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Full text of "The languages of the northern Himalayas, being studies in the grammar of twenty-six Himalayan dialects"

UC-NRLF 





B M D21 E7Q 



^ 






1 1 A. VOL. XII. 



. ' > > > 



THE 



LANGUAGES OF THE NORTHERN 
-^ HIMALAYAS, 



BEING 



STUDIES IN THE GRAMMAR OF 
TWENTY - SIX HIMALAYAN DIALECTS. 



BY 



THE REV. T. (IRAHAMEIbAILEY, B.D., M.A., M.R.A.S. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED BY THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

22, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1908. 



1 



,,u^ 



PREFATOKY N^OTE. ^J^'^^^ 

A FEW words are necessary in order to explain how aj aj /] 
Mr. Grahame Bailey's valuable collection of monographs 
appears in its present form. 

In the year 1905 it was brought to the notice of the 
Council of the Royal Asiatic Society that he had prepared 
sketches of a number of dialects spoken in the Panjab 
hills between Simla and Murree, for insertion in the local 
District Gazetteers then being prepared for the use of 
officials. Each sketch was intended to be printed as an 
independent section of the appropriate volume of a series 
which would not easily be accessible to students in Europe ; 
and the Council, considering that their publication in a con- 
nected shape would form a book of no little scientific value, 
represented the facts to the Panjab Government, with the 
suggestion that, if the type were still standing, a sufficient 
number of copies should be struck oft' for that purpose. As 
it happened, some of the type had been broken up, but the 
Panjab Government most liberally supplied the Society not 
only with sheets of the entire work, reprinting what was 
necessary, but also with sets of several sketches prepared by 
Mr. Grd,hame Bailey on other occasions, the whole being so 
arranged that, with the Author's Preface, it forms one 
convenient volume. 

Owing to some sections of the book having been printed 
off before it was decided to publish them in this form, the 
pagination of the volume is not? continuous from end to end, 
but the Table of Contents g-iven in the Preface is so arrano-ed 
as to render it easy to find the particulars of any required 
dialect. 

The scientific world owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Grahame 
Bailey for the preparation of these sketches, and to the 
Government of the Panjab for its liberality in placing them, 
in a printed form, at the disposal of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. 

G. A. GRIERSON. 

5^9 4 4G 



PREFACE. 



This volume is a collection of studies printed at various times. It 
lias not been possible, therefore, to have continuous pagination. 
Studies in Noftliern Himalayan Dialects was the first to be written ; it 
was privately printed in 1902. Sketches of ten dialects were printed 
in 1905 with a view to their being incorporated in the forthcoming 
Gazetteers of the Simla States, Camba State and the States of Mandi 
and Suket. Lastly, notes on seven dialects in Kulu and JammS State 
together with a Sasi Vocabulary have been printed in 1906. It will 
be noticed that notes on the Padari dialect of JammS State occur in 
two different parts of the volume. This is due to the fact that the 
type of the Studies mentioned above had long ago been broken up, 
and I was unable to cut out, as I should have wished, the couple of 
pages on Padari, printed in 1902. They have perforce been permitted 
to stand. A much fuller account of this interesting dialect will be 
found in Part III. 

The following Table will show at a glance the contents of the 
volume : — 



I. 



Page. 
Dialects of the Simla Hills and Kulu, pp. i-iii, 1-65. 

Introduction to the Simla Hills Dialects ... i 

Grammar of Baghati ... ... ,,. 1 

„ „ KiSthali ... ,.. ... 11 

Notes on Eastern KiSthali ... ... 21 

„ „ Kot Khai ... ... ... 23 

Grammar of Kot Guriii ... ... ... 25 

Introduction to the Kulu Dinlects ... ... 35 

Gi'am mar of Outer Siraji ... ... ... 37 

„ „ Inner Siraji ... ... ... M 

,, „ Sainji ... ... . , 52 

„ „ Kului .., ,., ,,. 57 



II, Dialects of Mandi State, pp. i, ii, 1-17. 

Introduction to the Mandi Dialects 
Grammar of Mandeali 
Notes on North Mandeali ... 
„ „ Chota Baijghali ... 



1 

1 

11 

16 



n 



III. Dialects of Camha and Jammu States and Sasi Gloss- 
aries, pp. i-vi, 1-108. 

Introduction to Camba Dialects 
Grammar of Cameali 

„ „ Bhateali ■ ... 
„ ,, Cuiahi 

,, ,, Laliull 
Inti'oduction to Bhadrawalii, BlialesI and Padain 
Grammar of Bhadrawalii... 
„ ,, Bhalesi 

,, ,, Pad^iri 

Introduction to Slsi Glossary 

Glossary of Original SIsi Words 

,. ,, Borrowed and Disguised S^si Words ... 
Appendix 
Grammar of Parjgwali 

IV. Studies in Northern Himalayan Dialects, pp. 1-72 

Prefatory Note 

Grammar of Gujuri 

Notes on Tinaull 

Grammar of Dhundi or Kairali 

„ ,, Punch! 

Notes on Padari 
Grammar of Siraji (Doda Siraji) 

„ ,, Rambani 

„ „ Pou:uli ... 

„ „ Kisbtawari 

Note on tbe grammatical resemblance of SIsi to 
other dialects 



1 
1 

17 
27 
37 
53 
57 
68 
76 
85 
91 
97 

100 
101 



1 

3 
12 
15 

24 
33 
36 
46 
51 
61 

70 



V. Dialects of Karjgra District, pp. i, 1-53. 

Introduction to Kaggri and Gadi or Bharmauvi ... i 

Grammar of Kaggri ... ... ... 1 

" Karjgri and Gadi Songs ... ... ... 12 

Grammar of Gadi ... ... ... 19 

Karjgri and Gadi Glossary ... ' ... 42 

It will be seen that these twenty-six dialects cover a considerable 
portion of tlie northern and nortli-westei'n part of tlie Himalayas. 
All but two of them are in the strictest sense hill dialects. Gujuri is 
not confined to the mountains, but as Gujurs in the plains have a 



Ill 



teudencj to speak the language of the people among whom they dwell 
we must go to tl,e hills if we wisl, to study their dialect in its purity 
Gujurs in the hills, however widely separated, all seem to speak the 
same dialect. 

Sgsi is spoken in the plains, but it seemed advisable to print here 
the Sssi Glossaries. They are of great philological interest, as indeed 
are all secret vocabularies. There are many such vocabularies i.i the 
Panjah, some of them frankly criminal, but it is not easy to get any 
knowledge of them. The tribes who speak them are often migratory, 
and in any case it is difficult to attain to such terms of intimacy 
with them as will induce any of their members to impart the secret 
of their speech. That friendship with the.n will ultimately lead to the 
breaking down of the barrier of concealment one may readily believe. 
As a case in point I may mention that for two or three years I have known 
a trihe of monkey-trainers, conjurers and bear-dancers (Qalandar and 
Ma.lari). Qnite recently they have laid aside their reserve and 
initiated me info their language and rites and customs. 

The hill dialects, twenty-four in all, give a somewhat compre- 
hensive view of the speech of the Himalayas from the south of Sinda 
to beyond Murree. Three of them, with two sub-dialects, belong to 
ti.e S.mla States region, four to the Kulu sub-division of Kanora 
one with two sub-dialects to Mandi State, two to Kaijgra proper, °one 
ot these, Gadi or Bharmauri, being extensively spoken also in Caraba 
tour belong to ^Camba State (excluding Bharmauri just mentioned)' 
eight to Jammu State (including Punchi), and, lastly, two to the 
country round about the hill station of Murree. 

It should be noted that Siraji in JammS State has no connection 
with S^aji in Kulu. The word Siraj means simply Ull, and Sirnjl 
me.uBbelougm^^ to Ue hills or Ully. The JaramS Siraji might be called 
P^.deaUor Dodl or Doda Simji fi-om D.da, a large village in the Sirai' 
he headquarters of a Naib Tahsildar. It is picturesquely situated' 
high up above the Ciuab. 

This work has been almost entirely pioneer work. I do not 
know that a grammar of any of tl.ese dialects ,has previously been 
published. In Cameali portions of the Bible have been printed (see 
Oamba Introduction, p. vi) ; a Mandeali reading book lithographed 
ma form of the Takri character was issued some years ago Dr 
Jukes, the Medical Missionary in Kot Gurii, tells me that a portion 
otti.e Book of Common Prayer was printed a considerable time ago in 
Jiot Gurui. I have, however, failed to obtain a copy. 

In the case of Kaggpi and Gadi, I have contented myself with 
thoroughly revising the late Mr. O'Brien's notes, and adding to the 



IV 



grammar and vocabulary. I regret that the type of these two dialects 
is different from tliat of the lest. 

It will be seen that all the dialects treated of in these pages are 
Aryan with the one exception of Camba Lahuli. This dialect 
very closely resembles MancatI, spoken furtlier up the Cinab between 
the border of Camba and the junction of the Candra and Bhaga 
rivers. I sent the MS. proof of the grammar and vocabulary and prose 
specimen of Camba Laliu.ll to Dr. Sten Konow of Christiania. Be 
writes: — "I think that Lahuli is a characteristic Tibeto-Burman 
language, if you except the use of pronominal suffixes with verbs." 
Of this feature he says : — 'It canhe Aryan, but I think it more probable 
that it is to be explained by tlie supposition of an old Munda substratum.' 

The greatest possible interest attaches to the linguistic process 
by which one language shades off into another. This process 
is illustrated very fully by the grammatical phenomena of the 
dialects under review. Several of the Jammft dialects show the steps 
between Kashmiii and Panjabi, those between Camba and Simla 
show a number of Rajasthani affinities. Various dialects show connec- 
tions with Hindi, Urdu or Lahnda. In addition to all this there are 
gradual changes by which a dialect merges into the one geogra- 
phically next to it. This is amply exemplified in the chain of dialects 
from Simla via Kulu or Maudl totheBanihal Pass or Kishtawar. The 
whole subject is fascinatingly interesting. 

I have endeavoured to make the representation of pronunciation 
rigidly accurate. This has entailed considerable labour. Only those 
who have tried to reproduce with absolute accuracy the nuances of 
pronunciation found in a language which has never been reduced to 
writing can understand wliat it means. In order to catch exactly 
the sounds produced by various speakers not only must one listen with 
unfailing care, but one must lay aside all prepossessions derived from a 
study of other dialects. It is d^mgerous to uifer the pronunciation of 
a word in any new dialect. The value of the services of a literate 
speaker of a hill language is often lessened by his unconscious tendency 
to assimilate his words to some better-known literary form of speech. 

A word or two must be said about the system of transliteration. 
In the Kaijgri and Gadi dialects the system adopted by Mr. O'Brien was 
adhered to, and it was not possible later on to alter it. It is the 
common Hunterian system as found, for example, in Platts's Grammar, 
In the rest of the volume the practice of British Oriental Societies has 
been followed — c stands for the sound of ch in child, and the correspond- 
ing aspirate is represented by ch, a doubly curved line above a vowel 
is used for nasal n ; rj represents the sound of ng in singing ; sh and zh 



stand for sh in shout and z in azure. In sh and zU tlie two letters are 
pronounced separately. 

A few additional signs have been adopted : i is the sound half way 
between i and I; u italicised in a word in ordinary print, or left in ordi- 
nary print in an italicised word is the sound lialf way between u and v. ; eu 
under similar conditions stands for the shortened form of the eu in the 
French douloureux ; at under similar conditions is a shortened ai ; ai in 
turn is a mixture of tlie English a in man and ai in aisle; eu (under ordi- 
nary type conditions) is long eu, and eu represents two distinct vowels e 
and 71. 

It should be mentioned that the words Knrmir and Kngmhl have been 
transliterated as they are generally pronounced, Kashmir and Kashnnrz. 
Dhuadi or Kairali, found round al)out Murree and in the adjoinino- 
parts of tne Hazara distiict in the North West Frontier Province, is a 
dialect of Lalinda, a language spoken widely over the Western Panjab 
and North West Frontier Province. To Lahnda also l)elong Tinauh", 
but poorly represented in these pages, and Punchi, the speech 
of probably at least 150,000, possibly 200,000, people in Punch Stnte, 
which is subject to Jammft and Kashmir. Many of the summer inhabit- 
ants of Murree come from Punch, and a number of Punchi coolies 
were employed in connection with the Tibetan Expedition. 

Four dialects are connected with Kasdimiri and deserve very close 
study. KishtHwari on the S.E. of Kashmir proper greatly resembles 
Kashmiri; and Kashmiri is well understood in Kishtawar. Poguli, 
south of the Banihal Pass, a few miles south of the head wateis of 
the Jihlam River, is not intelligible to Kashmiris; nevertheless the 
resemblance between Kashmiri and Poguli is considerable. Further 
removed is Rambani, which is contiguous to Poguli on the south. When 
we come to Doda Siraji, which lies between Kishtawari on the east and 
Poguli and Rambani on the west, we are in doubt as to whether we 
should class it with Kashmiri or connect it with the group of dialects 
next to the south which belong to the Dogri or Panjabi system. On 
the whole it is better to consider it as belonging to Kashmiri. 

Bhadrawahi, Bhalesiand Curahi form an interesting group and have 
much in common with each other. They are intermediate forms of speech 
bridging the gulf between Panjabi or Dogri and the Kashmiri system. 

Curahi gives place on the east to Paggwali, a dialect which f greatly 
regret not having had opportunities of studying. Paggwali is closely 
allied to Padari. (See III, p. 101). On the south Curahi gives way to 
Cameali and Bhateali, the latter of which is a dialect of Dogri. Dogri 
itself, spoken by people in Jamma State, is one of the main dialects"of 
Panjabi. Cameali is replaced by Bharmauri or Gadi on the east, while 



VI 

south of Camba Sfate we have the Kai)gri and Mandeali dialects, to tlie 
east of them the Kulu group, and to tlie soutii and south-west of them 
the dialects of the Simla States. It is in Cameali and the Kulu and 
Simla dialects and also in Gujuri and the S^si dialect that we notice 
that interesting similarity to Rajasthani which points to some very 
close historical connection in byyfone centuries. We may hope that 
ere long philologists will be in a position to shed light on these ancient 
national and tribal movements. 

Of the man}?- linguistic tasks in the Panjab which await accom- 
plishment two appeal specially to me. One is the completion of the 
study of hill dialects in the province. Towards this end I have written 
notes, which are at present in manuscript, of about a dozen dialects 
and half a dozen sub-dialects, all in or near the Simla States, and hope, 
as opportunity offers, to go on working at others. The second task is 
the compilation of a Panjabi Dictionary to be supplementary to existing 
dictionaries of the language. This, however, is a task which will re- 
quire the enthusiastic toil of many collaborators. 

All philologists interested in the Panjab will look forward with 
eager expectation to the appearance of the Panjab volumes of the monu- 
mental Survey of the Languages of India being brought out by Dr. 
G. A. Grrierson, C.I.E, When those appear the Panjab will be linguisti- 
cally a new country to us. 

To Dr. Grierson and to Mr. H. A. Rose, C.S., I am under a deep 
debt of gratitude for their unfailing interest and encourngement in my 
work. Without their encouragement it would never have been under- 
taken. 

In pioneer effort of this description one cannot hope to avoid 
mistakes. I shall be very grateful to anyone who will indicate to me 
any errors that may have occuired. 

In conclusion, may I express the hope that those whose work or 
leisure gives them opportunities of con>ing in contact with unknown or 
little known forms of speech will not only use their opportunities for 
the study of such dialects as they ruay hear spoken, but will also 
minister to the advancement of })hilology by printing notes of the 
information obtained. Not a few Govei'nment officials and others have 
retired with valuable notes in their possession, notes which have never 
seen the light and are now lost beyond recall. 

T. Grahame Bailey, 

Waztrdbad, 
June 18th, 1908. 



ERRATA. 



I. P. 



line 



II. 
III. 



P. 

n 

p. 






5 
17 
18 
19 

ii, 
10 

i', 

)) )■ 

,, iii 

!, vi 

4 

8 

•' >» 

10, 

11, 
„ 17-26, 
„ 29, 
'» 33, 
n 38-51, 
40. 



20 for ' except ' read ' lenving untouched.' 

21 delete ' with.' 
„ for 'Nahan' read 'Nahan.' 

" „ 17 „ ' dhUld' „ ' dhiiu: 

iii, omit last para., and see III, vi, 4th para. 
4, line 16 for ' after ' rend ' before.' 

' rirnd ' 

' cheori ' 

' lautifi ' 

■ tharaa ' 

•Dhar' 



IV. P. 



9, 

9 

15 

33 

41 



line 



9 
19 
1] 

fi 
12. 21 



nrna. 



line 



■ clieori. 
'lannil.' 
' tliaran.' 
' Dahr.' 
2 from foot for ' hattiwale ' read ' hattiwale.' 
11 after h insert ' preceding an accented vowel.' 
14 ,, ' appears' '{before an accented vowel).' 
13 for 'light' read -nearly.' 
22 ,, 'eu' read ' gH.' 
26 ,, ' kiidha ' rearf « kudha.' 
2 from foot /or 'khand' read ' khdnd.' 
last line for ' banana ' read ' bandnd.' 
line 17 ., 'dhai' read ' dhai.' 
last line ,, ' on ' rend ' ox.' 
headings „ ' Bhatedli' read ' Bhatedli.' 
line 6 from foot for ' kidheo ' read ' kidheo.' 

„ 5 for ' Jammu ' read ' Jammtt.' 

headings „ ' LdhuW read ' LdhulV 
line 12 ,, 'dawn' read 'down.' 
line 1 .. 'ber.ki' read ' betki.' 
bi ' rend ' bl.' 

KARIALI' read ' KAIRALI.' 
ghora' (2nd time) read ' gliore.' 
hens ' read ' maize.' 



12 
1 

13 
1 

16 

11 



V. Introdnctiou last two lines should rend-' The fondness of Gaddls for M is the 



DIALECTS OF THE SIMLA HILLS. 

BY 

The Revd. T. Grahame Bailey, B.D., M.R.A.S. 

INTRODUCTION. 

In tbe Simla States west of Long. 78° there is a congeines of 
dialects not differing very widely from one another. They are at pre- 
sent classed as belonging to the Western Pahari Language of the 
Northern Group of the Sanskrito- Aryan Family. East of Long. 78° there 
are Tibeto-Himalayan languages which belong to the Indo-Chinese 
Family. They are found only in Bashahr State. At present we know- 
very little about the Simla States languages, with the exception of 
Tibetan in the extreme east, and any contribution to our knowledge is 
peculiarly desitable. la the notes which follow I have endeavoured 
to give an idea of three main dialects — Baghati, the centre of which 
is in the two portions of Baghat State and in the piece of Pateala which 
lies between them ; Kiftthali, which is spoken in Kiuthal State and the 
surrounding districts, and the dialect of the British district of Kot Guru 
(frequently, but erroneously, referred to as Kot Garh). To these are 
added brief notes on two sub-dialects — Eastern Kiathali, whose centre 
is the eastern detached portion of Kisthal, and the dialect of the British 
tract of country known as Kotkhai. These two sub-dialects differ very 
slightly from the main Kiutliali dialect. The above-mentioned dialects, 
then, represent fairly well the speech of all the northern and central 
Simla States, except those of Bilaspur, Nalagarh, Jubba] and Bashahr, 
These four States still require to be investigated, as with also Nahan 
or Sirmaur which lies immediately to the south. 

These three dialects have some interesting points in common. They 
have a separate feminine form in the Sing. Oblique of the 3rd Pei's. 
Pron. Kot Gurui has in addition a neuter form ietth, which is almost 
identical with the Kashmiri tath. 

The presence in all three dialects of what appears to be an organic 
Passive Participle, and the peculiarity of usage connected with it, have 
been alluded to in the Notes on the Verbs under each dialect. 

They have also a special form for the Pres. Auxiliary used in nega- 
tive sentences, and this form is in every case indeclinable. In Baghati, 



11 

I am not is nth atM, in Kinthali it is nth dnthi (or anfhl), and in Kot 
Gurui nfh ainthi. It would be very instructive to know how widely the 
negative form is spread. It is found in the Gujarat! language and also 
in Kulu, and a negative auxiliary, not however indeclinable, ia common 
in dialects of Laihnda. 

Another common feature of the three dialects lies in the fact that 
the singular of nouns is almost identical with the plural. In each 
dialect the plural is the same as the singular except in the Vocative case, 
and in nouns ending in -a the Nominative. This peculiarity is also 
found in Kulu and in the Curahi dialect of Camba and the Gadi dialect 
of Camba and in Kaijgra. 

Baghati-speaking people seem to avoid using the letter h, nearly as 
much as Italians ; thus we have aind return, for Hindi hatnd, aul, plough, 
for hal. , Frequently, too, when in Hindi there is a consonant compound- 
ed with h, in Baghati it is separated from the ^ by a vowel, as in 
gohrd horse, for ghord ; or the h may be omitted as in dilld lazy, 
Hindi dhlld, Panjabi dhllld. The extreme faintnesa of the enuncia- 
tion of h makes it very difficult in some words to say whether there 
should be an h or not. What one wants to know is how exactly the 
people pronounce a word, not how people in another place pronounce it, 
or how it is pronounced in Urdu or Hindi, It is difficult, for example, 
to say where the verb ' be ' is and or ohnd, or the verb ' remain ' rauna. 
or rauhnd. The Stative Participle, as nrddd, * in the state of having 
fallen,' is of the same form as in Bhateali, spoken in the south-west of 
Camba, Thus gdddd, ' in the state of having gone,' roddd (rohddn) ' in the 
state of having remained,' correspond to Bhateali goddd, rehddd. 

Kiuthali has most of the grammatical features of Baghati. The fact 
that it is spoken so far east as Kot Khai, the variations there being very 
slight, leads one to suppose that it is employed over a considerable tract 
of country all round its centre. It is spoken also in the Simla (Shimla) 
municipal area. Its word for speak, dzopnu, is interesting in being like 
Poguli, zapnu, Jammu Siraji zahno, Kishtawari, zahunu, Kashmiri, daptm. 

Kot Guriii is separated from the Siraj Tah§il of Kulu by the Satlaj 
river. We find, as we should expect, a considerable resemblance 
between Kot Gurui and Outer Siraji, 

Jubbal is said by its inhabitants to have two dialects — Barori and 
Bishsau. These two. are, however, extremely like one another and may 
be considered one. It is not a little remarkable that they resemble 
Baghati more than they resemble any other of the dialects treated of 
above, notwithstanding the fact that geographically Baghati is the most 
distant from them. 

In the Census of 1901 most of the inhabitants of the Simla States 
returned themselves as speaking Pahari, without specifying the dialect. 



Ill 



Nearly all the rest claimed to speak Panjabi, except iu Bashahr, where 
there are over 19,000 speakers of Kanawari and 2,300 speakers of Bhotia, 
which may be the same as Tibetan. In Nahan (Sirmaur) 104,000 per- 
sons were entered as speaking Sirmauri, a dialect which will be found 
to have considerable affinity to the dialects specially dealt with in the 
following pages. Kanawari is a Tibeto-Himalayan language which has 
affinity with Tibetan, with Kanashi, the language of a single isolated 
village in Kula called Malana, and with Lahuli, a language which has 
four dialects— three spoken in British Lahul and one in Camba Lahul. 

The transliteration employed is that of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. One or two additional signs had to be made use of. u is a 
long sound as eu in French douloi^retix (the rest of the word being in 
ordinary type). f is a sound midway between z and l. Similarly ? 
italicised, occurring in a word in ordinary type, denotes the sound half- 
way between u and u. Printing difficulties account for the clumsiness 



n 



of some of these signs 
January 30th, 1905. 



T. Graham E Bailey, 

Wazlrabad. 





SIMLA HILL DIALECTS 


> 




I. BAGHATt. 






Nouns. 






MascnZi/te. 






Nouus iu -a 






Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


gohr-a horse 


-e 


G. 


-e ra 


-e ra 


D.A. 


-e khe 


&c. 


Loc. 


-e manjhe 




Ab. 


-ede 




Agent 


-e 




Voc. 


-ea 
Nouns in a Consonant. 


-eo 




Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


gaur, house 


gaur 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


gar-a ra, &c. 


gar-a, &c 


Ag. 


-e 


-e 


Voc. 


-a 
Nouns in -i. 


-5 




Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


hathi, elephant 


hathi 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


„ ra, &c. 


„ &c. 


Ag. 


hathi-e 


hathi-e 


Voc. 


-a 

Nouns in -ii. 


-5 




Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


indu, Hindu 


indu 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


„ &c. 


„ &c. 


Aff. 


indue 


fndiie 



hapa, father, indecl. in the Sing, seems to prefer in the Plural 
hau, G.D.A.L.Ab. bauS ra, &c. Ag. baue. 

naU, name, has G. &c., nam ra, &c., Plur. the same. 





Baghfltt. 






Feminine. 






Nouns in -i 






Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


di, daughter 


di-a 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


di-a ra, &c. 


-a ra, &c, 


A?. 


-e 


-e 


Voc. 


-e 


-5 



Nouns in Consonant. 





Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


baihn, sister 


baihn-a 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


baihn-a ra, &c. 


-a ra, &c, 


Ag. 


-e 
Nouns in -o. 


-e 




Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


b5bb-6, elder sister 


bobb-o 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-6 ra, &c. 


-6 ra, &c. 


Ag. 


-6§ 


-5e 


Voc. 


-oe 
gae, cow 


-6o or 665 


N. 


ga-e 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 


-i, &c. 


Ag. 


-ie 


-ie 



The word jana, man, is sometimes used curiously as a mere exple- 
tive, e.g. — Se jane rupayye, those rupees j tesjane gara manj'he, in that 
house. 



Pronouns. 



Sing. 
Ist 2nd 3rd (he, she, it, that) eh, this 

N. au tn se eh 

G. mera tera tesra,/. teara esra, /. iara 

D.A. makhese, makhe, takheije, takhe teskhe /. tel, &c, es, &c. f. iU 
L. ma manjhe ta, &c. tfis, &c. „ „ „ 

Ab. ma»i de tan „ „ „ „ 

Ag. moe toe teune/. tee eune, /. ie 



Baghnti. 







Plur 








N. 


hfime 


tnme 


sS 




eh 


G. 


mahra 


tara, talira 


tinna 


rS 


inna ra 


D.A. 


hamma khe 


tuinma, &c. 


>» 


&e. 


„ &c. 


L. 


„ manjlie 


>> 


n 


or tinne 


„ or mTi§ 


Ab. 


„ de 


M 


»> 




J5 


Ag. 


ham§ 


tume 


tinne, 


/. tinni 


iniie, /. inni 



The post-positions, where not printed above, must be understood 
throughout. The pronouns se, that, and eh, this, are remarkable in 
having forms for the fern, in the Oblique Sing. Thus in tesra the pos- 
sessor is masc, in team, the possessor is fern. 

Sing. 
N. kua, who ? 30, who 

Obi. kos (with i"a, &c.) jes, 

Ag. ktjaie jenne 

koi, anyone. Ob. kos. Ag. kuniB. 

kah, what. Ob. kanni. 

Other pronouns are kuch, anything, something ; jo koi, whosoever; 
jo kuch, whatsoever. 





4/ . 
35 


kinna 


jinna 


kinne 


jimie 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns, but Adjectives 
qualifying nouns have the following declension : — 

Adjectives in -a. N. Sing. Masc. -a. Ob. e. 

PI. -e, indecl. Fem. -?, Sing, and PI. indecl. 
All Adjectives ending in any other letter are indecl. 

Comparison is expressed by means of de, from, than ; e.g. — 

Good carjga; better than this, es de carjga ; better than all, best, 
sabbi de cauga. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Relative. 

fsha, like this tlsha, like that ktsha, like what jisha, like which 

itna, so much titna, so much kitna how much jitna, as much or 

or many. or many. or many. many. 

The genitive of Nouns and Pronouns is declined like Adjectives 
in -a. 

For Numerals see list of words. 



4 BagJi^ff. 

Adverbs. 

Most Adjectives can be used as Adverbs. When so used tliey 
agree with the subject of the sentence. 

The following is a list of the most important Adverbs, other than 
Adjectives : — 



{Time.) 
hibbi, now 
tes wakt, then 
kabbe, when ? 
jabbe, when 
az, to-day 

kalka, to-morrow [morrow 
p5ishii, the day after to- 
cauthe, the day after that 
kal, yesterday [terday 

porshu, the day after yes- 
cauthe, the day before that 
kabbhe, ever, sometimes 
kabbhe na, never 
kabbhe kabbhe, sometimes 



(Place.) 
etthi, here 
tetthi, there 
kei, ketthi, where ? 
jefcthi, where 
etthi khe, up to here 
etthi de, from here 
hubba, up 
hunda, down 
nore, near 
dur, far 
aoka, in f tont 
pachka, behind 
bihtre, inside 
bahre, outside 



Others are — Tcannf khe or M^, why ? ia hatd ri turl, for this reason ; 
ha or aho, yes ; nth, na, no ; sulle, well ; stdbt, quickly. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been given in the declension of 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same word is fre. 
quently both a preposition and an adverb. 



pore, parle kanare, beyond 
orle kanare, on this side 
pande, pande, upon 
hethe, below 
turi, up to 
mi kae, beside me 
„ sathi, with me 
tesri turi, for him 



teri turi, about thee 

hamma jisha, like us 

tinna re kanare, towards them 

tes de picche, after or behind it 

tesre girde, round it 

tari barabbari khe, equal to you 

mande sawa, apart from me 



Bayhnli. 

Conjunctions. 
te, and ; par but ; je, if ; cahe although ; yd, or. 



Verbs. 

Auxiliari/. 

Pres. I am, &c. ossu. osso osso oasu osso osso. 

Pres. Neg. I am not, &c. nfh athi, indecl. 

Past I was tha (/. thi) tha tba the (/. thi) the the. 

Intransitive Verbs, 
rirna fall. 

Fut. rfr-ue -la (/. -li) -la -ue or -me (/. -mi) -le (/. -li) -le. 

Imperat. rfr rifo 

Pres. rfr -u -o -(5 -u -o -6. 

Impf. Pres. with tha (/. tin) in Sing, and the (/. thi) in Plur. 

Cond. I would fall or have fallen, rij-da (/. -di) Sing. ; -de (/. -di) Plur. 

Past rfr -a (/. -i) -a -a -e (/. -i) -e -e. 

Plupf. rtr -a tha ; fl. lire the, &c. 

Participles, &c., rirero, having fallen ; rirde i or rWe % sar, on falling ; 
oirada, f. rii^dl in the state of having fallen ; Urdu, girS 
hua; rirde, while falling; rirnewala, faller or about to 
fall. 

Some verbs have slight irregularities. 

Ona, be or become. 



Fut. 


oue 


olla, &c. 


Imperat. 
Pres. 


6 

ou o 


o 
6 6u o 


Cond. 


onda. 




Participle 


oeio, onde i, onewala, &c. 






Auna, come. 


Fut. 


aue 


aula, &c. 


Imperat. 
Pres. 


ao 
aft 


ao 
ao, &c. 


Cond. 


aunda 




Past 
Participle 


aya /. ai pi. ae 

aero, aunde i, ajada (j 



(/. aidi, in the state of having 
come) aunewala, &c. 



6 Bdghati. 







Jo«a, go. 


Fut. 


jax'ig 


jalla jalla jamiul (/. jamm!) &c, 


Cond. 


janda ; 


Past goa 


Participle 


jaero, 


goada, &c. 

Bauhna, or rannS. 


Fat. 


raue 


raula raue or raume, &c. 


Pres. 


rou or 


rauu ro ro, &c. 


Cond. 


raunda 


Past 


roa 




Participle 


roero, ; 


roada, &c. 



Transitive Verbs. 

ttppna, beat, like rirnd except in Past. 

Past Agent case of subject with tippa •which agrees with object 

pi. ttppe, /. tippi. 
Plupf. Agent case of subject with ttppa tha. 

The passive is formed by using tippa with the required tense of 
janOf go : aii tippa jane, I shall be beaten. The passive, however, is 
rare. 

The following are slightly irregular : — 
hhana, eat Past khaya 
pina, drink „ piya 
dena, give „ dittd 

launa take, Fut. lue. Pres. lau lo, &c. Past lodi 
holnd, say, Past holla, used with Agent case 
Jcarnn, do „ Hyd 
jdnna, know „ jnnd 
ffnnd, bring „ ana 
Uattnn, bring, and lej'and, take away, are conjugated like avna, jo nil. 

Compound Verbs. 
Habit, Continuance, State. 

I am in the habit of falling, au rird Jcaru (compounded with 
Icarnd, do). 

I continue to fall, aU rirdd ran (compounded with rauncf, remain). 

I am in the act of falling, au laj rod rirdd (compounded with lagynd, 
stick, raitnn, remain). 



Bay ha (i. 



The difference of cases in the Impf. and the Past is illustrated in 
the following : — 

8S mdkJa iippo tha, he was beating me, but tenne au t^ppcl, he beat 
me, lit. by him I was beaten. When a noun is the object, the case with 
khe is allowed with both forms of the verb. 

When the participle of the form rakkhada, having been placed, is 
used instead of the past participle, the possessive case, and not the 
agent case, of the subject is used, e.g., tesrS kitah rakkhidi dsso ya nth 
dthi, has he placed the book or not ? Kdsre Dili rakkhidi, someone 
■will have placed it, but kunie rakkhi dlli, someone will have placed it 
hammS, dui janB ri kitaba rakkhidi osso, we two men have placed the 
books. 



bapu, father. 

ammS, mother. 

bajja, brother. 

bobbs, sister (older than 
person referred to). 

baihn, sister (younger than 
person referred to). 
^ bager, son. 
^ di, daughter. 

malik, husband. 
' cheofi, wife. 

jana, man. 
< juanas, woman. 

bager, boy. 

munni, choti, girl. 

gual, shepherd. 

cor, thief. 

g5hr-a, horse, 
-i, mare. 

bold, ox. 

gae, cow. 

mhaish, buffalo. 

bakr-a, goat. 
-i, she-goat. 

chiltu, kid. 

chel-ti,-li, „ (female). 

bed, sheep. 

kutt-a, dog. 
-i, bitch. 



rich, bear, 
sih, leopard, 
gad ha, ass. 
sftr, pig. 

murg-a, cock, 
-i, hen. 
bara-1, cat. (male), 
-li, „ (female), 
fit, camel, 
gijja, kite, 
hathi, elephant, 
hath, hand, 
lat, foot, 
nak, nose, 
akkhi, eye. 
mfih, face, 
dand, tooth, 
kan, ear. 
bal, hair, 
mund, head, 
jibh, tongue, 
pet, stomach, 
pith, back, 
pinda, badan, body, 
kitab, book, 
kalam, pen, 
maiija, bed. 
gaur, house, 
daryao, river. 



8 



Baghnli. 



khola, stream. 

tibba, bill. 

mada", plain. 

bagti, field. 

rotl, bread. 

pani, water. 

kanak, wheat. 

kukkri, maize. 

dal, tree. 

gao, village. 

sliaihr, town, 

baun, jungle. 

raacchli, fish. 

bat, path. 

phal, fruit. 

shakar, meat. 

dudh, milk. 

anda, egg (large). 

anni, „ (small). 

giu, ghi. 

tel, oil. 

cha, buttermilk. 

din, day. 

rat, night. 

suraj, sun. 

jun, moon. 

tara, star. 

paun, wind. 

barkha, rain. 

daii, sunshine. 

andhi, storm. 

bara, bojh, load. 

bi], seed. 

loha, iron. 

caijga, sohna, good, fine. 

bura, bad. 

bad da, big. 

ch5ta, small. 

dilla, lazy, 

akalwala, hushyar, wise. 

sidda, foolish. 

paiiina, sharp. 



ncca, high. 

sohna, beautiful, 

bura, ugly. 

thanda, cold. 

tatta, hot. 

mittha, sweet. 

saf, clean, 

tSar, ready, 

kamti, less, 

bhauta, more. 

ona, be, 

auna, come, 

jana, go, 

bethna, sit. 

launa, take. 

dena, give. 

rfrna, fall. 

uth^a, rise. 

khara ona, sfand. 

dekhna, see. 

khana, eat. 

pina, drink. 

bolna, say. 

suttna, sleep, lie down. 

karna, do. 

rauna, rauhna, remain. 

tipna, beat. 

marna, kill. 

pachanna, recognise. 

paiitsna, paucna, arrive. 

danr deni, run. 

matthna, run away. 

banana, make. 

rakkhna, place. 

bulauna, call. 

milna, meet. 

sikhna, learn. 

parhna, read. 

likhna, write. 

marna, die. 

sunna, hear. 

atna, turn. 



Baghdti. 



atSr5 aunS, return, 
baihna, flow, 
larna, fight, 
jitna, win. 
arna, be defeated, 
bijna, sow. 



1— §k. 

2— do. 

3 — tin. 

4 — car. 

5 — panj. 

6 — che. 

7 — sat. 

8— ath. 

9 — nau, 
10— das. 
11 — giara. 
12 — bara. 
13 — tera. 
14 — Cauda. 
15 — pandra. 
16 — sola. 
17 — satra. 
18 — athara. 
19 — unni, 
20— bish. 
27 — satai. 
29 — unatti. 
30— tish. 
37 — saiti. 
39 — untali 

paihlka, 1st. 
dujja, 2nd. 
tijja, 3rd. 
cautha, 4tli. 
panjwa, 5th, 
2 



Numerals, 
Cardinal. 



aul bana, plough, 
khlana, feed, 
plana, give to drink, 
sunana, cause to hear, 
cugna, graze, 
tsarna, cause to graze. 



Ordinal. 



40 — call. 

47 — santali, 

49 — onunja. 

50 — panj ah, 

51 — akunjah. 

52 — banjah. 

55 — pacunjah. 

57 — satunjah. 

59 — uujlhatli. 

60 — shath, sath. 

67 — satahatb. 

69 — unhattar. 

70 — sattar. 

77 — satattar. 

79 — unasi. 
80 — ashshi, assi. 
87 — satasi. 
89 — nianwe. 
90 — nabbe. 
97 — satanw§. 
99 — narinwe. 
100— shau. 
1,000— bazar. 
100,000— Jakh, 



chatua, 6th. 

sattia, 7th. 

dasua, 10. 

paihlki bare, first time. 

dujji bare, second time. 



10 BayhSli 

Ordinal. — contd. 

addha, half. dai, 2\. 

paune do, If. dedh, 1|. 

savva do, %\. sadde car, 4^. 

ek paia, |. 

1. Tera kah nau osso ? What is thy name ? 

2. Es gohre ri kitni ummar olli ? What will be the age of this 
horse ? 

3. Etthi de Kashmira tUri kitna khe dur olla ? From here to 
Kashmir how far will ifc be ? 

4. Tere baua re gare ko bete osso ? In thy father's house how 
many sons are there ? 

5. All az bari diira de handero aya. To-day I have come walking 
from very far. 

6. Mere cace ra bager tesri bobbo sathi biahda osso ? My ancle's 
son is married to his sister, 

7. Mahre the safed gohre ri jin osso. In our house the white 
horse's saddle is. 

8. Tesri pitthi pande jin guro. On its back fasten the saddle. 

9. Moe tesre bagera khe bara tippa. I beat his son very much. 

10. Se ucce tibbe pande gai aur bakri lagroa tsarne. He on the 
high hill is grazing cows and goats. 

11. Se tes dala hethe gohre pande bethroa, or bethada osso. He 
under that tree is seated on a horse. 

12. Tesra bayya apni bai^a de baja osso. His brother is bigger 
than his sister. 

13. Tesra (tyesra) dam dai rupayye osso. Its price is two and a 
half rupees. 

14. Mera bapu tSs jane chote gara manjhe rau. My father lives in 
that small house. 

15. Teskhe (tyeskhe) eh rupayye dedeo. Give him these rupees. 

16. Se jane rupayye tesde lau laune. Take those rupees from him. 

17. Tesklie ain tippero rashshi sei banhdeo. Having beaten him 
well, bind him with ropes. 

18. Kile manjhe de pani nikalo. Draw water from the well, 

19. Mande agge agge cal. Walk before me. 

20. Kosra bager tan picche aune lagroa ? Whose boy is coming be- 
hind you ? 

21. Se tumme kosde mulle loa ? From whom did you buy it ? 

22. Gawa re ekki baale de. From a shopkeeper of the village. 



II. KIUNTHALI. [Kifithali.] 

Nouns. 

Masculine. 

Nouns in -a. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. gobr-a, horse -g 

G. -§ ro or ra -e, &c. 

D.A. -e khe or Lage &c. 

Loc. -e da 

Ab. -§ da or hago 

Ag. -e 

Voc. -ea e 5 

da, of the Loc. agrees with its subject, the thing which is iw the 
other, fern, dl, pi. de. 

Nouns in a Consonant. 

N. gauhr, horse gauhr 

G.D.A.L. Ab. gaur -6 ra, &c. gaur-o, &c. 

Ag. -e -e 

Nouns in -i. 

N. hathi, elephant hathi. 
G.D.A.L. Ab. „ ro, &c. „ &c. 

Ag. hathi-e hathi-§ 
Voc. -a -au 

Nouns in -ii. 

N". bfu-cu, scorpion. -cfi 

G.D.A.L. Ab. -en ra, &o. -cu ra, &c. 

Ag. -cu§ -cue 

N"- ba-o, father. bao, &c., as Sing. 

G. -o ra 

D.A. -a khe, ba hage 

L. -a da 

Ab. ba hago, baa da 

Ag. bawo 

nS, name is indecL 



12 



Ag. 



N. 
G. 
D.A. 

L. 

Ab. 
Ag. 





Kifithall. 








Feminine. 








Nouns in-i. 






N. 


bet-i, daughter 




-i 


G.D.A.L. Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 




-i, &c. 


Ag. 


-ie 




-ie 


Voc. 


-ie 

Nouns in a Consonant. 




-io 


N. 


beuhn, sister 


beub 


n 


G.D.A.L. Ab. 


baubn-e ra, &c. 


baubn-e, &c. 


Ag. 


-5 




-5 


N. 


ga-ui 




-ui 


G.D.A.L. Ab. 


-ue ro, &c. 




-ue, &c, 




-uie 




-ui§. 




Pronouns. 







Sing. 



1st 



2nd 



N. S tu 

G. mero, mera ter-o,-a 

D.A. mS kbe, or mi tS kbe, or t§ 
L. „ da „ da 

Ab. „ deau „ deau 



3rd (he, she, it, eh, this 
that) 

Be eh 

tes (/. tessau) ra es (/. g,ssau) ra 
kh§ „ „ khS 
da ,, ,, da 



» 



M 



moe 



hame 
mahro 
hamo khe, 

or hamo 

„ da 
? „ deau 
hame 



II 



i> 

51 



toi 



tinie /. t§ssS 



deau „ ,, deau 
inie (/. isse). 



Plur. 



tume, tusse s5 5h 

tumahro tihn-au (/. -i) ra ihn-au (/• -i) ra 

tusso khe, „ „ khe „ „ khS 

or tusso or tihnau 

„ da „ (/.-i) da „ „ da 

„ deau „ „ deau „ „ deau 

tusse, tume tihn -§, /. -ie, ine, ihiie/. ihnie 



Kiuthali has, like all neighbouring dialects, a feminine farm for 
the oblique of the pronouns sS and eh. 



KiUfhall. 13 

kun, who ? obi. kds, ag. ktin'ie, ag. pi. knnne. 
jo, who, obi. jos, ag. junle. 
kol, anyone, aqmeone, obi. kds, ag. kunie. 
hah, what ? obi. konni. 

Other pronouns are kie, kuch, anything, something ; jo kol, whosoever; 
jb kuchf whatsoever. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns, but adjectives qua- 
lifying nouns have the following declension : — All adjectives ending in 
any letter other than -a are indecl. Those ending in -a have obi. -e, 
pi. -B indecl. Fem. -I or -i or -e indecl. 

Comparison is expressed by means of da, than, from, used with the 
positive. The adjective ts5zzero, good, has a comp. form beh, tsozzeio, 
good, esda beh, better than this, sobbt da tsozzero, better than all, best. 
Demonstrative, ishu, like that or this ; itn-6,-a, so much or many. 
Correlative, tishu, like that or this ; titn-6,-a, so much or many. 
Interrogative, kishu, like what ? kitii-o,-a, how much or many. 
Relative, jishu, like which ; jitn-o,-a, as much or many. 

The genitive of nouns and pronouns is declined like adjectives 
in -a. 

For numerals see list of words. 



Adverbs, 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. They then a^ree with the 

subject of the sentence. 

The following is a list of the most important adverbs other than 

adjectives : — 

(Time.) (Place.) 

5bi, now, itia, ethia, here 

tes wakt, then tetia, poria, there 

kodde, when ? ketia, where ? 

jodde, when jetia, where 

aj, to-day gtthe, tai, up to here 

dote, to-morrow ethiau, from here 

poshue, day after to-morrow ubha, up 

tsauthe, cauthe, day after that undha, down 

liijo, yesterday. neure, near 

phredz5, day before yesterday dur, far 



14 



KiuihalL 



(Time.) 
tsauthe, cauthe, day after that 
kobbe, ever, sometimes 
kobbe na, never 
kobbe kobbe, sometimes 



(Place.) 
gaiika, in front 
pichauka, behind 
■withku, inside 
baindku, outside 



Other are koe, why ; etthrl tet, for this reason ; ah, yes j nih, na, 
no ; shiga, quickly. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been given in the declension of 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same word is frequently 
both a preposition and an adverb. 



pandku, beyond 

andku, on this side 

pande, upon 

mule, below 

bice, manj the, within 

tai, up to 

mae go khe, beside me 

mae sathi, with me 



tesri tai, for him 
teri tai, about thee 
hamo jeha, like us 
tina re kanare, towards them 
tes pichauka, after or behind it 
tesre ale duale, round about it 
tumahre barabar, equal to you 
mandea bina, apart from me 



Verbs. 

Auxiliary. 

Pres. I am, &c., oss'u or u, osse or ai, osso or 6 or u or a 

ossu or ft osso, osso or au 

Pres. Negative, I am not, &c., n!h anthi indec. 
Past. I was, &c., Sing, thia or tha ( /. thi) Plur. the or thie (/. thi) 



Pres. Cond. 
Put. 
Impr, 
Pres. Ind. 
Impf. 

Past Cond. 
Past Indie. 



Intransitive Verbs. 

rlrnu fall. 

If I fall, &c., rir -ii -§ -e -u. -5 -o 

rir -u% -ela -61a -time -ole -ole 

rir rira, 

rir -u -e -5 -u -6 -o 

The same with tha in Sing, and the in Plur, 

I should fall, rir -da, /. -di, Plur. -de, /. -d! 



rir -a, /. -i. pi. 



'6, 



/• 



Kiuthali. 15 

Pres. Perf. rira, &c., with ii ai a u ai ai 

Plupf, rira tba, /. rin thi, &c. 

Participles rireau, having fallen ; rira hunda, in the state of 

having fallen, rlrde, v^hile falling ; rirnewalo, faller 

or about to fall. 

Some verbs have slight irregularities. 

ahnu, be or become. 
Fut. oh-umi or -ua -ela -la -m§ -le -le 

Cond. Past hunda. 

aunu, come. 

Fut, aum§ awela aola aume aole aol§ 

Irapr. a a 

Pres. Ind. aii 
Past Cond. aunda - 
Past Sya 

deunUf go. 

Fut. deuS 

Impr. de deau 

Pres. Ind. deu 
Past Cond. deunda 
Past deua 

rauhnu, remain, 

Fut, rauhtimi rohela rauhla rauh-ume -1§ -le 

Impr. rauh rauh 

Past Cond. rauhnda 
Past roha 

janu, go. 
Fut, jaum§ jela jaola, &c. 

Past goa 

Transitive Verbs. 

katelnU, plfmo, beat, almost exactly like rtrnu. 
Impr. katil katelau. 

Past. katela, with agent case of subject, katela agreeing 

with the object, 
Pres, Perf. agent case with katela a /. kateli au, PI. katele ai. 
Plupf. „ „ „ katela tha, &c. 

The Passive is formed by using the past participle katela with tlie 
required tense of janU, go ; katela janu, be beaten. But it should be 
observed that the passive is not at all common. 



16 Kinihalt. 

The following are slightly irregulai' : — 
khSnu, eat, Past khayd 
plnU, drink „ piyyd' 

denU, give, Fut. deUma or dema. Past dittd 
launU, take, Fut. laiimoi. Past Ida 
holnUy Past hold with agent case 
kdmu, ,, keU 
j'dnnU, know, Past ^araa 

leaunu, bring ; laul janu, take away, are conjugated like 
aunUjctnil. 

Compound Verbs. 

Habit, Continuance. 

I am in the habit of falling, a rlre Mru (compounded with kdmu, do). 
He continues to fall, keeps on falling, se rirdd rohd Idge hunda (com- 
pounded with rauhmi, remain, laggnii, stick, ohnU, be). 

Notes on Verbs. 

deunu, go, denotes the act of going, yans is used in composition. As 
in Urdu and Hindi, the word * go ' enters very largely into the forma- 
tion of compound verbs. In such cases jdnuy not deunu is used. 
kateld jdnU, be beaten ; d^ivi jdnii, go away. 

The Infinitive in -nil, when used as a gerundive, becomes an ad- 
jective in -a in agreement with the object, mere rupayyd tifh dend, I 
have not to give a rupee tesre clsh pinl, he has to drink water. 

The Negative form of the auxiliary is noteworthy ; a nth anthl, I 
am not ; moe nth keu anthi ai, I have not done ; toe n%h ehru or ehrd 
Snthi, thou has not done. 

Two constructions with the genitive case where we should expect 
the agent or ablative are remarkable. 

(i) With the Infinitive mere bde re nth denU, my brother has not to 
give, = in Pan jabi -Urdu, mere bhdi ne neh% dend ^ tesre cish pinl, he has 
to drink water. 

(ii) With a participle, mdhre nth dendo, we cannot give, = ^am se 
neh% diydjdtd ; tere nth deundo dnthz, thou canst not go ; meri bauhne re 
kitdb nth porhdi, my sister cannot read the book. These forms of the 
participle appear to be passive ; this is confirmed by the variations which 
we meet with in the eastern portion of Kiftthal State ; deimdo there be- 
comes deiotdo, dendo detdo, porhdi porhldl. 

If these are really passives we have a linguistic phenomenon of 
considerable importance. The organic passive is found to a slight 
extent in Paijjabi and is fully developed in Laihnda. 



KiuilmU. 



17 



The difference of case foi\the object in the Past and other tenses may 
be seen in the following examples: aj'anu tes (for tes khe) I know him, 
but mae jana se, I knew him, lit. by me he was known. Wlien a noun 
is the object the case with like is allowed with the past tense. 

In the short form of the Present Auxiliary (I am, &c.) consisting 
generally of a single vowel sound, the vowel to be used seems to be 
chosen on euphonic principles, depending apparently rather upon tlie 
vowel or letter which happens to precede than upon the noun or pro- 
noun which is the subject. 

The ending of the infinitive is either -nu or nu indifferently. After 
r or r (or rh or rh) n is usually changed to 7i. 



bao, father, 
iji, mother, 
bae, brother, 
beuhu, sister, 
bagehr, son. 
beti, daughter, 
kliosm, husband, 
cheoii, wife, 
thind, man. 
cheori, woman, 
bagehr, boy. 
beti, girl, 
gual shepherd, 
cor, thief, 
gohf -a, horse. 

-i, mare, 
bold, be^ld, ox. 
gaui, cow. 
me^ash, buffalo, 
bakr -a, goat (he). 

-i, „ (she), 
behd, sheep, 
kukk -ar, dog. 

-ri, or -re, bitch, 
banae, rich, bear, 
sih, leopard, 
gadha, ass. 
sor, pig. 
kukkr -a, cock, 
-e, -i, hen, 
3 



ginda, cat (male), 
brail i, ,, (female). 
lit, camel, 
panchi, bird. 
JLidh -e, -i, kite, 
hatlii, elephant, 
hath, hand, 
lat, foot, 
nak, nose, 
akkhe, e^e. 
mSh, face, 
dand, tooth (front). 
dar, „ (back), 
kan, ear. 
bal, hair, 
mund, head, 
jibh, tongue, 
pet, stomach. , 

pith, back. ' 
kitab, book, 
kalam, pen. 
manja, bed. 
gauhr, house. 
daryao, river, 
nau, stream. 
pahr? hill, 
jubar, plain, 
khec, field 
nauz, naudzo 
roti, tuk^uka 



zo 1 
ca J 



bread, food. 



18 



KixL'.hall. 



cish, water, 

gihn, wheat. 

kukkri, maize. 

dal, tree. 

gao, village. 

bir, city. 

bauhn, jungle. 

maclii, fish. 

hat, way. 

pba], fruit. 

dalki, meat (for eating). 

dagga, „ other, e.g., of cow, 

horse, 
dndh, milk, 
anda, egg. 
gihu, ghi. 
tel, oil. 

chah, buttermilk, 
theu, thing, 
daihru, day. 
rat, night, 
suraj, sua. 
jiihn, moon, 
tara, star, 
bagur, wind, 
pani, rain 
dau, sunshine, 
tuath, stormy wind, 
bahra, load. 

pajahr, load of grass, firewood, 
bij, seed. 
loha, iron, 

tsozzaio, good, beautiful, clean, 
kutsodzo, kutsadzo, bad, ugly, 

Ignorant, 
boro, big. 
mhatho, small, 
dalidri, lazy, 
akleala, wise, 
shiga, swift, 
paueno, sharp, 
uc^a, high. 



sholla, cold. 

tato, hot. 

gudla, sweet. 

tear, ready. 

thoro, little. 

bhauri, much. 

ohnu, be, become. 

aunu, come. 

janu, go. 

bethnu, sit. 

lauuii, take. 

deuu, give. 

rirnu, fall. 

uthnu, rise. 

khara rauhnu, remain. 

dekhnu, see, 

khaiiu, eat. 

pinu, drink. 

bolnu, say. 

dzopnu, speak. 

suttnu, sleep, lie down. 

kornu, do. 

rauhnu, remain. 

marnu, kill. 

pachannu, recognise. 

jannu, know. 

pujnu, arrive. 

daurnu, run. 

banaunu, make. 

rakkhnii, place. 

bidnu, call. 

phabnu, meet. 

shikhnu, learn. 

porhnu, read. 

likhnii, write. 

mornu, die. 

shunnu, hear. 

otnu, turn. 

nre otnu, return. 

bauhnu, flow. 

godnu, fight. 

jitnu, win. 



Kiutliall. 



19 



harnu, be defeated. 
d§ue jauu, go away, 
bijnu, sow. 



aulil bahnu, plough, 
tsuqgnu, graze. 
tsugaunu, cause to graze. 





Ndmerals 


. 




Cardinal 




l-^ek. 




18 — tharau. 


2 d5. 




19 — unni. 


3 — caun. 




20— bish. 


4 — tsar. 




27 — satai. 


5 — panz, paojh. 




29 — unatti. 


6 — ^tsh§. 




30— tih. 


7 — sat. 




37 — saitT. 


8— atth. 




39 — untali. 


9 — nau. 




40— tsali. 


10 — dash. 




47 — saTtali. 


11 — gairo. 




49 — uaunza. 


12— bar5. 




50 — pajah. 


13 — tero. 




57 — satunja. 


14 — tsaudo. 




59 — unahat. 


15 — pandrau. 




60— saht. 


16 — solau. 




100— ,sliau. 


17 — sattrau. 


Ordinal. 




paihla, 1st. 




satua, 7th. 


diijja, 2nd. 




dashua, 10th 


cia, 3rd. 
tsautha, 4th. 








addha, |. 


panjua, 5th, 




paune do, If 


cbattha, 6th. 







1. Tera nS kah a ? What is thy name ? 

2. Es gohre ri ketni ummor au ? How much is this horse's age ? 

3. Ethiau Kashmira tai ketno dur au ? How far is it from Jieie 
to Kashmir. 

4. Tere bao re gauhre ketue cbotii au ? In thy father's house 
how many sons ai'e there ? 

5. Ij S ban diiro dan bandeau aya ii. To-day I from vei-y far 
have walking come. 



20 Kinthali. 

6. Mere tsatse ra bagehr tesri bauhue sathi belia hunda u. My 
uncle's son is married to his sister. 

7. Gaulire safed g5hre ri dzin au. In the house is the white 
horse's saddle. 

8. Tesri pitthe pande dzin kosho. On his back bind the saddle. 

9. Tesra beta m.oe beghe kfitela. I beat his son veiy much. 

10. Se e?so dahro paude mheMishe gaui dzagau. He on that hill 
is grazing buffaloes and cows. 

11. Se tes dalo mule gohre pande betha hunda a. He under that 
tree if seated on a horse. 

12. Tesra bae apni bewene da bodra. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

13. fisro mol dabe rupoja. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mero bao tes mhathre gauhro da raub5. My fatlier lives in 
that small house. 

15. Lsklie eh rupo^'e deau. Give him these rupees. 

16. Se rupoyo es hago nre lau. That rupee take from him. 

17. Teskhe blye pite.iu roshi sathi bannho. Having beaten him 
much tie him with ropes. 

18. Kiie da cish ana. From the well draw water. 

19. Maude gaoke tsalo. Walk before me, 

20. Kosio bagehr tS deau pachSka hando ? Whose boy is walking 
behind thee ? 

21. Toe kos hagc se molle loa ? From whom didst thou buy that? 

22. GS da ekki dukandaro da. From a shopkeeper of the village. 



Eastern kiunthali [Ki^thaii.] 

Nouns are declined as in KiSthali proper. 

Pronouns. 
The following slight differences are found :— 

Piur. Sing. 

1st. 2nd. 3rd. 

N. ae tug 

Cr. tSai'6 

D.A. ao kbe, a§ tno khe, tuo 

Ag. ae tue 



/. teo ra 
tenne/. te 



1st. pers. pron. sing. Las mU for ma. 

hun, who ? Ag. kune. 

Verbs are almost identically the same. 

aunu, come, makes past djja. 

heshnu, sit, past hesha. 

pifnu, beat, pres. perf. pifu o or pita an. 

khana, eat, past, khSya or kheu. 

dena, give, past, ditta or dim. 

dzopnu, say, speak, past, dzopu. 

In the constructions with the gen. case given under Notes on 

Verbs on p 16 for mahre nU dendo (Kiathali), Eastern KiSthali bas 

mahre mh de^do, for tere nU deundo anthl, tere nih detvUo anthl, for 

men bauhne re kitah nih porhdl, men hauhnB re kitdb nth rdrhidl see 

note, p. 16. i • y 

Tbe following Numerals are different:— 

^— P^^j- 30— tis_h. 

^-^'^^^- 37-saTtis^. 

,f~^^^- 39-untalls. 

10-daus_h. 40~tsalis_h. 

^^—S^^o. 49-uncag. 

27-satai,sh. 50-paias. 
29— nottish. 

The sentences in which there is any difference are subjoined :— 
3. Efchau Kasjimira tai ketno dur au ? From here to Kashmir 
how far is it ? 



22 Eastern Kiutliall. 

4. Tere bao re gauhre ketne (or kau) tshote au ? la thy father's 
house how many sons are there ? 

5 Adz a bare duro dau bandeau ajja u. To-day I from very far 
have walked. 

6. Mere tsatse ra tshoto tesri bauhne sathe beba honda a. My 
uncle's son is married to his sister. 

8. Tesri pitthe pande (or gaihra) dzin kosho. On his back bind 
the saddle. 

9, Tesra beta moe beghe pita. His son I beat much. 

10 Se eo dahro gaihra mettish gao dzagau. He on that hill is 
grazing buffaloes and cows. 

12, Tesra bae apni beaene dau bora. He is bigger than his sister. 

17. Teskhe biye pi^eau roshi bannbo. Having beaten him well 
tie him with ropes. 

18. Kiie dan cish talo. Draw water from the well. 

19. Made gaoke tsalo. Walk before me. 

20. KosrO tshotu tSdeau pach5 hando ? Whose son walks behind 
you? 



KOTZHAI. 

A few paradigms will give an idea of the Kotkhai dialect; only 
the points of difference will be mentioned. It is distinct from, but very 
much resembles Kiftthali. 

Nouns. 

The declension is almost the same as in KiSthali. The following 
is the only difference : — 



Sing. 
D.A. gohf-e ke 
Ab. -e agS 

ke being used for khe and S,go for hcigo. 



Plur. 
as Sing. 







Pbonouns. 










Sing. 






1st. 


2nd. 


3rd. 




eh, this. 


N. t 










G. 




/. tissau ro 




/. issau ro 


D.A. mS ke 


t§ke 


tes ke, /. tissau 


ke 




Ag. mo 


t§ 


tenne, /. tisse 




enne, /. isse 



Plur. 

N. e, aimu, eS tue 

G. tuauro, tuauro tinau ro 

D.A. ao ke tuo ke 

Ag. e tue tine 



mau ro 



me 



Adverbs, 

(Time.) 

jisho, to-morrow. 

porshe, day after to-morrow. 

porshe, day before yesterday. 



(Place. ) 
ittha, here. 
ettha, these, 
kirka, where ? 



au 


ft 5 


an 


ta 


te (/. ti) te 


te 



24 Kotkhnl. 

Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 

Pies. I am, &c. ft ai 

Past I was ta (/. ti) ta 

hatelnu, beat. 

Put, katel -ula -ela -ola -ume -ole -ole 

The Impf. usually prefers the following form : — 

Impf. a ta katelu, tu katela ta, se katelo ta, e te ka^elu, 

tue te katelo, se te katelo. 
Plupf. mo katela ta, &c. 

The Vocabulary of the Kotkhai dialect is almost the same as that 
of Kinthal or Kot Guru, agreeing sometimes with one and sometimes 
with the other. Shand is see or look, hlujnd, rioe, pdtrl^ field, sheld, cold, 
des, sun. 



III. KOTGURU. 

Nouns, 
Masculine. 
Nouns in -a. 

^ ^^»9' Plur, 

^' gohr-a, horse _a,i 

^' -eo,/. -eai as Sing, 

^•'^' -e lai 

^°°' -e de, di 

Ab. 

Ag. 
V. 



V. 



Ag. 
V, 



-e ka 
-ejai 



-ra lai, &c. 

-rai 

-ra 



-iai 
-ia 



ft 

■n 



€0 



-6a 

Nouns in a Consonant 
^' gauh-r, house as Sing, 



^« -ro 

D.A.L. Ab. _r.- Ui A. 



II 

-rd 



Nouns in -i, 

p' ^**^-J. elephant as Sing. 

-io 
r).A.L. Ab. .i, &e. 



» 

id 



nouns in -«. 



Nouns_ in -u, such as Uncu, scorpion , e.i«, Hindu, are declined like 

6«6, father, is declined like gauhr, but has habh in the Voc Sin^ 
fiad name is mdec. "^I'lg. 

Feminine. 
Nouns in -i. 

^' tshoHigirl as Sing. 

"■ -io 

D.A.L.Ab. .i,&^. 

^g- -iai 

V - - " 



26 



G. 

D.A.Lv Ab. 

V. 



Kofgtir^. 

Nouns in a Consonant. 

baih-n 
-n5 

-ni, &c, 
-nai 
-OS 



nf 

as Sing, 

»> 

5T 



^flo, COW, bas G. gmvo, Ag. gawaL Plnr. tl^e same. 



Pronouns. 

Singular, 

Ist 2nd 3rd (be, she, it, tliat) jau, tliis. 

~ , _ iau 

N, mS tn sau , i r •«« 

G. oerau terau tebrS, tettau,/. laiau, »e.(. tetthau eh.au, /. a;aa 

D.A. mulai tS lai tea lai, /. taia lai, ,.«.«. tetth la. eu la_, /. a,a la. 

L. made tSde „ ds „ dS, „ „ de .- d» " ^» 

Ab. mukS „ka „ k& „ kS, .. .. k» .. M .. 



)> 



)> 



» 



Ag. mal 



tal 



tini 



tai 



Plural. 



1st 
N, hame 
G. Biabro 
D.A. hamS lai 
1*. „ d© 

Ab. „ ka 
Ag. ham! 



2nd 

tume, tiime 
tbaro 
tuma lai 
„ de 
„ ka 
tume 



ard 

sai 

tinau 

tin a lai 
„ de 
„ ka 

tins 



eue> 



(jau, tbis.) 
jai 
inau 
ina lai 
d& 
ka 



ai 



>) 



>5 

ine 



N. 
G. 
D.A.L. Ab. 

Ag. 



Sing. 

kuQ, wbo ? 
kauro 

kaua, &c. 
kuni 



Plur. 



dzun, wbo 
dzauro 
dzaua, &c. 
dzuni 



kun 
kaur5 
kaua, &c. 
kuuiyai 



dzun 
dzauro- 
dzaua, &c. 
dzumyai 



Tcdl, anyone, someone ; G. Mmi, Ag. hum. 

Jcai, what ? G. IciUWd. . ■, i - „.Ur.arw 

Other pronouns are Mch, anytbing, something-, dzun kuni, v^hosc^ 
erer ; dzun Tcich, whatsoever. 



Kotgurti. 



27 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns, but adjeofcives 
qualifying nouns have the following declension : — All adjectives ending 
in any letter other than -a -o -au are indecl. Those ending in these 
letters have Obi. -e or -ai, PI. -e indecl. /. -i indecl. It should be 
remembered that the genitives of nouns and pronouns are adjectives 
coming under this rule. 

Comparison is expressed by means of ha or thaku, used with the 
positive : — hatsau, good ; eh thaka hatsau, better than this ; sobkt kS, 
hatsau, better than all, best. 

Demo7istrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Relative. 

aino, like this or, taino, like this or kaiuo, like what? dzaino, like 

that that which 

etiau, so much or tetrau, so much ketrau, how much jetrau, so much 

many or many or many ? or many 



Adverbs. 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. When so used they agree 
with the subject of the sentence. 

The following are .the most 
adjectives : — 



important adverbs other than 



{Time.) 
eblii, now. 
tebhi, then, 
keblii, when ? 
jebhi, when, 
az, to-day. 
kalle, to-morrow, 
porshe, day after to-morrow, 
cauthe, „ „ that. 
hidzG, yesterday. 
phoroz, day before yesterday, 
thanoroz „ ,, tliat. 
kebhi, sometimes, ever, 
kebhi na, never, 
kebhi ua kebhi, sometimes. 



{Place.) 
indhi, here, 
ttdhi, there, 
kfdhi kii, where ? 
jiddhi, where, 
indlia taf up to here, 

,, le, hither, 
indha, from here, 
hnblii, gash, up. 
hundi, down 
neddhi neai\ 
dur, far. 
agde, in front, 
patsha, behind, 
bitre, inside. 



bahre, outside. 

Others are kilai, why ; etthl ta^, for this reason ; hatse Jcore or JidtsS 
giUhi, well ; shlgre, rapidly ; o, yes j nU, no. 



28 



Kofgurvl. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been given in the declensions 
of nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same words are 
frequently both prepositions and adverbs. 



parsha, beyond, 
arsha, on this side, 
mandzha, manjha, within, 
gae, upon, 
tal, up to. 
mS kae, beside me. 
„ soijghe, with me. 
teii le, for him. 



tgri tat, about thee, 
hama sahi, like us. 
tinau bile, towards them, 
tetthau phere, after that. 

„ pher, round about that, 
tuma barabari, equal to you, 
mS chadeau, apart from me. 







Conjunctions. 


a or, and 
por, but 
dzai, if 




etthi t&% because 
jilai ki, although 
jaino, as if. 




Vkrbs. 






Auxiliary. 


Pres. I am, &c. 
Pres. Negative 
Past Sing. 


a or asa indec. 
uehi ainthi, indec, 
tau, /. tj, PL tai /. ti. 



Pres. Cond. 
Fut. 

Imperat, 
Pres. Ind. 
Irapf. 

Past Cond. 
Past Indie. 
Plupf. 
Participle 



Intransitive Verbs. 

lotnmt,, fall. 

l6t-n -a —a -i -a -a 

lot-mS -a -a -me -a -a 
lott lottau. 
Same as Pres. Cond. 
The same with tau (/. ti) in Sing, and tai (/. ti) in 

Plur. 
Sing, lot -dau, PI. -dai, /. -di. 
Sing, lot -au, PI. -ai, /. -i. 
Same with tau, &c. 
lotyo, having fallen ; lotda (indec.) while falling ; lotau 
auudmi, in the state of having fallen ; Zci^neaZa, faller 
or about to fall. 



Kotgurn. 29 

Some common verbs have slight irregularities. 

atinau, auhnau, be, become (the h is generally omitted). 

Past Cond. aundaa, auhndau. 
Past fihau (nau) /. uhi, &c. 

Snau, come. 

Pres. Cond. or Indie, an a a ai ao a. 
Fut. amS, &c. 

Imperat. a ao or aau. 

Past Cond. andau. 

Past aau, PI. ae, /. ai or ae. 

(J,eunau, go. 

Pres. Cond. or Indie, deu dewa, &c. 

Fut. deinS 

Imperat. de5 deo 

Past Cond. deuudau 

Past deiiau, PI. deuai, /. deui. 

rauhnau, remain. 
Past Cond. rauhndau. 

janau, go. 
Past Cond. jandau. 
Past Indie, gau, /. get, PI. gee, /. gei. 



Transitive Verbs. 

mflmau, beat, conjugated almost exactly like loinati. 
Imperat. mar marau. 
Past Indie, mar -au, (PI. -ai, /. -i), with agent case of subject 

marau agreeing with object. 
Plupf. marau tau, with agent case of subject, marau tau 

agreeing with object. 

The Passive is formed by using the past participle mSrau, with 
the required tense oij'anau, go ; marau janati, to be beaten : but the use 
of the passive voice is rare. 

The following are slightly irregular : — 
denau, give, Past, dinau. 
kornau, do. ,, kiau. 

j'annau, know „ janau. 

annau, bring ,, onau. 

khanau, eat ; plnau, drink ; lainati, take ; holnau, say ; nlnan, take 
away, are regular. 



dO KotgufU, 

■ ' ' ' Compound Verbs." ^. 

Continuance, State. 

I continue to fall, w8 loldau rohu or rauhu, (compounded with 
rauhna remain). 

I am now in the act of falling, mU lotdau lag.d aunditu, (compounded 
with laggna, stick, and aiman, be). 

Notes on Verbs. 

j'anau, go, is used only in composition, marau jdnau, be killed; deui 
janau, go away. 

The Negative auxiliary is found as in other dialects in the Simla 
States and in Kulti. 

A noteworthy construction with the possessive when we should 
expect an ablative is illustrated in the following : — jau kitab teuB neht 
porhdt, he cannot read this book ; mere neht deundaii, I cannot go. See 
note under KiSthali. 



bab, father. 

i, mother. 

bae, brother. 

dai, sister (older than 

speaker) . 
cei, beihn, sister (younger 

than speaker), 
chot -u, tshot -u, son. 

-i -i, daughter. 

rand -n, husband. 

-i, cheori, wife, 
dzona, mord, man. \ 
cheori, tsheSri, woman, 
chot-n, boy. 
-i, girl, 
phual, bakrala, shepherd, 
tsor, thief, 
gohr-a, horse, 
-i, mare, 
bold, ox. 
gao, cow. 
mhiiish, buffalo. 



bakr-au, he-goat. 

-i, she-goat, 
behr, sheep, 
kuk-ar, dog. 
-ri, bitch, 
rich, rikh, bear, 
slh, leopard, 
gadhau, ass. 
sSr, suijgar, pig. 
murg-au, kukkhr-au, cock. 

-i -i, hen. 

bfail-a, cat (male). 

-], „ female. 
Qt, camel. 

ciukh-u (/-i), little bird, 
cakrai, kite, 
shailta, /. shail, fox. 
hathi, elephant, 
hatth, hand, 
lat, foot, 
nak, nose, 
akkh, eye. 



Kofgurii. 



31 



mfth, face, 
jat, mouth, 
dand, tooth, 
kan, ear. 
shral, hair, 
mund, head. . 
dzfbh, tongue. 
p5t, stomach, 
pitth, back, 
jiu, body, 
katab, book, 
kolm, pen. 
manja, bed. 
gauhr, house, 
daieo, river, 
galir, stream, 
parbat, dahr, bill, 
madan, plain. ' 
khec, field, 
roti, bread, 
paai, water. 
gih3, wheat, 
tshali, maize, 
but, tree, 
grail, village, 
shaihr, citj. 
baun, jungle, 
matshi, fish, 
bat, way. 
paindau, path 
phol, fruit, 
mass, meat, 
dttddh, milk, 
pinni, egg. 
geo, ghi. 
tel, oil. 

tshah, buttermilk, 
daihfo, day. 
rac, night, 
daihro, sun. 
dzoth, moon, 
taiii, s(ar. 



bagur, wind. 

pani, rain. 

dau, sunshine. 

dzoie bagur, stormy wind. 

bahrtau, load. 

bedzau, seed. 

loha, iron. 

hatsau, bitau, good, beautiful. 

riau, bad, ugly. 

boddaa, big. 

mhatrau, hoknau, little. 

sust, lazy. 

hoshewajau, wise. 

murakh, ignorant. 

painau, sharp, 

utstau, high. 

shelau, thandau, cold. 

naitau, hot. 

gulaau, sweet. 

saphau, clean. 

can, ready. 

hoknau, little. 

bauhri, much. 

aunau, be, become. 

anau, come. 

cleunau, go. 

b§shnau, sit. 

denau, give. 

lotnau, fall. 

lainau, take. 

iiznau, rise. 

khorau aunau, stand. 

dekhnau, see. 

khanau, eat. 

pinau, drink. 

bolnau, say. 

suttnau, sleep, lie down. 

koinau do. 

rauhnau, remain. 

marnau, beat. 

jannau, know, recognise. 

pujnau, arrive. 



32 



Kotguru. 



bagnau, rnu. 
bage deunau, run away, 
caniiau, make, 
danau, place, 
bednau, call, 
pbabnau, inilnau, meet, 
ghikbnati, learn, 
porbnau, read, 
likhnau, write, 
mjrnau, die. 
sbunnau, bear, 
otnau, turn, 
oteo anau, return. 



baubuau, flow, 
jbetnau, lornau, figbt. 
jitnau, win. 
arnau, be defeated, 
deui janau, go away, 
baunau, sow. 
aul jScnau, plougb. 
kheunau, cause to eat. 
paneunau, cause to drink, 
shunaunau, cause to bear, 
tsornau, graze. 

tsuraunau tsarnau, cause to 
graze. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



1-ek. 

2— do5. 
3 — caun. 
4 — tsar. 
5 — panj. 
6 — cbau. 
7— sat, 
8— attb. 
9 — nau. 

10— dosh. 
11 — gaira. 
12— bara. 
13 — tera. 
14 — tsauda. 
15 — pondra. 

paiblau. 

dnsrau, dujjau. 

ciau. 

tsautbau. 

paojiau. 

cbauiau. 

satiau. 

doshiau, lOtb. 

paibli bera, 1st time. 



Ordinal. 



16 — solft. 
17— sottra. 
18 — tbara. 
19— nl. 
20— bi. 
27 — satai. 
29— ;iotti. 
30-^ ti. 
37 — saiti. 
39 — untali. 
40 — cali. 
100— shau. ' 
1000 bazar. 
100,000— lakkh. 



dujji pbere, 2nd time, 
adbau, balf. 
paune dOe, If. 
sawa doe, 2f . 
daiie, 2|. 
deorb, If. 
sadhe tsar, 4|. 
ek pao, i. 



Kotgnru. 33 

As a rule the jjeople do not count beyond twenty. Even in dates it 
is common to call the 22nd day of the month the second, the 23rd tlie 
3rd, and so on. Forty, sixty, eighty, &c., are doe hie, caun hie, tsar hie, 
&c., or the word kori, score, is used. 

Sentences. 

1. Tero naii ke a ? What is thy name ? 

2. Eu golireai kai umar a (asa) ? What is tlie age of tliis horse ? 

3. Inda ka Kashmira tai ketro dur asa (a) ? Fi-oni here how far 
is it to Kashmir ? 

4. Tliaie babe gauhra di ketre tshotu asa? In your father's 
house how many sous are there ? 

5. MS az bari duro handeo. I to-day from very far have 
walked. 

6. More caceau tshstii tehii baihni sogge baiuau aundau asa. 
My uncle's son to his sister is married. 

7. Gauhra de shukle g5hriai zlu asa. In the house the white 
horse's saddle is. 

8. Teiii (tehrl) pitthe gae zin kosho. Upon his back bind the 
saddle. 

9. MaT teiie tshotu de bauhri toe lag. I have beaten his son much. 

10. Sau dahra gae dogai bakii tsara. He on the hill cattle and 
goats is grazing. 

11. Sau iea. buta pare gohre gae beshau aundau asa. He under that 
ti-ee on a liorse is seated. 

12. Teuaa bae apni balhne ka boddau asa. His brother is bigger 
than his sister. 

13. Tefiau m5l dalie rupayye asa. Its price is two and a half 
rupees. 

14. Merau bab mhatre (hoktie) gauhra di raulia. My father in 
the little house lives. 

15. Eu rupayye teu lai dai. These rupees to him give. 

16. Sai rupayye teu ka 5rd lai au. Those rupees from him bring. 

17. Teu hatse gidhi piteo roshi gidhi kosho. Having beaten him 
well bind him with ropes. 

18. Kue ka pani garau. Take out water from the well. 

19. Muka agdi (agde) handau. Walk before me. 

20. Kauro tshotu tumS pa andau lago aundau ? Whose son behind 
you is walking ? 

21. Sau tume kaua ka mol laio ? From whom did you buy that ? 

22. Graue 5k banie ka. Fi^om a shopkeeper of the village. 



THE DIALECTS OF KULU. 

