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Full text of "Language studies in Yoruba"




N ; y0RU8A 




Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 



\ 



LANGUAGE STUDIES 



IN 



YORUBA. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 




LAGOS. 

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY'S BOOKSHOP. 
1914. 



SRLfJ 

/if c,: 



INTRODUCTION. 

This book is intended to be practical and to assist 
those who desire to learn the Yoruba Language. 
Its aim is to supply the long-felt need of a book 
between a full grammatical treatise and a phrase 
book. The rules of English Grammar will be of 
service to the student, and for those who wish to 
use it a full conjugation of the verb appears in Part X. 
Too much emphasis cannot be laid on the necessity 
of learning the intonation and meaning of words at the 
same time. The same may be said of memory work, 
for the primary need in learning any language is a 
Vocabulary. Part III. is so arranged that the student 
can give special attention to any group of nouns 
if so desired. Use has been made of Bowen's Grammar 
and Wood's Notes. The student is recommended 
to purchase the following ; Bibeli Mimp ; Dictionary 
of the Yoruba Language ; and the full series of Yoruba 
Readers. These can be obtained at any of the C.M.S. 
Bookshops. 



LANGUAGE STUDIES 

IN 

YORUBA. 
CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. Page 

Section 1. The Alphabet 8 

2. Vowels 8 

3. Consonants . . . . . . . . 9 

4. Diphthongs 10 

5. Tones or Accent . . . . . . . . 10 

(>. Elision of Vowels . . . . . . . . II 

7. Words beginning with " n," for pronunciation I I 

8. Syllables, for pronunciation .. .. .. 12 

9. Interchange of letters . . . . . . . . 13 

PART II. 
VERBS. 

Section 1. Simple or Root Verbs, Classes 1 and 2 . . 14, 15 

,, 2. Nouns and other words for use with verbs 10 

3. Illustrative sentences . . . . . . . . 17 

4. Extended list of simple Verbs, Class 1 . . 22 

5. Verbs which express existence . . . . 24 
., t>. Number ; Gender ; Case . . . . . .25, 26 

7. Translation, Yoruba-English . . . . . . 27 

8. Key to Translation in Section 7 . . . . 28 

PART III. 

NOUNS GROUPED, CLASSIFIED, AND IN 
ALPHABETICAL ORDER. 

Section 1. Relating to the Universe, and National Life 29 

,. 2. Relating to Domestic Life . . . . . . 30 

,, 3. Relating to Religious and Civic Life . . 31 

4. Relating to Trades and Commerce . . . . 32 

5. Relating to Farm and Country Life . . 32 

,, (5. Relating to Political and Legal Questions . . 34 

,, 7. Relating to Anatomy and Diseases . . . . 35 



6 



Section S. Relating to Theological and EMUkMl QOMtioiM 3<> 
9. Sentences for daily u-< 

10. Translatic.n. Yonilia-Kii'.ilisli .. .. 3!t 

11. Key to Translation in Section 10 .. 4O 

PART IV. 
PRONOUNS. 

Section 1. Table of Pronouns; and Examples of 

Euphonic Concord .. .. .. . . 41. 4i' 

2. Relative, Reflexive, Demonstrative and 

Interrogative Pronouns . . . . . . 4i'. i:i 

3. Illustrative Sentences . . . . . . 43 

4. Translation exercise in use of Pronouns . . H 

5. Key to Translation in Section 4 . . 4.~> 

6. Accent with Illustrative Sentences . . 4i 

7. Example of Literal and Idiomatic Translat ion 4S 
8 Translation, Yoruba-English .. "<> 
9. Kev to Translation in Section s . . . . ~>1 



PART V. 

VARIOUS PARTS OF SI'KKCH. 

Section 1. Simple Verbs. Class 2, with Illustrative 

Sentences . . . . . . "- 

2. Key to Sentences in Section I 

3. Adjectives ; with Notes . . ~>3 

4. Adverbs; Illustrative Sentences and Notes .. .~>4 
o. Prepositions and Notes ; Special Note on 

" Li " and " Ni " . . . . r.x. .'! 

(i. Conjunctions and Interjections . . . . .">!!. i<> 

7. Translation, Yoruba-English .. 

8. Kev to Translation in Section 7 . . 61 



PART VI. 

VERBS, &c. 

Section 1. Extended list of Simple Verbs, Class 2 ; with 

Illustrative Sentences . . >- 

2. Key to Sentences in Section 1 >'{ 

3. Auxiliary Verbs .... *>4 

4. Tenses of the Verb ri = to see . . '>"> 

5. Notes on the 1 words : n, ri, ko, ki and bi . . i><i. <7 
0. Salutations in common use . . 68 

7. Appropriate Answers to Salutations. . 69 

8. Translation, Yoruba-English . . 7n 
! Key to Translation in Section 8 . . 70 



PART VII. 

COMPOUND VERBS. Page 

Section 1. Verbs, Class 1 ; union of verb and noun .. 71 
2. Verbs, Classes 2 and 3 ; union of verb and 

noun and preposition, &c. . . . . 74 
,, 3. Verbs, Class 4 ; object inserted between its 

two parts, with Illustrative Sentences . . 74 

4. Key to Sentences in Section 3 . . . . 75 

5. Various other Compound Verbs . . . . 76 

6. Extended list of Compound Verbs ; with 

Illustrative Sentences . . . . . . 77 

7. Key to Sentences in Section 6 . . . . 78 

8. Translation, Yoruba-English . . . . . . 78 

9. Key to Translation in Section 7 . . . . 79 

PART VIII. 

NOUNS. 

Section 1. Nouns formed by Vowel Prefixes . . . . 80 

2. Syllabic Prefixes . . . . 80 

3. Examples of changes in words " s " and " ri " 81 

4. Prefixes denoting ownership or possession . . 82 

5. Negative Prefixes " ai " and " alai " . . 84 

6. Nouns formed by reduplication . . . . 85 

7. composition . . . . 86 
., 8. Vocabulary of Compound Nouns . . . . 86 

9. Translation, Yoruba-English 88 

10. Key to Translation in Section 9 . . . . 89 

PART IX. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Section 1. Numerals, 1 1,000 90 

2. Notes on the use of Numerals . . . . 92 

3. Yoruba Proverbs . . . . . . . . 93 

4. Example of Literal Translation, Yoruba- 

English 96 

5. Translation, English-Yoruba . . . . . . 98 

,, 6. Key to Translation in Section 5 . . . . 99 

7. Examples of Idiomatic Translation . . . . 99 

PART X. 

Section 1. Conjugation of the Verb ri to see .. .. 101 



LANGUAGE STUDIES IN YORUBA. 



PART I. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 

SECTION 1. 

THE ALPHABET. 

The English alphabet is modified to meet the sounds of the 
Yoruba language. 

Capitals : 

ABDEEFGGbHIJKLMNOQP 

R S $ T U W Y. 
Small letters : 

abdeefggbhijklmnoQp r s $ 
t u w y. 

Vowels : 

a e e i o 9 u. 
Diphthongs : 

ai oi an. 
Consonants : 

bdfggbhiklmnprs?twy. 
It will be noticed that c, q, v, x, and z are omitted from, and 
that e, gb, 9 and s are added to, the English alphabet. 



SECTION 2. 

VOWELS. 

a, has one sound only. 
" a " as in father 

(e.g.) Father =baba. 
Shoe I >a in. 
Drum=bata. 

e, has the sound of " e " in grey 
('.'/) Mound =ebe. 
Language "< It . 
Seven =eje. 



9, short sound as " e " in met 
(e.g. ) Request = 9*59. 
Jest = $9. 
Rafter = ek9. 

i, has the one sound as " ee " in fee - 
(e.g.) Evil=ibi. 
Reason = id I. 
Tree=igi. 
o, sound as in no 

(e.g. ) River = odd. 
Glory =ogo. 
Rain = 6j6. 

9, has the sound of '' aw " as in law 
(e.g. ) Monkey =^9. 
Day=9J9. 
Hoe=9k9. 

u, sound of " oo " as in moon 
(e.g. ) Prison = tiibu. 
Cold = tutu. 
Wicked = buburu. 



SECTION 3. 

CONSONANTS. 

b, and d, have the same sound as in English. 
g, is always hard as in " garden." 

gb, and p, sounds are the most difficult, 
gb, is a hard sound, and p, is a soft sound. 
Something of each letter is sounded in " gb " ; and " p " is 
pronounced as if written " kp." 

X.B. Only a native can help in the pronunciation of these letters? 
and continuous practice on the part of the learner is 

essential. 

h, is always aspirated, 
j, is soft as in '* jelly." 

k, 1, m, n, r, s, t, w, and y, have the same sounds as in English ; 
but are pronounced as if written thus : ki, li, mi, ni, ri, si, 
ti, wi, yi ; " i " having the ee sound. 



10 

n, sometimes appears at tli<- end of ii \vunl. ami i-< merely a nasal 
i-mling 

(<-..'/.) To appear lum. 
s. has the same sound as '' sh " in A/mil 

(e.g. ) To work sis^, pronounced " sliislu,'-." 



SECTION 4. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

ai, sound both letters as in the " Cockney " pronunciation of 
" Daily Mail " 

(e.g.) Unclean =aim9. 
Ignorant =aim<>. 
Undone =aise. 

ai, is the negative participle and takes the place of " un " or 
" in " in English. 

oi, has the sound of " oi " in oil. 

au. sound each lettejvthen unite them, preserving the sound of 
each letter. 



SECTION 5. 
TONES OR ACCENT. 

The marks over the vowels indicate tone, or accent. 

The tones may be described as : a, acute ; a, open ; a, grave : 
a, full ; a, circumflex. 

Acute, a, raise the voice about a tone. 
Open, a, keep an even tone. 
Grave, a, drop the voice about a tone. 
Full, a, lengthen the sound as if written " aa." 
Circumflex, a, indicates the union of two vowels and carries 
a musical sound. 

Ask a native to pronounce 6tp = truth ; and SuTU = patience, 
and repeat until the sound is acquired. 

N.B. Yoruba is a language of intonation, and it is essential to a 
knowledge of the vernacular, that the tones be learnt at 
the time of learning the meanings of the words. 



11 

SECTION 6. 

ELISION OF VOWELS. 

1. When two vowels of the same sound come together, one of 
them is dropped - 

(e.g. ) Buy cloth = ra asp ; pronounced ra 'sp. 
Love sin = f 9 ese ; pronounced f 9 '9. 

2. When two vowels of a different sound come together, tho 
stronger, or accented vowel is retained and the weaker 
dropped 

(e.g. ) Know thyself = 1119 ara r^ ; pronounced m9 'ra rf. 
Cover thyself = bo ara r$ ; pronounced bo 'ra r$. 

3. In some cases euphony seems to rule, and in other instances 
neither vowel is dropped, but both are exchanged for the 
vowel " u " 

(e.g. ) To run = sa ire; pronounced "sure." 

To lie = pa irp ; pronounced " puri?," etc. 

SECTION 7. vt 

THE PREFIX " N." 

In the following table the letter " n " is used as a prefix to form 
the present, imperfect, participle of the verb 

(e.g.) To love=f? ; loving=nf<?. 
They are inserted at this stage for practice in pronunciation only : 







1 I 




nba 


nbe 


nbo nban 


nri 


nda 


nde 


ndo 


ndan 


nrin 


nfa 


iif^ 


nfo 


iifan 


nsin 


nha nhe 


nho 


nhan 


nyin 


nra 


nre 


nro 


nran 


nrun 


nsa 


ns^ 


nso nsaii 


nsun 


nsa 


nse 


nso nsan nde 


nta 


nte 


nto ntan nke 


nya 


nye 


nyo nyan 

1 1 


nle 



N.B. Practise these sounds constantly. 



Practice in the 
and hearing 



SECTION 8. 

SYLLABLES. 

vowel sounds until perfect both in pronunciation 
is essential. 



a 


e 


<? 


i 


o 


9 


ii 


ba be 


be 


bi 


bo 


b 9 


l.u 


da ! do de 


di do 


d 9 


du 


fa 


fe 


t'v li fo 


f9 


fu 


ga 


ge 


g<? 


gi 


go 


g9 


g" 


gba 


gbe 


gbe 


gbi 


gbo 


gk>9 


gbu 


ha 


he 


h? 


hi 


ho 


h 9 


hu 


ja 


je 


j<? 


ji 


jo 


J9 


j 


ka ke 


ke 


ki 


ko 


k 9 


ku 


la 


le 


1<? 


li 


lo 


19 


hi 


ma 


me 


me 


mi 


mo 


1119 


mu 


na 


ne ne 


ui 


110 


119 


I1U 


pa 


pe pe 


pi po 


P9 


pu 


ra 


re 


re 


ri ro 


r 9 


ru 


- 


se 


se 


si 


so 


39 


su 


sa 


se 


>?<? 


P 


7" 


99 


^u 


ta 


te 


te 


ti 


to 


t 9 


tu 


wa 


we 


we 


wi 


wo 


W9 


wu 


ya 


ye 


"ye yi ; yo 


y9 


yn 


dan 


-an 


haii kan 


ran 


tan 


yan 


din 


gbin 


jin pin 


rin 


-i<\ 


win 


yin 


bun 


dun gun 


hun 


kun 


run 


sun 


tun 


yun 911 


Pn 


W9ii 





13 

SECTION 9. 

INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS. 

In consulting the Dictionary for the meaning of words, it is 
necessary to remember that letters are frequently interchanged. 

1. Not a few words begin, indifferently with " a " or " o " ; 

as abanij$, or pbanij? = an injurer. 

2. Some words begin indifferently with " a," or '' i " ; as 

afiyesi, or ifiyesi = attention. 

3. " E " and " o " are interchangeable ; as 1'eni, or l'oni = 

to-day : 1'eii, or l'ori = upon ; eii, or oii = head. 

-1. " G " for " k " ; as ge, or ke = to cut. 

.3.' " H " for " f " ; as iho, or afo = a valley. 

(5. ''S" for Ci ^"; and"w" for "h"; in w6, or h6 = to boil. 

The interchange of " s " and " s " is particularly noticeable 
in some parts of the country and may be regarded as 
dialectical 

(c.f/. ) In words like ese, es^, esin, ese, ise, it is difficult 
to detect the " sh " sound. 



14 



PART II. 



SECTION 1. 

SIMPLE OR ROOT VERBS, CLASS i. 



B4=to meet. 

B$ = to beg or entreat. 

Bf=to beget. 

B6=to cover. 

B$=to drop. 

B6 = to abuse. 

D4=to create, or cause. 

D$=to arrive. 

D$ = to ensnare. 

Di=to tie. 



Gbi = to receive. 
Gbe-to lift. 
Qb^=to excavate. 
Gb6 = to bark. 
Gb$=to hear. 
H4=to lock, or fasten. 
He = to pick. 
H6 = to boil. 
Hp=to scratch. 
Hu = to germinate. 

K6=to gather. 
K$=to teach or learn. 
K6 = to die. 
L4 = to split. 
L4=to drive. 
L^=to patch. 
Li = to have. 
L6 '" use. 
Lp = to go. 
LA = to beat. 



D6=to encamp. 

Dfr = to deny. 

F4=to draw. 

F = to want, wish, love. 

Fl = to swinu. 

F6=to fly. 

F^ = to wash (clothes <>r vessels). 

Ge or ke =to cut. 

G^=to sit in a grand style. 

G$=to puzzle. 



Ji = 
J6 = 
Jp = 
Jtl = 
KA 
K6 
K^ 
JJi 



= to fight, 
= to eat. 

to awake. 

to burn. 

to resemble. 

to throw (as a ball). 
= to read or count. 
=to roar or bleat. 
=to indulge, or cherish. 

to salute. 



Mi=to breathe. 

M^ = to know. 

Mfi = to take, or catch. 

Ni=to spend. 

Ni=to have. 

Nil = to clean. 

Pa=to kill. 

P4=to call. 

P$ = to tarry. 

P6=to mix. 



15 



P$ = to vomit. 


Si = to be (used with ' ko 


Ra=to buy. 


So = to bind or tie. 


Re=to fall (as leaves). 


Sp = to speak. 


R$ = to be tired. 


Su = to be weary of ! 


Ri=to see. 


$a= to wound. 


R6 = to relate. 


Se = to do. 


R$ = to urge. 


^ = to sin. 


Ru = to carry. 


Si = to open. 


Sa = to air. 


S6 = to be stubborn. 


S6 = to cook. 


S<J = to watch. 



Su = to darken. 
14 = to sell. 
Te=to worship. 
T$=to trample. 
Ti = to push or thrust. 
T6=to place (in rows). 
T$=to straighten. 
Tu=to loosen. 
Wd=to come. 
W6=to twist. 



W$ = to wash (the hands or body ) 

Wi = to say. 

W6 = to look. 

W^ = to put on (as clothes). 

Wu = to please. 

Y4=to give way. 

Y6 = to lay (eggs). 

Y$ = to postpone. 

Yi = to turn. 

Y$ = to rejoice. 



SIMPLE OR ROOT VERBS, CLASS 2. 



D&Q-=to polish. 

Gin = to despise. 

H&H = to appear. 

Kin = to touch. 

R4n=to send. 

Tin = to be finished. 

Y&n = to neigh. 

Din = to subtract. 

Gbin=to sow, or plant. 

Pin = to divide. 

Rin = to walk. 



Sin = to serve. 

Win = to lend or borrow. 

Yin = to praise. 

Bun = to give. 

Gun = to ride. 

Kun = to murmur. 

Run = to destroy. 

Sun = to sleep. 

F0n=to scatter (as seed). 

P$n = to sharpen. 

W$n=to weigh or measure. 



SECTION 2. 



NnrXS AND OTHER WORDS !-<>K CSK WITH TH1. 

Si.MiM.i-: VERBS. 



Me=mi. 






He = o, or DM. 
Cow m&lu. 

Yesterday = l'aii!i. 
Cloth =aij9. 
Body=ara. 
Plate =awo. 



Mother =iya. 
Child =91119. 
His or her=r$. 



World = aiye. 

Father =baba. 

House = ile. 

Animal 

Load 

Their = 

Town = Hu. 

That or the=na. 

Request = ibere, ^b^. 

Money =owo. 

Very much=gidigidi. 

Wood==igi. 

Bird= : <,!>',. 

You or your = nyin. 

Axe=ake. 

Hawk = awodi. 

Upon=l'ori. 

Question =9ran. 

Very much-=J9J9, pup9 ju. 



Well =kariga. 
Garden =^ 
Dog aja. 
Night = oru. 



Door=il?kun. 
Room=iyara. 
Beans = ere. 
Farm oko. 
Water =omi. 
Monkey =^9. 
Maize = agbado. 
TwO = meji. 
Street =ita. 
Food = onJ9. 
Now = nisisiyi. 



Box -apoti. 

= eyi or yi. 



Enough == to. 

Rope = okun. 

To = si, and lati. 

I=emi, mo (or i 

Sheep agutan. 

Customary =ama. 

Stranger =alejo. 

Work =196". 

Horse =e?in. 

To-day =l'oni. 

For = fun, and nitori. 

Boy = 9in9k9nrin. 

Away = kuro. 

With ba, and p?lu. 

Three =meta. 

Friend =9r^. 

Nose=imu. 

Take = niu. c.r muly. 

River =od6. 



future). 



17 



All=gbogbo. 

Cap=fila. 

Very good = daradara. 

Boots = bata. 



Market =9J a. 
Paint =pda. 
Use=lil6. 
Cut = jade. 
Mouth =9nu 
Egg = 9yin. 
Five = marun. 
Leaves = ewe. 
Finished = tan. 
After =l9hin. 
Partridge = apard. 
Foul=merin. 

Deed=ise. 

Remain =duro. 

Thou=iw9. 

Will (v.) = yio, or o. 

Daily =lojojum9. 

Evening=ale. 



Not = k6, or ki. 
Both = mejeji. 
It = o. 
Thief =ole. 
Wound =9gb^. 
I Window =feres3. 
Darkness = okunkvm. 
Very much=biribiri. 
Gun=ibpn. 
Idol=ori?a. 
Do not=ma$e. 
Foot or feet=<?se. 
These =wonyi. 
Carefully = 19391939. 
That=ki (ki o se), or pe. 



Headkerchief = gele. 
Head=ori. 

Red = pupa. 
A-going =lil9- 
Face=oju. 



SECTION 3. 

SENTENCES SHOWING THE USE OF SIMPLE VERBS. 

Ba = to meet. 
B$ = to entreat. 
Bi = to beget. 
B6 = to cover. 

B(J = to drop. 
Bu = to abuse. 
Da = to make. 



ba mi li 9na. 

They met me on the way. 
O b^ mi. 
He begged me. 
Malu mi bi lana. 
My cow calved yesterday. 
Fi a9 b6 ara. 

Put cloth cover body. (Put on your 
clothes). 

Awo b9" 19W9 nii. 
Plate fell from my hand. 
lya bu 9m9 r^. 
Mother abused her child. 
Ol9run da aiye. 
God made (the) world. 



IS 



D6=to arrive. 
D$=to ensnare. 
Di = to tie. 
D6 to encamp. 
Di = to deny. 
Fi=to draw. 
F$=to love. 
Fi=to swing. 
F6=to fly. 
F$=to wash or scrub. 
G6, or ke=to cut. 
GQ t" puzzle. 
Gba to receive. 
Gb6=to lift. 
Gb = to excavate. 
Gbo t" bark. 
Gb$ = to hear. 
Hi=to lock or bolt. 
He=to pick. 
H6 = to boil. 
Hp=to scratch. 
Hu to germinate. 
J4 = to fight. 
Jp = to eat. 



Baba mi d6 ile. 

My father arrived home. 

Nwpn de eran kan. 

They trapped an animal. 

Nwpn dl eru wpn. 

They tied their loads. 

Nwpn d6 tl ilu nS. 

They encamped against the town. 

O dii ibere mi. 

He denied my request. 

Owo li o fi fa a. 

With money he draws him. 

lya f^ 91*19 r$ gidigidi. 

The mother loves her child very much. 

Igi ti mo nru nfl. 

Wood that I am carrying swings. 

iye f6 19. 

Bird flies away. 

L9 f9 as9 nyin. 

Go wash your cloth or clothes. 

fi ak6 ke igi. 

He cut the tree with the axe. 

Qran na g9" mi J9J9- 

The question puzzles me very much. 

Qk9nrin gb& owo r$. 

The man received his money. 

B4 mi gb6 apoti yi. 

Help me lift this box. 

Nw9n gb^ kanga li $gba. 

They dug a well in the garden. 

Aja gbo li oru ana. 

The dog barked last night. 

Mo gb(? 9rij> ti o wi. 

1 hear the word that you speak. 
Ha ilekun iyara mi. 

Lock the door (of) my room. 

Awa he ere li oko. 

We pick beans on farm. 

Omi ho bi ? 

Does the water boil ? 



The monkey scratches his body. 

Agbado li o hu li oko. 

Corn germinates on the farm. 

Ajd meji li o j& ni ita. 

Two dogs fight in the street. 

Mo f$ je onj^ nisisiyi. 

I want (to) eat food now. 



19 



Ji = to awake. 

J6 = to burn. 

Jp = to resemble. 

Ju = to throw. 

K& = to read or count. 

K6 = to roar, or bleat. 

K = to indulge. 

salute. 
K6 = to gather. 
Kp = to learn or teach. 
Ku = to die. 
L = to split. 
Le = to drive. 
L$ = to patch. 
Li=to have. 
L6 = to use. 
Lp = to go. 
Lu = to beat. 
Mi=to breathe. 
Mp = to know. 
Mu=to take. 
Nd=to spend. 
Ni=to have. 
Nu = to clean. 



Ji (fm<f na. 

Wake that child. 

Ina ko jo to. 

The fire does not burn enough. 

Qmo na jp baba r$. 

The child is like its father. 

Ju okun si mi. 

Throw a rope to me. 

Ka a ki emi gb<. 

Read it that I (may) hear. 

Agutan li o ke. 

It is a sheep which bleats. 

Baba ama k^ mi. 

Father (is in the habit of) indulges me. 

Lp ki awpn alejo. 

Go (and) salute the strangers. 

K6 as9 ti o wa l'9gba. 

Gather the clothes that are in the garden. 

K(j> lati ma se is re. 

Learn to do your work. 

]sin r^ ku loni. 

His (or her) horse died to-day. 

Qkpnrin la igi fun wa. 

The man split wood for us. 

Qm9k9nrin 16 eran kuro. 

The boy drove the animals away. 

Ba mi 1^ as9 yi. 

Help me patch this cloth. 

Mo li as9 meta. 

I have three cloths. 

Mo 16 owo mi fun u. 

I used my money for him. 

