Texas. Illinois stood eleventh in the 
percentage of all farms operated by tenants. The percentage in 
Illinois was 41.4, while in Mississippi, where the percentage was 

1. See above. Chapter I, page 4 , 

2. Buck, Pioneer Letters of Gerpham Flagg, 35, 40, 46. 

Sheftel, Yetta, The settlement of the Military tract, 
Chapters I & II (Not yet published) . 

Gerhard, Fred., Illinois as It Is, 404. 

This is not on account of the relative inferiority of 
the lands first taken up, as a Ricardian might feel after admitting 
Garey's point that the lands first taken up were inferior in quality 
of soil. As Walker points out, the lands first taken up, while 
now known to be chemically and othervdse inferior, were then 
economically superior. It was only when timber farm economy gave 
way to prairie farm economy that this economic superiority of the 
lands earliest occupied was lost. 

3. North American Review: 143, 52-67; 153'-158; 246-353; 

387-401. 

4. In the preceding chapter (pages 16,18,31) it was seen 



64. 



highest, it was 66.1. In the percentage of tenancy among white 
farmers, Illinois with 41.4 ranked sixth, Oklahoma with 55,8 
holding first rank. In the farm acreage hired in 1910, Illinois 
3tood third with 51.0 per cent. The percentage in Delaware was 
52.8 and in Oklahoma exceeded 60. 

The table on the following page summarizes for the state 
as a whole the available statistics on farm tenure. 

It will be observed that the number of farms decreased 
between 1880 and 1910, while the farm acreage increased. The 
increase in the average size of farms was from 133.8 in 1880 to 
129.1 in 1910.^ The number of tenant farms increased from 80,244 
to 104,379, while the number of farms operated by owners, part 
owners and managers, decreased from 175,479 to 147,493.2 The 
percentage of all farms operated by tenants rose from 31.38 in 1880 
to 41.44 in 1910. The percentage of farm acreage operated by 



that Illinois ranked as follows among the states in tenancy, 1880 
to 1910. 



1910 1900 1890 1880 



Number of Tenant Farms 



Total 8 5 3 1 

White 2 . 3 ... ... 

Percentage of Farms 
Operated by Tenants 

All farms 11 13 10 11 

Farms of Whites 6 11 
Farm Acreage Leased 3 2 ... ... 

1. See below, page 104. 

2. The number of persons in agriculture in excess of the 
number of farms, and the number to 10,000 persons in agriculture 
of the farms of various tenures and of the persona without tenure 
was as follows: (page 66). 



TABL^ I 

Numb er of farms ^ 
TotaT 

Operated by 

Owners and part owners 

Owners proper 

Part owners 

Managers 

Tenants 
Percent age of f^rms 
opeVat'ea by; 

Tenants 

Owners and part owners 
Owners proper 
Part owners 
Managers 
Number of acres in farms 



Land tenure in Illinois. 



1910 
351,873 

145,107 
107 , 300 
37,807 
3,386 
104,379 



1900 
364,151 

158,503 
134,138 
34,375 
1,950 
103,698 



41.44 
57.61 
43.60 
15.01 
0.95 



39.36 
60.00 
46.99 
13.01 
0.74 



1890 
340,681 



158,848* 
81,833* 

b 34.00 



b(66.00 
( 



65 



1880 
355,741 



175,497^ 
80,344- 

b 31.38 

bC68.63 



Total 

Operated by- 
Tenant a 

Owners & part owners 

Owners proper 

Part ovmers 

Hired by part owners 

Owned by part owners 

Hired by tenants and 
part owners 

Owned by owners pro- 
per and part owners 

Operated by managers 



d 33,533,937 33,794,738 30,498,377 31,673,645 



e 
e 





g 



14,177,411 13,668,748 
17,787,063 19,671,603 
13,308,930 14,758,439 
5,578,133 f4, 913, 163 
3,414,448 f3, 165, 538 
3,989,385 f3, 747,635 



c 16,591,S59cl4,834,386 



Percenta^^e of farm acres'^ 



g 15,198, 315gl7, 506, 064 
e 558,463 e 454,378 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 



operated by 
Tenants 

Owners and part owners 
Owners proper 
Part owners 
Hired by part o~rner3 
Owned by part owners 
Hired by tenants and 
part omiers 
Owned by owners and 
part owners 
Operated by managers 

♦Part owners and managers not separately classified, and included 
in most oases, probably, with owners rather than tenants. 
United States census reports: 
. Thirteenth, VI, p. 413, or Bulletin, Agric.-Ill., 



43.59 


38.63 


X 


X 


54.69 


59.98 


X 


X 


37.54 


45.00 


X 


X 


17.15 


14.98 


X 


X 


7.43 


6.60 


X 


X 


9.73 


8.38 


X 


X 


51.01 


45.33 


X 


X 


47.37 


53.38 


X 


X 


1.73 


1.39 


X 


X 



0. Private calculation. 



b. Eleventh, Agric, p, 4 

d. Thirteenth, VI, p. 413, or bulletin, Agric.-Ill., 

e. Thirteenth, VI, p. 414, or bulletin, Agric.-Ill., 
' Twelfth, V, p. 308. g 



P 
P 



5. 

4. 
6. 



From data privately supplied by the 
Census bureau. The data are lacking for Carroll, Lee and Massac 
counties; these counties were omitted in calculating the percen- 
tage of part owners' land hired, owned and unknown: the acreages 
for these counties were estimated by the percentages for all 
other counties. See Appendix V, below, pages 334-339. 



66. 



tenants proper waa 43.59 in 1910, while that hired by part owners 

was 7.42. The percentage of farm land operated under lease in 

1910 was, therefore, as already stated, 51.01, 

The following table shows the decennial changes in the 

statistics on the number and percentage of farms operated by owners 

and by tenants, during the entire period, 1880 to 1910, and during 

each of the three intervening decades. 

Farms operated by Illinois - 

Owners (1) Tenants 
Period Number Percentage Number Percentage 

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent 

Tend- of Tend- of Tend- of Tend- of 

ency change ency change ency change ency change 



1880-1910 Dec. 

1900-1910 Dec. 

1890-1900 Dec. 

1880-1890 Dec. 



16.0 
8.5 
0.3 
9.5 



Dec . 
Dec . 
Dec . 
Dec . 



14.7 
3.6 
8.0 
3.8 



Inc . 
Inc . 
Inc . 
Inc. 



30.1 
0.6 

26.7 
2.0 



Inc . 
Inc . 
Inc . 
Inc . 



31.8 
5.3 

15.6 
8.3 



Farm land operated by Illinois - 



1900-1910 Dec. 



Deedholders^^) 
13.2 Dec. 11.5 



Inc . 



Lessees^ ^) 
12.7 Inc. 



12.8 



(1) Includes "owners proper", "part owners", and "managers". 
(2^ Includes "owners proper", and "part owners", under deed. 
(3) Includes "tenants proper", and "part owners" under lease. 



Cen- 
sus 
Year 

1910 
1900 
1890 
1880 



Number of 
persons 
without 
tenure 

192,370 
196,863 
189,453 
180,571 



Number to 10,000 persons in agriculture of 

Farms of owners, part Ten- Persons 

owners and managers ants without 

Part Mana- tenure 
Total owners gers 



3320 
3483 
3693 
4023 



851 
746 



54 
42 



2350 
2340 
1902 
1839 



4334 
4271 
4405 
4139 



See above, page 50 ; subtract number of farms from that 
of all persons employed in agriculture to get the number of 
"persons without tenure". 



67. 

that 

It appears the operation by owners decreased, while 
operation by tenants increased during each decennial period. 
Between 1880 and 1890 the change lay in the decline in the number 
of owners rather than in an increase in the number of tenants. 
During the decade 1890 to 1900 the reverse was the case. The 
number of farms operated by owners remained practically the same, 
■//hile the number operated by tenants underv/ent a very large increase 
During the decade 1900 to 1910, the number of tenant farms remained 
practically the same while there was a sharp decline in the number 
of farms operated by owners. 

The increase of 31.8 per cent in the relative prominence 
of tenant operators was effected chiefly during the decade, 1890 
to 1900, while the decade 1900 to 1910, showed the smallest 
increase of any decade since 1880. 

When, however, the change in tenancy from 1900 to 1910 
is indicated on the acreage basis, it is seen that the increase in 
the hiring of land was not so small. The number of acres hired 
increased 1,757,573 or 13.7 per cent over the hired acreage in 
1900. There was a decline of 550,176 in the total farm acreage, 
so that the number of acres operated by their owners decreased 
2,307,749, or 13.3 per cent. 

based 

The statistics usually employed - those on the number of 
farms - indicate that the percentage of tenancy was 39.3 in 1900, 
and 41.4 in 1910, a relative increase of 5.3 per cent. The 
statistics on the acreage basis make the percentage of tenancy in 
1900 45.3 and in 1910, 51.0. Putting the statistics on the 
acreage basis increases the percentage of tenancy for 1900 by over 



68. 



one-fourth, that of 1910 by nearly one-fourth, and multipliea the 
rate of increase in tenancy between 1900 and 1910 by 3.4. 

The farms of tenants increased 11.2 per cent in size and 
0.6 in number,^ including 38.63 per cent of the farm acreage in 
1900 and 43.59 per cent in 1910. The farms of part owners in- 
creased from 34,375 in 1900 to 37,807 in 1910, a growth of 10 per 
cent. The hired acreage in the average partly owned farm in 1900 
was 63.99 and in 1910, 63.86, an increase of 14 per cent. The 
part ovmera hired 6.6 per cent of the farm land of the state in 
1900 and 7.4 per cent in 1910, a relative increase of one-eighth. 
The fraction of the farm acreage owned by part ovmers increased 
from 8.4 to 9.7 between 1900 and 1910, while the percentage owned 
by owners proper fell from 45.0 to 37.5. Although the farms of 
owners proper were below the average in si^:e in 1900, having but 
118.9 acres on the average, they lost 5.1 acres per farm between 
1900 and 1910.^ 

The increase in tenancy during the last decade was due 
in large measure to the growth in the average size of the areas 
rented by tenants and part owners, accompanied by a falling off 
in the size of the areas operated by the owners. 

An exhibit of maps, some containing shaded areas and 
others statistical data, is presented in the album to illustrate, 
•'Vith special reference to Illinois, the geographical differences 
existing in matters of farm tenure. ^ 

1. See below, page 104. 

3. See below, pages 171-222. 



S9. 



Mapa Baaed on Number of Farms 

The map showing by dots the number of farma operated by 
tenants, 1910, appears on page 136 . From this map it appears 
that the density of tenants farms in Illinois is greater than in 
any other area of equal size which does not include territory 
north of Tennessee or east of the line bisecting the states from 
North Dakota to Texas. Within the boundaries of Illinois the tenant 
farms seem to be pretty uniformly distributed, except for the 
territory between the Kaskaskia and Wabash rivers.^ A tendency 
towards clusters is found around East St. Louis and Chicago, while 
the density of tenants seems to be somewhat greater in the area 
between those two cities. 

The map on page 167 shows the percentage of farms operated 
by tenants in every county in the United States. The difference 
between this map and the first one is due to variations in the 
average size of farms from section to section. The states whose 
appearance is most different in the two maps are, perhaps, Okla- 
homa, Iowa, and Illinois. In each of these states differences 
in the percentage of tenant farms from one section to another are 
very striking. 

In Illinois sectional differences in the percentage of 
tenant farms are shown by data in the five maps on pages 179 to 183. 

In 1880 the percentage of Illinois farms operated by 
tenants was 31.38. Only one county, Logan, had a percentage 
greater than 50. In Edwards county the percentage was 14.5. 
Of the remaining 100 counties, 50 had percentages between 35.0 

1. See map on page /^cS. 



and 35.0. These were located largely in the Northern and Western 
parta of the state. The 28 counties having percentages above 
35.0 were clustered in the Central part of the state and in the 
old "American bottom" district. 1 The percentages below 25 were 
confined to the Southern part of the state. 

In 1890 the percentage of tenant farms in the state was 
34.00. Ford county took the lead with a percentage of 53.7. 
Edwards county had the lowest percentage, 16.0. There were 45 
counties having more than 35.0 per cent of their farms operated 
by tenants, against 28 counties in 1880. The counties with the 
highest percentages were in the East Central part of the state. 
Southern counties showed little change from the small percentages 
they had ten years before. 

In 1900 the percentage of farms operated by tenants was 
39.26. There were 68 counties having more than 35.0 per cent 
of tenant farms, of which 26 had percentages exceeding 45. These 
were located in the East Central part of the state. Tenancy in 
the strip between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, known as the 
"Military tract", probably underwent a more phenomenal increase 
than that in other sections during this decade of remarkable 
growth in tenancy. 

In 1910 the percentage of farms under tenant cultivation 
was 41.44. There were 41 counties with percentages exceeding 
45.0. Twelve oi the counties had percentages exceeding 55.0. 
In the map for 1910 percentages of tenancy exceeding 45.0 appeared 
in the counties between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. 

1. Around East St. Louis. 



71. 

Low percentaces characterized the counties bordering the Mississippi 
river as far south as the old American bottoms, and followed the 
Illinois river over half the distance to its source. In Southern 
Illinois, however, the percentages in the counties bordering the 
Mississippi, Ohio and IVabash rivers were somewhat larger than the 
percentages prevailing in the interior counties. The lowest per- 
centage was that of Edwards county, 20.1, \Yhile the highest was 
that of Ford, 66.7 Ford, Logan, and Grundy counties were the 
only counties in the United States north of the latitude of Cairo 
whose percentage of tenant farms was above 60.0. 

The map on page 183 shows the relative growth of tenant 
farming in Illinois from 1880 to 1910. In five counties, led 
by DeKalb with a percentage of 133.7, the increase in the relative 
number of tenant farms was over 100 per cent. In Southern Illi- 
nois there were five counties in which there was a decline in the 
relative number of tena,nt farms by as much as 325 per cent in the 
case of Pope county. Through the Central part of the state the 
increase was between 25 and 50 per cent. In a general way, it 
may be said that the relative number of tenant farms was stationary 
in Southern Illinois, increased by one-fourth to one-half in 
Central Illinois, and doubled in Northern Illinois during the 
generation, 1880 to 1910. 

The following table shows the number of counties in each 
grade when classified according to the percentage of tenant farms. 



72. 









1910 


1900 


1890 


1880 


Change, 18 


80-1910 


65.0 


- 


69.9 


1 


• ■ 


• • 


• • 


Increase 


1 


60.0 


- 


34.9 


2 


1 


• • 




n 


2 


55.0 


- 


59.9 


9 


3 


• • 


. . 


n 


9 


50.0 


- 


54.9 


7 


9 


3 


1 


It 


6 


45.0 


- 


49.9 


22 


13 


8 


3 


n 


19 


40.0 


- 


44.9 


17 


25 


13 


5 


It 


12 


35.0 




39.9 


16 


17 


22 


19 


Decrease 


3 


30.0 




34.9 


11 


23 


20 


22 


n 


11 


35.0 




29.9 


11 


12 


20 


28 


n 


19 


20.0 




24.9 


6 


9 


11 


19 


n 


13 


15.0 




19 .9 




• • 


6 


4 


n 


4 


10.0 




14.9 


• • 


• • 


• • 


1 


II 


1 






The 


table 


shows the 


positiveness 


with which 


the per 



tage of tenant farms has increased in Illinois counties. The 
counties having percentages below 40.0 have been growing fewer and 
fewer in number, while the number of counties in each grade above 
40.0 have undergone a regular increase. 

The lowest percentages at the four census dates, 1380 to 
1910, were 14.5, 16.0, 21.2 and 20.1 respectively,^ The highest 
percentages were 50.4, 53.7, 62,9 and 66.9 respectively So 
'.vhile the lowest percentage was 5.6 points higher in 1910 than in 
1830, the highest percentage rose 16.5 points. 

All indications go to show, therefore, that while the 
rate of progress in the direction of tenant farming has been slow 
in the case of some counties, it has been very rapid in the case 
of some other counties. The movement away from uniformity in 
Illinois has been much greater, therefore, than is indicated by 
the census map first referred to, that showing the distribution 
of tenants by number. 



1. EdvTards county, in each case. 

2, Logan county in 1880, and Ford county in 1890, 

1900 and 1910. 



73. 



Maps Based on Acreage 

The abaence of county data on the acreapie operated under 
leaae and under deed by part owners In 1900 makes It inadvisable 
to try to present maps showing the percentage of farm land operated 
under the various forms of tenure at that date. By courtesy of 
the Census bureau, however, the Thirteenth census data on renting 
and owning by part owners have been received by private communica- 
tion for 99 of the 102 counties in the state. This has made it 
possible to present data in the maps on pages 184 to /^^. 

Taking up first the map showing the percentage of farm 
land operated by tenants in 1910, and comparing it with the map 
showing the percentage of farms operated by tenants, we find that 
in Southern Illinois the tenants operated farms smaller on the 
average than those operated under other forms of tenure. In 
Central Illinois east of the Illinois river, and especially in the 
interior counties of Northern Illinois the tenant farms were larger 
than those of other tenures. In the Military tract tenant farms 
were about the same in size as other farms. As a whole, the 
state had 43.59 per cent of its farm land operated by tenants, 
who constituted 41.44 per cent of the farm operators. 

The farms operated by managers were 0.96 per cent of 
all farms in 1910, but averaged 234.04 acres. The percentage 
of land managed was 1.72. In Piatt county, managers cultivated 
7.64 percent of the land, while in Wabash county they controlled 
but 0.18 per cent. Little can be seen in the way of sectional 
variation, since the distribution of managed land can scarcely 

1. See below, page 104. 



74. 



be characterized as othsr than aporadio. However prevalent 
managing may be west of the ^jliaaiaaippi ,^ its prominence in Illinoia 
in 1910 cannot be regarded as great. 

The percentage of farm land operated by part ownera in 
1910 waa 17.15. The farms of part ownera contained an average 
of 147.53 acres aj^ainat the e^eneral avera-^e of 129.1 acrea.^ 
In two counties they cultivated over 35 per cent of the farm land, 
Edwarda county leading with 39.1. In DuPage county, in the 
Northern part of the state, only 3.0 per cent of the farm land was 
operated by part ovmera. In a general way it may be said that 
the control of part OTOera over Illinoia farming is greatest in 
Southern Illinoia, average in Central Illinois, and least in 
Northern Illinoia. 

The percentage of the "partly owned" land that waa hired 
in 1910 varied from 30.3 in the case of Hardin county to 55.3 in 
Vermilion county. The counties in which over 50.0 per cent of 
the land partly o\med. was hired were in the East Central part of 
the state. Those in v/hich less than 40.0 per cent of the land 
partly owned was rented were in the Southern part of the state. 
The average for the state was 44.7 per cent. 

The map on page 188 shows percentages of farm land in 
99 counties leased by part owners in 1910. The smallest percen- 
tages were thoae of DuPage and Kane, 1.6, the largest was that of 
Edwards, 14.8. The counties in which over 9.0 per cent of the 
farm land was hired by part o'/mers were confined almost entirely 

1. Se?; above,, pages 1£-13. 

2. See below, page 104. 



75. 

to the Southeastern quarter of the state. Very low percentages 
occurred in the extreme Southern and Northern enda of the state. 
The average for the state was 7.43 per cent. 

The next map shows the total percentage of land in the 
99 counties hired by tenants and by part owners in 1910. The 
county with the smallest percentage of farm land operated under 
lease was Hardin, the percentage being 31.6. In Jo Daviess 
county, in the Northwest corner of the State, and in Pope and 
Johnson counties, in the Southern tip of the state, the percentages 
were under 30,0. Massac county would probably come in the same 
class, had we the data for it. In Ford county 75.4 per cent of 
the land was leased, and Logan county came second with 72.4 per 
cent of the farm land hired. Nineteen counties had over SO.O 
per cent of their farm land hired, lying with the exception of 
Whiteside, in a cluster in the Central and East Central part of the 
state . 

The land owned by part ovmers constituted 9,73 per cent 
of the total. In DuPage county it was but 1.4, while in Jasper 
county it made up 31.8 per cent of the farm land of the county. 
All Southern Illinois, except the extreme Southern tip and 
St. Clair county, was above the state average. In a rough way 
it may be said that ownership by part owners decreases the farther 
north one goes in the state. 

Operation by oi-mers proper accounted for 37.54 per cent 
of the land in 1910. The percentage in Ford county was the least, 
18,4, while that in Hardin county was the greatest, 73.3. In 13 
counties the owners proper operated less than 25.0 per cent of the 



farm land, these "being Eaat Central Illinois counties. 

The map on page 192 shows the total percentage of farm 
acres operated by the holders of the deeds to the land. In 13 
counties the percentage of land operated by the owners was less 
than 33.3 per cent; in 5 of them the percentage was under 30; and 
in one, Ford, the percentage was 23.7. Only three or four coun- 
ties had percentages exceeding 70.0, Hardin, 77.8, Pope, 75.9, 
Johnson, 74.0, and possibly Massac. The average for the state 
was 47.38 per cent. 

The data shows that land le-^sing has a very prominent 
place in Illinois agriculture, but that there are important 
sectional variations. 

The Sectional Aspects of Land Tenure in Illinois 

The sectional differences in land leasing in Illinois 

can be best understood by tracing the sectional variations in 

other features of agriculture in the state. 

Maps on pages 172 to 309 show the sectional differences 

in the following respects: 

(1) The percentage of land area in farms, 1880 and 1910. 

(2) The percentage of farm land improved, 1880 and 1910. 

(3) The percentage of improved farm acreage devoted to the 
production of all cereals, and of corn, 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910. 

(4) The average n\imber of acres per farm, 1880, 1890, 1900, 
and 1910. 

(5) The average value of products per acre, 1879, 1889, and 



77. 



1899.1 

(3) The average value of land and "buildings per acre, 1880, 
1890, 1900, and 1910. 

In 1380 it appears from the maps that the counties with 
the highest percentage of land area in farrna, of farm land im- 
proved, of improved land in cereals, of improved land in corn, and 
the counties with the highest average number of acrea per farm, and 
the highest average value of products per acre were located in the 
Central and Northern parts of the states. The Southern Illinois 
counties were characterized by smaller figures in every one of the 
aspects noted. The highest priced lands were located in the 
Northwestern parts of the state, and those lowest in price were in 
Southern Illinois. 

The maps for 1890 and 1900, for the most part, show the 
same sectional differences, though with a tendency for the 



1. The unreliability of these statistics and the fact 
that they represent the gross values of products makes it necessary 
to be cautious in their use. 

Data were gathered in 1880 and 1890 for products 
raised, the part fed to livestock on the farm being given an esti- 
mated value and included. In 1900 the data excluded the products 
fed to livestock. This makes comparisons with previous census 
data of doubtful value. Even for the same census comparisons 
between counties in which livestock and dairying were practised 
and other counties must lose most of their significance. The 
census of 1910 gives up any attempt "to compute or even to esti- 
mate approximately the total value of farm products" and proceeds 
to enumerate the "numerous difficulties which stand in the way of 
obtaining a total which would be at once comprehensive, free from 
duplication and confined exclusively to the products of a definite 
period of time." 

The values are the so-called "farm values", rather 
than the values of the products delivered at the market. The data 
at each census are for the preceding year, so far as productions 
are concerned, but the acres of land in farms and the prices are 
those of the currect census year. 

See Thirteenth census bulletin. Agriculture, Illinois, 

page 1. 

„| H„ ,, T- TT-- 1 li n il -H I T im r-|-|-T-T r I II ■ r i -nW-T - T I -n -T- I I 'W MI ■■ H IMMIIMIII MIIIIIM — ■ ■! I I EJJW.» =J— !■! ■■■ llllliai ■I B. M Tf— ^^^^M 



78. 



sectional dlfferenoea to widen, except in the cuae of the percen- 
tages of county land areas in farm and of farm areas improved. 

In 1910 the percentages of land area in farms and of 
farm land improved were much more nearly uniform throughout the 
state than at previous census dates. This is because of the 
fact that there has been an increasing demand for land in all parts 
of the state. That fact is attested by the increased value of 
land in 1910 compared with the previous dates. There was a con- 
centration on the production of cereals in the Central counties. 
This was doubtless in response to the higher prices prevailing in 
cereal products. The result of the changes in prices and of 
distribution of productions was to increase the differences between 
sections in the values of products per acre.-^ The sectional 
differences in the values of land and buildings per acre were 
greater than in any of the other features, due in large part to the 
fact that the relative increase in the value of land and buildings 
per acre was greatest in the districts where highest prices had 
prevailed in 1900 and 1890. The same kind of a development took 
place in the matter of average farm acreages. In the Southern 
part of the state farms changed little in size from 1880 to 1910, 
whereas in the counties of the Central part of the state a con- 
siderable increase took place. 

The development during the last generation can be better 
understood, perhaps, by making reference to the map showing the 

1. The above statement is based upon an inspection 
of data on the different items of farm production for 1909. 



79. 

dietrilDution of timber in 1880. On tliia map is indicated what 
may be called the ten corda line, which divides the territory 
of the state in which more than ten cords of wood existed on the 
average acre from that in which the cordage per acre was less 
than ten. The latter may be regarded roughly as the original 
prairie district of the state. ^ 

In nearly every series of maps, the later dates show 
a concentration of development within the old prairie district. 
The most striking case is that of land values. The highest 
values in 1880 were in the territory north and west of the Illinois 
river. By 1910 the district of highest land prices had become 
centered in the East Central part of the state and the counties 
in which the value of land and buildings per acre exceeded 135 
dollars were, almost without exception, those whose areas con- 
stituted the original prairie. 