BY 

The Revd. T. Grahame Bailey, B.D., M.R.A.S, 

INTRODUCTION, 

Kulu is a portion of Kaijgra District, but is almost entirely sepa- 
rated from Karjgra proper, being connected with it only by a narrow 
neck of country in the north-west, while it is bounded on the west by 
the states of Suket and Mandi. On the north and east Kulii proper is 
bounded by Lahul and Spiti or Piti respectively. These two tracts, while 
distinguished from Kulu proper, form part of the Kulu subdivision 
of Kaijgra. On the south Kulu is bounded by the River Satlaj across 
which is the British District of Kot Guru. The dialects treated of in 
the following pages are the dialects of Kulu proper, and are all Aryan. 
In Spiti and Lahul the dialects spoken are Tibeto-Himalayan. In 
Mandi, Suket, Kaijgra proper and Kot Guru the dialects are all of the 
same general type as those here dealt with. 

Kulu proper may be said to contain four dialects : Outer Siraji 
spoken in Outer Siraj, that is in the southern portion of the Siraj 
Tahsil ; Inner Siraji spoken in Inner Siraj or the northern part of the 
Siraj Tahsil ; Sainji spoken in the Sainj Valley which enters the Beas 
Valley from the east; and lastly Kului, which is spoken in the northern 
part of Kulu proper. There is also a Tibeto-Himalayan dialect called 
Kanashi, spoken in the village of Malana in North Kulu and nowhere 
else. 

The four Kulu. dialects are closely allied to dialects of Rajasthani 
found in Rajputana, and indicate close connection in the past between 
the peoples of Rajputana and the Himalayas north-east of Simla. The 
four dialects have several points in common, such as the existence of a 
form of the Present Auxiliary used in negative sentences, and of a 
feminine form for the Oblique Sing, of the 3i'd Pers. pronoun, and the 
similarity of the Oblique Sing, to the Oblique Plural in Nouns. 

In Outer Siraji ability is expressed by the genitive case of the 
subject with a form of the Present Participle which may be Passive ; in 
Inner Siraji the ordinary Present Participle seems to be used. 



36 

Outer Siraji very closely resembles Kot Gurui, the notes on which 
(in the Appendix to the Grazetteer of the Simla District) should be 
consulted. It has the Genitive in — eau, the Dative in lai, the Ablative 
in ke, and the Locative in dS. 

In Inner Siraji the forms are rd for the Genitive, be for the Dative, 
leva for the Ablative, and mbnje for the Locative. 

Sa'inji has very interesting forms. The Genitive is in — er, the 
Dative in — ab, the Ablative in — dga. It has two forms for the 
Future, one of them having endings in & and r which suggest interest- 
ing problems. The Sainji dialect generally resembles Inner Siraji. 

The use in Inner Siraji of the word hhl, in the sense of the Hindi 
phir, is noteworthy inasmuch as the same word is found in the criminal 
dialect of the SSsis with the same meaning. The contraction of the 
Present Auxiliary to — s should be noted. 

Kuliii in several respects closely resembles Inner Siraji. Its 
nominal inflections are almost identical, but it has na or — n for the 
Ablative. It has an interesting form for the Pres. Indie, and Imperfect 
— a being added to the root before the Auxiliary. The polite Impera- 
tive in — elt should be noted. 

The system of transliteration employed is that of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal with some additions, c stands for the sound of ch in clvild^ 
ch being the aspirated c ; i represents the sound mid-way between i and 
i ; u italicised in a word printed in ordinary type is half-way between u 
and u. 

T. Geahame Bailey. 
March 3rd, 1905. 



OUTER SIRAJi. 



The Outer Siraji dialect resembles in raany respects Kot Gurui 
which has been treated iu considerable detail in the Simla Gazetteer ; 
it will not therefore be necessary to treat Outer Siraji with the same 
fulness. 

Nouns. 

Masculine. 

Nouns in —a. 

Singular. Plural. 

ghor-a -e 

-eau /, ee as Sing. 



N. 

G. 

D.A. 

Loc. 

Ab. 

Ag. 



N. 
G. 
D.A.L.Ab. 



N. 

G. 

D.A.L.Ab. 

Ag. 



N. 
G. 
D.A.L.Ab. 



-e lai 
-e de 
-e ke 
-e 

Nouns in Consonant. 

ghor 
ghor-o 
ghor-a lai, &c. 

Feminine. 

Nouns in -i. 

shor-i 
-id 

-i lai, &c. 
-i§. 

Nouns in Consonant. 

bhed, sheep 
bhedo 
bheda lai, &c. 



baihn, however, is declined as follows : — 

■N^' baihn, sister 

G. baihn-io 
D.A.L.Ab. -i lai, &c. 

Ag. -i 



as Sing. 



as Sing. 



baihn-i 
as Sing. 



38 










Outer Sirajl. 

Pronouns. 
Singular. 








1st 




2nd 




3rd 




e or eh, this 


N. 


hft 




tu 




satf, oh 




e, eh, ati 


G. 


iuer5 




tero 




teuo/. tesso 


eao /. esso 


D.A. 


mulai 




talai 




teu le tea le 


eu le ea le 


L. 


mude 




tade 




„ de „ 


de 


„ de „ de 


Ab. 


m?iklie 




takhe 




„ khe „ 


khe 


„ khe „ khe 


Ag. 


mat 




tai 




tei tai 
Plural. 


i 


eue ai 


N. 


ha me 




tumme 




saT 




e. eh 


G. 


mharo 




thar5 




tin-5 




in-au 


D.A. 


harn-a 


lai 


tum-a 


lai 


-a le 




-a le 


L. 


-a 


de 


-a 


de 


-a de 




-a de 


Ab. 


-a 


ke 


-a 


ke 


-a ke 




-a ke 


Ag. 


-e 




-e 




-e 




-e or -ne. 


kuji, who 


? G. kauro, 


Ag, 


, kunl. 
















Adjectives. 







Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. "When they 
qualify nouns, they are not declined except in the case of those the 
Nona. Sing. Masc. of which ends in -o -au or -a. These take -e for 
the Plnr. and for the Obi. Sing., and -l for the Fern, Sing, and Plur. 
Genitives of nouns and pronouns are adjectives coming under this rule : 
thus ghoreau or ghoreo, of a horse, Obi. ghoree ; betliau, of a vpoman, Obi. 
betlle. 



Demonstrative. 

iyo, like this 
etrau, so much or 
many 



Correlative. 

tiyo, like that 
tetrau, so much or 
many 



Interrogative. 

kiyo, like what ? 
ketrau, how much or 
many ? 



Comparison is expressed by means of the Ablative case, as, shobhlo, 
beautiful ; mukhe shobhlo, more beautiful than I ; sobbi kB shobhlo, more 
beautiful than all, most beautiful. The pronoun eh has a form ido, 
ido shobhlo, more beautiful than this. 



Adverbs. 
Most adjectives can be used as adverbs, in which case they agree 



Outer Siraji . 



3d 



with the subject of the seBtence. The following are a few very com- 
mon adverbs, other than adjectives : — 



(Time.) 




{Place.) 


ebbe, now 




idhi, here 


tebbe, then 




tidhi, pore, there 


kebbe, when ? 




kidhi, where ? 


jebbe, when 




jidhi, where 


kalla, to-morrow 






p6r§he, day after to-morrow 


tsauthe, „ 


that 




hij, yesterday 






phoroz, day before yesterday 


tsauthe, „ „ 


that 






Prepositions. 


lai, 1§, to 




taini, up to 


ke, from 




saqge, with 


de, in 




ago, in front of 


gai, upon 




pitshu, behind 






Verbs. 






Auxiliary. 


. I am, &c. a 


and ft 


a a a a a 


or assa (asa) 


assa assa assa assa assa 



Neg. 
Past 



athi with negative particle, 
tau/. ti PI. te /. ti 

Intransitive Verbs. 
pornu, porno, fall. 



Fut. 

Imperat. 
Pres. Ind. 
Past Cond. 
Impf. 
Past Ind. 
Plupf. 
Participle 



-a 
pora 



-a 



por-u 

por 

same as Pat. 

por-dau PI, -de /. -di 

Fut. with tau (te, ti) 

por -au /. -i PI. -e 

porau tau 

porekore, having fallen 



-u 



-a 



-a 



/•-i 



40 



Outer Sird,ji. 



ichi^o, come. 
Regular except in Past. 
/. ai PI. ae 

deTiuvi, go. 

deu desva dewa, &c. 

deu dewa 

deundau 

deuo /. dewe PI. dewe 

janu, go. 

jati 

ja 3 a 

j an da a 

gau /. gaui PI. gaue 

ranhqiUy remain. 

rauhu or rauha 
rauhndau 
rauhau ( — i -§.) 

baithuu, baishi^u, sit. 
Regular. 
Imperat. has baishi, sit thou, as well as the other forms. 

Transitive Verbs. 



Past Ind. ao 



Put. 

Imperat. 
Past Cond. 
Past Ind. 

Fut. 

Imperat. 
Past Cond. 
Past Ind. 

Put. 

Past Cond. 

Past Ind. 



tsiknu, beat, like poruu. 
Agent case of subject with tsikau which agrees with obj. 

khaau, eat. 



Past Ind. 

Past Cond. 
Past Ind. 

Past Ind. 

Put. 
Past Ind. 

Past Ind. 

Ability is often expressed by means of the present part, with the 
genitive of the subject. 

mSre neh% dSundo or mSre bhdle nehf deundo, I cannot go. 

mere eh kitab neh% porhdi, I cannot read this book. 

This participle, it will be observed, is given a passive sense. 



khandau 
khaau 

dennau 

lain 
laiau 

kiyau 



deno, give. 
lenu, take. 

komu, do. 



Outer SirSji. 



41 



The Infin. is used to express necessity, as : — 
mu kalld deunu, I have to go to-morrow. 
The Infinitive ends in nau, nu, nu, no or na. In other words also 
we find the vowels au, o, a interchangeable. 

The feminine forms of the 3rd pers. pron. and of e, eh, this, are, as 
in other Kulu dialects, found in Outer Siraji. 

cjsunu, go, is used to express the idea of going, janu, go, is used in 
composition. 



bab, father, 
ij, mother, 
bhai, brother, 
baihn, sister, 
dai, elder sister. 
cei, younger sister, 
shor-u, son. 

-i, daughter, 
randu, husband, 
cheori, wife, 
jona, mord, man. 
betli, woman, 
shor -u, boy. • 

-i, girl, 
phual, shepherd. 
ts5r, thief, 
ghor -a, horse. 

-i, mare. 
bojd, ox. 
gao, cow. 
matghi, buffalo 
bakr-au he-goat. 

-ri, she „ 
bhed, sheep, 
kuk-ar, dog. 

-ri, bitch, 
bhahi, banae, bear, 
barag, leopard, 
sit, 

gadhau, ass. 
sur, pig. 
kttkh-lai, cock. 



k«kh-li, hen. 

brail -au, cat (male). 

-i, „ (female), 
ut, camel, 
hotthi, elephant, 
bath, hand, 
khur, foot, 
nak, nose, 
akkhi, eye. 
muh, face, 
jat, mouth. 

khakkh, corner of mouth, 
dand, tooth. 
kann, ear. 
shral, hair, 
mund, head, 
dzibh, tongue, 
dhan, pet, stomach, 
pitth, back, 
dziu, dehi, body, 
katab, book, 
kolm, pen. 
mandzau, bed. 
ghor, house, 
daryao, river, 
gahd, stream, 
dzot, hill-top, pass, 
dhar, hill, 
sorlau, dol, plain, 
khec, field. 
I oti, bread, 
pani, water. 



42 



Outer Sirojt. 



konak, wheat, 
tsholli, maize, 
but, tree, 
grau, village, 
bazar, town, 
baun, jungle, 
dzorki, machli, fish, 
bat, way. 
phol, fruit, 
mass, meat, 
duddh, milk, 
pinni, egg. 
gheo, ghi. 
tel, oil. 

tshah, buttermilk, 
dhair, da}', 
rac, night, 
dhairo, sun. 
dzuth, moon, 
tara, star. 

baguri, paun, wind, 
pan.!, rain, 
dhuppo, sunshine, 
bhaiau, load, 
bedzau, seed, 
lohau, iron, 
bitau, good, 
nikkau, bad. 
borau, big. 
hotshau, little. 



I— ek. 
2— doe. 
3 — caun. 
4- — tsar. 
5 — panz. 
6 — tshau, 
7— sat. 
8— atth. 



sulai, lazy, 
oklealau, wise, 
nikammau, ignorant, 
tshekaa, swift, 
ticchau, sharp, 
uchtau, lofty. 
sh5bhlau, beautiful, 
shelau, dzadau, tliandau, 

cold, 
naitau, tatau, hot. 
guluau, sweet, 
ramlau, clean, 
thorau, little, 
kliassau, much. 



ichno, come. 



deunu, ja^u, go. 
betlmu, beshnu, sit. 
leno, take. 
deno, give, 
pornu, fall, 
khanu, eat. 
jhiitn.au, drink, 
bolnii, .speak, say. 
kornu, do. 
rauhnu, remain. 
tsiknu, beat, 
dzannu, know, 
dewe janu, go away, 
annu, bring, 
ninu, take away. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal, 



9 — nau. 
10 — doss. 
11- — giara. 
12 — baia. 
13— tera. 
14 — tsauda. 
15 — pondra. 
16— sola. 



Outer Siraj'i. 



43 



Numerals — continued. 
Cardinal. 



17 — satara. 
18— thara. 
19— ni. 
20— bi. 
27 — satai. 
29— notti. 
30— ti. 
37— salti. 
39— nutali. 
40— call. 
47 — satali. 
49 — nunja. 
50 — padza. 
57— satiinja. 
59 — Tiatb. 



1st, paihlo. 
2nd, dujjo. 
3rd, ciyo. 
4th, tsautho. 
5tli, panjio. 



Ordinal. 



60— shath. 
67 — satatli. 
69 — unhottnr. 
70 — sottar. 
77 — aatottav. 
79 — unoshi. 
80— o.shshi. 
87 — satoshi. 
89 — nanne. 

90— nobbe. 
97 — satanue. 
100— sbau. 
200 — doe sbau. 
1,000— bazar. 
100,000— lakkb. 



6tb, tsbauian. 

7tb, satian. 
lOtb, dossiau. 
50tJ), podzariau. 



Sentences. 

The following five sentences will suffice to give an idea of the 
difference between Outer Siraji and Kot Guriii. Tbey sbould be com- 
pared witb the sentences in the Notes on Kot Gurui. 

6. Mere babuo shorn, teiie baibni sagge baibuo aundau asa. My 
uncle's son is married with bis sister. 

7. Gbora de sbitte ghoree zin asa. In tbe house the white liorse's 
saddle is. 

17. Teu sbobblo kore tsiknu rasbi kore bandbnu. Beat bini well 
and bind bim with ropes. 

19. Mu ag5 band. Before me walk. 

20. Kauro sborii ta pitshu banddo lago aundo ? Whose son 
behind thee walking comes r 



O' 





]st 


2nd 


N. 


hE 


tu 


G. 


merau 


terau 






INNER SIRAJi 

Nouns. 

Nouns in -a. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. ghor-a -e 

G. -e ra, rau as Sino^. 

D.A. -e be 

Loc. -e monje 

Ab. -e lera. 

Ag. -e 

V. -Sa -eo 

Nouns in Consonant. 
N. gbor, bouse gbor 

G.D.A.L.Ab. gbora ro, &c. as Sing. 

Ag. gbore „ 

Femitiine. 
Nouns in -i. 
N. sbohr-i, girl -i 

G.D.A.L.Ab. -i rau, &c. -\ rau, &c. 

Ag. -i -i 

V. -ie -io 

Nouns in Consonant. 

N. bbin, sister -a 

G.D.A.L.Ab. bhin-a rau, &c. -a rau, &c. 

Asr. -a -a 



V. -e -o 



Pronouns. 

Singtilar. 

8rd io, this, 

sau io 

feu ra (/. tessa ra) iu ra ( f. essa ra) 
D.A. ma be, ma ta be ,, be, <eu, /. tessa „ be, iii, /. essa 

be be 



L. 

Ab. 

Ag. 

N. 

G. 

D.A. 

L. 

Ab. 

Ag. 



ma raoDje 
„ lera. 
rnai 

hamme 
m)) a rail 
haraa be 
„ nionje 
lera 



Iimer Siroji. 
ta luouje . 



45 



era 



tea inunje, /. tessa io. uionje, /' €svsa 
moiije monje 

„ lera, /. tessa ,, lera, /. essa 



tai 

tomnje 

tharau 

torn ma be 

monje 
lera 



hamme tomme 



lera 
ti h f. tesse 

Fliiral. 
tea 
„ ra 
„ be 
„ monje 
„ lera 
tea 



lera 
iu/. esfje 



la 
„ ra 

„ be 
,, nionje 
,, lera 
ia 



Plural. 



N 



Singular. 
knn, who r^ 
G.D.A.L.Ab. kas ran, &c. 
Ag. kimi 

Others are ke, what ? kitsh, anything, something. 



ilziin, who ? 
dziu ra, &c. 

d'/AU. 



kdaa 

kas I'au, &c. 

kuni 



d/.ea 



ra, &(i. 



dzeae 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined like nouns. When qualify- 
ing nouns they are not declined exce[»t when their Nom. Sing. Masc. 
ends in -ci. In this case they take -e for the Obi. Masc. and -I for the 
Fern, The genitives of nouns and pronouns are adjectives coming 
under this rule. 

Comparison is expressed by means of ka, than as, rdrnro, good, lH 
kd, rnniro, better than this, sobbhi kd, rnmro, better than all, best. 

Demonstrative. Correlatioe. Interrogative. 

iera, lehra, like this tera, tehra, like that kera, kehra, like what? 

etrau, so much or tetrau, so much or ketrau, how much or 

many many many 



Adveriss. 

Many adjectives are used also as adverbs. When so used they 
agree with the subject of the sentence. The following is a list of a few 
of the commonest adverbs other than adjectives : — 

{Time.) {Place.) 

iebba, now indi, indhi, here 

tebbe, tebre, then par, there, on the other side 

kebre, kodds, when ? kondi, kaul, where ? 



46 



Inner Sirajl. 



{Time.) 

jebre, joddo, when 

az, to-day 

shui, to-morrow 

porshi, day after to-morrow 

tsautbe, day after that 

hidz, yesterday 

pharz, day before yesterday 

tsauthe, day before that 
kodhi, sometimes, ever 

kodhi ua, never 

kodhu kodhu, sometimes 

Others are klle, why ? haii, yes, n?/i, no, cheke, quickly, ramre kori, 



{Place.) 

jauT, where 
indhi tani, up to here 
indha ka, from here 
ujhe, up 
undhe, down 
jelia, in front 
patsheS, behind 
whitar, inside 
bage, outside 



well, &c. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been given in the declension of 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same word is frequently 
both a preposition and an adverb. 

par, on tliat side mae sorjgha, with me 

war, on this side Juri tani, for him 

raonje, within t-eri tani, about thee (or for 

taini, tani, up to thee) 

parauude, upon ma! jeliau, like me 

thai, below , iari tani, towards them 

ml depe, beside me 



Pres. I am, &c. 
Pres. Neg. 
Past. I was, &c. 



Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 



asa asa asa 

nlh ado /. nih adi 
thi thi thi 



asa asa asa 

PI. nih ade 

thi thi thi 



Pres. Cond. 
Put. 

Imperat. 
Pres. Ind. 
Pabt. Cond. 



Intransitive Verbs. 
poruau fall, 
por -u -§ -§ -u -a -au 
poful -au -au -au -e 
por poj-a 

pofdau /. pordi PI. porde 
the same 



e -e 



Inner Siraji. 47 

Impf. pordaa thi, &c. 

Past Iiid. poru and purau /. pori PI. pori 

Pres. Perf. poru asa 

Plupf. poffi thi 

Participle porikori, having falleu, pornivala, fallur, about to fall 

Some verbs show alight iiTegularities. 

Ii5n.au, be, become. 
Fat. holau 

Pies. lud. hunda 
Past Ind. hoa PI. hoi 

ihno, come. 
Px'es. Coud. iha 
Fut. iliSlau or ihlau (or iSlau, ilaa) ihlau ihlau 

ihale or ihle ihle ihle 

Iniperat. ich icha 

Pres. Ind. \ ., , 

Past Cond. P^'''^^'' 

Past lud. ao 

Participle ihnvvala, comer, about to come 



nana, go. 



Fut. nafilau, &g. 

Imperat. uaa or uash, PI. naa 

Pres. Ind., &g. nandau 
Past lud. uatliau 





jana, go. 


Fut. 


jaSlau jallau, &c. 


Pres. Ind. 


jaudau 


Past lud. 


gau, /. gaui PI. gaue 




rauhna, lemain. 


Fut. 


rahSlau rauhlau, &c. 


Pres. lud. 


rauhudau 


Past lud. 


rauhu 




besh^a, sit. 


Past Ind. 


bethau 



Transitive Verbs. 

tsikna, beat, like pornau. 

Past Ind. Ageut case of subject with tsikau wliich agrees with 
object. 



48 



Innar Siroji. 

Some of tLe following common verbs arc slightly irregular : — 

khana eat. 



Pres I lid. 


kliandau 




Past Ind. 
Fut. 


khau 
dgalau 


di^a, give. 


Pres. lud. 


dindau 




Past Ind. 
Fut. 


dinnau 
laSlau 


launa, take. 


Pres. Ind. 


lauindau 




Past 
Past Ind. 


lauu 
bollu 


bolna, speak 
korna do. 



Past Ind. 



koru 



Ability is often expressed by means of the Pies. Part. ( Pres. Ind.) 
and the genitive case of the subject, as, mere nchii kordaa, I cannot do. 

To express being in the act of doing a thing loijo (from lagyna, stick) 
is used, id loyo rati hhando, he is eating bread ; lioi thl roti khando layo 
hundo, I was eating bread. 

The vowel of sau, he, she, it, is sometimes omitted after a verb, as, 
teu be na ties, do not give it to him, where s represents H. This reminds 
us of the su, and s which are so common as 3rd Sing. sufBxes in Labnda 
and in Panjabi West and North of Lahore. Cf. also Inner Siraji tnU leva 
na n* se, do not take it from me. 

The word fc/it, meaning 'again,' ' after that,' Hindi, ^/itV, is notice- 
able because it is a characteristic uf the secret dialect of tlie thieving 
tribe of the Sasis. 

The infinitive ends in -m, -no or -nan. In other words also we 
find the vowels a, o, au interchangeable. 

In the Negative Auxiliary add, adl, ade the a is pronounced very long. 
This woi-d differs from most Negative Auxliaries in being declined. 

The special Feminine forms of the 3rd pers. pron. and of to, this, 
should be noted. They are found also in the Simla States dialects. 

bab, father. betri, woman. 

ij, mother. mard, man. 

bhai, brother. betri, woman. 

dai, elder sister. sh6r«, boy. 

bhin, younger sister. shor', girl. 

shor*, son. phual, shepherd. 

shor*, daughter. tsor, thief. 

mard, husband. ghora, horse. 



Inner Sirflj'i. 



49 



ghon, mare, 
bold, ox. 
gS, cow. 
iiiiha^i, buffalo, 
bakr-a, he-goat. 

-i, she-goat, 
bhed, sheep, 
kutt-au, dog. 

-i, bitoh. 
ghai, bear, 
bareag, leopard, 
gadha, a.ss, 
.sur, pig. 
kukk-ar, cock. 

-ri, hen. 
bareal-au, cat (male). 

-i, „ (female), 
ut, camel, 
hathi, elephant, 
hath, hand, 
pair, foot, 
nak, nose, 
acchi, eye. 
rafth, face, 
dand, tooth. 

kanet, ear. (lobe of ear ?) 
shreal, hair, 
raund, head, 
dzibh, tongue, 
pet, stomach, 
pith, back. 

sarir, dehi, dziu, body, 
katab, book, 
kalam, pen. 
mandzau, bed. 
ghar, liou.se. 
darja. river, 
gahd, naue, stream, 
saraj, hill, 
nihal, plain, 
khec, field, 
rotti, bread. 



pani, water, 
kank, gihu, wheat, 
tshain, maize, 
butta, tree, 
grg, village, 
bazar, citj. 
bun, jungle, 
m acchi, fi.sli. 
bat, way. 
phol, fruit. 
mass, meat. 
d?fddli, milk, 
danna, egg. 
ghi, ghiii, ghi. 
tel, oil. 

tshai, buttermilk, 
diharo, day. 
rac, night, 
diharo, suraj, sun. 
dzoth, tsanani, moon, 
tara, star, 
bagur, wind, 
paui, rain, 
dhuppa, sunshine, 
bhara, load, 
bedza, seed, 
loha, iron. 

shobhla, ramra, good, beau- 
tiful, 
bura, bad. 
borau, big. 
hotsbau, little. 
sust, nist, lazy, 
sataz, wise, 
marau, foolish, ugly. 
tsheka, swift, 
ticcha, sharp, 
uchta, lofty, 
.shela, cold. 

niata, niggha, tata, hot. 
mtttha, sweet, 
shittau, white, clean. 



50 



Inner SirSji. 



thora, little, 
bauhu, much, 
cittha, black, 
bhetna, be obtained, 
ilino, come, 
nana, go. 
beshna, sit. 
launa, take, 
d'lna, give, 
pornan, fall. 



J— ek. 
2— dui. 
3 — cen. 
4 — tsar. 
5 — pandz. 
6 — tsbau. 
7— sat. 
8— atb. 
9 — nau. 
10 — doss, 
11 — giara. 
12 — bara. 
13 — tera. 
14 — tsauiida. 
15 — pondra. 
16 — sola. 
1 7 — satara. 
18 — thara. 
19— nib. 
20— bib. 

27 — satai. 
29— notri. 
30— tri. 
37 — satotti. 

Ist, paiblo. 
2nd, diiij5. 
3rd, ciyo. 
4tb, tsautbo. 



kbana, eat. 

ihutna, drink. 

gal ana, speak, say. 

bolna, speak, say. 

koma, do. 

raubna, remain. 

tsikna, beat. 

dzanna, know. 

anna, bring. 

n!na, take, take away. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



Ordinal. 



39—1 
40 

47— 

49— 

50- 

57- 

59— 

60— 

67- 

69- 

70- 

77- 

79- 

80- 

87- 

89- 

90- 

97- 

99- 

100- 

200- 

1,000- 

lOO.OOO 



antnall. 
tsali. 
■sattali. 
anunja. 
padza. 
sataunja. 
anat. 
sbatb. 
■sateat. 
unbattar. 
-sottar. 
-satettav. 
-aneasbi. 
-osbsbi. 
-satSasbi. 
-nauue. 
-nobbe. 
-sateann 
-naukra. 
-sbaukra, sbau. 
-dui sbau. 
-badzar. 
— lakh. 



5tb, pandzau. 
6tb, tshothua, 
7th, sotua. 



Inner Sirnji. oX 

Sentences. 

1. Tera nau ke ? What is thy name ? 

2. Eu ghOre ri ketrl uinmar hoi ? How much is the age of this 
horse ? 

3. Indha ks Kashmir tani ketra, dur ? From here how far is 
Kashmir? 

4. Thare haba re ghore ketre shohrfi ? Tii your father's house 
how many boys are there ? 

5. HI az bauhfi dura kS handi ao. I to-day from very far have 
walking come ? 

6. Mere cace re sh5liru rfi biah iuri beti soijglia. My uncle's son's 
marriage is with his daughter. 

7. Cxhore shitte ghore ri zin. In tlie house is the white horse's 
saddle. 

8. Iuri pitthl paraunde (uppur) zin kosha. On his back bind the 
saddle. 

9. MaT iuro beta bauhu tsikii. I beat his son much. 

10. So saraja re dzata uppur bhera tsaraundo. He on the hill's 
top is grazing sheep. 

11. So in bute thai glioj-e paraunde betha hundo. He under this 
tree on a horse is seated. 

12. Teuro bhal apni hhina kl baurau. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

13. Eiiia mul dhai i"apaui. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mero bab iii hotshe ghore rauhnda. My father lives in this 
little house. 

15. Eu be ea rapaui de. Give these rupees to him. 

16. Eu lej-a ea rapaui laui lau. From him take these rupees. 

17. Eu ramre korl tsiki lau lashi korl bondhi lau. Beat him well 
and bind him with ropes. 

18. K5a ka pan! karha. Di^aw water from the well. 

19. Mi ka jeha tsala. Walk in front of me. 

20. Kasra shohru toma patsheS ao? Whose son is coming behind 
you? 

21. Eo clj kasa lera mulle ani ? From whom did you buy this 
thing ? 

22. Gri re dukandara lera. From the shopkeeper of the village. 



52 



SAINJI. 

The erammar of Sainji beai s a considerable resemblance to that of 
Inner Siraji ; in the following notes, therefore, chiefly those points will 
be mentioned in which the dialects differ. 











Nouns. 














Masculine. 














Nouns in -a. 














Singular. 




Plural. 




N. 






ghor-a, horse 




-e 




G. 






-er 




as Sing. 




D.A. 






-ab 




»» 




Ab. 






-e aga 




5> 




Ag. 






-e 




>> 










Nouns in Consonant, 






N. 






ghar, house 




as Sing. 




G. 






ghar-ar 




)> 




D.A. 






-ab 




» 




Ag. 






-e 
Feminine. 
Nouns in -i 




)> 




N. 






beti, daughter 




as Sing. 




G. 






beti-r 




jj 




D.A 






-b 




» 




Ag. 






-e 




>> 










Nouns in Consonant. 






N. 






bhin 




... 




G. 






bhin-ar 




... 




D.A. 






-ab 




... 




Ag. 






-e 

Pronouns. 
Singular. 




... 




1st 




2nd 


.3rd 




eo, this 


N. 


hau 




tu 


so 




eo 


G. 


mera 




tera 


teiira, /. 


tessa ra 


eii ra /. essa ra 


D.A. 


mail 


bhe 


tabhe teiib 


tessab 


eab essab 


Ab. 


mail 


ao^a 


ta aga teii aga 


tessa aga 


eii aga essa ag? 


Ag. 


moe 




taue 


teoe 


tesse 


ene esse 



Sainjl. 



53 









Pronouns. 








Plural. 


N. 


asse 


tusse 


tea 


G. 


nihaia 


thara 


tear a 


D.A. 


assab, asab 


tuab 


teab 


Ab. 


assa (asa) 
aga 


tua aga 


tea aga 


Ag. 


ahe 


tusse 


teae 



ea 

eara 

eab 



ea agiik 



lae 







Adverbs. 




{Time.) 






{Place.) 


ebre, now 






ekkhe, here, 


tebre, then 






tekkhe, there 


kebre, when ? 






kaui, where ? 


jebie, when 






jauS, where 


adz, to-day 






ekkha kahl or kauhau, from 
here 


kidzu, why ? 


vihitar 


, inside ; bard, 


very much, agrees with its 


iiouti or pronoun. 


It is 


to be distingushed from had^cla, big, which is 


not used as an adv 


erb. 








Prepositions 


,. 


aga, from 






sarjghe, with 


taijg, up to 






jehS, in front of 


upre, upon 






pitshe, behind 



Pies. 
Neg. 
Past. 



Verbs. 

Aitxiliary. 

sa sa sa sa sa 
i/thi with a particle of negation. 



ti 



ti 



Pi-es. Cond. 


lc)t -u 


Fat. 


lot -ur 


Pres. Ind. 


) 


or 


\ lotda 


Past Cond. 


3 • 


Impf. 


lotda ti 



ti ti ti 

Intransitive Verbs. 

lotna, fall, 
-e -e -u 
-ar -ar -Ur 



sa 



ti 



-e 
— ar 



— e 
-ar 



54 Sainji. 







Intransitive Verbs — continued. 








lotna, fall. 


Past Ind. 
Plupf. 


l5tu 
lotii ti 


/• 


loti Pi. lote /. loti 


Participle 


loti kari, Laving fallen 








iedzna, come. 


Fut. 


edz 


-ur 


-ar -ar -ur 


Imperat. 


idz 


idza 




Past Cond. 


idzda 






&c. 








Past Ind. 


awa 




na^a, go. 


Fufc. 


nash 


-u 


-11 -ii -i -1 


Past. Ind. 


natha 




t8al^a, go. 


Fut. 


tsal 


-ii 


-ii -u -i -i 
Transitive Verbs. 




tsikna, 


beat, in general like lofnn. 


Past Ind. 


Agent case of 


subject with tsikti 


Plupf. 


>» 


)) I 


, „ ,, tsikU^ti 


Fut. 


deab 




dena, give. 


Past Ind. 


dina 




nfna, take. 


Fut. 


iiiSb 






Past 


niii 







-ar a r 



The future is a very interesting tense in Sainji. Tliere appear to be 
two complete forms -Ur -ar -ar -ur -ar -ar and -H -ii -ii-i -i ~i. Whether 
the r in the former is really part of the verb or not I do not feel sure. 
Itmay conceivably be a vocative ending referring to tlie person addressed 
at the time. A similar doubt suggests itself in connection with the 
ending -6 for the 1st Sing. Fut. as in de^b, I will give, niub, I will take, 
tsikiib, I will strike ; and the question arises whether this ending is 
found with intransitive verbs or not. It may be a mere dative suffix, 
tsikiib being equivalent to tsiktl eUb, 1 will strike him, or tslkii tflbhe, I 
will strike thee, &c. A comparison with the dialect spoken across the 
border in that part of Mandi State which is near Maijglaur suggests 
that this b is either an integral part of the verb or a Vocative ending, 
probably the latter, for we find in the Future of the intransitive verb go, 



Sainji. 



55 



either nahu be, nahu he, nahu be, naKu be, nHhi be, nd,hi be, or ndhU, nnhii, 
nahu, nakume, nliJn, nahu {nahi ?) Like Inner Siraji Sa'inji has a 
feminine form for the 3rd per. pronoun and for eo, this. 

The following words are those in which a difference between the 
two dialects is observable. Probably however some of these also may be 
found in Inner Siraji. In the other words of the list Sainji does not 
diifer from Inner Siraji. 



baba, father, 
bhai, elder brother, 
bhau, younger brother, 
tshor-u, son. 

-i daughter, 
joe, jo, dzoe, wife, 
bauild, ox. 
mheshi, buffalo, 
blier, sheep, 
kutta, dog. 
kttkkar, cock, 
bareala, cat. 
pair, foot, 
akkh, eye. 
tsora, hair, 
mund, head, 
kaya, body, 
dzot, hill, pass. 
Sana, {)Iain. 
chet, held, 
roti, bread. 

giha (not kaiik), wlieat. 
tsholli, maize. 



grau, village. 



gahr, bun, jungle. 

shikha, meat. 

tshah, buttermilk. 

dihara, sun. 

dzotth, moon. 

bagur, wind. 

sliobhla, beautiful. 

ramra, good. 

badda, big. 

halka, hotsha, small 

dalji, lazy. 

sutuaz, wise, 
nikamma, ignorant, 
tanda, swift. 
t<jje, uthla, high. 
mara, ugly, 
nigha, hot. 
muhra, sweet, 
bohu, much, 
lotna, fall, 
iedzna, come, 
jhiitna, drink. 



]— iek. 
2— dui. 
3 — cin 
4 — tsar. 
5 — pauz. 
6 — tshau. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



7 — satt. 

8— atth. 

9 — nauu. 
10 — dass. 
11 — giara. 
12 — bara. 



56 Sainji. 

Numerals — continued. 
Cardinal. 

18 — teia. 17 — satara. 

14 — tsauuda. 18 — thara. 

15 — pondra. 19 — nib. 

J 6— sola. 20— bih. 



Sentences. 

1. Tera nS kes ? What is tby name ? 

2. Eo gborei' ketri am bar ? How much is this horse's age ? 

3. Ekkha kahs Kashmira tagg ketra dur hola ? From here to 
Kashmir how far will it be ? 

4. Tere babur ghare ketre larke ? In thy father's house how 
many sons are there ? 

6. Haii adz bare dura zoqghe handi avva. I to-day from very far 
on legs walking came. 

6. Mere tsafcser beta ear beahni saqghe bea hou. My uncle's 
son is mai'ried to his sister. 

7. Gliare shitte ghorer zin. In the house is the white horse's 
saddle. 

8. Eur pitthi upre zin bonnha. Upon its back bind the saddle. 

9. Moe eur beta bara tsiku. I beat his son much. 

10. Dzotar tsore upre tsara so ga bakri. On the hill's top he is 
grazing cows and goats. 

11. Eo butte hethe so betha gh5re upre. Under that tree he is 
seated on a horse. 

12. Eur bhai apni bau'ibni kS badda. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

13. Eur mul dhae rupayya. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mero babii eo hotshe ghare rauhs. My father lives in that 
small house. 

15. Eub rupayya dea. Give him rupees. 

16. Ea rupayya eu. aga moijga. Those rupees ask from him. 

17. Eu ramre kori tslka rashie bi bonnha. Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 

18. Kue kauhaii pauni kaddba. From the well draw water. 

19. Mau jehS tsal. Walk before me. 

20. Kasra layka ta pitshe awa ? Whose boy is coming behind 
you ? 

21. Kasu aga tal mul moggu ? From whom hast thou bought ? 

22. Grraiir dukannadara aga. From the shopkeeper of the village. 



N. 

G. 

D.A. 

L. 

Ab. 

As. 

N, 
G.D.A.L.Ab, 

Ag. 



N. 

G.D.A.L.Ab. 

Ag. 

N. 

G.D.A.L.Ab. 

Ag. 



lUIiUi. [Knlui]. 






Nouns. 






Masculine. 






Nouns hi-a. 






Singular. 




Plural. 


Ghor-a, horse 




-e 


-e ra 




aa Sing 


-e be 




»» 


-e moDJhe, 


raanje 


5> 


-e na 




>» 


-e 




l> 



Nouns in Consonant, 

gbor, house 

ghor -e la or -a ra, &c. 
-e 

Feminine. 
Nouns in -i. 

bet-i, daughter 
-i^ia, &c. 

-ie 

Nouns in Consonant. 

behn. sister 
behn-i ra, &c. 
-ie 



as Sing. 



as Sing. 



beb n-i 

-i ra, &c. 
-ie 



Pronouns. 



Singular. 



1st 2nd 

N. hau tu 

G. raera tera 

D.A. mnbe, mftme tanbe 
Ab. mon taun, tauna 

Ag. mal tai 



.3rd eh, this 

sau eh 

tei ra (/. tessa ra) ei ra (/. ess a ra) 

„ be ,, be „ be ( ,, be) 

,, na „ na ,, na ( ., na) 

teie tesse eie esse 



58 



Kului. 



N. 
G. 
D.A 
Ab. 



asse 
assa ra 
„ be 



Plural. 

tusse te 

tussa ra, tUsra tinha ra 
tussa be „ be 

assan, assa tussan, tussa ,, na 

na iia 

asse tusse, tusse tinbe 

Fo!' be in tbe Dative and Accusative ice is also used 
kwn. wbo? G. kos ra Ab. kosan A^. kunie. 
Others are k'f. what ? kick, soiuethinor, anythino^. 



eh 

inba ra 
„ be 



na 



nbf 



Adjectives. 

Adiectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. Adjectives qualify- 
iiio- nouns are not declined unless they end in n, in which case the 
Oblique Singular and all the Plur. take -e. Fem. Sin^. and Plur -i. 

Comparison is expressed by means of na, from, than, as, shobhla, 
o-ood, beautiful, &c., el va shohhla, more beautiful than this; sehhhi na 
shobhln, more beautiful than all, most beautiful. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. 

ainda, like this tainda, like that kainda, like what ? 

etra so much or tetra, so much or ketra, how much or 

many. many. many ? 



Adverbs. 

Most Adjectives may be used as Adverbs ; when so used they agree 
with the subject of the sentence as above mentioned. The following is 
a list of the most important Adverbs other than Adjectives : — 



(Time.) 

aibbe, ebbe, now, 
tebbe, then 
kebbe, when ? 
auj, to-day 
shni, to-morrow 
porshi, day-after-to-morrow 
tsouthe, day after that 
hidz,- yesterday 
pharidz, pharaz, day before 
yesterday. 



(Place.) 

okkhe, here 
tokkhe, there 
kokkhe, where ? 
okkhe tai, up to here 
okkhan, from here 
ujjhe, jhau, bheti, up 
bhiaS, bun, beure, down 
ner, near 
diir, far 
agge, in front 



Kuliii. 



59 



(Time.) 

tsouthe, clay before that 
kadhi, sometimes, ever 
kadhi na, never 



( Place. ) 

picohe, behind 
bandar, inside 
baliar, outside 



Others are kibe, why ? ho, yes, tsheka. tsheke, quickly. 



Prepositions. 

The chief prepositions have been »iveii in the declension of Nouns. 
Subjoined is a brief list of others. 

teiri tai, for his sake, for 

him 
teii tai, about thee (for thee, 

&c.) 
mere sahi, like me 
tinlia ri dliire, towards them 
teire orie poiie, round, about 

it 



puie, on the other side 
ware, on this side 
monjhe, bhittre, within 
tai, up to 
pandeli, upon 
hetlie, below 
mS aj?ge, beside me 
mS saijghe, with me 



Pres, I am, &c. 

or 

or 
Pres. Negative 
Past 1 was, &c. 
or 



Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 



sa (fern, si) 
si 
ha 



sa sa sa sa sa 

sa (/. sa) sa sa si si 

he (/. he) he he he ha 
athi iiidecl. neh athi, am not, is not, &c. 
tha (/. thi) tha tha the(/'. thi) the the 
ti ti ti ti ti ti 

Intransitive Verba. 



dzhaurnu, or jhaurnu, fall. 

Put. dzhaur -aii or -iiu -la -la -au or -nu -le -le 

Imperat. dzhaur dzhaura 

Pres. Ttid. dzhaura sa. dzhaura is not inflected, set is sometimes 

uninflected and sometimes changed to .si as above. 
Impf. dzhanra ti or tha. tha inflected ns above. 

For these two tenses rfs7ia?tr(Za (f.- i pi -e) sa and dzhaujdd 

tha are sometimes found. The Neg. of dzhaura sa is 

neh dzhaufda athi. 



60 Kului. 

Past Cond. dzhaurda 

Past Ind. dzhauru /. dzhauri })1. dzhanre 
Pres. Perf. dzliauru sa 
Plupf. dziiaurd ti or tha 

Participle dzhaurike, having fallen ; dzhauru hundn. in the state of 
having fallen. 
Some verbs show slight irregularities. 

bo^u, be, become. 



Fut. 


honu, &c. 


Pres. Ind. 


hoa sa 


Past Cond, 


hunda 


Past Ind. 


hua 




ena, come. 


Fut. 


ennu ella, &c. 


Imperat. 


e eja 


Pres. Ind. 


eza sa 


Past Cond. 


etida 


Past Ind. 


aii /. ai PI. ae 


Participle 


aike, having come 




nosh n a go. 


Past Ind. 


nottta 




jana, go. 


Past Ind. 


goa 


Participle 


jaike, having gone 




bfishna, sit. 


Past Ind. 


bettha 



i 



Transitive Verbs. 
marna, beat, strike, for the most part like dzhaurnu. _. 

Past Ind. maru with agent case of subject, mdru, agreeing with object. V^ 

Pi'es Perf. marU sa with agent case of subject, maru sa ageeing with 

object. 
Plupf. marii ti (thd) with agent case of subject, mdrH ti {thS) \ 

agreeing with object. 

Some of the following common verbs are slightly irregular : — 

khana, eat. 
Fut. khannu 

Past Cond. khanda 

Pres Ind, khaa sa 

Past Ind. khaii 



Knliti. 



61 



pina, drink. 



Fut. 


phiuu 


Past Cond. 


pinda 


Pres Ind. 


pia sa 


Past Iiid. 


pill 


Fut. 


dennu 


Past Cond. 


denda 


Pres, Ind. 


dea sa 


Past Ind. 


dliina 


Fut. 


leiinu 


Pres. Ind. 


le^ sa 


Past Ind. 


lea 


Fut. 


kernu 


Pres. Ind. 


kera sa 


Past 


keru 



Past 



janu 



Fut. 


annu 


Pres. Ind. 


ana sa 


Past Ind. 


ana 


Fut. 


nennu 


Pres. Ind, 


nea sa 


Past Ind. 


tieu 



dena, give. 



lena, take 



kernu, do, make. 



janna, know. 
ana, bring. 

aena, take, take away. 



The Intiiiitive may end in eitiier u or a. 

For the Imperat. Sing, a polite form in -elt is often used, m'lreU, 
be pleased to strike; d:h'iiireU, be pleased to fa,!!. This corresponds to 
Panjabi diyyt, Urdu yiriyo, be pleased to fall. 

The sa of the Auxiliary Pres. is sometimes joined to tlie participle 
in the Pres, Ind. with tiie a omitted ; thus, bar^ tsheke hondas, he or she 
walks very quickly. 

A passive participle is used to express ability : — mere bolle nih 
porhida, I cannot read. Panjabi, mere kolo nehi parhida. 

" Where were you ? " or " Where wert thou ? " is capable of being 
expressed in several ways, tnsse kokkhe (or kau) tie or t'lre, where were 
you? tu kokkhe {or kau) tie or tire, where wert thou? kokkhe tine 
(without tusse) where were you ? 

Tlie form of the Verb with -re does not appear to be used in 



62 



Kului. 



addressing a woman. 1 do not feel sure of the meaning of tl.ese suf- 
fixes. They will well repay investigation, and doubtless there are more 
of thera. re, appears to be some particle of address, which one may use 
to a man, but not to a woman; cf. Panjabi 6e, which is used by men 
in speaking to men. The ne in tine is apparently a suffix having the 
force of iiLe, and rendering unnecessary the employment of tmsej ef. 
Panjabi je. re may be the same as Hindi re ; cf. also the r in the Sainji 
Future tense. 

Of the two verbs meaning go, jana is used in composition with 
other verhs. i^oshm is used alone for ' going,' though it also enters 
into composition. 



List of Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. 



bab, babu, father, 
am ma, ya, mother, 
bhai, brother, 
dai, elder sister, 
behn, bhau, younger sister, 
beta, son, 
beti, daughter, 
khasm, husband, 
lahfi, dzoi, jo, wife, 
mard, man. 
betrl, woman, 
shohr-u, boy. 
-i, girl, 
puhal, phual, shepherd, 
guala, cowherd. 
ts5r, thief. 

ghor-a, golir-a, horse, 
-i, -i, mare, 

bold, bauld, ox. 

gai, cow. 

maishi, mhaishi, buffalo. 

bokr-a, goat (he). 
-i, „ (she). 

bhed, sheep 

kutt-a, kutt-a, dog. 
_i, -i, bitch. 

gahi, ghai, rich, bear. 

barag, leopard. 



gaddha, goddha, ass. 
k?tkk-ar, cock, 
-ri, hen. 
bral-a, cat (male). 

-i, ,, (female), 
at, camel. 
01 ru, bird, 
hathl, elephant, 
both, hath, hand, 
dzoqga, foot, 
nak, nose, 
occhi, eye. 
muh, face, 
dond, tooth, 
koiin, ear. 
shir, hair, 
mund, head, 
dzibbh, tongue, 
pet, stomach, 
pitth, back, 
jea, body, 
kagad, book, 
kalam, pen. 
mandza, bed. 
ghor, house, 
naui, river, 
ual, stream, 
dag, dhog, hill. 



Kului. 



63 



List of Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs — continued. 



poddhra, plain. 

chef., field. 

rotti, bread. 

pani, water. 

konak, wheat. 

choHi, maize. 

biitta, tree. 

eri3, villnore. 

shaihr, city. 

bon, jnnjj[le. 

mofcbi, fish. 

bott, way. 

phol, fruit. 

shikha, meat. 

duddh, milk. 

danna, danna, eg^. 

ghl, ghi. 

tel, oil. 

chah, buttermilk. 

dhiar, day. 

rat, rao, night. 

dliiara, sun. 

dzoth, dzuth, moon. 

tara, star. 

biiinna, wind. 

gash, rain. 

dhuppa, .sunshine. 

bhrotu, load. 

beja, seed. 

Iflha, iron. 

lamro, shoblila, khara, good 

bura, biid. 

bodda, big. 

hotsha, lioccha. .small, 
iilsi, lazy, 
gandu, wise, 
nikamiiia, alsi, foolish, 
tslieka, takra, swift, 
ticcha, sharp, 
nthra, high, 
shoblila, beautiful, clean. 



niara, ugly. 

thonda, cold. 

totta, hot. 

niittha, sweet. 

shetta, white. 

cittha, cfttha, black. 

thoru, little. 

bohO, much, 

bona, be, become, 
ena, come. 

jana, dzana, go. 

noshQa, go, run. 

beshna, .sit. 

lena, take. 

deaa, give. 

dzhaurna, jhaurna, fall. 

utthna, rise. 

khara bona, stand. 

hei'na, see. 

khana, eat. 

pina, drink. 

galana, bolna speak, say. 

sauna, sleep. 

kerna, do. 

rauhna, stay, remain. 

main a, beat. 

pacheanna, recognise. 

pMJjna, arrive, 
noshi jana, run away, 
banana, make, 
shadna, call. 

dhunna, melna. meet, be ob- 
tained, 
sikkhna, dzanna, learn, 
porhiia, read, 
likhna, write. 
TMfirna, die. 
shunna, hear, 
phirl ena, retui-n. 
bnuhna, flow, 
lorna, fight. 



64 Knlui. 

List of Common Noons, Adjectivfjs Ai\d Verbs — continued. 



jurna, win. 
hama, be defeated, 
shetna, throw, sow. 
bold jnndne, plough, 
khiaaa, give to eat. 



plana, give to drink, 
shineana, cause to hear, 
tsorna, grjize. 
tsarna, cause to graze, 
lumma pauiia, lie down. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



1-ek. 
2— diii. 
3 — cin. 

4— tsar. 

5— ponj. 

6 — chau. 

7 — .satt. 

8— otth. 

9 — uou. 
10— dosh. 
11 — jjiara. 



12 — bara. 
13 — telira. 
14 — couda, 
15 — pandra. 
16 — sola. 
1 7 — satara, 
18 — tliara. 
]9— nib. 
20— bih. 
100 — shauu. 



Enumeration is by twenties up to a hundred. 



Sentences. 

1. Tera nS ki re ? What is thy name ? 

2. Ei ghore ri ketri umbar sa ? How much is the age of tins 
horse ? 

3. Okkha na Kashmir ketni dur be ? From liere how far is 
Kashmir ? 

4. TCisre babbe re ghore ketie bete be r* In your father's bouse 
how many sons are there ? 

5. Havi auj dura na bondi ao. I have come walking to-day 
from very far. 

6. Mere tsatse (cace) re bete teiri behni sagge biah keru. My 
uncle's son made a marriage with bis daughter. 

7. Ghora na shette ghore ri kathi he. In the bouse is the white 
horse's saddle. 

8. Tei ri pittbi pandeh kathi kosha. Bind the saddle on his 
back. 

9. MaT teire bete be bohu marn. I beat his sou much. 



Kulm. 65 

10. San bare dhauga na goru bher cara sa. He on the big hill 
is grazing cows and sheep. 

11. Sail butte heth ghore pandeh bettha hundabe (saK He under 
that tree was seafed on a horse. 

12. Teiia bliai apai baihni na bodda he(sa). Hisbiotheris biggei- 
than his sister. 

13. Teiraraul dhai rapayye sa. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mera bapa hocche ghora narauhas. My father lives in a little 
house. 

15. El be eh rupayya del deii. Give this rupee to him. 

16. Teina rupayya moiji^i ana. Ask and bring rupees from him. 

17. Toibe ramre marike roshie bonuha. Having beaten him well 
bind him with ropes. 

18. Bai na pani korha. Draw water from the spring. 

19. Mere agge tsol. Walk before me. 

20. Taun piclie kosra sholiru enda sa ? Whose boy is walking 
behind thee ? 

21. TaT kosan raulle leii ? From whom didst fchou buy it ? 

22. Grant re eksi dukandaia na leu. I took (bought) it from a 
shopkeeper of the village. 



THE DIALECTS OF MANDI AND SUKET, 

BY 

The Revd. T. Qrahame Bailey, B.D., M.R.A.S. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Mandi and Sukefc are two important states lying between Simla 
and Kaqgra proper with Kulu for their eastern boundary. They form 
part of the central linguistic wedge between Camba and the Simla States, 
it being noticeable that north of Kaijgra and south of Suket certain 
linguistic peculiarities are found which are not observed in the central 
area. The future in I alluded to in the Introduction to the Camba 
Dialects (see Appendix to Grazetteer of Camba State) is a good example 
of tliis. In the central wedge the future is in g or gh, whereas to the 
north and south and east it is in I. 

The main Mandi dialect is rather widely spread. It is found with 
very little change overall the western and northern portions of the State. 
It is also spoken in the capital, and extends without much variation 
southwards into Suket. In tlie following pages a grammar of this 
dialect is given, followed by brief paradigms to illustrate the northern 
dialects. The centre of North Mandeali may be taken to be Jhatir)- 
gri half-way between Sultanpur and Palampur. Chota Baijghali, as 
alluded to in the following pages, is spoken in that portion of Chota 
Baijghal which lies in the extreme northern portion of Mandi State. In 
the south-east portion of the State called Mandi Siraj the dialect spoken 
is still Mandeali, but it shows resemblances to Inner Siraji, the dialect 
of the nortliern half of the Siraj Ta^sil of Kulu. 

In Mandeali the genitive is formed by the postposition m, the 
Dative by jo, and the Ablative by ge or the. 

Although the dialect shows many traces of the influence of Pan- 
jabi, it keeps clear of that influence in the Plural of nouns, which is in 
the Oblique generally the same as the Singular except in the Vocative 
case. In parts of the State we have the special Fem. Oblique form for 
3rd Pers. Pronouns so characteristic of Kula and the Simla States. 
The future is either indeclinable in — rjg or declinable in — gha. 

The Pres. Part in composition is indeclinable, as harU hct, is 
doing, which reminds us of the Kashmiri participle karnn. Another 



11 



resemblance to Kashmiri is in the confusion between e and ye. Thus we 
find tes used interchangeably with tyes, es with yes, etthi with iettJii 
{yetthi). The interchange of s and h finds frequent exemplification in 
the hill states, e.g., in the Pres. Auxiliary ha and sd or dsd. See the 
dialects passim. 

Mandeali lias a Stative Participle in — irn, thus paird, in the state 
of having fallen, pitird, in the state of having been drunk. The pecu- 
liarity of the verb hdhnd, beat, has been alluded to under the Verb in 
Mfindeali and Chota Bagghali, and under the latter dialect will be 
found a reference to an interesting undeclined participle used in the 
Passive to give the sense of ability. 

In Suket there are said to be three dialects — Paliar, Dhar and 
Bahal, but this is obviously an over-refinement. I have not had an op- 
portunity of studying them at first hand, and therefore make the 
following remarks with some reserve. 

The Singular of nouns is practically the same as in Mandeali, but 
in the Plural Panjabi influence is shown in the Oblique termination — a. 
The Agent Plural, however, ends in — f I. the is used for tlie Ablative 
postposition, ge being generally kept for the purpose of comparison of 
Adjectives. The pronouns are almost the same as in Mandeali. 

In Verbs we find that the Dhar dialect resembles Panjabi in its 
Pres. Part, in — dd, and in its Past Part, in — ed. The Bahal dialect 
has its Pres. Indie, like Mandeali, 9.s mdra hd, but in the Imperfect has 
the peculiar double form, mdra, hd thd, he was beating, mdra he the, 
they were beating. The Suketi dialects make their future in gh and 
possibly g or ijg, and have the Stative Participle in — ird, as mdrlrd, in 
the state of having been beaten. The Auxiliary Present and Past is 
the same as in Mandeali. 

The system of transliteration is that of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, i denotes the sound half-way between i and i, u italicised in a 
word printed in ordinary type is half-way between u and u ; eii simi- 
larly italicised represents the sound of e in French /e ; c is the sound 
of ch in child, ch is the corresponding aspirate. 

T. Grahame Bailey. 

25th February, 1905. 





MAljrpEAIil. [Mandeall] 






Nouns. 






Masculine. 






Nouns in-a. 






Singular. 


Plural. 


N. 


ghor-a, horse 


-e 


G. 


-e ra 


as Sing. 


D.A. 


-e jo 


>» 


L. 


-e manjlia 


»» 


Ab. 


-e ge, the 


»> 


Ag. 


-e 


»» 


V. 


-ea 

Nouns in a Consonant. 


-do 




Singular. 


Plural. 


N. 


ghar, house 


as Sing, 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


ghar-a, ra, &c. 




Ag. 


-e 


»j 


V. 


-a 

Nouns in-i. 


-0 


N. 


hath-i, elepbant 


as Sing 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 


J) 


Ag. 


-is 


» 


V. 


-ia 


-io 



Nouns in -w, such as hindu, Hindu, are declined like those ia "i 
bah, father, is declined like ghar, except that the second 6 is doubled 
before any additions. 





Feminine. 




Nouns in -i. 


N. 


b§t-i, daughter 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra &c. 


Ag. 


-ie 


V. 


-15 



as Sing. 



» 



10 



2 








Mandealt. 














Nouns in a 


Consonant. 














Singu 


lar. 


Plural. 




N. 






baih-n. 

• 




ni 






G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-ni ra &c. 


as Sing. 




Ag. 






-nie 




5» 






V. 






-ni 




-nio 












Pronouns. 














Singular. 








1st 






2nd 


3id 




eh, this. 


N. 


bau 






tu 


se 




eh 


G. 


mera 






tera 


tes ra (or 


tyes or tis) 


es ra (y( 


D.A. 


ma jo 






tujo 


„ &c. 




„ &c. 


L. 


ma bbittar, 


raanjhi 


I tuddh &c. 


>» 




>» 


Ab. 


matbe 






tuttbe 


>> 




>» 


Ag. 


mai 






tai 


tine 




ine 


K 


asse 






tusse 


seo 




eh 


G. 


assa ra, 


mh 


ara 


tussa ra 


tinha ra 




inha ra 


D.A. 


assa jo 






„ &c. 


„ &c. 




„ &c 


L. 


„ &c. 






>> 


» 




5> 


Ab, 


>» 






)» 


j> 




?» 


Ag. 


asse 






tusse 


tinhe 




inhe 



Singular. Plural. 

N. kun, who, jo, who, 

Obi. kes, &c. jes, &c. 

Ag. kune jine 

kyciy what ? has Obi. kiddhl. 

Other pronouns are hoi, someone, anyone, kick, something, any- 
thing, liar kol, whosoever, har kich, whatsoever. 



kun 


je§ 


kinha 


jinha 


kinhe 


jinhe 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns, but adjectives 
qualifying nouns have the following declension : — All adjectives ending 
in any letter other than a are indec. Those ending in -a have Obi. -e. 



MattfleRli. 3 

PI. -5, indec. Fem. -i indec. It shonld be noted that the genitives of 
nouns and pronouns ai'e adjectives coming under this rule. 

Comparison is expressed by means of ye, from, than, as A;^ara, good, 
es ge khara, better than this, sabbhi ge khara, better than all, best. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Relative. 

erha, like that terha, like that kerha, like what ? jerha, like which 

or this or this 

itna, 80 much titna, so much kitna, how mnch jitna, as much 

or many or many or many ? or many 



Adverbs. 



Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. 1'hey then agree with the 
subject of the sentence. The following is a list of the most important 
adverbs other than adjectives : — 



Time. 

ebbe, hun, now 

tebbe, then 

kebbe, when ? 

jebbe, when 

aj, to-day 

kal, to-morrow 

dothi, to-morrow morning 

parsi, day after to-morrow 

cauthe, day after that 

kal, yesterday 

parsi, day before yesterday 

cauthe, day befoie that 

kadhi, sometimes, ever 

kadhi na, never 

kadhi kadhi, sometimes 



Place. 

etthi, here 

tetthi, there 

ketthi, where ? 

jetthi, where 

etthi tikki, up to here 

ietthi te, from here 

iipra, up 

bun, down 

nede, near 

dur, far 

agge, in front 

picche, behind 

bhittar, inside. 

bahar, outside 



Others are ki, why, idhi re katthB, for this reason, ha, yes, sitSbi 
quickly. 



Prepositions. 
The commonest prepositions have been given in the declension of 



Mande&li. 



nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of 
both a preposition and an adverb. 

par, beyond 

war, on this side 

•wliittar,manihe, manjh, within 

pralle, upon 

heth, below 

tika tikki, up to 

ni§ nede, beside me 

mS saijgi, with me 

tesjo, for him 



others. The same word is often 

teie katthe, about thee 
ma sahi, assa sahl, like me, 

like us. 
tinba bakkha, towards them 
tetage prant, after tliat 
idhi re ore pave, round about 

it 
tussa barabar, equal to you 
mathe parteg, apart from me 



Pres. 

Past 



Put 



Verbs. 

Auxiliary. 

I am &G. Sing, ha, /. hi, 
I was &c. ' Sing, tha, /. tlii 

Intransitive Verbs, 
pauna, fall. 

Sing, paiigh -a f. -i PI. -e /. -i, also paugg indecl. 



Plur. he, 
Plur. the 



/. thi. 



thi, 



Imperat. pau paua 

Pres. Indie. paii§ indec. with ha, /. hi. 

Impf. Indie. 

Past Cond. 

Past Indie. 

Pres. Perf . 

Plupf. 

Participle 



PL he, hi 
the, thi 



>> »> >> tha, 
paund-a (-i -e -i) 
pea/, pei 
pea ha, &c. 
pea tha, &c. 
paizke, having fallen, paunde hi, on falling, falra, in the 

state of having fallen, paunde, while falling, paunewaln, 

faller or about to fall. 



Some verbs have slight irregularities. 

hona, be become. 
Put. hSgha or hngg 

Pres. Ind. hua ha 
Past Cond. hunda 
Past Indie, hua 

anna, come. 
Put. aiigha or augg 

Pres. Indie. au§ ha 



Mandeali. " 

Past Cond. aunda 

Past Indie, aya 

Participle aike, having come, alra, in the state of having come. 

jana, go. 
Imperat. ja ja. 
Pres. Indie, jaha ha 
Past Cond. janda 
Past Indie, gea 
Participle joike, having gone ; gelra, in the state of having gone. 

raih^a, remain. 

Fut. raharjgha or rahaqg 

Imperat. raih raha 
Pres. Ind. rahi ha 
Past reha 

baithna, sit. 

• ■ ' 

Fut, baithgha or baithaijg 

Past Cond. baithda 

Transitive Verbs, 

marna, beat, strike, in general like paund. 

Fut. margha or maraqg 

Pi'es. Indie, raaia ha 

Past Cond. marda 

Past Ind. marea, with agent ease of subject, marea agreeing with 

object. 
Pres. Perf. marea ha, with agent case of subject, marea ha agreeing 

with object. 

Plupf. marea tlia, with agent case of subject, marea tha agreeing 

with object. 
Participle marira, in the state of having been beaten. 

The passive is formed by using the past part, mdred, with the 
required tense oi jdna, go, mdred jdnd, be beaten. The passive is not 
very common. 

The following are slightly irregular : — 

khana, eat. 

Fut. khagha or khagg 

Pres. Indie. khaliS ha 

Past Indie, khadha 

Participle khadhira, in the state of having been eaten. 



6 


Man^eSU. 


Past 
Participle 


pina, drink, 
pita 
pitira, in the state of havinof been drunk. 


Pies. Ind. 


denia, give. 
dehS ha 


Past 


ditta 


Participle 


dittira, in the state of having been given 


Fut. 


lai^a, take. 
larjgha or lagg 



Pres. Indie. lahS ha 

kama, do. 
Past kits 

Igauna, bring, like aunli, but 
Past lei aya 

lei jana, take'away, like jana. 

There is a noticeable peculiarity about the past of hahno, beat 
strike. (Fut. haharjgha, baharjg). The past is always used in the 
Fern. I beat him is mat tesjo hahl. Apparently the verb is in agree- 
ment with some fem, noun not expressed. The understood word would 
naturally have the meaning of ' blow.' See also under the Baijghali 
dialect. 

Compound Verbs. 
Habit, Continuance, State. 

I am in the habit of falling, hau paid karU hd (compounded with 
Jcarnd, do). 

1 continue falling, haii paundd raJiB> (compounded with raihnd^ 
remain). 

I am in the act of falling, hau paundd lagird hd (compounded with 
laggnd, stick). 

List op Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. 

ghora, horse. biahu, husband, 

bab, bapu, father. lari, wife, 

mai, mother. mardh, man. 

bhai, brother. janane, women, 

bobbo, elder sister. mat^ha, boy. 

baihn, younger sister. matthi, girl, 

gabhru, beta, son. puhal, shepherd, 

beti, daughter. cor, thief. 





Mandedli, 


List of Common Noons, 


Adjectivks and YERbs—Gont 


ghora. 


dhara, hill. 


gliOri, mare. 


padhar, plain. 


bald, ox. 


dohri, field. 


gai, cow. 


roti, bread. 


mhais, buffalo. 


pani, water. 


bakr-a, he-goat. 


kanak, wheat. 


-i, she „ 


challi, maize. 


bhed, sheep. 


dal, tx'ee. 


kutt-a, dog. 


grao, village. 


-!, bitch. 


nagar, city. 


ricch, bear. 


ban, jungle. 


baragh, leopard. 


macchl, fish. 


gaddha, ass. 


painda, way. 


sur, pig. 


pbal, fruit. 


kukk-ar, cock. 


mass, meat. 


-ri, hen. 


duddh, milk. 


bill-a, cat (male). 


batti, anui, egg. 


-i, „ (female). 


ghiu, ghi. 


ut, camel. 


tel, oil. 


panchi, pagkheru, bird. 


chah, buttermilk. 


il, kite. 


dhiara, day. 


liathi, elephant. 


rat, night. 


hath, hand 


surj, sun. 


pair, pa8, foot. 


candarraa, moon. 


nak, nose. 


tara, star. 


hakkhi, eye. 


bagar, wind. 


mSh, face. 


pani, barkha, rain. 


dand, tooth. 


dhuppa, sunshine. 


kan, ear. 


gird, stormy wind. 


sarual, kes, hair. 


bhara, load. 


niund, sir, head. 


bin, seed. 


jibh, tongue. 


loha, iron. 


pith, back. 


khara, good. 


pet, stomach. 


hura,, bad. 


sarir, body. 


badda, big. 


pothi, book. 


halka, little. 


kalam, pen. 


dalidri, lazy. 


manja, bed. 


akliwala, wise. 


ghar, house. 


bhaceal, foolish. 


daryao, river. 


tata, swift. 


khad, stream. 


paina, sharp. 



8 



Mandeali. 



List op Common Nouxs, Adjectives and Verbs — Continued. 



?<cca, higli. 

gora, khara, beautiful. 

kubliadra, ugly. 

tlianda, cold. 

tatfca, hot. 

eudla, mittlia, sweet. 

haccha, clean. 

ghat, little. 

babut, much. 

bona, be, become. 

aana, come. 

jana, go. 

baithna, sit. 

laina, take. 

dena, give. 

paunap, fall. 

uthna, rise. 

kharna, stand. 

dekhna, see. 

khana, eat. 

pina, drink. 

bolna, say. 

sauna, sleep, lie down. 

karna, do. 

raihna, remain. 

bahna, mama, beat. 

pachanna, recognise. 



bujjlma, know. 

pwjjna, arrive. 

daurna, run. 

nhassi jana, run away. 

banana, make. 

thaina, place. 

sadna, call. 

niilna, meet. 

sikkhna, learn. 

parhna, read. 

likhna, write. 

marna, die. 

sunna, hear. 

hatna, turn. 

hati aana, return. 

bewhna, flow. 

larna, fight. 

jittna, win. 

harna, defeated. 

calejaoa, go away. 

bahna, sow. 

hal bahna, plough. 

khuana, cause to eat. 

plana, cause to drink. 

sunana, cause to hear. 

cugna, graze. 

carna, carana, cause to graze. 



]— ek. 

2— dui. 
3 — trae. 
4 — car. 
5— panj. 
6 — chau. 
7 — sat. 
8— ath. 
9 — nau. 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



10— das. 
11 — gyara. 
12 — bara. 
13— tehia. 
14 — Cauda. 
15 — pandra. 
16 — sola. 
17 — satara. 
18 — tbara. 



MandeHli. 



Numerals — continued. 
Cardinal. 



19 — unni. 




67 — satahat. 


20 blh. 




69 — anhattar. 


27— satai. 




70 — sattar.'l 


29 — aaattri. 




77 — sateatar. 


30— trih. 




79 — unasi. 


37— satattri. 




80 — assi.'' 


39 — antuali. 




87 — satasl. 


40 — call. 




89 — nauu§. 


47 — sataji. 




90— nabb§. 


49 — anaunja. 




97 — satanue. 


50 — panjah. 




100 — sau. 


57 — sataunja. 




200— dni sau. 


59 — anirhat. 




1,000— hajar. 


60— satth. 


Ordinal. 


100,000— lakkh. 


1st, paihlu. 




paihli ban, first time. 


2nd, dujja. 




dujji „ second time 


3rd,'trijja. 




ek guna, onefold. 


4th, cautha. 




das guna, tenfold. 


5th, panjuS. 




addha, half. 


6th, chatthui. 




paune dui. If. 


7th, satu§. 




sawa dui, 2|-. 


10th, dasul. 




dhai, 2|. 


50th, panjah u§. 


sa^dhe car, 4| 


deodh, l^. 




Sentences. 





1. Tera kya na§ ha ? What is thy name ? 

2. Eh ghora kitnl barsa ra hoa ? How old is this horse ? 

3. Yetfchi ge Kasrair kitna kii dur ha ? Prom here how far is 
Kashmir ? 

4. Tere babbe re ghara kitne gabhrii he ? In thy father's house 
how many sons are there ? 

5. 1] hau bare dnra ge handike aya. To-day I from very far 
have walking come. 

6. Mere caca ra gabhru tesri baihni sauge biaha huira. My 
uncle's son is married to his sister. 



10 Mandealt. 

7. Ghara sufeda ghore ri jin hi. In the house is the white 
horse's saddle. 

8. Esri pitthi pralle jin kasi dea. On his back bind the saddle. 

9. Mai tesre gabhru jo bauht bahi. I beat his son very much. 

10. Uppur dhara re sire par gae bakri cara ha (or carae karS ha 
or carauda lagira ha). Above on the top of the hill he is grazing cows 
and goats (or is in the habit of grazing, or is now grazing). 

11. Se tes dala heth ghore pralle baithira. He under that tree 
is seated on the horse. 

12. Tesra bhai apai baihni ge badda. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

13. Tisra mul dhai rupayya he. Its price is two and a half rupees 

14. Mera bab tes halke ghara whittar (manjh) raha ha. My 
father lives in that small house. 

15. Tisjo inha rapayje dei dea. Give him these rupees. 

16. Tinha'dhabbe testi lei la. Those pice take from him. 

17. Tisjo bauht marike rassi ke bannha. Having beaten him 
well bind him with ropes. 

18. Khue ge pani kaddh. Take out water from the well. 

19. Mathe agge cala. Walk before me. 

20. Kesra gabhru tuddh picche aunda lagira ? Whose son is coming 
behind you ? 

21. Se tusse kiste muUe lea ? From whom did you buy that ? 

22. Grawa re hattiwale ge lea asse muUe. We bought it from 
a shopkeeper of the village. 



NORTH MA]^TPEALi. 

Only those points arc noted in which North Mandeali differs from 
Mandeali proper. 

Nouns. 

The Ablative is formed with ge, from. 

dedf sister, is thus declined : — 

Singtdar. 

N. ded 

G.D.A.L.Ab. dedd -a ra, &c. 

Ag. -§ 



Plural, 
dedd -a 

-a, &c. 
-§ 









Pronouns. 










Singular. 






Isfc 


2nd 


3rd 


eh, this 


N. 


• •• 


til 


• •• 


• •• 


G. 


• •• 


t«« 


fern, tessa ra 


esra /. essara 


D.A. 


munjo 


tujS 


• • » 


• •• 


L. 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


Ab. 


malge 


tuddhge 


• «• 


• •• 


Ag. 


• •• 


ta! 


tinie, tine,/, tesse 
Plural. 


inie, ine,/. esse 


N. 


• •• 


• •• 


te5 




G. 


mhara 


thara 


tinhara 




Ag. 


asse 


tusse 


tinhe 





kun, who ? Ag. s. hmle. 

JO, who, Ag. B.jinle. 

kol, someone, anyone, Ag. kesi. 



Adjectives. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Relative. 

ehra, like this or that tehpa kehra jehra 

etra, so much or many tetra ketra jetra 



12 



North Mattdedli. 
Adverbs. 



porshi, day after to-raorrow 

or day before yesterday. 
etthi taS, up to here 
etthi ge, from here 



uphrau, up 
bunhe, down 
ner, Dear 
bhittar 





Prepositions. 


_ 


andhar, bic, within 




mai nere, beside me 


thalle, below 




mai kanne, with me 


ta^, up to 







Pres. 
Past 



Past 
Participle 

Fast 



Verbs, 
Auxiliary. 

1st Sing, he, 3rd s. ha or lie 
thia PI. thie /. thi. 

Intransitive Verbs. 

pauna, fall. 

paiea, /. paii PI. paie 

paiira hoa, in the state of having fallen 

ho^a, be, become, 
boa 







au^a, come. 


Fut. 


augha 




Imper. 


a a 


ja^a, go. 


Fut. 


jagglia 




Imperat. 


ja jaa 


rah^a, remain. 


Fut. 


rahijgha 




Imper. 


rah raha 




Past Cond. 


rahnda 




Past Ind. 


reha 


bath^a, bashna, i 


Past 


batth 


Transitive Verb. 
diija, give. 


Fut. 


dfgha 




Past Cond. 


dinda 




Past 


ditta 









North Mamleali 






Isujaa, takoi 


Fat. 


iSgha, laS 




Past Cond. 


ISnda 


, \ 


Past Ind. 


l§a ' 




Past 
Past 


galaya 
ianea 


galaya, say. 
janna» know. 



18 



lei auna, bring, like anna. 

The future does not appear to have the indccl. form found in 
Mandeali, proper, e.g., paurjg, mararjg. The 1st S. however has an 
alternative forrn in -il, as pauU, hahu, I shall fall, strike. 

The partic. faller or about to fall, &c., dispenses with the e in 
the middle : thus, mnmivala or bahnwdla, striker. 

The past cond. is used for the present Indie., very commonly in 
negative sentences and occasionally in affirmative sentences. 



babba, father. 

ij, mother. 

bharearn, bhai, brother. 

bet<ihn, sister. 

ded, elder sister. 

bebbi, younger sister. 

mahim, man. 

mahtimi, woman. 

bold, ox. 

kutt-a, dog. 

-i, bitch, 
gaddha, ass. 
suggar, pig. 
pair, foot, 
shir, hair, 
pjet, stomach, 
pinda, body, 
kagad, book, 
nal, stream, 
pahar, hill, 
bagri, field, 
shaihr, city, 
jaggal, jungle, 
mhachli, fish, 
painda, way. 



phol, fruit. 

duddh, milk. 

an da, egg. 

gheu, ghi. 

bak, strong wind. 

beja, seed. 

baqka, fine, good, &c. 

boclda, big. 

darildi, lazy. 

seana, wise. 

guar, ignorant. 

thonda, cold. 

mata, much, many. 

bathna, bashna, sit. 

galana, say, 

rahna, remain. 

pauhcna, arrive. 

nhathna, nhashna, run. 

bolna, call. 

shikkhna, learn. 

shunna, hear. 

cale auna, return. 

baihna, flow. 

khiana, cause to eat. 

shunana, cause to hear. 



letna, lie down. 



14 



North Man^eSli, 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



S— trai. 

6 — chia. 

7— satt. 
13 — tera. 
29 — nattri. 
39 — antuali. 
49 — nunja. 
57 — satunja. 



5th, panjfia. 
6th, chauua. 
7th, sattna. 



Ordinal, 



59 — naha^. 
60 — shatth. 
69 — nhattar, 
77 — satattar. 
79 — nnasi. 
90 — nabba. 
100 — shau, saikpa. 
100,000— lakh. 



10th, dasna. 
50th panjahM. 
deddh, If. 



The following sentences are very slightly different from those 
under Mandeali proper, but when they happen to have another turn of 
expression they are worth recording : — 

2. Es ghore rl ketri umar hi ? What is the age of this horse ? 

3. Etthige Kasmira taS ketra dur ha ? From here to Kashmir 
how far is it ? 

4. Thare babba re ghare ketre lapke he? In your father's 
house how many sons are there ? 

5. Hau bare dura ge handi kanne aya. I have come walking 
from very far. 

6. Mere cace ra beta esri beuhni kanne biaha hoa. My uncle's 
son is married to his sister. 

7. Ghara manjhe hacche ghoje ri kathi hi. In the house is the 
white horse's saddle. 

8. Esri pitthi ml jin kos. On his back bind the saddle. 

9. Mai esra beta bara mareS. I beat his son much. 

10. Se pahara ri c5ti ml gaia bakri caranda. He on the top of 
the hill is grazing cows and goats. 

11. fis dala heth ghoje upphar batthira. Under this tree he is 
seated on a horse. 

12. Esra bhai apni beuhni ge wadda. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

14. Mera bab es halke ghara ml rahnda. My father lives in this 
small house. 

15. £shj6 eh rupayya dei dea. To him this rupee give. 

16. Esge rupayya lei lau. From him take the rupee. 



North MandeSU. 15 

17. Eshjo bahiS rashie bannho. Having beaten him bind him 
with ropes. 

18. Bai ge pani kaddb. From the spring take out water. 

19. Ma? ge aggecal. Walk before me. 

20. Kesra larka tussa piccbe ae. Whoso boy is coming behind 



you? 



21. Tusse kesge mul lea ? From whom did you buy it ? 

22. Grau5 re ek dukandara ge. From a shopkeeper of the 



village. 



r-v<^vr w^ -^ ' 



CHOTA BANGHALI. 

The following grammatical forms are those in which the Mandeali 
spoken in that portion of Chota Baijghal which lies in Mandi State, 
differs from North Mandeali generally. 

Pronoons. 
Singular. 





Ist 


2nd 3rd 


§h, this. 


N. 


hau, mai 


• •• •• • 


• • • 


G. 


