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L. 1,. LAXUSTKOTH. AT 70, 




L. L. LAXGSTROTII AT W). 



. 1-1 ■•-I /'■'- 



LANGSTROTH 



Hive and Honey Bee 

Revised, Enlarged and Completed by 

CHAS. DADANT & SON. 



'n^K,^ 




EIGHTH EDITION OF THE REVISIOX. 



PUBLISHED BY DADANT & SONS, 

HAMILTON, HANCOCK COUNTY, ILLINOIS, U.S.A. 

1905. 






V • 



I .1 ... I ■ 1 



I I 



744061 

t T.. .■-^ - • N"AT-- ^S 



COPYRIGHTED 1888, BY 

CHAS. DADANT & SON, 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



„ V « ••• - 

. V . 



LUTZ & STAHL 

Printers and Binders, 

Keokuk, Iowa. 




PREFACE. 



Bt his inyention of the most practical movable- frame 
hive, and by his book, "The Hive and Honey-Bee* % — a 
book as attractive as a novel, — Mr. Langstroth has laid 
the foundation of American Apiculture, whose methods 
and implements have become popular throughout the world. 

The re- writing of the "Hive and Honey-Bee" was en- 
trusted to us, in 1885, by Mr. Langstroth, as his feeble 
health rendered him unable to attend to it since its last re- 
vision in 1859. 

In this difTicult work, which demanded a review of the 
progress accomplished in the past thirty years, we have had 
to introduce more new matter than we had anticipated. 
This will probably please the Apiarists who have already 

• - # - ^ 

read former editions, and who have been waitihg for this 
long-promised revision. Yet, we have retained as much as 
possible of Mr. Langstroth's writings, and all who ^'.r':; con- 
versant with his style will readily recognize bis' filasterly 
pen. 

Our thanks are due to Mr. C. F. Muth, of Cincinnati, tt)r 
the enthusiastic interest which he has taken in this book, 
and to the able teacher and writer, Miss Favard, of Keokuk, 
for her criticism of the literary part of the work. 

As bee-keeping, like all other sciences, is but an accumu- 
lation of former discoveries, we have borrowed much from 
all sides, but we have tried to give due credit to all. Some 
of the engravings given are not original with the works 




u 



PREFACE. 



from which we take them. Those of Girard, for instance, 
are reduced copies of the beautiful chromos of Clerici, after 
the microscopic studies of Count G. Barbo, of Milan. Text- 
books are never entirely free from compilations of this kind. 
Having spared neither time nor expense to produce a 
book worth}* of the father of American Apiculture, we hope 
that our work will be favorably received and will prove of 
•ome use in helping progress. 



THE REVISERS 



Dbckmbkr, 1888 






• • 



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• • •• 

• • • 

• •• • 



• • • • 

•• • 

• • • 






•c' 






• • • • • 

a • • • • 
,. . ••• •• 



• . 




BIOGRAPHY OF L L LANGSTROTH. 



Lorenzo Lobraik Lanqstroth, the " father of American 
Apiculture/* was bom in the city of Philadelphia, December 
25, 1810. He early showed unusual interest in insect life. 
His parents were intelligent and in comfortable circum- 
stances, but they were not pleased to see him '' waste so 
much time " in digging holes in the gravel walks, filling them 
with crumbs of bread and dead flies, to watch the curious 
habits of the ants. No books of any kind on natural history 
were put into his hands, but, on the contrary, much was said 
to discourage his *' strange notions." Still he persisted in 
his observations, and gave to them much of the time that 
his playmates spent in sport. 

In 1827, he entered Yale College, graduating in 1831. 
His father's means having failed, he supported himself by 
teaching, while pursuing his theological studies. After serv- 
ing as mathematical tutor in Yale College for nearly two 
years, he was ordained Pastor of a Congregational church 
in Andover, Massachusetts, in May, 1836, and was married 
in August of that yearto Miss A. M. Tucker of New Haven. 

Strange to say, notwithstanding his passion in early life 
for studying the habits- of insects, he took no interest in 
such pursuits during his college life. In 1837, the sight of 
a glass vessel filled with beautiful comb hone}-, on the table 
of a friend, led him to visit the attic where the bees were 
kept. This revived all his enthusiasm, and before he went 
home be purchased two colonies of bees in old box hives. 

Tfl 




IT BIOORAPHT or L. L. LAMOaTROTH. 

The onl; Uterar; knowledge which he then had of bee-culture 
was gleaned from the Latin writings of Virgil, and from ■ 
modern writer, " who waa somewhat skeptical as to the exist- 
ence of a queen-bee." 

In 1839, Hr. Langstroth removed to Greenfield, Massachu- 
setta. His health was much impaired, and be had resigned 
his pastorate. Increasing very gradually the number of his 
colonies, he sought information on all sides. The "Let- 
ters of Huber" and the work of Dr. Bev&n on the honey 
bee (London, 1838), fell into his bands and gave him an 
introduction to the vast literature of bee-keeping. 

In 1848, having removed to Philadelphia, Mr. Langstroth, 
with the help of his wife, began to experiment with hives of 
different forms, but made no special improvements in them 
until 1851, when he devised the movable frame hive, used at 
the present day in preference to all others. This is re- 
corded In his journal, under the date of October 30, 1851, 
with the following remarks: " The use of these frames will, 
I am persuaded, give a new impetus to the easy and profit- 
able management of bees." 

This invention, which gave him perfect control over all 
the combs of the hive, enabled him afterwards to make 
many remarks and incidental discoveries, the most of which 
he recorded in his book, on the habits and the oatural his- 
tory of the honey-bee. The &rBt edition of the work was 
pul'lisbed in 1852. and in its preparation he was greatly 
assisted by his Bi-comph-^lii'l wife. A rcvii-ed edition waa 
published in 1k57. Htn'iioi m is.'il), ainl lnr<;c editions, 
without further reviuiuua, Unw BinuL' bt't;ii published. 

In January. 18.^2. Mr. Lanir'trolh applic<l for a patent on 
his invention. Tlii* wa^* Kranu'cl him ; Imt lie was deprived 
of ell the pnilitH ■)f tlii.. . i ndle di^n-i^vfrv, by infringe- 
ments and mi lut-i '"■■'■ • I-, ivliiuli irtijioverished him 
and gave him u-< • ■ . (Iii);i;:;h nn doubt remains 
ROW In the n [.) tin,' ori;;inaIity and prior- 
ity of hi* <li-' 




BIOQRAPHT or L. L. LAK08TR0TH. T 

Prom the very beginning, his hive was adopted by such 
men as Quinby, Grimm and others, while the inventions of 
Mann and Debeauvoys are now boried in oblivion. 

Removing to Oxford, Ohio, in 1858, Mr. Langstroth, with 
the help of his son, engaged in the propagation of the 
Italian bee. From his large apiary he sold in one season 
$2,000 worth of Italian queens. This amount looks small 
at the present stage of bee-keeping, but it was enormous at 
a time when so few people were interested in it. 

The death of his only son, and repeated attacks of a 
serious head trouble, together with physical infirmities 
caused b}- a railroad accident, compelled Mr. Langstroth to 
abandou extensive bee-culture in 1874. But wlien his health 
Ijermitted, his ideas were always turned toward iniprove- 
-ments in bee-culture. On the 19th of August, 181)5, he 
wrote us, asking us to try the feeding of bees with malted 
milk, to induce the rearing of brood. lie had also written 
to others on the same subject. On the lIHh of Septeinl>er 
he wrote in the American Bee Journal, that, after compar- 
ative experiments he had found that a thirteen eomb Lang- 
stroth hive gave more honey than the ordinary ten frame 
hive, thus showing that his mind was at all times oceii})ied 
with bees. 

Mr. Langstroth died October 6th, l«9o, at Dayton, Ohio, 
while delivering a sermon. He was nearlv eiirlitv-live years 
ohl. His name is now **venerated'' bv American ])ee- 
keepers, who are aware of the great debt due him by the 
fraternity. He is to them what Dzierzon* is to (merman 
Apiarists. A master whose teachings will be retaine<l for 
ages. 

Mr. Langstroth was an eminent scholar. Ilis ])ee lil>rary 
was one of the most extensive in the world. He learned 
French without a teacher, simply through his knowledge of 

* Pronounee T$«erU(me, 




TI BIOQBAPBT OF L. L. LANOSTROTH. 

Latin, tor the sole purpoae of reading tlie many valuable 
worka on bees iti the French language. He was a pleasant 
and eloquent speaker. Ilig writings are praise<l by all, and 
we can not close his biography better than by quoting an 
able writer, who calle<I him the "Huber of America." 




CHARLES DAPA.VT AT 70. 




BIOGRAPHY OF CHARLES DADANT. 

Mr. Charles Dadant was born May 22y 1817, at Vaux-Sous- 
Aubigny, in the golden hills of Biu*gundy, France. After his 
education in the College of Langres, he went into the mercan- 
tile business in that city, but ill-success induced him to remove 
to America. He settled in Hamilton, Illinois, in 1863, and 
found a profitable occupation in bee-culture, which in his hands 
yielded marvelous results. He soon became noted as one of 
the leading apiarists of the world. 

After a few years of trial he made a trip to Italy, in 1873, 
to import the bees of that country to America. Though at first 
unsuccessful, he persisted in his efforts and finally achieved 
g^eat success. He was the first to lay down rules for the safe 
transportation of queen bees across the sea, which is now a 
matter of daily occm*ence. 

Later on, in partnership with his son C. P. Dadant, he un- 
dertook the manufacture of comb foundation which has been 
continued by the firm, together with the management of sev- 
eral large apiaries, run almost exclusively for the production of 
extracted honey. 

Although well versed in the English language which he had 
mastered at the age of forty-six, with the help of a pocket dic- 
tionary, Mr. Dadant was never able to speak it fluently and 
many of the readers of his numerous writings were astonished 
when meeting him to find that he could converse with difficulty. 
His writingps were not confined to American publications, for in 
1870 he began writing for European bee-journals and continued 
to do so until his methods were adopted, especially in Switzer- 
land, France and Italy, where the hive which he recommended 
is now known under his name. For twenty years he was a reg- 
ular contributor to the Revue Internationale D'Api-culture, and 
the result has been that there is probably not another bee-\\Titer 
whose name is so thoroughly known, the world over. 

Mr. Dadant has been made an honorary member of more 
than twenty bee-keepers associations throughout the world and 
his death which occm*ed July 16, 1902, was lamented by every 
bee publication on both continents. 

Mr. Dadant was a congenial man, and a philosopher. He 
retained his cheerfulness of spirit to his last day. 

In addition to his supervision of the re\nsion of this book, 
he was the author of a small treatise on bees, "Petit Cours 
d' Apiculture Pratique." He also published in connection with 
his son a pamphlet on "Extracted honey," 1881, now out of 

E-int. The translation of Langstroth Revised into the French 
anguage was also undertaken by their united effort. This 
book has since been re-translated into the Russian language. 




Table of Contents 



BY PARAGRAPHS. 



CHAFncs I— Physiology of the Honey-Bee 

1. QcKSBAL BicMiiRKS. 8. The Honey-bee. S. The Hire. ' 4. The three 
kiade of InhmMtante. 

GnnniAL CHABACfTSBieriGt. —5. The akeleton. 6. The flrame of thel? 
bodiee 7. Hatn. 8. The three seetiODs of the body. 9. Byee. 
!•. Their etr u cHu e. 11. Comperiton. 18. Use of the unell eyee. 
IS. Why to many flneete t 14. Help In flnding their way back. 15, 
18. Colon M gnldea. 17, 18. Color not their ODly gnlde. 19. The 
•oteDBM. SO. Ovr gratitude to Huber and his serrant Bomens. 21 . His 
WlDi. 88. His ability. 88. His ezperiments on the antenna. 24. Can 
beesperofltTeeoiindat 85. Where is their hearing located ? 26. Where 
sre tbdr smeUing OTgmns located ? 87. The wonders of the microscope. 
88. Nunber of atoms in a pin head. 29. Smelling organs. SO. Mar- 
T^ova power of smell. 81. Smelling blossoms a mile away. S8, SS, 
Bemembxanea. 84. Depriving bees of their aotennas. S5. Cannot lire 
without aateiUMS. 88. Brain of beea. 87. Onr reverence for Swammer- 
dam. 88. The month. 89. The glands. 40. Qneen fed by theprodno- 
of the upper pair. 41. The others are salirary. 42. Mandibles 4S. 
Co m p a red with those of hornets. 44. Other parts of the month. 45. Chin 
•ndtongne. 48. Labial palpi and maxilla. 47. Thetongnelsnot a tnbe. 
48. Afltionof thetongne. 49. Its possible improvement. 50. The thor- 
ax. 51. Lega. 58. Claws and pnlvilll. 5S. How the pnlyilli work. 
84. Uaea of the haixs of the legs. 55 . The notch of the llrst pair. 56 . The 
pin of the aeoond pair. 57. The pinoers of the posterior pair 58 . The 
pollen eomba. 59. Pollen basketa. 69. The wings. 61. Their power and 
speed. 68. Digesting apparatns. 68. Honey sac and stomach month. 
•4. IsthelarralMby theglandst 65,66. Comparison with mammals . 
87. Procees of digestion. 68. Nerrons system. 69. The heart. 70 The 
liuiga or trachea. 71. Their ooivectioa with the flight. 72. Bees unable 
to take wing. 78. Their discharge In flight. 74. Girard on the trachea. 
75. Tha httmming. 78. Langnage of beea. 77. Stahala on this subject. 
78. ThestiBg. 79. Poison sack. 80, 81. Shape of the sting and how it 
woifca. 88. Kot easily withdrawn. 88. Very polished weapon . 84. Loss 
ofthastiag. 85. Can be with<lrawn 86. Bees can live withoat it. 87. 
Hm odor of the poison. 88. The sting can wound after removaL 89. 
When liCl in tha wound. 90. Thanks to the writers. 91. Conelosions ol 
Paakaid. 88. Intelllganoe of some insecta. 

vn 




Vin TABLX or CONTXim. 

Tm Qvin.— U. Bba wbi tallad klD(-bM. 9*. Hat nx JUcw w J by 
Bntlv. M. BwunmanUm. M. Shadoci Mtiomn, *7. Bw IkMod- 
ttj. M lIowtotMtlt. 0»DlMla7im(mlD Spring. IM. DcMTlpllon. 
!•■. Lots of tha bees tor thsli qnnn. 109. lotenatlDg aipariinant. 
1*S. BeprodnotlOD of tb* qnaan. lOl. Qhmd selii. 100. Tliali nambar. 
1*4. An en*dapoiIt»l Intbe qnoaa-oalli bf tha qnamil lOT. Qnaaoi 
(rom woTkaTnsgi. lOS. DiOknnt food. It> molt. lOK. How orphaa 
bsetraaiqneena. 110. DnratloaotiJavalopmeDt. 111. Tlie TliglaqBacB. 
IIS. Hnboron tha .iMtnotloD of thElrnvali. US. Baaa twlp 1b tha 
work. 114. SlTala DOt deatrojad whsa baoa lataad to nranii. IIS. 
Toloa of tha queen. llA. Combat of qneana. 117. Tiro qneaoa la ooa 
hl>e. lis. NmratioaoflharBct. IIB. OlherlniUneM. ISO. Imnag- 
nitlon of theqaean. ISl. TlmaallmprscDBllon, 139. I^btIdb tha hiTa 
and TBtamln);. ISS. Ttaa mating. 124, Sloila IrapragnaUoD fbr lift. 
ISO. QeCtlngridof tha drona organ. 19*. FcrtlUutloain ooufluanwiit. 
IVT. FacnndallonaflhaBgKa. 128. Lddj aarl Slabold on theeontaDta of 
the iparmalbeca. 19S. How tCrtUlutlOQ takaa placa. ISO. Swanimar- 
dam'i obeerratloa*. ISI. HnbenonflDlDg ronngqnecna. 139. Ddar- 
(on'i dlicoveiy. 1S3. Farthenogaaeala. 131, Drone-Ujlngqnecii. 138. 
EiamlnatlDa of herovailM. ISO, Beea trying to riitt qaecDa with drana 
agga. 137. OtherexpcrlmaDti. ISS, Olbcr proolta of parthaDO^^enaala. 
130. ImprsgaatlODof theegga. 140 No Tiilbla dlffercoca belweaa Onna 
and worltareggt. 141. EffBot of delayed fecaadallon. 149. I'n qnnain 
koow the >ai of their sggaT 143. S. Wagner'a tbaory. 144. KMti 
»nlnBt that tbeoi?. 149. Eirect of Iba nmoral of drona oelU. 143. , 
Qnpbni iKjlng woTkareggs In drooecella. 147. Boot'a aiperlmaDt. 143. 
Bonleani eipertment. 143. DUHcnlly of raising droneaoarly la Spilag. 
100. Drones In worker Mils ISl. Hefil^-eratla; qneena. 139. Qneao 
begins to Uf. 133. Row aba laya. lol Brooding waaons. I3S. Dif- 
fCienoeIn proUBoniM. ISO. Sapemamtirarj ogL,-a. 107. Old qnaen*. 

Tna WoKirn Bail. — lOB. NnmberB Id a hl>s IBB. Thsir ranctlona. 
■«0. DonholTB experiment. ISl . Their Bnt mf;ht. 139 Their Ont 
boney galherlng. 133. Yoang bees bolld comba. lS4.Thay ra»l tba 
brood. lOa.Tbeegn. ISH. The larrx. 167. Casttoxthe akls. ISS. 
Capplngtbe brood. ISO. The nymph, 1 70 The oast-off aklaa . 171. 
Paratlon ofdeTelopmeat. 179. The Dewlj-batfhed bee. 173. Tha flnt 
flight. 174. Shonld not b« mlataken for robben. 170. SsinAl oiniaiia 
not [lareloped 173. Fertile workers. 177 Tbeirproiiablanaa. 178, 
Eaalljdlsi-oTBred. 170. AttwnpUto raiae qneens. INO Remedy. 131. 
Instinct or Iha worker bees. 189. Rborl Ufa. 181. Crippled worfcara. 
ISI.SIgnaofol<lB!». 

Till [iKOHr* — 130 DeaeilpCIon and olHee. 18S. Time of ttaeli ■] 
aace. 187. In aasrota of the qneeaa. 188. Perish In 
ban lu a hive. 100 No newaally forso many. I 
pnTenllni the breedlnx of dronai. isa. Tbelr axpnlsloo 
103. Bythebee-keeper. I»* Rsiaed In worker oolla. lOO.Whjlii, _ 
nallan doea not take place in the hire. IBS la-aod-ln braedlagatlldad. 
107. CompaiattTs table of development of qaeea, worker, anddlMO. 




TABLB OF CONTKMT8. UC 

Chaftkr II.— Baildings of Bees, 

CoxB. — 19ft. The famitnre of the hive. 199. Made of wax. 90O. la 
wax a fit? 901. Formation of wax soalea. 202. Produced mainly by 
yonn^ heea. 208. Old bees can produce It also 204. Produced by digest- 
ing honey. 200. Bees hanging In chains. 206. Root on comb-building. 
207. The first discorerer ? 208. Scales of wax on the bottom of hiyes. 
209. Bees picking up old wax. 210. Solving a problem. 211 . Shape of 
the cells. 212. Marvelous industry. 21S. Natural explanation. 214. 
Cells not horizontal ; thickness of comb . 210. Color of combs . 216. Size 
of cells. 217. True measurement of cells. 218. Intermediate cells. 
919. Economy of material. 220. Wax not made of pollen. 2*21. Pollen 
needed. 222. Chemical composition of honey and wax. 223. Cost of 
eomb. 224. Worker and store cells. 225. Not the same relative quan- 
tity. 226. Not by foreknowled;re. 227. Bees follow their desires. 228. 
Five facts. 229. Preference of builders opposed to the preference of the 
queen. 230. Bees building few store cells. 231. Bailding about one- 
third. 282. Building them here and there. 233. Rebuilding without 
change. 284. Swarms provided with one or two combs. 235. Conclu- 
sion. 

Pbopous. ~286. How obtained. 287. Soils the combs. 238. Used to 
cement the cracks. 989. Gathered mainly when honey is not found. 
240. Hard in winter. 241. Snails inclosed in propolis 242. Remarks. 
248. Superstitions. 244. Uses in Italy. 245. Uses in Russia. 

Chaftkr III«~Food of Bees. 

HoincT. —246. What is honey T 247. Is honey the same as r.ectarT 
948. How nectar is produced. 249. It is more or less watery. 2:i0. Its 
yield Tarles grestly. 901 . Reabsorbed by the plants, if not trathered. 
20*2. In other parts of the plants. 253. Best conditions. 254. Bonnier on 
the nectaries. 255. Honey dew finom plants and trees. 256. t^om 
aphides. 907. How ejected. 258. Season and trees that prolnce it. 
959. Bonnier on the origin of honey dew. 260. Nectar in deep corollas. 
291 . Storing and evaporating. 26 -i. Are the cappings of cells air-tight T 

PoLUtK. — 268. Ita nsea. 264. Indispensable for breeding. 265. Flonr 
instead of pollen. 266. Qathering. 267. Substitutes. 268. Bees use- 
ful in plant impregnation. 269. Help in interbreeding plants. 270. In- 
finenoe of bees upon the fecundation of plants. 

Watbb. — 271. Water is necessary to bees. 272. Uow to provide it. 

278. Experiments of De Lay ens. 
Salt.— 974. Bees are food of salt. 

Chafteb IV.— The Bee-Hives. 

Hivss wim Immotabls Coims. —275. Earthen hives. 276. Brimston- 
ing liees. 977. Catting the oomba. 278. Caps for surplus Section hives 

279. Vertical divisions. 

Rbqui!»itb4 aw A CoMPLkTS HivK. — 280. Twenty -six conditions. 281. 
The moat Indispensable is good mana^^ement. 




Z TABLE OF CONTE19T8. 

MoTABLB CoMB-Hivxs. — 2S2. Usod In Greece more than 100 yean aito. 
2SS. The BuccesB of Dzlerzon. 284 The Hnber hive. 285. Improred in 
America. 286. Suspended firame hives 287. The tnperiority of the 
Langstrotb hire. 288 Modesty of the Inventor. 289. The BerlefiBch 
hive. 290. Both having their partisans 291 . Disadvantages of the Ber- 
lepsch hive. 292 Will yield to the Langstroth. 293. Advantages of th^ 
movable celling. 291 A standard firame hinders progress. 295. Snceees 
of American bce-cultnre. v96. Progress in :{0 years. s£97. GraTeiihoist 
hive. 298. Diversity of sizes 299. The ftramcs used in America. 399. 
Is one better than another? 301. Which is the best shape for frames t 
S02. OI)Jection to two stories in brood chamber. SOS Square frames 
objectionable. 301. Deeper frames more so yet. SOS. Saperiority of 
Langstroth and Qninby frames. 306 Beware of excess. SOT. Experi- 
ments. 308. Namber of frames. 309 Why limit the laying? SIO. 
now many cells are necessary in a good hive? Sll. Comparison of 
frames. 312. Fiuoires cannot lie. 313. Large hives can be redooed. 
314 Excessive swarming. 319. Improving be^. 316. Distance be- 
tween frames. 317. Increased distance preferable. 818. Straight combs. 
319. How secarod. 320. Standard Langstroth frame 321. Stronirer 
top and liottom barn. 322. Uc^^nlarity of oatside niessore. S2S. Wide 
top liarsidctilmental. 321. .Simplicity frame. 329. Tin corners. 326 
Tlie Qui M by frame. 327 Slanting bottom 328. Frames perpendicular 
to the entrance 320 The first Langhtroth hive. 330. The glass dis- 
carded :i:U. The honey board. 332. The bottom board. :133. Ventl- 
tilatloii. :i31. How giveit. 333. Prevents clastering outside S36. 
Ventilation controlled 337. Bee8 propolizin;.: small holes. 338. The 
portico. .i:t0. Kntranco blocks. 340. The hive we prefer. 841. Its 
succ«Hsin Flurope. 342. Encased bottom. .143. Apron. 344. Hovaiile 
bottom board. 345. I)oubl<- thickness of the back 346. Space around 
the frames. 347. Spacin,' wire. 348. Height of entrances. 349. 
Divlnion board. 350 Space nndcr it, and how made. 301. Strip to 
widen the projection of the rabbet. 332. Enamel cloth. SOS Straw 
mat »51. Upper Htory :i35. Caps 336. Painting hives. 307. 
Numb* rill? hi\cM. 338 ISeware of patents. 399. Material for 
hives. :i»o. Circular saws 361 Filing the saws. 362. Boards warp- 
ing. 363 Ch.'iff hives. 364. Ventilation considered a^n. S60 Baes 
ventilatiii.' inside. 366. Pore air indi.-tpensable. 367. Effect of want of 
air 36H. .-nnToi-atlon 369. Combs melting 370. The result. S71. 
Corn'ts of hoiii-y nteltitiK tlrht. 372. Bees our models. 37S. Puraairiu 
r)ur 'l\v«lliii-. »». 

()\'.'> ^-.wsa llivi <.— 374. Ver>' intt'resting. 379. Useful. S79. How im- 
j.rt.v. 1. 377. I'urlor o'.H^'rvlriK hive. 

Ch.m"!! K v.— Hundlln^ Bees. 

37H Tlie hoiioy-i>ee . npable of being tamed S79. Peaceable when ladea 
with honey. .1HO P»ft'N'ay)lo when swarmln?:, 381. When frightened. 
382. The srnokrr.H -how to manajje them. 383. Aplfuge. S84. Car- 
lK>lize<l ph«^«t .is."^. Ma,'net:7in_' l)ee.'<. 386. Bee- \ ell 387. Qiovea. 
88S. Wo(»i«-i) <*i()th«'rt objectionaMe. 380. Smoke not always neoMsary. 
890. Cyprians diillcult to subdue. 301 . Bees quietest at mld-daj. S99. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Slow motions. S93. Old precepts. S94. Fear of stlDgs a great obstacle. 
S95. light bewilders bees. 896. Care in using smoke, s.97. How to 
proceed. 898. Betnrnlng combs. 899. Mismanagement. 400. Bad 
odora anger bees. 401. EiTect ol their poison. 402. Remedies. 40». 
Cold water and ammonia. 404. Old bee-keepers poison-proof. 405. 
Beoa as means of defense. 

Chapter VL— Natural Swarming. 

4O0. Preparations. 407. Not in season. 408. When effected. 409. 
First swarm. 4 lO. Conditions and hour. 411. Last preparations . 412. 
Qneen missing. 413. Ringing bells useless. 414. Deportment of bees. 
415. Bees send scouts. 416. Various incidents- 417. Allnriug swarms. 
418. Bees generally peactfnl when swarming. 419. No delay in hiving. 
420. Departing swarms. 421. Have hives ready and cool. 422. Hives 
ftimished with combs. 423. Beware of honey. 424. Comb guides 4*25. 
Advantages of oomb<^ or comb foundation. 426. Securing straight 
oombs In the brood chamber. 427. Enlarging the entrance. 428. Bi'cs 
on a small limb. 4*29. Swarm sack. 430. Be cautious. 431. Sack 
preferable to basket. 432. Swarm on a trunk. 4.'i3 . Catching the queen . 
434. Clipping wing of the queen. 439. Swarms mixing. 436. Two 
queens in the same swarm. 437. Ten swarms mixed. 438 Securing 
the <iueen in hiving a swarm. 439 Swarms temporarily hived. 440. Pi^ 
in place as soon as hived. 441. Feeding swarms. 442. Building straight 
oombs. 448 Primary swarms with young queens 444 Secondary 
swarms- 445. Their cau'^es- 446. Pipin'.; of the queens 447. Several 
queens in the swarm. 447 (bis) . Superiority of arter-swarms. 448. 
Absconding swarms. 449. Third swarms. 450 Prevention of natural 
swarming, its desirability. 451. Excessive natural swarming. 452. 
Natural swarming and selection. 453. Too many swarms lost 454. 
Causes of swarming f55, Swarmin? fever 456. Heat a stimulus 
457. Dronesalso. 458. Lack of ventilation. 450. Givin:; empty combs. 
400. Of easy access. 461 I^efore complete fullness. 4()2 Shading' the 
hive. 468. Drone comb removed. 464. Good vintilatlon. 465. 
Swarming cannot be absolutely prevented. 466 . Pre\ entiou more difficult 
when raising comb honey. 467. Queen and drone traps 468 Preven- 
tion of after-swarms. 

Chapter VII — Artificial Swarming. 

469. Uncertainty of natural swarming. 470 Dividing. 471. Unre- 
liable. 472. Removing the hive. 473. Driving l.eos. 474. Its a Ivaii- 
tages. 475. With movable combs. 476. Improvement. 477. Giving a 
fertile qnr»en. 478. Nuclen.9 method 479. With sealed queens. 4so. 
Building nuclei. 481. Too much dividing 4H2 Queon cell- made jire- 
Tiously. 483. Several a 1\ ices. 4H4. Operations more 8Ucoe.s.%ful during 
honey harvest. 485. Bees don't quaiTel. 4H6. When the weather is too 
eold. 487. Increasing too fast. 488. Caution. 

Chapter VIII. — Qaeen Rearing. 

489. How beet raise queens. 490. Are larvso inferior to eggsT 491^ 
D« PUnta's azperimonts. 492. Are young worker VaxT» \>QXX«t twi> W^. 




XU TABLE OK CONTENTS. 

Can workoTB use older Inim T 404. Their growth retarded. 4M. 
Qneene raised during Bwarming ferer. 496. Old workers are poor nnraea 
407. Conditions to raise f;ood queens. 408. When is the raiaing of 
qneens necessary ? 499. Loss of the qneen. 509. Unable to fly. 591. 
Lost in her wedding flight. 502. Entering the wrong hire. SOS. Sotind 
advice. 50i. Backed by exttmples. 5U5. Bees anticipating danger. 
506. How they ascertain their loss. 507 Detecting qneenlessneaa. 508. 
Friendly advice. 509. Drones not killed. 510. Plaintive hum of beet. 
511. Rearing improved races. 512. Selecting dronea. 518. Using 
m derately populous colonies. 511. Raising trom egga. 515. Lar^ 
number of qneon cells. 516. Preparing their reception. 517. How 
to transfer queen coils. 518. Precautions. 519. Inspection. 599. 
Nucleus. 591. Divisible frame. 522. How to prepare nuclei. 59S. 
Beware of bees returning. 521. Makin^^ stron;^ nuclei. 525. Prepare 
on the preceding day. 526. Watching and removing the laying 
queen. 527. Precautions. 52S. Alley's method. 529. Queen nur- 
aeriea. 53<». Lamp nurnciy. 531. Progress of the buainesa of rearing 
queens. Q32. Some advice. 533. Introducing impregnatei queens. 
531. Conditions of succes.s. 535. Sprinkling scented water. 589. 
Queen cage. 537. How to use. 538. Balled queens. 589. Queens 
Btarvinis' and Simmlns' method. 540. Stupefying bees. 541. Introdne- 
tion of virgin queens. 542. Bees swarming with introduced queena. 543. 
How to And a queen. 544. The olor of queens. 

Chapter LX. — Races of Bees. 

545. Bees not indigenous to America. 546. First noticed in Florida. 
547 Bees going westward. 548. Several varieties. 549. The first in- 
troduced. 550. The main varieties. 551. Italian bees. 552. Their 
qualities. 553. Description. 534. The best test. 555. Italian dronei 
and queens irregularly marked. 556. Vary even in Italy. 557. Ilrst 
importation in Austria. 558. In Am(>rica. 559. Apis fkadatm. 569. 
Holy Lan<I and Syiian bees. 561. Apis dorsata. 562. Aostralian beet. 

563. Mclipoues. 

CiiAiTER X.— The Apiary. 

564. Who should keep bees ? 565. Honey resources. 666. Beglii on a 
small scale. 567. Protect the hives. 568. Avoid weeds. 669. 8e|t«r- 
ate stands. 570. Coxered apiaiie.x. 571. Sheds. 572. Out-door apiailea. 
57.1. Procurin:: bees. 574. Traiisferrin^t. 575. Decoy hlTea. 676. 
Drumming. 577. Be sure of having' the queen. 678. Tools and Imple* 
ments. 579 How to procee<l. 580. Sparc worker brood. 581. Hed- 
don metho<i. 5H2 Out-apiaries 5H:&. Conditions required. 684. 
Our terms for a location. 585. How many apiaries ? 586. Honey honac 
and window netting. 

CiiAriKR XI.— Shipping and Transporting Bees. 

587. Ventilation. 588 Fasteniuk' frames. 589. Rough tiandlinf. 
590 SiMtdin? South. 501. Bees on boats. 592. Floating aplailea. 
69S. Sending to better pastures. 501 Shippin;< (|ueens. 695. 
food. 596. Beea ttom lUly . 597. Queen the last to die. 




TABLB OF COMTKMT8. m 

qmetM. 599. Bees bj the poand. 690. How many In a ponnd? 601. 
Baiatng queena in the Sonth. 002. Bees in the North. 60S. TranBport- 
Ing eolooiea. OOS (bia). Shade board in front. 004. Transporting 



Cbatter XII^^Feeding BeoB. 

600. Feeding often neoessaxy. 606. Spring feeding. 607. Bees starr- 
ing in Spring. OOS. Fali flseding. 600. Feeders. 610. Feeding syrup . 
611. Sngareandy. 612. Boot's ezpeiienoe. 6 1 S. Scholx method. 614. 
Loaf sugar. 616. Feeding not to be encouraged. 616. Bees do not make 
honej. 617. Beware of candy shops. 618. As bad for bees as gmcr. 
shops fbr man. 

Gbaptxs Xm.— Wintering Bees. 

610. WlntvinglB eold oUmates. 620. How bees elnster. 621. Their 
tnnmloos motiona. 622. Eating to keep warm. 623. Amonnt of food 
needed. 624. Beware of mistakes. 626. An unlooked-for experiment . 
626. Quality of the fbod. 627. Bad food. 628. How to dispose of it. 
620. Syrup instead of honey. 680. Narrowing the hive. 631. Winter 
paseagea. 682. On summer stands. (J82 (bis). Scant population in 
winter. 688. Uniting oolonlee. 634. How to prevent fighting. 633. 
Winter protection. 686. Warm absorbents above. 637. Entrance left 
open . 638. No distnrbaooe in cold weather. 639 . Advantages of a Win- 
ter flight. 610. Chaff hives. 641. Their defects. 642 Less trouble 
643. Onter boxes. 644. Best conditions. 645. Indoor wintering in 
Europe. 646. Cellar wintering. 647. Directions. 648. Temperature. 
649. Cellar blinds. 650. Quietness and darkness. 65 1 . Results of bad 
wintering. 662. Select a warm day. 653. Lowest degree needed. 654. 
Putting colonlee In same place. 655. Danger of robbery. 656 Flight 
during winter. 657. Bees In clamps. 658. Beware of col(i reposito ties. 
658 Spring dwindling. 660. Constipation. 661. Be^it condition. 662. 
Water needed. 668. Care to be given. 

Chapter XJV— Robbing. 

664. Robljer bees. 665. Difljcnlt to detect. 666 Promoted by the bee- 
keeper. 667. How detected. 668. Difficult to stop 669 Exchnng- 
iiig places. 670. Carbolized sheet. 671 Latent robbing 672 
Prevention. 673. Weak colonies and precautions. 

Cbaftek XV.— Comb-Foundation. 

671 Its aiWantages. 675 Repla<lng drone comb. 676 Valnn of 
workercomb. 677 The inventor of comb foundation 67H Hi- iniTat- 
ors. 679. Root's roller mil la «:80 Good n-sults. 6H1 Hi? follow.. > 
688 Given press. 683 Plaster mould 6H4 Imi»ro.ed mill ♦*.-» 

Selected wax 680 AV.solutcly pure 687 I.i.ht and hrovy m.Kiii . -^ 
•88 Foundation for comb honey r.89 PrtpariiiK the Bhrcts » • 
Printing 601 A special industry 69'J Weight of the difr.Tpni ktu »-§ 
608 How flutened 694 Wiring foundation G93 How to cut It 
•06. The light poalttoa 697 It is a snccess 




ZIV TABLE OF CONTEMTB. 

Chaptbr XVI— Pastnrage and Overstocking. 

PiitTUKAOK.— «•» Qnantlty vtiles. 699. Ereo Id tlie Mme kind ofblot- 
•oms 700 Stndy of the rMonrces. 701. CIotct. 7#9. Linden. 79S 
AlKike 704. Se^eral othen. 705. Fall flowen. 700. List of 20O honey of 
pollen yieldin;^ plants 

OvKMTorKixG.— 707. Ib it possIbleT 70S. IIow fitf bees fly t 7f>9. How 
manj coloiiientotheacre? 710. In Germany. 711. In California. 719. 
The crop of our county. 713. OpinlODB on orerstoeking. 714. Ilelpinf 
bees. 719. Avera;,'e of crops. 

CiiAiTKU XVII— Production. 

716. Its history. 717. Oar pro:rrc88. 718. ConditiODS of snoceas. 

CoMii HoxEY —719. Very attractive. 720. Its improvementa. 721. 
Hotify iu RrictioMH. 722 Small sections. 723 Howmade. 724. Upper 
story 725 Dimcultles 726 Reversin.^. 727 ReTeralble hives. 
7'IH. Bailt sections 729. Brood chaml>er fall. 730. Exchanging 
romhs. 731. Strai;;ht comiis. 732 Qaeen In the lower story. 733. 
8<cttons given to the swarm. 734. No propolizing. 735. Securing 
M'ah^d combs 73« Fastened solid. 737. Preventlnr l>ridges. 736. 
How diM'p the upper HtoYy. 739. Section crate. 740. Mauura clamps. 
741 Ko.'^t<'r ojicn-sldo s^'ctlons. 742 Foster case. 743. Remoring 
h'TtloiiH 711 Sornf other Tact-*. 743 Concln.sion. 

KxiuAC'Ku llnNi y —7H\ Straincfl lioney 747. In Europe. 746. From 
hollow t\vt'>i 7 1!). IiiVf'iition of Ilnischka 750. Our first extractor. 
7r>l Otir rni-lftlxo 7.'>2 Alvantaijf'S of cxtractljig. 753. Advice to 
»«• liifurM 751 Ix^'^B work 7.15 Swarminu' jirevented. 756. Use of 
cvira(t««r a !\i • <l 757 Hilf stories 7.18 Defects of full depth opptf 
«tori<H «5» How to URo ujiiK'r stories 760 Greater facilities for 
\ vi-i 761 IiiH, tM'tlorj 762 How many pounds of honey. 763. Fur- 
ni liln^f I'njpty conil.-* 764. Artificial rip<'nin;?. 765. Equallzin;^ the 
Mirplns 766 Harvcstln-.; 767 Implement.^ neede<l. 768. Robber- 
I IdthM 76» I h«' Ili'r KhcajH' 770. Innploments in the honey houi^e. 
* ; I Kxtiii'iiiij rn»in the liroo"! chani! or 772 Cajiplngcan. 773. Ex- 
Ir.-ufor.H 771 I'mMiipliik' knives 775 Kxtracting. 776. InvltiDg 
niirhorn 777 A nlo:ii;it ic. e-v tractors 77H. Einp ying the extractor. 
77U Canllon 7so lt«\vuie of rol)l>ing. 781 Returning the comba. 
7H2. »^««pnrul«' the ciojis 7H:i Concluhlon. 

CiiATiiH X VIII.— Disoaso.s of Bees. 

7s I IHarrhrrt 7H5 Hairless bee-* 7H6 Contagious diseases. 787. 
Fonl-lrood. 7HH Kxperinents of Diipont 780 . Description Of the dis- 
rixHV 7J>0 Drtcctcil In spring 71)1 Jones' treatment. 793. Moth's 
iii.'tlio<l 79:1 H'-rtrund method 71)1 Fumigating process. 795. 
{ \iv*\\\rv iitthi>d 71)6 I'ari* and perseverance 797. Preventive care. 
7t)H Infertrd «|iie«Mis 701) Antir«i'plics 800. Divers contagioos dis- 
en-^i's HOI Aeoidental dead l>rood 

C'liAiii.ii XIX.— Kncmles of I^ces. 

HO'l Bee moth 80.t Description 801 Their actions. 805. Their gal- 
leries 606 Their worms 80 7 Their food 808 How they behftTO. 




TABLE OF CONTENTS. XT 

MMI. TMnperatme required. 810. Killed by heavy Arosts. 811. DU- 
gnstlDg results. 812. How to protect combs. 813. Italians jiearly moth- 
proof. 814. Qneenless colonies their easy prey. 815. Moth not to be 
feared. 816 Mice. 817. Birds. 818. Sparrows. 819. Do not kill 
birds. 820. Bamyanl fowls. 821. Toads. 822. Bears. 823. Branla 
eoca . 82 1 . Other insects . 

Chafter XX. — Honey Handling, and Marketing. Uses of Honey. 

825. Diilierent grades. 826. Comb-honey sweating. 827. Leaka7e of 
sections. 828. Care in shipping. 829. Barrels for extracted. 830. 
Granulation. 831. Experiences on granulation. 832 . Coarse granula- 
tion. 833. Fermentation. 834. Melting honey. 835. Resalt of in- 
ert ased production. 836. Adulteration. 837. That rile Wiley lie. 838. 
Objections to grannlation . 839 . European people not prcj adiced . 810. 
Inducing consumption. 811. Showy labels. 84'2. Tin packages to be 
preferretl. 843. Howto stop lcaka.:o. 841. Perao a ling grocers. 845. 
Explaining what honey is. 846. Gaining confidence. 847. Houey as 
food. 818. Very healthy. 849 Houey daintier. 830. French pain- 
d'^pice. 851. Crisp ginprerbreal . 853. Alsatian gingerbread. 853. 
Honey cakes. 854. Italian croccante. 855. Math houey cake. 856. 
Vinegar. 857. Honey as medicine. 

Chapter XXI.— Beeswax and Its Uses. 

858. Laying up wax. 859. The capplngs. 860. Washing dark comb. 
861. Melting. 862. Pressing. 863. Steam and ^nu extractors. 864. 
Treating wax residues. 865. Cleaning. 866. Care and bleaching. 867. 
Wax on writing-tablets and for embalming. 868. Wax caudles. 869. 
Other uses. 870. Recipes for medicinal an>l other purposes, 

Chaptkr XXII. — Bees and Fruits and Flowers. 

871. Bees cannot injure fruits. 872. Our experiments. 873. Damaged 
by birds. 875. Bees improving wine. 876. Annoyance. 877. Juice 
of firults injuring bees. 878. Bees always beneficial to flowers . 

Chapter XXIII.— Bee Keeper's Calendar. Mistakes and Axioms. 

879. January. 880. February. 881. March 882. April. 883 May. 
884. June. 885. July. 886. August. 887 September. 888. Octoher. 
889. NoTember. 890. December. 891. Spring. 892. Summer. 893. 
Fail. 894. Winter. 895. Mistakes 806. Axioms. 




THE HIVE AND HONEY-BEE. 



CHAPTER I. 

PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BEE. 

1. All the leading facts in the natural history, and the 
breeding of bees, ought to be as familiar to the Apiarist, as 
the same class of facts in the rearing of his domestic ani- 
mals. A few crude and half -digested notions, however 
satisfactory to the old-fashioned bee-keeper, will no longer 
meet the wants of those who desire to conduct bee-culture 
on an extended and profitable system. Hence we have found 
it advisable to give a short description of the principal or- 
gans of this interesting insect, and abridged passages taken 
from various Scientific writers, whose works have thrown an 
entirely new light on many points in the physiology of the 
bee. If the reader will bear with us in this arduous 
task, he will find that we have tried to make the descriptions 
plain and simple, avoiding, as much as possible, scientific 
words unintelligible to many of us. 

2. Honey-bees are insects belonging to the order Hy- 
menoptera; thus named from their four membranous, gauzy 
wings. They can flourish only when associated in large 
numbers, as in a colony. Alone, a single bee is almost as 
helpless as a new-born child, being paralyzed by the chiU 
of a cool summer night. 

1 




2 pirrsiOLooT of thb hoket-bkb. 

3. The habitation provided for bees is called a hive. 
The inside of a bee-hive shows a number of combs about 
half-an-inch apart and suspended from its upper side. 
These combs are formed of hexagonal cells of various sizes, 
in which the bees rai^e their young and deposit their stores. 

4. In a family, or colony of bees, are found (Plat€ II) — 

let, One bee of peculiar sha|>e, commonly called the Queen^ 
or mother-bee. She is the only perfect female in the hive, 
and all the eggs are laid by her ; 

2d, Many thousands of worker-bees, or incomplete females, 
whose office is, while young, to take care of the brood and 
do the inside work of the hive ; and when older, to go to 
the fields and gatlier honey, pollen, water, and propolis or 
bee-glue, for the needs of the colony ; and 

3d, At certain seasons of the year, some hundreds and 
even thousands of large bees, called Drones, or male-bees, 
whose sole function is to fertilizethe young queens, or virgin 
females. 

Before describing the differences that characterize each 
of these three kinds, we will study the organs which, to a 
greater or less extent, they possess in common, and which 
are most prominently found in the main type, the worker- 
bee. 

General Characteristics. 

5. In bees, as in all insects, the frame-work or skeletoi 
that supports the body is not internal, as in mammals, bu* 
mostly external. It is formed of a horny substance, scientil 
ically calk'd rhitine, and well described in the following 
quotation : 

6. *'ChItine is capable of being moulded Into almost every 
conceivable shape and appearance. It forms the hard back of 
the repulsive cockroach, the beautiful scale-like feathers of the 
gaudy butterfly, the delicate membrane which supports the lace- 




QUEEN, DRONE. *nd WORKER— Magnified and Salnral Si». 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

Wing In mid air, the transparent cornea covering the eyes of ail 
insects, the almost impalpable films cast by the moulting larvae, 
and the black and yellow rings of our native and imported bees, 
beside.i internal braces, tendons, membranes, and ducts Innu- 
merable. The external siceleton, hard for the most part, and 
varied in thickness in beautiful adaptation to the strain to which 
it may be exposed, gives persistency of form to tlie little wearer; 
but it needs, wherever movement is necessary, to have delicate 
extensions joining the edges of its unyielding plates. Tliis we 
may understand by examining the legs of a lobster or crab, fur- 
nished like those of the bee, with a shelly case, but so large that 
no magnifying glass is required. Here we see that the thick coat 
is reduced to a thin and easily creased membrane, where, by Ilex- 
ion, one part is made to pass o\ex the other." 

"Again, almost every part of the body is covered by hairs, the 
form, structure, direction, and position of wliich, to the very 
smallest, have a meaning," (Cheshire, " Bees and Bee-keeping," 
p. 30. London, 1SS7.) 

7. Mr. Cheshire explains that, as the skeleton or frame- 
work of the bee is not sensitive, these hairs act as organs 
of touch, each one containing a uerve. They also act as 
clothing and aid in retaining heat — 

**and give protection, as the stiff, straight hairs of the eyes, 
whilst some act as brushes for cleaning, others are tliin mul 
webbed for holding pollen grains ; whilst by varied inodirKutions, 
others again act as graspers, sieves, piercers, or merhanical stops 
to limit excessive movement." 

8. The three sections of the body of the honcy-bcc; are 
perfectly distinct : the head ; the thorax, or cent re of locomo- 
tion, bearing the wings and*the legs; and the alxU^nien, 
containing the honey-sack, stomach, bowels, and the main 
breathing organs. 

The principal exterior organs of the head are the antenn:c, 
the eyes, and the parts composing the mouth. 

9. The eyes are five in number, two composite eyes, one 
on each side of the head, which are but clusters of small 
eyes or facets, and three convex eyes, or ocelli^ arranged in 
a triangle at the top of the head. 




4 PHTBIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BEB. 

10. The facets of the composite eyes, thousands in num- 
ber, are six-sided, like the cells of the honey-comb, and 
being directed towards nearly every point, they permit the 
insect to see in a great number of directions at the same 
time. 



A. 



B. 



c. 




<■■) 



J 




Fig. 1. 
▲, Head of worker. B, Headofqueen. C, Head of drone. (Magnified.) 
(From "Les AbelUes" of Maurice Girard.) 

11. In comparing the eyes of worker, queen and drone, 
Mr. Cheshire says : 

** The worker spends much of her time in the open air. Accu- 
rate and powerful vision are essentials to the proper prosecution 
of her labours, and here I found the compound eye possessing 
about 0,3(X) facets. In the niothor of this worker I expected to 
find a less numi>cr, for queens know little of daylight. After 
wedding they are out of doors but once, or at most twic«, in a 
year.* This example verified my forecast, by showing 4,920 facets 
on each side of the head. A souiof tliis motlier, much a stay-at- 
home also, WHS next taken. His fa<'cts were irregular In size, 
those at the lower part of the eye being much less than those 
near the top ; but they reached tlie immense number of 13,000 on 
each side of the head. Why should tlie visual apparatus of the 
drone be so extraordinarily developed beyond that of the worker, 
A'hose need of the eye seems at first to be much more pressing 
than his?" 



• Wban going out with a iwarm. 




OKNKRAL CHARACTBSISnCS. ft 

This question Mr. Cheshire answers, as will be seen fur- 
ther, in considering the antennse. (26)* 

12. The three small eyes, ocelli, are thought by Maurice 
Girard ("Les Abeilles," Paris, 1878), and others, to have 
a microscopic function, for sight at short distances. In the 
hive, the work is performed in the dark, and possibly ( ?) 
these eyes are fitted for this purpose. 

13. Their return from long distances, either to their 
hive or to the place where they have found food, proves that 
bees can see very far. Yet, when the entrance to their hive 
has been changed, even only a few inches, they cannot 
readily find it. 

Their many eyes looking in different directions, enable 
them to guide themselves by the relative position of objects, 
hence they always return to the identical spot they left. 

14. If we place a colony in a forest where the rays of 
the sun can scarcely penetrate, the becb, at their exit from 
the hive, will fly several times around their new abode, then, 
selecting a small aperture through the dense foliage, they 
will rise above the forest, in quest of the flowers scattered 
in the fields. And like children in a nutting party, they 
will gather their crop here and there, a mile or more away, 
without fear of being lost or unable to return. 

As soon as their honey-sack is full, or, if a threatening 
cloud passes before the sun, they start for home, without 
any hesitation, and, among so many trees, even while the 
wind mingles the leafy twigs, they find their way ; so perfect 
is the organization of their composite eyes. 

15. Bees can notice and remember colors. While ex 
perimenting on this faculty, we placed some honov on small 
pieces of differently colored paper. A bee aliirhttMl on a 
yellow paper, sucked her load and returned to her hive. 

* The Tvtder wUl readily andemtand that the jinmbprtx between parenthesea 
refer to tlia pangrapha bearlnic thoHP nambM-rn Tbtn u for the conyMnt«iio«i of 
■todmit 



D PHT8IOLOOT OF THE UONET-BEB. 

While she was absent, we moved the paper. Returning, 
she came directly to the spot, but, noticing that the yellow 
paper was not there, she made several inquiring circles in 
the air, and then alighted upon it. According to Mr. A. 
J. Cook a similar experiment with the same results, was 
made by Lubbock. ("Bee-keepers' Guide," Lansing, 1884.) 

16. We usually give our bees flour, in shallow boxes, at 
the opening of Spring, before the pollen appears in the 
flowers. These boxes are brought in at night. Every morn- 
ing they are put out again, after the bees have com- 
menced flying and hover around the spot. If by chance, 
some, bits of white paper are scattered about the place, the 
bees visit those papers, mistaking them for flour, on account 
of the color. 

IT. But " the celebrated Darwin was mistaken In saying that 
the colorless blossoms, which he names obscure blossoms, are 
scarcely visited by insects, while the most highly colored blos- 
soms are very fondly visited by bees." (Gaston Bonnier, " Les 
Nectaires," Paris, 1879.) 

18. For, although color attracts bees, it is only one of the 
means used by nature to bring them in contact with the 
flowers. The smell of honey is, certainly, the main attrac- 
tion, and this attraction is so powerful, that frequently, at 
daybreak in the summer, the bees will be found in full 
flight, gathering the honey which has been secreted in the 
night, when nothing, on the preceding evening, could have 
predicted such a crop. This happens especially when there 
is a production of honey-dew, after a storm. We have even 
known bees to gather honey from the tulip trees, (^Lirioden- 
dron tulipiferd) on very clear moonlight nights. 

19. The antennae (fig. 2, A, B), two flexible horns which 
adorn the head of the bee, are black, and composed of 
twelve joints, in the queen and the worker, and thirteen in 
the drone. The first of these joints, the scape, next t^ tlu 



OKMEBU. CQARACTBBISTiaa. 



head, is longer than the others, and can move in every d 
rectioD. The uitenna is covered nith haira. 




IMagnLfled a 

A. ir.KBpeijt, lligellimi; 1 
M, or hollow ; Ir . tnchfs ;».. ■ 
miueie; iln, depreiMir muscle 

B. snull portion of flageUnn 



(masnlllnl W tlmea) ; > 



"These hairs, Btandlng above the general eiirrace, coni^tUute 
the antenns marvelous touch organs; and :is they nredlstriliutpd 
all round each Joint, the worker-bee in a blossom cup, or wMi iia 
head thrust Into a cell in the darkness of the hive. Is, bj tlicir 
means, as able accurately to determine as tlioiigh she saw ; while 
the queen, whose antenna la made after the same model, can ]>i>r- 
fectlj distinguish the condition of every part of the cell into 
which her bead maybe thrust. The last joint, which la flrilti'iieii 
on one side, near the end. Is more thickly studded, and hcri.' tlie 
hairs are uniforinly beat towards tlic axis of tlie wliole ursan. 
Xoone could have watched hces without difit'overini; that. Iiy tlie 
antenniE, Intercommunication is accomiilisliod; but for this pur- 
pose front and side hairs alone arc required; .tiid the drone, 
unlike the queen and worker, very 3Uj,'gi-:stively. h;is no otIiiTS, 
since the condition of the cells is no part of his cjire, if only the 
larder be weU furnished." (Cheshire.) 

20. The celebrated Pranijois Huber, of Geneva, made a 




8 PHTaiOLOGT OF THE HONET-BKB. 

number of experiments on the antennae, and ascertained that 
they are the organs of smell and feeling. 

Before citing his discoveries, we must pay our tribute of 
admiration to this wonderful man. (Plate III.) . 

Huber, in early manhood, lost the use of his eyes. His 
opponents imagined that to state this fact would materially 
discredit his observations. And to make their case still 
stronger, they asserted that his servant, Francis Bumens, by 
whose aid he conducted his experiments, was only an igno- 
rant peasant. Now this so-called *' ignorant peasant " was a 
man of strong native intellect, possessing the indefatigable 
energy and enthusiasm indispensable to a good observer. 
He was a noble specimen of a self-made man, and rose to be 
the chief magistrate in the village where he resided. Huber 
has paid a worthy tribute to his intelligence, fidelity, pa- 
tience, energy and skill.* 

Ruber's work on bees is such tfb admirable specimen 
of the inductive system of reasoning, that it might well be 
studied as a model of the only way of investigating nature, 
so as to arrive at reliable results. 

21. Huber was assisted in his researches, not only by 
Burnens, but by his own wife, to whom he was betrothed be- 
fore the loss of his sight, and who nobly persisted in marry- 
ing him, notwithstanding bis misfortune and the strennons 
dissuasions of her friends. They lived longer than the ordi- 
nary term of human life in the enjoyment of great domestic 
happiness, and the amiable naturalist, through heraaddnous 
attentions, scarcely felt the loss of his sight. 

22. Milton is believed by many to have been a better 
poet in consequence of his blindness ; and it is highly prob- 
able that Ilubcr was a better Apiarist from the same cause. 

* A tingle fact fj^ll show the cbaract(7 of tho man. It tirrnmnnnnrnnTj. In % 
enrtainexiiorimont. torxamlnetoparately all the bees in twohlTM. "BoriMns 
•pent ^''te days In p^Tformingthia work, and during the whole UnM be aoutsalj 
allowed hlmaelf any relaxaUon, bat what the relief of hia ejea wqalr ad. " 




FRANCOIS HUBER, 



TUlwrileil. m»ntloDedp«gBBT. 8. 9. IS, 11, «, W. 49, », 51. Si St, SO. M, 
EI. 71, 7S, Nl, 9t. 99, lOO, 106, lie. ISO. 139. 17Ji Wl, HA, 

sn, nt, no, m. STB. MO. 




QKnKAL 0HARACTBBI8TXGS. 9 

His actiTe, yet reflectiTe mind, demanded constant employ- 
ment ; and he found, in the study of the habits of the honey- 
bee, full scope for his powers. All the observations and 
experiments of his faithful assistants being daily reported, 
many inquiries and suggestions were made by him, which 
might not have occurred to him, had he possessed the 
use of his eyes. 

Few, like him, have such command of both time and money, 
as to be able to prosecute on so grand a scale, for a series 
of years, the most costly experiments. Having repeatedly 
verified his most important observations, we take great de- 
light in holding him up to our countrymen as the Prince of 
Apiarists. 

23. Huber, having imprisoned a queen in a wire cage, saw 
the bees pass their antennie through the meshes of the cage, 
and turn them in every direction. The queen answered 
these tokens of love by clinging to the cage and crossing her 
antennas with theirs. Some bees were trying to draw the 
queen out, and several extended their tongues to feed her 
through the meshes.* Huber adds: 

*' How can we doubt now that the communication between the 
workers and the queen was maintained by the toucli of the 
antennae.'* 

24. That bees can hear, either by their antenniB or 
some other organ, few will now deny, even although the 
sound of a gun near the hive is entirely unnoticed by them. 

** Should some alien being watch humanity during a thunder- 
storm, he might quite almllaily decide that thunder was to us in- 
audible. Clap might follow clap without securing any external 
sign of recognition ; yet let a little child with tiny voice but 
shriek for help, and all would at once be awakened to activity. 
So with the bee : sounds appealing to its instincts meet with im- 
mediate response, while others evoke no wasted emotion." 
(Cheshire.) 

• WondcrfU tt tlia aocparlmaot Memad at Uiat time, tha ftot li volfled now 
ly dtUy o tmamu fom In qnMn-xMilnf . 



10 



PBTSIOLOGT C 



" The sound that bees produce b^ the vibrating of their wings 
la often the means of culling one another. If you place a be'^-hive 
In B Terr dark room, their humming will draw the scattereil bees 
together. In vain do you cover the hive, or change Its place, the 
bees will luvarlabl; go towards the spot whence the sound comea." 
(CoUlD, " Guide da Propriitalre d'AbelUea," Parla, 1876.) 

36. To prove that bees cfln hear is easy, but to detenniDe 
the location of the orgtui is more difficult. The Btnall holes 
which were discovered on the surface of the antennte, have 
been considered as organs o( hearing by Lefebure ( 1838), 
and by others later. Cheshire has noticed these small holes 
in the six or seven last articulations o( the antenns : holes 




Fig. J. 
PAKTS OF SURFACE O) 

(Mksnined MO ttmea. Jrom Cheshln.) 

A, portion of froot ■nrfsce of one of tho lower membsn of UmIIi 
(worker or nneen). .■. wncUlnK orgKo; /', feeUiig hllx. 

B, portion of the aide aud buck of >sroe (worker). It, oidlnmiy t 



which become mure numerous towards the end ot the antenna, 
BO that the last joint carries perhaps twenty. He, also, con- 
eiders these as the organs of hearing, especially becanse they 
are larger in the drones, who may need to distinguish the 
Bounds of the queen's winjis.* On this question, Prof. Cook, 
in his " Kee-keepers' Guide," savs: 

" Ji'o Apiarist has failed to notice the cfTect of varlons aonnda 
made by the bees upon their comrades of the hive, and how con* 



ttii^nlfthAble loiiDd. 



■a dnnca. Id fUgbt. e 



QENZRAI. CHABACTEBIBTICS. 



11 



tagiouB are the Bbarp note of anger, the tow hum of fear, andtbo 
pleasant tone of a swarm as they commence to enter their new 
home. Now, whether Insects take noteof these TihrationB as we 
recognize pitch, or whether they Just dtatingaish the tremor, I 
think CO one knows." 

26. It ia well proven that bees can smell with tbeir 
aatenns, aod Cheshire carefully describes tbe "smell hoi- 
lotos," not to be mistaken (or the "ear holes," which are 
smaller, bat also located od the antenna. 

" In the case of the worker, the eight active Joints of the an- 
tenna have an average of fifteen rows, of twenty smell-hollows 
each, or 3,400 on each antenna. The qneen has a less number, giv- 
ing abont 1,600 on each antenna. If these organs are olfactory, we 
tee the reason. The worker's necessity to smell nectar explains 
alL We, perhaps, exclaim — Can it be that these little threads 




(UigoUledSOatlnin. From Cbeehlre . ) 
/, (Ccllns bilij f , imelliDg organ; Ao, hollow; c, coDOid or cODfl.shaped 
bilr; M. hTPoderoui or ander-ikiD layer; >i,<', Derrea In bnadlea; nr. u- 
tlcalatloD; t', coniridtiali. magntfled 800 times. 

we call antennn can thna carry thonsands of organs each requir- 
ing its own nerve end? But greater Rtrpriaea await us, and I 
mast admit that the examinations astonlslicd me greatly. In the 
drone antenna we have thirteen joints in all, of which nine are 
barrel-shaped and special, and these are covered completely by 
smell-hollows. An average of thirty rows of these, seventy in a 
row, on the nine Joints of the two antennee, give the «&Uiuti&\i\% 




19 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONKT-BBB. 

namber of 37,800 distinct organs. When I coaple this d6Telop-> 
ment with the greater size of the eye of the drone, and ask what 
is his function, why needs he such a magnificent eqaipment? and 
remember that he has not to scent the nectar ftom afar, nor spy 
oat the coy blossoms as they peep between the leayes, I feel forced 
to the conclusion that the pursuit of the queen renders them nec- 
essary." (Cheshire.) 

27. While giving these short quotations and beautiful 
engravings from Cheshire's anatomy of the bee, we earnestly 
advise the scientific bee-student to procure and read his 
work. Mr. Cheshire shows us those minute organs so beauti- 
fully and extensively magnified, that in reading his book we 
feel as though we were transported by some Genius inside 
of the body of a giant insect, every detail of whose organ 
-ism was laid open before us. However wonderful the 
statement made above, of the existence of nearly 20,000 
organs in such a small thing as the antenna of a bee, this 
fact will not be disputed. Those of our bee-friends, who have 
had the good luck to meet the sympathetic editor of the 
British Bee-Journal^ Mr. Cowan, during his trip to America, 
in 1887, will long remember the wonderful microscopical 
studies, and the microscope which he brought with him. 
This instrument, tlie most powerful by far that we ever had 
seen, gave us a practical peep into the domain of the infini- 
tesimal. 

28. Better tlian any other description of the smallness of 
atoms is that given by Flanimarion, in his ** Astronomic 
Populaire " : 

** It is proven," he says, " that an atom cannot be larger than 
one ton-niillionth of a inilliinotcr. It results from this, that the 
number of atoms contained in the head of a pin, of an ordinary 
diameter, would not he less than 

8,000,0()(\00(),000,000,000,000. 

And if it was possible to count these atoms, and to separate themv 
at the rate of one billion per second, it would take 260,000 years 
to number them." 




GENERAL OHARACTERISTICS. 18 

29. Girard reports, as follows, an experiment on the ol- 
factory organs of our little insects : 

** While a bee was intently occupied sucking honey, we brought 
near her head a pin dipped in ether. She at once showed symp- 
toms of a great anxiety ; but an inodorous pin remained entirely 
unnoticed." ^ 

30. Whatever be the location of their olfactory organs, 
they are unquestionably endowed with a marrelous power of 
detecting the odor of honey in flowers or elsewhere. 

One day we discovered that some bees had entered our 
honey-room, through the key-hole. We turned them out, 
and stopped it up. Some time after, more bees had entered, 
and we vainly searched for the crevice that admitted them. 
Finally a feeble hum caused us to notice that they were 
coming down the chimney to the fire-place, which was closed 
by a screen. The wedge which held this screen having be- 
come somewhat loose, the motion of the screen in windy 
weather opened a hole just large enough for a bee to crawl 
through. A few bees were waiting behind the screen, and 
as soon as its motion allowed one to pass, she manifested 
her joy by the humming which led to the discovery. These 
bees, escaping with a load, when the door was opened, had 
become customary and interested visitors. 

31. Every bee-keeper has noticed that their flight is- 
guided by the scent of flowers, though they be a mile or more 
away. In the city of Keokuk, situated on a hill in a curve 
of the Mississippi, the bees cross the river, a mile wide,. 
to find the flowers on the opposite bank. 

33. "Not only do bees have a very acute sense of smell, but 
they add to this faculty the remembrance of sensations. Here is 
an example: We had placed some honey on a window. Bees 
soon crowded upon it. Then the honey was taken away, and the 
outside shatters were closed and remained so the whole winter. 
When, in Spring, the shutters were opened again, the bees came 
back, although there was no honey on the window. No doubt, 
they remembered that they got honey there before. So, an inter- 




14 PHT8IOLOOT OF THE HONET-BEB. 

▼al of several months was not sufficient to efface the impreislOB 
they had received.— (Huber, ^^Nouvelles Observations sur les 
Abeilles," Gendve, 1814.) 

33. It is well known, also, that bees wintered in cellars 
(646) remember their previous location when taken out in 
the Spring. 

If food is given to a colony, at the same hour, and in the 
same spot, for two days in succession, they will expect it 
the third day, at the same time and place. 

34. When one of her antennae is cut off, no change takes 
place in the behavior of the queen. If you cut both antenns 
near the head, this mother, formerly held in such high considera- 
tion by her people, loses all her influence, and even the m atemal 
instinct disappears. Instead of laying her eggs in the cells, she 
drops them here and there. — (Huber.) 

The experiments made by Huber on workers and drones, 
in regard to the loss of the antennae, are equally conclusive. 
The workers, deprived of their antennae, returned to the 
hive, where they remained inactive and soon deserted it for- 
ever, light being the only thing which seemed to have any 
attraction for them. 

In the same way, drones, deprived of their antennne, de- 
serted the observatory hive, as soon as the light was excluded 
from it, although it was late in the afternoon, and no drones 
were flying out. Their exit was attributed to the loss of 
this organ, which helps to direct them in darkness. 

35. The inference is obvious, that a bee deprived of her 
anteniiii3 loses the use of her intelU'ct. 

♦* If you deprive a bird, a pigeon, for instance, of its cerebral 
lobe, it win be deprived of its instinct, yet it will live If you stufl 
it with food. Furthermore, its bruin will eventually be renewed, 
thus bringing ba<?k :ill the uses of its senses." — (Claude Bernard, 
** Science Experiincntale.") 

Bees, however, cannot live without their antennae, and 
these organs would not grow again, like the brains of birds, 
the legs of crawfishes, or the tails of lizards. 




OKNEBAL 0HARACTBBI8TIC8. 



15 



36. Let us notice, in reference to the sensorial organs, 
that the brain of workers is very much larger than that of 
either the queen or the drone, who need but a very common 
instinct to perform their functions ; while the various occu- 
pations of the workers, who act as nurses, purveyors, sweep- 
ers, watchful wardens, and directors of the economy of the 
bee-hive, necessitate an enlargement of faculties very extra- 
ordinary in so small an insect. 

37. We cannot leave this subject without quoting 
the celebrated Hollander, Swammerdam, as Cheshire does : 

^ I cannot refhiin from confessing, to the glory of the Immense, 
incomprehensible Architect, that I have but imperfectly de- 
scribed and represented this 
small organ; for to repre- 
sent it to the life in its fall 
perfection, far exceeds the 
utmost efforts of human 
knowledge.'' 

38. We have now come 
to the most difficult organ 
to describe — the mouth 
of the bee. But we will 
first visit the interior of 
the head and of the tho- 
rax, to find the nursing 
and salivary* glands, and 
explain their uses.' 

39. The workers have 
three pairs of glands : two 
pairs, different in form, 
placed in the head (a, a, 
fig. 5), and one larger 
pair, located in the thorax 
or corselet. The upper 
pair, which resembles a string of onions, is absent in the 




Fig. 5. 

SALIVARY GLAXnS OF THE WORKKR- 

BKE. 

(Maf^niflcd. From Maurice Girard.) 

a, a, glands of tho hoad; 6, glands of the 
thorax . 



• In pUiuer woidB, fpittle-prodadDg tabes. 



16 riinioLOGT of tbi bombt-bsb. 

drones and queens. Aooording to Girard, tbese npper glandt 
were discovered by Meckel in 1846. They are very large and 
dilated in the young worker bees, while they act as nurses, 
but arc slim in the bees of a broodless colooy. In the 
old bees, that no longer nurse the brood, they wither 
more and more, till they become shrunken and seeminglj 
dried. Hence Maurice Girard, and others befon him, have 
concliidcd very rationally that these upper glaoda prodnoe 
the milky fo&d given to the larvie, during the flnt dayi of 
their development. Mr. Cheshire has confirmed the niy 
reasonable theory that the queen, during the time of egg- 
layiug.isfed by the workers from the secretions of this g^aad. 




LONOITt'mSAL SKCTIOX TUIiOrnil HRAD OF H 

iMn;i,l»M II tlm"'. I''t<>:ii On'-'hlni.) 
K'.ti'iiiill. w:th llir-p ihn^r:W mliflKHl tn i 
M-.i:i: . !al.ni!ii ur iit-i«T lii'i Nil I. iii'Iht Mllvsiyorchjtaglaol 
;\-i- <l T":i':.v ri'.< l:i fM- ; nr tin' in"in-ci-|>h>llc plllui, tat boa Om 
T iiT" k- [>' i" •':. w' ; , -iT-" I' J i<r i.aiiii> In tbf monthi or, oecllniw 
. i-ni.Mil!.- L-s-L"i;ii. , IT t-ral-i hTitcni! ■•, nceki (*, Ihtnssi 
. -l-.n. -ii PT ■•"H. •: :;, mlltiir}- ■!n.-r* i>f ■.■landi two aoA thmi 



1- li.i* ihi' power of produ- 
y (iltj. A OLircftil calcula- 
M i>i-i:iipv a cubic Inch and 




Born at Amsterdam, February 12, 1637. 
This writer Is'mentional pakci 15. iS, 51. M. 1£^, 45S ant) 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 17 

weigh 270 grains. So that a good queen, for days or even weeks* 
In snccession, would deposit, every twenty-four hours, between 
six and nine grains of highly-developed and extremely rich tissue- 
forming matter. Taking the lowest estimate, she then yields the 
Incredible quantity of twice her own weight dally, or more accu- 
rately four times, since at this period, more than half her weight 
consists of eggs. Is not the reader ready to exclaim : What 
enormous powers of digestion she must possess ! and since pol- 
len is the only tissue-forming food of bees, what pellets of this 
must she constantly keep swallowing, and how large must be the 
amount of her dejections I But what are the facts ? Dissection 
reveals that her chyle stomach is smaller than that of the worker, 
and that at the time of her highest efibrts, often scarcely a pollen 
grain is discoverable within it, its contents consisting of a trans- 
parent mass, microscopically indistinguishable from ttie so-called 
** royal jelly " ; while the most practiced bee-men say they 
never saw the queen pass any dejections at all. These contradic- 
tions are utterly inexplicable, except upon the theory I propound 
and advocate. She does pass dejections, for I have witnessed 
the fact; but these are very watery." — (Cheshire.) 

Thus according to Cheshire, the food eaten by tlie queen, 
daring egg-laying, is already digested and assimilated by 
the bees, for her use. Her dejections which are scanty 
and liquid, are licked up by the workers, as are also the de- 
jections of the drones, if not too abundant. 

41. The other two pairs of glands, which are common to 
workers, queens, and drones, evidently produce the saliva. 
The functions of both must be the same, for they unite in 
the same canal (sd, 2, 3^ fig. 6), terminated by a valvule, 
which, passing though the mentum or chin (mt), opens at 
the base of the tongue. The saliva produced by them is 
used for different purposes. It helps the digestion ; it 
changes the chemical condition of the nectar (240) har- 
vested from the flowers ; it helps to knead the scales of wax 
(201) of which the combs are built, and perhaps the pro- 
polis (236) with which the hives are varnished. It is used 

• ThmeUnCU have been demooBtrated so repeatedly, that they are as well 
estabUalied m the moit common laws in the breeding of our domestic animals. 

a 




18 PHT8IOL06T OF THS HOMKT-BBB. 

also to dilute the honey when too thick, to moisten the 
(263) pollen grains, to wash the hairs when daubed with 
honey, etc. 

These glands yield their saliva while the tongue of the 
bees is stretched out; but the upper glands (No. 1, fig. 6), 
which open on both sides of the pharynx or mouth (pA), can 
yield their product only when the tongue is bent backwards, 
to help feed the larva (64) lying at the bottom of the cell. 

42. The mouth of the bee has mandibles or outer jaws, 
which move sidewise, like those of ants and other insects, 
instead of up and down as in higher animals. These jaws 
are short, thick, without teeth, and beveled inside so as to 
form a hollow when joined together, as two spoons would do. 
With them, they manipulate the wax to build their comb, 
open the anthers of flowers to get the honey, and seize and 
hold, to drag them out, robbers or intruders, or debris of 
any kind. 



'^^ ALi^ 




Ftg. 7. Figs. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 
Hea<l of honey- Head of honey- Maiidibh' of honey- Mandible of honey- 
hornet. Ir'o. hornet. bee. 
(MttgnitkKl.) (Mftj^Mjined.) (Magnified.) (lU|rnifled.) 

43. Fiu:. 9 sliows the jaws of the Mexican hornet highly 
nia^iiifiod. Fis;. 10 shows the jaws of the honey-bee, highly 
nia<;nilio«l. Notice the difference in the shape of the two, 
the saw-hke aj^pearaiue of the one, and the spatula shape 
of the other. A ixhmee at these tigures is enough to con- 
vince any intelligent ht^rtie'ulturist of the truth of Aristotle's 
remark — made more than two thousand years ago — that 
** bees hurt no kinds of sound fruit, but wasps and hornets 
arc very destructive to them." 




GKNKRAL CHARACTERISTICS. 19 

We shall give further evidence concerning the correct- 
ness of this statement. (871) 

44. Below the antennae, the clypeus or shield (c/, fig. 6) 
projects, which is prolongated by an elastic rim called labium 
or upper lip (Z6r). The pharynx is the mouth (p/i), and 
the oesophagus (as) the gullet, through which the food goes 
into the stomach. 

As we have already seen, the canals of the upper glands 
open on each side of the mouth, and discharge their product 
into it at will. 

45. The chin or mentum (mt) is not literally a part of 
the mouth. It can move forward and backward, and sup- 
ports several pieces, among which is the tongue, or proboscis, 
or ligula (Z). The tongue is not an extension of the chin, 
but has its root in it, and can only be partly drawn back 
into it, its extremity, when at rest, being folded back under 
the chin. 

46. There are, on each side of the tongue, the labial 
palpi or feelers* (6, fig. 11, and Ip, fig. 6), which are fastened 
to the chin by hinged joints. They are composed of four 
pieces each, the first two of which are broad, and the other 
two small and thin, and provided with sensitive hairs of a 
very fine fabric. Outside of the palpi are the maxiihe (r, 
fig. 11, and mx, fig. 6) which in some insects have the func- 
tion of jaws, but which, in the bee, only serve, with the palpi, 
to enfold the tongue in a sort of tube, formed and opened 
at the will of the insect, and which, by a certain muscular 
motion, as also by the ability of the tongue to move up and 
down in this tube, force the food up into the mouth. 

47. The tongue is covered with hairs, which are of graded 
sizes, 80 that those nearest the tip or bouton are thin and 
flexible. It — the tongue — is grooved like a trough, the 
edges of which can also unite to form a tube, with perfect 

• OigaiM of taste Mooording to Leydlg and Jobezt. 



so PBTSIOLOOT or TBK BOMKI-BSB. 

joints. ItieeasilyuDderBtood that if the tongue were a tube, 
the pollen grains when conveyed through it would obstruct 
it, especially when daubed with very thick honey. 

48. "A most beautiful adaptation bete becomes erldent 
Nectar gathered trom blossoms needs convenlon into honej. lU 
cane sugar must be changed Into grape sugar, and this la accom- 
plished by the admixture of the salivarf secretions of Systems 
Nos. 3 and 3 [td, t, 3, fig. 6), 
either one or both. The 
tongue Is drawn Into the 
mentnm by the shortening 
of the retractor llnguas mus- 
cle, which, as it contracts, 
dtminlshes the space above 
the salivary valve, and so 
pumps out the saliva, which 
mixes with the nectar as It 
rises, by methods we now 
understand. Bees, it has 
often been observed, feed on 
thick syrup slowly ; the 
reason is Bimple. The thlclf 
syrup will not pass readily 
through [iiinute passages 
without thinning by a fluid. 
This fluid is saliva, which is 
demanded in larger iju an ti- 
tles than the poor bees can 
supply. They arc able, how- 
cver.to yield ilin surprising 

how it is tli:it thi'SG little 




Mg. II. 
TONGUK AND An'KXDAGKS. 

(Msgnlfled. riom Maarlos Olnrt.) 
n, tongne: b, UbUl flft; e, msxUlS. 

clean tiicmsclves Trom the sticky body honey. 
The p:ilivn is ti> thpm both soap and water, and the tongue and 
iurrouniliiiir parts, aftur any amount of daubing, will aoon shine 
wltb the iur-trc of a mirror."— (Cheshire.) 

4W. Till' li'iiiiih (if the tonj^iie ot the honey-bee is of great 
im}">i tadi'c in lire-kcpiiers. S"me Dowers, such m red clo- 
vor. have a Lorolla so deep, that tew bees are able to gather 
the honey produced iu them. Therefore, one of the chiel 




QKNEBAL OHARACTBBISTICfl. 21 

aims of progressive bee-keepers, should be to raise bees with 
longer tongues. This can undoubtedly be done sooner or 
later, by careful selection, in the same way that all our do- 
mestic plants and animals have been improved in the past 
For this, pcUience and time are required. 

50. The thorax is the intermediate part of the body. It 
is also called "corselet." It is formed of three rings sol- 
dered into one. Each of the three rings bears one pair of 
legs, on its under side ; and each of the last two rings bears 
a pair of wings, on its upper side ; making four wings and 
six legs, all fastened on the thorax. 

51. Each leg is composed of nine joints (B, Plate IV), the 
two nearest the body (c, tr) being short. The next three 
are the femur (/), tibia (ti), and planta (jp) also called 
metatarsus^ The last four joints form the tarsus (t)oT foot. 

52. The last joint of the tarsus, or tip of the foot, is pro- 
vided with two claws {an^ fig. 12), that cling to objects or 
to the surfaces on which the bee climbs. These claw3 can 
be folded, somewhat like those of a cat (A, tig. 12), or can 
be turned upwards (B, fig. 12) when the bees are hanging 
in clusters. When they wallc on a polished surface, like 
the pane of a window, which the claws cannot grasp, the 
latter are folded down ; but there is between them a small 
rubber-like pocket, pulvillus (py, A, B,) which secretes a 
sticky, ** clammy " substance, that enables the bee to cling 
to the smoothest surfaces. House-files and other insects 
cling to walls and windows by the same process. It was 
formerly asserted that insects cling to the smooth surfaces 
by air suction, but the above explanation is correct, and you 
can actually see '* the footprints of a fly " on a pane of glass, 
with the help of a microscope, remnants of the *' clammy " 
substance being quite discernible. By this ingenious ar- 
rangement, bees can walk indifferently upon almost any- 
thing, since wherever the claws fail, the pulvilli take their 
plmce. 



22 PHTSIOLOGT or THB BOHET-BEE. 

as. "But another contrlvuice, eqoally beAutlfnl, remkltii 
to be noticed. The pulvillas 1b carried folded In the middle (u 
at C, fig. 12), but opens out when applied to a surface, for it hai 
at its upper part an elastic and carved rod (a-) which stralghteai 
as the pulvIUua Is pressed down, C and D, fig. 12, making this 
clear. The flattened-out pul?illus thus holds stronglj while 
pulled, hj the weight of the bee, along the surface, to which it 
adheres, but comes up at once if lifted and rolled off from its op- 
posite sides, Just as wc should peel a wet postage stamp troia Its 
envelope. The bee, then, is held securely till It attempts to lift 
the leg, when It Is freed at once; and, by this exquisite 7et 
simple plan, it can fix and release each foot at least twentj 
times per second."— (Cheshire.) 




lUignlDed 30 times. From Chcsblra.) 

A, poallloD of tbe Foot la climbing slipper; eortAoe ot gUui pc, pal* 
TlUae^ ')>, rccUnRbalrs! an. sm^ieulus. orclav; i. (anal Jolot. 

B, position of Ihp foot In climbing roogh sniftice. 

C, HH-Ilonof pulilllaajast toucliing flat Bbrtace; cr, cnrtsdnd. 

D, t^nlvillUB AppliiHltosnrfftcA. 

B-i. The Iplcs of bees, lilie all other parte of their bod;, 
arc covero.I ivitli hairs of varicil shapes and sizes, the de- 
8cn(ition of ivliich is btyoiHl tlie limits of this work. We 
will (■■mlino oiirsolvos to a short explanation of the uses, 
wliiih have a direct lieariiii:; upon the work ot t">e bee. 

■1-he h;.ir:. ..f tlie fr,.nt, or lirst. pair of legs (C, Plate IV) 
are i-i]ii'ri:illy ii-^efiil in eteanin^ the eyes and the tongue, 

o,"!. l>ti the tuelnlar-ii.;. the lower of the (wo largest joints 
of ihese front lejjs. is a r.iun.ieil nolt-h (E, a, Plate IV), 
oliiseil when tlio leg Ja foMeil. l)y a sort of spur or velom, 




CrafERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 



23 



[v, C, E, H) fastened to the tibia, or upper large joint. 
Ihe learned Dr. Dubini, of Milan (L'Ape, Milan, 1881), 
speaks of it as being used to cleanse the antennae and the 
tongue of the pollen that sticks to them. Mr. Cheshire 
thinks it is used only to cleanse the antennae, from the fact 
that this notch, which has teeth like a comb (F, Plate IV), is 
found as well in the queen and the drone as in the worker, 
Euid that its aperture corresponds exactly to the different 
sizes of the antenna of each sex. (H, Plate IV.) 

56. The second pair of legs have no notch, but the lower 





Fiff. \t\. 

rOSTERIOK LEGS. 

(Magiiifled. From Maurice Girard.) 

A, of the queen; B, of the worker (under side) ; C. of the worker (npper 

aide) ; D, of the drone. 

extremity of the tibia bears a spur (D s, Plate IV) or spine, 
which is used in loosening the pellets of pollen, brought to 
the hive on the tibias of the posterior legs (Plate IV). This 
spur also helps in cleaning the wings. 

57. The posterior or hind legs are very remarkable, in 
several respects. Between the tibia and the metatarsus 
(B, top, Plate IV) they have an articulation, whose parts close 
like pincers, and which serves to loosen from the abdomen 
the scales of wax to be mentioned further on (201). As 
neither the queen nor the drone produces wax, they are des- 
titute of this implement. 




24 PHTSIOLOGT OP THE HONET-BEB. 

56. *'. But the chi^f Interest Centura on the two joints last men- 
tioned (^t\;B,.A. B., Plate iy),a8a device for carrying the pollen of 
the blo8s6m hofne to the hive. The metatarsos Is enlarged into 
a sub-quadrangular form, constituting a llsitlshplate, slightly con- 
vex on both surfaces. The outer face (^, A, Plmtil IV) is not remark- 
able, but the one next the body (jd, B) ' is- 'fbrnlshed with stiff 
combs, the teeth of which are homy, straig&t spines, set closely, 
and arranged in transverse rows across the JbCbt, a little projecting 
above its plane, and the tips of one comb slightly overlapping 
the basis of the next. Their colour is reddish-brown ; and en- 
tangled in the combs, wo almost invariably^discover pollen gran- 
ules, which have been at first picked up by the thoracic hairs, 
but combed out by the constant play of the legs over the breast ~ 
in which work, the second pair, bearing a strong resemblance to 
the third, performs an important part." 

59* *' So soon as tlie bees have loaded these combs, they do 
not return to the hive, but transfer thej pollen to the hollow sides 
of tlie tibia, seen nt ii, A. This concavity, corbicula, or pollen 
basket is siiiootli and hairless, except at the edges, whence spring 
ion;;. fel«nd«r. curved spines, two sets following the line of the 
bottom and sides of the basket, while a third bends over its front. 
Tilt* concavity lUs it to contain i)ollen, while the marginal hain 
greatly increase its i)ossit>le load, like the sloping stakes which 
the tarnicr )*laces round the sides of his waggon when he desires 
to carry loose hay. the Fet hent over (see G, Plate IV) accomplish- 
ing tlic |)nri»osc of the cords by which he saves |iis property from 
being lost on the road. But a diHiculty arises: How can the pol- 
len he transferred from th^ metatarsal comb to the basket above? 
Kasily ; for it is the left metatarsus that charges the right basket, 
and vii:^ rfr.i<i 'I'he leg^ are crossed, and the metatarsus naturally 
scrapes its c(>mh-face on the upper edge of the opposite tibia, in 
tlie direct lor fr<Hn the base af the combs towards their tips. 
The>e upper hairs siandinixover (/•/>, 15, or close to <i, A (which are 
oppo.^ite .-^idcs of the Fame joint), arc nearly straight, and pass 
l)et\veen the <'omh teeth. 'I'he pollen, as removed, is caught by 
tht' hent-over hairs, and secured. Each scrap adds to the mass. 
until the face of the joint is more than covered, and the hairs Just 
emhrace the pellet as we see it in the cross-section at 0. The 
work«'r now hies homewardiit, and the si)ine, as a crow-bar, does 
its work."— (Che.Miire.) 

OO. The four win;rs, in two j)airs, arc supported by hoi- 




(UifnlJIed 10 amM. Prom Chethlra.) 
A, thbdilcbt lee, ddabomUwbadr, U, tlbU, showing paUen bukM; p. plMUat 
■HitMiMj I, tmmi. B, tUid debt l^.Hd* next thabodr. r.con;ir,traoliutari 
■^i fiDflm. C, bODt itfht leff. v, Telnm; 6, bnuh; fd, Bjn-bnuh. D, i 
>W. fr, bmb) BiJoliil ef Out lig, more (dIu^. i, t6ucii\ s.ixMomh « 
>,>««&. ', tMtbof aotaanm eomb, mtgnlllad WD anm. Q. cmt ««iaiiitro.«< 



GEMBKAL CHAKACTEBI8TICS. 25 

low nervura or ribs, and have a great^ power of resiatance. 
In flight, the small wings are fastened to the large ones by 
small hooka (fig. 14), located on the edge of their outer 
oervure, that catch in a fold of the inner edge of the large 
wings. Thus united, they present to the air a stronger 
mrface and give the bees a greater power of flight. No 
doubt, a single pair of wings of the same surface would have 
better attained the desired aim, but their width would have 
annoyed the bees in going inside of the cells, either to feed 




(Udgnlfled Fiom CheBhire ) 

A, aotailOT wing under ilda pp plait 

B, pMtdlciT wing, nnilCT Bide, A, A, haokleti. 

C, cruM-MCtlon of wloga throngh line n.'i, sliotTing booUets In plidt. 

the larvie or to deposit aupphes. Imagine a blue fly trying, 
with its wide wings, to go inside of a cell ! 

Ol. " Mr. Gaurichon has noticed that when the bees tan, 
or ventilate the entrance of the hive, their wings are not 
booked together as they are in flight, but act independent- 
ly of one another." (Dubini, 1881.) A German entomolo- 
gist, Landois, states that, according to the pitch of their 
hnm, the beea' fli^t must at times be equal to 440 vibra- 
tions in a second, but be noticed that tbi& apeei cqu\& ^qV 



26 



PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HOMBT-BEE. 



be kept up without fatigue. It is well known that the nuat 
rapid the vibrations, the higher the pitch. 

62. DiGEaTiKG Apparatus. — The honey obtained from 
the blossoms, after mixing with theaaliva (41 ), and passing 
through the mouth and the leaophagus, is conveyed into the 
honey-sack. 

63. This organ, located in the abdomen, is not larger than 
a very small pea, and so perfectly transparent as to appear, 
when filled, of the same color as its contents; it ia prop- 
erly the first stomach, and is surrounded by mnacles which 

enable the bee to compress 
it, and empty its content* 
through her proboscis into 
the cells. She can also, 
at will, keep a supply, to 
be digested, at leisure, 
when leaving with a 
swarm, (418), or while 
in the cluster during the 
cold of winter (620), and 
use it only as fast as nec- 
essary. For this purpose, 
the honey-sack is supplied 
at its lower extremity, in- 
side, with a round ball, 
which Burmeister has 
called the atomach-mot^h, 
and which has been beau- 
tifiillv described by Schie- 
menz (1883). It opena 
by n complex valve and 
coiiticcts the honey-sack 
with the digesting-stomach, through a tube or canal, pro- 
jecting inside (he latter. This canal is lined with hairs point- 
ing downward, which prevent the solid food, such as pollen 





OKNERAJ. CHARACTERISTICS. 27 

Trains, from returning to the honey-sack. Cheshire affirms 
that this stomach-mouth, which protrudes into the honey- 
sack, acts as a sort of sieve, and strains the honey from the 
^ains of pollen floating in it, appropriating them for di- 
gestion, and allowing the honey to flow back into the sack. 
The bee could thus, at will, *' eat or drink from the mixed 
iiet she carries." 

64. According to Schonfeld, {Ulustrierte Bienenzeitung) 
the chyle, or milky food which is used to feed the young lar- 
vae, — and which we have shown to be, most probably, the 
product of the upper pair of glands (39-40), — would be 
produced from the digesting-stomach, which he and others 
call chyle-stomach. Although we are not competent in the 
[natter, we would remark that the so-called chyle-stomach 
produces chymes or digested food, from which the chyley or 
Dourishing constituent, is absorbed by the cell-lining of the 
stomach and of the intestines, and finally converted into 
blood. We do not see how this chyle could be thickene I and 
regurgitated by the stomach to be returned to the mouth. 

05. In mammals, the chyliferous vessels do not exist in 
the stomach, but in the intestine, the function of the stom- 
ach being only to digest the food by changing it iuto chyme, 
from which the chyle is afterwards separated, for the use of 
the body. 

66. Again, in the mammals, the ghinds which produce 
milk are composed of small clusters of acinic which take 
their secretions from the blood and empty them into vessels 
terminating at the surface of the breast. The action of the 
upper gland (39-40), in the bee, i>< exactly similar to 
the action of those lacteal glands, and the fact that this 
gland is absent in the queen and in the drone is, to us, pos- 
itive evidence that the chylous or lacteal food (given the 
larvae) is produced by these glands alone, and not by the 
direct action of the digesting-stomach. 

67. The food arriving in the stomach is mixed with the 



28 PUTBIOLOGT OF TBB BOKEI-BKK. 

gastric juice, which helps its transformation, and the nndn- 
lating moUon of the stomach sends it to its lower extremitjr, 
*«ward the intestines. But, before entering into them, the 
ihyme receives the product of seTeral glands which have 
been named Malpighian tubes (e, fig. 15) from the scientist 
Malpighi, who was the first to notice them. A grinding 
motion of the muscles placed at the junction of the stoBUu^ 




with ihf intcsliues, acting on the grains of pollen not 
yd KiUtidciitly ilissolvoil, prepares them to yield their 
assimilalilc partJcliis to llic absorbing cells in the walls of 
the small intestitic. Tlicucc they go into the large intes- 
tine, from which the refuse matter Is discharge^ by the 
workcr-hccs, ukile on the wing. We italicize the worda. 



eENEBAt. CHABACTERISnCS. 29 

because this fact has considerable bearing on the health of 
the bees, when confined by cold or other causes, as will be 
seen further on. (030.) 

68. " Tbe nervona sfstetn (flg. 16) of the honey-bee, the Beat 
orsenButlon and of the underetandlng, la very Interesting, on ao 
countof the profouod difference which It presents when compared 
with the nervouB B^stem of the larva. The honey-bee, more per- 
fect In organization than the butterfly, begins as a larva deflctent 
Id legs, very much inferior to the caterpillar from which the but- 
terfly prooeedB. It la very interesting to notice, that the drones, 
■IthoB^ larger than the workers, especially In the head, have a 
■mkllgr bntln. This state of things coincides with the fact that 
thn draow an not Intelligent, while no one can refuse gleams 
of iBtoUlgonoe to the worker-bees, as nurses and builders," 
-{Olmd.) 




Pia. IT. 
«, HKABT OF THK HOXKT-BER. R, RF»PmATO]tV SYSTEM, 

(Macnllled. From Uirnnl.) 

69. The heart, or organ of the circiilution of tlie blood, 
formed of Are elongated rooms, in the abdomen, is tcrmin- 
■ted in the thorax, and in the head, by the aorta, which ia 




30 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BEB. 

not contractible. Each room of the heart presents, on 
either side, an opening for the returning blood. The blood, 
'* soaking through the body" (Cheshire), comes in contact 
with the air contained in the tracheal ramifications, where it 
is arterialized, or in plainer words, renovated, before com- 
ing back to the heart. 

The bee is not provided with any discernible blood or 
lymphatic vessels save the aorta, and its blood is colorless. 

70. The breathing organ of the bee is spread through its 
whole body. It is formed of membranous vessels, or tra- 
chese, whose ramifications spread and penetrate into the 
organs, as the rootlets of a plant sink down into the soil. 
Connected with these, there is, on each side of the abdomi- 
nal cavity, a large tracheal bag, variable in form and dimen- 
sions, according to the quantity of air that it contains. 
Bees breathe through holes, or spiracles, which are placed 
on each side of the body, and open into the tracheal bags 
and tracheae. 

l^l. "The act of respiration consigts in the alternate dilatation 
and contraction of the abdominal segments. By filling, or emp- 
tying the air-bags, the bee can change her specific gravity. 
When a bee is preparing herself for flight, the act of respiration 
resembles that of birds, under similar circumstances. At the mo- 
ment of expanding her wings, which is indeed an act of respira- 
tion, the spiracles or breathing holes are expanded, and the air, 
rushing into them, is extended into the whole body, which by 
the expansion of the air-bags, is enlarged in bulk, and rendered 
of less speciflc gravity ; so that when the spiracles are closed, at 
the instant the insect endeavors to make the first stroke with, 
and raise itself upon, its wings, it is enabled to rise in the air, 
and sustain a long and powerful flight, with but little moscalar 
exertion." ♦ * * "Newport has shown that the develop- 
ment of heat in insects. Just as in vertebrates, depends on the 
quantity and activity of respiration and the yolome of clrcii- 
lation.''— (Packard, Salem, 1868.) 

72. Mr. Cheshire notices that bees, even in full, vigor- 
ous jouth and strength, are not at at aU times able to take 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 81 

flight. The reader may have noticed that if they are fright- 
ened, or even touched with the finger, they will occasionally " 
move only by slight jumps. This temporary inability to 
fly, is due to the small quantity of air that their tracheal 
sacs contain. They were at rest, their blood circulated 
slowly, their body was comparatively heavy ; but when their 
wings were expanded, the tracheal bags, that were as flat as 
ribbons, were soon filled with air, and they were ready to 
take wing. 

Practical Apiarists well know that bees may be shaken off 
the comb, and gathered up, with a shovel, with a spoon, or 
even with the hands, to be weighed or measured in open ves- 
sels, like seeds. The foregoing remarks give the explana- 
tion of this fact. 

73. When the tracheal bags are filled with air, bees, 
owing to their peculiar structure, can best discharge the 
residue contained in their intestines. 

The queen is differently formed, her ovaries occupying 
part of the space belonging to the air-sacks in the worker, 
hence her discharges, like those of the drones (100), take 
place in the hive. (40.) 

^4» "The tracheous bags of the abdomen, which we would 
be tempted to name abdominal lungs, hold in reserve the air need- 
ed to arterialize the blood and to produce muscular strength 
and heat, in connection with the powerful flight of the insect. 
Heat is indispensable, to keep up the high temperature of the 
hive, for the boilding of comb and rearing of brood. The aerial 
vesicles increase, by their resonance, the intensity of the hum- 
ming, and are used also like the valve of a balloon, to slacken or 
Increase the speed of the flight, by the variation of density, ac- 
cording to the quantity or weight, of the air that they contain. 
This accamolated air is also the means of preventing asphyxy, 
which the insects resist a long time. Lastly, these air-bags help 
in the mating of the sexes, which takes place in the air ; the 
swelling of tlie vesicles being indispensable to the bursting forth 
of the male organs.*'— (Girard.) 

75. The hum that is produced by the vibration of the 




82 PUTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BBB. 

wings is different in each of the three kinds of inhabitants 
of the hive, and easily recognizable to a practiced ear. The 
hum of the drone is the most sonorous. But worker-bees, 
when angry or frightened, or when they call each other, 
emit different and sharper sounds. On the production of 
these sounds, bee-keepers and entomologists are far from 
being agreed. 

'* Inside of every opening of the aerial tubes is a Talvular 
muscle, which helps to control the mechanism of respiration. 
This can be opened or closed at will, by the bee, to prevent the 
ing^ss, or egress, of air. It is by this means that the air is kept 
in the large tracheous bags and decreases the specific gravity of 
the Insect. The main resonant organ of the bee is placed in front 
of this stopping muscle, at the entrance of the trachea." 

** The humming is not produced solely by the vibrating of the 
wings, as is generally admitted. Chabrier, ^nrmeister, Lan- 
dois, have discovered in the humming, three different sounds: 
the first, caused by the vibrating of the wings; the second, 
sharper, by the vibration of the rings of the abdomen ; the third, 
the most intense and acute, produced by a true vocal mechaniam, 
placed at the orifices of the aerial tubes.*' — (Qirard.) 

70. The bee-keeper who understands the language of 
bees, can turn it to his advantage. Here are some ex- 
amples : 

^* When something seems to irritate the bees, who are in f^ont 
of a hive, on the alighting-board, they emit a short sound, »-•-•-, 
Jumping at the same time towards the hive. This is a warning. 
Then they fly and examine the object of their fears, remaining 
sustained by their wings, near the suspected object, and emit- 
ting at the same time, a distinct and prolonged sound. This is a 
sig^ of great suspicion. If the object moves quickly, or other> 
wise shows hostile intent, the song is changed into a piercing 
cry for help, in a voice whistling with anger. They dash for- 
ward violently and blindly, and try to sting. 

*''' When they are quiet and satisfied, their voice is the ham- 
ming of a grave tune ; or, if they do not move their wings, an 
allegro murmur. If they are suddenly caught or compressed, 
the sound is one of distress. If a hive is Jarred at a time when 
all the bees are quiet, the mass speedily raise a ham, whlok 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 83 

ceases as suddenly. In a qneenless hive, the sound is doleful, 
lasts longer and at times increases in force. When bees swarm, 
the tune is clear and gay, showing manifest happiness.*'~((£ttl- 
Klauss, 183G.) 

77. The German pastor Stahala has published a very 
complete study on the language of bees, which has appeared 
in some of the bee-papers of Italy, France and America. 
We do not consider it as altogether accurate ; but there are 
some sounds described that all bee-keepers ought to study, 
especially the doleful wail of colonies which have lest their 
queen, and have no means of rearing another. 

78. The Sting. — ^The sting of the bee, a terror to so 
many, is indispensable to her preservation. Without it, 
the attraction, which honey presents to man and animals, 
must have caused the complete destruction of this precious 
insect, years ago. 

79. This organ is composed, ist, of a whitish vesicle, or 
poison sack, about the size of a small mustard seed, located 
in the abdomen, in which the venomous liquid is stored 
This liquid is elaborated in two long canals, similar in ap* 
pearance to the Malpighian tubes, each of which is termin- 
ated at its upper extremity, by a small round bag or en- 
largement. It is similar to formic acid, although perhaps 
more poisonous. 

80. 2d, In the last ring of the abdomen, and connected 
with the poison sack, is a firm and sharp sheath, open in its 
whole length, which supports the sting proper, and acts in- 
dependently of it. The bee can force this sheath out of 
the abdomen, or draw it in, at will. 

81. 3d, The sting is composed of two spears of a pol- 
ished, chestnut-colored, homy substance, which, supported 
by the sheath, make a very sharp weapon. In the act of 
stinging, the spears emerge from the sheath, about two- 
thirds of their length. Between them and on each of them, 
is a small groove, through which the hquid, coming from 

the poisQn sack, is ejected into the wound. 
3 



84 PHT8IOLOOT OF THB UOHBT-BEK. 

82. Each spear of the eting bss about nine barbs, which 
are turned buck like those of a fish book, and prevent the 
stiDg from being easily withdrawn. When the insect i« 
prepared to sting, one of these spears, having a little 
longer point tban the other, first darts into the flesh, and 




TBI BTIMO OF THE 1 

(HasiilllBd. From Glnid.) 
■, ittDg; li, poUon-MCki t,r, poliOD glandi; d,il 

being fixed by its foremost barb, the other strikea in also, 
and they alternately penetrate deeper and deeper, till thej 
acquire a firm hold of the flesh with their barbed hooka. 

"Mean while, the poison la forced to the end of the apean, 
tj nnch the same process which oaiflu ths TaDom Itom tka 
tooa of a rlpor when it bVt«t."-(.Olrard.) 




eXNEBAL CHABACTBRISTICS. 85 

88. The muscles, though invisible to the eye, are yet 
strong enough to force the sting, to the depth of one-twelfth 
of an inch, through the thick skin of a man's hand. 

** The action of the sting," says Paley, " affords an example of 
the union of chemistry and mechanism ; of chemistry, in respect 
to the vtnom which can produce such powerful effects ; of mech- 
anism, as the sting is a compound Instrument. The machinery 
would have been comparatively useless, had it not been for the 
chemical process by which, in the Insect^s body, honey is con- 
verted into poison ; and on the other hand, the poison would have 
been ineffectual, without an instrument to wound, and a syringe 
to inject it." 

"Upon examining the edge of a very keen razor by the micro- 
scope, it appears as broad as the back of a pretty thick knife, 
rough, uneven, and full of notches and furrows, and so far from 
anything like sharpness, that an instrument as blunt as this 
seemed to be, would not serve even to cleave wood. An exceed- 
ingly small needle being also examined, it resembled a rough 
iron bar out of a smith's forge. The sting of a bee viewed 
through the same Instrument, showed everywhere a polish 
amazingly beautiful, without the least flaw, blemish, or inequal- 
ity, and ended ip a point too fine to be discerned." 

84. As the extremity of the^ting is barbed like an ar- 
row, the bee can seldom withdraw it, if the substance into 
which she darts it is at all tenacious. A strange peculiarity 
of the sting and the muscles pertaining to it, is their spas- 
modic action, which continues quite a while, even after the 
bee has torn herself away, and has left them attached to the 
wound. In losing her sting, she often parts with a portion 
of her intestines, and of necessity soon perishes. Wasps 
and hornets are different from bees in this respect, for 
they can sting repejitedly without endangering their lives. 

Although bees pay so dearly for the exercise of their pat- 
riotic instincts, still, in defense of home and its sacred 
treasures, thej 

** Deem life itself to vengeance well resigned, 

^ Die on the wound and leave their sting behind,'* 




86 i'HTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BEE. 

85. The sting is not, however, always lost. When a 
bee prepares to sting, she usually curves her abdomen so 
that she can drive in her sting perpendicularly. To with- 
draw it, she turns around the wound. This probably rolls 
up its barbs, so that it comes out more readily. If it had 
been driven obliquely instead of perpendicularly, as some- 
times happens, she could never have extracted it by turning 
around the wound. 

86. Sometimes, only the poison-bag and sting are torn 
oft, then she may live quite a while without them, and 
strange to say, seems to be more angry than ever, and per- 
sists in making useless attempts to sting. 

87. If a hive is opened during a Winter day, when the 
weather does not permit the bees to fly, a great number of 
them raise their abdomens, and thrust out their stings, in a 
threatening manner. A minute drop of poison can be seen 
on their points, some of which is occasionally flirted into 
the eyes of the Apiarist, and causes severe irritation. The 
odor of this poison is so strong and peculiar, that it is eas- 
ily recognized. In warm weather it excites the bees, and so 
provokes their anger, that yirhen one has used its sting in 
one spot on skin or clothes, others are inclined to thrust 
theirs in the same place. 

88. The sting, when accompanied by the poison-sack, 
may inflict wounds hours, and even days, after it has been 
removed, or torn, from the body of the bee. But when 
buried in honey, its poison is best preserved, for it is very 
volatile, and when exposed to the air, evaporates in a 
moment. The stings of bees, which, perchance, may be 
found in broken combs of honey, often retain their power, 
and we have known of a person's being stung in the mouth, 
by carelessly eating lioney in which bees had been buried 
by the fall of the combs. 

Mr. J. R. Bledsoe, in the American Bee^ Jaumal, for 
1870, writes : 




GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS. 87 

S9. "It may often happen that one or both of the chief parts 
of the sting are left in the wound, when the sheath is with- 
drawn, bat are rarely perceived, on account of their minuteness; 
the person stung congratulating himself, at the same time, that 
the sting has been extracted. I have had occasion to prove this 
fact repeatedly in my own person and in others. * * * The 
substance of the sting, on account of its nature is readily dis- 
solved by the fluids of the body, consequently giving irritation 
as a foreign body for only a short time comparatively. The sting 
when boiled in water becomes tender and easily crushed." 

For further particulars concerning the sting, we will refer 
onr readers to the chapter entitled *' Handling Bees." — 
(378.) 

90. Before terminating this comparatively short, but 
perhaps, to many of our readers, tedious study of the or- 
gans of the bee, we desire to commend Messrs. Girard, 
Packard, Cook, Schiemenz, Dubini, and especially Mr. F. 
Cheshire, who, by their writings, have helped us in this 
part of our undertaking. We must add also that the more 
we study bees, the more persuaded we are that Mr. Packard 
was right when he wrote : 

91. ^* Besides these structural characters as animals, endowed 
with instinct, and a kind of reason, differing, perhaps, only in 
degree, from that of man, these insects outrank all the articu- 
lates. In the unusual differentiation of the individual into 
males, females, and sterile workers, and a consequent subdivision 
of labor between them ; in dwelling in larpe colonics; in their 
habits and In their relation to man as domestic animals, subserv- 
ient to his wants, the bees possess a combination of characters 
which are not found in any other sub-order of insects, and which 
rank them first and highest In the insect series.*' — (''Guide to th« 
Study of Insects.") 

92. One of the especial peculiarities of the hymenop- 
ters is the care most of them give to their progeny. We 
will show how bees nurse their young. Other insects of 
the same sub-order construct their nests of clay or paper, 
or burrow in the wood, or in the earth. Ail prepare tot 




88 FHTBIOLOGI OF THE HONXT-BEK. 

their young a sufficient supply of food ; some of pollen and 
honey, others of animnl eubatance. Several kinds of ^asps 
provide their nests with living insects, spiders, caterpillars, 
etc., that they have previously paralyzed, but without kill* 
ing them, by piercing them with their stinga. 

Ante seem to poasese even a greater solicitude. When 
their nests are overthrown, they carry their larvie to some 
hidden place out of danger. 

We have exhibited the uae of the organs of bees as a 
race. We will now examine the character of each of the 
three kinds of inhabitants of the bee-hive. 



The Queek. 

93. Although honey-bees have attracted the attentloa 
of naturalists tor ages, the sex 
of the inmates of the t>ee-hiv« 
was, tor a long time, a mystery. 
The Ancient authors, having no- 
ticed in the hive, a bee, larger 
than the others, and differently 
shaped, had called it the "King 
Bee." 

94. To our knowledge, it was an English bee-keeper, 
Butler, who, first among bcc-writers, affirmed in 1609, that 
the King Bee was really a queen, and that he had seen her 
deposit eggs. (" Feminine Monarchy.") 

05. This discovery seems to have passed unnoticed, tor 
Swammord.im, who ascertained the sex of bees by disseo- 
tion. is held as having been the first to proclaim the sex of 
the Queen bee, (Lcyde, 1737.) A brief extract from the 
celebrated Dr. IJotrhaave's Blcmoir of Swammerdam, show- 
ing the ardor of this naturalist, in his study of beea, sboold 
put to blush the arrogance of those superficial obMrran, 





THB QUBEN. 89 

who are too wise tx> avail themselves of the knowledge of 
others : 

*' This treatise on Bees proved so fatiguing a performance, that 
Swammerdam never afterwards recovered even the appearance 
of his former health and vigor. He was most continually en- 
gaged by day in making observations, and as constantly by night 
in recording them by drawings and suitable explanations. 

'*' His daily labor began at six in the morning, when the sun 
afforded him light enough to survey such minute objects ; and 
from that hour till twelve, he continued without interruption, all 
the while exposed in the open air to the scorching heat of the 
sun, bareheaded, for fear of Intercepting his sight, and his head 
in a manner dissolving into sweat under the irresistible ardors of 
that powerful luminary. And if he desisted at noon, it was only 
because the strength of his eyes was too hiuch weakened by the 
extraordinary afflux of light, and the use of microscopes, to con- 
tinue any longer upon such small objects. 

*'^ He often wished, the better to accomplish his vast, unlimited 
views, for a year of perpetual heat and light to perfect his inqui- 
ries; with a polar night, to reap all the advantages of them by 
proper drawings and descriptions." 

96. The name of queen was then given to the mother 
bee, although she in no way governs, but seems to reign 
like a beloved mother in her family. 

97. She is the only perfect female in the hive, the laying 
of eggs being her sole function ; and so well does she accom- 
plish this duty, that it is not uncommon to find queens, 
who lay more than 8,500 eggs per day, for several weeks in 
succession during the height of the breeding season. In 
our observing hives we have seen them lay at the rate of six 
eggs in a minute. The fecundity of the female of the white 
ant is, however, much greater than this, being at the rate of 
sixty eggs a minute ; but her eggs are simply extruded from 
her body, and carried by the workers into suitable nurser- 
ies, while the queen-bee herself deposits her eggs in their 
appropriate ceUs. 

98. This number of 8,500, that a good queen can lay 




40 PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BEB. 

per day, will seem exaggerated to many bee-keepers, own- 
ers of small hives. They will perhaps ask how such lay- 
ing can be ascertained. Nothing is easier. Let us suppose 
that we have found a hive, with 1,200 square inches of 
comb occupied by brood. As there are about 55 worker- 
cells to the square inch of comb (217), 27 to 28 on each 
side, we multiply 1,200 by 55, and we have 66,000 as the 
total number of cells occupied at one time. Now, it takes 
about 21 days for the brood to develop from the egg to the 
perfect insect, and we have 3,145 as the average number of 
eggs laid daily by that queen, in 21 days. Of course, this 
amount is not absolutely accurate, as the combs are not 
always entirely filled, but it will suffice to show, within 
perhaps a few hundred, the actual fecundity of the queen. 