When the maps illustrating tenancy are compared with 
those showing the sectional aspects in the other features of agri- 
culture, the resemblance is striking. The counties with highest 
percentages of tenancy at each date were, for the most part, the 
prairie counties. In 1910, especially, the district in which 
over 45 per cent of the farms were operated by tenants, that in 
which over 50 per cent of the land was leased, was defined almost 
exactly by the line dividing the original prairie and timber 
regions . 

The sectional association of tenancy with the values of 

1. Pooley, E. V., The Settlement of Illinois from 
1830_ to 1850, p^age 308. For the map, see below, page 170. 



80. 

products, the values of land and buildings, and the average size 
of farms Is exhibited in the table on the next page. The 
counties were divided into six groups of seventeen counties each, 
independently for each census. Group I included the seventeen 
counties that stood highest in the percentages of tenant farms at 
the census date in question. Group II including those ranking 
from eighteenth to thirty-fourth, and so on for the other four 
groups. 

In all cases the range of difference between the highest 
and lowest county group averages was greater at each succeeding 
census date. This increase in sectional differences seems to 
have affected not only the items given here, but also items of 
production, - nearly everything, in fact, except the percentage 
of land area in farms, the percentage of farm area improved, and 
the percentage of farm area in woodland. The application of 
capital and labor seems to have produced greater sectional differ- 
entiation. 

The tendencies tovvard sectional concentration in the 
various lines have doubtless come from the fact that farming 
has been carried on for increasingly larger market areas, and that 
the capacities of soil and situation for the production of certain 
staples have been revealed more and more clearly. 

In the case of each of the three comparisons given in 
the table the sectional association with tenancy was closer at 
each succeeding census. In 1910 the parallelism was very close 
between tena,ncy and average values per acre both in the case of 
products- and of land and buildings. The county groups III and IV 



81. 



Table showing the values of produota per acre, the values 
of land and buildings per acre, and the average number of acres per 
farm for Illinois counties arranged into groups according to the 
percentage of farms operated by tenants in the indivi-lual counties; 
and the rank of the county groups for each item. 



Item 



Tenancy county groups 



Averaere value per acre 




I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


Products preced- 
















ing the census. 


















1910 




(a) 


(a) 




(a) 






1900 


r^lO . 30 


^9 . 74 


^7 .92 


t}7 .84 


?|;5 .99 


^4 .68 




1890 


7.23 


6.79 


6.59 


5.82 


4.63 


3.97 




1880 


7.06 


7.02 


6.89 


6.08 


4.96 


5.94 


Land and buildings 
















1910 


143.20 


118.10 


103.30 


80.80 


51.40 


39.10 




1900 


63. 30 


61 .40 


44 .10 


44 .70 


38.80 


19 . 30 




1890 


47 .80 


52 .10 


43. 24 


40 .90 


28 .43 


23 . 17 




1880 


31.10 


34.94 


38.23 


28.45 


25.68 


29.75 


Average number of 
















acres per farm 


1910 


160.5 


146 .3 


125.0 


131 .2 


110.7 


100.5 


1900 


148.6 


129 .5 


134.7 


123,9 


112.0 


96 .4 




1890 


136.5 


138.5 


135.6 


128.0 


115.0 


104.0 




1880 


122.1 


132.2 


124.0 


117 .5 


123.8 


122.3 


Rank of county groups 


in 














Average value per acre 
















of products of year 
















perceding the 




^l^(l) 












census 


1910 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(5) 




1900 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1890 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1880 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


5 


Land and buildings 
















1910 


1 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1900 


1 


2 


4 


3 


5 


6 




1890 


2 


1 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1880 


3 


2 


1 


5 


6 


4 


Average number of 
















acres per farm 


1910 


1 


2 


4 


3 


5 


6 




1900 


1 


3 


2 


4 


5 


6 




1890 


2 


1 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1880 


5 


1 


2 


6 


3 


4 



(a) Exact data discontinued; partial returns give basis 



for ranking. 



(on the baals of tenancy) riinked fourth and third, reapectlvely , 
in the average size of farms, but otherwise the sectional correa- 
pondenoe between tenancy and the size of farms was consistent. 
The same sectional correspondence obtained between tenancy and 
the percentage of land area in farms and of improved land devoted 
to cereal and especially corn and oats production. 

The fundamental reason for the increasing association of 
all the factors has been the influence of an increasing market 
demand for cereals, the production of which in Illinois was being 
carried on under a prefecting machinery economy. This influence 
has been most felt in districts in which machinery could be most 
effectively employed and in which the natural fund of fertility 
enabled fertilizing costs to be almost entirely eliminated. The 
rich, level prairie has, therefore, responded with greater per- 
centages of land area under cultivation, of farm area improved, 
of improved area in cereals, and with greater acreage per farm. 

Tenancy has been a phase accompanying this movement, 
and has been related to the other factors. 

The sectional association of tena.ncy has been more con- 
sistent in the case of values of products than in the case of 
values of land and buildings, or the sizes of farms. It would 
scarcely be urged that the association of tenancy with high acre 
values of products proves that tenancy was responsible for the 
higher productiveness of the land. "Productiveness" is a matter 
of gross values, however, and not simply one of yields per acre. 
For that reason tenancy may have increased the gross values of 
products per acre by causing a larger portion of the land area to 



83. 



be devoted to the production of producta the groaa values per acre 
of which are high. The Influence exerted upon tenancy haa pro- 
bably been greater than that exerted by tenancy in this relation. 
The groaa values of producta per acre in different sections muat 
be a fair index of the relative rents paid for equal areas in 
thoae sections. The higher the rents received by the lando/raers, 
the greater ia the chance that the ov/ners may feel free from the 
neceasity of personally operating their land. 

At this point, however, the size of farma and holdings 
muat be considered. Per-acre rent rates may or may not be 
indicative of the total rental income of owners, according as the 
aize of holdings of the owners varies directly with the per-acre 
rent rates. The total income received by the landower is the 
factor determining his ability to escape from the operation of his 
land. While it would be extreme to assume that all land owners 
are seeking to retire from the operation of their land as soon as 
sufficient income is assured them, there are doubtless numbers of 
them with whom such is the case. In those cases larger holdings 
are probably conducive to tenancy. On the other hand, the preva- 
lence of holdings too small to be operated except in connection 
with adjacent land may contribute to land renting.'^ 

It is possible that tenancy has had a reflex influence 
upon the size of farms. When farms are bought to rent, the 
purchaser naturally invests hi a money ao as to get the lay-out of 
land beat adapted to tenant operation. When the land is conti- 
guous, tenants can be secured who will operate in larger tracts. 

1. See above, pages 39 and 30. 



84. 



This cuta down the difficulty and expense of negoti£.tion and 
3upervision. The better class of tenants are naturally attracted 
to the opportunities for operating on a large scale. T/here the 
advantages of large-scale farming have been less pronounced., the 
smaller possibility of profits from farming have operated against 
the enlargement of holdings. As a consequence fewer of the 
smaller farms have been rented. 

Renting has thus far been considered largely from the 
point of view of the OT;^'ners v/ith land to rent. On the other 
side of the problem are the persons who want to operate land, in 
most cases, no doubt, looking forward with hope for land ownership. 
To these persons the prices they must pay for land are of special 
importance . 

It will be observed in the table above that sectional 
correspondence between land prices and values of products, while 
not close in 1880, came later to be more and more so. Whether 
the average profit per acre or per farm resembled land prices or 
values of products, more in its sectional variation is impossible 
to prove. It is probable, however, that the superiority of the 
open prairie land for farming purposes was not so well established 
in the minds of people in 1880 as it came later to be, for the 
highest land prices were at that time in the district north and 
west of the Illinois river. At the later dates, however, it is 
safe to say that the price of land is a fairly accurate capital- 
ization of the profits of cultivation. 

The sectional correspondence of tenancy with land 
prices v/as not very close in 1880, although the county groups 



85. 

showed avera£:e values of land and buildings differin^f little from 
one another. As the difference between sectioiia in the prices 
of land increased, the correspondence between tenancy and. land 
prices grew closer. In 1910 it was close enough to be called 
complete, more so than that between tenancy and size of farms, 
and probably as much as that between tenancy and the gross values 
of products per acre. 

High land prices have been characteristic of the dis- 
tricts where the standard sise of farms v/as especially large. As 
a consequence the investment necessary for the purchase of a farm 
of representative size in the districts of high prices has been 
much larger than in the districts of smaller farms and lower 
prices. Since the percentage of the value which can be covered 
by mortgage is smaller in the case of the higher priced land,-^ 
the demand for ready cash is greater than the ratio of the price 
to cheaper land would lead one to suppose. Ready cash, however, 
and credit on which to get money, is what the tenant ordinarily 
lacks. 

For the most part, the influence of timber has been 
expressed in our data in the reduced earning power of the land. 
It seems probable, however, that it has had an effect upon tenancy 
in a more direct manner. Timber offers attractions to many 
people because of the kind of life to which it is conducive. 
Hunting, fishing, and the more varied activities v/hich characterize 
life where the function of woodsman and farmer are combined 

1. Stewart, C. L.: An Analysis of Rural Banking 
Conditions in Illinois, pp. 14 and 15. 



I 



I 



probablj'- cause the owners of such land to have less desire to 
retire from their places. 

The result of the study of sectional differences shows 
that a single index, such as the value of land per acre or per 
farm, cannot be regarded as sufficient for an explanation of 
sectional differences in tenure. Of all single factors given 
statistical expression in the census reports gross values of 
products per farm seem to have had the most complete sectional 
parallelism with tenancy in Illinois. 

There remains to be made an inquiry into the historical 
changes in all the features thus far submitted to study by cross- 
sections of the state. 

Historical Tendencies and Tenure in Illinois 
From 1880 to 1910 the number per 1000 farms of farms 
operated by tenants increased 30.1 per cent, and of farms operated 
by owners, part owners and managers decreased 16.0 per cent.-^ 

The number of acres of improved land per 1000 acres of 
land area increased from 728 to 782, or 7.3 per cent, between 
1880 and 1910. That the improved farm acreage should have 
changed less than the tenure of the operators is only to be 
expected. In so far as slowness of expansion in the improved 
farm acreage in Illinois is indicative of a similar condition 
throughout the county, 2 it may imply a greater cost of increasing 
the improved acreage beyond the dimensions attained in 1880. To 
the extent that such is the case, the relative scarcity of land 

1. See above, page 33. 

2. See above, pages 40 and 41. 



.7. 



compared with the general population may, throurh the rise In 
prices of products and of land, and throurh increasing competition 
for rented farms, have stimulated the practice of tenancy at the 
expense of operation by owners. 

Improving land has probably affected its tenure. In 
1880 there were 4,935,575 acres of v/oodland and forest in Illinois 
farms; by 1910 this was reduced to 3,147,879 acres. 1 Evidence is 
thus afforded of a tendency to clear the timber from the land.^ 
Large quantities of land have been reclaimed by means of drainage 
projects, especially along the river courses. By increasing the 
value of the land the way was better paved for more successfully 
renting it in the future. It is probable, however, that the 
individual farmers who cleared and drained their farms were not 



1. See cen^iUs reports: Thirteenth, VI, 435, and 
Tenth, Agriculture, 103. 

3. The wooded areas are said to represent with fair 
accuracy the original forest of the state. About thirty 
per cent of the total area of Illinois in 1857 was given as 
woodland. By 1880 it appears that all of the woodland in 
farms added to all the land area not in farms could not have 
exceeded tv/enty-five per cent, while it is possible that the 
percentage of the total land area in timber did not exceed 
fifteen per cent. The forest area of the state in 1911 was 
estimated at between five and six per cent of the land area. 

It seems that nearly half of the timberland exis- 
ting in Illinois in 1867 was cleared during the twenty-three 
years preceding 1880, while tv/o- thirds of the remainder was 
cleared during the thirty-one years following. 

It is not probable that any great portion of the 
timber has been ruthlessly burned in order to use the space 
for agriculture. The market for hardv/ood timber, of the 
varieties found in both Northern and Southern Illinois, has 
been an open one, and many of the varieties native to Illinois 
were such as sold well. The more prevalent practice in de- 
forestation seems to have been to cull the more saleable 
timber, and to treat the cut-over timber as the owner's 
policy might dictate. 

(See Hall and Ingalls, "Forest Conditions in 
Illinois, 177, 180-343, passim). 



38. 



themselves inclined to rent them out to tenants.^- The fact that 
their farms respond to their efforts to improve them, though 
simple in its psychology, is a signifioant one. The succeeding 
generation of owners, however, may not "be so much attached to the 
land as their predecessors who improved it, and may find the 
growing of staple crops by their tenants as profitable to them 
as if the land had always been treeless or naturally drained. 

The following table summarizes for the state as a whole 
the data available for inter-censal. comparison. 

Census date 1910 1900 1890 1880 



Absolute numbers of tenants per 

1000 operators 4144 

Acres per farm 139.1 

Average value per acre 

Products of preceding year(^} . . ^17.92 
Land and buildings ^108.32 

Percentage of increase over 
preceding census 

Tenants per 1000 operators .... 5.3 

Acres per farm 3.9 

Average value per acre 

Products of preceding year . 89,9 
Land and buildings 101.2 

Percentage of increase, 1880-1900, 
occurring during each decade 
Tenants per 1000 operators .... 21.0 
Average value per acre 

Products of preceding year . 72.9 
Land and buildine-s 71.3 



3926 
124.2 



3400 
126.7 



^^9.40 $7.02 
,^53.84 |41.41 



3138 
123.8 



.^6.43 
$31. 87 



-2.0^^) 

33.9 
30.0 



53.0 

21.7 
15.3 



8.3 
2.3 

9.2 
30.0 



26.0 

5.4 

13.5 



(a) With 1880 as 100,0 index numbers for the succeedings census 
date were calculated on the basis of the two American systems, with 
the following result: 1890, 86.3; 1900, 85.3; 1910, 100.9. The 
values before being placed on the tabular basis were 1890, .^6.06; 
1900, 1^8.02; and ISIO, gl7.98. (Derived from United States census 
reports: Thirteenth, VI, 426, 436 and 446; Twelfth, V, 273 and 274; 
Eleventh, Agriculture, 204-206; and Tenth, Agriculture, 111-112.) 

(b) Minus sign (1) indicates decrease. 

1. Drainage has sometimes been carried on by "outside" 

capitalists, in whose case the element of personal attachment to 
land would not ordinarily be strong. See histories of most 
river counties. 



89. 

The table shows a movement forward in all the phenomena, 
much greater in the caae of the values of products and of land 
and buildings than in the case of tenancy or the size of farms. 
The relative number of tenant farms increased most between 1890 
and 1900, the decade during which the farms grew smaller on the 
average. This affords no contradiction, however, to the conclu- 
sion previously arrived at, that smaller farms are usually opera- 
ted by the ovmera, A reduction in the size of farms may, more- 
over, be related to the increase in tenancy, because of a movement 
on the part of larger owners to cut dom the size of the farming 
units for the sake of greater efficiency in production. 

The rise in the value of products per acre is, of course, 
by no means an accurate measure of the average profits per acre, 
and, therefore, we should expect to find the value of land and 
buildings subject to a different variation. The difference, 
however, is not great, the value of products per acre increasing 
171 per cent, and that of land and buildings 241 per cent from 
1880 to 1910. It is only fair to estimate that the money profits 
of farming an acre increased somewhere nes.r 300 per cent. 

The increase of tenancy was much slower than the rise 
in the value of products, the value of land and buildings, or, 
possibly, of the profits per acre. The decade of the most 
phenomenal increase in the value of products, land and buildings, 
and, presumably, profits, was the one of least relative increase 
in tenancy, and followed the decale of greatest relative increase 
in tenancy. It might seem, therefore, that increasing tenancy 
may have influenced the other factors, as well as that the other 



90. 



factors influenced tenancy. 

Considering divisions within the state, the discrepancy 
betv/een advances in land prices and the increase in tenancy is 
still wider. The increase in the acre prices in the East Central 
counties during the thirty year period was from four to six fold, 
ahout twice as great as the increase in Northern and Western 
Illinois and about three or four times as great as in Southern 
Illinois. 1 The percentage of tenancy doubled in Northern Illinois 
increased by half in Central Illinois, and remained practically 
stationary in Southern Illinois. 

It appears, then, that in Illinois land prices have been 
highest and have increased most where and when the percentage of 
tenancy was the highest, but that the percentage of tenancy has not 
increased most either when or where land prices were the highest, 
or when increasing the most rapidly. In other words, land prices 
have been more consistent with and responsive to differences and 
changes in tenancy than tenancy has been to c^fferences and changes 
in land prices. 

The relation between rising incomes in agriculture and 
land tenure is a complicated one. One consideration is the fact 
that with rising profits from agriculture many operating owners 
who might other. dae have left and possibly sold their farms, are 
attracted by these greater profits to stay.^ Thus the imrtiediate 
effect of conditions causing higher land prices may be to prevent 

1. See below, page 310. 

2. See Taylor, Introduction to the Study of Agricultural 
Economics, pages 244-246. 



CI. 



increase in tenaxsy. On the other hand, the immediate effects of 
falling profits in farming may "be that operating owners beconie 
discouraged and leave and possibly sell their land. 3y leaving 
without selling tenancy is increased. If the land is sold to 
tenants who proceed to operate, tenancy is decreased. So it is 
more difficult to say whether the immediate effects of falling 
profits and low prices is to chan?:e the tenure of the land, although 
the ultimate effects are surely to decrease tenancy. The imme- 
diate accompaniment of rising land prices is likely to he an in- 
crease in tenancy, although the ultimate situation is favorable 
for more tenancy. The dates marking the greatest increase in 
tenancy are 1890 and 1900. Agricultural profits were disappoint- 
ing during the early part of the decade, but were picking up later. 
The suggestion is that many owners v/hose desire to quit farming 
was strengthened by the depression, found the effectiveness of 
their desire improved by the change for the better. Since 1900, 
however, the net returns per acre upon which the increment is 
based, have grov/n . The economic impulse to stay upon the farm 
has been strengthened, while the economic freedom to leave the 
farm has also grown. 

The influence of the prevalence of tenancy upon la.nd 
prices arises in several ways. In the first place, the greater 
the number of available tenants for the renting of a piece of 
land, the greater is the value of an investment in such land to 
those who want to hold it without operating it. An investor can 
afford to bid higher for such land. In the second place, com- 
petition among tenants causes the rents paid to approach more 



93. 



nearly to the maximum. This naturally increases the value of the 
farm to the owner. In the third place, the higher the percentage 
of tenancy on land devoted to the production of staple crops, and 
the more limited the ag^gregate acreage on which such crops can be 
profitably produced, the greater must be the "restraint of pro- 
duction" through the inefficiency of tenants, and the greater must 
be the effect of this restraint of production upon prices of pro- 
ducts, profits of farming, and land values. Within its limits, 
inefficient production of crops, the area of production of which 
is naturally or economically restricted, must exert an influence 
similar to a crop shortage, which often results in a greater rela- 
tive rise in prices per unit then the relative decline in aggregate 
production.^ In so far as inefficient farming is promoted by 
tenants the effect may be somewhat to stimulate land prices 
through the "shortage" influence on production. As the areas of 
land suited to the production of staples become more definitely 
fixed, and as a greater demand is made by population for the pro- 
ducts of those areas, the influence of inefficient production must 
become more influential in this respect. 

Still it is probably true that the rise of land prices 
have exerted a greater influence upon tenancy than tenancy has 
upon the rise of land prices. Lands increasing in value so as to 
give a high annual rate of return on previous valuations tend to 
be capitalized at a more conservative rate of interest on the 
earning power. The tenant, however, is not in a position to pay 

1. Thompson, J. G.: Publications of the American Economic 
Association, 9, 68-70. 



prices based on such a conaervatlve interest rate. The rise in 
land prices has doubtless exerted an influence of this kind most 
pronouncedly in the cereal-growing counties. In five counties in 
Central IlJinois the average prices of land and buildings per acre 
increased over five-fold between 1380 and 1910, as against an 
increase of about half as great for the state as a whole. Between 
1900 and 1910 the relative increase in the value of land and 
buildings per acre was about twice as great in the East Central 
counties as in the Southern counties.-^ The greater multiplying 
power of capital invested in the old prairie district has had much 
to do in increasing the size of holdings among land owners and of 
decreasing the chances for tenants to become owners in those 
districts. 

The historical study shows that tenancy has increased 
along with the (1) percentage of land area improved, (2) the 
average number of acres per farm, and (3) the average value per 
acre of products and of farm property. In large measure tenancy 
has been increased and operation by ovmers diminished because of 
the movements in the other factors. Tenancy has probably in- 
creased faster because of the declining rate of increase in the 
farm area. The rate of increase in tenancy has been less than 
the increase in the value per acre of products and of land, and 
greater than the increase in the average size of farms. 

Considering both sectional and historical aspects of 
tenancy growth in Illinois it seems to the writer that the principl 
underlying the extent, distribution and growth of land leasing is 

1. See below, page 212. 



i 



04 . 

the real value of the rental income per farm. Although, from 
the point of view of the landlords, the real income of their 
entire holdings is the important consideration, the representative 
holding is one farm.l The share the tenant gets doubtless "bears 
a different ratio to the landlord's share in the annual surplus 
of operations from section to section cind from time to time. 
The tenant's portion is probably subject to less variation in 
absolute value than the landlord's portion. This means that the 
tenant's share in the surplus is probably smaller, relatively, 
when the surplus is large, and smaller, absolutely, when the 
surplus is small. The possibility of saving by the tenant is 
probably greater where the kind of farming operations is such as 
to place a premium upon diversified knowledge, operating capital 
and managerial ability.^ Such a condition prevails more 
especially in Northern Illinois. In Central Illinois the farming 
method does not reotire such diversification of technical knowledge, 
and the competition for farms to rent is especially severe. ^ In 
Southern Illinois the surplus of operations and the acrea.ge per 
farm are both small. In southern Illinois tenancy has undergone 
very little change; in Central Illinois it has been highest and 
increasing somewhat; while in Northern Illinois, it has been 

increasing at a rapid rate.'^ In Northern Illinois the prosperity 


1. See below, page /3^- 

3. See "An Analysis of Rural Banking Conditions in 
Illinois," pages 19 and 20. 

3. For several years nea.rly all news items in Chicago 
papers relating to cases where from 25 to 50 bids were made 
for farms offered for rent came from to^vns in Central Illinois. 

4. See below, pages 137-139. 



S5. 



of tenants appears to have been responsible for their tendency 
to multiply in numbera, while in Southern Illinois the opportunity 
for tenants to rent seems to have been restricted. In the 
prairie district of the state tenancy has probably been re^^ulated 
more by the higher rental income per owner, which has not only 
liberated owners from the necessity of operation, but has caused 
the land to be capitalized at such a low rate that the tenants 
are not able profitably to own farms. 

To summarize the conclusions of the chapter it appears 
that the forms of tenure have been phases accompanying, limited 
by and modifying the conditions and changes in the agricultural 
economy of the state. The prevalence, sectional character and 
growth of farming by tenant operators is chiefly governed by the 
real value of the shares of the owners and tenants in the surplus 
of operation. Tenancy forms a sort of cumulative index of the 
effectiveness of the desire of the owners to escape the operation 
of their land, and of the ineffectiveness of the desire of tenants 
to become ovmers. 



CHAPTER FIVE 



A DESCRIPTION OF FAPil OPERATORS IN ILLINOIS 

The farm operators of Illinois are, with fev; exceptions 
heads of families residing on the farms. In 1890 the number of 
farm operators was 240,681, of whom 158,848, or 66.0 per cent, 
operated as owners.^ At that date 252,952 farm families were 

reported, of whom 160,066, or 62.3 per cent, resided on farms 

p 

owned by them. In 1900 the number of farm operators was 
264,151, of whom 168,605, or 60.0 per cent, were owners, 102,698 
tenants, and 2,415 "owners and tenants". The number of farm 
families was 262, 588, ^ of whom 168,496, or 60.4 per cent, owned 
farms and 101,817 hired. I'he almost exact correspondence in the 
numbers and tenures in the case of operators and families is 
sufficient evidence that in 1890 and 1900 the normal Illinois 
farm was a "family farm". There is no reason for believing 
that statistics taken later would show any change in this 
condition. 



1. Twelfth Census, V, Ixix. 

2. The number of families residing on hired farms exceeded 
the number of farms operated by tenants by 11,065. It is 
possible that this was due to the reporting of some laborers 
hiring homes, or of some managers and owners occupying homes 

on land belonging to a tenant farm^ 
5. Unknown, 2,076. 



97 



Cen- 
sus 
date 


Total 
Number Inc . 


Cash and 
unspecified 
Number Inc . 


Share 
share 
Number 


and 
-cash 
Inc. 


1910 


104.379 0.7 


37, 163 


-2.6 


67,216®- 


2.6 


1900 


103,698 26.7 


38.173 


30.8 


65,525 


24.5 


1890 


81.833 2.0 


29,182 


41.5 


52.651 


-11.7 


1880 


80.244 — - 


20.620 




59.624 





The Bases of Renting. 