• • • 


... tisra, / tissa ra 


« «• 


D.A. 


minjo 


tijjS 


■ • • 


Ab. 


maijge 


tugge 


• • • 


Ag. 


• * • 


tai tinni, f. tisse 
Plural. 


inni, /. isse 


N. 


asse 


tusse 




G. 


mhara, assa ra 


tussS ra 




D.A. 


ass§ jo 


» 20 




Ag. 


assa 


tussS 






Adjectives. 




efcna, 


so much titna 


k§tna, jetna 




or 


many, 







Adverbs. 



kai, why ? 



Verbs. 

Auxiliary. 

Pres. I am, Sing. m. ha 

Intransitive Verbs. 

pau^a, fall. 

Participle. peira, in the state of having fallen 

oq.a} come. 
Past aya 



Chofn Banqhnli. 



17 



Fut. 



Past 



jaijgha 



reha 



ja^a, go. 
raihi^a, remain. 



Ill Chota Bagorhal also is found that pecirliar fern, past of hshn/l 
thus : — 

mat tisjo do trai bahl, I struck him two or three blows ; ma? tisjo rlo 
trai thapre rl bahl, I struck him two or three blows or slaps. 

In expressing the idea of ability with the passive voice, and in 
ceitain othei- cases the participle or infinitive is very strangely kept 
undeclinerl, as — 

eh Icitah ma>jge nth parked j'andi, I cannot read this book. 

rotl marjije nth khdyd jdndi, I cannot eat bread. 

kharxar nth rridrjge roked jdndi, I cannot stop the mule. 

phulke mh min/o onde pakdnd, I cannot cook phulke, {lit. phulke do 
not come to me to cook.) 

In these cases on the analogy of Urdu and Panjabi we should expect 
parhi, khni, roki, pakdne. 

The following words taken from the beginnini; of the list show how 
slightly Chota Baijghali differs from N. Mandeali. 



happa, father, 
ij, mother, 
bhau, brother, 
bebbe, baihn, sister. 
munnu, son. 
betti, daughter, 
khasm, husband. 
ISri, wife, 
mahnu, man. 
janana, woman, 
chohr -u, boy. 
-i, girl, 
gualu, shepherd, 
cor, thief, 
ghor -a, horse. 
-i, mare, 
mhaih, buffalo, 
bakr -a, he-goat. 



bakr-i, she-goat, 
bhed, sheep, 
kutt -a, dog. 

-i, bitch, 
ricch, beat . 
rairg, leopard, 
gadha, ass. 
SUV, pig. 
kukk -ar, cock. 

-ri, hen. 
bill -a, cat (male). 

-i, „ (female.) 
ut, camel, 
hathi, elephant, 
hath, hand, 
pair, foot, 
nakk, nose, 
hakkhi, eye. 



CHAMBA DIALECTS. 

BY 

The Rev. T. Qrahame Bailey, B.D., M.R.A.S. 

INTRODUCTION. 

From a linguistic point of view the State of Camba is intensely 
interesting. Situated, as it is, entirely in the hills, it lends itself to the 
pei-petuation of diverse dialects. It is traversed fiora east to west by 
the Candra-Bhaga or Cinab River in the north, and the Ravi in the 
south, which for part of their coarse through the State are no more 
than twenty miles apart. To the north and west lies the State of 
.TammS, to the east British Lahul (frequently pronounced by Europeans 
Lahaul), to the south the British district of Kaqgra. The area of 
Camba is just over 3,000 square miles, yet there are six distinct forms 
of speech found within its borders. Speaking roughly we may allocate 
them as follows : — in the north-w-est Curahi, in the north-central portion 
of the State Paijgwali, in the north-east Camba Lahull, in the south- 
west Bhateali, in the south-east Bharmauri or Gadi ; while round about 
Camba city, which lies in the south-west (but further north and east 
than the Bhateali area) the dialect spoken is Cameali. Of these all, 
except Lahull, belong to what is at present called the Western Pahipri 
language of the Northern Group of the Sanskritic Aryan Family, while 
Lahu]i is classed as belonging to the Tibeto-Himalayan branch of 
the Indo-Chinese Family. (See Census of India 1901, Chapter on 
Languages.) 

The grammar of Cameali is very much what we should expect 
from its geographical position. It makes its Genitive in ra, its Dative in 
jo, its Future in -la, it has a Stative Participle in ora, thus tirora, in 
the state of having fallen, marora, in the state of having been beaten, 
for the pai'ticipie with having, it uses hart, as tiri kari, having fallen. 

Biiateali has, in consequence of its position, affinities with Dogri, 
spoken in Jammft State, and with Karjgri, spoken in Kaggra. In the 
Genitive it has da, in the Dative ki or l-ed, in the Future ga or ghd. 
(The dialects of Kaggra, Mandi Stsite and Suket State have also a 
Future in g or gh.). Like Cameali it uses karl for the participle with 



11 



having. Its Stative Participle is very interesting ; it has two forms 
e.g., feha or peada, in the state of having fallen, dhyd or ayada, in the 
state of having come. A form very similar to peha or ahya is found 
in Kaggra, but for the form in -ada we have to go all the way to the 
State of Baghat, south of Simla, where we find ayada, rirada, with the 
same meaning as Bhateali ayada, pedda. Similarly geddd, rBhddd, in 
Bhateali correspond to gdddd, roddd (or rohddd) in Baghati, and mean 
' in the state of having gone ' and ' remained ' respectively. The accent 
of participles in -ddd is on the antepenultimate. 

In pronunciation Bhateali very much resembles Camealu Both 
employ the cerebral I and n, and in both the sound given to h is mid- 
way between the sound in Urdu and Hindi and that in Panjabi. In 
Urdu and Hindi h is pronounced practically as it is in English. In 
Panjabi, when it appear.s either alone or in conjunction with b, g, j, d, 
d, w, m, 11, Z, it has a deep guttural sound not wholly unlike the Arabic 
'ain. In Bhateali and Cameali it is half-way between the two, Avhile their 
pronunciation of h when it follows a vowel is nearly the same as in 
Panjabi, that is to say, h is almost inaudible itself, but raises the tone 
of the syllable in which it occurs. The pronunciation of h, found in 
these two dialects, is common to many hill dialects. 

Curiihi, spoken in the north-west of Camba, has many features 
deserving of study. Its Genitive ends in rd or ro, its Dative in m, its 
plural is generally the same as the singular, except in the Vocative, 
in this reminding us of dialects in Kulu and the Simla States and also 
of the Gadi dialect of Camba, Its Pres. Participle ends in -td and its 
Stative Participle in -ord. It is remarkable that if we reckon from the 
south (near Simla) northwards Curahi is the first dialect we find with 
traces of the vocalic change known as epenthesi.s. Thus, khdnd, eat 
(inf.) fem. khaim, khMtd, eating, fem. hhaiti. As we go north and 
north-west we find epenthesis to a greater extent in dialects like 
Bhadrawahi, still more developed in others more distant such as Poguli 
and Kishtawari, till we reach the highest stage of bewildering com- 
pleteness in Ka.5hmiri. The normal ending of the Curahi Future is 
-md, -me in the 1st Pers. Sing, and Plur. and -Id, -le in the Sing, 
and Plur. of the other persons, though -md, -me are also found in the 
3rd Pers. Sing, and Plur. and occasionally - Id in the 1st Pers. This 
matter of the Future is only one example of the deeply interesting 
problems arising out of Northern Himalayan dialects. If we take the 
distribution of the Future in I, we find that the following dialects have 
a Future with I, appearing in every person, Singular and Plural : JammS 
Siraji, Bhadrawahi and Padari in JammS, Paijgwali, Cameali and 
Bharmauri or Gadi in Camba, Inner Siraji in Kulii, and the dialects of 
Jubbal in the Simla area. The following have I in the 2nd and 



Ill 



3id Persons — Kuliii, Kiatliali (Kitlthal and neighbouring States, includ- 
ing the Simla municipal area), the dialect of the British district of Kot 
Khai, and Bsighati (Bagliat State). Punchl in Punch State has the 
2nd and 3rd Plur. in I, and Bhalesi in JairimS State has I in the 
2nd and 3rd Sing, and 1st and 2nd Plur. The dialects which like 
Curahi liave m in the 1st Plur. are the Simla States dialects of Kot 
Guru, Kot Khai, KiSthal and Baghat, while the Jamnift dialects of the 
Siri/j, Bhadrawah and Bhajes have botli m and I combined in the 1st Phir. 
We notice then tlie interesting fact that, in the middle of the dialects 
which have I in the Future, extending from Punch to Jubbal we have 
as a wedge an area which has its Futures in g or gh, compi-ising the 
dialects of BhatSal (Camba), Kaqgra, Mandi and Suket, this wedge 
extending right up to the Tibeto- Himalayan language area. We notice, 
too, that the central portion of the districts, which make the Future in I, 
keeps the I purer than the more outlying: thus Curahi and the dialects 
beyond to the north and north-west, in common with the Simla dialects 
in the south, inti'oduce m. 

• The great interest in Curahi lies in the fact that it is the first stage 
on the linguistic road to Kashmiri. South and east of Curahi we do not 
notice special Kashmiri characteristics, but as soon as we begin to study 
this dialect we feel the force of those tendencies which find fuller and 
fuller scope as we go north and west till we reach the Kashmiri area. 

The Bharmauri or Gadi dialect is spoken by the Gaddis Avho in- 
habit the district called Gadheran, which includes Bharmaur in Camba 
State and the adjoining part of Kaijgra District. It has been somewhat 
fully treated of along with the Karjgra dialect itself in the Appendix 
to the Kangra Gazetteer, to which I may perhaps be permitted to refer 
the student. To have bound it up with the rest of the Camba dialects 
would have unduly swelled the dimensions of this volume in its 
Gazetteer form, so I deemed it better to omit it. 

To my great regret I was unable when in Camba to meet with 
any speakers of Paijgwali, the dialect of Paqgi. Grammatical informa- 
tion bearing upon it exists in two manuscripts, both compiled by the 
orders of H.H, the Raja of Camba, one a few years ago for the Linguis 
tic Survey of India, and one two years ago for myself. These manu- 
scripts, however, differ, in important particulars, and while undoubtedly 
valuable facts can be gleaned from a comparison of the two, one cannot 
feel the same certainty as to the accuracy of the result, as one would if 
one had had opportunity of making a personal study of the dialect. It 
resembles in a number of details the Padari dialect spoken in the 
district of Padar in Jammft State two or three stages further down the 
Cinab than Paijgi. 

Linguistically the chief interest of Camba centres in Lahuli, spoken 



in the north-east portion of the State. In Britisli Lahul to the east of 
Camba Lahul, there are three dialects of Lahuli. There the Bhaga 
flowing from the north-east in a south-westerly direction is joined by 
the Caiidra coming from the south-east in a north-westerly direction. 
The united stream flow for some little distance before entering Camba 
Lahul. The dialect spoken in the Bhaga Valley is called Banun or 
Gari or Gara, that in the Candra Valley is called Rangloi, and the 
dialect of the valley of the united stream is known as Patni, Patan or 
Mancati. The dialect of Camba Lahul we may call, for want of a better 
name, Camba Lahuli. Lahuli will thus be seen to comprise four 
dialects. Lahuli bears some I'esemblance to Tibetan, to Kanashi 
(the remarkable language spoken in a single village in Kulu called 
Malana or Malani), and to Kanawari, spoken in Kanawar in Bashahr 
State. The resemblance of Camba Lahuli to the other dialects and 
languages mentioned, as brought out by a list of between thirty and 
forty common words taken at a random, may be seen at glauco in the 
following table : — 

Percentage of words in which Camba Lahuli resembles : — 



Patni 


... 68 


Rangloi 


... 87 


Gari 


... 30 


Kanashi 


... 29 


Tibetan 


... 22 



and in a briefer list of Kanawari words 47. The number of words 
in the lists, which appeared identical with the corresponding Camba 
Lahuli words, was Patni 14, Rangloi 3, Gari 2, Kanashi 6, Tibetan 3, 
Kanawari 3. The lists with which the Camba Lahuli words were 
compared are those printed by Mr. A. H. Diack in 1896. Such a com- 
parison may lead, however, to an incorrect conclusion. A similar com- 
parison between, say, English and German, would yield a very high 
percentage of resemblances, yet the two languages are perfectly distinct. 
We may feel quite sure that an inhabitant of Camba Lahul would find 
it impossible to understand any dialect or language in the list except 
Patni. 

The chief difficulty of Camba Lahuli lies in its verb. A number 
of questions suggest themselves to which I am not at present able to 
give an answer. Thus there seem to be two forms of the Present and 
Imperf. Indie, each tense having a form connected with the Infin., 
and one connected with the Future, thus: — tezl, strike, beat, (Infin.), 
Fut. temog. The Present tense has tgzado and temado, Imperf. tEzadeg 
temadey. 

kurz, say, Fut. ko {hog). Pres. Ind. kurado, kuado, Imperf. 



I 



kuradeg, kuadeg. Tn the case of the Verb plpi, arrive, Fut. pipo (pipog) 
we have in addition to Pres. pipnJo, and Iraperf. plpadeg, forms from 
some other root pljtdo, and pljideg. 

The questions suggest themselves — are the forms derived from 
the Infin. and the Future identical in meaning or not ? Should we ex- 
pect to find them in every verb ? 

Tlie Past is even more intei'esting. Tt appears to have seven forms, 
ending in -teg, -deg or -deg, -ta, -da, -do, -to, and a shorter form ending 
in -g. Thus we have : — 

from kuri, say, kuleg, knta, knlg, I said. 
„ Ihai, do, Ihateg, IhSg {Ihadeg is probably Imperf.). 
„ randl, give, randSg, randa, reg. 
„ pipt, arrive pig. 
„ shlzl, take away, shlda. 
„ ihi, go, ideg, idd. 
,, shuhl, become, shutSg, sh/iito. 
There is even another form in -ga as khosiga from khosi, be obtained. 
We have also re from randi, give. Have all these forms the same 
meaning, or do they really repi^esent different tenses ? 

The rules for the formation of the negative ai^e sometimes very com- 
plicated, or the formation is very irregular. The general rule is that 
the negative is formed in the Imperat. by prefixing tha and in other 
tenses by prefixing ma, but we have : — 

net, I shall know, maierjg, I shall not know. 

ideg, I went, neg. tggiemu. 

dapog, I shall fall, neg. ma dag. 

abog, I shall come, neg. marjg. 

ll, go (Imperat.) neg. thel. 

adani, come (Imperat, plur.) neg. thUdani. 

In iggiemu, I did not go, and dggemu, I did not come, (from andeg 
I came), the ?na of the neg. seems to have been changed to mit and added 
at the end. 

It is worthy of note that the agent case of the subject is employed 
with every tense and mood of transitive verbs. 

Some of the final consonants, particularly the letter g, are frequently 
pronounced so faintly that it is almost impossible to say whether a word 
ends in a vowel or a consonant. This doubt arises especially in the case 
of the 1st Sing, of various tenses. Possibly in some cases it is equally 
correct to insert and to omit g. 

An examination of the grammatical forms of Camba Lahu]i which 
are given in their place will, it is trusted, reveal many points, in addition 
to those mentioned above, which are linguistically of the highest 



VI 



interest, and which are worthy of full investigation. Tlie grammar of 
Laliuli has an Aryan air about it, although the vocabulary is Tibeto- 
Himalayan. It might be equally correct to class it as an Aryan 
language. 

In the Census of 1901 the number of speakers retui'ned for the 
Camba dialects was as follows: — Cameali, 37,433; Curahi, 26,859; 
Bharraauri or Gadi 26,361; Bhotia 24,299; Paqgwali, 4,156; Lahuli 
1,543. It is probable that the Bhateali speakers are included under 
Cameali ; the figures returned under Bhotia seem quite incorrect. 

There is no literature in any Camba dialect except CamSali, in 
which the Gospels of Matthew (out of print), Mark and John, the 
Sermon on the Mount and the Ten Commandments have been printed. 
The Gospel of Luke is ready for the press. The character used is a 
slightly adapted form of Takri. 

The system of transliteration adopted in the t'ollowidg pages is that 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, c stands for the sound of ch in child, 
ch being its aspirate, sh is sh in shout, while in sh the s and h, are 
separate ; a, e, denote a, e followed by nasal n, and so for other vowels ; 
r) denotes the sound of ng in singing, i is a sound mid-way between * 
and'f, « in italics occurring in a word in ordinary type denotes the 
sound half-way between w and fi, and ew in italics denotes the short 
sound corresponding to eu. 

In conclusion, I have to express my cordial thanks to the Rev. 
Sohan Lai, of the Church of Scotland Mission in Camba, for most valu- 
able assistance, very willingly given, in connection with the Oameaji 
dialect. In following his authority one cannot go wrong. If there are 
ir\istakes under the heading of Cameali the responsibility is mine. To 
Dr. Hutchison of Camba I am indebted for much personal kindness 
while engaged in this work. He lent me a copy of the palpable of the 
Prodigal Son in Camba Lahuli, which he had in his possession, and 
which, although differing considerably fi'om the translation here given, 
was of assistance to me in making it. 

The enlightened ruler of Camba, H.H. Raja Bhuri Singh, CLE. 

lays all visitors to his territories under a debt of gratitude. In this 

work his assistance was invaluable, as he placed his servants and his 

subjects at my disposal, and in every way showed the deepest and 

most cordial interest. 

T. Grahame B41LET, 

January 30th, 1903. Wazirabad. 



CHAMBA DIALECTS. 





NODNS. 






Masculine. 




Nouna in -a. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


glior-a, horse 


-e 


G. 


-e ra 


-&a, ra 


D.A. 


-e jo 


-eS jo 


L. 


-e bice 


-65 bice 


Ab. 


-e kacha 


-ea kacha 


Ag. 


-e 


-eS 


V. 


-e 

Nouns in Consonant. 


-65 


N. 


ghar, house 


ghar 


G. 


ghar-e ra 


„ -§ ra 


D.A.UAb. 


-a jo, &c. 


&e. 


Ag. 


-e 


-s 


V. 


ghar 


-6 


So also babb, father. 


Nouns in -i. 




N, 


hath -i, elephant 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 


-i§ ra, &c. 


Ag. 


-ie 


-in 


V. 


-ia 


-io 



Nouns in - u, biccu, scorpion, are declined like hathi, u taking the 
place of f. 

nS or na, name, has G. Sing, nae ra, N. PI. nS or na G. PI. naS ra 





Feminine. 






Nouns in -i. 






Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


kur -i, girl 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 


-iS ra, &c 


Ag. 


-ie 


-ig 


V. 


-ie 


-io 



Gameali. 



Nouns in Consonant, 

Sing. 

N". bailin, sister 
G.D.A.L.Ab.Ag. bailm -i ra, &c. 

V. -i 

ga, cow, is thus declined — 

N. ga. 

G.D.A.L.Ab. ga -i ra, &c. 
As. -ie 



Plur. 

baihn -i or -I 
-i or -3 ra, &c. 
-o 



ga 



-iS ra, &c, 
-18 



dhlii, daughter, bas oblique dhlua. 

Many proper nouns, especially less common ones, and many/ of tbe 
less common foreign words, such as Hindi religious terms, inflect in the 
Singular the Genitive and Agent cases alone. 





Personal Prong 


UNS. 








Sing. 








1st 


2nd 


3rd 


eh, this. 


N. 


hau 


tu 


se, 


eh 


G. 


mera 


tera 


usera 


isera 


D.A. 


minjd 


tijo 


us jo 


is jo 


L. 


mai manjh, 


tai manjh. 


., manjh, 


„ manjh 




bice 


bice 


bice 


bice 


Ab. 


„ or mere 
kacha 


tai or teie 
kacha 


„ kacha 


„ kacha 


Ag. 


mal 


tai 
Plur. 


uni 


ini 


N. 


asi 


tusi 


se 


eh 


G. 


hamara 


tumhara 


unhera 


inhera 


D.A. 


asS j5 


tusS jo 


unhS jo 


inliS jo 


L. , 


„ manjh, bice 


,, manjh, bice 


,, manjh, bice 


„ manjh, bic( 


Ab. 


„ kacha 


„ kacha 


„ kacha 


„ kacha 


Ag.. 


asS 

Interrog 


tusI 


unhS 

Pronouns. 


inhS 




ATiVE Relative 






Sing. 




Plur. 





N. kun, who P 

G. k usera. 

D.A.L.Ab. kusjo, &c. 
Ag. kuni 



je, wlio kun je 

jisera, kunhera jinbera 

jis jo, &c. kunlig jo, &c. jinhS jo, &c. 

jini kunhS jinha 



Oameali. 

Kotf any one, some oue, has Geu. ktisiau ra, or kusio ra, Agent 
Teunlaii. 

Kai, what ? Gen. Icudhera ; Oblique Icail (e.rj. kait kane). 

Other pronouns kicch, something, anything; sabhh, all ; hor, other; 
sahhh koi, everyone ; je koi, wlioever, je kicch, whatever ; sabbh has Ob- 
lique sahbhnl', hor has Oblique Plur. horni or hdrnh%. 

Emphasis is expressed by the addition of -id, -loi, -iau or -iaul. 
(The first i is sometimes short), thus : — seioi or oloi, that very one ; eloif 
this very one; usio, usidi, that very one (Oblique); unlaui, that very 
one (Agent.) 

Ajpu or ayu, is a Reflexive Pronoun, meaning myself, ourselves, 
yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves, and is indecl. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. Adjectives qualify- 
ing nouns are not declined unless they end in -a, in which case they have 
Sing. Obi. -e, PI. -e throughout, and Fem. -1, both Sing and Plur. It 
sliould be remembered that the Genitives of Nouns and Pronouns are 
adjectives coming under this rule. 

Compainson is expressed by means of Icachd, from, than, thus : — 
khara, good; «s kacha khara, better than he; sabhni kacha khara, 
better than all, best. 

The following forms are worth noting: — 

Demonstrative, ideha, like this or that ; itua ; so much or many. 
Correlative. tideha, like this or that ; titna, so much or many. 

Interrogative. kideha ) . • 

1 i_i _ f jike what ? kitna, how much or many r 

jideha. ) .. _ , 

Belative. kusdeha ) '^^^ ^^'"^ ' ^'^^^' ^' ^''^^ °'" "^^"y* 

Delia, is sometimes added to other words as dhakhdehS,, a little, &c. 
Jiha is used with the Oblique of nouns, and pronouns to express Z^A;e, 
as gliorejlha, like a horse, in the manner of a horse. 



Adverbs. 



Many Adjective are used as Adverbs ; when soused they agree witli 
the subject. The following is a list of the most important Adverbs 
other than Adjectives. 



Gameall. 



th 



en 



abe, now 
us wakt 
us belle 

kakhni 
kadhari 

jakhni, 

ajj, to-day 

kal, to-morrow, yesterday 



when ? 



when 



itte 
idi 

utte 
udi 

kute 
kudi 

jitte 
jidi 



[ here 
> there 
^ where ? 

>• where 

idha tikar, up to this, to such an 

extent, 
Tcudha tikar, up to where ? 
jidha tikar, up to where 
udha tikar, up to there 
idha, kudha, jidha, udha kacha, 

fi-om here, where ? where, 

there. 



Time. 

parsu, day after to-morrow or day 
before yesterday. 

cauth, day after day after to- 
morrow, or day before day be- 
fore yesterday. 

kadi, sometimes, ever. 

kadi na, never. 

kadi na kadi, sometimes. 

bhiaga, in the morning. 

Place, 

kudi jo, whither ? 
titte, tidha, tidi, there, (correla- 
tive, see below.^ 
kutiaii, any where, 
uppar, up 
ihik 

jhikle kanare 
nere, nir, near, 
dur, far. 
agge, in front, 
picco, behind, 
andar, inside, 
bahar, outside, 
manjhate, in the middle. 

cauhni kanare ) n -j 

b kkh' \ °°^'' sides. 



Xdowi 



»» 



tittSy tidha, tidi, are correlative forms corresponding to jittB, jidha 
j'idt. 

From the forms idha, kudha, &c., interesting Adjectives are- 
constructed, as kudhera, or kudha ka, of where ? belonging to where ? 
idhera, of here, belonging to here. 



Other Adverbs are — 



ki 

kin jo 
kus kari 
kih^ 



1 



a 



kiha kari 
is kari 
is karn 



is galla kari ) 



J>why ? 
Thow? 

1 



for this reason. 



ihi 

ihg kari 
is riti kane 

tiha, 
tihs kari 
us riti kane 
jihg 
jihS kari 



in this manner. 



in that manner. 



in which manner. 



Cameali. 

ta, then (of reasoning; Panjabi te; juf^ti ") 

Hindi to.) jugti kaii i well, 

taule quickly Pg<^i ^^^^ J 

acancak\ , , , ^^^ jes, 

acanak J-su^denly. „g,,|^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

tabartor, at once, quickly ati, veiy. 
nirale manjh, in private, sepa- 
rately. 



Prepositions. 

The principal Prepositions are the following. The same word is 
frequently both a Preposition and an Adverb. 

ra (PI. re,/, ri) of babat, about, (tai or teri babat, 

jo, to about thee.) 

bicc_ "^ sahi, like (as§ sahi, like us. ) 

manjh^ Wn. wirodh, against. 

T^'i^^f , 1 -^ .1, ^""^^^ ^"1"^^ *°' (^sere tulea, equal 

kacna, rrom, trom beside, than, ^.^ jjj^ \ ^ 

par, on the other side. barobar equal to, (tus§ or turn- 
war on this side, hare bar5bar, equal to you.)] 

kacn, beside (mai kach, beside akkhi bakklii "^ " /' 

me.) ure pare |rouud about, 

kane, with, (maikane, with me.) kauare, towards, (unliere kanare 
t'a^^^ Tfor, (usere tikar, for towards them) 

|,ju,,) prant, after,(udha prant, after it.) 

heth, under. ' '^"^' ^^""^P^' ^^^^^^^ ("^^re sawa, 

except me. ) 
uppar, upon. ^ ^ 

The suflBx ~n frequently expresses the idea of from, as : 

kach, beside ; kacha, from beside, from. 

hicc, in ; bicca, from in, from among. 

manjh, in ; inavj'ha, minjha, from in, from among. 

bakkhi, side ; hakkha, from the side of. 



Conjunctions. 
The commonest are : — 

ate, and. bhae 

par, but. bhala k 

je, if. ji^ia je, as if. 

kiha kari, because. jibi kari, in order that, 

ts bhi, nevertheless. ki, that, or. 



ki J-although. 



Gameali. 

The Verb. 
Auxiliary Verb. 
Pres. Aux. I am, &c. hai liai hai hin hin hin 
Pres. Aux. I was, &c. tliiya tliiya tliiya thije thije thiye 

Fern, thi, throughout. 



Intransitive Verbs. 

tirna, fall. 

Pres. Cond. I may fall, &c., tir-5 -e -o (or-e) -3 -a -an 
Fut. tir-la -la -la -le -le -le 

Fern. tii'li 
Imperat. tir -tira 

Indef. Indie, or Past Cond. tir-da -da -da -de -de -de 

Fern, -di 

hai Plur. tirde hin. 

thiya Plur. tirde thiye. 

/. tiri Plur. tire /. tiri 

hai Plur. tire hin. 

thiya Plur. tire thiye. 

Participles tirda, falling ; tirea, fallen ; tirora, in the state of having 
fallen; tifi hart, having fallen; tirde hue, while falling; tirnewdla, 
faller or about to fall; tirde i, falling. 

Verbs in general are very regular but some are slightly irregular. 



po -a -a — n. 



Pres. Ind. 


Sing. 


tirda 


Imperf. 


Sing. 


tirda 


Past. Ind. 


Sing. 


tirea 


Pres. Perf. 


Sing. 


tirea 


Pluft. 


Sing. 


tirea 







piina, pauna, fall. 


Pres. Cond. 


poa 


poe p6 


Fut. 


pola 




Imperat. 


VO 


poa 


Indef. Ind. 


pSda 




Past. Ind. 


Sing 


pea /. 



Plur. pe /. pei 

Participles jpSfirt, falling; pelkari, havin<^ fallen ; peora, in the state 
of having fallen ; punewala, faller, about to fall. 

huna, be, become, 
hoe ho hoa hoi hun 

hOa 



Pres. Cond. 


hoi 


Fut. 


hola 


Imperat. 


ho 


Indef. Ind. 


hunda 


Past Ind. 


hua 



«f>:«l 



Cameali. 

ind come. 

Pres. Cond. iS iye iyo (iye) iS ia in 

Fut. ila 

Imperat. a ia 

Indef. Ind. inda 

Past Ind. aya /. ai PI. ae /. ai 

Participles, aiA;an, having fallen; achora or aora, in the state of 
having come. 

J ana, go 

Pres Cond. j§ jae jao (jae) jS ja jan 

Fat. jalla 

Imperat. ja ja 

Indef. Ind. janda 

Past Ind. Sing, gea /. gei PI. ge /. gei. 

Participles gachora, geora, in the state of having gone. 

rehna, I'emaiu. 



Pres. Cond. 


rehS, &c. 


3rd plur, raihn. 


Fut. 


raihla 




Imperat. 


raih 


reha 


Past Ind. 


reha 




Participle 


rehora, in 


the state of having remained. 
haihna, sit. 


Pres. Cond. 


behS 




Fut. 


bailila 




Imperat. 


baih 


b§ha 


Past Ind. 


baitha 




Participle 


bathoi-a, in 


I the state of having sat, seated. 



Transitive Ybrbs. 

maxn^, beat. 

Marna is conjugated exactly like tirna, but in the past tensed, like 
all other transitive verbs, has a special construction. 

Past. Ind. marea agreeing with the object of the verb. 

Pres. Perf. marea hai „ „ ,, ,, „ ,, 

Plupf. marea thiya ,, „ „ „ „ „ 

When the object is governed by the preposition jo, the verb does 
not agree with it, but remains in the masculine singular form. 



8 

(Jamealz. 

Passive. 

The Passive is expressed by the Past Partic. marea, with the 
required tense of jan^, go, the veib agreeing with its nominative, thus 
hau man j'alU, I ( / ) shall be beaten or killed. 

The following are slightly irregular : — 

khdnd, eat. 

Pres. Cond. kht khae, &c. 1st PI. khS. 
Indef. Ind. khanda. 

Past Ind. khaya. 

pindf drink. 

Indef. Ind. pinda. 

Past. Ind. pita. 

dend or daind, give. 
Pres. Cond. 3rd PI. din. 
Indef. Ind. diuda. 
Past Ind. ditta. 

lend or laind, take. 

Pres. Cond. 3rd PI. lin. 
Indef. Ind. linda. 

Past Ind. lea. 

galdnd, say, speak. 

Pres. Cond. gal§, galae, &c. 1st PI. gall. 
Indef. Ind. galanda. 
Past Ind. galaya. 

chuhnd, fouch. 

Past. Indie. chuhta. 

karnd, do. 
Past. Ind. kitta, 

leiind, bring, and leljdnd take away, are conjagated like ind and 
jdnd and are treated as Intransitive Verbs. 
It will be noticed that — 
i. Verbs whose stem (formed by dropping the nd of the Infin.) ends 

in a vowel, or a vowel followed by 7i, add n to the stem 

before the dd of the Indef. Indie, and Pres. Part, as khnna 

khdndd, galdnd galdndd. 
ii. Verbs whose stem ends in d or ah tend to shorten d to a in the 

Past. Indie., e.g., galdnd galayd. khand khayd, uthdnd tithdyd, 

hanand banayd, cdhnd caked. 



Cameali. 

Such verbs generally drop the fl of the stem before the a of the 
1st Sing, and 1st- Plur. Pres, Cond. thus — 

gala for galaa, ja for jaa. 

Habit or continuance is expressed either by the Past Partic. with 
the required tense of karna, do, in which case the Past Partic. is indecl. 
or by the Pres. Partic. with rehna, remain. In the latter case both 
verbs agree with the nominative. Thus : — 

se pea kardci hai, he is in the habit of falling. 

se pea kardl hai, she is in the habit of falling. 

se f-udl raihndl Jia'i, she continues falling, she is always falling. 

Very interesting examples of what appears to be the organic 
passive in i are found in some verbs, e.g., cahfda hai, from cohna^ wish, 
it is needed or fitting or necessary ; samjlndd hai, from samryVma, under- 
stand, it is understood, &c. Cahiyo generally stands for the Hindi 
cShiye. 

In Cameali practically every Infinitive is pronounced with cerebral 
n, the ending being na. In Panjabi after r, r, rh, rh, and in some parts 
of the Panjab after I, n is changed to 71. In Urdu there is no cerebral » 



Numerals. 
Cardinal. 



1— ikk. 

2— do. 

3 — trai. 

4 — caur. 

5 — panj. 

6 — chi . 

7 — satt. 

8— atth. 

9 — nau. 
10 — das. 
11 — yara. 
12 — bara. 
13 — tehra. 
14 — Cauda. 
15 — pandra. 
16 — sola. 
17 — satara. 
18 — athar?. 
2 



19 — unni. 
20— bill. 
27— satai. 
29 — unattri. 
30— trih. 
37 — satattri 
.39 — untali. 
40 — cali. 
46 — chatali. 
47 — satali. 
49 — anunja. 
50 — panjah. 
53 — trapunja. 
57 — satunja. 
59 — unalit. 
60— satth. 
67 — sataht. 
69 — unh attar. 



10 



Gameall. 



70 — sahattar. 
77 — sathattar. 
79 — unasi. 
80 — asi. 
87 — satasi. 
89 — uaanfie. 



90 — nabbe. 

97 — sataniie. 
100 — sau, 
200 — do sau. 
900 — tiau sau. 
1000— hajar. 



100,000— lakkh. 



1st, paihla. 
2nd, duwwa. 
3rd, triyya. 
4tli, cautha. 
5tli, panjuS. 

ik wex'i, once, 
do weri, twice, 
paihli weii> first time, 
duwwi weri, second time, 
do guna, two fold. 
trai guna, three fold, 
addha, half. 



Ordinal, 8fc. 

{chatlia. 
cbathua. 
7th, satua. 
10th, dasul. 
50tli, panjahuS. 

daidh, 1|. 
paune do, 2|. 
sawa do, 2j. 
dhai, 2i 
sadlie caur, 4|. 
ikk pao, i- 

4- 



trai cauthai - 



It should be noted that in sathattar, seventy-seven, the t and h are 
pronounced separately. The word is sat-hattar, not sa-thathar. 

Ordinal numerals are ordinary Adjectives declined like Adjectives 
in -a ; those ending in -a retain their nasalization when inflected. 

Even cardinal numbers ai'e generally inflected when used with 
nouns in an oblique case. Thus the inflected form of do is dauh, of trai 
trazh, of caur cauli, of chl chia. 

There is still a further inflection sometimes seen in the Locative case, 
as cauhni bakkhz, on four sides, all round. 

to, is sometimes added for emphasis, dolo, the two of them. 



Sentences. 

1. Tera n§ kai hai ? What is thy name ? 

2. Is ghore ri kitni umr hai ? How much is the age of this horse ? 

3. Idha kacha Kashmir (or Kashmira) tikar kitng {or kitni) dtir 

hai ? From here to Kashmir how far is it ? 

4. Tere babbe re ghare kitne puttar hin ? How many sons are 

there in your father's house ? 



11 

Cameuli. 

6. Hau ajj bare dura kaclaa handi aya. I today from veiy far have 
walking come. 

6. Mere cace ra puttar useri bailini kane bihora bai. My uncle's 

son is married to (with) his sister. 

7. Ghare hacche (or citte) gliore ri kathi hai. In the house is the 

white horse's saddle. 

8. Useri pitthi par katlii kasa. Upon its back bind the flarldle. 

9. Mai asere puttra jo mate korre mare. I beat his .son much. 

10. Se parbate ri coti uppar gai bakri carda hai. He on the hill's 

top is grazing sheep and goats. 

11. Se us bute he^h gliore uppar bith5ra hai. He under that tree is 

seated on a horse. 

12. Usera bhai apni baihni kacha bara hai. His brother is bigger 

than, his sister. 

13. Usera mul dhai rupayye hai. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mera bab us nikke ghara andar raihnda hai. My father lives 

in that small house. 

15. Usjo eh rupayya del dea. Give him this rupee. 

16. Se rupayye us kacha lei lea. Those rupees take from him. 

17. Usjo jugti mari kari jori kane bannha. Having beaten him well 

tie him with a rope. 

18. Khulie kacha pani kaddha. From the well draw water. 

19. Mere i\gge cala. Walk before me. 

20. Kusera kola tere picco iii rehora hai ? Whose boy is coming 

behind thee ? 
21 Se tusS kus kacha muUe lea ? From whom didst thou buy that? 
22, Grae re ikk hatwanie kacha. From a shopkeeper of the village. 



VOCABDLARY. 

{Ghiefly Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs.) 

adr, i-espect, honour. anhSna, impossible. 

agrina, meet. athwara, week. 

akar, image, resemblance. auhri, mustard. 

akarn, unreasonably, causelessly. bab, babb, father. 

aklibala, wise. bachora, separation, division. 

alakh, lazy. . baghear, wolf. 

amma, mother. bahna, throw (net, <&c.). 

anda, egg. baihn sister. 

anek, many. baihna, sit. 

annhi, storm. bail, ou. 



12 



CameaU. 



baijni, purple. 

bakhera, dispute. 

bakra, /. ( -i) goat. 

bal, hair. 

ban, jangle. 

bana, sow. 

banana, make. 

banaut, making, making up. - 

banda, open, openly. 

bandna, divide. 

bani, voice. 

bannhna, biud. 

bara, big. 

barb, year. 

bari, garden. 

barkhia, rain. 

barnan, account, story. 

bataibra, builder. 

batliri, kind of fine cloth. 

batolua, gather. 

batt, way. 

bauS, left (hand). 

bela, feeble. 

ber, delay, length of time. 

besudhh, mad. 

bhai, brother. 

bhair, (ai short) bher, sheep. 

bha], expectation. 

bhandar, treasury. 

bhandavi, master of ceremonies. 

bhauna, break. 

bhar, load. 

bharori, sheep pen. 

bhati, manner. 

bhawikhyatbakta, prophet. 

bhawikhyatbani, prophecy. 

bhiag, morning. 

bhrabu, red bear. 

bhramana, lead astray. 

bhuiS, on the ground. 

bhukhana, light (fire). 

bhumi, bit of land. 



bi, seed. 

biar, wind. 

biari, evening meal. 

bibastha, law. 

bihalna, seat. 

billa (/-i) cat. 

binnhna, piei'ce. 

bisram, rest, Saturday. 

bolna, say, speak. 

buddhiman, wise. 

buhar, custom, tradition. 

bujjhna, understand, ascertain. 

bunna, weave. 

bura, bad, ugly. 

buta, tree. 

cahrhna, raise, shut (of door). 

cakki, mill. 

call jana, go away. 

candarma, moon, 

carna, graze. 

carna, cause to graze, 

caskna, be angry. 

ceta, remembrance. 

cliail, beautiful. 

Qhah, buttermilk. 

chal, deceit. 

chala, jump. 

chali, wave. 

chama karna, forgive. 

chatti, roof. 

chekna, tear. 

chikna, pull, draw. 

chinn bhinn karna, scatter. 

chuhna, touch. 

cicalna, call out. 

cind, cinda, noise, shout. 

cinh, sign. 

cirn, little bird. 

cor, thief. 

corna, steal. 

cugana, cause to graze. 

cug^a, choose, graze. 



Cameali. 



13 



dan, gift. 

dand, tooth. 

dand, ox. 

dand, punishment. 

dandwat, entreaty. 

darati, sickle. 

darja, river. 

deh, body. 

dena, give. 

dhakh, a little, gently, slowly. 

dhalakna, move away, be pushed 

away, 
dhami, feast, 
dhan, herd, flock, 
dharas bannlina, be cheerful, 
dhaula, white (of hair.) 
dhehna, fall, 
dhiu, daughter, 
dhramna, tread upon, 
dlirumna, draw, 
dhuna, wash, 
dhupp, sunshine, 
dhur, dust, 
dikkhna, see, look, 
din, day. 

dind, dinda, noise, shout, 
diuta, lampstand. 
dokh, dos, accusation, blame, 
duar, door. 

duata, where two ways meet, 
dubhda, doubt, 
dubna, cover, 
duddh, milk, 
duggha, deep, 
duprani, pregnant, 
durgandh, stench, 
ga, cow. 
gadha, ass. 
galana, say, speak, 
gandhna, knot, 
garthi, shirt, coat, 
ghar, house. 



gharna, carve, engrave. 

gliat karna, kill. 

ghati, watch. 

gheu, ghi. 

ghora (f-i) horse. 

ghrina, go down (sun, etc.) 

gri, village. 

gual, gualu, shepherd. 

guana, lose. 

gundaa, weave, plait. 

guppha, cave. 

gupt, secret. 

hacclia, white. 

hakh, eye. 

hakka, noise, call. 

halka, small. 

hal jotarna, plough. 

halla, crowd. 

liarna, be defeated. 

hathi, elephant. 

hati ina, return. 

hatia, murder. 

hatna, turn, turn back. 

hatth, hand. 

hesa, part. 

himmat, daring, courage. 

hil5lna, shake. 

liiund, winter. 

hotla, stammerer. 

hiina, be, become. 

idi udi, here and there, scattered. 

ill, kite. 

ina, come. 

jagat, boy. 

jahal, ignorant. 

jal, net. 

jalha, dumb. 

jalna, be burned. 

jamna, bear, be born. 

jana, go. 

jarjgh, leg. [procession. 

jauetar, member of marriage 



14 

janht, knee. 

3 anna, know. 

jas, respect, honour. 

jhalora, mad. 

jliambna, dust. 

jhari, rain. 

jibbli, tongue. 

jimi, ground. 

y.ttna, win. 

juta, shoe. 

kabulna, accept. 

kacla, soft. 

kahana, be called. 

kahu, olive tree. 

kalam, pen. 

kalotti, black bear. 

kanak, wheat. 

kandl.a, edge, border 

kann, ear. 

kanneS, girl. 

kar, toll. 

karna, do. 

kast, ti-ouble. 

katbor, hard. 

katborta, hardness, 

katthan, difficult. 

kes, bair. 

khakh, cheek. 

khalarna, stretch, spicad 

khana, eat. 

khara, good. 

kharS buna, stand. 

khei, rust. 

khettar, field. 

khijna, be tired. 

kbindna, spread. 

khita dena, hasten, run. 

khokh, bosom. ^ ^■' 

khuana, cause to eat, feed. 

kbuhna, pluck. 

khulhna, be opened. 

khusna, seize. 



x-*"-.. 



killa, alone. 

kilna, nail. 

kittba, together. 

kola, boy. 

konial, meek. 

kororna, hew. 

kukkar, (/. kukkri,) cock. 

kukkri, maize. 

kumana, complete, do. 

kuna, corner. 

kund, pond, pool. 

kuri, girl. 

kusuthra, ugly. 

kutta (/.-i) dog. 

lakk, waist. 

lamme puna, lie down. 

lara, bridegroom, husband. 

lari, wife, bride. 

larna, fight. 

lata, lame. 

lata phata, property, goods. 

leha, insect that destroys cloth. 

lena, take. 

letna, lie down. 

likkhna, write. 

liptani, rolling. 

loba, iron, 

lop karna, disregard (law, &c.). 

lukna, hide oneself, be hidden. 

lunai-i, reaping. 

luqg, blade (of grass, etc.). 

lunka, salted. 

lunna, reap. 

macchi, fish. 

maihma, honour, glory. 

niakbir, honey. 

mandli, = moudli. 

manliS, man. 

mani, measure. 

manja, bed. 

mard, man. 

mar^a, die. 



15 



Cameali. 



marna, beat. 

mas, meat. 

mata, intention, advice. 

mats, much. 

megh, rain. 

mel, connection, meeting. 

mhai, buffalo. 

milna, meet, &c. 

mittha, sweet. 

mondli, assembly, meeting. 

mora, dead. 

mall, face. 

mugtiari, abundance. 

mukaina, refuse, deny. . 

mund, head. 

nadi, stream. 

naggar, city. 

nahitlia huna, stoop* 

nakk, nose. 

nal, stream. 

nar, male. 

narl, female. 

nhasna, run. 

nijor, weak. 

otli, lip. 

pacheanna, recognise^ 

padlira, plain, level. 

pain da, way. 

painna, sharp. 

pair, foot. 

palan karna, keep, preserve. 

paletna, wrap. 

pandori, foot (of bed, &e.). 

pani, water. 

paraiilina, guest. 

parbat, hill. 

parhna, read, 

parkhna, try, tempt. 

parkliiini, trial, temptation. 

parnam karna, bow down. 

parol, door. 

pasac, viricked spirit. 



patar, vessel. 

pathieala, stony. 

patka, girdle. 

pet, stomach. 

phfigura, fig tree. 

plieliu, fox. 

piana, cause to drink. 

pina, drink. 

pir, pain. 

pirhi, generation. 

pinda, body. 

pitth, back. 

phal, fruit. 

phiri ina, return, 

pothi, book. 

puhal, puhalu, shepherd. 

pujeala, priest, worshipper. 

pujiina, rub, wipe. 

pujjna, arrive. 

punruthna, resurrection. 

puna, fall. 

pur, upper or lower millstone. 

puttar, son. 

puttri, daughter. 

racna, make, produce. 

rachia, protection. 

rakkhna, place. 

ralana, mix. 

ralna, be united, meet. 

randi riini, widow. 

rarhna, be angry. 

rat, night. 

rehna, remain. 

rikkh, black bear. 

roti, bread, food. 

rukkh, tree. 

rulkana, roll. 

runa, ciy. 

rurhna, flow, be poured. 

sadna, call. 

saf, clean. 

sahaita, help. 



16 



Gameali. 



saTna, large number of men. 

sakhna, empty. 

samadh, grave (particularly of 
Hindus). 

sar)ga|, chain. 

santan, offspring. 

sapha, foam. 

sar, head. 

sarhana, head (of bed, &c.). 

saith, sign. 

sasu, mother-in-law. 

sauhra, father-in-law. 

serna, moisten, wet. 

sewa, service, 

shaihr, city. 

siana, intelligent. 

sihi, leopard. 

sit, cold. 

sikholna, teach. 

sikkliia, knowledge. 

sikkhna, learn. 

silla, ear (of corn, &c.) 

sinna, knead. 

sirual, hair. 

sobhna, please. 

sog, lamentation, sadness. 

sogi, sad. 

sohara, husband. 

sokkar, ox. 

sothi, stick. 

srap dena, curse. 

suhta, spring (of water). 

sujakha, able to see. 

sukhala, easy. 

sumti, circumcision (from sunnat). 

suna, sleep. 

sunana, cause to hear, relate. 

sundai% beautiful. 

sunna, desert. 



sunna, hear. 

suphal, advantageous. 

sur, pig. 

suraj, sun. 

taihl, service. 

takna, bow. 

takrai", confession, agreement. 

tali, piece of cloth. 

tara, star. 

tatta, hot. 

taul, quickness. 

taula, quick. 

tauna, deaf. 

tear, ready. . 

tel, oil. 

thakna, blame, rebuke. 

thauda, cold. 

thind, ignorant. 

thora, little. 

tiagna, leave, give up, divorce. 

tirna, fall. 

topna, look for. 

trakta, leaven. 

trihna, thirsty. 

tucch karna, despise. 

tunda, armless. 

ubherna, rip open, rip. 

ubhreua, incite. 

ucana, raise. 

ucca, high. 

udhrar, tear. 

ugrahna, collect (taxes, &c.). 

ulamha, reproach. 

updrab, oppression. 

urnu, lamb. 

"at, camel. 

utthna, rise. 

wairi, enemy. 

warna, enter. 








fBHATEALI. 






Noons. 






Masculine. 






Nouns in-a. 






Singular. 


Plural, 


N. 


ghor-a, horse 


-§ 


G. 


-§da 


-e§ da 


D.A. 


-e kea or ki 


-e§ kea or ki 


Loc. 


-e bice 


-ea bice. 


Ab. 


-e kacba or kicba 


-eS kacha or kicha 


Ag. 


-ai or -% 


-ea 


V. 


-ea 
Nouns in Consonant. 


-eo 


N. 


gbar, house 


ghar 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


ghar-e da, &c. 


ghar-l, &e. 


Ag. 


-ai or-e 


-a 


V. 


-a 

Nouns in-i. 


-0 


N. 


hath-i, elephant 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i da, &c. 


-i§ da, &c. 


Ag. 


-laT or ie 


-iS 



hdbh, father, is declined like ghar. 
na, name, is indecl. 

Nouns in -m, such as biccH, scorpion, hindil, Hindu, ave declined 
like hathi (Ag. hiccHaz, &c.). 

Feminine, 





Nouns in-i. 




N. 


kur-i, daughter, girl 


-ia 


G.D..AL.Ab. 


-ia da, &c. 


-ia da, &c 


Ag. 


-ia 


-ii 


V. 


-ie 


-is 


3 







18 











Bhafeali. 












Nouns in Consonant. 








N. 




bbai 


n, sister 


-U or 


-% 




G.D.AL.Ab. 


bbaia-u da, &e. 


-3 or 


-% da, &c. 




Ag. 






-u 


-S or 


-1 




V. 






-e or-XL 


-5 




gau, cow, is thus declined — 








N. 




gau 




gaul 






G.D.A.L.Ab. 


gai 


da, &c. 


gaui da. 


&c. 




Ag. 




gau 


i 


gang 






Pronouns. 


' 










Singular. 


• 








1st 




2nd 


3rd 


eh, this 


N. 




mai 




tu 


se 


eh 


G. 




mera 




tera 


us da 


is da 


D.A. 




mikea, miki 




tukea, tuki 


us, &c. 


,, &c. 


L. 




mere bice 




tuddh bice 


•> 


>» 


Ab. 




tnai or mere 
kacha or kich 


a 


tai, tere kacha 
or kicha 


" .' 


jj 


Ag. 




mai 




tuddh, tai 
Phiral. 


unni 


inni 


N. 




asS, asi 




tusS, tusi 


se 


eh 


a 




sarii 




tuhara, tusara 


unhS da 


inhg & 


D.A. 




asa kea, ki 




tusa kea, ki 


„ &c. 


M 


L. 




„ bice 




„ bice 


!) 


>I 


Ab. 




„ kacha, kicha 


„ kacha, kicha 


5> 


55 


Ag. 




asi 




tusS 


unhi 


inhS 



kun, who ? has Obi. kus, Ag. hum. 
je, who, which, has Obi. jis Ag. jiiii. 
kya, what ? Gen. kaida. 

Other pronouns are koi, someone, anyone, kicch, something, any- 
thing, harkol, everjone,jekot, whosoever, /e kicch, whatsoever. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns. Adjectives quali- 
fying nouns are indecl. except when they end in -a (/. -I). Then the^ 



19 



Bhutefi]!. 



are declined like masculine nouns in -a and femin. nouns in -i, as 
hura jagat, bad boy. Ag. S. biiri jagntS, Gen. pi. burSd, jdgatB, dn. 
Khan kuri, good girl, Gen. S. kharno kurln da,j5f/ate dea ghorca ked, to 
the boy's horses. 

Comparison is expressed by means of karha, from, than, as khaiil, 
good, is kacha khard, better than this, sabhua kachd khara, better than 
all, best. 



Demonstrative. 



Correlative. 



Relative. 



Interrogative. 

inya, ?hS, like tinya, tili§, like kinya, kihS, like jinya, fih%, like 

this that what ? which 

itna, so much titna, so much kitua, how raucii jitua, as much 
or many or manyj or many ? or many 



Adverbs. 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. They then agree with the 
subject of the sentence. 

The following is a list of the most important adverbs other than 
adjectives : — 



Time. 

ibbe, now 

us wele, then 

kalhn, kadhari, when ? 

jalhii, when 

ajj, to-day 

kal, to-morrow 

parsu, day after to-morrow 

cauth, day after that 

picchllL kal, yesterday 

kadi, sometimes, ever 

kadi na, never 

kadi na kadi, sometimes 



Place. 

itthe, here 

utthe, there 

kuthe, where ? 

kutahS, whither ? 

jitthe, where 

itthe tikkar, up to this 

itthl^kacha, from here 

uppar, up 

thalle, downj 

nere, near 

dur, far 

agge, in front 

picche, behind 

andar, inside 

bsihar, outside 



Others are kait, why ; is galla, for this reason ; 7?a, yes ; neht, no 
not; jugtl or jug ti karl, well ; khirdei, quickly; issd sahf, in this \Vay, 
thus. 



20 



BhateMl. 



Prepositions. 

The commonesb prepositions have been, given in the declension of 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same word is often 
both a preposition and an adverb. 



par, beyond 
w^ar, on this side 
bice, in 
uppar, upon 
heth, below 
tikkar, up to 
mai kach, beside me 
mai kanne, with ms 



us waste, for him 

till bakha, about thee 

sare sahi, like us 

ndhe parant, after it 

ndhe ure pare, round about it 

unhS de kanare, towards 

them 
mere sua, apart from me 







Verbs. 










Auxiliary. 






Pres. 


I am, &n. 


ha hai hai 


h§ hg 


han 


Past 


I was, &c. 


Sing, tha f. thi 


Plur. the 


/. th!3 



Pres. Cond. 
Put. 

Imperat. 
Past Cond. 
Pres. Ind. 
Impf. 
Past Indie. 
Pres. Perf. 
Plupf. 
Parti c. 



Intransitive Verbs. 

paiigia, fall. 

pau -5 -e — e -S (or -ie) -a -n 

po -o:ha -gha -gha -ghe -ghe -ghe 

paugha, &c.). 
pau poa or pauo 
ponda ( -i -e -iS) 

-e -iS) with Pres. Aux, hs, &c. 

-e -i§) „ Past. „ tha, &c. 
PI. pe /. piyyi or peiS 



(or 



( 



1 

n ( -i 

pea /. pel 
pea hS, &c. 
pea tha, &e. 

pelkari, having fallen ; pelici, peUda, in the state of having 
fallen; pauuda, falling; paunewala, faller, about to 
fnll. 
Some verbs have slight irregularities. 

haui^a, be, become. 
Put. huqgha 

Imperat. ho hoa 

Past Cond. hunda 



21 

Bhiifeali. 

Past Ind. hoea /. hoi PI. hoo /. hoiS. 
Paitic. hoi karl, having become 

auna, come. 
Fat. augha 

Imperat. a aua 

Past Cond. aunda 

Past Ind. aya /. ai PI. ae /. ail 
Paitic. nyddd, dynda, ahya, in the state of having come. 

jana, go. 

Pres. Cond. js jae jae jS or jaie jaa jan 

Fut. jaqgha 

Imperat. ja jaa 07- jao 

Past Cond. janda 

Past Ind. gea or ga /. gei PI. ge /. geia 

Partic. geha oi' g&add, in the state of having gone 

raihna, remain. 

Pi'es. Cond. I'ehS raih§ raihe rehl or rehie reha raihn 

Fut. raihijgha 

Imperat. raih leha 

Past Ind. reha 

Partic. rehada, in the state of having remained 

baihna, sit. 
Pres. Cond. bauhs, &c. 

Past Ind. baithea 

Transitive Verbs. 

mama, beat, in general like paund. 

Fat. mahrgha 

Past Cond. marda 

Past Ind. agent case of sabject with marea, which agrees with subject 

Pres Perf. ,, „ marea liai „ „ 

Plapf. „ „ marea tha „ „ 

Passive is formed by using mdred with the requisite tense of jdna, 
go, as, m.at mdred jatjghd, I shall be killed. 
The following are slightly irregular : — 

kha^a, eat. 
Past Cond. khanda 
Past Ind. khadha 



22 



Past Cond. 


pin da 


Past Ind. 


pita 


Past Cond. 


dinda 


Put. 


dir)gha 


Past Ind. 


ditta 


Past Ind. 


lea 


Past Ind. 


galaya 


Past Ind, 


kitta 



Bhateali. 
pina, drink. 

dena, give. 

laina, take. 
galana, say, speak. 

karna, or karna, do. 



iBi auna, bring; lei jana, take away, are conjugated like 
auna &ndjand. 



List op Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. 



bapu, baba, bawa, father, 
amma, mother. 
bhae, brother. 
b5bbo, bebbe, elder sister. 
bhain, younger sister, 
puttar, son. 
dhi, daughter, 
khasm, lara, husband, 
trimat, Jari, wife, 
mard, man. 
trimat, woman, 
jagat, lauhra, boy. 
kuri, girl. 

gual, puhal, shepherd, 
cor, thief, 
ghor-a, horse, 
-i, mare, 
dand, ox. 
gau, cow. 
mhai, buffalo, 
bakra, he-goat. 
bakri, she-goat. 



blied, sheep, 
kutt-a, dog. 

-i, bitch, 
rikkh, bear, 
sih, leopard, 
bhagear, wolf, 
khota, giidba, ass. 
siir, pig. 
knkk-ar, cock. 

-ri, hen. 
bill-a, cat (male). 

-i, „ (female), 
iit, camel, 
pakhrii, bird, 
ill, kite, 
giddar, jackal, 
hathi, elephant, 
hattb, hand, 
pair, foot, 
nakk, nose, 
hakkhi, eye. 
mfih, mouth. 



2H 



Bhateali, 



dand, tooth. 

kann, ear. 

siral, k§s, hair, 

sar, head. 

jibh, tongue. 

pet, dhiddh, stomach. 

pitth, back. 

deh, body. 

pothi, book. 

kalain, pen. 

manja, bed. 

ghar, house. 

darya, river. 

nal, stream. 

dhar, pahar, parbat, hill. 

dhadd, precipitous slope. 

padhra, plain. 

khettar, field. 

roti, bread. 

pani, water. 

kanak, wheat. 

kukkri, maize. 

rukkh, biita, tree. 

girl, village. 

saihr, city. 

ban, jungle. 

macchi, fish. 

batt, way. 

phal, fruit. 

mas, meat. 

diiddh, milk. 

anda, egg. 

gheo, ghi. 

tel, oil. 

chah, buttermilk. 

dihari, day. 

rat, night. 

dihara, sun. 

cann, moon. 

tara, star. 

bat, biar, wind. 

b^rkha, rain, 



dhup, sunshine. 

nheri, storm. 

bhar, load. 

bi, seed. 

loha, iron. 

khara, good. 

buia, bad. 

badda, big. 

lanhka, small. 

susfc, lazy. 

dana, hoshyar, wise. 

nakara, foolish, ugly. 

chora, swift. 

painna, sharp. 

ucca, high. 

chail, beautiful. 

thanda, cold. 

tatta, hot. 

mittha, sweet. 

saf, clean. 

tear, ready. 

ghatt, little. 

mata, much. 

hauna, be, become. 

auna, come. 

jana, go. 

bauhna, sit. 

laina, take. 

dena, give. 

pauna, rirkna, fall. 

utthna, rise. 

khara hauna, stand. 

dikkhna, see, look. 

khana, eat. 

pina, drink. 

galana, say, speak. 

sauna, sleep, lie down. 

karna, karna, do. 

raihna, remain. . 

marna, beat. 

pucheanna, recognise. 

janna, know. 



24 



pujna, arrive, 
nhasna, run. 
nhasi jaaa, run away, 
banana, make, 
rakhna, place, 
sadna, call, 
sikkhna, learn, 
parhna, read, 
likkhna, write, 
marna, die. 
sunna, hear, 
hatna, turn, 
hati auna, return. 



Bhateall, 



bagna, flow. 

lapna, fight. 

jittna, win. 

harna, be defeated. 

calijana, go away. 

rahna, sow. 

dand jotne, plough. 

khuaaa, give to eat. 

piai.ia, give to drink. 

sunana, cause to hear. 

cugna, graze. ^ 

cugana, carna, cause to graze 



Numerals. 


Cardinal. 


1— ik. 


37 — satattri. 


2 do. 


39— untali. 


3 — trai. 


40 — call. 


4 — caur. 


47 — satali. 


5 — panj. 


49 — ununja. 


6— chi. 


50 — panj ah. 


7 — satt. 


57 — satunja. 


8— atth. 


59 — unahat. 


9 — nau. 


60— satth. 


10— das. 


67 — satahat. 


11 — nyara. 


69 — unhattav 


12— bara. 


70 — sahattar. 


13 — tehra. 


77 — sathattar 


14 — Cauda. 


79 — unassi. 


15 — pandra. 


80 — ass!. 


16 — sola. 


87 — satassi. 


17 — satara. 


89 — unanue. 


18 — thara. 


90— nabbe. 


19 llTITli. 


97 — satanuS. 


20— bih. 


100 — sau. 


27 — satai. 


200 -d5 sau. 


29 — unattri. 


1,000— hajar. 


30 trihi. 


100,000— lakkh. 



25 



BhafeSli. 
Ordinal. 



Jst, pailila. 
2nd, diiwwa. 
3rd, triyya. 
4tli, cantha. 
5th, panjuS. 
Gtli, cliittlia. 
7th, satuS. 
10th, dasu§. 



ik beii, once. 

paihli beii, first time. 

duwwi beri, second time. 

addha, |. 

paune do, If. 

saua do, 2j. 

dhai, 2i. 

daidh, 1|. 

sadhe car, 4^. 

ik pa, i. 



Sentences. 

1. Tera nS ke hai ? What is thy name V 

2. Is ghore di kitni umbar hai ? How much is this horse's age V 

3. Itthe kacha (o?- itthii) Kashmir kitne dur hai? From here 
how far is Kashmir ? 

4. Tuare babbe de ghar kitne jagat ban ? In your father's house 
how many sons are there ? 

5. Mai ajj bare dura kacha {or dure kicha) haiidi aya. I to-day 
from very far have walking come. 

6. Mere cace da jagat usdi bhainii kane biaha hai. My uncle's 
son with his sister is married. 

7. Ghare hacche ghore di kathi hai In the house the white 
horse's saddle is. 

8. Usdia pitthi par kathi bannhi dea. Upon his back bind 
the saddle. 

9. MaT usda jagat mata marea. I beat his son much. 

10. Se dhare de reha uppur gaul bakriS cuganda hai (or cugae 
karda hai). He upon the hill's summit is grazing (or in the habit of 
grazing) cows and goats. 

11. Se us rukkhe heth ghore uppur baithea hai. He under that 
tree on a horse is seated. 

12. Udda bhai apnia bhenn (or bhena) kacha badda hai. His 
brother is bigger than his sister. 

13. Usda mul dhai rupayye hai. Its price is two and a half 
rupees. 

14. Mera bab (bapti) us halke ghare andar raihnda hai. My 
father in that little house lives. 

1 5. Uskea eh rupayye dei dea. To him these rupees give. 



26 

BhateSli. 

16. Se rupayye us kacha lei lea. These rupees take from him. 

17. Uskea jugti kari maro j5ria kanne banuho. Beat him well 
and bind Lira with a rope. 

18. Kliuhe kacha pani kaddlio. Draw water from the well. 

19. Mai agge calo. Walk before me. 

20. Kuda puttar tuare piccbe aunda hai ? Whose son is coming 
behind you ? 

21. Se tuddh kus kacha mulle lea hai? Erom whom liast thou 
bought that ? 

22. Girae de hatia bale kacha. From the shopkeeper of the 
village. 





CURAHI. 






Nouns. 




' 


Masc. 






Nouns in-a. 






Sing. 


Plur. 


N. 


ghor-a, horse 


-e 


G. 


-e ra or ro 


as Sing. 


D.A. 


-e ni 


)> 


L. 


-e majh 


>» 


Ab. 


-e kana 


» 


Ag. 


-e 


»> 


V. 


-ea. 
Nouns in a Consonant. 


-eo 


N. 


gbar, house 


as Sing. 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


ghar-e ra, &c. 


» j» 


Ag. 


-e 
Nouns in-i. 


?> 5J 


N. 


hath-i, elephant 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &G. 


-i ra, &c. 


Ag. 


-i 


-ie 


V. 


-ia 


-io 



Nouns in w, such as biccu, scorpion, Jiindu, Hindu, are declined like 
hathl. Bahb, father, is thus declined : — 



N. 


babb 


as Sing. 


G. 


babb -e ra, &c. 


»> 5J 


D.A.L.Ab. 


—a ni, &c. 


» ?> 


Ag. 


-e 


?i >> 


V. 


babb 


babbo 


', name has G. 


nayye ra. PI. na, nayye. 

Feminine. 
Nouns in-i. 




N. 


kul-i, daughter 


-i 


G.D.A.L.Ab. 


-i ra, &c. 


-ia ra, &c. 


A.G. 


-ie 


-ie 


V. 


-ie 


-io 



28 



N. 
G.D.A.L.Ab.Ag.V. 



Gurahl. 

Nouns in Consonant. 

bhin, sister 
bbini, &c. 



G.D.A.L.Ab. 

Ag. 
V. 



dheu, daughter, is thus declined. 

dhe-ii 

-iia ro, &c. 



-Tie 
-lie 



ga, cow. 



N. ga 

G.D.A.L.Ab. ga-i 

Ag. -e 



bhinj 



-ue 

-ua ro, &c. 

-tie 

-uo 



ga-i 
-ia, &c. 
-ie 



Note. — The postposition for of, when following a plural noun is 
sometimes hard, instead of ro, thus gaia ham ghar, the cows' house. For 
this kara cf. Bhadrawahi gJwre ru of a horse, gliora heru', of horses, 
Bhalesi glioreu, ghor keu ; Padari gliorar, ghori Tear. This dependence of 
the form of the genitive not merely on the word following but on the 
word preceding is a characteristic of Kaslimiri and some neighbouring 
languages. 







Pronouns. 










Sing. 








1st 


2nd 


3rd 


eh, this. 


N. 


au 


tu 


se 


eh 


G. 


minda 


tinda 


usera 


essera 


D.A. 


moni 


tau ni 


us ni 


es (/. esse) ni 


L. 


mo majh 


„ majh 


„ majh 


„ majh 


Ap. 


„ kana 


„ kana 


„ kana 


„ kana 


Ag. 


m! 


t! 


uni 


ini 


N. 


asse 


tue 


se 


eh 


G. 


asra 


tuara 


unhera 


inhera 


D.A. 


assu ni 


tua ni 


unha ni 


inha ni 


L. 


„ majh 


,, majh 


„ majh 


„ majh 


Ab. 


„ kana 


,, kana 


„ kana 


„ .kana 


Ag. 


asse 


tue 


unha 


inha 



20 

Cttrahi. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. kanii, who ? je, who ka nu jg 

G. kosera jasoia kunhera jinhura 

D.A.L.Ab. &c. kos, &c. jas, &c. kunha, &c. jinha, &c. 

Ag. kuni jini kunlia jinha 

kot, anyone, someone G. kiserd Ag. kcnni 

kitil, what, G. kedrd 

Other pronouns are kicch, anything, something, /e kO, whosoever, 
je kicch, whatsover. 



Adjectives. 
Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns, but adjectives 
qualifying nouns have the following declensions : — All adjectives ending 
in any letter other tlian-a, are indecl. Those ending in-a have Obi. 
Sing. Masc.-e, Pl.-e, indecl. Fem.-f indecl. The genitives of nouns and 
pronouns are adjectives coming under this rule. 

Comparison is expressed by means of kand, from, than, used with 
the positive : as, khard, good; es kand khard, better than tliis; sahhnd 
kand khard, better than all, best. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Tielative. 

itea, like this, utea, like that, kitea like what ? jitea like which, 
etroyea, so much utrorea, so much ketrofea how much jetrorea as much 
or many. or many. or many ? or many. 

For numerals see at end of list of words. 



Adverbs. 
Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. They then agree with the 
subject of the sentence. 

The following is a list of the most important adverbs other than 
adjectives. 

Time. 

ebbe, now cauthe, day after that 

tidheo, then bi, yesterday 

kidheo, when ? parhs, parshu, day before 
jidheo, when. yesterday 

ajj, to-day cauthe, day before that 

dotte, to-morrow kidheo, sometimes, ever 

parshu, day after to-morrow kidheo na, never 
kidheo kidheo, sometimes 



30 



etthi, gfi, here 
otthi, ten, there 
koi, kori, where ? 
jetthi, jeri, where 
eri te!, np to here 
erha, from here, 
ubre, up. 



Curcthi. 
Place, 



inde, down 
nir, liidhe, near 
dur, far 
aggar, in front 
picco, behind 
antar, inside 
beir, outside 



Others are kelni, why ; es galla kari, for this reason ; jngie kari, 
well, chili, quickly. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been given in the declension of 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of others. The same word is frequently 
both a preposition and an adverb. 



par, beyond 
war, on this side 
pran, upon 
hetth, tale, below 
majh, manjh, within 
muh kane, beside me 



mSh sariga, with me 
nsere tei, for him 
assii sahi, like us 
unhere kanare, towards them ' 
usere ueiidi pendi, round about 
it* , ■:.) 









Verbs. 






;'* 






Auxiliary. 






Pres. 


I am, <fcc. 


a (/. do.) 


a or ate 


a or ate 


ate 


Past, 


I was 


Sing thea 


/. thie 


PI. thie 


f. thi 



ate ate 



Intransitive Verbs, 

jharnu, fall. 

Fat. jliari -ma (or -la) -la -la -me -le -le 

Iraperat. jhar jhara 

Past. Cond. jhan -ta /. -te PI. -te /. -ti 
Pres. Ind. jharta aorajharta (f. jhartea, &c.) PI. jhartate or ate 
jharte. 



31 

CiirSlii. 

Impf. Ind. jliart -a thea (/. -e thie) PI. -e tliie /. -i tin 

Past Ind. jliar -ea /. -e PI. -e /. -i. 

Pres. Perf. jharea a, &c. 

Plupf. jliarea tliea, &c. 

Participle jharlo, falling ; j'hari J:ar!, having fallen ; jharorS, in tlie 

state of having fallen, jharnehdla^ faller, about to 

fall. 

Some verbs have slight irregularties. 

bhonii, be, become. 



Put. 


bho-ma -la -la, &e. 


Past Cond. 


bhonta 


Past Ind. 


bhoa /. bhoi 


Pai'ticiple. 


hhora, in the state of having become 




ainu, come. 


Put. 


aima 


Imper. 


aeh aicha. 



Past Cond. eita 

Past Indie. yah /. yae PI. yae /. yai. 

Participle atchl Icari, having come ; einebala, comer, about to come. 

gahnhti, go. 

Put. gammha or galha (/. -e) gallia f^alha, &c. 

Imperat. gah gaha or gaa 

Past Cond. gStha 

Past Indie. gea /. gei PI. gee /. gel 

Participle gahlhari, having gone; geord, in the state of having gone ; 
gahnehala, goer, about to go 

raihnhU, remain. 

Fut. remha or relha relha lelha, &c. 

Imperat. rehl rehi 

Past. Cond. rehuta 

Past. Ind. reha 



beshnu, sit. 



Put. beshma 

Past Cond. be.shta 
Past. Ind. betha 



32 

OuraJn. 

Transitive Verbs. 

xnanu, beat, almost exactly like jharnu. 

Fut. malima or mamma or marela marela marela, &c. 

Past Cond. mata (pronounced mat") . 

Past Ind. raara, with agent case of subject, mara, agreeing with 

object. 
Pres. Perf. mara a, with agent case of subject, mara a agreeing with 

object. 
Plupf. mara thea, with agent case of subject, mara thea agreeing 

with object. 
Participle, marora, in the state of having been beaten. 

The following are slightly irregular ; — 

khann, eat, (in agreement with fem. noun khainl). 

Past Cond. khSta /. khaiti 

Past Ind. khau /. khai, PI. khao 

penu, drink 
Past. Cond. pita 
Past. Ind. petu. 

denu,|give. 

Put. dema dela, &c. 

Past. Cond. deta 
Past Ind. ditta 

lainu. 

Fut. lemma lela, &c. 

Past Cond. laita 
Past. Ind. lea 



Past. Cond. botta 
Past Ind. bolu 



bolnu, say, speak. 
kahnu, do. 



Fat. kahma 

Pres. Ind. kahta a 

Pastlud. kea 

Participle keora, in the state of having been done. 

jaEL^u, know. 

Past Ind. janu 

lei einti, bring and lei gahnhti, take away are like alnu and 
galmlm. 



83 



CurShi. 



The change otkhnnii to khnini, and khatd to khaiti gives us examples 
oF that epenthetical vowel change so common in Kaslimiri. If wo count 
from the South East, Cai-ahi is the first lani^uage (so far as I know) 
that has this change. It becomes increasingly common as we go North 
and West as, for example, in such dialects as Bhadrawahi, Paclari, Jam.mu 
( Doda) Siraji,Rambani and Pogull, and finds its fullest development in 
Kashmiri. 

List op Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. 

babb, father, 
ma, mother, 
bhae, bhaii, brother, 
daiddi, elder sister 



bhin, younger sister 
puttar, son. 
dheu, daughter, 
munsh, husband, 
jo, wife, 
mardii, man. 
tremat, woman, 
gabhru, boy. 
kuli, girl. 

gual, pual, shepherd, 
ghor-a, horse. 

-i, mare, 
dant, ox. 
ga, cow. 
mliai, buffalo, 
bakr-a, he-goat. 

-i, she „ 
bhradd, bheddu, sheep, 
kutt-a, dog. 

-i, bitch, 
rikkh, bear, 
sih, leopard, 
brahg, mirg, panther, 
gadha, ass. 
kukkh-ar, cock. 
— ri, hen. 
bera-], cat (male). 

-li, ,, (female). 
ut, camel. 
5 



pakhru, bird, 
ill, kite, 
siali, fox. 
hathi, elephant, 
hatt, hand, . 
paid, pair, foot, 
nak, nose, 
tir, akhri, eye. 
muh, face.. 
dant, tooth, 
kann, ear. 
shirual, ke.sh, hair, 
shir, head, 
jibh, tongue, 
pait, stomach. . 
pitth, back, 
pinda, body, 
pothi, katab; book, 
kalm, pen. 
manja, bed. 
ghar, house, 
daryau, river. . 
gadd, khol, stream, 
dhar, hill, 
padhr, plain, 
patti, field, 
roti, bread, 
pani, water, 
kinak, wheat, 
kukhri, maize, 
butt, tree, 
gira, field, 
naggar, qity. 



..:..;) 



34 



GurShi. 



ban, jungle, 
machi, fish, 
bat, way. 
phal, fruit, 
mas, meat, 
duddh, milk, 
andherii, egg. 
gheu, ghi. 
tel, oil. 

cbab, buttermilk, 
dib, day. 
rat, night, 
dih, surj, sun. 
shukli, moon, 
tara, star, 
byar, wind, 
jhari, maigh, rain, 
dhup, sunshine, 
bharotu, bbara, load, 
bi, seed, 
loha, iron 
khara, good, 
bura, bad. 
badda, big. 
mathra, small, 
daliddri, lazy, 
hosear, wise, 
mara, ignorant, 
taula, swift, 
pina, sharp, 
uthfa, high, 
cbel, beautiful, 
aira, ugly, 
tbanda, cold, 
tatta, hot. 
mittha, sweet, 
ujla, clean, 
taiar, ready, 
thora, little, 
mata, much, 
bhonii, be, become, 
ainu, ainii, come. 



gahnbu, go. 

beshnu, sit. 

laina, take. 

dena, give. 

jharnti, fall. 

uthnu, rise. 

kbare uthnu, stand up. 

heina, look, see. 

khan a, eat. 

penu, drink. 

bolna, speak. 

kahnu, ,, 

raihnbu, remain. 

manu, beat, 

paryanna, recognise. 

janna, know. 

pujna, arrive. 

nashna, run. 

nashi gahnbu, run away. 

banana, make. 

I'akhna, place. 

bak pana, call. 

milna, meet. 

shikhrna, leavn. 

parhna, read. 

likhna, write. 

marna, die. 

shunna, hear. 

hathna, tux'n. 

call einti, return. 

bbirna, fight. 

jitna, win. 

barna, be defeated. 

call gahnbu, go away. 

bana, bahna, sow. 

dant jukarne, plough. 

khalaiia, give to eat. 

peoana, give to drink. 

shunana, cause to hear. 

carna, grave. 

carna, cause to graze. 



Curahi. 



35 



Numerals. 
Cardinal, 



1 — ak. 

2— doi. 
3 — trai. 
4 — cour. 
5 — panj. 
6 — che. 
7 — satt. 
8— atth. 
9 — nao. 
10— dash. 
11 — yahra. 
12 — bahra. 
J 3 — tehra. 
14 — coudlia. 
15 — pandhra. 
16 — sh5la. 
17 — satahra. 
18 — athalirai 
19— unn!h. 
20— bih. 
27 — satiri. 
29 — unattrl. 
30— trihi. 



1st, peiWa. 
2nd, dul. 
3rd, treS. 
4th, coiitha. 
5th, penjui. 
6th, cheuS, chatha. 
7th, saitu§. 
10th, daisua. 



37— 

39- 

40- 

47- 

49- 

50- 

57- 

59- 

60- 

67- 

69- 

70- 

77- 

79- 

80- 

87- 

89- 

90- 

97- 

100 

200 

100,000 



satattri. 

-untali. 

calhi. 

sattali. 

-ununja. 

-panj ah. 

•satunja. 

-unahat 

-shatth. 

-satahat, 

-unhatthar. 

-satthar. 

-sathattbar, 

-unasi. 

-asi. 

-satasi. 

-unainue. 

-nabbe. 

-satainue. 

— sau. 

—doi san. 

— lakkh. 



Ordinal. 



ak beri, once, 
doi berl, twice, 
peihli beri, first time, 
das guna, tenfold, 
addha, half, 
paune doe. If. 
saua doe, 2j. 
adhae, 2|. 
deddh, li. 
sadhe cour, 4|. 

In the word sathaWmr, 77, the first t and h are pronounced sepa- 
rately. The word is not sa-tliatthar, but sat-hatthar. 



3!6. 

Curahi. 

Sentences. 