0r^ mi ama 19 si oko r. 

My friend (is accustomed) goes to his farm. 

Ki o fi igi lii u. 

(That you) take wood (to) beat it (or him). 

Imu li a fi nmi. 

(With the) nose it is we breathe. 

Mo 1119 9m9 na. 

I know that child. 

Mu esm 19 si od6. 

Take the horse to the stream. 

Mo na gbogbo owo mi. 

I spent all my money. 

Mo ni fila meji daradara. 

I have two very good caps. 

Mo f^ nu bata mi. 

I want (to) clean my boots. 



20 



Pa 
Pfc 

P* 
P6 

P* 

Ra 

Re 

R$ 

Ri 

R6 

Ri) 

Rii 

Sd= 

86= 

S= 

Si= 

So= 
89= 

86= 



= to kill. 
to call, 
to tarry, 
to mix. 
to vomit. 



=to buy. 

= to fall off as leaves. 
=to be tired. 
= to see. 
= to relate. 
= to urge. 
= to carry. 
= to air. 
= to cook. 
= to deny, 
to be. Always used 

;to tie. 
ti> speak. 

= to be tired of. 
Sa=to wound. 
e=to do. 
8$ = to sin. 
Si=to open. 



Pa adir rm-ji 1'oni. 

Kill two fowls to-day. 

IV ',"119 mi wa. 

C:ill my child (to) come. 

Ma p$ li 9Ja. 

Do not tarry at the market. 

P6 $da fun H16. 

Mix (the) paint for use. 

Emi o p<;> 9 jade kuro li enu mi. 

" I will spue thee out of my mouth. ''- 

Rev. 3. 16. 

Ra eyin adie marun, loni (li oni). 
Buy five eggs to-day. 
Ewe igi li o re tan. 

(The) leaves (of) the tree are all fallen. 
Ise li o r$ mi. 
Work tires me. 
Mo ri aparo merin. 
I saw four partridges. 
Nw9n r6 ise W9n fun wa. 
They related their deeds to us. 
Nw9n r9 wa ki a duro. 
They urged us to remain. 
Iw9 yio rii erii yi. 
You will carry this load. 
Sa as9 mi Iojojum9. 
Air my clothes every day. 
Se onje li ale yi. 
Cook food this evening. 
Gbogbo W9n li o s$ e. 
All of them (it is) denied him for it), 
with the negative participle ko="not." 
lya mi k6 si. 
My mother is not (i.e. dead). 

50 igi mejeji p<J>. 

Tie (the) two sticks together. 
Nw9n 39 9r9 na fun wa. 
They spake the word to us. 

sii mi J9J9- 

1 am very tired of it. 
Olo li o sa a l9gb9. 

A thief (it is) wounded him. 
O se ise r^ tAn. 
He has done his work. 
Qkonrin na li o s^ mi. 
That man offended me. 

51 ilekun ati ferese. 

Open the door and window. 



21 



6 = to be stubborn. 
$0 = to watch. 
ft = to get dark. 

Ti=to sell. 

Te = to worship. 

T$ = to trample. 

Ti = to push or shut. 

T6 = to place in rows. 

T<J = to straighten. 

Tu = to loosen. 

Wd=to come. 

We = to twist. 

W$ = to wash. 

Wi = to say. 

W6 = to look. 

W$=to put on. 

Wu = to please. 

Y& = to give way. 

Ye=to lay eggs. 

Y$ = to postpone. 

Yi = to turn. 

Y$=to rejoice. 



Qni9 na so gidigidi. 

That child is very stubborn. 

] ma 39 ara yin. 

(You should) watch yourselves. 

Okunkun su biribiri. 

Darkness gathers, very much. (It is very 

dark. ) 

Mo f^ ta ib9n mi. 
I want to sell my gun. 
Orisa ti nw9n (or sin) ko gb(?. 
Idol they worship does not hear. 
Mase t$ mi li ese. 
Do not trample on my feet. 
Ti ilekun ki o to jade. 
Shut (the) door before you go out. 
To igi W9nyi leselese. 
Place these sticks in a row carefully. 
Ki o se 9na na t9. 
(That you) make that path straight. 
Tii eran na sile. 
Loose that animal. 
Wa S9d9 mi. 
Come unto me. 
Fi gele we e 1'ori. 
Twist a headkerchief on hor head. 
L9 w^ li odo. 

Go and wash in the stream. 
O wi b(j> fun mi. 
He said so to me. 
Wa wo oko mi. 
Come and look (at) my farm. 
W9 as9 pupa 1'oni. 
Put on red clothes to-day. 
Qm9 na wu mi J9J9- 
That child pleases me very much. 
Ya l9"na fun mi. 
Give way for me. 
Adi^ y6 eyin kan. 
The hen laid an egg. 
Lil9 mi y$ lana. 

My going was postponed yesterday. 
Yi igi kuro loju cpna. 

Turn (or roll) the wood out of the way. 
Wa ba mi y9, $r^ mi. 
Come rejoice with me, my friend. 



22 



SECTION 4. 



EXTENDED LIST OF SIMPLE VERBS, CLASS i. 



Ba=to hide. 
B4 = to bend. 
B4=to perch. 
B$ = to leap, or cut off. 
(e.g. ) Nwpn b$ e lori. 

They cut off his head. 
Bl=to push. 
B6 = to peel, or strip. 
B$ = to feed. 

B$=to remove or take off. 
(e.g. ) O b<J> asp lara mi. 

He took off my clothes. 
B^ = to boil, or to return. 
B$=to shake (hands). 
(e.g.) O b$ 9 !<>w$. 

He shook hands (with) 

him. 

Bp = to worship idols. 
Bu=to broil. 



Fd=to shave. 

(e.g. ) O fa ori ati ojii. 

He shaves head and face. 
F$=to blow. 
(e.g.) Afefe nf$. 

Wind is blowing. 
F$=to distend. 
Fi=to dry (with heat). 
F6=to be lonely. 
F$=to break (vessels). 
Gbi=to sweep. 
Gb6=to be or to inhabit. 
Gb t cackle. 
Gb9=to dry up. 

(e.g. ) Odo na gbe tan. 

The river is completely 
dry. 



Bu = to dip or lade (liquids or 

solids. ) 

Bu=to mildew. 
D& = to be scarce. 
D&=to cast off. 
(e.g. ) O da a silr. 

He cast it off (lit. to the 

ground). 
D6 = to bind. 
D$ = to lessen (as pain). 
(e.g.) O d$ die. 

It (pain) is lessened. 
Di = to close up. 

(e.g. ) Nwpn di pna na. 

They closed that road. 
Di=to become. 

(e.g. ) Mo di eni nla. 

I am become a 

person. 
Du = to scramble. 



Gb6 = to ripen. 

Gb$ = to flourish. 

BIa=to bruise. 

H6 = to peel, boil, or shout. 

(e.g. ) Omi na ho. 

The water boils. 
Hu = to pull up or disinter. 
Ja !<> break, or jump. 

(e.g.) Aiya mi ja. 

My heart quak* -. 
J$ followed by ki=to permit, let. 

(e.g. ) J? k'a lp sile. 

Let us go home. 
Jf = to steal. 
Jl=to forgive. 
J6=to dance. 



23 



J6 = to leak. 
Jp = please. 

(e.g. ) Jp ^e gafara fun mi. 

Please excuse me. 
Ka=to reap. 
Ke=to cry out. 
K$ = to set a trap. 
K? = to grow worse. 
Ki = to press tight. 
K6 = to confront. 
Kp = to refuse or decline. 
K$ = to clasp. 



Mi=to tremble. 

Mp = to build. 

MQ = to be clean, or holy. 

Mu = to drink. 

Mu = to be sharp (as knife). 

Na=to flog. 

Na = to spread. 

Ni=to say. 

Ni = to be. Emi ni = It is I. 

Nu=to loose. 



Ri = to sink. 

R6 = to sound. 

Ro = to hoe. 

Ro = to ache. 

Rp = to wither. 

Rp = to rain. Ojonr9 = It rains. 

Ru = to stir up. 

Sa = to escape. 

Se = to shut. 

g = to strain. 

S = to throw. 



Ku = to remain over. 

(e.g. ) Isu li o ku diq. 

A little yam remains. 
La = to appear. 

(e.g. ) Orun la = the sun appears. 
La=to lick. 
Le = can or may, or able. 

(e.g.) Mo le se e. 
I can do it. 
L$=to be lazy. 
L<J = to transplant. 
Lp = to grind. 
Lu=to bore. 
Lu = to dilute. 
Mi=to swallow. 



Pa = to rub, quench, hatch or 

win. 

P6=to be complete (perfect). 
Pp=to be plentiful. 
Ra = to putrify. 
Ra=to creep. 
Re = to go. 
Re = to curse. 

R^ = to agree, to be friendly. 
R = to shear. 
Rf = to dye. 



gp=to set down. 

(e.g. ) O 39 eru kale. 

He set down (the) load. 
Su = to break out (as pimples). 
a = to pick. 
^ = to break. 
i= to miss. O sina = He missed 

the way. 
Ta = to kick. 
TQ=to urinate. 
Tu = to ease (as of pain). 
Wa = to seek. 



24 

Wa = to dig (a hole). Ya= to si pa rate. 

Wi = to singe. Ye to understand. 

W6 = to fall (as a tree or wall) Ye to live. 

(e.g.) Ogiri na wo lul<,-. Ye = to be worthy or hcfittin-.'. 

The wall fell to the yir=to be tough ' 

V U1 " 1 - Y6 = to be full. 

W6 = to be crooked. , 

Yp = to melt. 

W6 = to set. Orun wp = The r 

Yo to 
sun sets. 



W$ = to enter. 
Wu=to swell. 
Ya=to tear. 



(e.g. ) O yp wa kuro lo\\o rr. 
He delivered us from 
his hands. 



SECTION 5. 

VERBS WHICH EXPRESS EXISTENCE. 

These verbs are : 

mbe; wa ; ya ; je ; ri ; di ; se ; gbe ; si; and li or in. 

1. Mbe, expresses absolute existence 

(e.g.) God is = Ql9run mbe. 
It answers the question 
How is he ? 
Mb$=(he) is. 

2. Wa, is not quite so emphatic 

(e.g. ) Is he there ? 
wi = he is. 

3. Ya, expresses existence under special conditions 

(e.g.) He is dumb=O ya odi. 
He is lazy = O ya pie. 

4. Je, is perhaps the most common verb of the ten. It takes 
the place of " is " and " are." 

(e.g. ) It is mine = O je temi, or Temi ni. 

You are my people = ?nyin je enia mi. 
Two and two are four = Eji ati eji j? ^rin. 
It also denotes ownership 

The money is yours =Owo je ti nyin. 

5. Ri, is used with an adverb 

(e.g.) Is it so? = o ri bf bi ? 

6. Di, to become 

(<.'.!.) He will become a great person -On yio di enia nla. 



2f> 



7. fjie, this verb is as useful as " je," and akin to it 

(e.g. ) Whose is this? = Titani eyi ise? 
It is mine = Temi ni ise. 

8. Gbe, to be, or to reside in a place 

(e.g. ) I lived there one year = Mo gbe ibe l'9dun kan. 
It is also used with other verbs and follows an adverb of place 
(e.g. ) Where is it? = Nibo li o gbe wa ? 

9. Si, this verb is reserved for use with the negative particle 
" ko " to express non-existence 

(e.g. ) There is no money=Owo ko si. 

Father is not at home = Baba ko si ni ile (nle). 
10. Li or ni, is used in conjunction with other verbs 

(e.g. ) He it is who will do it = On ni eniti yio se e. 

Who is it? = Ta ni ? 

It is I = Emi ni. 

SECTION 6. 

NOTES ON NUMBER. 

Number ; Gender ; and Case are dealt with at this stage 
to assist in translation. 

1. The plural number is formed by the use of awpn ; wpnyi ; 
and W9nni 

(e.g. ) Awon baba = the fathers. 
Ilu wpnyi= these towns. 
Oke wpnni = those hills. 

" Aw9n " is used with animate objects, and " wpnyi " and 
" wpnni " with inanimate objects. 

2. Numerals are plural ized by reduplication 

(e.g. ) Qgorun = a hundred. 
Qgorprun = hundreds. 
lj}gberun = a thousand. 
IjJgbegberun = thousands. 

3. Members of the body which exist in pairs as eyes ; hands ; 
feet, etc., are used in the singular mostly 

(e.g.) Oju mi=my eyes. 

Qw$ wpn = their hands. 

If you wish to speak specially of both eyes, or both hands, 
mejeji=both ; is used as oju mejeji, etc. 



26 

NOTES ON GENDERS. 

Gender where it is not at once apparent is shown in two ways. 

1. By adding the words pkpnrin = man ; and obirin woman. 

(e.g. ) Boy = Qmp-pkpnrin (Ompkpnrin). 
Girl- Omp-obirin (Ompbirin). 
Manservant = Iranse-9k9nrin (Iransek9nrin). 
Maidservant = Iranse-obirin (Iransebirin). 

2. By the use of the masculine and feminine prefixes, ako = male ; 
abo = female 

(e.g.) Horse = Akp esin. 
Mare = Abo esin. 

Bull = Ak9 in: i III. 

Cow = Abo main, etc. 

3. Some words are common to both genders 

(e.g.) ljlgbpn= elder, applied to any older relative, male 

or female. 
AbutO= younger, applied to any younger relative, 

male or female. 

Ana = relations of both sexes by marriage. 
Ibeji = twins of either sex. 

NOTES ON CASE. 

1. The nominative or subject of the verb is always placed before 
the verb 

(e.g. ) Awpn enia ti lp = the people have gone. 

2. The objective case is known by : 

(a) Its position. In most instances it follows the governing 

word 

(e.g.) Mo f$ aburo mi=I love my brother. 

But in other instances it precedes the governing word 

(e.g.) Iwo li a o rl = thee it is we shall see. 

(b) The mode of address shows the speaker and the person 

spoken to 
(e.g.) Iwp pkonrin yi=you this man (i.e.) you who are 

near me. 

Iwp pkpniin na=you that man. 
This is a common mode of address and is quite respectful. 



27 



3. The possessive case is shown by the name of the possessor 
following that of the thing possessed 

(e.g.) Owo baba=money (of) father. 

Owo baba mi=money (of) father mine (i.e.) my 

father's money. 
Another way is to use the preposition " ti " = of 

(e.g.) ]j]m ti balogun = horse of balogun (war chief). 
Iwe yi j? t'emi = this book is mine. 
Fila yi ki i?e ti aburo mi this cap is not my brother's. 



SECTION 7. 

TKANSLATION. (FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION 8.) 



1. Awpn 9in9de ko tpju asp wpn. 

2. Baba fi owo fun pmp r$. 

3. Fila na ni ti emi. 

4. Tiyin ni pako wpnyi. 

5. lya won ran wpn. 

6. Nwpn nlu agogo ile pkp wa. 

7. Mo ti ri ekeji mi ati aja rp. 

8. Mu iwe re wa. 

9. Baba wpn fi asp fun wpn. 

10. Ise wa soro, sugbpn ise nyin 
kd soro. 

11. Alejo de ile wa loni. 

12. Oko re jina bi 1 

13. Ise wpn ko rp wpn l^run. 

14. Mo ti kp pkp mi. 

15. Oju mi ri imple. 

16. Tiyin li owo na. 

17. Fi iwe mi fun mi. 

18. Awpn ara ile wa lp si oko 
wpn. 

19. Nwpn nwpn agbado wpn. 

20. Aburo mi wa ni ile r^. 

21. Pako rp yi ma dara ju temi 



22. lya mi k6 ri agutan r^ loni. 

23. Ologbo wa gbe. 

24. Ewur^ yi k6 de ile nyin. 

25. Aburo mi li asp meta dara- 
dara. 

26. He ^u biribiri. 

27. Kini se ti pmp na fi nke rara? 

28. Orun nran baibai. 

29. Emi li o se e baun ? 

30. Wo awpn pmp, bi nwpn ti 
nyara kankan. 

31. Aja na roro gidigidi. 

32. l^gbpn mi li asp ti o ppn 
rokiroki. 

33. Enia pp jpjp leba odo. 

34. Orun mii janjan loni. 

35. Qmpde na njo dukeduke. 

36. Bi mo ti mbp wa, lojiji 6jo 
bprp si rp. 

37. Lojojump li awa nip si oko, 
afi Qjp isimi. 



SECTION 8. 



KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 7. 



1. The children do not take 
care of their clothes. 

2. Father gives money to his 
child. 

3. That cap is mine. 

4. These boards are yours. 

5. Their mother sent them. 

6. They are ringing our school 
bell. 

7. I saw my companion and 
his dog. 

8. Bring your book. 

9. Their father gives clothes to 
them. 

10. Our work is difficult ; but 
yours is not difficult. 

11. Stranger came to our house 
to-day. 

12. Is your farm far ? 

13. Their work is not easy for 
them. 

14. I have learnt my lesson. 

15. My eyes see light. 

16. Yours is the money. 

17. Give my book to me. 

18. The people of our house 
went to their farm. 

19. They are weighing (or 
measuring) their com. 

20. My younger (brother or 
sister) is in his house. 



21. Your board is better than 
mine. 

22. My mother (does) not see 
her sheep to-day. 

23. Our cat is lost. 

24. This goat (does) not come 
(to) your house. 

25. My younger (brother or 
sister) has three beautiful 
cloths. 

26. It is very dark (at eventide). 

27. What makes that child cry 
so loudly ? 

28. The sun is shining dimly. 

29. How did I do it ? 

30. Look (at) the children, how 
quickly they move. 

31. That dog is very fierce. 

32. My elder (brother or sister) 
has cloth that is very yellow. 

33. Many people (are) by the 
side of river. 

34. The sun ( WiS ) very hot 

\ 18 / 

to-day. 

35. The children are dancing 
very well. 

36. As I was coming, suddenly 
it began to rain. 

37. Every day we are going to 
farm, except (on the) day 
of rest (Sabbath). 



PART III. 



NOUNS GROUPED AND CLASSIFIED IN ALPHABETICAL 
ORDER. 

SECTION 1. 

RELATING TO THE UNIVERSE AND NATIONAL LIFE. 



Aborigines = ibil 9. 

Alien = ajeji; alejo. 

At mcsphere = oruf uruf u (or 

ofurufu). 

Black man=enia dudu. 
Brass = id 9. 
Breeze = at9giin. 
Calnness=i 



Citizen = aralu. 

Cloud = aw9sanma. 

Copper = baba. 

Creator =?leda. 

Creature =<?da. 

Council = igbim9. 

Councillor =9ni igbim9. 

Country = 119. 

Crown =ade. 

Customs = bode. 

Darkness = okunkun. 

Dawn = af 9m9Jum9 . 

Day = 9J<?. 

Dew=iri. 

Earth = aiye. 

Flower = ltanna. 

Forest = igbo. 

Fresh water =omi tutu. 

God=Ol9run. 

Gold = wura. 

Governor = bal 9 Gomina. 



Grass = ikoriko. 
Grave =iboji. 
Growth = idagbasoke. 
Hail = yinyin. 
Heat = oru. 
Heaven=9ranr- 
HiU=6ke. 
Iron=irin. 
Island = ereku^u. 
2^=91^. ^ 
Kingdom = i j 9ba. 
Lake = adagun. 
Lagoon =9sa. 
Language =ede. 
Law=ofin. 
Leaves=ew6. 



Lightning = manamana. 
Mineral =ohun ti a wa 
bi .- wura, irin, etc. 
Mist=ikuku. 
Month =ou. 
, Moon=o?upa. 
Mountain =6ke giga. 
Nation = oril9-ede. 
Night =6ru. 
Noon = 9sangangan. 
Prince =91119 alade. 
Palace =afin. 

= ayaba, Qba-obirin. 



30 



Rainbow = 6$umare. 
Rock=apata. 
Salt water = omi iy9. 
Sailor = atuk9. 
Sceptre = 9pa 9ba. 
Seed = irugbin. 
Shadow = ojiji. 
Silver = fadaka. 
Soldier = j agunj agun. 
Stars =iraw9. 
Stone = okuta. 
Storm = lji; $fufu lile. 
Spring = orisun omi. 



Sun = 6run. 
Throne = it? 9ba 
Thunder Am. 
Tin = tanganran. 
Town = llu. 
Tree = igi. 
Valley = afonifoji. 
Village =ileto. 
Water = omi. 



World = aiye. 
Year=9duii. 



SECTION 2. 

RELATING TO DOMESTIC LIFE. 



Bed=ibusun. 

Bedroom = iyara ibusun. 

Book = iwe. 

Bottle = lgo. 

Boy = 9m9k9nrin. 

Bread = akara. 

Broom =9W9. 

Butter =ori wara ; ori-am^. 

Calabash =igba. 

Cap=fila. 

Cat = ologb6. 

Carpet =3^9 il?. 

Ceiling^ aj a. 

Chair = aga. 

Children = 9m9<le. 

Clock, or bell=agogo. 

Clothes =a9. 

Coal=edu. 

Cup = ago. 

Dining room = iyara ibiti or 

nj^un. 
Dog=aja. 
Doll = 91119 -langi. 



Domestic animals =?ran 93 In. 



Dust, or dirt = eri, or ekuru. 

Eggs - eyiii. 

Father = baba. 

Fire=ina. 

Fish = ^ja. 

Floor = ilc?16 (il9-ile). 

Fruit =eso. 

Girl = 9m9birin. 

Grindstone =919. 

House, or home=ile. 

Husband =9k9. 

Knife =9b^. 

Lamp=fitila. 

Man 



Matches = iana. 



Marriage = igbeyawo. 
Milk = wara. 

Mortar = od6 (for pounding). 
Mother =iya. 



31 



Needle =ab?re. 
Neighbour = aladugbo. 
Pestle = 9m9-od6. 
Piazza =<?d$d9. 
Picture = aworan. 
Plate =awo. 
Pocket = apo wu. 
Relations = ana, ibatan. 



Service = ism. 
Shelf =pepe. 
Sieve = as 9. 



Room = iyara. 

Saucepan =ikoko. 

Servant = 9m9"d9 (91119-949). 



Spoon =-f?ibi. 
Paper takada. 
Pail = koroba. 
Wall = ogiri. 
Wie=-aya. 
Well = kanga. 
Window = ferese. 



SECTION 3. 

RELATING TO RELIGIOUS AND Civic LIFE. 



Barbarian = alaigbede. 
Bank=ile owo. 
Bible = Bibe!i. 
Bridge = afar a (afa). 
Capital = ilu 9ba. 
Civil chief = Ba$9run. 
Civil questions =9ran ilii. 
Civilization = ilaju. 
Church = He -Ol9run. 
Commandment a^^. 



Decalogue =ofin 
Doctor = oni^egun. 
Editor = ak9 we iwe irohin. 
Elders = aw9n agba. 
Fetters = 
Herald = akede. 
High way = 9na 
Hospital = ile alarun. 
Hymn = orin. 
Idol = ori^a. 
Idolatry = is in orisa. 
Improvements = itun?e. 
Judge=onidaJ9. 



Justice = idaj 9 619. 
Minister = iranse, or alufa. 
Moslem = imale. 
Mosque = ni9salasi. 
Museum = ile isura. 
Newspaper = iwe irohin. 
Notice = iwe akiyesi. 
Policeman = 9l9pa. 
Police station =ile 9l9pa. 
Port = ebute. 
Prayer =adura. 
Public building = ile apeJ9 11 u. 
Pulpit = aga iwasu. 
Registrar =ak9 we ilu. 
Religion = is in. 
Secretary =ak9we. 



opopo. 



Sermon =9r9 iwasu. 

Society = 9gb<?. 

Student =ak9k9". 

Subjection=it?riba. 

Taxes = owode (owo-ode). 

Teacher = olukcpni. 

Temple = ile-orisa ; ile-Ql9run. 



SECTION 4. 

RELATING TO TRADES AND COMMERCE. 



Account --i^iro ow6. 

Axe = ake. 

Balance = i^ikh ow6. 

Bamboo = aparun, ppa, pako. 

Barrel=agba. 

Blacksmith alagb v I >, . 

Build er= ample, 9111916. 

Buyer =olura, olubara. 

Carpenter = gbenagbena. 



Clerk = ak9we. 
Cement = am9 lile, simenti 
Commerce = iijowo. 
Cowries = owo 979. 
Craftsman = oni^na. 
Factory =ile 199. 
Fare = owo 9k9. 
Freight = 9ru 9k9. 
Goods = ohun tita. 
Hammer = old. 
Kernels =ekur9'. 
Labourer = alagba?e, or 
Ladder =akas9. 
Ledger =iwe owo. 



Loss = 6fo. 
Machinery =9r9. 
Manager =olori ; 9ga. 