Such numbers can be found every year, rn most of the 
good colonies, provided that the limited capacity of the 
hive will not prevent the queen from laying to the utmost 
of her ability. 

09. The laying of the queen is not equal at all seasons. 
Sihe lays most during the spring and summer months, pre- 
vious to the honey crop and during its flow. In late autumn 
and winter months, she lays but little. 

100. Her shape is widely different from that of the 
other bees. While she is not near so bulky as a drone, her 
body is longer ; and as it is considerably more tapering, or 
sugar-loaf in form, than that of a worker, she has a some- 
what wasp-like appearance. Her wings are much shorter 
in proportion than those of the drone, or, worker ; • the 
under part of her body is of a golden color, and the upper 
part usually darker than that of the other bees.f Her mo- 
tions are generally slow and matronly, although she can, 
when she pleases, move with astonishing quickness. No 
colony can long exist without the presence of this ail-impor- 

*The wlngB of the qaooQ are in reo/Uy longer thaa tboee of tbm 
t This MppUeg only to qneeoA of the blick or oommon 




THE QUEEir. 41 

tant insect ; but most as surely perish, as the body without 
the spirit must hasten to inevitable decay. 

101. The queen is treated with the greatest respect and 
af wCtion by the bees. A circle of her loving offspring often 
turround her, testifying in various ways their dutiful re- 
gard ; some gently embracing her with their antennse, others 
offering her food from time to time, and all of them politely 
backing out of her way, to give her a clear path when she 
moves over the combs. If she is taken from them, the 
whole colony is thrown into a state of the most intense agi- 
tation as soon as they ascertain their loss ; all the labors of 
the hive are abandoned ; the bees run wildly over the combs, 
and frequently rush from the hive in anxious search for 
their beloved mother. If they cannot find her, they return 
to their desolate home, and by their sorrowful tones reveal 
their deep sense of so deplorable a calamity. Their note at 
such times, more especially when they first realize their loss, 
is of a peculiarly mournful character ; it sounds somewhat 
like a succession of wailings on the minor key, and can no 
more be mistaken by an experienced bee-keeper, for their 
ordinary happy hum (76), than the piteous moanings of a 
sick child could be confounded by the anxious mother with 
its joyous crowings when overfiowing with health and hap- 
piness. We shall give, in this connection, a description of 
an interesting experiment. 

102. A populous stock was removed, in the morning, to 
a new place, and an empty hive put upon its stand. Thous- 
ands of workers which were ranging the fields, or which left 
the old hive after its removal, returned to the familiar spot. 
It was truly affecting to witness their grief and despair ; 
they flew in restless circles about the place where once stood 
their happy home, entering the empty hive continually, and 
expressing iii various ways, their lamentations over so cruel 
a bereavement. Towards evening, ceasing to take wing, 
they roamed in restless platoons, in and out of the hive, and 




42 PHTSIOLOOT OB THE HONET-BKK. 

over its surface, as if in search of some lost treasure. A 
small piece of brood-comb was then given to them, contain- 
ing worker-eggs and worms. The effect produced by its 
introduction took place much quicker than can be described. 
Those which first touched it raised a peculiar note, and in a 
moment, the comb was covered with a dense mass of bees ; 
as they recognized, in this small piece of comb, the means 
of deliverance, despair gave place to hope, their restless 
motions and mournful voices ceased, and a cheerful hum 
proclaimed their delight. If some one should enter a build- 
ing filled with thousands of persons tearing their hair, beat* 
ing their breasts, and by piteous cries, as well as frantio 
gestures, giving vent to their despair, and could by a singly 
word cause all these demonstrations of agony to give place 
to smiles and congratulations, the change would not be more 
instantaneous than that produced when the bees received 
the brood-comb ! 

The Orientals called the honey-bee '* Deborah; She thai 
speaketh." Would that this little insect might speak, in 
words more eloquent than those of man's device, to those 
who reject any of the doctrines of revealed religion, with the 
assertion that they are so improbable, as to labor under a 
fatal a priori objection. Do not all the steps in the devel- 
opment of a queen from the worker-egg, labor under the 
very same objection? and have they not, for this reason been 
formerly regarded, by many bee-keepers, as unworthy of 
belief? If the favorite argument of infidels will not stand 
the test, when applied to the wonders of the bee-hive, is it 
entitled to serious weight, when, by objecting to religious 
truths, they arrogantly take to task the Infinite Jehovah for 
what He has been pleased to do or to teach? With no 
more latitude than is claimed by such objectors, it were 
easy to prove that a man is under no obligation to believe 
any of the wonders of the bee-hive, even although he is him- 



THK QDKCM. 



48 



•elf mn intelligent eye-witness to thur Bubstantial truth.* 
103, The process of rearing Queen-bees will now be par- 
ticularly described. Early in the season, if & hive becomes 
f populous, and if the bees make preparations for swarm- 
ing, a number of royal cells 
are begun, being commonly 
constructed upon those edges 
of the combs which are not 
attached to the sides of the 
hive. These cells somewhat 
resemble a small pea- nut, 
and are about an inch deep, 
and one-third of an inch in 
diameter: being very thick, 
they require much wax for 
their construction. They are 
seldom seen in a perfect state 
after the hatching of the 
queen, as the boos cut them 
down to the shape of a small 
acorn-cup (fig. 20). These 
queen-cells, while in prog- 
ress, receive a very unusual 
amount of attention from the workers. There is scarcely a 
second in which a bee is not peeping into them ; and as fast 
as one is satisfied, another pops in her heail to report prog- 
ress, or increase the supply of food. Their importance to 
the community might easily be inferred from their being 
the center of so much attraction. 

104. While the other cells open sidewaj-s, the queen-celts 
always hang with their mouth doii-nieards. Some Apiarists 

■T)MpMM«MnARiiiglCi«UEloiu (Objects bitTebf CD Qeulr ■Un?C>ln«llii 
tUi nrtalon, alMr. tangiiroU'i rr^uear. even when not In iccordtinee with 
tMUTlnn, As IntaUisant swa m tlwiri tolerant, weknoir our itaAett ntU 
M0( abjaot to th«tB. 




QOKXK-CXLLB IN PROORBSS. 




44 PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BBK. 

think that this peculiar position affects, in some way, the 
development of the royal larvse ; while others, having ascer* 
tained that they are uninjured if placed in any other posi- 
tion, consider this deviation as among the inscrutable 
mysteries of the bee-hive. So it seemed to us until convinced, 
by a more careful observation, that they open downwards 
simply to save room. The distance between the parallel 
ranges of comb in the hive is usually too small for the royal 
cells to open sideways, without interfering with the opposite 
cells. To economize space, the bees put them on the unoc- 
cupied edges of the comb, where there is plenty of room for 
such very large cells. 

105. The number of royal cells in a hive varies greatly ; 
sometimes there are only two or three, ordinarily not less 
than five ; and occasionally, more than a dozen. 

Some races of bees have a disposition to raise a greater 
number of queen-cells than others. At the Toronto meet- 
ing of the North American Bee-keepers' Association, in 
September, 1883, Mr. D. A. Jones, the noted Canadian im- 
porter of Syrian and Cyprian bees, and publisher of the 
Canadian Bee Journal, exhibited a comb containing about 
eighty queen-cells, built by a colony of Syrian bees (560). 
Such cases are rare in the hive of any other race. 

106. As it is not intended that the young queens should 
all be of the same age, the royal-cells are not all begun at 
the same time. It is not fully settled how the eggs are de- 
posited in these cells. In some few instances, we have 
known the bees to transfer the eggs from common to queen- 
cells ; and this may be their general method of procedure. 
Mr. Wagner put some queenless bees, brought from a dis- 
tance, into empty combs that had lain for two years in his 
garret. When supplied with brood, they raised their queen 
in this old comb ! Mr. Richard Colvin, of Baltimore, and 
other Apiarian friends, have communicated to us instances 
almost as striking. Yet, Huber has proved that bees do 




THS QU1EEN. 45 

not ordinarily transport the eggs of the qneen from one cell 
to another. We shall hazard the conjecture, that, in a 
crowded state of the hive, the queen deposits her eggs in 
cells on the edges of the comb, some of which are afterwards 
changed by the workers into royal cells. Such is a queen's 
instinctive hatred of her own kind, that it seems improbable 
that she should be intrusted with even the initiatory steps 
for securing a race of successors. 

(For further particulars concerning the raising of large 
numbers of queen-cells, see 515.) 

107. The egg which is destined to produce a queen-bee 
does not differ from the egg intended to become a worker ;. 
but the young queen-larvse are much more largely supplied 
with food than the other larvae ; so that they seem to lie m 
a thick bed of jelly, a portion of which may usually be 
found at the base of their cells, soon after they have hatched, 
while the food given to the worker-larvse after three days, 
and for the last days of their development, is coarser and 
more sparingly given, as will be seen 'farther on. 

108. The effects produced on the royal larvae by their 
peculiar treatment are so wonderful, that they were at first 
rejected as idle whims, by those who had neither been eye- 
witnesses to them, nor acquainted with the opportunities 
enjoyed by others for accurate observation. They are not 
only contrary to all common analogies, but seem marvelous- 
ly strange and improbable. The most important of these 
effects we shall briefly enumerate. 

1st, The peculiar mode in which the worm designed for a 
queen is treated causes it to arrive at maturity almost one- 
third earlier than if it had been reared a worker. And yet, 
as it is to be much more fully developed, according to ordi- 
nary analogy, it should have had a slower growth. 

2d, Its organs of reproduction are completely developed, 
so that it can fulfill the office of a mother. 

3d. Its size, shape, and color are greatly changed; ita 



46 



or THE BONET-BKK. 



lower Jaws are shorter, its head rooDder, and its abdornvn 
without the receptaclea tor secretiiig wkx ; its bind legs lun 
neitlier brushes nor baskets, and its sting is ourred (fig. SI), 
and one-tturd longer than that o( a worlter. 




Fig. SI. 
THE .STINC OF TH* QUIBX. 
(Uignia«l. Prom Otnrd.) 
'.a, bnncheiOf ltie<i*ldacC4 r, oil dad 

t, polWD-Mck; /, gland. 

4th. Its instincts are entirely changed. Reared M k 
worker, it would have thrust out its sting at the least provo- 
cation : whereas now, it may be pulled limb from limb with- 
out attempting to sting. As a worker, it would have treated 
a queen with the greatest consideration ; but now, if brought 
in contact with another queen, it seeks to destroy her as a 
rival. As a worker, it would frequently have left the hive, 
either for labor or exercise ; as a queen, it never leaves it 
after impregnation, except to accompany a new swarm. 

6th. The term of its life is remarkably lengthened. As a 
worker, it would not have lived more than six or seven 
months ; as a queen, it may live seven or eight times as 




THB QURBN. 47 

longi All these wonders rest on the impregnable basis of 
demonstration, and instead of being witnessed only by a 
select few, are now, by the use of the movable-comb hive, 
familiar sights to any bee-keeper who prefers an acquaint- 
ance with facts, to caviling and sneering at the labors of 
others. 

109. The process of rearing queens, to meet some spe- 
cial emergency, is even more wonderful than the one already 
described. If the bees have worker-eggs, or worms not 
more than three days old, they make one large cell out of 
three, by nibbling away the partitions of two cells adjoining 
a third. Destroying the eggs or worms in two of these cells, 
they place before the occupant of the other, the usual food 
of the young queens ; and by enlarging its cell, give it ample 
space for development.* As a security against failure, they 
usually start a number of queen-cells, for several days in 
succession. 

110. Duration of Dsyblopmbnt. — ^The eggs hatch in 
three days after they are laid. The small worm which is 
intended to produce a queen, is six days in its larval state, 
and seven in its transformation into a chrysalis and winged 
insect. These periods are not absolutely fixed ; being 
of shorter or longer duration, according to the warmth 
of the hive and the care given by the bees. In from ten to 
sixteen daysf they are in possession of a new queen, in all 
respects resembling one reared in the natural way ; while 
the eggs in the adjoining cells, which have been developed 
as workers, are nearly a week longer in coming to maturity. 

111. The ViRGDf Queen. — Feeble and pale, in the first 
moments after her birth, the young queen, as soon as she 

• It was m Qeiman bee-keeper, Sohiraoh, who discovered that a queen can be 
niaed ftom m woiker-egf . (* * The New Natural and Artificial Multiplication 
of Bees," BaittMn. 1781.) 

t In ten dayf. If the larra selected is about three days old; in sixteen, If 
newly laid eggs are selected. 




48 PHTSIOLOGT OF THS HONST-BEK. 

has acquired some strength, travels over the combs, looking 
for a rival, either hatched or anhatched. 

112. "Hardly had ten minutes elapsed after the young queeo 
emerged from her cell, when she began to look for sealed 
queen-cells. She rushed ftiriously upon the first that she met, 
and, by dint of hard work, made a small opening in the end. We 
saw her drawing, with her mandibles, the silk of the cocoon, 
which covered the Inside. But, probably, she did not succeed 
according to her wishes, for she left the lower end of the cell, 
and went to work on the upper end, where she finally made a 
wider opening. As soon as this was sufficiently large, she turned 
about, to push her abdomen into it. She made several motions, 
in different directions, till she succeeded In striking her rival 
with the deadly sting. Then she left the cell ; and the beet, 
which had remained, so far, perfectly passive, began to enlarge 
the gap which she had made, and drew out the corpse of a queen 
Just out of her nymphal shell. During this time, the victorious 
younf^ queen rushed to another queen-cell, and again made a 
large opening, but she did not introduce her abdomen into it; 
thii second cell containing only a royal-pupa not yet formed. 
There is some probability that, at this stage of development, 
the nymphs of queens inspire less anger to their rivals ; but they 
do not escape their doom ; for, whenever a queen-cell has been 
prematurely opened, the bees throw out its occupant, whether 
worm, nymph, or queen. Therefore, as soon as the victorious 
queen had left this second cell, the workers enlarged the opening 
and drew out the nymph that it contained. The young queen 
rushed to a third cell ; but she was unable to open it. She worked 
languidly and seemed tired of her first efforts."— (Huber.) 

113. Huber did not allow this experiment to go on any 
further, as he wished to use the remainder of the qaeen-cells. 
Had he left these cells untouched, the bees would have fin- 
ished the work of destruction. 

114. We have noticed repeatedly, that the queen-cells 
are always destroyed a few hours after the birth of the 
queen, unless the colony has determined to swarm. In the 
latter case, the workers prevent the newly-hatched queen 
from approaching the queen-cells, till she is old enough and 
strong enough to leave with the swarm. (443.) 




THB QUEKN. 49 

115. Like some human beings who cannot have their own 
way, she is higlilj offended when thus repulsed, and utters, 
in a quick succession of notes, a shrill, angry sound, not 
unlike the rapid utterance of the words, " peep, peep." If 
held in the closed hand, she will make a similar noise. To 
this angry note, one or more of the unhatched queens, im- 
prisoned and nursed in their cells by the bees, answer by 
the sound ^^kooa, kooa"; the difference in their voices, 
being due to the confinement of the latter in the cell. 

These sounds, so entirely unlike the usual steady hum of 
the bees, are almost infallible indications that a swarm will 
soon issue. They are occasionally so loud as to be heard at 
some distance from the hive. 

The reader will understand that all these facts relate to a 
hive of bees, from which the old queen has been previously 
and suddenly removed, either by the Apiarist for some pur- 
pose, or by swarming, or accident. 

116. Sometimes two queens hatch at the same time. We 
give below a translation of Ruber's account in such event : 

" On the 15th of May, 1790, two queens emerged from their cells, 
at about the same time. In one of our observing hives. They 
rushed quickly upon one another, apparently in great anger, and 
frrasped one another's antennae, so that the head, corselet and 
abdomen of the one, were touching the head, corselet and ab- 
domen of the other. Had they curved the posterior extremity 
of their bodies, they could have stung each other, and both 
would have perished. But it seems that Nature has not wished 
that their duels should result In the death of both combatants, 
and that it is prescribed to queens, while in this position, to 
flee instantly with the greatest haste. As soon as both rivals 
understood that they were in danger from one another, they dis- 
entangled themselves and fled apart A few minutes after, 

their fears ceased and they attacked one another again, with the 
same result. The worker bees were much disturbed, all this 
time, and more so while the combatants were separated. Each 
time, the bees stopped the queens in their flight, keeping them 
prisoners for a minute.** **At last, in a third attack, the 
stronger, or more savagei of the queens, ran to her unsuspecting 

4 




60 PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HONET-BEB. 

rival, seized her across the wings, and, climbing upon her, 
pierced her with her sting. The yanquished qaeen, crawled 
languidly aboat, and soon after died."— (^^Nouvelles Observa- 
tions.") 

117. Although it is generally admitted that two queens 
cannot inhabit the same hive, it happens, sometimes, that 
mother and daughter, are found living peaceably together, 
and even laying eggs at the same time. This is when 
the bees, having noticed the decrease in fecundity of the 
old queen, have raised a young queen to replace her. But 
this abnormal state lasts only a few weeks, or a few months 
at most. 

118. Our junior partner was, one day, hunting for a 
queeil with his sister. ^'What a large and bright-colored 
queen! " exclaimed he, on finding her. ^* Why, no! she is 
dark and small," said his sister. Both were right, for there 
were two queens, mother and daughter, on the same comb, 
and not six inches apart. At another time we were looking 
for an old queen, whose prolificness had decreased, intend- 
ing to supersede her. To our wonder, the hive was full of 
brood. We found the old queen. Evidently a queen so 
small, so ragged and worn, could not be the mother of such 
a quantity of brood. We continued our search and found 
another queen, daughter of the first, large and plump. Had 
we introduced a strange queen into this hive, after having 
destroyed the old one, thinking that we had made the col- 
ony queenless, she would have been killed. 

110. We could relate a number of such instances. The 
most interesting case was the simultaneous laying of two 
queens of different breeds in the same hive, one black, the 
other Italian. The colony had two queens, when we intro- 
duced our Italian queen. We found the younger one and 
killed her, and the old one was so little considered by her 
bees, that they accepted our imported queen and allowed 
both to remain together. To our astonishment there wert 




THI( QUKDI. 51 

some black bees hatching among the pure Italians, and it 
was not till we accidentally discoyered the old black queen 
that we understood the matter. 

There are more sach cases than most bee-keepers would 
imagine, and when these happen to buyers of improved 
races of bees, if they are not very close observers, they are 
apt to accuse the venders of having cheated them. Such 
instances make the business of queen selling quite disagree- 
able. 

120. Impbbokatiok. — ^The fecundation of the queen bee 
has occupied the minds of Apiarists and savants for ages. 
A number of theories were advanced. If a number of 
drones are confined in a small box, they give forth a strong 
odor : Swanmierdam supposed that the queen was impreg- 
nated by this scent {aurasemincUis) of the drones. Reaumur, 
a renowned entomologist, in 1744, thought that the mating 
of the queen was effected inside of the hive. Others ad- 
vanced that the eggs were impregnated by the drones in the 
cells. 

After making a number of experiments to verify these 
theories, and finding all false, Huber finally ascertained 
that, like many other insects, the queen was fecundated in 
the open air and on the wing ; and that the influence of this 
connection lasts for several years, and probably for life. 

121. Five days or more after her birth, the virgin 
queen goes out to have intercourse with a drone. Several 
bee-keepers of note, such as Neighbour of England (''Cook's 
Manual," 1884, page 72) and Dzierzon of Germany, wrote 
that a queen may go out on her marriage-flight when 
only three days old. The shortest time we have ever 
noticed between the birth of a queen and her first bridal- 
flight was five days, and on this we are in accordance 
with Mr. Alley of Massachusetts, one of the most exten- 
sive queen breeders in the world. The average time is 
six or seven days. Earlier bridal-trips are probably due to 




52 PHT8IOLOGT OF TQ^ HONET-BES. 

the disturbing of the colony by the Apiarist, for we have no- 
ticed that this disturbing hastens the maturity of the work- 
ers. The bridal-flight takes place about noon, at which 
time, the drones are flying most numerously. 

122. On leaving her hive, the queen flies with her head 
turned towards it, often entering and departing several 
times before she finally soars into the air. Such precautions 
on the part of a young queen are highly necessary, that she 
may not, on her return, lose her life, by attempting, through 
mistake, to enter a strange hive. Many queens are lost in 
this way. 

123. As the mating of the queen and the drone takes 
place in the air, very few persons have witnessed it. The 
following narration will please our readers : 

** A short time ago, daring one of those pleasanl days of May, I 
was roaming in the fields, not far from Courbevoie. Suddenly I 
heard a loud humming and the wind of a rapid flight brushed my 
eheek. Fearing the attack of a hornet, I made an instinctive mo- 
tion with my hand to drive it away. There were two insects* 
one of which pursued the other with eagerness, coming from high 
tn the air. Frightened no doubt, by my movements, they arose 
again, flying vertically to a great height, still in pursuit of each 
other. I imagined that it was a battle, and desiring to know the 
result, I followed, at my best, their motions in the air, and got 
ready to lay hold of them, as soon as they would be within reach. 

** I did not wait long. The pursuing insect rose above the other, 
and suddenly fell on it. The shock was certainly violent, for both 
united, dropped with the swiftness of an arrow and passed by me, 
so near that I struck them down, with my handkerchief. I then 
discovered that this bitter battle was but a love-suit. The two 
insects, stunned and motionless, were coupled. The copulation 
had taken place in the air, at the instant when I had seen one of 
them falling on the other, twenty or twenty-flve feet above the 
ground. 

*" It was a queen-bee and a drone. Persuaded that I had killed 
them, I made no scruple of piercing them both with the same pin. 
But the pain recalled them to life again, and they promptly sepa- 
rated. This separation was violent, and resulted in the tearing 
off of the drone's organ (188) which remained atta^lied to tb* 




THs Qum. 53 

queen. The queen was yet alive on the following morning. For 
some time after her separation firom the drone, she brushed the 
last ring of her abdomen, as though trying to extract the organ 
of the drone. She endeavored to bend herself, probably in order 
to bring this part witliin reach of her Jaws, which were con- 
stantly moving, but the pin prevented her from attaining her aim. 
Her activity soon decreased and she ceased to move."— (Alex. 
Levi, Journal Des Fermu^ Paris, 1869.) 

Messrs. Gary and Otis had witnessed a similar occurrence 
in July 1861. (^American Bee Journal^ Vol. I, page 66.) 

124. It is now well demonstrated that in a single mating, 
a queen is fertilized for life, although in a few rare instan- 
ces they have been said to mate two days in succession, per* 
haps because the first mating was insufficient. 

125. After the queen has re-entered the hive, she gets 
rid of the organ of the drone by drawing it with her claws, 
and she is sometimes helped in this work by the worker- 
bees. The drone dies in the act*of fertilization. (188.) 

126. Although fertilization of the queen in confinement 
has been tried by many, it has never been successful. Those 
who, from time to time, claimed to have succeeded were evi- 
dently deceiving themselves through ill-made experiments. 
(187.) 

127. Having ascertained that the queen-bee is fecund- 
ated in the open air and on the wing, Huber still could not 
form any satisfactory conjecture how eggs were fertilized 
which were not yet developed in her ovaries. Years ago, 
the celebrated Dr. John Hunter (1792), and others, sup- 
posed that there must be a permanent receptacle for the 
male sperm, opening into the oviduct. Dzicrzon, who must 
be regarded as one of the ablest contributors of modern 
times to Apiarian science, maintained this opinion, and 
stated that he had found such a receptacle filled with a fluid 
resembling the semen of the drones. He does not seem to 
have then demonstrated his discoveries by any microscopie 
ezaminatioDB. 




frk PHT8IOLOOT OF THX HONET-BSK. 

128. In the Winter of 1851-2, the writer submitted for 
scientific examination several queen-bees to Dr. Joseph 
Leidy, of Philadelphia, who had the highest reputation both 
at home and abroad, as a naturalist and microscopic anat- 
omist. He found, in making his dissections, a small globu- 
lar sac, about -^ of an inch in diameter, communicating 
with the oviduct, and filled with a whitish fluid ; this fluid, 
when examined under the microscope, abounded in the 
spermatozoids* which characterize the seminal fluid. A 
comparison of this substance, later in the season, with the 
semen of a drone, proved them to be exactly alike, t 

129. These examinations have settled, on the impreg^ 
nable basis of demonstration, the mode in which the eggs of 
the queen are fecundated. In descending the oviduct to 
be deposited in the cells, they pass by the mouth of this 
seminal sac, or ^^ spermatheca," and receive a portion of its 
fertilizing contents. Small as it is, it contains suflScient to 
impregnate millions of eggs. In precisely the same way, 
the mother- wasps and hornets are fecundated. The females 
only of these insects survive the Winter, and often a single 
one begins the construction of a nest, in which at first only 
a few eggs are deposited. How could these eggs hatch, if 
the females had not been impregnated the previous season? 
Dissection proves that they have a spermatheca similar to 
that of the queen-bee. It never seems to have occurred to 
the opponents of Huber, that the existence of a |>ermanent- 
ly-imprcguated mother-wasp is quite as difficult to be ac- 
counted for, as the existence of a similarly impregnated 
queen-bee. 

130. The celebrated Swammerdam, in his observations 

• upenhatoznidA are the liriog gcrmB of the semiDal fluid. 

t Prof Slobold, in 1S43, examined the spormatheca of theqneeo-bee, andftmod 
It after copulation, niliHl with the seminal flaid of the drose. At thftttima, Apl- 
arists paid no atteutiou to his riews, bnt considered them, M Im aaya, to bt 
only *'theorftiinl ftuf." It seems, then, that Prof. Laldy'a diaMOtioii 
not, ac wa had hitherto iopposed. the flnt. of an improfnatod < 




THS QUSKX. 55 

upon insects, made in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century, has given a highly magnified drawing of the ovaries 
of the queen-bee, a reduced copy of which we present 
(Plate V) to our readers. The small globular sac (D), com- 
municating with the oviduct (JE?), which he thought secreted 
a fluid for sticking the eggs to the base of the cells, is the 
seminal reservoir, or spermatheca. Any one who will care- 
fully dissect a queen-bee, may see this sac, even with the 
naked eye. 

It will be seen that the ovaries ( (7 and H) are double, each 
consisting of an amadng number of ducts filled with eggs, 
which gradually increase in size.* 

131. Huber, while experimenting to ascertain how the 
queen was fecundated, confined some young ones to their 
hives by contracting the entrances, so that they were more 
than three weeks old before they could go in search of the 
drones. To his amazement, the queens whose impregnation 
was thus retarded never laid any eggs but such as produced 
drones ! 

He tried this experiment repeatedly, but always with the 
same result. Bee-keepers, even from the time of Aristotle, 
had observed that all the brood in a hive were occasionally 
drones. 

132. Dzierzon appears to have been the first to ascertain 
the truth on this subject; and his discovery must certainly 
be ranked among the most astonishing facts in all the range 
of animated nature. 

Dzierzon asserted that all impregnated eggs produce fe- 
males, either toarkera or queens; and all unimpregnated ones, 

* Since the flnt edition of this work was issued, we have ascertained that Po- 
sel (pmgeM) describee the oridnct of the queen, the Bpcrmathcca and its con- 
tents, and the use of the latter in impregnating the passing egg. His work was 
pnblished at Miinleh, in 1784. It seems also from his work ("A Complete 
Treatise of Forest and HorttcnlturalBee-Caltiire," page 3G), that before the 
inTestigationa of Hvbcor, Jansha, the bee-keeper royal of Maria Theresa, had 
dlseorered the ftet that thaToangqueena leave their hive in search of the dronea. 




56 PHTSIOLOGT OF THS HOKET-BES. 

males J or drones ! He stated that in several of his hives he 
found drone-laying queens, whose wings were so imperfect 
that they could not fly, and which, on examination, proved 
to be unfecundated. Hence, he concluded that the eggs 
laid by an unimpregnated queen-bee, had sufQcient vitid- 
ity to produce drones. 

183. Parthenogenesis, meaning ''generation of a virgin," 
is the name given to this faculty of a female, to produce 
offspring without having been fecundated, and is not at all 
rare among insects. 

134. In the Autumn of 1852, our assistant found a young 
queen whose progeny consisted entfarely of drones. The 
colony had been formed by removing a few combs contain- 
ing bees, brood, and eggs, from another hive, and had 
raised a new queen. Some eggs were found in one of the 
combs, and young bees were already emerging from the 
cells, all of which were drones. As there were none but 
worker-cells in the hive, they were reared in them, and not 
having space for full development, they were dwarfed in 
size, although the bees had pieced the cells to give more 
room to their occupants. 

We were not only surprised to find drones reared in 
worker-cells, but equally so that a young queen, who at 
first lays only the eggs of workers, should be laying 
drone-eggs, and at once conjectured that this was a case of 
an unimpregnated drone-laying queen, sufftcient time not 
having elapsed for her impregnation to be unnaturally re- 
tarded. All necessary precautions were taken to determine 
this point. The queen was removed from the hive, an^ 
although her wings appeared to be perfect, she could not 
fly. It seemed probable, therefore, that she had never been 
able to leave the hive for impregnation. 

135. To settle the question beyond the possibility of 
doubt, we submitted tbis queen to Professor Leidy for mi- 
croscopic examination. The following is an extract from 




iffinim onltliiBii 




THs Quxn. 57 

his report : *' The ovaries were filled with eggs, the poison- 
sac full of fluid ; and the spermatheca distended with a per- 
fectly colorless, transparent, viscid liquid, without a trace of 
9per. intozoids.** 

136. On examining this same colony a few days later, 
we found satisfactory evidence that these drone-eggs were 
laid by the queen which had heen removed. No fresh eggs 
had been deposited in the cells, and the bees on missing her 
had begun to build royal cells, to rear, if possible, another 
queen. Two of the royal cells were in a short time discon- 
tinued ; while a third was sealed over in the usual way, to 
undergo its changes to a perfect queen. As the bees had 
only a drone>laying queen, whence came the female egg 
from which they were rearing a queen ? 

At first we imagined that they might have stolen it from 
another hive ; but on opening this cell it contained only a 
dead drone ! Huber had described a similar mistake made 
by some of his bees. At the base of this cell was an unus- 
ual quantity of the peculiar jelly fed to develop young 
queens. One might almost imagine that the bees had dosed 
the unfortunate drone to death ; as though they had hoped 
by such liberal feeding to produce a change in his sexual 
organization. 

137. In the Summer of 1854, we found another drone- 
laying queen in our Apiary, with wings so shrivelled that 
she could not fly. We gave her successively to several queen- 
less colonies, in all of which she deposited only drone-eggs. 

138. In Italy there is a variety of the honey-bee differing 
in size and color from the common kind. If a queen of this 
variety is crossed with the common drones, her drone-prog- 
eny will be Italian (551), and her worker-brood a cross 
between the two ; thus showing that the kind of drones she 
will produce has no dependence on the male by which she 
is fecundated. 




(8 PHTSIOLOOT OF THS HONBT-BEB. 

** The following interesting experiment was made b j Berlepseh, 
In order to confirm the drone-prod octiveness of a virgin queen. 
He contrived the exclusion of queens at the end of September, 
1854, and, therefore, at a time when there was no longer any males ; 
he was lucky enough to keep one of them through the Winter, and 
this produced drone-ofispring on the 2d of March, in the following 
year, furnishing fifteen hundred ceUs with brood. That this 
drone-bearing queen remained a virgin, was proved by the dissec- 
tion which Leuckart undertook, at the request of Berlepsch. He 
found the state and contents of the seminal pouch of this queen to 
be exactly of the same nature as those found in virgin queens. 
The seminal receptacle in such females never contains semen- 
masses, with their characteristic spermatozoids, but only a limpid 
fluid, destitute of ceUs and granules which is produced firom the 
two appendicular glands of the seminal capsule ; and, as I sup- 
pose, serves the purpose of keeping the semen transferred into the 
seminal capsule in a fresh state, and the spermatozoids active, 
and, consequently, capable of impregnation."— (Siebold, ** Parthe- 
nogenesis.*') 

139. Again, to prove that Dzierzon was right, Professor 
Von Siebold, in 1855, dissected several eggs at the Apiary 
of BaroD Von Berlepsch, and he found spermatozoids in 
every female egg^ or egg laid in worker-cell, but although 
he examined thirty-two male eggs, or eggs laid in drone- 
cells, he could not discover a single spermatozoid either in 
or around them. In the act of copulation, the sperm of the 
drone is received into the spermatheca (Plate V, D), which 
is placed near and can empty itself into the oviduct. When 
an egg passes by the spermatheca, if the circumstances are 
such that a few spermatozoids einpt}' out of the bag on the 
egg, the sex of it is changed from male to female. 

It ap[)ears that there is in each Qgg a small opening 
(mirropyle, i and^*, fig. 25), through which the living sperm- 
atozoids enter, when the circuni.^tances are such that a few 
of them can slip out the seminal bag and slide into the 
oviduct. Sucli is the process of ini|)ri'gnation. 

140. Ari^tulle noticed, more than 2,000 years ago, that 




THS QUEXH. 59 

the eggs which produce drones are like the worker-eggs.* 
With the aid of powerful microscopes we are still unable to 
detect any difference in the size or outside appearance of 
the eggs of the queen. 

141. These facts, taken in connection, constitute a per- 
fect demonstration that unfecundated queens are not only 
able to lay eggs, but that their eggs have sufficient vitality 
to produce drones. 

It seems to us probable, that after fecundation has been 
delayed for about three weeks, the organs of the queen-bee 
are in such a condition that it can no longer be effected ; 
just as the parts of a flower, after a certain time, wither 
and shut up, and the plant becomes incapable of fructifica- 
tion. Perhaps, after a certain time, the queen loses all de- 
sire to go in search of the male. 

There is something analogous to these wonders in the 
" aphides ** or green lice, which infest plants. We have un- 
doubted evidence that a fecundated female gives birth to 
other females, and they in turn to others, all of which with- 
out impregnation are able to bring forth young ; until, after 
a number of generations, perfect males and females are pro- 
duced, and the series starts anew ! 

However improbable it may appear that an unimpregnated 
egg c*^ &^^ birth to a living being, or that sex can depend 
on impregnation, we are not at liberty to reject facts be- 
cause we cannot comprehend the reasons of them. He who 
allows himself to be guilty of such folly, if he aims to be con- 
sistent, must eventually be plunged into tlie dreary gulf of 
atheism. Common sense, philosophy, and religion alike 
teach us to receive, with becoming reverence, all undoubted 
facts, whether in the natural or s{)iritual world ; assured 

• Chcfthixe Bays that "worker-egg " Is a misnomer, since all workcr-egga 
are impreguated, and hence female-eggs. But the term is too iatelligiblc and 
popular, for na to change it; since Cheshire himself bows before custom, and 
it. 




60 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BEE. 

that however mysterious they may appear to us, they are 
beautifully consistent in the sight of Him whose " under- 
standing is infinite.'' 

142. It had long been known that the queen deposits 
drone-eggs in the large or drone-cells, and worker-eggs in 
the small or worker-cells, and that she usually makes no 
mistakes. Dzierzon inferred, therefore, that there was some 
way in which she was able to decide the sex of the egg be- 
fore it was laid, and that she must have such a control over 
the mouth of the seminal sac as to be able to extrude her 
eggs, allowing them at will to receive or not a portion of its 
fertilizing contents. In this way he thought she determined 
their sex, according to the size of the cells in which she 
laid them. 

143. Our lamented friend, Mr. Samuel Wagner, had ad- 
vanced a highly ingenious theory, which accounted for all 
the facts, without admitting that the queen had any special 
knowledge or will on the subject. He supposed that, when 
she deposited her eggs in the worker-cells, her body was 
slightly compressed by their size, thus causing the eggs as 
they passed the spermatheca to receive its vivifying in- 
fluence. 

144. But this theory was overthrown by the fact that 
the queen sometimes lays eggs in cells that are built only to 
a third of their length, whether worker-cells or drone-cells, 
and in which no compression can take place. Yet, it is 
very difficult to admit that the queen is endowed with a 
facult}^ that no other animal possesses, that of knowing and 
deciding the sex of her progeny beforehand. It seems to 
us that she must be guided by her instinct like all other 
beings, for she always begins, in the Spring, by laying in 
small cells, using large cells only when no others are in reach 
in the warm part of the hive. Sometimes, however, when 
she is very heavy with eggs, she lays in drone-cells as she 
oomes to them. Usually it is only when the hive is warm 




THE QUEEN. Gl 

throaghout, and worker-cells all occapied, that she fills the 
unoccupied drone*cells. This has given rise to the popular 
theory that the bees raise drones whenever they intend to 
swarm. It is possible that the width of the cells and the 
position of her legs when laying in drone-cells (224) pre- 
vents the action of the muscles of her spermatheca. 

145. The preference of the queen for worker-cells can 
not be disputed. If all the drone-combs are removed from 
a hive and replaced with worker-combs, she will not show 
any displeasure. She will live in that hive for years, with- 
out laying any drone-eggs, except, perhaps, here and there, 
in odd-shaped junction-cells. Mr. A. I. Root, of Medina, 
O., makes the same remark: 

" By having a hive famished entirely with worker-comb, we 
can BO nearly prevent the production of drones, that it is safe 
enoagh to call it a complete remedy.'* — (**A. B. C. of Bee Cult- 
ure," page 134, Medina, 1883.) 

146. If, on the other hand, we furnish a swarm with 
nothing but drone-comb, already built, they would soon 
leave the hive. But, if a few worker-cells are among the 
drone-cells, the queen will find them and will lay in them.. 
On this subject, Mr. Root says : 

147 • ** Bees sometimes rear worker-brood in drone-comb 
when compelled to from want of room, and they always do it by 
contracting the mouth of the cells, and leaving the young bee a 
rather large berth in which to grow and develop." (*'A. B. C..'' 
page 133.) ** If you give a young laying queen a hive supplied 
only with drone-combs, she will rear worker-brood in these 
drone-cells. The mouth of the cells will be contracted with 
wax as mentioned before.** (Page 18S.) 

148. An experiment, made in Bordeaux, under the su* 
pervision of Mr. Drory, editor of the '•' Backer,** has proven 
that the queen may lay worker-eggs in drone-cells. A piece 
of drone-comb containing worker- brood, was sent us by 
him. The eggs were laid irregularly and the mouth of the 



62 PBT8IOLOOT OF THS BONET-BEE. 

cells had been contracted, aa mentioDed by Hr. Boot. This 
contraction of the cell mouth Keina jndiBpensable to enable 
the queen to put in motiou the muscles of her spennathecft. 
149. We will add, with Mr. Root, that in the Spring, or 
late in the Fall, when the crop is not abundant, the queen 
will travel over drone-combs without depositing a single egg 
in them. Even by feeding the colony, when ia these con- 
ditions, the queen cannot be readily induced to lay in 
drone-cells. Our conclusions on this point differ from thow 
of Mr. Root. We think that the queen prefers worker- 
cells to drone-cells, because the fecundation of the eggs by 
the action of the muscles of the spermatbeca probably gives 
her a pleasant sensation, which she does not ezperienoe in 
laying drone-eggs. 






(M.K1 


rig. 

ADDOMF.N or Til 

ilfled. rrom the " 
tgs of IhB »Momon; 


IS qUKKN-BEK. 

-V. nerre-ohili 

,g>..gUon.; A. 
pot.ou-Mck. 


i; tf, hoi 


') 

, oTipodi 


<. 


1. Mas: 




MTi 



100. Some very prolific queens occasionally lay drone- 
eggs in worker-ceUs. It may be due to *"tyyi This will 
readily be admitted when we consider the namber of eggt 
kid in one day. (98.) 

151. Dzierzon found that a queen which had been r^/VV" 
trattd for a long time, after being brought to life by mimth, 




THE QUEEN. 63 

laid only male eggs, whilst previously she had also laid fe- 
male eggs. Berlepsch refrigerated three queens by placing 
them thirty-six hours in an ice-house. Two of them never 
revived, and the third laid, as before, thousands of eggs, 
but fr<ym dU of them ordy males were evolved. In two in- 
stances, Mr. Mahan has, at our suggestion, tried similar ex- 
periments, and with like results. A short exposure of a 
queen, to pounded ice and salt, answers every purpose. 
The spermatozoids are in some way rendered inoperative by 
severe cold. 

152. The queen begins laying about two days after im- 
pregnation. She is seldom treated with much attention by 
the bees until after she has begun to replenish the cells with 
eggs; although if previously deprived of her, they show, 
by their despair, that they fully appreciated her importance 
to their welfare. 

The extraordinary fertility of the queen-bee has already 
been noticed. The process of laying has been well described 
by the Rev. W. Dunbar, a Scotch Apiarist : 

153. '* When the queen is about to lay, she puts her head into 
a cell, and remains in that position for a second or two, to ascer- 
tain its fitness for the deposit she is about to make. She then 
withdraws her head, and curving her body downwards, inserts 
the lower part of it into the cell ; in a few seconds she turns half 
round upon herself and withdraws, leaving an ^gg behind her." 

In the Winter, or early Spring, she lays first in the mid- 
dle of the cluster, and continues in a circle, around the first 
eggs laid, till she has filled most of the warmed space. She 
then crosses over to the next comb and does the same thing ; 
as the bees always cluster on different combs in groups ex- 
actly opposite, to produce the utmost possible concentration 
and economy of heat for developing the various changes of 
the brood. 

154. Queens lay more or less according to, Ist^ The sea- 
ton ; 2iid, The number of bees that keep up the heat of the 




64 PHTSIOLOGT OF THB HOKET-BEE. 

brood-nest, and Sd, The quantity of food which they eat. 
When bees harvest honey or pollen, or when these necessa- 
ries are provided artificially by the Apiarist, they feed the 
queen as they pass by her, oftener than they would other- 
wise ; hence her laying increases in Spring, and decreases in 
Summer or Fall. It is certain that when the weather is un- 
congenial, or the colony too feeble to maintain sufficient heat, 
fewer eggs are matured, just as unfavorable circumstances 
diminish the number of eggs laid by the hen ; and when the 
weather is very cold, the queen stops laying, in weak colo- 
nies. 

In the latitude of Northern Massachusetts, we have found 
that the queen ordinuily ceases to lay some time in Octo- 
ber ; and begins again, in strong stocks, in the latter part of 
December. On the 14th of January, 1857 (the previous 
month having been very cold, the thermometer sometimes 
sinking to 17^ below zero), we examined three hives, and 
found that the central combs in two contained eggs and un- 
sealed brood ; there were a few cells with sealed brood in 
the third. Strong stocks, even in the coldest climates, usu- 
ally contain some brood ten months in the year. 

155. ** Queens differ much as to the degpree of their fertility. 
Those are best which deposit their eggh. with uniform regularity, 
leaving no cells unsupplied— as the brood hatches at the same time 
on the same range of comb, which can be again supplied ; the 
queen thus losing no time in searching for empty celU.*' — (Dzler- 
Kon.) 

In bcc-life, as well as in human affairs, those who are 
systoiniitic, ordinarily accomplish the most. 

To test the difference of fecundity between queens, Mr. 
De Layens, while transferring bees (574), in middle April, 
counted the egizs dropped on a black cloth (577), in forty 
minutes, by the queens of four different colonies. The 
poorest queen dropped but one e*;g, the second twelve, the 
third eighteen, and the fourth twenty. On the fifteenth of 




DZIEKZON, 
Discoverer of Parthenogenesis in Quf 




THS QUEBir. 65 

Jaly the colony of the first queen was very poor, the second 
was of average strength, and both the others were very 
strong. 

156. It is amusing to see how the supernumerary eggs 
of the queen are disposed of. If the workers are too few to 
take charge of all her eggs, if there is a deficiency of bee- 
bread to nourish the young; or if, for any reason, she does 
Qot think best to deposit them in the cells, she stands upon 
a comb, and simply extrudes them from her oviduct, the 
workers devouring them as fast as they are laid. 

One who carefully watches the habits of bees will often 
feel inclined to speak of his little favorites as having an 
intelligence almost if not quite akin to reason ; and we have 
sometimes queried, whether the workers who are so fond of 
a tit-bit in the shape of a newly-laid egg, ever experienced 
a struggle between appetite and duty ; so that they must 
practice self-denial to refrain from breakfasting on the eggs 
so temptingly deposited in the cells. 

157. It is well known to breeders of poultry, that the 
fertility of a hen decreases with age, until at length she 
may become entirely barren. By the same law, the fecun- 
dity of the queen-bee ordinarily diminishes after she has 
entered her third year. An old queen sometimes ceases to 
lay worker-eggs ; the contents. of her spermatheca becoming 
exhausted, the eggs are no longer impregnated, and pro- 
duce only drones. 

The queen-bee usually dies of old age in her fourth year, 
althougli she has been known to live much longer. There is 
great advantage, therefore, in hives which allow her, when 
she has passed the period of her greatest fertility, to be 
easily removed. 

5 




66 PHTSIOLOGT OF THS HONET-BKB. 




The Worker-Bes. 

158. The workers are the smallest inhabitants of a bee- 
hive, and compose the bulk of the pop- 
ulation. A good swarm ought to contain 
at least 20,000 ; and in large hives, strong 
colonies which are not reduced by swarm- 
ing, frequently number four or five times 
as many during the height of the breeding 

Fig. 23. 

^ season. 

150. Their functions are varied. The young bees work 
inside of the hive, prepare and distribute the food to the 
larvae, take care of the queen, by brushing her with their 
tongue, nurse her, maintain the heat of the hive, or renew 
the air and evaporate the newly-gathered honey (240), by 
ventilating (744). They clean the hive of dirt or debris, 
close up all the cracks, and secrete the greater part of the 
wax which is produced in the hive. 

The old bees may, if necessary, do a part of the same 
work ; but, as we have seen, (30), old age renders some 
unfit to prepare the food of the larvae. More alert than 
the young bees, they do the outside work, gather honey 
(240), pollen (263), and water (271), for the use of 
the family, and propolis (236) to cement the cracks.* 

160. ** Dzicrzon states it as a fact, that worker-bees attend 
more exclusively to the domestic concerns of the colony in the 
early period of life ; assuming the discharge of the more active 

* HnbcT npoaks of two kinds of workorn : " One of these is, in gmeral , deatined 
for the elaboration of wax, and its size is considerably enlun^ed when ftill of 
honoy ; the other immediately imparts what it has coUeoted, to Ita oompaniona; 
its abdomen undergoes no sensible change, or it retains only the hooey neces- 
sary for its own sabsistence. The particnlar function of the bees of this kind 
Is to take care of the young, for they are not charged with provlaiODliic the hire. 
In opposition to the wax-workers, we shaU oaU them snudl bees, or n ors es." 

"Although the external difference be inconsiderable, this Is not an ImisiB- 
try distinction. AuatomicAl obserratlons prove that the f*^*-»fiT!i Is not the 




THX WOBKSB-BSB* 67 

cmi-door dntles only during the later periods of their existence. 
The Italian hees (551) ftimished me with snitahle means to test 
the correctness of this opinion. 

^ On the 18th of April, 1866, I introduced (583) an lUllan 
queen Into a colony of common bees ; and on the 10th of May 
following, the first Italian workers emerged from the cells. On 
the ensuing day, they emerged in great numbers, as the colony 
had been kept in good condition by regular and plentiful feeding. 
I will arrange my observations under the following heads : 

161. ''i. On the 10th of May, the first Italian workers 
emerged ; and on the 17th they made their first appearance out- 
side of the hive. On the next day, and then daily till the 29th, 
they came forth about noon, disporting in front of the hive, in 
the rays of the sun. They, however, manifestly, did not issue 
for the purpose of gathering honey or pollen, for during that 
time none were noticed returning with pellets ; none were seen 
alighting on any of the fiowers in my garden ; and I found no 
honey in the stomachs of such as I caught and killed for examin- 
ation. The gathering was done exclusively by the old bees of 
the original stock, until the 29th of May, when the Italian bees 
began to labor in that vocation also— being then 19 days old. 

16!t. **f. On the feeding troughs placed in my garden, and 
which were constantly crowded with common bees, I saw no 
Italian bees till the 27th of May, seventeen days after the first 
had emerged from the ceUs. 

^* From the 10th of May on, I daily presented to Italian bees, 
in the hive, a stick dipped in honey. The younger ones never 
attempted to lick any of it ; the older occasionally seemed to sip 
a little, but immediately left it and moved away. The common 
bees always eagerly licked it up, never leaving it till they had 
filled their honey-bags. Not till the 25th of May did I see any 
Italian bee lick up honey eagerly, as the common bees did from 
the beginning. 

^« These repeated observations force me to conclude that, during 

tame: experiments hare jiroTen that one of the Bpccics cannot falflU all 
the ftioctlOQS shared among the workers of a hive. Wo painted those of each 
class with dUTerent eolon, in order to study their proceedings; and these were 
not Inteorehanged. In another experiment, after supplying a hivo, deprived of 
aqoeen, with brood and poUen, we saw the small bees quickly occnpied in the 
feeding of the lams, While those of the wax-working class neglected them. 
Small baaa also prodoea wax, bat in a very inferior quantity to what is elab- 
«nted bj tha ml wax-worken." The two kinds spoken of by Hnber weva 
al diftNiit itaifla of lifb. 




68 PHTSIOLOaT OF THE HOKET-BEB. 

the first two weeks of the worker-bee's life, the impulse for gaUi* 
erlng honey and pollen does not exist, or at least is not deTel- 
oped ; and that the development of this impulse proceeds slowlj 
and gradually. At first the young bee will not even touch the 
honey presented to her ; some days later she will simply taste it, 
and only after a further lapse of time will she consume it 
eagerly. Two weeks elapse before she readily eats honey, and 
nearly three weeks pass, before the gathering impulse is suflS- 
ciently developed to impel her to fly abroad, and seek for honey 
and pollen among the flowers. 

168. *^ I made, further, the following observations respecting 
the domestic employments of the young Italian beet : 

'' 1. On the 20th of May. I took out of the hive all the oombi it 
contained, and replaced them after examination. On inspecting 
them half an hour later, I was surprised to see that the edges of 
the combs, which had been cut on removal,* were covered by 
Italian bees exclusively. On closer examination, I found that 
they were busily engaged in re-attaching the combs to the sides 
of the hive. When I brushed them away, they instantly retumed, 
in eager haste, to resume their labors. 

^^f. After making the foregoing observations, I inserted in the 
hive a bar from which a comb had been cut, to ascertain whether 
the rebuilding of comb would be undertaken by the Italian bees. 
I took it out a few hours subsequently, and found it covered al- 
most exclusively by Italian workers, though the colony, at that 
time, still contained a large majority of common bees. I saw 
that they were sedulously engaged in building comb; and they 
prosecuted the work unremittingly, whilst I held the bar in my 
hand. I repeated this experiment several days in succession, 
and satisfied myself that the bees engaged in this work were al- 
ways almost exclusively of the Italian race. Many of them had 
scales of wax visihiy protruding between their abdominal rings 
(tlOl). These ol)sorv:iti<)ns show tliat, in the early stage of their 
existence, the impulse for comb-building is stronger than later 
in life. 

16 1. ''5. Whenever I examined the colony during the first 
three weeks after the Italian bees emerged, I found the brood- 
combs covered principally by bees of that race: and it is, hence, 
probable that the brood is chiefly attended to and norsed by the 

* Mr. DoDhoir.the writer of this qnotation , used the Dderxon hire, the eombt 
of which aro Bnspendcd in the hive by an npper bar only, and cannot bo 
oat nulcas their edgea, that are built agaioat the aidea of tho hlro, ment. 



THE WORKXB-BKI. 69 

jotinger tiees. The evidence, however, U not so conclusive ai 
Id the cose of comb-building, inasmnch as they may have con- 
gregated on the brood-combs becaaae these are wanner than the 
others. 

" I maj add another interesting observation. Tbe teces In the 
IntfEtinee of the young Italian beefl was viscid and yellow; that 
ofitie comiDon or old bees was thin and limpid, like that of the 
quten-bee. This is confirmatory of the opinion, that, for the 
production of wax and jelly, the bees require pollen; but do 
not need any for their own sustenance."— (£. Z., 1SS6, p. 163. 
Dr. DonhofT, translated by tbe late S. Wagner.) 

165- There are none bat gentlemen of leisure in the com- 
monwealtb of bees, but assuredly there are no eucb ladiai, 
whether of bigh or low degree. The queen 
beraelt has her full share of duties, the 
royal ofDce beiDg no sinecure, when the 
mother who fills it must daily superintend 
tbe proper deposition of thousands of 
eggs. 

" Tbe eggs of bees are of a lengthened, oval 
' shape with a slight curvature, and of a bluiah 
white color: being beBmeared, at the time of 
laying, with a glutinous Bubstance, tlipy ad- 
bere to the bases of the cells, and remain unchanged in ligure or 
situation for three or fou/ days ; they are then hatched, the bot- 
tom of each cell presenUng to view a small white worm."— 
(Bevan.) 

166. For tbe first three days aft«r their hatching, tliese 
worms ore fed with a jelly, thought to be prepared or secre- 
ted by the upper pair of glands of the worker-bees (39), 
which are very large in the nurses. This milky food is a 
whitish, transparent fluid, and is distributed to the larva;, 
as it is needed. After four or perhaps five days, the larva 
is too large for tbe bottom of the cell, where it was coiled 
up, to use ihfl loDgDage of Swammerdam, like a dog when 
going to sleep ; and Btretchea itself till it occupies the whole 



PHT8IOLOGT OF THK I 



length of the cell, lying on its b&ck. lUi food at this time, 
is changed tor a semi-digested mixture of honey and pollen. 







hy 



, i, magDlBed lurra; t, 



{From Gireid.) 

■rnnc, nitiukl alifli d, t, nuKolfled Dynpllt 
1 >lici *, magninedi <, egg, ihoitlDi mlo*- 
PjIb, mtgnlflod; j, rmcropjla, mBgniaed, 

"Tbe mixture of boney and poUcn. given at the end of tba 
narslng. is easily detected by its oolor. wbleh U j'ellower. on ac- 
count of Che poilen, and 
can be seen through llie 
skin of tlio lan'a."— (Du- 
blni.) 

I4i7. "The larva, or 
gruti. LTows apiice, Iml 



^ 



I the 



ng. f 



, 1^. (MsKiililt-'l. t-iomSutOTlandKknKhcDrcU.) 

Ktiiw Willi the wearer, so that It iood, 
> !>•' itiRiwn oil'; but, happily In the cue 
atid larger one has already been fonned 



TB> WOXKEK-BEK. 




Flg.M. 

ffntFTCHKD IN THE CELL. 

(MagnWed.) 

— (" Beran on the Honej-Bee.") 



beneath It, and the discarded garment, more delicate than 
goasftmer. Is piuhed to the bottom of the cell." — (Cbeatatre.) 

108. "Tbe naralng- 
be«s now aeal over the 
cell nlth a light bro'wn 
cover, eztcrnallr more 
or less convex (the cap 
of a drone-cell being 
more convex than that 
of a worker), and thus 
differing bom that of a 
honey-cell, which is 
paler and aomewhat concave. 

The cap o! the brood-cell is made not of pure wax, but 
of a mixture of bee-bread and wax ; and appears under the 
microscope to be full of fine holea, to give air to tbe in- 
closed insect. From its texture and shape it is easily thrust 
off by the bee when mature, whereas if it consisted wholly 
of wax, the insect would either perish for lack of air, or be 
unable to force its way into the world. Both the material 
and shape of the lids which close the honey-cells are differ- 
ent; they are of pure wax, and are slightly concave, the 
better to resist the pres- 
sure of their contents. 
The bees sometimes 
neglect to cap the cells 
of some of liic brood, 
and some persona have 
thought that this brood 
was diseased, hut it 
hatches all the a:ime. 
The larva is no sooner 
perfectly inclosed, than it begins to spin ii cocoon after the 
manner of the silk-worm, and Clieshirc leaches us that it 
does not encase the insect, but is only at llie mnuth ot the 
cell, " and in no case extends far down the sides." 




« TfIX SEAI.ZD 



(MignUled.) 




72 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BBB. 

To return to Bevan : 

169. ** When it has undergone this change, it has usually borne 
the name otnymph^ or pupa. It has now attained its full growth, 
and the large amount of nutriment which it has taken serves as 
a store for developing the perfect insect. 

"The xDorkingbee nymph spins its cocoon in thirty-six hours. 
After passing about three days in this state of preparation for a 
new existence, it gradually undergoes so great a change as not 
to wear a vestige of its previous form." 




Fig, 29. 
•FINNING OF THK COCOON AND TRANSFORMATION INTO 
(Magriiifled. Pxx)m Sartori and Ranschenfels.) 

170. The last cast-off skin of the larva, ** which, by Ihe 
creature's movements within the cell, becomes plastered to 
the walls and joins the cocoon near the mouth end " (Chesh- 
ire), is left behind, and forms a closel3^-attached and exact 
lining to the cell ; by tbis means the breeding-cells become 
smaller, and their partitions stronger, the oftener they 
change their tenants. 

So thin is this lining, that brood combs more than twenty 
years old have been found to raise bees apparently as large 
as any other in the Apiary. 

171. About twenty-one days are usually required for the 
transformations from the worker-egg to the perfect insect. 
But the time may be shortened or lengthened by the tem- 
perature, or the conditions of the colony. Dzierzon and 
others wrote that a worker-bee can hatch in nineteen to 
twenty-one days. Collin says nineteen to twenty-three. 
That the brood can remain even longer before hatching, is 




THB WORKEB-BBS. 78 

confirmed by the report of A. Saunier, in the South of 
France. Having deprived a hive of all its inhabitants, he 
found bees, hatching twenty- three days afterwards, that had 
not even been sealed in their cells, since there had been no 
nurses there to do this work. (" L'Apiculteur." Paris, 
1870.) As these were already full-grown larvse, when the 
hive was deprived of its bees, they must have been twenty- 
seven days old when hatching. In this experiment, the 
heat produced by the larvae, coupled with that of the atmos- 
phere, had been sufficient to keep them alive and help their 
slow development. 

We have often noticed the brood of swarms, that had de- 
serted their hives, still alive after a cold night, but in each 
case its development was delayed. 

172. A newly hatched worker, like a newly hatched 
queen, is easily recognized by her small size, her pale gray 
color, and her weak appearance. After a few days, she has 
grown considerably larger. She is then in the bloom of 
health ; her color is bright, she has not vet lost a single hair 
of the down which covers her body. These hairs fall grad- 
ually from age and work, and sometimes disappear almost 
entirely. 

173. The first excursion of the young bee out of the hive 
takes place when she is about eight days old. (See Don- 
hoff's experiment 160.) The disturbing of the colony, or 
the lack of old bees may cause them to go out earlier. 

The first flight of young worker-bees is easily remembered 
when once seen. It usually takes place in the afternoon of 
a sunny day. Ihey first walk about on the platform in a 
hesitating manner and then take flight. Their humming, 
and joyous and peaceable circles to reconnoitre the location 
of their home, recalls to memory the gay playing of children 
in front of the school-house door. Their second trip is 
made about a week after the first ; it is then that they bring 
in their first load. A young bee coming home is readily 




74 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BEE. 

recognized by the small size of the pollen pellets she 
carries, when compared with those of older bees, and by 
the turns she makes before alighting, 

174. The Apiarist should become acquainted with the 
behavior of young bees, so as not to mistake their pleasant 
flight for the restless motions of robber-bees. (664. ) 

175. Although the workers are females, they are inca- 
pable of fecundation (108). Yet the rudimental ovaries 
of some of them contain a few undeveloped eggs (fig. 30). 

1 76. Occasionally some of them are sufficiently developed 
to be -capable of laying eggs ; but these eggs always produce 
drones. Laying workers appear only when a colony has been 
queenless for some time. Huber thought that fertile workers 
were reared in the neighborhood of the young queens, and 
that they received some of the peculiar food, or jelly on 
which these queens are fed.* But it is more probable that 
it is the increase of the milky food, given lavishly to the 
larvae in the first stage of their development, during a good 
honey flow, which enlarged their ovaries (108), and that 
the young bees, thus raised, having no more larvae to nurse 
when the hive has suddenly become queen-less, feed each 
other with their milky food, which excites their laying, as 
it does for the queens (39). The number of drone-laying 

*An extract from Haber's preface will be interesting Id this connection . After 
speakiDg of his blindncM, and praising the extraordinary taste for Natural His- 
tory, of his assista.it. Barnens, "who was boru with the talenta of an obaer- 
Ter, "he says: " Every one of the facts I now pablish, we hare seen, OTer 
and orer again, daring the period of eight years, which we hare employed in 
making oar observations on bc«i. It is impossible to form a Just idea of the 
patience and skill with which Buraens has carried oat the experlmeota whldi 
I am aboat to describe ; he has often watched some of the working-beet of oar 
hlTes, which we had reason to think fertile, for the space of twenty-four hours, 
withoait distraction • • • • and he coautcd fatigae and pain aa nothing, com- 
pared with the great desire he felt to know the results. " 



THB WORKXR-BKB. 75 

workers is sometimes very luge in % hopelessly queenless 
hive ; we hftve seen st leut « dozen laying on the same 
comb. Mr. Viallon, k noted bee-keeper of Louisiana, once 
had so many in one queenless colony, that he was able to 
send several dozen for dissection to bee-keepers in this 
country and Europe. 




OOMPARATIVK SOBS Or THS OVARIES Of qUKEV A.VD WOREKB. 

(AU nugnlflsd. Vtota Qliud . ) 
A, qsmn OTUlMi B, lirlnf-workaoTUlMi C, uterile'irorker 0<ulM. 

177. Some persons may question the wisdom of Nature 
in endowing the workers with the means of laying drone- 
eggs, when there is no queen in the colony to be fecundated 
by them. But Nature does nothing without purpose. The 
main cause of the loss of the queen, when there ia no brood 
fit to raise others (107), and therefore, no hopes of sur- 
Tival tor the colony, is usually the death of the young queen 
in her bridal Bight (122). At some seasons, the drones 
are scarce, and a young queen may be compelled to make 
•ereral titfu before she finds one. It she gets lost, the hin 




60 PHTSIOLOOT OF THE HOKET-BEB. 

Their proper office is to impregnate the young queens. 

" Their short proboscis sips 
No luscious nectar from the wild thyme^s lips, 
From the lime's leaf no amber drops they steal, 
Nor bear their grooveless thighs the foodful meal : 
On other's toils in pamper'd leisure thrive 
The lazy fathers of the industrious hive.''' 

Evans. 

18G. The drones begin to make their appearance in 
April or May ; earlier or later, according to the forwardness 
of the season, and the strength of the colony. Like the other 
inhabitants of the hive they cannot perform the work for 
which they are intended, till at least one week old. They 
go out of the hives only when the weather is warm, and at 
mid-day. 

187. As we have seen (122), the mating of the queen 
with a drone always takes place in the air. Ph^'siologists 
say that it cannot be otherwise, because the sexual organs 
of the drone cannot be extruded unless his abdomen is 
swelled by the Tilling of all the tracheae with air. This hap- 
pens only in swift llight (74). 

Dzicrzon sui)poses that the sound of the queen's wings, 
when she is in the air, excites the drones. Evidently their 
eyes (11) and ears (25) which are highly developed, as 
proven l>y Che.-hire, help them also in the search of the 
queen, which is tlicir sole occupation, when in the field. In 
the interior of the hive, they are never seen to notice her; 
so that she is not molested, even if thousands are members 
of the same colony with herself. But outside of the hive, 
the}* reailily follow her, led, according to Dzierzon, by the 
peculiar hum of her llight, and certainly also, by the senses 
of smell and of sight, which are more perfect than those of 
the worker, most likely for this single purpose. 

" When the queen flies abroad, the fleetest drone is more likely 
to succeed in his addresses than another, and thus he impresses 
upon posterity some part of his own superior activity and 




F. K. CHESHraE, F. L. S., F. K. M. S. 
Author of " Bttt and Bu-kaping." 
rrlimeaUoaeapagMS, S, i. 5. T, S, ID, 11, 12, IS, 16, IT, 10, n, 

SI, r,. X. IT, 69, Ti, -i, ea. »i. so, w, lis, iis, 1:1. 142, ise. 

as. »l, T.K, <19, Ut, 410. 417. 4.sa, 4U, 4M. 




THE DKONB. 81 

ergy. The Blow and weak in the race die without heirs, go that 
the surviyal of the fittest is not an accident, bat a predetermina- 
tion. In previous chapters we have considered his highly-devel- 
oped eyes, meeting at the vertex of his head, his multitudinous 
smell-hollows, and his strong large wings, the advantage of 
which now appears in a clearer light; his quickness in discover- 
ing a mate, whose neighborhood is to him filled with irresistible 
odours, and his ability in keeping her in view during pursuit, are 

no less helpful to his purpose than fieetness on the wing " 

--iCheshiTe.) 

188. The drone perishes in the act of impregnating the 
queen. Although, when cut into two pieces, each piece 
will retain its vitality for a long time, we accidentally ascer- 
tained, in the Summer of 1852, that if bis abdomen is gently 
pressed, and sometimes if several are closely held in the 
warm hand, the male organ will often be permanently ex- 
truded, with a motion very like the popping of roasted pop- 
corn ; and the insect, with a shiver, will curl up and die, as 
quickly as if blasted with the lightning's stroke. This singu- 
lar provision is unquestionably intended to give additional 
security to the queen when she leaves her liive to liave inter- 
course with the drone. Huber first discovered that she 
returned with the male organ torn from the drone, and still 
adhering to her body. If it were not for this arraiiixeinent, 
her spennatheca could not be filled, unless she remained so 
long in the air with the drone, as to incur a very great risk 
of being devoured by birds. In one instance, some days 
after the impregnation of a queen, we found the male organ,* 

• We giro, as interesting in thlB connection , the following; extract from Mr. 
Lftngstroth's Journal: ** August 25'/', 18.Vi.— Fonn«l tht» male or;;aii protruding 
from a young qncen ; oonld not remove it without cxcrtinp so much force that 
I feared It would kill her. Dr. Joseph Lcidy oxarnincd this qucoii-btc with 
the microscope, so as to demonstrate that — to uso hi» words— 'it was the penis 
and its appendages of a male, corresponding In all its anatomical peculiarities, 
with the same organs examined, at the same time, in other drones. The tes- 
ticles and wua defertuUa of these drones were found to be full of the spermatic 
ftnid. The «p<*rmatAfira of the qneon was distended with the same semi-flnld, 
■pennatlo matter. ' This one examination dejuomtratrs that the drones are 
malee, and that they impregnate the queen hj actual coition. " 
6 



82 PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HOMET-BEE. 

in & dried state, adherisg bo firmly to her bod;, that it 
could aot be removed witliout tearing ber to pieces. 




Fig, Si. 
TBX OROAN3 OF THE PBOyE. 

(Hsgnlflcd. FramOlranl.) 
•,«. tstlelMi h.>>, maooiu glanda; <-, Hinlnkl duel: d, pi 
■perTDfttaphoTfl U formoJ; r, hollow honu ftad panla; fr 
orach magnided. 

189. The number of drooea in a hive is often very great, 
amounting not merely to hundreds, but sometimes to thous- 
ands. As a single one will impregnate a queen for life, it 
would seem that only a few should be reared. But as sex- 
ual inlorcourse always taltes place high up in the air, the 
yonnj; (jnecns must necessarily leave the hive; and it is 
very important to their safety that they should be sure to 
find a drone without being compelled to make frequent ex- 
cursions: for being larger than workers, and less active on 
the wing, queens are more exposed to be caught b; birds, 
or destroyed by sudden gusts of wind. 

In a large Apiary, a few drones in each hive, or thB duid- 




THB DRONS. 83 

ber usaallj found in one, would suffice. Under such cir- 
cumstances bees are not in a stat^ of nature, like a colony 
living in a forest, which often has no neighbors for miles. 
A good stock, even in our climate, sometimes sends out 
three or more swarms, and in the tropical climates, of 
which the bee is probably a native, they increase with aston- 
ishing rapidity. • Every new swarm, except the first, is led 
off by a young queen ; and as she is never impregnated 
until she has been established as the head of a separate fam- 
ily, it is important that each should be accompanied by a 
goodly number of drones : this requires the production of a 
large number in the parent-hive. 

190. This necessity no longer exists when the bee is do- 
mesticated, since several colonies are kept in the same 
place, and the breeding of so many drones should be dis- 
couraged. Their brood takes useful space that might as 
well be occupied with worker-brood. One thousand good- 
for-nothing drones take up as much breeding-space as fif- 
teen hundred workers (224), and require as much food, 
with negative results. Some hives, in a state of nature, 
produce so many drones that a great part of the surplus 
crop is disposed of by these voracious loafers. Besides, the 
comparatively large volume of the male organs, in connec- 
tion with the gluttony of the drones, explains why they void 
their dejections in the hive, while workers retain them till 
they are on the wing (73), and why the cells of the combs 
of hives which have a large quantity of these gormands, 
become dark and thick sooner than the others. 

The importance of preventing the over-production ot 
drones has been corroborated by the discovery of Mr. V. J. 
Mahan, that those leaving the hive have quite a large drop 
of honey in their stomachs — while those returning from 



* At SydiMj, in ▲wtiAlUi, ailngle colony U stated to hare maltiplled to 300, 
inthneji 



84 



PBTSIOLOOT OF THK HOKKT-BU. 



their pleasure excursioos, hkving digested their dinners, are 
prepared for a new supply. 

Aristotle ("Hiatory of Animals," Book IX, Chap. XI) 
speaks of the irregular and thick combs built by some colo- 
nies, and the superabundance of drones issuing from them. 
He describes their excursions as folloirs : 

" Tbe drones, when ttaey go abroad, rise Into the air wltb t 
circular flight, as though to take violent exercise, and when the7 
have taken enough, return home, and gorge themsetves with 

"The drone," says quaint old Butler (1603) " is a groM. Stlng- 
less bee, that spendcth his time In gluttony and idleness. For 
howsoever he brave it with his round velvet cap, his side gown, 
his full paunch, and his loud voiue, yet is he bat an idle compan- 
ion, living by the sweat of others' brows. He worketh not st 
all, either at home or abroad, and yet spendeth as mncb as two 
laborers: you shall never find bis maw without a drop of the 
purest nei'tar. In the heat of the day he flieth abroad, aloft and 
about, and that with no 5iiiili noise, as though he would do some 
great act ; but it is only for Ills pleasure, and to get him a stom- 
ach, and then returns he presently to bis cheer." 



lOl, Tbe bee-kee|) 
haliit of dci^troyirig the 
excess otdroiiuri. Tiioy 


rs 


in Aristotle's lime were in the 


hive — when t a U i n ^' 
their :ifctiil"inf.l:iiriii;r 
— by contrafliii;: tli.' 
entraiK'cs willi a kirul 






isnsiSiisujyuSR^H^^HI^H H 


i^^miiiibI 






trai^ wiiidi be calls a 
"drone-iiot." 

One of [he modern in 
dronc-tra|i* improved 

• Tlie inTforal-"! tint, aaed 1 
Coliln, (■■Unl.lc," p.S, FBTf 




Pig. 33. 
AI.I.BV'S DttO.SK-TRAP 

ntions to destroy them is Alley's 
J. A. Batchelder; but it is much 

on(-i™|>9, which we think wu Intenled bj 

»!',) . 1. to cat. U»t MllhCT qarra .-r dren* 
through Ita oppiilnit. 




THB DROMS. 85 

better to save the bees the labor and expense of rear- 
ing such a host of useless consumers. This can readily 
be done, when we have the control of the combs ; for, 
by removing the drone-comb, and supplying its place with 
worker-cells, the over-production of drones may be easily 
prevented. Those who object to this, as interfering with 
nature, should remember that the bee is not in a state 
of nature ; and that the same objection might, with equal 
force, be urged against killing off the supernumerary males 
of our domestic animals. 

192. Soon after the harvest is over, or if there is a lull 
in the yield of honey, the drones are expelled from the hive. 
The worker-bees sting them, or gnaw the roots of their 
wings, so that when driven from the hive, they cannot re- 
turn. If not ejected in either of these summary ways, they 
are so persecuted and starved, that they soon perish. At 
Buch times they of ten retreat from the comb, and keep by 
themselves upon the sides or bottom-board of the hive. 
The hatred of the bees extends even to the unhatched 
young, which are mercilessly pulled from the cells and de- 
stroyed with the rest. 

Healthy colonies almost always destroy the drones, as soon 
08 forage becomes scarce. In the vicinity of Philadelphia, 
there were only a few days in June, 18r)8, when it did not 
rain, and in that month the drones were destroyed in most 
of the hives. When the weather became more propitious, 
others were bred to take their place. In seasons when the 
honey-harvest has been abundant and long protracted, we 
have known the drones to be retained, in Northern Massa- 
chusetts, until the 1st of November. If bees could gather 
honey and could swarm the whole year, the drones would 
probably die a natural death. 

How wonderful that instinct which, when there is no longer 
any occasion for their services, impels the bees to destroy 
those members of the colony reared with such devoted 
BttentioaJ 




88 



PHTSIOLOGT OF THE HONET-BEK. 



mon parent ; and the same result must have taken place in 
each successive generation, until the whole species would 
eventually have ^*run out." By the present arrangement, 
the young queens, when they leave the hive, often find the 
air swarming with drones, many of which belong to other 
colonies, and thus, by crossing the breed, provisioi is con- 
stantly made to prevent deterioration. 

Experience has proved that impregnation may be c f ected 
not only when there are no drones in the colony of the 
young queen, but even when there are none in her iLimedi- 
ate neighborhood. Intercourse takes place very high 'n the 
air (perhaps that less risk may be incurred from birds), 
and this favors the crossing of stocks. 

197. *' Comparative Table of the Normal Duration 
OF THE Bee's Transformations from Eggs to Winged 
Insects. 



Eggs 

Growth of larva . • . 
Spinning of cocoon . . 
Period of rest . . . 
Metamorphosis into pupa 
Duration of this stage . 



days 



t( 



(t 



(( 



it 



it 



Qaeen. 


Worker. 


Dron«. 


. 3 


3 


3 


.5J 


6 


6J 


. 1 


2 


li 


. 2 


2 


3 


. 1 


1 


1 


.8J 


7 


9 



Average time from egg to winged insect 16 



21 



24 





TIOXKV-fOMlt *M 




COMB. 



89 



CHAPTER n. 



IBS BUILDINa or BBES.— COMB. 



108. When a swarm (406) has found a suitable habi- 
tatkm, some of the bees clean it of its rubbish, if neces- 
Mry, ifliile others, at once, prepare to build the furniture, 
which is intended as cradles for the young bees, and as a 
store-room for the proTisions, and is called comb. 

According to Webster, this word is probably taken from 
the Anglo-Saxon ^^ comb," which means a hollow ; the 
combs being hollow structures, with exceedingly light 
walls. 

199. The combs are usually begun at the highest point 
of the hive and built downwards, yet, when some breaking 
happens, the bees sometimes build them upwards; but 
they are far from haying the usual regularity. Combs are 
made of wax, a natural secretion which is produced by bees 
as cattle produce fat, by eating. 

300. ^* Wax is not chemically a fat or glyceride, yet it is nearly 

allied to the fats in atomic 
constitution, and the physi- 
ological conditions favouring 
the formation of one are cu- 
riously similar to those aiding 
in the production of the other. 
We put our poultry up to fat 
Id confinement, with partial 
light, to secure bodily inac- 
tivity, we keep warm and 
fsed highly. Our bees, under Nature^s teaching, put themselves 
np to yield wax under conditions so parallel, that the suitability 
«f the fktting ooops is yindioated."^Che8hire.) 




Fig. M, 

WAX SCALES. 

OUgnUled.) 




THE Btnutme or bemb. 

rcmnin quiettf ctoBtered together, when 
gorged with honey, or any 
liquid sweet, the wax is se- 
creted io the shape of deli- 
cate scales in four smaU 
pouches, on each side of the 
abdomeo of worker-bees. 

"These scales, of an fmg- 
nUr pentagonal shape, an so 
(rt^fh.-l.'u.u^UBUn*^t^.") u„„ „d ng^^ u,^ ^^ ^^^ 

died of them hardly weigh as much as a kernel of wheat." — (Dn- 
*lnl, "L'Ape.") 

202. In the yoaog bees, which are endowed with a great 
appetite, they form, probably, without their knowledge, dar- 
ing the honey season and if there is no place to ase them, 
they are gatlicred in small knots here and there. This 




as or Tua woRXXB-BBB. 

(MBgalSed. PromGinrd.) 

only happens when the combs are entirely filled and sealed. 
It has been noliucd, most espcuially, in hives in which a 
comb hail been broken down by beat. (333.) In such 
cases, many of ttie bees gijt'ge themselves with the wasting 
honey, anil cluster ou the outside, until the heat has sub- 
sided, and the running honey has been g*thered up. 




00MB. 91 

Scales of waat, in luxnpSi Cftn then be found where they have 
clustered. 

203. Although the faculty of producing wax is dimin- 
ished in old bees, who are subject to the natural law which 
makes it more difficult to fatten an old animal, it is proved 
that they may also produce small scales of wax. 



M 



During the active storing of the past season, especially when 
comb htalding was in rapid progreaa, 1 foond that nearly every 
b^ taken from the Howers contained wax scales of varying sizes 
in the wax-pockets."— (A. J. Cook.) 

204. The first condition indispensable for bees to pro- 
duce wax, is to have the stomach well filled. 

It is an interesting fact that honey-gathering and comb- 
building go on simultaneously ; so that when one stops, the 
other ceases also. As soon as the honey harvest begins to 
fail, so that consumption is in advance of production, the 
bees cease to build new comb, even though large portions 
of their hive are unfilled. When honey no longer abounds 
in the fields, it is wisely ordered that they should not con- 
sume, in comb-building, the treasures which may be needed 
for Winter use. What safer rule could have been given 
them? 

It takes about twenty-four hours, for a bee's food to be- 
come transformed into wax. 

305. ^^ Having filled themselves with honey, they gather in 
chains ; not In a single group, bat In a number of groups, hang- 
ing in a parallel curtain, In the direction of the comb to be con- 
Btmcted. Thus a bee clings to the ceiling with her claws, or the 
sticky rubber of her feet, her posterior limbs hanging down ; 
another bee grapples the claws of these posterior feet, with the 
claws of her anterior limbs, letting her hind limbs hang also, to 
be grappled by a third, and so on, till the first chain meets an- 
other, and both united form an arch, top downward, (fig. 37.) 
This single chain becomes compound when several are in the 
same line (fig. 38), and grouped near one an other.''— (Sartor! and 
Ranschenfeto, ''L'Apicoltora in Italia," Milan, 1878.) 



92 tWt BDILOMO or BUB. 

SOfi. " If we exunlne the be«a oloMly daring Qie nmaon of 
oomb-bnlldlng Bud boney-gatberiag, we Bhftll flod many of Uiem 
with the wax BCAles protrndlng between the rings that form the 
bodj, and thcH ac&les are either picked fh>m Uielr bodlei, or 
from the bottom of the hive or honey boxes in wlileta thej are 
bnildtng. If a bee Is obliged to cany one of these wax ecalea 
but a short distance, be takes It in hlfl mandibles, and looks as 
boilnesa-ltke with It thus, as a carpenter with a board on bit 
Shonlder. If he baa to carry It ttoia the bottom of the honey box, 
ha takes it in a way that I cannot explain any better than to aay 
ha slips it under his chin, in the mandibles or Jawa. When thns 
ttqntpped, yon would never know be waa encnmbered with any^ 
tUsg, onless it chanced to slip out, when he will very dextronsly 
tack it back with one of his foreltet. The little plate of wax 




Fig. j;. Flf.n. 

Is io warm, fTom being kept anUer hia chin, as to be qntte soft 
when It gets back ; and as be takes it oat, and glres It a pinch 
against the comb where tbe building Is going on, one woold 
think he might stop a while and put it into place ; but not he; 
for off he scampers and twists around so many different ways, 
yon might think he was not one of the working kind at all. An- 
other follows after him sooner or later, and gives the wax a pinch, 
or a tittle scraping or burnishing with his poUahed mandibles, 
then another, and so on, and the sum total of all these mantea* 
vres is that the comb seems almost to gro* out of nothing; yet 
no bee ever makes a cell himseLf, and no comb building la ever 
done by any bee while standing In a cell ; neither do the t>eea eT«r 
stand in lowa and ' exoavate,' or any thing of tbe kind." 




ooicB. 98 

** Tbe flniahed eomb ii the result of the united efforts of the 
moTing, restless mass, and the great mystery is, that anythlDg 
so wonderftil oan ever result at all, from such a mixed-ap, skip- 
ping about way of working, as they seem to have.'* 

^ When the cells are built out only part way, they are flUed 
with honey or eggs, and the length is increased when they feel 
disposed, or *get around to it, perhaps; as a thick rim is left 
around tiie upper edge of the cell, they have the material at 
hand, to lengthen it at any time. This thick rim is also very 
neeessaiy to give the bees a secure foothold, for the sides of the 
eells are so thin, they would be very apt to break down with even 
the light weight of a bee. When honey is coming in rapidly, and 
the bees are crowded for room to store it, their eagerness is so 
plainly apparent, as they push the work along, that they fairly 
seem to quiver with excitement; but, for all that, they skip 
about from one cell to another in the same way, no one bee 
working in the same spot to exceed a minute or two, at the very 
outside. Very frequently, after one has bent a piece of wax a 
certain way, the next tips it in the opposite direction, and so 
on until completion ; but after all have given it a twist or a pull, 
it is found in pretty nearly the right spot. As near as 1 can dis- 
cover, they moisten the thin ribbons of wax, with some sort of 
fluid or saliva (41). As the l>ee always preserves the thick rib* or 
rim of the comb he is working, the looker-on would suppose he 
was making the walls of a considerable tliicknoss, but if we drive 
him away, and break this rim, we will find that his mandibles 
have come so nearly together, that the wax between them, be- 
yond the rim, is almost as thin as a tissue ^aper/^ — (A. I. Root, 
" A. B. C. of Bee Culture.") 

207. It is very difficult to ascertain who first discovered 
these scales of wax. According to Mr. S. Wagner, J. A. 
Overbeck, in his ^''Cflossarium MflUturfjium^'^ \). hi>, Bremen, 
1765, claims that a Hanoverian pastor, named Herman C. 
Hornbostel, described them in tlie Hamhnrfj Lihninj^ al)C)ut 
174.5. Mr. L. Stachelbaiiscn informed us tliat lln'y were 
mentioned by Martin John in Ehi Nea Bienenbuchel, 1091. 

• Tht eomtant yimi ihift of this rib or heary edge of the comb while the 
wock |BegiMaw» caqplmLiui why old comb lengthened and Rcaled with new wax, 
■ooMttmfliivUiint a ptrt of its dark color throaghont. Some of the old wax 
Is andoahtodly mizsd with the new, in the eonitant remodeling of thia hearier 
I, tOl tte eoab Is MaUd. 




94 ^ THB BUILDING OF BEES. 

They were also discovered, in Germany, by a fanner. 
This discovery was commanicated to the naturalist Bonnet 
by Willelmi, under the date of August 22, 1765. (Huber.) 

In 1779, Thos. Wildman bad noticed tbe scales of wax 
on the abdomen of the workers ; and he was so thoroughly 
convinced that wax was secreted from honey, that he rec- 
ommended feeding new swarms, when the weather is stormy, 
that they may sooner build comb for the eggs of the queen. 

From the books written in the French language, it seems 
that it was Duchet, who, in his '* Culture des Abeilles/' 
printed in Friburg in 1771, wrote first that beeswax is pro- 
duced from honey, of which they eat a large quantity, 
'* which is cooked in their bodies, as in a stove,*' increasing 
thereby the warmth of the hive, and that beeswax *' exudes 
out of this stove '* through the rings of their body which are 
near the corselet. This idea of Duchet led Beaunier to ex- 
amine bees, and he discovered that they produce, at one 
time, not two scales of wax only, but nine, the last ring 
having seemed to produce one. He adds: 

30S. ^^ To employ this material, bees use their Jaws, their 
tongues, and their antennae. In favorable years you can see 
a great quantity of these pieces of wax which have fallen on tbe 
bottom of the hives."— {" Trait6 sur rjEducation des Abeilles,*' 
Vendome, 1808.) 

209. When bees are building combs, some scales of wax 
are often found on the bottom board, the bees having been 
unable to use them before they became too tough. Some- 
times they pick them up afterwards and use them ; some 
races of bees, the Italian (551), for instance, often use 
also pieces of old combs, which may be within their reach. 

The comb, thus built, is easily detected on account of its 
darker color. Queen-cells seem to be always built of par- 
ticles, taken from the comb on which they hang, and are 
never of pure wax (104). 




OOMB. 95 

** Thnfl, filtered thraunfh yen flatterer's folded mail* 
CUngi tlw cooled wax, and hardens to a scale. 
Swift, at the well-known call, the ready train 
(For not a buz boon Nature breathes in vain) 
Spring to each falling flake, and bear along 
Their glossy burdens to the bailder throng. 
These with sharp sickle, or with sharper tooth. 
Pare each excrescence, and each angle smoothCy 
Till now, in finished pride, two radiant rows 
Of snow white cells one mutaal base disclose. 
Six shining panels gird each polishM round; 
The door's fine rim, with waxen fillet bound; 
While walls so thin, with sister walls combined, 
Weak in themselves, a sore dependence find." 

Evans. 

210. The cells of bees are found to fulfill perfectly the 
most sabtle conditions of an intricate mathematical problem. 

Let it be required to find what shape a given quantity of 
matter most take, in order to have the greatest capacity 
and strength, occupying, at the same time, the least space y 
and consuming the least labor in its construction. When 
this problem is solved by the most refined mathematical 
processes, the answer is the hexagonal or six-sided cell of 
the honey-bee, with its three four-sided figures at the base I 

The shape of these figures cannot be altered ever so lit- 
tlei except for the worse. 

211. The bottom of each cell is formed of three lozenges, 
the latter forming one third of the base of three opposite 
cells. 

** If the little lozenge plates were square, we should have the 
same arrangement, bat the bottom would be too sharp pointed as 
it were, to use wax with the best economy, or to best acconimodnte 
the body of the infantile bee. Should we, on the contrary, make 
the losenge a little longer, we should have the bottom of the cell 
too nearly flat to use wax with most economy, or for the comfort 
of the yoong bee." (A. I. Root, "A. B. C. of Bee Culture.") 

31S« ** There are only three possible figures of the cells,** 
MjB Or. BftlAf ^ whMi can make them all equal and similar. 




96 THE BUILDniO OF BSI8. 

without any lueless spaces between them. These tie the equi- 
lateral triangle, the square, and the regular hexagon. It is well 
known to mathematicians, that there is not a fourth way possible 
in which a plane may be cut into little spaoes that shall be equal, 
similar, and regular, without leaving any interstices." 

An equilateral triangle would have been impossible for 
an insect with a round body to build. A circle seems to be 
the best shape for the development of the lanrs ; but such 
a figure would have caused a needless sacrifice of space, 
materials, and strength. The body of the immature insect, 
as it undergoes its changes, is charged with a superabun- 
dance of moisture, which passes off through the reticulated 
cover of its cell ; may not a hexagon, therefore, while ap- 
proaching so nearly to the shape of a circle, as not to 
incommode the young bee, furnish, in its six corners, the 
necessary vacancies for a more thorough ventilation ? 

Is it credible that these little insects can unite so many 
requisites in the construction of their cells? 

213. The fact is that the hexagonal shape of the cells is 
naturally produced, and wihout any calculation, by the bee. 
She wants to build each cell round; but as every cell 
touches the next ones, and as she does not wish to leave any 
space between, each one of the cells flattens at the contact, 
as would soap bubbles if all of the same diameter. It is the 
same for the lozenges of the bottom. The bee, wanting the 
bottom of the cell concave inside, makes it, naturally, con- 
vex outside. As this convexity projects on the opposite 
side of the median line, the bee who builds the opposite 
cells begins, naturally, on the tip of the convexity, the 
walls of cells just begun, since she wants also to make their 
bottom concave. The final result is that one-third of the 
bottom of each of three cells makes the bottom of the one 
cell opposite, and each one of the lozenges is flattened, so 

not to encroach on the opposite cells. 

214. The cells are not horizontal, but inclined from tbs 




OOMB. 



97 



orifice to the bottom (fig. 89), bo as to be filled with honey 

more easily. The thickness 
of •worker-brood comb is 
about one inch, with cells 
opening on each side. The 
distance between combs is 
about ^g> of an inch. This 
apace is not always exact, 
but is never under -f^^ that be- 
ing necessary for the bees to 
travel between the combs 
without interfering with one 
another. These distances 




flK>WniG THX SLOPS OFTHS CBLLB 
AND BOAPM OF THS BASB. 

OTrom Sertoli and RamfihenflBia.) 



can be a little increased without troubling the bees, and we 
place the combs in our hives one and a half inches from 
center to center, for easier manipulation. 

215. When the combs are newly built, they are white, 
but they get color shortly afterwards, especially during the 
harvest of yellow honey. When used for breeding, the cast 
skins and residues from the larvae (167) give them a dark 
color, which becomes nearly black with age, especially if 
bees have suffered with diarrhoea (784), or raised a great 
many drones (73-190). 

As wax is a bad conductor, the combs aid in keeping the 
bees warm, and there is less risk of the honey candying 
in the cells. 

216. Is the size of the cells mathematically exact? 
When the first Republic of France inaugurated the decimal 
system of weights and measures, Reaumur proposed to take 
the cells of the bees as a standard to establish the basis of 
the system, but it was ascertained that cells are not uni- 
form in size. 

217. The cells in which workers are reared are the 
smallest. Those in which the drones are reared are larger. 
It is generally admitted that five worker-cells measure about 

T 



98 



TBB BmLDmO OF BKE8. 



a linear Inch, or tweDty-ftve to the square inch, but this ia 
iacorrect. If five worker-cellB measured exactly an inc^, 
the number contained in a square inch would be about 
twenty-nine. As they are usually eomcwhat larger, the ar* 
erage number in a square inch is a triQe over twenty-seven. 
Dcone-cells number about eighteen, in the same area. 

L'Abb^ Collin measured the average dimensions of the 
cells very carefully, and the measurements given in his 
work (Paris, 1865) are about the same as those given above. 




218. The queen-cells have already been described. 
(104.) 

As bees, in building their cells, cannot pass immediately 
from one size to another, they dispby an admirable aagao- 
ity in making the transition by a set of irregular inter- 
mediate celts. Fig. 40 exhibits an accurate and beaatUol 
representation ot comb, drawn for this work from nBtnr*, 




00MB. 99 

by M. M. Tidd, and engraved by D. T. Smith, both of 
Boston Mass. The cells are of the size of nature. The 
large ones are drone-cells, and the small ones, worker-cells. 
The irregular; five-sided cells between them, show how 
bees pass from one size to another. 

Mr. Cheshire, in his book, has criticized this engraving, 
on account of the acuteness of the cells of transition, or as 
he terms them, of accommodation. He writes: ''The head 
of a bee could not reach the bottom of the acute angles as 
they are represented." Our first impression, on reading 
the criticism, was that Mr. Cheshire was right. Then the 
thought that Mr. Langstroth had his engravings made from 
nature led us to inspect some combs, when we found several 
cells of accommodation with angles at least as acute as in 
the cut. But we noticed also that this acuity exists only 
on the rims of the cells and not inside ; the bees, inside the 
cellSy having pushed out the walls, to be enabled to reach 
the bottom of the angles which were thus rounded inside.* 

210. The combs are built with such economy, that tlie 
entire construction of a hive of a capacity of nine gallons 
does not yield more than two pounds of bees- wax when 
melted. 

According to Dr. Donhofl, the thickness of the sides of 
a cell in a new comb is only the one hundred and eightieth 
part of an inch! Cheshire states that he found some that 
measured only the fourhundreth of an inch. 

220. Most Apiarists before Ruber's time supposed that 
wax was made from pollen, either in a crude or digested 
state. Confining a new swarm of bees to a hive in a dark 
and cool room, at the end of live days he found several beau- 
tiful white combs in their tenement ; these being taken from 
them, and the bees supplied with honey and water, new 

• Mr. LMgitroth wrote to ni, in regnd to this critlclam of Mr. Cheshira; 
" Tlds pieee of eomb wm aetiiftUy copied from natore bj a man of extraoidi- 



** 



7t40i>L 




100 THX BUILDDIG OF BKI8. 

combs were again constructed. Seven times in succession 
their combs were removed, and were in each instance re- 
placed, the bees being all the time prevented from ranging 
the fields to supply themselves with pollen. By subsequent 
experiments, he proved that sugar-syrup answered the 
same end with honey. Giving an imprisoned swarm an 
abundance of fruit and pollen, he found that they subsisted 
on the fruit, but refused to touch the pollen ; and that no 
combs were constructed, nor any wax-scales formed in their 
pouches. 

Notwithstanding Huber's extreme caution and unwearied 
patience in conducting these experiments, he did not dift> 
cover the whole truth on this important subject. Though be 
demonstrated that bees can construct comb when fed 
honey or sugar, without pollen, and that they cannot 
make it if fed pollen without honey or sugar, he did not 
prove that when permanently deprived of it they can con- 
tinue to work in wax, or if they can, that the pollen does 
not aid in its elaboration. 

Some pollen is always found in the stomach of wax-pro- 
ducing workers, and they never build comb so rapidly as 
when they have free access to this article. It must, 
therefore, in some way, assist the bee in producing it. 

221. The experiments made by Berlepsch show that 
bees, which are deprived of pollen when they construct 
combs, consume from sixteen to nineteen pounds of honey 
to produce a pound of comb, while, if provided with it, the 
amount of honey is reduced to ten or twelve pounds. If 
the experiment is continued without pollen for some time, 
the bees become exhausted and begin to perish. It is 
therefore demonstrated that although nitrogen, which is 
one of the elements of pollen, does not enter into the 
composition of bees- wax (222), yet it is indispensable as 
food to sustain the strength of bees during their work* in 
comb making. 




OOKB. 101 

222. Honey and sogar contain by weight about eight 
pounds of oxygen to one of carbon and hydrogen. When 
oonyerted into wax, these proportions are remarkably 
changed, the wax containing only one pound of oxygen to 
more than sixteen of hydrogen and carbon. Now as oxy- 
gen is the grand supporter of animal heat, the large quan- 
tity consumed in secreting wax aids in generating that 
extraordinary heat which always accompanies comb-build- 
ing, and which enables the bees to mould the softened wax 
into such exquisitely delicate and beautiful forms. This 
interesting instance of adaptation, so clearly pointing to 
the Divine Wisdom, seems to have escaped the notice of 
previous writers. 

223. Careful experiments prove that from ten to sixteen 
pounds of honey are usually required to make a single 
pound of wax. As wax is an animal oil, secreted chiefly 
from honey, this fact will not appear incredible to those 
who are aware how many pounds of corn or hay must be fed 
to cattle to have them gain a single pound of fat. From 
experiments made by Mr. P. Viallon here, and by Mr. De 
Layens in France, it seems that in good circumstances 
bees use only about seven pounds of honey to produce a 
pound of wax. 

Many bee-keepers are unaware of the value of empty 
comb. Suppose honey to be worth only ten cents per pound, 
and comb, when rendered into wax, to be worth thirty 
oentSy the Apiarist who melts a pound of comb loses largely 
by the operation, even without estimating the time his bees 
have consumed in building it. It is, therefore, considered 
a first principle in bee-culture never to melt good worker- 
oomba. A strong colony of bees, in the height of the honey- 
harvest, wiU fill them with very great rapidity. 

With the box hives (275), but little use 'yan be made 
of empty comb, unless it is new and can be put into the 
anrplos honey-boxea (728), but by the uje of movable 




102 THB BUILMNG OF BBB8. 

frames, every good piece of worker-comb may be given to 
the bees (286). 

224. As we have seen before (217), while the amall 
cells are designated as worker-cells, the large ones, which 
vary greatly in depth and are more especially prepared to 
store honey, and in which the drones are raised, are known 
as store or drone-cells. 

225. Generally, bees build a larger number of worker 
than of store-cells ; yet they do not follow any regulation 
as to the relative proportion in the quantity of each kind. 
Not two colonies, in the same Apiary, will show the same 
number of large cells, even when the hives are of equal 
capacity, and even if the building was done in circumstances 
seemingly identical. You will find a colony whose comb 
will consist of two- thirds worker and one- third store cells, 
the adjacent colony will have but one-sixth of the latter, 
another a few square inches only. In a hive all the large 
cells are together, in another they are scattered. Some of 
these drone-combs are built from top to bottom of the hive, 
others are at the top only, others at the side, or at the* bot- 
tom, or scattered, etc. 

226. These facts, not explainable by themselves, when 
added to the wonderful habits of bees, have led to the theory 
that it was with foresight, with perfect knowledge and for a 
special purpose, that bees construct such a varied propor- 
tion of the two kinds of cells. Bees are represented as 
knowing the sex of the eggs which each kind of cells will 
receive ; and foreseeing that their queen may not live long 
and that the young queens have to be fecundated (120), 
they build laro^e cells in which drones could be raised. 

227. We have demonstrated (213) that bees* construct 
their cells without any geometrical calculation. We had 
previously (142) established that the queen does not know 
the sex of the eggs she is laying, and although regretting 
to decrease the charm with which bees ware sorrounded by 




OOKB. 108 

the imflginfttion of bee-keepers, we will try to demonstrate 
that, in the building of cella, they simply follow their incli- 
nation ; as do all other beings, in the acts that they perform. 
Bat we hikve first to put forward a few facts, which are gen- 
erally accepted, on which we will ground our reasoning. 

228. i^, A swarm (406), hived on empty frames, 
always begins its constructions by worker or small cells : 

2d^ If the queen of a swarm is very prolific (97), very 
MtUe of large, or store-comb, will generally be built by her 
bees: 

3dy If, on the contrary, from old age, or from some 
other cause, the fecundity of a queen is deficient (155), 
her bees wiU fill the hive with a large quantity of store- 
combs: 

4thy If the queen of a swarm is removed, or dies while 
the bees are building, all the combs, made during her ab- 
sence, will consist of store-cells : 

5thy If all or part of the store-combs of a hive are re- 
moved, the bees will rebuild large cells, at least three times 
out of four. 

229. Besides these five propositions, we will remember 
that queens prefer to lay in small cells (145), and that they 
■eem to know how to ask the workers to narrow the orifices 
of the store-cells, when there are no others in the hive to 
xeceive their impregnated eggs (146 to 148). 

We hikve to remark also that, while the queen prefers the 
narrow cells, the workers prefer to build the wide ones, 
since they cease to construct worker-cells when the queen is 
gone, or when she is not on the spot, to remind them, by 
her presence, that she needs narrow cells for her impregnated 
eggs (146), and we will find out the cause of such differ- 
ences, in the number and in the position of each kind of 
combs, by following the work of the bees, in some of the 
drcumstaaces in which they may have to build. 

280. (a) Hie queen of a swarm is very prolific, the crop 




104 THS BUILDING OF BSS8. 

is abundant, and the building goes on very fast. The queen 
lays in all the cells, as soon as begun, disputing for them 
with the workers, who want to fill them with honey. As 
she follows, the builders, waiting for cells, no large oells 
are made. After about three weeks, the bees of the first 
laid eggs begin to leave their cells (171); the queen 
goes back to fill these empty cells, and the workers, hene^ 
forth free from restraint, follow their preferences by build- 
ing store-combs. Result : A few large cells, placed on the 
side or at the back of the hive. 

231. (6) This other swarm has a queen as prolific as 
the one above. For two weeks she follows the builders as 
the first did, laying in the cells as soon as built. But, the 
crop stopping suddenly, both the building and the lajring 
slacken, when only two- thirds of the constructions are 
made. After three weeks of scarcity, abundance comes 
again, and the building ia resumed. But the queen is no 
longer among the workers, waiting for cells ; she is at the 
other end of the hive, where she lays in the cells which 
were left empty when the larvae that they harbored were 
born. Result : About one-third of store-combs. 

232. (c) This third swarm has a queen whose prolific- 
ness is deficient, yet she has been able to follow the build- 
ers for a few days. She is at last left behind, and the 
workers begin combs with large cells. On reaching these 
cells, one or two days later, she passes over them without 
laying (149), and rejoins the builders, who hasten to com- 
ply with her desire to have worker-cells. But she is soon 
left behind for the second time, and the workers, unre- 
strained again, build large cells till she again rejoins them, 
to be again left behind, and so on. Result: Parts of store- 
combs mixed, here and there, with worker-combs. 

233. (d) We have removed from a hive all its drone- 
combs ; but as the queen is occupied in filUng empty worker- 
cells in another part of the hive, the builders, following their 




PROPOLIS. 105 

preference, reconstruct large cella, thus annulling our work 
of removiL 

234. (e) We have given one or two combs to a swarm 
as soon as it was hived (422), and we wonder why its bees 
have built so much drone-comb. The cause is obvious: 
the queen, finding empty cells to fill, remained a long time 
far from the builders, who, following their inclination, con« 
stracted drone-cells. 

2d/S. We have to utiliae the facts just enunciated. If 
we desire to prevent a swarm from building too many store- 
combs, we should watch the builders, and remove the large 
cells as soon as built ; these combs, if worth saving, may be 
used in the surplus sections (728). We must remember 
that, to succeed, it is indispensable that no other cells but 
the ones to be rebuilt be left at the disposal of the queen. 
The same rule applies also to the removal of drone-combs 
at any time ; and as the fulfilling of this condition is not 
always possible, it is better to replace the removed combs 
with worker comb or comb foundation (674). 

The above rules are not without exceptions, for unnoticed 
circumstances may have some influence on the building of 
combs ; but we think that we have stated the main causes 
of variation. 

Pbopoub. 

236. This substance, which is used by the bees to coat 
the inside of the bee-hive, and make it water and air tight, 
is obtained from the resinous buds and limbs of trees ; the 
different varieties of poplar jrield a rich supply. When first 
gathered, it is usually of a bright golden color, and so sticky 
that the bees never store it in cells, but apply it at once to 
the purposes lor which they procured it. If a bee is caught 
while bringing in a load, it will be found to adhere very 
firmly to her l^pi* 




106 THE BUILDINO OF BEE8. 

Huber planted in Spring some branches of the wild pop- 
lar, before the leaves were developed, and placed them in 
pots near his Apiary ; the bees alighted on them, separated 
the folds of the large buds with their forceps, extracted the 
varnish in threads, and loaded with it, first one thigh and 
then the other ; for they convey it like pollen, from one leg 
to the other. We have seen them thus remove the warm 
propolis from old bottom-boards standing in the sun. 

Propolis is frequently gathered from the alder, horse- 
chestnut, birch, and willow ; and as some think, from pines 
and other trees of the fir kind. Bees will often enter var- 
nishing shops, attracted evidently by their smell ; and in the 
vicinity of Matamoras, Mexico, where propolis seems to be 
scarce, we saw them using green paint from window-blinds, 
and pitch from the rigging of a vessel. Bevan mentions the 
fact of their carrying off a composition of wax and turpen- 
tine from the trees to which it had been applied. Dr. 
Evana says he has seen them collect the balsamic varnish 
which coats the young blossom-buds of the hoUy-hock, and 
has known them to rest at least ten minutes on the same 
bud, moulding the balsam with their fore-feet, and trans- 
ferring it to the hinder legs, as described by Huber. 

'^ With merry hum the Willow's copse they 8oal6t 
The Fir's dark pyramid, or Poplar pale ; 
Scoop from the Alder's leaf its oozy flood, 
Or strip the Chestnut's resin-coated bud; 
Skim the light tear that tips Narcissus' ray, 
Or round the Hollyhock's hoar fragrance play; 
Then waft their nut-brown loads exalting home. 
That form a fret- work for the future comb ; 
Caulk every chink where rushing winds may roar, 
And seal their circling ramparts to the fioor.*^ 

SVANS. 

237. A mixture of wax and propolis being much more 
adhesive than wax alone, serves admirably to strengthen the 
attachments of the combs to the top and sides of the hive. 




PBOPOUS. 107 

« 

If the combs are not filled with honey or brood soon after 
they are built, they are varnished with a delicate coating of 
propolis, which adds greatly to their strength ; but as this 
natural varnish impairs their snowy whiteness, the bees 
ought not to be allowed access to the surplus honey-recep- 
tacles, except when about ready to store then^ with honey. 
(734.) 

238. Bees make a very liberal use of propolis to fill any 
crevices about their premises ; and as the natural summer- 
heat of the hive keeps it soft, the bee-moth (802) selects it 
as a place of deposit for her eggs. Hives ought, therefore, to 
be made of lumber entirely free from cracks. The corners, 
which the bees usually fill with propolis, may have a melted 
mixture run into them, consisting of three parts of resin and 
one of bees-wax; this remaining hard during the hottest 
weather, will bid defiance to the moth. 

239. Bees gather propolis, especially when they can find 
neither honey nor pollen in the fields. Thus, during the 
honey-crop, very little of it is taken. In some countries, 
they use it much more plentifully, owing to its being found 
more readily. 

240. Propolis is hard and brittle in the Winter, and its 
use by the bees to glue up all parts of the hive, has created 
the greatest objection to drawers, close-fitting frames, 
hinged doors, etc., with which some patent hives are pro- 
vided, and which become entirely immovable, when once 
coated with it. It is, at all times, the greatest hindrance 
to the neat handling of the combs, and in warm weather 
daubs the hands of the Apiarist. It can only be cleaned 
from the fingers by the use, in place of soap, of a few drops 
of turpentine, alcohol, spirits of hartshorn, or ether. 

241. Propolis is sometimes put to a very curious use by 
the bees. 

**A mail, having crept into one of M. Reaumur's hives early 
In the morning, after crawling about for some time, adhered, by 




108 THE BUILDIKO OF BEES. 

means of its own slime, to one of the glass panes. The bees bar- 
ing discovered the snail, surrounded it, and formed a border of 
propolis round the verge of its shell, and fastened it so seourelj 
to the glass that it became immovable." — (Bevan.) 

*^ Forever closed the impenetrable door ; 
It naught avails that in its torpid veins 
Year after year, life's loitering spark remains.'* 

Evans. 

'* Maraldi, another eminent Apiarist, states that a snail without 
a shell having entered one of his hives, the bees, as soon as they 
observed It, stung it to death ; after which, being unable to dl^ 
lodge it, they covered it all over with an impervious eoat ef 
propolis." 

** For soon in fearless ire, their wonder lost, 
Spring fiercely from the comb the indignant host. 
Lay the pierced monster breathless on the ground. 
And clap In Joy their victor pinions round : 
While all in vain concurrent numbers strive 
To heave the slime-girt giant from the hive— 
Sure not alone by force instinctive swayed, 
But blest with reason's soul-directing aid. 
Alike in man or bee, they haste to pour. 
Thick, hard*ning as it falls, the flaky shower; 
Embalmed in shroud of glue the mummy lies, 
No worms Invade, no foul miasmas rise." 

Evans 

242. In these instances, who can withhold his admiration 
of the ingenuity and judgment of the bees? In th€ Jirti 
ease, a troublesome creature gained admission to the hir^ 
which, from its unwieldiness, they could not remove, and 
which, from the impenetrability of its shell, they could nol 
destroy ; here, then, their only source was to deprive it ot 
locomotion, and to obviate putrefaction; both which objects 
they accomplished most skillfully and securely, and, as ia 
usual with these sagacious creatures, at the least possible 
expense of labor and materials. They applied their cement 
where alone it was required — round the verge of the shell. 
In the loiter case, to obviate the evil of decay, by the total 




PBOPOUS. 109 

exclusion of air, they were obliged to be more lavish in the 
oae of their embalming material, and to case over the 
'* slime-girt giant," so as to guard themselves from hid noi* 
some smell. What means more effectual could human wis- 
dom have devised, under similar circumstances? 

243. In bygone days, it was a prevalent belief, that 
when any member of a family died, the bees knew what 
had happened ; and some were superstitious enough to put 
the hives in mourning, to pacify their sorrowing occupants ; 
imagining that, unless this was done, the bees would never 
afterwards prosper!* It was frequently asserted that they 
sometimes took their loss so much to heart, as to alight 
apon the coflin whenever it was exposed. A clergyman 
told the writer that he attended a funeral, where, as soon as 
the coffin was brought from the house, the bees gathered 
apon it so as to excite much alarm. Some years after this 
occurrence, being engaged in varnishing a table, the bees 
alighted upon it in such numbers, as to convince him, that 
love of varnish, rather than sorrow or respect for the dead, 
was the occasion of their conduct at the funeral. How many 
superstitions, believed even by intelligent persons, might be 
as easily explained, if it were possible to ascertain as fully 
all the facts connected with them ! 

344. CoMMKRCiAL UsBS OF Propolis. — ** Dissolved in alcohol 
and filtered, it Is osed as a varnish, and gives a polish to wood, 
and a golden color to tin. A preparation made with finely-ground 
propolis, gam arable, incense, storax, benzoin, sugar, nitre, and 
charcoal, in quantities varied at will, is moulded into fumigating 
oones, for perftiming rooms or halls." — (Dubini, Milan, 1881.) 

245. The following letter from a noted Russian Apiarist, 
to Mr. £. Bertrand, editor of the Revue Internationale 
dT Apiculture J of Nyon, Switzerland, one of the most pro- 
gressive bee-publications, will be found of interest : 

• Whlttlisr hM wxlttan a Uttle poem entitled ' 'Temng the Beet, " spr^pct ol 
IMr kBfiWlns ef aoiiM one's deetli. 




110 THK BUILDIHO OF BKI8. 

*^ During mj pleAMOit staj at joux prettj vUla, I spoke to joa 
of the utilization of propolis in the yamiah of oar wooden ware, 
which reaiata the diaaolving power of hot water ao well. I have 
juat found a description of the proceas, and will communicate it 
to you. 

** Propolis is purchased bj hucksters, who pay five copecks — a 
little over two cents— and sometimes even less, for permission to 
scrape or plane the propolis from the walla of a hive that haa 
lost its bees. The shavings, covered with propolis, are heated, 
put into a wax-press, and aubjected to the treatment used in 
the extraction of beeswax ; the propolia is then purified in hot 
water, to which sulphuric acid ia added. About fifty per cent, 
of propolis is thus obtained, which sells at forty centa per pound. 

*' Thia propolis is poured into hot linseed-oil and beeswax, in 
the following proportions : Propolis 1, beeswax }, oil 2. Previ- 
ously, the oil should ' linger,* aa we say, on the stove, for fifteen 
or twenty days, that is, remain hot without boiling, to give it the 
property of drying. The wooden ware is dipped into the above 
mentioned preparation, and must remain in it ten or fifteen min- 
utes, after which it is cooled, and rubbed and polished with 
woolen rags."— (A. Zoubareff, St. Petersburgh, Sept. 26, 1882.) 