,T , , , . . . - . , 

1. Tinda na kitu a ? What is thy name ? 

2. Is ghofe ri ketrori urabar a ? How much is the age of this 
horse ? 

3. EfhS Kashmir ketrore dm- a ? From here hpjv- far is Kash- 
mir ? p 

4. Tinde bobbere (babbere) ghare ketrore larke.J,nte ? In thy 
father's house how many boys are there ? 

5. Au aj j diir kina hanthi yah. I to-day from far have walking 
come. ~ r; 

6. Minde cacera gabhru useri bhini sauga behoraji. My uncle's 
son is married to his sister. 

7. Ghare hacebe ghore ri kathi a. In the house is the saddle of 
the white horse. 

8. Useri pittlii pran kathi char. Upon his back put the saddle. 

9. Ml usera puttar mata mara. I beat his son much. 

10. Oh dhara ri coti pran gayya bakri cata a. He on the summit 
is grazing cows and goats. 

11. Oh us bntta lietth ghore pran bethora a. He under that 
tree on a horse is seated. 

12. Usera bbae apni bhini kina badda a. His brother is biggei- 
than his sister. 

13. Usera mul adhae rupayye. Its price is two and half rupees. 
24. Minda babb us mathre ghara majh basta a. My father lives 

in that small house. 

J 5. Usui oh rupayya dei dea. To him give that rupee. 

\6. Oh rupayya us kina lei lea. That rupee take from him. 

17. Usni jugte kane marikari dora rashi kane bannha. Having 
beaten him well tie him with ropes. 

18. Khiiha kina paui kaddha. From the well draw water. 

19. Mft agrhi cala. Walk before me. 

20. Kusera gabhru tuarepicche {or picore) einta ? Whose boy is 
coming behind you ? 

21. Ob tiie kus kina mull lea ? From whom did you buy that ? 

22. Giraiyye re ekki hattiwale kina lea. From a shopkeeper of 
the village. 





LAHULi. (Lahuli), 


.■ ' 




Nouns. 






Masculine. 


. .' 




rhi, horse. 






Singular. 


Plural. 


N. 


rhl 


rhan 


G. 


rbanii 


rhane du 


D.A. 


rhapbi 


„ di 


Log. 


rhi andrez 


„ andrez 


Ab. 


rha dots 


,, dots 


Ag. 


rhats 


rhanez 


V. 


rli3 
hatbi, elephant. 


rhan ere 


N. 


hath-i 


-i 


G, 


-i 


-i du 


D.A. 


-i vi or bi 


-idi 


Ag. 


-i 
ba, father. 


-iz 


N. 


ba 




G. 


bao 




D.A. 


babi 




Ab. 


bad dots 




Ag. 


bae 




V. 


ba 

Feminine. 
milyo, daughter. 




N. 


mil-yo 


-yor 


G. 


-yo 


-yo du 


D.A. 


-yo vi or bi 


-yo di 


Ab. 


-yo dots 


-yo du dots 


Ag. 


-yoe 


-yoz 


V. 


-yo 


-yore 



38 



Ldhuli. 



N. 

G. 

D.A. 

Ab. 

Ag. 

V. 





1st 


N. 


ge 


G. 


geu 


D. 


ge vi, ge bare 


A. 


ge vi, ge 


Ab. 


geo dots 


Ag. 


gi, ge 


N. 


yer 


G. 


ye du 


D. 


yer vi, ye du 


A. 


yer, yer vi 


Ab. 


ye dots 


Ag. 


yez 



rbii), sister. 




rbig 


rbir 


rbig 


rbire du 


rbi vi or bi 


„ di 


rbiu dots 


„ du dots 


rh! 


rbfz 


rbiij 


rhIrS r§ 


Pronodns. 




Singular. 




2nd 


3rd 


ku 


du 


k§ 


do 


kS vi, ka bare 


do hare 


ks vi, kS 


do vi, du 


ki dots 


do dots 


k§ 


d5i 


Plural. 




ker 


dor 


ke du 


do du 


ker vi, kedu hare 


dor vi, do du hare 


ker, ker vi 


dor, dor vi 


ke dots 


dod dots 


kez 


doz 



geo, keno, eno, appear to be used for my, thy, his, &c., instead of 
geu, ka, do, v?heu vefeiTing to the subject of the sentence, but 
this rule does not seem to be observed with absolute strictness 

art who ? G. adu Ag. az. 

Other pronouns ai-e cht, what? cha, something, anything. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns ai-e declined as nouns, but when they 
qualify nouns they are not declined. 

Comparison is expressed by means of ve, than, as more, big, rJitrj ve 
more, bigger than the sister. 

dlma, like this or that, chan, like what ? 

ci/io, so much or many, chirl, bow much ? teml^ how many ? 



39 



Lnhuli. 



Adverbs. 

Most adjectives may be used as adverbs. The following is a list of 
the commonest adverbs other than adjectives : — 

Time. Place. 



ente, ente, now 

dora, dhorS, after that, then 

abe, when ? 

abela, when 

to, to-day 

raiida, to-morrow 
[^ mra, day after to-morrow 

muii'a, day after that 

yere, yesterday 
p tura, day before yesterday 



der, here 

dur, nuar, there 

nuhe, there, in that place 

already specified 
aiir, where ? 
kinu, where 
dots, from here 
tori, up 



tsambi, near 
ohetar, ohetar, far 
tiiri, in front 
thalar, behind 
toijg, tof, inside 
dathi, dahthiri, outside 

Others are chart, why, do thcile or 'du gappa Ihoji, for the reason 
that, oe, yes, ma, no, not, darbar, quickly. 



tui tura, day before that 

abela ma, never 

tiii, formerly 

tS, then, after that, therefore 



Prepositons. 

The commonest have been given in the declension of nouns. Sub- 
joined is a brief list of others. The same word is frequently both a 
preposition and an adverb. 

nura, on that side giu hare, beside me 

dii^a, on this side gera sade, with me 

andrez, bijha, within dobi, do vi, for him 

tothi, upon giu tui, in front of me 

poea, under - kS thale, behind you 

do thale, for his sake 



Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 



Pres. I am, &c. 



or 



Past I was, &c. 



shuk 


shun 


shud or shu 


shunni 


.shunni 


.^hur 


todo 


tod on 


tod 


todoni 


todoni 


todor 


toig 


toin 


toi 


toini 


toini 


toir 



40 

La hull. 

Intransitive Verbs. 

dapi, fall (from a horse, &c.). 

Fut. dapog dapoii dapdo dapoiii daponi dapor 

Imperat. dapa dapani 

Pres. Tnd. dapa-do or-dog -don -d -doni -doui -dor 

Impf. dapa-deg -den -de -deni -deni -der 

Past, Ind. daje -deg -den -de -deni -deni -der 

Fut. N'eg. ma dag ma dan ma dad ma dani ma dani 

ma daur 

Imperafc. Neg. dau tha dapeni tlio 

Other tenses. For negative pre6x mn. 

bajesi, fall dawn, 

Fut. bajesog, &c., like dapog 

Imperat. bajesa bajesani 

Pres. Ind. bajesa -d5 oi- -dog 

Impf. bajesadeg 

Past bajesdeg 

Fut. Keg. ma bajes -ik -in -id -ini -ini -ur 

Imperat. Neg. bajesu tha bajeseni tho 

For other tenses prefix ma. 

shubi, be, become. 
Fut. shog 

Pres. Ind. shua -do or -dog 

Impf. shuadeg 

Past Ind. shuteg (like dapadeg) 

or shut -6 -on -o -oni oni -or 

abi, come. 

Fut. ab -og -on -do or -du -oni -oni -or 

Imperat. adeuh adani 

Pres. Ind. abad -6 or -6g 

Impf. abadeg 

Past andeg 

or adig adin adi adini adini adir 

or aiija anjad used only in the 1st and 3rd Sing. 

Fut. Neg. maqg man man mani mani mandur 

Imperat. Neg. thsdeMli tliSdani 

Pres. Ind. Neg. mSbado ^ 



41 

L^hrdi. 

Irapf. Neg. mlbadgg 

Past Ind. Neg. from aiideg agg^mu anii^mu annSrau 

aiiniemu anniemu anniemu 
ibi, go. J<r^ 

Flit. ySg you yfidu yoni yoni yor 

Imperat. 11 H^ni 

Pres. Ind. yuad-o or -og 

Impf. yuadeg 

Past Tud. ideo- 



o 



or 



ido idou ilea nr ilead idoni Idoni Idor 
Fnt. Neg. melig melin mehl mehni mehni mehlur 

Imperat. Neg. thel thelani 
Pres. Ind, Neg. mayyuado 
Impf. Neg. mayyuadeg 

Past Ind. Neg. from ideg iggi^uui inn^mu il^mu 

inni^mu luni^mu iluremu 

braf, sit, live, stay. 

fit. brau bi'auoii braudti brauoni brauoui brauor 

Imper. brau braini 

Pres. Ind. brSd(5 

Impf. brSdeg 

Past Ind. bretho 

Neg. Prefix tha to Imperat. and ma to other parts 



pipi, arrive. 

Put. pipo pipon pipudu pTpoiii plponi pipoi' 

Pres, Ind. pipadd 

pijido 
Impf. plpadeg 

pi j ideg 
Past Ind. pig pin pi pini pini pir 

khosi, be obtained, meet. 

Put. khosay -o -on -lidu -oni -oni -or 

Impf. . khositeg 

Past kliosiga kbosina khosiri kliosiiii khosiui klioslra 

krabi, weep. 

Put. krabog krabon kiabudu kraboni kraboni krabor 

Pres. Ind. krabado 

Impf. krabadeg 
6 



42 





Lrthuli. 




Transitive Verbs, 




tezi, beat strike. 


Fat. 


tera -6g -on -do, &o. 


Imperat. 


teu tireni 


Pres. Ind. 


tezad -0 or -og 


or 


tern ad -6 or -6g 


Impf. 


tezadeg 


or 


temadeg 


Past Ind. 


t^ijgadeg 


Fut. Neg. 


ma teqg or tezi ma ten ma teu 




ma teni ma teni ma teuf 



Other tenses. Piefix tha for Imperat. and ma for the rest. 

ze, eat. / 



Fut. 


zauo 


zau zau 


zauni 


Pres. Ind. 


zauad - 


■6 or -6g 




Impf. 


zauadeg 






Past Ind. 


zedeg 






or 


zed a 


zedan zedo 
randl, give. 


zedani 


Fut. 


ramo 






Imperat. 


rail 


rani 




Pres. Ind. 


randad 


-0 or -og 





zani 



zani 



zedani zedor 



Impf. 



ram ado 
rnndadeg 
ram ad eg 



Past Ind. 


rand eg 








or 


ran da randan 


rando 


randani 


randani r-andor 


or 


reg ren 


re reni 


reni 


ler 


or 


rg ren 


re reni 


reni 


Si 

rer 




kuri, say. 




Fut. 


kg kSn 


kudo 


koni 


koni kor 


Pres. Ind. 


kuado 
kurado 








Impf. 


kuadeg 
ktifadeg 








Past Ind. 


knteg 










kuta kutan 


kuto 


kutani 


kutani kutor 




kuig kuin 


kui 


kuini 


kiiini kiiir , 



43 



Lnhuli. 
Ihai, do. 



Fut. 


Ihau 


Ihauaii 


Ihaudo 


Imperat. 


lliao 


Ihani 




Pres. Ind. 


lliad5 






Impf. 


111 ad eg 






Past 


1 ha teg 








Iheg 


Ihen 


Ihe 




Ihega 


Iheiia 


Ihe 


Neg. Imperat. 


thalo 


thalaui 








kei 


ri, leave. 


Fat. 


kio 


kieii 


kiodo 


Iiiipei-. 


keo 


keoani 




Pres. lud. 


kerado 






Impf. 


keradeg 







llieni 



11 



leiu 



Iher 
I) 



Past 



kieai 



kieni kier 



keta ketan keto ketani ketaui ketar 







nezi, know. ^^ 






Fut. 


neo 


neu ne5 ueui 


neui 


neor 


Pres. Ind. 


iiewado 








Impf. 


newadeg 








Past lad. 


^_"eg 


nen ne ueni 


neni 


ner 


Fat.-Neg. 


maieqg 
maieoi 


maieua maia 
maieni maiora 

tizi, see, look. 






Fut. 


tamo 


tamon tamdo &c. 






Pres. Ind. 


tizado 








Impf. 


tazSdeg 








Past 


taqg 


khaadj, see, look. 






Fut. 


kliamo 








&e. 


&c. 


habi, bring. 






Fut. 


liabo 


habon habdo, &c. 






Imperat. 


hadeii 


hadani 






Pres. Ind. 


hands 








or 


habado 








Impf. 


hand eg 








or 


habadeg 








Past 


handa 


liandan hando handani 


handani 


handor 



u 



Lnhuli, 



sMzi, take awaj'. 

Fafc. sho slion shudo shoni shoni sliOr 

Imperat. shil shilani 

Pres. Ind. sliido 

Impf. s^ideg 

Past shida -an -o -ani -ani -or 



Fut. 
Pies. Ind, 



Impf. 
Past 

Past 





tsatsi, send. 


tsap5 


tsapon, &c. 


tsapado 




"tsatsado 




tsapadeg 




tsatsadeg 




tsatta 


tsattan tsatto, &c 




thazi, hear. 


thateg 




tliaig 


thai 11 thai, &c. 



Necessity and Habit. 

In order to express Necessity, the necessity of doing a thing, a 
construction very similar to that of Panjabi is employed, viz., the Agent 
case with the Iiifin. Cf Panjabi os ghallna haiveda, he will have to send. 

gl ibl toig, I had to go ; k§ ze tadan, thou hast to eat ; dot randi shu 
he has to give. 

Thus we have gl ihl tada or io or ta or shuh, I have to go. 

gi ihl toig or tareg, I had to go. 

These auxiliaries are inflected according to the subject, as : — 

tada tadan <ado tadoni tadori tador 

tareg tarea tare tareni tareni tarer 

toig toiii toi toini toiiii toir 

shuk .sliun shu shuni shuni shur 

For shuk, &c., the 3rd Sing, (shii) is also used indecl. This may 
apply to the others also. 

The negative of ibi tada is mehi tada 

and of a if tada (have to come) mabl tada. 

Habit is expressed by combining Uidi, do, make, with the Infin. 



I 



45 
Ldhuli. 

(slightly modified) of the verb which gives the thought required: 
thus : — 

tha ddpa l/iao, do not make a habit of falling. 

ge aha Ihado, I am iu the habit of coniiuc'. 

doz leza Ihdder, they were in the habit of beatino-. 

hahsi tha'lawa Ihani, do uot tell lies {Ihai, compounded with itself.) 

Gompound Verbs. 

Compound Veibs are very common. As a rule they add emphasis 
to the meaning. 

randi, give and Jceri leave, gi rani keta, I gave left, gave altogether 
kei% leave „ „ „ gl kezh keo, I shall leave-leave, leave 

altogether. 
tSzt, beat, kerl leave, kg terj ketan, thou beating leftest, thou beatest 

much. 
Ihal, do and kert, leave, Ihaji hefl^ do leave, do thoroughly, 
randi, give and Ihai, do, doi rcima Ihdte, he giving made, he gave 

(cf. Fat. ramo). 
tSzi, beat and Ihai, do, ke tema Ihao, beating make, beat thou, (cf. 
Fut. tBmog) kg m? tema thalo, do not habitually strike anyone 
{lit. thou man striking not do.) 

shubl, become, and ibi, go, shtijido, shujideg, shuj'yo, I become, I 

became, I shall become. 
Thus nenz habi, and nenz shizi, are emphatic forms of hSibi, bring, 

and shiz'i, take away. 
aza is compounded with ibi, go to express the Hindi calna (cala 

jana). ge azays, I shall go av?ay. 
haza with dbi, come, expresses ' again ' * back,' come back or return, 

gi rnUdd Tiazd abi tada, I have to return to-morrow. 
phae randi, divide, phuge keri, spoil, waste, shi^ ibi, become alive. 
Conditional sentences. — I did not notice any special forms for 
conditional moods. Ordinary tenses appeared to be made to express 
the idea of condition, du dbade gi du iemo, if he had come I would 
have beaten him. (lit. he was coming, I will beat him,) 

Negation is expressed by prefixing tha, to the Imperative, and ma, 
to other parts of the verb. In a number of verbs this leads to compli- 
cated changes. Examples are given in the conjugation of the different 
verbs. 

The agent case of the subject is used with all parts of all transitive 
verbs. This reminds us of Nepali where the Agent case is employed 



46 



Ld,huli. 



with transitive verbs in all tenses except those in which the Auxiliary 
verb am, was, &c., is used. 

Verbal forms ending in -eg may also be made to end in -eg. 

The Future is used for the Pres. subjunctive as in Kashmiri. 



List of Common Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. 
Natural RelationsMps, etc. 

ba, father. 

ceje ba, (small father) uncle, 

younger than father, 
ya, mother, 
kag, elder brother 



nua, youugor brother. 

rhi, sister, 
yo, son. 

Animals. 
rhs, horse (common gender), 
tshah, horse (m). 
nabrhS, mare, 
bar), ox. 
venz, calf, 
rahd, cow. 
mhei, buffalo, 
yag, yak. 
rhiz, goat (male), 
la, „ (female), 
kats, sheep (male), 
ma, „ (female), 
khui, dog, (common), 
ba, dog (m.). 



milyo, daughter, 
ru, father-in-law. 
gahsezi, husband, 
mez, wife, 
galmu, mi, man. 
mez mi, woman, 
karu, yo, boy. 
milyo, girl, 
cor, thief, 
puhal, shepherd. 

rikkh, black bear. 

omu, red bear. 

thar, leopai'd. 

sharjkhu, kind of wild cat. 

kar, ass. 

str, pig. 

kiiga, cock, hen. 

bhir, cat. 

tarbhir, cat (male). 

fir, ur, camel. 

pya, bird. 

ill, ill kite. 

gna, jackal. 

hathi, elephant. 



me, bitch. 

gur, hand, 
kunz, foot, 
il, nose, 
til", eye. 
mob, face. 
a, mouth, 
rif, ear. 



Parts of the Body. 

kra, hair. 

punz, head. 

Ihe, tongue. 

khog, khop, stomach. 

thakh, back. 

phug, body. 



LShtiU 



47 



pad, book. 

mfishadan, pen. 

manni, bed . 

cumh, house. 

bendi, river. 

gar, stream. 

rai), hill. 

patthar, plain. 

rlii, field. 

ran, bread. 

tl, water. 

chna, wheat. 

kugi, maize. 

buttli, tree. 

palanz, saddle. 

nngav, village, city. 

banh, jnngle. 

matsh, fish. 

amli, way. 

mal, property. 

cij, thing. 

desh, mulkh, country. 

aijga, famine, 
mansa, intention, 
habsi, lying. 
c5ri, theft, 
kam, work, 
biah, marriage, 
mir), name, 
laha, price, 
kharc, expense. 



Gommon Objects. 

kliam, clothes, 
gutbab, ring, 
paular, shoe, 
sha, meat, 
panu, milk, 
tigli, egg. 
mar, ghi. 
tiell, oil. 

bodi, buttermilk, 
hari, shop, 
tai), tar)g rupee, 
nihr, day. 
niurodb, night, 
, yegi, sun, sunshine, 
laza, moon, 
karh, star, 
lanh, wind, 
mug, rain. • 
kurb, load, 
be, seed, 
nilam, iron. 

A bstract Nouns. 

gunah, sin. 
dab, pity, 
tehl service, 
niab, answer, 
hugam, order, 
khushi, happiness, 
cal, sound, 
barsh, year. 



Adjectives. 



mtb, good, beautiful, clean, 
madam, bad, lazy, ignorant, 

more, big. 

ceje, bae, kuajh, little, 
dralda, sti-aitened. 
(5nyi, hungry. 



tslioi, fat. 
jSshi, befitting, 
shil, wise, 
rush, swift, 
tsanji, sharp, 
raijgi, high, 
sohi, cold. 



48 



LdhtiU. 



tor, hot. 
gur, sweet, 
tliofe, little, 
jama, togetljer, 

shubi, shubi, be, become. 

abi, come. 

ibi, go. 

brai, sit, live. 

sliizl, take, take away. 

habi, bring. 

randi, give. 

dapi, fall (from horse, &c.). 

bajesi, fall down. 

khaya shubi, rise, stand up. 

khandi, tazi, see look. 

ze, eat. 

tumi, drink. 

kuri, say, speak. 

kushi, sleep. 

Ihai, do, make. 

tezi, strike, beat. 

sezi, recognise. 



haje, much, many, 
yue, bater, all. 
sSsi, white. 



Verbs. 



-itti, i. 



-shum. 



1- 

2- 

3- _ 

4— pi. 

5 — i)a. 

6— trui. 

7 — nhi. 

8— rhe. 

9— ku. 
10 — sa. 
11— seidi. 
12 — sani. 
13 — shashura. 



1st, tfimi, 
2nd, jurnji, 



nezi, know, 
pipi, arrive. 
( dro randi, run. 
poshibi, run, run away, 
adkiiri,call (Zif. say 'come ' ?), 
khosi, be obtained, meet, 
parephi, read. 
[/tsezi, wiite. 
^ si, die. 

thazi, hear. 

haza abi, return (come again), 
guah randi, embrace, 
au randi, kiss. 
aza ibi, go away. 
har tsSzi, plough, 
tsatsi, send. 
V krabi, weep, 
keri, leave. 

Numerals. 



Cardinal. 



Ordinal. 



1/14 — sapi. 
15 — sar). 
16 — satrHi. 
17 — sahni. 
18 — sare. 
y 19 — soskii. 
I 20— nizz. 
I 100— ra. 
200— nirha. (700?) 
900— kurha. 
1,000— sara. 
100,000— lakh, 



3rd, shummi. 
4th, pimi. 



I 



4e 

LShuli. 

5tb, ijanii. 

6th, truimi. khanni, half. 

7th, nhiml. dhai, 2|. 
10th, sami. 

Above 20, numbers are estimated by scores up to 100. 

Sentences. 

1. Ke mil) chi shu P Thy name what is ? 

2. Di rhgphi temi shui ? This horse's how much (age) is ? 

3. Dets Kashmir cbirl ohetar tC ? From here Kashmir how far is ? 

4. KS bao dor temi yo tod ? In thy father's house how many 
sons are there ? 

5. Ge to 5hetare audo. I to-day from far walked. 

6. Geu ceje bao yoe do rhlra sade biah Ihato. My uncle's (young 
father's) son with his sister made marriage. 

7. Cuqli {or cumh) sSsi rhan (or rhSphi) palanz tod. In the 
house the white horse's saddle is. 

8. Do thakhari palanz tsbu. On his back the saddle bind. 

9. Gi d3 yo haje teggadeg. I his son much beat. 

10. Ra§ pjtnzari tral ghuan pauhale ruatsade. On the hill's top 
the shepherd is grazing cows and goats. 

11. Buttho poea du rhan tothi tezi toi. Under the tree he on a 
horse was seated. 

12. Do nua eno rhig ve more t5. His young brother his own 
sister than bigger is. 

13. Do laha dhai tar). Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Geu ba bae cumhu hvU. My father in a little house lives. 

15. Dobi di tagg rani keo. To him this rupee giving leave. 

16. Du tagg do dots nenz hadet*. That rupee him from take. 

17. Do ke haje teu thazeran tshu. Him thou much beat with 
ropes bind. 

18. Baini ti hund. From the spring water draw. 

19. Giii tui jo. Me in front of walk. 

20. Kg thale aduh yo abad ? Thee behind whose boy comes ? 

21. Ke du ado dots handan. Thou that whom from tookest. 

22. Gi hari dots handa. I shop from took. 



The Parable op the Prodigal Son. 

Dors doi kute (kui) : i miS jur yo toi ; ceje 
Then he said : one man-to two sons were young 



50 

LahuU. 

y5i bara kui, e ba anyo mal gebi pipa gebi rau ; 
son father to said, Father what property me-to ari'ive me-to give 

(loi eno mal phae rando. Dots thals thora dine cej§ 

lie own property dividing gave. From- that after few days young. 

yoi yui cij jama Uiate (Hie), ohetar mulkliarl ide. Dore 
son all things together made, far country-to went. There 

doi madam kam lliato, eno mal phage kefco. Da bela ri 
he bad work did, own property wasting left. That time at 
bate kharc shujldg do desha I'i bina arjga shute (shujide or ide) 
all spent became that country in gi^eat famine became. 

Doi'a du dralda shujide. Dora do deshari i sahukarS 
Then he straitened became. Then that country of one money lender 

dore ide. Doi eno rhiri sfirar ruatsi tsatte. D5 mansa tSi 
near went. He own field swine to graze sent. His intention was 
du shag s^raz zauader eno khog pimadeg. Azla dobi 
that husk-food swine were-eating own stomach I might fill. But him-to 
challa ma ramader. DorS dobi hoshari (hosh) ande 

anything not they were giving. Then hira-to sense in (sense) came 

tl kute : Giu ba5 anyo kamlhaza di (dumbizar) 

then he said : My father-of how-many work-doers to (workers) 

Laje rofi tod. Ge der ^ onyi siuado, ge khae atsa ge§ 
much bread is. I here hungry am dying, I stand arising own 

bao dor yog, woi gi dobi kog : — gi sargo kS 

father near will go, also I him-to will say : — I heaven-of thy 
ganah Ihega. Ente di joge mad haza kS yo kuri, gebi 

sin did. Now tliis worthy not-am again thy son to-say, me 
kS (keno) kam Ihazadu sahi Ihao. DorS atsa eno 

thy (own) work doers like make. Then having-risen own 

bao dor ili (ide). Ente du ohetar toi da tSri do bab 
father near went. Now he far was him having-seen his father-to 

dah adi, doi dro re, doi muthn guah re, masfc au re. 
pity came, he run made, he neck-to embrace made, much kiss made. 

Yoi dobi kui : — gi sargo ks gun ah Ihega. Ente di jSge 
He ^ hira-to said : — I heaven-of thy sin made. Now this worthy 

mad, haza kg yo kufi. Do bae nokarari kiii ruthe 
not-am again thy son to say. His father servants-to said good 
ru^he kham hunj hadani, kez debi kham rahni, 

good clothes taking-out bring, ye him-to clothes put-on (give?) 



I 



51 

Lahuli. 

gui guthab ralini, kSnzavi paular rahni, more r6nz shareni 
hand-to ring put on feet to shoes put on fat calf kill 
yez zauani khushi Ihauani, du gappa Ihaji di giu 
we shall-eat happiness shall-make this matter making this my 
yo ' side toi eatS haza shii) ili, tiii [hiSshtS §nte khosa 

son dead was now again alive-went, formerly was-lost now has-been 

ilea. Dora doz khushi Ihater. Do more yo rhiri tSi, 
obtained. Then they happiness made. His big son field-iu was, 

aii ghari cumh kacha pi (adi) gido garpi mi cal 

what time house near arrived (came) singing dancing of also noise 

that§ (thai). DsrS i cagara bi ad kute rhugade : — chi shujad. 

heard. Then one servant to called asked : — what became. 

D5i dobi kiii : — Kl nua anjad, ks bae tshSi 

He him- to said : — Thy younger-brother came, thy father fat 

renz' shaiado, d5 thale dii raji baji khosiri. Du 

calf is killing that for he well was obtained. He 

roshe shiri toijg m§liade. Do ba datlii anji du 

became-sulky in not-went. His father out having-come him 

chSndi. Doi babi uiab lhat§. Dh8 barsh ki 

persuaded. He father-to answer made. So-many years thy 

tehl Ihateg, gi kS hugam thuasi ma, kl abela i la 

service I did, I thy order rejected not, thou ever one goat 

gibi ma randen ( (rSshi ) keno yarada sade khushi gappa 
me-to not gave thy-own friends with happiness talk 

Ihau: abela ks di kam adi, doi kS mal madam 
make: when thy this son came he thy property bad 

kammari kharab Ihaji, ke do thali renz shaiaden. 

works in evil having-made thou him for calf killedst. 
Doi dobi kiii : — e yo kii hamesh giu kacha todon ; gin 
He him-to said : — O son thou always me near art ; mine 
tod du ka shu. Khushi Ihai, khushi shubi jftshi 

is that thine is. Happiness to make, happiness to be fitting 
toi. KS di nua side toi eute haza shiq '' ili, 

was. Thy this young-brother dead was now again alive became, 

tiii hiSshte ente khosa ilea, 

formerly was-lost, now has been obtained. 



BHADR/VWAHI, BHALfiSI AND PADARI DIALECTS. 

Introduction. 

These three dialects are spoken in the eastern portion of Janini5 
proper. Bhadrawah, i\, jngir of Raja Sir Amar Singli, brother of the 
M;i,haraja of JammS and Kashmir, lies immediately to the north-west 
of Caraba State and soutli of the Cinab river. By Bradrawahis tliem- 
selves the district is called Bhadhlfi, with the accent on the second 
syllable, while Kashmiris call it BodarJcnh. Bhsiles is the name of 
a valley a few miles to the east of the town of IHiadrawah. Padar, 
separated from Bhales by a valley only six or seven miles across, lies 
north of and contiguous to Paggi in Camba State. From Paijgi it is two 
or three marches down the Cinab to Padar ; Kishtawar is four stasres 
lower down the river. Another three mnrches will bring us into the 
heart of the Bhalesi country immediately to the west of which Blia- 
drawahi is spoken. 

All these dialects enable one to study the process of transition 
from Panjabi to Kashmiri. Nevertheless, while they exhibit points of 
connection with Kashmiri, not one of them can be chissed as a dialect 
of that language. They belong distinctly to tlse Panjabi-Hindi type. 
They resemble Kashmiri in having, in common with Curahl, the 
vocalic change known as epenthesis. For examples of this, the notes 
at the end of the verb in the different dialects should be consulted, 
as also the note under Curahi, and the Introduction to the Camba 
Dialects. Padari has epenthesis to a larger extent than any of the rest. 
They have g for ; in the verb go ; thus Bhadrawahi gahnU, Bhalesi 
gahnu, Padari ghen ; cf. Kashmiri gatsun. Bhadrawahi zannfi, say, zannu 
know, Bhalesi dzanu, dzfinnu, remind us of Ksishniiri dopun and 
zanim. Padari has further resemblances in its half vowels, represented 
in Roman by the letters being written above the line, as han'^, hin'*, is or 
are ; the", was {cf. the grammar passim) ; in its introduction of y before e 
or ^■, as lyekhan, write, Kashmiri lyekhun ; dyen'^, I sha.]\ g\ve, dyitto, 
gave, Kashmiri dyima, dyut ; in some of its pronouns, as, meeun or men. 
my ; teeun, ten, tliy ; lievn, our, tohn, jour ; cf. Kashmiri myon, con, son, 
tuhund ; in its 3rd person neuter pronoun tath, Kasjimiri tath ; and in 
its word for ' why,' kye-, Kashmiri kyazi. The introduction of y is not 
always regular. Thus they say both ij and ^JJj, motlier ; pifth and 
pifitth, back ; ikk and yikk one. 

In the presence of r instead of r in the adverbs of place, one is re- 
minded of the Sisi dialect which has kare, where ? jare, where. For these 



54 

■wonls we hnve Bluidiawahi kori, zan ; Blialpsi kore, dzefe ; Padnrl kor, 
zar. Foi- here and there, iiowever, Sssi di'ops tiie r and luis tth, whereas 
these di:i]e(!ts keep to r. We are sigain reininde'l of Sa-i ia the 
Bhadrawalii [H'onouns oh, lie, she, it, tliaf, and rh, tliis, which in their 
Agent Sing, have cerehial n, unl and inl, keeping tlie n through all the 
Oblique Plural. The Sisi corresponding pronouns do precisely the 
same, having Agent Sing, un and in and n in the Oblique Plural (Agent 

Plur. wno, ino). 

An interesting feature of these dialects is the frequent preference of 
dl (or dl) and dhl to hr or hhr, and of tl (or tl) and thl to tr. Thus we 
have Bhadrawalii dhlihbu, red beat-, dhln, brother-, cUnhg, leopard, for 
what in other dialects would be hhrahu, bhrd, and barnhg. We notice 
also dlaoro, in the state of Iniving been married, for bidhd hud. The 
very name for Blmdrawali, Bhadhld, illustrates this. In Bhalesi we 
have dhJiblihu, red bear, ding, leopard ; also dhledd, sheep, for bhed. 
In Padaii there is diaindhe, bind, for bdndho. 

Again we find in Bhadrawalii thli, woman, tlrie, three, thledi, day 
after to-monow (lit. third day), thlih, thirty, tlehbi, twenty-thi-ee; cf. 
strl, trai, trljjn din, trih, trei. In Bhalesi we have tledht, for the day 
after to-moirovv, and in Padari tide for three, and tlean ior i\\e (\.a,j 
after to-morr()w\ I do not remember having noticed these two features 
in any other dialect, although the mere intercharge of I and r and of I 
ftnd r is very common. 

Bhadrawalii makes its Genitive Sing, in ru, Genitive Plural 
in karu, Dative in jd, Locative in tyiU, Ablative in kara. The 
Accent Sing. Masc. is in -e and the A<_'ent Plur, both Mmsc. and 
Fern, in ex. It has I throughout in the suffix for the Futurt-, the 1st 
Plur. having ml, and bus Feminine forms for the Future, Pres. Cond. 
and Pies. Iiid. in addition to other parts where we more ofien find 
Feminine foims. Its Stative Participle ('in the state of) is in -ord. 

Bhalesi very much resembles Bhadrawalii. It has its Genitive 
Sing, in -eu. Genitive Plui-. in keii,; its Dative Sing, in -e, and Dative 
Plur, in -mi; its Ablative Sing, in - a and Ablative Plur. in -dn, while 
its Agent case has almost always -e in both the Sing, and the Plur. 
The Future has I in the 2nd and 3rd Sing, and 1st and 2nd Plur., 
the 1st Plur. having ml. Feminine forms are noticeable in the Future 
and Pres. Ind. The Stative Participle ends in -So, and the Conjunctive 
Participle {having fallen, etc.) in -oi. 

Padari has -ar for the Genitive Sing, ending and kar for the 
Genitive Plur., as for the Dative Sing, and apparently no t-uding for 
the Dative Plur., el for tbe Ablative Sing., and kal for the Ablative Plur. 
Its Future takes I throughout with nl in the 2nd and 3rd Plur. The 



55 

Future has two forms for the Ist Sing, ending respectively in -ui 
when tlie root of the verb ends in a consonant, itnd in nasiil n when the 
root ends in a vowel ; see the note at the end of the verba. Feminiue 
forms are found in the Future and Pres. Coud. or Pres. Jnd. The 
Stative Participle ends in -or or -awr, and tlie Conjunctive Participle 
in -* kar. 

The Padari word for devil, harmon, is reraarkaljic. Whether 
there is any connection with Ahriman., the Zoroastrian spirit of evil is 
doubtful, but tlie similarity of the two words is striking. 

In connection with the Future in /-, the inti-oduction to the Gamba 
Dialects should be consulted, pp. ii, iii. 





BHADRAWAHi 




Nouns. 




Masculine. 




Nouns in -5. 




Sing. 


N. 


ghor-6, horse 


G. 


-e ru 


D.A. 


-e 36 


L. 


-e mi 


Ab. 


-e kara 


Ag. 


-e 


V. 


-a 



Plur. 



-e 

-a karu 

-an jo 

-an mi 

-an kara 

-e5 

-au 



Nouns in a Consonant. 



N. 


ghar, house 


G. 


ghar ru 


D.A.Ab.L. 


ghar-e jo, kara, &e 


Ag. 


-e 




Nouns in -i. 


N. 


hatlii, elephant 


G. 


liaithe ru. 


D.A.Ab.L. 


haithe jo, kara, &c. 


Ag. 


liaithe 


V. 


haitha 




Nouns in -u. 



N. hind -ii, Hindu 

G. -e rii 

Ag. -e 

nan, name, is thus declined : — 
N. uaii 

G. naiie ru 



ghar 



ghar karu 
ghar-an j5, &c. 
-e! 



hathi 

hatlii karu 
hatlii jo, &c. 
haithe 
haithau 



-u 

-e karu 

-ei 

naii 
nau karu 



58 





Bhadrawahi 




Feminine. 




Nouns in -i 


N. 


kui, daughter 


G. 


kiii -e ru 


D.A. 


-ejo 


L. 


-e mS 


Ab. 


-e kara 


Ag. 




V. 


-e 



Nouns in a Consonant. 



N. 


baihn, 


sister 


G. 


baihn 


-e ru 


D.A. 




-i jo^ 


L. 




-i mS 


Ab. 




-i kara 


Ag. 




-a 


V. 




-e 



kui -a 

,, karu 

„ jo 
„ mi 
„ kara 

-ei 

-au 



baihn -i 

-i karu 
-ijo^ 
-i mS 
-i kara 
-ei 
-au 



batsM, cow, calf, is thus declined : — 

N. batshi bewtsh -i 

G. bewtsh -e ru -i karu, 

Ag. -a -ei 



o' 



Note. — The postpositions for of, viz., rH, when following a singular 
noun, and karu, when following a plural, are declined according to the 
number and gender of the nouns which they precede. 

Thus ru, karu, are followed by sing. masc. 
rn, karu, ra, kara, „ „ ,, plur. masc. 

ri, keri „ „ „ sing, or plur. fern. 

They are not inflected for the oblique case, thus : — 

knie ru. ghSre rii ghar, the house of the girl's horse, 

kuie rii gliora karu ghar, ,, ,. ,, ,, „ horses. 

kMe ru ghoeMre rn ghar, .. „ ,, „ „ mare, 

kui® ru ghoewri karu gliar, .. .. „ „ ,, mares. 



4 



Bhadraivah) . 



59 



1st 



Pronouns. 
2nd 

Sing. 



8rd 



ih, this 



N. 
G. 

D.A. 
L. 

Ab. 



ail 


tu 


oh 


ill 


mero, meru, 


teru 


useru 


iserfl 


ml 


till 


us, us jaS 


is, isli jail 


„ ma 


tui mS 


U8 ma 


is mi 


„ kara 


tS kara 


^f iCofrHi 


„ karu 


mi 


tai 


uni 


ini 



Plur. 



as 


tus 


iinha, Snha 


inha 


ishii 


tishii 


un karu 


in karu 


asan or 


tusan or 


unan. or 


inan or 


asan jaS 


tnsan jo 


unan jau 


inan jo 


asan ml 


tusan mS 


unan ma 


inan ma 


„ kara 


„ kara 


„ kara 


„ kara 


asei 


tusei 


unei 


inei 



N. 
G. 
D.A. 

L. 

Ab. 
Ag. 

There is a»iother form of the 3rd pers. pron., possibly correlative, 
which is thus declined : — 
Sing. N. tai, G. tisera, D.A. tus, tash jau, L. tas ma. 

Ab. tas kara, Ag. iaim. 
Plur. N. tana, G. tan karu, D.A. tanan jau, L. tanan ma, 

Ab. tanan kara, Ag. tanei. 



Sing. 

N. kaun, who ? 

G. kisero 

Ag. kaini 

fcof, anyone, someone, 



Flur. 

zai, who, kaun 

ziserii kain karu 

zaini kenei 

G. ketceru Ag. 



zana 

zain karn 
zeiiei 
ketce 



kiiu, what ? G. kolhero. 



Other pronouns are kicch, anything, something, sai koi, whosoever, 
zai kicch, whatsoever. 



60 BhadrawUhi. 



Adjectives. 



Adjectives employed as nouns are declined as nouns, bub adjectives 
qualifying nouns liave the following declensions : — All adjectives ending 
in any letter other than -w, -au, -6 are indeclinable. Those ending 
in -u, -au, -0, have obi. sing. m. -e. Plui-al -e, indeclinable. Feminine 
—i indeclinable. 

Comparison is expressed by means of kara, from, than, used with 
the Positive: kharau (kharo), good; is kara kharau, better than this ; 
sehhan kara kharau, better than all, best. 

Demonstrative. Correlative. Interrogative. Relative. 

erhii, like this teihu, like that kerhu, like what ? zerhu, like which 
aitrn, so much or taitru, so much kaitrii, how much jaitru, as much 

many or many or many ? or many 



Adverbs. 



Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. They then agree with 
the subject of the sentence. The following is a list of the most 
important adverbs other than adjectives : — 

Time. Place. 

hun§, now. ^ itthi, eri, ira, here. 

tes, then. uri, ura, taj-i, tara, there, 

kes, when ? kori, kora, where ? 

zes, wlien. zaj-i, zara, where, 

kala, to-morrow. iri tai, up to here, 

thledi, day after to-morrow. ittha, from here, 

tsoiithe, day after that. bah, up. 

hij, yesterday. bunh, down, 

prez, day before yesterday. nero, near, 

tsordiharebliiie, day before that, dur, far. 

(lit. four days ago). ^g^h i" front, 

kadi, sometimes, ever, pattri, behind, 

kadi na, never. an tar, inside, 

kadi na kadi, sometimes. behr, outside. 

The adveibs are kujo, why? a, yes; neth, no; Zws^f, quickly ; is 
galld kere, for this reason ; m sdre, ain sare, thus ; kliare scire, well. 



Bhadraiunhi. 61 



Prepositions. 



The conimonest prepositions have been given in the declenHion oi' 
nouns. Subjoined is a brief list of ntliers. The same word is 
fi^equently both a preposition and an adverb. 

par, beyond. tere lei, about thee. 

war, on this side. ishi salii, like us. 

hetth, below. unan ka, towards them. 

mS, witliin, us pati, aftpr liim or that. 

mi kei or ka, beside me. tisere ware pare, round aI)out it. 

mi sathi, mi sili, with me. tusan barabar, equal to jon. 

tes waste, for him. mere bagair, without me. 



Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 



Pres. I am, &c. ai as ahe ahm ahth ahn 
Past I was Sing, thio, /. thi PI. thie /. thi 

Intransitive Verbs. 

bitsharnu, fall. 

Pres. Cond. bitshar-au or -i -as -e -am -ath -an 
Fern. -1 -i -i -am -ath -an 

Fat. bitshar -alo -alo -alo -male -ale -ale 

Fern. -a^lai, &c. 

Imperat. bitshar bitshara 

Pres. Ind. bitshar -ta -ti -te -tam -tath -tan 
Peni. -ci -c3 -ce -cam -cath -can 

Impf. Ind. bitshar -to thi5 (fem. -ti thi) PI. -te thie (fcm. -ti 

thi). 
Past Ind. bifsh -aro /. -eri PI. -are /. -eri 

Plaf. - bitsharo thio, &c: 

Part. hitsharto, falling ; bitsharfd, havinsj fallen ; bitshaforo, 

in the state of having fallen ; bitsharnSbnlo, faller, 
about to fall. • . 



62 Hhadrawahi. 

Some verbs have slight irregularities, 
bhonu, be, become. 

Pres. Cond. bliau -i -s -e -m -th 

Fut. bho -l6 -lo -lo bhau-mle -le -le 

Past Iiid. bhuo 

Part. bhuoro, in the state of having become. 



-n 





e]nu. come. 


Pres. Cond. 


ejji, &c. 


Fut. 


ej -elo -elo -elo -mele -ele -ele 


Imperat. 


ei eja 


Pi'es. Ind. 


etta 


Impf. Ind. 


etto fchio 


Past 


au 


Part. 


etta, having come ; oro, in the state of having come. 




gahnn, go. 


Pres. Cond. 


gei gas gahe gabm gatath gan 


Fut. 


gelo gelo galf) gamale gale gale 



Impf, Ind. gahto thio. 

Past jau je 

Part. gehta, having gone ; joro, in the state of baving gone. 

rehnu, remain. 

Pres. Cond. rebi rahs rabe rabra rahth rahn 

Fut. reh -lo -lo -lo rahmle reh -le -le 

Imperat. rab raba 



Transitive Verbs. 
kutnu, beat. 

Pres. Cond. kut -tau -tas -te -tarn -tath -tan 
Fem. -ti -ti -ti -tarn -tatb -tan 

Fut. kut -alo -alo -alo -male -ale -ale 
Fem. -ailai, &c. 

Imperat. kut kutta 

Pres. Ind. kut -ta -ti -te -tarn -tath -tan 
Fem. -cE -ca -ce -cam -cath -can 

Impf. Ind. kutto thio. PI. kutte thie. Fem. kntti thi 

Past. Ind. kutta or kutto with agent case of subject, kuttii or 
kutto agreeing with tbe object. 



Bhadrawahi. fty 

Pres. Perf. kuttu (&c.) ahe with agent case of subject, kutta 

ahe agreeing with object. 
Plapf. kuttii thio with agent case of subject, kuttu thio 

agreeing with object. 
Part. as for bitsharnic, kuttoro, in the state of having been 

beaten. 

The following are slightly irrejj^ular : — 

khanu, eat. 



Past Ind. 


khau 


pinu, driuk. 


Past Ind, 


pift 


denti, give. 


Fut. 


delo 




Past Ind. 


deS 


zaunu, say. 


Put. 


zolo or zaulau 


Past Ind, 


zaS 


^airnn, do. 


Fut, 


kerlo 




Past Ind. 


1 -Ci 

kiu 


zannu, know. 


Put, 


zanlo 




Past Ind. 


zanS 


annti, being. 


Fut. 


ainalo 




Past Ind. 


anfi 






nainu, take away. 


Put. 


nelo 




Past Ind. 


nefl 





Habit is rendered as follows : — 

au gahta bhauta, I am in the habit of going, 
tai gdhto bhaute, he is in the habit of going. 
tai gahti bhauoe, she is in the habit of going. 

Present action is thus expressed : — 

tai gahne laro ai or gahne lagoro ai, he is in the act of going. 
This, translated into literal Urdu, would be wuh jauB 
laga hua hai. In this example the words gUhng lard or 
lagoro are indeclinable for all persons and numbers. 



64 



Bhadrawahi. 



The epenthetical vowel change in hath'i, Tiatthe ru ; batshl, 
bentshe ru ; kaun, kaini (see declension of nouns and pronouns), and in 
bitsliardld, bitsharnilai ; kutalo, kutailai ; annu, ainalo (see above, verbs) 
should be noticed. See note at end of verbs in Curahi dialect. 

For the Infinitive of Verbs -u and -u are used interchangeably. 
Similarly in the last syllable of nouns and adjectives, mi, a, o are freely 
used for each other. 

In the 17th and I9th sentences below will be noticed interesting 
forms for the Imperative : — Sing, banhd or hanhda ; plur. banhddth or 
banhdthet. 



List of Oommon Nouns, 

babo, father, 
haj, mother, 
dhla, brother, 
baihn, baihn, sister, 
ko, matthu, son. 
koi, kui, daughter, 
munash, husband, 
thli, wife, 
mafd, man. 
thli, woman, 
matthu, boy. 
koi, kui, girl. 
g5ran siqgha, cowherd, 
puhal, shepherd, 
tsaur, thief, 
ghor -o, horse. 

-i, mare, 
dant, ox. 
batshi, cow. 
bhai, buffalo, 
tshero, he-goat, 
tshailli, she-goat 
bhaidd, sheep, 
kut-ar, dog. 

-ri, bitch, 
itsh, black bear, 
dhlabbu, red bear, 
dlilahg, leopard, 
khauthau, ass. 
sur, pig. 



Adjectives and Adverbs. 

kuk-kur, cock, 
-kari, hen. 
bal-a, cat (male). 

-ai, „ (female), 
tint, camel. 
tsafoUi, bird, 
shen, kite, 
gidar, fox. 
hathi, elephant, 
hatth, hand, 
pao, foot, 
nakk, nose, 
etshi, eye. 
tuttar, face, 
ash, mouth, 
dant, tooth, 
kann, ear. 
shiral, hair, 
dog, head, 
zibbh, tongue, 
pait, stomach, 
pitth, back, 
jind, body, 
katab, book, 
kalam, pen. 
khat, bed. 
ghar, house, 
niru, river, 
gad, stream, 
dhar, hill. 






I 



Hhdtirtiirnhi. 



65 



paddhru, plain. 

tshethl, field. 

rotti, bread. 

pani, water. 

gah^a, wheat. 

kukkri, maize. 

buta, tree. 

djaii, tield. 

.shahr, town. 

ban, jungle. 

masli, fish. 

batt, vvay. 

meuo, fruit. 

mas, meat. 

duddh, milk. 

thul. egg'. 

ghi, ghi. 

tail, oil. 

tshah, buttermilk. 

zhez, day. 

dlaz, night. 

diharo, suu. 

canani, moon. 

taro, star. 

biio, wind. 

deu, rain. 

dhupp, sunshine. 

andliaru, storm. 

bharo, load. 

bidz, seed. 

lahft. iron. 

chail, beautiful, good, clean. 

buro, ugly, bad. 

baddo, big. 

nikro, little. 

shnst, lazy. 

takro, wise. 

jahli, ignorant. 

tikkha, tez, swift. 

tliandii, cold. 

tattu, hot. 

mitthu, sweet. 



fear, ready. 

kani, little. 

maste, much. 

bhOau, be, beoome. 

ejnu, come. 

gahnii, go. 

nainu, take. 

dean, give. 

bitsharnu, fall. 

utliiiu, lise. 

kharo bhonii, stand. 

hairnu, see, look. 

khanii, eat. 

pinu, diink. 

zaunu. say. 

zhiilnn, sleep. 

katrnu, do. 

rehnu, remain. 

kutnu, beat, 

pushaauu, recognise. 

zannii, know. 

puznu, arrive. 

nashnii, run. 

nashi gahnu, run away. 

bananu, make, 

rakkhnii, place. 

kujanu, call. 

malnu, meet. 

shiklinu, learn. 

parhuu, read. 

likkhnu, write. 

shuunu, hear. 

nisna, turn. 

aznu, return. 

tsalnu, flow. 

larnu, fight, 

zitnu, win. 

liarna, be defeated. 

tsalu gahnu, go away. 

baihnu, sow. 

lial lana, plough. 

khuanu. cause to eat. 



66 



Bhadrawahi. 



pianii, cause to drink, 
shuaanii, cause to hear, 
tsarnii, graze. 



tsaranu, cause to graze, 
zhulnu, He down. 





NCMKRALS. 




CunJinul. 


1— ak. 


15 — parne. 


2 — dui. 


16 — shore. 


8— tlai. 


17 — satare. 


4 — tseuur, tsour. 


18 — athare. 


5 — pants. 


19 — uniii. 


t) — -shall. 


' 20 bih. 


7— satt. 


23— tlebbi. 


8— attb. 


27 — settei. 


9 — nail. 


29 — ^unattei. 


10— dash. 


30-^thlih. 


11 — yahie. 


100 — shauu. 


12— bahre. 


1,000— bazar. 


13— tehre. 


100,000— lakkh. 


14 — tseaude. 






Ordinal. 


1st, paihlu. 


5th, pantsaix. 


2nd, duiau. 


6th, sheiafi. 


3rd, tleiau. 


7th, satau. 


4th, tseurau. 


10th, dashafi. 


addliu, half. 


sua dui, 2^. 


daddh, 1|. 


dbai, 2i. 


panne dui, If. 


.'sadhe tsour, 4| 



sons 



Sentknces. 

1. Tero nau kun ai ? What is thy name 't 

2. Bs ghofe rl ketli umr ai ? How inucb is this horse's age ? 

3. Ittha Knshmir ketii diir ai P From heie bow far is Kashmir ? 

4. Tisbo baua re ketia mattha an ? How niany are his father's 
? 

5. Ail a/, dura haiatta au. To-day I fj'om far w;ilking came. 



Bhadrawnhi 67 

6. Mere cac§ ro ko tiseri bshni satl>i dlaoro ai. My uncle's 8on 
with his sister is married. 

7. Grhare chitte gliore ri kathi ae. In tlie lionsc the white horse's 
saddle is. 

8. Tisere thlio-^g pnr katlii latli. On liis back bind tlie saddle. 

9. Ml tiseiu matthu inasl kuttu. 1 l)cat his son niiicii. 

10. Tai dhari pur betshi tsiielli tsarte. On that hill lie is crraziii',' 
cows and sheep. 

11. Tai biite h'y/«th t,rhore pnr bisliMro ai. Under that tree he is 
sitting^ on a horse. 

12. Tiseru dhla apai behni kara baddo ai. His brother is big^^er 
thaji his sister. 

13. Tiseru mul dhai rupayye aii. Its price is two and a half rupees. 

14. Mairo babo ns nikre ghare mR bishte. My father in that 
little house lives. 

15. Tes eh rupayyo de. Give him this rupee. 

16. Tai rupayye tes kararau. These rupees l)iing fioni him. 

17. Tes mast kutti sheli 8? ban lid or bauhda. Having beaten 
him much bind thou him with a rope. 

18. Khuh5 pani kaddh. From the vpell take out water. 

19. Mf agri tsalath or tsalth§I. Before me walk (you.) 

20. Kisero ko tusan pitora oro ai ? Whose son is coming after 



you ? 



21. Ta? kas kara muUe aao ? From whom hast thou bought it? 

22. piaul re ekki hetribale kara. From a shopkeeper of the 



village. 





BHALRSI (Rhajesi). 






Nouns. 






MuiiXuUne. 






Nouns in -o. 






Sing. 


Plur. 


N.A. 


^hor -0. horse 


ghore 


G. 


-eu 


ghor keii 


D. 


-§ 


g'hor -an 


Ab. 


-a 


-an 


Ag. 


-e 
Nouns in a Consonant. 


-e 


N.A. 


ghar, bouse 


tfhar 


G. 


gbar-6n 


cfhat keu 


Ab. 


-a 


gliar -an 


Ag. 


Nouns in -i. 


-an 


N.A. 


hatli -i, elephant 


-i 


G. 


-eu 


-i k§u 


Ag. 


-ie 

Feminine. 
Nouns in -i. 


-ie 


N.A. 


kui, girl 


kuia 


G. 


kui -eu 


kiii keu 


D. 


-e 


kui -an 


Ab. 


-a 


-an 


A-. 


-G 

Nouns in a Consonant. 


-e 


N.A. 


bbfiin, sister 


bliain 


G. 


bliaiu -eu 


bhain -i keu 


D. 


-e 


-in 


\h. 


-a 


-ian 


A-. 


-e 


-ie 



Bhalesi. 



69 









i^ 


RONOUNS. 














Siny. 








1st 




2nd 




3rd 


f'h, this 


N. 


a€ 




tfi 




sp. oh 


Pb 


G. 


meu 




teu 




usen 


iseu 


D.A. 


me! 




tni 




us 


is 


L. 


,, ma 


„ mS 


,, mS 


,, ma 


Ab. 


111 era 




tera 




usa 


isa 


Ag. 


mel 




tei 


Plv/i: 


uni 


ini 


N. 


as 




tus 




una 


ina 


G. 


aseru 




tuseru 




un ken 


in keu 


D.A. 


ahan, 


asan 


tubfin, 


tusan 


nnan 


iiian 


L. 


asau 1 


mfT 


tusaii 


ma 


., ma 


„ msT 


Ab. 


asan 




tusau 




unan 


inan 


Ag. 


aban, 


asan 


tuiiau, 


tusan 


unbe 


iiihe 



There is another form of the 3rd Pers. Prou. te, which is thus 
declined : — 



Sing. N. te. G. taseu. D.A. tas. 

tasa. Ag. tent. 

Plur. N. tenn. G. ten keu. D.A. finan 

ma. Ab. finan. Ag. finhe. 



L. tas ma. Ab. 
1j. ttnan 



Siny. Plwr. 

N. kanu, who? dze, who kanu dzena 

G. kiseu dziseii kin keu dzin kSu 

D.A.L.Ab. kis, &c. dzis, &c. kin, &c. dzin, <fcc. 

Ag. keni dzeni kunhe dzinhe 

k'n, anyone, someone. G. keu^ii. D. ketce. 
ki, what F G. kut'Bu. 



Other pronouns are kicch, anything, something ; dzekdt, whosoever ; 
dzS kicch. wbatsoever. 

The abl. pi. of the personal pronouns reminds us of tbt- Kului 
dialect, wheie wv Hml asann oi' nasn na. tt^asdn or tussd na, fniha 
na. inha na. 



70 



Bhalesi. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns ai-e declined hs nouns, but adjectives 
qualifying nouns have the followinsj declension : — All adjectives ending 
ill any letter othei- tlian a, ii, au, o, are indeclinable. Those endintj 
in any of these letters change it to -e for Obi. s. m., and N. pi. m., and 
i for Fem. Sing, or Plur. The genitives of nouns and pronouns come 
under this rule, as ghorei zin, the horse's saddle. 

Comparison is expressed by the positive of the adjective used with 
the ablative of the noun or pronoun with which comparison is made as 
chitta, white (cf. Panjabl, cittn ; Kului shettd, and shitta in Kulu Siraj) 
Ufi chitta, whiter than this. 



DemonstraUve. (JorreLatwe. Interroyiitive. Relative. 

ehu, like this tehn, like that kehii, like what? dzeha, like 

which 
ethur, so much tetkur, no muc\\ ta^^w, how much dzethnr, a,H much 



or many 



or many 



or many 



or many 



Adverbs. 



Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. They then agree with the 
subject of the sentence. The following is a list of the most important 
adverbs other than adjectives. 



(Time.) 



huphe, now. 
tessa, then, 
kessa, when ? 
dzessa, when, 
adz, to-day. 
kala, tomorrow. 



tied hi, day after tomorrow, 
tsouth. day after that, 
hi, yesterday. 
par§, day before yesterday, 
tsoiith, day before that. 



ere, here. 

ore, tere, there. 

kore, wheie ? 



Place.) 



dzere, where, 
iria, fi'oni here. 



BhtilSsi. 71 

Vbrbs. 

Auxiliary. 

Pres. I am, &c. hew hjis ha ham hath ahan 

Past I was Sing. m. thio /. the PI. rn. fliie /'. thi 

Intransitive Verb."!. 

khirkau, fall. 

Pres. Subj. khirk -a -as -6 -am -ath an 

Fut. khirk -an or -en -al or -el -el -kamal -el -an 

Fern. -erm -eul -eu\ -amettl -en\ -Him 

Imperat. khirk khiika 

Pres. Ind. khirk -tau or -tii -tus or tos -tau or tu 

-tarn -tath -t§ 

Pem. -te -te -te -tarn -tath -ti 

Impf. Ind. khirk -tau thio (/'. -te the) PI. -te thie (/". ti thi) 

Past. Ind. khirk -0 -o or -au -6 or -au -au -au -e 

Fern. -6i 

Pres. Perf. khirko heu or ahew, &c. 

Plupf. khirko thio, &c. 

Past khirkoi, having fallen 

Some verbs have slight irregularities. 

bhonu, be, become. 



Pres. Sulij. 


bho -a -s bho 


bho - 


m -til 


— 


Pres. Ind. 


bhdt -Hu or -6 or -n 








Past Ind. 


bhiiO 

ainu, come. 








Pres. Subj. 


eiS eis eie em 


eith 


ein 




Put. 


ein eySl eyel eimel 


ejel 


ein 




Imperat. 


eul eia 








Pres. Ind. 


ein to, &G. 








Past Ind. 


au5 /'. auoi 








Partic, 


enebalo, comer, about to come. 








gahnu, go. 








Pres. Ind. 


gab —a -as -e 


-am 


-ath 


-an 


Put. 


gab -an -al -al 


-mal 


-al 


-an 


Imperat. 


ga if ah a 








Pres. Ind. 


gabato 








Past Ind. 


geti PI. ge F. Sing. & PI. gei 







72 



BkalSsi. 



Transitive Verbs. 



kutnu, 


beat. 








-as 


-0 


-am 


-arh 


-an 


-tfil 


-tal 


-nial 


-tal 


-tan 



-tus or -tos 



-tath -ti 



Pres. Siibj. kutt -^ 

Put. knt -tail 

Irnperat. kut kutta 

Pres. liid. kut -fau (or -tu or -to) 

-tau or -tu or -to 
-tarn -tatli -te 
Fern. -te -te — te -tarn 

Impei-f. Ind. kut -tau thin (f. -te -the) PI. -te thie (/. tl thi ) 

Past Ind. kut -to (/. -te PI. te /. ti) witli agent case of sub- 

ject, kutto agreeing with object. 

Pres. Perf. kntto ha with agent case of subject, kutto ba 

agreeing with object. 

Plupf. kutto thio with agent case of subject, kntto tliio 

agreeing with object. 

Partic. kuttaii, beating ; kutto or kiitfm, beaten. 

Some verbs exhibit minor divergences. 



khano, eat. 

Past. Tnd. khgto. 

Put. khan. 

Past khau. 

Partic, khdu or khrino, eaten. 



Pres. Ind. 

Put. 

Past Partic. 



pi to. 
plan, 
peou. 



pino, drink. 



Pres. Ind. 

Put. 

Past 



dito. 

den. 

dittou. 



deno, give. 



Pres. Ind. 

Put. 

Past 



dzota. 

dzon. 

dzoS. 



dzonu. say. 



Bhalesj 



78 







karnu, do. 


Pres, Ind. 


karto. 




Fut. 


karn. 




Past 


keS. 


dzannu, know. 


Pres. Ind. 


dzantu. 




Put. 


dzanan. 




Past 


dzanu. 


anno, bring. 


Pres. Ind. 


an to. 




Fut. 


anau. 




Past 


ono. 






neno, take, take a^ 


Pres. Ind. 
Fut. 


neto. 
nen. 




Past 


neo. 





Verbs appear to have two past participles, thus from khano, eat, 
we have khau and hhaud ; from gahnu, go, geu and geuo. Probably the 
shorter is the ordinary past participle, and the longer the stative parti- 
ciple, the meaning here being eaten and in the state of having been eaten, 
gone, and in the state of having gone. 

The Pres. Subj. with a negative is used to express the sense of a 
negative Pres. Ind., tu kujeroti na khas, why art thou not eating bread ? 

The Past Cond. is rendered by the Pres. Subj. with thio : — tit es 
hio au kutta thio, if thou hadst come I would have beaten thee. 

In the sentences below a^eii and ahe or ahe will be noticed for 
hen and ha in the present auxiliary. Probably a may be prefixed all 
through the tense. . 

Bhalesi does not differ greatly from Bhadrawabi. The following 
words as compared with tlie corresponding words in the Bhadrawahi 
list will show the approximation. 



bab, baji, father. 

hai, mother. 

kak, brother. 

bhei, 

binyi, sister. 

bhain, ,, 



bokut, son. 

kur, daughter. 

kui, 

ron, husband. 

meMuash, husband. 



.. i 



74 Bhalesi. 

zanan, wife. S^^> cow. 

rautear, man. bhai, buffalo, 

ku^nsh, (nasal «), woman. tsherjo, he-goat, 

ko, boy. tshelle, she-goat, 

kui, girl. dhledd, sheep, 

gor, cowherd. kutar, dog. 

puhal, shepherd. kutre, bitch, 

tsor, thief. eutsh, black bear, 

ghor -o, horse. dhlibbhu, red bear. 

-e, mare. dlag, leopard, 

dant, ox. khotrii, ass. 



Sentences. 



1. Teu uau ke ha ? What is thy name ? 

2. Es ghorei kethri umbar ha ? How much is this horse's age ? 

3. Iris Kashmir kethri ha ? From here how much is Kashmir ? 

4. Te habe ghare math kethar ahan ? In thy father's house 
how many sons are there ? 

5. Aii adz durua hanthi ano ahew. I to-day from far walking 
have come. 

6. Meii pitlao ko tisei bhain sathea biaho ahe. My uncle's son 
is married with his sister. 

7. Ghare madz chitte ghorei zin ahe. In the house is the white 
horse's saddle. 

8. Tisei pitthe putth zin kasha. Upon its back bind the saddle. 

9. Mei tiseii ko mato kutto. I beat his boy much. 

10. Tedhare putth gaua tshelli tsarto ahe. He upon the hill cows 
and goats grazing is. 

11. Us butte hetthe ghore putth te bishon ahe. Under that tree 
upon a horse he seated is. 

12. Tiseu bhei apni bhaina baro ahe. His brother is bigger than 
his sister. 

13. Tiseii mul adhai rupayyo ha. Its price is two and a half 
rupees. 

14. Men babo us nikru ghare madz bhots. My father lives in 
that little house. 

15. Us rupayye deth. Give him rupees. 

16. Usa rupayye eni tshadd. From him take (those) I'upees. 

17. Te hacchS kuttath te shell sai bannhath. Beat him well and 
bind him with ropes. 



BJialesi. 75 

18. Khiiha paai keudh. From the well take out water. 

19. Mera agre tsala. Walk in front of me. 

20. Kiseu k5 teia patte einfco. Whose boy comes bcliind thee ? 

21. Te! kisa muUe ano ? From whom hast thou brought it ? 

22. piaua hattibale kanoa a^o. From the village from a shop- 
keeper (I have) taken it. 







PApARt. 








/ 


Nouns. 










Masculine. 










Nouns in -d. 










Sing. 




Plur. 


N. 
G. 




ghor-a, horse 
-ar 




ghor-e 
-i kar 


D. 




-as 




-1 


Ab. 




-el 




-i kal 


Ag. 




-e 




-i 






Nouns in a Consonant. 




N. 




badhel, ox 




badhel 


G. 




badhel -ar 




badhel kar 


D. 




-as 




badhel 


Ab. 




-el 




badhel kal 


Ag. 




-e 




badhele 


bab, father, 


has 


G. babbar ; D. 


babbas 


; Ab. babbal ; 


Ag. bahbe. 












Nouns in -?.. 






N. 




haith* 




hathi 


G. 




haithiar 




haithi kar 


Ag. 




haithi 

Feminine. 
Nouns in -i. 




haithi 


N. 




koi 




kui 


G. 




kuy -ar 




kiii kar 


D. 




-as 




kiii 


Ab. 




-al 




kiii kal 


Ag. 




kni 




kui 



ghori, mare, has G. ghurer ; D. ghures. 

Nouns in Consonant. 
bhBn, sister, has G. bhBnar ; PI. bhin ; G. bh'ini kar. 



Pd^arl. 



77 









Pronouns. 










Sing. 






1st 




2nd 


3rd 


N. 


an 




tu 


oh 


G. 


meean, 


men 


tee&n, tea 


tasar 


D. 


mettf, mai 


tou 


tas 


Ab. 


mal 




tal 


tasal 


Ag. 


malf 




ta! 


teini 



eh, this 
eh 
a8 al- 
as 
asai 
eini 



Plur. 



N. 


as 


tus 


uhn 


eeohn 


G. 


hiean 


tohn 


tai kaf 


ai kar 


D. 


ase 


tuse 


tainhe 


ainhe 


Ab. 


as kal 


tus kal 


taf kal 


ai kal 


Ag. 


asS 


tuse 


tanhe 


ainhe 



k&nh, who ? has G. kasar ; Ab. kasal ; Ag. kein. 
kt, what ? has G. kurer. 

Other pronouns are dzB, who ; kick, something, atiy thing ; dze kutiB, 
whoever ; dzB kich, whatever. 

There is a neuter form of the 3rd personal pronoun, sometimes 
used in the locative (with postpositions) for inanimate objects; as tath 
kuthi andar, in that house. It is found also in Kashmiii. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns ; otherwise they do 
not appear to be declined. See sentences 4, 6, 7, 8, 12 at the end. 

Comparison is expressed by means of the positive of the adjective 
with the ablative of the noun or pronoun with which comparison is 
made, as : — cheta, white ; tasal cheta, whiter than that. 



Demonstrative. 
ewrh, like this 

attar, so much 
or many 



Correlative. 
tourh, like that 

tattar, so much 
or many 



Interrogative. 
keorh, like what ? 

kattar, how much 
or many ? 



Relative. 

dzeorh, like 

which 
dzattar, as 

much or many 



78 



Padari. 



Adverbs. 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. The following is a list of 
the most important adverbs other than adjectives : — 



{Time.) 

himmi, novp. 

tapal, then. 

kapal, when. ? 

dzapal, when. 

shui, tomorrow. 

tlean, day after tomorrow. 

tsouthi, day after that. 

(Place.) 

ieur, here. 

eeul, „ 

ettb, „ 

tar, t5r, there. 

61, 

otth, „ 

tatth, „ 

tal, ,, 

kor, whei'e ? 

kol, 

kotth, ,, 



hi, yesterday. 

pare, day before yesterday. 

tsouthi, day before that. 

ka*d*, sometimes, ever. 

ka*d' na, never. 

ka*d' ka*d', sometimes. 



dzal, where. 

dzatth, ,, 

ien.r tikar, up to here. 

ifi, from here. 

bih, up. 

naind, down. 

nere, near, 

dur, far. 

agar, in front. 

pa'ittar, behind. 

andar, inside. 

bahr, outside. 



..;; 



dzar, where. 

Others are kyes, why; S, yes; na,no; cfeer, well ; /in!.5aZ, quickly , 
is galar ddstt, for this reason. 

Conjunction. 

dzai, if. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been mentioned in the declension 

of nouns and pronouns. The same word ig frequently both a preposition 
and an adverb. 

par, beyond. mai peur, near me. 

war, on this side, mai samet, with rae. 

andar, in. tasar dosti, for him. 

pad, beneath. tane pewr, towards them. 

pettr, upon. 



P&dari. 79 

Verbs. 

Auxiliary . 

Pres. I am, &c., mas. han<», fem. Iiin*, all through. 

Past I was. Siug. m. the", /. thi, PI. theg, /. thi. 

Intransitive. 
dzharan, fall. 

Fut. dzhar -al -al -al dzhujul dzhar -nal -nal 

Fem, dzhair -el -el -el dzhur-el d/.hair -neM' -ueM' 

Imper, dzhar 
Past Cond, or 

Pres. Ind, dzhar -na, PI. dzhairne, 

Fem. dzhairni, all through. 

Impf. Ind. dzharua the«, PI. dzhairne thee 

Fem. dzhairni thi. 

Past Ind. dzliara, PI. dzhaire. 

Fem. dzhairi 

Part. dzharna, falling ; dzhair^-kar. having fallen. 

The following show slight variations : — 
bhon, be, become. 

Fut'. bhol bhol bhfil bhol bhonal bhonal 

Fem. bhoM bhune*l» 

Past Cond. or 

Pres. Ind. bhouna, /. bhu'nn* 
Past Ind. bho, PI. bhoe, /. bhui. 

adzan, come. 

Fut. ozul ozul ozul ozul aznal aznal 

Fern. azil eznil 

Imperat. aih adzai 

Pres. Ind. azna. PI. azne, /. aizni 

Past a, /. ae, PI. ae, /. ei. 

ghen, go. 

Put. ghau ghel ghel, &c. 

Imperat. gah ghe 

Pres. Ind. ghena 

Past ga, /. gei, PI. gae, /. g§i. 



80 Padari. 

beshan, remain, sit. 

Fut. bishul beshal beshal bishul beshnal beshnal 

Fem. beshel 

Imperat. besh beshai 

Pres. Ind. beshna 

Past betha 

Part. bithor, in the state of having sat. 



Transitive Verbs. 
kotan. 

Fut. ku^al kotal kotal kutal kotnal kotnal 

Fem. kutal koetel koetel kutal kutneM' kutne*!' 

Imperat. kot kotai 

Pres. Ind. or 

Past Cond. kotna, PI, kotne, fem. koetni 

Imperf. kotn -ath -ath -ath -etb -eth -gth 

Fem. koetneth*, all through. 

Past kotta (PI. kotte, /. koetti), with agent case of 

subject ; kotja agreeing with the object. 

Part. kotna, beating ; kotta, beaten ; kotor, in the state of 

having been beaten, koitikar, having beaten. 

khan, eat. 
Pres. Tnd. khanna 
Past kha, /. khaii. 

pin, drink. 
Pres. Ind. pinS 
Past pia, /. pi 

Part. pior, in the state of having been drunk. 

din or den, give. 
Pres. Ind. dyen^ 
Fut. daii deal, &c. 

Past dyitta 

lei^, take. 
Pres. Ind. lena 
Fut. leS leal, &c. 

Past lea 

Part. leaur, in the state of having been taken. 

bola^, speak. 
Pres. Ind. bonna 
Part. bolor, in the state of having spoken. 



Pndnri, 



81 



karan, do. 

Pres. Ind. karna. 

Fut. korul 

Past kea 

Part. keatir, in the state of liaving been done. 

ghin (ghm) aclzan, bring, and glun ghen, take away, arc conjugated 
like adzan, come, and ghen, go, lespectively. With tliis ghin, having 
the sense of take, should be compared Lahnda ghinna, take. 

It will be noticed that two forms of the 1st Sing. Fut. are found, 
one ending in nasal n, apparently confined to verbs whose roots end in 
a vowel, as ghaii, from ghen, go; daii, from din or dBn, give; leU, from 
iBn, tnke ; the other being the ordinary form in -I or -ul, as korul, from 
karna, do; hlshul, from beshan, sit. 

Epenthetical vowel changes are not uncommon. Thus from hannn, 
make, we have hanain den or hanainl den (Urdu, hana dSnn); from 
rakkhan, place, raikh tshar or raikhl tshar (Urdu, rakh char) ; from 
parhan, resid, parhain de or parhaini de (Urdu., parh de). So khalan, 
cause to eat, changes to khalain when in agreement with a fern, noun ; 
dzhSrna, falling, has pi. dzhairne and fem. dzhairn^, and dzhair^ kar 
having fallen ; fut. dzharnal has fem. dzhairneH^ ; hhonna, being, has fem. 
bhu^nn^ ; fut. bhonal (I shall be) has f. bhuuFP ; see verbs passim. 

The e in thee and koetnl above and in hine and hane below (sen- 
tences 4 and 13) should, strictly speaking, be above the line. On 
account of difficulties of type it is printed on the line. 



Numerals. 



1 — yak. 
2— dui. 
3— tlae. 
4 — tsour, 
5 — panz. 
6 — tshai. 
7 — satt. 
8 — atth. 
9 — nau. 
10— dash. 



J 1— yarah. 
12 — barah. 
13 — teirah. 
14 — caudah. 
15 — pandrah. 
IG^shorah. 
17 — satarah. 
18 — atharah. 
19 — 'Unnih. 
20— bih. 



The first syllable of dui and tlae and shorah is pronounced very 
long. It is probable that the common people count by scores and do 
not use separate numbers between 20 and 100 (sum)- '•'''«* following 
numbers used by some are doubtless due to commujiication with towns. 



82 



Pndnr'i, 



27 — sataii. 


67— satath. 


29 — unaitri. 


69 — nnliattar. 


30— trih. 


70— sahattar. 


37 — safcattri. 


77 — .'iathattar (pro- 


39— un tali. 


nounced sat-h attar) 


40— calih. 


79 — unasi. 


47 — satali. 


80— as.si. 


49 — 'ununja. 


87 — -satasi. 


50 — •pjtnjah. 


89 — unanme. 


57 — satunja. 


90— iiabbe. 


59 — vanath. 


97 — .satanme. 


60— .shatth. 


100— sau. 


List op Common Nouns, 


Adjectives and Verbs. 


l)ab, father. 


sur, pig. 


ij, motheir. 


kokkar, cock. 


bliae, brother. 


kokat'r, hen. 


l>hen, sister. 


bala, male cat. 


kua, son. 


balai, female cat. 


koi, daughter. 


fith, camel. 


dhaini, husband. 


pokkhar, bird. 


dzail, wife. 


glez, kite. 


mauhnu, man. 


suga'l', fox. 


kliiho", woman, 
ghionu, 
geobliar, boy. 
koi, girl. 


hathi, elephant, 
hat, hand, 
khur, foot, 
nakk, nose. 


pahal, shepherd, 
tsor, thief. 


tir, eye. 
totar, face. 


ghor-a, horse. 


dann, tooth. 


-i, mare. 


kann, ear. 


badhel, ox. 


lotth, hair. 


ga, cow. 


niagir, liead. 


innih, buffalo. 


dzebh, tungue. 


bakr-a, he-go;it. 


pet, stomach. 


-"), she-goat. 


pyitth, back. 


tlaii)ij;i, sheep, 
kof-ar, dog. 


jan, body, 
katab, book. 


-er, bitch. 


kalara, pen. 


yatsh, bear. 


manza, bed. 


dlahg, leopard. 


ghar, house. 


gadha, ass. 


gador, liver. 



Pndurj. 



83 



paain, stream (water). 

phat, hill, 

itiadaii, plain. 

baig*, field. 

ruait', bread. 

paain, water. 

geoh, wheat. 

kukkur', maize. 

bott, tree. 

thao, village. 

shaihr, town. 

ban, jungle. 

macch', fish. 

bat, way. 

phal, fruit. 

mas, mefit. 

duddli, milk. 

thul, egg. 

ghiii (accent on second 

syllable), ghi. 
tel, oil. 

tsliali, buttermilk, 
disu, day. 
rat, night, 
dius, sun. 
tsainne, moon, 
tara, star, 
bat, wind, 
megli, rain, 
dhupp, sunshine, 
bhara, load, 
bedza, seed, 
loh. iron. 

cber, good, clean, beautiful, 
bura, bad. 
bora, big. 
mathar, small, 
nimta, lazy, 
khara, wise, 
betal, ignorant, 
ha sal, swift, 
pain, sharp. 



adham, Iiigh. 

alag, ugly. 

atara (accent on .st^coml 

syllable), ugly, 
tlianda, cold, 
latta, hot. 
mettlia, sweet, 
tear, ready, 
kam, less, little, 
mata, more, much, 
sobh, all. 
bh5n, be. 
adzan, come, 
ghen, go. 

be.shan, sit, remain, 
len, take, 
din, den, give, 
dzharan, fall, 
kliarbhon, stand (/tV. become 

standing), 
heran, see, look, 
khan, eat. 
pin, drink, 
bolan, speak, say. 
uijhan, sleep, 
karan, do. 
kotap, beat, strike, 
paryanan, recognise, 
puzhan. arrive, 
nashan, run. 
nash ghen, run away, 
banan, make, 
rakkhan, place, 
hak den (din), call, 

{lit. give call. ) 
mean, meet, be obtained, 
shitsan, learn, 
pafhiin, read, 
lyekhan, write, 
maran, die. 
khunan, hear, 
ghiran, move away. 



84; Pddari. 

paiti adzan, come back. dzote den, plough. 

liHiidan, flow. khalan, cause to eat. 

shatsan, fight. pian, cause to drink, 

dzittan, win. khunan, cause to hear, 

haran, be defeated. tsaran, graze, 

handi ghen, go away. tsaran, cause to graze, 

tsharan, sow. uqhan, lie down. 