Maiket = 9Ja. 



Palm oil = epo. 
Pincers = %mu. 
Plank pako, patako. 
Potter = am9kok( > . 
Price =iye. 
Profit = ere. 
Roof = 6rule. 
Rope = okun. 
Salt=iy9. 



Sawyer = agb9gi, ala-patnk>. 
Seller =olut a. 



i = ile-9Ja. 
Shovel = 9k< oyinbo. 
Skins = aw9. 
Specie = o\v6. 
Spirits = 9ti kikan. 
Street =ita, popo. 
Sugar = iy9-oyinbo. 
Trader = oni^owo. 
Trades =i?9na. 
Train = 9k9l9 
Vehicle = k9k9. 
Wages = owo i^ 
Weaver = 



SECTION 5. 

RELATING TO FARM AND COUNTRY LIFE. 



Ant = era; eriin. 
Banana = 9g9d9. 
Basket = agb9n. 
Beans = ere. 
Bird =9179. 



Branch = 9ka igi. 
Bridle = ijanu. 
Bush pig = 9ya. 
Camel = ibakasi9. 
Cassava = gbaguda, 



33 



Cocoanut = agb9ii. 
Cotton = 6\vu. 
Corn = agbado. 
Cow = malu. 
Crocodile =9111. 
Cutlas=ada, 
Deer = agbpiirin. 
Donkey = kft^k9t<;'. 
Dove = adaba, oriri. 



Elephant = ajanaku ; criu. 

Farm = oko. 

Farmer = aroko ; agb?. 

Farmhouse = abule. 

Field^ papa. 

Fowl=adi<?. 



Garden = 9gba, 



Groundnut = <?pa. 
Guinea-corn =9ka baba. 
Guinea-fowl = etii, awo. 



Herbs = e web 9. 
Hippopotamus = erin omi. 



Horse =^in. 
Hunter =9d^. 
Hyaena =ikoko. 
Lemon = orornbo kikan. 
Leopard =9kim. 
Lime = orombo 
Lizard = alamu. 
Monkey = 9b9. 



= ibaka. 
Orange = orombo. 
Palm tree=igi 9 
Partridge = aparo. 



Pawn=iw9fa. 
Pepper = ata. 



Pigeon =?iye?le. 

Pineapple =9P<? oyinbo. 

Powder =?tu. 

Rat-trap = itakute. 

Road, or path=9na. 

Root = gbongbo. 

Saddle =gari. 

Sandals = salubata. 

Shepherd = darandaran, olu$a- 

gutan. 

Sheep = agu tan. 
Shot=9ta. 
Slave =?ru. 
Snake =ejo. 
Soil=il?. 
Spinach =?f 9. 



Squirrel = 9k ^r^. 
Stable =ile-fin. 
Sugar cane=ireke. 
Tobacco = taba. 



Turkey = tolotolo. 

Weeds =epo. 

Wild animals = ^ranko i 

Worm = kokoro. 

Yam=i?u. 



SECTION 6. 



Flag=asia. 
Flagstaff =9pa asia. 
Friend =^9. 
Gazette =iwe 9ba. 
Guilt = ebi. 
Jail = tubu, ile 



RELATING TO POLITICAL AND LEGAL QUESTIONS. 



Jailor ouitubu. 

Judgment = idaj 9. 

Judicial ti onidajy. 

Jurisdiction = a9 lori. 

Jury = ema inejila ti ida 911! 1(,'J9. 

Lawyer = amofin. 

Message = i.f 9 riran. 

Messenger = iran9. 

Nullification = is9 di 6fo. 

Oath = ibura. 

Obedience= igl>9i-ai>. 

Office = iyara. ak9\ve, <y'-. 

Palaver = ija ^9. 

Peace =alafia. 

Per jury = ibura ek6. 

Plaintiff = olufisun. 

Prisoner =onde, 9l9\v'9n. 

Province = igberiko. 

Rape il'a wundia J9. 

Reply = idahun. 

Residency =il 

Treaty =adehim. 



Acquittal i 
Adjournment = iijil 
Ambassador =ikp 9ba. 
Amity =i?9r^. 
Amnesty =ifiji ^l^wpn. 
Ammunition =ohun ija. 
Appeal = at ii ii here ^9. 
Assassin apania. 
Assignment = iyansil 9. 
Assault = ik9lu. 
Banishment = 116jade. 
Bequest = ifi ogun fun. 
Boundary =ala 119. 
Commissioner = aj 9! 9. 
Conviction=idal9bi. 
Defalcation = i j io wo. 
Defamation = idulumc?. 
Defendant = oludahun. 
Disobedience = aigb9ran. 
District = agbegbe. 
Enemy =9ta. 
Exile =isansa. 
Falsehood =ek6 ; ir<J. 
Fight =ija. 



Treasurer =ohit9Ju o\\-6, nlapo. 

Term=akoko. 

Theft=old. 

Truth= otit9. 

Ultimatum =opin 9F9. 

War == ogun. 

War cry=ipe ogun. 

Witness = 9! 9ri. 



35 



SECTION 7. 

RELATING TO ANATOMY AND DISEASES. 



Abscess = bu 19. 

Anatomy = ip in ara. 

Ankle = kokos^. 

Arm=apa. 

Back=(?hin. 

Backbone =egungun tfhin. 

Bladder =apo itp. 

Blood = <?je. 

Body = ara. 

Bone= egungun. 

Boil=owo. 

Brain = mudunmudim. 

Breast =9mu. 

Cheek =<?rek4- 

Chest = aiya. 

Colic = inurirun. 

Consumption = aruu ^dpfor 

Convalescence = iwosau. 

Cough = ikp. 

Diarrhoea = $iunu. 

Digestion =dida onj^. 

Disease =arim. 

Dose = iwpn. oguii. 

Dropsy = asunkun. 

Dysentery =9rin. 

Ears=eti. 

Elbow = igb9iiw9. 

Eyes = 9yin oju. 

Eyelid = ipenpeju. 

Face = oju. 

Faeces =igb<?. 

Fever =iba. 

Finger =ika QW$. 

Flesh = ^ran ara. 

Foot = ?s 9. 

Guinea-worm = sobia. 

Hair = irun. 



Haemorrhage $? j ?. 

Head=ori. 

Head-ache =ori fif9. 

Heart =pkan. 

Hearing =igb9. 

Intestines = if un inu. 

Joint = orike. 

Leg =<?s. 

Leprosy =?t^. 

Lips=ete. 

Liver =?d9. 

Lungs =$d9foro. 

Medicine =6gun, egbogi. 

Mind = inu. 

Mouth =(?nu. 

Muscle =i?aii 

Nails = ekanna. 

Neck=9run. 

Nerve =i?au 111 

Nose=imu. 

Palate =i 

Patient = alaisan. 

Rheumatism = lakuegbe. 

Respiration = imisinusode 

Rib=egunguii ilia. 

Side=iha, 

Sight = iriraii. 

Sinew=i?an 

Sense =im9. 

Shoulder =ejika. 

Skeleton = egungun ara. 

Skin=aw9 ara. 

Skull =agbari. 

Sore=egb6. 

Spleen =919 inu. 

Stomach =apo oiij^ inu. 

Smallpox =ilegb9na, f 

Taste =it9\v6. 



3H 



Teeth chin. 
Thigh nun. 
Throat yfun. 

Thumb atampako. 
Tongue = ah<^n. 
Toes =91119 v s v- 



Touch- if^kan (if<,>\vc,>kim). 
Urine = 119. 
Vein i Tim i vj(,\ 
Wrist = 911111 pw^. 
Wound =9gb$. 



SECTION 8. 



RELATING TO THEOLOGICAL AND BIBLICAL QUESTION-. 

Faith - igbagbc?. 

Fall (the) = i*?ubu i-nia. 

Fellowship idapi). 

Fidelity =619. 

Finality <>piii. 

Fundamental truth <>tito ipil<>. 

Future life iy> ti mb9. 

Grace = 6re-9fe. 

Godliness iwa-bi-O^irun. 

Goodness = ore. 
Holiness - Hva 11111119. 
Holy Spirit l^mi M 11119. 
History it an ^ni. 
Human nature =iwa enia. 
Humanity ara aiye. 
Humility = ir^l 9 9kan. 
Image = aworan. 
Immutability = aiyipada. 
Inspiration = imisi. 
Interpretation = it ump. 

Institution i^bt'kal^. idasil*,-. 

Intermediate state^=iwa Ivliin 

iku. 

Justification = idalare. 
Life=lye. 

Lord's Supper=Onj^ A 
Mankind ~ ara aiye (araiye). 
Mediator - onilaja. 
Mercy = anu. 
Mission=ii?9 isoji. 
Ministry = i?9 alufa. 



Adoption = i 
Angel =maleka. 
Argument = ijiyan. 
Atonement = etutu. 
Attribute =lwa ^ni. 
Baptism it ^bomi, iBarni. 
Benevolence =it9r^> ami. 

Canon = ofin ; ilana. 

Character =iwa. 
Christianity =isin ti Kristi. 
Church=iJ9. 
Conditions 9iia gbigba. 
Confession = i j ew9. 
Conscience = <?ri pkAii. 
Conversion = iyipada. 
Counsel impran. 
Coveteousness^ ojukok6ro. 
Credentials =^9 ?ri. 
Death = iku. 
Depravity == iwabuburu. 
Descendant = 9m9 -91119. 
Discipline =t9, ibaiiiwi. 
Divine nature =iwa ti O^run. 
Doctrine =?k9. 
Duty i.?v s '"- 
Effects ==eso. 
Eternity == aiyeraiye. 
Evangelist =ojiiji^ ihinrere.ajihin- 

revo, 

Exaltation in I M soke. 
Existence of God=iwa ti 



i^9 iyanu. 

Morality = iwa rere. 
Moral law=ofin iwa. 
Ordination = iya-sptp. 
Origin = ipile;?e. 
Omnipotence =lagbara julp. 
Omnipresence = iwa nibi gbogbo. 
Omniscience =l9gb9ii jul?. 
Pastor = alabojuto ijp. 
Perfection = iwa pipe. 
Perseverance = if oriti. 
Personality = iwa enia. 
Preacher = oniwasu. 
Privilege = anfani. 
Prophet = woli. 

Providence = ipese siJe ti Q^run. 
Punishment = ij eniya. 
Redeemer = Olurapada. 
Redemption = irapada. 
Regeneration = at unbi. 
Repentance = ironupiwada. 
Resurrection = ajinde. 
Revelation= ifihan. 



Reward = ere. 

Righteous = eiiia 11111119, olododo-. 

Sabbath=Qjo-isimi. 

Sacred writings =iwe 11111119. 

Succession =119! ehin. 

Sanctification = is9diiniiii9. 

Sacrifice =9^9. 

Salvation = igbala. 

Saviour = Olugbala. 

Sin = ?*??. 



Testimony = 91 

Theology = iiH 

Trinity = Metal9kan. 

Triumph= is? ?gun. 

Trust = igbekele. 

Union = idap9in9. 

Universe = 9run on aiye. 

Virtue = iwa rere. 

Wicked ( the ) = enia buburu. 

Wisdom = 9gb9"n. 

Wrath = ibinn. 



SECTION 9. 

SENTENCES FOR DAILY USE. 

Bring hot water for bath = Mu omi gbi 'gbona wa lati fi w^. 

Go buy oranges and bananas = L9 ra orombo ati 9g^d^. 

Air the clothes and sweep the room = Sa 8^9, ki o si gba iyara. 

Give corn and water to the horse =Fi agbado ati omi fun e^in. 

Saddle the horse =Di ^in ni gari. 

Dust the things and scrub the floor = Ki o nu nkan, ki o si fip ile. 

Clean my boots quickly = Kiakia, ki o dan bata mi. 

How many eggs did you buy to-day ? = Iyin melo li o ra loni ? 

How much did you pay for these fowls ? = Elo li o san fun adi? 



10. Prepare food for four persons this evening = Pese onje sil? fun 

enia merin lale yi. 

11. Expect me back at six O'clock ^Ki 9 ma reti mi li ago mefa. 

12. Come with me to salute the king=Wa ba mi 19 ki 9ba. 



38 

l.'!. Call the carriers and let us go !'' a\\nn alaru. si j<; U'a 19. 
I i Tell the clerk to biing the books to me \Vi fun akowr. Ui <> mu 

awnu i\M' fun mi \va. 

For how much will you sell this cloth ? Rl<> li <,- <> ta aso \ i >. 

Do not make a noise there Masr j>ariwn niix,-. 

Come early in the morning Larv kutukutu ni ki o \\a. 
is. Do not forget to do the work I gave you Ma 7 - ^iia^i..- is (| - ti 

mo fun 9 so. 
U>. How many boards will the job require? 1'aku mrl<> ni \ in to 

fun isr na. '.' 

2o. Cut the grass by the side of the path !<' koriko l^gbe oju yna. 

-1. Remind me that your master is expecting me Ran mi l< ti. |><-. 

ogboni r yio ma reti mi (rau-leti = to remind). 

22. What are you doing there? Kil'o no nil>v ? 

23. Do not stay long at market = Ma?e duro ]>< lyja. 

24. Be Sure that you buy bread to-day Masai ra akara 1'oni (hn-adi). 

2."). Light the fire and cook some food at once I )ana. ki <> si so onjv 

lojukanna. 

20. Is the food ready P^Onj? ya bi ? 

21. Come and eat ! Wa jyun ! 

28. I am thirsty, make some tea quickly = Ongb^ ngb? mi, ki <> 7 

tea, kiakia. 

29. Stand upright ! = Dide naro ! 

30. Don't be slack (at work) ! -Ma jafara, or sjira ! 

31. Show me the way to the market ! Fi 9iia pja ban mi ! 

32. Get out of the way ! = Ogo Ipna ! 

33. Wait for me heie = Duro de mi nihiu. 

:u. Go on, I will overtake you Ma 19, ago ba nyin. 

3."). Bring the gun and ten cartridges Mu ii>9n ati 9ta nn,\\ii \\,i 

36. I am too busy to attend to you now I*v ndi mi 19^-9 na. nku 

(ng k6) le r'aye gb9 tir^ iiisisiyi. 

37. I have no time to do it = Emi ko r'aye ye e. 

38. I do not lend money at all = Emi ko ya owo rara. 

3ft. Think about it and let me know to-morrow =Ronu r(- ki > >i 
89 fun mi Ic^la. 

40. Well, what have you decided to do ? = Xje, kini o piimu lat i >.- 

41. You are very kind -O sjeun J9J9. 

42. Come and help me do this work \Va, ki o si ran mi low(,'> lati 

fje isjv yi. 

43. Tell your father to come and talk with me Wi fun balm r^-, 

pc. ki i> \\a lui mi S9r9. 

44. Come and get your money ^=Wa. <rba own nyin. 



39 



4.">. I shall have to fine you if you do so again =Xgo ma ke owo r^, 

bi o ba tun se b(j>. 

4(5. What time is it ? = Ago melo 16 j? ? 

47. It is half -past two ! = O j? ago meji ab<|> ! 

48. Go away from there = Kuro mb<? (nib?). 

49. Light the lamp ! = Tan fitila ! 

50. Light the fire = Da ina (dana). 

51. Wash your hands =Wf 9w<? nyin. 
~> Wash your face =69 oju nyin. 

53. Wash the clothes =Fp a$9 na. 

54. Go and buy cornflour = L9, da ek9. 

55. Go and bathe =1.9, si w?. 

X.B. Different words for " wash " are used with certain tilings, 
see 51, 52 and 53. 

W$ is used for hands, feet and body. 

69 ,, ,, face only. 

F9 ,, ,, clothes, vessels, floor, etc. 



SECTION 10. 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. (KEY, SEE 
SECTION n.) 

1. Ojo r9 die, iba 1-9 pup9, iba dara. 

2. Odo nsan, o si jin, ma wp 9. 

3. Awa giin oke giga, o si dara gba. 

4. Ok9nrin ke igi lule lojude ile wa. 

5. ^?in kan, ati agutan mefa li o ni. 
(>. Itana na dara, orun r^ si dim J9J9- 

7. Ilu nla wa lehin oke Iphun. 

8. Baba inbe l9gba, o si nka eso fun tita. 

9. lya wa nile, o si npese onje sile de wa. 

10. Kanga ti o wa ni ita, ko li omi rara. 

11. J9, fun mi li omi mu, ki ng to 19 si oko. 

12. Fun mi Ias9 mi, ki ng le 19 si ile. 

13. Fi owo fun 9m9de W9nyi, ti o to t<j>r9 (threepence). 

14. Fi 9W9 re se e, ki o mase baje. 

15. ^se li a fi rin, ati oju li a fi riran. 

16. Malu ko p9 nibi, wara si w<pn ju. 

17. T^r&n, eiye, ati eja li a fi fun enia lati 39. 

18. Ologb6 dudu li o le pa ekute pup9. 



lit. Ivy li o nui onJV (lini li I,MMI. 

Jn. |-'j (inii MMII ikoko, lehin igbati o \i I'o o. 

21. Kii eni re, ki o si gba iyara re, kiakiii. 

22. Mo pa ejo kekere laby ibusiin loni. 

2.'{. Bi oluwa ba mbe lehin, aja na yio pa <,>!><,>. 

24. 1,9 ra igba meji fun awpn pmpde. 

L'.~i. Awmli l>i o \\a lc>ke ama ri ohun gbogbo ti a 



SECTION 11. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 10. 

1. It rains a little, should it rain much it would be good. 

2. (The) river is flowing, and it is deep, do not enter it. 

3. We climbed a high hill, and it was very line. 

4. (The) man cut a tree down, outside our house. 
.">. One horse and six sheep he has ! 

(5. (The) flower is beautiful, and its perfume is very sweet. 

7. A large town is behind yonder hill. 

8. Father is in (the) garden, and he is gathering fruit for sale. 

9. Mother is in (the) house, and she is preparing food for us. 

10. (The) well that is in (the) street, has no water at all. 

1 1 . Please, give me water to drink, before I go to farm. 

12. Give me my cloth, that I may go home. 

13. Give money to these children about threepence. 

14. Put your hand to do it, that it be not spoilt. 

15. With the feet we walk, and with the eyes we see. 

16. Cows are not plentiful here, and milk is very dear. 

1 7. Animals, birds, and fishes are given to people to eat. 

18. (The) black cat is able to kill many rats, (or mice). 

19. Salt makes or causes food to be sweet to the moutli. 

20. Put water in (the) pot, after you have washed it. 

21. Fold your mat, and sweep your room quickly. 

22. I killed a small snake under the bed to-day. 

23. If (the) master is behind, the dog will kill (the) monkey. 

24. Go (and) buy two calabashes for the children. 

25. (The) hawk above sees all (the) things that we do. 



41 



PART IV. 

PRONOUNS. 
SECTION 1. 

TABLE OF PRONOUNS PERSONAL. 

First Person. 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. or Fein. Masc. or Fern. 

Nom. Case. I = Emi, Mo, Ng We=Awa, a. 

(future). 
Pos. Case. My or Mine Mi, Our or Ours = Wa, Thva. 

Temi. 
Obj. Case. Me = Mi. Us = Wn. 

Second Person. 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. or Feni. Masc. or Fern. 

Nom. Case. Thou=Iw9, 9. Ye, You=Enyin, e. 

Pos. Case. Thy, Thine=Re, Your, Yours=Nyin, Tiyin. 

Tire. 
Obj. Case. Thee=Iw9, 9. You = Nyin, Yin. 

Third Person. 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. or Fern. Masc. or Fern. 

Nom. Case. He, She, It = On, o, They=Nw9ii, awpn, a. 

9- 

Pos. Case. His, Her, Hers, Its Their, Theirs =Tiw9n, w9n. 

= T6n, Tir?, R?. 
Obj. Case. Him, Her, It=a, e, Them=W9n. 

e, i, o, 9, u. 

N.B. Euphony requires the pronoun, third per. ; sing. ; obj. case, 
to take the form of the vowel in the verb or preposition which 
precedes it. ^ ) Do it for fcim=Se e fun u. 
I praise him = Mo yin i. 



OF EUPHONIC CONCORD IN mi: CSK OF 
THE PERSONAL PROXOIX, THIRD I-KRS., ; SING. ; 

OBJ. CASK. 

(a) With the Verb. 

1. I met him in the market \\ln-n In- lum^ht it. 
Mo ba & Ip" ja riigbati <> 1.1 .1. 

2. I drove it away and lie saw me do it. 
Mo le e kuro, o si ri pe, mo se e. 

3. I like it but I cannot keep it. 
Mo f^ 9 sugbpn nkd le fi i pamp. 

4. I covered it and will use it another time. 
Mo b6 o, ng o si 16 o iiigba ml (miran). 

5. I drew near to it and ground it with my foot. 
Mo sunni9 9, mo si fi es(? mi 19 9. 

6. Bring it here and beat it. 
Mu u wa sihin, ki o si lii u. 

(b) With the Preposition. 

1. I spoke with him, that he should not do so to her. 
Mo ba a sprp, pe, ki on k'o ma se b<ji si i. 

2. Give it to him immediately. 
Fi i fun u lojukanna. 

3. He shut the door against him. 

On s6 (or ti) il^kun ml 1119 9 (or si i). 

SECTION 2. 

PRONOUNS. 

(a) Relative Pronouns. 

Who=Eniti (lit. who it is) ) 

TIM.- i. T-. - A - IT i-- . -.L v Contracted form " Ti." 

Which -Kyin (hi. which it is) ) 

Whatever =Ohunti (lit. thing which). 
Whoever= ^nikeni. 

Whatsoever = Ohunkohun. 

(b) Reflexive Pronouns. 

I myself =Emi tikarami, or Emi ua. 
Thyself = I vv~9 tikarare, or I wo na. 
Himself = On tika-ar^, or On papa. 
Ourselves Awa tikarawa. 
Yourselves = Enyin tikarayin. 
Themselves =Aw9ii tikarawpn. 
N.B. Sometimes "1" is used instead of "r" as: " tikalar^." 



43 

(c) Demonstrative Pronouns. 

This=Eyi, yi ; Eyi ni=this (it) is. Iwe yi=this book. 

These = W9nyi. 

That = Na; ohun na=that thing; also '' ni." 

Those =W9nni. 

Each = ) 

f Olukuluku. 
Every = I 

(d) Interrogative Pronouns. 

Who=Tani? or tali? Who did this ? = Tali o se eyi ? 

Who is there ? = Tani wa nibe ? 

Whose = Titaiu ? Whose book is this ?= Iwe titani eyi ? 
What=Kini ? or kili ? What is this ?=Kili eyi ? 

What have I done?=Kini mo se ? 
Which=Evvo ? 'wo ? Which is good? = Ewo li o dara ? 

Which house is it ? = lie \vo ni ? 

I 

SECTION 3. 

SENTENCES ILLUSTRATING THE USE OF PRONOUNS. 

1. The book is mine, as you yourself admitted. 

Temi ni iwe na, bi enyin tikarayin ti wi. 
2. It is ours, and they cannot take it from us. 

Ti'wa li o je, nwpn ko si le gba a \<pwq wa. 
;}. I insist on your giving the money to them. 

.Mo tenurn9 wipe ki enyin ki o fi owo fun wpn. 
4. I will go to them if you will come with me. 

Ng o 19 S9d9 W9ii bi enyin o ba mi 19. 
o. We do not want to remove them to-day. 

A ko f$ si W9n nipo 1'oni. 
(). Thou shalt not disobey your father. 

Iw9 ko gb9d9 se aigb9ran si baba re. 

7. It is thine, and thy brother shall not take it from you. 
Tire li o je, aburo re ko si ni gba Iqwq re. 

8. You must come to see them when they arrive. 
Ki enyin wa wo w9n nigbati nw9n ba de\ 

9. The box is yours but you may let me use it. 
Ti'yin li apoti na sugb9n enyin. le je ki ng 16 o. 

10. It is theirs and they can do what they like with it. 
Ti'w9n li o je, nw9n si le fi i se ohunkohun ti nw9n ba f^. 

1 1. He and his wife came to our house yesterday. 
On ati obiriii r wa si ile wa 1'ana. 

12. She must do her work before she goes to play. 
*On ko gb9d9 ma sise r^ ki o to 19 sire. 

* Two negatives are employed to make a strong affirmative : ko 
rmi = must not, not (do) (i.e.) must. 



44 



13. The man who was hm- to-day is my father. 
Ok9nrin iia ti o wa ihin 1'oni, baba mi ni. 

14. That which you saw to-day does not belong to mi-. 
Eyiti enyin ri 1'oni, ki ise tVmi. 

].">. Whatever you do, do it with all your ini^ht. 

