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/ (i> 3J-3 





A REFERENCE BOOK, .^^r===^^ 





From 1767 to 1867. 


(of her majesty's record office,) 
foreion correspondent of the society of antiquaries of normandy, 



F R K TJ> E R I C K W A R N E i^ C^ o.. 






\ ' 


Adolphns's History of England. 

Alison's History of Barope. 

Ditto epitomized. 

Almanac de GK>tha. 

Annals of England. 

Annnal Registers. 

Arnold's Lectures on Modem History. 

Bancroft's History of America. 
*^ Beeton's Biographical Dictionary. 

Biographie Uniyerselle. 

Biographies (varions). 

British Almanac and Companion. 

Oarlyle's French Bevolation. 

Cates^s Biographical Dictionary. 

Chalmers's ditto. 

Crowe's History of France. 

Dyer's History of Modem Europe, 
Vol. IV. 

Encyclopedia Britannica. 

Encyclopaedia Metropolitana. 

Ewald's " Our Constitution." 

Hanna's Life of Chalmers, Vol. IV. 
^ Haydn's Dictionary of Dates. 

Hazlitt's Life of Napoleon Buonaparte. 

Hertslet's Treaties. 

Histoire Universelle* 

Hole's Brief Biographical Dictionary. 
Hozier^s Seven Weeks' War. 
Johnstone's Ghizetteer. 
"^Knight's Cyclopffidia of Biography. 
Lamartine's Histoire des Qirondins. 
Maunders's Treasury of History. 
Mill's British India. 
Migitet's History of the French Bevo- 

Men of the Time. 
Napier's Peninsular War. 
New's History of Austria. 
Fall Mall Gazettes. 
Russell's History of Modem Europe, 

Vol. III. 
Ditto epitomized. 

Stacke's History of the American War. 
Statutes of the Realm. 
Stocqueler's Life of Wellington. 
Student's Hume. 
Thiers' Histoire de la R^Tolution 

Townsend's Manual of Dates. 
Wade's British History, 


The object of the following pages is to serve as a useftil book of 
reference, respecting the principal events that have occurred in 
the history of the world during the last hundred years. The 
Author has endeavoured to condense and tabulate his information 
in such a manner as to facilitate research, and to impress facts 
upon the memory. 

In order to effect this end he has arranged the contents of 
the volume under the follovnng heads : — 

I. An Annotated Table of Chronology, comprising the most 
important events that have influenced the current of modem 
history between the years 1767 and 1867. To this section of 
the book a copious Index is attached. 

II. A Table of the Principal Contemporary Sovereigns during 
the last century. 

III. A brief Dictionary of the chief Battles and Sieges that 
have occurred within the period embraced in this work. 

IV. Biographical Notes, containing short sketches of the lives 
of those individuals who have attained eminence in their various 
professions within the last hundred years. 

The Author trusts that this Reference Book will meet a great 
public want. The date of an event, the brief account of a battle 
or siege, or the chief points in an eminent individual's life, are 
facts which appeal, not only to the historical student or writer, 
but to society at large. And this is especially the case with 


the period embraced in this work. The greatest care has been 
taken to render the dates and other information as correct as 

As one of the Tutors for the Civil Service Examinations, the 
Author begs to recommend this Reference Book to those can- 
didates for the various Diplomatic and Consular appointments 
who have to acquire a knowledge of the History of the Ljast 

The Temple, 

Oct.y 1868. 




From 176? to 1867. 




Feom 1767 TO 1867. 

Ezpnlsion of the Jesuits from Spain. Apr. 2, 1767. 

Expulsion of the Jesuits from Mexico. June 25, 1767. 

An Act passed by the English Government (7 Geo. JII. c. 46), 
taxing tea, glass, paper, &c,, in the American colonies. 

June 29, 1767. 
Expulsion of the Jesuits from Naples. Not. 3, 1767. 

Petition of the Massachusetts Assembly to the King of Eng- 
land, against the late tax on trade in the American colonies. 

Jan. 20, 1768. 

"Upon the great question of taxing the American colonies/' observes Mr. 
Wade, in his '* BritiEJi History," ** there was a general coincidence of opinion, 
both in the nation and legislature. The populace expressed no sympathy with the 
claim of the Bostonians to be exempt from the fiscal jurisdiction of parliament ; 
neither does it appear there were many addresses in their favour from the 
county freeholders, nor the great commercial and municipal bodies of the 
kingdom. Among the chief political leaders there were shades of difference, 
which may be ascribed to their position, as they happened to be members or not 
of the government, but there hardly seems to have been a substantive disagree- 
ment. — ^The right of taxation was as indisputable as the right of resistance. 
Unrepresented Boston or Baltimore had no greater claim to exemption from 
parliamentary government than unrepresented Birmingham or Manchester. They 
participated in the advantages of the general government of the mother country, 
snd were equally bound to contribute to its general expenditure. Bat it does not 
follow that they were always to remain in a state of minority and dependence. 
If they had the power and were competent to the task of self-government, 
they had an unquestionable right to its benefits, and to make the experiment." 
Another recent authority , of equal value, has this remark: '*It is useless to 
conceal that the American war was popular at its commencement. The vague 
iiotion of dominion over an entire continent flattered English pride, and the 
taxes which the ministers demanded promised some alleviation to the public 
burdens. The colonial revolt was regarded by many as a rebellion, not against 



tiie British goyenixlieiit, but the British people, and the contest was generally 
looked upon in England as an effort to establish, not the royal authority, but 
the supremacy of the nation." 

The Confederation of Bar formed by the Roman Catholics 
of Poland (during their religious struggles with the Dissi- 
dents), with the object of resisting the influence of foreign 
states. Mar., 1768. 

Corsica united to France. Aug. 5, 1768. 

An English force lands at Boston, United States. Oct. 1, 1768. 
Battle of Choczim. , Apr. 13, 1769. 

Frederick II. of Prussia and the Emperor of Austria conclude 
a convention of neutrality at Neisse. Aug. 25, 1769. 

Lord North Euglish Prime Minister. Feb. 6, 1770. 

A fatal affray takes place between the English soldiers and 
the people of Boston, United States. Mar. 5, 1770. 

Capt. Cook sails along the south-east coast of Australia, lands 
at a spot which he calls Botany Bay, and takes possession of 
the country by the name of New South Wales. 

Apr. 28, 1770. 
Marriage of the Dauphin of France with Marie Antoinette. 

May 30, 1770. 
Falklajld Islands ceded to England by Spain. Jan. 22, 1771. 

The French Parliament abolished, and 8ia! Superior Courts 
are established in its place. Feb. 22, 1771. 

Each of these Courts was to he estahlished at Arras, Blois, Cleremont, Lyons, 
Poictiers, and Paris, and to haye an equal separate jurisdiction. 

The right to report Parliamentary Debates in England estab- 
lished. May 8, 1771. 

Battle of Almansee, in wbich the North Carolinian rebels are 
defeated by the Governor Tryon. May 16, 1771. 

Caroline Matilda, Queen of Christian VII. of Denmark, 
arrested on a charge of incontinence, and afterwards banished 
the kingdom. Jan. 16, 1772. 

The British Museum purchases the Collection of Sir W. 
Hamilton for £8,410. Mar. 20, 1772. 

The Boyal Marriage Act passed (12 Geo. III. c. 11). 

Apr. 1, 1772. 

This Act prohibited members of the royal family from contracting marriage 
without the consent of the Sovereign, signified under the Great Seal, until 
they attained the age of 26 years. It was introduced owing to the King's 
brothers, the Duke of Cumberland, having married Mrs. Horton, sister of Colonel 
Luttrell, and the Duke of Gloucester an illegitimate daughter of Sir £dward 


Warren Hastings appointed Governor of Bengal. Apr. 13,1772. 

A treaty for the partition of Poland signed at St. Petersburg 
by Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Aug. 5, 1772. 

By this iniquitous act of dismemberment, Frnssia^ possessed Fomerdlia, the 
districts on the Netze, those of Marienburgh, Ermeland, Michelau, Culm, and 
the harbour of Dantzic ; Austria, two-thirds of Upper Poland, Pokulia, and 
some districts of Fodolia and Yolhynia ; Russia, the chief part of Lithuania 
and the districts of Minsk, Yitensk, and Mscislaf . 

^Revolt of oppressed natives and negro slaves in Brazil. 1772. 

Owing to the exposure of a series of intrigues and crimes in 
the East India Company, its affairs are brought before Par- 
liament, and important changes effected in the constitution of 
the Company. June 10, 1773. 

A Governor-General was appointed to reside in Bengal, to which the other 
Presidencies were to be made subordinate ; a supreme court of judioafture was 
instituted at Calcutta ; the affairs of the Company were controlled ;. all the de- 
partments were reorganized, and all the territorial correspondence was to be 
laid in future before the British Ministry. 

Calcutta made the residence of the Governor- General of 

India. July 1, 1773. 

Expulsion of the Jesuits from Rome. Aug. 16, 1778. 

The inhabitants of Boston, United States, throw 342 chests 
of the taxed tea into the sea. Dec. 16, 1773. 

With the exception of some disturbances in Massachusetts, affairs had been 
going on pretty quietly in America. The tea duty, which was only ^d. per 
pound, seemed tQ be acquiesced in, when in 1773 au act was committed which, 
though far from being so intended, finally estranged the American colonies. 
The East India Company had contracted a large debt, but they had also an 
enormous stock of tea in their warehouses, for which they could find no sale. 
Lord North, in order to relieve them by finding a market for their stock, now 
proposed that the tea exported to America, which had a drawback of only 
three-fifths of the duty paid in England, should have a drawback of the whole 
duty, thus leaving it subject only to the Sd, duty in America. This- appeared to 
be a boon not only to the East India Company, but also to the American colo- 
nists, as it would enable them to purchase their tea cheaper than they could even 
before the Zd. duty was imposed. Accordingly the East India Company freighted 
several ships with tea, and appointed consignees in America for its sale. The 
arrival of these ships caused a violent outburst of popular feeling. It was given 
out that they were only the forerunners of further taxation ; and some said that 
the ships were laden with fetters instead of tea. The consignees were threatened, 
and obliged to fling up their engagements. In Boston a body of men, disguised 
as Mohawks, boarded the tea ships, and scattered their cargoes in the sea, to the 
extent of £18,000. By way of punishment, the Boston custom-houses were 
transferred to 8alem, another port of Massachusetts, and important alterations 
were made in the Charter granted to that State by William III. 

Death of Loxds XY. of France, and accessioii of his grandson 
Louis XVL May 10, 1774. 

B 2 


Pitt's India Bill, establishing the Board of Control, is passed 
through Parliament. May 18, 1774!. 

By this Bill six privy cotmcillors were appointed as eommissionen to lutTe 
control over all the affairs of the British possessions in the East Indies. The 
statute was amended by yarions snbseqoent acts. 

Treaty of Kntschonc-Kainardji, between Russia and Turkey, 
, which declares the Crimea independent, and guarantees the 

free navigation of the Black Sea. July 10, 1774, o.B. 

The first American Continental Congress assembles at Philar 

delpflna. Sep. 6, 1774. 

It draws up a declaration of rights claiming all the liberties of Englishmen, 
and adopfls resolutions to suspend aJl trade between England and America, till 
all grienvnces are redressed. 

The French Parliament re-established. Dec. 12, 1774. 

The first action in the War of American Independence takes 
{daee at Lexington. Apr. 19, 1775. 

Benares (Hindostan) is ceded to the East India Company, by 
Subahdar, of Dude. May 21, 1775. 

Arrival .at Boston of reinforcements from. England, under 
GreBerak Gowe, Burgoyne, and Clinton, to quell the American 
revolt. May 25, 1775. 

George Washington appointed Commander-in-chief of the 

American continental army. June 15, 1775. 

Battle of Bunker's Hill. June 17, 1775. 

Invasion of Canada by the American forces under General 
Montgomery. Sep. 10, 1775. 

Warren Hastings accused of taking bribes by the Brahmin 
Nuncomar. Mar. 11, 1776. 

Svacuation of Boston, United States, by the English : it is 

occupied by Washington. Mar. 17, 1776. 

Tnrgot^ the French Minister of Finance, dismissed from office. 

May 12, 1776. 
Evacuation of Canada by the Americans. June 18, 1776. 

America is declared " free, sovereign, and independent :" a 
declaration which is signed by the following states : — ^New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Bhode Island, Connecticut, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Georgia. 

Jiily 4, 1776. 

The following is a brief summary of the contents of this important document 
It commences : '^When, in the course of human eyents, it becomes necessary for 
one people to dissolye the political bonds which hare connected them with another 


and to assume among tbe powers of the earth the separate and equal station to 
which the l&ws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to 
the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes that impel 
them to the separation." It then proceeds to state, that government being an 
institution for the happiness of the governed, whenever it becomes destructive of 
that end, it ought to be dissolved. Having laid down this general rule, it pro- 
ceeds to enumerate the facts which, in the opinion of Congress, prove the British 
government of their colonies to have been destructive of its end. They allege 
that, in every stage of their oppression, they had humbly petitioned the king for 
redress, but without effect. It is then declared, that ** a prince, whose character 
is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of 
a free people." — "We have applied," say they, " also to our British brethren; 
we have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement ; 
we have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and conjured them, 
by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow those usurpations which would 
inevitably interrupt our connexion and correspondence : they have been deaf to 
the voice of justice and of consanguinity ; we must therefore acquiesce in the neces- 
sity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of 
mankind — in war, enemies ; in peace, friends." The declaration thus concludes : 
— "We, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our 
intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these 
colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these tinited colonies are, and of 
right ought to be, free and independent states ; that they are absolved from all 
alliance to the British Crown ; that all political connexion between them and 
the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that they 
have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish com- 
merce, and do all other acts and things which independent states may of right 
do. And, for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the pro- 
tection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, oua 
roBTUiTEs, and cub sacrbi> hosovb." The declaration of independence on the 
part of the Americans was the passing of the Rubicon ; and the points in dispute 
remained to be settled only by the success of arms. 

Battle of Long Island. Aug. 27, 1776. 

Capture and destruction of an American squadron on Lake 
Champlain by the English. Oct. 13, 1776. 

Battle of White Plains. Oct. 28, 1776. 

Battle of Rhode Island. Dec. 8, 1776. 

Ifecker appointed French Minister of Finance. July 2, 1777. 

The Marquis of La Fayette and other French officers join the 

Americans in their struggle for independence. July 31, 1777. 

Battle of Brandywine. Sep. 11, 1777. 

Battle of Grermanstown. Oct. 4, 1777. 

Capitulation of the British army at Saratoga, United States. 

Oct. 17, 1777. 

The American Congress adopts a federal goyemment. 

Nov. 16, 1777. 

The independence of the United States acknowledged by 
France. Dec. 16, 1777. 


The Sandwich Islands discovered by Capt. Cook. Jan. 19, 1778. 

Treaties of Amity and Commerce conclnded between the 

United States and France. Feb. 6, 1778. 

The war between Spain and Portugal (whicb had commenced 
in 1762) conclnded by the Treaty of Pardo, or St. Ildefonso. 

Mar. 31, 1778. 

Death of the Earl of Chatham. May 11, 1778. 

War declared against England by France, in aid of the North 
American colonies. June 13, 1778.' 

Invasion of Bohemia by Frederick II. of Prussia, and com- 
mencement of the " Potatoe War ;" so called on account of 
the numerous petty skirmishes and manoeuvres respecting 
convoys. July 4, 1778. 

Fortress of GwaHor (Hindostan) captured by the British under 
Major Popham, Aug. 4, 1778. 

The provinces of Eio de la Plata, Potosi Charcas, Chiquitos, 
South America, separate from Peru, and erect themselves 
into a distinct government, 1778. 

Battle of Briar's Creek. Mar. 16, 1779. 

Treaty of Teschen. May 13, 1779. 

Through the intervention of France and Russia, a treaty was concluded at this 
place, in Upper Silesia, between Austria and Prussia, when on the eve of war, 
May 13, 1779. Austria renounced a claim she had made on the dominions of 
the Elector of Saxony, receiving a tract of territory between the Danube, the 
Inn, and the Salza, and i>aying compensation to Saxony. This terminated the 
dispute respecting the Bavarian succession. 

' War declared between Spain and Great Britain. June 16, 1779. 

The grand siege of Gibraltar commenced by the Spaniards 
blocking up the port. July 16, 1779. 

Formation of the first regiment of Irish Volunteers, under the 
Earl of Leinster, to support the Parliament in demanding free 
trade. Oct. 12, 1779. 

A Spanish fleet, under Admiral Don Langara, defeated by the 
British, under Admiral Rrodney, near Cape St. Vincent. 

Jan. 16, 1780. 

The Armed Neutrality. Feb. 26, 1780. 

Eussia, Sweden, and Denmark, instigated by France, leagued together to 
establish a new code of maritime laws, contrary to .the maritime system of 
England. Catherine II. of Russia issued a declaration,, February 26, announcing 
that free ships make free goods, that the flag covers the merchandise, and that a 
port is understood to be blockaded only when such a force is stationed at its 
entrance as to render it dangerous to approach. These principles she professed 
her intention of maintaining by force of arms. Denmark signed the convention 
July 30 ; Sweden, August 1, 1780; Holland, January 16, 1781 ; Prussia, May 8 ; 



and the Emperor of Germany, October 9, 1781. It was dissolved soon after the 
cessation of hostilities between Great Britain and the Dutch, and revived again 
in 1800. 

Lord George Gordon's anti-Popeiy riots. June 2-7, 1780. 

To explain the origin of these riots, it will be necessary to go back two years. 
In 1778 Sir George Saville had procured the repeal of a very severe act against 
the Roman Catholics, passed in 1700, in consequence of the number of priests 
that came over to England after the peace of Ryswick. By this law priests or 
Jesuits exercising their functions, or teaching, were liable to imprisonment for 
life ; and all Catholics who within six months after attaining the age of eighteen 
refosed to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, and to subscribe the 
declarations against transubstantiation and the worship of saints, were declared 
incapable of purchasing, inheriting, or holding landed property. The very 
severity of this law had rendered it inoperative, yet its repeal excited among the 
more bigoted Protestants, especially in Scotland, and among the English populace, 
a feeling of the most violent animosity against the Roman Catholics. Protestant 
associations were formed both in England and Scotland ; and Lord George Gordon, 
a younger son of the Duke of Gordon, a young man fond of notoriety, but with- 
out either ability or principle, was elected President of the Protestant Association 
in 1779. On January 4, 1780, he presented a petition to Lord North, on behalf 
of the Association, praying for the repeal of the act of 1778 in favour of Roman 
Catholics ; and on June 2 he assembled a vast mob in St. George's Fields, to 
accompany him to the House of Commons with the petition. Many of the mem- 
bers of both Houses were mobbed, and the crowd broke into the lobby of the 
House of Commons, and knocking at the door, shouted, ** No Popery!" Lord 
North, who displayed the greatest courage and firmness, sent for a detachment of 
the Guards, and the lobby was soon cleared. Lord George presented his petition, 
and moved for its immediate consideration; but on a division, only 6 votes 
appeared for his proposition, while 192 were recorded against it. The mob 
retired from the Houses, and having burnt the Roman Catholic chapels in Duke 
Street and "Warwick Street, dispersed for the night. On Sunday the rioters 
assembled in large bodies in Moor Fields, and burnt the chapels and houses of the 
Roman Catholics. On Monday, the 5th, they burnt the chapels in Virginia 
I^ne, Wapping, and Nightingale Lane, Smithfield, and also the house of Sir 
George Saville, who was peculiarly unpopular as the proposer of the obnoxious 
act. On Tuesday, the 6th, the houses of Lord Mansfield, Justice Hyde, and 
Justice Cox were burnt by the rioters, who also set fire to Newgate and the new 
prison in Clerkenwell, releasing the prisoners. On Wednesday, the 7th, King's 
Bench and Fleet prisons, and the New Bridewell, with many private houses, were 
destroyed. The Bank was also threatened, but, being strongly guarded by soldiers, 
escaped pillage. On Thursday the disturbances began to subside, and on Friday 
Lord George was arrested and committed to the Tower. The official return of 
casualties during the riots comprised 210 killed by the soldiers, and 248 wounded ; 
hat a great number are supposed to have perished from intoxication, and in the 
flames of the burning houses. The trial of the rioters commenced at the Old 
Bailey on Wednesday, June 28 ; 60 were convicted, and 21 executed. Lord George 
Gordon was tried for high treason in "Westminster Hall, February 5, 1781, and 
acquitted. He afterwards died in Newgate, where he had been confined for 
lihel, November 1, 1793. 

Battle of Camden. Aug. 16, 1780. 

Arrest of Major Andr6, an English officer, by the Americans, 
Sep. 23 : he is executed by sentence of court martial, as a 
spy. Oct. 2, 1780. 


General Arnold, an American officer occupying a position of considerable trust 
in the American army, under Washington, desirous of being rcTenged on his 
country for having sentenced him by court martial to be severely reprimanded 
for his previous misdeeds, determined to turn traitor. He secretly negotiated 
with Sir Henry Clinton, to deliver up the post and the troops under Us com- 
mand to the British general. The person employed by the latter for the purpose 
of conferring with Arnold and settling the plan of operations, was Major Andr6, 
an adjutant-general in the British army, an officer of the most amiable personal 
qualities, whose open and candid disposition probably rendered him less fit for 
such an undertaking than one more practised in artifice would have been. The 
post which Arnold now occupied was the command of West Point, on the north 
of Hudson's river, the loss of which, with the troops attached to it, would have 
been a severe blow to the American army in that quarter. On the 21st of Septem- 
ber, Andr6 was landed by night from a British sloop of war, and was received by 
Arnold, who conducted him to his camp, where he remained during that night 
and the following day. The British uniform, which he wore under his surtout, 
was now exchanged for a common dress ; and Arnold not having it in his power 
to convey him back by the way in which he came, be was sent on the second 
night through a remote part of the camp, provided with a horse and passport, 
and under the name of Anderson, to explore his way back to New York. He 
passed the outposts of the army in safety ; but on the following morning he was 
stopped by three young volunteers, who examined his jtassport. At first, they 
appeared satisfied, but suspicions occurring to the mind of one of them, he was 
more strictly examined, and, unaccustomed to deception, he disclosed himself by 
attempting to bribe hid captors with a large sum of money, which, though in a 
humble rank in life, they honourably refused. Andr6 was consequently led 
to head- quarters, where papers were found upon him in Arnold's handwriting, 
containing exact returns of the troops and ordnance at West Point, with a variety 
of information of what had passed at a council of war ; but nothing could he 
obtained from him respecting the writer, till Arnold was apprised of his danger, 
and had time to escape. The commanders of the British forces, finding that 
Andre was detected and in custody, demanded his release on various grounds ; 
but General Washington summoned a council of officers to determine on the case. 
Andre's own confession was sufficient to fix upon him the character of a spy ; 
and the dangerous extent of attempted treachery, in their opinion, prohibited 
any relaxation of the punishment attached to it by the laws of war. The unfor- 
tunate officer only deprecated the ignominious mode in which he was doomed to 
forfeit his life ; but, though he was treated in every other respect with humane 
sympathy, his sentence was rigorously executed, and not the smallest remission 
of it could be obtained. He met his unhappy fate with the bravery of a man 
and a soldier, and his memory was honoured with a monument in Westminster 
Abbey. Arnold, who had made good his escape to the British army, was made 
a brigadier-general, and now declared the most violent hostility to the American 

England declares war against Holland. Dec. 20, 1780. 

An affair happened in the month of September, which proved of consider- 
able political importance, inasmuch as it developed the hostile views of the 
States of Holland towards Great Britain. The Mercury, an American packet, 
having been captured by the Vestal frigate, Mr. Laurens, late president of 
the American Congress, was found on board ; and his papers, which had been 
thrown overboard and dexterously fished up again, disclosed the sketch of a 
treaty of amity and commerce between the States General and the American 
provinces. Mr. Laurens was brought to England on the 6th of October, and 
committed to close confinement at the Tower, under a charge of high treason 

uianrBSAi chbonologt. 

as a British subject. On his examination he declined answering questions, 
hut his papers furnished sufficient information of the projected treaty, which 
he was bringing to a conclusion with Mr. Van Berkel, the girand pensionary, 
who was the ostensible party on the side of Holland. Sir Joseph Yorke, the 
British ambassador at the Hague, was instructed to lay those papers before 
the States General, with a strong memorial, in the way of complaint, respecting 
such a correspondence carried on with bis Majesty's rebellious subjects, at the 
same time demanding a formal disavowal on the part of the States, and the 
punishment of Van Berkel, as well as the other persons engaged in it. No 
immediate answer was given to this memorial, but a counter remonstrance was 
made by the Dutch minister in London, respecting some violence said to have 
been committed at the Dutch West India island of St. Martin, in seizing some 
American vessels under the cannon of the fort. A second memorial was presented 
to the States by Sir Joseph Yorke in December, requiring a categorical answer ; 
and no other being given than that the States had taken the matter ad referendum^ 
tiie ESnglish ambassador was ordered to withdraw from the Hague, and war was 
declared against Holland on the 20th December. — Thus was Great Britain engaged 
with a fourth enemy, without a single ally. 

Abolition of torture in France. 1780. 

Battie of Guildford. Mar. 15, 1781. 

Resignation of the Frencli minister Neckar. May 23, 1781. 

Naval battle off Dogger-bank, between the Dutch and English 
fleets : 400 killed on each side. Aug. 5, 1781. 

Battle of Eutaw Springs. Sep. 8, 1781. 

The treaty of Chunar (Hindostan) signed by Warren 
Hastings and the Nabob of Oude. Hastings receives from the 
latter £100,000 as a present. Sep. 19, 1781. 

By this treaty the Nabob was relieved of all his debts to the East India (com- 
pany, on condition of his seizing the property of the Begums, his mother and 
grandmother, and delivering it up to the English. 

Surrender of a British force, consisting of 7,000 men, under 
Lord Comwallis, to Washington, at Yorktown, United States. 

Oct. 19, 1781. 

Marquis of Rockingham English Prime Minister. Apr. 1, 1782. 

Besolution of the House of Commons, " That the advisers of 
further prosecution of offensive war in America are enemies 
to their king and country.'* Mar. 4, 1782. 

Lord Shelbum English Prime Minister. July 13, 1782. 

Total defeat of the French and Spanish fleets, in the Bay of 
Gibraltar, by the British. Sep. 13, 1782. 

The independence of the United States acknowledged by 
Holland, by a treaty concluded at The Hague. Oct. 8. 1782. 

A provisional treaty, acknowledging the independence of the 
IJnited States, signed by England, at Paris. Nov. 30, 1782. 
The chief articles of this treaty were the recognition of the independence of 


the United States, an advantageoas arrangement of their boundaries, and the 
concession of the right of fishing on the banks of Newfoundland. Great Britain 
recognized and satisfied the claims of the American loyalists to the extent of 
nearly ten millions sterling, for losses of real or personal property, and of 
£120,000 per annum, in life annuities, for loss of income in trades or profesedons 
— a splendid instance of good faith after so ezpensiye a war. 

Death of Hyder Ali, and accession of his son, Tippoo Sahib. 

Dec. 11, 1782. 

The Inquisition abolished in Naples. 1782. 

An armistice concluded with Great Britain, by the United 
States. Jan. 20, 1783. 

The Order of St. Patrick founded in Ireland by George III. 

Feb. 5, 1783. 

It consists of the Sovereign, a grand master, and 22 knights. 

The blockade of Gibraltar by the Spaniards discontinued. 

Feb. 5, 1783. 

A French force, under Bussy, lands on the Coromandel coast 
(Hindostan), to aid Tippoo Sahib against the English. 

Mar. 6, 1783. 

The independence of the United States acknowledged by 
Sweden, Feb. 5 ; by Denmark, Feb. 25 ; and by Spain. 

Mar. 24, 1783. 

Duke of Portland English Prime Minister. Apr. 4, 1783. 

A violent earthquake at Japan destroys 27 towns and thousands 
of lives. Aug. 1, 1783. 

Treaty of YersaiUes. Sep. 3, 1783. 

By this treaty peace was concluded between Great Britain and France and 
Spain. The preliminaries had been previously signed at Versailles, January 20, 
1783. By the first of these treaties, France obtained an extension of her rights 
of fishery at Newfoundland, and unrestricted possession of the isles of St. Pierre 
and Miquelon, on that coast. In the West Indies St. Lucia was restored, and 
Tobago ceded to her ; whilst she restored to Great Britain the islands of Grenada, 
and the Grenadines, with those of St. Vincent, Dominica, St. Kitt's, Nevis, and 
Montserrat. In Africa, France obtained the cession of the river of Senegal and 
its dependencies and forts, with a restoration of Goree ; and England the pos- 
session of Fort James and the river Gambia. In the East Indies, all that France 
had lost was given back, with considerable additions. England further consented 
to the abrogation of all the articles relating to Dunkirk, which had been inserted 
in the Treaty of Utrecht, and in every posterior treaty. By the preliminaries 
with Spain England relinquished to her Minorca and Wjest Florida, and ceded East 
Florida, but obtained the restitution of Providence and the Bahama islands. 
The States General of the United Provinces having consented, under the influ- 
ence of France, to agree to preliminaries of peace with Great Britain, the articles 
were accordingly signed at Paris (September 2, 1783). Of these the most im- 
portant were the cession of Negapatam to Great Britain, but with a proviso of 
treating for its restitution in case of an equivalent being offered by the States ; 


and the restoration to the States of Trincomalee, and of all the other places 
conquered from them. The definitive treaties of peace between Great Britain 
and the other belligerents, viz., France, Spain, and America, were signed on 
the following day. 

The English evacuate New York, U.S. Nov. 25, 1783. 

Pitt English Prime Minister. Dec. 26, 1783. 

Cession of the Crimea to Russia by Turkey (it did not formally 

take place till Jan. 9, 1792). Jan. 8, 1784 

Peace concluded between Tippoo Sahib and the British. 

Mar. 11, 1784. 

Prince Frederick appointed Regent of Denmark, owing to 
the insanity of his father, Christian YII. Mar. 28, 1784. 

The Defenders (Roman Catholics) and Peep-o'-Day Boys 
(Presbyterians), two Irish factions, organized. July 4, 1784. 

Besignation of Warren Hastings : he returns to England. 

Feb. 8, 1785. 

The first accredited Minister from the United States (John 
Adams) to the Court of London, received by George III. 

June 1, 1785. 

Conclusion of the Fursten-Bund Alliance at Berlin, and com- 
mencement of the Germanic Confederation. July 23, 1785. 

Aflfair of the Diamond Necklace. 1785. 

Boehmer and Bassanges, the court jewellers of France, were commissioned by 
Louis XV., in 1774, to collect the most beautiful diamonds, for a necklace, which 
he intended to present to Madame du Barry. The king died before the necklace 
was completed ; but the jewellers persevered with their work, hoping that 
Louis XVI. would purchase it for Marie Antoinette. The necklace was valued at 
1,800,000 francs, or £72,000. An intriguing woman, Madame Lamotte, who 
took the title of countess, pretending to have received authority from Marie 
Antoinette to purchase the necklace, induced the jewellers to part with it in 
return for orders, to which the forced signature of the Queen was attached, 
amounting to 1,400,000 francs, or £56,000. This negotiation was completed in 
Jannary, 1785. Several persons connected with the court became the dupes of 
Madame Lamotte, and a girl, named Leguet, or D' Olivia, was on one occasion 
made to personate the Queen. The Cardinal de Rohan, grand almoner, who had 
been employed as an instrument to carry out her schemes by Madame Lamotte, 
was arrested, August 15, 1785, and Madame Lamotte herself was taken at Bar- 
sur-Aube on the 19th. They were both sent to the Bastille. At the trial that 
ensued, brought to a close May 31, 1786, the Cardinal's innocence was clearly 
established, and Madame Lamotte was sentenced to be flogged, branded on both 
sboulders, and imprisoned for life. She managed, however, to escape, after an 
imprisonment of about ten months' duration, and took refuge in England. Having 
been pursued for debt, she endeavoured to escape by a window on the second 
story of her house, and falling from the window-sill, was killed on the spot. 
The scandal created by this affair proved most disastrous. Talleyrand-Perigord 
wrote to a friend : ** Attend narrowly to that miserable affair of the necklace. 
I should not be surprised if it overturned the throne." 



The Guillotine invented. 1 785 

The life of King George III. of England attempted by Mar- 
garet JSTicliolson. Aug. 2, 1786. 

Death of Frederick 11. of Prussia. Ang. 17, 1786 

Meeting of the Assembly of French Notables. The King and 

Parliament disagree regarding the collection of taxes. 

Feb. 22, 1787. 

An English settlement, composed partly of negroes, is estab- 
lished in Sierra Leone, Africa. Mar. 4, 1787. 

The English Government having determined to send convicta 
to Australia, a fleet sails from Plymouth, carrying 558 mal© 
and 218 female convicts. May 13, 1787. 

Nova Scotia^ the first colonial see of the Anglican^ Churchy 
erected.* Aug. 11, 1787 

* The following is a list of our colonial and missionary bishoprics, with the 
date of their several erections (by 15 & 16 Vict. c. 52, June 30, 1852, extended 
by 16 & 17 Vict. c. 49, Augast 4, 1853, colonial bishops are empowered to exer* 
cise all episcopal fonctions in the United Kingdom except that of jurisdiction) :^ 


1787. Nova Scotia. 

1793. Quebec. 

1813. Calcutta. 

1824. Barbadoes. 

1824. Jamaica. 

1833. Bombay. 

1833. Madras. 

1836. Australia, afterwards Sydney. 

1839. Newfoundland. 

1839. Toronto, Canada West. 

1841. New Zealand. 

1842. Antigua. 
1842. British Guiana. 
1842. Gibraltar. 
1842. Tasmania. 
1845. Colombo, Ceylon. 

1845. Fredericton, New Brunswick. 
1847. Adelaide, South Australia. 
1847. Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 
1847. Melbourne, Victoria. 
1847. Newcastle, N.S. Wales. 
1847. Sydney. 

1849. Victoria, Hong Kong. 

1850. Montreal, Canada. 


1850. Prince Rupert's Land. 
1850. Sierra Leone. 

1853. Graham^s Town, Cape of Good 

1853. Natal, Cape of Good Hope. 

1854. Mauritius. 

1855. Jjabuan, Borneo. 

1856. Christchurch, New SSealand. 
1856. Kingston, Jamaica. 

1856. Perth, Western Australia. 

1857. Huron, Canada West. 

1858. Nelson, New Zealand. 
1858. Wellington, New Zealand. 

1858. British Columbia. 

1859. Brisbane, Moreton Bay. 
1859. St. Helena. 

18*59. Waiapu, New Zealand. 
1861. Nassau, Bahama Islands. 
1861. Ontario, Canada. 
1863. Goulboum, N.S. Wales. 
1865. Dunedin, New Zealand. 
1865. Grafton and Armidale. 
1865. New Westminster, British Co- 

Missionary Bishops exercise jurisdiction over the missionary and other enter* 
prises of the Church of EngUnd in places not under British government : — 


1841. Jerusalem. 

1861. Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. 

1861. Melanesian or South Pacific Isles. 


1863. Orange River Territory. 

1863. Central Africa. 

1864. Africa, Niger Territory. 


Captain Philip^ the first Governor of Australia, founds the 
city of Sydney, near Port Jackson. Jan. 26, 1788. 

Trial of Warren Hastings begins. * Feb. 13, 1788. 

The acts of Warren Hastings, Governor-General of India, gave rise to various 
debates in the Honse of Commons during the session of 1786. Twenty-two 
articles, accusing him of high crimes and misdemeanours during his administra- 
tion in India, were ^brought forward by Edmund Burke. The first charge, which 
related to the Rohilla war, was negatived by 119 to 76, it appearing that this 
war was iinavoidable on the part of the Governor-General. On the 18th of June 
Mr. Fox moved the charge respecting the expulsion of Oheyt-Sing from the 
lemindary of Benares, and condemning Hastings* severe and arbitrarv conduct 
in that province. To explain this charge. It had been decreed by the council 
of Benares that the native prince Cheyt-Sing and his heirs should enjoy the 
zemindary of Benares on his giving the usual payment hitherto paid by the late 
viaer. Beyond the stipulated sum Oheyt-Sing refused to pay, a refusal which 
•brought down the vengeance of Hastings, and ended in the expulsion of the 
native prince and the death of many of his people. On this charge the GK)vemor- 
General was impeached by a considerable majority. Nothing more was done till 
February, 1787, when Sheridan, in a telling and brilliant speech, moved the 
Oade charge. The worst feature in the administration of Hastings was his treat- 
ment of the Begums of Oude. The Government had large claims on Asaph-ul- 
I>owlah, -nabob vizier of Oude, to satisfy which Hastings compelled him to extort 
large sums from the Begum, his mother and grandmother, the mother and 
widow of Sujah-Dowlah ; although Asaph-ul-Dowlah, after previously wringing 
large sums from them, had signed a treaty, sanctioned by the council of Bengal, 
by which he pledged himself to make no further demands upon them. This 
treaty, however, had been made contrary to the wish of Hastings, when his 
authority in the council was controlled, and he now disregarded it. In order to 
extort the money from the Begums, two aged eunuchs* their principal ministers, 
were thrown into prison and deprived of all food till they consented to reveal the 
place where the treasure of the princesses was concealed. Tortures and other 
severities were -continued through the year 1782, till upwards of a million sterling 
had been extorted. This motion was supported by Pitt, and an impeachment 
voted. Other articles were subsequently carried, and Burke, accompanied by 
a great number of members, proceeded to the bar of the House of Lords, and 
impeached Hastings of high crimes and misdemeanours ; whereupon he was 
committed to custody, but released on . bail. The trial did not commence till 

the spring of 1788, and lasted seven years, when Hastings was acquitted by a 
huge majority on all the charges. The trial during its progress gave occasion to 

an unprecedented display of eloquence on the part of Fox, Burke, and Sheridan. 

Death of Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, at 
Rome. Mar. 3, 1788. 

The mental indisposition of King George 111. is made known. 

Oct. 12, 1788. 

Meeting of the Second Assembly of French Kobles. 

Nov. 6, 1788. 

Poland declares itself independent of Bussia. Jan. 18^ 1789. 



George Washington declared first President of the United 
States. Apr. 14, 1789. 

The followiDg thirteen states formed the Union at the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence in 1776 ; the italics indicate the*then slaveholding states ; those with a * 
prefixed seceded from the Federal Government in 1860 and 1861, and rejoined it 
in 1865 :— 

New York. 
New Jersey. 

New Hampshire. 
Rhode Island. 

The following have been added : — 
Vermont (from New York) ... 1791 
*Tewn€««ec (from North Carolina) 1796 

Kentucky (from Virginia) 1792 

Columbia district (under the im- 
mediate government of Congress) 
contains Washington, the seat 

of government 1 790 - 1 

Ohio (created) 1802 

^Louisiana (bought from France 

• Virginia, 

* North Carolina, 
*SoiUk Carolina, 

in 1803) 

Indiana (created) 

^Mississippi (from Georgia) 

Illinois (created) 

* Alabama (from Georgia) ... 
Maine (from Massachusetts) 
Missouri (from Louisiana) 



Florida (ceded by Spain, 1820); 

made a state 

• Iowa 

Wisconsin ... 




^^»^»^» ^^* »*»«« ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• A \j%^^^ 

Minnesota (territory, 1849); state 1857 

Oregon (territory, 1850) ; state 1S69 

Kansas (territory, 1854) ; state 1861 

1812 New Mexico (territory) 1850 

1816 Utah (territory) 1850 

1817 Washington (territory) 1853 

1818 Nebraska (territory) 1854 

1819 Nevada (territory) 1861 

1820 Colorado (territory) 1861 

1821 Dakota (territory) 1861 

1837 Arizona (territory) ... 1863 

1836 Idaho (territory) 186S 

I West Virginia (from Virginia) ... 1863 

Recovery of King George III., Feb. 19, and pnblic thanksgiv- 
ing in consequence, throughont Great Britain. Apr. 23, 1789. 

The States-General assembled at Versailles. May 5, 1789. 

The States-General assume the title of the National Assembly 
of France. June 17, 1789. 

In the former organization of the states, the three orders — the nobility, tbe 
clergy, and the Tiers Etat — had each deliberated and voted separately ; bat much 
opposition to this system was now manifested in the new assembly. Necker^s 
plan was to adopt a modification of the English legislature, by uniting the nobilil^ 
and the clergy in one chamber, and leaving the Tiers Etat in another. The veri- 
fication of the powers of the deputies was the first matter that disturbed the 
harmony of their proceedings. The nobility and the clergy met in their respective 
chambers, but the Tiei'S Etat contended for a united verification. This produced 
acrimonious debates. At length the verification of the powers of the Tiers Etat 
was concluded ; and, on the motion of the Abb6 Sidyes, they constituted them- 
selves the '* National Assembly," one and indivisible ; and voted that no deputies 
of any class had the right to act separately. Louis XVI. refused to sanction thk ' 
proceeding, and ordered the hall to be closed. The Tiers Etat repaired tq the 
tennis-court, and took an oath not to separate until they had given a constitution 
to France (June 20). Admission to the tennis-court having been afterwards 


denied to them, the charch of St. Louis was fixed upon as their place of assembly, 
irhere thej were joined by the majority of the clergy. The King annulled the 
votes of the Tiers Etat, and insisted upon maintaining the distinction between the 
three orders. To this the Tiers Etat refused to consent, and the royal authority 
was defeated. The National Assembly, or, as it was afterwards called, the 
Constituent Assembly (from its labours in drawing up a constitution), contained 
some of the ablest men in France. It was divided into three great parties. (1.) 
The Conservatives, sitting on the right of the president, who supported the 
ancient regime, and were composed chiefly of the prelates and higher nobles. 
On this side was Abb4 Maury. (2. ) The Constitutionalists, who occupied the 
centre, and who were desirous of establishing a limited monarchy somewhat after 
the English model. To this party belonged Clermont Tonnerre, Lally Tollendal, 
Monnier, Eochefoucault, Montesquieu, and others less famous. From the sup- 
posed stagnation of its principles this section was termed the Marais. (3.) The 
popular or ultra-democratic party, who occupied seats on the left, and whose 
principles were not very defined or consistent. They carried their views further 
than the Constitutionalists, but none of them were yet republicans. Their chief 
principle was the union of the monarchy with a single chamber — in other words 
a roysJ democracy. On this side were such men as the Duke of Orleans, Lafayette, 
Mirabeau, the Lameths, Barnave, Abb6 Sidyes, Talleyrand, Robespierre, and 
others. As the revolution proceeded, many of these men became republicans, 
whilst others joined the Constitutional party. 

Destruction of the Bastille by the French populace. 

July 14, 1789. 

The French Assembly adopts the declaration of the " Rights 
of Man." Aug. 13, 1789. 

Battle of Martinesti. Sep. 22, 1789. 

The Palace at Versailles attacked by the French populace, 
and the King and Queen compelled to proceed to Paris. 

Oct. 5—6, 1789. 

The title " King of France " altered to the " King of the 
French.'* Oct. 16, 1789. 

The property of the French clergy confiscated. Nov. 2, 1789. 

France is divided into eighty-three departments. Dec. 22, 1789. 

France was divided into eighty-three departments, nearly equal in extent and 
in population ; the department was divided into districts, the districts into 
cantons. They regulated their administration in a manner uniform and hierarchical. 
The department had an administrative council composed of thirty-six members, 
and an executive directory, consisting- of five ; as the names indicate, the func- 
tions of the one were to decide, of the other to act. The district was organized 
in the same manner ; although upon a smaller scale, it had a council and a 
directory, which were less numerous, and which relieved the superior council and 
directory. The canton, consisting of five or six parishes, was instituted for elec- 
toral purposes, and not administrative ; the acting citizens — and in order to become 
such, it was necessary to pay a contribution equivalent to three days' labour — 
assembled in the canton to nominate their deputies and magistrates. Everything 
in the new plan was submitted to election ; but this had many gradations. It 
appeared imprudent to intrust to the multitude the choice of delegates, and illegal 
not to let them concur in it ; they escaped this difficulty by the double election. 


The acting citizens of the canton designated the electors, who in their turn nomi- 
nated the members of the national assembly ; the administrators of the department^ 
those of the district, and the judges of the tribunals. A criminal tribunal was 
established for every department, a civil tribunal for each district, and a tiibunai 
of peace for each canton. Such was the institution of the department ; it re- 
mained to regulate that of the commune. The administration of this last was 
confided to a general council and a municipality, composed of members whose 
number was proportionate to the population of the town. The municipal offiooi 
were nominated immediately by the people, and were alone able to call out ths 
assistance of an armed force. The commune was the first degree of the civil asso- 
ciation, the kingdom as a whole was the last ; the department was intermediate 
between the commune aud the state, between the universal interests and interests 
purely local 

Visit of the Frencli King and Queen to the " Assembly :" they 
agree to the Revolution. Feb. 4, 1790. 

Abolition of Lettres de Cachet in France. Mar. 16, 1790. 

An alliance concluded between Poland and Prussia at 
Warsaw. Mar. 29, 1790. 

Prussia was induced to enter into this alliance in the hopes of ultimately hanng 
Thorn and Dantzic ceded to her by Poland. By the sixth article of the alliance 
treaty, it was stated that if any foreign power should assume the right of meddling 
in the internal afifairs of Poland, Prussia would do all in her power to prevent 
hostilities J but if her intervention were unsuccessful she would furnish 30,000 
men in the event of Poland being attacked. 

War renewed between the British and Tippoo Sahib, owing 
to the latter' s attack on Travancore. May 7, 1790. 

A treaty concluded between the British and the Mahrattas 
against Tippoo Sahib. June 1, 1790. 

Abolition of hereditary nobiliiy and titles of honour in France. 

June 20, 1790. 

Louis XVI. of France swears fealty to the new constitution at 
the f^te in the Champ de Mars. July 14, 1790. 

On the 14th of July, the first anniversary of the taking of the Bastille, and of 
the commencement of the Revolution, a grand national festival, called the con- 
federation of the whole kingdom, was held in the Champ de Mars. Talleyrand, 
Bishop of Autun, celebrated mass, and Lafayette, at the head of the National 
Guard, presided on the occasion. Lafayette first took the oath, then the President, 
then the King. His oath ran : '* I, Citizen King of the French, swear to the 
nation to employ all the power delegated to me by the constitutioxial law of the 
state, to uphold the constitution and enforce the execution of the laws.'* The 
Queen, then Ufting up the Dauphin in her arms, pledged his future obedience to 
tLe oath. A medal was struck in coxnmemoration of the event. 

Prussia concludes a convention for the settlement of the 
Netherlands, with England and Austria. July 27, 1790. 

Treaty of Werelow, between Kussia and Sweden. 

Aug. 14, 1790. 


DismiBsal and flight of Necker. Sep. 4, 1790. 

Decrees published for the humiliatioii of the French clergy, by 
the Assembly of France. Nov. 27, 1790. 

The National Assembly, not content with depriying ecclesiastics of their pro- 
perty, proceeded to decree the ciyil constitution of the clergy, which abolished 
sU tiie ancient forms and institutions of the Chorch. The title of archbishop, as 
veil as all prebends, chapters, priories, abbeys, convents, &c., were suppressed. 
Bishops and curte were no longer to be nominated by tbe kiug, but to be chosen 
by the, people. To these changes the Pope refused his sanction, but the clergy 
▼ere required to take, within a week, on pain of deprivation, an oath of fidelity 
to the nation, the law, and the king, and to maintain the constitution. Out of 
138 archbishops and bishops, only four consented to swear, and the oath was also 
refused by 50,000 curis and vicars. Hence arose the distinction of pritra 
unuentis and prStra imermentis, or sworn and non-j-uring priests. 

Capture of Ismael, by Suwarrow. Dec. 22, 1790. 

The " Quebec Bill " proposed by Pitt, by which Canada is 
divided into the Upper and Lower provinces, and receives a 
representative constitution. Mar. 4, 1791. 

Abolition of territorial primogeniture in France. 

Mar. 18, 1791. 

Death of Mirabeau. Apr. 2, 1791. 

A new constitution promulgated in Poland. May 8, 1791. 

Its principal articles were that the Eoman Oatholic religion should be the 
religion of the State, though dissenters were allowed the exercise of their 
worahip, and full participation in all civil rights ; and that the Polish crown was 
declared hereditary. 

Battle of Seringapatam. May 14, 1791. 

Louis XVI.j his queen and family, arrested at Yarennes in 
their flight from Paris. June 21, 1791. 

Imprisonment of the French royal family in the Tuileries, by 
the revolutionists. June 25, 1791. 

Conference of Pilnitz. Aug. 27, 1791. 

Between the King of Prussia, the Prince of Nassau, and the Count d*Artois, 
which resulted in the publication of the celebrated Declaration of Pilnitz, calling 
on the other Bnropean powers to aid them, in enabling the King of France to 
Mtablish in perfect liberty a monarchical goTemmeDt, befitting alike his sovereign 
light, and the welfare of the French people. In this declaration, the soyereigns 
eonndered the cause of Louis XVI. as their own ; they required that he should 
be free to go whereyer he pleased, that is, to join their standard ; that he should be 
'eplaoed on his throne, that the assembly should be dissolyed, that the princes 
o! the empire haying possessions in Alsace should be re-established in their feudal 
'^ghts. In case of refusal they menaced France with a war, in which all the 
powers would concur who had guaranteed the French monarchy. This declura- 
tioQ, far from discouraging, o^y irritated the assembly and the people ; they 
demanded by what right the princes of Europe interfered in their goyemment ; 
by what right they gaye orders to a great people, and imposed conditions ui>on 


it ; and since the BOTereigns appealed from them to force, thej prepared them* 
selves for resistance. The frontiers were pat in a state of defence, a hundred 
thousand of the national guards were levied, and thej waited with assarance the 
Attacks of the enemy, well convinced that the French people would be invincible, 
animated by the spirit of the revolution, and within their own frontiers. 

Louis XVI. assents to the " National Constitution " of France. 

Sep. 15, 1791. 

The new constitution aimed at destroying all ancient abases. Feudalism was 
abolished ; leUre$ de cachet^ and other abuses which spring from arbitraij 
government, were reformed ; uniformity of taxation was established and thft 
power of the purse vested in the representatives of the people ; the monopoliflg 
of corporations were suppressed ; the admission to civil offices and military com- 
manrls was thrown open ; freedom of religious worship was recognized ; barbaroos 
punishments were done away with ; France was divided into departments, and 
the National Guard established, &c. 

Dissolution of the French National Assembly. Sep. 29, 1791. 

Thouret arose, and with a powerful voice addressing himself to the people, 
"Tbe constituent assembly," he said, *' declares that its mission is accomplished, 
and that it terminates at this moment its sittings.*' Thus ended this first and 
glorious assembly of the nation ; it was courageous, enlightened, just, and had 
only one passion, that of the law. It accomplished in two years, by its efforts 
and by an unwearied perseverance, the greatest revolution which a single genera- 
tion of mankind ever witnessed. In the midst of its labours it put down despot- 
ism and anarchy, by defeating the intrigues of the aristocracy and maintaining 
the subordination of the people. Its single error was in not confiding the conduct 
of the revolution to those who had effected it ; it divested itself of power like 
those legislators of antiquity, who exiled themselves from their country, after 
having given it a constitution. A new assembly did not apply itself to the con- 
solidation of the Fork of its predecessor, and the revolution which required only 
to be completed was recommenced. 

Meeting of the French Legislative Assembly. Oct. 1, 1791. 

As in the Constituent Assembly, there was a Right, a Centre, and a Left. 
The Bight of the Legislative Assembly was composed of the Feuillant party — 
firm and absolute constitutionalists. Its chief speakers were #umas, Bamond, 
Yaublanc, &c. The Centre consisted of moderate men attached to the new con- 
stitution ; and like all moderate parties, it was soon won over to the strongest 
side, and the Left swayed it. The Left was chiefly composed of the party called 
Girondists, so named from the twelve deputies of the Gironde. At its head 
wereVergniaud, Guadet, Gensonn6, and Isnard. The Girondists were also joined 
by deputies from other parts, as Brissot, Condorcet, Fetion, and ethers ; and 
hence their party is also sometimes called Brissotins. The Left had in the 
Assembly a nucleus of a party more extreme than itself, led by such men as 
Ghabot, Bazire, and Merlin, who were the forerunners of the democratic factioD) 
which without managed the clubs and the multitude. 

Greece is placed under Russian protection. Jan. 9, 1792. 

Treaty of Jassy, between Russia and Turkey. Jan. 9, 1792. 

Peace concluded between the British and Tippoo Sahib ; the 
Sahib's two eldest sons retained as hostages. 

Mar. 26, 1792. 


Oastavus III., King of Sweden, shot at a masqnerade, by 
Connt Ankerstrom. Mar. 29, 1792. 

Trance declares war against Austria. Apr. 20, 1792. 

Confederation of Targowitz. May 14, 1792. 

A coofederation of Polish nobles, partisans of Rassia, to restore the Russian 
eonstitaldon of 1775 in Poland. It was instigated by Catherine II., who 
declared in a manifesto to the Poles that they must return to their ancient laws, 
«r she would constrain them by force. This confederation furnished a pretext for 
the second partition of Poland. 

War declared between Russia and Poland. June 8, 1792. 

The Tnileries attacked by the French republicans. 

June 20, 1792. 
Battle of Menin. June 20, 1792. 

Union of Prussia, Austria, and Holland, against France. 

June, 1792. 

Massacre of the Swiss guards, storming of the Tuileries, and 
imprisonment of the French royal family, in the Temple, by 
the French revolutionists. Aug. 10, 1792. 

Massacre of the Abbaye. Sep. 3, 1792. 

The Abbaye was one of the chief prisons of Paris. It was assailed by the 
lerolutionists and the prisoners put to d^^ath, under circumstances of unparalleled 
atrodty. A mock tribunal was formed for the trial of the unfortunate captives. 

Massacre of the Royalist prisoners in Paris (among them the 
UBfortunate Princesse de Lamballe), by the French revolu- 
tionists. Sep. 2 & 6, 1792. 

Battle of Yahny. Sep. 20, 1792. 

Royalty abolished in France by the " National Convention." 

Sep. 21, 1792. 

The National Convention was divided into two great parties, the Girondists 
and the faction of the Mountain. The Girondists, who had occupied the opposi- 
tion or left benches of the Legislative Assembly, formed the right of the 
Convention, and in appearance they had the majority — occupying the ministry 
M»d supported by the moderate party. But they had placed themselves in a 
Wae position. They had gone too far for the Constitutionalists, and not far 
^ongh for the Ultra-Democrats. Opposite to them was the Mountain, so called 
from the members occupying the highest benches on the left. The nucleus of this 
wction was formed by the twenty -four Parisian deputies and some determined 
^publicans from the departments. The leaders were Robespierre, Philippe 
^Ut6, Danton, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud Yarennes, Camille Desmoulins, 
Marat, Pabre d'Eglantine, &c. The Mountain was supported by the Jacobin Club, 
the Commune, and the Parisian populace. Between the Girondists and the Moun- 
^1 voting sometimes with one and sometimes with the other, was the Plain or 
the Marsh, composed chiefly of new members without settled political connections. 

The French RepubHc estabUshed. Sep. 22, 1792. 

* 2 


Inyasion of the Sardinian territories by the French, who 
occupy Savoy and Nice. Sep., 1792. 

Battle of Jemappes. Nov. 6, 1792. 

The debate on the trial of Lonis XVT. opened in the Na- 
tional Convention of France (and concludes Dec. 3). . 

Nov. 12, 1792. 

Savoy and Nice annexed to Fi-ance. Nov. 27, 1792^ 

Annexation of Flanders to France. Dec. 15, 1792. 

Second treaty between Prnteia and Russia, for the partition of' 
Poland, signed. Jan. 4, 1793. 

Louis XVI., imprisoned in the Temple, and broaght to trial 
Jan. 19, is condemned to death, Jan. 20, and beheaded in 
the Place de Louis Quinze. Jan. 21, 1793. 

Thus perished, at the age of thirty-nine, after a reign of sixteen years and a 
half, passed in endeavouring to do good, the best, but weakest of monarchs. The 
revolution was an inheritance bequeathed to him by his ancestors. He was 
more fitted than any of those that preceded him, to prevent or terminate it ; for 
he was capable of being a reformer before it broke out, or of being a constftn- 
tional monarch after it. He perished, the victim of passions which he did not 
share ; of the passions of those about him, to which he was a stranger ; and those 
of the multitude which he had not excited. There are few kings who hare left 
behind them so excellent a memory ; and history will say of him, that with moie 
firmness of mind he would have been a model of a king. 

The French National Convention declares war against Holland, 
and sends an army into the States. Feb. 1, 1793. 

War declared against England, Spain, and Holland, bj France. 

Feb. 1, 1793. 

Revolutionary Tribunal established in France. Mar. 10, 1793. 

The Revolutionary Tribunal was designed to take cognizance of all counter 
revolutionary attempts, of all attacks upon liberty, equality, the unity and in- 
divisibility of the republic, and the internal and external safety of the state. 
A commission of six members of the Convention was to examine and report upon 
the cases to be broaght before it, to draw up and present the acts of accusation. 
The tribunal was composed of a jury to decide upon the facts, five judges to apply 
the law, a public accuser, and two substitutes. From its sentence there was no 

Insurrection in La Vendue. Mar. 10, 1793. 

The war of La Vendue was an inevitable event in the revolution. This coon- 
try, which was backed by the sea and the Loire, traversed by few roads, and 
covered with villages, hamlets, and castle-wards, had maintained its ancient state 
of feudal existence. In La Vendue there was neither education nor civilization, 
because there was no middle class ; and there was no middle class, because there 
were few or no towns. The class of the peasants had not at this time acquired 
any other ideas than those communicated to it by the priests, and had Isept il< 
interests undivided from those of the nobles. These men, simple, robust, and 
devoted to the ancient order of things, understood nothing of a revolution, wbi«b 


was the result of opioions and wants altogether unknown to their situation. 
The nobles and the priests, finding themselves a strong party in this quarter of the 
eoontiy, did not emigrate ; and there it was that in reality existed the partisans 
of the old regime, because there it was that its doctrines and its society were 
to be found. It was certain that sooner or later France and La Vendue, countries 
so different, and which had nothing in common but their language, should be in 
JL state of war with each other : it was certain that the two kinds of fanaticism, 
the monarchical, and that which believed in the popular soyereignty, that of the 
priesthood, and that of human reason, should raise their banners against each 
oiher, and bring about the triumph either of the old or new state of civilization. 
Partial troubles had arisen at various times in La Vendee. In 1792 the Count 
de la Bouairie had proposed a general rising, which had only failed in conse- 
quence of his own arrest ; bat eveiything was prepared for an insurrection, when 
the recruiting of the army by three hundred thousand men was undertaken: that 
levy became the signal of revolt. The Yendeans defeated the gendarmerie at Saint 
Vlorens, and first took for their chiefs at divers points Cathelineau, the wag- 
goner, Oharette, an officer in the navy, and Stofflet the gamekeeper. In a short 
time the insurrection spread throughout the whole country ; nine hundred oom- 
amnes rose np at the sound of the tocsin, and then the noble chiefs Bonchamps, 
Lescure, Larochejaquelin, D'Elb^ and Talmont, joined the others. The troops 
of the line and the battalions of the national guard, which marched against the 
insurgents, were beaten. General Marc6 was overthrown at St. Vincent, by 
Stofflet ; General Gauvilliers at Beaupreau, by D^Elb^e and Bonchamps ; General 
Quetineau at Aubiers, by Larochejaquelin ; and General Ligonnier, at Cholet. 
The Yendeans, now become masters of Ch&tillon, Bressuire, and Yihiers, deter- 
mined, before pushing their advantages farther, to give themselves a sort of 
organization. They formed three bodies, consisting of from ten to twelve thou- 
sand men each, after the distribution of the Yendean territory into three branches 
of command. The first, under Bonchamps, was called the army of Anjou ; the 
second, under D'Elble, was called the grand army ; and the third, under Charette, 
was called the army of the marshes or fens. Numerous reverses followed, and 
Marceau, with Tilly and Kleber, annihilated their army at Savenay, December 22. 
The final pacification of the province was effected by the treaty of Lufon, January 
17, 1800, nearly 1,000,000 victims having fallen in the struggle. 

Battle of Neerwinden. Mar. 18, 1793. 

Robespierre and Ids coUeagaes invested with dictatorial 
authority by the French Republic. Mar. 25, 1793. 

An alliance concluded between England and Russia against 
France. Russia acquires considerable territory by the second 
partition of Poland. Mar. 25, 1793. 

Thl5 Committee of Public Safety established in France. 

Apr. 6, 1793. 

This committee was established by Bar^re, and was to be composed of nine 
members of the Convention, who were to deliberate in secret, to watch over the 
deliberations of the ministry, and to control the measures of the Executive 
Council. These members were to be renewed every month, and were to render 
to the Convention every week an account of their proceedings and of the situation 
of the Republic. Nearly half of its members were to be taken from the Bight 
or the Centre of the Convention ; the rest from the more moderate section of the 

Battle of St. Amand. May 8, 1793. 



Commencement of the Reign of Terror. May 31, 1793. 

Fall of the Girondists : arrest of their leaders. June 21, 1793. 

The following are the names of those illustrious indiyidnals who were pro- 
scribed of the Girondists : — Gensonn^, Guadet, Brissot, Gt)r8as, Potion, Vexg- 
niaud, Salles, Barbaroux, CbambOii, Buzot, Birotteau, lidon, BAbaud, Lasouroe, 
Lanjuinais, Grangeneuve, Lehardy, Lesage, Louvet, Yalaz^, Lebrun, the minister 
for foreign aifairs, and Glavidre, minister for contributions. The members of the 
twelve arrested were Kervelegan, Gardien, Rabnud-Saint-Etienne, Boileaa, BeF> 
trand, Yig^e, Molleveau, Henri-Larividre, Gomdre, and Bergonin. Their trial 
commenced October 24, and they were executed October 30. Thus fell the party 
of the Gironde, a party which was illustrious for the great talents and courage of 
its members ; a party which honoured the rising republic by its horror of blood, 
its hatred of crime, its disgust at anarchy, its love of order, of justice, and 
liberty ; a party which was unfortunately placed between the middle class whose 
revolution it had combated, and the multitude whose dominion it rejected. Con- 
demned to inactivity, this party could only adorn the certainty of defeat by a 
courageous struggle, and by a bold death. At that time its end might have been 
foreseen with certainty ; it had been driven from post to post ; from the Jacobins , 
by the invasion of the Mountainists ; from the commune by the dismissal of 
Potion ; from the ministry by the retreat of Eoland and his colleagues ; and 
Ax>m the army by the defection of Dumouriez. It had no longer any hold but on 
the Convention ; there it retrenched itself, struggled, and was overcome. 

Assassination of Marat, by Charlotte Corday. July 13, 1793. 
Treaty between Poland and Russia. July 22, 1793. 

By this treaty Poland ceded the counties of Poloczk, Yilna, Brzesc, the greater 
part of Yolhynia, of what remained of Podolia, and of the Palatinates of Eiew 
and Bracklaw to Russia. 

The first English church erected in Australia. Aug. 16, 1793. 

Battle of Lincelles. Aug. 18, 1793. 

Battle of Quesnoy. Sep. 1, 1793. 

War declared by Naples against the French Republic. 

Sep. 3, 1793. 

Battle of Dunkirk. Sep. 8, 1793. 

Arrival of Lord Macartney's embassy at Pekin, China : he 
is received by the Emperor. Sep. 14, 1793. 

In 1793 Lord Macartney was sent as ambassador to China, to endeavour to 
establish our trade with that country upon a better and surer footing, and more 
especially to obtain for the British factory a cessation of the insolence and extor- 
tion of the Viceroy of Canton. The embassy was productive of but little good 
effect. The insolent and extortionate viceroy was recalled, it is true, but his 
successor was not long in office ere he went far beyond him in both of those bad 
qualities. The ambassador was blamed at home for having been too high and 
unbending in his demeanour ; but the truth was, that the time had not come for a 
proper understanding to exist between the Chinese and any European nation. 

Treaty between Poland and Prussia. Sep. 25, 1793. 

Poland ceded to Prussia, by this treaty, the pajatinates of Posen, Gnesen, 


Kaliflch, Siradia, Bava, the districts Wielun, Oujavia^ and the towiis of Dantzlc 
and Thorn, in all 1061 sq. miles of territory. 

Ezeoution of Qneen Marie Antoinette. Oct. 16, 1793. 

Battle of Wattignies. Oct. 16, 1793. 

Execution of Philippe Egalit^, Duke of Orleans. Nov. 6, 1793. 

Execution of Madame Roland. Nov. 8, 1793. 

The Revolutionary Calendar adopted by the French Con- 
vention. Nov. 24, 1793. 

One of the principal features of the French revolution was a fantastic alteration 
of the calendar. In place of the Christian calendar, they substituted that of the 
lepublican, — ^for the week, the decade, making every tenth day instead of Sunday, 
the day of rest. The new sera was dated from the 22nd of September, 1792, the 
epoch of the foundation of the republic. They had twelve equal months, con- 
sisting of thirty days each, which commenced on the 22nd of September, in/ the 
following order : Yendemedre, Brumaire, Frimaire, for the autumn ; Nivose, 
Pluviose, Yentose, for the winter ; Germinal, Floral, FrairiaJ, for the spring ; 
Messidor, Thermidor, Fructidor, for the summer. The five supernumerary days 
were thrown to the end of the year, to complete the whole, and they were called 
the Sans-Culotteides. 

Insnrrection in La Vendee suppressed. Dec. 12, 1793. 

Toulon evacuated by the British. Dec. 17, 1793. 

Courts for civil and criminal causes, and circuits appointed in 
India by the British government. 1793. 

Invasion of Spain by the French. Feb., 1794. 

Execution of the leaders of the Cordeliers' Club.* Mar. 24, 1794. 

Tlie Russians expelled from Cracow by Kosciusko, and com- 
mencement of the Polish insurrection. Mar. 24, 1794. 

The cause of this insurrection arose from an oppressive order of Russia that the 
Polish army should be reduced to 15,000 men, thus depriving many who had 
purchased their posts and depended on them for subsistence of their means of 
living. Madalinski, a general of brigade, refused to reform his corps according 
to the new regulation, and marched towards Cracow. Kosciusko, hearing of this 
movement, h^ Cracow, where he was proclaimed generalissimo. 

Execution of Danton and his colleagues. Apr. 5, 1794. 

* CoBDELiBBs' Clvb. — This socicty of republicans, formed at Paris in December, 
1790, received this name because their meetings were held in a chapel which had 
been built by the monastic order of the Cordeliers. Danton was the first presi- 
dent, and amongst the more celebrated members were Marat, Camille Desmoulins, 
Fabre d'Eglantine, Bobert, and H6l)ert. The Cordeliers demanded the abolition 
of royalty in 1791. A most powerful body, assembled at this club, took part in 
the insurrection of Aug. 10, 1792. They clamoured for the death of the king in 
U93, and, in conjunction with the Jacobins, conspired for the overthrow of the 
Gtirondiste in the same year. 


Massacre of the Russians m Warsaw bj the Polish garrison and 
citizens. Apr. 16, 1794. 

Battle of Cambray. Apr. 24, 1794. 

Volunteer corps raised in England, in consequence of threats 
of invasion by the French republicans. Mar. & Apr., 1794. 

A National Council for the goyemment of the Polish B>epublic 
established by the Poles. May 10, 1794. 

The king was set aside ; the council was to consist of eight members, and 
Eosciosko invested with dictatorial power. 

Execution of Madame Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI. 

May 12, 1794. 

Battle of Tourcoing. May 18-22, 1794. 

Battle of Espierres. May 22, 1794 

Suspension of the " Habeas Corpus Act " in England, owing 
to the spread of revolutionary principles, and the soditious 
state of the country. May 23, 1794. 

The French fleet defeated off Ushant by Lord Howe. 

June 1, 1794. 

Cracow surrenders to the Prussian forces ; Austria unites with 
Prussia against Poland. June 15, 1794. 

Battle of Fleurus. June 26, 1794 

The Bevolntion of the Ninth Thennidor and fall of Robes- 
pierre. July 27, 1794. 

fezecution of Bobespierre, St. Just, and 70 of their colleagues ; 
termination of the Reign of Terror. • July 28, 1794. 

Arriyal in England of Lord Macartney's embassy from China, 
without having effected any important results. Sep. G, 1794. 

The Jacobin Clubs ordered to be closed by the French National 
Convention.* Sep. 8, 1794. 

Battle of Bois-le-duc. Sep. 14, 1794. 

Battle of Boxtel. Sep. 14, 1794. 

* Jaoobin ob Breton Club. — ^One of the numerons political associations that 
eame into existence just before the first French revolution. The members at first 
styled themselves '* Friends of the Constitution." When they met at Versailles, 
they received the name of the Breton Club, from the fact that the deputies from 
Brittany took the lead in their proceedings. In October, 1789, the sittings of 
the club were transferred to the monastery of the Jacobin friars at Paris, when 
the public were first admitted to its conferences. In 1790 this club increased 
rapidly in numbers ; and in 1792 it wielded a pernicious influence over the 
government, and assumed the title of " The Society of the Friends of Liberty 
and Bquality." It was suppressed after the fall of Robespierre in 1794« 


Battle of Maciejowice. v Oct. 10, 1794 

Defeat of the Poles at Pragaby the Russians, under Snwarrow : 
12,000 Poles slain. Nov. 4, 1794. 

Warsaw taken by Snwarrow. Nov. 9, 1794. 

Inauguration of the worship of the " Qoddess of Keason " in 
France. Nov. 10, 1794. 

One of the ceremonies of this insane time stands unriyalled for absurdity, com- 
bined with impiety. The doors of the convention were thrown open to a band of 
mnsicians ; preceded by whom, the members of the manicipal body entered in 
solemn procession, singing a hymn in praise of liberty, and escorting, as tbe object 
of their fntnre worship, a veiled female, whom they termed the Goddess of Reason. 
Being brought within the bar, she was unveiled with great form, and placed on 
the right hand of the president ; when she was generally recognized as a ballet 
£^rl, with whose charms most of the persons present were acquainted, from her 
appearance on the stage, while the experience of individuals was farther extended. 
To this person, as the fittest representative of that reason whom they worshipped, 
the national convention of France rendered public homage. This impious and 
lidiculous mummery had a certain fashion ; and the installation of the Goddess 
of Reason was renewed and imitated throughout the nation, in such places where 
the inhabitants desired to show themselves equal to all the heights of the revolu- 
tion. The churches were, in most districts of France, closed against priests and 
worshippers, the bells were broken and cast into cannon, the whole ecclesiastical 
establishment was destroyed, and the republican inscription over the cemeteries, 
declaring death to be a perpetual sleep, announced to those who lived under that 
dominion, that they were to hope for no redress even in the next world. Marriage 
was declared to be only a civil contract, and all the relations of life and of society 
were undermined. 

A Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, conclnded 
with Great Britain by the United States. Nov. 19, 1794. 

Trials of Thomas Hardy, John Home Tooke, and John Thelwall. 

Oct. 28— Dec. 6, 1794. 

Attempts were made this year, in England, by seditious admirers of the French 
revolution, to excite disturbances. Two principal societies existed at this time — 
the Society for Oonstitutional Information and the Corresponding Society — both 
having for their object a reform in the representation of Parliament. Treasonable 
practices were carried on by correspondence with other societies, for the purpose of 
assembling a convention to represent the people of England. The government 
now interfered and committed the leading members to the Tower. The trials 
eotnmenced with that of Hardy, who was charged with nine overt acts of treason, 
but was acquitted after an examination of eight days. That of Tooke followed, 
who was also acquitted ; a third effort was made to procure the conviction of 
Thelwall, but it terminated, like the former ones, in his acquittal. The Crown now 
declined all further attempts, and the remaining prisoners were discharged. 

Arrival of the Dnke of York with an English force in Holland, 
to aid the Dutch against the French ; he withdraws without 
accomplishing any great results. The Dutch constitution is 
remodelled. 1794. 


Aga Mohammed^ Shah of Persia, makes Teheran his capital 
city. 1794. 

Peace concluded at Basle between France and Prussia. 

Apr. 5, 1795. 

By this treaty the French troops were allowed to contiDue the oocupation of the 
Bhenish provinces on the left bank. Neither parties were to permit troops of the 
enemies of either to pass over its territories. Prussia was to engage in no hostile 
enterprise against Holland, or any other country occupied by French troops. 
France a^n'eed not to push her enterprises in Germany beyond a certain line of 
demarcation, provided that Prussia should recall her contingents from the Imperial 
army, and furnish no more troops to powers at war with France. 

Marriage of the Prince of Wales with Caroline of Brunswick. 

Apr. 8, 1795. 

Acquittal of Warren Hastings. Apr. 23, 1795. 

The Batavian republic organized, and th6 Stadtholderate 
abolished. May 16, 1795. 

The old provinces were now merged into one republic ; the legislative power, 
in imitation of the French, was given to a representative assembly ; and the 
executive to a directory of five. The new republic was obliged to cede to France 
some southern districts, particularly Maestricht, Venloo, Limburg, and Dutch 
Flanders ; to form a perpetual alliance with that state ; pay a sum of 100,000,000 
guilders ; and allow the French troops to occupy its territories. 

Mango Park starts from the Gambia on his voyage of dis- 
covery into Africa. May 22, 1795. 

He traced the Niger to Silla, explored the intervening countries, and returned 
to England in 1797. 

Death of Louis XYII. in the Temple. June 8, 1795. 

Defeat of the French fleet off L'Orient (France) by Lord 
Bridport. June 23, 1795. 

Treaty of B^le between France and Spain. July 22, 1795. 

By this treaty France restored all her Spanish conquests, and Spain ceded her 
portion of St. Domingo. Spain proclaimed her recognition not only of the French 
but also of the Batavian republics, and engaged to employ all her influence to 
detach Portugal from the Engli^sh alliance. This treaty, by which the Spanish 
House of Bourbon recognized the power which had overthrown its eldest branch, 
was iiailed with the greatest joy at Madrid^ and Emmanuel Qodoy, Duke of 
Alcudia, under whose auspices it had been effected, received the title of '* Prince 
of the Peace." 

The whole of the island of Ceylon reduced to subjection by 
the British. Oct. 1, 1795. 

A rebellion of French Royalists against the Convention sup- 
pressed by Napoleon Buonaparte. Oct. 5, 1795. 

Final partition of Poland between Bussia, Austria, and Prussia. 

Oct. 24i, 1795. 


• By this partition Bnssia possessed the Duchies of Ooarland and Semig&lUft, 
the district of Pilten, Samogitia, part of the Palatinates of Troki and Ghelm, 
and the remainder of those of Yilna, Brzesc, and Yolhynia ; Austria the greater 
part of the Palatinate of Cracow, the Palatinates of Sandomir and Lublin and 
part of those of Chelm, Podlachia, and Masovia ; Prussia, the remains of the 
Palatinates of Bava and Plotzk, part of Masovia, including Warsaw and portions 
of Podlachia, Troki, and Cracovia. Each of these three shares contained a popu- 
lation of about 1,000,000 souls. 

The first meetings of the " Couzicil of the Ancients " and of 
the "Fiye Hnndred " are held ; the French Directory estab- 
Kshed. Oct. 26, 1795. 

At this period the French Convention felt the necessity of organizing their 
power, and accordingly a new constitution was framed, the best, the wisest, and 
the most liberal that had as yet been projected. The legislative power was vested 
in two chambers ; a lower one, of 500 members, called the Council of Five 
Hundred, and an upper one, of 250 members, called the Council of the Ancients. 
The Five Hundred, whose members were to have attained the age of thirty years, 
alone possessed the right of proposing laws ; while the Ancients, consisting of 
men past the age of forty, and either married or widowers, had only the privi- 
ly of a veto. The Ancients, except in urgent cases, were not to decide till a 
hill had been read three times, with an interval of at least five days between each 
reading. A third part of each Council was to be replaced every year by new 
memb^ The executive power was entirely separated from the legislative, and 
was entrusted to a directory, consisting of five persons, to be selected by the 
Ancients from a list of ten persons, presented by the Five Hundred. Each 
director in turn was to preside over the directory for a space of three months, 
and one director was to be replaced every year by a fresh election. The directors 
were to appoint six ministers to conduct negotiations, manage the army, the 
finances, &c., and they were to be responsible for the acts of their ministers 
as if they were their own. To these a guard was assigned, a civil list, and a 
residence in the Lnxembouig. 

Battle of Laono. Kov. 23, 1795. 

Abdication of Stanislaus IT., King of Poland, and extinction 
of the kingdom ; a pension of 200,000 ducats is assigned to 
him. Nov. 25, 1796. 

Birth of the Princess Charlotte, daughter of the Prince of 
Wales. Jan. 7, 1796. 

All the fortified stations of the Dutch in Ceylon ceded to the 
British by the treaty of Colombo. Feb. 15, 1796. 

Napoleon commences his Italian victories. Apr. 9, 1796. 

Battle of Montenotte. Apr. 12, 1796. 

Battle of Mondovi. Apr. 22, 1796. 

Battle of Lodi. May 10, 1796. 

Savoy and Nice ceded to France by the treaty of Paris. 

May 15, 1796. 

Battle of Lonato. Aug. 3, 1796. 

Battle of Castiglione. Aug. 5, 1796. 


Battle of Neresheim. Aug. 10, 1796, 

Surrender of a Dutch fleet in Saldanha Bay (Africa) to Sir 

George Keith Elphinstone. Aug. 17, 1796. 

Treaty of St. Ildefonso. Aug. 19, 1796. 

Between Spain and the French Directory. Its ohject was to render the wars of 
one power common to both ; or, in other words (under the then existing circnm- 
stances) to place the resoarces of Spain at the disposal of France. Each power 
agreed to provide the other, at three months' notice, with fifteen ships of the 
line, six frigates, and four smaller yessels, and with 18,000 infantry, 6,000 
cavalry, and artillery in proportion. By the 18th article Spain stated that 
England being the only country against which she had any d[irect eomplainta, 
the present alliance should be valid solely against her during the actual war, and 
that Spain should remain neuter with regard to other powers at war with the 
French Republic. After the execution of this treaty the English and Spanish 
ministers were reciprocally withdrawn. 

Battle of Bassano. Sep. 8, 1796. 

Battle of Biberach. Oct. 2, 1796. 

Spain declares war against England. Oct. 11, 1796. 

Peace concluded at Paris between France and Naples. 

Oct. 11, 1796. 

Naples agrees to be neutral, and to shut her ports against all vessels of war 
belonging to belligerents that should exceed the number of four. 

Death of King Victor Amadeus III. of Sardinia. Oct. 16, 1796. 

Battle of Areola. Nov. 14, 1796. 

X^apoleon founds the Cispadane Republic in Italy (it is merged 

the following year into the Cisalpine Republic). Dec. 4, 1796. 

A French expedition, under Hoche and Wolfe Tone, anchors in 
Bantry Bay, Ireland, to aid the Irish insurgents in their 
attempt to subvert the monarchy in Ireland. Dec. 22, 1796. 

Battle of Rivoli. Jan. 17, 1797. 

Naval Battle of Cape St. Vincent. Feb. 14, 1797. 

Peace of Tolentino, between France and Rome. Feb. 19, 1797. 

By this treaty the See of Home withdrew from all .leagues against the French 
Bepublic ; ceded to it Avignon and the Legations of Bologna, Ferrara, and the 
Bomagn^ ; and accorded to it Ancona, till a continental pacification should be 
effected. In addition to the aboye the Pope stipulated to pay a large sum to 

Commercial panic in England, Feb. 20 ; the Bank of England 
stops payment. Feb. 27, 1797. 

The war had pressed heavily upon the resources of the country, and early in 
1797 it was evident that the Bank of England, which had advanced }0\ millions 
for the public service, would be unable to meet its payments in specie. In 
February an order of council appeared prohibiting the Bank from paying their 
notes in specie. At a meeting of the principal bankers and merchants in London 


■ - — ■ ■' '■" ■ I. ■■■^. ■■■»■■ ■ ■■■■ ■-■■■.. 1,^ 

it was resolved to take Bank notes to any amount ; notes of £1 and £2 were 
issued, and in March Pitt brought in his Bank Restriction Bill, the main provi- 
sions of which were to indemnify the Bank for refusing to make cash payments, 
and to prohibit them from doing so except in sums under 208. It also ordered that 
tiie army and navy should be paid in specie ; that bank notes should be received 
in payment by the collectors in every branch of the revenue ; and that the bank 
should be permitted to issue a sum in cash not exceeding £100,000 for the accom- 
modation of private bankers and traders in the metropolis. The Bill was to be 
in force till June 24th of the same year, but the term was afterwards prolonged, 
and the bank did not lesnme cash payments till May 1, 1821. 

Battle of Tagliamento, Mar. 16, 1797. 

Peace of Leoben, between France and Anstria. Apr. 18, 1797* 

By this peace Austria ceded to France the Austrian Netherlands, consented to 
the establishment of a Cisalpine Republic in Italy, and to France's occupation of 
the left bank of the Rhine, and of Savoy. For these sacrifices Austria was to be 
compensated with the continental states of Venice. 

BaboBUf' 8 conspiracy against the French Directory. May 20, 179 7. 

His design was to establish what he termed *'The Public Good," by means of 
a division of property and the formation of a government consisting of absolute 
Democrats. The insurrection was to take place May 21, but one of his follower^ 
having given information, the conspirators were seized, and Baboeuf guillotined 
May 25. 

A mutiny breaks ont in the English fleets at Spithead, Apr. 15, 
and at the Nore. May 22, 1797. 

Discontent had long been smouldering in the English navy among our sear 
men* They complaint that they only received the wages fixed in the reign of 
Charles II. , though articles had risen at least 30 per cent. ; that their provisions 
were deficient in weight and measure ; that tbey were not properly tended when 
sick ; that their pay was stopped when they were wounded ; and that when in port 
they were detained on board ship. Anonymous petitions had been forwarded in 
February and March to Lord Howe, and .on AprU 15 a mutiny broke out in the 
fleet at Spithead. On the signal being hoisted on board the fleet at Spithead, to 
prepare for sea, three cheers were given from the Queen ChwrhUey which was 
answered by the crews of the other ships, and the mutiny was declared. All the 
efforts of the officers to enforce subordination among the men proved ineffectual. 
IThe ships^ companies appointed two delegates from each, who held their consulta- 
tions in the cabin of the Queen Charlotte; and on the 17th an oath was adminis- 
tered to every seaman in the fleet, to stand firm in the general cause. Some 
officers who were very obnoxious to the crews were sent on shore ; but in other 
respects the strictest discipline was observed, and the most respectful attention 
to their officers was enjoined, under rigorous penalties. All their proceedings 
indicated a concerted pkm, and fixed determination to carry their point. Two 
petitions were drawn up and signed by the delegates,— one to the Admiralty, the 
other to the House of Commons, both couched in the most decorous language, and 
stating their complaints, the grounds of which did not appear unreasonable. The 
matter seemed so serious to government, that the Board of Admiralty was trans- 
ferred to Portsmouth, and a kind of negotiation was entered into with the muti- 
neers. At length Lord Bridport went on board, hoisted his flag, declared that he 
brought with him a redress of all grievances and the king^s pardon, and obedience 
iras restored. A fresh mutiny broke out (May 8), on a suspicion among the 


sailors tliat the promises made to them were not intended to be fulfilled ; but 
Lord Howe reduced the sailors to order, and their pay was increased. In spite 
of this, another mutiny occarred in a different quarter, namely, amongst the ships 
lying at the Nore (May 22), the crews of which, taking possession of their shipo, 
elected delegates, and drew np a statement of requisitions to be laid before the 
Admiralty. They were joined on the 4th of Jnne by four men-of-war from 
Admiral Duncan's fleet off the coast of Holland. At the head of this revolt was 
one Parker, a man of some education, and remarkable for a resolute disjKMsition. 
The Admiralty having returned a negative to their demands (demands embraciiig 
important alterations in the Articles of War), as being incompatible with the 
orders and regulations of the navy, Parker replied with a declaration that the 
seamen had determined to keep possession of the fleet till their grievances were 
redressed. The Lords of the Admiralty, repairing to Sheemess, had an interview 
with the delegates, whose behaviour was so audacious that they returned without 
any prospect of agreement. This mutiny was the more alarming, as the position 
of the ships gave them the command of the navigation of the Thames, and as it 
was organized in a perfectly democratical form, and exhibited tokens of deep 
disaffection. It was, therefore, determined by government, after an ineffectual 
attempt to bring back the men to duty by an offer of pardon, to employ force for 
their reduction ; and they were confirmed in this resolution by the disapprobation 
which the Portsmouth and Plymouth fleets manifested at these proceedings. The 
buoys at the mouth of the river were therefore taken up ; batteries were erected 
on the banks for firing red-hot ball ; and a proclamation was issued declaring the 
ships in a state of rebellion, forbidding all intercourse with them from the dbore. 
At length, becoming sensible that their fellow-seamen and the whole nation were 
against them, they began to waver and differ among themselves. . One ship aft^ 
another stole away — the well-affected on board the remainder were encouraged to 
oppose the more violent — and after some bloodshed among themselves, all the 
ships submitted. Parker and his fellow-delegates were given up. The former, 
after a deliberate trial, was capitally condemned and executed. 

The Republic of Genoa assnmes the title of the Lignrian 
Republic. June 14, 1797. 

Death of Edmund Burke. July 9, 1797. 

Unsuccessful attempt of tlie British, on Santa Cruz ; Admiral 
Nelson loses his right arm. July 24, 1797. 

A revolution in favour of the Directory takes place in Paris : 
Coup d'etat of 18th Fructidor. Sep. 4, 1797. 

Tbe establisbment of tbe Frencb Direotoiy had met with strong opposition from 
the Royalists and Democrats. This opposition had now greatly increased — oon>- 
spiracies were organized, and insurrections, long smouldering, ready to break out-<- 
it became necessary for the Directory to take strenuous measures. The elections 
of 1797 gave the Royalists a large majority, and they speedily obtained great 
influence in the government of tbe country. Barth^lemy, a royalist, was made 
a director, and Pichegru was appointed president of the Council of the Five Hun- 
dred. The emigrants and the banished priests returned in crowds. The Directory 
grew sdarmed, collected troops round Paris, and, relying upon the army, executed 
a coup d'itaty and arrested the most active and influential of the Royalist 
party. This occurred in the night of the 18th Fructidor. The Council of the 
Five Hundred and that of Ancients were immediately assembled, and a commis^ 
sion was appointed to prepare a law of Public Safety. Hiany of the Royalists 


were banished, and others were transported to Cayenne. The principal effect 
of this 4xmp cTitat was the return of the revolutionary government, a little 
modified. The two ancient privileged classes were again driven into the hack- 
ground ; the refractory priests were a second time exiled. All who had protested 
against the abolition of the nobility and retained their titles, were ordered to 
quit the territory of the republic. The old nobles, as well as those recently 
created, were rendered incapable of exercising the rights of citizens until the 
expiration of seven years, after having served, as it were, an apprenticeship to 
the repoblic. The Directory at this time reached the height of its power. 

Battle of Camperdown. Oct. 11, 1?97. 

The Cisalpine Republic recognized by the Emperor of Ger- 
many. Oct. 17, 1797. 

This republic was formed by the union of the Cispadane and Transpadane 
Republics by Napoleon. It comprehended Austrian-Lombardy, the Bergamasque, 
the Bressau, the Cremasque, the city and fortress of Mantaa, Pescbiera, part of 
the Venetian states, the Modenois, the principality of Massa and Carrara, and the 
three Legations of Bologna, Ferrara, and Romagna and Valteline. Treaties of 
alliance and commerce were concluded between France and this republic in 1798, 
by which the last yestige of independence was destroyed. Austria refused to 
Tecogni2e its envoy, sent to Vienna in 1798, and its fortunes declined, owing 
to the reverses sustained by the French. It was, however, once more recog- 
nized by the Emperor of Austria by the treaty of Luneville, Feb. 9, 1801 ; 
its independence was guaranteed, and some alterations were made in its limits, 
and it received an addition in the duchy of Modena. Other changes were made 
in 1802, and on the 26th of January Napoleon nomioated himself president, and 
changed its name to that of the Italian Republic. It was merged in Napoleon's 
Italian kingdom in 1805. 

Peace of Campo Formio, between Anstria and the French Re- 
public. .Oct. 17, 1797. 

The preliminaries of this treaty had been signed at L^oben, April 18, 1797. 
By this peace the emperor surrendered the Austrian Netherlands, the Ionian 
Idands, and extensive territories in Italy, receiving Venice and some other places 
in return. He acknowledged the independence of the Cisalpine Republic, and 
acquiesced in tbe incorporation with it of the duchies of Modena and Mantua, 
Massa, Carrara, Bergamo, Brescia, Bologna, Ferrara, and Romagna. A congress 
composed of the plenipotentiaries of the German Federation was to assemble im- 
mediately to treat a peace between France and the Empire. To this patent treaty 
was added another secret one by which the Emperor consented that France should 
have the frontier of the Rhine, witb the exception of the Prussian possessions. The 
navigation of the Rhine was declared free. The Dutch Stadtholder was to have a 
territorial indemnity. The King of Prussia was to have his possessions on the 
left hank of the Rhine restored, and he was, consequently, to have no new acqui- 
sition in Germany. Princes and States of the empire damnified by this treaty 
were to obtain a suitable indemnity. 

Return of Napoleon Buonaparte to Paris ; be is feted as tbe 
" Pacificator." Dec. 10, 1797. 

Confiscation of all English merchandise in France. Jan. 4, 1798. 

Death of Stanislaus II., ex-King of Poland, at St. Petersburg. 

Feb. 11, 179a 


Inyasion of Italy by Napoleon Buonaparte: the Pope made 
prisoner. Feb. 23, 1798. 

The French proclaim the Roman republic. Mar. 20, 1798. 

Habeas Corpus Act again suspended in Great Britain. 

Apr. 20, 1798. 

The Helvetian Eepublic established in Switzerland by France. 

Apr., 1798. 

Although the Swiss had at first firmly maintained their neutrality in the wan 
of the French revolution, French power and intrigue gradually deprived them of 
their former constitution ; and, after incorporating several portions of Switzerland 
with the French and Cisalpine Republics, the French converted the Swiss con- 
federacy into the Helvetic Republic, one and indivisible, under an executive 
directory of five persons. The legislative power was divided between a senate and 
a great council, to which each of the fourteen cantons elected twelve members. It 
was in vain that some of the democratic cantons attempted to prevent this revo- 
lution. They were speedily overpowered. 

Napoleon Buonaparte embarks for Egypt. May 20, 1798. 

Battles of Kilcullen, May 23 ; Naas, May 24 ; Tara, May 26 ; 
Oulart, May 27 ; Gorey, June 4, 1798. 

Lord Edward Fitzgerald's rebellion breaks out in Ireland ; he 
is arrested in Dublin, May 19, and dies in prison. 

June 4, 1798. 

Ireland had been for some years in a very disturbed state. The examples of 
America and France had inspired many with the idea of establishing an inde- 
pendent republic ; and in 1791 was formed the Society of United Irishmen, con- 
sisting mostly of Protestants, whose principles would have led to that result. Its 
projector was a barrister named Theobald Wolfe Tone, who, having become secre- 
tsiry of the committee for managing the affairs of the Irish Roman Oatholica, 
effected an alliance between the two parties. The ramifications of this society ex- 
tended throughout Ireland. Tone, having been detected in a treasonable corres- 
pondence with the French, was obliged to fly to America, whence he soon afterwards 
passed over to France and employed himself in forwarding the projected invasion, 
already mentioned, in 1796. Notwithstanding the frustration of these expeditions, 
the Irish malcontents did not abandon their plan of an iiusurrection. One of their 
principal leaders was Lord Edward Fitzgerald, a brother of the Duke of Leinster ; 
and he was seconded by Arthur O'Connor, Napper Tandy, Thomas Addis Emmet, 
Oliver Bond, and others. But the conspiracy was divulged by one Thomas 
Reynolds, and some of the principal conspirators were arrested, March 12, 1798, 
at a meeting which they held in Bond's house- Lord Fitzgerald happened not to be 
present, but he was discovered and seized aVout two months afterwards. After 
this discovery martial law was proclaimed in Ireland, and many acts of violence 
and cruelty took place on both sides. Numerous engagements occurred in various 
quarters, in which the rebels were almost invariably defeated, except in Wexford, 
where they were in greatest force, and where they sometimes made head against 
the king's troops. At Vinegar Hill, near the town of Wexford, was their principal 
camp or station ; and here they were defeated by Greneral La^e, the commander- 
in-chief. Lord Comwallis, the new viceroy, who arrived shortly afterwards, suc- 
ceeded in reducing the country to comparative tranquillity. 


Battles of Arklow, June 10 ; Balljnahinch, June 13 ; and Vine- 
gar HOI. June 21^ 1798. 

BatUe of the Pyramias. Jnly 21, 1798. 

Battle of the Nile. Aug. 1, 1798^ 

Battle of Castlebar. Ang. 27, 1798. 

Battle of Ballinamuck. Sep. 8, I79a. 

Trial and capital sentence of Wolfe Tone, the Ldsh rebel, who 
commits snicide. Nor. 19^ 1798. 

Ferdincoid ZV., ^ing of Naples, having published a manifesto 
against the. French, marches against them in Italy and enters 
Rome. Nov. 29, 17^8. 

The French Directory demanded of Naples the aflsignment of the Foit of Mes- 
sina to France, and the exclusion of the English from aU the other two ports of the 
Two Sicilies. Naples refused to accede to these demands, and prepared for war. 
She ooDcInded a treaty with Russia, Not. 29, by which the Czar, besides the 
sacconr of his fleet, united with that of the Ponte, promised to furnish nine bat- 
talions of in&ntry, with the necessary artillei^ and 200 Cossacks. A treaty was 
also concluded with Great Britain, Dec. 1» by which England was to ke^^in ihe 
Mediterranean, till the peace, a fleet superiss to the enemy^ 

Discovery of Bass's Straits by Bass and Minders^ which estab- 
lishes (die &ct that Australia and Tasmania, are distinetr idands. 

Deo. 4, 1798. 

Cliarles Emanuel ZI^ King: of Sandinia, deposed by the 
French, and compelled to retire to Leghorn. Dec» 9, 1798. 

Bxissia joins England and Austria in a coalition against France 
(she secedes in 1799 and joins, with France). Deo. 29,. 1798. 

Gapttxre of Gaeta by the French,. J^n. 4. Ferdinand IV. of 
Naples deserts his capital^ leaving ilin the hands of the French. 

Jan. 14, 1799. 

The Parthenopean BepuhHe established by the French at 
Naples. Jan. 23, 1799. 

Syria invaded by Napoleon Bnonapavtek -Feb. 6, 1799. 

Jaflk stormed by the French. Mar. 7, 1799. 

Battle of Cassano. Apr. 24, 1799. 

Battle, of Seringapatam. May 4, 1799 

Retreat of Napoleon Buonaparte firom Syria» after his repulse at 
St Jean d'Acre. May 20, 1799. 

Battte of the Adda. May 23, 1799. 

Battle of Zurich. June 5, 1799. 

Naples retaken from the French: scenes of vengeance and 
massaere ensue. June 17, 1799. 


Battle of Trebia. June 19, 1799. 

Second coalition against France formed by Eneland, Russia, 
Germany, Turkey, Portugal, and Naples. June. 22, 1799. 

Prince Garacciolo tried and executed, by order of Nelson. 

June 29, 1799. 

DisoOTery of Moreton Bay, Australia, by Flinders. 

July 15, 1799. 

BatUe of Aboukir. July 25, 1799. 

The Neapolitans capture Rome. Aug. 12, 1799. 

Battle of Novi Aug. 15, 1799. 

Snrrender of the Dutch fleet at die Texel to the British 
Admiral MitcheL Aug. 30, 1799. 

Battle of Bergen. Sep. 19, 1799. 

Battle of Zurich. Sep. 26, 1799. 

The Rajah of Tanjore (Hindostan) surrenders all his power 
io the British. Oct. 25, 1799. 

The French Directory dissolved, and a provisional govern- 
ment established. Nov. 10, 1799. 

The scene that took place on this memosAAe occanon Is well worth tran- 
scribing :r— The legislature met at St. Cloud ; the council of elders in the great 
gallery ; and that of five hundred, of whom Lucien Buonaparte was president^ in 
the orangery. Buonaparte entered the eevneil of elders, and, in an animated 
address, described the .dangers that menaced the republic, and conjured them to 
associate their wisdom with the force which surrounded him. A member using 
the word ^* constitution," Buonaparte exclaimed, ^'The constitution! It has 
been trodden under foot, and used as a cbak for all manner of tyranny." Mean- 
while a riolent debate was going on in the orangery, several members insisting 
upon knowing why the place of sitting had been changed. The president endea- 
Youred to allay this storm ; 'but the removal had created great heat, and the cry 
was, ** Down with the dictator ! No dictator ! '* At that moment Buonaparte 
himself entered, bare-headed, followed by four grenadiers; on which several 
members exclaimed, ** Who is that ? No sabres here ! No armed men ! " While 
others, descending into tbe hall, collared him, calling him ** Outlaw,'* and 
pushed him towards the door. One member aimed a blow at him with a dagger, 
which was parried by a grenadier. Disconcerted at this rough treatment, 
General Lefebvre came to his aid ; and Buonaparte, retiring, mounted his horse, 
and addressed the troops outside. His brother Lucien also made a forcible appeal 
to the military, and the result was that a picket of grenadiers entered the hall, 
and, the drums beating the pas de chargCj cleared it at the point of the bayonet. 
This truly Oromwellian argument decided the affair, and in the evening it was 
declared that the directory had ceased to exist ; that, a provisional consular 
commission should be appointed, composed of citizens Sidyes, Ducos, and Buona- 
parte ; and that the two councils should name committees, of 25 members each, 
to prepare a new constitution. 

Death of George Washington, first President of the United 
States. Dec. 14, 1799. 


Napoleon Buonaparte chosen First Consul of France. 

Dec. 24, 1799. 

On the 24th of December the constitation of the year eight was pabliahed. 
The goTemment was placed in the hands of a first consul, who had for seconds 
two consols, with a voice in council. The senate, primarily chosen by the consuls, 
itself now chose from the list of national candidates the members of the tribu- 
nate and the legislative body. The government alone had the initiation of laws. 
This put an end to the body of electors who nominated the candidates of the 
different lists, the tribunes of the legislators — an end to the independent tribunes, 
who pleaded the cause of the people before the legislative assembly — an end to 
the legislative assembly that emanated from the body of the nation, and which 
was accountable to it alone — and, finally, an end to the body politic. In the 
place of all this there arose, under the new order of things, a consul omnipotent, 
having the disposal of the army and of power — a general and a dictator; a 
council of state destined to place itself in the front rank of usurpation ; and 
finally, a senate of twenty-four members whose solitary function was to abrogate 
the influence of the people, to choose tribunes without authority, and legislators 
who should be silent. The spirit of vitality passed from the nation to the 
government. It deserves to be remarked that, up to this period, all the consti- 
tutions had been derived from the Social Contract ; but that subsequently, until 
the year 1814, they were all derived from the new-modified constitution of the 
Abb6 Sidyes. The new government, hMrever, was regularly installed. Napoleon 
was appointed first consul, with, as sftond and third consuls, Oambac6rds and 
Le Brun. The ex-archbishop Talleyrand, and the ex-mountainist Fouchd were 
appointed ministers of foreign affairs and of police. 

Battle of Engen. May 3, 1800. 

Battle of Biberach. May 9, 1800. 

The Nabob of Surat (Hindostan) resigns His govemment to 
the British. May 13, 1800. 

James Hatfield fires at King George III. in Dmry-lone 
Theatre. May 15, 1800. 

Napoleon Buonaparte crosses the Alps into Italy. 

May 31, 1800. 

Battle of Montebello. June 9, 1800. 

Battles of Marengo, June 14 ; Hochstadt, Jnne 19, 1800. 

The seat of the United States Govemment removed from 
Philadelphia to Washington. Aug., 1800. 

Secret treaty between France and Spain at St. lldefonso. 

Oct. 1, 1800. 

By this treaty tbe possession of Tnsoany was purchased by Spain for the Infant 
Itoois de Bourbon,. Duke of Parma. 

Battle of Hohenlinden. Dec. 3, 1800. 

The armed neutrality of 1780 revived. Dec. 16, 1800. 

The revival of this confederacy was signed by Russia, Denmark, and Sweden, 
December 16, and by Prussia three days after. Its main principles were that 
ftixQS and ammunition alone are contraband of war, unless particular treaties 

D 2 


with a belligerent determined otherwise ; that goodi belonging to the snbjeets of « 
belligerent power are covered by the neutral flag, except contraband of wsu: ; that 
no port be regarded as blockaded anless the blockade render it dangerous to enter ; 
and that the declaration of an officer eommanding a ship or ships of war to the 
effect that there is nothing contraband on board his oonToy, suffices to ezeiapt it 
from search. This revival was followed by England laying an embargo on all 
Russian, Swedish, and Danish vessels. 

Unsuccessful attempt on the life of Napoleon Buonaparte, by 
means of an infernal machine. Dec. 24, 1800. 

Battle of the Mincio, Dec. 26, 1800. 

The Czar of Russia invites the contending sovereigns of 
Europe to settle their differences bj a private combat at St. 

Petersburg. Dec. 80, 1800. 

Legislative Union of Great Britain with Ireland, Jan. 1, 1801. 

The English Ministry, more effectually to frustrate the efforts of the French 
GoTernment to separate England from Ireland, determined to bring the two 
islands into still closer connection, by uniting the two legislatures in one, under 
the name of ** The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland." The Statute 
(40 Geo. III. c. 88) passed the Irish. Parliament June 13, 1800, and the 
Union took effect from Jan. 1, 1801.4 The purport of the eight articles is 
as follows : — 

I. Ireland and Great Britain to be united by the name of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

II. The succession to the United Kingdom to be the same as it stood befon 
the Unio^. 

III. The United Kingdom to be represented in one Parliament, 

lY. Four lords spiritual of Ireland by rotation of sessions, and twenty-eight 
lords temporal of Ireland, elected for life by the peers of Ireland, to sit in the 
House of Itords. One hundred commoners to sit and vote in the House of Com' 
mons on the part of Ireland. An Irish peer not elected for the House of Lords 
to be able to serve in the Commons, but not for an Irish constituency. No 
creation of an Irish peerage to tak^ place till three Irish peerages be extinct 
until their number is reduced to one hundred. 

V. The Churches of England and Ireland to be united into one Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government to be 
the same as established in England. The preservation of the united church to 
be a fundamental part of the Union. 

YI. The subjects of Great Britain and Ireland to have the same rights and 
privileges in trade and navigation, and also in treaties with foreign powers^ 

YII. The interest of the national debt of each country to be de^yed bj 
each separately. 

YIII. All Uws and courts of each kingdom to remain as before the Union, 
subject^ however, to alterations by the United Parliament. 

The United Parliament of Great Britain and Ireland holds its 
first meeting. Jan. 22, 1801. 

Treaty of Luneville, between Germany and the French Re- 
public. Feb. 9, 1801. 

In this peace, the course of the Rhine was fixed as the limit between France 
and Germany. Those German princes who lost their territories beyond the Rhine 


by this new arrangement, were to be indemnified by additional poaseasions on the 
right bank of the river. In Italy the course of the Adige was fixed as the 
boundary between Austria and the Cisalpine Republic, and the former power gave 
tiie Brieflgaa and Ortenan to the Duke of Modena. The territories of the Graud 
Duke of Tuscany were erected into the kingdom of Etruria, which was given to 
the hereditary Prince of Parma, according to a treaty between France and Spain ; 
the €h«nd Duke to be indemnified in Qermany for the loss of his territories. 

Spain declares war against Portugal, at the instigation of Na- 
poleon. Feb. 18, 1801. 

Treaty of Madrid, between France and Spain. Mar. 21, 1801. 

Battle of Alexandria. Mar. 21, 1801. 

Addington, Englisb Prime Minister. Mar. 21, 1801. 

Paul I., of Russia, assassinated by a party of noblemen under 
Grenerals Benningsen and Pahlen. Mar. 24, 1801. 

Peace concluded between France and Naples, by tbe treaty of 
Florence. Mar. 28, 1801. 

Bombardment of Copenbagen, which puts an end to the Armed 
Neutrality. Apr. 2, 1801. 

The Habeas Corpus Act again suspended in Great Britain. 

'' Apr. 19, 1801. 

A Convention signed between England and Russia ; Alexander 
withdraws from the Northern League. May 17, 1801. 

Peace of Badajos. June 6, 1801. 

Between Spain and Portngal. It brought to a close tlie short contest between 
l?ortugaI and Spain, which Napoleon I. had stirred up for the purpose of carrying 
out his ambitious designs. Spain restored all her conquests, excepting Olivenza 
and its territory, which were ceded to her ; and she guaranteed the Prince Regent 
of Portugal the entire possession of all his states and possessions. Portugal 
agreed to close her ports against England, and to pay the expenses of the war. 

Insurrection of the negroes of Hayti, West Indies, under the 
negro general, Toussaint I'Ouverture, against the French; 
they declare themselves independent. July 1, 1801. 