Sentences. 

1. Tau ni ki han« ? What is thy name ? 

2. Eh ghorar kat barli han^ ? How many years has his horse ? 

3. Iri Kashmir kateri diir haim ? From here how far is 
Kashmir ? 

4. Tieuii babbar kat gobhar hine ? How many sous has your 
father ? 

5. Adz ail bara diiral aur han*. To-day I from very far have come. 

6. Miean mathar babbar geobhur taser bheni samet beah keo na 
(or keor han*). My uncle's (small father's) son has married his sister. 

7. Gih cheta ghorar kathi hin*. In the house the white horse's 
saddle is. 

8. Taser pitth par tshare. Put it on his back. 

9. Mai tasar koa mata kota. I beat his son much. 

10. Se phat pewr gei te heu^kev tsarna. He on the hill is grazing 
cows and goats. 

11. Se tas botte pad ghore pe?<r bithor han". He under that tree 
is seated on a horse. 

12. Tasar bhae apan bhenal bora ban*. His brother is bigger 
than his sister. 

13. Tasar mul tlae rupae bane. Its price is three rupees. 

14. Miean bab tath mathar kuthi andar han«. My father is n 
that small house, 

15. Tas rupae del tshare. Give him rupees. 

16. Tasal rupayye ial adzai. Froni him bring rupees. 

17. Tas maihn koitikar radzuri ki dlaindhe. Having beaten him 
well bind him with ropes. 

18. Khuhal paain kaddh. Prom the well draw water. 

19. Mai agar agar hand (handh). Before me walk. 

20. Tieun penittar kasar koa ban® ? Whose boy is behind you ? 

21. Se kasal mulle ana ? Fi'om whom did you buy that ? 

22. Thawar hati ettah ana. From the shopkeeper of the village I 
brought it. 



SANSI GLOSSARIES. 
INTRODUCTION. 

In the Panjab census of 1901 no less than 18,180 person were I'e- 
turned as belonging to the criminal tribe of the Sasis. In describing 
them perhaps I may be permitted to quote words I have used elsewhere. 
" The Sisis are a deeply interesting people. Sunk low in the scale of 
civilisation, addicted by nature and education to criminal habits, cling- 
ing to traditional beliefs peculiarly their own, living in the midst of, 
yet holding aloof from, other races, they invite the attention of stu- 
dents of ethnology and students of comparative religion alike. But 
their linguistic interest is paramount. Being criminals, they conceal 
their language with scrupulous atid extraordinary care. The Sisi dia- 
lect may be subdivided into two, the main dialect and the criminal 
variation. While the former will certainly repay time spent on it by 
students of language, the chief interest lies undoubtedly in the latter. 
Here we have the remarkable phenomenon of a dialect which owes its 
origin to deliberate fabrication for the purpose of aiding and abetting 
crime. Sssis themselves are unaware of its source ; yet in the pre- 
sence of strangers they unconsciously use a dialect which is not a 
growth but a conscious manufacture. So much has his now become 
part of themselves that SSsls from all parts of the Panjab will speak 
the same dialect, and be ignorant of the fact that what they call their 
language is partially, at least, a conscious imposture, a deliberate fraud, 
a carefully laid plot to keep in natural darkness deeds which would not 
bear the light." 

The difference between the criminal variation and ordinary dialect 
consists mainly in the greater use in the former of strange words and in 
the systematic disguising of common words. In every-day speech they do 
not specially disguise their words ; but it must not be forgotten that 
their dialect is different from Panjabi or Urdu or Hindi. It is not a 
thieves' argot: it is a distinct dialect. An account of its grammar, which 
I wrote seven years ago, will be found in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, Vol. LXX, Part I, No. 1, 1901, p. Iff. Young children 
speak the ordinary dialect ; they are not able to make the necessary 
criminal alterations. In fact I am inclined to think that the crimiual 



86 

variety will come to be less and less used as the Sasis habituate them- 
selves more and more to the practices of respectable society. At present 
most of them, in the Panjab at any rate, live in Government Reserva- 
tions under strict discipline. Many, hov?ever, on special license live 
scattered here and there in various towns and villages. 

There is no doubt that their grammar and vocabulary are affected 
by surrounding languages. The glossaries here given consist of words 
used by Sssis who live in the Panjab. They certainly l)ave a Panjabi 
colouring which would be lacking in the speech of SSsis who had never 
been out of tlie United Provinces. Yet the great majority of the words 
must be the same for all. 

For convenience sake I have divided the words into two parts — first, 
those which appear to me to be natural SssI words, and second, those 
which appear to have been deliberately altered from Panjabi or Urdu or 
Hindi words. Opinions may differ as to which are original words and 
which are disguised, but it is not a matter of great importance. This 
division, which in any case will be approximately correct, has been made 
merely for the sake of facility of reference. 

The altered words call for some explanation. Sasis can, when 
there is need, change the form of any word, and a vocabulary to include 
all such changed words would be co-extensive with a dictionary of the 
language of Panjabi villages. In this glossary I have inserted only 
those not very numerous words whose altered forms have become so 
stereotyped as to be virtually new words. 

The following are the commonest changes. The Roman numerals 
refer to the section of the glossaries : — 

g is sometimes inserted when r or r is both followed and preceded 
by a vowel (h not being considered) : — as, jehrgd, kShrgS, merga, terga, 
mharga, tuhdrga, nhdrga, from jehfa, kehrd, mera, terd, mhdrd, tuhdrd, 
sard (all in XVIIV It is inserted also in koggi (XVIII) from kol. 

Words beginning with a frequently change d to ko ; as, kodmi (X). 
kom (XIII), konnd (XIV), kodhd and koth (XVII), koj (XVII), from 
ddml, dtd, anna, ddhd, dth, dj. Gf. also khoth (XII ), from hath. 

Words beginning with a often alter it to ku ; as, kiikkhi (XII), 
kurji (XIV), kugge and kundar (XVIII), from akkhi, arji, ayge, andar. 
Cf. also km (XIV) from hatti. 

Kahnd and rahiia become kauhgnd and rauhgnd (XVI), hond, dend, 
lend become hopnd, depnd, lepnd (XVI). 

Words beginning with a vowel or with h followed by a vowel, often 



87 

prefix 6 (oi- siihstit-,iite it for h) as, hindU (XK bek, beil (XVTT\ hue, 
heihi (XVIII), for Hindu, eh, efl, iw, etln. 

Words beginning with p generally change p to n, an nair, nSt 
{XW),nagg (XIV), narhna and nuchnn (XVI), na7ij, nncc and nanjah 
(XVII), narso (XVIII), nhitta, ho]u pnir, pet, pagg, parhna, piichnri, 
panj, pane, panjnh, far so, phiita. 

Words beginning with 6 gjenerally change 6 to c or cfe ; as, chattu 
(X), chnha (XIV), coll {XY),chatma(XVl),rhaiiht (XVU), chalak,:im\ 
chahar (XVIII), hom. Bhattii, biiha, boll, hatnnn, bahuf, bhalakbnhnr. 

n is nsed as a disguising letter for various other words, ns, nhik 
(XVII) from thik, nhanednr (X) from thanedar, uhana (XIV) from 
thana, vikat (XTV) from tikaf, nombu (XIV) from tombu, nalll (XIV) 
from lalll, na\l (XVII) from cMl, non (XV) from corf,nhdlle (Xfll) 
irora chdlle, 7ihtkhnn {XYl) fvoTxi si khnn, nhir (XII) from .s'lV, nhakkn 
( XYIl) irom. sakka,nahb (X) irom snhb (^nhib), naihr (XIV) h-omshakr. 
Different letters are changed to kh. 

khiTchna (XVI) from likhnd : kharji (XV) from marji; khlkn, 
khns, khis, and kliassl (XVII) from nikn, da^, his, and assl. 

khn is more or less indisciiminately prefixed to words as kluunju 
(XVII) for rnjl; khadifha for ditha, seen; kliadeparjgra for depnrgrn 
= deuga, I will give. 

kh is prefixed in khilpar, khupara (XVIII) from npar. 
dha is similarly employed, as dhagalh, from galli, tliroat. 
Some words transpose prominent consonants, as comi from mod (X) 
and chami from machi (X). 

k is changed to r in runj'l and rhat (XIV), from kunjz and khnt. 
b is employed in bendra (XIV), from jandrn ; ban ( XV), from san ; 
and baunna (XIV), from sona. 

There are still other changes which hardly admit of classification. 
Tlius from car, we get caug ; from ca-Qga, rerjgnn ; and fi-om hhtikhn 
jhukha (all in XIII), from Musalman, Dhumalmdn ; and from sipahl, 
gupahl (X) ; h'omsanduq,nadhuk,iindiivo\n lathi, barlathi (XIV) ; from 
nikalnn, khtgalnn ; and from mkhid, rekhwand (XVI); from u-nihrd, 
chaihr or chaihra (XI) ; from dnhai, duhangi (XVIII). 

Pronunciation calls for a few remarks. In the Panjab Sasi 
pronounce most words as Panjabis would pronounce them. There are, 
however, special points to be noticed. They have, in some words, a 
peculiar fashion of shutting off a long vowel. These words, so far as 
I have noticed, are monosyllabic. In the glossaries which follow, this 



88 

vowel is indicated by the doubling of the consonant which follows ; thus, 
ndtt, load of grain ; hass, boiled fat ; khupp, salt ; bapp father ; putt, son ; 
gandd, anus. Verbs which end in ana, have the first a greatly leng- 
thened in the present participle. Thus mgumata and batata, from gumana 
and batand, tlie middle vowel is strangely prolonged. A similar remark 
applies to the first vowel of some past participles. Thus, hua, kiyd, 
diyd in Urdu, become huwwa, kiyyd, d'lyyd in SSsi, the first vowel being 
very long. This is t!ie case also with the u of kud, well (see V). 

In the vocabularies interest attaches to the legal words cdrdwd, ad- 
^'ocate; cardwt the cardioa's wages ; gaddi, plaintiff or defendant ; hindd, 
ordeal ; dho, fee of one rupee ; sair, legal statement ; saihl, notice or 
warning ; rd-; B^ndjat, justice or judgment ; berdsi, injustice. The words 
relating to stealing or cattle-poisoning are also worthy of notice. They 
are baut and gazm, thief ; cliaggl, dauti and lakri, poisoned stabbing 
instruments ; goli, teari and thlmd, poison ; gaund, place in the inside 
of the throat for concealing coins ; iombu, ' jemmy ' ; kokd, sign ; pirjgl, 
following up a thief ; bauti and gaiml, theft. 

The glossary of original words contains 300 words including femin- 
ine forms, or, excluding the latter, 265 words. I cannot hope that 
I have secured all the special words employed by Panjab Sasis, but I do 
not think their vocabulary can be much more extensive than is here re- 
presented. The glossary of disguised words comprises 126 words, exclud- 
ing feminine forms. These figures do not take account of the Appendix. 
It is interesting to reflect that the vocabulary of a criminal tribe is, after 
all, not very large, even in the case of a dialect so well composed 
and so clearly defined as that of the Sasis. Owing, however, to the 
system of disguise, it is quite impossible for one not initiated to 
understand anything at all of a Slsi conversation when the speakers 
do not desire to be understood. The linguistic interest of the dialect 
is out of all proportion to the extent of its vocabulary. 

This is not the place for entering upon a discussion of the linguis- 
tic position of the Sisi dialect. It is sufficient to say that it, like 
Gujuri, is closely connected with the Rajasthani system of dialects. 
These in turn have a marked resemblance to the forms of speech found 
between Camba and Simla. The causes of this connection are still 
in obscurity, but we may look for a scholarly and valuable pronouncement 
on the subject from the pen of Dr. Gr. A. Grierson in one of the forth- 
coming volumes of the Linguistic Survey of India. Dr. Grierson has 
referred briefly to the matter in the chapter on Languages in the lieport 



89 

of the Census of India, 1901. On pp. 70-72, of Part IV of this Volume, 
I have mentioned some of the points of resemblance between SS.si and 
other dialects. It seems hardly profitable at present to continue 
the investigation much further on the same lines, but those desirous 
of working out further similarities may compare the sketch of Sssi 
Grammar referred to above with the dialects treated of in Parts I to III 
here. In the meantime the following comparative table, supplementary 
to pp. 70-72 of Part IV will be sufficient. Tlie practical identity of 
the Sisi Future with that found in Mandeali, Suketl atid Bilfispini (see 
below) is very remarkable. 



1st Per 


•. Pron Nom. 


1st Plur. Gen. 


2nd Plur. Qen. 


Sisi "^ 


hau 


rahara 


tuhara 


Baghati 


ail 


mahra 


tahra 


Kiathali 


1 


mahro 




Kot Grurui 




mahro 


tharo 


Inner Siraji 


hi 


mharau 


tharau 


Outer Siraji 


hft 


mharo 


tharn 


Mandeali 


had 


mhara 




Kaggri 


ha 


mhara 




Bhateali 






tuhara 



Kuliii and Sainji have liaii, Curahi, Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi and 
Padari ail; Eastern KiSthali ciE; and Kotkhai a. 

The SSsi Agent Sing, ends in -e. In Kaijgri it generally ends in tlie 
same way. 

The SSsi future ends in ngT^ or rjg : thus we have horjgrd or 
horjg I shall be, marar/gra, or mararjg, I shall eat. The Future in rjg 
is reproduced exactly in Mandi and Suket, where we have Mrjg (or hUgha) 
and maraijg (or mdrgha), that in jjgrd is found in Bilaspiir, the state ad- 
joining Suket on the south, where we get hdrjgra and mdrarjgro. 
W. Bilaspur has hurjghra and mararjghrd. Compare with this Kaqgri 
hurjghd and mdrghd, Bhateali hurjghd and mdhrgha. 

The following is a table of Adverbs of place : — 





here 


there 


when ? 


where ? 


Sisi 


etthi 


otthi 


kare 


jare 


Curahi 


etthi 


o^thi 


kore 


jere 


Bhadrawahi 






korl 


zari 


Bhalesi 






kore 


dzere 


Padai-i 






kor 


zar 



90 

Pronouns he, she, it or that, and this. 
Agent Sing. Oblique Plur. 

Sisi un in n retained throughout 

Bhadrawahi uni ini n retained throughout 

The dialects which, like SIsi, make their Pres. Pai't. in -fa are 
Ciirahi, Bhadrawahi. Bha}esl and Padari. 



GLOSSARY OF SANSI WORDS 



Nnte. — References to other Sasi words are to the same section of the Glossary 

unless when otherwise speci6ed. 



I 



I.— People. 

badia, snake-cliarmer, /. badiani. 
bogra, watchman (caukidar) or 
police inspector (thanedar). 

bahn, sister, 

baila, Cuhra, /. baili (see cucnci, 
goUa, nokh). 

bapp, father. 

ba»mi, wife. 

baut, thief (see gaim). 

bhataai, Sssi woman. 

bhattu, SSsi man (in the Cuhra 
aigot bhatu). [ktniH). 

bitri, khattri, /. bitrani (see 

bogna, faqir. 

bora, boy (see mundd, neokla). 

bori, girl (see mundl^ neokU, nikki). 

chamk, Brahman, /. chamkani. 

carawa, advocate in S3si dispute 
(see gaddi ; also carawi, dho, sair 
in V, and saihl in VI). 

cyur, Sikkh, /. cyurani. 

cucna, Ciihra (see baila), f. cucoi. 

dhamnS, husband. 

gaddi, plaintiff or defendant (see 
ciirdwa) . 

gaim, thief (cf. Qasai word gaimb 
or gaimbd (see baut). 

gajeta, non-Iowcaste boy. 
gajeti, non-lowcaste girl, 
golia, Cuhra, /. gollaa (see baiJd). 
kajja, J at, /. kajji (English 

codger ? See kheta). 
kaka, father's younger brother, 
kaki, wife of preceding. 



kheta, Jat, /. kheti (see kajjd). 
kinia, khattri (see bitri). f. kiniani. 

kumbhla, potter ( Urdu /c/tm/u//). 

/. kumbhlani. 
mauti, mother, 
munchi, wiiter, &c. 
munda, boy (see horn). 
mundi, girl (.see bori). 
naithi, barber (Urdu ndl). 
neokla, nekla, boy (see born). 
neokli, nekli, girl (see hori). 

nikki, little girl (see bori; and 
nthd in VIII). 

n5kh, Ciihra, /. nokhni (see bailn). 
phupha, father's sister's husband. 
pUtt, son. 

tli5ka, carpenter (cf. Paiijabi 
thdknd, to hammer). 

II.— Animals. 

balea, cat (accent on la.st syllable), 
/. baleai (see gaunn, kuned). 

bhukal, dog, /. bhukli (seekiitn), 
possibly onomatopoetic. 

chabra, m. goat, /. chahri. 

culkna, m. cock, /. culkni. 

dhebra, m. cat, /. dhebri. 

dofa, m. iyuana, /. doph (Pjiiijabi 
goh); dofn, hikan, jhandn and 
sirsd, are names of different 
kinds of iguana. 

edri, /. sheep. 

gaddar, m. jackal, /. gaddap. 

gauna, m. cat, ass. (See baled,). 

hikan, m. kind of iguana (see dof^)- 



92 



Glossary of Sasi Words. 



jaggar, m. feeble, poor animal 

(ciittle) alive or dead, used by 

Culiras of dead cattle, 
jhabbar m. jackal, 
jlianda, m, kind of iguana (Panjabi 

jhandaul, see dofa). 
jhau, TO. bedgeliog, /. jhaihii. 
kabra, m. goat, /. kabri. 
kaijgal, m. bull; /. kaijgli {^eelaud). 
khimat, /. buffalo, 
kiidra, horse ; /. kudri. 
kukar, m. cock ; /. kukkri. 
kuiiei, m. cat (accent on last 

syllable, see baled). 

kiita, dog ; /. kiiti (see hhiikal). 

lalsi, /. cow (see laud). 

laud, lauda, bull ; /. laudi (see 
kdrjgal, lalsi). 

nokb, m. mongoose, /. nokhni. 
sirsa, in. kind of iguana, /. sirsi 
(Panjabi hatjgird, see dofd). 

tandli, m. louse (see tusU). 

thUb, m. camel. 

tiinda, m. pig, 

tusli,/. louse (see td^idli). 

III.— Parts of the Body. 

[In this list h stands for human, a for 
animal, b for both human and animal, 
according as the words refer to the parts 
of the human body or the parts of ani- 
mals, generally cattle.] 

atts, /. pi. entrails (b). If the 
entrails are cut up into pieces 
each piece is called att, f. 

bahapa, foreleg (a), 
banda, penis (6). 
bandi, vagina (6). 

bapeandar, /. anus with adjoining 

parts (a). 
bellar, m. skin (a), 
bet, m. skin (a). 

caura, m. hind leg (a), used also 
by Cuhras. 



dhuddi, /. pelvis with flesh 
attached. 

dokla, m. woman's breast. 

gandd, /. anus. 

gauna, )». hollow place in throat 
formed by practice where small 
coins are concealed (word used 
also by gamblers). 

kagar, /. spine (a). 

gicli, /. knee-joint with flesh at- 
tached (a; used also by Cuhras). 

kanheri, /. clavicle with flesh 
attached (a). 

kanna, m. back of neck (a), Ciihra 
kaund. 

karoH, /. breast (a), 
khum, m. face (h ; perhaps mukh 
inverted). 

khura, m. lower half of leg (a), 
krumbli, /. scapula with flesh 
attached (a). [Cuhras. 

mohra, »». breastbone (a), used by 

patri,/. lower part of back (a). 

ramba, m. scapula with flesh 
attached ( a). 

rukra, TO. kidney (6), Cuhra rukrd. 

sammi, /. lower part of back (a) . 

tambla, to. woman's breast. 

tenda, to. coccyx with flesh at- 
tached (a). 

IV.-Pood. 

bagOUe, m. pi. gram. 

bass, /. boiled fat. 

bera, m. meat. 

cai, m. water. 

cumbli,/. rice (in the husk). 

dhandha, m. carrion. 

dhuUa. m. gur (coarse sugar). 

kanji, /. soup. 

khissii, khisu, /. wheat. 

khupp, TO. salt. 

kunj, /. wheat. 



Glossary of Sasi Words. 



93 



kurkni, /. maize {kukhri in various 
hill dialects. See Simla and 
Camba dialects ; also dialects in 
JammS State sucli as Bhadra- 
wahi). 

raijii,/. unboiled fat (Cuhra minj). 

paijgat, m. ghi (claiified butter). 

raiqk, m. meat. 

tandal, m. rice. 

tandli, /. straw. 

taphle, m. pL, fodder. 

tasli,/- bread. 

timi,/. bread. [see next word). 

tugra, 111. food (Panjabi tnkra 

tiik, m. food. 

tusle, m. fl. barley. 

wassal, m. onion. 

V. — Common Nouns. 

atthar, m. quilt (placed below the 
sleeper). [dialects. 

ba, /. wind. Of. various hill 
bai, /. word, matter (Urdu hat), 

abuse (Urdu gall), see gappni. 
bagela, m. half a pice. [bit. 

bageli, /. eight annas, eight-anna 

balua, m. rupee (see chill, lahha, 
ruknn ) . 

badewela, m. early morning. 

bena, m. shallow brass vessel ( Pan- 
jabi channa). 

binda, m. ordeal. Two kinds of 
ordeal are common. According 
to one the persons concerned 
dive into water or hold their 
heads under water. The one 
who stays under longer is 
deemed to have rig:ht on his 
side. According to the other a 
pice and a rupee are hidden in 
different lumps of dough. The 
truth lies on the side of the one 
who draws the rupee. 

bindi,/. ear ornament, ear-drop. 

bogmS, /. wealth. 



hurkiia. »i. hiKiqa, as(>d also by 
Qasais an.l Cuhras, cf. t^arablers, 
bnrkfl. 'V\\e word is onoraato- 
poetic (see togna). 

carawi, /. wages given to carawa, 
q. v. [. 

caughli, /. four annas, four-anna 
bit. 

chaggi, /. piece of stick about a 
foot and a half long, with a poi- 
soned needle at the end, used for 
poisoning other people's cattle 
with a view to securing the flesh 
and skin: (see daUtj, ffoU, lakri, 
teari, fhlma) a word used by 
Cuhras. 

chik,/. sneeze (see chikna VII). 

chill, m. rupee (see halun), cf, gam- 
blers' word chillar, Panjabi chill. 

daut, m, early morning. 

daftti, /. same as chaggi, q.v., ex- 
cept that the stick is only a 
couple of inches long. 

dhama, m. village. 

dho, w. rupee paid by each party 
on beginning a Sssi law case, 
(see caraivd in I). 

dhormi, /. two annas, two-anna bit. 

dhumk, /. bad smell. 

dokla, m. pice. 

gl, TO. village. (Urdu gSB). 

gappni, /. word, matter (Urdu 
bat), abuse (Urdii gali), see hai. 

gedi, /. instrument for carding 
cotton (Panjabi jhamnt). 

goli, /. poison, used chiefly for 
putting into the food of culti- 
vators' cattle (used by Cuhras). 

guliiba, m. tobacco. 

jiwi,/. land. 

karjgri, /. movable mud fire-place. 

khahta, m. way. 

khat, /• bed (khaf in Kashmiri, 

Punchi, Kairali, Doda Siraji, 

Bhadiawahi), 



94 



Glossary of SUsi Words. 



khaula, m. house. 

khludh, /. quilt used, to cover the 
sleeper. 

khunta, m. iron and wood instru- 
ment for digging. 

kohd, m. large silver circle for the 
neck (see kuhdi). 

koka, m. sign, 

kondh, m. dark half of lunar 
month, i.e., from about the 22nd 
of one lunar month to the 7th of 
the next. 

kothli, /. tobacco pouch. 

kua, well (w pronounced very long, 
see riia XIV). 

kSdhi, /. earthenware cooking pot 
(Panjiibi taart or handi). 

kudra, m. earthenware waterpot 
(Urdu ghard). 

kudri, /. load of sheaves of corn, 

&c. (Panjabi bharl). 
kuhdi, /. small silver circle for 

neck (see kohd.) 
labba, m. rupee (see balud). 
lakri, /. cattle-stabbing instrument. 

same as cluiggl, q.v. 

lalli, /. night, c/. Arabic laila. 

lamkna, m. earring. (Panjabi 
lamTcna, hang). 

leokri,/. wood (Urdu lakri). 
nahd, in. village. 

natt, /. load of grain, &c. (Panjabi 
pand). 

naStha, m. name. 

netri, /. sword. 

pagg, /. turban. 

pauhni, /. shoe (Punchi paw^a). 

phal, m. house-breaking jemmy, 

(see tombu). 
pirl, m. oil. 
piijgi, /. fire, 
ricj-a, m. cloth, 
rukna, m. rupee (see halud). 



sair, /. legal statement made by 
plaintiif or defendant previous 
to the advocate (see caratoa in I). 

sutthan, /. kind of baggy trousers, 
Panjabi sutthan. 

tear!,/, poison given to cattle (see 

chaggi), a word used also by 
Cuhras. 

thima, m. poison given to cattle 
("see chaggi), used by Culiras. 

tohgna, m. huqqa (see burkna ; 
tohgna in VII). 

tombu, m. house-breaking jemmy 
(used also by Cuhjas) ; see phal. 

VI.— Abstract Nouns. 

bauti, /. theft (see baut in I) ; 
used by Cuhras. 

berasi, /. injustice ( see ras) ; used 
by Qalandar. [^laggna). 

chok, /. police inquiry (with 

gaimi,/. theft (see gaim in I) ; used 

by Cuhras, cf. Qasai gaimbi, 
jadda, m. cold, (cf. Outer Siraji 

dzadau, JJrdujard). 

jat,y. justice, judgment (see rds). 

piijgi, /. following up a thief. 

ras, /. justice, judgment (see 
berdsi, jdt), used by Qalandar. 

sata, /. thirst (accent on second 
syllable). 

saihl, /. legal warning or notice 
generally verbal (see carawa 
in I). 

VII.-Verbs. 

asarna, corae (Urdu ann). 

bagna, flow (Urdu bahnd). 

baisna, sit (Urdu baithnd). 

binkna, run. 

chekna, ostracise, outcaste. 

cekufna, seize. 

chegguna, ask for, demand. 



Glossary of SS,si Words 



95 



chikna, sneeze (see chlk. V,). 

cilapna, walk, go. 

culkna, speak. 

chodna, leave (Urdu chornd). 

dauna, enter, place (in latter sense 

equivalent of Urdu dalnn). 
dimna, eat (see dutnd). 

ditha, past part. seen. (Panjabi 
ditthd). 

dutna, eat (see dimna). 
gauhgna, go, pa. p. gauhga, gone, 
gum kulna, keep quiet (see kulnd, 
natthi kulna). [lost). 

gumana, conceal (Persian gum, 
jasarna, go. (Urduy^na). 

khinsna, run away. 

khimna, weep. 

khona, open : Urdii kholnd. 

khusarna, laugh. 

kukna, accuse, inform'about, ' peach.' 

kulna, do (used by Ciihras). 

loaa, beat, kill (cf. Cuhra lothnn, 
Kashmiri Idyun). 

lugua, die (used by Ciihras). 

natthi kiilna, keep quiet (see kulnd, 
gum- kulnd). 

naukhna, see, look. 

pagarna, seize. {Urdu pakarnd). 

pinagaa, run away. 

podna, have sexual intercourse 

with (Urdu eodna). 
pudana, cause to have sexual 

intercourse with. 

retna, cut. 

siyya, was, /. si, pi. siyye, /. siyyg 
(see thlyyd; cf. Panjabi si). 

tauna, fall, lie ; it also enters into 
composition with the sense of 
Panjabi paind. 

thekuna, conceal in ground, bury. 

thiyya, was, /. thi, pi. thiyye, 
/. thiyyS (see siyyd) . A similar 
form is found in many hill 
dialects. 



tohgna, drink (.see iohqnd in V). 
nthna, rise, get up. (Urdii ntlind). 

VIII.- Adjectives, Pronouns. 

buddlia, old. 

dhor, two. 

ea, this (Urdii yih). 

hau, I (/m«, nn or hv. is found in 
many hill dialects and also in 
Rajasthan. See Introduction 
above). 

ja^a, big. 

kai, something, anything. 

mhara, our. See Introduction. 

nika, small (see nikki in I, which, 
it is to be noted, is not nikl). 

tam, you (Urdu turn ; for ive ham 
is used as in Urdu). 

taS, thou. 

ther, three. 

tiarga refers to the thing under 
discussion, when plainer reference 
is not desired. It takes the 
gender and number of the word 
indicated. It may be translated 
' the thing or person we are speak- 
ing of.' 

tuhara, your. See Introduction. 

IX.— Adverbs, Prepositions, 
Interjections, 

age, yes. 

bai, hush! 

bhi, again (it is noteworthy that 

this word is found in this sense 

in Inner Siraji). 

bice, in. Found in many dialects. 

dua hoti, expression of greeting 
and farewell, probably contract- 
ed from the words for ' there is 
prayer,' and meaning ' may there 
be prayer for thee,* ' peace be to 
thee.' 

etthe, Stthi, here. See Introduc- 
tion. 



96 Glossary of S&s't Words. 

ettho, hence. ma, in. 

ettho tikar, up to here. nU, there. 

ida, thus. otthe,otthi, there. See Introduction. 

iw, iwke, now. ottho, thence. 

jare, where (relative). See Intro- ottho tikar, up to there. 

ducfcion. satlitha, than (used like Urdu se). 

kad, when ? talhg, down, below {talU in Gujur 

kare , where ? and Tinauli). 
kida, why. 



i 



GLOSSARY OF DISGUISED SANSI WORDS 



Note. — In this Glossary P. stands for Panjabl. 



X.-People. 

binds, Hindn. 

bappta, bapp (q.v., I), father. 

biwar, P. jbiur, water-carrier, &c. 

bunyara, P. sunyara, goldsmith 

charai, P. machi, name of a caste 
whose chief function is water- 
carrying. 

chattu, bhattu, Sasi (see bhattu 
in I). 

chatani, female of chattu. 
comi, moci, shoemaker, 
dhuraalman, Musalman. 
gupahi, sipahi. 
kodmi, iidmi, man. 
nahb, sahib, European. [or. 

nhanedar, thanedar, police inspect- 
nhauhra, P. sauhra ; father-in-law, 
ranjar, P. kanjar, a low Muham- 
madan caste. 

XI.— Animals. 

bahn, P. sabn, breeding animal 

(horse, donkey, bull), 
beadha, P. sandha, male buffalo, 
chaihr or chaihra, P. waihfa, calf. 

1 chukal, bhukal (q.v., II) dog, cf. 
Gipsy jukel. 
ratta, P. katta, young baffalo. 

XII.— Parts of the Body. 

kills, P. sis, head (see uhis). 
khotb, hath, hand. 
kSkkh, P. akkh, eye. 
kukkhi, P. akhkhi, eye. 



nair, pair, foot. 

net, pet, stomach. 

nhir, sir, head, 

nhis, P. sis, head (see khis). 

jafidhre, P. jau, barley. 

XIII.-Food. 

kotta, ata, flour, 
nholle, ch5lle, gram, 
nuk, tuk (q.v., IV), food. 

XIV. — Common Nouns. 

barlathi, lathi, stick. 

baunna, sona, gold. 

bendia, P. jandra, lock. 

chanda, P. bhanda, household 

vessel, 
chuha, buha, door, 
coli, boli, speech, language, 
konna, P. anna, anna, 
kundi, P. handi, cooking pot. 
kurji, 'arzi, complaint in law. 
kuti, P. hatti, shop, 
nadhuk, sandiiq, box. 
nagg, pagg, turban, 
naihr, shahr, city, 
naisa, paisa, pice, 
naki, P. taki, cloth, 
nalli, lalli, night, 
narat, P. parat, brass vessel, 
nhali, P- thali, brass vessel, 
nhana, thana, police station, 
nikat, tikat, ticket, 
nohal, P. boha], heap of grain. 



98 



Glossary of Disguised Sdsi Words. 



ii5mbu, tombu, house-breaking in- 
strument. 

iliat, khat (q.v., V.), bed. 
, runji, kunji, key. 
\ rua, kua, well {n pronounced very 

XV.— Abstract Nouns. 

banh, P. sanh, house-breaking. 

kharji, marzi, will, pleasure. 
, nliitta, P. phitta, abuse. 
I aiori, cori, theft. 

khajanat, zamanat, surety. 

XVI.— Verbs. ( 

' chatana, bataua, show, tell. 

colna, bolna, speak. 

depna, dena, give. 

hopna, bona, be, become. 

kauhgna, kahna, say. [out. 

khigalna, nikalna, go out, come 

khikkhna, likhna, write. 

lepna, lena, take. 
I narhna, parbna, read. 

nhikhaa, sikhna, learn. 

rihodna, chodna (q.v., VII), leave- 

nuchna, puchna, ask, 

raubgna, lahna, remain, 

rekbvvana, rakbna, place, 

XVII.— Adjectives, Pronouns. 

bea, ea (q.v., VIII), this (h is pre- 
fixed throughout the declension), 
bek, ek, one. 

boh, P. oh, that (h is prefixed 

throughout the declension), 
caug, car, four, 
ceggua, P. caqga, good, etc. 
chauht, bahut, much, many, 
jhukha, bhukha, hungry, 
jihrga, P. jihra, which (relative). 



kharaju, P. >aji, Urdurazi, willing, 
pleased, in good health. 

khas, das, ten. 

khassi, assi, eighty. 

khaS, nau, nine. 

khawwe, nawwe, ninety. 

kihrga, P. kihra, which ? 

khika, nika (q.v., VIII), small. 

khis, bis, twenty. 

kodha, adha, half. 

koth, ath, eight. 

merga, mera, my, mine. 

mharga, mhara (q.v., VIII), our, 
ours. 

nacc, pane, five. 

uali, P. call, forty. 

nanj, panj, five. 

nanjah, P. panjah, fifty. 

uhakka, sakka, relative, e.g. sakkn 
bhauta, full brother. 

nhara or nharga, sara, all. 
nhatt, P. satt., seven, 
nhattar, sattar, seventy, 
nhatth, P. satth, sixty, 
nhau, .sau, hundred, 
nhe, P. che, six. 
nhik, thik, right, correct, 
terga, tera, thy, thine, 
tuharga, tuhara, (q.v., VIII), your, 
yours. 

XVIII.— Adverbs, Prepositions, 
Interjections. 

betthe, betthi, etthe, etthi (q.v., 
IX), liere. 

bettho, ettlio (q.v., IX), hence. 

biw, biwke, iw, iwke (q.v., IXj, 
now. 

botthe, bottlii, 5tthe, otthi, (q.v., 
iX), there. 

bottho, ottho (q.v., IX), thence. 

chahar, bahar, outside. 

chalak, P. bhalak, to-moi^row. 



Glossary of Disguised Suai Words. 99 

duhangi, duhai, lit. appeal, used as koj, aj, to-day. 

au expressio.i of "su.-prise or kugg§, P. agge, in front, befo.e. 

horror. , , j • -j 

, , _ _ , kiindar, andar, inside, 

khupar, upar, above, up. ~ ~ ^ n. . 

,- . 1 P , narso, parso, day after to- morrow 

kliupa.-a, upar se, from above. or day before yesterday, 

koi^gi, koi, anyone, someone. ^ath, sath, with. 



APPENDIX. 



It seems advisable to include in an appendix some words which I 
have not been able to verify. The first list is taken from a very inter- 
esting leport on Vagrant Sisis published in 1896 by Mr. H. L. Williams, 
0. S. P. From the fact that my Sasi friends do not recognise the words, 
I conclude tliat they must be words used by the Bhedghut, who are very 
vicious in their habits and seem to have secret words not known to other 
Sssis. I give the words exactly as they appear in the report. There 
are veiy few diacritical marks : — 



bogna, danger, 
bola, father. 

chaukuni, four-anna bit. 
chepri, cloth, 
chhangriya, brass vessel, 
chhekia, cow. 
chhipri, pice, 
chilakni, nose-ring, 
chiwar, policeman, 
dhagun, bangle, 
hat, eight, 
jhandla, utensil, 
khapla, salt, 
khumna, rupee, 
kukiya, cock, 
manuka, salt, 
mat, mother, 
materi, woman, 
nakauni, nose-ring, 
namalta, meat. 



nanj, nine, 
nilian, gold mohurs. 
nohal, house-breaking instru- 
ment, 
nojna, gold, 
parausi, master. 
rabdi, sister, 
rakhia, sheep, 
rupya, cloth, 
sagla, pot. 
sekhiya, policeman, 
seth, gram, 
sipri, rice, 
takna, workman, 
tapgi, turban, 
thangia, brother, 
thangna, arrest, 
tonga, rupee. ^ 
tora, liquor, 
tshukr, dog. 



The following words, which I cannot recognise, are found in a MS. 
list compiled in 1905, by Kishan Cand, Sub-Inspector of Police, Sial- 
kot. 



chipya, sheet, 
sarat, pillow. 



thengan, bangle, 
thoya, old. 



PANGWALI [Paijgwali.] 

The following notes have been compiled from two manuscripts. 
I have not had an opportunity of making a firsthand study of 
Paggwali. 

Nouns. 

Masculine. 
Nouns in — a. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. '' ghor-a, horse -e 

G. -e -e 

D.A. -e di or je -e di or je 

L. -e bice, Sfc. -e bice ^c. 

Ab. -e kana -e kana 

Ag. -e -e 

Usage appears to vary in the case of raasc. nouns with other 
endings. They add -e for Gen. and Ag., but generally do not other- 
wise inflect. There is, however, a locative in -e, thus tes dese, in that 
country. 

hah, hau, father, has G. habbe, baue, &c. 







Feminine. 




N. 




kui, girl 


kui 


G. 




kui or kiiia 


,, or kiiia 


D.A. 




kui 


kui 


L. 




„ bice 


„ bice 


Ab. 




„ kana 


,, kana 


Ag. 




kui 


kui 


Fem. nouns in a 


consonant appear to inflect by adding -I ; thus 


pitth, back ; pitthl pu 


tth, on the back ; hlien 


sister ; hhenl di, to a 


sister. 


« 








Pkonouns. 






1st 


Sing. 
2nd 3rd 


eh, this. 


N. 


aG 


tii se, oh 


eh 


G. 


man 


tan tese, use 


i.se 


D.A. 


mo di 


tan di tes di, us 


di is di 



102 Pang wait. 

L, mo bice tau bice tes bice, its bice is bice 

Ab. mo kana tau kana tes kana, us kana is kana 
Ag, me tai, te teni, un! in! 

Plur. 



N. 


as, as 


tus, tub 


oh 


eh 


G. 


hen 


tahn 


unkea 


inkea 


D.A. 


as di 


tus di (?) 


un di 


in di 


L. 


as bice 


tus bice (?) 


un bice 


in bice 


Ab. 


as kana 


tus kana (?) 


un kana 


in kana 


Ag. 


ase, as 


tuse, tiih, tus 


unh 


inh 


^'or rf?, to, 


Je is also 


used. 






Ofclier pi 


'onouns are 


kas, who ? 


G. Tease 


Ag. kini 






je who, 


G. jise 


Ag. jim 



M, what; kicch, sometliing, anything; jehicch, whatever; sahh, 
all. 

In Par)gwali the lattery tends to become dz and is often so pro- 
nounced. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives used as nouns are declined as nouns ; otherwise they 
are indeclinable except those in -a, which have obi. masc, sing, -e, 
plur, masc. -e, fem. sing, and plur. -f. 

Demonstrative. Collective. Interrogatwe. Relative. 

ana, like this, tana, like that kana, like what ? jana, like which 
attru, so much tattru, so much kattru, how much jattru, as much 
or many or many. or many or many. 

Most adjectives can be used as adverbs. The following is a list of 
tlie most important adverbs other than adjectives : — 



Time. , 

abe, now pasur, day after to-morrow 

tikhan, then coth, day after that 

kikhan, when ? hi, yesterday 

jikhan, dzikhan, when pare, day before yesterday 

piir, to-morrow coth, day befoi'e that 



Panywali. 10;» 



Place. 



iri, here bunh, ure, down 

uri, there nir, near 

kori, where 'f dur, far 

jeri, dzeri, where agar, in front 

iri tikar, up to here pata, behind 

itthi kana, from here aiitar, inside 

baih, up bbarilh, outside 

Others are kis, why ?; hi, yes'; neJn, no; jugti, well ; utaulu (adj.) 
quickly. 



Prepositions. 

The commonest prepositions have been indicated in the declou-siun 
of nouns and pronouns. The same word is frequeutly both a preposition 
and an adverb. 

par, beyond putth, upon 

war, on this side kem, along with 

par, beneath 



Verbs. 
Auxiliary. 
Pres. asa asa asa ase ase ase 
Fern, asi 

as, indecl. and sd, are also found for asa ; and for the 3rd 
sing, and plur. we also notice ahi. 
Past sing. mas. thiya, fern, thi, plur. thiye, thi. 

Intransitive. 
bish^a, sit, remain. 
Put. bish-S or -al -al -al -el -el -el 

Imper. bish 

Past Cond. or 

Pres. Ind. bish-ta fern, -tl pi. -te feni. -ti 

Impf. Ind. bishtath fem. bishtith all through 

Past bitth-a fem. -i pi. -e fem. -1 

Part. hishtd, sitting ; bithora, in the condition of being 

seated ; bishnetvala, sitter or about to sit ; bishi 
kai, having sat. 
The regular past and stative past (not used) would be bishs, bishdra. 



104 Pungwali. 

The following show slight variations :- 

bhuna, become. 

Fut. bhol all through 

Imper. bho 
Past Cond. or 

Pres. Ind. bhuta 

Part. bhua 







ina, come. 


Fut. 


yal 




Imper. 


ai 




Pres, Ind. 


Ita 




Part. 


yaikat^ 


having come ; yor or yora, in the condi- 




tion of having come. 






ghena, go. 


Fut. 


ghel 




Impel . 


ga^ 


ghe 


Pres. Ind. 


gheta 




Past 


ga 


fem. gei 


Part. 


ghal km 


", having gone ; gayora, in the condition 




of having gone. 






Transitive. 



The regular transitive verb is conjugated like bishna, having, how- 
ever, a regular past, which agrees with the object as in Urdu. The 
following show slight differences : — 

mana, beat. 

Fut. maral pi. marel 

Pres. Ind, mata 

Past mara. 

Part. manewdlci, beater, about to beat ; tnarora, in the 

condition of having been beaten. 

khana, eat. 
Past khau 

pina, drink. 
Past piii 



Pangwidi. 105 









dena, give. 


Fat. 




dia 




Pres. 


Ind. 


deta 




Past 




ditta 


nenu, take. 


Put. 




nel 




Pres. 


Ind. 


net:! 




Past 




niS 


kanu, do. 


Pres. 


Ind. 


kata 




Past 




kijt 


bujna, know 


Past 


y; 


buddhu 



9 

ghini ghena, take away, is like ghena. 

One of the MSS. has a Fiit. in -la, thus ghe-ld, f. ~ll, plur. -le, and 
has an interesting form in -n for the 2nd plur. fut., thus mdran, you 
will beat, reminding us of the -n which appears in the 2nd, 3rd plur. 
fut. in Padari. 

The omission of the r from some of the tenses of the verbs for beat 
and say, manaand kana, is noteworthy. Compare also henu, see ; hand, 
be defeated ; panhd (?) read, which in other dialects would be herna 
hdrna, parhna. The same feature is found in Curahi mdnu, beat 
kdhnu, do (p. 32). 

The infinitive ends in -a or -u or -u. 





Numerals. 


1 yak. 


11 — yahra. 


2— dni. 


12 — balira. 


3— tlai. 


13— tehra. 


4 — caur. 


14 — -caudha 


5 — pan] . 


15 — -pandra. 


6— che. 


16 — shodha 


7— satt. 


17 — satara. 


8— atth. 


18 — athara. 


9 — naS. 


19 — unnih. 


10— dash. 


20— bih. 



The people probably count by scores and do not use the separate 
numbers between 20 and 100 (sau). With shodha, sixteen, compare 
Padari shordih. 



106 



F any wall. 



Common Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives. 



bab, bau, father. 

ijji, mother. 

bhau, brother (older than 

speaker.) 
bhai, brother (younger than 

speaker. ) 
deddi, sister (older than 

speaker.) 
bhain, sister (younger than 

speaker.) 
koa, son. 

kui, kuri, daughter, 
ghareth, husband, 
jolli, dzolli, wife, 
mahnu, mard, man. 
jelhanu, woman, 
koa, boy. 
kui, girl, 
gual, cowherd, 
puhal, shepherd. 



ghora, horse, 
ghori, mare. 



lind, ox. 
ga, cow. 
bhai, buffalo, 
bakru, he-goat, 
bakri, she-goat, 
bhed, sheep, 
k attar, dog. 
kuttri, bitch, 
rikkh, black bear, 
bhrabbu, red bear, 
kukkar, cock, 
kukkri, hen. 
balar, cat (male), 
balari, „ (female), 
pakhrii, bird, 
ill, kite, 
sagal, fox. 
hathi, elephant. 



hatth, hand. 

khur, foot 

nakh, nose. 

tir, eye. 

.shund, far. 

asi, mouth. 

dand, tooth. 

kann, ear. 

kes, hair. 

kupal, head. 

magar, head. 

jibh, tongue. 

peth. stomach 

dheddh, „ 

pitth, back 

sarir, body, 

pothi, book. 

katab, ,, 

kalam, pea. 

manja, bed. 

gih, house. 

darya, river. 

gaddri, stream, 
joth, dzoth, hill, 
shappar, „ 

paddhar, plain, 
bag, field, 
roti, bread, 
pani, water. 
giSh, wheat, 
kukkri, maize, 
but, till, 
gira, village, 
saihr, city, 
ban, forest, 
macchi, fish, 
batt, way. 
phal, fruit, 
mas, meat, 
duddh, milk. 



PangwaU. 



107 



andheru, e^^. 

ghiu (accent on first), tjhi. 

tel, oil. 

cha, buttermilk. 

din, day. 

rat, night. 

des, sun. 

surj, „ 

josan, raoon. 

purneo, „ 

tara, star. 

bat, bat, wind. 

megh, i^ain. 

barkhea, ,, 

dhupp, sunshine. 

near, storm. 

bharotu, load. 

bhara, „ 

baiju, seed. 

luha, iron. 

khara, good, beautiful, clean. 

bura, bad. 

badda, big. 

mathra, small. 

dhilla, lazy. 

takra, wise. 

giciggar, ignorant. 

utaula, swift. 

painna, sharp. 

ucca, high. 

alagga, ugly. 

thanda, cold. 

garm, hot. 

raittha, sweet. 

tear, ready. 

thora, little. 

mata, much. 



bhuna, be, become, 
ina, come, 
ghena, go. 

bishuna, sit, remain, 
neua, take, 
kharabhuna, stand, 
henu, see. 
khana, eat. 
pina, drink, 
bolna, speak, say. 
sona, sleep, 
kana, do. 
mana, beat, 
paryanna, recognise, 
bujna, know, 
pujna, arrive, 
nashna, run. 
nashi ghgna, run away, 
banana, make, 
sikkhna, learn, 
panha (?) read, 
likkhna, write, 
marnu, die. 
sunnu, hear, 
phirna, turn, 
pheri ina, return, 
jhagarna, quarrel, 
jitnu, win. 
hana, defeated, 
baiju phataa, sow. 
haljocna, plough, 
khalana, cause to eat. 
piwana, cause to driuk. 
shunana, cause to bear, 
carna, graze, 
carana, cause to graze. 



1. Tan nau ki ahi (asa) ? What is thy name ? 

2. Is ghore katri umar ahi ? How much is this horse's age ? 

.3. Iriya (itthan) Kashmir katru dur ahi (asa, ^c.)? From here 
how far is Kashmir ? 



108 Pangwali. 

4. Talm babbe (bawe) gih katre koi ahi ? In your fathei^'s 
bouse bow many sons are ? 

5. Au ajj bara duva hantba. 1 to-day from very far walked. 

6. Man kakke (or jetbe baue) koa use bbeni dzoi dzsdzi kiyori 
abi. My uncle's son bas married his daugbter. 

7. Gib (ghiye )baccbe gbore katbi abi (asi). In tbe house is the 
white horse's saddle ? 

8. Use pitthi puttb katbi la. Put tbe saddle on its back. 

9. MaT use koa mate kutta. I beat his boy much. 

10. Oh jot puttb gai bakri carata lagora abi. He on the hill is 
grazing cows and goats. 

11. Oh bute par ghore puttb bithora abi. He under the bill on 
a horse is seated. 

12. Use bhai apan bbeni kana bara asa (ahi). His brother is 
bigger than his sister. 

13. Ise mull dhai rupayya asa (ahi). Tbe price of this is two 
and a half rupees. 

14. Man bab us mathre gib bishta abi. My father lives in that 
small bouse. 

15. Usdi eh rupayya d§. Grive him this rupee. 

16. Oh rupayye us kana ne. Take those rupees from him. 

17. Usdi jugti mari kai rajuri lai bannh. Having beaten him 
well tie him with ropes. 

18. Khiii kana pani kadh. Dr-aw water from the well ? 

19. Man agar agar hanth. Walk before me. 

20. Kase koa tan pate ita ? Whose boy comes behind thee ? 

21. Oh kas kana mulle gbina? From whom did you buy that ? 

22. GrrSe hatwani kana. From the shopkeeper of the village. 



Studies in 

Northern Himalayan Dialects. 



BY 

Rev. T. GRAHAME BAILEY, B.D., M.A. 
Wazirabad, Panjab. 



CALCUTTA : 

BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, 

1903. 

1-f 



PREFATORY NOTE. 

These Notes constitute an attempt to throw some li<'ht on the 
Northern Himalayan dialects, their connection with each other and 
their relation to other languages. They are framed throughout on the 
same model, a fact which will show more readily the agreement and 
difference of the dialects concerned. First comes Gujuri, and following 
it are eight dialects which are arranged roughly speaking in the order 
of their resemblance to Panjabi and unlikeness to Kashmiri. Conse- 
quently we begin with Pahari dialects from Hazara and the Murreo 
Hills and end with Kishtawari which is very like Kashmiri. It need 
hardly be pointed out that in calling them ' dialects ' I do not at all 
intend to prejudice the claim of some of them to be called 'languages.' 
Some of them are so widely different from the nearest recognised 
language as to be quite unintelligible to speakers of it. The following 
table gives the number of persons who in the Census of 1901 returned 
themselves as speaking the different dialects. Unfortunately most of 
the inhabitants of Punch returned themselves as speaking Panjabi, and 
Punch! is not represented. Similarly Dhundi or Kairali is not specifi- 
cally mentioned and only two speakers of Tinauli are returned. In 
reality Punch! is spoken by probably scores of thousands of persons and 
the other two dialects by considerable numbers. The number returned 
for Rarabani is obviously below the mai-k. 

Gujuri, Panjab and N.W.P. Province 7G,168 JammS and Kashmir 
126,849. 

Siraji 14,743; Kishtawari 12,078; Poguli 6,.351 ; Padarl 4,540; 
Rambani 359. 

As regards the system of Romanising hardly anything need bo said. 
The system is that of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. It should be noted 
that the sound of ch in child is represented by ' c' The aspirated ' c ' 
being ' ch.' ' eu ' is pronounced as in French, and 6 and ii as in German. 
In sh and zh, the s and z are sounded sepai^ately from the h, whereas in 
sh and zh they are sounded as in ' shout ' and the * z ' in azure or the 
French 'j.' The spelling is phonetic as far as possible; the Hindi 9 
and special Arabic letters such as t and s and others are unnecessary 
and are not used. Half vowels are represented by vowels written above 
the line. The fondness of Kashmiri and languages connected with it for 
ftpenthesis makes the Romanising of vowels very difficult ; in both this 
1 



case and in that of half vowels, I. have endeavoured to reduce rather 
than to increase the peculiar signs, and to Romanise in such a way as 
will most readily represent the sounds. 

The dialects or languages under review are fair samples of the 
speech of the Himalayas from Western Hazara to the East of JammS 
State. 

Students of Naipali (the chief language of Nepal) will be interested 
to note a number of points of resemblance between it and Rambani, 
Poguli, Kishtawari and even Siraji. That there should be some connec- 
tion between it and languages of the Panjabi type is perhaps less 
remarkable. 

I am deeply indebted to Mr. H. A. Rose, I.C.S., Superintendent of 
Census Operations, Pan jab, for the great interest he has taken in these 
' Studies ' and for his kindness in having them printed. 

T. Grahame Bailey. 
Waznahad, 
Dec. 6th, 1902. 



I 



QUJUEi. 



Gujuri presents an interesting liiigaistic phenomenon. It is very 
closely allied to the Mewari dialect of Rajasthani spoken in MSwar in 
Rajputana. I found Gujurs in Hazara and Gujurs in the wilds of central 
Kashmir speaking the same dialect, and yet Gujurs living in the plains 
of the Panjab, as for example in Gujrat district and GujrSwala 
disti-ict (to both of which they have given the name), speak Panjabl. 
By Panjabis the word ' Gujur ' is pronounced ' Gujar.' 

Gujuri as spoken by Gujurs in the Murree hills and the Galis 
near them. 

Masc. Sing, 
bapp, father 

ko, (f. ki, pi. ka, k?) 

na 

m§ or bice, in ; tarS up to, 

te 



Noun. 

N. 

G. 

D.A. 

Loc. 

Abl. 

Ag. 



PI. 
bapp 

bappS ko, (fee. 
&c. 



ne 



Nouns in 

N. 

Obl. 

N. 

Obl. 



-o, i Sing, 

ghor-o, horse 

-a „ 

adml, man 
» i» 



>» 



Plur. 

-a 

-S 

admi 

admiS. 



Like bapp are ajjar, flock ; par, stone. 

Like ghord are dhdko, hill, tayOf father's elder brother, patriyo 
father's younger brother, phupplio, father's sister's husband, mamo, 
mother's brother, masTo, mother's sister's husband. 

Feminine. 

Sing. PI. 

N. bakri, goat bakr! 

Obl. „ „ -iS. 

Note that clhl, daughter has dhle in the Nom. PI. otherwise fems. 
in -i are declined like bakri, e.g., gaftt, stone, bauhti, hride. 
In a consonant. 

Sing. PI. 

N. trimt, woman trimt -e 
Obl. 



j» 



n 



-S. 



So also behn, sister and others ending in a consonant, e.g., mhais, 
buffalo, bJied, sheep, haccur, mule ; ga, cow keeps ga in the plur. 

The postposition -ko, takes -ka in the oblique sing, but in certain 
prepositional expressions has -ke, e.g., ke nal, witli ; ke %vaste, forsake of, 
ke uppicr, above : -o indicates motion from, dilro, from far. 



Pronouns. 




Sing. 








1st Pers. 


2nd 


3rd 


yo — this 


N. 


ha 


t5 


6, oh (f. wJi) 


yo, (f. ya) 


G. 


mero 


tero 


usko 


isko 


D.A. 


mana 


tana 


usna 


isna 


Ag. 


m§ 


te 


usne 


isne 




Plur. 








ham 


tarn 


we 


ye 




mharo 


tharo 


unko 


inko 




hamna 


tamna 


unbS na 


inha na 




hamne 


tamne 


unhe 


inhe 



kd)b, who? obi. kis; jo, who, obi. jis ; kot, anyone, obi. kise ; kehro, 
which ?, jehro, which, declined regularly. 

kitno, how much or many ? it7io, so much or many, jitno, how 
much or many, regular. 
Adjectives. 

Adjectives in o, carjgd, good, mando, bad are declined like ghoro, 
their feminine caugt, mandi, like hakri, e.g., eklo, alone, khalo, standing, 
lammo, long, capro, broad, sajro, fresh. 

Adjectives ending in a consonant are not declined, eg,, hakh, 
separate, najor, ill. 
Comparison. No special forms for compar. and superl. car/go, good ; 

comp. better than this, is te caDg5; superl. best, = better than all 

sdre ta cango. The comp. is sometimes rendered with vmc, mice 

caugo — very good, i.e., more good. 
Ntcmerals. Counting by scores is usual, /re hi, sixty ; panja uppur 

tre bi, 65, panjci ghat tre bt, 65. 
Verb. 
Auxiliary. 

Pres. I am, &c. h3 or hou; ai or hai ; ai (hai) ; ha ; 6 (ho) ; ai (hai) or h§, 
Past. I was. tho (f. thi) thS tho tha (f. thi) tlia tha. 

Conjugation of marno, beat. 
Aorist. I may beat, I am beating, &c. mar -ft -e -e -S -6 e 
Fut. I shall beat. mar-figo -ego -ego -aga -oga -ega 

Imperat. beat. mar maro 

Cond. I should beat. mar-t6(f. ti) -to -to -ta, (f. t!) -ta -ta 



Pres. I am beating. mar-Q liofl or lie ; -e hoe ; ~e hoc ; -S lioS ; -o hob ; 

-§ hoe; 
Impt. I was „ „ tlio ( f . thi ) ; -e th5 ; -e tho ; -is tha (f . th!) ; -6 

tha ; -e tha ; 
Past. I beat, &c., agentive form of pronoun with marc hoS, which 

agrees with the object, fom. mnri ai, pi. m. marcii hue., f. mnri he. 
Participles, pres. marto, past mare, having beaten = widr/ce. 
Passive, pa. p. mare (which is unchanged throughout) with various tenses 

of jauno, go, e.g., mare jaUgo, I shall be beaten, mare gea, wo, 

&c., were beaten. 
Jduno. go. 

Aorist. jaS, &c., fut. jaSgo, imp. ja. 
Past. ge-o -o -o -a -a -a 

Parts, jato, geo, jake. 

With the exception of the tenses from the pa. p. the tenses are 
formed like mdrnd. In intransitive verbs the 1st s. past, adds ^ to tho 
pa. p. ; geo from geo, fureo from (ureo, walk, hdreo from hdreo, be tired. 

In Gujuri the aorist is frequently used f(ir the Pres. 

The following common verbs have irregular pa. pp. lend, take, llyo, 
karno, do, kio, deno, give ditto, auno, come dyo, hdno become hud or ho. 

The Prodigal Son. 
Ekun admi ka do put tha, te nikka ne apna bapp na keho. 
One man of two sons were and little by own father to was-said 

ai bajl tera mal ko mero hisso oh mana de te usne apno 
O father thy property of my part that to me give and by-him own 

mal unha bice band ditto, te thorn diharS picchc nikka 
property them in dividing was-given, and few days after little 

put ne sab kattho kar ditto, te dur milkh bice cale geo 
son by all together making was given and far countiy in going went 

te us ja usne apno mal lucpun^ mS kharab kar 

and that place by him own property licentiousness in bad making 

chureo; jia bele saro kharc kar chureo us milkh bice 
was-lef t ; what time all spent making was-left that country in 

dahdo kaht pai geo, te oh taijg hon laggo, te us 
severe famine falling went and he straitened to be began and that 

milkh ka kise rihonhala kol rahgeo usne apni zamiu 

country of some dweller near remaining went by-him own land 

zanaur carun de calayo, jehri shilr! zanaur khaS tha, oh 
animals to feed giving was sent what husks animals eating were he 



cahe tho ki inliS nal ha apno, dhiddh bharft, te koi 
wishing was that these with I own stomach may fill and anyone 

usna nih dee tho, jis bele hosh bice ayo apna dil na 
to him not giving was, what time sense in came own heart to 

kihon laggo mera bapp ka kitna mazur hg jehra 

to say began my father of how many labourers are who 

rajke roti khae, te hS peo is ja bhukkhS marS hi. 

being satisfied bread eat and I fallen this place hungry dying am. 

H3 uthke apna bapp k5le calSgo te usna kah^o 

I having arisen own father near will go and to him will say 

Baji me ghuuah kio, Khuda ko te tero, tero put keh5n 
Father by-me sin was done God of and thine, thy son to say 

jogo n!h reho, mana apn§ mazurS jeha bana, te cale5 
worthy not I-remained, me own labourers like make and he went 

te apna bapp kol ayo, iccur oh dur tho uska bapp ne 
and his father near came, that-time he far was his father by 

usna hereo, te usna rehm ayo, te daurke galh nal 
to him was seen and to him pity came and running neck with attaching 

la liyo, te piyar ditto. Put ne bapp na keho Baji 

was taken and love was given. Son by father to was said Father 

ml ghunah kio Khuda ko te tero, tero put kShoii jogo 
by me sin was done God of and thine, thy son to say worthy 

nih rSlio. Bapp ne nokar§ na keho belo caqgS te 

not I remained. Father by servants to was said quickly good from 

caijgo kapro le ao te uska galh luao 

good garment taking come and his neck (on) cause-to-be-attached 

te uski aijgli nal aqguthi luao te uska pair nal 

and his finger with ring cause-to-be-attached and his foot with 

chittur luao te paleo ho bacchS leake 

shoes cause-to-be-attached and kept calf having brought 

koho te khS te khushi kar§ ki mer5 yo put mar 

kill and we may eat and happiness make, for my this son dead 

geo tho hun ji geo, gum geo tho hun tha geo, te 

gone was now living went, lost gone was now being-found went and 

we khushi karun lagga. Usko baro put zimi bice tho, 

they happiness to make began. His big son land in was 



jis bele ghar ke nere ayo baja ko t6 naccan ko waz 

what time bouse of nearness came instrument of and dancing of voice 

sunSo, fir ekun nokar na bulake pucchSo ye ke 

was heard, then one servant having called was asked these wlmt 

gal hog, te usne usna kgho tero bhai aggd, te tera 
matters are and by him to him was said thy brother came and thy 

bapp ne baccho paleo ho koh chureo ki usna carjgo bhald 
father by calf kept killing was-left for to-him well sound 

tha geo te oh khafe huo te andar ii!h jae tho, te 

being-found went and he angry became and in not going was, and 
usko bapp hire geS te uska bara tarla kia. Usne 

his father out went and his great entreaties were-made, by him 
apna bapp na zawab de chureo itna samS mS teri 
own father to answer giving was-left, so much time by me thy 

khizamt ki te kade teri gal nih raori, te t§ kade 

service was-done and ever thy word not turned- was and by thee ever 
mana bakro nih ditto yft apnS dostS yarS nal 

to me goat not was given that own friends companions with 
khushi karS, jis bele tero yo put ayo jisne tero saro 

happiness may-make what time thy this son came by-whom thy all 

mal kanjri§ bice udayo te iske waste paleo ho baccho 

property harlots in was-caused-to-fly by-thee his sake kept calf 

koh ditto. Te usne usna keho Puta to hamesh mere 

killing was-given, and by him to him was said son thou always me 

nal rahe, jitno mero mal hai tero hai. Khushi honi 

with I'emainest, how much my property is thine is. Happiness to be 

te khush bono caijgi gal thi. Tero yo bhai mar geo tho, bun 
and happy to be good matter was. Thy this brother dead gone was, now 

ji geo, gum geo tho hun tha geo 
living went, lost gone was now being-found-went. 

Story I. 

HS ajjur ke nil tho nikra buta ke uppnr carheo khalo tho, bakro 
I flock near was little tree on climbed standing was, goat 

daijkeo hS daurke lattho, ricch tanS ban lef caleo 

cried-out, I having run descended, bear down jangal taking gone 

tho. Hft pauceS kandh bice gatti mari, usne na chureo, 
had, I arrived back in stone was struck, by him not was left, 



8 

bhi duji gattij mari gata bice, fix* chorke 

again second stone was-struck neck in, then Laving left 

nasgeo jit satte5 bakro ns ja bS jake 

running wont, wbei'e was-tbrown goat that place I having-gone 

kbalo buo te mere dar daurke bhi ricch a geo. 

standing became and my direction having-run again bear came. 

Me nikri jehi kuhari mari uske, patto nib laggo 

Bj-me small like axe was-struck to him, information not attached 

je kubafi uske laggi hai ya nih laggi. Fir bakio 
that axe to him attached is or not attached. Then goat 

cake nasgeS fir koheo usna. Koh reho 

having-lifted running 1 went then killed it. Killing remained I 

te bhi ageo mere dar. Mero dujo sanji pauc 

and again came my direction. My second companion arriving 

ayo, fir hamne doS ue gatti mari te oh nasgeo 
came then by us two by stone was struck and he running- went. 

Stoey II. 

HS nikro tho sih hilgeo bakri khaun na. Satt bakri 

I small was, leopard being-used went goat eat to. Seven goats 

usne kha churi. ekun ziinidar ki luha ki bani hui khurakki 
by him eating left-were. One farmer of iron of made trap 

ihi. Wa mangke ani slh ka pakrun ke waste, 

was. That having asked was brought leopard of seizing for sake. 

Wa rah ml chal ditti, iqa bakro bannh ditto. 

That way in placing was given on this side goat tying was-given. 

Sih ayo. Jagg uski bice phas gei, laggo daijkuu. 

Leopard came leg his in entangled went, began to-cry-out. 

Ose bele ham rat gea gira na. Keho sih 

That very time we by night went village to was said leopard 

pakre geo ai. Ghana jaua aya. Ekun lambardar ne banduk 
catching gone has. Many men came. One lambardar by gun 

marl, sih mar geo. Do adai man ko tho bharo. Atth 
was-fired, leopard dying went. Two 2| raaunds of was heavy. Eight 

jana cake legeatha. Kbalrl ekun jagirdar ne ca lei, 

men lifting took away. Skin one landowner by lifting was-taken 

te ham na tri rupayya bakshish ditti. 
and us to 30 rupees reward was given. 



Gujuri. 



1. ek, one. 


36. 


bacco (lohro boy, bStkl, girl), 


2. do, two. 




child. 


3. tie, tliree. 


37. 


put, son. 


4. car, four. 


38. 


dbi, daughter. 


5. panj, five. 


39. 


ghulam, slave. 


6. che, six. 


40. 


zimidar, cultivator. 


7. satt, seven. 


41. 


ajri, shepherd 


8. attb, eiglit. 


42. 


Rabb, Khuda, Allah, God. 


9. no, nine. 


43. 


Shatan, Azazil, Devil. 


10. das, ten. 


44. 


d!h, sun. 


11. bi, twenty. 


45. 


cann, moon. 


12. dastecali, fifty. 


46. 


taro, star. 


13. panj bi, sau, Imndred. 


47. 


agg, fire. 


14. batth, hand. 


48. 


pani, water. 


15. pair, foot. 


49. 


ghar, house. 


16. nakk, nose. 


50. 


ghoro, horse. 


17. akkh, eye. 


51. 


ga, cow. 


18. moh, mouth. 


52. 


kutto, dog. 


19. dand, tooth. 


53. 


bills, cat. 


20. kann, ear. 


54. 


kukkur, cock. 


21. bal, hair. 


55. 


badk, duck. 


22. sir, head. 


56. 


kboto, ass. 


23. jibh, tongue. 


57. 


nth, camel. 


24. dbiddh, belly. 


58. 


pakhnQ, pakheru, bird. 


25. lakk (lower back), mar, kund 


59. 


jano, go. 


(upper back). 


60. 


kbano, eat. 


26. luho, iron. 


61. 


baisno, sit. 


27. sono, gold. 


62. 


auno, come. 


28. ruppo, candi, silver. 


63. 


raarnS, beat. 


29. bapp, father. 


64. 


khalnS, stand. 


30. ni§, mother. 


65. 


marno, die. 


31. bhai, brother. 


66. 


deuno, give. 


32. behn, sister. 


67. 


nasno, run. 


33. jano, man. 


68. 


ufr§, up. 


34. trirat, woman. 


69. 


nerai, ko], near. 


35. trimt, wife. 
2 


70. 


tal5, tana, down. 



10 



71. dur, far. 

72. agge, before. 

73. pieche, behind. 

74. kon, who. 

75. ke, what. 

76. kiS, why. 

77. ate, te, and. 

78. but. 

79. je, if. 

80. ahS, yes. 

81. uib, no. 

82. hae hae, alas. 

83. ghor -6, a horse. 

84. -i, a mare. 

85. -a, horses. 



86. ghor -1, mares. 

87. dand, a bnll. 

88. ga, a cow. 

89. dand, bulls. 

90. gS, cows. 

91. kutt -o, a dog. 



92. 


-i, a bitch. 


93. 


-a, dogs. 


94. 


-1, bitches. 


95. 


bakr -6, a he goat. 


96. 


-i, a female goat 


97. 


-a, goats. 


98. 


liar -n, a male deer. 


99. 


-ni, a female deer 


100. 


-n, deer. 



J, tero uE ke ai ? what is your name ? 

2. is ghora ki kital ummui* ai ? how old is this horse ? 

3. is ja te Kashmir tarS kitao dCir ai ? Iiow far is it from here to Kash- 

mir ? 

4. iera bapp ka ghav kitna put he, how many sons ax-e there in your 

father's house ? 

5. aj hS baro duro tureS, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mera patriya ko put uski belin cal biayo huo hai, the son of my uncle 

is mariied to his sister. 

7. citta ghora ki kathi ghar ml (bice) hai, in the house is the saddle 

of the white horse. 

8. uski kand pui' kathi ghallo, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. me uska put na barS korrS nal mare hoe, I have beaten his son with 

many stripes. 

10. oh dhaka ki coti uppur g5 bakri care, he is grazing cattle on the top 

of the hill. 

11. 5h ghora uppur rukkh heth baitho hoe, he is sitting on a horse under 

that tree. 

12. usko bliai uski behn to baro ai, his brother is taller than his sister. 

J 3, isko mul adhal rupayya hai, the price of that is two rupees and a 
half. 

14. m5ro bapp U3 nikra ghar bice rahe, my father lives in that small 

house. 

15. yo rupayyo usna de choro, give this rupee to him. 

16. ye rupaya us kolo ca len, take those rupees from him. 

17. usna muc maro te seliS nal bannho, beat him well and bind him with 

ropes. 
J8. is khal bicco pani kaddho, draw water from the well. 

19. raer§ agge cal, walk before me. 

20. tere picche kisko lohro ae, whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. yo te kiste mol ko liyo hai, from whom did you buy that ? 

22. girl ka kise dukauhala kojo, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



TINAULI. 

TinauH is spoken in Tinaul in western Hazara, and resembles very 
closely the Dhundi or Kairali dialect which follows, see p. 15. 

Nouns. Tlur. 

N. addh-a, father addh-e 

G. -e da -eS da, &c. 

D. -e ko „ &c. 

Ab. -e tin, kolo, „ 

So dhaka, hill. 

Nouns ending in a consonant have the nom. pi. and s. the same. 
Kag, crow, pi. kdg, Obi. plur. koyU. 

Dhl, daughter has Obi. sing, dhiu, and plur. N. and Obi. dhid,. 
The declension of nouns thus does not differ much from that of 
Panjabi nouns. Other nouns are jar, kite, gual, cow-house, char 
jungle. 

Pronouns. Sing. Plur. 

1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 

N. me tii oh as? tusi oh 

G. mahra tohr§, usda asda tusda nnhS da 

kon, who ? ke, what ? Mch, something. 

Adjectives in -a are declined like addha, (fem.-i)? so carjgd, good ; 
mandn, bad. Those in a consonant, nujor unwell, hal, well, are not 
declined. 

Comparison. There is no form for compar. and superl. Com- 
parison is thus expressed, carjgd, good, muc carjgd, very good or better, 
or — ))a?S cangd, better than — , sdreU ndio carjgay better than all, best. 

Verbs. Auxiliary. Pres. I am, &c. S ai ai a 6 ai 

Past. I was, &c. as§ asai asa aseS aseo asa 

The regular verb is almost exactly like the Dhundi and Kairali 
verb (q.v.) which is given in its own place. The leading parts are as 
follows. 
mama, beat, pr. p. mama, pa. p. mared, having beating marke. 

Aor. mdr%, fut. mdrsa, impert. mar, condit. mdmd, pres. Ind. 
mdrnd ob, Impf . mdrnd ds%., past, mdred, with agentive form of pronouns, 
pres. perf. mdred ai, plupf. mdred dsd. For details see Dhundi or 
Kairali verb. 

Similarly hand become pr. p. hondd, &c. 



I 



Tinauli (Hazara district). 



1. hikk, one. 

2. do, two. 

3. trai, three. 


36. nanda (m. hoy), kufhi 

(f. girl), child. 

37. zah, son. 


4. car, four. 

5. pauj, five. 

6. che, six. 


38. dhl or kaki, daughter, 

39. sir, slave. 

40. dogi, cultivator. 


7. satt, seven. ■% 

8. atth, eight. 

9. nS, nine. 
10. dah, ten. 


41. ajri, shepherd. 

42. Kabb, Kliuda, Allah, God. 

43. shatan, Azazil, Devil. 

44. dih, sun. 


11. bih, twenty. 

12. dah tecahli, fifty. 

13. so, hundred. 


45. cann, moon. 

46. tara, star. 

47. agg, fire. 


14. hatth, hand. 

15. pair, foot. 

16. nakk, nose. 

17. akkh, eye. 

18. mah, mouth. 


48. pan! water. 

49. ghar, house. 

50. ghora, horse. 

51. ga, cow. 

52. kutta, dog. 


19. dand, tooth. 


53. billa, cat. 


20. kann, ear. 


54. kukkur, cock. 


21. bal, hair. 


55. badak, duck. 


22. sir, head. 


56. khota, ass. 


23. jlbh, tongue. 


57. uth, camel. 


24. dhiddh, belly. 58. ciri, bird. 

25. lakk (lower back), kandh 59. julna, gachna, go. 

(upper back). 60. khana, eat. 

26. loha, iron. 61. baithna, sit. 


27. sona, gold.^ 

28. ruppa, candi, silver. 

29. addha, father. 


62. aina, come. 

63. marna, beat. 

64. khaliia, stand. 


30. arami, mother. 


65. marna, die. 


31. lala, brother. 


66. dena, give. 


32. bebe, sister. 


67. nasna, run. 


33. jana, man. 


68. ut, up. 


34. bebe, woman. 

35. wauh^i, wife. 


69. nere, near. 

70. tall, down. 



14 

71. dur, far. 77. te, and. 

72. agga, before. 78. te/but. 

73. piccha, betiad. 79. if. 

74. kon, who. 80. ha, eye. 

75. ke, what. 81. nih,iio. 

76. ki, why. 82. oho, tauba, alas. 



DHT&NDl and KARIALl. 

It will be noticed that Dhundi or Kairali greatly resembles Lahnda, 
the language of Western Panjab. It is not necessary to dwell on gram- 
matical rules common to both. How closely the dialects of the phiiiulH 
and Kaifals I'esemble each other will be realised from the specimens 
which follow ; the Prodigal Son is in the Kairal dialect and the succeeding 
story in that of the Dhunds. 

Nouns. 



Masculine. 



N. 

G. 

D.A. 

Loc. 

Abl. 

Agent 



Sing. 

Pe, father 

Pill na, ni, ne, ni§ 

„ ki 

„ bice, tokn! (in, up to) 

„ thi, &c. 
Piu 



Plur. 
Pevre 
pevres nfi &c. 



Nouns in -a-i 




Sing. 


Plur. 


N. ghor-a, horse 


-e 


Obi. -e 


-eS 


N. admi, man, 


admi 


Obi. admi-a 


admi-a 



Plur. 
nauk-ar 
-ar3 



Nouns ending in a consonant. 

Sing. 
N. nauk-ar 

Obi. -are 

Like Ghord: viundhd, shoulder, dhakd, mountain, 
Like nmikar ; azur, reward, &c. 

Feminine. 

Sing. 
N. bakri goat 
Obi. bakri „ " 

so baWn side of body (over ribs) but dh/, daughter has Obi. sing. 

dhh'i. ga, cow, plur. gd^, 

N. bhen, bhain, sister, bhaina 

Obi. bhainii ^ 



Plur. 
bakri-S 



16 







Pronouns. 






1st. Peis. S. 




2nd pers. 




3rd pers. 


N. m§ 




tft 




oh 


G. mliara 




tuhara 




osna, usna, 


D.A. migi 




tuki 




oski, uski, 


Agent me 




ta 

Plural. 




5s, us, usne, 


N. as 




tus 




oh 


Q. sahra 




suahra 




onhS na, unhS na 


D.A. ass Id 




tusS ki 




oiiha ki 


Ag. asE 




tusS 




oiihS 


eh, this Obl. 




is- 


pi. 


eh, 01)1. inha 


Ktin, who ? 




Obl. kus 






jo, who 




5. jis 






Kehra, which ? 




„ kehre 






jehra, which, 




„ jehre 






hot, any one 




„ htise 






Kitna, how much or 


many 


? itna so much or 


many jitna how much 


or many regular. 










Adjectives chiefly like 


nouns of the same 


foi^m. 




Sing. 




Car)ga, good. 




Plur. 


Masc. Fern, 








Masc. Fem. 


N. car)g-a -i 








-e -iS 


Obl. -e -1 








-eS -ia 



So maiidd, bad ; ncca high, nigra little ; adjectives ending in a conso- 
nant are not declined, bal, well liealthy. 

Comparison ; no forms for compar. and superl. carjga, good, better 
than this, isth% carigd, or hatih carjga, he%t = better than all Sared 
thi canga. 

Motion from is frequently expressed by adding — 0, as gharo, from 
the house, dhahe ne sireo, from the top of the hill. 

Adverls resemble Panjabi, baila, quickly, deU to-morrow, gatr^, day 
after to-morrow or day before yesterday. 

Verb. 
Auxiliary. I am, &c. 
Pres. 
a or e3 § a (f. i) S or eS, o, eo e 
Past. I was, &c. 
asea asai asa (f. asi) asel, aseo ase (f. asia) 



17 

Negative, 

Pres. I am not, &c. 
nt ne na (f. uel) iig neo iie (f n6il) 

Past, I was not, <fec. 

na-sel -sa! -sa -sSl -seo -se 

There is another tense meaning to be in a place, <o exist, used abso- 
lutely, not as an auxiliary, chiefly in the 3rd person. 

thea thai thea (fem. thei) theS theo tliae (fem. theiS) 

e.g. masit the'i ? Is there a mosque ? Thcj, there is. 