The following table shows the number of tenants of 
different kinds. 1880 to 1910. 

Percentage 
Cash. Share, 
etc. etc. 

35.6 64.4 
36.8 63.2 

35.7 64.3 

25.7 74.3 

(-) Minus sign denotes decrease. 

(a) 23.665. or 35.5 per cent, were share-cash. 

Thirteenth census, V, 124. and VI, 438. 

The period. 1880 to 1890, during which the total 
number of tenants underwent only a slight increase, was the 
decade of greatest readjustment of terras between the tenants 
and landlords. The number of share tenants declined 6,973. 
or 11.7 per cent, while the number of cash tenants increased 
8,562, or 41.5 per cent. The percentage of all tenants renting 
on shares fell from 74.3 in 1880 to 64.3 in 1890. The tendency- 
continued, though much abated, until 1900, when 63.2 per cent 
of the tenant farms were rented on shares. In 1910 there were 
23.665 farms rented on a basis combining the share and cash 
principles. All of these are here counted as share tenants, 
though it is probable that a part of the farms rented in 1900 
on the combined share and cash basis were then counted as cash 



98 



tenant farms. To the extent that share-cash tenants were 
classified as cash tenants in 1900, less significance is to he 
attached to the decrease from 36.8 to 35.6 between 1900 and 1910 
in the percentage of farms rented for cash.-'- 

Percentage of tenant farms rented for cash: 
the number of counties in each of ten percentage groups. 

Divisions 





The 


state 


Northern 


Central 






Southern 


Group 


10 


00 


90 


80 


10 


00 


90 


80 


10 


00 


90 


80 


10 


00 90 80 


90-100 


. . 


2 


1 


1 


• • 


2 


1 


1 




. • 






• . 




80-90 


• • 


1 


1 


• • 


• • 


1 


1 


. • 






• « 




• • 




70-80 


4 


2 


2 


1 


4 


2 


2 


1 




. • 






« • 




60-70 


8 


6 


1 


1 


8 


5 


1 


1 




1 


. . 








60-60 


2 


13 


16 


3 


2 


9 


8 


3 




4 


8 








40-50 


15 


12 


15 


9 


8 


5 


8 


8 


5 


6 


7 




2 


1 .. 1 


30-40 


12 


17 


22 


20 


1 


. • 


3 


5 


11 


16 


16 


9 


• • 


13 6 


20-30 


16 


13 


11 


19 


1 




. • 


4 


12 


7 


5 


8 


3 


6 6 7 


10-20 


24 


22 


12 


37 








1 


7 


2 


1 


19 


17 


20 11 17 


0-10 


21 


14 


21 


11 










2 


1 


. . 


1 


19 


13 21 10 



1. Moreover, the districts of the state in which the 
greatest decline took place from 1900 to 1910 in the percentage 
of farms rented for cash were the districts in which the percent- 
age of other than cash tenants renting on the share-cash basis wa 
the highest in 1910. Suggestion, at least, is thus given that 
the apparent decline in the relative prominence of cash tenancy- 
is due to the classification of some tenants as share-cash 
tenants in 1910 who in 1900 would have been counted as cash 
tenants. (See below, p. 217.) 



99. 



In 1880 there were only 6 counties in the state in 
which the percentage of tenants renting for cash exceeded 50. 
All of them were in the Ilorthern division of the state. In 1890 
there were 21 such counties, 13 in the Northern division and 8 
in the Central division. In 1900 the number of counties in which 
cash renting predominated was 24, 19 being in the Northern and 
5 in the Central part. In 1910 the number of such counties fell 
to 15, all of them being in Northern Illinois. In 1880 there 
were 48 counties in which the percentage of farms rented for 
cash was under 20; 27 were in Southern Illinois; 20 in Central 
and 1 in Northern Illinois. In 1890 the number of such counties 
was S3, in 1900, S5, and in 1910, 45. At the last date 36 of 
the counties were in Southern Illinois, and the remainder in 
Central Illinois. 

Cash tenancy was relatively most prominent, therefore, 
in Northern Illinois, and least prominent in Southern Illinois.-^ 
Since 1900 cash renting appears to have declined in relative 
prominence in each division of the state. Share-cash tenancy 
was most prominent, compared with all tenancy other than cash, 
in the counties of Central Illinois and the old prairie district. 2 

The reasons for this sectional difference will appear 
as the farms and farm practice of the various kinds of operators 
are described. 



1, See below, pp. 213-216. 

2, See below, p. 217. 



100 



Size of Farms of Various Tenures. 

The method used by the census in presenting data on 
the size of farms of various tenures has undergone a change. 
For 1880 and 1890 the data are given for owners, cash tenants, 
and share tenants by ac reage -groups . In 1900 the acreage -groups 
are continued and the farms formerly considered as those of 
owners are itemized into four classes. In 1910 the acreage-group 
method is discontinued, except for all farms. In both 1900 and 
1910 the total acreages are given, so that averages can be 
calculated for farms of the several forms of tenure. 

The first table shows for the Tenth, Eleventh, and 

Twelfth census enumerations the percentage of farms belonging to 

under 

the various size-groups that was operate_d/each of the several 
forms of tenure. 

The columns with the bars above them contain data 
for acreage-groups combined in the column following them. 

The farms of owners constituted a smaller percentage 
of all farms at the later census dates, and the farms of tenants 
made up a correspondingly increasing percentage. The farms 
under 50 acres were operated by owners to a larger extent in 
1890 than in 1880, and those between 50 and 100 underwent only 
a slight increase in percentage of tenancy. The farms between 
100 and 500 acres in size as well as those 500 to 1000 in 
acreage were rented to a much larger degree in 1900 and at 



If 



101. 



Peroentage of farms of apeoified sizes operated under 
specified forms of tenure, 1880, 1890 and 193,0. 



All Less 3 Less 10 £0 50 100 175 
farms than to than to to to to to 
Own- S 9 10 19 49 99 174 259 



260 

to 

S99 



400 

to 

499 



500 lOOC 
to 

999 and 



ers A*9, A'g, A's. A»s. A's, A's. A^s. A's. A^s. A's. A's. oveil 

1900 60.7 66. G 63.8 64.5 58.4 62.6 61.6 58.0 59.1 65,0 59.5 75.3 81.9 

1890 66.0 69.2 64.0 67.0 64.3 66.3 81.9 84.€ 

1880 68.6 60.1 65.3 65.1 54.5 58.8 65.1 74.8 87.7 89.6 



All 
ten- 
ante 

1900 39.3 33.3 36.1 35.6 41.5 37.5 38.4 42.0 40.0 36.1 40.5 24.6 18. 

1890 34.0 30.8 36.0 33.0 35.7 33.7 18.1 15 

1880 31.4 39.9 34.7 34.9 45.5 41.2 34.9 24.6 12.3 10. U 

Cash 
ten- 
ants 

1900 14.5 28.3 22.9 24.0 16.2 10.1 13.2 16.5 15.5 12.8 15.7 7.5 6. 

1890 12.1 18.6 15.4 8.9 12.4 12.7 5.9 7. 

1880 8.1 22.5 16.3 16.5 13.1 8.4 8.4 7.1 4.7 2. 



Share 
ten- 
ant s , 

1900 24.8 5.0 13.3 11.6 25.3 27.4 25.2 25.5 24.5 22.3 24.8 17.1 11. 

1890 21.9 12.2 20.6 24.1 23.3 21.0 12.2 8. 

1880 23.3 17.4 18.4 18.4 32.4 32.9 26.5 17.5 7.6 7. 

* Including farms operated by owners proper, part owners, 

"owners and tenants", and managers, 
a. For 1900 in detail. 



Own- 
ers 
Part 
Ow's 
0w*s 
and 
Ten's 
Mgr's 



All Less 3 
farms than to 
3 9 
A's. A' 



Less 10 20 50 100 175 260 

than to to to to to to 

10 19 49 99 174 259 399 

A's. A's. A's. A's. A's. A's. A's. 



400 500 100( 

to to A's 

499 999 and 

A's. A's. ove 



46.1 63.5 58.9 59.9 49.4 51.2 48.1 42.9 40.3 43.6 42.3 50.8 47.9 
13.0 1.8 4.3 3.8 8.4 10.4 12.3 13.3 17.6 18.0 16.1 16.3 16.2 



0.9 
0.7 



0.3 
1.0 



0.1 
0.5 



0.2 
0.6 



0.2 
0.4 



0.5 
0.4 



0.8 
0.4 



1.1 
0.7 



1.2 
1.0 



1.5 
1.9 



1.2 
0.9 



2.0 2. 
6.2 15.21 



United States census reports: 

Thirteenth, V, 124; Twelfth, V, 48; Eleventh, Agriculture. 
118, 119; Tenth, Agriculture, 26-29. 



102. 



Percentage of farms of specified tenures belonging 





to specified 


si ze 


-groups. 


1880. 


1890 


and 


1900. 








Less 3 Less 


10 


20 50 


100 


175 


260 


100 


500 


1000 




than to than 


to 


to to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


acres 




3 9 10 


19 


49 99 


174 


259 


499 


499 


999 


and 


1900 


a's. a's. a's. 


a's. 


a's . a's 


* a's. 


a's. 


a's 


. a's. 


a's. 


over 



All ten- 



ures 


0.7 


2.7 


3.4 


4.0 


15.6 


Owners** 


1.0 


3.5 


4.6 


4.3 


17.3 


Tenants 


0.6 


2.5 


3.1 


4.2 


14.9 


Cash 


1.4 


4.3 


5.7 


4.5 


10.9 


Share 


0.1 


1.5 


1.6 


4.1 


17.2 


Part 












owners 


0.1 


0.9 


1.0 


2.6 


12.4 


"Owners 












and 












tenants" 


0.2 


0.3 


0.5 


1.1 


9.1 


Managers 


1.0 


1.9 


2.9 


2.3 


8.4 



1890 



24.9 


SO. 8 


15.5 


6.9 


51.2 


0.8 


0.1 


26.0 


28.7 


11.8 


6.5 


47.0 


0.9 


0.1 


24.4 


33.0 


13.7 


6.2 


52.9 


0.5 


* 


22.8 


35.2 


14.4 


6.1 


55.7 


0.4 


* 


25.3 


31.7 


13.3 


6.2 


51.2 


0.5 


0.1 


23.5 


31.6 


18.2 


9.6 


59.4 


1.0 


0.1 


22.3 


36.2 


17.6 


11.1 


64.9 


1.7 


0.3 


14.6 


28.1 


17.6 


17.4 


63.1 


6.6 


2.2 



All ten- 



ures 


. ... 1.8 


2.9 


15.9 


Owners 


. ... 1.8 


2.8 


16.1 


Tenants 


1.6 


3.1 


16.6 


Cash 


. ... 2.7 


3.7 


11.6 


Share . , 


. ... 1.0 


2.7 


17.5 



1880 



28 .6 .... •* 


49.7 


1.0 


0.2 


27.8 


49.9 


1.2 


0.2 


30.0 


49.3 


0.5 


0.1 


29.3 .... .. 


52.1 


0.5 


0.1 


30.4 


47.7 


0.6 


0.1 



All ten- 



ures 


0.1 


1.6 


1.7 


3.2 


18.2 


29.7 


, 45.6 


1.3 


0.3 


Owners 


* 


1.6 


1.6 


2.6 


15.6 


28 .2 .... ..4 


49.7 


1.6 


0.3 


Tenants 


0.1 


1.8 


1.9 


4.7 


23.9 


33.1 


35.8 


0.5 


0.1 


Cash 


0^1 


3.3 


3.4 


5.3 


18.9 


31.2 


40.4 


0.7 


0.1 


Share 




1.3 


1.3 


4.5 


25.7 


33. 8 .... . . . 


34.2 


0.4 


0.1 



Exclusive of part owners, "owners and tenants" and managers in 
1900 only. 

*Less than 0.05. 

United States census reports: Twelfth, V, 8; Eleventh, 
Agriculture, 118,119; i'enth, Agriculture, 26, 28, 29. 



103. 

previous dates. The swne movement toward tenant operation 
prevailed in the case of the farms over 1000 acres in size, though 
at a less rapid rate than in the case of the farms having between 
500 and 1000 acres. 

The percentage of farms operated by tenants in 1900 was 
highest in the farms between 100 and 175 acres in size, with those 
10 to EO acres next, and those 100 to 499 acres third. Ov/nership 
was most prevalent in the fams exceeding 500 acres, followed 
by those under 2 acres. 

It is evident that the farms of medium size were most 
cultivated by tenants, while the farms extraordinarily large and 
small were most characterized by operation by ovmers. It is a 
favorable comment on the ability of tenants to carry on large 
scale farming that such a large portion of the farms over 500 
aoree are tenant farms, and that renting of the large farms was 
increasing relatively faster than renting of either medium or 
small farms. On the other hand, evidence is afforded that the 
owners of large farms, though still commonly operating their 
farms in 1900 were giving up personal operation relatively faster 
than o^Tiers of smaller farms. It is natural to suppose that the 
large farms are most inaccessible to tenants with the objective 
of ownership, and that, except as division through inheritance 
takes place, their owners should be well able to prevent their 
disintegration. 

The percentage of all farms operated by cash tenants 
nearly doubled between 1880 and 1900, while that of share tenants 



I 




104. 



remained the same. Among the farms having under 100 acres the 
percentage of farms operated by share tenants was decreasing 
and the percentage operated by cash tenants was increasing between 
1880 and 1900, and in the case of the farms between 100 and 600 
acres and those over 1000 acres, cash tenancy was increasing more 
rapidly than share tenancy. The trend in tenancy among the farms 
between 500 and 1000 acres was toward the share basis. As 
pointed out previously,-^ exclusively cash tenancy was not so 
prevalent in 1910 as was so-called "cash" tenancy in 1900. The 
lack of acreage-group data in 1910 makes it impossible to pursue 
the movement with anything like accuracy after 1900. 

The following table shows the average acreage in the 
farms of various tenures in Illinois in 1900 and in 1910. 



Increase Percentage 

Census date in of 

Tenure acreage increase 

designation 1910 1900 1900-1910 

All operators 129.1 124.2 4.9 4.0 

Tenants 125.8 122.2 13.6 11.2 

Cash 124.2 .... .... 

Share 121.0 .... .... 

Managers 234.0 253. 1,1 0.5 
Owners and 

part owners 122.6 124.1 -1.5 -1.2 

Owners proper 135.8 118.9 -6.1 -4.3 

Part owners 147.5 142.9 4.6 3.2 

Owned 83.7 79.9 3.7 4.7 

Leased 63.9 63.0 0.9 1.4 
Owners and 

tenants 159.1 .... .... 

Twelfth census, V, 8, and table, above, p. 66. 



1. See above, pp. 97-98. 



106. 



In 1900 the averagre size of all farms was 124.2 acres. 
Cash tenant farms and those of owners, including part owners, 
were almost exactly the same in average acreage as those of all 
tenures. Share tenants and owners proper operated smaller 
farms on the average. The largest were those of managers, which 
averaged nearly twice as large as the farms operated by owners 
proper. Part owners owned 80 acres and hired 63 on the average. 
Owners and tenants co-operating, operated farms of 159 acres. 

In 1910 data are lacking for cash and share tenants and 
for owners and tenants co-operating. The average acreage for all 
farms increased 4.0, and an increase in average acreage took 
place in both the owned and leased portions of the farms of part 
owners, in the farms of managers, and tenants. In the case of 
managed farms the increase was slight while in the case of tenants 
it was most pronounced, being 12.6 acres. The farms of owners 
proper lost 5 acres, on the average. 

Ownership has been declining and tenancy increasing in 
the districts of larger farms. There seems to be no evidence of 
a state-wide tendency for the farms of various tenures to change. 

Description of Farm Properties. 

The data on farm equipment are not complete, but such 
as are available are presented in the next few pages. 

The percentage of farm land improved in all Illinois 
farms and in those of the major tenure groups in 1900 and 1910, 
was as follows: 



106. 



1910 



1900 



All tenures 



86.2 



84.5 



Owners 



84.5 



82.6 



Managers 



76.7 



74.4 



Tenants 



88.8 



87.8 



Thirteenth census, V, 130. 



It is evident that the tenants operated farms consisting 



most largely of improved land, and that the farms of managers 
had the smallest percentage of improved land. 

The next table given shows the distribution of the 
various items among the farms of various tenures. 

Land and buildings constituted 88.3 per cent of the value 
of all farm property in 1900 and 90.2 per cent in 1910. All 
items of farm property underwent a rise in value between 1900 
and 1910. In the case of buildings this was probably due in 
some measure to better improvement of the farms, but to a greater 
degree perhaps to the rise in the value of building materials, 
and to a general tendency to value buildings higher because a 
higher value was being placed on other items of farm property. 
Implements and machinery and livestock also had higher value, 
per farm and per acre in 1910 than in 1900. In the case of 
implements and machinery the rise in value is probably due to the 
utilization of more expensive types. The value of live stock has 
risen not so much because of increase in the number of animals 
as in the value per head. 



It will be observed that the farm properties of managers 



107 

Avera-TS value of all farm property and of the several 

classes, classified according to the major tenure groupa, 

Illinois, 1910 and 1900.1 

All tenures Owners 'umagers Tenants 

1910 1900 1910 1900 1910 1900 1310 1900 
All farm property 

Per farm ''15,505 ''7,533 -13,337 7,303 30,339 17,005 17,719 7,:'^9 

Par acre 130.04 31.13 111.51 58.03 139.33 73.99 120.45 35.43 

Lr.nd and buildings 

Per farm 13,983 3,384 13,170 6,358 37,343 14,333 13,205 7,182 

Per acre 108.33 53.84 39.39 50.43 113.41 63,35 119.33 58.73 

Land 

Per farm 13,369 5,733 10,333 5,330 33,683 13,004 14,655 6,377 

Per acre 95.01 43.17 84.55 43.03 101.18 55.83 107.91 53.20 

Buildings 

Per farm 1,713 952 1,803 1,038 3,563 1,839 1,550 804 

Per acre 13.50 7.37 14.73 8.33 15.23 7.35 11.41 3.58 

Implements and machinery 

Per farm 393 170 285 170 533 343 398 177 

Per acre 2.37 1.37 3.32 1.38 2.38 1.06 2.20 1.37 

Livestock 

Per farm 1336 734 1,313 773 2,488 1,938 1,314 350 

Per acre 9.49 5.91 9.90 6.23 10.63 9.27 8.94 5.32 

Thirteenth census, V, 130, 134; VI, 413. 

Twelfth census, V, 149, 253. . 



1. The data for the minor tenure groups in 1900 '.vas as 



follo-.73: (T-^elfth census, V, 149). 



Ovmers 
proper 
All farm property 



Per farm 
Per acre 



^6,965 
58.57 



Part 
owners 

S8,001 
55.98 



Ov/ners 

and 
Tenants 

^7,794 
48.98 



Ten- 
ants 

9,334 
77.56 



Share 
Ten- 
ants 

7,043 
58.34 



Land 
Per farm 
Per acre 



4,974 
41.83 



6,039 
43.46 



5,577 
35.05 



7,703 
33 . 01 



5, 305 
43.33 



Buildings 
Per farm 
Per acre 



1,035 
8.93 



936 
6.55 



1,114 
7.00 



973 



707 

7.83 5.84 



Implements and machinery 
Per farm 133 187 189 193 153 

Per acre 1.40 1.31 1.19 1.55 1.26 



Livestock 
Per fi 

iiiP V ■ 



.rm 



760 

c 



^809 
5 . 33 



5 . 74 



735 583 
3 . 13 4.83 



108. 



averaged highest in value at both oensue dates, and the value per 
acre of the fanii property of managers was greater than that of 
owners and tenants in 1900. In 1910, however, the highest average 
value per acre of farm property was attached to the farms 
operated by tenants. In the value of buildings, managed farms 
had the highest average per farm in 1900 and per acre as well as 
per farm in 1910. The value of buildings on rented farms was 
lower than on other farms both per acre and per farm in 1900 and 
1910. The value of implements and machinery per acre was greatest 
on the farms of owners at both dates and in 1910 least on those 
of tenants. Live stock had the largest average value per acre 
and per farm on the farms of managers, and the least on the farms 
of tenants. 

In 1900 the statistics show a considerable difference 
between the values of property in the case of cash and share 
tenants. The value of all farm property per acre in 1900 was 
greater in the case of cash tenants than in the case of farmers 
of any other tenure. In value of buildings per acre cash tenant 
farms were somewhat above the average, while the average value of 
buildings per acre in the case of share tenant farms was less than 
in the case of farms of any other form of tenure, being 40 per 
cent less than on cash rented farms. The value of implements and 
machinery per acre was greater in the case of cash tenant farms 
than in that of farms of any other tenure. The value of live stock 
per acre was above the average on the farms of cash tenants and 
least in the case of the share tenant farms. 



109. 



The tendencies of operators of various tenures to own 
animals is shown in the following tables. 



Percentage of farms reporting various kinds of animals. 

Total Owners Managers Tenants 



Kind of 



animals 


1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


1910 


1900 


Domestic animals 


97.8 


97.2 


97.8 


97.5 


96.3 


94.5 


97.7 


96.9 


Poultry 


94.2 


93.5 


95.3 


94.9 


86.6 


84.3 


92.7 


91.6 


Bees 


11.8 


13.2 


14.9 


16.4 


6.9 


8.1 


7.7 


6.5 


All cattle 


91.7 


89.6 


93.2 


92.3 


89.0 


87.5 


89.6 


85.6 


Dairy cows 


90.6 


87.3 


92.1 


90.2 


86.6 


82.4 


88.6 


83.0 


Horses 


95. 5 


93.4 


93.2 


93.0 


91.1 


91.0 


93.8 


93.9 


Mules 


21.7 


18.8 


21,4 


18.6 


26.3 


23.4 


22.0 


19.1 


Sheep 


10.4 


9.6 


12.6 


12.4 


11.7 


11.9 


7.3 


5.3 


Swine 


75.8 


83.4 


76.3 


85.4 


69.7 


76.7 


75.3 


80.6 



Thirteenth census. V, 130. 142, 146. 

Prom this table it appears that over 90 per cent of the 
farms in 1910 were reported to have domestic animals, poultry, 
cattle, dairy cows, and horses. Domestic animals, poultry, bees, 
dairy cows, horses, and swine were reported for a smaller 
percentage of managed farms and a larger percentage of owner farms 
than of tenant farms. Mules were reported by a larger percentage 
of managers than of operators of other tenures. Only in the 
case of horses and mules did the percentage of owners reporting 



110. 



them fail to exceed the o or responding percentage in the case of 
other operators. 

The next table shows the percentage of value of domestic 
animals, poultry and bees on farms of specified tenures for 1900 
and 1910. 

Percentage of farms, farm area, and of the value of specified 
elements of farm property reported in each major 
tenure group, Illinois, 1910 and 1900. 

Owners Managers Tenants 

1910 1900 1910 1900 1910 1900 

Number of farms 57.6 60.0 0.9 0.7 41.4 59.3 

All land in farms 54.7 60.0 1.7 1.4 43.6 38.6 

Improved land 53.6 58.6 1.5 l.£ 44.9 40.1 
Value of 

Domestic animals 56.8 63. £ 2.0 2.0 41.2 34.8 

Poultry 60.9 63.0 0.9 0.8 38.2 36.2 

Bees 76.6 77.1 0.7 0.5 22.7 22.5 

Thirteenth census, V, 142, 150, and VI, 414. 

It appears that in all the items on which comparative 
value statistics are given the tenants had less than their 
share. This was less true of domestic animals , which were distrib- 
uted more nearly as suited the number of farms and acres of farm 
land operated by the different classes of operators. Between 
1900 and 1910 the value of domestic animals on the farms of 
tenants increased at a much more rapid rate than on the farms of 



111. 



owners. The values of poultry and bees were found in a 
disproportionately large degree on the farms of owners. 

The data on domestic animals can be more accurately 
displayed for 1910 in the following table. 

The percentage of value of domestic animals reported in each 
major tenure group, Illinois, 1910. 





Owners 


Managers 


Tenants 


All cattle 


60,5 


2,4 


37,1 


Dairy cows 


57.0 


1,5 


41,6 


All horses 


54.3 


1,5 


44,2 


Mature horses 


54.1 


1,5 


44.3 


All mules 


54.5 


2,8 


42.6 


Mature mules 


53.0 


3,0 


44,0 


Asses and 
burro B 


79.1 


1.8 


19,1 


All sheep 


71.5 


2,3 


26,2 


Mature sheep 


71.4 


2.4 


26.2 


Goats and kids 


65.9 


1,1 


23.4 


All swine 


60,1 


2,4 


37,5 


Jj/Iature swine 


60,2 


2,5 


37,3 



Thirteenth census, V, 150, 153. 

In this table it appears that the value of other than 
dairy cattle were found largely on the farms of owners, while 
the values of dairy cows were distributed among the operators 
of different tenures more nearly according to the distribution 



I 



I 



112. 



of farms and acreages. The values of horses were distributed in 
almost exactly the same proportions as the improved acreage. 
Mules were evidently employed to an extraordinarily large extent 
by managers. Asses and burros, sheep and swine were owned by the 
operating owners to a disproportionately high degree. In swine, 
however, the tenants had values approaching their share. 

The next table shows the average value per head of 
domestic animals owned by the different classes of operators in 
1910. 



The average value per head of mature animals on 
farms of various tenures, Illinois, 1910. 