Let me here recapitulate the last few years of the history of the island. At 
the outbreak of the French revolution the negroes in the French part of St. 
Domingo were estimated at about 500,000. The laws of the island were fear- 
folly severe. Mulattoes were in a situation more d^p:uding than that of the 
enslaved negroes in any part of the West Indies. No law allowed the privileges 
of a white person to any descendant of an African, however remote. The news 
of the French revolution, and the acts of the assembly which abolished slavery 
and established equality of rights, lit up the island into a political flame. In 
October, 1790, James Oge, a free mulatto, put himself at the head of the in- 
BQigent negroes and people of colour ; but being defeated, in March, 1791, was 
betrayed by the Spaniards, to whom he had fled for refuge, and, with Mark 
Ohavane his lieutenant, was broken alive on the wheel. At this time, 8, 000 troops 
arrived from France ; and Maudit, the new governor, was murdered by his own 
soldiers, with circumstances of horrible barbarity. By a decree of the national 


assembly, of the 15th of May, 1791, i>eopIe of colour were declared eligible to 
seats in the colonial assembly ; and on the 11th of September, a truce wu 
signed between the whites and mulattoes. But the operation of this trace 
was destroyed by the national assembly repealing the decree of the 15th of May. 
Open war in all its horrors was now renewed. On the 23rd of August, 1791, 
Gape Fran9ois was burnt ; and it was computed that in the space of two months 
upwards of 2,000 white persons perished by these hoirible massacres, while not 
fewer than 10,000 of the mulattoes and negroes died by famine and the sword, 
besides numbers that suffered by the executioner. Meantime three commis- 
sioners arrived from France, accompanied by 6, 000 of the national guards ; and 
citizen Gklbaud was appointed governor. Their attempts, however, to stop these 
enormities proved fruitless, though they proclaimed. the total abolition of slavery, 
and a general indemnity. In October, 1793, a body of British forces, under 
Colonel Whitelock, landed, and took possession of Tiburun, Treves, Jer6mie, 
Leogane, Cape Nicholas Mole, and upwards of ninety miles of the eastern coast, 
with little opposition. It was, however, a disastrous acquisition to the English, 
for in less than six months after their arrival, not less than 6,000, of whom 150 
were officers, fell victims to disease. Leogane was soon after retaken by the 
negroes, who now amounted to above 100,000, under their general Toussaint 
L'Ouverture ; and Tiburon was taken by the French under GFeneral Rigaud. To 
remedy these disasters, another expedition was undertaken by the British, but was 
attended with vast expense and the loss of many brave troops. Colonels Brisbuie 
and Markham were killed ; and at length, in 1798, the British having surren- 
dered Port au Prince and Cape Nicholas Mole to General Hedonville, the island 
was totally abandoned by them. At this time the name of Port au Prince was 
changed to Port Republican, and the Spanish part of the island was taken pos- 
session of by L'Ouverture ; a man of superior talents and character. The inde- 
pendence of the island was proclaimed July 1, 1801. 

Concordat concluded between Rome and the French Republic, 
which re-established the papal authority, though in a modified 
form, in France. July 15, 1801. 

Re-establishment of the Roman Catholic religion in France. 

Sep. 11,1801. 

Treaty of Abrantes. Sep. 29, 1801. 

Between France and Portugal. Disgusted at the provisions of the treaty 
of Badajos, concluded between Portugal and Spain, June 6, 1801, Napoleon I. 
overran the former kingdom. The war was brought to a close by the treaty of 
Abrantes, by which Portugal agreed to shut its ports against England, and relin- 
quished one half of Guiana to France, making the river Carapanatuba the 
boundary between the possessions of the two states in that part of the world. 
The commerce of France was to be placed on the same footing as that of the most 
favoured nations ; and, by a secret article, Portugal agreed to pay £800,000 for 
the immediate evacuation of the country by the French troops. This treaty, 
having been ratified at Madrid, is sometimes named after that city. 

Peace concluded between France and Russia. Oct. 8, 1801. 

Peace concluded between France and Turkey. Oct. 9, 1801. 

The Turkish dominions were to be placed in the status quo before the war, and 
the French were to enjoy all their former privileges of navigation and commerce, 
and particularly were to have the right of entering the Black Sea. 


The Subahdar of Oade cedes Bohilcond and the Dooab 
(Hindostan) to the British. Nov.. 14, 1801. 

The Cisalpine Repnblic remodelled as the Italian Republic. 

Jan. 25, 1802. 

The Treaty of Amiens conclnded. Mar. 25, 1802. 

Tbe preliminaries of this treaty were signed in London, Oct. 1, 1801 ; the 
definite treaty, containing 22 articles, was concluded at Amiens, Mar. 25, 1802, 
a supplementary article beii^ added Mar. 27. It was ratified the following 
month. The contracting parties were France, Holland, and Spain on the one 
side, and Great Britain on the other. England was to cede all the French, 
Spuiish, and Dutch colonies acqidred during the war, except Trinidad and Ceylon. 
It was stipulated that within three months after the exchange of the ratifications, 
the English troops should eyacuate Malta, Gozo, and Oomino, which were to be 
restored to the Knights of St. John ; and the independence of these islands was 
guaranteed by France, Great Britain, Austria, Spain, Russia, and Frussia. 
France retained the Austrian Netherlands, Dutch Flanders, the course of the 
Scheldt, part of Dutch Brabant, the German territories on the banks of the 
Ehine, Avignon, Savoy, Geneva, and Nice. The French agreed to evacuaibe 
Naples, and all the ports and islands which they occupied in the Mediterranean 
or the Adriatic. Egypt was restored to Turkey. This treaty terminated a war 
that lasted ten years. 

Invasion of Hayti, West Indies, by the French, under Le Glare, 
who compel Tonssaint L'Ouverture to surrender : he is taken 
prisoner to France. May 3, 1802. 

The number of Swiss cantons increased to 19 : the federal 
government restored. May 12, 1802. 

Institution of the Legion of Honoor. May 19, 1802. 

The Nabob of Fnrruckabad (Hindostan) cedes his territories 
to the British. June 4, 1802. 

Abdication of Charles Emmanuel II., King of Sardinia, in 
favour of his brother the Duke of Aosta, afterwards Victor 
Emmanuel I. June 4, 1802. 

Napoleon Buonaparte appointed First Consul for life. 

Aug. 2, 1802. 

Piedmont incorporated with the French Republic. 

Sep. 11, 1802. 

The English ambassador (Lord Whitworth) publicly insulted 
by Napoleon Buonaparte. Mar. 13, 1803. 

Louisiana purchased from the French government by^the 
United States. Apr. 30, 1803. 

Renewal of the war between England and France, owing to 
Napoleon's aggressions. May 16J 1803. 

Battle of Ahmednuggur. June 12, 1803. 

40 XV AnnxoTAfmD table of 

A massacre of the English takes place at Elandy, Ce^rloiL, \tj 
the natives. June 24, 1803. 

The insurrection of Eobert Emmett breaks oat in Ireland. 

July 23, 1803. 

Conunencement of the Mahratta war between the British 
and Dowlat Rao Scindia and the Rajah of Berar. 

Ang. 3, 1803. 

Battte of Assaye. Sep. 23, 1803. 

Convention between Spain and France. Oct. 19, 1803. 

By this coDvention Spain engaged to pay to France 6,000,000 of francs a 
month during the war. France was to recognize the neutrality of Spain, and 
also of Portugal ; the latter power engaging to pi^y 1,000,000 a month of the 
Biipalated subsidy. 

Battle of Arganm. Nov. 29, 1803. 

Another insurrection of the negroes of Hayti, West Indies, 
against the French, breaks out under Dessalmes, a negro : the 
French quit the island. Nov., 1808. 

Peace concluded between the British and the Rajah of Berar 
(Hindostan), who cedes Cuttack to the British. 

Dec. 17, 1808. 

Peace concluded between the British and Rowlut Rao Scindia, 
who surrenders Baroach, Ahmednuggur, and his forts in the 
Dooab (Hindostan). Dec. 30, 1803. 

Mungo Park sets out on his second voyage of discovery into 
Africa, from which he never returned.* Jan. 30, 1804. 

* The following is a brief list of the different African trayellers, and the ^r^nlts 
of their several expeditions : — 1806 and 1809. Visited by Salt : 1812, by Burck- 
hardt. 1813. Campbell founds a Christian mission at Lattakoo. 1816. Tockey 
explores the river Congo, and Feddie penetrates to Kaknndy. 1817. Campbell 
reaches the Fanietta. James, Bowdich, and Hutchinson proceed on a mission 
to Coomassie, the capital of Ashantee. 1819. Lyon and Ritchie reach Mourzouk. 
The latter died November 20, and Lyon penetrated to Fezzan. 1820. Dupuis goes 
on a mission to Coomassie. 1822. Clapperton, Denham, and Oudney oross the 
Great Desert and visit Bomou. Major Denham reaches Lake Tsad in 1824, and 
Clapperton and Oudney penetrate to Sackatoo. The three travellers reach Tripoli 
in January, 1825. 1825, December 7. Clapperton quits Badagry on his second 
missio^ into Central Africa. 1826. Laing sets out from Tripoli, crosses the 
desert, and reaches Timbuctoo, August 18. 1827. Cailli^ travels from Kakundy 
to Timbuctoo, and after crossing the desert, reached Tangier, August 18, 1828. 
1830. Richard and John Lander trace the Niger to its mouth. 1836. Alexander 
explores South Africa. 1845. Duncan reaches Adafoodia, in the interior of 
Africa. 1849. Livingstone, Oswell, and Murray set out from Kolobeng, trarel 
through the desert of Kalahari, and trace the river Zouga to the Lake Ngami. 
1850. Richardson, Earth, and Overweg start on their expedition, and Livingstone 


The Georges' Conspiracy against the life of Napoleon Bnona- 
parfe.* Feb. 16, 1804. 

Suppression of the Convents in Prossia. Mar. 8, 1804. 

Execution of the Duke of Enghien. Mar. 21, 1804. 

War is declared between the British and Holkar, the Mahratta 
chief, owing to the latter's aggressions. Apr. 16, 1804. 

France formed into an Empire, and Kapoleon proclaimed Empe- 
ror of the French. May 18, 1804, 

By this act the Imperial dignity was declared hereditary hi Napoleon's male 
issne by order of primogeniture. He might adopt the sons or grandsons of his 
brother in case he himself had no male issae ; but the right of adoption was for- 
bidden to his successors and their descendants. In default of heirs of Napoleon, 
the Imperial dignity was to devolve to his brother Joseph and his descendants, in 
their defaalt, to his brother Louis and his descendants. The Council of State 
was instituted as an integral part and supreme authority of the Empire. The 
fifty tribunes and the legislative body were suffered to remain. The salaries of 
the tribunes and senators were very considerably augmented. Several new Im- 
perial dignities were created, and eighteen of Napoleon's most distinguished 
generals were made marshals of the Empire. 

The Negro Dessalines is crowned Emperor of Hayti, West 
Indies, nnder the title of James I. Oct. 8, 1804. 

Conquest of all the Mahr^^tta chief Holkar's possessions in the 
Deccan (Hindostan) by the British. Oct. 26, 1804. 

Battle of Pnrmckabad. Nov. 17, 1804. 

GoronatiOB of Napoleon I. by the Pope at Notre Dame. 

Dec. 2, 1804. 

Spaiii declares war against England. Dec. 12, 1804. 

goes on a second journey to Lake Ngami. 1851 . Livingstone and Oswell proceed 
on another expedition, and make further discoveries. 1856. Livingstone reaches 
London, December 10, after having traversed 11,000 miles in South Africa; he 
receives the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society, December 15. 1858. 
An expedition to Africa, under the direction of Dr. Livingstone, sails from Liver- 
pool, March 10 : Captain Burton reaches Uvira, the limit of his African explora- 
tion, April 26 : Captain J. H. Speke discovers the Victoria Nyanza, July 30. 
1856>1859. Paul B. du Chaiilu, the -gorilla hunter, explores equatorial Africa. 
1860. Second expedition of discovery of Captains Speke and Grant ; they quit 
the East African coast and commence their inland journey, October 1. 1861. 
Dr. Livingstone enters Lake Nyassa, September 2. 1862. Captain Speke discovers 
a river issuing from the Lake Nyassa, which he believes to be the Nile, July 28. 

* Gkoross' Conspiract. —This plot against the life of Napoleon takes its name 
from its originator, Georges Cadoudal, a Chouan chief. He associated with him 
in the scheme generals Moreau and Pichegru, and others ; but the affair becoming 
known, Feb. 16, 1804, the leaders were arrested and the plot abandoned. 
Hchegru was strangled in prison, April 6. Moreau was exiled for two years, and 
Cadoudal was executed June 25. 



Capture of Bhurtpore (Hindostan) and total defeat of Holkar. 

Apr. 10,1806. 

Russia again joins the coalition against France. Apr. 11, 1805. 

France changes the form of government in Holland. Schimmel- 
penmnck is placed as Grand Pensionary at the head of affairs. 

Apr., 1805. 

Coronation of Napoleon 1. at Milan as King of Italy ; he in- 
dndes Sardinia in his Kingdom. May 26, 1805. 

Annexation of Genoa to France. June 4, 1805. 

A terrible earthquake occurs at Naples ; 20,000 lives are de- 
stroyed. July 26, 1805. 

Third coalition against France, formed by England, Bossia^ 
Naples, and Austria. Aug. 9, 1805. 

A treaty between France and Naples concluded at Paris, by 
which Naples agrees to maintain neutrality in the Italian wars, 
and Napoleon I. consents to withdraw his troops from the 
Neapolitan States. Sep. 21, 1805. 

Invasion of Germany by France. Sep. 26, 1805. 

Death of Lord Comwallis, Govemor-Goneral of India. 

Oct. 5, 1805. 

Battle of Ulm. Oct. 20, 1805. 

Naval battle of Trafalgar. Oct. 21, 1805. 

Battle of AusterHtz. Dec. 2, 1805. 

Treaty of Vienna. Dec. 15, 1805. 

Between Prassia and Austria, by whicli Neufcb&tel was ceded to Napoleon, 
together with the Duchy of Cleves. The principality of Anspaeh was to be given 
to Bavaria, and Prussia, in return, was to take possession of Hanover. 

Peace concluded between the British and Holkar, the Mahratta 
chief : the latter renounces his claims to the districts north of 
the Chumbul and to Bundelcund (Hindostan). Dec. 24, 1805. 

The title of King conferred on the Elector of Bavaria by 
Napoleon I. Dec. 26, 1805. 

Treaty of Presburg. Dec. 26, 1805. 

The terms of this treaty between France and Austria were the following : — 
Austria renounced the Venetian states ceded to her by the treaty of Oampo-Formio, 
and Luneville. Napoleon was recognized as King of Italy, but that kingdom 
was ultimately to be separated from France ; Napoleon, however, was to name 
his successor. The title of king, assumed by the Electors of Bavaria and War* 
temberg, was recognized by Austria. The Elector of Baden assumed the title of 
Grand Duke. Considerable territorial cessions were made to these three princes 
by Austria : Bavaria was especially augmented by the addition of the Tyrol, with 
Brixen and Trent, the principality of Eichst&dt, and several other districts. 
Salzburg, and the surrender of Wurtzburg by Bavaria, as the basis of an elec- 


torate, were the only compensatioiiB that Austria received for these nnjust and 
humiliating conditions. 

Lord Grenville English Prime Minister. Feb. 10, 1806. 

The Townley marbles purchased by the British Museum for 
£20,000. 1805. 

Death of Pitt. Jan. 23, 1806. 

Entrance of the French into Naples. Feb. 8, 1806. 

This was owing to Ferdinand lY. having broken faith with France by joining 
the coalition. The Neapolitan court is removed to Sicily. 

Napoleon I. proclaims himself Emperor of Rome, and the 
Pope his viceroy. Feb. 13, 1806. 

Coronation of Joseph Buonaparte as King of ITaples. 

Feb, 16, 1806. 

The Prassians seize Hanover, and proclaim Frederick William 
III. king, whereupon England declares war. Apr. 1, 1806. 

Appointment of a Privy Council to investigate the charges 
against the Prince of Wales. — [See Trial of Queen Caroline, 
August 19, 1820.] May 29, 1806. 

Louis Buonaparte established as King of Holland by Napo- 
leon I. June 6, 1806. 

Trial and acquittal of Lord Melville. Apr. 29— June 12, 1806. 

In the month of April, 1805, a charge was Exhibited against Lord Melville, 
First Lord of the Admiralty, founded on the tenth report of the Commissioners 
of Naval Enquiry. It was brought before the House of Commons by Mr. Whit- 
bread, who, after referring to the Act passed in 1785, for regulating the Depart- 
ment of the Treasurer of the Navy, of which Lord Melville, then occupying that 
poet, was himself the supporter, and which act advanced the salary of the place 
from £2,000 to £4,000 per annum, in place of all emoluments which might have 
previously been derived from the public money in the Treasurer's hands, stated 
three heads of charge bearing upon him. These were — his applying the money 
of the public to other uses than those of the Naval Department ; his conniving 
at a system of peculation in an individual, Mr. Trotter, for whose conduct he was 
responsible ; and his having been a participator in that peculation. The accused 
▼as heard at the bar of the House of Commons, June 11, when he acknowledged 
having appropriated public money entrusted to him to other public purposes, but 
solemnly denied having derived any benefit therefrom, or that he had participated 
in the profits made by Mr. Trotter. He nevertheless confessed that he had 
applied the sum of £10,000 in a way which he could not reveal consistently with 
private honour and public duty. Fifteen days after he was impeached, in the 
name of the Commons of Great Britain ; but on account of the lateness of the 
wssion the prosecution was postponed to the following year. The trial com- 
menced Apnl 29, when the evidence and arguments having closed May 17, a 
Terdict of not guiUy was returned June 12. Sir Charles Middleton (Lord Bar- 
liam) succeeded Lord Melville at the Admiralty. 

Capture of Buenos Ayres by the English, and a large amount 
of treasure secured. . June 27, 1806. 


Battle of Maida. July 4, 1806. 

A Mutiny breaks out among the Sepoj troops stationed at Yel- 
lore (Hindostan). July 10, 1806. 

Charles Frederick^ Elector of Baden, laiBed to the rank of 
Grand Duke. July 12, 1806. 

The Confederation of the Rhine formed. July 12, 1806. 

On the overthrow of the old German Bmpire, Napoleon indnoed several rakn 
of German States to separate themselves from the Germanic body and to enter 
into a Confederation, of which he was named Protector. The Act of tliis Con- 
federation was signed at Paris, July 12, 1806, and mt^ed at Munich on the 25tlL 
It consisted of forty articles. The contracting parties were Napoleon I., the 
Kings of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, the Archbishop of Ratisbon, the Elector o! 
Baden, the Duke of Berg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Princes of 
Nassau-Weilburg and Nassan-Usingen, of Hobenrollem-Heohingen and flobensol* 
lem-Siegmaringen, Salm-Salm, and Salm-Kyrbnrg, Isenbarg-Birchstein and Lich- 
tenstein, the Dake of Aremborg, and the Count of Ley en. These princes 
declared themselves perpetually severed from the German Empire, and united 
together as the ''Confederate S^tes of the Rhine." The Emperor of the French 
was declared Protector of the Confederation ; as such he was privil^ed to name 
the successor of the Prince Primate, to call out the contingents of the members 
of the Confederation, and to concur in the admission of new members. The 
Confederation was boand to make common cause with Napoleon in all his wars, 
an arrangement which immediately placed at his di^osal nearly 70,000 men. 
Those members of the German nobility who were before subjected (mly to the 
sovereignty of the Emperor and the Empire, were now reduced under that of the 
princes in whose dominions their domains lay : such nobles were said to be 
mediatized. The Confederation afterwards became gradually enlarged by the 
accession of other States. The Gbund Duke of Wurzburg joined the league, Sep. 
80, 1806; the King of Saxony, Dec. 11, 1806; the King of Westphalia and 
other German princes joined in the next and following years. The Emperor of 
Russia recognized it by the 16th Article of the Treaty signed at Tilsit, July 7, 
1807, and the King of Prussia, by the 4th Article of the Treaty signed at the 
same place, July 9, 1807. Russia and Prussia issued a proclamation for its 
dissolution, Feb. 23, 1813, and in 1815 it was replaced by the Germanic 

Francis 11., of Grermany, abolishes the title of Emperor of 
Germany, and assumes that of Francis I., Emperor of Austria. 

Ang. 6, 1806. 

Holstein declared an integral part of the Danish monarchy, 

distinct from the Germanic Empire. Sep. 9, 1806. 

Death of Charles James Fox. Sep. 13, 1806. 

Don Manuel de Godoy, Prime Minister of Spain, invites the 
Spaniards to unite against Napoleon I. Oct. 5, 1806. 

Pourth coalition against France, formed by England, Prussia, 
Russia, and Saxony. Oct. 6, 1806. 

Prussia declares war against Napoleon I. Oct. 8, 1806. 

On Sep. 25, Prussia sent an ultimatum to Napoleon. It demanded that 
the French troops should evacuate Germany ; that France should not oppose a 


league of North GknnaBj to embrace all the States not comprised in the Con- 
federation of the Rhine ; that a negotiation should be opened without delay to 
arrange all matters still in dispute with the basis for Prussia of the separation of 
tiieWesel from the French empire, and the reoccupation of certain abbeys by the 
Prosaoan troops. Such an ultimatum was, of course, refused, and war between 
the two countries ensued. 

Battles of Auerstadt and Jena. Oot. 14» 1806. 

James I., Emperor of Hayti, assassinated by bis subjects, wbo 
place bis Lieutenant^ Cbnstopbe, at tbe bead of affairs. 

Oct. 17, 1806. 

OiYil war between CShiistophe and F6tion» who asserts his claim to sovereign 
power, 1806-10. 

Publication of tbe Berlin Decree. ITov. 21, 1806, 

The publication of this decree was Napoleon*s first step towards what has been 
called l^e Continental System. By it the British Isles were declared in a state of 
blockade : all commerce and correspondence with them were forbidden : all letters 
in English or addressed to Bnglishmen were to be seized : every British subject that 
should be found in countries occupied by the French troops was to be made a 
prisoner of war : all merchandise coming from England or her colonies was to be 
confiscated, and all trading in such merchandise was prohibited : no vessels 
coming from England or the English colonies were to be received in any port. 
Such were the main features of this manifest, which was nothing less than the 
proscription of England from the pale of European society— so far, at least, as 
the power of Napoleon should extend. Other decrees of a like nature came 
into force at different periods. Then a decree from Warsaw, January 25, 1807, 
ordered the confiscation of all English or Colonial merchandise seized in the Hanse 
towns. But that from Fontainebleau, dated October 19, 1810, carried the system 
to its highest pitch : it ordained that all English manufactures that should now 
or in future be found in France, Holland, Germany, Italy, the Illyrian provinces^ 
the kingdom of Naples, and in the Spanish provinces occupied by the French 
troopsy fliionld be publicly burnt. 

Battle of Pultusk. Dec. 26, 1806, 

Turkey declares war against Russia, owing to tbe occupation of 
Wallacbia and Moldavia hj tbe Russians, and a^rwards 
against England, Jan. 7, 1807. 

Battle of Mobningen. Jan. 25, 1807. 

GNls is introduced for ligbting tbe streets of London. 

Jan. 28, 1807. 

Battle of Bylau. Feb. 8, 1807. 

Sir John Duckworth forces tbe passage of tbe Dardanelles 
and bums a Turkisb squadron at GaUipoli. Feb. 19, 1807. 

The Slave-trade is abolisbed in tbe dominions of Great 
Britain, by 47 Gteo. III., c. 36. Tbe Act to take effect from 
May 1. Mar. 23, 1807. 


li(r. GhraiiTiUe Sharp was the first indiyidaal in England who stood forward 
the advocate of the Africans : and with him the movements for the abolition 
the traffic in hnman flesh originated. From the year 1765 to 1772, he laboi 
by all possible means to enlighten the public on the subject^ and draw theij 
attention to this horrible traffic. Mr. Clarkson, a gentleman of spirit and talent 
undertook the tedious and irksome task of instituting Inquiries and collectii 
evidence on the subject. The first public notice that was taken of the subject 
in the year 1788, when Mr. Wilberforoe communicated to Fftrliament his intentii 
of bringing forward a measure respecting the slave-trade ; and from that peric 
to the death of Mr. Pitt, the subject was from time to time debated in Ptalis^ 
ment, with di£ferent success. It, however, gradually gained ground; and on th< 
20th of February, 1805, the bill for the abolition was lost in the House 
Commons by a majority of only seven. On the llih of June, 1806, Mr. Fox hi 
the honour to carry a resolution in the House of Commons for the entire abolitioi 
of the slave-trade. It was couched in the following terms: — *'That this hoi 
conceiving the African slave-trade to be contrary to the principles of justice,1 
humanity, and sound policy, will, with all practical expedition, take effectoalj 
measures for abolishing the said trade, in such manner, and at such period, 
may be deemed most desirable." The bill met with only a feeble opposition. It 
was strenuously supported by Mr. Wilberforoe and all the members of the 
administration, and carried by a majority of one hundred and fourteen votes^j 
against only fifteen dissenting voices. 

Duke of Portland English Prime Minister. Mar. 31, 1807.! 

Selim III.^ of Turkey, deposed by Mastapha lY. 

May 29, 1807. 

Battle of Friedland. June 14, 1807. 

Interview between Alexander 1., of Russia, and Napoleon 1., at| 
Tilsit, on the Niemen. June 25, 1807. 

Battle of Buenos Ayres. July 5, 1807. 

Treaty of Tilsit. July 7 <fe 9, 1807. 

This peace was concluded between France and Russia, July 7, and two days 
afterwards between France and Prussia. The principal articles were, that a part 
of the Prussian dominions, especially on tbe eastern side of the Elbe, should be 
annexed to the new kingdom of Westphalia. Those parts which had been 
wrested from Poland, and become subject to Prussia, were ceded to the King of 
Saxony, under the title of the Duchy of Warsaw, with a free communication with 
Saxony by a military road through the King of Prussia's dominions. The city of 
Dantzic, with a surrounding territory of two leagues, was restored to inde- 
pendence. The navigation of the Vistula was to be free. Russia acknowledged 
Joseph Buonaparte and his brother Louis, as Kings of Naples and Holland, and 
Jerome as King of Westphalia. The Emperor of all the Russias also acknowledged 
the Confederation of the Rhine, and promised to acknowledge all the sovereigns 
who might hereafter become members of that confederation. All these princes 
and states were included in the treaty of peace. It was also stipulated, that 
hostilities should instantly cease between Russia and the Ottoman Porte; and the 
Emperor of Russia agreed to accept the mediation of the Emperor of France, for 
the conclusion of a peace between the two powers. The French Emperor also 
agi'eed to accept the mediation of the Emperor of Russia, in order to negotiate 
and conclude a peace with Great Britain, under the condition, however, that this 
mediation should be accepted by England within a month after the conclusion of 


the treaty of Tilsit. By other articles of a secret nature, the ports of Prussia, as 
well as of Dantzic, were to be shut against the vessels and trade of Ghreat Britain ; 
and it is not certain whether the Emperor of Russia was not bound by the same 
eondition. Subsequent events, indeed, have excited an opinion in favour of the 
affirmative side of the question. By another secret article, Russia had consented 
to cede Corfu and the Seven Islands as an appendage to France. Other secret 
treaties and arrangements are said to have been entered into by Alexander and 
Kapoleon on this occasion, but as the documents containing them have never been 
published in a formal and authentic manner, I have not deemed it necessary to 
enter into their details. 

Conspiracy of the Prince of Asturias against the lives of his 
parents the King and Qneen of Spain. Jnly 25, 1807. 

Bombardment of Copenhagen. Sep. 6, 1807. 

War between Rnssia and Sweden. Oct. 6, 1807. 

This arose from Sweden not complying with the request of Russia to accede to 
the principles of the Armed Neutrality. Sweden now entered into a treaty with 
Great Britain, by which the latter agreed to pay the Swedes £100,000 a month 
for twelve months ; Sweden on her side undertaking to keep up a respectable 
force, and especially at sea. 

Entrance of th« Erench army into Spain, en route for Portogal. 

Oct. 18, 1807. 

Treaty between France and Spain, for the partition of Portugal, 
signed at Fontaineblean. Oct. 27, 1807. 

By this treaty f'ortugal was to be divided into three portions. Th^ province of 
Entre Douro and Minho, with the title of North Lusitania, was destined for the 
young King of Etruria, who was to cede his Italian kingdom to France. The 
Algarves and the province of Alentejo were to be given to the Prince of Peace 
(6odoy),with the title of Prince of the AlgaiTos. These two states were to be under 
the protectorate of the King of Spain ; and if the issue of these sovereigns, both 
male and female,' should become extinct, then the right of investiture devolved to 
his catholic majesty ; but on the condition that these principalities should not 
he anited with the crown of Spain, nor with each other. The rest of Portugal, 
comprising the provinces of Beii'a, Tras-os-Montes, and Estramadura, were to be 
sequestered in the hands of France, till the general peace, when they were to be 
restored to the House of Braganza, on condition that England should agree to re- 
tarn to the King of Spain, Gibraltar, Trinidad, and the other Spanish possessions 
conquered during the war. The Portuguese colonies were to be divided between 
France and Spain. Such were the baits with which Spain was lured on to her 

Russia declares war against England, and refuses to divulge the 
secret articles of the Treaty of Tilsit. Nov. 8y» 1807. 

Publication of the Milan Decree. Dec. 17, 1807. 

Owing to the Order in Council by Great Britain, which declared all the ports 
of France, and of those in alliance with her, to be subject to the same restrictions 
as if they were actually l>lockaded, and vessels bound for such ports to be subject 
to a tax to be regulated by the British Government, Napoleon retaliated by the 
pahlication of his Milan decree. The main features of this manifest were, that 
CTery vessel submitting to the English regulations was to be denationalized, and 


lawful prize, and that all Teasels oomin^ from or going to ports in England or tlia 
English colonies, were to be liable to capture. 

A general embargo imposed bj the United States Groyemmeni 
on all vessels (repealed Mar. 1, 1809). Dec. 22, 1807. 

In January, 1807, the British Goremment opposed to the commercial restric- 
tions of France a measure which interdicted the coasting trade of the enemy to 
neutrals, by issuing an order subjecting to seizure all vessels, of whatever nation, 
trading from one hostile port to another with hostile property ; and in the moath 
of November, the famous orders in council were issued, declaring France in a 
state of blockade, with all the countries under her immediate power and influence; 
and subjecting to seizure all vessels whatever that should attempt to trade between 
neutral and hostile ports, or that should have on board any such certificate as wai 
required by the Berlin decree. By these orders, neutral vessels, destined for a 
hostile port, were directed first to touch at some port of Great Britain, from wheBoe, 
after the payment of certain duties, they might be allowed to proceed ; and when 
clearing out with a cargo from any hostile port they were required to come to 
Great Britain. These restrictive regulations instituted by France and England, 
proved extremely incommodious to the Americans, who were now* become the 
general carriers of Europe, especially of colonial produce. The congress of the 
United States retaliated by an embargo on all their ports ; and, notwithstanding 
the consequent annihilation of their commerce, they persisted in this measure. 
The British Government sent out Mr. Roee for the purpose of restoring the rela* 
tions of amity between the two countries ; but he returned without effecting the 
object of his mission. The embargo was continued by the Americans tliroughool 
the whole of the year 1808. 

The Lansdowxi lASS. purchased hy the British Mosenm for 
£4,925. 1807. 

The importation of African slaves into the United States 
prohibited by Congress. Jan, 1, 1808. 

The frontier forces of Spain seized by the French. 

Jan. 14, 1808. 

The royal family of Portugal, driven from Lisbon by the French, 
reach Brazil. Jan. 21, 1808. 

Napoleon I. demands the cession of the districts north of the 
Ebro, from Spain, in exchange for Portugal. Feb. 27, 1808. 

Fall of Don Manuel de Godoy, Prince of Peace, and Prime 
Minister of Spain. Mar. 18, 1806. 

Charles IV. of Spain abdicates in favour of his son, Ferdinand 

VIJ. Mar. 19, 1808, 

The French^ under Murat, enter Madrid. Mar. 28, 1808. 

Insurrection of the Spaniards at Madrid, and massacre of the 
French. The insurrection suppressed by Murat with great 
barbarity. • Ma; 2, 1808. 

Charles IV. of Spain renounces the Crown in favour of ]^apo- 
leon I., by the treaty of Bayozme. May^, 1808. 


By this treaty Charles IV. handed over to France the monanjhy of Spain and; 
the Indies, for the Ch&tean of Chambord, and a pension of seyen-and-a-half 
million frsmcs. Charles stipulated only two conditions : that the territorial in- 
tegrity of Spain should be preserved, and that the Catholic, Apostolic,, and Eoman 
religion should be the only one tolerated in the kingdom. 

Abdication of Ferdinand VII., of Spain. May 6, 1808. 

The French enter Eome, Feb. 2 : Kapoleon I» annexes the 
Papal States to the kingdom of Italj. May 21, 1808. 

Insmrection in Asturias (Spain) against the French. A revo- 
lationary jnnta established. May 24, 1808, 

Although the French troops had entered Spain in great numbers, the news of the 
deposition of the king was the signal fbr a general insurrection. The patriotic flame 
hurst forth, in Asturia% From this province the insurrection spread into Qalicia, 
and into several districts of Leon. An assembly convened at Oriedo published a 
formal declaration of war against the French Government, and, having appointed 
the Marquis of Santa Cruz generalissimo of the patriotic army, sent deputies to 
request the assistance of England. This request was immediately acceded to, and' 
his majesty issued a proclamation (July 4) declaring that Gtre&t Britain was at 
peace with the Spanish nation. The authority of the supreme council at Madrid 
had been rejected, and war declared against Buonapar1(e (June 6). 

Napoleon I. confers the crown of Spain on his brother, Joseph 
Buonaparte. June 6, 18(38* 

Joachim l^Iurat elevated to the throne of Kaples. 

July 15,. 1808. 

Battle of Baylen. July 20, 1808. 

Entrance of Joseph Buonaparte into Madrid as Kin^ of Spain, 
July 20. He is compelled to retire. July 30, 1808. 

Battle of Vimeira. Aug. 21, 1808. 

Entrance of the Spanish army into Madrid. Aug. 25, 1808. 
The Convention of Cintra, Aug. 30, 1808. 

After the defeat of the French at Vimeira, the French general, Junot, proposed 
an armistice. This was agreed to. The French general was allowed to eYaouate' 
Portagal with all his forces, which were to be transported to France by the 
English, and allowed to serve wherever they might be required. Before their 
departure l^ey were compelled to disgorge an immense amount of plunder, which 
they were preparing to carry off. This convention was received with great dis* 
approhalaon in Enghind. 

A central junta established at Madrid. Sep. 25, 1S08, 

Revolt of the Janissaries at Constantinople, who massacre the 
regular troops. Kov. 14 & 15,; 1808. 

Battle of Tudela. Kov. 22, 1808. 

Capture of Madrid by Napoleon I. Dec. 4, 1808. 

Serfdom abolished in Prussia. 1808; 



jlS xksotated table of 

Great Britain conclndes a treaty with the Supreme Junta oj 
Spain, by which she engages to assist Spain with all he] 
forces against the French, and to recognize no other King oi 
Spain than Ferdinand YII. Jan. 14, 1809J 

Battle of Comnna. Jan. 16, 1809.] 

Return of Joseph Buonaparte to Madrid. Jan. 22, 1809. 

War breaks out between the British and Travancore (Hin-^| 
dostan) : it is soon ended, all the lines of Travancore beinj 
stormed by the British. Feb. 26, 1809. 

GnstavuB IV., King of Sweden, deposed by his uncle, who| 
succeeds as Charles XIII. Mar. 13, 1809. 

Impeachment and acquittal of the Duke of York. 

Jan. 27-Mar. 17, 1809. 

The Dake of York, commander-in-chief of the British Army, was accused bj 
a Mr. Wardle, a Welsh colonel of militia, of having bestowed commissions in 4he 
army on several unworthy persons at the request of Mrs. Clarke, his mistress. 
A committee of inquiry of the whole House was appointed, but before the termi- 
nation of the proceedings, the Duke resigned his office, and the investigatian 

The fifUl coalition against France formed by England and 
Austria. Apr. 6, 1809. 

The Poles unite with France : an Austrian army under the 
Archduke Ferdinand enters Poland. Apr. 15, 1809. 

Battle of Landshut. Apr. 21, 1809. 

Battle of Eckmiihl. Apr. 22, 1809. 

Warsaw occupied by the Austrians. Apr. 23, 1809." 

Russia declares war against Austria. May 5, 1809* 

Opening of the Council of State at Madrid by Joseph Buona- 
parte. May 5, 1809. "I 

Sir Arthur Wellesley crosses the Douro and enters Spain. 

May 12, 1809. 

Napoleon I. declares Borne a free and imperial city of the 
French empire. May 17, 1809. 

Battles of Aspern and Essling. May 21 & 22, 1809. 

The Austrians evacuate Warsaw. June 1, 1809. 

Arrest of Pope Pius VII. by the French general Kadet. 

July 5, 1809. 
Battle of Wagram, July 5 A 6, 1809. 

Battle of Talavera. July 27 & 28, 1809. 

Treaty of Frederickshamm. Sep. 17, 1809. 

Between Russia and Sweden. Sweden promised to adhere to the Continental 
BTStem, but made an exception in fayonr of salt and colonial produce. Finland, 


▼ith the Aland Islands and part of West Bothnia, were ceded to Russia. As 
Napoleon wonid not recognize the exceptions stipulated in the treaty, Sweden had 
to abandon them. 

The O. P." riot commences at Covent Grarden Theatre. 

Sep. 18, 1809. 

The new theatre was opened on Monday, September 18/ 1800, and the prices 
of admission having been raised, the public assembled in large numbers, and by 
uttering loud cries of 0. P., or old prices, prevented the actors from being heard. 
This was repeated night after night. The managers^ having tried in vain to 
overcome the oppoeition by the aid of a pugilistic corps, with Dutch Sam at theii* 
bead, submitted December 16, 1809, by returning to the old prices. 

Battie of Silistria. Sep. 26, 1809. 

Treaty of Schonbrunn between France and Austria. 

Oct. 14, 1809. 

The conditions of this treaty proved much less unfavourable than might have 
heen expected from the forlorn an<4 hopeless condition of Austria, whose armies 
were now dispersed and all bnt ruined. To Bavaria, the Emperor Francis was 
obliged to yield the important territory of Saltzburg, with other districts in the 
vicinity. To France were ceded Fiume and Trieste, with the entire line of coast 
connecting the dominions of France on both sides of the Adriatic. In Poland the 
King of Saxony obtained, in addition to the provinces constituting the duchy of 
Warsaw, the western Gallicia, with the city of Cracow. Another portion of 
Austrian Poland was assigned to Russia, which had derived advantages from the 
misfortunes of every other nation. The title of Joseph Buonaparte as King of 
Spain was recognized. The only other articles of importance of this treaty were 
the recognition by Austria of any changes made or to be made in Spain, Portugal, 
And Italy, and the promise of the emperor to cease all relationship with Great 
Britain. The result of this peace was to surround Austria with powerful states, 
and thus to paralyse all her military efforts. 

Battle of Malo-Jarolsawatz. Oct. 24, 1809. 

Celebration throughout Great Britain of the Jubilee of George 
the Third's reign. Oct. 25, 1809. 

Battle of Ocana. Nov. 19, 1809. 

The Walcheren Expedition. July 28— Nov. 23, 1809. 

In order to support the Austrian struggle, the British ministry resolved to divert 
the French arms by an expedition to the Scheldt, especially as Napoleon was 
attempting to convert Antwerp and Flushing into great naval depots. On July 
28, 37 sail of the line, and an army of 40,000, were despatched under the Earl 
of Chatham and Rear Admiral Sir Richard Strahan, two most incompetent 
leaders. Instead of proceeding to capture Antwerp, which was the grand object 
of the expedition. Lord Chatham invested Flushing, which surrendered, after 
^ vigorous bombardment, Aug. 16. In the meantime, however, the French 
forces had assembled around Antwerp ; and as the marsh fever of the Low Ooun- 
tries began to appear among the English troops, it was decided, in the beginning 
of September, to withdraw into the isiau'^. of Walcheren. As the mortality 
continued on the increase, orders were issued for the evacuation of the island, 
November 23 ; and before Christmas the entire force had embarked. The total 

£ 2 



jumber of deaths during the occupation amounted to 7,000, and the sick seni 
home at various times to 12,863. Considerable indignation having been felt at 
the failure of the expedition, a select committee of inquiiy was nominated by tbe. 
House of Commons, Feb. 6, 1810. After a lung adjourned debate, a majority of 
forty-eight declared in favour of the Ministerial policy, March 30. This expedition 
is said to have cost 20 millions. 

Mr. Perceval English Prime Minister. Dec. 6, 1809. 

Napoleon divorced from his wife, Josephine. Dec. 15, 1809. 

Publication of the Bambouillet decree by Napoleon 1., which 
prohibits French vessels from entering the ports of the United 
States, and orders the seizure of all American vessels arriving 
in French waters. Mar. 23, 1810. 

Marriage of Napoleon with Maria Lonisa of Austria. 

Apr. 1, 1810. 

Arrest of Sir Francis Burdett. Apr. 6, 1810. 

During the Walcheren inquiry an animated discussion occurred regarding the 
admission of reporters to tbe House, and the public were excluded. Acrimonious 
criticisms upon this interference with the rights of the people were expressed at 
a popular debating society, and the motion carried on the occasion was placarded 
in the streets of London. This was regarded as a violation of the privil^es of 
the House, for which Mr. Jones, the principal person implicated, was committed 
to Newgate (Peb. 21). Sir F. Burdett, who had not been present when these 
proceedings took place, called the attention of the House to theni, and in vain 
endeavoured to obtain the discharge of Mr. Jones. Not succeeding, however, be 
published a letter to his constituents, in '^Gobbett's Weekly Register," denying 
the power of the House of Commons to imprison tbe people of England. This led 
to further debate, and Sir Francis Burdett was ordered to be committed to tbe 
Tower for a breach of the privileges of the House of Commons. Great numbers 
of the populace escorted Sir Francis to tbe Tower, and on their return a riot 
ensued, in which three persons were killed, and several wounded* Sir Francis 
brought actions at law against the Speaker and the Sergeant-at-arms, but the}[ 
were not successful, and at the prorogation (June 21) he was liberated. 

The Swedish G-ovemment prohibits intercourse with Great 
Britain, at the command of Napoleon I. June 20, 1810. 

Louis Buonaparte^ ^^g of Holland, abdicates his throne in 
favour of his eldest son. July 1, 1810. 

Incorporation of Holland with the French empire. July 9, 1810. 

A decree was passed annexing Holland to the French empire, owing to Na- 
poleon disapproving of his brother's abdication ; six senators, six deputies in the 
Council of State, two judges in the Court of Cassation, and twenty-five deputies 
in the legislative body, being assigned to it. The Continental System was then 
more strictly enforced, the taxes were augmented, and the conscription laws were 
introduced, whereby husbands, sons, and brothers were torn from their families, 
and compelled to fight for a cause they det-ested, and a tyrant they abhorred. 
The Dutch departments, which bad already been formed in the time of tbe 
kingdom, now constituted two military divisions ; and all the seventeen pro- 
vinces of the Netherlands were united under the dominion of France. 


The agitation for the repeal of the Union commences in 
Ireland. Aug. 8, 1810. 

Marshal ifteniadotte declared Crown Prince of Sweden. 

Aug. 21, 1810. 

A plot for the overthrow of the Spanish authority in Mexico 
formed under Hidalgo. Sep. 17, 1810. 

A few months afterwards Hidalgo was executed, when the disanionists were 
headed by the priest Morelos. The revolt continued with varied success till it was 
entirely quelled in 1819. 

Joachim Murat^ King of Naples, makes an unsuccessful attempt 
to take Sicily. Sep. 18, 1810. 

Battle of Busaco. Sep. 27, 1810. 

The Regency of the Prince of Wales commences. Feb. 6, 1811. 

Massacre of the Mamelukes at Cairo, by Mehemet Ali. 

Mar. 1, 1811. 

Battle of Barossa. Mar. 5, 1811. 

Battle of Fuentes d*Onoro. May 6, 1811. 

Battle of Albuera. May 16, 1811. 

Henry Christopher, president of Hayti in 1806, crowned 

king of that island, by the title of Henry I. June 2, 1811. 

Luddite riots in the Midland counties.* Nov. 11, 1811. 

Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo. Jan. 19, 1812. 

Catalonia (Spain) declared an integral part of France. 

Jan. 26, 1812. 

An Alliance concluded by Prussia with France and Austria. 

Mar. 14, 1812. 

* These riots were so called from a mythical Captain Ludd, under whose 
aQthoritj the rioters professed to act. They commenced their riots at Nottingham 
in opposition to the application of improved machinery to stocking* weaving, 
Nov. 10, ISl'l. They extended their operations into Derby and Leicester, where 
many frames were destroyed in the month of December. In consequence of the 
serious aspect matters had assumed, a bill was introduced into parliament, Feb. 14, 
1812, for the purpose of adding new legal powers to those already existing for their 
suppression. The Prince Regent sent a message to both houses of parliament, 
Jane 27, 1S12, calling upon them to take proper measures for the restoration of 
Older, as the combinations had become more powerful, subjected themselves to 
military training, and were bound by an oath of secrecy and confederation. A 
new bill was accordingly brought in, and passed July 24, its operation being 
limited to March 25, 1814. A military force was assembled, and the local militia 
called out for the protection of life and property. Fourteen of the ringleaders 
irere executed at York, Jan. 10, 1813. After a temporary inactivity, the Lud- 
dites recommenced their nefarious proceedings in May, 1814, and again in 1816. 
Some of the ringleaders were executed at Derby, Nov. 7» 1817, at the Derby tiials. 



Russia and Sweden form a coalition against France. 

Apr. 6, 1812. 

This treaty founded the actual system of the north of Europe. Russia engaged 
to unite Norway with Sweden, either by negotiation with Denmark, or by furnish- 
ing an army of 35,000 men. After the annexation of Norway, Sweden was to 
assist Russia in her war with France by throwing some 30,000 men on any point 
of the German coast that might be selected. 

Capture of Badajos. Apr. 6, 1812. 

Assassination of Mr. Perceval by Bellingham. May 11, 1812. 

.Treaty of Bucharest, between Russia and Turkey, by which 
Biussia remained in possession of Bessarabia and the eastern 
part of Moldavia, as far as the Pruth. May 28, 1812. 

Lord Liverpool English Prime Minister. June 16, 1812. 

War declared against Great Britain by the United States. 

June 18, 1812. 

During our arduous struggle with the French, the Americans had displayed no 
frieudly disposition towards us. They were incensed at onr exercise of the right 
of search, which had been forced upon us by the Berlin decree, and they insisted 
on the doctrine that the neutral flag makes free goods. In 1811 Napoleon released 
the Americans from the ol)8ervance of the Berlin and Milan decrees ; and in the 
same year the Americans passed against us a uon-intercourse art, by which all 
British goods arriving in America were to be seized, unless we recalled the orden 
in council. These orders in council declared the whole French coast in a state of 
blockade, thus rendering neutral vessels liable to seizure. They were revoked 
in favour of America in June, 1812, but the concession came too late ; the Ameri- 
cans had declared war a few days previously, evidently in the hope of conquering 

The French, under Napoleon I., invade Russia. June 24, 1812. 

Threatening correspondence had taken place in 1811 between France and Russia 
regarding Oldenburg. On April 30, 1812, a Russian ultimatum was presented to 
the French G^oveniraent. It demanded the conservation of Prussia, and its inde* 
pendence of any political bond directed against Russia, a formal engagement for 
the entire evacuation of the Prussian States and fortresses, a diminution of the 
garrison of Dantzic, the evacuation of Swedish Pomeitmia, and an arrangement 
with the King of Sweden. Russia promised on her side to make no change in the 
prohibitive measures she had adopted against direct commerce with England, to 
negotiate with France a commercial treaty, and to persuade the Duke of Olden- 
burg to accept a suitable equivalent for his duchy. France took no notice of this 
request, and war was declared. The French army coniristed of 498,000 men, 
composed as follows:— 60,000 Poles ; 20,000 Saxons ; 80,000 Austrians ; 80,000 
Bavarians ; 22,000 Prussians ; 20,000 Westpha'ians ; 82,000 from the minor 
states of Germany ; 20,000 Italians and Neapolitans ; 4,000 Spanish and Por- 
tuguese ; 10,000 Swiss ; and 260,000 French. On the 30th of May, Buonapai"te 
entered Poland, and soon after joined his levies, then in full march for thp 
Niemen, which river they began crossing on the 24th June. The Russian army 
on the frontier, at the opening of the campaign, was disposed in three main 



branches: — 1. The army of the west, under Barclay, 90,000, its head-qaarters 
being at Wilna. 2. The second army of the west, under Bagration, 45,000 strong. 
S. The reserve, 35,000, and about 10,000 Cossacks. The Russian plan of the 
campaign was to retire slowly, and take post on the Duna, at Drissa, where an 
intrenched camp had been prepared, and Napoleon's aim was to bring these troops 
to an engagement as soon as possible ; but subsequent events caused both the 
assailants and the assailed to modify their plans. 

The general diet at Warsaw proclaiins tlie re-establishment of 
the kingdom of Poland. June 28, 1812. 

Treaty of Orebro, between Great Britain, Sweden, and Russia. 

July 18, 1812. 

Battle of Salamanca. July 22, 1812. 

Battle of Mohilow. July 23, 1812. 

Battle of Polotzk. July 30 & 31, 1812. 

The British army enters Madrid. Aug. 12, 1812. 

Battle of Smolensko. Aug. 16 & 17, 1812. 

Capture of the British frigate, the Onerriere, by the American 
sbip CongtituHon. Aug. 19, 1812. 

Norway guaranteed to Sweden by Bussia, in exchange for 
Finland. Aug. 27, 1812. 

Battle of Borodino. Sep. 7, 1812. 

Entrance of the French into Moscow : the town burnt by the 
inhabitants. Sep. 14, 1812. 

Sir A. Wellesley invested by the Spanish Cortes with the 
supreme command of the Spanish forces. Sep. 22, 1812. 

Battle of Queenstown. Oct. 13, 1812. 

Capture of the British sloop Frolic by the American sloop 
Wasp. Oct. 18, 1812. 

The French commence their retreat from Russia. Oct. 19, 1812. 

All the hopes which Napoleon had built on the possession of Moscow were dis- 
appointed ; famine and desolation stared him in the face ; and as the Enssians 
gathered round on all sides, it was evident that nothing could save his army but a 
speedy retreat or peace. Every day heightened their sufferings, the provisions 
having been wasted, and foraging becoming continually more dangerous, from the 
conflux of Russian peasants and Cossacks. At length, on the 19th of October, 
the French evacuated Moscow, and commenced their retrograde march. The 
eoantry was a desert ; and the privations felt by the army had dissolved all 
bonds of obedience, while the severity of the winter now covered the roads with 
ice and snow, destroying men and horses by thousands. By the 12th of Novem- 
ber they reached Smolensko. But in vain had the remnants of the army hoped 
to find there repose and nourishment. The increasing numbers of the Bussians, 
who harassed the retreating enemy, prevented them from repairing any of their 
vast losses, or of reinvigorating themselves by rest. At the passage of the 
Beresina they lost 20,000 men, and a great part of their baggage and artillery ; 
and the cold, which increased every day, together with the most horrible want, 


carried disorder, misery, and despair to the highest pitch. At length Napoleoi 
■entrusted the oommand of his shattered army to Mnrat, and hastened faimseli^ , 
under the strictest incognito, to Paris. Marshals, officers of high and low rank, 
all who could, followed the example of their emperor. No company kept long 
together. The sole object of all was to save life. 

Capture of the Britisli frigate Macedonia by the AmericaB 
frigate United Statee. Oct. 25, 1812. 

BatUe of Witepsk. Nov. 14, 1812. 

Battle of the Beresina. Nov. 26-28^ 1812. 

The Americans invade Canada, and are compelled to surren- 
der, after several sanguinary battles. Aug.-Nov., 1812. 

Battle of KaUsch. Feb. 13, 1813. 

Capture of the British sloop Feacock by the American ship 
Momet. Feb. 26, 1813. 

.Treaty of Kalisch. Feb. 28, 1813. 

Between Bassia and Pnissia. Bussia engaged to provide 150,000 men for tke 
ensuing war with France, and Prussia at least 80,000, exclusive of garriBons. 
By a secret article, Rusraa undertook that Piussia should be reinstated in all the 
dominions which she had possessed before 1806, except Hanover. 

BerHn evacuated by the French. Mar. 4, 1813. 

Sixth coalition against France formed by Rnssia and Prussia. 

Mar. 16, 1813. 

Battle of Castella. Apr. 13, 1813. 

Battle of Lutzen. May 2, 1813. 

Battles of Bautzen and Wurtzchen. May 20 <fc 21, 1813. 

Capture of Fort George, Canada, by the Americans. 

May 27, 1813. 

Invasion of Silesia by Napoleon I. May 31, 1813. 

Capture of the American frigate CTiesapeake by the British 
frigate Shannon. June 1, 1813. 

The action, which only lasted a quarter of an hour, was fought near BoetoOf 
in the presence of a large number of Americans who lined the shore. The 
strength of the rival frigates was as follows : — 

Tons. Guns. Crew. 

Chesapeake 1185 50 376 

Shannon 1066 49 830 

The former had 46 men killed and 106 wounded, and the latter 24 killed and 59 

The Armistice of Poischewitz. June 4, 1813. 

Concluded between Napoleon and the allied Kussian and Qerman sovereigns. 
It was to last till July 20, with six days* notice of termination. 

The Convention of Reichenbach. June 14, 1813. 


Tbis canTention, conoluded between Great Britain, Rnasia, Prussia, and 
finally Austria, laid the foundation of the fifth coalition against France. Great 
Britain agreed to pay a subsidy of £666,666 sterling for the maintenance of 
BO, 000 men during the remaining six months of the year. If the allied arms 
shonld prove successful, Prussia was to be reinstated in the dominions she poS' 
veased before 1806. Prussia agreed to keep in the field an army of 160,000 
men, for which she was to receive from Great Britain £1,838,834 to January 1, 
1814. It was also agreed to issue five millions in notes, of which Kuaaia was to 
dispose of two- thirds, and Prussia of the remainder. 

Battle of Vittoria. . June 21, 1813. 

Battle of the Pyrenees. June 28, 1813. 

The India trade thrown open hy 53 Geo. III. c. 155. 

July 1, 1813. 

Capture of the American sloop ArgvA by the British frigate 
. Pelican, Aug.*14, 1813. 

Battle of Katzbach and Dresden. Aug. 26 & 27, 1813. 

Capture of St. Sebastian. Aug. 31, 1813. 

War declared against Sweden by Denmark. Sep. 5, 1813. 

Battle of Dennewitz. Sep 6, 1813. 

Capture of an English squadron on Lake Erie, North America, 

by the Americans. Sep. 10, 1813. 

Severe famine in Poland. Aug., Sep., 1813. 

Passage of the Bidassoa forced by Sir Arthur Wellesley, and 

the entrance into France effected. Oct. 7, 1813. 

Treaty of Gulistan. Oct. 12, 1813. 

Between Persia and Russia. ^ Persia was ohiiged to cede to Russia the whole of 
Baghestan, the Ebanats of Kuba, Sbirvan, B^u, Salian, Talishah, Karaachb, 
and Gandsba, to resign all claims to Shularegi, Eharthli, Eachetbi, Imeritia, 
Gnria, Mingrelia^ and Abchasia, and to admit the Russian fla^ on the Caspian Sea. 

Battle of Mockem. Oct. 16, 1813. 

Battle of Leipsic. Oct. 19, 1813. 

Battle of Hanau, Oct. 30, 1813. 

Battle of St. Jean de Luz. Nov. 10, 1813. 

A revolution breaks out in Holland, and the French authori- 
ties are dismissed. Nov. 15, 1813. 

The Aiince of Orange lands in Holland, and is proclaimed 
Sovereign Prince. Nov. 30, 1813. 

The French Legislative Council dissolved by Napoleon. 

Dec. 31, 1813. 

Peace of Kiel. Jan. 14, 1814. 

Ooncluded between Denmark, Sweden, and Qreat Britain. Denmark ceded 
Norway to Sweden, reserving, however, Greenland, Faroe Islands, and Iceland, 


which were regarded as dependencies of Norway. Sweden, on her side, gave up 
to Denmark Swedish Pomerania and the Isle of Riigen. All the Danish colooieB^ 
eicept Heligoland, which had been taken by the English, were restored. Sweden 
engaged to use her best efforts to obtain for Denmark an equivalent for Norway 
at the general peace. This treaty founded the present system of the North. 
Sweden withdrew entirely from her connection with Germany, and became a 
purely Scandinavian power. 

Return of Pius VII. to Rome. Jan. 23, 1814 

Battle of Brienne. Jan. 29, 1814 

Battle of La Rothiere. Feb. 1, 1814. 

Naples concludes an alliance with Austria) Jan. 11, and witli 
England. Feb. 3, 1814 

Battles of Fontaineblean and Montereao. Feb. 17 & 18, 1814 

Battles of Bar-Bur-Anbe and Ortbez. Feb. 27, 1814 

Battle of Craonne. Mar. 7, 1814* 

Battle of Bergen-op-Zoom. Mar. 8, 1814 

Battle of Laon. Mar. 9 & 10, 1814 

Battle of Tarbes. Mar. 20, 1814 

Capture of the American firigate ]S8$ejf by the British fidgates 
Fhabe and Cherub, Mar. 28, 1814 

Surrender of Paris to the allied armies. Mar. 30, 1814 

The following day the Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia entered Paris at 
the head of 36,000 men, amidst the acclamations of the people. The Emperor 
of Russia now issued a declaration, expressive of the intentions of himself and 
the other allied sovereigns. It affirmed that they would no more treat with 
Napoleon Buonaparte, nor with any of his family ; that they respected the inte- 
grity of Prance as it existed under its legitimate kings, and they would recognise 
and guarantee the constitution which Prance should adopt On the 1st of April 
the Senate assembled, pursuant to an extraordinary convocation. Talleyrand was 
appointed President, and its first act was to nominate a provisional government, 
consisting of five persons, the president himself beiug at the head. It then 
passed a decree, declaring that ** Napoleon had forfeited the throne, that the right 
of inheritance was abolished in his family, and that the French people and army 
were absolved from their oath of fidelity to him." It proclaimed that man a 
tyrant whose despotism it had so long facilitated by its adulation. 

Dissolution of the Kingdom of Italy. Apr. 4, 1814 

Abdication of Napoleon in favour of his son (his son was bom 
March 20, 1811). Apr. 4, 1814 

It was not till seven days after that Napoleon signed an unconditional resigna- 
tion of the crown of Prance and Italy, both for himself and his heirs. The 
Emperor of Russia and the Prench Provisional Government assured him a pension 
of 12,000,000 francs, and an asylum in the Isle of Elba, of which he was to have 
the sovereignty, and to retain the title of Emperor. A formal convention to this 
effect was signed April 11. 

Battle of Toulouse, Apr. 10, 1814 


Boxu*bon dynasty restored to France in the person of Lonis 
XVIII. May 3, 1814 

Wearied with the imperial yoke, and with continual war, France hailed the 
return of peace with acdamationa of joy and hope. The senators, in conjunction 
with some others, formed a Chamber of Peers. At the same time was convened 
the legislatiye body of the empire, whieh formed the Chamber of Deputies ; and 
Louis, who had declared his determination to adopt a liberal constitution, granted 
the charter, which, notwithstanding some omissions and imperfections, contained 
sufficient guarantees for liberty. The new constitutional charter was presented to 
the Bation by the King on the 4th of June. It contained the principles of a 
Umited monarchy ; as, the equality of all Frenchmen in the eye of the law ; the 
equaJ obligation of all to contribute to the expenses of the State ; the equal right 
of all Frenchmen to all offices ; personal liberty ; the free exercise of religion, 
and the liberty of the press ; the security of property ; oblivion of the past ; and 
the suppression of the conscription. The person of the king (in whom was vested 
the executive power, the command of the torcea of the kingdom, the right of 
declaring war and making peace, of appointing officers, and proposing and pub- 
lishing ike laws) was declared to be inviolable ; the legislative power was vested 
in him in conjunction with the two chambers ; laws relating to imposts and taxes 
were required to be presented first to the Chamber of Deputies ; and the Legisla- 
ture was required to grant the civil list of the king for the period of his reign. 
The king convoked the Chambers, named the peers, hereditary or personal, pro- 
rogued the Chambers, and dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, but was required 
to summon a new one within three months. The Chamber of Deputies was to be 
composed of deputies chosen by the electoral colleges, one-fifth part to be renewed 
yearly ; to be eligible as a deputy, it was necessary to be forty years old, and 
pay 1,000 francs of direct taxes. On the 14th of May Louis created the new 

Arrival of Napoleon at Elba. May 4, 1814. 

Ferdinand VII. of Spain solemnly restored at Madrid. 

May 14, 1814. 

Peace of Paris. May 30, 1814. 

This important treaty was concluded between France on the one side, and 
Oreat Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia. France was not only suffered to 
retain the limits of 1792, but some additions were even made to them by annex- 
ing certain districts of the Ardennes, the Moselle, the Lower Rhine, the Ain, as 
well as part of Savoy, and by confirming her possession of Avignon, the Venais- 
sin, and other places, comprising in the whole 150 square miles, with a population 
of nearly half a million souls. Holland was to be placed under the sovereignty 
of the House of Orange, and to receive an accession of territory. The States of 
Germany were to be independent, and united by a confederation ; the revival of 
tbe German Empire being thus tacitly negatived. The independence of Switzer- 
land was recognized. Italy, except the portion to be restored to Austria, was to 
be composed of sovereign states. Great Britain was to possess Malta and its 
dependencies ; while on the other hand she engaged to restore to France all the 
colonies possessed by that country on the Ist of January, 1792, except Tobago, 
St. Lucia, and the Isle of France; also that part of St. Domingo wbich had 
originally belonged to Spain, and which was now to be restored to that country. 
Sweden also was to cede back Guadaloupe to France, and Portugal, French 
Quiana. The 32nd Article of the treaty provided for the assembly of a general 
congress at Vienna within two months, to regulate the arrangements that were 
to complete the present treaty. 


The peace of Paris was followed by some subsidiary treaties. By a eonyentioi 
of June 3rd, between Austria and Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph restored to 
Austria the Tyrol, with the Vorarlberg, the principality of Salzburg, the district 
of the Inn and the HausrUck. During the visit of the Emperor Alexander and 
the King of Prussia to London in June, it was agreed that the Article of ti» 
peace of Paris stipulating the aggrandizement of Holland, should be carried out 
by the annexation of Belgium to that country, an arrangement which was 
accepted by the Sovereign of the Netherlands, July 2l8t, 1814. Great Britsit, 
by a treaty concluded at London, August 13th, 1814, restored to that sovereign 
all the colonies of which Holland had been in possession on January 1st, 1803, 
except the Cape of Good Hox)e, Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbiee. Part of 
these were intended to compensate Sweden for relinqmshing Gnad&toupe ; but 
the Swedish Government preferring a payment in money. Great Britain purchased 
their claims for a million sterling. Great Britain also paid to the sovereign of 
the Netherlands, in consideration of these colonies, a further sum of two miUioni 
sterling, to be employed in restoring the Belgian fortresses. 

Visit of the Emperor of Russia and King of Prussia to 
England. June 7, 1814 

Battle of Chippawa. July 25, 1814. 

A free constitution adopted by Holland, Mar. 28: the ten 
provinces of Belgium are annexed to Holland. Aug. 1, 1814 

Restoration of the Jesuits and the Inquisition at Borne by 
Pope Pius VII. Aug. 7, 1814 

Prince Christian^ afterwards King of Denmark, elected King 
of Norway, May 17; he is compelled to abdicate by tbe 
Swedes. Aug. 14, 1814 

Battle of Fort Erie. Aug. 15, 1814 

The City of Washington, United States, seized by the 
British, its Capitol and other public buildings burnt; battle of 
Bladensburg. Aug. 24, 1814 

Battle of Bellair. Aug. 30, 1814 

Capture of an English squadron, by the Americans, on Lake 
Champlain, North America. Sep 11, 1814 

Battle of Baltimore. Sep. 12, 1814. 

Congress at Vienna holds its sittings. Oct. 2, 1814 

The Congress was oomposed of the Kings, of Pmssia and Denmark, the £m* 
peror of Eussia, the King of Bavaria, and other sovereign princes, with the 
plenipotentiaries from Qreat Britain, Austria, Spain, France, Portugal, &c. 
After an anxious suspense, it stipulated the condition France was to hold her 
position among ihe powers of Europe. It decreed that Louis XVIII. should 
cede to the allies the important fortresses of Landau, Saar-Louis, PhiUipville, and 
Marienburg, with the duchy of Bouillon, Yersolx, and part of the territory of 
Gtex, to be yielded to the Helvetic confederacy ; the works of Huningen to be 
dismantled ; and France engaged not to erect others within the distance of three 
leagues from Basle, thus leaving a free passage into the heart of France. Seven* 
teen of the principal towns on the frontiers of French Flanders, Champagne, 
Lorrain, and Alsace, among which were Cond^, Valenciennes, Cambray, &c., the 


■ ■ 11 ■ ■ m il .1 

bulwarks of the Flemish and Cbermanio frontier, to be delivered up to the allies, 
to be held in trast for five years hj an army of occupation consisting of a hundred 
and fifty thousand men, maintained solely at the expense of France. An assess- 
ment was also levied on the latter of seven hundred millions of francs, to be 
divided among the allies, and defrayed at periods specified in a separate conven- 
tion. Conditions so degrading Marlborough and Eugene had never attempted 
to impose after ten victorious campaigns. Such, however, was the mode adopted 
by the allies to maintain the imbecile monarch on his inglorious and improvident 

War declared by tbe Britisb agamst the Nepaulese, owing to 
the latter's encroachments on the British frontier in India. 

Nov. 1, 1814 

Charles XIII., King of Sweden, accepts the constitution adopted 
by the diet of Eidsvold (Apr. 11)^ which declares Norway a 
free, independent, indivisible, and inalienable state, nnited to 
Sweden under the same king. Nov. 4, 1814. 

Victor Emanuel I.^ of Sardinia, restored to his kingdom, 
and returns to Turin : Geneva is annexed to Sardinia. 

Dec. 14, 1814. 

Treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain 
signed at Ghent. Dec. 24, 1814. 

The articles of this treaty chiefly related to the disputes respecting boundaries, 
for the determination of which it was agreed that commissioners should recipro- 
cally be appointed. Each nation engaged to put an end to all hostilities that 
might be subsisting between them and the Indian tribes, and to restore to them 
all the possessions and privileges which appertained to them previous to such, 
hostilities. Both parties likewise covenanted to continue their efforts for the 
abolition of the slave-trade. No notice whatever was taken of the circumstances 
which occasioned the war. 

The Heteria^ a secret society for the independence of Greece, 
founded. 1814. 

Siege of New Orleans. Jan. 13, 1815. 

Return of Napoleon from Elba : he lands at Cannes with 1000 
men. Mar. 1, 1815. 

New alliance agamst Napoleon formed by England, Austria, 
Prussia, and Russia. Mar. 15, 1815. 

Austria cedes most of her Belgian possessions to Holland, 
February 23 : the Prince of Orange assumes the title of King 
of Holland. Mar. 16, 1815. 

Departure of Louis XVIII. from Paris, and restoration of the 
French Empire. Mar. 19, 1815. 

The independence of Switzerland acknowledged by the 
Congress of Vienna. Mar. 20, 1815. 

Treaty of Vienna. Mar. 25, 1815. 


The chief articles of the treaty concerned Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and 
Germany. As regards Italy, the King of Sardinia was reinstated in his terri- 
tories, according to the boundaries of 1792, with some alterations on the side of 
Geneya. To his states was united Genoa, as a duchy, according to the boundaries 
of that republic, in 1792, and contrary to the promises made to Genoa. 2. The 
Emperor of Austria united with his hereditary states the new Lombardo-Yenetu^ 
provinces formerly belonging to Austria, the Yalteline, Bonnio, and ChiaTemut 
separated from the Grisons, besides Mantua and Milan. Istria, however, wu 
united with the Germanic- Austrian kingdom of Illyria ; Dalmatia, with Bagua 
and Oattaro, constituting a distinct Austrian kingdom. 8. The valley of the Fo 
was adopted as the boundary between the States of the Ohurch and Panna; 
otherwise, the boundaries of January 1, 1792, were retained. The Austmn 
house of Este again received Modena, Beggio, Mirandola, Massa, and Carrara. 
4. The Empress Maria Louisa received the state of Parma, as a sovereign duchess, 
but, by the treaty of Paris,- of June 10, 1817, only for life, it having been agreed 
that the Duchess of Lucca and her descendants should inherit it. 5. The Arch- 
duke Ferdinand of Austria became again Grand Duke of Tuscany, to which were 
joined the State Degli Presidj, the former Neapolitan part of the island of Elba, 
the principality of Piombino, and some small included districts, formerly fiefs of 
the German empire. The Prince Buoncompagni Ludovisi retained all his rights 
of property in Elba and Piombino. 6. The Infanta, Maria Louisa^ received 
Lucca, of which she took possession as a sovereign duchy, 1817, with an annuity 
of 500,000 francs, till the reversion of Parma. 7. The territories of the^ 
Church were all restored, with the exception of the strip of land on the left bank 
of the Po ; and Austria retained the right of maintaining garrisons in Ferrara 
and Commacchio. 8. Ferdinand lY. was again recognized as King of the Two 
Sicilies. Britain retained Malta, and was declared the protectress of the United 
Ionian Islands. Holland and Belgium were erected into the kingdom of the 
Netherlands, in favour of the Prince of Orange, with the title of William I. A 
federative constitution was established for Germany, with a diet to be held at 
Frankfort ; the Kings of Denmark and the Netherlands to be members of the 
confederation. Bavaria received her former Palatine possessions, with Wurtsbarg, 
Aschaffenburg, and what is called Rhenish Bavaria. Prussia was compensated 
with about a third part of Saxony and her present Bhenish provinces. As 
regards Poland : — 1. The city of Cracow, with its territory, was to be governed 
by its own laws, as a free and independent republic. 2. The country on the right 
bank of the Yistula, with the circle of Tamapola, which had been ceded to Bussia 
by the Peace of Yienna, was restored to Austria. 3. The circles of Culm and 
Michelan, the city of Thorn and its territory, the department of Posen, with the 
exception of the circles of Powitz and Peysem, and part of the department of 
Ealisch, as far as the Prozna, excluding the city and circle of that name, were 
ceded to the King of Prussia, who united Dantzic, Thorn, Culm, and Michelan 
with West Russia, and from the remainder (11,400 square miles, with 847,000 
inhabitants) formed the grand duchy of Posen, and appointed Prince Radziwill 
governor. All the rest were united with the Russian empire, under the name of 
the *' kingdom of Poland," but with a separate administration, and such a terri- 
torial extent as the Russian emperor should see fit. The Emperor Alexander, 
therefore, assumed the title of Czar and King of Poland, and received homage in 

Baden joins the allies against Napoleon L Mar. 25, 1815. 

Abolition of the Slave-trade in France by Napoleon I. 

Mar. 29, 1815. 


War declared by Austria against Naples, owing to the latter 
having tinited with Napoleon I. Apr. 10, 1815. 

The wliole of Kemaoon (Hindostan) ceded to the British. 

Apr. 27,1815. 

Battle of Tolentino. May 3, 1815. 

Plight of Murat, King of Naples, from Italy. May 16, 1815. 

Convention of Casa Lanzi, concluded by the Austrian generals 
and the English minister of Naples Vith the commander-in- 
chief of the Neapolitan army, for the surrender of Naples, and 
the restoration of Ferdinand lY. to the Neapolitan throne. 

May 20, 1815. 

Denmark cedes Pomerania and Riigen to Prussia, and receives 
Lanenbnrg and a pecuniary compensation as indemnity. 

June 4, 1815. 

Invasion of Belgium by Napoleon. June 15, 1815. 

Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras. June 16, 1815. 

Restoration of Ferdinand IV. to the throne of Naples, under 
the title of Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. 

June 17, 1815. 

Battle of Waterloo. June 18, 1815. 

Cracow (Poland) made a free republic. The Czar Alexander I. 
is proclaimed King of Poland at Warsaw. 

June 20, 1815. 

Second abdication of Napoleon. June 22, 1815, 

Eetum of Louis XVIII. to Paris. July 6, 1815. 

Surrender of Napoleon to Captain Maitland, of H.M.S. the 
Bellerophon. July 15, 1815. 

Napoleon transferred to H.M.S. Northumberland, at Torbay, 

and sent to St. Helena. -^ng* 8, 1815. 

The Holy AUiance. Sep. 26, 1815. 

A treaty between Russia, Austria, and Pnissia, coached in the most solemn 

language, in which the contracting parties declared their resolution to take for 

their sole gnide, both in their domestic administration and foreign relations, the 

precepts of the holy religion of Christ their Saviour. In consequence they bound 

themselves to the observance of three articles :— The first of these united them 

in a fraternity of mutual assistance, and in the common protection of religion, 

peace, and justice ; which in the second article was explained to mean, that 

they regarded themselves as delegated by Providence to govern three branches 

of one and the sam? Christian nation, of which the Divine Being, under his 

I three characters, was the sole real sovereign. The third article declared a readi- 

t ness to receive into the holy alliance all the powers who should solemnly avow the 

' sacred principles which had dictated it. Subsequent events seem to indicate, 

that a resolution to support the authority of each other against any revolutionary 


moyement among their own sabjectR, was the real object of thia mystical 
binatlon of princes, veiled by ito thick a mantle of religion. 

Mnrat^ ex- King of Naples, lands in Calabria, and attempts to 
recover his throne, October 8. He is captured, tried by court- 1 
martial, and shot. Oct. 18, 181$1 

Arrival of Napoleon at St. Helena. Oct. 16, 181^ 

Second peace of Paris. Nov. 20, 1815 J 

Between the French and the allies. France was now deprived of part of the 
territories which the peace of 1814 had left her. The sum of £28,000,000 was 
to be paid to the aUies for the expenses of the war. A number of fortreflBei { 
extending along the northern frontier were to be occupied by an allied army &i 
the expense of France for a certain number of years. The museum of the Louvre 
was stripped of all those fruits of conquest which bad rendered it the repositoi^l 
of the most famous works of art in Burope, and they were restored to their 
original proprietors. It had been the pride and boast of Napoleon to collect those 
pieces of ancient and modem art, and to send them to the French capital ai 
trophies of his victories. These spoliations were now reclaimed, and restored to 
Qermany, to Flanders, and to Italy. Venice received back the famous Corinthian 
horses ; Florence, the Venus de Medicis ; Borne, the Apollo Belvidere, and ckeft 
(Pauvres of Raphael and Michael Angelo. 

War between the British and the Nepanlese ended by the treaty 
of Segoulee. Dec. 2, 1815. 

By this treaty the English demanded that all claims on the hill Rajas west of 
the Kaler river should be abandoned ; the cession of the whole of the Terye ; tiie 
restoration of conquered t^ritory to the kajah of Sikkim ; and a British rosidency 
at Katmandoo. It was signed on the above date, but the signature of the rajah 
having been withheld, the English again took the field, and the Nepaulese, aftec 
having sustained several severe defeats, offered to treat, and the unsigned treaty 
of 1815 was duly ratified, March 4, 1816. 

Execution of Marshal Ney. Dec. 7, 1815. 

Erection of Brazil into a kingdom, by John, PiTnce Regent of 
Portugal. Dec. 16, 1815. 

The Phigalian marbles purchased by the British Museum for 

£19,000. 1815. 

A decree issued by the Allied sovereigns, permanently exclud- 
ing the Buonaparte family from the throne of France. 

Jan. 12, 1816. 

Marris^e of the Princess Charlotte of Great Britain with 
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. May 2, 1816. 

Arrival of Lord Amherst's embassy at Tien-tsin, China: he 
refuses to perform the Jeo-tovo^ or prostration before the em- 
peror, and consequently returns without accomplishing the 
results of the mission. Aug. 12, 1816. 

Bombardment of Algiers. Aug. 27, 1816. 


Berions riots in London, whioh originate at a meeting held in 
Spa Fields. Dec. 2, 1816.. 

A popular meeting ef the distressed mAnufaeturen and meohanios, to get vpy 
petition to the Prince Kegent, was held NoTember 15. It was followed Hjj 
ier meeting, December 2, when, after some yiolent speeches, the mob, heacUd. 
a man named Watson, marched towards the city, and broke into the gfim*^- 
' in' shops, searching for armi^ and oomaitted muoh injury before the Mulilftry 
led in suppressing them. 

6 Elgin marbles purcliased hj the British Mosemoii for. 
£36,000. 1816.. 

Commencement of the " Gbeen Bag " inquiry. Feb. 3,1817. 

This was an investigation into the nature of the contents of a green baginll of; 

, allied to be of a seditions character, which was laid before parlisjiaiit>by. 

Fiinee Uegent. Secret committees were appointed by both HonseSy. and bills . 

the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act, and for the preventioB of seditioas . 

ga, were passed. 

payments partially resnmed by the Bank of Engjtnd. 

Sep. 22, 1817.. 
aty between Great Britain and Spain, for the snppeession of' 
the slave-trade. Sep. 23, . 1817. 

i Treaty abolishing slave-trade signed between England and 
the King of Madagascar (Badama the Great), at Tamatave. 

Odlfi, 1817.. 

Battle of Eirkee. Neir. 5, 1817. 

Death of liie Princess Charlotte of Great Britain. K9v..6,.1817. 

I)eath of Charles XIII., Eling of Sweden, and accession of 
Marshal Bemadotte, nnder ihe title of Charles John XIV.. 

¥eb.. 5, 1818. 
CondnBioit of the Pindaree War. May 9, 1818. 

This inr had cetnmenced the latter part of the preceding jaar,. between tha 
3HtiBii in India and the Pindarees and Mahrattas. The Bntish were entiidiy 
iwoesBfal. The ierriterial resalts of the war were considerable.. Besides eountrj 
*t apart for the Bajah of Saitara, 50, 000 square miles of the Feshwa!s dominiona 
W been annexed. From Holkar were obtained Tarious territories in Candekh^ 
|fte Sstpoora Hills, and the Deceani From Seindia were daiaifid back. TarioitB 
^■tiicts usuTped from the Peshwa ; and^ by means of ezchangps^ the important 
Inriace of Ajmeer, on the borders of Bajpootana, passed under British rule. 
ue aoqnintions from Nagpore comprised the eastern portion d the vnllegr of the 
lecboddai extending north and east to the district of Saugnr^ reeently annexed, 
tti by the wild country spreading to Bengal and Orissa, which was also ceded, 
tttplfltrngthe communication wi^ Bengal. Various oonyenient exchanges were 
*ho effected with the Nizam and the Guicowar, chiefly of intermixed territories. 

The King of Bavaria grants a constitalional charter to his 
subjects. May 26, 1818. 


Marriages of tbe Dake of Clarence (afterwards William IV^ 
with the Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, and of ' 
Duke of Kent with Victoria Maria Louisa, daughter of 
Duke of Saxe-Coborg of Saalfield. July 11, 181 

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. Sep. 29, 181^ 

The King of Flnmia^ the Bmperor of Anstria, and the Emperor of 
asMmbled at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 29th of September, 1818, and soon afttf | 
congress, attended hj these sovereigns, their ministers, and the English plenii 
tentiaries, met. They addressed a note (Not. 4, 1818) to the French 
the Dnke of Biohelien, stating their determination to pnt an end to the milil 
ooenpation of the French territory, and called upon him to take' part ''in 
present and future deliberations/' France accepted the offer, the Duke of Kic^ 
lieu repaired to Aix-la-Chapelle, a oonTention for the withdrawal of the Briti| 
troops from France was signed, Oct. 9, and the Congress separated Nov. 21, 18l| 

Birth of Queen Victoria. May 24, 18lj 

Congress of German powers^ held at Carlsbad to consider t\ 
necessary measures to prevent the spread of revolntiona^ 
principles in Germany (It endeavoured to snppress 
societies, and to establish the censorship of the press.) 

Aug. 1, 181 

Manchester monster Reform Meeting. Aug. 16, 181| 

A large numher of persons, belonging chiefly to the labouring classes, got u] 
great meeting in St. Peter's Fields, Manchester, under the leadership of fie 
Hunt, to petition for Parliamentary Reform. The military were ordered to 
perse them, and the attempt to apprehend Hunt produced a disturbance, in wfa] 
about a half a dosen persons were killed, and a score or two wounded. This af 
was termed by the Radicals the Manchester Massacre, or Peterho. Hunt was 
hist captured, with some of his friends, and, being tried, they were convicted 
sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. These disturbances occasioned 
alarm that parliament was opened in November, when the ministers brought^ 
and passed six acts ; namely, for the more speedy execution of justice in cases 
misdemeanour ; to prevent military training ; to prevent and punish blaspheme 
and seditious libels ; an act for seizing arms ; a stamp act, with the view of 
pressing Ubels ; and an act to prevent seditious meetings and assemblies, 
there was something wrong in the state of the nation of which these seditions 
but the outward symptoms, and they were not thoroughly healed till a more lil 
course of legislation was some years later adopted. 

Death of Marshal Blncher. Sep. 12, 1819. 

Death of the Dnke of Kent. Jan. 23, 1820. 

Death of King George 111., and accession of George IV. 

Jan. 29, 1820. 

The Missouri Compromise " of Henry Clay, regarding 
slayeiy, passed through the United States Congress. 

Feb. 10, 1820. 

This Oompromise, drawn np by Mr. Clay, enacted that slaTexy should not 


except in Miasoari, north of latitude 36** 30'. After having existed above 
years, it mus repealed in 1 854, when the inhabitants of every State were left 

to regulate their own domeetac institntions, inbject only to the conatitation of 

United States. 

lation of the Duke of Berry. Feb. 18, 1S20. 

'ftto Street conspiracy. Feb. 28, 1820. 

So called from the meetings of the eonspirators held in a cock-loft in Cato 
keet, Marylebone. Its object was to murder all the members of the Cabinet, 
^leixe the Bank, and to set fire to London in several places, on the following 
Usesday. The leader of the oonspiracy was one ThisUewood, who had imbibed 
ilationary pxineiples during a residence in France, and had been formerly tried 
acquitted for high treason. , Their plan was this : — Finding that a cabinet 
ler was to be given at Lord Harrowby's, in Grosvenor Square, on the day they 
fixed for carrying out the plot, they determined to obtain entrance by stra- 
, m, and to murder the whole party. Information was given to Qovemment 
one of the conspirators, and sevesal of them were afrested in Oato Street on 
I Wednesday evening. Thistlewood escaped ; but he was taken on the follow- 
day. They were found guilty. Thistlewood and four of his fellow-conspirators 
executed, Maj 1, 1820 ; five were transported for life, and one was pardoned. 

reyolntion breaks out in Spain against Ferdinand YIl., 
headed by Raphael Y. Nunez del Biego. Jan., Feb., 1820. 

Baring the war and captivity of Ferdinand YII., the Spanish Cortes had, in 
'ireh, 1812, established a new constitution, by which the royal authority was 
hoed to little more than a name. That assembly was declared independent 
the King, and was to consist only of one chamber invested with the legis- 
tive power ; the prerogative of the King being restricted in that respect to 
sing and a temporary veto. The Cortes were also to determine yearly the 
it (k the land and sea forces ; to confirm treaties of alliance and commerce, 
to propose to the King the members of his Council of State. All appoint- 
iti were to be filled up by this council. The King was not to marry or leave 
kingdom without the consent of the Cortes, under the penalty of losing the 
le. It can easily be imagined that these restrictions were peculiarly dis- 
able to Ferdinand YIL, and on his restoration he applied himself to replace 
ancient regime. He issued decrees ll£ay, 1814, deposing all Liberals and 
ins, and adherents of the Cortes ; re-established all dissolved convents, 
J the Inquisition in all its fana^cal severity, and banishing the adherents 
Joseph Buonaparte and of the former French government. Great discontent 
BTailed. At last an insurrection, led by Colonels Quiroga and Riego, broke 
The constitution of 1812 was proclaimed at Saragoasa, and Ferdinand, 
led at the turn affairs had taken, proclaimed it at Madrid. 

d YII. of Spain swears fidelity to the constitution. 

Mar. 8, 1820. 

nMon of the Jesnits firom Bnssia. Mar. 25, 1820. 

ran. Pepe beads an insurrection of the Carbonari,* and compels 
ihe King of the Two Sicilies to grant a new constitntion. 

July 13, 1820. 

* The name given to a powerful secret society in Italy, whose object is to expel 
S foreigners from Italy, establish civil and religious Uberty, and reorganise the 

F 2 


Revolt of the garrison at Oporto, Aug 2i: the revolntu 
spreads to Lisbon: the revolutionists of Oporto establish 
constitutional junta at Lisbon. Oct. 1, 18f 

In 1816 John YI., of Portnga], refiued to retom to Lislion, whither 
■qnadron, mnder Sir John Beresford, had been sent to oonrey him ; partly, 
ia said, because he was displeased at the disregard to his rights shown 
the Congress of Vienna, partly because the nnpopalaiity of the oomsu 
treaty had alienated him ^m finghmd ; bat, probably, still more because 
was influenced by the visible growth of a Brasilian paity which now aimed 
independence. The Portuguese of Borope began to despair of seeing the seat 
the monarchy at Lisbon : the regency there was without strength ; all 
mente were obtained from the distant court of Rio Janeiro ; men and money wc 
drawn away for the Brazilian war on the Bio de la Plata ; the army left behiaiij 
was unpaid : in fine, all the materials for formidable discontent were heaped 
in Portugal, when the Spanish revolution broke out in the beginning of 182()b| 
Six months elapsed without its communicating to Portugal ; but in August 
garrison of Oporto declared for a revolution ; and, being joined on their march 
the capital by all the troops on their line, were received with open arms by thij 
garrison of Lisbon ; and it was determined to bestow on Portugal a still 
popular constitution than that of Spain. 

The State of Florida ceded to the United States hy Spain. 

Oct. 20, 1820. i 

Trial of Queen Caroline. Aug, l^Nov. 10, 182a 

One of the first steps of George IV. , after his accession, was to attempt to, 
procure a divorce from his consort Caroline of Brunswick. The marriage hali 
never been a happy one. It had been in a manner forced upon the prince as 
a condition of having his debts paid. The princess's person and manners vere 
distasteful to him, and she soon became the object of his aversion. They aepaitAed. 
soon after their marriage, thoagh she bore him a daughter ; and the princess in 
1814 went to live abroad. Her conduct in England had already excited some 
scandal, and in 1 81 8 a commission was appointed to watch her conduct and coUeefc 
evidence ; our ambassadors abroad were instructed not to recognise her ; and whea 
the King came to the throne her name was omitted from the liturgy. She deter* 
mined on returning to England, and arrived June 6, the very day on which Lord 
Liverpool had opened an inquiry into her conduct in the House of Lords. In July 
a bill of pains and penalties was brought in, which was to deprive her of her 
rights and privileges as Queen, and to dissolve the marriage. In the trial which 
ensued, Mr. Brougham and Mr. Denman acted as her attorney and solicitor- 
general. She was charged in particular with adultery with one Bergami, 
a menial servant. Several Italian witnesses were examined, and it cannot he 
doabted that her conduct in Italy had gone far beyond the bounds of discretion ; 
but the witnesses were of a low class, and frequently equivocated ; and thero 

whole Italian government. Members of all classes are found in its ranks. The 
society spread through France, causing insurrections at Rochelle, Colmar, Toulon, 
and Marseilles, in 1821 ; and its influences are supposed to have contributed to 
the revolutions of 1848, in France and Germany. The numerous outbreaks thst 
have occurred in the Italian peninsula since 1821 may all be traced, directly or 
indirectly, to the machinations of the Carbonari. The Calderaii, tinkers or 
braziers who use the coals, is the name given to a loyal society that opposed th« 


Mtniallj a popular feeling in favour of a woman whose case assumed 
lewhat the aspect of persecution. At the third reading of the bill, the migoritj 
[ibfaToor, in the House of Lords, had fallen to 9 ; and as the bill had still to 

the Commons, the ministers were induced to abandon it. The i>opular 
was expressed by a general illumination. In the following seasioii the 

ons Toted her an annuity of £50,000. 

Christophe of Hajti commits suicide, and Boyes becomes 
president of the whole island. Nov., 1820. 

ider Ypsilanti and the Greeks assist the reyolt of the 
Oannbian principalities. Mar. 6, 1821. 

igal adopts a new constitution. Mar. 9, 1821. 

[fte articles of this constitution secured freedom of person and property, the 
Inty of the press, legal equality, and the abolition of privileges, the admission 
[idl citizens to all offices and the sovereignty of the nation. As regards the 
pnization of the Chambers and the royal veto, it was decided that there should 
^ht one Chamber, and the royal veto to be conditional, not abtolute. 

dication of Victor Emanuel I., King of Sardinia, in con- 
seqnence of a popular insurrection, and accession of his 
brother, Charles Felix. Mar. 13, 1821. 

evasion of Naples by the Austrians, at Ferdinand's request, 
and defeat of the Carbonari at Bieti, March 7 ; capitulation of 
Naples to the Austrians. Mar. 20, 1821. 

aples occupied by the Austrians, and a provisional govern- 
ment appointed. Mar. 23, 1821. 

Tevolt breaks out in the Morea against the Turks. 

Apr. 4, 1821. 

«e tyranny which the Turkish Government exercised for ages over the Greeks 
long been borne with remarkable patience ; bat none of the powers of Europe 
lately found themselves at liberty to do more for them than look on with an 
d. compassion. Thus circumstanced, the Greeks continued passive under the 
; yoke of Tnrkish despotism, until the congress of Vienna had settled the 
of Europe ; and then, finding that no arrangements had been made to secure' 
^em a rescue from slavery, some of their most patriotic leaders entered into 
Mrt with the view of promoting the attainment of independence, though they 
a time disguised their real object under the pretext of diffusing the means 
Plication among the people. In 1817 they began to disclose their views ; but 
i attempt at insurrection proving abortive, the plan was for the time abandoned, 
ntptnre, however, taking place between the Grand Siguier and All Pacha, who 
long acted as sovereign of Albania, and, though a cruel tyrant, was, from 
▼68 of policy, a friend to the Ghreeks, appeared at length to afford an oppor* 
^ of revolt ; and the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, in which the 
ezereised a domineering influence, were selected as the first scenes of 
Alexander Ypsilanti, son of a former hospodar, endeavoured to rouse the 
to arms ; and, having levied a small force, declared himself, in an 
manifesto, a determined oppoeerof Turkish tyranny. This insurrection 
the ra^e of Mahmoud, who, pretending that all the Greeks were alike 
ted in the revolt, ordered his provincial governors to disarm the Christian 
and check the progress of treason by the rigoon of punishment. 



Horrible massacreB oonseqnently ensued, and thoiuandB of anofiendiiig fa 
were wantonly murdered in various parts of the empire. But these outrages i 
not quash the spirit of revolt. 

The Bank of England resumes cash payments. May 1, 18j 

Death of Napoleon Buonaparte at Saint Helena. M&j 5, 18j 

The Court of Portugal again established at Iiisbon. 

July 4, 18j 

Coronation of George lY. of Great Britain. July 19, 18j 

San Martin proclaims Peru free and independent of S] 
rule, July 28 ; he becomes protector. Aug. 8, 18] 

Death of Queen Caroline at Hammersmith. Aug. 7, 18) 

Riots break out at Lisbon against the new constitution. 

Aug. 21, 181 

Revolutions in Bio Janeiro and other districts of Brazil. 
John YI. of Portugal returns to Lisbon, leaying Don P( 
regent of Brazil. 181 

The Greeks formally proclaim their independence of Turl 
sovereignty; national deputies are appomted, and a coi 
tutional code framed, providing for the election of a leg^lat 
body, a senate, and an executive council. Jan. 1, 181 

The independence of Chili acknowledged by Portugal. 

Jan. 25, 181 

The independence of the South American governments 
knowledged by the United States government. Mar. 19, 181 

Scio taken by the Turks from the Greeks ; a fearfrd mast 
of the inhabitants ensues. Apr. 11, 181 

Augustin de Iturbide proclaimed Emperor of Mexico. 

May 18, 181 

The change of system introduced into Spain by the Cortes alarmed 
ecclesiastics in Mexico, who elected Itnrbide, under whom a bloodless rerolut 
was effected, and Mexico maintained in all itis rights independent of the S] 

Battle of Pinchacha, in which the Peruvians defeat 
Spaniards. May 24, 181 

The Greeks take Athens. June 22, 181 

Corinth recaptured by the Turks from the Greeks. 

July 13, 181 

Battle of Thermopylae. July 13, 181 

Defeat of the Turks by the Greeks in the passes of Barbai 
Dervenekai, and Thermopylsa. Aug. 6, 181 

Brazil declares its independence of Portugal. Don Pedro^ 


{ Begent of Brazil, refuses to recognize the authority of the Eling 

) of Portugal) and is proclaimed " constitutional Emperor of 

Brazil." Sep. 21, 1822. 

Corinth taken hj the Greeks from the Turks. Oct. 2, 1822. 

Sfhe Congress of sovereigns at Verona pronounces the Greek 
insurrection a rebellion. Dec. 14, 1822. 

Abdication of Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico. Mar. 8, 1828. 

Invasion of Spain bj the French, to support Ferdinand YIl. 

Apr. 6, 1823. 

At no period was Spain in a more nnsettled state than now, and nothing less 
llian a desperate straggle between despotism and revolution could be calculated on. 
The French had acceded to the principle of an armed intervention pronounced 
Iqr Austria, Russia, and Prussia, in relation to Spain; and the Frengh ambassador 
«t Madrid received orders to advise a change in the constitution, as the condition 
\0a. which the continuance of peace between the two countries must depend ; and, 
I In order to enable Ferdinand Vll. to make such changes freely, he must first of 
'all be restored to the full enjoyment of sovereign power. The same demand, 
: and even in bolder terms, was made by the ministers of Prussia, Austria, and 
iliiissia, while Great Britain advised the Oortes to yield, and offered her mediation. 
i ¥he Spanish Government repelled with indignation the interfArence of the foreign 
powers, and the threatened discontinuance of diplomatic intercourse took place. 
' The foreign ambassadors wei'e recalled from Madrid. One hundred thousand 
French soldiers were assembled with the soldiers of the fedth at Perpignan and 
Bayonne, and the Cortes summoned the national guards to serve with the troops of 
the line ; but the attempts to raise an army were unsuccessful, because the bands 
of the Absolutists gave full employment to the troops of the line and the national 
guards in the various pi-ovinces. The Duke of Angouldme, at the head of the 
French army, issued a prodamation to the Spaniards, declaring that the object of 
the French was only to aid them, andnthat France desired nothing but the 
deliverance of Spain from the evils of revolution. His army then passed the 
Bldassoa; a junta was established, who formed a provisional government, de- 
claring the King the sole depository of sovereign power, and that no change in the 
government should be recognized but such as the King should make of his own 
tree choice ; and all the decrees of the Cortes were declared void. Great Britain 
remained neutral, or rather affected neutrality ; for the Government allowed the 
exportation of arms and ammunition to Spain ; and, in return, the ports of the 
New World were opened to her ships. A long, tedious, and cruel warfare was 
now kept up by the Spanish troops under the control of Ballasteros, Mina, 
L'Abisbal, and Morillo, against the French, and the supporters of the ** absolute 
king.'* On the 24th of May the Duke of Angouldme entered Madrid amid the 
aockun&tions of the populace. He nominated a regency, consistiDg of the Duke 
of Infantado, the Duke of Montemar, the Bishop of Osma, the Baron d'Broles, 
and Don GK>mes Calderon ; but they had no pecuniary resources, and no power, if 
they had the will, to prevent the furious eruptions of party hatred. 

A Greek national congress assembles at Argos. Apr. 10, 1823. 

The Spanish Cortes depose Ferdinand Yll., of Spain, and 
compel him to retire with them to Cadiz. June 11, 1828. 

The Church of St. Panl, at Borne, destroyed by fire. • 

July 16, 1823. 


Treaty of Brzeronm concladed by Persia with Ttirkey. 

July 28, 182a 

The French obtain the entire mastery of the Peninsnla. 

Aug. 31, 1823. 

Dissolution of the Spanish Cortes. Sep. 28, 1823. 

Restoration of Ferdinand VII. of Spain. Oct. 1, 1823. 

Execution of Raphael del Riego. Nov. 7, 1823. 

Return of the King and Queen of Spain to Madrid. 

Nov. 13, 1823. 

Library of George HI., King of England, presented to the 
British Mnseum by George IV. 1823. 

Expeditions into the interior of Australia by Lawson, Went* 
worth, Blackland, Oxley, Ejbig, Hume, Currie, and Owens. 


The result of tbese expeditions was tlie ezpI<H«tion of the riyers LacUan and 
Macquarrie, and the discoyery of Lake Bathurst, the Liyerpool Plains, and the 
Marrumbidgee and Brisbane riyers. 

Death of Victor Emanuel 1., ex-King of Sardinia. 

Jan. 10, 1824 

Death of Lord Byron at Missolonghi. Apr. 19, 1824 

Commencenient of the Burmese war, owing to the inroads of 
the Burmese upon the territories of the East India Company ; 
the British take Rangoon. May 11, 1824 

Ohebuda, Negrais, Tayoy, the whole of Tenasserim, and Teah, surrender. 

Don Miguel, son of John VI. of Portugal, deprived of the 
commandership-in-chief of the Portuguese army, for rebellion 
against the constitution ; he escapes into France. 

May 13, 1824 

The Legislative Council of Australia established. 

June 10, 1824. 

The Turks destroy Ipsara and massacre the Greek inhabitants. 

July 3, 1824. 

Iturbide, ex-Emperor of Mexico, endeavours to recover his 
dignity, and is shot. July 19, 1824. 

Death of Louis XVIII. of France, and accession of his brother, 
Charles X. Sep. 16, 1824. 

A Federal constitution established in Mexico, on the plan of 
the United States. . Oct. 4, 1824. 

The Turkish fleet almost annihilated by the Greeks at Mitj- 
lene. Oct. 7, 1824. 


fThe Oreek Provisional Government established. 

Oct. 12, 1824. 

.A Sepoy mutiny breaiks out at Barrackpore (Hindostan). 

Nov. 1,1824 

Battle of Ayacucbo. Dec. 9, 1824. 

Hmne and Hovell commence tbeir overland exploration into 
Australia, and discover the Australian Alps and the Murray 
and Owens rivers. Oct.-Eec. 18, 1824. 

The independence of Colombia, South America, recognized 
by Great Britain. Jan. 1, 1825. 

The ancient Vice-royalty of New Granada, and Quito, and the State of Vene- 
znela, baying thrown off the Spanish yoke, formed themselyes into a republic, 
under the name of Colombia, Dec. 17, 1819. 

Death of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. Jan. 4, 1825. 

The independence of Hayti recognized by France. 

Apr. 17, 1825. 

The ports of Hayti were thrown open to all nations, but with certlun exclusive 
adyaatages to the French. The Haytians also agreed to pay 150 millions of francs 
to Fiance, as an indemnity for the losses of the colonists during the reyolution. 
This sum was afterwards reduced to 60 millions. 

The independence of the Brazilian empire recognized by 
Portugal. May 13, 1825. 

A treaty of friendship and conamerce concluded between the 
United States and Colombia, S. America. May 28, 1825. 

The cnrrency in Ireland assimilated to that of Great Britain. 

June 27, 1825. 

The Provisional Government of Greece seeks aid from Eng- 
land against Turkey. ^ July 24, 1825. 

A treaty of friendship and commerce is concluded between 
England and Colombia, S. America. Nov. 7, 1825. 

Death of Alexander I. of Bussia, and accession of his brother 
Nicholas I. (he was crowned Sep. 3, 1826). (The Grand Duke 
Gonstantine, Nicholas* eldest brother, had resigned his right 
in 1823.) Dec. 1, 1825. 

Commercial panic in England commences. Dec. 6, 1825. 

Tbe year 1825 is aoied for the general prosperity whicli eharacterized its adrent, 
and the almost unparalleled ruin and desolation with which it closed. The mania 
for speculation produced this untoward result, and towards the end of the year 
the aspect of affairs in England became gloomy in the extreme. Early in December 
some metropolitan banking establishments stopped payment ; and the inability 
of their proprietors to meet their engagements caused the ruin of numerous pro- 
vincial houses. About seventy banks were closed at this juncture. A general 
panic ensued. Cabinet Councils were summoned in rapid succession, and mea- 


gnres adopted to afford relief. One and two*ponnd notes were issued, and mon^ 
coined with extraordinary expedition. The sacrifices entailed ui>on all classes I7 
a mania for speculation were terrific. Pnbiic companies, firms, and private con- 
cerns were swept away wholesale. The Goyemment, anxious to relieve com- 
merce, prohibited (Feb. 1826), after a certain period, the circulation of one and 
two-pound notes. Other plans were adopted for the same purpose, and althou^ 
Ministers ref ased to authorize an extraordinaiy issue of Exchequer Bills, they 
indaced the Bank authorities to make advances to private individuals up<»i the 
deposit of goods, merchandise, and other securities ; but the whole sum to be 
advanced was not to exceed three millions. 

Capture of Bhnrtpore. Jan. 18, 1826. 

Death of Jolrn VI. of Portugal : Don Pedro proclaimed King, 
and the Infitnta Isabella Regent during his absence in Brazil 

Feb. 18, 1826. 

Peace between the British and Burmese concluded by the 
treaty of Yandaboo. Feb. 24, 1826. 

The Burmese pay £1,000,000 ; cede Assam, Araean to the north, and the 
Tenasserim coast to the south ; agree to receive a British resident, and conclude a 
commercial treaty. 

Missolon^ (Greece) surrenders to the Turks after a long 
siege. Apr. 22, 1826. 

Don Pedro grants a constitutional charter based on liberal 
principles, and establishes two Chambers for Portugal. 

Apr. 26, 1826. 

King Pedro resigns the Portuguese crown to his daughter 
Maria II., (on condition that she marries Don Miguel,) and 
retains the empire of Brazil. May 2, 1826. 

Massacre of the Janissaries by the Turks. June 15, 1826. 

Towards the end of May, 1826, Sultan Mahmoud II. issued a hcUtis'chenf for 
the reform of the Janissaries. On the night of June 1 4 that licentious soldiery 
rose in insarrection, and plundered the palaces of three grandees whom they cob- 
sidered to be the authors of the decree. The riot continued on the following day. 
The Sultan, putting himself at the head of his faithful troops, surrounded a body 
of some 20,000 Janissaries, and caused great numbers of them to be shot down ; 
and though the rest now professed unconditional submission, Mahmoud refosed to 
accept it, and caused the greater part of them to be executed. The corps of 
Janissaries was now abolished. 

War declared by Bussia against Persia. Sep. 28, 1826. 

Don Miguel swears at Vienna to respect the Portuguese con- 
stitution. Oct. 4, 1826. 

Marquis of Chaves' insurrection at Lisbon in favour of Don 
Miguel breaks out. Oct. 6, 1826. 

The transfer of the crown of Portugal by Don Pedro to his daughter Maria dft 
Gloria gave rise to much dispute. Don Miguel, brother of Don Pedro, asserted 
his daLn as the only legitimate heir. Public opinion in Portugal was much 


diyided. The Liberals, led by C!oant Yillaflor, and a portion of the army, Toted 
for Donna Maria ; while the Seryiles, as they were oalled, with the Marquis de 
Chaves at their head, comprising the clergy, peasantry, and the remainder of the 
troopBy espoused the cause of Don Miguel 

Trealy of Akierman. Oct. 6, 1826. 

Between Russia and Turkey. The Porte consented that the Hospodars of 
Moldavia and Wallachia, though appointed by the Sultan for seven yeart, should 
rule independently, with the counsel of a divan chosen from among the Boyars, 
and should not be deposed without the sanction of the Oiar. The Servians were 
to elect their own princes ; the Forte was to restore the districts that had been 
taken from them, and to refrain from interfering in their affairs. Russia was to 
occupy the east coast of the Black Sea, and her vessels were to have free entrance 
into ail the Turkish waten. 

Betrotlial of Maria II. of Portagal to Don Miguel. 

Oct. 29, 1826. 

The Spanisli Gt)yemment disclaims any connection with the 
Portaguese revolution. Nov. 28, 1826. 

Assistance of England demanded by the Portaguese against 
the rebel followers of Don Miguel. Dec. 3, 1826. 

The Miguelites defeated by the Portuguese royalists under the 
Duke of Terceira. Dec. 10, 1826. 

An J&nglish force lands at Lisbon, to aid the Portuguese against 
the MigueHtes. Dec. 25, 1826. 

Canning BngUsh Prime Minister. Apr. 30, 1827. 

The French National Guard disbanded. Apr. 30, 1827. 

Capture of Athens. May 17, 1827. 

A treaty concluded at London, between England, France, and 
Kussia, for the pacification of Greece, in which the three 
contracting parties engage to equip a fleet for the purpose of 
staying the further progress of hostilities, and to erect Greece 
into a kingdom. July 6, 1827. 

Visit of Nicholas I. of Russia to England ; he is invested with 
the Order of the Garter. July 9, 1827. 

Lord Goderich English Prime Minister. Sep. 8, 1827. 

Naval battle of Navarino. Oct. 20, 1827. 

The Fleet of the Dey of Algiers defeated by the French. 

Nov. 4, 1827. 

The French Chamber of Deputies dissolved ; creation of 76 
. new peers. Nov. 5, 1827. 

Election riots at Paris. Nov. 19 & 20, 1827. 

The Infant Don Miguel proclaimed Begent of Portugal. 

Dec. 19, 1827. 


Count Capo d'latriaB elected President of Greece. 

Jan. 18, 1828. 

Duke of Wellington Englisli Prime Minister. Jan. 26, 1828. 

The Panhelion^ or Grand Conncil of State in Greece, estab- 
Hshed. Feb. 2, 1828. 

Treaty of Tnrkmansbai, between Persia and Russia. 

Feb. 22, 1828. 

Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil, formally renonnces all claim to the 
crown of Portugal. Mar. 3, 1828. 

Greece is divided into departments. Apr. 26, 1828. 

War declared by Russia against Turkey, on account of the 
latter refusing to carry out the treaty of Akierman, and to 
acknowledge the independence of Greece. Apr. 26, 1828. 

Departure of the British Auxiliary Force from Portugal. 

Apr. 28, 1828. 

Repeal of the Tests and Corporation Acts. May 9, 1828. 

These Acts, pasBed in the reign of King Charles II., compelled peiBons holdiig 
offices under Govemment to take the sacrament, and to subscribe a declaradon 
against transnbstantiation. The motion for their repeal was made by Lord John 
Russell. A declaration, if required by the Crown, was now substituted for tht 
sacramental test, by which the person entering office pledged himself not to use 
its influence as a means for subverting the Established Church. On the motion 
of the Bishop of Llandaflf, the words '* on the true faith of a Christkui " were 
inserted in the declaration ; a clause which, though not so designed, had the effect 
of excluding Jews from Parliament, till 1858. This measure was the forerunner 
of Catholic Emancipation. 

American Tariff bill, imposing heavy duties on British goods, 
passes the United States Congress. May 13, 1828. 

Don Migael assumes the title of King of Portugal. 

June 80, 1828. 

Queen Maria 11., of Portugal, sails from Bio de Janeiro to 
Lisbon.' July 4, 1828. 

Death of B«adama the Great, King of Madagascar, and accession 
of one of his wives, Eanavolana Manjaka, the bitter persecutor 
of the Christians. July 27, 1828. 

Convention of the Viceroy of Egypt with Sir Edward Codring- 
ton, for the evacuation of the Morea, and delivery of captives. 

Aug. 6. 1828. 

The Turks evacuate tbe Morea. Oct. 7, 1828. 

Capture of Vama. Oct. 11, 1828. 

Battle of Tarqui, in which, the Peruviu^B are defeated by the 
Colombians. Feb. 27, 1829. 


The Mexican Congress decrees tlie expnlsion of the Spaniards 
from Mexico. Mar. 20, 1829. 

The Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill passed (10 Geo. lY. 
c. 7). Apr. 13, 1829. 

The Catholic Kelief Bill, introduced hy Peel, substitnted a different form of 
oath for the oath of supremacy, and there were no offices from which Roman 
Catholics were now excluded, except those of B^gent, Lord Chancellor of England 
and Ireland, and Viceroy of Ireland. By way of security, the franchise in Ireland 
was raised from 40s. to 102., and certain regulations were made respecting the 
exercise of the Roman Catholic religion. The introduction of this bill was not 
attended with all the beneficial consequences which its supporters had confidently 
predicted. It averted the immediate danger of a civil war in Ireland, but it 
failed to convert the Irish Roman Catholics into peaceable subjects, for they soon 
proceeded to use the new political power which they had obtained, more for th^ 
intertets of their church than for the good of the empire. 

Coronation of Nicholas I., of Russia, at Warsaw, as K^ing of 
Poland. May 24, 1829. 

The Greek national assembly commences its sittings at Argos. 

July 23, 1829. 

The Polignac administration formed in France. Ang. 8, 1829. 

Don Miguel defeated in an attempt to take the island of Ter- 
ceira, one of the Azores. Aug. 11, 1829. 

Capture of Adrianople by the Russians. Aug. 20, 1829. 

A S(panish erpedition for the recovery of Mexico sails from the 
Havana, Jnly 5 ; it surrenders to the Mexican general, Santa 
Anna. Sep. 11, 1829. 

Treaty of Adrianople. Sep. 14, 1829, 

Between Baaua »nd the Porte. It restored the Dannbian principalities to the 
Porte, and confirmed all privileges granted by former treaties. Kussia obtained the 
right of commerce throughout the Turkish empire, with liberty to pass the Dar- 
danelles. Turkey agreed to pay 1,600,000 Dutch ducats as indemnity for the 
expenses of the war, and 10,000,000 ducats as compensation for losses sustained 
by Russian merchants. Turkey also agreed to the prorision of the treatiy of London, 
with regard to the erection of Greece into a kingdom. 

A decree for the abolition of Satteeism, or burning of widows, 
in India, published by the English Grovemment. 

Dec 14, 1829. 

Ezpeditioiis of Gapt. Sturt into South Australia. 

Nov., 1828-Feb., 1830. 

The result of these expeditions was the discovery of the Darling BivBr, the 
jnnetion of the Murmmbidgee river with a larger one which he named the Murray, 
the junction of the rivers Murray and Darling, and the tracing of the river Murray 
to Lake Alexandriua, and thence its navigable outlet into the ocean. 


Salic law abolished in Spain by Ferdinand YII. Mar. 29, 1830. 

Ferdinand YII. had married three wives, but by neither of them had he any 
issae. At the afne of 46 he married, for his fourth wife, Maria Christiiia, 
daughter of Ferdinand lY. of Naples. Three months after this marriage the 
new qneen appeared enceinte ; her husband now pablished a pragmatic sanetion, 
abolishing the Salic law. Ferdinand's brothers Carlos, and Francisco, as well as 
Charles X. of France, and Francis I. of the Two Sicilies, brother of ihe Spanish 
queen, protested against this act, which threatened their collateral claims to the 
throne of Spain. But Ferdinand persisted, and on October 10, 1830, his queen 
was delivered of a daughter, Isabella, who was recognized as Princess of the 
Asturias, or heiress api>arent of the throne. 

Turkey acknowledges the independence of Greece. 

Apr. 23, 1830. 

A treaty concluded between the United States and the Otto- 
man Porte : the ports of the United States are again opened 
to British commerce. May 7, 1830. 

The French Chamber of Deputies dissolved. May 19, 1830. 

Prince Leopold of Saze-Gobnrg declines the crown of Greece. 

May 21, 1830. 

The pillory nsed for the last time in London. June 22, 1830. 

Death of Eong George lY., and accession of William lY. 

June 26, 1830. 

Algiers conquered by the French. July 5, 1830. 

The French revolution of 1830 commences. July 27, 1830. 

Public discontent had been gradually increasing in France since the formation 
of a cabinet under the unpopular Prince Polignac. The Chamber of Deputies 
re-opened March 20, 1880, was dissolved on May 16, and another Chamber 
returned, owing to the influence of Lafayette, still more hostile to the GoTern- 
ment. At this crisis of affitirs, the French ministers published, July 25, the 
fatal ordinances of St. Cloud, by which the freedom of the press was suspended, 
a number of liberal journals suppressed, and the law of election altered by 
diminishing the number of electors and raising the qualification. Further ordi* 
nances named a considerable number of councillors of state, selected from the 
ultra-royalist party. The Chambers, which had not yet met, were again dissolved, 
and appointed to meet September 28. On the following day tibe ordinances 
appeared in the MoniteuTf and the tumult and agitation in Paris were extreme. 
Certain proprietors and editors signed a protest, July 27, in which they declared 
their intention of resisting the decree, whilst at the same time the liberal 
deputies followed their example, by denying the King's right to dismiss Chambers 
that had not met, and declaring all new elections under the ordinances illegal. 
The night was spent in arming. On the morning of the 28th, the men of the 
Faubourg St. Antoine took poesesaon of the Hdtel de Yille, and the insurrection 
commenced in stem earnest : by the evening of the 2dth, the city was in the 
hands of the populace. At this juncture the Duke of Orleans was requested to 
undertake the government of the kingdom, with the title of lieutenant-general, 
lie consented, and a ministry was formed, selected from all parties except the 
royalists. Among them were Guizot, Lafitte, Baron Louis Bignon, the Due de 
Broglie, Gkn . G6rard, and Admiral Bigny. Thus was concluded the Eevolutioa 


of JqIj, called, from the superior importance of the 27th, 28th, and 29th, the 
" Three Days." 

night of the Erencli royal family from St. Clond : Diike of 
Orleans lieut. -general of tlie kingdon. July 81, 1830. 

Abdication of Charles X. of France. Aug. 2, 1880. 

Accession of the Dnke of Orleans to the French throne as 
Louis PhiHppe I. Aug. 7, 1880. 

The Dnke of Orleans was chosen king by 219 rotes against S3, by the Chamber 
of Deputies. The following additions and alterations were made in the existing 
Charter. The Boman Catholic religion was to be no longer the dominant 
one, but a]] confessions were put on an equal footing ; the eensorship was 
abolished, and unconditional freedom of the press established ; the new king was 
to have no power to suspend a law nor to appoint special commissioners in order 
to supersede the usual tribunals ; no foreigners were to be admitted into the 
French military service ; every Frenchman of the age of 25 to be an elector, and 
at the a^e of 30 capable of being elected a deputy; the peers named by Charles X. 
to be abolished, and the sittings of the Chamber of Peers to be public; the 
Chambers, as well as the King, to have the privilege of proposing laws ; the king 
to be called the King of the French; and the three-coloured flag to be substituted 
for the white one, £s, 

Charles X. of France seeks refdge in England. Aug. 17, 1830. 

Opening of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, at which 
Mr. Huskisson, M.P., is killed. • Sep. 15, 1880. 

An insurrection breaks out at Brussels in favour of the inde- 
pendence of Belgium from the rule of Holland, August 25 ; 
the insurgents take Antwerp, October 27 ; the national con- 
gress at Brussels proclaims the independence of Belgium. 

Nov. 10, 1880. 

The union of Belgium with Holland by the allies, in 1814, had never been 
popular. Many were the elements of discord between these two countries. 
They spoke different languages, had different customs, and opposite commercial 
interests. Between them was all the bitterness of religious hate. The Dutch were 
rigid Calvinists, the Belgians bigoted B.oman Catholics. The Belgians complained 
that they were saddled with part of the burthen of the enormous national debt 
of Holland ; that they contributed to the building of Dutch ships and other 
objects from which they derived no benefit whatever. Their discontent was also 
increased by the unpopular government of King William I., who treated Belgium 
Uke a conquered country. 

Earl Grey English Prime Minister. Nov. 24, 1880. 

An insurrection breaks out at Warsaw. Nov. 29, 1880. 

In 1829 Nicholas had received the crown of Poland at Warsaw. All had then 
appeared tranquil in that subject kingdom, but the elements of discontent lay 
festering under the surface. Society still consisted only of a proud and restless 
nobility and a peasantry of slaves ; nor had the causes of Poland's former mis- 
fortunes been removed by the constitution given to it by the Emperor Alexander 
after the model of the French charter, ^e miseiy of the Poles was increased 
by the haishnesi of the Qnad Duke Constantino's government, who ruled like a 

^ I 


Tartar prince. The revoliition began by a conspiracy of some young PdiA 
students and subalterns to seise Constantine at the Belvedere, a readeooe of tht 
Prince's in the yicinity of Warsaw ; when it was expected that the Polish troop 
in that city, who numbered 10,000 men, would rise and drive out the Kusedst 
garrison of 7,000. With these views, twenty young men proceeded in the dusk 
of evening, on November 29th, 1830, to the Belvedere, where they killed Qenenl 
Gendre and the Vice-president Lubowioki ; but Constantine escaped by concealing 
himself in a garret. Meanwhile the citizens of Warsaw had risen en masse, armed 
themselves at the arsenal, and seized many of the Russian officers in the theatre ; 
the Polish soldiers had joined the people, and murdered General Stanislaus 
Potocki and others of their officers who refused to renounce their allegiance. The 
defection of the Polish soldiery gave great strength to the movement The 
insurrection was now joined by many persons of dibtinction. General Cholpicki, 
who had distinguished himself in the wars of Napoleon, assumed the chief com- 
mand, and eventually a sort of absolute dictatorship. He was supported, among 
others, by Prince Lubecki, Professor Lelewel, Count Ostrowski, and Prince Adam 
Czartoryski. Constantine had referred to the imperial court a deputation whick 
had waited upon him with a statement of the claims and grievances of the Poles \ 
but Nicholas would hear of nothing but unconditional submission ; and early in 
1831 a large Eussian army, commanded by Diebitsch, prepared to reduce the 
Poles to obedience. At the command of the emperor, Cholpicki had laid down 
his dictatorship in January ; but the Poles, headed by Czartoryski, pursued tbe 
insurrection more vigorously than ever. Prince Radzivill was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of their forces in place of Cholpicki. Diebitseh, having issneds 
proclamation which left the Poles no choice between slavish submission or destruc- 
tion, the Diet decLured, January 25th, that Nicholas had forfeited his ri^^t te 
the Polish crown. 

The independence of Belgium recognized by the Conference 
of the great powers assembled at London, to prevent war 
between Holland and Belgium. Dec. 20, 1830. 

Sentence of imprisonment for life pronounced by the Frencli 
Chamber of Peers against the Prince of Polignac and other 
members of his ministry. Dec. 21, 1830. 

The Polish Diet declares Poland independent, and proclaims 
the throne vacant. Jan. 25, 183L 

Prince Adam Czartoryski elected president of the Polisk 
national government. Jan. 80, 1831, 

A Russian army, of 114,000 men, nnder Diebitsch, enter 
Poland. Feb. 6, 1831. 

Riots in Paris. Feb. 14 A 16, 1831. 

Battle of Grochow. Feb. 20, 1831. 

Battle of Wawz. Mar. 31, 1831. 

Abdication of Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil, in favour of his 
infant son Don Pedro ; he embarks for Europe. Apr. 6, 183L 

Battle of Seidlice. Apr. 10, 183L 

Battle of Ostrolenka. May 26, 183L 


Battle of Wilna, June 19, 1831. 

Death of Consiantme, Grrand Duke of Russia. June 27, 1831. 

Prince Leopold, of Saxe-Coburg, chosen King of Belgium, 
Louis Philippe of France having refiised to sanction the elec- 
tion by the Belgian Congress of the Duke of Nemours, June 4, 
and installed at Brussels. July 21, 1831. 

An insurrection in favour of Queen Maria 11. of Portugal at 
Lisbon suppressed. -^^g- 21, 1831. 

The Russians attack Warsaw, Sep. 7 ; the town surrendered 
by the Poles. Sep. 8, 1831. 

Coronation of King William IV. of Great Britain. Sep. 9, 1831. 

The Greeks rise against the government of the Count Capo 
d'lstrias, their president, on account of his servility to the 
Russian interest, and he is assassinated. Oct. 9, 1831. 

Nicholas I. of Bussia announces the termination of the Polish 
war. Oct. 20, 1831. 

The cholera first appears in England at Sunderland. 

Oct. 26, 1831. 

The great powers conclude a treaty at London with Belgium, 
defining the limits of the new kingdom. Nov. 15, 1831. 

Venezuela^ New Granada, and Colombia, S. America, again 
become separate states.* Nov. 17, 1831. 

Invasion of Syria by Ibrahim Pasha, who takes Gaza, and 
attacks Acre. Dec. 9, 1831. 

* In 1819 Venezuela joined with New Qranada and Qniio to foim the Republic 
of Colombia, and become independent of Spain. The union was dissolved in 
1831. The constitution was remodelled in 1843, and Spain recognized its inde- 
pendence in 1845. From 1846-9 war broke out between the native population 
and the whites. A new treaty of union was concluded by the states of New 
Oranada, September 20, 1861, when the republic took the name of the " United 
States of Colombia." General Mosquera, president of New Granada, addressed a 
proclamation to the inhabitants of Ecuador, August 15, 1863, inviting them to 
unite their government with that of the newly formed Union, and proposed a 
treaty for their signature, September 29. Ecuador having rejected this treaty, 
he published a proclamation announcing his desire to ** deliver " Ecuador, Octo- 
ber 19, which was followed by a declaration of war on the part of that state, 
November 20. A battle took place at Cuaspud, between the forces of the two 
republics, December 6, which resulted in the triumph of New Granada. An 
armistice was concluded December 12, and a treaty of peace signed at Pensangi, 
December 30, by which Mosquera renounced the execution of his project by 
armed force. Insurrectionary movements were made towards the end of ] 864 
and early in 1865. 



An insurrection of the negroes in Jamaica breaks ont againgl] 
the EngHsh, and the island is placed under martial law. 

Dec. 22, 181 

Repeal of the hereditary peerage decree in France. 

Dec. 28, 183L| 

An imperial nkase published by the Czar constituting Polandtj 
an integral part of the Kussian empire. Feb. 26, 1832i.' 

The late insurrection of Poland had determined Rnssia to put an end to ili^ 
separate existence, and jeduce it as much as possible to a Kuasian provinoe. 
University of Warsaw was suppressed, the archives, libraries, scientific collet 
tions, &c., were removed to St. Petersburg, the Polish uniform and colours wem 
abolished, and the Polish soldiery incorporated into Bussian regiments. Thi 
leading Poles were relegated to the interior of the empire, and it is compntel 
that 80,000 Poles were banished to Siberia. Polish children were taken froa 
their parents and carried into the military colonies of Russia. Last, but not 
least, the Roman Catholic Church was persecuted agreeably to the Czar's Grsoo- 
Russian system. 

Appearance of the cholera in France, which rages with great 
fory for several months. Mar. 28, 1832. 

War declared by the Sultan against Mehemet Ali, Viceroy of 
Egypt, owing to his refusal to withdraw his forces from Syria, 
under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha. Apr. 15, 1832. 

The Reform Bill (2 and 3 Will. IV., c. 45) passed. 

June 7, 1832. 

The first reform bill introduced by GoTemment was that of the Grey adminis- 
tration, which was brought into the House of Commons March 1, 1S31, and wM 
read a first time March 14. The first division took place March 22, when a 
majority of one declared in favour of the second reading. On the question of s 
committee, General Gascoyne proposed, as an amendment, *Hhat the number of 
representatives for England and Wales ought not to be diminished," which was 
carried by a majority of eight, April 19. The bill was relinquished in conse* 
quence, and Parliament dissolved April 23. A new Parliament assembled Jane 
14, and the bill was again inti'oduced June 24. The motion for its second reading 
passed by a majority of 136, July 7 ; and a majority of 109 declared in favour d 
the third reading, September 22 ; but the bill was rejected in the Lords on the 
second reading, by a majority of 41, October 8. A new bill, introduced by Lord 
John Russell, December 12, passed its first reading without a division. The 
motion for its second reading was carried by a majority of 162, December 18; and 
it was read a third time by a majority of 116, Friday, March 23, 1832. This 
bill was read a first time in the Lords March 26, and the second reading was 
carried by a majority of 9, April 13. The bill was consequently carried into a 
committee of the Lords, where an amendment by Lord Lyndhurst for considering 
the question of enfranchisement before that of dis&s^chisement was carried 
against Government, by a majority of 35, May 7. The ministry resigned May 
9, but resumed their ofiices May 18, having obtained powers to create a sufficient 
number of new peers to secure them a majority in the Lords. The bill passed 
the Loi-ds' committee May 30, and was read for the third time by a majority of 
84, June 4. It received the royal assent June 7, and appears in the statute- 

TJirrorESAL chboi^oloot, 83 

hook as the ''Act to amend the Representation of the People in England and 
i Wales, 2 & S Will. lY., c. 45." The main principle of the Reform Bill was, 
taiat boroughs having a less population than 2,000 should cease to return members, 
limd that those having a less population than 4,000 should cease to return more 
^Hian one member. The total number of old borough members thus disfranchised 
-was 143. Their seats were transferred to several large towns, such as Birming* 
jbun, Manchester, Leeds, &c, which had grown into importance during the last 
^lenttiry. Between 40 and 50 new boroughs were created, including the four 
aoetropolitan boroughs of Marylebone, Finsbury, the Tower Hamlets, and Lam* 
ijbeth, each of the last returning two members. An aristocratic counterpoise 

^imed in some degree to be established by the additions to the county members, 
e larger counties were divided into districts ; and while previously there had 
^ieen 52 constituencies, returning 94 members, there were now 82 constituencies, 
[returning 159 members. But, on the other hand, both the county and borough 
[fruichises were extended. In the counties, the old 40s. freeholders were retained, 
httid three new classes of voters introduced : — 1. Copyholders of £10 per annum ; 
LjS. Leaseholders of the annual value of £10 for a term o£ 60 years, or of the 
funual value of £50 for a term of 20 years ; and 3. Occupying tenants paying 
I an annual rent of £50. In boroughs, the franchise was given to all £10 resident 
I householders, subject to certain conditions. 

Disembarkation of Don Pedro, ex-Emperor of Brazil, at Oporto, 

: July 8 ; lie assumes the Regency of Portugal in behalf of his 

daughter, Maria 11. July 9, 1832. 

Death of the Duke of Reichstadt, son of Napoleon I. and Maria 
Lonisa, at Schonbnmn. Jnly 22, 1832. 

Battle of Beylan. Jnly 29, 1832. 

The Irish Reform BiU passed. Aug. 7, 1832. 

The Election of Prince Otho of Bavaria as Bang of Greece, 

. approved of by the Greeks. (The latter part of the' year is 

disturbed by Colocotroni's conspiracy.) Aug. 8, 1832. 

The troops of Don Miguel defeated in their attempt to seize 
Oporto fix)m the royalists, with great loss. Sep. 9-19, 1832. 

Appointment of the Queen of Spain as regent, owing to the 
iUness of the King. Oct. 25, 1832. 

The commercial world of America agitated by a violent panic. 

July-Oct., 1832. 

i The life of Louis Philippe attempted. Nov. 19, 1832. 

Battle of Konieh. Dec. 21, 1832. 

The siege of Antwerp, Nov. 80 ; taken by the French. 

Dec. 23, 1832. 

Eevolt of Texa4s from Mexico. 1832. 

I Ferdinand VII. of Spain re-assumes the government. 

Jan. 4, 1833. 
G 2 


The Zollvereilli* or customs onion of the German States, instipl 
tuted. Mar. 22, 1S^\ 

Don Carlos asserts his right to the throne of Spain, in the even! 
of the death of his brother Ferdinand VII. without male issna 

Apr. 29, 1833J 

Convention of Kutayah, which ends the war between the Pash»| 
of Egypt and Turkey. May 4, 183^ 

Turkey concludes a peace with Mehemet Ali, who is dech 
independent, and invested with the government of Syria azi< 
Adana. May 6, 1833>j 

General Santa Anna elected President of Mexico. 

May 11, 183& 

Admiral Napier assumes the command of Don Pedro's fleets 
June 8 ; he captures the fleet of Don Miguel at St. Vincent. 

July 5, 1833. 

Evacnation of Lisbon by the Miguelist general, the Duke of 
Cadaval, July 23 ; Don Pedro enters the town. July 28, 1833. 

The Court of Delegates abolished in France. Aug. 14, 1833. 

Slavery abolished throughout the British Empire, by 3 A 4 
Wm. IV., c. 73, which takes effect from Aug. 1, 1834. The slave- 
owners receive £20,000,000 as compensation. Aug. 28, 1833. 

The agitation of negro freedom in public meetings in England liad occasioned 
a dangerous insurrection among the slaves in Jamaica, which was with difficulty 
suppressed. A rising had also occurred in the Mauritius. Under these circom- 
stances the ministers brought in and carried a bill for the total abolition of slaTeiyt 
which had been so long advocated by Wilberforce, Powell Buxton, and their party. 
Of the humanity and justice of this measure, viewed abstractedly, there can be 
but one opinion ; yet both as a measure of humanity and of policy, it must in a 
great degree be pronounced a practical fiiilure. For while, in some of our l&rget 
sugar colonies, it has reduced the cultivation to less than half of what it was, and 
consequently reduced many of the proprietors to beggary, it has also stimulated 
foreign planters to supply the deficiency of produce thus created by an increased 
pressure upon their negroes, and even given a stimulus to the foreign slave-trade. 
The apparently munificent sum of 20,000,000^. was voted as a compensation to 
the slave-owners, bat a great part of this was in reality never applied ; and the 
rate of compensation being in some islands about 201. per negro — not a quarter 
of what they cost the proprietor — the owner of an estate with 100 negroes received 
about 2000^., but found his property utterly ruined from the unwillingness of the 
emancipated negro to work. 

• The idea of a uniform system of customs for the German States, first suggested 
at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, was acted upon by the government of Prussia, 
which abolished all distinctions of customs throughout its territories, May 26, 
1818, and invited other governments to unite for a similar purpose. The invita* 
tion was generally accepted, and the result was the formation of the ZoUverein, 
by which internal trade was free from all restrictions, and a uniform system of 
duties agreed on for those States that joined it. 


Entrance of Maria IL of Portugal into Lisbon. Sep. 22, 1833. 

peath of Ferdinand YII. of Spain, and snccession of his daugh- 
ter Isabella II., under the regency of her mother the Queen 
Dowager Christina. Sep. 29, 1833. 

Don Carlos proclaimed King of Spain, at Bilbao, in Biscay. 

Oct. 4, 1833. 

Tbe pragmatic sanction by vhich Ferdinand YII. abolished the Salic law in 
Spain, and made his daughter heiress to the throne, was recognized by France and 
Bngland, but the Northern powers, as well as the Pope, refused to acknowledge 
it. Spain itself was divided into factions. The Liberals and moderate party 
supported tbe Queen, and were hence called Christines, while the Serviles declared 
for Don Carlos, and were called Carlists. The strength of the Carlists lay chiefly 
in the Basque proTinces, which had been injured by the system of centralization 
adopted by Ferdinand after the French model. The insurrection afterwards 
spread to other provinces, and the Basque army, which gradually increased to 
25,000 men, found an excellent leader in Zumalacarregui. 

Confiscation of the property of Don Carlos. Oct. 17, 1833. 
Spain divided into forty-three provinces. Nov. 30, 1833. 

A treaty for the snrrender of Polish refiigees to the Russian 
authorities concluded by Russia with Austria and Prussia. 

Jan. 29, 1834. 

Riots take place in Brussels. Apr. 6, 1834. 

The Rajah of Coorg (Hindostan) deposed, and his dominions 
ceded to the British. Apr. 10, 1834. 

Great Britain, France, and Portugal ' form the quadruple 
alliance with Spain for establishing Isabella II. on the throne. 

Apr. 21, 1834. 

Don Pedro of Portugal concludes an alliance with Great 
Britain, France, and Spain. Apr. 21, 1834. 

Termination of the East India Company's monopoly in the trade 
with China. Apr. 22, 1834. 

Native Hindoos admitted to the magistracy in India by the 
English Government for the first time. May 1, 1834. 

The Mignelites capitulate at Evora Monte, Portugal. 

. May 26, 1834. 

Bon Miguel signs an agreement at Evora Monte to abstain 
from interference in the affairs of Portugal, and renounces his 
claim to the throne. May 29, 1834. 

Don Carlos takes re^ige in England, having been driven from 
Portugal. June 13, 1834. 

Return of Don Carlos to Spain. July 9, 1834. 

Lord Melbourne EngHsh Prime Minister. July 19, 1834. 


Poor Law Amendment Act. Aug. 14, 1834> 

The result of this amendment was to abolish local boards, and to establish t 
central board of commissioners. Poor law unions were formed, and the system 
of ont-door relief in a great measure done away with. 

The ezclnsion of Don Carlos from the Spanish throne voted 
by the Spanish nobles. Aug. 30, 1834 

Maria II., Queen of Portugal, having attained her majority, 
swears fidelity to the constitution. Sep. 20, 1834. 

Death of Don Pedro of Portugal. Sep. 24, 1834 

Decree of banishment issued against Don Carlos by the Queen 
of Spain. Oct. 25, 1834 

The Chinese Government interdict the opium trade. 

Nov. 3, 1834 

Duke of Wellington again English Prime Minister. 

Nov. 22, 1834 

Marriage of Maria II. of Portugal with Augustus, Duke of 
Leuchtenberg. Dec. 1, 1834 

Sir Robert Peel English Prime Minister. Dec. 31, 1834 

Death of Francis I. of Austria, and accession of Ferdinand I. 

Mar. 2, 1835. 

Death of Augustus, the Prince Consort of Portugal. 

Mar. 28, 1835. 

Lord Melboome's second administration. Apr. 20, 1835. 

Total abolition of the slave-trade on the part of Spain. 

June 28, 1835. 

Life of Louis Philippe of France attempted by Fieschi. 

July 28, 1835. 

Battle of Yanacocha, in which the rebel army of Gen. SaJavery 
is defeated by the Peruvians. Aug. 13, 1835. 

The Queen of Madagascar prohibits the teaching of the Bible 
in her island, Feb. 6 ; the missionaries who came in 1818 are 
obliged to depart. Aug. 27, 1835. 

The Municipal Corporations Act passed (5 & 6 Wm. IV., 
c. 76). Sep. 9, 1835. 

By this Act certain corporate towns and boroughs were placed under a new 
constitution. The change was extended to Ireland, Aug. 10, 1840, and both 
Acts were amended Aug. 6, 1861. A similar reform had been effected in Scot- 
land August 28, 1833, and amended May 14, 1846. 

Marriage of Maria II. of Portugal witb Ferdinand Angnstus 
of Saxe-Coburg Gotha. Jan. 1, 1836. 


Battle of Hernani. May 5, 1886. 

Passages taken from the Carlists by the English, under G-eneral 
Evans. May 28, 1836. 

Life of Lonis Philippe of France attempted by Louis Alibaud. 

June 25, 1836. 
Adelaide, S. Australia, founded by settlers. July 27, 1836. 

Defeat of Carlists by Spanish royalists at Inigo. Aug. 1, 1836. 

Owing to the rapid spread of the Carlist juntas in Saragossa, 
Valencia, Seville, Malaga, and Cadiz, and finally in Madrid, 
the Queen Regent of Spain proclaims the constitution of 1812. 

Aug. 13, 1836. 

Dnrmg the war and captivity of Ferdinand YII., the Spanish Cortes had, in 
Harchy 1812, established a new constitution, by which the royal authority was 
reduced to little more than a name. That assembly was declared independent 
of the King, and was to consist only of one chamber invested with the legisla- 
tive power; the prerogative of the King being restricted in that respect to pro- 
posing and a temporary veto. The Cortes were also to determine yearly the 
amount of the land and sea forces ; to confirm treaties of alliance and commerce, 
and to propose to the King the members of his Council of State. All appoint- 
ments were to be filled up by this council, and the King was not to marry or 
leave the kingdom without the consent of the Cortes, under the penalty of losing 
the throne. 

Defeat of Carlists by Spanish royalists atLodosa. Aug. 21, 1836. 

Appointment of Gen. Espartero as commander-in-chief of the 
Spanish royalist troops. Sep. 17, 1836. 

Siege of St. Sebastian. Oct. 1, 1836. 

Attempt of Louis Napoleon Buonaparte to create an insurrection 
at Strasbourg signally fails. Oct. 29, 1836. 

Death of Charles X., ex-King of France. Nov. 6, 1836. 

The Spanish Cortes declare Don Carlos excluded &om the 
succession of the Spanish throne. Nov. 28, 1836. 

Bilbao delivered from the Carlists by Espartero. Dec. 24, 1836. 

Life of Louis Philippe of France, attempted by Meunier. 

Dec. 27, 1836. 
Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico. Dec. 28, 1836. 

Permission granted by the Chinese emperor for a British 
commissioner, superintending trade with China, to reside at 
Canton. . Mar. 18, 1837. 

An amnesty for political offenders published in France. 

May 9, 1837. 

Capture of Irun from the Carlists by Sir De Lacy Evans. 

May 17, 1837. 

The Spanish Cortes opened by Queen Christina ; she takes an 
oath to the constitution, June 18, 1837. 


Tbe following appear to be the principal clauses of the revised constitution :— 
1. All Spaniards to print and publish freely their opinions, without submitting 
them to any prerious censorship, by merely conforming to the laws. 2. All 
Spaniards to be admissible to all offices and public functions according to their 
merit and capacity. 3. The power of making laws reside in the Oortes and the King. 
The Cortes to consist of two legislative assemblies equal in rights and power — ». 
senate and a congress of deputies : senatoi-s must be forty years old, possessed of 
an independent fortune, and chosen for life. To the congress of deputies each 
province to return one deputy, at least, for every 50,000 souls of its population: 
the deputies to be elected for three years. 4. The person of the King sacred and 
inviolate, and not responsible : the ministers to be held responsible. The powos 
of the Crown to be analogous to those of the British sovereign. 5. The civil list 
of the King and royal family to be fixed at the commencement of each reign. 
6. The succession to the Crown to be in the order of primogeniture, preferrii^ the 
male to the female branch. 7. The Cortes to exclude from the succession persons 
they deem incapable to govern, or who have been guilty of any act for which they 
ought to lose their right to the Crown. 7. Independence of the judges and 
judicial administration to be secured. 

Death of King William IV. of Great Britaiu, and accession of 
Queen Victoria. Separation of Hanover from Great Britain. 

June 20, 1837. 

Battle of Herrora. Aug. 24, 1837. 

Martial law proclaimed in Catalonia, Spain. Sep. 4, 1837. 

The Duke of Terceira attempts to restore Don Pedro's charter 
of 1826 in Portugal, but fails, Aug. 18. He retires to England 
with Saldanha and other supporters. Sep. 20, 1837. 

Capture of Constantina by the French. Oct. 13, 1837. 

Battle of St. Eustace. Dec. 14, 1837. 

The American steamer Caroline burnt by the Canadian royal- 
ists for having brought assistance to the rebels. 

Dec. 29, 1837. 

Rebellion of the " Sons of Liberty," under Papineau, at Mon- 
treal, Canada, commences in the early part of 1837. 

American citizens prohibited from aiding Canadian rebels in 
their revolution against the British Government, by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. Jan. 5, 1838. 

A treaty for the surrender of Polish reftigees signed by Russia, 
Austria, and Prussia. Feb. 10, 1838. 

The ofQlce of Grand Yizier abolished in Turkey. 

Mar. 30, 1838. 

An insurrection breaks out in Lisbon, February 13 ; the 
Portuguese Cortes adopt a new constitution, to which Maria II. 
swears fidelity. Apr. 4, 1838. 

The Oporto wine company re-established. Apr. 7, 1838. 

This company had been established in 1766, for the regulation of the port wine 


trade. It was a most injurious monopoly, and in 1834 was abolished by Don 
Pedro, thereby giving the grower a fair recompense for encouraging the cultivation 
of the grape, and thus producing wine of a better quality ; while, owing to the 
competition of the merchants who export the wine, it could be bought at a lower 
price. The T^gli«h being great buyers of port wine, the decree of Don Pedro 
was, therefore, advantageous to them as well as to the Portuguese. However, 
the young Queen of Portugal was prevailed upon to grant a new charter of 
monopoly to the Oporto wine company for twenty years, thereby frustrating the 
benefits v^hich were to be expected from its previous abolition. 

Death of Talleyrand. May 20, 1838. 

Coronation of Qneen Victoria. June 28, 1838. 

Ferdinand II. (Bomba), King of the Two Sicilies, grants the 
monopoly of Sicilian snlphnr to a private company, in oppo- 
sition to a treaty concluded with Great Britain. June, 1838. 

Treaty of commerce between Austria and Great Britain. 

July 3, 1838. 

Prance declares war with Mexico. July 12, 1838. 

The first Irish Poor Law Bill passed. July 31, 1838. 

Slavery abolished in the East Indies by the English Govern- 
ment. Aug., 1838. 

A commercial treaty concluded with England and France by 
Turkey. Aug. 16, 1838. 

Commencement of the war between the British and the 
Afghans ; proclamation against Dost Mahomed. Oct. 1, 1838. 

Afghanistan' had passed from the svay of the Dooranees to that of the 
Barukzyes. The representative of the Dooranee race was Shah Sooja, a British 
pensioner at Loodiana. The only*member of the royal race who retained any 
power in Afghanistan was Prince Eamran, Sooja's brother and rival, who re- 
mained far to the west in x>osse8sion of Herat. Owing to internal dissensions 
the empire had become greatly contracted ; what remained was parcelled out 
between several brothers of the Barukzyes family, imder the domination of Dost 
Mahomed of CabooLj Deadly feud existed between the Barukzyes and the 
Dooranees of Herat. The Barukzyes detei*mined to reduce Herat. They allied 
themselves with the Persians, and a large Persian force marched to besiege it, 
the Afghans undertaking to send help. On the ground of danger to the 
English territories, through the advance of the Persian army, we declared 
"var upon the Barukzyes. A treaty was concluded between the British Govern- 
ment and Shah Sooja, by which the former undertook to aid Sooja in re- 
gaining his dominions. Bunjeet Singh, the sovereign of the Punjaub, also 
promised his support to the British. A more shameless outrage on the 
laws of nations was never perpetrated than this declaration of war by Lord 
Auckland. The original pretext for the war had been the advance of the Persian 
a>nny; but three weeks had hardly elapsed after the issuing of the manifesto of 
tbe Indian government, when news arrived that Herat was free, and the Persian 
army in fall retreat ! The expedition now remained nakedly the invasion of a 
foreign country with which we were at peace, for the restoration of a prince who 
l>ad been twice expelled from it, and whom for the last thirty years we had 
taken no pains to re-establish. I briefly sketch the events of the war that 
Mowed : — The Anglo-Indian army quitted Shikarpore early in March, 1839, 


took possession of Eandabar April 20, and {^hah Sooja was crowned there May 8. 
Ghuznee was captured Jaly 23, and Gabul August 7. Part of the army remained 
to support Shah Sooja. Dost Mahomed Ehim himself surrendered November 4, 
] 840. A revolt against the English broke out at Cabul November 2, 1841, when 
Sir A. Bumes and several ofScers and soldiers were assassinated. Sir W. H. 
McNaghten was ruthlessly murdered during a conference, by Akbar Ehan, son of 
Dost Mahomed, on Christmas-day in the same year. The remainder of the 
force stationed in this country concluded a treaty with the Afghan chiefs for its 
immediate evacuation. The order for departure was given January 5, 1842 ; but 
such was the treachery practised on the occasion, and the fury with which, in 
spite of promises of safe conduct, they were assailed, that only three natives and 
one European, out of an army of 5,000 men and a large number of camp-followers, 
including women and children, reached Jellalabad. Lady Sale, and some English 
ladies who had surrendered to Akbar Ehan, were afterwards restored. Jellalabad, 
besieged by Akbar Ehan January 18, 1842, was successfully defended by General 
Sale. General Pollock came to his aid April 5 ; General Nott recovered Ghuznee 
September 9 ; Cabul was partially destroyed Oct. 9 ; and having accomplished 
the objects in view, the British forces evacuated the country in October, 1842. 

Banishment of Carlist &.milies from Madrid. Oct. 27, 1838. 

The Canadian rebellion suppressed ; battle of Prescott. 

Nov. 17, 1838. 

Mexico declares war against France. Nov. 30, 1838. 

Fearful famine in the north-western provinces of India, in the 
year 1838. 

Peace concluded between France and Mexico at Vera Cruz. 

Mar. 9, 1839. 

Captain Grey discovers the Qtiscoyne river, Australia. 

Mar., 1839. 

A treaty between Holland and Belgium concluded at London. 

Apr. 19, 1839. 

Preliminaries had been signed in 1831, bnt Holland refased to accept their 
conditions. To Holland were assigned the limits which she possessed in 1790, 
with the addition of Luxemburg. Upon Belgium was imposed part of the Dutch 

British forces occupy Kandahar, Afghanistan. Apr. 20, 1839. 

Edict of the Chinese commissioner Lin, to seize all opium from 
the British subjects at Canton, March 18. The British are for- 
bidden to leave Canton, March 19, and are blockaded in their 
factories, March 24. All the opium in the hands of the British 
merchants (worth two millions), finally given up to the Cbinese 
Government, May 21. Departure of the British merchants 
from Canton. May 24, 1839. 

Hostilities again break out between Egypt and Turkey. 

May, 1839. 

Capture of Ghuznee by thQ British. July 23, 1839. 


The crew of the British schooner Block Joke, attacked and 
murdered by the Chinese, lying off Canton. Aug. 17, 1839. 

A separate peace concluded between General Maroto, the Car- 
list general, and Espartero, by which the Basque provinces 
agree to acknowledge Queen Isabella II., provided their 
ancient customs be restored to them. Aug. 31, 1839. 

Indecisive sea fight between the British and Chinese, in the 
Bay of Coalloon, China. Sep. 4, 1839. 

Don 'Carlos takes refdge in France. Sep. 14, 1839. . 

The United States Bank suspends payments. Oct. 9, 1839. 

Action at Chumphee, China, between 29 Chinese junks and the 
British frigates Voloffe and Syacinth^ in which the Chinese 
are utterly disabled. Nov. 3, 1839. 

Edict of the Emperor of China, interdicting all trade and 
intercourse with England for ever. Jan. 5, 1840. 

The penny postage comes into operation iu Great Britain. 

Jan. 10, 1840, 

Marriage of Queen Victoria with Prince Albert of Saxe-Gotha. 

Feb. 10, 1840. 

M. Thiers French Minister of Foreign Affairs. Mar. 1, 1840. 

Capture of Morella, Spain, by the Spanish royalists, from the 
Carlists. May 28, 1840. 

Hostilities commenced between Great Britain and Naples, 
owing to the refusal of Ferdinand II. to discontinue the 
monopoly of Sicilian sulphur, April 17 ; the monopoly is 
abolished, and peace restored. May, 1840. 

Attempt on Queen Victoria's life by Edward Oxford. 

June 10, 1840. 

Blockade of' Canton by a British Fleet, under Sir Gordon 
Bremer. June 28, 1840. 

Capture of the island of Ghusan from the Chinese by the 
British. July 5, 1840. 

Russia^ England, Austria, Prussia, and Turkey conclude a 
treaty at London for the expulsion of Ibrahim Pasha from 
Syria. July 15, 1840. 

The coup d'etat" in Brazil ; the Emperor is declared of age, 
and assumes the head of affairs. July 23, 1840. 

Descent of Prince Louis Napoleon and 50 followers at Vime- 
roux, near Boxdogne. He is repulsed by the troops, and taken 
prisoner. Aug. 6, 1840. 


General Espartero Prime Minister of Spain. Sep. 16, 1840. 

Capture of Sidon. Sep. 27, 1840. 

Louis Napoleon sentenced to imprisonment for life at Ham< 

Oct. 6, 1840. 

Abdication of the Queen Regent of Spain. Oct. 11, 1840. 

This step was not taken entirely on political grounds. A secret marriage with 
Mufioz, a private in the Guards, by whom she had seyeral children, as weU as an 
accusation of embezzling the public money, had rendered her contemptible, and 
her gOTemment odious to the Spanish people. She proceeded to Rome, and 
thence to France, where she took up her abode, till, as the instrument of Louis 
Philippe, she might find an opportunity again to interfere in the affiiirs of Spain. 

Life of Louis Philippe of France attempted by Darmes, 

Oct. 15, 1840. 

M. Guizot French Minister of Foreign Affairs. Oct. 29, 1840. 

Birth of the Princess Eoyal of Great Britain. Nov. 21, 1840. 

England^ Austria, Russia, and Prussia undertake to expel the 
Egyptians from Syria : Beyrout bombarded Sep. 10 ; Acre 
taken by the British and Austrian fleets, Nov. 3 ; the 
Egyptians quit Syria. Nov. 21 et seq., 1840. 

Dispute between Spain and Portugal respecting the navigation 
of the Douro. Nov., 1840. 

The Remains of Napoleon I. (which had been transferred frt>m 
St. Helena by the consent of England) re-interred in the Hdtel 
des Invalides, Paris. Dec. 15, 1840. 

Battle of Chuen-pe. Jan. 7, 1841. 

Hong Kong ceded to Oreat Britain by the Chinese commis- 
sioner Keshin, and an indemnity of 6,000,000 dollars agreed 
to be paid to the English before 1846. Jan. 20, 1841. 

The Emperor disavowed the treaty January 27, and hostilities again commenced 
February 22. 

Upper and Lower Canada united into one province. 

Feb. 10, 1841. 

Destruction of the Bogue Forts, China, by the British, under 
Sir Gordon Bremer. Feb. 26, 1841. 

Sir Hugh Qougb assumes the command of the British forces 
in C^ima. Mar. 2, 1841. 

Jerusalem placed under the protection of the Turkish Gro- 
vemment. Apr. 6, 1841. 

New Zealand becomes an independent colony. April, 1841. 


General Espartero declared sole regent of Spain during the 
Queen of Spain's minority. May 8, 1841. 

The British; under Sir Le Fleming Senhouse, att^/ck Canton, 
and gain the heights behind the city, May 25 ; the attack on 
Canton abandoned by the British, and a ransom of 6,000,000 
dollars paid to the British Government. May 30, 184!l. 

Peace restored between Egypt and Turkey; Mehemet Ali, 
Pasha of Egypt, made hereditary viceroy of Egypt, but de- 
prived of Syria. July 11, 1841. 

Mehemet Ali eventually submitted to all the conditions offered by the Sultan, 
and which were sanctioned by the representatives of Austria, France, Great 
Britain, Prussia, and Russia : — 1. The hereditary possession of Egypt to be con- 
finned to Mehemet Ali, and his descendants in a direct line. — 2. Mehemet Ali 
to be allowed to nominate his own officers up to the rank of a colonel. The 
Viceroy to confer the title of pacha only with the consent of the Sultan. 3. The 
annual contribution to be fixed at 80,000 purses, or 40,000,000 piastres, or 
£400,000. 4. The Viceroy not to be allowed to build a ship of war without 
the permission of the Sultan. 5. The laws and regulations of the empire to 
be observed in Egypt, with such changes as the peculiarity of the Egyptian people 
may render necessary, but which changes are to receive the sanction of the Porte. 

The Queen Dowager of Spain protests against the regency 
of Greneral Espartero. July 19, 1841. 

Ejrre's overland exploration of Western Australia. 

June, 1840-July, 1841. 

Arrival at Macao^ China, of Sir Henry Pottinger, as British 
plenipotentiary. Aug, 10, 1841. 

Capture of Amoy, China, by the British from the Chinese. 

Aug. 27, 1841. 

Sir Robert Peel EngKsh Prime Minister. Sep. 8, 1841. 

Attempted assassination of the Due d'Aumale, son of Louis 
Philippe of France. Sep. 13, 1841. 

General O'Donnell heads an insurrection in favour of the 
regency of the Queen Dowager of Spain at Pampeluna. 

Oct. 2, 1841. 

An insurrection^ under General Diego Leon, against Isa- 
bella II. of Spain, suppressed at Madrid. Oct 8, 1841. 

Acquittal of Alexander M*Leod, a British subject, arrested in 
New York State on a charge of complicity in the destruction 
of the American steamship Caroline by the Canadians (Dec. 
29, 1837). Oct. 12, 1841. 

Capture of Chinhae, Oct. 9, and Ningpo, by the British from 
the Chinese. Oct. 13, 1841. 



Insurrection at Cabnl, Afghanistan, against the English ; Sir 
Alexander Barnes and other officers treacherously murdered. 

Nov. 2, 1841. 

The Protestant bishopric of Jerusalem erected under the pro- 
tection of Great Britain and Prussia ; the Bev. S. M. Alexander 
consecrated first bishop, the Queen of England assigning to 
his jurisdiction Syria, Ghaldea, Egypt, and Abyssinia. 

Nov. 7, 1841. 

Birth of the Prince of Wales. Nov. 9, 1841. 

Proclamation of an amnesty in Spain in favour of the October 
insurrectionists. Dec. 13, 1841. 

Affair of the United States brig Creole^ which leads to a dispute 
with England. Nov. & Dec, 1841. 

This vessel, an American, vas on her voyage to New Orleans with a cai^ of 
slaves ; they mutinied, murdered the owner, wounded the captain, and compelled 
the crew to take the ship to Nassau, New Providence, where the Governor, con- 
sidering them as passengers, allowed them, against the protest of the American 
consul, to go at liberty. 

Evacuation of Cabul, Afghanistan, by the British; hostages 
are placed in the hands of Akbar Khan ; a dreadful massacre 
ensues of about 26,000 men, women, and children. 

Jan. 6-18, 1842. 

The King of Prussia visits England. Jan. 24, 1842. 

Attempt of the Chinese to recover Ningpo and Chinhae from 
the British ; they are repulsed with great loss. Mar. 10, 1842. 

Battle of Kandahar. Mar. 10, 1842. 

Battle of Jellalabad ; Kyber Pass forced. Apr. 5 <& 6, 1842. 

Attempt of John Francis to shoot Queen Victoria. 

May 30, 1842. 

Income Tax Act passed (5 and 6 Vict. c. 35), imposing 7d. in 
the pound on all incomes above J6150. June 22, 1842. 

Death of the Duke of Orleans, heir to the throne of Prance. 

July 13, 1842. 

Arrival of Lord Ashburton at New Tork as special ambassador 
from the British Government to the United States, April 1. 
Signing of the treaty of Washington, better known as the 
Ashburton treaty, by the English and American plenipoten- 
tiaries. Aug. 9, 1842. 

It defined the houndarles between the United States and the British American 
possessions ; and contained articles for the suppression of the slaye-trade, and for 
the giving up of fugitive criminals. 


Defeat of the Chinese at Tse-kee by Sir Hugh Gongh, March 15. 
The British evacuate Ningpo, May 7 ; they capture Chapoo 
(May 18), Woosnng (June 16), Shanghai (June 19), and 
Ching-keang-foo (July 21) ; the English fleet takes its station 
at Nankin, August 5 ; arrival of Keying, the Chinese commis- 
sioner, with powers to treat for peace. Aug. 16, 1842. 

Treaty of Nankin between China and Great Britain. 

* Aug. 29, 1842. 

The following are the most important clauses : — 1. Lasting peace and friend- 
ship between the two empires. 2. China to pay 21 millions of dollars in the 
course of three years. 3. The ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-choo-foo, Ningpo, 
and Shanghai, to be thrown open to British merchants, consular officers to be 
appointed to reside at them, and regnlar and just tariffs of import and export 
(as well as inland transit) duties to be established and published. 4. The island of 
Hong-Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to her Britannic Majesty, her heirs and 
successors. 5. All subjects of her Britannic Majesty (whether natives of Europe 
or India), who may be confined in any part of the Chinese empire, to be nncon« 
ditionally released. 6. An act of full and entire amnesty to be published by the 
Emperor under his imperial sign manual and seal to all Chinese subjects, on 
account of their haying held service or intercourse with, or resided under, the 
British Government or its officers. 7. Correspondence to be conducted on terms 
of perfect equality amongst the officers of both governments. 8. On the Em- 
peror's assent being received to this treaty, and the payment of the first instal- 
ment, 6,000,000 dollars, her Britannic Majesty's forces to retire from Nankin 
and the Grand Canal, and the military posts at Shanghai to be also withdrawn ; 
the islands of Chusan and Eolangsoo to be held until the money payments and the 
arrangements for opening the ports be completed. 

Evacnatioil of Ghuznee, Afghanistan, by the British, March 
6 ; the town retaken by General Nott. Sep. 6, 1842. 

A fire destroys property to the value of £700,000 at Liverpool. 

Sep. 23, 1842. 

GabtQ evacuated by the British, after destroying the fortifica- 
tions, and the Afghan war concluded. Oct. 11, 1842. 

An ixisarrection breaks out at Barcelona against the Spanish 
Government. Nov. 13, 1842 

Surrender of the town of Barcelona, Spain, to General Espar- 
tero. Dec. 4, 1842. 

Battle of Meeanee. Feb. 1?, 1843. 

Scinde annexed to the British empire in India, March 12 ; Sir 
Charles Napier appointed the governor. Mar. 24, 1843. 

The Free Church established in Scotland. May 18, 1843. 

In this year occurred the memorable disruption of the Church of Scotland. 
Ever since the Treaty of Union, the Kirk had been divided into two opposing 
sections — those who maintained the Church to be independent of civil juris- 
diction in all matters spiritual, and those who acknowledged the connection 
between the Church and the State, and the authority of the latter in matters of 

. I 


spiritual appeal. The question was an involved one. By the Revolution Settle- 
ment in 1699, the royal supremacy in spiritual affairs and lay patronage in the 
Church of Scotland were abolished. When, a few years afterwards, on the motioa 
for the union of the two kingdoms, the people and parliament of Scotland, keenly 
alive to the perils to which their Church would be exposed under the pre- 
dominating influence of Anglican institutions, framed a special Act — ^the Act of 
Security — which for ever confirmed the Presbyterian Church government to con- 
tinue without any alteration to the people of Scotland, — which was accepted 
and ratified by the English parliament. However, a few years afterwards, in 1711, 
an Act was passed, owing to the influence of Bolingbroke, again establishing the 
law of patronage in Scotland. It came gradually into operation, and at last, 
under the reign of Moderatism, was universally acted upon. It was universally 
acted upon, but the discontent that its introduction naturally gave rise to in- 
creased year by year the rancour and bitterness of those who opposed the 
authority of the State. Nor was the question of patronage the only point at 
issue. Of late years it had been repeatedly asserted, and as strenuously denied, 
that the legislature had gradually been encroaching upon the privileges of the 
Church, in endeavouring to control the authority of the Church courts and other 
judicatories regarding matters of a purely ecclesiastical nature, and thus usorping 
the power of the General Assembly. Perhaps tbe clearest way of understanding 
the various ca/uses that led to the disruption, will be by glancing at the different 
reasons which induced the Free Church party to separate from the Establishment. 
The Free Church advocates, supporting their arguments by referring to various 
statutes of James VL, of King William and Queen Mary, and the Act of Security 
inserted in the Treaty of Union (all of which decreed that the Presbyterian 
Church government was to be the only government of the Church within the 
kingdom of Scotland), complained that the Court of Session — a tribunal instituted 
by special Act of Parliament alone for the administration of justice in all civU 
actions — had repeatedly stepped beyond the province allotted to it by the 
constitution, in deciding not only actions civil, but causes spiritual and eccle- 
siastical, to the great detriment of the spiritual privileges of the courts of the 
Church. They stated that, notwithstanding the essential doctrine of the Church 
of Scotland, a doctrine ratified and confirmed by repeated Acts of Parliament, 
which expressly declares the government of the Church — the preaching of tiie 
Word, administration of the sacraments, correction of manners, the admonition, 
suspension, and deprivation of the office-bearers of the Church, and generally the 
whole "power of the keys" — to be committed alone to the authorities of the 
Church, distinct from the supreme power of the State ; notwithstanding the Acts 
passed in 1567, 1581, and 1592, acknowledging the supreme and exclnsive 
jurisdiction of the Church in matters spiritual — Acts ratified and described by 
Charles II. as those ** by which the sole and only power and jurisdiction within 
the Church doth stand in the Church, and in the general, provincial, and 
presbyterial assemblies and kirk-sessions;" notwithstanding the clauses of tlfe 
Treaty of Union regarding this subject, which repudiate all claims on the part of 
the sovereign to be considered supreme governor over the subjects of Scotland in 
causes ecclesiastical and spiritual, as inconsistent with the Presbyterian Church 
government; and notwithstanding one of the fundamental principles of the 
General Assembly, which requires it to be necessary for the admission of a 
minister to the charge of souls to have received a call from the people over whom 
he is to be appointed, no one being authorized to be admitted till such call has 
been sustained by the Church courts, and particularly that no pastor shall be 
intruded upon any congregation, contrary to the will of the people ; yet, in 
defiance of all these statutes, the privileges and authority of the Church had been 
most fatally, encroached upon by the State. The Free Church party specified 
these grievances by complaining that the legislature had interdicted presbyteries 


of the Cliarch from admitting to a x>astoral charge, irrespective of the civil 
benefice attached thereto, or even where there was no benefice, or any patrimonial 
light connected therewith, as in the Lethendy and Stewarton cases; that a 
decree, emanating from the State, had ordained a Church court to admit to the 
ministry, in a particular charge, a probationer or unordained candidate, and to 
intrude him on the congregation, contrary to the will of the people, as in the 
Mamoch case; that communicants of the Church had been prohibited from 
intimating their dissent from a call, proposed to be given to a candidate for the 
ministry, to become their pastor, as in the Daviot case ; that the establishment of 
additional ministers to meet the wants of an increasing population had been 
interdicted, as in the Stewarton case; that the preaching of the Gbspel and 
administration of the blessed sacrament throughout a whole district had been 
prohibited by any minister of the Church, under authority of the Church courts, 
as in the Strathbogie case; that members of inferior Church judicatories had 
been held liable to damages for refusing to disobey the sentences in matters 
spiritual and ecclesiastics^ of their superior Churdi judicatories, as in the 
Auchterarder case ; that the General Assembly and inferior Church judicatories 
had been prohibited from inflicting Church censures, as in the Cambusnetban 
case, where the minister was found guilty of theft, the Stranraer case, where the 
minister was accused of fraud and swindling, and in the Lethendy case, where 
the licentiate was guilty of swearing, drunkenness, and obscenity ; that the exe- 
cution of a sentence of deposition from the office of the minislay, pronounced by 
the General Assembly of the Church had been prohibited, as in the Strathbogie 
case ; that the State interfered with the supreme court of the Church, by 
assuming to judge of the right of individuals elected members of the GenenJ 
Assembly to sit therein, as in the Strathbogie case; and that in the greater 
number of the instances refen-ed to, the Court of Session had illegally attempted 
to coerce the Church courts in the exercise of their purely spiritual functions and 
to usurp ** the power of the keys," contrary to the laws of the realm and of the 
Church. To these complaints the l^islature refused to give redress, but 
declared, in reply, that the courts of the Church were liable to be coerced by the 
civil courts in the exercise of their spiritual functions, and particularly in the 
admission to the office of the ministry; that the civil courts had power to inter- 
fere with the preaching of the Gospel and administration of ordinances as 
enjoined by the Church courts, and to suspend spiritual censures pronounced by 
tbose courts : in fact, that in certain matters spiritual and ecclesiastical, the 
civil court had power to supersede a Church court and the superior judicatories 
of the Establishment. It was impossible that two parties holding opinions so 
diametrically opposed to each other, with r^ard to such vital questions as Church 
government and ecclesiastical polity, could exist long in the same body and 
subject to the same code of laws. At last the crisis came. On Thursday the 
18th of May, the General Assembly met within the walls of St. Andrew's Church, 
and the hour of trial arrived. Br. Welsh, the moderator, took the chair. Soon 
afterwards the Lord High Commissioner, the Marquess of Bute, was announced, 
and the whole assemblage received him standing. Solemn prayer was then offered 
up. The members having resumed their seats. Dr. Welsh rose. *^ By the eager 
pressure forward — the hush ! hush ! that burst from so many lips — ^the anxiety 
to bear threatened to defeat itself. The disturbance lasted but a moment. 
* Fathers and brethren,' said Dr. Welsh, — and now every syllable fell upon the 
ear amid the breathless silence which prevailed — * according to the usual form of 
piocedure, this is the time for making up the rolL But, in consequence of certain 
proceedings affecting our rights and privileges, proceedings which have been 
sanctioned by her Majesty's government, and by the legislature of the country ; 
and more especially in respect that there has been an infringement on the 
liberties of our constitation, so that we could not now constitute this Court without 




a yiolation of the terms of the union between Church and State in this land, 
as now authoritatively declared, I must protest against our proceeding farther. 
The reasons that have led me to come to this conclusion are fully set forth in 
the document which I hold in my hand, and which, with permission of tbe 
house, I will now proceed to read.' In this document, after the wrongs 
of the Church had been succinctly recited, the parties who signed it proceed 
at its close to say : — * We protest that in the circumstances in which we are 
placed, it is and shall be lawful for us, and such other commissioners chosen 
to the assembly appointed to have been this day holden as may concur with lu, 
to withdraw to a separate place of meeting for the purpose of taking steps along 
with all who adhere to us, maintaining with us the confession of faith uid stan- 
dards of the Church of Scotland, for separating in an orderly way from the Estab- 
lishment, and thereupon adopting such measures as may be competent to us, in 
humble dependence on God's grace, and the aid of the Holy Spirit, fortheadvance- 
ijient of His glory, the extension of the Qospel of our Lord and Saviour, and the 
administration of the affairs of Christ's house according to His holy Word ; andve 
now withdraw accordingly, humbly and solemnly acknowledging the hand of the 
Lord in the things wbi^ have come upon us, because of our manifold sins, and 
the sins of the Church and nation ; but, at the same time, with assured con- 
viction that we are not responsible for any consequences that may follow from 
this our enforced separation from an establishment which we loved and priied, 
through interference with conscience, the dishonour done to Christ's crown, and 
the rejection of His sole and supreme authority as King in His Church.' Having 
finished the reading of this protest. Dr. Welsh laid it upon the table, turned and 
bowed respectfully to the commissioner, left the chair, and proceeded along the 
aisle to the door of the church. Dr. Chalmers had been standing immediately on 
his left. He looked vacant and abstracted while the protest was being read ; 
but Dr. Welsh's movement awakened him from the reverie. Sei2ing eagerly upon 
his hat, he hurried after him with all the air of one impatient to be gone. ^Ir. 
Campbell, of Monzie, Dr. Gfordon, Dr. Macdonald, Dr. Macfarlan, followed him. 
The effect upon the audience was overwhelming. At first a cheer burst from the 
galleries, but it was almost instantly and spontaneously restrained ; it was felt by 
all to be an expression of feeling unsuited to the occasion ; it was checked in 
many cases by an emotion too deep for any other utterance than the fall of sad 
and silent tears. The whole audience was now standing gazing in stillness upon 
the scene. Man i^ter man, row after row, moved on along the aisle, till the 
benches on the left, lately so crowded, showed scarce an occupant. More than 
400 ministers, and a still larger number of elders, had withdrawn." In whatever 
light we regard this secession, whatever opinions we may hold about the sufficiency 
or insufficiency of the causes of separation, and whatever opinion we may form as 
to the truth or falsehood of the stated complaints, we cannot but respect the sin- 
cerity which (as- was the case in the Anglican Church, a century and a half ago) 
prefers a sacrifice of worldly interest to a violation of the sanctity of truth and 
conscience. But here our admiration ceases. The Free (but not voluntary) 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland, or the Free Protesting Church of Scotland, if 
the title is preferred beyond the circle of its followers, possesses no political or . 
religious interest for the world at large. To English Churchmen, who recognize 
Presbyterianism in Scotland simply as an establishment, and on the basis of the 
Treaty of Union a body of secessionists, like that of which Dr. Chalmers was the 
head, can have in itself and for its own sake not a particle of intrinsic interest 
from the very first moment that it has ceased to be established. Once unestab- 
lished, and it has no more title, interest, or consideration in the eyes of the English 
Parliament than any other body of Scottish dissenters ; and it stands before the 
public simply as a knot of private individuals, who, conscientiously entertaining 
Certain opinions, have taken certainly a very disinterested, but stiU a some- 


what remarkable, course for expressing tbem. The party now stands, ^ ^^Q^//y /% 4 ta 
simply upon its own merits, without reference to Church or State, wfew*.-^^** 
then is the real state of the case ? A body of Presbyterians, holding x>eculiar 
Tiews on a simple matter of patronage, and conceiving also that the State 
has irreligiously assumed jurisdiction in things spiritual (which last position is 
of course denied, as a matter of fact, by the opposite party), think themselves 
bound to secede from the main body. And yet, after all, the whole con- 
troversy, if carefully examined, appears to be more about forms than sub- 
stance. A Scotsman, it has been said, is not contented with having his own 
will, unless you give it him in his own way. The secessionists were strongly 
marked by this narrow-minded cavilling spirit. Surely the great aim of the 
stru^les of a Christian people and a Christian teacher ought to be to ensure the 
preaching of the free Gospel, the discharge of all Christian duties of piety and 
mercy. Forms are useful helps, but their importance is subordinate. There had 
been no glaring abuse of the privileges of patronage, for to that question the whole 
dispute goes back ; and if there had been, the Church courts had a remedy in their 
own hands. They had it in their power to refuse ordination to any presentee, for 
any cause that was likely to render his ministrations unavailing. They had it in 
their power to be more cautions and exacting in licensing candidates for the 
ministry. They left the Church, therefore, not because it was impossible, under 
its actual constitution, to assert the rights of congregations and insure sound and 
capable teachers, but because they were not allowed to take the precise means of 
attaining those ends which were most to their taste. For this reason, while the 
historian gladly bears testimony to the regardlessness of merely selfish considera- 
tions, and to the calm dignity which characterized the secession, it would be unwise 
to keep out of view that this heroism was displayed on an occasion which scarcely 
called for it. In secular affairs this is termed Quixotic. The hero who sets the 
peace and stability of a State on the hazard for the attainment of a secondary 
object, may occasion mischief far beyond what his success can compensate. There 
is generally, too, a good deal of self-deception in the case of such martyrs ; the 
pride of dogmatism in the first place, and the pride of consistency, right or wrong, 
in the second, are apt to assume the names of better motives. However, with 
regard to the consequences of the disruption, there does not appear to be any 
ground for serious alarm. Many who revere the Church of Scotland, for the 
eminent success with which it has discharged the duties of a great national teacher, 
apprehended that the secession of so many valuable members would be but a pre- 
lude to its dissolution. But this fear arose from an inadequate knowledge of the 
extent to which the forms and doctrines of the kirk have occupied the national 
mind in Scotland. With a few exceptions, the dissenters of that country differ 
from the Establishment by shades so slight as to be barely perceptible to strangers. 
At different periods, the Cameronians, the United Secession, and the Belief, have 
Withdrawn tcom the communion of the Established Church, but they retain all its 
doctrinal standards and forms of ecclesiastical government and discipline. It is 
doubtful whether the Free Church followers in Scotland will ever be stronger than 
they are now. Lately wishes have been expressed for re-union, and, in all pro- 
bability, at some future time these wishes will be realized. In fact the dissent 
of the Free Church party differs from other dissents. The grounds upon which the 
Cameronians and the members of the United Secession and Belief Churches left 
the Establishment were broad and palpable to the most vulgar apprehension ; the 
reasons for withdrawing avowed by the present Free Church sectino are too narrow 
to take hold on the general public. Men can take part in a contest between 
" patronage and no-patronage," who turn aside with impatience from the question 
whether the patron shall have a real or merely a nominal right of presentation^ 
The masses will continue to be divided between the Establishment and the voJun-> 
tary principle ; they are incapable of entering into or caring for the nice distinetiona 

H 2 


of the Non-intnisioiiists. In short the Non-intnudon party is one of those sects of 
whom all men speak well, partly because its members are really respectable, paztij 
because they are not strong, enough to excite jealousy or enmity. It is simply an 
addition to the already sufficiently numerous nuances of Calvinistical Fresbyte- 
rianism in Scotland, and nothing more. Its influence beyond the limited circle of 
its own adherents is felt chiefly in the emulation which its energetic and steady 
discharge of the functions of a church kindles in the members of the Establish- 

A revolutioil breaks out at Malaga, Spain, against the Spanisli 
Government. May 26, 1843. 

An insurrection again breaks out at Barcelona, and a revola- 
tionary junta established. June 12, 1843. 

In May, 1841, the Duke of Victory (Espartero) was elected by a majority of 76 
votes as sole r^ent of Spain during the minority of Isabella ; the queen mother, 
Christina, haying previously sought refuge in France. For a considerable time 
after this event the new regent possessed the confidence of the people, and effected 
many useful reforms in the State ; but owing to his having given great offence 
to the clergy, in consequence of having sanctioned the appropriation of part of 
the ecclesiastical revenues to secular purposes, a powerful party continued to 
harass and distract his government ; till, at length, the insurrectionary move- 
ments in various parts of the country denoted that a great crisis was 

Hong-Kong made the British seat of government in China, and 
placed under the governorship of Sir H. Pottinger. 

June 26, 1843 

Canton opened to the British under the regulations of the 
treaty of Nankin. July 27, 1843. 

Embarkation of the ex-Regent of Spain, General Espartero, 
at Cadiz for England. July 30, 1843. 

General Espartero deprived of all his titles by the new 
Spanish Grovemment. Aug. 16, 1843. 

Re -action against the new Government breaks out at Madrid, 
August 23, but is suppressed. Aug. 30, 1843. 

A revolution at Athens establishes a new ministry; a new 
constitution for Greece prepared by the National f Assembly, 
enforces ministerial responsibility and national representation. 

Sep. 14, 1843. 

Isabella II., the young Queen of Spain, declared by the Cortes 
to be of age. General Narvaez. appointed Lieutenant- General 
of the kingdom. N^ov. 8, 1843. 


Barcelona smrenders to the Spanish royalists. Nov. 20, 1843. 

The independence of the Sandwich Islands recognized by 
England and IVance, by a treaty signed at London. 

Nov. 28, 1843. 

The Gwalior ^territory, Hindostan, invaded and snbdued by 
the British ; battle of Maharajpoor. Dec. 29, 1843. 

Exploration of Western Australia by Landor and Lefray. 1843. 

Trial of Daniel O'Connell at Dublin, for sedition ; he is found 
guilty, and sentenced to a year's imprisonment and a fine of 
£2,000. Jan. 15-Feb. 12, 1844. 

He was released September 5, the same year. 

Appointment of Mr. Davis as British Governor-General in 
China, vice Sir H. Pottinger. Feb. 16, 1844. 

St. Domingo declares itself an independent republic. 

Feb., 1844. 

Down to 1844, the entire island was nnder the Haytian GK>Yemment as one 
republic ; but in the latter year, owing to the violation by the Haytians of the 
terms on which the annexation of Dominica had taken place, and their refusal 
to permit the emigration of white colonists into any part of the island, the Do- 
minicans were driven to declare their independence, which independence was 
recognized by Ghreat Britain. 

Death of Charles John XIV., King of Sweden, and accession 
of his son Oscar. Mar. 8,' 1844. 

Jletam of Christina, Queen Dowager of Spain, to Madrid. 

Mar. 23, 1844. 

The Texans conclnde a treaty with the United States for the 
annexation of Texas to the Union. Apr. 12, 1844. 

The Emperor of Rnssia visits England. June 1, 1844. 

The United States recognize the independence of the Sand- 
wich Islands. July 6, 1844. 

Sir Robert Peel's Bank Charter Act receives the royal assent.* 

July 19, 1844. 

* The Bank of England, incorporated by royal charter, July 27, 1694, was 
projected by William Paterson, a Scotch merchant, to meet the difficulty expe- 
rienced by William III. in raising the supplies for the var against France. By 
bis inflaenee the sum of £1,200,000 was subscribed to be lent to the Government, 
at 8 per cent., in consideration of the subscribers being incorporated as a bank. 
The scheme was violently opposed in Parliament, but finally received the royal 
affient, and thus were the (Governor and Company of the Bank of England 
established. Further loans have since been advanced to the Government, the rate 
of interest has been reduced, and the charter bas been renewed in 1697, 1708, 
1713, 1716, 1721, 1742, 1746, 1749, 1764, 1781, 1800, 1808, 1816, 1833, 


Life of the King of Prussia attempted by Tesch. July 26, 1844. 
Battle of Isly. Aug. 14, 1844. 

Peace concluded between Morocco and France. Sep. 6, 1844. 

The Emperor of Morocco agreed to outlaw Abd-el-Kader, and to prevent troops 
from assembling on his frontier. 

King Louis Philippe visits England. Oct. 6, 1844. 

An insurrection breaks out in Spain under Zurbano. 

Nov. 13, 1844. 

General Prim sentenced to 16 years' imprisonment for rebel- 
ling against the Spanish Government. Nov. 15, 1844. 

Execution of Zurbano, the Spanish rebeL Jan. 21, 1845. 

Purchase of the Danish possessions in India by the British. 

Feb. 22, 1845. 

Don Carlos renounces his claim to the Spanish throne in favour 
of his son. May 18, 1845. 

Sir John Franklin, with Captains Crozier and Fitzjames, in 
H.M. ships Erebus and Terror, sail on an Arctic expedition of 
discovery and survey.* May 24, 1845. 

and 1844. By the renewal of 1844, known as PeeFs Bank Cliarter Act, the 
charter was renewed till Augnst 1, 1855, and longer if the debt due from the 
public to the bank, £11,015,100, with interest, &c., was not paid, after dne 
notice ; the issue department was established ; weekly returns were required to 
be published ; the issue of notes was limited to £14,000,000, &c. ' 

* Their protracted absence caused the greatest anxiety in Europe. I append a 
list of the various expeditions sent in search of them, extracted from the Manual 
of Dates : — 1848, Jan. 1. The Plover, Commander Moore, sails from Sheemess, 
with orders to proceed to Behring*s Strait, and meet the Hercdd, Captain Kellett. 
She reaches the Sandwich Islands Aug. 22, and is joined by the Herald at Oha- 
misso Island, July 15, 1849. The two ships are joined by the Nancy Bawso* 
yacht, July 18, and despatch a boat expedition, under Lieutenant Pullen, July 
25.— 1860, Aug. 5. Thej Boe the Investigator. The ^«ra^ returned to England 
in 1851 ; and the Plover, after long Arctic service, was sold, at San Francisco, 
not being seaworthy, Nov. 9, 1855, the crew arriving in England, April 8, 1855.— 
1848, March 25. Sir John Richardson and Dr. Bae leave Liverpool to conduct a 
land expedition. They arrive at New York April 10, and enter the estuary of 
the Mackenzie Biver Aug. 3. Dr. Bae was despatched, with a party of eigbt 
men, to attempt to reach Wollaston Land, May 1, 1849 ; but in consequence of 
excessive ice, he was unable to accomplish this object. Sir John Bichardsoo 
arrived at Liverpool Nov. 6, 1849 ; and in May, 1851, Dr. Bae succeeded in 
exploring the shores of Wollaston. On the 21st of August he discovered a frag- 
ment of a flagstaff, supposed to have belonged to the missing party ; and in 1852 
he returned to Englaiid. — 1848, June 12. Sir James Boss (Enterprise) and 
Captain Bird {Investigator) leave England. They, fail in an attempt to get to the 


War declared against the United States by Mexico, on account 
of the annexation of Texas to the Union. Jnne 4, 1845. 

westward of Leopold Island, and return to England Nov. 3, 1849. — 1849, May 
16. The North Star, Mr. Saunders, master, sails with proyisions for Barrow*s 
Stndt. He returns to England Sep. 28, 1850.— 1850, Jan. 10. The Enterprise 
and InvestigaioTj under Captains OoUinson and M'Clure, sail from the Thames, 
and leave Plymouth Jan. 20. April 19. The two vessels are parted hy stress of 
weather. July 29. The InveitigcUor crosses the Arctic circle. Aug. 5. The 
InffesUgator is seen by the Plover. Aug. 29. The Enterprise is compelled by the 
ice to steer southward, and winter at Hong-kong. Sep. 7. M'Clure takes pos- 
session of Baring Island. Oct. 26. He discovers the north-west passage. July 
10, 1851. The Enterprise leaves Fort Clarence for the north. Sep. 26, 1852. 
She reaches Cambridge Bay, WoUaston Land, and winters there. 1853, April 6. 
Lieutenant Pim, of the Resolute^ brings assietance to the Investtgaior, which 
IB abandoned the following June 3, the crew being received on board the Resolute 
and Intrepid. 1854, April 14. The crew of the Investigator proceed on foot to 
Beechey Island. Sep. 6. They reach Disco, on the coast of Greenland, and 
arrive in England Sep. 28. The Enterprise returns May 6, 1855.— 1850, April 
13. Captain Penny, of the Lady Franklin, and Captain Stewart, of the Sophia, 
sail from Aberdeen. They return in Sep. 1851. — 1850, April 20. Sir John 
Koss, in the Felix, and Commander Phillips, in the Mary, sail from Loch Regan, 
the expense of the expedition being defrayed by public subscription. They return 
Sep. 25, 1851. — 1850, May 4. Captain Austin's expedition sails from Qreen- 
hithe. It consists of the Resolvie, Captain Austin ; the Assistance, Captain 
Ommaney ; the Intrepid, Lieutenant Osbom ; and the Pioneer, Lieutenant 
Gator. The Resolute and Assistance return to England in the latter part of Sep., 
1851. — 1850, May 23. The American expedition, the Advance and the Rescue, 
under Lieutenant De Haven and Dr. Kane, sails from New York. The expense 
of this undertaking was sustained by Mr. Grinnell, a wealthy American merchant. 
They fell in with some relics of the Erebus and Terror, Aug. 27, and arrived at 
Brooklyn Sep. 30, 1851. — 1850, June 5. The Prince AWert, Captain Forsyth., 
sails from Aberdeen, Lady Franklin having equipped the expedition. It returns 
Oct. 1. — 1851, May 22. The Prince Albert \& again fitted up by Lady Franklin, 
and sails from Aberdeen, under the command of Mr. Kennedy and Lieutenant 
Bellot, of the Freneh navy. After wintering in Prince Regent's Inlet, they 
return Oct. 9, 1852. — 1851, Sep. 27. Lieutenant Pim proposed to conduct an 
expedition through Siberia to the mouth of the river Kolyma, and to explore the 
north coasts of Asia ; but the idea was abandoned in consequence of the repre- 
sentations of the Russian Government. — 1852, April 15. Sir Edward Belchers 
expedition, viz., the Assistance, Sir E. Belcher; the Resolute, Captain Kellett ; 
the North Star, Captain PuUen ; the Intrepid, Captain M*Clintock ; and the 
Pioneer, Captain Osbom, sailed from Woolwich, with the double object of search- 
ing for the Franklin expedition and for the Enterprise and Investigator, which 
haii been absent since 1850. They arrived at their winter quarters, in Northum- 
berland Sound, Aug. 18. The Resolute and Intrepid were abandoned May 14, 
1854, and the Assistance and Pioneer Aug. 25; the whole of the ofiScers and 
crews being transferred to the North Star, Sir E. Belcher and Captain Kellett 
retamed to England in the Phoenix, which arrived Sep. 28. The Remlute was 
• discovered drifting in the ice, by Captain Buddington, of the U. S. whaler George 
Henry, Sep. 10, 1855. The British Government having; relinquished all claim 
to the vessel, it was purchased by Congress for 40,000 dollars, and sent as a 
present to the Queen. She reached Spithead, under the care of Captain Hart- 
stein of the U.S. navy, by whom she was formally presented to her Majesty, Dec. 


Owing to restrictions thrown in the way of trade and the appli- 
cation of the native laws to the European settlers, a combined 
English and French expedition attacks Tamatave, Madagascar. 

Jane 17, 1845. 

Visit of the Queen of England to Germany. ^^g* ^i 1845. 

Captain Sturt starts on a voyage of discovery from South 
Australia to the middle of the continent, Sep., 1844 ; he 
arrives within 150 miles of his destination, but is forced by 
drought to return. Sep. 6, 1845. 

The Iridh National Board of Education established. 

Sep. 23, 1845. 

War declared against the Sikhs. Nov. 17, 1845. 

After the death of Banjeet Sing, the sovereign of the Panjanh (Jane 30, 1839), 
his State fell into a condition of complete anarchy, between his legitimate and 
illegitimate sons and grandsons. Mutaal causes of jealousy also sprang up 
between the British and the chiefs of the Punjaub. Shere Sing, the sovereign at 
the time of the return from Cabool, was urged to fall upon the English. Plana 
were proposed for conquering the Punjaub, and the Q^overnor-General was willing 
to use force if desired by the majority of the Sikhs themselves. The Lahore 
Government was so afraid of its own army, that it deemed the dispersion of that 
army, by means of an English war, its only chance of retaining power, and there- 
fore encouraged it. Shortly after, November 17, the troops began marching from 
Lahore towards the Sutlej. It was long believed they would not do it. On 
December 13 Sir Henry Hardinge had positive information that they had done so, 
and issued a proclamation of war, annexing all Sikh territory on the left bank of 

16, 1866.— 1862, July 4. The Isabel, Captain Inglefield, sails from Woolwich. 
She explores 600 miles of new coast without success, and returns Nov. 4. — 1853, 
April 8. The hahel again sails for Behring's Strait, under Mr. Kennedy, late oi 
the Prince Albert. She reaches Valparaiso, where the officer and crew disagree, 
and the expedition is abandoned. — 1863, May 19. The Phxunixy Oaptain Ingle- 
field, and Lieutenant Bellot as a volunteer, and the Breadcdbane transport, sail 
from Sheerness. They reach Beechey Island Aug. 8 ; Lieutenant Bellot meets 
his death by accident. — 1863, Aug. 18. The expedition returns Oct. 4, with 
news of Sir Edward Belcher's expedition and of the missing Investigator. — 1853, 
May 30. The American ship Advance, commanded by Dr. Kane, sails from New 
York. She returns Oct. 11, 1866.— 1864, May 6. The Phoenix, Captain Ingle- 
Geld, again sails to Beechey Island. She returns to Cork, Sep. 28, with Sir 
Edward Belcher and Captain Kellett on board. — 1866, June 1. The United 
States despatch the Rdease and Arctic, under Lieutenant Hartstein, in aid of 
Dr. Kane's expedition. — 1867, July 2. Lady Franklin despatches the steam 
yacht Fox, Captain M*Clintock, from Aberdeen. She reaches Beechey IsUmd 
Aug. 11, 1868, and the crew divide into two parties, one of which is commanded 
by Captain M*Clintock and the other by Lieutenant Hobson, April 2, 1869. Mr. 
Hobson discovered the record of the fate of the Franklin expedition in a cairn at 
Point Victory, May 6 ; and the vessel commenced her homeward voyage Aug. 9, 
arriving at Portsmouth Sep. 21. — 1860, May 29. Mr. Hall, of Cincinnati, sails 
from New London, Connecticut, U.S., with the intention of searching to the north 
of Fury and Hecla Strait for further traces of the Franklin expedition. 


the liver. Battle was offered by Sir John Littler before Ferozepore, but the Sikhs 
refused. The battles that ensued are related in their proper places. 

Battle of Moodkee. Dec. 18, 1845. 

Battle of Ferozeshah. Dec. 21 & 22, 1845. 

Battle of Aliwal. Jan. 28, 1846. 

Battle of Sobraon. Feb., 10, 1846. 

Ezpulsion of the Anstrians from Cracow by the Poles. 

Feb. 22, 1846. 

An Austrian force, under General Collin, which had entered Cracow on the 
approach of armed bands of peasantry, was attacked and driven out of the town. 
A provisional government was then proclaimed by the insurgents, and two days 
afterwards they crossed the Vistula, expecting to be joined by the peasantry of 
Galicia, who were solicited by the nobles and clergy to strike a blow in the cause 
of liberty. The Austrian Government, in order to prevent this junction, excited 
in the peasantry a suspicion of the motives of the nobles, and offered a reward 
for every noble delivered up, alive or dead. A general massacre of the nobility 
and clergy in the circle of Tamow followed ; the insurgents from Cracow were 
defeated at Gdow, whence they retreated to Fodgorze, a suburb of Cracow ; here 
they were attacked by General Collin, and driven into Cracow, on the 27th of 
February. The forces of the three powers then began to concentrate on Cracow ; 
the people in the town opened negotiations with the Austrians about a surrender, 
and while these were going on, a Russian corps entered the town without resist- 
ance, and soon afterwards the revolution was at an end. 

Treaty of Lahore, and end of tbe Sikb war. Mar. 9, 1846. 

By this treaty the Sikhs agreed to surrender to the British the full sovereignty 
of the Dooab ; to pay £1, 600, 000 for war expenses ; and to grant to the Governor- 
General full powers to regulate both the frontiers and the internal organization of 
the country. Goolab Sing, the Sikh general, was vested with the sovereignty of 
the Cafihmere, on paying £1,000,000, and acknowledging the Company as his 
suzerain. The government was to be administered at Lahore, by a council under 
British superintendence, during Dhideep Sing the boy King's minority, which was 
to terminate in 1854. 

Railway panic in England. Mar., 1846. 

Fracas at Canton between the Chinese and English residents. 

Apr. 4, 1846. 

An insiirrectioil breaks out against the Portuguese Govern- 
ment in the northern districts of Guimaraens, Prado, and 
Penella (Portugal), in favour of Don Miguel. Apr. 14, 1846. 

Life of Louis Philippe of France, attempted by Lecompte. 

Apr. 16, 1846. 

Battle of Palo Alto. May 8, 1846. 

A revolution breaks out at Coimbra, Portugal, against the 
government of Maria II. ; organization of a junta and na- 
tional guard there. May 16, 1846. 


Escape of Louis Napoleon from the fortress of Ham. 

May 25, 1846. 

A treaty for the settlement of the Oregon boundary question 
concluded between the United States and Great Britain ; the 
United States possessing territory up to 49° N. latitude, leaving 
free to England the navigation of the Columbia. June 12, 1846. 

Cardinal Mastai Ferreti raised to the popedom, by the title of 
Pius IX. June 16, 1846. 

Don MigUQl publishes a letter, asserting that he will never 
renounce his claim to the Portuguese throne, on any condition 
whatever. June 24, 1846. 

Repeal of the Com Laws by Sir Robert Peel. June 26, 184^. 

The eartiest enactments on this subject were to forbid tbe exportation of com, 
while its importation was freely admitted ; bat in later times the policy of the 
legislatare was altogether different. The first statute extant on com is in 1360, 
which forbids its exportation, except to certain places where it was necessary to 
the king's interest, and to be named by him. At a later period, in the reigns of 
Richard II. and Henry YI., this policy was reversed, and liberty given to export 
to any places. Agriculture seems to have much declined in England towards the 
end of the reign of Henry VIII. and in that of Edward VI., which was probably 
owing to the great change of property consequent on the dissolution of the abbeys 
and religious houses. Thus the statute 26 Henry VIII. c. 2, positively forbids 
the exportation of com ; and statute 5 and 6 Edward VI. c. 5, entitled ''An Act 
for the Maintenance and Increase of Tillage and Com," attempted to make the 
cultivation of com compulsory, by exacting a fine of 5s. , payable by each parish 
on every acre of land in each deficient in tiUage when compared with the quantity 
that had been tilled at any period after the accession of Henry VIII. The Act of 
Henry VIII. forbidding the exportation of com was repealed in the reign of 
Mary ; but the price at which exportation was allowed was gradually raised, till, 
in 1670, it was enacted that wheat might always be exported as long as it was 
under 53«. id. a quarter. At the same .time heavy import duties were imposed ; 
and the design of the legislature seems to have been to keep wheat at an average 
of about 53«. 4d. Regulations were aUo made respecting the home trade in com ; 
and in the reign of Elizabeth it was made an offence to buy com in one market 
and sell it in another. By a bill passed in 1773 importation was allowed at the 
nominal duty of 6d. whenever the price of wheat should be above 48«. Subse- 
quently, in 1791 and 1804, this price was raised to Bis. and 63«. ; and in 1815 
the importation of wheat for home consumption was positively forbidden when 
the price was under 80«., and other corn in proportion. Various modifications 
were introduced between that time and 1829, when the principle of a graduated 
duty or sliding scale was introduced ; the duty, when the price was 628., being 
2i8. Sd.f and gradually diminishing as the price advanced, till at 73«. and 
upwards it fell to It, The operation of this principle, however, was found to be 
inconvenient and unsalutary ; and at length, by Feel's Bill of 1846, the trade in 
com was ultimately left almost free. 

Lord John Russell English Prime Minister. July 6, 1846. 

Christian VIII. of Denmark declares, by letters patent, his 
intention to extend the Danish law of female succession to the 
whole of his dominions July 8, 1846. 


Life of Louis Philippe of France again attempted by Joseph 
Henri. July 29, 1846. 

Annexatioii of New Mexico to the American Bepnblic. 

Aug. 22, 1846. 

Don Carlos escapes &om France, and removes to London.. 

Sep. 13, 1846. 

Battle of Monterey. Sep. 24, 1846. 

Marriage of the Queen of Spain to her cousin Don Francisco 
d'Assiz, Duke of Cadiz ; and also the marriage of her sister, 
the Infanta Maria Louisa, to the Duc'de Montpensier. 

Oct. 10, 1846. 

A few words regarding these much talked of Spanisl^ marriages, which certainly 

belong to the most important diplomatic victories ever gained by one cabinet over 

another. On this occasion the interests of France and England were brought 

into collision. France desired that the Bourbon line should continue upon the 

Spanish throne, whilst England hoped that a prince of the house of Ooburg might 

be the accepted suitor of the young Queen. The Queen-mother, Christina, had 

been anxious for her daughter Isabella to marry the Duke of Montpensier, son of 

Louis Philippe, but by the treaty of Utrecht, it was expressly declared that no 

prince of the house of Orleans should ever fill the Spanish throne ; such a union 

was therefore impossible unless France chose to act in defiance of that treaty. 

The candidates whom France one after the other proposed were, the Count of 

Aquila, brother to the King of Naples, Count of Trapani, elder son of Don 

Gaxlos, and the two sons of Don Francisco. As Louis Philippe engaged that his 

son should not enter the lists as a candidate for the hand of the Queen of Spain, 

Lord Aberdeen promised in return to support no other prince but one of the 

house of Bourbon, and the French Cabinet expressly reserved to it&elf the right, 

if England should push forward a prince of Coburg, of making a French prince 

his rival competitor. But, strangely enough, the English agents in Spain did not 

adhere to the instructions of their superiors. An invitation even was addressed 

to the Duke of Coburg, who was at that time in Lisbon, to come to Madrid, in 

order to negotiate the marriage with a prince of his house. Queen Christina 

was probably aware of the terms that had been arranged between France and 

England, and accordingly hoped that France, now released from its engagements, 

would make the Duke of Montpensier a competitor for the hand of her eldest 

daughter. But scarcely had Lord Aberdeen informed the French ministry of 

this unexpected step on the part of the Spanish Government, and forbidden the 

English ambassador to enter into the Spanish proposal, when Sir Robert Peel's 

ministry resigned, and was replaced by the Whigs, with Lord Palmerston as 

Foreign Secretary, in whom the French ministry had less confidence than his 

predecessor. Louis Philippe, dreading. now the English influence, and seeing the 

impracticability of uniting his son to Queen Isabella, proposed for her husband her 

cousin, Francis d'Assiz, Duke of Cadiz, a young man alike incapable in mind 

and body, the eldest son of Francis de Paula, while he destined the Duke of 

Montpensier for IsabelWs younger sister, Maria Louisa. To this the Queen- 

mothei', Christina, at last consented. At the same time Louis Philippe promised 

the English GK)vemment that the marriage of his son with the In&,nta should 

not take place till Isabella had given birth to an heir to the throne. The young 

Queen manifested her aversion for her selected lover, but by the machinations of 

Louis Philippe and Christina, Isabella's scruples to accept Francis d'Assiz were 


overcome, and the King of the French sacrificing without remorse the domestic 
happiness of the young Queen, gained a transient and not very honourable 
triumph by the fait accompli of a simultaneous marriage of Isabella with Francis 
d'Assiz, and of Montpensier with Maria Louisa. These mairiages taking place 
in direct violation of the pledge France had given England, caused a coldness 
between the two governments which lasted for a considerable time. 

A provisional government established at Oporto, Portugal, 
under Connt das Artas, leader of the insnrgents. 

Oct. 12, 1846. 

Disastrous inundations of the Loire and Bhone, which destroy 
an immense amount of property. Oct. 16, 1846. 

An amnesty pronounced by the Spanish Government in favour 
of Spanish political offenders. Oct. 17, 1846. 

Publication of a proclamation by Maria U. of Portugal 
stating that she will exercise absolute sovereignty in her 
kingdom until the restoration of order. Oct, 27, 1846. 

Defeat of the Portuguese insurgents by the royal troops at 
Evora, Portugal. An English fleet, under Admiral Parker, 
anchors in the Tagus, to aid the Portuguese Government 
against the Miguelites. Oct. 31, 1846. 

The Courts of Austria, Prussia, and Bussia revoke the treaty 
of 1815, and declare Cracow Austrian territory. Nov. 16, 1846. 

By the treaty of Vienna, of 1815, it was stipulated that " the city of Cracow, 
with its territory, was to be governed by its own laws as a free and independent 
republic." England, France, Sweden, and Turkey protested against this annexa- 

Defeat of the Portuguese insurgents, under the Count of Bomfin, 
at Torres Yedras, Portugal, by the Portuguese royalists, under 
Marshal Saldanha. Dec. 22, 1846. 

The Portuguese insurgents, under Count das Artas, enter 
Oporto. Jan. 7, 1847. 

Massacre of the American inhabitants of New Mexico by the 
Mexican population. Jan. 19, 1847. 

Defeat of the Portuguese insurgents at Yillaponca, Portugal, 
by the royal troops under Gen. Cazal. Jan. 30, 1847. 

Battle of Bueno Vista. Feb. 22, 1847. 

The English residents at Canton complain of the conduct of 
the Chinese to Sir John Davis, the British Governor- Greneral 
in China, April 3: accordingly a British force, under Gren. 
d*Aguilar, destroys the Bogue Forts, threatens Canton, and 
compels the Chinese Commissioner to redress the various 
grievances complained of. Apr. 5, 1847. 


The life of the Qaeen of Spain attempted by La Riva. 

May 4, 1847. 

Death of Daniel O'Connell at Genoa. May 15, 1847. 

Fearftil destitution prevails in Ireland owing to the famine, 
which had been steadily increasing since 1845 ; the English 
Gk)Temnient applies £10,000,000 for the relief of the people. 

May 15, 1847. 

The Sentence of exile against Don Mannel de Godoy, Prince 
of Peace, revoked. May 21, 1847. 

England, France, Spain, and Portugal hold a conference in 
London, at which the former three powers agree to assist in 
restoring order in Portugal. May 21, 1847. 

Poland created a Russian province ; Russian laws, taxes, and 
language introduced. May, 1847. 

Maria II. of Portugal publishes a conciliatory proclamation to 
the insurgents June 9; the Portuguese insurgent general, 
Sa-da-Bandeira, and a large number of his officers submit. 

June 15, 1847. 

Capitulation of the revolutionary junta at Oporto, Portugal, 
to the Spanish troops. June 30, 1847. 

Battle of Ozontero. Aug. 20, 1847. 

A resolution of the Swiss diet declares the Sonderbund illegal 
July 20 ; the Sonderbund resists the decree, and civil war 
ensues. Sep. 3, 1847. 

In the canton of Aai^n, where the population is mixed, a portion of the 
Catholics had risen, in 1840, in insoirection against the government ; and as it 
was foimd that the convents in that canton had instigated the rising, their sup* 
pression was decreed, and the revenues, after providing permanently for their 
inmates, appropriated to religious and charitahle purposes. In the diet, Lucerne, 
the leading Catholic canton, vigorously protested against this act, and the Argo- 
^'ians offered to restore the convents. But the Catholic party was not satisfied. In 
the canton of Yalais, the clergy went so far as to refuse the sacraments to the 
memhers of Young Switserland, as the liberal party was named, and even to their 
relatives or the residers of their journals. The Jesuits, elated with their triumph 
in the Yalais, now became extremely active in the other Catholic cantons, and, in 
1844, they vrere formally invited to enter the canton of Lucerne, from which they 
liad hitherto been excluded, to take charge of the cantonal education. This led 
to dvil dissension in the canton, the expulsion of the leaders of the anti- Jesuit 
Pi^, and the invasion of it by free corps from the adjacent cantons. Matters 
soon began to assome a more serious aspect. In the diet of 1844 the Argovian 
deputy had proposed the expulsion of the Jesuits from the confederacy. He then 
net with no support ; but in the diet of 1845 a majority voted for that measure. 
In 1846 Lucerne and six other Catholic cantons, Uri, Schwys, Zug, Unterwalden, 
miboig, and Yalais formed what was termed the Sonderbund, or Separate 
H^Qe, an armed confederacy, in fact, in support of the cause of the Jesuits. 
This was voted to be illegal by a majority of tiie diet ; and changes of govern- 


ment which took place iminediately after in Bern, Geneva, and other plac 
haying given more Btrength to the anti-Jesuit party, the expulsion of that sodi 
and the dissolution of the Sonderbund was resolved on by the diet. But as 
Catholic cantons, relying on Austria and on France for support, refused 
pliance, it was resolved to have recourse to arms. 

Espartero^ Duke of "Victory, restored to favoiir at the Spanii 
court. Sep. 3, 184Z| 

The army of the Sonderbund defeated at Freiburg by 
confederate Swiss November 13, and afterwards at Lucerne. 

Nov. 24, 18i7| 

The struggle ended in the submission of the Sonderbund, the suppression 
the monasteries, and the expulsion of the Jesuits from Switzerland. 

Death of Maria Louisa, widow of Napoleon Buonaparte. 

Dec. 18, 1845 

Insurrections arise at Palermo, Sicily, against the Neapolii 
Government ; a provisional government proclaimed. 

Jan. 12, 1^ 

Frederick VII. of Denmark publishes a new constitution, bj 
which Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark are to be governed 
" common states," elected alternately in the Duchies and Den^ 
mark. Jan. 28, If 

Upper California ceded to the United States. Feb. 2, 18^ 

A new constitution granted by Charles Albert, King 
Sardinia, to his kingdom, establishing a free press and iM 
legislative chambers. Feb. 8, ir 

Suppression of the proposed grand Reform banquet at Paris;! 

Feb. 21, ir^ 

Commencement of the French revolution of 1848, ani 
resignation of M. Guizot. Feb. 22, 18^ 

The reign of Louis Philippe was without any fixed principles, and a continuecl 
system of trimming, both in his foreign and domestic policy, combined with his 
insatiable avarice, led to great discontent in France. This discontent was aggra- 
vated by the scarcity that prevailed in the years 1846 and 1847. Disturbances 
broke out in several places, and the Libersd party began to agitate an electoral 
reform. Reform banquets were held at Oh&teau Rouge and Mans, which gave 
deep offence to the Orleans dynasty. The King, on opening the Chambers, Dec. 
27, 1847, alluded in offensive terms to these entertainments, and intimated his 
conviction that no reform was needed. In cousequeiice of this the Electoral 
Committee of Paris determined to have a colossal reform banquet in the Champs 
Blys^es on the 22nd Feb., 1848. But it was. forbidden by M. Guizot, who 
threatened to prevent it by military force if necessary. Symptoms of revolt now 
broke out. Groups collected in all parts of Paris ; the military were insulted, 
but the day passed without bloodshed, and at night the troops bivouacked in 
the public thoraughfarea. In spite of this precautioD, barricades were erected, 

xnayEBSAL chbokology. Ill 

ind great preparations made for a struggle. On Wednesday, tbe 23rd, M. Gnizot 
jKmoiuioed the resignation of ministers. Count Mol^, who had been summoned 
by the King, being unwilling to form a cabinet, the task was entrusted to 
11 Thiers, associated with M. Odillon Barrot. A shot fired by some person in a 
Boisy crowd that had assembled round M. Guizot's residence, on the Boulevard des 
Capncins, was the signal for the renewal of the contest, which the new ministers 
mdeavoured to avert. The fighting continued, and in this extremity M. Emile 
fe Girardin advised the King to resign, which he consented to do, after some 
hesitation, in favour of the Count of Paris. But this act of concession came 
too late ; the Bed Bepublicans had triumphed, and Paris was at the mercy of 
0ie mob. 

Abdicatioil of Louis Philippe in favour of his grandson, the 
Count of Paris ; he escapes with his family from Paris. 

Feb. 24, 1848. 

Vrance proclaimed a republic; a provisional government ap- 
pointed, consisting of Dupont de I'Eure, Lamartine, Arago, 
Marie, Ghimier Pages, Ledru Rollin, and Cremieux. 

Feb. 26, 1848. 

Arrival of the ex-King and Queen of the French in England. 

Mar. 3, 1848. 

Grand Mineral procession in Paris in honour of the victims of 
the revolution. Mar. 4, 1848. 

Insnrrectioxi at Vienna, and flight of Prince Mettemich. 

Mar. 13, 1848. 

The Imperial throne of Austria was now occupied by Ferdinand I., a soyereignii 
Vyih weak in body and mind, and entirely under the influence of his minister, 
Frince Mettemich. The rerolutionary spirit that had long been smouldering in 
Germany at last appeared in Vienna. Kossuth carried, in the Diet at Pesth, an 
ftddiess to the Emperor, demanding a national goyemment pui^ed from all foreign 
influence. Addresses for reform were got up in Vienna, and, after a slight 
attempt to put down the people by force, their demands were acce<led to. Prince 
Mettemich quitted Vienna for London, and the Emperor granted freedom of the 
pfess, a national guard, and a liberal constitution for the whole empire. 

An insnrrectioil breaks out at Berlin against the goyemment. 

Mar. 14, 1848. 

Lombardy revolts against the Austrians. Mar. 18, 1848. 

Abdication of Louis Charles, King of Bavaria, in favour of 
Marimilian Joseph 11. Mar. 21, 1848. 

Venice unites with Lombardy against the Austrians. 

Mar. 22, 1848. 

An insurrection breaks out in Venice, under Daniel Manin, 
against the Austrians, and the Republic proclaimed. 

Mar. 22, 1848. 

After a long siege, the city surrendered Aug. 22, 1849. 


Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, aids Milan and Yenice ift 
their insnrrection against Austria. Mar. 23, 18481" 

Revolt of Schleswig and Holstein commences at Kiel. 

Mar. 24, 1848. 

Frederick VI. of Denmark died in 1839, and was succeeded by his great nepbev 
Christian VIII., whose only son Frederick did not promise to leave any posterity. 
In the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein femaJes were excluded from sucoeedbg 
to the sovereignty, though this law did not apply to Denmark. Thus Charlotte,' 
sister of Christian VIII., was next heir to the throne of the kingdom on the dea^ 
of her nephew Frederick. At this juncture Duke Christian of Schleswig Holsteis 
Sonderburg Augustenburg, as the nearest male agnate of the Danish royal family, 
entertained hopes of succeeding in Schleswig and Holstein, and did everything that 
lay in his power to support the German party in those duchies. But in 1846 tite 
hopes of the German party were annihilated by Christian VIII., in the interests 
of Russiaji policy, issuing letters patent, extending t^e Danish law of female sac- 
cession to the whole of his dominions. Discontent now broke out among the 
Germans. Holstein, having an entirely German population, kad being a member 
of the German confederation, its affairs came under the consideration of the Ger- 
man Diet. With Schleswig the case was different. That duchy had belonged to 
Denmark since 1030, and the German Confederation had no right to interfere 
with its internal affairs. However, as half of the inhabitants of Schleswig speak 
low German, and desired the union of the two duchies and their incorporation witk 
the German Bund, it was sufficient to produce an agitation in their favour in Ger- 
many, especially as the question opened ap the prospect of territorial aggrandize* 
ment and the acquisition of ports on the North Sea. The German Diet promised 
that the rights of the Bund and the succession of the legal agnates should be 
asserted. The death of Christian VIII., on Jan. 20, 1848, offered an excellent 
opportunity to commence proceedings. A provisional government was appointed, 
March 24, for the two duchies, and the King of Prussia promised the Duke of 
Augustenbnrg that he would protect his title, and that he approved of the union 
of Schleswig with Holstein. The Diet of Frankfort authorized Fnissia to inte^ 
fere in the Danish question, and the Prussian and Hanoverian troops were soon 
under arms to aid the duchies in their revolt. 

Monster Chartist demonstration held in London. Apr. 10, 1848. 

The revolution which expelled Louis Philippe from the French produced a sligbt 
effect in England, where, however, the materials of sedition were happily not very 
formidable. The London chartists took occasion to display their force by a pro- 
cession, and mustered on Kennington Common to the number of about 20,000; 
but no fewer than 150,000 citizens had enrolled themselves as special constables, 
the Duke of Wellington had taken the necessary military precautions, and this 
ridiculous display ended without any breach of the peace. 

The Sicilian parliament vote for the deposition of the King of 
Naples. Apr. 13, 1848. 

The Pope declares war against Austria. Apr. 22, 1848. 

The Prussians defeat the Danes, and take possession of Schles- 
wig. Apr. 23, 1848. 

A military insurrection suppressed at Warsaw by the Prussian 
authorities. Apr. 23, 1848. 


Jutland occupied by Prussian forces. May 1, 1848. 

!rhe French National Assembly opened. May 4, 1848. 

An insorrection breaks out at Madrid, March 26, and sup- 
pressed. May 6, 1848. 

An executiye commission, consisting of Lamartine, Arago, 

Gamier Pages, Marie, and Ledru Bollin, elected by the Na- 

• tional Assembly, to govern France. May 7, 1848. 

A Polish revolt breaks out at Cracow, under the PoUsh insurgent 
leader Mieroslawski, against Austrian authority ; soon quelled, 
and Mieroslawski taken prisoner. April 26-May 11, 1848. 

Biots in I^aples, owing to the offensive government of Ferdi- 
dinand H. May 16, 1848. 

Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, the English envoy, ordered to 
qnit Madrid in 48 hours. May 17, 1848. 

On the receipt in Spain of the news of the flight of Louis Philippe from France 
parties seemed at first inclined to prevent violent residts by prudent and mode- 
conrses. The Government requesting extraordinary powers from the Cortes, 
lared that that body should be kept sitting, in order to judge of the manner 
vhich these powers ought to be exercised. The opposition leaders, on their 
believing that by the natural current of events they should come into power, 
cated violence and revolution above all things, as likely to cany matters 
ond the point at which men of reputation could engage in them. All of a 
Nden, however, affairs put on an entirely new aspect. General Narvaez ap- 
peared one morning before the legislative assemblies, and declared them to be pro- 
itSBcd, in spite of the promises recently given, and without assigning any cause 
ht Rich a violation of so solemn an engagement. The consequence was clear. 
On the 26th of March an insurrection broke out at Madrid. The Minister of the 
mterior described it as * * disturbances occasioned by groups, few in number, and 
4 the lowest class, and vagabonds. " But no sooner had tranquillity been restored, 
^ arrests of all sorts took place. Two of the most eminent opposition leaders 
B the Cortes, Senores Olozaga and Escosura were seized, imprisoned, and finally 
it off to Cadiz, there to be embarked for transportation to the Philippines, 
vere never tried, nor sentenced, nor even accused of any particular crime ; 
nearly all the men of mark in the same party underwent the same fate, 
iwhile the English Government instructed the British minister at the court 
if Madrid earnestly to recommend to the Government of Spain a line of conduct 
^ in accordance with constitutional usages. But against this interference 
^th the internal affairs of the country, the Spanish ministry protested in a vigo- 
Vni despatch ; and soon afterwards. Sir Henry Bulwer, the British ambassador, 
had been held up for some time in the ministerial press as a revolutionary 
Ver, was dismissed from the Spanish capital, on the pretext that his life 
in danger. All diplomatic intercourse was suspended between the two 
itries till 1850, when it was renewed on the mediation of the King of the 
at the solicitation of the Spanish Government. 