Ohunti enyin ba se, 9 fi gbogbo agbara nyin se e. 
H>. Whoever breaks the law must suffer for it. 

l;'.nikeni ti o ba rufiii, k6 le sai ma jiya. 

17. Whatsoever you do, do it to the glory of God. 
Ohunkohim ti enyin ba se, se e fun ogo Qlpriui. 

18. It is 1, be not afraid. 
Emi ni, mase b^ru. 

1 !). Do it thyself and do it at once. 

Iw9 tikarare ni ki o se e, ki o si se e nisisiyi. 

20. He himself came to visit us last night. 
On tikarar^ li o wa b$ wa w6 1'oru ana. 

21. We must bear it ourselves without flinching. 
Awa tikarawa yio rii u laisi ib^ru. 

22. You yourselves know that it is so. 
Enyin tikarayin mp pe, b^ li o ri. 

23. It will recoil upon themselves before long. 
Yio pada ba awpn tikarawpn laip^. 

24. This horse came from those parts above the river. 
Esin yi li o ti ile oke odo wa. 

25. These towns, and those hills are under him. 
Ilu wpnyi, ati oke wpnni li o wa labe r^. 



SECTION 4. 

TRANSLATE: (FOR CORRECTIONS SEE SECTION 5.) 



1. Emi fc?. 

2. Iwp 19. 

3. Awa de. 

4. Enyin se. 

5. Nw9n sa. 

6. Iw9 ta. 

7. Mo ftf. 

8. Enyin ra. 

9. Awa r^. 
10. 



12. Mo sa. 

13. Nw9n fa. 

14. Awa so. 

15. Enyin 39. 

16. Nw9n t?. 



17. Mo r6. 

18. Iw9 ke. 

19. Emi pe. 

20. Enyin f9. 

21. Nw9ii di. 

22. On 14. 

23. Awa fd. 

24. Mo he. 

25. O wa. 

26. Nw9n wa. 

27. O wi. 

28. Mo w$. 

29. Enyin tii. 

30. Awa ba. 

31. O ya. 

32. Nw9n ya. 



33. Iwp ti. 

34. Emi t^. 

35. Eiiyin $9. 

36. O so. 

37. Xvvpn ii. 

38. O na. 

39. O na. 

40. Iwp ni. 

41. Mo ri 9. 

42. On pe mi. 

43. X\v9u f^ wa. 

44. Avva b^ yiu. 

45. O ra a. 

46. Iw9 ri wpn. 

47. Mo wo o. 
4S. Xw9n ti i. 

49. Awa se e. 

50. Enyin su u. 

51. Iw9 k(p 9. 

52. Awa ko o. 

53. O yi i. 

54. A\v9n 9k9iirin y9 9. 

55. Xw9ii wi i. 

56. Enyin 19 9. 

X.B. It would be well to practice reading in an audible voice 
every day, and have your boy to correct you. 

The Bible, or the Yoruba Readers will serve this purpose. 



57. Awa se e. 

58. Mo se e. 

59. Obinriii 19 9. 

60. X T w9ii so o. 

61. Mo he e. 

62. Ok9iiriii ml tu u. 

63. Baba wa a. 

64. Om9 ba a. 

65. Nw9ii b6 o. 

66. lya bii u. 

67. Mo di i. 

68. Iw9 dii u. 

69. Esin ta a. 

70. Enyin 39 9. 

71. Ok9nriii s^ e. 

72. lya ho o. 

73. Om9k9nrin le e. 

74. Obinrin m9 9. 

75. Enyin mu u. 

76. Baba 89 9. 

77. Ok9iirin la a. 

78. Qm9-9d9 fa a. 

79. Iw ni i. 



SECTION 5. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION- ix SECTIOX 4. 



1. I love (or want). 

2. Thou goest. 

3. We arrive. 

4. You do. 

5. They run. 

6. Thou sellest. 

7. I break. 

8. You buy. 

9. We agree. 

10. They beg. 

11. Thou comest 

12. I pick. 

13. They draw. 

14. We tie. 

15. You speak. 



16. They tread. 

17. I think. 

18. Thou cuttest. 

19. I call. 

20. You wash (clothes). 

21. They bind. 

22. He splits. 

23. We jump (or fly). 

24. I gather (or pick). 

25. He is. 

26. They come. 

27. He says. 

28. I wash (body). 

29. You loosen. 

30. W 7 e met. 



46 



31. He tears. 

:J2. They separate. 

33. Thou pushest. 

34. I spread. 

35. You watch. 

36. It slackens. 

37. They (make) into balls. 

38. He spends. 

39. He flogs. 

40. Thou sayest (or hast). 

41. I see you. 

42. He calls me. 

43. They love us. 

44. We beg you. 
4"). He buys it. 

46. Thou seest them. 

47. 1 look (at) it. 

48. They push it. 

49. We do it. 

50. You tire him. 

51. Thou learnest it. 

52. We gather it. 

53. He turns it. 

54. The men rejoice (over) him. 

55. They say it. 



.">ii. You m-iiul it. 

.~>7. \Ve cook it. 

.~>s. 1 shut it. 

">!. Woman grinds it. 

60. They tie it. 

61. I pick it. 

62. That man loosens jt. 

63. Father seeks it. 

64. Child met it. 

65. They cover it. 

Hi; Mother takes (a quantity of) 

it. 

H7. I bind it. 

68. Thou deniest (or refuneth ) it. 

69. Horse kicks it. 

70. You watch it. 

71. Man strains (or Hlteiv) it. 

72. Mother peels it. 

73. Boy drives it. 

74. Woman knows it. 
7.1. You catch it. 

76. Father tells it. 

77. Man splits it. 

78. Servant draws it. 

79. Thou has it, cr you have it. 



SECTION 6. 

TONES, OR ACCENT WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCI- -. 

'/) The acute accent is indicated by the small upward murk 
over the vowel a and the voice should be raised about a 
tone. 

A few examples will show the importance of its use 
Ma lp= don't go ; compared with : 
Ma lp=(you) may go. 

We know that God is holy. 
Awa m<J> pe, mimo li Qlprun. 

M$=to know. 

M$=to be clean or holy. 

Sweep the room and be ready to receive the guests. 
Gba iyara ki a si mura de awon alejo. 

Gb6=to sweep. 

Obi = to receive. 



Boil the rind and then feed the chickens. 
69 epo (isu), lehin na ki o b(j> awon adie. 

Bp=to boil. 

B$=to feed. 

His wife was bitten by their monkey. 
*Aya wpn li o bu aya 1-9 je. 
Aya=wife. 
Ayd = monkey. 

* This will emphasize the importance of strict attention to 
intonation. 

(b) In regard to the open vowels " a " and others, it is well 

to give a full even tone to all vowel sounds. The " grave " 
accent " a " should be treated as if the mark indicated a 
full stop. Practise the " acute " and " grave " in the 
following way : 

ba-ba ; da-da ; fa-fa ; ga-ga ; gba-gba ; 
ha-ha ; ja-ja ; ka-ka ; la-la ; ma-ma ; 
iia-na ; pa-pa ; ra-ra ; sa-sa ; sa-sa ; ta-ta ; 
wa-wa ; ya-ya. 

(c) The signs (-) and ( ) are one in print ; but whenever two 

vowels come together of the same name, as in the Personal 
Pronoun, Third Pers. ; Sing. ; Obj. Case, it is well to lengthen 
the sound, as if there was no space between them, thus : 
' baa." And as all the vowels are used in this way, 
practise the following sounds : 

ba a ; de e ; f e e ; bo o ; bp 9 ; bu u ; 
da a ; le e ; gbe 9 ; f o o ; f9 9 ; lu u ; 
gba a ; gbe e ; 19 9 ; lo o ; 19 9 ; ru u ; 
ra a ; pe e ; r9 9 ; ko o ; m9 9 ; mu u ; 
ta a ; se e ; se 9 ; so o ; 89 9 ; tu u. 



A FEW EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE CIRCUMFLEX 
ACCENT. 

1. Verily, verily I say unto you. 
L6t9, 16t9, ni mo wi fun nyiii. 

2. God will protect and keep you. 
C*l9run yio dabobo, yio si pa nyin 1119. 

3. Be patient with those who suffer. 
e suru fun aw9ii ti o jiya. 

4. It is so, whatever else you may say. 
Ohuiikohun ti enyin ba wi, b<=> li o ri. 



.">. li is not s.i. I <lid not say that you did it. 

Ueko li ii ri. cnii ko \\ipr riiyin li n sr c. 
li. If tin- elephant can In' unyry so can tin- ant. 

Hi inn nilii ajanaku a l)i era pclu. 

7. Why do you sn\ that I did it ': 
V.^> ti cnyin wipe, omi li o se e ? 

8. I will come to see y<ni another day. 

ii wa wo yin li 9J9 ml (niiran). 
y. I'ity me and help me if you can. 

Sana fun mi, ki o si ran mi l9\v<j>, lii o |i 
l<>. You are working very hard to-day. 
l.Mivin nsisi; I' 1 ' 11 I ""> 

SECTION 7. 

MX AMPLE OF TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH TO YORUBA. 
TO SHOW THAT CORRECT TRANSLATION GIYKS 
INCORRECT IDIOM. i. ENGLISH. 2. LITERAL 
TRANS. ;. IDIOMATIC. 

1. Now there cried a certain woman 

2. Nje nibe kigbc kan cnikan obirin 
Obirin kan (ninu awpn aya pmp ti awpn 

of tlir \\i\cs of the sons of the prophets 
'2. ti n\v9n aya ti awpn ti 91*19 aw9n woli 
'!. woli) kigbe 

1. unto Kli.-ha, saying, "Thy servant my husband is 

2. 89d9 Elisha, invipe. '' Iw9 9iii9d9 mi 9k9 ti 

3. si Eli?a. wipe, " Iran^ r? pkp mi ti 

1. dead ; and thou knowest that thy servant did fear 

2. ku ; ati iw9 m<p pe iw9 9m9d9 se bi T -i u 
-'.- ku ; iwQ si nip pe iranse re b$ru 

1. the Lord : and the creditor is come to take unto him 

2. na Oluwa : ati na olowo ti d^ lati mu 9d9 r^ 
::. Oluwa : awpn onigbese si wa lati mu awpn pmp 

1. my two sons to be bondmen." 

2. mi mejeji 9m9k9nrin lati se eru." 

3. mi mejeji li eru." 

1. And Elisha said unto her, "What shall I do for th.i . 

2. Ati Elisha wipe sqdq r, " Kini yio emi sc fun 9 ? 
''- Elisa si wi fun u pe, " Kini emi yio se hm 9 P 

1. tell me what thou hast in the house?" And >hr ^.iid. 

2. wi mi kini iw9 ni ni na ilc '.' ' Ati on \\i|>i- 

3. Wi fun mi, kini iwp ni ninu ile ? " On si wipe 



49 

1. " Thine handmaid hath not anything in the house, 

2. '' R$ iransebirin. ni ko nkankan iii na ile, 

3. " Iransebirin r? ko ni nkankan ni ile, 

1. save a pot of oil." Then he said, 

2. bikose kan ikoko ti epo (ororo)." Nigbana on wipe, 
3 bikose ikoko ororo kan." Nigbana on wipe, 

1. " Go borrow thee vessels abroad of all thy neighbours 

2. " Lp ya (win) 9 ikoko lode ti gbogbo r aladugbo, 

3. " Lp, ki iwp ki o yd ikoko Ipwp awpn aladugbo re kakiri, 

1. even empty vessels ; borrow not a few. 

2. aiii ofo ikoko ; ya kise kan die. 

3. ani ikoko ofo ; ya \vpn, ki ise die. 

1. And when thou art come in, thou shalt shut the door 

2. Ati nigbati iwp ti wa sinu, iwp yio se na il^kun 

3. Nigbati iwp ba si wple, ki iwp ki o se il$kun 

1. upon thee and thy sons, and shalt pour 

2. 1'ori iwp ati r<=! awpn pmpkpnrin, ati yio da 

3. mp ara re, ati mp awpn pmp re, ki o si da a 

1. out into all those vessels, and thou 

2. sode sinu gbogbo wpnni ik6ko, ati iwp 

3. sinu gbogbo ikoko wpnni, ki iwp ki 

1. shalt set aside that which is full." 

2. yio gbe s'apakan eyiti (o) se kun." 

3. o si ft eyiti o kun si apakan. 

1. So she went from him, and shut the door upon her 

2. B(ji on lp kuro on, ati se na il^kun 1'ori on 

3. B<?ni o si lp kuro Ipdp r$, o si se il<?kun mp ara r? 

1. and upon her sons, who brought the vessels 

2. ati 1'ori r$ awpn pmpkpnrin eniti mu-wa na awpn ikoko 

3. ati mp awpn pmp r$, ti ngbe ikoko 

1. to her ; and she poured out. 

2. fun on ; ati on ti da sode. 

3. fun on wa ; on si da a. 

1. And it came to pass, when the vessels were full, 

2. Ati o ti wa si kpja, nigbati na awpn ikoko ti kun, 

3. si se, nigbati awpn ikoko kun, 

1. that she said unto her son, 

2. pe on wipe spdp r$ pmpkpnrin, 

3. o wi fun pmp r$ pe, 

1. " Bring me yet a vessel." And he said unto her, 

2. " Mu-wa mi sibp kan ik6ko." Ati on wipe spdp r$, 

3. ' : Tun mu ikoko kan fun mi wa." On si wi fun u pe, 

1. " There is not a vessel more." And the oil stayed. 

2. " Nibe si ko kan ikdko mp." Ati na epo (ororo) da. 

3. " Ko si ikoko kan nip"." Ororo na si da. 



1. Then she came and told thr ma a of God. 

2. Nigbana on ti wa ati so fun na yknnrin ti Ol9rua. 

3. Nigbana li o wa, o si so fun enia Qlprun na. 

1. And he said, " Go, sell the oil, and pay thy di-lit, 

2. Ati on wipe, ' L>9, ta na epo (ororo). ati sail r$ gbese, 

3. On si wipe, " LQ, ta ororo na, ki o si san igbese re, 

1. andlive thou and thy children of the rest." 2 Kings 4. 1-7. 

2. ati wa(je)iw9 ati r^ nrqtKfUUfti na iykii 

3. ki iwo ati awon 91119 re ki o si j? owo ti o ku." 



SECTION 8. 



TRANSLATE : (FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION Q.) 



I. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

/>. 

(i. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
2">. 
2(>. 
27. 



Ida li i'lko. 
Qk9nrin li aja. 
Aroko tu ile. 
Ajayi ra bata. 
Qm9birin w 
Onile ra i.^u 



^ oju. 
k<j> ile. 

Alase se onje. 
Qm9binrin pe abnro rj>. 
Mo ri egb9n. 



til 9k9. 
Oyinbo f<;> ede wa. 
Ojo s?e i^e. 
Alaru di erii. 
Onile wa agutaii. 
Mo ri ologbd. 
Alapata pa elede. 
Qmode ho orombo. 
1,-Nin ta oluwa r>\ 
Ewur^ j^ koriko. 
Iransje j^ i^^ r. 
Qm9>9d9 s6 ilekun. 
lya pe enikeji r^. 

kl timtiia. 
y6 eyln. 



28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

:5 

.'! 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 

41. 

42. 
43. 

44. 

4.">. 
46. 

47. 
48. 
41). 



Aroko gbin iiju. 



gba erupe. 
Adigun. if a gbaguda. 
Ajayi gun elub9. 

ilade 19 si ilu rt>. 

mi le. 
Ajjutan kekere. 
Qk9nriii nil ?e enia rere. 
Or9 otit9 li o ns9. 
01119 yi kuru ju ti 9hun 19. 
Mo ti ri to igba enia. 
A ! tani s?s> eyi .- 
Ye ! 9r^ mi, inu mi dim lati 

ri 9. 

O dim mi pupij). 
Ha I Iw9 ara mi ni. 
Ki 9 dnro de wa nihinyi 

titi awa n ti !,. si 9hun. 
Awa ri nyin lana. 
Qmode, ma mA t yajn si 

enikan. 
Ka si nkan ? 
Ko si nkan. 
Iv-je ti 91119 na fi wa sinu 

ile \\.i 



51 



SECTION 9. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 8. 



Sword has sheath. 

Man has dog. 

Farmer tills ground. 

Ajayi buys boots. 

Girl washes her hands. 

Housekeeper buys yam. 

Boy washes face. 

Worker builds house. 

Cook cooks food. 

Girl calls her younger 

(brother or sister). 
I see elder (brother or sister). 
Child writes copy. 
Canoeman poles canoe. 
White man speaks our 



10. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



15. Ojo does work. 

16. Carrier ties load. 

17. Housekeeper seeks sheep. 

18. I see cat. 

19. Butcher kills pig. 

20. Child peels orange. 

21. Horse kicks his master. 

22. Goat eats grass. 

23. Messenger delivers his mess- 

age. 

24. Servant shuts door. 

25 Mother calls her partner 

(friend) companion. 
26. Man stuffs mattress. 



27. Hen lays egg. 

28. Farmer plants yam. 

29. Girl draws water. 

30. Worker takes (or receives) 

mud. 

31. Adigun cuts cassava. 

32. Ajayi pounds yam flour. 

33. Akilade goes to his town. 

34. My body (is) well. 

35. Small sheep. 

36. That man is (a) good person. 

37. He is speaking truthful 

words. 

38. This child is shorter than 

(the one) yonder. 

39. I saw about 200 people. 

40. A ! who did this ? 

41. Ah! my friend, I am pleased 

to see you. 

42. It pains me much. 

43. Ha ! thou art my relative. 

44. You await us here until we 

go yonder. 

45. We saw (see) you yesterday. 

46. Child, do not be saucy to 

anyone. 

47. Is anything (wrong) ? 

48. Nothing ! 

49. How is it that child comes 

into our house ? 



PART V. 

SECTION 1. 

SIMPLE OR ROOT VERBS OF THE SECONI < 
WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 
SEE KEY, SECTION 2. 

1. D4n=to polish. (Ompkpnrin, dan bata mi.) 

2. Gail t despise. (Mase gan nti'i re.) 

3. Han i" appear. (Idl r$ han gbangba. ) 

4. Kan tn touch. (Mase fi ow/i kan mi.) 

5. Ran ID send. (Ran on in na 19 si 9Ja. ) 

6. T&n=to be finished. (Owo mi tan patapata. ) 

7. Y4n=to neigh. (Nigbati esin yan, o nki nyin. ) 

8. Din i" subtract. (Ki o din owo fun mi.) 

9. Gbin=to sow. (A ma gbln agbado lemeji I'pdun.) 

10. Pfn=to divide. (Ki o pin owo yi larin nyin.) 

11. Rin=to walk. (Lana, mo 19 riri kiri l'9Ja. ) 

12. Sin=to serve. (Ol9run li o to sin.) 

13. Wfn=to lend or borrow. (Jc?, ki a win ikdko fun mi. 

14. Yin = to praise, (twa nyin da, mo yin 9.) 

15. Bim = to give. (Oba li o bun mi 1'ebun. ) 

16. Qim=to ride. (Balogun li o gun esin dudu. ) 

17. Ktm= to murmur. (Nw9n kirn si oluk9ni W9n. ) 

18. Run to destroy. (Ina run gbogbo llu. ) 

19. Sim t" sleep. (M4 pariwo, baba sun.) 

20. F^n=to scatter. (F<^n ihin rere ka kiri.) 

21. P$n=to sharpen. (P<?n ake fun ise nyin.) 

22. W^n=to measure. (Nw9n w4 lati w^>n ile. ) 



SECTION 2. 

KEY TO ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. SECTION i. 

1. Boy, polish my boots. 

2. Do not despise thy enemy. 

3. The reason of it plainly appears. 

4. Do not touch me. 

5. Send the child to market. 

6. My money is altogether finished. 



53 

7. When the horse neighs, it is saluting you. 

8. That you lessen or reduce the money for me. 

9. We usually plant or sow maize twice yearly. 

10. That you divide this money between yourselves. 

11. Yesterday I walked about the market. 

12. God is (great) enough to be served (worshipped). 

13. Please (that you) lend me a pot (earthen vessel). 

14. Your conduct is good, I praise you. 

15. The king gave me a present. 

16. The war chief rides a black horse. 

17. They murmured against their teacher. 

18. Fire destroyed all the town. 

19. Don't make a noise, father sleeps. 

20. Scatter the good news about. 

21. Sharpen the axe for your work. 

22. They came to measure the land. 

SECTION 3. 

ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives usually follow the nouns 

(e.g.) A white cloth=as9 funfun kan. 

The usual three degrees of comparison exist, and are formed by 
the addition, of " ju " to the positive and " 19 " to the comparative 
(e.g.) Dara=good. Buru=bad. 

Dara ju= better. Buru ju= worse. 

Data julo=best. Buru julp= worst. 

ADJECTIVES. 

_, , _ I Dara (of things and persons). Sweet = Dun. 

} Rere (of persons). 

Black = Dudu. White = Funf ur . 

Great = Tobi, nla. Small =Kekere, wewe. 

High = Giga. Short = Kukuru. 

Deep = Jijin. Wide=Gb5ro. 

Narrow =T6r6. Bitter =Kor6. 

Much = Pupi). Red = Pupa. 

Little=Die. Fierce=Ror6. 

Kind = Seun. Dear = W(?n. 

Cold = Tutu. Hot=Gb6na, Gbigbona. 

Young=Ewe. 01d=Agba, gbo. 

New=Tit.un. Many=Qp9. 

N.B. " Rere " of persons implies moral goodness. 
Da, Dara, Daradara= any thing, from good to beautiful. 



NOTES ON ADJECTIVKS. 

1. Exceptions to the rule that adjectives follow nouns, are 
found in concrete nouns placed in opposition to other concrete 
nouns 

(e.g.) Qlogb^n enia=wise person. 

Otosi eles$=poor sinner. 
Agidi pmp= stubborn child. 
Onrord enia= fierce person. 
Ika enia= cruel person, etc. 

2. The words denoting many persons, or tilings, are sometimes 
placed before the noun 

(e.g. ) Gbogbo enia = all people. 

Qpolopp enia=many people. 
Olukuluku enia= every person. 

3. The numeral adjectives, when they are round numbers, as 
twenty, thirty, and so on, come before the noun 

(e.g. ) Ogun enia= twenty persons. 
Qgbpn malu= thirty cows. 
Ogoji isu= forty yams, and so on. 

4. Sometimes the preposition " li " or " ni " is used as a pn -fix 
to a noun to form an adjective 

(e.g. ) lpr^=he is rich (lit. he has riches). 

lagbara he is strong (lit. he has strength). 

SECTION 4. 

ADVERBS, WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 
i. (a) ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Uow==nisisiyi. Then=nigbana, or nje. 

To-day =l'oni. When=nigbati, or nigbawo '! 

To-morrow =l'9l a - Early = kutukutu ; tete. 

Yesterday =l'ana. Late=p$. 
Instantly =lojukanna, lesekanna. Always = nigbagbogbo. 

Ever=lailai, lai, bibi lai. Often=nigbakugba. 

Once=l^kan. Daily =lojojum9. 

Weekly = 1 psos 9. Again = ?w e, m$, tun. 



55 

(b) ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

1 . Do it now = e e nisisiyi. 

2. Then it came to pass = Nigbana o si se. 

3. Then, he became angry = Xje, o binu. 

N.B. Xje is equivalent to " well," as (Well, ho became 
angry). 

4. To-day or to-morrow will do=L'oni, tabi 1'pla li o dara. 

5. When you come, come early =Nigbati e ba wa, ki p teto wa. 

6. He is very late On pp ju. 

". Do it instantly = e e lojukamia. 

8. You are often disobedient = Nigbakugba li e nse aigbpran. 

9. Always speak the truth = So 6tp nigbagbogbo. 

10. Once again I tell you to do it = Lpkan si mo sp fun 9 ki 

o se e. 

11. Do it daily, not weekly =e e lojojump, ki ise Ipspsp. 

12. It is ever the same ==69 ni ima in. 

13. Do not do SO again=Ma se bp mp, or Ma tun. se bf. 

2. ADVERBS OF PLACE. 

(a) Here = nihiii, or nibi. There=nibp. 

Everywhere = nibikibi. Yonder = Iphun. 

Near = nitosi. Far = jina, or lokere. 

By the side=l<?ba. Elsewhere = nibo miran. 

Backward =sehin. Forward=siwaju. 

Upward=soke. Downward =sisale. 

(b) ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

1. Here it is, come and get it=Nihin li o wa, wa mu u. 

2. It was there yesterday=Nibe li o wa I'ana. 

3. Everywhere I go it is the same= Nibikibi ti mo gbe lp, bakanna 

li o ri. 