Total 


Owners 


Managers 


Tenants 


Dairy cows 


40.90 


38.65 


47.70 


40.00 


Horses 


120.50 


119.00 


140.40 


123.20 


Mules 


1S5.00 


131.30 


148.20 


139.90 


Sheep 


6.06 


5.97 


5.91 


6.28 


Swine 


12.48 


12.21 


14.44 


12.85 


Thirteenth 


census, V, 


153. 






It appears 


that in the 


case of all 


animals but 


sheep 



the managers possessed the most valuable stock. Operating owners 
owned the most valuable sheep, but in the case of all other 
animals the value of their stock was even less than that of 
tenants. 

The Twelfth census presents data on the value of 
products of 1899 and the average expenditures for labor and 



113. 



fertilizers, classified by tenure. The table summarizes the 
results of the inquiry of that date. 

Average value per farm and per acre of products and expendi- 
tures for labor and fertilizers, Illinois ,-Iwalfth oeneue. 

Owners 

All Part and Cash Share 
ten- own- ten- Mana- ten- ten- 
Products, 1899 urea Owners ers ants gers ants ants 

Total, Per farm $1,509, $1,248 $1,4£9 |1,401 $2,528 $1,521 $1,195 

Per acre 10.54 10.50 10.00 8.81 10.85 12.24 9.88 

Kot fed to 
live stock, 

Per farm 999 933 1.081 1,021 1,877 1,188 940 
Per acre 8.04 7.90 7.57 6.42 8.06 9.57 7.77 
Average Expenditures. 1899. 

Labor, Per farm 84 77 96 79 339 105 71 

Per acre 0.68 0.65 0.67 0.50 1.46 0.85 0.59 

Fertilizers 

Per farm 2 S 4 5 8 4 2 

Per acre 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 
Twelfth census, V, 149. See also, ibid. 232. 

In values of products per farm the managed farms held 
highest rank, and the farms of share tenants were least. On the 
basis of values per acre, however, cash tenants held first rank, 
and co-operating owners and tenants made the least showing. 
Managers fed to live stock a larger value of products per faim 
and per acre than other operators. Share tenants fed the least 



114. 

on either basis of comparison. 

Co-operating ovraers and tenants by furnishing their own 
labor were enabled to cut down the labor expenditures to 50 cents 
per acre, the least of any of the operators. Managers expended the 
most per acre, $1.46. The expenditure for fertilizers was so small 
as to make comparisons of little value. It seems, however, that 
share tenant farms had least expended for them in this way in 1899. 

Statistics are presented in the next table to show the 
tendencies among operators of different tenures in raising 
products for the market. 



Classification by tenure of farms whose products of 1899 not 
fed to livestock fell within specified ranges of value. 





All 
val- 
ues 


10 


$1 
and 
under 
#50 


$50 
and 
under 

$100 


llOO 
and 
under 


$250 
and 
under 


$500 
and 
under 


$1000 $2500 

and and 
under over 


All tenures 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Owners 


46.1 


39.7 


41.5 


45.1 


50.1 


51.8 


47.6 


41.0 


39.9 


Part owners 


13.0 


3.6 


5.2 


7.5 


10.7 


13.9 


13.4 


13.3 


16.6 


Owners and 
tenants 


0.9 


0.1 


0.1 


0.4 


0.7 


1.0 


1.2 


0.9 


0.9 


Managers 


0.7 


3.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


1.6 


Cash tenants 


14.5 


17.9 


14.3 


12.8 


9.6 


8.5 


14.0 


20.4 


17.0 


Share tenants 


24.8 


34.9 


38.2 


33.5 


28.5 


24.4 


23.3 


23.6 


23.6 


Twelfth 


census, V, ] 


p. 35. 















It is apparent that owners operated less than their pro 
portion of the farms whose values of products not fed were under 
$100, and over $1,000. Part owners, and owners and tenants. 



115. 



oo-operating, operated less than their share of the farms with 
values of unfed products under ^250, and more than their share 
of the farms in the other value-groups. The managed farms were 
heavily concentrated in the groups having no unfed products and 
in all value-groups under #1000. Cash tenants showed a somewhat 
similar tendency. Share tenants, however, operated more than 
their proportion of thefarms with unfed products valued at more 
than 11000, as well as of the farms with values of unfed products 
less than 4^50* 

Several factors must be considered in interpreting these 
figures. The smaller farms are operated with a different dis- 
tribution among the tenures than others, and the size of the 
farms must have some relation to values of all products raised. 
The figures above, however, are not based on values of all 
products raised, but only of those products not fed to livestock 
on the farms raising them. Parms raising products which are fed 
to live stock are certainly not, for that reason, less productive 
of value. Finally, the efficiency of the kinds of operators 
would be roughly expressed in differences in values, but it would 
be useless to attempt to make deductions on the matter of 
relative efficiency from the data presented. 

The total number of farms in Illinois at the Twelfth 
census was 264,151. The census classified these farms according 
to the principal source of income as shown by the productions of 
1899. Their distribution was as follows: hay and grain, 107,020; 





t 



116. 



vegetables, 6,666; fruit, 2,411;llve atook, 113,674; dairy produce, 
15,602; tobacco, 138; sugar, 60; flowers and plants, 499; nursery 
products, 126; and miscellaneous, 17,965. The data are introduced 
here to throw light on the relation of tenure to farm practice. 
Changes in both factors have occurred since the Twelfth census, and 
it is regrettable that the Thirteenth census did not prepare a 
similar report for 1910. The following table shows the percentage 
of farms of each principal source of income operated under each 
form of tenure. 

Classification by tenure of farms with specified principal 
sources of income, 5w«lfth census^' Illinois, ^"^ao 

Own- 
ers 





All 




Part 


and 




Cash 


Share 




ten- 


Own- 


own- 


ten- 


Man- 


ten- 


ten- 




ures 


ers 


ers 


ants 


agers 


ants 


ants 


All farms 


100.0 


46.1 


13.0 


0.9 


0.7 


14.6 


24.8 


Bay and grain 


100.0 


33.3 


12.3 


0.7 


0.7 


18.1 


34.9 


Vegetables 


100.0 


38.4' 


10.9 


0.5 


0.6 


35.9 


13.7 


Fruits 


100.0 


67.3 


10.1 


0.7 


1.7 


8.4 


11.7 


Livestock 


100.0 


56.7 


14.5 


1.2 


0.8 


9.1 


17.8 


Dairy produce 


100.0 


50.3 


7.9 


0.6 


0.9 


24.5 


15.9 


Tobacco 


100.0 


39.9 


22.5 


... 


0.7 


12.3 


24.6 


Sugar 


100.0 


40.0 


16.7 


• . • 


1.7 


13.3 


28.3 


Flowers and 
















plants 


100.0 


74.7 


5.8 


0.8 


3.8 


14.6 


0.2 


Nursery pro- 
















ducts 


100.0 


84.9 


7.9 


... 


2.4 


4.0 


0.8 


Miscellaneous 


100.0 


50.2 


13.6 


1.2 


0.6 


10.7 


23.8 


Twelfth 


census. 


V, p. 


35. 











117. 



Hay and grain farming are carried on with greatest 
emphasis by the tenants, particularly the share tenants, while 
owners operated much less than their proportionate number of such 
farms. Owners operated less than their share of the farms 
producing vegetables as their main crop. The tenants operated 
nearly half of these farms, and over two-thirds of them were 
rented on the cash basis. Fruit farms were operated chiefly by 
owners and managers, the tenants being in charge of only about 
half their proportionate share. Farms specializing in live stock 
were likewise chiefly owned by their operators. Operators under 
all forms of tenure except tenancy proper showed a leaning toward 
live stock farming. Tenants, however, were in charge of only 
two -thirds their proportionate share of these farms, and the 
renting inclined toward the share basis. The owners proper, 
managers and tenants operated dairy farms with somewhat greater 
emphasis than their relative numbers would indicate. As in the 
case of vegetable farms cash tenancy was much more prevalent 
than share tenancy. The tobacco and sugar farms were operated by 
part owners to a large degree. Farms raising flowers, plants and 
nursery products were operated mainly by owners and managers. So 
far as such farms were rented it was almost exclusively on the 
cash basis. The farms whose principal source of income was 
miscellaneous, need not necessarily be regarded as farms on which 
productions were diversified. They are simply those whose 
principal source of income was such as to require a separate 
classification from the sources enumerated. Their tenure seems 



118. 



to have no peculiarities worth dlecussing. 

The part played by owners in the operation of farms 
specializing in the different crops is much the same in Illinois 
as in the country as a whole. One exception is that of vegetable 
farms, 60.4 per cent of which are owned by the operators in the 
United States, as against a percentage of 38,4 in Illinois. 
Ownership is much more prevalent among farms reising nursery 
products in Illinois than in the whole country. The place 
occupied by part owners is more prominent in the cultivation of 
tobacco farms in Illinois than in the country as a whole, although 
in the case of farms raising nursery products the opposite holds 
true. The prominence of managers in the operation of sugar farms*^ 
is not reflected in the case of the few sugar farms of Illinois. 
The tenants of Illinois follow very much the same types of 
farming as those in the rest of the country, except that farms 
raising dairy produce are rented to a greater extent on the cash 
basis in Illinois. 

The Twelfth census also supplied data for ten crops 
showing the number of farms reporting, the number of acres raised 
and the nujnber of bushels harvested in 1899, These data are 
presented in the following tables. 



1. See above, p, 37 



119. 



The percentage of farms of each form of tenure devoted to 
the production of each of ten selected crops, Illinois, ^'J-c o 

twelfth census. 





All 




Part 


Owners 




Cash 


Share 




ten- 


Own- 


own- 


and 


Man- 


ten- 


ten- 




ures 


ers 


ers 


tenants 


agers 


ants 


ants 


All farms 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


Barley 


0.8 


0.9 


0.6 


0.5 


1.2 


1.2 


0.4 


Buckwheat 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


0.8 


0.2 


0.4 


0.4 


Corn 


9S.1 


91.1 


95.8 


97.2 


87.2 


91.9 


96.2 


Oats 


59.8 


55.8 


62.5 


66.2 


60.2 


71.0 


59.5 


Rye 


c • 7 


O.U 


2.9 


3.1 


4.6 






Wheat 


25.7 


27.8 


35.6 


41.8 


16.3 


10.4 


26.2 


Potatoes 


68.9 


70.0 


74.4 


76.5 


60.2 


70.7 


62.9 


Sweet potatoes 


7.6 


8.6 


10.5 


15.7 


4.5 


3.0 


6.7 


Eay and forage 


68.7 


73.9 


74.2 


83.9 


73.5 


65.2 


57.6 


Tobacco 


0.8 


0.8 


1.3 


2.0 


0.4 


2.5 


0.8 


Twelfth 


census, 


VI, 96- 


107, 220-221, 342-346, 


and 530- 


531. 



This table shows that the raising of corn was practised 
by almost every farmer in the state. Irish potatoes and hay and 
forage were cultivated by two farmers in three, and oats by three 
in five. The owners and tenants, co-operating, the share tenants 
and the part owners were raisers of corn in a degree above the 
average. Oats was more widely raised by the cash tenants and 
part owners; wheat, buckwheat, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, 
hay and forage by owners and tenants, co-operating, and by part 
owners. Of the tenants those renting on shares contributed widely 



120. 

to the production of corn, wheat and eweet potatoes. 

The number of acres of each crop per farm reporting its 
production is shown in the following table. 

The average number of acres of each crop per farm reporting 
its production, by tenures, Illinois, Twelfth census. 





All 
ten- 
ures 


Own- 
ers 


Part 
own- 
ers 


0^^'ners 

and 
Tenants 


Mana — 
gers 


Cash 
t en- 
ant s 


Share 
ten- 
ants 








11.2 


8.5 


13.3 


1.1 


12.9 


Buckwheat 


4.7 


4.1 


5.0 


4.6 


2.5 


4.7 


6.0 


Corn 


41.7 


34.7 


45.3 


40.3 


62.5 


51.0 


46.5 


Oats 


£8.9 


£4.9 


30.2 


23.3 


36.0 


34.5 


31.2 


Rye 


10.9 


10.0 


10.6 


10.3 


20.0 


10.8 


13.5 


Wheat 


26.9 


24.6 


28.8 


28.2 


36.6 


22.9 


30.8 


Potatoes 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


1.2 


1.2 


0.6 


Sweet 
potatoes 


0.4 


0.4 


0.3 


0.3 


0.5 


0.5 


0.4 


Hay and 
forage 


18.4 


18.6 


18.7 


21.5 


39.1 


18.0 


17.1 


Tobacco 


1.1 


1.1 


1.0 


1.6 


0.7 


1.1 


1.0 



Twelfth census, 71, 96-107; 220-221; 324-345; and 530-531. 

It will be observed that the totals in the columns may 
exceed the total number of acres in the average farm of the form 
of tenure under consideration. This, of course, is because of 
the fact that few, if any, farms raised all of the crops 
enumerated, and that there was a tendency toward specialization. 



121. 



The table shows that the corn acreage per corn farm was 
greater than the corresponding acreage per farm of any other crop. 
Oats came second and wheat third. Sweet potatoes and Irish 
potatoes were raised in patches of very small size. The corn 
acreage was largest on the managed farms reporting corn. If 
the farms reporting corn were of the same size as the average 
farm of each form of tenure, the percentage of the managed acreage 
in corn was less than the corresponding percentage of the acreage 
in farms of other tenures. It seems probable that the portion of 
land devoted to corn production was greater in the case of cash 
and share tenants than of any other operators. 

A somewhat clearer light is thrown on this subject by 
the table below* 



Percentage of acres of selected crops produced on farms of 
various tenures, Illinois, Twelfth census. 





All 




Part 


Owners 




Cash 


Share 




ten- 


Own- 


own- 


and 


Mana- 


ten- 


ten- 




ures 


ers 


ers 


tenants 


gers 


ants 


ants 


Barley 


100.0 


48.8 


10.4 


0.4 


1.5 


23.2 


16.7 


Buckwheat 


100.0 


41.4 


18.3 


1.6 


0.2 


12.0 


26.5 


Corn 


100.0 


57.5 


14.5 


0.9 


1.0 


17.4 


28.5 


Oats 


100.0 


37.0 


14.2 


0.7 


0.9 


20.5 


26.7 


Rye 


100.0 


45.8 


13.5 


1.0 


2.2 


13.3 


24.1 


Wheat 


100.0 


45.6 


18.2 


1.6 


0.6 


5.0 


29.0 


Potatoes 


100.0 


43.7 


13.4 


0.9 


1.0 


23.9 


17.2 


Sweet potatoes 


100.0 


52.1 


12.5 


1.7 


0,6 


8.2 


24.9 


Hay and forage 


100.0 


50.0 


14.2 


1.3 


1.7 


13.4 


19.3 


Tobacco 


100.0 


48.5 


20.5 


3.5 


0.3 


4.8 


22.5 



Twelfth census, VI, 96-107; 220-221; 342-345; and 530-531. 



122 



It appears that cultivation by owners was especially 
prominent in the case of sweet potatoes, hay and forage, but was 
relatively little associated with the production of oats and com. 
Part owners and owners and tenants, co-operating, were devoted 
to the raising of tobacco, buckwheat and wheat, relatively more 
than to other crops. Managers were especially given to the 
raising of rye, hay and forage. Cash tenants emphasized the 
raising of Irish potatoes and barley, and neglected to a large 
extent the production of tobacco, wheat and sweet potatoes, 
while share tenants placed their onphasis on wheat, corn and 
oats. 

The data on yields per acre for each kind of tenure are 
presented below. 

Average yield per acre for selected crops on acreages 
classified according to tenure, Illinois, Twelfth census. 













Owners 










All 




Part 


and 




Cash 


Share 






ten- 


Own- 


own- 


ten- 


Mana- 


ten- 


ten- 






ures 


ers 


ers 


ants 


gers 


ants 


ants 


Barley 




S2.1 


33.0 


31.7 


26.8 


31.8 


31.8 


30.3 


Buckwheat 




10.6 


10.0 


9.9 


10.4 


8.0 


11.4 


10.6 


Corn 


n 


38.8 


38.3 


37.6 


35.8 


41.6 


41.3 


38.4 


Oats 


n 


S9,5 


39.5 


38.0 


36.5 


40.8 


40,9 


39.2 


Rye 


ft 


14.0 


13.8 


13.9 


12.9 


16.3 


15.5 


13.4 


Wheat 


If 


10,8 


10.6 


10.3 


9.8 


11.9 


13.1 


11.1 


Potatoes 


If 


94.9 


96.3 


95.2 


89.1 


97.7 


95.0 


91.1 


Sweet potatoes 


t» 


67.9 


66.6 


74.3 


83.4 


102.6 


68.2 


65.4 


Eay and forage, 


Tone 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


Tobacco 


Lbs . 


645.5 


660.6 


618.8 


611.5 


643.3 


811.4 


622.8 



Twelfth census, VI, 96-107; E20-221; 542-345; and 530-531. 



123. 

Precaution should Tdo taken at the outset ap:ainst 
explaining all differences in yields in terms of the relative 
producing efficiency of the farmers operating under different 
tenures. In the first place, the farmers of different tenures 
are not uniformly distributed over the different grades of soil. 
Tn the second place, climatic conditions, insects, and the like do 
not ordinarily affect all grades of soil and all kinds of 
operators in the same way, least of all during any one year. With 
this in mind, it is still worth v/hile to study the foregoing table. 

Ovmers obtained highest yields only in the production 
of barley. Part owners, owners and tenants, co-operating, and 
share tenants showed no specially large yields in any crops. 
Cash tenants had the largest yields in buckwheat and tobacco. Cash 
tenants and managers obtained the highest yields in the production 
of corn, oats, rye and wheat. Managers stood highest in the 
yields of hay and forage, and sweet potatoes. 

It is an interesting fact that although the share tenants 
were cultivating their fall portion of the fertile land, they 
exceeded the average yield only in the production of wheat. Cash 
tenants, on the other hand, failed to have a yield above the 
average only in the case of barley. The cash tenants are to be 
found largely in the Northern part of the state where farming 
practice is more diversified and where live stock plays a more 
important part in the farming. The suggestion is raised thereby 
that part of the superiority in yields on the farms of cash 
tenemts was due to larger use of animal matter, and to less 



124, 



specialization in cereal production. The superiority of the yields 
on the managed farms may likewise "be due in considerable measure 
to superiority of farming method. 

Mortgage Encumbrance on Owned Land. 

As indicated in Chapter the mortgage statistics 
relate only to land operated by the owners, the part owners in most 
cases having limited their reports to the land owned by them. 

The following table summarizes the data on encumbrance 
of farm property operated by ov/ners for 1910, 1900 and 1890. 



Total 
Free from mortgage 
Mortgaged 
Unknown 



Owned farms ^ 
1910 

Per 



Number 
145.107 
86,713 
56,792 
2,602 



Owned farm 
homes 



1900 



cent Number 

.... 158.594 

60.8 92,702 

59.2 60.063 

.... 6,629 



Per 
cent 



60.7 
39.3 



Owned farm 
homes^ 



1890 



Per 
cent 



Number 

160,066 .... 

101,306 63.3 

68.760 36.7 

...... .... 



1. Includes all farms owned in whole or in part by the operator. 

2. The 1,813 "owned farm homes" for which no reports were 
secured were distributed between "free from mortgage" ajid 
"mortgaged" in 1890. 

3. Per cent of combined total of "free from mortgage" and 
"mortgaged". 



Thirteenth census, VT. 414. 



1. See above, p. 20. 



1£5. 



Between 1890 and 1910 the number of all "owned" farms 
declined 9 per cent; the number of mortgaged farms decreased 6 
per cent; while the number of farms free from mortgage declined 
14 per cent. Mortgaging was relatively most prominent in 1900 
and appears to have undergone little change since that date. In 
1910, 38,662 of the 55,792 farms reported as mortgaged were wholly- 
owned by the operators. ^ The 17,130 farms of part owners thus 
reported mortgaged constituted 45,5 per cent of all part owners. 
The percentage of owners proper operating under mortgage was 38.3. 
The fact that the part owners were under mortgage on their owned 
land in so many cases is not evidence either that they have been 
rising from a lower or descending from a higher economic status. 
Since renting additional land is thus associated with mortgaging, 
it is evident however, that part owners are operating under and 
responding to the stimulus of mortgage. 

County percentages of owned farms under mortgage in 1910 
are presented on the map on page 218 . Three counties had per- 
centages exceeding 50, Schuyler (57.1), Brown (60.7), and Jo 

Daviess (51.1). Twelve counties had percentages between 45 and 
p 

50.^ Most of the counties with high percentages of owners operating! 
under mortgage are river counties in which the farm area has been 



1. Thirteenth census, V, 414. 

2. Whiteside (49.7), Iroquois (47.8), Carroll (47.4), Henderson 
(47.2), Massac (47.1), Wayne (47.1), Ford (46.8), Champaign (46.2), 

Pulaski (45.3), McHenry (43.2), Boone (45.1), and ^Thite (45.1). 



126. 



growing. It seems probable, therefore, that mortgages were laid 

for the acquisition of newly developed land to a considerable extent 

in those counties. In the East Central counties in which land 

prices have been increasing most rapidly is another district of 

considerable mortgaging. The explanation probably lies in the fact 

that owners have responded to the impulse to enlarge their holdings 

and have employed mortgages to assist them, and that owners and 

part owners who have risen from tenancy have been all the more 

under the necessity of mortgaging in these districts. 

Data regarding the amount of mortgage debt were gathered 

in 1910 and 1890, but not in 1900. Only the farms consisting 

wholly of owned land were included in 1910, while in 1890 part 

ownership had not yet been recognized by the census. Of the 

38,662 mortgaged farms owned by owners proper in 1910, 1,724 

gave no usable reports on debt and value. Taking the statistics 

at hand, however, the following table is presented. 

Owned farms or farm Increase 
homes mortgaged 

Per 

1910^ 1890^ Amount cent 

Number 36,938 78,760 

Value - land and buildings f 454, 857, 222 ^285,706,170 

Amount of mortgage debt ^i5115,799 ,646 $98,940,935 

Per cent of debt to value .,^^25.5 ^.^-sa|24.6 

Average value per farm "$12,314 |4,862 |7,452$L53.3 

Average debt per farm f3,135 $1,684 1,451 86.2 

Average equity per farm $9,179 $3,178 6,001 188.8 

1. Includes only farms consisting wholly of owned land and 
reporting value of farm and amount of debt. 

2. Includes all owned farm homes, estimates being made of 
value of farms and amount of debt for all defective reports. 

Thirteenth census, VI, 415. 



187 



The avereige mortgage debt per farm In 1910 was greater 
in three other states than in Illinois.-^ These were Nevada, 
$4,738; Iowa, |4,048; and Nebraska . $3,154. The average equity 
per farm was exceeded in three other states: Nebraska, $11,322; 
South Dakota, $10,782; and Iowa. $10,526. It will be observed that 
all of these states are located west of the Mississippi river. 
In ratio of debt to value in 1890 and in 1910 the percentage in 
Illinois was exceeded in 26 states. Most states in which the 
percentage of value covered by mortgage exceeded that in Illinois 
were located east of the Mississippi. It appears, therefore, 
that Illinois has shared with the V/estern states the condition 
In which land values have increased much more rapidly than mort- 
gage indebtedness, rapid as the increase in indebtedness has been. 

The percentage of value of owned farms covered by 

mortgage in 1910 is given for each county on the map on page 219. 

For the most part it appears that the counties with the highest 

percentages were located in Northern Illinois. The lowest per- 

p 

centage was that of Calhoun county, 3»1« Low percentages 
characterize the counties in East Central Illinois and in the 
eastern half of Southern Illinois. In the case of the East Central 
Illinois counties, the low percentages are probably explained by 
the rapid rise in land values characteristic of the ten or twelve 
years preceding 1910, In Southern Illinois, though land values 



1. Thirteenth census, V, 167. 

2. This is so much less than the percentages in adjacent 
counties as to lead one to suspect the accuracy of the reports. 




have not run av/ay from mortgage indebtedness so rapidly, there has 
not been the stimulus toward mortgaging such as that afforded by 
the rate of advance in land prices in other parts of the state. 
In Northern Illinois the practice of mortgaging the value of the 
land heavily seems to be most prevalent. That this is due to lack 
of prosperity seems hardly likely, for the existing evidence, 
meager though it is, points to a greater prosperity, especially 
among tenants, in that part of the state. Such being the case, 
the suggestion arises that probably the chances for land acquisition 
are stronger in Northern Illinois. Since the farming practice is 
such as naturally to conserve the soil and since land prices have 
not been so much affected by increment, the proportion of the acre 
value for which mortgages can be negotiated is larger.^ 

On the whole it appears that the "calamity" element has 
not been a significant cause of mortgaging in Illinois, though 
no specific investigations of that feature have been made in the 
last twenty- five years. ^ Limiting the data to operating owners has 
left out of consideration mortgaging of leased land. This is 
commonly supposed to be a small factor, yet an investigation of the 



1. Stewart, C.L., Analysis of Rural Banking Conditions in 
Illinois, pp. 19 and 20. 
E. Ibid, 14 and 15. 

3. The only investigations from which any light can be obtained 
on this question in Illinois were those of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics of Illinois covering the dates 1870, 1880, and 1887, 
(Reported by Secretary John S. Lord in the Fifth Biennial Report of 
the Bureau, 1888), and that of the United States census of 1890, 
reported in the volume on Farms and Homes: Proprietorship and 
Indebtedness. 