16 treaty between Mexico and the United States ratified, by 
which Mexico cedes California and New Mexico to the United 
States. May 19, 1848. 



Battle of Cnrtalone. May 29, 1 

Louis Philippe and his family condemned to perpetual 
ment by the National Assembly. May 30, 1 

Peschiera surrendered by the Austrians to the Sardinians. 

May 30, 1 

Louis Napoleon elected a member of the French 'N&ti 
Assembly. June 13, 1 

The Red Republicans rise in insurrection in Paris, owing to 
government attempting to dismiss part of the workmen 
the ateliers nationaux ; sanguinary conflicts between the insnfr* 
gents and the troops and national guard ensue. June 23, 1848L 

Paris declared in a state of siege ; troops under Generals Car 
vaignac and Lamoriciere drive the insurgents from the lefl^ 
bank of the Seine. June 24 & 25, 1848. 

Gen. Cavaignac elected President of the French Council. 

June 28, 1848. 

The Sardinian Chambers vote the annexation of Lombardy to 

Sardinia. June 28, 1848. 

Lombardy annexed to Sardinia. June 29, 1848. 

The Venetian assembly votes the incorporation of Venice with 
Sardinia. July 4, 1848. 

Election of the Duke of Genoa, by the Sicilians, as King of 
Sicily. July 11, 1848. 

Ferdinand II. of Naples protests agaifist the election of tbe 
Duke of Genoa to the throne of Sicily. July 15, 1848. 

A constitnent assembly meet at Vienna. July 22, 1848. 

Battle of Custozza. July 23, 1848. 

The Habeas Corpus Act suspended in Ireland, owing to the 
excitement consequent on the French revolution. July 26, 1848. 

An armistice concluded between the Sardinian and Austrian 
armies. Aug. 9, 1848. 

An armistice between the Danes and the army of Schleswig- 
Holstein signed at Malmo. Aug. 26, 1848. 

Abdication of Mehemet Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, and accession 
of his son Ibrahim. Sep. 6, 1848. 

Messina taken by the Neapolitans from Sicily. Sep. 7, 1848. 
The Hungarian revolution breaks out at Pesth. Sep. 11, 1848. 

In 1880y the HuDgarian Diet had commenced that movement of Magyarism 
which aroused the jealousy of the Slavonian races. It substituted the Magyar 
language for the Latin, that had been so long in use, and imposed this change not 
only upon the Hungarians themselves, but also upon the Slayonians. The Diet 


Croatia and Slavonia, which claiined to be independent of the Hungarian Diet 
Peeth, assembled at Agram, the capital of Croatia, and adopted retaliatory 
iMasnres. On the 13th of March, 1848, the Diet for Lower Aastria assembled at 
^enna. The greatest excitement prevailed ; the mob burst into the Chambers, 
and peace was only restored on the promise of a new constitution and the resigna- 
of Fiinee Mettemich. Two days after this outbreak a deputation, headed by 
le Archduke Stephen, and containing amongst its members Count Batthyinyi 
Louis Kossuth, arrived to demand extensive reforms for Hungary. These 
granted. The Hungarian agitators, not content with a separate ministry 
d parliament, demanded a distinct administration of war, of finance, and of 
ign affiiirs for Hungary — in fact, the dismemberment of the Austrian empire. 
s aroused the Croats, who soon made common cause with the Emperor against 

new constitution promnlgated in Switzerland, the basis of 
which is a federal assembly, a federal conncil, and a federal 
tribunal ; Berne selected as the federal city. Sep. 12, 1848. 

>Tlis Napoleon takes his seat in the National Assembly as 
representative for Paris, and for the four departments of the 
Moselle, Yonne, Lower Charente, and Corsica. Sep. 26, 1848. 

le Hungarian Diet appoint a provisional government under 

Kossuth and Connt Batthydnyi. Sep. 28, 1848, 

dth O'Brien and others tried at Dublin, and condemned to 

death for inciting the Irish people to rebellion. Oct. 9, 1848. 

The sentence was commuted to transportation July 9, 1849. An amnesty was 
nted to Smith O'Brien May 8, 1856, and he shortly afterwards returned to 

fienna bombarded by Jellachieb,. the Ban of Croatia, and 
Prince Windisehgratz, Oct. 28, the rebels surrender. 

Oct. 31, 1848. 
Jath of Ibrahim, Viceroy of Egypt, and accession of his son 
Abbas. Nov. 9, 1848. 

Plin declared in a state of siege. Nov. 12, 1848. 

insurrection breaks out at Home, and Cardinal Palma, the 
Pope's secretary, is killed. Nov. 16, 1848. 

Jpe Pius IX. quits Eome in disguise. Nov. 24, 1848. 

^ the 1st of October, the motu propria of the Pope was published on the muni- 
organization of Rome. It promised, undoubtedly, a great reform, for the 
vas drawn up in a liberal spirit, and was generally approved of. No dis- 
ion was made between noble and citizen, as had always hitherto existed. 

Be was henceforth to have a council composed of 100 members, of which 64 
' to be proprietors, 32 savants, advocates, artists, bankers, merchants, and 4 
Bsentatives of the ecclesiastical body. The municipal magistrates, to be called 

' Senate of Rome, was to consist of a senator and eight conservators. It was 
determined that each religious order should pay 10 per cent, of its revenues 

l^eoyering the expenses of the State. On the 15th of March, 1848, the consti- 

^ was proclaimed at Rome. This was a great step in advance, for one of the 

* of it was a representative system, giving a member for 30,000 souls. On 

wlatof May, the people of Rome were so excited by the events of Lombardy, 

I 2 


that they called on the pontiff to declare war a|i;ainst Austria. Pins temporii 
and offered his mediation to the house of Austria, on the condition of compl 
abandoning Italy. But this did not satisfy the Romans ; the pontiff was acct 
of duplicity, and 4meute8 took place in the capital and towns. It is not here 
purpose to give a history of the Mamiani ministry ; of the dilapidation of 
papal finances ; of the Pope's adhesion to the cause of Italian independence *, 
the efforts made by the Romans to send a contingent to the common cause ; ori 
the weakness, vacillation, if not culpable double dealing,, of Pius IX. On 
assassination of his secretary, Count Rossi, the Pope fled to Qaeta, where 
asylum had been prepared for him by the King of Naples. 

Protest of Pope Pius IX., at Gaeta, against the revolution 
Rome. The French Government despatches M. de Corcell^ 
with a force of 3,500 men to his assistance. Nov. 27, ir 

The Prussian Constitnent Assembly meets in the Castle 
Brandenburg. Nov. 29, If 

Abdication of the Emperor Ferdinand I. of Austria, in favc 
of his nephew Francis Joseph. Dec. 2, 1848^ 

The King of Prussia issues a new constitution to his subjects. 

Dec. 5, 184& 

Prassia had been promised a representative constitation in 1815, bnt noikq| 
as yet had been done. The French revolution of 1848 vibrated through Germanx, 
and Prassia was the first to feel its influence. Riots ensued, the people clamoop' 
ing for a reformation in their constitution, which the King was ultimately oon^i 
pelled to grant. The programme of the new constitution was that the Bund shooll 
abrogate all its unpopular resolutions, that the military should take an oath totiii 
constitution, that persons of all religious denominations should be placed on a 
footing of perfect equality, that ministers should be made responsible, that afi 
feudal burthens still remaining should be abolished, that taxation should be men: 
equally distributed, that labour should be protected, and that the ministry should 
be purified. 

A commission of regency appointed at Bome, consisting of 
Counts Corsini, Camerata, and Graletti. Dec. 19, 1848.' 

Louis Napoleon declared President' elect of the French Be- 
public. ' Dec. 20, 1848. 

The new constitution, the result of the revolution, was at last prepared. It 
was to consist of a republic, headed by a president elected every four years. For 
the presidency the candidates were Louis Napoleon, Oavaignac, Lamartine, Ledra 
Rollin, and Raspail, the reptresentative of the Socialists. The election took place 
Dec. 10, when Louis Napoleon obtained five-and-a-half million votes, while 
Cavaignac, who stood next, had only about one million and a half. Napoleon was 
installed in his office Dec. 20. He appointed Odillon Barrot Minister of Justice, 
Drouyn de Lhuys to the Foreign Office, Malleville to the Home Office, General 
Eulhiere to the War Office, De Tracy to the navy, and Passy to the administra- 
tion of the Finances. Marshal Bugeaud commanded the army, Ghangamier that 
of the National Guard, and Jerome Buonaparte, ex-King of Westphalia, was made 
Qt)vernor of the Invalided. 

Dr. Leichardt's expedition, to traverse the continent of Australia 
from east to west, sets out. 184}4!-184S. 

This expedition never returned. 



ktUe of Mooltan. Jan. 2, 1849. 

ipture of Pestli by the Austrians, luidor Prince Windiscli- 

gratz, from the Hungarians, 
ittle of Chillianwallah. 

Jan. 5, 1849. 

Jan. 13, 1849. 

itary demonstration to stifle an anticipated insurrection of 
the Bed Republicans in France. Jan. 29, 1849. 

te '^ Constitaent Assembly" meets at Rome, Feb. 5; it 
declares the Pope deprived of all temporal power, and pro- 
claims the Roman Republic. Feb. 8, 1849. 

fke execntiye power of the new Republic was placed in the hands of Mazzini', 
ellini, and Saffi : all church property was confiscated. 

i\ of Pope Pius IX. against the loss of his temporal 
power. Feb. 14, 1849. 

^peal of Pope Pius IX. for assistance to the Roman Catholic 
powers. ' Feb. 18, 1849. 

native ChriBtians of Madagascar bitterly persecuted. 

Feb. 19, 1849. 

le of GU)ojerat. Feb. 21, 1849. 

Charles Napier appointed Commander-in-chief in India. 

Mar. 7, 1849. 

srdinand II. of Naples grants a new constitution to the 
Sicilians, Feb. 28 ; wluch is rejected by the Sicilian Chambers, 
and a revolution ensues. Mar. 9, 1849. 

ication of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, in favour of 
Mb son, Victor Emanuel II. Mar. 23, 1849. 

lities resumed between Sardinia and Austria, Mar. 20; 
kttle of Novara. Mar. 23, 1849. 

mder of the Sikh army to the British, Mar. 14; the 
IWjaub annexed to the British dominions in India. 

Mar. 24, 1849. 

By the treaty of Lahore, the British were the protectors of Dhuleep Sing, the 
pereign of the Punjaub, a minor. We fulfilled that pledge by annexing the whole 
(Ids dominions within six months after consenting to the conditions of the treaty. 
Viact, we protected our ward by taking his whole territory from him, and allowing 
^ a pension of £40,000 a year out of his own revenue. All State property 
confiscated to the Company, and the celebrated diamond, the Koh-i-noor, 
endered to the Queen. If it were right to annex the Punjaub, it should have 
» after the first Sikh war ; then, being conquerors, we were entitled to make 
It terms we pleased. But having once undertaken to recognize and protect 
leep Sing, it was a crime to punish him, a boy, for the faults of his subjects ; 
I hy confiscating his dominions, and then, by adding insult to injury, in- 
ating him an annuity equal to about one shilling in the pound of his rental. 


Hostilities recommence between the Danes and the army 
Schleswig-Holstein, Mar. 25, 1 

The inhabitants of Genoa expel the Sardinian forces, an 
proclaim the restoration of the Ligurian Repnblic, Apr. 3; 
they are forced to surrender. Apr. 11, 184S 

The Hungarian Chambers assert the national independence d 
Hungary, and proclaim Kossuth Governor. Apr, 14, 184^9. 

Disturbances arise in Canada owing to the Rebellion Lossei 
Indemnity Bill; the insurgents bum the Parliament housv 
at Montreal. Apr. 25, 1849«^ 

A French army, under Marshal Oudrnot, occupies Civita 
Vecchia, in support of the papacy. Apr. 26, 1849. 

Russia supports Austria against the Hungarians. Apr. 27, 18^. 

The King of Prussia elected hereditary Emperor of the Gep- 
mans, March 28, but declines to accept the title. 

Apr. 28, 1849. 

Turkey concludes a treaty with Russia relative to the govern- 
ment of the Danubian principalities. Apr. 30, 1849! 

Martial law proclaimed in Prussia. May 10, 184^. 

Capture of Syracuse by the Neapolitans, April 23, and of 
Palermo, Sicily. May 13, 1849. 

Insurrections take place in Baden; the Grand Duke quits 
Carlsruhe. May 14, 1849. 

Opening of the newly-elected legislative assembly at Paris. 

May 28, 1849. 

Battle of Pered. June 20, 1849. 

The Prussians occupy Carlsruhe. June 23, 1849. 

Battle of Acs. July 2, 1849. 

The French commence the siege of Bome June 3 ; it sur- 
renders June 30 ; Marshal Oudinot enters the city. 

July 3, 1849. 

Prussia concludes an armistice with Denmark. July 10, 1849. 

Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly at Rome, July 4 ; the 
papal authority restored. July 15, 1849. 

The Encumbered Estates Act passed. July 28, 1849. 

In consequence of the number of encumbered estates in Ireland, and the 
difficulty of disposing of them, three commissioners were appointed by 12 and 13 
Vict., c. 77 (July 28^ 1849), to superintend their sale and transfer. By this Act 
the owner or incimibrancer of encumbered land of which the lease had run on for 
at least 60 years, was empowered to apply within three years to the commissioners 
for a sale (s. 16). 


Battle of Schassberg. July 31, 1849. 

Karshal Oudinot prodaims the restoration of the Pope, and 
announces that Borne will remain nnder the protection of 
a French army of occupation. Aug. 3, 1849. 

peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia at Milan. 

Aug. 6, 1849. 

Sardinia snirenders Peachiera to Austria, and withdraws her troops from 

-ttle of Temeswar. Aug. 10, 1849. 

e President of the United States publishes a proclamation 
against the marauding expedition of Gen. Lopez to Cuba. 

Aug. 11, 1849. 

Kotwithstanding this proclamation, Lopez landed 600 men at Oaba, and, after 

<l>ort straggle, took the town of Cardenas from the Spaniards. In a subsequent 

agement Lopez and his followers were defeated, and saved themselyes by 


rarions Hungarian fugitives take refuge in Turkey. 

Aug. 21, 1849. 

16 Universal Peace Congress assembles at Paris. 

Aug. 22, 1849. 
lyti, W. Indies, proclaimed an empire by its late president, 
Soulouque, who assumes the title of Faustin I. Aug. 24, 1849. 

lerick William IV., of Prussia, declared head of the 
Bavarian Imperial constitution by the Frankfort assembly. 

Sep. 8, 1849. 

>e Pius IX. publishes an amnesty, and promises judicial and 
Mlministrative reforms. - Sep. 12, 1849. 

isal of Turkey to surrender the Hungarian refugees to 
Austria and Russia. Sep. 16, 1849. 

mtion of Count Batthydnyi. Oct. 6, 1849. 

^st of Austria against the Bavarian constitution, and the 
fiUiance of Prussia with the minor German states. 

Nov. 12, 1849. 

ia resumes diplomatic relations with Turkey, which had 
oeen suspended in consequence of the Hungarian refugee 
*ulty. Dec. 31, 1849. 

^Val of the English fleet at the PireBus, January 16 ; Admiral 
Sip William Parker and Mr. Wyse, the British envoy at 
Athens, demand from the Greek Government compensation 
for injuries received by English subjects from the Greeks 
daring the disturbances in 1826. Jan. 16, 1860. 


The English fleet blockades the Pirseus on account of ib» 
Greek Goyemment refusing to comply with the demands of 
Great Britain. Jan. 18, 1850. 

The French and Bnssian ambassadors protest against 
blockade of the Piraeus by the English fleet, as by checking 
commerce it will render Greece unable to fulfil her pecuniary 
obligations. Jan. 26, 1850. 

The King of Prussia swears fidelity to the constitution. 

Feb. 6, 1850. 

Offer of the intervention of the French Government in the 
Anglo- Greek question accepted by Lord Palmerston. 

Feb. 8, 1850. 

Treaty signed at Munich between Austria, Bavaria, Saxonji 
and Wurtemberg to maintain the German union. 

Feb. 27, 1850. 

Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen incorporated with Prussia. 

Mar. 20, 1850. 

AU ecclesiastical jurisdiction abolished in Sardinia by the 
Siccardi law. Apr. 9, 1850. 

Return of Pope Pius IX. to Rome. Apr. 12, 1850. 

Diplomatic relations between England and Spain restored. 

Apr. 18, 1850. 

The Bulwer-Clayton treaty.* Apr. 19, 1850. 

Death of the poet Wordsworth. Apr. 23, 1850. 

The Greek Government agrees to the demands of Grreat Britain. 

Apr. 26, 1850. 

Gen. Lopez conducts another marauding expedition against 
Cuba, for the purpose of annexing that island to the American 

* This treaty, between England and the United States, relative to the 
establishment of a communication by ship canal between the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans, was signed at Washington April 19, and ratifications >reni 
exchanged there July 4, 1850. It consisted of nine articles. The contracting 
parties declared that they would not erect fortifications on the banks or in the 
vicinity of the proposed canal, and that they would not assume dominion orer 
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central America. 
Opposite and contradictory constructions having been placed upon this treaty 
by England and the United States, another, called the Clarendon-Dallas treatr, 
was, after various negotiations, signed at London, Oct. 17, 1856, but objections 
having been raised to it on both sides of the Atlantic, it was ultimately 
rejected, and the President, in his message for the year 1857, reoommeoiieti 
the abrogation of the Bulwer-Clayton treaty as the best method of solTiogtlifi 



Union, bnt is repulsed at Cardenas by the Spanish autho- 
rities. ^^J 17» 1^^^- 
An American squadron enters the Tagus, to enforce certain 
claims of the United States. June 22, 1850. 

The Snglish Parliament approves of Lord Palmerston's 
poHcy with respect to the Anglo-Greek question by a majority 
of forty-six votes. ^^^ 29, 1850. 

Death of Sir Robert Peel. ^^7 2, 1850. 

Sir Charles Napier resigns the command of the British forces 
in India, owing to the oflTensive conduct of Lord Dalhousie 
towards him. ^^J 2, 1850. 

Treaty between Denmark and Prussia signed at Berlin, 
which relinquishes the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein to the 
Danes, and maintains the rights of the German Confederation 
in Holstein ; the duchies renew the war on their own account. 

July 2, 1850. 

By this treaty all the dominions then united nnder the sceptre of Denmark 
were to devolre to Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Sonderburg GUiicks- 
hurg, and upon his issue in the male line by his marriage with Louisa Princess of 
Hesse. The principle of the integrity of the Danish monarchy was acknowledged ; 
but the rights of the German Confederation with regard to the duchies of Hol- 
stein and Lauenburg were not to be affected by this treaty. The Duke of Augus- 
tenburg relinquished, on payment of 3,600,000 dollars, his claims to Scbleswig 
and Holstein. 

A treaty^ prepared by the cabinets of England and France, 
signed at Athens by the Greek foreign minister and the 
English envoy. Jnly 20, 1850. 

Battle of Idstedt. July 25, 1850. 

Admission of California into the United States as a free state. 

Aug. 15, 1850. 

Denmark cedes her possessions on the coast of Africa to Great 
Britain. Aug. 17, 1850. 

Death of Louis Philippe, ex-King of France. Aug. 26, 1850. 

The Emperor of Brazil issues a decree making the importation 
of slaves piratical. Sep. 4, 1850. 

The Fugitive Slave Bill passed by the American Congress. 

Sep. 18, 1850. 

This bill imposed a fine of 1,000 dollars and six months' imprisonment on any 
person harbouring fugitive slayes, or aiding in their escape. Kepealed June 13, 

The Prussian Government addresses a despatch to the cabinet 


of Vienna declaring its resolve to uphold the constitutioii of 
Hesse-Cassel. Sep. 21, 1850. 

The quarrel of the two riTal German powers was brought to an issue by some 
disturbances which occurred at Hesse-Cassel. The Elector's minister, Hassen- 
pflug, treating the States with contempt, attempted to raise taxes without their 
consent. This arbitrary and unconstitutional act was opposed, and the Elector 
in alarm fled to Frankfort. The Diet of Frankfort resolved to support the 
Elector against his subjects, and Austria, Bavaria, and Wurtemburg prepared to 
interfere in his favour, while Prussia took up the opposite side, and moved a 
large military force towards the Hessian frontier. A collision appeared inevit- 
able, when hostilities were averted by Russian interference. 

Papal bull establishing a Roman Catholic hierarchy in England. 

Sep. 30, 1850. 

First battle of the Taeping rebellion in China.* Oct. 3, 1850. 

Destraction of a Chinese piratical fleet in the Baj of Tonqnin, 
China, by the three British vessels, Columbine, Fury, and 
Fhlegcthon, Oct. 20, 1850. 

Convention of Olmiitz for the pacification of Germany: 
Prussia, nnder Russian influence, acknowledges the FraiJc- 
fort Diet, and the ancient state of things re-established in the 
German Confederation. Nov. 29, 1850. 

General Changamier deprived of the command of the French 
National Guard. Jan. 10, 1851. 

* Tbe Emperor Taou-Ewang, who died February 25, 1850, during the latter 
part of his rei^ became liberal in his views, and favoured the introduction of 
European arts ; but his son, the late emperor, a rash and narrow-minded prince, 
quickly departed from his father's wise policy, and adopted reactionary measures, 
particularly against English influence. An insurrection broke out in consequence, 
August, 1850, and quickly became of alarming importance. The insurgents at 
first proposed only to expel the Tartars ; but in March, 1851, a pretender was 
announced among them, first by the name of Tien-teh (Celestial Virtue), but 
afterwards assuming other names. He annouuced himself as the restorer of the 
worship of the true God, Shang-ti, but has derived many of his dogmas from the 
Bible. He declared himself to be the monarch of all beneath the sky, the true 
lord of China (and thus of all the world), the brother of Jesus, and the' second 
son of God, and demanded universal submission. His followers are termed 
Taepings. The Taepings, who commeoced hostilities against the Imperialists, met 
with considerable success, capturing Woochang January 12, 1853, and Nankin 
March 19. Their operations, which seem to have been suspended during the 
war between France and England and China, were renewed in 1861, and they 
captured Ningpo December 9. They were, however, defeated March 1, and 
May 3 and 21, 1862, and Ningpo was wrested from them. They were again 
defeated October 23 and 24, and in 1863 and 1864 they sustained so many 
reverses that their cause had become desperate. They were defeated with great 
loss in February, 1866. 


Resignation of General Narraez, the Spanisli minister. 

Jan. 10, 1851. 

Submission of the dnehies of Sclileswig-Holstein to Denmark, 
and the matters in dispute referred to the arbitration of the 
Germanic Confederation. Jan. 11, 1851. 

Opening of the Madrid and Arangnez railways. Feb. 9, 1851. 

A concordat signed by Spain with Rome. Mar. 16, 1851. 

The census of the United Kingdom taken, and the popnla- 

tion returned at 27,637,761 persons. Mar. 30, 1851. 

A concordat with Toscany signed by Rome. Apr. 25, 1851. 

Opening of the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, by Queen 

Victoria. May 1, 1851. 

Industrial exhibitions originated in the French expositions. In June, 1845, 
the Society of Arts attempted to introduce them into England, and the council 
opened exhibitions on a small scale in 1847, 1848, and 1849. Prince Albert, 
the president of the society, at a meeting held at Buckingham Palace, June 30, 
1849, stated his opinion that the proposed exhibition should include raw mate- 
rials, machinery, manufactures, sculpture, and plastic art in general. A royal 
commission was appointed at the commencement of 1850, and the necessary 
arrangements were made. When completed, the building measured 1,851 feet 
in length by 408 in width. The transept was 72 feet wide and 108 high. The 
entire area was 772,784 square feet, or about 19 acres. The jury made their 
awards, and the exhibition was formally closed October 15, 1851. 

The Dnke of Saldanha heads an insmrection of the Portu- 
guese soldiery, April 8 ; Oporto declares in his favour 
April 24 ; the revolt extends to Lisbon ; Saldanha elected 
head of the administration. May 4, 1851. 

Ecclesiastical Titles Bill introduced by Lord John Russell, 
-which declares the Papal Bull establishing a Roman Catholic 
hierarchy in England null and void, and imposes a fine of 
£100 on all who shall endeavour to carry it into effect. 

July 4, 1851. 

A commercial treaty concluded between Prussia and Han- 
over. Sep. 7, 1851. 

Marriage of Don Miguel with the Princess Adelaide, of 
Lowenstein-Rosenberg. Sep. 24, 1851. 

Telegraphic communication established between France and 
England. Sep. 27, 1851. 

Failure of the third expedition of General Lopez against Cuba ; 
he and his followers taken) prisoners ; Lopez garotted, and the 
rest sent prisoners to Spain, where they were set at liberty 
afber some negotiation. Aug.-Sep., 1851. 

Death of Don Manuel de Godoy, the Prince of Peace, at Paris. 

Oct. 4, 1851. 


Death of the Ducliesse d'Angouleme, daughter of Louis XVI. 
of France. Oct. 19, 1851. 

Arrival of a British fleet at Rangoon, owing to disputes having 
arisen betwen Great Britain and the Burmese empire. 

Oct. 29, 1851. 

The origin of this war was as follows : — ^Two masters of English ships at Ban- 
goon were proceeded against in the Burmese court by Bnglish subjects and fined. 
They complained to the English authorities and claimed a large sum for demur- 
rage : a squadron was sent to Rangoon to enforce it. The King, of Burmah at first 
aclopted a very conciliatory tone, but afterwards finding what the exact matter of 
the grievance was — a squabble between foreigners regarding the decision of his 
own magistrate, who had been called upon by one of them to interfere — ^he 
altered his conduct. The English were superciliously treated, and 60 English 
subjects thrown into prison. War now became unavoidable. 

Proposal of the French President to restore universal suffrage 
(rejected by the National Assembly, Nov. 13). Nov. 4, 1851. 

Death of Marshal Sbult. Nov. 26, 1851. 

The " coup d'etat." Louis Napoleon dissolves the Legislative 
Assembly, establishes universal suffrage, proposes the election 
of a French President for ten years, and declares Paris in a 
state of siege. Dec. 2, 1851. 

As the period for the termination of Louis Napoleon's term of office as Pre- 
sident approached, the contest between the executive and legislative powers grew 
more bitter. But this opposition only stimulated Louis Napoleon in his purpose. 
Petitions came up from all parts of France, demandiug a revision of the Consti- 
tution. This revision the President strongly advocated ; but the NatioDal 
Assembly did not seem inclined to abdicate its functions. At last a government 
project to restore universal suffrage having been rejected by the Assembly, and a 
measure having been brought forward for determining the responsibility of the 
ministers and of the head of the state, Louis Napoleon resolved on a coup cPStai. 
The soldiery were devoted to him ; he had surrounded himself with able generals, 
who favoured his cause, and he relied on the disunion which reigned among his 
opponents. On the night of the 1st of December the troops were held in readiness 
for action, the government presses were employed in printing placards and procla- 
mations, and arrests were quietly effected of all whose opposition might prove 
troublesome. Among those arrested were Oavaignac, Ohangarnier, Lamoricidre, 
Thiers, Victor Hugo, Eugene Sue, and others. On the morning of December 2, 
placards appeared on the walls of Paris, declaring that **the National Assembly is 
dissolved, universal suffrage re-established, Paris and the department of the Seine 
is placed in a state of siege, the Council of State is dissolved." These placards 
were accompanied with an address proposing a responsible chief, to be named for 
ten years, and other changes, and an exciting address to the army. Some resist- 
ance was attempted, a few barricades erected ; but the troops, under General 
Magnan, easily overcame all opposition. Those captured with arms in their hands 
were shot on the spot. The fear of anarchy induced the upper and middle 
classes to support Napoleon ; the National Guard remained passive. 

Sanguinary conflicts in Paris ; the troops victorious. 

Dec. 3 & 4, 1851. 


Louis Kossuth^ the Hungarian exile, lands at New York, on 
the invitation of the United States legislature. Dec. 5, 1851. 

Appointment of a " Consultative Commission ** by the French 
President. ' Dec. 12, 1851. 

The Qneen of Spain gives birth to a princess. Dec. 20, 1851. 

Voting throughout France for the election of a President of 
the Republic for ten years takes place; afl&rmative votes, 
7,481,231; negative votes, 640,737. Dec. 21 & 22, 1851. 

A destructive fire at the capitol, Washington, destroys the 
library of the Congress and many important state documents. 

Dec. 24, 1851. 

Roman Catholic clergy prohibited from holding office in the 
Queen's Colleges in Ireland by the statutes of the synod of 
Thnrles. Jan. 1, 1852. 

Louis Napoleon installed at Notre Dame as President of 
France ; he takes up his official residence at the Tuileries. 

Jan. 1, 1852. 

In the constitution then granted to France, the form of liberty was main- 
tained, bnt its spirit was suppressed. It consisted of a Legislative Chamber, a 
Senate, and Council of State. The Legislative Chamber was to be elected every 
six years by universal suffrage, and the members of the Senate and the Council of 
State to be nominated for life. The President was elected for ten years. 

The British fleet force the passage of the river Irawaddy, 
Bnrmah. Jan. 4, 1852. 

The motto " Liberte, Fratemite, Egalite," ordered to be erased 
throughout France. Jan. 7, 1852. 

Generals Changamier, Lamoriciere, and others, conducted to 
the Belgian frontier, with instructions not to return to France. 

Jan. 9, 1852. 

Transportation of 575 persons to Cayenne by the French Go- 
vernment, for having opposed the coup d^etat. Jan. 10, 1852. 

The King of Prussia revives the council of state. Jan. 12, 1852. 

The French President promulgates a new constitution; the 
whole executive power to be vested in the President, who is to 
be advised by a state council, a senate of nobles, and a com- 
pletely powerless legislative assembly, whose transactions at 
the demand of five members may be secret. Jan. 15, 1852. 

Decree compelling the Orleans family to sell all their real and 
personal property in France within a year ; and a second 
decree annulling the settlement made by Louis Philippe upon 
his family previous to his accession in 1830, and annexing the 
property to the domain of the state. Jan. 23, 1852. 


Restoration of titles of nobility in France. Jan. 25, 1852. 

The life of the Queen of Spain attempted by the Franciscan, 
Martin Merino, at Madrid. Feb. 2, 1862. 

Turkey concludes a treaty with France respecting the Holy 
Places of Palestine. Feb. 14, 1852. 

All national holidays, except the birthday (Aug. 15) of the 
Emperor Napoleon, abolished in France. Feb. 17, 1852. 

The government of Holstein assigned to the Danish minister 
for Holstein-Lauenburg by the German commissioners. The 
Prussian and Austrian troops leave the duchy. Feb. 8, 1852. 

Lord Derby English Prime Minister. Feb. 28, 1852. 

Rangoon^ Burmah, stormed and taken by the British under 
Gen. Godwin. April 14, 1852. 

International treaty relative to the succession of the crown of 
Denmark signed at London. May 8, 1852. 

In 1852 a definitive treaty was ratified in London, between England, Russia, 
Sweden, and France and Prnssia on the one hand, and Denmark on the other, 
recognizing the transmission of the Danish crown (in default of male issue in tbe 
direct line of King Frederic III. of Denmark ) to the issue of Prince Christian of 
Scbleswig-Holstein and his consort Louisa Princess of Hesse, in order of primo- 
geniture from male to male, and providing for the continued union of all the 
states then united under the sceptre of the King of Denmark. This treaty vas 
based on the provisions of 1850. 

Dispute between Great Britain and the American Government 
respecting the encroachments of American vessels on the 
British fisheries. May 26, 1852. 

Opening of the Industrial Exhibition at Berlin. May 28, 1852. 

Ireland connected with England by submarine telegraph. 

June 1, 1852. 

Discovery of a plot to assassinate the President of the French, 
at Paris. July 1, 1852. 

The hereditary Prince of Portugal swears to respect the con- 
stitution. Jiily 8, 1852. 

Capital punishment for political offences abolished in Portugal ; 
various reforms introduced. July 9, 1852. 

Visit of Louis Napoleon to Strasburg. July 19, 1852. 

Election riot at the Six Mile Bridge, Ireland, five persons 

killed by the military and several wounded. July 22, 1852. 

Permission granted to M. Thiers and other exiles to return to 
France. Aug. 8, 1852. 

The '' Lone Star Society" heard of in England for the first 
time. , Aug., 1852. 


This was a secret society, formed in 1848, in Alabama and other southern 
states of the Union. Its object was declared to be ** the extension of the institu- 
tions, the power, the influence, and the commerce of the United States over the 
whole of the Western Hemisphere and the islands of the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans." The first acquisitions to be made by the society were Cuba and the 
Sandwich Islands. 

Political convulsions break out in the provinces of Xalisco 
and Guadalaraxa, Mexico. Sep. 13, 1852. 

The French Senate prays " the re-establishment of the here- 
ditary sovereign power in the Buonaparte family." 

Sep. 13, 1852. 

Death of the Duke of Wellington. Sep. 14, 1852. 

Enthusiastic reception of Louis Napoleon at Lyons. 

Sep. 19, 1852. 

Infernal machine, intended to destroy the French President, 
seized at Marseilles. Sep. 23, 1852. 

Visit of the French President to Toulon ; he orders the enlarge- 
ment of its fortifications. Sep. 27, 1852. 

The French President announces to the Senate the contem- 
plated restoration of the Empire, and orders the people to be 
consulted on the change. Nov. 4, 1852. 

The public funeral of the Duke of Wellington takes place in 
London, at an expense of £12,000. Nov. 18, 1852. 

France canvassed for votes regarding the restoration of the 
Empire .—Ayes, 7,839,552 ; noes, 254,501 ; null, 63,669. 

Nov. 21, 1852. 

Address to the women of America on slavery, adopted by the 
Duchess of Sutherland, and signed by upwards of 500,000 
Englishwomen. Nov. 26, 1852. 

The President of the French declared Emperor of France by 
the title of Napoleon III. Dec. 2, 1852. 

The constitution of Jan. 1852 was confirmed with some modifications. The 
Toyal title was restored to Napoleon's ancle, Jer6me Buonaparte. Generals St. 
Arnaud, Magnan, and CastiUani were created Marshals of the Empire. All 
foreign courts were assured of the Emperor's desire for peace, in token of which 
a reduction of 30,000 men was made in the army. England and most of the 
Buropean powers acknowledged Napoleon's title ; the three northern courts did 
the same after a short hesitation. 

Pegu, Bnrmah, taken by the British, but is shortly afterwards 
eyaciiated, June 4; retaken Nov. 21, and annexed to the 
British empire in India. Dec. 20, 1852. 

The Prince of Angustenburg, in consideration of a sum of 
3,500,000 dollars, signs an act renouncing for himself and his 


family all right to the snccession of any part of the Danish 
dominions. Dec. 30, 1852. 

General Narvaez^ the Spanish minister, exiled to Vienna. 

Jan. 4, 1853. 

Englislx coalition Ministry, and Lord Aberdeen Prime Minister. 

Jan. 4, 1853. 

Marriage of Napoleon III. with Eugenie de Montijo, Countess 
of Teba, at N6tre Dame. Jan. 29, 1853. 

Pardon of 4,312 French political offenders. Feb. 4, 1853. 

Attempt to assassinate the Emperor of Austria by Libney. 

Feb. 18, 1853. 

A commercial treaty concluded between Prussia and Austria. 

Feb. 19, 1853. 

Prince Menschikoff arrives at Constantinople, as Ambassador 
Extraordinary from the Court of Hussia, to insist on the repeal 
of the concessions made to Roman Catholic Christians respect- 
ing the Holy Places. Feb. 28, 1853. 

The guardianship and . possession of certain places at Jemsalem have been 
for many years the source of an animated contest between Christians belonging 
to the Gre^k and Latin Churches. These spots, known as the Holy Places, are 
hallowed from a supposed connection with our Saviour, the Virgin Mary, or some 
of His early disciples. Amongst them the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built 
upon Mount Calvary, and in which the sepulchre of Christ is said to exist, occa- 
pies a prominent position. In the year 1690 this Holy Sepulchre was appro- 
priated to the Latins, and though other Christians were allowed to enter it for 
the purpose of private devotions, the Latins alone were allowed to celebrate 
mass therein. It continued to afford constant matter of dispute between various 
denominations of Christians, and France always appeared as the champion of 
the Latin, and Russia in modem times espoused the cause of the Greek Church; 
ior the conflict has been at length confined to these rival sects. In 1740 a 
treaty was signed between France and the Porte, having special reference to this 
question. Alleged infractions in the terms of this treaty, and encroachments by 
the Greek Christians upon the privileges and possessions of the Latin Church, 
formed, on several occasions, the subject of complaint from the French Govern- 
ment. In 1757 a very serious outbreak occurred at Jerusalem, caused by dissen- 
sions between the followers of the rival churches, and soon after a haUi-sckerif 
was promulgated, expelling the Latins from the Church of the Tomb of the 
Virgin and the Church of Bethlehem, and placing the holy sanctuaries under 
the protection of the Greek monks. Thus were the rights and privileges granted 
to the Latins by the treaty of 1740 gradually encroached upon and abrogated by 
successive decrees issued at Constantinople in favour of the Greek Christians. 
These matters continued to be as fiercely contested at Jerusalem as ever, until 
further complicated by a fire that consumed a considerable portion of the Holy 
Sepulchre, in 1808. Thereupon the Greeks obtained permission to rebuild the 
edifice, and grounded upon this concession additional rights and prerogatives. In 
1819 France and Russia again interfered, and each of them sent a commissioner 
into Palestine, to inquire into and report upon these disputed claims. In the 
following year, M. Marcellus, the French commissioner, drew up a list of the holy 


places, and enQmerated the prerogatlTes of the Latin Church, A satisfactory 
settlement could not, however, be made ; and after a temporary loll, the French 
Goyemment, in 1850, directed their representative at Constantinople to endeavour 
to effect some arrangement. The Turkish Government admitted the justice of the 
French claims, and things were progressing very favourably when the Emperor 
Nicholas wrote a letter to the Sultan, requiring his adherence to the status quOi 
Pressed by these formidable rivals, llie Sultan knew not how to act ; and as the 
discussion was prolonged, the Emperor Nicholas gradually disclosed his real inten- 
tions. An arrangement was nearly concluded in 1852 ; but towards the dose of 
the year the Czar began to set the forces of his empire in motion. In February, 
1853, Prince Menschikoff repaired to Constantinople, as extraordinary ambassador 
from Russia ; and although the real nature of lus mission did not at first trans- 
pire, it soon became evident that the ruin of Turkey was intended. 

The Caffire war ends. Mar. 9, 185^ 

The settlers at the Cape of €h)od Hope came into frequent collision with the 
Caffres between the years 1798 and 1811. In 1819 the Caffres, led by Makanna, 
a pretended prophet, attacked Graham's Town, but were repelled and forced t^ 
purchase peace by a cession of territory. In 1828 they were defeated, and in 
1834 they again invaded the English settlements, under their chief Charlie, who 
carried slanghter and devastation wherever he appeared. Sir Peregrine Maitland 
expelled them from the Tyumie district in 1846. In 1850 Sir Harry Smith was 
appointed governor of the Cape ; and the Caffres rose, Dec. 24,. in a general insur- 
rection, and treach^ously attacked a British force of 600 men in the Eriskamma 
defile. They blockaded Sir Harry Smith in Fort Cox, Dec. 29, and repelled 
Colonel Somerset, who .came to his assistance. Fort Hare was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Caf&es, who lost more than lOQ men, Jan. 21, 1851. The Hot- 
tentots rose in rebellion May 31, and joined th^ Caffre chiefs, who continued to 
harass the colonists. Colonel Fordyee and sevei^ other officers and men were 
killed in a battle fought on the Waterkloof hills in November.- The war continued 
with great violence. Sir George Cathcart succeeded Sir Harry Smith as governor 
April 9, 1852, and the Caffires, defeated Dec. 20, neaothe Berea mountain, sued 
for peace Feb. 13, 1853i A meeting between the governor and the chiefs was 
arranged, and peace was restored. 

Re-establisliinent of a Boman Gatholic hierarchy in Holland 
amionnced. Mar. 12, 1853. 

The Madai set at Hberty. Mar. 17, 1863. 

On Jan. 8, 1852, Francesco and Rosa Madai were condemned to four-and-a-half 
and three- and-a-half years' imprisonment respectively, by order of the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, for having embraced the Protestant religion, and having read 
their Bible in due conformity with the teaching of their new faith. The case 
excited great sympathy in England and other Protestant countries. A Protestant 
deputation, headed by the Earls of Shaftesbury and Boden, proceeded to Florence 
in October of the same year, with the view to their release from confinement, but 
the Grand Duke refused to receive them. The following year the Madai were, 
however, set at liberty by the interposition of the British GK>vemment, and an 
annuity of £100 was provided for them. 

The British Parliament abolishes the "Canada clergy reserves," 
which appropriated one-seventh of the waste lands of the 
colony for the maintenance of their Protestant clergy. 

May 9, 1853. 


The Dublin Industrial Exhibition opened. May 12, 1853. 

The points conceded to Russia respecting tbe Holy Places by 
Turkey deemed unsatisfactory ; departure of Prince Menschi- 
koff £rom Constantinople. May 21, 1853. 

A manifesto issued to the great Powers by the Sultan. 

May 28, 1853. 

The British fleet, under Admiral Dundas, ordered to the 
Dardanelles. June 8, 1853. 

Affair of Kossta lit Smyrna. June 22, 1853. 

The Hungarian Martin Kossta, a citizen of the United States, was seized by the 
Austrian authorities at Smyrna as a rebel, in consequence of which several Aiurtriaa 
officials were assassinated by political refugees. Capt. Ingraham, U.S. corvette St, 
Louds, demanded the restoration of Kossta, and he was subsequently surrendered. 

The Emperor of Bussia publishes a manifesto against Turkey* 

June 26, 1853. 

The income tax extended to Ireland. June 28, 1853. 

Conclusioil of the Burmese war. June 30, 1853. 

A Russian army of occupation, under Prince Gt>rtschakoff, 
enters the Danubian principalities. July 2, 1853. 

The Porte protests against the occupation of the principalities 
by Russia. July 1^ 1853. 

The Exhibition of the Industry of all Nations opened at New 
York. July 14, 1853. 

Acts relating to the Volunteer force in Grreat Britain consoli- 
dated and amended by 26 & 27 Vict., c. 65. July 21, 1853. 

The conference at Vienna assembles. July 24, 1853. 

On the breaking out of the Basso-Turkish war, a conference of the representa- 
tives of the four great Powers assembled at Vienna, for the purpose of adjusting 
the question pacifically. On the 31st of July the congress adopted the celebrated 
Vienna note. It was accepted by Russia, Aug. 10, but the Turkish Goyemment 
denumded some alterations, Aug. 19, which were rejected by the Cfsar, Sep. 7. 
The result was the declaration of war by Turkey, Oct. 6. The congress addressed 
another note to the Porte, expressing the regret of the great Powers at the war, 
and requesting information on the conditions on which Turkey wonld treat for 
peace, Dec. 5 ; and the Turkish Qovemment, in a reply dated Dec. 31, named the 
earliest possible evacuation of the Principalities, the renewal of treaties, the main 
tenance of the religious privileges of all communities, and a definite rejp;ulation of 
the Holy Places, as the indispensable grounds of negotiation. These four points 
were admitted by the congress, Jan. 13, 1854, and on the 16th the meeting was 

A new India bill (16 & 17 Vict., c 95) passed by the British 
Government. Aug. 20, 1853. 

This was the last charter of the East India Company. The Company's govern- 
ment was to continue ** until Parliament should otherwise provide." llie number 


of directors was redneed, and one-third of them were to be appointed by the Crown. 
A legialatiye council was to be constituted for India, and the appointments to the 
civil and medical seryices thrown open to public competition, the patronage of 
the army and the staff of chaplains being alone reserved to the directors. 

Marriage of the Duke of Brabant, heir apparent of Belgium, 
with the Archduchess Maria of Austria. Aug. 22, 1853. 

The Taeping rebels (China) take Woochang, Jan. 12 ; Amoy, 
Mar. 18 ; Nankin, Mar. 19, and Shanghai. Sep. 7, 1853. 

Bemoval of the Hangarian crown and insignia to Vienna. 

Sep. 8, 1853. 

A grand national council of the Turkish nation insists on the 
evacuation of the Principalities by Russia. Sep. 26, 1853. 

Turkey declares war against Bussia. Oct. 5, 1853. 

The British fleet enters the Bosphorus. Oct. 30, 1853. 

Visit of the Emperor and Empress of the French to the French 
proyinoes, and discharge of many political prisoners. 

Oct., 1853. 

Battle of Oltenitza. Nov. 4, 1853. 

Attempted assassination of the Emperor of the French ; ten. 
persons condenmed to transportation for life. Nov. 7, 1853.., 

An Admiralty board established in Prussia, and the^ naval 
affairs separated from the military department. Nov. 14, 1853. 

Death of Maria U. of Portugal, and accession of her son 
Pedro v., under the regency of his &.ther. Nov. 15, 1853. 

Treaty concluded between France and Spain for the protection 
of literary property. Nov. 15, 1853. 

Reconciliatiozi of the two branches of the Bourbons at Fohrs- 
dorf. Nov. 20, 1853. 

Collective note from England, France, Austria, and Prussia, 
requesting to know on what terms the Porte will negotiate for 
peace. Dec. 5, 1853. 

Death of the Bajah of Nagpore, and annexation of his terri- 
tories to the British possessions in India. Dec. 11, 1853. 

Cren. Santa Anna elected Dictator of Mexico for Hfe (he had 
formerly been President from 1833-1845). Dec. 16, 1853. 

Austria decrees that aU state documents, law pleadings, &c., in 
Hungary, be transacted in the German language. 

Jan. 1, 1854. 
Sweden announces her neutrality in the Eastern question. 

Jan. 2, 1854. 
s: 2 


Entrance of the allied fleets into the Black Sea at the requet 
of the Porte. Jan. 4, 18t 

The Turks victorions at Gitate, with a loss to the Russians ol 
3,000 men. Jan. 6, 18^ 

Reply of the Porte to the note of Dec. 5 nit., containing foi 
points as bases of negotiation : viz., 1. The promptest possibU 
evacuation of the Principalities; 2. Revision of the treaties; 
3. Maintenance of religions privileges to the commnnities oi 
all confessions ; 4. A definitive settlement of the conventioil| 
respecting the Holy Places ; approved of by the four Powers.! 

Jan. 13, 18544 
This reply was dated Dec. 81. 

The Greek provinces of Epiros and Albania revolt against the 
Turks (they are aided by volnnteers from Athens, Mar. 14). 

Jan. 28, 18541 

The Greeks had for many years regarded the Tnrks with ertreme jealousy; 
they had been engaged in seyeral severe conflicts with them; and they awaited { 
with impatience the overthrow of the Ottoman power in Europe. Moreover,' 
agitation had long been fostered in King Otho's dominions. Many of his subjects I 
were dissatisfied with the settlement of affairs at the termination of the warofl 
independence, and desired not only the incorporation of Epirus and Thessaly, 
provinces of Turkey containing a great number of Christians of the Greek Chorch, 
bnt even the thorongh humiliation of the Porte. Secret societies grew in im- 
portance ; and although the members of these were actuated by different motives, 
they all looked forward to one consummation — the triumph of the cross over tbe 
crescent. They talked enthusiastically of the period when the ancient Bysantiiui 
should once more become a citadel of Christianity; and, being supported by 
Russia, they believed that the fulfilment of their hopes could not be much longer 
delayed. Although the Emperor of Russia had no intention of assisting in tbe 
elevation of Greece, yet he skilfully turned this antipathy between the nei^- 
bouring states to his own advantage, and strained every nerve to extend his 
influence with the Greeks, and to induce them to regard him, not only in s 
political, but also in a religious point of view, as their friend and protector. 
WhUe I^oe Menschikoff was employed at Constantinople, early in 1853, in lus 
arrogant mission. Admiral Eomiloff was holding private interviews with the King 
and Queen of Gh*eece, both already sufficiently subservient to Nicholas, and pre- 
paring them for any contingencies that might arise. The consequence was that 
an insurrection broke out in Greece early in 1854, and a crusade, secretly sap- 
ported by King Otho, was proclaimed against the Turks. After several sanguinary 
encounters hful taken place, France and England interfered, and in May, 1854, 
their expeditionary forces, amounting to nearly 9,000 men, reached the Fiivna^ 
and the Greek conspiracy was crushed. 

Departure of the Bnssian ambassador from England. 

Feb. 7, 1854 

The Queen of Spain declares her whole kingdom in a state of 
siege owing to the hated interference of Queen Christina. 

Feb. 22, 1854 


Ultimatom of England and France sent to St. Petersburg. 

Feb. 27, 1854. 

The Czar ''did not judge it suitable to give an answer." March 19. 

A commercial treaty concluded with the United States by- 
Japan. Mar. 8, 1854. 

The Baltic fleet reviewed at Spithead by the Queen of 
England. Mar. 11, 1854. 

Treaty of alliance signed at Constantinople between Great 
Britain, France, and Turkey. Mar. 12, 1854. 

The Russians^ under Gortschakoff, pass the Danube, and 
occupy the Dobrudscha j severe conflicts ; the Turks retire. 

Mar. 23-24, 1854 

Death of the Infant Ferdinand HI., Duke of Parma. 

Mar. 27, 1854. 

Declaration of war by England and France against Bussia. 

Mar. 28, 1854, 

The Porte demands the Greek Government to prevent its 
subjects from aiding the Albanian rebels. Mar. 19 ; the demand 
rejected, and war declared. Mar. 28, 1854. 

Bombardment of Odessa by the English and French fleets. 

Apr. 22, 1854. 

Defeat of the Greeks at Damoko by the Turks under Abdi 
Pasha. Apr. 22, 1854. . 

Manifesto of Nicholas I. of Russia, asserting that his only 
object in the war with Turkey is the defence of the Christian 
faith. Apr. 23, 1854. 

Marriage of the Emperor of Austria with the Princess 
Elizabeth of Bavaria. Apr. 24, 1854. 

The government of the United States announces its neutrality 
in the Eastern question. Apr. 28, 1854. 

H.H.S. *' Tiger" lost off Odessa, and her crew made prisoners 
by the Russians. May 12, 1854. 

The allied Powers declare Greece in a state of blockade. 

May 18, 1854. 

The Prench and English land at the Pireeus. May 25, 1854. 

Greece issues a declaKition of neutrality in the Russo- Turkish 
war. May 26, 1854. 

A reciprocity treaty between the United States and Great 
Britain concluded at Washington respecting Newfoundland 
fishery, international trade, &c. June 7, 1854. 


The Crystal Palace opened. Jane 10, 1{ 

The siege of Silistria commenced by the Russians, April 1^ 
the siege raised. June 23, l( 

A military insurrection, headed by Gen. O'Donnell, breaks oi 
in Spain ; Madrid declared in a state of si^ge. 

Juno 28, II 

Review of the French troops at Boulogne by Napoleon m. 

July 12, ir 

Bombardment of Gfreytown, Central America, by a XJnii 
States man-of-war, in retaliation for an insult offered to the 
American consul by the Spaniards. July 13, 1854] 

A military revolt breaks out at Saragossa, in Spain. 

July 13, 18541 

An insurrection breaks out at Madrid, in consequence of tho 
unpopularity of the Queen-mother; she is compelled to leare 
the kingdom. July 17, 1854 

Espartero, Duke of Victory, placed at the head of affairs by| 
the Queen of Spain, and end of the Spanish rebellion. 

July 19, 1854 

An amnesty published by the Queen of Spain. July 24, 1854. 

Wallachia evacuated by the Russians. July 28, 1854 

The Turks defeated by the Russians near Bayazid. 

July 29, 1854. 

Battle of Kuruk-Derek. Aug. 5, 1854 

Bomarsund besieged by the allied fleets surrenders uncondi- 
tionally. Aug. 13-16, 1854. 

The Queen-mother, Christina of Spain, retires into Portugal* 

Aug. 28, 1854 

The Prussian Goyemment, after much vacillation, declares its 
intention to remain neutral in the Eastern question. 

Sep. 6, 1854. 

Defeat of the Allies at Petropaulovski. Sep. 7, 1854. 

The Allies land at Old Fort in the Crimea. Sep. 14, 1854 

25,000 British, 25,000 French, and 8,000 Turks. 

Moldavia evacuated by the Russians. Sep. 15, 1854. 

Battle of the Alma. Sep. 20, 1854. 

Evacuation of the Danubian Principalities by the Eussians. 

Sep. 20, 1854 

The Russian fleet sunk in the harbour of Sebastopol Iby 
Menschikoff. Sep. 23, 1854. 


Balaclava occupied by the British. Sep. 26, 1854. 

Death of Marshal St. Arnaud, the French commander-in-chief, 
in the Crimea. Sep. 29, 1854. 

Siege of Sebastopol commences. Oct. 17, 1854. 

Battle of Balaclava. Oct. 25, 1854. 

Battle of Inkermann. 'Nov. 5, 1854. 

Anstria enters into an alliance with Ghreat Britain and France. 

Dec. 2, 1854. 

The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary made an 
article of faith by the Roman Catholic Chnrch, by a bull pro- 
mulgated Dec. 8, 1854, 

All the slaves of the Portuguese crown declared &ee. 

Dec. 30, 1854. 

Sardinia joins England and France against Kussia. 

Jan. 26, 1855. 

Resignation of the Aberdeen Ministry. Jan. 29, 1855. 

This administratioii, known as the ** Ooalition Minisiay,*^ was formed soon after 
the resignation of Lord Derby's first administration, Dec; 17, 1852, and' was pre- 
&ded oTer by the fourth Earl of Aberdeen. The feeble prosecution of the war 
against Russia by this cabinet rendered it unpopular, and its resignation followed 
the motion for inquiry into* the state of the- army before Sebastopol, carried in the 
House of Commons, Jan. 29, 1855, by a majority of 157. 

The Spanisll Cortes declare the people the sole source of power. 

Feb. 3, 1855. 

Liberty of worship denied in Spain. Feb. 8, 1855. 

Lord Palmerston Prime Minister, Feb. 12, 1855. 

Battle of Enpatoria. Feb. 17, 1855. 

Serious bread riots break ont at Liverpool. Feb. 19, 1855. 

The Roman Oatholie religion established by law in Spain, bnt 
all creeds tolerated. Feb. 28, 1855. 

Death of the Emperor Nicholas of Bussia ; accession of Alex- 
ander n. ; no change of policjr Mar. 2, 1855, 

Death of Don Carlos at Trieste. Mar. 10, 1855. 

The Conference of the fonr great Powers, on the Eastern 
question, commences at Vienna. Mar. 15, 1855. 

This conference was composed of plenipotentiaries from Great Britain (Lord 
John Rnssell and the Earl of Westmorland), France, Austria, Turkey, and Russia 
(Prince Gortschakoff). After agreeing on the questions rektive to the Principali- 
ties and to the navigation of the Danube, a dispute commenced respecting the 
restriction of Russian power in the Black Sea, which resulted in an adjournment 
of the congress March 26. M. Drouyn de Lhuys and Aali Pasha arrived at Vienna, 
A9 additional ministers, April 6, and negotiations were resumed April 17. Lord 


John Ruflsell withdrew from Yienna April 28, in consequence of the diasatiafaetiott 
h'la policy had created in England ; and M. Drouyn de Lhays also left the oonferenoe 
April 27. The congress terminated without producing any satisfactory resultSy 
June 4. 

General &st day lihronghont England in consequence of the 
Russian war. Mar. 21, 1855. 

Visit of Napoleon III. and tlie Empress of ibe French to Eng- 
land. Apr. 17-21, 1855. 

Life of the Emperor of the French attempted hj Pianori. 

Apr, 28, 1855. 

Arrival of the Sardinian contingent at the Crimea. May 8, 1855. 

A Sardinian army of 10,000 men lands in the Crimea, under 
General La Marmora. Maj 9, 1855. 

The Industrial Exhibition opened at Paris. May 15, 1855. 

Expedition into the Sea of Azoy, under Sir S. Lyons ; Kertch 
and Yenikale taken by the Allies. May 25, 1855. 

Massacre at Hango, by the Russians, of an English boat's crew, 
under a flag of truce. June 5, 1855. 

Sebastopol a third time bombarded. June 6, 1855. 

Sebastopol a fourth time bombarded. June 17, 1855. 

The Allies repulsed at the Malakhoff and the Bedan. 

June 18, 1855. 

Hyde Park riots against Lord Grrosvenor's Sunday Trading Bill. 

June 24, 1855. 

This was a bill brought into the House of Conunons by Lord E. QroBreiDOT to 
prevent Sunday trading in the metropolis, April 17. It created great excitemenfe 
out of doors, and was withdrawn July 2. 

Death of Lord Baglan. Jxme 28, 1855. 

Dispute between Great Britain and the American Qoyemment, 
regarding the enlistment of American citizens to serve in the 
English army. July 6, 1855. 

Battle of Tchemaya. Aug. 16, 1855. 

Austria concludes a concordat with Bome, by which the Pope 

receives almost absolute power in Austria. Aug. 18, 1855. 

By this concordat the proud monarchy of the house of Hapsburg surrendered 
to the Boman See greater rights and privileges than had ever been extracted in 
the palmiest days of Papal power from any German soYereign. It consists of 
thirty-siz articles, and embodies the following provisions : — ^The Boman Catholic 
religion to be maintained in all its rights and privileges throughout the Austrian 
empire and its dependencies. The Boman Pope to have direct communication 
with the bishops, clergy, and i>eople. Archbishops and bishops to possess the 
right of doing everything belonging to the government of their sees which accords 
with canonical law. The whole course of instruction of the Catholic youth to 
accord with the Catholic religion. No one to teach theology without episcopal 


permission. Public Bchoolfi to be under derical superintendence. The spiritual 
eonrts to be independent of the temporal courts in all matters ecclesiastical. All 
laws, &c. in opposition to this concordat to be abrogated, and the concordat to 
become a law of the land thrcnghout the empire. 

Visit of Queen Victoria to the Emperor of the French. 

Ang. 18-27, 1855. 

Life of the Emperor of the French, attempted bj Pellemaree. 

Sep. 8, 1855. 

The French take the Malakhoff ^ the English assault the Eedan 
without success 4 the Russians retire from Sebastopol to the 
north forts, and the Allies enter the city ; the Russians destroy 
or sink the remaiuder of their fleet. Sep. 8, &c., 1855. 

Pedro V. assumes the government of Portugal Sep. 16, 1855. 

The Russians defeated bj the French in a cavalry action at 
Eupatoria. Sep. 29, 1855. 

The Turkish garrison of Ears, under Gen. Williams, repulses 
the Russians. Sep. 29, 1855. 

The King of Denmark publishes a new constitution. 

Oct. 2, 1855. 

The Turks, under Omar Pasha, defeat the Russians, and force 
the passage of the Ingom. Nov. 6, 1855. 

An insurrection breaks out again at Saragossa. Nov. 11, 1855. 

A treaty signed by France and England with Sweden, by 
which the latter power engages to cede no territory to Russia, 
and receives the promise of assistance from the other parties 
in the event of Russian aggression. Nov. 21, 1855. 

Beath of Count Mole. Nov. 23, 1855. 

Capitulation of JK^rs. Nov. 25, 1855. 

BatUe of Baidar. Dec. 8, 1855. 

Abdication of Santa Anna, Dictator of Mexico; he is succeeded 
by Martin Carrera, who abdicates, and is succeeded by Alvarez, 
Sept. 12 ; Alvarez abdicates, and is succeeded by Comonfort. 

Dec. 8, 1855. 

^T^posals of peace, approved by the Allies, sent to St. Peters^ 
burg by Austria. Dec. Id, 1855. 

A mutiny breaks out among the national militia at Madrid. 

Jan. 7^ 1856. 

A council of war held at Paris. Jan. 11, 1856. 

Annexation of Oude to the British possessions in India. 

Feb. 7, 1856. 

The plea for annexation was maltreatment of their people bvtheMngs of Oude. 
The King received a pension of £120,000 a year, which wasVuimsessed after the 


The plenipotentiaries of France, Austria, Great Britun, 
Enssia, Sardinia, and Turkey (Prussia being afterwards ad- 
mitted), meet at Paris, and agree to an armistice, to continne 
in force tiU the 31st of March. Feb. 25, 1856. 

A suspension of hostilities agreed upon in the Crimea. 

Feb. 29, 1856. 

Birth of the Prince Imperial ; amnesty granted to 1,000 French 
political prisoners. Mar. 16, 1856, 

Treaty of Paris, between Eussia and Turkey, Great Britain, 
France, and Sardinia. Mar. 30, 1856. 

. This treaty consisted of thirty-fbnr ftrticles. Turkey was admitted into the 
European system, and the contracting parties guaranteed its independence. The 
freedom of the Danube was secured, the rectification of the Russian frontier in 
Bessarabia promised, and the atcUui quo ante bdUim in Asia determined upon. 
Three conyentions were annexed to the treaty ; the first signed by all the parties 
to the treaty of Paris, providing for the exclusion of ships of war of all nations 
from the straits of the Dardanelles and of the Bosphorus in time of peace ; the 
second was. between the Emperor of Russia and the Sultan, by which they each 
of them engaged to maintain in the Black Sea ^* six steam-vessels of 50 mdtres 
in length at the line of flotation, of a tonnage of 800 tons at the maximum, and 
four light steam or sailing vessels, of a tonnage which shall not exceed 200 tons 
each ; " and the third, between France, England, and Russia, by which the latter 
power engaged that *Hhe Aland Isles shall not be fortified, and that no mili- 
tary or naval establishment shall be maintained or created there.** Several 
other matters were discussed,, such as the law of mediation in ease of a 
disagreement between Turkey and any European power, and the laws on pri- 
vateering. With reference to the latter subject, the congress adopted the follow- 
ing declaration : — " 1. Privateering is and remains abolished. 2. The neutral 
flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war. 3. Neutral 
goods, with the exception of contvaband of war, are. not liable to capture under 
enemy's flag. 4. Blockades, in order to he binding, must be effective ; that is to 
Say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the coasts of the 
enemy." A general discussion ensued on the state of Europe, in which the con- 
dition of Greece and the allied occuitation, Italy, the Belgian press, and the 
rights of neutrals^ were reviewed and commented upon, but led to no definite 
results, the views ef the various parties to the trea^ of Paris being on these 
points so opposite 

The property of the ecclesiastics in Mexico sequestrated. 

Mar. 31, 1856. 

An insurrection breaks out at Valencia, in Spain. Apr. 7, 1856. 

Bequest of the Sardinian plenipotentiaries for England and 
France to decide against any military occupation of Italy hy 
foreign powers. (Lord Clarendon condemns such occupation 
May 26). Apr. 16, 1856. 

Quebec uiade the seat of the Canadian Gfovemment. 

Apr. 17, 1856. 

A political amnesty granted to the Poles by Alexander 11. of 

Russia. May 27, 1856. 


The British envoy to the United States ordered to quit Wash- 
ington* May 28, 1856, 

Awfdl inundations occur in the sonth of France, Jnne 1, 1856. 

Resignation of the Saldanha ministry in Portugal ; Marquid 
• of Louie Prime Minister ; the cholera rages in Lisbon. 

June 6, 1856. 

The King of the Sandwich Islands marries Emma, a lineal 
descendant of the ancient kings of Hawaii, and granddaughter 
of John Young, an Englishman. June 19, 1856. 

The President of the United States recognizes the filibuster 
General Walker as President of Nicaragua.* June 24, 1856. 

The Crimea evacuated. July 9, 1856* 

The English lost: killed in action and died of wounds about 3,500 ; died of 
«holera, 4,244 ; of other diseases nearfy 16,000 ; total loss nearly 24,000 (in- 
cluding 270 officers); 2,873 were disabled. The war added to the national debt 
£41,041,000. The French lost aboat 63,500 men ; the Bassians about 500,000. 
The army suffered greatly by sickness. 

A decree of amnesty for the Hungarian political offenders of 
1848 and 1849 pubHshed by the Austrian Government. 

July 12, 1866: 

Resignation of the Espartero ministry, which is succeeded by 
that of General O'Donnell ; tumults at Madrid. July 14, 1856. 

Insurrections break out at Barcelona, Spain. July 18, 1856. 

* At the commencement of 1855 Nicaragua was greatly disturbed by two 
political parties—that of the President Chamorro, who held Grenada, the capital, 
and that of the democratic chief Oastellon, who held Leon. The latter invited 
Walker to his assistance, who attacked the town of Bivas, bnt on being repulsed 
he then joined Colonel Kinney, who had occupied and governed Grey Town, 
September 6. On October 13 Walker captured Grenada by surprise when in a 
defenceless state, shot Mayorga, one of the ministers, and established a rule of 
terror. Walker at first was only general-in-chief ; but on BiVas, whom he had 
made president, deserting him, he became sole Dictator. Costa Bica declared 
war against him, February 28, 1856 ; the other states of Central America soon 
followed the example, and a sanguinary struggle ensued, lasting till May, 1857. 
On November 25, 1856, Walker totally burnt Grenada, being unable to defend it, 
and removed the seat of government to Bivas. Tlus place he surrendered to 
General Mora on May 1, 1857. Himself, his staff, and 260 men were conveyed 
in the St, Mavj/i to New Orleans, where they were received with great enthusiasm. 
On November 25, 1857, he again invaded Nicaragua, but on December 8, was 
compelled to surrender, and was conveyed to New York. He escaped punish- 
ment by nolU prosequi (June 2, 1858). On August 5, 1860, WaJker landed 
near Truxillo, Honduras, and took the fort on the 6th. On the 7th he pro- 
claimed that he made war on the government, not on the people of Honduras. 
On being summoned to surrender hLi booty, he refused, and fled. He was pur- 
sued, caught, given up to the Honduras GK)vemment, tried, and shot (on Sept. 12). 
His followers were dismissed. 


The national militia abolislied in Spain. Aug. 15, 1856. 

Alexander II. of Bnssia publishes a manifesto against Englisli 
and French interference in the affairs of Naples. Sep. 2, 18561 
Coronation of Alexander 11. of Bussia at Moscow. 

Sep. 7, 1856. 

Resignation of the 0*Donnell administration in Spain ; Gen. 
Narvaez placed at the head of affairs. Oct. 12, 1856. 

Recall of the French and English ambassadors from Naples, 
owing to the refnsal of Ferdinand II. to attend to the remon- 
strances of their goyemments against his oppressive govern- 
ment. Oct., 1856. 

Commen^cement of war between England and Persia, on 
acconnt of the government of Persia endeavouring to subvert 
by force the independence of Herat. Nov. 1, 1856* 

Outrage on the British lorcha Arrow hy the Chinese in Canton 
river, and renewal of hostilities October 8 ; a Chinese fleet 
destroyed, and Canton bombarded bv Sir Michael Seymour. 

Nov. 3 A 4, 1856. 

James Buchanan^ the pro-slavery candidate, elected to the 
presidency of the United States, afber a severe contest with 
Col. Fremont, the representative of the anti-slavery party. 

Nov. 4, 1856. 

An nnsuccessfiil insnrrection breaks ont in Sicily, nnder Baron 
Bentivenga. Nov. 22, 1856. 

A treaty^ defining the frontier line between Spain and France, 
signed at Bayonne. Dec. 2, 1856. 

The life of Ferdinand XL of the Two Sicilies attempted by 
Milano. Dec. 8, 1856. 

Battle of Bushire. Dec. 10, 1856. 

Assassination of Sibonr, Archbishop of Paris, by a priest 
named Verger. Jan. 3, 1857. 

The Prussian Government threatens war with Switzerland, 
nnless the royalist subjects of Prussia, imprisoned at Nenf- 
ch^tel, are set at liberty, December 8, 1856 ; they are released. 

Jan. 15, 1857. 

Battle of KooshaL Feb. 8, 1857. 

A treaty of peace between EnglsCnd and Persia signed at Paris. 

Mar. 4, 1857. 

Diplomatic relations between Austria and Sardinia broken off. 

Mar. 4, 1857. 

Abolition of the Sound dues by Denmark. Mar. 14, 1857. 


Sound daes, levied by the King of Denmark on all merchant Tessela passing 
-fliTOiigh the Sound, were first imposed a.d. 1348, for lighting the Soand and 
3^x>tecting vessels from pirates. By a treaty between Denmark, Qreat Britain, 
JLnstria, Belgium, France, Hanover, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Oldenburg, the 
l^etherlands, Pmasia, Russia, Sweden, and Norway, and the Hanseatio cities, 
Xremen, Ltibeck, and Hamburg, the Sound duties were abolished March 14, 18l»7, 
cuid a compensation of £3,386, 258, of which Great Britain's share was £1,125, 206. 
granted to Denmark in lieu, on condition of her maintaining the lighthouses and 
superintending the pilotage. 

A conference assembles at Paris to settle the NeufcMtel dif- 
ficulty. Mar. 16, 1857. 

On the death of William III. of England, on whom the title of Prince of 
IfetifcliAtel had devolyed, it i)a8sed to his nephew, Frederick I. of Prussia. 
KiQMleon I. compelled the King of Prussia to surrender it in 1806, and gfkve it 
to Gen. Berthier, who held it till 1814, when the Allies restored the title to the 
King of Prussia, with certain rights and privileges ; but constituted it a part of 
the Swiss Confederation. After an unsuccessful attempt in 1831, the inhabitants, 
in 1848, repudiated their allegiance to Prussia, and proclaimed Neufchfttel a free 
and independent member of the Swiss Confederation. The King of Prussia pro- 
tested against this ; and, in 1852, a protocol was signed between England, France, 
and Austria, recognizing his claims. An attempt was made, in September 2, 1856, 
l>y some of the adherents of the King of Prussia, headed by the Count de Portalds, 
to re-establish the Prussian authority : they were, however, quickly subdued, and 
imprisoned. War was threatened by Prussia, and great determination manifested 
by the Swiss. The question assumed various complications, and finally, on the 
interventioa of the English and French Governments, a treaty was signed by which 
the King of Prussia resigned his claims, on receiving a pecuniary compensation 
(which he eventually gave up), retaining only the title of Prince of Neufch&tel, 
without any political rights. 

The Anstrian ambassador recalled from Turin, in consequence 
of the attacks of the Sardinian press upon the Austrian 
Grovemment. Mar, 16, 186 ?• 

Tlie Sardinian ambassador recalled from Vienna. 

Mar. 23, 1867. 

Battle of Mohammerah. Mar. 26, 1867. 

Mutinies in the Bengal army,* at Barrackpore, Berhampore, 
and Lucknow, India. Mar., 1867. 

* On the introduction of the improved (Enfield) musket iu the Indian army, 
greased cartridges had been brought from England. These were objected to by 
the native soldiers, and the issue of them was immediately discontinued by orders 
in January, 1857. A mutinous spirit, however, gradually arose in the Bengal 
native army. In March several regiments were disbanded, followed by others, 
till in June the army had lost, by disbandment and desertion, about 80,000 men. 
On April 5 a sepoy, and on April 20 a jemadar, or native lieutenant, were 
executed. At the end of May 34 regiments were lost. In April, 85 of the 8rd 
Bengal Native Cavalry at Meerut refused to use their cartridges. On May 9 they 
were committed to gaol. On Sunday, the 10th, a mutiny in the native troops 
broke out ; they fired on their ofiicers, killing Ool. Finnis and others. They then 

l42 jlv akkotjlteb table ot 

First intelligence of the Indian mutinj received in England. 

Apr. 11, 1857. 

Marriage of the King of Portngal with the Princess Stephanie 
of Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen celebrated by proxy at Berlin. ' 

Apr. 29, 1857. 

The Art Treasures Exhibition opened at Manchester, by Prince . 
Albert. May 5, 1857. 

The Sepoy mutineers establish their head-qnarters at DeHii, 
and proclaim the King of Delhi Emperor. May 12, 1857. 

A treaty between Prussia and Switzerland signed at Paris, 
which terminates the Neufchatel difficulty. May 26, 1857, 

The British troops, under General Anson, advance on Delhi. 

May 27, 1857. 

Mutiny at Lucknow. May 30, 1857. 

Martial law proclaimed in India. May, 1857, 

Total destruction of the Chinese fleet in Canton waters by 
Commodore Elliot, May 25 and 27, and by Sir M. Seymour. 

June 1, 1857. 

The Roman Catholic clergy of Belgium introduce a bill 
placing the administration of public charities for that king* 
dom in their power, May 19 ; it is abandoned in consequence 
of its unpopularity. June 12, 1857. 

A commercial treaty signed by Russia with France. 

June 14, 1857. 

Seizure of the Sardinian steamer Ca^liari, June 25, 1857. 

The Sardinian steamer Caglia/ri, trading between Genoa and Tnnis, was seized 
by some armed Sicilians who were on board, and steered by them to the Island 
of Fonza, which they attacked, releasing several prisoners and capturing arms and 
ammunition. They then landed on the Neapolitan territory, for the purpose of 
inciting the inhabitants against the Goyemment. The vessel, thus left to con- 
tinue her voyage, was surrendered by the captain to a Neapolitan frigate, on the 
high seas ; and her crew, with two English engineers, Watt and Park, were im* 
prisoned at Naples on a charge of having aided in an attempted insurrection on 
Neapolitan territory. Although eleven of the crew deposed that the English 
prisoners were ignorant of the objects of the expedition, »id had been compelled 
by force to work the engines, they were kept in close confinement for eight months, 
till one had lost his reason and both sustained serious injury to headth. They 
were liberated in consequence of the general indignation of the English x>eople, 
and the strong representations made to the Neapolitan Gk)vemment by the English 
Foreign Secretary, the Earl of Malmesbury. Compensation having been demanded 
on behalf of the victims, the sum of £3,000 "was conceded by the authorities at 
Naples, June 8, 1858. 

released their comrades, massacred many Europeans, and fired the public build- 
ings. The European troopa rallied and drove them from their cantonments. The 
mutineers then fled to Delhi. 


V— . ■ ■ ■ I . ■ 

Borrender of the British at Cawnpore to Kana Sahib, by whom 
they are nearly all murdered the following day. June 25, 1857. 

Distribution of Victoria Crosses in Hyde Park by Queen 
Victoria. June 26, 1857. 

This order was established, February 5, 1856, for distinguished gallantry on 
hd part of officers or privates in the naval or military services. On this occasion 
cfcwas conferred on 48 military men and 14 sailors. Another distribution took 
^hoe August 2, 1858, on Sotvthsea Common, to those who had distinguished them- 
nlres in the Crimea and during the Indian mutiny. 

rhe Indian mutiny spreads throughout Bengal. June, 1857. 

At the ^id of June the native troops were in open mutiny at Meerut, Delhi, 
Perozepore, Allyghur, Roorkee, Murdauu, Lucknow, Cawnpore, Nusserabad, 
Hfeemuch, Hansi, Hissar, Jhansi, Mehidpore, JuUundur, Azimghur, Futtehghur, 
bnnpore, Bareilly, and Allahabad, and the most fearful atrocities were committed. 

Ihe Indian rebels commence the siege of the residency of 
Lucknow July 1; death of Sir Henry Lawrence. July 4, 1857. 

Bir Colin Campbell appoiuted Commander-in-chief of the 
British forces in India. July 11, 1857. 

General Nicholson destroys a large body of rebels at Seal- 
cote, Hindostan. July 12, 1857. 

Cawnpore re-captured by General Havelock. July 17, 1857. 

Battle of Bithoor. July 19, 1857. 

Sepoy mutinies suppressed at Hyderabad and at Lahore, Hin- 
dostan. July 18 & 20, 1857. 

Bevolt at Dinapore ; the British repulsed at Arrah, Hindostan. 

July 25, 1857. 

Sentence of transportation passed on the Italians Tibaldi, 

GriUi, and Bartolotti, for conspiring to assassinate Napoleon 

lil. Aug. 6&7, 1857. 

Visit of Napoleon IH. and the Empress to England. 

Aug. 6-10, 1857. 
Battle of Pandoo Nuddee., Aug. 15, 1857. 

Battle of Nujuffghur. ' Aug. 25, 1857. 

Meeting at the Mansion flouse, London, to raise a relief fund 
for the sufferers by the Indian mutiny ; similar meetings after- 
'wards held throughout England. Aug. 25, 1857. 

£260,000 were raised by November 15, same year. 

Btonning and capture of Delhi. Sep. 14-20, 1857.. 

The King of Delhi captured September 21; his son and grandson slain by 
Colonel Hodson September 22. 

Cominencement of the religious (?) " revival " in the United 
States. Sep. 23, 1857. 


The first great period of religious enthusiasm, to which the name of '* revii 
was given, commenced in New England in December, 1734. The last 
revival occurred September 23, 1857, when J. 0. Lamphier commenced a 
of weekly prayer-meetings at Fnlton Street, New York. These meetings we 
first poorly attended, but gradually excited great interest, and were held 
day, besides being imitated throughout the United States. The movement 
wfljds passed into Scotland and the North of Ireland. Belfast was one of | 
chief centres, and it reached its height about September, 1859. 

Meeting of the Emperors of France and Russia at Strn 

Sep. 25, 1 

The besieged residency at Lncknow relieyed by Sir He: 
Havelock, September 25 ; Sir James Ontram left in comm 

Sep. 26, 1 

Religious riots break ont at Belfast, owing to the Bo: 
Catholics opposing the attempt of some Protestant minis 
to introduce open-air preaching. Sep., 18 

Colonel Greathed defeats the Sepoy rebels at Bolnndshoh 
September 27 ; destroys a fort at Molaghnr, September 
takes Allyghnr, October 5 ; and defeats rebels at Agra. 

Oct. 10, 185 

Conunercial panic in New York, Oct. 13, 185 

The Crown Prince of Prussia appointed regent for a 
months, owing to the severe illness of Frederick William 

Oct. 23, 185 

A new ministry formed in Spain under Admiral Armero. 

Oct. 26, 185 

Death of General Cavaignac. Oct. 29, 185 

Great commercial panic in England ; suspension of the 6i 
Charter Act of 1844. Nov. 12, 185 

The besieged residency at Lucknow rescued from the In* 
rebels by the British forces under Sir Colin Campbell, Si 
James Outram, and Sir Henry Havelock. Nov. 17, 185!^ 

Lncknow evacuated by the British. Nov. 22, 185 

Death of Sir Henry Havelock. Nov. 25, 185 

The British under Gen. Windham defeated by the Gwalioi 
rebels near Cawnpore, Nov. 27, 1857 ; Cawnpore retaken fro: 
the rebels by Sir Colin Campbell. Nov. 28, 1857» 

Birth of the Prince of Asturias, heir to the throne of Spain. 

Nov. 28, 1857. 

Seizure of the French slaver Charles ei Georges by a Porta- 
guese cruiser. Nov. 29, 1857. 

irinTEBSAL CHBOHrolOOT. 146 

A Fiench yessel of the above name, professedly carrying free Afrioan emi- 
its, but really slaves, was seiied by the Portagnese in Condncia Bay, sent to 

[>n, and condemned as a slaver. The French Government demanded its restora- 
1, and accom})anied their request by two ships of war. The captured vessel 

then surrendered nnder protest. The Portuguese referred the dispute to 
it Britain, but our Government was rather more prudent than dignified in the 

er. In consequence of the abuses revealed in this afiair, the French Govem- 
it abandoned tiie free negro emigration system. 

.ttle of Cawnpore. Dec. 6, 1857. 

e Sepoy rebels defeated by Seaton, Dec. 14, 17, and 27 ; at. 
GoTuckpore by Rowcroft, Dec. 27 ; and at Futtehghur by Sir 
C. Campbell. Jan. 2, 1858. 

ranton bombarded and taken by tbe EngHsb and French, Dec. 
28 & 29, 1857 ; entrance of tbe victors, who capture Commis- 
sioner Yeb and other anthorities. Jan. 5, 1858. 

>vier d'Isturitz placed at the head of Spanish affairs* 

Jan. 14, 1858. 

ini conspiracy. Jan. 14, 1858. 

This vas a conspiracy entered into by some Italians, Orsini, Rudio, Pieri, 
Dmez, and others, to assassinate the Emperor Napoleon III. and the Empress, on 
way to the opera at Paris, by throwing hand-grenades at the carriage. 
itely the diabolical attempt was unsuccessful. Orsini, Rudio, and Pieri, 
^ condemned to death, and Gomez to hard labour for life, Feb. 26 ; Orsini and 
ri were guillotined at Paris, and Rudio's sentence was commuted to penal servi- 
le for life, March 13. Dr. Bernard was arrested at Bayswater, Feb. 14 ; and, 
ier a trial at the Old Bailey extending over six days, was acquitted, April 17. 
Rolent addresses against England, from the colonels of the French army to the 
liperor, appeared in the Moniteur, Jan. 27, 1868. Lord Palmerston's Conspiracy- 
•murder Bill was introduced into the House of Commons, Feb. 8, 1858; and 
' tied on the second reading by a majority of 19, Feb. 19, 1858, which led to 
resignation of the first Palmerston administration. 

committee established, nnder the presidency of the Emperor 
of Russia, to consider the best measures for ameliorating the 
condition of the serfs. Jan. 15, 1868. 

A revolution breaks out in Mexico, under Gen. Zuloaga ; coup 
d'etat; President Comonfort compelled to retire, Jan. 11; 
Zuloaga usurps the government. Jan. 21, 1858. 

*wrriage of Prince Frederick William, eldest son of the Crown 
Prince of Prussia, with the Princess Royal of England. 

Jan. 25, 1858. 

Benito Juarez declared Constitutional President of Mexico, at 
Vera Cruz ; civil war ensues. Feb. 11, 1858. 

The United States army defeat the Mormons in an engage- 
ment at Eco-Cannians, Utah. Feb. 14, 1858. 

Battie of Alumbagh. Feb. 21, 1858. 



'^ Conspiraoy-to-znnrder Bill" introdaced by Lord Palme] 
in conseqnence of the attempted assassination of Louis Napoleoft^ 
by Orsini, Ac, Feb. 8; rejected by tbe House of Commons, Fdb. 
19, and resignation of the Pabnerston ministry^ Feb. 22, 1858. 

Lord Derby's second administration. Mar.'^V 1858i» 

Trial of the King of Delhi, who is sentenced to transporiatioiu. 

Jan. 27-Mar. 1^, 18581 

Sir Colin .Campbell marches to LncVnow, Feb. 11 ; the siege ' 
comme&ces')iiar. 8 ; and the city finally captured. 

Mar. 21, 1858. 

Nicaragua places herself nnder the protection of the United 
States. Mar. 28, 1858. 

General Roberts takes Kotah, India, from the Sepoy rebels. 

Mar. 30, 1858. 

Sir Hugh Rose takes Jhansi, India, and severely defeats the 
Sepoy rebels. Apr. 4, 1858. 

Marshal Pelissier appointed French ambassador at the Conri 
of St. James's. Apr. 15, 1858. 

Trial of Simon Bernard in London, as the accomplice of Orsini; 
he is acquitted. Apr. 12-17, 1858. 

Bareilly, India, recaptured by the British from the Sepoy 
rebels. May 7, 1858. 

Battle of Kooneh. May 11, 1858. 

Capture of the Peiho forts, China, by the English and French 
squadrons. May 20, 1858. 

Russia concludes a frontier treaty with China. May 28, 1858. 

A treaty of commerce and navigation concluded with Bel- 
gium by Russia. June 9, 1858. 

The Sepoy rebels seize Gwalior ; Scindiah escapes to Agra. 

June 13, 1858. 

Massacre of the Christian inhabitants at Jeddah. 

June 15, 1858. 

The Mohammedans attacked the Christian residents, and murdered upwards of 
twenty, including the Bnglish vice-consul and the wife of the French consul. The 
CyclopSf Captain Pullen, anchored here July 23, and thirty-siz hours were granted 
for the execution of justice on the perpetrators of the outrage. No satisfiEictioB 
having been afforded. Captain Pullen bombarded the town July 25 and 26, when 
he acceded to the request of the Turkish governor to suspend hostilities until 
instructions were received from the Porte. The necessary firman arrived from 
the Sultan Aug. 2, and eleven of the criminals were surrendered and executed. 

Owalior retaken by Sir Hugh Rose jfrom the Sepoy rebels. 

June 19, 1858. 


— I t I I I . p 

lEreaty between Gfreat Britain and Cluna signed at Tien-tsin. 

June 26, 18S8. 

The main features of this treaty are as follows : — The treaty of Nankin, 1842, 
ftebe renewed and confirmed. Ambassadors and diplomatic agents to be appointed 
Kt St. James's and Pekin. A British minister to reside at Pekin ; such minister 
not to be called upon to perform any derogatory ceremony. Any person gnilty of 
£srespect to the British minister at Pekin to be severely punished. Consuls 
appointed by Ghreat Britain to reside in any of the open ports or cities of China, 
and to be treated with every respect. Those professing the Christian religion 
to be entitled to the protection of the Chinese authorities, and not to be per- 
Mcnted. British subjects permitted to travel to all parts of China under pass- 
ports. In addition to the towns opened by the treaty of Nankin, British subjects 
lUowed to frequent New-Chwang, Tang-chow, Tai-Wan, Chan-Chow, and Kiung- 
Chow. Chinese subjects to be employed by British subjects in any lawful capacity. 
British merchant ships to trade on the Tang-tsze. All questions of rights between 
British subjects to be subject to the jurisdiction of the British authorities. 
Chinese subjects guilty of any criminal act towards British subjects to be punished 
\fj the Chinese authorities. The Chinese authorities to afford at all times the 
follest protection to the persons and property of British subjects whenever these 
are subjected to insult or violence. The other articles relate to tariff duties and 
customs dues by British merchant vessels to China. An additional article was 
added that China should pay Great Britain four millions of taels on account of 
losses sustained by British subjects and of the military expenses of the expedition. 

Property qualification of Members of Parliament abolished by 
21 Vict., c. 26. June 28, 1858. 

Gen. O'Donnell again placed at the head of Spanish affairs. 

July 1, 1868. 

Battle of Kostainizza, in which the Montenegrins defeat the 
Turks. July 21, 1868. 

The Jewish Disabilities Bill passed by the Imperial Parlia- 
ment. July 23, 1868. 

Bills for releasing the Jews from civil disabilities had been rejected by the 
English Parliament, Angust 1, 1833; May 25, 1848 ; July 17, 1851; April 29, 
1853; and July 10, 1857. By 21 and 22 Vict., c. 49, the House of Commons was 
empowered to modify the oaths in such a manner that they might be taken by 
Jews; and by the 23 and 24 Vict. (Aug. 6, 1860), the words **upon the faith of a 
Christian" were expunged permanently in the case of Jewish members. 

Act for the better government of India passed (21 & 22 Vict., 
c. 106). Aug. 2, 1868. 

By this Act, the Indian Council was established to supersede the Board of 
^trol. It consists of fifteen members, eight of whom are appointed by the 
Crown and seven by the directors of the East India Company. They receive an 
annnal salary of £1,200, retain their office during good behaviour, and are not 
Pennitted to sit in Parliament. 

Visit of the Queen of England to Cherbourg ; the Grand Basin 
of the Kapoleon Docks opened. Aug. 4^6, 1868. 

L 2 


Completioil of the Atlantic telegrapli. Aug. 5, 1858« 

In 1856 soundings were made by the British and United States navies of the 
portion of the Atlantic across which it was proposed to carry the wires, and the 
Atlantic Telegraph Company was soon afterwards formed. Accordingly, 2,500 
miles of cable were prepared, and stowed in equal quantities on board the English 
sorew-steamer Agamemnon, and the American man-of-war Niagcvrtt. The latter 
commenced paying out her cable from Yalentia, on the west coast of Ireland, 
Aug. 7, 1857, but the cable snapped, Aug. 11, when about 880 miles had been 
submerged, and operations were necessarily suspended. The two vessels again 
sailed from Queenstown, May 29, 1858, on an experimental trip, after which 
they returned to Plymouth, whence they set sail on Thursday, June 10, for the 
purpose of laying the cable. They reached the middle of the Atlantic June 26, 
and having joined their cables, commenced paying them out; but, after a aeries of 
breakages, they were compelled to return to Queenstown. They once more set 
sail from this port July 17, and, reaching the point of junction July 28, parted 
on the following day, the Agam^emnon steering for Yalentia and the Niagara for 
Trinity Bay, Newfoundland. Both vessels arrived in safety at their respective 
ports Aug. 5, and the completion of the enterprise was announced Aug. 7. 

Ottawa made the capital of Canada. Aug. 7, 1858. 

Union of the DaDubian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia. 
{See Dec. 23, 1861.) Aug. 19, 1858. 

Moldavia and Wallachia were united under the name of the '' United Princi- 
palities of Moldavia and Wallachia,'* by the convention of Paris, signed Aug. 19, 
1858. They were placed under the suzerainty of the Sultan, but with power to 
carry on their own administration without his interference, government being 
administered by a hospodar and an elective assembly in each principality, and a 
central commission common to both principalities. 

Treaty of commerce and friendship between the Tycoon of 
Japan and Gh'eat Britain. Aug. 26, 1858. 

The conditions of this treaty briefly are : — Perpetual peace and friendship to 
exist between the two nations. Great Britain to appoint a diplomatic agent 
to reside at Yeddo, and also consuls at any or all the ports of Japan open for 
British commerce. The ports and towns of Hakodadi, Eanagawa, and Nagasaki 
to be opened to British subjects after July 1, 1859 ; Nee-e-gata, or another 
port on the west coast of Nipon, after January 1, 1860 ; Hiogo, after January 1, 
1863 : in all these ports British subjects to reside and erect buildings, excepting 
fortifications or places of military strength. British subjects to reside in Yeddo 
after January 1, 1862, and in Osaca after January 1, 1863, for the purposes of 
trade only. The rights of British subjects to be subject to the jurisdiction of 
the British authorities. Japanese subjects guilty of criminal acts to British 
subjects to be punished by Japanese authorities. British subjects to employ 
Japanese subjects in any lawful capacity. British subjects in Japan allowed the 
free exercise of their religion. Foreign or Japanese coin to be used in making 
payments. The remaining articles allude to the regulation of trade, &c. 

The government of the East India Company ceases. 

Sep. 1, 1858. 

A public meeting held in Melbourne for organizing an ex- 
ploration of the interior of Australia. Sep. 3, 1858. 
£3,000 is raised, to which the leg:islature adds £7,000. 


Battle of Rajghur. Sep. 15, 1858. 

The Crown Prince of Prussia appointed regent during tlie 
King's life. Oct. 7, 1858. 

Treaty of friendship concluded between France and Japan. 

Oct. 9, 1858. 

The French Government demands the restoration of the Charles 
it Georges from Portugal, Oct. 13 ; surrendered by the Portu- 
guese. Oct. 25, 1858. 

The Queen of England proclaimed Sovereign of India, Lord 
Canning receiving the title of Viceroy. Nov. 1, 1858. 

The chief features of the proclamation are: — That her Majesty assumes the 
govermnent of the territories of India formerly administered by the East India 
Company ; that Viscount Canning is appointed first Viceroy and Qoyernor>General, 
to administer the goyemment in InduL, subject to the orders of one of the prin- 
cipal Secretaries of State. All persons formerly employed in the Company con- 
firmed in their several offices. All treaties made by the Company to the native 
princes of India to be maintained. Her Majesty desires no extension of her 
present territorial possessions, and the rights, digiiity, and honour of native princes 
to be fully i*espected. All religions to enjoy the equal and impartial protection of 
the law ; those in authority strictly charged not to interfere with the religious 
■worship of others. Indian subjects, of whatever race and creed, to be freely 
admitted into offices in her Majesty's service if qualified. Lands of the natives 
to be protected in all their rights, subject to the equitable demands of the State. 
In the framing and administration of laws due regard to be paid to the ancient 
rights and customs of India. Pardon granted to those who have rebelled and 
desire to return to their duty, except those convicted of having already taken 
part in the murder of British subjects. 

Resignatioii of the Manteuffel ministry, and succession of the 
Liberal ministry of the Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. 

Nov. 5, 1858. 

Great changes in the constitution of Holstein effected by Den- 
mark. Nov. 6, 1858. 

The Montenegrin boundaries fixed by the commissioners of 
the aUied Powers at Coustantinople. Nov. 8, 1858. 

A committee appointed by the British Government to examine 
and report upon the different sorts of rifled ordnance Aug. 30 ; 
it reports in favour of the Armstrong gun. Nov. 16, 1858. 

Battle of Dhoodea-Khera. Nov. 24, 1858. 

Trial and condemnation of the Comte de Montalembert, in 
Paris, for the publication of his pamphlet, " XJn D6bat sur 
rinde." Nov. 24, 1858. 

He was partially acquitted by the French Oourt of Appeal, Dec. 21. 

The Queen of Spain announces her intention of joining France 
in an expedition to Cochin China. Dec. 1, 1858. 

150 Air AinroTATED vabis of 

A revolution breaks out in Hajti; Fanstin I. deposed, and 
a republic proclaimed, under the presidency of Q«£&ard. 

Dec. 23, 1858. 

Russia concludes a commercial treaty with Great Britain. 

Dec. 31, 185a 

The Ponjanb, Hindostan, made a distinct presidency. 

Jan. 1. 1859. 

Ominous address of the Emperor of the French to the Aus- 
trian ambassador: ''I regret that our relations with your 
government are not as good as formerly, but I beg of you to 
tell the Emperor that my personal sentiments for him have 
not changed." Jan 1, 1859. 

The French Government abandons the free negro eniigratioii 
system, in consequence of the abuses disclosed in the affair of 
the Charles et Georges. Jan. 6, 1859. 

The pacification of Oude announced. Jan. 25, 1859. 

Birth of Frederick William Victor Albert, eldest son of the 
Princess Boyal of Prussia. Jan. 27, 1859. 

Marriage of the Princess Clotilde, eldest daughter of Victor 
Emanuel 11., to Prince Napoleon, cousin of the Emtperor of 
the French. Jan. 30, 1859. 

General Miguel Miramon elected President of Mexico by 
the revolutionary junta, Jan. 6 ; abdication of Zuloaga. 

Feb. 2, 1859. 

General Horsford defeats the Begum of Oude. Feb. 10, 1859. 

Pope Pius IX. announces his readiness to make arrangements 
for the evacuation of his territories by the French and Aus- 
trians. Feb. 22, 1859. 

Arrival of Baron Poerio with 68 NeapoHtan exiles in Ireland. 

Mar. 7, 1859. 

The Swiss cantons declare their neutrality on the Itahan 
question. Mar. 145, 1859. 

Entrance of General Miramon into Mexico ; he assumes the 
presidency, and governs without respect to the laws of life 
or property. Apr. 11, 1859. 

Departure of the French army from Paris for Italy. 

Apr. 23, 1859. 

A French force disembarks at Gbnoa to the assistance of the 
Sardinians. Apr. 25, 1859. 

The Austrian Q-ovemment demands that the Sardinian army 


be restored to a peace footing, April 23; tlie Sardiman 
GrOYenunent rejects the Aastrian ultimatum. Apr. 26, 1859, 

Ever since the disastrous erents of 1848-9, terminating in the battle of 
Horara, the relations of Piedmont and Austria liad been of an unfriendly cha* 
xacter, and the nndisgaised sympathy professed by the government of Victor 
Kmannel for the cause of Italian independence in the north of Italy, which 
meant simply the throwing off the Austrian yoke, at last led to the withdrawal 
of the Austrian minister from Turin. The war that followed is one difficult to 
justify. Lombardy was secured to Austria by the treaty of 1815, and she held it 
oy as good a title as that by which Sardinia herself possessed the territory of 
Genoa. But Austria had not confined herself in Italy to the legitimate exercise 
of the rights confirmed to her by the congress at Vienna. Her influence extended 
to the duchies of Tuscany, Modena, and Parma ; her troops occupied the Lega- 
tions, and eyen at Naples her authority was predominant. It was this that 
crushed the spirit of Italian independence, and induced the French Emperor to 
aid Sardinia in her attempt to relieve the peninsula from the despotism of an 
alien and hated race. On the 23rd of April Austria demanded Sardinia to dis- 
ann, under the threat of immediate hostilities. ; and on the 26th instant Count 
Cavoor sent to Vienna the refusal of Sardinia to accede to her peremptory demand. 
The same day the advanced posts of the Austrian army crossed the Ticino. The 
Emperor of the French had declared that he should consider the passage of the 
Ticino by the Austrian troops as a declaration of war against France. Accord- 
ingly a French army, dirided into five corps of infantry and cavalry, together 
with the Imperial Guard, were put in motion on the 23rd of April, the same day 
that Austria had sent an ultimatum to Sardinia : thus France first commenced 
actual hostilities. 

A revolution breaks out at Florence, owing to the refxisal of 
the Grand Dnke of Tnscanj to conclude an alliance with 
Sardinia ; he is compelled to retreat to Bologna ; Victor 
Emanuel II. declared Dictator of Tuscany. Apr. 27, 1859. 

Entrance of the Austrians, under Greneral Gyulai, into the 
Sardinian territories. Apr. 29, 1859. 

Victor Emanuel II. of Sardinia takes the command of his 
army in person, having confided his goyemment to Prince 
Eugene of Sayoy, his cousin. Apr. 29, 1859. 

Convention between G-reat Britain and the Republic of Guate- 
mala relative to the boundary of British Honduras. 

Apr. 80, 1869. 

Victor Emanuel II. declines the dictatorship of Tuscany, but 
accepts the command of the Tuscan forces. Apr. 30, 1859. 

General thanksgiving in England in consequence of the sup- 
pression of the Indian mutiny. May 1, 1859. 

France declares war against Austria. May 3, 1859. 

The Prussian Government asserts its intentioh of endeavouring 
to terminate the Italian war. May 5, 1859. 


Napoleon III. leaves Paris to assume the commaiid of ^ 
army in Italy ; the Empress appointed regent m his absence. 

May 10, 1859. 

The Emperor Napoleon IIL arrives at Genoa, to assnme the 
command of his armj against Austria. May 12, 1859» 

Declaratioil of neutrality of England respecting the Italian 
war. May 12, 1859. 

Battle of Montebello. May 20, 1859. 

Death of Ferdinand II., King of the Two Sicilies. 

May 22, 1859^ 

Tuscany joins France and Sardinia against Austria. 

May 25, 1859* 

Battle of Palestro. May 30 & 31, 1859, 

Battle of Magenta. June 4, 1859.. 

Death of Prince Mettemich. June 5, 1859. 

Battle of MaMgnano. June 7, 1859« 

Louis Napoleon III. and Victor Emanuel enter Milan, and pro- 
claim the annexation of Lombardy to Sardinia. June 8, 1859. 

The Austrian army crosses the Adda, and enters the Quadri- 
lateral. June 11, 1859. 

England and France resume diplomatic relations with [N'aples. 

June 14, 1859. 

The Derby Ministry defeated on the Reform Bill ; Parliament 
dissolved April 23 ; resignation of the Ministry June 11; 
formation of the Palmerston-Bussell administration. 

June 18, 1859. 

Capture of Perugia by the Pontifical troops. June 20, 1859. 

Battle of Solferino. June 24, 1859. 

Armistice agreed upon to July 6, 1859. 

Mr. Bruce^ the British envoy, on his way to Pekin, stopped 
in the River Pei-ho (or Tein-sin) ; Admiral Hope, attempting to 
force a passage, repulsed, with the loss of 81 killed and 
about 390 wounded. June 25, 1859. 

Bifle corps formed throughout the United Kingdom, subject 
to the provision of the Act 44 Geo. III., c. 54. June, 1859. 

Dissatisfaction of British troops lately in the East India 

Company's service, at being transferred to the Queen's service 

without bounty, May 5 ; discharges are ofiered them. 

July 1, 1859. 
About 10,000 men quit the serrice. 

VNIYEBSAL OHBo:sroLoaY. 153 

Death of King Oscar of Sweden, and accession „ of his son 
Charles XV. July 8, 1859. 

-Treaty of Yillafranca. July 11, 1859. 

PrelimiiiAries of peace were edgned here between the Emperor of Austria and 
.tlie Emperor of the French. The terms were as follows : — The two sovereigns 
to favour the creation of an Italian confederation. This confederation to be 
under the honorfcry presidency of the Pope. Austria to cede to France her 
•xights over Lombardy, with the exception of the fortresses of Mantua and 
Peachiera. The ceded territory to be presented to Sardinia. Yenetia to form 
part of the Italian confederation, remaining, however, subject to Austria. The 
Grand Duke of Tuscany and the Duke of Modena to return to their States. 
Soth France and Austria to request the Holy Father to introduce into his States 
some indispensable reform. Complete amnesty to be granted to all persons 
compromised on the occasion of the recent events in the territories of the belli- 

Ihrotest of Pope Pius IX. agaiast Sardinian interference in the 
affairs of the State of Romagna. July 12, 1859. 

Juarez^ constitutional President of Mexico, confiscates the eccle- 
siastical property of his kingdom. July 13, 1859. 

Denmark connected vsrith Great Britain by submarine tele- 
graph. July 14, 1859. 

The Federal Council of Switzerland suppresses all foreign 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction on Swiss territory. July 15, 1859. 

Napoleon III. returns to Paris. July 16, 1859. 

Death of the Queen Consort of Portugal. July 17, 1859. 

Resignation of Count Cavour's ministry July 13 ; succeeded 
by the Eatazzi administration. July 19, 1859. 

Abdication of Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tuscany, in favour 
of his son Ferdinand IV. July 21, 1859. 

Russia sends an expedition into Daghestan against Schamyl, 
the Circassian leader. July 27, 1859. 

Persecution of the Christians by Turkey in Candia. 

July 31, 1859. 

Solemn entry of Victor Emanuel II. into Milan. 

Aug. 8, 1859. 

The tribes of the Caucasus reduced to subjection by Hussia. 

Aug. 8, 1859. 

Protest of Sir Rutherford Alcock, the British diplomatic agent 
in Japan, against the outrages committed on Europeans by the 
Japanese. Aug. 9, 1859. 

Tuscany declares in favour of a united kingdom of Italy, 
under the sceptre of Victor Emanuel. Aug. 16, 1859. 

A treaty of alliance between Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and 


the Legations, signed at Florence ; the National Assemblias 
of Modena and Tuscany declare in favonr of annexation to 
Sardinia. Ang. 20, 1859. 

A convention concluded by Spain with Borne, relative to 
the goods of the Chnrch. Aug. 25, 1859. 

A concordat signed by Borne with the Queen of Spain, who 
engages to send an army of occnpation into the Boman States, 
in case of the withdrawal of the French troops. 

Ang. 26, 1859. 

Extension of political rights among the Bnssian serfs. 

Aug. 26, 1859. 

The Duchy of Parma votes in favour of being annexed to 
Sardinia. Sep. 3, 1859. 

A deputation from Tuscany petitions the King of Sardinia to 
incorporate that country with his own kingdom. 

Sep. 3, 1859. 

The National Assembly of the Bomagna votes in favour ci 
separation from the temporal power of the Pope. Sep. 7, 1859. 

Capture of the Circassian leader Schamyl. Sep. 7, 1859. 

In 1708 the Oircasnans revolted from the Khans of the Crimea, and applied 
to Turkey for protection. At the peaoe of Belgrade, September 18, 1739, Cir- 
cassia was declared independent, bat it soon returned to its dependence on 
Turkey. In 1783 it was claimed as part of the Russian empire, but it was not 
finally incorporated till September 14, 1830, by the treaty of Adrianople. Under 
their leader Schamyl, the Circassians strenuously resisted Russian domination, 
till his capture September 7, 1859. Yaidar, their last stronghold, capitulated 
to the Russians in 1864. The Circassians now, to the number of nearly 1,000,000, 
left their country for Turkey, and many died from privation on the shores of the 

Bologna requests Sardinia to annex the Legations. 

Sep. 24, 1859. 

The Sardinian ambassador quits Rome. Oct.;^9, 1859. 

A negro insurrection breaks out at Harper's Ferry, United 

States. Oct. 17, 1859. 

John Brown, a man who had made a name in Kansas fighting against the 
slaTery supporters, conceived the idea of waging war against dealers in humaa 
' flesh, and drew around him a knot of fanatics bent upon smiting the Southen 
Philistines hip and thigh. With a score of followers, he crossed the Potomac ai 
Harper's Ferry and entered Virginia, where he incited the slaves to take up 
arms against their masters. The planters of the Old Dominion were panic- 
stricken at this invasion. Bodies of men flew to arms, some to protect them- 
selves from a threatened insurrection of the blacks, others to as^dl the daring 
adherents of the Abolitionist. After a short time Brown was captured, and 
formally tried for treason. Brown, found guilty upon indisputable evidence, bore 
hiB misfortune with the greatest composure, and when asked what remarks he bad 


io make, replied, — ''Gentlemen, make an end of slaTory, or slayery will make 
an end of yoa." On the day appointed for his execution, 2nd of December, 
he appeared calm and resigned. When asked upon the scaffold to give a sign 
when he was ready, he answered, '* I am always ready." He died in the midst 
of slayes and slave-owners-^his countrymen ; and now no countryman of his can 
look at his place of execution and call himself a slave-owner or a slaye. 

Napoleon III. advises Victor Emanuel to form an Italian con- 
federation ; the latter declares it impracticable, and maintains 
liis engagements with the Italians. Oct. 20, 1859. 

Spain declares war against Morocco. Oct. 22, 1859. 