4. It is very far from town=O jina pupp si ilu. 

5. He is near by, call him=O wa nitosi, pe e. 

6. It is by the side of the river =O wa leba odo. 

7. Elsewhere things are not so=Nibo miran, nkan ko ri bf. 

8. He is going backwards=O npada sphin. 

9. Go on in front of me=Ma lp siwaju mi. 

10. Lift your eyes upward = Gbe oju nyin soke. 

11. We were going downwards =Awa ti nip sisal e. 



3. ADVERBS OF DEGREE. 

(ft) Only kiki. nikanfjioijo, pere, o^odr. Much^ pupp ; p<J>. 
Almost^ f?rv. Enough -to. 

Altogether = pat apata. Too p 9! u . 

So=b?; bayi. As-=bi. 

Quickly y a ray ara, kiakia. Gently JvJv. pelep?le. 

Iattle = die, diedie. First lev, <'kini. 

(6) ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

1. He only is there On nikansjo.o li o w& nilx,-. 

2. Only gold and silver will I receive-- Kiki wnra ati fadakn ni 

oini yio til>a. 

3. I have seen enough ! = Mo ti ri to ! 

4. He was altogether lost = On ti 391111 patapata. 
6. I too shall be there=Emi pelu yio wa nibe. 

6. Do it SO, and it will please me^= fj>e e bayi, yio si dim mp rni. 

7. So it is always 69 li o ri nigbagbogbo. 

8. As it was in the beginning =Bi o ti wa li atetekp^e. 

9. Come quickly Kiakia ni ki o \va. 

10. Walk gently, the road is rough= Rln p^l^p^lf ijma na ?e pnlapala 

11. The plant has grown a little=Ohun 9gbin ti dagba di?. 

12. Two cocoanuts only do I see=Agb9n meji pere ni mo ri. 

13. Only trouble do I meet with=Ogede wahala ni mo b&. 

14. The first born and the first fruits are God's = Ak9"bi ati akp'so ti 

Ol9run To je (or bi Ql9run ni). 

4. ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION, NEGATION AND 
DOUBT. 

(a) Yes=b^ni, en ! No=b^ko, ndao, agbed9. 

Certainly = dajudaju. Verily I T ., 

Indeed 

Perhaps = bpya. Undoubtedly = laiijiyemej i. 

Not=ki, or k6. 

(b) ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

1. Yes, I shall be there = Be"ni, emi yio wa nibe. 

2. Did you do this P Yes ! = Iw9 li o $e eyi ? Jjln ! 

3. It is not so Hr-kn li o ri. 



Did you take it ? No ! = Iw9 li o mu u ? Ndao ! 

Did you steal the money ? No ! = Iw9 li o ji owo bi ? Agbed9 

(emphatic). 

<>. Indeed, I shall not go = Lot 9, emi ko ni 19. 
7. Verily I say unto you=L6t9, mo \vi fun nyin. 
H. He certainly is guilty = On jebi dajudaju. 

0. There is no doubt about it=K6 si iyemeji rara. 
Hi. Undoubtedly it was he = Laisiyemeji, on ni. 

11. It was not he, but I = Ki ise on, sugb9n emi ni. 

12. He cannot go but I will = On ko le 19, sugb9n emi yio 19. 

5. INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS. 

( a ) Where ? = nibo ? Wherefore ? = ese ti ? 

How? = bawo ? 9iia wo ? How much?=elo ? 

How many? = melo ? Why ?=ni tori kini ? 
When ? = nigbawo ? 

(b) ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

1. Where is it? = Nibo li o wa ? 

2. Wherefore do you go? = Ese ti iw9 fi 19 ? 
;?. How do you do it? = Bawo li o ti se e ? 
4. How much is it ?= filo li o je ? 

"). How many are there ?=Melo li o wa nibe ? 
(>. Why do you speak so ? = Nitori kini iw9 %e 39 bayi ? 
7. When will he come ? = Nigbawo li o le wa ? or, Nigbawo li 
on yio de ? 

NOTES ON ADVERBS. 

There are distinctive adverbs which take the place of " very 
much " in English and almost every verb has its own peculiar 
adverb 

1. (<?</) Igi ga fiofio = tree is very high. 

2. lj!ry e 6 tiantian=bird flies very high. 

li. Asp yi p$n rokiroki=this cloth is very yellow. 

4. Oelodo pupa roro = flower is very red. 

5. Kiniun nke ramuramu = lion is roaring loudly. 

6. gb$ sakasaka=he hears perfectly. 

7. dun mi J9Jp=it pains me greatly. 

8. duro sinsin=he stands firmly. 



9. QniQ SQ r 9 botibdti- child talks pratingly. 

10. A?9 ja fut$fute cloth tears easily. 

11. O gbadura tpkantpkan he prays earnestly. 

12. A$9 yi dudu perepere = this cloth is very black. 

13. yo bambam=-it is very full. 

14. 11$ $u biribiri=it is very dark. 

15. Aiya mi nja fuk$fuke = my heart is beating furiously. 

N.B. Almost every reduplicated word which follows a verb may 
be regarded as an adverb. 

SECTION 5. 

PREPOSITIONS. 



In=H, or iii. With = pelu, ba, 

To=si, fun. Within =m'nu. 

Into=sinu. Without = lode. 

Unto=s9d9. Above =loke. 

On = lori. Under =nisale. 

From=lati, ti. Beneath = lab^. 

By=nipa, nipase. After =1 chin. 

Against=si, 1119, ti. Among=larin. 

Around =yika. Before=niwaju, siwaju. 

Beside =leba, leti. For = ni tori, fun, de. 

Until =titi. Of=niti, ti. 
Except =bikose. 

NOTES ON THE PREPOSITIONS. 

Ti=from, involves the idea of departure from. 
Si=to, involves the idea of motion towards. 
Li, or ni=in, indicates rest in. 

A FEW VERBS ARE USED AS PREPOSITIONS. 

Fun (v. ) to give ; fun, prep., = to. 

M9 (v.) to adhere ; m$, prep., = against. 

Ba (v.) to meet; ba, prep., = with. 

(e.g. ) wi fun mi=he spoke to me. 

se ilekun 1119 wpn = he shut the door against them. 

ba wa lp = he went with us. 



.59 

NOTES ON A FEW PECULIAR PREPOSITIONS. 

Pelu=with (e.g. ) Ayp pelu inudidun li a fi se e=Joy with gladness 

it is we did it, or With joy and gladness we 

did it. 
Lpdp = with (e.g.) Qmp na wa Ipdp iya r$ = The child is with its 

mother. 
Si= against (e.g. ) Nwpn sprp si pba wpn = They spoke against their 

king. 
Ti = against (e.g. ) duio ti mi=He stood against (by) me. 

Nitori=for (e.g. ) Nitori r$ ni mo se inawo = For him I incurred the 

expense, or For his sake I spent the money. 
De = for (e.g. ) Duro de mi=Wait for me. 

DuTO de oluwa re = Wait for your master. 

NOTES ON " LI " AND " NI." 

" Li " and " ni " are used, both as verbs and prepositions. For 
the sake of euphony the consonants are interchangeable. In 
ordinary conversation both forms are used indiscriminately ; but 
it will be helpful to remember the following rule : 

" That ' li ' changes into ' ni ,' both as a verb and a preposition 
before the vowel ' i.' " 

1. (</) Emi li esin=I have a horse. 

Emi ni isu=I have some yam. 

2. wa li Qgba=He is in the garden. 
wa ni ile=He is in the house. 

The exceptions to this rule are few and may be disregarded. 

SECTION 6. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 

And=ati, on, and " si," (used only before a verb) 

(e.g. ) si lp si pja = and he went to market. 
But=sugb9n. 

If=bi, followed by ba, " bi o ba." 
Ot=tabi, 'abi. 
Still=sibe, sibesibe. 

Also ) 

[=pelupelu. 
Moreover ) 

Because = nitoriti. 
Therefore= nitorina. 



60 



Although = " bi o tileJ9pe " (a phrase), bi o ti je pe. 
That=ki, ti, pe. 
Unless ati. 
Then=nje. 



INTERJECTIONS. 



Ye ! = o pain or surprise. 

A ! = of surprise. 

W6 ! = behold. 

Kai ! = cf wonder. 

$ip ! = of ridicule. 

Dak? ! = silence. 

$pa ! = of astonishment. 

Oro ! = 

Pasidari !== 



Igi da A I its. 
Ko s$ = Wonderful. 
T6 = Satisfaction. 
Ago = Make way ! 



And many others. 



SECTION 7. 

TRANSLATION. (FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION 8.) 



1. Nko ri enik^ni 1' 9na, mo si 
pada wa ile. 

2. Bi o ti wi fun mi lana, beiii I 
mo se, sugb9n on ko gb<? rara. I 

3. Afi bi iya r^ ba de, iw9 ki 
yio 19 si ile nyin ; nitoripe 
\wa r^ ko dim m$ mi. 

4. T9 mi wa l9la, ki a le J9 89 
oran 9m9birin na ; b9ya mo 
le gba a S9d9. 

5. Tay9tay9 ni ngo 19 bi o ba 
ran mi. 

C. Liii-.i 9r9 kan, o fi is mi 
sile, nitorina ng ko ni san owo 
kan fun u. 

7. Mu iwe yi 19 fun eyibo 
(oyinbo), ki o si duro de 
idahun (or esi) 

8. Fun mi 1' as9 ib6ra kan fun 
alaisan yi ti o nki'i 19. 

9. Emi ko mo bi o de ihin, tabi 
bi ko de, si i.^ linn mo ba a ni 
ita. 

10. Bi omi ba tutu to, a tete pa 
ongbe. 



1 1. Mase reti iran^wp 

na, nitoripe on ko le ran ara 
r^ 19W9". 

12. ^sin k6 je koriko rara, o 
dabi 9nipe, o saisan. 

13. Aw9n agbalagba li o 1119 bi 
aiye ti ri, nitoripe, nw9n ti 
ngb aiye li 9dun pup9. 

14. Ni ijeJ9 nw9n ti ina b9 ile, 
nigbati awa si ri i, lojukanna, 
awa jade 19 hit i pa a. 

15. Nigbawo ni kiniun fa agutan 
na ya per^pere ? 

16. Tani yio fi ade de 9ba na 
1'ori, 9k9nrin ni, tabi obirin ? 

17. I si i. agbado, yka baba, own, 
ati ere oniruru li o jasi eso 
oko, ti o li ere 19P919P9 ninu. 

18. Nw9n wa agutan ti o nil, 
I'viia 9tun, ati 1'osi sugb9n 
nw9n k6 ri i. 

19. Mase gba 9r<;> buburu si 
enikeni gb<J, sugb9n ranti pe 
n\\ on le 89 In; si 9. 



01 



20. Ijafara li o le ba ise 

je, nitorina ma ^pra, ki o si fi 
oju si ise re. 

21. Suru yio fun wa iii is^guii 
lori ohun ti o soro se, 16t9, 
yio bori ohun gbogbo. 



22. Oni iwa tutu li o le tu enia 
ninu 1'9J9 ibanuje, 
onror6 enia ko le se e. 

23. A ko le sai 16 sum, li ede 
kik(?, nitoriti o soro ju lati 
k<;> ede miran. 



SECTION 8. 

KEY TO SECTION 7. 



1. I did not see anyone by the 
way, and I returned home. 

'2. As you told me yesterday, so 
I did, but he did not listen at 
all. 

3. Unless your mother should 
come, you will not go homa, 
because your conduct does 
not please me. 

4. Come to me to-morrow that 
we may discuss the question 
of that girl, perhaps I may 
take her. 

5. I will go joyfully if you send 
me. 

6. Without saying a word he 
left my work, therefore I will 
not pay him any money. 

1. Take this letter to (the) 
white man, and wait for an 
answer. 

8. Give me a covering cloth for 
this sick person, who is dying. 

9. I do not know if he came 
here or not, but I met him in 
the street. 

10. If water is cold enough it 
soon quenches thirst. 

11. Do not expect help from 
that child, because he is 
unable to help himself. 

12. (The) horse cannot eat any 
grass, it is as if it were sick. 

13. The aged know what the 
earth is like, because they 
have been living on it many 
years. 



14. Eight days ago, they set 
fire to (a) house, and when we 
saw it instantly we went out 
to (kill it) put it out. 

15. At what time (or when) did 
the lion tear the sheep to 
pieces ? 

16. Who will crown the king, a 
man or a woman ? 

17. Yam, corn, guinea-corn, 
cotton and beans, of many 
kinds, are the fruit of the farm 
which are very profitable. 

18. They searched for the lost 
sheep by the right road and 
left, but did not see it. 

19. Do not believe bad words 
(evil report) against anyone, 
but remember that they may 
speak so against you. 

20. Slackness may spoil much 
work, therefore, watch, and 
put your eye to your work (be 
attentive ). 

21. Patience will give us the 
victory over difficult things, 
verily, (it) will overcome all 
things. 

22. The meek-one -can comfort 
people in the "day of sorrow, 
but the fierce (austere ) person 
cannot do it. 

23. We cannot do without 
patience, in learning languages, 
because it is very difficult to 
learn another language. 



62 



PART VI. 



SECTION 1. 

EXTENDED LIST OF SIMPLE VERBS OF THE SECOND 

CLASS, WITH ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 

(KEY, SEE SECTION 2.) 

1. Gan i" sew coarsely. (Gan asp yi fun mi.) 

2. Han = to be unfruitful. (Igi orombo yi ban.) 
.'{. Han = to scream. (Ompde yi ban goro. ) 

4. Kan = to drip. (Epo ti o nru ni nkan. ) 

5. Kan devolve upon. (Qran na kan iiyin. ) 

6. Ran = to spread (as fire or disease). 

(Ina, tabi arun na kd ran). 

I to spin. ) ,, . . 

>. Ran= , r (Obirm ni nran owu, o si nran aao.) 

( to sew. ) 

8. Tin = to light or shine. (Tan fitila ni iyara mi.) 

(Osupa ni ntan imyle 1'oru. ) 

9. Tan (preceded by ba) = to be related to. (Emi k6 ba 9 tun.) 

10. Tan=to run aground. (Ok$> tan leti odd.) 

11. Yan=to choose. (Mo ti yan 9 I'^r?.) 

12. Din=to fry. (Ki o din 9g<?d<=> agbagba fun mi.) 

13. Gbin = to breath with difficulty. (Ok9nrin na ngbin, \'u > ai ku. ) 

14. Pin = to terminate. (Ko si <J>na mc^, o pin.) 

1"). Sin = to string as beads. (Qm9 ni nsin ileke.) 

Ifi. Sin = to accompany. (Mo sin alejo ti o wa ki mi.) 

17. Sin = to bury. (Nw9n sin oku r$ 1'oni. ) 

18. Yin = to lay eggs. (T6lot616 li o ym eyin mewa.) 
10. Yin = to attract. (As9 na yin mi loju. ) 

20 Gun= -{ to beat ' ( Nwon "S" 11 isu 1( ?Ja.) 

{to pierce. (Old li o gun u l'obe. ) 

21. Kun = to fill. (O to, ma fi si m<J, apo kun.) 

22. Kun = to set on fire. (Aw9n pt4 r$ kun ile r^.) 
2:5. Run = to emit an odour. (Aw9 W9nyi li o nrun.) 

24. Sun = to roast. (Ki o (ma) sun pran 1'oni. ) 

25. Sun t" accuse. (O fi mi sun niwaju pba. ) 

2(i. P^n = to carry (on the back). (lya 9019 li o p<?n '1119.) 



03 

27. Wpn = to be dear or scarce. (Isu w<j>n 1'pdun yi. ) 

28. Dun = to grieve or give pain. (Oran na dun mi pupp. ) 

29. Dun = to be sweet, or pleasing. (O dim nip mi.) 

30. Dun = to sound, (llu dun 1'ode, nwpn iiki nyin. ) 

SECTION 2. 

KEY TO ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES IN SECTION i. 

1. Sew this cloth for me. 

2. This orange tree is barren (unfruitful). 

3. This child screams loudly. 

4. The palm oil you are carrying is dripping. 

5. The question devolves upon you. 

(>. Fire, or disease (the) did not spread. 

7. The woman is spinning the cotton and sewing the cloth. 

8. Light the lamp in my room. 

The moon is shining (light) by night. 

9. I am not related to you. 

10. The ship or boat is aground in the river. 

11. I have chosen you as my friend. 

12. (That you) fry plantains for me. 

13. The man breathes with difficulty, and will die. 

14. There is no way (again), it ends. 

15. The child is stringing beads. 

16. I accompanied the stranger who came to salute me. 

17. They buried his dead (corpse) to-day. 

18. The turkey laid ten eggs. 

19. That cloth attracts my eyes. 

20. They are beating (pounding) yam in the market. 

The thief pierced (stabbed) him with a knife. 

21. It is enough, don't put more (again), the sack is full. 

22. His enemies set his house on fire. 

23. These skins smell. 

24. That you roast the meat to-day. 

25. He accused me before the king. 

26. The mother of the child carries the child (on her back). 

27. Yams are scarce this year. 

28. That question grieves me much. 

29. It pleases me (lit., sweetness knows mi). 

30. Drums sound outside, they are saluting you. 



SECTION 3. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

1. The consonant prefixes "n" and " in " are used t denote 
the present imperfect tense of the verb. 

(''.</.) e=to do; nge-=d<iini:. 

nse e Ipwp" lie is doing it. 

mbp lpna = he is coming on the road. 

2. Ti is the sign of the complete tenses : 

(e.g. ) Mo ti $e i?$ mi tan = I have done my work completely. 
Mo ti nip sib? = I have been going tlu-iv. 

3. O, and " yio " are signs of the future tense : 

(e.g. ) Nwpn yio lp = they will go. 

Awa lp = we will go. 
Euphony governs the change of form. 

4. " Ma " is almost equivalent to may. 

(e.g. ) ? ma lp = you may go. 
Ma is a negative, and emphatic " not." 

(e.g. ) 5 nia lo or ma ti lp = don't go, or don't g<> ye;. 
Mase lp = do not go. 
Ma?ai lp = don't fail to go. 
Ma is also used as an adverb " very." 

(e.g. ) Iwp ma ?eun jpjp=you are very kind indeed. 

5. Ama denotes what is customary. 

(e.g.) Qmpde ama Ip si ile ^k<J (school) childn-ii are 
acciustomed to go to school. 

6. Aba and iba imply duty or obligation. 

(e.g.) Ohun ti aba $e = things that we ought to do. 

Awa iba ti lp = we should have gone. 
" Iba " is also used for would and should. 
Proverb illustrating the use of " ama " and " iba " : 

" Ql9gb<^n ama wipe, talakA ko gb<^n ; iba ul>vn, 

iba lowo." 

" The wise man is accustomed to say, the poor an- 
not wise ; if they were wise, they would have 
money." 

7. " I " is prefixed to verbs to indicate : 

1. What is customary (e.g.) Bayi ni nwpn ir4 sothey 
usually buy. 



(Ifi 

2. " I " is used after " kd "=not ; to give emphasis : 

(e.g. ) Nwpn ko ide = they have not arrived. 

3. " I " is sometimes used for the sake of euphony 

(e.g. ) Eyi ki i?e temi = this is not mine. 

8. Tile gives emphasis to propositions, thus : 

Emi tile ri i=I have indeed seen it. 

9. Le is equivalent to the English " may," " can " and " might." 
It is placed before verbs, thus: (e.g. ) 

Mo le e e = I can do it. 
Nwpn le lp = they can go. 

It is also used with the negative participle " sai " (e.y. ) 
A ko le ?ai ma kpja nibe=We must (cannot do 
other than) pass there. 



SECTION 4. 

TENSES OF THE VERB. 

Present. 

Emi ri i 

= 1 see. Emi nti = I am seeing. 

Emi le ri ) 

- = 1 may or can see. 
Mo le ri ) 

Ki ng ri j 

Ki emi ri ^=Let me see. 

Ki emi ki o riJ 

Bi mo ba ri=If I see. 

Emi ri bi?=Do I see ? 

Awpn ri mi I 

r = They see me. 
A ri mi 

Kiawpntip | =T hatthevseethee. 

Ki a ri p 

Bi a ba ri mi=If they see me. 

Emi li a ri=Me it is they see. 

Iwp ri | 

Ki iwp ri ^=See thou. 

Iwp ma ri j 

Bi a ba ti ri mi= Though they should have seen me. (Present Perfect. ) 



06 

Post, 

Emi ti ri i 

I = 1 saw. Emi ti nn = I have been seeing. 

Mo ti n 

Emi ko ti 'ri = I have not seen. 

A ti ri mi ] 

Awpn ti li mi =They have seen me. 

Emi li a ti ri ' 

Emi til? ri = I have seen (emphatic). 



Future. 
Emi yio ri 



Emi o ri 



= 1 shall see. 



Ng o ri 

Emi yio ti ri = I shall have seen. 

Awpn yio ri mi I 

t = I hey will see me. 
A o n mi i 

Emi yio ma ri = I shall be seeing. 
Emi yio ti ma ri = I shall have been seeing. 

X.B. A full table of Verbs is not deemed necessary in a book <>f 
this kind ; but for the sake of those who wish it, see Part X . 



SECTION 5. 

NOTES ON THE VERB " FI." 

1. " Fi " when followed by "fun" fi-fun, becomes the vcrl> 
and " fun " becomes a preposition. 

(e.g. ) Fi iwe na fun mi=give that book to me. 

2. "Fi" = to put, is very common. 

(e.g. ) Mo n i sil$ = I put it down. 

Mo ft i se ppa = I put it (to) make (a) walking -i i<-k. 

3. " Fi " is used as a particle, which has no equivalent in Kniilixli. 
and follows such phrases as : 

(e.g. ) fise ti ft lo? = why did you go? 

Kini e ti o ft duroP = what made you stay ? 
Duro titi O fl d6 = wait until he comes. 

4. Then it is used as the first syllable in many compound words. 

(e.g. ) Fia?^fun = to empower. 

Fiarahan = to show oneself. 



07 

NOTES ON THE WORD " RI." 

We have seen its use as a verb, ri=to see, and ri = to drown. 
Reduplicated and following wa = to tremble, it becomes an 
adverb. 

(e.g. ) wa riri = he trembled exceedingly. 
In this form it also indicates a condition of filth. 

(e.g. ) A0 na riri = that cloth is dirty. 

But there is another use to which it is put as an adverb, 
" ri " = never before. 

(e.g. ) Awa ko ri nkan b? ri = we have not seen such a 
thing before. 

NOTES ON THE WORDS " KO " AND " KI." 

" K6 " is the simple form of the negative. 
(e.g. ) K6 si=not lives. 

Baba ko id6 = father has not arrived. 

" K6 " changes into " kp " when doubt or denial is intended. 
(e.g. ) Iwo ko e eyi? = did you not do this ? 

Emi kp = not I. 

" Ko " changes into " ki " before the vowel " i." 
(e.g. ) Ki i6 on = not him. 

Emi ki ie egb$ r$ = I am not his companion. 
" Ki " is used also as a conjunction, " that " ; " in order that." 
(e.g. ) Ki baba ki le fun mi 16wo = In order that father 

may give me money. 

Ki awa ki a le lp = In order that we may go. 
" Ki " followed by " to," ki-to = before a certain time. 

(e.g. ) Mo sun ki on to d6 = I slept before he arrived. 
" Ki " is used also as an. auxiliary verb, may or shall. 
(e.g.) Ki nlp?=shall I go ? 

NOTES ON THE WORD " BI." 

1. Its first use, other than in the form of a verb, bi = to beget, 
and so on, is in the form of a conjunction. 

Bi = as. 

(e.g. ) Bi baba ti wi, li awa yio se. 
As father said, we will do. 

2. Bi, followed by " ba," bi-ba=if. 

(e.g. ) Bi ojo ba r<j> emi ko ni Ip. 
If it rains, I shall not go. 



:t. Bi ito a,k. 

Mi, followed by lere, "bi-lere" = to ask a question. 
('.'/.) bi mi --he asked me. 
Bi aburo re lere. 
Ask your younger (brother or sister) a question. 

4. Bi, coming at the end of a sentence, indicates that a question 
is asked. 

(<'.</.) Iw9 ti tpju adie hi ': 

Have you taken care of the fowls ': 

SECTION 6. 
SALUTATIONS. 

Salutations with the prefix " oku " form a distinctive feature 
of the Yoruba language ; others begin with " odi " ; and some 
are formed by adding " nk9 " at the end of a phrase. 

The most useful of these ars given here : but. the prefix " oku 
can be used with almost any verb. The full form, the con/m< /> </ 
form in brackets, and the meaning of each salutation is here set 
forth. 