129, 



question under the regime of rising land prices might have been of 
great importance. 

Color and nativity of farmers. 
Statistics on race, color and nativity of farmers were 
gathered in 1890, 1900 and 1910. At the census of 1890 the basis 
of investigation was the occupier of the farm, in 1890 the 
occupier of the farm home, sind in 1910 the operator of the farm. 
The following table summarizes the data for Illinois by major 
nativity groups. 

It appears that the percentage of Illinois farmers who 
were native-born whites increased from 75,2 in 1890 to 86,2 in 
1910. The percentage of native-born white farmers owning their 
farms was at each date less than the corresponding percentage 
among foreign-bom white farmers. The farm managers were foreign- 
bom in relatively few instances. The negro and other non-white 
farmers declined in number during each decade, and at each date 
constituted less than 0.7 per cent of all farmers in the state. 
The percentage of negro and other non-white farmers owning their 
farms was at each date smaller than the corresponding percentage 
for either group of white farmers, but increased at a rapid rate 
during the twenty years. The growth of ownership among non-white 
farmers in Illinois contrasts with the decline in ownership among 
the white farmers of the state. 

The number of non-white other than negroes was 5 in 1890 
and 1900 and 3 in 1910. Separate data for the negroes were not 
reported in 1910. In 1890 and 1900 the percentage of their farms 



130. 



The color and nativity of Illinois farmers by 
character of tenure for 1910, 1900 and 1890. 

Farm operators and occupiers. 



Color 
and 
nativity 

Total 

1910 
1900 
1890 

Nat ive 
white 

1910 
1900 
1890 

Foreign- 
born 
white 

1910 
1900 
1890 



Total 

Percent, 
age dis- 
tribu- 
Number tion 



251.878 
262,180 
252,953 



33,394 
51,722 
61.044 



100.0 
100.0 
100.0 



217.053 86.2 
208.884 79.7 
190,234 75.2 



13.3 
19.7 
24.1 



Owners 

145.107 
158,394 
160,065 



123,907 
124,498 
117,223 



20,411 
33,059 
42,080 



Per cent of total 
who were 

Mana- Own- Ten- Mana- 
Tenants gers ers ants gers 

104,379 2,386 57.6 41.4 0.9 

101,728 60.4 39.6 ... 

92,888 63.3 36.7 ... 

91,014 2,132 57.1 41.9 1.0 

82,662 59.7 40.3 ... 

73,011 63.7 36.3 ... 



12,747 
18,345 
18.964 



236 
... 
... 



61.1 38.2 

64.1 35.9 

69.2 30.8 



0.7 



Negro and 
other non- 
whitel 

1910 
1900 
1890 



1,425 
1,574 
1,675 



0.6 
0.6 
0.7 



789 
837 
762 



618 
721 
913 



18 



55.4 43.4 
53.2 46.8 
45.7 54.3 



1.3 



1, The number of non-whites other than negroes was made up 
as follows: 

Indians Chinese and Japanese 
1910 2 1 

1900 6 
1890 S 2 

Thirteenth census, VI, 416. 

Twelfth census, II, 715, 744. 

Eleventh census. Farms and Homes, 567, 591. 



Nativity of occupiers of farms and farm 
homes in Illinois, 1900 and 1890. a 

number 

Farm homes Farms 

1900 1890 Percenta^-e 



As:.Q:refiate 


330 , 303 


251,273 


1900 


1890 


Austria- Eunga r y 


397 


271 


0.2 


0.1 


Canada (Fn^-lish) 


1,350 


1,415 


0.5 


0.5 


Canada (French) 


983 


384 


0.4 


0.2 


France 




1 , 316 




0.5 


Germa,ny 




32 , 606 


21 .5 


13.0 


Great Britain 


28,983 


17,377 


11.2 


^ 1— 


Ireland 


14,754 


9,480 


5.7 


3.8 


Scotla.nd 




1,418 




0.5 


Italy 


95 


48 


(1) 


(1) 


Russia and Poland 


623 


332 


0.2 


0.1 


Poland 


568 


• • • 


0.2 




Russia 


58 




(1) 


• • • 


Scandinavia 


7,923 


5,630 


3.0 


2.2 


Mixed foreign parenta^re 

"^2,836 




1.1 




Other countries 


4,774 


1,765 


1.8 


0.7 


(1) Less than 


0.05 i-er 


cent . 






Data for 1910 -vere 


collected 


on the farm 


schedules , 



and show results apparently incomparable. 

Of the 33,394 foreign-born v/hite farmers in Illinois 
in 1910, 679 were born^'in Canada, 17,811 in Germany, 
4,307 in Great Britain (2,422 in "England" and 3,185 in 
Ireland), 6,127 in Scandinavia (878 in Dsnir-ark, 982 in 
ITorv/ay, and 4,267 in -Sweden), 998 in Holland, 626 in 
Switzerland, 2,473 in other Furopean countries and 73 
in other non-European countries. 

U. S. census reports: Thirteenth, VI, 413; 
Twelfth, II, 744; and Eleventh, Farms and Homes, 591. 



132 



and homes owned by them was 43.2 and 53.7, respectively.^ In 1900 
the percentage of negro farms in each tenure group was as follows: 
owners, 36.6; part owners, 11.5; owners and tenemts, 0.8; managers, 
0.3; cash tenants, 14.6; and share tenants, 36. 3. ^ The discrepancy 
between the figures is possibly due to home ownership in some cases 
unaccompanied by farm ownership. Tenancy, especially share tenancy 
was more common among the negro farmers than among the white 
farmers. 3 

The percentage of negro owners free from mortgage was 
63.7 in 1890 and 59.0 in 1900. 

The following table shows the nativity of white farmers 
in Illinois for 1900 and 1890. 



1. United States census reports: Twelfth, II, 714; and Eleventh, 
Farms and Homes, 567. 

2. Twelfth census, V, 50, 52. The corresponding percentages for 
farms operated by whites in 1900 were: owners, 46.1; part owners, 
13,0; owners and tenants, 0.8; managers, 0.7; cash tenants, 14.5; 
and share tenants, 24.8. 

3. The negro farmers in Illinois in 1899 were specializing in 
vegetable, fruit, tobacco, sugar and miscellaneous lines offerming 
to a greater extent than were white farmers. The farms of negroes 
were much smaller than those of white farmers, the percentage of 
farms under 50 acres in size being 66.5 in the case of colored 
farmers as against 22.8 in the case of white farmers. (Twelfth 
census, V, 51,53.) The negro farmers of Illinois are located chief- 
ly in the Southern counties. The counties in which the percentage 
of farms operated by colored farmers exceeded 1.0 are as follows: 
Pulaski, 31.3; Alexander, 13.6; Ifessac, 8.2; Pope, 3.2; Saline, 
3.0; Jackson, 2.2; St. Clair, 1.8; Madison, 1.6; Clinton, 1.5; 
Lawrence, 1.3; White, 1.2; Sangamon, 1.1; Randolph, 1.0; and 
Hardin, 1.0. (Twelfth census, V, 73-75). 



133. 



The number of occupiers of farm homes In Illinois in 
1900 is given here as 156.688 while in the preceding table the 
number of farmers who were native-born whites in 1900 was 208,864. 
The discrepancy casts discredit upon the statistics. It is 
evident, nevertheless, that the Germanic was the strongest single 
element among the farmers in the state, and that those born in 
the British Isles were next in relative numbers. 

The tendencies in ownership among the different 
population elements in Illinois is shown in the next table. 

The percentage of ownership in 1890 was above the 
average among the Austro-Hungarians , the French, both Canadian and 
European, the Germans, Irish, Scotch, Italians, and those coming 
from Russia and Poland. In 1900 the percentage of ownership was 
above the average among the Austro-Hungarians, the British, 
particularly the Irish, the Italians and the Polish. Ownership 
free from encumbrance in 1890 was especially characteristic of 
the Austro-Hungarians, the French, the Germans, the Scotch, and 
the Italians, and in 1900 was found especially among the Austro- 
Hungarians, the Germans, the Italians and those from "other 
countries". The percentage of ownership was least among the 
Scandinavians. Those bom in Russia and Poland were characterized 
by ownership in a high degree, but were largely under mortgage. 

The Residence of Owners in Relation to the Rented Farms. 
The Twelfth census was the only one at which data were 
gathered on the residence and landed wealth of the owners of 



Percentage of Illinois farms and homes owned and rented "by 
oocupiers born in various countries, 1900 and 1890, 



Percentage 
Owned Rented 













Perc 


entage 


of owners. 




Farm 




Farm 












homes 


Farms 


homes 


Farms 


Free 


Encumbered 




1900 


1890 


1900 


1890 


1900 


1890 


1900 


1890 


All occupiers 


60.9 


63.3 


39.1 


36.7 


60.7 


63.3 


39.3 


36.7 


Austria-Hungary 


65.9 


66.6 


34.1 


33.3 


63.2 


66.3 


36.8 


33.7 


Canada (English) 


56.4 


59.8 


43.6 


30.2 


55.9 


56.2 


44.1 


43.8 


Canada (French) 


57.7 


71.8 


42.3 


28.3 


46.6 


52.3 


53.4 


47.7 


France 


. . • • 


74.7 


.... 


25.3 


« . • • 


68.8 


. • • . 


31.2 


Germany 


59.7 


68.2 


40.3 


32.8 


61.8 


66.1 


38.2 


33.9 


Great Britain 


66.4 


60.6 


33.6 


39.4 


55.2 


62.6 


44.8 


38.4 


Ireland 


68.5 


78.8 


31.5 


21.2 


CO fi 

59 .2 


52 . 7 


40. o 


37 .O 


bcotland 


.... 


yy .o 


. • • • 


20.2 


. . • . 


69.0 


.... 


31.0 


Italy 


66.0 


79.1 


34.0 


20.9 


61.0 


68.8 


39.0 


31.2 


Russia 6ind Poland 


81.3 


81.3 


18.7 


18.7 


46.6 


50.5 


53.4 


49.5 


Poland 


84.6 


.... 


15.4 


.... 


44.6 


. . • . 


55.4 


. • a • 


Russia 


46.6 


. . • . 


53.4 


. • • . 


64.2 


. . • • 


35.8 


. , . • 


Scandinavia 


44.8 


52.4 


55.2 


47.6 


44.6 


47.9 


55.4 


52.1 


Mixed foreign 


















parent age 


56.8 


.... 


43.2 


.... 


56.2 


.... 


43.8 


. . • . 


United States (or 


















unknown ) 


61.4 


61.4 


38.6 


38.6 


62.3 


63.7 


37.7 


36.3 


Other countries 


55.4 


60.1 


44.6 


39.9 


62.9 


65.4 


37.1 


34.6 



U. S. census reports: Twelfth, II, 744; and Eleventh, Farms 
and Homes, 591. 



135 



rented farms. These data are summarized in the next three tables. 

The first table shov/s the general statistics on residence 

of owners. 





Rented farms 
with ov/ners 


Owners 
rented 


of 
farms 




Number 


Per 
cent 


Number 


Per 
cent 


Total 


98,918 


100,0 


78.068 


100,0 


Residing in Illinois 




Oil (\ 


73.706 


94,4 


outside of Illinois 










and in 










North Atlantic states 


581 


0.6 


257 


0,3 


South Atlantic states 


677 


0.7 


607 


0,6 


North Central states 


3,277 


3.3 


2.836 


3,6 


South Central states 


382 


0.4 


305 


0,4 


Western states 


497 


0.5 


431 


0,6 


Foreign countries 


28 


(1) 


27 


(1) 



(1) Less than 0,06 per cent. 
Twelfth census, V, 309, 

It will be observed that the number of rented farms with 
owners reported la less than the total number of tenant farms,-^ 
The incompleteness of the data, however, need not be regarded as 
seriously injuring their usefulness. The number of owners of 
rented farms was nearly 21,000 fewer than the number of rented 
farms. A later table brings this fact out more clearly. 1 Nearly 
nineteen out of twenty farms were held by residents of the state. 
1. See below, p. 138. 



136. 



Of the remaining 5.5 per cent of the farms, 3.3 were ovraed by 
residents of the North Central states. The owners residing in 
the North Central states owned the largest number of rented farms 
each. The 27 owners residing in foreign countries held 28 rented 
farms • 

The next table shows the number, average size and value 
of the rented farms classified somev/hat differently. 

Rented farms with owners. 



Average 

Average value Per 

per farm per Number cent 

Number Acreage Value acre Cash Share cash 



Total 


103,698 


122.2 


$7182 


$58.78 


38,173 


65.525 


Residing in 














County 


75,789 


118.8 


7154 


60.19 


27.194 


48,595 


Other counties 
of state 


17,687 


139.5 


7661 


54.19 


6.596 


11,091 


Other states 


5,254 


131.2 


7197 


54.86 


2,330 


2.924 


Not reported 


4.968 


101.5 


6239 


61.49 


2,063 


2,015 



Twelfth census, V, 310-311. 

About the same number of rented farms have incomplete 
data as in the previous table. Of the 98,730 rented farms with 
residence of owners known, 76.8 per cent were held by owners 
residing in the same county; 17.9 per cent by owners residing 
In other Illinois counties; and 5.3 per cent by ov/ners residing 



137 



in other states. The average acreage and the average value per 
farm were least in the case of the rented farms of owners 
residing in the same county, and most in the case of those of 
owners residing in other counties of the state. The average 
value per acre, however, was greatest in the case of those 
residing in the county in which the farms were located and least 
in the case of those dwelling in other counties of the state. 
The percentage of tenant farms rented for cash increased with 
the distance of the owners from their farms, although 65 per cent 
of the rented farms owned hy residents of other states were 
leased on the share basis. 

The Ownership of Rented Farms. 

The table on the next page throws light on the concentra- 
tion of ownership of rented farms as shov/n by the census of 1900. 
It is regrettable that similar data are not available for 1910. 

The first column shows data based on the number of 
owners of rented farms. Of these 85.0 per cent owned a single farm 
each, 95.3 per cent owned fe7/er than three farms, and 98.8 per 
cent owned fewer than five farms. Fev/er than 200 acres were owned 
by 74.6 per cent of the owners. One owner of rented farms in a 
1000 owned over 2500 acres. The value of the farms was under 
$5000 in the case of 48.2 per cent of the owners, and exceeded 
$25,000 in the case of 5.3 per cent. 

The second third and fourth columns are based, not on 
owners, but on rented farms possessed by ovmers of various 



138 



Percentage of 











Value of 






Rented 


Acreage 


rented 




Own f fs o f 


f A Tins 


In rfintpd 


fftrms in 




rented 


held by 


farms of 


farms of 




f ATma 






own ATS 




who 


who 


who 


v/ho 


Rumber of farms 


Tsoasess 

W tkJ t,J \^ *J %J 


DOSS ASS 


nossess 


nosaeas 

V \J kj V-/ k^ W 


One 


85.05 


67.00 


65.88 


64.82 


Two 


10.30 


16.23 


16 .50 


16.62 




3-49 


8-99 


9-83 


9.83 


£ X V v7 CUXIX tilXvLCx U C7xi 




fi 03 


4 99 


^ 10 




0-17 


1-69 


1-74 


2-68 


X ff w XX V okxxu. w ¥ V X 


0-04 


1.06 


1.14 


0-96 


AftTAS 

X O O 










TTr>fl AT* T no 


40 07 


Ofi 


IP 9fi 


1 ''5 4ft 
xo . %o 


±\j\j anci unciep cuu 


Oft .Of 




Pfl fiA 

£iO • Oft 


ou . u 




PI Q'^ 
C J. . 


PR fiA 


oo . OO 


^ft OA 
oo . UD 


ouu ancL uncier xuuu 


C . f O 


o . oo 






X\J\J\J clxIU. UXiClCX C)V\J\J 


AO 


P Qfl 


V . xo 


4 ft7 


2500 and over 


0.10 


1.15 


3.73 


2-48 












Under ^1000 


10-75 


8 .83 


2-18 


0-62 


$1000 and under |2000 


10.18 


8.63 


4.18 


1.56 


#2000 and under $5000 


27.28 


23.52 


16.46 


11.60 


$5000 and under $10000 


25.35 


19.59 


19.04 


17.06 


$10000 and under $25000 


21.12 


26.58 


37.14 


41.40 


$26000 and over 


5.32 


12.86 


20.99 


27.76 



Twelfth census, V, 312-317. 



139. 



classifications. When the farms are classified on the basis of 
the number of farms possessed by the owners, it appears that 
67.0 per cent were owned by owners holding deeds to one farm each, 
and 7.8 per cent by owners possessing over five farms each. The 
farms belonging to owners of one farm each were slightly below 
the average in size and still more so in value. Those belonging 
to owners of two and under five farms were somewhat above the 
average in size and value. Those possessed by owners of ten and 
under twenty farms were above the average in both size and value, 
especially in value. One per cent of the rented farms were held 
by owners of twenty farms and over, and these farms were above 
the average in size, but below the average in value. 

The farms possessed by owners owning under 200 acres 
were below the average in acreage and value, while the farms of 
all owners holding more than 200 acres of rented land were above 
the average in those respects. 'It is more natural to expect 
this to be true regarding the acreage than the value. The rented 
farms belonging to owners of 2500 acres or more were farther below 
the average in value thein those in any other group. Considering 
value alone, hov;ever, there was considerable concentration of 
ownership in the hands of farms owning 500 or more acres. 

The classification of rented farms according to the value 
of rented farms owned by their owners shows that those owned by 
owners holding a value of less than $10,000 were considerably 
below the average in, size and value per acre. Rented farms owned 
by owners holding such farms having a value exceeding $10,000 



140. 



were above the average in both size and value. 

On the whole, therefore, it appears that the owners of 
larger and more valuable areas of land have the operating done 
on a scale above the average. The concentration of holdings in 
the hands of the wealthier land owners, while not great, was 
considerable 

Age of Operators. 

Statistics were gathered on the ages of operators in 
1890, 1900 and 1910. They are presented here both in tabular 
and graphic form. 

The first table presents the percentage of operators 
whose ages fell within specified age-groups at the dates for 
which statistics were reported. 

It will be seen that the percentage of all farmers who 
were under £5 years of age was greater in 1910 than at the earlier 
dates. This was due chiefly to the relative increase in the 
prominence of younger tenants. Farmers between 25 and 35 years 
of age declined in relative numerical importance among both owners 
and tenants from 1890 to 1910. Those between 35 and 55 years 
old increased in relative numbers among both owners and tenants 
between 1890 and 1910. Those 56 years old and over declined in 



1. Among the largest rented estates in Central Illinois are 
the following: the Scully estate in Logan and Sangamon counties; 
the Allerton estate in Piatt county; the Sibley estate in Ford 
county; and the Funk estates in McLean county. 



141. 





Operators 




Owners^- 


Tenants 




Age 




















periods 


±VX\J 


X V uu 


±oy u 


1910 




jLo yu 


1 Q1 O 


1 Qno 
±y uu 


1890 


Under 25 


A Q 


o . o 


o » f 


1.5 


1 A 


1 R 


Q R 


A ft 


7.2 


25 to 34 


. 


£jC . / 


eft . O 


12.1 


J.O . o 


1 R 9 


OO . D 


O f • u 


40.3 


35 to 44 


• O 


c r . O 


. JL 


25.7 


9 K A 


9 O K 


9fi yi 


9 Q O 


26.7 


45 to 54 






ejX . O 


29.3 


9A 7 


9/1 A 




1 A R 
JLO . O 


15.4 


55 to 64 


14.0 


15.0 


.... 


19.0 


20.1 


.... 


7.1 


7.1 


.... 


55 to 59 


.... 


.... 


8.8 


. . • • 


.... 


11.4 


.... 


.... 


4.4 


65 and over 


8.1 


10.0 


.... 


12.4 


14.7 


« • • • 


2.2 


2.7 


. • • • 


60 and over 


.... 


• . • • 


17.6 


.... 


. » • • 


24.3 


• • • . 


. . . • 


6.0 


55 and over 


22.1 


25.0 


26.4 


31.4 


34.8 


35.7 


9.3 


9.6 


10.4 



(a) Includes part owners. 

United States census reports: 

Thirteenth, Bulletin, Agriculture: United States, Age of 
Fanners, 26. 

Twelfth: V, 727. 

Eleventh: Farms and Homes, 618. 

relative prominence among both classes of operators. This decline 
was especially marked in the case of those over 65 years old as 
shown hy the data for 1900 and 1910. 

The graph illustrates the distribution of the owners 
and of the tenants among the age-periods for 1890, 1900 and 1910. ^ 



1. Taylor, H. 0. The Place of Economics in Agricultural 
Education and Research, 108-110. 



I 

PLATE m. I 



DIAGRAM SHC'ING THE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS 
AMONG AGE-GROUPS, ILLINOIS, 1890-1910. 



Under 25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 and OTer 

45 




U- OF I. S. S. FOAM 3 



umts 



142. 



The age period, 35 to 44, is one which included a slightly higher 
percentage of the tenants than of the owners.-^ The ages under 35 
included a greater portion of the tenants than of the owners, 
while the ages over 44 included a much greater portion of the 
owners thsin of tenants. The percentage of owners comprised within 
the age-groups increased v/ith each succeeding age-period. In the 
case of tenants the percentage comprised within the age-group, 
25 to 34, was greatest, and declined steadily with the succeeding 
age-periods. It is evident, therefore, that youth is much more 
characteristic of the tenants than of the owners, and that age 
seems to increased the chances for ownership. 

This tendency is perhaps more clearly shown in the second 
graph. The percentage in each age group who were tenants was 
higher for tenants than for owners for the first two age-groups, 
and after that the reverse was the 6SiSei. It will be observed that 
the lines for the three dates run more or less parallel to one 
another, tending somewhat toward convergence for the older age- 
periods. This shows that there was a tendency for ownership to 
decline and for tenancy to increase among farmers of all ages. 



1. The tendency for tenants of different ages to operate for 
share or for cash as shown in the following table for 1910, the 
only date at which such statistics are available. 











Cash 


Share 


Under 25 years 




26. E 


73.8 


25 


and under 


35 


years 


34.4 


65.6 


35 


and under 


45 


ye ars 


38.0 


62.0 


45 


and under 


55 


years 


38.2 


61.8 


55 


and under 


65 


years 


37.8 


62.2 


66 


and over 




42.8 


59.2 




Total 






35.8 


64. E 



Such evidence points to an improvement in the economic 
and technical status of the tenants with advancing age. 



PLATE VI. 



DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PERCENTAGES OF FARMERS IN EACH 
AGE-GROUP OPERATING AS OWNERS AND AS TENANTS, 
ILLINOIS, 1890-1910. 



90 



Under 25 25-34 



Ten- 



35-44 



45-54 tj5 and over 



Own- 
era 



ants 




SHOWING THE PERCENTAGES OF CHANGE IN THE 

-PERCENTAGES OF OWNERS AND OF TENANTS IN EACH AGE^- 
GROUP QE^J'ARMERS, 



45-54 55 and over 




u. OP I. s. s. Fonw 



Of THE 
UNIVERSITy OF ILLINOIS 



143 



The Incidence of this change in ownership upon farmers 

of different ages is more easily seen in the following table, in 

which the percentages of all farmers who own are expressed as if 
with the same average at the three dates. 

Comparative expression of percentages of farm home 

owners among the farmers of specified ages, Illinois, 
1910, 1900 and 1890. 





1910 


1900 


1890 


Average for 
all age -groups 


57.58 


60.40 


63.28 


Under 25 years 


30.2 


39.2 


42.8 


25 and under 35 years 


55.2 


58.9 


62.6 


35 and under 36 years 


95.5 


94.0 


93.6 


45 and under 55 years. 


123.0 


115.2 


114.7 


55 years and over 


142.6 


139.2 


135.1 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



It is apparent that the probahility of ownership among 
the younger farmers was declining, and that the probability that 
owners would be old men was increasing. In the dynamic changes it 
seems that the period of tenancy through v/hich many farmers 
passed was becoming lengthened, especially between 1900 and 1910. 

The age of owners free from mortgage encumbrance and of 
those having mortgages on their places is likewise shown by data 
for the last three census dates. Although the basis of the data 
is somewhat different, the difference is so slight as to be 



144. 



practically negligible in this sort of a comparison. 



Tattle showing the percentage of owners in each age-group 
owning their places free and encumbered, 1890 to 1910. 

Percentage of Owners 











Free 




Encumbered 




Age-period 




















1910 


1900 


1890 


1910 


1900 


1890 


Under 25 years 


34.2 


56.7 


63.4 


65.8 


43.3 


36.6 


25 


and under 


35 years 


28.0 


48.6 


51.0 


72.0 


51.4 


49.0 


35 


and under 


45 years 


36.3 


50.6 


56.0 


63.7 


49.4 


43.1 


45 


and under 


55 years 


46.4 


58.1 


61.4 


53.6 


41.9 


38.6 


55 


years and 


over 


65.1 


69.3 


72.6 


34.9 


30.7 


27.5 


55 


and under 


65 years 


58.6 


65.3 


.... 


41.4 


34.7 


.... 


65 


years and 


over 


74.7 


74.5 


.... 


25.3 


25.5 


.... 