The following circumstances led to this war : — ^The Spanish Crown possesses 
several places on the north coast of Africa, such as Oeuta, Melilla, and El Penon, 
m the neighbourhood of which is the predatory tribe of the Eabylas of Anghera, 
who made frequent incursions into the Spanish territory, and the result of which 
was collision with the garrison of Ceuta. Ill-feeling arose between the two 
governments of Spain and Morocco. Spain sought to make the Moors responsible 
for these attacks, and satisfaction was demanded from the Emperor of Morocco, who 
yielded on all points, and the cause of quarrel seemed to be at an end. A cession 
of territory near Oeuta was afterwards claimed by Spain. This demand was also 
complied with, but on attempting to settle the boundary of the ceded territory 
it was found that Spain demanded more than Morocco was prepared to grant. 
Negotiations were broken off and Spain declared war. 

Indecisive battle between the forces of the Argentine Re- 
public and of Buenos Ayres near the city of Buenos Ayres. 

Oct. 23, 1859. 

The new kingdom of Italy divided into 17 provinces. 

Oct. 31, 1859. 

The English and French prepare an expedition against China. 

Oct., 1859. 

Division of Spain and the Balearic Isles into five military 
districts. Nov. 3, 1859. 

Treaty of Zurich, which confirms all the articles of that of 
Villafranca. Nov. 10, 1859. 

The terms of the treaty briefly are as follows : — ^The preliminaries signed at Yilla- 
fi'anca to be converted into a definitive treaty of peace. (Here follow the names 
of the Plenipotentiaries.) Peace and friendship to be between Austria and 
France for ever. Prisoners of war to be given up on both sides. The captured 
Austrian vessels not yet condemned as prizes to be restored. The rights and titles 
of Lombardy, with the exception of the fortresses of Mantua and Peschiera, to be 
renoimced by Austria in favour of France. (The line of frontier is here defined.) 
^e ceded territory to be handed over by France to Sardinia. Three-fifths of the 
debt of the Monte Lombardo-Veneto to be undertaken by the new government of 
l^mWdy, which is also to be chaiged with a portion of the national loon of 
1854. All sums paid by Lombard subjects, in the shape of caution-money or 
deposits in the Austrian banks, to be reimbursed by the Austrian Government, 
ftnd vice versd. Concessions formerly granted to the railroads by Austria on the 
<^ed territory to be recognized by the new government of Lombardy. Lombard 
Miv^.^- domiciled in the ceded territory to have a year to export their goods, 

156 Air AJnfOTjLTED TABLB 07 

free of duty, into Austria, and vice verad, Lombard sabjectB in the Anatrifll. 
army to be discharged from military service, except those who wish to remain—* 
the same with the civil employes. The creation of a confederation amongst tki 
Italian States to be enoonraged, and to be placed under the honorary presLd^Mf . 
of the Pope. Yenetia to be one of the States of confederation, bat sabject tt 
Austria. The rights of Tuscany, Modena, and Parma to be reserred for Om 
consideration of tiie contracting parties. The Pope to introduce in his StatM 
some indispensable reforms. Complete amnesty to be granted to all who hat« 
been compromised in the recent events. The same day a treaty was signed at 
Zurich, between Austria, France, and Sardinia, acknowledging and oo nfirmin g the 
above articles. 

An imperial patent pnblisliecl, appointing an industrial legis- 
lation for the whole Austrian empire, excepting Venetia. 

Dec 20, 1859. 

Modena, Parma, and the Romagna (Italy), formed into the 
province of -<Emilia. Dec. 24, 1859. 

Nana Sahib in force in Nepaul, on the frontiers of Oude, Oct.; 
the insurgents dispersed by the British. Dec. 24, 1859. 

Death of Lord Macaulay. Dec. 28, 1859. 

Battle of Castillejo. Jan. 1, 1860. 

Announcement of Napoleon III. to relieve commerce from 
many existing restrictions. Jan. 5, 1860. 

Important changes in the military organization of Prussia 
announced by the Crown Prince. Jan. 12, 1860. 

Count Cavour again placed at the head of Sardinian affairs. 

Jan. 15, 1860. 

Count Cavour undertakes the formation of a new Italian 
ministry. Jan. 16, 1860. 

Commercial treaty between England and France signed. 

Jan. 23, 1860. 

The following is Apricis of the most important clauses : — 
I. — His Majesty the Emperor of the French engages that on the following 
articles of British production and manufacture, imported from the United King- 
dom into France, the duties shall in no case exceed thirty per cent, ad yalorem, 
the two additional decimes included. The articles are as follows:— 

Refined sugar ; turmeric in powder ; rock crystal worked ; iron f oiged in lumps 
or prisms ; brass wire (copper alloyed with zinc), polished or unpolished, of every 
description ; chemical productions, enumerated or non-enumerated ; extracts of 
dye-woods ; garancine ; common soap of every description, and perfumed soap; 
stone-ware and earthenware, fine and common ; china and porcelidn-ware ; glass, 
crystal, mirrors, and plate-glass ; cotton yam ; worsted and woollen yam of eveiy 
description ; yams of flax and hemp ; yams of hair, enumerated or non-enume- 
rated ; cotton manufactures ; horse-hair manufactures, enumerated or non-enu- 
merated ; worsted and woollen manufactures, enumerated or non-enumerated ; 
cloth list ; manufactures of hair ; silk manufactures ; manufactures of waste and 
floss silk ; manufactures of bark and all other yegetable fibres, enumerated or non* 
enumerated ; manufactures of flax and hemp ; mixed manufactures of every de- 


Kiiption ; hosiery, hal)erda8liery, and small wares ; manafactnres of eaoutchoac 
ind gutta-i>ercha, pnre or mixed ; articles of clothing, wholly or in part made 
ip; prepared skins ; articles of eYery sort manufactured from leather or skins, 
ihckded or not nnder the denomination of small wares, fine or common ; plated 
irticles of OTery description ; cutlery ; metal wares, whether enumerated or not ; 
pg and cast-iron of every description, without distinction of weight ; bar and 
Ttought iron, with the exception of certain kinds ; steel ; machinery, tools, and 
neeluinical instruments of every description ; carriages on springs, lined and 
lunted ; cabinet ware, carved work, and turnery of every description ; worked 
Iror; and wood ; brandies and spirits, including those not distilled from wine, 
cberries, molasses, or rice ; ships and boats. With respect to refined sugar, and 
diemical productions of which salt is the basis, the excise of inland duties shall 
h added to the amount of the above specified duties. 

II.— His Imperial Majesty engages to reduce the import duties in France on 
British coal and coke, to the amount of fifteen centimes for the hundred kilo- 
gnmmes, with the addition of the two decimes. His Majesty the Emperor also 
ogages, within four years from the date of the ratification of the present treaty, 
to establish upon the importation of coal and coke, by land and by sea, a uniform 
duty, which shall not exceed that which is fixed by the preceding paragraph. 

III. — ^It is understood that the rates of dnty mentioned in the preceding articles 
ue independent of the differential duties in favour of French shipping, with 
TMch daties they shall not interfere. 

IV. — ^The duties ad valorem stipulated in the present treaty shall be calculated 
oi the value at the place of production or fabrication of the object imported, with 
the addition of the cost of transport, insurance, and commission necessary for the 
importation into France as far as the port of discharge. For the levying of these 
Mes, the importer shall make a written declaration at the Cnstom-house, stating 
tte value and description of the goods imported. If the Custom-house autho- 
lities shall be of opinion that the declared value is insufficient, they shall be at 
fiberty to take the goods on paying to the importer the price declared, with an 
iddition of five per cent. This payment, together with the restitution of any 
inty which may have been levied upon such goods, shall be made within the 
fifteen days following the declaration. 

v.— Her Britannic Majesty engages to recommend to Parliament to enable her 
1o abolish the duties of importation on the following articles : — 

Sulphuric acid, and other mineral acids ; agates and carnelians, set ; ludfers 
ef eyery description ; percussion caps ; arms of every description ; jewels, set ; 
toys ; corks ; brocade of gold and silver ; embroideries and needlework of every 

, description ; brass and bronze manufactures, and bronzed metal ; canes, walking- 
eases or sticks, umbrella or parasol sticks, mounted, painted, or otherwise oma- 
nented ; hats, of whatever substance they may be made ; gloves, stockings, socks, 
and other articles of cotton or linen, wholly or in part made up ; leather manufac- 

^ tores ; lace, manufactured of cotton, wool, silk, or linen ; manufactures of iron and 
tteel; machinery and mechanical instruments; tools, and other instruments ; cutlery, 

' and other articles of steel, iron, or cast-iron ; fancy ornaments of steel and iron ; 
articles covered with copper by galvanic process ; millinery and artificial flowers ; 
txw fmits ; gloves, and other leather articles of clothing ; manufactures of caout- 
Aonc and gutta-percha ; oils ; musical instrnments ; worsted and woollen shawls, 
piain, printed, or patterned ; coverlids, woollen gloves, and other worsted and 
vooUen manufactures not enumerated ; handkerchiefs, and other manufactures 
ftot enumerated of linen and hemp ; perfumery ; cabinet ware, carved work, 
and turnery of every description ; clocks, watches, and opera-glasses ; manufac- 
tures of lead, enumerated or not enumerated ; feathers, dressed or not ; goats* 
s&d other hair manufactures ; china and porcelain-ware ; stone and earthenware ; 


grapes ; salpbate of qainine ; salts of morphine ; mannfaetures of silk, or ol 
silk mixed with any other materials, of whatever description they may be. 

The remaining clauses may be briefly condensed thus: Great Britain to propeMI^^ 
the reduction of the duties on the importation of French wine to a rate not er« 
ceeding 3s. a gallon. Merchandise imported from Prance to be admitted inte 
Ghreat Britain at a rate of duty equal to the excise duty imposed on articles of 
the same description in the United Kingdom. Brandies and spirits im^ited^ 
from France to be admitted into the United Kingdom at a duty equal to the exd«^ 
duty levied on home-made spirits, with the addition of a surtax of 2d. a galloB. 
Rum and tafia imported from the French colonies to be also admitted at the sasM 
rate of duty as levied on the same articles imported from the British colonies. 
Gold and silver plate imported from France to he admitted at a duty equal to tli» 
excise duty charged on British gold and silver plate. Should either of the con- 
tracting parties establish an excise duty or inland tax upon any article of home 
production comprised among the preceding articles, the foreign imported article of 
the same description to be liable to an equivalent duty on importation. Neither 
of the contracting parties to prohibit the exportation of coal or to levy du^ 
upon such exportation. The rights of property in trade marks and in patterns 
of every description to be reciprocally enjoyed by the subjects of either nation in 
the dominions of the other. The ad vcUorem duties to be afterwards conv^ted 
into specific duties by a supplementary convention. (This conventioa was after* 
wards changed into three separate conventions. ) Great Britain reserves to herself 
upon special grounds, during a period not exceeding two years, half of the duty 
on those articles, the free admission of which is stipulated by the present 
treaty — ^the reserve, however, not applying to articles of silk manufacture. The 
ad valorem duties payable on the importation into France of merchandise of 
British production and manufacture not to exceed a maximum of 25 per osaX, 
The treaty to be binding for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and for Algeria ; it shall also remain in force for the space of 10 years, and in 
case no notification be made by either of the powers, a year before the expiratioa 
of the said ten years, of their intention to put an end to the treaty, it shall con- 
tinue in force another year, and so on from year to year. An additional article, 
dated Feb. 25, raised the surtax on French brandies and spirits imported into 
the United Kingdom to fivepence. 

Battle of Tetuan. Feifc. 4, 1860. 

Treaty of fiiendship, commerce, and navigation between Grreat 
Britain and tlie Republic of Nicaragua. Feb. 11, 1860. 

The French Government demands the cession of Savoy from 
Italy. Feb. 25, 1860. 

The French Government recommends the complete annexation 
of Parma and Modena to Sardinia ; the establishment of a pro- 
tectorate, administered by the King of Sardinia in the name of 
the Pope, in the Romagna ; the re-establishment of the Duchy 
of Tuscany, and the incorporation of Savoy and Nice with the 
French empire, Feb. 25. Sardinia accedes to these proposi- 
tions, except in the case of Tuscany, Savoy, and Nice, which 
are referred to the votes of the people. Feb. 29, 1860. 

Important financial changes made in India by Mr. James 
Wilson, the new Indian finance secretary. Feb., 1860. 


The chief o£ which were the eBtablishment of an income tax comprehending the 
Uktive population. 

PrivilegeB of the Austrian Reichsrath extended by an Imperial 
patent. Mar. 5, 1860. 

By an Imperial patent the number of Beichsrath was fixed at 80 members, 
to consiBt of the following persons : — 1. Archdukes, members of the Imperial 
House. 2. Some of the Ugher ecclesiastical dignitaries. 3. Those who in the 
elril and military services, or in another way, have distinguished themselves. 
<Ai ^Hiirty-eight members of the representations of \h.e different provinces. The 
Sieichsrath thus constituted to be periodically convoked, to take into consideration 
the following matters : — 1. The fixing of the amounp of the budget, the State 
balanoe^heets, and the reports of the national debts* commission. 2. The more 
important draughts for general laws. 8. The proposals of the provincial constitu- 
tions. It cannot, however, take the initiative, and make proposals for laws or 
ordinances. The old Beichsrath to continue its functions with regard to questions 
mot withm the cognizance of the new Beichsrath. 

The American congress nominates a committee of inquiry into 
the means employed by President Buchanan to secure his elec- 
tion, and into the character of his administration. 

Mar. 5, 1860. 

The Florentines vote in fayonr of annexation to Sardinia. 

Mar. 11 & 12, 1860. 

yiTnllia annexed to Sardinia. Mar. 18, 1860. 

Vera Cruz bombarded by Gen. Miramon Mar. 13; the siege is 

raised. Mar. 21, 1860. 

The annexation of Tuscany to Sardinia effected. 

Mar. 22, 1860. 
366,571 Toted for annexation ; 14,925 for a separate kingdom. 

Battle of Quad-el-Eas. Mar. 23, 1860. 

Treaty between France and Sardinia regarding the annexation 
of Savoy and Nice to France. Mar. 24, 1860. 

The terms of this treaty briefly are : that Sardinia renounced in favour of France 
«n rights and titles over Sayoy and the arrondissement of Nice, provided that the 
annexation was in accordance with the wishes of the populations of those terri- 
tories ; the neutralized parts of Savoy only to be ceded to France upon the same 
conditions as those that Sardinia herself possessed, consequently France must come 
to an understanding on this subject, both with the Powers represented at the 
Congress of Vienna and with the Swiss Confederation ; a mixed commission to 
determine the ^ntiers of the two States, and the amount of the share to be con- 
tributed by Savoy and Nice towards the public debt of Sardinia; France to secure 
to the civil and military functionaries belonging to Savoy and Nice, who shall be- 
come French subjects, the rights due to them on account of the services rendered 
by them to the Sardinian Government ; Sardinian subjects, natives of Savoy and 
Kice, wishing to preserve their nationality, to enjoy for one year the right of 
transporting their domicile into Italy, in which case the character of Sardinian 
dtixens to be continued hem. 


ABBasBination of the Gotairo, regent of the empire of Japan. 

Mar. 24, I860; 

The Austrian Government protests against the annexation of 
Parma, Modena, TuscaDV, Ac, to the new kingdom of Italy. 

Mar. 25, 1860. 

Presentation of an address by the foreign ambassadors at the 
Neapolitan court to Francis IL, King of the Two Sicilies, r&- 
commending political reforms. Mar. 26, 1860. 

Pope Pius IX. excommnnicates all who have taken any part in 
the rebellion of his provinces. Mar. 26, 1860. 

Protest of Prussia against the French annexation of Savoy. 

Mar. 27, 1860. 

Discovery of great corruption in the Austrian army financitd 
arrangements ; a deficiency of over £1,700,000 discovered ; 82 
persons arrested. Mar., 1860. 

An insurrection of the natives of New Zealand (Maoris) under 
a chief named Wirrimu Kingi, breaks out, owing to disputes 
respecting the sale of land. Mar., 1860. 

Count of Montemolin, eldest son of the late Don Carlos, 
proclaimed King of Spain, at Tortosa, by Gen. Ortega ; the 
rebellion opposed by his own troops. Apr. 3, 1860. 

The Sicilian revolution commences at Palermo, Messina, and 
Catania. Apr. 4, 1860. 

Arrest of the Count of Montemolin and his brother Ferdinand 
near Tortosa. Apr. 21, 1860. 

The Count of Montemolin renounces his right to the Spanish 
throne. Apr. 23, 1860. 

A democratic convention, in the United States, assembles at 
Charleston, to secure the election of Stephen Douglas as pre- 
sident. Apr. 23, 1860. 

Admission of Jews to judicial appointments in Prussia. 

Apr. 25, 1860. 

Peace definitively concluded between Spain and Morocco. 

Apr. 26, 1860. 

The leading points of this treaty are : — ^Morocco ceded to Spain all the terri- 
tory comprised from the sea, following the heights of Sierra Bullones, as far as 
the road of Anghera, and also the Pequena, for the formation of an establishment 
like that which Spain possessed there formerly. Morocco to pay, as a just indem- 
nity of the war, 20,000,000 piastres, and the town of Tetuan to remain in the 
hands of Spain as a security. A treaty of commerce to he concluded. The repre- 
sentative of Spain at Morocco to reside at Fez, or at the spot best suited for the 

'mmnsBSAL cnBOKOLoaY. 161 

|m»teetioii of Spanish interests. A house of Spanish missionaries to be estab- 
"Bshed at Fez. 

'Death of the Duke of Terceira, president of the Portngaese 
coTmcil. Apr. 26, 1860. 

Appeal of Pope Pins IX. to the Roman Catholics of every 
nation for a loan of 50,000,000 francs. May 1, 1860. 

An amnesty proclaimed by the Spanish goyemment in favonr 
of political offenders. May 2, 1860. 

'The Prassian chambers express their intention of aiding the 
Schleswig-Holsteiners in the maintenanoe of their political 
rights. May 4, 1860. 

A conventioil of American nnionists assembles at Baltimore ; 
John Bell proposed for the presidency of the United States. 

May 9, 1860. 

Gen. Zuloaga deposes Miramon, and assumes the presidency 
of Mexico, May 1 ; arrested by Miramon May 9. The diplo- 
matic bodies attached to Mexico suspend official relations with 
President Miramon. May 10, 1860. 

BSmbarkation of Graribaldi for Sicily at Genoa, May 5 ; lands 

at Marsala, May 10 ; and assumes the dictatorship of the island 

• in the name of King Victor Emanuel IL May 14, 1860. 

Battle of Calatifimi. May 16, 1860. 

The Repnblican convention of the United States assembles 
at Chicago, and nominates Abraham Lincoln for the pre- 
sidency. . May 16, 1860. 

The SarcUnian goyemment asserts its disapprobation of Gari- 
baldi's expedition to Sicily. May 18, 1860. 

The laws prohibiting secession from the Lutheran religion in 
Sweden abolished. May 21, 1860. 

Captnre of Palermo by Garibaldi. May 27, 1860. 

Massacre of the Maronites in the neighbourhood of Beyrout 
and the Lebanon by the Druses. May 28, 1860. 

For some time past a bitter animosity had existed between the Maronite 
Christians and the Drases in Syria, an animosity gradually increasing from its 
being stimulated on every occasion by the Turkish goyemment, which was dis- 
satisfied with the partial autonomy the Lebanon enjoyed. This ill-feeling led to 
the perpetration of the most frightful atrocities. On May 28, a general attack 
was made by the Druses upon the Maronite villages, in the neighboui4iood of 
Beyrout and Lebanon, and they were burnt to the ground. This was followed up 
by similar attacks on the Christians at Hasbeya, Basheya, Sidon, and Deir-el- 



Eammar^ and other places, and frightful massacres ensued. The climax 
reached on July 10, by a terrible massacre of the Christians at Daniascus. 
consulates of France, Austria, Prussia, Holland, Belgium, and Greece wi 
destroyed, and their inmates took refuge in the house of Abd-el-Kader, - 
behayed most nobly on the occasion. The news of these events created the 
foundest sensation in Western Europe. A convention was entered into betwc 
Ghreat Britain, Austria, Russia, France, and the Prince Regent of ProsBia, whk 
agreed to send a body of European troops to Syria, and sufficient naval forces ' 
contribute towards the re-establishment of tranquillity on the coast of Syria, f 
duration of the occupation of the European troops in Syria was fixed at ai 
months, which was afterwards extended to a longer period. 

The Austrian Reichsrath assembles. May 31, 186<X.| 

Sir Charles Trevelyan, governor of Madras, recalled fori 
pnblishing a government minute against Mr. Wilson's finan*] 
cial scheme of February last. May, 186ft.| 

Evacuation of Upper Italy by the French troops. 

June 8, 1860. 

The French take possession of their Piedmontese acquisitions.! 

June 14, 1860. 

Meeting between the Emperor of the French and the Grermani 
sovereigns at Baden. June 15 — 1 7, 1860. 

War recommences in the Caucasus with Russia. June 19, 1860. 

Battie of Melazzo. June 20, 1860. 

Another massacre of the Maronites takes place near Beyroiii 
and the Lebanon. June 21, 1860. 

Queen Victoria reviews 18,000 volunteers in Hyde Park. 

June 23, 1860. 

Death of Prince Jerome Napoleon Buonaparte. June 24, 1860. 

Francis 11.^ King of the Two Sicilies, proclaims a general 
amnesty, and promises a liberal ministry, agreement with 
Sardinia, the adoption of the national flag, and a vice-regal 
and liberal government for Sicily. June 26, 1860. 

Don Juan of Spain, brother of the Count of Montemolin, 
pubHshes a declaration repudiating his brother's renunciation 
of his royal rights ; the Count of Montemolin and Don Ferdi- 
nand annul their renunciation at Cologne. June 28, 1860. 

A Liberskl ministry formed at Naples ; the town declared in a 
state of siege, and flight of the Queen Mother to Gueta. 

June 28, 1860. 

Arrival of Lord Elgin and Baron Gfros at Shanghai, China. 

June 29, 1860. 


tassacre of nmnerous Christians at Damascus. 
July 9, Ac, 18C0. 
le recommendation of Lord Canning, Viceroy of India, that 
the adopted successors of Indian princes be recognized, 
adopted by the Home Government. July 21, 1860. 

Haribaldi concludes a truce with the Neapolitans, who agree 
to evacuate Sicily, retaining the castle of Messina. 

July 28, 1860. 

Lord John Russell addresses a note to the Sardinian govem- 
ment, dissuading it from attacking Austria and Naples. 

July 31, 1860. 

at failures in the English leather trade. July, &c., 1860. 

Hu^ Rose takes command of the Indian army, now 

amalgamated with the British army. J^y> 1860. 

convention entered into between the five great powers to 
lestore order in Syria, and to revenge the late massacres of 
the Christians. -^^g- 3, 1860. 

e Sardinian constitution introduced into Sicily. 

Aug. 3, 1860. 

French force sent to Syria to protect the Christians. 

' Aug. 4, 1860. 

e second Chinese war begins : the British commanded by 
Sir Hope Grant, and the French by Gen. Montauban. 

Aug. 12, 1860. 

parture of Garibaldi from Sicily for Italy. Aug. 19, 1860. 

Pasha invested with plenary powers to punish the 
assassins in Syria; he punishes those implicated in the 
massacres of the Christians at Damascus very severely, 167 of 
all ranks, including the governor, being executed. 

Aug. 20, &c., 1860. 

aptnre of the Taku forts by the allied English and French, 
at the mouth of the Peiho river, China. Aug. 21, 1860. 

'hellion of the Neapolitan provinces, Aug. 17 ; Garibaldi 
Jands in [N'aples, and occupies Reggio, Aug. 19 ; the fort of 
Beggio surrenders to him. Aug. 21, 1860. 

e Emperor of the French repudiates any hostile designs 
Against England, in a letter to his ambassador in London. 

Aug. 26, 1860. 

baldi accepts the title of Dictator of the Two Sicilies. 

Aug. 27, 1860. 
H 2 

164 AK ±lSnXOTATED TABLl 07 

The Sardinian goyemment demandB from Borne the 
of the foreign i^oops from the Papal army. Sep. 7, 1 

Departure of Francis 11., King of the Two Sicilies, 
Naples, Sep. 6 ; entrance of Garibaldi. Sep. 7, 1 

Victor Emannel proclaimed King of Italy at Naples. 

Sep. 9, 1 

The Sardinian ultimatam rejected by Cardinal Antonelli, Pi 
Secretary of State, in consequence of which the San 
generals Fanti and Cialdini enter the Papal territories. 

Sep. 11, 1 

The Sardinians take Pesaro from the Neapolitans, Sep. 
and Pemgia» Sep. 14, 1 

Garibaldi expels the Jesuits from Naples, and declares the S 
of the Crown national property. Sep. 15, 1 

Visit of the Emperor and Empress of the French to Sa 
Corsica, and Algiers. Sep. 1 — 17, 1 

Defeat of the Papal troops at Castelfidardo by Cialdini ; h 
bardment of Ancona. Sep. 18, 1 

Visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada. 

July 24— Sep. 20, 1 

Treacherous arrest by the Chinese of Consul Parkes, Cap 
Anderson and Brabazon, Mr. de Norman, Mr. Bowlby, 
others, who had started for Tangchow under a flag of troee 
Captain Brabazon beheaded, and the others carried pris(me: 
into Pekin. Sep. 21, 1" 

Advance of the allied English and French forces towards Pekui^ 
battles of Chang-kia-wan and Pa-li-chau. Sep. 18 & 21, 1"' 

Ancona surrenders to the Sardinians. Sep. 29, 1860. 

Defeat of the Neapolitans by Garibaldi at Yoltumo. 

Oct, 1, 1860.^ 

Annoancement of the Sardinian government that its army k 
about to enter the NeapoKtan territory. Oct. 6, 1860. 

March of the allied French and English towards Pekin; the 
summer palace of the Emperor of China ravaged by the Frenclt 

Oct. 6, 1860. 

The Sardinians evacuate the Papal cities occupied by the 
French, Oct. 6, 1860. 

Bestoration of the English prisoners of Sep. 21 by the Chinese 
to the allied English and French in China. Oct. 8, 1860. 

The Russian ambassador recalled from Turin. Oct. 10, I860. 

Battle of Tsemia. Oct. 17, 1860. 



mvested by the allied English and French, and snrrenden 
1. 12 ; severe proclamation issued by Sir Hope Ghrant ; the 

ler palace of the Emperor of China bnrnt oj the British 
memory of the outraged prisoners. Oct. 18, 1860. 

ribaldi publishes a decree stating that Naples ought to be 
ncorporated with the Italian kingdom. Oct. 18, 1860. 

Neapolitans vote in faTour of the annexation of their 
)imtiy to the Sardinian States. Oct. 21, 1860. 

[Hew constitution promulgated by the " Imperial Diploma " 
»f ihe Emperor of Austria. Oct. 21, 1860. 

tills diploma the Emperor assnmed the right of altering or abolishing laws 
' vith the co-operation of the Diets and the Reichsrath, and increased the 
of members to be sent by the Diets to the Beichsrath from 80 to 100. 

lYention signed in Pekin by Lord Elgin and the Prince of 

bmg, by which tbe treaty of Tien-sin is ratified ; apology 

for the attack at Peiho (June 24, 1859) ; a large indemnity 

be paid, and compensation in money given to the families 

the murdered prisoners, <Scc. ; the treaty and convention to be 

[jrodaimed throughout the empire. Oct. 24, 1860. 

> Emperor of Austria meets the Emperor of Russia and 
■ ice Regent at Warsaw ; no result. Oct. 22 — 26, 1860. 

of Spain against the Sardinian invasion of the territories 
the Pope ; she recalls her minister from Turin. 

Oct. 26, 1860. 

tee of the French and Turks against Lebanon; surrender 
'fourteen Emirs. Oct., 1860. 

votes by a large majority (432,054 for, and 667 against) 
annexation to Sardinia. Nov. 3, 1860. 

mencement of the siege of Gaeta, Naples. Battle of 
' rliano. Nov. 3, 1860. 

iuatioii of Pekin by the allied English and French forces, 

Nov. 6, 1860. 

Lincoln declared President elect of the United 

ites, and political agitation commences in the Southern 

IBtates. Nov. 6, 1860. 

rem of Attiericazi politics hdd long been predicting a conflict between 

(^^fothon and Soathem States of the Union. The abolitionists, every daj 

' ig in strength, became more and more clamorons against slavery. Their 

tions mattered little to the Soath as long as their party were in such a 

that they conld not affect the course of legislation ; but when fresh ao- 

18) gained from immigration and the diffasion of English ideas throughout 

'l^Qrifa, swelled the numbers of th« abolitionists into a formidable faction, the 


slave owners became alarmed, and banded themselyes together to reeost any i 
f riogement of their rights. The two parties grew more and more sectioml 
day, and it became evident from the tone of Congress, that a struggle for ^ 
mastery was impending. The fight for the territories was the occasion wM<Ji 
brought both sides into collision. The advantage of attaching each new stsie 
its own side was apparent to each of the contending sections. This adviDl 
became more manifest as the parties became more equal, and the accession 
free state was received with a joy at the North only to be equalled by the jof 
the South at the addition of another slave state. When it was proposed 
admit Kansas into the Union, the argument degenerated into a free fight. 
Southerners poured hordes of fierce desperadoes into the territory, who pi 
to violent measures against the immigrants transported there by the exeitioai 
the abolitionists. After a struggle, which resulted in bloodshed, outran, and 
exasperation of both parties, the Free-soilers— as the anti-slavery section 
called — gained the upper hand and ousted their opponents. The South had 
only to bear the mortification of the defeat, but to stand the increasing pi 
of the abolitionists in Congress. The Missouri compromise, which aQi 
slavery below latitude 36° -30'', had been annulled, and measures were 
prohibiting the introduction of negro bondage into any territory of the Unil 
States. And now came the insurrection of John Brown, at Harper's F( 
already related. The sympathy that was expressed for his i&ie convinced 
Soutii that the extinction of their rights as slave owners was certain, as soon 
the abolitionists could muster strength enough to control the government 
election of Buchanan, the pro-slavery candidate, as president, delayed for a 
the necessity of secession. But only for a time. The election of 1860 it 
evident would settle the vexed question whether the North or Soutli should go 
the Union. At last the crisis came. The South put forth all its eneigiea, 
was completely defeated. Lincoln received the vast majority of Northern Totei, 
and consequently triumphed. Symj^toms of disunion appeared, and many of ibil 
states seceded from the Union. 

Battle of Maohetia. * Kot. 6, 1860.( 

Victor Emanuel II. enters Naples, and announces bis assmnp-' 
tion of the sovereignty of the country. Nov. 7, 18^. 

The 5th European Regiment at Dinapore, India, disbanded 
for mutiny. Nov. 13, 1860. 

Treaty between Russia and China ; the' former obtaining firee 
trade, territories, &c. Nov. 14, I860. 

The Empress of the French visits England and Scotland pri- 
vately. Nov. 14 1860. 

The Prince of Wales visits Canada and the United States, 
July 24— Oct. 20. He returns to England. Nov. 15, 1860. 

The army of Garibaldi disbanded. Nov. 27, I860. 

The pacification of Syria effected. Nov., I860. 

Public entry of King Victor Emanuel 11. into Sicily. 

Dec. 1, I860. 

English subjects permitted to travel in France without pass- 


Ets after Dec. 31, by an imperial decree published in the 
niteur. Dec. 20, 1860. 

\l Carolina secedes &om the American Union. 
Dec. 20, 1860. 
dent Miramon governs Mexico with great cruelty ; the 
. foreign ministers quit the city, Oct. ; Miramon compelled to 
retire, and the yictorious army of the constitutional president 
Juarez enters the city of Mexico. Dec. 25, 1860. 

Itolir decrees published by Sardinia annexing the Marches, 
, Umbria, Naples, and Sicily to the dominions of Victor 
' Emanuel II. Dec. 26, 1860. 

portant ministerial changes occur in France ; greater liberty 
of speech granted to the Chambers ; two sets of ministers 
appointed — speakers and administrators. Nov. & Dec, 1860. 

reat excitement in India, caused by Sir Charles Wood's 
(Lord Halifax) grant of £520,000 to the descendants of 
Tippoo Sahib. Dec, 1860. 

ath of Frederick William IV. of Prussia, and accession of 
the Prince Hegent as William I. Jan. 1, 1861. 

sident Buchanan reftises to withdraw the American Federal 
forces from Fort Sumter, Charleston, and announces his in- 
tention of enforcing the laws of the Union in South Carolina, 
U.S. , Jan. 3, 1861. 

ississippi secedes from the American Union. Jan. 9, 1861. 

rida secedes from the American Union. Jan. 10, 1861. 

•bama follows the example. Jan. 11, 1861. 

>th of Prince Charles, Count of Montemolin, at Trieste 
(his brother, Don Ferdinand, died Jan. 2). Jan. 13, 1861. 

attle of Tagliacozzo. Jan. 15, 1861. 

rgia secedes from the American Union. Jan. 19, 1861. 

commercial treaty between Prussia and Japan signed at 
Jeddo. Jan. 24, 1861. 

tusiana secedes from the American Union. Jan. 26, 1861. 

1^ revolution breaks out in Herzegovina against the Turkish 
government, under Luca Vukalovitch (the rebellion termi- 
nates the foUowing year, Sep. 23, 1862). Jan. 28, 1861. 

Correspondence ensues between the Prussian, Danish, and 
British governments, on the Schleswig-Holstein question 
(see p. 196) ; the Danish government declare for war if the 
forces of the Germanic Confederation enter the duchies. 

Jan., 1861. 

168 AV AirirOTATJED TABLS 01* 

Texas secedes from the American ITnion. Feb. 1, 1861 

France purchases the prmcipality of Monaco for 4i,000,< 
francs from the Prince of Monaco. Feb. 2» 1861| 

Meeting of the Prussian chambers'; on the motion for 
address. Baron Yon Yincke carries an amendment in &yoar 
Italian unity and a firm alliance with England. Feb. 6, 1861] 

Delegates from the American seceded States assemble 
Montgomery, Alabama, and agree to a constitution and 
visional government, of which Jefferson Davis is elected 
sident. Feb. 8, 1861J 

^18 constitution was almost identical with that of the United States, bat 
a more emphatic enunciation of the rights of property in slares. The selc 
of Jefferson Davis for the office of President of the Southern Confederacy 
about the best that could be made. He was admirably suited for the 
" An advocate of States rights on principle, he was naturally a good repi 
sentative of a community which owed its eadstence to the assertion of 
lights. With a judicious mixture of audacity and caation, he knew when to 
forth his energies with effect, and when to wait for his opportunity. A man 
pure private morals and temperate habits, he won general respect ; unselfisfaij 
single-minded, and self-reliant, he commanded the admiration of the mass of 
Southern countrymen. His bearing and tone fitted him to be the elect ei 
planter aristocracy — lofty, determined, and fall of contempt for those who 
opposite principles. When unbiassed by personal friendship, he has shown him- 
self an acote judge of men, regarded as tools for working out a design; ahon 
all, incapable of passion, and therefore perhaps the most suited to moidd i- 
passionate and impulsive race. An admirable judge of effect^ no man kiev 
better when to assume virtuous indignation or the appearance of outraged dignity.*! 
A scholar, atid in style a gentleman, all his official documents are penned in 8iich.[ 
clear and elaborate English that many persons in the old country have given tll^ 
Southerners the credit of a refinement to which only the upper ten thousand of | 
the slave states had any just daim." 

Surrender of Gueta, Naples, to General Gialdini, and retreat 
of Francis II. to Rome. • Feb. 14, 1861. 

The claim of Jerome (son of Jerome Buonaparte and Elizabeth 
Paterson, an American ladj), for his legitimate rights, non* 
suited, after a trial in the lS:«nch courts of law. 

Jan. 25— Feb. 15, 1861. 

Manifesto of Don Juan of Spain, claiming the Spanish throne, 
owing to the death of his brothers. Feb. 16, 1861. 

Failure and arrest of Mir^s, the French railway banker and 
loan contractor (sentenced to fire years' imprisonment, 
Aug. 29). • Feb. 17, 1861. 

The first Italian parliament opened at Turin. Feb. 18, 1861. 

Inauguration of Jefferson Davis as President of the Con- 
federate States of America. Feb. 18, 1861. 



published for the new constitutioii of the Austrian 
empire. Feb. 26, 1861. 

The most important feature in these decrees was the '^Ftindamentallaw for 
tflie Bepresehtation of the Empire,'* of which the principal articles were the 
jfollowing: — 1. The Beichsrath to form the representation of the empire, and 
%o he composed of a House of Peers (Herrenhaus) and a House of De- 
puties. 2. The princes of the Imperial House to he, when of age, members of 
t)ie Upper House by right of birth;, 8. The chicfe of certain aristocratic fami- 
Hes which have yery extensive landed property to be members of the Upper 
House. In such families the dignity to be made hereditary by the Emperor. 
4. All archbishops and bishops who have princely rank to be members of the Upper 
House. 5. The Emperor to reserve to himself the right of making distinguished 
ecclesiastics, scholara, and scientific men members of the Upper House for life. 
6. The House of Deputies to be composed of 343 members ; viz., 85 for 
Hungary, 54 for Bohemia, 20 for the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, 5 for Dal- 
matia, 9 for Oroaloa and Slavonia, 38 for Galicia and Lodomeria, 18 for Lower 
Austria, 10 for Upper Austria, 3 for Salzburg, 13 for Styria, 5 for Carinthia, 6' 
for Camiolia, 5 for the Bukovina, 26 for Transylvania, 22 for Moravia, 6 for 
Upper and Lower Silesia, 12 for the jTyrol and Voralberg, 'and 6 for Istria, 
Gorice, Gradiska, and Trieste. 7. The members of the Beichsrath to be elected 
by the Provincial Diets. The elections to be direct. Should the Diets 
not send members to the Beichsrath, the Emperor to order the appointed 
number of members to be elected by the districts, towns, and corporations. 8. 
The Emperor to choose the president and vice-presidents of each Diet from 
among its members. All other functionaries to be elected by the Diets. 9. The 
Beichsrath to be convoked annually. 12. In accordance with Article 2 of the 
diploma of the 21st October, i860, the following matters to be within the 
inhere ci action of the Beichsrath: — (a) Matters connected with military con- 
scription. (5) Matters connected with the currency, public credit, coinage, banks 
empowered to issue notes, customs, commercial matters, post, railroads, and tele- 
grapba (c) All those financial matters which concern the empire at large ; such 
as ike budget, the State balance-sheet, the results of the manipulations of the 
finance department, the raising of new loans, the conversion of State debts, the 
sale, change, or mortgage of the veal property of the State ; the augmentation of 
the present tazes^ and the imposition of new ones. The present taxes to be levied 
until repealed in a constitutional way. The national debt to be under the control 
of the Beichsrath. 15. The members of the House of Deputies not to receive 
instructions from their constituents. 16. The members of the Beichsrath to 
give their votes in person. 17. The functions of the representatives of a pro- 
vince in the Beichsrath to cease on the very day that a new Provincial Diet is 
formed, but such representatives may be re-elected. If a member dies, or be- 
comes incapable of performing his duties as a member of the Beichsrath, a new 
member to be elected. 18. The Beichsrath to be prorogued, or the House of 
Deputies dissolved by the Emperor. In case of a dissolution a new Chamber 
to be formed in accordance with the instructions contained in paragraph 7. 
19. The ministers, court chancellors, and chiefs of central departments, to have a 
right to take part in all debates, and to bring forward their propositions in person 
or by means of one of the deputies ; and to have also a right to make themselves 
heard on all occasions, and a right to vote if members of the one or the other 
house. 20. The sittings of both houses to be public, but may be held in secret 
if the president or 10 members demand the expulsion of the public, and the house, 
after the public have quitted the ball, agree to the proposition. 

By an imperial patent the permanent and enlarged Beichsrath was dissolved^ 
and a Staaterath (OouncU of State) formed, yri^ ;rQB|)«!Ct .t9 whiqh .the jE^Uow- 


ing were the chief proyisioiis : — ^The Staatsrath to be composed of a preaideDt 
and several councillors. 2. The president to have the rank of a minister, 
and to be present at the Conncil of Ministers, but not to have a vote. S. 
The Emperor to nominate the president and the councillors. 4. The 
Staatsrath to be formed of distinguished men, taken from the different 
provinces.' 5. The Staatsrath to let the Emperor and his ministers, hare 
the benefit of its special knowledge and experience. 6. The opinion of the 
Staaterath to be taken by the Emperor or by his ministers. 7. The president to 
decide whether all the members of the Staatsrath shall examine into and report 
on any given question, or whether certain councillors shall do so. 8. Each 
member of the Staatsrath to have a right to express his opinions separately, and 
with perfect freedom. 9. When any subject is under examination, the minister 
to whose department it belongs to have a right to be present in the Council of 
State, and to take part in the discussion. 10. The president of the Staatsrath ia 
iorward the opinions given to the Emperor, or to the president of the Council of 
Ministers. The president of the Council of Ministers to summon one, several, 
or all the members of the Staatsrath, to meet the ministers in CounciL 

At the same time, what were called ** the pro^dncial statutes" were published, 
regulating the representation of the various Diets of the empire, of which there 
were named 17 ; such as the Diet of Upper Austria, the Diet of Lower Austria, the 
Diet of Salzburg, the Diet of DaJmatia, the Diet of Bohemia, the Diet of Styzia, &c. 
In^the towns, with a few exceptions, the right of suffrage was given to persons 
paying yearly direct taxes to the amount of five florins, but in the rural districts, 
where the elections were indirect, the franchise was lower. The Chamber of 
Deputies was to be composed of persons elected by the Diets out of districts or 
circles in the various provinces, so that the different nationalities might be pro- 
perly represented. 

A conference for restoring peace between the Federal and 
Confederate States of America, terminates its sittings at 
Washington, without having arrived at any decision. 

Feb. 27, 1861. 

Great popular demonstration in Warsaw, in commemoration of 
the battle of Grochow, Feb. 25 ; suppressed by the military, 
and six persons killed, Feb. 27 ; great excitement at their 
funeral; an address, signed by 60,t)00 Poles, delivered to 
Alexander II. of Russia, praying for the restoration of Polisli 
nationaHty. Feb. 28, 1861. 

The Emperor Alexander of Hussia issues a decree emanci- 
pating the serfs throughout his dominions (Feb. 19, O. S.). 

Mar. 3, 1861. 

By this decree the peasants attached to the soil were to be invested with all 
the rights of free cultivators ; the proprietors to grant to the peasants for a 
fixed regulated rental the full enjoyment of their close ; domestics to receive their 
full enfranchisement two years hence. To assist these measures in each district, 
a court was to be established for the question of the peasants. Justices of the 
peace were to be appointed in each district to investigate on the spot all disputes; 
communal administrations were to be organized in the seigneurial properties ; a 
charter of rules was to be confirmed in each district, in which were to be enume- 
rated the amount of land reserved to the peasants in permanent enjoyment, and 
the extent of the charges to be exacted from them for the benefit of tiie pro- 
prietor. These charters were to be put into execution within the term of tvo 


years, up to which time the peasants and domestics were to fulfil 'their former 
obligations without scruple. 

Abraham Lincoln inangnrated 16th President of the United 
. States. Mar. 4, 1861. 

The chief magistrate of the greatest republic in the world was the son of poor 
rustic parents. He commenced life as a rail splitter, but afterwards, assisted by 
friends, took to the law, and soon acquired considerable repute and practice. He 
was not an abolitionist in the extreme sense of the word. He would have allowed 
the different states to keep the institution as long as they thought it right to do 
se. But it was the extension of slavery he objected to. Slavery was in his 
opinion an evil only to be tolerated for fear of the greater eyils that might follow 
its violent abolition, but its extension was an evil fbr which there was no excuse. 
Although he was elected the spokesman of a party, he no sooner attained power 
than he divested himself of all x>artizanship, and Set about his business as the repre- 
sentative of the whole and not a section of the Union. In his inaugural address, 
he appealed to the people of the South to avoid precipitancy, and to trust in the 
fairness of their fellow-citizens. While binding himself in the most sacred 
manner to leave the different States all their rights, he gave the seceders to 
understand that he must repossess such forts, arsenals, and government buildings 
as the secessionists had illegally seized. He could not, consistently with the oath 
he had taken, do less, and begged the calm and full consideration of the Southern 
people. In all his words and acts at this critical period, Lincoln displayed the 
utmost desire to adhere to the Constitution, and his bitterest enemies will admit 
that 80 far from hastening, ;^he did all that was in his power to retard the 
inevitable rupture. 

A frontier treaty concluded between Sardinia and France. 

Mar. 7, 1861. 

Surrender of Messina, Sicily, by the Neapolitans to the Sar- 
dinian general Cialdini. Mar. 13, 1861. 

Death of the Dachess of Kent. Mar. 16, 1861. 

The Italian parliament enacts that Victor Emanuel shall 
assume the title of **' King of Italy." Mar. 17, 1861. 

St Domingo united to Spain. Mar. 18, 1861. 

End of the Maori war (New Zealand) ; surrender of the 
natives. Mar. 19, 1861. 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by the British government. 

Mar. 30, 1861. 

English and French embassies established at Pekin. 

Mar., 1861. 

Protest of Francis II., ex-King of the Two Sicilies, against the 
assumption of the title of the " King of Italy " by Victor 
Emanuel. Apr. 5, 1861. 

A treaty for the protection of literary and artistic property 
concluded between France and Russia. Apr. 6, 1861. 

The Russian government refuses to restore Polish nationality, 


bnt tigrees to redress certain grievanoes, March 9; grai 
excitement preyails in Poland ; a meeting held, bnt dispersed 
by the military, and above 100 killed and wounded ; Warsaw 
kept in order by military force. Apr. 8, 1861. 

Ctoventli census of Great Britain and Ireland taken. 

Apr. 8, 1861. 

Civil and political rights granted to Protestants thronghont the 
Austrian empire, except in Hungaiy and Venice. 

Apr. 8, 1861. 

The American Federals surrender Fort Sumter, Charleston, 
U.S., to the Confederates. Apr. 13, 1861. 

President Lincoln calls for 75,000 of the militia to pot down 
the Confederate rebellion. Apr. 15, 1861. 

Protest of the Papal government against Yictor Emanuel's 
assumption of the title of '' King of Italy." Apr. 15, 1861. 

Virginia secedes from the American Union. Apr. 17, 1861. 

Biot between the XJnioniste and Secessionists at Baltimore, 
United States; President Lincoln proclaims the Souliiem 
ports in a state of blockade. Apr. 19, 1861. 

Formal opening of the new Austrian Beichsrath ; no deputies 
present from Hungaiy, Croatia, Transylyania, Yene<aa, or 
iBtria. Apr. 29, 1861. 

A commercial treaty concluded between France and Turkey. 

Apr. 29, 1861. 

Treaty of commerce and navigation between Giieat Britain 
and Turkey. Apr. 29, 1861. 

The clsnfles of this treaty may be thus briefly eondensSd. British sabjeete 
permitted to purchase in all places in the Ottoman empire all articles, without 
any exception, the produce or manufacture of the said dominions. British 
subjects to pay on Turkish articles, bought for the internal trade of Tmckey, the 
same duties that are paid in similar circumstances by the most tityoured ckisa of 
Ottoman subjects. British subjects to export Turkish goods at an export duty 
not exceeding 8 per cent., which duty will be annually reduced by 1 p^ cent 
till it shall be reduced to a fixed duty of 1 per cent. The export and import 
dnties on goods of British or Turkish mani:dEacture to be the same as iho8» 
charged on the like goods of any other foreign country. British goods allowed to 
be imported into Turkey at the rate of duty not exceeding 8 per cent., or at a 
specific duty fixed by common assent. The subjects of the contracting parties 
to enjoy in the dominions of the other equal commercial rights with the native 
subjects. Articles legally importable into Great Britain allowed to be imported 
in Ottoman Tessels at the same rate of duty as if they were imported in British 
yessels, and vice vend. No duties of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, aro., to be. 
imposed by either nation on the other, which shall not be equally imposed in the 
Kke cases on other nations in general British vessels or other vessels with 
Bntishgoods, the produce of Great Britain, to pass thxougl^ the Stnitsof tha 


Dardanelles or of the Bosphoras without any charge. The duty of 3 per cent. 
dn artdcles imported into Turicey to be lowered to 2, and at the end of 8 yean 
to 1 per cent. Tobacco and salt not allowed to be imported into Turkey by 
British subjects, bat as a compensation no dnty to be levied on those articles 
exported from Turkey to Great Britain by British subjects. Turkey resenres the 
right of prohibiting the importation of gunpowder, fire arms, &c., into her 
dominions. The present treaty to remain in force for 28 years ; but each of the 
eontmcting jiarties at liberty to giro notice to the other for its revision at the end 
of 14 years, and for its determination at the expiration of a year from the date of 
that notice, and so again at the end of 21 years. Commissioners for the settle- 
> ment of a tariff of Oustom House duties to be appointed by both the contracting 

The Maedonald affair amicably settled.* May 1, 1861. 

A treaty of commerce, and for the protection of Kterary and 
artistic properiy, concluded between France and Belgium. 

May 1, 1861. 

Secession of Arkansas from the American Union. May 6, 1861. 

Secession of Tennessee from the American Union. May 8, 1861. 

Secession of North Carolina from the American Union. 

May 20, 1861. 

Hayti, W. Indies, united to Spain. May 20, 1861. 

Death of Prince Gortschakoff, Lieut.-general of Poland. 

May 20, 1861. 

Death of Count Cavour. June 6, 1861. 

Battle of Big Bethel, U. S. June 10, 1861. 

Declaration of France to preserve strict neutrality in the Ame- 
rican civil war. June 11, 1861. 

Baron Bdcasoli placed at the head of Italian affairs. 

June 12, 1861. 

Spain asserts her neutrality in the American civil war. 

June 17, 1861. 

Victor XSmanael, of Sardinia, recognized as King of Italy by 
Napole<Mi ni. June 23, 1861. 

Death of the Sultan Abdul Medjid, and accession of his brother 
Abdul Aziz. June 25, 1861. 

Institution of the Most Exalted Order of the Star af India, 

June 26, 1861. 

The Qneen of England, being desirons of affording the princes, chiefs, and 

* On September 12, 1860, Captain Maedonald was committed to prison at 
Bonn, for resisting the railway authorities there. The English residents appealed, 
and were also censured. A correspondence ensued between the Prussian govern- 
ment and the British foreign secretary upon the subject, and after very strong 
langoage had been used by both parties the aSaii was amicably settled. 


people of the Indian empire a pablie testimony of her regard by the insti- 
tution of an order of knighthood, created the **Most Exalted Order of tfae 
Star of Indii^" to consist of the Sovereign, a grand master, and 25 knights, 
together with sach extra and honorary knights as shall, from time to time, he 

Benito Juarez elected president of the Mexican republic, and 
absolute dictator by tbe Mexican congress. Jnne 30, 1861. 

Terrible famine in the N.W, provinces of India, through, failure 
of the crops. Jan. — June, 1861. 

Great excitement in India, owing to the printing and circulation 
of "Nil Darpan," a Hindoo drama, libellmg the Indigo 
planters. June, 1861. 

The Ber. James Long was sentenced to fine and imprisonment for translating 
this drama. Mr. J. F. Grant, Lieut. -governor of Bengal, who had authorized the 
translation, and Mr. Seton Kerr, his secretary, who had distributed copies, were 
severely censured, and resigned in September. 

The Hungarian Diet votes an address, praying the Emperor 
of Austria to restore the old constitution. July 5, 1861. 

The petition demanded the following : — 1. The restoration of the consti- 
tution, and the reunion of the Banat and Voivodina with the present kingdom 
of Hungary. 2. The coronation of the Emperor at Pesth, as King of Hungaiy. 
8. The nomination by the monarch of a Palatine, who should be one of thiee 
persons chosen by the nation. 

Attack on the British embassy at Jeddo, Japan, by some Japa- 
nese ; several persons wounded. July 6, 1861. ' 

Battle of Carthage, U.S- July 5, 1861. 

Battle of Eich Mountain, U.S. July 11, 1861. 

Life of the King of Prussia attempted by Oscar Becker, a 
Leipsic student, at Baden. Jnly 14, 1861. 

The American confederate congress assembles at Kichmosd, 
Virginia, U.S. July 20, 1861. 

Battle of Manassas, or Bull Rim, U.S. July 21, 1861. 

Rupture of diplomatic relations by the English and French 
governments with Mexico, owing to the decision of the 
Mexican congress (July 17) to suspend payments to foreigners 
for two years. July 27, 1861. 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by Sweden and Norway and 

Denmark, Jiily> 1861. 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by Holland. Aug. 2, 1861. 

The law of English bankruptcy amended by 24 and 25 Yict. 
c. 134. Aug. 6, 1861. . 

Before the Bankrtlptfcy Act, 1861, a man was not liable to be made a bankrupt 
unless he was a trader, and had committed an act of bankruptcy as defined by 


ihe statutes in force. By the recent Act a non-trader is now, in certain cases, 
liable to be made a bankrupt ; and a debtor may be made a bankrupt in several 
eases, although he may not have committed any act which in terms is declared 
by any statute to be an act of bankraptoy. The cases in which a man may be 
adjudged bankrupt are specified in the ''Bankrupt Law Consolidation Act, 
1849," 12 and 13 Vict. c. 106; and the ** Bankruptcy Act, 1861," 24 and 25 
Yiet. c. 134. The bankrupt law is a system of positive statute regulations, its 
character being peculiar and anomalous, and designed for the special advantage 
of persons with whom debts are contracted in the course of trade. It involves 
these three general principles ; (1) a summary seizure of all the debtor's pro- 
perty ; (2) a distribution of it among the creditors in general, instead of merely 
applying a portion of it to the payment of the individual complainant ; and 
(3) the disdiarge of the debtor from future liability for the debts then ex- 

Visit of the Kmg of Sweden to France. Ang. 6, 1861 . 

Battle of Wilson's Creek, U.S. Aug. 10, 1861. 

Visit of the King of Sweden to England. Aug. 12, 1861. 

President Lincoln interdicts all commercial relations with the 
seceded States. Aug. 16, 1861. 

A dispute arises at Ville-la- Grande, Switzerland, owing to the 
arrest of two French subjects by the Swiss authorities. 

Aug. 18,1861. 

Death of the Emperor Hien-fting of China, and accession of 
his son Tsai-sun, who assumes the name of Ea-tsiang. 

Aug. 22, 1861. 

Refusal of the Emperor of Austria to the petition of the Hun- 
garian diet of July 5 ; the Hungarian diet declares a rupture 
of the negotiation with the Emperor, Aug. 10 ; the Hungarian 
Chambers dissolved by the Emperor of Austria. 

Aug. 22, 1861. 

Fatal accident in the Clayton tunnel on the Brighton railroad. 

Aug. 25, 1861* 

Capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark, North Carolina, by the 
American Federals. Aug. 29,- 1861. 

War announced between Buenos Ayres and the Argentine 
Confederation.* Aug. 29, 1861. 

In 1810 the provinces of the Argentine Confederation threw off the yoke 
01 Spain, and in 1816 a Republic was established. In 1834 the basis of the 
Confederation was laid, and the following states were nnited to the confederacy : 

Buenos Ayres. Entre Rois. Salta. Santa F6. 

Catamarca. La Rioja. San Jnan. Santiago. 

Cordova. Mendoza. San Luis. Tucaman. 


Buenos Ayres separated from the confederacy in 1853, and other' secessions 
occurred. • War was declared against Buenos Ayres in August, 1861, which 


Fatal collision on the Hampstead Junction Railway. 

Sep. 2, 1861. 

An Exhibition of Italian Indostrj opened at Florence br 
Victor Emannel. Sep. 15, 186L 

The Spanish general Jose Borges lands in Calabria in support 
of Francis 11. of Naples. Sep. 16, 1861. 

Post Office Sayings Banks opened. Sep. 16, 1861. 

By 24 k 25 Vict c. 14, tbe Fortmaater-geneiml is empovered to dired) Ui 
ofiioers to reoeiye cash deposits at Tarions places for reviittaoce to the geneni 
office at London, to be repaid at 2^ per cent, interest. No deposit can be ol lea 
value than one shilling, and all existing acts relating to savings banks apply to 
the Post-offioe banks. This act was amended by 26 Vict. o. 14. 

Battle of Pavon : tbe Argentine forces, under G-eneral IJrqniza^ 
defeated by tbose of Buenos Ayres, under General Mitre. 

Sep- 17, 1861. 

Capture of Lexington, Missouri, U.S., by the American Con- 
federates. Sep. 21, 1861. 

Commercial treaty between France, Ghreat Britain, and Belgium 
comes into operation. Oct. 1, 1861. 

Meeting at Compeigne between Napoleon m. and the King of 
Prussia (the King of Holland joins them, Oct. 12). 

Oct. 6, 1861. 

Oppressive regulations issued to the Poles respecting dress by 
Russia ; fresh disturbances ; Poland declared in a state of 
siege. Oct. 14, 1861. 

Coronation of William I. of Prussia and Queen Augusta at 
Konigsberg. Oct. 18, 1861. 

Canton restored to the Chinese by the British. Oct. 21, 1861. 

Battle of Ball's Bluff, U.S. Oct. 21, 1861. 

Convention between Great Britain and Morocco relative to a 

loan of J&4<26,000y to be raised in London by the latter power. 

Oct. 24, 1861. 

The Churches in Warsaw closed by the priests, Oct. 17 ; de- 
parture of Count Lambert, the governor of Warsaw, from 
that town, Oct. 23 ; assassination of the military governor, 
General Gerstenzweig, by the Poles. Oct. 25, 1861. 

lasted till the beginning of the following year, and resulted in the solemn in- 
stallation of General Mitre and Colonel Paz, as president and vice-president of 
the republic, Oct. 12, 1862. The Argentine Republic declared war against Para- 
guay, Apr. 16, 1866 ; and the following month an alliance was concluded between 
Brazil, the Argentine Republic, and Uruguay, against Paraguay and Buenos Ayres. 



Entrance of a Frencli detachment into the Swiss portion of 
La Vallee des Dappes. Oct. 27, 1861. 

The Swiw announoethe violation of their territory Nov. 5. 

i. convention between Great Britain, France, and Spain, to 
combine in an expedition to enforce their respective claims 
against the government of Mexico, signed at London. 

Oct. 31, 1861. 

A. long series of injuriee to British snbjects and property in Mexico, for which 
BO redress could be obtained, led to the withdrawal of the British legation from 
the city of Mexico. The civil war that had been raging there for the last three 
years, between the revolutionary party nnder Generals Zuloaga and Miraznon and 
the con8titati<»ial government under President Juarez, was made the excuse for 
not complying with the British demands. In 1842 a convention was concluded 
by the British minister with the Mexican government, for the payment of certain 
elaims, by virtue of which a fixed pro^rtion of the entire customs revenue was 
mortgaged as a security for payment. No money, however, being paid, a sub- 
eonvention was concluded in 1852, for the fulfilment of these claims. Gtreat 
difficulties arose in carrying out these conventions, while outages of the most 
flagrant kind continued to take place both to the persons and property of British 
Bubjects. In April Sir G. Lennox Wyke was sent as a special envoy to Mexico, 
but al] his efforts were abortive, and it was now necessary to resort to sterner 
means of compnision. The governments of France and Spain had also serious 
grounds of complaint against the Mexican government^ for wrongs and outrages 
iitflicted on their subjects; accordingly the above convention was signed. It 
lesolved to dispatch combined naval and military forces, of sufficient streugth to 
seize and occupy the several fortresses and military positions on the Mexican coast. 
^The contracting parties were not to seek any acquisition of territory, nor to exer- 
cise in the internal affiedrs of Mexico any influence of a nature to prejudice the 
right ol the Mexican nation to choose ^e form of its- government. A commis- 
sioner was to be named by each of the contracting parties, to determine all ques- 
tions regarding the application or distribution of money which might be recovered 
^m Mexico. A copy of the convention was to be presented to the United 

Alteration of the laws of property in India ; sale of waste 
lands anthorized. Oct., 1861. 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by the Belgian government. 

Nov. 6, 1861. 

Uessrs. Mason and Slidell taken from the English mail steamer 
Trent Nov. 8, 1861. 

Captain Wilkes, commanding the United States frigate San Jacinto^ learning 
te. two Southern gentlemen (Messrs. Mason and Slidell) were proceeding by the 
British mail steamer, the Trent, from Havana to Europe, as commissioners of the 
Confederate Qovemment, intercepted the vessel, firmg some shots across her 
^^^i'^^ Having compelled her to stop, a boat of armed men approached from the 
^ Jacmto^ the lieutenant of which boarded the British steamer, and demanded 
Messrs. Mason and SlideU. The British captain very pf operly refused to give 
Th^m up, whereupon tbe Americans took them forcibly from the Treaty and carried 
J^em away in the San Jacinto to Boston. The indignation that this lawless, 
aigh-handed act excited in England, and the strange enthusiasm it created amongst 


the unthinking masses of the States, indicated a speedy rapture of the 
The feelings of the l^glish people were farther roased by intelligence that tl 
people of Bo8ton*had fiUd Captain Wilkes, and that even the Secretary of 
Nayy, Gideon Welles, had commended his unjostifiable condact. Earl Kai 
qaidkly demanded that the Sonthem oommissioneiB should be given up, and Mr. 
Seward acceded to the demand. But for this concession, war would have cer- 
tainly broken out between England and the United States. 

Death of Pedro Y., Eong of Portugal, and accession of his 
brother Louis Philippe, Duke of Oporto ; Ferdinand II., hus- 
band of the late Queen Maria 11., acting as regent. 

Nov. 11, 1861. 

M. Achille Fonld appointed French Minister of Finance. 

Nov. 14, 1861. 

Departure of the Italian minister from Madrid, in consequence 
of the refusal of the Spanish* government to surrender the 
Neapolitan archives. Nov. 26, 1861. 

Lord Lyons, the British minister at Washington, receives 
instructions from Earl Bussell to leave America within seven 
days, unless the United States government consent to the 
unconditional Hberation of Messrs. Mason and Slidell. 

Nov. 30, 1861. 

The United States government refrises to join England, 
France, and Spain, in an attempt to re-establish order in 
Mexico. Dec. 4, 1861. 

The English and French governments despatch an ultimatum ' 
to Mexico, Nov. 24. Departure of the French ambassador 
Dec. 7 : of the English ambassador from the city of Mexico. 

Dec. 16, 1861. 

Disembarkation of Spanish troops, at Yera Cruz, Mexico, 
Dec. 8 : they occupy ihe town and fort of St. John d'Ulloa. 

Dec. 17, 1861. 

Troops despatched to Canada, by the British government, aB 
a precaution against aggression by the Federal States of 
America. Dec. 23, 186L 

Death of Prince Albert, Dec. 14 : his frmeral takes place in 
the vaults of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.* Dec. 23, 1861. 

* A meeting to organize a method of receivuig contribntions for a great national 
memorial was held at the Mansion House, Jan. 14, 1862 ; and a large sum was 
quickly subscribed. The nature of the memorial was referred to the Queen her- 
self. In a letter to t^e Lord Mayor, dated Feb. 19, 1862, Sir Ghaiies Grey sajB, 
on behalf of her Majesty, '*It would be more in accordance with her own feelings, 
and she believes with those of the country in general, that the monument shoaJd 
be directly personal to its object. After giving the subject her maturest oonside* 
ration, her Majesty has come to the conclusioni that nothing would be more 


VTnion of the Danubian principalities Wallachia and Moldavia 
into one state, by tbe name of Bonmania. Dec. 28, 1861.* 

ZiOrd Iiyons, Englisb minister at Washington, demands the 
surrender of Messrs. Mason and Slidell, Dec. 23 : the United 
States government accedes to the demand. Dec. 27, 1861. 

^Xhe New York bankers suspend cash payments. 

Dec. 30, 1861. 

Snrke^ Wills, Grraj, and King explore the great Sahara of 
Austitdia : all perish on their return, except King. 


Oerman substituted for French in the Prussian diplomatic 
despatches. Jan. 1, 1862. 

The Frencli clergy reminded of their duty " towards CeBsar," 
by Napoleon III. Jan. 1, 1862. 

Pope Pius IX. pronounces an allocution at Rome, in favor of 
the temporal power. Jan. 6, 1862. 

ThB new Legislative Council of India meets for the first time. 

Jan. 18, 1862. 

appropriate, proyided it is on a scale of sufGcient grandeur, than an obelisk to be 
erected in Hyde Park, on the site of the Great Exhibition of 1851, or on some 
apot immediately contigaons to it. Nor would any proposal that could be made 
"be more gratifying to the Queen heraelf personally, for she can never forget that 
the Prince himself had highly approYed of the idea of a memorial of this charac- 
ter being raised on the same spot in remembrance of the Great Exhibition.*' In 
a second letter, the Queen expressed her intention of personally contributing 
towardB erecting the memorial, that ** it might be recorded in future ages as 
raised by the Queen and people of a grateful country to the memory of its bene- 
factor." Shortlj after, a committee, composed of thov Earls Derby and Clarendon, 
Sir Charles Eastlake and the Lord Mayor, was appointed. As a suitable block 
of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up. On 
Apnl 22, 1863, the Queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for an 
Eleanor Cross, with a spire 150 feet high, accompanied by statues, &c. ; and on 
April 28, parliament voted £50,000, in addition to the £60,000 received by 
voluntary contributions. Many memorials of the Prince have been set up 
throngbont the empire. 

* The first meeting of the elective assemblies of both states as a common legisla- 
tive chamber, was held Feb. 6, 1862, when a ministry was appointed, and Prince 
Alexander John Couza declared that Boumania should for ever form an indepen- 
dent state. A body of Polish exiles who sought a retreat in the principalities, 
were disarmed and their leaders arrested, April 15, 1864. The people accepted 
by Yote a new constitution. May 10 — 14, 1864. A conspiracy was discovered 
against Prince John, for alleged complicity, in which Dr. D. Lamberti and Prince 
G. Soutzo were arrested, May 22. A large body of troops seized Prince Couza in 
his palace, and compelled him to sign his abdication, Feb. 22, 1866. The cham- 
bers proclaimed the Count of Flanders, the brother of the King of the Belgians, 
Hospodar, Feb. 23, and on his refusal Prince Charles of Hohenzollem-Sigmarin- 
gen was chosen. 

N 2 


XS A51<rOTATEl) TABLE 01* 

Battle of Millsprings, U.S. . Jaii. 19, II 

A Ministry of Marine established in Austria, under the 
tion of Count Wickenbourg. Jan. 26, II 

Arrival of Messrs. Mason and Slidell, Commissioners fi^m 
Confederate States of America, in England. Jan. 29, II 

Arrival of a British naval and French military expedition 
Yera Cruz, Jan. 7 ; the Allies address a proclamation to 
Mexican people, Jan. 10 ; discontented with the reply of 
Mexican government, they march towards the city of Mexi( 

Jan. 29, If 

Terrible inundation of the Danube, causing great distress. 

Feb. 4, II 

Capture of Fort Henry, Tennessee, U.S., by the Amerit 
Federals. Feb. 6, 18( 

Capture of Roanoke Island, North Carolina, U.S., by 
American Federals. Feb. 8, II 

Capture of Fort Donnelson, Tennessee, U.S., by the Ameri< 
Federals. Feb. 16, If 

A truce concluded at Soledad, Mexico, to facilitate a del 
settlement of the claims of the Allies, between the Coi 
saries of the Allies and the Mexican General Doblado. 

Feb. 19, II 

Nashville, capital of Tennessee, U.S., taken by the Aineri( 
Federals. Feb. 25, 186^ 

Defeat of the Tae-ping rebels by the Chinese forces, assisted 
the English and French, at Shanghai. Mar. 1, 186i 

Resignation of the Ricasoli Ministry (Italy). Mar. 1, 186J 

President Lincoln proposes a plan of pecuniary assistance 
the emancipation of the slaves in such States as should ado] 
an abolition policy. Mar. 6, 1862J 

. The American Confederate iron-plated steam-ship Merrimm 
destroys the Federal sailing frigates Cumberland and Con^resiA 
in Hampton Roads. Mar. 8, 1862*1 

Battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhom, U.S. Mar. 6 — 9, 1862. 

Battle between the American Confederate iron-clad Jferrimaei 
and the Federal floating battery Monitor; the 'former com*! 
pelled to retire. Mar. 10, 1862. 

This, the first contest between iron-dads which the world had ever seen, -wM 
studied by the naval departments of all civilized powers ; and a reaction took plarti 
against wooden vessels. After defeating the CtmberUmd and the Cwgrmy m 


the intention of the Aferrimae to board the Federal frigate Minneiota. At 
one o'clock the Merrimac appeared, accompanied by two vessek crowded with 
'droops. Ere the Merritnac could approach near the Minnesota, the Monitor 
*Blid out and sent a huge.BahlgreTi shot ringing against the armour of her antago- 
.siat. The Confederate vessel, somewhat astonished, turned fiercely upon the new- 
comer, and for a time an artUlery duel, at a distance of a hundred yards, was 
*]kept up without much effect, but with terrific noise. The MerrimaCy tired of 
•aueh interchange of blows, made one of her furious dashes, but the Monitor 
slid away, neatly baffling the attempts of her adversary, while her huge shells, 
chasing each other in quick succession, began to work a visible effect. At 
last the Confederate managed to get a 'Vacancy'* at the Monitor, and by a 
atnnning shock sent her spinning round and round like a top ; but the concussion 
did perhaps less injury to the Monitor than it did to the Merritnac, whose sides 
'were shattered by the impact of the eilormous Dahlgren shells. The Merrimac, 
"baffled and disconcerted, had no other resource than to retire. The battle was over, 
.and the Union fleet was saved. Still the Merrimac exercised a great influence 
.over the Federals, who were even so far alarmed that M'Clellan's plan of campaign, 
which originally contemplated an advance up the James to Richmond, had to be 
.altered, to avoid the danger of transports encountering this formidable ram. 

The American Confederates retire irom Manassas, or Bull 
Run, Virginia, U.S. Mar. 11, 1862. 

Dissolntion of the Prussian Chambers for having resisted the 
military expedition of the government. Mar. 11 : a new ministry- 
formed by Yon der Heydt. Mar. 18, 1862. 

Battle of Winchester, U.S. Mar. 23, 1862. 

The Italian government orders the amalgamation of Garibaldi^s 
volunteers with the regular army. Mar. 27, 1862. 

French victories in Cochin China (six provinces ceded to 
IVance). Mar. 28, 1862. 

The Ratazzi administration takes office (Italy). Mar. 81, 1862. 

Battle of Pittsburg Landing, U.S. Apr. 6&7, 1862. 

Conference between the allied English, French, and Spanish 
plenipotentiaries at Orizaba, Mexico. England and Spain 
decline to commence hostilities with Mexico. France insists 
on the necessity of hostile measures. Apr. 9, 1862. 

Differences of opinion soon hampered the combined action of the alliee. A 
conference with the commissioners nominated by the Juarez government had been 
appointed to take place at Orizaba on the 15th following. The French commis- 
sioner, however, refused to meet them, alleging that the object of the convention 
was to obtain satisfaction from the Mexican government, and not to pursue a con- 
ciliatory system. He formally declared he would not treat with the government, 
and deemed it necessary to march upon Mexico. . Both the English and Spanish 
commissioners thought that the conference ought to take place. The difference 
became so irreconcilable that the English and Spanish governments refused to 
co-operate further in the objects of the expedition, and their respective troops 


were withdrawn from Mexico. The conseqaenoe was that the French army, ojider 
General Lorenoez, was left to proaecute the enterprise alone. 

Capture of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, U.S., hj the American 
Federals. Apr. 11, 1862. 

The French in Mexico declare war against President Jnares. 

Apr. 16, 1862. 

Capture of New Orleans, U.S., by the American Federals. 

Apr. 26, 1862. 

Defeat of the Mexicans hj the French in the mountains of 
Coimbres, near Acnlcingo, Mei^co. Apr. 28, 1862. 

Great distress in the English cotton manufacture districts 
begins.* Apr., 1862. 

The Emperor of Austria sanctions the principle of ministerial 
responsibility. May 1, 1862. 

The International Exhibition opened in London, by the Dnke 
of Cambridge, and other commissioners, appointed by the 
Queen.t May 1, 1862. 

* The distress in Lancashire and the other seats of the cotton mannfactnre is 
England, consequent on the dearth of the raw material, owing to the blockade oS. 
the Southern ports instituted by the Federal goyemment, which had commenoed 
in the previous year, now attained to such a height that it was found necessary to 
organize systems of relief. — April 29. The Central Relief Committee of Maadiestar 
established. — May. The London Mansion House Committee formed. — July 19. The 
Cotton District Belief Fund originates at a meeting held under the ■prea.dencj of 
Lord Derby at Bridgewater House : £11,000 were subscribed. — August 7. The 
Union Belief Aid Act enables boards of guardians in Lancashire, Cheshire, and 
Derbyshire to obtain by loans the means of meeting the extraordinary demands 
ui)on them. — Sep. 8. Twenty-four Foor-Law Unions in the distressed distoicts 
afford out-door relief to 140,165 persons, at a weekly cost of £7,922. — ^Dec. 2. 
At a meeting held in Manchester Town Hall, £70,000 subscribed, which sum 
was afterwaids raised to £130,000. — Dec. 27. The distress reached its climax: 
496,816 persons dependent on charitable or parochial funds. 1863. — ^March. 
In consequence of a reduced rate of relief, and a resolution to pay the grants in 
provision tickets instead of money, riots, unaccompanied by loss of life or blood- 
shed, occur at Staleybridge. — June 30. The distress on the wane. At this date 
a total of £1,974,203 was contributed to the various relief funds, of which 
the Central Belief Fund received £892,279 ; the Mansion House Fund, £503,131 ; 
the Cotton Districts and Liverpool Belief Funds, £254,380 ; and the Local Belief 
Funds, £324,413. 1865.— Dec. 4. The final meeting of the Executive Central 
Committee held under the presidency of Lord Derby, in Manchester Town Hall 
The committee declare that they have a balance in hand of £37,456 18s. The 
Cotton District Belief Fund closes operations with a balance of £5,967 5s 3d. 

f In 1858 it was resolved by the council of the Society of Arts that the hold* 
ing of decennial industrial exMbitions would be of national benefit. Circulars 
were accordingly sent to the foreign exhibitors of 1851, to ascertain their views 
respecting a similar undertaking in 1861 ; but, in consequence of the Italian 
war, the Society of Arts, in June, 1859, passed a resolution for the postponement 



Evacnation of York Town, Virginia, by the American Con- 
federates. May 8, 1862. 

Tlie French, nnder Greneral Lorencez, severely repulsed by the 

* ]N£ezican General Zaragoza in their attempted assault upon the 

lieights around Puebla. May 5, 1862. 

Battle of Williamsburg, U.S. May 6, 1862. 

Tlie Danish goyemment addresses a circular on the Holstein 
question to tiie ambassadors at Paris, London, St. Petersburg, 
a^d Stockholm. May 8, 1862. 

Battle of Mc Dowells, U.S. May 8, 1862. 

SiVacxiatioii of Pensacola, Florida, by the American Confederates. 

May 9, 1862. 

The American Confederates blow up their iron-clad Merrimae 
to prevent its capture by the enemy. May 11, 1862. 

The Mexican General Marquez joins the French military 
expedition in Mexico with 3,000 men^ Battle of Orizaba. 

May 18, 1862. 

Diplomatic relations between Prussia and Hesse suspended 
in consequence of disrespectM treatment experienced by the 
Prussian envoy. May 20, 1862. 

Invasion of the Montenegrin territory by the Turks. 

May 23, 1862. 

Battle of Fair Oaks, U.S. May 31, 1862. 

Agrarian outrages occur in Limerick and Tipperaiy, Ireland. 

Apr. & May, 1862. 

Visdt of the Viceroy of Egypt to England. June 3, 1862. 

The Prince of Wales returns to England after his tour in the 
East. June 4, 1862. 

The Grand Duke Constantine appointed governor of Poland. 

June 8, 1862. 

of the scheme. The sudden termination of the war induced them to resnme 
their efforts, and the year 1862 was suggested as the date of the exhibition. In 
Vebmary, 1860, Prince Albert signified his desire to farther the undertaking, and 
a guarantee fund was opened, which soon amounted to £480,000. In June the 
commissioners of 1851 gave i>ermission for the new building to be erected on the 
ground purchased with the surplus fund of the old exhibition, and in Febmaiy, 
1861, the trustees were incorporated by charter, as the Royal Commissioners of 
the Exhibition of 1862. The building, designed by Captain Fowke, was com- 
menced March 9, the contractors being bound to complete it by Feb. 12, 1862. 
The state ceremonial of awarding the prizes took place on July 11 ; and the 
«xhibitloii closed Nor. 1, 1862, 



The Senate of the United States decrees the abolition 
slaveiy in all the territories of the Union. June 9, 1861 

Visit of the Prince of Wales to the Emperor of the French 
Fontaineblean. June 12, 1861 

The American Federal House of Representatiyes decrees 
confiscation of the slaves of rebels. June 19, 1861 

The first of the Seven Days hrfare Biehmond^ known as 
battles of the Chickahominj, U.S. June 25, 186J 

Second attack on the British Embassy at Jeddo, Japan, 
some Japanese : the embassy removed in consequence to Yok^ 
hama. June 25, 186j 

The Passport system abolished between Italy and England. 

June 26, 186i 

Battle of Mechanicsville, U.S. June 26, 186^ 

Batae of Gaines Mill, U.S. June 27, 1861 

Battle of Savage Station, U.S. June 29, 186^: 

Battle of White Oak Swamp, U.S. June 30, 186S 

Battle of Malvern Hill, U.S. July 1, 1861 

Marriage of the Princess Alice of Great Britain with Prmc 
Louis of Hesse. July 1, 1861 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by Russia. July 10, 18( 

Inauguration of the High Court of Judicature at Bengal. 

July 12, 1861 

President Lincoln sanctions a Bill for confiscating the pro]^ 
and emancipating the slaves of all persons who shall continue 
in arms against &e Union for sixty days. . July 17, 186f 

The kingdom of Italy recognized by Prussia. July 21, 1862, 

New commercial treaty between France and Prussia signed. 

Aug. 2, 1861 

President Lincoln calls for a second levy of 300,000 men. 

Aug. 4, 1862J 

Battie of Cedar Mountain, U.S. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Macoa, China, ceded to the Portuguese. Aug. 18, 1862 J 

Insurrection of Garibaldi in Sicily, Aug. 1 ; he seizes CataneaJ 
Aug. 20 ; the Italian government proclaims Sicily in a state of | 
siege. Aug. 21, 1862. 

Qaribaldi addresses an inflammatory proclamation to the 
Hungarians from Palermo, July 26; reply of EJapka, the 
leader of the Hungarian insurrection of 1848, declining farther 
agitation tiU a more propitious period. Aug. 23, 1862. 



Proclamation of Guribaldi calling on tlie Italian people to resist 
" arrogant foreign oppressors," Aug. 3 ; lie lands at Calabria. 

Aug. 26, 1862. 

Battle of Bfiggio ; the SardiniaJis under Cialdini repulsed by 
Garibaldi. ^i^g- 28, 1862. 

General Forey and 2,500 Frencb soldiers land in Mexico. 

Aug. 28, 1862. 

Battle of Aspromonte ; Garibaldi taken prisoner. 

Aug. 29, 1od2. 

Evacuation of Fredericksburg, U.S., by the American federals. 

Aug. 29, 18d2. 

The second battle of Manassas Junction or Bull Run, U.S. 

Aug. 29 & 30, 1862. 

A convention concluded at Constantinople by Russia, France, 
and Turkey, respecting the protection of the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem. Sep. 5, 1862. 

Invasion of Maryland by the American Confederates, under 
Generals Lee and Jackson ; consternation in the North. 

Sep. 6, loo^. 

A treaty of peace between Montenegro* and Turkey con- 
cluded, affirming the sovereignty of the Porte. Sep. 9, Ibb^. 

Treaties of friendship and commerce signed at -^^an^varivo, 
between England, France, and Madagascar. Sep. 12, 186^ 
The Queen Ranavolana died Aug. 23, 1861, and was succeeded by her son 

l ^a-nna- II., who was peaceably inclined to the Christians. 

Frankfort, the capital of Kentucky, U.S., occupied by the 
American Confederates ; battle of South Mountain. 

Sep. 14, loDZ. 

Mr. Richardson, of the British Embassy at Japan, murdered, 
and his companions cruelly treated by the adherents of Prmce 
Satsuma. Sep. 14, 1862. 

Battle of Antietam Creek, U.S. ; the garrison of MunfordsviUe, 
Kentucky, surrenders to the American Confederates. 

Sep. 17, loOii. 

• In 1700 the Montenegrins rebelled against the Turks and declared thein- 
selves independent. Some Montenegrin tribes joined Rassia against Turkey in 
1712. The temporal and spiritual authority previously Tested in the VJadika 
was separated by Prince Daniel in 1851. The Turks inyaded Montenegro in 1853, 
and after gaining a few barren victories, retired. They returned May 2*5, 1862, 
and after several conflicts captured Rjeka, Aug. 25, and defeated the last effective 
forces of the Montenegrins. A treaty of peace was concluded Sep. 9, which 
affirmed the sovereignty of the Porte, and authorized the construction of a 
military road, defended by forts, through the entire length of the country. 


President Lincoln issues a proclamation declaring all the 
slaves in snch states as shall continue in revolt till Jan. 1, 1863, 
emancipated from that date. Sep. 22, 1862. 

Proclamation of General Forey, commander of the French 

' military expedition in Mexico, promising the Mexicans entire 

freedom in the choice of a new government. Sep. 22, 1862. 

The Pmssian cHambers reject, after a long and violent debate, 
the government proposition for the military expenses of the 
kingdom ; resignation of Van der Heydt, who is sncceeded 
by Herr Othon Von Bismarck Schonhaosen* Sep. 23, 1862. 

Sari Russell recommends Denmark to give to Holstein and 
Lauenburg all that the Germanie confederation desire for 
them,. and to give self-government to Schleswig (Denmark 
declines, Nov. 20). Sep. 24, 1862. 

A Japanese embassy visits the various courts of Europe* 

July— Sep., 1862, 

Marriage of Louis I., King of Portugal, to Pia, youngest 
daughter of Victor Emanuel I., King of Italy (he had been 
married by proxy at Turin, Sep. 27). Oct. 2, 1862. 

Battle of Corinth, U. S. Oct, 4, 1862. 

Battle of PerryviUe, U. S. Oct. 8, 1862. 

The Pmssian Chamber of Peers passes the military budget, 
which had been rejected by the deputies, Oct. 11 ; this 
proceeding pronounced contrary to the spirit of tbe consti- 
tution by the deputies ; the king closes the session, and an- 
nounces his intention of governing independently of the 
constitution, by stating "the government of his Majesty is 
under the necessity of controlling the public affairs outside the 
constitution." Oct. 13, 1862. 

M. Droa3ni de Lhuys appointed Frencb Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in the place of M. de Thouvenel. Oct. 15, 1862. 

An insurrection against Otho 1. breaks out in the western 
provinces of Greece, and extends to Athens. 

Oct. 22 & 23, 1862. 

A provisional government formed in Greece, and a new ministry 
appointed, which announces the overthrow of the old dynasty, 
and the commencement of a new administration. 

Oct. 23, 1862. 

Manifesto of Otho I. of Greece, declaring that to prevent 

' bloodshed he will at once quit his kingdom ; he embarks on 

board a British man-of-war, Oct. 24, 1862. 


The Mexican congress piiblislies a manifesto protesting against 
the French invasion and proclamation of Sep. 22. 

Oct. 27, 1862. 

The Joint-Stock Companies Act comes into force. 

Nov. 2, 1862. 

By thlB Act no compuiy consisting of more than ten persons can cany on the 
Cosiness of hanking unless registered as a company nnder the Act, or formed in 
pursuance of some other Act or Letters Patent ; and no company of more than 
twenty persons can he formed for carrying on any hnsiness that has gain for its 
ohject unless registered under this Act, or some other Act or Letters Patent, 
except it is a company for working mines, suhject to the jurisdiction of the 
Stannaries. The Act is divided into nine parts. (See 25 & 26 Vict. c. 89.) 

The intended marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Prin- 
cess Alexandra of Denmark officiallylannonnced in the London 
Gazette. Nov. 4, 1862. 

General Bnmside supersedes McClellan as American com- 
mander-in-chief of the Federal army of the Potomac, Vir- 
ginia. Nov. 5, 1862. 

Prance invites England and Bussia to join her in intervention 
in North America, Oct. 30; Russia declines to interfere, 
Nov. 8 ; England maintains her neutrality. Nov. 13, 1862. 

An amnesty granted by the Emperor of Austria to political 
offenders condemned by military tribunals in Hungary. 

Nov. 18, 1862. 

The Japanese forts at the entrance of the straits of Simono- 
saki fb« on an English and French vessel. Nov. 15 & 19, 1862. 

Seijeant Glover brings an action in the Court of Queen's 
Bench, against the Comte de Persigny and M. Billault, claim- 
ing £14«,000, for subsidizing the Morning Chronicle and other 
newspapers. Nov. 22, 1862. 

The provisional government of Greece decrees the election of 
a new king by universal suflTrage. Dec. 1, 1862. 

A treaty concluded between France and Switzerland, at Berne, 
defining the frontier of La Yallee des Dappes. Dec. 8, 1862. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, U. S. Dec. 13, 1862. 

The representatives of England, France, and Russia, inform 
the provisional government of Greece, that it is their inten- 
tion to exclude the dynasties of the three protecting powers 
from the Greek throne, according to the treaty of 1832. 

Dec. 13, 1862. 

Nieixeral Banks supersedes General Butler, in the command 
of the department of the Gulf of Mexico, at New Orleans. 

Dec. 14, 1862. 


Austria protests agamst the Greek revolation, and declares 
favour of Otho I. and his family. Dec. 14, 1862] 

A memoricd presented to the provisional government of Gi 
by Great Britain, declaring the conditions under which the] 
Ionian Islands will be ceded to Greece. Dec. 24, 1862.| 

Oeneral Sherman besieges Yicksburg, U.S., Dec. 27 ; the siege! 
raised. Dec 80, 1862. 

Battle of Murfreesboro', U.S. Dec. 31, 1862. 

Western Virginia admitted as a separate state of the Union, 
with the additional name of Kanawha, on account of its loyalty 
to the United States. Dec. 31, 1862. 

Great distress in the French manufacturing districts tiu-ongh 
the cotton famine and the civil war in America. Dec., 1862. 

Stuart, McKinlay, and Landsborough cross Australia from sea 
to sea. 1861—1862. 

President Lincoln publishes a proclamation confirming liis 
manifesto of Sep. 2.2, 1862, and declares all the slaves in the 
Confederate States free, and under the military protection of 
the United States. The Confederates recover Galveston, 
Texas. Jan. 1, 1863. 

The last day of the battle of Murfreesboro', U.S. Jan. 2, 1863. 

Don Juan of Spain acknowledges the authority of Queen Isa- 
beUa, and renounces all right to the Spanish throne. 

Jan. 8, 1863. 

The French evacuate Tampico, Mexico. Jan. 13, 1863. 

The Prussian chambers reassemble ; unconciliatory address of 
the King. Jan. 14, 1863. 

Treaty of conmierce between France and Italy signed. 

Jan. 17, 1863. 

Death of Said, Viceroy of Egypt, and accession of his brother 
Ismail. Jan. 18, 1863. 

Insurrection in Poland ; the kingdom is declared in a state of 
siege. Jan. 24, 1863. 

The immediate csnse of this outbreak was a pitiless system of conscription by 
Russia, which, haFing been abolished by the Bmperor Nicholas, was at the begin- 
ning of this year revived in the most oppressive form. It was carried into effect 
not by drawing lots, bat by selecting the most active and enterprising inhabitanta 
of the cities. In fact it was a design to make a dean sweep of the revolatiooai7 
youth of Poland. When it was first threatened, a secret body called the Oentnl 
Oommittee issued clandestine publications to the people, urging them to resistanoe. 
The conscription commenced Jan. 14, and during the night 2,500 men were 
carried off. Next day thousands of young men had taken flight. The Conunittee 
.issued a manifesto calling upon all to form themselves into armed bands and resist 


^e tyranny of Russia. The flame of revolt bnrst forth in a yariety of places, 
and soon Bnasian Poland was in one vast conspiracy against the government. 

General Hooker succeeds General Bumside in the conunand 
of the American Federal army of the Potomac. Jan. 27, 1863. 

^Fhe American Confederates attack the blockading squadron 
before Charleston, U.S., and compel it to retire. Jan. 31, 1863. 

The provisional government of Greece resigns the execntive 
power to the national assembly. Feb. 2, 1863. 

The national assembly of Greece declares the throne rightly 
vacant, and announces that Prince Alfred of England has been 
elected King by 230,016 votes. He is proclaimed, but is not 
permitted by the English government to accept the crown. 

Feb. 3, 1863. 

William I- of Prussia refoses the Lower Chamber the right of 
controlling the expenditure of the nation. Feb. 3, 1863. 

The Prince of Wales takes his seat in the House of Lords. 

Feb. 5, 1863. 

A treaty "Jtetween Bussia and Prussia concluded at Warsaw for 
xmited action in suppressing the Polish insurrection. 

Feb. 8, 1863, 

France remonstrates with Prussia respecting her proposed 

interference in Poland. Feb. 17, 1863. 

The French government invites Russia to tranquillize Poland. 

Feb. 18, 1863. 
The insurgent leader of the Polish insurrection, Louis Micros- 
lawski, defeated and put to flight by the Russians. 

Feb. 23, 1863. 
The Princess Alexandra leaves Denmark for England. 

Feb. 26, 1863. 
Porto Novo, Western Africa, received under French protection. 

Feb. 27, 1863. 

Marriage of ihe Prince of Wales and the Princess Alexandra 

of Denmark, in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Mar. 10, 1863. 

The insurgent chief Langiewicz declares himself dictator of 
Poland, Mar. 10 ; he is arrested, after having been defeated in 
various engagements, and the Central Committee at Warsaw 
assumes the direction of the insurrection. Mar. 20, 1863. 

The Polish insurgent leaders address an appeal to Europe for 
help. Mar. 24, 1868* 

The national assembly of Greece proclaims Prince William 
of Schlcswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg, second son of 


Prince Christiaii of Denmark (now King of Denmark) Kin( 
of Greece by the title of Gteorge I. Mar. 30, 186r 

The King of Denmark grants hj patent independent rights 
Holsfcein, but annexes Schleswig (Austria and Prossia pi 
test Apr. 17). Mar. 30, 1863| 

UnsnccesBfal attack on Charleston, U.S., bj the Americ 
Federal iron-clads. Apr. 7, 1863; 

Austria joins England and France in remonstrating 

Russian cruelties in Poland. Apr. 7, 1863fi 

Bavaria protests against any settlement of the Greek sucoes^j 
sion prejudicial to the claims of its own dynasiy. 

Apr. 12, 1863.1 

An amnesty published in fayour of all the Polish rebels whq 
shall have laid down their arms by May 13. Apr. 12, 1863, 

Death of Sir George Comewall Lewis. Apr. 13, 1863. 

The American Federal iron-clad fleet, under Commodore | 
Porter, passes the batteries at Vicksburg, U.S. 

Apr. 16, 17, 1863. 

European intervention on behalf of Poland, Apr. 17, &c. ; the 
Czar refuses the points deinanded. Apr. 26, &c., 1863; 

General Hooker crosses the Rappahannock with the AmericazL 
Federal forces, and takes up his position near Chancellors- 
ville, Virginia, U.S. Apr. 29, 1863. 

Battle of Chancellorsville, U.S.; "Stonewall" Jackson mor- 
tally wounded. May 2, 1863. 

The Centrsd Committee of the Polish revolution declares itself 
a " provisional government," and rejects the amnesty of 
Apr. 12. May 3, 1863. 

The Maori (New Zealand) war breaks out again. May 4, 1863. 

Battle of San Lorenzo. May 8, 1863. 

Death of " Stonewall " Jackson. May 10, 1863. 

Withdrawal of the Prussian ministers from the Chamber of 
Deputies, owing to a dispute between the vice*president De 
Bockum-Dolffs and the minister of war De Hoon, regarding the 
right of the president to interrupt the ministers. May 11, 1863. 

Assassination of Radama 11., Ejng of Madagascar, 'and 
accession of his widow as Queen Kadobo. May 12, 1863. 

Surrender of Puebla, Mexico, to the French, after two months* 
siege. Mar. 18 to May 18, 1863. 


inyestment of Vicksburg, U.S., by the American Federals, 
under General Grant and Admiral Porter. May 18, 1863. 

General Banks commences the siege of the American Con- 
federate forts at Port Hudson, Mississippi, U.S. May 27, 1863. 

The Prussian Chambers of Deputies address the king on their 
relation with the ministry and . the state of the country, May 
22 ; the king replies that his ministers possess his confidence, 
and adjourns the session, resolving to govern without a parlia- 
ment. May 27, 1863. 

Seizure of five Brazilian merchant vessels by British ships of 
war, in reprisal of alleged insults offered to three officers of 
H.M.S. Forte^ and of the pillage of the British trading vessel 
JPrince of Wales, shipwrecked on the Brazilian coast, Jan. 2 ; 
payment of £3,200 by the Brazilian minister in London to the 
British government as an indemnity, Feb. 26; the Brazilian 
government request the British to express regret for reprisals ; 
declined ; diplomatic intercourse between the two countries 
suspended. May 5—28, 1863. 

The Crown Prince of Prussia remonstrates with his father upon 
his unconstitutional government. May 31, 1863. 

President Juarez transfers his government from Meidco to San 
Louis de Potosi. May 31, 1863- 

Denmark declares that Prince William will accept the crown 
of Greece, provided the Ionian Islands are united to Greece. 

June 6, 1863. 

Occupation of the city of Mexico by the French general, 
Bazain, June 5 ; the main body of the French army, under 
General Porey, enters the capital. June 10, 1863. 

Inauguration of the Great Exhibition Memorial to the Prince 
Consort in the Horticultural Gardens, London. June 11, 1863. 

Battle of Winchester, U.S. June 13, 1863. 

General Lee invades Maryland, June 14, and Pennsylvania, 
United States. June 16, 1863. 

The American Confederate iron-clad Atlanta captured by the 
Federal monitor Weehawken in Warsaw Sounds, Georgia, U.S. 

June 17, 1863. 

Proposals of England for the suppression of the Polish insur- 
rection addressed to Russia. June 17, 1863. 

The lamentable state of things in Poland excited the greatest sympathy in 
Surope. Both England and France interfered, but without success. On June 



17, Earl Russell proposed as the IasIs of pacification to Bnssia*-!. A 
amnesty ; 2. National representation ; 3. Poles to be named to public offices! 
snch a manner as to form a distinct national administration ; 4. Liberty of 
science and repeal of the restriction imposed npon Catholic worship ; 5. 
Polish language to be recognized as the official language ; 6. The establish] 
of a regular and l^i;al system of recruiting. To consider tUese propositioiiatj 
conference of the Powers who signed the treaty of Vienna was suggested. ^ 
Ik)ints were rejected by the Russian goyemment. 

Dispute between the Britisli and Brazilian govemnients 
specting the arrest of some British officers at Rio Janei] 
referred to the arbitration of the King of Belginm, who decide 
in favour of the latter. June 18, 18( 

The Japanese ports closed against foreign traders. 

June 24, 1) 

General Meade supersedes Hooker in command of the Am< 
can Federal Army of the Potomac, U.S. June 28, 1863 

Arrival of Captains Grant and Speke in England-from explorii 
the sources of the Nile. June, 186S 

Slavery ceases in the Dutch West Indies. July 1, 186* 

A military revolt breaks out at Athens, June 80 ; ordc 
restored. July 2, II 

Battle of Gettysburg, U.S. July 1 — 3, 186^ 

Surrender of Vicksburg, North America, by the American Coi 
federates, to General Grant, after a siege of two months. 

July 4, 186c 

General Berg appointed governor of Poland, and rules wil 
great rigour. July 7, 186i 

The German Diet demands annulment of the patent of 
King of Denmark (Mar. 30), and that Holstein be 
with the same rights ; in case of refosal, the Diet threatens i 
army of occupation. July 9, 186i 

A provlsionary government, entitled " The Regency of tlw 
Mexican Empire,*' established at Mexico, June 24; did 
Assembly of Notables solemnly inaugurated, with power tc\ 
decide the fdture form of the Mexican government, July 8; i\ 
resolves by 250 votes against 20 to adopt an hereditary mon- 
archical goyemment under a Koman Catholic Emperor oi 
Mexico, and to invite the Archduke Ferdinand Maximihai, 
eldest brother of the Emperor of Austria, to accept the im^ 
perial title. July 10, 1863J 


Bepulse of the American Federals at Fort Wagner, Charleston, 
U.S. July 11, 1863. 

England, France, and Rnssia conclude a treaty at London, 
approving of the election of Prince William of Denmark to 
the throne of Greece. J% l^r 1863. 

Eiots take place at New York, Boston, and other Union cities, 
in conseauence of the enforcement of a conscription decree. 
^ July 13—16, 1863. 

A imited English, French, and American squadron bombard 

the Japanese forts at the entrance of the Straits of Simonosakv 

^ July 15—19, 1863. 

Reparation demanded by the English for the murder of Mr. Richardson by 
the Japanese adherents of Prince Satsnma; 100,000?. paid by the Japanese 
government: the Prince of Satsuma resisted paying his portion of 25,O0W.,where- 
mon an Bnglish'sqnadron, nnder Admiral Kuper, bombaided the town of Kagosma, 
h^. 15 and 16) and the Prince paid his share of the indemnity demanded Dee. 
11, 1863. 

Martial law proclaimed in Kentucky, U.S. July 31, 1863. 

William I. of Prussia declines to attend the congress of G^erman 
BOYereigns at Frankfort. Aug. 4, 1863. 

The obiect of this congress was to discuss a project for the reformation of the 
Qennan Confederation. With the exception of Prussia, the h^s of almost the 
lAole of the other kingdoms, principalities, and free towns of Germany attended, 
tteresnlt of their deUberations may be thus briefly condensed:— 1. The forma- 
tion of a Directory, to consist of the Emperor of Austria, the King of Prussia, the 
Bug of Bavaria, and the Kings of Saxony, Hanover, and Wurtemburg who 
dan be m the Directory alternately for a year, and of the representatives of the 
iWferent German States ; 2. The formation of a Federal council, to be composed 

I The seat of the Directory and Federal council to be at Frankfort, and the 
«eciitive power of the Bund to be in the hands of the Directory ; and 4. Austria 
tepredde in the Directory and in the Federal councO, but in her absence Prussia. 

k commercial treaty concluded between England and Italy 

fcesident Lincoln rejects the demand for the suppression of the 
conscription in the State of New York. Aug. 7, 1863. 

Ihe Grand Duke Constantine quits Warsaw for St. Petersburg. 

Aug. 25, 1863. 

iTnsuccessfal invasion of Volhynia by the Poles, under Wysocki, 
July ; frequent conflicts between the Poles and Russians, with 
varymg results ; many captured priests and nobles executed. 

Aug., 1863. 

in insurrection breaks out in Hayti against the Spanish 


194 JlF aj^kotatid table ot 

, gOTemment, Aug. 18 ; the insorgents seize the capital, 
Domingo, and proclaim a republic under CoL Palengo. 

Sep. 1, 1 

Protest of Denmark against the threatened (jerman 
execution in Holstein. Sep. 3, 1 

Severe encounters between the Poles under Lelewel and 

Bussians, in which the Poles sustain great losses. 


President Lincoln suspends the Habeas Corpus Act 

Sep. 15, 1863. 

Battle of Chicfcamauga Creek, U.S. Sep. 19 420, 1863. 

The Archdnke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria consents to 
accept the crown of Mexico, provided his election be ratified 
by a free vote of the whole Mexican people. Oct 3, 1863. 

Death of M. Billault, the " speaking minister *' in the French 
legislative assembly ; succeeded by M. Rouher. Oct. 13, 1863. 

The Transylvanian deputies accept the Austrian constitation, 
and take their seats in the Reichsrath. Oct 20^ 1863. 

Mr. Secretary Seward assures the French government of ^ 
neutrality of the United States in the Mexican question. 

Oct. 23, 1863. 

The Japanese government removes its former restrictionB re- 
garding the importation of foreign commerce, but prohibte 
traders from transactine: any business at Yokohama. 

Oct. 26, 186a 

Mourning forbidden to be worn by the Poles at Warsaw, in 
memory of those who have fallen in the insurrection. 

Oct. 27, 1863. 

Arrival of King George I. of Greece at Athens. Oct. 30, 1863. 

Napoleon III. invites the sovereigns of Europe to a general 
congress. Nov. 4, 1863. 

The session of the new Chambers opened by the Emperor of 
the French, Nov. 6 ; Thiers and his friends lately elected form 
the centre of a new opposition. Nov. 9, 1863. 

General Comonfort^ ex-president of the Mexican republic, 
surprised and shot by a band of Mexicans at Chamacnero, 
Mexico. Nov. 12, 1863. 

Death of Frederick Vll. of Denmark, and accession of Chr* 
tian IX. Nov. 15, 1863. 

Prince Frederick of Augustenburg publishes a claim to the 
succeision of Schleswig-Holstein. Nov. 16, 1863- 



In confoimity with the pro-nsions of the treaty of London, 1852, already mep- 
tioned, Prince Christian, the father of our Princess of Wales, ascended the 
fisiaah. throne as King Christian IZ. The following day the Duke of Augosten- 
.Wg insisted on his right to be recognised Duke of Schleswig-Holstein in a 

Cunation addressed to the people of that duchy. But, unfortunately for the 
ty of the Duke's daim, his father had, on Dec. 80, 1862, promised for him- 
idf and family not to disturb the tranquiUity of Denmark, nor to oppose *Uhe 
tnaogement of the succession to all the lands now nnited under his Majesty's 
neptre," and had accepted from the Danish government a sum of 8,600,000 dollars 
!b compensation for the surrender of his claims. But, apart from this rennncia- 
Man of dynastic rights by the father, which in all honour should have also bound 
ibe flon, let us see the exact nature of the Duke*8 claims. The following table 
lay assist our view : — 

Christian I. 

Christian III. 

Frederick I. 
' i 

Frederick II. 

Prederick in., 
fint hereditaxy Idng. 

Adolph, 1544, 
First Duke of Oottorp. 

First Duke of Sonderburg. 



fioyal Danish house Ducal line Ducal line 

^extinct in the male line of of 

with Frederick YII. Augustenboxg. Oltlcksbuig. 


house of 

Grand Ducal 

house of 

the late King of Denmark, Frederick VIZ., had no issue, it was thought de- 

ible by the great Powers to provide for the eventual succession to the throne. 

ordingly, by the treaty of London, the succession was secured to the present 

Christian IX., whose queen would have been entitled after the death of 

ierick YII. to reign over Denmark proper and Schleswig, but she ceded her 

^te to her husband. As regards Holstein, the legal heir to that duchy, after 

sorereigns of Denmark, is the Emperor of Bussia ; but in 1861 he ceded his 

^ts of inheritance to the present dynasty. The first article of the treaty of 

ion declared that Prince Christian should be recognized as King of Denmark 

ibe decease of Frederick VII., and should succeed to the toicUity of the States 

ly united under the sceptre of the King of Denmark; and by the third 

k the rights of the King of Denmark and the Germanic Confederation concern- 

the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg should not be altered by the treaty. 

this treaty the great Powers and most of the German States acceded. With 

to these conflicting claims the question now discussed in the Frankfort 

was whether there should be administration of the government in the duchies 

•Holstein and Lauenburg, without reference to the disputed right of succession, 

' whether the Diet should enter into hostile occupation of them, and hold them 

* it had decided towhom they rightfully belonged. Austria and Prussia voted 

the first measure, and the Committee of the Diet in favour of the last. In the 

it the Austro-Prussian demand was carried by a small majority, who voted for 

was called occupation, which was to give the Diet the right of determining the 

ion. Federal commissioners were appointed by the Diet to see that the 

Bntion was carried out, and the Danish government was summoned to withdraw 

troops from the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg within seven days. Both 

now prepared for war. 

o 2 


Visit of the King of Italy to Naples. Nov. 11—17, II 

The American Federal, General Bomside defeated in sevi 
engagements by General Longstreet, and compelled to 
to Knoxville, U.S. Nov. 14—17, 

The King of Denmark signs a new constitution for Denmaijr; 
and Schleswig. Nov. 18, 186i 

A petition to the German Diet in favour of the Angostenbnrg ^ 
family signed at Kiel by several members of the Holsteia , 
Diet. Nov. 19, 1863. 

Battle of Bangariri ; the Maoris (New Zealand) defeated by the 
British, under General Cameron. Nov. 20, 186Sp . 

Royal decree of the King of Prussia (passed June 1), for the 
suppression of all journals expressing tendencies dangeroitf 
to the welfare of Prussia, recalled. Nov. 21, 186S. 

The States of Holstein refuse to swear allegiance to the new 
King of Denmark. Nov. 21, 1863. 