We would suggest to manufacturers of supplies, that the 
soaking or painting of wooden feeders, and of queen-cages, 
with a similar preparation, would prevent the warm feed 
from soaking into the wood* 




Hoxxr. Ill 



CHAPTER nL 

FOOD OF BEES. — ^HONET. 

240. The main food of bees is the honey or nectar, pro- 
dneed by plants and flowers. That honey is a vegetable 
product was known to the ancient Jews, one of whose Rab- 
bins asks: ** Since we may not eat bees, which are unclean ^ 
why are we allowed to eat honey? " and replies : *' Because 
bees do not make honey, but only gather it from plants and 
flowers." 

247. Yet during its sojourn in the honey-sack, the nectar 
undergoes a* chemical change. Most of its cane-sugar, or 
saccharose, is changed into grape-sugar, or glucose.* This 
change is due to its mixture with the saliva of the glands, 
while in the honey-sack (03). *' But the cane-sugar yet 
remains in large proportion in honey gathered oa the moun* 
tains"(Girard), — or when it is gathered very fast. 

248. The nectar is produced by the plants in nectarifer- 
ous tissues , in which accumulations of sugar can be found, 
and exudes most frequently through small apertures, named 
stomatce. 

240. It contains more or less water, according to the 
kind of flowers, and the conditions in which it is produced. 
Some flowers give nectar which is almost completely de- 
prived of water. Such is the Fuschia (fig. 41). When the 
nectar of this flower is produced in very dry weather, it 
sometimes crystallizes in the blossom, as it comes iu con- 
tact with the air. 

• WbAt la ektmict U lp known m glnooM thonld not be conlbnnded with tho 



112 rOOD OF BKU. 

In some other flowera, as in the Fritiliaria imperialia, Ot» 
neotar contains as much as nine- 
^•Sve per cent of water, 
we except dr^ and warm days, 
we can saiely assert that, in most 
cases, the proportion of water 
in the nectar varies between 
•izt; and eight; per cent. 

2AO. The quantity of neo- 
tar produced bj the flowers 
decreases during drought, and 
increases on the first or sec- 
ond day after a r^n. But it 
Is then more watery. In some 
seasons the saccharine juices 
abound, while in others they 
are so deficient that bees can 
obtiUQ Bcarcely any food from 
fields all white with clover. A 
change in the secretion of honey 
will often take place so sud- 
denly, that the bees will, in a 
tew hours, pass from idleness 
to great activity. fobcmi*. 

As a rule, the quantity of nectar, exuded by the plants, 
varies according to the time of day and atmospheric condl- 
tioua. Usually, it is most abundant in the morning. Its 
quantity decreases as the sun rises higher. At three 
o'clock in the afternoon, the flowers give the least nectax. 
Then the yield again increases till dark. In Algeria, AfricK, 
in the neighborhood of Itlidafa, bees cannot find honey later 
than eight iu the morning. 

251. It is Tueo the blossom is ready for fertilization, 
that the aectar is most abundant in it ; if It is not gathered 
by insects, it is re-absorbed by the plant and aerre*, 





HONET. 118 

together with the sugar accumiilated in the oyaries, to 
nourish the seeds. 

252. The accumulations of sugar in the tissues, may 
exist, not only in the flower, but in different parts of plants, 
in the cotyledons, in the leaves, in the stipules, in the brae- 
teas, and between the leaves and twigs. They help the 
development of the tissues. 

Sometimes the nectariferous tissues are destitute of sto- 
mats or openings. Then the accumulated nectar may force 
itself through the cuticle or skin of the plant. 

The water of the sap, which runs incessantly in the plants, 
goes out through the different tissues in unequal quantities ; 
as some tissues are more porous than others. Generally, 
water escapes in the form of steam ; but, in some circum- 
stances, when the air is moist, the water is emitted in liquid 
form, and may carry with it, to the outside, a part of the 
accumulations of sugar through which it has passed, thus 
producing honey-dew. The more sugar this water contains, 
tlie slower its evaporation will be. 

253. The dampness of the soil and of the air, and a 
temperature producing a profuse transpiration in plants, 
then a sudden stop of transpiration, are the best conditions 
to produce the maximum of nectar in the nectariferous tis- 
sues and of liquid exudations on the outside. 

254. Most of the above statements are taken, or rather 
abridged, from ** Les Nectaires," of Gaston Bonnier, a 
professor at the l^cole Normale Superieure of Paris (1879). 
This work was awarded a medal by the Academy of Science 
of Paris. Bonnier back^ his statements with one hundred 
and thirty engravings made from microscopic researches. 

255. He explains, not only how the nectar is formed in 
the blossoms, but also how the extra floral nectar, the so- 
called honey-dew^ is produced on different parts of plants, 
or trees. 

He has noticed and described the production of nectar 
8 



(honey-dew without (^Atdet),*oa muiy herbaoeons plftnts, 
and on the following trees or shrubs : Two kinds of 0«k, 





HONKT. 115 

the ash, two kinda of linden, the sorb, the barberry, two 
kinds of raspberry, the poplar, the birch, two kinds of 
mafde, and the hazel brush. In some parts of Europe, this 
honey 'dew is so plentiful, that some Apiarists transport their 
bees to the districts in which it is produced, during its 
yield. (Fig. 42.) 

256. Bees also harrest, in some seasons, a sweet sub- 
stance of poorer quality, which is a discharge from the 
bodies of small aphides or *' plant lice."* 

Messrs. Eirby and Spence, in their interesting work on 
Entomology, have given a description of the honey-dew 
furnished by the aphides: 

*' The loYes of the ants and the aphides have long been cele- 
brated ; yon will always find the former very busy on those trees 
&nd plants on which the latter abound; and, if you examine 
somewhat more closely, you will discover that the object of the 
ants in thus attending upon the aphides^ is to obtain the saccha- 
rine fluid secreted by them, which may well be denominated their 
milk. This fluid, which is scarcely Inferior to honey in its 
sweetness, issues in limpid drops from the abdomen of these in- 
sects, not only by the ordinary passage, but also, by two setiform 
tubes, placed one on each side. Just above It. Their sucker boint? 
inserted In the tender bark is, without Intermission, employed in 
absorbing the sap, which, after it has passed through these or- 
f^ans, they keep continually discharging. When no ants attend 
them, by a certain jerk of the body, which takes place at- regular 
intervals, they ejaculate it to a distance." 

thl, "Mr. Knight once observed a shower of honoy-dew 
descending In innumerable small globules, near one of his oak 
trees. He cat off one of the branches, took it into the house, 
and, holding it in a stream of light admitted ttirou^fh a small 
opening, distinctly saw the aphides ejecting the lluid from their 
bodies with considerable force, and this accounts for its being 

• The AbM BoUaicrde SAUTaget, In 1763, describod two species of honey- 
dow. The flnt kind, Im i^rt, hat the same origin with the m(i>i/t.i on the a^h 
aud maple trcot of Calabria and Briau.on, whero it flows plentifully from 
thnr learoa and tmnka, and thickens in the form in which it is nemally seen. 
— (" Obaervationa anr I'Ozifina dn Mlel. ") We have received specimena of 
a honey -dew ttom. Calitornia, which la aaid to fall flrom the oak trees in ata- 
lactitea of eonaldflnhia riaa. 




116 FOOD OF BEES. 

frequently fonnd in situations where It eonld not have arriTed 
by the mere Inflnenoe of gravitation. The drops that are thm 
sported oat, unless Interrupted by the surrounding foliage, or 
some other interposfhg bo^y, fall upon the g^und ; and the 
spots may often be observed, for some time, beneath and around 
the trees, affected with honey-dew, till washed away by the rain. 
The power which these insects possess of ejecting the fluid from 
their bodies, seems to have been wisely instituted to prenerre 
cleanliness in each individual fly, and, indeed, for the presenra- 
tlon of the whole family ; for, pressing as they do upon one sn- 
other, they would otherwise soon be glued together, and rendered 
Incapable of stirring. On looking steadfastly at a g^np of these 
insects (Afihidei 9aUeii) while feeding on the bark of the willow, 
their superior size enabled us to perceive some of them elevating 
their bodies and emitting a transparent substance in the form of 
a small shower: 

" Nor scorn ye now, fond elves, the foliage sear, 
When the light aphids, arm'd with puny spear, 
Probe each emulgent vein, till bright below. 
Like falling stars, clear drops of nectar glow.*' 

SVANS. 

358. '* Honey-dew usually appears upon the leaves as a vis* 
cid transparent substance, as sweet as honey itself, sometimes in 
the form of globules, at others resembling a syrup. It is gen- 
erally most abundant from the middle of June to the middle of 
July — sometimes as late as September. 

** It is found chiefly upon the oak, the elm, the maple, the plane, 
the sycamore, the lime, the hazel, and the blackberry ; occasion- 
ally also the cherry, currant, and other fruit trees. Sometimes 
only one species of trees is affected at a time. The oak gener- 
ally affords the largest quantity. At the season of its greatest 
abundance, the happy, humming noise of the bees may be heard 
at a considerable distance, sometimes nearly equalling in loud- 
ness the united hum of swarming." — (Bevan.) 

In some seasons, bees gather large supplies from these 
hoDe3'-dcws, but it is abundant only once in three or four 
years. The honey obtained from this source is osuallj of a 
dark color, and seldom of a very good quality. 

250. It is very difficult to ascertain, at all times, the 
special source of honey-dew, whether from the trees or froa 




HONET. 117 

the aphides. In order to give all sides a hearing, we will 
cite a letter from Mr. Bonnier on this subject, and leave 
the reader to draw his own conclusions : 

** Plant lice are seen even on trees that have no extra floral 
aeetaries. Thej do not prodaoe exadations (properly speaking), 
hat bore the tissues to eat the contents. Their presence on the 
plant has no connection with that of the nectar. The excre men- 
tal liquid of apMdes is not equally sweet in all the species, and 
the bees harvest only that which is very sweet. They generally 
prefer the true honey-dew (mUlUe), which exudes from the leaves 
at certain times, and contains mannite and saccharine matter. 

*' I have seen bees, however, harvesting the sweet liquid of the 
mphideg and the true mieUie at the same time, on the aspen, maple, 
and sycamore. 

^ I have rarely seen the extra floral nectar of the 'special nec- 
taries overflow and run in drops, but the true mielUe of trees may 
fkll in small drops, and some observers conclude, from this fact, 
that it is produced by aphitUs, I have often seen some trees, and 
even all the trees, of a timber, covered with an abundant mUlUe, 
&lling in small drops, although there was not a single louse on 
the higher limbs. 

^ To sum up, we must not confound the three kinds of sweet 
liquid, which may be produced outside the flowers: Ist, The 
extra*floral nectar proper, produced, like the nectar of flowers, 
from special sugar tissues; td^ The true mielUe, produced on the 
iurfftoe of the leaves of trees or shrubs, without the action of 
mphiim; Sd, The excretion, more or less sweet, sometimes con- 
taining very little sugar, abundantly produced by a great num- 
ber of apHtUf." 

860. In some blossoms, as in the red clover, the corolla 
Is so deep and narrow, that the nectar is out of reach of the 
honey-bee. Larger insects, such as the bumble-bee, or 
immUer ones, as some wasps, enjoy it to the exclusion of 
oer favorites. Yet in some seasons, we have seen bees 
wwking on red-oloyer bloom, and have attributed this to 
the corollas being shorter, owing to drouth, or scant growth. 
Mr. Bonnier has discovered that, in some such flowers, the 
nectar is sometimes so abundant that the bees can reach 
li. It Is troe that insects, and even bees, oan tear the 




118 FOOD OF BEX8. 

tender corollas of some blosBoms, opposite the honey recep- 
tacle, to reach the nectar, but this is of such rare instance, 
in the honey-bee, that it cannot be considered of any prac- 
tical value. 

201. The honey, when harvested, is stored in the rear of 
the hive, above the brood, and as near it as possible. 

When just gathered, it is too watery to be preserved for 
the use of the bees. To evaporate this water, they force a 
strong current of air through the hive, and the bee-keeper 
can ascertain the days of large honey-yield, by the greater 
roar of the bees in front of their hive during the night fol* 
lowing. If a strong colony is put on a platform scale, it 
will be found, during the height of the honey-harvest, to gain 
a number of pounds on a pleasant day. Much of this weight 
will be lost in the night, from the evaporation of the newly- 
gathered honey. A thorough upward ventilation, in hot 
weather, will therefore contribute to increase the ripening 
of honey. 

When the cell is about fuU, the bees seal it with a flat 
cover or capping made of wax. This capping is begun at 
the lower edge of the cell, and is raised gradually, as the 
honey is deposited within, till the cell is entirely sealed. 
These cappings being flat, depressed, or uneven, are easily 
distinguished from the caps of the brood, which are convex 
and of a darker color. 

202. Are the caps of the honey-cells air-tight? This 
much-debated question is not yet satisfactorily answered. 

The caps of the brood-cells, made of pollen and wax, are 
undoubtedly porous enough to allow the air to reach the 
larva; and some Apiarists question the impervioosneas 
of the sealing of honey-comb. Mr. Cheshire himself, whfle 
of opinion that ^^ the bee aims at compact coverings for her 
honey/' says that ^^ not more than ten percent, of these are 
absolutely impervious to air." Yet his own description d 
the cause of the weU-known whiteness of the eappinga. 




POLLKN. 119 

owing to the Air which is left behind and ^''cannot escape," 
wonld prove that these cappings are original] j made as air* 
tight as a thin coat of wax can make them. The fact that 
honey shrinks and swells inside of the cell, is only a proof 
that, like many other things, its Yolame depends on the 
temperature. Again, its fermenting in sealed cells, proves 
only that it contains the elements of fermentation, and these 
can be developed at certain degrees of temperature, even 
in air-tight vessels. Mr. Cheshire's tests of honey-combs, 
steeped in water, to ascertain whether the honey in sealed 
cells would absorb moisture and expand, have been tried by 
OS with altogether contrary results. The difference of 
opinion on this subject may be due to the fact that the cap- 
pings are very fragile, and crack imperceptibly, when ex- 
posed to variations of temperature outside of the hive. 

Would it be possible that the thin coat of wax, though 
evidently air-tight, be, in some circumstances, porous 
enough to allow moisture to soak through it slowly, like 
water through leather? 



PoLUor. 

298. The pollen, or fertilizing dust of flowers, is gath- 
ered by the bees from blossoms, and is indispensable to the 
nourishment of their young — ^repeated experimenfs having 
proved that brood cannot be raised without it. It is very 
rich in the nitrogenous substances which are not contained 
in honey, and without which ample nourishment could not 
be furnished for the development of the growing bee. Dr. 
Hunter, on dissecting some immature bees, found that their 
stomachs contained pollen, but not a particle of honey. 

We are indebted to Huber for the discovery, that pollen 
is the principal food of the young bees. As large supplies 
were often found in hives whose inmates had starved, it was 




120 FOOD OF BEES. 

evideat that, without honey, it could not support the mAtnre 
bees; and this led former observers to conclude that it 
serred for the building of comb. Huber, after demonstrat- 
ing that wax can be secreted from an entirely different sub- 
stance, soon ascertained that pollen was used for the 
nourishment of the embryo bees. Confining some bees to 
their hive without any pollen, he supplied them with honey, 
eggs, and larrse. In a short time, the young all perished. 
A fresh supply of brood being given to them, with an ample 
allowance of pollen, the development of the larvs pro- 
ceeded in the natural way. 

264. We had an excellent opportunity of testing the 
value of this substance, in the backward Spring of 1852. On 
the 5th of February, we opened a hive containing an artifi- 
cial swarm of the previous year, and found many of the cells 
filled with brood. The combs being examined on the 23d, 
contained neither eggs, brood nor bee-bread ; and the col- 
ony was supplied with pollen from another hive ; the next 
day, a large number of eggs were found in the cells. When 
this supply was exhausted, laying again ceased, and was 
only resumed when more was furnished. During the time 
of these experiments, the weather was so unpromising, that 
the bees were unable to leave the hive. 

Dzierzon is of opinion that bees can furnish food for their 
youne^, without pollen ; although he admits that they can do 
it only f6r a short time, and at a great expense of yital en- 
ci'gy ; just as the strength of an animal nursing its yovmg Is 
rapidly reduced, if, for want of proper food, the rery sub- 
stance of the mother's body must be convntod into milk. 
The experiment just described does not corroborate this 
theory, but confirms Ruber's view, that poUen is indispeB- 
sable to the development of brood. 

Gundelach, an able German Apiarist, says that if a ool* 
ony with a fertile queen be confined to an empty hire, and 
supplied with honey, comb will be rapidly built, aad tlM 




POLLEN. 121 

cells filled with eggs, which in due time will be batdied ; 
bat the worms will all die within twentj-f our hours. 

Some^nes bees, unable to feed their brood for lack of 
pollen, desert their hives (407). 

265. In September, 1856, we put a very large colony of 
bees into a new hiye, to determine some points on which we 
were then experimenting. The weather was fine, and they 
gathered pollen, and built comb very rapidly ; still for ten 
days, the queen-bee deposited no eggs in the cells. During 
all that time, these bees stored very little pollen in the 
combs. One of the days being so stormy that they could not 
go abroad, they were supplied with rye flour (207), none of 
which, although very greedily appropriated, could be found 
in the cells. During all this time, as there was no brood to 
be fed, the pollen must have been used by the bees either 
for nourishment, or to assist them in secreting wax ; or, as 
we belieye, for both these purposes. 

266. Bees prefer to gather /res^ pollen, even when there 
are large accumulations of old stores in the cells. With hives 
giving the control of the combs, the surplus of old colonies 
may be made to supply the deficiency of young ones ; the 
latter, in Spring, being often destitute of this important 
article.* 

If honey and pollen can both be obtained from the same 
blossom, the industrious insect usually gathers a load of each. 
To prove this, let a few pollen-gatherers be dissected when 
honey is plenty; and their honey-sacks will ordinarily be 
fall. 

When the bee brings home a load of pollen, she stores it 
away, by inserting her body in a cell, and brushing it from 
her legs; it is then carefully packed down, being often cov- 
ered with honey, and sealed over with wax. Pollen is sel- 
dom deposited in any except worker-cells. This fact 

• iKhowgh the bett of quMnleM ooloniee do not lUTiaUy go In quest of pollen » 
MOM ooimlonrtlj tuoTMl it, ftnd m It U not nied, it Aoonmolatet in the Mto. 




122 FOOD OF BBK8. 

snpports the idea that large cells are not built to raise brood 
(224). 

Aristotle obserred, that a bee, in gathering pollen, con- 
fines herself to the kind of blossom on which she begins, eyen 
if it is not so abundant as some others ; thus a ball of this 
substance taken from her thigh, is found to be of a uniform 
color throughout ; the load of one insect being yellow, of 
another, red, and of a third, brown ; the color varying with 
that of the plant from which the supply was obtained. They 
may prefer to gather a load from a single species of plant, 
because the pollen of different kinds does not pack so well 
together. Reaumur has estimated, that a good colony may 
gather and use as much as one hundred pounds of it in a 
year. 

207. When bees cannot find pollen, in early Spring, they 
will gather flour, or meal, or even fine sawdust, as a substi- 
tute. This was noticed by Hartlib, as early as 1655. 

Dzicrzon, early in the Spring, observed his bees bringing 
rye-meal to their hives from a neighboring mill, before they 
could procure any pollen from natural supplies. The hint 
was not lost ; and it is now a common practice, wherever 
bee-keeping is extensively carried on, to supply the bees 
early in the season with this article. Shallow troughs or 
boxes are set not far from the Apiaries, filled about two 
inches deep with finely-ground^ dry^ unbolted rye-mealy oat- 
meal or even with flour. Where bolted fiour, or meal, is 
given, it should be tightly pressed with the hands, to pre- 
vent the bees from drowning in it. lo attract them to it, 
wc bait them with a few old combs, or a little honey. 

The boxes must be placed in a warm spot sheltered from 
the wind. Thousands of bees, when the weather is favor- 
able, resort eairerly to them, and return heavily laden to 
their hives. 

This artificial pollen or bee -bread, is kneaded by them 
with saliva, or honey brought from the hive. This iseasilj 




POLLBN. 123 

saoertained by tasting the little pellets, which in the hurry 
are loosened from their baskets, and fall to the bottom of 
the floor box. In flne, mild weather, they labor at this 
work with great industry; preferring the meal to the old 
pollen stored in their combs. They thus breed early, and 
rapidly recruit their numbers. The feeding is continued 
till, .the blossoms furnishing a preferable article, they cease 
to carry off the meal. 

We will here add that, as a rule, colonies that do not 
carry in meal or pollen, at the opening of Spring, are without 
brood, either because they are queenless, or from want of 
honey, or from some other cause. 

The discovery of flour, as a substitute for pollen, removes 
a very serious obstacle to the culture of bees. In many 
districts, there is for a short time such an abundant supply 
of honey, that almost any number of strong colonies will, 
in a good season, lay up enough for themselves, and a large 
surplus for their owners. In many of' these districts, how- 
ever, the supply of pollen is often quite insufficient, and in 
Spring, the swarms of the previous year are so destitute, 
that unless the season is early, the production of brood is 
seriously checked, and the colony cannot avail itself prop- 
erly of the superabundant harvest of honey. 

208. As bees carry on their bodies the pollen, or fertil- 
izing substance, they aid most powerfully in the impregna- 
tion of plants, while prying into the blossoms in search of 
honey or bee-bread. In genial seasons, fruit will often set 
abundantly, even if no bees are kept in its Ticinity ; but 
many Springs are so unpropitious, that often during the 
critical period of blossoming, the sun shines for only a few 
hours, so that those only can reasonably expect a remuner- 
ating crop whose trees are all murmuring with the pleasant 
hum of bees. 

209. One of the laws of Nature is that the crossing of 
tbe races produces offspring with greater vigor, endurance, 



U4 Fot» or ma. 

ftod Ucaltj of reprodnctioD. FrnitB snoceed better, wheo 
the p<dleo, whidi feitflizea the pistil, comes from some other 
blossom ; and tbe insects sre intrusted with the mission of 
tnnsportiDg this poUeo from one blossom to another, whils 
plfaering it tor their own use. In some plants, fertilizstioB 
would have been unpaocdble, without the help of insects. 
For instance, some plants, sodi as the willows, sre diecioos, 
hSTing their male organs on one tree, and their female or> 
gans on another, llie bees after Tisiting the one for pollen, 
go to the other for honey, acd the fecondation Is effected. 




(Magnlflcd. Pnm ChaaMn.) 

A, jonng blOBaom. >. aUsnu. 

B, Mctloa of bloHom. m, calyx; r, catoUai H, >ba«MI Battel 
1, itlsnui ', Up; D, autben; n, aectari M, black Up. 

C, older blouom. i, dn>ppliiBitlK>D*i i, anthen. 

In some other plants, such as the Scrophtdaria Nodoia 
(Simpson hooey plaot — Fig. 43), tbe female orgaos are 
ready for fecundation earlier than the male. But as the 
flower secretes a Urge quantity of honey, which Is replaced 
in its nectaries as fast as tbe bees gather it, the bees, in 
traveling from one blossom to another, carry the pollen of 
an old blossom to the pistil of a yoimger one, and fertiliza- 
tion is accomplished. Some plauts, corn, tor instance, pro- 




POLLBN. 125 

dnce Buch quantities of pollen, that the agency of insects is 
less indispensable to the fertilization of their blossoms. 

270. To determine the advantages which flowers derive 
from insect fertilization, any one can wrap a few flowers in 
ganze, jnst before the opening of the bud, and compare the 
number of fertile seeds, from flowers thus treated, with 
those of other blossoms. 

We have heard farmers mention the fact that the first 
crop of red clover furnishes but little seed, compared with 
the second crop. This is because the bumble-bees, which 
help its fertilization, are very scarce in Spring, while they 
are much more plentiful in Summer. ^^ In Australia it was 
found impossible to obtain seed from red clover until the 
bumble-bees were imported into that country " (Darwin). 

A large fruit-grower told us that his cherries were a very 
uncertain crop, a cold northeast storm frequently prevailing 
when they were in blossom. He had noticed that, if the 
sun shone only for a couple of hours, the bees secured him 
a crop. 

If those horticulturists, who regard the bee as an enemy, 
could exterminate the race, they would act with as little 
wisdom as those who attempt to banish from their inhospit- 
able premises every insectivorous bird, which helps itself to 
a small part of the abundance it has aided in producing. 
By making judicious efforts early in the Spring, to entrap 
the mother-wasps and hornets, which alone survive the 
Winter, an effectual blow may be struck at some of the 
worst pests of the orchard and garden. In Europe, those 
engaged extensively in the cultivation of fruit, often pay a 
small sum in the Spring for all wasps and hornets destroyed 
in their vicinity. 



rooD OF Bsm. 



371. 



Watbb. 
Water is necessary to bees to diMotre the hooer, 



which Bometimes granulates in the cella, to digest the poUen 
and to prepare the food with which they feed the larvK. 
They can raise a certain amount of brood without water, 
but they always seem to suffer more or less in consequence 
(602). Id the Winter, they breed but Uttle, and the 
moisture which condenses on the walla of the hive Is gener- 
ally sufficient. Yet we have noticed that as soon as bees 
are brought out of the cellar (6S3), if the temperature 
is sufficiently warm, a great many will be seen sucking 
water. This fact shows that Berlepscb was right when he 
advised bee-keepers to give water to bees during Winter, 
to avoid what he called disease of the thirst. Besides, 
every one may notice that bees take advantage of any warm 
Winter day to bring it to their hives; and, in early Spring, 
may be seen busily drinking around pumps, drains, and 
other moist places. Later in the season, they sip the dew 
from the grass and leaves. 

272. Every careful bee-keeper will see that his bees are 
well supplied with water. If 
he has not some sunny spot, 
olose at hand, where they can 
safely obtain it, be will fur- 
nish them with shallow wood- 
en troughs, or vessels filled 
with Qoats or straw, from 
which — sheltered from cold 
winds, and warmed by the 
genial raya of the sun — they 
can drink without risk of 



droivuKif,'. 

A bnrri'l halt Hlled with 
earth and then filled with 
water, in which some water- 




Fig. «. 

WATKK SOPPLT BOTFLB. 
(From Sutoil M 8— Bfciiftli, < 




WATER. 127 

cress or other aquatic plants are kept, to preserve it from 
putrefaction, and to prevent the bees from drowning, will 
do very well. For a small Apiary, a jug or bottle (fig. 44), 
filled with water, and inverted on a plate, covered with a 
small piece of carpet, will be sufficient* It can also be given 
in the combs. Mr. Vogel, editor of the Bienen-Zeitung, on 
the 19th of March gave to a colony a comb containing crys- 
tallized honey, and another containing about three-fourths 
of a pound of water. Within sixteen hours, both combs 
were altogether emptied by the bees. 

278. A learned French bee-keeper, Mr. Da Layens^ 
made many experiments in regard to this matter. 

^ In the month of May, 1878, I put a lump of sugar near a 
■pot where a great many bees came for water; they paid no- 
attention to it. The sugar was then moistened and covered 
with honey. The bees, attracted by the honey, came in great 
numbers, and sacked up most of the moist sugar. After they 
became accustomed to this, I decreased the moistening, till I 
gave them nothing but dry sugar, when they brought water to 
dissolve the sugar, and removed all except the parts which were 
too hard to be dissolved easily.''— (BuZ/e^n <U la Suisse, Nov. 1880.) 

The same writer has noticed that, in Spring, if the bees 
are compelled to go very far for water, many of them per- 
ish. He found a loss of three hundred and fifty grammes 
of bees — ^four-fifths of a pound — from a hive, during a sud- 
den Spring storm. 

From the 10th of April to the 81st of July, forty colonies 
consumed 187 litres of water, about fifty gallons ; the great- 
est quantity used in a day being seven litres, or about fif- 
teen pints. 

That bees do not need water, in circumstances other than 
those mbove named, is evidenced from the fact that, in im- 
porting bees from Italy, we did not succeed in receiving 
them alive, untO our shippers reluctantly consented to send 
them without water (595). 




128 food of bxb8. 

Salt. 

274. Bees seem to be so fond of salt, that they will 
alight upon our hands to lick up the saline perspiration. 

** During the early part of the breeding season," said Dr. Bevao, 
'* till the beginning of May, I keep a constant supply of salt and 
water near my Apiary, and find it thronged with bees firom early 
mom till late in the eyenlng. About this period the quantity 
they consume is considerable, but afterwards they seem indiifei^ 
ent to it. The eagerness they eyince for it at one period of the 
season, and their indifference at another, may account tot the 
'Opposite opinions entertamed respecting it*" 



Him WITH DOtOTABLB OOHB9. 



CHAPTER IV. 

TBI BKB-HIVIS. HITES WITH DHOTABLK COSBS. 

S7ff. Tbe first hives that were provided for bees were as 
nde as their natural abodes. We do not need to look back 
very far to remember the " bee-gum," so c&Iled, probably, 
becaose it had often been made out of the gum tree, with 
two sticks crossing in the middle, and a rough board nailed 
on top, whiles notch in the lower end formed the entrance. 
In the Old World, they manufactured straw or willow 
" skeps " and pottery hives, which are still used in Asia and 
Africa. The earthen hive was simply a tube, laid on its 
side, and closed at each end with a movable wooden disk. 
This disk was removed to take the honey, which is always 
located at tlic back part of the hives. 




(rrem "L'AploaltoTe," 



These earthen hives were, unqueationably, the most 
sensible of those old kinds. In the Islands of Greece they 
were set in thick stone walls, built on purpose with the 
entrance on one side of the wall. Somellmes they were 
located in the walls of the houses, aad the honey was 
removed from the Inside of the house, or, if in walls, from 
behind, out of the flight of bees. 



ISO 



276. To get the honey from the giims, or boxes, th« 
bee-keepers used at first to drive the bees to another hiv« 
(574) and take all the contents. But most of the thus 
impoverished colonies perished. This led to the thought 
that killing bees would be more facile, and the brim- 
stone-pit was invented. This killing of bees wu bo cus- 
tomary that, about one hundred yeara ago, Joseph II, 
Emperor of Austria, decreed that every bee-keeper who 
would cut the combs in Spring, Instead of brinutonlng 
the bees, would receive one florin (about forty oaoti) per 
colony. 





rig. *6. rig. n. 

antAW HiVK, WITH CAP. BOX HIVE, wmi or. 

[(^m Hsinct.) (Froni BuoM.) 

377. Nearly sixty years ago, our senior, then a boy, 
saw tliis barvestingof combs for the first time. Clothed with 
a heavy linen frock, equipped with a mask of wire, 
strong enough to be sword-proof, and sweating under a 
scorching sun in this heavy garment, he helped ( ?) the old 
priest of his village to prune about twenty colonies, removing 
the back combs with a curved knife, from the upturned 
hives. It was in April ; and, white the crop thus harvested 



Bins WTTH lUfOTABLB OOHB8. 



ISl 



wu light, the damAgfl inflicted to the bees was immenBe, 
tor the; had to rebnild their combs at a time when queens 
begin Uieir greatest laying. But the bee-keepers of old 
were persuaded that tiiis crop of beeswax was beneficial 
to bees, since it compelled them to make new combs, which 
were considered better than older ones (076)- 




B, bodrt 1, Btua >u CDomn u 
■tailes with tha nuiila* c*p. 



(mm BuDst.) 



27S. Some bee-keepers, having noticed that beea place 
their bone; at the highest part of the hive, added a cap or 
a])per story, which communicated with the hive through a 
hole in the top of the latter (figs. 46 and 47). Still later, 
Apiarists found out that when the hive was very deep and 
the connecting hole amall, the bees refused to store their 
honey in the cap, and they made their hiveB with open ceil- 
ings, replacing the t(q> board of the breeding-storynith slats 
or bars. The Uvea were afterwards divided into several bor- 
iionUl sectionB, called "ekes" (figs. 48 and 49). Instead 
of using a cap, acme Apiarists removed the upper atory, 
when full of honey, and pUoed a new story under the others. 



182 T 

The bees then coDtloued thdr coiutructiom downwudi. 
To eeparate the sections from one aootfaer, the; used it win 
tbnt cut the combs. Butler, in his " Feminine Honuchj," 
1634, shows hives composed of four sections, piled opOD one 
another. P&lteau, In 1750, adrises bee-keepers to use a 
perforated ceiling at the top of each section. Badouan, in 
1621, instead of a perforated ceiling, uses triangular bars, 
to which the bees attach their combs (fig. 49). Chaa. 
Soria, in 1645, used these bars at the bottom of each 
story as well as at the top, with bee space between, so that 
they can be removed, exchanged, or reversed, without 
crushing any bees, or damaging a aingle cell {tig. ftO). 



^^ 




DIVIDIMO E 

DB OKUSD. 

(From HuiKt.i 



279. Other Apiarists divided their hives vertically, ooi^ 
formably wilh the shape of the combs of the bees, which 
hanp; vcrticall.v. If we are correctly informed, it was Jonas 
de Gclicu who inaugurated this style (fig. 51). He m«d« 
his hive divisible into only two parU. (Ettl, towards th« 
middle of this century, made a slraw hive divided into thras 
vertical parts. Tbe main advantage of these hives reaides 
In the facility of dividing ihem tor artificial swarming. But 
as this method of making artificial Bwarms ia defective, as 
will be shown further, (471), and as all these coubri- 




REQUISinS OF A COXPLBTS HIYB. 188 

TEoces did not allow a olose study of the habits of the bee, 
or permit the needed manipulations, it became necessary to 
Inyent a hive whose every comb, and every part, the Apiarist 
ooold promptly and easily control ; a hive which, to employ 
the forcible expression of Mr. Hamet, could '^ se dUmonter 
wmme un jeu de marionettes;*' (be taken to pieces like a 
puppet-show). 



RBQuisrrES of a Cohplbts HrvB. 

280. i. A complete hive should give the Apiarist such 
perfect control of all the combs, that they may be easily 
taken oat without cutting them, or exciting the anger of the 
bees. 

2. It should permit all necessary operations to be per- 
formed without hurting or killing a single bee. 

Some hives are so constructed, that they can not be used 
without injuring or destroying some of the bees ; and the 
destruction of even a few materially increases the difficulty 
of managing them (399). 

3. It should afford suitable protection against extremes 
of heat and cold, sudden changes of temperature, and the 
injurious effects of dampness. 

The interior of a hive should be dry in Winter, and free 
In Sununer from a pent and almost suffocating heat. 

4. Not one unnecessary motion should be required of a 
dngle bee. 

As the honey-harvest, in most locations, is of short con- 
tinuance, all the arrangements of the hive should facilitate, 
to the utmost, the work of the busy gatherers. Hives 
which compel them to travel with their heavy burdens 
through densely crowded combs, are very objectionable. 
Bees instead of forcing their way through thick clusters, 
mutt easily pass into the top surplus honey-boxes of the 




184 THK BBB-HIYBS. 

hives, from any comb in the hive, and into everj box, with- 
out traveling much over the combs. 

6. It should be capable of being readily adjusted to the 
wants of either large or small colonies (349). 

6. It should allow every good piece of worker-comb to be 
given to the bees, instead of melting it into wax, and should 
permit of the use of comb-foundation (674). 

7. It should prevent the o^er-production of drones, by 
permitting the removal of drone-comb from the hive. 

A hive containing too much comb suitable only for storing 
honey, or raising drones, cannot be expected to prosper. 

8. It should allow the bottom board to be loosened or 
fastened at will, for ventilation, or to clear out the dead 
bees in Winter. If suffered to remain, they often become 
mouldy, and injure the health of the colony. In dragging 
them out, when the weather moderates, the bees often fall 
with them on the snow, and are so chilled, that they never 
rise again ; for a bee, in flying away with the dead, fre- 
quently retains its hold until both fall to the ground. 

9. No part of the interior of the hive should be below 
the level of the place of exit. 

If this principle is violated, the bees must, at great dis- 
advantage, drag, up hilly their dead, and all the refuse of 
the hive. 

10. It should afford facilities for feeding bees, both in 
warm and cool weather, in case of need. 

11. It should furnish facilities for enlarging, contracting, 
and closing the entrance, to protect the bees against rob- 
bers ; and when the entrance is altered, the bees ought not, 
as in some hives, to lose valuable time in searching for it. 

12. It should furnish facilities for admitting at once a 
large body of air, that the bees may be tempted to fly oat 
and discharge their faeces, on warm days in Winter, or 
early Spring (344). 

If such a free admission of air cannot be giTe&9 ^^ bees, 




REQUISmS OF A OOUPLETB HIYB. 185 

by losing m favorable opportunity of emptying themselyes, 
may suffer from diseases resulting from too long confine- 
ment. 

13. It should allow the bees, together with the heat and 
odor of the main hive, to pass in the freest manner, to the 
surplus honey-receptacles. 

In this respect, many hives with which we are acquainted 
are more or less deficient ; the bees being forced to work in 
receptacles difficult of access, and in which, in cool nights, 
they find it impossible to maintain the requisite heat for 
comb-building, or, in which, in hot days, they cannot send 
air enough to make the place habitable. 

14. Each of the parts of every hive in an Apiary should 
be so made, as to be interchangeable from one hive to an- 
other. In this way, the Apiarist can readily make the 
exchanges of brood, honey, or pollen, which circumstances 
demand. 

15. The hive should permit the surplus honey to be 
taken away in the most convenient, beautiful and salable 
forms. 

16. It should be equally well adapted to be used as a 
swarmer, or non-swarmer. 

17. It should enable the Apiarist to multiply his colonies 
with a certainty and rapidity which are impossible if he 
depends on natural swarming. 

18. It should enable the Apiarist to supply destitute col- 
onies with the means of obtaining a new queen. 

19. It should enable him to catch the queen, for any 
purpose ; especially to remove an old one whose fertility is 
impaired by age. 

20. {t should enable a single bee-keeper to superintend 
several hundred colonies for different individuals. 

Many persons would keep bees, if an Apiary, like a gar- 
den, could be superintended by a competent individual. No 
person can agree to do this with the common hives. If tuo 




186 THK BBB-HiyiS. 

bees are allowed to swarm, he may be called in a dozen dif- 
ferent directions at once, and if any accident, such as the 
loss of a queen, happens to the colonies of his cnstomert, 
he can usually apply no remedy. 

21. All the Joints of the hive should be water-tight and 
moth-proof (804), and there should be no doors or thntters 
liable to shrink, swell, or get out of order. 

22. A complete hive should be protected against the de* 
structive ravages of mice in Winter (348). 

23. It should permit the honey, after the gathering sea- 
son is over, to be concentrated where the bees will most 
need it. 

24. It should permit the space for spare honey recepta- 
cles to be enlarged or contracted at will, without any alter- 
ation or destruction of existing parts of the hive. 

Without the power to do this, the productive force of a 
colony is in some seasons greatly diminished. 

25. Its surplus honey receptacle should be as close to the 
brood as possible. 

26. A complete hive, while possessing oi/ these requisites, 
should, if possible, combine them in a cheap and simple form, 
adapted to the wants of all who are competent to cultivate 
bees. 

281. There are a few desirables to which a hive, even if 
it were perfect, could make no pretensions! 

It could not promise splendid results to those who are 
too ignorant or too careless to be entrusted with the man- 
agement of bees. In bee-keeping, as in all other pursuits, 
man must first understand his business, and then proceed 
upon the good old maxim, that ^^the hand of the diligent 
makcth rich." ^^ In a word, to succeed U is indispensable to 
know what to do, and to do it just in ttm€."^-(S. Wsgner). 

It could not have the talismanic influence to convert a bad 
situation for honey into a good one ; or give the Apiarist an 
abundant harvest, whether the season was productive or 




MOVABLE COMB HIVES. 137 

Otherwise. As well might the farmer seek for some kind of 
wheat which will yi^ld an enormous crop, in any soil, and 
in every season. 

It could not enable the cultivator, while rapidly multiply- 
ing his stocks, to secpre the largest yield of honey from his 
bees. As well might the breeder of poultry pretend, that 
in the same year, and from the same stock, he can both 
raise the greatest number of chickens, and sell the largest 

number of eggs. 

• 

Movable-Comb Hives. 

282. The bee-keepers of Greece and of Candia seem to 
have been the first to provide their hives with movable bars, 
under which bees suspended their combs. Delia- Rocca men- 
tions these and gives engravings of them in his work, pub- 
lished in 1790. In 1838, Dzierzon revived this hive and 
improved it. In spite of the difficulty of its managemeDt, 
since the combs not being attached to movable- frames, but 



1 


J 1 ■ 


1 — \_ 


1 


1 


c= 






c 

Fio. 52. 
DIVERS MOVABLE BARS TO SUPPORT 


i 

D 

THE COMHS. 



to top bars (flg. 52), cannot be removed without cutting them 
looee from the sidea of the hive, Dzierzon succeeded in 
making discoveries, in bee physiology, which rank among 
the most important (1S2). His success was marvelous for 
the epoch. Mr. Wagner wrote of him Ic 185Z; 




138 THE BEB-HIVES 

83* '^As the best test of the va^ue of Mr. Dzierzon's system 
18 the results which have been made to flow from it, » brief account 
of its rise and progress may be found interesting. In 1835, be com- 
menced bee-Veeping in the common way, with twelve colonies, and 
after various mishaps which taught him the defects of the common 
hives und the old mode of management, his itock was so reduced, that, 
in 1838, he had virtually to begin anew. At this period I e contrived 
bis impioved hive, in its ruder form, which gave him the command 
over all the combs, and he began to experiment on the theory which 
observation and study had enabled him to devise. Thenceforward his 
progress wiis as rapid, as his success was complete and triumphant. 
Though he met with frequent reverses, about seventy colonies having 
been stolen from him, sixty destroyed by fire, and twentj'-four by a 
flood, yet, in 1840, his stock had increased to three hundred and sixty 
colonicii, and lie realized from them that year six thousand pounds of 
honey, besides several hundred weight of wax. At the same time, most 
of the cultivators in his vicinity, who pursued the common methods, 
had fewer hives than the}' liad wlien he commenced, 

"in the year 1848, a fatal pestilence, known by the name of 'foul 
brood' (787)' prevailed among his bees, and destroyed nea*ly all his 
colonies before it eoukl be subdued, only about t«»n having escaped 
the inaladv which attacked alike the old stocks and his artiflcial swarms. 
(469)- U»' e>tiinat<-i his entin* loss that year at over fivo hundred 
colonic-. NevertlK'lt'ss, he succeeded so well in multiplying by 
artificial s\varm>, the few that remained healthy, that, in the fall of 
1851, his stock oonsi>t«*d of nearly four hundred colonies. He must 
therefore ha\«' multiplied his >tocks more than three-fold each year." 



But io the Dzierzon hive, it is often Decessary to cat and 
remove many cumbs to get access to a particular one; thus 
If the tenth from the end Is to be removed, nioe must he 
taken out. This hive cannot furnish the surplus honey In a 
form the most salable in our markets, or admitting of safe 
transportation In the comb. Notwithstanding these disad- 
vantages, it has achieved a great triumph in Germany, and 
given a new impulse to the cultivation of bees. 

Dzierzon builds hives in structures of two, fbur and cren 
more colonies, piled upon one another. On the fronttspiece 



HOTABLK-FBAIUC HIVU. 139 

to the fiiat edition ol this work, Hr. Langatroth gave a rep- 
naentation of % triple hive. The little that can be saved in 
the first cost of anch hives, he found to be more than lost 
by the great inconvenieace of handling them. 



Uovablb-Fbau Hives. 

284. Aboat one hundred years ago, Huber invented the 
leaf-hive, which enabled him to make his discoveries It 
eonaisted of twelve frames, each sn inch and a quarter in 
width, which were connected together by hinges so that 
they could be opened or shut at pleasure, hke the leaves 
of a book 




(rrom Bunet.) 
885. Thia hive wae lately improved upon by several bee- 
keepers in Europe and America, the most noted of whom 
■re the Late Mr. Quinby, and his son in-law, L. C. Root, 
■athor and publisher of one of the most progressive bee- 
fcooka, "Qotnby's New Bee-keeping." This style of hive 




140 THB BSB-HIYKS. 

is generally known as the closed-end 8t4uiding-frsmae hire. 
Mr. Armstrong of Illinois, seems to be successful with a 
hive almost entirely similar to the Huber leaf-hive in its 
principles. Mr. Heddon, of Michigan, has also patented a 
closed-end frame hive, which is praised by some bee-keepers 
of note. The reader will understand that, in these hives, 
the combs hang separately in frames, which, when jc^ned 
together, make a body, enclosed in an outer covering. Their 
being used by a number of Apiarists, shows that these 
hives have some advantages, the greatest objection to them 
being the difficulty of fitting the frames together, after in- 
spection, without crushing some bees, unless they have been 
previously shaken out. 

280. Several attempts were made, in the first half of 
this century, to invent a practical hanging- frame hive ; that 
is, a hive in which each comb, hanging in a separate frame, 
could bo readily taken out and replaced without jarring the 
hive, or removing the other frames. Propokovitsch, in 
Russia, Munn, in England, Debeauvoys, in France, tried 
and failed. At last, in October, 1851, Mr. Langstroth 
invented the top-opening movable-frame hive, now used 
the world over, in which the combs are attached to movable 
frames so suhpendcd in the hives as to touch neither the 
top, bottom, nor sides; leaving, between the frames and 
the hive walls, a space of from one- fourth to three-eighths 
of an inch, called bee-space. (Fig. 54.) 

287. By this device the combs can be removed at pleas- 
ure, without any cutting, and speedily transferred to an- 
other hive. Our conf^enial friend, Prof. A. J. Cook, of 
the Michigan State Agricultural College, and author of 
**The Bee-kee|)or*s Guide," says of it: ^^ It is this hive, 
the greatest Apiarian invention ever made, that has placed 
American Apiculture in advance of t*^at of all other coun- 
tries.'* And no one knows, better than the revisers of this 
work, that such is the plain truth, as they have watched 



MOTABLK-rSAMK BITES. 



Um progress of bee-keeping in Europe, throagh its French, 
lUJtan, Swiss, and Gennan bee-papers, for twenty yeara 
past. 




OIUGINAI. LANGSraOTR 11IVE. 



288. Ur. Langstroth, however, modestly disclainicd tlie 
Idea of having attained perfection in his hive. He wrote : 

"Having oarefDllf studied the nature of the honey-bee, for 
Many rean, and compared my obBerratlons witb those of writ- 
an and enltlvaton who tiare spent their Uvea In extending tb* 




142 THR BEB-HIVBS. 

Sphere of Apiarian knowledge, I have endeavored to remedy the 
many difficulties with which bee-culture is beset, by adapting 
my invention to the actual habits and wants of the insect. I have 
also tested the merits of this hive by long continued experi- 
ments, made on a large scale, so that I might not, by deceiving 
both myself and others, add another to the useless contrivances 
which have deluded and disgusted a too credulous public. I 
would, however, utterly repudiate all claims to having devised 
even a perfect bee-hive. Perfection belongs only to the works of 
Him, to whose omniscient eye were present all causes and 
effects, with all their relations, when He spake, and from nothing 
formed the Universe. For man to stamp the label of perfection 
upon any work of his own, is to show both his folly and pre- 
sumption.** 

289. A short time after the issuing of the Langstroth 
patent, the Baron Von Berlepsch, of Seebach, Thuringia, 
invented frames of a somewhat similar character. Carl T. 
E. Von Siebokl, Professor of Zoology and Comparative 
Anatomy, in the University of Munich, thus speaks of tliese 
frames : 

'^As the lateral adhesion of the combs built down from the 
bars frequently rendered their removal difficult, Berlepsch tried 
to avoi(i this inconvenience, in a very ingenious way, by sus- 
pending in his hives, instead of the bars, small quadrangular 
frames, tlie vacuity of which the bees fill up with their comb, bj 
wliicli tlie removal and suspension of the combs are greatly fa- 
cilitated, and altogether such a convenient arrangement is given 
to the Dzierzon-hive, that nothing more remaim to be detiretL" (???) 

Mr. Cheshire (2d vol. page 46) was mistaken in attribut- 
ing to Dzicrzon the invention of the frame-hive, for Dzier- 
zon has not even invented, but only perfected the movable- 
conib hive (282-1283), having always, to this day, been 
(Apposed to frames. So the German hive is known as the 
Herlepsch hive. 

290. For years, both of these inventions shared equally 
the attention of bee-keepers in Kiirope. Berlepsch's hive 
is used prineipally in Germany, Italy, and part of Switzer- 
land ; Langstroth's in England, France, and the French* 



II0VAB1.E-FXAIU IHTES. 



143 



■pe&kiag part of Switzerland ) bat it ie to be noted, that 

btveB made on the priociple of the Langetroth inveotion, 

aru Btesdily gaining ground wherever both styles are used.* 

291. Ani] this is not tobewondered at. The Berlepsch 




nt.». 
■KKiJWcn HiTB wrm back cusntot. 

(7nmO»"PtMttritrltButitiulitjtig " 

hive opens from the rear, like a cu[)board Two stones 
are used for the brood, and the third for surplus honey. 
This is sometimes separated from the main apartment by 
perforated zinc (407), to exclude the queen, or by a board 

•At tbaIUllaiiBee-k«p«n' Coarsntlon. hold in Hllsn. [n ncpl^'mbir ie^, 
■emal Aplnfita axlilUtad Utim of thu ityle. and yet none could bo found is 
Italj, tf xtMB ;>■>■ •80' ^^ <^t Luigitrath hlrs nhlcb ■ppcuod la IXnij 
wai IntMdnccd br u. In isn. 



144 



THE BKB-HITES. 



wilh a square bole in the center. The frames are n^ 
pended, in grooves, by the ends of their apper bus, uid 
have to be taken out with pincers. 

292. The worst feature of this hive is that, if it is nec- 
essary to reach the last frame, ever; one of the others has 
to be taken out. There are twenty combs in the brood- 
chamber. It is safe to say, that a hive built on the Lang- 
stroth -principle, can be visited five Umes more rapidly, 
than a hive built on the Berlepsch idea. These Inconven- 
iences, coupled with the fact that the brood apartment of 
the Berlepsch hive is divided into two stories, and that the 
surplus apartment cannot be enlarged, ad infinitum, make 
the Berlepsch hive inferior ; and we can safely predirt that 
hives with movable ceiling will, some day, be excltuivelf 
used throughout the world. 




H-EMENT3 OF THK UiMQ^mOTB 



203. The superiority of the Lan;;stroth hive is so evi- 
dent that we wore not surprised to read in the Remu It^ 
tentationaie d' Apiculture, Sept. ISH.t: 




M. QIMNBY, 

Author of '• The Mysterie* of litt-Kttpity.'^ 




MOYABLB-FRAMB HIYBS. 145 

M xhe question of the mobility of the ceiling was discussed at 
length at the Bee-keepers' Meeting held in Milan, Italy, in 
September 1885. Mr. Cowan and I were unable to conceal from the 
Italian bee-keepers our wonder that it was not solved for them, 
as it has been, for a long time, in the countries of large produc- 
tion. 

'^ We can predict, and without any fear of mistake, that the 
principles on which the Langstroth hiye is based will be ad- 
mitted sooner or later by the most prog^ssiye bee-keepers of 
the world."— (Ed. Bertrand.) 

204. The introduction of the Langstroth hive in Italy, 
and especially in (Germany, has been hindered, so far, by 
the premature adoption of a standard frame, which '^ shuts 
the door to progress. "^-(Ed. Bertrand.) 

205. The success of American bee-culture, in the last 
twenty years, was first attributed, by European bee-keepers, 
to the honey-producing power of the country ; but the most 
intelligent Apiarists, who have tried the American methods, 
with the Langstroth hive, now recognize that success is 
principally due to the manipulations that it permits. 

2911. Nay, if the student will but refer to the former re- 
vision of this very book (1859), the first words of it will 
show him the progress accomplished since then : 

'* Practical bee-keeping in this country is in a very de- 
pressed condition, being entirely neglected by the mass of 
those most favorably situated for its pursuit. Notwithstand- 
ing the numerous hives which have been introduced, the 
ravages of the bee-moth have increased, and success is becom- 
ing more and more precarious. While multitudes have 
abandoned the pursuit in disgust, many even of the most 
experienced are beginning to suspect that all the so-called 
* Improved Hives ' are delusions or impostures ; and that 
they must return to the simple box or hollow log, and ' take 
up • their bees with sulphur in the old-fashioned way." 

207. Mr. Gravenhorst, also a German, invented a mov* 
able-frame hive made of straw. We give a cut of his hive 

10 



THE BEE-HITU. 



and Apiary, not that they hxve any practical importance 
tor UB, b-jt because his system is peculiar. The tramea an 
removed from the bottom, so that, in order to open one d 




these hives, it requires Ihe strength of a strong man to iO' 
rert it, espefially if it is fuil of honey. 
The Gravcnhorst hive is not intended for ladiea. 




MOTABIA-FRAMX HIYIS. 



147 



208. Although the movable frame, hanging in the hive. 
bj projections of the top bar (figs. 54, 58), as invented by 
Mr. Langstroth, is the style now almost universally adopted, 
there is a great diversity of opinions as to the proper size 
and shape of the frames, and the number, which a hive 
should contain. Hundreds of different sizes are used with 
success, from Maine to California, and from Canada to 
Texas. We herewith give a diagram of the principal frames 



Wt 



•• 



Quonr 



»» 



llX 



t< 



GALLUP 



I* 



n% 



•I 



MMPUdTT 



>» 



13K 



**adaib" 



19K 



• < 



CLOfXD-KirD QITOrBT 



** 



12 S 



to 



**AMERICAJr" 



Fig. 00. 

DIAGRAM OF PRINCIPAL FRAMES IN USE. 

I1gnnsgiT8Dan<mtiidediiiieo8ioiisliiinohns. Snspendod fjrames hare 
HC-inch aapportlog anna, or an equal prolongatioa of top bar. 

in use. The ''Simplicity " is almost exactly sirnilar to the 
original Langstroth frame: so much so, in fuct, thut they 
are interchangeable. This style of frame has been iiKinu- 
factured and sold, by the most prominent dealers, to sucli 
an extent, that it may be called the Standard Frame of 
America* 

209. The " Hanging Quinby " is the frame preferred by 




148 THB BEB-HIYBS. 

the writers. The '* Gallup ** frame is used with success bj 
such practical Apiarists as G. M. Doolittle and O. Clute, 
author of a charming little novel entitled '' The Blessed 
Bees," under the nom de plume of ''John Allen." The 
<< American" and ''Adair" frames are somewhat in use 
also. The " Closed-End Quinby " (285) is not a hanging 
frame, but it is nevertheless used by such bee-keepers as 
Messrs. L. C. Root, Hetherington, Bingham, etc. 

300. It is evident that profit can be derived from bee- 
culture with almost any style of frame ; but it is certain 
also, that, in every pursuit, some conditions produce better 
effects than others, under the same circumstances. 

In Apiculture, as in everything else, we should try to ob- 
tain the best results with the least labor and expense, and 
these can only be attained by studying the habits of the 
bee, and complying with them, as far as is practicable. 

The combs of the brood-chamber, or main apartment of 
the hive, are used by the bees to raise their young, and to 
store their food for Winter. The size of frames must be 
considered, with reference to this. 

301. We have seen (153) that the queen lays her eggs 
in a circle. In fact, it is necessary that she should do so, 
in order to lose no time in bunting for cells ; else how could 
she lay three thousand eggs, or more, per. day? A very 
shallow frame will break the circle, and compel her to lose 
time. In a comb five inches deep, for instance, and fifteen 
or sixteen inches long, the largest circular area contains 
less than twenty square inches, or five hundred and fifty 
worker-cells on each side. When these are occupied with 
eggs, the queen, while hunting for empty cells, will find 
wood above and below, instead of comb, at every half turn, 
and will lose not only time, but eggs ; for, in the busy sea- 
son, her eggs have to drop, like mature fruit, if not laid in 
the cells. Loss of eggs is loss of bees; loss of bees at the 
proper time is loss of honey. 



HOVABLB-TBAMK 1117X8. 



14» 



302. A two-story shallow brood- chamber is objection- 
Kble for the same reason. Besides, the bees which 
cover the brood and keep it warm, must also keep w&rm 
the lower bar of the top frame, the upper bar of the lower 
frame, and the space between the two, without deriving any 
benefit from such an arrangement. This division ot the 
brood-comba into two shallow stories, is one of the causes, 
which prevent the bee-keepeia of Germany from raising as 
many beea, in their hives, as we do here in the ordinary 
LtDgstroth hives. This disadvantage was so evident that 
the bee-keepers of Switzerland, who had adopted, as a 
standard, the Berlepach hive (fig. 55), decided to replace 
the double story by a single one of the same dimension, as 
tbe Italian bee-keepers had done before, but for half the 
hire only. 




ng.oo. 
DUOUMS OF oalluf ahd lakqstkdth nivca. 

(Fram tb* "A. B. C. of Bee-Cnltoie,") 

A small frame like the Gallup (fig. 59), presents another 
objection, the cluster being divided among a greater num- 
ber of frames. 

" For Winter, It la evident that the sideB of the clusters 

A. B. and C. D. (flg. 60) are better protected than the ends G. H. 
and K. F., and also that the long frames protect the center of the 
brood-nest mnch better than the short ones."— (A. I. Root, " A. 

B. C") 

ETen t oroos-bu through a frame (fig. 54) will hinder 
the Uying of the qneen, so that brood will often be raised 
only on oim side of it. Any one can easily try this. 




150 

303. From the foregoing, it appears that a square frame 
is the best for breeding. But square frames are objecUon- 
able. If they are small, they do not have enough apace in 
each frame for Winter supplies, above or behind the brood. 
If they are large, they are unhandy, and their depth makes 
them difficult to take out without crushing bees. We have 
used some sixty hives, American frames, 12iXl2|, for 
eighteen years or more, and this is our greatest objection to 
them. 

304. A deeper frame is still more objectionable for the 
same reason,* and because the surplus cases on top are too 
remote from the brood. (278.) In early Spring, the bees 
have more difficulty in keeping the lower end of such frames 
warm, as the heat always rises, and a part of it is wasted, 
warming up the stores, which in this hive are all above the 
brood. In hot weather, the combs are also more apt to 
break down from heat and weight combined. Such a hive 
is deficient in top-surface for the storing of honey in boxes. 

305. It is thus evident, that Mr. Langstroth and Mr. 
Quiubyt were right in using frames of greater length than 
depth, especially as these frames allow of more surplus 
room above the brood, a matter of some importance. 

306. But we must beware of excess in anything. A 

* The i'rvcr the frames, the more dlfDcnlt it Is to make tbeni hang trnt oa 
the rabbets, and the ^eatcr the diflicalty of taaudling them witboot cnuhinf 
the bees or breaking the combs. 

t The late Mr M Quinby, of St. JohnsTllle, New York, In caUlng my 
attention to Bome stocks, which he had purchased in box blToa of this abape, 
informiHl me that bees wintered In thein about as well as in taU hives, Uie bees 
drawing '> i X. among their stores in cold weather. Jnst as in taU hives Mkej 
draw ' /) amon^ thom. My hive, as at flrst conetrnctod, was fourteen and one- 
eighth inches from front to rear, eighteen and one-eighth ioobea firom aide to 
aide, and nine inches deep, holding twelve frames. After Mr. Qlllnby eaUed 
my attention to the wintering of bees in his long box-blvoa, I OOnatmeted out 
that measured twenty-fonr inches from ftont to rear, twelve lochea flromsido 
to side, and ten inches deep, holding eight flram^. I have aiiMM pretorad to 
make my hives eighteen and one-eighth inches ftom trouX to rear, ftrarteeo anA 
one-eighth inches ftom side to side, and ten Inches deep. Mr. Qvimby p>n»- 
tarred to make my movable frames longer and deeper.— JL>. I^ !«• 




MOYABLE-FRAMB HIYE8. 161 

•hallow frame has too little honey above the cluster in 
Winter, and in long cold Winters, like that of 1884-5, a 
great many bees die for want of food above them, in hives 
containing plenty of honey (030), the combs, back of the 
duster, being too cold. 

The Langstroth-Simplicity frame is long enough, but 
hardly deep enough. The Quinby frame is deep enough, 
but would be better if a little shorter. 

307. We have used on a large scale Quinby, American 
and Standard Langstroth-sized frames for years, and have 
obtained better results from the Quinby, both for wintering 
out of doors, and for honey producing. Yet, the Lang- 
Btroth-Simplicity being the standard frame of America, we 
would hesitate to advise any Apiarist to change from this 
size ; knowing, by practical experience, how annoying it is, 
not to have all frames and all hives in one Apiary uniform 
in size. 

But we would counsel beginners to use the Quinby size, 
^^specially if they intend to winter out-of-doors, — or at 
least to use a frame as long as the standard Langstroth and 
as deep as the Quinby. 

308. The number of frames to be used in a hive depends 
on their size ; for we should manage our bees, as we do our 
other domestic animals, and give them as much space as is 
necessary to obtain the best results. What would we think 
of a farmer who would build a barn without first consider- 
ing the number of animals and the amount of feed which 
he intended to shelter in it? 

300. Many hives cannot hold one-quarter of the bees, 
comb, and honey which, in a good season, may be found in 
larg^ ones ; while their owners wonder that they obtain so 
little profit from their bees. A good swarm of bees, put, 
in a good season, into a diminutive hive, may be compared 
to a powerful team of horses harnessed to a baby wagon, or 
a noble faD of water wasted in turning a petty water-wheel. 




152 THE BEE-HIVES. 

As the harvest of hone j is always in proportion to the 
number of bees in the hive, and as a large colony requires 
no more labor from the Apiarist than a small one, the hive 
should afford the queen sufficient space to deposit all the 
^ggS) which she is able to lay* during twenty-one days, the 
average time for an egg to be transformed into a worker. 
Besides, it should contain a certain amount of food, honey 
and pollen. 

310. We have seen before (07) that a good queen can 
lay 8,500 eggs per day in the good season, so that 73,500 
cells may be occupied with brood at one time. If we add 
to this number about 20,000 cells for the provisions needed 
in the breeding season, we have about 94,000 cells as the 
number required for a strong colony. As every square inch 
of comb contains about 55 cells (217), 27 to 28 on each 
side, the combs of a hive should measure over 1,700 square 
inches. This space must, of course, allow of contraction, 
according to the needs of the colony, by what is called mov- 
able division boards. (340.) 

311. If the reader will refer to the dimensions of frames 
g^ven (208), he will ascertain that as a Quinby frame 
measures 189 square inches inside, a hive should contain at 
least 9 of these frames. 

As the Standard liangstroth-Simplicity frame measures 
about 149 square inches, the hive must contain 12 frames. 
The American frames must number 12, and the Gallup 14. 

312. We know that many Apiarists objectf to these fig- 
ures, because they succeed, and harvest good crops, with 

* It la nnqneBtlonable that the qnalitj of a queen dependi on the qtumtlty 
of ogga that she Is able to lay. Then why limit her, by juing hirm to Darrow 
that she cannot develop her fertility ? 

t It Is perhaps necessary to say here, that wo have found more oppoeitlon on 
this subject than on any other, especially in the bee-papera. Bat we take thie 
opportnnity of again ''neryf/ira//v asserting that our preferenoe fmr Itffe hlTea 
U based on a snccessfal practice of more than twenty yean, with MTcnd hna* 
dred colonies in different sized hives, while oor opponents oovld hilnf ftir w ai d 
aoihlog but their preoonoelTed Ideas . 




V 




158 

■mftller hives. Bat figureSi based on facts, cannot lie. 
Smaller bx?es will do only in localities, where late Springs 
and short honey crops make it impossible for the queen to 
lay to the utmost of her capacity, before the time when 
her bees would be useful. 

818. It is only by testing different sizes of hives and 
frames side by side, for years, on a large scale, and with 
the same management, as we have done, that the compari- 
son can be made serviceable. Our experiments prove also 
that small frames impede the laying of the queen. The 
hroad^hamber of a large hive can easily be reduced in size, 
(f need be; but a smaU hive cannot be enlarged at will, ex- 
cept by the addition of upper stories, which sJwuld properly 
be devoted to the storing of honey, 

814. In addition to the disadvantages of small frames 
and small hives already enumerated, another — and the 
greatest of all — ^is the excess of natural swarming which 
they cause. The leading advocates of small hives, some of 
whom are large honey producers, invariably acknowledge 
that they have too much natural swarming; nor is it to be 
wondered at, since swarming is mainly caused by the lack 
of breeding room for the queen. (406. ) 

815. The main criterion of a good farmer, is the care 
that he takes to improve his stock, by selecting the best an- 
imals as reproducers. If we use hives so narrow that we 
cannot discern which are our most prolific queens, and that 
they incite natural swarming, we are unable to improve our 
bees by selection. (452, 511.) 

816. The distance, between frames from center to 
center, can be varied, as we have seen before (214), from 
If inches to li, in the breeding apartment of which we are 
now treating. In the surplus cases, it may be made much 
greater. 

817. The distance of li inches, advised by Mr. Quinby, 
Is preferable for two reasons: 




154 



Istj It facilitates the taking out of the oombSi giiiiig a 
little more room to handle them, and thus aids in inter- 
changing combs, which may have slight irregularities ; wlien 
such changes are necessary to help weak colonies with 
brood or honey from stronger ones. 

2nd, It g^ves more room between brood-oombs for the 
bees to cluster in Winter, and a greater thickness of honey 
above them, thereby placing the bees in better condition 
for Winter. 

818. The frames must be properly distanced in the hire, 
and the combs must be built straight in them ; for a moT* 
able-frame hive, with crooked combs, is worse than a liive 
without any frames. 

310. The building of straight combs in the frames was 
formerly tolerably secured by the use of a triangular 
wooden guide fastened to the underside of the top bar of 
the frame, and which the bees follow in most instances. 
Something of this kind was mentioned by Delia Rocca as 
early as 1790. ('' Traito Complet sur les Abeilles.") 




Fig. 61. 

The figure 61 shows the form of a metallic stamp, 
Invented by Mr. Mehriug, of Bavaria, Germany, for print- 
ing or stumpinfj the shape of the combs upon the under side 
of the top bar of tlie frames. After the outlines were made 
he nibbed melted wax over them, and scraped off all 
tliat (lid not sink into the depressions. Mr. Mehring rep- 
resented this device as enabling hira to dispense with guide 
combs, the bees ap[)earing to be delighted to have their 
work thus accurately sketched out for them.* In practice it 

* This Invention should not bo confused with that of oomb-ftmndatlon, niAd* 
% t9w years later by the same distingruished Apiarist. (ST7) 




155 

was found to be inferior to the triangular comb gnidee. 

Pieces of worker-comb, glned to the under side of the 
i(^ bar with melted wax, were used saccessfnllj. Bat the 
introduction of comb-foundation (674) has finally given us 
the means of securing straight combs at all tunes, and it may 
be used, for this purpose, in such narrow strips, that its 
cost cannot be an objection. 

820. Standabd L. Moyablb Frame. — Top bar, 19} 
long X i wide x f thick. In each end a notch i^Xl-^^ is 
made in the thickness of it, leaving a projecting or support- 
ing shoulder which is to rest in a rabbet in the upper ends 
of the hive, and by which the frame is suspended (fig. 54). 
Ends or vertical pieces : two pieces 8} long X i wide X ^ 
thick. Bottom bar 16f long x i wide X i. We will call 
the attention of manufacturers to the fact, that this makes 
a much stronger frame than the former style, given in pre- 
vious editions, and preserves the exact outside measure- 
ments. The ends, or vertical pieces, are nailed both ways 
to the top bar (fig. 71), and the bottom bar is nailed inside 
of them, instead of under them as formerly. 

321. We must not forget that these bottom bars some- 
times have to support the weight of heavy combs, as in 
transferring (574), and that the bees may glue them fast 
to lumps, which happen to be on the bottom board. Hence 
the necessity of having them nailed, so that they will not 
pull out.* 

All the parts of the movable frames should be cut out by 
circular saws, and the measurement should be exact, so that 
the frames when nailed together may be square. If they are 
not strong and perfectly sqtiare, the proper working of the 
hive will be greatly interfered with. 

322. The under side of the top bar may be cut to a tri- 

*Am% nil«, mftovfttctnren make the top bar of the frames too weak; aome 
hAT0 feoMdled thla by ezoeaalve wiring, and a tin brace in the center. Suoli 
eootslTaiiMa an eoatly and worse than useless. 



IM THS BKB-HITW. 

•ngnlar edge, bat where oomb fonndatioii la nMd, Ute flat 
top b&r will be foond much better (603). Above all, the 
oataide measareinents of the frame most be carefalljr pre- 
•erred. 

323. The width of the t(>p &ar hma something to do with 
the amount of bridga and brace combt (397), bailt bj 
the bees, between the brood-chamber and the upper storiea. 
A wide top bar, leaving but a narrow apace for passage 
above, will almost altogether prevent the boilding of bridges, 
bat it has other disadvantages that have rendered it unpop- 
ular, although some bee-keepers of note — Col. Canun of 
Dlinoia, among others — use it. In producing extracted 
honey (749) these bridges and brace oomba do not anno; 
much. 

324. L. SuPLiciTT Fraue (fig. 59). — This frame baa 
been made and sold so largely by A. I. Root, and other 
dealers, that it is established now. The length of the top 
bar and the height of the frame are the same as those of the 
Standard L. Frame, the frame itself being one-fourtb inch 
longer outside. They are sometlmea made with metal cor- 
ners invented by A. I. Root (lig. 62). 




The angnTlng la ml) ilie. The Tj 



le apperitory— ("A, B. C. of Be«-C 



board B U lappoMd to b* tb* « 
l1 nbbet, ud C y tlM eamir. 



32S. These tin corners have the advantage of making 
the frames very strong ; and as the tin shoulder rests by a 



157 



** knife edge," C, on soother tin edge, strigbt angles with 
It, A., nsiled In the rsbbet of the hive, the bees cannot 
glne the framea fast. Bat these frames have the dia- 
advantage of getting out of place easily, too easily in fact, 
and their sharp edges make them very inconvenient to 
handle. 

326. For the L. Qaioby suspended frame, see diagram 
(flg. 68). This frame is one-fourth inch deeper than that 
originally given by Hr. Quinby in his " Mysteries of Bee- 
keeping." Mr. Quinby had too much space in the hive, 
nnder the frame. 

327. It is necessary that the hive should always slant 
forward, toward the entrance, when occapied by bees, to 
facilitate the carrying out of dead bees, and other useless 
substances ; to aid the colony In protecting itself against 
robbers, to carry off moisture, and prevent rain from beat- 
ing into the hive. 

328. For this, and other reasons, the combs should run 
from front to rear, — so as 
to hang perpendicularly 
— and not from side to side 
as they do in the Berlepsch 
hive. 

339. The Langstroth 
hive, from the simple form 
given in fig. 64, was Im- 
proved upon in many dif- 
ferent ways. The Standard 
Langstroth hive has been, 
for a long time (fig. 63), 
a hive with portico, 
honey-board, permanent 
bottom-board, and ten 
taoo. "••■ 

880. In this hire, the " otuerving^loM," in the rear. 





158 



was first discarded, and replaced bj a board, makiiig the 
hive more simple and cheaper. The glass in the rear is of 
no use, in practical bee-keeping, and for experimenting, the 
observing hives such as described (375), with only one 
comb, and both sides of glass, are to be preferred (fig. 80). 

331. The movable haney-board^ between the brood- 
chamber and the upper stories, has been also discarded of 
late years, the great objection to honey-boards being that 
the bees glue them, and build small pieces of comb or 
bridges, in the space between them and the frames ; the jar 
of their breaking, when the honey-board is removed, anger- 
ing the bees. 

332. The permanent bottom-board has lost favor with the 

great majority of bee-keepers, 
and is now replaced by mov- 
able bottom-boards adjustable 
at will. The Van Deusen hive* 
clamp (fig. 64), is used by 
many Apiarists for fastening 
movable bottoms or additional 
stories. We have discarded tte 

permanent bottom-board, owing to the difficulty of proaq^ 
ly cleaning it of dead bees and rubbish, when removing bees 
from the cellar in Spring, or after a hard winter passed out 
of doors. 

333. In the ventilation of the hive, we should endeavor, •■ 
far as possible, to meet the necessities of the bees, under all 
the varying circumstaDces to which they are exposed in oar 
uncertain climate, whose severe extremes of temperatore 
forcibly impress upon the bee-keeper, the maxim of Virgil, 

** Utraque vis pariter apibus metueoda.^ 
** Extremes of heat or cold, alike are hortfkil to the bees.** 

To be useful to the majority of bee-keepers, arfffCeW 
ventilation must be simple, and not as in Nntfa hive, and 




Fig. 64. 
VAN DEUSEN CLAKP. 



MOVABLE-raAHE BtVKS. 159 

Other labored contrivances, so complicated as to require 
almoflt Ma cloee saperriaion as a hot-bed or Kreen-house. 



otner laDorea contriTances, so compucatea aa t< 
almoflt as cloee saperriaion aa a hot-bed or green-Ii 




Hg.K. 
', WITH Ksnucma siima nrr n. 

Tba c^ U thniWD b4ck to show i: 
. WiUianio(lepcii(leDttK>tliiiii 




be given to any amount by raking the hive, as In fig. 65, or 
even more. By famishing ventilation independent of the 
entrance, above the brood-chamber, or between the differ- 
ent surplus apartments, if necessaiy, we improve upon the 
method which bees, in a state of nature, are compelled to 
adopt, when the openings in their hollow trees are so small, 
that they must employ, in hot weather, a larger force in ven- 
tilation, than would otherwise be necessaiy. 

335. The bees, finding their home more pleasant, will 
cease to cluster on the outside, as long as there will be 
honey to gather, and room to store it in. 

336. On the other hand, by the use of movable blocks, 
the entrance may be kept so small, in cool weather, that 
only a single bee can go in at once, or it may be entirely 
closed. 

While sufficient airing must be given, the supply 
should be controlled, so as not to injure the brood by ad- 
mitting too strong a current of chilly air. In the chapter 
on wintering bees, directions are g^ven for ventilating the 
hives in cold weather, so as to carry off all superfiuous 
moisture. {3ii3,) 

337. For the benefit of beginners, it may be necessary 
to add, that the bees will glue up with propolis (236), and 
sooner or later entirely close any ventilating holes through 
which they cannot pass. Hence air holes, covered with wire 
cloth, miss their purpose altogether. In the same manner, 
and with a great deal of labor, bees will try to close 
any upper entrances, such as that of figs. 65 and 54d, if 
these remain open, when not needed for the welfare of the 
colony. 

338. The portico of the Langstroth hive has advantages, 
and disadvantages, which about balance one another. Its 
advantages are, that it shelters the bees from rain in Sum- 
mer, and from cold and snow in Winter. Its disadvantages 
are, that it sometimes harbors enemies of bees, moths^ spi- 



den, etc., eto., and Bometimea helps to hide the qaeen from 
th« Apiuist'a diligent Bearch. It bindera the bee-keeper 
when he wants to watch cloael; the sport of beea before the 




389. When the portico-hive is used, two entrance blocks 
I provided, as per accompaoyiDg diagram. By changing 





162 THE BBK-HXYBB. 

the position of these blocks on the alighting-board (see fig. 
67, in which some of the positions are shown), the size of 
the entrance to the hive may be varied in a great many ways, 
and the bees always directed to it by the shape of the block, 
without any loss of time in searching for it. 

Thb HrvE We Prefer. 



340. The diagram we give (fig. 68), of the hive we pre- 
fer to all others, can be taken as a pattern for any other 
size, by changing the size of the pieces and retaining only 
the exact distances between the frames and the body, and 
the height of the entrance. Its details can be varied ad 
infinitum. It can hold eleven frames, but generally we use 
only nine frames and two contracting, or division-boardi, 
or ten frames and one division-board. (340.) 

This hive, in the dimensions given, is not a new, untried 
pattern. We have used several hundreds of them for years, 
with the best of success. It is used extensively by several 
large producers. 

341. In consequence of our writings in the Swiss and 
French bcc-papers, it was adopted, under the name of the 
Quinl^y-Dadant hive, by several progressive bee-keepers on 
the other side of the Atlantic, where it gets new partisans 
everv year. 

Tlu? piihlishcr of the Revue InterncUianaie d* Apiculture^ 
Mr. Kd. Ikrtrnnd, in the number of October 1887, writes: 

**Tlip>o wide hives, Rcveral bee-keepers find that they are 
toosniull; for some have increased them to thirteen frames in- 
fitoati of (*Iov('ri, and I have seon such large hives, last Summer, 
filled with bees and honey, besides two upper stories of thirteen 
half-frames each, the whole containing 120 quarts, all occapied 
by the daiiirhters of the same queen." 

In the same number, a German bee-keeper, Mr. Chas. 



Begnier, of Sarrelouis, ^ves the result of h compariHoa 
of the Standard German (289) with these hives. He 




DIAQRIM OP OUB K 

Lt.nom iiiiinrain wrrnTtTlin liiittiini. nii'il ^ botlam, i'liTt^iH. 
C, apiDn, lOsnuvi- on, rroat md imr or t&e hiTc. le'iii^t.x'(. E, 
«Miii]i.«, *K%, _^da«tlabo>nlD>ilad«lherfaT, I^i^ilSi^. {;<; . gnntra 
iUU to rapport Um OOTV. ^, Utb. «iil!4 to wi-len the tup edge or Iba 
BDBtlMtud. /.topbarof tlwfreniii, H)),ic!ii;t. X/^, rabbeta M wide 
ij( bl^, dag In ftoat and mx bouds, md foriilihed with sheels of Iron 
VlndM* wlda, pnijaotlnf ij ar*a locb, on irhieh the rnme-Bhonldvn are 
a>ppoited. If ttwirooTsa ars oot praildnl with the sheets of irou. thrlr 
tfn ahonld bs )(i$(. KKfCK . iboir bow tho D|irli.-lil3 A A or Iho fremcs 
an called to the top bar. ^ bottom bur or thr framp,"l7;,iM'i, XS, 

^R , front and real oT the anriilDii-boi, 1G><ti',\x~, . _r, I'm^ty npHiM' on 
top of tbe (DTpliU'boi , IV. Uj top bu of the rurplua-rrame. eime aa 
top-bar /. il, bottom bar of tbe ■arplut rramv*, aamc a* .U. VI'. eld« 
«r tbe atnplu IlaiiMa, txiixji, 

tba ipaco bMwMo u aad s U aboat ti locb; bptwpen n\. .vf>. iv, ry, 
TB, ihonldbaN of aa Incb. HlTia of eTer; aire can be constmeied od 
(U* i1la|niii. wltb tb» oolf caoUoD to preaene tbe ipacH of tbe wldlb 



164 THE BKK~KtVE3. 

writ«8 that the crop of his German averaged about twenty- 
one pounds, while hie Dadant hives averaged about fortj- 
eight pounds, adding that, at the start, his German wen 
full of combs, while the Dodant had Beveral combs to buUd. 




a, front of thublTCi 1, sUiitl iig Ward ^ r, movBUeblOcki d, capi (, Mn« 
m&t; /, cnuntl clatb; g, rnunce «<ih comba. 

34a. navtomble bottom hoard (fig. 69), is adjusted or 
encased In the body of llii' main liive, on all sides but the 
fniut. to shed tlie rain and lielter prolect the colony against 
antd and motba. It prujeets forward thrc^ laches, at least. 



UOVAOlMr-tRAMX BIVKS, 



165 



to support an adjiuteble eotraoce-block. Some Apiarists 
use ft tio slide, iiutead of ao entrance-block. We object to 
ft, becMiee, if glued by bees It may be bent in huidliiig, &nd 
it it ia mislaid, it cannot always be promptly replaced ; 
while aoy square wooden-block can take the place of the 
entrance-block, ff n 




843. The apron, or slantiug-board. liolps overladen 
workers to reach the entrance, when tlioy liavc fsilleii to the 
ground. The blocks that support ttif bottom, may be made 
of unequal height, bo as to give the liivclhc pniper forward 
slant, on level ground. If the grain of llio liimlxT it) the 
bottom-board runs from fn>iit to rear, it will shed water 




166 



more readily, and rot less. If the bottom is nailed on ths 
cross-blocks, it will not be in danger of warping. 

Our Swiss friends make the bottom-board with the grain 
running from side to side. They say that in this way 
they can make it fit exactly in the lower rabbet of the hive, 
without swelling or shrinking. They also make the apron, 
with hinges fastened on the bottom-board, and in snowy or 
cold weather, they raise it and lean it against the hive, to 
protect the entrance. 

344. The adjuMable bottom board is conrenient in many 
instances. If in taking the bees from a winter repository, 
It is found wet and mouldy, you caaat onoe exchange it for 
a dry one, and wipe the wet board at leisure. Or, if a 
comb breaks down in Summer, by weight and heat, the 
hive can be lifted off its bottom, and placed on a dean 
stand, so that the leaking honey and broken combs can be 
instantly removed, and robbing or daubing of bees avoided. 
Moreover, the bottom-board is the first part of the hire to 
decay, and a hive-body and coTcr will usuaUy oaibal two 
bottom-boards. The movable bottom allowing tbe raUng 
of the hive for ventilation, in extremely hoi weather, en- 
ables us also to discard the back ventilator, of the old Mve 
(fig. 63.) 

845. The body of the hive is made double on the back, 
which should always be the North side of the hive. (597.) 
This, with the division-board inside, on the West, shelters 



4i 



"1 '**" i •'' 






K 



O 



D 



FU 71. 

The rahhi't in 



the colony more efiSciently than a 
siiicrle board against the cold North- 
west winds of Winter. If the bees 
:ire to be wintered indoors, tbe 
<louble back may be dispensed with. 
A more simple form of body, setting 
tlat on tlie l)Ottom, as in fig. 70, can 
also be made, 
which the frames hang, is made with a 



HOVABLB-rRAHE HIVES. 



1G7 



(fig. 71), bbeet-lron shoulder, 8upj>ortJng the frame, simiUr 
to Itoot'B tin edge. This can be dispensed with altogether, 
but in BDcfa cases, the rabbet ehoold be only deep enough 
tor the frame to hang as represented in fig. 64. The plun 




Fis.n. 



wooden rabbet Is objectionablf, because Ihe huifi f;tiu^ the 
frame shoulders with propolis. Vet we- us*' it in our hives 
almost altogether, because of Ihe diifliiiliy of lUtitii^ the 
dlTisioa'board closely oDic 



168 T 

S46. la any style of hftngiDg-fruae hives, it fa Indlspen- 
Mble tor the frames to be so suspended, that a bee can psM 
between them and the body, bottom, and upper story, to 
prevent the gluing of them with propolis. (See bee-spaoa, 
886.) 

In our hives, we give only one-eij^tb of an inch of apaoa, 
above the frames, below the top edge of the hive, aod ^n 
one-fourth inoh under the frames of the upper-story, whteb 
preserves the three-eighths bee-spaoe, between each story 
(286). We found, in practice, that there was danger of 
crushing bees, in handling the upper stories, when they 
were made so that the frames were flush with their lower 
edge. 



347. The Spacing-uiire, an improvement on Quinby*! 
wire brace, to space the frames at the bottom, is found very 
convenient in iiives aa deep aa this. It is also useful in in- 
dicating to novices the number of frames to be placed io 




ifOTABLs-raAiR mna. 169 

the hire. Evea a practical bee-keeper will sometimes make 
the mistake of patting eleven or thirteen frames, in a hive 
that should hold twelve. With this wire, mistakes are im- 
poemble, as the; will at once be detected. Besides, if the 
hive has to be transported some distance, it keeps the 
frames from Jarring. Its cost is insigniGcant. Some Swiss 
Apiarists use two of these, one in each end. 

348. The entrance should not be less than five- sixteenths, 
or more than three-eighths of an inch in depth, in order to 
give easy pass^e to the bees, and at the same time, keep 
out mice. Round holes are objectionable. Each hive is 
fDT&iahed with an entrance- block, somewhat heavy, and cut 
as in fig 69, to reduce, or close the entrance, according to 
the emergencies. 

349. The diviiion board ,alao called contractor or dummy, 
is an induipejisable 
feature of all good 
hives. With its help, 
the hive may be ad- 
justed to the size of 
the weakest swarm, 
and in Winter, the 

viB.'i- space behind it can 

iHVisiOK aoARD. . >.,i J 1 

be filled wiUi warm 

and absorbing material (036). The constant use of a 
division board, even in the strongest colonies, renders the 
handling of combs much easier. All Apiarists kuow that 
the first comb is the hardest to remove. By removing the 
board first, the combs are at once free and can be easily 
taken out. 

SAO. This board ia made of the same depth as the 
frames, with a similar top-bar. Some Apiarists use a di- 
vinon-board the full depth of the hive, but in moving it, 
bees are cmahed undv it, and if any bees happen to be on 
tbe ooUd« of it, tbey cannot escape, and die there. On 




170 



the other hand, this bee-passiige is not objectioaable, Blnc« 
heat, having a tendenoy to rise, does not escape through it. 
The board is made ooe-foarth inch shorter than the inside 
of the hive, and a strip of oil-olotb or enamel cloth, one and 
a half inches wide, is tacked on, to fill the spaces at each 
end. In this way, the board fits well against the ends, and 
is never glued so as to make it difflcnlt to remove. A small 
half-round pioe-Btrip, lud agdnst the end of Uie board, 
while tacking on the cloth, and pulled out afterwards, helps 
to tack the cloth properly. To prevent the bees from tear- 
ing or gnawing the edge of the cIoHi, some Apiarists nail a 
small strip of tie over it. 

351. In the diagram (fig. 68), the reader will notice the 
strip H, used to widen the upper surface of the rabbeted 
end of the hive. This wide surface is very convenient, to 
make the cloth and straw-mat fit closely, as they can thus 
be cut a little louger. 

302. The oil-cloth or enamel-cloth, first applied to hive 
purpoaes by R. Bickford, is used over the brood-frames in 
Spring. It fits closely, coaceatrates the beat, and can be 
removed without jar or 
effort. When the sur- 
plus arrangement, or 
upper story, is put on, 
this cloth 18 removed 
and placed at the top. 
(760) All Apiarists, 
^ "« '■*'■ or nearly all, who have 

tried the oil-cloth and 
honey-board simult.Tncoiislj', have discarded the latter for- 
ever, except in some cases of comb-honey production, wheo 
a skeleton honey-board (fig. 7G) ia used between the stories. 
The oil-cloth is sometimes gnawed, or rather palled to 
pieces by the bees in a few years, but its cost b so small, 
and its uxc so great, that it is worth while to replace it as 
ofteo aa oeceesary. 




SSS- The ttfate^mat is one of the moat useful and aeces- 
utry UDple^ients of the bee-hive. It ie far superior to the 
wooden-mat described by one or two writers. It is flexible 
and porous, wuni in Winter, cool io Summer. It may be 
made of rye straw, or of what is called slough-grass, a tough 
and coarsegraABgTOwingiD marshy places, and ahoundingon 
the bottoms of the MiBsisaippi Valley. The mat Bbown in 
Bg. 69 Is only about one Inch thick. Mr. C. F. Mutb man- 
ofacturea mats much thicker and atrongcr ; they are equal 
to a coshioD. 

In fig. 77 we present to our readers an engraviiig of a 
frame, for makiDg these mats. They are very simple 
in construction. It is well, in making tlicm, to use strong 
twine, aoaked in linseed-oil ; for the moisture, nhich escapes 
from the bees in Winter, would sooo rot the string. 

The enamel-cloth is removed before Winter (OSS), and 
the mat placed Immediately over the frames. A good mat 
will iMt «• long as the hive. 




BD&ilow cover (fig. 78), which 

will fit over either the first 

or the second storj. We 

prefer the half-storj cap, 

which can be readily filled "-^«^ 

with absorbents for Winter, and is ada 

supers.* 

355. The caps must fit freely so as t 
They may be made of lighter lumber tl 
hive, to save fatigue to the Apiarist in h 
top of the hive must be water-tight, 
seams should be avoided, or should be \ 
with roof-cement. Before putting tO) 
which form the top of the cap of our hive 
both sides of the joints, a rounded grooi 
an inch wide and one-fourth of an inch 
rain-water runs, instead of leaking insidi 
Oxford, O., makes the covers of his hii 
covering them with strong muslin, tack 
nailed to the edges, and thoroughly pa 
Doolittle of Borodino, N. Y., and Dr. C. 
rengo, 111., both amone: the letn^'^*^^ ^- 

#11 1 T\»*'*''-- 




MOYABLB-rRAMB HIYES. 178 

dark colors should be used, as they absorb the sun's beat, 
nor should all the hives be of the same tint (508). If the 
Jc^ts are painted when they are put together, they will last 
much longer. Erery old Apiarist well knows that the joints 
are the first to decay. 

357. Bach hive, in an Apiary, should bear a number, on 
the back of the brood apartment ; and this should be printed 
fai black characters, large enough to be seen at a distance 
In small Apiaries bee-keepers use a slate, on each hive ; but 
in large ones, where many operations are performed, it is 
better to keep a record of the condition of the colonies, 
and of all the operations, in a special book. 

We will add, that a hive which does not furnish a thor- 
ough control over every comb cannot allow of the manipu- 
lations which the bee-keeper's necessities demand. Of such 
hives, the best are those which best unite cheapness and 
timplicUyj with protection in Winter, and ready access to the 
spare honey-boxes. 

358. In closing this chapter on hives, we cannot refrain 
from advising the beginners in bee-culture to be very cau- 
tious in buying patent hives. More than eight hundred 
patents on bee-hives and implements have been issued in 
the United States since January, 1873. Not ten of these 
have proved to be of any use to bee-keepers. Ttie mention 
of this fact will suffice to show the small value of these 790 
patents, and the loss incurred by those who have bought 
them, before they were able to judge of their merits. 

Matkbials fob Bee-hive8. 

359. The variety of opinions respecting the best mate- 
rials for hives, has been almost as great as on the subject 
of their proper size and shape. Columella^ and Virgil rec- 

* Onhnmila, about th* middle of the flXBt oenturj of the ChzistiAD Krs, 
WioU twtlT* booki on hntliondzj—' '/>« r« nuUca.** 




174 

ommend the hollowed tnmk of the cork tree^ than which no 
material would be more admirable if it could onlj be dieapl^ 
procured. Straw hives have been used for ages, and aie 
warm in Winter and cool in Summer. The difficulty of 
making them take and retain the proper shi^ for improved 
bee-keeping, is an objection to their use. Hives made of 
wood are, at the present time, fast superseding all others. 
The lighter and more spongy the wood, the poorer will be its 
power of conducting heat, and the warmer the hive in 
Winter and the cooler in Summer. Cedar, bass-wood, 
poplar, tulip-tree, and especially $oft pine^ afford excellent 
materials for bee-hives. The Apiarist must be governed^ 
in his choice of lumber, by the cheapness with which any 
suitable kind can be obtained in his own immediate vicin- 
ity. 

Scholz, a German Apiarist, recommends hives made of 
adobe — in which frames or slats may be used — as chei^ly 
constructed, and admirable for Summer and> Winter. Such 
structures, however, cannot be moved. But in many parts 
of our country, where both lumber and saw-mills are 
scarce, and where people are accustomed to build adobe 
houses, they might prove desirable. The material is plastic 
clay, mixed with cut straw, waste tow, etc. 

360. To make the movable-frame hives to the best 
advantage, the lumber should be cut out by a circular saw, 
driven by steam, water, or horse-power, or even by foot- 
power. We have used the foot and hand circular-saws 
made bv W. F. & J. Barnes, for vears, and could not do 
without tliem in onr shops. In buildings where such saws 
are iise<l, the frames mav be made from the small 
pieces of lumhcr, seldom of any use, except for fuel, and 
may ho ])a<ktMl almost solid in a box, or in a hive which 
will afterwards serve for a pattern. One frame in such a 
box, properly nailed together, will serve as a guide for the 
rest. The parts of the hive can easily and cheaply be made 



lUTKBUU FOB BD-HITXB, 



176 



by an; one who can handle toola, bnt cannot be profitably 
m&nufactured to be sent far, unless made where lumber 
is cheap, and the porta closely packed, — in the flat, — to 
be put fa^ethei atter reaching their deatioation. 

361 . If the Apiarist denres minute instructions, on how 
to file his saws and keep them la order, select bis lumber, 
and make his hires, with pleasure and profit, let htm send 
to A. I. Boot, of Medina, Ohio, for his "A. B. C, of Bee- 
Culture." He will be rep^d a hundred-fold, by the many 
good points be will find in It. 

362. Wfl here dto, with illustration, his explanatioo of 
*' why boards warp" : 



«' 




w\f. n. 



** Before going farther, you are to sort the boards so aa to have 
tbebeartrideof the lumber come on the outside of theblve. If 
yon look at the end of each board, yon can see bj the circles of 
growth, which la the heart side, as Is sbown In tbc cuts. At B, 
yon see a board cat off just at one side of the heart of the tree ; 
at C, near the barb; at A, the heart Is In the centre of the board. 
Yon all know, almost without being told, that boards alvvajs 
warplikeC; that U, the heart Bide becomes convex. The reason 
is connected with the shrinkage of boards in seasoning. When 
a log lies until It la perfectly seasoned. It orten chec1<s as In lig. 
3. You will observe that the wood shortens in the ilirection of 
the circles, and bat very little, If any, alon^ the lines that run 
from the bark to the centre. To allow this ehrinl^age In one 
direction, the log apllts or checks In the direction shown. Hair 
to go back to our boards, you will see that B shrlnlis more than 
A, because A baa the heart of the tree lo Its centre ; that C will 
atulnk. In seasoning, much more on the bark side, than oh the 



176 

heart side ; that thU cannot Ml to bring the board oat of a level; 
and that the heart side will always be convex. Ton have til 
seen bee-hives, probably, with the comers separated and gaping 
open, while the middle of the board was tight np in place. The 
reason was that the mechanic had pat the boards on, wrong side 
oat. If the heart side had been outward, the corners of the hive 
would have curled inwardly, and if the middle had been nailed 
securely, the whole hive would have been likely to have close, 
tight Joints, even if exposed to the sun, wind, and rain.*'— (^* A. 
B. C. of Bee-Culture," page 108.) 

303. Double-walled hives, chaff hives, and Winter cov- 
ers, will be described in the chapter on ^* Wintering" (619). 
The upper-stories, half-stories, wide frames, sectioDB, etc, 
for comb, or extracted honey, will be discussed in the chap- 
ter on honey producing (716). 

Ventilation of the Bbb-Hiys. 



364. If a populous colony is examined on a warm day, 

a number of bees may be seen standing upon the alighting- 
board, with their heads turned towards the entrance of the 
hive, their abdomens slightly elevated, and their wings in 
such rapid motion, that they are almost as indistinct as the 
spokes of a wheel, in swift rotation on its axis. A brisk 
current of air may be felt proceeding from the hive ; and if 
a small piece of down be suspended at its entrance, by a 
thread, it will be drawn out from one part, and drawn in at 
another. Why are these bees so deeply absorbed in their 
fanning occupation, that they pay no attention to the busy 
numbers constantly crowding in and out of the hive? and 
what is the meaning of this double current of air ? To Huber, 
we owe the satisfactory explanation of these curious phe- 
nomena. The bees, thus singularly plying their rapid wings, 
are ventilating the hive ; and this double current is caused by 
pure air rushing in, to supply the place of the foul air which 




A. r, ROOT ("Noviik''), 
Author of "The A. B. Co/ Bte Culture;'' Editor of -Glea 
in Bee CaUurc" 

TUiwillertiaWDUaDed.iNigmei. 62, 01. K. f», 14(i. Ijo. IBT, ITS. 1 
MS, Ǥ, XT., II.', 311, SIS, SIB, jgo, 31", 368, 170, 
122, 429, Oi. «B3, 49e. 



I 

I 





TKMTIULTIOH OF THB BEE-HITS. 177 

Is forced ont. Bj a series of beantiful experiments, Huber 
ascertained that the air of a crowded hive is almost as pure 
as the surrounding atmosphere. Now, as the entrance to 
such a hive is often very small, the air within cannot be 
renewed, without resort to artificial means. If a lamp is 
put into a close vessel, with only one small orifice, it will 
soon exhaust the oxygen, and cease to burn. If another 
small orifice is made, the same result will follow ; but if a 
current of air is by some device drawn out from one open- 
ing, an equal current will force its way into the other, and 
the lamp will bum until the oil is exhausted. 

^SS. It is on this principle of maintaining a double cur- 
rent by artificicU meanSj that bees ventilate their crowded 
habitations. A file of ventilating bees stands inside and 
outside of the hive, each with head turned to its entrance, 
and while, by the rapid fanning of their *' many twinkling" 
wings, a brisk current of air is blown out of the hive, an 
equal current is drawn in. As this important office demands 
unusual physical exertion, the exhausted laborers are, from 
time to time, relieved by fresh detachments. If the interior 
of the hive permits inspection, many ventilators will be 
found scattered through it, in very hot weather, all busily 
engaged in their laborious employment. If its entrance is 
contracted, speedy accessions will be made to their num- 
bers, both inside and outside of the hive ; and if it is closed 
entirely, the heat and impurity quickly increasing, the 
whole colony will attempt to renew the air by rapidly vi- 
brating their wings, and in a short time, if unrelieved, will 
die of suffocation. 

366. Careful .experiments show that pure air is neces- 
sary not only for the respiration of the mature bees, but for 
hatching the eggs, and developing the larvae ; a fine netting 
of air-vessels enveloping the eggs, and the cells of the larva 
being closed with a covering filled with air-holes (168). 

In ^/Hnter, if bees are kept in a dark place, whio^ it 
19 




ITS 



eaaooC Ire cnttrdLj wtthoot H ; mad if thej are 
cxBted bj mcmosplnsie cbaagoKy or m maj wmj dislnrbed, a 
lood bun i BiiB^ OUT be beard ia tke iaterior of tlieir hires, 



MI7. If bees are greadj d iaUu bed, H will be onsafe, ea- 
pedaOj ia warn weadier, to rnnfiae tlwai, oaleaa they ksie 
a TCfj free admiaBioa id air ; aad ciea Ihea, anleas it ia ad- 
■itted abore, aa weQ aa below tbe maaa of bees, the Tenli- 
laiors wmj bec o me clogged with dead beea, and the oolooj 
perkh. Bees oadcr ck»e conftitrmeat beeome exccesiTnly 
heated, sod their combs are often melted ; if dampneaa is 
added to the injurioos inflaenoe of bad air, thej become 
diseased ; and large numbers, if not the whole colonj, maj 
perish from disrrho^a. Is it not ander precisely such cir> 
comstances thsi: cholera and dysentery prove most fatal to 
homan beings? the filthy, damp, and anTentilated abodes 
of the abject poor, becoming perfect lazar-houses to their 
wretched inmates. 

368. We have sereral times examined the bees of new 
swarms which were brought to our Apiary, so closely con- 
fined, that they had died of suffocation. In each instance, 
their bodies were distended with a vellow and noisome sub- 
stance, as though they had perished from diarrhoea. A few 
were still alive, and although the colony had been shut up 
only a few hours, the boilies of both the living and the dead 
were filled with this same disgusting fluid, instead of the 
honey they had when they swarmed. 

In a rn»dical point of view, these facts are highly inter- 
esting; shuwin,; as they do, under what circumstances, and 
how epeedily, diseases may be produced resembling dysen- 
tery or cholera. 

300. In very hot weather, if thin hives are exposed to 




TKMTILATKni OF THB BSS-HIYB. 179 

the sun's direct rays, the bees are excessively annoyed by 
the intense beat, and have recourse to the most powerful 
ventilation, not merely to keep the air of the hive pure, but 
to lower its temperature. 

Bees, in such weather, often leave, almost in a body, the 
interior of the hive, and cluster on the outside, not merely 
to escape the close heat within, but to guard their combs 
against the danger of being melted. 

870. Few novices have an adequate idea of the danger 
to heavily laden combs from heat, especially if the cluster 
of bees, outside, happens to obstruct the entrance, by hang- 
ing in front of it. In the Summer of 1877, we have seen 
whole rowd of hives, which were exposed to the sun's rays, 
in a large Apiary, ^' melt down" almost simultaneously, — 
causing a loss of hundreds of dollars, — for lack of sufficient 
ventilation, owing to the clustering of the bees in front of 
the entrance. 

871. After one comb brefCks down, the leaking honey 
spreads over the bottom board, runs out of the entrance, 
daubs the bees, and prevents further ventilation ; then the 
rest of the combs fall pell-mell on one another, crushing the 
brood, the queen, and the remaining bees. It is utter de- 
struction. 

872. In very hot weather, the bees are specially careful 
not to cluster on new combs containing sealed honey, which, 
from not being lined with cocoons, and from the extra 
amount of wax used for their covers, melt more readily than 
the breeding-cells. 

Apiarists have noticed that bees often leave their honey- 
cells almost bare, as soon as they are sealed ; but it seems 
to have escaped their observation, that this is absolutely 
necessary in very hot weather. In cool weather, they may 
frequently be found clustered among the sealed honey-combs, 
because there is then no danger of their melting. 

Few things are so well fitted to impress the mind with 




deviM bf 



of the great hum d 
n bee, to be mat, 
BO ebL^Sj lo decade, froa ma dibonte uiiItsu of the ohem- 
leal fCMmtiTii M ii ti ai the atBoophere, how large a propoftiaa 
of osjgca s eaacsatiil to the a^iport of Mf e, aodhowrapidfy 
the pioeeas of fasea^hzag eoaverti it iato a deadly poifoa. 
It eaaaot, £ke Ljetag, dfuti ■!« that God, bjaettiDgte 
aad the ivgetable vorid, the one artr againet te 
\ ham prorrided that Ibe alsM^rfiere duJl, through all 
be aa pure aa vhea it fint eaiae fnm Hia creaHiig 
hand. Bat ^ia2z» upon as ! that with all our boaated intel- 
tigenoe, most of X2S hre aa thoagfa pare air waa of little or 
DO importaace ; while the bee rentilates with a philoaopbieal 
predaon \h%x sh'^uld put to the blush oar criminal negied 
373. It is Slid that Tentilation cazmot, in our case, be had 
without cost. Can it then be had for nothing, by the indos- 
triou£ bees ? Those ranks of bees, so indef atigablj pljing 
their busj wing?. &re not engaged in idle amusement; nor 
might thev. as >c>me shallow utilitarian may imagine, be 
better employed in gathering honey, or superintending some 
other der artment in the economy of the hire. At great ex- 
pense of time and labor, they are supplying the rest of the 
colony with the pure air so conduciTe to their health and 
prosperity. What a difference between them and some 
human l»eings. who, ** if they lived in a glass bottle, would 
insist on keeping the cork in! ** 

Impure air. one would think, is bad enough; but all its 
inherent vileness is stimulated to still greater activity by air- 
tight, or rather lunfj-tiqlu stoves, which can economize fuel 
only by squandering health and endangering life. Not only 
our private houses, but all our places of pablic assemblage, 
are either unimproved with any means of Tentilatioa, or to 




TKHTIULTIOH OF THB BSS-HXYB. 181 

• great extent, supplied with those so deficient, that thej 

only 

'*Keep the word of promise to our ear, 

To break it to our hope." 

Men may, to a certain extent, resist the injurious influences 
of fool air ; as their employments usually compel them to live 
more out of doors : but alas, alas ! for the poor women ! In 
the Tery land where they are treated with such merited de- 
ference and respect, often no provision is made to furnish 
them with that first element of health, cheerfulness, and 
beaaty» heaven's pure, fresh air. 

Obskbtiho Hiyks. 

374. For nearly a century, hives have been in use con- 
taining only one comb, inclosed on both sides by glass. 
These hives are darkened by shutters, and, when opened, the 
queen is as much exposed to observation as the other bees. 
Mr. Langstroth has discovered that, with proper precau- 
tions, colonies can be made to work in obserying-bives, even 
when exposed continually to the full light of day ; so that 
observations may be made at all times, without interrupting 
by any mdden admission of light, the ordinary operations 
of the bees. In such hives, many intelligent persons from 
various States in the Union have seen the queen-bee depos- 
iting her eggs in the cells, while surrounded by an affection- 
ate circle of her devoted children. They have also witnessed 
with astonishment and delight, all the mysterious steps in 
the process of raising queens from eggs, which with the 
ordinary development would have produced only the com- 
mon bees. Often for more than three months, there has 
not been a day in our Apiary, in which some colonies were 
not engaged in rearing new queens to supply the place of 
thoeo taken from them ; and we have had the pleasure of 




182 

exhibiting these facts to bee-keepers, who neyer before felt 
willing to credit them. 

375. An Apiarist may use the box hives a whole 
life-time, and, anless he gains his information from other 
sources, may yet remain ignorant of some of the most im- 
portant principles in the physiology of the honey-bee; 
while any intelligent cultivator may, with an observing-hive 
and the use of movable-frames, in a single season, verifj 
for himself the discoveries which have been made only by 
the accumulated toil of many observers, for more than two 
thousand years. 

**An opportunity of beholding the proceedings of the queen, la 
hives of the old form, is so very rarely afforded, that many Apia* 
rists have passed their lives without enjoying it ; and R^anmur 
himself, even with the assistance of a glass-hive, acknowledges 
that it was many years before he had that pleasure." — (Bevan.) 

Swammerdam, who wrote his wonderful treatise on bees, 
before the invention of observing-hives, was obliged to tear 
hives to pieces in making his investigations I When we see 
what important results these great geniuses obtained, with 
means so imperfect, if compared with the facilities which 
the veriest tyro now possesses, it ought to teach us a be- 
cominor lesson of humility. 

The sentiments of the following extract from Swammer- 
dam, ought to be engraven upon the hearts of all engaged 
in investigating the works of God: 

*' I would not have any one think that I say this from a love of 

fault-finding" — he had been criticising some incorrect drawings 
and descriptions — *' my sole design is to have the true face and 
disjiosituui of Xature exposed to sight. I wish that others may 
pass the like censure, when due, on my works; fori doubt not 
that I have made many mistakes, althoagh 1 can,fh>m the heart, 
say, that I have not. in this treatise designed to mislead." 

370. This hive is a simplified form, but Mr. D. F. Sav- 
ji^e suggests a still more simple one, by making the top to 



18S 



r as not to conceal uiy of the bees, and leaviDg off 
the ahattera entirely, to replace them with a dark cloth 
thrown over the hive. But this cloth can be used only when 
the hive la eatabliahed Inside the house. Its nuun advan- 
tages are to do away with the noise and jar of opening 
tits shatters. 




*-ig. to. 
OBSKS V IKO-B I V K . 
(rroniAlHir'»"H»ndr-Bool!.") 
■, aUiidt B,CC, moTBbla glui tfune! K, moulding nnilci irhlch th* 
topOftbeabnttecfiUpa, to darken tbs Mn, It nenlFd; F, movable top, 
kddlnplaaby book*. Tba oombot brood aad beei la put u, bj remoT' 
lasUw top andooealda. 

377. A parlor observiDg-bive of thia form may be con- 
Tcoiently placed in any room in the liouse; tlie aligbtiog- 
board being outside, and the whole arrangement such that 
the bees may be inspected at all hours, day, or night, tvith- 
oat the slightest risk of their stinging. Two such hives 
may be placed before one window, and put up or taken 
downia afew minutes, without cutting ordetacing the wood* 
work of the house. 

An obseirlng-hiTe will prove an unftuling source of pleaa> 
ore and inatniotion ; and those who live in crowded dtiea, 




to the penanoe 

asao '*eiid]efli 

of the agile gatheren 

tejond ^^the smokj 

to their city homes 

*hliiduiig unaeen," 

pleasant marmarings 

IpBg forgoltm joja, when 

soothing music, 

m the old hooiestead-garden, 

MD-sideB, to gather 

dov-sweet breath," 

^ioswctiic af 1^ p nckm pe rfMua of their forest home? 




** Tr 2De ixȣre dnr, caageaial to ay heart, 
t>z»f n&HY^ ch&nc thaa aH tke gloas of art ; 
STCimz>fc«ss ::r&. vbere natore hai its play, 
Tii ^*zl s^i:•z*lSr «zid owns their first-bom 6 way; 
l.-jrii-y iif?T '^:"-:c o'er tiie racant mind, 
Tr f:iT:-f*i.. znirx-es5ed. onoonfined, 
B« il-f Ir^iir pc^3p, the midnight masquerade, 
^^-li kll :l€ fr*it5 of wmaton wealth array 'd, 
1- lif ?-f. frr iT-ftre hxlf their wish obtain, 
Ti* :c-.>:=:ie rlfi^Tire sickens into pain ; 
Asi *>ji wtLit fashion's brightest arts decoy. 
The he&rs aU;r;istiAg aaks, if this be joy." 

GoLDSMrnL 




MAMDUMQ BXW. 185 



CHAFTEB y. 

HAMDUNa BBE8. 

The Honet-bbb Capable of' Blino Tamed. 

878. If the bee had not such a formidable weapon both 
of offense and defense, many who now fear it might easily 
be induced to enter upon its cultivation. As the present 
system of management takes the greatest possible Uberties 
with this insect, it is important to show how all neceasary 
operations may be performed without serious risk of excit- 
ing its anger. 

Many persons are unable to suppress their astonishment, 
when they see an Apiarist, with the help of a little smoke, 
opening hive after hive, removing the combs covered with 
bees, and shaking them off in front of the hives ; forming 
new swarms, exhibiting the queen, transferring the bees 
with all their stores to another hive ; and in short, dealing 
with them as if they were as harmless as flies. We have 
sometimes been asked, whether, the hives we were opening 
had not been subjected to a long course of training ; when 
they contained swarms which had been brought only the day 
before to our Apiary. 

We shall, in this chapter, show that any one favorably 
dtaated may enjoy the pleasure and profit of a pursuit 
which has been appropriately styled, ** the poetry of rural 
economy,*' without being made too familiar with a sharp 
little weapon, which speedily converts all the poetry into 
•orry prose. 

It most be manifest to every reflecting mind, that the 
Creator intended the bee. as trulv as the horse or the cow, 



186 

te tlie oomf ort of mmn. In the early ages of Uie world, 
and indeed antO quite modem timet, honey was almost the 
only natoral sweet; and the promise of ^'a limd flowing 
with milk and honey" had once a significance which it ii 
difficult for OS folly to realize. The honey-bee, therefore, 
was created not merely to store np its delicioos nectar for 
its own use, bat with certain propensities, without which 
man coold no more subject it to his control, than he could 
make a useful beast of burden of a lion or a tiger. 