1. Oku ile ; (Ku 'le o) = At home to you. 

2. Oku di ile ; (Oku di 'le) = For a person's absence. 

'$. Oku ab$ ; (K' ab$ or K' abo)=Used for " Welcome ! " 

4. Oku atiJQ ; (K' atijp) | 

= After long absence. 
~>. Oku lailai ; 

<>. Oku irin ; (Oku 'tin O) = Walking or travelling. 

1. Oku pkg ; = On canoe, ship, train, motor, or carriage. 

8. Oku $i?e o ; (Oku '?e o) = Working. 

ft- Oku lala = Strenuous toil. 

10. Oku jokd ; = Sitting, or waiting. 

11. Oku isimi ; = Resting. 

12. Oku aj6 ; = Anxiety or solicitude. 

13. Oku daro ; = Sympathy. 

14. Oku owurp ; 6rg ; arp ; (K' ar9) = (Good) morning. 

15. Oku al$ o ; (K' al? o) ; (Good) evening. 

16. Oku 9san ; (K' asan) ; (Good) day. 

17. Oku O ;=(! am) goinp. 

18 Oku na owo ; (Oku na 'wo)^= Spending money. 

19. Oku tita ; (Oku 'ta) = Selling things. 

20. Oku alejo ; (Oku~alejo) = Visitors or strangers. 

21. Oku pf9 ; = (For those) bereaved. 

22. Oku Superior, or elder to inferior or younger. 



09 

2:5. Odi OWUTQ ; orp ; arp ; (Od' arp) Until moriiin;j;. 

'24. Odi pla ; (Od' pla) = Until to -morrow. 

2.). Odi igba kan ; (Odi 'gba kan) = Until a time. 

2<>. Odi igba miran ; (Odi 'gba mi) = Until another time, 

27. Odi abp ; (Od' abp ) = Until (you or I) come. 

2S. Odi igbose ; (Odi 'gbose) = Until another time, or good-bye. 

29. He nkQ ? = (How is your house ? ) 

30. Ompde nkp? = (How are the children?) 

X.B. This form of enquiry may be used about almost any person, 

animal or thing. 

There are yet other forms of salutations, a few of which are 
here quoted. 

31. 5 ri n wa o = To persons going for a walk. 

32. Ago le o = On entering a house. 

33. Ma wo il? ; (Ma wo 'le) = Look to the ground. 

34. ^ r 9 r * O ; = Be careful. 

3-">. P?l? o = Of sympathy or at first meeting a person. 

36. P$l$pele = Gently, gently. 

37. Ara re ko le bi ? I 

.- = Is your body not well ? 

38. Ara 'o le bi? 

39. Ara pmpde ko le bi? = Are the children not well ? 

40. K' a si nkan 'le o? = Is anything wrong at home ? 

41. K'a soro bi? = Is anything difficult? 

42. Ki sun re o. = That you sleep well. 

43. Alafia k'o wa bi?=Have you peace ? 

44. Ki ki 'le o.= (That you) salute your house. 

X.B. The name of any person may follow " ki o ki." 

SECTION 7. 

APPROPRIATE ANSWERS TO SALUTATIONS. 

Those numbered 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, may all be acknowledged by saying O ! or Ho ! 
Those numbered 4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, may all be 
answered by repetition of the salutation addressed to you. 

(e.g. ) 5. Oku lailai ! repeat, Oku lailai ! 
Be mb$ or ile wa = House is (all is well). 
Omode wa = Children are (well). 
Ago ya 0=A11 is ready (come). 
37, 38. Ara mi le, or Ara mi ko da, (or le) = I am well, or I am not 
well. 



70 
'<!'. Ara wpn le, <>r Ara wpn k6 da (or le) = They are well, or They 

are I Hit well. 

40. K6 si nkan ! Nothing wrong! 

41. K6 ?oro, or SOro di$ = Not diflicult. <r It is a little diflicult. 
4 ! or Ho ! often followed by Oluwa $$ wa Lord uateh us. 
4:*. Alafla ! = Peace! 

44. Repent the salutation. 

SECTION 8. 

TRANSLATION, YORUBA-ENGLISH. SEE KEY, 
SECTION 9. 

Bi mo ti nriii 1'pna, mo kiyeei 9k9nrin kan leba esin ati kyke. 
Eisin na nf& eru k^k^ pelu irpriin ; esin na yo, o si 1'agbara. Xwon 
ntpju r tob<j> ti o fi ye keke pba. Mo bi pkpnrin na lere, j><-. In 
tir$ li esin na je ; o si ni, " T'emi ni." O si tun wipe, " ni^bati 
mo ses^ ra a, o burujii, ki if^ sis^ rara, sugbpn emi ko ji; na a, 
enyin si ri bi o ti ri nisisiyi." 0r9 yi wii mi J9J9, mo si iif<> ki a\v9n 
timailu esin W9n, ki o 019 pe, nipa iseun a le 39 esin buburu di rere. 
^sin gbcpri ju aw9ii eran iyoku 19, nw9ii si le ranti iwa ti a hit si W9ii. 
ibase rere, tabi buburu. Pelupelu kiyesi, bi nw9n ti l'ajzl>ara to ! 
N\v9ii si nlo agbara W9ii fun isin enia, lai gba owo 19W9 oluwa wpn. 
O tp ki a se iranti esin lakoko onje tabi omi mimu nitoripe on ko 
le bere nkankan lywQ wa. Bi owe Yoruba ti mvi : " l^lesin li <> 
di eru esin," eyi ni pe l'9san 1'oru a ko le sai ma t9Ju r( % >. 

SECTION 9. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 8. 

As I was walking on the road, I noticed a man by the side of s 
horse and cart. The horse was drawing the load with ease, and the 
horse was fat, and strong. They were caring for it so well that 
it was fit for the king's carriage. I asked the man if the horse 
was his and he said : " It is mine." He also said, " when I bought 
it, it was bad, and did not want to work, but I would not flog it, 
and you see what it is like now." This word pleased me much. 
and I am wishing those who beat their horses, to know that by 
kindness we can change a bad horse into a good one. The horse is 
wiser than other animals and they can remember the way we treat 
them, whether well or ill. Also notice how strong they are ! And 
they are using their strength in the service of men, without taking 
money from their masters. It is right that we remember the 
horse at the time of eating and drinking because it cannot ask us 
for anything. As the Yoruba proverb says : " The owner of the 
horse is the horse's slave," that is by day and night he must not 
fail to care for it. 



71 



PART VII. 

SECTION 1. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

1. These verbs are formed by the addition of a noun to a verb 
(e.g. ) B$ = to request; $b$ = a request; give the com- 
pound verb b$b$ = to supplicate. 

Ba = to meet ; ^ru = fear ; give the verb b?ru = 

to fear. 
The following list contains the most useful of these verbs : 

Bade = to arrive with. 

Bile = to light upon (as a bird). 

Bal? = to touch the ground. 

Bar$ = to agree with. 

Bere = to ask a question. 

B?WO = to visit. 

Binu=to vex. 

B6ju=to veil the face. 

Bole=to thatch (a house). 

Bomi=to take or dip water. 

Bora = to cover the body. 

Bori=to cover the head. 

Bpju = to wash the face (face only). 

Bpl9 = to beat the floor (earthen floor). 

Bosi = to enter. 

Bpwa = to come. 

Bpw$=to shake hands. 

Bpw9=to honour. 

Bula = to dilute. 

Bul?=to patch. 

Bupa = to vaccinate. 

Busi=to add to. 

Bue = to be nearly finished. 

Buyin = to give praise to. 

Daba = to suppose, to propose a motion. 

Dagba=to grow. 



72 



Dahun to answer. 
Dajp = to judge. 
Dako to make a farm. 
Daku=to faint. 

to make a fire. 

to mix. 
Dari = to turn or steer. 
Dar6 = to think or sympathise. 
Da wo = to contribute money. 
Daw$ = to stay the hand. 
Dena = to block the way. 
D$ru=to tie a load (or pack). 
D$ru = to scare. 

Dija = to quarrel, (or cause a quarrel). 
Diju=to shut the eyes. 

Dip6 = to succeed, (or become a substitute). 
Domi=to become watery. 
Dopin = to come to an end. 
Dup$ = to give thanks. 
Duro = to stand still. 
Fagi = to plane wood. 
Fan = to shave the head. 
F$ju = to be blind. 

o break into a house. 
= to wash clothes (clothes or vessels). 
Gbaw$ = to fast. 
Gbe? t" incur guilt. 
Obina=to catch fire. 
Gb^ro = to reckon or consider. 
Hun$Q, or wun?Q = to weave cloth. 
Jagun = to fight (as in battle). 
Jaiya=to be startled. 
J^ = to deliver a message. 
Jlya=to suffer. 
J6na=to burn. 
Jpba = to reign. 
Kaw6 = to read. 
Kede = to proclaim. 
KOI in = to sing. 
Ladi = to explain. 
Laja = to settle a dispute. 



Lala = to dream. 

Lana = to make a road. 

Loyun = to conceive. 

Lul$ = to strike the ground. 

Mpju = to be tame (lit. to know the face 1119 and oju). 

Mple or kple=to build a house. 

Pag$ = to pitch or erect a tent. 

Pania=to murder. 

Pa$? = to command. 

P6jp = to assemble. 

P?ja = to fish (lit. to kill fish). 

P6we = to speak a proverb. 

Ran?$ = to send on an errand. 

Ranti = to remember. 

R?le=to plaster a house. 

Riran = to see a vision. 

Rpbi = to travail. 

Rpjo = to rain. 

Rufm = to break the law. 

Rulu = to stir up the town. 

San wo = to pay money. 

Sar6 or sur6=to run. 

Sinku = to bury the dead. 

miss the way. 

work (from e = to do ; if=work). 

be friendly. 

rebel. 

print. 

1 break up the ground. 
Wadi = to search out the cause. 

to wash the hands. 
> = to put on clothes. 
Wple = to enter a house. 

Yanu = to wonder at(from ya = to open ; $nu = mouth ). 
Y$na = to clear a path of weeds. 
Ypju = to show the face. 



74 

SECTION 2. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

2. A second class is formed by the union of a verb, and a noun. 
o preposition being inserted between them 

(e.g. ) Bilere=to question, from bi = to ask; 

li = in regard to ; gre = a question. 
Dalebi = to condemn, from da=-to make : 

li = in regard to ; ebi = guilt. 
Kpsile = to forsake, from kp = to refuse; 

si = on ; ile = ground (lit. ) to leave on the ground. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

3. A third class is formed by the union of a verb, a noun, and 
a second verb 

(e.g.) Maraduio to endure, from mil = to cause; ara 

body; duro (compound verb) = to stand (lit.) to 
maintain one's position. 
Mutiy6 = to be drunk, from mu = to drink ; pti^ 

liquor ; yo = to be fu]l = to be full of liquor. 
Daraya = to be lively, from da = to make ; ara=the 

body ; ya= lively. 

N.B. It is not necessary to multiply instances, but the study of 
derivation will prove both fascinating and profitable. 

SECTION 3. 

THE COMPOUND VERBS. (FOR CORRECTION OF 
SENTENCES IN THIS LESSON SEE SECTION 4.) 

4. The objects of the fourth class of compound verbs are placed 
in the middle of the word 

(e.g.) Mu-wa=(W<.) take bring. 
Mu owo wa= bring money. 

1. Ba-j$ = to spoil. (O ba. 9019 mi j$. ) 

2. Ba-l$rtl = to startle. (O ba. esin mi leru.) 

3. Ba-lp = to accompany. (O bd $r^ mi 19.) 

4. Ba-rin = to walk with. (Wd ba mi rm 19 sode. ) 



75 



5. B$-w6 = to visit. (Awpn <;>r^ nyin b$ nyin. wo.) 

'). Da-lohun = to answer. (0*1119! da mi lohun. ) 

7. Da-nil = to throw away. (Wa, da omi nu. ) 

8. Da-sil$ = to release, (Ol9pa, da onde sil^. ) 

9. Da-Sil$ = to spill. (O da wara sil?.) 

10. Di-mu = to hold. (Di i mu sinsin.) 

11. Gba-l<j>WQ = t o rescue. (O gba 91119 kekero l^wcj) r^. ) 

12. Gba-gb$ = to believe. (Mo gba Qlprun Olodumare gb<J. ) 

13. Gbe-kuro = to take from. (Gbe okuta kuro loju pna. ) 

14. Le-kuro = to drive away. (Le aw9n agutan kuro !<;>gba. ) 

15. Mu-binu = to provoke. (Mase mu baba binu. ) 

16. Nu-kuro = to wipe off. (Nil eri 9W9 r^ kuro.) 

17. Pa-m<J = to keep. (Pa enu re m9 kuro ninu ibi. ) 

18. Pa-da ) /Pa iwa re da. \ 

y =to change. I , T . 

19. Yi-pada) \Yi ara r9 pada. ' 

20. Ra-pada = to buy back. (Mo ra 9ru kan pada.) 

21. R$-sil$ = to humiliate. (R9 ara r^ sil9 niwaju Qlprun. ) 

22. T$-bomi = to immerse. (L9 tq 9ran bomi. ) 

23. T$-mpl$ = to trample upon. (Ma t^ mi m9l9 li atel^s? r9. ) 

24. T^-l$hin = to follow. (Aja ama t9 oluwa r9 l^hin. ) 

25. Tu-sil^ = to set free. (IjJl^in, 19, tii 93111 sil^. ) 

26. Ya-kur6 = to separate. (Ya 91119 ^raii kuro l9d9 iya r^. ) 
N.B. The examples given of the use of these verbs will assist in 

composition and translation. 



SECTION 4. 

KEY TO SECTION 3. 



1. He spoilt my child. 

2. It startled my horse. 



11. He rescued (the) little 
child from him. 



. He accompanied my friend. I 12 - : believe in God Almighty. 

4. Come, walk out with me. ! 13 - Take stone awa y from the 

5. Your friends visited you. 

14. Drive away (the) sheep 



(i. Child answer me. 



from (the) garden. 



7. Come throw away (the) 15 Do not prov oke father. 

water - ! 16. Wipe the dirt from your 

8. Constable, release (the) 



prisoner. 17 K th mout h from evil. 

9. He spilt (the) milk. 



10. Hold it firmly. 



18. Change thy conduct. 



70 



19. Turn your body round. 

20. I redeemed a slave. 

21. Humble your body (self) 
before God. 

_:.'. < !<> immerse the animal. 
23. Do not trample me under 
your feet. 



24. (The) dog follows IIH mii>t-r. 

25. Horseman ! go, s,-t Un- 
horse free. 

26. Separate (the) youM- animal 
from its mother. 



SECTION 5. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

."). A fifth class is formed by the union of two vt-rlis, lu-tween 
which the object is placed, and the second verb is followed by ;i 
noun which becomes part of the new verb 

(e.g. ) ft mi e $l$ya=ne ridicules me, from o = he ; fl = 
makes; mi = me ; $e = to be; eleya (noun with 
possessive prefix ) . 

6. A sixth class is formed in the following order of words : 
a verb ; a second verb ; a noun ; another verb, and lastly a noun 

(e.g.) egbedegbeyp = to interpret, from $e = to do ; gb$ = 
to hear ; fede = language ; gb<J = to hear ; $yp = 
a turning over. 

7. A seventh class is formed by the union of a verb ; a noun ; 
and a compound verb separated into two parts by its object 

(e.g. ) Ronupiwada = to repent, from tO = to think; inu = 
mind; pa-da = to change; iwa = conduct. 

8. An eighth class is formed by adding a noun to each part of 
a compound verb 

(f,.g.) Foiibal0 = to worship, from fl = to put; ori = head ; 
ba = to meet ; il$ = ground . 

9. A ninth class is formed by a simple verb, followed by a noun, 
to which a preposition and another noun are added 

(e.g. ) Daniloju = to be certain, from da = to flash; $ni = 
a person; li = in ; OJU = eye (lit. ) to flash in the 
eye. 

X.B. These instances will suffice to show how words are built up, 
and afford material help in arriving at the meanings of 
words. 



77 



SECTION 6. 

EXTENDED LIST OF COMPOUND VERBS AND 

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES. 
(FOR CORRECTION SEE SECTION 7.) 

1. Ba-dar6 = to sympathise. (Mo ba nyin daro. ) 

-. Ba-gbe = to abide. (Wa, ba mi gbe, ale fere 19 tan.) 

3. Ba-ja = to fight with. (Nwpn ba ara W9n ja. ) 

4. Ba-l6 = to advise. (Tal'o ba 9 ro 9ran na. ) 

5. Ba-Sprp = to speak with. (Mo f^ ba alufa 8919.) 
t>. Ba-wi=to rebuke. (Mase ba 91119 re wi tobiji. ) 

7. Ba-wijp = to judge. (Ql9run yio ba gbogbo aiye wiJ9- ) 

8. Ba-yQ = to rejoice with. (Ba mi y<|>, mo ri 91119 mi.) 

9. B$-lori = to behead. (Iw9 b^ ewure lori. ) 

10. B6-mQle = to cover up. (Nw9n bo oku m9le. ) 

11. Bu-je = to bite. (Aja r$ li o bu 91119 mi je.) 

12. Da-lebi = to condemn. (A da 9k9iirin lebi.) 

13. Dd-loju = to be sure. (Ohun na da mi loju. ) 

14. Dd-loro = to torture. (Mase da enikeni loro. ) 

15. D&-lamu = to upset. (Ihin na da mi lamu. ) 

16. D&-S9 = to mention. (O da 9r9 na so-) 

17. De-lade = to crown. (Nw9n de ak^bi r^ lade.) 

18. De-lewpn to chain. (A de aw9n old Iew9n.) 

19. D^-lara = to soothe. (O d$ mi lara. ) 

20. Fa-gun = to spin out. (Mase fa ^9 re gun.) 

21. Fi-han = to show. (J(j>, fi 9na 9Ja han mi.) 

22. Fi-sil$ = to put down. (Fi em re feile l9d9 mi.) 

23. Gbe-kal? = to set down. (Emi k6 f^ gbe agb^n mi kale.) 

24. Gbe-dide = to raise up. (Ol9run yio gbe enikan dide. ) 

25. Je-niya=to punish. (O je 9ni9 buburu niya. ) 

20. K<Jl-sile = to forsake. (Je ki enia buburu kip <)na r^ sile. ) 

27. La-ja = to pass through. (Nw9n la odo ja.) 

28. Le-lp = to drive off. (Le eran 19 kiakia. ) 

29. Ni-lata = to annoy. (Qran na, ni mi lara.) 

30. Pe-lejp = to summons. (Ngo pe 9k9nrin na leJ9. ) 

31. Ran-lpw^ = to help. (Qr^ mi li o ran mi l9w9". ) 

32. R6-k9Ja=to pass over. (Emi yio re nyin k9Ja. ) 

33. Sp-di = to become. (O 39 wa di 91119 r$. ) 

34. T$-bomi = to immerse. (A t$ Jesu b9mi 1'oclo Jordan.) 
3;i. T^-lprun = to satisfy. (Oiije na t mi Iprun. ) 



78 

SECTION 7. 
KEY TO ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES IN SECTION 6. 

1. I sympathise with you. 

2. Come, abide with me, the evening is almost spent. 

3. They fought amongst themselves. 

4. Who advised you in that matter. 
;">. I want to speak with the minister. 

I. Do not rebuke your child so much. 

7. (Jod will judge all the world. 

8. Rejoice with me, I have found my child. 

9. You beheaded a goat. 

10. They covered up the dead (body). 

1 1 . His dog bit my child. 

12. The man was condemned. 

13. Of that thing I am certain. 

14. Do not torture anyone. 

15. The news upset me. 

16. He mentioned that word. 

1 7. They crowned his firstborn. 

18. The thieves were chained. 

19. It soothes me. 

20. Do not lengthen out your words (speech). 

21. Please, show me the way to the market. 

22. Leave your load with me. 

23. I do not want to set my basket down. 

24. God will raise someone up. 

25. He punished the naughty child. 

26. Let the wicked man forsake his way. 

27. They crossed (or passed through) the river. 

28. Drive off the animal quickly. 

29. That question annoys me. 

30. I will summon that man. 

31. My friend helped (or helps) me. 

32. I will pass over you. 

33. He made us (to become) his children. 

34. Jesus was baptized in the river Jordan. 

35. That food satisfies me. 

SECTION 8. 

TRANSLATION, YORUBA-ENGLISH. KEY, SECTION 9. 
LAB AL ABA. 

Iyin kekcre kan ti k6 ju ori (pin) lo, li o ndi labalaba. Nighati 
eyin yi ba f6, kokoro kekere kan ama jade nibe. Bi kokoro no. ti 
kere to, o l^se merindilogun, o si 16 ju mejila. O nfi ese wonyi 



79 

rin, o si nfi oju wpnyi riran. Lojukanna ti o jade ninu eyin o b^re 
si j 9un ; igbagbogbo ni ima fi j euii, nitorina o tete dagba. Ewekewe 
li o nje fuu on.J9 r$. Awp r^ ko si dagba bi ara r$, a si ma b<p awy 
r bi ejo ti ma b<j> awp tir$. Nigbati o ba se e, o b$re si ta okun bi 
olowu yi ara r$ ka, ati ninu okun yi, a yi ara r$ pada patapata. A 
di I;>9r9ku, ko si li ori, ko si li 939, sugboii a dabi oku. Lakoko diq 
si, a b9 of9 ikehin, a si mura jade bi labalaba. Nigbana ama hu 
apa k9l9k9l9, a si ma b^r9 si f6 soke, a si ma ba sori itana kiri lati 
ma mu oyin r$. Bi owe Yoruba kail ti wipe : " Tinu, tehin, ni 
labalaba fi ifi iyin fun Qlprun." 



SECTION 9. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 8. 
THE BUTTERFLY. 

A small egg not larger than a pin's head becomes a butterfly. 
When the egg breaks a small grub comes out thence. As small as 
the grub is, it has sixteen feet and twelve eyes. It walks with these 
feet and sees with these eyes. At once when it comes out from the 
egg it begins to eat, it is always eating therefore it soon grows. 
Any kind of leaf it eats as food. Its skin does not grow as its body, 
and it sheds its skin as the snake sheds its skin. In time it begins 
to spin cotton round its body like a spinner, and in this cotton 
it changes altogether its form. It soon becomes dead, and 
has no head, and no feet, but is as if dead. In a little time it sheds 
its skin for the last time, and prepares to come out as a butterfly. 
Then it grows wings gently, and begins to fly up and settle on the 
flowers round about to gather their honey. As the Yoruba proverb 
says : " Within, without, the butterfly gives praise to God." 



80 



PART VIII. 

NOUNS. 
SECTION 1. 

NOUNS FORMED BY VOWEL PREFIXES ATTACHED 
TO A ROOT VERB. 

(e.g. ) K6=to cut. Ake^an axe. 

Bfi = to abuse. fibu= abuse. 

Mi = to breathe. E;mi- spirit. 

Wa = to be. lwa= existence. 

J6 = to drip. C)jo=rain. 

D$ = to hunt. Qd? = a hunter. 

Ba=to meet. Iba = a meeting. 

Gb6 = to perish. Egb6 = perdition. 

F$ = to find fault. ES $ = fault-finding. 

i = to open. L?inu = an opening. 

Ro = to cause pain. Or6 = pain. 

R6 = to narrate. 0rp==word. 

*^ = to work. !?? = work. 

*ise is the present form of the verb. 

By adding different vowels to the same root different words are 
formed 

(e.g.) W6 = to fold. 
Ew6=leaf. 
Iwe = book. 
Owe = a proverb. 

SECTION 2. 

NOUNS FORMED BY SYLLABIC PREFIXES. 

1. Aba = prefix 

Abata, from ti = to sell=a market place (lit. \vc 

meet to sell). 
Alabapade, from pade = to meet = a chance occurrence. 



81 

2. Abi 

(e.g. ) Abil(?k9=from li=to have; pkp=husband. (A 

married woman.) 

Abiy?=from iy$= feathers. (A feathered creature.) 
Abiwo = from iwo = a horn. (A horned animal.) 

3. Abu 

(e.g. ) Abum$=from mQ* = against. (An exaggeration.) 
AbuSQ = frorn sp = to speak. (A falsehood.) 
Abul6=from ile= house. (A farm village.) 
N.B. The idea of adding to is conveyed by the prefix : 

4. Ada 

(e.g. ) Adaniduro=from 9ni= a person, and duro=to stand 

still. (A detainer.) 

Adalu = from lu = to mix. (Adulteration.) 
Adap9 = from po=to mingle with. (Union, or 

fellowship. ) 

5. An 

(e.g.) Aipnahan=from pna=way, ban = to shew. (A 
guide.) 