In giving a precis of this important question it is unnecessary to go &r 
back into the history of the dispute, and lose our way in the dark fog d 
German politics some four centuries ago. The Danish monarchy consUtod 
of four principal diyisions— the kingdom of Denmark proper, the duchy o! 
Schleswig, the duchy of Holstein, and the duchy of Lauenburg. Denmark 
proper and Schleswig form together the original Danish realm, whilst Holstdii 
and Lauenburg are German territories acquired since, and known as the 
'^ German duchies" of the King of Denmark, for which reason his Majesty is 
a member of the Germanic Confederation. The duchy of Schleswig was originally 
a part of the Danish province of Jutland, which afterwards became a fief <^ 
the Danish crown. In 1459 it escheated to the crown, but was maintaioei 
.as a separate fief, and was soon afterwards divided between the three prin* 
cixMil branches of the House of Oldenburg, the Eoyal Danish, the Gottorp^ 
and the Sonderborg branches. For a short period the share of the Dake 
of Gottorp was almost separated from Denmark; but in 1721 the whok 
duchy was again made by letters patent an integral and inseparable pari 
of the Danish state. The duchy of Holstein was a fief of the German empire 
until 1806, when it was united to the body politic of the Danish monarchy 
by letters patent. The duchy of Lauenburg was acquired in 1815, and for ever 
incorporated into the Danish monarchy by letters patent. Such briefly is the 
history of the duchies. In 1848 an insurrectionary German party, known as 
the Schleswig Holstein party, appealed to Germany for aid in establishing the 
union of the two duchies of Holstein and Schleswig, with a separate constitutional 
existence from the rest of the monarchy. Germany assisted the insurrection, 
and, after a struggle of nearly three years, the peace of Berlin was signed 
July 2, 1850, by which Germany withdrew from the war, and agreed to padfy 
Holstein. After considerable delay, on the application of Denmark, a German 
army of '* execution" marched into Holstein and occupied the dudiy. Wha 


the pacification of Holstein was effected, Germany refused to withdraw her 
boops, and to reinstate the King of Denmark in his full sovereign authority in 
Eoistein and Lanenburg, until the Danish goyernment had given certain assurances 
to the system of government intended to be followed in those duchies, and also 
the Danish duchy of Schleswig. This led to much diplomatic correspondence 
1851-2, which resulted in Denmark pledging herself to the following : — 
That Schleswig should not be incorporated with Denmark proper. 2. That 
k should establish an organic constitutional connection of all parts of 
country, so as to form a united monarchy, in which no part was subordinate 
the other. 3. That Denmark should extend equal protection to both the 
tman and Danish nationalities in Schleswig. The third clause Denmark denies 
Ting made. On January 28, 1852,"* the King of Denmark promulgated 
proclamation, in which he announced to his subjects the basis on which he 
itended to reconstitute the Danish monarchy. This proclamation was approved 
by the Germanic Diet, and the King of Denmark was reinstated in Holstein 
Laaenburg, with full sovereign authority. The steps taken by Denmark to 
f ont this proclamation were : — 1. The revival of the provincial assemblies 
ed Bstates, which Holstein and Schleswig had possessed previous to 1848, 
^ a jurisdiction limited only to local afiairs. 2. The reduction of the par- 
ent of Denmark proper from being a parliament for the whole non-German 
on of the monarchy to that of a provincial assembly, confined to the local 
[8 of that province. 3. A constitution for the whole monarchy was enacted ; 
constitution, established under the name of *'Rigsraad,*' or Council of the 
^ a general legislative assembly for the whole monarchy, based upon the equal 
presentation of all parts of the monarchy, according to the ratio of population 
id taxation. These provisions were somewhat modified in 1855. The, Germanic 
let now interfered, and required the abrogation of this constitution, but 
"'ted its demand to the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, over which 
ctB the Diet was alone entitled to exercise any control. After various futile 
iations, the Danish government, by an ordinance dated November 6, 1858, 
ed to the demands of the Diet: thus Holstein and Lauenburg were put out 
all^ constitutional union with the other parts of the Danish monarchy, being 
' under the absolute authority of the sovereign, and the jurisdiction of 
assemblies strictly limited to local affairs. The Holstein assembly now 
ed the pretensions of 1848-50 as to a constitutional union with Schleswig, 
loosed all overtures for a general constitution. While thia question was 
; discussed, the Germanic Diet required of Denmark that the assembly of the 
7 of Holstein should exercise the same powers as the Rigsraad, in controlling 
goreniment of the whole monarchy. This demand, owing to the mediation 
^t Britain, was compromised by limiting the contributions of Holstein 
ds the general expenditure of the monarchy to the sums fixed by the normal 
^of 1856. In March, 1863, the Danish government decreed an ordinance 
DO Uw should be valid in Holstein which had not obtained the sanction of 
dnchy, and that in case of disagreement between the assembly of Holstein 
the Bigsraad a separate legislation for Holstein, on the part of the Holstein 
%) should take place. To this Germany objected, regarding the latter 
' as a means for paving the way for a complete separation of Holstein, in 
it of legislation and of administration, from the rest of the monarchy. She 
^ed it as a violation of Federal rights, and of the treaties of 1852. On 
jBher 18, 1863, the Danish government made certain alterations in the 
tntion of 1855, with respect to Denmark proper and Schleswig, which 
' to increase all the more the interference of Austria and Prussia. These 

* The treaty of London, of 1852, is mentioned in its proper place. 

198 Air AmroTATED table op 

:; : .. . 

alterations were, — That legislatiye power in respect of the common affiiirs 
Denmark proper and Schleswig was to be rested in the King and tlie lUgsna^j 
conjointly, and no law passed by the Rigsraad to be made dependent on the 
passage of a similar law by another legislatore for a separate part of the rea]% 
unless a special provision to that effect was made in the law itself. At iid$\ 
juncture the death of the King of Denmark caused the Schleswig-Holsteift 
question to assume a new and more complicated aspect, which is related under 
the heading of the claims of the Duke of Augnstenbuig to the dnchy ol 

The invitation to the general congress at Paris declined bj' 
England. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Bidge, U.S. 

Nov. 25, 1863. 

An insnrrection among the mountain tribes of the Pnnjaiil)^ 
under' a fanatic named Bam Singh, against the British, sup- 
pressed. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Saxony^ Bavaria, Hesse, and other German powers resolve to 
support the Prince of Angostenbnrg. Nov. 26 et seq.j 1863. 

UnsacceBsfal attempt of the American Confederates to c&rrj 
Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S., by storm. Nov. 29, 1863. 

The first Fenian* convention assembles at Chicago, United 
States. Nov., 1863. 

Resolution of the Prussian Chambers passed, by 231 to 63 
votes, " That the honour and interest of Germany demand 
that all the German States should preserve the rights of the 
duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, that they should recog- 
nize the hereditary Prince of Schleswig- Holst^in-Sonderburg- 
Augustenburg as Duke of Sehleswig-Holstein, and that they 
should lend him assistance in the vindication of his rights." 

Dec. 2, 1863. 

The King of Denmark declares his inteotion to resist aU revo- 
lutionary movements in Holstein. Dec. 4, 1863. 

Lord Wodehouse despatched to Berlin and Copenhagen, to 
endeavour to preserve peace. Dec. 5, 1863. 

^According to tradition the Fenians, or Finians, were a national militiA estab- 
lished in Ireland by Fin, or Fionn, the son of Gnmhal (218 — 253). Bach 
member of the band swore never to receive a portion with a wife, bnt to choose 
her for hit good manners and virtues ; never to offer violence to any woman; 
never to refuse to relieve the poor to the utmost of his power ; and never to flee 
before nine champions. Other authorities regard the ancient Fenisms as a distinct 
Celtic race, who migrated at an early period from Germany into northern Scotland 
and Ireland ; and others conjecture that the word is a corruption of '^ Phoeni- 
cians." The name has been adopted by an Irish faction, formed in the United 
States, for the purpose of subverting the British supremacy in Ireland. 


president Lincoln publishes an amnesty in favour of all seces- 
sionists wbo sb&ll throw down their arms and swear fidelity 
to the Union. Dec. 8, 1863. 

nie Holstein Diet meets at Hamburg,, and resolves to recognize 
tlie Duke Frederick of Augustenburg, and to appeal in his 
favour in the Federal Diet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Tbe Sazon and Hanoverian troops enter Holstein. 

Dec. 23, 1863. 

Successftll advance of the allied French and Mexican Impe- 
rialist forces in Mexico; Juarez retires from San Louis de 
Potosi Dec. 18 ; it is entered by the allies. Dec. 24, 1863. 

^nie Prince of Augustenburg solemnly proclaimed Duke of 
Schleswig-Holstein, at Elmshom, by the title of Frederick 
Vin. Dec. 27, 1863. 

Kntrance of the Prince of Augustenburg into Kiel ; he issues 
a proclamation to the people of Holstein. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Ministerial crisis in Denmark ; Bishop Monrad forms a cabinet 
on the resignation of M. Hall ; the Danes evacuate Bends- 
burg. Dec. 31, 1863. 

The German federal commission suppresses the administra- 
tion of Holstein, and institutes a ducal government at Kiel. 

Jan. 6, 1864. 

Garibaldi resigns his seat in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. 

Jan. 7, 1864. 

Birth of Prince Albert Victor of Wales. Jan. 8, 1864, 

Sir John Lawrence^ the new Governor- General of India, 
arrives at Calcutta. Jan. 12, 1864. 

\ proposal for constitutional reform rejected by the Spanish 
Cortes. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Praseia unites with Austria in an ultimatum addressed to the 
Danish government. Jan. 16, 1864. 

The demand of Austria and Prussia (Jan. 16) being rejected 
by Denmark, an allied Austrian and Prussian army, under 
Marshal Wrangel, enters Holstein. ' Jan. 21, 1864. 

The Prussian Chamber of Deputies rejects a demand for 
money to carry out military intervention in Schleswig-Hol- 
stein, Jan. 22 ; Chambers dissolved. / Jan. 25, 1864. 

Torrible calamity at Santiago ; two thousand persons burnt to 


death, owing to the church of La Compania taking fire dniing 
the celebration of the Immacnlate Conception. Jan. 28, 1864 

Refusal of General de Meza, commander-in-chief of the Danish 

army, to evacuate Schleswig on the demand of Marshal 
Wrangel. Jan. 31. 1864 

Preaident Lincoln orders a draft for 500,000 men. Feb. 1, 1864 

The ProBsians enter Schleswig, and take Eckenforde. 

Feb. 1, 1864 

Bombardment of Missnnde by the Prussians, Feb. 2 ; Mis- 
sunde burnt. Feb. 3, 1864. 

Konigsberg taken from the Danes by the Austrians, under Gren. 
Gondrecourt. Feb. 3, 1864. 

Abandonment of the Dannewerke by the Danes. Feb. 5, 1864 ' 

At the oonunenoement of the war the Danes trofited almost entirely to their 
line of fortifications on the north side of the Eider, called the Dannewerke, pro- 
tecting the town of Schleswig. These fortifications, since 1850, had been grc»tly 
strengthened by the Danes fortifying the weak point on the river Treene, by their 
taking possession of the town of Frederickstadt, where the aboye-named nret 
fails into the Eider. On the surrounding heights was a series of powerf ol bst- 
teries, armed with guns of the heayiest calibre, which appeared to ofifer great 
obstacles to the advancing foe. And at the same time, to prevent a passage of the 
Schlei, the ford at Missunde was powerfully fortified, and a very strong tSte-de- 
jpont constructed there. After the engagement at Missunde, the advancing PrDS- 
sians and Austrians were about to attack the Dannewerke in the rear, when it 
was discovered that the lines had been evacuated the preceding night by the 
Danes, without their striking a blow, thus abandoning the whole of the artillery 
with which the forts were armed to the enemy. For the abandonment of this line 
of defence, Qeneral de Meza was deprived of his post of commander-in-chief. The 
Danes now fell back upon Diippel. 

The Austrians occupy the town of Schleswig ; the bulk of the 
Danish army takes np a position at Diippel. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Flensborg (Denmark) occupied by the allied Austrians and 
Prussians. General de Luttichau succeeds General de Meza as 
commander of the Danish forces. Feb, 7, 1864. 

Northern Schleswig occupied by the allied Austrians and Prus- 
sians. Feb. 10, 1864. 

The Danes quit Schleswig. Feb. 18, 1864. 

Battle of Olustee, U.S. Feb. 20, 1864. 

Denmark declares Schleswig-Holstein in a state of blockade. 

Feb. 21, 1864. 

Engagements take place at Wielhoi, Sandberg, and Rackehull, 
near Diippel, Denmark, between the Danes and aUied Aus- 
trians and Prussians ; the former defeated. Feb. 22, 1864. 


iESxecution of the five pirates for the nmrder of the Captain 
of the ship Flowery Lcmd on the high seas, Sep. 10 last. 

Feb. 22, 1864 

iEngland invites Austria and Prussia to submit the disputed 
question relative to Denmark to a conference of the Powers 
"which participated in the settlement of 1852 ; proposal opposed 
by Denmark, Feb. 23, 1864. 

A subscription for the wounded Danes begun in London. 

Feb. 24, 1864. 

The Bnglish government declines to afford Denmark material 
aid in her contest with Austria and Prussia. Feb. 25, 1864. 

Tlie ItaHan conspirators, Greco, Imperatori, Trabuco, and 
ScagHoni, who conspired against the life of the French Em- 
peror Dec. 29 last, sentenced to transportation and imprison- 
ment. Feb. 25, 1864. 

Successful progress of the French in Mexico; thej occupy 
Guatalaxara, Jan. 5 ; Campeachy, Jan. 28 ; Agnas Calientes, 
Feb. 2 ; Yacatecas, Feb. 6 ; and blockade the port of Aca- 
pulco. Feb. 26, 1864. 

A new ministry established in Spain, under Arrazola, Jan. 17, 
which resigns, and is succeeded by the Mon administration. 

Feb. 29, 1864. 

General da Gerlach assumes the command of the Danish 
forces. Mar. 1, 1864. 

Tlie Polish peasantry relieved from the oppressive rights of the 
nobility and landed proprietors by an imperial ukase. 

Mar. 6, 1864. 

Defeat of the Danes at Sonderbygaard and Veill by the allied 
Austrians and Prussians. Mar. 8, 1864. 

Great excitement amongst the Hindoos, owing to the provincial 
government of Bengal prohibiting the throwing of dead bodies 
into the Hooghley, and the burning of the dead within a certain 
distance of Calcutta. Mar. 10, 1864. 

Disastrous inundation of SheflSeld, owing to the bursting of the 
Bradfield reservoir. Mar. 11, 1864. 

General Grant appointed commander-in-chief of the Federal 
forces of the American Union. Mar. 12, 1864. 

The ex-president of the Mexican republic, Santa Anna, lands 
at Vera Cruz, professing adhesion to th« French intervention, 
and his intention of abstaining from any political manifesta- 
tion, Feb. 27; he is compelled to return to Havana by Gen- 
eral Bazaine. Mar* 12, 1864. 


The Prussian ports blockaded by Denmark. Mar. 15, 1864. 

The Prussians commence the bombardment of Ddppel, Den- 
mark. Mar. 15, 1864. 

Bombardment of Fredericia, Denmark, by the allied Pmssians 
and Anstrians. Mar. 20, 1864. 

Seizure of Mr. Ashley Eden, English enyoy at Bhootan, who is 
compelled to sign a treaty giving up Assam. Mar. 29, 1864 

Bombardment of Sonderborg, Denmark, by the Pmssians. 

Apr. 1, 1864. 

Entrance of President Jnarez into Monterey, which becomes 
the Seat of the Mexican republican government. Apr. 3, 1864. 

The Washington House of Representatives resolves '* that the 
people of the United States will never recognize a monarchical 
government which has been established in America on the 
ruins of a republican government, and under the auspices of a 
European power." Apr. 6, 1864. 

Judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council tha6 
the English government had no authority to seize the Con- 
federate steamer Alexandra finally given. Apr. 6, 1864. 

On April 6, 1863, the Commissionen of Onstonus seized a three-masted yesael, 
named the Alexwndray bnilt at Liyerpool for the Confederates, against the 
Foreign Enlistment Act, while in dock, preparing for her first voyage. The case 
came before the House of Commons, April 24, and a trial in the Conrt of 
Exchequer terminated in favour of the defendants, and against the seizure, June 24^ 
A motion for a new trial was made, and the case came before the Court on November 
17; judgment was given, and the rule refused January 11, 1864. Appeal was made 
to the Exchequer Chamber, February 6, and judgment, that the Court had no 
jurisdiction, was delivered two days aiter. The case was now carried to the House 
of Lords, and the appeal was dismissed with costs, April 6, 1864. 

The Archduke Ferdinand Mn.TiTnilin.Ti of Anstria receiyes a 
Mexican deputation at Miramar, and consents to accept the 
imperial dignity, under tlie title of Maximilian I., Emperor 
of Mexico. A treaty signed with France, relative to the 
duration of the French occupation of the countiy. 

Apr. 10, 1864. 

Capture of Fort Pillow, Kentucky, U.S., by the American 
Confederate General Forrest, and massacre of the entire 
Federal garrison, including many negroes. Apr. 12, 1864. 

The Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian embarks at Miramar to 
assume the imperial crown of Mexico. Apr. 14, 1864. 

Seizure of the Chincha Islands by the Spaniards ; they declare 
their intention of holding them until the Peruvian government 


has made reparation for outrages committed by Peruvian 
subjects on the small Basque colony of Talamon. 

Apr. 14^ 1864. 

"Visit of the King of the Belgians to England. 

Mar. 2— Apr. 19, 1864. 

The tercentenary of Shakspeare's birthday celebrated in many 
parts of England. Apr. 23, 1864. 

A conference for the restoration of peace between Denmark 
and Austria and Prussia meets at London. Apr. 25, 1864. 

Political disturbances occur at Turin in consequence of the 
removal of the Italian government to Florence. Apr. 27, 1864. 

Visit of Garibaldi to England. Apr. 3—27, 1864. 

Tlie Danes retreat from Fredericia, Denmark, and establish 
themselves in Fiihnen, thus leaving the whole of Jutland, in 
the hands of the allied Prussians and Austrians. 

Apr. 29, 1864. 

ITtunerons conflicts between the Poles and the Russians, the 
insurrection gradually ceasing. Jan. — ^Apr., 1864. 

Naval defeat of the allied Prussians and Austrians off Heligo- 
land by the Danes. May 9, 1864 

Suspension of hostilities between Denmark and Austria and 
Prussia for one month from May 12, 1864. 

Convention between France, Brazil, Italy, Portugal, and Hayti, 
for establishing a telegraphic line between Europe and 
America. May 16, 1864. 

Battle of Matehuela. May 17, 1864. 

DeaQi of Marshal Pehssier, Duke of Malakhoff, and Governor- 
General of Algeria. May 22, 1864. 

The hereditary peerage abolished in Portugal. May 27, 1864. 

Marriage of the Count de Paris, eldest grandson of King 
Louis Philippe, with the Princess Maria Isabelle d'Orleans, 
eldest daughter of the Duke of Montpensier, and niece of the 
Queen of Spain, at Elingston, near London. May 30, 1864. 

The Ionian Islands* finally ceded to Greece by Great Britain. 

June 1, 1864. 

* A brief histoiy of these islands may be useful. They were erected into the 
repnblic of the Seven United Islands, Mar. 21, 1800, and their independence 
guaranteed by Turkey and Bussia (a moderate tribute had to be paid to the 
former power). The islands were captured in 1807 by the French, and ceded to 
France by a secret article of the treaty of Tilsit, July 7 of the same year. On 


Circascda declared to be entirely subject to Bossia. 

June 2, 1864 

Resignation of the Monrad ministry ; Count Moltke assnmes 
office (Denmark). , June 11, 1864!. 

Entrance of the Emperor and Empress of Mexico into the 
capital of their kingdom.^ June 12, 1864. 

The American Confederate cruiser Alabama sunk by the 
Federal corvette Kearsar^e in the English Channel. 

June 19, 1864 

Before Jane came to a close an eyent happened which filled the heart of every 
Federal with joy. The Alabama was sunk in the English Channel on Jane 19, 
by the United States frigate the Keanarge. This redoabtable rover was boilt 
by Mr. Laird, of Birkenhead, for the Confederates, in the year 1862. Under 
the pretence of a trial trip she was carried away from the shores of England, 
before the Government, who saspected her intent, coald interfere to stop her. 
At Terceira, to which she sailed, she took on board provisions and arms from 
English vessels, and Raphael Semmes, lately captain of the Confederate crniser 
the SumteTf assumed the command. He indaced the majority of the crew to 
remain in the vessel, and immediately began to make war apon the merchant 
navy of the United States. Several war ships were sent after him, bat he eafaly 
eluded their pursuit, and continued his destructive course with impunity. At 
length, in June, 1864, he steamed into the harbour of Cherbourg, outside which 
the Federal frigate the Kewrmrge shortly afterwards appeared. Moved probably 
by some respect for his own reputation, he resolved to challenge the Yankee com- 
mander, Captain Winslow, to fight a duel. The challenge was accepted, and the 
Alahama, on June 19, moved out to the combat. The two ships began manoeu* 
vring to bring their guns to bear on each other most effectively, and the firing 
soon became rapid and heavy. The Alabama strove to approach her antagonist, 
probably with a view to boarding, but the Keartarge preserved a judicious dis- 
tance, and delivered her shots with a precision that soon began to tell upon her 

Oct. 3, 1809, the French garrisons surrendered to the British, and by the treaty 
of Nov. 5, 1815, between Russia and Great Britain, the Ionian Islands were 
formed into an independent state, with the title of the United States of the 
Ionian Islands, under the protection of England. In 1828 a university for this 
republic was founded at Corfu ; and in 1848-9 the constitution of the islands 
was greatly liberalised by Lord Seaton, the Lord High Commissioner. In 1851 
Greek was introduced as the official language of the Ionian government. Owing 
to the discontent and complaints of the islaiiders, Mr. Gladstone was despatched 
on a commission of inquiry, Nov., 1858, but nothing important ensued. The 
petition of the legislative assembly for the annexation of their islands to the 
republic of Greece was rejected by Mr. Gladstone, Feb. 5, 1859, and a few days 
later Sir H. Storks suoceeded as Lord High Commissioner. Petitions were again 
made by the legislative assembly at Corfu in favour of annexation to Crreece in 
1862 and 1863, and were finally acceded to by the British government. A 
protocol ceding them to Greece was signed May 28, 1864, and was carried into 
effect June 1, 1864. The following day the governor, with the last detach- 
ment of British troops, retired from the islands. 

ninvEBSAL cheonologt. 205 

adversary's sides. Before an hour had passed, the Alabama's boUers were 
pierced and her mdder carried off. Owing to the skilful arrangement of chain 
cables covering the side of the Kea/rsarge, the Alabama's shots produced little 
effect, and it became evident that a few more heavy blows would send the rover 
to the bottom of the Channel. She fought on gamely, however, to the last, and 
it fras not till the lips of her guns kissed the face of the water as she sank, that 
Captain Semmes consented to strike his flag. Semmes, thinking it better to 
make an attempt at escape than to &11 into the hands of an exasperated enemy, 
jumped into the sea, whence he was picked up almost immediately by an English 
yacht ajid carried to the English coast. During his career he had captured and 
burned nearly a hundred vessels of the American merchant service, and his 
defeat caused more rejoicing throughout the North than had been felt since the 
battle of Gettysburg. 

Convention between France and Japan, signed at Paris. 

June 20, 1864. 

European confei*ence at London on tlie Schleswig-Holstein 
question. Apr. 24— June 25, 1864. 

This conference, attended by plenipotentiaries from European States, met for 
the purpose of restoring peace between Denmark, Austria, and Prussia, but 
aepaiated without arriving at any satisfactory conclusion. 

The Empress of Mexico invested with 'the dignity of regent 
of the empire in the event of the absence or decease of the 
Emperor her husband. June 26, 1864. 

Hostilities resumed between Denmark and Germany. 

June 26, 1864. 

Bombardment of the island of Alsen by the Prussians ; the 
batteries and 2,400 prisoners taken. June 29, 1864. 

Convention of commerce, &c., between France and Switzer- 
laad. June 30, 1864. 

General de Steinmann appointed commander-in-chief of the 
Danish army. July 5, 1864. 

The foundation stone of the Thames embankment laid. 

July 8, 1864. 
Jutland placed under Prussian administration, July 9, 1864. 

Sweden protests against the occupation of Schleswig by the 
Anstrians and Prussians, and arms both by sea and land, but 
afterwards declares in favour of neutrality, and suspends her 
warlike preparations. July 11, 1864. 

Edward John Ejrre appointed governor of the island of 
Jamaica. July 15, 1864. 

Resident Lincoln, of the United States, issues a proclamation 
calling for 500,0()0 volunteers for the military service. 

July 16, 1864. 



Capture of Nankin from the Taeping rebels bj the Chiiies< 
death of Tien-wang, the Taeping leader. Jnlj 19, 18r 

A trace between Denmark and Germany commenced. 

July 20, 18( 

A conference for the restoration of peace between Demnarl 
and Germany assembles at Vienna. July 26, 1864^1 

The blockade of all the Mexican ports raised. July 29, 1864. 

The American Federal General Grant compelled to retire 
from his assault on Petersburg, Virginia, U.S., with great 
loss. July 30, 1864^ 

Preliminaries of peace between Denmark and Germany signed 
at Vienna, and a truce concluded till Sep. 15. Aug. 1, 1864. 

By this peace Denmark renounced the dnchies of Schleswig, Holsfcein, and 
Lauenburg in favour of Pmssia and Austria. The cession of the dachy of 
Schlesvig to comprehend all the islands belonging to that duchy, as well as the 
territory situated on the mainland. To simplify the boundary question resulting 
from the portion of Jutland territory situated within Schleswig, Denmark ceded 
to Prussia and Austria the Jutland possessions south of the frontier line of the 
district of Ribe, such as Mogeltondem, the island of Amrom, &c. To compensate 
for this concession, Denmark was to possess an equivalent portion of the duchy 
of Schleswig for incorporation into the kingdom of Denmark. The debts con- 
tracted upon special accounts, whether of Denmark or of one of the duchies of 
Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg, to remain respectively at the char^ of eadi 
of those countries. A protocol was also signed, providing that there should be a 
complete suspension of hostilities, by land and sea, untU the conclusion of the 

Homuald Trangott, tbe head of the Polish provisional goTem- 
ment, and five other insurgent leaders, hanged at Warsaw. 

Aug. 5, 1864 

War declared between Brazil and Uruguay. Aug. 9, 1864 

Visit of the King of Spain to the French Imperial Court at 
St. Cloud. Aug. 16, 1864 

Expulsion of Polish refugees from the Ottoman territories. 

Aug. 19, 1864 

Serious disturbances take place at Geneva on the election of a 
member of the Council of State, Aug. 22 ; the riot suppressed 
by the Swiss Federal troops, who occupy the city. 

Aug. 23, 1864. 

Riots break out in Belfast between the Protestants and Roman 
Catholics on the inauguration of a monument to O'Connell. 

Aug. 8—24, 1864. 


.Arrest of Franz Miiller, the murderer of Mr. Briggs, on his 
arrival at New Tork. Aug. 24, 1864. 

of William I. of Prussia to the Austrian court at Vienna. 

Aug. 20—25, 1864. 

•- Moens^ a British subject, seized by Italian brigands, May 
15 ; released after a ransom of £5,000 had been paid. 

Aug. 26, 1864. 

Heflisal of the Japanese government to abide by their treaties ; 
a combined English^ French, and Dutch fleet enter the 
Straits of Simonosaki, and destroy the Japanese batteries. 

Sep. 5—7, 1864. 
Visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to Denmark. 

Sep. 6, 1864. 

A Riuasiail university ordered to be erected in Warsaw by an 
imperial rescript. Sep. 11, 1864. 

A treaty concluded between France and Italy, by which France 
agrees to evacuate Rome, and Italy arranges to transfer the 
seat of government to Florence. Sep. 15, 1864. 

On the 15th of September a very importdnt convention ixras concluded between 
the ]dngd(»n of Italy and the French empire, for the purpose of defining the 
period within which the Papal States were to be evacuated by French troops. The 
following are the articles of the convention : — ^Art. 1. Italy engages not to attack 
the present territory of the Holy Father, and to prevent, even by force, every 
attack upon the said territory coming from without. Art. 2. France will with- 
draw her troops from the Pontifical States gradually, and in proportion as the army 
of the Holy Father shall be organized. The evacuation shall, nevertheless be 
accomplished within the space of two years. Art. 3. The Italian government 
engages to raise no protest against the organization of a Papal army, even if com- 
posed of foreign Catholic volunteers, sufficing to maintain the authority of the 
Holy Father, and tranquillity as well m the interior as upon the frontier of his 
States, provided that this force should not degenerate into a means of attack 
against the Italian government. Art. i. Italy declares herself ready to enter 
into an arrangement to take under her charge a proportionate part of the debt of 
the former States of the Ohurch. It was resolved at the same time to remove the 
capital of the kingdom of Italy from Turin to Florence. Various reasons con- 
spired to make thw change desirable, but the chief was the exposed situation of 
Turin to attack in case of war either by France or Austria ; whilst Florence, on the 
contrary, is amongst the principal towns of Italy, the one that lies nearest the 
centre of the kingdom. 

A new ministry establislied in Spain under Narvaez, and the 
Queen-mother, Christina, returns to Madrid. Sep. 16, 1864. 

Battle of Estanzuela. Sep. 21, 1864. 

Dangerous riots take place at Turin. Sep. 21 & 23, 1864. 


The Minghetti ministry (Italy) dismissed, and sncceeded by 
the cabinet of General della Marmora. Sep. 23, 1864 

The Princess Dagmar of Denmark betrothed to the Czare- 
witch Nicholas. Sep. 29, 1864 

Terrific cyclone — great loss of life and property at Calcntta. 

Oct. 6, 1864 

A commercial treaty concluded between China and Spain; 
Spain permitted to send a diplomatic agent to the conrt of 
Pekin, and to trade with the Philippine Islands. 

Oct. 10, 1864 

Resolutions passed at a conference of delegates from Canada, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfonndland, and Prince 
Edward's Island, held at Quebec, respecting the scheme of a 
Federal union of those provinces and colonies, under the 
supremacy of the British Crown. Oct, 10, 1864. 

Eesolved that the 1)681 interests and present and future prosperitj'c# British 
North America will be promoted by a Federal nnion under the Grown of Qreat 
Britain, provided such union can be effected on principles just to the several pro- 
vinces. That in the Federation of the British North American provinces, the system 
of government best adapted under existing circumstances to protect the dlTenified 
interests of the several provinces, and secure efficiency, harmony, and permanent 
in the working of the Union, would be a general government charged with 
matters of common interest to the whole country, and local governments for eadi 
of the Canadas, and for the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Frince 
Edward's Island, charged with the control of local matters in their respective 
sections, — provision being made for admission into the Union, on equitable teims, 
of Newfoundland, the North-west Territory, British Columbia, and Vancouver. 
That in framing a constitution for the general government, the conference, with a 
view to the perpetuation of our connexion with the mother country, and to the 
promotion of the best interests of the people of these provinces, desire to follow 
the model of the British constitution so far as our circumstances will permit. 
That the executive authority or government shall be vested in the Sovereign of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and be administered, according 
to the well-understood principles of the British constitution, by the SoYereign 
personally, or by representative duly authorized. That the Sovereign, or repre- 
sentative of the Sovereign, shall be commander-in-chief of the land and naval 
militia forces. That there shall be a general legislature for the Federated 
provinces, composed of a Legislative Council and House of Commons. That 
for the purpose of forming the Legislative Council, the Federated provinces shall 
be considered as consisting of three divisions : — 1st, Upper Canada ; 2nd, Lower 
Canada ; 3rd, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward's Island, with 
equal representation in the Legislative Council. * That Upper Canada be repre- 
sented in the Legislative Council by 24 members. Lower Canada by 24 members, 
and the maritime provinces by 24 members, of which Nova Scotia shall have 10, 
New Brunswick 10, and Frince Edward's Island four members. That the colony 
of Newfoundland shall be entitled to enter the proposed Union, with a represen- 
tation in the Legislative Council of four members. The North-west Territory, 
British Columbia, and Vancouver, shall be admitted into the Union on such terms 
and conditions as Parliament shall deem equitable, and as shall receive the assent 


of Her Majesty ; and, in the case of the proyinee of British Columbia or Yan- 
ecyaver, as shall be agreed to by the legislature of such province. The general 
government and legi^ture shall have all powers necessary or proper for perform- 
i^Lg the obligations of the province, as part of the British empire, to foreign 
countries, arising under treaties between Great Britain and such countries. 
Tlie local government and legislature of each province shall be constructed in 
sncli manner as the existing legislature of such province shall provide in the Act 
consenting to the Union. That in regard to all subjects over which jurisdie- 
Mon belongs to both the general and the local governments, the laws of the 
Pederal Parliament shall control and supersede those made by the local legislature, 
and the latter shall be void so far as they are repugnant to or inconsistent with 
'the former. That both the English and French languages may be employed 
in the general legislature and in its proceedings, and tdso in the local legislature 
of Lower Oanada, and in the FedenU and local courts of Lower Canada. The 
Confederation shall assume all the debts and liabilities of each province. All 
engagements that may be entered into with the Imperial Government for the 
defence of the country shall be assumed by the Confederation. 

Attack on the town of St. Albans, U.S., hj some American Con- 
federate refngees in Canada, who cross the frontier and enter 
Vermont. Oct. 19, 1864. 

Visit of Napoleon III. to the Emperor of Russia at Nice. 

Oct. 27, 28, 1864 

The National Assembly of Greece establishes a new constitu- 
tion, with no Upper House. Oct. 29, 1864. 

Peace concluded at Vienna between Denmark and Germany ; 
Denmark agrees to resign the Duchies^ to pay a large sum of 
money, and to acquiesce in a rectification of the frontier of 
Jutland. Oct 30, 1864. 

Visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to Sweden. 

Sep. 3— Nov. 7, 1864, 
Election of Lincoln and Johnson as President and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the United States- Nov. 8, 1864. 

War between the British in India and the Bhootanese. 

Nov. 12, 1864. 

Owing to disputes having arisen m reference to Sikim and Oooch Behar 
(India), Mr. Eden was despatched on a pacific mission, and reached Poonakha 
Karcli 15, where he was insulted by the Tongso Penlow and council, who com- 
pelled him, March 29, to sign a treaty assigning to Bhootan the Assam Dooars. 
The Governor-general accordingly proclaimed his intention to annex permanently 
ike Bengal Dooars, and part of the hill territory, Nov. 12, 1864, and despatched 
an army, which occupied Gbpalgunge Nov. 28 ; seized Buxa Dec. 7 ; captured 
Dewaogiri Dec 10 ; and took possession of Ohamoorchee Dec. 31. The British 
garrison in Dewangiri was attacked by the natives Jan. 30, 1865, and, though at 
first victorious, was compelled by want of water to evacuate the place Feb. 6, 
Other disasters following, additional forces were sent, and Balla was captured 
March 15. Buxa was again occupied March 23, and Ohamoorchee March 24 ; 
Dewangiri was taken by storm April 2, and, the defences having been destroyed, 
was abandoned April 6. This success terminated the war, which was formally 
ended by a peace eondoded Nov. 11, 1865. 


The American Federal General Sherman sets out on liis raid 
through Georgia, U.S. Nov. 13, 1864. 

Defeat of the Garibaldians at Bagoline, Lombardy, by the 
Italian troops. Nov. 16, 1864. 

Murder of Major Baldwin and Lieut. Bird, two British officers, 
at Kamakora, Japan, by some Japanese. Nov. 21, 1864. 

Battle of Xiquilpan. Nov. 22, 1864. 

The Prassians complete the evacuation of Jutland. 

Nov. 25, 1864 

Pope Pius IX. issues an Encyclical letter announcing a uni- 
versal jubilee for 1865. Dec. 8, 1864. 

The Italian government publish a royal decree that the capital 
of Italy shall be transferred to Florence within six months. 

Dec. 11, 1864. 

The American Confederate raiders on the town of St. Albans 
discharged by Judge Coursol, owing to some legal difficulty ; 
great excitement in the United States. Dec. 15, 1864. 

Pall of Savannah, U.S. ; end of General Sherman's march 
through Georgia. Dec. 20, 1864. 

Prince Napoleon appointed Vice-president of the French Privy 
Council. Dec. 24, 1864. 

Defeat of the French at San Pedro, Mexico, by the Juarists. 

Dec. 27, 1864. 

President Juarez issues a proclamation calling upon the people 
of Mexico to resist foreign invasion. Jan. 1, 1865. 

The French clergy prohibited from reading the Pope's Ency- 
clical letter in their churches; the Archbishop of Besan9on 
and other prelates disobey, Jan. 1, Ac., 1865. 

By decree in the Moniteur the last part only of the Pope's 
EncycUcal letter allowed to be published in France. 

Jan. 5, 1865. 

M. Achille Fould, French Minister of Finance, publishes his 
financial report for 1865. Jan. 10, 1865. 

Capture of Fort Fisher, Wilmington, U.S., by the American 
Federals. Jan. 15, 1865. 

Opening of the Prussian Chambers, Jan. 14 ; revival of the con- 
stitutional agitation for control over the army budget. 

Jan. 16, 1865. 

In consequence of the opposition of the Australian colonies 
to the reception of British <5onvicts, the English government 


abolishes the practice of transportation ; cessation of transpor- 
tation to AnstraHa announced in that colony. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Admiral Pareja anchors with a Spanish sqnadroh. off Oallao, 
and presents an ultimatum to the Peruvian government ; a 
treaty signed at Callao between Peru and Spain, which con- 
firms the former in possession of the Ghincha Islands on paying 
an indemnity of 60,000,000 reals. Jan. 28, 1865. 

A popular insurrection breaks out at Turin, owing to the 
capital of Italy being transferred to Florence. Jan. 30, 1865. 

General Lee appointed commander-in-chief of the American 
Confederate forces. Feb. 1, 1865. 

The Chinclia Islands formally restored by Spain to Peru, 
the Peruvian government having paid an indemnity of 
60,000,000 reals, according to the treaty of Callao (Jan. 28). 

Feb. 3, 1865. 

Surrender of Oaxaca, Mexico, by the Republican General Diaz, 
with a garrison of 7,000 men, to the iVenoh under Marshal 
Bazame. Feb. 9, 1865. 

Langiewicz, ex-dictator of Poland, released by the Austrians, 
takes refage in Switzerland. Feb. 10, 1865. 

Prance concludes a treaty with Sweden and Norway. 

Feb. 14, 1865. 

Death of Cardinal Wiseman. Feb. 15, 1865. 

The French Chamber opened by the Emperor. Feb, 15, 1865. 

The Conmiissioners for the Paris Exhibition of 1867 
appointed. Feb. 21, 1865. 

St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, re-opened. Feb. 27, 1865. 

An insurrection breaks out in the south of Peru, in conse- 
qnence of the popular indignation at the Spanish treaty of 
CaUao. Feb. 28, 1865. 

Rise of the Hau-hau heresy in New Zealand (a compound of 
Judaism and paganism) amongst the Maoris ; many outrages 
committed, and the Rev. C. S. Volckner murdered. 

Mar. 2, 1865. 

A Lock-out commences in the iron trade of England. 

Mar. 4, 1865. 

A monster demonstration of Fenians against the suspension of 
the Habeas Corpus in Ireland takes place at New York. 

Mar. 4, 1865. 
p 2 



Inangoration of Lincoln and Johnson as President and Vi< 
President of the United States. Mar. 4, 1865, 

Death of the Dnc de Morny. Mar. 10, 1865i 

Verdict of guilty passed on the parties concerned in the riots oi 
Aug. 24, 1864, at Belfast. jMar. 15, 1865J 

The British Parliament grant £50,000 for the defence of 
Canada. Mar. 23, 1865. 

Sir William Mansfield succeeds Sir Hugh Bose as comman- 
der-in-chief of the Indian army. Mar. 28, 1865. 

A bill for the abandonment of St. Domingo passes the Spanish 
Chamber of Deputies. Apr. 1, 1865. 

Sir Charles Trevelyan, Indian finance minister, declares a 
large deficit in the revenue. Apr. 1, 1865. 

Death of Mr. Cobden. Apr. 2, 1865. 

Evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond, United States, by 
the American Confederates. Apr. 2, 1865. . 

Surrender of the Confederate General Lee to the Federals. 

Apr. 9, 1865. 

The Emperor of Mexico promulgates an Imperial constitution. 

Apr. 10, 1865. 

The Canadian Parliament adopts the project of Federal 
union. (See Oct. 10, 1864.) Apr. 11, 1865. 

President Lincoln, of the United States, shot by Wilkes 
Booth in Ford's Theatre, Washington ; Mr. Seward and his 
son wounded. Apr. 14, 1865. 

Death of President Lincoln ; Vice-President Johnson sworn in 
as President of the United States. Apr. 15, 1865. 

Fbox Mb. Stanton's Lxtteb to Mb. Adaxs. 


<< Washington, April 15ih. 
Sib, — It has become my distressing duty to announce to you that last night 
his Excellency Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, about the hour of half -past tea 
o'clock, in his priTate box, at Ford's Theatre, in this city. 

**The President, about eight o'clock, accompanied Mrs. Lincoln to the theatre. 
Another lady and gentleman were with them in the box« About half-past ten, 
during a j>ause in* the performance, the assassin entered the box, the door <^ 
which was unguarded, hastily approached the President from behind, and dis- 
charged a pistol at his head. The bullet entered the back of his head, and 
penetrated nearly through. The assassin then leaped from the box upon the 
stage, brandishing a large knife or dagger, and exclaiming, *Sic temper 
tyrannUr and escaped in the rear of the theatre. Immediately upon the 
discharge, the President fell to the floor insensible, and continued in that state 
until twenty minutes past seven o'clock this morning, when he breathed 
his last." 

vinysssAL chbonology. 213 

Capture of Diippel by the Prussians. Apr. 18, 1865. 

Death oi the Czarowitz Nicholas, at Nice. Apr. 24, 1865. 

of Signor Yegezzi to Borne, on a special mission to 
Pins TX. firom the Italian government. Apr. 15 — May 4, 1865. 

alliance concluded at Buenos Ayres between Brazil, Uru- 
gnay, and the Argentine Confederacy, against Paraguay and 
Suenos Ayres. May 4>, 1865. 

• The report of the committee of inquiry into the " Edmunds 
Bcandal " is laid before the House of Commons. (See July 4, 
1865.) May 5, 1865. 

Sir Charles Wood (Lord Halifax) announces the disaUowal of 
Sir Charles Trevelyan's budget of April 1. May 8, 1865. 

The International Exhibition opened at Dublin. 

May 8, 1865. 

Capture of Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate 
States, near Irwinsville, Georgia, U.S., by a body of Federal 
cavalry. May 10, 1865. 

The Italian court finally removed to Florence. May 11, 1865. 

A treaty between Prussia and Belgium signed at Berlin. 

May 23, 1865. 

Surrender of the Confederate General Blirby Smith, and end 
of the American war of secession. May 26, 1865. 

Inangnration of the statue of Napoleon 1. at Ajaccio by Prince 
Ifapoleon, who makes an imprudent speech on that occasion, 
May 15; he is censured by Napoleon III., and resigns his 
offices. May 27, 1865. 

A commercial treaty between Prussia and Great Britain con- 
cluded. May 30, 1865. 

International Exhibition opened at Cologne by the Crown 
Prince of Prussia. June 2, 1865. 

Birth of Prince George of Wales. June 3, 1865. 

The Emperor of Austria visits Hungary. June 6, 1865. 

Consecration of Archbishop Manning to the Boman CathoHc 
archbishopric of Westminster in the pro-cathedral of St. Mary 
Moorfields. June 8, 1865. 

The military tribunab in Hungary abolished. June 8, 1865. 


Visit of the Emperor of the French to Algeria. 

May 3— June 10, 1865. 

The Prassian Chamber of Deputies prorogued for having 
rejected the budget, the bills for reorganizing the army and 
increasing the fleet, and those for meeting the expense of the 
war with Denmark ; the government rules without. 

June 17, 1865. 

Commencement of the Cattle Plague in England. 

June 19, 1865. 

The nature and origin of this disease have caused mneh dispute. It is, liov- 
ever, generally considered to be a kind of typhoid feyer and of foreign origLn. So 
far back as 1711, we read of epizootic typhus spreading from Hungary to Yenioe, 
Holland, and France, and destroying over 200,000 cattle; it subsequently ex- 
tended to England before its termination in 1714, and carried off 1,500,000 homed 
cattle. But a still more fatal epidemic raged from 1745-55 over central and 
western Europe, destroying over 3,000,000 cattle. In 1757 the English physidsos 
Flemming and Layard introduced inoculation, which greatly prevented the 
malady and mitigated its results. I^hoid contagion again broke out in Holland, 
Flanders, and the south of France, from 1768 to 1774. And again in 1832, 
under the name of Delombodera, it ravaged the South American republics, and 
from 1841 to 1844 destroyed 400,000 oxen in Egypt. The outbreak in Englasd 
originated in the sale at the Metropolitan Cattle Market of two infected cows, 
June 19, 1865, and the disease was at once propagated. Active remedial measures 
were adopted under the authority of the Privy Council ; several recommendatioiis 
were issued, and finally consolidated into an order, Sep. 22. A royal oommissioa 
was appointed Oct. 4, and by an order issued Dec. 22, local authorities received 
power to regulate the removal of cattle. The fearful rapidity with which ike 
plague spread at the commencement of 1866 occupied the attention of the l^is- 
lature, and a very stringent Act was passed in March, to the effect that local 
authorities were empowered to direct cattle to be killed, and to prevent their 
removal by road and rail except by licences, and then only by daylight ; they were 
also empowered to declare certain districts to be infected, and to suspend all fsdrs 
and markets for cattle for a limited period. All cattle brought by sea, except 
coming from Ireland, was to be slaughtered at the port of arrival, and then to be 
removed by licence. Compensation was also to be granted to those who had their 
cattle slaughtek'ed on suspicion of their being diseased, or on the probability that 
they might contract the disease. Various other sanitary regulations, &c., were 
framed in this bill, too numerous to mention. 

Signor Vegezzi visits Rome on a second special mission to 
Pius IX. from the Italian government. June 5 — 21, 1865. 

Kiel made the principal station of the Prussian fleet. 

June 24, 1865. 
Recognition of the new kingdom of Italy by Spain. 

June 26, 1865. 

A treaty of peace and commerce concluded between England 
and Madagascar. June 27, 1865. 

The first English church was erected in this year at Tamatave. 


Battle of Alsen. June 29, 1865. 

Tlie commercial crisis in Bombay, caused by speculations in 
cotton to supply the English market during the cotton famine, 
reaches its height, July 1, 1865. 

Resignatioii of Lord Chancellor Westbury. July 4, 1865. 

Tlie resignation of Ms Lordsliip was owing to the grave censures passed upon 
his conduct by the House of Commons and the public at large, on account of his 
connection with two disagreeable disclosures termed the Edmunds scandal and 
the Leeds Bankruptcy Court affair. The Edmunds scandal was briefly this: — It 
had be^i ascertained, from an inquiry into the state of the Patent Office, ordered 
in March, 1864, that Mr. Edmunds, Clerk of the Patents, who had been allowed 
to resign, and also petitioned to be allowed to retire with the usual pension from 
the clerkship of the House of Lords, had not accpunted for 9,617^. of the public 
money. This petition had been referred to a committee of the House of Lords 
by Lord Westbury, and a pension of 8002. a-year was granted to Mr. Edmunds, 
the vacant office being coiiierred by the Lord Chancellor on his son, the Hon. 
Slingsby BetheU. Much public scandal was created by these circumstances, and 
a committee of inquiry of the Lords was proposed by Lord Westbury, Mar. 7, 1865. 
The report of this committee, laid before the House May 6, confirmed all the 
charges brought against Mr. Edmunds, and censured the Chancellor for haying 
withheld, whilst presenting the Edmunds petition, the circumstances under which 
it was made. Four days later Mr. Edmunds' pension was annulled. The Leeds 
Bankruptcy affair was as follows : — Mr. Wilde, Registrar of the Leeds Court of 
Bankruptcy, having been permitted, on the ground of Hi-health, to retire with a 
pension of 600Z. a year, June 30, 1864, was succeeded, July 30, by Mr. Welch, who 
had advanced money to the Hon. Eichard Bethel], son of Lord Chancellor West- 
hury, on condition that he should infiuence his father to procure him the appoint- 
ment. Mr. Bethell, in coi\sequence of a promise from his father of some provincial 
office, Feb. 22, 1865, went to Leeds Feb. 23, and announced that he had been 
nominated to succeed Mr. Welch, who was transferred to London ; but this ar- 
rangement, if ever made, was set aside by Lord Westbury Feb. 26. The circum- 
stances were, however, deemed of sufficient importance for investigation by a 
select committee of the House of Commons, appointed May 23. The report, pre- 
sented June 26, acquitted the Chancellor ' ' from all charge except that of haste 
and want of caution in granting a pension to Mr. Wilde," but pronounced the 
subsequent proceedings as '* calculated to excite the gravest suspicions,*' and 
affirmed that the inquiry they had conducted was '^ highly desirable for the public 
inter^i».'' In consequence of this report, and of the scandal created by the 
Eduiunds afibir, a vote of censure on Lord Westbury was carried in the House of 
Commons, July 3, and his resignation of the Chancellorship was announced July 
4, 1865, 

The King of Pmssia issnes a despotic decree appropriating 
and disposing of the revenue. July 5, 1866. 

The English Parliament dissolved, July 6 ; the general election 
commences. July 10, 1865. 

Dissolution of the Austrian ministry of marine, the duties of 
which office henceforth to be divided between the ministers 
of war and commerce. July 29, 1865. 


The convention of Gastein. Aug. 14, 1865. 

This conyention was entered into between Prnsma and Anrtria regarding the 
dacbies of Scbleswig and Holstein. It agreed that Pnusia ms to posseai 
Schleswig and Anstria Holstein ; Kiel to be the federal harbour of the G^emum 
fleet ; FknsBia to retain two military roads through Holstein, the one from Labe<^ 
to Kiel, and the other from Hamburg to Bendsborg. The Duchies to join the 
ZoUverein. The division of the financial obligations imposed upon the Dachies hj 
the peace of October 80, 1864, to be baaed upon a standiurd of population. 
The right to the Duchy of Lauenburg acquired by Austria to be tnuiaferred to 
Prussia for the sum of 2,500,000 Danish dollars. This conyention was strongly 
disapproved of by the French and English governments. 

Treaty of Nayigation, signed at Gh^tein, between Prassia and 
Oreat Britain. Ang. 16, 1865. 

The cholera breaks ont at Constantinople and rages Tidth great 
violence. Aag., 1865. 

End of the second Maori war (New Zealand). Sep. 2, 1865. 

The English fleet visits Cherbourg, Aug. 15 ; the French fleet 
visits Portsmouth. Ang. 29 — Sep. 2, 1865. 

Count WsJewaki appointed president of the French corps 
Ugislatif. Sep. 2, 1865. 

The Emperor and Empress of the French meet the Queen of 
Spain at St. Sebastian. Sep. 9, 1865. 

Death of General Lamorici^re. Sep. 11, 1865. 

The police seize the office of the Irish JPeople newspaper at 
Dablin, on account of its Fenian sympathies. Sep. 15, 1865. 

The King of Prussia takes possession of the duchy of Lauen- 
berg. Sep. 15, 1865. 

Herr von Bismarck raised to the rank of Count. 

Sep. 16, 1865. 

Opening of the Portuguese International Exhibition at Oporto. 

Sep. 18, 1865. 

Anstria announces conciliatory intentions respecting Croatia 
and Hungary. Sep. 20, 1865. 

Amicable relations between Great Britain and Brazil restored, 
Aug. ; an English minister received by the Emperor of Brazil. 

Sep. 23, 1865. 

Pope Pins IX. condemns Freemasonry and Fenianism. 

Sep. 27, 1865. 

Paul Bogle^ a negro, charged with obstructing the course of 
justice at Morant Bay, Jamaica, rescued from the English 
authorities by a mob of negroes, Oct. 10 ; a body of armed 


negroes set fire to the Court House at Morant Bay and murder 
the custos, Baron Ketellioldt, the Rev. Y. Herschell, and six- 
teen others, besides wounding numerous persons, Oct. 11 ; the 
gOTomor of Jamaica proclaims martial law, and the insurrec- 
tion in the island quickly subdued. Oct. 18, 1865. 

Death of Lord Palmerston- Oct. 18, 1865. 

I«OTd John Russell's second administration. Oct. 18, 1865. 

Captain Wake, of H.M.S. Bulldog, having run his ship aground 
-whilst attacking the forts of Gape Haytien, Hayti, on account 
of insults offered to the British flag, bums his vessel to pre- 
vent her falling into the power of the enemy. Oct. 23, 1865. 

Trial of George William Gordon, a coloured member of the 
Ijegislative Assembly of Jamaica, by court martial, for being 
one of the chief instigators of the late insurrection in the 
island, Oct. 21 ; he is convicted and executed. Oct. 23, 1865. 

Caipture and executioi^ of Paul Bogle, the Jamaica n^gro, and 
leader of the late insurrection in the island. Oct. 24, 1865. 

Terrible explosion of a gasometer at Nine Elms. Oct. 31, 1865. 

The dispute in the iron trade ; the South Staffordshire iron 
works closed. Nov. 4, 1865. 

The Confederate steamer Shenandoah surrenders to the British 
Government at Liverpool. Nov. 9, 1865. 

Arrest and imprisonment of James Stephens, ^'head centre" 
of the Irish Fenians, in Bichmond Bridewell, Dublin, Nov. 11 ; 
he escapes. Nov. 24, 1865. 

The case of the Shenandoah. Nov. 27, 1865. 

In the Court of Queen's Bench was tried the ''Queen v. Oobbett/' an indict* 
ment for engaging Her Majesty's subjects to serve in arms against a foreign power 
not at war with England. The facts were these : — On Oct. 8 the ship Sea 
King, commanded by the defendant, left London. She ostensibly sailed for Bom- 
bay, and had engaged a great number of seamen for the voyage. On reaching 
Madeira, guns, ammunition, &c., were transhipped into her from the Lawrd, and 
aereral Confederate officers came on board, took possession of her, and changed 
her name to the Shenandoah, The defendant now informed the crew that he had 
sold the ship to the Confederate officers, and that henceforth she would be a pri- 
vateer in ihe Confederate service. Some of the men entered the service, whilst 
the others sailed with Captain Cobbett in the La/urel to Teneriffe, where the British 
consul, on hearing the case, took Cobbett into custody. The indictment con- 
tained 55 counts. The question for the jury turned upon the fact whether 
Captain Cobbett did procure any person to enlist in a foreign service, and, on his 
having sold the vessel, did induce the crew to join the Confederate service. A 
verdict of not guilty was returned. 


President Jolinson, of the United States, delivers liis message 
to Congress. Dec. 4, 1865. 

The union of Hungary and Transylvania affirmed by the 
Transylvanian Diet. Dec. 6, 1865. 

The commission appointed to revise the treaty of miion 
between Norway and Sweden meets at Stockholm, Mar. 1 ; 
the new constitation adopted. Dec. 4—8, 1865. 

Death of Leopold I., King of the Belgians. Dec, 9, 1865. 

Sir Henry Storks appointed temporary governor of Jamaica. 

Dec. 11, 1865. 

An Exhibition of Arts and Industry opened at Glasgow 
(closed Mar. 31, 1866). Dec. 12, 1865. 

The Emperor of Austria again visits Hungary. Dec. 12, 1865. 

A preliminary treaty of commerce between England and 

Austria signed at Vienna. Dec. 16, 1865. 


Sir Henry Storks leaves England as special commissioner to 
examine into the circumstances attending the revolt of 
Jamaica. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Imprisonment of Count Eulenberg for four-and-arhaLf months 
for being concerned in the death of M. Ott, a cook. 

Dec. 19, 1865. 

M. Achille Fould pubhshes his financial statement for 1866. 

Dec. 24, 1865. 

Trial of various Fenian prisoners at Dublin and Cork. 

Nov. to Dec., 1865. 

Dec. 1. Thomas Clarke Luby, proprietor of the Irish People, sentenced to 
twenty years' penal servitude ; Dec. 6. O'Leary, the editor, receives a simikr 
sentence ; Dec. 13. O'Donovan condemned to penal servitude for life. 

Foluca, Mexico, seized by the Juarists. Jan. 3, 1866. 

The London " steamship founders in the Bay of Biscay, on 
her voyage from London to Melbourne. Jan. 11, 1866. 

This vessel, belonging to Messrs. Money Wigram and Sons, left the London 
Docks Dec. 28, 1865, and encountered a series of gales, in which she was so 
much damaged, that an attempt was made to return to Plymouth, Jan. 10. Such 
was her disabled condition, Captain Martin announced to the passengers and 
crew, Thursday, Jan. 11, that no hope of saving her remained. Mr. Greenhill, 
the chief engineer, accompanied by eighteen persons, embarked in an open boat 
about 10 A.M., and the steamer sank just after they had left. They were picked 
up, Jan. 12, by the Adricmopley and reached England, being the only persons 
saved out of a total crew and passengers of 279 persons. 


Xffilitary insurrection at Aranguez, Spain, headed by General 
Prim, Jan. 4 ; martial law in Madrid ; riots at Barcelona ; 
state of siege in New Castile, Catalonia, and Arragon. 

Jan. 6—12, 1866. 

X'roposals for the revision of the Swiss constitution discussed. 

Jan. 14, 1866. 

The special commissioners for inquiring into the Jamaica insur- 
rection, Sir H, Storks, Mr. Russell Gumey, and Mr. Maule, 
commence their sittings at Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

Jan. 25, 1866. 

^Defeat of a Spanish squadron off the island of Chiloe by the 
combined Perurian and Chilian fleets. Feb. 7, 1866. 

A general amnesty issued by Austria to those condemned in 
the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, Jan. 1 ; extended to the 
Tyrol. Feb. 14, 1866. 

Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in Ireland. 

Feb. 17, 1866. 

War declared between Spain and Peru, owing to the former 
having seized the Chincha Islands, off the coast of Peru, 
and her refusal to evacuate them. Feb. 23, 1866. 

Tlie Prince Imperial appointed President of the Commissioners 
for the International Exhibition of 1867. Feb. 25, 1866. 

The Emperor of Austria issues a rescript to the Diet of 
Croatia, which is summoned to elect deputies to deliberate in 
common with the Hungarian Diet. Feb. 27, 1866. 

Murder of Captain d'Huart, a member of the Belgian mission 
in Mexico, by gueriUas, near the city of Mexico. 

Mar. 4, 1866. 

Institution of the Albert medal by Queen Victoria. 

Mar. 7, 1866. 

A congress on l^e affairs of Boumania holds its first sitting at 
Paris. Mar. 10, 1866. 

Termination of the Jamaica Inquiry Commission ; the commis- 
sioners held 60 sittings and examined 730 witnesses. 

Mar. 21, 1866. 

The conclnsioiis wbich the commisedoners arriyed at, after a most careful and 
searching examination, may be briefly summed up thus : — ^That the disturbances 
had their immediate origin in a planned resistance to lawful authority ; that 
the causes of the insurgents rebelling were, (1) to obtain land free from the pay- 
ment of rent, (2) the want of confidence generally felt by the labouring class in 
the tribunals before which most of the disputes affecting their interests werei 


carried for adjadication, and (S) the wish to attain their enda by the detOh cr 
ezpnlaion of the white inhabitants of the island ; that such was the excitement 
of the island, that had the insurgents obtained more than a momentaiy Bncoess. 
their ultimate orerthrow would hare been attended with a still more iearbl 
loss of life and property ; that praUe v)€U due to Oovemor Eyre^ to wkaae skSlf 
pronvptUvde^ and vigour the tpeedy terniinoHon of the rebellion wcu in a great 
degree to he attribtUed; that the military and naval operations were prompt 
and judicious ; that by the continuance of martial law in its full force the 
people were depriyed for longer than necessary of their constituticmal privile^; 
that the punishments infliciied were excessive ; the punishment of death uo' 
nteessarily frequent ; the floggings reckless, and at Bath positively barbarous ; 
and that the burning of 1,000 houses was wanton and crueL 

Death of Marie Amelie, Ex-Queen of the French, at Claremont. 

Mar. 24, 1866. 

Capture of Chihuahua, Mexico, by the Juarists. Mar. 25, 1866. 

Queen Victoria writes an autograph letter to Mr. Peabodj, 
the eminent American merchant, on his having added to his 
splendid gift of the preceding year, for the improvement of 
the dwellings of the poor of London. Mar. 28, 1866. 

President Johnson, of the United States, issues a proclamation 
declaring " that the insurrection which heretofore existed in 
the States of Georgia, South Carolina, North Caroliiia, Vir- 
ginia, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, 
and Florida, is at an end, and henceforth to be so regarded." 

Apr* 2, 1866. 

Unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Alexander 11. of Russia 
by E^arakasow. Apr. 16, 1866. 

Launch of H.M.S. Northumlerla/nd. Apr. 17, 1866. 

Count Bismarck's life attempted by Blind. May 7, 1866. 

Kxtraordinary money panic in London, owing to the fidlure of 
Oyerend and Qumey. May 11, ^., 1866. 

Prussia concludes a conditional treaty of alliance with Italy. 

May 12, 1866. 

Official invitations to take part in a conference for the preven- 
tion of hostilities on the continent forwarded by France to 
Berlin, Vienna, Frankfort, and Florence. May 25, 1866. 

A terrible fire breaks out at Ottery St. Mary, Devonshire, 
which bums a great part of the town in a few hours. 

May 25, 1866. 

Fort Erie, in Canada, occupied by a pariy of Fenians, under 
Colonel O'Neil, May 31; they are defeated by the Canadian 
regulars, and O'Neil killed. June 2, 1866. 


Project of the conference abandoned by the French govern- 
ment, owing to the reservations made by Anstria. 

June 5, 1866. 

Xnflammatory addresses issued to the Hungarians by Kossuth. 

June 6, 1866. 

Presidexit Johnson issues a proclamation against the Fenian 
movement in the United States. June 7, 1866. 

ITapoleon III. expresses his desire to avoid participation in a 
continental war, and states his opinion that Austria for an 
equitable compensation should cede Yenetia to Italy. 

. June 11, 1866. 

The PmssiaxiB enter Holstein June 7, and Altona June 12 ; 
the Austrian ambassador leaves Berlin. June 12, 1866. 

The canae of the departnre of the Austrian amVaesador from Berlin, and the 
war that ensaed, arose from the eternal Schleswig-Holstein question. The 
Austrian goyemor of Holstein had convoked an assembly of the 8tates to meet, 
June 11, but on May 7 the Fnissian troops in Schleswig crossed the frontier, 
and asserted the right of Prussia to a joint occupation of the duchy. On this 
ibe Auatrians retired. The Prussian goremor of Schleswig then issued a procla- 
mation to the inhabitants of Holstein, in which he declarod the provisional 
goTemment abolished, and appointed a Prussian president for the administration 
of affairs of both the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Austria protested against 
these acts, and accused Prussia of a violation of the Gastein convention. Her protest 
was in vain; war was declared between Austria and Prussia, which was afterwards 
extended to Saxony and other States, owing to their carrying into execution a decree 
of the Frankfort Diet that the foroes of the different States, members of the 
Bond, should be mobilised. 

Marriage of Princess Mary of Cambridge with Prince Francis 
Lewis Panl Alexander von Teck. June 12, 1866. 

An nltimataxn forwarded by Prussia to the govemments of 
Saxony, Hanoyer, Hesse Cassel, aad Kassau, rejected by all ; 
war declared against Saxony. Jnne 15, 1866. 

Austria declares her intention to support Saxony against 
Pmssia; this statement accepted by Prussia as a declaration of 
war. June 16, 1866. 

The Pmssians enter Hanover and occupy Dresden ; war 
formally declared by Prussia against Austria. June 17, 1866. 

Italy dedaies war against Austria. June 20, 1866. 

Matamoras, Mexico, surrendered to the Juarists by the Impe- 
rialists. June 23, 1866. 

Repulse of the Prussians in Galicia. June 24, 1866. 

Battle of Gustozza. June 24, 1866. 

Lord Derby's third administration. June 26, 1866. 


Defeat of the Anstrians at Nachod ; defeat of the Pmssiaasi 
again in GaJicia ; defeat of the Hanoyerianl^ at Langensalza. 

June 27, 1866. 

Battles of Trantenan and Miinchengratz. June 28, 1866. 

Reform demonstrations break ont in London among the lower 
classes. June 29, 1866. 

Battle of Sadowa or Konigsgratz. Jnljr 3, 1866. 

Battie of Monte SueUo. July 3, 1866. 

Marriage of Princess Helena of Great Britain with Prince 
Christian Charles Augustus of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg- 
Augustenhurg. . July 5, 1866. 

Fatal collision in the English Channel between the steam-sloop 
of war Amcizon and the screw steamer Ogprey. July 10, 1866. 

Defeat of the Bavarians at Kissingen by the Prussians under 
General Manteuffel. July 11, 1866. 

Suspension of the Birmingham Banking Company. 

July 13, 1866. 

Defeat of the German Federals at Aschaffenburg by the Prus- 
sians. July 14, 1866. 

Sir J. P. Grant appointed governor of Jamaica, vice John 
Edward Eyre. July 16, 1866. 

Entrance of Prussians into Frankfort-on-the-Maine, July 16 ; 
they evacuate the town. July 21, 1866. 

Disgraceful riots in Hyde Park between the populace and the 
police, owing to the Reform agitation. July 23, 1866. 

Defeat of the Bavarians by the Prussians at Gerscheim. 

July 25, 1866. 

A preliminary treaiy of peace signed at Nikolsburg between 
Austria and Prussia ; battle of Wurzburg. July 26, 1866. 

The Atlantic telegraph successfully laid between Great Britain 
and America. July 13—27, 1866. 

The Queen Dowager of the Sandwich Islands, Emma, returns 
to her kingdom, after a year's visit in England. 

July 28, 1866. 

France demands from Prussia a rectification of her Eastern 
frontier, which is refused. Aug. 8, 1866. 

Revolt in Candia breaks out against Turkish dominion. 

Aug. 9, 1866. 

Peace between Prussia and Wurtemburg signed at Beriin. 

Aug. 13, 1866. 



:-govemor Ejre of Jamaica entertained at a public banquet 
at Southampton. Aug. 21, 1866. 

^eace between Prussia and Bayaria signed at Berlin. 

Aug. 22, 1866. 

iace between Prussia and Austria signed at Prague. 

Aug. 23, 1866. 

The terms of this treaty are brieflj these: — Anstria consents to the nnion 

the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom with the kingdom of Italy ; recognizes the 
)Iation of the German Bund, and consents to a new formation of Germany, 

which she shall take no part. Austria transfers to Prussia the duchies of 
[iolstein and Schleswig, with the understanding that if the people of the 

them district of Schleswig express a wish to be united to Denmark, their 
shall be complied with. Prussia to allow the territory of the kingdom of 

lony to remain within its present limits. The territorial changes about to 

made in North Germany by Prussia to be recognized by Austria. Austria to 
^7 Prussia the sum of 20,000,000 Prussian doUars to defray expenses on account 

the war. 

feace concluded between Prussia and Hesse Darmstadt. 

Sep, 3, 1866. 

le Prussian Chamber of Deputies pass the Annexation Bill 
by 273 to 14 votes, by which Prussia incorporates into her 
I' dominions Hanover, Hesse Cassel, Nassau, Hesse-Homburg, 
the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg (these last 
had been previously annexed), that part of Hesse Darmstadt 
which lies to the north of the Maine, and the principality of 
HohenzoUem. Sep. 7, 1866. 

Jcovery and completion of the Atlantic cable of 1866. 

Sep. 8, 1866. 

freat Reform demonstration at Manchester. Sep. 24, 1866. 

Lploxnatic relations between Prussia and Austria resumed. 

Sep., 1866. 

ival of the Empress of Mexico in Europe. Sep., 1866. 

le treaty of peace between Austria and Italy signed at 
Vienna ; Austria consents to the union of Venetia to Italy, and 
cedes the Quadrilateral* Oct. 3, 1866. 

»at Reform meeting of the working classes in Leeds. 

Oct. 8, 1866. 

^e between Prussia and Saxony signed at Berlin. 

Oct. 21, 1866. 

it of the English volunteers, under Lieutenant-Colonel Loyd 
"Lindsay and Lord Bury, to Belgium. Oct. 10 — 22, 1866. 

le Intercolonial Exhibition of Victoria opened at Melbourne, 
'Australia. Oct. 24, 1866. 


An attempt made to aflsassinate the Emperor of Austria at 
Prague. ^'^' ^^' ^^^• 

Pope Pius IX. delivers two allocutions : in the one he con- 
demns the conduct of the ItaUan government, protests against 
the invasion and usurpation of the Papal territones, denounces 
the attempt to make Rome the capital of Italy, and expresses 
his determination to uphold the temporal power ; and m the 
other he refers to the violation by the Russian government of 
the concordat of 1848. Oct. 29, 1866. 

The Anstrians retire from the Quadrilateral. Oct., 1866. 

The King of Italy declares that the provinces of Yenetia hence- 
forth form an integral part of the kiugdom of Italy. Nov. 5, 1866. 

Marriage of the Princess Dagmar with the Czarowitz. 

Kov. 17, 1866. 

All the Diets of the Austrian empire meet, with the exception 
of Hungary. Nov. 19, 1866. 

Opening of the Hungarian Diet at Pesth. Nov. 19, 1866. 

Retirement of Sir William Erie, Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas. Nov. 26, 1866. 

Great demonstration of the workrug classes of London m fovoiur 
of Parliamentary Reform held in Beaufort House, Kensmgton. 

Dec. 3, 1866. 

Pope PiUB IX. addresses an invitation to Roman Catholic 
bishops to assemble at Rome in June, 1867, to celebrate the 
18th centenary of the martyrdom of the Apostles Pet^ and 
Paul and the canonization of several of the faithful. 

' Dec. 8, 1866. 

Departure of the French garrison from Rome. 

Dec. 2 — 11, 1866. 

Dreadful colliery explosion at Bamsley, Yorkshire. 

Dec. 12, 1866. 

Explosion at the North Staffordshire Coal and Iron Company's 
nits near Newcastle-under-Lyne, and many lives lost. 
^ ' • Dec- 13, 1866. 

The conference of German plenipotentiaries as to a new 
T^orth German constitution commenced at Berlin. 

Dec. 15, 1866. 

Reception of Signer Tonello on a mission from the Italian 
government by Pius IX. at Rome. Dec. 15, 1866. 

A serious fire breaks out in the Crystal Palace, and destroys 
a large portion of the eastern wing. Dec. 30, 18^. 


^kXL imperial patent issued from the Emperor of Austria dis- 
solying the Diets of Bohemia, Dahnatia, Galicia, and Lodo- 
meria, with Cracow, Austria below and above the Ems, Salz« 
Irarg, Styria, Carinthia, Camiola, the Bukowina, Moravia, 
Silesia, the Tyrol, Yorarlberg, Istria, G-orz, and Gradiska, 
and ordering new elections for these Diets. Jan. 2, 1867. 

Xdict relating to the reorganization of the army issued by the 
Smperor of the French. Jan. 5, 1867* 

The Russian system of administration introduced by imperial 
ukase into eveiy detail of government in Poland. Jan. 5, 1867. 

VhB question of the impeachment of President Johnson re- 
ferred by the House of Representatives to the Judiciary 
Committee, by 107 to 38 votes. Jan. 7, 1867. 

The Test Oath prescribed by Congress decided by the Supremo 
Court of the United States to be unconstitixjiional. 

Jan. 14, 1867. 

Thirty-four persons drowned by the giving way of the ice in 
the Regent's Park. Jan. 15, 1867. 

Decree issued by the Emperor Napoleon announcing several 
constitutional changes. The retirement of M. Fould and 
other ministers announced. Jan. 20, 1867. 

Committee formed at the Mansion House to receive subscript 
tions for the relief of distress in the East of London. 

Jan. 21, 1867. 

Heavy floods in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

Jan. 23—27, 1867. 

Schleswig-Holstein formally incorporated with the Prussian 
monarchy. Jan. 24, 1867. 

The convocation of an extraordinary Reichsrath revoked by 
the Emperor of Austria, in 'consequence of an arrangement 
with Hungary having been eflfected. Feb. 2, 1867. 

Baron Beust appointed to succeed Count Belcredi as president 
of the council in Austria. Feb. 4, 1867. 

Parliament opened by Queen Victoria. Feb. 5, 1867. 

Warrants granted at Bow-street against Colonel Nelson and 
lieutenant Brand, on the charge of the murder of Mr. Gordon. 

Feb. 7, 1867. 

The treaty between the States of the new North German Con- 
federation signed at Berlin. Feb. 8, 1867. 

Baron Beust succeeds Count Belcredi as Prime Minister for 
Austria. Feb. 10, 1867. 

226^ Air AisreroTATED table ot 

Reform demonstration in London, concluding with a _ 
meeting in the Agricnltaral Hall. Feb. 11, 1867»' 

Mr. Disraeli informs the Honse of Commons that the Eefans 
question will be proceeded with by means of resolutions. 

Feb. 11, 1867. 

Projected seizure of Chester Castle by Fenians frustrated. 

Feb. 11, 18W. 

The Italian government defeated in the Chamber of Deputies 
on the question of removing restrictions from the right of 
pubUc meeting. Feb. 11, 1867. 

The French Chambers opened by the Emperor. Feb. 14, 1867, 

Beconstruction of the Italian ministry announced. 

Feb. 16, 1867. 

Imperial rescript read in the Hungarian Diet, announcing the 

restoration of the Hungarian constitution. Feb. 18, 1867. 

The Princess of Vales gives birth to a son. Feb. 20, 1867. 

Lord Cranbome announces the decision of the Gk)vermneat 
not to annex Mysore on the death of the Maharajah. 

Feb. 22, 1867. 

Bill for the continuance of the suspension of the Habeas Corpus 
Act in Ireland passed by the House of Commons. Feb. 22, 1867. 

The first parliament of the North German Confederation opened 
by the King of Prussia. Feb. 24, 1867. 

The states lihat belong to the North German Confederation are the following :— 
Prussia, Mecklenharg-^hwerin, Saze Weimar, Mecklenbozg-Strelitz, Oldenhoigi 
Brunswick, Saxe Altenburg, Sake Cobuig-Gh)tha, Anhalt, Schwartzbuig-Sondeiap 
hausen, Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, Waldedc, Beuss (the younger branch), Sdiaom- 
bnrg-Iippe, lippe, Labeck^ Hamburg, and Bremen. The troops of the Ooafede- 
ration are to be under the supreme command of Prussia, and they mutual^' 
agree to maintain the independence and integrity of the contracting states, and 
guarantee the defence of their territories. These states have a popvlatioii of 
about 2,000,000, and added to the 19,000,000 which constituted the Pmssiaii 
monardiy before the war, they give, with the 4,500,000 belonging to the annexed 
territories of Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfort, a total of about 25, 000, 000 
souls for the Northern Confederacy. 

Mr. Disraeli explains to the House of Commons the GK)vem- 
ment proposals respecting reform [the " 10 minntes Bill "]. 

Feb. 25, 1867. 

Mr. Disraeli annonnces that the Goyemment re£[Mnn resolu- 
tions will be withdrawn, and a Bill introdnced. 

The British North-Ammcan Confederation Bill passed by the 
Honse of Lords. Feb. 26, 1867. 

Lord Cranbome, Lord Carnarvon, and General Peel resim 
their seats in the Cabinet. Mar. 2, 1867. 



le new American congress assembled. Mar. 4, 1867. 

Abolition (Oxford) Bill read a second time in the Hbnse 
of Commons. Mar. 6, 1867. 

\TeBt earthquake at Mitylene ; half the town destroyed. 

Mar. 6, 1867. 

te elections for the new Italian Parliament commence. 

Mar. 10, 1867. 

debate on the foreign policy of the French government com- 
menced in the Corps Legislatif, by M. Thiers.. Mar. 14, 1867. 

le eYacnatiLon of Mexico by the French expeditionary force 
completed. Mar. 16, 1867. 

royal rescript read in the Hungarian diet, appointing a new 
ministry, with Connt Andrassy as president. Mar. 18, 1867. 

Government Beform Bill introduced by Mr. Disraeli, and 
read a first time. Mar. 18, 1867. 

Le conclnsion of a treaty between Prussia aoid Bavaria in 
Aug., 1866, announced at Berlin and Munich. Mar. 19, 1867. 

[eeting of Liberal members at Mr. Gladstone's house ; it is 
agreed to oppose a motion to go into committee on the Beform 
BiU, unless certain modifications are made in the bill. 

Mar. 21, 1867. 
le new Italian Parliament opened by the king. 

Mar. 22, 1867. 

le debate on the second reading of the Beform Bill com- 
Imences in the House of Commons. Mar. 25, 1867. 

warrant against Mr. Eyre granted by the Market Drayton 
I magistrates. Mar. 25, 1867. 

le Reform Bill read a second time, without a division. 

Mar. 26, 1867. 

te charge against Mr. Eyre dismissed by the Market Drayton 
{magistrates. Mar. 29, 1867. 

le Bale of Bussian America to the United States announced 
jin New York. Mar. 30, 1867. 

^spatcll addressed by Lord Stanley to the Spanish govern- 
^ment, demanding compensation and an apology for the seizure 
|of the Queen Victoria. Mar. 30, 1867. 

Le Paris International Exhibition formally opened by the 
Lperor. Apr. 1, 1867. 

le Bicasoli ministry in Italy resign. Apr. 3, 1867. 

Israeli introduces the budget ; the surplus of £1,206,000 
applied to the canceUing of £24,000,000 of the National Debt 

Q 2 



by means of terminable annuities, and to the reduction of the 
marine insurance duties. Apr, 4, 1867* 

Meeting of Liberal members at Mr. Gladstone's house ; it is 
resolved that Mr. Coleridge shall move an " instruction '* com- 
ceming the law of rating, on the motion to go into conrmitiee 
on the Reform Bill. Apr. 5, 1867 

Meeting of forty-eight Liberal M.P.'s held in the '^ tea-room ;" 
the main portion of Mr. Coleridge's instruction withdrawn. 

Apr. 8, 1867. 

Special commission for the trial of Fenian prisoners opened at 
Dublin. Apr. 8, 1867. 

The HonBe of Commons goes into Committee on the Befonu 
Bill. Apr. 11, 1867. 

Mr. Gladstone moves an amendment striking out the proYi- 
sion of personal rating. Apr. 11, 1867. 

The Bills for murder against Colonel Nelson and Lieutenant 
Brand ignored by the grand jury at the Old Bailey. 

Apr. 11, 1867. 

Signer Rattazzi announces the formation of a new Italian 
ministry and its policy. Apr. 11, 1867. 

Admirsd Persano found guilty by the Italian Senate of cowar- 
dice and disobedience, and cashiered. Apr. 15, 1867. 

A military convention with Prussia signed by the Grand Duke 
of Hesse-Darmstadt. Apr. 17, 1867. 

The first session of the new North German Parliament closes, 
the constitution having been passed. Apr. 17, 1867. 

The illegality of the capture of the Q^een Victoria recognized 
by the prize court at Cadiz. Apr. 17, 1867. 

The citadel of Belgrade given up to the Servian authorities. 

Apr. 19, 1867. 
Reform demonstration at Birmingham takes place. 

Apr. 22, 1867. 

Annonncement made that the Spanish government has agreed 
to restore the Queen Victoria and her cargo. Apr. 22, 1867. 

Reform demonstration held at Leeds. Apr. 23, 1867. 

The Count of Flanders marries the Princess of HohenzoUem, 
at Berlin. Apr. 25, 1867* 

The Frossian Parliament opened by the king. Apr. 29, 1867. 

The Fenian prisoners Burke and Doran convicted of high 
treason at Dublin, and sentenced to death. May 1, 1867. 

Mr. Ayrton's amendment to the Beform Bill, reducing th 


term, of residence from two years to twelve months, carried 
by 278 to 198. May 2, 1867. 

Reform demonstration held in Hyde Park. May 6, 1867. 

'. Disraeli announces the acceptance by the Oovemment of 
the principle of a lodger franchise. May 6, 1867. 

A Conference on the Lnzembnrg question assembles in London, 
under the presidency of Lord Stanley. May 7, 1867. 

^Hie North German Constitution adopted by the Prussian 
Chamber of Deputies by 226 to 9 votes. May 8, 1867. 

^The Government proposals with respect to compound house- 
holders adopted in the House of Commons by 322 to 256 
votes. May 9, 1867. 

Tbe Luxemburg Conference closed, after the signature of a 
treaty declaring the neutralization of Luxemburg under a 
collectiYe guarantee of the European Powers. May 11, 1867. 

The lodger franchise adopted by the House of Commons, 

twelve months residence in preference to six, carried by 208 

. to 145. May 13, 1867. 

The Reform Bill for Scotland introduced by Mr. Disraeli. 

May 13, 1867. 

Mr. Gathome Hardy's appointment as Home Secretary an- 
nounced. May 13, 1867. 

Mr. Jefferson Davis released on bail by the Bichmond Court. 

May 13, 1867. 

Qneretaro and the Emperor Maximilian betrayed to the Juarist 
G^eneral Escobedo by the Imperialist General Lopez. 

May 16, 1867. 

Clause 3 (the Borough Franchise) of the Reform Bill passed. 

May 20, 1867. 

Mr. Mill's motion in favour of female suffrage negatived by 
196 to 73. May 20, 1867. 

Mr. Colvile's amendment, giving a county vote to £5 copy- 
holders, carried by 201 to 157. May 20, 1867. 

The foundation stone of the Hall of Arts and Sciences at 
Kensington laid by the Queen. May 20, 1867. 

Boyal proclamation issued, declaring the British North Ame- 
rican provinces one dominion, with the name of Canada. 

May 21, 1867. 

The Austrian Beichsrath opened by the Emperor. May 22, 1867 
The reprieve of the Fenian convict Burke announced in both 
Houses of Parliament. May 27, 1867. 



The County Franchise fixed at £12. Maj 27, 1( 

The Oovemment amended clause for the extinction of 
pound householders agreed to. May 27, II 

The Franchise clauses of ihe Reform Bill completed. 

May 28, II 

The disfiranchisement of Yarmoutib, Lancaster, Beigate, 
Totnes agreed to. May 30, II 

Mr. Laing's proposal that all the boroughs with less than 10,( 
inhabitants shall only return one nxember, carried by 305 
179. May SI, It 

The North German Constitution adopted by the 
Chambers by 127 to 93. May 31, II 

The commissionerB appointed to inquire into the conunissi 
of trade outrages at Sheffield commence their sittings. 

June 3, II 

Attempt made by Berezowski in Paris to assassinate the CzarJ 

June 6, ir 

The Emperor of Austria crowned King of Hungary at F( 

June 8, II 

The expedition fitted out to ascertain the &te of Dr. JA\ 
stone leaves England. June 9, II 

Serious rioting takes place in Birmingham, occasioned by 
yisit of Murphy, the anti-papal lecturer. June 17, 186| 

Mr. Laing's proposal to give a third member to Manchc 
Liverpool, Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, and Sheffield, lost 
247 to 239. June 17, 1861 

The Emperor Maximilian and Generals Miramon and Mejl 
executed at Queretaro. June 19, V 

The voting papers clause in the Reform Bill rejected by 272 
284. June 20, 1861 

The city of Mexico surrenders to the Juarists after a siege 
sixty-nine days. June 20, 186? 

Vera Cruz occupied by the Juaiists. June 27, 166r<| 

Gorgeons ceremony at St. Peter's at Rome, in connection wit 
the celebration of the Eighteenth Centenary of St. Peter. 

June 29, 1865 

Ur. Horafall's proposal to give a third member to Liverpoof 
Manchester, and Birmingham, accepted by gOTemment, witH 
the addition of Leeds, and carried by 297 to 63. July 1, 1^^ 

Mr. Lowe's proposal for " cumulatiye " voting rejected hj 31^ 
to 173. jnijr 5, 1867.1 


Hie Viceroy of Egypt received by the Queen at Windsor 
Castie. July 8, 1867. 

Che Sheffield Trade Outrage Oommissioners close their inquiry. 

July 8, 1867, 

Banquet given in honour of the Viceroy of Egypt at the Man* 
sion House. July 11, 1867. 

Che Belgian Volunteers arrive in London. July 11, 1867. 

public entry of the Sultan into London, July 12 ; the Sultan 
pays a formal visit of ceremony to the Queen, at Windsor. 

July 13, 1867. 

The Reform. Bill read a third time and passed in the House of 
Commons; July 15, 1867. 

Berezowski sentenced to transportation for life for attempting 
to assassinate the Czar. July IS, 1867. 

Vaarez makes a triumphal entry into the city of Mexico. 

July 16, 1867. 

The Reform Bill read a first time in the House of Lords. 

July 16, 1867. 

Naval review at Spithead, in the presence of the Queen, the 
Sultan, and the Viceroy of Egypt. July 17, 1867. 

Entertainment given at Ouildhall, by the City Corporation, in 
honour of the Sultan. July 17, 1867. 

Grand Ball given at the Agricultural Hall, in honour of the 

. Belgian Volunteers. July 17, 1867. 

Qrand Ball given in honour of the Sultan, at the new India 
Office. July 19, 1867. 

Supplementary Reconstruction Bill passed by the American 
Congress, over the President's veto. July 19, 1867. 

Orand Review at Wimbledon, in the presence of the Sultan 
and the Prince of Wales. July 20, 1867. 

The American Congress adjourned until November. 

July 20, 1867. 

Debate on the second reading of the Reform Bill, in the House 

of Lords, commenced. July 22, 1867. 

The Sultan leaves London for the continent. July 28, 1867. 

The Reform Bill read a second time in the House of Lords. 

July 23, 1867. 
Debate in the House of Commons, on the case of the Abyssin- 
ian captives. July 26, 1867. 

The House of Lords goes into committee on the Beform Bill. 

July 29, 1867. 

232 AK AinroTATBD table of 

Lord Halifax's resolation as to the inadequacj of the redLsiti* 

bation scheme negatived by 100 to 59. July 29, 1867. 

Lord Cairns' amendment, raising the Lodger Franduse from 

£10 to £15, carried by 121 to 89. July 29, 1867. 

Clause 5^ reducing the copyhold qualification from £10 to £5^ 

struck out of the Bill, by 119 to 56. July 29, 1867. 

Lord Cairns' proposal for the representation of minorities in 

three-cornered constituencies, carried by 142 to 51. 

July 30, 1867. 

Earl Orey's amendment, that boroughs with less than 12,000 
inhabitants shall only return one member, negatived by 98 
to 86. Aug. 1, 1867. 

Lord Lyveden's proposal to disfranchise all boroug'hs viih 
less than 5,000 inhabitants, rejected by 93 to 37. 

Aug. 1, 1867. 

Debate in the House of Commons on the Orissa famine. 

Aug. 2, 1867. 

The lodger qualification restored to a £10 rental, on the 
motion of Earl Russell. Aug. 5, 1867^ 

Demonstration in Hyde Park against the Parks BlQ, and ilie 
Lords' amendment to the Reform Bill. Aug. 5, 1867. 

The Reform Bill read a third time and passed in the House of 
Lords. Aug. 6, 1867* 

The following is an abstract of '*The Representation of the People Act, 
1867." This Act does not apply to Scotland or Ireland, nor in anywise affect 
the election of members to serve in Parliament for the Uniyersities of Qxfisrd 
or Cambridge. 


Occupation Franchise for Voters in Boroughs. — Every man shall, in and 
after 1868, be entitled to be x'egistered as a voter, and, when registered, to 
vote for a member or members to serve in Parliament for a borongh, who a 
qualified as follows : — He must be of full age ; and have on the last day of July 
in any year, and daring the whole of the preceding twelve calendar months, 
been an inhabitant occupier, as an owner or tenant, of any dwelling house within 
the borough ; and have during the time of such occupation been rated as an 
ordinary occupier in respect of the premises so occupied by him within the 
borough to all rates (if any) made for the relief of the poor in respect of auk 
premises ; and have on or before the twentieth day of July in the same year paid 
an equal amount in the pound to that payable by other ordinaiy occupiers in 
respect to all poor rates that have become payable by him in respect of ike said 
premises up to the preceding fifth day of January. No man under this section to 
be entitled to be registered as a voter by reason of his being a joint ooeapier of 
any dwelling house. 

Lodger Franchise in Boroughs. — Every man, in and after 1868, shall be 
entitled to be registered as a voter, and, when registered, to vote for a member 
or members to serve in Parliament for a borough, who is qualified as follows :— 

inriYcitSAL CHSOsroLOGT. 233 

He most be of fall age, and, aa a lodger, have ooonpied in the same l)oroTigh, 
aeparately and as sole tenant, for the twelve months preceding the last day of July 
in any year the same lodgings, snch lodgings being part of one and the same 
dwelling house, and of a clear yearly yalne, if let anfumished, of ten pounds 
or npwBrds; and haye resided in such lodgings during the twelve months 
inunediately preceding the last day of July, and have claimed to be registered as 
» -voter at tiie next ensuing registration of voters. 

I^roperiy Franchite in CowUiea, — Every man, in and after 1868, shall be 
Mititled to be registered as a voter, and when registered, to vote for a member 
or members to serve in Parliament for a county, who is qualified as follows : — 
He must be of full age, and not subject to any legal incapacity ; and be seised at 
law or in equity of any lands or tenements of free]y)ld, copyhold, or any other 
tenure whatever, for his own life, or for the life of another, or for any lives 
wbatBoever, or for any larger estate of the clear yearly value of not less than 
five pounds over and above all rents and charges payable out of or in respect 
of ilM same, or who is entitled, either as lessee or assignee, to any lands or tene- 
ments of freehold, or of any ot^er tenure whatever, for the unexpired residue, 
whatever it may be, of any term originally created for a period of not less than 
nxtj years, of the dear yearly value of not leas than five pounds over and above 
all rents and changes payable out of or in respect of the same. No person to 
be registered as a voter under this section unless he shall have complied with the 
provisions of the twenty-sixth section of the Act of the second year of the reign 
of Hia Majesty William the Fourth, chapter forty-five. 

OceupaHon Pranchiu in Couniies, and Time for Paying iZotea.— Every man, 
in and after 1868, shall be entitled to be registered as a voter, and when regis- 
tered to vote for a member or members to serve in Parliament for a county, 
who is qualified as follows : — He must be of full age, and have on the last day of 
July in any year, and during the twelve months preceding, been the occupier, 
as owner or tenant of lands or tenements within the county, of the rateable 
value of twelve pounds or upwards ; and have during the time of such occupation 
been rated in respect to the premises so occupied by him to all rates (if any) 
made for the relief of the poor in respect of the said premises ; and have on or 
before the twentieth day of July in the same year paid all poor rates that have 
become payable by him in respect of the said premises up to the preceding fifth 
day of January. 

The Occupier to be Rated in BorougkSf and not the Owner. — ^Where the 
owner is rated at the time of the passing of this Act to the poor rate in 
respect of a dwelling house or other tenement situate in a parish wholly or 
partly in a borough, instead of the occupier, his liability to be rated in any 
future poor rate shall cease, and the following enactments shall take effect with 
respect to rating in all borougha: — No owner of any dwelling house or other 
tenement situate in a parish, either wholly or partly within a borough, to be rated 
to the poor rate instead of the occupier except as hereinafter mentioned : The 
-full rateable value of every dwelling house or other separate tenement, and the 
full rate in the pound payable by the occupier, and the name of the occupier 
to be entered in the rate book : Where the dwelling house or tenement shall 
be wholly let out in apartments or lodgings not separately rated, the owner 
of such dwelling house or tenement to be rated in respect thereof to the 
poor rate. 

CompoeiUon, — Nothing in this Act shall affect any composition existing at the 
time of the passing of this Act, and no such composition shall remain in force 
beyond the twenty-ninth day of September next : nothing herein contained shall 
alfect any rate made previously to the paBasing of this Act, and the powers conferred 
by any subsisting Act for the purpose of collecting and recovering a poor rate shall 

234 AK AinroTATiD table ot 

remain and continiie in force ictr the ooUection and recovery of any snch zate or 

Rates to be dedwiedfrotn Bmt. — When the occupier nnder a tenancy sahnstiig 
at the time of tiie pasaing of this Act of any dwelling house or other teneBeal 
which has been let to him free from rates is rated and has paid rates ia panmnee 
of this Act, he may deduct from any rent dne from him in respect of iheatid 
dwelling honse or other tenement any amount paid by him oa aoooniit of the ntes 
to which he may be rendered liable by this Act. 

Pint BeffUtration of Oceupien. — ^Where any occupier of a dweUiAg house oc 
other tenement would be entitled to be registered as an ooeupier in ponuanoe d 
this Act at the first registration of FarUunentary Toters to be made after the yesr 
1867, if he had been rated ^ the poor rate for the whole of the required penfld, 
such occupier shall, notwithstanding he may not haye been rated pii<»' to the 29tiii 
Sep., ('1867, as an ordinary occupier be entitled to be registered, subject to tiie 
following conditions : Having been duly rated as an ordimuy occupier to all poor 
rates in respect of the premises after the liability of the owner to be rated to tlie 
poor rate has ceased, under tiie provisions of this Act : That he has <« or before 
the twentieth day of July, 1868, paid all poor rates which have beooine payaids 
by him as an ordinaiy occupier up to the preceding fifth day of January. 

Clatae A, — At a contested election for any county or borough reiwasented by 
three members, no person shall vote for more than two candidatea. 

Olaute B. — ^At a contested election for the city of Iiondon no peiBon shall vote 
for more than three candidates. 

No Elector who ha$ been employed for reward at any Election to be entUUd to 
vote. — ^No elector who within sii: months before or duriug any election for any 
county or boroagh shall have been retained or employed for all or aaiy of dut 
purpoeee of the election for reward by or on behalf of any candidate at such elec- 
tion as agent, &c., or in other like employment^ to be entitled to vote at sack 
election, and if he shall so vote to be gmlty of a misdemeanour. 

IHefranchitemetU of certain Boroughs, — From and after the end of this present 
Parliament the boroughs of Totnes, Eeigate, Great Yarmouth, and Lancaster shall 
respectively cease to return any member or members to serve in Parliament for 
having been guilty of corrupt practices, bribery, &c., &c. Persons reported guilty 
of bribery in these towns to be disqualified as voters for the respective counties 
in which these towns are situated. 


DistrtbuHon of Seats, — ^m and after the end of this present Parliament, no 
borough which has a less population than ten thousand at the census of 1861, shall 
return more than one member to serve in Parliament^ such boroughs being enume- 
rated in schedule (A). From and after the end of this present Parliament, the 
city of Manchester, and the boroughs of Liverpool, Birmingham, and Leeds, shall 
each respectively return three members to serve in Parliament. 

New Boroughs, — Each of the places named in schedule (B) shall be a borough, 
and each such borough shall comprise such places as are specified and described 
in connection with the name of each such borough in the said schedule (B) ; and 
in all future Parliaments the borough of Chelsea named in the schedule (B), shall 
return two members, and each of ike other boroughs named in the said schedule 
shall return one member to serve in Parliament. 

Registers of Voters to be formed for new Boroughs. — Roasters of voters 
shall be formed in and after 1868, for or in respect of the boroughs constituted 
by this Act, in like manner as if before the passing of this Act they respectively 
,had been boroughs retuming'members to serve in Parliament. 

Merthyr TydfU and Salford to retwm each Two Members, — From and after 


end of the present Parliament the boroughs of Merthyr Tydfil and Salford 
t*Hf%.H each return two members instead of one ; and the borough of the Tower 
Ksunlets shall be divided into two divisions, and each division shall be a separate 
lK>roii9h retnming two members. 

JHvinon of ike Tower Samlets, — The said divisions shall be known by the 
&&ine of the borough of .Hackney, and the borough of the Tower Hamlets, and 
aia«>.n comprise the places mentioned in connection with such borough in schedule 

Megister of Voters. — Registers of Toters to be formed for the boroughs of 
SAckney and the Tower Hamlets. 

JHviaion of certain CowUies, — From and after the end of the present Parlia- 
ment, each county named in the first column of schedule (D) to be divided into 
t^e diTisions named in the second column of the said schedule. In all future 
Parliaments there shall be two members to serve for each of the divisions specified 
ilk tlie said colunm of schedule (D), and such members shall be chosen in the 
Sttnie manner, and by the same description of voters, as if each division were 
a separate county. AU enactments relating to divisions of counties returning 
men&beza to serve in Parliament to be deemed to apply to the divisions constituted 
as aforesaid. Registers of voters shall 1^ formed in and after 1868, for or in 
respect of the divisions of counties constituted by this Act, in like manner as if 
before the passing of this Act they had respeotirely been counties returning mem- 
l^ers to serve in Parliament. 

Un.ivermty of London to return One Mevnber. — Every man whose name is for 
the time being on the register of graduates constituting the convocation of the 
University of London shall, if of full age, and not subject to any legal incapacity, 
"be entitled to vote in the election of a member to serve in any future Parliament 
for the said university. 


Succe$sive Occupation. — Different premises occupied in immediate succession 
by any person as owner or tenant during the twelve calendar months next 
previous to the last day of July in any year shall, unless as herein is otherwise 
provided, have the same effect in qualifying such person to vote for a county or 
borough as a continued occupation of the same premises in the manner herein 

JwnJt Occupation in Coimties. — In a county where premises are in the joint 
oocnpation of several persons as owners or tenants, and the rateable value of such 
premises is such as would, if divided amongst the several occupiers, so far as the 
value is concerned, confer on each of them a vote, then each of such joint 
occupiers shall, if otherwise qualified, and subject to the conditions of this Act, 
he entitled to be registered as a voter, and when registered to vote at an election 
for the county ; but that not more than two persons shall be entitled to be 
registered in respect of such premises, unless they shall have derived the same by 
descent, succession, marriage, marriage settlement, or devise, or unless they shall 
he bond fide engaged as partners carrying on trade or business thereon. 

Notice of Rate in Arrear to be given to Voters. — ^Where any poor rate due on 
the 5th day of January from an occupier in respect of premises capable of con- 
ferring the franchise for a borough remains unpaid on the 1st day of June 
following, the overseers shall give notice, on or before the 20th of the same 
month of June, unless such rate has previously been paid or has been duly 
demanded by a demand note. The notice shall be deemed to be duly given it 
delivered to the occupier or left at his last or usual place of abode, or with some 
person on the premises in respect of which the rate is payable. Any overseer 


who shall wilfnllj withhold such notice, with intent to keep soch occupier off the 
list of Yoters, shall be deemed goilty of a breach of dntj in the execution tit the 
Begistration Acts. 

Overseen to make out a Idtt of Penont in arrear of RaU». — Overseen of 
CTery parish shall, on or before the 22nd day of Jnly, in every year, make oat a 
list containing the name and place of abode of every person who shall not have 
pud, on or before the 20th day of the same month, all poor rates which shaQ 
have become payable from him in respect of any prenuses within the said 
parish, before the 5th day of January then last past^ and the overseers shall 
keep the said list, to be perused by any person at any time between the houn <rf 
ten in the forenoon and foor in the afternoon of any day, except Sunday, daring 
the first fourteen days after the 22nd day of July; any orerseer wilful^ 
neglecting to make out such list, or to allow the same to be perused, shall be 
deemed guilty of a breach of duty in the execution of the Regi^ration Acts. 

Registration of Voters. — The overseers of every parish or township shall 
cause to be made out lists of all persons who are entitied to vote for a eounty in 
respect of the occupation of premises of a clear yearly value of not less than ten 
pounds. The claim of every person desirous of being registered as a Toter for 
a member or members to serve for any borough in respect of the occupation of 
lodgings, shall be in a form provided by the overseer, and every such daim shall, 
after the last day of July, and on or before the twenty-fiflh day of August, be 
delivered to the overseers of the parish in which such lodgings shall be sitoate, 
and the particulars of such claim shall be published by such overseers on or 
before the first day of September next ensuing in a separate list. So much of 
section 18 of the Act of the session of the sixth year of the reign of Her present 
Majesty, chapter eighteen, as relates to the manner of publishing lists ef claim- 
ants, shall be as heretofore. 

Expenses of Registration to he allowed. — Sections fifty-four and fifty-five of the 
Registration Act of the session of the sixth year of the reign of Her present 
Majesty, chapter eighteen, to be still in force. 

Provision as to Clerks of Peace in Parts of Lincolnshire, — As several of the 
hundreds now assigned to Mid-Lincolnshire, are situate in the parts of Lindsey, and 
others are situate in the part of Kesteven, and the liberty of Lincoln consisting 
of the City and the County of the City of Lincoln is situate partly in the parts 
of Lindsey and partly in the parts of Kesteven, in forming the register for the 
said division of Mid- Lincolnshire the clerk of the peace of the parts of Lindsey 
shall do and perform all such daties as are by law required to be done by darks 
of the peace in regard to such of the hundreds assigned to Mid- Lincolnshire as 
are situate within the said parts of Lindsey, and in regard to so much of the 
liberty of Lincoln as is situate within the said parts of Lindsey ; the deik of the 
peace of the parts of Kesteven shall do and perform all such duties as are by law 
required to be done by clerks of the peace in regard to such of the said hundreds 
assigned to Mid-Lincolnshire as are situate within the said parts of Kesteven, and 
to so much of the liberty of Lincoln aforesaid as is situate within the said parts 
of Kesteven. 

Polling Places. — In every county the justices of the peace having jurisdiction 
therein or in the larger part thereof, assembled at some court of general or quarter 
sessions, or at some adjoarnment thereof, may, if they think convenience requires 
it, divide such county into polling districts, and assign to each district a polling 
place, in such manner as io enable each voter, so far as practicable, to have a 
polling place within a convenient distance of his residence. Where any parish 
in a boroagh is divided into or forms part of more than one polling district^ the 
overseers shall make out the lists of voters in such manner as to divide tiie names 
in conformity with each polling district: The town clerk shall cause the lists of 


Toters for each boroagh to be copied, printed, arranged, and signed, and delivered 
in the manner directed by the Act, bo as to correspond with the division of the 
borough into polling districts: A description of the polling districts made or 
altered in pursuance of this Act shall be advertised by the local authority in such 
manner as they think fit. The local authority may, from time to time, alter any 
districts made by them under this Act. When polling places or polling districts 
are altered, or additional polling places or districts are created, the same shall be 
advertised by the justices in such manner as they shall think fit, and when so 
advertised shall have the same force and e£fect as if the same had been published 
in the London QazeUe. 

Payment of Expenaea Illegal. — It is enacted that it shall not be lawful for any 
candidate, or any one on his behalf, at any election for any borough, except the 
■evenJ boroughs of East Retford, Shoreham, Gricklade, Much Wenlock, and 
Aylesbury, to pay any money for the conveyance of any voter to the poll, but 
such payment shall be deemed to be an illegal payment within the meaning of 
'* The Corrupt Practices Prevention Act, 1854." 

Rooms for taking the Poll. — ^At every contested election, the Returning Officer 
shall, whenever it is practicable so to do, instead of erecting a booth, hire a 
building or room for the purpose of taking the poll. The time for delivery of 
lists of voters shall be December instead of November as heretofore. 

Oath to he taken by the PoU Clerk. — ^The oath to be taken by a poll clerk shall 
hereafter be in the following form: — " I, A.B., do hereby swear, that I will truly 
and indifierently take the poll at the election of members to serve in Parliament 
for the borough or county of So help me God.'* 

Every person for the time being by law permitted to make a solemn affirmation or 
declaration, instead of taking an oath, may make a solemn affirmation in the form 
of the oath hereby appointed, substituting the words, ** solemnly, sincerely, and 
truly declare and affirm" for the word *' swear," and omitting the words **So 
help me God." , 

Receipt of Parochial Relief. — It is enacted that overseers of every parish shall 
omit from the lists made out by them of persons entitled to vote for the borough 
and county in which such parish is situate, the names of all persons who have 
received parochial relief within twelve calendar months next previous to the last 
day of July in the year in which the list is made out. 

Election in 1h^ Univenity of London.— 'Ike Vice-Chancellor of University of 
London to be the returning officer. Elections for University of London to be 
within six days after receipt of writ, three clear days notice being given. At 
every contested election of a member or members to serve in Parliament for the 
University of London, the polling shall commence at eight o^clock in the morning 
of the day next following the day fixed for the election, and may continue for not 
more than five days (Sunday, Christmas day. Ascension day, and Good Friday 
being excluded), but no poll shall be kept open later than four o'clock in the 
afternoon. At every election of a member to serve in Parliament for the Uni- 
versity of London the Vice- Chancellor shall appoint the polling place, and shall 
have power to appoint two or more Pro-Yice-Chancellors, any one of whom may 
receive the votes and decide upon all questions during the absence of such Vice- 
Chancellor ; and such Yice-Chanoellor shall have power to appoint poll clerks 
and other officers, by one or more of whom the votes may be entered in the poll 
book, or such number of poll books as may be necessary; and such Vice- Chan- 
cellor shall, not later than two o'clock in the afternoon of the day next following 
the dose of the poll, openly declare the state of the poll and make proclamation 
of the member chosen. It is enacted .that no person shall be registered as an elector 
for the City of London unless he shall have resided for six caJendar months next 


previous to the last day of July in any year, nor be entitled to vote at any election 
for the said city unless he shall have ever since the last day of July in the year 
in which his name was inserted in the re^^ister then in force have resided, and at 
the time of voting shall have continued to reside within the said city, or within 
twenty-five miles thereof or any part thereof. 

JUtwming Ofieer in a New Bwimgh, — In any borougk aamed in schedule (B) 
and (0) which is or includes a municipal borough, the Mayor of such boroi^ 
shaU be the returning officer, and in other cases the returning officer shall be 

Boundary Oafmnisnonen. — The Right Honorable Lord Visoount Eversley, the 
Bight Honorable Bussell Gumey, Sir John Thomas Buller Duckworth, Buwet, 
Sir FraDda Orossley, Baronet, and John Walter, Bsquire, of whom not leas than 
three shall be a quorum, shall be appointed boundary conumssioners for Snj^and 
and Wales, and they shall immediately proceed to inquire into the temponiy 
boundaries of every borough constituted by this Act, with power to suggest sn^ 
alterations as they may deem expedient. They shall also inquire into the boon* 
daries of every other borough in England and Wales, except such boroughs as are 
disfranchised by this Act, with a view to ascertain whether the boundaries should 
be enlarged, so as to include within the limits of the borough all premises which 
ought to be included therein. They shall also inquire into the divisions of counties 
as constituted by this Act, and as to the places appointed for holding courts for the 
election of members for such division, with a view to ascertain whether and what 
alterations should be made in such divisions or places. The said commissioBen 
shall, with all practicable dispatch, report to one of Her Majesty's iHrindpal 
Secretaries of State upon the several matters in this section referred to them, and 
their report shall be laid before Fftrliament. The commissioners and aasLsbuit 
commissioners so appointed shall give notice by public advertisement of their 
intention to visit such counties and boroughs, and shall appoint a time for receiv- 
ing the statements of any persons who may be desirous of giving information as 
to the boundaries or other local circumstances, the said commisaionen <x 
assistant commissionen shall by personal inspection and such otiier means 
afl the commissioners shall think necessary, possess themselves of sndi infor- 
mation as will enable the commiasioners to make such report as herein men- 

Bribery. — Any person, either directly or indirectly, corruptly paying any rote 
on behalf of any ratepayer for the purpose of enabling him to be registered as a 
voter, thereby to influence his vote at any future election ; and any candidate or 
other person paying any rate on behalf of any Toter for the purpose <^ inducing 
him to vote or refrain from voting, shall be guilty of bribery ; and any person on 
whose behalf any such payment is made shall also be guilty of bribery, and poaiflii* 
able accordingly. 