379. One of the peculiarities which constitutes the foun> 
dation of the present system of management, and indeed of 
the possibility of domesticating at aU so irascible an insect, 
has never to our knowledge been clearly stated as a great 
and controlliDg principle by any one before Mr. Laugstroth. 
It may be thus expressed: 

A honey-bee when heavily laden with honey never volunteen 
cm attack, but acts solely on the defensive,^ 

This law of the honeyed tribe is so uniyersal, that a stone 
might as soon be expected to rise into the air, without any 
propelling power, as a bee well filled with honey to offer to 
sting, unless crushed or injured by some direct assault. 
The man who first attempted to hive a swarm (428) of 
bees, must have been agreeably surprised at the ease with 
which he was able to accomplish the feat ; for it is wisely 
ordered that bees, when intending to swarm,- should fill their 
honey-bags to their utmost capacity. They are thus so 
peaceful that they can easily be secured by man, besides 
having materials for commencing operations immediately in 
their new habitation, and being in no danger of starving, if 
several stormy days should follow their emigration. 

380. While swarming, bees issue from their hives in the 
most peaceable mood ima^nable ; and unless abused allow 
themselves to be treated with the greatest familiarity. The 

• Thla tUtexnent has been contradicted by a high anUioxltj, b«t we penlst la 
ftArmlnf It. and wUl addnee iereral proofs in durerent 




THB BOmr-BKB OAFABLB OF BXIKO TAXED. 187 

hiding of them might always be conducted without risk, il 
there were not, occoiionaUy^ some improyident or unfortu- 
nate ones, who, coming forth without a sufficient amount of 
the soothing supply, are filled instead with the bitterest 
hate against any one daring to meddle with them. Such 
thriftless radicals are always to be dreaded, for they must 
▼ent their spleen on something, even though they perish in 
the act. (84.) 

If a whole colony, on sallying forth, possessed such a 
ferocious spirit, no one could hive them unless clad in a 
coat of mail, bee-proof; and not even then, until all the 
windows of his house were closed, his domestic animals be- 
stowed in some place of safety, and sentinels posted at suit- 
able stations, to warn all comers to keep at a safe distance. 
In short, if the propensity to be exceedingly good-natured 
after a hearty meal, had not been given to the bee, it could 
never have been domesticated, and our honey would still be 
procured from the clefts of rocks or the hollows of trees. 
Probably the good nature resulting from a hearty meal is 
not the only cause of the above fact. There is another 
physiological fact connected with it (85). When her 
stomach is empty, a bee can curve her abdomen easily to 
■ting. If her honey-sack is full, the rings of the abdomen 
are distended, and she finds more difficulty in taking the 
proper position for stinging. 

881. A second peculiarity, in the nature of bees, gives 
an almost unlimited control over them, and may be ex- 
pressed as follows : 

J5ee9, when frightened^ usually begin to fill themselvea with 
honey from their combe. 

If the Apiarist only succeeds in frightening bis little sub- 
jects, he can make them as peaceable as though they were 
incapable of stinging. By the use of a little smoke, the 
largest and most fiery colony may be brought into complete 
subjection. As soon as the smoke is blown among them. 



188 



they retreat from before it, raising s anbdaed or terrUad 
note ; and, Beendng to imagine that tlieir honey la to be 
taken from them, the; cram their honej-baga to their atmott 
capacity. They act eitbet u if aware that only what ttiay 
can lodge in this inside pocket is safe, or, aa if expecting to 
be driven away from their stores, they ue determined to 
start with a fall supply of provisions for the way. The 
same result may be obtained by shutting them up in their 
hive and drumming upon it for a short time, bat this latter 
process is only sacccsstul with some races of beea easily 
frightened, like the black bees (55D). 

383. The bellows-smokers, in present use, for smokiag 
bees and controlling them, are as far superior to the old 
method of blowing smoke on them with the mouth from a 




MKOBAH BKK-HUi 



piece of punk or rotten wood, or a bunch of rags, as the 
movable-frame hive is superior to the box bive of old. The 
writer of this, who kept bees in large numbers in sever^ 
Apiaries before the introduction of the practical bellows- 
smoker, has many a time felt dizzy from the fatigue of blow- 
ing smoke on the bees. 

Bellows- smokers were used in Europe long ago, but they 
were not practical, as they could not be used with one 




THB BOHST-BBB OAFABLB OF BBOffO TAXED. 189 

Qoiiiby, one of tfie ▼eterans of progressive Apicaltare, 
loTeiited the first bellows-smoker that had the bellows on 
the aide of the fire-box, that could stand up and draw like a 
ebimnej, and that ooold practicallj be held with one hand. 
Binghain afterwards greatly improyed on this smoker. 
SHiioe then, others have made different styles, all based on 
Qidnby'a or on Bingham's ideas. 

The Improved Qoinby-Bingham smokers have been 
imitated all over the world, especially in England and 
Ftanoe, and we are sorry to say, some of these imitations 
have been sold as personal inventions, without any credit 
being given to the real inventors. 

A bee-smoker is indispensable to any Apiarist, and ifhonld 
be properly filled, when nsed, with dry wood, lighted at the 
bottom by a few hot coals. With a good smoker any kind 
' of wood may be used. When the bees are located in an or- 
chard, dead limbs of apple-trees, are handiest and will 
make good smoke. Shavings, leaves, rags, can also be used, 
^ if no wood is at hand. By setting the smoker upright, when 
not held in tiie hand, so as to create a good draft, and refilling 
it from time to time, a good smoke can be kept np from 
mondng till ni^^t, if necessary. 

S9S. Seme Apiarists of England have tried several 
HqoidB, for mbbing on the hands, to pacify the bees. 
Moat of these liquids are hydro-carbonous fluids, or volatile 
oils of plants, such as wintergreen, turpentine, bergamot, 
dorea, tiiyme, etc Mr. Orimshaw, after divers trials, in- 
vented a compound of several of these oils, to which he 
seems to have added ether and chloroform, if our sense of 
smell does not mislead us. He calls it Apifuge. 

Several Apiarists praise this drug, while others say that 
their bees did not mind it, and sting them as usual ; and 
some complain of blisters on their hands after its use. 
iBriU$k B u J a wma l.) 

Mr. Cowan presented us with a vial of Apifuge, but. 



190 

fttter bTing, we cannot see maoh idTuiUge to be derived 
from its nse. 
384. Ml. Baynor advlsea the use of a oaiboUsed aheet, 

to frighten beea : 

" Hftkn a solntiOQ of 8 M. oarboUo aeld In a qnut of water, 
and preierve for om. Hix 11 os. of this aolution with 1) oa. of 
gl^oerlne; pnt the miitore inaqoartof water.ihake wall bofbn 
lulng ; steep In the miitare a pteoe of oalico, or oheesa oloth, 
■nffloientlr large to ooTer the top of the hive, wring oat dr^ aod 
spread over the hive as sood as Uie qnllt Is lemoTed. 

** YoQ mar n*e the same to drlTe the bees out of the ieoHoas. 
Keep the bottles weU corked fbr fntiu* nse."— ^Sev. O. Baynor, 
hi the BrititK BM^ountaL) 

The same liquid may be forced among the beea through 
an atomizer. As it evaporates it leaves no bad smell behind. 

38A. A neighbor of ours, who is a magnetist, told om 
foreman-Apiarist that bees could be pacified by aimply lay- 




191 

Ing ooe'B huida above the combs while the cloth is cm«- 
tall; removed. We h&ve sean bees withdraw from the 
tnmes inside the tuve, under this lajiag on of hands ; but 
we are not sure ttiat such magnetiam, if there be magnetiem 
in it, ia sufficient to prevent the bees from stinging. 

388. A bee>veil, although objectionable to some bee- 
keepers, who prefer to handle their bees barefaced, is really 
a necesnty in a large Apiary. Timid persons feel safer in 
using it, and even the boldest bee-keepers recognize the 
necesrity of wearing one, when colonies become aroused by 
accident. The best veils are eewed to the oiiter edge of th& 
rim of a straw-hat ; with a rubber at their loner extremity, 
to fasten around the neck. The veil can be slipped on and 
oH in a twinkling, if necessity requires ; when not in use, it 
Is simply folded into the crown of the hat, where it is 
always at band. 

We keep a num- 
ber of these veil hats 
In our bee-house, 
for the accommo- 
dation of visitors, 
who wish to look 
through the wou- 
ilers of the bee-hive, 
without fear of 
stiogs. 

Some veils are 
made removable , 
with a rubber at 
each end; the upper 
one being slippeil 
over the crown of 
the hat. This veil 
can he taken oft at 
will, and carried in 
the pocket. 

In his "Success In Bce-Culturc, " Mr. lleddoii stiyn: "A 
bee-veil should never be any color but black, a» all other 
shades are more or less difficult to see through clearly," and 





192 

we fully agree with him. White Teils are moet espedalfy 
objectionable. Green is the best color after black. 

387. The hands may be protected by indi»-rabb€i 
gloves, such as are now in common use. 1 hese gloves, irbSk 
impenetrable to the sting of a bee, do not materially inte^ 
fere with the operations of the Apiarist. As soon, however, 
as he acquires confidence and skill, he will much prefer 
to use nothing but the bee-hat, even at the expense of as 
occasional sting on his hands. 

An English Apiarist advises persons using gloves lo eol 
the tips of the fingers so as to handle the frames moft 
dexterously, and to wash their fingers with some kind of 
Apifuge. 

Stings on the hands usually cause but little suffering or 
swelling, while stings on the face are quite painful ; and tht 
^otesque appearance which the swelling often gives to tht 
human face, makes it much more desirable to protect the 
head than the hands. 

If the hands are wet with honey, they will seldom be 
stung. 

388. All woolen clothes are more objectionable to beet 
than linen or cotton, for wool resembles the hair of ani- 
mals, being made of it, while linen or cotton resembles the 
twigs and leaves of plants, being made of vegetable fibre. 
Butler says: 

*^ They use their stings against such things as have outwardly 
some offensive excrement, such as hair or feathers, the touch 
whereof provoketh them to sting. If they alight upon the hair 
of the head or beard, they will sting if they can reach the skin. 
When they are angry their aim is most commonly at the face, 
but the bare hand that is not hairy, they will seldom sting, 
onless they be much offended.*' — (''Feminine Monarehy,** 1608.) 

389. In handling bees, it is not always necessary to 
compel them to fill themselves with honey. With the quiet 
Italians (551), a few puffs of smoke, at the entranoe, 




193 

when opening the hhre, and occasionally on the combs, if 
they show any disposition to anger, are quite sufficient to 
keep them down. Some of our best Apiarists often open 
their hires and handle the bees without smoke. It takes 
practice, patience and firmness. 

Whfle the timid, if unprotected, are ahnost sure to be 
•tong, there is something in the fearless movements of a 
akiUful operator, that seems to render a colony submissive 
tohiswilL 

890. 8<»ie raoea, however, like the Cyprian (559), 
cannot be controlled without a clond of smoke, but they 
promptly retreat before the overpowering argument of a 
good smoker. 

SBl. Bees can be handled at all times; but they are 
quietest In the middle of the day. At such a time, the old 
bees, which are the crossest in the colony, are out in the 
field. In cold, cloudy, or stormy weather, they are most irri- 
table. especiaUy if there is a scarcity of honey, as the lurking 
robbers (604) excite the bees. Old bees that come home 
loaded, are not cross, while those going out empty y are easily 
angered. During a plentiful honey flow, when the hives 
are crowded for room, the bees are nearly all full of honey, 
and the colonies can then be handled without smoke (379). 

By oar methods yon can superintend a large Apiary, 
performing every operation necessary for pleasure or profit, 
without as much risk of being stung, as must frequently be 
loeorred in attempting to manage a single hive in the old 
way. 

d92. Let all your motions about your hives be gentle and 

slow; never crush or injure the bees; acquaint yourself 

folly with the principles of management detailed in this 

treatise, and you will find that you have little more reason 

to dread the sUng of a bee, than the horns of a favorite 

00W9 or the b yoor faithful horse. 

IS 




194 HAXDUMO BUM. 

Cotton, quoting from Butler, who, in these Femarks, fol- 
lows mainly Columella, says: 

898. ** Listen to the words of an old writer : — * If then wlH 
haye the fayoor of thy bees, that they sting thee not, thon mnsl 
avoid such things as offend them : thou must not be unchaste or 
uncleanly; for impurity and sluttiness (themselves being most 
chaste and neat) they utterly abhor; thou must not come among 
them smelling of sweat, or having a stinking breath, caused 
either through eating of leeks, onions, garlick, and the like, or 
by any other means, the noisomeness whereof is corrected by a 
eup of beer; thou must not be given to surfeiting or dmnkoi- 
ness; thou must not come puffing or blowing unto them, neither 
hastily stir among them, nor resolutely defend thyself when they 
seem to threaten thee; but softly moving thy hand before. thy 
fiice, gently put them by ; and lastly, thou must be no stranger 
unto them. In a word, thou must be chaste, cleanly, sweet, 
sober, quiet, and familiar; so will they love thee, and know thee 
from all others. When nothing hath angered them, one may 
safely walk along by them ; but if he stand still before them in 
the heat of the day, it is a marvel but one or other spying him, 
will have a cast at him.** 

** Above all, never blow t on them; they will try to sting di- 
rectly, if you do. 

^^ If you want to catch any of the bees, make a bold sweep at 
them with your hand ; and if you catch them without pressing 
them, they will not sting. I have so caught three or four at a 
time. If you want to do anything to a single bee, catch him *as 
if you loved him,' between your finger and thumb, where the tail 
joins on to the body, and he cannot hurt you.*' 

When gorged with honey, they may betaken up by hand- 
fuls, and suffered to run over the face, and may even have 
their glossy backs gently smoothed as they rest on our per- 
sons ; and all the feats of the celebrated Wildman may be 

* Many porsonB Imagiue themBolTefl to b« qnlte safe. If they stand at a eoo- 
ildorable dit^tance from the hives; whereas, crosB beea deUght to attack tboaa 
whose more distant position makes them a snrer mark to their lonir*al|rhted 
vision, than persons who are close to their hirea. 

t While bees resent the \carm breath exhaled ilowly flrom the Innca, we haT« 
aaoertalned, that they wlU mo ttom a blast of oold air blown upon them by 
the month of the operator, almost as quickly as ftrom amoka. Befbve employ- 
iBf amoke lix. Lancatroth often uaed a pair of beUowa. 




IGMOBAHCX or BKl^-KXBPXBS. 195 

safely imitated bj experts, who, by securing the queen, can 
make the bees hang in iarge festoons from their chin, with- 
out incurring any risk of being taken by the beard. 

^ Snch was the spell, which ronnd a Wildman^s arm, 
TwinM in dark wreaths the fascinated swarm ; 
Bright o*er his breast the glittering legions led, 
Or with a living garland bound his head. 
His dextrous hand, with firm yet hurtless hold, 
Could seize the chief, kpown by her scales of gold. 
Prune 'mid the wondering train her filmy wing, 
Or o'er her folds the silken fetter fiing." 



t. The ignorance of most bee-keepers of the almost un- 
limited control which may be peaceably acquired over bees, 
koM ever been regarded by the author of this treatise as the 
greatest obsUicle to the speedy introduction oj movable-frame 
hives. Such ignorance has led to the invention of costly 
and complicated hives, all the ingenuity and expense lav- 
ished apon which, are known, by the better informed, to be 
as unnecessary as a costly machine for lifting up bread and 
butter, and gently pushing it into the mouth and down the 
tliroat of an active and healthy child. 

We have before us a small pamphlet, published in Lon- 
don in 1851, describing the construction of the ^*Bar and 
Frame Hive " of W. A. Munn, Esq. The object of this in- 
vention is to elevate frames, one at a time, into a case with 
gioMS sides^ so that they may be examined without risk of 
annoyance from the bees. Great ingenuity is exhibited by 
the inventor of this very costly and very complicated hive, 
who seems to imagine that smoke ''*' must be injurious both 
to the bees and their brood." 

305. In opening a hive, little danger ma\' be feared 
from the bees that are exposed to the light, unless quick 
motions are made, as they are completely bcwihiered by 
their sudden exposure, and removal from the hive. 

It is not merely the sudden admission of light, but its 
introdaction from an unexpected quarter, that for the time. 



196 HAXDLore mmmm. 



the hostilitj of the bees. Thej appear, for a few 
momenta, almost as much confooxided as a man would be, 
if, without any warning, the roof and ceiling of his hooie 
should suddenly be torn from over his head. Before they 
recover from their amazement, they are saluted with a paff 
of smoke, which, by alarming them for the safety of their 
treasures, induces them to snatch whatever they can. In 
the working season, the bees near the top are gorged with 
honey; and those coming from bdow are met in their 
threatening ascent, by a small amount of harmless smoke, 
which excites their fears, but leaves no unpleasant smell 
behind. No genuine lover of bees ought ever to use the siek- 
ening fumes of tobacco. 

806. Heddon says ('^Success in Bee-Culture," page 18) : 
*' I know of but one instance where the use of smoke can do 
harm, and that is in smoking the guards of a colony that is in 
danger of being robbed." (664.) To this important state- 
ment, we would add, that too much smoke to a colony 
already subdued, will drive them from their combs, and 
often cause them to get in the way of the Apiarist. 

But the greatest care should be taken to repress by 
smoke, the firet manifestations of anger ; for, as bees com- 
municate their sensations to each other with almost magic 
celerity, while a whole colony will quickly catch the pleased 
or subdued notes uttered by a few, it will often be roused 
to fury by the angry note of a single bee. When once they 
are thoroughly excited, it will be found very difficult to 
subdue them, and the unfortunate operator, if inexperi- 
enced, will often abandon the attempt in despair. 

It cannot be too deeply impressed upon* the beginner, 
that nothing irritates bees more than breathing upon them, 
or jarring their combs. Every motion should be deliberate, 
and no attempt whatever made to strike at them. If in- 
clined to be cross, they will often resent even a quick 



RBMOTINa FRAMS8. 1^7 

pointing at them with the finger, by darting upon it, and 
leaving their stings behind. 

307. The first thing to be done, after having opened a 
hive and removed the cloth (852), is to remove the divis- 
ion-board (340) from the inside of the hive — to give room 
for handling the frames, — ^with the help of a common wood 
chisel. Then the frames which have been glued (236) 
fast to the rabbets by the bees, mnst be very gently pried 
loose ; this may be done without any serious jar, and with- 
out wounding or enraging a single bee. They may be all 
loosened for removal in less than a single minute. 

If there is no division-board (349) in the hive, the Api- 
arist should gently push the third frame from cither end of 
the hive, a little nearer to the fourth frame ; and then the 
•econd as near as he can to the third, to get ample room to 
lift out the end one, without crushing its comb, or injuring 
any of the bees. To remove it, he should take hold of its 
two shoulders which rest upon the rabbets, and carefully 
lift it, so as to crush no bees by letting it touch the sides of 
the hive, or the next frame. If it is desired to remove any 
particular frame, room must be gained by moving, in the 
same way, the adjoining ones on each side. As bees usu- 
ally build their combs slightly waving, it will be found 
impossible to remove a frame safely, without making room 
for it in this way. If the combs are built on foundation 
(674), however, they will be much easier to remove, as 
they are then perfectly straight. In handling heavy frames 
in hot weather, be careful not to incline them from their 
perpendicular^ or the combs will be liable to break from their 
own weight, and fall out of the frames. 

If more combs are to be examined, after lifting out the 
onttide frame, set it carefully on end, near the hive, when 
llie aeoond one may be easily moved towards the vacant 
wpmoe^ and lifted oat. After examination, put it in the place 
oi ihm one first removed ; in the same way^ examine tti% 



third, and put it in the place of the eeoond, and M proceed 
until all have been examined. It a division- board is UMd, 
it will not be necesBary to Bet any of the frames down oul- 
Bide of the hive, aa the removal of this board will leave out 
Tacant space in the hive. 

If the frames, as the; are removed, are put into an empt; 
hive, or a comb-bucket, the; ma; be protected from Ibi 
ooM, and from robber-bees. 




Pig. n. 

COUK-BOCKR. 

The inexperienced operator, who sees that the bees hsvt 
built small pieces of comb, or bridges (237), betweeo 
the outside of the frames and the sides of the hive, or 
slightly fastened together some parts of their combs, ma; 
imagine that the framea cannot be removed at all. Such 
slight attftchmeots, however, offer no practical difficult; to 
their removal.* The great point to be gained, ia to secure 

• If (sffldent room roT itoTtn); anrplns honey U not gl^tn to > itroBg oolenr, 

Inltaiiixli'liloBmnssilitmuirh M pngtibis, It will flU ths unjUlfrt 
pl*CPi. If th« hmt build crnnh brtvc^n the topa of tb< inmiB and 




BSMomfe FBJjfBS. 199 

a dngle oomb on each frame ; and this is effected by the 
oae of the triangular comb-goides, or better, by comb-foun- 
dation (674). 

If bees were disposed to fly away from their combs, as 
soon as they are taken out, instead of adhering to them 
with such remarkable tenacity, it would be far more difficult 
to manage them ; but even if their combs, when removed, 
ire all arranged in a continued line, the bees, and most es- 
pecially the Italian bees, instead of leaving them, will 
stoutly defend them against the thieving propensities of 
other bees. 

308. In returning the frames, care must be taken not to 
crush the bees between them and the rabbets on which they 
rest ; they should be put in so slowly ^ that a bee, on feeling 
the slightest pressure, may have a chance to creep from un- 
der them before it is hurt. 

The frames should be returned, as far as possible, in the 
same position, as they were found, with the brood in the 
forward part of the hive, and the honey in the back, for 
bees always live and breed in front of their stores, to more 
easily defend their treasures against intruders. 

In shutting up the hive, the surplus story, if any is there, 
should be carefully slid on, so that any bees which are in 
the way may be pushed ))cfore it, instead of being crushed. 
A beginner will find it to his advantage to practice — using 
an empty hive — the directions for opening and shutting 
hives, and lifting out the frames, until confident that he 
fuUy nnderstands them. If any bees are where they would 
be imprisoned by closing the upper cover, it should be 
propped up a little, until they have flown to the entrance of 
the hive, or, they may be brushed away gently. 

II WMUkflo off, thaj would flna It lUU faster, to that, at last, it would bo 
voll nisli impoatlblo, in getting it off, not to start the framea so aa to omah 
b o t waa tt tlia eomba. 




UlSituiAOsiiKirr or Bna. 

809. When s colony of bees ia anskillfull; dealt with, 
they will "compass about" their asBailant with aaTigt 
ferocity ; and woe be to him, if they can creep np hii 
clothes, OT find a Bingle anprotected apot on hia peraon. 

Not the slightGBt attempt should be made to act on the 
offensive; for, if a single one is stmck at, others will 
avenge the insult ; and if resistance is continued, hundreds, 
and at last, thousands, will join them. The assailed part; 
ebould quickly retreat to the protection of a building, or, 
if none is near, should bide in a clump of bushes, and li« 
perfeutly still, wilh his head covered, until the bees leave 
him. Wlicii no busbca are at hand, they will gunerally 
give over the uttLick, if he lies still on the grass. Kith hii 
face to the ground. A practical Apiarist, sheltered with t 
veil and armed ivitb a well lighted smoker, will not retreat 
much before the moat ferocious swarm of bees. 

Those who are alarmed if a bee enters the house, or ap- 
proaches them in the garden or fields, are ignorant of the 
Important fact, that a bee, at a distance from ita hiv€, never 
volunteers an attack. Even if assaulted, they seek only to 
escape, and never sting, unless they are hurt. 

If they were as easily provoked away from home, aawheo 
called to defend those sacred precincts, a tithe of the merry 
gambols, in which our domestic animals indulge, would 
speedily bring about them a swarm of infuriated enemiei i 
we should be no longer safe in our quiet rambles among 
the green fields ; and no jocund mower could whet or swing 
his peaceful scytbe, uuless clad in a dress impervious t« 
their stings. The bee, instead of being the friend of man, 
would, like savage wild beasta, provoke hia utmoet efforts 
for its extermination. 

Let oone, however, take encouragemeat from Um OOfr 




mSMAVAeKMSXT or BBB8. 201 

between the conduct of bees at home and abroad, to 
Te all their pleasant ways for other places than the 
»tic roof ; for, towards the members of its own family 
lee is all kindness and devotion ; and while, among 
in beings, a mother is often treated by her own children 
disrespect or neglect, among bees she is always waited 
I with reverence and affection. 

N>. Hnber has demonstrated, that bees have an ex- 
Lngly acute sense of smell, and that unpleasant odors 
dy excite their anger.^ Long before his time, Butler 
"Their smelling is excellent, whereby, when they fly 
into the air, they will quickly perceive anything under 
i that they like, even though it be covered." They 
, therefore, a special dislike to those whose habits are 
neat,t and who bear about them a perfume not in the 

resembling 

** Sabean odors 

From the spicy shores of Araby the blest.'* 

horse, when assailed by them, is often killed ; as, in- 
i of running away, like most other animals, it will 
ge and kick until it falls overpowered. The Apiary 
Id be fenced in, to prevent horses and cattle from 
eting the hives. We have known of a horse, which 
»ening to be loose in a bee-yard, was attacked by a few 
. In trying to defend himself against them by kicking 
rolling he upset one hive and then another, till tens of 
sands of bees assailed him, and the poor animal was 

rung perftimes, bowerer pleasaot to tu, are disagreeable to bees; and 
»tls obterrea, that they wUl sting those scented with them. We have 
B pcxBona Ignorant of this fliet to be aevcrely treated by bees. 
MM penooa, howerer cleanly, are aasaalted by bees as soon as they 
•ch their hlTsa. It la related of a distlngnlnhed Apiarist that, after a 
I sttaek of hfWfS, ha waa noTer able to be on good terms with his beea. 
tbf&j can xoadUy peroeiTa the sllghteat differencea in amell, is apparent 
Um ftet that any number of beea, fed firom a common Tetael, will be gen- 
vavda aMh otb«, while they wm aaaaU thi> flrat itranga bee that aUghtt 




202 HAiffDLora bum. 

•tang to death, before his owner could come to the rescue. 
We were informed by an eye-witness, that although the car- 
cass remained unburied two days, neither dogs, crows, 
buzzards, nor any of the usual scavengers of decaying flesh, 
attempted to feed upon it, so great was the amount of poison 
(70) instilled into it by the revengeful bees. 

401. The sting of a bee (78) upon some persons, pro- 
duces very painful, and even dangerous effects. We have 
often noticed that, while those whose systems are not sen- 
sitive to the venom, are rarely molested by bees, they seem 
to take a malicious pleasure in stinging those upon whom 
their poison produces the most virulent effect. Something 
in the secretions of such persons may both provoke the 
attack and render its consequences more severe. 

The smell of their own poison (87) produces a very irri- 
tating effect upon bees. A small portion of it offered to them 
on a stick, will excite their anger. 

*' If you are stung," says old Butler, ** or any one in the com- 
pany—yea, though a bee hath stricken but your clothes, espe- 
cially In hot weather— you were best be packing as fast as you 
can, for the other bees, smelling the rank flavor of the poison, 
will come about you as thick as hail." 

Remedies for the Stino or ▲ Bee. 



402. If only a few of the host of cures, so zealously 
advocated, could be made effectual, there would be little 
reason to dread being stung. 

The first thing to be done after being stung, is to pull — 
or rather push — the sting out of the wound as quickly om 
possible. When torn from the bee, the poison- bag, and all 
the muscles which control the sting, accompany it; and it 
penetrates deeper and deeper into the flesh, injecting con- 
tinually more and more poison into the wound. If extracted 
at once, it will very rarely produce any serious oonsequen* 




BBMXDISS FOB THS fTUIG Or ▲ MEM. 203 

; bat, in extracting it, it should not be taken between 
the flngen. In so doing, most of the poison will be pressed 
into the wound. It must be rubbed or scraped off by a 
quick motion of the finger-nail, so as to prevent any more 
of the poison of the sack from getting into the flesh. After 
the sting is removed, the utmost care should be taken not 
to irritate the wound by the tHightest rubbing. However 
intense the smarting, and the disposition to apply friction 
to the wound, it should never be doney for the moment that 
the blood is put into violent circulation, the poison is 
quickly diffused over a large part of the system, and severe 
pain and swelling may ensue. On the same principle, by 
severe friction, the bite of a mosquito, even after the lapse 
of several days, may be made to swell again. As most of 
the popular remedies are rvbbed tn, they are worse than 
nothing. 

When the operator is perspiring abundantly, the stings 
are less painful, as some of the poison exudes with the 
sweat. 

If the mouth is applied to the wound, unpleasant conse- 
quences may follow ; for, while the poison of snakes, affect- 
ing only the circulating system, may be swallowed with 
impunity, the poison of the bee acts with great power on 
the organs of digestion. Distressing headaches are often 
produced by it, as any one, who has been stung. Or has 
tasted the poison, very well knows. 

403. In our own experience, we have found cold water to 
be the best remedy for a bee-sting. The poison is quickly 
dissolved in it ; and the coldness of the water has also a 
powerful tendency to check inflammation. 

The leaves of plantain, crashed and applied to the 
wound, are a very good substitute, when water cannot at 
onoe be procured. Bevan recommends the use of spirits of 
hartshorn, and says that, in cases of severe stinging, its 
tntttmal use is also beneficial. In very serious oases, the 




S04 

ammonia may be taken, in qnantittea of firom ftf% lo twenfy 
drops, — ^for an adult, less for a diild, — in hot tea, with be»> 
efidal results. It oanses an inor«Med persplratioiit and 
neutralizes the effects of the poison. (*K7oaimientair« 
Thirapeutiques,'* Gubler, Paris, 1874.) 

404. It may be some comfort to norlcea to know tlist 
the poison will produce less and less efltel apon their 
Bystem. Old bee-keepers, like IDthridates, appear afanost 
to thrlTc upon poison itself. When we first became inter- 
ested in bees, a sting was quite a formidable thing, the pain 
being often Tery intense, and the wound swelling so ss 
sometimes to obstruct our sight At present, the pain is 
usually slight, and, if the sting is quickly extracted, no 
unpleasant consequences ensue, even if no remedies are 
used. Huish speaks of seeing the bald head of Bcmner, a 
celebrated practical Apiarist, coTcred with stings, which 
seemed to produce upon him no unpleasant effects. The 
BcT. Mr. Eleine advises beginners to allow themselTCS to 
be stung frequently, assuring them that, in two seasons, 
their system will become accustomed to the poison I 

An old English Apiarist advises a person who has been 
stung, to catch another bee as speedily as possible, and 
make it sting on the same spot. Even an enthusiastic dis- 
dple of Huber might hesitate to venture on such a aingnlfLT 
homoeopathic remedy ; but, as this Apiarist had stated, 
what we had verified in our own experience, that the oftener 
a person is stung the less he suffers from the venom, the 
writer determined to make trial of his prescription. Allow- 
ing a sting to remain until it had discharged all of its poison, 
he compelled another bee to insert its sting, as nearly as pos- 
sible, in the same spot. He used no remedies of any kind, 
and had the satisfaction, in his zeal for new discoveries, of 
suffering more from the pain and swelling than for years 
before. 

That the bee-keeper becomes inoculated with the poison 




BUM AM KZAim Or DSFKHBX. 205 

of the bee, and usuallj becomes proof against it, is no 
more to be doubted than the fact that yaccination is a 
preservatiTe against small-pox. The recent discoyeries of 
Pasteor, for the core of hydrophobia, are another oTidence 
ai llie efficiency of inoculation. 

Bbbs as Mbaks or Dbfsnss. 



40ft« **A smaU corsair, equipped with forty or fifty men, and 
haTlng on board some bees, purposely taken from a neighboring 
island, and confined in earthen hives (3*75), was pursued by a 
Toridsh galley. As the latter boarded her, the sailors threw the 
hives fh>m the masts down into the galley. The earthen hives 
broke into fragments and the bees dispersed all over the boat. 
The Turks who had looked on the small corsair with contempt, 
as an easy prey, did not expect so singular an attack. Finding 
themselves defenseless against the stings, they were so fright- 
ened, that the men of the corsair, who had provided themselves 
with masks and gloves, took possession of the galley, almost 
without resistance." 

^«Amurat, Emperor of Turkey, having besieged Alba, and 
made a breach in the walls, found the breach defended by bees, 
whose hives had been brought on the ruins. The Janissaries, 
the bravest militia of the Ottoman empire, refused to clear the 
obstacle.''— (Delia Bocca, 17000 




206 NATURAL swABMnva. 



CHAPTER VL 



NATURAL 8WARMINO. 



400. In the Spring, as soon as the combs of ahiye, 
well filled, can no longer accommodate its teeming popula- 
tion, the bees prepare for emigration, or in other words, for 
departing ^ith their queen, by building a number of royal- 
cells (104). These cells are begun about the time that 
the drones make their appearance in the open air ; and when 
the young queens arrive at maturity, the males are usually 
very numerous (186). 

The swarming of bees is one of the most beautiful sights 
in the whole compass of rural economy. Although those 
who use movable-comb hives prefer the artificial multiplica- 
tion of colonics, it being more profitable, all Apiarists 
delight in the pleasing excitement of natural swarming. 

** Up mounts the chief, and to the cheated eye 
Ten thousand shuttles dart along the sky; 
As swift through aether rise the rushing swarms. 
Gay dancing to the beam their sun-bright forms; 
And each thin form, still lingering on the sight, 
Trails, as it shoots, a line of silver light. 
High poisM on buoyant wing, the thoughtftil queen. 
In gaze attentive, views the varied scene. 
And soon her far-fetchM ken discerns below 
The light laburnum lift her pollshM brow. 
Wave her green leafy ringlets o'er the glade, 
And sooin to beckon to her friendly shade. 
Swift as the falcon's sweep, the monarch bends 
Her flight abrupt; the following host descends. 
Round the tine twig, like clustered grapes, they close 
In thickening wreaths, and court a short repose.** 

BVAKS. 



MATUBU. flVARUDra. 



OT. Bees sometimes Kbandon their hives very early in 
ing, or even late in Summer or Fall (264). Although 
ibtting the i^tpemiaoce of natural swarming, tbey leaye, 




e the popolation is bo crowded that tbey wish to 
m new colonies, but because it is either so small, or the 
*• w destitute of supplies, that tbey are driven to deeper- 




206 

sdoa. Seemmg to lunne a pi e .jr , nUn igit that thej nnisl 
perish if thej ataj, ingtead of siraitiiig the sore approftdi 
of fAmiae^ thej saHj oat to tee if tbej cannot better thdr 
condition. Sach desertions ahonld not be mistaken for 

natural swarming. 

408. The time, when new swarms may be expected, 
depends, of coarse, upon the dimate, the forwardness of the 
•eason, and the strengtii of the cc^onies. In oar Northern 
and Middle States, they seldom issae before the latter part 
of May ; and Jane may there be considered as the grest 
swarming month. In BrownsTiUe, Texas, on the lower Sio 
Grande, bees often swarm quite early in March. 

Swarming does not always take place in Spring, although 
this is the usual time for it. Swarms are likely to issue in 
any locality, whenever the hive is crowded for room, or 
nearly so. during a good and prolonged honey-harvest. In 
warm latitudes, it lasts for several months, owing to a con- 
tinuous flow of honey. Wherever there are two distinct 
honey crops (705), there are also two swarming seasons, 
especially along the low lands or river bottoms, where 
Fall pasturage is abundant. Swarms, hived during the fore- 
part of either of these honey seasons, are always the best; 
having a few weeks of honey crop before them, they have 
ample time to build comb (198), and fill it with honey and 
brood ; while swarms which are cast during the latter part 
>f either the clover or the Fall harvest, coming as they do, 
Just before a dearth of honey, are unable to build comb and 
raise brood, and easily perish, if left to themselves. Thus, 
a swarm harvested in August, in this latitude, at the open- 
ing of the Fall crop, stands better chances than one har- 
vested in July, at the close of the clover and basswood 
crop. 




PBIMABT 8WABM. 209 



FntST OB Prdcart Swarm. 

409. The first swarm is almost inyariably led off by the 
old queen, unless she has died from accident or disease, 
when it is accompanied by one of the young ones reared to 
supply her loss. There are no signs from which the Apia- 
rist can predict the certain issue of a first swarm. For 
years, we spent much time in the vain attempt to discover 
some infoUlible indications of first swarming; until facts 
convinced us that there can be no such indications. 

41 0. If the weather is unpleasant, or the blossoms yield 
an insufficient supply of honey, bees often change their 
minds, and refuse to swarm at all. If, in the swarming 
season, but few bees leave a strong hive, on a clear, calm, 
and warm day, when other colonies are busily at work, we 
may look with great confidence for a swarm, unless the 
weather prove suddenly unfavorable. 

If the weather is very sultry, a swarm will sometimes 
issue as early as seven o'clock in the morning ; but from 
ten, A. H., to two, p. M., is the usual time ; and the majority 
of swarms come off when the sun is within an hour of the 
meridian. Occasionally, a swarm ventures out as late as 
five, p. M. ; but an old queen is seldom guilty of such an 
indiscretion. 

411. We have repeatedly witnessed in our observing- 
hiyes (374) the whole process of swarming. On the day 
fixed for departure, the queen is very restless, and instead 
of depositing her eggs in the cells, roams over the combs, 
and communicates her agitation to the whole colony. The 
emigrating bees usually fill themselves with honey, just 
before their departure ; but in one instance, we saw them 
lay in their supplies more than two hours before they left. 
A short time before the swarm rises, a few bees may gener- 
ally be seen sporting in the air, with their heads turned 

14 



linrs to tts Uv«; md tttj oeeMfaMMllj tyinand Ml, 
M thou^ JMiwiift for tibt liwlMt eieiil to take fdaoa. 
At Img^ a TiolcBt agitaUMi eouMBCca in the bire; tfaa 
bcca appear afaaost fraktieY w Miliag anNmd in drelea ooa- 
ttanaJlf cnlaigmg. fike dioae Made bj a stone thrown into 
atm vafter, vatO, at laat, tiht whole Idre ia in a state of Um 
lAMUi t. and the hees^ nvhing impetnooslj to tte 
poor forth in one ateadj stream. Notabeeloohi 
belund, bot caidi poshes strai^t ahead, as though flying 
*^ior dear life/* or ozged on bj some inTisiUe power, ia 
its headlong career- 

412. Often» the qneen does not come ont until manj 
haTe left ; and she is sometimes so hesTf , from the nombflr 
of eggs in her ovaries, that she falls to the ground, inci^Mh 
ble of ri^ng with her colony into the air (40). The beet 
soon miss her. and a Terr interesting scene may now be 
witnessed. Diligent search is at once made for their lost 
mother ; the swarm scattering in all directions, so that the 
leaves of the adjoining trees and bushes are often covered 
almost as quickly with anxious explorers, as with drops of 
rain after a copious shower. If she cannot be found, thej 
commonly return to the old hive, in from five to fifteen min* 
utes. 

413. The ringing of bells and beating of kettles SQd 
frying-pans to cause swarms to settle, is probably not 
a whit more efficacious, than the hideous noises of some 
savage tribes, who. imagining that the sun, in an eclipse, 
has been swallowed by an enormous dragon, resort to such 
means to compel his snakeship to disgorge their favorite 
luminary. 

Many who have never practiced " tanging,** have never 
had a swarm leave without settling. StiU, as one of the 
*^ country sounds," and as a relic of the olden-times, eveo 
the most matter-of-fact bee-man can readily excuse the 
enthusiasm of that pleasant writer in the Landam Quarter^ 
BevieWf who discourses as follows : 




PRDCABT 8WABM. 211 

^ Some fine, warm morning in May or June, the whole atmos- 
ere seems alive with thousands of bees, whirling and buzzing, 
ming and repassing, wheeling about in rapid circles, like a 
rap of maddened bacchanals. Out runs the good housewife, 
th f5rying-pan and key — the orthodox instruments for nnging— 
1 neTer ceases her rough music, till the bees have settled. 
is custom, as old as the birth of Jupiter, is one of the most 
\mMlng and exciting of the countryman's life ; and there is an 
1 colored print of bee-ringing still occasionally met with on 
» iralls of a country-Inn, that has charms for us, and makes us 
ink of bright, sunny weather in the dreariest November day. 
hether. as Aristotle says, it affects them through pleasure or 
ir, or whether, indeed, they hear it at all, is still as uncertain as 
at philosopher left it ; but we can wish no better luck to every 
e-master that neglects the tradition, than that he may lose 
ery swarm for which he omits to raise this time-honored cou- 
rt." 

^1^. The queen sometimes alights first, and sometimes 
»:iis the cluster after it has begun to form. The bees do 
[>t usually settle, unless she is with them ; and when they 
0, and then disperse, it is frequently the case that, after 
rst rising with them, she has fallen, from weakness, into 
>me spot where she is unnoticed by the bees. 
Perceiving a hive in the act of swarming, the writer on 
wo occasions, contracted the entrance, to secure the queen 
hen she should make her appeaiirance. In each case, at 
iast one-third of the bees came out before she joined them. 
iB soon as the swarm ceased searching for her, and were 
etnming to the parent-hive, he placed her, with her wings 
lipped, on a limb of a small evergreen tree, when she 
rawled to the very top of the limb, as if for the express 
urpose of making herself as conspicuous as possible. The 
ew t>ees, that first noticed her, instead of alightin*^, darted 
apidly to their companions ; in a few seconds, the whole 
olonj was apprised of her presence, and fiying in a dense 
load, began quietly to cluster around her. Bees, when on 
he wing, intercommunicate with such surprising rapidity, 
hat telegraphic signals are scarcely more instantaneous. 




tit 



^15. Thftt bees iend Mt MPiili to 
ftdmito of DO sexloos qnMtion Swanas ham 
directly to their new home. In aa air-fiae ffig^ fnaa Al 
plflce where tliejr clustered alter afig^itiag. Nowttitfi^ 
tUion of flight to aa nnkaown home, would plainly be in* 
poarible, if some of their number, by pievioaa unilofsfina, 
were not competent to act as guides to tiie leak. The sf^ 
of bees for distant ol^ects is so wonderfolly aeote, Ihrti 
after rising to a sufficient deration, tliey ean aaSt atlki 
distance of several miles, any prominent dtfaeia ia Iki 
▼idnity of their intended abode. (18-14.) 

Whether bees send oat seoats ft^^brt or afUr s n aiml^ 
may admit of more question, bat these sconta are nsoil^ 
absent for an hour or more, after the alighting of the swttn. 

It is probable that most of the scouts are sent daring Ikl 
alighting ; otherwise how could they know where the swam 
alighted, so as to come back to it? 

The necessity for scouts or explorers seems to be an- 
questionable, unless we admit that bees have the facolty of 
flying in an ^^air line^** to a hollow tree, which they han 
never seen, and which may be the only one among thoa»> 
andH where they can find a suitable abode. 

These views are confirmed by the repeated instances is 
which a few bees have been noticed inquisitively prjing 
into a hole in a hollow tree, or the cornice of a building, and 
have, before long, been followed by a whole colony. 

About fifty yards from our home Apiary, there was t 
largo hollow oak tree, which we 'called "The Sqnirrd'i 
Oak," because every season it sheltered a family of these 
pretty animals. One Summer we noticed for several daji 
sonic bees flying, in and out of a hole, in one of its largest 
limbs. It seemed to us that they were cleaning the hollow, 
and we supposed that a swarm had taken possession of it 
A change in the weather having taken place, the swarming 
preparations were discontinued, and we never again notioed 




afUaiABT SWARM. 218 

bees around the limb. The tree was cut down the follow- 
Winter, and no trace of comb was found in the hollow. 
)roTed conclusively, that the bees we had seen, were 
its in search of a lodging. 

:1C The swarm sometimes remains until the next day, 
sre bees have clustered in leaving the hive, and instances 
not unfrequent of a more protracted delay. 
f the weather is hot when they first cluster, and the sun 
les directly upon them, they will often leave before they 
e found a suitable habitation. Sometimes the queen of 
^^ting bees, being heavy with eggs, and unaccus- 
led to fly, is compelled to alight, before she can reach 
Ir intended home. Queens, under such circumstances, 
occasionally unwilling to take wing again, and the poor 
s sometimes attempt to lay the foundations of their col- 
^ on fence-rails, hay-stacks, or other unsuitable places. 
ir. Wagner once knew a swarm of bees to lodge under 
lowermost limb of an isolated oak-tree, in a corn-field. 
iras not discovered until the corn was harvested, in Sep- 
iber. Those who found it, mistook it for a recent swarm, 
I in brushing it down to hive it, broke off three pieces ot 
nb, each about eight inches square. Mr. Henry M. Zol- 
coffer, of Philadelphia, informed us that be knew a swarm 
■etUe on a willow-tree in that city, in a lot owned by the 
nnsylyania Hospital; it remained there for some time, 
1 the boys pelted it with stones, to get possession of its 
nb and honey. 

[f the Apiary is located in the woods, and the bees are 
3wed to swarm, they may settle on high trees, and the 
^-master, unless some special precautions are used, will 
e much time in hiving his swarms. 

il7. Having noticed that swarming bees will almost 
rays alight wherever they see others clustered, we 
md that they can be determined to some selected spot 
an old blmokhatfOreven a mullen-stalk, which, whencoU 



S14 

ored black, cmn hsrdlj oialied, aft m dfatwumi, tas 

a dnateriiig awarm. A 1 woolan atockiiig or piaet cl 

doth, iaatened to a ahadj lia or to a pole, in plida rij^ 
of the hives, and where the ea can be moat convenfaBftl^ 
hiyed, would answer aa od a Hupoae. Swarma are aol 
only attracted by the bee-uke cokr of anch ol^ecCa, but ait 
more readily induced to alight upon them, if they fdniA 
fomething to which they can eaaOy ding, the better to sap* 
port their grape-like cluatera. 

Still better than the above, a frame of dry comb, aa darit 
as possible, will often attract the beea and caoae tiiem ta 
cluster. None of these devices however are infdiible ; heaet 
the advisability of locating an Apiary among low trees or 
bushes, or in an orchard, if possible. 

When no trees or bushes are to be found, and no settfing 1 
place has been provided, they will settle wherever the queea 
may happen to alight, on a grape-vine, on weeds, on the 
ground, on the corner of a building, etc. 

418. It will inspire the inexperienced Apiarist with mors 
confidence, to remember that almost all the bees in a swarm, 
are in a very peaceable mood, having filled themselves with 
honey before leaving the parent-stock (380). Yet then 
are, in nearly every swarm, a few bees that have dther 
joined from a neighboring hive, or have not filled their 
honey-sack completely before leaving. These beea are Habla 
to get SLurrry, when the swarm is harvested. So, if the A|^ 
arist is timid, or suffers severely from the sting of a bee, hs 
should, by all moans, furnish himself with the protection of 
a bcc-drcss (380). The use of a amoker (882), ia also 
advisable, both in preventing the bees from stinging, and in 
helping to drive them into the hive; but itmuat not boused 
plentifully, as it might cause the bees to abacond, or to 
return to the clustering spot. 

419. A new swarm should be hived a$ warn OB Uk€b6t» ham 
quietly clustered around their queen; atthongii there ia ao 




PBDCABT 8WABM. 215 

necessity for the headlong haste practiced by some, which 
increases their liability to be stung. Those who show so 
little self-possession, must not be surprised, if they are stung 
by the bees of other hives ; which, instead of being gorged 
with honey, are on the alert, and very naturally mistake the 
object of such excited demonstrations. The fact that the 
bees have clustered, makes it almost certain, that, unless 
the weather is very hot, or they are exposed to the burning 
heat of the sun, they vrUl not leave. for at least one or two 
hours. All convenient dispatch, however, should be used in 
hiving a swarm, lest the scouts have time to return, — which 
will entice them to go,— -or lest other colonies issue, and 
attempt to add themselves to it. 

420. Should you give the scouts time to return, you would 
first see a few bees flying around the cluster. Slowly their 
number would increase, till the whole swarm took wing, and 
it would be almost useless to try to stop it, or to follow it. 
When a swarm thus takes flight, it knows no bounds. 
Hedges, fences, woods, walls, ditches, rivers, are barriers 
only to the breathless and disappointed owner. The only 
thing that we ever have known to stop a departing swarm 
is throwing water among them. Flashing the sun's rays on 
them by the use of a looking-glass is advised by some. We 
tried it, but did not succeed in a single instance. 

421. As a matter of course, we suppose that the Apia- 
rist has an empty hive in readiness, clean and cool. Bees, 
when they swarm, being unnaturally heated, often refuse to 
enter hives that have been standing in the sun, or at best 
are slow in taking possession of them. The temperature of 
the parent-stock, at the moment of swarming, rises very 
suddenly, and many bees are often so drenched with per- 
spiration, that they cannot take wing to join the emigrating 
colony. To attempt to make swarming bees enter a heated 
hive in a blazing sun, is, therefore, as irrational as it would 
be to force a panting crowd of human beings into the suflo' 




Aparr. the bccB W71 



^ m^ftr wmm ^iMMd im^B 



ao. voold have b««a oaodt better fcr as tlwa tba f titi l 
Kmo^Eseai : bat fortb^ nflMtkn hi> ■bown oa that, « 

ifce L-untra.-j. it w>[J,i hai* b«e« » (mittal soarca of dl»- 
pous smoag D<l^iibonaj; bce-ksepen ; and that in thia, ■ 
in M mvir other things, the instiBcts of tbe boaey>bee hirs 
b«ea devised «ich ipet.'tal reference to the velfu* of man. 

- The bee-keepen of Greece med to attnct tlie i w fcru M lata 
tbeLr hlTes t>j nhbi^g the eatranee and tbe inilde of their empty 
hlTti «;£h bees-wu uid propoU*. Bat neh praetiee vaa ofles 
the eAUit; o! cttawm beivccn neighbon, fbr their bees did agt 
inquire iS.iat th* owc^Khip of tbe hire Mlected."— (Delia Bofr 
ea. i:».) 

But whea a few combs oolj are given to a swsnn, as tbe 
queeo will oot follow the builders (SS9), too much drone 
comb (224) will be built. Then, in hiring a swans, the 
Apiarist had better dispense with giring any, anlcsi he fllli 
the bite (234). 

Drone-combs (224) thould never be put ttp te /nmei, ot 
the bees may follow the pattern, and bnild eomb suited* 
only for breeding a horde of useless consnnwrs. 

423. Frsmea eontainiog worker combs, from ocdcmlM 
that have died in the prerioos Winter ai« Tsry good, if the 
comb is dry and clean. Combs of boasy will do if tfcs 



PRIMABT SWARM. 217 

swarm is hived on a propitious day, otherwise they will at- 
tract robbers (004) and the presence of the latter will 
prevent the swarm from entering the hive. For this reason, 
combs containing honey should not be given to the swarm 
until the following evening. 

424. In the absence of combs or comb-foundation, 
(674) the triangular comb-guide will greatly help to se- 
cure straight combs, in the frames, but it cannot be depend- 
ed upon, in every case. Comb-foundation in full sheets is 
■o far superior, and is now in such general use, that the 
triangular comb-guide (319) is discarded by most Apiarists. 
By the use of comb-foundation, crooked combs, — the bane 
of the Apiary — are no longer found, and every comb hangs 
in its frame, as straight as a board. 

425. It has been held, of late, by some writers, that 
the use of empty combs, or comb-foundation, was detri- 
mental, in hiving natural swarms, because the bees filled the 
combs given them, with honey, and left but little room for 
the queen to lay. This actually takes place in extraordi- 
nary seasons and locations, but in the greater number of 
instances, the empty combs help the colony greatl}, and, 
in bad seasons, a hive-full of empty combs, furnished to a 
•warm, is equivalent to saving it from starvation, since the 
combs of a hive cost the bees almost as much honey as is 
necessary for them to winter on (223). Should they fill 
the combs nearly full of honey, this honey will be partly 
used up during the dearth which usually comes after the 
honey harvest, and will serve in rearing brood to 
strengthen the hive before Winter. Better be safe than sorry. 

426. It is very important that the frames should hang 
true in the hive, and at the proper distance apart (31 0). 
If the hive has to be removed, they should be previously 
fastened in their places, by the use of small wire nails only 
partly driven, and removed later. The cloth (352) and 
mat (858) should be carefully placed over th« frames, or 



tM UAXUBAMs WW. 



the Bwaim would build and nte brood In Vbm Vippm ifavy, 
Intended onlj for rarplos bonej. 

427. Wben tbe biye la tlnii preparad and placed ia t 
convenient poaition, the entrance ahonld be opened aa vidi 
aa possible. If it has a movable-bottoni-board, itahonldbe 
raiaed from it in front (844), and the entranoe-blocka is- 
aerted onder ita edgea, ao aa to kanre a laiger paaaage for 
the swarm, that thebeeamaygetlnajiaoon aapoaaible;aBd 
a weU-atretched sheet, or ooarae doth, ahonld be aecorefy 
faatened to the alighting-board, to keqp them from beeon- 
ing separated, or soiled bj dirt; for, If aeparated, they aia 
a long time in entering ; and a bee ooreied with dnat or 
dirt is yerjr apt to perish. Bees are mnch obatmded ia 
their travel, by any comer ^ or great inequality of anrface; 
and if the sheet is not smoothly stretched, they are often so 
confused, that it takes them a long time to find the entrance 
to the hive. 

428. If the bees have alighted on a small limb, which 
can be cut with sharp pruning-shears, without jarring the 
swarm, or damaging the value of the tree, they may be gently 
carried on it to the hiving-sheet, in front of their new home. 
If they seem at all reluctant to enter it, gently scoop up a 
few of them with a large spoon, or a leafy twig, or 
even with the fingers (72), and shake them close to ita en- 
trance. As they go in with fanning wings, they will raise 
a peculiar note, which communicates to their companioDS 
the joyful news that they have found a home ; and in s 
short time, the whole swarm will enter, without injury to s 
single bee. 

Wlien bees are once shaken down on the aheet, they are 
quite unwilling to take wing again ; for, being loaded with 
honey, they desire, like heavily-armed ' troopa, to march 
alowly and sedately to their place of encampment. 

429. When they alight on a high limb, which cannot be 
reached, or when the limb is too valuable to be aaorifioed, 



IBM. 219 

the awann can be hired by using a light box or swann-aack, 

^at the end of a pole of proper length. 
Thin Bwarm sack (fig. 87) is made of 
atrong musUn, about two feet deep, 
fastened arouod a wire hoop, about 
one foot in diameter, and is similar 
to a butterfly net. A piece of braid, 
Mf- "• is sewed at the bottom, inside and 

IWABM-4A0K. outside, to help in emptying it. 

Wben the sack is placed under the swarm, the bees are sud- 
denly shaken into it by a single tap on the limb. Hold the 
sack firmly, aa the sudden weight will draw it down in a 
most unexpected manner. To prevent the bees from 
escaping, hold the handle perpendicularly, as this will close 
the opening of the bag instantly. 

430. In bringing it to the hive, and turning it inside 
out, by holding the braid with the fingers, some care must 
be exercised, as this unceremonious imprisoning of the bees 
is apt to cause some to be angry. A little smoke (382) 
shoold be used, or a few seconds should be allowed to 
elapse before they are gently liberated in front of the liivo. 
481. The sack Is preferable to a box or n basket, as the 
latter do not close readily, and a number of the bees arc 
^>t to fly back to tfae clustering spot, before they are emp- 
tied in front of their intended abode. 

If ttiia happens, the process of hiving must be repeated, 
onless the queen has been secured, wbeu tliey will quiukly 
form a line of commnuication with those on the sheet. If 
the queen has not been secured, the bees will either refuse 
to enter the hive, or will speedily come out" and take win^, 

• It USmliUki toiDppow UiM ■ awum irUl not enter s hlrr nnlcgs ths 
^DMD !■ wttbtbem. If MDia iturt for it, tbe ollicn wiU spgedily foUow, aU 
MBUlnS M take It tOT fnsnted that tht qnccn IB lOTiK'irbcn! unoagtbem. 
Btvi aftsr thvj bBsln to diajwrfw In Bi^Arch of bpr» tboy may often be Indnced 
tntaton, by pomlDK out a rrtth lot of bws. which, bj Bntering tbs biie iritli 
kiataf WtBgi, ta*aa th* otban to b«Ll>Ta tbat tbs qneaa ka oomini at l«al. 




220 



to j<Hn her agmin* This hjippens oftenest with ftfter-cwams, 
whose Toang qoeens. instead of ezhihiting the grmii^ al aa 
did matron, are ^t to be friskiiig in the air. 

When the swsrm is dnstered so high that the sack can- 
not be raised to it on a pole, it may be carried up to the 
closter, and the bee-keeper, after shaking the bees into it, 
may gently lower it, by a string, to an assistant below. 

432. When a colony alights on the tronk of a tree, or 
on anything from which the bees cannot easily be gathered 
in a basket, or in the sack, fasten a leafy boogh, or a comb 
over them, and with a little smoke, compel them to ascend 
it. If the place is inaccessible, they will enter a well-shad- 
ed basket, inverted, and elevated jnst mbove the clustered 
mass. We once hived a neighbor's swarm, which settled 
in a thicket, on the iDaccessible body of a tree, by throw- 
ing water upon the bees, so as to compel them gradually 
to ascend the tree, and enter an elevated box. If proper 
alighting places are not furnished, the trouble of hiving a 
swarm will often be greater than its value. 

433. If the swarm is noticed, when it begins to issue 
from the parent hive, the practical bee-keeper often har- 
vests it without trouble, by catching the queen (lOO). 
Provided with a queen cage (530), he watches for her exit, 
and as she comes out, he seizes her and places her in the 
cage. He then removes the old hive, and places the new 
one, ready f«>r the swarm, on its stand, with the caged 
queen on the platform. The swarm may alight, but aa 
soon as the bees notice their loss, they will return, and will 
cluster around her; and the hiving of the swarm takes but 
a few minutes. In a circumstance of this kind, it is well to 
return the parent colony to its stand, after the swarm is 
hived, for, if entirely removed, it would lose all the bees 
that were in the field, when the swarm left, and would be 
too much weakened. 

434. To prevent primary swarms from escaping, some 




PBIMABT 8WABM. 221 

bee-keepers clip one of the wings of their queens previoo* 
to the swarming season.* 

As an old queen leaves the hive only with a new swarm 
the loss of her wings in no way interferes with her usefulness 
or the attachment of the bees. If, in spite of her inability 
to fly, she is bent on emigrating, though she has a ^^will," 
she can find '^no way," but helplessly falls to the ground, 
instead of gaily mounting into the air. If the bees find 
her, they cluster around her, and may be easily secured by 
the Apiarist ; if she is not found, they return to the parent- 
stock, to await the maturity of the young queens. 

This method will do, provided the Apiary ground is bare, 
so that the queen rims no risk of getting lost in the grass. 
We abandoned it, after having tried it, for several years, 
but we know of some owners of large Apiaries who are suc- 
cessful with it. We notice that Mr. Heddon, in his inter- 
esting work, ''Success in Bee-Culture," is of our opimon 
on this subject. 

435. Where a great many colonies are kept, several 
swarms may issue at the same time, and unite in a single 
cluster. 

If two swarms cluster together, they may be advanta- 
geonsly kept together, if abundant room for storing surplus 
honey can be given them. Large quantities of honey are 
generally obtained from such colonies, if they issue early, 
ind the season is favorable. 

'' When more than two swarms have clustered together, it is 
better to divide them. Let us suppose that three have united. 
After putting three hives near each other, so as to form a trian- 
gle, the sack (439) or box, in which the bees have been captured, 

• 

* TixgU apeAki of clipping the wings of qnecna, to preyent them from escap- 
ing with a Bwarm. Kr. Langstroth bad doviRod a way of doing this, so as to 
dntgnate the age of the gueenM.-^Wlih a pair of scineors, let the wings, on one 
ddt, of a young queen be eazefnUy cut off: when the hivea are examined next 
year, let one of her two lenudnlng winge be removed, and the laat one the 
thifdyetf. 




S2S VATUBAL fWABMOm. 

It shaken <m a eloih Just between the tlixee. IfmoeloftliebeM 
seem to go into the uune hivei this ehoold be xemoTed a IltUi 
tether. Great care ahonld be ezeroiaed to And the qneenii and 
to dinet one towards eaeh hive. Bnttf onljone qiieenisiesB, 
it la better to eage (a86) her tU the greater ]Mrt of tiie tesi 
have entered. Then^ as soon as the bees of one of the hifsi 
show signs of nneasiness* and seem readjr to Join the bees In the 
others^ release the qneen, and direct her towards this qoeentosi 
hiTb and aU will be weU.»— (Hamet, «*0oiir8 d*Apfeiilta%** 
Paris, 1808.) 

486. If two queens haye entered the same hiro, tfaqr 
can often be found on its bottom-board, eadi In a baU 
(588) of angry bees, strangers to them. Open the ball, 
and give one of the queens to the queenlesahivei if the bees 
have not already deserted it. When queens haye been 
*' balled" by mixed swarms, it is well to keep them caged, 
in the hive, for a few hours, or till the beea have quieted. 
The quantity of bees in each hive can be equalized, by 
shaking a few from the strongest in front of the weakest 
(72). 

487. Dr. Scadamore, an English physician, who has 
written a tract on the Formation of Artificial Swarma, 
says that he once knew as '^many as ten swarms go forth at 
once, and settle and mingle together, forming, literally, a 
monster meeting." There are instances recorded of a atiQ 
larger number having clustered together. A venerable 
clergyman in Western Massachusetts, told ua that in the 
Apiary of one of his parishioners, five swarma once clna- 
tered together. As he had no hive which would hold them, 
they were put into a large box, roughly nailed together. 
When taken ap in the Fall, it was evident that the five 
swarms had lived together as independent colonies. Four 
had begun their work, each near a comer of the box, and 
the fifth in the middle ; and there was a distinct interval 
separating the works of the different colonies. In Cot- 
ton's *' My Bee Book,'* is a cut Illustrating a simflar 



PRIMABT SWARM. 223 

ration of two colonies in one hive. By hiving, in a large 
box, swarms which have settled together, and leaving them 
undisturbed till the following morning, they would some- 
times be found in separate clusters, and might easily be put 
into different hives. 

If the Apiarist fears that another swarm will issue, to 
unite with the one he is hiving, he may cover the latter from 
the sight of other swarms, with a sheet. 

438. If, while hiving a swarm, he wishes to secure the 
queen, the bees should be shaken from the hiving-basket, a 
foot or more from the hive, when a quick eye will generally 
see her as she passes over the sheet. If the bees are reluc- 
tant to go in, a few must be directed to the entrance, and 
eare be taken to brush them back, when they press forward 
in such dense masses that the queen is likely to enter unob- 
served. An experienced eye readily detects her peculiar 
color and form (lOO). 

It Is interesting to witness how speedily a queen passes- 
into the hive, as soon as she recognizes the joyful note (76> 
announcing that her colony has found a home. She quickly 
follows in the direction of the moving mass, and her long 
legs enable her easily to outstrip, in the race for possession, 
all who attempt to follow her. Other bees linger around 
the entrance, or fly into the air, or collect in listless knots 
on the sheet ; but a fertile mother, with an air of conscious 
importance, marches straight forward, and looking neither 
to the right hand nor to the left, glides into the hive with* 
the same dispatchful haste that characterizes a bee retura> 
Ing fnlly laden from the nectar- bearing fields. 

4dO. Swarms sometimes come off when no suitable hives 
are in readiness to receive them. In such an emergency, 
hive them in any old box, cask, or measure, and place 
them, with suitable protection against the sun, where their 
new hive la to stand ; when this is ready, they may, by a 
quick. Jerking motloni be easily shaken out before it, on a 
hlTing-sheet. 



22i ■▲TinuL twAXMnm* 

Penomi nnacc et, may tbink tliat we i|Mtk 

About '* scooping I up,*' d "ihaUiig tfam out," 
almost as cool j as tboi dirocttons to ui ess ui s ss 

many bushels of w ; ience will aooo ooofiiios 

them, that the ease wi which tl ey may be managed (7S) 
is not at all exaggerated. 

^40. Bees which swann early In the day will geaecallj 
begin to range the fields in afew boors after they are Uied, 
or even in a few minutes, if they have empty comb; and 
the fewest bees will be lost when the hiye is removed to ill 
permanent stand, as soon as the bees haye entered it. If II 
is desirable, for any reason, to remoTC the hiTC before sU 
the bees have gone in, the sheet, on which the bees are 
iying, may be so folded that the colony can be easilj 
carried to their new stand, where the beeu may enter at 
their leisure. 

While the hive shoald be set so as to incline slightly frc»n 
rear to front (328), to shed the rain, there ought not to be 
the least pitch from aide to side^ or it will prevent the frames 
from hanging plumb, and compel the bees to build crooked 
combs. 

441. If several rainy days, or a dearth of honey, should 
•occur immediately after the hiving of bees, it is well to 
feed (000) them a little to keep them from starving, till 
there is honey iu the blossoms. 

442. The Apiarist has already been informed of the 
importance of securing straight worker combs for his hives 
<318). To a stock-hive, such combs are like cash capital 
to a business man ; and so long as they are fit for use, they 
should never be destroyed. 

Mr. S. Wagner had a colony over 21 years old, whose 
young bees ap])cared to be as large as any others in his 
Apiary. Mr. J. F. Racine, an old settler of Wallen, Indi- 
ana, lost a colony in the Winter of 1884-5 which he had 
had ever since 1855, witliout changing the combe. He con- 
sidered it one of the best in his Apiary. 




PRIMABT SWASM. 22d 

Those who have plenty of good worker-comb, will an 
questionably find it to their advantage to user it in the place 
of comb-foundation (674) or artificial guides. Those who 
use the guides (319), should examine a swarm two or 
three days after it is hived, when, by a little management, 
any irregularities in their combs may be easily corrected. 
Some combs may need a little compression, to bring them 
into their proper positions, and others may even require to 
be cut oat, and fastened as^ guides in other frames ; but no 
pains should be spared to see that they are all right, before 
the work has gone so far as to make it laborious to remedy 
any defects. If a swarm is small, it ought to be confined, by 
a movable partition (349), to such a space in the hive as 
it can occupy with comb^-as well for its encouragement, as 
to economize its animal heat. Varro, who flourished before 
the Christian Era, says (Liber III, Cap. xviii), that bees 
become dispirited, when placed in hives that are too large. 



PrIHART SwABM with ▲ YOUNQ QUESN. 



443. We have already stated (157) that queens die of 
old age, when about four years old. If the preparations for 
queen rearing (489) are begun duriug the swarming sea- 
son, from this cause, or by her death through accident, or 
because she has been removed by the Apiarist, it very 
often happens that bees prevent the first hatched queen 
from destroying her rivals (112), an<l the result is that a 
swarm leaves the hive with her. These T>riinarv swarms with 
young queens, are cast as unexpectedly, and may be as 
strong as those that are accompanied by the old queen. 
They have that in common with secondary swarms, that 
they behave like them, both in their exit and afterwards. 
16 



t26 UMXVnAh fWiJOODM. 



Sboohdjjkt oe Am»-Svr 



444. Halving described the method ecmmooij p nrm ed 
for hiying a new swarm, we return to the parent-colo^j fram 
which they emigrated. 

From the immense number which have abandoned it, «t 
should naturaUy infer tliat it must be nearly depopulated. To 
those who limited the fertility of flie queen to four hundred 
eggs "a day, the rapid replenishing of a hive, after swaim^ 
ihg, must haye been inexplicable ; but to those who hait 
seen her lay from one to four thousand eggs a day, it is M 
mystery at all (40). Enough bees remain to cany on the 
domestic operations of the Uve ; and as the old queen de» 
parts only when there is a teeming population, and when 
thousands of young are daily hatching, and tens of thou- 
sands rapidly maturing, the hive, in a short time, is almost as 
populous as it was before swarming. 

Those who suppose that the new colony consists wholly 
of young bees, forced to emigrate by the older ones, if they 
closely examine a new swarm, will find that while some 
have the ragged wings of age, others are so young as to be 
barely ahle to fly. 

After the tumult of swarming is over, not a bee that did 
not participate in it, attempts to join the new colony, and 
not one that did, seeks to return. What determines some 
to go, and others to stay, we have no certain means of 
knowing. How wonderful must be the impression made 
upon an insect, to cause it in a few minutes so completely 
to lose its strong affection for the old home, that when 
established in a hive only a few feet distant, it pays not the 
slightest attention to its former abode I 

445. It has already been stated that, if the weather is 
favorable, the old queen usually leaves near the time that 
the young queens are sealed over to be changed into 




SBCOKDABT 8WABM8. 227 

njmphs. In about a week, one of them hatches ; and the 
question mnst be decided whether or not, any more colo- 
nies shall be formed that season. If the hive is well filled 
with bees, and the season is in all respects promising, it is 
generally decided in the afiArmatiye ; although, under such 
circumstances, some very strong colonies refuse to swarm 
more than once. 

If the bees of the parent-colony decide to prevent the first 
hatched queen from killing the others, a strong guard is 
kept oyer their cells, and as often as she approaches them 
with murderous intent, she is bitten, or given to understaud 
by other most uncourticr-like demonstrations, that even a 
queen cannot, in all things, do just as she pleases. 

440. About a week after first swarming, should the 
Apiarist place his ear against the hive, in the morning or 
evening, when the bees are still, if the queens are ^^pipincr/' 
he will readily recognize their peculiar sounds (115). The 
young queens are all mature, at the latest, in sixteen days 
from the departure of the first swarm, even if it left as 
soon as the royal cells were begun. 

The second swarm usually issues on the first or second 
day after piping is heard ; though the bees sometimes delay 
coming out until the fifth day, in consequence of an unfa- 
vorable state of the weather. Occasionally, the weather is 
io very unfavorable, that they permit the oldest queen 
to kill the others, and refuse to swarm again. This is a 
rare occurrence, as young queens are not so particular 
about the weather as old ones, and sometimes venture out, 
not merely when it is cloudy, but when rain is falling. On 
this account, if a very close watch is not kept, they are 
often lost. As piping ordinarily commences abi^iit a week 
after first-swarming, the second swarm usually issues eight 
or nine days after the first ; although it has been known to 
issue as early as the third, and as late as the seventeenth ; 
bat inch cases are very rare. 



228 NATURAL SWABMINO. 

447. It frequently happens, in the agitation of 
ing, that the usual guard over the queen-cells is withdrawii 
and several hatch at the same time, and accompany the oot» 
ony ; in which case the bees often alight in two or mon 
separate clusters. In our observing-hives, we have repeit^ 
edly seen young queens thrust out their tongues from i 
hole in their cell, to be fed by the bees. If allowed to iasni 
at wiU, they are pale and weak, like other young bees, and 
for some time unable to fly ; but if confined the usual tint, 
they come forth fully colored, and ready for all emergiea- 
cies. We have seen them issue in this state, while tkB 
excitement caused by removing the combs from a hlTe, iMi 
driven the guard from their cells. 

The foUowiug remarkable instance came under our obeo^ 
vation, iu Matainoras, Mexico : A second swarm deserting 
its abode the second day after being hived, settled upon • 
tree. On examining the abandoned hive, Jive young queeni 
were found lying dead on its bottom-board. The swann 
was returned, and, the next morning, two more dead queeni 
were found. As the colony afterwards prospered, eight 
queens, at least, must have left the parent-colony in adngls 
swarm ! 

Young queens, whose ovaries are not burdened with eg^ 
are much quicker on the wing than old ones, and frequently 
fly much farther fiom the parent-stock before they alight 

44:7 {bis). The bee-keepers of old, who were not ac- 
quainted witli the habits of bees, noticing that primary- 
swarms were ni(»re populous than after-swarms, used to 
brimstone (270) the old colony which bad swarmed, and 
its after-swtirin, considering the first swarm as the best of 
the three; but this apparent superiority was often of short 
duration, for the first swarm is nearly always accompanied 
by the old queen. W»- know better now, since we consider 
the age of the queen as one of the qualities of a colony. 

448. After-swarms are much more prone to abscond or 




SECOtlDABT SWABMS. 229 

RTe, after biviDg, than primuy-swarms. It is probably 
wing to the fact that the jonng queen has to go out for 
a bridal trip (121), and the bees aometimeB leave with 
IT. A comb of unsealed brood (106) given them will 
mally prevent this (100). An abscooding swarm often 
KTes without settling. 

4t40- After the departure of the second swarm, the oldest 
nudniiig queen leaves her cell ; and it another swaim ia 
I come forth, piping will still be beard ; and so before the 
■oe of each swarm after the flret. It will sometimes be 
■ard tor a short time after the issue of the second swarm, 
reii when the bees do not intend to i^warm again. The third 
■rami usually leaves the hive on the second or tliird dtiy 
fter the second awann, and the others, at intervals of 
bout a day. We once had five swarms from one stock, 
■ lass than two weeks. In warm latitudes, more than 
wloe this number of awarma have been known to issue, in 
■M seaBOo, from a single stock. 

After-swarma, or casts — these names are given to alt 
iwarma after the first — aerioualy reduce the strength of the 
larent-stock ; since by the time they issue, uenrly all the 
>rood left by the old queen has hatched, and no mor<' o'lga 
laa be laid until all awarming is over. If, after swarming, 
he weather suddenly becomes chilly, and the hive is thin, 
IT the Apiarist continues the ventilation which was needed 
Mily for a crowded colony, the remaining bees being uiiublc 
io maintain the requisite heat, great numbers of the brood 
■ay. perish. 

PRETERTtON Or NaTUBAL SwABMINO. 



400. The prevention of natural swarming, in the pres- 
entatateof bee-keeping, is an important item, for several 



latf Bee-keeping has bo spread in the last levr y«uft, \^mX 




230 MATCOAI. SWAKIOirO. 

many bee-keepers are poaseaaors of aa many coloniw m 
tbey desire to keep. Host Apiarists, especi&lly fanneis, 
keep bees only for tbe honey, and as it ia imposuble to 
produce both an increase of stock, and a large yield of 
honey in average seasons, they prefer tbe production of 
honey to that of swarms. 

2nd, Another objectioD to natural swarming arises from 
the disheartening fact, that bees are liable to swarm lO 
often, as to destroy the value of both the parent-stock, 
and its after-awarms. EzperieDced bee-keepera obTiate 
this difficulty, by making one good colony out of two second 
swarms, and returning to the parent-stock all swarma after 
the second, and even this if the season is far adraiiced. 
Such operations often consume more time than they art 
worth. 

3d, The bees may be located in a town, near a pub- 
lic thoroughfare where people pass constantly, and acd- 
dcuts may take place; or perhaps near the woods when 
the sn' arm would cluster on such high Lmbs that it would 
be dillicult or impossible to hive them. 

4lk. It ia very troublesome to have to watch the beea (or 
weiks, or to liave them swarm at unexp>ected or unwelconie 
liiiif>, wIhu the family is away, or at dinner, or while th« 
onmr is engaged wiih his business, for many bee-keepen 
arc also lanyers, doi-lors or merchants, occupied in daily 
labors, wliii'li rci]iiire a dcnnite part of their time. The far- 
mer may be iiitorniptcd in the business of hay-making, by 
till' iry tliat liis lict's arc swarming; and by the time he bw 
liivcd tlioiii, |i(Tba|is a slion-cr comes up, and his hay Is io- 
jiinil mure tliati the swarm is worlh. Thus the keeping ot 
a few bees, inslcud of beiti|;r a. source of profit, may prov* 
an e\]>(.'risivo luxury; while in a large Apiary, tbe embv- 
rassrnents are uftou soriiiiisly increased. If, after a succea- 
eion of ilays unfavorable for swarming, the weather becoma 
plea^aut, it often happens that several awanns rise at once. 




PBKTEMTIOK or HATDBAL BWABKIHO. 231 

uid cloBter together ; and not anfreqnently, id the ooise and 
eonfoMOD, other swutdb fly otf, and are lost. We have 
seen the bee-master, under such circumstaucea, so perplexed 
and exhausted as to be almost ready to wish he had never 
•een a bee. 

4fil. Hr. J. F. Bacine, of Wallen, Allen Co., Indiana, 
had 505 natural awarma from 165 colonies in the summer of 
1883. Sixtj-one swarms came out on the 3d of July. We 
will let him tell the story in his own way : 

" In tbe morning, as soon as the watchword had been given for 
the first swann, there was no rest. Primary, eecoodary, and 
aTter-Bwarms, all passed under the same limb of the same tree. 
The bees were no Moner shaken In a basket, and emptied In front 
of a hive, than there was another closter gathered, In the same 
•pot. Some swarms had no queen, while others had 3, 4, and 
even S of them. Some were young queens, some were old queens. 
When we could find a queen, we caged her (336) to preserve 
her from being balled (SSS). The sixtj-one swarms were hived 
In 30 hlve«, and surplus cases were given them at oni:e. A man, 
who had come with 6 htves to buy swarms, said that be had 
■ever teen the like, neither had I, althoagh I have kept bees for 
S7 years. And the best of It Is, I did not want any swarma at 
all that season. " 

402. 5th. It ii admitted, by all progressive people, that 
m*n can achieve a great deal by artificial selection and cul- 
tivation of plants and animals. The same 3el(;ctign id ad- 
visable in tbe reproduction of the honey-bee, and an increase 
from selected colonies or selected races, cannot always be 
had by natural swarming. In thiei. artincial swarniitig is 
much better, and gives much more satisfactory results wlien 
ever an increase is desirable. 

453. 6(A. Tbe numerous swarma lost every year, is a 
strong argument against natural swarming. 

An eminent Apiarist has estimated, lliat. taking into ac- 
uouDt all who keep Isees, one-fourth of tlie best swarms ore 
lost every season. While some bee-keepers seldom lose a 
swarm, the majority suffer serious losses by Maa ft\it^V q\ 




S8S wixoMAL nrAamm. I 

tlwir bees to the iroods ; mod It It nazt to ibqtOMible, itu 
for the moat OKrefal, to pnrrent ■ooh oAottmnces, if thtii 
bees are ftUowed to swarm. 

Apiarists will then reoognixe that it Is Teiy imporiMit to 
toDow a method, which will nearljr, It not altogether, pra- 
Tent Datnral Bwarming. Bnt In order to prevent it, «• 
must know the oansea of it. 

454. Natural swanning, so far, has been oontf dered as a 
Dfttural ImpaUe In bees. Tet, It oaa be prevented, for tt ii 
always oaused by oncasineBS, as we will show la the aeit 
paragraph, or by an abnormal conditim of the oohmy {40ff)- 
It is caused ; 

Ist. In the majority of instances, by the want of room la 
the comb. By want of room, we do not mean want ol 
empty space in the hive, but want of empty comb for the 
queen to deposit her eggs (97), or for the workers to de- 
posit their honey. So long as bees hare an abundance of 
empty space below their main hive, they very seldom swam ; 
but if it is on the sides of their hive, or above them, they 
often swarm rather than take possession of it. 

This happens, not only in the Southern latitudes, whers 
the swarming instinct is so powerful, bnt even in onr Nortit- 
ern or Middle States. This fact is corroborated by Sim- 
mius, whose non-swarming system is based on the idea of 
keeping " open space and unfinished combs at the front, w 
adjoining the entrance." (Bottingdean, England, 1886.) 
Persons wLo are uoacquaioted with the det^Is of bee-keep- 
ing have no idua how suddenly the honey harvest comes, 
and bow rapidly the combs can be filled, when it once be- 
gins. Strong colonies which were almost destitute, Just at 
the opening of the crop, owing to the Urge amoont of brood 
they were raising, have been known to harvest twenty 
pounds, and more, in one day. When bees are thus gath- 
ering large quantities of honey, and the combs are beoom- 
Ing crowded, so that the cells, from which the young bees 



PREVENTION OF NATCTRAL SWARMING. 233 

hatch, are filled with honey as fast as they are vacated, they 
feel the necessity of emigrating, especially as the constant 
hatching workers add daily to their large population. The 
building of additional combs, by a part of the bees, is some- 
times insufficient to keep them from making preparations 
for swarming, as it does not give employment to all. The 
reader must remember that in a good colony, at this season, 
there are between 60,000 and 120,000 bees, according to 
the laying capacity of the queen and the size of* the breed- 
ing room. There is also an additional increase over mor- 
tality of perhaps 2,000 bees daily. In spite of the admira- 
ble order of these wonderful little insects, there cannot help 
be more or less crowding, unless there is ample room in the 
eombs. 

455. If some of the bees decide that they are too 
crowded, queen-cells are raised (104) and the colony gets 
what Apiarists call the *' swarming fever,** It is a very ap- 
propriate name indeed, since the so-called fever is cured 
only by swarming. In some extraordinary seasons, after 
this ** swarming fever" has taken possession of their little 
brains, no amount of room given, even by dividing (470) 
wiD prevent them from executing their purpose, unless the 
weather and the honey crop become unfavorable. We have 
repeatedly, in such seasons, divided a colony into several 
nuclei (520) without avail, each nucleus swarming in spite 
of its weakness. 

456. 2d. The heat of the Summer sun, which alone would 
not cause them to swarm, hastens their preparations, when 
the bees are disposed to emigrate. 

457. 3d. The hatching of a great number of drones 
(189)— due to an excess of drone-comb (224) in the brood 
chamber, in which the queen has deposited Qgg'i^ — is also 
an incitation to the '^ swarming fever." These big, burly, 
noisy fellows help to make the already crowded comb quite 
uncomfortable. This is why a great many bee-keepers of 




tM ABTOnOIAL SWAKMDM. 



CHAPTER Vn. 



▲BnVIOIAL fWABMIXO* 



460. Every practical bee-keeper la aware of the lllloe^ 
tainty of natural awarming (406). Under no dronmataB* 
cea, can it be confidently relied on. While aome ooloniaa 
swarm repeatedly, othera, apparently aa atrongin nombeia, 
and rich in stores, refuse to swarm, even in aeaaona in aU 
respects highly propitious. Such colonies, on examination, 
will often be found to have taken no steps for raiaing young 
queens. Besides, it frequently happens that, when aU the 
preparations have been made for swarming, the weather 
proves so inclement that the young queens approach 
maturity before the old ones can leave, and are all destroyed. 
Under such circumstances, swarming, for that season, is 
almost certain to be prevented. The young queens are also 
sometimes destro3*ed, because of some sudden, and perhaps 
only temporary, suspension of the honey-harvest ; for bees 
seldom colonize, even if all their preparations are completed, 
unless the blossoms are yielding an abundant aupply of 
honey. 

The numerous perplexities pertaining to natural swarm* 
ing, have, for ages, directed the attention of cultivatora to 
the importance of devising some more reliable method for 
increasing the number of their colonies. 

Dr. Scudamore quotes Columella as giving directions for 
making artificial swarms. Although he taught how to fur- 
nish a queen to a destitute colony, and how to transfer 
brood-comb, with maturing bees, from a strong atock to a 
weak one, he does not appear to have formed entirely new 
colonies by any artificial process. His treatiae <m bee-keep- 




ITS AMTIQUITT. 239 

iDg shows not only that he was well acquainted with previ- 
ous writers on the subject, but that he was also a successful 
practical Apiarist. Its precepts, with but few exceptions, 
are truly admirable, and prove that in his time bee-keep- 
ing, with the masses, must have been far in advance of what 
it was fifty years ago. 

We have spoken of the bar-hive, (282) as at least 
two hundred years old. From ** A Journey into Greece, by 
George Wheeler, Esq.," made in 1675-6, it appears that it 
was, at that time, in common use there, and, probably, 
even then an old invention; he described its uses in 
forming artificial swarms, and removing spare honey. As 
the new swarms were made by dividing the combs between 
two hives, and no mention is made of giving the queenless 
one a royal cell, those old observers were probably acquain- 
ted with the fact that they could rear one from the worker- 
brood. Huber says : — ** Monticelli, a Neapolitan Professor, 
claims that the plan of artificial swarming was borrowed 
from Favignana, and that the practice is so ancient that 
even the Latin names are preserved by the inhabitants in 
their procedure." 

470. Huber, after his splendid discoveries in the physi- 
ology of the bee, felt the need of some way of multiplying 
colonies, more reliable than that of natural swarming. lie 
recommends forming artificial swarms, by dividing one of. 
the hives, and adding six empty frames to each half. 

*' Dividing-hives," (278-279) of various kinds, have 
been ased in this country. The principle seems to have all 
the elements of success; but it was ascertained, that, how- 
ever modified, such hives are all practically worthless for 
purposes of artificial increase. 

It is one of the laws of the hive, that bees which have na 
mature queeriy seldom build any cells except such a^ are de- 
Btgned merely for storing honey , and are too large for the 
rearing of workers (228). 



240 ARTIFICIAL SWA&MINO. 

471. Messrs. Langstroth and Dzierzon were the first ob- 
servers who had noticed the bearing of this remarkable fact 
on artificial increase. It may, at first, seem unaccountable 
that bees should build only comb unfit for breeding, when 
their young queen will so soon require worker-cells for her 
^gg^ ; hut it must be borne in mind, that at such times thej 
are in an ^^ abnormal" condition. In a state of nature, 
they seldom swarm until their hive is full of comb ; or 11 
they do, their numbers are so reduced, that they are rarely 
able to resume comb-building, until the young queen has 
hatched. 

The determination of bees having no mature queen, to 
build comb designed only for storing honey, and unfit for 
rearing workers, shows very clearly the folly of attempting 
to multiply colonies by dividing-hives, unless the greater 
part of the bees are given to the queen, and the greater part 
of the combs to the queenless half. 

When the queenless part proceeds to supply her loss, if it 
has bees enough to build new comb, it will build such as is 
designed onl}^ for storing honey. The next year, if this 
hive is divided, one-half will contain nearly all the brood, 
while the other, having most of its combs fit only for ftoriDg 
henry, or raising drones, will be a complete failure. 

So uniformly do bees with an unhatched queen build 
coarse, or drone-comb, that often a glance at the combs of 
a new colony, will show either that it is queenless, or that, 
having been so, it has just reared a new queen (229). 

472. Some Apiarists have attempted to multiply their 
colonies, by removing, when thousands of its inmates are 
ranging the fields, a strong stock to a new stand, and setting 
in its place an empty hive, with a frame of brood-comb, suit- 
able for raising a queen. This method is still worse than 
the one just described. One half of the dividing-hive was 
filled with breeding comb, while this empty hive having next 
to none, all that is built before the queen hatches, will be 




THOMAS W. COWAN. F. G. S F R M S 



Tbi* writer 1* m 




▼ABIOUS METHODS. 241 

' a size unsoitable for rearing workers. The queenless 
ut of the divided hive might also have contained a young 
leen almost mature, so that the building of large combs 
OJild have quickly ceased ; for it is not always necessary that 
queen should have commenced laying eggs to induce her 
Jcmy to build worker-cells ; we have known a strong swarm 
ith a virgin queen, to build beautiful worker-comb, before 
single egg was deposited in the cells. 
When a new colony is formed by dividing the old hive, 
16 queenless part has thousands of cells filled with brood 
id eggs, and young bees will be hatching for at least three 
eeks : by this time, the young queen will ordinarily be 
kying eggs, so that there will be an interval of not more 
lan three weeks, during which the colony will receive no 
ccessions. But when a new swarm is formed, in the way 
bove described, not an egg will be laid for nearly three 
^eeks, and not a bee hatched for nearly six. During all 
tils time, the colony will rapidly decrease,* and by the time 
he progeny of the young queen begins to mature, the new 
ive will have so few bees, that it would seldom be of any 
alue, even if its combs were of the best construction ( 1 82. ) 

473. One strong forced swarm, can be obtained in any 
tyle of hive, including box-hives, by the driving process 
574 to 577) as follows : When it is time to form artifi- 
!ial colonies, we mean a few days before swarming time, or 
m soon as the hives are about full of bees, — drum a strong 
tock — which call A — so as to secure all its bees. 

They may be driven either into a forcing box, or into the 
ipper story of a movable frame hive, and hived like a new 
(warm, when, if placed on their old stand, they will work as 
igorously as a natural swarm. If they were driven, at lirst, 

•Erery obserring bee-keeper has noticed how rapidly even a large Bwarm 
Umtniahea io Diimber, for the first three weeks after it has been hived. So 
jPBSt U the mortality of beea daring the height of the working-season, thai 
ilUn, in leas than that tlxna. It does not contain one half its otginal number. 

16 



242 ARTIFICIAL SWARMINQ. 

into a hive which will suit the Apiarist, it may be returned 
to their old location, without disturbing the bees. 

If any bees are abroad when this is done, they will join 
this new colony. Remove to a new stand in the Apiary a 
second strong stock — ^which call B — and put A in its place. 

Thousands of the bees that belong to JB, as they return 
from the fields, will enter Ay which thus secures enough to 
develop the brood, and rear a new queen. In fact, this 
colony often becomes so strong, by the help of the field 
workers of B, as well as through its own constantly hatching 
bees, that there is some danger of its casting off a swarm 
when the first young queen hatches, unless again divided at 
that time. 

474. It is quite amusing to observe the actions of the 
bees that return to their old stand, when their homes have 
been exchanged as above. 

If the strange hive is like their own in size and outward 
appearance, they go in as though all was right, but soon 
rush out in violent agitation, imagining that by some unac- 
countable mistake, they have entered the wrong place. 
Taking wing to correct their blunder, they find, to their 
increasiui^ surprise, that the}' had directed their flight to the 
proper spot ; again they enter, and again they tumble out, in 
bewildered crowds, until at length, if they find a queen or 
the means of raising one, they make up their minds that if 
the strange hive is not home, it looks Uke it, stands where it 
oujjht to be, and is, at all events, the only home they are 
likely to get. No doubt they often feel that a very hard 
bargain has been imposed upon them, but they are generally 
wise enous^h to make the best of it. They will be altogether 
too much disconcerted to quarrel with any bees that were 
left in the hive when it was forced, and these on their part 
give them a welcome reception, especially if they come io 
with a heavy load. 

This method of artificial swarming will not weaken either 




▼ABIOU8 MBTHODS. 248 

le mother-colonies. If B had been first forced, and 
removed, it would have been seriously injured ; but as 
tes fewer bees than if it had swarmed, and retains its 
1, it will soon become almost as powerful as before it 
emoved. 

e Apiarist, by treating a natural swarm as he has been 
ted to treat a forced one, can secure an increase of one 
y from two ; and of all the methods of conducting nat- 
iwarming, in regions where rapid increase is not prof!- 
, this is the best, provided the colonies do not stand too 
together, and the hives used in the process are some- 
similar in shape and color. 

r5. Whenever the bee-keeper learns how to handle 
lovable-frames safely he must dispense with the forcing- 
and make his swarms by lifting out the frames from the 
it-stock, and shaking the bees from them, by a quick 
ig motion, upon a sheet, directly in front of the new 

the hive contains much fresh honey, which is usually 
thin, the bees must be brushed off, for shaking them 
oald also shake out a large amount of nectar (240). 
soon as a comb is deprived of its bees, it should be 
ned to the parent-stock. If one or two combs contain- 
rood, eggs, and stores, are given to the forced swarm, 

I be much encouraged, and will need no feeding (005) 
e weather should be unfavorable. In removing the 
», the bee-keeper should look for the queen, and' give 
omb she is on, to the forced swarm, without shak- 
>ff the bees. If he does not see her on the combs, 

II seldom after a little practice, fail to notice her, as 
i shaken on the sheet, and crawls towards the new hive. 
lueen is seldom left on a frame after it has been shaken 
ftt most of the bees fall off (439). 

6. The more combs with brood are taken from A, the 
hance it will have to send forth a natural swarm with 
■t batched queen. 



244 ARTIFICIAL 8WABMING. 

' If it is desirable to make a large number of swanns, and 
the parent colony is strong in hatching bees, only a few ol 
the combs need be shaken in front of the new hive conUiih 
ing the queen, and the parent colony, with the adhering 
young bees, may be set in a new place. 

By this method, one swarm is made from each of the 
hives set apart for increase, and although the coloniei 
thus divided are not so strong as when one swarm is made 
from two hives; yet, in ordinary localities and seasons, 
they become strong enough for all purposes, long before 
the season is over, especially if young queens are introdaced 
(533) in the colonies made queenless, and comb-foundjk 
tion is used in full sheets in the frames (674:). 

477. If the mother-colony has not been supplied withi 
fertile queen, it cannot for a long time part with another 
swarm, without being seriously weakened. 

Secoud-swarming, as is well known, often very much in- 
jures the parent-stock, although its queens are rapidly m»- 
luring; but the forced mother-stock may have to start them 
almost from the Qgg. By giving it a fertile (533) queen, 
and retaining enough adhering bees to develop the brood, 
another swarm may be taken away in ten or twelve days in 
a good season, and the mother-stock left in a far better con- 
dition than if it had parted with two natural swarms. In 
favorable seasons and localities, this process may be re- 
peated two or three times, at intervals of ten days, and if 
no combs arc removed, the mother-stock will still be well 
supplied with brood and mature bees. Indeed, the judi- 
cious removal of bees, at proper* intervals, often leaves it, 
at the close of the Summer, better supplied than non-swamo- 

*ir a 8tnok of bo(>8, ill a hive of moderate aizo, Ib examined, at the height of 
the hoiK y-hnrvcHt, nonrly all the colla will often be found faU of brood, honej, 
or ber-hnad The j^r* at laying of tlii' qiiron is OTcr — not as aome imagine, be- 
caiHo li»T fiTtility lia^ diTrcn-ed. but piiui>ly for want of room for more brood. 
A qiKMMi in Buch a colony, or in a hive having few bcea, often appeaji almoft 
aa Blender as one Btill uiifrrtile; but if she has plenty of bees and empty oooib 
flTan hex, ber proportiona will soon become Tery much «nlazs«d. 



ing stocka with maturing brood ; the latter having — in the 
expressive language of an old writer — " waxed over (at." 

We have bad stocks which, after parting with four swanns 
In the way above described, have stored their hives with Pall 
boney, besides yielding a surplus in boxes. 

This method of artificial increase, which resembles natural 
■warming.in not taking away the combs of the mother-stock, 
la not only superior to it, in leaving a fertile queen, but ob- 
viates almost entirely all risk of after-swarming; for the 
forced swatm, containing the old queen, seldom attempts to 
■end forth a new colony, and the parent hive, in whiuli the 
young queen is placed, is too destitute of field-workers to 
Bwarm soon. The young queen herself is eijually content — 
except in very warm climates, or in extraordinary seasons 
— to stay where she is put. Even if the old queen is al- 
lowed to remain in the mother-stock, she will sekli-ni leave, 
if BufBcicnt room is given for storing surplus honey ; and it 
makes no diDerence — as tar as liability of swarming is con- 
cerned — where the young one is put. 

478. Artificial increase may be also mnde. hy sin)[ily 
giving several frames of hatching bees to a iiuck'us (GUO> 
containing a fertile queen, and placing the colony lUn^ built 
Dp on the stand of a strong hive, rcmovin>; the lattor lo a 
Dew location. 

If, from some caose, the parent-colony could not be 
moved, the forced swarm might be made to ndlirrc to a new 
location as follows: Secure their queen, whin the lni;i :ire 
■baken out of the hive; and when they shon- tliat tlnv miss 
her, confine them to their hive, until tUiir n^ituiion h:is 
reached its height. Then open the liive, uml us ttic lircs 
begin to take wing, present their queen to tliern. Winn 
they have clustered around her, they mag be treafd like it 
natural awarm. To do this with every forced swarm would 
take too much time ; but it would answer well when the 
forced swarm is to be moved, a short distance. 



479. If no qaMiu luiT« been raiMd pmiotulj (814), 
by nuking » fewforoedswunu, fromBeleotoolonieB(518), 
nine days before the time in wbloh the mo«t we to be nidt, 

' there will be *a abanduioe of sealed qaeena, almost mature, 
ao that every parent-stock may have one. If the fbT«ed 
Bwarms were made a abort time before natural twamdsi 
woold hare taken place, some of the parent-coioniec wiD 
oontain a number of maturing qneens, whiob may be la- 
mored, a few days before hatching, and given to aadi u 
have started none. But it is far better to rear tbe qaeess 
flrat, as they can be bred from ohoioe stook (013). 

480. A nnclens (520) may be built ap after ila qneca 
has commenced laying, by helping it with a cemb of brood 
and young bees, from a full colony, adding;, at proper 
iutervals, a third, and a fourth, until they are strong enoogb 
to take care o( themaelves. This mode of increase is labo- 
rious, and requires skill and judgment; for, the bee-keepct 
should be very careful never to give a weak colony more 
brood than its bees can cover, remembering that, should 
the temperature become colder, the brood might be chiUed 
An A periah. 

As a number of nuclei are to be simultaneously atrengtb- 
eued, the Apiarist cannot complete his artifldal proeeswa 
by a eingle operation, and must always be on hand, m 
incur the risk of ending the season with a number of star^ 
ing colonies. For these and other reasons, we much prefci 
tilt; otiicr methods, above given, dispensing with so mnd> 
opening of hivca and handling of combs. If, however, any 
of tlie new colonies are weak enough to need it, they must 
be helped to combs from stronger ones. 

48 1 . matever method of artijieiai fncreoM i* fmmwd by 
the Apiariit, he should never reduce tke atrmgth of Ail 
mother-stocka, to as seriovslt/ to cripple the reproductive power 
of their queetu. This principle should be to him aa *^tbs 
4IW of tbe Uedee and Persians, whidi altnethnot;" for. 




▼ABIOUB METHODS. 247 

while a queen, with an abundance of worker-comb and 
bees, may, in a single season, become the parent of a num- 
ber of prosperous families, if her colony, at the beginning 
of the swarming season, is divided into three or four parts, 
not one of them will ordinarily acquire stores enough to 
survive the Winter. 

The practical bee-keeper should remember that no drone- 
comb is built when the queen is with the builders (229), 
and that the less increase he takes, from the colonies on 
which he relies for surplus-honey, the better. 

482. With the movable-frame hive, and the improved 
system, the Apiarist, by raising his queens or queen-cells 
(514) previously {and this is very important) can take the 
increase that he wishes to make, from colonies that would 
have produced little^ if any^ surplus^ and preserve his best col- 
onies for honey production. Let it not be understood by 
this, that we advise taking the increase from weak colonies. 
In every Apiary, there are some colonies, which, though of 
fair strength, do not become populous in time to harvest 
more than their supply. Such colonies can furnish good 
swarms, with but little help, owing to the fact that the 
greater number of their bees raised during the harvest, 
instead of before it, are too young to go to the field (1C2). 

If our method is followed, the colonies, which have been 
kept for honey production, can furnish help, if necessary, 
towards the end of the season, for those of the artiGcial 
swarms that need it. 

To the prudent Apiarist, they are as a reserve body of 
select troops to the skillful general, a timely help, in an 
emergency. 

Remember that populous colonies, that are raising queen- 
cells, during the early part of a good honey harvest, are 
strongly inclined to swarm when the young queens hatch. 
(465.) 

488. The coUmies (hat are raising young queens^ eitfier 



wtB tKpfliad vdtt htfmeg, ant kmm «M4fft ftuny bMi to 
JkHpOxfrned «arai a»d to lali tan ^ t,mtuino nnaft- 
tapOdn? 10 *> (8S8). 

OneartiScul awaia nada it Ob opaniBgof Om himj 
hanrot, when tbe Un is Ml of bnmd, k bcttar Oh too 
■warao made at ita doaa. 

Wbeo new vakxatM ara Bade bj parrhidng qaacai 
(«01)wiUi&eesftya«jMHUl(lf9»), ol^iped <naisdii- 
tasce (087), tbey afaonld to hind oa aa maaj aanbo of 
brood, taken (ram other hma, aa ttoy omd vd cow. If 
full fnuDcs of fonndatHm (ST^) an added, Cnm Umm to 
time, strong coloniea may to built ont of then, qdtt 

If the colonies are gathering mach bonej, when artiliGial 
■warms are made, but little smoke (382) will to needed 
in the operations. The freqaent use of amoke makeo tite 
qaeeo leave the combs, for greater aecnrity. Thia often 
causes great delay in the formation of artificial swarms bj 
removing tbe frames, and in operations where it is deaiia- 
ble to catch the queeo, or to examine her apon tto ocaab. 

484. Artificial operaiiona of all kinds an taost wteea^/kf 
when bee-forage ie abundant; when it is scarce, they are 
quite precarious, even if the colonies are well sapplied witli 
food. 

When bees are not busy in honey-gatfaering, they hare 
leisure to ascertain the condition of weak ooloaiea, irtiick 
are almost certain to be robbed, if they aie incautioiul; 
opened. When forage is scarce, the Apiarist who does not 
guard agaiD:>t robbing (004) will seriously impur tbe tsIim 
of his colonies, and entail upon himself nnch nseleai and 
vexatious labor. Beware of denoratisiag btn, bg t*mpti»g 
them to rob one another. 

48A. During a good honey flow, beet from difimnt kitm 
may be mixed toithovt quarreiling, owing to Utiir more peaoe^ 




▼ARIOUS METHODS. 249 

ble dispositioii, when full of honey, hence all manipulations 
become much easier. But at other times, great caution is 
requisite not only in giving a hive a strange queen, but in 
all attempts to mix bees belonging to different colonies. Bees 
having a fertile queen will often quarrel with those having 
an unimpregnated one. 

Members of different colonies (30) recognize their hive- 
oompanions by the sense of smell, and if there should be a 
thousand hives in the Apiary, any one will readily detect 
a strange bee ; just as each mother in a large flock of sheep 
is able, by the same sense, in the darkest night, to distin- 
g^uish her own lamb from all the others. Colonies might 
always be safely mingled, by sprinkling them with sugar- 
water, scented with peppermint or any other strong odor, 
which would make them all smell alike. 

Bees also recognize strangers by their actions^ even when 
they have the same scent ; for a frightened bee curls herself 
up with a cowed look, which unmistakably proclaims that 
she is conscious of being an intruder. If, therefore, the 
bees of one colony are left on their ovm stand, and the oth- 
ers are suddenly introduced, m a time of scarcity, the 
latter, even when both colonies have the same smell, are 
often so frightened that they are discovered to be strangers, 
and are instantly killed. If, however, both colonies are re- 
moved to a new stand, and shaken out together on a sheet, 
they will peaceably mingle, when scented alike. We find 
substantially the same thing recommended, in 1778, by 
Thomas Wildman (page 230 of the 3d edition of his valua- 
ble work on Bees), who says, that bees will '' unite while in 
fear and distress, without fighting, as they would be apt to 
do, if strange bees were added to a hive in possession of its 
honey." 

486. The forcing of a swarm ought not to be attempted 
when the weather is cool, nor after dark. Bees are always 
mach more irascible when their hives are disturbed after it 



250 AsnnciAL swakmino. 

is dark, and as they cannot see where to fly, they will alight 
on the person of the bee-keeper, who is almost sure to be 
stung. It is seldom that night work is attempted upon 
bees, without making the operator repent his folly. 

4:87. We would strongly dissuade any but the most ex- 
perienced Apiarists, from attempting, at the forUiest, to do 
more than double their colonies in one year. It woold take 
another book to furnish directions for rapid moltiplic*- 
tion, sufficiently full and explicit for the inexperienced; 
and even then, most who should undertake it, would be 
sure, at first, to fail. With ten strong colonies of bees, in 
movable-comb hives, in one propitious season, we could so 
increase them, in a favorable location, as to have, on the 
approach of Winter, one hundred good colonies ; but we 
should expect to purchase queens, foundation, and perhaps 
hundreds of pouruU of honey, devoting much of our time 
to their management, and bringing to the work the experi- 
ence of many years, and the judgment acquired by numer- 
ous lamentable failures. 

In one season, being called from home after our colonies 
had been greatl}' multiplied, the honey harvest was sud- 
denly cut short by a drought, and we found, on our return, 
that most of our stocks were ruined by starvation. 

The time, care, skill, and food required in our uncertain 
climate for the rapid increase of colonies, are so great, that 
not one bee-keeper in a hundred* can make it profitable; 
while most who attempt it, will be almost sure, at the close 
of the season, to find themselves in possession of colonies 
which have been managed to death. 

A certain rather than sl rapid multiplication of colonics, is 
most needed. A single colony, doubling every year, would, 
in ten years, increase to 1,024 colonies, and in twenty 

• Many a person who reads this will probably imagioe tbftt he U Um one In • 
hundred . 




▼ARI0U8 METHODS. 251 

years to over a million!* At this rate, our whole country 
might, in a few years, be over-stocked with bees ; and even 
an increase of one-third, annually, would soon give us 
enough. 

4:88. All the methods of increase above given, and sev- 
eral others of less importance, were described by Mr. 
Langstroth years ago. He never hesitated to sacrifice sev- 
eral colonies, in order to ascertain a single fact ; and it 
would require a large volume, to detail bis various experi- 
ments on the single subject of artificial swarming. The 
practical bee-keeper, however, should never lose sight of 
the important distinction between an Apiary managed prin- 
cipally for purposes of observation and discovery, and one 
conducted exclusively with reference to pecuniary profit. f 
Any bee-keeper can easily experiment with movable-frame 

• Thb IbUowing ealenlatiOD of poiMibfe profltfl.ftom bee-culture, taken ftrom 
"SydaerlTi TreatiBe on Bees," imblished in Englaad, ia 1792, is a perfect 
gun of its kind : 

' * Suppose a swarm of bees at the first to cost lOs. 6d. , and neither them nor 
the swarms to be taken, but to do well, and swarm once every year"— bees 
mnst benangfatj, indeed, if they dare to do otherwise!—" what will be the 
prodaet forfonrteen yean, and wiiat the profit, if each hive is sold at 108. 6d. ? 

F«ori. HiJU, Projits. 

X s. d 

I 1 

f t 1 1 

S 4 2 2 

4 8 4 4 

•• •• • • • 

14 8192 4300 16 

*'N.B.— Deduct 10a. 6d., what the first hive cost, and the remainder wiU 
be clear profit; supposing the second swarms to pay for hives, labor, etc." 
Hie modesty with which this writer, who Bcems to have had as mnch faith in 
his been as in the doctrine that * ' figures cannot lie, " closes his calculation at 
the end of fourteen years, is truly refreshing. No bee-k(>epcr, on such a royal 
road to wealth, could erer find it in his heart to stop under twonty-onc years, 
by which time, probably, he would be willing to close his bee-business, by 
selling it for over two and three-quarter millions of dollars! Tlie attention 
of all renders of hnmbng bee-hives, is respectfully invited to this antique 
•pedmen of the art of pnAng. 

t ProUBseorSieboldsays, that Berlepsch told him, that some of hia hivei 
"'had bean very mnch pr^udioed by the various scientific experiments. " 




S5S ABTIFICIAL SWABMIlia. 

hiyes ; but he should do -it, at first, only on a small seals, 
and if pecuniary profit is bis object, should follow our di- 
rections, until he is 9ure that he has discovered others whidi 
are better. These cautions are given to prevent serious 
losses in using hives which, by facilitating all manner of 
experiments, may tempt the inexperienced into rash and 
unprofitable courses. Beginners, especially, should follow 
the directions here given as closely as possible ; for, although 
they may doubtless be modified and imprt>ved, it can only 
be dpne by those experienced in managing bees. 

Let us not be understood as wishing to intimate that per- 
fection has been so nearly attained, that no more imp<Hrtant 
discovenes remain to be made. On the oontrary, we be- 
lieve that apiculture is a growing science. Those who 
have time and means should experiment on a large scale 
with the movable-comb hives ; and we hope that every intel- 
ligent bee-keeper who uses them, will experiment, at least, 
on a small scale. In this way, we may hope that those 
points in the natural history of the bee still involved in 
doubt, will, ere long, be satisfactorily explained. 

There is a large class of bee-keepers — ^not '* bee-masters" 
— who desire a hive which will give them, however ignorant 
or careless, a large yield of honey from their bees. They 
are easily captivated by the shallowest devices, and spend 
their money and destroy their bees, to fill the purses of un- 
principled men. There never will be a ** royal road" to 
profitable bee-keeping. Like all other branches of rural 
economy, it demands care and experience ; and those who 
are conscious of a strong disposition to procrastinate and 
neglect, will do well te let bees alone, unless they hope, by 
the study of their systematic industry, to reform evil habits 
which are well nigh incurable. 




QUEXN RBABINO. 868 



CHAPTER Vm. 

Queen Rearing. 

4L89. We have shown (100) that when a colony is de- 
prived of its queen, the bees soon raise another, if they 
have worker eggs or young larvae. 

In general, they select, first, some of the oldest among 
those whose milky '^pap " has not yet been changed for 
coarser food (107). Such a selection is wise, for the older 
the larva is, the sooner the colony will recover a queen. 

490. But some Apiarists fear that the bees will secure 
poorer queens, if they use larvae, for they suppose that the 
food given to these during the first three days, may be dif- 
ferent from the food given to the queen-larvae, although it 
looks the same, and for this reason, they prefer to raise 
their queens, from the egg. 

491. A learned bee-keeper, of Switzerland, Mr. De 
Planta, has made comparative chemical experiments, on the 
milky food which is first given to the larvoe of drones, queens, 
and workers, and has ascertained that this food is composed 
of the same substances for ail, albumen, fat, sugar, and 
water, and that the only difference is in the proportions of 
these substances. Yet he concludes that these variations 
are but accessory, and not premeditated by the bees. 

We think that these conclusions are right, for Mr. De 
Planta, to get a sufficient quantity of this food, had to take 
it from different hives, and at different seasons of the year ; 
and as this milky food is apparently the product of glands, 
(64), as is the milk of our cows, the proportions of sub- 
stances in the " milk " of bees, may vary, as they do in the 
milk of COWB, which contains more or less caseine, fat, sugar, 




254 QUEEN REmillO. 



or water, according to the race, the age, and the food eatea. 
492. Other bee-keepera aappoae that the newly-hatdied 
larysB, intended by the beea to be raised as qaeeoa, are moia 
plentifully fed from the first, than woricer-larro. Bat we 
have always noticed, that, except daring a acardtj, the lat- 
ter have as much of this pap as they can eat, daring the 
first three days, since they float on the milky food (1116). 
The wise bee-keeper can ward against the rearing of poor 
queens, by feeding his bees abundantly, if necessary, a few 
days in advance, and daring the queen-breeding. 

403. Lastly, some bee-keepers think that bees sometinieB 
use larvflB more than three days old, and which oonseqoently, 
have already received coarser food. One of our leaders la 
bee-culture, Mr. Doolittle, writes that one of his colonies 
must have used a larva four and one-half days old, since 
this colony hatched a queen in eight and one-half days, in- 
stead of about ten, as usually (llO). (Cook's Guide, pages 
70 and 72). But we cannot admit that tiie nurses were 
guilty of such blunder, especially since they would have had 
the trouble of replacing with better food, the coarse pap 
already given. Most likely, some already constructed 
queen-cell had passed unnoticed. Every one of us, old bee- 
keepers, has made similar errors. (See '^Deceptive Queen- 
Cells (519)." 