6. Ibu 

<e.g.) Ibujoko = from joko = to sit. (A resting place.) 
Ibugb6 = from gbe = to live. (A habitation.) 
Ibuj? = from J9 = to eat. (An eating place.) 
Ibusp = from sp = to set (a load) down. (A resting 
place for carriers.) 

7. On, prefixed to words which have " d," or " gb " as 
consonants 

(e.g. ) Onde = from de = to bind or shackle. (Prisoner.) 
Ongb9=from gb? = to thirst. (Thirst or dryness. ) 

SECTION 3. 

To give an example of the changes that may be made in the form 
of a word and to stimulate further study in this connection, take 
the verbs 9$ = to sin or offend ; and ri = to see. 
(a) $=to sin. 
$? = sin. 

= to have sin. 
= sinner. 

= the act of having sin. 
= without sin. 
= freedom from sin. 

one who is without sin. 



82 

(6) Ri t<> see. 
Ill = seeing. 
Ari = one who sees. 
Atiri = to be seen (a seeing). 
Biri = a being seen. 
Airi = unseen. 

Lairl=not having the sight (unseen). 
Atimari = continued seeing. 

SECTION 4. 

PREFIXES DENOTING OWNERSHIP, OR POSSESSION. 

Nouns beginning with a, e, e, i, o, 9 and u, are changed into 
nouns denoting ownership or possession by the use of distinctive 
prefixes. 

These prefixes are formed to correspond with the initial vowel 
of the word. One of the two vowels is silent and the contracted 
form of the noun is given in brackets in the following examples : 

1. Prefix " ala " = one who has. 

Ala-abo ; from abd = defence (Alabd) = Defender. 

Ala-ad e ; from ade= crowned (Alade) = Crowned one. 

Ala-adi? ; from adi$=fowl (Aladi$) = Poulterer. 

Ala-aga ; from aga = chair (Alaga) = Chairman. 

Ala-agbara ; from agbara= strength (Alagbara) = Strong one. 

2. Prefix " ele " = one who has. 

Ele-elubp ; from elub9 = yam flour (Elelubp) = Yam flour seller. 
Ele-er6 ; from erfc = profit (Elere) = One who makes profit. 
Ele-epo ; from epO = palm oil (E3epo) = Palm oil vendor. 
Ele-6s6 ; from eso = fruit ( El ??6) = Possessing fruit. 
Ele-e?u : from e$u = demon (B3e?il) = Demoniac. 

3. Prefix " $1$ "=one who has. 

Ele-^ja ; from ^ja=fish (5l9Ja) = Fishmonger. 

; from 9mi= spirit (51^mi) = A living thing. 
$?in ; from 95in = horse (51^in) = Horseman, or owner of horse. 
$mu ; from ^mu = palm wine (51^mu) = Palm wine seller, 
^ran ; from ^ran=meat (^l9ran) = Meat seller. 
?rp ; from 9rp= machinery (51$rp) = Engineer. 
?9^ ; from $$$ = sin (5199^) = Sinner. 
9WQU ; from ewpn= shackle (El9W9n) = Prisoner. 



83 

4. Prefix " oni " = one who has. 

Oni dundu ; from dundu = fried yam = Seller of fried yam. 

Oni igbagbp" ; from igbagbp" = faith (Onigbagb$)= Believer. 

Oni bata ; from bata = shoe = Owner, or maker of shoes. 

Oni bode ; from bode = customs = Customs official. 

Oni idajp ; from idajp = judgment (OnidaJQ)= Judge. 

Oni ile ; from ile= house (Onile) = Householder. 

Oni ilu ; from ilu = drum (Onilu) = Drummer. 

Oni iyp ; from iyp = salt (Oniyp) = Salt dealer. 

Oni iu ; from iu = yam (Oni?u)=Yam seller. 

Oni suru ; from suru = patience = Patient one. 

Oni i?ona ; from iona = craft or trade (Oni?pna) = Craftsman. 

5. Prefix "olo" = one who has. 

Olo obi ; from obi = kola (01obi) = Kola nut dealer. 

Olo obirin ; from obirin = woman (Olobirin) = A married man. 

Olo ohun ; from ohun = thing (Olohun) = Owner. 

Olo omi ; from omi= water (Olomi) = Water seller. 

Olo orin ; from orin=song (Olorin) = Singer. 

Olo Otitp ; from otitp = truth (016tp)= Truthful one. 

Olo OWO ; from owo = money (01owo) = A rich person. 

Olo oye ; from oye = understanding (01oye) = A wise person. 

6. Prefix "olo" = one who has. 

Olp pb^ ; from pb$ = soup (01^b$) = Soup maker. 

Qlp pbp ; from pbp = monkey (Qlpbp) = Owner of monkey. 

Qlp pgba ; from pgba = garden (Qlpgba) = Owner of garden, or 

gardener. 

Olp pkp ; from pkp = ship (Olpkp) = Shipowner. 
Qlp pmp ; from pmp = child (Qlpmp) = One having child. 
Qlp ppa : from ppa = staff (Qlppa) = Staff bearer or constable. 
Qlp ppe ; from pp$ = palm tree (QlJp^) = Owner of palm trees. 
Qlp prp ; from prp = wealth (Ql^rp) = Weal thy person. 
Qlp prun ; from prun = heaven (Qlp"run) = God. 

7. Prefix " olu "=one who has, (the power to do, etc.) 

Olu ibukun ; from ibukun= blessing (Olubukun)= Blessed one. 
Olu if 9 ; from if $ = love (Oluf$) = Beloved. 
Olu igbala ; from igbala= salvation (Olugbala) = Saviour. 
Olu igbagbp ; same as Onigbagbp (both forms are used). 
Olu ikp*ni ; from ik$ni = teaching (01uk(Jni) = Teacher. 



M 



Old ipil$$$ ; from ipil^^ = beginning (Olupil^) = Author, or 

beginner. 

Olu iranlpwg" ; from iranlpwp" -help (Oluranlpw^) = Helper. 
Olu irapada ; from irapada = redemption (Olurapada)= Redeemer. 
Old itunu ; from itunu = comfort (Olutunu)= Comforter. 



SECTION 5. 

THE NEGATIVE PREFIX " AI." 

1. " Ai " is attached to verbs to form nouns of a negative 
meaning and its use is so common that we give a few examples 

Aim<j, from m$=to be clean =Uncleanness. 

Ainip, from m$ = to know = Ignorance. 

Aidara, from dara=to be good = Unpleasantness. 

Aidele, from d6 = to arrive =Non -arrival. 

Aidpgba, from dpgba=to be equal = Inequality. 

Aidim, from dim = to be sweet = Sourness. 

Aif, from f$ = to will = Unwillingness. 

Aifp", from f$=to break = Unbrokenness. 

Aijiya, from jiya = to suffer = Impunity. 

Aikii, from kfi=to die = Deathlessness. 

Ailera, from le=to be strong = 111 -health. 

Ainireti, from reti=to hope = Hopelessness. 

Airi, from ri = to see = Invisibility. 

Aie, from ^e=to do = Inaction. 

Aitp, from t^=to be straight = Crookedness. 

Aiw$, from w$=to wash = Unwashed. 

2. The negative prefix " alai " denoting non-possession. 

from b$ru=to fear=a fearless person. 
^, from gbagb$=to believe = an unbeliever. 
Alaim$, from m^ = to be clean = an unclean person. 
Alailprnp, from li=to have ; pmp=child = a childless person. 
Alaileri, from li=to have ; Sri=filth=a spotless person. 
Alaigbede, from gb^ = to hear : ede= language = an illiterate person. 
Alailobirin, from li=to have ; obirin = woman = a bachelor. 
Alai more, from or e= goodness ; m^=to know = an ungrateful 

person. 

Alainibaba, from ni = to have ; baba=father=an orphan. 
AlaigdtQ, from se = to do ; otitp = truth=an unfaithful person. 



85 

3. The prefix " ai " is also used in the construction of words 
having an affirmative sense 

(e.g. ) ijlemele, from $e = to do; im$l$ = indolence = to be 

indolent. 

Ai?emel$ = without indolence (i.e.) industrious. 
iyemej!,' from e=to do; iye=mind ; meji=two= 
. to be of two minds (i.e.) in doubt. 

Aiiyemeji = without doubt (i.e.) certainty. 

SECTION 6. 

NOUNS FORMED BY REDUPLICATION. 



1 (e-9-) PeJap?ja = Fisherman. 

From pa = to kill ; $ja = fish. 

Jagunj agun = Warrior. 

From ja = to fight ; ogun = war. 

2. (e-<7-) Riri=A thing seen. 

From ri = to see. 
Jija=A fight. 
From ja = to fight. 
Lilp = A going. 
From lp=to go. 
Rira = Something buyable. 
From ra = to buy. 

N.B. For euphony's sake the first vowel is changed into " i " in 
lilp ; jija ; and rira. 

3. The words de, iyi, ki or li are inserted in the reduplicated 
word 

(e.g. ) Iran-de-iran (Irandiran) = From generation to 

generation. 

From Iran = a generation. 
Qw$-de-pw<J (Qwp'dpwp' ) = Tradition. 
From pw^ = hand. 

Ekuru-iyi = ekuru (Ekuruyekuru) = This very dust. 
From ekuru = dust. 

Eran-ki-^ran (Erank?ran)=Any animal. 
From ^r an = animal . 
Eni-ki-?ni (Enik?ni)=Any one. 
From ^ni = person. 
Qmp-li-pmp (Qmplpmp) = The child of the child 

owner. 
From pmp= child. 



86 
SECTION 7. 

NOUNS FORMED BY COMPOSITION. 

1- (e.g. ) Iyemeji=Two minds (doubt). 

From iye = mind; meji = two. 
?nikeji= Partner. 
From $ni= person ; keji= second. 

2. (e.g. ) Iyp-oyinbo = Sugar (lit. ) white man's salt. 

From iyp = salt ; oyinbo = white man. 
Erin-omi= Hippopotamus (lit. ) water elephant. 
From erin = elephant ; omi = water. 

3. (e.g. ) Asptan = A complete speech. 

From a = prefix ; SQ = to speak; tan = to finish. 

Agb6soke=A lifting up. 

From a = prefix ; gW = to lift ; soke ui.. 

4. (e.g.) Iyalero= Hostess. 

From iya= mother ; ile = house ; ero = traveller. 
Afpnrugbin = A sower. 

From a = prefix ; fpn = to scatter: iru = seed ; 
gbin = to plant. 

SECTION 8. 

VOCABULARY OF COMPOUND NOUNS. 

Abaniku-pr=a faithful friend, (lit. one who dies with us). 

Abdni?e a co-worker. 

Ab^nilori=an executioner, (lit. one who cuts off the head). 

Abiamp=a young mother, (a respectful mode of addressing a mother). 

Abojuto = superintendence. 

Abpii$a = an idolator. 

Adampran a counsellor, from mp = to know; pran = question. 

Ad&nilekun <>nr who prohibits, from da-l?kun t" forbid. 

Adurotini = one who stands by (i.e. ) a supporter. 

Ai^spna fiancee (applied to early betrothals). 

Agbagba= elders (applied to the older men of a community). 

Agbawi= advocacy, (lit. to take and speak for). 



87 

Agbowode = a tax collector, from gba = to receive ; OWO = money ; 

ode = outside. 
Aj umpe = co-operation. 

Akp"bi = first-born, from kp"= first ; bi = to beget. 
Atinabple = an incendiary (lit. put fire to house). 
Atun$e = renovation (lit. to do again). 
Ay anf= beloved, from yan = to choose : f^ = to love. 
Ayidayida = changeableness. 
B$ruk(?ru=any kind of fear. 
firekere = any kind of image. 
Ewekewe=any kind of leaf. 
Fonif 6ni = neatness . 
Ibawi = reproof. 
Ib6mpl$= concealment, from b6=to cover; nip" = against ; il? = 

ground. 

Ibpsarin = mediation, from bp = to come ; arin = between. 
Ifanimpra = sociableness, from fa = to draw; rap" = against ; ara = 

body. 

Kenukonu=akiss, from fl=to put ; nu=mouth; konu = on mouth. 
Ifojukoju = face to face (i.e. in the presence of). 
If 9W(JSQW(J = agreement (lit. to put hand to hand). 
Igb?k$le = trust, from gbe = to be; k$ = trust ; le = upon. 
I J0gun = inheritance, from j = to have ; ogun = possessions. 
Ikasil9ru.n= responsibility (lit. to place on the neck). 
Imunibinu= provocation, from mu=to cause ; ibinu = anger. 
IranlpwQ" = assistance, from ran = to send ; pw$ = hand. 
lrobinuje= anguish, from lro= thought; ba-je = to spoil; inu= 

mind. 
Jronupiwada = repentance, from lro = thought ; pada = to turn ; 

inu = mind : iwa = conduct. 

lspdQino = adoption, from sp-di = to become ; omp = child. 
any kind of work. 

= satisfaction, from t$ = to press ; prun = neck. 
= acceptance, from t$ = to press ; pw^ = hand ; gba = 

to receive. 

= purification, from w$ = to wash; inu=mind ; m^ = 

clean. 

Jabajabd= jerked beef. 

Jadunjadun = an epicurean, from j^ = to eat ; adfln = savoury food. 
Janijani = whitlow. 
J?dijedi= piles. 
Kanakana .1 crow. 



38 



Kantikanti * knat. 

Labalaba -a butterfly. 

Mutimuti ii drunkard, from mu-to drink; pti= liquor. 

Ranwuranwu a spinner, from ran = to spin ; owu = cotton. 

N.B. These examples will stimulate interest in studying the 
derivation of words. 



SECTION 9. 

SENTENCES FOR TRANSLATION. (KEY, SEE 
SECTION 10.) 

1. O si mi emi lye si ih6 imu r$ ; enia si di alaye okan. 

2. Leses^ li a fi S9kal9 si egbe. 

3. Li 9run apadi li o gb6 oju r$ soke, o mb^ ninu 139 or6. 

4. Wasu (fry na ; ma se aisimi li akok6, ati laise akok6. 

5. Oniruru abiy^ li o wa ni igbo. 

6. Nw9n to enia m(=>dogb9n li abu!6 wa. 

7. Qk9nrin na k6 se, adaniduro li on. 

8. Qk9nrin na seun, o se af9nahan lai bere. 

9. Lab 9 ojiji igi W9nyi li a ri ibujoko daradara. 

10. Nitori ibi 6kunkun aiye W9nni li o kun fun ibugbe Ika. 

11. O na J" 181 ^ li ibus9 meji sibi. 

12. ^s^ 9niti nw9n fi S9k9S9k9 pa lara ; a de e ninu irin. 

13. Bi 9rimgb9 ba ngb9 9nik9ni, 9 J9 ki o wa S9d9 mi, ki o w4 mu. 

14. Alaliu li Ol9run, on yio si dabobo wa. 

15. Qm9 alade li o pp li Qy9- 

16. Aladi? nta adio li 9Ja li ale. 

17. Igi eles6 li a fi aye fun l9gba. 

18. Jjll^niu bura pe, on k& bu omi la ^mu r$. 

19. Aw9n onibode k6 ni nkankan ise m9. 

20. Olomi nta omi, bi 9nipe on na li o da a. 

21. Ql9gba ko le sai ma J9 eso 9gba r$. 

22. Ki a ma w6 Jesu ti ise olupilese, ati olupari igbagb^ wa. 

23. Abraham k6 siyemeji si ileri Ol9run. 

24. Lati aiyeraiye si aiyeraiye Iw9 j^ Q^run. 

25. Af9nrugbin kan (li o) jade 19 fonrugbin. 



89 



SECTION 10. 

KEY TO SENTENCES IN SECTION 9. 

1. And He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man 
became a living soul. 

2. Step by step we descend to perdition. 

3. In hell he lifted up his eyes, being in pain. 

4. Preach the word ; 1)3 not restful in season, and out of season. 

5. All kinds of feathered creatures are in (the) forest. 

6. The people are about twenty-five at our village. 

7. That man is not good, a hinderer (he is). 

8. That man (was) kind, he became our guide without (our) 
asking (him). 

9. Under (the) shade of these trees, we found a good resting place. 

10. For the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of 
cruelty. 

11. (The) way is as far as two resting places from here. 

12. Whose feet they hurt with fetters ; he was bound in iron. 

13. If anyone thirst let him come unto me, and drink. 

14. God is our defender, and He will defend us. 

15. (The) children of the crown (princes) are many in Oy?. 

16. (The) poulterer is selling fowls in the market in the evening. 

17. We give space to a fruit bearing tree in the garden. 

18. (The) palm wine seller swears that he does not dilute his wine. 

19. The customs officials (Yoruba) have nothing to do now. 

20. (The) water seller is selling water as if he himself made it. 

21. (The) gardener cannot do other than eat (the) fruit of his 
garden. 

22. That we look to Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith. 

23. Abraham wavered not at (the) promise of God. 

24. From everlasting to everlasting Thou art God. 

25. A sower went forth to sow. 



'.'II 



PART IX. 



MISCELL ANEOUS. 
SECTION 1. 

NUMERALS. 



1 


Eni, (9kan). 


33 


Etalol9gb9n. 




2 


Eji. 


34 


Erinlel9gb9n. 




3 


Eta. 


35 


Arundilogoji (5 less 


40). 


4 


Irin. 


36 


Erindilogiji. 




5 


Arun. 


37 


Etadilogoji. 




6 


Efa. 


38 


Ejidilogoji. 




7 


Eje. 


39 


Qkandilogoji. 




8 


1,\!','. 


40 


Ogoji. 




9 


Isan. 


41 


Qkenlelogoji (1 plus 


40). 


10 


Iwa. 


42 


Ejilelogoji. 




11 


Qkanla. 


43 


Etalelogoji. 




12 


Ejila. 


44 


Erinlelogoji. 




13 


Etala. 


45 


Arundilad9ta (5 less 


60). 


14 


IjJrinla. 


46 


Erindilad9ta. 




15 


ipdogun (5 less 20). 


47 


]^tadilad9ta. 




16 


Erindilogun. 


48 


Ejidilad9ta. 




17 


l^tadilogun. 


49 


Qkandilad9ta. 




18 


Ejidilogun. 


50 


Ad9ta. 




19 


Qkandilogun. 


60 


Qg9ta. 




20 


Ogun or Oko. 


70 


Ad9rin. 




21 


Qkanlelogun (1 plus 20). 


80 


Qg9rin. 




22 


Ejilelogun. 


90 


Ad9run. 




23 


Etalelogun. 


100 


Qg9run. 




24 


Erinlelogun. 


110 


Ac^ofa. 




25 


Ij:d9gb9n (5 less 30). 


120 


Qg9fa. 





26 


Erindil9gb9n. 


130 


Adoje. 




27 


Etadil9gb9ii. 


140 


Ogoje. 




28 


Ejidil9gb9n. 


150 


Ad9J9- 




29 


9kandil9gb9n. 


160 


Qg9J9. 




30 


Qgtyn. 


170 


Ad9san. 




31 


Qkanlel9gb9n (1 plus 30). 


180 


Qg9san. 




32 


Eiilel9gb9n. 









91 



CHANGE OF PROCESS. 



181 Qkanlel9g9san. 

182 Ejilel9g9san. 

183 Etalel9g9san. 

184 Erinlel9g9san. 

185 Arunlel9g9san. 

186 Erinladinigba (14 less 200) 

187 ]taladinigba. 

188 Ejiladinigba. 

189 Qkanladinigba. 

190 Ewadinigba. 



191 Esandinigba. 

192 J9dinigba. 

193 Ejedinigba. 

194 Efadinigba. 

195 Arundinigba. 

196 Erindinigba. 

197 ^tadinigba. 

198 Ejidinigba. 

199 Qkandinigba. 

200 Igba. 



FURTHER CHANGE OF PROCESS. 



200 Igba. 

201 Qkanlelugba (1 plus 200). 
210 ^walelugba. 

220 Ogunlelugba. 

221 Ogunlelugba o le 9kan 

(220 plus 1). 

225 Ogunlelugba o le marun 

(220 plus 5). 

226 Qgb9nlelugba o di merin 

(230 less 4). 

230 Qgb9nlelugba (30 plus 

200). 

231 Qgb9nlelugba o le 9kan 

(230 plus 1). 
235 Qgb9nlelugba o le marun 

(230 plus 5). 

240 Ojilugba (Ogojilugba). 
250 Ad9talelugba. 
260 Qtalugba (Qgotalugba). 
270 Ad9rinlelugba. 
280 Qrinlugba (Qg9rinlugba). 

290 Qdun o di ewa (300 
_ less 10). 

291 Qdun o di esan. 

300 Qdun. 

301 Qdun o le 9kan (300 

plus 1). 

319 Qdun o le m9kandilogun 
_ (300 plus 19). 

320 Qrindinu (Qg9rindinirin- 

wo) (80 less than 400). 



321 Qrindinu o di 9kan 400 
less (80 minus 1) i.e. 
minus 79. 

330 Ad9rindirinwo (70 less 

than 400). 

331 Ad9rindirinwo o di 9kan 

400 less (70 minus 1) 
i.e. minus 69. 

340 Qtadinu( 60 less than 400). 

350 Ad9tadirinwo (50 less 
_ than 400). 

360 Ojidinu (40 less than 400). 

370 Qgb9ndirinwo (30 less 
than 400). 

380 Ogundinu (20 less than 
400). 

390 Ewadirinwo (10 less than 
400). 

400 Irinwo. 

N.B. Even numbers are 
abbreviated from 400 to 
500 and the same pro- 
cess as from 200 to 300. 

500 Edegb?ta. 

600 ?gbeta. 

700 ^degberin. 

800 ^gberin. 

900 ^d9gberun. 
1000 Egberun. 



92 

SECTION 2. 

NOTES ON NUMERALS. 

1. The syllables di=leas or minus, and le=add or plus, inserted 
in the words from sixteen up, will explain the system of counting. 

(e.g. ) Ij!imdiJogun = 20 4. 

$rinlelogun = 20 + 4, etc. 

2. To say " two men," etc., the letter " m " is used as a prefix. 

(e.g. ) pkpnrin meji=two men. 
= ten horses. 



3. To say the " third day," etc., the letter " k " is used as a 
prefix. 

(e.g.) ijp k?ta = third day. 

osu k$wa = tenth month. 

4. To say " two by two," etc., the word two is reduplicated. 

(e.g. ) mejimeji=two by two. 

m$tam$ta = three by three. 

5. To say "once or twice," etc., the letter "1" is used as a 
prefix. 

(e.g.) Ifkan once. 
If meji = twice. 

6. To say " firstly or secondly "' the prefixes " le " and " k '' 
are used. 

(e.g.) lfkini = firstly. 

If keji = secondly. 

NUMERALS. FRACTIONAL PARTS. 

One whole =gbogbo r$. 

i=idameji (idaji). 

i=idameta. One-third = idaketa. 

l=idamerin. One-fourth=idakerin. 

J=idamarun. One-fifth=idakarun. 

i = idam ef a. One -sixth = idak ef a. 

- = iduinc j,'. One -seventh = idakeje. 

4=idameJ9. One-eighth = idakejp. 

i = idamesan. One-ninth = idakesan. 

A = idamewa. One-tenth =idakewa. 



93 

COWRIE TABLE. 

40 cowries = 1 string, called ogoji = }. of 3d. 
5 strings = 1 bunch igbio = s of 3d. 
10 bunches = 1 head $gba = 6d. 

10 heads = 1 bag pk$ = 5s. 

4 bags = 1 English money. 

In speaking of English pounds sterling, it should be remembered 
that the native multiplies the number by four to get an idea of 
their value. 

50 = 50X4 = Igba pkp (200 bags of cowries). 

It was the custom to thread forty shells on a string and to tie 
five of these together in one bunch. 

SECTION 3. 

YORUBA PROVERBS. 

1. Fire is personified in the following proverb : 
Abanigbele k6 mp oju eni. 

One who lives with us in the house not know the face of anyone. 
(i.e.) An inmate which cannot be tamed. 

2. Abaiyeje ki ise ifi idi pran han. 

To a world spoiler it is not safe to reveal the reason or root 
of the question, (i.e.) A mischief maker is superficial. 

3. Abanije li o ba ara rp je. 

A slanderer (it is) spoils his own self (reputation). 

4. Asp funfun on abawpn ki irp rara. 

A white cloth and a stain never agree. 

5. A play on the words ab$b$ = a fan, and abb$ = an advocate : 

ni ibp iku ; abpbp ni ibp pran ; bi oru ba mu ab^be ni 



An advocate pleads against death ; an advocate pleads a cause ; 
if the heat be great, a fan pleads against it (i.e.) make it 
less discomforting. 

6. Ipa (pna) abpre li okun it$. 

The path of the needle it is the thread follows. 