Clause H. — ^The returning officer, his deputy, the partner or clerk of either of 
them acting as agent, shall be guilty of a misdemeanour. 

Claute I. — Demise of the crown not to dissolve Parliament. Members holding 
offices of profit from the crovm not required to vacate their seats on acceptance d 
another office. Copy of reports of commissioners to be evidence in cases of corrupt 
practices. Clause 49 provides for separate registers where boroughs and couaties 
have been divided by this Act. Clause 60 provides for the formation of new 
boroughs. The revising barrister to write the word ** borough " opposite the name 
of each voter, if not entitied to vote for the county. The franchises confsrred by 
this Act shall be in addition to existing franchises, but no person shall be entitled 
to vote for the same place in respect of more than one quaUfication. It is enacted 
that the issue of writs to County Palatine of Lancaster shall cease. 

















Chipping Wycombe. 











Newport (L of W.). 

Kew Maldon. 





Great Marlow. 








Chichester, j 



HBW B010U0H8. 

MtddXesex — 

Chxls&a — ^Parishes of Chelsea^ Fnlham, Hammersmith, and Kensington. 

Ihyrham — 

DikBLnrarov — ^Townships of Darlington, Hanghton-le-Skeme, and Cockerton. 

The Hartlxpools — ^Municipal Borough of Hartlepool, townships of 
Throston, Stranton, and Seaton Carew. 

Stooktoh — ^Municipal Boroogh of Stockton, and the township of Thomaby. 
Grayisbvd — Paiishes of Grayesend, Milton, and Korthfleet, 

Bi7RniBT-*Towiiships of Bnmley and Habergham Eaves. 

LamceMrt tmd O h ai ki re^- 

SiALETBRmos — ^Municipal Borough of Staleybridge; remaining portion of 
township of Dnkinfield, the township of Stalley, and the district of the 
Local Board of Health of Mossley. 


WiDHSBURT— Fttrishes of Wednesbuiy, West Bromwich, and Tipton. 

Yorktkm {North Sidimg)-^ 

HXDPLiSBOSonoH — ^Township of Linthorpe, and so much of the townships 
of Middlesborough, Ormesby, and Bston as lie to the north of the road 
leading from Eston towards Tarm. 

Torkthire {Wat niding)— 

DswiBU&T — ^The townships of Dewsbuy, Batley, and Soothill. 






Borongk of Tow«r Hamleti. 
Borooj^of Haekney. 



County to be 


County to be 




North Cheshire. 

S. Lancashire 

S. B. Lancashire. 

Mid Cheshire. 

D. w. iiancMnire. 

South Cheshire. 


North linodnshire. 
Mid Lincolnahire. 


North Derbyshire. 
South Derbyshire. 

East Derbyshire. 


West Norfolk. 
North East Norfolk. 


North Devonshire. 

South Bast Norfolk. 

East Devonshire. 


East Somersel 

South Devonshire. 

Mid Somerset 
West Somerset. 


North West Essex. 


North Stafibrdshiie. 

North East Essex. 

West Staffordshire. 

South Essex. 

East Staffordshire. 

West Kent 

West Kent. 
Biid Kent 

East Surrey 

Bast Surrey. 
Mid Surrey. 

Torkshire (West 

Northern Division. 

N. Lancashire 

North Lancashire. 


Mid Division. 

N. B. Lancashire. 


Southern Division. 

The Lords' amendments to the Reform Bill discussed in the 
Commons; the clause for the representation of minorities 
agreed to by 253 to 204 ; the voting papers clause rejected 
by 258 to 206. Aug. 8, 1867. 

The Lords agree to the Commons' amendments to the Bieform 
Bill. Ang. 12, 1867. 

The Reform Bill receives the Royal assent. Ang. 15, 1867. 

The Emperor and Empress of the French meet the Emperor 
and Empress of Austria at Salzburg. Aug. 18, 1867. 


The Italian Chambers prorogued. Aug. 19, 1867. 

The Greek blockade-runner Arkadi destroyed bj three Turkish 
men-of-war. Aug. 19, 1867. 

Parliament prorogued by Royal Commission; resolution to 
despatch an expedition to Abyssinia announced in the Queen's 
speech. Aug. 21, 1867. 

The Manchester Trades Outrages Commission commences its 
inqmry. Sep. 2, 1867. 

The first session of the North German Parliament opened by 
the Emg of Prussia. Sep. 13, 1867. 

Pioneer force of the Abyssinian expedition, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Merewether, despatched from Bombay. 

Sep. 16, 1867. 

A police-van at Manchester attacked by armed Fenians, Police 
Serjeant Brett killed, and two prisoners, Kelly and Deasy, 
rescued. Sep. 18, 1867. 

Great battle in Afghanistan ; the troops of Shere Ali Elhan 
defeated, and their deneral, Fyz Mohammed Khan, killed. 

Sep. 21, 1867.* 

Garibaldi arrested at Sinalunga by the Italian Government. 

Sep. 23, 1867. 
The PrasBian Chambers dissolved by royal decree. 

Sep. 2.3, 1867. 

The raler of Gabvl, Dost Mohammed, died leaving two sons, Azful Khan 
sod Shere Ali Elian, of whom the last was his favourite and heir elect. The 
^ vas opposed by Azfal, and civil war ensned. Azful made himself master of 
Gabol, and of all the kingdom from Candahar to Balk, by the courage of his 
MD, Abdool Eahman. On Sep. 21, Shere Ali Khan, who had been steadily 
^proaching the city of Oabul with his Turkistani hordes under the young General 
fyz Mohammed, was met by the Cabulees, under Abdool Rahman, and a fierce 
vncoiinter ensued, which resdted in the defeat of the Turkistani force, and the 
ueath of Fyz Mohammed. The Turkistani force fled clean away, Shere Ali 
^ing refnge in his provinces beyond the Affghan frontier. English politicians 
h&Te complained that ^e Indian Government does not support Azful Khan and 
wt branch of the Dosti line. But has Sir John Lawrence acted unwisely t 
Sogland has had enough of Afghanistan in the past, and may wish Bussia joy 
«f it if she likes to meddle with its ferocious politics. If we are to push our out- 
vorh to G&bnl, why not to Herat ? and if to Herat, then why not again to Meru ? 
W^ hold the gorge of the Ehyber as it is, and the Indus, the natural fosse of 
I^dia. There we ought to stand, watching outside affain, but not afraid of 
"^ whatever turn they may take. The approach of Russia to our confines is 
tmong the most interesting triumphs of civilization, and long before her black 
^d white posts are pitched on the Khooram or GwaJeyree rocks, changes will 
we come over both her political system and ours which will make the meeting 
^ the civilizers as natural as it will be beneficial. 


The Pan-AngUcan Synod assemble at Lambeth Palace. 

Sep. 24, 1867. 

Bagnorre, in the Papal States, surprised by insurgents. 

Oct. 3, 1867. 

Colonel Merewether's exploring force lands at ZoHa, u 
Abyssinia. Oct. 4, 1867. 

Bagnorre recaptured by the Papal Zouaves. Oct. 5, 1867. 

The advanoe brigade of the Abyssinian expedition, under the 
command of Colonel Field, leaves Bombay. Oct. 7, 1867. 

Sossian America formally transferred to the United States at 
New Archangel. Oct. 8, 1867. 

Afznl Khan, the Ameer of Affghanistan, dies. Oct. 10, 1867. 

liotion for the abrogation of the Concordat made in ihe 
Austrian Beichsrath and referred to a committee. 

Oct. 11, 1867. 

Sngagement between the Papal troops and the Garibaldians 
at Monte Libretto. Oct. 13, 1867. 

The Papal Zouaves repulsed in an attack on the GhtribaldiMis 
at Nerola. Oct. 14, 1867. 

Garibaldi escapes from Caprera at night. Oct. 19, 1867. 

The London tailors* strike terminates after a duration of six 
months. Oct. 19, 1867. 

The Ratazzi Ministry resigns ; General Cialdini charged with 
the formation of a new Cabinet. Oct. 19, 1867. 

French troops ordered to embark at Toulon for Civita Vecchia. 

Oct 20, 1867. 

The advance brigade g( the Abyssinian expedition, under 
Colonel Field, lands at ZuUa. Oct. 21, 1867. 

The French Government announces in the Moniteur the sus- 
pension of its intended intervention in Rome. Oct. 22, 1867. 

UnsucceBsftQ insurrectionary outbreak in Bome. Oct. 22, 1867. 

Garibaldi^ after two days' stay in Florence, leaves for the Roman 
frontier. Oct. 22, 1867. 

General Cialdini announces his inability to form a cabinet; 
the task entrusted to General Menabrea. Oct. 25, 1867. 

Circular issued }^j M. Moustier explai^iing the French Govern- 
ment's reasons for intervening in the fioman States. 

Oct. 25, 1867. 

A French squadron of iron-clads leaves Toulon for Civita 
Vecchia. with troops. Oct. 26, 1867. 


Monte Rotondo captured by Gikribaldi. Oct. 26, 1867. 

A new Italian ministay formed nnder General Menabrea. 

Oct. 27, 1867. 

Proclamation issned by tiie Eling of Italy calling npon the 
Garibaldians to desist from their invasion of the Papal States. 

Oct. 27, 1863. 

The King of the Gkreeks marries at St. Petersburg the Grand 
Duchess Olga Constantinovma. Oct. 27, 1867. 

The business of the special commission for the trial of the 
Penian prisoners at Manchester commences. Oct. 28, 1867. 

Oreat Conservatiye banquet given to Mr. Disraeli in the Com 
. Exchange, Edinburgh. Oct. 29, 1867. 

The French troops disembark at Civita Vecchia. Oct. 29, 1867. 

Tearful hurricajie in the West Indies ; sixty vessels wrecked 
and 500 lives lost at St. Thomas. Oct. 29, 1867. 

Trench troops enter Bome. • Oct. 30, 1867. 

Italian troops cross the Roman frontier. A circular issued 
by General Menabrea, explaining the G-ovemment*s reasons 
for taking this step. Oct. 80, 1867. 

The joint committee appointed in 1866 by the King of Sweden 
and Norway to agree upon the terms of a new political union 
draws up a scheme, subject to the assent of their respective 
Legislatures. Oct., 1867. 

^ By this scheme the two coimtriea are left in their existiiig state of eqaality and 
htenal goyemment. Each nation remains a free, indivisible^ and independent 
^kiBgdom, although both are declared united under one king, with mutual equality 
iad parallel position. The state of peace or war is common to both, and an 
*^k on one is an attack on both. The existing council of state, composed of 
in Swedes and three Norwegians, is to be replaced by a council formed of an 
i^oal number of councillors of both nations, to whom are to be referred all 
JBasores affecting the two nations in common, and all propositions of changes in 
act of union. The conduct of foreign affairs^ over which Norway has hitherto 
bat alight control, is subjected to this body, although the Minister of Foreign 
'~~ will continue to be a Swede, and will have the right of introducing such 
for the consideration of the council. The appointment and acceptance of 
ilxiaadoiB and diplomatic agents are submitted to it ; and if the king exercises 
power of making war or peace, he is bound to cause to be laid before the 
cil all circumstances affecting this conclusion, and full statements as to the 
ition of the two countries in regard to finances and defences. The king has 
control of the sea and land forces of the two nations, and may collect and use 
in any part of Sweden and Norway. That part of the Norwegian constitu- 
▼bich prevents the king from using the Norwegian contingent beyond the 
Varies of the two countries is to l^ abolished, and the forces of both are 
e available for offensive as well as defensive war. Whilst, also, neither force 
y be onployed in the service of a foreign power, it may co-operate with the 

B 2 



army of an ally, even thongh for the purposes of snch co-operation it may 
necessary to place the Swedo-Korwe^ian troops under the command of tbe 
Each nation is bound to provide a properly trained and equipped contingent 
forces and to furnish a war credit of two sums, available for unexpected em4 
gencies, one to be always at the king's disposition if war is imminent, the ol 
to be available only in case preparations are needed to resist, a hostile attadL 
remains to be hereafter determined at what the contribution of each natii 
whether in arms or money, shall be fixed. As to the choice of a sovereii 
regent, or crown prince, if the necessity for such choice should arise, the scl 
provides that the election shall be made by a commission composed of e| 
Swedish and eighty Norwegian deputies, who are to assemble in the town 
Oarlstad. In the event of two candidates polling an equal number of votes, 
election is to be decided by lot. 

Five of the Fenian prisoners at Manchester sentenced to Aei 

Nov. 1, ir 

The new Metropolitan Street Traffic Act comes into operatio] 

Nov. 1, ir^ 

Despatch sent to Florence by M. de Monstier, expressing 
disapproval of the occupation of Papal territory by Italic 
troops. Nov. 1, ir " 

Destractive cyclone at Calcutta and tiiroughont Bengal ; 
wards of 1,000 lives lost. Nov. 1, II 

Oaribaldi attacked and defeated by the French and Pa] 
troops at Mentana. Nov. 3, IS 

The Paris Exhibition closes. Nov. 3, 18( 

Oaribaldi arrested on his way to Leghorn to embark 
Caprera. Nov. 4, 1861 

The appointment of a royal commission on the Irish Chi 
officially announced. Nov. 5, 1861 

The Italian troops withdrawn from the Papal territory. 

Nov. 5, 1867J 

Death of Marshal O'Donnell at Biarritz. Nov. 5, 1867J 

The charge of murder against the remaining Fenian prisone] 
at Manchester withdrawn. Nov. 7, 1867^ 

Note addressed by General Menabrea to the French Qovi 
ment, calling npon it to discontinue its intervention in th( 
Roman States. Nov. 7, 1867J 

The first session of the Canadian United Parliament opened 
Lord Monck. Nov. 7, 186! 

Bread riots break out in the south of England, at Teignmoui 
Exeter, Torquay, and Barnstaple. Nov. 1 — 8, 18673 

Invitations issued to the European powers by France to con* 
ference on the Eoman question. Nov. 9, 1867#| 


Che Fenian trials at Manchester conclude. Nov 12, 1867. 

I.dzniral Tegethoff leaves Mexico with the late Emperor Maxi- 
milian's body. Nov, 12, 1867. 

Brand Dnrbar held at Lucknow by Sir John Lawrence. 

Nov. 12, 1867. 

!P!he appointments of M. Pinard to succeed M. de Lavalette 
as Minister of the Interior, and of M. Magne to succeed 
M. Rouher as Finance Minister, announced. Nov. 15, 1867. 

The new Prussian parliament opened. Nov, 15, 1867. 

The French Chambers opened by the Emperor. Nov. 18, 1867. 

St. Thomas and the neighbouring islands visited by severe 
sliocks of earthquake and volcanic eruptions. Nov. 18, 1867. 

parliament opened by Royal Commission^ Nov. 19, 1867. 

The American Congress assembled. Nov. 21, 1867. 

Allen, Larkin, and Gould executed at Manchester for the mur- 
der of Sergeant Brett. Nov. 23, 1867. 

Fnneral processions in honour of the executed Fenians taken 
place in London, Manchester, and Birmingham. Nov. 24, 1867. 

Vote of credit for £2,000,000 for the Abyssinian expedition 
passed by the House of Commons. Nov. 26, 1867. 

The Dutch ministry resign in consequence of the rejection 
of the military budget by the Second Chamber. Nov. 26, 1867. 

Garibaldi released and sent to Caprera. Nov. 26, 1867. 

An addition of a penny to the income tax, to defray the 
expenses of the Abyssinian expedition, agreed to by the 
House of Commons. Nov. 28, 1867. 

Resolution sanctioning the payment of the Indian troops in 
Abyssinia out of the Tndia.n revenues carried by 198 to 23. 

Nov. 28, 1867. 

Debate in the French Senate on the Roman question. 

Nov. 29 & .SO, 1867. 

Processions of Fenian sympathizers take place at Cork and 
Manchester. Dec. 1, 1867. 

A series of resolutions on national education moved in the 
House of Lords by Earl Russell. Dec. 2, 1867. 

The French flag formally lowered at Rome. Dec. 3, 1867. 

The President's message sent to Congress. Dec. 3, 1867. 

Debate in the French Corps Legislatif on the Italian policy of 

ihe Government. Dec. 3 & 5, 1867. 


The House of Commons resolution relating to the AbjE 
expedition adopted hj tlie Honse of Lords. Dec. 5, li 

M. Rouher declares in the Corps Legislatif that France 
never allow Italy to have Borne. Dec. 5, II 

Amnesty issued by the King of Italy to all engaged in tl 
invasion of the Papal States. Dec. 5, If' 

The advance brigade of the Abyssinian expedition 
Senafe. Dec. 6, 186] 

Resolution for the impeachment of President Johnson defe 
in the House of Representatives by 108 to 57 votes. 

Dec. 7, 186! 

Proclamation issued by the Irish government forbidc 
further contemplated faneral processions. Dec. 12, 186^ 

The wall of the Clerkenwell House of Detention blown do\ 
by Fenians, causing the death of six persons, and seriom 
injuring more than forty. Dec. 13, 186S 

Terrible explosion of nitro-glycerine at Newcastle, causii 
seven deaths. Dec. 17, "' 

Mr. John Martin, and other leaders of the Dublin fane 
procession, committed for trial for misdemeanour. 

Dec. 18, 1863 

Sir Robert Napier sails from Bombay for Abyssinia. 

Dec. 21, 1865 

The Italian Government defeated on a direct vote of coi 
fidence regarding the Roman question by 201 to 199. 

Dec. .22, 1865 

The 'resignation of the Italian ministry announced by Genei 
Menabrea in the Chambers. General Menabrea commissione 
to form a new cabinet. Dec. 23, 1865 

Appointment of the new Austrian ministry for the conntrie 
represented in the Reichsrath. Dec. 31, 1867J 




« * 


For the dates of the Beigns, &c., of the Sovereigna of the Century, the 
reader is referred to the Alphabetical Table of Contemporary Sovereigns, 
which commences p. 281. 

For tke incidents in the lives of deceased Eminent Persons, reference most be 
made to the Alphabetical Biographical Notes, commencing p. 849. 

isBATX, massacre of the . 
Aberdeen ministry resigns . 
AbysBmian captives, debate on the 

case of . . 
~- expedition despatched . 

• vote on account of . 

ieapolco, blockade of. 
Aere, attacked by Ibrahim Pacha 
^ capture of . ... 
Anlcingo, Mexicans defeated at . 
AdaatB (John), first United States 
minister, received . 
(da, Austrian army crosses the . 

rianopie, capture of 
tilia annexed to Sardinia 
^formation of province of 
"^ban war. commencement of 





■ — ends . . , .95 
nca> discoveries in . 26, 40, 41 
Galientes, occupation of . 201 
ricnltnral Hall, Belgian Volun- 
teer Ball at . . .281 
— reform demonstration in . 226 
lednuggur, cession of . .40 
•la-Chapelle, congress of . 66 
do, Napoleon's I.'s statue at 
inaugurated . . . 218 
;Frince Napoleon's speech at . 213 
vma sunk by the Kea^a/rgt. 204 
lia, revolt in . . . 132 
ert medal instituted . .219 

Aleock (Sir R) protests against 
Japanese outrages . 

if ?earan(2ra, judgment in case of . 

Alexandra (Princess) leaves Den- 
mark .... 

Alfred (Prince) elected King of 
Greece .... 

refuses the Greek crown . 

Algeria, French emperor visits . 

Algerian fleet defeated 

Algiers, bombardment of . 

— conquered by the French 

— Emperor and ESmpress of the 

French visit . 
Allen, the Fenian, execution of . 
Allyghur, capture of . 
Alsen, bombardment of 
Altona, Prussian occupation of . 
Amazon and Osprey, collision 
America, destruction of taxed tea 

at Boston 

— English forces land at Boston . 

— fatal affray at Boston 

— Massachusetts assembly peti- 

tion against trade-tax 
American colonies, act taxing tea, 

&c., in, passed 
Amherst's (Lord) embassy to China 
Amoy, capture of . . . 

— Taeping capture of 
Ancona, bombardment of . - 

— surrender of . 





















Anglo-Greek question • • . 120 
French intervention con- 
cerning accepted . .120 

— parliamentarj yote concerning 121 
Antwerp, capture of . . .79 

— siege of , , ^ .. 83 
Aranjuez, military insurrection in 219 
Arctic expedition, under Franklin ] 02 
Argentine -Confederation declares 

' war with Buenos Ayres . 175 
Aigos, congress at . . .71 

— Greek National Assembly sits at 77 
Argus sloop captured . . .67 
Arkadif destruction of tlie . 241 
*' Armed Neutrality," the . . 6 

reyival of ... 35 

Armstrong gun, report on . ,149 
Arrow f British lorcha, outrage on 140 
Ashburton (Lord) at New York . 94 
Ashburton treaty (the) « . 94 
Asturias, insurrection in . .49 

— (Prince of the), conspiracy of . 47 
Athens, capture of . . 701, 75 

— George I. arrives at , .194 

— revolution at . . 100, 192 
uitZanta ironclad, capture of . 191 
Atlantic cable of 1^65, com- 
pletion of^ ., • . 223 

— telegraph, convention for . 203 

completed . . 148, 222 

Augustenburg (Frederick of) Duke 

of Schleswig-Holstein . . 199 

sells his claim to the 

Danish duchies . .128 
Australia, expeditions into interior 

of . . . 72, 73, 77, 148 

— Eyre's exploration of . .93 

— first convict settlement in .12 
English church in . .22 

— Gascoyne river discovered . 90 

— King explores the great Sahara 179 

— L^islative council established 72 

— Leichardt's expedition . .117 

— Sturt's (Captain) exploration , 104 

— transportation to, abolished • 210 

— (Western) explored by Landor 101 

-* — ; Lefray . , . 101 

Austria, alliance with Great Britain 

and France . . .135 

— amnesty to Hungarian political 

offenders . . . .187 

— Beust (Baron) prime minister . 225 

— commercial treaty with England 

89, 218 

Austria, commercial treaty with 
Prussia .... 

— concession to Protestants in . 

— concordat with Borne 
proposed abolition •£ . 

— diplomatic relations with Sar- 

dinia cease ^ . 140, 

— financial corruption in the army 


— industrial legislation appointed 

— Libney attempts to assassinate 

the emperor . 

— ministry of marine established 

— new constitution promulgated 


— peace signed with Prussia 

— principle of ministerial reetpon* 

sibility sanctioned « 

— protest against Bavarian con- 

union of Italy 

— Beichsrath, privileges of, ex- 

tended ..... 

— remonstrates against Bussian 

cruelties in Poland . 

— war with France . 

; — Italy « ♦ . . 

' — Naples 



Ayrton's (Mr.) amendment to the 

Beform Bill carried . 
Azov (Sea of) expedition into the . 














Babobvf's conspiracy . . .29 
Badajos, capture of . . .54 
Baden, meeting of European 

sovereigns at . . . 162 

— insurrections in , . .118 

— joins the coalition . . .62 
Bagnorre, capture.of . . . 242 
Bagoline, defeat of the Gari- 

baldians at . . . 210 
Baldwin (Major) murder of . 210 
Balearic Isles divided into military 

districts , . .1^ 

Baltic fleet reviewed at Spithead . 133 
Baltimore, convention at, for pro- 
moting election of JohnBell 161 

— riot at . . . . 172 
Bank Charter Act passed . . 101 
suspended . . » 1*^ 

— of England resumes cash pay- 

ment§f . . , €5, 70 



S&nk of England stops payment . 
S^mkraptcy Law Amendment Act 



Gantry Bay, HocIie*8 expedition 
anchors in • « . 
Har, conf edeiation of 
Sarbati, Turks defeated at 
Barcelona, insorrections in 

. 2 
. 70 
95, 100, 
139, 219 
96, 101 
. 146 
, 224 
. 244 
. 40 
73, 141 
. 33 

— surrender of . , 

Hareilly, recapture of 

Hamsley Colliery, explosion at 

Samstaple, bread riots at . 

iBaroach, cession of . 

Harrackpore, mutiny at 

Bass's Straits discovered 

Hastille, destniction of the . 15 

Satavian Bepoblic organized . 23 

3atthyany (Coant) executed . 116 

Battles: Aboukir ... 34 

—Acs 118 

—Adda (the) .... 33 
—Agra ..... 144 
— Ahmednu^ur . .39 

— Albuera . . • . .53 

—Alexandria . . .87 

— AKwal 104 

—Alma 134 

— Almansee .... 2 

— Alsen 215 

— Alumbagb . . . .145 
— Antietam Greek . . .185 
—Areola , . . 28 

— Argaum 40 

— Arklow 33 

— Arrah 143 

— Aschaffenburg . 222 

—Aspen . . .50 

— Aspromonte .... 185 

— Assaye 40 

— Auerstadt .45 

— Austerlitz . . .42 

— Ayacucho . .73 

— Baidar 137 

—Balaclava . 135 

— Ballinamuck . . . .33 
-Ball's Bluff . ,176 

— Ballynahinch . .33 

—Baltimore 60 

— Barrossa .53 

— Bar-sur-Aube . . .58 

— Bassano . . . . .28 
^Bautzen . . . . .56 
-Bayazid . ... 184 



Battle, Baylen . 

. 49 

— Bellair .... 

. 60 

— Beresina (the) 


— Beigen .... 

. 34 

— Bergen-op-Zoom 

. 58 

— Beylau 


-Biberach ... 2 


-Big Bethel 

. 173 

— Bithoor .... 

. 143 

— Bladensburg . . . . 


— Bois-le-Duc . 

. 24 

— Bolundshohur . 


—Borodino . . . . 

. 55 

— Boxtel 


— Brandywine . . . . 


—Briar's Greek . . . . 


— Brienne 


—Buenos Ayres . . . . 

. 46 

-Bull Run . . .174 


—Bunker's Hill . 


— Bueno Vista . 

. 108 

— Busaco 


— Bushire . ^ . 


— Galatifimi 

. 161 

— Gambray 

. 24 

— Gamden .... 


— Camperdown . . . . 


—Gape St. Vincent, off 

. 28 

— Gardenas . . . • 


— Garthage (U.S.) 


— Gassano 


— GasteUa. . . . . 


— Gastiglione 

. 27 

— Gastillejo . . . ■ 


— Gastlebar , . . - 


— Gawnpore 

. 146 

— Gedar Mountain 


— Ghancellorsville 


— Ghang-kia-wan 

. 164 

— Ghickahominjr (the) 


— Ghickamauga Greek 


— Ghillianwallah 


— Ghippawa 

. 60 

— Ghoczim . . . . 


— Ghuen-pe 

. 92 

— Ghumphee 

. 91 


. 132 

— Gorinth 


— Gorunna. . . i 

. 60 

— Graonne 


— Gurtalone . . . . 


— Gustozza . . .11^ 


— Damoko . . . , 


— Dennewitz . . . . 

. 57 





Battle, Dhoodea-Eeran 

. 149 

Battle, KisaiDgen 

. 222 

— Doggerbank, off 

. 9 

— Konieh . , . . 

. 83 


. 67 

— Eonigsgratz . 

. 2^2 


. 22 

— Kooneh . . . . 

. 14« 

— Eckmiihl 

. 60 

— Eooshal . .. . . 

. 140 

— Eco-Oannians . 

. 145 

— Eostalnizza . • 

• 147 


. 180 

— Kuruk-Derek . 

, 134 

— Engen . . . , 

. 35 

— Landshut 

. 60 

— Espierres 

. 24 

— Langensalza . 

. 222 

— Essling . . . . 

. 60 

— Laon ... 

. 58 

— Estanznela 

. 207 

— Laono . . . . 

• 27 

— Eupatoria 

. 135 

—La Rothidre . 

. . . 68 

— Eutaw Springs 

. 9 

— Leipsic . 

. 57 

— Eylau . . . , 

. 45 


. 4 

—Fair Oaks 

. 183 

— Ligny . 

. 63 

— Ferozeshah 

. 105 

— Lincelles 

. ^ 

— Fleurus . . . . 

. 24 

— Lodi 

. 27 

— Fontainebleau 

. 58 

— Lodosa . 

. 87 

—Port Erie 

. 60 

— Lonato . 

. 27 


. 187 

—Long Island . 

. 6 

— Frederickshamm 

, 60 

—Look-out Mountain . 

. 198 

— Freiburg 

. 110 

-Lucerne . 

. 110 

— Friedland 

. 46 

— Lutzen . 

. 56 

— Fuentes d'Onoro 

. 63 

— Maciejowice . 

. . 25 

— Furruckabad . 

. 41 

—Magenta • . 

. 162 

— Futtehghur . 

. 145 

— Maharajpoor . 

. 101 

—Gaines Mill , 

. 184 

— Maida . 

. 44 

— Garigliano 

. 166 

— Malignano 

, 152 

— Germanstown . 

. 6 

— Malo-Jarolsawatz 

. . 51 

— Gerscheim 

. 222 

—Malvern Hill . 

. 184 

—Gettysburg . 

. 192 

—Manassas Junction . 

. 185 

— Goojerat 

. 117 

— Maohetia 

. 166 

— Gorey . . . . 

. 32 


. . 85 

— Goruckpore . 

. 145 

— Martinesti 

. 15 

— Grochow . \ . 

. 80 

— Matehuela 

. 203 

— Guad el-Ras . 

. 159 


. 183 

—Guildford . . • , 

. 9 

— Mecha,nicsville 

. 184 

— Hanau . . . . 

. 67 

— MeeAnee 

. 95 

— Hernani 

. 87 

— Melazzo. 

. 162 

— Herrera. 

. 88 

— Menin . 

. 19 

— Hochstadt 

. 36 

— Mentana 


— Hobenlinden . 

. 85 

— Millsprings 

. 180 

— Idstedt . . . . 

. 121 

— Mincio (the) . 

. 36 

— Inigo 

. 87 

—Missionary Bidge . 

. 198 

— Inkermann . 

. 185 

— Mitylene 

. 72 

-Isly . . . . 

. 102 

— Mockem 

. . 57 

— Jellalabad 

, 94 

— Mohilow 

. . 55 

— Jemappes 

. 20 

— Mohrungen . 

. 45 

—Jena . . . . 

. 45 

— Mondovi 

. 27 

— Kalisch . . . . 

. 66 

— Montebello . 

35, 152 


. 94 

— Montenotte . 

. 27 

— Katzbach 

. 67 

— Montereau 

. 58 

— KilcuUen 

. 82 


. 107 

— Kirkee . . . . 

. 66 

—Monte Suello . 

. 222 





Battle, MoodJ^ee . ' . .105 

Battle, Salamanca 

. 55 

— Mooltan . 

. 117 

— Sandberg 


— Mlinchengriitz 

, 222 

—San Lorenzo . 


— Mnrfreesboroagli 

. 188 

—Savage Station 


— NiHW . 

. 82 

— Scbftssberg . 


— Nacbod . 


— Seidlice . 


— Navarino 


— Seringapatam. 


7, 83 

— Neerwindcn . 


— Silistria . , 


— Keresheim 

. 28 

— Smolensko 


—Nile (the) . 


— Sobraon . 


— NoTAia . 


— Solferino 


— Novi . . . 


—South Mountain 


— Najufl^hiir 

, 143 

— Tagliacozzo 


— Ocana 

. 51 

— Tagliamento . 


— Oltenitza 

. 131 

— Talavera. 


— Olustee • 

. 200 

— Tara 

> 32 

— Orizaba . 

. 183 

— Tarbes . 


— Ortbei . 

. 58 

— Tarqui . 

, 76 

— Ostrolenka . 

. 80 

— Tchemaya 

. 136 

— Onlart . 

. 32 

— Temeswar 

. 119 

— Ozontero 

. 109 

— Tetuan . 

. 158 

— Palestro. 

. 152 

— Thermopylae . 

. 70 

— Pa-li-chau 

. 164 

— Tolentino 

. 63 

—Palo Alto 

. 105 


. 58 

— Pandoo Nuddee 

. 145 

— Tourcoing 

, 24 

— Passagefl 

. 86 


. 42 

— Paron . 

. 176 

— Trautenau 

, 222 

—Pea Ridge 

. 180 

— Trebia . 

. 34 

— Pered . 

. 118 

— Tse-kee . 


— Perryville 

. 186 

— Tsemia . 

. 164 

— PetropauloTski 

. 134 

— Tudela . 

. 49 

— Pincbacba 

. 70 

— Ulm 


— Pittsburg Landing 

. 181 

— Valmy . 

. 19 

1 f\ 

— Polotzk . 

. 55 

— Vimeira . 


— Praga . 

. 25 

—Vinegar Hill . 

, 33 

— Prescott , 

, 90 

— Vittoria . 

. 57 

— Pultuak . 

. 45 

— Voltumo (the) 

. 164 

—Pyramids (the) 

. 33 

— Wagram. 

, 50 

—Pyrenees (the) 

. 57 




— Qnatre Bras . 

. 63 

— Wattignies 


— Qaeenstown , 

. 55 

— Wawi . 


— Qnesnoy. 

. 22 

—White Oak Swamp . 


— Backeball 

. 200 

—White Plains . 



— Rajghur . 

. 149 

-Wielhoi . 

. 200 

— RangarizL 

. 196 

— Williamsburg . 

, 183 

—Rejjjjio . 

. 185 

-Wilna . 


—Rhode Island . 


—Wilson's Creek 


—Rich Mountain 

. 174 

-Winchester (U.S.) . 



— Rivoli . 

. 28 

— Witepsk. 

. 56 

— Sadowa . 

. 222 

— Wurtzchen 


—St. Armand . 

. 21 

— Wurzburg 


—St. Eustace . 


— Xiquilpan 


—St. Jean d*Acre 

. 33 

— Yanacocha . , 


—St. Jean de Luz 

. 57 

—Zurich . 


3, 34 



Bavaria, oonstitational charter for 65 

— Elizabeth (Princess), marriage of 133 

— first king of . . . .42 

— peace signed vith Pnusia . 223 

— protest of, concerning Greek 

succession * , . 190 
Bavarian constitution, Austria 

protests against . . 119 

Frederick William IV. head 

of 119 

Beaufort House, Kensington, re- 
form demonstration at . 224 
Belfast, riots in. . .144, 206 
Belgian provinces annexed to 

Holland . . • 60, 61 

— volunteers arrive in London . 231 
Belgium, commercial treaty with 

France .... 173 
— Bussia . , . 146 

— declared independent . .79 

— English volunteers visit . . 223 

— independence o^ recognized . 80 

— invaded by Buonaparte . . 68 

— (King of) visits England. . 203 

— treaty for settling limits of .81 
Belgrade, surrender of . . 228 
Benares ceded to East India Co. . 4 
Bengal, High Court of Judicature 

at, established . .184 

Berhampore, mutiny at . .141 
Berlin, Austrian ambassador leaves 221 

— declared in a state of siege . 115 

— evacuated by the French . 66 

— Industrial Exhibition opened . 126 

— insurrection in , . .131 
Bernard (Simon), trial of . .146 
Berne made Swiss federal city . 115 
Berry (Duke of) assassinated . 67 
Beyrout, bombardment of . .92 

— massacre of the Maronites at, 

161, 162 
Bhootan, seizure of English envoy at 202 

— war begins .... 209 
Bhurtpore, capture of. , 42, 74 
BidasBoa, passage of the . . 57 
Bilbao relieved from the Oarlists . 87 
Bird (Lieut.), murder of . .210 
Birmingham Banking Company, 

- suspension of . . . 222 

— Fenian funeral procession in .245 

— "Murpby" riots at . . 230 

— Reform demonstration at . 228 
Black Joke schooner, murder of 

the crew of . , .91 

Black Sea, allied fleets enter . 132 
Bogle (Paul), capture of • . 217 
Bogue Forts destroyed • 92, 108 
Bohemia invaded by Frederick II. 

of Prussia • . .6 
Bomaisund, surrender of . .134 
Bombay, commercial crisis in . 215 
Bomfin (Count) defeated by Sal- 

danha at Torres Yedras . 108 
Bosphorus, British fleet enters . 131 
Boulogne, review of French troops 134 
Bourbons restored in France . 59 

Brabazon (Captain), murder of, by 

the Chinese . . .164 
Bradfield reservoir, bursting of the 201 
Brand (Lieut.), warrant granted 

against .... 225 
Brandenburg, Prussian Consti- 
tuent Assembly meets at . IIS 
Brazil declares itself independent 71 

— diplomatic rupture with Ghreat 

Britain . . . .191 
intercourse renewed with . 216 

— English dispute with, referred 

to King of Belgium . . 192 
-— independence recognized by 

Portugal , , . .78 

— made a kingdom , . .64 

— revolt of slaves In . . .3 

— royal family of Portugal land in 48 

— slaves, the import of, made 

piratical • . .121 

— war with Uruguay . . .206 
Brett (Sergeant), murder of . 241 
Briggs (Mr.), murder of . . 207 
British Museum 'acquires Geoige 

III.'s library . , . 72 

purchases the Elgin marbles 65 

Hamilton collection . 2 

Lansdown MSS. . 48 

Phigalian marbles . 64 

Townley marbles • 43 

British North America, scheme 

for confederation of . 208, 212 

Confederation Bill passed 226 

Brussels, insurrection at , 79, 85 
Buenos Ayres, capture of . .43 
war with Argentine confede- 
ration . . , • ^^f 
Bull-dog^ destruction of the . 217 
Bull Bun, Confederate Americans 

retire from , . .181 
Bulwer (Sir Henry) ordered to quit 

Madrid .... HS 



Bnlwer-Clayton treaty, the . .120 
Bandelcund, cession of . .42 
Burke, the Fenian, conyiction of , 228 

reprieve of . » . 229 

Burmese war commences • * 72 

ends .... 130 

Barnes (Sir A.), murder of . .94 

Gabux, evacnation of , . 94, 95 

— insurrection at • . .94 

— massacre at . . . .94 
Caffre war ends .... 129 
Octgliariy Sardinian steamer, seized 1 42 
Cairo, massacre of the Mamelukes 

at 58 

Calabria, Borges lands in . .176 

— Ghiribaldi lands at . .185 

— Mnrat lands in . . .64 
Calcutta, cyclone at . . .244 

— made residence of Goyemor- 

General ... 8 

— rq^lations concerning boming 

of the dead at . . 201 

— terrific cyclone at . , .208 
California admitted into the U.S. 1 21 

— (Upper) ceded to U.S. . .110 
Cambridge (Princess Mary of), 

marriage of . . . 221 
Campeachy, occupation of . J 201 
Canada, British troops sent to .178 
'^Canadadergy reserves" abolished 129 

— disturbances in . . . 118 

— evacuated by Americans. . 4 

— grant for d^ence of . .212 

— invaded by American forces 4, 166 
-^ Ottawa capital of . » .148 

— Prince of Wales visits . ,164 

— Upper and Lower, united . 92 
Canadian United Parliament, first 

session of . . . 244 
Gandia, persecution of Christians in 153 

— revolt in ♦ , » , 222 
Cannes, Buonaparte lands at . 61 
Canton attacked by the British . 93 

— blockade of . . . .91 

— bombardment of . . . 1 40 

— capture of . , . . 145 

— fracas at ... . 105 

— opened to the British . .100 

— opium dispute at . . .90 

— restored to the Chinese . . 176 
Capo d^Istrias, assassination of . 81 
Caprera, Ghuribaldi escapes from, 

at nigbt . . . .242 

Caracciolo (Prince) executed . 34 
Carbonari, insurrection of the • 68 
Carlsbad, congress at . . 66 

Carlsruhe occupied by the Prussians 118 
Carnarvon (Lord), resignation of . 226 
Caroline steamer burnt . . 88 
Casa Lanzi, convention of . .63 
Casteliidardo, Papal troops de- 
feated at • . . 164 
Catalonia declared part of France 53 

— martial law proclaimed in .88 
Catania, revolution in . .160 

— seized by Garibaldi . ,185 
Cato Street conspiracy . . 67 
Cattle Plague commences in Eng- 
land . . . .214 

Caucasus, tribes of the, reduced 

to Russian subjection . 1 53 

— war recommenced in the . 162 
Cawnpore, British defeated near. 144 

— murder of British at . .184 

— recapture of . . .143,143 

— surrender of British at . .144 
Census of the United Kingdom 

taken . . . 123, 172 
Ceylon reduced to subjection . 26 
Champlain (Lake), American squa- 
dron captured on . .5 

British squadron captured on 60 

Chapoo, capture of . » .95 
Charles et Georges, restitution of 149 

French slaver, captured. 144 

Charleston, defeat of Federal 

squadron at . .189, 190 

— democratic convention assembles 

at . . . .160 

Chartist demonstration in London 112 
Chaves' (Marquis of) insurrection 74 
Cherbourg Docks opened • .147 

— Queen Victoria visits . .147 

— visit of English fleet to . .216 
Chesapeake frigate captured . 56 
Chester Castle, projected Fenian 

seizure of . . . 226 
Chicago, convention at, for pro- 
moting election of Abraham 
Lincoln . . . .161 

— first Fenian convention at .198 
Chihuahua, capture of » . 220 
Chili trade independent . . 70 
Chiloe, defeat of Spanish squadron 

oflf .... 219 

China, British prisoners (the) 

restored . . . 164 



China^ British resident permitted. 87 

— commercial treaty with Russia 160 
Spain . . .208 

— D'Agttilar destroys the Bogne 

forts . . .108 

— edict of Commissioner Lin . 90 

— English and French expedition 

against .... 155 

— frontier treaty with Russia . 146 

— LordMacartney arriyesat Pekin 22 

— opium trade forbidden . .86 

— Taeping rebellion, first battle of 122 

trade with EngUnd interdicted 91 

Chincha Islands restored to Pern. 211 

seizure of ' . . . 202 

Chinese fleet totally destroyed . 142 

— Government restores the British 

prisoners . . . 164 

— war begins .... 163 
Ching-Eeang-foo, capture of . 95 
Chinhae, capture of . . .93 

— Chinese attack on . . .94 
Cholera breaks out in Constanti- 
nople .... 216 

— first appears in England . . 81 
France . . .82 

— rages in Lisbon . . . 139 
Chusan, capture of . . .91 
Cintra, Convention of . . 49 
Circassia, subjection of • .204 
Cisalpine Republic formed . . 28 

recognized by Gkrmany . 31 

remodelled . . .39 

Cispadane Republic founded . 28 
Ciudad Ro^rigo captured . . 53 
Civita Yeochia, French troops 

disembark at . . . 243 
occupied by the French, 

under Oudinot. . .118 
Clayton Tunnel railway accident . 175 
Clerkenwell House of Detention, 

Fenian blowing down of 

wall of .... 246 
Coalloon Bay, sea fight in . .91 
Cochin China, French victories in 181 

Spanish expedition proposed 149 

Coimbra, revolution at . .105 
Coleridge's (Mr.) ''instruction** on 

the Reform Bill . . 228 
Cologne, International Exhibition 

opened at . . .214 
Colombia becomes a separate state 81 

— independence of, recognized by 

Great Britain . . .73 

Colombia, treaty with Great Britain 79 

United States . . 73 

Commercial panic in England 73, 144 

New York . . .144 

Compiegne, meeting] of Enropean 

sovereigns at . . .179 
Compound householders, enfran- 
chisement of . . .229 
Confederate States, gee United 

Confiscation of property of Aeneh 

clergy . . .15 

Congreu destroyed by the Menri- 

mae . . . .180 
** Conspiracy to murder Bill,'' the 146 
Constantina, capture of . ,98 
Constantinople, Cholera breaks 

out in • . . .216 

— revolt of the Janissaries in . 49 
Convention of Neisse . . . 2 
Coorg (Rajah of) deposed . . 85 
Copenhagen, bombardment of 37, 47 
Corcelles (M. de) sent to assist 

Hus IX . . . .116 

Cordeliers' Club, execution of 

leaders of . . . .23 

Corinth, capture of .. • 70, 71 

Cork, Fenian procession at . .245 

— Fenian trials at . . . 218 
Com Laws repealed . . .106 
Coromandel, landing of a French 

force in . • . .10 
Corporation Act repealed . . 76 
Corsica, Emperor and Empress of 

the French visit . . 164 

— united to France . . . 2 
Cotton districts, distress in the . 182 
Cracow declared Austrian territory 108 

— expulsion of Austrians from . 105 

— made a republic . . .63 

— Polish revolt in . . .118 

— Russians expelled from . . 23 

— surrendered to Prussia . . 24 
Cranborne (Lord) resignation ol . 226 
Creole brig, affair of the . . 94 
Crimea, Allies land in . .134 

— ceded to Russia • • .11 

— evacuation of . . . 139 

— Sardinian contingent lands in . 136 

— suspension of hostilities in the 138 
Croatia, . Austrian conciliation of 216 

— rescript to Diet of . . .219 
Crystal Palace, fire at . .224 
opened . . . .133 



OubsL, Lopez* expedition to . 119, 120 

— — — failure of . . . 123 

— Lopez, execation of . . 153 
Cumlierland destroyed by the 

MerrimcLC . . . 180 
Gattaeh, ceadon of • « ' . 40 

Baghbstav, Russian expedition 

into .... 153 
Damascns, massacre of ChristiaDS 

at 163 

Banes^ subscription opened for 

wonnded . . .201 

Danish African colonies ceded to 

Great Britain . . .121 

— Indian dominions purchased . 102 
Daonewerke (the) abuidonment of 200 
Danube, inundation of the . .180 

— passed by the Eussians . . 133 
Dannbian Principalities, Russian 

evacuation of . . .134 

— — rcTolt^of 69 

Buasian invasion of . . 130 

Busso-Turkish treaty con- 
cerning .... 118 

Turkey insists on Russian 

evacuation of . . .131 

Turkish protest against 

Russian occupation of .130 

union of . . . 148, 179 

Dappes (Vallte des) French de- 
tachment enters . .177 

treaty for selling fron- 
tier of . . . . 187 

Dardanelles^ British fleet ordered 

to the . . . . 130 

— forced by Sir John Duckworth 45 
D'Aumale (Due), attempted assas- 
sination of . . .93 

Deasy, the Fenian, escape of . 241 
Deocan (the) conquered . .41 
*' Defenders, ''Irish faction of . 11 
Delhi, advance of the British on . 142 

— capture of • . . . 143 

— (King of) proclaimed Emperor of 

India .... 142 

— ^ — transportation of . .146 

— made Sepoy head-quarters . 142 
Del Biego (Ralph) executed . . 72 
Denmark, armistice with G^ermany 

203, 206 

— circular on Holstein question . 183 
^ Dagmar (Princess), betrothal of 208 

Denmark, Dagmar (Princess), mar- 
riage of . . . 224 

— female succession extended . 106 

— Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen min- 

istry (the) . . .149 

— hostilities with Germany ro- 

newed .... 205 

— Manteuffel ministry, resignation 

of 149 

— Moltke (Count) prime minister 204 

— Monrad (Bishop) prime minister 199 

— new constitation published . 187 

— peace concluded with Germany 209 

— Prince Frederick becomes regent 11 

— royal succession treaty concern- 

ing 126 

— Sound dues abolished . .140 

— telegraphic communication with 

Great Britain . . .153 

— Wales (Prince and Princess of) 

visit . . . .207 

— war declared with Sweden . 57 
Derby (Lord) prime minister 

126, 146, 221 

— ministry, resignation of . . 152 
Dessalines becomes Emperor of 

Hayti .... 41 
D'Huart (Capt.) murder of . .219 
Diamond necklace, affiur of the . 11 
Dinapore, mutiny at . .143, 166 
Dobrudscha occupied by the Rus- 
sians .... 133 
Dooab (the), cession of . .39 
Doran, the Fenian, conviction of . 228 
Douro crossed by Sir Arthur Wel- 

lesley ... .50 

— dispute concerning navigation of 92 
Dablin, Fenian procession at . 245 

— Fenian trials at . . .218 

— Industrial Exhibition opened . 130 

— International Exhibition opened 213 

— special commission for Fenian 

trials opened . . . 228 
Dtippel, bombardment of . . 202 

— capture of . . . . . 213 

— the Danes take up a position at 200 
Dutch West Indies, slavery abol- 
ished in . . . . 192 

Ea&thquakk in Japan . . 245 

— at Mitylene .... 227 

— at St. Thomas's . . .10 
Eastern question, Anglo-Fronch 

ultimatum concerning . 133 



East India ComiMkiiyy oonstitntional 

changes in . . .8 

— — — ceases to exist . . 148 

— of London, distress in, committee 

for relief of . . . 225 
Ecclesiastical Titles Bill introdnced 123 
Eckenforde, capture of . . 200 
Eden (Mr. Ashley), seizure of, at 

Bhootan . . .202 

Edinburgh, Consenrative banquet 

at . • . . .243 
" Edmunds scandaV* the . 218,215 
^gypt, peace concluded with Tur- 
key • . .84 

— Viceroy (the) visits England . 183 
^ — Queen Victoria . 281 

— war with Turkey . . 82, 90 
Elba, Buonaparte arriyes at . 59 

quits , . . .61 

Elgin marbles purchased by British 

Museum . . . .65 
Emmett (Robert), insurrection of 40 
Encumbered Estates Act passed .118 
Epirus, revolt in . . .132 
Brie (Lake), capture of a British 

squadron on . . .57 
Erie (Sir Wm.), retirement of . 224 
Essex frigate captured . . 58 
Enlenberg (Count) imprisonment of 218 
Eupatoria, cavalry action at .137 
Evora, defeat of Portuguese in- 
surgents at • . .108 
Exeter, bread riots at . . .244 
Eyre's exploration of Australia . 93 
Eyre (Governor) banquet to, at 

Southampton . . . 223 

unsuccessful prosecution of, 

at Market Drayton . . 227 

Falklakd Islands ceded to England 2 

Fast day, consequent on Russian 

war .... 136 

Federal States, see United States. 

Female suflfrage, Mr. Mill's motion 

for, negatived . . . 229 

Fenian attack on the House of De- 
tention, Glerkenwell . 246 

— Convention, the first, assembles 

at Chicago . . .198 

— demonsti'ation in New York » 211 
Fenianism condemned by the Pope 216 
Financial panic in London . . 220 
Finland ceded to Russia • . 55 
*' Five Hundred," first meeting of 27 

Flanders annexed to France 
Flensborg, occupation of 
Florence, Industrial Exhibition at 

— Italian Court removed to 

— made capital of Italy » 

— revolution at . 

— votes for annexation to Sardinia 
Florida ceded to Spain 
Flowery Laudj execution of five of 

the crew of, for murder . 
Fohrsdorf, Bourbon reconciliatioB 


Foluca, seizure of • • . 
Fort Clark, capture of 

— Donnelson, capture of . 

— Brie, action with Fenians at . 

— Fisher, capture of . 

— George, capture of . 
*— Hatteras, capture of . .1] 

— Henry, capture of . 

— Pillow, capture of . , 

— l^laski, capture of .11 

— Wagner, repulse of Federals at U 
ForUf Mexican insults to officeia 

of the » . ... 191 
France, alliance with Austria . 11 

Sardinia . . . U 

— ^Anti-Russian treaty with Sweden 

— becomes an empire . . ^i 

— Bonaparte (Jerome) claim of . 1( 
— Cavaignacpresidentof theooandl Hi 

— Cayenne, 575 persons trans- 

ported to . . . 12j| 

— Changamier deprived of the 

command of the National 
Guard . . . . IS 

banished . . . . IS 

French clergy, d^ree for humilia , 
tion of . . . . 17| 

— commercial treaty with Bel* 

gium .... 

Ghreat Britain . 

— Italy 


Prussia . 

Russia . 


Turkey . 

— committee of public safety . 

— '* Consultative Commission "ap- 

pointed . . . . 12» 

— convention with Japan . .20$! 

— coup d'6tat of Louis Napoleon. 1^^ 

— court of del^ates abolished . ^ 



^ance, decree for impoyeiishment 

of Orleans fiunily t. . 125 
^ diplomatic relations renewed 

. with Naples . . . 152 

— Directory (the) established . 27 
^ difisolyed . . ,84 

— divided into departments 15 
"-DroayndeLhnys foreign minister 186 

— eastern frontier, rectification of, 

demanded . . . 222 
-> Empire (the) restored . 61 

— "Bnglish merchandise confiscated 31 
~ ^- passports abolished . . 167 
~ Ei^nie. (Empress) regent . 152 
"" — • — visits England . . 166 

— Eiiropean coalition against 

50, 54, 56, 61 
^-ex-Eing and Qaeen arrive in 

Bngland .... Ill 

— famine in the mannfactnring 

districts .... 188 

— flight of the royal family from 

St. Clond ... 79 

— Fonld (Achille) budget of . 218 

financial report of . . 210 

minister of finance , 178 

— free negro emigration system 

abolished • . . 150 

— frontier treaty with Sardinia . 171 

— '*Gh>ddeS8of Beason/' worship 

of 25 

~- grand funeral procession in Paris 111 
~- hereditary nobility abolished . 16 
decree rep^ed . . 82 

— infernal machine seized at Mar- 

seilles . . . .127 
•^ International Exhibition opened 

by the Emperor . . 227 
*- inundations in the south . 189 

— inyites English and Russian 

intervention in the U.S. . 187 

— Jacobin clubs closed • . 24 
~ Lamoricidre banished . .125 

— Legislative Assembly, meeting of 18 
• Council dissolved , . 57 

— "Liberty, Fraternity, Egalit6," 

motto, abolition of . .125 

— literary property, treaty with 

Spain for protection of .181 

— Louis Napoleon, attempted as- 

sassination of 181, 186, 187 

declared Emperor . . 127 

T declared President elect. 116 

— despatch of, to the clergy 179 

France, Louis Napoleon elected 

member of the National 

Assembly . . 114 

President for ten years 125 

marriage of . . . 128 

takes his seat in the 

National Assembly . .114 
the field against 

Austria .... 152 

visits England . 186, 148 

Lyons • . . 127 

— Mirds, trial of . . . 168 

— Monttdembert (Count de), trial 

of 149 

— Montauban (Gen.) commander- 

in-chief in China . .168 

— Moustier (M.), circular o^ as to 

Roman intervention . .242 

— Napoleon (Prince), marriage of 150 
— Yice-Presidenft of Privy 

Council .... 210 

— National Assembly dksolved . 18 
opened. , . . 118 

— — — visited by the King and 

Queen . . . .16 

executive commission elected 118 

— i .. guard disbanded . . . 75 
holida3rs abolished .126 

— new constitution promulgated . 125 

— new peers created . . .75 

— nobles, first assembly of the . 12 
second assembly of the . 18 

— papal authority re-established in 88 

— parliamMit (the) abolished . 2 
re-established 4 

— peace with Naples . • . 28 

—> Russia . . .88 

Turkey . . .88 

— Polignac administration formed 77 
—^ political amnesty published 87, 128 
—r Prince Imperial bom . .188 

— reform banquet suppressed . 1 10 

— remonstrates against Russian 

cruelties in Poland . .190 

— republic established . 19, 111 

— republican provisional govern- 

ment appointed . .111 

— restoration of the Empire voted 127 

— revolution in favour of the Di- 

rectory . . , . 80 

of 1830 .... 78 

— 1848 commences . . llO 

— revolutionary calendar adopted 28 
^^ tribunal established . • . ?^ 




Frmnoe, Robespierre invested with 

dictatorial aathority 21 

— Booher (M.) ** speaking minis- 

minister'' • .194 

— royal family imprisoned . .17 

— Royalist prisoners massacred . 19 

— Royalty abolished in .19 
^- slave-trade abolished in . .62 

— Swiss guards, massacre of 19 

— territorial primogeniture abo- 

lished .17 

— Thiers (M.) Foreign Minister . 91 
recalled from exile . 126 

— titles of honoar abolished 16 
nobility restored . . 126 

— torture abolished in . . 9 

— Toulon fortifications enlaiged . 127 

— treaty for protection of literary 

property with Russia . 171 

of friendship with Japan . 149 

•— Tuileries attacked ... 19 

— union of Prussia, Austria, and 

Holland against 19 

— Uniyersal Exhibition, appoint- 

ment of commissioners for 211 

— »- Peace Congress at Paris . 119 
suffrage proposed . . 124 

— Victoria (Queen) visits . . 187 

— Walewski (Count) President of 

the Corps L^gislatif . . 216 

— war with Austria . . 19, 151 

Great Britain . 6 

England and Spun 20 

renewed . .89 

Holland . . .20 

Mexico . . 89, 182 

Russia . 133 

Frankfort, on-the-Maine, congress 

at • • • • . ±\fo 

— Diet acknowledged by Prussia . 122 

— Prussian occupation of . . 222 

— (U.S.) occupation of . ,185 
Fredericia, bombardment of . 202 

— the Danes retreat from . . 203 
Fredericksburg, evacuation of . 185 
Free Church established in Scot- 
land . . .95 

Freemasonry condemned by the 

Pope .... 216 
Frolic sloop captured . . .55 
Fiihnen, Danes establish them- 
selves in . . . . 208 
Farruckabad, cession of . .89 
Fursten-Bund Alliance, the .11 

Gaita, capture of 

— flight of Queen Motker of 

Naples to. . . 1( 

— siege of 1( 

— surrender of . . . .16] 
Galicia, Prussians repulsed in 221, 
Gallipoli, Turkish squadron burnt 

at 451 

Galveston, Confederate reooTcryof II 
Garibaldi, arrest of . . . ii 
-— becomes Dictator of Sicily . 1611 

— concludes a truce with the 












— embarks for Sicily . 

— escapes from Caprera 

— release of ... . 

— resigns his seat in the Italian 


— visits England 
Gas-lamps introduced in London . 
Gkbstein, convention of 
Gasa, capture of . . . 
Geneva annexed to Sardinia 

— disturbances in . . . 
Gknoa annexed to France 

— enxbarkation of Garibaldi at, 

for Sicily 

— French force disembarks at . 

— Napoleon III. arriyes at . 

— Sariinian forces expelled from 118 
Georges conspiracy (the) . . 41 
Geoigia, Sherman's ndd through . 210 
German made the official Prussian 

language . . .179 

Germanic Confederation, com- 

mencement of . 
<' Germans, Emperor of the," 

title declined by King of 

Prussia .... 
Germany invaded by France 
Ghuznee, capture of . 

— evacuation of. . . . 

— recapture of . 
Gibraltar, blockade oi^ by Spain 

discontinued . 

— defeat of Spanish and French 

fleets at .... 

— siege of 

Girondists, fall of the . 

Glasgow Industrial Exhibition 

opened .... 
GloTer*s (Serjeant) action against 

the French Goremment . 
Goderich (Lord) prime minister . 










6odo7 (Don Mannel de), death of 128 

— edle 0^ reroked . , . 109 

-faUof 48 

Giordoii (George Wm.) execation of 217 

— riots, the .... 7 
Gongh (Sir Hugh) oommander-in- 

chief in China . . 92 
Ooald, the Fenian, execation of . 245 
Grant (Capt.) returns from Africa 1 92 
Cbant (Sir Hope) commander-in- 
chief in China. . . 163 
Gny, the Australian explorer, 

death of . .179 

Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 

opened .... 128 
Cheece, Capo d'Istrias (Count) 

elected president . 76 

— Golocotroni*s conspiracy in . 88 

— compensation to Bnglish sub- 

jects demanded .119 

— dechtred in a state of blockade 183 

* independent . . .70 

~- divided into departments . 76 

— election of new king voted . 187 

— Snglish aid besought . . 73 
demands acceded to . . 120 

— QeoTge I., marriage of . . 243 

— independence acknowledged by 

Turkey •. . . .78 

— umnrrection in Western pro- 

vince of .. . • . 186 

— Leopold declines the crown . 78 
~~ made a kingdom • . . 75 

— National 'ibsembly establishes 

a new constitution . • 209 

— neutrality of, touching the 

Eastern question • 138 

— Panhdion (the) established . 76 

— placed under Russian protection 1 8 
^protest of Austria against the 

revolution . • .188 
'— provisional goremment estab- 
lished • • • .73 

— revolution in' . . . .186 
-^ raccession, guarantee of the pro- 
tecting powers concerning . 187 

*-" treaty for pacification of • .75 
^ war with Turkey . . . 133 
'^ Green Bag" inquiry, the . • 65 
Renville (I^rd) prime minister . 43 
liiejr (Captain) discovers Gascoyne 

river . . • .90 
tiny (Earl) prime minister . • 79 

Grilli transported • . . 148 

Gros (Baron) arrives at Shanghai . 162 

Grosvenor's (Lord) Sunday Txading 

Bill brought in . . 136 

Guatalaxara, occupation of . . 201 
Guatemala, convention with, as to 

Honduras boundary . . 151 
^uem^ frigate captured . . 55 
Guildhall, banquet at, in honour 

of the Sultan . . .231 
Guillotine invented . . .12 
Gwalior, capture of . .6 

— recapture of • • . . 146 

— Sepoy capture of . • . 146 

— territory invaded , . . 107 

Habmab Corpus Act suspended 

24, 82, 87 

Halifax's (Lord) grant to Tippoo 

Sahib . .167 

Hall of Arts and Sciences, founda- 
tion stone of, laid . . 229 

Ham, escape of Louis Napoleon 

from .... 105 

Hamilton Collection sold to British 

Museum .... 2 

Hampstead Junction Railway, 

fatal collision on . .176 

Hampton Roads, naval battle in . 180 

Hango, massacre at . . .186 

Hanover, commercial treaty with 

Fruasia .... 128 

— seised by the Prussians . . 48 

— separated from Great Britain . 88 
Hardy (Mr. Ghkthome) home secre- 
tary . .229 

— (Thomas) trial of ... 25 
Harper's Ferry, negro insurrection 

at 154 

Hatfield (James) shoots at George 

in 85 

Hau-hau heresy in New Zealand . 211 
Hayti, Boyes becomes president of 69 

— Dessalines becomes emperor . 41 

— Faustin I., accession of , , 119 
deposed. . . . ifio 

— Geffrard is president , .150 

— Henry I. becomes king . , 58 

— insurrection in . 87> 198 

— invaded by the French . ^ 89 

— James I. assassinated 45 

— proclaimed an empire , ,119 

— recogniaed by France , . 78 

— revolution in , , , ^ 150 

8 2 




Hayti, suicide of Ring Christophe 69 

— united to Spain . . . 178 

— vacated by the French . 40 
&elena (Princess) marriage of . 222 
Heligoland, Austro-Pmssian fleet 

defeated off . . . 208 
Helvetian republic established . 82 
Herzegovina, revolution in . .167 
Hesse-Oassel, Prussian despatch 

concerning . . . 122 
Hesse-Darmstadt, peace signed 

with Prussia . . .223 
Hesse, diplomatic rupture with 

Prussia .... 188 
Heteria, the . . .61 

Hohenzollem-^igmaringen incor- 
porated with PruBsitt . 120 
— (Princess Stephanie), marriage of 1 42 
Holkar, the Mahratta chief, war 

with .... 41 
Holland, Duke of Tork lands in . 25 

— free constitution adopted . 60 
»- Qreat Britain declares war 

against .... 8 

— incorporated with France . 52 

— Prince of Orange lands in . 57 

— revolution in . • . . .57 

— Roman Catholic hierarchy re- 

established in . . . 129 

— Schimmelpenninck grand pen- 

sionary . . . .42 

— treaty with Belgium . . 90 
Holstein, annulment of inde- 
pendence of, demanded . 192 

— Augustenberg family, petition 

• in favour of . . . 196 
• — Augustenberg's (Prince Frede- 
rick) claims to . . . 198 

— constitutional changes in,- effected 

by Denmark . . .149 

— Diet recognizes the Duke of 

Augustenberg . . .199 

— evacuated by the German 

troops .... 126 

— German invasion of . .199 

— government of, vested in the 

Danish minister . .126 
< — independent rights granted to. 190 

— paiii of Danish monarchy 44 
-^ protest of Denmark against 

federal execution in . .194 

— Prussian occupation of . . 221 

— question, Danish circular on . 188 
*^ Holy Alliance," the ^ . .68 

Holy Places, convention for pro- 
tection of • . .1 

Honduras, convention with Ghia- 

tenuUa as to boundary of . 151 

Hong Kong, cession of • . 91 

— seat of British government . 10ft 
Hooghly, throwing of dead bodies 

into, prohibited . . 201 'j 
Hooker (GFen^^) in command on 

the Potomac . . 189^ 

Hope (Admiral), repulse of, at 

Tien-tsin. . . .152 
Horsford (General) defeaJa the 

Begum of Ondh . . 150 
Howe (Lord) defeats Freneh fleet 

off Ushant . . . 24 
Hungarian fugitives take refuge in 

Turkey . . . .119 

— refugees, refusal of Turkey to 

surrender . . .119 
Hungarians, Garibaldi's address to 

the .... 184 

— Kossuth's appeals to the. . 221 
Hungary, amnesty for politieal 

offenders published . . 139 

— Andrassy (Count) president of 

the Diet . . . .227 

— Austrian conciliation of . . 216 

— Crown jewels removed to yienna 181 

— Emperor of Austria crowned 

king of . . . .230 
visits . . 214,218 

— German made official language. 131 

— Klapka's reply to Gari^di's 

appeal . . . .184 

— Kossuth made governor . . 118 

— military tribunals in, abolished 214 

— provisional government ap- 

X)ointed . . . .115 

— revolution in. . , .115 

— rupture of the negotiation with 

Austria . . . .175 

— Russia supports Austria against 118 

— united with Transylvania . 218 
Huskisson (Mr.) killed . . 79 
Hyde Park, reform demonstration 

in 229 

— reform riots . . . .222 

— volunteer review in . .162 
Hyderabad, mutiny suppressed at. 143 
HyderAU, death of . . .10 

IxMACfULATB Conception an article 

of Romish faith .. . 135 



wsome-taz act puned . 94 

— extended to Ireland .180 

— increase of, for Abyssixiian ex- 

pedition .... 245 
ndependence, American declara- 
tion of .... 4 
ndia^ act for better goTemment 

of, passed . . . 147 

— bill (a new) passed . 180 

— Cbina trade monopoly terminates 85 

— civil and criminal courts ap- 

pointed . . . .28 

— famine in N.W. provinces 90, 174 

— financial cbanges in . .158 

— laws of property altered . 177 

— Legislative Cooncil, first meet- 

ing of . . . .179 

— martial law proclaimed in .142 

— natives admitted to magistracy 85 

— "NilDarpan"(the) . . 174 

— office, ball at, in honour of the 

Sultan . . . .231 

— Queen Victoria proclaimed sov- 

ereign of . . . 149 

-^ Bam Singh's insurrection in . 198 

— revenue, large deficit in . . 212 

— trade thrown open . . 67 

— waste lands, sale of, in . .177 
Indian army, diEisatis£a[ction of .152 
amalgamation of . 163 

— Board of Control abolished . 4 

— mutiny, first intelligence of the 142 

relief fund for sufferers from 1 43 

spread of the . . . 143 

thanksgiving for suppres- 
sion of . . . 151 

— princes' succession, English re- 

cognition of . . .163 
Ingom, passage of the . . 137 
Inqaisition abolished in Naples . 10 

— restored at Rome . . .60 
International Exhibition opened . 182 
Ionian Islands, conditions of ces- 
sion of . . . . 188 

Denmark proposes union of, 

with Greece . . . 191 
^- — final cession of • . . 203 
Ipsara, destruction of . . 72 
Ireland, agitation for repeal of the 

Union . . . .53 

— currency, assimilation of . 73 

— destruction in . . . 109 

— Habeas Corpus Act suspended 

114, 219 

Ireland, income-tax extended to . 130 

— Lord Edward Fitzgerald's re- 

bellion .... .32 

— relief of famine in . . 109 

— Six-mile Bridge riot (the) . 126 
Irish Church, commission on, ap- 
pointed .... 244 

— National Board of Education 

established . 104 

Irish People newspaper, seizure 

of 216 

— Poor Law (first) passed . 89 

— Reform bill passed . . 83 

— volunteers, first regiment of . 6 
Iron trade, lock-out in the . 211, 217 
Irrawaddy, passage of the • .125 
Iran, capture of . . .87 
Ismail, capture of . . .17 
Italian question, neutrality of 

England on . . . 152 

— Switzerland on .150 

Italy, amnesty to Garibaldians . 246 
< — armies, amalgamation of the . 181 

— Cavour ministry resigns . .158 

— Cialdini (Gen.) prime minister 242 

— commercial treaty with France 188 
Great Britain . . 193 

— Delia Marmora prime minister 207 

— English passports abolished . 184 

— invaded by Buonaparte . . 82 

— (kingdom of) dissolved , • 6S 
■ — divided into 17 pro- 
vinces , .. . . 155 

— recognized by Belgium . 177 

Denmark . . 174 

Great Britain . 171 

Holland . . 175 

Prussia . . 184 

r Russia . . 184 

Spain . . 216 

. ^^ Sweden and Nor- 

. way .... 174 

— Menabrea (Gen.) prime min- 

. ister .... 242 

— Neapolitan archives retained by 

Spain .... 178 

— proposed military occupation of, 

condemned . . .137 

— Ratazzi prime minister . 163, 181 
-^ Ricasoli prime minister . . 178 
ministry resigns . .180 

— Tonello (Signor) mission ofi . 224 

— (Upper) French evacuation of . 162 

— war with Austria . . 122^ 221 



Jaffa, itorming of . . .83 
Jamaica Inquiiy Commiflaon (the) 219 

— iDsarrectioii in ^ . .217 

— Mr. Eyre becomes gorernor of 205 

— negro insurreciion in . .82 

— Qrant (Sir J. P.) governor of . 222 

— StorkB (Sir Henry) governor of 218 
Janisaaries, maasacre of the 74 
Japan, commercial treaty with 

Bngland . . . .148 
Prossia - . . 167 

— oonvention with France . . 205 

— earthquake in . .10 

— embaasy from, TiBite Borope . 186 

— (iotairo (the) aflsaasinated . 160 

— porta closed against foreign 

traders » . . . 192 

— protest of Sir B. Alcock . 153 

— repudiation of treaties by . 207 

— restrictions on foreigners re- 

laxed .... 194 

— treaty with France .149 

the United States. . 133 

Jeddah, maasacre at . . .146 
Jeddo, British embassy at, attacked 

174, 184 
Jemsalem, first Protestant bishop 

of 94 

— nnder Turkish protection . 92 
Jesuits expelled from Mexico . 1 

Naples .' 1, 164 

Borne ,. . . . 3 

Bussia. . . ,68 

Spain .... 1 

— restored at Bome . .60 
Jews admitted to Prussian judicial 

appointments . . .160 
Jewish Disabilities bill passed . 147 
Jhansi, capture of . . .146 
Joint-Stock Companies Act in force 187 
Jutland evacuated by the Prussians 210 

— occupied by Prussians . .113 

— placed under Prussian admin- 

istration . • . . 205 

Kamakura, murder of British 

officers at • . .210 
Kandahar, occupation of . .90 
Eandy, maasacre at . . .40 
Kars, capitulation of • . .137 

— defence of . . . . 137 
Kearsarge and Alabama^ fight be- 
tween .... 204 

Kelly, the Fenian, escape of • 241 

Eemaoon ceded to the British 

Kentucky, martial law prodaimed 
in . 

Kertch, capture of 

Kiel, ducal government estab- 
lished at . 

— Duke of Angustenbuig enten 

— Prussian fleet stationed at 

— revolution at . 

Knoxville, American Confederates 

repulsed at 
Kossta (Martin), affidr of 
Kotab, capture of * 
Kutayah, convention of 
Kyber Pass forced 

La^atetti joins the Americans . 
Lahore, mutiny suppressed at 
Lamballe (Princesse de) killed 
Lancaster, disfranchisement of 
Landor explores Western Australia 
Landsborough crosses Australia . 
Lansdown MSS. purchased by 

. British Museum 
Larkin, the Fenian, execution of . 
Lauenbuig ceded to Denmark 

— Prussia takes possession of 
La Vendue in insurrection . 

— — insurrection suppressed in . 
Lawrence (Sir John) arrives at 

Calcutta .... 
Leather trade, large failures in the 
Lebanon, advance of French and 

Turks against . . « 

— massacre of the Maronites of the 


— surrender of Bmirs at « 
Leeds, reform demonstration in 

Lefray explores Western Australia 
Legion of Honour instituted 
Leichardt's (Dr.) Australian 

ploring expedition . 
Lettres de cachet abolished 

France . 
Lexington,. capture of . . .11 
Liberal party, meeting of, at Mr. 

Gladstone's . . 227, 
Ligurian republic established 

restored . . . .11 

Limerick, agrarian outrages in .11 
Lisbon, cholera rages in . .11 

— insurrection at • 70, 74, 





IdTerpool, bread riots in . .135 

— immense fire at * • ■ . 95 

— (Lord) prime minister . .54 
Li?ingBtone (Dr.), expedition in 

search of. . . . 280 
Lodger franchise, establishment of 

the. , . , .229 
Loire, disasirons inundations of the 1 08 
Lombardy annexed to Sardinia 114, 152 

— revolts against the Anstrians . Ill 
London steamer, loss of . .218 
*' Lone Star Society" first heard of 126 
L'Oiient, defeat of French fleet .off 26 
Lopez' expedition to Onba . .119 
-~ United States proclamation 

against .... 119 
Looisiana purchased from French 

government . .89 

LQcknow, capture of . • .145 
^ evacuation of . . . . 144 
^ great durbar at . . . 244 

— mutiny at . . .141, 142 

— Ontnun (Sir James) in com- 

mand at . , . . 144 

— relief of , by Havelock . .144 
^ Sepoy siege of . . . 143 
Lnddite riots (the) ... 53 
Luxemburg question, conference on 

the .... 229 

Haoajitnbt (Lord) arrives at Fekin 22 

returns to England . . 24 

"Macdonald affair," the . . 173 
Macedonia frigate captured . 56 

M&eoa, cession of, to Portugal . 184 
UadagBscar, Christian teaching 

prohibited . . .86 
~ commercial treaty with England 

185, 215 
— France • . . 185 

— persecution of Christians in . 117 

— Badama the Great, death of . 76 

— Banavolana Manjaka succeeds 
to the throne . . . 76 

'*~ slave-trade abolished in. . 65 
Kadai (the) are set at liberty . 129 
Ifadrid, British army enters . 55 
^— Buonaparte (Joseph) returns to 50 
•- central junta established in . 49 
•~ Council of State opened by 

Joseph Buonaparte . . 50 
*- entered by the French . 48, 49 
•*- insurrections at • . 100, 113 




Madrid, massacre of the French at 48 

— militia mutiny at . . .137 

— royal family return to . .72 

— Spanish army enters . 49 

— taken by Napoleon I. . .49 
Mahrattas, British treaty with . 16 
— - war begins . .40 
Malaga, insurrection' at .100 
Malakhoff, attack on the . . 136 

— capture of the . . 187 
M&lmo, armistice signed at . .114 
ManaBsas, Confederate Americans 

retire from 
Manchester and Liverpool Bailway 

opened . i . . 
-7 Art Treasures Exhibition 

opened .... 

— convictionof Fenian prisoners at 244 

— Fenian attack on a police van at 241 
funeral procession in . . 245 

— reform demonstration at. . 223 

— special commission for Fenian 

trials at .... 243 

— Trades Outrages Commission sits 241 
Manin's (Daniel) insurrection in 

Venice . . . , 
Manning (Archbishop) consecra 

tion of . 
Mansfield (Sir Wm. ) commander- 
in-chief in India 
Maori war (the) breaks out 

ends , 

— breaks out again 

— (second) ends 

Marat assassinated by Charlotte 
. Corday «... 
Marches (the) annexed to Sardinia 167 
Market Drayton, unsuccessful pro- 
secution of Governor Eyre at 227 
Maronites, massacre of the . 161, 162 
Martin (Mr. John) committed for 

misdemeanour . . .246 
Maryland, Confederate invasion of 191 
Mason (Mr.)taken from the English 

steamer Trent . . . 177 

surrendered by the United 

States . . . .170 

arrives in England . .180 

Matamoras, surrender of . . 221 
Melbourne (Lord) prime minister 85, 86 
MelvUle (Lord), trial of . . 43 
MenschikofTs (Prince) mission to 
Turkey concerning the Holy 
Phices . . . .128 







Merrimae and MonitcVf battle 

between .... 180 

— blown up ... . 183 
Messina, captnre of . . 114 
— ' revolution in . . . . 160 

— surrender of . . . 171 
Metropolitan Street Traffic Act in 

force .... 244 
Mexico, Alvarez dictator .137 

— Garrera dictator . . .137 

— (city) oocapied by the French . 191 

surrender of . . . 230 

— - Comonfort dictator . .137 

(General) shot . . . 194 

— '• convention against, for enforce- 
ment of European debt . 177 

— Ecclesiastical property seques- 

trated . . . 138, 153 

— Empress (the) made regent . 205 
arriyes in Europe . . 223 

— England declines war with . 181 

— English ambassador leaves . 178 

— Federal constitution established 72 

— French ambassador leaves . 178 
evacuation of, completed . 227 

— Guadalaxara, political convul- 

sions in . . . . 127 

— Imperial constitution promul- 

gated . . . .212 

— independence recognized by 

Spain . . . .87 

— Jesuits expelled from . . 1 
— > Juarez enters .... 167 

— landing of French in . .185 

— Maximilian, betrayal of, by 

Lopez .... 229 

— Mejia, execution of . . 230 

— Miramon, government of, cruel 167 

execution of . . . 230 

— monarchical government adopted 192 

— plot for overthrow of Spanish 

authority. . . .53 

— provisional government ap- 

pointed .... 192 
— rupture with England and France 174 

— Santa Anna, abdication of .137 
elected dictator . . 131 

— Spain declines war with . . 181 

— Spaniards expelled from . . 77 

— Spanish expedition for reco- 

very of . . . .77 

— treaty withUnited States ratified 113 

— ultimatum of European powers 1 78 
-^ war declared with France 90, 181 

Mexico, war declared with United 
States • 

— XaUsco,- political convulsions in 

— Zuloaga (General) arrested 

insurrection of 

Mieroslawski'B insurrection . 
Milan « . « < 

— decree published . 

— French and Sardinians enter 

— Victor Emmanuel II. enters 
Munfordsville, surrender of. 
Missolonghi, capture of 
** Missouri compromise," the 
AGssunde, bombardment of 
Mitylene, earthquake at 
M'Einlay crosses Australia . 
Modena annexed to Sardinia 
Moens (Mr.) seizure of 
Molaghurfort, destruction of 
Moldavia, evacuation of 

— occupied by the Russians. 
Monaco, French purchase of. 
Momtor and Merrimae^ battle 

between . 
Monte Libretto, engagement at 
Montenegrin boundaries fixed 

— territory invaded by Turkey 

— treaty with Turkey. 
Monterey, Juarez enters 
Monte Eotondo, capture of . 
Montreal, Parliament House burnt 
Morea, revolt in the . 

— convention for evacuation of 

— evacuated by the Turks . 
Morella, capture of 
Moreton Bay (Australia) discovered 
Morocco, financiid convention with 

— peace with France . 
-. war with Spain 

— — ends 

Moscow, burning of . 
Miiller (Franz) arrest of 
Municipal Corporations Act passed 





























Nagpore (Rajah of), death of . 131 

Nana Sahib in force in Nepaol . 156 

atrocities of . . . 148 

Nankin,- capture of . . .206 

— English fleet stationed at . 95 

— Taeping capture of . . 131 
Napier (Sir Robert) sails from 

Bombay . . . .246 
Naples, alliance with Austria . 58 
: — Great Britain . . 58 



HapleB annexed to Sardinia 

— > capitulation of 

— (city), recaptnre of 

— . de(dared in a state of siege 

*— earthquake at 







— Bnglish and French ambassa- 

dors leaye . . .140 

diplomatic relations renewed 

with .... 152 
•^ flight of Mnrat ... 63 

— French diplomatic relations re- 

newed with • . . 152 

invasion of . . .43 

■^ Gkuibaldi enters . . . 164 

— inquisition abolished in . .10 
-^ iuTaded by the Anstrians . 69 
~ Jesuits expelled from . 1, 164 

— liberal ministry formed at . 162 
*- Mnrat becomes king . . 49 

— revolution in . . . .117 
■ — riots in. i . . . 113 

— Russian protest against English 

and French interference in 140 

— Victor Emanuel II. enters . 166 
visits . . . 196 

— war with France . . .22 

Great Britain . 91 

Kashville, capture of . . .180 
National education, Earl Russell's 

resolutions on . . . 245 
Neapolitans, Garibaldian truce with 

the 163 

— vote for annexation to Sardinia 165 
Keeker, dismissal of . . .17 

— Finance Minister ... 5 

— resignation of ... 9 
Kegro emigration system abolished 

in France . . . 150 
Kelson (Colonel) warrant granted 

against .... 225 
Kepaul, Nana Sahib in force in . 156 

— war with . . . .61 

terminates . . .64 

Kerola, repulse of Papal Zouaves 

from .... 242 
Ketherlands, convention for settle- 
ment of . . . .16 
Keufch&tel difficulty settled. 141,142 
Newcastle, explosion of nitro-gly- 

cerine at . . . . 246 
Newcastle-under-Lyne, colliery ex- 
plosion at ' . . . 224 
New Granada separates from Co- 
lombia .... 81 

New Mexico, annexation of . .107 
massacre of Americans in . 108 

— Orleans, capture of . .182 

Gen. Banks in command at 187 

siege of • . . .61 

— South Wales discovered by 

Captain Cook ... 2 

— York, commercial panic in .144 

— — International Exhibition 

opens .... 130 

— Zealand becomes independent . 92 
Ney (Marshal) executed . . 64 
Nicaragua, General Walker recog- 
nized President of . .139 

— treaty of amity with G^reat 

Britain . . . .158 

— under the protection of the U.S. 1 46 
Nice annexed to France . . 159 

— Napoleon III. visits the Russian 

emperor at . . . 209 
Nicholson (Margaret) attempts to 

assassinate George III. . 12 
Ningpo, capture of . . .93 

— Chinese attack on . . .94 

— evacuation of. . . .95 
Nine Elms, explosion at . .217 
Nore, mutiny at the . . .29 
North German Confederation, first 

parliament of . . . 226 
constitution, meeting of 

plenipotentiaries as to a 

new .... 224 
North (Lord) prime minister . 2 
Northumherland^ launch of the . 220 
Norway, Christian of Denmark 

elected king . . .60 

— guaranteed to Sweden . . 65 

— King Christian abdicates . 60 

— Norway and Sweden, union of. 61 
Nova Scotia becomes a bishopric . 12 
Nuncomar accuses Warren Hastings 4 

Oaxaca, surrender of . 
O'Brien (Smith), trial of . 
O'Connell (Daniel), death of 

trial of . 

Odessa, bombardment of 
Olmutz, convention of . 
** 0. P/' riots commence 


Opium, British, seized at Canton . 90 

— trade forbidden by China . 86 
Oporto International Exhibition 

opens .... 216 

— revolt at ... . 68 


Iin)£Z TO THX 

Oporto "Wine Company re-esiab- 

lished .... 88 
Oregon boandaiy question settled. 106 
Oriasa fiunine, debate on the . 232 
Orizaba, conference of European 

powers at . . .181 

Orleans (Duke of) beheaded. . 23 

• — dies .... 94 

Orsini conspiracy, the . . .145 
Oiprey and Amazon^ oollision 

between .... 222 
Ott (M.), murder of . . .218 
Ottawa made capital of Canada . 148 
Ottery St. Maiy, fire at . . 220 
Oude, annexation of . . .137 

— (Bepm of) defeated . .150 

— pacification of . . . 150 
Ontram (Sir James) left in com- 
mand at Lacknow . . 144 

Falirxo, capture of • . 118, 161 

— insun^ections at . . . 110 

— revolution in. • .160 
Palestine, Holy Places, Menschi- 

kofTsmission concemingl28, 1 32 

— — — treaty concerning . .126 
Falma (Cardinal) killed . . 115 
Pampeluna, insurrection at . . 93 
Pan-Anglican Synod assembles . 242 
Papal States annexed by Napoleon 

I. . . 

Sardinian invasion of Italy 

Paris, capture of . . .58 

— (Comte de), marriage of . . 203 

— declared in a state of siege . 114 

— election riots at . . 75, 80 

— Industrial Exhibition opens . 136 

— Red Republican insurrection in 114 
Parks Bill, demonstration against 

the .... 232 

Parliamentary debates, permission 

to report ... 2 
Parma annexed to Sardinia . .158 

— (Duke of), death of. . . 183 

— votes for annexation to Sardinia 154 
Parthenopean republic established 83 
Peabqdy (Mr.) £^t of, to London 

poor .... 220 

letter of Queen Victoria to 220 

Peacock sloop captured . . 56 
Peel (^teneraJ), resignation of . 226 
Peep-o'-Day Boys, the . .11 
Pegu, capture cl . . .127 

Peiho forts, capture of • . U< 

— river, Mr. Bruce stopped at the 15i 
Pekin, English embasiiy establislied 

at .... . 171 
>- evacuation of . . . . 1$S 

— French embaa^ established at. 171 

— investment of , « . 165 

— summer palace sacked . 164, 165 
Pelissier (Marshal) French ambas- 
sador to England . . 146 

Pennsylvania, Confederate inva- 
sion of • . .191 
Penny postage comes into operation 91 
Pensaoola, evacuation of . . 18S 
Persano (Admiral) cashiered . 228 
Persia, war with England . . UO 
Persian war terminates . 1^ 
Peru declared free and independent 70 

— insurrection in . . .211 

— San Martin becomes protector . 70 

— war with Spain . . .219 
Perugia, capture of • . 152, 164 
Pesaro, capture of . . .164 
Peschiera, surrender of . . 114 
Pesth, capture of . . . 117 

— Hungarian diet opened at . 224 

revolution at . . . 114 

Peterloo, '* massacre"* of . . 66 
Petersburg (U.S.), assault on . 206 

— evacuation of. . . . 212 
Phigalian marbles purchased by the 

British Museum , . 64 
Philadelphia^first congress at . 4 
Piedmont, French acquisition in . 162 

— incorporated with French re- 

public . . . . ^9 
Pillory (the) abolished . . 78 
Pilnitz, conference of . « .17 
Pindaree war (the) . . .65 
Piraeus, English blockade of the . 120 
France and 

Russia, protest against . 120 

— English fleet arrives at the . 119 
Pius VII. arrested . . . 50 

— returns to Rome . . . 58 
Pius IX. appeals to Catholic powers 117 

becomes Pope . . .106 

encyclical letter of . . 210 

— — protests of • . 116, 117 

publishes an amnesty . 119 

quits Rome in disguise . H^ 

— .— returns to Rome . . 120 
Poerio (Baron), arrival of, in Ire- 
land .... 150 



rolandy Abdication of Stanialaiis 

II 27 

Alexander I. of BiUGda pro- 
claimed king • . .63 
alliance with France . 50 

anmesty granted by Alexander 

II 138 

r— Aflsemblyof Notablesinangurated 192 

— Beg (General) GoYemor . . 192 

— GonBtantine (Grand Duke) Go- 

Temor . . . . 183 

— Csartoryski (Prince Adam) 

elected President . . 80 

— declared in a state of siege 

176, 188 
independent . . 18, 80 

— English proposals touching in- 

surrection in . . . 191 
protest against Russian cru- 
elties in . . . . 190 

— famine in . , . .57 

— final partition of . . .26 

— Qerstensweig (General) assas- 

sinated .... 176 

— kingdom re-established . . 55 

— Lambert (Oount) quits Warsaw 176 

— Langiewicz declared dictator . 189 

— — files to Switzerland . . 211 

— made a Eussian province 82, 109 

— Mieroslawski put to flight . 189 

— National Coondl established . 24 

— new constitution promulgated . 17 

— Nicholas I. of Russia crowned 

king . . . .77 

— oppressive Russian restrictions 

as to dress . . 176 

• — Russian army under Diebitsch 

enters ... .80 

— treaty for partition of . .8 

with Prussia . . . 22 

Russia . . . .22 

— war with Russia . . .19 

terminates . . 81 

?oligiiac (Prince) imprisoned for 

life . . . . . 80 
Pelish insurgents appeal for foreign 

assistance . . .189 

— nationality, Russia declines to 

restore .... 171 
-— refugees, treaty for surrender of 

85, 88 
Pomerania ceded to Prussia . . 63 
Poor Law Amendment Act passed 86 
Port Hudson, siege of forts at .. 191 

Portland (Duke of) prime minister 

10, 46 
Porto Novo under French protec- 
tion .... 189 
Portsmouth, visit of French fleet 

to 216 

Portugal, alliance with France 85 

Great Britian . . 85 

Spain . . , . 86 

— Artas' (Count das) insurrection 108 
— I Augustus, the Prince Consort, 

dies . . . .86 

— capital punishment for political 

offences abolished . .126 

— Chambers (the) established . 74 

— conference for restoration of 

order in i . . . 109 

— Don Miguel assumes the title of 

king . . . .76 

defeated . , .83 

at Terceira , . 77 

' — disgraced . . .72 

fleet captured . .84 

insists on his right to 

the throne . . .106 
marries Adelaide of 

Lowenstein-Rosenberg . 123 

proclaimed regent . . 75 

renounces the throne . 85 

swears to respect the 

constitution . . .74 

Pedro declared king . . 74 

assumes the regency . 83 

lands at Oporto . . 83 

dies . . . .86 

— English assistance demanded . 75 

force lands at Lisbon . .75 

forces quit . . .76 

— hereditary peerage abolished . 203 
Prince (the) swears fealty to 

the constitution . . 126 

— insurrection in favour of Maria 

J.I.. .... 

of Terceira . . .88 

— Lisbon evacuated . . .84 
— Louie (Marquis of) prime minister 139 

— Maria II.'s proclunation to the 

insurgents . . .109 

— Maria II. sails for Lisbon . 76 

enters Lisbon . . 85 

swears fidelity to the 

constitution . . , S6 

— Miguelites, capitulation of . 85 
defeat of the , . . 75 



Portugal, Napier commands Bon 

Pedro's fleet . . .84 

— new constitution adopted . 69 

— northern districtSi insurrection 

in 105 

— Pedro I. renounces all claim to 

the crown , . .76 

— Pedro y. assumes the gOTem- 

ment .... 137 

— proTisional goyemment estab- 

lished at Oporto . .108 

— revolutionary junta capitulates 109 

— royal family emigrate to Brazil 48 

— Sa-da-Bandeira submits . • 109 

— Saldanha head of the administra- 

tion .... 123 

heads an insurrection . 123 

ministry resigns , . 1 39 

— slavery abolished . . .135 

— Terceira (Duke of), death of . 161 

retires to England . 88 

Post-office savings banks opened . 176 
"Potato war" (the) ... 6 
Pottinger (Sir H. ) arrives at Macao 93 
Pretender (the), Charles Edward, 

dies at Eome . . .13 

Prince Consort, Great Exhibition 

memorial to, inaugurated . 191 

Prince of Wales trading vessel, 

pUlage of . . . 191 

Property qualification of members 

of Parliament abolished . 147 

Prussia, Admiralty Board estab- 
lished .... 131 

— alliance with France and Austria 53 

— Annexation Bill passed . . 223 

— armistice with Denmark . 118 

— Becker attempts to assassinate 

the king .... 174 

— Bismarck, attempted assassina- 

tion of . . . .220 

created a Count . .216 

prime minister . . .186 

— blockade of the ports by Den- 

mark . . • .202 

— budget, the Lower Chamber re- 

fused control of the • .189 

— commercial treaty with Austria 128 

France . . . 184 

Great Britain . . 218 

Hanover . . . 123 

Japan . . . 167 

— convents suppressed in . .41 

— council of state revived . .125 

Prussia, Crown Prince (the) ap- 
pointed r^ent; • 144, 149 

— diplomatic rupture with Hesse 183 

— Frederick William IV. head of 

Bavarian Imperial constitu- 
tion . . . .119 
ilbess of . . . 144 

— Ghrman made the official lan- 

guage . . .179 

— Heydt (Von der) prime minis- 

ter .... 181 
resignation of . .186 

— Jews admitted to judicial ap- 

pointments . . .160 

— (King of), attempted assassina- 

tion of .- . . . 102 
declines title of "Em- 
peror of the Germans" . 118 

(the) rules without his" 

parliament . . 191, 214 

— (King of) visits England . . ^4 

— martial law proclaimed . . 118 

— military budget passed . . 186 

rejected . . .186 

reorganization in . . 156 

— ministers (the) withdraw from 

the Chambers . . .190 

— neutrality of, in the Eastern 

question . . . .134 

— new constitution issued . . 116 

— peace signed with Austria . 223 

Bavaria . . .223 

Hesse Darmstadt . 228 

Saxony . . .228 

Wiirtembeig . . 222 

— protest against annexation of 

Savoy . . . .160 

— serfdom abolished . . .49 

— treaty with Russia for suppress- 

ing Polish insurrection . 189 

— war with Austria . . .221 

France . . . . 44 

Saxony . . .221 

Switsserland threatened . 140 

— William I. revisits Vienna . 207 
Puebla, French defeated at . . 188. 

— surrender of . . . .190 
Punjaub a distinct presidency . 150 

— annexation of the . . .117 

— insurrection in the . * .198 

Quadrilateral, Austrian army 

enters the . . .152 

— Austrians retire ixom. . . 224 



^CDUtdrUateral, oearaon of the . 228 
" Quebec BiU" proposed . . 17 
•— made seat of Canadian go- 

Temment ' . . .138 
Queen Victoria ship, case of the « 227 

&AXLWAT panic in England . 
BamboniUet decree published 
Bangoon, British fleet arriyes at . 
— atonmng of . , , 

Bappahannock, American Federals 
<a:oBs the «... 
Eedan, attack on the . 
Bed Bepnblican insorrection 
Beform banqaet suppressed at 
Paris .... 
Beform Bill of 1832 passed . 

(Disraeli's) in committee . 

introduction of . 

passesthe House of Com- 
mons .... 

r the House of Lords . 

read a second time 

• receives the Boyai assent 

— demonstration in London 
B^ency (the) begins in England . 
Begent's Park, accident on the 

ice in . 
Beggio, occupation of . 
Beichstadt (Duke of), death of . 
Beigate, disfranchisement pi 
Beign of Terror commences . 

terminates . 

Bendsbnrg evacuated by the 

Danes .... 

Beporting parliamentary debates 

Bhine, Confederation of the . . 
Bhone, disastrous inundations of 


Bichardson (Mr.), murder of 
Bichmond (U.S.), evacuation of . 
Bifled ordnance, government com- 
mission on . . . 
*** Bights of man" declaration 
adopted by the French As- 
sembly . 
Bio de la Plata a republic 
Bio Janeiro, revolution in 
Boanoke Island, capture of 
Eobespiene, execution of 
— faUof . , . 
Kockingham (Marquis of) prime 
minister .... 



























Bohilcund, cession of . . .39 
Boland (Madame) beheaded. . 23 
Bom^gna protests against Sar- 
dinian interference in .153 

— Sardinian protectorate in the . 158 

— votes for Papal separation . 154 
Boman Catholic Emancipation Bill 

passed , . . .77 

hierarchy established in 

England . . . .122 

— Catholicism Spanish estab- 

lished religion . . . 135 

— frontier, Italian troops cross . 243 

— qi;estio9, French invitation to a 

conference on the . .244 

— republic proclaimed . 32, 117 
Bome, allocution of Pius IX. in 

favour of the temporal 
power .... 179 

— assembly of bishops at . . 224 

— Buonaparte proclaimed emperor 

of . . : : .43 

— commission of regency appointed 

.at 116 

— concordat with Austria . .136 

: — Spain . . . 123, 154 

Tuscany . . . 123 

— Constituent^ Assembly dissolved 118 
meets at . . . 117 

— convention with Spain as to 

church property . .154 

— declared a French city . . 50 

— eighteenth centenary of St. 

Peter celebrated at . . 230 

— Ferdinand IV. of Naples enters 33 

— French army of occupation in . 119 

garrison depart from . . 224 

treaty for evacuation of . 207 

troops re-enter. . .243 

— insurrection in . . .115 

— Jesuits expelled from . . 3 

r restored at' . . . 60 

-- Papal authority restored. . 118 

— return of Pius VII. . .58 

— Sardinian ambassador quits . 154 

— siege of 118 

— St. Paul's church burnt . . 71 

— surrender of , . . .118 

— taken by the Neapolitans . 34 

— unsucc^sful insurrection in . 242 

— Vegezzi's (Signer) visit to . 213 

second mission to . . 214 

Bose (Sir Hugh) Indian com- 
mander-in-chief . .163 



Bomnania, congress on aSain of . 219 

— constitution of . . .179 
Uoyal Marriage Act passed . 2 
Riigen ceded to Prussia 63 
Buasell (Earl) prime minister 106, 217 
Kussell's (Earl) note to Sardinia . 163 
resolutions on national eda- 

cation .... 245 
Bussia, Alexander II., attempted 

assassination of . 220, 230 

— amelioration of the condition of 

the serfs .... 145 

— and England combine against 

France . • .21 

— coalition against France . 33, 42 

— commercial treatywith Belgium 1 46 

— — China , . « 166 

France . . . 142 

Great Britain . . 150 

— Oonstantine(Ghrand Duke), death 


— Czarewitch, marriage of the . 

— French army retreats from 

— frontier treaty with China 

— invaded hy the French . 

— Jesuits expelled from 

— manifesto against Turkey 

— Nicholas I. made a Knight of 

the Ghtrter . . 
manifesto of, concerning 

Turkish war 

visits England 

— Nicholas (Czarewitch), betrothal 


death of . . . 

— Olga Constantinovina (Qrand 

Duchess), marriage of 
-^ peace proposals approved by the 
aUies sent to . • 

— political rights extended among 

the serfs .... 

— serfs, emancipation of the 

— treaty for protection of literary 

property with France 

with Prussia for suppressing 

Polish insurrection . 

— Turkish diplomatic relations 

renewed . 

— war with Austria . 


and France 

Persia . 














. 50 
. 47 
. 133 
. 74 
. 47 
76, 181 

Russian ambassador quits London I$l 

— America, sale o( to the United 

States . ... 227 

Saldavha Bay, surrender of Dutch 

fleet in . . 2S 

Sandwich Islands discovered by 

Captain Cook ... 6 

marriage of King of . . 139 

Queen Emma of, visits Eng- 
land . . . 238 

recognised as independent . 101 

San Luis de Potosi, Mexican go- 
vernment transferred to . 191 

retreat of Juarez from 199 

— Pedro, French defeated at . 210 
Santa Cruz, attack on . . SO 
Santiago, great fire at . . 199 
Saragossa, military revolt in 134, 137 
Sardinia, alliance with England 

and France , .135 

— Austrian ultimatum on the 

Italian question . 150 

— Cavour (Count) prime minister 156 

— Charles Albert aids Milan and 

Venice . . . . IIJ 
grants a new constitution 1 10 

— Charles Felix succeeds to the 

throne . . • .69 

— Clothildet(Princess), marriage of 150 

— diplomatic relations with Aus- 

tria cease . 140, Ul 

— disapproves Garibaldi*s expedi- 

tion to Sicily . . .161 

— ecclesiastical jurisdiction abo- 

lished in ... 120 

— Eugene (Prince) of Savoy regent 151 

— frontier treaty with France . 171 

— invaded by Austria . .151 

— Russell's (Lord John) note to . 163 

— Yictor Emanuel II. takes the 

field against Austria. . 151 
Sardinian ambassador quits Borne 154 

— territories invaded by the 

French . • • • 20 
Savannah, fall of . . . 210 
Savoy annexed to France 20, 27, 159 

— cession of, demanded by France 158 

— Emperor and Empress of the 

French visit . . .164 

— Prussian protest against annexa- 

tion of . . . .160 
Saxony, peace with Bussia . . 223 

— war with Prussia . , .221 



iehamyl, capture of . . ,154 

— Kussian expedition against . 153 
Sdileswig annexed to Denmark . 190 

— new constitution signed for .196 

— (city) occupied by Austrians . 200 

— occupied by the Prussians . 112 

— Swedish protest against occupa- 

tion of . . . . 205 

— Holstein, Augustenberg (Prince 

Frederick of) publishes a 
claim to the . 194 

(Prince Frederick of) 

sells his claim to . . 128 

— decree of Frederick VII. con- 

cerning .... 110 

— dispute referred to the Germanic 

Confederation . . .123 

— incorporated with Prussia . 225 

— Prussian aid to, decided upon . 161 

— question, European conference 

on the 205 

— revolt of ; . . . 112 

— submits to Denmark . .122 

— treaty for maintenance of . 121 
Scinde, annexation of . . .95 
Sdndiah escapes to Agra . .146 
Scio, capture of . . . .70 
Scotch Free Church established . 95 

— Eeform Bill, introduction of . 229 
Sealcote, defeat of Sepoys at .143 
Seaton defeats the Sepoys . .145 
Sebastopol, bombardment of .136 

— capture of .... 137 

— si^e of, commences . . 135 
Sebour (Archbishop), assassination 

of 140 

Senaf^ occupation of^ by Abys- 
sinian expedition . .246 
Senhonse (Sir Le F.) attacks Canton 93 
Serb, amelioration of the condi- 
tion of the Buasian . .145 

— emancipation of the Russian . 170 
Shakspeare tercentenary celebrated 203 
Shanghai, capture of . . .95 

— Lord Elgin and Baron Gros 

arrive at i . . . 162 

— Taeping capture of . . .131 

defeat at . . . .180 

Sheffield trade outrages, commis- 

don for inquiry into . . 230 
Shelbum (Lord) prime minister . 9 
Skena/ndoah, case of the . .217 

— surrender of the . . .217 
Sicilian sulphur grant, the . . 89 




Sicily annexed to Sardinia . 

— Bentivenga's insui^rection in 

— constitutional changes promised 

in . . . . . 

— Ferdinand II., attempted assas- 

sination of . . . 

— '■ breaks the treaty with 

Great Britain . 
grants a new constitution 117 

— Garibaldi becomes dictator of 

161, 163 

— general amnesty granted. . 162 

— Murat's attempt on . .58 

— Parliament votes for deposing 

the King of Naples 

— political reforms recommended 

by foreign ambassadors . 

— proclaimed in a state of siege . 

— protest of Ferdinand II. 

— Sardinian constitution intro- 

duced into 

— Victor Emanuel II. enters 

— votes for annexation to Sardinia 
Sidon, capture of 
Sierra Leone, settlement of 
Sikh army (the) surrenders 

— war commences 


Silesia invaded by Napoleon I. 
Silistria besieged by the Russians. 
Simonosaki forts, bombardment of 193 

destruction of . . . 207 

fire on an English and 

French vessel . 
Sinalnnga, Gkiribaldi arrested at . 
Slavery abolished in British Empire 

Dutch West Indies 

East Indies . 

France • 

Great Britain 

Madagascar . 


Spain . 

United States 48, 184, 186 

— address to the women of 

America on . . . 127 

— treaty with Spain for abolishing 65 
Slaves, revolt of, in Brazil . . 3 
Slidell (Mr.) arrives in England . 180 

surrendered by United States 179 

taken from English steamer 

Trent . . . .177 
Smyrna, affair of Eossta at. .130 
Soledad, truce concluded at . . 180 











. Pag© 

Sonderborg, bombardment of . 202 

Sonderby^iard, Danes defeated at. 201 
'* Sons of Liberty " rebellion . 88 
Bonth American goyemments ac- 
knowledged by n.S. . . 70 
Southampton, banqaet toGK>T«nior 

Evre at . . . .223 
8pa FieloB riots, the . . ,65 
8pain, amnesty to political offen- 
ders . 94, 108, 134, 161 

— Aranjuez railway opened . 123 
-^ Basqae provinces pacified . 91 
*— Carlist Ifimilies banished . 90 

— cession of districts north of the 

Ebro demanded by Napo- 
leon 1 48 

— commercial treaty witb Cliina. 208 
--concordat signed with Rome 123, 154 

— constitution of 1812 proclaimed 87 

— conyention with Rome as to 

church property . .154 
-T— Oortes opened by Queen Chris- 

tina .... 


— declared in a state of siege . 


— declares war with Mexico 


— diplomatic relations renewed 

with Great Britain . 


— D'Istnritz prime minister 


-. — diyided into 43 proyinces 


«- military districts . 


— Don Carlos banished 


death of . . . 


escapes from France . 


excluded from the throne 



flies to England . 


— heir presumptive . 


• — proclaimed king . 


: — property confiscated 


removes to London 


renounces the throne . 




takes refuge in France . 


Juan renounces the throne . 


— Espartero at the head of affairs 134 

declared regent . 


deprived of his titles . 


embarks for England . 


ministry resigns 


prime ministor 


restored to favour 


royalist commander . 


— Ferdinand VII. reassumes the 



Spain, Ferdinand YII. restored 59, 1 
^. — swears fealty to the con- 
stitution .... 
— - invaded by the French 23, 47, ' 

— Isabella II. of age . 

— Jesuits expelled from 

— Leon's insurrection 

— liberty of worship denied 

— literary property, treaty witk 

Fnnoe for protection of . 