Conjugation of mama, beat. 

Aorist. I may beat, &c. mar ~E -e -e -5 -o -an 

Fut. I shall beat mar -sa -sal -si -sa -sau -sun 

Imperat. mar maro 

Cond. I should beat mar -na (f. i) -na -na -ne (f. niS) -ne -ne 

Pres. I am beating mama eE, &c., with auxil. 

Impt. 1 was beating mama aseS, &c. 

Past. I beat. Agentive form of pronoun with marea agreeing with object. 

Pres. perf. marea a, pluperf. marea asa, &c. 

Having beaten marite or mari 

Passive formed by using gachna {go) 
e.g. I am being beaten marea gachna ea, he was bea(en marea gd 
for the forms with pres. part, a passive pres. part, in -i- may bo used 
in the 3rd pers. thus marina a or marine e, is or are being beaten or in 
the habit of being beaten. 
Gachna go is conjugated for the most part regularly. 

Pres. part, gachna, past p. gd. (f. get, pi. gae, ge'id,) hence. 

Plup. gd aseU, &c. but future gaisd, or gesU, &c. 

Slight irregularities are found in some verbs, but the tenses are 
usually formed regularly from the root, pres. pa., pa. p. as above. 

Achnd, come, pr. p. achnd, pa. p. dyd ; hond, become, hdnd, hied (f. 
hot; hoe, hoia) dend, dittd ; harnd do, karnd, kitd ; ghinnd, take, 
ghinnd, ghindd; paind, fall, &c. paind, pea, {L pei, -p\, pae, pe/d). 

Habitual Action. I am in the habit of beating me mdrnd hond ea 
{hond, become) continuous action. He used to continue to eject, oh 
kaddhnd rahnd sd (rahua remain). 

The Prodigal Son. 

Hiks admia ne do puttar ase, nikke apne piu ki akhea 
One man of two sons were by-little own father to was-said 
3 



18 

aji tere male biccO jo hissa acche i oh hissa migi 
Father thy property from in what part may-come that part to-me 

cal de. Os apna mal unhs wicc bandi ditta. 
lifting give, By-him own property them in dividing given-was 

ThoreS diharea picche nikke puttre apna mal batla kita 

few days after by-little son own property together made-was 

te dur milkh bice turi ga, te us jae bice apna mal 

and far country in going went and that place in own property 

khud lucpune nal lutai ditta, jis wele 

very licentiousness with causing-to-be-robbed given was, what time 

me oh sara kharc kari reha us milkh bice dahda 

in he all spending making remained that country in severe 

kal paiigea te oh tar)g hone lagga, te oh hiks 6s 

famine falling went and lie straitened to-be began and he one that 

jae ne admia kol rahi pea os apni jimi bice zanaur 
place of man near remaining fell, by liim own land in animals 

carae ne waste ghallea, jo phaliS zanaur khane ase oh 
feeding of sake of sent was, what busks animals eating were he 

cabna asa ki me inhS nal apna dhiddh bhaiS, te 
wishing was that I these with own stomach may-fill and 

koi uski nasa dena. Jis wela oh apne hoshe bice 
anyone to him not-was giving. What time he own sense in 

aya, 6s akhea mhare piu ne kitne mazur thae 

carae by-him said-was my father of how-many labourers are 

ki rajite rutti togra khane te me bhukkha marna e§ me 
that satisfied bread piece they-eat and I hungry dying am I 

utliite ges5, te uski akhsS, ai apnea aji me 

having-arisen will-go and to-him will-say, my father by-me 

Khuda na te tuhara ghunah kita, ni§ hun tuhara puttur akhiie 
God of and thy sin was done, I now thy son to-say 

j6ga HE, migi apne kise mazur jeha an. Bas 

worthy not-am, me thy some labourer like binng ; well 

uthite apne piu ne pas turi pea, asa wi dur te uski 
having-arisen own father of near going fell, he-was even far and him 

dikkhi uski tars achiga, te daurite us 

having-seen to-him pity coming-went and having-run by-him 



10 

gachi apne galli nal lai ghiuda, te uski piyar 

having-gone own neck with attaching takcn-was, and to liim love 

ditfca. Puttre uski akhea ai aji ra§ Khuda na tg 
given-was. By son to-hira was said, father by-me God of and 

tuhara ghanaii kita, rae hun tuhara puttur akhne joga 
thy sill was-done, I now thy son to-say worthy 

ni. Piu apnea naukari ki akhea, caijge th! caijga 

uot-am. By-father own servants to was-said good from good 

kapra kaddhite uski luana te aijgli nal 

garment having-taken-out to him cause-to-attach and finger with 

chap, te pairs nal jutti luao, te pale hoe bacche ki 

ring and feet with shoe cause-to-attach, and kept calf 

anite halal karo tl as khai khush hoS, 

having-brought lawful make that we having-eatcn happy may-be, 

mhara eh puttur mari ga asa, phir jina hoiga 

my this son dead gone was, again living becoming went 

gawi ga asa, hun labhi reha. Bas oh khushi bice 

lost gone was, now being-found remained. Well, they happiuess in 

ae. Usna bara puttur apni bari bice asa, jis wela oh apne 
came. His big son own field in was, what time ho own 

ghare ne kol paucea os gane bajane na nacne na awaz 
house of near arrived by-him singing playing of dancing of voice 

sunSa, te hiks naukare ki bulal pucchn lagga. Yo ke 
was-heard and one servant having-ealled to-ask began. This what 

hoi i*eha ? Os uski akhea bhra ai ga 

becoming remained. By him to him was said brother coming went 

te tuhare piu ue pa]ea hwa baccha halal karaya, 

and thy father by kept calf lawful was-caused-to-be-madc 

is waste uski caijga bhala labhi ga. Oh khafe 

this cause to him well sound being-found went. He angry 

hwa te uski andar gachna na sa lor, usna pe 

became and to him in of going not-was need, his father 

gachi bahar uski manan lagga, os apne piu ki 
having-gone out him to persuade began by him own father to 

jawab ditta. Dikh me kitne wars tuhari khizmat 

answer was-given. See, by me how-many years thy service 



20 



kiti te kad© tuhara akha 

was-done and ever thy saying 

tti kade hik bakri na bacca 

by thee ever one goat of little one 

dostS nal khushi kara jis 

friends with happiness may-make, what time thy this son 

aya jis tubara sara mal kanjril nal udari chorea- 
was left 



na morea 


migi 


not turned-was, 


to me 


na ditta me 


apnef 


not was given I 


my 


wela tuhara eh 


puttur 



came by- whom thy all property harlots with wasted 
usne waste palea hwa baccha halal karaya 



usne 



him of sake 

akhea he 
was said, 



kept 

puttur 
son 

mhari, 
mine, 



jehn ciz 
what thing 

te khush bona cagga 

and happy to be good 

asa phir jina 

was again living 

labhi reha. 

being-found remained. 



calf lawful was-caused-to-be-made. By him 

tS khud mhare 

thou thyself my 

oh khud tuhari apni ; khushi honi 

that itself thy own ; happiness to be 



pas i ai, te 

near indeed art and 



asa, tuhara eh 
was, thy this 

hoiga, 
becoming-went, 



bhra 
brother 

glwi ga 

lost gone 



man ga 

dead gone 

asa, hull 

was, now 



uppuru 
about 



ghol lagga 
fiffhtins: 



Story. 

Jalala te Bahadare lambardara na bari 
Jalal and Bahadar lambardar of land 

rahna sa; Jalal takra jana sa te Bahadare ki gali 
continuing was, ,, strong man was and Bahadar to abuse 

shall kaddhna rahna sa. Bahadai'e ne puttur us zimi 

ejecting remaining was. B. of sons that land 

bice gashne se, Jalal unhS ki marna kutna rahna sa. 
in going were, Jalal them to beating striking remaining was. 

Hikk dihara doe bhra us bari bice ghah kappan ga§ 

One day the-two brothers that land in grass to-cut gone 

se, ns Jalala para nakke uppura gal ditti 

were, by that Jalal across hill-side from above abuse given was 

unh§ ki ; gal del unhS wakkh \\ivi aya. J eh re 

them to ; abuse having given them towards walking came. What 

wele unha kol aya banere uppure pase unhi uski 

time them near came below from above side by them to him 



21 



gatta 
stone 



marea, 
was-struck, 

patka 
cloth 



te 
and 



kancale gatta lagga to dliaii pea, 

above ear stone struck and he falling fell, 
unbS patka galhe bice bai ghinda to galfa 

by them cloth throat in twisting was-taken and squeezed 
ditta ne te 5h raari ga, te dhtuitG dhaks 

given was by- them and he dying went and having dragged bill 

nalii kassi bice bun khari satt6a ne. 

from near precipice in below taking wfis-throwu by-tliem. 

Due dihare lorne waste bhra usna turi ga, 

Second day looking for-sake-of brother his walking went, 

lablii rihai-s. Unha ki satt satt baras kaid hoi goi 

found him. Them to seven (each) years imprisonment becoming went. 

28. ruppa, candi, silver. 



1. hekk, one. 

2. do, two. 

3. trai, three. 

4. car, four. 

5. panj, five. 

6. che, six. 

7. satt, seven. 

8. atth, eight. 

9. nau, nine. 

10. das, ten. 

11. bi, twenty. 

12. panj a, fifty. 

13. sau, hundred. 

14. hatth, hand 

15. pair, foot. 

16. nakk, nose. 

17. akkh, eye. 

18. mSb, mouth. 

19. dand, tooth. 

20. kann, ear. 

21. bal, hair. 

22. sir, head. 

23. jiw, tongue. 

24. dhiddh, pet, belly. 

25. lakk (lower back), 
(upper back), 

26. loha, iron. 

27. s8na, gold. 



kandh 



29. pe, father. 

30. be we, mae, ma, mother. 

31. bhra, brother. 

32. bhen, sister. 

33. adrai, jana, man. 

34. kurhi, woman. 

35. janani, rann, wife. 

36. jatuk, child. 

37. puttur, son. 

38. dhi, daughter. 

39. ^ulam, slave. 

40. zamindar, cultivator. 

41. pahla, shephered. 

42. Khuda, Rabb, Allah, God. 

43. Shaitan, Devil. 

44. deh, sun. 

45. cann, moon. 

46. tara, star. 

47. agg, fire. 

48. pani, water, 

49. ghar, house. 

50. ghora, horse, 

51. gg, cow. 

52. kutta, dog. 

53. bilal, cat. 

54. kukkur, cock. 

55. badki, duck. 



22 



56. khota, ass. 


79. 


je, if. 


57. 3th, camel. 


80. 


hU, yes. 


58. pakbnS, paklierd, bird. 


81. 


na, nehl, no. 


59. gaehna, go. 


82. 


hae, hae, alas. 


60. khana, eat. 


83. 


ghor-a, a horse. 


61. bahna, sit. 


84. 


„ -i, a mare. 


62. acbna, come. 


85. 


„ -e, horses. 


63. marna, beat. 


86. 


„ -iS, mares. 


64. kbalna, stand. 


87. 


dand, a bull. 


65. marna, die. 


88. 


ga, a cow. 


66. dena, give. 


89. 


dand, bulls. 


67. nasna, run, 


90. 


gS, cows. 


68. te, up. 


91. 


kutt, -a a dog. 


69. nere, kol, near. 


92. 


,, -i, a bitch. 


70. bne, down. 


93. 


„ -e, dogs. 


71. dur, far. 


94. 


,, -iS, bitches. 


72. agg§, before. 


95. 


bakr -a, a he goat. 


73. picche, behind. 


96. 


,, -i, a female goat 


74. kihra, kun, who. 


97. 


„ -e, goats. 


75. ke, what. 


98. 


har -n, a male deer. 


76. kla, why. 


99. 


„ -ni, a female deer 


77. te, and. 


100. 


„ -n, deer. 


78. par, but. 







1. tuhara ni kai a ? what :s your name ? 

2. is g]»ore ni kai amr i ? how old is this horse ? 

3. itth5 (or is jaeo) Kashmir tokni kitna dur a ? how far it is from 

here to Kashmir ? 

4. tuhare piu ne gliar kitne puttur e, how many sons are there in your 

father's house ? 

5. me ajj bare duro tur6a e5, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mhare eace ua puttur usni bhainu nal biaya hwa, the son of my 

uncle is married to his sister. 

7. ghar bice citte ghore ni kathi thei, in the house is the saddle of 

the white horse. 

8. usni kandhi pur kathi dhar, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. me usne puttre ki bare koiremare, I have beaten his son with many 

stripes. 

10. dhake ne sire pur 5h ga bakriS carana a, he is grazing cattle on the 

top of the hill. 

11. oh ghore ne uppur bute ne heth baitha hwa, he is sitting on a horse 

under that tree. 

12. usna bhra usni bhainu nalo bara a, his brother is taller than his 

sister. 

13. usna mul dhai ruppayye, the price of that is two rupees and a half. 

14. mhara pe us nigre ghare bice rehna a, my father lives in that small 

house. 

15. eh rupayya uski cai de, give this rupee to him. 

16. oh rupayye usthi cai ghinn, take those rupees from him. 

17. uski bauh marau te bannhaus rassil na], beat him well and bind 

him with ropes. 

18. is khuhe bicco pani kaddhS, draw water from the well. 

19. mhare agge Jul, walk before me. 

20. kusnaj atuk tuhare picche achna a, whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. eh kus kolo muUe na ghinda ase, from whom did you buy that ? 

22. girS ne kuse hattiwale kolo, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



PUNCHI, 



The Punch dialect is connected with Lahnda, though in some 
points it follows Panjabl. It reminds us also in some words of 
Kashmiri. The words for the different points of the compass indicate 
this compositeness. KuUib, north, dakhun, south, carhna, east, lehnd 
west. The words hmd, winter, alS, call (noun), khat, bed, recal 
Kashmiri. Bared is summer. The criminal tribe of the SSsis use 
khat for bed and pauni for shoe. In the Punch dialect they are khat 
and paunl. The inflection in -I of nouns in the plural is also found 
in SSsi. 

It will be noticed how rare the cerebral n is in Punchi as compared 
with neighbouring dialects. This may be due to the indirect influence 
of Kashmiri. Similarly the cerebi-al I is uncommon. 

Nouns. Masc. 

Sing. 

horse 

na, ni, ne, niS 

nS 

ice (in) 

thi, ti, 

ne ■ ■ - 



Nouns in -a 
N. ghor-a 



-e 
-e 
-e 
-e 

-e 



G. 

D.A. 
Loc. 
Abl. 
Agent. 

So grim = bread, food 
In consonant 
nauk-ar, 
Obi. . -ara 
Ag. -are 



Plur. 

-e 

-el Ma, &c. 

u 

„ &0. 



Sing, 
servant 



Plur. 

nauk-ar 
-e 
-e 



So also sann evening, phadar, morning, akkhnr, walnut. 

Feo, father has piu in the Obi., the plur. is the same as the Sing. 

Adtnl, man, Obi. Sing. admt-(i, plur. mas. ddm'i, Obi. ddmie. So nathi, 

guest. 

Sing. 

• Fern. 1^. raun-di, head, 

Obi. -dia 

dhi, daughter. Obi. s. dhuc 

hhain, sister. Obi hhainu 

-0 indicates motion from, diirb from far, gharoj from the house. 



PI. 
-dig 
-dis 
Plur. N. and Obi. dhlA 



Pronouns. 



25 



1st, 2nd 3rd yo, this. 

Sing. 



N. me tft oh yQ 

G, mhara tuhara usua isna 

D.A. ni5 tn usiift isnft 

Agent. me tft uni ini 







Plur. 






N. 


as 


tus 


oh 


eh 


G. 


sahra 


suahra 


unhe na 


inhe na 


D.A. 


ase lift 


tuse nS 


„ n![ 


„ nfl 


Ag. 


ase 


tuse 


unhe 


inhe 



Kun, who? Obi. fews (ktisna, &c., but fcwsa /coZS ' from whom.') 
jo, who Obi. jis 
Kot, anyone, „ kuse. 

Kitna ? jitva, and i7na=how ?, how, and so much or many, are 
regular. 

Kehra, which ?, jehra, which, regular. 

Adjectives. In -a, e.g., monda, ill. Masc. like ghOfa, fem. like 
mundt. Adjectives in: a consonant are not declined. 

Comparison. No special forms for compar. and superl. cayjga, 
good, comp. istl car/ga, i.e., better than this. Superl, sdred, tl caijglt, 
better than all. 

Adverbs formed as in Panjabi; often adjs. are used as advs., eg,, 
chart eh gal only this matter. 

8tiah, to-morrow, dje still, yet, jougte, quickly. 
Verb. 

The auxiliary has a bewildering number of forms ; thes, &c., means 
nl to exist, to be, and is therefore not an auxiliary. 
' 1st S. 2nd S. 3rd S. 1st PI. 

Pres. I am, &c. thes thi thea (f. thi) 
- . es i a 

I na es na i na (f. ni) 

[ da es d! da (f. di) 



2nd PI. 3rd PI. 

tliea thea thae (f. tliiS) 

% a e 

neS (neaii)nea ne 
de 



de§ and dea for 1 and 2 pi. I have not verified, hence they are omit- 
ted in the paradigm. 

Past, 1 was, &c. ases asi asa (f. asi) asea (aseavi) asea ase 
na ases ne sea (seau) ne sea ue se 

ses si sa (f. si) seS (seau) sea se 

4 



26 

Conjugation, Mama, beat. 

Pres. I am beating marna es f a marne % nea e 

Impf. I was beating „ ases or ses ; s!, &c., sa, &c., seau sea se 
Fut. I shall beat marsa marnau raarsi marneaii marlea marie 
Imperat. mar mara 

Past, I beat, oec, agentive form of pronouns with marea, which agrees 

with the object 
Pres. Perf. The same form with marea a (pi. mare e) 
Plupf. „ „ marea sa (pi. mare se) 

Participles, Pres. mania, Past, marea ; having beaten, mari, marlte 
Passive, Pres. I am being beaten, me marno nai es, tS marno na i, Oh 

marno na 

Plur. as „ neS, tus „ nea, oli 

marno ne 
Other tenses are similarly formed. 

Gaclma, go. 
Pres. Pa. gena Pa. ga. Tenses with Pres. Pa. are formed as in mama 
Past, I went ga ases ga asi gu asa ge seS ge sea ge se 
Fut. gesa, &c. 



The following verbs shew slight irregularities : 

achna, come pr. p. ena, pa. p. dyd ; dena, give, pr. p. dhia, pa. p. dlna ; 
hinnd, take, pa. p. hinda, Icarna, do, Mta; hdna, become, pa. p. Jmd (f. hoi). 

Causative verbs are formed as in Panjabi, e.g., iromjulnd, go, walk, 
jolnd, cause to walk, send, cf. Panj. ttirnd, tornd with the same meaning. 

The Prodigal Son. 

Htks admia ne do puttur this, nikke puttre ne piu nu 

One man of two sons were-to-him, little son by father to 

akhea, abba male na jehra hissa me ena me de, 
was-said. Father property of what part to me comes to me give, 

usne unhe bicca mal . bandi hinda, thoreS dihareS wicc 
by him them in property dividing was-taken, few days in 

puttre sara mal kattha kita, te diir kusa milkha ice 
by-son all property together was-made, and far some country in 

ga uthi te us jae lucpuna ne mal sara 

went having-arisen and that place licentiousness with property all 

barwad kari chores, jis wela sara kharc kari 

ruined making was-left-by-him what time, all spending made 



27 

chorea us mulkha ice bara kal paii gea, bauh taijf; 

was left that country in great famine falling went, very straitened 

hwa us jae kuse giraewale kcil gacchi relia uni usnS 

became that place (in) some villager near going stayed by him to-him 

apni bari sur careajolea. Jehrig plialiS sur khane 6§ 5h 

own field (in) pigs to-feed was sent. What husks pigs eating were ho 

akhna sa inhe ne me apna pet bharS, te dsnS k5i 
saying was them with I own stomach may fill and to him anyone 

na sa dina, jis wela hosa ice aya uni dila ice akh^a 
not was giving, what time sense in came by him heart in was said 

mhare piii kol kitre mazur rajjite khadewale, mS itthe 

my father near how many labourers satisfied eaters (arc) I here 

bhukkha mama es, ml uthi piii kol gesS te Osnfi 

hungry dying am, I having-arisen father near will-go and to him 

gacchi akhsS ai abba me Kbuda na te tuhara gunah 

having-gone will say father by-me God of and thy sin 

kita te tuhara puttur akbne joga nais reha, Me apne 

was-doneand thy son to say worthy not-am-I remained, me own 

mazura jeha bana, fer uthi piii apne kol ga oh aje 

labourer like make, then having-arisen father own near went, he still 

duro achna te piu ne usnS herea te usnS tars aya 
from-far coming and father by him-to was-sccn and to-him pity came 

te dauri usnS gala lai hindes, to 

and having-run him-to neck (to) attaching was-taken-by-him and 

usnS cam dinaes, piu naukare akhea cagge 

to him kiss was-given-by-him, by father servants to was-said good 

kapre khad hine accha te joijgte luai 

clothes taking-out taking come and quickly causing-to-be-attachcd 

chora, tg arjgli te chap te pair! jora lai 

leave and finger on ring and feet-to pair (of shoes) attaching 

choras te palea waihra ani halal kara, as 

leave to him and kept calf having-brought lawful make, we 

khiii khusi karg, mhara yo puttur marl ga asa, 

having-eaten happiness may-make, my this son dead gone was, 

dui war jina hoi ga, kute hoi ga sa 

second time alive becoming went, somewhere becoming gone was, 



28 

phiri labbhea, te oh khasi karn lagge. Usna bara puttur 
again was-found, and they happiness to make began. His big son 

jimi wicc sa, jis wele apne ghara k5l aya os gane bajane te 
land in was what time own house near came by-him singing, playing and 

naccan na awaz bujjliea, te naukara saddi, puccliea 

dancing of voice was recognised and servant having-called was asked 

yo kai da. Uni akhea tuhara bhra achiga tuhare piu 
this what is. By-him was-said thy brother came by-tby father 

palea na baihra halal karaya is galla ki usn^ 

kept calf lawful was-caused to-be-made this matter-for that him 

cagga bhala labbhea ; oh khafe hwa andar nehl gehnau usne 
well sound was-found, he angry became in not going by his 

peo bahar gacchi mitauna es, uni apne piu 

father out having gone was-persnaded-by-him, by-him own father (to) 

akhea, dikkh ml kitne baras tuhari tahl klti te 

was-said, see by-me how-many years thy service was-done .and 

kade tuhan aklikhi ml nehl mori, tS kade me bakrea 

ever thy saying by-me not was-turned, by thee ever to me goat 

na bakrota nae ditta ml apneaii dostc khawS, te jis 

of kid not was-given I own friends (with) may-eat and what 

wele yo puttur tuhara aya jis tuhara sara mal kanjrie 

time this son thy came by- whom thy all property harlots 

ice barwad kita, tS palea na baihra halal 

in spoiling was-made, by-thee kept calf lawful 

karaya uni akhea puttura tS hamesh me kol 

was-caused-to-be-made, by him was-said, son thou always me near 

dl, jehra kujjh mhara thea yo tuhapa, te khusi karni 
art what something mine exists that thine and happiness to make 

te khush bona cauhni si, yo tuhara bhra marl ga asa, 
and happy to be desirable was this thy brother dead gone was, 

dui war jina hoiga, kute hoiga sa phiri 

second time alive becoming-went, somewhere becoming gone was again 

labbhea. 

was found. 

Story. . 

Sahre milkha ice apraji si, te malia koi na sa, te hiks 

Our country in self-rule was and property-tax any not was and one 



29 

raja carhea larai laggi, jim!dar6 Idko u]% muncjiS kappan 
king came up, war was-attacbcd farmer people of heads to cut 

ho'iU, jo sipahi mundi kappi hinno usnS panj rupayyo raja 
became, what soldier head catting may-take to him five rupees king 

bakhsis de te mundi ap hinne, jad bauh kappan ]ir.i$ 
reward may-give and head himself may-take, when many cutting l)e(;anio 

car rupayye dine lagga, fer trai, fer dA, hikk rupayyfi, to 
four rupees to give began then three, then two, one rupee and 

chekur atth ane, jad atth ane fi ^^S"^ puttur 

finally eight annas, when eight annas each was-attachcd the son 

mukaries, - ki mulkh ujarea, rcha kf)i nn, is 

refused-to-him that country wasted is, remained any-one nc t, this 

mulkha bice bassi kun, te trig sakhse niS khallS nikhtiS, 
country in will-live who ? and three men of skins were skinned 

t6 bhuhekanne bharia te bheji dinia raje kol, te puttie 
and straw with were-fiUed and sending were given king near and by son 

akhea inhe loke nS. marie nau, iuhe mulkha ice basau, te 

was-said these people to kill not them country in cause-to-dwcll and 

malia hinnau, malia mukarrar kita ga. 
property-tax take, property-tax appointing was-made. 



Funchi. 



1, hekk, one. 


36. jaijgut, boy, kuvi, girl. 


2. do, two. 


37. puttur, son. 


3. trai, three. 


38. dhi, daughter. 


4. car, four. 


39. ghulam, slave. 


5. panj, five. 


40. jimidar, cultivator. 


6. che, six. 


41. gual, shepherd. 


7. satt, seven. 


42. Rabb, &c., God. 


8. atth, eight. 


43. Shaitaun, Devil. 


9. nau, nine. 


44, dift, sun. 


JO. das, ten 


45. cann, moon. 


11. will, twenty. 


46. tara, star. 


12. das te do wihS, fifty. 


47. agg, fire. 


J3. panjwihl, hundred. 


48. pauni, water. 


14. hatth, hand. 


49. ghar, kotha, house. 


15. pair, foot. 


50. ghora, horse. 


16. nakh, nose. 


51. gaiv, cow. 


J 7. akkh, eye. 


52. kutta, dog. 


18. mSh, mouth. 


53. billa, cat. 


19. dand, tooth. 


54. kukkur, cock. 


20. konn, ear. 


55. badk, duck. 


21. bal, hair. 


56. khota, ass. j 


22. sir, head. 


57. uth, camel. 


23. jib, tongue. 


58. pakhru, bird. 


24. pet, belly. 


59. gacchna, go. 


25. lakk, lower back, kond, upper 


60. khana, eat. 


back. 


61. behna, sit. 


26. I5ha, iron. 


62. acchna, come. 


27. saunau, gold. 


63. mama, beat. 


28. candi, silver. 


64. udna, stand. | 


29. peo, abba, father. 


65. marna, die. 


30. ma, mother. 


66. dena, give. 


31. bhra, brother. 


67. nasna, daurna, run. 


32. bhen, sister. 


68. toe, up. 


.33. mard, man. 


69. kol, nere, near. 


34. kuri, woman. 


70. bne pun, down. 


35. janauni, wife. 


71. dur, far. 



31 



72. aggS, before. 

73. picehS, behind. 

74. kun, who. 

75. kai, what. 

76. kiS, why. 

77. te, and. 

78. but. 

79. if. 

80. auhaS, yes. 

81. nShf, no. 

82. hae hae, alas, 
ghor -a, a horse. 

-i, a mare, 
-e, horses. 



83. 
84. 

85. 
86. 



87. dand, a bull. 

88. gaiv, a cow. 

89. dand, bulls. 

90. gavS, cows. 

91. kutt -a, a dog. 

92. -1, n bitch. 

93. -e, dogs. 

94. -iS, bitches. 

95. bakr -a, a he goat. 

96. -i, a female goat. 

97. -e, goats. 

98. bar -n, a male deer. 

99. -ni, a female dcei-, 
100. -n, deer. 



-Vc 



mares. 



1. tuhara kai nau da ? what is your name ? 

2. is ghore di kitri umr di ? how old is this horse ? 

3. is jal hoi Kashmir kitne kot di ? how far is it from here to Ka-sh- 

mir ? ; . 

4. tuhare pea de ghar kitre puttur hain? how many sons are th^re 

in your fathei''s house ? 

5. ajj dur julda es, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mhare eace na puttur isni bheu biai nis, the son of my uncle i^ 

married to his sister. 

7. citte ghore ni kathi ghara ice, in the house is the saddle of the 

white horse. 

8. ghore ar kathi ba, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. m§ usne puttre nS phats ne mitea, I have beaten his son with many 

stripes. 

10. oh uppure nakke uppur mala carna a, he is grazing cattle on the top 

of the hill. 

11. bute heth ghore ar carhea na, he is sitting on a horse under that 

tree. 

12. usna bhra usni bhainu thi bara, his brother is taller than his sister. 

13. isna mul dhai rupayye, the price of that is two rupees and a half. 

14. mhara peo us nikke ghara ice rehna, my father lives in that small 

house. 

15. yo rupayya usnft de (pi. dea), give this rupee to him. 

16. us kol§ e rupayye bin, take those rupees from him. 

17. usnS bauh mari te rassiS ne bauuhls, beat him well and bind him 

with ropes. 

18. khuhe icca pauni khaddh, draw water from the well. 

19. me agge Jul, walk before me. 

20. kusna jaggut tu picche picche julna a ? whose boy comes behind 

you? 

21. kusa kolS mulli hinda ? from whom did you buy that ? 

22. giraii ne kuse hattiwale kolft hinda, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



PADARi. 

Padari is an extremely intei^esting dialect, spoken in Padar, five or 
six marches east of Kishtawar, on the banks of the Cinab. In some strik- 
ing particulars it resembles Paqgwall, which is spoken in Paggi, in the 
north of Caraba State. In the list which follows words wliich have a 
marked resemblance to corresponding Paqgwali words are asterisked. 
The number of such words might o£ course have been indefinitely 
extended, but those noted are chiefly (though not wholly) those which 
resemble words used in Paggl, while at the same time differing from the 
words of other neighbouring dialects. 

Plur. 
bab 

bab-au kar 
-au 
-au kol 



Nouns. 






Sing. 


N. 


bab, 




father 


G. 


bab- 


-ar 




D. 




-as 




Ab. 




-al 





So also mohan, man, hadhel, ox. 

Nouns in -a take -e in the N. pi. ghora horse, ghoru ; halray goat, 
bakre ; kUtar, dog, fem. hufor, bitch, kUtar dogs. 

Fern. Nouns. 

Ku-i, girl, daughter, Sing, -yar -yas -yal 

Plur. kii^, ku-yau kar -yau -yau kol. 
gd, cow, has N. pi. goi. 

Pronouns. Sing. Plur. 

1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 

N. au tu se as tus tahn« 

G. mion^ tion* tasar hin tun egknr 

Kdhtiy who ?, kz, what ? 
Adjectives, khara, good, has khari, in the fsm., but I did not notice 
any inflection for number or case. 

Comparison, no special forms, khara, good, —tsar khara, better 
than — , Sahni kol khara, better than all, best. 

Verps. Auxiliary Pres. I am, &c., hau^ han^ han^- hiu^ hin^ hin^ 

(f . hini) 
Past, I was the*, all through f. thi». 

5 



* 



Padari, 



1. yikk, one. 

2. * doi, two. 

3. * tlae, three. 

4. tsor, four. 

5. panz, five. 

6. tsbeh, six. 

7. satt, seven. 

8. attl), eight. 

9. nau, nine. 

10. * dash, ten. 

11. bih, twenty. 

12. panjah, fifty. 

13. sau, hundred. 

14. hat, hand. 

15. khur, foot. 

16. nakk, nose. 

17. * tir, eye. 

18. totar, mouth. 

19. dand, tooth. 

20. kann, ear. 

21. rot, hair. 

22. * magir, head. 

23. zibh, tongue. 

24. pet, belly. 

25. pyitth, back. 

26. loh, iron. 

27. sonna, gold. 

28. candi, silver. 

29. bab, father. 

30. yi], mother. 

31. bhai, brother. 

32. bhen, sister. 

33. mohan, man. 

34. ghion, woman. 

35. * zoHS wife. 
86. * kua, child 



37. * kua, son. 

38. * kui, daughter. 

39. kam**', slave. 

40. jim^dar, cultivafor. 

41. gual, shepherd. 

42. Naran, Grod. 

43. Harman, Devil. 

44. dius, sun. 

45. tsaner, moon. 

46. tar^', star. 

47. ag, fire. 

48. paainyi, watei*. 

49. * gib, house. 

50. gh6r», horse. 

51. ga, cow. 

52. * kutar, dog. 

53. bilai, cat. 

54. kukar, cock. 

55. ar, duck. 

56. ass. 

57. camel. 

58. pokhur, bird. 

59. gan*, go. 

60. khan^, eat. 

61. bishn^, sit. 

62. an^, come. 

63. kutn*, beat. 

64. * khar bhon*, stand. 

65. marn^, die. 

66. diun*, give. 

67. daur diun*, run. 

68. bahyur^', up. 

69. neri, near. 

70. wondi, down. 

71. dur, far. 

72. * agar, before. 



35 



73. poWtr, behind. 

74. kahn, who. 

75. ki, what. 

76. * kyas, why. 

77. te, and. 

78. te, but. 

79. agar, if. 

80. 3, yes. 

81. nehf, no. 

82. hai hai, alas. 

83. gho -r*, a horse. 

84. -ri, a mare. 

85. -re, horses. 

86. -ri, mares. 



87. badhel, a bull. 

88. ga, a cow. 

89. badhel, bulls. 

90. goi, cows. 

91. kutar, a dog. 

92. kut6r, a bitch. 

93. kutar, dogs. 

94. kutor, bitches. 

95. bak -ra, a he goat. 

96. -ari, a female goat. 

97. -re, goats. 

98. a male, deer. 

99. a female deer. 
JOG. deer. 



SIRAJI. 

Siraji is spoken in the country north of the Cinab between Ramban 
and Bhart on the way to Kishtawar. Its headquarters may be said to 
be the large village of Doda, three marches S.W. of Kishtawar. Its 
features are what its position would lead us to suspect. On the North 
it gives way to Kashmiri, on the West to Rambani, on the N.E. to 
Kishtawari, and on the S. and S.W. to Bhadarwahi and the Camba 
dialects. Its general framework is like the Panjabi group of languages, 
which, especially the Camba section, it resembles, but it has many points 
of agreement with Kashmiri. In its fondness for a masc. s. in -o and 
pi. in -a, a likeness to Gujuri will be traced. 

Nouns. Sing. Plur. 

N. bab, father bab 

G. babba no (f. ni pi. m. na p. f. ni) babbS, &c. 
D, bab bo ,, 

Log. „ mS „ 

Ab. „ atha (hatha) „ 

Ag. babbe „ 

Far commoner than the gen. in -no is that in -to. 

Plur. 
ghar, house ghar 

G. ghai'-6 to gharS, &c. 

D. -o „ 

L. -6 m^ „ 

Ab. -o atha „ 

Ag. -e „ 

so are declined nearly all masc. nouns ending in a consonant, 

Mahno is thus declined : 
Mahno man Plur. mahna 

Abl. mahnwe mahni 

Shund, dog (with an accented -a) has the same in the plural. 
Ghar -6 horse obi. -e plur -a obi. -S. 

Feminine Nouns. PI. 

baig-i land, field -ia 

Ab. -ia 



N. 


au 


G. 


mina 


D. 


mi 


Ag. 


ml 


N. 


ah . 


G. 


ahmo 


Ag. 


ase 



2nd 




Srd 




Sing. 




tu 




su 


tino 




teto 


ti 




te 


t! 


Plur. 


teQi 


tub 




tine 


tuhmo 




tina t(5 


tuse 




tene 



37 

Dhj, daughter, however, takes dh/e in N, pi., so fjliOri, maic, lias 
ghorie. Shunei, bitcb, has shunelCt. 

Ending in a Consonant. 

Zauan woman Ob. zanani PI. zanan? 
So helin or baihn, sister. 

Goru, cow, has gorfc in the plur. 

Pronouns. 

id 2nd Srd yd, this 



yeto 

ye 

yeni 

yo 

yina to 
ySne 



Zo who (rel.) Ag. zeni pi. zina 
Kam who ? G. ktih to 
Kg any one Ob. ketsl 

Adjectives' are usually declined like nouns of the same form, but those 

ending iu a consonant are not declined. Thus judnmatO, good, 

atsa^g.matd, bad, mino, my, chitto, white, are declined like ghoro, and 

their feminines judnmatl, &c., like ghdyl. 

Comparison. There is no form for comp. and superl, The ideas 
are expressed as follows : iilcro, high, — athd nkro, higher than, — sabban 
athd ukrd, higher than all, i.e., highest. 
Adverbs, hi, yesterday, az, to-day, kale, to-morrow, zham (zh not 

zh ) to-morrow early 

itthe, here titthe, there. 

zabla, when, tyehla, then, kara, when ? hum, now. 

liiska, quickly. 

Verbs. 
Au.viliary. 

Pres. I am, &c. chi (s) chi (s) chu (f. chi) cha (s) chath cha 
Past. I was but-e (s) -e (s) -6(f.-i) -a (s) -ath -a 

In some places chis, chas, bates, butas are used instead of chi, &c. 



38 

Conjugation of marnO, beat. 

Aoi". or Cond. mar-S (or -ami) -es -i -as (or amata) -ath -euth. 

Fut. -alo -elo -elo -amala -athala -entliala 

Imperat. mar mara. 

Pres. mar or mara witli chi clii chu cha chath cha 

Impf. marS te mar-a te -a to -ata -atath -ata (or mdrd, 

instead of mara throughout), this te, to, &c., is the second 

syllable of hute, above. 
Cond. Past. Aor. with, hute, au marami hute, I would have beaten. 
Past. I beat. Agentive form of pronoun with maru {maruo). 
Participles. Pres. marU, having beaten, marlta. 
Passive, mdA with the various tenses of gisno, go : thus, au mari galo, I 

shall be beaten, su or oh mart go ro, he had been beaten. 

Gisno, go. 

Future galo gelo geilo gamala gathala gainthala 

Pres. gS chi, &g. Impf. gl te, &c. 

Past. ges ges go ga gath ga 

Plupf. go-ie -re -ro -ra -rath -ra 

Jaino, (jeno) come, 

Fut. jalo jelo jelo jamaia jethala jinthala 

Pres. js chi, &c. Impf. jS te, &c. 
Past. awe awe ao (awo) awa awath awa 
Plupf. u -re -re -ro -ra -rath -ra. 

Bhona, become, pr. p. bhoS, pa. p. bh'oita. 
Past bhue, like bute. 

Deno, give, pr. p. d§, pa. p. ditto. 

In the following specimens the pronominal suffixes will be noticed 
chiefly as expressing the agent, e.g., keriienl, uzarileni, zabueni, Idioeni, 
shunuem, shadueni, for he did, wasted, sent, attached, heard, called. 
dittldnl occurs agreeing with a fern, obj., something fem. was given by 
him. keoryem, I did. keiiriem, I did (with fem. object), dittuit, thou 
gavest. In hhejuseni two suffixes are found -s- being for the object, and 
n for the agent; he sent him, usne {-eni) usTco (s) hhBjd, Thu and su will 
be found as direct and indirect obj., sing. 

The Prodigal Son. 

Eki mahnue ta dui puttur buta nikka mattha ne babbe zabue 
One man of two sons were, little boy by father to was said 

Babbe tine mala to hisso zo ml jS chu su mi de, 
Father thy pix>perty of part which to me coming is that to me give, 



I 



39 

apno mal teni banti ditto, thorgdiiigne mS nikke puttrP 

own property bj-liim dividing was giveu, few days of in by-little son 

sab jame kerl 16 dur mulkho safar keiu^ni 

all together making was-taken far country to journey was-made-by-him, 
titthe teni mal apno uzari leni, zabia mal 

then by-him property own wasting was-taken-by-liim when property 

apno uzari leni te mulkho m§ kal bare pai! 

own wasting was-taken-by-him that country in famine great falling 

go te sii baro taijg bhol go, te mulkho te ekki 

went and he very straitened becoming went that country of one 

rahnebale laba ges teni apnia baigia m§ sur tsarne 

dweller near went-to-him by-him own field in swine to graze 

bhejuseni, zina phalia sar kha ta sii mane 

was-sent-to-him-by-him, what husks swine eating Avere, he heart 

mK karS to au apn5 pet bhari te ke dS to 

in making was I own stomach may fill, to-him any one giving was 

na. Zabla hosho mS ao tyebla zabueni mene babba te 

not. When sense in came then was-said-by-him my father of 

mazur kita rajji roti khS chi, au itthe buccha 

labourers how many being satisfied bread eating are, I here hungry 

marS chi, aii apne babbo kanS uthita cale galo, zabalo he 

dying am I own father near having-ai'isen going will go will say 

Babba Khudayo to te tino gunah keoryem, ya gall caijgj 

Father God of and thy sin done-was-by-me this matter good 

nehf lok zabenth tino puttur chu, apno mazfir mi banawa, 
not people may-say thy son is, own labourer me make 

sii apne babbo kane uthita ao su dur but5 su babbe 

he own father near having-arisen came he far was hira by-father 

heruo, te te rehm ao phiri daurita go te gale 

was seen and to him pity came again running went and neck 

sathi laweni te shundia dittiani, puttre te 

with-was-attached-by-him and kisses wex^e-given-by-him, by-son to-him 

zabue he Babba Khudayo to te tino gunah keoi-yem 

was-said Father God of and thy sin was-done-by-me 

ya gall caijgi nehl lok zabenth tino puttur chu, Babbe 
this matter good not people may-say thy son is By Father 



40 

naukarS lie zabuo sabbane atlia tall a cagga lush a aro, te 
servants to was said all than clothes good quickly bring him 

pur lawa, te hattho chap lawa thu, perS ne joro lawa thu> 
on attach and hand-on ring attach to-hira, feet with pair attach to him 

paluro batsuro arita phatta thu ah khamu te khushi 

kept calf having brought kill it we may-eat and happiness 

karamu, yo meno puttur mari go ro, te huni uthiio razi 
may make this my son dead gone was and now arose well 

bholta, ghadza go ro huni meli go, tine khushi karne 
having-become, lost gone was now found went, they happiness to make 

lagua teto baddo puttur baigia m% buto, zabla ghare iiere awo tjebla 
began his big son field in was when house near came then 

baje to te natsne to bar shunueni, ekki apno 

instrument of and dancing of noise was-heavd-by-him one own 

mahno shadueni su putsueni yo kut chu, teni 

man was-called-by-him him was-asked-by-him this what is, by him 

zabue tin5 brha ao tine babbe batsure palure 

was-said thy brother came by-thy father calf kept 

halal keraweni ya galla caijga 

lawful was-caused-to-be-made-by-him this matter-for well 

ladueni, su roshe bhue antar na gahne cace, babb 

he-was-found-by-him he in-a-huff became in not to go wished father 

teto beihr go su patiane lague, teni apne babbo 

his out went him to persuade began by-him own father-to 

jiwab ditto mi kite barie teni khidmat keuriem 

answer was-given by-me how-many years thy service was-done-by-me 

tino akho kade na mi morii kade bakre to bacco me 

thy saying ever not by-me was- turned, ever goat of little-one me 

kan na dittuifc au apne dOstS ne sathi khushi 

for not was-given-by-thee I own friends of with happiness 

keramutu, zabla tino puttur vir5 zeiii tino mal kanjrie 

may make, when thy son came by-whom thy property harlots 

ni liath-a udzarueni te tete khatir paluro batsuro 

with wasted-was-by-him, and his sake kept calf 

phatt bau teni te zabue puttra tu sada me sathi 

killed was, by him to him was-said Son thou always me with 



41 

chi zo k! mino chu so tino cbu, pnr khushi kSrnl 

art what anything mine is that thino is but happiness to make 
khush bhono carjgl gal buti, tino yO brha marl go 
happy to-become good matter was thy this brother dead gone 

r5 te huni uthilo razi bho!ta, ghadza go lo hiinl 

was and now arose well having-become lost gone was now 

m§li g5. 

being- found went. 

Extracts, 

Rati icch p5uo kukkria khiani phiri bacUlo nuksan 

At night bear fell hens to eat then great harm 

kerueni padro mS, lo bhm te otrei phiri tet§ 

was-done-by-him level in, light became and early again his 

magar bhiia dash raahna, khurie cale ga su, dur ga 
after became ten men track going went to-him, far went 

BU te zaro mS suttoro buto, titthe khane khan pouo, titlhe 
to-him and den in asleep was there food to eat fell there 

phiri bunduki dittia su, na lagia phiri nashi 

again guns were given to-him, not were-attached, then runiiing 

go tila hatha ghare cale awa, doke di loke 

went, then from house to coming came, second day by people 

mara. Paru ti gal chi. 

was killed. Last-year of matter is. 

TahsUdare ti citthi j^ chi. Mazur dere hapat 

Tahsildar of letter coming is. Labourers dwelling about 

ami, bakro, khat, bhanda, kukkur arna, dero 

to bring, goat, beds, vessels, cocks, to bring, dwelling 

laijgheita ghare jeno, itthe m§ kih kasfir bhei 

having-passed-on house-to to-come, there in any fault niay-liecome 

ta zerimano deno chip. Au hazir bhue. 
then fine to-give is. I present became. 

MaT to ghiwano dm cilki, waddie bi nikkie duddli 
Buffalo of tax two ten-annas big also little milk 

cumnewali bi yo ahi pur zulm chu. Shdu bheda bnkri .shO 
drinker also, this us ou violence is. 100 sheep goats six 
6 



1 



42 



Ittbe mS beuro 
Here in kid 



which 



rupayya tsSur ana gahcarai. 
rupees four annas grass-feeding. 

ik sala map buta, az ghini len lagua, 

one-year-old free were to-day taking to take they-have-begun 

az g5ru gana cha, ghar ze banawa cha, ilia to 
to-day cows counting are, house if making are it of 

ghins chan, diara to hukm na chu katne to, zo bori 
taking are, deodar of order not is cutting of, what other 

chia badne na da cha. 
is to-cut not giving are. 



{Note. — The dero referred to above is the annual procession from 
JammS to Sri Nagar and back of the Inner Palace or Maharaja's Ladies 
and their escort). 



buto 
was 

te 
and 

mul 
price 

lakri 
wood 



.) i 



f ■, ^ 



Siraji. 



1. ikk, one. 

2. dui, two. 

3. trei, three. 

4. tsour, four. 

5. panta, five. 

6. shah, six. 

7. satt, seven. 

8. atth, eight. 

9. nau, nine. 

10. das, ten. 

11. bih, twenty. 

12. panza, fifty. 

13. shou, hundred. 

14. hattb, hand. 

15. khur, foot, 

16. nakk, nose. 

17. acchi, eye. 

18. muh, mouth. 

19. dant, tooth. 

20. kann, ear. 

21. ke, hair. 

22. rut, head. 

23. jib, tongue. 

24. idd, belly. 

25. pitth, back. 

26. loha, iron. 

27. sonna, gold. 

28. candi, ruppa, silver. 

29. bab, father. 

30. i, mother. 

31. brha, brother. 

32. bahin, sister. 

33. mahnu, man. 

34. zanan, woman. 

35. zanan, wife. 

36. mattho, child. 



37. mattho, son 

38. dhi, daughter. 

39. kamo, slave. 

40. jlmldar, cultivator, 

41. gual, shepherd. 

42. Panniesar, God. 

43. Shatan, Devil. 

44. dis, sun. 

45. cann, moon. 

46. tara, star. 

47. agg, fire. 

48. pani, water. 

49. ghar, house. 

50. ghor5, horse. 

51. goia, cow. 

52. shuna, dog. 
63. bildf, cat. 

54. kukkur, cock. 

55. batki, duck. 

56. khar, ass. 

57. lit, camel. 

58. poto, bird. 

59. gisno, go. 

60. khano, eat. 

61. mishno, sit. 

62. jaino, come. 

63. marno, beat. 

64. kharono, stand. 

65. marno, die. 

66. deno, give. 

67. daurno, run. 

68. kharo, up. 

69. nero, near. 

70. uro, down. 

71. dur, far. 

72. agar, before. 



44 



73. pat, behind. 

74. kani, who. 

75. ki, what. 

76. ki, why, 

77. t6, and. 

78. but. 

79. ze, if. 

80. a, yes. 

81. neh!, no. 

82. liai, alas. 

83. ghor -o, a horse. 

84. -i, a mare. 

85. -a, horses. 

86. -ie, mares. 



87. dant, a bulls. 

88. goru, a cow. 

89. dant, bull. 

90. gorii, cows. 

91. shun -a, a dog. 

92. -ei, a bitch. 

93. -a, dogs. 

94. -eia, bitches. 

95. chero, a he goat. 

96. bakrl, a female goat. 

97. chera, goats. 

98. harn -o, a male deer. 

99. -i, a female deer 
100. -a, deer. 



1. tino nam kut chu F what is your name ? 

2. ye ghore tlii ummar kittS cLi ? how old is this hoise Y 

3. 611ah atha Kashmira tS kitto dur chu ? how far is it from hero to 

Kashmir ? 

4. tine babbo te gharo ma puttur kita cha ? how many sons arc tlicro 

in your father's house ? 
6. ajj ail bara dur awe, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mene tsatse to puttur teti behni sathi biao ro chu, the son of my 

uncle is married to his sister. 

7. gharo m^ chitte ghore tl kathi chi, in the house is the saddle of the 

white horse. 

8. kathi pitthi pur kasi laththo, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. tete puttre me mate korre raarii a, I have beaten his son witli many 

stripes. 

10. paharo te shire goru bakria tsarS chu, he is grazing cattle on the top 

of the hill. 

11. ghore b§i butto tal bishru chu, he is sitting on a horso under that 

tree, 

12. teto brha behni atha baddo chu, his brother is taller than his sister. 

13. yet5 mul dhai rupayyo chu, the price of that is two rupees aud a 

half. 

14. men5 babb ye nikkS gharo rahS chu, my father lives iu that small 

house. 

15. yo rupayya te de le, give this rupee to him. 

16. yo rupayya tin. ghini je, take those rupees from him. 

17. mast maro thu te radzu sathi bandhi thu, beat him well aud bind 

him with ropes. 

18. khuho mS pani ghini je, draw water from the well. 

19. me ari ari cal, walk before me. 

20. kahto mattho ti pata jS chu ? whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. yo kah atha mul awath, from whom did you buy that.^ 

22. gramo ketsia hatiabalia atha, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



RAMBANI. 

Rambcani is, like Poguli whicli it closely resembles, conuected with 
Kashmiri ; it is however farther away from Kashmiri than Poguli is. 
This is evident from its vocabulary, also from various points in its gram- 
mar, such as the formation of the Passive voice by means of the verb go 
instead of the verb come, and the greater use of compound verbs ; it is 
still more noticeable when we consider the pronunciation. Rarabaui has 
very largely a Panjabi pronunciation, Pogali is pronounced like Kash- 
ja'nl — thus for example ghor'^ would be differently pronounced in the 
two. 

Nouns. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. babb, father babb 

G. babb-a suij (f. sani, pi. sana, sanyi) babb-an sun, &c. 

D. -a -an 

Ab. -a tha -an thi 

mahn-o, man, obi. s. -a u. pi. -a obi. pi. -an 
So also ghof^, horse, lOk or lok"', boy 

Shnna, dog and tsirru, goat do not change for the nom. pi. 

Fern. Nouns. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. kurhi, daughter kurh-ia 

G. kur-hi san (sani, sana, sanyi) -ian, &c. 

D.A. -hi -ian 

So ghori, mare 

Zanand, woman takes zandni in the plur. 
Shnnei, bitch does not change for the nom. pi. 
hahin, sister has obi. hahina. 

The short vowels at the end of words are very indistinctly pro- 
nounced, and as Rambani is never written it is often extremely hard 
to tell which short vowel is being used, or whether what seems like a 
short vowel is really one, or is merely the necessary emission of breath 
after a consonant. 



Pronouns. 


Siug. 




1st 


2nd 


3rd Isfc 


N", au 


tu 


su N. as 


G. min^ 


tinfi 


tes-au (f. cT) 


D. mi 


ti' 


tes Gr. as- 


Ag. mi 


ti 


tin Ag. 



47 



Plur. 

2nd 3rd 

tus tin 

G-. as-au (f. ei) tus-au (f. l-I) tin-au (f.-oT) 
asa! tusn! tinfii 

tesaii makes tesive in the oblique and others in -aii are similarly 
inflected. 

kito, how much or many ? fem. kiti, plur. hita. 
kam, who ? Gr. kasau. y?7 = this. 

Adjectives are declined chiefly like nouns, thus carjgo, good, is like 

mahno, and its fem. caijgi is like kurht. 

Comparison is expressed by the positive form with //la, — tliU, caugo, 
= better than — , sahban tha cai]go, better than all, i.e., best. 

Verbs. 

Auxiliary Pres. I am &c. chus chus chu chasam chath chi 
Past at-us -us -u -asam -ath -a 

Marmi, beat pr. p. mar or mar§, pa. p. martumut 

Aor. or Fut. mar-5 -as -i -am -ath -ti 
Pres. mar or mara with auxil. pres. chus, &c. 

Impf. ,, ,, ,, „ „ past atus, &c. 

Past Agentive form of pronouns with martu 
Pres. Perf. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, martumut chu. 

Plupf. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, martumut atu. 

Passive, mart, with various parts of gntshnu, go. Thus au mnrl 
gatsh chus, I am being beaten, au mart gatsha or gei'is, I shall be or was 
beaten. 

Gatshyiu go, pr. p. gatsh or gatshS, pa. p. gomut 

Aor. or Fut. Pres. Impf. regular like mdrnu 

Past, geus geus geu geasam geuth gea 

Pres. Perf. and Plupf. gomut with pres. auxil. chus, &c , and past 
aux. dtas, &c., I'espectively. 

enil, come, pr. p. e, rahnu, remain, pr. p. rah. 

Rambanl has compound verbs after the Panjabi and not the 
Kashmiri model, e.g., ghinl lainu, take outright, Urdu iB lend. 



Hambani. 



1. ik, one. 

2. dill, two. 

3. cei, three. 

4. tsaur, four. 

5. pants, five. 

6. sh6, six. 

7. satt, seven. 

8. atb, eight. 

9. nau, nine. 

10. das, ten. 

11. bib, twenty. 

12. panzah, fifty. 

13. sbau, hundred. 

14. hatth, liand. 

15. khur, foot. 

16. nakk, nose. 

17. ncch, eye. 

18. mu!, mouth. 

19. dant, tootli. 

20. kann, ear. 

21. kesh, hair. 

22. rut, bead, 

23. zibb, tongue. 

24. pet, belly. 

25. pittb, back, 

26. loha, iron, 

27. sonii, gold. 

28. candi, silver. 

29. babb, father. 

30. amraa, mother. 

31. brha, brother. 

32. bahin, sister. 

33. mahn, man. 

34. zanan*, woman. 

35. zanan^, wife. 

36. lok, child. 



37. lok, son, 

38. kurhi, daughter. 

39. kam^, slave. 

40. zamindar, cultivator, 

41. gual, shephei-d. 

42. Panmesar, God. 

43. Shatan, Devil. 

44. diis, sun. 

45. tsanni, moon. 

46. tar^, star. 

47. agg, fire. 

48. pani, water. 

49. ghar, house. 

50. ghor", horse. 

51. gan, cow. 
C2. shun a, dog. 

53. hilar, cat. 

54. kukkur, cock. 

55. batki, duck. 

56. khot^, ass. 

57. St, camel. 

58. pakhrii, biixl. 

59. gatshnu, go, 

60. khanu, eat. 

61. bimnu, sit. 

62. enu, come. 

63. marnu, beat. 

64. kharonu, stand. 

65. marnu, die. 

66. denu, give, 

67. daurnu, run, 

68. ubhu, up. 

69. nere, near, 

70. kbalo, down. 

71. dur, far. 

72. agar, before. 



49 



73. pat, behind. 

74. kam, wlio. 

75. kut, what. 

76. ki, kizug, wliy. 

77. te, and. 

78. par, but. 

79. zekar, if. 

80. a, yes. 

81. na, no. 

82. bai he, alas. 

83. gho -r^, a horse. 

84. -ri, a mare. 

85. -ri1, hoi'ses. 

86. -ria, mares. 



87. dant, a bull. 

88. gau, a cow. 

89. dant, bulls. 

90. gawa, cows. 

91. ^lun -a, dog. 

92. -ei, a bitch. 

93. -n, dogs. 

94. -ei, biU'hes. 

95. tsirru, a he-goat. 

96. tseli, a female goat. 

97. tsiiTxi, goats. 

98. bar -n, a male deor. 

99. -ni, a female deer 
100. -n, deer. 



1. tino nam kut chu ? what is your name ? 

2. es gbore sani kit? umr chi ? how old is this horse ? 

3. itt ata Kashmira t5. kito diir chu, how far is it from here to Kasli- 

mir ? , 

4. tini bappu sani gi kita loka che ? how many sons are there in your 

father's house ? 

5. au az dur hanthi kari call gyus, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mini pitrie sana lokii teshwe bahini sathi biahtumut chu, the son of 

my uncle is married to his sister. 

7. gi m§ chitte ghore sani kathi chi, in the house is the saddle of the 

white horse. 

8. kathi teseT pithi bhei lathas, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. mi teswe loke mata korra ditmat ches, I have beaten his son with 

many stripes. 

10. yii pahar sani shiri bhei bakriS gawa sunal chu, he is grazing cattle 

on the top of the hill. 

11. yu ghora bhei buta khal bimi chu, he is sitting on a horse under 

that tree. 

12. tesau brha tgshwe bahina th§ badu chu, his brother is taller than his 

sister. 

13. tesau mul dhai rupae chu, the price of that is two rupees and a half. 
1-i. mino babb is matthe gi rah chu, my father lives in that small house. 

15. tes yu rupayya denu, give this rupee to him. 

16. tin rupae tes thS ghinni laina, take those rupees from him. 

17. tes juan marnias gazari sathi ganthi, beat him well and bind him 

with ropes. 

18. talao mS tha pani kari, draw water from the well. 

19. mi agar cal, walk before me. 

20. kasau loka ti pat pata e chu ? whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. yu kas ths muli an chut ? from whom did you buy that ? 

22. garaa sani ketsi hatiabala tha, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



POGULi. 

The Poguli language is spoken over a small tract of country to the 
east of Ramsuh which is 18 miles south of the Banihal Pas.s. It is 
therefore spoken in Jammft State. It resembles Kashmiri, though it is 
quite unintelligible to speakers of that language. Most Pogul people know 
some Kashmiri. Nearly all the peculiarities of Kashmiri are found in 
a modified form in Poguli, which being a border language contains also 
a number of points in common with dialects which look to Panjabi as 
their fountain head. Poguli differs very slightly from the dialect of 
Peristan. Pogul and Peristan are two streams flowing into the Bishlar, 
which in turn joins the Cinab. The tract of country across the Bishlar 
from Pogul and Peristan is called Sar ; its inhabitants arc said to speak 
the same language. 

Nouns. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. maul Mal-a 

G. mala sun (f. sin, pi. saua, f. sanya) -an sun, &c, 

D. malis -an 

Log. „ manz, &c., &c. -an, &c. 

Ab. ,, laba - ,, 

Ag. mali - ,, 

So loh or luh, a boy, loka sun, lokis, loki, &c. 
mohan, man, mahna sun, mahnis, &c. 

There seems to be considerable indifference about the inflection -is, 
and one hears -as and -us, but whereas -as and -is seem rare for inanimate 
objects, so one seems very rarely to hear -us with nouns denoting sentient 
beings. It will be noticed that the genitive postposition docs not, as in 
Kashmiri change, according to what word it follows, into hun or uw or 2iH. 
The oblique of smi is sani or sanni. 

Fern. Nouns. ' 

Sing. Plur. 

N. kuhri, daughter Kuhr-a 
G. kuhra, sun, &c. -an sun, &c. 

D. kuhra -an 

Ab. „ laba -an &c. 

Ag. klihra ~an 



52 



There are as in Kashmiri, though to a much less extent, internal 
vowel changes along with inflection. These changes make it difficult to 
give one word as a type of many others. There are peculiar consonantal 
changes also. The following are examples in addition to the words 
viaul and molian, above. 



M 


Sing. 


F. 




gh6r«, 


horse 


ghori 


^ 


hunn». 


dog 


huinni 


h 


juan-mut, good 


-mit 




Pronouns, 










1st 


2nd 
Sing. 


3rd 


N. 


au 


tu 


su 


G. 


miun 


tiun 


tes-au, t 


D. 


mi 


ti 


tes, tyes 


Ag. 


)> 


)> 


tin 




as 


tus 


tiau 




asaa 


tusau 


tiauan 




asan 


tusan 


tiauan 




asei 


tusei 


tiafiei 





Plur. 


M. 


F. 


gh6r«' 


ghueur* 


hunna 


hunya 


-mata -maca 



ye> 



this 



ye 



yes 

yin 

yaii 

yauan 

yauan 

yaiiei 

tyes-au, asau, tusau, yesau are thus inflected 

tySs-au f.s. -ei ra. pi. -au -f. pi. -ye 

Abl. s.m. -we s.f. -ye and so on 
mlim, tiun Obi. Una, Ag. tini 
Gr, kas-au D. kas. 
Gr. yes-ati Agent yin 
pi. kyita 

Owing to vocalic and consonantal changes it is 
difficult to give rules for the declensions of adjectives. Many are 
indeclinable. Those in -imit, are declined like juanmut, given above 
among the nouns. The s. of -is is usually omitted with adjectives, thus 
panani gharus, to his house, not pananis gharus. Otherwise adjs. are 
generally speaking itiflected like nouns (except of course indecl. adjs.) 

Comparison. There is no form for comp. or superl. The positive 
form is used with, kJlota, than, as tesei hina khota bo>\ bigger than his 
sister ; for the superl. sarni khota, than all, is used, sarni khota bor, 
bigger than all, biggest. 

Adverbs. Kur, tyiir, yur, whither ? thither, hither. 
kor, ter or teti, iti, where ? there, here. 
fehlai, then, yeblai, now, yabla, when 



kam, who ? 
yu, who 
kyet, how many 

Adjectives. 



53 

acca, day before yesterday, Is, yesterday, az to-day, rate, to-monow, 
cindus {cde, three, and das, day), day after to-morrow, tswdhiii, (|uickly. 
Verbs. 

Auxiliary. 
Pres. I am, &c. chus chus chu chisam clietli chi 
Past. I was ah -tus -tus -tii -sam -tath -ta (also auhtus, &c.) 
Pharnu, strike, beat. 

Aor. or Fut. I may or shall beat phar- a -us pliairi pliar -am -uth -uu 
Pres. I am beating. Pr. p. pliarti (iudeel.) with pros, auxiliary chus, &c. 
Impf. I was ,, ,, „ ,, „ ,, past. ,, abtas, &c. 

Past. I beat, &c., Agentive form of pronouns with phartu 

Pres. Perf. I have beaten „ „ ,, ,, phartumut chu 

Plupf. I had ,, „ „ ,, ,, ,, ahtu 

Conditional. phat-iha -os -ihi -aham -ahoth -ahun 

Imper. phar phari. 

Participles pr. p. pharti, pa. p. phartumut, having beaten, pliairkari 

The Passive is formed by using the particle pharani with the various 
tenses of ylun come, thus aw os phm'ani, I was beaten, yaua pharani, I 
shall be beaten. 

Gatshiu, go. 
Aor. Fut. gatsha gatshus getshi gatsh-am -uth -un 
Past. gos gos go geosam geoath geo 

Pres. gatsh or gatshti chus, SfC. 
Part. Pr. p. gatshti pa. p. gyemut. 

Pres. Perf. Plupf. gyemut chus, ahtue, &c. 
Yiun, come, pa. p. amut. 

Aor. Fut. Yaua yowus yeau yauam youth youn 
Past. as as ao aosam auath aua 

Dhin, give, pr. p. deti pa. p. dyutumut 
Aor. Fut. deaua deowus deu deauam deouth deoun 
Past. dyut, used like phaitu 

Asuu, become, pr. p. as, asti, having become aiskeii. 
Aor. Fut. asa asus ais asam asuth asun 
Bylninn, sit Past bimtiis, like ahtiis. seated = bimi 

Aor. Fut. ,, bim -a -us -i -am -uth -un 

Rahnu, remain, Aor. Fut. raha rahus rili rah - am -uth -uu. 
Past. rahn -us -us rohn rahn -sam -ath -a 

Bi7iu, fear Aor. Fut. biwa or biuwa, &c., frightened «= bii 
Past. binus like ralinus. 

Piun, diiuk, Aor. Fat. peoa peons piwi p§6 -am -ath -un 
Past, pint, used like phartu, with fern. obj. pit. 



54 

Karnu, do, past, ko (with fern. obj. ke) pa. p. kyemiit. 

zapnu, say, past, jo 

dhaiinu, walk, &c., past, dhautus 

klialnu eat, past, khao (with fem. obj. kliae) 

Causative verbs are formed by adding -al to the root of the verb, e.gf., 

khalnu, eat, khdlahm, cause to eat, feed. 

Pronominal suffixes are used somewhat as in Kashmiri. When -n 
is used as an agent to express by him, a vowel change occurs, e.g. : jo 
was said, joas was said to him, but jiln was said by him, similarly ko 
was done, kiln was done by him, dyutiin was given by him, prustiln was 
asked by him. Note q}so pashtnmi, was seen by-me, Jilmnai, was said 
to me («i) by him (n). 

To be able is expressed by Jiagnu used with the root of a verb, e.g., 
cue haga gatsh, I am or shall be able to go. 

The Prodigal Son. 

Yakis mahnas dih loka ahta lokhcye panani malis jo, 

One man to two sons were by-little own father- to was said, 

Baba tina mains yo mi hissa yeau, su mi deli, 

Father thy property of what to me part comes that to me give, 

tin dyut tiauan manza panun mal, bainti, mauei dusei 

by him was given them among own property dividing, five days 

pata lokhcye loki saurui ko jama te diir niulkus 

after by-little son all was-made together and far country 

manz kaujuin safar, te ter allakmat kar sut 

in was-made-by-him journey and there bad work with 

kiin panun mal phana, yebla kiin 

was-made-by-him own property destruction, when was-made-by-him 

saurui mal kharc ada pe tyes mulkus manz sakjit kal 

all property spending then fell that country in severe famine 

te su samuztu lacar, terki mulkus rahnawalis laba go, 
and he became helpless, there-of country-of dweller near went 

tin pyentu panani kheti manz sor gas khalalne kica, te yaii 
by-him was-sent own field in swine grass feeding for and what 

hima s5r khalti ahta su zapti ahtii ai^ khala idd 

husks swine eating were he saying Avas I may-eat stomach 



55 

bhava, te klls ahtns na deti, yabla linsli gs 

may-fill and anyone was-to-hini not giving, when sense canie-to-him 

tyabla jiin mlna malis kyeta moznr cliyi, pfira p(Hh 

then was-said-by-him my father's how many labourers are, ful-ly 

idd chyi bharti, te &u chus phaka phatti, au khafta malis 
stomach are filling and I am hunger of dying, I will stand father 

laba gatsha te tyes avi zapa Hatse Baba, mi ko tiun 

near will go and to him I will say father, by me was-done thy 

te Khuda sun guna, au chusna laik tiun lok zaptiam ml 
and God of sin I am not -worthy thy son saying-to-mo mo 

t! kara mazur sho, tin pata kharuthi te ao malis laba, 
also make laboiirer like, that after he stood and came father near 

su ahtu tirhui te mali baltiin te tyes ao tars te 
he was far and by father was-seen and to him came pity and 

tygs nalmut kusne te mith ditsen. Loki 

to him embrace was-made and kiss was-given-by-him. By-son 

wontus Hatse Baba mi ko tiuu te Khuda sun 

was-said-to-him O father by-me was-done thy and God of 

guna, ail chusna laik tiun lok zaptiam. Mali pananan 

sin I am not worthy thy son saying to me. By father own 

naukaran jiin sarni khota dadd juan tswohai auri 

servants-to was-said-by-him all then garment good quickly bring 

te tyes laug tyeswe ahtus manz laugthas wail, khoran manz 
and him-to attach his hand in attach-to-liim ring feet in 

jot te yiith wots anthan te karthas halhal, as khalam khushi 
pair and fat calf bring-it and make-it lawful, we may eat happiness 

karam, miun lok phatmut auhtu go zinda rautumut auhtu 
may-make, ray son dead was went alive lost .was 

yablai miltu, te tiauei khu.shi karui ke. tyesau 

now was-found and by-them happiness to make was-raade. His 

ziith lok waigi manz auhtii yabla su panani gharus wot tin 
big son field in was when he own house arrived by-him 

dholau sun nasni sun awaz huntiin te prustiiu 

drum of dancing of voice was heard-by-him and was-asked-by-him 

yu kut go tin joas tiun barun amut elm te 

this what went by-him was-said-to-him thy lu'other come is and 



56 

tini mali yiith wots hallml kiifi, tyes kici tjSs 

by-tby father fat calf lawful was-made-by-him tbat-for to-liim 

miltu juana paitb, su go mast kabli au geo gatshaliana, te 
was-found well like bo went very angry I bouse-to will-go not and 

tyesau maul gotbo nyistu te manaltiin so, 

his father out went-out and was-persuaded-by-liim to-bim 

tin panani malis dyutiiu jawab, kyet knal 

by-him own father to was-given-by-bim answer how much time 

kbySzmat tin ke mi, te zat tin kath balti na 

service thy was-done by-me and ever thy word was-turned not 

mi, te ti zot dyit na mi tselya path au kara 

by-me and by-tbee ever was-given not to me goat kid I may-make 

kbusbi panana dostan sit, yabla tiun lok ao yin 

happiness own friends with Avhen thy son came by- whom 

ko tiun mal kanjriin s!t kharab, ti kyemut cliu 

was-made thy property harlots with evil by-thee made is 

tyeswe kicya mot wots halh'al, tin joas mina loka tu 

him for fat calf lawful, by-him wae-said-to-liim my son thou 

chus hamesha mi sit te sarui ciz yu cliii miun su chu tiun 
art always me with and all thing which is mine that is thine. 

Khushi karnu juan ciz go, tiun barun phatmut auhtii, gf5 
Happiness to make good thing went thy brother dead was wont 

zinda, rautumut auhtu yablai miltu. 
alive lost was now was-found. 

Extracts. 

Ail as waiga manz ter pashtumi shaput, ada dhora ginn 
I was field in there was-seen-by-me bear, then stone taking 

pesis rara au gos bii aii as gioh nisb. Sahbas sit 
I-fell-to-it rushing, I went afraid, I came house near. Sahib with 

ahta trill mahna, tini anta sbal pants tin pata go 

were 30 men by him were-killed jackals five that after went 

hakka, hakka pentUn tsailih mahna Sahab rohn 

jungle-beat, were-sent-by-him forty men Sahib stayed 

janglas lutus pat ter shaput antiin abt te 

jungle-of head on there bears were-killed-by-him 8, and 



57 

khalo phirtu. Lassa jamadav caprais peutu nu Ss dih dus 

down he turned. By Lass^ „ caprasi was sent I came two days 

watus ter dant lehti abtus au ter jiimnai Sahab 

arrived there, oxen grazing was I, there was-said-to-me-by-him Sahib 

ao panin boH^ zop din dusan rahnus Siihabus sft Sahab 
came, own language speak, two days I stayed Snhib with Sahib 

tsat walti auhtu, sui go dahan gazan duggu hit bakkhi, rohan 
swimming was he went ten yards deep head towards stayed 

pahrus tE, tamasha laig baini mahna pantsa. Tin pata, 
one-watch up-to, fun began to see men 50. That after 

jiin panin bo^U zop khalnu khain na, 

was-said-by-him own language speak food was-eaten-by-him not. 

taklif mast laiga. Wat wata tap ahtu sakht, 

trouble great was-attached. On-the-way sunshine was severe, 

tapus ahtu bimi gatsTiti ahtu, zapti ahtu halla bo^U 
sunshine in he-was seated, going was saying was' bravo language 

zop. Mast tap ahtu te Sahbi gonthtu dastar 

speak. Great sunshine was and by Sahib was-knotted turban 

pananyi toipa pSt. Sahab a-htii rat ratti 

own hat on. Sahib was at night seizing (i.e., keeping me) 

din pahran boH^ sani kyici. 

two Avatches (i.e., 6 hrs.) language for. 






8 



P6guli. 



1. yakb, one. 


37. luk, son, ^ 


2. dih, two. 


38. kurhi, daughter. 


3. cae, three. 


39. gulam, slave. 


4. tsaur, four. 


40. zamindar, cultivator. 


5. pSts, five. 


41. gual, shepherd. « 


6, she, six. 


42. Khuda, God. 


7. satt, seven. 


43. Sheitan, Devil. 


8. aht, eight. 


44. dus, sun. 


9. nau, nine. 


45. zosun, moon. 


10, dah, ten. 


46. targan, star. 


11. wlh, twenty. 


47. tsori, nar, fire. 


12. pantsa, fifty. 


48. pai, water. 


13. hat, hundred. 


49. ghar, house. 


14. aht, band. 


50. ghur^, horse. 


15. khur, foot. 


51. gaS, cow. [ 


16. naht, nose. 


52. hunn*, dog. 


17. accb, eye. 


53. biar, cat. 


18. mui, mouth. 


54. kukkur, cock. 


19. dant, tooth. 


55. batki, duck. 


20. kann, ear. 


66. khar, ass. 


21. mast, wal, hair. 


57. fit, camel. 


22. lot, head. 


58. jonawar, bird. 


23. ziu, tongue. 


59. gatshnu, go. 


24. idd, belly. 


60. khalnu, eat. 


25. carb, back. 


61. byimnu, sit. 


26. shahtar, iron. 


62. yeun, come. 


27. sonn, gold. 


63. pharnu, beat. 


28. rupp, silver. 


64. kharkhur, rahnu, stand. 


29. maul, baub, father. 


65. pbatnu, die. 


30. yei, mother. 


66. deun, give. 


31. barun, baui, brother. 


67. dhaHtulnu, run. 


32. bean, sister. 


68. ubha, up. 


33. mohan, man. 


69. neri, near. 


34. kurmahn, woman. 


70. khala, down. 


35. kolai, wife. 


71. dur, far. 


36. luk, child. 





69 



72. agge, before. 

73. pat, behind. 

74. kam, wbo. 

75. kut, what. 

76. guzzi, why. 

77. te, and. 

78. par, but. 

79. if. 

80. aX, yes. 

81. na, no. 

82. hai, alas. 

83. gho -r*, a horse. 

84. -ri, a mare. 

85. -r*, horses. 

86. ghueur*, mares. 



87. daut, a bull. 

88. gau, a cow. 

89. dant, bulls. 

90. goitri, cows. 

91. hunn*, a dog. 

92. hu^nS a bitch. 

93. hunn*, dogs. 

94. hunya, bitches. 

95. katlu, a he«goat. 

96. tsel, a female goat. 

97. katla, goats. 

98. har -n, a male deer. 

99. -n*, a female deer. 
100. -u, deer. 



^ -I 



.3 r. 



1. tiun nam kut chu i^ what is'ydurnarae ? 

2. yes glioris ummur kyit thi ? how old is this horse ? 

3. ita pata Kashii- t§ kituk chu dur ? how far is it from here to Kash- 

mir ? 

4. tini mala sani g\ manz keta loka che ? how many sons are there in 

your father's house ? 
6. ail az dur tl dhautus, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. mini pecow sani loki chu tyesye bina sit byah kjemut, the son of 

my uncle is married to his sister. 

7. chitti ghora sun zia chu gi manz, in the house is the saddle of the 

white horse. 

8. tyesye cari pSt zin li, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. mi tyeswe lokyas shahtei k5rrei sit phartumut chu, I have beaten 

his son with many stripes. 

10. bala sanni lutus p5t su chu gallas gas khalal, he is grazing cattle on 

the top of the hill. 

11. su chu ghofis pSfc kolis khal bima, he is sitting on a horse under that 

tree. 

12. tesau barun tesei bina khota bor chu, his brother is taller than his 

sister. 

13. ittek kimat thi dai rupae, the price of that is two rupees and a half. 

14. miun maul chu tes lokhcyis garus manz rahti, my father lives in 

that small house. 

15. ye rupai tyes dyen, give this rupee to him. 

16. yail rupia gyun tyes, take those rupees from him. 

17. ty6s mast phari te razan sit gathin, beat him well and bind him with 

ropes. 

18. khuhus manz pa! kari, draw water from the well. 

19. mi aiggi dhaui, walk before me. 

20. kasau lok chu ti pata pata dhaiiti ? whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. ti kas laba tjes mol gintu ? from whom did you buy that ? 

22. gama sanni dukandaras laba, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



KISHTAWARI. 

Kshtawari is spoken in and near the village of Kishtawar, an im- 
portant place with 2,500 inhabitants, not far from the S.E. border of 
Kashmir. It is a dialect of Kashmiri, which it very much resembles. 
In Kishtawar Kashmiri is perfectly well understood. 

Nouns Masc. 

Sing. Plur. 
N. mhal -u, father mhal -i 

G. -i sun -ien hun*^ 

D. -is -ien 

Log. -is manz - ,, mauz 

Ab. -is hata - „ hata 

Ag. -in -iau 

ghtir*, horse, obh ghtir-i, -is &c., PI. ghur^, obi. ghufien &c.. 

so also sktir^^ boy (Ag shtirien) 

Then is also a declension ending in -a -as &c., for the oblique cases. 
ghar house, ghar -a sun, -as, -an, Plur. ghar, ghar -an -au. 

So also dand, back, 

tsliyor^ he-goat, pi. tsher'^ 



Fern. Noun Sing. 




Plur. 


N. kori -i daughter 




kor -i 


G. kor -i hun^ 




-ien &c. 


D. -i 




n 


Loc. -i manz 




i> 


Ab. -i hata 




)) 


Ag. -i 




-iau 


hhain sister, obliq. hhenyi. 






gau cow, pi. gae. 






Pronoun. 






Sing. : 




Plur. 