7. Abetele ni ifp oju onidajp, nitori abetelp k6 le se idajp otp. 
A bribe blinds the eyes of a judge, for bribes cannot do justice. 

8. Biotiwukori, a ki rerin alaisan, bpya ohun ti o se e 1'oni, a se 

iwp 1'pla. 

Whatever it be, we should not laugh at a sick person, perhaps 
the thing that troubles him to-day will trouble us to-morrow. 



94 

9. lniti o ba m$ 9ran tel$, on ni ibu abuja eke. 

He who knows a matter beforehand confounds a liar. 
(lit. ibu abuji = cuts short his story). 

10. Adanil6ju ki se ifi ehin tl. 

One who disappoints, does not back you up (i.e.) is not to be 
trusted. 

11. Adarijini li o pari ija. 

One who forgives ends the dispute. 

12. Oba ko ni fila, ade li on ni. 

The king has no cap, but a crown he has. 

13. Afenu ni ti Iyangb6. 

To be blown away is chaff (i.e. ) it is valueless. 

14. J?lede pa afp tan, o nw4 eni rere ti yio fi ara yi. 

A pig having wallowed in mire, is seeking some clean person 
to rub against. 

15. Af6m< ko ni gb6ngb6 ; igi gbogbo ni ibatan. 

The parasite has no root ; it claims relationship with all trees. 

16. Agbari ko ni mudunmudim. 
A (mere) skull has no brains. 

17. Agbo meji ki mu omi li akoto kan. 

Two rams cannot drink water from the same calabash. 

18. Bi a kit ba le Unli-. ag< li a tete pa. 

If we cannot build a house, we will first pitch a tent. 

19. Bi ile k6 kan ile, nwpn ki ijo ajoran. 

If house not touch house, they do not easily catch fire. 

20. Akamp ekun I'o ni iy9nu. 

To surround a leopard involves trouble. 

21. Akisa ama ba eni rere j$. 

Rags disgrace a good looking person. 

22. Aknlii ni ti 9leran. 

The first born (of animals) is the owners. 

(It is customary for those who own stock to put them 
in care of herdsmen, hence this proverb.) 

23. Alafia baba <>. 

Peace is father to friendship. 

24. Tinu, tehin, ni labalaba fi ifi iyln fun Ql9run. 

It is with both the inner and outer parts of its body that the 
butterfly praises God. 

25. Bi alagbara ba je 9 niya ki o fi erin si i. 
If a powerful man illtreat you, smile at him. 

26. Kd si alasa ti it& igboku, gbogbo \vnn ni ita oyin. 
No snuff dealer sells poor snuff, they all sell honey. 



95 

27. Am^ran ti o 1119 owe ni ilaja pran. 

A counsellor who knows proverbs, soon ends the dispute. 

28. Enu li aparo fi ipe pra, ani, kiki pra, kiki pra. 

With its mouth the aparo proclaims its fatness, crying, only 
fat, only fat. 

29. Diedie li a fi mp apere. 

Little by little it is we know (understand) signs. 

30. Eniti o f^ arewa o f^ iypnu. 

He who loves (marries) a beauty, loves (marries) trouble. 

(To love a woman and to be much in her company is, 

according to native opinion, equivalent to marriage.) 

31. Asa ti o gbe mi li adie, k6 duro, nitori o mp ohun ti o ti se. 
The hawk which took my chicken, does not wait, for he knows 

what he has done. 

32. Bale ile kii ile di ahoro. 

In the father's absence, the house goes to ruin. 

33. Agba ko si, ilu baje, bale ku, ile di ahoro. 

The elders being dead the town is spoilt, father being dead 
the house is desolate. 

34. Igbo biribiri, okunkun biribiri, okunkun yio sete igbo. 
The forest is very dark and the night is very dark,, but the 

darkness of the night will surpass that of the forest (i.e.) 
darkness covers everything. 

35. Qta enia ni iba oruko rp je. 

A man's enemy spoils his name. 

36. Bpla fun agba, awpn ni baba wa. 

Give honour to the elders, they are our fathers. 

37. Kokoro li o di labalaba. 

The grub becomes a butterfly. 

38. Eniti a se Tore ti ko dupe, aba se e ni ibi ko ni dun u. 

He to whom we show kindness and (he) does not give thanks, 
should we illtreat him, he will not feel it. 

39. Ehoro ni ti plpfa li o soro. 

The hare says, it is the archer's part that is difficult (i.e. ) It is 
easy for the hare to avoid the archer, but difficult for the 
archer to catch the hare. 

40. Orukp ti a 39 9019, ni im9" 9m9 1'ara. 

The name we give a child becomes natural to it. 

41. Ekute kd li enu iba ologbo wiJ9. 

The rat has no voice to call the cat to account. 

42. Elub9" se egbodo ri, bfni eru se 91119 ni ile baba r$ ri. 
Yam flour was once soft yam, so a slave was once a child in 

his father's house. 



96 

43. Eniti o ran ni nl se li a bijru ; a ki b 91-11 eniti a ran 9 si. 

He who sends us on an errand it is we fear, we do not fear 
him to whom we are sent. 

44. lyan ni imu eni je eso igikigi. 

Famine compels one to eat fruit of any kind of tree. 

46. Esinsin k6 mi? ikii, jije ni tir^. 

The fly heeds not death, to eat is all its own. 

46. Esu k6 ni Iwa, a kp ile r$ ni ita. 

The devil having no character, his house is built in tin- street. 
(Devil -houses are common in the streets, and when 
asked why they put them in the street, I have been asked : 
" Who wants the devil in the house 1 ") 

47. Ewure je, o re ile ; agutan je o si re ile ; a J9, aiwa ile li o ba 

elede j$. 

Goat eats and goes home ; sheep eats and goes home ; eating, 
and not coming home, spoils the (character) of the pig. 

48. Bi Olprun ba kf-l es$ si wa Iprun, a gbe\ 

If God should charge sin upon us (on our neck) we perish. 

49. Didim li o dun, li a mba pr$ je ef(j>, ti ile eni to ni ije. 

For pleasure, we eat vegetables with a friend, for we luivo 
enough at home. 

50. Bi eke otosi k6 ito 'de oke I'arp, ato l&le. 

If a poor man's rafter does not reach the top in the morning, 
it will be long enough in the evening (i.e.) he will devise 
some way of making it serve his purpose. 



SECTION 4. 

EXAMPLE OF LITERAL TRANSLATION FROM YORUBA 

TO ENGLISH. 
PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON. 

1. Ok9iirin kan li omokpnrin meji : 

2. Man one had son two : 

1. eyi aburo ninu wpn wi fun baba 

2. this younger within them said unto father 

1. r$ pe, baba, fun mi ni iw<n ogiin 

2. his say, " father give me have measure inheritance 

1. ti o tori rni." O si pin ohun Ini r$ 

2. which it of head mine." He and divide thing possession his 

1. fun wpn. K6 si to ijp melokan lehin 

2. unto them. Not and many day few after 



1. eyi, eyi pmpkpnrin aburo ko uhuii 

2. this, this son younger (gather) thing 

1. gbogbo ti o ni J9, o si mu 9na ajo 

2. all which he has (ed), he and took way journey 

1. r$ p^n 19 si ilu okere, nibe li o 

2. his carry go to town distance, there is he 

1. gbe na gbogbo ini r$ ni inakuna. 

2. spend all possessions his in (any kind of spending). 

1. Nigbati o si ba gbogbo r$ je tan 

2. When he and (sp) all his (oilt) finish, 

1. iyan nla wa imu ni ilu na ; o si 

2. famine great came take in town that ; he and 

1. bre si idi alaini. 

2. began to become (without having possession) (i.e.) in want. 

1. O si 19, o da ara r^ pp m9 91^9 kan 

2. He and go, he (jo) body his (in) against citizen one 

1. ni ilu na ; on si ran a 19 si oko r$ 

2. in town that ; he and send him go to farm his 

1. lati 39 elede. Ay 9 ni iba fi je onje 

2. to watch pig. Joy is would put eat food 

1. ti aw9n ?lede nje li ajeyo ; enikeni 

2. which they pig are eating in plenty ; anyone 

1. ko si fifun u. Nigbati oju r$ wale, 

2. not and give him. When eyes his came to ground 

1. o ni, " Aw9n alagbase baba mi 

2. he said, " The labourers father my 

1. melomelo li o li onje ajeyo, ati 

2. how much more is it have food plenty and 

1. ajeti, emi si nku fun ebi ! " 

2. oat and throw away, I and am dying of hunger." 
J. Emi o dide, emi o t<;> baba mi 19, 

2. I will arise, I will to father my go, 

1. emi o si wi fun u pe, " Baba, emi 

2. I will and say unto him, say, '' Father, I 

1. ti des$ si 9run, ati niwaju re, 

2. have sinned against heaven, and before thoo, 

1. emi ko si ye ti a ba ma pe mi 

2. I not and fit that we may call me 

1 . li 9m9 r9 m9" : fi mi se bi 9kan 

2. is child thy again : put mi do as one 

1. ninu aw9n alagbase r$." 

2. within the labourers thy." 

1. O si dide, o si t<j> baba r^ 19. ugb9ii 

2. He and arise, he and to father his go. But 



M 



1. uiylxili <> li xvii li okrrt. 1 , baba r<; 

2. when ho was at distance. futhrr liis 

1. ri i, aim ^ v, < si sure, o rnmo 

2. saw him, pity du him, he and rail, ho press 

1. 9 li pruii, o si fi nu ko o li 91111. 

2. him on neck, he and put mouth meet him <m mouth. 

1. Qmp na si wi fun u pe, " Baba, emi 

2. Child that and said unto him say, " Father, I 

1. ti des^ si 9run, ati iiiwaju 19, emi ko 

2. have sinned against heaven, and before thec, I nut 

1. si y9 ti a ba ma pe mi li <,>"",' n; 

2. and fit that we may call me is child thy 

1. 019"." ugb9n baba wi fun aw9n 

2. again." But father said unto they 

1. 9m9-9d9 r$ pe, " ] mu ayo as9 igumva 

2. servant his say, "You bring choice cloth rnl 
1 . w&, ki 9 fi wo 9 ; 9 si fi oruka 

2. , that you put clothe Mm ; you and put ring 

1. I'V v I', HV V' al i bata si 939 n; : 9 si 

2. on liim hand, and shoe on feet his ; you and 

1. mu 9gb(j>r9 malu al>npa wa, ki 9 si 

2. bring fatling cow for kill , that you and 

1. pa a ; ki 9 ma J9, ki 9 si ma se 

2. kill it ; that you may eat, that you and may do 

1. ariya ; nitori ',>"",' mi yi ti ku, o si 

2. merriment ; for child my this was dead, he and 

1. tiiii ye; o ti mu, a si ri i. 

2. again live ; he was lost, we and see him. 

Luke 15, II--' I. 

SECTION 5. 

TRANSLATION, ENGLISH- YOKUBA. SEE KEY, 
SECTION 6. 

The hand, more than any other part of the body, is the organ of 
touch. It is one of the gateways by which the influence's of the 
outer world enter into the soul. 

In many respects the hand, as the organ of touch, is the most 
wonderful of the organs of the senses. The eye, the ear and the 
nostril simply stand open ; light, sound, and fragrance enter, 
and we are compelled to see, to hear, and to smell. But the hand 
selects what it shall touch, and touches what it pleases ; unlike 
the eye which must often gaze at horrible sights from which it 



99 

cannot turn, and the ear, which cannot escape from the torture 
of discordant sounds, and the nostril, which cannot protect itself 
from hateful odours. 

Moreover, the hand cares not only for its own wants, but when 
the other organs of the senses are rendered useless, takes their duties 
upon it. The hand of the blind man goes with him as an eye 
through the streets, and safely threads for him all the devious way. 
It looks for him at the faces of his friends, and tells him whose 
kindly features are gazing on him. It peruses books for him, 
and quickens the long hours by its silent readings. 



SECTION 6. 

KEY TO TRANSLATION IN SECTION 5. 

Ow<;> ni, ju gbogbo apa ara m! lp li o je ohun ifpkan. O je enu 
<pna kan nipa eyiti ohun ode aiye fi w$ pkan. 

L'pna pup9 9w<j>, bi ohun ti a fi kan nkan, li o j^ ohun iyanu jul9 
ti a fi mi? nkan. Oju, eti, ati imu li o si sile, ki im9le, iro, ati orim 
didun ki o le w - 9 9, a si fi ipa mu wa riran, ki a gb<;>, ki a si gboruii. 
$ugb9ii 9w<p ama yan. ohun ti o kan, a si ma kan ohun ti o wu u ; 
oju li o yat<;> nipe, on ko le sai ma tejunup ohun ti o banil^ru, ti on 
ko si le yi ara r<? pada ; ati eti, ti ko le sa kuro l9d9 iro segesege 
ti ndiin ni ; ati iho imu, eyiti ko le pa ara r<j m9 kuro lorim buburu. 

Pelupelu 9W9 ni nt9Ju, ki si se kiki ami ara r, sugb9n nigbati 
ohun im9 iyoku ko le sise w9n m9", 9W9 ni nse ise W9n. Owe? ti 
af9"ju ama ba a 19 bi oju si ita, a si ma ja 9ixa fun u larin 9na wiwc?. 
Qw9 li on fi wo oju aw9n 9r^ r^, a si ma pe oju aw9n ti ntejum9 
9 pelu inu rere fun u. Qwcji ni nka iwe fun u, a si ma mu ki wakati 
gigun ki o yara k9Ja, bi on ti nka. 

SECTION 7. 

EXAMPLES OF IDIOMATIC TRANSLATION. 
SEE KEY, Lu. 10. 38-42. 

1. O si se bi nw9n ti ni'9na, Jesu fi W9 ileto kan ; obirin kan 
oloruk9 Martha, To si gba a sile r$. O si laburo kan oloruk9 Mary, 
oleyi 16 joko l^se Jesu, o si fi eti gb(J 9r9 r^. ugb9n Martha ni 
use aniyan ju lati ma salejo f'alejo, o si t9 Jesu wa, wipe, " Oluwa, 
iwo k& nani pe, aburo mi I'o fi mi le, emi nikan, lati ma salejo fun 9 ? 
Wi fun u, pe, ki o wa ran mi 19W9 ! " Jesu si da a lohun, o wi fun 
u, Martha, Martha, iw9 nsajo, o si ns'aniyan 1'ohun pupp ; sugb9n 
ohun kansoso a kd le se alaini ; Mary To si yan ipa rere na, eyiti 
a ko ni gba 19W9 r^. 



10) 

SBH KKV, ACTS 28. 1-6. 

2. Nigbati gbogbo won si yp tan, ni nwon wti m^> pe, M.-litu 
li erekusu im. Ki .i se ore die I'IUVOH alaigbede na so fun wa ; 
nitoriti n won daiu'i, n\von si gba. gbogbo wa 89019. nitori 6jo 
r'i | MI) in. ati nitori otiitu inu ju. Nigbati Paul ti ko idi igi 
idant'i jn. ti o si gb ka ina, pamnli; kan t'inu ina jade, di 
i rn<|> I9W9- Nigbati awon alaigbede ri ejo oloro na l9w<J ri), nw9n 
lui urn won so, wipe, ko siyemeji, apania I'9k9nrin yi, bi o til<; y<,> 
1'oknntan, sib9 ^san ko je k'o wa layo m9. On si gb^ii ejo 
na sina, kd si e e ni nkan. {^ugbpn nw9n nreti po, ara r<; yio wi'i, 
tabi on iba ^ubu lule, a si ku l9gan : sugb9n lehin igbati nw9ii ti 
wo o pe, ti nw9n si ri pe, nkan ko $e e, mv9ii yi inu <>yo w(,)n pnd:i, 
nw9n si wipe 9l9run kan 1'oluwa r^. 

SEE KEY, ACTS 26. 24-29. 

3. Bi Paul ti ns9F9 f'ara 1-9, Festus kigbe 1'ohun rara, wipe, 
" Paul, ori r9 baJ9, 9k< akoju To ba 9 1'ori 39." ^ugbpn on wipe, 
ori mi k6 baJ9, Festus 9l9lajul9 ; sugb9n 9^- 619, ati ti airekoja 
1'emi ns9 jade. Nitori 9ba mfy nkan W9nyi, niwaju 9niti emi 113^9 
l'aib$ru : nitori o da mi loju pe, a k6 fi nkan W9nyi pam9 1'oju 
nyin ; nitori a k6 se nkan yi nik9k9. " Kabiyesi ! Agrippa qh>\ ! 
iw9 gba aw9n woli gb<J bi ? Emi m9 pe, iw9 sa gbagb9 ! " 
Nigbana Agrippa wi fun Paul pe, " iw9 f9r9 yi mi pada l'9kan 
sigbagb9 Kristi. Paul si wipe, " emi b9 Ql9run, ki si se fun ^nyin 
kansoso, ijugb9ii fun gbogbo aw9ii t'o gb<? $r9 mi 1'oni, pe, ki nwon 
f9re, ki nw9n si dabi emi na patapata, afi ew9n W9nyi." 



101 



PART X. 

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB " RI "=TO SEE. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT AND PAST INDEFINITE TENSES 
(ONE FORM FOR BOTH). 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Emi ri=I see, or saw. 1. Awa ri=We see, or saw. 

2. IWQ ri = Thou seeat, or sawest. 2. Enyin ri = Ye see,{or saw. 

3. On ii = He sees, or saw. 3. Nwon ri=They see. or saw. 

PRESENT IMPERFECT TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Emi nri = I am seeing. 1. Awa nri = We are seeing. 

2. IWQ nri = Thou art seeing. 2. Enyin nri = Ye are seeing. 

3. On nil = He is seeing. 3. Nwpn nri = They are seeing. 

PRESENT AND PAST COMPLETE TENSES 
(ONE FORM ONLY). 

1. Emi ti ri= I have, or had seen. 1. Awa ti ri = We have, or had 

seen. 

2. IWQ ti ri= Thou hast, or hadst 2. Enyin ti ri = Ye have, or had 

seen. seen. 

3. On ti ri = He has, or had seen. 3. Nwpn ti ri = They have, or had 

seen. 

PRESENT AND PAST PERFECT OF CONTINUED ACTION 
(ONE FORM ONLY). 

1. Emi ti nri=I have, or had been seeing. ) 

2. Iwo ti nri = Thou hast, or hadst been seeing. -Singular. 

3. On ti nri = He has, or had been seeing. 

1. Awa ti nri = We have, or had been seeing. \ 

2. Enyin ti nri = Ye have, or had been seeing. -Plural. 

3. NwQn ti nri = They have, or had been seeing. 



102 

EMPHATIC PAST TENSE. 

1. Emi til? ri I have (indeed) seen. \ 

'2. Iwp til? ri Thou hast (indeed) seen. V Singular 

3. On til? ri He has (indeed) seen. 

I. Awa til? ri = We have (indeed) seen. 

-. Enyin til? ri = Ye have (indeed) seen. -Plural. 

3. Nwpn til? ri = They have (indeed) seen. 

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Emi yio ri = I shall see. 1. Awa yio ri=We shall see. 

2. Iwp yio ri = Thou wilt see. 2. Enyin yio ri = Ye will see. 

3. On yio ri = He will see. 3. Nwpn yio ri = They will see. 

FUTURE COMPLETE TENSE. 

1. Emi yio ti ri = I shall have seen. 

"2. Iwp yio ti ri = Thou wilt have seen. Singular. 

3. On yio ti ri = He will have seen. 

1. Awa yio ti ri = We shall have seen. 

2. Enyin yio ti ri = Ye will have seen. -Plural. 

3. Nwpn yio ti ri=They will have seen. 

FUTURE IMPERFECT TENSE. 

1. Emi yio ma ri = I shall be seeing. j 

2. Iwo yio ma ri = Thou wilt be seeing. -Singular. 

3. On yio ma ri^He will be seeing. 

1. Awa yio ma ri = We shall be seeing. \ 

2. Enyin yio ma ri = Ye will be seeing. j- Plural. 

3. Nwpn yio ma ri = Thcy will be seeing. 

FUTURE PERFECT OF CONTINUED ACTION. 

1. Emi yio ti ma ri I shall have been seeing. \ 

2. Iwp yio ti ma ri = Thou wilt have been seeing. f Singular. 
On yio ti ma ri=Hc will have been seeing. 

Awa yio ti ma ri=-We shall have been seeing. i 

2. Enyin yio ti ma ri Y will have been seeing. [ Plural. 

3. Nwpn yio ti ma ri They will have been seeing. ' 



103 

POTENTIAL MOOD. 
PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Mo le ri = I may, or can see. 1. Awa le ri = We may, or can see. 

-. Iwp le ri=Thou mayst, or 2. Einyin le ri=Ye may, or can 

canst see. see. 

'!. On le ri = He may, or can see. 3. Nwpn le ri = They may, or can 

see. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Here \ve have a great variety of forms with the same meaning ! 

(e.g.) Ri, or iwp ri. \ 

Ki o ri, or ki iwp ki o ri. 

See, or see thou. 
Ma ri, or iwp ma n. 

Ki o ma ri, or ki iwp ki o ma ri. ' 

Ki ng ri. 1 

Ki emi ri. [Let me see. 

Ki emi ki o ri. ' 

Ki o ri. I 

Ki on ri. j" Let him see. 

Ki on ki o ri. I 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Here each variation is made by the use of particles : 
Bi=if ; ki = that ; bi-tile = though ; iba?epe if to say. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Bi mo ri=If I see. 1. Bi awa ri=If we see. 

2. Bi iwp ri=If thou see. 2. Bi enyin ri=If ye see. 

3. Bi on ri = If he sees. 3. Bi nwpn ri=K they see. 

1st Pers. Sing. 

Ki emi ri =That I see. 

Bi emi tile ri = Though I see. 
Bikoepe emi ri= Unless I see. 



104 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
INDEFINITE TENSE. PERFECT TENSE. 

A ri, or lati ri, or lati ma ri = To be Atiri, or li a ti ri = To have been 
seen. seen. 

X.B. Interrogative and Negative sentences an- forim-il l>\ th- 
use of particles : 

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE. 

1. Emi ri bi P=Do I see, or Emi ha ri bi ? 

2. Iwp ri bi ?=Dost thou see, or Iwp ha ri bi ? 
''. On ri bi P = Does he see, or On ha ri bi ? etc. 

NEGATIVE: PRESENT AND PAST COMPLETE TENSED. 

1. Emi k6 ti iri=I have, or had not seen. 

2. Iwp k6 ti iri = Thou hast, or hadst not seen. 
.'!. On ko ti iri = He has, or has not seen, etc. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

The following table supplies a near equivalent to the Passive 
Voice. "A" is the contracted form of " awpn " = thoy 

(e.g. ) A ri mi = they see me, (i.e.) I am seen by th.-m. 
Emi li a ti ri =Me it is they have seen. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. A ri mi=They see me. 1. A ri wa = They see us. 

2. A ri 9 = They see thee. 2. A ri nyin = They see you. 

3. A ri i=They see him. 3. A ri wpn = They see them. 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 

1. A ti ri mi = They have seen 1. A ti ri wa = They hav.- >.-rn u-. 

me. 
-. A ti ri p = They have seen thee. 2. A ti ri nyin---T !> lia\. 

you. 
I?. A ti ri i = They have seen him. 3. A ti ri wpn -They huve seen 

them. 



105 

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE. 

1 A ri mi They will see me. 1. A O ri wa = They will see us. 

2. A ri 9 They will see thee. 2. A ri nyin They will see you. 

3. A ri i Thoy will see him. 3. A ori won They will see them. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ki a ri p That they see thee. ) (i.e.) Be thou, or you seen by 
Ki a ri nyin = That they see you. j them. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Bi a ri mi=If they see me. 1. Bi a ri wa = If they see us. 

2. Bi a ri 9 = If they see thee. 2. Bi a ri nyin = If they see you. 

3. Bi a ri i = If they see him. 3. Bi a ri W9n = If they see them. 

Other forms : 

Ki a ri mi = That they see me. 

Bioba?epe a ri mi = Though they see me. 

Bikosepe a ri mi = Unless they see me. 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 

1. Bi a ba ti ri mi=If they should have seen me \ 

2. Bi a ba ti ri 9= If they should have seen thee [ Singular. 

3. Bi a ba ti ri i= If they should have seen him j 

1. Bi a ba ti ri wa= If they should have seen us \ 

2. Bi a ba ti ri nyin = If they should have seen you ^Plural. 

3. Bi a ba ti ri W9U =If they should have seen them j 

N.B. The two forms may be used to express the Passive Voice 
of verbs : 

A ri mi = They see me, or Emi li a ri = Me it is they see, etc. 



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