Total 




47.2 


58.6 


63.2 


52.8 


41.4 


36.8 



U. S. census reports: 

Thirteenth: Bulletin, Agriculture; United States; 

Age of Farmers, 25. 
Twelfth, V, 727. 
Eleventh, Farms and Homes, 618. 

It appears that, in general, freedom from mortgage 
encumbrance increased with advancing age. Those under 25 years 
old were exceptions to the general trend, because, doubtless, in 
many cases they were heirs who had received their land clear of 
indebtedness. The period, 25 to 35, however, was one during 
which the percentage of mortgage encumbrance was very heavy. At 
each census the succeeding age periods showed declining percentages 



146. 



of owners encumbered, indicating in most cases successful escape 
from indebtedness. 

The decline in freedom from encumbrance was greater 
between 1900 and 1910 than between 1890 and 1900. The following 
table enables us to determine how the various age-groups were 
affected by the changes. The percentage in each age-group is 
expressed in terms of the percentage of all owners free at the 
respective dates. 







1910 


1900 


1890 


Average 


for all age-groups 


47.2 


58.6 


63.2 


Under 25 years 


72.5 


96.8 


100.3 


26 


and under 35 years 


59.3 


82.9 


80.7 


36 


and under 45 years 


76.9 


86.4 


90.0 


46 


and under 55 years 


98.3 


99.1 


97.2 


55 


years and over 


137.9 


118.3 


114.7 


65 


and under 65 years 


124.1 


111.4 


. . • . 


65 


years and over 


158.3 


127.1 


.... 




Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



The owners in the age-groups under 45 years were rela- 
tively much less free from mortgage encumbrance at the later census 
dates, than those in the age-groups over 45 years. The decade 
1890 and 1900 was one of relatively little change, while that 
following 1900 was one of decided decline in the case of all ages 
under 55 years. It appears, therefore, that the period reouired 



146. 



for removing mortgage incumbrance from farms has been lengthened in 
Illinois.^ 

By way of summary the following are the outstanding facts 
relative to farm operators in Illinois. The farmers operate chiefly 
as heads of farm families. Share tenancy is more prevalent than 
cash tensincy, though cash tenancy predominates in the Northern part 
of the state and is more characteristic of tenants advanced in 
years and operating farms whose owners reside at a considerable 
distance. The farms of medium size were most cultivated by tenants, 
while the largest and smallest farms were most characterized by 
operation by the owners. There was a tendency toward the cash 
basis in the case of farms under 500 acres, and toward the share 
basis in the case of those over 500 acres. During the ten years, 
1900 to 1910, the farms of owners proper lost in size, and those 
of tenants increased pronouncedly, due, probably, to the decline in 
ownership in the districts of larger farms. The tenants were in 
charge of more than their proportion of the improved acreage. 

The farms of no single form of tenure can be held to be 
superior in all ways. Managed farms had the highest value in 
buildings and live stock per acre, and farms of owners were 
characterized by the highest value of implements and machinery per 



1. A certain amount of evidence on this point is afforded by 
the fact that there is growing discontent among bankers with the 
practice of renewing mortgages, and an agitation for lengthening 
the period of mortgages in Illinois. See, Stewart, C. L. , An 
Analysis of Rural Banking Conditions in Illinois, 13, 14, EO, 21. 



I 



147. 



acre. In values of domestic animals the farms of tenants were 
belov/ the average, v/hen either the total value or the value per 
head is considered. The farms of tenants were largely devoted to 
the production of the money crops. This was particularly true 
of share tenant farms. Yields were superior in the case of farms 
operated by managers and by cash tenants. 

The practice of mortgaging on the part of operating 
owners has shown little tendency to increase since 1900, and the 
equity has been greatly exceeding the indebtedness in rate of 
increase. 

The farms were mostly in the hands of white farmers, 
with a decreasing portion of foreign-bom. This decrease may be 
due to the ability of the foreign-born to pass the ownership of 
their land to children born in this country. 

The owners of rented farms in 1900 were resident in the 
state, in about nineteen cases in twenty, and in three cases out 
of four were resident in the same county in which the farms were 
located. 

Concentration in the ownership of rented farms is seen 
in the fact that in 1900, 1.16 percent of the owners of rented 
farms were in possession of 7.78 percent of the rented farms 
comprising 7.87 per cent of the acreage and 8.74 percent of the 
value of rented farms. 

It was shown by the age statistics that youth was more 
heavily characterized by tenancy, especially on the share basis, 
and by encumbered ownership i Advancing years tended to replace 



148. 



share with cash tenancy, tenancy with ownership, and encumbrance 
with freedom from mortgage debt. The latest census data, however, 
indicate that an influence is at work restraining this movement. 



149. 



CHAPTER SIX. 

TEE RELATION OF TENURE TO RURAL ECONOMIC AM) SOCIAL CONI»TTIONS 

IN ILLINOIS. 

The tenure of the land is closely related to a miraher 
of prevailing tendencies having a political and social significance 

Decrease in Rural Population. 
The existing data make it difficult to get accurately at 
the decline in rural population in Illinois counties. Data are 
afforded for the incorporated places in the entire state and for 
the total population of each county. The "unincorporated" 
population has been calculated by counties for each of the last 
census enumerations, and maps showing the county percentages of 
decline or increase by decades and over the twenty-year period 
are to be found on pages 2E0to 222. In examining these maps 
it must be borne in mind that unincorporated population is not to 
be identified with the "farm" population. Some farm operators 
and laborers live in incorporated places. Some of those dwelling 
outside of incorporated places follow a line of occupation in 
cities, some others are engaged in exploiting mineral wealth, 
such as coal, oil, and gas, and a few conduct country stores. 
Whether the absolute figures for the unincorporated population 
approach closely the actual farm population is hard to say. It 
is probable, however, that the change in the unincorporated 
population is not greatly different from the change in the actual 



150. 



farm population. It is possible, to be sure, that the incorporation 
of places had been more completely accomplished at the later dates, 
bnt an inspection of the statistics shows this source of declining 
unincorporated population to be of slight importance. Moreover, 
the place held by miners, and others occupied in non-agricultural 
pursuits in the unincorporated population has probably been an 
increasing one. All things considered, therefore, the change in 
the number of people dwelling outside of incorporated places may 
be regarded as a fair index of the change in the farm population. 

The first map shows the change in the unincorporated 
population occurring during the twenty years, 1890 to 1910. 
There was a decline in 87 counties and an increase in 15 counties. 
The decline in the state as a whole was 7.2 per cent. 

During the period between 1890 and 1910 the change in 
the unincorporated population of individual counties was as follows: 

Divisions 

The state Northern Central Southern 





Inc . 


Dec . 


Inc . 


Dec . 


Inc. 


Dec . 


Inc . 


Dec . 


1890-1910 


15 


87 


7 


17 


1 


36 


7 


34 


1900-1910 


14 


88 


7 


17 





37 


7 


34 


1890-1900 


35 


67 


11 


13 


5 


32 


19 


22 



It is apparent that during each of the two decades the 
unincorporated population was declining in most of the counties. 
The decrease during the decade, 1900 to 1910, was much more 
widespread than that taking place during the decade, 1890 to 1900. 



151. 



In the state as a whole, the decline was 1.6 per cent between 
1890 and 1900 and 5.7 per cent between 1900 and 1910. The 
counties of Central Illinois showed the least tendency to increase 
during either decade of the period. The proportion of counties in 
which an increase took place was greatest between 1890 and 1900 
in Southern Illinois, and between 1900 and 1910 in Northern Illinois 
In 9 of the 14 counties in which an increase took place in the 
unincorporated population between 1900 and 1910 an increase had 
occurred during the preceding decade. Of these 9 counties 5 
were within a radius of 50 miles of a large city, 3 were marked 
by the development of mineral resources, and 3 were river counties 
in which the farm area was being expanded during the period 
following 1890. Of the 5 other counties in which the unincorporated 
population increased between 1900 and 1910, 3 were adjacent to 
large cities. 

The increase appears, therefore, to have been due in 
large measure to exceptional conditions, such as proximity to 
large urban centers, the inclusion of new farm land, and the 
exploitation of mineral wealth by people who were enumerated as 
resident outside of incorporated places. Urban centers exert 
their influence not only by giving a more intensive tone to the 
agriculture, but also by filling the surrounding country with 
residents who belong rather to the city than to farm population. 

It is important to observe, first, the relation of the 
population actually engaged in agriculture to the total unin- 
corporated population. The population actually engaged in 



152, 



agriculture increased from 430.134 in 1890 to 444.242 in 1910, 
In 1900 it stood at 461.014. Though the decline in the number 
engaged in agriculture may have helped to account for the decline 
in unincorporated population after 1900 it cannot account for the 
decline between 1890 and 1900. 

The number of people dwelling outside of incorporated 
places in excess of those actually engaged at farming was 
1.206,081 in 1890, 1,149.540 in 1900, and 1,074.022 in 1910. a 
decrease of 132,059 over the twenty years. TThile the number 
actu€Q.ly occupied at farming increased 3.3 per cent, the rest 
of the unincorporated population declined 11.0 per cent. The 
percentage of the unincorporated population actually engaged in 
agriculture was 26.4 in 1890. 28.8 in 1900 and 29.4 in 1910. It 
is suggested, therefore, that a part of the rural decline is due 
to such causes as reduction in the size of families, removal or 
disappearance of persons not occupied at any line,-^ and the 
reduction in the relative number occupied at other than agricultural 
pursuits while resident in the country. 

The number actually engaged in farming would be still 
larger in Illinois but for the fact that improvements in machinery 
make possible the cultivation of a large area by each person in 
agriculture. The acreage of all farm land per individual actually 



1. The percentage of the total population occupied in Illinois 
in 1890 was 35.4; in 1900. 37.4; and in 1910. 40.7. See above, 
page 50. 



153. 



engaged in farming in Illinois was 71.2 in 1890, 71.4 in 1900 and 
73.5 in 1910; the improved acreage, 60.0 in 1890, 60.3 in 1900, 
and 63.4 in 1910. There can be no doubt that the land is being 
farmed with less human labor. 

The change in rural population thus appears to be more 
a symptom and consequence of general economic changes than a 
causal factor. It is probable, however, that the readjustments 
in rural population have at least offered occasion, and, in 
some cases, have been causes affecting the prevalence of particular 
forms of tenure. The movement of owners to the city has doubtless 
led to a larger portion of the land owned by them being rented, 
both before and after the title changes to their heirs. The 
movement of farm families has doubtless been accompanied by the 
enlargement of areas of operation, if not by the growth of 
holdings. 

The changes in tenure in themselves have contributed 
not so much to reduce the number of rural inhabitants 6is to result 
in a different kind of rural population. 

Co-operation. 

The relation of tenure to co-operation is a subject on 
which we have as yet very little data. The most important forms 
of farm mutual or co-operative business organizations now existing 
in the state are the co-operative creameries, grain elevators, 
mutual insurance and telephone companies, and county agricultural 
Improvement associations. The elevators are found, for the most 



154. 



part, In the districts where tenants are most numerous. In the 
case of creameries and county associations, which are located 
chiefly in the Northern counties, the tenants in the surrounding 
districts ajre not so numerous as in the Central part of the state, 
but their numbers have been increasing with great rapidity. 
Neither instance, however, establishes a dependence of co-operation 
on tenancy. The territorial association between the prevalence of 
tenancy and the nujnber of co-operators is a negative one in the 
case of mutual insurance companies, and this is probably true 
also in the case of mutual telephone companies. 

The territorial association or dissociation of tenant 
farming with the existence of co-operative organizations can, 
however, be little more than suggestive. In nearly all parts 
of the state there are enough owners within the proper radius to 
form the nucleus for any kind of co-operative organization thus 
far developed in the state, if owners were the prime essential. 
On the other hand, it cannot be said, without claiming too much, 
that co-operation has brought such prosperity as to have enabled 
tenants, in any large degree, to become owners of land formerly 
rented in the vicinity. 

That tenants, changing from farm to farm at more or 
less short intervals should generally be more active and success- 
ful than owners in building up co-operative organizations is 
hardly in the line of reason. It is a somewhat striking fact, 
however, that one of the most successful advocates of farmers' 
elevators in the state has been and still Is a tenant farmer. The 



156. 



fact remains, nevertheless, that the shifting of tenants injures 
their ability to promote co-operative organization, and thereby 
deprives them of their share of the advantages which might other- 
wise accrue to them. This is probably less true where the co- 
operative organizations, such as farmers' elevators, have forced 
prices in the direction favoring the farmers, for all farmers, 
regardless of their term of operation in a particular vicinity, 
get the advantage of the more favorable prices so long as within 
range of markets dominated by the quotations of the co-operative 
organizations. 

If, in the future, co-operation assumes forms requiring 
greater permanency of membership in the societies, greater 
intimacy of acquaintsinee among the members, or greater investment 
per member, the tenants will doubtless find themselves handi- 
capped in their relation thereto. 

Other features and institutions of rural life must 
suffer as much or more than co-operative socieites. On the whole, 
the tenants cannot do as much toward stimulating business as the 
owners might. A part of the negligence of the rural schools can 
be traced to the absenteeism of landowners. The shifting of 
tenant families gives rise to problems for the county church, 
taking members of various sects and denominations into communities 
where their religious views are not represented in an organized 
communion, and cutting off the chance for the development of deep 
friendships and associations which give vitality to church life. 



156. 



Church and school finances must naturally suffer from the 
displacement of better-to-do landowners by tenants struggling 
to get an economic foothold. The relation of tenancy to the 
education and social life of the rural population and to the 
vitality of religious organizations deserves much more thorough- 
going investigation than has yet been given it."^ 

Rural Buildings. 
The maps on pages 283 and 224 show the average value per 
acre of buildings in Illinois in 1910 and 1900. It is apparent 
that the sections where the values were relatively highest were 
the sections where land was only slightly above the average in 
value. Where Isuid was highest the value of buildings per acre 
was near the state average. In Southern Illinois the value of 
land and of buildings per acre were less than in the rest of the 
state. In the vicinity of cities the value of buildings seems 
to be higher, due in part to the greater number of farms in a 
given area, in part to the greater need of buildings on farms 
producing for a local market, and in part no doubt to the 
radiation from the cities of ideals in the architecture of 
residences. In the districts where tenant farming was most 
prevalent the values per acre of buildings were small, and from 
1900 to 1910 increased at no more than the average rate. This may 

1. See (Adame, C.S. ) A Rural Survey in Illinois, 1911, and 
Rankin, F. H., Report on "General Conditions in Rural Communities," 
"in the report of the Commission on Rural Problems and the Relation 
of the Young Men's Christian Association to their Solution", 1912. 



157 



be traceable in part to the abandonment of buildings on some 
patches of ground rented to part owners and to a tendency for 
tenant farms to suffer from lack of concern on the part of the 
landlord for the buildings with which his tensmt has to do. 

Concentration on Cereal Raising. 

Data are presented on maps on pages 195 to 202 to 
show the percentage of the improved acreage devoted to the 
production of (1) six leading cereals and (2) corn alone. It 
appears that in 1879 the greatest concentration on cereals in any 
part of the state was in the Southern and Southwestern counties. 
In 1889 the percentages in Central Illinois were tending in 
general to surpass those in Southern Illinois. In 1899 and in 
1909 these tendencies had gone to still farther limits. In 
Northern Illinois there was greater concentration on the cereals 
in 1899 than in 1889 or 1879. In 1909, however, the percentages 
showed a tendency to diminish. 

It seems, therefore, that the movement toward concen- 
tration on cereal production has been most persistent and has 
gone to the greatest extremes in the districts where a large 
portion of the land is leased; that in the districts where 
ownership has been most persistent there has been a movement 
away from specialization in the cereal crops; and that even in 
Northern Illinois, where the percentage of tenancy has not been 
much above the state average, there was a decided trend toward 
cereal production during the period when tenants were multiplying 



158. 



most rapidly in that part of the state. There can be little doubt 
that tenancy has contributed toward the concentration in cereals 
as well as that the regime of cereal farming has been conductive 
to tenant operation. 

The maps showing the county percentages of improved 
land devoted to the production of corn indicate a strong emphasis 
on corn production in the original prairie districts of the state. 
It would be hard to say to what extent tenant farming is 
responsible for this. The fact that with the increase in tenant 
farming the emphasis does not seem to have been materially 
increased leads one to think that the land may be rented fully as 
much because it is corned as that it is rented. It is possible, 
however, that with the land leased to such a large extent a 
tendency away from concentration on corn and other cereals would 
be resisted by the tenant operators. 

Conclusions. 

In the agricultural economy of Illinois fundamental 
physiographic conditions are very important. The importance of 
their influence on settlement and early conditions of land tenure 
has been recognized by those who disputed the nature of the 
influence exerted. That the influence of physiographic conditions 
has not diminished, but that it has perhaps increased with the 
advent of machinery and market economy is the conclusion arrived 
at in this thesis. In the dynamic changes that have taken place, 
the districts have gained much or little, or lost little or much. 



159. 



acoording as they compared favorably or otherwise with other 
districts at the start. The differences between sections of 
Illinois have been widening on nearly all bases of comparison. 

The importance of renting as a causal factor is 
emphasized in this investigation. Its significance as a symptom or 
accompanying phase has been pointed out by nearly every economist 
who has written upon tenancy. The belief is urged here that 
renting may affect a restraint in agricultural production, and 
may afford a sort of pension device to encourage an uneconomic 
attitude toward their investment on the part of some owners of 
farm land. In the case of land raising crops the area of possible 
or profitable production of which is not subject to expansion as 
rapidly as demand increases, the farming may assume some of the 
characteristics of monopoly. The concert of action necessary 
for the realization of monopoly advantage is brought about, not 
by conscious compact, but unconsciously through ignorance of. 
Inability or indisposition to enrploy sound methods of agriculture. 
In so far as the concert of action takes place through the 
inefficiency of operators of certain tenures, those tenures may 
be said to promote the realization of the monopolistic element. 
To the extent that this takes place through tenants it may be said 
that renting reduces the supply of agricultural produce, raises 
prices of produce, increases the profits from raising it, and 
enhances land values. The statement of Adam Smith that "rent 
enters into the composition of the prices of commodities in a 



160. 



different way from wages and interest'"^ may not, under present-day 
conditions, be quite as unfounded as the critics maintain, for 
rents determine the amount of renting, and, so far as they are 
exorbitant, doubtless incite the tenants toward more exhaustive 
methods • 

The changes in the economic conditions of Illinois 
agriculture appear to have taken place with a sort of periodicity, 
A decade of great change was followed by one of little change, 
and that by one of great change in the case of a number of the 
phenomena of agriculture to which reference has been made in this 
thesis. It appears, moreover, that to a certain extent the 
practice of renting has been stimulated by both phases of the 
periodic movement. 

In the advances that have occurred the landless farmers 
have not shared equally with the landed farmers. The speculative 
element in land values has been a decided handicap to those 
without land. Accompanying rising land values, and contributing 
to them, is the higher commercial rent level. The owners hold 
the land at a value capitalized at a rate below that at which 
money may be borrowed for the purchase of land. The greater the 
discrepancy between the two rates the smaller is the portion 
of the market value for which a mortgage loan can be negotiated 



1. Smith: Wealth of Nations , (Buchanan edition) Vol. I, 243. 
See also. Walker, Land and Its Rent, 27, and the debate between 
Professors Carlton and Haney in the Quarterly Journal of Economics. 
Volumes 24, 25 and 26. 



161. 



on the purchased land. As a consequence of these conditions the 
opportunity for tenants to acquire land has been greatly reduced. 

Whether reduced loan ratr>s would enlarge the expectaincy 
of ownership for those entering agriculture without land is a 
question for consideration. To a certain extent the reduction 
of loan rates would prohahly reduce the rate at which the value 
of land would be capitalized, and thus stimulate the transfer of 
land. The consequence would be a rise in land prices, owing 
not only to the greater demand for land but also to the expectation 
of future increment in value. Since, however, the rate at which 
land is capitalized depends not only on returns in agriculture, 
but also on rates of return in business in general, it is probable 
that farm loan rates could be reduced so as to be brought nearer to 
the rate at which land prices are capitalized. To the extent 
that this is possible, a reduction in loan rates would probably 
assist the landless in acquiring land, especially in the districts 
where land is highest in price. 

The prominence of land values in discussions of tenant 
farming leads logically to a discussion of proposals to control 
land prices. For the most part the upward movement in the prices 
of farm lands in Illinois was not a rapid one between 1860 and 
1900. Increment could not have played a prominent part in the 
calculations of land owners. Land was owned chiefly by those 
who contributed much to the developments which produced the rise 
in land prices. From about 1900 on, however, a somewhat different 
condition has been prevailing. During the recent period the rise 



162. 



in land prices came irrespective of contributions on the part of 
owners to the agriculture of the country. The districts where 
land prices have moved forward most have been those in which small 
expenditures need be made by the owners for fertilizers and 
improvements. It would seem, therefore, that some method of making 
the rise in land prices reward the public would have been 
preferable during the period of phenomenal price increments. A 
tax of 25 per cent of the increment in the case of land bought 
in 1900 at $80 an acre and sold in 1910 at $200 would have yielded 
$30. If one-eighth of such land had been transferred and taxed, 
the proceeds would have been |2400 a section, or nearly $10,000 
a school district. The expenditure of half this amount, |500 
a year, within the school district, for roads, schools, and other 
public purposes would have been a considerable factor in rural 
improvement. The other half, if devoted to general tax purposes 
in the county, state and nation would have been of great fiscal 
usefulness. Not least of all advantages that might have come from 
such a scheme, however, is that of repressing speculation in land. 
The tendency for longer association of owners with their land, 
on which a premium would thus have been placed, would have done 
something to combat the practice of short leases and of temporary 
association with the land on the part of tenants. 

\^hether a tax on the increment is desirable now is 
another question. It is pretty certain that agitation for such a 
tax cannot be expected to be strong among land owners so long as 
the increment is accruing strongly in their sections. For that 



163 



reason It seems probable that increment teixatlon may not be 
expected at the time when it might be most effective as a check 
on land speculation. 

With land prices at the present stage it seems likely 
that the increment element must become less important and the 
rental element more important in the calculations of the land 
owners. When the annual increment is $10 on land valued at flOO, 
based on a clear rental return of $6 capitalized at 6 per cent, 
the increment is the source of five-eighths of the addition to 
the landlord *s income and wealth during the year. If, however, 
the annual increment is the same amount, ^plO, on land valued at 
$200, based on a net rental return of $10 capitalized at 5 per cent 
the increment is the source of one-half of the addition to the 
landlor's income. The tendency for the interest rate to fall 
is responsible for the failure of the increment to decline even 
more rapidly in importance in the calculations of the land owner. 
That the interest rate will fall as rapidly on account of the 
expectancy of future rise in land prices is less likely the 
higher the stage of land prices. An annual increment of $10 
in the case of $100 land is 10 per cent on the investment and 
in the case of $200 land is 5 per cent. We may expect, therefore, 
that anticipation of future rise in value will exert a smaller 
influence both on the rate at which land is capitalized by owners 
and on the annual income or addition to the wealth of the land 
owner. 

As greater emphasis must fall on the rental as a source 
of return on the high priced lands, we may probably expect a 



164. 

pressure by land owners for higher rents. This pressure has 
already been exerted in some cases. An intensified selective 
process is thus made operative. The demand for efficiency falls 
upon farmers of all tenures. 

Farming efficiency in the future, however, will probably 
consist in a greater measure, in the ability to increase net 
profits through co-operative dealing with the market. The 
efficiency test must, therefore, rule more strongly against 
operators of the tenures whose characteristics are opposed to 
successful co-operative effort on their part. 

It is not necessary, however, that the farmers of other 
tenures operate as efficiently as the owners themselves would 
operate. If the owners prefer to have their land operated by 
others than themselves, and if their holdings are sufficiently 
large, they may content themselves with the financial disadvantage 
resulting from their refusal to operate their own land. 

The coming of the automobile and improved roads and the 
extension of rural delivery routes and of telephones may remove the 
main disadvantages of rural residence. The increased opportunity 
to get better results from employing business methods in agricul- 
ture will doubtless attract people of better training and 
experience into the operation of farm land. 

The test of productive efficiency may be somewhat slow 
in acting, and therefore costly, but it bids fair to penalize 
unsound farming regardless of the tenure of the operators, and 
therefore to guarantee the survival of the best forms of tenure 
and of the best individual operators. 



AN EXHIBIT OF 



ILLUSTRi\TIV£ MAPS 



Thirteenth Census of the United States: 1910. 




48381*. (To follow page 98.) No. 2. 



LIBRARY 
Of THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



167 




!- 



LIBRARY 



% 




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION 

GENERAL SUKVF.Y 

^ 1 L MAP 

() V 

ILLINOIS 

i("HIEPLY AFTER F. LeVERETT's 

Glaoial Mat.) 

e 



Investigation of 
inois Soil 

BY 

..\CYRIL G. HOPKINS 




(in Illinoisan glaciation) 
I ^ I Lower lllinoisan glaciation 

I ^ I Middle lllinoisan glaciation 

I S I Upper lllinoisan glaciation 

s' I Pre-lowan glaciation 

! j lowan glaciation 

I ^ I Deep loess areas 

Early Wisconsin moraines 
{in early Wisconsin glaciation) 

■ Late Wisconsin moraines 
{Jn late Wisconsin glaciation) 

j II j Early Wisconsin glaciation 

j 12 I Late Wisconsin glaciation 

j 13- j Old river bottom and swamp areas 

I 14 I Sand, late swamp and bottom lands 



ILLINOIS 



170. 