404. The worker-larvse are fed with milky food for three 
days, and with coarse food for the three following days. 
Not only does this coarse food change their organism, but 
it retards their growth, since the queens are mature in six- 
teen days, from the time that the egg is laid (107), while 
the workers do not hatch before twenty-one days, on aver- 
age. Thus the three days of coarse food have prolongea 
the growth five days, or in other words, each day of coarse 
feeding has delayed the maturity forty hours. Therefore, 
if we suppose that bees could, and would use, larvae four 
and one-half days old, queens thus produced would hatch 



QUEEN REARING. 955 

two and one-half days later than those raised from larvn 
three days old. They would consequently hatch in eleven 
and one-half days instead of ten as usual. 

495. If some Apiarists have noticed that their best 
queens were reared during the swarming fever (455), it is 
because the colonies are then in the best conditions to pro- 
duce healthy queens. They have pollen and honey in 
abundance ; as they are numerous, they keep the combs very 
warm ; and, in addition, they have a large number of young 
bees, or nurses, to take care of the larvae (164.) 

496. The following accidental experiment has proved to 
OB that most of the ola workers are unable to act as nurses. 
Tears ago, one of our neighbors moved three colonies of 
bees about half a mile, in the Summer, without taking: 
proper precautions ; we were informed the next day, that 
quite a number of the olde^ bees had returned, and had 
dostered under an old table. We brought a hive there, 
with a comb containing eggs and young larvse. They took: 
possession of it, but neglected to raise a queen, and soon 
dwindled away. 

497. By placing the colonies, intended to raise queens, 
in the same condition as to food, heat, and nursing, as dur- 
ing the swarming fever (455), we will raise as good 
queens as are then raised. If, to these conditions, we add 
the selection of brood, from our best queens (315), we 
will greatly improve the quality of our stock. 

For over twenty years, we have used all the precautions 
described above, and, although our queens have never been 
reared from the egg, they are very prolillc and long-lived. 
Using hives with ten or eleven large Quinby-frames (340), 
we are enabled to ascertain, beyond doubt, the prolificness 
of our queens. Our preventing swarming (459) enables 
us also to reckon their longevity. 

498. The interposition of the Apiarist, in queen-rearing, 
may be necessary : 




>66 QuuDi BBAsme. 

I9U To BQpplj the loss of a queen in a odony thathai 
not the means of raising another (109). 

2d. To breed a superior raoe of bees (MK>), or frnprofi 
the present stock (815). 

3d. To provide for the artifloial increase of cdoniea 
(4600 

We win study the rearing of queens, in view of thsN 
requirements ; but as each queen-breeder lus his pet method, 
we will give only the main outlines, leaTing our readers to 
their own choice, according to their Judgment and drcnai* 

4itsnces. 

# 

Loss OF THE Qunnr. 

490. That the Queen-Bee is often lost, and that her col- 
ony will be ruined unless such a calamity is seasonably 
remedied, ought to be familiar facts to every bee-keeper. 

Queens sometimes die of disease, or old age, when there 
Is no brood to supply their loss. Few, however, perish 
under such circumstances ; for, either the bees build royal 
cells, aware of their approaching end, or they die so sud- 
denly as to leave young brood behind them. Queens are 
not only much longer-lived (157) than the workers, but 
are usually the last to perish in any fatal casualty. As 
many die of old age, if their death does not occur 
under favorable circumstances, it would cause, yearly, the 
loss of a very large number of colonies. As they sel- 
dom die when their strength is not severely taxed in breed- 
ing, drones are usually on hand to impregnate their 
successors. 

500. Young queens are sometimes bom with wings so 
imperfect that they cannot fl}^ ; and they are often so injured 
in their contests with each other, or by the rude treatment 
the}* receive when driven from the royal-cells, that they 
cannot leave the hive for impregnation (128). 




LOSS OF THB QUEEN 257 

501. We have yet, however, to describe under what 
circumstances the majority of hives become queenless. 
More queens y whose loss cannot be supplied by the bees, per" 
ish when they leave the hive to meet the drones, than in aU 
other ways. After the departure of the first swarm, the 
mother-stock and all the after-swarms have young queens 
which must leave the hive for impregnation ; their larger 
size and slower flight make them a more tempting prey to 
birds, while others are dashed, by sudden gusts of wind, 
against some hard object, or blown into the water: for, 
with all their queenly dignity, they are not exempt from 
mishaps common to the humblest of their race. 

502. In spite of their caution' to mark the position and 
appearance of their habitation, the young queens frequently 
make a fatal mistaJce, and are destroyed, when attempting to 
enter the wrong hive. 

This accounts for the fact that ignorant bee-keepers, with 
forlorn and rickety hives, no two of which look just alike, 
are sometimes more successful than those whose hives are 
of the best construction. The former — unless their hives 
are excessively crowded — lose but few queens, while the 
latter lose them in almost exact proportion to the taste and 
skill which induced them to make their hives of uniform 
size, shape and color (356). 

503. We first learned the full extent of the danger of 
crowded Apiaries, in the Summer of 1854. To protect our 
hives against extremes of heat and cold, they were ranged, 
side by side, over a trench, so that, through ventilators in 
their bottom-boards, they might receive, in Suninier, a 
cooler, and in Winter, a much warmer air, than the exter- 
nal atmosphere. By this arrangement — which failed en- 
tirely to answer its design — many of our colonics became 
queenless, and we soon ascertained under what circumstan* 
ces young queens are ordinarily lost. 

From the great uniformity of the hives in size, shape, 
17 



Ca bm sure of 




m hoed in a iCmige city, and oo risiig in Uie BMifviaf , 
dMwId find the streecs filled with baikfings preciselj fike it, 
he woald be ^le Co recnm to his proper place, onlj bj pre- 
tIoqsIj ucertAinlng i:^ namber. or bj oocmting the houaet 
between it and ihe t^^mer. Such a nombering facalty, 
however. w%a not given to the qaeen-bee : for who, in ft 
ctate of nature, ever saw a dozen or more hollow trees or 
other places frei:[uea:eti by bees, standing close together, 
precisely alike in size, shape, and color, with their entran- 
ces all {ti':\nz the 3an;e w^v, and at exactlT the same heisht 
from the ground? 

On describing to a friend our observations on the loss of 
queens, he told us that in the management of his hens, he 
had fallen into a somewhat similar mistake. To economize 
room, and to give easier access to his setting hens, he had 
partitioned a long box into a dozen or more separate apart- 
ments. The hens, in returning to their nests, were deceived 
by the similarity of the entrances, so that often one box 
contained two or three unamiable aspirants for the honors 
of maternity, while others were entirely forsaken. Many 
eggs were broken, more were addled, and hardly enough 
hatched to establish one mother as the happy mistress of a 
flourishing family. Had he left his hens to their own in- 



LOSS OF THE QUEEN. 259 

Btincts, they would have scattered their nests, and glad- 
dened his eyes with a numerous offspring. 

Every bee-keeper, whose hives are so arranged that the 
young queens are liable to make mistakes, must count upon 
heavy losses. If.he puts a number of hives, under circum- 
stances similar to those described, upon a bench, or the 
shelves of a bee-house, he can never keep their number 
good without constant renewal. 

505. The bees are sometimes so excessively agitated 
when their queen leaves for impregnation (120), that they 
exhibit all the appearance of swarming. They seem to 
have an instinctive perception of the dangers which await 
her, and we have known them to gather around her and 
confine her, as though they could not bear to have her 
leave. If a queen is lost on her wedding excursion, the 
bees of an old colony will graduall}' decline ; those of an 
after-swarm, will either unite with another hive, or dwindle 
away (182). 

506. It would be interesting, could we learn how bees 
become informed of the loss of their queen. When she is 
taken from them under circumstances that excite the whole 
colony, we can easily see how they find it out ; for, as a 
tender mother, in time of danger, is all anxiety for her 
helpless children, so bees, when alarmed, always seek first 
to assure themselves of the safety of their queen. If, how- 
ever, the queen is very carefully removed, several hours 
may elapse before they realize their loss. How do they 
first become aware of it? Perhaps some dutiful bee, anxious 
to embrace her mother, makes diligent search for her 
through the hive. The intelligence that she cannot he 
found being noised abroad, the whole family is speedily 
alarmed. At such times, instead of calmly conversing, by 
touching each other's antenn:e, they may be seen violently 
striking them together, and by the most impassioned dem- 
ODBtratlons manifesting their agony and despair (181). 



S«0 QOI 

We once removed the qaeco of ■ biibII mIooj, the bMJ 
of which took wing uid filled the bIt, In 
Although she was retunied in k few mioDtca, ro] 
were found two days Uter. The queen was ai 
the cells tmten&nted. Wu this woric begun hj 
did not believe the otberai when usured th&t ih* 
or from the apprehension that she might be remored a^^T 

807. As soon as the bees bepn to fly btisUf in A* 
Spring, a colony which does not indostrionsly gatlwr poDoi, 
*or accept of flour (887), is almost certain to hare at 
queen, or one that is not fertile — nnleee it is on the era rf 
periahiug from starration. 

A colony is sore to be queenless, if, after taking fk 
flrst Spring'fltgbt, the h*>*'=, hy riamir?, in rw. ci!".Giriaf 
manner in and out nf r.i' " i . ■ -1 .^■.; ^li-i' -■■':■■ ..■■.;■ -iliuulj 
has befallen them. 1 liose Luac come irom the Deids, instead 
of entering the hive with that dispatchful haste bo cbaraetsi> 
istic of a bee returning, well loaded, to a prosperous home, 
usually linger about the entrance with an idle and dissst 
isfied appearance, and the colony is restless, late in the day, 
when others are quiet. Their home, like that of a maa 
who is cursed in bis domestic relations, is a melancbidy 
place, and they enter it only with reluctant and alow-noi^ 
ing steps. 

SOS. And here, if permitted to address a word of friendly 
advice, we would say to every wife — Do all that you can to 
make your husband's borne a place of attraction. Whei 
absent from it, let bis heart glow at the thought of return 
ing to its dear enjoyments; as he approaches it, let hii 
countenance involuntarily assume a more cheerful ezpre^ 

•"Ui. Randolph FHi^. nr Philadelphia, hid a eolany Wbkk ha WHMtl*- 
Had wan queen leas, u the bcndld notcarrrlD poUaateMdqri- IpotaqaaM 
Into Ihe hiTe. he holiljug ■ vatcb Inbiihand, udlDlKV'' 
the Kai IntrodDced. a be« waa Men to enter with pollao « 
obaarred the eotrasca tor lona tlma, and law maor him i 




LOSS OF THE QUEBN. 261 

don, while his joy-quickened steps proclaim that he feels that 
there is no plisice like the cheerful home where his chosen 
wife and companion presides as its happy and honored 
Queen.* If your home is not full of dear delights, try all 
the yirtue of winning words and smiles, and the cheerful 
discharge of household duties, and exhaust the utmost pos- 
sible efScacy of love, and faith, and prayer, before those 
words of fearful agony, 

" Anywhere, anywhere 
Oatof the world!"/ 



extorted from your despairing lips, as you realize that 
there is no home for you, until you have passed into that 
habitation not fashioned by human hands, or inhabited by 
human hearts. 

509. The neglect of a colony to expel drones (192), 
when they are destroyed in other hives, is always a suspi- 
doas sign, and generally an indication either that it has no 
queen, or else a drone-laying one (134), or drone-laying 
workers (176). A colony, in these circumstances, will not 
eren destroy the drones of other hives, which may come to 
it, until a healthy queen has been raised in the hive, and is 
fertilized (120), and la3dng worker-eggs. 

510. In opening a queenless hive, the plaintive hum of 
the bees (76), the hstjess and intermittent vibrating of 
their wings, and the total lack of eggs, or young worker 
hrood, tell their condition. 

A comb, with hatching bees,t should be given to it from 

•* * The tenth and last gpeeiet of women were made out of a bee ; and happy 
li the man who geta such a one for his wifB . She is full of virtue and pradence, 
■■d la tha beat wifB that Jupiter oan bestow. "—Spkctatoh, Xo. 2m, 

t That daaa of bee-keepers who suppose that all such operations arc the 
'*Baw fkngled" inrentlona of modem times, wiU be snrprisod to Icaru that Col- 
■meUa, ISOOyeaza ago, recommended strengthening feeble colonics, by cutting 
•at eoMba tnm atvoafv ooea, eontaining workers * ' Jut gnawing out of their 



^ 



a Btronger oolony, together with mnoUwr eonb, at egp tii 
Urvs, from the best oolonj in the Xplaxy ; sad the noBbK 
of iti oombt ■honld be rednoed to aoit ttn die' of the do*- 
ter. 

A better way yet to nipply the loae, is to pve the eoloo; 
» qaeen-oell (104) or » yooag qoeea raiaed in the ou 
to be now defcribed. 



511. WewiUM«(a«0)tliatioiiMnuMaof beeaanM- 
perior to others. Ereo is the same Apiary, aome ooloiifai 
are better than otbera, in proliflooees, honey-gathering, e» 
durance, gentleness, etc. It is very important to tmprore 
the Apiary by rearing queens from the beet breeds, for Bm 
Increase of colonies, aa well as to replace the inferior ones. 

To this end, the bee-keeper should select two or more ol 
the best colonies in his Apiary, one for the productioo ol 
drones, the others for the production of queens. ItaUaa 
(561 ) bees are uaiversally preferred ; and as they are now 
almost as easily found as common bees, and are very cheap, 
we advise the novice to begin with at least two queem of 
this race. 

A slight mixture of Cyprian or Syrian (559) blood b 
good, provided the issue be gentle and peaceable. Hybrid* 
of common bees and Italians are generally Inferior, both in 
quahty and disposition. 

612. In selecting a colony for drone production, the 
color and aize of the drones should not be conaidered so 
miK'h, as the prolilicness of its queen, and the qualities tA 
its workers, unless you wish to breed for beauty, in prefer- 
ence to honey- production. 

Place two droDe-comb8(224) in the center of thebrood- 
chamber of this colony, as soon h it liae leooperated troa 




RBABINO mPBOYSD RACES. 268 

its winter losses. If the colony is kept well supplied with 
honey, enough drones will be raised to impregnate all the 
queens in the neighborhood ; otherwise, they might destroy 
these early drones after having raised them. 

If our directions on the removal of drone-comb (675) 
are followed, but few drones will be raised outside of those 
colonies speciaUy intended for drone-breeding. As soon 
as they begin to hatch, we may make preparations for 
queen-rearing, the best time being at the opening of fruit- 
blossoms. Some queen-breeders begin earlier, but early 
breeding gives much trouble and little pay, and our advice 
to Northern Apiarists, who want early queens, is to buy 
them from some rehable Southern Apiarist, as they can be 
raised earlier in the South, much more cheaply than in the 
North. 

518. In an Apiary composed of several colonies, there 
are always some comparatively weak ones, either because 
their qneens are old, or because they are not prolific. Such 
queens are of very little value, and should be replaced. 
Select one of these colonies — not the poorest, unless it is 
populous enough to raise good queens. Kill its queen, and 
exchange its brood-combs, after having brushed the bees 
off, for a less number of combs, containing eggs and larvae, 
from your best queen. It may be well to feed the colonies 
containing the select queens beforehand, so as to incite the 
laying of eggs (154) and nursing of the brood. 

514 If you desire to raise queens from eggs, (490), or 
larvae Just hatching, prepare for it, by giving your select 
colony some frames of dry comb, or comb foundation, 
(674) a few days ahead, for the queen to lay in. In this 
case, only those combs that contain eggs should be given to 
the queenless colony. It is always better to give but a 
small number of brood-combs to the colony intended for 
queen-raising, and to reduce its space with the division* 
board (349) ; as they can best keep it warm, in this man- 
oer, aad raise bettor queens. 




515. Tbe Ixrgcat nsmba- of qna^-e el b {104) can b« 
obutoed br ccuin^ bole* inlo Ike eonte nuder the cdb 
cwuining joosg lame or ciggs, and feeding the bed 
plcDtifuIl7. Some Apixrists bold that, bj lesTing then 
witlKKit broo^ of any kiitd for a few boon, tfaej wiQ raiM 
more cells afterwards. 

516. Nine dajs after tbe fannahh^ of the brood to tbt 
qoecnka* coloor, count tbe number of qoeea-cens raised, 
remeraberiog that one has to be left to tbe edonj that 
raised them. On tbe same day, make swarms, (475) « 
mndei, (522) or destroy worthkas queens 
(150) which you desire to replace next 
day. 

517. The next day, with a aharp pen- 
kDiff;, E:arefully remove a piece of comb, 
au iricfi <ii more sq'iare, that contains a 
queen-cell (Fig. ^^), and id one of the 
XiKfA cornbg of the hive to which this cell 
is to tie given, cut a place just Urge ^^ ^^ 
enoiigli !.o receive and hold it in a natural Qi'Bu--caLi. 
position. (Fig. 00.) BioiovaD. 

K:iil] ■|ii':'iiliS' .'■toik can thus be supplied with a queen. 



I. Dnwaledeell A. Iiuat- 
cdwU. C. UnanUbsdoaU 
D, I>M«ptl*« call Jwt ta 



be eoMMty that 
rms, (475) « 

f 




RSARIMO UIPROYRD RACES. 265 

ready to batch, from the beet breeding mother. 

Unless very great oare ia used in traDsterring a loyal cell, 
its inmates will be destroyed, as ber body, until she is nearly 
mature, is so exceedingly Bott, that a slight compression of 
her cell — especially near the base, where there is no cocoon— 
generally proyes fatal. For this reason, it is best to defer 
removing them, until they are within three or four days of 
hatching. A queen-cell, nearly mature, may be known by 
ita baring the wax removed from the lid, by the bees, so as 
to give it a brown appearance. 

018. If the weather is warm, and the hive, to which a 
qn«en-O0ll is given, is very populous, the cell may be iutro- 
dnoed by simply inserting it in its natural position between 
two oombfl of brood. Jt ia very important to have the queen- 
mB 1m or ntar the brood, or the bees might neglect it. 

Satnetlmes, the bees so crowd their roj-al cells together 
(fig, 91) that it la difficult to remove one without fatally 




injuring another, as, when a cell is cut into, tlic destruction 
and removal of the larva usu^illy fol'ows. Mr. Alley, by 
hts method, giten further on (528), fuunil a remedy for 
this. If many queens are to be raised, it ia well to b:ive a 
■0W supply of cells started every week or even ottener. 




90), vUA, ihfaoa^ kn appar- | 
•Bt, Toold <£s^pout Ute ^id in I 
•few. 

S20. When qoeens an raised | 
tim« for aitificisi in- j 
or far sale, it 
it more pro&tnbk to use wmdei in- ! 
Stead of full colonies to batch these . 
queens. The word nuclei (plural 
of nudeta), from the Latin nuelau 
a nut, a kernel, was first apptied 
bj Ur. Langstroth to diminutiTe [5 
colonies of bees. This term is 
cersally adopted on both 
coattaents. 

531. When we were raising 
queens for sale, we had contrived g 
a divisible frame (Gg. 93) to make 
tbese nuclei of combs taken from 
full colonies. Our combs could be thaa separated in twO| 
and used in smaller hives, and in the Fall, these same combt 
were returned to the full colonies. Two nBoll fmnei an 



lonbrtkabi 



267 



more advantageoaa than one luge frame, as the; giT« 
more compactaesB to the cluster. Besides, these small 
colonies can be built up easily afterwaids by coupling tlie 
frames, and uniting the combs of S or 4 nuclei into one 
large hive. 

It is not necessary to have many of these frames in an Api- 
ary, as ■ few are sufficient to make a number of nuclei, if 
they are placed in the centre of full colonics early in Spring. 




<Fig. as.) 



Two frames thus made from one standard Langstroth 
tnme measure about 8) by 8) inches each, a very conven- 
ient size tor nucleus frames. 

In the Pall, a number of nuclei may be united, in a full 
sized hire, on tbetr own combs, by this method. 

522. To make a nucleus, take from a culony, as late in 
the afternoon as there is light enough to do it, a coinK con- 
taining worker-egga, anil bees just gnawing out of their ti^lls, 
and put it, with the mature bees that are on it, into an 
empty hive. If there are not bees enoujfh adhering to it, 
to tirevent the brood frum being chilled during the night, 
more must be shaken into llie hive from other comhs. If 
tbe transfer is made so late in the day that the bees are not 
disposed to I6aTC the hive, enough may have hatched, by 




S68 

morning, to sapplf the jimom of fhom iMA will nton lo 

the parent stodc. 

S^S. In ereiy esse, when a swann has kit Iti hhe for 

another qnarter, each bee, as die aalHea out, lllea with hor 

head turned towarda it, that by marling the aazromidiBg 

objeeta, &he may find her way baek. If, howerer, the bev 

did not emigrate of their otonyVea loA, moat of them appeal^ 

ing to forget, or not knowing, that tMr loeatton haa been 

changed, retom to their familiar spot; tor it would aacn 

that, 

**A ^beeiemofed'agalttitherwlll. 

It of the lame opinion MSL^ 

Should the Apiarist, ignorant of thia fact, place the an- 
clens on a new stand without providing it with a aoffident 
number of young bees, it would lose so many of the bees 
which ought to be retained in it, that most of Its unsealed 
brood would perish from neglect. 

If the comb used in forcing such a f»iic2€i» was removed 
at a time of day when the bees would be likely to return to 
the parent stock, they should be confined to the hiye, until 
it is too late for them to leave ; and if the number of bees, just 
emerging from their cells, is not large, the entrance to the 
hive should be closed, until about an hour before sunset of 
the next day but one. The hive containing this small col- 
ony, should be properly ventiated, and shaded — ^if thin — 
from the intense heat of the sun ; it should always be well 
supplied with honey. The space unoccupied in the hive 
should be separated from the nucleus by a division board 
(349). 

524. Beginners must remember that it is better to have 
these sina'.l nuclei strong with bees; but, in giving them 
young bees, care should be taken not to give them the queen. 
If a nuL-leus is made at mid-day, nearly all the beea given 
to it ¥rill be young bees, as the old beea are then in the 
field. 




KKiLBIMO IMPBOYED RACES. 269 

The best maimer to add young bees from strange colo- 
nies to weak nuclei, is to shake or brush them, on the apron 
board in front of the entrance, as is done in swarm- 
ing (428). 

525. Hives, or nuclei in which queen-cells are to be in- 
troduced, should be aware of their queenless condition be- 
fore a queen-cell is given them. Hence the necessity of 
preparing them 24 hours previous. 

526. A vigilant eye should be kept upon every colony 
that has not an impregnated queen ; and when its queen is 
about a week old it should be examined, and if she has be- 
come fertile, she will usually be found supplying one of the 
central combs with eggs. If neither queen nor eggs can be 
found, and there are no certain indications that she is lost, 
the hive should be examined a few days later, for some 
queens are longer in becoming impregnated than others, 
and it is often difficult to find an unimpregnated one, on ac- 
count of her adroit way of hiding among the bees. 

As soon as the young queen lays, she may be introduced 
to a queenless colony, or sold, and if queen-cells arc kept 
on hand, another one can be given to the nucleus the next 
day. Thus, nuclei may be made to raise two queens or 
more in a month. 

527. If the queens are to be multiplied rapidly, the 
nnc'lei must never be allowed to become too much re*luced 
in numbers, or to be destitute of brood or honey. With 
these precautions, the oftener their queen is taken from 
them, the more intent they will usually become iu supplying 
her loss. 

There is one trait in the character of bees which is wor- 
thy of profound respect. Such is their indomitable energy 
and perseverance, that under circumstances apparently 
hopeless, they labor to the utmost to retrieve their losses, 
and sustain the sinking State. So long as they have a 
qneen, or any prospect of raising one, they struggle vigor- 




270 



QUEEN BEARINO. 



ously against impending rain, and never give np until their 
condition is absolutely desperate. We once knew a colooy 
of bees not large enough to cover a piece of comb four inches 
square, to attempt to raise a queen. For two whole weeks, 
they adhered to their forlorn hope ; until at last, when they 
had dwindled to less than one-half their original number, 
their new queen emerged, but with wings so imperfect that 
she could not fly. Crippled as she was, they treated her 
with almost as much respect as though she were fertile. In 



m^^^m 



Fig. 925. (From AUey.) 

the course of a week more, scarce a dozen workers remained 
in the hive, and a few days later, the queen was gone, and 
only a few disconsolate wretches were left on the comb. 

528. Mr. Alley, who raises queens by the thousand, has 
publislied his nK'lhod of queen-rearing. His queens are all 
raised in very small nuclei which he calls miniature hives. 
From a light-colored worker-comb filled with hatching eggs, 
he cuts strips with a sharp knife, as in fig. 926. 

**Aft<'r thocomhhas been cut up, lay the pieces flat upon aboard 
or1.:il)U'. :iiul cut the cells on one side down to within one fourth 
ol" un inch of the foundation or septum, as seen in fig. 93^which 
n'presrnis tlic <-oml) ready to place in position for cell build- 
ing. WiiiU" cntrafTi'd in tills work, keep a lighted lamp near 



111 





FiK'. UU. (From Alley.) 



at hand, with which to heat the knife, or the cells will be 
b.idly januned » ♦ ♦ *► 



ALLET'S UKTUOD. 



271 



The strips of comb being ready, ire simply destroy each alter- 
nate larva or egg, (flg. 9'2b. In order to do tbU, take the strlos 
carefully In the left hand, and Insert the end of acommon lucifer 
match into eaub alteraute cell, pressing U gently on the bottom 
of the cell, and then twirling it rapidly between the thumb and 
flngen. ThUglvesplenty of room for large cells to be built with- 
ont Interfering with those adjoining, and permits of thetr being 
•eparated without Injury to neighboring cells." — " Bee-lieepera' 
Handy Book," Wenbam, 1895. 

This strip, Mr. Alley fast^iis under & trimmed comb cut 
slightly conTflx, by dipping the cells, wbioh have been left 
full length, into » miztore of two parts roain aad one ot 




bees-wax, taking care not to ovcr-licat tliis nii:ttiirc, as the 
be&t might destroy the eggs (fig 94). The comb tijus pre- 
pared ia given to a prepared colony, which has been queen- 



S7S quEEm bbabivo. 

Ies0 and without brood for ten bonrs^ Mr. Alky hsffng ■!► 
tioed that the eggs may be deetroyed If f^twma to a eoloaf 
Just made queenlesa. 

This method is probably the moat eocpeditioiia and tte 
cheapest that can be followed, for raising a lai^ munbcrof 
queens ; but we would hardly adTise Apiaiiata to use ai 
small nuclei as Mr. Alley does (5 oombe, 4} indiea square). 
The stronger the colony in which a queen Is raised, the better 
the queen. 

529. As it happens yery often, that more queen-esBi 
are raised than are needed immediately, and as the bees 
usually destroy all after the first one has hatched, Apiariiti 
haye deyised queenr^uneriM topreseorye the supennuier- 
ary ceDs until needed. It is not safe to leaye the queoi* 
cells under the control of the bees after ten days, as a queen 
may hatch at any time. 

There are several ways to make queen-nurseries. Messrs. 
Hoot, Hay hurst, Ileddon and Hutchinson, warm their nur- 
series with lamps, while the nurseries used by Messrs. Alley, 
Doniarcc and others, are placed in well populated hives. 

580. The lamp-nursery is a doubled-walled tin box,* 
of the right size to receive the breeding frames. The space 
between the walls and the bottom is filled with water, and a 
kerosene lump is lighted under it, with the flame about one 
foot from the bottom of the box. The temperature of this 
lamp-nursery is regulated by raising or lowering the fiame, 
and is kept between t'O^ and 100*^. The combs containing 
the 8eale<l (pieen-eells arc placed in this box, and if the 
brood in the combs is all of the same age, every queen will 
hatch, at least, five days before any of the workers. These 
(pieen-eells have to be examined every few hours, for the 
first tpieens hatehed would destroy the others. 

The Alley (pieen-nursery is composed of a number of small 



• Mr. Ilayhariit, of Knnsas City, who it one of Um 
qQMu brcodcn, ate* a galvanised iron uorterj, packed la S flhaJT 




QUSKN HUBSBKIXS. S78 

cages, ooYored with wire cloth on each side and inserted in 
a frame. Each cage has two holes at the top, one for a 
sponge saturated with honey, the other to receive the queen- 
cell. The frame is inserted in a strong colony, not neces- 
sarily queenless, since these young queens are caged, and 
haTe feed at hand when they hatch. 

The hatching of queens in nurseries properly belongs to 
the trade of the queen-breeder. The honey producer, who 
raises queens for himself only, does not need fresh queens 
erery day. Besides, the introducing of these young virgin 
queens to nuclei, previous to impregnation, is quite difficult 
and uncertain. (541.) 
1^1. Before we pass to the subject of introducing queens, 
we cannot refrain from noticing the rapid progress of the 
business of queen rearing in the last 20 years. The intro- 
duction of brighter races has greatly increased the spread- 
ing of Apiarian science, and many facts which, years ago, 
were known only to the few, now belong to the public do- 
main. 

532. In breeding the new races, let the novice remem- 
ber that the qualities he should seek to improve are, first, 
prolificness and honey production ; second, peaceableness ; 
third, beauty. 

Since their introduction into this country, the Italians 
have been bred too much for color, at the expense of their 
other qualities. We have seen queens, that had been so in- 
bred for color, that their mating with a black drone hardly 
showed the hybridization of their progeny. 

This in-and-in breeding, for color, has even produced white- 
eyed drones, stone blind, a degeneracy which would tend to 
the extinction of the race. 
18 




uw wiiBJn 
tte 
ft Twrfymff timm €iiyttfm» fm aa loiptagti Mm cl«»- 
ter, aad ah* eommoolj diei ciAar froat hn^fcrorwaat of air. If 
•fgfitgfffi lioar»eIftpa»bgftit»^aMh«titatioaofft«tf«ngtf q»w, 
dM to tmsed, ftl ftnt, i& tte shm viT* ^^^ tte teesksToter 
MOBcr. Bor Is tte mmwm dlog etaster •» dose; ttey gndoally 
dtepeise. and tte qaeen is st IssI litented ; ste sbotm Isngnldly, 
snd sometimes expires In s few minoleft. Some, teweTcr, s^ 
cspe In good healch* and afterwards reign In the hire.** 

The mauiner in which strmnge qaeens are treated by tte 
tees, when they are queenlesa, depends mainly on the state 
of the honey harvest. 

534. But in order to meet with uniform success, the fol- 
lowing conditions must be fulfilled: 

The bees must be absolutely queenless. Sometimes a 
colony contains two (117) queens, and the Apiarist after 
removing one may imagine that he can introduce a stranger, 
safely. Many queens are thus killed. 

53o. As bees recognize one another by the scent, the 
new queen should be [)Iaced so as to get the odor of the 
hive, before being released among them. This can be ef- 
fecterl rea<iily l»y sprinkling the bees and the new queen 
with sweetened water scented with peppermint, and liberat- 
ing; ber at once. Hut as this method generally causes some 
robbing' (004) in times of scarcity, it is not always to te 
relied upon. 

530. Our method consists in placing the queen in a small 
flat cage, made of wire cloth, between two comte, in the 




HfTRODUCINO IMPREGNATED QUEENS. 275 

most populous part of the hive, near the brood and the 
honey, and keeping her there from 24 to 48 hours. These 
qaeen-cages were first used in Germany for introducing 
queens. 

537. In catching a queen, she should be gently taken 
with the fingers, from among the bees, and if none are 
crushed, there is no risk of being stung. The queen her- 
self will not sting, even if roughly handled. 

If she is allowed to fiy, she may be lost, by attempting 
to enter a strange hive. 

To introduce her into the cage, she should be allowed to 
dimb up into it. It is a fact well knovon to queen breeders 
VuU a bee or a queen cannot be easily induced to enter a cage 
or a box turned dotvnward. The meshes of the wire cloth 
should not be closer than 12 to the inch, that the bees may 
feed the queen readily through them. This is important, 
for we have lost two queens successively in a cage with 
closer meshes. 

The bees will cultivate an acquaintance with the impris- 
oned mother, by thrusting their antennae through tlie open- 
ings, and will be as quiet as though the queen had her lib- 
erty. Such a cage will be very convenient for any tempor- 
ary confinement of a queen. 

538. It is necessary, when the queen is released, that 
the bees be in good spirits, neither frightened, nor angered, 
and there should be no robbers about, as they might take 
her for an intruder, and ball her. 

This technical word is used to describe the peculiar way 
in which bees surround a queen whom they want to kill. 
The cluster that encloses her, is in the form of a ball, somr- 
times as large as one's fist, and so compact that it cannot 
readily be scattered. She may be rescued by throwing the 
ball into a basin of water. We have known bees to ball 
their own mother in such circumstances, for qneens are of 
a timid disposition and easily frightened. When we release 



S76 QUUEV BSABoro. 

aitrange queen, we put a small slioe of comb honej, or hamf 
cappings, in p}ace of the stopper of the cage, and doea At 
hive. It takes from 15 to 20 minutes for the beea la ail 
through, and by that time all Is quiet, so the queen wafti 
leisurely out of her cage, and is safe. 

539. If the colony, in which a queen is to be lolr^ 
duced, is destitute, the bees should be abundantlly fad oa 
the preceding night (005). After ahe has been releaisd, 
it is well to leaye the colony alone for two or three d^ys. 

As a fertile queen can lay seyend thousand egga a d^i 
it is not strange that she should quickly become erhanstsdi 
if taken from the bees. '' Ex nihUo nihUJU "—from not- 
ing, nothing comes — and the arduous duties of mateniitj 
compel her to be an enormous eater. After an absence 
from the bees of only fifteen minutes, she will solicit honey, 
when returned ; and if kept away for an hour or upwards, 
she must cither be fed by the Apiarist, or have bees to sap- 
ply her wants. 

Mr. Simmins has taken advantage of this appetite, and 
of the propensity of bees to feed the queens, in introduciDg 
them directly, after keeping them without bees and food^ 
for about 30 minutes. At dusk he lifts a comer of the 
cloth (352) of the hi^e in which he wants to introduce the 
queen; drives the bees away with a little smoke (882), 
and permits the quccn^ to run between the combs. Then he 
waits 48 hours before visiting the hive. Several bee-keep- 
ers report having succeeded with this method. On ac- 
count of this propensity of bees to feed queens, any num- 
ber of fertile ones may be kept in a hive already contsiniog 
a fertile queeu, if they are placed in cages between the 
combs, near the honey and the brood. 

540. Some Apiarists use chloroform, ether, puff-balls, or 
other ingredients, to stupefy the bees of mutinous colonies 
who persist in refusing to accept a strange queen and who 




nrrRODUcnON or yiroin queens. 277 

■bow it by angrily suxTonnding the cage in which she is 
oonfined. 

The Rev. John Thorley, in his ^^ Female Monarchy," 
published at London, in 1744, appears to have first intro- 
duced the practice of stupefying bees by the narcotic fumes 
of the ** puff ball " {Fungus pulvenUentus), dried till it will 
hold fire like tinder. The bees soon drop motionless from 
their comb, and recover again after a short exposure to the 
air. This method was once much practiced in France, (L' Ap- 
iculteur, page 17, Paris, 1856) but is very dangerous, as too 
large a dose of ansestheticB will cause death instead of sleep. 

Introduction of Vibqin Queens. 

1141. The difference in looks between a virgin queen 
and an impregnated one is striking, and an expert will 
distingnish them at a glance. The virgin queen is slender, 
her abdomen is small, her motions quick, she runs about and 
ahnoBt flies over the combs, when trying to hide from the 
light. In fact, she has nothing of the matronly dignity of 
a mother. 

Bees, in possession of a fertile queen, are quite reluctant 
to accept an unimpregnated one in her stead ; indeed, it 
requires much experience to be able to give a virgin queen 
to a colony, and yet be sure of securing for her a good re- 
oeption. 

Mi. Langstroth was the first to ascertain, years ago, that 
the best time to introduce her, is just after her birth, as soon 
as she can crawl readily. If introduced too soon, the bees 
may drag her out, as they would any imperfect worker. 
Moat queen-breeders liberate them on the comb, or at the 
entrance of a queenless nucleus. Mr. H. I). Cutting, of 
Clinton, Mich., recommends daubing the young queen with 
honey, at the comes out of her cell, and liberating her 




■S42 la -n — •'■••— t<r rwww « ^oks.-'mII* to foil R>b>- 
xuis :;.-:!;; ^i T-»-i.-Ti:ipKaB«ii. i i»;c*a»T«rT often tlut 

^■i A: :-j-- «..':.-i »^:a. !:c & few dajs.. Ae coloo j U 

5*^5 1* I -:i'-^ '.T i ;-'«'i. i" is BKVsmrr to mneB- 
if:T '-i: "r J :- "i J-'-i .\'«^ aolcas fn^t«Eied «waj. 
If -.-T :>:-:-r ij^ :: :■: zrinT.- ii^mrbcd. aa Itaaaa queen maj 
i« ' ::i T -. - ;t- ~tz.z'jia kfter opeaiag the hire. 

A , .'.-.z :' ■:—- :: ^-;*<, or <rf hTbri<i5. a more difflralt 
Xn Z- : i.i L-- :t<s :f:«:i risb aboat tbe hive as aoon aaitia 
i-.^-:.'.- II -:■: .!::=■:: t* f->cD<l on the combs, and thehin 
i« ;' ; .. ;* i! i' '^st :•> sh:>ke all the tmnes on a sheet, in 
tr', : ' f :Ln fr:.- 'y ^" \. aai stK-iiR them in a closed hJTe. out 
'■! '.':.'■ r-:j' h vf r ■■ 'f-r*. t:atjlthese»rcfa Is oter. when eTcr;- 
thini' mav ;e renirne-i id Us proper place. 

S44 Aft*:r a q'leea is taken from a c«^, the bee« iriD 
run in and '>'it of it f»r a long time, tfans proving thmt tbcf 
nt:i>fiii\xt: her |«H;uliar scent. It is this odor which causes 
them Ut run imiuiringlf over oar hands, after we have cangbt 




mTRODuonoM or yntaiN qukbns. 279 

a queen, and over any spot where she alighted when her 
twarm came forth. 

This scent of the queen was probably known in Aristotle's 
time, who says : ** When the bees swarm, if the king (queen) 
is lost, we are told that they all search for him, and follow 
him with their sagacious smell, until they find him. " 
Wildmansays: *^ The scent of her body is so attractive to 
them, that the slightest touch of her, along any place, or 
substance, will attract the bees to it, and induce them to 
pursue any path she takes. " 

The intelligent bee-keeper has now realized, not only 
how queens may be raised or replaced, by the use of the 
movable-frame hive, but how any operation, which in other 
bives is performed with difficulty, if at all, is in this rendered 
easy and certain. No hive, however, can make the ignorant 
or negligent very successful, even if they live in a region 
where the climate is so propitious, and the honey resources 
so abundant, that the bees wiU prosper in spite of misman- 
agement or neglect. 



CHAPTBB IX. 

Racb or Boi. 

040. The honey-bee ii not Ind^mooe to AMariOb 
Thomae Jeflenon, in hli " Notes on TIrgini&," bsti: 

** The hoDej-bee li not % netlTe at oez eoontiT. Xerogim 
Indeed, mentlDua « ipeolcB of honeypea In &aiiL BnttUskM 
■to ttlng, uid Is therefore dlBfarent from the one we have, «Uafc 
TCMmbleB perftoctlj thftt of Europe, nie IndUnaooaciir wUkM 
In tbe tradition tbat It wki bronght from Europe ; but wben and 
by wbom, we know not. The bee« here generktly extended 
themselves Into tbe coantrf, a little in adTADoe of the white *et- 
tlen. The Indians therefore call them, the white man'i Uy." 

" When John Eliot translated the Scriptmea Into the langnap 
of the Aborigines of North America, no words were fonnd ax- 
preaalve of the terms wax and honey." (A. B. J. July ISCG.) 

Longfellow, in liis "Song of Hiawatha," in describiog 
the advent of tlic European to the New World, makes his 
Indian warrior xay of tlie bee and the white clover: — 
" Whercsoe'cr tbey move, before them 
Swarms the stinging fly, the Ahmo, 
Swarms the bee. the honey-maker; 
Whercsoe'cr they tread, beneath them 
Springs a ilower unknown among na. 
Springs the White Han'e Foot In blossom." 

n40. According to the qiiotations of the A. B. J., 
i-ommon hcQs were imported into Florida, by the Spaniarda 
pretiouB to 1763, for ilicy were first noticed in West 
Fli.riiia in that year. Tlu-y appe.-ired in Kontncky in 1780, 
in New York in 1793, and West of the Mississippi in 1797. 

54T. "It laaurprislng in wbatcountlessiwuma thebeeshara 
orerapread the far West wMhltv but a moderate n 




THK BEE nr AMERICA. 281 

The Indians consider them the harbingers of the white man, as 
the buffalo is of the red man, and say that, in proportion as the 

bee advances, the Indian and the buffalo retire They have 

been the heralds of civilization, steadily preceding it as it ad- 
vances from the Atlantic borders ; and some of the ancient set- 
tlers of the West pretend to give the very year when the honey- 
bee first crossed the Mississippi. At present it swarms in my- 
riads in the noble groves and forests that skirt and intersect the 
prairies, and extend along the alluvial bottoms of the rivers. It 
seems to me as if these beautiful regions answer literally to the 
description of the land of promise — ^a land flowing with milk and 
honey ;* for the rich pasturage of the prairies is calculated to sus- 
tain herds of cattle as countless as the sands upon the sea-shore, 
while the flowers with which they are enamelled render them a 
▼cry paradise for the nectar-seeking bee." — Washington Irving, 
"Tour on the Prairies," Chap. IX. (1832). 

Many Apiarists contend that newly-settled countries are 
most favorable to the bee ; and an old German adage runs 

thus;— 

^ Bells' ding dong, 

And choral song, 

Deter the bee 

From Industry : 

But hoot of owl, 

And * wolTs long howl,' 

Incite to moil 

And steady toil." 

It is evident that the bees spread Westward very rapidly, 
and to this day, many old bee-men can be found, who posi- 
tively assert that a swarm never goes P^astward, even after 
it is proven to them that they usually go to the nearest 
timber. 

548. Bees, like all other insects, are divided scicntiricall}' 
into genera, species, and varieties. 

Aristotle speaks of three different varieties <»f the honey- 
bee, as well known in his time. Tlie bei^t variety he describes 
as *'/iixpa, girpoyyvXi] ccai noixiXi] ** — that is, small, and 
round in size and shape, and variegated in color. 






Acis TitiiMcx ifioaJ^ iearaaCBd •mitffr ^ne 3A3x« of bbck. 
ir rn7 zk**. Z«:ci i.LTna ir4 jrcr:criase. siaos rh* nee 

-^ i±r:a- La T"i-1 ii J. "iie Eimceaa pru^lzces of Txirkej, 
ZS1& i'zm:D.i: c *^< izh iiir^. oietir! j black. Ia o^er places, 
tn.»tir i-i-'ir -a jraf-iii. Piej t^itt ia. S2i». u well. Aceord- 
ixz ''. ^. -.'- Frrn-'ii T^rttdr?. "m txes of Hoi'and are small. 
ic-i ir*- .-..^a:e: • al r^ni^f i?:uii£itdixij«*' ^^:iie little Hal- 
la:i«i-:r ■ :2 :!:•» :-^'-:r '-.ir'i, iiie Camiolaa* b^tw are quite 
larz't. "^t 'iJ-T*; -«T>r 5«wa qaeens as large as some Car- 
XLL^/,3LZJi T-.:. :j: t^ :z:-':r.c'i *«:=« tea jearsago. But, in spite 
of *:h»* r--. .t :--»53 iz i z^^z-rrril g^wd repatatioa of this race, 
w^ d:i L-.r 1"^-;-; :o 7::: ica:e it, owing to the difficulty 
of *ifi\^,r.T.z "l-:ir ziiri":^ -k^::!! :he common bees, since thej 
ar<^ ri!~-',«* al;;^.a in c«:I:r. 

^.jO- Br-?: :*3 the 'ro-rmo'n bee, there are a great many 
TsHfr^ifr*. The best kno^n axe: Irf, the Xii^vriaii, ApiM 
Ligu?ti^a. «o narTied by .S:-:noIa. because hefoond it first, in 



* C«rnIo!a '.« a proTir.ce of AnstriA . nesr tfa« Adziallo. 




THS ITAUAK BEE. 288 

the part of Italy called Idguria. The Rev. E. W. Gilman, 
of Bangor, Maine, directed the writer's attention to Spinola's 
" Inaectorum LigurioB species novce aut rariores^" from 
which it appears, that Spinola accurately described all the 
peculiarities of this bee, which he found in Piedmont, in 
1805. He fully identified it with the bee described by Aris- 
totle. 

2d, The apis fasciata (banded bee). This bee, related 
to the Italian, or Ligurian, which has yellow bands also, is 
found in Egypt, in Arabia, along both sides of the Red 
Sea, in Syria, in Cyprus and in Caucasus. 

3d. We shaU mention also the large Apis darsata of South- 
em Asia, and the melipones of Brazil and Mexico. 

551. The Italian bee, Apis Ligustica^ spoken of by Aris- 
totle and Virgil as the best kind, still exists distinct and 
pure from the common kind, after the lapse of more than 
two thousand years. 

The great superiority of this race, over any other race 
known, is now universally acknowledged ; for it has victor- 
iously stood the test of practical bee-keepers, side by side 
with the common bee. The ultimate superseding of the 
common bee by the Italian in this country is but a matter 
of time. 

552. The following facts are evident: 

1st, The Italian bees are less sensitive to cold than the 
common kind. 2d, Their queens are more prolific. 
3d, They defend their hives better against insects. Moths 
(802) are hardly ever found in their combs, while they are 
occasionally found in the combs of even the strongest colo- 
nies of common bees. Their great vigilance is due to the 
mildness of the climate of Italy, whose Winters never 
destroy the moth. Having to defend themselves against a 
more numerous enemy, they are more watchful than the bees 
of colder regions. 4th, They are less apt to sting. Not 
only are they less apt, but scarcely are they inclined to sting, 




S84 nacEB ov bbh. 

though they will do so U intentioiudly annoyed, or irritated, 
or improperly treated. 

Spinola speaks of the more peaoeable disposition or tfait 
bee ; and Columella, 1800 years ago, had noticed the same 
peculiarity, describing it as ^* mUior marOms^** (milder hi 
habits). When once irritated, howerer, they become verj 
cross. 

5th. They are more industrious. Of this fact, all the 
results go to conQ^ Dzierzon*s statements, and satisfy us 
of the superiority of this kind in every point of view, 
6th. They are more disposed to rob than common bees, and 
more courageous and active in self-defense. They strive 
on all hands to force their way into colonies of common bees ; 
but when strange bees attack their hives, they fight with 
great fierceness, and with an incredible adroitness. 

Spinola speaks of these bees as "vetoctores tnori*"— 
qiiicker in their motions than the common bees. 

They however sooner grow tired of hunting, where nothing 
can be gained ; and if all the plunder is put out of their reach, 
they will give up the attempt at robbing (664) more prompt- 
ly than common bees. 

7th, Aside from their peaceableness, they are more easily 
handled than the common bees, as they cling to their combs 
and do not rush about, or cluster here and there, or fall to 
the ground, as the common bees do. 

It is hardly necessary to add, that this species of the 
honey-bee, so much more productive than the common kind, 
is of very great value in all sections of our country. Its 
superior docility makes it worthy of high regard, even if in 
other respects it had no peculiar merits. Its introduction 
into this country, has helped to constitute the new era in 
bee-keeping, and has imparted much interest to its pursuit. 
It is one of the causes which have enabled America to 
surpass the world in the production of honey. 

553. Their appearance can be described as follows: 




THE ITALIAN BEE. 28ft 

■'The flrat three abdominnJ rings (fig. 95 ) of the worker 
bee are transparent, and vary from a dark straw or golden 
color to the deep yellow of ochre. These rings have a nar- 
row dark edge or border, so that the yellow, which is some- 
times called leather color, constitutes the ground, and is 
seemingly barred over by these black 
edges. This is most distinctly percepti- 
ble when a brood-comb, on which bees '/ 
are densely crowded, is taken out of a 
hive, or when a bee is put on a window. ■ 
When the bee is full of honey these 
lings extend and slide out of one another, ^ 
and the yellow bands show to better 
advantage, especially if the honey eaten 
is of a light color. On the contrary, dur- 
ing a dearth of honey, the rings are 
drawn up, or telescoped in one another, 
and the bee hardly looks like tlie same *' 

Insect. This pecuharity has annoyed ma- n ii.i^K hek. 

ny bee-keepers, who imagined tbcirbeaii- From a. i. Eoot. 
tiful bees had suddenly become hybrids. 

Id doubtful cases, as the purity of llaliau bees is very 
important, it is well to follow the advice of A. I. Uoot: -If 
you are undecided in regard to your bees' purity, get some 
of the bees and feed them all tbe honey they can take ; uow 
put them on a window, and if the band C (fig. Oo) is not 
plainly visible, call them hybrid.'!." (-'A. B. C. page 145), 

654. Aside from this test, Ihcir tenacity and quietness 
on the comb, while bandied (378), arc infallible signs of 
puiity. We have repeatedly carried a frame of brood cov- 
ered with pure Italian bees, from a hive to tbe house, and 
passed the comb from hand to hand among visitors, some 
of whom were ladies, without a single bee dropping ofl, 
or attempting to sting. 

SOS, Hw droDM (185) and the queens are very irregu- 




186 BACKS or BBKt. 

lar in markings, some beiiig of a Tery bright yellow eobr 
others almost as darlf as drones or queens of oommon best. 

** It is a remarkable fact that an Italian queen, impregnated lif 
a common drone, and a common queen impregnated bj an Itil^ 
ian drone, do not produce workers of a uniform intermedlata 
cast, or hybrids ; but some of the workers bred firom the eggs ^ 
each queen will be purely of the Italian, and others as purely ^ 
the common race, only a few of them, indeed, being appaienQj 
hybrids. Berlepsch also had several mismated queens, whieh at 
first produced Italian workers exclusively, and afterwards eom- 
mo|i workers as exclusively. Some such queens produced ftillj 
three-fourths Italian workers; others, common workers in tha 
same proportion. Nay, he states that he had one beantiftil 
orange-yellow mismated Italian queen which did not produce a 
single Italian worker, bat only common workers, perhaps t 
shade lighter in color. The drone*^ however, produced by a mis- 
mated Italian queen are uniformly of the Italian race, and this 
fact, besides demonstrating the truth of Dzlerzon^s theory,(l38) 
renders the preservation and perpetuation of the Italian race, ia 
its purity, entirely feasible in any country where they may bs 
introduced/' — S. Wagneh. 

556. The Italian bees from different parts of Italy are of 
different shades, but otherwise, preserve about the same 
characteristics all over the peninsula. But how can they 
keep pure, since there are common bees in Europe? A 
glance at the map will answer the question. Italy is sur- 
rounded on all sides by water or snow-covered mountains, 
which offer an insuperable barrier to any insects. This is 
further evidenced by the fact that the bees of the canton of 
Tessin (Italian Switzerland) are Italians, being on the 
South side of the Alps, while those of the canton of Uri 
(German Switzerland), on the other side of the mountains 
and only a few miles off. are common bees.* 

557. The importation of Italian bees to another country 
was first attempted by Capt. Baldenstein. 

* The Idea that aclGct Italian bees raised in America, maj b« jrarvr ttiaa Aoy 
Italiaoi eror imported, has becu gravely discaaaed bj aoina 




THE ITALIAN BEE. 287 

^ Being stationed in Italy^ daring part of the Napoleonic wan, 
he noticed that the bees, in the Lombardo-Venitian district of 
Valtelin, and on the borders of Lake Como, difiered in color from 
the common kind, and seemed to be more industrious. At the 
close of the war, he retired from the army, and returned to his 
ancestral castle, on the Rhsetian Alps, in Switzerland ; and to 
occupy his leisure, had recourse to bee-culture, which had been 
his favorite hobby in earlier years. While studying the natural 
history, habits, and instincts of these insects, he remembered 
what he had observed in Italy, and resolved to procure a colony 
from that country. Accordingly, he sent two men thither, who 
purchased one, and carried it over the mountains, to his resi- 
dence, in September, 1843. 

** His observations and inferences impelled Dzierzon— who had 
previously ascertained that the cells of the Italian and common 
bees were of the same size — to make an effort to procure the 
Italian bee; and, by the aid of the Austrian Agricultural Society 
at Vienna,* he succeeded in obtaining, late in February, 1853, 
a colony from Minu near Venice." — S. Wagner. 

558. An attempt was made in 1856, by Mr. Wagner, to 
import them into America ; but, unfortunately, the colonies 
perished on the voyage. The first living Italian bees lauded 
on this continent were imported in the Fall of 1859 by Mr. 
Wagner and Mr. Hiehard Colvin, of Baltimore, from 
Dzierzon's Apiary. Mr. P. G. Mahan, of Philadelphia, 
brought over at the same time a few colonies. In the Spring 
of 1860, Mr. S. B. Parsons, of Flushing, L. I., imported a 
number of colonies from Italy. Mr. William G. Rose, of 
New York, in 1861, imported also from Italy. Mr. Colvin 
made a number of importations from Dzierzon's Apiary ; and 

•Some of the GoTemments of Enrope have long ago taken great interest In 
dlMeminating among their people a knowledge of Dzierzon's pystem of Bee- 
Coltiirc. Pnuaia fomiahea monthly a number of persona from <liff(Tent parts 
of the Kingdom with the means of ac<iuiring a ]iractical knowledge of this 
■jatem; while the Barariaa Grovernmeut has prescribed iii^tniction in Dzier- 
KOD'a theory aod practice of bee-cultiire, as a part of the regular conrse of 
•tQdiM Id its teachera' Seminaries. We are glad to see that the United States 
la beginning to recogniae the importance of bee-cnltnrc, and that an Apiarian 
dcpATtmenthaa been inaagurated under the control of the Agricultural Depart- 
OMDttt Washington. 




288 SAOEB or BXES. 

in the Fall of 1868 and 1864 Mr. Langatroth alao imported 
queens from the same Apiary, bnt the first large Bnceeflsfid 
importations were made by Adam Grimm of Wisconsin, in 
1867, from the Apiary of Frof. Mona of Bellinzona, and by 
us in 1874, from the Apiary of Signor Giuseppe Fiorini of 
Monselice, Italy. Since then, Mr. A. I. Boot, and othen, 
have succeeded weU nearly every season. 

This valuable variety of the honey-bee is now eztensivdy 
disseminated in North America. 

For directions on breeding and shipping Italian bees, see 
the chapters on Queen Raising (407) and Shipping Beei 
(587). 

550. The Egyptian bees (Apis fasdata) are smaller and 
brighter than the Italian bee. The hairs of their body are 
more whitish, and their motions are quick and fly-like. Their 
prolilicuess is great, but their ill-disposition has caused 
many who have tried them to abandon them. 

The Cyprian bees (a sub-race of Apis fasciata) were 
imported from Cyprus to Europe in 1872, and they were 
so much praised that, in 1880, two enterprising American 
Apiarists, Messrs. D. A. Jones and Frank Benton made a 
trip to Cyprus and the Holy Land, and brought bees from 
both countries to America. 

The Cyprian bees resemble tlie Italian bees. The main 
difference between them, in appearance, is a bright 3*ellow 
shield on the thorax of the Cyprians not to be seen in the 
Italians, and the yellow rings of the former are brighter, 
of a copper color, especially under the abdomen. Their 
drones are beautiful. 

Their behavior is like that of the Egyptians ; quiek and 
ready, they promptly assail those who dare handle them. 
Smoke astonishes but does not subdue them. At each 
puff of the smoker (382), they emit a aharp, trilling 
sound, not easily forgotten, resembhng that of ^^rneat ta 
the frying pan," and as soon as the smoke disappears, th^ 




THS SYRIAN BBE. 289 

are again on the watch, ready to pounce on any enemy, 
whether man or beast, bee or moth. Their courage and 
great prolificness would make them a very desirable race, 
if they could be handled safely. 

A slight mixture of this race with the Italian improves the 
latter wonderfully in color and working qualities. 

560. The Holy Land or Syrian bees are almost similar 
in looks to the Egyptian, these two countries being contigu- 
ous. Those who have tried them do not agree as to tlieii: 
behavior ; some holding them to be very peaceable, others 
describing them as very cross. We have never tried them. 

Among the different races of Eastern bees, the Caucasian 
are cited by Vogel, a German, as of such mild disposi- 
tion, that it is hard to get them to sting. Yet it is said that 
these bees defend themselves well against robber bees. 

According to Vogel, they resemble the Syrian bees, having 
also the shield of the Cyprians. It would sooni that these 
bees exist in the temperate zone of Asia, from the shores 
of the Mediterranean to the Himalayas, for 1 r. Dubini, in 
his book, writes that they were found at the foot of these 
mountains. 

561. According to an article in the '' Scioitijl: Jlevicw*' 
of England, although bees have been sent from this country 
and Europe, to Australia, there is an Australian native bee, 
which builds its nest on the Eucalvptus. Those bees gather 
immense quantities of a kind of honey which, although very 
Bweet, can be used as medicine, to replace the cod-liver oil, 
used with so much repugnance by consumptives. 

562. Apis dorsata, the largest bee known, lives in the 
jangles of India. Mr. Benton attempted to import this bee 
at great expense and danger, but only succeeded in bring- 
ing one colony to Syria, where it died. Mr. Vogel tried 
also to bring some of them to Germany without success. 
At all eyents farther attempts at importing or domesticat- 
ing these bees woald be so expensive, that private enter- 

19 




MO RAcas or Bcn. 

prise will be balked by the task. It behooves our govern- 
ment to take such matters in hand for the public good. 
Besides Apia dorsata, two other kinds exist in India, Apii 
/hrea and Apia Indices. The latter is cultivated by the 
natives with good results* Both are smaller than our oom> 
mon bee. 

568. Another race of bees/ the Melipone, is found io 
Brazil and Mexico. More than twelve varieties of these 
have been described, all without stings. 

Huber, in the beginning of this century, received a nest 
of them, but the bees died before reaching Geneva. Mr. 
Drory, while at Bordeaux, France, was more suocessfoL 
One of his friends sent him a colony of Melipones, and he 
published in the ^^Rucher du Sud-Oueat " some very curioas 
facts coDceroing them. The cells containing the stores of 
honey and pollen are not placed near those intended for 
brood, but higher in the hive ; they are as large as pig^n 
eggs, and attached in clusters to the walls of the hive. The 
brood cells are placed horizontally in rows of several sto- 
ries. The workers do not nurse the brood, but fill the cells 
with food, on which the queen lays. The cells are then 
closed till the young bees emerge from them. 

A peculiarity of these bees is that the entrance to their 
home, which is very narrow, is usually watched by a single 
bee, acting as janitor, and withdrawing from the door to let 
the workers i)ass. They cannot stand the cold, and Mr. 
Drory could not save his, in spite of his care, in a location 
as mild as that of Bordeaux. Mr. T. F. Bingham of Abronia, 
Michigan, imported a nest of them, in the Spring of 1886, 
and lost thom the same Fall. A part of their nest was exhib- 
ited by him at the Indianapolis Convention, in October 18G8. 

• These bees are ■oientifloally olaMifled u belongliif to a diAowit gtam if 
apldjo. 




TBI APIABT. 29 1 



CHAPTER X. 
Thb Apiart. 

Location, 

564. Any one can keep bees, successfully, if be has a 
liking for this pursuit and is not too timid to follow the 
directions given in this treatise. Even ladies can manage 
a large Apiary successfully, with but little help. 

Almost any locality will yield a surplus of honey in aver- 
age seasons. Mr. Chas. F. Muth of Cincinnati, with 22 
colonies of bees, on the roof of his house, in the heart of 
this large city, harvested a surplus honey yield of 198 lbs. 
per colony in one season. 

Mr. Muth informed us that this surplus was collected from 
white clover blossoms in 26 days. 

565. But an intimate acquaintance with the honey 
resources of the country is highly important to those dcsirousi 
of engaging largely in bee-culture. While, in some localities, 
bees will accumulate large stores, in others, only a mile or 
two distant, they may yield but a small profit. 

"While Haber resided at Cour, and afterwards at Vevey, his 
bees snffered so much from scanty pasturage, that he could only 
preserve them by feeding, although stocks that were but two 
miles from him were, in each case, storing their hives abund- 
antly." — Bevak. 

Those desirous of becoming specialists will find the subject 
of location and yield further treated iu the chapter on 
Pasturage and Overstocking (608). 

566. Inexperienced persons will seldom find it profitable 
to begin beekeeping on a large scale. By using movable- 



18X 1 

frame (280) liires, they oan nptdljr iiiore«M theiz itatk ' 

after they hsve acquired bUU, and luive i 

aimply that mosey can be made by keeping bees, but UM \ 

Ocjr can vtake it. 

While large proDtg can be reallMd by oarefal and expe^ 
lenced bee-keepers, those who are otherwiee will be i 
sure to find their outlay resolt only in vexatious losses. Aa 
Apiary neglected dt 
mismanaged Is * wone 
than alarm omgrovB 
with weeds or mrhiTt 
ed by ignorant tUisgs; 
for the land, bypradtnt 
management, may again 
be made fertile, bat the 
bees, when once de- 
stroyed, ore 11 total loss. 
Of all farm pursuits bee- 
culture roquires the 
Ki^'. •.><;. greatest skill, and it 

OBNAMKsru. .;t..(-i. iiivk; oij) jtvlk; may well be called a 
iii,.M vin\i, bvsineasof delaiU. 

fi«7. WluToviT tlie Apiary is established, great pains 
ulioiilil hi' takin to protect tlie bees ag^nst high winds. 
'Ilnir jiivis >li.iiiKl be placed where they will not be annoyed 
by fi'ot [iusseiigtTs or taltle, and should never be very ne«r 
nluTv Imrsos iimst staiiil or pass. If managed on tbe 
eiviiriiiiiLi; plan, it is very desirable that they should be in 
full si^In of ilie rooms most occupied, or at least where the 
soumi of their sw.-Lrniiii},' (406) will be easily heard. 

In t!ie Nortlieni .ami Miiidlc States, the hives should have 
a Sotilh-Kastorn, SoulhorH, or South-Westem exposure, to 
give the bees the bciicltt of the sun, when it will be most 
conducive to their welfare. 

668. The plot occupied by the Aplaiy shoold bs 
grassy, mowed frequently, and kept free bom weedi. 




LOCATION. 203 

Sand, gravel, aaw-diiat" or coal cinders, spread in front of 
the liive, will prevent the growing of grass in their (343) 
immediate vicinity, and be a great help to those overladen 
beea, that fall to the ground before reaching the entrance. 

Hives are too often placed where many bees perish by 
falling into the dirt, or among the tall weeds and grass, 
where spiders and toads find 
their choice lurking-places, 

A gentle elope aouthwan 
will help to set the hives m 
they should be, slanting 
toward the entrance (337. 
328). 

669. They should be 
placed on separate stands. 
entirely independent of uiic 
another, and, whenever prac- 
ticable, room should be left | 
for the Apiarist to pa. 
around each hive. We lu 
ter to place them in rows -n .-- 
teen feet apart, with the hives •' 
about six feet apart in the "**■''' ^'"■*' • '"•" "''•'■'■■ 

rows. This isolates each liive 

completely, and, while handling one cohwiy. tlie A|iiLirisi is 
not in danger of being stung by the bi-c.-; of iliihiIiit. Tlic 
bees are also less likely to enter the wroiii; hives (50^). 

Covered Apiaries. 

S70. Covered Apiaries, nnlc-Js liiiilt at f^ri-al oxju'iisf, 
ftfford little or no protection against cKlrniii- licit or cold. 
ftnd ^eatly increase the risk o( losing; Ihc i|iici>n.^ (;t."i<(). 





TBK APIABT, 



and the young bees. The week cotoniea art altrajf tbi 
losere, for their yoxtng bees, in returning from Ifarir int 
trii)(173), ire mttracted by the noucol other liiveBclooclj 




adjoining, and proTo the troth of the F^enoh piomb "Lc 
pierre va toujoura au tos," (tlie atooe ahn^ gom to tto 
heap). 
Wiicn hires muat stand too close togetfaor, Uwjr riioiild kt 




COVERED APIARIES. 295 

of different colors. Even yarjing the color of the blocks 
will be of great usefulness. 

John MiUs, in a work published at London, in 1766, 
gives (p. 98) the following directions: — "Forget not to 
paint the mouths of your colonies with different colors, as 
red, white, blue, yellow, &c., in form of a half-moon, or 
square, that the bees may the better know their own homes." 

Covered Apiaries are common in Germany and Italy; 
their only quality is that of being thief proof, when shut and 
locked. But such structures, especially when several sto- 
ries high, cannot easily shelter top-opening hives. 

1571. Probably the most convenient covered Apiaries are 
simple sheds, facing South, and open in front during the 
Summer and warm days of Winter. House Apiaries, in 
which the hives are placed in several stories, facing every 
direction, are worse than nothing. Their only quality is 
to be ornamental and costly. 

1572. For ease of manipulation, out-door Apiaries are 
preferable. 

In the Summer, no place is so congenial to bees as the 
shade of trees, if it is not too dense, or the branches so 
low as to interfere with their flight. As the weather 
becomes cool, they can, if necessary, be mt^ved to any more 
desirable Winter location. If colonies are moved in the 
line of their flight, and a short diMance at a thnr. no loss 
of bees will be incurred; but, if moved a few \:iids, all at 
once, many will be lost. A slanting board j)hiced in front 
of the hive, so as to prevent the bees from llyini^ in strMJixlit 
line from the entrance to the field, will inf'ite them t«> mark 
the change of their position. By a fir*nl'iii! jwor^ss, I'u hi\es 
in a small Apiary may, in the Kail, be broiiLrht into a narrow 
compass, so that they can be easily sheltered from the bleak 
Winter winds. In the Spring, they may be gra<lually 
returned to their old positions. 

By removing the strongest colonies in an Apiary th^ 



196 TBS AI1ABT. 

first day, and others not so strong ttie next, and oODtti^ 
ing the process oiitil all were remorsd, we have hIb^ 
changed the location of an Apiary, when oompelled to mm 
bees in the working seaaoo. Oo the removal of the hit 
bive, but few bees retamed to the old spot. Tbe fihiiign. m 
thns oonducted, strengthened tbe weaker c<dotil«a, botm 
wonld advise hee-fceepera to locate their hlToa Im m p«aft- 
nent a position as possible, as tUs moving la itot prnelkal, 
eapecially with a large nomber of coiooies. Those who do 
not winter thdr beea in the oallar, «ui eatfj protaet di^ 
on their Snmmer atand. See ohapt«r <m Wintering (619). 
If the hives have to be placed in an expoaed looatioB with- 
oat shade, It is well to protect them with notm (889). A 
roof will be found highly economical, aa it not only ahadi 
the rain, but wards off the heat of thi saa. 

Promring Beet and Tnaufarrtng. 

573. Tbe beginner will ordinarily find it best to stock Iiii 
Apiary with swanne of the current year, thus avoiding, until 
he can prepare himself to meet them, the perplexities which 
often accompany either natural or artiQcnal a warming. If new 
Bwarma are purchased, unless they are large and early, tbey 
may only prove a bili of expense. If old colooiea are pui^ 
chased, such only should be selected aa are healthy and 
populous. If removed after the working season has begun, 
they should be brought from a distance of at least two 
miles (13). 

If the bcc9 are not all at home when the hive is to be 
reiiiuvct.1. blow a little smoke into its entrance, to cause 
thone witliiii to fill tlieraaolvea with honey, and to prevent 
them tr'<;ii leaving for the liclds. Repeat this process Crom 
time to time, and in half an hour neariy all will have 
rcturncil. If soy are clustered on the ontdde, tbey may 
be driven within by smoke (382). 




TRAK8KBRRINO. 297 

The best time to buy fall colonies of bees, is Spring. A 
cool day may be selected, in which to move them, as the 
bees are not dying, none can be lost. In the present thriv- 
ing state of bee-keeping, colonies of pure Italian bees (551) 
in movable frame hives (286) can usually be bought at 
very reasonable figures. If the Apiarist's means are very 
limited, black bees (540) in old style box-hives may prove 
the cheapest, if they can be found. But they should be 
promptly transferred into more practical hives, and Italian- 
ized (4:80) ; these manipulations will help to give to the 
novice the practice which he lacks. Italian bees and mov- 
able-frame hives are now a sine qud non of success. 

No colony should be purchased, unless it has brood in 
all stages, showing that it has a healthy queen. For trans- 
porting bees, see (587 and 603). 

Traksferriko Bees from Common to Motable-Frame 

Hives. 

574. This process may be easily effected whenever the 
weather is warm enough for bees to ily. 

It has sometimes been done in Winter, for purposes of 
experiment, by removing the bees into a warm room, but 
the best time for it, is when the bees have the least honey, 
al the beginning of the fruit bloom. If it can be done on a 
warm day, when they are at work, there will be but little 
danger from robbers (664). 

It is conducted as follows: Have in readiness a box— 
which we shall call the forcing box — whose diameter is ubout 
the same with that of the hive from which you intend to 
drive the swann. Smoke the hive, lift it from its bottom- 
board without the slightest jar, turn it over, and carefuiiy 
carry it off about a rod, as bees, if disturbed, are much 
more inclined to be peaceable, when removed a short dis- 
tance from their familiar stand. If the hive is gently placed 



THX APIAKT. 

upside down on the ground, soaroelj a bee will fly out, md 
there will be little danger of being stung. The timid and 
inexperienced should protect' themselTes with a bee-fdl, 
and may blow more smoke among them, as soon as the hive 
is inverted. After placing it on the ground, the forcing-bos 
must be put over it. If smooth inside, it should have slats 
fastened one-third of the distance from the top, to aid bees 
in clustering. Some Apiarists place the box slanting on the 
hive, so as to be able to see the bees climbing. This 
method, called open driving, is a little slower, but it may 
give the operator the chance of seeing the queen ; when the 
driving can be considered as done. 

575. As soon as the Apiarist has confined the bees, he 
should place an empty hive — which we call the decoy-hive 
— upon their old stand, which those returning from the 
fields may enter, instead of dispersing to other hives, to 
meet, perhaps, with a most ungracious reception. As a 
general rule, however, a bee with a load of honey or bee- 
bread, after the extent of her resources is ascertained, is 
pretty sure to be welcomed by any hive to which she may 
carry her treasure ; while a poverty-stricken unfortunate 
that presumes to claim their hospitality is, usually, at once 
destroyed. The one mccis with as flattering a reception as 
a wealthy gentleman proposing to take up his abode in a 
country village, while the other is as much an object of dis- 
like as a ))oor man, who bids fair to become a public charge. 

If tliorc are in the Apiary several old colonies standing 
close together, it is desirable, in performing this operation, 
that the tleeoy-hive, and the forcing-box, should be of the 
same shape and even color with that of the parent-stock. If 
they are very unlike, and the returning bees attempt to 
enter a neighboring hive, because it resembles their old 
home, the adjoining hives should have sheets thrown over 
them, to hide them from the bees, until the operation ii 
completed. 




TRANSFERRING. 299 

576. To return to our imprisoned bees : their hive should 
oe beaten smartly with the palms of the hands, or two small 
rods, on the sides to which the combs are attached, so as 
to run no risk of loosening* them. These *' rappings," 
although not of a very " spiritual " character, produce, 
nevertheless, a decided effect upon the bees. Their first 
impulse, if no smoke were used, would be to sally out, and 
wreak their vengeance on those who thus rudely assail 
their honied dome ; but as soon as they inhale its fumes, 
and feel the terrible concussion of their once stable abode, 
a sudden fear, that they are to be driven from their treas- 
ures, takes possession of them. Determined to prepare for 
this unceremonious writ of ejection, by carrying off what 
they can, each bee begins to lay in a supply, and in about 
five minutes, all are filled to their utmost capacity. A pro- 
digious humming is now heard, as they begin to mount into 
the upper box : and in about fifteen minutes from the time 
the rapping began — ^if it has been continued with but slight 
intermissions — the mass of bees, with their queen, will hang 
clustered in the forcing-box, like any natural swarm, and 
may, at the proper time, be readily shaken out on a sheet, 
in front of their intended hive. 

Now put the forcing box on their old stand, and carry 
the parent-hive to some place where you cannot be annoyed 
by other bees. 

577. It is important to make sure that the queen is 
removed, as she might be injured in the transfer of comb. 
Her presence among the driven bees can be ascertained in 
a few minutes, by the quietness of their behavior, or by the 
eggs which she drops on the bottom board, and which can 
easily be seen if a black cloth is spread under the forcing 
box (155). 

* Tbere la little danger of loosening the combs of an old colony, bat the great- 
eat eautloii la neoeaaary when the combs of a hire are new. If, in inverting 
anch a hire, tb/B broeui ii/ien of the combs, instead of their edgen, are inclined 
downwaida. fha hmt, and weight of the beea. may loosen the oomba, and mia 
thaeoloaj. 





n the queen is not iriOi Am bMi, ft iMrwfD 
nm eboat, ae if anziooelj wieniMng for mmmOimg liif 
luiTeloet Tlie alann is n^ld^ eoannnleated to flie vMi 
colony ; the explorers sie rcinftmed, tbm tmiWsIws es^ 
pend their operations, snd soon the air is filed widi beeii 
If tliej cannot find tlie qneen, tiMj retnm to tiicir old sisad, 
and if no liire is tliere, wiH soon enter one of tiie a4Joinim 
colonies. If their queen is restored totbem soon aftcrllMj 
miss her, those ranning ont of tlie liire will ma&e n llalf-ci^ 
cle, and return ; the Joyful news is qniddy conunnnieatod 
to those on the wing, who forthwith alight and enter thi 
hive ; all appearance of agitated running about on the ontp 
side of the hive ceases, and Tedtilation, withita joyful hoa, 
is again resamed.* 

If the queen has not left the old hiTO, it is safer to return 
tlie bees and to resume the driving at another time. 

578. To transfer the comb, have on hand tools for pry- 
ing ofl a side of the hive ; a large knife for cutting out the 
combs ; vessels for the honey ; a table or board, on which 
to lay the brood combs ; and water for washing off, from 
time to time, the honey which will stick to your handa. 

Have also a number of pieces of wire, No. 16, cut a little 
longer than the frame, and bent on the ends in this shape 

I 1 to be driven into the wood of the frame, and to hold 

the combs in place. Let a certain number of frames be in 
readiness, with three or four of these wires fastened on one 
side, and lay them on the table, wire'Side daum. You must 
also have your movable frame hive in readiness near the 
table, with an extracting pan (770) under it, instead of a 
bottom board, to receive what honey may drip. All this 
must be ready before disturbing the bees. 

570. Having selected the worker-combs^ carefully cut 



* To wItncM these Intereetlng prooeedingi. It U onlj atemaiy to €Stck tkt 
qaeeo. and keep her until the le mlMed hj her eolooj. 
Ike ihonld be oonflsed In a queen cage. (OSS) dnriof tka 




TRAKSFERRINO. 801 

them rather large, so that they will just crowd into the 
frames, and retain their places in their natural position (fig. 
89), until the bees have time to fasten them. 

Now tack as many wires over them as may be necessary 
to hold them securely, and hang them in the hive. Drone 
combs sJiovld invariably be melted into wax. If drone-brood 
(168) is found, it can be fed to young chickens, who are 
▼ery fond of the larvie. The bottom board should be put 
under the hive just before carrying it out. 

When the hive is thus prepared, the bees may be put 
into it and confined, water being given to thera, until they 
have time to make all secure against robbers (664). 

If there is danger of robbers, it is preferable not to put 
the bees into the hive till late in the afternoon. They 
should be shaken in front of the new hive on a sheet (427) 
like a natural swarm. 

When the weather is cool, the transfer should be made 
in a warm room, to prevent the brood from beingj fatally 
chilled. An expert Apiarist can complete the whole opera- 
tion — from the driving of the bees to the returning of them 
to their new hive — in about an hour, and with the loss of 
very few bees, old or young. 

580. When transferring in early Spring, it should be 
remembered that the worker-brood (168) is of great value ; 
and not the least bit of it should be neglected or wasted 
unnecessarily. After a week, or more, according to the 
•eason, the hive may be opened and the fastening removed. 

Dr. Kirtland thus spoke of the results of transferring 
some of his colonies to the movable-comb hives. 

** I had three stocks transferred to an equal number of Mr. 
Langstroth's hives. The first had not swarmed in two years, 
and had long ceased to manifest any industry ; the others had 
never swarmed. All the hives were filled with black and filthy 
eomb, candied honey, concrete bee-bread« and an accumulation 
9i the cocoons and larv» of the moth. Within twenty-four hours, 
colony became reconciled to its new tenement, and begao 



THB APIABT* 

to jQibor with fkr greater aetiTity than any of mj old stocki. ... 
I have now no stronger ooloniea than theae, whloh I eonaldered 
of little valae till my acqoaintanee with thia new hlTa.*^— Ohio 
Fanner, Deo. 12« 1857. 

Let not the novice, however, think that tr&naferring b^et 
is a task that requires but little skill. He who transfen mc- 
cessfuUy a large number of coUmiee fnay be cMed an expert ta« 
handling bees* 

The process, as it has been condaeted by careless Apiar^ 
ists, has resulted in the wanton sacrifloe of thousands of 
oolonies. 

581. For the benefit of those who are timid in manipu* 
lations, we will give Mr. Jas. Heddon's method for trans- 
ferring, (page 5 G2 of *' Gleanings'' 1885). About swarming 
time (406) Mr. Heddon drives the old queen and a major- 
ity of the bees into the forcing-box, he then removes the 
old hive a few feet back, and places the new hive with 
frames full of foundation (674) on its stand, and *' runs 
in " the forced swarm. It would be well to return a part 
of the bees to the old hive, as its brood might be chilled if 
the weather becomes cool. 

Twenty-one days after the transfer of the bees, he drives 
the old hive clean of all its bees, uniting them with the 
former drive. As the worker brood of the old hive is ail 
hatched, there is nothing left in it but the combs and the 
honey, which can be transferred at leisure in cool weather, 
or, the honey may be extracted (749), and the comb melted 
into wax (858). 

(hU-ApiarieSm 

582. When an Apiarist wishes to make bee-culture his 
special occupation, he should expect to keep bees in more 
than one location. If he owns more than 120 colonies, we 
would advise his establishing an Out-Apiary. It is true 




OUT-APIABISS. 803 

that there are many drawbacks to the cultivation of bees 
four or five miles ofif, but there are also some advantages. 
The crop sometimes fails in one locality, and is very good 
in another a short distance away. One Apiary may be in a 
hilly country, where white clover abounds, and another on 
low lands, where Fall blossoms never fail. It is well — 
according to a familiar proverb^ not to '' put alt our eggs 
in one basket/' 

In many years' practice of keeping bees in five or six 
different Apiaries, occupying a range of country about 
twenty miles in width, we have found out that the crop wiU 
vary greatly in a few miles, owing to the different flora of 
the various localities, and more especially to the greater or 
less amount of rain-fall at the proper time. We have also 
learned that an Apiary placed near a large body of water 
(the Mississippi), will produce less honey than one a mile 
or two from it, owing to the smaller area of pasturage in 
reach of the bees. 

583. In establishing an Out-Apiary on some farmer's 
land, the following must be taken into consideration : Select 
a farm on which a grove or an orchard is near the house ^ 
8ome distance from the road. The place ought to be, at 
least, three miles in a bee-line from your own bee-farm. It 
is not necessary that it should be more than four miles 
away.* 

Locate your bees with some careful man. Do not trust 
a farmer who lets his fences fall, who leaves his mower in 
the 3'ard over Winter, or puts his cows in liis orchard. You 
will never rest easy, if you think that some of your hives 
may be upset any day by a vagrant cow. 

Do not put your bees on land which is tenanted. Let 

• Mr. J. M. Harobaagh, of Spring, Dl. . harvested altogether different yields 
both lo quality and quantity, ftom two Apiaries only two and a half milea 
apart. Thla tgraaa with onr oft repeated experience in Apiarlea three or four 
■dlaaaiMOt. 



^«mtL 



»»fc*^ai ? i i ilirti»>b»itiByj 

• ■» oM^ h w lr« MiK ad fiiM 



dMMJ 

i^s « »l|Mr7 Vm lia «h lat far aa 

i__ 1. ^ tfMlilllWtlllljlllldil) 




nOKET-BODBK. 305 

lay need not amoatit to ( 50. Almost any spare room will 
do for a honey room. 

Tet when the Apiuiit wishes to be at eue, we would 
tdvlMliiiQ to bnild his honey-house in the middle of hii 
Apiuy. The windows and doors of this building must all 
be provided with wire cloth nettiag, to exclude bees, flies, 




wiK DO w -sci;eic» . 

etc. We here give an engraving of a simple method of 
placing the wire screen, ao as to allow these insects to escape. 
The netting is nailed on the outside of the window projecU 
iDg aboat six inches above. Three small ^lats are 
nailed between the triune and the netting, so as to leave ■ 




30G THX APIABT. 

■pace of I of an inch between the wire cloth and the will, 
at the top of the window. The bees and flies that have been 
brought in with the combs, or that have entered the room, at 
some time or other, fij against the wire cloth, and soon 
find the small fissure aboye, through which they escape ; bat, 
in returning, they smell the honey through the wire cloth, 
and forgetting that they have escaped between the wire tnd 
the wall, they try in ^dn to pass through the wire doth. 
In the engraving, the window sashes haye been remoTsd, 
but their use in no way interftoes with the screen, if tin 
lower one is raised, or ttie upper one. lowered, while tiim 
aie bees in the room. 



SHIPPINQ AND TRANSPORTING BEES. M) i 



CHAPTER XL 

Shipping and Transportino Bees. 

KB 7. In shipping colonies of bees by rail, it is not neces- 

to give them much ventilation, if they are sent during 

the cool weather of Spring. We have successfully shipped 

hundreds of colonies to all parts of the U. S., in early 

Spring, with no other ventilation than was atfordcd by the 

joints of a rough block nailed over the entrance of the hive. 

But, if the weather is warm, and the colony populous, plenty 

of air is needed. We usually replace the bottom board by 

a wire-cloth-frame protected by slats. The entrance should 

never be covered with wire-cloth, but should be entirely 

closed, for the old bees will worry themselves trying to get 

through it, and it will soon be clogged with dead bees. 

They should be given as much air as needed with the least 

possible amount of light. 

When the colony is so populous, that draught through the 
hive cannot injure the brood, we nail a screen over the 
frames also, and shade it with a board nailed on slats, run- 
ning across the ends of the hive. The closing of the portico 
alone, if there is one, with wire-cloth, is not practical, as a 
part of the swarm crowds into it and bars the ventilation. 

588. The frames should, of course, be securely fastened 
in their places. For this purpose, Mr. Root uses sticks, or 
slats, of the depth of the hive, that fit between the frames 
and hold them. 

New combs had better not be shipped at all. If there is 
plenty of fresh honey, we would advise the extracting of all 
that is unsealed, previous to shipment. When there is brood 
in every comb, and the weather is warm, it is safer to 
remove a part of the brood, and put frames of dry comb 



altgniatdy with ttm fnaws of Imod. The Imod 
niajr be med to etrengUieB veek edo nl ee. 

As m rule, it is better to sliip snudl lots hj Biyiesi, M 
large lots may be sent in early Spring, hj frrig^ if Oiy 
are not to be more than a week on the way. We haTsaal 
bees safely, from Illinois to Utsh, by freight. 

589. In shipping bees, or ecdonies, it is importsnt to 
place ooospicaoos cantimiary eards or labels on the pack- 
ages: Liying Bees, Handle with Cave, This aide up. Keep 
out of the son, etc 

The damage done by roii|^ railroad handling, is ttt 
greatest item of loss, in the transportation of bees property 
packed. If colonies are shipped in carl o ads, thqr ihonid 
be so placed, that the combe will nm lengthwise, sad 
not from side to side, as in Yehioles drawn by horses. Sxa* 
plus racks or stories should be shipped separately. 

590. Some Apiarists, among whom we will cite the firm 
of Flanagan and Illinski of Belleville, 111., have practiced 
shipping bees by water routes to the Southern States in the 
Fall, for Winter, and returning them in Spring at the begin- 
ning of the honey harvest. If proper precautions are taken, 
this plan may be profitable, where low rates of transporta- 
tion can be obtained, but much judgment must be exercised 
as to the time of returning them North. As the colo- 
nies become strong very early in the South, if they sro 
brought back North before the warm weather, their brood 
may become chilled, and a tendency to the developementof 
foul-brood is encouraged. 

591. Delia Rocca, in his treatise on ** Bee-ooltore in the 
Island of Syra," speaks of the Egyptian^ method of keep* 

• '* Mr. Cotton mw a idad In Germany who kept aU Ida BmnamM ato^ 
rich bj changing their placaa aa loon aa the hoaay aaaaon variad. 'SomatlBMi 
ha tendi thorn to the moon, sometimes to the maadowa, aiwnattmaa to tha flor- 
aata, and sometlmM to the hUla. In Franca— and thaaama praettoa baa aodalid 
1b Xgypt tiom the roost andant tl m ea thay oftaa pot Ima^ada of Uvaa la • 
boat, which floats down tha stream by night and atopa bf daj."- 




FLOATIHO APIABIE8. 809 

log bees on boats, which were floated up and down the Nile 
U> take adrantage of the different crops of honey at different 
points. 

It woold even appear that the Greeks in the time of Colu- 
mella transported their hives to Egypt by sea, '* the sea- 
son of blossoms being later than in Greece ; for after the 
month of September there is no pasture in Achaia for bees, 
whilst in "Egypt flowers are in full bloom even after that 
time, owing to the receding of the high waters of the Nile." 
He relates a laughable story about one of these floating 
Apiaries. One hive having been upset by accident on a 
boat, the enraged bees attacked the mariners unexpectedly, 
and forced them to jump into the river and swim to the 
siiore, which likely, was not far distant, nor did they dare 
retnm, until they had provided themselves with a supply of 
■moke-producing ingredients. 

592. There is a certain amount of fascinating romance 
eonnected with the idea of a floating Apiary, following the 
bloasoms, on the waters of the great Mississippi, or of some 
of its tributaries. An attempt of this sort was made on a 
large scale, a few years ago, by a Chicago firm. It was a 
total failure, but we are inclined to think that the failure 
was due more to the lack of practical knowledge in bee- 
keeping, on the part of the managers, than to any other 
oaose. 

503. Transportation of bees from a location where 
blossoms are scarce to a good field, and returning them 
after the crop, is sometimes attended with fair success. 
Some Apiarists, located in places where the June crop alone 
can be depended upon, make it a practice to transport their 
hives to Fall pasturage every Suininer. We, ourjjclves, have 
taken 120 hives of bees, about eighteen miles, to the Missis- 
sippi river bottoms, in August, 1880, when the drouth had 
destroyed alPhopes of a Fall harvest on the hills. The 
high waters of the Mississippi, which had receded a few 




810 SHIPPINa AND TRANSPORTING BBSS. 

weeks before, had left those immense bottom lands covered 
with a luxuriant vegetation. The result fully answered oar 
anticipations. Those lately starving colonies, yielded a boun- 
tiful surplus, while their sisters on the hills had to be fed for 
Winter. But the labor of transportation, the risk incurred, 
if the colonies are strong and heavy, and the diflSculty of 
transporting old bee-hives, without danger of some bees 
escaping, make the habitual shipping of bees for pasturage 
hardly advisable. 

SmppiNa QuEKxs. 

504. It was in the numerous and partially saccessful 
attempts, which we made before 1874, to import bees from 
Italy, that we became acquainted with the conditions neces- 
sary to the shipping of queens. 

695. When they are to be confined a long time, the 
question of food is the most important. Many were the 
blunders made by the first shippers, who imagined that 
they re(iuired a large amount of food, and literally drowned 
them in honey. By repeated and costly experiments, we 
ascertained that the bees that arrived in the best condition 
were those that were fed on the purest saccharine matter. 
Those that suffered the most, were those that had the most 
watery (249), orthc darkest, honey (627). Water (271), 
which some Italian shippers persisted in giving them, in 
spite of what we could say, was noxious; as the consump- 
tion of it, with the food, helped to load their abdomen with 
matter that could not be discharged (73), causing what is 
inii)roperly called dysentery (784). Water is needed only 
in brood rearing, 

590. Old bees, or rather, bees that have begun to work 
in the field, will stand a longer trip than young bees, as the 
latter consume more honey, and need to discharge their 
abdomen oftener. 




smppiNa QUKSMS. 811 

The shipping boxes in which bees are usually sent from 
Italy, are about three inches deep, by three inches in width, 
mnd four inches in length, with two small frames of comb, 
one with thick sugar syrup, the other dry. From fifty to 
seventy-fiye bees are put with one queen in each box. Air 
holes are cut into the sides of the boxes, and these are fas- 
tened together in a pyramidal shape, with an outer covering 
of tin, to which is fastened the handle. Queens thus put 
up, have reached us after thirty-six days of confinement with 
very little loss, and it is in this way that the greatest num- 
ber of imported queens are received. 

The usual transit from Italy to New York, takes from ten 
to fourteen days. If the importer receives his bees, through 
a custom-house broker, they will not be delayed in the cus- 
tom-house, but, if this precaution is neglected, the bees may 
be held at the custom-house for clearance, and the poor 
insects will die, martyrs to the protection (?) of the coun- 
try's interests. 

597. We might mention in connection with this, an oft- 
repeated incident, so touching and sweet, as to seem more 
tike a romancer's fable, or a poetic idyl, than a mere fact. 
On receiving the boxes containing Italian queens, we noticed 
that frequently all the bees shipped with the queen had 
died, she being the only one alive in her prison. We after- 
ward found out that the faithful little subjects had denied 
themselves nourishment, and starved to death, sacrificing 
themselvee, that their queen might not be deprived of food 

MAHJNa Queens. 

598. To Mr. Frank Benton is due the credit of flrsi 
maiH"g queens safely across the ocean, but the mailing of 
them, with more or less success on the American continent, 
has been practiced for years. Messrs. J. H. Townley and 
H. Alley, appear to have been the first to succeed, as early 
as 1868. 




Hw methodfl bave been w tn Impnmd, that oar fllMd 
Sir. Fsnl TiaOoD, a pracdeal qnean-IWMdar of Trim'TlrT. 
sent u IfiO qaeena In tbe naMO of 18U, hj mall, wltt te 
loM of only Uiree or (oar. ^m oagia fas ued war* thaPM 




(Frontlie "BeTaelntenitlontle."! 

cages. Yet the mails are bo roughly handled genaaDj, 
tliat we would not advise the sending of Talnable qneeni in 
this way. 

The food given is the Soholz candy (613) made of 
powdered sugar and honey kneaded together. A. tnflBciat 
number of bees must be put with the queen to keep her 
warm, but not enough to crowd the cage— six to ten bees 
are sufficient, in Summer. 

ff 09. Of late years, at the sn^estion of friend Boot, tbs 
ahipping of bees by the pound instead of in colonies, has 
been practiced, for the purpose of stocldog Apiaries. Sinos 
the invention of comb foundation, a hive may be supplied 
Willi comb of the best quality, at comparatively small cost,- 
and a choice queen, with a pound or two of bees, can build 
up a very fair colony, it piircliased at the iMginning of the 
clover harvest and properly cared for. They ar« ahlpped 
in wire-cloth cages (Bg. 101) and fed with Sdioli candy for 
the trip. 




ICAILIII0 QUBian* SIS 

0OO. How many bees are there in a pound? Thia qnea* 
lloQ haa been piopoonded to us several limes. L*abbi 
CoUin^ by carefal experiments, found that in a normal con* 
dition it takes about 6,100 bees to weigh a pound ; while in 
the swarm, when they are supplied with honey, it takes less 
than 4,d00. TheiT weight will vary according to the 
quantity of honey they haye absorbed. 

601« Parties contemplating the breeding of bees and 
<iueens (489) for sate, will do well to locate themselyes as 
tax South as oonyenient for easy shipment, as it is by far 
more husratiye to raise them there than in the North. This 
is Tery easy to understand. In the South, the bees usually 
winter safely, and breed early, so that the colonies are 
■trong, while those of the Northern latitudes are still con- 
fined in their hives, struggling against the rigors of Winter. 

If an Apiarist purchases bees or queens at the proper 
time — Spring — to recruit his Winter loss, he will most likely 
bay them from some location South of him, as he can there 
obtain stronger oolonies, and earlier queens, than in his own 
latitude. 

602. On the other hand, as the honey of the Northern 
States is superior in quality to Southern honey, bee-culture 
lor hooey productioa can be made fully as profitable in the 
North, in spite of the difficulties of wintering (619). 

TBASSffOBTIKO BeBS ShOBT DiSTANCBS. 

69S* The boK-hives may be prepared for removal by 
Inverting them and tacking a coarse towel or sack over 
Ihem, or strips of lath may be laid over wire-cloth, and brads 
driven through them into the edges of the hive. 

Confine the hive, so that it cannot be jolted, in a wagon 
with q>ring8, and be sure, before starting, that it is imposMle 
tor a bee to get out. The inverted position of the hive will 
fire the bees what air they need, and guard their oomba 



OTrfhv. to BM* a Urn wifafe aartiriM mn^ saw ooiik 

(««),« l fcl* lM l j (M»). 

lBlMi,«« aoalt AiB^aifa ta^nnen not to tnufMrt 
>—l»— ■liifcg jMtbiionfniit-bloMoniuitUebcit 
■■■■■•bai^atliaMlaiiaafban. Some adviH tna*- 
fOtBag Omm !■ WMh^ «■■ liBdi, but after trial neoo- 



MM »■ Miifcii! to am wo*. WfltenNM 

itaitB iwullii^ tnat « fatrs droppiag ten ■ 
bmd'i hutda to tka gnxmd, nmiag Um tww to flvape, ud 

to itiiig both the drivo uid the horMS WTerely. 

U a colony, in hot weatber, is to be moved any distance in 
movable-frame hires, it will t>e advisable to fasten trama 
of wire-cloth, both to the top and bottom of the brood 
apartmenl, and to transport the bottom-board (344), cloth, 
mat, or surplus cap or cover (3AA), separately. 

Glass hives ought never to be sent off tor fear of acddent. 
Hives with movable-frames shoatd be arranged ia sncb a 
position that the frames nm tromnde to dde, and not fron 
front to rear, in the cairiages. 

603. (lis.) Upon arrivid at the Airiary, if the weather ii 
warm, you should at once set the hive in proper poaltion. and 
release the Ijees. It is good policy to place a s&ade boari 
in front of the entrance for a day or two. The object ol 
this is to cause the old bees to notice that sometliing ii 
changed in their location, and to torn aroodd and mark Um 
place, instead of starting out aa usual in a bee-line without 
looking behind. 

e04. New swarms may be brought home in any box 
which has ample ventilation. A tesrcbest, with wire-doth 
on the top, sidea, and bottom-board, win b« toond ntj ooa- ■ 



TKAHSFOBTIMQ BKES BBOBT DISTAHCBB. 



Of Iftte yeuB, Mr. A. I. Root, &ud others, have 
DTkcticed the shipping of bees b; the pouad, with or with- 
out queens, to stock Apiaries. Tfaeic wiie-cloth cagei 





QUn FOB OMS-BAUr POUKO 
(from Boot'* 

or boxes for shipping bees, are just the thing for hauling 
natnral Bwanns, if made large enough (fig. 101). 

The bees may be shut up in the box as soon aa the; are 
hived. New tuamu require even more air than old colonia, 
being full of honey and closely clustered together. They 
should be set in a cool place, and, if the weather is very 
sultry, should not be removed until night. Many swarms 
are suffocated by the neglect of these precautions. The 
bees may be easily shAken out from this temporary hive. 

When movable-comb hives are sent sway to receive a 
■warm, two strips of wood, with pieces nailed to them, to go 
between the frames and keep them apart, should be laid 
over the frames, or tbey may be tacked fast in their proper 
places. 

The enamel-clofh (352) should be fastened on, by nail- 
ing strips all around over it. 

For Uie further preparation of hivce to receive swarms, 
SM (491). 




Sli 



CHAFTBB Xn. 

FsEDnro Bbbs* 

605* Fbw things In practical hiw kiwpfag are more l» 
portant than the feeding of bees ; yet none ha^e been non 
grossly mismanaged or neglected. Sinoe the aolphnr-fit 
has been discarded, thousands of teeble oolcmiee starre in 
the Winter, or early Spring ; while <rften, when an nniaier- 
able Summer is followed by a' aefere Winter, and kli 
Spring, many persons lose most of their ooloiiiea and abas* 
don bee-keeping in disgust. 

In the Spring^ the prudent bee-keeper wtU no mors megUd 
to feed his destitute colonies^ than to provide for his own 
table. At this season, being stimulated by the returning 
warmth, and being largely engaged in breeding, bees re* 
quire a liberal supply of food, and many populous coloniss 
perish, which might have been saved with but trifling 
trouble or expense. 

** If e^er dark ikntumn, with untimely storm. 
The honey'd harrest of the year defbrm ; 
Or the chill blast from Earns' mildew wingt 
Blight the fair promise of returning Springf 
Full many a hive, but late alari and gay, 
Droops in the lap of all-inspiring May.'* BvaaSi 



** If the Spring is not favorable to bees, th^ should be 
beeause that is the season of their greatest expense in honey, fw 
feeding their young. Having plenty at that time, enables thes 

to yield early and strong swarms."— (Wildman.) 

A bee-keeper, whose colonies are allowed to perish after 
the Spring has opened, is on a level with a farmer wlioas 
eattle are allowed to starve in their stalls ; while those who 
withhold from them the needed aid, in seasons irtien tiief 




sPBnro FSKDDfO. 327 

cumot gather a sapply, resemble the merchant who burna 
up his ships, if they have made an anfavorable voyage. 

Columella gives minute instructions for feeding needy 
oolonies, and notes approvingly the directions of Hyginus-^ 
whose writings are no longer extant — that this matter 
should be most carefully ('' dUigmUiuime") attended to. 

Spring Fbbdino* 

HOB. When bees first begin to fly in the Spring, it is 
well to feed them a litUe^ as a small addition to their hoards 
encourages the production of brood. Great caution, how- 
ever, should be used to prevent robbing. Feeding should 
always be attended to in the evening (666), and as 
soon as forage abounds, the feeding should be discon- 
tinued. If a colony is over-fed, the bees will fill their 
brood-combs, so as to interfere with the production of 
joong, and thus the honey given to them is worse than 
thrown away. 

The over-feeding of bees resembles, in its results, the 
noxious influences under which too many children of the 
rich are reared. Pampered and fed to the full, how often 
does their wealth prove only a legacy of withering curses, 
as, bankrupt in purse and character, they prematurely sink 
to dishonored graves. 

Colonies, which have abundant stores, may be incited to 
breed, by simply bruising the cappings of a part of their 
hooey. This causes them to feed their queen more plenti- 
folly, and more eggs are laid. 

607. Bees may require feeding, even when there are 
many blossoms in the flelds, before the beginning of the 
■Mdn harvest, if the weather is unfavorable to the honey 
iow. Large quantities of brood hatch daily, requiring 
much food, and a few days without honey sometimes en- 




518 

dangers the life of colonies, on the e?e of a pleatlfal hs^ 
Test. 

The best way to feed destitute oolonies in Spring is to 
give them combs of honey, which have been saved from the 
previous season for this purpose. If such cannot be liad, 
the food may be put into an empty comb, and placed whors 
it can be easily reached by the bees. 

Honey partially candied (880), may be given than, in 
small quantities, by pouring it over the top of the combs ia 
which the bees are clustered. A bee deluged by sweeU, 
when away from home, is a sonry spectacle ; but what is 
thus given them does no harm, and they will lick eaoh oilier 
clean, with as much satisfaction as a little child raito its 
fingers while feasting on sugar candy. 

If a colony has too few bees, its population must be 
replenished before it is fed. To build up small colonies by 
feeding, requires more care and judgment than any other 
process in bee-calture, and will rarely be required by those 
who have movable-frame hives. It can only succeed when 
everything is made subservient to the most rapid produc- 
tion of brood. 

Fall FsKimro. 



608. By the time the honey-harvest closes, all the colo* 
nics ought to be strong in numbers ; and, in favorable sea- 
sons, tlicir aggregate resources should be such that, when 
an equal division is made, there will be enough food for all. 
If somo have more, anil others less than they need, an equi- 
table division may usually be effected in movable-frame 
hives. Such an agrarian procedure would soon overthrow 
human society ; but bees thus helped, will not spend the 
next season in idleness ; nor will those deprived of their 
surplus limit their gatherings to a bare competency. 



FALL TEKDDIO. 



819 



Before die first heavy frosts all feediD) 
required for wintering bees should be* 
carefully attended to. 

609. Feeders of all descriptions are ^ 
made and sold.* To feed our bees we have 
used for years a fruit can, (fig. 102) cov- 
ered with cloth and inverted over the hive. 
It costs nothing aud can be found in every Fig. iin. 

bouse. We now use Hill's Feeder (fig. 102 can fsbder. 
bis), in which the cloth Is replaced by a perforated cover. 





HILiL's BSE-FEEDBR. 

The bees can then get their food, without being chilled 
ereD in cold weather, and they promptly store it away in 
the combs, for later use. 

It is desirable to get through with Fall feeding as rapidly 
M possible,! as the beea are aoexcited by it that they con- 
Hunfl more food than they otherwise would. In feeding a 
large amount for Winter supply, wc have given ns many 
as five quart-cans to one colony at one time. Wooden 
feeders in the shape of troughs, as made by Root, SluKk, 
and HeddoQ, have the advantage over the vans of not need- 
ing removal to be refilled, but tboy are not bo well in reach 
of the cluster. 



1, wUl MldDm pay uipenMa. 



M emptj Utm, unlaM oomba •■■ 




610. As hoiiflj Is sesros lo tbm ssssons vies 
Fall feeding bss to be resorted to, we wfB ghi 
directtons for mskiiig good sjmp for WUbm 
food: Disserve twenty pounds of gnunhled 
sugar (use none but the best) In one gallon ^ 
boiling water, with the addition of Uto or ab 
pounds of bonsy. StfrtID well melted, and lisi 
while hikewann. 

611. Ayor eoM^, for feeding beeOt waa int 
reomunended bj Mr. Welgei of SOealn. Utte 
candy is laid on the framea Jnat abore the doi* 
tared bees, it wiU be aoesarible to liiem in 
the ooldest weather. II mtj also be put be> 

w\g,im, tween the combs, in an upright position, among 

ROO T the bees, or poured into combe before it is 
^^^' cold. 

To make candy for bee-feed: add water to sugar, and 
boil slowly until the water is evaporated. Stir constantly 
80 that it will not burn. 

To know when it is done, dip your finger first into cold 
water and then into the syrup. If what adheres is brittle 
to the teeth, it is boiled enough. Poor it into shallow 
pans, a little greased, and, when cold, break it into pieces 
of a suitable size. 

612. Before attempting to make candy for bee feed, the 
novice will do well to read the following advice from the witty 
pen of friend A. I. Root : 

** If your candy is burned, no amount of boiling will make it 
hard, and your best way is to use it for cooking, or fseding the bees 
In Summer. Burnt sugar Is death to them, if fSsd In cold weather. 
You can tell when it is burned by the smelly color and taste. If 
you do not boil it enough, it will be soft and sticky in warm wea- 
ther, and will be liable to drip, when stored away. Perhaps you 
bad better try a pound or two, at first, while you ^get your hand 
in**. Our first experiment was with 60 lbs. and it all got ^scorehed^ 
somehow • • • . Before yon commenoe* make up your 




FALL FSSDIN0. 

■ind, 700 will not get one drop of sugar or syrap on the floor or 
table. Keep jour hands clean, and everything else clean, and 
let the women folks see that men hare common sense ; some of 
them at least. If yon should forget yourself, and let the candy 
boil oyer on the store, it would be rery apt to get on the floor, 
and then yon would be rery likely to g^t **your foot in it", and 
before you got through, you might wish yon had never heard of 
bees or candy either; and your wife, if she did not say so, might 
wish she had never heard of anything that brought a man into 
the kitchen. I have had a little experience in the line of feet 
■ticking to the floor and snapping at every step you take, and 
with door knobs sticking to the Angers, but it was in the honey 
house." 0' A. B. C." page 48.) 

613. The Rev. Mr.SchohE» of Silesia, more than 80 years 
ago, recommended the following as a substitute for sugar- 
candy in feeding bees : 

** Take one pint of honey and four pounds of pounded lump- 
sugar; heat the honey, without adding water, and mix it with 
the sugar, working it together to a stiff doughy mass. When thus 
thoroughly incorporated, cut it into slices, or form it into cakes 
or lumps, and wrap them in a piece of coarse linen and. place 
them in the frames. Thin slices, enclosed in linen, may be pushed 
down between the combs. The plasticity of the mass enables 
the Apiiarist to apply the food in any manner he may desire. The 
bees have less difllculty in appropriating this kind of food than 
where candy is used, and there is no waste." 

This preparation has been used of late years with suc- 
cess, as food in mailing and shipping bees, under the name 
of '•^Good's candy." 

Thick sugar-syrup and candy are undoubtedly the best 
bee-food, especially when the bees are to be confined a long 
time and no brood is to be raised. 

614. An experiment of De Lajens has proved that bees 
can use water to dissolve sugar (273). The same writer 
relates how a French bee-keeper, Mr. Beuzelin, feeds his 

in Winter : 



** He aawt into slices a large loaf of lump-sugar, and places 
ittees tipoa tbm frames under a cloth. Another bee-keeper 
91 




rBBDOlO BB18. 



told me seTend yeara ago of baring aarod eolonlea in atimw hlwrn 
hy almply aoapending in them, with wirea, Itimpa of aagir 
weighing sereral ponnda."— (Bm^Ci^ tk ia Aottt BomimdtJi 



While sach methods sucoeed in a mild and damp oiimate, 
like that of Franoe, they are not advisable in the Northern 
part of the United States, unlesd the bees are wintered in 
cellars (640). 

615. The prudent Apiarist will regard the fee<Ung of 
bees — the little given by way of encouragement excepted— 
as an evU to be submiUed to only when U cannot be avoided^ 
and will much prefer that they should obtain their supplies 
in the manner so beautifully described by him whoee Inimi- 
table writings furnish us, on almost every subjectt with the 
liappiest illustrations : 

^^ So work the honey-bees, 
' Creatures that, by a rule in Nature, teach 
The art of order to a peopled kingdom. 
They have a king and officers of sorts, 
Where some, like magistrates, correct at home« 
Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad ; 
Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings. 
Make boot upon the Summer's velvet buds ; 
Which pillage they, with merry march, bring home 
To the tent royal of their emperor. 
Who, busied in his majesty, surveys 
The singing masons building roofs of gold; 
The civil citizens kneading up the honey; 
The poor mechanic porters crowding in 
Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate ; 
The sad-eyed Justice, with his surly hum, 
Delivering o*cr, to executors pale. 
The lazy, yawning drone." 

Shakespeaiir*s Jlemy K, Ad I, Sctm f. 

610. All attempts to derive profit from selling cheap 
honey or syrup, fed to bees, h.ive invariably proved unsuc- 
cessful. The notion that they can change a// sti^eets, however 
poor their quality, into honey^ on the same principle that 




FBBDIMO rOB PBOFIT. 828 

COWS secrete milk from mjhj acceptable food, is a complete 
delusion. 

It is true that they can make white comb from almost 
eyery liquid sweet, because wax being a natural secretion 
of the bee, can be made from all saccharine substances, as 
fat can be put upon the ribs of an ox by any kind of nour- 
ishing food. But the quality of the comb has nothing to 
do with its contents ; and the attempt to sell, as a prime 
article, inferior sweets, stored in beautiful comb, would be 
as truly a fraud as to offer for good money, coins which, 
although pure on the outside, contain a baser metal within. 

Different kinds of honey or sugar-syrup fed to the bees 
can be as readily distinguished, after they have sealed them 
up, as before. 

The Golden Age of bee-keeping, in which bees are to 
transmute inferior sweets into such balmy spoils as were 
gathered on Hybla or Hymettus, is as far from prosaic 
reality as the visions of the poet, who saw — 

**A golden hive, on a golden bank, 
Where golden bees, by alchemical prank. 
Gather gold instead of honey." 

Even if cheap sugar could be " made over '* by the bees 
so as to taste like honey, it would cost the producer, taking 
into account the amount consumed (223) in elaborating 
wax, almost if not quite, as much as the market price of 
white clover honey; and, if he feeds his bees after the 
natural supplies are over, they will suffer from filling up 
their brood cells. 

617. The experienced Apiarist will fully appreciate the 
necessity of preventing his bees getting a taste of forbidden 
sweets, and the inexperienced, if incautious, will soon learn 
a salutary lesson. Bees were intended to gather their 
supplies from the nectaries of flowers, and, while following 
their natural instincts, have little disposition to meddle 
with property that does not belong to them ; but, if their 



824 



foeaiittoiiB owner tempti than witli liquid ioodf al 
when they can obtain nothing from the bloeaoaw, tlq 
become so infatuated with iaoh ttmy gatheringii as to Iqm 
all discretion, and will perish bj thooaanda If Ibe ymmk 
which oontain the food are not fomlahed with floatSi ts 
which they can safely stand to hdp tbemaebea. 

Aa the fly waa not intended to banqn^ on Mnasoms, bil 
•o snbstancea in which it might easily be drowned, ttei» 
ttonaly aUghta on the edge of any tsssbI oontniaing Iqsli 
food, and warily helps itself; iriiito the poor bee, p^-f^i 
In headlong, speedily perishes. The sad file of tiWr »> 
lortonate companiona does not in the least deter oChsn who 
approach the tempting Inre, from madly •Mgfctitfcg ea fti 
bodies of the dying and the dead, to share the aame misi^ 
able end I No one can understand the extent of their 
infatuation, until he baa seen a confectioner's shop asssiled 
by myriads of hungry bees. We haye seen thousands 
strained out from the syrups in which they had perished; 
thousands more alighting even upon the boiling sweets ; the 
floors covered and windows darkened with bees, some 
crawling, others flying, and others still, so completely 
besmeared as to be able neither to crawl nor fly — not one 
in ten able to carry home its ill-gotten spoils, and yet the 
air filled with new hosts of thoughtless comers. 

We once furnished a candy-shop, in the Ticinity of our 
Apiary, with wire-gauze windows and doors, after the bees 
had commenced their depredations. On flnding themselvei 
excluded, they alighted on the wire by thousands, fairly 
squealing with vexation as they vainly tried to force a 
passage through the meshes.* Baffled in every effort, they 
attempted to descend the chimney, reeking with sweet 
odors, even although most who entered it fell with scorched 

• If ttDQfictnien of candlet and lyrapa wiU Snd II to tbatx Interest to St ncfe 
gmuda to thalr premliet; for, if only ono boo la a fc ai iSiod OMSpot wltS 
lood, ooMldosUo loM wUl bo ineuTBd in tho eoaiM of Iks 





on AMD ABun. St5 

wings into the fire, and it became necessary to put wire> 
gauze over the top of the chimney also. (586). 