1st 2nd 3rd 


1st 


2nd 3rd 


N. boh tu su 


as 


tus tim 


G, miaun: tsaun tyisun 


as -un 


tus -un tim -an huu 


D. me tse tyis (neut. tath) 


-i 


-i -an „ 


Ag. me tse tin f ;_^ 


♦1 . 


• i...r}. ~^^ 



62 

yi, this or rel. who, declined like su, yisun &c., plur. yim &c. 

ko who G. kasim, D. &c., kas; fcS anyone, obi. kBisi 

kyut^ how much f. kitsa, pi. kitya how many. 

miaun, tsauiiy tyisun, asun, tusun, and hun (of timan hun) are declined like 

adjectives. j|| 

Adjectives are declined very much like nouns. Many however are 
indeclinable. 

Comparison. * Than ' is expressed by nishi, and the positive form is 
used with nishi, zabar good, — nishi zabar, better than, sdriwi nishi 
zahar, better than all, best. 

Verbs. 

Auxiliary Pres. I am &c., thus thukh thu thi theaua thi 

Past 1 was &c., asus asukh asu aisi aseaua asai (or ausus &c. ) 
tsotun, beat Pr. Pa. tsotan pa. p. tsotmut, having beating, tsoti, or tso^it 
Aor. or Fut. tsot -a -akh -i -an -iu -au 
Imper. tsot tso^iu 

Pres. Ind. tsotan (pres. p.) with Pres. Auxil. boh thus tsotan &c. 
Impf. „ „ Past. ,, boh asus „ &c. 

Conditional tsotah -a -akh -i -au -iu -an. 

Past me tsotum, tse tsotuth, tin tsot, asi tsot, tusi tsoteau, timau 
tsotukh. 

Pres. Perf. me thum tsotmut &c. 
Plupf. me asum ,, &c. 

Passive, tsota with the various parts of gatshuu^, go, boh thus tsota 
gatshan, I am being beaten. 

Gatshun^, go pr. p. gatshan, pa. p. gomut. 

Aor. or Fut., Imper., Pres. Ind., Impf., Cond. all regular like tsotun 

Past gos gokh gou ge geau ge 

Pres. Perf. boh thus gomut &c. 

Plupf. boh asus gomut &c. 

marun die, past mud -us -ukh mudu &c. pa. p. mudmut. 

rihun remain, past rath -us -ukh -u &c. 

heun take, past hyut, is used as in Kashmiri for * begin ' (with the infin.) 

yiu7i^ come, past as, akh, a5 &c., pres. p. yuan. 

kheun^ Aor. or Fut. khyema &c., as in Kashmiri. 

Pronominal suffixes are very common, e.g. 

Dative, dyim, give me, dyitis give him, asias were to him, zabas will 
say to him, even indirect connection as shur^ tyesun marigos, his son died 
to him, 

Ace. hanayim make me, tsoiis beat him. 



6S 

Agent. pJmum, I turned, hanm I did (.agr. w. masc. obj.) karyini 
I did (fern, obj.) dyituth, thou gavest, tsottm he struck, tsof^ati you 
struck, hetsakh, they took (fein. obj.) 

Double suffixes. Zahunas he said to him, usno -(n-) uako-(8-) kaha, 
ditinus, he gave to him. There is no suffix for the 1st plur. 

Compound verbs are found on the Pahari and not Kashmiri model, — 
u^ai dyuttin, he wasting gave, he wasted, marigau, he dyiug went, ho 
died. 

The Prodigal Son. 

Aikis mahnis zhe .shuri asias lokrin shufien pananis 

One man-to two sons were-to-him little son-by own 

mhalis zabun panani daulata manza miaun his.si 

father-to was-said-by-him own wealth from-in my part 

dyim te tin timan panan^ dolat bantl 

give-to-me and by-him them-to own wealth dividing 

ditsin, thukrien dosan naanz lokrin shurien sanVi jama 

given-was-by-him few days in little son-by all together 

kari dui* dishas safar korun t& tete 

having-made far country-to journey was-made-by-him and there 

mar5 karan pata mal ujarun, yei ghari sorui 

evil work after property was-wasted-by-him what honr all 

barbad karun tath dishas manz baddii kal peon su 

wasting was-made-by-him that country in great famine fell he 

lacar gau, tath jae hinis aikis shakhsas labi rathu tini 

helpless went that place of one man near remained, by-hira 

pananyis zaminas manz sur tsunawani sozun, yima 

own land in swine to-cause-to-feed was-sent-by-him what 

shima siir khewan aisi su zaban logu yiman sSti panun yad 
husks swine eating were he to say began these with own stomach 

bhara tg tis kS diwan asu na. Yei ghari su hSshas 

I may fill and to him any one giving was not. What hour he sense 

manz ao tin pananis dilas sSti zabun miaui mhali 

in came by-him own heart with was-said-by-him my father 

sinyi kitya mazur thi yad bhari khgwan boh y6ti 

of how-many labourers are stomach having filled eating I here of 
bhuci maran lagus, boh wathi pananis mhalis nisha gatsha 
hunger to die began, I having risen own father near will go 



64 

te zabas ai mball me Sahiba sun te tsaun gunah 

and will-say. to-him O father by-me God of and thy sin 

karum ath laik ratbus na tsaun sbur^ zaba, 

was-done that worthy remained I not thy son I may-say 

me pananien mazuran hish banayim, wathi pananis mbalis 
me own labourers like make-me, having-risen own father 

labi ao, su hazza dur asu, mbalin lawun tis • tars 

near came be yet far was by-father was perceived to him pity 

awus dorita nalamati ratun te hun^i 

came-to-him, baving-run in-embrace was-seized-by-him and kiss 

ditinus. Tin zabunas ai mhali 

was-given-by-him-to-him. By-him was-said-by-him-to-him father 

mg Sahiba sun te tsaun gunah karum, ath laik ratbus 
by me God of and thy sin was-done that worthy remained 

na tsaun gbuj^ zaba, mbalin pananien naukaran 

I not thy son I may say, by-father own servants-to 

zabun sariwi nishi juan poshak kadi 

was-said-by-hira all than good raiment having-taken-out 

aniii tg yis lagius isin^ hathas aqkhuc lagius, 

bring and to-him attach-to-bim this-of hand-to ring attach-to-him 

khoran padiSru te rachmutu watswa yor aniu te halal karius 
feefc-to sboe and kept calf here bring and lawful make-it 

as khyemau khushi karau, miaun yi shur^ mudmut asu zinda 
we may eat happiness may make my this son dead was alive 

r go ramut ausu te mynl. Khushi ; karan^ hgtsakh, 

went lost was and was-found. Happiness to-make was-begun-by-them. 

Tyisun badd'^ shui* wajjan manz ausu, yei ghari gharas nior ao 
His big son field in was what hour house near came 

dbol wayun te natsunuk waz lawun aikis 

drum beating and dancing of voice was-perceived-by-him, one 

naukaras sad dyit guarun yi kya samuz tin 

servant-to call having-given was-asked-by-him this what became by-bim 

tyis zabun tsaun bboi aui tsani mbalin 

•to-him was-said-by-him thy brother 6ame-to-thee thy father- by 

■ tisine khatira rachmutu watsu marun aiji khatara tin 

his sake kept calf was-killed-by-him this sake by-him 



65 

su juan lawun, su krudhi samuz, andar gatsliun 

to-him well was-perceived-by-liim he angry became in to go 

lagu na, tisun mlial^ kanara nyit b5zawun lagus 

began not his father out having-goue to-persuade began-to-him 

tin pananyis mlialis jawab dyutun, wucch kityan 

by-him own father-to answer was-given-by-hini see how many 

warhien tsan khezmat karyim tsaun* zab* zafc 

years thy service was-done-by-me thy saying ever 

phirum na me zat put dyituth na boh 

was-turned-by-me not to-me ever kid was-given-by-thco not I 

pananien yaran sSt khushi karaha yei ghari tsaun yi 

own friends witli happiness might-make, wliat hour thy thi8 
shur'5 ao yin tsaun mal kanjran sSt udai 

son came by-whom thy property harlots with causing-to-fly 

dyutun isini khatir rachmut^^ wats^ marawuth 

was-given-by-him this-of sake kept calf was-causcd-to-be- 

mhalin tis zabuu Ai shuria tu hamesha 

killed-by-thee, by father to-him was-said son thou always 

m5 sSt thukh ikentsa miaun thu tsaun thu, khushi karaii te 
me with art whatever mine is thine is happiness to make and 

khush samuzun gatshihi, tsaun yi bho! mudmut asii zinda go, 
happy to-became was-proper thy this brother dead was alive went 

ramut ausu te myul. 
lost was and was-gained. 



o"- 



Stort. 

Yeti aseau Nawab Sahibau Labbhu Raui TahsllJar rachmutu 
Here was „ sahib-by „ „ „ placed, 

pifcsan warhan, ponna tyespan lukau zamlndarau kliualikh 

five years, then him on by-people farmers raised 

basal at ponna sapuz maukuf, yath kilas manz kaid 
complaint, then he became put away, this fort in imprisoned 

samuz ponna gyas tari manz khabar shur^^ tyesau 

became then came-to-him telegram in news son his 

mari gos, mhast ryuwan zaci tsacien, darh* 

dying went-to-him, much wept clothes were-torn-by-him beard 
9 



66 

panani pucien pahra dyutos sathi, shalir 

own was-pulled-out-by-him, guard was-given-to-him along with, city-to 

sozukh, ponn» Natbu Mai Sahibas sStbi mbast minnat 

was-sent-by-thera, then „ „ Sahib with much entreaty 

zari karin, panun pan mokalawun Nbori yor yinac 

weeping was-done-by-him own body to-free Again here coming-of 

marzl karan thu, asi nianaus na, asi Nawab Sababas labi 

desire doing is, wo will-agree-to-hira not, we ,, Sahib near 

faryad gatsbau. Su tbu baddu zulmmiaru, taii pata 

complaint will-go. He was great oppression-maker tbat-very for 

yath raulku sun su thu mehrana sarazumu^, tin karun 

this country of he was acquainted become by-hira was-made-by-bim 

yath mulkas pananyi marzi sathi zaminas kach. 

this country-to own desire with land-to measurement. 

Lacaran mahanyieu badawun, badien mahnien zamin ziyada asiai, 
Helpless men- to to increase, big raen-to land more was, 

thukfi banayin. Ai katha pana luk sari tyispan 

little was-made-by-him. This matter upon ppople all bira upon 

krudhi samazei, su hakim asi gatshi na 
angry became, that ruler to-us desirable-is-not 

(The meaning of the last sentence but one is that this official made 
out poor people's land to be more than it really was, and so took higher 
taxes from them ; similarly he understated the amount of rich people's 
land). 



Kishtawari. 



1. akh, one. 

2. zhe, two. 

3. tre, three. 

4. tsor, four. 

5. pants, five. 

6. .she, six. "' 

7. satt, seven. 

8. eth, eight. 

9. nau, nine. 

10. dah, ten, 

11. wuh, twenty. 

12. pantsa, fifty. 

13. hat, hundred. 

14. hattho, hand. 

15. khor, foot. 

16. nasth, nose. 

17. acchi, eye. 

18. shund, mouth. 

19. dand, tooth. 

20. kann, ear. 

21. wal, hair. 

22. lot, head. 

23. zeou, tongue. 

24. yad, belly. 

25. dandu, back. 

26. shethar, iron. 

27. sonn, gold. 

28. rop, silver. 

29. mhalu, father. 

30. mhaili, mother, 

31. bhaui, brother. 

32. bhain, sister. 

33. mahnu, man. 

34. zanan, woman. 

35. kolai, wife. 

36. shuF^j child. 



37. shurii, sun. 

38. kori, daughter. 

39. ghulam, slave. 

40. zamindar, cultivator. 

41. poha], shepherd. 

42. Sahib, God. 

43. Shetan, Devil. 

44. suraj, sun. 

45. zosun, moon. 

46. tar", star. 

47. nar, fire. 

48. pan, water. 

49. gharo, house. 

50. ghurfi, horse. 

51. gau, cow. 

52. hon*, dog. 

53. braur^, cat. 

54. kokkar, cock. 

55. batak, duck. 

56. khar, ass. 

57. Stii, camel. 

58. janwar, bird. 

59. gatshua", go. 

60. kheunS, eat. 

61. bihun", sit. 

62. yiun^, come. 

63. tsotun'^, beat. 

64. khari khari riun'^, stand. 

65. marun^, die. 

66. dyun'i, give. 

67. dorun'^, run. 

68. hosh, up. 

69. ni6r«, near. 

70. bon, down. 

71. dur, far. 

72. bon^h, before. 



68 



73. 


pata, behind. 


74. 


ko, who. 


75, 


kya, what. 


76. 


kyazi, why. 


77. 


te, and. 


78. 


par, but. 


79. 


hai, if. 


80. 


g, yes. 


81. 


noi, no. 


82. 


hai hai, alas. 


83. 


ghu -r^, a horse 


84. 


-rl, a mare. 


85. 


-rl, horses. 


26. 


-re, mares. 



87. dand, a bull. 

88. gau, a cow. 

89. dand, bulls. 

90. gae, cows. 

91. hon'^, a dog. 

92. h6ny% a bitch. 

93. honi, dogs. 

94. hony^, bitches. 

95. tshyoji^, a he-goat. 

96. tshel^, a female goat. 

97. tsheri, goats. 

98. har -n, a male deer. 

99. -ni, a female deer. 
100. -n, deer. 



1. tsaun nam kya tLiii, wliat is your nnmc ? 

2. is ghnri si ummar kitsa the? how old is this horse ? 

3. yeti hata Kashiri lai kyuta thu ? how far is it from here to Kash- 

mir ? 
4- tsan^ mhal^ sin gharas manz kitya shuri thi, how many sons arc 
there in your father's house ? 

5. boh hanthus az mhast diir, I have walked a long way to-day. 

6. miau^ peti^ sinyi shurien karun tesinyi bhenyi sati biah, the son of 

ray uncle is married to his sister. 

7. gharas manz thu safed ghuri sun zin, in the house is tlic saddle of 

the white horse. 

8. tesinyis dandas thoyiu zin, put the saddle upon his back. 

9. me tsotum tyisun shur mhast, I have beaten his son with many 

stripes. 

10. su thu dhari hinis mokhas pan mal tsunawan, he is grazing cattle on 

the top of the hill. 

11. su thu kulyis tal ghuris pan bei, he is sitting on a horse under tliat 

tree. 

12. tyisun bh5i thu tyesinyi bhenyi hata badd^, his brother is taller than 

his sister. 

13. tathun mol thu dhai ropie, the price of that is two rupees and a 

half. 

14. Miaun mhal thu tath Ibkuri gharas manz rihwan, my father lives in 

that small house. 

15. yi ropai dyitis, give this rupee to him. 

16. tyis hetsa tima ropie, take those rupees from him, 

17. tyis ts5tis jan paithyi te razan sat gandis, beat him well and bind 

him with ropes. 

18. khuha manza khual paii, draw water from the well. 

19. me bonth hanth, walk before me. 

20. kasun shur'i thu tse pata yiian ? whose boy comes behind you ? 

21. tse kas hata su mol hyututh ? from whom did you buy that ? 

22. gamakis kasi wanawalis hata, from a shopkeeper of the village. 



The Sasi Dialect — its connection with other dialects. 



In the following lines I have noted the chief points of resemblance 
between S§si and other dialects in the North of India, and done so in 
the hope tliat the facts brought together may be of some assistance to 
Philologists in deciding the origin of the Sisi dialect . This in turn may 
throw light on the origin of the SSsi people. This list of resemblances 
is necessarily incomplete (I have not been able to get access to the rele- 
vant specimens collected by the Linguistic Survey of India) but it 
seemed better to note such points as occurred to me than to wait in- 
definitely for further knowledge. 

The Sssi dialect here referred to is that spoken by Slsis in the 
North of the Panjab. The following abbreviations are employed in 
naming dialects : — 

Band (Bandeli) ; Bar (Barmauri) ; Bha (Bhathiali) ; Br (Braj) ; 
Cam (Cambiali) ; Cur (Curahi) ; Dh (Dhundi or Kairali) ; Ga 
(Gadi) ; Gujar (Gujar) ; Gjt (Gujrati) ; Jai (Jaipur!) ; Kag (Kaqgri) ; 
Kash (Kashmiri); Kul (Kului^; Mai (Malwi) ; Mar (Marwan) ; Me 
(Mewati) ; Nai (Naipali) ; Pad (Padari) ; Pag (Paijgwali) ; Panj 
(Panjab!) ; Po (Poguli) ; Pu (Punch!) ; Ram (Rambani) ; Sir (Siraji) ; 
Tim (Tinauli). - - 

These dialects are distributed as follows : Jammu State Pad', Po, P u. 
Ram, Sir ; Camba State Bar, Bha, Cam, Cur, Pai) ; Rajasthan Jai, Mai, 
Mar, Me ; United Provinces Br, Band ; Knrjgra Ga, Kaij, Kul ; Murree Hills 
Dh ; Naipdl Nai; GuJrRt Gjt; Kashmir State Kash; Scattered Gnja,!'. 
There are also Panj in the Panjab and Tinauli in N.-W.F. Province. 

The Criminal Argots referred to are the Cuhra, Qasai and Gam- 
blers' Argots. 



Sasi. 
Nouns Masc. in consonant, I, u, 
have Oblique Sing, in -H 
Obi. Plur. Masc. & Fem. -I 
Fern. Sing. Obi. in -a 
Abl. case tho 
Loc. bice 

Pronouns. 

1st S. Nom. hau 



Pu 
Ga 
Pu 

Sir 



} 



Compare, 
obi. in ~a 



obi. pi. ~e 
fems. in -I for obi. 



add -a 



Panj, &c., thd, Br ts, Me tat, Gjt thi 
Dh, Pu, Gujar bice, Panj wicc 

Br and Cam haU ; Gujar, Mai, Mar 
hii ; Gjt hu, Po, Ram, Sir Pad, 
Pai), Bar, Ga au 



71 



Isfc Plur. Gen. mhard, 



2nd Sing. 
2nd pi. 



tau 
tarn 
Gen. tuhara 



Sasl, 
2nd plur. oblique tarn 
Demonstrative Pron. 
(nora.) ed, this 

Agent in. 



remote oh, Agent nn 



Sinj 



Demonstrative Plur. 
Near 

Oblique in 

Agent ind 
Remote Obi. un 
Ag. nno 



Verb. 



Kul Kar) iuhdrS; Gnjar, ISfew, Jfar, 
mhdro ; while for the Gen. 8ing. I'u 
and Dh have vihdrn, Tin vmhra ; Miil, 
Jai, Mar, Gujar ynhaio 

Kul thau, 

Gujar, Mew tarn, Gjt tamB 

Cnv J iihdm; Gujar, Mow thiird ; Mar 
^ASro; Kul Ihaindm; while for Gen. Sing. 
Pu and Dh have tuhdrd, Jiu tchrd, Mai, 
Jai, Mar ^/mro. 

Gjt tarn, 

Braj 2/«?i, Panj Gjt o, for fem. Jai, Mar. 
G ujar have yd 

Pag in 

Pu, Cam, Bar, Cui*, Bha, Kar) iju Ga inni ; 
for oblique Br has iid and Bund in 

Pai) un, Pu, Cam, Ga, Bar, Cur, Blia, Kai) 
tml Nai una le or fina /e ; for obliciuo 
Br has uni, and Band «n 

The cerebral n of the Sasi in and un is found 
in the oblique sing, of Mai, itu, Mai- in 
and tnf for the near demonstrative, and 
nni (Mai) un or tint (Mar) for tlio re- 
mote, also in Sir. Agent yeni, and tnn 
for the near and remote dem. 



Mar Mai ina, Pag ini 

Mar, Mai una, Par) uni 

There ai'e similar resemblances in the n la- 
tive and interrogative pronouns. 



Auxiliary Pres. I am, resembles very much Urdu, Hindi, and Panjabi 
Sing. Plur. 



Past. Thiyyd, Thiyye 



Cam. thiyd, thiye ; Par), Cur, fhyd, thje : 
Pad the'^, thi^ ; Nai 3rd s. thiyo, 3rd pi. 
thiye ; Ga, Bar pi. thit. 



72 



Future horjgra, he will be 
Pres. Past ends in ~ta 

In compound verbs where 
in Urdu the root of one is 
joined to the second Sssi 
adds ~l to the root. 

Adverb, 
elhl, here, ethd, from here, 
othi, there 

Tcare, where ?, jar^, where 
hhi, then, after that 
iw, now 

Vocabiilary. 

lohna, beat, kill 
lugna, die 
tliaifQlcna. sit 
kulna, do 

bel hulna, keep quiet 
hnrlma, huqqa 



pauniy 



shoe 



hhat, bed 

kajjd, farmer, &c 

toina, fine, fat 



Kay ho^gha. 

Hill dialects having ta or to as the ending 

are Par) and Cur ta, Gujar — to. 
Practically all hill dialects from Hazara 

to Kaqgra add the -I but Gujar does not 



Bar ithl, ithd 

Kaij othu, Bar telhi, 

for the r cf. Pai) iriya, from here. 

Gujar, Dh hlil 

Kul, ih. 



Kash, ISyun, Cuhra, lothna 

Cuhra, lugna 

Qasai, thairjg rahna, keep quiet. 

Cuhra, kulna 

Cuhra, hel kul. 

Gamblers, Cuhra, hurknd 

Pu fauni, 

Kash, Pu, Dh, Sir, khat 

Cuhra, kajja, English, ccdger, 



C libra, toma 

In the above notes it has not been thought necessary to mention 
the numerous inflections and verbal or pronominal forms in which Sasi 
resembles Urdu or Hindi, and in the case of Panjabi of the many points 
of likeness only one or two have been adduced. In the case of these 
three languages it would have taken up too much space to mention every 
point of resemblance. My object was rather to refer to languages which 
are spoken over small areas and are for this reason less well known, and 
in particular to draw attention to the hill dialects, with a number of 
which Sasi has many points in common. 



The Notes on the Kdngri and G:1di dialects were, in the first inatAnoo, 
compiled by the late Mr. Edward O'Brien. He, however, did not live to pre- 
pare his notes finally for the press, and when a proof copy was printed from 
his manuscript it was deemed advisable to have it revised. I have accordinffly 
gone through all the notes and vocabulary, revising them and making uumeroui 
additions. Some words I was not able to trace. To such words an astoriak 
has been prefixed. They are chiefly names of plants or of fish and are found 
almost exclusively in the vocabulary. In some cases words somewliat similar 
in form and meaning came under my observation and are inserted in square 
brackets after the asterisked words. It has been thought better to adhere to 
Mr. O'Brien's system of transliteration. 

The KdngrI dialect is spoken with some variations over a largo portion of 
Kdngr^ District. The form of it given in these Notes is aspecially that of 
the eastern portion of Kdngrd proper. Further east we find Mandedli in 
Man4i State, and still further east Kului in Kulu. To the north aroBhaVeAli 
and Chamed,li, both in Ohamba State. For a treatment of these reference 
should be made to the Appendix to the Gazetteers of Mandi and Chamba. 
Kdngri is a dialect of Panj^bi. It has many points of resemblance to Maiide^li 
and still more closely resembles Bhateali and Chamedli. For the linguistio 
bearing of forms like minjo vich, tijjo vich, in me, in thee, see the note on 
p. 286 of the Punjab Census Report for 1901. 

Gd-di 18 the language of the Qaddis who inhabit a district, called after 
them Gadheran, lying in the north-east portion of K^ngrsi proper and the 
south-east portion of Chamba State. The Chamba District of Bharmaur ia 
Part of Gadheran, and Bharmauria speak the Gadi dialect. The dialect is 
purely Pahari; it is allied, very naturally, to neighbouring dialo^'t'' smh as 
Chamed^i and Bhatedli in Chamba State and Kdngri in Kaner^- Ita 
grammatical forms will well repay study; the verbs as exemplified, for 
example in gdhnd, go, are peculiarly interesting. Thus, forms hke gachhd, 
go, ichhun, I may come, remind us of the gachhnd, achhnd of the Pnnchhi 
dialect of Laihnda spoken in Punchh State, and of the dialect spoken in 
the Murree Galis. The plural of nouns is, except for the vocative ca-e, the 
game as the singular, a phenomenon common in dialects of the Simla States 
and of Kulu. Among the songs which follow the Kdngr^ Notes there are 
included a number of G^di songs. They will be found special iy indi.-«ted. 
The tendency of Gaddis to say kh for s is very noteworthy. In the present 
■tate of their dialect sis quits common, due no doubt to the pp.x.mity of 
-pronouncing peoples. The fondness of Gdddis for ^7. is the more remark- 
able that nearly all hiUmen find it difficult to sayhh and can lay only kh. 

2m December 1904. } T. GRAH AME BAl LEY. 



Notes ON THE DiALEOT OF THE Kakcra Valley, .;v the late EDWARD 
UJ3RILN, EsQUiEE, c.s, Dei'utv (Jommi>^;ioner of K'^^•,;KA 
Kevised with Additional Notes j5y the Revd. T. GRAHAME 
BAILEY, B.D., M.E.A.s., AVazikadad. 

NOUNS. 
The doclension of Kaagri nouns is effecUa (excopt for tlio Aj/ont 
case) as in Hindostani, by the addition of Postpositions to what may bo 
called the Formative case of the noun. Thus Nomhiatlre Shu,nlnr Jiora. 
horse; Formahvs Singular ghore ; Genetive Sini/xdar ghoro da, i"tc. " 

The following is a scheme of the formative and nominative ca3os io 
the various declensions : — 



< 


Nom. Sing. 


Form. Slug, 


Nom. I'l. 


Form. PI. 


1. — Masc. in d 


Gliora. 


Ghorc. 


Ghore. 


Ghorciiii. 


11.— All other Mascs. \ 


Ghar. 
Bichlui. 


Gbar(^ 
Hi. h hue. 


Ciliai'. 
Bichcliii. 


Ciliiinii'i. 
liiclicliuan. 


III. — Vem. in i ... 


Bitti. 


BiftlH. 


BiHiiu'i. 


Bittiuu. 


Some Ferns, in con- 










sonant ... 


Junas. 


Juiuisa. 


Junasai'i. 


Juniisan. 


IV. — Fem. in consonant... 


Baihn. 


B;iihni. 


Bailiiiin. 


Baihniii. 



The genitive, as in Hiudostani, agrees in gender and number witli tho 
object of the genitive, e.gr., babbe di bitti, the father's daughter, kuda 
jatak, whose son ? 

The following paradigm gives the four declensions in full :— 





Masc. in a. 


Other masc. nouns. 


SlNQDLAR — 


Horse. 


Bouse. 


Scorpion. 


Nom. 


Ghora. 


Ghar. 


Bichchii (or 
bichcbu). 


Form 


Ghore. 


Gharc. 


Bichchiie. 


Gen 


Ghore dti. 


Ghare da. 


liichchiic da. 


Dat 

Ace. 


{ Ghore jo. 


Gharo jo. 


Bichchuo jo. 


Agent 


Ghore n. 


Gharcn. 


Bichcbu en. 


Loc. 


Ghorc bicli. 


Gliarc bich. 


Bichidme bich. 


Abl 


Ghore tc. 


Ghare te. 


Jjichcbiie te. 


Voc. 


Ghorea. 


Gharii. 


Bichchua. 


Plural— • 








Nom 


Ghore. 


Ghar*. 


]>ichc]ui. 


Form. ... 


Ghorean. 


(iharan. 


Bichchii iin. 


Gen 


Ghoredn da. 


Gharan dvi. 


Bif bchuan da. 


Dat 

Ace 

Agent 

Loc. 


1- Ghorean jo. 

Ghorean. 
Ghoredn bich. 


Gbanin jo. 

Gharan. 
Gharan bich. 


Bichchuan jo. 

Bicbchuan. 
Bichchuan bich. 


Abi 

Voc 


Ghoredn te. 
Ghoreo. 


Gharan te. 
Gharo. 


Bichchudu te. 
Bichchuo. 





Fern, in i. 


Fem. in consonant. 


Singular— 


Daughter. 


Woman. 


Sister. 


Norn. 


Bitti. 


Junds. 


Baihn. 


Form. ... 


Bitti^. 


Junasa. 


Baihni. 


Gen 


Bitti^ da. 


Junfisd dd. 


Baihni dd. 


Dat 

Ace. 


? Bittia jo. 


Junasd 30. 


Baihni jo. 


Agent ... 


Bittien. 


Junasen. 


Baihniii. 


Log. 


Bittia bich. 


Jundsd bich. 


Baihni bich. 


Abl 


Bittia te. 


Jundtd fee. 


Baihni te. 


Voc 


Bittie. 


Jundse. 


Baihni. 


Plcfal— 








Nom 


Bittid-n. 


Junasdn. 


Baihnin. 


Form 


Bittian. 


Jundsdn. 


Baihnin. 


Gen 


Bittidn dd. 


Jundsdn da. 


Baihnin da. 


Dat 

Ace. 


] Bittidn jo. 


Junasan jo. 


Baihnin jo. 


Agent 


Bittidn. 


Jundsan. 


Baihnin. 


Loo. 


Bittian bicb. 


Jundsdn bich. 


Baihnin bich. 


Abl 


Bittian te. 


Jundsdn te. 


Baihnin te. 


Voc 


Bittio. 


Jundso. 


Baihnin. 



Ndh, name (masc.) has Form, nanen, Gen. naneh dd,, &c. 
Plur. Nom. Ndn, Form, nanan, Geo. nanah, dd, &c,, so also giran, 
village, Gen. girdeii dd (or giraneii dd). 

Gd, cow, has Form, gai, Gen. gdi da, &c., Agent gdiu. 
Plur. Nom. gain. Form, gain, Gen. gain da, Agent gdih. 



PRONOUNS. 

Singular. 

Nominative Main or huu, " 1." 

Accusative *) ar- • « 1 >; 

Dative M-i"yo, me, to me." 

Main, •* by me." 

Minj'o te, "from me." 
r Merd, 'i 

< Mere, W' my, mine." 
iMeri, ) 

(Minjo hich, "in me." 
Minjo iippar, "on me." 

The second Personal Prouuuu is declined as follows : — 
Singular. Plural 

Nominative T'wjV, "thou." 

AccuTativG } ^*»' " ^^^^' *« *^^^ 
Agent Taw, "by thee." 

Ablative Tijjo te, " from thee." 



Agent 
Ablative 

Genitive 
liocative 



we. 



Plural. 
Nominative \ a ' • « 
Agent ^ ]^ssan, 

Accusative ^ a " • a *. » 
Dative J ^^^'^'^ ^ ^' ^^' ^° ^^' 

Ablative Assdn te, " from us." 

e *Mhdra S 
Genitive < Mhdre >" our, ours." 

iMhdri ) 

T ,• i' Assdn bich, " ia US." 

Locative ^ a " u n 

( Assan uppar, " on us. 



:j 



Genitive 
Locatire 



CTera^ 
\ Ten [." 

iTere) 



of thee, thine. 
Tijjo hich, " in thee." 



}} 



Nominative Tussdn, " you." 



Dative 



Accusative ) you." 



Tussdih jo, "you to 



Agent 
Ablative 



i) 



Tussdn, "by you. 
Tussdib te, " from you." 
t Tumhdrd ") ^ r 
Genitive •< Tumhdri > „^„J°- 

iTumUre^ ) Z^^^^' 
Locative Tussdn hich, " in you. 



)} 



lii« B ike tbe Mavnari ioims of HiiiOi, rfMdncdrl,, Mhdre, "cui-; cuiE.'' 



The Proximate Demonstrative Trononn is declined a^ follows :^ 

Plural. 



Nominative Eh, " these, they.' 
Accusative I /n/i„Vt jo, "these, to 



Dative 

Agent 

Ablative 

Genitive 

Locative 



these 
InhdU, " by these." 
Inhdil tc, " from those. 
In/oiil da, " of these." 
Inhdn Inch, " in these. 



Singular. 

M ■ ,- i Eh, "this, he." 
Nominative | ^^'^ , ^^.^^ 

Accusative 1 r • U4.u- i. ^i.- ,. 
Dative j-^«JO,-this, toth.s." 

Agent Innih, " by this." 

Ablative Is te, "from this." 

Genitive Jv dd, etc., " of this." 

Locative Is bich^ " in this." 

Example. 
Eh sack galdndeje dsd jie nardsa mnvp. 

They say this true, that the hopeful lives, the hopclesi dies.— 
Kdngrd Proverb. 

The Interrogative Pronoun Kyd " what ? " is declined as follows :- 

Plural. 
Nominative ... iTz/d, "what "r " . 

"■ \Kojo, "fur what "r" 



It 



Dative 
Accusative 
Ablative 
Locative 



I 



... Kais te, " from what !" " 
... Kais bich, "iu what ?" 

Example. 
Rati de handhm da kyd phal paed. 
Janghd?i da nur guded Ram. 
Of wandering on foot at night what fruit did you get ? 

You spoiled the splendour (literally, light) of your legs Oh 
Ram I— Marriage Song, ' ' 

The Interrogative Pronoun Kun " who ? " is thus declined :— 



Singular 
Nominative Kun, " who ? " 
Dative f Kus jo, " whom," " to 

Accusative \ whom ? " 
Ablative Kus te, " from whom ? " 



^ Kus dd \ 

Genitive \ Kus di > '^ of whom ? " 



Agent 



(. Ku^ de \ 

Kinnin, " by whom ? " 



9>' 



Plural. 
Nominative Kun, " who ? " 
Dative )Kinhdi\ jo, "whom," 
Accusative) "to whom?" 
Ablative Kinhdh te, " from 
whom?" 
C Kinhdn dd ") ,, , „ 
Genitive \Kinhdhdi )- *^ 

iKinhdnde) '^^»°»^ 
Agent Kinhdn, " by whom ? " 

Terd mungid dupattd kinni?i rangi dittd. 

By whom was your green dupatta dyed ? — Phdri chharjhdt 
{Kdngra.) 

Rbmote Demonstbativb Pronoun Oh "that," " she," "he," " it." 

Plural. 
Oh, "they." 

Unhiin jo, " them, to them." 



Singular. 
Nominative Oh, " he " 

Dative "lf7«/o,"him,tohim." 

Accusative ) "^ 

Agent Unmii, '* by him." 

CUs dd -) 
Genitive \ Vs di J- "of him." 

{Usde J 



Unhdn, "by them" 
C Unhdn dd ") 
I Unhdn di [."of them." 
(. Unhun de J 



Correlative Pronoun Snih. 



Nominative 
Dative 
Accusative 
Agent 

Genitive 



Singular. 

Saih, "that, the same," 

X Ti 



Ttwrm. 
Tis da. 



{ 



Tis di. 
Tis de. 



Plural. 



Saih. 

Tinhdn jo. 

Tinliau. 
Tinhdn da. 
Tinhdn di. 
Tinhdn de. 

Relative Pronodn Jo. 

i Plural. 

Jo, "who, which." 

Jinhdn and jinhuu jo, 

Jiuhnn, "by whom," 
Jinhdn da, "of whom." 
Jinhdn te, "from whom." 



Singular. 
Nominative Jo, "who, which." 
Dative \ Jis jo, " to wliom, to 

xA.ccnsatlvo J which." 
Agent ...Jinnin, " by whom." 

(reuitivo ...J is da, "of wliom." 
Ablative ...Jis te, " from whom." 

Other pronouns are — 

Kni, someone, anyone. 
Kichchhj something-, anything. 
Je hoi, whosoever. 
Je Tiichchh, whatsoever. 

Examples. 

• 

Saih airnid mdil da bard Iddjd hai. 

He is a great darling of his niollier. 

Tis dijtinds bar! lardhi hni. 

His wife is very qnarrelsome. 

Main hahil hhi bit la. Tinnit'i (Ihawwe ware, hichh 'ntfar hhi tinnin 

oiahiil hittd. 
I engaged a vidcil. He consnmed (my) money, (but) he did not 

even make any answer. 
Jinhdn musaddid?i dd hat, tinhdn hhare 2)er\\ pal. 
Those who have the assistance of the officials, have their grain 

receptacles {pern pal) full. 
Jinhdn jo, Rdjed, tn-d trdn. 
Those to whom, Oh Raja, is ycur help. 

Tinhdn de ghar na l;idri na manjjen' hdn. ^ 

To their houses is neither food nor strings for their beds. 



ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives used like nou la are declined like nouns. Adjectives quali- 
fying nouns are not inflected unless the Nominative Singular Masculine 
end in a. When the Nominntive Singular Masculine ends in a, the adjec- 
tive is declined like nouns ii; d, the feminine being like nouns in i. This 
is contrary to the rule in Ur. d, but in accordance with the rule in certain 
Hrms of Panjiibi. 

Khard ddmi, goon nan, Agent Khareh ddmien. 

Gen. Plur. Kharedh ddrnidn dd. 

Khari junds, good woman, Gen. Sing. Khar id j una sd da. 

Ag. Khariei'i jiimUei'i. 

Bittid didi'i ghorid'b dd, of the daughter's horses. 

Comparison is made by means of the postposition te, as Jchard^ 
good, is te hhard, better than this, sahhhnih te Txhard, better than all, 
best. 



5 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY. 
Itnd, so much or many (Demonstrative). 
Titva, so much or many (Correlative). 
Jitnd, as much or many (Relative). 
Kilnd, how much or many ? (Interrogative). 

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES OF KIND. 

Idehd, " such/' '' like this " Hindi Aisd. 
T*c?e/ia, "such'' "like that/' „ Waim. 
Jidehd, "like which," " as" ,, Jaiftd. 
Kidehd, " like what," " how," „ Kaisd. 

Examples. 
IdeJid guar Icoi mere dilckhne hich nifih ded. 

No fool like this came within my experience (within my seeing).* 
8aih sdhah hidelid hai. 
What is that sahib like ? 
Jidehd agla thd tidelid hi hai. 
As the former was like that exactly is he. 

Pronominal Adverbs of direction like idhar, " hitlipr," ndhar, 
thhher," jidhar, "whither," fidhnr, "thitlier," hdhar, "whither/' seem 
to be wantino- in Jandari.t 



PRONOMINAL ADVERB OF MANNKR. 

Proximate Demonstrative. Relative, 

luhdi'i or ilnhat'i, "thus" J/n/idu, " as." 

Correlative. Interrogative. 

Tinhdn, " so " Kinh dh, ' ' ho w ?" 



ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Agdhdn, "before " (Hindi age), also agm. 

Aj, "to day," as in PanjAbi. 

Kal, " to-morrow, yesterday/' 

Parson, "the day before yesterday, or the day after to-morrow." 

Chauth, " the fourth day past or future, conntinor to-day as the 

first day, to-morrow or yesterdny as the second, &c." 
Panjaulh, "the fifth day." 
Chhiauth, " the sixth day." 
Pachdchdn, " after, afterwards," 
Phiri, "again/' 

Bhidgd, " in the morning." Sanjjhd, " in the evening." 
Bdramhdr, "repeatedly." 
Kadi, " sometimes, ever." 
Kadi na, "never." 

Kadi haddin, or Jcadi na kadi, " sometimes, rarely." 
Nit, "continually, always. 



)} 



• Thii would be in Gadi : — fnha guar mere heme ma na a. 
Such a fool came not within my seeing. 
(Observe — " herna," to see, 

'' ma " for manj, in, 

" a." 3rd singular past tense of ind "' to come "=dyd.) 

t J4ndar or Jhandar is tha term used by the Gaddfs for the country not included in 
their country, Gadheran. [It literally means 'cotton-clothed,' i.e., the people not dreBied in 
TfOoUsn garments like the Uaddis.] 



Pdpi lah PaMfir patthar Jinhdn de chit. ^ 

Ana maldivd hadl kaddi>\ nain maldwd nit. 

The mountain people are wretchet', whose hearts are stone. 

They join bodies rarely, they are always joining eyes.-->So«^. 

Eun, " now." 

ADVERBS OF PLACE. 

Neren, " near." 

JDilr, "far." 

Far J " over, across." 

[Tar, " this side," udr-pdr, " on both sides. ^^ ^ 

Wdl, " to, towards." Tahsilddrs ivdl jd ; {jdh in gmgiilar, ja m 

plural,) " go to the Tahaild^r." 
Pardhdn, " on that side." (Hindi— yare). 
Urdhdn, " on this side." (Hindi— we). 
Ithu tden, 1 ,, ^^ ^j^.g „ 
Idhi taen, J 
Uppar, " up." 

Bu7ih, heth, "down." . tt- .• 

Aiidar, '' witbin," and hdhar, " without," are as m Hindi. 
Agdhdn, "before," or aggen. 
Pachdhdn, *' beliiod," or pichchhen. 
Taithe, Tahthi, " there "- {Gddi).^ 
Tai'thi, Gaddi seite galld hatd hari. 

There with a Gaddi I talked. -D/iamtoZa. , , „ o 

Handrd, in Gaddi and Narti in Kangri, ''elsewhere. So 

apni zamin chhadi handrd na gdhande, " they abandoning their 

land do not go ehewheve."—\,Gddi). 

PRONOMINAL ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Proximate Demonstrative Remote Demonstrative. Relative. 
Han, hun, ihhen, " now," Then. JdUu, " when." 

Correlative. Interrogative. 

Tdhlu, " then." -K^a/i^y^, when? 

I ■ r 

PRONOMINAL ADVERBS OF PLACE. 
Proximate Demonstrative. Remote Demonstrative. Relative. 
Itthu, " here." Otthu, " there." Jitthu, " where.' 

Itthe.--{Kutlehr). 
Correlative. 
Titthu, " there." 
Taithe, " there."— ((rftcZ*) 



Interrogative. 
Kuthu, " where?" 



OTHER ADVERBS. 

Kainh, hajo, " why." 

Iddheii taiieii, " for this reason. 

Edn, " yes." 



;) 



Nehiri, ninh, no. 

8atdhi, " quickly." 

Achchi tard, hhard hari, " well." 



PREPOSITIONS. 
The commonest have been given under the declension of nouns. Sub- 
joined is a brief list of others. The same word i<^ often both a preposition and 
an adverb. For convenience sake most, of the constructions are given :— 

Eeih, " under." 

Mmjo hdl or hald, " beside me." 

Minjo hane or main hane, " with me." 



W 



Tisdeh tden, " for him.'' 
Teren tiien, " about tliee." 
Assdh Sethi, " like us," 

Tinhdjl bahkhi, tinhdfo hdl or bald, linhail den vusen, all mean 

towards them. 
Tiste parant, " after it." 
Tisden, chatihm pdsedu, "round about it." 
Tussufb hardhar, " equal to you." 
Minjo te parant, maiiiiMrant, minjo hind, " apart from mo." 



THE NUjMERALS 



1, Ik. 

2, Do. 
o, Trai, 
4, Char. 
b, Panj. 

6, Chkiyyd. 

7, Salt. 

8, Atth. 

9, Nau. 

10, Das. 

11, Gidrd. 

12, Bd.rd. 

13, Tehrd. 

14, Chaudd. 

15, Pandrd. 

16, Sold. 



17, Satdrd. 

18, Thdrd 

19, Unnin 

20, Bih. 

21, Ikkl. 

22, Bdi. 

23, Trei. 

24, Chaubhi. 

25, PanjL 

26, Ghhahhi. 

27, Satdi. 

28, T/ic?./. 

29, [7Ma«;. 

30, Tihovtrih. 

31, Katti or 

katri. 



32, £afr/. 

33, Teir;. 

34, Ghautri, 

35, Panjatri. 

36, Chhiatri. 

37, 8atattri. 

38, Aihattri. 

39, t^wiwii. 

40, C^d/i' 
47, Sattdtl. 

49, Undnjd. 

50, Panj ah. 
57, Saiunjd, 

59, Undht. 

60, (Saf/^i*. 
67, Satdht. 



6!., 


Unhallar. 


70, 


Sah altar. 


77, 


Sathattar. 


79. 


Undai. 


80, 


Asst. 


87, 


Sntdsi. 


89, 


Undniicji. 


90, 


Nabbeu. 


97, 


Satdnueh, 


99, 


Narinuet'b, 


100, 


San. 


200, 


Do San. 


1,000, 


Hajdr. 


,00,000, 


Ldkh. 



ORDINALS. 



Isf, Paihld, 
2nd, Duwiud. 
3rd, Triyyd. 
4th, Chauthd. 



bth, Panji'cdn, 

6th, Chitthd, 

7th, Satudii. 

lOt/i, Dasiian. 



50, Panjdhudh. 



For the thirties the forms with and without r are both used, thus, 
satattri or satatti, thirty-seveu. 

It should be noticed that t and h in sathattar are pronounced separately. 
The word is not sa-thattar but sat-hattar. 

Other numerical forms are subjomfld :-- 

Ik bdri, once. 

Do bdri, twice. 

Paihli bdri, first time. 

Trai gici}d, three-fold. 

Das gund, ten-fold. 

Addhd, half. 

Paune do. If. " 

Sawd do, 2J. 

X>hdb, 2^. 

piddh, 1^. 

8a4he clidr, 4^. 

Ik^do |, 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

The chief conjunctioDS are— 

Te, and. 
Apan, but. 
Je, if. 
Bhdet'i, althougli. 

THE VERB. 

Auxiliary Verb. 

Present. 



Singula^-. 
Main hai. 
Tun hai. 
Saih hai. 



Plural. 
Assan han. 
Tussan han. 
Saih han. 



Past. 



Plural. 
Assan the. 
Tussiin the. 
Saih the. 



Singular. 
Main th^ (Fern. thi). 
Tun th^ (Fem. thi). 
Saih tha (Fern. thi). 

The past thd, " was," is like Hindi. 

Aj mere hoti hamahn pichhe hi rahi gae han. 

To-dav mv . <^°° . ^ . servant 9 have remained behind. (Kcingrd). 

•^ "^ kitchen 

Tussan aj hai hid parhde han ? 
What are you I'eading- nowadays ? 
Eh Rajput halhe han. 
These are low Rdjputs. — {Kdnyra). 

Pauna, full. 
Tenses derived from the Boot. 

Present Conditional. 
I may fall. 



I. 



Singular. 
Pauan. 
Pane. 
Pane. 



Plural. 
Pauie. 

Paua or pauhn. 
Pauhn. 



Future. 
I shall fall. 



Plural. 
Paunghe. 
Paungho. 
Paunghe. 



Singular. 
Paunghd, Fem. paunghi. 
Paunghe. 
Paunghi. i 

Imperative. . 

Fall. 
Singular. Plural. 

Pan. I Paua. 

II.— Tenses derived from the Present Participle. 

Indefinite or Past Conditional, 
I fall or should fall. 



Singular, 
Paund^. 
Paund^, 
Paundd, 



Plural. 
Paunde. 
Paunde. 
Paundti, 



Singular. 
Paund^ hai. 
Paundd, hai. 
Paund^ hai. 



Singular. 
Paund^ th^. 
Paundii tbd. 
Paundd thd. 



Present Indicative. 
I am falling. 



Imperfect. 
1 was falling. 



Plural. 
P;iundc ban. 
Paundo hun. 
Paunde ban. 



Plural. 
Paunde the. 
Paunde the. 
Paunde the. 



III. — Tenses formed from Past Participle. 

Past Indicative. 
I fell. 



Singular. 








Plural. 


Fed, Fem. pal 








Paie, Fem. paiidn. 


Ped. 








Paie. 


Ped. 








Paie. 






Present Perfect. 








I have fallen. 




Sit-gular. 








Plural. 


Ped hai, Fem, pai 


hai. 




Paie hau. 


Pea hai. 








Paie lian. 


Ped, hai. 








Paie lian. 






Pluperfect. 




Singular. 








Phiral, 


VeA thd. 








Paie the. 


Ped tha. 








Paie the. 


Ped th^. 








Paie the. 




Infinitive or Verbal Noun. 


Paund, falling. 




Pan 

Participle. 


ne dd, of falling. 


Present 




... Paundd, falling. 


Past ... 




... Ped, fallen. 


Coniuuctive ... 




... Pai kari, having fallen. 


Adverbial 




... Paundeii hi, while falling. 


Agent 




... Paune 


Mid, fallen, about to fall. 


Dative 






. Pehd, 


in the state of having falloD. 



It will be sufiBcient if the main parts of other verbs are indicated. 

HoNA, be, become. 

Present Conditional ... ... Hodn. 

Future ... ... ... Hiinghd. 

Imperative ... ... ... Ho. 

Indefinite or Past Conditional Hundd. 



Past Indicative 
Present Perfect 
Pluperfect 
Participles ... 



Hoed. 

Hoed hai. 

Hoed tha 

Hundd, being. 

Hoea, been. 

Hoikarl, having been, 

Hunden hi, while being. 

Hone bdld, ono who ia aboat to be. 



AUNA, go. 

Present Conditional ., , ... Auan {3rd Plur. auhn). 

Future ... ... ... AungM. 

Imperative ... ... ... A. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Aunda. 

Past Indicative ... ... Ayd, Fem. di, Plur. Se, Fem. ^fdn. 

Participle ... ..- ... AxheA, in the state of having come. 

The others regular. 

Jana go. 
Present Conditional ... ... Jd^ii (2nd Plur. jdd, 3rd Plur. j^hn) 



Jdnghd. 



Future 

Imperative ... ... ... Jah 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Jd,ndd 



jdS.. 



Past Indicative 
Participles 

Raihna, 
Present Conditional ... 



Gec4. 

Gehd, in the state of having g^ne. 



remain. 

Rehd,n, 
Raihe, 
Raihe, 
Rainhghd, 
, Raih 



Rahie. 

Rehd, or raihn. 

Raihn, 



Future ... ... 

Imperative ... 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Raihnd^ 

Past Indicative „. 

Participle 



roll a. 



Rehd. 

Rehd, in the state of having re- 
mained. The e in tliis word is 
very long drawn out ; distingnish- 
ing it from the rchd in the Present 
Conditional, the Imperative and 
the Past Indicative. 



Baihna or Baithna, sit. 

Present Conditional ... Behdn, baith^n. 
Future ... ... Baihhghd, baithghd. 

Imperative ... ... Baih baitb. 

Indefinite, Past Con- Baihndd,, baithda. 

ditional. 
Past Indicative ... Behd, baithe^ 



Transitive Yebbs. 

MXrna, beat. 

Present Conditional... Md,rdn, 

Miire, 
Mdre, 

Future ... ... Ma-glid. 

Imperative ... ... Miir md-rd. 

Indefinite, Past Condi- Mardd. 
tional. 



M^rle. 

Md,rd or m^rn. 

M^rn. 



Past Indicative 



Present Perfect 



... Main md,redi. 

Tain md,red. 

Tinni mdred,. 
... Main mdrea hai. 

Tain mdrea hai. 

Tinni m^re^ hai. 



As^h md,red,. 
Tusdn m^re^. 
Tinhdh mdre^. 
Asdn m^red hai. 
Tusdn mdred, hai. 
Tinh^h mdred> hai 



Pluperfect Main mdre^ tM. 

Tain radreii tlid. 
Tiunni mdrcd tha. 



Asdh mi'irt'.l tliA. 
Tnsdn mdri':! thd. 
Tinhiih mJlrehii thd. 



The rules for the agreement of w&rei,, rnAve^ hai, radrCii tliil, with tho 
object of the sentence are like those in Urdu or Paujdbi. 

Participle Mdrehd, in tho state of having boon beaten. 

Passive, 
The passive is formed by means of the verb jayja, go, used Tvith the 
past participle, thus, 

Main mdred jdhghd, I shall be beaten. 
Saih mdri gei, she was beaten. 
In the passive it generally has the sense of he killed. 

Khana, eat. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Kb'indd. 

Past Indicative Khddbd. 

Pi^iA, drink. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Pindd. 

Past Indicative Vit6j. 

Dena, give. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional ^i^^'\ , 

Future Dmgghd. 

Past Indicative ^^'''"^• 

Lai?ja, take. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional i''''''^^'V.< 

Future Lamgghd. 

Past Indicative ^^'^• 

Galena, say, speak. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional Galdndd. 

Past Indicative - ... txalaiya. 

Kabna, do. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional ... ... Kar^d. 

Past Indicative ^^ "'" 



jA^f^JA, know. 

Indefinite, Past Conditional ^- 

Past Ind.cat.ve ^ ... •- . ,^^ y,^, ^nnd avdjduu, 

Lai aund, bring, lai jana, take ^'^^^ f/ "^^Vifo^^s ._ 

be is in the habit of grazing (transitive). 

Mam pauna lagghed, I am m the act of falling. 

Sentences. 
1 Terimif^hydhair What is thy nan« ? , ,, • ,,o„o r 

2: t ghore Jkyi u.a, hai ? What . .he age o! th.s horse 



12 

. 3. ItthuteKas].,nirJcitnidurhai? From here how far is Kashmir 
many sonfre tlferef ' '''• ' ^"^'^^' '^" " '^ ^^^ ^^^'^^'^ (^--) how 
came.^' ^""^^ ""^^ ^^'' ^"'' '' ^^*^^^^' ^^^- ^ ^^^^^ f^om very far walking 

uoele^Lo^;^arJS?^Iht':.^t!^ '''''' '^^ ^--^^^^^^- My 
Lorse^LaddlT ''"^'^^' '^'" ^*' ^"•'^^' ^"^■- ^^ ^^^ house is the white 

8. T^•.^.'c? ^imi>ar MiU pdi dea. On his back pat the saddle 

9. J^jatn hsde puttre jo bare horre mare. I beat bis sou many stripes 

goats on tfrt^^th't^lf-^'^^^^^'^^^' ^^'^^^^^^^ ^- Hegra^e^ 
tree is'seafef on t hl'sf ''•' ^'"'^ '^^^ '^^''^'^^^ ^-'- ^e under that 
than Ms Illit '""'^ "'• " '"^■^^^' ^^ '"^^^ ^-^■- His brother is bigger 
and-ltlf^pfei'' '"''^ ""' ^''*' '"^^^^^ ^-- '^^^^ P-ce of that is two- 

lives it thftlalTtlsC^''^ ^'^ "'^ ^^^^^^'-^ -'^-^^ ^- My father 

15. Tisjoe\rnpayyedeidea. G.ve him these rupees. 

16. Ba^},^ rupayye tiste lei led. Take those rupees from him 

n.uchLhTm^;irt:p:r''"'""''''^^ '^^^^- Having beaten him 
18. KMi^u^e te pdni haddhhd. Drawn water from the well 
ly. Matte (or minjo te) agge chald. Walk before me 

habif of c!:^J^:^;:^^^''' -- ^-^^ ^- ^ whose son is in the 

21. 8c,U^U.ssdnhuste.^ullenled? From whom did you buy that '^ 

22. (^.ra.. de tkU hai^dnie te. From a shopkeeper of the village.' 



SONGS. 

MARftJAGE SONQ. 

-fi^a/ ^e ha^dhne jo chhaddi deh, Kdhnd. 

Hun hoe. gharhdri, Rdm 

Aggen tu thd, Kdhnd, hdlu gudtu, 

Mim hoed gharhdri, Bdrri. 

Give up wandering at night. Oh Kahna ! 

^ow you have become a married man, Oh E^m ' 

^W ;7u'L:"h' ^'^ ^"^^"^ • ^ Pl-^^h-an and a cowherd • 
Mnli ^" T"" ^^^"""'^ ^ married man, Oh Rdm ' 
Madiria del sang chhaddi de tu Kdhnd, ' 

Hun hoea gharhdri, Rdm. 

Now'vou hav^f" '^' ''"^'^."^ ^•^i^^ ^°^--' Kahna. 
it^ai/ir IS a Gujar and Maihri a Gujar-woman. 



13 



Khatris^?nfaoTa-'' """"^ "' weddings cf B™hmanB, U.jput, and 

^5s<i7i bachhdi kdfi hdmalri, 
Kurmeh bachhdi sutranji ji; 

Tussdii at baho angane. 
We have spread black blankets, 
The opposite party in marriage (Kuram) have spread carpets - 

Come you and sit down in the courtyard. ' 

[^o«e.-In marriage parties the bride's family are " kuram " to the 
bridegroom's party and the bridegroom's pany are " kuram " to tho 
bride's. There is no English word which ex))rcs3e3 the relationship.] 

Ki tussdfi mangde tulcrd muchrd, 

Ki tussdn adri de bhukkhe the. 

Assdn mangde kurameu dla ddrid^ 

Lei chubdren baithe the. 

Question.— Do you want a morsel or a piece of bread 

or are you hungry for the whole ? 
Answer.— yVe want the wife of the Kuram, 

They took her and were sitting in the upper atorer. 



Geneeosity. {Gddi). 

Kldli Sdli sahke bhdi, 

Thikrid ri dhdl bandi; 

Chalande giddar tire Ide 

Sdli balandd hhujji khdni; 

Mali balandd kdni lisai hai ; 

Kdnijo pujdrf,i. 

Mali and Sali were two own brothers, 

They made a shield of bits of earthenware. 

They shot a running jackal with an arrow. 

Sail says " Let's eat it fried ; " 

M^li saya " The one-eyed woman is ill ; " 

" Let's take it to the one-eyed woman." 

Song on Rd,ja Sansdr Chand, Katoch Kajput of Kangra, marrying a 
pretty Gaddi woman whom he saw herding her cows— 

(Dharmsd,la) — l^ 

Gaddi chare bakrinti, 

Gaddatj, chare gain, 

Ghard bhajie saprid, 

Binnd khdu gain, 

Eer jawdn ruid, 

Rdje Gaddan behi. 

The Gaddi was grazing his goats ; 

The Gaddi woman was grazing her cows ; 

Her ghara was broken on the rocks, 

The cow's ate the pad (worn between the head and the jar on it). 

Seeing her young face, 

The K^ja married the Gaddan. 



Jandhae Song. 

1 . Be. — Pusd, p usst, 
Kajo russi, 
Lahuld ged mandnd ; 
Chal pussi bhat khana. 

Darling, darling, 
Why art thou sulking. 
A boy (son) has goue to pacify thee 
Come, darling, eat thy rice. 
She. — Jane jura na, 
MaiA nahin aund. 

2. Puni nahin mukdi ; 

Tandnahifi trutdi ; 
Sas nahin dkhdi 
Je pdn ie je jdnd. 

The ball of wool never comes to an end. 
The thread never breaks; 
My mothor-in-law never saya 
" Go for water." 

Sahnu Mali's Song. 
Gaddi Song — 



(1 
(2 
(3 

(4 

(5 

(6 

(7 

(8 

(9 

(10 

(H 

(12 

(13 

(14 

(15 

(16 

(17 

(1 

(2 
(3 
(4 
(5 
(6 
(7 
(8 

(9 
(10 

(11 
(12 

(13 



Suhi, suhi pagri nd ldi}i, 
Mdlid Sdhmui ho ! 
Mdnhuh halale jp lildri, 
Bhatii rijhinjan mangdni, 
Mdlid Sdhnud bo I 
Pitthi teri Jcaterd khalru t 

• • • • 

Ldled Tundeid ho ! 

Pete kaserd halaru ? 

ISdlid Tundeid ho ! 

Pete mdli-rd halaru. 

Sdlid Tundeid bo f 

Ktigti-rd thekd na laindy 

Mdlid 8ahij,ad bo ! 

Kdfd, kdtd dagld na Land, 

Mdlid Sdhy,itd ho I 

Mdnhuh, halaleje hd thekeddr, 

Mdlid Sdhnud bo ! 

A red, red pagri do not put on. 

Oh Mali S4hna*! 

People will say you are a dyer; 

Bring rice of Bhati, 

Oh M^H Sd.hnu ! 

Of what is the skin on your back (full) ? 

Oh Laid, Tundei ! 

In your womb whose child is there ? 

Oh SiUi Tundei ! 

In your womb is Mali^s child. 

Oh Sail Tundei. 

Do not take the contract of Kugti, 

Oh Mdli Sahnu ! 



(14). A blacky black coat do Dot put on. 

(15). Ob Mali S^hnu ! 
(16). People will say you are a contractor. 
(17). Oh Mdli S^hnu. 

Notes.— {2), "Mdli Sdhuu," (7), *' LdU Tnndcf," " Riili Tnndei/ 
Mdli, L^la and Sdli are the naiDes of the porBona. 
S^hnu and Tundei are the names of their castes. 
(3), " Balale " is the 3rd person plural, future tense, from 
balnd "to say." 

The wooiNa of Sawbiiwa. {Gddi), 

1. Samhhud merd miihriyd dd ndt ! 

2. Samhhud dherd (^) hoi^ lai, ^) 
Z. Dherd hoi lai ho meri jdn ! 

4. t^amhhud dherd hoi lai. ^ 

5. Kaiiakd ri roti, ghiu,^ ddi, 

6. Samhhud khdi karijd,^ 

7. Khdi karijd ho meri jdn ! 
8*. Dohar dindi (*) hachhdi. 

9. Samhhud €oi kari 0) jd, 
10. 8oi karijd meri jdn ! 
l\. Samhhud soi kari jd. 

12. Kdidjmd (6), dord [^)hachha (!) choia (»), 

13 Ammd meri ! Samhhud dyd bo. 

1. Oh Sambhu, my first darcer ! (*.e., leader in a Gaddi dance.) 

2. Ob Sambhii ! be slow {i.e., stay here). 

3. Bh slow, my life ! 

4. Oh Sambhu ! bo slow. 
.^S Bread of wheat, ghi and ddt, ,, ,, , . * „ >'\ 

6. 5h Sambhu ! eat before yon go : (literally "having eaten go. ) 

7. Eat before you go, my bfe ! 
I: L,r s:Sf sLeVSe ,o„ go : (Ute.allj " having slept go.") 

10. Sleep before you go, my bfe ! 

11 Ob Sambhu ! sleep before yon go. 

12 (With) a black like girdle (and) a white frock. 

be " 1,0 karke," " kW karke "nni" so k.U ^^ 
(.) . <. Dher« " ,s the Hm . a.d Pan ,A. HI ,,, A _^ 8 ^^ ^^, 
wheuce comes " dhira] slowness, 

,, ^crkV.>t"i;^:t'th:i':rof"ka,ak"is a„a.a 

^'- to oTi ending in a consonant to p^epavc tl.em for 

(,) ^rS'''rthrt-rnt participle feo.in,no fo-n 

„ ".S"'"'; Sr-'^ronominal adiectivo of similarity an^ 

■ ^.?S?ttt"cSt;'bLT:'oo, which thoGaaa. winds 

' ' ^^\:^ as°l?^a:rh-™t:a-:rirdt th. 



C). Hachhd means " white." 

(8). " Chold" is the capacious woollen frock worn by Gaddi 
men and women. It is secured round the waist by the 
*' dord, ." The " chold " comes half down the thigh on 
men and to the ankles on women. The *' (lord " round 
the waist makes a large body in the " chold, " above the 
waist. THe body is called the " khokh/' and forms a 
receptacle for very miscellaneous articles, such as a num- 
ber of newly born lambs, biead, or wool for spinning. 

The Gaddi girl's choice op a husband. 

1. Td hudhru jo nd deni c'idchua, deni, chdchud. 

2. Sajre chiinde ratid hlioll ho. 

3. Td chdharajo tui de^i, chdchud, dafii, chdchud, 

4. Hd.k ydnde n(hi gahnde ho. 

5. Td dtir-defii jo nn derii, chdchud, deni, chdchud, 

6. Goru chug'mde jo deni ho. 

7. Td ro^i jo nd deni, chdchud, dpi),i, chdchud, 

8. Sajre rhunde rand hhuchgdhli ho, 

9. Bhaird char an de jo deni, chdchud, deni, chdchud, 

10. Khokha hhart dtld mds ho. 

11. Bhaird de puhdla jo deni, chdchud, deiii, chdchud, 

12. Pifthijo deld chofu ho. 

1. To an old man do not give me, father, do not give me, father. 

2. I shall be a widow while my hair is (still) freshly done. 

3. To a servant do not give me, father, do not give me, father. 

4. A call comes — He gets up and goes (and leaves me). 

5. To one who lives far away do not give me father, do not give 

me, father. 

6. To one who grazes a herd of cattle give me. 

7. To a sick man do not give me, father, do not give me, father, 

8. I shall become a widow while my hair is (still) freshly done. 

9. To a herder of sheep give me, father, give me, father. 

10. He will give me his pocket full of meat. 

11. To a tender of sheep jjive me, father, give me, father. 

12. He will give me a frock for my back. 

Notes. — In translating this song all Uia "Jd,s" and all the "hos" 
should be omitted. They are without meaning. 

" Jo " in the first, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, eleventh and 
twelfth lines is the sign of the dative case. 

"Chach" in Gdddi and " chdchu " in the valleys of K4ngra is a 
jommon word for " father." 

The meaning of the second and eighth lines is — " If you marry me to 
in old or a sick man I shall be a widow before my hair, which was done 
"or my wedding, is ruffled," i. e., I shall be a widow before my wedding 
Iress is worn out. 

" Bholi " in the second line is the feminine third person singular 
uture, from " bhond. " " to be." 

" Gorii " in the sixth line means a herd of horned cattle. 

" Khokha " in the tenth line is the body of a Gaddi's frock which is 
nade into a pocket by the frock being tightly bound at the waist with a 
vooUen rope called " dord," which passes several times round the waist. 
[!he " khokha " is used. to carry miscellaneous articles. The wearer's dinner 
aay be seen in iter even half a dozen new-born lambs or kids 



" G^hli " in the eighth line is the feminine third person Bini'ular 
future, from " gc4hnd" " to go," " to become." 

"De]4"inthe twelfth line is third person singular future, from 
" den^ " " to give." 



The Song of Raja Gopi Chand. {Gddi). 

1. Chanan chauki ho riipi jhdriydn Rdjd Oopi Chand naMe, 

2. Td ammar bhold bo aghnd. chdndi bargd, thandi blind kalautl de, 

3. Td chhajje bo bai(hi mdtd Nain Bantl nain liharl, hhari roe. 

4. Td fhiri uparhiin here Rajd Gopi Chaud, Td mdtd Nain Danti roe, 

6. Td kuni ditti, mdtd, tijo gdCi ? Kuni balle mande hoi. 

0. Td nahin ho ditti, betd, vnnjo gdfi, nd balle mande hoi. 

7. Td kxttii ho heru, mdtd, mandi hdkhri ? Tiseri hdkhrikadhdti, 

8. Td na ho herd minjo, beta, mandi hdkhri, nd koi gdlidii do. 

9. Td jaisi kdydn, hetd, teri, taut bdwal it-re ri. 

10. Td jal hal mdti ho gei hid bhasamdn ri (fheri. 

11. Tdsikh den, mdtd, meri pdie umar kdydn. 

12. Td jog dhidyd Rdje Bharthari, paiumar kdydn. 

13. Td jog ho dhidnd, mdtd, mun, meri pdni wnar kdydy\. 

14. Id jog dhidyd Rdje Gopi Chande pdi umar kdydn. 

1. On a seat of sandMl-wooJ, with silver ewers, Rdja Gopi Chand 

was bathing. 

2. " The heaven is clear like silver whence do the cold drape come ?" 

3. Sitting in the balcony his mother, Nain Banti, was weeping 

bitterly. 

4. Then again Raja Gopi Chand looked up. His mother Naiii 

Banti was wee})ing. 

5. He. — " Who gave, motlier, to you abuse ? Who spoke evil 

words " ? 

6. She. — '' Neitlier was given, son, to me abuse : nor were spoken 

evil words." 

7. He. — " Then who looked (at you), mother, with evil eyes ? His 

eyes I will tear out." 

8. 8he. — "No one looked at me, son, with evil eyes, nor gave me 

abuse. 

9. (I was thinking that) a^ your body is, so was your father's. 

10. He was burned and became clay. He became a heap of ashes." 

11. He. — " Then g:ive me advice, mother, make my body immortal." 

12. She. — ■" H^ja Bharthari became an ascetic. Ha made his body 

immortal." 

13. He. — I would become an ascetic, mother. I would make m/ 

body immortal. 

14. So R^ja Gopi Chand became an ascetic. He made his body 

immorfal. 



A Song. 

1. Nihtd di tdn Jatfi Luhdnu jo chhali, chhaU puchhdi. 

2. Tali duhld tiin kit gvne hoid ho. 

(A Jatti of the plains chaffing, chaffing, asked Lubdnii). 
Qhe. — For what reason have you become loan ? 

3. Td ek tdn ho tuttu, ho gorie, Jamrm'idn dd hdld ho. 

4. Tdn duje ho tan tutti halri prit hi. 

5"e —First, oh fa'irone, the Jammu revenue ia deficient [i.e., I 

cannot pay the revenue). 
Secondly, the love of a girl is broken off {i.e., I have been jilted). 



5. Tdn dheddu hdlii denni hdn Ltihdnudn, 

6. Bhari denni hdn JammuaJi de hdfe ho. 

7. Tali nawiu naivi'o Idnni hdn prit ho. 

She. — I will give you tny ear-rings and nose-ring, O Lubd,nn. 
I will pay the Jamrau ravenue. 
Then I give you nev/, new love. 



8. Td ijahile ho idn hdfe bo Luhdnudn dheddu hdh'i denni hdn. 

9. DiLJe hdle matthe di janjiri ho. 

She. — Then at the first instalment, LuMnu, I will give mj ear- 
rings and nose-ring. 
And at the second instalment the forehead chain. 



10. Td ammd hdjhim raihnni hd?l, Luhdnudh. 

11. Bdpu hdjhuii raihnni hdn, 

12. Tuddh bdjhun dhiin ho madhuni ho. 

She. — Then I will remain without mother, Lubd-nu 
and I will remain without father. 
Without thee I am silent (i.e., sad). 
(This song is incomplete). 



* A SoNa.* {Gddi). 

Uchi, uchi mdrhid merd sri thdkar sondd ; 

Rddhd bdu jhuldndi hd. 
Krishna. — Td tu kajo rutthi rufihi meri Rukmani Rddh j 

Tuddh hin nindar na aundi hd. 
Rddhd. — Td daranidn mochru, jifhanidn mochru', 

Mu gori mochru nahih hd. 
Krishna. — Td tu mat ruthin, ruthin meri RuJcmani Rddhd ; 

Rddhd jo mochru lei dennd hdn. 

On a high, high eminence my Lord God is sleeping ; 

lld,dhd, is fanning a breeze. 
Krish'-aa. — Why are you pouting, pouting, my Rukmani Rd'^hd. ? 

Without you sleep does not come. 
Rddhd. — My younger sisiers-in-law (have) shoes, my elder sisters -in- 
laAV (have) shoes ; 

I fair-complexioned (have) no shoes, 

(To me fair is no slioe, literally) . 
Krishna. — Do not pout, pout, my Rukmani Rddhd ! 

To Rddhd I will give shoes. 

A Ditty. 

Khasam mare ... ... ... If a husband die. 

Dal hal hare ... ... .. One may wander to and fro (ia 

search of another). 

Ydr mnre ... ... ... If a lover die. 

Kihhdh jind ... ... _ ... How can one live ? 

KhiJid httte ... ... ... "If a blanket ia torn, 

Talli pdie ... ... o.. l^nt on a patch. 

Amhar futte ... ... ... If heaven splits. 

Kinhdn sind ... ... ,.. How can one sew it ? 

* This Song is incomplete. 



Notes on the Gadi Dialect op the Kangra Gaddis by the late 
EDWARD O'BRIEN, Es^uike, c.s., Di:puty Commissioneu op 
Kangra. Revised with Additional Notes dy the Rfv T 
GRAHAME bailey, B.D., M.R.A.8., Wazieabad. 



NOUNS. 

_ The declension of G^di nouns is effected {except for tlio a^ent case), 
as m Hmdo.tdni by the addition of Postpositions to what may bo called 
the - Formnt.ve case of the noun. Thus Nominative Sinrjular khanddi 
(a flock), l^ormative Singular khande ; Genitive Singular khando rA, &c. 

The following is a scheme of the formative cases in the various 
declensions, showing also the nominatives plural : — 



I. — Mase. in a 
II.— „ in u 



III. — ,, in a eonsonatit 



IV.— Fern, in a 

V. — „ in i 

VI.— „ in o 



Nom. Sing. 



Khanda 
Gobhru 
Ghar 
Biar 

Khakho 



Format. Sing. 

Khande 
Gobl.rn 
Ghari. 
Biari 

Khakho 



Nom. 


PI. 

• 


Format. PI. 


Khande 




Khande, 


Gobhrii 




Gobhru. 


Ghar 




Ghara. 


Bi4r 




Biari. 


Ijji 




Ijjf. 


Khakhoi 




Khakhoa.' " 



The following gives the postpositions which form the various caaoa 
with their Hindostd^ni equivalents: — 





Hindostani. 


Gadf. 


Agent 






ne 






• 

No postposition. U."'ii!ii 


iv t 


he 














fornintive by itself is nso'l. 




Oenitive 




•>• ... 


k'l (adjoctire aErreoiog 


Willi 


r.a (udjcch'ro agreeing 


wi 


th 








the 


substiintive). 




the substaniivo). 






Bat. and Ace, 




... 


ko 


•*■ ••• .«• 


... 


30, bo, or go. 






Locative 




•«• «•• 


men 


• • • ... ... 


... 


• 

manj or man. 






Ablative 




* t» «•• 


se 


• *• •*• ... 


... 


thaun. 







The genitive is as in Hindostflni an adjective agreeing in gender 
and number with the subject or object of the genitive, e. g. khande 
x^ bbedd, a sheep of a flock ; khande ri malikui, the proprietress of a 
flock. 



The other postpositions are, as in Hindostd,ni, indeclinable. 
The following paradigm gives the six declensions in full : — 





• 












•r— s 




a 














, 


^ 












a 


' 5 


a 












a 


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Exceptions — The Locative. 

3rd declension ; locative formed by adding e to nominative :— 
She. Main ho ghare sas kalihdri ho. 
He. Td teri ho ta sassd jo, gorie, charkhd le deld ho. 

Baithi ho tan Jcatan Jcatde ho. 
She. To me at home there is a cross mother-in-law. [^vhcel 

He. Then to your mother-in-law, Fair one ! I will gire a spinning 
Let her sit and mind her spinning. 

Examples : — 

1st declension : — Masc. in a. 

Norn. Sing. Mere bh^i male ak khandd h^. 

My brother has a flock. 
Gen. Sing. Ih bheddu mere burhe-re khando-rjl lic'i. 

This sheep belonns to {lit. is of) my father's flock. 

Ih khande-ri mdlikni kasri hd. 

The owner of the flock is ill. 
Dat. Ace. Sing. Ann khande jo ak kuttar palnu huii. 

I bring up a dog to guard {lit. for) the flock. 
Agent Sing. Aufi khande lurhai ditta thu. 

I was thrown down by a flock. 
Loc. Sing. Gaddf khande manj kharurd rahnda thu. 

The shepherd was standing in his flock. 
Ahl. Sing. &o khande thaunghara jo a h^. 

He has come from the flook to his house. 
Vac. Sing. Ai khande mat nakhi gachchh ! 

Oh flock, don't run away ! 
Nam. PI, Mere bhdi male khande hin. 

My brother has flocks. 
Gen. PI. Ih bheddu mere burhe-re khande-re hin. 

These sheep belong to {lit. are of) my father's flock. 

lau khande-ri mdlikni kasri ha. 

The owner of the flocks is ill. 
T)at. Ace. PI. Ann khande jo ak kuttar pdlnu hun. 

I bring up a dog to guard {lit. for) the flocks. 
Agent PI. Aun khande lurhai ditta thu. 

I was thrown down by the flocks. 
Loc. PI. Gaddi khande manj kharurd, rahndd, thu. 

The shepherd was standing in his flocks. 
Ahl. PI. So khande thaun ghara jo ^ ha. 

He has come from the flocks to his house. 
Vvc.Pl. Ai khandio mat nakhi gachchhd ! 

Oh flocks, don't run away ! 

Exception :^"Fem, in a. 

Aun bujhnun barkhd, na bhone ri. 
I think there will be no rain. 

2nd declension : — Masc. in «« 
Norn. Sing. Ak gobhrd madarse jo gdhndd hi. 

A young man goes to school. 
Gen. Sing. Ise gobhru rd burh^ gyani hJi. 

The young man's father is wise. 
* Ise gobhru-ri kalam kharl ha. 

The young man's pen is good. 
Balu ra laskandd suni. 
The gold of the nose-ring sparklij." Song. 



Dat Ace. Sing. Gurue ak kitdb gobhru jo ditti. 

The teacher has given a book to a young man. 
Agent Sing. Tini g bhrne minjo kliabar (n'tii. 

The news was given me by tliat young man. 
Loc. Sing. Grobh^u (manj or ra^n) barf mUI li^. 

There is macli wisdom in the ytjung man. 
AhJ. Sing. Mein tia gobhrn thaun khari gal khuni. J 

I have heard good words from that young man. 
Voc. Sing. Ai gobhrud r^zi hairi. 

Oh yvung man art thou happy. 
Rati ba rdti ind jana chhadi din6,, chhorua. 
Picha thaun lurhli ohori, jinde Khojud,. 
" Grive up coming and going every night, Oh boy !" 
"From behind a great rock will fall (ou you) dear Khojda V* 

Song of Khoji'i. 

Lurhli " will roll down " is third singular feminine future from 
Lurhnd, " to roll down " 

Nom. PI. Grobhrii madarse jo gahnde bin. 

Young men go to school. 
Gen. PL Tid,n ():obhru r^ burh^ gj^^i hd. 

The voung men's father is wise. 

TiS-ri gobhru ri kalama khari hin. 

The young men's pens are good. 
Dat. Ace. PI. Gurue kit^^a gobhru jo ditti. 

The teacher has given books to the young men. 
Agent Pi. Tiyyen gobhrue munjo khabar ditti. 

The news was given mp by young men. 
Loc. PI. Gobbiu manj (or md^n) bari akl hd. 

These is much wisdom in young tnen. 
Ahl. PI. Main tidn gobhrii thaun khari oal khuni. 

I have heard good words from, those young men. 
Voc. PL Ai gobhruo rd-zi bho^ ! 

Oh young men be happy ! 
Dative. Ta jang^hlu jo d^^li suthanu, dhola apne jo. 

* Then for his thighs 1 will give trousers to my lover.' 