1880 

The line dividing the 
territory in which the cord- 
age of irod per acre ex- 
ceeded ten from that 
in which the cord-i 
age was less than 
ten. 




Tenth census, 
Forest Trees 
of North Aiaer 
ica , plate 7, 



ILLINOIS 




S80 and ggg. 



Ubrary 



ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 




I 



ILLINOIS 




'^^^f ILLINOIS 



ILLINOIS 




UN/VeRS(rvQ"^,LLINOIS 



ILLINOIS 



179. 



1880 

Percenta^re farms 
operated tenants 



Th© state, 
31.4 




Tenth census 
Agriculture, 
44-47. 



ILLINOIS 



leo. 



1890 

Fercentape of farms 
operatsd by tenants 



The state, 
34.0 




Eleventh cen- 
sus. Agri- 
culture, 155 
1*57 . 



ILLINOIS 



181. 



1900 

Percentage of farms 
operated "by tenants 



The state, 
39.3 




Twelfth cen- 
sus, V, 73, 



ILLINOIS 



1910 

Percentage of farms 
operated ty tenants 



,24.9 



33.6 



136. 8 



39, 6 
1 



ka. 

4 



4 7.2 



The state, 
41,4 



5 1.6 



47.5 



49. 1 



37. 6 



33.9 



45. 6 



45. 2 



45. 2 



47.4 

5 1. 61 



43. 7 



1_ 

5 3.9 



42.6 



51. 





51. 6 



46 



:7 



35. Oi 



48. 
6 



61. 





59.4 



39 . 9 



37. 7 



30. 47 41.2 



41. 3 



^43, 
>3. 3 12 



31 43 . 2 



3 5.3 



:4. 2 



48. 5 



6.0 



33. 7 



45.7 



-1 J 43. 



40. 4 



45. 3 



66.9 



58. 4 



55. 3 




49. 5 



43.9 



24. 7 



49. 5 



36.1 



34.5 



31.3 



2 5.0 



26.0 



37.4 



31.4 



29 . 4 



,33.3 



23.1 



27. 7 



27.2 J20.7 



34. 7 



25. 1 



■Q. 3 



32.1 



38. 9 



>35 



20. 



33. 5< 



44, 



24. 



'3 4 



Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
476-445. 



Of 



ILLINOIS 



1880-1910 
Percentage of increase 
in the niimber of tenant 
farms per thousand farms 



The state, 
31.8 



Decrease 




Census 
r«port«: 
TMrteenth, 
VI, 436-445; 
and Tenth, 
Agriculture , 
44-47. 



ILLINOIS 



184 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
acreage operated by ten- 
ants 



26. 5 



The state, 
4*5.59 




33. 4 



42.5 



45. 6 
— I 



52.5 



56. 7 



40. i 



37.3 



32.4 



47.2 



51.4 



47. 3 



52.7 



49. 2 



4 7.4 



foO. £ 



52. 

9 



43. 3 



54. 1 



51.7 



60. 6 



37.3 




3 6. 3 



52. 

6 



52. 



60. 9 



60. 8 



57. 2 



59. 9 



7 



60. 5 



55. 



37. 7 



57.9 



43. 2 



5. 6 



44. 



47.7 



40. 




41. 7 



30. 8 




42. 4 



45.0 



69. 7 



59. 1 



57.2 



52.2 



48. 3 



26.0 



21.1 



46. 9 



36.4 



33. 7 



27.7 



22. 5 



23. 3 



1 



26.4 



34. 3 



28. 3 



32.6 



17. 6 



53. 8 



46. 6 



28. 3 



22.6 



I 



39. 7^ 



24. 5 r 22. 36. a 



22.0 



23. S 



27. 



16 



35, 



37, 



40 



Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
4S6-435; 436- 
445. 



ILLINOIS 



18f5. 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
acreape operated "by mana- 
gers 



The state, 
1.75 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-4'?5? 4'56- 
445. 



186 

ILLINOIS 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
acreage operated by part 
owners 



The state, 
17.15 



<f Data lacking 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
456-4*^5 • and 
Appendix VI, 
below, 240- 



244. 



ILLINOIS 



187. 



1910 

Percentage of land in 
farrcs of part owners op- 
erated under lease 



The state, 
44.7 




Thirteenth 
census, Ap- 
pendix VI, 
helow, S40- 
S44. 



ILLINOIS 



18R. 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
acrenge operated by part 
owners under lease 



The state, 
7.4:5 



« Data lacking 




Thirteenth 
census. Ap- 
pendix VI, 
"below, 240- 
244. 



Or 



ILLINOIS 



189. 



1910 

FercentRpe of fara 
acreage operated under 
lease by tenants and part 
owners 



The state, 
51.01 



<j Data lacking 




Thirteenth 
census, Ap- 
pendix VI, 
telow, 240* 
£44. 



ILLINOIS 



190. 



1910 

P9rcent*ge of farm 
mcre*ge owned by part 
owners 



The state, 
9.73 



^ Data lacking 




Thirteenth 
census. Ap- 
pendix VI, 
"below, 240- 
S44. 



ILLINOIS 



191. 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
Acreftfre operated by owners 
proper 



The state, 
37,54 



^ Dat* lacking 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-4'^5, 436- 
445; and Ap- 
pendix VI, "below, 
240-P44, 



ILLINOIS 



19?^ 



1910 

Percentage of farm 
acreage operated under 
deed by part owners and 
owners proper 



The state, 
47.28 



Data lacking 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 

445; and Ap- 
pendix VI_, hslow, S40 



ILLINOIS 



19:^. 



1880 

Percontage of farm 
acreape improved 



67. 7 



38.9 



37. e 



89. 1 



The state, 
82.5 



85 
1 



35. 8 



92.3 




94.3 



94.9 



92.0 



96.9 



91. 3 



90. 5 




Tenth census. 
Agriculture, 
111-112. 



Of 



ILLINOIS 



194 



19X0 

Percentage of farm 
acreage improved 



The state, 
86.2 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-435. 



0/r 



ILLINOIS 



Census of 1880 
Percentage of inproved 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of the six lead- /-x 53.5 
ing cereals, 1879 



The state, 
55.4 




Tenth census. 
Agriculture, 
111-llS; and 
185-186. 



Or,, 



'<9 



ILLINOIS 



Census of 1890 
Percentage of improved 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of the six lead- 
ing cereals, 1889 



The state, 
65.3 




Eleventh 
census, Agri- 
culture, ?04« 
206; and ^62- 
363. 



ILLINOIS 



Census of 1900 
Percentage of Improved 



acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of the six lead- /\ 59.3 
ing cereals, 1899 



The state, 
60.5 




Twelfth cen- 
sus, V, 275- 
274; VI, 160- 
161. (Thir- 
teenth, VI, 
426-455 . ; 



Or 



ILLINOIS 



198 



Census of 1910 
Percentage of improved 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of the six lead- 
ing cereals, 1909 



The state, 
59.0 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-435, and 
446-455 . 



Or 



199. 

ILLINOIS 



Census of 1880 
Percentafe of improved ^ 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of corn, 1879 



The state, 
34.5 




Tenth census 
Agriculture, 
111-112, and 
180-186. 



'la 



soo. 

ILLINOIS 



Census of 1890 
Percontape of improved 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of corn, 1889 



The state, 
30.6 




Eleventh cen- 
sus, Agricul- 
ture, 204-206 
and 362-'563. 



?01. 

ILLINOIS 



Census of 1900 
Percentage of improved 
acreage devoted to tfte pro- 
duction of com, 1899 ^ 36.6 



The state, 
37,1 



32.8 



20. 
4 



36.3 



44. 9 



26. 1 



|- ^9. 6 



32. 6 



40. 3 



43. 7 



45.7 



50. 1 



49. 6 



45. 8 




41. 3 



29. 



23. 3 26.2 



26. 9 



Census 
!28.5\ reports! 
Twelfth, 

V, 273-274; 

VI, 160-161. 
(Thirteenth, 

VI, 426-435. 



0/s 



ILLINOIS 



Census of 1910 
Percentage of improTed 
acreage devoted to the pro- 
duction of corn, 1909 



23.2 



34. 5 



8 1.8 



The state, 
35.8 



37.5 



44. 7 



21.8] 



33. 1 



39 . 4 



47. 5 



46.2 



25. 4 



35. 5 



38. 4 



46.9 



43.3 



48. 8 



50. 9 



43 . 3 





43. 3 



42. 8 



27.7 



27. ll 



29. 9 



Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-435, and 
446-455. 



ILLINOIS 




I 
I 



ILLINOIS 




806 

ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 



ILLINOIS 



1910 

Average value per aore 
of land and improvements 
including buildings 



The state, 
tl08.32 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-435. 



LIbrtARV 
or THE 
UNIVCRSITY Of ILUNOb 



ILLINOIS 



1880-1910 
Percentage of increase 
in the average value per 
acre of land and improve- 
ments including 
buildings 




census 
reports: 
Thirteenth, 
VI, 426-475; 
and Tenth, 
Agriculture, 
111-112. 



Of THE 
UNIVfRSITV OF ILLINOIS 



ILLINOIS 



?>ii. 



1880-1900 
Percentape of increase 
in the average value per 
acre of land and improve- 
nents including 
buildings 



The state, 
68.9 




Census 
reports: 
Twelfth, V, 
273-2'!'4; and 
Tenth, Agri- 
culture, 111 
112. (Thir. VI,4S6-'?,5 



UIHOIS 



ILLINOIS 



212. 



1900-1910 
Percentage of incraase 
in the average value per 
acre of land and inprove- 
ments including 
buildings 



The state, 
101.2 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
426-4*^5; (and 
Twelfth cen- 
sus, V, 275- 
274. 



'"^^^'^y or ([(,vo,s 



ILLINOIS 




ILLINOIS 




OF til 



ILLINOIS 



1910 

Percentepe of non-cash 
rented fp-rms rented on 
the share-cash basis 



The state, 
35.5 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
436-445. 



>-ltiHAHY 



ILLINOIS 



?>18 



1910 

Percentage of owners 
operating under ir.ortga|ro 



The state, 
39.1 




Thirteenth 
census, VI, 
436-445. 



ILLINOIS 



219. 



1910 

Percentage of value of 
mortgaged farms covered by 
mortgage 



The state, 
25.5 




Thirteenth 
census, vl, 
436-445. 



LitiHAHY 



ILLINOIS 



220, 



1890-1910 X-21.4 
Percentage of change In 
the unincorporated popul- 
ation X -1.0 



The state, 
-7«2 




Thirteenth 
census, II, 
442-467. 



LlUHAny 



ILLINOIS 



-13. 4 



1900-1900 
Percentage of change In 
the unincorporated popul- 
ation 



-18.9 



-9. 4 



♦ 7.6 



-11. 1 



-9.0 



-9.0 



The state, 
-5.7 



-12.4 



-2. 7 



-10. 



-10. 3 



-11. 2 



-IS, 



-6. 9 



-11.0 




-9' -4 1 

g1 -4.1 



-6. 4 



-3. 6 



♦ 6.5 



♦ 5. e 



-6.9 



-13. 

9 



-4. 8 



-11. 



-7.9 



-18. 9 



-10. S )r -3.9 



-10. 2 



-11.3 




-3.6 



-8. 3 



-8. 4 



-6. 9 



-11.7 



V-3l -13. £ .1.7 



-14. 7 



i 




-1.6 



T 

-12 





-7.2 



+ 0. 7 



+ 3.7 



r-5 



-14.0 




-3. 1 



-8. 3 



♦ 1.7 




+ 3 . 1 



♦ 14. 1 



-12. 



-13. 2 



-13. 6 



-18. 7 



-11. 3 



-16.1 



-6.4 



+ 3.1 



-5.9 



-3. 1 



-5. 4 



-1. 7 



-8. 7 



-10. 1 



+ 5. 8 



,-5.7 



-12, 



-13. € 



-14. 8 



-11. 4> 



-13. 2 



-6. 3 



I 



+ 13. 3/ 



+ 3. 1 



10, 



-10. 4 



-13, 



-0. 6 



'-3, 



-16. 4: 



-19 



-IJ 



Thirteenth 
census, II, 
442-467. 



ILLINOIS 



1890-1900 ^-9.3 
Percentage of change in 
the unincorporated popul- 
ation +7.7 



The state, 
-1.6 




Thirteenth 
census, il, 
442-467. 



ILLINOIS 




IP 



LltitiAHY 



SS4 

ILLINOIS 




UtiHAHY 



APPENDICES 



r 



APPENDIX I. 

The following ta'ole auniniarises for the United States (exclu- 
aive of outlying posseasione) the occupational atatistlcs with 
e special reference to agricultural pursuits. 



Number of Per- 



3U3 



Total 



Number of 

Persons Total 

sons (of class (as indica- Popula- 

indicated) in ted) in tion Oc- 



Year Population all pursuits. Agriculture cupied 



Percentage of 

:; cupied 
Popula- 
tion in 
Agriculture 



1910 


91,973,356 


(b) 


38,167,336 


12,373,159 


41 


.5 


33 


.4 


19 OC 


75,994,575 


(b) 


Xi9 , w73, c>33 


10,368,138 


38 


.3 


35 


.3 


1890 


62,947,714 


(s) 


22,735,361 


8,463,365 


36 


.1 


37 


.3 


1880 


50,155,783 


(b) 


17,392,099 


7,569,432 


34 


.7 


44 


.1 


1870 


33,558,371 


(b) 


12,505,923 


5 ,932 , 335 


32 


.4 


47 


.4 


1830 


31,443,321 


(ci) 


8,387,043 


3,343,328 


26 


.4 


40 


.4 


1850 


23,191,876 


(d) 


5,371,876 


2,406,731 


23 


.3 


44 


.8 


1840 


17,069,453 


( 6 ) 


4,798,359 


3,719,951 


21 


.8 


77 


.5 


1820 


9,538,453 


(e ) 


2,490,770 


2,068,958 


25 


.8 


83 


.0 



(a) Exclusive of lumberman, raftsmen, -roodchoppers, apiarists, 
fishermen, oystermen, foresters, O'rvners and managers of log and 
timber camps, and those engaged in other agricultural and animal 
husbandry pursuits, so far as separately re_orted. 

(b) Males and females over ten years of age. 

(c) Free males and females over fifteen years of age. 

(d) Free males over fifteen years of age. 

(e) Free and slave males and females of all ages. 

Authority: United States Census reports as follows: 

1910: Thirteenth, I, 30-31, and lY, 91 and 97. 
1900, 1890, 1380 and 1870: Tv;elfth, Occupations, Introduction, 
1 (f ollcving xlix); also 
1900: Tvrelfth, Occup:-,ticns , 124. 

1890: Eleventh, Part II, Population, 304 and 314. 
1880: Tenth, Population, 777 and 793. 

1870: Ninth, Population and Social Statistics, 704 and 731. 
1830 and 1850: Twelfth, Occupations, Introduction, liii: also 

1850: Eighth, Population, 104, 105 and 580. 

1850: Seventh, Ixx-lxxix, -nx 727. 

1850 a,nd 1320: T'.velfth, Occupations, Introduction, xxx; also 

1840: Sixth, 395 and 475. 
-_^aaa:.,rcurt,xw>^Shi^ 40 ^ „— 



?>?>7. 

In 18&0 and 1840 persons, free and slave, of all e.c^ea were 
envjnerated. In 1850 and 1860 slaves -^ere excluded from the occu- 
pation data, and, of course, did not acpear as such, in the rei-ortb 
follov/ing the Civil war. The lower age limit was fifteen in 1850 
and 1860. Females '.vere not included in 1650. Beginning with 1370 
all males and females over ten years of age have been included in 
the occupation inquiry. All comparisons between data before 1880 
must, therefore, be made g-uardedly. 

The percentage of population engaged in the various pursuits 
in 1830 and 1840 was considerably less than in 1870, though the 
entire population appears to have been included in the occupation 
at all three dates. The coming of women into American industrial 
life may account, in part, for the larger figures prevailing from 
1870 to the present time. From 1870 to 1910 the percentage of 
popula-^ion that was "occupied" rose from 33.4 to 41.5. 

Since slavery was largely confined to the agricultural indus- 
try, leavi-ng the slaves ©u-t of consideration in the reports for 
1850 and 1860 must have reduced the agricultural data for those 
dates. This doubtless accoinits for the 3tri^4;ing smallness of the 
percentages of occupied persons v^ho were in agriculture in 1850 and 
1860 when compared v/ith the percentages for 1830 and 1840. There 
is no doubt, hcvever, that the country was making rapid strides in 
commerce, manufacturing and other non-agricultural lines during the 
period, 1840 to 1870. This is attested by the fact that in 1870, 
even after the agricultural expansion which had tekn place outside 
the Cotton belt during the sixties, the percentage of "occupied" 
agric^ulture which was in agriculture was 47.4. This was over 20 



228. 

points lower than in 1840, the last preceding; date at -.Thich practi- 
cally the entire population was included in the occupation inquiry. 

From 1870 to 1910 the prominence of the agriculturally occu- 
pied population declined by positive and rapid steps. In 1910 
those enga^.ed in agriculture constituted 33.4 per cent of the total 
number gainfully occupied, and 13.4 per cent of the total population. 
In 1830 the percentages v;ere 33.0 and 31.4, respectively. 

It v/ould seem, therefore, that a larger and larger proportion 
of the people have gene into the various employments, but that agri- 
culture has dropped more or less precipitately from its former 
relative prominence as a field of emplojmient. 



APPFKDIX II, 

Definitions. - "^o assist in seouring cornpzira'bili ty for its 
statistics of at:;riv;ulture , the Bureau of the Census provided the 
enumerators with certain definitions and instructions, the more 
important of which were essentially as given below. 

Farm. - A "farm" for census purp'Cses is all the land •.vhich 
is directly farmed by one person managing and conducting agricul- 
tural operation, either by his ov;n labor alone or v/ith the assis- 
tance of members of his household or hired employees. The term 
"agricultural operations" is used as a general temi referring to 
the r;ork of growing crops, producing other agricultural products, 
and raising animals, fowls, and bees. A "farm" as thus defined 
may consist of a single tract of land, or of a number of separate 
and jTistinct tracts, and these several tracts may be held under 
different tenures, as v;here one tract is o-med. by the farmer and 
another tract is hired by him. Further, when a landovyner has one 
or more tenants, renters, croppers, or managers, the land operated 
by each is consiclered a "farm". 

In applying the foregoing definition of a "farm" for census 
purposes, enumerators were instructed to report as a "farm" any 
tract of three or more acres used for agricultural purposes, and 
also any tract containing less than three acres which produced at 
lea.st "^250 worth of farm products in the year 1909. 

Farmer. - A "farmer" or "farm operator", according to the 
census definition, is a person vrho directs the operations of a farm 
Hence ovmexB of farms v'ho do not themselves direct the farm opera- 
tions are not rei:orted as "farmers". Farmers c,re divided by the 



Dureau of the Census into three general classea a30ording to the 
character of their tenure, namely, or.Tiers, tenants, and managers. 

Far m owne rs include (1) farmers operating their ov/n land 
only, and (3) those operating both their ovm land and some land 
hired from others. The latter are sometimes referred to in the 
census reports as "part ovmers", the term "owners" being then re- 
.=;tricted to those 0"'ning all their land. 

Fa.rm tenants are farmers who, as tenants, renters, or crop- 
pers, operate hired land only. They were reported in 1910 in 
three classes: (1) Share tenants - those who pay a certain share of 
the products, as one-half, one-third, or one-quarter; (2) share- 
cash tena nts - those v/ho pay a share of the products for part of 
the land rented "oy them and cash for part; and (3) cash tenants - 
those •vho pay a cash rental or a stated amount of labor or product^ 
such as '""7, 10 bushels of v/heat, or 100 pounds of seed cotton per 

Co C X 3 4 

-.Ianap:ers are farmers ".vho are conducting farm operations for 
the o-.vner for wages or a salary. 

Farm land . - Farm la-nd is divided into (1) improved land, 
(3) woodland, and (3) all other unimproved land. The same classi- 
fication was followed in 1380. At former censuses, except that 
of 1380, farm land was divided into improved land and unimproved 
l3.nd, woodland being included v;ith unimproved land. Improved land 
includes all land regularly tilled or mowed, land pastured and 
cropped in rotation, land lying fallow, land in gardens; orchards, 
vineyards, and nurseries, and land occupied by farm buildings. 



'"ood l and includes all land covered with natur::il or pla.nted forest 
trees, which produce, or later may produce, firewood or other forest 
products. All othe r unimp roved land includes brush land, rough or 
stony la,nd, swamp land, and any other land which is not improved or 
in forest. The Census classification of farm land as "improved 
land", "woodland", and "other unimproved land" is one not always 
easy for the farmers or enumerators to make, and the statistics 
therefore must "be considered at best only a close approximation. 



APPENDIX III 

In 1900 there were 1,060,547 persons (353,364 males and 
307,383 females) in agriculture, exclusive of wood- choppers , lum- 
bermen or raftsmen under 16 years of age. In 1890 the correspond- 
ing number was approximately 323,800 (243,798 males, according to 
1900, Ag. Ixxviii, and 80,000 females, the number given in 1890, 
Pop., 362, being diminished by the same percentage as in the case 
of the number of males. According to the rate of increase from 
1890 to 1900 of those persons in agriculture over 16 years of age 
(males, 11.9, and females, 30.3 per cent) there should have been 
916,800 persons (757,777 males and 159,080 females) in agriculture 
in 1890 under 16 years of age. To assign this number for 1890, 
it is necessary to increase the number actually reported for that 
date by 594,000. 

For 1890, therefore, the number of persons employed in 
agriculture is set at 9,057,365, instead of 8,463,365 as would be 
the case without the correction. 

The data for 1880 have been corrected for the same error, 
by adding a number which represents the same percentage of increase 
as that by which the uncorrected figures for 1890 exceed the un- 
corrected figures for 1880. Thus, the figures for 1880 are made 
to stand 8,183,732 instead of 7,669,432. 









233. 




APPTTUDT y 
i\ r Jr vi u 1. j\ 


TV 

1. V 




Domestic animal a 


1910 


1880 


1850 


Head of 








Cattle - Total 


2,440,577 


2,384,322 


912,036 


Dairy or milch cows 


1,050,323 


865,913 


294,671 


Horses 


1,452,887 


1,033,082 


267,653 


Mules, asses & burros 


150,395 


123,278 


10,573 


Swine 


4,686,332 


5,170,236 


1,915,907 






1 037 073 


894 043 


Productions 








Pounds of 








Butter 


46,609,992 


53,657,943 


12,525,543 


Cheese 


81,918 


1,035,069 


1,278,225 


Maple sugar 


5, 336 


80,193 


348,904 


Tobacco 


1,029,316 


3,935,825 


841,394 


Wool 


4,971,380 


6,093,066 


2,150,113 


Bushels of 










12 166 091 


10 36«5 707 


2 "^14 861 


United States census 
Thirteenth VI, 


I reports: 

417-446; and Tenth, Agriculture, 5-24. 



APPENDIX V. 



Data on land in farms of part ormers in Illinola, 1910, 
privately supplied by the United States Census bureau. 



County 


Total 
( acre s ) 


rtepor xeo. 
as ovmed 
(acre 3 ) 


rtepor xecL 
as rented 

f O >^ A \ 

^,acre3 y 


iJ O T/ 

rerortec 

a. G r c 3 


Illinois 


b , r o , lo3 


, yby , odo 


O Al A ^ A P 


1 r 'r , OUU 


ACLams 


y 1 , olU 


Oo , -r oy 


-ZC CI o 

Ob , oxo 


M , t OO 


Alexander 


4 , yi4 


O ^ A 1 

6 , r 4o 


1 , Ol4 


OO f 


Donci 


53 , Ool 


3o, slU 


TO C A C 

lo , oUo 


obo 




lid , Ull 


O , r r r 


O , f lo 


Om» 


Brown 




OA isir\ 

dU , O f U 


lo , r 'Jb 


y f o 


Jsureau 




Of, dc4 


"7 "7 "7 C A 
OO , r OU 


1 , y 4ry 


ua j.noun 




lo, boy 


o , I4y 


1 , ooft 


oarroil 


11; 








Cass 


Od) , idy f 


T '5 'JOG 


1 , 4 f o 


T A OA 


onanipaign 


loo , Ot)U 


pro A OC 

0(0 , 4£j r 


o4 , iooy 


O 1 / /I 
<5 , 144 


Chri stian 




rzc C AQ 

ob , buy 


o4 , o r U 


1 , >j4y 


Clark 


f iQ , 144 


OO , oyu 


Ol , 04& 


O AT O 
a , 41o 


Clay 


65,384 


38,829 


25,554 


1,021 


Clinton 


81,179 


39 , 586 


20,797 


796 


Coles 


48,794 


33,852 


22,945 


1,997 


Cook 


38,709 


14,880 


19,378 


2 , 353 


Crawford 


58,471 


29,392 


25,199 


1,380 



1. Estimated data for Carroll, Lee and 'lassac counties, 
the ratio of the data for the three counties to those for 
the other ninety-nine being the same in each column as 
the ratio of acres in farms for the two groups of counties: 

153,431 83,239 86,438 4,756 



Data on land in farms of part ovmers in Illinois, 1910, 
privately supplied by the United States Census bureau. 