618. As we have seen thousands of bees destroyed in 
■och places, thousands more hopelessly struggling in the 
deluding sweets, and yet increasing thousands, all unmind- 
ful of their danger, blindly hovering over and alighting on 
Ihem, how often liave they reminded us of the infatuation 
of those who abandon themselves to the intoxicating cup I 
Even although such persons see the miserable victims of 
this degrading vice falling all around them into premature 
graves, they still press madly on, trampling, as it were, 
over their dead bodies, that they too may sink into the 
same abyss, and their sun also go down in hopeless 
gloom. 

The avaricious bee that, despising the slow process of 
extracting nectar from "every opening flower," plunges 
recklessly into the tempting sweets, has ample time to be- 
wail her folly. Even if she does not forfeit her life, she 
letnms home with a woe-begone look, and sorrowful note, 
in marked contrast with the bright hues and merry sounds 
with which her industrious fellows come back from their 
lui|»py rovings amid ** bndding honey-flowers and sweetly* 
iMMthlniT flnlds ** 



619. Bees can h% i Mj in neariy aD eBnatai, 
where tlie Sammer is k i to enable theoi to atae i 
IHnter aapply. 1 itate, the vital lieat of tte 
Uto hollow trees in i ch they dwell, helps to majatain a 
higher temperature t . that of the oataide air, aad bees 
Winter so well in si abodes, that travelera, wlio Tiait 
Northern Russia, wonder bow so small an insect can five is 
such inhospitable c ountries. 

620. As s on as frosty weather arriTes, bees cluster c im- 
pact ly together in their hives, to lcee,> warm. They do not 
assemble on combs fall of honey, bat on the empty comb 
Jast below the honey. They are never dormant, lilce wasps 
and hornets, and a thermometer pus'ied up among them 
will show a Summer temperature, even when, in the open air, 
it is many degrees below zero. 

The bees in the cluster are imbricated^ like the shingles of 
a roof, each bee having her head under the abdomen of the 
one above her, and so on, to the ones who are in reach of 
the honey. These pass the honey to those below them, 
which pass it to the next, and so on, to the bottom of the 
mass. 

621. When the cold becomes intense, they keep up ao 
incessant tremulous motion, in order to develop more heat* 

* Xrerybody knowi that motion trantformt ItMlf ioto kest, and that haat li 
Irat tt form of motion .... whether the motion oooMs firam a large bodr 
og firom a email one, whether this motion he awktonlj or gESdaaUy etopped, 
tte reenlt is the same, it ie tranatormed into heal.— KWii*!— Hoa, * *Le 
ATSnt la CHatlon de 1' Homme.") 




WIMTEKINO. 827 

by aotlTe ezerdfle ; and, as those on the ontside of the oIas> 
ter become chilled, they are replaced by others. Besidest 
the fanning of wings, which causes this roar, sends the warm 
air from the top of the cluster to the bottom of the hive- 
thus warming the bees placed at the lowest part of the 
cluster ; and these, if not too chilled, take advantage of a 
warmer day, to climb above the mass, and get honey in 
their turn. 

When the weather is very cold, their humming can often 
be heard outside of the hive ; and, if the hive be jarred, at 
any time, there comes a responsive murmur, which is longer 
or shorter in duration, and lower or higher in tone, accord* 
ing to the strength of the colony. 

622. As all muscular exertion requires food to supply 
the waste of the system, the more quiet bees can be kept, 
the less they will eat. It is, therefore, highly important to 
preserve them as far as possible, in Winter, from every 
degree, either of heat or cold, which WiU arouse them to 
great activity. 

When all the food which is in their reach is consumed, 
they will starve, if the temperature is too cold to allow them 
to move their cluster to the parts of the combs which con- 
tain honey ; hence, if the central combs of the hive are not 
well stored with honey, they should be exchanged for such 
as are, so that, when the cold compels the bees to recede 
from the outer combs, they may cluster among their 
stores. In districts where bees gather but little honey in 
the Fall, such precautions, in cold climates, will be spe- 
cially needed, as, often, after breeding is over, their central 
combs will be almost empty. 

623. It is impossible to say how much honey will be 
needed to carry a colony safely through the Winter. Much 
will depend on the way in which they are wintered, whether 
in the open air or in special depositories, where they are 
protected against the undue excitement caused by sudden 




of the WinlwB, whieh my m aoflh fa dUtamt htliBilM, 
•ad tlM lorwirdoMB of tte «iaofa^ flptiag* XaaoaMrf 
oar Norttem Stetot, boes vill oltaa gtikm aotti^f Ik 
mot^ tham 8iz souths, iHiila, fa tho flEctaMDo Soalh« tlHf 
•rt MUom d«|Krlfod of all natonl mppltas lor m mfUf 
meki. In fdl oar Northern aad Middle Stafeeo, If tte oob- 
niee are to be wintered oat of doors, thqr ahonld hsve si 
isoMl twaatgr-llTe poaads of hoaegr* 

In mofable-framo hires, thesiaooatolstosasflMgr bses»> 
Uj ssesrtsinod by aetasl inspootioa. Tbs «ai|^ of faivas 
is aoi always a sals eriterion, as old oondMi sra hsaHsr thaa 
new ones, besides being oftsa o fscstssad wttii baa brsad, 

(ses.) 

624. Fraotieal bee-keepers osaally Jadga of the aDMMial 

of stores by sight. The majority of oombs in an ordinary 
Langstroth hive should be aboat half fall of luMiey, for oat* 
door wlnteriog, in this latitude. Remember that food is 
needed, not only to carry them through the Winter, but 
also to help them to raise brood largely, daring the oold 
days of early Spring. Bees do not waste their stores, and 
the wealthy colonies will usually De fbond stronger, and 
better prepared for the following harvest. 

Enthusiastic beginners, in Apioalture, are Mpt to overdo 
extracting (753), leaving too little hoaey ia the brood* 
chamber for Winter. If the bees are not aotaaily crowded 
with honey, we would advise them to leave, to strong colo- 
nies, all the honey that the brood-chsmber coataiaa. Soom 
may think that nine or ten neavy Qainby fraaiea, are too 
many for a colony, for they may be totalsrsd on s<s or ifsss. 
We will here give a bit of our experience on that point: 

625. Some 18 years ago, in an Apiary away from bone, 
where we were raising comb-honey (719), we hadmaaaiber 
of swarms, which, in the rush of the hon^-crop, we did aoi 
ezaaiiae antU their oombs were baili. Al thai ttsse, the 




wnnTKBixe. S29 

triangular bar (810) was the guide principally used, and 
the combs of some of these swarms were joined together in 
a way that rendered the frames immovable. In the Fall, 
we extracted (751) from the brood-chamber of nearly 
every colony, as was then our practice, leaving only seven 
Quinby frames on an average — for Winter. The colonies, 
that had crooked combs, were left with all their stores — ten 
frames, — because we could not disturb them without break- 
ing combs, and causing leakage and robbing, and it was not 
the proper season to transfer (574) them. These colonies 
did not have to be fed, the following Spring, became very 
strong, and yielded the largest crop. This untried-for 
result caused us to make further experiments, which proved 
that there is a proJU in leaving^ to strong colonies, a large 
quantity of honey^ so that they will not limit their Spring 

breeding* 

626. The quality of the bee-food is an important matter 
in wintering bees. Protracted cold weather compels them 
to eat large quantities of honey, filling their intestines 
with fecal matter which they cannot void, for bees never 
discharge their faeces in the hive (73), unless they are 
confined too long, or greatly disturbed. 

Unhealthy food in prolonged confinement, sooner or later 
causes diarrhea (784), not only in wintering out of doors, 
but in cellar wintering (646), and in shipping bees long 
distances (587). 

Diarrhea, or as some call it, dysentery, in bees, is not 
properly a disease, since it is only caused by the retaining 
in the abdomen, of a large amount of excrements, which in 
ordinary circumstances would be voided regularly.* These 
excrements or fseces, from a reddish yellow to a muddy 
black in color, according to the quality of the food eaten, 



kATt Im6q oonilned for two weeks or more, Uiej dlBcharge 
tai ilflil «xeTCaMDto whleb Mil eTerything about the Apiaiy. The hoiu»- 
svoids hamlnf cloUiee out to dry on laoh dayt. 



f^^ie w^ iptolerably off uftfe nML |ii e jtoe w ty e pofiiM- 
liiaitfirith m laige oopsnn^tioii, from aoy opuOt <4 fponoi 
ieaB heatthj food,wb0& bees cm no longer Tetaln the esqe- 
nients in their distended sbdomen, tbqr y^d them i|pos 
one snother, apon the OMDbs, iip<^ the floor, ipd sfc tin 
entrsnoe of the hive, ** whidi bees in m heslftby sUte u% 
psrticalsrlj csrefol to keep dean." 

If bees can YiAd them, in fli|^ (78), petcn it is too 
Iste, they eicperience no bad effeots, hence it is indispemsr 
bie that, when wintered oat of doors, bees should be ensbled 
to fly, at intervals, daring the Winter. 

f|87. From namerous experiments made, it is erident 

production of f axes. Hence watery, anripe, or soar honey, 
and all honey containing extraneous matter, are more or 
less injurious to confined bees. D^rk honey contaioing a 
large proportion of mellose is inferior to clover- honey or 
sugar-syrup. Honey harvested from flowers, which yield 
much pollen (263), is likely to contain many floating 
grains of it, and will be more injurious than clear, trans- 
parent honey, in cases where bees will be confined to their 
hives by cold for five or six weeks. Honey-dew (255) 
seems worse yet. The juices of fruits, apples, grapes, etc. 
(877), are worst of all. In the Winter of 18a0-81, we 
purchased the remaius of some 90 colonies, that had been 
winter-killed, and in which the only food left was apple- 
juice, that had been carried in, during the preceding Fall, 
and bad turned to cider. This unwholesome food in Winter 
confinement, by causing diarrhea, had killed bees every- 
where arouuvi us (784). 

628. Happily these instances, of bees storing apple- 
juice, are scarce, but the practical bee-keeper will not allow 
such food to remain in the hive. It can be extracted (740), 
boiled, and fed back in Spring, for bees do not suffer from 




wiNTsaniG. 881 

ttiis tood when not confined to their hives. The same may 
be said of inferior or unripe honey (261). 

Mnoh unsealed honey in the comb is injurious for Win- 
ter, even if the honey is ripe. This unsealed honey gathers 
moisture pn account of its hygrometric properties, and be- 
comes thin and watery. In addition to this peculiarity, 
honey, when cold, condenses the moisture or steam of the 
bees, in the same manner that a pitcher of cold water con- 
denses the moisture of the air in a warm room. In some 
Winters, we have seen unsealed honey gather so much of 
the moisture of the bees that it overflowed, and ran out of 
the cells to the bottom-board. Luckily the bees usually 
oonsume this honey first, before Winter begins. 

620. To avoid the accidents caused by poor honey, 
some Apiarists have suggested that all the honey might be 
extracted every Fall, and sugar-syrup fed in its place. 
This system is even carried farther by the inverting 
process, which (726) compels the bees to place all their 
honey in the surplus sections (721), leaving dry all the 
oombs of the brood-chamber. At the first glance, this 
course seems profitable, when the difference between the 
price of comb-honey (783) and the cost of sugar-syrup is 
considered, but when we take into acccount the trouble 
of feeding, and the poor results obtained in wintering 
the bees, we see much labor for a small profit. Having 
ascertained that bees winter better on Spring or light-col- 
ored honey (782), we no longer extract from the brood- 
chamber, avoiding the annoyance and the extra labor of 
feeding. Our experience has convinced us that, unless the 
Spring crop has failed, or the food is decidedly bad, such 
as unripe honey (240), or honey-dew (255), or fruit-juice 
(877), it is cheaper to winter bees on natural stores. 
When sugar-syrup is needed, none but the best sugar 
should be used. (See Feeding. 605.) 

6dO. AH empty oombs, whetber brood-combs or surplus- 




1ft AeiBil cold 
Wc Ittve 
eold f octBghl im 

alofy (vUck had tat Ittit honqr ia it» nd had 
left OB by Bcgleel), fllttoi«^ llnra wm planfef of 
hoagj ia ^^ hi^^ * fe^y "gfcw bd ofw ft—. Tliei|Mfle,MI 
CBptj bjr fte icmond of tte eoBbs, riMttld te med iritt a 
wsna Bsterial placed b e ft w€<a fte lida of Oa Uva and tte 
Arisioo-board* 

<I81. As aoiiie beea wUdi dhnlar om flha ontilda eoabi 
are often unable to Join fte oUicn la oold weatfcar,ttwoaM 
be wen to hare holes, or Winter paaaagea, throng thi 
combs, sach as will allow them to pass readily, in oold 
weather, from one to another ; but if these holes are made 
before they feel the need of them, they will freqaently 
close them. It is suggested that smaU tabes made of dder^ 
the pith of which has been removed, would make permanent 
Winter-passages, if inserted in the comb, at any time. On 
a cold NoTcmbrr day, Mr. Langstroth found bees, in ahivs 
without any Winter-passages, separated from the main 
cluster, and so chilled as not to be able to move ; while, 
with the thermometer many degrees below zero, he repeat- 
edly noticed, in other hives, at one of the holes made in the 
comb, a cluster, varying in size, ready to rush out at the 
slightest jar of their hive. 

It has been found quite praciical to glTe them a passage 
above the combs, or between the combs and the straw-mat, 
or quilt, above them. The Hill device is very good for this 
purpose, although we find that the bees often have bridge' 
combs in sufficient quantity above the frames to giTe them 
the necessary passage. 




OUT-DOOB ¥nNTEBnfG. S88 



0UT*D00B WlNTBRmO. 

632. The usnal mode of allowing bees to remain all 
Winter on their Summer stands, is, in cold climates, very 
objectionable. In those parts of the country, however, where 
the cold is seldom so severe as to prevent them from flying, 
mt frequent intervals, from their hives, no better way, all 
things considered, can be devised. In such favored regions, 
bees are but little removed from their native climate, and 
their wjnts may be easily supplied, without those injurious 
effects which commonly result from disturbing them when 
the weather is so cold a^ to confine them to their hives. 

If the colonies are to be wintered in the open air, they 
should all be made populous, and rich in stores, even if to 
do so requires their number to be reduced one-half or more. 
The bee-keeper who has ten strong colonies in the Spring, 
will, by judicious management with movable-frame hives, 
be able to close the season with a larger Apiary than one 
who begins it with thirty, or more, feeble ones. 

632 (5i8). Small colonies consume, proportionally, much 
more food than large ones, and then perish from inability 
to maintain sufficient heat. 

Bees, in small or contracted hives, especially when de- 
prived of all the honey gathered in Spring, as stated be- 
fore (620), have too scanty a population for a successful 
wintering, especially out of doors; for, as it is by eating 
that bees generate warmth, the abdomens of a small number 
are soon filled with residues, and if the cold continues for 
weeks the bees get the diarrhea (784). We have often 
seen colonies in small hives perishing side by side with 
large ones whose bees were very healthy. 

Such facts abound, and we have but to open the bee- 
JoummlB to find the confirmation of our statement. 



1 



BM 

In the Ammican Bm-J&utiuiI tor Ftibruaij 8, 1888, pap 
88, Ur. J. P. Stone of H0II7, Hiob., asks whjr m. oolonjr, 
which was hived in I6fi9 In a l&rge box, is prospering jit, 
while others have perished. The size giTsn, 16Xl<Xtl. 
which shows that the box hss twioe Uie oifMUiltjr of u 
S-trome Langatroth hive, answers his qaestion. 

in the following number of the ssme Joamal, pi^s lOT, 
iir. Heddon mentions • colon; which had wintex«d ssfS^ 
tot seren years io a box t«n times larger than ths Laqf- 
•troth, wldle many oUiers died by Its side. "The colour, 
when tranaferred, oontuned about doable tbs iiombKd 
bMS nsoally rused from one queen." 




FU. IW. 
COllUOX I11VB.1 

(From namM.) 

Yf t small colonies can Eomelimes be safely wintered ont 
of <liMjrs, if tliL'tr comlia and honey are not Spread over » 
lar^'i' tijiacc, and if tliev are sheltered bo ss to maintain the 
projuT lie;it. It is tliercfwre iiiilispensBble to reduce the 
combs i)f ,1 hive tn the arnoiiutuf room which the bees cm 
be^t ktep >v:inii, by the use of the tlivision or contracting 
board (a41>), without ft>rpettiny to leave a a uQtcient supply 
of good liiiney. 8u\>pA5 v.-\k\<;\i,6oiii«x\\(\%«, c«nbe taken from 
too rich colooica. 




OMiTiMO 885 



tTKtnxo. 



B3S. A queenless colonji in the Fall, should always be 
miited to some other hive. 

If two or more colonies, which are to be united in the 
Fall, are not close together, their hives must be gradually 
drawn nearer, and the bees may then, with proper precau- 
tions, be put into the same hive. For this purpose, it is 
well to kill the poorest queen (if both have queens) and 
keep the best. This may be dispensed with, but the pru- 
dent bee-keeper will never neglect an opportunity to im- 
prove his stock. On a cool November day, the combs of 
the weaker colony that bear the cluster, should be lifted 
all together, and inserted in the other hive, after the bees 
of the latter have been thoroughly frightened with smoke. 
(382.) 

634. If, when two colonies are put together, the bees in 
the one on the old stand are not gorged with honey, they 
will often attack the others, and speedily sting them to 
death, in spite of all their attempts to purchase immunity, 
by offering their honey. The late Wm. W. Gary, of Cole- 
raine, Massachusetts, who has long been an accurate 
observer of the habits of bees, united colonies very success- 
fully, by alarming those that were on the old stand ; as soon 
as they showed by their notes, that they were subdued, he 
gave them the new-comers. The alarm which causes them 
to gorge themselves with honey, puts them, doubtless, upon 
their good behavior, long enough to give the others a fair 
chance. 

Thej' can also be made to unite peaceably, by sprinkling a 
little sweet-scented water on them (485). It is well to put 
a slanting board in front of the entrance (G0«3 bis) to show 
the moved bees that their location is changed. The empty 
hive should be removed from its place to prev^rkt Ui^ V^^^%^ 



886 

from retaming to it. The nombcir of combs la Ot udlid 
colony can be reduced MiOOiiM the bees hsTV all e lM twd 
together. 

In this maimer a strong oobiqr with little honey, sad a 
weak one with plenty of stores, oan be united to foma 
good hive of bees. 

OuT-*DooB Shblmiwb 

&Sii. The moving of a colony to a warmer or bettor 
sheltered place, just before Winter, is not adviaable, for a 
great many bees, not having noticed their new loeatjoe, 
would perish of cold, while searching for their liome, and 
the population would be greatly decreased. 

In our Northern, Middle and Western States, the style 
of hive used has a considerable influence on the safety of 
out-door wintering. 

With hives that are single-walled all around, great care 
should be taken to shelter the bees from the piercing winds, 
which in Winter so powerfully exhaust their animal heat; 
for, like human beings, if sheltered from the wind, they will 
endure a low temperature far better than a continuous cur- 
rent of very much warmer air. 

In some parts of the West, where bees suffer much from 
cold winds, their hives are protected, in Winter, by sheaves 
of straw, fastened so as to defend them from both cold and 
wet. With a little ingenuity, farmers might easily turn 
their waste straw to a valuable account in sheltering their 
bees. 

Not only can straw be used for this purpose with much 
service, but also forest leaves, com fodder, and rushes. 
Snow is found to be a very good shelter, provided its suc- 
cessive melting and freezing does not interfere with the 
necessary ventilation. It must be removed from the en- 
trance on the approach of a warm day. 




OUT-DOOB SHELTERING. 337 

Mr. Geo. H. Beard, of Winchester, Mo., safely wintered 
ninety-three colonies out of ninety-six, in the severe Winter 
of 1884-5, in two-story Simplicity hives, (324) by removing 
the oil-cloth and replacing it with coarse sack-cloth, filling 
the upper story with maple leaves, and covering the hives, 
on all sides, except the front, with what is commonly known 
as slough-grass. This success is worthy of notice, for in 
that Inemorable Winter, more than two-thirds of the bees 
in the Northern States died, some Apiarists losing all they 
bad. 'Like that of 1855-6, it will long be remembered, 
not only for the uncommon degree and duration of its cold, 
but for the tremendous winds, which, often for days to- 
gether, swept like a Polar blast over the land. 

We have, for years, wintered part of our bees on the 
Summer stand, by sheltering them on all sides but the front, 
with forest leaves closely packed, and held with a frame- 
work of lath. 

636. One of the most important requirements for success- 
ful out-door wintering, is the placing of warm absorbents, 
immediately over the cluster, to imbibe the excess of moisture 
that rises from the bees, without allowing the heat to escape. 

In March, 1856, we lost some of our best colonies, under 
the following circumstances : The Winter had been intensely 
cold, and the hives, having no upward ventilation, were 
filled with frost, — in some instances, the ice on their 
glass sides being nearly a quarter of an inch thick. A few 
days of mild weather, in which the frost began to thaw, were 
followed by a severely cold spell with the thermometer 
below zero, accompanied by raging winds, and in many of 
the hives, the bees, which were still wet from the thaw, 
were frozeti together in an almost solid mass. 

Ab long M the v^por remains congealed, it can injure 
the bees only by keeping them from stores which they 
need;' bnt, as soon as a thaw sets in, hives which have no 
upward absorbents are in danger of being ruined. 



8o8 WDITBBOld. 

Mr. E. T. Sturtevant, of Kast Cleveliuid, Ohio, wlditf 
known as an experienced Apiarist, thiis gives hm expcErienee 
in wintering bees in tlie open air: 

^No extremity of ook) that we er^ have In this cHtif, will 
Ix^nre bees, if their breath is allowed to pass ofl;so that th^ in 
dry. Ineyerlostagoodeoloay thatwasdij, and had plenty of 
honey." 

The absorbents generally osed are ohalf In ensfaloiis, 
straw, forest leaves (maple leaves preferred), oorn cobs, 
woolen rags, or wool waste, etc. Mr. Cheshire uses eork- 
dust, which he daims gives fourteen tlmea as much proteo- 
tion as a dead-air space. The cU-dbth, whidi ssakes ai 
air*tight covering, must be first removed, and if no straw- 
mat is used, the cushion of absorbents may bo plaoed right 
over the frames. We use the straw-mat, and fill the upper 
half-story with dry leaves, these being the cheapest and 
best absorbent at our command. 

In the coldest parts of our country, if upward ofteorfraid 
are neglected, no amount of protection that can be given to 
hives, in the open air, will prevent them from becoming 
damp and mouldy, even if frost is excluded^ unless a large 
amount of lower ventilation is given. Then they need as 
much air us in Summer. Often, the more they are protected, 
the greater the risk from dampness. A very thin hive 
unpainted, so tliat it may readily alisorb the heat of the 
sun, will dry inside much sooner than one painted white, 
and in every way most thoroughly protected against the 
cold. The first, like a garret, will suffer from dampness 
for a short time only ; wliile the other, like a cellar^ may be 
so lont]^ in drying, as to injure, if not destroy, the bees. 

G37. If the colonies are wintered in the open air ^ the en- 
trance to their hives must be large enough to allow the bees to 
fly at will. Many, it is true, will be lost, but a large part 
of these are diseased; and, even if they were not, it is 



better to lose some healthy bees Ihan to incur the risk of 
loein^. or greatly injuring, a whole colony by the excite- 
ment created by confining them when the weather is warm 
enough to entice them abroad. 

If the sun is warm and the ground covered with new- 
fallen snow, the light may so blind the bees, that they will 
tali into this fleecy snow, and quickly perisb. £\en at such 
times, it is hardly advisable to confine them to their hives. 
A neighbor of ours kiUed four colonies, all he had, by 




dodng the entrances with wire-clotli for Winter. Vi'c had 
advised him to remove it, but be did not do so bocuuse 
■ome one had told him that his bees would get lost in Iliu 
anow. 

638. Great injury is often done by dislnrhini: a colony 
of bees when the weather is so i-old thai tlioy i-atiiiot llv. 
Uany that are tempted to leave the cluslcr, pcri.ili before 
they can regain it, and every disturliance, hy rousin|i lliciii 
I activity, causca an increased lonsimiption of 
On the other hand, it ia ot Uic vamti&v. \a\\iOT\,iv\i'i% 



uo 



thftt they be allowed to fly and vtrfd th^ exoremeata (78) 
whenever the weather is warm enough. At aacb tiiM* It 
will be advisable to clean the bottom-boards of hivea, of 
dead bee§, and other refiue. 

639. To show the advantages derived by the bees boa 
a Winter flight, we will give our experience during one of 




the coldest Winters, that of 1872-3. From the beginning 
of December to tlie middle of January, the weather wu 
cold and the bees were unable to leave the hive. The 16th 



SUCLTEBIMO. 



341 



f January was s rather pleasant day. We took occasion 
f this to exaraioe our weak colonies, being anxious ia 
egard to their conditiou. To our astonishmeat, Ihey were 
>und alive, and our disturbing them caused them to fly 
nd discharge their excrements. Being convinced that all 
ur bees were safe, we did not disturb the strong colonies, 
nd a few of the latter remained quiet. The next day, the 
old weather returned, aud lasted three weeks longer. Then 
re discoTered that the weak colonies, that had had a clean- 
ing flight, were alive and well, while the strong ones which 
1 confined, were either dead or in bad condi- 



040. In order to shelter bees more elBciently. in out- 
x>or wintering, against climatic influences. Apiarist^ have 
Ariwd hires, with double walls, fllled at the sides, as well 
t on top, with Bome light material non-conductor of heat. 
otne Kre made on the same principle as the old two-story 
Oiibl»-waU L. hive (fig. 106) without packing. 





Tb9 ipoqt wid«-ipnmd styla, !■ Om ehaS-hiTB, o( A. L 
Boot, This hive U far anperiOT to ringle-wallliiTM for «^ 
cjoof wintering. It iB made lit two storiM, bat alila oh 
piece. TtiiB rendeii it nther inoonvciilant to readl don 
to tbe lower story, when huidllog bees. We, thentet, 
nwde our oh»ff hireB qt % dngle st^ry wltb tutU-eton etp, 
like tb»t pt fig. 69. Thii iliigle-wall cap can be flOid 
with a coshion, dry leayes, or any other abeorbente. Soot 
Apiarists also use one-«tory eht^-hiVM with looee botton- 
boards that can be taken off to ranore flie dead bees la 
Spring. 

641. After having used some eighty obaft-hiTn dnriiif 
six or ^ht years, we find two dlsadrantagM la then! 
la. They are heavy and inconvenient to handh, eqtedallj 
wfa«n made to accommodate ten Quinby, or twenty HmpHo- 




^HKiBuu mva. 
Si, alTM iIiIm wiUi co[k-<lQit for picking. 



aBBLTKBIHS. 813 

Ity framea. 3d. As they do not allow the heat or oeld ,to 
pass ip and oat readily, the bees in these hives may remain 
ia-doors, in occasional warip Winter days, while those of 
thin-front hives will have a cleansing flight. Thus^ in bard 
Winters, these bees suffer as much from diarrhea (626- 
7S4) as others, unless the Apiarist takes puns to disturb 
them and maifcfl (&«mj(y, occasionally. 



ODTSK COVKUIKO. 
onsndoUien. On* elda ■■ rgmoTsd to ibow th* 



642. But we highly recommend the use of these bivcs, 
to the bee-keepers who do not hIsIi to go to the tcoubk of 
sheltering their bees every Winter. With tlie chuff-bive. 
It is a matter of only a few minutes to put into Winter- 
qaarters a colony, that bas sufficient stores ami bees. As to 
the advantage, claimed for these hives, of Ivceping weak 
colonies warm, In the Spring, we found it couutcrbalnnced 
by the lou of the sun's heat during the first warm days. 




and we found ttiat bees bred m tek, la our ordinal} 
hives (double only on the windward aidea), owing to tiN 
quick absorption of the son's rajs by the boarda. 

648. To obtain the advantagea of the 6half-IiiT6 withoot 
any of its disadTsntages, and at the aame time retatn in qm 
the single-wall Langstroth or Simplioity liivea, some bee- 
keepers have devised onter-bozes to be placed over tlie col- 
onies during Winter, and removed in Spring. These can bs 
filled with absorbents, and make tiie' best and aalest out- 
door shelters (Fig. 109). They are only hooked togetbv 
by naib partly driven, and are taken off in |rieoea, in ths 
Spring, and put away, under abetter. The rooCs mBj bs 
used over the hives all Summer, if desfarable. The only 
disadvantage of outer-boxes is tliat tiiey may harbor ndoe 
or insects. Some use them, without ttaj packing, and we 
know by experience, that even in this way, very email colo- 
nies may be wintered safely. If the hive has a portico, the 
front of the box is made to fit around it. In any case, the 
portico itself can be closed, during the coldest weather, by 
a door fitting over it, but it must be opened on warm days. 
In the extraordinary Winter of 1884-5, several bee-keepers 
of McDonough County, Illinois, among whom, we will die 
Mr. J. G. Norton, of Macomb, safely wintered their Sim- 
plicity hives with this method, while their neighbors lost 
all, or nearly all, their bees. 

044. If the colonies are strong in numben and HortM^ Jboof 
upper moisture absorbents, easy cammuniecUion /)ram comb to 
comb, good ripe honey, shelter from piercing winds ^ and can 
have a cleansing flight once a month, they have aU the otmdi- 
tians essential to wintering successfully in the open air. 




ai-DOOR wiirrKRiKO. 346 



In-door Wintbriko. 

645. In some parts of Europe, it is customary to winter 
all the bees of a village in a common vault or cellar. Dzier- 
zon says : 

**A dry cellar Is very well adapted for wintering bees, even 
though It is not wholly secure from frost ; the temperature will 
be much milder, and more uniform than In the open air ; the bees 
will be more secure fh>m disturbance, and will be protected from 
the piercing cold winds, which cause more injury than the 
greatest degree of cold when the air Is calm. 

^^ Universal experience teaches that the more efiectually bees 
are protected from disturbance and from the variations of tem- 
perature, the better will they pass the Winter, the less will they 
consume of their stores, and the more vigorous and numerous 
will they be in the Spring. I have, therefore, constructed a 
special Winter repository for my bees, near my Apiary. It is 
weather-boarded both outside and within, and the intervening 
space is filled with hay or tan, etc. ; the ground and plat enclosed 
Is dug out to the depth of three or four feet, so as to secure a 
more moderate and equitable temperature. When my hives are 
placed in this depository, and the door locked, the darkness, 
uniform temperature, and entire repose the bees enjoy, enable 
them to pass the Winter securely. I usually place here my 
weaker colonies, and those whose hives are not made of the 
warmest materiids, and they always do well. If such a structure 
Is to be partly underground, a very dry site must be selected for 

In Russia, bee-keepers dig a well from twenty to twenty- 
five feet deep, and six or eight feet wide. The hives, 
which, there, are hollow trees, are then piled horizontally 
upon one another, like cord-wood^ with one end open. The 
well is filled to within six feet of the top, and a shed, made 
of straw, is bnilt above. The bees are left there during 
the five or six months of Winter. 

In some other countries, they are kept in caves, aban- 
doned mines, or any under-ground place near at hand. 



646. In the North of the United Stetee, and in Cenada, 
they are generally wintered in oellara, and remain th«e ii 
quiet from November till April, aometimea till May. 

In all localitiea, where the beea eannot fly at laaat obm t 
month, in the Whiter, it ia heat to follow fthia mtfthoA d 
wintering. 

Ab Daieraon says, a dry oellar ia the beat, aithowgh beai 
can be wintered in a damp eeBor, bnt with more dai^ier of 
loss, eapedally if the food is not of the best The bossy of 
Northern ooontriea is generally of finer qnattty than tlnl of 
the South. 

647. In the first place, tiie beea ahonld be moved to Un 
oellar, Just after they have had a day*a flight, at the open> 
ing of cold weather. We take only the brood-i^partaent 
leaving the cap, and sometimes the bottom-board, on the 
Summer stand, being careful to mark the number of esdi 
hive inside of its cap* so as to return it to the aame location 
in Spring (32-33). In the cellar, the hives are piled one 
upon another. An empty hive or a box is put at the bottom 
of each pile, so that the bees will be aa high np fran the 
damp ground as possible. If the bottom-board ia brought 
in with the hive, the entrance should be left open. It ii 
well to raise the lower tier of hives from their bottoms with 
entrance-blocks. Some upper ventilation had better be 
given also, for the escape of moisture. If the oellar is 
damp, the combs will mould more or less; if it is dry, they 
will keep in perfect order. 

048. After the bees are put in, they should be left in 
darkness, at the temperature that will keep them the quiet- 
est. We find that from 42 ® to 45 ^ is the best. Every 
A))iarist should have a thermometer, and use It. The cost 
is iusigniticant, and it will pay for itself many times. 

The fact that bees, in Russia (64K), are eonfined fa 

•In A weU-r«^{nlAt»i Apiftry, 6Mh h\v hmn a ummibK pilBiti«s tto bt^. 



iK-DOOB wurrsBiNa. 



S17 



deep wells, for riz months, shows that a total deprivation 
of light cannot be injurious. It prevents them from flying 
OQt of tbeir hives, to which they would be unable to return, 
after flying to the windows, allured by the light, when the 
temperature of the cellar rises occasionally and unexpect- 
edly to 50 or 60 degrees. 

Ab bees, wintered oa their Summer stands, begin to fly 
oot when the temperature reaches about 50 degrees, and 
are in fall flight at about 55, one can imagine how restless 
they become when the temperature of the cellar rises to 
65 or 60 degrees. They wait impatiently for the dawn of 
the day which will afford them the opportunity for flying 
oat. But as the days pass and darkoess continues they are 
uneasy and tired. 




The warmth incites them also to breed, and as tbey need 
water for their brood (271), some leave tbe hive in quest 
of it and are lost. Thia happens more or less every Winter. 



^ 



To cool the air of the cellar, ice may be brought in ud 
allowed to melt slowly over a tab. 

The Apiarist moat gaArd against cold, also, but ia wintei- 
Ing a large number of colonies, the heat which they gener- 
ate will usually keep the cellar quite warm in the coldest 
weather. Id our experience, we have had to keep the 
cellar windows open, often, in cold weather. 

649. To allow cold air to enter without giving light, we 
have devised cellar blinds (figs.llOand 111). Whentiw 




window, inside, is raistd, a wire-cloth frame is put in its 
place to keep mice uui, and tliere is a slide on the inside 
of the I'liutter which can be used to give more or less air as 
the case rcqiiiTca. Itesides, the windows of oor hee-cellsx 
are made with double panes, to exclude cold or heat more 




ai-DOOB WIMTERINO. 849 

cfflcientlj, when thej are shut. A slight quantity of pure 
mir is needed at all times. 

As we have said above, when the warmer days of Spring 
come, with alternates of cold, the bees will breed a little, 
and if this is not begun too early, it will be a help to them 
rather than an injury, for they will become strong, all 
the sooner, after being taken out. 

6ffO. A small number of colonies can be wintered in any 
ordinary cellar, quite safely, when their food is of good 
quality, and the temperature does not vary too much, but 
they must be quiet and in the dark, 

Wil. If the temperature of the cellar is too low, or too 
high, or if the food is unhealthy, the bees will have a large 
amount of fecal accumulation in their intestines, and will 
show their anxiety by coming out of the hive in clusters, 
during the latter part of their confinement. If, in addition 
to thiSi the cellar is damp, the comb will mould ; and when 
taken out, some colonies may desert (407, 663) their 
hives. 

61^2. Oreat loss may be incurred in replacing, upon their 
Summer stands, the colonies which have been kept in spe- 
cial depositories. Unless the day when they are put out is 
very favorable, many will be lost when they fly to discharge 
their fnces. In movable-frame hives, this risk can be greatly 
diminished, by removing the cover from the frames, and 
aUowing the sun to shine directly upon the bees ; this will 
warm them up so quickly, that they will all discharge their 
fseces in a very short time.* 

• TIm floUowing U Ao extrtct ttom Mr. Langstroth's Jonmal : 
** Jan. Slit, 1817.— .RemoTod the appcr cover, exposln;? tho bocs to the fiiU 
beat of the ran, tlM thermometer being 90® in the shade, and tho atmosphere 
ntm. ThehiTe etandiDg on the sunny aide of tho house, tho bees (luickly 
took wing and dlaehaiged their teoea. Very few were lost on the snow, and 
neailyall that alighted on It took wing without being chilled More beet 
wen loet firom otlm hlTea which were not opened, aa fow which left wen 
ahlatontm; w1dla» In tba one with the coTcr remoyed, theretaming bees 
•bla t9 allgtat at onoa among their warm companloaa. ' ' 



653. If more Uum one hundred colonies ere wlnUaed fai 
the cellar, and it is desired to remofe them all the sam 
day, enough help should be seoored to put them all on their 
stands before the warm part of the day is orer. It is far 
better to keep them in the oellar even one week longer, 
than to take them out when the weather is so oold that thej 
cannot cleanse themselves immediately ; to our mind, 45 ® 
in the shade, or 55 ^ in the sun, is the lowest lemperators 
in which it is best to put bees out. 

654. As bees remember their location, it is importaBt to 
return each colony to its own place. If this is not dcM, 
the confusion may cause some colonies to abandon thsir 
hives. Dzierzon also advises placing them on their fdrmsr 
stands, as many bees still remember the old spot. If it ii 
desirable to remove some hives to a new location, a slanting 
board (603 bis) should be placed in front of the hive. All 
the bottom-boards should be cleaned of dead bees or rub- 
bish, without dela^. 

655. If the hives of an Apiary are aU removed from the 
cellar on the same day, there will be but little danger of 
robbing, for they are somewhat bewildered when first 
brought out ; but if some are taken out later than others, 
the last removed will be in danger, unless some precautions 
are taken. 

656. If the bees that are wintering in the cellar, are 
found to be restless, it may be good policy to give them 
some water (271), or to take them out on a warm day 
when the temperature is at least 45 ^ in the shade, to 
let them have a flight, and return them to the cellar after- 
ward. We do not advise it as a practice however. On the 
contrary, if they are quiet, it is better to keep them in- 
doors, till the early Spring days have fairly come, to avoid 
what is called Spring-dwindling (650). 

657. Those, who have no cellar, can successfully win- 
ter their bees in clamps or silos as advised by the Bev. Mr. 



DI-DOOR •WimCBIMO. 



Sduds, of Lower SUmIk, widely knowD id Qcrmanj (or hli 
aklU in bee-keeping. These clamps aie made simllkr to 




I, •irdnft. d, Toor. 
tliOM in which farmers place apples, potatoes, tnraipB, etc., 
toprMBTve them daring cold weather. Tbeonly objeotionto 




thta mode, is the dampness of tbe grouad In wet ami warm 
Winteia. The hives are put, on a led of straw, in a pyra- 
midal tem (fig. 113), and covered, first with old boards. 




85S 

then with a thick layer of straw, and another, of eeitk 
Wooden pipes are placed at the bottom (fig. 114), and 
one in the shi^e of a chimney, at the top, for an air-dralt 
The requisites are the same as in oellar wintering, an eqnsl 
temperature, sufficient Tcntilation, a fairly dry atmo^heie, 
and quiet. 

058. We must warn novices against the wintering ol 
bees in any repository in which the temperatare deeeendi 
below the freeadng point. In sodi places the been wmswiitf 
a great deal of honey, and they soon become restleas, lor 
want of a flight. Their Summer stand even withoat aheltar, 
is far safer than any such place, because they can at least 
take adTsntage of any warm Winter day to void their «s* 
crements. These facts are demonstrated beyond a dooht 

Sprino Dwimdliho. 



659. When the conditions necessary to the successful 

wintering of bees are not complied with, and they haye 
suffered from diarrhea (784), many colonies may be lost 
by Spring dwindling, especially if the Spring is cold and 
backward. Even colonies, which appeared to have gone 
through the Winter strong in numbers, may slowly lose 
bee after bee till the queen alone remains in the hive. This 
is sometimes mistaken for desertion (407), as will be seen 
in the following paragraph, which we quote from The 
London Quarterly Review^ and in which the author attrib- 
utes to lack of loj-alty in the bees, that which evidently 
must have been due only to Spring dwindling: 

"Bees, like men, have their dififerent dispositions, so that eren 
their loyalty will soinetimes fail them. An Instance not long 
ago came to our knowledge, which probably few bee-keepers 
will credit. It is that of a hive which, having early exhausted 
its store, was found, on being examined one morning, to be 




8PBDIO DWINDUNO. 358 

attexij deserted. The comb was empty, and the only symptom 
of life was the poor queen herself, * unfriended, melancholy, 
slow,' crawling over the honeyless cells, a sad spectacle of the 
Call of bee-greatness. Marius among the ruins of Carthage- 
Napoleon at Fontainebleao— was nothing to this." 

Several such instances, caused by Spring dwindling, with 
subsequent robbing of the honey, were observed by us. 
Colonies are thus destroyed as late as April and May. 

OOO. In some instances, the enlarged abdomen of the 
bees will show that they are suffering from constipation — 
or inability to discharge their faeces, even though they may 
have voided their abdomen since their long confinement. 
Probably their intestines are in an unhealthy condition. In 
the worst cases of Spring dwindling, sometimes, even the 
queens show signs of failing, and eventually disappear. 
This may occur also with colonies that were wintered in 
the cellar, if they have suffered from diarrhea, or have been 
removed too early. 

There is another sort of Spring dwindling caused by the 
loss of working bees in cold Springs, while in search of 
water (271), or pollen (263), for the brood. 

661. To avoid losses, or to check them as far as possible, 
after a hard Winter, it is indispensable that the following 
be observed : 

Ist. The hives should be located in a warm, sunny, well- 
sheltered place. All Apiaries that are placed in exposed 
windy situations, or facing North, suffer most from Spring 
dwindling. 

2d. The number of combs in the hive should be reduced 
in early Spring, with the division-board or contractor, to suit 
the size of the cluster (349). This helps the bees to keep 
warm and raise brood. The space must again be enlarged 
gradaally, when the colony begins to recruit. 

We condder this contraction of the hive as altogether 
indispensable. Let us suppose that, in early Spring, we 



haro a colony whose popalation ia so much reduced tbMH 
cannot warm, to the degree needed for breeding, more tl 
500 cubic inches of space. If wc leave the brood-c 
without contraction, as it^ surface, ia ft lU-frotno Lnngstiolk 
hive, wil! be about 270 square Inches, the 
heated will have about two inches in thickness at th« Xof, 
: heat always rises. If, on the contrary', we halt 
reduced the aumbet of fruaei to three, the depA «( Oa 
space warmed at the top wlU amount to more than thna 
timea aa much, or to mora than rix inohas. naa, tta 
bees will not only be mora healthy, but the laying ot tta 
(iueeo, not being delayed by the oeld, and the nnmbar dt 
Uie bees Increasing faster, Uiey wIQ be able to repay the 
bee-keeper for the care bestowed, inatead of dwindling, or 
remaining worthless for the Spring crop. 

3d. The heat shoult} be concentrated in the brood apart- 
ment, by all means, and not allowed to escape above. The 
entrance also must remalo reduced. 

4th. The bees should be provided with aufflclent Stores 
of honey, pollen, and w&tor. 

662. Apiarists in general, do not attach enough import- 
ance to the necessity of furnishing wstor (271) to bees in 
cold Springs, In order that they may stay at home in quieL 
Although lierlep9ch laid too much stress on the question ol 
water, the lack of which he even said was the cause of dys- 
entery, yet he was right in calling our attention to the need 
of it tor breeding : 

" The Creator has given the boe an Inatlnet to store np bonsy 
and pollen, which are not atwaj* to b« procured, hot not water, 
which Is always acceiBlble In her native regions. In Northern 
latitudes, when confined to the hive, often for months together, 
they can obtain the water thej need only from the watery parti- 
cles contained in the honey, the perspiration wbloh rnnitrnira 
on the colder parts of the hive, or the humidity of the air wUcb 
enters their hives. 

** la March and April, the rapldly-lncieaslag amonnt of brood 




DX8BRTINO. 355 

oaoflei An inereased demand for water; and when the thermom- 
eter li as low as 450, bees may be seen carrying it in at noon, 
eren on windy days, although many are sure to perish from cold. 
In these months, in 1856, daring a protracted period of unfavor- 
able weather we gave all our bees water, and they remained ai home 
in fuiei^ whilst those of other Ai>iaries voere flying briekly in seatch 
of water. At the beg^inning of May, our hives were crowded with 
hee9; whilst the colonies of our neigbors were mostly weak, 

**The consumption of water in March and April, in a populous 
colony, is very great, and in 1856, one hundred colonies required 
eleven Berlin quarts per week, to keep on breeding uninterruptedly. 
In Springs where the bees can fly safely almost every day, the 
want of water will not be felt. 

** The loss of bees by water-dearth^ is the result of climate, and 
no form of hive, or mode of wintering, can furnish an absolutely 
efficient security against it."— (Translated from the German, by 
S. Wagner.) 

That bees cannot raise much brood without water, unless 
they have fresh-gathered honey, has been known from the 
times of Aristotle. Buera of Athens (Cotton, p. 104), 
aged 80 years, said in 1797 : 

** Bees daily supply the worms with water ; should the state of 
the weather be such as to prevent the bees from fetching water 
for a few days, the worms would perish. These dead bees are 
removed out of the hive by the working-bees if they are healthy 
and strong ; otherwise, the stock perishes from their putrid ex- 
halations.** 

In any movable-frame hives, water can be given to the 
bees, by pouring it into the empty cells of a comb. 



Dbskrtino. 



60S. We httve shown (407) that bees sometimes desert 
their hives, when the colony is too weak, or short of stores, 
or suffering from dampness, mouldy combs, etc., etc. 
This desertioa, which differs from natural swarming in 



956 BFBINO DWINDLIKO. 

this, that it ma; Uke place in any seasoD, and that tlw 
deserting bees do not raise any queen-cells prerioculj, ti 
more frequent in cold backward Springs than at anyotho 
time. 

At ditferent times we have seen bees deaerting Uisr 
hives and forsaking their brood for lack of pollen (304). 
A comb containing pollen having been put in their b)T« 
and the bees returned they remaiued happy. But the 
worst of these desertions is when the bees have suffered 
while wintered in-doors (651.) These colonies abandon 
their hives very soon after being replaced on their Sum- 
mer stands. When such desertion is (eared, it is better 
not to put out more than one dosen colonies at one time, 
aud to prepare a few dry combs, in clean hives, to hivfl 
the swarm as soon as possible ; for, too often some other 
colonies following the example, mix with the first, the 
queens are balled (S38), causing great annoyance and 
loss to the bee-keeper. Such swarms should be hived (» 
clean dry comb, and furnished with honey and pollen. 
The capacity of the hive in which they are put should be 
reduced to suit the size of the swarm, and increased very 
cautiously, from time to time, when the bees seem to be 
crowded ; for warmth is indispeDsable to bees in Spring. 
The condition of such colonies must be regularly aacflr- 
tained and their wants supplied. 

We would refer those who think that "it U too mvdt 
trouble" to examine their hives in the Spring, to the prac- 
tice of the ancient bee-keepers, as set forth by Columella: 
"The hives should be opened in the Spring, that all tlie 
filth which was gathered in them during the Winter may be 
removed. Spiders, which spoil their combs, and the worms 
from which the moths proceed, must be killed. When the 
hive has been thus cleaned, the bees will apply themselves 
to work with the greater diligence and reaolation." The 
•ooner those abandon bee-keeping, who ivwiffiilirr the propv 




DE8BRTINO. 857 

emre of their bees as *' too much trouble, " the better for 
themselYes and their unfortunate bees. 

In making this thorough cleansing, the Apiarist will 
learn which colonies require aid, and which can lend a 
helping hand to others ; and any hive needing repairs, may 
be put in order before being used again. Such hives, if 
occasionaUj re-painted, will last for generations, and prove 
riieaper, in tiie long run, than any other kind. 



MS 



CHAPTER XIV. 

BOBBIHO, AXD How PRSYKHTKDw 

An ounce of prevention is worth a ton of cure. 

664. Bkbs are so prone to rob emch other, in time of 
scjurcitj, that, unless great precautions are used, the Aplip 
rist will often lose some of his most promising colonies. 
Idleness is, with them, as with men, a fruitful mother of 
mischief. They are, however, far more excusable than the 
lazy rogues of the human family ; for they seldom attempt 
to live on stolen sweets, when they can procure a sufficiency 
by honest industry. 

As soon 03 they can leave their hives in the Spring, they 
may boirin to assail the weaker colonies. In this matter, 
the morals of our little friends seem to be sadly at fault; 
for. those colonies which have the largest surplus are — like 
some rich oppressors — the most anxious to prey upon the 
moairre possessions of others. 

If the marauders, who are ever prowling about in search 
of plunder, attack a strong and healthy colony, they are 
usually clad to escape with their lives from its resolute 
defenders. The bee-keeper, therefore, who neglects to 
watch h's needy colonies, and to assist such as are weak or 
qiioonless, must count upon suffering heavy losses from 
robhor-boos. 

005. It is sometimes dil!lcult, for the novice, to discrim- 
inate between the honest inhabitants of a hive, and the 
robbers which often minirle with them. There is, however, 
an air of rotruery about a thie\incr bee which, to the expert, 
is as characteristic as are the motions of a pickpocket to a 
skillful policeman. Its sneaking look, and nervous, guilty 




ROBBIMO. 859 

agitation, onoe seen, ean never be mistaken. It does not, 
like the lal>ojer carrying home the fruits of honest toU, 
alight boldly upon the entrance-board, or face the guards, 
knowing well that, if caught by these trusty guardians, its 
life would hardly be worth insuring. If it can glide by 
without touching any of the sentinels, those within — ^taking 
it for granted that all is right — ^usually permit it to help 
itself. 

Bees wliich lose their way, and alight upon a strange 
hive, can readily be distinguished from these thieving 
acamps. The rogue, when caught, strives to pull away 
irom his executioners, while the bewildered unfortunate 
shrinks into the smallest compass, submitting to any fate 
his captors may award. 

These dishonest bees are the ^^ Jerry Sneaks'* of their 
profession, and after following it for a time, lose all taste 
for honest pursuits. Constantly creeping through small 
holes, and daubing themselves with honey, their plumes 
assume a smooth and almost black appearance, just as the 
hat and garments of a thievish loafer, acquire a *^ seedy" 
aspect. 

Dzierzon thinks that these black bees, which Huber has 
described as so bitterly persecuted by the rest, are nothing 
more than thieves. Aristotle speaks of '* a black bee which 
is called a (At€/." 

Some bee-keepers question whether a bee that once 
learns to steal ever returns to honest courses. The writer 
has known the value of an Apiary to be so seriously im- 
paired by the bees beginning early in the scasr n to rob 
each other, that the owner was often tempted to wish that 
he had never seen a bee. 

666. Yet, we -should hardly blame them for their rob- 
bing propensities. With them, as with men, much depends 
on the education which they are allowed to receive. Their 
nature teaches them to hunt for sweets industriously, 




flwj en find tficfl^ aad fuqr tnraet, wliieli tiHj 
leadi, bj the meet etiennoQe eflorte. Is eooMdeied bj 
U ei onee, ee liieir pihrete propcrfj. Were it not lor 
due dispoeitioa of the bee, to hmit lor sweets ef e tj w h e i e, 
and take them home, the honej of ttiose edonies that dveD 
fai the woods, sad fkeqinentlj perish during the Wbittf, 
wookL be wssted. The piopensitj to idb is soqidiwd only 
daring a dearth of honey in the flowers; for bees hawe a 
omdi greater relish lor fjraah lionqr, aa prodooed in the blot- 
aoma, than lor an j other aweet oo earth* Thia ia ao traSt 
that in a daj of abundant liarvest, lionqr may be left «• 
posed where bees can reaoh it, without being toadied, or 
eren approached, bj a aingle bee, for hoora; wldle, if 
placed in the yerj same spot daring a dearth of lioney, it 
will be covered with bees in very few minutea. 

If the bee-keeper would not have his bees so demoralized 
that their value will be seriooslj diminished, he will be 
exceedingly careful in time of scarcity to prevent them from 
robbing each other. If the bees of a strong colony once 
get a taste of forbidden sweets, they will seldom stop until 
they have tested the strength of every hive. Even if all the 
colonies are able to defend themselves, many bees will be 
lost in these encounters, and much time wasted ; for bees, 
whether enga^rcd in robbing, or battling againat robbers, 
lose both the disposition and the ability to engage in ose- 
ful labors. 

007. An experienced bee-keeper readily perceives when 
any robbing is going on in his Apiary. Bees are flying 
vagrantly about, hunting in nooks and comera, and at aU 
the hive-crevices. Extensive robbing causes a general up- 
roar, and the bees of all the hives are much more disposed 
to sting. The robbers sally out with the first peep of light, 
and often continue their depredations until it is so late that 
they cannot find the entrance to their hive. Some even 
pass the night in the plundered colony. 




ROBBDra AXD HOW PRJCYKNT£D. 861 

The olond of robbers arriving and departing need never 
be mistaken for honest laborers (174) carrying, with un- 
wieldy flight, their heavy burdens to the hive. These bold 
plunderers, as they enter a hive, are almost as hungry-look- 
ing as Pharaoh's lean kine, while, on coming otU, they show 
by their burly looks that, like aldermen who have dined at 
the expense of the city, they are stuffed to their utmost 
capacity. 

668. When robbing-bees have fairly overcome a colony, 
the attempt to stop them — by shutting up the hive, or by 
moving it to a new stand — if improperly conducted, is often 
far more disastrous than allowing them to finish their work. 
The air will be quickly filled with greedy bees, who, unable 
to bear their disappointment, will assail, with almost fran- 
tic desperation, some of the adjoining hives. In this way, 
the strongest colonies are sometimes overpowered, or thous- 
anda of bees slain in the desperate contest. 

How TO Stop Robbiko. 



When an Apiarist perceives that a colony is being 
robbed, he should contract the entrance (330), and, if 
the assailants persist in forcing their way in, he must close 
it entirely. In a few minutes the hive will be black with 
the greedy cormorants, who will not abandon it till they 
have attempted to squeeze themselves through the smallest 
openings. Before they assail a neighboring colony, they 
should be thoroughly sprinkled with cold water, which will 
somewhat cool their ardor. 

Unless the bees, that were shut up, can have an abund- 
ance of air, they should be carried to a cool, dark place, 
after tbe Apiarist has allowed the robbers to escape out 
of it. Barly the next morning they must be examined, 
and, if naoMsafj, united to another hive. 



S6S BOHUIKO AMD HOW PBXTEirTKD. 

" In OermaDy, when colonies In common hives Are being leb- 
bed, they are alton removed to a dl&taot loeatloD, or pat in i 
darkoellar. A blve, almilu In appearuice. Is pliced ob Iketr 
•t&nd, and leaves of wormn'ood and the expressed Jafoe of tbi 
plant are put on the bottom-board. Bees bare such ■■ aniK 
patby to the odor of this plant, that the robbers speedily taMfea 
the place, aod the ussnlled colony may then be broDgbt back. 

" TliB Bey. Mr. Klclne Bays, that robbers may be reptfW bj 
Imparttng to the hive some intensely powerful aad aMew*- 
tomad odor. He eS'ects this the most readily by placing In K. In 
the ovonln^, a email portion of mutk, and on the roUawtn( ntem- 
tn(r the bees. If they have a healthy qneen, will boUly mwt 
their assailants. These are nonplussed by the unwoattd otev 
uicl. If any of them enter the hive and carry ofl* ions it Ot 
coveted booty, oo their return home, having a stnui^ t^^U, 
Uey will be killed bf their «wa boiwebold. Tba ntbbtaf U 
thiu looii broogbt to a oIom."— S. XfAtanai. 

It win often be found that a hive which ts overpowered 
by robbers has no queen, or one that is diseased. 

069. One of the best methoda wbich we liave foaad to 
■top the robbing of one hive by another, when the robbed 
oolony ia worth eaving, is to excban^ them ; f. s. to place 
the robbed colony on the stand of the robbing colony, and 
vice versa. The robbing colony can usually be found by 
sprinkling the returning bees with floor, as they come out 
o( the robbed hive, and watching the direction which Uiey 
take. It can also often be detected by the actiTity of 
'Its bees. If the neighboring hives are idle, espedallj 
after sunset. 

This method, however, canoot be practiced when the 
robbing and the robbed colonies do not belong to the same 
person ; or when the robbing ia carried on by many hives 
at one time, although, in the latter case, the exchange of 
stands between the strongest of the robbing hives and the 
weak robbed colony, in the evening, sod the redacing of tbs 
entrances of both, usually has a good result. The oM 
robber bees, bewildered by this exchange, make their hoiss 
in the robbed colony, since they find it on the stand witsn 




HOW TO STOP ROBBIKO. 868 

« 

they are accastomed to bring their honey ; and they defend 
it with as much energy as they used in attacking it before. 
See Quinby's ''Mysteries of Bee-Keeping" N. Y., 1866. 

670. We read in the British Bee-Journal that a car- 
bolized sheet (384) can be used to stop robbing, if spread 
in front of the robbed hive. This same sheet, spread on 
the hive as soon as opened while extracting (740), and on 
the surplus box where the combs are placed (768), dis- 
pleases the robbers and protects the comb, 

671. There is a kind of pillage which is carried on so 
secretly as often to escape all notice. The bees engaged 
in it do not enter in large numbers, no fighting is visible, 
and the labors of the hive appear to be progressing with 
their usual quietness. All the while, however, strange bees 
are carrying off the honey as fast as it is gathered. After 
watching such a colony for some days, it occurred to us 
one evening, as it had an unhatched queen, to give it a 
fertile one. On the next morning, rising before the rogues 
were up, we had the pleasure of seeing them meet with 
such a warm reception, that they were glad to make a 
speedy retreat. 

This is another proof that discouragement caused by 
qneenlessness often leads to the loss of a colony. 



Prkyektioh. 



672. If the Apiarist would guard his bees against dis^ 
honest courses, he must be exceedingly careful^ in his various 
opercUions, not to leave any combs or any honey where bees 
can find them, for, after once getting a taste of stolen honey, 
they wiU hover around him as soon as they see him operating 
on a hive, aU ready to pounce upon it and snatch what they 
eon of Um eaqposed treasures. 




S64 



In times of acarcitj, food fthould nerer be grven to the 
bees in the day time, but only in the evening, ahrmjB 
inside of the hive and shore the combs. The feeding of 
bees (d05) in the day time causes robbing in two ways. 
It excites the bees which are fed, and induces them to go 
oat to hunt for more, and the smell of the food giveo 
attracts the bees of the other hives. Hence follows fight- 
ing and trouble. But, above all things, the Apiarist must 
try to keep his colonies strong. When there is a scarcity 
of blo8.som.s, or of nectar in the flowers, the entrance of 
the hive should be lessened, to suit the needs of the colony, 
by moviug the entrance blocks (339). If the hive con- 
tains more combs than the bees can well defend, the 
number of the combs should be reduced by the use of the 
divi.sion board (340). 

073. It is especially with weak colonies that care should 
be taken, in Sj^ring or Fall. The strong hives being better 
able to keep warm, their bees fly out earlier in the day and 
will readily discover the weaker ones, which, unless their 
lioiicy is protected, they will soon overpower. 

When the above instructions are carried out, if thieves 
try to slij) into a feeble colony they are almost sure to be 
overhauled and put to death; and if robbers are bold 
enough to attempt to force an entrance, as the bottom- 
board slants forward (327) it gives the occupants of the 
hive a derided advantage. Should any succeed in entering, 
they will find hundreds standing in battle-array, and fare 
as hadly as a forlorn hope that has stormed the walls of a 
beleaguered fortress, only to perish among thousands of 
enraged enemies. 

Cracks and openings in disjointed hives, should be se- 
curely closed with yellow clay, until the bees can be trans- 
ferred into better abodes. 

When the hives are opened, the work must be performed 
speedily and carefully ; and, if any great number of 




PRSTKMTIOH. 865 

robbers show themselyes daring the operation, it is well, 
after closing the hive, and reducing the entrance, to place a 
bunch of grass (fine grass or fine weeds preferred) over it, 
for an hour, or till the temporary excitement has subsided. 
The guardian bees station themselves in this grass and 
chase out robbers much more easily than they could other- 
wise. The robbers themselves recognize that their chances 
of *' dodging in" are slim, and give up the undertaking. 
We have never had any trouble with robbers after closing 
a hive in this way. 

When the robbed colony is weak, the robbing may be 
abated by preventing any bees from entering it till evening, 
when other colonies have stopped flying ; allowing, at the 
same time, any bee that wishes to depart from it, and clos- 
ing the entrance till late in the morning. By this course 
most of the robbers will be tired of their useless attempts, 
while the remaining workers of the robbed hive will be 
ready to repel the attacks. 

When none of these methods succeed, a small comb of 
hatching Italian bees (551) may be given, with the nec- 
essary precautions (480), to the weak colony, and the 
hive placed in the cellar for a few days. The batched Ita- 
lians will receive the intruders warmly when the hive is 
brought back. 

The Italian bees (551) defend their hives much better 
than the black (549) against the intrusion of robbers, and 
the Cyprians and Syrians (550) surpass even the Italians. 

When a comb of honey breaks down in a hive from any 
cause, it should be removed promptly, and the bottom- 
board should be exchanged for a clean one at once. If 
any drops of honey fall about the Apiary, it is best to 
cover them up with earth promptly. In short, no honey 
should be left exposed, where bees can plunder it. 



00MB FOUMIMmOK. 



CHAPTBBXY. 

Comb Fouxdatiok. 

674. The Inyentioii and IntrodiiolkMi of Modli fond^ 
tfon, with the use of mormble frionai (SS0), OMriDid n 
important step in the progress of pvaothnl bee sally it. 
The main drawback to the perfect snnnses of 
frame hives was the diffiooltj of aiwajB obliifiing 
combs in the frames (818). Although the bsifded top 
bar (819) often secured this object, jet, In maiij 
the bees deviated from this guide and fastened their 
from one frame to another; and if the matter wae act 
promptly attended to, the combs of the hive heenM ss 
immovable as those >Df box hives. One frame sUghtibf oat 
of place was a sufficient incentive for the bees to fMen 
two frames together. In the management of four large 
Apiaries, previous to the introduction of comb fonadattoa, 
we found that, in spite of our efforts, a certain nomber of 
colonies would so build their combs, that only a part of the 
frames were movable without the use of a knife. Even the 
combs that were built in the right place were made some- 
what waving, or bulged in spots, and were thus rendered 
unfit for such interchanges as are daily required In ordinary 
manipulations. 

675. Another drawback to success was the building of 
drone comb (225). We have had colonies in which nearly 
one-fourth of the combs were drone-comb. In such hives the 
number of drones that might be raised would be sufficient 
to consume the surplus honey. To be sure, with movable- 
frame hives, such combs can be removed, but the difficulty 




JOH^VJiSKS MEHRIXO, 
ItiTentor of Comb- Foundation, 

UiAplirlat l*nimt[oiiedpige* isi and atn 



ADVANTAGES. 367 

consists in procuring straight and neat worker-combs to 
replace them ; for if we simply remove the drone-combs, the 
bees often replace them with the same kind (233). 

076. Good straight worker^combj not too oldy is the moat 
valuable capital of the Apiarist (442). For years, be- 
fore the introdaction of comb-foundation, we had been 
in the habit of baying all the worker-comb from dead col- 
onies that wc could find, but we never had enough. 

The consideration of the above important points, and of 
the great cost of comb to the bees (223), had long ago 
drawn the attention of German Apiarists to the possibility 
of manufacturing the base, or foundation, of the comb. 

677. In 1857, Johannes Mehring invented a press to 
make wax uxifers^ on which the rudiments of the cells were* 
printed. Those only, who experienced the obstacles whicl^ 
this industry presents, can form an idea of the energy and 
perseyerance that were required to succeed as he did. 

The foundation made by him then, was far from being 
eqoal to what is now made. The projections of the cell- 
walls were too rudimentary, sometimes not printed, and the 
bees often built drone-cells instead of worker-cells; but 
these imperfect efforts were the beginning of an industry 
which has proved of immense advantage to bee-keepers, and 
has spread like wild-fire wherever bees are kept. 

078. Another Apiarist.. I'cter Jacob, of Switzerland, 
improved on the ^fchring press, and in 1865, some of his 
foundation was imported to America, by Mr. H. Steele, of 
Jersey City {Am. Bee- Journal, Vol. 2, page 221), and tried 
by Mr. J. L. Hubbard, who reported favorably upon it. In 
1861, Mr. Wagoner had secured a patent in the United 
States, for the manufacture of artificial honey comb-founda- 
Hon by whatever process made. His patent was never put 
to use, and rather retarded the progress of this industry in 
America. 

670. The first comb-foundation made in America, was 



mumtutnred In 1876, by a 
probably on an imported 



r. F. W«in,T 

Hr. A.I.Boot,toiA 




■U- lu. 

Tns ORICIN'AI. " HOOT " MILI. 
(Fraiu Boot'* "A. B. C") 

the credit is due* of populariziiig the invenUon the world 
over manufactured a large roller-mill, in February, 1876, 

* Sani« people tblak that when a man baa maila moiie]rIi]r|mtt)iiglapraeUM 
tbaldeadofaiiotber. be la nolentmeil toaaj crolltftirlt. Bat ba, «baa* In- 
qvl*ltlvgne«H hM diaoareml the valnsof ao lotantloii, and wboaa OMrgrhai 
patlllntopraetJoc, lialaMalianeccaaanraodBMfliltatlHvaridMtkanlf' 




FOnVDATIOH lOLLS. 869 

t 

with the help of a skilled mechanic. A. Washbome. He 
aold hundreds of these mills afterwards. 

680. In the practical ose of comb-foandation, the most 
sanguine expectations were realized : 

1. Every comb that is built on foundation is as straight 
as a board, and can be moved from one place to another, 
in any hive, without trouble. 

2. The combs built on worker-foundation are exclusively 
worker-combs, with the exception of occasional patches, 
when the foundation sags slightly. 

3. All the wax produced by the bees, and gathered by 
the Apiarist from scraps, old combs, or cappings, is returned 
to the bees in this shape, instead of being sold at the com- 
mercial value of beeswax, which is several times less than 
its actual cost (223). The cost of foundation for brood- 
combs is not very great, especially if we consider that this 
capital is not consumed, but only employed ; as the wax 
contained in the combs represents at least one-half of the 
primary value of the foundation, and can be rendered again, 
after years of use, none the worse for wear. 

681. Different machines are in use in the United States. 
The flat-bottom foundation has the reputation of being the 
most regular, and thinnest ; its main defect being the un- 
natural flat base of the cells, which renders it easier to 
manufacture, but objectionable to the bees, who have to 
remodel its base in using it (213). It is manufactured 
with or without wires imbedded in it, to help fasten it in 
the frames. 

The Pelham-mill also makes an unnaturally-shaped foun- 
dation, the base of the cells being two instead of three- 
sided. This mill has the advantage of being very cheap, 
and is more easily manipulated than some of the others. 

682. The Given-press makes foundation similar to that 
of the old Eoropean presses. It has been highly praised by 

U 



870 



COMB FQDKDATIOM. 



» ntiinher of Apiarists. As it ib the easiest working of >]I 
(oundut ion -machines, a. great many, who could not >ac- 
uaod \a making fonndation on the mills, siicccuded on this 
pr(>sB. Anotlicr ndvantage claimed (or it, is that it can 
make foundation in wired-frames by pressing it right over 
the wires. But a press has the disadvantage o( leading in 
the sheets all the irregularities, which they may have, when 
dijipud; while in the rollGr-mills, these irregularities are 
"laminated out." Hence, pressed-fouudation can never b« 
as regular as rolled •foundation. 

083. Pia3t«r moulds and other utensils have been tried 
for foundation-making, but these cheap Implements ars 
almost entirely discarded. 




684. The Root-mills, — the most piactical — have been 
improved upon io different ways, by C. 01m, by Mrs. Dun- 
ham of Wisconsin, and by J. Vanderrort of PeiuuylTUiia. 
The latter gentleman, one of America's eminent maohuuMs, 
makes most superior mills for any grade of fooadstioa. 



FDBE BKSSWAX. 




68ff. The wax osed tor thin surplus-foundation is a se- 
lected grade. Wax from cappinga (772) and Southern 
wax are the best for this purpose. In every case, whether 
the fonndatioD is to be used for surplus (728), or for 
brood-combi (223), the wax should be iboroughly cleaned 
bj heating it to a high temperature and allowing it to cool 
slowly in flaring vessels, from which the cold wax can be 
easily removed. Wax, that is allowed to retain impuritieit, 
has less consistency, and will sag more readily. The 
method used by wax-bleachers of purifying with ncids 
should not be resorted to, as the bees have a dislilve for any 
disagreeable smell or taste. 

686. Nothing but pure vtaxsliould be used in any grade of 
foundation. Parafflne, ceresine, etc., have been tried willi 
disastrous results. Aside from the fact that tlicsc compounds 
melt at L a lower degree than beeswax* and break doivn in 

•'■rwvMMBdt* Mils* ratal., BMivuitUt."— (Bloiun'iCbciiilsUr.) 




any oburp knUS. Hats » pattom o< the aize of the i^mm 
wanted, made of bard wood. Take six or eight ifaeeta at 
one time, arranged in an even pile. Lay your patters <» 
them, hoidiog it down firmly; dip your knife in strong 
■oap-suds, and if the wax is at the proper temperature, yon 
will cut the eight pieces at one stroke of the knife. If the 
sheets have a tendency to slip from under the pattern, yon 
may nail cleats on three sides of it, to encase the pile as is 
a bos. 

606. Are there a right and a wrong way, to suspend 
foundation in the frames? Or, in other words, should two 
of the six sides of the cell be perpendicular or horizontal? 
Huber, and Cheshire after him, call our attention to the 
fact, that the bees always bnild their combs, with two dde* 
of the cells perpendicular. Hr. Cheshire explains, at length, 
the adaptation and advantages of thla natnral fact, and il« 
bearing on the strength of the comb. Prom his explana- 
tions, it results that foundation suspended thus: ^^*S 
f. e. with two perpendicular sides, would be properly K,^^ 
fastened, while if suspended thus: ^~^i i.«.intb 
two horizontal sides. It would be \ X Imprope 
tened. 

Uost of the machines that are made turn oat fonnd«tion- 
•heeta', which are to be hung horizontaUy , when Uw oaDi 



improperly taa- 




HOW FASTENED. 877 

are in the proper position. The Dunham-machine, how- 
ever, makes sheets which should hang vertically, if the 
proper position is wanted. As the sheets principally used, 
are for frames of the Langstroth pattern (299), from eight 
to ten inches in depth, and sixteen to eighteen inches in 
length, and as the machines are all under fourteen inches in 
width, the Dunham foundation-sheets must be cut in two, 
or else must be fastened wrong in the frames, owing to 
the position of the cells in the rollers. In ninety-nine cases 
out of every hundred, the latter method has been followed, 
and as the Dunham heavy-brood foundation has given uni- 
versal satisfaction, it proves that the position of the cells 
cannot have a great importance, practically, whenever a 
heavy grade is used. It is well, however, to place founda- 
tion in the correct position, whenever practicable, espe- 
cially with the light grades for sections, which are more in 
danger of stretching under ordinary circumstances. 

007. It is astonishing, as well as pleasing, to see how 
quickly a swarm will build its combs, when foundation is 
used. The enthusiasm, with which it is used by bee-keep- 
ers, is only exceeded by that of the bees, *' in being hived 
on it.*' This invention certainly deserves to rank next to 
those of the movabU-framei (282) and of the honeys 
mrattot. (749.) 

A new process has lately been deviseil by Mr. E. B. Weed 
for sheeting wax in endless Hheets. 

This invention produces sheets of beeswax more iiiiilleable 
tb^M* the dipping boards aud seems destined to revolutionize 
the making of comb foundation, especially as an endless 
sheet may be run through the mills at the mininuim of cost. 

This process, being pateuted, a description of it would be 
out of place in this work. 




CHAPTEB XYZ 
FunrDKAOB asd OnBmooKnra. 

••S. TIm <|nutlity otBMtox yifttded bj dUtsmit flow* 
variw «oatid«t«bl; ; smm |^ to Uttt», tluit « bee has to 
vlatt hundreda to fill ber MOk, wbile ttw oi»idle of othan 
oreriloira with it. 

In the Ticioity of tin Cape of Qood Hope, tlien ia t 
blossom, the Protea metti/era, which probably surpasses 
all others in the abuodance of its nectar. Indeed, so 
abundant is it. that it is said, the natives gather it by 
dipping it from the flowers, with apoone. Hr. De Planta, 
in a lengthy and sctentiQc article published In the RevM 
ItUemationale d' Apiculture, gives an account of his anal- 
ysis of some samples of this honey, which be bad received 
through the "Moravian United Brothers." He reports 
it to have the scent and the taste of ripe hananaa, and con- 
aiders it very sweet and good. 

690. The same plants yield nectar in different qaantities 
in diScrcDt countries. The Caucasian Comfiey, from 
which the bees reap a rich harvest in Eur<^, Is of little 
account here. 

TOO. Every bee-keeper should carefully acquaint him- 
self with llie honey -resources of his own neigh borhoo<l. 
We will mention particularly some of the most important 
plants from which bees draw their supplies. Since Dzier- 
zon's discovery of the use which may be made of Boor, 
early blossoms producing pollen only, are not ao important. 



PBHICIPAL BOUBCBB. 879 

AQ the Tsristiea of willow tbound In both pollen and 
honey, uid their early blossoming gives them a apeolai 
Talne. 

" First tbs grar willow's glonj pearls they steal. 
Or rob tliB hazel of Us golden meal, 
Wblle tbe gay orocos and the violet blue, 
Yield to their fleztble tninks ambrosial dew." — Evans. 

The sugar-maple {Acer lacckariniu) yields a large supply 
of delicious honey, and its blossoms, hanging in graceful 
fringes, will be alive with bees. 

Id some sections, the wild gooseberry is a valuable help 
to the bees, as it blossoms very early, and they work eagerly 
on it. 

Of the fruit trees, the apricot, peach, plum, cherry and 
pear, are great favorites ; but none fumbhes so much honey 
as the apple. 

The dandelion, whose blossoms furnish pollen and honey, 
iriien the yield from the fruit trees is ue&rly over, ia worthy 
ol Tank among honey-producing plants. 




BI4>3SOU or TUUP TKIE. 

TtotoBptne (.Ltriodendron} (Fig. 121), la ou of tbi 



patnkfesMTfmdMiactnMmtkt world. AsitolilMMMM 

iBTCsfaaMtUBMmMflloBe. Tl*hiMej,aoaghdaik,uol 
B good Inw. Hm tne flOaa attataa k height of orer om 




UXVSt BU»M»I 



Tlie wniicPii loc:« (Fig, 122), U • Twy deaumble tree 
for the 1 icinitv of ui Apivy. jriclding moch hooej wbn 
it it pecnlivlj needed bj the beea. 

Tha wild cbcnj blooms aboal the mb» ttaM. 



701. Of ftll the souroes from Trliich bees derive th^ 
KippUes, vhite clover (Fig. 123), ia usuall; the most 




WHm cLovnt. 



important. It yields large qaantities of very pure wliite 
boney, and wherever It abouDds, the bee will find a rich 
barreat. In most parts of this couDtry it seems to be the 
chief reliance of the Apiary. Blossoming at a season of 
the year when the weather is usually both dry and hot, and 
the bees gathering ita honey after the sun has dried off the 
dew, it is ready to be sealed over almost at once. 

It is ftt the blossoming of this important plant that the 
main crop of honey usually begins, and that the bees prop- 
agate in the greatest number. 

The flowers of red clover (Qg. 124) abo produce a large 
quantity of nectar ; unfortunately ita corollas are usually 
too deep for the'tongue of our bees. Yet sometimes, in 
Summer, they can reach the nectar, either because its 
corollas are ahorter on account of dryness, or because they 
an man ooplooaly filled. 



PASTUKAGB AMD OVEBarOCIUKO. 




702. The linden, or bu»>wood ( Tilia Am&rioa$ta, fig. 
125), yields white honey of a strong flavor, and, aa it blos- 
soms when both the swarms and parent- colonies are uauallj 
populous, the weather settled, and other bee-forag« aoarn, 
its value to the bcc-kecpcr is great. 

" Here tbeir delicious task, the fervent beet 
In swarming millions tend : around, athwart, 
Thrmigb the soft air the busj nations Ay, 
Cling to the bud, and with inserted tnbe. 
Suck its pure essence. Its etherlal aonl."— Tnoitaow. 

Tliia majestic tree, adorned with beautiful oluateis nl 




fragnut bloMoms, is irell worth attention as an ornamental 
shade-tree. By adorning our 
villages and country residences 
with a fair allowance of tnlip, 
linden, and such other trees as 
are not only beautiful to the eye, 
but attractive to bees, the honey- 
resourcea of the country might. 
Id process of time, be greatly 
increased. In many districts, 
locust arid bass-wood planta- 
tions would be valuable for their 
timber alone. 

703. W^e have also a variety 
of clover imported tromSweden, 
which grows as tall as the red 
clover, benrs many blossoms on 
a stalk, in size resembling the 
white, and, while it answers 
admirably for bees, is preferred 
by cattle to almost any other 
kind of grass. It is known 





AND OTSRSTDCKIHO. 



by the name of Alsike or Swedish clorcr (Fig. 186). 
The objection made to this clover is that its et«m Is k 
light that it falla to the ground. This ia remedied by Bowing 
it with timothy. The tatter helps it to etand. It is hs good 
for hooey as white clover. 

704. The raspberry furnisheB a most delicious boney. 
In flavor it is superior to that from the wbit« clover. The 
Bides of the roads, the borders of the fields, and the past- 
ures of much of the "hill-country" of New England, 
abound with the wild red raspberry, and, in eut-h favored 
locations, numerous colonies of bees may be kept. Wbeo 
it is in blossom, bees hold even the white clover in light es- 
teem. Its drooping blossoms protect the honey from moist- 
ure, and they can work upon it when the weather is eo wet 
that they can oblaiii nothing from ihe upright blossoms of 
the clover. As it furnishes a succession of flowers for some 
weeks, it yields a supply almost as lasting as the white 
clover. The precipitous and rocky lands, where it most 
abounds, might be made almost as valuable as some of the 
vine-clad terraces of the mountain districts of Europe. 

The borage {Borago officituUis), (Fig. 143), blossoms 
continually from June until severe frost, and, like the rasp- 
berry, is frequented by bees even in moist weather. The 
honey from it is of a superior quality. 

The Canada thistle, the viper bugtoia yield good honey 
after white clover has begun to fail. But these plants arc 
troublesome, for they cannot easily be gotten rid of. 

705. Melilot, or sweet clover (flgs. 127 and 136), which 
grows on any barren or rocky soil without cultivation, is 
one of the most valuable honey-plants. It will not thrive, 
however, where cattle can graze on it, as they soon destroy 
it. If cut early to be used as forage, it blooms later than 
white clover and till frost. It is a biennial. 

The different varieties of smart-weeds {Pentcaria), golden 
rod, buckwheat, asters, Irou^weed, Spaniah-ncedlei Id low 



PABTU8A0I. 




and marshy places, give a very abimdaQt honey-crop 
Ifttter part of the Slimmer. They form the bulk of 

is called the "Fall crop" in this latitude. 

California the sage, in Texas the horse-miat. In Flor- 

e mangrove, form the main honey -harvests of those 

ri«S. 

B. We here present a list of the flowers known as 
visited by the bees for their nectar or for their pollen. 

ITS grouped them in Families, and we give engraving 

ir most prominent types, in order to help the Apiarift 



i 



PA8TDBAGB AKD 



In bis tavesUgfttioDB. But out list is far from being com 
plete, and every day bringa some new discovenea. 

Composilce; — Dandelion, Thistle, Chamomile, (Fig. 128), 
SuuQower, Ox-eye Daisy, Goldenrod (!''■£■ l''9)> Cor«opsi>> 



I 




Lettuce, Chicory, Boneset, Iron-weed, Indi&n PlBnUin, Fin- 
weed, Aater (ligures 130-131), Burr- Marigold, Spauish 
Needles, Coneliower, Star ThbtJe, Thoroughwort, But- 
ter weed, Sneeze- wort. Blue Bottle, Ragweed, several 
varieties ot EchiDops, one ot which, tbe Sph«rocephaliu, 
waa introduced here by Mr. Chapman. The Echinopa ritro 
(smaller in size) (Fig. 132), is cultivated in Europe od ao> 



rMTDKAOB. 




coDDt of Its beautiful blue heada. This family includeB also 
the Helenium tenuifoliunt (Fig. 133), whose honey Is poison- 
ottt.— (Dr. J. P. H. Bbowk.) 




LeguminoKt: — Judas tree (Fiji. 134), which IiUmuih very 
early, Locust tree, Honey Locust (Kip. Ki.>), Wiststria, 



rASTVnkOK MJtD OrKBSTOCKUtO. 




Wit- W. (Pram L'ApleolUm.) 



white, red 

■ or Alfalfa, 
Partriilge 
Mcsqnit-lK 
(Fig. 137). 

i;t«>, s..^... 

Ciiliiip. Sl< 
Miirjornin, 
rov!il. 

Pcai'li, A| 
berrj', Ki 



and alsike Clover, Uelilot (Fig. 186), Lucent 

Pens, BeaDs, VetclieB, Lentils, F&]ae-Indi|;o, 

pea. Wild senna, Milk Tetch, Yellow-Wowi, 

1% of Tc-xos, Cleome-integrifolia, and pungens 

: — (fri)in I.iiUhim. n lip.) GrouDd Ivy (Fi([. 
; (I'-ig. i;i!>), -Mint (Fig. 140), Horehound. 
Ihcnvort, IIorse-Miiit, Hasil, Hyssop, ber^anmt. 
Tliytne, Mdiss.i, Dend Nettle, Bmnella, I'eniiy- 

; — Wild Rose, Cherry (Fig. 142), Plum, 
ricot, Apple, I'ear, Quince, Hawthorne, Blaik- 
s|)berry, Strawherrj-, Juneberry, CiDquetoil, 



rAnuBAOc 




S90 PAATCEAOK AMD OTCUtOCUm. 

BowmAnsroot, Qumd of tbe Prtim, Meadow Swe«t, P^^ 




ife/yyoKHciE;— (Knot-Weed) Buckwheat, Lady Thumb, 
Bhubarb, Sorrel, and & variety of Knot-Woeds or Per- 
f/canu (Fig. 141). 





nsoncA omct»*u»' 



Sn rUTURAQB AttD OVERaTOCKHKI. 

Bora yiwrt cw -■— Borage (Fig, 143), Viper-buploss, Cora- 
trty, I'haceUa, Virginia Lungwort, Hound toQg:iie, Gro»- 
well, Falne Gromwell, 

ScropltutariactO! : — Sctui>hulariaao<Io8a(Siin)>son'8lidi]e^ 




AKUFUB TVBt.liOSA. FLKCItUT BOOT. 

plant), Veronicas (Fig. 144), Yellow Jessamine of tbt 
SouUi. whose hoaej is poisonous. (Db. J. P. H. Browx.) 

Asdepiadacea : — The commoa Hi Ik- 
weed (Fig. U6),or Silkweed, AMlepiaa 
Syriaca, is much frequented by bees, 
but these risiU are often fatal to tbem. 
All the grains of poUenof the Silkweed, 
in each anther, are collected in a com- 
pact mass, inclosed in ■ sack; these 
aacks are united in paira (a. Fig. 147) 
by a kind cl thread, terminated by » --„„'!l[; Ji„,„ 
•mall, nscous gland. Theae threads ■, ^^ ^ psiiM ■■ 
•Uck to the feet (6. Fig. 147) and often CSiii.'SifiSi.''" 
to the labial palpi (46) of the beea, who 
csnnot easily get rid of them, and per- 
Isb. In MHBS parts of Ohio and W«8Mim 




of the common Und, the Ahdepitu SvUivantii, does not 
present to bees these diffloultieB to the same degree. We 
have seen bees gathering honey freel; on four or five diller- 
.:at varieties which grow in our neighboihood, and especially 
on the Tnberosa or Pleorisj root (Fig. 145), fitly recom- 
mended by James Heddoo. This kind Is noticeable by its 
orange flowers. 




Crucifenez—Rape (Fig. 148), Mustard (Kig. 149), 
Cabbage, Eadish, Candy Tuft, Stock, Wall-Flower, Moon- 
wort, Sweet AlyssuiD, Cress. 

Erieaeece: — This family, on the Old Continent, includes 
the namerons varieties of Heath, on nliicb bees reap a 
large harrest of inferior honey, so thick that it is impos- 
sible to extract it. Blueberry, Sour Wood, Laurel, Clcthra 
alnilolia, Cowberry (Fig. 150), Huckleberry. Whortle- 
berry, Qaoltheria FrocumbeoB, or Creeping niutcrgrccn. — 
which Ifl indicated, by some English bee-keepers, as pre- 



896 



PASTDBAOe AND OVK&STOCKlXa. 



venting bees from stinging tbe hands wben they «rp nibh 
with its leaves, — belong to this family. 

Valerianacece : — Valerian (Fig. 161), Corn salad oi I.an 
lettuce, belong to this family. 

Onagraceoe; ^(Evening 
Primrose family) Gaura, 
Fuscbia, CEnotliera (Fig. 
162) Epilobium (Wiltow 
Herb, Fig. 153). 

Liliaceae: — Lilies C^^'g- 
154), Asparagus, Wild 
Hyaeiiith(Fig. 155), Star 
of Bclhlehem, Lily of the 
VaUey (Fig. 156), Solo- 
moo's Seal (Fig. 167), 
Dog's-tooth Violet, throe- 
lieaded Nigbt-sbade, Gar- 
lic, Onion, Crocus. 

Malvacea: — Common 
Mallows, aD<J olliers, Hol- 
lyLocJi, Coltoa(Fig. 158), 
Abutilon. 

CapTifoHaceat:— Honeysuokto, Snow uid Coral beiiiM, 
At row- wood. 





VKit IM — MKLUN. 



PASTUBAQB. 897 

•urbitaeect: — Cucumber, Meloa (Fig. Ifift), Squash, 




OiHifteUiftra:— Parsley, Angelica, Lovage, Fennel (Fig. 
160), Parsnip, Coriander, Covr-parsnip. 




^ 



S98 PAnORAOK tMD OYBBSTOCKIKO 

Caryophyltaceix; — Rnk (^. 161), LIchnu, Chidnraed, 
Saponaria. 

We con name also: Bib-Gran, or Plantain (Fig. 163), 
Goosefoot, Blue-eyed gprasa, Corn-flag, Buckthorn, Barben; 
(Pig. 163), Sumac, Grape-Tine, Polanysia, Button weed. 
Mignonette, or Beseda (Fig. 164), Teasel, Skunk cabbagt. 




Wftterleaf, Hemp, Touch-me-not, Amaranth, Crowfoot. St. 
John's wort, and among the trees : Willow (Figs. 165-166), 
Poplar, which have tlieir sesiial organs on different trees; 

Oak (Fig. 107). Walnut, Hickory, Beech, Birch, Alder, 
Elin. Il:i/e!-iiiit (l^'iy;. 1G8), Maple whose organs of repro- 
duction are sc[>arate(i, although on the same tree. 

Horae dicstniit. Persimmon, Gum-tree, Dogwood, Button- 
buab, Cypress, Liqiiidambar, Linden. 



FASTUKAOB. 899 

We Bhonld mention also, Ailanthus gtandulosus (Varnish 
tree of Chitu), t large, omuuental tree, which gives on 
abnadance of honey to bad ia taste, as to compel the bee- 
keepers who have some in their neighborhood to extract 
it aa soon as it is gstbercdi that it may not injure the 
quality of their crop. 





Bees also visit some of the plants of the grass family, 
Mich as oorn and sorghum. A plant of this family, the 
Setaria, or bristly fox-tail grass, ia known in France under 
the name of accroche-abeiUei, (bee- catcher). Its curved 
hairs grasp the bees' legs, and the poor insects, unable to 
free ihemaelTes, are soon exhausted, and die. 



I 



risniiuaB axo 



OosrMocking. 



707. It the opiaions, entertained by some, as to Um 
danger of overstocklug were correct, bee-keeping In thit 
countrj, would alirays have been lui iDeignlflcaat pnniiit. 

It is difiicult to repress a smile when the owner of a few 
hivoa, in a district where hundreds might be made to pro^ 
por, gravciy Imputes his ill-success to the fact, that too 
many bees axe kept in hia vicdnlty. If, In the Spring, a 
colony of bees is prosperous and healthy, it will gather 
abundant stores, in a tavorahle season, even if many eqa&Ily 
BtroD); are in its immediate vicinity ; while, it it Ea feeble, it 
will bu of little or no value, even if it is in " a land flowing 
with milk and honey," and that* la not anothei colony 
within a dozen miles of it. 

As the great Napoleon guned many of hia vlotoriea by 
having an overwhelming force at the right place, in the 
right time, so the bee-keeper moat have strong colonies, 
when numbers can be turned to the best accooot II 
they become strong only when they can do nothing but 
consume what little honey hsa been previously gathered, he 
is like a farmer who suffers hia crops to rot on the ground, 
and then hires a set of Idlers to eat him out of houae and 

708. Although bees can fly, in search of food, over three 
miles, still, if it is not within a circle of about tuo mife> la 
every direction from the Apiary, they wiU be able to ttort hvi 
little surplus honey.' If pasturage abounds within a quar- 

•-' Jo.lglnir from the fWHp Chit beet take fram tta ltd* ■!<■ laUnad tialB l> 
matlon. wa nhoiild eaUmata thalrpaoe St *1x>Dt tUitj Bdli* aa bovi. lU* 

woqU gl\ e tham fnnt mlDOtM to nacti tha aitnmlty flf Ihilr eamn^B n^«. " 
-Lmlaii ^artvly Xnttv. 




OYBBSTOGKING. 401 

ter of a mile from their hives, so much the better ; there is 

no great advantage, however, in having it close to them, 

unless there is a great supply, as bees, when they leave the 

hive, seldom alight upon the neighboring flowers. The 

instinct to fly some distance seems to have been given them 

to prevent them from wasting their time in prying into 

flowers already despoiled of their sweets by previous gath- 
erers. 

*' Mr. Kaden, of Mayence, thinks that the range of the bee*8 
flight does not usually extend more than three miles in all direc- 
tions. Several years ago, a vessel, laden with sugar, anchored 
off Mayence, and was soon visited by the bees of the neighbor- 
hood, which continued to pass to and from the vessel from dawn 
to dark. One morning, when the bees were in full flight, the 
vessel sailed up the river. For a short time, the bees continued 
to fly as numerously as before ; but gradually the number dimin- 
ished, and, in the course of half an hour, all had ceased to follow 
the vessel, which had, meanwhile, sailed more than four miles." 
— Bitnenaeiiung^ 1854, p. 83. 

Our own e;cperience corroborates the statements of Kaden. 
We have known strong colonies of bees to starve upon the 
hills in a year of drouth, while the Mississippi bottoms, 
less than four miles distant, which bad been overflowed dur- 
ing the Spring, were yielding a large crop. It is evident 
that districts, where the honey blossoms are scarce, can be 
much more readily overstocked than those rich bottom 
lands which are covered with blossoms, the greater part of 
the Summer. A great amount of land in cultivation, is not 
always a hindrance to honey production, for culiivated 
landa often grow weeds, which yield an abundance of honey. 
Heartsease and Spanish needle grow plentifully in corn- 
fields and wheat stubble in wet seasons. Pasture lands 
abound with white clover. 

709. It is impossible to give the exact number of colo- 
nies that a country can support profitably. In poor loca- 
tionBi a f^w hives will probably harvest all the honey to be 




402 PASTURAGB AND OVSBflTOCKINO. 

found, while some districts can support perhaps a hundred 
or more to the square mile. The bee-keeper must be hii 
own judge, as to the honey capacity of his district. 

** When a large flock of sheep, says Oettl, is grazing on a 
limited area, there may soon be a deflciency of pasturage. Bat 
this cannot be asserted of bees, as a good honey-district cannot 
readily be overstocked with them. To-day, when the air Is 
moist and warm, the plants may yield a superabundance of 
nectar; while to-morrow, being cold and wet, there may be a 
total want of it. When there is snfScient heat and moisture, the 
saccharine Juices of plants will readily fill the nectaries, and will 
be quickly replenished when carried off by the bees. Every cold 
night checks the flow of honey, and every clear, warm day re- 
opens the fountains. The flowen expanded to-day tmai be wieUed 
while open; for^ if left to wither, their storee are loMt. The same 
remarks will apply substantially in the case of honey-dews. 
Hence, bees cannot, as many suppose, collect to-raorrow what is 
left ungathered to-day, as sheep may graze hereafter on the pas- 
turage they do not need now. Strong colonies and large Apiaries 
are in a position to collect ample stores when forage sudden Ij 
abounds, while, by patient, persevering industry, they may still 
gather a sufficiency, and even a surplus, when the supply is 
small, but more regular and protracted.'' 

Although we believe that a district can be overstocked, 
80 as to make bee-culture unprofitable, yet the above extract 
gives a correct view of the honey harvest, which depends 
much on the weather, and must be gathered when produced. 

The same able Apiarist, whose golden rule in bee-keeping 
is, to keep none but strong colonies, says that in the lapse 
of twenty years since he established his Apiary, there 
has not occurred a season in which the bees did not 
procure adequate supplies for themselves, and a surplus 
besides. Sometimes, indeed, he came near despairing, when 
April, May, and June were continually cold, wet, and un- 
productive ; but in July, his strong colonies speedily filled 
their jxarnors, and stored up some treasure for him; while, 
in such seasons, small colonies could not even gather enough 
to keep them from starvation. 




OVXR8TOCKIKO. 403 

710. Aooording to Oettl (p. 389), Bohemia contained 
160,000 colonies in 1853, from a careful estimate, and he 
thought the country could readily support four tiroes that 
number. This province contains 19,822 square English 
miles. 

We say square English miles, and we insist on the word 
English, for we have read of reports from Germany, show- 
ing incredible figures as to the number of bees, and the 
amount of beeswax and honey gathered on areas of a few 
square miles; and yet, some of these reports may have 
been true, for there are different sized miles, in Germany. 
The Grerman geographical mile is equal to 4.^^^ English 
miles; the Grerman short mile, to ^-^f^^; and the German 
long mile to 5.-^^^^, dec. ; the shortest German square mile 
being as about 15 of the English, and the long being about 
equal to 33 of our square miles. This we glean from 
*^ Chambers Encyclopedia." 

According to an official report, there were in Denmark, 
in 1838, eighty-six thousand and thirty-six colonies of bees. 
The annual product of honey appears to have been about 
1,841,800 lbs. In 1855, the export of wax from that coun* 
try was 118,379 lbs. 

In 1856, according to official returns, there were 58,964 
colonies of bees in the kingdom of Wurtemberg. 

In 1857, the yield of honey and wax in the empire of 
Austria was estimated to be worth over seven millions of 
dollars. 

Doubtless, in these districts, where honey is so largely 
produced, great attention is paid to the cultivation of crops 
which, while in themselves profitable, afford abundant pas- 
turage for bees. 

711. California, which seems to be the Eldorado of bee- 
culture, can probably support the greatest number of bees 
to the square mile, and yet in some seasons the bees starve 
there in great numbers owing to the drouth. 



I 



4M PASTUKAUB AMD OTKBSTOGKIHO. 

We have no olllcial statistics of the tioncy crops of tbe 
U&lted Stntes, but tiie following extract from the Aa^am 
Bee-Journal (188G), will give an idea of the iminvuutj' ol 
our honey resources, considering the comparatively nntll 
areas of this country now occupied by Apiarists. 

" Tlie California Oi-occr enys that the crop of 18S5 wag about 
l.KO.OOO pounds. The foreign export from San Frsnrlsco tlur- 
ing tbe year was npproxlmately 8,B00 cases. The Bb1pm«nU 
Sasl hj rail were 3GQ,(XH) pounilg frgm San Fraocleco, and SIO/DO 
pounds from Los An];elcs, including both comb and exti«ct«<). 
We notice thut nnotlier California pnper cEtimatcs the crop of 
ISSo at 2,000,000 pounds, and the crop of the United Sutea btr 
18S5 was put down at 3a,fl0().000 pounds. We do not think lb«M 
figures are quite large enough, though it was on ezce«ditigly 
pogr crop." 

But former years have ^ven etJU better reBulta. ntroogta 

the courtesy of Mr. N. W. McLun, of the D. S. Apicultnral 
Station, we have received the following statiatica from 
"The Resources of California, 1881": 

The honey shipped from Venti»a County, California, 
during 1880 amounted to 1,050,000 lbs. Tbe Pacific Coaat 
Steamship Company of San Diego shipped 1,191,800 pound* 
of honey from that county in the same year. 

The crop of tbe five lower counties in California that 
year, was estimated by several parties at over three mlUioD 
pounds. 

According to a report of S. D. Stone, Clerk of tbe Me^ 
chncts' Exchange of San FraneiBCO, the actual amount of 
honey shipped to that city from different parts of California 
in the sixteen months ending May 1, 1881, was 4,340,400 
pounds, equal to two hundred and seventeen car-loads. 

One hundred tons of honey, in one lot, were shipped during 
tbe same year, from Los Angeles to Europe on tbe French 
bark Papillon. This had ail been purchased from Los 
Angeles Apiarists. 

712. In the excellent season of 1888, tbe honey crop of 




PASTUBAOB. 405 

Hancock County, Illinoig, was estimated at about 200,000 
pounds, which made an average of less than half a pound 
per acre. 36,000 pounds of this was our own crop, and 
the county did not contain one-tenth of the bees that could 
have been kept profitably on it. Yet, at this low rate, the 
crop of Illinois alore, with the same percentage of bees, 
would have been 15,000,000 pounds. We cannot form an 
adequate idea of the enormous amount of honey, which is 
wasted from the lack of bees to harvest it. 

713. In our own experience in the Mississippi Valley, 
we have found eighty to oue hundred colonies to be the 
number from which the most honey could be expected in 
one Apiary. Dr. C. C. Miller in his interesting work ''A 
Year Among the Bees/' says also that one hundred colonies 
is tlie best number in one location. Mr. Heddon strongly 
urges bee-keepers not to locate within any area already 
occupied by an Apiary of one hundred colonies or more. 
The extensive experience of both these Apiarists confirms 
ours, but we must remember that locations differ greatly. 

714. In all arrangements, aim to save every step for 
the bees that you possibly can. With the alighting-board 
properly arranged, the grass kept down, or better still, 
ooal-ashes or sand (568) spread in front of the apron- 
board (343),. bees will be able to store more honey, even 
if they have to go a considerable distance for it, than they 
otherwise could from pasturage nearer at band. Many bee- 
keepers utterly neglect all suitable precautions to facilitate 
the labors of their bees, as though they imagined them to 
be miniature locomotives, always fired up, and capable of 
an indefinite amount of exertion. A bee cannot put forth 
more tlian a certain amount of physical effort, and a large 
portion of this ought not to be spent in con lending against 
difficulties from which it might easily be guarded. They 
may often be seen panting after their return from labor, 
and so exhausted as to need rest before they enter the hive. 



iU6 PAfiTDBAOE AMD OVtBSTOCKINO. 

lis. With proper management, at least fifty pouoda ot 
surplus honey may be obtained from each colony that is 
winteri?d in good condition. This ia not a *' guess " esti- 
mate, it 13 the average of our crops daring a period of oia 
twenty years in diHerent localities. 

Such an average may appear small to experienced bee- 
keepers, but v& think it large enough when we connder 
that we have very few linden trees in our neighborhood. 

A careful man, who, with Langstroth hives, will be^a 
bee-keeping oq a prudent scale, enlarging his operatioDs u 
his skill and experience increase, will succeed in any region. 
But, in favorable localities, a much larger profit may be 
realized. 

Itee-kcepers cannot be too cautious in entering largely 
upon new systems of management, until they have aaoer- 
tained, not only that they are good, but that they can make 
a good use of them. There is, however, a golden mean 
between the stupid conservatism that tries nothing new, and 
that rash experimenting, on an extravagant scale, whiofaH 
so characteristic Of many people. 




BOKBT PBODUCTIOll. 407 



CHAPTER XVIL 

HONET PUODOCTION. 

710. History does not mention the first discovery of 
honey, by homan beings. Whether it became known to 
primitiye man by accident, from the splitting of a bee-tree 
by lightning, or by his observation of the fondness of some 
animals for it, — certain it is that when he first tasted the 
thick and transparent liquid, the fear of stings was over- 
come, and the bee-hunter was born. Since that time, the 
manner of securing honey has undergone a great many 
changes, improving and retrograding, as we can Judge from 
writings now extant. 

Killing bees (270) for their honey was, unquestionably, 
an invention of the dark ages, when the human family had 
lost — in Apiarian pursuits, as well as in other things — the 
skill of former ages. In the times of Aristotle, Varro, 
Columella, and Phny, such a barbarous practice did not 
exist. The old cultivators took only what their bees could 
spare, killing no colonies, except such as were feeble or 
diseased. 

The Modern methods have again done away with these 
customs among enlightened men, and the time has come 
when the following epitaph, taken from a German work, 
might properly be placed over every pit of brimstoned 
bees: 

IIBUB RKHTI, 

OVT OFV FBOM USEFUL LABOB, 

A COLONY OF 

11IDUSTRIOU8 BBB8 

BASKX.T MUKUEKKD 

BT IT4 

maBATBFin. AXD IONOBAJIT 

OWBBK. 




HONET PRODUCTTOM. 

To the epitaph should be appended Tbomsoa's versa: 
" Ab, eee, where robbed and mardered In that pit. 
Lies the elill heaving hive! at evening anatcbed,' 
Beneath ttae cloud of guilt-concealing night. 
And nxcd o'er sulphur ! while, not dreaming ill. 
The happy people, in their waxen cells. 
Sat tending public cares. 
Sudden, the darit, oppressive stenm ascenda. 
And. used to milder scents, the tender race. 
By thousands, tnoible Trom their honied dome 
Into aguir or blue sulphureous name!" 

717. The present methods are as far ahead ot XktoU 
wajs, as the steel rail is ahead of the miry road; ai tht 
palace car is ahead df the stage coach. 

ll is to the production of surplus honey that all the eOorti 
of the bee-keeper tend, and the problem of Apiculture is, 
how to raise the most honey from what colonies ire have, 
with the greatest prollt. 

718. In raising honey, whether comb or extracted, the 
Apiarist should remember the following: 

1st. His coioniea should be strongest in bees at the time 
of the expected honey harvest (S6S). 

2d. Each honey harvest usually lasts but a few weeks. 
It a colony is weak in Spring, the harvest may come and 
pass away, and the bees be able to obtain very little from it. 
During this time of meagre accumulations, the orchud* 
and pastures maj' present 

"One boundless blush.one white empurpled ihower 
Of mingled blossoms;" 
and tens of thousands of bees from stronger colonies may 
be engaged all day in sipping the fragrant sweets, so that 
every gale which "fans its odoriferous wings " about their 
dvtellinjrs, dispenses 

"N;itive perfumes, nnd whisper* whence they stole 
Those balmy spoils."* 




COMB HONBT. 409 

Bj tlie time the feeble colony becomes strong — if at all 
—the honey hairest is over, and, instead of gathering 
enough for its own use, it may starve, unless fed. Bee- 
keeping, with colonies which are feeble, except in extraor- 
dinary seasons and locations, is emphatically nothing but 
*' vexation of spirit." 

3rd, Colonies that swarm (400) cannot be expected to 
furnish much surplus, in average localities and seasons. 
(See Artificial Increase 409.) 

4ik. A hive containing or raising many drones (189) 
eaimoi save as much surplus as one that has but few, owing 
to the cost of production of these drones, who do not work 
and are raised in place of workers (190). We have in- 
sisted on this point already, but it is of such importance, 
that we cannot refrain from recalling it. The hives should 
be overhauled every Spring, and the drone comb, cut out 
and replaced by neat pieces of worker comb, or of comb 
foundation (074). Every square foot of drone comb, re- 
placed with worker comb, represents an annual saving, in 
our estimation, of at least one dollar to the colony. 

Comb Honet. 



719. Although the production of comb honey is less 
advantageous than that of extracted honey (746), yet a 
newly made and well sealed honey comb is unquestionably 
most attractive, and, when nicely put up, will find a place 
of honor, even on the tables of the wealthy. White comb 
honey will always be a fancy article, and will sell at paying 
prices. 

Dark honey in the comb never finds ready sale. Hence, 
the bee-keepers, in districts where white honey is harvested, 
are mostly producers of comb honey ; while those in the 
districts producing dark honey, in the South mainly, rely 
mox% on extracted honey. 



I 



TM. Wahsn not tbe ipsee to describe the difl«mt 
•votaisas, tknH^ vUcfa Uw prodoction of comb hoaej 

hm [iMBedibM)elMK4$i«liaMs; prodacdoninlargefnouft, 
!■ g,lM liiiiii. ill liialiliiii. «Ce. 

Honej' is luge bsmes dries oot ^eP. Tell. ■.□'1 cannot be 



««lfcBSB«ttitbMiiriKBdnaanhaaviB« l»rg« box, 
am is w w o i— n«M« ^MM vdted <»|»a^ te Ite 

wivotOal 




•d br a noted Apiarist, u 
r (741). Ftactiei^. them k moic 
hbor for tbe bees in BnuQ nc^Udes, as the joinU ud 
eomers of tbe ocmbs reqnjre more time and more wax. 

7S1. Bat to produce salable OMnb boaey, we have do 
choice. We wtMJt prodace it in aa smaU a receptacle •• 
possible. The Adair section boxes, which we used as esilj 
AS IS&d, marked tbe first progresslTe step, so far ss we 

These sections forming a caae by tbe oTerlapping of their 
top and bottoo) bars, and funisbed with glass at each end, 
were much admired, and we sold sereral tons of honey, id 
this ship«. in Si. Louis, at tbe now fabalons prices of from 
25 to 3# cents per pound. 

722. Bu[ the one and two pound sections, as now made, 
have been universally adopted of late years. 

The one po^iid sections sell best, but, at tbe difference ol 
onlv one cent per pound, we woold prefer to Dse tbe two 
pound sections. 



com BOMXT. 



These sectdooB are msde of two tdndi, dovetuled In four 
(docMt or ID one piece and bent. The first caa be made 



of any Und of white wood, while the latter are made of base 
wood only. When the one piece sections are made by the 
BpUtttng procesi, they are less apt to break in bending, but 
sawed sections can be safely put up by wetting the V 
notches, before bending them. 

723. Sections are usually made ) inch thick and H to 8 
incbea wide. The standard section for Latigstroth hives la 
4i X 4} inches, with openings at the bottom and top. 




784. They are given to the bees ia the upper story, like 
tlie extracting oases (flg. 178). Storage room, on the sides of 
tkM brood chamber, has been periodically advised by inven- 
tors of new hives, but bees never fill and seal seclions placed 
•t the side as fast as if put above the biood chamber.* 

■ HiKt n« (kw noMd bn-keapsn who %it inccounil vlto ■ combloanoB 
•f lop BDd rite (tonm. W* will dU OD* of the let^lan or Anxricu Apicat- 



BOKKT FBODUCnON. 



SectiooB are either crated, in cases (fig. 170), or bong Id 
broad fromeB (ng. 171), ol full depth, or half depth. Botii 



-UaHii 



rOLI. DEPTH SKCTION FRAUB. 

waye have their fiiendB, and both are good, as long tbe tnaia 
principlea are adhered to. 

726. These principles are based on the difficulties, that 
have to be overcome in comb-honey production, as follows: 

Ist. Inducing the bees to work in small receptacles; 

2d. Forcing them to build the combs atxaight and even, 
without bulge, so that the sectiona oaa be interchanged 
without being bruised againat ods aootbar, when taken off 
and crated for market; 

Sd. Keeping the queen in the brood f^Mstment, and pre- 
venting her from breeding In the Beottona ; 

4th, Preventing swarming as much aa possible ; 

Gth. Arranging the sections so as tohave as little propolis 
put on them as possible (237 ) ; 

6th. Gettiug the greatest number of sectiooa thoroughly 
sealed, as unsealed honey Is unsalable. 

720. 1st. Inducing bkes to woek » small ebcxpti.cues. 

Bather than work in small, empty receptacles, the b«ea 
tometirriM crowd their honey in the brood chamber, till 
the queen can And no room to lay in, and swarming, or a 
smaller crop of honey, is the consequence. To remedy 
this eTil, some of our leading bee-keepers hare resorted to 
anold, discarded, French practice, "rerersiDg." Beversiog 
oonaista in turning the brood chamber npdds down aitd 



I 




00MB HOKBT. 



413 



placiug hives oontaining empty combs, whose bees died the 
preceding Winter, or empty supers, over it. The honey 
contained in the brood chamber, which is always placed 
above and behind the brood, safe from pilfering intruders, is 
now at the bottom, near the entrance. 
The cells are wrong side up (fig. 
172), and the most watery honey is 
in danger of leaking out. Hence an 
aproar in the hive, and the immediate 
result is, that the bees promptly oo 
cupy the upper story, and store in 
it all this ill-situated honey. The 
result is so radical, that ^' reversing 
bee-keepers ** admit that their bees 
have to be fed in the Fall, as too little 
honey is left in the brood chamber for 
the hives to winter on.* In the box- 
hive times, the following was already 
the almost unanimous report of bee- 
keepers on the results of " revers- 
ing." The recruiting and feeding 
for Winter of reversed colonies being 
considered too costly and risky, 
the Apiaries were supplied every year with new colonies 
bought from bee-keepers whose business was to raise 
•warms to sell. 

** If yon want the greatest quantity of honey, reverse your col- 
onies; but if reversing was practiced everywhere, we would 
diminish the number of our colonies, and would finally even 




Tig. 172. 

SLOPB OP THB CKUS 
WHSN nrVKRTED. 