Song of a ivoman equipping her lover 
for crossing a mountain fass. 

Bhera re puhdlnu jo deni, chachua, deni chachda. 
Pitthi jo dela cholu ho. 

"To a herder of sheep give me, Father ! give me, Father f 
For my back he will give a coat. 

Song of a woman on the choice of a 
husband, 

" Deli " is the third person singular feminine and " dela " is the third 
person singular masculine of the future tense from dend, "to give.^' Deli 
I will give.' Dela He will give. 

Zrd declension •.'-'Masc. in a consonant. 

Kuse tarike tusila wich hdjar hhond (Nagrota) ? 
On what date am I to be present in the tahsil ? 

Nom, Sing, Merd, ghar taun thaun chour kuroh hi. 
My house is four miles from here. 



Gen. 8ing. Ghard rd m^lik Kulu jo chale^o hd. 

The owner of the "house has yone to Kullu. 
Ghara ri mdlikni jo ak charklui do. 
Give the mistress of the house a spinning wheel. 
Dat. Ace, Sing. Ih bat ghara jo gahiide hil. 

This road loads to a house. 
Loc. PL Jiyan ghare gha pouru bhond^ h^ tiytin manj bari. 

tauli ag lagandi ha. 
Fire is easily caught by houses which aro roofed with 
grass. 
Loc. Sing. Ghar^ manj (or man) chul ate ghard ate lotc ate thdli hin. 

In a house are a fire-place and water-jars * and 
brass vessels and dishes. 
All. Sing, Mere ghard thaun Shahpur ak pard hd. 

It is one stage from my house to Shahpur. 
Voc. Sing. Ai ghard, mat dh^en ! 

" Oh house do not fall " ! j 

Aith declension : — Fern, in a consonant. 

Nam. Sing. Bi^r jhulu karinde ha. j 

The wind is blowing. ' 

Gen. Sing. Bidri-rd, jor bara ha. 

The power of wind is great. 

Bid,ri-ri chher kannd jo taune karo dindi hd. 

The noise of the wind is deafening. 
Dat. Ace. Sing. Bid,ri jo rukhe de ! 

Shut out the wind ! {lit. tn the wind). 
Agent Sing. Bid.ri sab khail bhani ditte hiu. 

The slates are broken by the wind. 
Loc. Sing. Bidrimanj (or man) matgachen na takasri bhuch g.^hlu, 

Do not go into the wind or else you wUl get ill. 
Ahl. Sing, Bid,ri thaun pichtde bho. 

Get away from the wind. 
Voc. Sing. Ai biari meri kanakiijo khanlb mat kar ! 

Oh wind do not spoil my wheat I 

Fasla rd beld aich rehu ha. 

The time of the harvest having come has continued. 

bth declension : — Fern, in i. 

Nam. Sing. Ijji apne nikke jo pyar karendi h&. 

A mother loves her child. 
Gen. Sing. Puttar ijji-la bhaira charandd hd. 

The son is feeding his mother's sheep. 

So apni ijji-ri kitab parhende hd. 

She is reading her mother's book. 
Dat. Ace. Sing. Burhe useri ijji jo ghundii ^ni ditta h^i. 

The old man sjave a veil to his mother. 
Agent Sing. Ih pattu useri ijji banau hd. 

This woollen stuff has been woven by his mother. 
Loc. Sing. Ijji manj (or mdh) diih mate hA. 

There is much love in a mother. 
Ahl. Sing. Main apni ijji thaun rupeyya leu hd. 

I got money from my mother. 
Voc. Sing. Ai ijji or Ai ijjle riso kar ! 

Oh mother ! cook food ! 
Norn. PI, Ijji apne nikke jo piydr karii karundi hin. 

Mothers love their children. 



Gen. PI. Puttar ijji-re bher^ charu karande hin. 

The sons are feeding their mother's sheep. 

So apni ijji-ri kit^ba parhendi hd,. 

She is reading her mother's books. 
Dat. Ace. PI. Burhe ud,nri ijji jo ghundu ^ni ditta ha. 

The old n^en gave veils to their mothers. 
Agent. PI. lb pattu danri ijjie banad bd. 

This woollen stuff has been woven by their mothers, 
Loc. PI. liji niatij (or m&h) d4h mute hd. 

There is much love in mothers. 
Abl. PI. Mein udnri topi uahri ijji thaun dndi. 

I have brought their hats from their mothers. 
Voc. PL Ai ijjio riso kurfi ! 

Oh mothers cook food ! 

6th declension : — Fern, in o. 

Nam. Sing. Khakho apni nukhd jo sind, sardndi h&. 

A mother-in-law is teaching her daughfcer-in-law how 
to sew. 
Gen. Sing.Masc. Khakho-i^ ghar dur hd. 

The mother-in-law's house is far away. 
Useri Khfikho-ri gd nakhi gei hd. 
Her mother-in-law's cow has run away. 
Dat Ace. Sing. Mere bhdi khakho jo ak bhair bakshfsh ditti h&. 

My bi other has given a sheep to his mother-in-law. 
Agent Sing. Ih dhan useri khakhoe baddhe bin. 

This rice has been cut by his mother-in-law. 

Useii khakho manj (or mdn) bard dharm hd. 

There is much good in her mother-in-law. 

Meri baihn apni khakho thauh apne mdo bdbd-re ghare 

gich pujji hd. 
My sister has come from her toother-in-law into her 

parent's house again. 
Ai khakho apne jawdi site pydre site balu kar ! 
Oh motlier-iu-law speak gently to your son-in-law. 
Khitkhoa a| ni nukha jo Bind sdrdndi hin. 
The mothers-in-law are teaching their daughters-in- 
law how to sew. 
Gen. PL Cdnii khakhod-re ghar dur liin. 

The houses of their mothers-in-law are far away. 
Udiiri khakhod-ri gdi nakhi gei bin. 
The cows of their mothers-in-law have run away. 
Dat. Ace. PL Mere bhdi udnri khakhod jo dui' bhaird bakshish ditti 

hin. 
My brothers have given two sheep to their mothers- 
in-law. 
Agent PI, Ih dhan uanri khakhod baddhe hin. 

This rice has been cut by their mothers-in-law. 
Loc. PL tJanri khakhod manj (or mdh) bara dharm ha. 

There is much good in their mothers-in-law. 
AbL PL Meri baihni apni khakhoa thaun apne mdo baba-re 

ghare gich pujji hin. 
My sisters have com§ from their mothers-in-law into 
their parent's house again. 
Voc. PL Ai khakhod, apni jawai site pydre site baM kard. 

Oh mothers-in-law speak gently to your sons-in-law. 



Loc. 


Sing. 


AhL 


Sing. 


Voc. 


Sing. 


Norn 


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Agent Sing, Mori khakhoe ih kam karu h^. 

By ray mother-in-law this deed was done. 
Nom. PL Meii khakhod jrhara goi. 

My mothers-in-law went home. 
Agent PI. Meri khakhoe raeri janani hi^Ari difcti hd 

My motrher-in-law has ruined uiy wife. 

POST POSITIONS. 

The following require the nouns which they govern to have the gonitivo 
with re : — 



I 



before. 

in. 

above. 

outiiide. 

in place of. 
Tdin, tden, for, on account of, 
Parant after. 



Andar, 
Up par, 
Bd,har, 
Bdte, 



Tale, below. 

Sdmhne, in front of. 
Paihle, before, in tijne. 

*Marure, through, or in conso- 

qnence of. 
*Mola, conformable to. 



The following do not require re, but require the noun thoy govern to 

he in the formative caae : — 



Bin, 
Manj 

Mdn 
Pdr 

Seite, 



1 



without. 

in or among. 



Pichhorn or behind, 
pichhiiro 

Sahi, like, of appearance. 

Bimh, below, 

beyond, Malle towards, with, near 

with. (Urdu pus). 

Majat or mdrfat (by help of ) is feminine as Ih kam teri majat bhu.-i 

Examples. 
Tudh bin nindar na indi ha. 
Without you sleep comes not. 

Hatti knjo & thu ? Lund tamdku re fdeii d tliil. Dharmftdln Gadi. 

For what had you come to the sliop ? Yor salt and tobacco I had 

come. 
Meih heru tidn re bdl bachche m;ille koi .'ir^khi parekhi nahin gillindo. 
I saw to his children no neigiibours go. 
Heru is singular past tense of hernfi, to see; malle, to, towards^ 

Urdu pds. 
Gahnde present tense of gahnd, to go. 
Aun Muhane malle thu tinjii roti khane jo na balii. 
I was with Mohan. He did not invite me to cat food ; literally, 

did not ssy to eat bread. 
Balu 3rd singular past tense from balnd to saj', to .^peak^ e. g., Urdu 

bolna. 

FIRST PERSONAL TRONOUN. 

Singular. Plurnl. 

Nom. - Ann, mun, anun. A-^so, assun. 

Gen. Menl rn.la. 

Dat. Munjo, mao-o, 

munhun, mun. 

Ace. Munjo, muiihun, laun. 

Agent. Mein. Asse. 

Ahl. Mun fchaun. Assu thann. 

Loc. Mun manj. Assu mauj. 

Form, Meiii,. vmh, ma, Asse, 



> Assu jo. 



Examples — 
Kom. Aun na pntande apne jo. 

I do not pull out my own. Song. 

Mun joid re raste Ku^rkhi 30 galin^. [Gadheran). 

I am going to Kuarsi by way of tlie passes. 

Dat. Muiijo sarm indi. 

To me sl:arne comes. I am ashamed. 

Dirdnidn balu, jitlmnian bdlu, 

Mun gori billd naliin Ld "(or mdgo halu na ha in another 

version). > 

My younger sisters-in-law (have) nose-riugs, my elder sisters- 

in-]aw°(liave) nose-rings. To me (though 1 am fair) is no 

nose-ring. bong. 

Ma go cbour khau bhaird bin. 
With me are 400 sheep. 
Md go Dianhu blieji de. 
Send men to me. 

Munhun or mun dote khorairi jo p;abnA hd. 
To-morrow to me is to go (I have to go) to my father-in-law's 

house, 
Munhun kbakho malle gdhna. 
1 must go to my mother-in-law. 

* There 15 in Kdngri a dative moge, to me, as in — 

Moge tis-rd patta nebin. I have no news of him {Dharmsdla.) 

Agent. Mt-in kh-unu hd so Ldhor go tbu. 

I have beard he had gone to Lahore. {Song.) 

" Khund " is the past participle of khnnnd " to hear '' ; " hd " is the 
bird person singular present tense of the auxiliary verb. " So " is the 
bird personal pronoun. " Go" is the past participle of " gahna " " to go.'" 
i( rpj^^ }> -g ^YiQ third person singular past tense of the auxiliary verb. 

Nom. plural. Asse chour bhdi hun. 
We are four brothers. 

Examples of the plural of the first personal pronoun are rarely beard 
in the cnnntry talk unless it is necessary to lay stress on tlie number. 
lu conversation the singular seems generally to do duty for the plural. 

THE SECOND PERSONAL PI'.ONOUN. 





Singular. 


Plural. 


Nom. 


Tii. 


Tusse, tussdn. 


Gen. 


Tera, teri, tere. 


Tundd, tundi^ tuude. 


Vat. 
Ace. 


Tujjo, tdgo. 
Tujjo, todh. 


[Tassujo. 


Agent. 


Tain. 


Tusse. 


Lcc. 


Tuddh manje. 


Tussu manje. 


All 


Tuddh thaun. 


Tussu thaun. 


Form. 


Tuddh, td. 


Tusso. 



Examples-'-' 
Teri bhed ra ndn kae lic4 ? Chitari. g^^^^. ^z- j-;^^ • . • 

Qn. What is the name of your sliccp ? Ans. "Spot" "'^"* 

Chhorud, tujjo laran rikhni klulli, jlude Kliojii. ' jjm^ 

Boy ! a she bear with cubs (hirau) will oat yea, dear Khoiu ' 
Lok ta bhramande inuu tuddh karni initri. Ditto 

People then suspect me and you of making love. 
Tain sadid. Td ai, jindo Khojiii * Ditto 

You called me. Then I camo, dear Khoju ! 
I'd, go keti thdhar goru bin ? 

With thee how many head of cattle arc there ? i. e. IIow man? 

head of cattle hasfc thou. 
Tuddh bin nindar na aundi hd. So}ia 

Without you sleep does not come. 
Tu3su thaun mein kd<2;haz mangii tbu. 
From you I had asked for paper. 
Tuddh seite mein balu thu. 
To thee I had said. 
Dote aun ta go na ild. 
To-morrow I to you will not come. 

THE PRONOUN OF THE THHID PERSON. 
Singular. Plural 

Nam. Uh; so. So. 

Gen. Userd, useri, usere. U'dnrd, udnri, udnro. 

Ace. j^'J°- ^^"J*^- 

Agent. Uni. U'ijen. 

Ljc. Us mauj. U'dfi manj. 

Abl. Us thaun. U'dn thaun. 

Form, Us. UViii. 

Uh is indefinite; any " be." 

So is definite^ some " he " who is known to the speakefj " Tits " and 
" tis " are also used for the formative of uh and so. 

THE NEAR DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. 

Flural. 
Ih. 
lah-ra, iah-ri, iau-ro. 

Ida jo. I 

lyypn. 
Idh manj. 
Idn thaun. 
Idn. 

ATIYE PRONOUN. 

Pluraf. 

So. 

Tiaii-ra, tidn-ri, tidn-re. 

Tidn-jo. 

Tiyycn. 
Tidn manj. 
Tiaii thaun. 
Tidh. 





Singular. 


Nom. 


lb. 


Gen. 


Ise-rd, ise-rij ise-re. 


Dat. 
Ace. 


} ^s jo. 


Agent. 


Inni. 


Loc. 


Is m.ai)j. 


AhL 


Is thaun. 


Form. 


Is. 




THE REMOTE DEMONS^ 




Singular. 


Nom, 


So. 


Gen. 


Tisd-rd, tisc-ri, tied-re. 


Dat. 

Ace. 


] Tis jo. 


Agent. 


Tinni. 


Loe. 


Tis manj. 


Abl 


Tis thaun. 


Form., 


Tis, tisd. 



Examples-" 

Jaseri khairi, tiseri nidhi. 
Jinni bari tinni bid,bi. 

Che spring crop belongs to that man to whom the autumn crop belongs, 
rbat man marries (tbe girl) who betrothed her, 

' Khairi^Ms the autumn or Kharif harvest. ^' Ni^hi " is the spring or 
Eiabi crop. 

Formative Singular. 

Terd, man tessd, seite kajo lagur^ h& ? 
"Why is your heart attracted to that (girl) ? 

Agent Singular. 

Tinni m6n seite jord japati kari. 
He did violence with me. {Kdngra), 

Formative Plural. 

Tu kajo kodd, jo pfahnd^ hain. 

Meid, ndtd; goti^ chhure bin. Ti4n seite milrid gd,hnda hun. 
Qn, Why are you goings to the fair ? 

Alls. My betrothed and her relations have come. I am going to meet 
them, 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 

Singular. Plural, 

Je and jo. Je and jo. 

Jase-ra, jase-ri, jase-re. Jiah-ra, jidn-ri, jidfi-re. 

? Jas-jo. Jid-h-jo. 

Jinni. Jiyyefi. 

Jas-manj. ■ Jitin manj. 

Jas-thaun» 
Jas. 



Noon. 

Gen. 

Dat. 

Ate. 

Agent. 

Loc. 

All. 

Form. 



Jian thaun. 
Jidn, 



Nom. 

Oen. 

Pat. 

Ace. 

Agent 

pGC. 

Ail 
Form. 



Example of the Singular Agent Case, 

Jiuui bari tinni bid^hi. 

He by whom she was betrothed, married her. 

THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. 

Singula,r,. 

Kun? 

Kase-rd, kase-ri, kase-re ? 

\ Kas-jo ? 

Kui.ii ? 
Kas uianj. 
Kas thaun ? 
Kas ? 



Proverb. 



Pl'jiral. 

Kun ? 

Kian-ni,, kidn-ri, kian-re ? 

Kidn-jo ? 

Kiyyen ? 
Kian rnanj ? 

Kidii thaun. 

Kiah. 



. Eicamples — Singular Agent. 

Tii kahi hi ditti, mat a, tujjo galiaii ? Kufii balle maode bol ? 
"Who gave, mother, to you abub'e ? Who spoke evil words? 

Song of Raj 'J. Gopi Ghand, 

Ta kuni bo heru, msita, mandi hiikkhi ? Usdi hakkhi dindd, kadhai. 
Who looked; mother (at you) with evil eyes ? His eyes I will tear out. 

Song c/ Bdja, Gopi Chand, 



29 

The Neuter Interrogative Pronoun '' kid," what ? 13 declined m 
•follows : — 



Nom. Kid ? 

(tcw. Kate-rd, kate-rf, kate-re ? 

Ace. i ^^-1° • 

Examples — 

Eh katorl chhiri hd. 

" Of what wood is this ?" 

So kaio go thu. 

" Why did ho go V' 

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN. 

Singular. 
Worn. Koi. 

6^en. Kaski-rd, kuski-ri, kaski-re. 

Dat. 
Ace. 5 



' Kaski jo. 



Agent. Kuni. 

Loc. Ka«kl man], 

Ahl, Kaski thaun. 

No Plural. 

Examples — 

Gen. Eh bhair, kaski n bhoii. 

This sheep probably belongs to some one. 
Agent, Eh kam kuni karu bhola. 

This deed will have been done (*. e., probably has been 
done) by some one. 

THE EEFLEXIVE PRONOUN APPE, APU' "SELF." 

The single form apu does duty for both Singular and Plural. 



Nom. 


Appe, apu. 




Qen. 


Apnd, apni, 


apne. 


Bat. 
Ace. 


"lApu 


jo- 




Agent. 


Apu. 






Loc. 


Apu 


man j. 




AbL 


Apu 


thdun. 





Exam'ples'^ 
Nom. Ann appe go. "I myself went." 

Agent. Unni apu karu* " He himself did ife.'* 

Loc, Gaddi apu manj ghulande hin. 

" Tho Gaddia are fighting among themeelves." 





c 










Adverb' 

of 
Number. 


-fe a 

^ o 


• 




CD m © 


o e-t 2 


Adverb 

of 
Manner. 


- a 


• 


^ - a 


Kih^n. 
" In what 
manner." 


1 

Jihan 

"In this 

manner." 


Adverb 

of 

Direction. 


if ""- 


• 


g - s 


•X 

• 

^3 53 •'-1 


• 

• 2 


Adverb 

of 

Place. 


• 


• 
• 


'^. © 

© -S3 


. © 

So 


©■;f ! 


Adverb 

of 
Time. 


• 

CD ^ 

N0 


■ 
• 

• 




rfl c^ 2 a 


Jane and 

jekhane. 

"When." 


. 




-^ 


■s 


-^ 


J ^• 


Adjective 

of 

Kind. 


CO -N 

V- O -^ 


^'^ -^ 1; 


. c8 
fcj O •'^ 


^" ^ ?- g *_• 
MO 15:: 1 


Jinha. 
" Of whid 
kind" "As 


Adjective 

of 
Numbers. 


9S 

•12 >^ 


-1= :j 

^ a 


© £ o 


'^ o >> 

©MO 




1 


1 — 1~ 


"^ 


_ 


^ 




Adjective 

of 
Quantity. 




.rS^ 


v:a . '^ 


• 
43 


• 




v3 a 


P) r— 1 g 




* ^< 




* :: 


N» 




Vi 




I 


f5T 


r 




a-.B ^=8 J 


•4- 


^ 


" »- 


V* 


^ H 




^ 















From where = kataon. 



Tethi is more remote than uthi. 
Examples — 

Td, ^o keti thd,har pahru liin ? 

With thee how many head of sheep and goats are there ? 

Inha gowar mere heme mdn na a. 

" Such a fool never came into my siglit." 

Muhan kathi hil ? Moge tis ra patH^nchin. 

Where is Mohan ? To rae of him there i» no trace. 

T;r. . , 1 ,^ ,■,■,,,■,, (Dhar madia), 

Kia bnai yara kahra chalu hain ? 

What, brother and friend, whither art thoii going ? 

Tuiidh kanhe ind? Whon are you to eotne ? 

Aun kiinhe ichhui'i ? When may I come ? 

ADVJCRBS OF TIME. 
To-day: Aj. 

To-morrow : Dote. 
Day after to-uiorrow : Farohe. 
Day after ihat : Nacharohi. 
Always: Sadd. 

Mxamples — 

Aun dote ila^ 1 will come to-morrow. 

Parohe chala gdhld. The day after t'l. morrow I will go. 

Mun dote khaurairi mallo gdlina ha. To-morrow I have to ^o my 
father-iu'law's. 

Hi mun, Monl re ghar guchhurit thu. Yesterday I went to th& 
Louse of Mor. 

Dharvisdla GdcZL 
ADVERBS OF MANNER. 

Littlfl by little : Dhakh dhakh. 
Quickly : Taula taula (or taule taule). 
Taula taula ^ah. Gro quickly^ quickly. 
Slowly : Miittha mattha. 
Mattha mattha ild. I will come slowly. 

Dharmsdla Gadi. 



Ye.sterday : lU, kal. 
Day before Festorc^av : Paraj^ 
Day before that: No.kharaj. 
Pliire. 



Agiim 







NUMERALS. 






Oue. 


Ak. 


Sixteen. 


Khold 


Fifty-niue. 


Undht. 


Two. 


Diii. 


Seventeen. 


Satdrd. 


Sixty. 


Sattli. 


Three. 


Ttdf. 


Eighteen. 


Athdrd. 


Sixty-seven. 


Sataht. 


Four. 


Cbour. 


Nineteen. 


Unni. 


Sixty-nine. 


Unh attar 


Five. 


Panj. 


Twenty. 


Bihi. 


Seventy. 


Sahuttar. 


Six. 


Chhia. 


Twenty-seven 


. Satdi. 


Seventy-seven 


Sathattar 


Seven. 


Satt. 


Twenty-nine. 


Unatti. 


Seventy-nine. 


Unau. 


Eight. 


Atth. 


Thirty. 


Trihi. 


Eighty. 


Assi. 


Nine. 


Nau, 


Thirty-seven. 


Satattvi. 


Eighty-seven. 


Satdsi. 


Ten. 


Dakh. 


Thirty-nine. 


Untdli. 


Eighty-nine. 


Undnuen. 


Eleven. 


Yara. 


Forty. 


Chdli.' 


Ninety. 


Nabbei'i. 


Twelve. 


Bard. 


Forty-seven. 


Sattali. 


Ninety-seven. 


Satatiueu. 


Thirteen. 


Tehrd. 


Forty-nine. 


Unun]'d. 


Ninety-nino. 


Nariniiou. 


Fourteen. 


Chauddd. 


Fifty. 


Panjdb. 


Hundred. 


Khau. 


Fifteen. 


Pandrd. 


Fifty-seven. 


Satunjd. 







Ordinary Gaddis do not count beyond twenty. The more iutelligenfc 
of them borrow higher numbers from their Kdngrd neighbours. 

It should be noted that the t and h in sathattar aiG pronounced fiepa« 
rately. The word is not sa'thattar^ but mt-haiUr, 



One hundred : khau. Mago chour khau bhaira bin. 

To me,, with, me (mere p^s) are four hundred sheep. Bhair one sheep 

Bhaird, plural. 

■ ADJECTIVES OF PLACE. 

Agi^n : the nest before, as agi^n mahina, next month. 
Naragidn : the next before but one;^ as naragian mahina, one month, 
ifter next. 

Chhur4 : much. 

Dharmsdla Gddi. 

tude kindre bht chhura hd. On our side too was much (snow). 

Dhai'msdla Gddi. 
Right : Daihn^. Left : bd,dn. 

THE VERB. 
The Auxiliary Verb is thus conjugated : — 

Peesbnt Tense. 
Aun hun. "I am." 

Tu bain. ''Thou art." 

So ha, " He is." 

Apse hun. * "We are."' 

Tusse hin. " You are." 

So bin. "Theyarr." 

Examples. Aun Gaddi hun. " 1 am a Gfiddi." 

Bat bin bara ha. "The wind too is ftrong." 

Asse chour bhai hun. " Wo are four brothers," 

Mere chach iji bhi hin. "There are also ray father 

and mother." 
["a tu kajo ruthi ruthi, meri Radha ? Kae de karan rnthi ha. 
■ Why art then annoyed, my Rd,dha ? For what cause art thuu annoyed?'* 
.u kahra chalura haiu. " Whither art thou going ? " 

Sovg of Thakar, 
Past Tense. 

Masculine. Aun thd. Feminine thi. " I was." 

Tu thu. „ thi. " Thou wert." 

So thu. ,^ thi. " He was." 

Asso thie. „ thi. " We were." 



Tusse thie. „ thi. " You were." 

Sothie. „ thi. "They were. 



'J 



■ Exawjples. Kahr^ thu, ^ " Where wert thou." 

Mo Rali re koda jo gahnd thu. 

"I wras to go to the fair of Ralla," — literally "To me 
to the fair of Halla to go was." 
iTerti jo kajo go thu. Why did you go to Nerti ? 

lun apne nate sdke ri samhala jo go thu. 
■ I had gone for news of my relations." 
Kasaure ri huU hajri khundar hd. 

Kasaura's daughter is very handsome. — (Gddi of Dharmsdla) ^ 
Es thauii paihle jo sahib thu so khard thu. 
The sdihib who was before him, he was good (Gadi). 

BhOxVA. " To BECOME, TO BE.'* 

Infinitive. Bhona, To be, to become* 

Root Bho, or Bhuchh. 

Present Participle. Bhond4. 

Past Participle, Bhii^-i or Bhuchhura, 



Singular. 



I.-^Tens98 formed from the Root. 

AORIST. 

I may be or become. 

Pkiral. 



Aun bhuclihun. 
Tu bliueh. 
So bhua. 



Singular 

Aun bliuclihunla or bhola. 

bboH. 
Tu bholl 
So bhola. 



Example. 



Asse bhuchlnm. 
Tusse bhun. 
So bhun. 

Fdture. * 

I will be or become. 

riural. 

Asse bhuchhunle or bhole. Fam 
bholi. 
Tupae bhole. 
So bhole. 

Jotd ri bat karari bholi. 
The way of the passes will be difficult. 
Imperative. 



Fern. 



Singular. 



Tu bho. 



Plwi-nl. 



Singular. 

Aun blionda or bhnni5n. 
Tu bhonda or Wiunen. 
So bhondd.. 



Tusse bhoa. 

II. — Tenses formed from the Present Participle. 

Indefinite. 

I am or become. 

Plural. 



Singular. 

Aun bhondd hun or bbunun. 
Tu bhonda hain or bbunen hain. 
So bhonda ba. 



Asse bhonde or bhuuun. 
Tusse bhonde or bhunun. 
So bhonde. 

Present. 

T am or become, &c. 

Plural. 



Asse bhonde hun or bhuudn. 
Tusse bhonde hiii. 
So bhonde hin. 



Singular. 

Ann bhonda thu. 
Tu bhonda thu. 
So bhonda thu. 



Imperfect. 
r was becoming. 



Plural. 



Asse bhonde thie. 
Tusse bhonde thie. 
So bhonde tlii'e. 



Singular. 

Aun bbud or bhuchhura, 
Tu bhua or bhuchhurd. 
So bhua or bhuchhura. 



III. — Tenses formed from the Past Participle, 

Past. 
I became, &c. 



Plural. 

Asse bhue or bhucLlnire. 
Tusse bhde or bhuclihure. 
So bhue or bhuchhiire. 



* In Garhwali, "lo" is the termination of tlio future m4rlo let, 2ncl nnd ."^rfl persoas 
singular future tense of " marn^ " to strike; " la " is the termination of all tliroe pTsona 
plural future. The Kumaoni future ia similar. See Kellogg's Hindi Grammar, pp. 238, 239. 



Perfect. 
I have become, &c. 
Singular. Flural. 

Aufi bhu^ hun or bbuchliura bun. Asse bhue bun or bhucbhure bun. 

Tu bbud bain or bhucbbura hain. Tusse bhue bin or bbuchhure bin. 

So bbud, hd or bhucbburd, ha. j So bbue bin or bbucbbure bin. 

Ploperpect. 
I bad become, &c. 

Plural. 



Singular. 

Auh bbuS or bbucbbura tbu. 
Tu bliud or bbucbbura tbu. 
So bbua or bbucbbur^ tbu. 



Asse bbue or bbucbbure tbie. 
Tusse bhue or cbuchbure thie. 
So bhue or bbubbhure tbie. 



Infinitive or Vkebal Noun. 
Bbona, being ; bbonera-ri-re, of being. 

Conjunctive Participle. 
Bbucbbkari, or Bbucbbkar "baving been " ^'or baving become." 

Adverbial Participle, 
Bbonde site "on being" or "on becoming." 



Her, 



Herna. To see. 

"eeetbou." jS®''^'^'^^ ]" Seeing." Heru. 
( Hernun j ^ 



Hernun 
I.- 



"Seen.'' 



Singular. 



■Tenses of the Root. 

AoEIST. 

I may see. 



Ann berun, 
Tu beren. 
So ber6. 



Plural. 



Asse hemfi. 
Tusse beran. 
So beran. 

FOTDRE. 

I will see. 
Singular. Plural. 

Aun berunld or herl^. Fern, berli. Asse berunle or berle. Fern, berli. 

Tu berl^. Tusse berle. 

So berla. So berle. 

Imperative. 
Singular. 

" Look thou." 



Tu ber. 



Plural. 

Tusse bera. "Look you." 
II. — Tenses of the Present Participle. 



Indefinite. 
I see. 



Singular. 

Aun berandd. Fern, berandi 

^ hernun. 
Tu berandd. or t bernen. 
So herandd,. 



or 



Plural. 

Fern, berandi or 



Asse berande. 
•^ bernun. 

Tusse berande or t bernun. 
So berande. 



* Hernun. This form of the Present Participle is used only witb 
the first person singular and witli the first uud second persons plural. 

t Herncn. This form of tbe Present Participle is used only with 
tbe second person singuKr. 



Singttlar. 



Present. 
I ata seeing. 



Aun lierandd bun or hernun hun. 
Tu heranda, haih or herun liain. 
So heranda ha. 



Plural. 



Asse heranda hun or hernun hun. 
Tusse horande hin. 
So horande hin. 



Imperfect. 
I was seeing. 



Plural. 



A.S80 herandetlik). Fem. horandf thi. 
Tus?e herande thie. 
So heratido thie. 



Singular. 

Aun heranda thu. Fern, herandi thi. 
Tu heranda thu. 
So heranda thu. 

Tenses op the Past Participle. 

Past. 

I saw. 
Singular. Plural. 



Mein heru. 
Tain heru. 
Tinni heru. 



Asso heru. 
Tu3se heru. 
Tiyyeh heru. 
Perfect. 
I have seen. 



Singular. 



Mein heru ha. 
Tain lieru ho. 
Tinni heru ha. 



Plural. 



Singular. 



Asse herii ha. 
Tusse hei u Im. 
Tiyjen heru ha. 

Pluperfect. 

I had seen. 

Plural. 



Mein heru thu. 
Tain heru thu. 
Tinni heru thu. 



Asse heru tliu. 
Tusse heru thu. 
Tiyyen heru thu. 

Conjunctive Participle. 
Her, Heri kari. " Seeing," " On seeing." 

Example — 

Her jaw^n ruiyd,. 

Edjd; Gaddan behi. 

" Seeing her young loo1<ing 

The Rdia married the Gaddi woman." 

Sovgof" Nokhi," 

a Gaddi woman whom Rdjd Sansdr Chand married. 

Adverbial Participle. 
Herande site. " On seeing." 

Past Participle. 

Herura, " Seen " correBponds to " dekha hud " of Hindi. 

Bekhna. To sit. 
Imperative.— bekh. Sit (thou). 
Present Participle.— bekhandd. or bekhuh. 
Past Participle.— baitha and bithiard. 



1, — Tenses formed from the Root. 

AORIST. 



Singular. 



I may sit. 



Lun bekhun. 

Cu bekhen. 
5o bekha. 



Plural, 



■Singular. 



kuYx bekhla. 
Pu bekhla. 
5o bel:hla. 



Plural. 



Singular, 
rd bekh, Sit thou. 



Asse bekh [In. 
Tusse bekhan. 
So bekhan. 

Future. 

I will sit. 

Asse bekhle. 
Tuase bekhle. 
So bekhle. 

Imperative. 

Plural. 

Tusse bekh ji, Sit you. 

II. — Tenses formed fr om the Piesent Pariici'ple. 

Indefinite. 

I sit. 

Plural. 



Singular. 

\nh bekhan da or bekhnuh. 
Cu bekhand^ or bekhen. 
So bekhanda. 



Sirigular. 

\.uh bel^anda or bekhnun hun. 
Cu bekhandd or bekhuen hain. 
3o bekhanrla ha. 



Asse bekhande or bekhnun. 
Tusse bekhande or bekhnun. 
So bekhande. 

PiiESENT. 

I am sitting. 

Plural. 



Asse bekhande or bekhnuh bun. 
Tusse bekhande bin. 
So bekhande liiu. 

Imperfect. 

I was sitting. 

Plura I. 



Singular. 

^uh bekhande thu. 
rd bekhandd thu. 
3o bekhaud^ thu. 

III. — Tenses formed from the Past Pariici'ple. 

PAfT. 



Asse bekhande thie. 
Tusse bekhande thie. 
So bekhande thie. 



Singular, 

&uh baitha or bitluira. 
Pu baith^ or bithiira. 
So baithd or bithurd,. 



Singular. 

Auh baithd. or bithura huh. 
Tu baitha or bithura haih. 
Bo baithd or bithura h^. 



I ^at. 

Plural, 

Asse baithe or bithure. 
Tusse baithe or bithure. 
So baithe or bithure. 

Perfect. 

I have sat. 

Plural. 

Asse baitho or bithure hrfh. 
Tusse baithe or baithure bin 
So baithe or bithure bin. 



6i 



Singular. 

Auii baitli^ cr bithura rhu. 
Tu baitta or bithura thu. 
So baithd or bithura thu. 



Pldpebpect. 
I had sat. 

Plural. 

Asse baithe or bithire fhi'e. 
Tusse btiithe or bit'.iuie thie. 
fcjo baithe or blthute thio. 
Infinitive 
Bekhna. To sit. 
Conjunctive Paijticiple. 
Bekhi kaii. Havinjr sat. 
Adverbial Pahticiple. 
Bekhande site. On sitting. 

Participle used Adjectively. 
Bekhura corresponds to "baitlm hui'i" in Hindi. 

« *fNA, To come. ... 

Infinitive. Trui. 

Present Participle. Tnda. 

Past Participle K or chhura. 

I. — Tenses >ormed frovi the Root. 

AoRI.^T. 

I may come. 
Singular. Plural. 



Ann icbchhun. 
Tu aiefi. 
So aiyd. 



Singular. 

Ann iU or chliunld,. Fern. ill. 
Tu iU. 



So ild. 



Aun dote il^, 



Ttidi. 



Singular. 
Come thou. 



Asse iclichhuh 
Tusse aiva. 
!So in, ain. 

FUIURK. 

I will come. 

Plural. 

Asse ile or chliunle. Fem. fli, 
Tus-e ile. 
So ile. 

I will come tomorrow. 

Imperative. 

Plural. 

Tusse ai^. Come you. 









II. — Tenses formed from the Present Participle. 

Indefinite. 

I come. 



Aun indd. 
Q'u indd. 
So indd. 



Singular. 
Fem. indi. 



)3 



)3 



Plural. 

Asse inde. Fem. indf. 
Tusse inde. 
So inde. 






it 



* To bring, 

Bring, 
Brought, 
Bringing, 
I will bring, 



le-ina or lei-ina. or lei eina. 

lei-a, 

lei-a. 

le-ind^. 

le-ila or lei chhxLuli, 



Singul 



Present. 
I come or am coming. 



ar. 



Aun indd hufi. Fem. indi, &c. 
Tu indd, bain. 
So indd, hd,. 









Plural. 



Asse inde bun. Fem. iudi, &c. 
Tusse inde hd,. 
So inde hin. 



it 
t) 



)) 



Singular. 

Ann indd tbti. Fem. indi tbi, 
Tu indd tbu. 
So Indd, tbu. 



>t 



it 



it 
)i 






Singular. 

Aun ^. Fem. ai. 
Tud. 



So d. 



1) i> 

» a 



Imperfect. 

I was coming. 

Plural. 

Asse inde tbie. Fem. indi thf. 
Tusse inde tbfe. 
So. ainde thie. 

Past. 

I came. 

Phiral. 

Asse ae. Fem. ai. 
Tusse d,e. 
So^-. 

Perfect, 

I have come. 

Plural. 



i' ;» 
}i a 



Asse Ae bun. Fem. A\, &c. 
Tusse i,e hin. „ „ 
S(> ae bin. „ 



a 



Singular. 

Aun ^ hun. Fem. di, &c. 
Tu 6, bain. „ „ 

So A ha. ,, ,, 

Example.— J&v khit chhurd, ha. Fever and ague has come. 

Pluperfect. 

I had come. 

Plural. 



Asse de thie. Fem. A'l thi. 
Tusse ^e thie. 
So ae tbie. 



i) 






Singular. 

Aun d, thu. Fem. d-i thi. 
Tu A tbu. „ „ 

So A tbu. „ „ 

From the other Past Participle " chhtird, another set of tenses is 

formed. 

Past. 

I came. 

Plural, 



Singular. 
Aun chhurd,. Fem. chhuri. 



Singular. 

Aun chhurd hun. Fem. chhuri hun 

Pluperfect. 

I had come. 
Singular. 

Aun chhuri thu. Fem. chhuri thi. 



Asse chhure. Fem. chhuri. 

Perfeat. 

I have come. 

Plural, 

Asse chhure huh. 



Plural. 
Asse chhure thlo. 



Infinitive oe Verbal Noon. 
tiji^. Coming. I^Q-r^, i^Q-ri, i^e-re. Of coming. 



Aun gachhfin. 
Tu gachheh. 
So gacbhd. 



Singular, 

Aun galila or gachhuhl^. 
Td gdhl^. 
So gdhla. 



Tu gah. 



CONJDNCTIVB PaRTICIPLB. 

Ai kari or ichh kari Having come. 
Adverbial PAUTicirLE. 
tnde site. On coming. 

Gahna. To Go. 

Imperative and Root. 

Gah. " Go." 

Present Participle. 

Gahnda. "Going." 

Past Participle. 

Go or guchburd,. " Gone." 

I. -Tenses formed from the Root. 

Aorist. 

I may go. 

Singular. Plural, 

Asse gachhun. 
'J'usse gachha. 
So gdhan. 

Future. 
I will go. 

Plural. 

Asse g^ble or gacbbuhle. 
Tusse g^ble. 
So gable. 

Imperative. 

Go thou. 
Singular, Plural. 

Tusse gachha. 
Indefinite. 



Singular, 

Aun gdhnd^ or g6hnuh. 
Tti gabndd. 
So gd,hnda. 



Singular. 

Aun gd;lindd or gdhnun hun. 
Tu gdbndd bain. 
So gdhnda ha. 



go- 



Plural 



Singular. 



Ann gdlinda tbu. 
Tu gdhndd tbu. 
So g^hud^ tbu. 



Asse gd;bnde or gdbnun. 
Tusse g^bnde or gdhnun- 
So g^bnde. 

Present. 
I am going. 

Plural. 

Asse g^bnde or g^bnun bun. 
Tusse gdbndo bin. 
So gahnde bin. 

Imperfect. 
I was going. 

Plural. 

Asse gahnde thie. 
Tusse gdbnde thie. 
So g^hndd thio. 



III. — Tenses formed from ihe Past Partic'xple. 

Past. 



Singular, 
Aun g» nr guchliurd,. 
Tu go or guchliur^. 
So Soor guchhurd. 



Singular. 
Aun go hfin or gucliViur^ liun, 
Tu go hain cr guchhura hain. 
So go ha or guclihurd M. 



Sinaulnr. 
Ann go tViu or gu(^hliura tliu. 
Tu go thu or {zuchhurd* tViu 
So go thu or guchliurd thu 



I went.. 

Plural. 
Asse gae or gnchhure. 
Tusse gae or gnchlmre. 
So gae or gnchhure. 

Pbesent. 

I have gone. 

Plural. 
Asse gae hun or guchhure hun. 
Tusse gae hiu or sfnchhure hin. 
So gae hin or guchhure hin. 

PLDPEBfECT. 

I had gone. 

Vliiral. 
Asse fifae thie or guchhura thie, 
Tnsse gae thie or guchliure thie. 
So ga© thie or guchhure thie. 



Conjunctive Participlf-, 

Gachhi kari. Having gone. 

Advkebial Participle. 

Gahnde site. On going. 

Examples. — k\ aun Ku^ti go thu. Today I had gone te Kugti. 

Ann Bd,ri re kodd, jo gu'hhur^ thu, 

I to tlie fair of Bdri had gone. 

The following very common verbs are worth nothing : — 



Khdn^, eat. 
Piufi, drink, 
Dena, give. 
Laina take. 
Balud say, speak. 
Karnd, do. 



Indefinite, khdnda. 

pindd.. 

dinda. 

lainda. 

balandd. 

kardd. 



Past, khd,u. 



n 
it 

ft 



>r 



piu. 

ditta. 

Future, launU, lel^, Past, leu» 
Past, balu. 
,, karu.. 



Lei-gahn4 take away is conjugated like gahna. 

MONTHS AND DAYS. 

Sankrint, 1 st day of the month. 

Bahi, 2nd day of the month. 

Masant, last day of the month, 

Kala raahina, or black month = Bhadon. 1st is called* Bakrora. 
[pntroru] : Kachalu, leaves are eaten. 

1st Ohetar, Dholru, the month of begging by professional beggars 
with drums. 

Bakhdkh, = Baisakh, 1st is called Basoa or Brikhu. 

Jaitb,* Ist is called Lohle hohle ri Saukrant. (Meaning not kuown). 

Laira=Khawan or Sawan,* 1st is called Chirnu, the name of an ingect. 
Chickari in Urdu who attacks cattle in Sawan. 

No marriages are celebrated in Chetar or Sawan. 



THE PARABLE OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD 
K-),» ^ -. , . . ^'■- John X, 11-16. 
Kh,r4pali,l aun hun. Khari nal,«l 1,1 •• 

bear) ]o inde heri ka.i bl,„i,rio ohhad ,1,„i^'i" '" "'»'"^ "'^ blnibbu ( el 
blirabbu MA jo chhekandi (tear h)1^t„ j;'^.' "'.'' "'"kbi fr^ihnda I, a ate 
nhatoan,,. h. .0 ^.jSi- ha a\e bhai^ ri cUndt^l^rid?''"''' ''"■ ""^^ 

J'un ate aun bl.air^ ra t^in a,nf j Jdinda hui^^^ '" ^"" ^"^'^° J*^ J^'.^Jh 

Ate meii hor bhi bhaira hin ' 
jo ^nun ate so men hak khnnli ate fkke klanl'V"'' ff"' I'f' ^^ '^"^ "^" 

The following s^ntences will fn ^f n ^^ P'^'^^^ ^^oll 

dialect and f.cili&te cXansTn with 'the ZTIZTI''^'''^ ^' ^^^ 

1. Ter^nankya? What is thy name ? 

2. Es ghore ri ketri umbar ha ? What i^ H.a o 

there in Stber'Ao'Lel" '^'" «°''"" ''-? Ho. „an, son, are 
^Jn,t^i:.tX "''' ""'"'' '>-'■"'««"■>• Today I Uve eo™, 

the w';ite\t:i!s s::,dt:'"* '■^=''^'""' ^''-^^ " ^'^ >>- 1„ tH„ h„use « 

8. Ti,eri pi„hi _p„r Mthi pS. On his back p„t the saddle 

J_ Lsera gobliru ma.n matd mSi-fi. His son I have n,„cl, be,i.„ 

10. Soptapur bakri chiranda ha. He h gra.i,,. J ! , 
mil (or passj. " s mazing goats on -J e . 

11. So rukkhii tale ghore pur bekhura h^ u^ j 

seated on a horse. ■ ^ ■ ^ oskdura ha. He under the tn c is 

is bigtlr I'aThis'fL:?:-" '^" • ' «'^"" "'f^ '" -t») W. H. b.othe,. 
13, U--;l mal dh^i rapay,, ,,a. Its prie» is .wo-and-a-haif rupee, 
limaU ho„s""" '"'^ '^"'''^' ^'■-^ »^ -">"■'''■ My father I,>e, in a 
15. 0sjo rupayye dei dea. Gire him rupees 
6. Tes thauA rupayye lei laine. Fr.™ him take the rupees. 
«o. well .Sr^Titt r^oTef '' '''' ^""^ (^"'' baonha. Hav.„g beaten 

18. Khuwwi thauii pan! khuli. Dra,, water from the well 

19. Mere agge chaM. Walk before me 

Vhose boy 1:1S;^^:H^^^^'^'^*^ ^'' P^^''^'-^ ^"^^ ^- ^^''^^) 1^^. 
hat?^^" ^''*^"' ^^' ^'^''" '"''^^''^ •'"• ^^°™ whom didst thou buy 
^^^^22. Girdn re ekke hatwapie thauh. From a shopkeeper of tha 



42 



Glossaet of woeds peculiar to the Kanc41ia District and the neigh- 
bouring HILL. TRACTS. Bl THE LATE EDWARD O'BRIEN, 

Esquire, o.s., Deputy Commissioner of Kangra, Revised with 
Additional Words by the Revd. T. GRAHAME BAILEY, 
B. D., M.R.A.S., Wazieabad. 

Note. — The Sanskrit derivatioua are by Dr. T. Ph. Vogei, Archaeological Surveyor to 
the Punjab Goverument. He Las employed the Irausiliteration eysttJin of the Asiatic {society 
of Beugal. 

i^ ...... Skr. Sanskrit. 

._,id H. Hindi. 

Wfia .v.. p. Persian. 

.^^ . Ku. Kullii Dialect] 



Cp. Compare. 
Ij hoot. 
= Means. 
+ Related to. 



Agrola, man forward in speaking.. 

Ahl4, bird's nest. " Kas pakhrue dd 6hM hai t*' (Of what bird it; 
that the nest ?). Skr. dlaya, dwelling (in Himalaya). 

Aitki, this time, now. 

Ajhan, yet, still. 

G. Akhoka, adj., of this year, akho, as in " akhoki chhalli paroki chhalli 
thaun khari hin," " this yt ar's maize is (lit., are) better than last year's.'* 

Akkar, man not liable to forced labour. 

Alliia= Amalfas. (Lambagraon). 

Ambar, sky. Skr. ambara. 

Amri, hardnni Innd, cf. oitar, from Skr. ambu (water) ? 

At\^, relationship. (Sbahpnr). " Tahsild^re kane tis dd an g hai" (he 
is related to the Tahs-ilJar). Skr. anga = member. 

Anijujjh, ''not hidiieo," "known." (Suloh). Skr. a-guhya, a-g6dha. 
Apan, bub, Skr. aparam ( = other, further). 
Appun, oneself, myself, thyself, &c. 
G. Aten, and. 

A nkkh5, trouble : " Mittardusman aukhi^de wakat pachhane," (Friend 
and enemy are dish'ntjuished at the time of difficulty). (KAngra). 

Aokbi-bhari^ same as aukkhi. 

Aunda, drain, a small drain cut across a field to drain it = chalra or 
chala). 

Bachdlna, destroy, injure. (Kangra). 

Badhi.id, to cut = Vadlin^. (Bandla). Skr. y/ vadh = to alay. 

Badka, elderly mnn, bead of family. 

Basgar, a kind of grass, used for fodder and for ropea, Andropagon 
involutum and Ercojjhorum cornosuvi (Stewart) ; cf. gao-dhaa ui^ld. 

Baglu, ft Ga'idi's purse of untauned skin (for tobacco). 

Bagnd, flow. 

G. Bagri, field. 

Bagruli, bundle of baggar grass. 

Bdgur, s. f., air, wind. (Kutlehar). Ku. bdgar. Cp. H, bagula (babnld) 
1= whirlwind. 

Bahnd, plough sow. 



Baihaod, CHpable of cultivation, (cf. behau). 

Baihnj, bamboo. 

Baihra, calf. 

Baihri, year. 

Bajh, ploughed land. (Kaloha). P. bdj ( = tribute) ? 

Bd,jhi, "except." H. b^j (cp. Flatts) ? + Rkr. va.jja ( = to be avoided). 

Bajlothar, hard, strong, useii of hard, r.>und stones in a river-brd ri3 
opposed to the soft sandstone of the cliff.s ; cf. kasrallu. (Baragrdon). 
Derived from H. bajar = harii Skr. vajra = diaQiond. 

Bajog-, loss. Skr. viyoga = separahon. 

Bakhan, ease, comfort. H. bakli^n. 

Biildh, in the south of the District, i.e., in Hamirpur and Dera, 
is used for bullock. lu Fdlampur of Kdngra, aud Niirpui djind used. 
Skr. balada. 

G. Balna, tell, speak. H. bolna. 

Ban, jungle. 

Ban, or Hsiih, a covered spring. Skr. vapi " At the b^in is the camp 
of Harjala." Also a woman's nipple. 
Bandri, straw mat. 
Banhd ( = Samalu) Vitex negundo, Stewart, 166. 

Banj, excommunicution. "Tijjo banj pdi ditt^," (I have excommuni- 
cated you). Skr. y/ varj = to exclude. 

G. Baragh, leopard. 

Barhnd,, Subst. masc. or verb, rain or to rain. Baran, Skr. var?hana. 
Barsdla, rainy season. Ku. barbal. Skr. varsba-kala. 
* Baruthi, the court-yard of a hou8e = cZd/dn, cf. uan. (Hamirpur). 
Bpsa, a hamlet when high up on a hill. Skr. vasa (dwelling). 
Basab, trust. Skr. visvasa. 
Basand, ploughed land = taraddadi. (Gaddi). 
Basdi, a hamlet. (Kutlehar). Skr. vasati = dwelling. 
Basinda, a hamlet, (inhabitant). Skr. y/ vas = to stay. 
Basunti, Adhatoda fsaica, Stewart, 164. 
Bat, a road. H. bat. 
I Bat, s. f. egg. 

G. Bd,t, wind as in " baia bdt jhulura," (' a great wind is blowing ') 
Skr, vdta v^ va. 

Batlohi, brass pot. 

Batra 60 % per annum of interest. (Kutlehar). 

Batt, upper millstone. Tali, under millstone. (Bhawarna). 

Batti, a measure, = two sera pakka. 

G. Bauh, fore-quantar of a sheep. (Dharmsdla). Skr. bahu ) ( = arm). 

Bauhar, upper story, roof . (Sujanpur). Skr. vyavahara ? 11 (house) 
affaiis. 

G. Bauhrea, sown. 

Baunhkari, broom of long grass. 

Beddo, see beuhs. 

G. Behi, book (especially money-lender's). 

Behr^, a cluster of houses, a hamlet. (Properly the space in the 
middle). (Dhatwdl). 

G. Bekanu, a wether. 

G. Betan, wife. Ku. betri=girl, young woman. 

Beuhl, dhamman. Skr. bilva [ = Aegle marmelos). 

Bedhs (= beddo,) a willow. Stewart, 206—8. 

* Bhakrdri, a mallet for crushing clods. 

Bhalel, fibre made from the bark of the dhamman tree. (Baragrdcn). 

Bhandaur, see darohld. 



^ Bhangan, the name of a fish : (Bhddpur). 'Be&s. 
* Bharauta, a clod-crasher. (Nadaunti). 
G. Bharukkh, s. f. hunger. Skr. bubhuksLa (?) 
Bhaundu, foolish, silly. 

Bhedu, a sheep geuerMlly, also a ram^ H, Ku. bhed = ewe. 
Bher, a ewe. Cp. bhedu. 
Bheth. a precipice. (P^larapnr). 

" Bhittdn dei de^/' shut the door, {tit , the planks used here as a door). 
Bhrabhu, red bear In Skr. powerful, lord. 
Bhukr^n, a clod-crusher. (Dera). 
Bhun, field. 

G. Biar, wind, as in " bari bidr, jhulijri," (a great wind is blowing). 
Bij, lightning when it strikes, while bijli = the flush. + Skr. vidyut. 
BiJangan, a clothes' horse, a stick suspended by two ropes from 
ho eaves of a house. Skr. vilambana = pendant. 

Bir, a ridge between fields, (Daro). Ku. Bir. Skr. viti = separation ? 

Birld,, broad. Skr. vistirna. 

Bitti, daughter, girl. 

Boddar, peacock. 

Budhi, mother. 

Bub Id, adj , low, depressed. (Nagrota). 

* G. Bujazu, tinder. 
Bujhkd, load. 

Buuh, adv., below, as in " bunh gachh top," (go down and search). 
Kn. bunh. 

Chdcha, father. Cf. H. chacha = paternal uncle. 
Chak, head ornament. 

Chakona, square. Skr. catush - kona = four cornered. 
Chalrd = aunda, qu. vide (Malan). Skr. V. ca!. = to run. 

* Chamal, the plant which children call "Jack-in-the-box." (Gaddi). 

Chamba, 3Iichelia campaca, Stewart, 5. Skr. campaka. 

Chamrd, skin (of cattle). ) c«i i • i ii. i.- u 

m 'I- / t: ^ \ > okr. carman= skin, leather, shield. 
Chamri, skm (of a man). ) * ' 

Chandra, miser, cunning man. 

G. Chardte, hind quarter of a sheep. (Dharmsd,la). 

Chatrati, mahser, cf. kakidru. {Dera, and Sujdnpur), 

Chhah, butter milk. 

Chhalli, maize. 

Chhandr, bad woman, 

Chharola, a stile. 

G. Chhelria, goat, lamb. 

Chhelu, a lamb. 

G. Chhikkd, load. 

G. Chhiri, wood. + H. char (=shaft) ? 

Chhopa, vaccination. 

Chhori, chhokri, girl. 

Ghhoru, chhokru, boy. 

Chhuh, the six-sided cactus. 

Chhu-nali, water-cress. 

Uhhubbd,, the rope with which a load of grass is tied + chdbr^= 

basket, ? 

* Chhumb, a stack of maize. (Kutlehar). [jhumb.] 

G. Chimta, high, 

Chiudna, think, wish. 

Chirindi ? maple. 

Choi, a stream, a torrent. H. coyd, cp. PlattSt 

Ciioind, to strip, to skin. 



ChoiS, a stream, r^cbof— "Is^ jimfna 50 Irai chou lagdo, tap nan hao ;" 
[to this land three streams are attached, there are nine mouths for the 
water.] (Kdngra). 

* Chunchal, a sort of blackbird with plumage blue tinted in the sun. 
From Skr. cancu ( = beak) ? 

Chupanje, interest on grain at 25% per anuum. 
Churdfi, parched rice. 

* Dd,gula, grape-vine, and Dhurd, grapo. + P. ongur ? 

G. Dah, courtship, as in "meri d4h karni," (make love to mo). Skr. 
daha. heat (?) 

Dalhunnf, hive. 
Dand, toorn. Skr. danta. 
Danga, a stoue wall. 
Dangu, a scorpion. 
Dardknl, coward. 
Uardtti, sickle. 

Darohla, the multicomb, domesticated tree-bee ; cf. bhandaur the 
unicomb, wild tree-bee. " ' ' 

Dataild, morning meal. 

Daund, a wood-pigeon. 

G. Dena, to cross (a pass, river, etc.)« 

Dhakh-dhakh, little by little, dhakh, little. 

Dhamman=Beuhl, ((rrevia oppositifolia, Stewart, 27). H. dhaman. 

Dharirna, to drag. 

Dhera, crooked, as " dheri lakri," (a crooked stick). 

G. Dheu, daughter. Skr. duhitar. 

Dhi41u, earthen pot, 

Dhidra, sun. Skr. dina-kara, divasa-kara? = day maker, i.e., 8un. 

Phig, precipice. 

Pliingara, Hind, arhar, a kind of pulse, Cajanus Indicus, (Ramgarh). 

Dhiotra, a daughter's son. Skr. dauhitra. 

Dbirnd, to drag. (Cbaumukha). 

Dhiun, a tree with large leaves ; bears a fruit, Atocarpus integrifolia. 
(Lodhwdn). 

Dhor, bullock. Skr. dhurya, dhaareya = beast of burden. (From 
dhur, dhura = burden). 

Dhura, vide Dagula. 

Dikkna see, look. 

Dohru, blanket. 

Poind, to tremble. 

G. Dote, to-morrow, cf. H. dan-thain. 

Dudhar, a hut in the cultivated land for the purpose of being near the 
fields. 

Ehra, like this. 

Ekal, wild hog which lives alone. 
Gd, cow. 

Gabhe, between. Skr. garbh© Locative of garbha = womb cf. 
H. gab. 

Gaddi, a sheaf of rice. (Sal oh). 

G. Gahnd, to go. 

Galand, to speak, cf. H. galana. 

* Gao-dhan mdl6 a rope of baggar grass and mango leaves suspended 
ftcrOBS the path to a cowshed to avert cattle-disease. (Baragraon). 



'Gappi, chatterer, flatterer, as in Katochan di uttar mukkhi paraul 
^hdlakdh jo sattu khusdmadan (orgappian) jo chad, at the north-facing 
doorway of the Katoch to helpers (is given) ground corn, to flatterers rice. 
Proverb. H. gappi. 

Gardka^ a clap i3f thunder. 

Garju, thunder. Skr. ^ parj, 

Garnd,, 'Carw»a diffusa, Stewart, 42, very like karaundd, which is 
^ariftu ccrtindas. 

* G. Gadld, latngur. 

G. Gaun, hot. 

tjhdlak, helper. 

^hdlki, help. 

•Ghalna, to help. H. ghalnd has qaite a different meaning. 

Gharethal, stand for water pots. 

G. Gharingar, saddle of a sheop. (Dharmsdla). 

-Gha-iini, the bird which makes bottle shaped nests. (Saloh). 

"Gharu, a precipice. 

Ghatti, slope. 

Xihoru, horse smaller than ghord. 

Ghnard, a stack of rice-straw. (Kdngra). 

<3rhunRanian, parched wheat. 

Gid, the name of a fish. (Bhddpur), Beds. 

Gidli, name of a fish. (Dera and Sujanpur). 

GolDhru, son. H. gabru =boy. 

God, an eel-like fish, Mestacemhlus armatus. (Dera and Sujanpur). 

Gohar, path to hamlet. 

Gohran, cattle shed. 

Gojhra, lap, part of garment. 

Goru, a herd of cattle, as in " tere gorn kiti thahar hiu?" (how many 
head are there in your herd?) 

Gotar, tribe (restricted to the decendants of on© ancestor). Skr. 
gotra. 

Guhd,rd, open. 

Gullu, a cob of maize from which the graia has been picked. 

G. Gurld,, sweet. 

Garlu, the sweet viscous matter deposited by insects on the leaves 
and flowers of the mango in spring. (Rajhun). 

G. Hachhd, white (of things and animals). Skr. accha ( = clean). 
E6kh, eye. G. hdkkhri. 

Bakhi, a glance, akr. akshi, akshau. "DuUih janien di hakhi lagi/* 
(the glance of two lovers met). (Gaddi song). 

Handhna, walk. 
Handu, earthen cooking pot. 
Bangi, sieve of wood and leather. 
Hath-lop, groping, — karnd, to grope. (Kangra). 
Hatiard, a wretch, a murderer. + Skr. hataka. 
Hattna, return. 

Haud, ploughing the standing crop of rice, "Haud Hdy mahlne 
hunghe " (the rice will be ploughed in Har), cf. or. 

Hera, shikar. 

G. Herna, see, look. 

Hi, yesterday, ai in " Hi aun kachahri jo na go," (yesterday I to 
jtntcherry did not go). Ku. hij, Skr. hyaa. 

Hik-jor (br«BBt-force), oppression, &c. 

Hiun, snow, Skr. hima, (Himalaya = enow abode). 



47 



ML. 



Hiund, Hiund^, winter^ as '^akhoke liiundii man] tuBSO apnn)]iRir 
bakri kitthf charni hin ?" where will you grazo your shoep luid j^oat^ ihi 
winter?) (Dharmsala). Skr. hemanta. 

* Hiunwdt, snow-blindness. 

IbMn, now, ibhla, ibhk^., of now, belonging to this time. 

G. Ijai, mother. 

Ikkar, kind of sugarcane. 

Illan, kite. 

Irkhia, shame. 

Itkha, itbakha, to this side. 

G. Jabara, an old man. 
J^hlu, when. + Skr. y^vad. 
^^effll^r^ and palla, names of V)lighiff. 
Jaliha, dumb. (Kangra). 
J^ni-mdni, tiohns volenti. 

Jdnkdr, wise. _, , ry. . . r.i * 

Japhlota, croton tree, Jatwpha curca^, Stewart's Ptaujab Planfp 

^""^^G.^ Jar, ^f^veT^is in " jar kbit icl.hu.d hd/' (fev^- and ague have 
come). Skr. jvara. 

G. Jelld, hard. 

Jhakb, jhdnjhd, stormy wind. 

Jhrtsna, rub. 

G. Jhauntu axe. 

Jliuddu, henpecked husband. 

Jhugdnk, annoy. ^ n r ll _». 

Jhumb = a stack of Indian corn. (Lamb^grdon) . cf. chhnmh. 

Jhangd, house. 

Jhungi, inferior house, shed. 

G. Jora, rope. 

Junds, a wife. (Hamirpur). 

Jungla, yoke. (Bhawarna). 

Juthuttar, husband's elder brother s son. 

Kb, crow, pi. kd, " mate k4 hin," (there are many crows). Skr. kika. 
Kahlu, when. 

KmJo, why ? (Gaddi).^ ^ father'^ youn^ r brother or his wife). 

G. Kak, uucle, kakki, annt (t.e., tat her 8 youn 

* Kakidru, mahser ( = chatrati). (Dera and .s.jdnp.n). 

Kakri, cucumber. , , „..„„,„„ 

* Kalbelan, the time between sunset and daik, evening. 

Kalhd, quarrel, t^kr. kitlalia. 

G. Kalotti, black bear. The red oowiler which fMrms 

Kdmal EMlera tinctona Ste^^^t, .7^ The red pvv 
on the capsules is called Umda and is used for dye, worms 
Kandd., a thorn. Skr. kantaka. 

^ Kandi, water beetle qt^^wart 62 Skr. karnika.a ? 

Kandr, (Kotla-Niirpur)=Amaltds, Stewart, oz. DKr. . 

Eapbi, tinder (=biijazu). 

Karal-Kachnar. (Kangra). 

Karai. Baubinia Yariegata, Stewart, p. &y. 

^^tt:'^:^t^J^^^v''^^^ ^'"''^ «"""' ''"'"' 

'"^Xri stack of rice, .,.are or oblong f^^^^ .^^ ^'■ 
KasikrS, a crab. (Pbelu m Maadi). +bkr. kar^a 



* Kaaar, swarm. 

♦ J^Tlu' f ^^ T^ ""^ ^^^ ^i^ sandstone whfcR is rapidly worn into 
tracks by the feet o u,eo or cattle (Baragrdon) ; cf. kasari^and Tal otthar 
Kasari, sick. (Bara^rdon) . ' "'tJi^Ji-i'aar. 

Kasa:al. Be, bens aristata. Rasot is made of the root of tho kasmal 

* Knur, a weed w,th a yellow flower (Lodhwan), observed in fields 
generally m February and March. "»«^iveu m neias 

^^^ Kawar gandal, a plant of the aloe kind ? Aloe rerfoliata, Stewart, 

*K"endu, Deafpyros montana, right bank of Beds. 

Kes, hair. 

Khad, stream, river. 

G» Khadnd, call. 

Kbi^du, a ram. 

?V^T^??:^ ^i^'^'P' "" splititer. Skr. sakala (and salaka) f 
Beds) ^^'^^'^' *^^ "^^" ""^ ^ fi^^' '■« Urdu Mahaser. '(Bhadpnr on 

G, Khalai, locust. Skr. sdlabha. 

Khal-dard, resin of the diil, (Pinus longifolia), Darini 

Khalri, skin (of a sheep or g.>at . 

., .(>• KJianda a flock, (Dharaisdia)asin "tussere kh.nde mani ketrr 

Khard" ood ""^"^ ^ ^'^ "'"'^ ^°'''^' ^'^ ^^^'^ ^" -^^'^^ flock)? 

G. Kharal, hair. 

G. Kharat, loss. Skr. ^ sar to break. 

Khdri, basket. Skr. khdra, khan = a measure of capacity. 
G-. Knaiina. stand up. ^ •' 

• G. Khauhrd, father-in-law. Skr. svasura. 
G. Kheil, a porcupin.^ ( = saihl). Skr. salyaka 
KheU. cold. ^ 

KhiH,la,nd fallen out of cultivation. Skr. khila = fallow land 

Khil-sal, rtnt tor uncultivated land. 

* Khikhnrna, to teach. Skr. y/siksh. 

G, Khikhnd, tea -h. 

G. Khokha, the receptacle above the dntd. 

Khuchna, to have sexual inreicour.«e uith, 

Khuchina, pa-s. verb, fnm foregoing. 

Khukh, pntf-bal), Stewart, 268. 

G. lOiukka, dry. Skr. sushka. 

G. Khulnd, take out, cast out. 

G. Khunnd, hear, khunand, cause to hear. 

*Khuiini, name of H fish. (Bias). 

Kharerti, foot and mouth disease, (also called Idlu) 

Kf, and jo, dative affixes, as in - Debi Chand her; ki chalia, (Devi 
^hand went to shoot). ' ^L»evi 

Kichh, something = kuchh. 
Kird, snake. Skr. kita (= worm). 
Kiun, common bean. (Lodhwan). 

G "^ Kod °I foi?^'' ^^^"^^^^ ^ large landing net. (K6ngra). 

Kokrd, blue rock pigeon (Mundhi); {vide pdrar). 
KothM, a clod-crusher. (Kdno-ra). 
Kudl, slope. (Bangar). 



Kttkraile-dd-thd, a stack of maize stalks. (Suloh) 
Kukndla, maize-stalks without the cobs. (Lanj), 



Kuli, girl. From Skr. kula (= family) ? 
Kunl^ or kunli, a stack of grass. 

KunnuQ or kunlu, a stack of rice, round with a peaktd top. cf. ka . 
(Suloh). • ^' 

Kurkd,, name of a fish. (Dera and Sujd,npur). 
Kuskana, speak softly. 
Kutd,hdn, on what side ? 
*Kutdr, dog. Skr. kurkura, kukkura. 
Kuthu, where ? 
Kut-phdt, land cultivated after an interval of 2 or 3 years. (Lanj). 

Ldhar, land in which rice is not grown. 

Laira, Sawan. 

Lairthi, lying-in woman. 

Lak, waist, " Merd, lak dole" ("my waist swings"). 

Lakoldi, shelf in wall. 

G. Ldn^, fine or smooth, as "pitthd Idn^ hd," (the flour is fine). 

Larh, a ram used for breeding. 

LauhH, boy. 

Leh, thistle. (Lodhwan). 

Lhd;d or Hid,, s. m., a landslip. 

* Lindak, tail of cattle only. (Baragrjlon) . 
G. Lingni, K^ngri lingn^ or linghat, tail. 

G. Lodh^, blood, of an animal. Skr. lohita (= red blood). 
Lotki, lotri, waterpot. 
Lugari, di'ink of rice juice. 
Lundare, sickness like measles. 

* Lunj, wages for picking cobfcon : (Tira in Kutlehar). 
Lurhnd, fail. 

Mach, a kind of toothless rake, made with a curved blade and a 
handle, for levelling muddy land. 
Machld, lazy. 
Magar, kind of bamboo. 
M^hnun, man. 

* Makhar, a swarm of bees. 
Makhir, honey. 

Mandhd, flying fox. (Sujdnpur Tira),=manchd,h. (Kotla). 
Manjii, in. 

* M^ran, Ulmus campestris. Stewart, 210. (Nagar in Kulu). 

* Masarin, potentilla. (Triund, Dharmsdla). 
Mata, much, excess. 

Matotrd, at enmity. 
Megh, rain. Skr. megha = cloud. 
Mesn^, hush up. 

Mhai, buffalo. Skr. mahisha, Pukhto mekba ( = female buffalo). 
Mhdi, herder of buffaloes. 

G. Mulnd, to meet, to be joined, to be procured, as in " minjo 
Nurpurd mdn ik dhd,r mull hd,," (I have got a range in Nurpur). 
Mirtr, leopard. 

* Mugi, a square receptacle made of mud and straw. 
Munh, mouth. Skr. mukha. 

Mukld,, sufficient. 

Munakh, or manukkh, husband. Skr. raanusha? (= man). 

Mund, head. Skr. munda (= bald, bald head, head). 

Munnu, boy. 

G. Nachrohi, the fourth day. 



Nagar, town. Skr, nagara. 

G. Nai, river. 

G. Nakarj, the day before the day before yesterday, 

Ndl, stream, also nald ; n^lu, smaller thau ndU. 

Napilii^, to wring, (clothes, &c.). 

G. Nar, stone. 

Naun, a masonry tank as in *' Thuiali da naun./' 

Neha, like this. 

Nhasen^, run away. G. Nhakhn^. 

Nher^, nhi^r^, darkness. 

Nid,rd,, niru, weak young child or animal unable to digest. 

Nihdlnd, wait. 

Nihl, the plains. 

Nihlidj plainsman. 

Nllrl, blue jay. (MaUn). 

* Nimd.n, slow. 
Nindar, sleep. 

* Obnn, an umbrella of leaves on a 'bamboo frame (asapohru at 
Darini), Hamirpur. 

Obri, covered room. 

Ori, shed for sheep or sfoats. 

Ottar, baranni lam), cf. amri. ^ Pukhto watar = wateredj irrigated. 

Pachdhdn, towards behind. 

Pachhainnd, recognise^ 

G. Pd,hal, shepherd. 

P4hu, tenant. 

Paiun^, sharp.. 

Pakhriia, a bird. 

G. Piiluliih paiuci, fight. 

* Palla, see jalara. [p^ld, cold ?] 
Palosnd, bring up, rear. 

Pdnsard, Wendlandia exserta, Ktewart, 17. 

* Pararu, a small stack of wheat. 

Paraul, s. f., the gateway of a house. Skr. protoli ? H. paul ? 

G. Parar, foot. 

Pd,rar, blue rock pigeon (Mundhi), -yicZe Kokrd. Skr. pdrdvata (turtle- 
dove). 

Parid,rd, Erythrina arhorescens. A tree with large leaves, thorns, and 
knotted (?) bark. At Punder in Nurpur I saw some wandering tribe 
making broad bands of this wood, which they made up in rolls and used 
for making the hoops of sieves. 

G. Parj, the day before yesterday. 

G. Parohe, the day after to-morrow. 

Parora or Porora. Tree with long pointed glabrous leaves. 

Patandar, parents. 

Pathd,, name of a fish. (Kdngra). 

G. Patold, plain. 

* Pat' fd,, father's younger brother, and Patrer-i, his children- Skr. 
pitrya (= paternal). 

Patrii, a water-plant with leaves like porrel. (Lodhwan). 
Peru, a large basket consisting of a cylinder with narrowing mouth 
and a hole near the bottom for taking out the grain stored in it. 
Ph%u, phaguf^, wild fig. 



Ph^t, meadow. 

Phatnd, strike Tvith Bword. 

Phattu, a shinglo for roofing (Darini). 

G. Phiri in^, return. 

Phuk, life, soul, as in " Parmesure di^ kirpa te tuereii ghareh ch6r 
phukkdn ban" (by the favour of God there are four persona in ray house). 
Picchen, behind, Skr. prsthe. Locative of prishtha =back. 
Pippal, red pepper. (Hamirpur). 

Pirna, to get ready, as in " pird meri pd,lki," (get ready my 
palauquin) . (Song). 

Piuld, yellow. Skr. pita. 

Pragr^, light, as in " pragr^ kar " (irmkH a light). 

* Prasan, thread as it is spun, i.e., as from wool it becomes thread 
:and is wound upon the spindle. Skr. prasarana ? 

Pugnd, be acceptable. 
Puhdl, shepherd. 
Pukkd, pokd, kiss. 
Pukkarnd, help. 

G. Puthi, prep, and adv., up, above, upon, as in " pu^hi mal 
tgachchhe," (do not go up). 

* Rana, queen bee. Skr. r^jan (= king) rdj^naka (= kinglet). 
Rirhl, spur of a mountain. (Rihlu'. 

Rikh, line, 

Runk^, tinder box. 

Runkhar, hard hearted. 

Rurhu, s. m. fixed rent=P. Chakauta, 

G. Rutti, bread. 

Sahansar pdin, A spai-atjui^ racemnsus , Stewart, 233, ( = thoupand root), 
"Skr. sahasi-a-pdda (thousand-foot). 

Saihl, a porcupine. Punjabi, seh ; in Gddi, KheiU. Skr. ? salyaka, 
■sallaka. S'ala, snlva = quill. 

Sdld, wnman\s red clotli covering, 

* Samalu, see Bannd 

Sandb, a bull. Skr. sdnda, i.a. sa-anda mpaus provided witli testicula 
(anda = egg, testiculum) * Puklito sanda (= male buffalo). ' Ghirlhni 
T-and uihh, Jhota sandh ninh.' A Ghiitlmi cmnot become a -widow any 
more than a male buffalo can beconie a bull. — Vroverh. 

Sandli, a standing place in shade for cattle. 

Sangra, narrow. Skr. sankata. 

Sappar, a cliff, or rock. 

* Satha, always. Ski-, sarvatha in any case. 

G. Sathri, a bundle of rice, cut but not yet tied. (Sulnh). 

Sauka, the state of liaving a rival wife. " Sanke par j^nd maiii no 
maiizur nabin kia." (I did not consent to go on the condition of being a 
rival wife), Hansu vs. Mt. Koko. 

Sp, the functions of a barber, a shave. (Kdngra). 

Sel, bark-fihre. (Baragraon). 

Sik, lead. Skr. sisa, sisaka. 

Simbal, simmal, Bomhax ske-piaphyleum. 

Sindh; whistle. 

Sinna, wet. 

* Sirignd, ground-bee. 

Sit, (Gddi, kbit) ague. Skr. sita (= cold). 
Sitak. bark of a tree (Baragrdon). 



So, placenta, bearing young (of animals). Skr. -^ su to bear. 

Sohd,, slight raio. (Rajhun). 

Sotna, to glean, sweep, or collect by sweeping. (Lanj). 

Sudru, suari, small field next to house. 

Suhklu, sweet wheaten bread. 

* Sukdman, a parasitical plant. I have only seen it growing on 
mango trees. Fleshy leaves. I cannot trace it in Stewart, (Nurpur). 

Sukoi, diought, " Is baraa sukoi bari hai, hun assdn thelu pdi 
dene," of. tbelu. 
G. Sund, sleep. 

* SuQ^i), needle. Skr. sivyati, to sew ^y siv. 

Sup, a winnowing basket of bamboo. Ghhaj is a winnowing basket 
of the tili of kdna grass. Sup in Urdu, see Fallon, suh. voce. 
Sutidgar, trader. 
Sutriljan, marigold. (Hamirpur). [Sartaj, sartdjri]. 

Tdhdn, on this side. 

Tdhlu, then. Skr. tadd, khalu ? 

* Tan, a viachdn. 

Tandird, tandirtd, silver neck-ring. 
Tap, see under thelu. 
Tarphaudi, crooked (morally). 

Ta'=;ih^, trouble, annoyance, as in " mein tussu saite, takrdr kari-leo 
tusse roz roK munjo kajo tasihd dind ? hd, ? " (I n>ade a promise with you, why 
do you daily give me trouble ?) (Dharms^Ia Gd-di). 

Tdu, father's elder brother, fern, tei, and tair, i, are his children. 
Skr. tdta ? 

G. Tauld, quick (also Jdudri). Cp. H. turat, Skr. ivarita, cp. H. tund, 

Skr. turna. 

Tau'ndi, s. f., hot season. (Gddi). Cp. H. tann.=i, Skr. tapas. 

Tepra, squint eyed. 

Th^har, a head (of cattle). (Dharnis^la). 

Thain-^, deposit, " eh meri thaini hai," (this is to be kept for me), also 
verb, to deposir. 

Thdk, s. f., an obstacle. Cp. H. thakana to weary, to harass. 

Thallen, prep., below. Skr. sthala = land, floor, H. thai, 

Thalli, nether millstone. (Bhawarna). Skr. sthali = land, floor (athala) 

H. thai. 

G, Thandd, lazy, 

Thelu, a flat piece of wood placed in a water-course to make the flow 
of water evenin order to divide it equally amongst the smaller channels by 
means of pieces of wood {tap) fixed in the thelu. 

* Thil, snail, [phil]. + Skr. stima (Y/stim — ), slow, creeping? 

Thippu, gill's covering. 

This, going slowly, stopping. 

f hulla, thick. Skr, sthula. 

G. Thungar, parched grain. 

Tr^mb^, copper. Skr. tamra, 

Trikhd;, treh4, thirst. Skr. trish, 

Tuar, Sunday. 

G. Tundi, sheep's trotter, cf. thudu in Kuluhi. 

Udn, courtyard of house. 

Ukkhal, wooden mortar (for pestle), foolish man. 

l/ndhmukkh^, undhrd, pig, boar. 



Undrfir, a hamlet. 

Un8d,n, a spindle held in the hand. (Dharmsdla G6di). 

T/r, planting rice by hand, " ass^n nadda ur bhi-lei-chhadia," (we hav 
planted the rice by hand in the marshes) of. hand. 

Usdhal, fr. osnd, a descent. 

Usna, ascend, as in " muhun thon n6n usindhfi, mnUlia nmttlia 
ild" (by me Jt cannot be ascended, I will come slowly). (Dhannsilt 
Gadi) ; cf. osna. 

LTt, stupid. 

Ut^h^n, on that side. 

Utfirb, vomit. 



^*^, 



ft 



■*. 



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