County 


Total 

(acres ) 


Reported 
as ov/ned 
(acres ) 


Reported 
as rented 
(acres } 


Not 
reporte 
(acres 


Illinois^ 


5,578,153 


2,989,585 


2,414,448 


174, 300 


Cumberland 


66,475 


35,710 


29,626 


1,139 


Dekalb 


34,297 


13,403 


15,108 


786 


De-.;itt 


39,428 


17 .239 


20,322 


1,867 


Douglas 


45,497 


21,916 


22,465 


1,116 


Dupage 


5,443 


1,998 


2,178 


1,237 


Edgar 


81,610 


37,009 


42,020 


2,581 


Ed'vvarda 


57,598 


35,311 


21,477 


810 


Effingham 


75,911 


49,115 


26,158 


638 


Fayette 


124,743 


72,197 


50,644 


1,902 


Ford 


33,267 


16,312 


16,897 


158 


Franklin 


51,373 


29,649 


20,414 


1,809 


Fulton 


62,738 


32,883 


26,732 


3,123 


Gallatin 


39,850 


22,158 


16,974 


727 


Greene 


64,898 


33,581 


28,002 


3,315 


Grundy 


35,156 


19,082 


16,074 




Hamilton 


60,632 


38,384 


21,721 


517 


Hancock 


98,882 


54,214 


43,582 


1,086 



1. Estimated data for Carroll, Lee and Massac counties, 
the ratio of the data for the three counties to those for 
the other ninety-nine being the same in each column as 
the ratio of acres in farms for the two groups of countie 

153,431 82,239 66,436 4,756 



Data on land in farms of part o^vners In Illinoia, 1910, 
privately suprlied by the United States Census bureau. 



County 


Total 
(acres ) 


Reported 
as ov/ned 
(acres) 


Reported 
as rented 
(acres ) 


Hot 
rer orted 
(acres ) 


Illinois-'- 


5, 578,lo3 


2,339 , o85 


/-^ A ^ A A A ^ 

0,414,448 


1 ?4, c500 


hardin 


6,658 


4, 462 


1 ,933 


r\ r\ 

263 


Henderson 


36, 357 


17 , 817 


lb , 386 


2 , 154 


Henry 


57 , 255 


30,c531 


26 , 102 


33^3 


Iroquois 


99 , IbB 


47 ,901 


50 , <5l9 


1 , 048 


Jaokson 


60,793 


35, 503 


24 ,657 


""y rj 

633 


Jasper 


102,410 


oO, r'7i5 


37 J 904 


3, 733 


Jefferson 


77,419 


49,680 


26, 359 


1 , 370 


Jersey 


47 ,089 


;35, 353 


20 , 285 


1 , 411 


Jo Davies 


29,157 


17 ; 817 


11 ,055 


^ 


Johnson 


28 , 548 


18 , 737 


9,034 


747 


Kane 


T ^ WOW 

11 ,727 


6 , 242 


4,545 


340 


Kankakee 


56,853 


32 , 495 


30,8ol 


3, o05 


Kenaall 


16, o73 


8 ,8^8 


7 , 3o5 




Knox 


66,184 


33,927 


30 , 606 


1,551 


Lake 


28,259 


14,700 


11,956 


1,583 


Lasalle 


88,334 


42,203 


41,205 


4,926 


Lawrence 


42,464 


20,546 


19 , 540 


2,378 


1. Estimated 


data for 


Carroll, Lee 


and Massac 


counties, 



the ratio of the data for the three counties to those for 

the other ninety-nine being the same in each coli-unn as 

the ratio of acres in farms for the two groups of counties: 

153,431 82,239 66,436 4,756 



> 



Data on land in farma of part ovmers in Illinoia, 1910, 
privy.tely supplied by the United States Census bureau. 



County 


Total 
(acres ) 


Reported 
as ovoied 
(acres ) 


Reported 
as rented 
(acres } 


Not 

rei orte( 
\ acres 


Ij-xinois-i- 


5, 578,153 


3,989, o85 


3,414,448 


174, JOO 


Lee 


(1) 


(1) 


(1) 


(1) 


Livingston 


98,530 


49,511 


47 , 448 


1 , 571 


Logan 


43, 544 


21,037 


31,o86 


631 


McDonough 


58,656 


39 ,921 


38 , 375 


r* f\ 

3bO 


MoHenry 


14,866 


8 , 345 


5,64b 


0\ r" 

375 


McLean 


110 ,444 


50,997 


54 , 858 


4, o89 


Macon 


55,763 


^56 , 9 4 


37 ,800 


1 , o9 


Macoupin 


100,694 


56,417 


43,447 


1 , 330 


Madison 


69, 317 


4a., 081 


36,817 


1 , 419 


Marion 


94,055 


56,032 


34,70o 


3, 317 


Marshall 


39 , 311 


20,878 


17 , 334 


1,099 


Mason 


48,465 


33,130 


33, 371 


1 ,974 


Massac 


(1) 


(1) 


(1) 


(i) 


Menard 


35,944 


16,588 


18,404 


952 


Mercer 


39,169 


19,993 


17,939 


1,347 


Monroe 


58,484 


37,494 


15,579 


15,411 


Montgomery 


85,631 


48,881 


35,308 


1,443 



1. Estimated data for Carroll, Lee and Massac counties, 
the ratio of the data for the three counties to those for 
the other ninety-nine being the same in each column as 
the ratio of acres in farms for the two groups of counties 

153,431 83,339 66,436 4,756 



Data on land in farms of part owners in Illinois, 1910, 
privately supplied by the United States Census bureau. 

Reported Reported Hot 
Total as ovmed as rented reiiorted 
County (acres) (acres) (acres) (acres) 



Illinois^ 




5,578,133 2,^ 


?89, 385 


2,414,448 


174, 300 


Ivlorgan 




73,905 


36,133 


35, 770 


2 , 'j02 


Aioultrie 




41 , 297 


19 , 358 


21,469 


470 


Ogle 




52,248 


26,771 


23, 338 


2 , 139 


Peoria 




60, 351 


30,782 


27 ,814 


1,755 


Perry 




48,425 


28 , 44o 


18 , 402 


T [TOO 

1 , 578 


Piatt 




39 , 223 


18,670 


20 , o53 




Pike 




80,860 


38,223 


37 , 458 


5 , ;:]09 


Pope 




24,070 


lo,271 




r 1 r 


Pulaski 




16,896 


8 , 7ol 


7,024 


T T /I T 
1 , 141 


Putnani 




16,281 


7 , 628 


7 , 818 




Randolph 




63, ol9 


36,202 


35,410 


1 ,907 


Richland 




57,004 


33,440 


22,241 


1,323 


Rock Island 


26,426 


14,338 


11,517 


571 


St. Clair 




57,528 


32,8S8 


24,122 


518 


Saline 




44,347 


27,597 


14,494 


2,256 


Sangamon 




103,865 


49,839 


51,734 


2,292 


Schuyler 




52,267 


29,896 


19,428 


2,943 


1. Estimated data for Carroll, Lee 
the ratio of the data for the three 
the other ninety-nine being the same 
the ratio of acres in farms for the 


and Massac counti 
counties to those 

in each colujnn as 
two groups of coun 






153,431 


82,239 


66,436 


4,756 



Data on land in farms of part owners in Illinois, 1910, 
privately supplied by the United States Census bureau. 



County 


Total 
(acres ) 


Reported 
as O'vned 
(acres) 


nspoi xecL 
as rented 

(acres ) 


il O T; 

reporte 
(acres 


Illinois-'- 


5,578,13o 


2 , 989 , 385 


O A A A ^ Q 

;i , 414 , 44o 


1 0/1 rjAA 

1 r 4 , oUu 


Scott 


33, o86 


18 , 3o2 


A O O K 
14 , ddO 


1 , loy 


Shelby 


99 , 814 


51 , S37 


A A T'ZO 

44 , ooa 


o , obb 


Stark 


27 , 14-1 


14 , 755 


"1 A OAT 

10 , yol 


T /or 

1 , 4 r b 


Stephenson 


39 , 513 


<d3, boy 


T C COO 
lb , b;50 




Tazewell 


d7 , odb 


"7 A TOO 

oO , loc- 


OC OO K 

Jb , csy b 


Ov^y 


Union 


ob , 1 ry 


OO 'TAG 
£j<d , OOO 


1 o , r 4 


r yy 


Vermilion 


y i , loo 




'±y , u&y . 


1 , y » f 


V'aoash 


<54 , Ol r 


TO T OC 
1;5 , l<db 


11 , 4 r 4 


yi f 


Warren 


ol , oyy 


"7 A / T 'T 

oO , 41o 


OQ p. A O 

(oy , b4<j 


1 , 0'*4 


Washington 


by , O04 


A A OO A 

44 , oo4 


^o , b f b 


n A / / 
1 , u44 


Wayne 


104 , bib 


bb , f yb 


Ob , OO f 


o , loo 


i.-hi te 


oO ,034 


OO OO T 

ijy , ,d r o 


OA A OO 

io4 , 4^o 


o , ooo 


Whiteside 


OO , t)oy 


1 r , U4 r 


-| C OOI 

lb , <3 f 1 


1 , ocl 


^ill 


71,139 


36,025 


32,774 


2,340 


rilliamson 


39,161 


23 , 21t? 


15,120 


823 


Winnebago 


25,777 


12,118 


11,274 


2,385 


Woodford 


47,258 


24,266 


22,716 


276 


1. Estimated data for Carroll, Lee 
the ratio of the data for the three 
the other ninety-nine being the same 
the ratio of acres in farms for the 


and "as sac counti 
counties to those 

in each column as 
two groups of coun 




153,^-31 


82,239 


66,436 


4,756 



?40 

APPENDIX VI. 

Data on "Unincorporated" Population of Illinois Counties, 

1910, 1900 and 1890. 

Nuin'o^r of InhalDi tants Percentage of Change 

D-velling Outside of in Unincorporated 

County Incorporated Places Population 





1910 


1900 


1890 


1900- 
1910 


1890- 

1300 


1890- 
1910 


Illinois 


1,518,334 






X , D OO ; 


PI R 


-5.7 


-1.3 


-7.3 


Adanis 


33,179 






PR 




-13.4 


-3.0 


-14,1 


Alexander 


7,076 


D . 




a. 
O . 


P "^Q 


+10.6 


+3.6 


+13.4 


Bond 


9,978 


JLsJ , 


RO P 


X X . 


'^7Q 

O r v3 


-5.8 


-6.9 


-13.3 


Boone 


7,369 


O , 




7 


ooo 


-8.3 


+4,7 


- 3.9 


Bro^^m 


7,436 


o 
o , 


) Oc3 f 


q 


PRR 


-13.5 


-7.1 


-19.8 


Bureau 


17,584 


1 Q 


) 1 -DO 


1 Q 

X v7 


1 OO 


-11.0 


-.13 


-11.1 


Calhoun 


6,533 


7 

f , 






, cJ ftX 


-8.7 


+3,1 


-5.9 


Carroll 


9,133 


1 


> UOrr 


xv , 


, oox 


-9.4 


-5.6 


-14.5 


Cass 


7,336 


Q 
o 


1 QP 


7 




-11.3 


+4.7 


-7.1 


Champaign 


31,847 


PR 


PQ1 


PR 


RP7 


-13.6 


-4.9 


-17,8 


Christian 


16,383 


1 7 
J. f 


, C7 O O 


xo 


Q7R 


-7.3 


-5.3 


-13.1 


Clark 


16,195 


18 


,383 


17. 


,573 


-11,4 


+4.0 


-7,8 


Clay 


)^ 13,408 


14 


,410 


13. 


,563 


-6.3 


+6.3 


-1.0 


Clinton 


13,%13 


11 


,941 


13 


,517 


+3.1 


-4.6 


-1,3 


Coles 


14,730 


16 


,647 


17 


,405 


-11.3 


-4.4 


-15.3 


Cook 


73,063 


51 


,510 


73 


440 


+39 .9 


-38.9 


-.53 


Crawford 


17,487 


14. 


,777 


14. 


,041 


+18.3 


+5.3 


+34.5 


Cumberland 


10,717 


13 


,773 


13. 


,745 


-15.1 


+ .33 


-15.9 


Dekaro 


13,603 . 


14 


,533 


14. 


,943 


-6.4 


-3.7 


-9.0 


Dewitt 


9,783 


10. 


,513 


11. 


,545 


-6.9 


-8.9 


-15,3 



2 oi' 



f»41. 



Data on "Unincorporated" Population of Illinois Counties, 

1910, 1900 and 1890. 

Nuiu"b3r of Inhabitants Percenta-je of Change 

D\/elling: Outaide of in Unincori^orated 

County Incorporated Places Population 





1910 


1900 


1890 


lyuu— 
1910 


"1 QQ^ 
J.OC3VJ— 

1900 


1910 


Illinois 


1,518 


364 


1,310. 


,554 


1,536. 


,215 


-5.7 


-1.6 


-7.2 


Douglas 


10; 


,027 


12 


,334 


12 


,290 


-18.7 


+ .4 


-18.4 


Dupage 


13. 


,307 


12. 


,097 


11 


,382 


+1.7 


+6.3 


+3.1 


Edgar 


15, 


,438 


17. 


,987 


18 


,541 


-14.2 


-3,0 


-16.8 


Edwards 


6. 


,290 


7. 


,783 


7 


,417 


-7.3 


-8.5 


-15.2 


Effingham 


11. 


,656 


13 


,456 


14 


,048 


-6.4 


-11.3 


-17.0 


Fayette 


21. 


,106 


22. 


,637 


19 


,475 


-6.8 


+16.2 


+8.4 


Ford 


9. 


,238 


10 


,598 


10 


,957 


-12.9 


-3.3 


-15,7 


Franklin 


16. 


,508 


17 


,430 


15. 


,600 


-5.2 


+11.7 


+5.8 


Fulton 


24 


,141 


26. 


,389 


27 


,360 


-10.2 


-1,4 


-11.4 


Gallatin 


o 


,131 


11. 


,403 


13 


,036 


-19.9 


-12.5 


-29.9 


Greene 


12 


,304 


14. 


,192 


15 


,194 


-13.3 


-6.6 


-19.0 


Grundy 


Q 
O . 




1 n 

J.U 


, oxo 


± J. 


, .'jtJ o 


-13.9 


-6.9 


-19.9 


Hamilton 


15. 


,020 


17 


,313 


16. 


,144 


-13.2 


+7.2 


-7.0 


Hancock 


16. 


,928 


18. 


,305 


19 


,763 


-9.0 


-5.9 


-14.3 


Hardin 


5. 


,437 


6 


,502 


6 


308 


-15,9 


+3.1 


-13.3 


Handerson 


6 


,792 


8. 


,019 


9 


,295 


-15.3 


-13.7 


-26.9 


Henry 


20; 


,231 


20 


,798 


19 


,496 


-2.7 


+6,7 


+3.8 


Iroquois 


21 


,535 


24 


,301 


26 


,239 


-13.2 


-5.4 


-18.0 


Jackson 


14. 


,621 


19 


,597 


18 


,396 


-10.1 


+4.8 


-5,7 


Jefferson 


19 


,730 


31. 


,651 


19. 


,171 


-8.7 


+12.9 


+3,1 



24?>. 



Data on "Unincorporated" Population of Illinois Counties, 

1910, 1900 and 1890. 



County 



Numbc-r of Inhabitants 
D-.velling Outside of 
Incorporated Places 



Percentage of Change 
in Unincorporated 
Population 





1910 


1900 


1890 


1900- 
1910 


1890- 
1900 


1890- 
1910 


Illinois 


1 518 




1 310 


554. 


1,636,215 


-5.7 


-1.6 


-7.2 


Jersey 


7 


800 

1 W W N-/ 


9 


,144 


9,395 


-14.7 


-7.6 


-21.2 


Jo Davie a 


11 


569 


13 


359 


14,727 


-13.4 


-9.3 


-21.4 


Johnson 


11 


4-08 


13 


017 


13,231 


-12.4 


-1.6 


-13.8 


Kane 


17 


7R9 


16 

X w 


796 


15,418 


+5.8 


+8.9 


+15.2 


Kankakee 


IS 


711 


14 

■J* ^ 


344 


15,162 


+14.1 


-3.4 


+10.2 


Kendall 


/-» 

\J 




7 


4-9fi 


8,633 


-3.9 


-13.5 


-19.4 


Knox 


15 


226 


16 

X 


200 


16,586 


-5.0 


-38.6 


-8.2 


Lake 


14 


942 


14 


036 


14,020 


+6.5 


+ .1 


+3.6 


Lasalle 


27 


354 


30 


474. 


30 ; 368 


-3.6 


+ .3 


-8.3 


Lawrence 


13 


. 280 

1 W 


13 


, 389 


11,501 


+9.1 


+5.9 


14.4 


Lee 


15 


,100 


16 


, 785 


16,933 


-10.0 


-1.1 


-11.0 


Livingston 


23 


, 518 


27 


,779 


27,596 


-18.9 


+ .7 


-18.4 


Logan 


13 


,398 


14 


,611 


15,050 


-8.3 


-2.9 


-10.9 


lIcDonough 


13 


,683 


15 


,254 


15,971 


-10.3 


-4.5 


-14.3 


McHenry 


16 


,319 


17 


,020 


17,856 


-4.1 


-4.7 


-3.6 


McLean 


26 


,985 


29 


,517 


31,461 


-8.6 


-6.2 


-14.2 


Macon 


18 


,265 


18 


,535 


17,924 


-1.6 


+3.6 


+1.9 


Macoupin 


22 


,354 


22 


,750 


24,382 


-1.7 


-6.7 


-8.3 


Madison 


35 


,137 


34 


, 232 


25,358 


+3.7 


-4.4 


-.91 


Marion 


15 


,183 


16 


,439 


14,221 


-1.7 


+15.8 


-13.8 



Data on "Unincorporated" Population of Illlnoi3 Counties, 

1910, 1900 and 1890. 



County 



Number of Inhabitants 
D. veiling Outside of 
Incorporated Places 



1910 



1900 



1890 



Percentage of Change 
in Unincorporated 
Population 

1900- 1890- 1390- 

















ly lu 


T QAA 

lyuu 


ly lu 


Illinoi 3 


1 n Q 
1 , olo , 




1 , olU 


, 004 


1 , bob . 


, olo 


C 7 
— . f 


1 G 
— 1 . o 


— f . o 


Marshall 


7 . 


bob 


o 


, ooy 


o 
o 


r: 'J A 
, o rU 


-4 . 


G C 
— b . 


11 A 
-11 . U 


Mason 


y , 


,1/3 


10 , 


, dl«5 


lU 


, oy r 


T A O 
-lU . O 


— 1 . O 


11 Q 
- 11 . O 


lias sac 


( , 


, 3oo 


o 
o . 


, 1 r b 


y 


CO/ 

, Do4 


O O 

— y . y 


— 14t . o 


TP C 

— . b 


Menard 


6 J 


, 839 


7 , 


Pi o o 


o 
O 


O O T 


-lo . y 


-3.4 


1 c o 
-lb . o 


Llercer 


11 . 


, b97 


13 


, y ob 




GOO 

, boo 


-lb , 1 


+y .y 


•7 Q 
- f . O 


Monroe 


8 


443 


10, 


,119 


y 


O OT 

, ool 


T G G 

-lb . b 




1/1 A 

-14 . J 


Montgomery 


15 , 


t5 O O 

, 888 


15 


, 771 


OA 

•iO 


, 1 r4 


1 A I? 


O T A 


01 1. 


Morgan 




, 55b 


15 , 


, o5b 


lb 


•7 ,1 "2 

, r43 


G / 

— b . 4 


- r . 1 


1 "2 1 

-lo . 1 


:,.oultrie 


rs 

8 . 


, 311 


10 , 


, 391 


T A 

10 


,943 


"1 A A 

-13 . b 


G A 

-6 . 


1 1 

-ol . 3 


Og±e 


17 . 


, .o43 


ly i 


, oyb 


ly . 


r- A o 


-11.1 


n A 


1 "2 O 

- 1 o . o 


reoria 






<d4 , 


/IOC 

, 4oO 


tfj4 


C / G 

, o4b 


-11.4 


- . 3 


11 G 

— 11 . o 


Perry 


11 , 




11 


, ooy 


Id 


, 1 ry 


C /I 
— O . 4 


o c 
— o . O 


•7 Q 
— f . O 


Piatt 


9. 


,564 


10. 


,869 


12. 


,498 


-13.0 


-13.0 


-33 . 5 


Pike 


18; 


,191 


21. 


,074 


21. 


,493 


-13.7 


-1.9 


-15.4 


Pope 


o 


,737 


12. 


,003 


12. 


,630 


-18.6 


-5.0 


-32.7 


Pulaski 


8j 


,869 


9. 


,853 


11 


,153 


-10.0 


-11.6 


-30.5 


Putnam 


3. 


533 


3. 


,639 


3. 


,731 


-3.8 


— 4J . O 


-5.0 


Randolph 


IS 


,485 


17 


,019 


17. 


,074 


-3.1 


-.33 


-3.4 


Richland 


9. 


,917 


11. 


,097 


10. 


,358 


-10.6 


+7.3 


-4.3 


Rock Island 


13, 


,385 


14. 


,957 


13. 


,356 


-7.3 


+13.8 


+4.7 



f>44 



Data on "Unincor.. orated" Population of Illinois Counties, 

1910, 1900, and 1890. 

Number of Inhabitants Percentafre of Change 

D'-elling Outside of in Unincorporated 

County Incorporated Places Porulation 





1910 


1900 


1890 


ISOO- 
1910 


1890- 
1900 


1890- 
1910 


Illinoia 


1, '318 


, 334 


1 , 310 


, 554 


1,535 


,215 


-5.7 


-1.5 


-7.2 


St. Clair 


22 


109 


25 


.717 


25 


, 549 


-14.0 


+ .34 


-13.5 


Saline 


16 


896 

1 C-J \t/ \J 


16 


. 397 


16 


,913 


-.6 


-3.0 


-3.6 


Sangamon 


24 


546 

1 N*' ^ W 


37 


,914 


30 


, 535 


-11.7 


-8.3 


-19.3 


Schuyler 


11 


,879 


13. 


,382 


13 


,982 


-11.2 


-4.3 


-15.0 


Scott 


6 


, 309 


6 


,909 


7 


,050 


-8.7 


-2.0 


-10.3 


Shelby 


20 


3^5 


23 


,135 


23 


, 583 


-8.1 


-3.1 


-13.7 


Stark 


6 


, 337 


6_ 


,796 


7 


,037 


-6,9 


-3,8 


-10.5 


Stephenson 


15 


475 


17 


.303 

t W w W 


17 


,988 


-13.9 


-1.0 


-13.9 


TazeTirell 


15 


435 


16 


,974 


17 


, 370 


-8.8 


-2.3 


-10.8 


Union 


15. 


,416 


16 


. 356 


17 


,138 


-5.7 


-4.5 


-10.0 


Vermilion 


29, 


,330 


34. 


, 300 


31 


,835 


-13.6 


+7.7 


-7.0 


Wabash 


7 


024 


7 


,548 


8 


003 


-8.2 


-4.4 


-12.2 


TJarren 


11: 


482 


12. 


,578 


13. 


,046 


-9.5 


-2.8 


-12.1 


Wa3hinc*ton 


13; 


037 


13. 


,881 


14. 


,014 


-5.9 


- .9 


-6.8 


Wayne 


20. 


754 


23. 


159 


21. 


,403 


-10.4 


+8.2 


-3.0 


White 


14, 


,805 


17; 


,707 


19. 


521 


-16.4 


-9.3 


-24.2 


Whiteside 


13, 


055 


17. 


,455 


IS. 


, 213 


-8.0 


+7.7 


-1.0 


Will 


34. 


,945" 


32. 


,338 


25. 


438 


+8.1 


+27.0 


+32.3 


Williamson 


20, 


,500 


19; 


,373 


19. 


,094 


+5.8 


+1.5 


+7 .4 


Winnebago 


14. 


,514 


13. 


,494 


13. 


,450 


+7,6 


+ ,3 


+7.9 


Woodford 


11. 


570 


12. 


,557 


13. 


,096 


-7.9 


-4.1 


-11.7 



245. 



APPENDIX VII 
Vita 

The writer waa born at Moweaqua, Illinois, 
September 3, 1890. His preparatory work was done in 
the Moweaqua High School. From 1907 to 1911 he 
attended Illinois T7e3leyan University at Bloomington, 
Illinois, taking the A.B. degree. From 1911 to 1915 
he did graduate work in the University of Illinois, 
taking the A.M. degree in 1913, holding a research 
assistantship in economic history, 1912-1913, a half- 
time instructorship in economics in 1913-1914, and a 
fellowship in economics in 1914-1915. The summer of 
1914 was spent in Germany in Berlin University in an 
attempt to fulfill an appointment to a traveling fellow- 
ship from the University of Illinois for 1914-1915. 

Publications: An Analysis of Rural Banking 
Conditions in Illinois, Chicago, Illinois Bankers 
Association, 1913, 8vo., 38 pages. 



S46. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



t 



247 



Abbreviations. 



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N. A. R. Worth American Review, Boston and New York. 



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Coulter, J. 

Dahlmge, C. 
Desmond, A. 

Dunn, J. P. 



857 



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I