• III reflBieiM^ to this, Mr. Shack Myt : ' ' Thli 1b doI necessarily true. Stop 
iBTerilog, and th« fhkmas flU Jait the same as they do In any non-lnvertible 
IiIt0, of oonrse. I attach Importance to the system In preparation for the har- 
▼Mt, aad gtttiiig tiM workers started ri^ht. After that, the hire may be used 
m a Don-liiTarter. If yoa practice inversion weekly, the whole gather it 
UUtf to ba In tha rapcn, and yoa wlU be obliged to feed for Winter. If yoa 
SMaatATVtiBf about tha middJa of baaswood, yoa will have sarploa, and tha 
haai wlUhava Wlator itona, provldad the flowers yield honey. " 



<u 



HOHXT PRODUCnOK. 



dMtro^ the rmce of beet, for u br u tw r^rodutHam Is eoneatMi 
the ' riPtrvins' .j^narwf > reubea ttte uma TCsnlt M the ~ 
ApiarUt.' "— FTench Apiarian CongT Mi , ParU, 1881. 
Volime 6, page 17ft. 




In the ]iri'S('iit sialp of progrosa Id bee culture, " re»er«- 
inj; " is Ifss ilniiiapng, but its disadvantages to the bees 
cannot ovi'rlmlnncc it9 advantages, unlesa it ia practiced 
very csutiously and B\iaT\Qgly. 



cxnn Bonr. 4U 

79T. Tet tidi pnctice la sniBcieiitly entidng — m it 
fonMS tfa« bflM to ooonpy the sapera to qnickiy — to have 
I the inveation of ft ntimbet of reversible hlvea or 




frunea. If our readers desire to try " revcrsihle hives," 
they will have but to choose among the innny. The most 
popular rereraible hives of Ihe [)rc3CDt day are the Shiu^lc 



HONBY PaODUCTlOX. 



W 4ie 

■ and tbe UeddoD, both patented. The former has (rameiof 

I tbe same size as the regular Langstrotfa pattern, and li 

I quite popular in Iowa. 

I 7S8. Reversing during the harvest does not cause tb« 

I bees to gather any more honey; nay, they harvest ev«D * 

I little less, owing to the time occupied id transporting (he 

I hooey, but it is all placed in the surplus apartmeTtt at the 

I mercy of their owner. 

I A much safer method to induce the beea to work in the 

f supers, is to place in them, nearest the brood, a few un- 

finisbed sections from the previous season.* The super* 
should be located as near the brood apartment as possible, 
with as much direct communicatioQ as can be conveniectl; 
given. 

720. But, with the greatest skill, it is impossible to 
attract tbe bees into the supers, u long as there sre empty 
combs in the brood- chamber. 

If the queen is unable to occupy aH the combs with 
brood, the empty ones should be removed at the beginning 
of the honey harvest, and either given to Bwarms or divided 
colonies, or placed outside of the divisiou board (349). 
This is called "contraction." We would warn our readers 
against excessive contraction, tor, after the honey season 
is over, a hive which has been contracted to, say, two- 
thirds, of its capacity, has become dwarfed in honey, 
brood, and bees, and will run some risks through the Win- 
ter. Besides, that part ot, the super, which is above 
the empty space, is but reluctantly occupied by bees. 

"If the reader has ever conatracted a hive, whose surploi 
department was wider than the brood chamber. Jutting out over 
the Barac. he has noticed the partial neglect paid hy the bees, to 
the surplus boit^s which rested over wood Instead of combt. 

•TlilgUwtiaiI>T C. C. Ulllercalli a "biJt." Tbse DnSaliheiJ »c«tJou 
tiaiB bean emptied of tbeli boo*; bf tbe •xtntstol, and eUaoad by lb* b*M 
tba pravloiu FbII. 




00MB HONBT. All 

** Now this same difference made by the bees, between wood and 
oomb, they will also make between combs of hpney and ^ombs 
of brood, and with our 8-frarae Langstroth hiye, we notice far 
less neglect of the side surplus combs than we noticed when 
using the 10-frame hives. This is one objection to the method 
of contracting by replacing the side combs of brood chambers 
with fillers or dummies." — J. Heddon ** Success in Bee-Culture.*' 

7 SO. A method which avoids contraction, and makes the 
best honey-producing colonies still better, consists in taking 
brood combs from colonies that are not likely to yield 
any stirplos, and exchanging them, for empty combs from 
the best colonies, just before the honey harvest. This 
method requires too many manipulations to be very advan- 
tageous, and prevents the poorest colonies from becoming 
stronger. 

781. 2d. Sbcurino straight, even combs, in sections. 
With thin comb foundation, in strips filling i to i of the 
section, the combs are always straight, but their surface, 
when sealed, is not always even. Some cells are built longer 
than others, and, in packing the honey, these bulged combs 
might come in contact with one another and get bruised. 
To prevent this occurrence, many Apiarists use '^separa- 
tors," made of tin, wood, or coarse wire cloth, placed be- 
tween the rows of sections, as in fig. 171. This invention, 
claimed by Mr. Bet8inger,.of New York, was first tried in 
the brood chamber, by Mr. Langstroth in 1858. It was 
suggested by Mr. Colvin. (See former edition, page 374.) 

Let the reader bear in mind that these separators although 
useful, are not indispensable. They are to a certain ex- 
tent an annoyance to the bees. Some Apiarists of ability, 
among whom we will cite Mr. Geo. H. Beard, of Missouri, 
manage to secure very nice honey in sections without thera ; 
but if we were to produce large quantities of comb honey, 
we should use them, and would give the preference to those 
made of tin. 
f7 



f 



418 HOF 

7313. 3d. KjtY.PTUG THE QUEEN Dl TBK BROOD APART- 

UKM. If the supers have beea put on just prertous U> t^ 
opeaiag o( the honej crop, with BufBcient bait to attract tlit 
beea \a them, there will be but little daoger of the queen's . 
moving up into them, unless her breeding room is too mudl 
cramped by honey, or by the exiguity of the brood tiewL 

The condition of the hooey crop has something to ils 
with her propensity to move out of the brood apu-tnMot. 
Wlien the honey crop is heavy, and of short duration, ther» 
is no danger oo this Btoro, as the honey combs are filled m 
fkst 913 they are built, and the 
queen, should she move to the 
eupeT, would soon leave it, owing 
to her inability to lay there. In 
localities where the crop is lasting 
and intermittent, much advantage 



a I"'. 



ilei 



e<l fro 



. the 



eof 




rig. ITS. 
rauoKATiai SEKC. 

mRoM'a "OImdI^i.") 



the Collin perforated zino (101). 
The only obstacle to its use, is 
that it hinders ventilation and free 
kccess tor the bees. 

733. 4th. SWARUIKO WITH OOKft-HOMET PRODUCTIOM. 

As the directions given by tu elsewhere (495) do not 
altogether prevent swarming, when comb-honey ia raised, 
uid as the swarming of a colony usually ends its surplus 
production for the season, it has been found advisable to 
give the surplus cases to the swarm, instead of leaving them 
on the old hive. To further strengthen the awarro, which 
is thus dept'udod upon for surplus, it is placed oo the stand 
of the old hive, and the latter is removed to a new location. 
This i.t a I'tTv practical method. It is due to Messrs. 
Heddon aud llutchiusou. — at least (A«y have popularized 
it. but the prudent Apiarist, who follows this course, wiU 
keep a vi<;il.int eye on the old colony, thus deprived of all 
its working force, and will help it, if needed. 




COMB HOmCT. 419 

784. 6th. PBBrSlfTINO THE BESS FBOM '' PROPOLTZINO.' 



»»{ 



** Propolis on sections is a nuisance, be the same little or 
mach, and a plan which will allow of the filling of the section 
with nice comb honey without changing the clean appearance 
which they present when placed upon the hive, will be heralded 
with delight by all, and give great honor to him who works out 
the pUn."— O. M. Doolittle, '' Gleanings,'' page 171. 18S6. 

We have shown (238) that bees ''propolize" every 
crack, and daub with this yellowish or brownish glue every 
thing inside of their hire. This is very bard to clean, and 
it can never be removed sufficiently to restore to the sec- 
tions their original whiteness. 

** All Ibnr sides of' the sections are scraped clean of propolis, 
and the edges as well. It is not a difiicult job for a careful hand, 
but a very disagreeable one. The fine dust of the bee-glue is 
vezy unpleasant to breathe. A scraper should be a careful per- 
son, or in ten minutes' time he will do more damage than his 
day's work is worth. Even a careful person seems to need to 
spoil at least one section, before taking the care necessary to 
avoid injuring others. But when the knife makes an ugly gash 
in the face of a beautiful white section of honey, that settles it 
that care will be taken afterward."— Dr. C. C. Miller : '* A Year 
Among the Bees." 

To prevent propolizing, the sections should be fitted 
tightly together, and as little of their outside as possible 
exposed to the bees. The honey should be removed promptly, 
when sealed, before the bees have time to do much gluing 
(237). 

735. 6th. Securing sealed comb honey. For this pur- 

•pose no more cases should be given than the bees are likely 

to fill. The second case should not be added until the first 

is nearly filled. The outside sections, beinir the last filled, 

may not be sealed at all, unless the bees are somewhat 

crowded for loom. To remedy this, many bee-keepers are 

«TlilAWord " pfopolizing " is auanthorized by Welistcr, lut it Is neotled 
MAUchAleword. 




in the habit ol "^itering cut," instead o( "tiering ^i" 
that is. they put the empty or unAniefaed epctiona to tbc 
middle of the super, removing all that are filled, ot placing ] 
them oa the outside. This is aa increase of labor, but Bomt I 
hold I hat it pays. Mr. Doolittle, in Uia practJc&l pampblct, 
"My Management," explains that, at the close of the honty 
season, ha reduces the number o( secliona on tlie hive, by 
narrowing up the surplus room, with a divuton board, which 
he calls a '< follower." Air. Doolittla usea both aide and 
top-storing in his hives. 

••Attteoana anraJwditoHtlMaUlM aC tUa «!■■, tha lot 
tower la mortd np, ao ■■ to ilnit fli« bM» cM of half tta Ma 
oaiai, naleH ^ eaie of aoiiM axtnoMlr p^sloos oola ny . tf 
thla mean* th« working ftnM li fltrown Into a sum oB i piBl 
■pace, the remit of irtitoh la a tendensy- toirard oomplotlBg Oa 
Motions they liave oommenoed irork In, rather than bnlUlag 
comb In more. After a week I go otct the whole yard again, thii 
time shutting the bees out of the Bide boxes entirely, whlck 
throws the full force of the bees Into the top boxes, and, althoogb 
the honey-season may now be over, by getting this force of beta 
atl together they will cap the partly-filled boxes, where they 
otherwise wonid not. Tblsglvea sections lighter In weight, bat 
makes much more of onr crop in a salable form." 

736. It very often bappena that the beea fasten the oomb 
only at the top of the aectioD. For safe transportation it 
is very important that it should be fastened to the section 
wall, atl around. To secure this, not only do Apiariats use 
foundation (674), but some bvn devised "reversible" 
section cases. When the sectioos are turned over, Um 
empty space now at the top, seems unnatural to the bees, 
and they hasten to fill it, making a solid comb in the sec- 
tion. But this is not the only method. 

"Years ago my sections were always filled so full by the beet, 
that iliej carried very securely In transportation. Afterwardi I 
began to have trouble fiorTi combs breaking down. It was dec, 
perhaps, matnly to tlie bees having too mnota surplus room. 
Some aections would be fllled with a oloe comb of honey, not 




COMB HONET. 421 

fl 

Tei7 stronglj attached at the top, yery little at the side, and not 
at idl at the bottom. Aside from depending upon crowding the 
^ees to mal^e them fill the sections, I wanted a plan whereby I 
eonld be sore of haying the sections fastened at the bottom as 
well as at the top. I tried to take partly filled sections out of 
the supers and reversing them, and went so far as to invent a 
reTersible super, I abandoned this however, and adopted the 
plan of putting a starter in the bottom as well as at the top of 
the section." (**AYear Among the Bees.") 

Dr. Miller, who is an authority on comb honey produc- 
tion, further states that he uses a foundation ^ ^starter" one 
inch wide at the bottom, and wide enough at the top to 
lemve only i inch of room between the two. This allows 
for the slight stretching usual in comb foundat'on. 

787. To prevent the building of bridges between the 
upper and lower stories, sonae Apiarists use the Heddon 
■keleton or slatted honey board (fig. 76), which is separated 
from both the super and the brood chamber by a bee space. 
And in which the slats breaJc the joints or passages of the 

bees thus — EZZ—lZ" 

This honey board answers its purpose, but we object to 
it, because it places the supers in less direct communi- 
eation with the brood chamber. 

We will now consider a few of the various cases and 
erates osed in the production of comb honey. 

788. The dkep broad frames (fig. 171), have the deci- 
ded advantage of allowing the Apiarist to use sections in a 
fall size upper story. In limited comb honey production, 
tliey can probably be used with satisfaction. They also 
allow of a side storage as practiced by Mr. Doolittle. 

Thr.half story broad frames, are superior to the 
former, — though they require special cascj^, — because the 
bees can be confined to a shallow space, and when the crop 
is limited, or the weather cool, the sections are better and 
more promptly finished. We prefer half story corah honey 
supers, for the same reason we do half story extracting 




aotnct pnoDDCTtoR. 

supers. Apiarists, who vill follow out methods torextnci* 
iug and raise but little comb honey, will see ibe boQcflt ol 
using the same cases for both grades. 

Mr. Heddon'a Invertible broad (tames, in invertibk »r:> 
tioa CHses, are undoubtedly a good thing, espi^iallj as Ihaj 
are crowded together by the pressure of screws or oSmU. 

730. The sectios crate, invertible or not, is now lued 
by tbe majority of specialists. Messrs. Miller, Shuck, Arm- 
strong, Maiium, Foster, all comb houey producera, hsTt 
each a particular style of erale. Mr. C. C. Miller plavet 
hid seclions in crates witbo^it top or bottom, threi)-«tglilli* 
of an iucb deeper than the sections. To support the sec- 
tions in these boxes, be nulls, under both ends, a strip of 
tin, which projects one fourth inch inside. Strips of tin. 
bent in the form of an L and soldered back to back, to 
form three inverted T's (fig. 170), are supported, across tha 
box, by six small pieces of sheet tioo, aailed at regular 
intervals under the sides of the box. Hr. A. I. Root im- 
proved these T as seen in the figure. These crates holding 
28 or 32 sectioDS, can be piled upon one another, leaving a 
bee space between them, while a aimilar bee space is pr» 
Tided between the sections and tbe slata of the skeleton 
honey board (lig. 76), by the shape of the latter. 

740. Another way was contrived by Hr. Manum, of 
Bristol, Vermont, whose success in raisiDg comb honey it 
well known. 

He also uses a box without top or bottom, and holding 
only one row of 2-lb. sections, or two TOWS of I lb., eight 
to I lie row. These bones, too, have strips of tin nailed under 
both sides and a band of sheet iron, for a cross-piece, run- 
ning from end to end. A thumbscrew placed at one end, 
and acting on an offset, presses the sections against each 
other, and keeps the separators in place. Hr. Manum 
baa used these clamps for several years and U well aatiafled 
with them. 



COMB HOWKT. 42 S 

B; the use of the M&num clunpi, the eectioiui are placed 
BO closely that the bees cuiDOt put any propolis between 
their edge*. But their other parts are Dot protected. 

741. To oar mind, the implements invented by Ur. 
Oliver Foster, of Mount Vernon, Iowa, are worthy of notice 
and his conceptions of the general management of sections are 
ao well explained, that we could not do better than copy a 
-few pages of his Hinall pamphlet. 

"There shonid b«Jrtt eonuntmieatiim between tbe seatiofls In 
■Mry dtreetioh. They should have deep slots on all 8 edges as 
shown In FIk-ITSbo that bees can pass freely over the combs from 
end to end of the ease, bs well as from side to tide, and ftom top 
to bottom. 




to BMh Oamb Honef.") 



*'Toa may not appreciate the Importance of this nntU yoa 
baTe tried Ibem. 

" mmnetiakait^eon^iiUraiion that t)u objed onlhe part of Vtebea, 
im itorittf 1^ hona/ in Summer, ia to have it acceiiiiU fur Winltr eon- 
manptum, attd tAal irt fVitlin; the beta eotUet in a round ball, at nearly 
» pouibU, ia a temi-tarpid ataJe aith but littU if any motion, exctpt that 
gradual momng of bea from Iht center to the surface and from the tur- 
foot ia tJu center of Ihii ball, ae may imngine hum untcelcurTU it ia to 
titem to i* obliged to divide their tloria bet-wcm four leparale npartmenit, 
■ocA of wAieA it fiur inehei tguare and taelve inches lung, loilh no cob^ 
mmmioatian Mw«n these apartments" 

The italtoa are ours. This passage is most important. 




Boxer PKoavcTvyK, 

T43. "The esse U made of fonr plane bouds, B, B, C, C, (flg. 
177). TbeT are cut I-IG in. narrower ttaan ib« senttoti* ara hlnb. 
A fildc and an end are nailed together in Uic form of a l»n«r 1. 
Wlien two of these L shaped McCioaa aro pUc«<t togctbvr, t^ 
form Ihe reclangular case, «pen at two oppoDlte comcim dUgofr 
.A. SMtloaB 

B. rUoRn* ftililsJ dat«art 

F. TID wedjH whlrJi baU 

«Ra eJimjiliur. 
J. J. tiOB damp bj «U«b 
"le nun 1i ^ram tl(M M 

H. Hudi or nail* itmraft 







O, O, Tin 

lau. 

P, SaiTow tin ■mpa «Bp- 



Fif m. 

ally. The boards are mitred together at these open cornen and 
are clasped together bj the tin angle plate D. TheM comer 
plates are also bent L shape. 

" They are as high when folded as tJie aectlona, and 3} Incliee 
from the corner to each end. They have a soiall flange, bent 
outward on each end, Y,, and a doable fold bent inward on each 
side, which forms sockets | Incb wide in which the end of the 
boards slide in and out, thus expanding or contracting the case la 
length and width. 

>' The folded side edges of the tin slide in saw grooves cot io 
the ed^es of the boards, are shown In the small Ogures, and the 
case is held rigid, whether opeo or closed. A small nail ladrlTeo 
through each of tbc slots I, Into the wood, to prevent the case 
Itoni opening farther th.tn about } Inch larger each way than 

"Tlic case when closed Is a little smaller than the tier of Mo- 
tions to he used. 

"To ml the case it is placed on a leTel board and opened oat. 
The sections are then carelessly arranged Inside, and then drawn 
Into position by pressing the case together. A wronght Iron 
elamp, J, la then allpped over the case, and b7 operattng the 




COMB HONET. 425 

screws, M, the case is drawn so tight on the sections that all 
cracks between them are closed up, thus protecting the surface 
of the boxes firom being soiled. 

'^ To prevent the spreading of the case when the clamp is 
removed, four simple tin wedges, F, F, are slipped under the 
flange, and the nail head. 

*^ This bottomless case of sections is then placed on the hive on 
a slotted honey board, which is level on top and has slots to cor- 
respond with those between the sections, save that the slots in 
the board are a little narrower, to secure perfect protection to the 
sections. Ifseparators are used, thej are simply dropped in be- 
tween the rows of sections as each row is put in. (See O, fig. 177). 
They rest on the edges of two narrow strips of tin, P, P, that 
pass across each end of the case between the rows of sections at 
the bottom. These strips are movable, and securely held in 
place while handling, like the sections, by the lateral pressure 
of the case. The iron clamp is not a necessity, but it is very 
convenient where several colonies are kept. The case is equally 
adapted to use with or without separators. It can be used 
with or without an outer case. It can be * tiered up \ * reversed ', 
(inverted) or placed on end or on one side for * side storing '." 

743. In removing the cases from the hive, apply the clamp 
and lift all together, or open the case and take out one box at a 
time, using a little smoke, and shaking and brushing off the 
bees. Nearly all of the bees can be shaken from a single case- 
fall before opening it ; but the neatest way to get them out is to 
place the cases in an empty hive a little to one side of the front of 
the hive from which they were taken. Fasten a wire cloth tube 
over the only opening at the entrance of this empty hive. Make 
the tube 6 inches long, | inch in diameter at the small end, and 1^ 
inch at the end attached to the hive. Place the hive in position 
so that the point of the tube will touch the front end of the hive 
containing the colony. In a few moments, the bees will be march- 
ing *' double quick * out through the tube, and in an hour or so 
every bee will be out." (Oliver Foster, " How to Raise Comb 
Honey." 1886.) 

We advise every bee-keeper to procure this small pam- 
phlet. 

744. In support of what Mr. Foster wrote in behalf of 
the open-side sections, we may add that bees seem to con* 
dder * row of these sections as formed of a single comb. 



426 HOHKT PROPDOTION. 

and that, in coneequeQce, they attach each small comb U 
the sides, giviog them more solidity. For the same tcmou 
beea are also less inclined to make bulged combs, and separ- 
ators may be set aside with less risk of lack of uaitormity 
Another and very important point, in favor of the^ sec 
tions, is the increased facility to ripen honey by erapors 
tion, foi tbe air can easity circulate from side to side, tnatew 
of from top to bottom only, as when closed-side Mctiont 
are used. To drive beea out of sections see Bee Escape 7«0- 

745. Before closing our chapter on the prodaction of 
oomb-honey, in which we have tried to give our readers somo 
of the best known methods, we must warn Ibem against using 
too many contrivances, nhenever they can possibly help It. 
All improvements that are made must be based on a full cid- 
aiderationof the instincts ol ibebees. Like Mr. Hufctiinwn 
("Production of Comb-Honey" p. 18), we "have seen bees 
eulk for days during a good honey flow, simply because the 
present condition of things was not to their liking." Use 
OS targe sections as your market will allow. If you use 
separators and honey-boards, at all, let them be light and 
perforated. In a word, make your bees feel as natural and 
as much "at home" as possible. 

£xTBACTKD Homr. 

746. To separate the honey from the wax, the be^ 
keepers of old used to melt or break the comb and drain 
the honey out. 

Beesnax, a<^ a sweet-scented tuminiferoas substance, far 
superiorto oils or the crude grease of aoimals.was greatly 
a[>predatcd by the priests, and placed among the best offer- 
ings required to pkase the gods. The custom of offering wax, 
or wax candles, continued to this day by some churches, 
especially by the Greek am^ Roman Catbolio ob-irches. 




KXTRACTED HONET. 427 

caused for centuries the levy of heavy taxes, payable in 
beeswax, in countries where the inhabitants kept bees. 
Some countries, in Europe, had to pay to the church, every 
year, several hundred thousand pounds of beeswax. Such 
taxes compelled the bee-keepers to separate the honey from 
the wax with as little waste as possible. 

Different grades of honey were harvested by the careful 
Apiarists. The light-colored combs produced a light-colored 
and pure honey ; the combs which had contained brood pro- 
duced turbid honey of inferior quality. 

747. These primitive methods were afterwards greatly 
ameliorated, as for instance, in the French province of Ga- 
tinais, where the bee-keepers used the heat of the sun to 
melt the combs, and separate the honey from the melted 
wax. The choice honey obtained in Gatinais, from the 
sainfoirij cannot be excelled by our best extracted clover 
honey, as to color and taste, and it is sold in Paris alto- 
gether. 

Owing to these causes, strained honey, of different grades, 
was a staple in Europe. But the demand being ahead of 
the supply, especially when the season was unfavorable 
for bees, Europe imported strained honey from Chili, and 
Cuba, and lately, extracted honey from California. 

748. These causes did not exist in this country. Bees 
were scarce here at first. The American settlers bad too 
much work on hand to care much for bees. The few who 
owned a limited number of colonies, briinstoued one of them 
occasionally, and consumed the honey at home. The more 
extensive bee owners could sell some Irokeii combs to their 
neighbors, or a few pounds of strained honey to the drug- 
gist, who was not very hard to please, being accustomed to 
buy Cuba honey, harvested with the most slovenly careless- 
ness. By and by, however, owing to very favorahle condi- 
tions, the wild woods swarmed with bees in the ** hollow 
trees," and the bee-hunter made his appearance. Thoua- 



4S8 HONEY l-nODCCTIOK. 

ondB of trees fell uoder his ax, to yield the sweets that they 
contained. This rough-and-ready bee-keeping, ot rather 
bee-kilJing, produced comparatively large quantities ol 
honey ; but, as this houey n-aa nearly always ba<lly broken up 
and mixed with pollen, dead bees, and rotten wood, it bo- 
came customary to boil the honey, so as to force the intpuri- 
ties and the was to rise on top with the scum. Hence tbe 
cheap, liquid, dirty and opaque strained honey, dark in 
color aod strong in tai^te. By the side of this unwholesome 
article, a little fancy comb honey was sold, that led to* 
national preference for comb honey. 

But Id view of the coat of comb to the beea (223), in honey, 
time and labor, it was earnestly desired by progressive bee- 
keepers, especially after the invention of the movable framm, 
that some process be devised to empty the boney oat of tie 
combs without dam.iging the Intter, so that they could bo 
returned to tbe bees to be filled again and again. 

749. In 1865 the late Major de Hruschka, of Dolo, near 
Venice, Italy, invented " /i Smelalore," the honet ki- 
te act or. 

It happened in this wise: He had given to bis son, a 
small piece of comb honey, on a plate. Tbe boy put the 
plate in bis basket, and swung the basket around htm, 
like a sling. Hruschka noticed that some honey had been 
drained out by tbe motion, and concluded that combs could 
be emptied by centrifugal force. 

This invention was hailed, in the whole bee-keeping world, 
as equal to, and the complement of, tbe invention of mova- 
ble frames ; and it fully deserved this honor. 

750. As soon as ne heard of the discovery, we had s 
machine made. It was not so elegant as those which are 
now offered by our manufacturers. It was a bulky and 
cumbersome affair; four ft-et in diameter and three feet 
high ; yet it worked to our satisfaction, and we became con- 




KXTBACTED HONET. 429 

Tinced, by actual trial, of the great gain which could be 
obtained, by returning the empty combs to the beies. 

751. Let us say here, that the profit was greater than we 
had anticipated ; but we, together with a great many others, 
first committed the fault of extracting, before the honey 
was altogether ripened by evaporation. Like ** Novice," 
who thought of emptying his cistern to put the overflow of 
his extracted honey, we had to go to town again and again, 
for jars and barrels, to lodge our crop. But experience 
taught us that we cannot get a good merchantable article, 
onlesB the honey is ripe. 

752. If we give to bees empty combs, to store their 
honey, we will find, by comparing the products of colonies 
who have to build their combs, with those of colonies who 
always have empty combs to fill, that these last produce 
at least twice as much as the others. 

A little consideration will readily show, to the intelligent 
bee-keeper, the great advantages given to the bees by 
fornishing them with a full supply of empty combs. To 
iUustrate all these advantages, let us compare two colonies 
of bees, of equal strength, at the beginning of the honey 
season ; one with empty boxes, the other with empty comb 
in the boxes. 

The two colonies have been breeding plentifully, and 
harvesting a large quantity of pollen, and a little honey, 
for several weeks past. The brood chamber is full from 
top to bottom. After perhaps one rainy day, the honey 
crop begins. The bees that have been given empty combs 
can go right up in them, and begin storing, as fast as 
they bring their honey from the fields. Not a minute 
is lost; and as they have plenty of storing room, there is 
DO need of crowding the queen out of her breeding cells. 

In the other hive, there is indeed plenty of empty space 
In the upper story ; but before it can be put to any use, it 
has to be first partly filled with combs, l^^lox^ ^\i^ ^"^ 



ABO HONEY PRODUCTION. 

Is oyer, the greater part of the bees hsve barreBled, ud 
brought, to their newly-hatehed coroianions. all the faoney 
that the latter tao poseibly bokl in tbeir sacks. What shall 
they do witb the surplus? They have to go ialo tbat uppef 
story, and hang there (SOS) for hours, waiting for the 
honey to be transtormed into beeswax, by the wonderful sc 
tioD of these admirable little stomachs, whose work mau can- 
not imitate, despite hisscieoce. But, while this Blow trao*- 
formation iB going on, while the small scales of wax an 
emerging from under the rings of the abdomeu (201 )o( 
eauh iudustrious little worker ; while tboir sisters arc slowl; 
but busily carrying, mouldidg and arranging the warm little 
pieces of wax in their respective places, in order to build 
the trail comb (^OO) ; iluring^ !ill this time, the honey li 
flowing in the blossoms, utd the Other colony is tastincreas- 
lug iis snj>plj of sweets. Meanwhile, the ferw be«c, wliieL 
have found a place for their load, go back after more, and, 
finding no room, they watch for the appearance of each 
hatching bee, from its cell, and at once fill that cell with 
hooey ; thus depriving the queen of her breeding-room, 
and forcing her to remain idle, at a time when she should 
be laying most busily. 

The loss is therefore treble. First, thia colony loses the 
present work of all the bees which have to reroaJD inside to 
help make was. Secondly, it loses the honey of which thia 
was is made. Thirdly, it loses the productioQ of thousands 
of workers, by depriving the queen of her breeding- room, 
in the brood-chamber. All this, tor what purpose? To 
enable the owner to eat his honey with the wax (710); 
when, as every one well knows, wax is tasteless and in- 
digestible. 

One word more in regard to the loss of production, bj 
the crowding of the queen. This loss ia two-fold in itself. 
When the bees find that the queen is crowded out of her 




KXTRACTED HONET. 431 

breediDg-room, they become more readily induced to make 
preparations for swarming (406). 

It is then that a large number of young bees would be 
necessary to make up for the loss which the colony will sus- 
tain, in the departure of the swarm ; and yet the dimi- 
nished number of eggs laid produces exactly the reverse 
of the desired result. 

There is perhaps a fourth item of loss, in failing to 
furnish empty combs to this colony, and that when the 
season is not very favorable. Many practical bee-keepers 
have noticed that, in rather unfavorable seasons, it is diffi- 
cult to induce bees to work in an empty surplus box, 
which they would work in readily if it were furnished 
with combs. It is a question which may remain doubt- 
ful, whether the bees do not sometimes, in such cases, 
remain idle for a day or two, rather than begin building 
comb in a box which they do not expect to be able to fill. 

753. In view of the above /acte, and after an experience 
of twenty years with the honey extractor, we strongly urge 
all beginners to produce extracted honey in preference to 
comb-honey, wherever they can sell it readily for half as 
much as comb honey. We have shown the advantages of 
its production to the bees; let us now show the advantages 
to the Apiarist. 

754. Ist. He can control, and take care of, a much 
greater number of colonies. The manipulations of an Apiary, 
run for extracted honey, occupy less than one half of the time 
required for the production of comb-honey. Our largest 
comb-honey producers acknowledge that one man cannot 
handle more than two hundred colonies successfully, when 
run for comb-honey (710), while as many as live hundred 
colonies, located in different Apiaries (582), are managed 
successfully by one Apiarist, when run for extracted honey. 
During extracting time, of course, additional help is re- 



432 HOKET FBODUCnOW. 

quired, but. this needa not be abilled labor, which Ib alwtyi 
hard to find. 

7S5. 2d. By the production of extracted honey, tb« 
surplus combs are saved, and given to the bees at theopeo- 
ing of the following harvest. This virtually does away with 
natural Bwarming, and enables the bee-keeper to control 
the increase of his colonies to suit his desires. One of the 
most successful comb-honey prodncers, Mr. Hanam, of Ver- 
mont, who sold some 15 tons of comb-honey in 1885, 
acknowledged to ub, that with his management in the pro- 
duction of comb-honey, it was nearly impossible to control 
swarming, and that the time was not far distant when ha 
would have too many bees. He owned seven hundred 
colonies at the time. 

750. The farmer, or merchant, who keeps only a few 
hives, to produce honey for his own use, will find it much 
preferable to produce extracted honey. With three colonies 
of l>ees and an extractor, in a very ordinary location, from 
l.iO to 300 Iba. of honey can be produced on an average, 
every season. 




7C7. For lln' jinidiKtioii of extracted honey, we use half 
stories or ■Tiscti (li_u'- 1"^^) "illi frames 6 inches deep, and 
of the same leiij,'ili ,is tlic frjiuics of the lower story. We 
a/so use fiill-slory mi\hta, \iv\\, oqVj oq standard Langstroth 




FRANCESCO Di HRUSCHKA, 
Inventor of the Honey Extractor. 




EXTRACTED HOKET. 433 

hives, and we decidedly prefer the half-story supers, for 
several reasons, after having used both kinds on a large 
scale for years. 

The frames of the half-story supers are more easily hand- 
led when full, and the combs are less apt to break down 
from heat or handling. The half-story super is better 
suited for the use of an average colony, and in cool weather 
is more easily kept warm by the bees, than a full-story. 
Very strong colonies, in extraordinary seasons, can be 
readily accommodated with two and even three of these 
cases successively. 

758. With the full-story supers, the queen and the bees 
are more apt to desert the lower story altogether, in poor 
honey seasons, and establish their brood- nest in the upper 
story, especially when the combs of the lower or brood 
chamber are old, and those above are new. The sole ad- 
vantage of the full-story super is that the frames in it are 
exactly of the same size as those below, and can be inter- 
changed with them if necessary ; but with large hives it will 
never be required to use upper story combs for feed- 
ing, and even if the queen should breed in these shallow 
cases, at times, she is soon crowded out of them by the sur- 
plus honey. 

759. The upper story frames are filled with comb found- 
ation (674), or even with old worker comb, and can be 
used indefinitely, since the honey is extracted from them, 
and they are returned unbroken to the bees^ We have now 
several thousands of these combs, some of which have 
already passed fifteen or twenty times throunrh the extractor 
and are now as good as at first, nay, even better ; for some, 
which were very dark, are lighter in color now, on account 
of the dark cells having been shaved by the honey knife 
and mended, by the bees, with new wax. These supers are 
given to the bees, a few days previous to the opening of the 
honey crop. 



431 UOITET PRODUOTIOM. 

The mat {362), «nd cloth (363), «rc removed and lh« 
upper story is placed immediately over the frames (flg. 68). 

7GO. Ooe gve»t advsDtage of this style of eupera, liee in 
the laciHty, with which the bees can reach the, tipper story " 
from any eomh, or from any part of a comb, either to de- 
posit their honey or tor ventilation, duriug hot weather. 
Bees show their preference for these large receptacles rerj 
de«idedljr. For comparison, let two or three broa<l frame* 
(&09}-^Ued with MCtiona which are of more difficult venli- 
UtioD and uoess — be placed in the center of one of thcM 
supers with some extracting frames on each side, all equally 
filled with strips of found&tioD (674), and the small sec- 
tiona (722) will be filled last almost in every inBtaiiec.even 
allhwiL;:! : '.I ■■ 1 :.■ :^-.:^-t U- the center ot Hit l.ri->a-in'9[. 

Mr. Langstroth was the first to call the attentioD of Apia- 
rists to the loss incurred by compelling bees to store the 
surplus honey in small receptacles. The bee-keeper cannot 
afford to sell honev stored in small sections, except at a 
considerable advance over its value in large frames. 

701. Colonies, which do not have the breeding apart- 
ment ni'srly full of broml, honey and pollen, need not be 
supplied Kiih supers (757), till they show a marked prep- 
ress. Aftff the oi>oning of the honey crop, which is very 
easily noticed by the greater activity of the bees and the 
wkilening of the upper cells of their comba, a regular inspec- 
tion of their progress is necessary. The season is abort, 
but the daily yield is sometimes enormous. 

762 Mr. A. Braun stated, in the Bienenxeitnng , Sep. 
tember. 1S54. that he had a mammoth hive furnished with 
combs containin<; at least 184.230 cells,* and placed on a 
platt jrm scale, that its weight might readily be ascertained 



•Snch 


(,,„ 


wo 


alJU 


Idmbo 


ntlhn* 


btundi. H 










kedh 


VB or l«< 


-■ on ft tnb 


tWTlnglll 


ta.h 




thrOQgh tb 


bottom 


udtooktM 


•BdtwaDtTPOD 


n-U 


or ho 


noj." 








EXTBACTED HONET. 435 

at stated periods. On the eighteenth of May it gained 
eighteen pounds and a half. On the eighteenth of June, a 
awarm weighing seven pounds issued from it, and the follow- 
ing day it gained over six pounds in weight. Ten days of 
abundant pasturage would enable such a colony to gather a 
large surplus, while five times the number of equally favor- 
able opportunities would be of small avail to a feeble one. 

The largest yield of extracted honey, ever harvested by 
the colonies of one Apiary under our control, was 13,000 
pounds in about fifty days, the most protracted honey crop 
we ever knew. This was harvested by eighty-seven colonies, 
making a daily average of three pounds a day per colony of 
evaporated honey. Such seasons are scarce. 

As some colonies harvest much more than others, they 
9eed more attention. 

763. To $€cure the greatest possible amount of extracted 
honey i the colony should never be left without some empty 
. comb. 

As soon as the combs of one of these supers are about 
three-fourths full, we put another rack under the first, and 
sometimes a third under the second. All this without wait- 
ing for the honey to be sealed ; but we never remove the 
honey, to extract it, until the crop is at an end, for we want 
to get our honey entirely ripened. 

Honey is evaporated, or ripened, by the forced circula- 
tion of air, caused by the fanning of the bees through the 
hive, in connection with the great heat generated by them. 
As honey evaporates, it diminishes in volume, and as long 
as the bees continue their harvest, they constantly bring in 
unripened, or watery honey, which they store in the partly 
filled cells that contain honey already evaporated. It is for 
this reason that unsealed honey, after the crop is over, is as 
ripe as honey sealed during the crop, and sometimes riper. 
If the crop is abundant, they often seal their combs too 
Boon, and the honey thus sealed may afterwards ferment in 
the cell and hxmt the capping. 



436 EXTKACTED nOSET. 

7G4. Some ApiurUts extract tbc honey kb fut Mith 
harvested by the bees, and afterwards ripen it aitificiallj hf 
exposiDg it lo heat in oi>on veeseb. We do not Uke tbu 
metliod, and prefer to extract Uie whole crop at onc«. It 
is much more economical, for, with our system, onu ridlled 
man attends to aa many as five or six Apiaries tltiring the 
hooey crop, sod extracts at leisure afterwards, with ntntost 
aoy kind of cheap help. Since honey now has to coni[>cb: 
in price with the cheapest sweets, the question o( «eon(n»- 
icai production is not to be disregarded. 

" He who produces at maximum cost will fall. He who 
produces at minimum cost will succeed." — (Jas. Ueddoa.) 

765. As some colonies do not begin work in the sapen 
until very late, and do not fill all the space given them, the 
surplus of other colonies can be given them in such a man- 
ner that all will be equally filled. This can be done witboot 
brushing the bees off (48fi). i 

The equalizing of empty combs in the surplas atoriea of 
different colouiea, towards the end of the crop, will >an 
time in extracting, as the supers will be found more evenlf 
full. The giving of a few combs of honey to a colony that 
has not yet begun work in the supers also acts as an [ndacfr i 
ment, and gives the bees new energy. 



nARTESTISO. 

766. The extracting, to be done swiftly, requires tbs 
work of four persons : three men and a boy. This work 
is done at a time when the bees have ceased to make 
honey, and the greatest care has to be exercised not to 
leave any honey within the reach of robber bees. The work 
of opening the hives, removing the combs and brushing ofl 
the hees, must be done quietly, but swiftly and car^ 
tully. The iecept&c\«a tot combs should each hare ■ 




HARVESTING. 437 

coyer, and the hive should be closed and its entrance re- 
duced, as promptly as possible. In this way, there is not 
the least danger of robbing ; but if robbing is once begun « 
by some carelessness or forgetfulness of the operator, the 
work has to be stopped until it has subsided. A basin of 
water and a towel, placed near at band, are found to be very 
convenient, when the hives are very full ; as the operator 
and his help sometimes get their fingers sticky with honey. 

767. The utensils needed for neat extracting on a large 
scale are : In the Apiary, — a good smoker (382), one or 
two brushes made of asparagus tops, or some other light 
fibrous material, a wood chisel to loosen the cases, two tin 
pans, described farther on (770), one comb bucket, and 
two strong linen or cotton ^^ robber clotTia^" which can be 
carbolized beforehand by the Ray nor process (384). 

768. The ** robber cloths", so named by Dr. C. C. 
Miller, are used to cover the cases to keep away robbers. 
They are made of very coarse cloth or gunny, about a yard 
square. 

** Take two pieces of lath, each about as long as the hive, and 
lay one upon the other, with one edge of the cloth between 
them. The cloth is longer than the lath, allowing inches or 
more of the cloth to project at each end of the lath. Now nail 
the laths together with 1) inch wire nails, clinching them. 
Serve the opposite end the same way, and the robber cloth 
Is complete. You can take hold of the lath with one hand, lift 
the cloth from a hive or super, and with a quick throw, instantly 
cover up again your hive or super perfectly bee tight." ("A 
Tear Among the Bees," 1886.) 

The operator opens a hive, removes the super, 
places it in a tin pan (770), and covers it with a robber 
cloth. He then examines the brood chamber, from which 
one or two combs may be removed if advisable. We usually 
leave all the honey in the lower story, unless the bees are 
crowded out of breeding room, which will not happen, if 
tbcy have plenty of room above. 




76». Tlie re- 

,1 of ihi' liw* 



(flg. 170). 

implement » 

placed in a boaiJ 

} inch in thickness, and of the size of the top of the brooii- 

chamber and so dcttted that, when placed between U« 

brood cbamber and the §uper, there will be a full Bee-spaL-e 





HARTESTINQ. 439 

both ftbore and below it. The bole tor the Escape should 
be made near the center of the board by boring two 1 i inch 
holea, 2} incheB from center to center and cutting the wood 
between them. Ooe Escape to the board is sufficieut. It 
tiiere is no brood, or queen, in the super, and the Escape 
put OQ the day betore, the bees will practically be all out 
the next morning, and sometimes within two to six hours 
after it has been placed on the hive. 

770. Id the honey house, there should be au extractor, 
• capping can, (fig. 183) a boney Icnife, a funnel with sieve, 
apMl, a barrel, and two tin pans like those used io the 
Apiary. Tbe floor may be covered with painted, or oil-cloth 
or strong eu&inel^cloth, in case any honey is spilled ; each 




Fl«. 181. 

IBB Kimi's BXTuciOB SHOWING 

Hia BUXTMO BASKET. 



person may be provided with a good enamel-cloth apron, 
and all the vrindows furnished with wire cloth netting, to 



I 



440 

allow th« bees to escape (586). The tin pans abore men- 
tJoned are shallow, in the ehape of bread pans, large enough 
to receive one of the supers freely, to keep the leddng 
honey from daubing anytluDg, or ftom attracting robben 
(606). They are supplied with strong handles. 

771. We have said that we do not nsuaJIy take howf 
from the broad chamber, but in an emergency we somellmm 
extract even from combs containing brood. We never no- 
ticed any loas of worker brood unless it was actually thrown 
out, If a few worker larvs are displaced by the rotation, 
the bees push them back to the bottom of the cells. In all 
cases, when there is brood, the crank must be turned slowiv 




CAFPIHO-CaM. 



772. In the extracting room, a man, the ahaver, as we 
call him, uncaps the combs, as fast as they are brought. 
He stands before the capping-can (flg. 183). The capping 
can is formed of a lower can B, 24 inches wide and 14 inchei 
high with a slanting Ijottom, a faucet and a central pivot C. 




HARVESTING. 441 

On this lower can is placed ancfther can A, 23 inches wide 
and 22 incites high, with a coarse wire cloth bottom resting 
at the center on the pivot C. The upper can acts as a large 
sieve. On the top of it is placed a wooden frame D, notched, 
so as to fit on the edges of the can. It is on this frame that the 
combs are uncapped, and the cappings fall in the sieve, 
where the honey drains out of them, into the lower can. 
Our capping can is meant to hold the cappings of two 
days' extracting. 

773. The all-metal extractors, of different makes, are 
the only ones now in use. Two-frame extractors are the 
most common, but we use four-frame extractors altoge- 
ther, one in each Apiary. These extractors accommodate 
eight half-story frames. 

774. In regard to the honey or uncapping knife, justice 
compels us to say that, so far, to our knowledge, there is 
bat one which is really practical, the Bingham honey knife. 




tiff. 181. 
THX BLNGUAM KNIFE. 

This knife does away with the annoyance of having the 
cappings stick to the comb again, after having been shaved 
off, because it is made with a bevel, which causes the shaver 
to hold it in a slanting position, so that the cappings cannot 
stick to the comb again, unless purposely allowed to do so. 

As fast as the combs are uncapped on both sides, they 
are put into the extractor, which may be turned by a boy. 
Care should be taken that the combs, that are placed oppo- 
site one another, be of nearly equal weight, as the unequal 
weight causes the extractor to swing right and left^ 
fatiguing the boy and injuring the machine. 

775. A quiet, regular motion is all that is necessary to 
throw the honey out, and, in warm weather, it fairly rains 



44S 



nossr pBcmeoTKM. 



agalnat the sides of the oui «ritb » doik sitniUr to thai of a 
shower od a tin roof. 

770. Now is tbe time to invite the neighbora asd ttuit 
children to come to see tbe tun, aod laete the golden at> 
tar. Aside from the pleasure of lookiDg everybody ha^ipj, 
the present of a few ^ouads of honey proves an iodace- 
ment to it« use, and an advertisement for tbe prodooer. 




TBI BTANLXr 



RXVXBBIMa KXTBACTOB. 



Extracting-day should always be uoderstood to mean " free 
honey to all vi-,itors." Let them visit the honey-room, and 
if the ladies get their dresses a little daubed while peeping 
in the extraetor, they will soon find out that honey does 
not stain Hkc grease, but will wa^h off in warm water. 

777. After the combs are extracted on one side, thej 
are turned over and extracted on tbe other. Ur. Stanley, 
of New York, invented an extractor (figure 185), in whidi, 




HABYESTIKO. 443 

the combs are tamed over by simply reversing the motion 
of the gear. This invention has not been sufficiently tried 
to be proclaimed decidedly superior ; but it appears to have 
some advantages, the main drawbacks being the greater cost 
of the machine and its bulk. Similar extractors were intro- 
duced into England, by Mr. Cowan, several years ago. 

778. The extractor is fastened on a high platform, so 
that the honey pail can be put under the faucet. A barrel 
is in readiness, with the large funnel and sieve over it. This 
sieve should be large enough to take a pailful of honey, so 
as to cause no 'delay. 

A mark is made on the barrel, with a crayon, or chalk, 
as each pailful is poured in. In this way we know when the 
barrel is full, without having to gauge it, and we avoid 
having the honey run over and waste. 

7 79. We would advise beginners, who extract for the first 
time, to go slowly and carefully. A little care, besides sav- 
ing time, will save the waste of several pounds of honey, and 
make things more comfortable ; for a pound of honey wasted 
goes a great way towards making everything sticky and 
dirty. If a splendid crop and neat work are pleasurable, 
a daubed honey-room and cross bees in the Apiary irritate 
both the Apiarist and his assistants, who soon become sick 
of the work. When things are rightly managed, the work 
Is so delightful that more help can be found than is needed. 

780. Of all manipulations, extracting is that which re- 
quires the greatest precautions against robbing (664). 
Carefully avoid all unnecessary exposure of comb or honey. 
Bobbers not only annoy the Apiarist, but they cause the 
bees to get angry, and to sting. 

781. All the cases, when extracted, are piled up on the 
oil-cloth carpet, till the day's work is done. The combs are 
never put back into the hive before evening, at sun down ; 
to prevent too much excitement in the Apiary. In half an 
ho«ir, every hand helping, the whole number is distributed 



I 



HOKET FBODUCTIOM. 

on Ibe hlvea ; tboiigh we mny have estraoted as much m 
two tliousaud pouDiis in a dny. 

Tliiire are eensouB, in nhich n v«ry slight continiiatioD ol 
the liocioy crop, permits returning the combs, fts fast m 
they arc extracted. In such seasons it c»usea no excite- 
meut, and is much more convenient. 

783. Within two or three days after extracting, the be« 
have oleaned the combs, and repaired them. But, to pre- 
vent tlie moths from injuring them, we keep them on 
the hives during the whole summei i the beea take care of 
them, and in the Winter, we pile up the cases, (larefiillf 
closed, in eold rooms, where the cold of Winter destroya 
the pgga of the moth (803). 

In localities, where there are two distinct crops of honey, 
each crop should be Imrvostod separately. Thus, we al- 
ways extract the the June crop in July, and the Fall crop 
in September. 

Honey production, with the above methods, la so 
Boocessful that the problem for practical Apiariats is no 
longer, how to produce large crops of toney, but how to 
tell it (830). Estraoted honey can certainly be pro- 
duced, at less cost, than the cheapest of cane sugar, and it 
can be truly said, that in th» last thirty years, there has 
been more progress in bee-culture, than in any other brancli 
of rural economy. 

78<). As the wax of the cappings amounts to a little 
more than one per cent, of the weight of the honey ex- 
tracted, and a?> tlio'*e cappings after they are well drained, 
contain even a larger weight of honey fit to be converted 
into vinegar when separateil from the cappings by washing, 
the expense of extracting is more than compensated. 




DISEASES OF BEES. 445 



CHAPTER XVin. 



Diseases of Bees. 

784. Bees are subject to but few diseases that deserve 
special notice. We have said (626) that we consider diar- 
rhea as the result of an accumulation of foeces only, but 
lir. Cheshire has examined some of the fcuces of diarrhea, 
and found in some of them living organisms, which indicate 
that, sometimes, the distension of the abdomen is not 
caused by the overloading of the intestines alone. These 
organisms, when better known, will probably explain some 
of the losses of bees, after Winter, and the Spring dwin- 
dling (659), which reduces so many colonies. 

785. We have said also (665), that those bees, who 
are in the habit of robbing, assume a smooth, black ap- 
pearance. Mr. Cheshire thinks that this explanation of 
glossy black bees is inaccurate, and claims that an examin- 
ation of such bees has shown, in them, the presence of 
living organisms, which he named bacilli gaytoni, after 
Miss Gayton, who found some of her colonies suffering from 
this disease, for three years in succession. These organ- 
isms have since received, in England, the name of bacilli 
depilis. This last term means hairless, the bees affected 
with the disease losing aU, or nearly all, their hair. We do 
not question the accuracy of the examination of these shiny, 
hairless bees, but we know that bees who are habitual 
robbers lose their hair, and assume this slick, shiny appear- 
ance, without suffering any disease; for they belong to 
healthy colonies, and are only a small exception among 
other beea. 



I 



i>isEAsii:3 or BEES. 



786. There are other uaimporUtnt diseases, which hftT« 
not yet been studied, but all are nothiog, wfaea compared to 
the dreadful ooQtagious malady, already known thouBaodsof 
years ago' and commonly called foul-brood, because it 
shows ita effects mainly by the dying of the brood, but the 
denomination is improper, for the brood U not alone dis- 
eased. 

■■ When we remember that beea live In the otoseat oontaot 
In very numerous colonies ; that their usual system of loter- 
communicatton Is byactiiul touch ; thnttbeyhabltunlly pass food 
from one stomscb to anotber. while all tbe food they hare ha* 
been ciirrjfd either witliin or upon the bodies of tbetr fellows; 
that their very home is formed of one of their secretions, and 
that their beds, cradles and larder are all Interchangeable, we 
shall admit that the olrcnmstances are raoh u would appear to 
favor the development of oontaglons diseases." — (Cheshire.) 

787. The scientific and indeed the trae name of fonl- 

brood is dacfflitat aivei, " email stick of bee-hivta" because 
it is composed of living organisms resembling small sticks. 
It develops very rapidly, and has been found, by Schonfeld 
and by Cheshire, not only in the brood, but in the bees and 
queens. The rapid depopulating of the colonies infested, 
coupled with the fact that Hr. Bertrand has known several 
queens to die in diseased colonies, leaves no doubt as to tbe 
accuracy of the microscopical experiments made by Che- 
shire, on queens who were found with bacilli, not only in 
their organs, but also in the half developed eggs of their 
ovaries. According to the English microscopista, there are 
two kinds of bacilli ^vei, the major and the miner, the 



whleli laBCcompSTricdlj;*dl«iOi4tln 
llMl roDl-broxt wu conuuaa more i 
t BaciUia, plarsl bneidi. Iramtti 




FOUI^BBOOD. 447 

larger and the smaller {British Bee- Journal) ^ but are they 
equally to be feared? 

These imperceptible *^ sticks" break successively into 
several parts, every one of which forms a colony of spores, 
that pass through divers shapes before developing into new 
bacilli. We can judge of the promptness of their repro- 
duction, and of their minuteness, when we read in Cheshire, 
that a dead larva frequently contains as many as one billion 
of these spores (28). 

788. In the Bulletin Agricole du Dipariement de VAube, 
Mr. Brunet narrates the experiments made by Mr. Marcel 
Dupont, to breed the bacilli of foul-brood. Knowing that 
Pasteur used beef-broth in this kind of experiments, Mr. 
Dupont filled three glass- tubes with unsalted beef-broth, pre- 
pared according to the directions given by Pasteor, and after 
sealing and boiling them, to kill any living organisms that 
might have existed inside, he introduced into two of them, 
with a fine needle, a small quantity of a liquid, in which 
particles from the body of a diseased larva had been dis- 
solved. One week after, the broth in both of these tubes, 
was cloudy and full of bacilli, while the liquid, in the third 
tube, had remained clear and unchanged. 

780. Description. As we have never seen a case of 
bacillus alvei, we will borrow from those who have been more 
'* lucky " (?) than ourselves, a description of the disease^ 
for its detection in hives, and the remedies recommended 
by the best authorities. 

** In most cases the larva Is attacked when nearly reaHy to seal 
ap. It turns slightly yellow, or grayish spots appear on it. It 
then seems to soften, settles down in the bottom of the cell, in a 
shapeless mass, at first white, yellow, or grayish in color, soon 
changing to brown. At this sta|2:e it becomes glutinous and ropy ; 
then, after a varying length of time, owing to the weather, it 
dries up into a dark coflee-colored mass. Usually the bees make 
Qo attempt to clean out the Infected cells, and they will sometimes 




* «ns win afkn Aty cp musmIt. wUkiiih 
qpT>iJiiHliitliiifiil<rpi 



aari K k aot n«tl tte iBmhk ka 




Fig [(«. (rroRiCowKB.) 



tbkt anj DCQgual smell would be noticed bj moat penotti. Ib 
the last !t3^e§. wben sometLmes half ormore of tha cells In Oit 
hive are filled wiih rotten hrtod. the odor hecomea Biifflcl«ntlT 
pmnounceil. but the nose is not to be relied on to decide whether 
a colony has foul brood or not. Long before It can be detected 
bj the Gcn$e of smt'll. the C0I0D7 Is in a condition to communi- 
cate the disease to others. 

The eye alone can be depended on, and It mnst be a sharp and 
trained eye too, ifany hendivay is to be made in curing the 
disease. fJ. A. Green, in "Gleanings," Januuj 18S7. 

TOO. "Foul-brood can be detected In the Spring, either 
through an unusual spreading of the brood, resulting from an 



^ 




FOUL-BROOD. 449 

annotlced preyious infection, of an indefinite number of cells, 
which contain sick or dead larvae, or, if the disease is Just begin- 
ning, bj the presence, among the brood, of sick or rotten larvae. 
The larvae die and rot either befdre or after sealing. It is only 
when the disease has lasted for some time, that the cappings are 
punctured, and that the brood has an offensive odor. 

*' The spreading of brood in the Spring is not always caused 
bj foul-brood. A defective queen, some old pollen in the cells, 
Ac, may also cause it. The brood may die (we do not say rot) 
by o^her causes also, and we should regret to see our bee-keepers 
become unduly frightened, and make a* useless inspection of 
all the brood in their hives, for such work is not an agree- 
able pastime. But if foul-brood has already appeared in the 
neighborhood, or in the Apiary, it is well to drive the bees from 
the brood-combs and to inspect the latter with a scrutinizing eye. 
We have sometimes diagnosticated foul-brood In hives which had 
but two or three sick larvae, barely turning yellow. When the 
disease has already spread. It strikes the eye. The brood Is 
shapeless, yellow, brown, black, and the cappings change color 
and 8lnk."--^Bertrand, Revue Intemationcde (T Apiculture.) 

791. Cure. Several methods of cure for foul-brood have 
been given, with more ot less successful results. Mr. D. A. 
Jones, has written a small pamphlet, in which he gives his 
method. He removes all the broodless combs, from the 
Infected colony, drives (473) or shakes the bees into a 
box covered with wire-cloth, leaving enough bees in the 
hive to take care of the brood, if it is worth saving ; and 
puts the driven bees. in a dark cellar for three to six days, 
turning the box on its side so as to see the bees through 
the wire-cloth. He keeps them thus till he sees some of 
them dying from starvation. Tlien, he puts them into a clean 
hive, on comb-foundation, and feeds them with the honey 
that has been removed from tlieir combs, after liaving boiled 
it with one-fifth of water. The bees that hatch from tlie 
brood receive the same treatment l)eft)re beinor returned to 
their colonies; all the combs are melted, and the hives. 
frames, Ac, arc boiled for ten minutes before being used 
again. Although Mr. Jones has been successful with this 
29 



450 DtsEABKS or BKKa. 

method, it has Dot proved effective in ererj case, for, sinc« 
the bees and the queeo may be contautiaated in th«ir or- 
gans (708), thediseaae, afteratjme, may reappear. Every 
means should be used to kill all the spores of the badllL 
Mr. Oheeliire has kept some tit them in a glass tube ("Beet 
and Iteekeepiag," page .^60), and exposed them on several 
occasions to a temperature below frost, and they were all™ 
jift«r sisUicD and ii>half months. l^Ir. Jonea reporU banog 
kept toul-brood combs exposed a whole winter to > U 
ature of 35« below zero, — in CaDa<ia. — without s 
ing In killing the sporea. ("GleaQingainBee-Ciilliir«,"l8S4, 
Vage767.> 

70S. We will now give the method of Hilbert, as prac- 
ticed by Cbas. P. Muth and described in his "Practical 
Hiuts:" 

"In April, I discovered two obtonles la my Apiary, airect«d 
with the disease. 1 brimBtoned the bees the same eveniog, 
bnrned up the combB and fhiiiiM, and disinfected the hlvet. 
Another colony showed it In Uay. Feeling sorry to kill a 
beantiful queen, besides a very atroDg colony of pare Italians, I 
brushed them ou ten frames of comb-foundation. Into a clean hive, 
and placed over them a Jar with food, aS I shall describe hereaf- 
ter. The old combs and frames were bnrned np, and the hives 
disinfected. This feeding was kept np nutll all the sheets of 
comb-foundation were built out nloel7 and filled with brood and 
honey. It was a beautiful colony of bees about foor weeks after- 
wards, full of healthy brood, and with combs as regular as can 
only be made by the aid of comb-foandatlon. Four more colonies 
were iliacovered Infected, one after another. All went through 
the 8;imc process, and every one la a healthy colony at present. 
I was so convinced of the completeness of this cute, that I intro- 
duced Into one of these colonies my first Cyprian queen sent me 
by friend D.idnnt. 

'■ All are doinp llncly now, and no more foul-brood, Should, 
however, nnothcr one of my colonies show signs of the disease. 
Itwoiild not l>c because it had cauf^bt it from Its neighbor which 
I had iitteinpted to cure, but because the germ of fool-brood was 
hidden somewhere in the hive, and of late had oome In contact 
with a larva. 




FOUXr-BROOD, 451 

** The fonnnla of the mtxtore is as follows : . 

16 gr. salicylic acid 
16 gr. soda borax, 
1 oz. water. 

** 1 keep on hand a bottle of this mixture, so as to he always 
ready for an emergency ; also a druggist's ounce glass, so that 1 
may know what I am doing. My food was honey, with about 25 
per cent, water added. But we may feed honey or sugar syrup, 
adding to every quart of food an ounce of the above mixture. 
Bees being without comb and brood, partake of it readily, and 
by the time their comb-foundation isbuilt out, you willfind your 
colony in a healthy and prosperous condition. 

*' Thus you see foul-brood can be rooted out completely, and 
without an extra amount of trouble, provided you are sufficiently 
impressed with its dangerous, insidious character, and are pre- 
pared tp meet it promptly on its first appearance. 

*^ Wlien an atomizer is used on combs and larvse the medicine 
should be only half as strong as given in the formula.'^ 

793. Since our friend Muth wrote the above, Hilbert 
improved the method, by dispensing with soda borax, and 
adding to his treatment fumigations with evaporating sali- 
cylic acid. We give this new method, for it has been used 
sacceasfolly by Mr. Bertrand and several of his neighbors 
in a number of different apiaries. 

Prepare:. 

SokUianNo. i, 

Crystallized salicylic acid 1 oz. 
Pure alcohol, 8 oz* 

With this jnixture prepare : 

Solution No. 2, for washing or sprinkling the combs with 
an atomizer, 20 drops of solution No. 1, mixed with 7 
ounces of tepid rain water, or 200 drops in a pint of water. 

Solution No. 3y to be used in the food of the bees, about 
220 drops of solution No. 1 in a quart of syrup or honey 
boiled with about a fifth of tepid water. To avoid the 
trouble of counting the drops every time, it is advisable to 
put them, the first time in a graded vial, or in a small bottle 
in whioth a mark can be made for the repeated measurement 



DISEASBS or BCES. 



i 



of the solution. Tho water caa be measured in tb« Bum? vij. 
Describing the Hilbert prot-ess, Mr. Cawaa, who hu 
&]so succeeded ia curing n number of cases, writes: 

T91. "One or the Blmpleat nnd moat rapid wavs of curing Ihc 
disease fa by flilbert's fumigating proeeHS. as llie fiitiies of uDi:;- 
Uo acid have the power of penelnillng everytlitng in tils bire loit 
destroTing nil the germs of foul-brooiJ. The apparatus lued for Ihii 
porpoBe la the fiiuilgnlor Improved by Mr. Ed. Bertrand, (fig. iO^ 




■KRTRAND rUUtOATOB. 



It consists of a cylinder A, to which Is hinged, at D, aeoTerB, 
baring a nozzle at C. llils ts 5 Inches by 1 }, so as to be easily in- 
serted between bire and floor board, and It la kept in position by 
the fastening E. A spirit lamp H, baa the flame so regulated that 
the add placed in the nietnl dish I, aboTO it, la gently evaporated. 
The hive to be operated upon Is not removed from its stand, but 
UraUed up at the back off Its Qoor-board b^ means of blocks ol 
wood, and wedgea are Inserted at the sides, so as to leave only 
space for the insertion ot nozzle, C, of fumlgator. With hives on 
legs, the floor-board cnn be lowered. Fifteen and a half grains of 
salicylic acid are then placed in the dish I, and the flame of the 
lamp BO regulated that the acid Is gently evaporated. Too much 
flame will c.iuse It to boil over, and waste ; too little would not 
vett It, so that just the right amount is found ont by experiment. 
The nozzle of the fumigator in operation Is now lnurted In the 




FOUL-BROOD. 458 

opening at the bottom, and the comers of the quilt tamed np, so 
as to allow the vapor of the acid to circulate freely. The fumlgft- 
tlons should be performed early In the morning, or In the evening, 
when all the bees are at home. The entrance of the hive need 
not be closed. Any portion of the hive not reached by the fumes 
of the acid, the alighting-board and ground, near the hive, should 
be washed or syringed with salicylic acid 1 oz , soda borax 1 oz., 
water 2 quarts, or solution No. 3. It would be much better if the 
firames could be transferred to a clean hive after fumigation, and 
the infected hive scalded and painted over with the same solution, 
and with this view I have adapted my hives for easy separation 
and purification. Many hives, however, cannot be taken to pieces 
so readily, therefore they must be disinfected on the spot as well 
as possible, by the expenditure of a little more of the solution. 
Elach hive should be fumigated from four to six times, at intervals 
of six days. The bees must receive every other evening a quarter 
ofa pint ofsyrup containing 30 to 50 drops of solution No. 1. A 
foul-broody hive should be fumigated b fore being opened, as few 
firames left as the bees can well occupy, and if possible, the bees 
should be forced to build fresh combs, and rapid brood-rearing 
encouraged.*' 

"All the hives in the Apiary should be fed wfth syrup contain- 
ing salicylic acid while the disease lasts. 

** The honey from the infected combs can be removed and boiled 
to a short time, and by adding salicylic acid to it, can be used at 
food for the bees. All combs should be fumigated before being 
stored away, and sprayed with spray diffuser, on both sides and 
round the edges before being used again, with solution No. 1. 

** All hives, floor-boards, frames, and utensils, used about an 
Apiary should be scalded and thoroughly cleansed when done 
with, and all woodwork painted over with the saiicylic solution, 
to prevent the disease spreading aii}' further. 

** If the treatment above given be adopted in time, it will effect 
a core, but if the disease is neglected and allowed to assume the 
worst type, much more trouble will be experienced in its eradica- 
tion. Some advise destroying the hives, but I never found any 
necessity to do this, as salicylic acid is sufllcient to destroy any 
germs of the disease which may have adhered to the hive.*' 
(British Bet-Ktepiri GuiUt Book.) 

795. Mr. Cheshire, in turn, findinnr this process of evap- 
orating salicylic acid long and tedious, contrived a new 




method [b wfatch be aaea csrboGe lod, oUiwin called 
phenol, after tbe mggestioa of aq Iriah Apiarist, Mr. K. 

Bproule. 

Ah bee* atroDglj' lUsliks carbolic add, naoe it iiiMvd to 
frigliUiri them (670). tbe qu&otity has to t>e rcrf HiaQ, or 
tbcy will dot touch tbe food contaioing it. The doas iMm4 
by Hr. ChRshire, in the food, U about on« oiii>ce for tortf 
poundi of iynip, nraountjng to l-filOtJi, b<it UiU lueportiaa 
may bo chan|*0(l accorrting to circa nuttanten. When iben 
la no boncy id llii: fleMa, Itc says that t)i« proportJoa taar 
be roducisd to l-750t1i. 

" The oarbollc acid sbonld be added to tfae tyrnp «rh»ti tb« 
Utter i* cool and Ptioally tnlxad hy ranful stirring. "—fCbMhlR. 
Pnfre «»!.) 

Whnn lb« h<■v^ refuHfJ to touch tlje f.jf.d llm; prcpareii, 
Mr. CliGHliire succeeded in compelling them to use it, b; 
pouring it into the combs, in the cells immediately around 
nn<l ovi-r the brood. He advises the use of one part ol 
pliuuol in fifty parts of water, for spraying the infected 
ouinbH that arc removed from tbe beea, but in no case does 
hu spray tlie inside of the brood-nest of the diseased col- 
ony with this soltition.^-(Brt(isA Bea Journal, 1887, page 
3<J7. ) 

7t)U. For our part, we should prefer the Bert rand- Cow an 
motliod of applying Hilbert's recipe, to all others. It b 
most Likelj', however, that either of these methods will be 
BUi-<-t'<tsfiil if the Apiarist is careful and perscTerant, but if 
ho in'tjh'ctn the miimtest precautions, for instance, washing 
hix liHti'ls ill 11 solution of phenol or of salicylic acid, before 
fitUiii to Kcinii' other hive, after handhng a sick colony. 
or it ho <liioH not apply a preveotive treatment to all 
tiix colonics during .and after the treatment of the sick oiic:<. 
he ui;iy rduin Ilic discise in his Apiary indefinitely, for il 
but n fiMv of Iln' spori'3 escape, they will soon spread ilie 
Oontngion again. 




FOUI/-BROOP. 455 

707. This reminds oar Senior of an incident that hap- 
pened in his younger days, while he lived with his father, 
who was a physician. A laborer had come to the old doc- 
tor for an ointment to cure the ** itch ". He had caught 
this — now uncommon and ever disgraceful — contagious 
■kin disease, while working as a harvest hand, in the coun- 
try. Directions were given him for using the ointment, 
and he was told that his wife should anoint with it also, as 
a preventive. But the woman, who did not have the dis- 
ease, refused to use it, and two weeks afterwards the man 
came back for more ointment. He was cured, but his wife 
had the itch in her turn. The doctor gave him some, and 
told him that he should use it too, or he might catch the 
disease again; but he did not mind the warning, and two 
weeks later, he had to call for more. ** Well," said the 
old doctor, *'I hope that these two experiments will con- 
vince you of the necessity of a thorough treatment for both, 
with a disease that is transmitted so readily, by contact." 

The case is exactly the same ^Yith the bacillus. While 
we are treating one colony, a few spores may be transmit- 
ted to a neighboring hive, by the contact of a single bee, 
and the disease is spread, unknown to us, while we are con- 
gratulating ourselves, in the firm belief that we have eradi- 
cated it. 

798. The cure may be delayed, and may even fail alto- 
gether, if the queen is infected. Then the only resource is 
to kill her and give the colony another from a healthy hive. 

709. When an Apiarist finds out that foul-brood exists 
A his vicinity, his best plan is probably to feed his bees 
regularly on salicycated food. A lump of camphor, placed 
inside of the hive on the bottom-board, is advised by some. 
Salt (274), which improves the blood of all animals, by 
decreasing the number of white globules, shows its effects 
on the general health of all beings, and renders them more 




capable of battling against any disease, whether contagicm 
>r not. 

800. Foul-brood is transmitted from one hive to Bsotlner 
— like Asiatic cholera among men, — by different meana. 
Robbing (664) is probably one of the main helps to con- 
tamination, as the robber bees may take the bacillus hone, 
amoDgtheir hair, unawares. Working bees may even gather 
the scourge from some swecUscented blo§aom contaminated 
by previous visitors. The transportation, or shipping, ol 
bees, from one part of the country to another. Is of ten a 
mean of spreading the (lisease, anil some of our Stale legis- 
latures have made very stringent laws on the subjuol. 

Contagious diseases were once the scourge of the laoil. 
Who has not heard of the plague, the dread disease of the 
dark ages ? According to Chambers' Encyclopedia, the 
plague of 11)65 destroyed seventy ihousaod people, in I^o- 
don alone. Earlier still, In 1348, according to Sismondi, 
the plague destroyed three-fifths of the entire population of 
Europe, extending even up into Iceland. It was during 
that terrible scourge that the city of Florence lost over one 
hundred thousand people. U those dreaded diseases are 
now but little feared, we owe it to scientific discoveries. 
The microscope has shown that nearly all contagious dis- 
eases, which men or animals are subject to, are caused by 
living organisms, and medical science now teaches how they 
may be avoided by inoculation, or other means. More dis- 
coveries are daily made, and we can hope that the day is 
not far, when tlie advancement of science will have put an 
end to all these ills, and the bacillus alvei will be a thing 
of the past. 

801. Aside from foul-brood, accidents may cause the 
brood to di?, and even to rot in the cells, without special 
damage to the bees. Sudden and co^d weather, in a promis- 
ing Spring, when the bees have been spreading their brood, 
and are compelled to leave a part of it uncovered ; the ne- 




FOUI/-BROOD. 457 

gleet of the Apiarist, or his mismanagement, in placing 
back the brood, — after an inspection, — out of the reach 
of the cluster ; or even the suffocation of a colony by heat 
(367), or by close confinement (368), may cause the 
death of the brood. 

These accidents have none of the malignance of foul- 
brood, and nothing need be done in such occurrences be- 
tUm remoying the dead brood, and burying it carefully. 



EHKIUKS OF BE£3. 



I 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Ei^KMi^s OF Bees. 

SOS. The Bee- Sloth (Tinea mellonetla) ie laeatieuad)^ 
ArisUitle, Virgil, Columella and Other aocieut uitliom, « 
one of the most formidable enemies of the houcy-bec E«n 
Id the first part of tbia century, the bt?e- writers, slmoat 
frilhout exception, regarded it as the plague of their Apla- 
riea. 




Swammerdam speaks of two species of the bee-moth 
(called in his time the " bee-ioolf"'), one much larger than 
the other. Linnieus and Reaumur also describe two kinds 
— Tinea cereann and Tinea meUoneUa.* Most writers sup- 
posed the former to be the male, and the latter the female 
of the same species. The following description is abridged 
from Dr. Hnrria' Heport on the Insects of Massachusetts: 

803. " Very few of the Tinea exceed or even equal it in size. 

In Its ndult stntc it Is a winged moth, or miller, measiirinfr. troat 
the hcnd to tlir tipof tbeclosed wings, from five-eigfaths to three- 
quarters of an Inch In ten^th, and Its wings expand from one 
Inch and one-tenth to one Inch and foor-tenths. The fore-wing* 

« thW* ipMlCS, DOT thtit naUM. (BlliBC 




THE BEE-MOTH. 459 

■hat together flatly on the top of the back, slope steeply down- 
wards at the sides, and are turned up at the end somewhat like 
ttie tail of a fowL The female is much larger than the male, and 
much darker-colored. There are two broods of these insects in 
the course of the year.* Some winged moths of the first brood 
begin to appear towards the end of April or early in May — ear- 
lier or later, according to climate and season. Those of the 
second brood are more abundant in August ; but some may be 
found between these periods, and even much later.'* 

No writer with whom we are acquainted has givea such an 
exact description of the differences between the sexes, that 
they can always be readily distinguished. The wood-cuts 
of the moths, larvae, and cocoons, which we present to our 
readers, were drawn from nature, by Mr. M. M. Tidd, of 
Boston, Mass., and engraved by Mr. D. T. Smith, of the. 

same city. Mr. Tidd seems first to have 
noticed that the snout or palpus of the /e- 
malej projects so as to resemble a beak, 
fif . Uj0.— Female, while that of the male is very short. 
While some males are larger than some females, and 

some females much lighter-colored than 
the average of males, and occasionally 
some males as dark as the darkest females, 
the peculiarity of the snout of the female is 
*" ** so marked, that she may always be distin^ 
guished at a glance. 

804. These insects are seldom seen on the wing, unless 
started from their lurking places about the hives, until to- 
wards dark. On cloudy days, however, the female may be 
noticed endeavoring, before sunset, to gain entrance into 
the hives. 

** If disturbed in the daytime,** says Dr. Harris, ** they open 
their wings a little, and springer glide swiftly away, so that it is 
very difficult to seize or hold them.*' 

*Prof. CookU of o|>inion (OalJe pa/e .11.')) that thei-e may l»e thi*ee brooda 
hi a year aad we believe be la con-ect. We have seen them mo«t oomerooa ia 
Mot October weatber. ^ 





EKEUIES OF BEES. 



Thej are surprisingly sgile, both on foot and on 1 
wing, the motion of a bee being very slow, in compariw 
"They are," says Reaumur, "the most nimble-footM 
creatures that I know." 

In the eTeniug, they take wing, when the bees are at reat, 
and hover around the hive till, baviiig found the door, Utejr 
go in and lay their eggs. 

" It Is curiouB," says lliiber, '' to observe how artfully the mntli 
knows bow to protit by the disad vantage of the beta, which 
require much light for seeing objects, and tbe preCBuilooi 
taken by the latter In reoonnoU«ring and expelling so daageroni 

>■ Those that are prevented from getting within the blve. lay 
their eggs in the cracks on the outside; and the little wonu-!ik« 
osterpillors hatched therein), easily creep into tbe hive through 
the cracks, or gnaw a passage Tor themeelvea onder tbe edtfe* uf 
it." — Dr. Harrli. 

One afternoon, about tweaty-flTe years ago, otir Seizor . 
saw a female bee-moth on the front of an eke hive (278), 
and noticed that she was laying Id the crack, between two 
ekes, through which the propolis could be seen; the 
ekes being rabetted to receive the comb-bars, their thick- 
ness there was reduced to about three-eighths of an inch. 

The moth laid about ten eggs, then walked about, seem- 
ing satisfied with her work, and came back to lay about the 
same number, repeating the maaceuver several times. 

This shows that moths may lay eggs iii the hive from the 
outside, if propolis ia a food for their just-hatched larvie. 
One of our objects, in preserving the strip around the hive 
to support the cap (tig. 68), and in incasing the bottom 
(343), was to hinder the moth. 

80!t. ■' Assoon as hatched, the worm enoloeea Itself In a eaae 
of white silk, which It spins around Its body ; at flnt It Is like a 
mer« tliread, but gradually Increases in slie, and, during its 
growth, feeds upon the cells around it, for which purpose It baa 
ODlf to put f(^h Its bead, and And iU wants supplied. It de- 




46i 

man Iti food with great avldltj, and, ooosequf ntif , Inoreasei k 
mQcb in bulk, tbat ita gallery soon beconi«B too short and narrow, 
and the creature Is obliged to tbnut Itself forward and lengtben 
tbe gallerf , u well to obtain more room as to procure an addi- 
tional sappty of food. Its augmented size exposing It to attacks 
from surrounding foes, tbe nary Insect fortlfles its new abode with 
additional ttroDgth and thickness, by blending with the Slamenta 
of its silken covering a mixture of wax and Its own excrement, 
Ecir the external barrier of a new ^llery ,* the inttriar and paitl- 

/*^ 

Tlf. IM. 

oiLLKBT or HOTH wonu. 

tlonsof which are lined with a tmootb surface of white silk, whleh 
admits the ocoaalonal moTemeDlsofthe Intects, without Injury to 
Ita delicate texture. 

"In perfonning these operations, tbe insect might be expected 
to meet with opposition from the bees, and to be gradually 
rendered more ssiallable as It advanced In age. It never, how* 
ever, expoees any part but Its head and neck, both of which are 
eovered with stoat helmets, or scales. Impenetrable to the sllog 
of a bee, aa li the oompositlon of the galleries tbat surround It."— 
BaviH. 

900. Hie worm is here givea of full size, ftad with all its 



THB WORUS. 



pecalisritlM. The scaly head \s shown in one of the 
worms; while the three pairs of claw-lilte fore ie<;s, and 

* ThU wpMt m tatlnii of Uw wab. orgallerr of the worm. «*b eopleJ from 




the fiT« pairs of hind ones, ue delineated. 'Hie tul is abo 
futnUhed with two of these lega. Tb« breotbiiig b^its vn 
seen on th« b»ck. 

807- Wax b the chief food of thes« worma, but b.i Dr. 
Doahoff B»T3 : " Iattic fed exclnsirely oo pur* wai wiB 
die, WAX being s DOD-nitrogeDous (SSI) aubstBi>cv. >ivl 
Hot funufthiBg the xJimeDL required for their perftrct iJcTel- 
opoieot;" and bis atnt^ment agrees with the fad thai tbdr 
lame prefer the brood-comba, whioh are lined with tbr Hkitu 
oast awmjr by the bee-tame (167). and which, fn Cfioto- 
qoence. are more liable to be derotuvd than the nuw unca. 
la tact, thej eat pollen and propolis, and while inafciD( their 
eocoons, Ihej eren seem to relish wooily fibre, for tbej 
often eat into the wood ot tbe frames or of thebivcaln whlcb 
tber are altowed to propagate, while comb-fouodaUon re- 
malm aJmost antoucbed by them. 

808. When obliged to steal thetr lining among a Mtuq^ 
cok>nT of bees. Iher seldom fare well enongh to reai^ the 
sue which thej attain when rioting at pleasure among the (nil 
eomhs of a diacoursged population. In about three weeta, 
the lame st'^p eating, and seek a suitable plaoa for encas- 
ing thecosclves in their Eilkj shroad. Id hires where tbej 
rdgn unmolested, almost any place will answer their pur- 
pose, and they often pile their cocooits upon OM I 
or join them together in long rows. They s 
cupT the empty comb^. ao that their cocoons resemble the 
capping of t be honey-cells. In Fig. 193, Hr. TSdd baa 
given a drawing, accurate in size and form, of a curious 
in^^taace of tbis kiad. The black spots, resembling grains 
of t:uni>ow<ler. are the excrements of the worms. 

If the colony i* siroug, the worm runs a dangerous gairit- 
let. as it pas^e*. ia search of some crevice, through the 
ranks of it.< enraged foes. Its motions, however, are ex- 
ceedingly quick, and it is full of cunning devices, being 
able to cra<rl backwards, to twist round on itself, to curl up 



Tni I 



[-HOTH. 



46S 



ftliDost ioto a knot, and to flatten itself out Uke a pancake. 
If obliged to leave the hire, it gets under some board or 
concealed crack, spina its cocoon, and patiently awaits its 
traoB formation. 




800. The time required for llic laryx to break fi>r<1i ialo 
wioged insects, varies with the teiii|i(Tatur« to witiuli they 
are exposed, and the season of the jcar when they spin 
their cocoons. We have known them to spin and hatch in 



461 ENEMIKS or BEES. 

ten or eleTen days ; and they ottea spia ao late in the Fall, 
&s not to emerge until the easuiog Spring. 

810. In NorlLern latitudes where the thcnnomrlcr 
ranges for days and weeks below 10^ the bee-moth-" oitb 
tun winter only in the hive near the bee-cluBter. It i» k 
fact worthy of notice that Apiaries that are wintered in l\$ 
cellar aie more annoyed by the moth during the loUowiog 
Summer than those that are wintered out of doors, tiecftuse 
none of the larvm of the moth perish. 

Dr. DonhoB says that the larvte become motionless at a 
temperature of 38* to 40", and entirely torpid at a tower 
temperature. A number, which be left all Winter in hia 
summei-houae, revived in the Spring, and passed tbrougU 
their natural changes. This was in Germany where ll)e 
Winters are milder than in our Northern and Middle 
jStsted. 

-' If, when the tliermomet«r itood at 10°, I dissected a ebiyutU, 
It was not frozen, bnt congealed Immediately sfterwsrdB. Thii 
ehowB that, at ao low a temperatnre, the vital force Is safflcieni lo 
resist frost. In the hive, the ohiysallds and larv», in v&riani 
stages of development, pass the Winter in a state of torpor, in cor- 
ners and crevices, and among the waste on the bottom-boards. In 
March or April, they revive, and the beet of strong oolooles com- 
mence operations for dislodging them." — Dohboff. 

Some larvte which Mr. Iiangetroth exposed to a tempera- 
ture of 6° below zero, froze solid, and never revived. Others, 
after remaining for eight honra in a temperature of about 
12°, seemed, after reviving, to remain for weeks in a crippled 

condition. 

''The eggs of the bee-moth are perfectly round, and very smsll, 
being only About one-eighth of a line In diameter. In tbe duels of 
the ovarium, thej are ranged together In tbe Torm of a rosarj. 
They are not developed consecutively, like those of the queen bee. 
but are found in the ducts, fully and perfectly formed, a few daii 
after the femuie moth emerges from tbe oocoon. Shedepoelisihem. 
nsDally, in little clusters on the combs. If we wish to witness ibt 



TBS BKB-HOTH. 465 

dtoeharge of the egga. It li only neoesaai? to Bette k fommle moth, 
two or three dayi old, with finger and thumb, by the hewl — she 
wUltnftantly protmdeheroTlpoaltor, and the eggimay then b« 
duttnoUy wen paaiing along through the semi-transparent daet. 




BT MOTHS. 



■* Lut Snmmer I reared a bee-moth larva In a email box. U 
■ponft oocoon, ftom which iMued a femule niuth. Holding her by 
the head, I allowed her to deposit eggn on s piece of honey-cumb. 
Three weeks aRerwards, 1 examined the comb, and found on it 
MOM web and two larvn. The eggs were all shrivelled and dried 




np, Ktoeft a few wUdt wen perTofitcd. mnd ftoin wbieb. I «>i^ 
pM*. ttw lame emerged. Tfal* appean lo be a caae of trie p\> 
tl w ogepwia in the bee^noUt." — IVoMtlattd fivm Dm. Doxiiorr 

tjS. WiGSOL 

811. In Fig- 194, ili. Tidd has taithrairjr delinnled, 
and 3<r. Smitb akillfuDj- eagrsved, the blade mass of tan- 
gled webs, cooDODis. escrements, and perforated combs, wbicfa 
nay be foond in a bive where tbe worms bare completed 
their work of destrnctioa. 

Tbc entnuice of a moth into a hive and the ravage* com- 
mitted bj her progenj. forcibly illuatrate the haroc whkb 
▼ice often makes when admitted to prey unchecked on tbe 
precioas treasures of the human heart. Only some tlnjr 
^gB are deposited bj the insidious moth, which give birtb 
to very innocenl-Iooking worms ; but let them once get the 
control, and the fragrance* of tbe honied dome is soon ooi^ 
rupted. the hum o( happy industry stilled, and everyl'ilng 
useful and beautiful ruthlessly destroyed. 

As a feeble colony is often nnable to cover all its combs, 
the outside ones may become filled witii tbe eggs of the 
moth. The discouraged aspect of the bees soon indicates 
that there is trouble of some kind within, aad the bottom- 
board will be covered with pieces of bee-bread mixed with 
the excrement of tbe worms. 

If a feeble colony cannot be arengtkaied bo as to proteii ita 
empty combs, the carefid bee-keeper %mU take them away uniif 
the bees are numerous enough to need tliem. 

813. Combs having no brood, from dead colonies, or 
surplus combs, with or without honey, should be smoked 
with the fumes of burning sulphur, to kill tbe eg!^ or 
worms of the motli when kept from the bees in tlie month « 
of June, July, August, and September. The bos. hive, 
iir room in which tbcy are kept should be tightly closed 
to prevent tbe gas from escaping till it has done its work. 

* Tb< odor of the moth knil Im s !■ Ter; oSuulv*. 




467 

In smoking comb-honey in a room, the sulphor may be 
placed on hot Coals in a dish, and care should be taken 
not to use too much of it, as the gas has the effect of turn- 
ing the propolis to a greenish color, quite damaging to the 
looks of the beautiful sections. Enough smoke to kill the 
flieSy in a room, will be found sufficient. Dry combs kept 
oyer Winter in a well closed room without a fire, are not in 
danger of the moth the following Summer, unless they are 
in some manner exposed. Combs, in which there have been 
moths, should be examined occasionally, to be smoked again 
if any worms are found. 

A bee-keeper of Switzerland, Mr. Castellaz, keeps his 
combs in a closed box, in which he places some lumps of 
camphor. He says that bees accept these combs, even when 
impregnated with the odor of camphor. 

In Italy where the moths are very troublesome, on account 
of the mildness of the Winters, some bee-keepers pile 
their combs flat in a box in which they have put about one 
inch of fine dry sand ; all the cells of every layer of comb 
are filled with sand, and the last one is entirely covered with 
it. The sand is shaken out, before the combs are melted 
or returned to the bees. 

813. Italian bees, unless exceedingly weak and queenless, 
(541^2), will defend a large number of combs against moths. 
One of our neighbors, who had, occasionally, helped us in 
the Apiary, after witnessing our success in bee culture, 
bought a colony of Italian bees and divided (470) it into 
three swarms, without regard to the scantiness of the crop. 
His swarms havin'^ dwindled to naught, he returned their 
combs to the impoverished colony, whose population was 
unable to cover more than two or three combs. But the 
returned combs had not been protected against moths, 
which hatched so numerous that our neighbor, surprised to 
see about as many moths as bees going out of the hive, 
came to us for advice. On opening the hive, we found 




three combs of brood crowded with bees, and seveD others 
that were a. perfect mass of webs, spotted with excremeuU. 
The bees were all on Ibeir combs and the moths on Uictrs: 
cot one worm could be found on either of the three oomba, 
protected by the Italians. Both populations, the one of 
bees, the other of moths, seemed to dwell barmoDiouBly 
□ear each other. 

814. The most fruitful cause of the ravages of the molb 
still remains to be described. If a colony becomes kopt- 
legsly queei^ess (510), it mvst, un/ess othencise lUatroytd, 
inevitat'li/ fait a prey to the bee-moth. By watching, in glu« 
hires, the proceedings of colonies purposely made queen- 
lesa, we have ascertained that they make little or no resist- 
ance to her entrance, and allow her to lay her eggs where 
she pleases. The norms, after hatching, appear to hare 
their own way, and are even more at home than the dispir- 
ited bees. 

How worthless, then, to a hopelessly queenless colony, 
are all the traps and other devices which, formerly, hare 
been bo much relied upon. Any passage which admits s 
bee is large enough for the moth, and if a single female 
enters such a hire, she may lay eggs enough to destroy it, 
however strong. Under a low estimate, she would lay, st 
least, two hundred eggs in the hire, and the second genera- 
tion will count by thousands, while those of the third will 
exceed a million. 

The fact that hopelessly queenless stocks do not oppose 
any effectual resistance to the moths or worms, has for a 
long time been well known to the Germans. Ur. Wagner 
informed us "that their best treatises, for many years, 
speak of this as a settled fact, bo that it has become an 
axiom that, it a colony is orerpowered by robber-bees, its 
owner is not entitled to compensation, tu tt waa, in alt like- 
lihood, queenless, and tvould certainly have been destroyed by 
the moth." 




TUB BES-MOTH. 469 

In the Ohio Cultivator for 1849, page 185, Micajah T. 
JohnsQD says: — ^' One thing is certain — if bees, from any 
cause, shoold lose their queen, and not have the means in 
their power of raising another, the miller and the worms 
soon take possession. / believe no hive is destroyed by worms 
while an efficient queen remains in it." 

This seems to be the earliest published notice of this im- 
portant fact by any American observer. 

It is certain that a queenless hive seldom maintains a 
guard at the entrance after night, and does not fill the air 
with the pleasant voice of happy industry. Even to our 
doll ears, the difference between the hum of a prosperous 
hive and the unhappy note of a despairing one is often 
•offidently .obvious ; may it not be even more so to the 
acute senses of the provident mother-moth ? 

Her unerring sagacity resembles the instinct by which 
birds that prey upon carrion, single out from the herd a 
diseased animal, hovering over its head with their dismal 
croatdngs, or sitting in ill-omened flocks on the surround- 
ing trees, watching it as its life ebbs away, and snapping 
their blood-thirsty beaks, impatient to tear out its eyes, 
JuBt glazing in death, and banquet on its flesh, still warm 
with the blood of life. Let any fatal accident befall an 
animal, and how soon will you see them, — 

"First a speck and then a Vulture," 

speeding, from all quarters of the heavens, on their eager 
flight to their destined prey, when only a short time before 
not one could be perceived. 

When a colony becomes hopelessly queenless, even should 
the bees retain their wonted zeal in gathering stores and 
defending themselves against the moth, they must as cer- 
tainly perish as a carcass must decay, even if it is not 
assailed by filthy flies and ravenous worms. Occasion-' 
ally, after the death of the bees, large stores of hone^ as^ 



4T0 I MEuiea or dees. 

found ia their hives, SiuU instancea, bowever, «re rate ; (« 
ft nioLherless hive is almost always assanlteil by stroogu 
GuloiiicH, whicb, aci^ming to have an instinctiTe knowletifc 
of its or J ill nil ago, h»st«n to take possession of its spoils; 
or, II il eac-apc the Scylla of these pitiless |>lunderers, it V 
dathud u|>on a more mercilcM Charybdia, when the ni^ 
crcant moths find < ut its destitution. 

81 ff. Tlie iutroductioD of movable- frame hivca and Ita- 
lian beoa, nitb the new syatum of management, haa done 
away niih the fear of the mulh. It Is uo longer onnnnuB 
to hear bee-kcepcrs a|icnlt of having "gooit luck" or "bad 
liiclt" witb thetr bees ; as bees are now managed, toaxm 
or failure never deponda on what is called " luck." 

To OKe acquatnted with (A« hdbUa of ttc moth, the fta^ 
keeper who is coTiMantly lamenting ila ravage*, aerniu almotl 
aa murk deluded as a farmer would be, who, after tearcKing 
diligently for his cow, and finding her nearly devoured by 
carrion worvu, should denounce these worthy icavengert a* 
the primary cause of her untimely end. 

The bee-moth has, for thousanda of years, supported 
itself on the labora of the bee, and there is no reaaon to 
suppnac that it will ever become ex terminated. In a state 
of nnture, a qiicentcsa hive, or one whose inmatea have 
died, being of no further account, the miasioD of the moth 
is to pither up ita frngmcnts that nothing may be loat. 

From these remarka, the bee-keeper will see the means 
on which he must rely, to protect his hives from the 
moth. Knowing that strong colonies which have a fertile 
queen, can take care of themselves In almost any kind of 
hive, he should do nil he can to keep them in this condition. 
They will thus do more to defend themselves than if he de- 
voted the whole of his lime to fighting the moth.* 

•ln*i|>«l«io«l bea-kaepen, who )m«eliia that a oolanr la naadjr ndaai 
whan Uuf flod ■ hw wanna, aboold (amambar tkat alBoat araiy aoloaf 




THB BBK-MOTH. 471 

It is hardly necessary, after the preceding remarks, to 
say much upon the various contrivances to which some re- 
sorted as a safeguard against the bee-moth. The idea that 
gauze-wire doors, to be shut at dusk and opened again at 
morning, can exclude the moth, will not weigh much with 
those who have seen them on the wing, in dull weather, long 
before the bees have ceased their work. Even if they could 
be excluded by such a contrivance, it would require, on the 
part of those using it, a regularity almost akin to that of 
the heavenly bodies. 

An ingenious device has been invented for dispensing 
with such close supervision, by governing the entrances of 
all the hives by a long lever-like hen-roust, so that they 
might be regularly closed by the crowing and cackling tribe 
when they go to rest at night, and opened again when they 
fly from their perch to greet the merry morn. Alas I that 
so much skill should have been all in vain ! Some chickens 
are sleepy, and wish to retire before the bees have com- 
pleted their work, while others, from ill-health or laziness, 
have no taste for early rising, and sit moping on their 
roost, long after the cheerful sun has purpled the glowing 
£^t. Even if this device could entirely exclude the moth, 
it could not save a colony which has lost its queen. The 
troth is, that such contrivances are equivalent to the look 
put upon the stable door after the horse has been stolen ; or, 
to attempts to banish the chill of death by warm covering, 
or artificial heat. 

The prudent bee-keeper, remembering that ** prevention 
is better than cure, '* will take pains to destroy the larvae of 

(•^weially blftek bees) hnweyer strong or healthy, has some of these enemlM 
lurking about its premises. 

The Ute Mr. U. Qulnby, of New York, whose common-sense treatli* 
OQ Bee-keepiog, lately revised by his son-in-law, L. C. Root, will richly repay 
ptrosal, la of opioioo that some of the imperfect bees carried oat of the bira 
la tbm Spdng, haTe been destroyed by the worms . which ha?e made their waj 
tkroigfa tlia eomb. 




The cfltnnee »bc»td ■ 
■Bow Bee to pMK (S4S). 

SI 7. Bms. Tery tew birds ve foikd of bees. Tte 

King-bird (TyroKmtu miuieapay, whidi deronrs tbem bj 
•cores, u said — when hecsn have hia choice — to eat(Mil;tb« 
drones : bot u be catcbea bees on tbe blossonu — which are 
oever fre^aented b; these fat and la^ gcntlemeii — the 
iadaitrinus worken most often fall a pnj to hia fatal snap. 
There ia good reason to snspect that Uiia gonrmand caD 
distingafsb between ui empty bee in search of food, and 
one which, retarning laden to its fragrant home, is'in excel- 
lent condition to glide — already sweetened — down hia 



818. Tbe bee-keepers of England comptaia of the spai^ 
rows, which they accuse of eating bees. If these birds 
add thismischitf toso manj' others of whioh they are guilty, 
the bee-kecper.i fihould find some means of getting rid of 
them. In the Vo^ges (France) most of the farmers suspend 
earthen pots to the walls of their bams in which the spar- 
rows make thtir nests. Those jug-shape pots areexamined 



I 



proliiilT b««awot 



•I, bnl DM th* 




BIRDS. 475 

every week and the young birds are killed as soon as they 
ar^ ready to fly out, and are put into the frying-pan. We 
have seen as many as five or six dozen pots on the same 
wall, nearly all filled with nests, for sparrows raise many 
broods every year. 

In Italy the consumption of these birds is carried on, on a 
large scale. Not only are the churches riddled with thous- 
ands of holes, in which the sparrows make their nests, but 
there are, at the road crossings, high square towers, which 
are built for this purpose. An overseer has them locked ; 
He climbs inside, and clips the wings of the young, to com 
pel them to stay till they are full grown. 

During the Franco- Italian war against Austria, the French 
soldiers bought the young sparrows, which they found 
delicious eating. If the sparrows destroy our bees, can we 
not destroy them? It is better to eat than to be eaten ! 

If — as in the olden time of fables — birds could be moved 

by human language, it would be worth while to post up, in 

the vicinity of our Apiaries, the old Greek poet's address to 

the swallow: 

*' Attic maiden, honey fed, 

Chirping warbler, bears't away 
Thou the busy buzzing bee, 

To thy callow brood a prey f 
Warbler, thou a warbler seize ? 

Winged, one with lovely wings? 
Guest thyself, by Summer brought, 

Yellow guests whom Summer brings? 
Wilt not quickly let it drop ? 

Tis not fair; indeed, 'tis wrong, 
That the ceaseless warbler should 

Die by mouth of ceaseless song. " 

810. No Apiarist ought ever to encourage the destruction 
of any birds, except the too-plentiful sparrows, because of 
their fondness for bees. Unless we can check the custom 
of destroying, on any pretense, our insectivorous birds^ we 



474 



KXKUtKS or BEES. 



Shalt 8000, Qot onlj- be deprired of tbcir i 
among the leafy braaches, but shall lament, more and motf, 
tbe JDcreaae of insects (rom irbose ravagva notliiiig but 
thc9e birds can protect qb. Let those who can enjoj no 
music made by these winged choristers of the skies, escrpt 
that of thdr agtniaug screams as tbey fall before ihetx 
well aimed weapons, and flutter ont their iQn»c«nt llret be- 
fore their heartless gaze, drire away, as tar aa they please 
from thdr cruel premises, all the little birds that they can- 
not 'destroy, and tbey will, eventoAlly, reap the trttita of 
their folly, when the caterpillars weave their destroying 
webs over their teaOess tre«s. and insects of aU kinds liol 
in glee on Ihi?:r t'^asre ! h nrrvsts. 

820. Taij ■■■,.-. ;- . iir .Irones. b"t not workers. Onr.: 
we noticed a rooster seemingly eating bees at the entrance 
of a hive. The bees were then killing their drones ( 192). 
On approaching the hiye, we saw him carefnlly pick 
ont a drone from among the bees, shake off a worker -bee 
which had clang to him and swallow the drone. Young 
drones can be fed to chickens, who soon learn to eat them 
greedily, but if a worker bee is found among them they will 
shake their beads at her, with a knowing look of disgust. 
Young ducks, if insufficiently fed, will eat bees and are 
often killed by being stung while swallowing them. 

821. Other emkmies. — ^The toad is a well-known deTonrer 
of bees. Sitting, towards evening, under a hive, he will 
sweep into his mouth, with his swiftly-darting tongue, many 
a late retnrnius bee, as it falls, heavily laden, to the ground : 
bill as be is aho a diligent consumer of variou-t injurious 
injects, he can plead equal immunity with the insectivorous 
birds. 

It may seem amazing that birds and toads can swallow 
bees without being stung to death. They seldom, however, 
meddle with any, except those returning fully laden to their 
bives, or such as, bein^ awa^ trom haoM, are indiapoaed to 




BBAES BBE-UCS. 475 

reseat an iojaijr. As they are usually swallowed without 
being crushed, they do not iastinctively thrust out their 
stings, and before they can recover from their surprise, 
they are safely entombed. 

822. Bears are exceedingly fond of honey ; and io coun- 
tries where they abound, great precautions are needed to 
prevent them from destroying the hives. 

la that quaint but admirably common-sense work, entitled, 
" Tha Feminine Monarchie, utriUen out of Experience, by 
Charle$ Butler; printed in Ike year 1609," we have aa 
amusing adventure, related by a Muscovite ambassador to 
Rome: 

" A neighbor of mine," laltb be, " In Rearchlng tn the woods 
for boney, slipped down tnto a great hollow tree, and there sunk 
Into a lake of honey np to the breast; where— when he had stuck 
fast two days calling and crying ont In va[n for belp, because 
nobody In the meanwblle came nigh that solitary place — at 
lengtb, when he was out of all hope of life, he was strangely 
delivered by the means of a great bear, which, coming hither 
about the same business that he did, and smelling the honey, 
stirred wUb hli striving, clambered np to Ihe top of the tree, 
and then began to lower hlmseir down, backwards. Into It. The 
man bethinking himself, and knowing that the worst was but 
death, which In that place he was sure of, becllpt the bear fast 
with both hands about the loins, and, withal, made an outcry as 
lead as be could. The bear being thus suddenly aOrigbted, 
what with the handling and what with the noise, raade up again 
with all speed possible. The man held, and the bear pulled, 
nntll, with main force, he had drawn him out of the mire ; and 
then, being let go. away he trots, more afeard than hurt, leaving 
the smeared swain in a Joyful fear." 

823. The braula rxca or bee-louse, exists in Italy and 
other warm countries. Dr. Uubiiii h:ia seen queens so com- 
pletely covered with tlicm, that only iheir legs could be seen. 
These Jlce, whose aeconii name, cceca, means blind, have 
been often found >>y us on imi'orted (lucens on their arrival. 
They are so large that they can cu£\\;j \i« ViCkc^q o& ^:!aA 




9:K. Oimd i/nfy. la Mvti«M>s(T91). pot up ia entw 

of :^ .-^. n. .-c 4^ Mva»ar». wHh flaas .oo the side, adta 
ac^ rvn^::.;. . ia>i wt>r« i£ mt for ctegnater cflst of pnidac- 
Ci-a. U'i :^v i:J!'.-ii!':i of »fe cr^ikipiXtaDon. this kiiMl 
wuu^a ^<f r3,id«ii «xk.-itERT<HT. Oik objcctioa to it. bv Urge 
proiuv-er^, .3 cnsc ;: L-aanot ihrays b« kept is good shape, 
tpunj i^^ Tear '.^ »noCQ<r, owing to ttB tatdtacy^ to"s*e«t." 
Sweaniig Uki;^ pia>.-« in v-omb-hoaej- whick haa been Malsd 




nr. 479 

by tha b«M before it was fall; ripened or evApoiated 
(744), daring t plentiful honey harvest. Hie changes of 
temperature in Spring and Summer cause a certain amount 
of fermentation in it, exactly as in the housekeepers' sealed 
preseirea, when not sufficiently heated or sweetened. The 
result is a bursting of the cappioga, by the pressure of the 
expanding honey, which runs out and over the comb and 
renders it unsalable. The same expansion sometimes talces 
place in granulated extracted honey accompanied by a slight 
fermentation. 

827. It is also held, by some leading Apiarists, that the 
eel Is, although sealed are not moisture-proof, and that comb- 
honey gathers water from the air, till it overfills the cell 
and escapes through its pores. For this reason they keep 
their comb-honey in a warm dry room. This ia a good thing 
to do in every case. Honey is hygrometric, and whenever 
exposed, gathers moisture rapidly, so that when kept in 
a damp place, a tew unsealed or damaged cells very readily 
overflow, with watery'honey, that daubs every thing. There- 
fore, whether we believe that the sealed cells are air-tight 
or not (263)) we should keep our honey in a dry place at 
all times. 

To prevent the leaking honey in sections from running 
out of a crate and daubing other boxes, a sheet of strong 
manila paper should be placed at the bottom of each case, 
with the edges folded up slightly, say half an inch. 

'* Tbe oaMS for shipping and retailing honej, should be light, 
and glued on one or botti Bidei. llioH holding but one tier ore 
belt. The Mctlons should reat on narrow strips of wood 1 Inch 
thick, tacked to the bottom or the case over n sheet or roanlla 
paper. This la to preterve tbe boxes from being daubed, io case 
the boner drips. 

>■ 'iliese eases sboold bo In readiness before the bonej Ih readj 
to be taken off. " — (Ouvbr Fostkb). 

S28. "Glazed sections" — one glass on eacli sido of 
Mcb MCtioo— have been largely sold in the East; but this 




aoestr a QLASK. tUmmm 



thTaa,wAh 



CaalD 



Ti ij ■■!■ lull iii^M ■■III M li ■■ 

«f g9>^ is tTABst. tkoa WK bawe aC [m i in ■! 

SSflL TtetainfalfeaiwcMBfaractnetadhMWTinoak 
bamta, wiaefe k«« «MCBBed alcokoL TWy an gnmnitd 
ia^^e, with sane coMpaMtiM, to f ti^ th« ileahol fnun 
joa^lsg chFoogft the wood, aad tUs gam, or ^ae, prcTenta 
£Le kaka-jg of hoiMT. WUakj bancfa uc oAea nnfit to 
cc!i:A:a hoa-^y, tn- tbej are anaHf t ha tic d oa the inside, 
rad mcte^ <:( chArcoal bH iato iha hoaey and spcnJ tti 
3pf«3ruio<. W« keep oar empty boncia in a dr; pUc«. 
A- £..<:)□ 3j illid. th^T mn bailed and roQed into a cool 
tn I dry c«Iiu. where tb«T Rinaia until the boocj selliog 
season. «tt!<.'h begicia in September, or October. Any dry 
room wlII do. when a dry cellar is not at band, bat a cellar 
bie i. m re even temperatare wben cold weather cornea. 

S--jme Api vUts use cheap syrap banela, made ot aoft wood, 
wbich &re said to leak less than oak bands. Messrs. New- 
maa ol Chicago t&re. (or yeara, nunnfactored soft wood 
honey kegs, whioh hare proved satJafactoTj to many of oar 
friends, as they are more easily handled than larger barrels. 




ProfetBor of Entomology at the Michigan Agriculiunl College; 
Author of " T!u Btt-keepera' Ouide." 




XABKXTINO HONKT. 481 

They will do very well when the honey is to be sold at 
wholesale, as the barrel is usually lost by the shipper ; but 
we have an objection to them for our own use. We gen- 
eraUy have to take the honey out of them after it is granu- 
lated, to put it up for retail trade ; and the cheap barrels are 
so easily damaged, by taking the head out, that they cannot 
be used more than one or two seasons, while good iron- 
bound oak barrels will last for years, and will never leak, if 
managed properly. To take the head out, it should be 
marked, with a chisel, so as to replace it afterwards exactly 
in the same position. A strong gimlet is screwed into the 
middle of it, for a handle. After the hoops have been 
chased off, the head can be pulled out readily, and it is 
replaced in the same manner, when the barrel is empty. 

If the barrels are damp, when the honey is put in, and 
are removed to a dry place afterwards, they will soon leak ; 
for honey does not keep the wood from drying and shrink- 
ing. Honey barrels, then, should not be treated in the 
same way as wine or cider barrels ; and swelling them, with 
steam, or hot water, previous to filling them with honey, 
will not be of any benefit, unless they are kept damp after- 
wards. 

830. In October, the honey of the July crop is all granu- 
lated, and that of the September crop is beginning to gran- 
ulate. There are many different opinions in regard to the 
causes of granulation. Some think that it is effected by 
the action of light, but this is certainly a mistake, for our 
honey only sees the light when extracted, and is then kept 
in the dark until sold. We are more inclined to think that 
it is the action of cold air which causes granulation ; for 
sealed comb-honey generally remains liquid. The extracted 
honey, which we harvest, always granulates. We have hand- 
led liquid honey, however, several times, but we have alway$ 
found it to be unripe ; and have laid it down as a rule for 

ooraelTes, that good honey should be granulated after Nov- 
81 



f 



in BOXET HASDUXO. 

ember. We speak of booe; harvested in the SltMimippI 
TsUey : sacfa as clorer, baaswood, knot-ireed, golden rod, 
bocfcwbeat, Spanish -needle, etc. 

831- Of California faonej, we can eay nothiag, bsTing J 
ncTer handled it. Bat ire hare handled LouUiaaa hooeji 
which, we were told, would not graimlate before a year, and 
we had $caxc«ly hadit three weeks in our cold ctimate, belora 
it beean to graooUte. TiM only ripe honej which did Dot 
graaalate, waa a lot of Spanish— needle bonej, which bad 
been extracted late in NoTember. It remained liquid until 
Eold. a month or two later, and we ascribed its not granu- 
luinf; to the late barresting of it. 

83S. Etcij bee-keeper has notioed that, at limes, honey 
hardens in retj coarse and irregular granules, that look like 
lumps of sugar, and have no adherence with one anather, 
with a smaU amount of liquid honey interposed between 
tbem ; uid that at other timea, the candying ia compact, 
and can be compared to the hardening of lard. 

The first kind of granulation is alwaya produced io honey 
harvested, likectoreror basswood, during the warm months 
of the ^ ear; wbile the soft candying is prevalent in tbe 
hooey extracted in the Fall. In France, coarsely granulated 
hone_v i^ beld as less valuable than the fine grained honey, 
and theri.' is a good reason for this preference, for tbe 
coarsely grauulated boney camiot be kept aa welt as the fine 
grained. 

In this country also, coarsely granulated honey sells with 
less faL'ility — especially because maoy ignorant |)erson9 
ima^ue that it lias been adulterated with sugar, and that 
the coarse grains are lumps of sugar. 

We think lliat this coarse granulation is the result of 
an ag^egattou of particles, whicb, having an affinity for 
each othei', unite, while tbe honey remains liquid in Sum- 
In such houey, the liquid parts come to the aurface, and 




MABKBTOrO HOKKT. 488 

absorbing moisture from the air, are very apt to become 
acid by fermenting. But, even after granulation, it can 
easily be brought to a fine grain by melting it, and exposing 
it to the cold of our Northern Winters. Basswood honey 
would even be benefited by this, as it would lose a little of 
its too strong fiavor. 

Basswood and clover honey are more apt to ferment than 
any other class of honey, even when thoroughly granulated, 
if they remain exposed to the heat of the following Sum- 
mer, and it is advisable to keep these two kinds in a cool, 
dry place during the hot weather. A damp cellar would 
be objectionable, since honey readily absorbs moisture from 
the air. 

833. Those bee-keepers who will follow our methods, of 
extracting (751) after the honey crop, will have but little 
trouble with honey fermenting, even if they have to keep 
it through the following Summer. If any honey should fer- 
ment, however, let them not think that it is spoiled, unless 
it was really unripe and has turned quite sour. A slight 
amount of alcoholic ferment can be evaporated readily by 
melting the honey over water, when the ferment escapes in 
the shape of foam. As this fermentation is caused by the 
presence of unripe honey, some of our friends succeed in 
entirely preventing it by melting all their honey immedi- 
<Uely after granulation. The melting evaporates all excess 
of moisture contained in it, and we highly commend this 
method. 

Mr. C. F. Muth of Cincinnati, whose large experience 
in handling honey makes him a high authorit3% ripens all 
his honey by keeping it in open vessels in a dr}' and ven- 
tilated room, for a month or two after cxtractinir. 

834. Melting Honey, Honc}' should never be ])laced 
directly over a fire to melt it. The least over-hcatino: will 
evaporate its essential oils, and give it the burnt taste of 
dark molasses instead. It should be put in a tin or copper 




r to Ok 



xr- ■'.ii'^B. ububLt" k jm>c jmo^ iian -^^ Itkd paid lor ibe 
^ur* ii'.ibf^ litn T>aiC7 nuts m dik v^ did cai iaet long; 

ornr Biii wt ver* irfi w- uadst onr buiK7 &icme; if we 

tSi^ I. -t •liu: -.-. iHiI r. Jar Bnle Aren't sotiunf . 

'•iii'jvi'. -jvs rtfcO^^ri e^-ET tiomc *eroafi Bospicioafi-locddiig 
ii-.'i.f; 'w_T -r'l. tiic ibt lufiowii^ ■ ^teap recipe to reeog- 

- ful :i fc «:iiilI rii,: »boiit «mc vbm* trf Oe botwr to be 
M«M:', 1_ -a.t v-t. ■ J. j.cxt caeuxti vsHT. iftukc UionxiFhlT. 
tft C.bt.-,.!* ;:-* i'j;/^v; ii,ti: hda U> Ute Buxtnre kV-nt a thimble- 

Tl. ',? j'V*^ i.'y^i.'.- J? tL(- LfiitT j( pore Xht BolatioB will remiin 
ui,'.nt.v^«:<i. tiKT jr kC'„>^riii*d Willi flBoose, it will be ttubid mud 

■ 'Jun ,t tJj^ u><:i^iiED6e<ibvii,«boiiejdeslenorPuis, to detect 

'Jl)»; [ireKcnt low pri'»:B hare put an end to adult«r&tion, 
tur, a ptiT ijTwl-. f,f fi'jvlhem or California honey can now 
b4 twifjlit a$ tluaply, at vrfiolctale, as t&€ vOe, unheaUhf 




KABKBTINO HONBT. 485 

eompaund, adorned with the name of golden \^ apj golden 
drtp, etc. 

887. Bat a slight prejudice remains in Me minds of 
some buyers, against honey, unless they are acquainted 
with the producer. This prejudice has been helped by idle 
writers whose sensational stories found their way in the 
newspapers, concerning the supposed manufacture of arti- 
ficial comb-honey. 

Alas! that so many sensible people should give credit 
to such ridiculous canards! A minute's examination of 
a sealed honey comb, will convince any sensible person 
of the utter impossibility of its artificial manufacture. Nev- 
ertheless, we knew of grocers who bought and sold beauti- 
ful comb-honey believing it to be artificial, on the strength 
of those newspaper stories. These willful and silly lies 
were finally put an end to by an authoritative article in the 
** American Orocer " of November 10th, 1886, concerning 
manufactured honey and manufactured eggs. We quote a 
few passages of this lengthy article : 

** Olucose at all fit for adulteration Is worth from 4 i to 6 cents 
per poand. In California, excellent honey is now sold for 3 
cents ( * ) per pound. This state of affairs makes it more feasible 
and more likely that glucose should be adulterated with honey, 
than that honey should be adulterated with glacose. We now come 
to artificial comb-honey. The only way In which it is possible 
to pat a sparious article of comb-honey on the market would be 
^by feeding the bees glucose or some other substitute; and 
there would be a greater probability of this being done were it not 
for the fact that the bees must consume a very large quantity of 
honey or other sweets to enable them to secrete a very small 
quantity of white wax from which the comb is made. . . . 

^ Our last point is in reply to the newspaper statements that 
were so widespread a year or two ago, to the efl'ect that our comb 



• W« hav» b«fon oar eyoA Uie price-Ust of a Sau Diego, Cal. Arm. who 
•And tactiMltd hoo«7 ( October ist, 1886). at low as 8)i oeaU per pouod; 
vttliadtoPoaBtofliNrMnt. on car load lots. 




It ii K iBlrfcinIi i1 ImpoMlbillljr, 
«M wtB. Is ar O flM l— ■ «2wi7i Wirt M.. . . I iMidli- u«4 
mM. that tte atet* itiailii— lepnrt la mc«4 ta bogtn mmb- 



atlj •tital*«l aMw ovdcBcc I i bhui i «• Pra£ Wlief, io«f 

yean aro. acaiud tt by wkat kc terme*! i - acleDllflc pleaaantrjr '. 

*■ !■ RKV4 U Un artlicUI *,r^ I bellcre Uii wlU W a feal 

MtU ion* dlBeatl U ■eedtBrlub Aan maktng artlSeUl tioa«r- 

«i>mb. vip^eitlly if thrm artifirial Pg)^ are exp«etnd to bstdu 

f v; .T -i k»Te >o<!oaely tiecUrcd Uiat aacbcKP 

hickm* dill not baveuij featharaM 

them, ibe JDventioD not yet being ntlBcieDtly 'perfected', etc" 

— A. I. EooT. 

838- The granulation of koneg was objected to by maay 
consumers, at first, from the prejudiced idea tiut grftoula- 
ted honev bad been mixed with sugar. It has ceased to be 
an o)>je;.'tion. for, in oar neighborhood, nearly all honey 
coasumers now tnoiT that good ripe honey generally gran- 
ulates in cold weather. But, now and then, a person is 
found nbo wants liquid honey, or oomb honey, thinking 
ttiat no other is pure. 

We were (old that the judges at an agricaltural exposi- 
tion refused to give a pTemium to a bee-keeper for his honey, 
because it was spoiled by granulating. These competent 
judges probably think tiiat water is spoiled by freezing, for 
granulated honey if carefully melted (834), la aa good aa 
before hardening. 

830. We have always found an easy sale for extracted 
honey among foreigners — especially German or French ; 
as tbey have been used to granulated strained honey, 
which has been produced for centuries in almost all parts of 
Europe. Some of them ai« va w«AX »j«\a«i.ii.ted with it, tfcat 




IIABKETIKO HONST. 487 

they prefer it to the ' finest comb-honey, saying that comb 
is not made to be eaten. 

Once, haying received a favor from a French farmer, 
living a short distance from us, we selected a beiutiful 
large comb of nicely sealed clover honey, while extracting, 
and sent it to this family after having carefully laid it 
on a dish. Much to our astonishment, we learnt, a few 
days after, that the good French housewife had put our 
nice comb in a clean towel, carefully pressed the honey 
out, and melted the wax ; and besides, that she was very 
much astonished at our having sent comb honey to her, 
when we had such nice extracted honey on hand. The 
reader may readily imagine that thenceforth we never sent 
to them anj'thing but extracted honey, much to their satis* 
faction and ours. 

Every bee-keeper who understands his business, should 
try to sell his honey when granulated, explaining to his cus- 
tomers that adulterated honey does not granulate, and 
that granulation is the best proof of purity. We have 
these words printed on all our labels. 

840. To improve the present prices of honey, which are 
in some cases lower than the prices of second class sweets, 
it is necessary that the masses should be induced to buy it. 
Thus far it is an article which few persons will bu}' regu- 
larly. Consumers will go to the grocery for tea, coffee, 
sugar, flour, meal, butter, etc., but very few make it a cus- 
tom to buy honey — not that they dislike it, for ** what is 
sweeter than honey? " but because they are not used to it. 

All children, even in the heart of our manufacturing cen- 
ters, have heard of "honey,** but how many have never tasted 
it! Why? Twenty-five years ago honey was thirty cents 
per pound. Ten years ago the very cheapest grades retailed 
higher than the best sugars. To-day, in many places, honey 
is still retailed at from fifteen to twenty cents, while four- 
teen pounds of the best sugar are sold iox ^ ^q>\^« X^ 



BOXBT QAKDLISO. 



tbe ApUrists crowd it to the markets at prices rnfiglfig^ H 
low fts three cents. What is licking? Proper distribution. 
Instead of gbtpping our boney to the cities, wbeoce it vill 
be partlj sbjpped back to our village retailers after having 
passed throagh the haoda of commissioQ mea, and wholesale 
mcccbaiits, we must cuItiTatc home coasuuiptioQ. We miiet 
•bow oni neigbboTBt our farmers, our mevlianics, at homt, 
OuX OttT prognMJve melbuds enable us to furnish to them 
Um wwfrtnt ef oBtwteU, at nearlj* as loir a price as syrups. 
Tt>« occasioDal depression of the bonev markets is but tem> 
ponrj and its tarmiiuUioo is oolj- a question of time. 

(141. It is important, in offering honey, whether to gio- 
oan or to consumers, to have it put np iu neat and nXr 
traotlTC shape. Comb-boney in 
secUotis weighing only a pound 
eellsN^frt. because it is, and alwaj-s 
will be, a fancy article. 

But in pulling up extracted 
honey, a one-pound package is 
DOW too smalt. We must encour- 
age a consumption in which the 
•xpease of packing will not ma- 
terially adtsDi-e the cost, and we 
find that, oning to this advance 
of cost, the one or one and-a- 
quarter-pouod package is less in 
demand than it waa a few years 
•go. 

S4S. Tin is the cheapest i>ack- 
■ge tnr b»uey, iu small quantities. I 
Our favoriie si/cs are two and-a- 
balf-pound, livi'-pouud, and ten- 
pound pails. The two and-a-half- 
pound pail is in great demand, and in the Winter of 1886-7, 
Uebulk of our crop ollhat jeai, about 24,000 lbs., waa sold 





MABKETIKG HONET. 489 

In this package, at twenty-three cents per pail, or about 
nine cents per pound. 

Some of our readers will ask why we do not put up our 
honey in these pails from the first, instead of putting it up 
in barrels. We never do so, because we do not know what pro- 
portion of each size will be required by the trade ; because 
honey in cans occupies too much room, and is not so easily 
moved out of the way ; and especially because we keep honey 
from the best seasons for the years of poorer crop, and it 
keeps best in barrels. We have kept honey in pails for two 
years or more, but the pail often rusts on the outside, and 
becomes unsalable. The objections above given are very 
weighty, in extensive production, when tens of thousands 
of pounds have to be cared for, but the small producer 
may, if he chooses, put up his honey, at once, in retail 
packages. 

843. To stop the accidental leakage of honey in pails — 
for, owing to its weight, it will leak through seams that are 
water-tight — we simply rub over the leaky spot a little 
tallow- wax, prepared by melting beeswax with tallow or 
lard, in varied quantities. We also prevent the running 
over of pails of liquid honey, when transported in hot 
weather, by dipping the top edge of the pail in melted 
tallow-wax, before filling it. This puts a small rim of the 
ingredient around the outer edge of the pail, and the cover 
fits over it, air-tight. 

A great deal of honey is sold in glass jars, but our objec- 
tion to them is that granulated honey docs not look well in 
them, and they are more costly than tin. Honey, in tin, 
can be pat up gross weight, and although no one objects to 
the weight of the pail, this weight helps to pay for its cost. 
Those who use glass as a honey package, melt the honey 
before bottling it. 

For shipping honey in small packages, Mr. Aug. Christie, 
a large prodaoer of Iowa, puts it up in %o\d«ie^ e^xA. ^>^\» 




490 BOtnu HAMDLnto. 

the boney must be very ripe, or else must be ptcviondy 
heated, tor the least lermeDtatioD would burst the o&n. 

SH. Id every case when houey is sold, it should be 
nc-itly labeled vritfa the name aud address of the producer. 
which is, in itself, a guarautee of its quality. 

When you go into a strange grocery, where you are 
unknown, the immediate answer of the grocer, to your 
mentioa of honey is: "I don't want any honey ; I have do 
sale for it, and I don't like to handle it." Should you then 
take your leave and go, there would be but little hope of 
inrreaeing your Hake. You have to study, and learn to 
imilate the cunning and the perseverance of the travrling 
agent, and quietly talK it out. You first- liavi.' t" ;i— (jro tht 
grocer that you only wish to show him your goods and your 
prices at his leisure, and that he can then refuse to buy, if h« 
chooses. You must show him why he has no sale for honey. 
You tell him that pure honey is one of the beat sweets in the 
world, to which he readi.y agrees. You then explain that 
honey, not being a staple, hia customers never come on pur- 
pose to buy it, but that when they see it, they are tempted 
to buy ; that, for this reason, it should be put up with large 
and showy labels, and placed in a conspicuous position, so 
that it will readily catch the eye. 

845. White lionej' in nice sections (721) will generally 
sell at eight, unless the grocer has bad some leaky pack- 
ages, which dripped honey on the counter, left a sticky 
reminiscence of their presence, and attracted flies and bees. 
But if your honey is put up carefully, according to direc- 
tions given, the lirst sale alone will be difficult. In selling 
extracted honey it may be necessary for you to explain the 
difference between extmcted honey, and the strained (270) 
honey of old ; for now and then some persons are found 
who do not know any thing about this, or about the facihty 
with which granulated honey may be liquefied. 

Witli groeeta tbat weia Mn»wv*^«iTit«.d with ua, we aanally 




MARKETING HONET. 491 

began by supplying them with yellow honey, such as buck- 
wheat, or heartsease, or golden rod. This honey, strong in 
flavor, sells better to the inexperienced, who are afraid of 
getting sugar, or glucose. It is only after one or two years 
that we venture to offer to such grocers our whitest clover 
and bass-wood, which, though of superior flavor, are ob- 
jected to, on account of their very beauty and quality. In 
every case we try to furnish some good reference to the 
grocer, and we give him a full guarantee of satisfaction, 
with an agreement to take the honey back, if it does not 
prove altogether as we represent it. When a dealer is well 
satisfied that the merchandise which he sells is pure, his 
customers are quite likely to have confidence in it them- 
selves ; but, on the other hand, if he is in doubt as to the 
quality and purity of it, he will have but little chance of 
selling it, unless he does not care for the satisfaction of his' 
patrons. 

846. We must therefore spare no pains to fully convince 
our grocers of the quality of our goods. 

After the first sales have been made, the sales always be- 
come larger and easier. Of course, occasional objections 
are made, by persons who are unacquainted with the prop- 
erties and qualities of good honey; but these are easily 
overcome, when yon have once gained the confidence of 
the dealers. 

Extracted honey is usually sold at between half and two- 
thirds of the price of comb-honey. It ships better, leaks 
less, and keeps more easily than comb-honey ; and its lower 
ooet of production will sooner or later make it the honey fa 
thenuuMei* 



DOKET UAMDUS^. 



VVU or UUKKT. 



HA7. 'Vhn tTftillllDiiii of tbe remotest antlqatty bLow thu 
faono^' li&H KlwnyN btiim unuHl<lor«d a pleajaat mud h^sltfay 
(ouil. For nuvitral ttiouitaiul J^e&rs, it wu tbe oalj >wt*t 
known. 

Now Hint thn »p of llio csno, or Uic beet, converted ioto 
•U|I»r, hnH buoomu & necustiity in every (unily, let os lea 
what iiIboo lioticy may occupy in our diet, not only W • 
ptuullniaut like ■iigu', but as food, drink, and medicine. 

Am i'bod. 

Iliiiify M food is very lieslthy. It is admitted that tlioM 
who iiN(< Imiivy froely at meal time, find in it health and 
Umtilifv.* 

" It la Nnltini'Bnn>'rlng to mRn— ready for nw, diet tiled drop 
It.T iln>ii hi iii.vrUtt* of flowers, by a more delicate process than 
any hiimitti lahoTatorf ever produced. "—(T.G.Niwium,*> Honey 
al Kxml Hiul Moillolno."} 

*i'hi>n>n<>wii<ii>itT*<'i rii<inih*workorsiT J Hot*, L«d*ii, iTtn.wiiiibaw 

(IwivliiiiMv wlili'h Ihniild wrttrnivt apon bae-prodoct*: 

" NMiiml KK\ I* ultpivU'jr >ll>Illl*llan iDto so orl If muTclloBa *eitiia; It 
liHtliv' » I'l.iii. m«lM.i> Ih*.. human*, tMcaoM. In iranndtoTlnnuO dli- 
MtaH. II WKikrlh iiiirnriM. Th* lifv h»lp«th to ODT* 111 foitr lUuMM. and li 

tha I'M! UIIIk fT.Kml ■ «»u hii In ths woiM Baner U of ■abut parti. 

ami lli*M'lt>ri< >li>lh )<lriT« a> oyl, and paall; paiMlli Ihi part* of the Ivdri It 
vliDiii-lh olvInirll.Hii. and rlrarrlh the brarl and il^ht* or thow hnmon vhlch 
full ttt'iii lliB tira.l. 11 v"'-''tli lh» tUaliMBi of tb* bodj, cnr«lh phleimutlck 

oImhi.-.h I'f ilii- p.™. Ir..«»li>ih t.ioJ bloo-l, *tlrreth np natural heat, and pro- 

■»i>r*i(ii lui-'luniiiri.t. lxithfi>t eutward aud Inward maUdiaa; It helprth th* 
ftltt tif Ih* iaK.. ihr kptiirU (ruwliiii ullhln tb* moDth, aad tb* BqalBaoer: 
II la drank atatoal lh« blUun of atrrpant or a mad dog i itlatitod foraarb at 
haNaaatau inanhnHiiii*, tw tb* fallligi ilokDau. andaoUat tkaiaiMt. Btiag 
kallad, llUllahltrot iUkmUod, and mon dobiIiUbk. " 




HOKET AB FOOD. 493 

848. When Angnstas-Jalius-CieBar, dining with PoUio- 
Bumilias od Ub bandredth birthday, inquired of him how he 
bad preserved both vigor of bodj and miDd, Pollio replied : 
"JtUen'ttf melle, exterivt oleo." — InteniaUjr by honey, ex- 
tarnally by oil. 

Honey ia in daily use on our table, and we find that 
Ohildren prefer it to sugar. The only cause of its not 
being in general use in place of "vite syrups" is the high 
price at which it was formerly sold. 

Hr. Newman in his little pamphlet above quoted, says: — 

"It la a commoa expreaslon that hone; Is a Inxury , bavmg 
nothing to do with the llfe-glvlng principle. IIiIb 1b an error- 
honey i> food In one of its moat concentrated fonnR. True, It 
does not add »o macb to the growth of the muscle aa does beef- 
■teak, but It does impart other properties no less oecesiary tc 
JuttUAmad vigorous pbyalcal and Intellectual action! It givei 
warmth to the system, arouies uerrons eoergy, and gives vigor 
to all the vital functlonH. To the laborer It gives strength— 
to the business man, mental force. Ita effects are not like ordinary 
Btimnlants, such as spirits, &e., hut It produces a healthy action, 
the results of which are pleasing and permanent— asweet dis- 
position and a bright Intellect." 

These words are so true that we have found them trans- 
lated, in European books, by noted Apiarists. 

849. As a condiment it can be used in many ways. Id 
candies it will finally replace the unhealthtiil glucose of 
commerce. The confectioners who now use it, increase 
tbeir trade every year. 

In France, " pain-d'fpice," "gingerbread," is sold in 
Immense quantities at the fairs. The best makes are sold 
at the most important fairs through the country. It keeps 
an iadeflnit« length of time, and farmers' wives are wont to 
buy enough to last for mouths. The following is the 
recipe: 

SttO. Dissolve 4 onnoes of sods, in a glass of warm skimmed 
Bilk. Take 4 pounds of flour sod pour in the milk and enough 
warm ho&ay to make a thick dough, flavor with anise and Qoclaiv> 



494 VBBS or hoxkt. 

deraeedB, cloves, and cLanamon, all powdered line. EneMt can- 
full;, as fou woald bread. Let It rite two hoan lo a wann plaea. 
Kpread In pans and bake Id a modcralelj- warm oreo. Ten o 

twelve minutes wUldo, if the cakes are Ihm. Ateoon as the caka 
realets to the touch of the flnger it U done. Before baking, U 
any be decorated with almonds, preserved lemon peel, etc. 
Wheat flour makes good '^ pain-d'Ipici," bnt some prefer rye 
flour. Fall honey is preferable for It, on account of Its itroager 

taste." — IJ'Apic uUeur. 

The spices may be varied according to tast«. Some add 
powdered ginger, or grated lemon or orange peel. 

8S1. Crisp ginger bread can be made by mining in tt a 
quantity of broken almonds, blanched by dipping in boil- 
ing wni.er, bazel-nuta, English walnuts, etc. The aame 
dougli, in skilled hands, with diOerent seasonings, will 
make a variety of dainties, all with honey. 

Instead of lard or butter, artistic cooks use olive oil to 
grease the pans ; in America, cotton seed oil takes itapUce, 
and is good. The Italians sometimes use beauxLX. 

893. AUalian dinger Bread; "Take, yellow honey 1 pound, 
flour 1 pound, baking soda } oonce. Dissolve the soda in a table- 
spoonful of brandy, heat the honey and pnt lo the flour and the 
soda. Knead the whole carefQlly, and cut In Inmpa before put- 
ting in the oven. 

'■ This mixture can he kept tn. the cellar for months and can be 
used to make the 

"Leekerli: Add to the dough, chopped almonds} .lb., preserved 
orange peel 2 drams, ditto lemon 1 dram, cinnamon ) dram, and 
30 cloves, all finely powdered. Hlx well and bake." (DaNNLn, 
*' Honey and its Uses.") 

Nns. Honey Cake. Warm half a glaas of milk with ( pound of 
sugar in a stew pan. Put In J of a pound of honey and.boll slowly. 
Tlicn add 1 pound of flour, } dram of soda, and knead, Bpr«ad on 
a pan and bake for an hour. 

N94. Ilalina •■Croeeante Di MandorU" : " Blanch two pounds 
ofHliiionds.by dipping in boiling water. Slice them wlthaknlfe. 
Add the yellow peel of a lemon cut flne, some powdered 
vniilltn. and a few lumps of sugar flavored by rubbing them on 
oMinge peel. Uoll2 pounds of good honey with an onnoe of ollra 




HONET A8 FOOD. 495 

oil or good onsalted batter, till it is reduced to thick symp 
Then add the almonds, lemon, etc., a little at a time, mix well, 
poor in a battered tin pan and press the mixture against the 
fides with a lemon peel. It should not be more than half an 
inch thick. When cool take the crisp cake out of the vessel by 
warming it a little." (Sartori a Bauschknfkls, VApicoUura in 
Italia.) 

955. MuiKi Honey Cake: 4 quarts of hot honey and 10 pounds 
of floor, withgpround anise seed, cloves and cinnamon to suit the 
taste. This is made into a dough and left to rtet for a week or 
two, when it is roUed out in cakes and baked. The longer the 
rest, the better the cakes. 

FruU jellies with honey. Take the Juice of currants or other 
fruits, and after adding a like quantity of honey, boil to a Jelly . 
Put in small tumblers, well sealed, in a dry room. 

%fiQ. Honey-vinegar is superior in quality to all other 
kinds, wine vinegar included. 

It takes from one to one and a half pounds of honey to 
make one gallon of vinegar. Two good authorities on 
honey vinegar, Messrs. Muth and Bingham, advise the 
use of only one pound of honey with enough water, to make 
each gallon of vinegar. We prefer to use a little more 
honey, as it makes stronger vinegar, but the weaker grade 
18 more quickly made. If the honey water was too sweet, 
the fermentation would be much slower, and with difficulty 
change from the alcoholic, which is the first stage, into the 
acetic. This change of fermentation may be hurried by the 
addition of a little vinegar, or of what is commonly called 
▼inegar mother. 

If honey water, from cappings, is used, a good test of 
its strength is to put an egg in it. The egg should float, 
coming up to the surface at once. If it does not rise 
easily, there is too little hone3\ As vitiegjir is made hy the 
combined action of air and warmth, the barrel in wliich it 
Is contained must be only partly filled, and should be kept 
AS warm as convenient. It is best to make a hole in each 
head of the barrel, about four or five inches below the up- 



HOMET HjUntUMQ. 

per stave, to secure a current of air above the liquid. 
These, as well as the bung hole, should be covered wlU 
very fine wire screen, or with cloth, to stop insects, 

A very prompt method consists in allowing the liquid tn 
drip slowly from one barrel into another, as otlen as poj- 
ailile during warm weather. 

Aa we make vinegarnot only for our own use, but also to 
sell to our neighbors, we keep two barrels, one of vinegar 
already made, the other fermenting. When we draw a gal- 
lon of vinegar, we replace it with a gallon from the other 
barrel. This keeps up the supply. 

Vinegar should not be kept in the same cellfur with wines, 
as its ferment would spoil the winoa sooner or Ut«r. 

Honey as Medicine. 

S57. In Denmark and Hanover, the treatmeDt of Chlor- 
osis, by honey, is popular. The pale girls of the oitiesareseDt 
to the country, to take exercise and eat honey. The good 
results of this treatment have suggested to Lehman the 
theory that the insufflciency of hepathic sugar la the cause 
of Chlorosis, which thus expluna the curing effect of honey. 
(Jaccocd, aa quoted by the Revue IjUemationaie d' Apicul- 
ture. ) 

Honey, mixed with flour, is used to cover boils, bruises, 
burns, etc. ; it keeps them from contact with the air, and 
helps the healing. Beverages, sweetened with honey, will 
cure sore throat, coughs, and will stop the development of 
diphtheria, especially if taken on an empty stomach, at bed 
time. A glass of wine or cider, strongly sweetened with 
honey, is advised in L'Apicuiteur, as a cure for coldf. 
(1886.) 

Suckling babies are cured of constipation, by a mixtura 
of bread and honey given them, tied in a " sugar teaL" 




TIIOS. O. NEWMAN, 



TUi writer l> mentioned p>gH si 



), 40!, 1»l, <9I. 




HONST AS MSDIOOn. 497 

A constant use of honey, at meal time, cares some of the 

worst cases of pilea. 

** According to Mr. Woiblet, washing the hands with sweet- 
ened water will kill warts. Haying heard of this healing 
he pat honey plasters on the hands of a child who had a large 
wart in the palm of the hand, and after a few days of treatment 
the wart disappeared." — Bkbtrand, (Remm IniemaHonaU d*Ap¥' 
mUiurt.) 

To these many uses of honey, we might add other recipes, 
bit oiir limits forbid. For all sorts of honey-cakes, wines, 
metheg^, mead, etc., we will refer oar readers to the 
already mentioned pamphlet of Mr. T. O. Newman, of Chi* 
cage, ^^Honey as Food and Medicine.'* Tba price Is a 
trUe. II contains many good Ihings. 



KczsvAX Axs r 



COAFISS XXL 



I 



i9 mom duuibe tte dilf er«nt prnnr w md 
s In reader ibe eocnbs into ««x. To mA 
(■•««< eaBlii,MU kt tkkeo froo tfaeUm. 
kc ««k. iMd, M it ia prefenUe to AooM 
•^ tMB for (fei> oponlias. *« terc to p t t ae i ie then fhm 
Ife i^iy o( Ifce witb (SOS) br k-ih of U!« nKtbodi 
dMK «• hnc gr««i <S13 1 

S50. Tht nppi^s (7TS) after extracting (T7ff). are 
aSowd lo drain in a vun place for BeTcnJ weeks ; very 
■x« koaer being obtaieed frmn theoi. They are tfaen 
wibed ia hoi «sUr. and the s*eet wat«T obtained can be 
D<«ii foe cider, or «iBe. or Tinegar <Sfi4l). Tbese cap- 
pii^s. as veil as tbe Iwoken pieces of white comb in which 
IvrwM n« oeter raised, sboold be melted apart from the 
^Mrktz coaiNf^ for. sot oolj are tfaej easier to melt, but, tbe 
wax (vt>;aiBed beiag tvtt tHigbt ifi color, is onsarpassed for 
■ati^ fosib-f oandalion (67-4) tor sorplos boxes (688). 

SAO. Wbea tfae combs arc Uackened bj the dejections 
of t^ w,vr^; >>ees t7ft4). <« of the drones (40). and bv 
the skin? aad <».>.v>qs of the larrz (1S7). it Is so difficult 
to ;v;:oer th^ wax. ;bat many bee-kecpen think it is not 
w.^rii: ".he irux;b>. We sdrise washing these combs and 
t«*r::y: tiien: soiicr water tor aboat twenty-four boors. 
Tb*a the ci^vvTj? and other refuse being tboroughlr wet 
and panly d:^^--:Ted. wiU not adhere to tbe wax. This 
will be lifter coiored, if tfae combs are melted with 




mLTma wax. 499 

dear water and not with the water already darkened by 
the washing. 

But as this method always leaves some wax in the resi- 
dues, for some of it goes into the cells during the melting, 
and it is impossible to dislodge it, a better result is obtained 
by crushing the combs before washing them. But this pul- 
Terizing can be done only in Winter, when the wax is brittle. 

861. The combs should be melted with soft or rain watery 
the boiler kept about two- thirds full, and heated slowly, to 
prevent boiling over. If the floor, around the stove, is kept 
wet, any wax that may drop will be easily peeled off. 

During the melting carefully stir till all is well dissolved. 
Then lower into the boiler a sieve made of a piece of 
wire cloth, bent in the shape of a box, from which the wax 
can be dipped as it strains into it. If the whole is thor- 
oughly stirred for some time, very little wax will be left in 
the residues. This is the cheapest and best method of 
rendering wax, without the help of a specially made wax- 
extractor. 

862. To obtain as much wax as possible from the 
combs, the large wax manufacturers of Europe empty the 
contents of the boiler into a bag, made of horse-hair or 
strong twine, and place the bag under a press while boiling 
hot. All the implements used, as well as the bag, are pre- 
viously wetted, to prevent their sticking. 

863. Some bee-keepers use a wax-boiler in which the wax 
is melted by steam. 

But the best wax can be rendered by a solar extractor 
(fig. 197), yet, by its use, some wax is always left in the 
refuse, for the cocoons, skins of larvfe, etc., being dry, 
always absorb more or less of it. This implement however 
is destined to overthrow all others for tlie renderingr of wax 
in all countries where the heat of the sun is su(!lciently 
powerful. At this latitude, the 42®, sun-extractors can be 
efficiently used during the months of May, June, July, and 



BBE8WAX AlfD ITS USXS. 



August. The sim-cx tractor requires no labor from the Apt*- 
rifit, other than flllmg it with combs antl removing the 

melted T 




804. The dealers in France buy, (rom the bee-keepers, 
for little or nothing, the residues of their melted combs. 
Thej- dissolve them in turpentine, press the pulp drj, 
and distill the liquid, to aeparate the turpentine. As the 
wax is not volatile, it remains in the still. It is said that, 
when wax was dearer than it is now, targe profits were 
realized by this operation. 

865. To cleanse beeswax from its impurities, we melt it 
carefully with cistern water and pour it into flaring cans 
(wider at the top than at the bottom) containing a little 
boiling water. This wax is kept in the liquid state, at a 
high tem]>erature, for twenty-four hours. During this time, 
the impurities drop to the bottom and can be scraped 
from the cake when cold. Some wax can be obtained 
from this refuse, but some of it is always left in the 
dregs, as is proven by the imposaiblUty of dissolving them 
by exposure. We have lumps of this refuse, as dark as 
lok, which were scattered on our farm, with manure, ten 
years ago, and are just as they were when put in tlfe fields. 
Nothing can destroy beeswax, except fire, or the ravages of 
the bee-moth. Exposure to the weather does not affect it, 
bat only bleaches it. 

To prevent the cakes of wax from cracking, it should be 




MELTINQ WAX. 501 

poured into the molds or cans when only 165^ Fahr. and 
■hould be kept in a warm place to cool slowly. 

866. The utmost care is necessary not to spoil wax in melt- 
ing it. If heated too fast, the steam may disaggregate it. 
Then its color is lighter, but very dim ; the wax having lost 
its transparency, resembles a cake of corn meal. When it 
is in this condition, water will run out of it if a small lump is 
pressed between the fingers. The best way to restore it is 
to melt it slowly in a solar wax extractor (fig. 197). We 
have succeeded also by melting it with water, and keeping 
the water boiling slowly till all the water contained between 
the particles of wax had evaporated. But this work is 
tedious and cannot be accomplished without the greatest 
care and a skillful hand. Whatever the means used, you 
may rely on more or less waste. • 

Wax-bleachers draw wax into small ribbons which are 
exposed to the rays of the sun for several weeks, or melted 
with chemical acids ; but wax-bleaching is beyond the pur- 
pose of this book. 

Uces of Wax, 

867. Before the invention of parchment, prepared as a 
material for writing, from the skins of goats, sheep, calves, 
etc., tablets covered with alight coat of wax were used. A 
style — an instrument sharp at one end to engrave characters 
in the wax, and broad and smooth at the other end to erase 
them — was used in place of a pen. The Latin poet Horatius, 
bom sixty-five years before Christ, probably used these 
tablets, for, in his admonition to poets, he writes: ^''Soepi 
tiylum vertas, — '* turn often your style ;" thereby meaning : 
•'Carefully correct your writings." 

* Wbenerar bewwax it melted In water, eTen with the ntmost care, tome 
muH portlona of It are water-damaged and settle to the bottom of the cake 
with iha drag!. This water-damaged beeswax baa often been ml ■taken, fat 



Several nutioDs of old. baring noticed tbnt beeewKxdoM 
not rot. used it to emhaim thtir dead. Alexander thv Grrftt 
waa erobalmod with wax and iionej. 

808. Beeswax is largely used hy the CaUioIlc churcbet, 
for lights, during the ceremooiea, tor tl is prescribed to 
priests to use exclusively leax produced by beet. 

860. Id several countries of Europe the floors and stairs, 
instead of being covered with carpets, are rubbed with «ax 
and carefully scrubbed with a dry brush every day till tliey 
ehme. In Paris, lloor scrubbing is a business which sup- 
ports many working famihes. 

Beeswax is used also by the sculptors ftnd punters 14 
varnish their work, to model wax figures; by dentists to 
take i[ii|)rititi of jaw-hones. It is relailed iu small lumps and 
used to give smoothness and stiffness to thread for sewing. 
. The casting of bronze statues and works of art d cirt 
perdue, has been largely practiced in France since the 
Renaissance. This process is mentioned in Harpers' Monthly 
tor September, 1886. 

870. Beeswax forms part of a great many medicines, and 
pomades for the toilet. Here are a few recipes selected 
among Unmlreds of others: 

1. S<th-v or Cerate for Inflamed Wounds. 

Itcesivax I part, 

Sivt'i't almond oil 4 parts. 

'li^olvo the wax in the oil and stir well till cold. Sweet 
ainiv>ud oil can be replaced by olive, or cotton sted. or lin- 
seed .'il, or even by fresh nnsalted butter. 

riiis i-erste, m»y be used as a vehicle by the endermic 
itio'.tKHt — we mean by frictions on (he thin parts of the 
sktit — [>.< iuCrotluoe into the blood several substances, 
siik-h as i^uiuiito. against fever; snlphnr, for itches; cam* 
|itK>r. heuMuc. opium. a» :sedatiTes; iodine, as depurative; 
*''^^) ao ou. tb« oolr care being to have the drugs carcfollj 
Stt«d. 




U8S8 OF WAX. 508 

2d. Turpentine BaXm for Atonic Wounds^ (without inflain* 

mation) : 

Yellow Beeswax \ 

Turpentine > Equal parts. 

Essence of Turpentine... ^ 

Melt the wax, add the turpentine, then the essence. 

8d. Salve for the Lips: 

Wax one part, 

Sweet Almond Oil two parts 

•Add a small quantity of Carmine to color it, strain and 

add, when melted again and half cold, some volatile Oil of 

Rose. 

4th. Adhesive Plaster for Cute (sweet-scented) : 

Colophony. - 40 parts. 

Wax 45 *' 

Elemi rosin 25 ** 

Melt and add : 

Oil of Bergamot 5 parts 

'• Cloves 2 " 

** Lemon 2 " 

Oth. Oreen Wax for Corns : 

Yellow wax 4 parts, 

White pitch 2 " 

Venice Turpentine 1 '* 

Sub-acetate Copper (finely powd. ) 1 ** 
Melt the wax and the white pitch, add the acetate of cop* 
per well mixed with the turpentine, and stir till cold. If 
too hard to be spread on small pieces of cloth, add a littto 
ollfe, or cotton seed, oil. 



1^ 



C JMb' < r f^ Wiiii^ii Cimiiha airi J 

QBMt fv CdttM wed oiL 500 ■ 

■an of SvivTiiTpenline.. 100 

T«fc«W«x IM 

VWdered Boot of AlkneL U 

Khv it Mtoi —iaw ■iiiiii (SS«) lor haU as bon 

■dHMM Knraima. 16 

•*«- 1 

r JR^WM » gi II II He OmA <» Bonwi' gaoyt.- 
MA «fail fatiB •( wax lad haoer os a slow fin, nA 

Caeu cvd^ 1^ hoof whk t(i|»d water and rab te 
Hsmire ni ii vitk a faraek. Tbe cracks will disappear aftae 
w^yiral afipBcaTaoi aad tte boof will be acrftened. 

£. Tr £^M?:W2,««a-e<- A>lH*«d Steel 7b(W«.' 

Odi cd TmpeatiBC 8 

W«i 1 

B«JMi LiMoadOO. t 




BBU AND IfRVTTB AND FL0WBB8. 606 



CHAPTER XXn 
Bke§ and Fruits and Flowers. 

S71. We have shown, in the chapter on Physiology 
(43), that bees cannot injure sound fruits, and in the chap- 
ter on Food (268), that they help the fecundation of 
flowers; but this accusation of bees injuring fruits has 
become of so much importance in the past few years, espe* 
dally in the best fruit and bee country of the world, Cali- 
fornia, that we deem it necessary to give it a whole chapter. 

While the honey-bee is regarded by the best informed hor* 
lienltnrists as a friend, a strong prejudice has been excited 
against it by many fruit-growers ; and in some communi* 
ties, a man who keeps bees, is considered as bad a neigh- 
bor, as one who allows his poultry to despoil the gardens 
of others. Even some warm friends of the '^ busy bee," 
may be heard lamenting its propensity to banquet on their 
beautiful peaches and pears, and choicest grapes and plums. 

That bees do gather the sweet juice of fruits when 
nothing else is to be found, is certain ; but it is also evident 
that their jaws being adapted chiefly to the manipulation 
of wax, are too feeble to enable them to puncture the skin 
of the most delicate grapes. 

872. We made experiments in our Apiary on bees and 
grapes, during the season of 1879, — one of the worst sea- 
sons we ever knew for bees. The Summer having been 
exceedingly dry, the grape crop was large and the honey 
crop smaU. In every vineyard a number of ripe grapes 
were eaten by bees, and the grape-growers in our vicinity 
were lo positively certain that the bees were guilty, that 




Mftrf wH^ tfiam^ Mnv^&B Jb«», lor enttng As woody 

8br9 wicit wiuch duj boilii their nxabv, can c*nlj pcne- 
tnce Che skin at du Googhcst fmiu. While the b««a, there- 
lore. &pp«»r>{ii to De aomparaliTelT innjocent, moItitBdei of 
these 'iepreiUCOH were seea helping themaetres to the beat 
at ih". £7^ea. OccasoD^y, m bee woald presame to alight 
oa a bim.'d waete ooe o( these pentB was oper&tiiig for hii 
own beoedi:. wb«a che latter would toni uxi " ahow fight," 
iiiD<:b aJter die faiituoa ot a ■oarijag dog, molested bj an- 
other oC hu 5pei:ies, while daintiij discaesiiig his own pri> 
vace boae. 

Durinz ^ap« picbag, the barrels in which oar grape* 
were baukd to Ehe wiae cellar, were corered with a dood of 
beci teflia-^ oa ihe damaged clusters, and the; followed 
the wigoa to the cellar. Atter removing the barrels to a 
place ot satt^tv, we luti one bunch of loiatd grapa, on the 
wagon, punc-uring one of the grapes with a pin. This 
buncb, being the oaly one re maio lag exposed, was at onoe 
covered with such a swarm of bees that tt was eotirslj hid- 
den from biglit. It w&d three o'clock in the afternoon. At 
snnaet the bcus were all gone, except three, who wen loo 




OBOUKDLES8 PRBJUDICM. 507 

exhaoBted to fly off. The bunch had lost its bloom, the 
grapes were shiny, but entirely sound. The one punct- 
ared grape had a slight depression at the pin hole, show- 
ing that the bees had sucked all the juice they could reach, 
bat they had not even enlarged the hole. 

We also placed bunches of sound grapes inside of some 
fonr or five hives of bees, directly over the frames, and three 
weeks after we found that the bees had glued them fast to 
the combs, as they glue up anything they cannot get rid of, 
bat the grapes were perfectly intact. This test can be made 
by every Apiarist. 

Mr. McLain, in charge of the U. S. Apicultural Station, 
was instructed to test this matter thoroughly by shutting 
np bees with sound fruit, and the results were the same 
as in our case. (See the Agricultural Reports for 1885.) 

873. The main damage to grapes is done by birds. 
Hence, the borders of a large vineyiard are first to suffer, 
especially when in proximity to hedges, orchards or timber. 

Even in small cities, the number of birds that feed on 
fruit is extraordinary, and one can have no idea of their 
depredations until he has watched for them at day-break, 
which is the time best suited to their pilfering. 

After the mischief has been begun by them or by 
msects, or wherever a crack, or a spot of decay is seen, the 
honey-bee hastens to help itself, on the principle of '* gath- 
ering np the fragments, that nothing may be lost." In this 
way, they undoubtedly do some mischief, but they are, on 
the whole, far more useful than injurious. 

875. Among thousands of testimonials, we translate the 
following from L'Apicoltore, of Milan, Italy, May 1874, 
page 181 : 

^ Being a lover of good wine, 1 manufacture mine firom wilted 
grapes; my crop amounts annually to from thirty to forty hec- 
tolitres* of wine, worth on average, one franc leventy-flve 

•Om iMttoUtrt la tweotj-flT« fmUona . 



I 



AOS BEZ8 AND rBDira ASD PLOWBRS. 

Mntlmei per litre.* Wben mj grapes are gathered, 1 fpraad 
them on mats of reed or straw in a sunny plnoe In rtonl or my 
Aptary, where they remain about two weeks. For the flrel lw« 
or three days the mats are covered with bees, bat 1 pay do ati«o- 
tlon to this, for I have ascertained that tbcy gather ODly the 
Juice of the berries that are damaged. As soon hm the Injared 
berries are sacked dry, the bees ceas« vUiting the caats, Tor they 
cannot open sound berries. Instead of doing me any dama^ 
they help me greatly, as they take awa; from my grape* lh« 
otherwise souring Juices, which would give a bad taat«ton7 
wine.— G*BTiMO Taxixi, Corlano, Italy, February 1B74. 

876. Those who handle grapes, apples, etc., ia Ijmeairf 
liiiiiey-dearUi, should avoid attracting the bees, by unneoes- 
earily exposing the cruahed fruit, in warm we&tbcr, as the 
presence of bees in press-houses and fibeds, where fruit is 
either maiie into wine, or otherwise prepared for use, is the 
greatest annoyaaqe that tbey can oaoee the horticulturiat. 

With a little care, a wine-grOwei may escape all trouble, 
even if his presB-house Is in reach of a large Apiary. But 
let bim uot imitate the grocer who had an open box of 
comb-honey at bis door "for show," and tried to "shoo" 
the bees oft, when they, in turn, deputized a tew of their 
number to " shoo " him oft, with great saooen. 

877. In these depredationa, the wine-growers who do 
Dot own bees are often very muob incensed, because they 
believe tbat the Apiarist is making a profit oct of their 
loss. But such is not the case. The Apiarist loses more 
tban the wine-grower, for many ot the bees are destroyed. 
and tlie juice which the others bring home is worse than use- 
less, as it is bad Winter food (687)- 

It is therefore, to the interest ot the Apiarist, as well as 
of the fruit-grower, to prevent the bees, in all possible 
ways, from getting a taste of the forbidden Juices, En sea- 
sons, — luckily scarce, — when there la a dearth of honey 
during wine- making time. 

■nis Is abont on« dollu ftiiA lortj «aita v« (sUaa, a U^ iciM IBc IWr- 




fl 



GEORGE W. YORK. 
Editor of tbe "AmericaH Bee JoHmaX." 




OBOU1IDLI88 PRKJUDIOS8. 509 

87S. Some ignorant people haye also contended that the 
Dumeroua visits of bees to flowers, injure the latter and 
oanse them to abort. This is the greatest of all delusions. 
¥niite-cloTer, knot-ireed, and Spanish-needles, which are 
among the plants most visited by bees, are abo the most 
abundant, and if they were damaged, by being deprived of 
the honey which they yield, they would sooner or later dis- 
appear. All the observations that have been made, whether 
•cientiflc or practical, show that the contrary is the truth 
(269). 

In 1885, at the earnest request of our enthusiastic friend, 
Jas. Heddon, a Bee-keepers' Union was formed to defend 
the interests of Apiarists in North America. Some such 
association is as necessary to Bee-keepers as Trades Unions 
to any group of laborers. ^* United we stand, divided we 
faU." 



CHAPTER XXIIL 



Bee- Keeper's Cauekoab. 



t BIO 

L 

■ This chapter gives to the inexperieDced bee-keeper brtel 

I directious (or each month in the year," and, by nii!ui!i ol 

I the full Alphabetical index, all that is said on any topic cui 

eti«ily be referred to. 

879. JAJiUABT. — In cold climatea, bees are now tuuaUy 
in a Btate of repose. It the colonies have bad proper 
attention in the Fall, nothing will ordiotuily need to be 
done that will excite them to an iojurioua activity. 

In January there are occasionally, even in very cold lati- 
tudes, days so pleasant that bees can fly out to discharge 
their fieces ; do not confioe them, even if some are lost in 
the snow. 

It is advisable to aronse them early so as to cause them 
to fly (630} if the day is sufficiently warm. Otherwise, 
disturb them as little aa possible. In very cold climates, 
where cellar wintering (646) is resorted to, all that is 
required is to keep the temperature as even and as near 43' 
to 45° as possible (648), with quietude and darkness 
(050). The Winter months are those, Id which the bee- 
kec;>er should prepare his hives, sections, foundation, Ac. 
for the I'oniitig busy season. 

880. Fehkuart. — This month is sometimes colder than 
January, and then the directions given for the previous 
month must be followed. In mild seasons, however, and in 
warm regions, bees begin to fly quite lively in February, 



I 



*PallKlit,i, mho wrote c 



n of a m«Dlh)y eateadar. 



hret nearly t,V» fi 



n 




sek-kxxfkr'b OU.Bin>AB. 511 

and in some locationB they gKther pollen (263). The 
botiom-bo&rd should be cleaned of the dead bees and other 
rubbish (663) that sometimes obstruct the entrance, and 
prevent the bees from flying out ; as their vorry in finding 
themaelTCB imprisoned doea them much harm. If any hives 
are suspiciously light, food (607) should be given them; 
this only in mild climat«s. 

Strong colonies will now begin to breed slightly, but 
nothing should bedone to excite them to premature activity. 

881. March. — In our Northern States, the inhospitable 
reign of Winter still continues, and the directions given for 
the two previous months are applicable to this. If there 
should be a pleasant day, when bees are able to fly briskly, 
seize the opportunity to remove the covers (636); care- 
fully clean out the hives (663), and learn the exact condi- 
tion of every colony. See that your bees have water 
(271), and are well supplied with rye-flour (265). In 
this month, weak colonies commonly begin to breed, while 
Strong ones increase quite rapidly. 

If the Winter has been very severe, this month is the 
most destructive to unhealthy bees. The hives of dead colo- 
nies should be throroughly cleaned, and closed tightly to 
keep robbers (664) out, or they would carry oft what 
honey may remain in them. Spring dwindling (6C9) should 
be guarded against by shutting oft all upward veotitstion. 
(S08),and reducing the space in the brood-chamber (349)- 
to the number of combs actually occupied by the bees. The 
entrance of the hives, especially of the weak colonies, should 
also be narrowed (348). 

If the weather is favorable, colonies which have beeit 
kept In a special Winter depository, may now be put upon 
tbetr proper stands. 

The time of removal from cellars (646) must depend 
altogether on the locality. Dr. C. C. Miller removes his 
beee tnftfli tha Jlrtt maple tree bloom*. In Canada, they are 





tiU Usj. Aa a mle, bees tra 
cell&ra, south o( tii4 

b«gia to gmth«t tnach 
itlnea oooslderabte 
kMHfL J»kiMaik aa» wqr i«l)i^7 n&tnrLng, th«re u 
^Mt^f^^mmami ^mtmt tm koncj, and gnat care should 
saSering tor wuit of 
:V ltlteai(clta«B««ftaHdiAcMat, breeding will 
koClteferaaddow aot perish, or 
If tta weather is pro- 
k Ibaral mpply of stores 
I i^dd inct«aae ot 
' Miv >• Wfnaiiitt (SASV Feeble colouiea 
---•■--■ - ----- *>^ i^i ii-Mjld the irc«tli«r 

.^Miiuuv mAk $k- w —wI <iM9 9t ft tBM, tht ben oBgfat to 
M >u^v>tw>^ ^^ •R*atc^^Zl^a ^KT hiT«&, 

'.T>^ ivun. » tMi.-il »^p»*!0»it. >y oorselivs, as wdl h by 

.■v:K>-^ JV^>>>.-«. }\tt •>« ac« «t«V^BC«i tktl MOCh Of OUT 

V' ^'«» >- •'>^*' '*t 3k« >*«$ fWBf Ik *nK^ of wster in in- 
ov>.'v..^ «»..a«ic ^«tt\ Xt Ite t^K. if MX bef<m. the 
i^ - ^ -v Ov x«--«>Ma^ w3. >epiK W Mate tkui appeunnce, 
«n. ■^'^^1 » >v .-s>t<9tal« .&»£»•:«£. w« tial ttej ire -nrf 
jSw-...^-!^ t^ ykw^ u a jjctflu^f^i ■ fl k wi Aptair, bat oolj 
£>.«. i>v «'-tt hCKx^wKw ^ idtaC- yew fc-' t* «■ ike eombs 
.fx .v-^>>^xiv,' -<Mnj««£ fe«K A* toek. !■ the latter 
^■«- .r. ;iv -HK-Ai <U2\ -^Ota» aCMh HI ikmt nrea 





BSB-XKBPEB 8 GALXMDAB* 515 

drone comb for the purpose. Qaeenless colonies should 
be given young brood to raise a new queen (480). 

883. Mat. — As the weather becomes more genial, the 
increase of bees in the colonies is exceedingly rapid, and 
drones, if they have not previously made their appearance, 
begin to issue from the hives that have been allowed to 
retain a notable amount of drone comb, and this is the 
time to raise queens for increase, or for improvement 
(480). 

The breeding space of weak colonies, which has been 
previously reduced, should again be enlarged as their needs 
may demand (340). If their combs are judiciously in- 
creased with a proper amount of stimulative food (606), 
and a little help from the stronger colonies (480), they 
may become as strong as any for the June harvest. In 
some localities, the strongest colonies may already gather 
much honey, and it will often be advisable to give them the 
spare honey receptacles (724); but in some seasons and 
localities, either from long and cold storms, or a deficiency 
of forage, hives not well supplied with honey will exhaust 
their stores, and perish, unless they are fed. In favorable 
seasons, swarms (406) may be expected in this month, 
even in the Northern States. These May swarms often 
issue near the close of the blossoming of fruit-trees, and 
Jost before the later supplies of forage, and if the weather 
becomes suddenly unfavorable, may starve, unless they are 
fed, even when there is an abundant supply of blossoms in 
the field. 

884. June. — This is the great swarming month in &U 
our Northern and Middle States. As bees keep up a high 
temperature in their hives, they are by no means so depen- 
dent upon the weather for forwardness, as plants, and as 
moat other insects necessarily are. We have had as early 
•warms in Northern Masat^'husetts, as in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia. 

88 




BEB-KESFKB S CALKITDAIt, 



If the snrplua cases (724) have been put on befon 
the honey crop, there will be b less number of swarms, espe- 
cially if the boxes hftve been furnished with combs, as b«its. 
and the entrance enlarged to help ventilation (344). 

If the Apiary is not carefully watched, the bee-beeper, 
after asbort absence, ehouldexamiae the neighboring bostias 
and trees, on some of which he will often find a svarn: 
clustered, preparatory to their departure for a oewhone 
(419). 

** Ae It maj often be important to know rrom which hlT« lb* 
ewarm has iesued, after it has been hived and removed toltenew 
stand, let a cup-rull ot beea be taken from tt and thrown into Ui» 
air, near tbe Apliirj, after having Bprlnkkd them with door; 
they will soon retnrn lo tbe parent colony, and may «arily b« 
refoprnized, by standing nt the entrani^e. fanning, like vpntllat- 
Ing bees.— DasKZON- 

This Is the qtdokest method to discorer the home of a 
swarm. 

Ab fast as tbe surplus honey receptacles are filled, more 
room should be giyen (763). Careless bee-ke^>ers often 
lose much, by neglecting to do this in season, thereby oon- 
demniog their cotoniea to a very unwilling idleness. The 
Apiarist will bear in mjnd, that all after awarms which come 
olf late in this month, should be either aided, doubled or 
returned to tbe mother-colony. With movable-frame hives, 
the issue of such swarms may be prevented, by removing, 
in season, the supernumerary queen-cella. Daring all the 
swarming season, and, indeed, at all other times when 
young queens are being bred, the bee-keeper must ascer- 
tain seasonably, that the hives which contain them, succeed 
in securing a fertile mother (1S2). 

885- July. — In some seasons and districts, this Is the 
great swarmin<;r month; while in others, bees issuing so 
late, are of small account. In Northern Massachusetts, 
we have known swarms coming after the Fourth of July, tu 




bbk-kbbpbr'b calendar* 515 

flU their hives, and make large quantities of surplns honey 
besides. In this month, or as soon as the first crop is over, 
all the spare honey should be removed from the hives, 
before the delicate whiteness of the combs becomes soiled 
by the travel of the bees, or the quality of the honey is im- 
paired by an inferior article gathered later in the season 
(782). For the same reason, the honey extracted after 
this crop should not be mixed with that harvested later. In 
all the localities where a second crop is expected, the bees 
should again be incited to breed (606) to be ready for this 
second crop. 

The bees should have a liberal allowance of air during all 
extremely hot weather, especially if they are in unpainted 
hives, or stand in the sun (344). 

The larger the amount of honey they contain, the greater 
the danger of combs breaking down from the intense heat 
(360). The end of the honey crop can be told by the 
presence of a few robbers who immediately begin lurking 
about the hives (664). 

886. August. — In most regions, there is but little forage 
lor bees during the latter part of July, and the first of August, 
and they being, on this account, tempted to rob each other, 
the greatest precautions should be used in opening hives 
(666). In districts where buckwheat is extensively culti- 
vated, on flat prairies, or in the low land surrounding our 
rivers, in which Fall-blossoms grow, the main harvest is 
sometimes gathered, during this month and the next, and 
swarming (406) may be resumed. In 1856, we had a 
buckwheat swarm as late as the 16th of September ! 

The bee-keeper who has queenless hives (400) on hand 
as late as August, must expect, as the result of his ignor- 
ance or neglect, either to have them robbed (604) by other 
colonies, or destroyed by the moth (802). 

887. Sbptembbr. — ^This is often a very busy month with 
The Fall flowers are in full blossom, and in some 



S16 &E£-XKBP£S'B CALESDIB. 

BeuoQB, colonies which have hitherto amsseed but llttk 
honey, become heavy, acd even yield a aurpliu to theft 

ner. Bees are quite reluctant to build conib bo late in 
thoeeason, even it supplies are very abundant ; but if empty 
combs ore provided, they will fill them with astonishing 
celerity (763). 

ka soon as the first frost takes place, or wbeoever the 
crop is at end, the entire surplus must be removed, whether 
it be comb or extracted hon«y. If our method of extract- 
ing (781) is resorted to, the supers that have been returned 
to the bees, for cleamng, after the honey is extracted, may 
be left on the hives till October, as they are safer from the 
moths, when in care of the bees. 

It no Fall supplies abound, and any colonies are loo ligbl 
to winter with safety, then, to the Northern States, the latter 
part of this month is the proper time for feeding (609) 
them. We have already stated, that it is impossible to teU 
bow much food a colony will require (623), to carry it 
safely through the Winter ; it will he found, however, very 
unsafe to trust to a bate supply, for, even if there ia food 
enough, it may not always be readily accessible (631) to 
the bees. Great caution will Btill be necessary to guard 
against robbing ; but if there are no feeble, queeolesa or 
impoverished colonies, the bees, unless tempted by impn^ 
per management, will not rob each other (664). 

888. October. — Forage is now almost entirely ex- 
hausted in most localities, and colonies which are too light 
should either be fed, or have surplus honey from other hives 
given to them, early this month. 

The extracting cases (7S1) should be removed previous to 
cold weatbbr, as some bees may cluster in them and starve. 
These cases must be piled up carefully in the coldest room 
(810) of the honey house, safe from mice (816). The 
exaot condition of every hive should be known now, at the 




bkk-ksepbr's calendar. 517 

latest, and, if any are queenless, they should be broken np. 
Small colonies ought to be promptly united. 

The honey-selling season is now at hand, and from this 
time tin the end of the holidays, the producer must look 
for a honey market. He should not rely on sale in large 
cities, for they are always crowded, but a home market 
must be cultivated (840). 

880. NoTEifBBR. — The hives should now be put in 
Winter quarters, the quilt removed, and absorbents placed 
in the upper story (636). 

All possible shelter should be given (635). For cellar- 
wintering (646), the time of removing the bees should bo 
at the opening of cold weather. The later in the season 
that the bees are able to fly out and discharge their faeces, 
the better. The bee-keeper must regulate the time of 
housing his bees by the season and climate, being careful 
neither to take them in until cold weather appears to be 
fairly established, nor to leave them out too late. A cold 
day, immediately after a warm spell is the best time 
(647). 

800. December. — In regions where it is advisable to 
house bees, the dreary reign of Winter is now fairly estab- 
lished, and the directions given for January are for the most 
part equally applicable to this month. It may be well, in 
hives out of doors, to remove the dead bees and other refuse 
from the bottom boards if the weather is warm enough for 
them to fly ; but, neither in this month nor at any other 
time should this be attempted with those removed to a dark 
and protected place. Such colonies must not, except under 
the pressure of some urgent necessity, be disturbed in the 
very least. 

We recommend to the inexperienced bee-keeper to read 
this synopsis of monthly management, again and again, and 
to be sure that he fully understands, and punctually dis- 
eharget, the appropriate duties of each mouthy ne^WsXi^a^ 



BES-KBEPEB S GALEXDAB. 

□othiDg, and procr&stinatiDg aotblcg to a more coav«nient 
T, while bees do not require a large amount at 
attention, in proportion to the profits yielded by thetn, they 
must have it at the proper ti-ne and in tUe right way. Those 
who Gompliun of their unprofitableness, are often as much 
to blame as a farmer who neglects to take care of his stocli, 
or to gather his crops, and then denounces his employment 
as yielding only a scanty return on a large ioTestmeot of 
capital and labor. 

In Short. 



891, Spkino. — Keep hives warm, give plenty of food, 
help weak colonies, look out for robbers, remove drone- 
comb, prepare for queen- breeding, and for the honey crop, 

802, Su>iuER. — Watch for swarma; and make divisionB, 
if increase is wanted. Give sufficient atorage-room. Give 
additional ventilation if needed. Whenever the crop is 
over, remove the surplus. 

893. Fall. — Loolc out for robbers, and for moths on 
unoccupied combs. See that all hives have sufflcient stores 
for Winter, and unite worthless colonies to Others. 

804. Winter. — For out of doors, pack absorbents in 
upper story, removing ^r-tight quilts. Shelter as much u 
possible from winds. Leave the bees quiet in cold weather, 
and see that they have a flight in warm weather. Do not 
be conlideat of safe wintering till March is over. Then 
proportionate the room to the strength of the colony. Fit 
cellar wintering, take the bees in, after a warm day, leave 
them quiet, in the dark, with an even temperature; take 
them out on a warm day, aud decrease the brood-chamber 
to suit the strength of the colonies. 




AJtnCM TO UODDIKM*. 



Hdtakbb tbat BuDntEBa Am Lublk io Haki. 



SOS. i. — They are apt to think themaelves potUd aftet 
they have read the theory, and before the; get the j)racf fc«. 

d.— Hence tbey &» apt to invent or adopt neto hivn, 
that are lacking in the most Important features (308). 

3. — They are apt to think that bees are harvesting honej, 
at Umes vhen they are starring. Tliey should remember 
that each honey crop usually lasts only a fen days,— a few 
weeks at most. 

4. — They are apt to mistake young bees on their flrst trip 
for robbers and vice vena. Young bees fly out tn the after- 
noon only, and do not hunt around corners. Robbers ar« 
gorged with hone; when ooming out of the plundered bive, 
and a number of them are slick, hairless and shiny. Bees 
that have been fed in the hive or whose combs have been 
damaged, or extracted, and returned to the hive, act Uk* 
robbers, and incite robbing (664). 

5. — The; are apt to overdo artifldal swarming (461). 

6. — They are apt to extract too much honey from th* 
brood-combs (771). 

7. — They underestimate the value of good worker comb. 
(•76). 

8. — The; do not pay Bufficient attention to the removal 
of the excess of drone-comb (675). 

9.— They become easilydiscouraged by Winter losses and 
Spring dwindling. Some of our most successful Apiarista 
periodically lose a large portion of tbeir colonies, and 
promptl; recruit again, by the help of their empty worker- 
oomlM (670). 

10. — When they find bee-keeping sucoesaful, they ar* 
Uable to rush into it on too large a scale before being suffl- 
idendy acquainted with it. "If there ii any bnsineH la 



this world that dem&nds Industry, skill &nd tact, to injur* 
■access, it b this of ours." — (Heddon.) 

Jl. — Tliey are apt to try two or tiiree different styles o( 
bivea, before they find out that it is important to have all 
the hives, frames, caps, orates, etc., in an Apiary, alike, 
Kud interchangeable, except for purposes of experiment. 

12. — They are liable to attempt to winter their bees in a 
cold room, or in some repository in which the temperature 
goes below the freezing point (648). Many a colony has 
bees thus innocently murdered, by misguided solidtnie. 



Bsk-Krepbes' Axiova. 



806. There are a few Jlnt pHnctplaa in bee-keeping 
which ought to be as familiar to the Apiarist «• the letter* 
of his alphabet : 

lit. Bees gorged with honey never volunteer an attack. 
Thus, bees that come back loaded from tfae field, or bee* 
that have gorged themselves for swarming, are not dan- 
gerous. 

2d. The bees that are to be feared are those that have 
Joined a swarm without fully gorging themselves. In the 
hive, the guardians, and the old bees that are ready to 
depart for the field, are the most dangerous. 

3d. During a good honey harvest, the bees are nearly aC 
filled with honey and there is bat little danger from stinging. 

4th. Those races of bees that cannot be compelled, by 
smoke, to fill themselves with honey, are the most dangei^ 
ous, to handle. 

Sth. Bees dislike any quick movements about their hives, 
especially any motion that^rs their combs. 

6tk. The bee-keeper will ordinarily derive all hli proflti 
from colonies, strong and healthy in earl; Spring. 




EBB' AXIOMS. 521 

7th. In districts where forage is abundant only for a short 
period, the largest yield of honey will be secured by a very 
moderate increase of colonies. 

8th. A moderate increase of colonies in any one season, 
will, in the long run, prove to be the easiest, safest, and 
cheapest mode of managing bees. 

9th. Queenless colonies, unless supplied with a queen, 
will inevitably dwindle a^ay, or be destroyed by the bee- 
moth, or by robber-bees. 

lOth. It must be obvious^ to every intelligent bee^keeper^ 
that the perfect control of the combs of the hive is the soul of 
a system of practical management^ which may be modified to 
suit the wants of aU who cultivate bees. 

1 1th, A man, who knotoe ** all about bees," and does not 
believe that anything more can be gained by reading Bee- 
Journaby new bee-books, etc. , will soon be far behind the 
age. Tet, as what is written in the journals and books, ours 
included, is not always perfectly correct, every bee-keeper 
should try to sift the grain from the chaff. 

12th. The formation of new colonies should ordinarily be 
confined to the season when bees are accumulating honey ; 
and if this, or any other operation must be performed, when 
forage is scarce, the greatest precautions should be used 
to prevent robbing. 

The essence of all profitable bee-keeping is contained in 
Oettl's Golden Rule : keep tour colonies strong. If you 
cannot succeed in doing this, the more money you invest 
In bees, the heavier will be your losses ; while, if your col- 
onies are strong you will show that you are a bee-master^ as 
well as a bee-keeper, and may safely calculate on generous 
letoms from your industrious subjects. 




INDEX OF ENGRAVINGS. 



I— PLATES. 



FUte 1, L. L, Langitroth 

FrontUpieoe 

PAOB. 

•• 2 B6M 2 

** 8 Huber, portrait of 8 

" 4 Swammerdam 16 

** 5 Legrof Beet 24 

<* 6 Ovaries of Bees fi6 

' * 7 Dzierzon, portrait of 04 

** 8 Cheshire " " 80 

•• 9 Comb 89 



PAOK. 

Plate 10 Qoinby, portrait of. 145 

*' 11 Qerman Apiary 15S 

" 15 A. I Boot, portrait of.. 175 

•• IS T. W. Cowan, •* **.. 288 

*• UMehring, ** •* . 866 

* * 15 Foundation-Table 877 

' ' 16 Hmschka. portrait of . . . 482 

** 17 E. Bertrand, •• ** .. 449 

•• 18 A.J. Cook, •• •* .. 480 

'' 19T. Q.Newman. *' ** .. 496 
" 20 Geo. W. York, " " ... 509 



n— TEXT ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PieuKis. Pac« 

1 Headsofbees— fh>m *'Les Abeilles"ofGirard 4 

2 Longitndinal section of drone antenna— from "Bees and Bee-keep- 

ing' ' of Cheshii-e 

I Part of surface of antenna— from "Bees and Beekeeping" of Ches- 
hire 10 

4 Longitndinal sections of worker antenna from Cheshire 11 

5 SaliTSry >ilands— ftom Girard 15 

6 Lon^tadi nal section through head of worker— from Cheshire 16 

7 Headof honej hornet 18 

8 •• *• bee 18 

• Mandible of honey hornet 18 

10 Mandible of honej bee 18 

11 Tongne and appendages— from Girard 20 

12 Bee's foot in climbing— fh>m Cheshire 22 

IS Posterior legs— ftom Girard 28 

14 Wings of honej bee— copied ftrom Cheshire 25 

15 Digesting spparatns—fh>m Girard 88 

18 Nerrons system— from Girard 28 

n Heart, and respiratory sjstem— firom Girard 29 

If Btlnc-firom Girard 84 



^ 


^^1 




■ 




BO 
II 

» 

M 
K 

n 


i 

nxcsTBATKma. 


■1 

« 
TI 

n 

n 

« 
• 

« 


- mUi in pntxrau. 
" iIldgDf— boraQin 
*' BbdDinea of— Trom 










Brooi! In sU rtwes— from 










BpiBQldg the mooon 
CompftrkUieiluoravuias— 


calll '• •• •• 




" oTgBoi of— from Olimid .,•„,.„„„., 


Wai-prodcidDKOi'Bla-'KimOlnTd 



41 Fnschi. 

41 Flvld BpliiTy— from GrmDhont 

M ScrophQl»ri» Nodotm-from ChMhlrs 

44 Watti suppi; boltle— from " L'Aplcollon In Italia" 

45 Earlheuhlvea-frora"L'ApIcoltore" 

4fl Straw blvo with e»p— from Hsmet 

48 Straw Ekflhlvo " " 

49 RailiiuuiEkelilTa " " 

HI Sorla " '• " , 

SI Di.liMnghlve " •• 

i! Di>er9iiioral.liitopl)«rt 

K Hnli.T leafhiYB 

B4 Orl;:liial Lati;:Blrotli hive 

IS llorlFpscbblve— flom "[lln-lrieTt<Dlenenieltaiis" 

M rii.tlmpiovemenlof L«iig»tTothWv« 

BT O^a>orlho^^tl]ll•— rmm'IlliutiiBits Bieneniel ong" 

M Old BlB(\dardLanB8trotlirr»ine.... 

Be Dldi^am or pTlnclpal rnmm— rrom "Tha A B C of Bea-Callar 

go of Ga1lDpBndLaDi;Btrotlililt«-Ilrom"Tbe ABCori 

SI MehniiB stamp 

m Uelai come II— from ' "Ths A B C of Boe CnltnTa " 

, Kl Lan^atrolh hi ve with glajw 

M Van Den aeu clamp -from "Tha A B C of B«e CDlIOTe ■' 

IB Bluwllhanpet 

« Two-itor7L.adiigtrothilmplloltr blva—fiom "TIIBABCaf B 




ILLU8TBATIOM8. Ul 

C XDtranM bloekt lA 

il Diagram of OUT blva IM 

il Oar hire, open 164 

10 *' aettlDg flat on the bottom 1» 

Tl Babb«t and frame Bhonldflv 166 

n Hive, ihowlngapadngwlze 167 

n, 74 ,T«>ol to make epaelng wlze 166 

n DiTiaionboBid IM 

79 Heddon honejr board— firom ** The ABO of Bee Cnltare" 171 

77 Frame to make itraw mata 171 

78 Blantoo hlTO— firom C. F. Hnth ITS 

79 How boarda warp— fh>m '* The ABC of Bee Culture" 176 

60 Obeerrlng hire— firom ' * The Bee-keepers' Handj Book' ' . . 168 

61 Bingham imoker 166 

62 Muth •• 188 

6S, 64. VeUa 161 

66 Combbasket— fh>m**The A B C ofBeeCnltnre" 168 

66 Katnral iwarming 907 

67 Swarm sack—firom "Bees and Honey" 819 

86 Non-awarmer block 987 

69 Qneenoell remoTed 964 

60 Inserting qneen cells— from GraTenhorst 986 

91 Clnster of cells— from " The Bee keepen' Handj Book" 266 

n Qneenoells 966 

66 Divisible frame 967 

94 (bia) . 83 (bis) . 94 Alley's method of qaeen-rearing— from ' ' The Bee- 
keepers' Handy Book" 971 

96 Abdomen ofthe Italian bee -from " The ABC of Bee Col tore*' 9« 

86 Ornamental Lan^troth hive tti 

87 •• •• •• back view 998 

96 Honse apiary— from the " Revne Internationale" 284 

98 Window screen 806 

100 Benton cage— from ** The Revue Internationale " S18 

101 Box for shipping bees— from • * The A B C of Bee Culture " S15 

103 Can feeder iJl9 

Hill feeder 819 

108 Root feetler—ftrom •* The A B C of Bee Culture " 3ao 

104 Common hives protected by straw— from Hamet 334 

106 Two-story, double walled Langst roth hive 339 

106 •• •• *• •' '• inside S40 

107 Doable*waU Cowan hi ?e— from Cheshire 341 

106 Cheshire hive— ftom Cheshire -.. 34J 

108 Oataide covering for hives 313 

110, ill Cellar blinds 347.348 

119, 118, 114, Bee clamp for wintering 351 

115 Original Boot mill— from "The A BCof Bee Cnltore" 368 

116 Dnnham Mill— from Mrs. Danham 870 

117 Tandervort inlll— ftom J. Vandervort 871 

118 Foundation fastened to a triangular bar-fh>m ' * Bees and Honey " . . 874 

118 Hambaogb roller 876 

190 bBbedding apnr *««««« "^^^ 



t 



It U.LUSTKATIOHS. 
















lis Undan 

ISS AlBlke clover— from" BnMMJOodej" 


Ml 






























19S WhltainaUlot 


m 
























»i 


























































































]68 Hwtl nnt—m»le blossom 

1G9 One piece ■eriioa— from '' Beea and Hone; " 

m Miller eWe-frorn'Oleanlnm la BMCultim" 


m 

411 




ILLU8TRATIOM8. T 

171 Foil depth Metf on fniDA— from'* BMt and Hoii«7" Ill 

m Slope of the oelli when inTerted-ftom ' * L' Apiodltiini te Italia**.. . 41t 

ITS ShvekrereniblehiTe— firom J.H. Shnok 414 

174 Heddon " *' " Cheshize 41S 

175 Perforated dno— from ** Gleaning " 418 

176 Open •ectiona—fh>m " How to Baiae Comb Honejr" 428 

177 Fostercrate ** •* *• •• 424 

178 Two half'itory anpera for extracting 488 

179 Porter Bee Escape 488 

180 Novice Extractor— from ** The A BCof Bee Culture " 438 

181 Mutb '8 Extractor 439 

183 Excelsior Extractor— flrom " Bees ana Honey " 439 

188 Dadant Capping Can 440 

184 Bingham knife— from T. F. Bingham 441 

185 ^Stanley antomatio extractor-from E. R. Newoomb 448 

186 Appearance of fonl- brood— from * ' The British Bee- Keeper's Guide' ' 448 

187 Bertrand fnmlgator— fh>m " La Condnite da Bacher" 482 

188 Beemoth 488 

189 *• fiBmale 4W 

190 «• male 409 

191 Galleries of bee-moth 461 

198 Wormsof '* 161 

188 CocooDSOf *• 488 

IM Webs of •• ^ 460 

165 Two- tier honey crate 478 

Honey pails 488 

Wax son extractor 808 



l^e engravings of plants whose original is not indicated, came tnm 
J. B. Bailll^ el File, and YUmorin Aadileu el Qe of Pnla.] 




INDEX. 



AbMondlng ■wftrmi 08 

Adobe for IilTM 174 

Adult^rmtton, of beeswax 872 

«• ofboney 484 

AftenwarmlDic • SS 

Aftenwarms, preyentloo or S37 

• * sai>eriorit7 of S28 

•* objections to S28-229 

Afe of the qneen when ftoondatsd.. 61 

^* sign of old, Id bees 79 

Air, ses Ventilstlon 176 

Aller, drore trap 81 

■* msilinc queens 811 

■ * methodof queen-resrlDg.265>270 

** on iinpr^nstion • 61 

Alighting-boiird. se« Apron 

Alluring swarms 21S 

Alslke clover 8d3 

American frames, dimessionsof 

147-108 

Ammonia for stings 203 

Aniter of bees 186 

Antenna 6 

** bees cannot lire without 14 

•• euttingnfthe 14 

" as orKans of hearinfr 10 

** as orfraos of Amclling 11 

** experiments of lluber on the, 9 

Ants abont the hive 476 

•• fondneifts f6r honey 478 

•• their fecnndliy 89 

Aphides, ^urtheno^pnenis of the — 60 

•• c*iu*« s of honey dew 114 

Aplarlea, covered 293 

*' oot of doon 296 

•• sheds for 295 

Aplsry 291 

** slow motions around the 193 

AplAise 189 

Apis doraata 2t« 

Aptofa«claU 288 

Apis ligusiica 283 

Apis men 1 fica 282 

Apron, or alighting- board 1^ 

Aristotle, on drones 84 

•• on e^gs 68 

•• on foul-brood 458 

•• on fmlt 18 

'• onitalinobees 281 

•• on pollen 1*! 

•• on robber-bees. S5'.> 

** on seent of the queen 279 

** OB strong odors 201 



ArtlOoial awarmlog t88 

•• adTioat OD tl7 

" caution about... 250 

•• by diTlding sa» 

•• by driTingliees. .841 

" by remoTing the 

hive. .240 
" In cold weather. .248 

•• unproved S4S 

'* nucleus method.. 245 

" with queens al- 

ready reared S44 
*' with queen cells.. 848 

" increasing too 

.fast .. 8S0 

Atoms, their sise l* 

Austra I ian l^ees ^889 

Austria, yield of honey 408 

Automatic extractor 443 

Axioms, bee-lceeperd' 090 

Bacillus alvf>i, see foul-brood 

Bait, in section^ 419 

Baldcnstoin, on Italian bees 888 

Bslled queens J75 

Bar-hives 131, 187, 888 

Barny anl fowls 474 

Barrel* for honey .480 

Basswuod, see Linden 

B;itchelder 84 

Beard, on comb honey 417 

•• on wintering 888 

Ileara and bee» 475 

Beannicr on the production of wax.. 04 
Bee-bread, see piollen 

Bee diess iw, 198 

Bet-hat 190, 191 

Bee-lKee|>ers' calendar 610 

Bee molh 409 

•• description of 400 

•* food of 48i 

•• galleries of 460,461 

" now they net 450,468 

•• in queenlesH colonies 468 

" lUllun beesund 467 

•• killed by cold .. 404 

• • not to bf> feared 470 

" preserring oamb, agalnft..488 
•• teraj»eraiure required fbr 

their growth.. 484 

•• wormofthe 461 

*' their disgusting work 406 

Bees, and flowers 184.185,500 

'* and frultf , .11^800 



Bw* manred IINI 

" ^' bJ t*l i>dofi Ml 

■' ■' bjlhB oclotof their 

I'DlMn. m 

•■ by Ihojirridgof the 

hfvo ise 

'■ liBwIWered by llght.*.'.*'.'.'.'.!".'l» 

■■ biillilmK BDinLis bS 

" biillillDK few Man oelli 101 

■' buliaing ft ihli'l store e(ilU.,..lM 

" biillil'icatoreoelUheceantl 

ttaera..IH 

•• oiimbiDg an poEiihed laiAeci. , ■! 

" oliiaterlDg In iTlnleT ite 

•• cluateriDB oiiUlila lao, 178 

" dourlTed ut Ihelr ulanna ... 14 

'• •(eHTtlns ■M7,US,1U 

" dliobarKe In flight SI 

•• donDtniiilia lian>7 111,321 

" dwlndllaa In spring SH 

" (•UnttaEeepwirm. tXT 

" flllodiriih"lion'eV"!'"""!!!"l8B 

■• ar«(li>traduo»1ln thlaeonDtiT3K 

" Hoi ualleed In Ploridii. 280 

'* (or bans J priHluctlaa In the 

Sorlh..3tS 

•' EO<BB Westwanl «W 

•• i»M«l bTlPsllaetlnbulldlnE.lOi 

" fimiilllng 1S3 

" Holy l.uiJiin.1 SyTi'ia.'.'.'.'.'.V.'.igt 

•' liow for ihcy Oj 40u 

" huw miny (a ■ pound Sii 

'■ In Ciilirrir.ill 4113 

" In Qeriiimoy *n3 

" Inl'irmlby rruilJulM MS 

" lillll>]g Ihrlr dranw u 

" mutiuin In wiatir'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.Ka 

" mi.inh of 15 

•> nolicingthslr aiiT location.... IK 

■■ put ludiKeuaot to Aiuerloa !Hil 

•• un bonW - SM 

■• out ru^ileU i:» 

■* iuBD*:ilil« wheii llllednlth 

hooey.. las 

■• [lenepftble whsB Bwirmuig.., ' — 

" |iro|n.llil"a'Vn]BlY hoiii!!!!! 

Jl qilloUlmia-diiy 

•• reblill'llng "oi^ *jii» 

■■ return 10 melr Lucatlou ii6a,'si 

■• .Bailing ■ooiil« 

" mril ii,l(«llerpii»ii.rei 

" vnielMug urgBni<<-r 

'• »uirTliiBlii Spring , 

■' Mffiioaied , 

" iniirTnliignl'Ui'inUrodiiOMJ' 

*• nnabu tolAairlng,'.*'',*i^i,'! 



. „.^„«(blTM IM 

'■'"'foVmVnli^fiiundation'."''!!*!! 

■■ "'«.'i!""" m 

ntMnvn.'''".""".'.",'.'.'.'.'.. M 

•• uiosof .aal 

Be«-vcil IM 

BeglnnBta' ini««k«« t» 

" Bbuiild ix earcntI...I9a, 

Bffrmnloitnnii «msUwsaIa HI 

DallemeFanhuney-tlew IM 

'''■'°i"p io"6i™':".":r"""'!3 

tu Inifla M 

Borlrpaebeiperiniantf. noteoa >l 

" DD oomlilHillding m 

■■ OD poT(hen»nn»la M 

" OB RmgVTallll|Equ<«B*.,. tt 

" hl»e 1«.1M 

" ■' di-f»et« of. IM 

Deniard. on tbe bnin or binli U 

BarCrsDil, detorlpiIoD of [Oul-brood 

oOlIllbrTt'ioin .UI.IM 
" honoyaacuio tor 

narta. 107 

• '■ L«Tigiin)[h'» hlia M 

" qneenidylnror 

bacillBa alTCl. .US 

'■ ■liaorhlTM in 

DeTan.Diirerir U-ettioga .. lid 

'_* onbee-moUii «e3. HI 

" br™ '.'.'..'.'..''.'.'M.'ii.n 

•• prr-pulla 101 

'■ sail IH 

" qnotBlluosofHober WI 

" " lUaiimar. .lee, lai 

SlokfOrd,dnt n-e nrtliaoll4lolh ...ITO 
BlDEbun, Impunatlon of mpll- 

P'>nea..W) 

" knlto 441 

" on honey vinegar 4SI 

smolier 168, IW 

" unt ■ oloiuil-ODd rrMrns .I4S 

Bird! and !•«« i:^ 

■' ihooMiiot lM'kll-1 . 1-1 

" InJuHng fniii ■■? 

Blockatbr Ihe eniiLu^i.' r . .j 

Blood or bttt ■:v 

Board), warping ot 173 

UoarbnaTe on Swarmtaenlmn U-SS 

Bnhsmlii h<iney praduatlan 4<i] 

BuUIng houay ...4J8 

•• ■< HgalDdlblllhRMld 4« 

Bdtaler.oB bonoy-dew 114 




in 



Bottom-boaidB eneased. 164 

** moTable 166 

Boz-hlTM 130-lSI 

Brminof beet 15 

Braula eoaoa .475 

Brfton, hit test of a day '■ crop 434 

Breathing upon bees 196 

Breeding in and in .. 87 

Brlmstonlog beea 130 

* * honey comb to keep out 

the moth.. 466^ 

Broad flraroea for sections 412 

" top burs for brood frame* 156 

Brood sccidentally killed 4' 6 

** casting the skfn 7u 

*' ebamb^r in two stories 

objection able.. 149 

** duration of deTeldpemcnfc 88 

•• how fed 68 

•• pure air for 177 

•• sealed by bees 71 

•• transformation of the 7i 

Brown on honey blossoms 887, 89i 

Buckwheat honej 477 

Buen, on water for brood rearing. . .355 
Burmelster, names the stomach - 

mouth.. 26 
** discovers different sounds in 

the humiTiing of bees.. 82 

Barnens as an observer 74 

•• hel)»eU lluber 8 

Butler's ancc<lote from 475 

•• on drones 84 

•• on drone traps 84 

•• on handling bees 192,194 

•* on the bee-sting 2'>2 

•• on s*»ctional hives 132 

*' saw the queen deposit eggs. 88 

Cages, imrodnclng 274 

•^ how to use 275 

•• shipping 312 

Cakes 494 

California, crop of 404 

•* honey, prices of 485 

Camm uses broa<i top bars 156 

Candied honey... 481-482 

•• •• how bees dissolve. .1. '6 

•• •• melting 483 

Candy, for feedlntc 320 

•• for shipping 812 

•• making S2'» 

•• Scholz S-Jl 

*• shops, killing bees 325 

Cans, for honey 488 

Capof the hive 172 

Cappln,f can 440 

Cappinifs 4l« 

CappinKS of honey celU, air-tight?. .118 

Cirbolic uclcl for f.iul- brood 451 

Carbollzed ««»>eet J9() 

Cares in Spring 856, 3.i8 

Cary, on nnftiiu color. les 335 

** wltoe.<«sed the mfttiug of a 

queen. . 53 
CastelUs, on preserving combs from 

the moth..4G7 
Catalogue of bee plants 885 



< < 



Catching the queen of a swarm 

'* qneens for shipment or Intro- 

duotlon — 275 

Causes of swarming 206.283 

Cellar blinds 847, 848 

•* damp 846, 849 

•* dark 849 

•• dry 846 

** removing bees ftrom 850 

*• temperature 816 

*• ventiiutlon 348 

" wintering bees in 815 

Cells, accommodation 99 

*• bottom of 95 

** drone 9^*, \0i 

** natural explunati< n of the 

sha|)e of. . 96 

• • not horizontal 96, 97 

*• opposed preference ol queen 

and worker. .108 

•* queen 43.264,265.206,271 

** size of 97,98 

* ' solution of a problem 95 

'* thickness of 99 

•* w«Mker 97, 98 

Chaff hives . 341 

•• defects of 842 

Chapman's echlDopa 886 

Cheshire, book of 50 

•* criticism of 12 

* ' his criticism of an eng^ving 90 
hive 342 

«• •• winter packing of 338 

•• mistake of 142 

'* on air-tight capplngs 118, 119 

** on cUre of foal-unK« 453, 454 

«• 6n diarrhea 445 

* • on foul broml 416, 447, 45) 

" on how to suspend founilatioo 

in frames. .876 

*' on the antenna 7, 9, 10, 11, 12 

•• •• blood SO 

•« •• eves 4 

•• •• f/et 22 

•• •• glands 16 

•• •• furv* 70,71,72 

•• •• legs 28,24 

•• •* pollen baskets 24 

•« *• skeleton of the bee 2 

* * * ' survival of the llttest. .8u, 81 

•• •* tongue 20 

•■* on wax 89 

Chickens close hives in the evening. .471 

•• eat drones 86.474 

Chinofthe bee 19 

Chitlne 2 

Chloroform 276 

Qiristie's method of putting up 

noncy .489 

Clamps for wintering 85C 

Van Deusen's 158 

Claws andpnivilli 21 

Cleaning profMills from the hands... 107 

Cleansing beeswax AOu 

Clipping the wings of queens 220-221 

Cloth, oil or enameled 170 

Clover, alsike 




OoTsr boaoy 

auiMT ... 



Comb Fniiodttina wlrloc. 

Combguldmfo-— 



I ., Tl-7» 

molb ta,«a 

>r wlnWriDg IM 



Onllln. oDbeUI 



renlloii ot iwrforated ilno.. W 
- - on durfttlon of trmuafbrnutMna T3 
" OD hoH miay bra- Id BponDd.-llS 

ColoDlM, trltllcUl InorcRiB of US 

•■ 'kllltUbj hew I7B. 118 

" n»w™i loore««B of — , — 109 
'• onmbar of. In kd "Pl"?^ 

" qnwnltiu JSS, iW.iai, '— 



•• ibipiiiDic tm 

>■ ■troDKi best foi DoneT 408 

•• trsMfenliis W, HOi 

" ueik, Piillj roblMd '" 

■' ]ri«ldfrom -_ 

Oiloraf lli« cnmb » 

ColnnBiEiilde for ben. ...>,>> IN, V6 
ColimielLa, bl» wiULrrt ^. '" 

■- on Brtinolal ewtirmlDS ^ 

'■ on buiidlTng btvt IM 

" on Imlim 6eM ""' 

" Dufpring eiBinlDaUoD ol 

coloDlt*. . Alfi 

'■ on weik Eolonliu 

ColTin. Imiiorlalloa of lutliao b«a 

■' on b«i trBDiletrlug egg>-.. 

•■ roun.]ikllan, irlTknUgu of tt« 



rtf In (blpplu W 

dllficall to nRKJDaa. ,. .All 

l«kiof «I» 

tnoihiU m 

nriHlDOIlDtl ...«(• 

*• liiipn)ir»- 

mantt la., tit 



'• Tcrr'Unodn M 

Comb* ii- -J! 

■ an of. ,n.«M 

broking down IJ» 

brutuUiDlQji lo keep out mnUu 

m.w 

care In retnrnliig after Inapeo- 



imj of IKM in 
-.-j-/.^'"T'f»'>'''»'- - 

"" " lng..s 

exlnictlng frnm < 

guide* foratralgbt IH, ! 

molhi In 4 



atralght ivv ■-•; !*• 

lumcaDoeapled by brood It* 

tnniterrlnK W 

waiblogduk taa 

laiallTs ubie of tranttbmut- 

Comparison of tho eyeaofqui^n. 



' right pbaition 3TB 

' welgM of different " " 



CoBtagloDa dlieaaea. . , 
Contraction of brood ell 




OMk« Ut pruM of th« Langstroth 

Mto 140 

" Lubbock's exnerimeDt 6 

•• on enemies of oeee 471 

" on NelKbbonr's opinion 51 

** on the broods of the moth 4d9 

" on the ears of beet 10,11 

'* on prodaction of wax scales m 

old bees.. 91 

** qaoUllon of Doollttle 2M 

Cowan, automatic extractors 44.3 

•• Inltiily 145 

•• on foul-brood 418 

*' on the prevention of swarming. 235 
*• on the treatmcut of foul-brr>od 

452. 453, 454 
Cracks, closed with propolis by 

bees.. 107 

*' how to close when bees rob 804 

Crates, see Section-crates 

Crops, aTcruge of 406 

•• diners 444 

Catting, H. D., on the introduction 

of Tirgin queens. .277 

Cyprian bees 289 

" difficult to subdue i03 

DebeauToys 140 

Decoy hives 2ft8 

Deep frames 150 

DcGelleuhlve 132 

De Layens counted the esgs dropped 

uy queens. . 6t 
" experiments on cost of 

wax.. 101 
«• •* the I'se of 

water.. 127 
• • report of weigh t of a 

swarm.. 235 

Delia Rocca eomb-guide IM 

*• on age cf colonies 77 

•* on aitrticting swarms.. ..210 
*' on bees as means of de- 
pose.. 205 

" on floating apiaries 308 

Demaree IntrodnctiDn of virgin 

qucenH 27S 

•* queen nurspy 272 

De Planta, ezpiTiiucnts on food oT 

larvjB. .253 
*' •* on honev. 378 

Desertion 207, .'52 

Dlarrbiea 4i.'> 

Digesting appjiratns . . 2ri 

Digestion, procesH of i'7 

Disturbing bees in culd weather 3:i» 

Dividing .'.Ki 

*• unrc'liablo .,..240 

Divisible frntne 'im 

Division boards . ir.ii 

*• removing I '.•7 

•' SI ace under . 1«.» 

Donhoff, description of moths. .4(;5-4(i6 
" experiments on young bees 

<6-67-fi8 
" on develonement of moths 464 

•• on food of moths 402 

*' on thickness of honey cells. 9v 



Doollttle method of flMteolog found- 
ation 874 

'* on propolis 419 

** on seourmg sealed honey.. 490 
" nses broad frames for sec- 
tions 491 

*' nses side storage 411 

*' '* the Qallnp ft-ame 148 

•• •* tin roots 179 

Driving bees 241, 299 

Drone brood In worker cells (19 

Drone cells 98 

'* bees building few 103 

Drone comb, bees building 108 

•• rebuilt 104 

** * removed 61 

*• reulaced by comb fonn- 

antion 366 

** scattered 104 

Drone eggs in drone cells 60-61 

* * lurviB , bees try ing to raise queen 

from 57, 76 

*' Itiylngqueens 56,69 

*' laying workers 74 

•« traps 84 

*« de»^cilntlon and office 79 

Drones, difllcultv to raise early 63 

*• expelled by bees 85 

** by I he bee keeper 86 

" kept In queenless hives 261 

" maiiug in the air 80 

*• number in ft hive 83 

* * perlrti) in mail ng 81 

'* raise<1 in worker cells. ... .61, 86 

• * selection of 262 

•• time of aupearancx) of 80 

*' why mating outelde 86 

*• '.why so many 83 

Dmmming bees 299 

Dubini on cleansing the antennie 33 

' * on commercial uses of prupo. 

lis. 109 

** on food of larva 70 

** on the braula coeca 475 

" on the Cauciisian bee 289 

• ' on the sciiles of wax 90 

Dunham mill 370 

Dzierzon, discovery of parihcnogen- 

esl;* 55, !i8 

*' hive 138 

*' on cellar wintering,345. 340, 350 

** on fertility of quwns 64 

** on pollen and substitute 

1*), 122 
•* on refrigerating qneens.. .. 03 

** on robbers 359 

•• on the It'll ian bee 284,287 

" •• sexofeggs «0 

** *• spermathem 53 

•• •* we^lding flight 51 

Eggs, are they laid in queen oils ?. . 44 

'^ drone and worker alike qq 

" • •• •• Indifferent 

cells 60 

*• from laying workers 74 

'* how fecundated 64 

** impregnation of AS 



'■ DuinlMof. Ul'Ibr <liwm*....» 

l.iTlii^of IM 

" uwr* or ... m 

ltmif%T evOib* lapr«T«Bl>T*nntii(..tU 
^- rwoi>«*dtUrWlDMc....l91 



t« 

Ki .mt 

•ultrfW lO bit* ■WBTdi*. . .SIM 
la aun»n»«» IM 

Mt "ITS IB nil 



K»IW|ib oa h 



.*■? 

*» 

n.mw.ss 

.0*. U»,iifciM.iia, m 

bendta (nnnlni Ml 

KztnnMBX, Ma Rm«* 

- -J « 

liatTVit for .*» 



«»-•' — ^ , 

wmiwtMva ol 
r««aUofib>*>* 



»»rli.f . .-- 

iub( *MMi«s«4..^.. ni 



;J Ml. --, - 



- _ lug Wlaw., „».„_a 

riidlDcapluTiM , JN 

ri'iiirclvta to tWM US 

"■ -ira, bras not (njnrioaa ts. .■«,>« 

11*1 Whoiwy JH 

>af bae*, maFlmnnsrUM ■ 

diutaann latliaM*a .JM 

iinliaallXr «t 

ofibaqotaB. n 

roo.l,"b«'»°*. . ....*.V.V."V.".';"-'"iii 

■■ •■■- winMrlni W. a 

iniiah f»T WlBirr Jff 

IIb«U on qoMn Imth. a 

on workot lar*^ . . M 

. -tnabJpboaa IM 

Forrlnjr box .»; 

I'<»tarra>a «m 

■■ unaii (lit* areiloD* .tB-Ol 

•■ ahtpiilng dlrocttuoa A* 

roul.bTo«l At 

II dotcctai: 

" DiipaD(eiTwrJn«nta..'.I...U> 
'* fruin iBlvcteitqaeeiu tU 

■' Ritlbodor n«nVind.!.,'.!!.Bl 

" •■ of Chraaira ..tu 

•• ofJoDca M 

•■ •■ ofHaib IM 

Fuan'lnllnn, aoa eainb fboaitatloa 

mme ftlhabadlaaoriaMoia t 

irnin» HI. UB, m 

■■ .HiRiiwninn of dlTer-aliaa ISI, in 
'■ eonablmiioMoa tte*liaor...lia 

'• fl»l Bltanpta'u M>aUo.'.".".tW 

*' L^nHlroiti IM 

•■ '^' ■inDllcttr 1« 

•■ namb«Hrht*e IS 

" periwnitioularla (ha (■tnnaa.ist 

'■ rafuUtrltr orttwiMitBtda ntab 

»i«or. W 

■■ TonoTlDC rroiD tfc« btVM W 

■* (iHiidOK wlra tor IM 

'■ aucoraa vliH vnrj kind or....ln 

" tlncomrnfar Ua 

•' iop*B')bntl<'mb«n of. UB 

" trunaiitw olga ..Bl 

■■ nldtliortb* lop bar IM 

- ■ Mi>i>n» b«i>at^"brinM.*' U»tS 

'• lUmagR) bi i)|rdi ... SK 

■• )ul<.-»'Pr, inJnrloQVIobmuanHi 

FniDlintlao* ubIbM ri>-i|.bnwd . ..Ul 

^_ raetha «M kD 

GaUDpfniM .. l«, Mi 

■- dlnWDatonaor lb*. W 

GeUao lanlol, dl'laiblo biN. M 

Canuabm, lalhrtDTtii of. Mt 




vn 



Ologerbread 488,404 

Glrard OB bonej Ill 

' ' on the breatMng oigaot 31 

•• •• eyes 5 

•« •• glands 16 

" *' D«rToa« system 80 

*' " sroell organs ....18 

'* " sonnds produced by 

bees.. S2 

•• •* sting 84 

Glyen, foandstion press SttO 

Glandsofbees 16 

** feeding the qaeen 16 

GloTce IW 

Goldsmith, quotation ftom 184 

Granulation of honey 481, 486 

** coarse 488 

Grapes and bees ., 105 

Gravenhorst hlTC 145 

Green on foul -brood 447-48 

Qrlmshaw's spifUge 199 

Gnbleron cure for bee-stlngs 804 

Gundelach on the necessity of poUen,180 

Hairless bees 446 

Hairs of bees 8 

" as organs of touch n 

** llieiru8CJ» on the legs.. 2*2 

Harabanghon niit-apiarlcs lUKi 

•• roller 875 

Hamet, his description of the moT- 

uble frame hive 183 

" on several swarms clustered 

together. .281, 882 

Handling bees 185 

Harrison moths 458, 460 

Harvesting honey 4^)6 

Hayhurst on queen nurseries 878 

Hearing of bees 9 

** organs, where located 10 

Heart of bees 29 

Heat breaking the combs 178, 179 

Heddon hive 140, 415 

«• honeyboard 170,421 

•• method of transferring 30i 

'* on clipping queens' vriogs 221 

•• color of veils 191 

•• comb honey. . .417, 418, 422 

' ' economical production . 436 

•• location 4«5 

** prevention of afler- 

s warms. .837 

'* the use of smoke 186 

" nn ion of beekeepers A09 

** wintering safely 834 

*' uses wooden feeders 319 

Hetherington tlses closed end 

frames.. 148 

Hubert on foul-brood 450, 4M 

History of bee-keeping 407 

Hives, African 129 

•• American 147,148 

•• Berlepsch 143 

•• Box 130 

*' bottom-board of 164 

«• cap of 178 

•• chaif 841 

" diagram of our 168 



Hives dlTlsloo-board of. Iti 

** double-back 166 

" double wall 841 

" Dzterzon 137 

•• Earthen 189 

•« Eke 181 

'* enamel cloth for 170 

" entrance of 160 

•• Gelleu 18S 

*' Gravenhorst 146 

'* hanging frame 147 

•• Heddon.... 140 415 

•• Huber 189 

«' Langstroth 141,144 

•• •* simplicity 161 

" large may be reduced 158 

'* ** to Improve the races.... 158 

" material for 178 

'* movable comb..... 187 

•• «• frame 110 

*' numbering 178 

*' observing 181 

*' our test of sixes of 151 

*< outer covering of .848,844 

*' painting 171 

*' patent 178 

• • pnferreU by os 108 

* • iirotrction for 886 

*' Quinby cloced end fjrame. 180 

'* ** suspended fkame 147 

*' Radousn 181,188 

•* ready for swarms 816 

'* requisites of a complete 188 

• • roof of .836 

•• Shuck 414 

** slanting forward 167 

* * smal 1 , cause exceeslye swarm- 

ing.. 168 

'* ** limit the laying les 

«* Sorla 138 

** spacing wire of 168 

*• straw mat for 171 

' '* strip on, tu widen the projec- 
tion 170 

• * upper story of 178 

«* ventilation of 168, 176 

•• Winter cover of 848 

•• *• puckingof 838 

•• •* bhelterof 886 

HI vlni swarms 314 

Holy Land bees 880 

Honey , adulteration of 481-486 

•• as food.... 488 

• «• forbees Ill 

*' asmedlcine 486 

*' board discarded 158 

* • cakes 404 

*' cells, are they air tight? 118 

" comb fur Awnrms 816 

" crop In California 408 

«• •* Germany 408 

<« «• this country 404 

** ** oar largest -....480 

•* dew 118 

** ** as seen by Knight 110 

*' •* firom aphldee 114 

" '* iti looks Uf 




' lilSercntgradfaof... 



I brawntlBg .. 
> tromelortr... 

rHtlng..., 



' prMliiDtliiB 

' iVitiagtMttiiiimiiog.., 



aoTM hiii*! tir In**. .. 



Hnbar, aipoilmenM oi 



r«rUI« wnrker* 

to IfaeliupK^MIon oTqiiN 
Ul« lutrodncllou of' ' 

lb> Islenia or Bamani. . , 



Diunnilns *1 

HuMtalnian linit DOrMrr m 

" ou Euinb buney pTodiicllon 



o Beea, tnt tnportmUnD li 



ubikl ijaivl •ad iBudlla ' 

LainlnUoBilVa banunlnc JM 

Uni[n"»-''f lw«« > 

Unx-wiinsUckkln 1 

'■ iliiriiloD of dovalopntnt- 1 

" fm rnini tliD claiid* otyroikta^ I 

■' hnWftd ..... I 

" Drqiivsn* oxplnud; M I 

Laying or <Est . I 

'• ■' bUulenUbriitMllD* 






tti!u/./^V.'.'.'.'.'.'.'...i*^4SJ 



Ll^htlnl 

Lonitflillaw. qUQliiUoii troa...., W 

I<ixisen<BS Ilia franuK .......HI 

Lou of l«es \iy beat IT> 



la «»^» 



I '■ uu Ihe oantnlaf ■warmlag, .1 
: Mailof of lb* quMB. 




Mefarlnr, lUTentoratoonb ftnis- 
" ■tamp fur lecu ring Krklghl 

HaiTponti '.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.v.;;;",,',': 

»I«1 Jog honey 



Ulcel 



nhlYti 



Math hone; c-ik 
KaCUr, bi'fl con 



472 

li>cailOD..4M 



nuiiielilvca, arstaiumpl 

frame alsndard Langilrolh LIS 
dltf^r^m itylea or...H7 
.. ._...l«o, IDJ 



Helena 


mai 


.Warn 


log. 


:::.iii 


;; Pf^P"'^ 


TanCB 












sr^. 








iiralng (.-Isudi 


rk«. 











ObaarrlBjihlTM in 

" (brpteammnd 

InatTncUoD. in 
;; InapaitiofnU in 

nwwMary '^ ,gj 

OcdllofbMi B 

Odor of the poi^oo orbres M 

Oeltl. golden rule.... Ml 

'■ on hooey jipid 101,401 

" on theUngnagc orbe«a St, tS 

" straw hlv« Ill 

Ollclolh I7D 

Old aur, aigni of, In bee* 7S 

Old and voting queana living Wgethel SO 
Uld bco-ieepeniTgiiani-proof . ... IM 
Old, bgw oldli a queen wbea Imprrg- 

oated Bl 

Old precepu 1M 

IHIaeWrf organa 11 

•^ Glranl aperimcDta OD 13 

" lend boe* to flowcn ii 

Olm nulla JTo 

Urphao bee* ralalngqiiaana..^!^,"!!! II 

Oila aaiT Impregnatloa E> 

Out-aplurlet, whT m 

*' OODdlllonl reqnired form 
howmanyt MM 

" DurlarmatDr sot 

Outer-boio for wintering BH 

Outofdwira wintering ,SM 

Uvarleaofa drone-la)lngi|Heen ... S7 

'• of wotfcer»..'.'.".".'.'.'.".'*,','.71- 7B 
Orerbeck, dUcorerj of origin of 

O'aratoctlDg .\v>a 

" opiolona OQ iijs 

Packard OD tbe brcathlni; organa ... M 

laallucl of bees 17 

Pain d'*plrM <as 

PalnUng hives i;j 

■' '■ dilTerrnl ooton ao 

I'uitpauhiie .■;!,■.■;!."■.",;; .■*'.'iw 

I'alpl HndniaxUls ]r 

l-araOSin. nielllrigpulntof 511 

Paraona Imporialiun WJ 

P.irihenogeneaia tt 

" ptoten \ij liulltD 

brea.. B7 
•tearon breHilng bMllll. 447 

itniage for beej .'...S78 

Pl|jlng»f the qoeen. .'.'..'.'" '.'■V.'..40',ii7 

" '—J oft he all ug Vfi 

Pollen ,. . !'.!.... .'.'.'.'.'.',',',V.'.'.'.'.!;!!llB 
; ba-leta 14 

• freah preferrfd !!!"!!!!!!! lai 

' talberlng, nirful lo plaula lis 

' IndLpanaabla W bMi IM 

" nibiUlaMa U| 




OHlloBof»rttr4*«™i« - 

rulibiiiii ..J 

•wnrmtag • 



"Viavi-tfiSii--::;: 

haw to el«n trom lb« 



*■ flDlMUnn*,,,... (IB 

" ciilitMoxmb. ,....1U7 

PnlTlllI IM.S3 



il-slltiite of iinnilng gUn'li 



Dtlcitriiia' diniMTarj an... ., fiB 



n Ion la kM wu . 

loTVOtbBMlbrtlM... 

malltaB. .....wi 

mk'lBg. U 

SS'y»iv.v.-.;;:.-;;:::.r;5 

tid « 

onrlM of. H 

• drona-larlaf » 

parihsnoKanc*!* of tbs , , . K M 
preturcso* for warkn- Mli 

«, la 
pHtonor In th* hln ... - - - ■ rd 

rr»r»1 rromfcc* «*,io 

■■ oiaumi ... fI.M 
" tdttia SouUi til 

nsrrleonMd. H 

•hIpplBl JW 

■' brnlkl] Jll 

Irtpn M 

nnnljla 10 Ajr :« 

virgin a 

ithy oat Impngnaud la ih* 

rnnnr oodIdM br Ilnbcr ..U 

n-MlH, deMroTrt « 

" Ibrkiilflcln]iir»rm- 

" to [rananr .!!'!!'.Wi 
lurtra namlHT of .. M.JM 
" i.rapsrl.if! for .,., -XX 

nlFiatulonlsiilct^Tojcd br 

dODalkllllhrJr 

■ " iiowiip(cci«i .aro 






' frs 



t, 157, II 



..ia 



1in|irCBiinl|iHioflhc"qi 
iiitro'liicdon'iflinviF^l'n' 



■cil.. « 
'for lira .SI 



In- 






«"tl"7?K''^."ln,lro„« 



M oftdo ..'.'.','..... '.Vy.'.'.ii^ a 



H,-«r(cirltT of ... _ . . 

" on lieei claimpwl bj inolln,..«l 
" " <ll9tiinee» betireMi frimMlU 
;; II rolibiDR. sss 

■■ (maker.... .V.'.',^''"j(B 

H»hljet H«,1BT 

■' eularKCmaDt oftop tdi* 170 

Rao^sof liees vo 

RaclDf OD aid comb* m 

Us loimnh'JB"... "'..■-■.■. ;i'.;;'-'".;;:!!iH 

llnpplii;- ..aa 

Kayrior, carbolliedihnit ]« 

BsBrlng qaean* <S. tn 

■ ■ trom Bftif* X) 

' ■' improTBdr»oe« MB 

"In modarita oola- 

Rcia on tha ehapa of the ealla ti-m 

Bemedlci for fDOl -brood , Ut 

for attDK* m 

Bamovlng ftuM* HI 




imtez. 



BIoKlQg tetta toitopavuTBi..., .. 310 

Up«nlnKh'>iieT>nl11cl>ll; 4t0, *^ 

Bobber beea 3r.8 

Bobl .Br cloth ti7 

Bobbing, danger of, kfter dcIIk win- 
tering .wn 

'• dlfflcalt to detect 3.%3 

II howtodelect S9J 



■top, ed byBcaibolliei] 





















;?£■■*' 


"sryi;. 



mekln; 330, 
bniMing 9S, 05 



macblupB.MH.STO 



" »hip|il"K beoa.307 
by the ponnd .11'. 314 



L. O. Root, authororquit 

Royol lellT 

Ruitli. wmtriliiv'lri 



t RaDBChenfelg. honpy-cako .4 
liullcllng. . 



Bctalcmoni dsitci 
Sehliach dl*coi 





m ILly, 










Sleb^ia, Mt-pUA 


;?'S 


■' hiw ,1 


siroiJ('rr'a.,»r!': 


rmlDgi) 


"■^.' 
















nrl Iwci 









l«'i> m.-iM 



IF langnsg* ofbeM.., 



BtudanldiusiiTe't 

" LsugitroUi TlttM 

SUutrUoii 

BuiUIIO* 

Blu'lnit honn 

eiralsGl oomU IH 



nllngpTOgreit.lU 



StUp«iyiBB b«W 

f>ViItiTatii„ ,.., 

Bunr CKod; 

S«p«Tlaliif of intttit'trmi. . . 



Qntali;fr>niM..lM 




SKurmirMll]' budltd .Jt^fl 

■' BrM.tr JM 

" blTcdWlIk tt-mbboMf. ....!» 

" ** Ob wmif DitnidUMfc.-m 

" hlvtar 114 

loMor. .»\ 

" muitiK .« 

" OD aamill limb .M 

" prlmio , &• 

" wllhm iBuniniiMtD lao 

■■ (.ckt,.r .—-■,: il( 

" BMoiiilsr; . .m 

I letctml blT«t loitaihn', .fB, W 

" trmniiMirtlDg..'... '..'...IM 

vUUdk ftir wnnte tU4l> 

" -Willi M*eMl4««M ....9t 

" twoqasHu.- ID 

SjdHrlTi utnTannca. -HI 

errUnbns ,.« 

Tiinlng bf ri'.'. '.'. .■.V.V ' ". ' -lO 

Tuxinton )»«• and Krepe* W. Sw 

, Tluiika to ihewTlten IT 

TlitiAuu ol cdU n 

Thiimeoa, quotntiou* from Vn.tM 

■lliorleron iliipiijing b*ei'.*..'. B? 

Tlireo »«Pliop« "f iHjdj i 

'liililon the niotb US.MI.KS 

Tin ruu tor hoding Ill 

Tin eurutra IH 

" "^* M ,SJI^jm.".*»,M» 

'■ too!* 1T» 

Toa-Ia HI 

Ti«UtoMinethoiio».'".V.'.'..".'.'«T-*» 

" to Handle liEra m IVT. Mt 

" toniakehliM IT4 

" loi™ntrirl«« .,.. «» 

Tov ami bi'lloin baraotftunfa tU 

Tiiwnlof DB mall lug qiiwna Ill 

Trtohca... M.U 

Trajn Bl, t« 

■' rormoUia im 

Tnoiferrlng oalonlfa vn 

Haddon BtUiort 
ot.Jll 

■■ qnern colla W) 

TraniimrllBGUwi ^1 

DiifiL|il'ini- «« 

y.:-'-' tlA.Hl 

Oii 'i'-- ■ - . .. ....sia.Ms 

vlli ... ''' ....no 

r.^ 

vi'd .'.'.',' ".; .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.\».m 

■•" ' linlrn. '.'."..'.'..'..'."[.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. in- 
VeoUUtton... IM 



> 



'L'AliEille et La i(uc!ie," 

Edition p-han^aise de 

Lang^trotj on tbB p\i and {JoneiJ-bBe. 

PBIX parlnpOBIp, rraiiro. 7 fr tt« ItlOO]. 



POUR I.'EUROPE— A Ed lierlmnd,! Koyon, Suisse. 

rOUR r^ CANADA-A GooW. Simpler. MuirCo-. k Bmntfonl, 

Onturlo. 
rOUR LES ETATS-L'NfS— A Clins. Dxiani A Son. 



EDITION RUSSE. 

Ecrire i G. KandratlefT. ThiSitre Marie, St. Pelerebnrg. 

Bee-Keepers' Guide 



The IStli 1,000, Wholly Revised I 

n|it ■■ ENI.ARGED I 

Cutitnins many more licaiilidil illustrations and ia up to 
date. It is liolli PRACTICAL and SCIENTIFIC. 

Price: By mail, $1.00. Liberal illscount to Ilie Trade 

"'•"'•'• A. J. COOK, 

ABrlenltnr*! C^llrgK, MIek.