— Madrid railway opened . 

— marriage of Inj^ta Karia 

Louisa . . . 11 

— Merino attempts to assassinate 

the Queen . . .11 

— Montomolin (Count de) sr- 

restod . . . . 1( 

— — . proclaimed king . 161 

renounces the ^irone 1^ 

— Narvaez exiled to Vienna 
lieutonant-general . . 10< 

— — prime minister . . 140, 20| 
resignation of . . . IJ 

— natiomd. militia abolished . U( 

— Neapolitan archives, refusal to 

surrender . . . H 

— O'Donnell ministry resigns . 1^ 
prime minister . 139, 

— 0*Donneirs insurrection . 93, 13^ 

— peace between the Carlists and 

Espartero . . . 91 

— Portuguese revolution disclaimed 75 

— Prim imprisoned . . . lO'J 

— ^'Quadruple Alliance,'* the . 85 

— Queen Christina becomes re- 

gent . . . . 88 

Dowager proteste against 

Espartero . . • ^^ 
Isabella, attempted assas- 
sination of . . • 109 

— — : mother (the) leaves the 

kingdom . . . . 13^ 
Regent (the) abdicates . ^ 

— religious toleration in . > l^ 

— revolution against Ferdinand 

VII, , . . . 67 

— Roman Catholicism made state 

religion . . , . 185 

— Salic law abolished . . 78 

— treaty for abolition of slave- 

trade . . . . fi^ 

: of Great Britain with the 

Gh*and Junta . . • ^' 

— war with England . . 6, 28, ^ 




I Spain, war with Morocco . .102 

— ends . . . 165 

Peru . . . .160 

Portuf^J ... 21 

» Znrbano, insarrection of. .102 

eieeation of . .102 

Spanish fleet defeated by the British 6 
•~ Peniosula (the) oyermn by the 

French . . . .72 
Speke (Captain) returns from 

Africa . . . .192 
Sinthead, Naval reriew at . 188, 281 

— nmtinyat . . .29 
Si Albans (U-S.) Confederate at- 
tack on . . . 209 

— C!onfederate raiders on, dis- 

charged .... 210 
Si Dominj^o declares itself inde- 
pendent .... 

Spanish abandonment of . 212 

•^ — nnited to Spain . 171 

Si Helena, Buonaparte sails for . 68 

arrives at . .64 

Si John d'UIloa, occupation of .178 
St. Jost, execution of . . .24 
Si Patrick, Order of, founded . 10 
Si Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, re- 
opened .... 211 
Si Sebastian, capture of . .57 

meeting of French and 

Spanish sovereigns at . 216 

— — siegeof . . .87 
Si miomas, earthquake at . . 245 
"- — hurricane at . . ' . 243 
Star of India, order of, instituted 173 
Stepliens (James), escape of .217 
"Stone fleet," sinking of the . 134 
Stnsbonrg, Louis Napoleon*s at- 
tempt at . . .87 

Napoleon visits . . . 126 

Staart's (Captain) Australian ex- 
ploration . . 104, 118 
Btnttgardt, Emperors of Bussia 

and France meet at . .144 
Sunday Trading Bill, riots concern- 
ing the .... 136 
8vat (Nabob of) surrenders . 35 
fttteeism officially abolished . 77 
Sveden, intercourse with Great 

Britain prohibited . . 52 

— Lntheran religion permitted . 161 
"" neutrality of, concerning the 

Eastern question .131 

^ new constitution adopted .218 

Sweden, new i>olitical union for . 248 

— protest against oeonpation of 

Sohleswig . 205 

— treaty with France and England 

against Bussia . . 187 

— Wales (Prince and Princess of) 

yidts . . .209 

Swiss cantons increased . 89 

Switzerland, civil war in . 109 

— commercial treaty with France 205 

— foreign ecclesiastical authority 

repudiated .158 

— independence of, recognized . 61 

— neutrality of, on tlM Italian 

question . . . .150 

— new constitution promulgated. 115 

— release of Prussian subjects by 140 

— Sonderbund(the)deolared illegal 109 
Sydney founded by Captain Philip 13 
Syracuse, capture of . . .118 
Syria,' Buonaparte retreats from . 88 

— conyention for restoration of 

order in . . . . 168 

— Egyptians (the) retire from . 92 

— French force sent to . .163 

— invaded by Buonaparte . . 83 
Ibrahim Pacha . 81 

— pacification of . .166 

— punishment of assassins in, by 

Fuad Pacha . .168 

— treaty for expulsion of Ibrahim 

Pacha from . .91 

Taous, American squadron enters 

the .... 121 

— English fleet anchors in the . 108 
Tailors* strike (the) in London . 242 
Taku forts, capture of. . .163 
Tamatave, attack on . . .104 
Tampico, evacuation of . .188 
Tangchow, treacherous arrest of 

British officers at . .164 
Tanjore (Bajah of) surrenders . 34 
Taxgowitz, confederation of . .19 
Tea, destruction of, at Boston 3 

'* Tea Boom,*' meeting of Liberals 

in the 227 

Tea taxed in American colonies . 1 
Teck (Prince yon), marriage of . 221 
TegethofiT (Admiral) gets possession 
of the Emperor Maxi- 
milian's remains . 244 
Teheran made capital of Persia . 26 





Teignmouth, bread riots at • 
Telegraphic communication be 
tween England and Den- 
mark • • • 

— — — France . 

— — Ireland 

''TenMinntea' Bill/' the . 
Terceira, Don Mignel defeated at 77 
Tests Abolition (Oxford) Bill read 

a second time . 
*— Act repealed • • . . 
Texas, revolt of . 

— treaty for annexation of . 
Texel, surrender of Dutch fleet in 

the . • . . 
Thames embankment, first stone 

of, laid .... 
Thelwall (John), trial of 
Thnrles, Synod of . . . 
Tien-tsin, Lord Amherst's embassy 

amves at . . . 

— repulse of Admiral Hope at . 

— treaty of, ratified . 
Tiger (the), loss of . . 
Tipperary, agrarian outrages in . 
Tippoo SfJiib, accession of . 
Lord Halifax's grant to 

— — peace concluded with 11, 18 
Tonquin (Bay of), destruction of a 

Chinese fleet in 

Tooke (J. Home), trial of . 

Torquay, bread riots at 

Torres Yedras, defeat of Portu- 
guese insuigents at . 

Torture abolished in France. 

Totnes, disfranchisement of. 

Toulon eyacuated by the British . 

— French troops embark at, for 

Givita Yecchia. 
Townley Marbles purchased by 

British Museum 
Trangott (Bomuald), execution of 
Transylvania and Hungary, union 

of . . . • . 
Transylvanian deputies accept the 

Austrian constitution 
Travancore attacked by Tippoo 

Sahib . . . .16 

— subjection of. . . .50 
Treaties : Abrantes . . .38 

— Adrianople . . .77 

— Akieiman . . . .75 

— Amiens . . .89 

— Athens .... 121 





















Treaties, Badajoz 

— BAsle (France and Prussia} 
(Fiance and Spain) . 

— Bayonne (Spain and France) . 4i < 
(France and Spain) . . W0 

— Berlin (Denmark and Prussia). 121 

— Berne IST 

— Bucharest . . . H 

— Callao 211 

— Campo-Formio . .31 

— Ohunar • 

— Colombo . . . . 27 

— Erzeroum . . . 72 

— Evora Monte . . . . 85, 

— Florence (France and Naples) . 37 
(Tuscany, Parma, Modeoa, 

and the Legations) . . 153 

— Fontainebleau . .47 

— Ghent 61 

— Gulistan . ... 57 

— Jaasy 17 

— Elalisch 56 

— Kiel 57 

— Kutschouc-Eainardji 4 

— Lahore 105 

— L^oben 2» 

— Luneville . ... 86 

— Madrid (France and Spain) . 87 

— Munich (Austria, Bavaria, 

Saxony, Wurtemberg) 
'^ Nankin (Great Britainand China) 

— Nikolsburg ... 

— Orebro .... 

— Pardo .... 

— Paris (France and Kaples) 

— — (France and the Allies) 
(France, England, and 

Sweden) . ... 187 

— Presbuig . . . . ^2 

— Schonbrunn . . . . 51 

— Segoulee . ... 64 

— St.Ildefonso(Spainand Portugal) 6 

(France and Spain) . 85 

(Spain and France) 

— Tamatave . . . . 65 

— Teschen . . . • ^ 

— Tien-tfiin . . . . U^ 

— Tilsit *6 

— Tolentino . . . . 28 
■ — Turkmanshai. . . . 76 

— Vera Cruz . . . . ^ 

— Versailles . ... 10 

— Vienna (Prussia and Austria) . ^2 





.TreBtie8,'Vieiiiia(Italy, Poland, Ger- 
many, and the Netherlands) 61 
— inilafranca .... 158 

— Werdow . , , ,16 
,<-Tandaboo . . . .74 

^ Zurich 155 

TraOj affidr of the . . . 177 
TreTelyan (Sir Charles) recalled 

from India . . . 162 
Tngot dismissed ... 4 
luui, Austrian amhaasador leaves 141 

— fiirt Italian parliament opened 

. , at . . . .168 
~ isBmrection at . • . 211 

— political distorbances at . 203 

— riots at 207 

--Biunan ambassador recalled 

from .... 164 
—Spanish ambassador leaves . 164 
^iej, Abdnl Axis (Saltan) visits 

London .... 231 
*- aOknce of England and France 

with .... 133 

— conmiercial treaty-with France. 172 

Qieat Britain . . 172 

^declares war with Egypt. . 82 

— Ruropean note to, respecting 

terms for peace . . 131 
reply to . . .132 

— Foad Pacha punishes Syrian 

aswMRinB . 168 

— Hungarian fugitives in . . 119 

— Bunifesto issued to the Great 

Powers . . . .180 
-"•Montenegrin war ends . .185 

— office of Grand Vizier abolished 88 

— peace concluded with Egypt . 84 
'*- Polish refagees expelled from . 206 
— Rnasian diplomatic relations 

renewed .... 110 
•^ — manifesto against . . 130 

— treaty of commerce with Eng- 

. land • . . .89 

• with France . 89 

1^ war declared with England . 45 

* Greece . . . 183 

Kusoa . . 45,131 

— renewed with EgTP^ • • ^^ 
ly annexed to Sardinia . 159 
concordat signed with Borne > 128 
declares in &vour of United 

Italy . . . _. 163 
joins France and Sardinia 
against Austria . • 152 

Toscany, Victor Emanuel II. de- 
clared dictator of . . 151 

Umbhia annexed to Sardinia . 167 
Union of Great Britain and Ire- 
land - . 86 
United Parliament, first meeting of 86 
United-States : — ^Alabama, seces- 
sion of . . . 167 

— amnesty to secessionists pro- 

claimed .... 199 

— Arkansas, secesnon of . . 173 

— armistice conduded with Great 

Britain . . . .10 

— Bank (the) stops payment . 91 

— Banks (General) supersedes 

Butler at New Orleans . 187 

— Bell (John), convention for 

promoting election of .161 

— Boston evacuated by British . 4 

occupied by Washington . 4 

— British capitulate at Saratoga . 5 
envoy quits Washington . 139 

— Buchanan (President), inquiry 

into election of . . 159 
— Bumside (General) commander- 
in-chief on the Potomac . 187 

— Oapitol at Washington burnt . 125 

— cash payments suspended in 

New York . .179 

— civil war ends . . . 220 

— commercial panic in . .88 
treaty with Great Britain . 188 

— Ck>nfederate States establish a 

provisional government . 168 

— conference between the Federal 

and Confederate States . 170 

— congress, the first ... 4 

— conscription riots . . . 198 
-7 Davis (Jefferson), capture of .218 
released on bidl . . 229 

— declared independent . 4 

— dispute with GreatBritain touch- 

ing American seamen . 136 
— — the fisheries . 126 

— Douglas (Stephen), convention 

for promoting election of . 160 

— embargo laid on all vessels • 48 
— -^glish reinforcements arrive 

at Boston ... 4 

— Federal government adopted . 5 
•— first minister receiveil by 

George III. . . .11 

T 2 



United-States : Florida, seoession of 167 

— Fort Sumter, surrender of .172 
-^ France proposes European inter- 

yention in . . .187 

— Fngitiye Slave BiU passed . 121 

— Georgia, secession of . .167 

— Ghrant (General) commander- 

in-chief .... 201 

— Habeas Corpus Act suspended. 193 
^— House of Commons censures 

war with ... 9 

— Japan, treaty with . .133 

— Johnson (PreBident), messsge of 218 

— — — resolution for impeach- 

ment defeated . . . 246 

— Kanawha a separate state . 188 

— Lee (General) Confederate com- 

mander-in-chief , . .211 
surrender of . . 212 

— Louisiana, secession ol . .167 

— M*Leod, acquittal of . .93 

— Maryland, invasion of . 185 

— Meade ^Gleneral) in command 

on tne Potomac .192 

— Mississippi, secession of .167 

— navigation, &c., treaty with 

Great Britain . .25 

— neutrality of, in the Bastem 

question . . .133 
Mexican question. 194 

— New York evacuated . .11 

— North Carolina, secession of .173 

— peace signed with Great Britain 61 

— ports opened to British commerce 78 

— Prince of Wales visits . . 166 

— recognized by Denmark . .10 

Bngland ... 9 

— France ... 5 

Holhind ... 9 

Spain . . .10 

Sweden . . . 10 

— resolution against establishment 

of Mexican empire . 202 

— "Revival" (the) commences in 143 

— Russian America, purchase of. 227 

— ** Seven Days before Rich- 

mond," first of . . 184 

— slaveholders' property confis- 

cated .... 184 

— slavery abolished in . 184, '186 

— slaves in Southern States de- 

clared free . . . 188 

— Smith (Gen. Kirby), surrender of 213 

— South Carolina, secession of .167 

United - States : Southern ports 

blockaded . .ITS 

— Supplementary Reconstruction 

Bill passes . . 2S1 

— surrender of British at Yoik- 

town . . I 

— Tariff Bill passed . . . 71 

— Tennessee, secession of . .171 

— Texas, secession of . . 14T 

— treaties of amity and commerce 

with France . . . I 

— treaty with Mexico ratified . US 
Turkey . . . 7S 

— Virginia, Confederate congress at 174 
secession of .178 

— war declared with Gh*eat Britain H 

— Western Virginia made a" separ- 

ate state . . . . 188 
Uruguay, war with Brazil . . 206 
Ushant, defeat of French fleet off 24 

Valikoia, insurrection in . . 138 
Varna, capture of . . . 78 
Vellore, mutiny at . . . 44 
Venezuela separates from Colombia 81 
Venice, incorporation of, with 

Sardinia voted . . 114 

— joins Lombardy against the 

Austrians • . .111 

— Manin*s insurrection in . . HI 
Vera Cruz, amval of European 

expedition at . . 180 

bombarded . . .159 

occupation of . . . 230 

Santa Anna lands at . . 201 

Spanish troops disembark at 178 

Verona, congress at . .71 

Versailles, States-General at . 14 
Vicksburg, American Federal fleet 

passes . . . . IM 

— capture of . . . . 198 

— investment of . . . 191 

— siege of . . . . 188 
Victoria Crosses distributed . 148 

— Intercolonial Exhibition of, 

opened . . . . 223 

— (Queen), attempted assassina- 

tion of . . . 91,94 

Vienna, bombardment of, by 

JelhMshich . . .115 

— conference assembles . . 1^^ 

— congress at, sits . . . ^ 
of, on Eastern question . ^^ 

— constituent assembly meet at . 1^^ 




lenoa, insurrection in . .111 
Sardinian ambassador leaves . 141 
ica, defeat of Portagaese 
insurgents at . . .108 
le-le-Grande, Swiss dispute at . 175 
leroux, descent of Louis Napo- 
leon on . . . .91 
klhynia invaded by the Poles . 198 
llunteer corps, formation of 24, 152 
force Acts consolidated . .130 
review in Hyde Park . 162 

^lonteers (English) visit Belgium 223 

^JLU (Captain) blows up the BtUl- 
dog .... 217 

Icheren expedition . . .51 
les (Prince of ), official announce- 
ment of marriage of .187 

returns from the East . 183 

takes his seat in the 

House of Lords .189 

visits Napoleon III. .184 

llachia, evacuation of . . 134 
occupied by the Russians . 45 
iw, alliiuice of Poland and 
Prussia at . . .16 
capture of . . . .25 
churches closed in . . . 176 
evacuated by the Austrians 50 

insurrection at . . 72, 112 
oocapied by the Austrians 50 

popular demonstration in . 170 

Warsaw, Russian university estab- 
lished at . . .207 

— Russians massacred in . .42 

— surrendered to the Russians . 81 
Washington (city) captured 60 

— made seat of Government 35 
Westbury(Lord Chancellor) resigns 215 
Whitworth (Lord) insulted by 

Buonaparte . .89 

Wilson (Mr.) introduces Indian 

financial changes . .158 
Wimbledon, review at, in presence 

of the Sultan . .281 

Wodehouse (Lord) despatched to 

Copenhagen and Berlin . 199 
Woochang, Taeping capture of .181 
Woosung, capture of . . .95 
WllrtembuiK, peace signed with 

Prussia . 

Taoatioab, occupation of . 
Yarmouth, disfranchisement of . 
Yeh (Commissioner), capture of . 
Yenikale, capture of . 
'Yokohama, British embassy re- 
moved to . * 
Yorkshire, North Riding of, floods 


York Town, evacuation of . 
Ypsilanti assists the revolted 
Danubian principalities • 

ZoLLYXRXiN (the) institated • 










Fbom 1767 TO 1867. 




From 1767 to 1867. ' 

AUSTBIA. (See Germa'ny,) 


Grand DuJces, 


Charles Frederic . 1806-11 
CliarlesLoiusFrederic 1811-18 
Lotiis William . . 1818-30 
Leopold .... 1830-52 
Frederic 1852 



Maximilian Joseph I. 1745-78 
Charles Theodore . 1778-99 
Majdmilian Joseph IL 

[Becon^es . king hy treaty of 


Maximilian Joseph I. 1805-25 
Lonis Charles (abdicated) 

Maximilian Joseph II. 1848-64 
Louis II. .• . ^ .. . 1864 


Leopold I. 
Leopold II. 


. . 1831-65 
. . . 1865 



Don Pedro I. . . 
Don Pedro II. . . 

. 1831 



Kien-long . 
Ki-tsiang . 

. 1861 


Kings ofDenma/rk anU Norway* 

Christian VIL .' 1766-1808 
Frederick VI. . . 1808-39 

[Separation of Norway from 
Denmark, and annexed to 
. Sweden, 1814.] 



DENMABK {continued). 
I3ng9 of JDewmofrk. 


Christian VHI. • . 1839-48 
Frederick Vn, • . 1848-63 
Christian rX. . . . 1863 



MehmetAli . . . 1806-48 

Ibrahim 1848 

Abbas 1848-54 

Said 1854-63 

Ismail 1863 


George HI. • 
George IV. . 
WiUiamlV. . 

ViCTORU • . 

. 1820-30 
. 1830-37 
. . 1837 


Souse of Bourbon, 

LonisXV. . . , 1715-74 
Louis XVI. . . , 1774-93 
Louis XVII. (a king only 
nominally), . . , 1793 

The Bepublic. 

The Convention . , . 1792 
The Directory . . . 1795 
The Consulate . . , 1799 

The Umpire, 

Napoleon I. ^ . . 1804-14 
King Louis XVEIL . 1814 
Kapoleon I. (again) . 1815 

FRAl^CB {continued). 
Souse of Bourhon restored, 

LKHOTH OF £1101. 

Louis XVni. (again) 1815-24 
Charles X. . . . 1824-30 

Souse of Orleans* 

Louis PhiHppe L . 1830-48 
The Bepublic. . . 1848-52 

TJhe JEmpvre restored. 

Napoleon III. (Charles 
Louis) 1852 



Joseph n. 
Leopold n. 
Francis 11. 

. 1765-90 
. 1790-92 


[Francis 11. formally ab- 
dicated the title of £m« 
peror of Germany and 
assumed that of Em- 
peror of Austria, 

Aug. 6, 1806] 
Francis n. . . . 1806-35 
Ferdinand L . . . 1835-48 
Francis Joseph I. . . 1848 



Otho L (abdicated) 1832-^ 
George 1 18( 





LBK«TH or BXIGir. 

Cteorge William Frederick 
(first king) (Geo.m.) 


G-eorge Angastas Frede- 
rick (Geo. IV.) . 1820-30 

WiUiam Henry (William 
rV.) 1830-37 

Ernest Angastas (Dake 
of Cumberland) . 1837-61 

George V. . . . 1851-66 

[Hanover is now incorporated 
vrith Prassia.] 



William V. . . . 1751-95 
(Holland and Belgiam 
nnited to the French 
Republic, 1795-1806.) 

Kings of Solla/nd and the 

Loois Buonaparte (abdi- 
cated Jnly 1, .1810) 


(Holland again united to 
France, 1810-18.) 

S(mse of Orange restored. 

WilEam Frederick (abdi- 
cated). (Styled King 
of the Netherlands, 
1815) .... 1813-40 
William n. . . . 1840-49 
William m 1849 


ChvemorS' General, 


Warren Hastings . 1772-85 
Sir John McPherson 1785-86 
Lord Comwallis . . 1786-93 
Sir John Shore (Lord 

Teignmouth . . 1793-98 
Sir Alored Clarke . . 1798 
Lord Mornington (Mar- 

qaess Wellesley) 1798-1805 
Marquess Comwallis 

(again) 1805 

Sir Geo. Hilaro Barlow 1805-7 
LordMinto . . . 1807-13 
Earl of Moira (Marquess 

of Hastings) . . 1813-23 
Hon. John Adam . . 1823 
Bt. Hon. Geo. Canning 1823 
Lord Amherst . . 1823-28 
Hon. W, Butterworth 

Bayley • . . . . 1828 
Lord W. Cavendish Ben- 

tinck .... 1828-35 
Sir Charles T. Metcalf 

(Lord Metcalf) . . 1835 
Lord Heytesbory . . 1835 
Lord Auckland . . 1836-42 
Lord Ellenboroagh . 1842-44 
William Wilberforce Bird 1844 
Sir Henry Hardinge (Lord 

Hardinge) . . . 1844-48 
Lord Dalhousie . . 1848-55 
Lord Canning , , 1855-61 
Lord Elgin . . . 1861-63 
Sir John Lawrence . . 1863 


JPirst Umperor, 
Iturbide .... 1822-32 



MEXICO (continued). 


Gnadulnpe Victoria 1825-27 
Guerrero .... 1827-29 
Bustamente . . . 1829-33 
Santa Anna . . . 1833-45 

(Various Presidents.) 
Santa Anna (again) 1853-55 
Martin Carrera . . . 1855 

Alvarez 1855 

Comonfort . . . 1855-58 

Guloaga 1858 

Benito Juarez and Mira- 

mon (Civil War) 1858-61 
Benito Juarez . . 1861-64 

Ma.Triniilia.Ti I. . . 1864-67 

Benito Juarez . . 



King of the Two Sicilies. 

Ferdinand TV. of Naples, 
III. of Sicily (de- 
throned). . . 1759-1805 

Kings of Naples. 

Joseph Buonaparte . 
Joachim Murat . . 

King of Sicily 
Ferdinand III. . . 



Kings of the Two Sicilies. 

Ferdinand I. (Ferdinand 
IV. restored) . . 1815-26 



Francis L . . . 1826-30 
Ferdinand n. . . 1830^9 
Francis II. (dethroned) 


King of Itidg. 
Victor Emmanuel . 




Loofi^AH-Khan . . 1789-94 
Aga-Mahommed . . 1794-97 
Futteh Ali-Khan 1797-1834 
MahommedShah . 183448 
Nasr-ul-deen .... 1848 


Stanislaus 11 1764 

[Extinction of the Polish 
kingdom .... 1794] 



Clement XIII 
Clement XIV 
PiusVL . 
Pius VII. . 
Leo XII. . 
Pius VIII. . 
Gregory XVI 
Pius IX. . 

. 1758-69 

. 1769-75 

. 1800-23 

. 1823-29 

. 1829-31 

. 1831-46 

. . 1846 






Josepli 1750-77 

Peter lU. and Maria I. 

(Francesca) . . 1777-86 
Maria I. . • . 1786-1816 

John VI 1816-26 

Peter IV. (abdicated) . 1826 
Maria II. (dethroned) 1826-28 

Miguel 1828-33 

Maria II. (again) . 1833-53 
Peter V. .... 1853-61 
Louis 1 1861 

Frederick II. . . 1740-86 
Frederick WiUiam II. 1786-97 
Fredk. William III. 1797-1840 
FredeHck William IV. 1840-61 

TT XIIIOlLLL J.. • • • 

• • JLV^V/J. 


Catherine II. 

. 1762-96 

Paul I. . . . 


Alexander L . .. 

. 1801-25 

Nicholas I. . . 

. 1825-55 

Alexander 11. 

. . 1855 


Kings of Sardinia. 

Charles Emmanuel I. 1730-73 
Victor Amadeus H. 1773-96 
Charles Emmanuel II. 

Victor Emmanuel I. (Sar- 
dinia annexed to Italy, 

1805) 1802-5 

Victor Emuianuel I. (re- 
stored) .... 1814-21 
Charles Felix . . 1821-31 
Charles Albert . . 1831-49 
Victor Emmanuel II. . 1849 
The present King of Italy. 




Frederick Augustus IIL 
(afterwards becomes 
king) . . . 1763-1806 


Frederick Augustus 1. 1806-27 
Anthony Clement . 1827-36 
Frederick Augustus II. 1836-54 
John. . . . . . . 1854 


Charles III. . . . 1759-88 
Charles lY. . . 1788-1808 
Ferdinand YII. (dethroned) 

, 1808 
Joseph Buonaparte . . 1808 
Ferdinand VII. (again) 1813-33 
Isabella II 1833 


Adolphus Frederick 1751-71 
GustavusIII. . . 1771-92 
Gustavus IV. . 1792-1809 
Charles XIII. . . 1809-18 
[Norway annexed to 
Sweden, 1814.] 

Kings of Norway and Sweden. 

Charles John XIV. (Ber- 
nadotte) . . . 1818-44 

Oscar 1844-59 

Charles XV 1859 






Mnstapha III. . . 1767-74 

Abdul Ahmed . . 1774-89 

Selimni. . . 1789-1807 

MnstapbalV. . . .1807-8 
Mohammed VI., or Mah- 

moud II. • • • 1808—39 

AbdnlMedjid . . 1839-61 

Abdul Aziz . . . • 1861 


Grand Dukes. 

Leopold I. 
Ferdinand III. 

. 1766-90 

Kmga of Etrii/na. 

Lords I., Duke of Parma, 

Louis II 1803-9 

Grand Duchess. 
Eliza Buonaparte . 1809-14 

Grand Dukes. 

Ferdinand IIL . . 1814-24 
Leopoldll. (abdicated) 1824-69 
Ferdinand lY. . . . 1859 

[Annexed to Sardinia, I860.] 




Charles Eugene . . 1737-93 

Louis Eugene . . 1793-95 

Frederic Eugene . 1795-97 

Frederic n. . . 1797-1805 

[Assumes tbe title of king 1805.] 


Frederick I. 
William I. 
Charles L 

. 1864 



The President holds the 
office for a term of four years, 
and is eligible for re-election 
at the expiration of that period. 
The official year commences 
March 4. 

George Washington 
John Adams . . • 
Thomas Jefferson • 
James Madison • . 
James Monroe . . 
John Quincy Adams 
Andrew Jackson 
Martin Van Buren . 

William Henry Harrison 1841 

John Tyler .... 1841 

James Kjiox Polk . . 1845 

Zachary Taylor ... 1849 

MiUard Fillmore . . . 1850 

Franklin Pierce . . . 1853 

James Buchanan . • . 1857 

Abraham Lincobi . . 1861 

Andrew Johnson . . 186^ 






Feom 1767 TO 1867, 

« f 




From 1767 to 1S67. 

Abensberg. See Eckmuhl. 

Aboakir, Jjdy 25, 1799. Egypt. 

The TnrHsli forces defeated by the French, imder I7apoleon 
Buonaparte. An English army, under Abercrombie, effected 
a lauding near this place, Mar. 8, 1801, and compelled the 
French to retreat. 

Acre, or St. Jean d'Acre. Syria. 

The French, under Napoleon Buonaparte, forced to retreat 
after a siege of 61 days, during which time the town was 
gallantly defended by the Turks, under Djezzar Bacha, and 
subsequently relieved by the English, under Sir Sidney 
Smith, May 20, 1799. Acre was taken by Ibrahim Pasha, 
May 27, 1832 ; it was retaken by an English and Austrian 
fleet, under Sir Bobert Stopford, Nov. 3, 1840, from the 
forces of Ibrahim Pasha, and has since remained in the 
possession of the Turks. 

Acs, or Acz, July 2, 1849. Hungary. 

The Hungarians, under Georgez, defeated by the allied 
Bussians and Austrians. 

Adda, May 27, 1799. N. Italy. 

The French and Italian army, under Moreau, defeated by 

the Bussian and Austrian forces under Suwarrow. 
Adrianople, Aug. 20, 1829. European Turkey. 

Captui^d from tibe Turks by the Bussians, but restored 

Sep. 14, the same year. 
Agra, India. 

It was taken by Scindia in 1784, and surrendered to Lord 


290 i. BMir DiCTioirA.BT or thb 

Lake, Oct. 17, 1803. Nearly all the European buildings in 
Agra were destroyed during the mutiny of 1857 ; but their 
owners were preserved in the large and strongly defended 
fort. The native troops were disarmed on the 1st of June. 
The Europeans attacked the Neemuch force and the Kotah 
contingent (July 5), but were compelled to retreat. Greathed 
gained a signal victory here (Oct. 10, 1867) over the rebel 

Ahmednugger, June 12, 1803. India. 

Besieged by the British under Sir A. Welleslcy, and the 
Mahrattas forced to surrender. The city was annexed to 
the British possessions in India by treaty, June 13, 1817. 

Akhalzikhy Armenia. 

The Russians, under Prince Erivanski, defeated the Turks 
near this place, Aug. 24, 1828, and took possession of the 
city and fortress, Aug. 27. The Turks made an effori to 
regain possession in Feb. 1829, but were compelled to retire, 
Mar. 16, and Akhalzikh was ceded to Bussia by the treaty 
of Adrianople, Sep. 14, 1829. 

Albuera, May 16, 1811. Spain. 

Marshal, afterwards Lord Beresford, having been compelled, 
by the approach of Soult with a large army, to raise the 
siege of Badajoz, resolved to make a stand at the village d 
Albuera, between Badajoz and Seville. His army amounted 
to 30,000 infentry and 2,000 cavBJry ; but of these, three- 
fourths were Spanish, Portuguese, and German troops. 
They had 38 guns. Soult had under his command nearly 
20,()Q0 infantry and 4,000 cavaby, veteran troops, supported 
by fifty pieces of artillery. The battle commenced earlj 
in the morning, and afber a terrific contest, in which 
victory wavered from one side to the other, the French 
were defeated. They lost 8,000, whilst the allied army 
had to deplore a loss of neariy 7,000 men. The brunt of 
the action was borne by the English, who had only 1,500 
unwounded men left, "the remnant of 6,000 uncon- 
querable British soldiers." 

Albnfera, Jan. 4, 1812. Spain. 

Between the French and Spaniards. The former were vic- 
torious, and Marshal Suchet was created duke of Alhofera 
in honour of his triumph. 

Alcaniz, May 23, 1809. Spain. '' 

The French, under General Suchet, defeated by the Span- 
iards, under General Blake. 


Alessandria, Italy. 

This town was taken by the French, nnder Napoleon, in 
1796, but was retaken by Snwarrow, July 21, 1?99, It 
surrendered to Napoleon, June 14, 1800. By the treaty of 
Paris, Mar. 80, 1814, it- was restored to Sardinia. Ales^ 
sandiia was captured by the Austrians, Apr. 19, 1821, 

Alexandria, July 3, 1798. Egypt. 

The Arabs defeated by fiie French, under Buonaparte. 
Another engagement, in which the French under M6nou 
were defeated by the British under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, 
Mar. 13 and 21, 1801. Here Sir Ralph lost his life, when 
the command deyolved upon General .Hutchinson. M6nou 
surrendered, Sep. 2. Alexandria was again taken by France, 
Mar. 20, 1807. British evacuated, Sep. 23 of the same 

Algeria (N. Africa). 

The French havings on account of annoyances to their trade, 
declared war against Algiers, despatched a fleet from.. 
Toulon, which railed May 25, 1830, carrying above 30,000 
troops, and on the morning of June 14 a landing was com- 
menced in the neighbourhood of Algiers. A battle was 
fought on the 19th, in which the French, with difl&culty,. 
defeated a large Algerine force. Skirmishes ensued on the 
24th and 25th; the trenches before Algiers were commencedlr 
on the 29th, and fire opened July 4, with such effect, that 
on the same evening a treaty was concluded, by which 
Algiers, its forts and harbour, with some of the adjoining' 
districts, were surrendered to the French, who have sincCi 
established a colony, divided into three provinces, — ^Algiers,, 
Oran, and Constantina. 1830. — ^Medeah conquered in Nov., 
and Oran occupied Dec. 10. 1832. — ^Bona occupied in May. 
1833. — The IVench .declared their intention of colonizing 
the country. Abd-el-Kader raised an insurrection against 
the French, and was defeated at Tamojanat, Sep. 3, and 
at Ain-Bedia, Oct. 10. Bugia taken, Sep. 29. Treaty 
concluded between General Desmichels and Abd-el- 
Kader, Sep. 26, 1835. The French take Harchgoun in 
Oct. ; Mascara and Tlemsen, Dec. 5, after some severe 
fighting. 1836. — The Algerines defeated at Taafna, Apr. 
25. Bugeaud defeated Abd-el-Kader, in a great battle near 
Tlemsen, July 6. 1837. — Bugeaud concluded the treaty of 
Taafria with Abd-el-Kader, May 30. Achmet Bey defeated 
and Constantina taken, Oct. 13. 1838. — Philippevilleji 
founded in October. 1839. — Abd-el-Kider defeated the 

u 2 


French at Metidia, Dec. 14, and advanced to the walls otj 
the city of Algiers. 184^. — ^War resumed with. Abd-el- 
Kader, who had been made saltan in 18B7. 1847. — ^Bon- 
Maza surrendered at Orleansville, Apr. 13. Bngeaud's 
expedition to Great Kabylia in Maj. Abd-el-Kader snrreii* 
dered at Nemours, Deo. 28. 1849. — ^The Saharians revolt. 
Zaatcha taken and destroyed in November. 1850. — 
Pelissier defeated the Saharians at Laghonat, v^hich was 
destroyed, Dec. 2. 1857. — ^An insurrection suppressed by 
the French. 1864-5.— Ditto. 

Algiers, Aug. 27, 1816. Africa. 

Sucoessftdly bombarded by the British fleet, under Sir 
Edward Pellew, aided by a Dutch squadron, under Ad- 
miral Van Gapellan, and the Algerines forced to accept 
British terms. 

Aliwal^ Jan. 28, 1846. India. 

The Sikhs (19,000), under Sirdar Runjoor Singh, defeated 
by the British (12,000) under Sir Harry Smith. 

Alma^ Sep. 20, 1854. Crimea. 

The English, French, and Turkish army (about 57,000 men) 
moved out of their first encampment in the Crimea on 
Sep. 19, and bivouacked for the night on the left bank 
of the Bulganac. The Russians (commanded by Prince 
Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 infantry, had 180 field- 
pieces on the heights, and on the morning of Sep. 20tili 
were joined by 6,000 cavalry from Theodosia (or ElaflPa). 
The English forces, under Lord Raglan, consisted of 26,000 
men ; the French of 24,000, 'under Marshal St. Amaud. 
At 12 o'clock the signal to advance was made ; the river 
Alma was crossed, while Prince Napoleon took possession 
of the village under the fire of the Russian batteries. At 
4, after a sanguinary fight, the Allies were completely vic- 
torious. The enemy, utterly routed, threw away their ^rms 
and knapsacks in their flight, having lost about 5,000 men, 
of whom 900 were made prisoners, mostly wounded. The 
loss of the British was 26 officers and 827 men killed, and 
73 officers and 1,539 men wounded (chiefly from the 23rd, 
7th, and 33rd regiments) ; that of the French, 8 officers and 
233 men killed, and 54 officers and 1,038 men wounded. 
Total loss of Allies, about 3,300. 

Almeida, Portugal. 

During the struggle in the Peninsula, this fortified town 
was surrendered to the EngHsh in Oct. 1808 ; taken fiwm 


the Portuguese by the Frendi, Aug. 27, 1810 ; and recap- 
tured by Wellington, after a brilliant victory at Fuentes 
d'Onore, May 11, 1811, 

Useil^ Denmark. 

Attacked by the Prussians June 26, 1864, and the Danes 
surrendered June 29. 

Altenkirchen, Prussia. 

The Ausirians defeated by the French, June 4, 1796. 
Another engagement Sep. 19, 1796, in which the French 
republican army, under Gen. Marceau, was severely defeated 
by the Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. Here 
Marceau feU. 

Alumbagh^ India. 

It was captured by the British, under Outram and Have- 
lock, Sep. 23, 1857, and a small garrison placed in it, which 
-was not relieved until Nov. 14, in the same year. Sir 
James Outram then held the place with 3,600 men until 
liucknow was taken, March 21, 1858, having in the mean- 
while repulsed an attack of 30,000 men on the 12th of 
January, and one of 20,000 men on the 21st of February. 

Axnescoaz^ Apr. 22, 1835. Spain. 

The Spanish Royalists, under Valdez, defeated by the Car- 
lists, under their leader Zumalacarreguy. 

Amoy^ China. 

The fort of Amoy was destroyed by the British July 3, 
1840, and the town captured Aug. 27, 1841. Amoy was 
taken by the Chinese insurgents May 29, 1853, and recap- 
tured by the Imperial forces Nov. 11, 1853. 

Angostura. See Bueno Vista. 

Antietam Creek, Sep. 17, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 

An indecisive action between the Federals, under General 
M'Clellan, and the Confederates, under Generals Lee and 

Antwerp, Belgium. 

Captured by the French Nov. 29, 1792. They retired in 
1793, but regained possession July 23, 1794. Ilelinquished 
by the French in 1814, it formed part of the kingdom of 
the Netherlands until 1830. Bombarded by the Belgian 
troops Oct. 27, 1830. The King of Holland having refased 
to give up the citadel, the French began to bombard it Dec. 
4, 1832, and it surrendered Dec. 23. 


Areola, Nov. 14-17, 1796. N, Italy. 

The AusfarianB, under Alyinzi, defeated by the French 
publicans, under Napoleon Buonaparte. 

Argaum, Nov. 29, 1803. India. 

The Mahrattas, under Scindiah and the Bajah of Berar, 
defeated by the British, under Sir A. Wellesley. 

Arikera, May 14, 1791. India. 

Tippoo Sahib's army completely routed by the British, und 
Lonl Comwallis. 

Arklow^ June 10, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels, under Murphy, defeated by the English! 
forces, in the war of the Irish Rebellion. 

Arrah, July 25, 1857. India. 

British defeated, with severe loss, by the Indian rebels. 

Ashtree, Feb. 20, 1818. India. 

The Pindarrees, under Gokla, defeated by the British* 
under General Smith. 

Aspem and Essling, May 21-22, 1809. Austria. 

Here a series of desperate encounters between the Ai 
triaus, under the Archduke Charles, and the French, under] 
Napoleon and Massena, took place in the plain of the 
Marchfield, in which the French were defeated. Loss of 
the Austrians 20,000 ; of the French 30,000. 

Aspromonte, Aug. 29, 1862. S. Italy. 

Garibaldi defeated and taken prisoner by the Sardinian 

Assaye^ Sep. 1803. India. 

The Mahrattas, under Scindiah and the Bajah of Berar 
(50,000), defeated by the British forces (4,500), under Sr 
A. Wellesley. This was Sir Arthur's first great battle. 

Athens, May 17, 1827. Greece. 

Besieged and captured by the Turks from the Greeks in 
-the war of Greek Independence. It was blockaded by a 
British fleet, Jan. 18, 1850 ; and in 1854 was occupied by 
French and English forces, who were withdrawn in 1856. 

Atlanta, Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Sherman, defeated the Ameri- 
can Confederates, under Hood, in three engagements, fongbi 
July 20, 22, and 28, 1864. Sherman withdrew his forces, 
Aug. 30, intending te march southward; but, having defeated 
an opposing body of Confederates at Jonesborough, Sep. 1» 
and thereby compelled General Hood to evacuate Atlanta, 

Battles autd bieoes. 295 

ho caused that city to be occupied by General Slocmn, 
Sep. 2, and subsequently made it his own head-quarters. 
On commencing his march to Sayannah, Nov. 12, he aban- 
doned Atlanta, which was entered and burned by General 
Corse, Nov. 15. 

Lttisberg, June 5, 1799. Switzerland. " 

The AustrianSy under Archduke Charles, defeated by the 
French, under Massena. 

Jknerstadt, Oct. 14, 1806. Prussia. 

The iSrussians, under Marshal Blucher, defeated by the 
French, under Marshal Davoust. Loss of the Prussians, 
10,000 ; of the French, 7,500. This battle, with that of 
Jena, fought the same day, placed Prussia completely at the 
mercy of the French. 

Austerlitz, Dec. 2, 1805. Moravia. 

The Austrians and Russians (80,000), commanded by the 
Emperors Francis IE. and Alexander 1., defeated by the 
French (90,000), under Napoleon I. This engagement is 
often called " the battle of the three emperors." 

Averysborough, Mar. 16, 1865. North Carolina, U.S. 

Indecisive action between the American Confederates, under 
Johnstone, and the American Federals, under Sherman. 
Johnstone evacuated his position during the night. 

Ayacucho, Dec. 9, 1824. Peru. 

The Spaniards defeated by the Peruvian forces. The result 
of the battle was the surrender of the whole of Peru and 
ChiH by the Spaniards to the repubhc. 

Badajoz, Spain. 

This important barrier fortress surrendered to the French 
under Soult, Mar. 11, 1811. It was invested by the British, 
under Lord Wellington, Mar. 16, 1812, and stormed and 
taken on the following Apr. 6. 

Baibout; Sep. 28, 1829. Asiatic Turkey. 

The Turks defeated by the Russians, under Paskewitch, 
with great loss. 

Balaclava, Crimea. 

Afber the battle of the Alma, the Allies advanced upon this 
place, Sep. 26, 1854. On Oct. 25 following, about 12,000 
Bussians, commanded by General Liprandi, attacked and 
took some redoubts in the vicinity, which had been en- 
trusted to about 250 Turks. They next assaulted the 



English, by whom they were compelled to retire, 
through the charge of the heavy cavalry, led by Brigadk 
Scarlett, under the orders of Lord Lucan. After this, 
an nnfortnnate misconception of Lord Raglan's order, 
Lncan ordered Lord Cs^igan, with the light cavalry, 
charge the Russian army, which had reformed on its o^ 
ground, with its artHlery in front. This order was m( 
gallantly obeyed. Oreat havoc was made on the ene^ 
but of 607 British horsemen, only 198 returned. 
British had altogether 9 officers killed, 21 wounded, 
620 men put han de combat. The Russians had 550 
killed, and 6 officers (among whom was one gefneral) andl 
190 men wounded. A sortie from the garrison of Sebas-I 
topol on the night of March 22, 1855, led to a desperatel 
engagement here, in which the Russians were vigoroiis]j| 
repulsed, with the loss of 2,000 men killed and w^ounded,! 
the Allies losing about 600. 

Ballinamack, Sep. 8, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels, aided by a French force, defeated by the | 
English and taken prisoners in the war of the Irish Rebel- ! 

Ball's Bluff, Oct. 21, 1861. Maryland, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Greneral M'Clellan, defeated 
by the Confederates with severe loss. 

Ballynaihinch, June 13, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels, under a draper called Munroe, defeated 
by the English forces in the war of the Irish Rebellion. This 
engagement terminated the rising in the north of Ireland. 

Baltimore, Maryland, U.S, 

The Americans were routed here by the British, under 
General Ross, Sep. 12, 1814. The American Federal volun- 
teers were here attacked by the citizens, Apr. 19, 1861, on 
their way to Washington. 

Bangalore, Mar. 22, 1791. India. 

This fortress was captured by the British, under Lord Com- 
wallis, from Tippoo Sahib. It was restored to the Sahib in 

Bareilly, India. 

A Sepoy mutiny broke out here Apr. 16, 1816, but it was 
soon quelled. Seized by the Sepoys May 31, 1857, but re- 
captured by the British May 7, 1858, 

Bar-sur-Aube, Feb. 27, 1814. France. 

The French defeated by the allied Prussians and Russians. 


Barossa, Mar. 5, 1811. Spain. 

The French (16,000), under Marshal Victor, defeated by 
an. allied British, Spanish, and Portuguese forc^ (12,000), 
tinder General Graham. 

I, Battle of the, Mar. 30, 1814 France. 
This battle was fou^t under the walls of Paris, when the 
allied army, after an obstinate contest, gained a victory, 
which led to the capitulation of Paris the foUoMring day, 
and the subsequent abdication of Napoleon I. 

', Sep. 8, 1796. Lombardy. 
The Austrians, under Wurmser, defeated by the French 
Bepublican army under Massena and Augereau. 

Battm, Sep. 7, 1810. Banks of the Danube. 

The Turks defeated by the Russians. 
Bautzen, May 20, 1813. Saxony. 

Between the allied Bussians and Prussians, xmder their 

respective sovereigns, and the French under Napoleon I. 

The result of this engagement was indecisive. \^8ee 


Bayazidy July 29, 1854. Armenia. 

The Turks (6,000) defeated by the Russians (8,000). 

Baylen, July 20, 1808. Spain. 

The French, under Generals Dupont and Wedel, defeated 
by the Spaniards, under Generals Castanos, Reding, and 
Coupigny. The French had nearly 3,000 killed and wounded, 
and the division of Dupont (8,000) was made prisoners. 

Bednore, India. 

Taken by the British, under General Matthews, Jan., 1783. 
Retaken by Tippoo Sahib, Apr. 30, 1783. In 1833 this 
place came into the possession of the East India Company. 

Beilan, July 29, 1882. Syria. 

The Turks, under Hussein Pasha, defeated by Ibrahim 

Bellair, Aug. 30, 1814. Maryland, U.S. 

The Americans defeated by a British force under Captain 
Sir Peter Parker. Here Sir Peter fell. 

Bentonville, Mar. 19-22, 1865. North Carolina, U.S. 

American Confederates, under Johnstone, engaged with the 
Federals, under Sherman, in a series of encounters at this 
place, which finally resulted in favour of Sherman. 

Beora, Sep. 15, 1858. India. 

The Sepoy rebels, under Tantia Topee, defeated by the 
British, under General Mitchell. 


Beresina, Nov. 26-28, 1812. BnssiA. 

The French, during their retreat from Russia, were defeated 
with fearful slaughter at this river, hj the Russians. Loss 
of the French, over 20,000. 

Bergen, Sep. 19, 1799. Holland. 

A drawn battle between the French and Dutch troops, under 
General Brune, and the Russian and British forces undff 
the Duke of York. In another engagement, between tk 
same parties, the French and Dutch troops were defeated, 
Oct. 2 of the same year. 

Bergen-op-Zoom, Mar. 8, 1814. Holland. 

Unsuccessfully besieged by the British, under Sir T. Graham 
(afterwards Lord Lynedoch), who were repulsed with great 

Beylan, July 29, 1832. Asia Minor. 

The Turks defeated by Ibrahim Pasha at the head of 
the Egyptian army. 

Beyrout, Syria. 

Besieged and captured by the Egyptians, under Ibrahim 
Pasha, in 1882. Retaken by the combined fleets of England 
and Turkey, Sep. 11-16, 1840, and restored to the Porte. 

Bhurtpore^ Jan. 3— Apr. 10, 1805. India. 

Besieged by the British forces, under Lord Lake, and the 
town, after several unsuccessfal attempts to carry it by 
storm, and the Mahrattas, under Holkar, forced to capitulate. 
Again taken by the British, under Lord Combermere, Jan. 
18, 1826. 

Biberaoh, Wiirtemberg. 

The Austrians, under Latour, defeated by the French re- 
publican army, under Moreau, Oct. 2, 1796. The Austrian^, 
under Marshal Kray, again defeated by the French, under 
Moreau, May 9, 1800. 

Bidasoa, or Vidasoa, Oct. 7, 1813. Spain. 

Wellington effected a passage of this river, defeating the 
French, under Soult. 

Big Bethel, June 10, 1861. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under General Butler, defeated by 
the Confederates. 

Bilbao, Spain. 

Taken by the French in July, 1795, but restored by the 
treaty of Basel, July 22nd in that year. The Spaniards 
expelled the French, who had again seized it, in Sep., 1808, 
but Napoleon recovered it in the same year. It surrendered 


to "Wellington afW his victory at Vittoria, June 21, 1813. 
Tlie Carlists besieged it during the civil war. It was re- 
lieved by Espartero and the British Legion, Dec. 24, 1836. 

BitliQor, July 19, 1857. India. 

The Sepoy rebels, nnder Nana Sahib, defeated by the 
IBritish, nnder General Havelock. 

Blackrock^ Dec. 30, 1813. N. America. 

^t this place, near Buffalo, the American army, amonnting 
to nearly 2,600 men, were defeated by a British force con* 
sisting of 1,400 regulars and militia. The Americans 
attempted to make a stand at Buffalo, but speedily gave 
'way ; whereupon the village of Blackrock and the town of 
Suffalo, vdth all stores, &c., were destroyed. This was done 
in retaliation for the acts of plunder and devastation com* 
mitted by the Americans during their invasion of Upper 

Black Sea (Expedition). 

The allied English and French squadrons entered the Black 
Sea, Jan. 4, 1854. Odessa was bombarded Apr. 22, and 
the British war steamer Tiger was lost off that port May 
12. The landing of the allied armament was effected at 
Old Port, Sep. 14-18, Balaclava entered Sep. 26, and 
Sebastopol bombarded Oct. 17. A terrible gale occurred 
Nov. 11, and the hurricane in which so many British and 
French ships were lost, Nov. 14. The expedition to Kertch 
sailed May 23, 1855, and after having captured several 
places and destroyed warlike stores, returned to Balaclava 
Jane 14. The expedition to the Bug and the Dnieper 
anchored off Odessa Oct. 8, was detained by fogs and contrary 
winds till the 14th, captured Klinbum on the 16th, and re- 
turned to Balaclava in November. On the signature of the 
treaty of peace in 1856, the English and French squadrons 
were gradually withdrawn, and the Black Sea was thrown 
open to the commerce of all nations. 

Bladensburg, Aug. 24, 1814. Maryland, U.S. 

The Americans (11,000) defeated by the British (5,000) 
with great loss. 

Bluinenau, July 22, 1866. Moravia. 

The Austrians would have been defeated here severely by 
the Prussians, under General Fransky, had not the orders 
for an armistice stayed the combatants in the midst of the 

Bois le Due, Sep. 14, 1794. Dutch Brabant. 


The British and allied Austrian and Prussian forces, nnder 
the Dnke of York, defeated by the French reTolntionaiy 
army. The town was taken by the French Republicans, 
Oct. 10 of the same year ; and retaken by the Prussians, 
under Bulow, Jan. 25, 1814. 

Bolundshohor, Sep. 27, 1857. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the British, under Colonel 

Borodino, Sep. 7, 1812. Russia. 

Here a sanguinary battle was fought between the French, 
under Napoleon, and the Russians, under Kutuskoff. Each 
party claimed the victory, but it was rather in favour of the 
French, for the Russians retreated in the night, leaving 
Moscow, which the French entered Sep. 14. 

Boxtel, Sep. 14, 1794. Dutch Brabant. 

The British and allied Austrian and Prussian forces, under 
the Duke of York, defeated by the French reyolutionary 
army under Pichegru. 

Brahilow, or Brailow, Wallachia. 

The Turks defeated by the Russians, June 19, 1773. Be- 
sieged and taken by the Russians, May 11 — June 18, 1828. 
Restored to the Turks, Sep. 14, 1829. 

Brandywine, Sep. 11, 1777. North America. 

The revolted Americans (15,000) defeated by the British, 
under Lord Comwallis. After this battle Philadelphia fell 
into the possession of the victors. 

Briar Creek, Mar. 16, 1779. North America. 

The revolted Americans (2,000), under General Ashe, de- 
feated by the British (1,200), under General Prevost. 

Brienne, Jan. 29, 1814. France. 

The allied armies of Russia and Prussia, under Blucher, 
defeated by the French, under Napoleon L, and compelled 
to leave the town and retreat to Trannes. 

Bristoe Station, Oct. 14, 1863. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Confederates, under Lee, repulsed by the 
Federals, under General Meade. 

Budaon, Apr. 19, 1858. India. 

Captured by the British, under General Whitelock, from 
the Indian rebels. 

Bueno Vista, or Angostura, Feb. 22, 1847. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the United States army, under 
General Taylor. 


Buenos Ayres, S. America. 

Taken by the Britisli fleet and army, under Sir Home 
Popham and General Beresford, June 27, 1806; retaken 
hy the Spaniards Aug. 12 of the same year. (See Monte 
video.) The British, nnder General Whitelock, severely 
repnlsed here Jnly 5, 1807. Indecisive battle between the 
forces of the Argentine Republic and of Buenos Ayres, 
Oct. 23, 1859. The forces of the Argentine Republic, under 
General TJrquiza, defeated by GenersJ Mitre, at Pavon, 
Sep. 17, 1861. 

Bull's Bun. See Manassas. 

Bunker's Hill, June 17, 1775. Boston, U.S. 

The revolted Americans (2,000) defeated by the British 
(3,000), under General Howe. This was one of the eaorliest 
actions in the war. 

Burlington Heights, June 6, 1813. New Jersey, U.S. 

In a night attack upon the American camp near this place, 
an English force, consisting of 704 men, completely routed 
the Americans, 3,500 strong, including cavalry. The action 
was continued during the night ; but the Americans were 
repulsed in every attempt to relrieve their disaster, and 
eventually took to flight, leaving 100 prisoners and four 
guns in the hands of tibe victors. 

Busaco, Sep. 27, 1810. Portugal. 

The ¥rench, under Massena and Ney, defeated by the 
British and Portuguese, under Wellii^ton. Loss of the 
French, 4,500 ; of the AUies, 1,300. 

Bushire, Dec. 10, 1856. On the Persian Ghilf. 

Captured by the British forces, during the Persian war, 
under Sir H. Leake and General Stalker, and occupied by 
them tiU May 2, 1857. 

Cabul, or Cabool, Aflghanistan. 

In 1801 a revolt of the Ghiljies took place at Cabul ; but 
after severe struggles it was suppressed. May 11, 1802. In 
1809 Shah Shujah was deposed and driven from the city by 
Futteh Khan, who was murdered in 1818, after which 
Cabul fell into the hands of Dost Mohammed. Shah 
Shujah was restored by the English, May 8, 1839. In 1841, 
Nov. 2, an insurrection broke out at Cabul, and many 
English officers were massacred ; and on Jan. 6, 1842, the 
British commenced their disastrous retreat from Cabul, 
leaving Lady Sale and others prisoners in the hands of the 
enemy. The force consisted of 4,500 men, only one of 


whom survived the massacre of the Boothank Pass« On 
the 16th of September, 1842, Cabul wias retaken by General 
Pollock. General Nott arrived with another force the fol- 
lowing day. Operations for the destruction of the great 
bazaar at Cabul, the most celebrated building of Central 
Asia, in which Sir W. McNaghten*s body had been exposed, 
were commenced Oct. 9, and the objects of the expeditioiL 
having been fiilly accomplished, a portion of the Englisli 
army evacuated Cabul Oct. 11, and the whole force gradu- 
ally withdrew from Afghanistan. 

Calatiflmi, May 15, 1860. Italy. 
Neapolitans defeated bj Garibaldi. 

Csilpee^ or Kalpee, May 23, 1858. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the British, under Sir Hugh Eose. 

Cambray^ France. 

Taken by the Austrians, under Clairfait, from the Frencli, 
under Declay, Sep. 10, 1793. Here the French were de- 
feated by the English and allies under the Duke of York, 
Apr. 24, 1794. The town was again taken by the English 
under Sir Charles Colville, June 24, 1815. 

Camden, Aug. 16, 1780. North America. 

The revolted Americans, under Lord Grates, defeated by 
the British, under Lord Comwallis. A second engage- 
ment here, when the Americans, under General Greene, 
were again defeated by the British, under Lord Hawdon, 
Apr. 25, 1781. Camden was evacuated and burnt by the 
British, May 13, 1781. 

Camperdown, Oct. 11, 1797. Holland. 

The Dutch fleet, under De Winter, severely defeated by the 
British, under Admiral Duncan. For this victory Duncan 
was raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Duncan of 

Candahar. See Kandahar. 

Canton, China. 

In consequence of the opposition of the Chinese government 
to the opium trade. Commissioner Lin imprisoned all the 
English in Canton, March 22, 1839, and kept them in con- 
finement till May 4. Sir Hugh Gough reduced the town to 
subjection, May 30, 1841, after a siege of eight days, and it 
was ransomed for six million dollars. The Arrow^ a loreha 
manned by Chinese, but commanded by an Englishman, was 
boarded by order of Commissioner Yeh, Oct. 8, 1856, and 
as compensation was refused, Sir M. Seymour seized the 
forts on the 24th, and bombarded the town on the 28th 


and 29th. An allied English and French force captured it 
Pec. 29, 1857, and on Jan. 5, 1858, the governor and ?eh 
were taken prisoners. 

Gape St. Vincent, Feb. 14, 1797. Spain. 

The Spanish fleet defeated, with severe loss, by the British, 
under Sir John Jervis. 

Carabobo, Jnne 24, 1821. Yeneznela. 

The Spanish Royalists defeated by the forces of the repnb* 
Kc of Colombia, nnder General Bolivar. 

Carascal, Dec. 12, 1834. Spain. 

The Garlists defeated by the Spanish Boyalists, under 

General Mina. 
Carthage, Jnly 5, 1861. Missouri, U.S. 

The American Confederates defeated by the Federals, nnder 

Colonel Sigel. 

Castella, Apr. 13, 1813. Spain. 

The allied English and Spanish (17,000), under Sir J. 
Murray, victorious over the French (15,000), under Suchet. 

Castiglione, Aug. 5-9, 1796. North Italy. 

The Austrians, under Wurmser, defeated by the French 
Republicans, under Augereau, with great loss. 

Castlebar, Aug. 27, 1798. Ireland. 

The English army, under General Lake, defeated hy the 
Irish rebels, aided by a French force, under General Hum- 
bert, in the war of the Irish Bebellion. 

Cassano, Apr. 24, 28, 29, 1799. Lombardy. 

The French, under Moreau, defeated by the Austrian and 

Russian forces, under Suwarrow, with great loss. 
Castel Fidardo, Sep. 18, 1860. Italy. 

The Papal forces, under General Lamoriciere, defeated by 

the Sardinians, under General Cialdini. 
Castillejos, Jan. 1, 1860. Morocco. 

The Imperial forces of the Emperor of Morocco defeated by 

the Spaniards, under General Prim. 

Cawnpore, India. 

On the breaking out of the Sepoy revolt in 1857, the Eng- 
lish residents of Cawnpore were placed in the greatest peril. 
Their efforts to obtain reinforcements failed, and the 2nd regi- 
ment of native cavalry revolted June 5. Their example was 
speedily followed by the native infantry. The English, their 
wives and children, with native servants, amounting to 
nearly 900 persons, were besieged within a narrow intrench- 
ment, by tie rebel soldiers commanded by Kana Sahib. 
They defended themselves heroically against overwhelming 


numbers. Deaiih, however, rapidly thinned their ranks, 
Jnne 24, Nana Sahib sent a message to Sir Hugli 
offering to allow the English to proceed nnmolested 
Allahabad, provided they gave up the pabHc treasnrj, 
guns, and ammunition. A contract to this effect v^as 
on the following day, and on the 27th, the remnaiit oi tht 
900 besieged at Cawnpore embarked in boats prepared ti 
convey them to Allahabad. No sooner, however, had they 
qnitt^ the shore, than the treacherous Sepoys opened fire 
npon them, following them along the banks in order to insnie 
their destmction. The boats were sunk, many of the men 
killed, and the survivors, with the women and children, 
carried back to Cawnpore. Other prisoners, male and 
female, were brought in, and all who survived "were Iwtf- 
barously slaughtered on the 15 th of July. Havelock 
defeated Nana Sahib near Cawnpore, July 16, and entered 
the town on the following day, when the horrors that had 
been enacted there became known. The Gwalior rebels 
defeated General Windham near Cawnpore, Nov. 27 and 
28, 1857. Sir Colin Campbell soon after reached the 
scene of action, and completely routed the rebels, 25,000 
strong, at Cawnpore, Dec. 6. 

Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864. Virginia. 

The American Confederates, under Early, defeated by the 
Federals, under Sheridan. 

Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 1862. Virginia, U S. 

An indecisive action between the .^onerican Federals, under 
General Pope, and the Confederates, under " Stonewall " 

Cerro-Qorda, Apr. 18, 1847. Mexico. 

The Mexicans, under Santa Anna, defeated by the United 
States, army under GTeneral Scott, 

Champ Aubert, Feb. 10-12, 1814. 

Allied Prussians and Russians defeated by the French. 

ChanceUorBVille, May 2, 3, 4, 1863. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under General Hooker, defeated bj 
the Confederates, under Generals Lee, Jackson, and Stuart, 
with great loss to both parties. Here the gallant " Stone- 
wall " Jackson was mortally wounded ; he died May 9. 

Chang-kia-wan, Sep. 18, 1860. China. 

Chinese defeated by the allied French and EngHsh, xmder 

Sir Hope Grant and General Montauban. 
Charleston, South Carolina, U.S. 

The garrison at Sullivan's Island, under Colonel Moultrie, 


repulsed a British sqnadron, Jnne 28, 1776, but afber a 
cdfige of some ni^onths the town was snrreiidered by General 
: liincoln to Sir H. Clinton, May 12, 1780. It was held 
hy them till Dec. 14, 1782, when it was evacnated. The 
c^Yil war oommenced here on the morning of Friday, 
Apr. 12, 1861, with the bombardment by the Confederate 
Creneral Beanregard of Fort Sumter, which was surren-" 
dered by Major Anderson, Sunday, Apr.. 14'. Later in 
the year Charleston was strictly blockaded by the Federals, 
who sank 17 vessels laden with stone at the entrance 
of the harbour, Dec. 21. An engagement between the 
Federal and Confederate fleets resulted in the retirement 
of the former, Jan. 31, 1863. General Beauregard declared 
the blockade raised, a statement denied by Admiral Dupont 
Feb. 10. A naval attack on Fort Sumter and the other 
defences, begun Apr. 7, was abandoned Apr. 12, in conse- 
quence of the tremendous fire of the Confederates. Opera-* 
tions by sea and land were, however, commenced by 
General Gillmoi*e,. who occupied Folly Island July 3, and 
seized the southern part of Morris Island July 10. E<e- 
pulsed in an assault upon Fort Wagner July 11, he renewed 
the attack, with the assistance of the fleet, July 18, and 
sustained a second defeat, with a loss of 1,530 killed and 
wounded. Having advanced his works to within 420 yards 
of Fort Wagner, Aug. 13, he opened fire on Fort Sumter 
Aug. 15, and afber completing his batteries commenced a 
regular bombardment Aug. 17. A demand for the sur- 
render of this stronghold being revised Aug. 21, he com- 
menced shelling the city Aug. 22. Morris Island, on which 
were Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg, was evacuated 
Sep. 7, but an attempt made the same day to carry Fort 
Sumt&r by storm was defeated with a loss of 80 men. The 
siege continued tOl Feb. 17, 1865, when Charleston was 
evacuated bv the Confederate -General Hardee, who was 
succeeded, Feb. 18, by the Federals under General Gillmore. 
tfhattanooga. See Missionary Badge. 
Chebreisse, July 13, 1798. Egypt. 

The Mameluke army defeated by the French, under Napo- 
leon Buonaparte. 

dhicamauga, Feb. 19, 20, 1863. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Federals, under General Bosecrans, totally* 
defeated by the Confederates, under Generals Bragg and^ 

Qhickahominy Virginia, U.S. 

The advanced guard of. the Federal army, under G^eral 


Casey, w9B attacked W the Confederates, xinder G-eiieral 
at Fair OaJks, on the Chickahominy, ahqpt seven miles 
Hichmond, May 31, 1862. The. Federals, who were 
defeated, lost all their baggage and camp equipage, wiih 1! 
^ guns. They pnahed forwimi fresh bodies of m^i, and eom-' 
pelled the Confederates to seek shelter in their intrraich- 
myents before Richmond, Jnne 1. A second series of baltlea, 
Bometimto styled the "Seven Days of Bdchmond,'' and 
fought near l^e same river later in the year^ are al^o caJk ~^ 
the battles of the Chickahominy. They commenoed Wed-^ 
* nesday, June 25, 1862, when the Federal left wing, under 
General' Hooker, attacked the Confederates at White Oak 
Swamp, and encountered a vigorous resistance. General 
'' StonewaXL " Jackson attacked the right wing of the 
Federals at MechanicsviUe, June 26, driving them across 
the river to Powhite Swamp. G-enerals Hill and Jj&ngstree^ 
crossed the river June 27, and being joined by Lee and 
Jackson, took up their position at Gaines's Mill, where a 
desperate encounter took place, which resulted in the defeat 
and farther retreat of McCBellan. General Lee ooempied 
the Federal head-quartera at White House^ June 28, and 
McClellan commenced a retreat towards Hie James Biver. 
He was again attacked, June 29, by the Confederate General 
Hill, at Savage's Station, and anouier severe enconnter took 
place on the James Biver June 30. The next battle, fought 
July 1, and known as the battle of Malvern Hill, terminated 
the series of contesis, McClellan having taken up a posi- 
tion at Harrison's Bar, or Turkey Bend, where he was 
protected by the Federal gunboats. The total loss of iiha 
Federals in these engagements was 20,000 men. 

ChiUianwaUah, Jan. 13, 1849. India. 

The Sikhs (60,000) defeated by the British (22,000) under 
Lord Gough. Loss on both sides very severe.. 

Ohin-hae, Oct. 9, 1841. China. 

Taken by the English from the Chinese, when 157 gnus 
were captured. 

Chin-keang-foO; July 21, 1842. China. 

Captured by ihe British, afber a gallant defence, frt)m the 
Chinese. Again taken by the Chinese rebels Apr. 1^ 1853, 
who evacuated the city early in 1857. 

Ghippawa^ N. America. 

(general Biall, at tiie head of 1,500 regular troops, besides 

militia and 300 Indians, sustained a defeat at this place 

from an American army 6,000 strong, with a numeroufl- 

, train of artyieryj July 5, 1814. General Biall, having *een 


fi reixLforced and supported by General Drammond, advanced 
against the Americans, who had established themselveis at 
Chippawa. A severe action took place July 25, in which 
General Biall was wonnded. The Americans were, how- ' 
ever, defbated, and abandoned their camp, throwing the 
baggage and provisions into the rapids; The Americans 
had 5,000 men engaged, and the English 2,800 of aU 
descriptions. Several hundred prisoners were taken« 

|Clioczixn, Bnssia. 

The Turks severely defeated here by the Russians, Apr: 13, 
1769. Another victory gained by the Russians on July 13 
of the same J^j when the town fell into their hands. 
Restored to Turkey in 1774 Captured again by the 
Russians and Austrians from the Turks, Sep. 29, 1788. 
Restored again to Turkey in 1792, but finaUy ceded to 
Russia in 1812. 

Chnen-pe, Jan. 7, 1^1. Ghina4 
Chinese defeated by the English. • 

Gitate, Jan. 6, 7, 8, & 9, 1854. Banks of the Danube. 

The RtuBsians, under Gen. Gortschakoff, defeated by the 
Turks under Omer Pasha. 

Cindad Rodrigo, Spain. 

Besieged by the French, June 1, 1810, and the Spanish gar- 
rison forced* to surrender, July 11. Wellington invested it 
Jan. 8, 1812, and carried it by storm Jan. 19. 

€omom^ July 11, 1849. Hungary. 

Austrians defeated by the Hungarians. 
Concord. Bee Lexington. 

Ckmstantlna, Oct. 13, 1837. Africa. 

Captured by the French, under Gen. I)auremont, ftom the 
Algerines. It is now the capital of the province of Constan- 
tina in the Fr^ch colony of Algiers. 

Copenhagen^ Apr. 2, 1801. Denmark. 

Successftdly besieged by the British fleet under Lord Nelson 
and Admdml Parker, and the Danes forced to capitulate. 
Again attacked by the British forces under Admiral Gambier 
and Lord Cathcart, and the city and Danish fleet forced 
to surrender, Sep. 2-6, 1807. 

Corkith^ Oct. 2, 1822. Greece. 

Captured by the Greeks from the Turks, in the war of the 
Greek Independence. It was added in 1823 by the Greeks 
to their newly formed kingdom. 

rrinthi Mississippi, U.S. 
Besieged by the American Federals und6r Gen. Halleck, and 


the Confederates, nnder Beauregard and Bragg;, foroeil 
eyacnate the town, May 29, 1862. Again unsiu 
attacked bj the Confederates, Oct. 3 and 4 of the same 

Comnnay Jan. 16, 1809. .Spain. 

The French (20,000) nnder Gen. Sonlt defeated by iihe Bi 
(14,000) nnder Sir John Moore. Here Sir John fell, 
the command devolved npon Sir John Hope. 

Ooutreras, Aug. 20, 1847. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the TTnited States army nnc 
Gen. Scott. 

Cracow^ Poland. 

Taken by the Bnssians, 1768, and delivered from them hf j 
Kosciusko, Mar. 24, 1794. It was seized by the PmssiaDS| 
June 15, and at the final partition of Poland, in 1795, waSj 
allotted to Austria. In 1809 it formed part of the dochj 
Warsaw, but according to the provisions of the Congress 
Vienna, subsequently became a republic under the protectioo^ 
of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, June 20, 1815. In Sep., 
1831, it was occupied by 10,000 Russians ; and was sei^ 
bv the Emjwror of Austria Nov. 16, 1846, to whom it has 
smce belonged. A state of siege was proclaimed Feb. 29, 

Craomie, Mar. 7, 1814. France. 

Between the French, nnder Ney and Victor, and the Prnfl- 
sians and Russians, led by Blucher and Woronzoff. Tha 
former had 29,000, and the latter 21,000 men engaged; bnt( 
the strength of the position counterbalanced this numerical 
superiority. The French retained possession of the field oC 
battle. There were, however, no trophies, and the losses oi^ 
both sides were severe. 

CTirtatone, May 29, 1848. N.Italy, 

The Italian army defeated by the Austrians nnder Badetzky, 
after a severe conflict. 

Onstoaa^ July 23, 1848. N. Italy. 

The Italian army defeated by the Austrians nnder Marslial 
Radetzky. Another engagement June 24, 1866, when the 
Italian army, under King Victor Emanuel, was defeated wii& 
great loss by the Austrians under the Archduke Albert. 
Prince Amadeus and several Italian generals severely 

Peefe Oct. 13, 1804. India. 

The Mahrattas, under the Bajah of Bhurtpore, defeated by 
the British under Gen. Fraser. The fortress was taken by 
Lord Lake Dec. 14 of the same year. 



rd, India. 
The Mahrattas obtained poBsession of Dellu in 1770, and the 
Bohillas in 1788. The battle of Delhi was fought Sep. 11, 
1803, between the French and Mahrattas, under Bonrquini 
and the English under Gen. Lake, and gained by the latter^ 
who captured the ciiy the following day. In Oct., 1804, it 
i was besieged by Holkar, who was compelled to retire in 
I spite of his superior force. From this period no event of 
I importance occurs in the history of Delhi until May 11, 
r 1857, when it was entered by fogitive rebel Sepoys from 
Me^mt, and made the head quarters of the rebellion. The 
English laid siege to it on the 8th of June, commenced the 
cannonade Sep. 11, and completed the capture Sep. 20. The 
king and his two sons were taxen Sep. 21, and the latter were 
immediately shot by Lieut. Hodson. The English troops 
left Delhi in pursuit of the rebels Sep. 28. 

|Dennewitz, Sep. 6, 1818. Prussia. 

f The allied Prussian, Swedish, and Russian army defeated the 
^ French, under Marshal Ney, at this village. The Prussians^ 
who for some time maintained their ground against over- 
whelming numbers, were, by the arrival of Bemadotte 
with the Swedes and Russians, strongly reinforced, when 
the French were completely routed. They lost 18,000 
men, 43 pieces of cannon, three standards, and 6,000 stand 
of arms, whilst the loss of the alHed army was about 6,000 

Itewangiri, Jan. 29, 1866. India. 
' The Bhootanese defeated by the British ; again defeated 
April 2nd of the same year. 

Dhalimcote, Dec. 12, 1864. India. 

Taken by the British from the Bhootanese. 

Dlioodea Ehera, Nov. 24, 1858. India. 

Indian rebels, under Beni Mahdo, defeated by the British 
mider Lord Clyde. 

ier^ St, Jan. 27 & Mar. 27, 1814 France. 
The aUies repulsed by Napoleon. 

evan-Boulak, July 18, 1827. Persia. 
The Persians defeated by the Russians* 

aschan, June 19, 1821. 

The Greeks, under Alexander Ipsylanti, defeated by the 

Turks, in the war of the Greek Independence. 

en, Aug. 26 & 27, 1813. Saxony. 
An allied Austrian, Russian, and Prussian armyi about 

310 A vsaat pionoirABT oi* the 

150,000 strong, under Prince Scliwartzenbearg, het^i 
tacked 131,000 French troope led hy Napoleon L 
battle, which oonunenoed at four jcy'clock P.M., was 
rnewed on the 27th, -when Kapoleon totally Ae&sied 
opponents* The allied anx^ loirt above 6^000 men ia 
battle, and G-eiDeral Morean, wIlo was engaged as a tc 
Iteer, fell in the conflict. The Esenchios^ amoanied 
4,000 meoo. 

Dubba, Mar. 24, 1843. India. 

The Belochees, under Shen Mohammed (the Lian^^ 
by the British nnder Sir Charles Napier- 

DwQjsirk, Sep. 7, 1793. France. 

Attempt of the English, under the Duke of Tods;, to beaV 
this town defeated by liie French forces^ nodisr .Qoche, 
the Dnke forced to retire with loss. 


Dtippely Denmark. 

, Here the Danes defeated the PrassiaiiSy May 28, 184B, 
compelled tjxem to retreat to Qravenstein. A aeoond 
ment took place Jnne 5^ 1848, when the Danes were cbiTC 
from their position, which, however, they regained June 
It was carried by an assault of tlie Savons and Bai 
Apr. 13, 1849. The balk of the Daoish jam^ haying taken] 
np its position at Duj^iel, Feb. 6, 1864, the Tillage was 
besieged by the Frossians, who commi^nced a bombaKbnent^ 
Mar. 15, which terminated in the defeat of the DsDee^j 
Apr. 18. 

Dora^ge, Oct. 31, 1808. Spain. 

The Spaniards, nnder Blake, de&ated by tbe Frendb^ under' 

EckmtQil^ Apr. 22, 1809. Bayaria. 

The Anstrians, nnder the Archdnke Charles, defeated l^L 
the fVench, nnder Napoleon 1. and Dayonst. 

El Embudo^ Jan. 28, 1847. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the United States army nndif 
General Price. 

Engen^ May 3, 1800. Dnchy of Baden. 

The Anstrians defeated by ^e Fr^ich nnder MoreatL 

Erfiirty Oct. 16, 1806. Prussian Saxony. 

■ Taken by the French, nnder Mnrat, firom the Pmssiaitfi 
when 14,000 Prussians, including Marshal Mcdlendorf anl 
the Prince of Orange, were takep prisoners. £!rfiirt ivtf 
re^ored to Prussia, Jan.. 6, 1814. \ 

BATTLES Am) 6I8GX9. 811 

Zspierres, May 22, 1794. Flanders. 

J The French republicans, under Pichegm, severely defeated 

by the English and Austrian forces, commanded by the 

Duke of York. 

.Espinosa^ Nov. 10 & 11, 1808. SpaiiL 

Spaniards, under Blake, defeated by the iVench, under 

Essling. See Aspem. 

Istanzuela, Sep. 21, 1864. Mejdco. 

^ The Mexican republicans, under Generals Ortega, Negrete, 
and Carbajal, defeated by the French, under Colonel Martin. 

Eupatoria^ Crimea, 

Occupied by the allies during the Busso-Turkish war^ 
Sep. 14, 1854, who repelled an attack of the Cossacks the 
following month (Oct. 11). Omar Pasha defended it 
against a Bussian force, under General Chmleff, Feb. 17^ 
1855. It was finally restored to Bussia, May 31, 1856. 

Eustace^ St., Dec. 14, 1837. Lower Canada. 

The Canadian rebels defeated by the royal troops. The 
insurgents laid down their arms, and their leaders took to 

Eutaw. Springs, Sep. 8, 1781. S. Carolina. 

The American rebels, under General Greene, defeated by 
the English, under Colonel Stuart. 

Eylau, Feb. 13, 1807. iPrussiA. ^ * ^ ' 

Napoleon I. defeated the Bussian army, under !&enning- 

sen, at this Prussian town. The action was commenced 

by Augereau, whose division was defeated with immense 

slaughter ; but Napoleon coming to the rescue, the fortunes 

of &e day were retrieved, and the Bussians compelled 

I to retire to Konigsberg. The loss of life was unusually 

*' great, though from the discrepancy in the reports it is 

difficult to arrive at a positive conclusion. Alison says: 

I "On the side of the Bussians twenty-five thousand had 

^ &]len, of whom above seven thousand were already no more ; 

on that of the French upwards of thirty thousand were 

killed or wounded, and nearly ten thousand had left their 

colours, under pretence of attending te the wounded, and 

did not make their appearance for several days afterwards." 

Ifsir Oaks. See Chickhaominy. 

Ptaaars, ilay 23, 1793. N. France. 

Y The French republicans defeated by the English and their 
^ - aHiea, under the Duke of York.- ^ 


A bbhv DicnoirABT of thx 

ParmviUe, Apr. 6, 1865. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Gonfederatoi, under General Lee, defeaiiell 
by the Federals, under General Sheridan. 

I%re-Champenoi8e, Mar. 25, 1814. France. 

The French, nnder Marshals Marmont, Mortier, and Arrigii^{ 
defeated by the Anstrians, under Prince Schwartzenbergi 
Loss of the French 5,000 killed and 10,000 prisoners. 

Ferozeshali, Dec. 21-22, 1845. India. 

The Sikhs, nnder Tej Sing (50,000), defeated by the Britidil 
(16,000), nnder Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Qon^h^ with 
severe loss. 

Five Forks, Apr. 1, 1865. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Oonfederates, under Pickett, utterly defeated 
by the Federals, nnder Grant and Sheridan. The result 
of this ba/ttle led to the evacuation of Bichmond* 

fleurus, June 26, 1794. Belgium. 

The allied Austrian, Prussian, and English forces, nnder ilie 
Prince of Ooburg, signally defeated by the French revo- 
lutionary army, under Q^n. Jourdan, The battle oi lAgwf 
is also called the battle of Fleurus. 

Fontainebleau, Feb. 17, 1814. France. 

Attacked by the Austrians, and the French forced to snr- 

Fort Donnelson, Feb. 16, 1862. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Confederates, under Gens. Buckner, Pillow, 
and J. B. Floyd, forced to surrender this fortress to the 
Federals, under Gen, Grant, 

Fort Erie^ K America. 

Evacuated by the English, July 3, 1814. TJnsaccessMly 
attacked by the EngHsh, Aug. 15, 1814. The Americans, 
being reprdsed in the sortie of Aug. 20, blew np their 
works, and retired Nov. 5, 1814. Occupied by the Fenians, 
nnder Col. O'Neil, May 31, 1866, but they were defeated 
and forced to surrender the following June 2. 

Fort Fisher, North America. 

This citadel of North Carolina, the principal defence of 
the port of Wilmington, was attacked, Dec. 15, 1864^ 
by the Federal iron-clads under Admiral Porter, who was 
compelled by the weather to defer active measures till 
Dec. 23. The bombardment was abandoned Dec. 25, 
Land reinforcements, under Gen. Terry, having arrived, a 
second bombardment commenced Jan. 13, 1865| and tiie 


fort was invested in the rear hj the land forces. A com- 
bined attack, made Jan. 15, resxdted in the captnre of the 
fort, with 1,971 prisoners, 

VortB Hatteras and Clark, Ang. 29, 1861. K Carolina, U.S. 
Captured by the American Federal fleet from the Con- 

Port Henry, Feb. 6, 1862. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Confederates, nnder Gen. Tilghman, forced to 
surrender this fortress to the Federals nnder G-en. Grant. 

Fort M'Allister, Dec. 13, 1864. Georgia, U.S. 

Captured from the American Federals by the Confederates, 
under Sherman. 

Port Pillow, Apr. 20, 1864. North Carolina, U.S. 

Captured by the American Confederates, under Forrest, from 
the negro garrison, who were most inhumanly massacred 
afler their surrender. 

Port Pulaski, Apr. 11, 1862. Georgia, U.S. 

Captured by the American Federals from the Confederates. 

Fort Sumter. See Charleston. 

Port Wagner, July 11, 1863. Charleston, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Gen. Gilmore, repulsed by 
the Confederates. 

Pranklin, Nov. 30, 1864. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Confederates, under Hood, repulsed by the 
Federals under Thomas. 

Predericia, Denmark. 

The Schleswig-Holsteiners were defeated near here by the 
Danes, May 3, 1849. It was bombarded by the allied Aus- 
trians and Prussians, Mar. 20, 1864, and evacuated by the 
Danes Apr. 29 following. 

PredericksbuTjg, Dec. 13, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Generals Bumside and 
Hooker, defeated by the Confederates under Generals Lee, 
Longstreet, and " Stonewall " Jackson, with severe loss. 

Prenchtown, Canada* 

Taken by the Americans Jan. 22, 1813, but recaptured by 
the English, under Gen. Proctor, Jan. 24 following, when 
the Americans surrendered themselves prisoners of war. 

Priedland, .^une 14, 1807. Prussia. 

The Bussians and Prussians defeated by the French imder 


Napoleon L Loss of the allies I89OOO; of iibe Fk^nch 

Faentes d'Onoro, Spain. 

Several actions took place between the Ftmh^ wad EngliA 
here in 1811. May 3, 1811, WeUington defeated the Fren<^ 
nnder Massena ; the French renewed the attack May 5, hut 
after a gallant struggle were forced to retire. 

Forraokabad, Not. 17, 1804 India. 

The Indian forces, nnder Holkar, defeated by the British 
nnder Lord Lake. 

Putty-ghur, J6n. 2, 1858. India. 

^ Indian rebels defeated by the British under Sir Colin Camp- 
bell (afterwards Lord Clyde). 

Oaeta, Italy. 

Captured by the French Jan. 4, 1799, and wtested fipom them 
by the English, Oct. 31, in the same year* Takon by the 
Sardinians, Feb. 13, 1861. 

Oalveston, United States.* 

This port of Texas, first settled in 1837, was fired upon by tiie 
American Federal schooner Detrt, Capt. Alden, Aug. 3, 1861. 
The town, taken by Commander Renshaw, Oct. 8, 1862, was 
. . held by the Federals till Jan. 1, 1863, when it was captured 
by the Confederates of Texas, under Gen. Magmder. It 
again surrendered to the Federals June 5, 1865. 

Oaines' Mill. See Chiokahominy. 

'Gamonal, Nov. 10, 1808. Spain. 

The Spaniards, under the Count de Belvedere^ defeated b; 
the French under Soult. 

Ofarigliano, Nov. 3, 18W. Italy. 

^ Neapolitans defeated by the Sardinians unde:^ CialdinL 

tJenba, North Italy. 

Blockaded, by a British fleet and Austrian army, and the 
J French, under Massena, forced to capitulate. May — June ^ 

1800. Again surrendered to the English, under Sir "William 
* Bentinck, Apr. 18, 1814. Seized by insurgents, who, after 

a murderous struggle, drove out the Sardinian garnson, 

Apr. 3, but were forced to surrender to Gen. La Marmons 
: ■ Apr. 11, 1849. 

Oermantown, Oct. 4, 1777. North America. 

• The revolted Americans defeated by the British* 

Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. Philadelphia, U.S. 

•:.. A tbree days* Qonflict betwe^ the American Confederates, 

Sattles ajtd sieges. ' 81^ 

tmder Generals Lee, Longstreet, and Ewell, and the Federals 
under Gen. Meade. Tlie Confederates were long snccessM, 
bnt eventually were forced to retire irom Pennsylvania and 
* Maryland. Lobs on each side estimated at 15,000. 

Glxizni, or Ohnznee, Affghanistaa. 

Surrendered to the British lurmy nndfir Sir John Keane, 
Jbly 23, 1839, by the Afghans, under the son of the King of 
Gabool. Restored to the Afghans Mar. 1, 184j2, font retaken 
by the British, under Gen. Nott, Sep. 6 of tixe some yeae, 
from Shah Shoodeen, the governor. 

Gibraltar, Spain. 

1779, July 16. The grand siege commenced by the 
Spaniards blocking up the port. — 1782, May 14. The 
Spaniards commence their floating batteries. — Sep. 13^ The 
grand attack made by the combined French and Spanish 
fleets and ten floating batteries, which are destroyed by fire, 
.and cqmpletely repulsed.— rl 783, Feb. 5. The blockade 
discontinued. — 1801, July 7. The Hannibal^ 74 guns, sur- 
rendered to the French-— July 12. Sir J. Saumarez, with a 
Heet of five men-of-war and a frigate, attacked the French 
and Spanish fleets off Gibraltar, blowing up two Spanish 
sdups of 112 guns each, and capturing one c£ 74 guns. 

Gitscliili^ or Jidn, June 29, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrians defeated by the Prussians under Prince 
Frederick Charles. 

Oiurgevo^ Wallachia. 

Taken by the Bussians in 1 771, and attacked by the Austrians 
in 1790« Its fortifications were demolished in 1829, and the 
Bussians failed in an attempt to storm the Turkish camp 
here, July 23, 1864. 

QoitOj Lombardy. 

Seized by the French in 1796, and expelled the same year 
by the Austrians. Taken by the S^dinians from the 
Austrians Apr. 8, 1848. Austrians defeated by the Sar- 
dinians under Charles Albert, May 30, 1848. 

Goojerat, Feb. 21, 1849. India. 

• The Sikhs (60,000), nnder Shere Smgh, defeated by the 
British (25,000) under Lord Gough. 

Oorey^ June 4, 1798. Ireland. 

The English forces, under Colonel Walpole, defeated by tha 
Irish rebels in the war of the Irish Bebellion. 

Oomckjpore^ Dec. 27, 1857. India. 

Indian rebels defeated hj the British under Bowcrofl.^ 


Oran^ Feb. 27, 1849. Hnngai^ 

Anstrians defeated hj the Hungarians. 

Grochow^ Feb. 19 & 20, 1831. Poland. 

The Bnssians defeated by the Poles. Loss of the BmsfflaDSi 
7,000 ; of the Poles, 2,000. 

Ooad-El-Ras, Mar. 23, 1860. Morocco. 

The forces of the Emperor of Morocco defeated by the 
Spaniards nnder G«n. Prinu 

Gnenez, Nov. 7, 1808. Spain. 

The Spaniards, nnder Blake and the Marqnis de la Bomanai 
defeated by the French nnder Lefevre. 

Guildford, Mar. 16, 1781. Carolina, U.S. 

The Ajnerican rebels, nnder Gten. Greene, defeated by the 
English nnder Lord Comwallis ; loss of the English very 

Gwalior, or Gnalior, India. 

Taken by the British, nnder Major Popham, Ang. 3, 1780. 
In 1784 it was seized by Madhajee Scindia, and in 1803 
a treaty was conclnded, by which it was to be snrrendered 
to the British. As this treaiy was not observed, the town 
was again invested by the EngHsh, nnder Sir Hexny 
White, who eflfected its capture Feb. 5, 1804. In 1805 it 
was again ceded to Scindia ; but it was recaptured by the 
Engli^ under Sir Hugh Gough, Dec. 29, 1843. Seized 
by the Indian rebels June 1, 1858, it was recovered by 
Sir Hugh Rose, June 19. 

Hanall, Oct. 30, 1813. Hesse-Gassel. 

The allied Anstrians and Bavarians, nnder G«n. Wrede, 
defeated by the French under Napoleon. The loss was very 
severe on both sides. 

Harper's Perry, Sep. 15, 1862. Maryland, U.S. 

Surrendered by tiie American Federals, under G^n. White, to 
the Oonfederates under Jackson. This place was the scene 
of the negro insurrection under Gapt. John Brown, Oct. 17, 

Herat, Affghanistan. 

Attacked by the Persians in 1833 and 1838, but without 
success. Surrendered by the Affghans, after a long siege, 
Oct. 26, 1856, to the Persian general, Sultan Murad Mirza. 
Evacuated by the Persians July 27, 1857. It was seized by 
Dost Mohammed, Shah of Affghanistan, May 26, 1863. 

Bemani, May 5, 1836. Spain* 

Carlists defeated by Queen Isabella's troops. 


Hermannst&dt^ Jan. 21, 1849. Transylvania, 
Anstrians defeated hj the Hungarians, 

Ang. 24, 1837. Spain. 
Queen Isabella of Spain's troops defeated by the Carlists« 

Hochstadt^ Jnne 19, 1800. Bavaria. 

The Anstrians defeated by the Frencli under Moreau« 

Holienlmden; Dec. 3, 1800. Bavaria. 

The Anstrians, under the Archdnke John, defeated by the 
French nnder Moreaa. Loss of the Anstrians, 10,000 'killed 
and wonnded, and nearly 10,000 taken prisoners, 

Idstedt, Jnly 24 & 25, 1850. Southern Denmark. 

The forces of Schleswig-Holstein, under Gen. Willisen, 
defeated the Danes under Gen. Yon Kragh. Loss on both 
sides, about 8,000 men. 

Igoalada^ Feb. 17, 1809. Spain. 

Spaniards defeated by the French under St. Cyr, 

XQgotur; Nov. 6, 1855. Asia Minor. 

The Russians defeated by the Turks, under Omar Pasha, 
with severe loss. 

iTikermaiin^ Crimea. 

The Russian army (about 40,000) having received rein- 
forcements, and being encouraged by the presence of the 
mmd-dukes Michael and Nicholas, attacked the British 
(8,000) near the old fort of Inkermami, before daybreak, Nov. 5, 
1854. The latter kept their opponents at bay for six hours, 
till the arrival of 6,000 French. The Russians were then 
driven back, leaving behind 9,000 killed and wounded. The 
loss of the allies was 462 killed, 1,952 wounded, and 191 
missing. Sir G-eorge Cathcart, and Generals Strangways, 
Ooldie, and Torrens, were among the slain. 

Iran, May 17, 1837. Spain. 

The Carlist forces defeated by the British Auxiliary Legion, 
under Gen. Evans, and the town captured. 

Iserina, Oct. 17, 1860. Italy, 

The Neapolitans defeated by the Sardinians under Cialdini. 

Isly, Aug. 14, 1844. Morocco. 

The Imperial forces of the Emperor of Morocco defeated by 
the French imder Marshal Bugeaud. 

Ismail, Dec. 22, 1790. Moldavia. 

Taken from, the Turks by the. Russians Aug. 6, 1770. 
Again captured by the Russians, under Suwarrow^ Dec. 22, 


- - ^ ■ I ^1 m 

1790, wlien a barbarous massacre of the inbabiiaiitB' iraa^ 
perpetrated. It was again talcen from the Turks hj the 
Bussians Sep. 26, 1809. Ismail was ceded to^ Moldam: 
in 1856. 

luka^ Sep. 19, 1862. Mississippi, U.S. 

The American Federals, nnder G^ns. Ghrant and Bosecrans, 
attacked the Confederate forces of Gen. Price, at this town^ 
in Mississippi, Sep. 19, 1862. The ba^le, interrupted by* 
night, was renewed by Gen, Boseci»ns Sep. 20, when it was 
discovered that Oen. Price had evacuated the town during 
the night. 

Jaffa, Mar. 4 <fe 7, 1799. Syria. 

Taken by the French, under Napoleon. Baonapaerte, but ex- 
pelled by the British in June, the same year. Mehemel Ali 
obtained possession of the town in. 1882. Bestored' to- the 
Turks in 1840. 

Jean de Lnz, St, Nov. 10, 1813. France. 

The French, under Soult, defeated by the British^ under 
Wellington, Sir Bowland Hill, and Marshal Bereaford. 
t French loss severe. 

Jellalabad, Afghanistan. 

Taken by the- British in 1839. Siip Eobert Sale, with 
a few hundred troops, defended it against a numerous 
AfiTghan force, from S'ovember, 1841, to April, 1842. The 
fortifications were destroyed by order of General PoQock 
in 1842. 

Jemmapes^ Nov. 6, 1792. Belgium. 

The Austrians defeated by the French republicans,^ under 
D'umouriez. Loss on both sides severe. 

Jena, Oct. 14, 1806. Saxe Weimar. 

The Prussians, und^ Prince Hohenlohe and- Gren. Bachel, 
defeated by the French under Napoleon L The cawialtieg 
were very severe on both sides. 

jiiaixsi, Apr. 4, 1858. India. 

Captured by the British, under Sir Hugh Bose^ froxo: the 
Indian rebels. . . 

Jonesborough. See Atlanta. 

Jugdespore^ May 29, 1858. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the Britisfa, under Sir E. Lo^^ard. 

Kainly, July 1, 1829. Asiatic Turkey. 

The Turks defeated by the Bussians, after a severe engage- 


5h, or Kaliflz, Feb. 13, 1813. Poland. 
The Saxon infantry, under the French general Rejnier, 
defeated by the Bussians under Winzingerode. 
"Ssmdaihair, Afghanistan. 

Occupied by the British during the* AfiTghaa war from 
Apr. 21, 1839, to May 22, 1842. 

KatzbfU^h, Aug. 26, 1813. Prussia. 

The French, under Macdp^ald and Ney, defeated by the 
Pmssians under Blucher on the banks of the river. Blucher 
took 18,000 prisoners, and above 100 gu9S. 

Kenesnw Mountain^ Jtine 27, 1864. Georgia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Sherman, repulsed by the 
Confederates under Johnstone. 

Kennyree^ June 18, 1848. India. 

The Sikhs, under Moolraj, defeated by the British under 
Ideuts. Edwardes and Van Gourtland, after a sanguinary 

miyber Pass, AJTghanistan. 

The passage was forced by Colonel Wade, July 26, 1839. 
Keane's army- retreated through it in 1840. Brigadier Wild, 
on his way to the relief of Jellalabad, assailed the ke^ of 
the pass Jan. 15, 1842 ; but for want of additional stq)port 
was obliged to retire Jan. 23. Major^Oeneral Pollock 
entered the pass Apr. 5, and the rear of the force emerged . 
from it Apr. 14. The British army, afber the subjugation 
of the Affghan chiefs, retired through this pass in Oct.,.^ 
, 1842. 

Kilcnllen, May 23, 1798. Ireland. 

The EngUsh, under General Sundas, defeated by the Irish ; 
^bels. In a subsequent engagement the rebels were severely 
defeated by the English general. 

Kirkee, Nov. 6, 1817. India. 

The Pindarrees, under Bappoo G-okLa, defeated by the British ' 
under Colonel Burr. 

Knoxville, Tennessee, XJ.S. 

The American Federals, under Bumside, besieged here by 
the Confederates under Longstreet, Nov. 17 and 18, 1863. 
An assault was repulsed Nov. 29, and the garrison was 
relieved by Sherman Dec. 3. 

Soniah, or Komeh, Dec> 21, 1832. Syria; 

The Turkish army, under Beschid Pasha, defeated by the 
Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha. Turkish loss nearly 
^ 80,000 men. 


■■ ' ■ ■ ■■■■■. I- I I I f 1 

Kooneh, May 11, 1858. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the Britisb nnder Sir Hngb Boss* 

K5nig8gratz, or Sadowa, Jnly 2, 1866. Bobemia. 

The Anstrians, nnder Generals Benedek and Grablenz, de^ 
feated by the Prassians nnder Prince Frederick Charles. 
This was the most important battle of the war. 

Kooshab, Feb. 8, 1857. Persia. 

Persians defeated by the British nnder General Ontram. 

Eorigaoxii Jan. 1, 1818. India. 

The Pindarrees (28,000), nnder Golda, defeated by the 
British (850) nnder Captain Stannton. 

EotaJh, Mar. 30, 1858. India; 

Captured by the British, nnder General Boberts, firom the 
Indian rebels* 

Erasnoi, Nov. 17, 1812. Enssia. 

The Russians gained an important victory over tHe French 
army nnder Napoleon I. No less than 6,000 prisoners fell 
into the hands of the conquerors, together with part of the 
emperor's archives. 

Earak-Derek, Aug. 5, 1854 Turkey. 
The Turks defeated by the Russians. 

La^onat. See Algeria. 

Landshnt, Apr. .21, 1809. Bavaria. 

Austrians, under the Archduke Charles, defeated by the 
French under Davoust. 

Langensalza^ June 28, 1866. Hanover. 

Hanoverians severely defeated by the Pmssians, and com- 
pelled to capitulate. 

Iiaon, Mar. 9-10, 1814. France. 

The French, under Napoleon I., defeated by the allied Pras- 
sians and Russians under Blucher, Loss on both sides 

Laono, Nov. 23, 1795. Austria. 

Austrians defeated by the French. 

La Rothidre, Feb. 1, 1814 France. 

Between the French, commanded by Napoleon I., and; 
the allied Austrian, Prussian, and Russian army, under 
Blucher: The contest was waged with g^reat heroism on 
both sides; but the French were at length compelled to 


withdraw, leaving the field of battle in the possession of tlie 
allies. The French lost 6,000 men, and 73 pieces of camion. 

Laswaree, Nov. 1, 1803. India. 

The Mahrattas defeated by the British mider Lord LaJce. 

Leipsic, Oct. 16, 18, 19, 1813. Saxony. 

The French and their allies, commanded by Napoleon, 
defeated by the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian armies 
(240,000) under Prince Schwartzenberg, Blucher, and other 
generals. 80,000 men perished on the field, of whom more 
than half were French. Afber this victory, called the 
"Battle of the Nations," the allies entered Leipsic, and 
Napoleon I. commenced his retreat towards the Rhine. 

Lexington, Apr. 19, 1775. Massachusetts, U.S. 

The AmericaiL rebels defeated by the British forces, unde;* 
General Loss of the British severe. 

Lexington, Aug; 29 to Sep. 21, 1861. Missouri, U.S. 

Besieged by the Confederate General Price, Aug. 29, and 

after a gallant resistance by the Federals, under Colonel 

Mulligan, the town was compelled to surrender, Sep. 21. 
Ligny, June 16, 1815. Belgium. 

The Prussians, under Blucher, defeated by the French under 

Lincellefl, Aug. 18, 1793. France. 

The iVench republicans defeated by the allied English and 

Dutch forces, under General Lake. 

Little Rock, Sep. 10, 1863. Arkansas, U.S. 

Captured by the American Federals, under General Steele, 
from the Confederates. 

Uerena, Apr. 11, 1812. Spain. 

The French, under Drouet, defeated by the British, under 

Lord Combermere. 
lodi, May 10, 1796. N. Italy. 

Thtf Austrians, under Beaulieu, totally defeated by the 

French, under Napoleon Buonaparte, i^r a most severe 

logrono, Oct. 27, 1808. Spain. 

Spanish patriot forces defeated by the French. 
Lonato, Aug. 8, 1796. Lombardy. 

The Austrians defeated by the French republicans, under 

Napoleon Buonaparte, 
long Island, Aug. 27, 1776. N. America. 

The revolted Americans, under General Putnam, defeated, 

with severe loss, by the British, under Sir William Howe. 


English loss, 61 killed and 267 wounded ; loss of tlie rebeLsi 

Longwood, Mar. 4, 1814. Upper Canada. 

The English defeated bj the AmericanB, nnder Captam 

Look-out Mountain^ Nov. 25, 1863. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Confederates, nnder Creneral Bra^g^ defeated 

by the Federals, nnder Hooker. 
L'Orlent, Jnne 23, 1796. Prance. 

The French fleet defeated off this port by the English fleet, 

under Lord Bridport. 
Los Arcos, Dec. 30, 1833. Spain. 

The Carlists defeated by the Spanish royal troops, jmda 

General Lorenzo. 

Lncknow, India. 

Symptoms of disaffsction amongst the native soldirars mani- 
fested themselves May 1, 1857, and the place was invested 
hy the rebels Jnly 1, 1857. It was relieved by General 
Havelock and Sir James Ontram, Sep. 25, 185/, and by 
Sir Colin Campbell on Nov. 17, 1857. The English retired 
Nov. 22, 1857, and Sir CoHn Campbell recapti^ed it Mar. 
21, 1858. 

LtitzjBn, May 2, 1813. Saxony. 

The allied Russians and Prussians, nnder Wittgenstein, 
defeated by the French, under Napoleon I. 

Maci^owice, Oct. 10, 1794. Poland. 

The Poles, under Kosciusko, defeated by the Bussians under 
General Suwarrow. Here Kosciusko was taken prisoner. 

McDowell's, May 8, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Milroy, defeated by the Con- 
federates under " Stonewall " Jackson. 

Magenta, June 4, 1859. Lombardy. 

A small town in Lombardy, memorable for the vic- 
tory of the French and Sardinian army over the 
Austrians. The emperor Louis Napoleon commanded, and 
he and the King of Sardinia were in the thickest of the 
fight. It is said that 55,000 French and Sardinians, and 
75,000 Austrians were engaged. The former are asserted 
to have lost 4,000 killed and wounded, and the Austrians 
10,000, besides 7,000 prisoners; these numbers are still 
doubtfiil. The French generals Espinasse and Clerc were 
killed. The arrival of General M*Mahon during a deadly 
struggle between the Austrians and the French greatly 


contributed to the victory. The contest near the bridge of 
Buffalora was very severe. The Anstrians fought well, but 
'were badly commanded. The emperor and king entered 
Lilian on June 8 following ; M'Mahon and Regnault d' Angely 
"were created marshals of ]BVance. 

i, Nov. 6, 1860. New Zealand. 
The Maoris defeated by the British under General Pratt. 

ffaJiarajporOj Dec. 29, 1843. India. 

The Mahratta army (18,000) defeated by the British (14,000) 
"imder Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough. Loss of the 
Mahrattas 8,400 men. 

ISadda, July 4, 1806. Italy, 

The Erench (7,000), under General Regnier, defeated by 
the EngHsh (4,800) under Sir John Stuart. 

Bffalakliofi; Cidmea. 

On the invasion of the Crimea by the allied English, French, 
and Turkish forces, in the autumn of 1854, this small white 
stone tower, forming one of the defences of Sebastopol, 
was much strengthened by the Russians, who constructed 
an immense semicircular mound, mounting thirty guns at 
its base. As the siege progressed, the defences of the 
Malakhoff were still farther extended, and it became in fact 
the key of the whole position. It was assaulted June 18, 
1855, by the French, who, after a gallant struggle, were 
compelled to retire. The Russians did everything in their 
power to render the Malakhoff impregnable, and the result 
of their labours has been described as "a formidable pali- 
sade or abattis of sharpened stakes in front ; then an earthen 
parapet of enormous height and thickness ; then a deep and 
wide ditch ; then three tiers of batteries rising one above 
another, armed with more than sixty guns of large calibre ; 
then sheltered spots at which riflemen might be posted; 
and, lastly, a place d^armes large enough to contain a power- 
ful defensive or offensive body of infantry." The French 
collected 25,000 men, exclusive of 5,000 Sardinians and the 
reserves, for the second assault on the Malakhoff, and it was 
delivered Sep. 8, 1855, with entire success. For six hours 
the Russians made various unsuccessful attempts to expel 
the French. 

Malognano, or Marignano, June 7, 1859. Lombardy. 

The Austriana defeated by the French and Sardinians with 
great loes. ^ 

T 2 


Malo-JaroBlawitz^ Bnssia. 

Napoleon I., witli a portion of the French army, havii 
reached this town, Oct. 23, 1812, on the retreat from Mc 
cow, was assailed by the Russians nnder Doctoroff, Oct ' 
when a series of Virions enconnters followed. Though 
French succeeded in expelling the Russians, their lot 
were so severe that Napoleon determined to fall back by 
Smolensko road. 

Malvern Hill. See Chickahominy. 

Mamelon, Crimea. 

This hill formed one of the chief defences of Sebastop( 
during the siege, and was fortified by the Russians in Feb. 
1855. The French captured the Mamelon June 8, 1855. 

Manassas, July 21, 1861. Virginia, U.S. 

An important military position near a creek named Bull Bi 
It was held by the Ainerican Confederates in 1861, wh( 
they were attacked by the Federal general Irvin McDowc 
On the 21st was fought the Jirst battle of Bull Run. ~ 
Federals, who began the fight, had the advantage till abonl 
three o'clock, p.m., when the Confederate general Jo] 
brought up reinforcements, which at first the Federals tc 
for their own troops. After a brief resistance, the lat 
were seized with sudden panic, and, in spite of the utm( 
efforts of th eir officers, fled in disgraceful rout, abandoi 
a large quantiiy of arms, ammunition, and baggage. 
Federal army is said to have had 481 killed, 1,011 wounde( 
1,216 missing. The loss of the Confederates was stated 
be about 1,500. On Aug. 80, 1862, this place was the sitjl 
of another great battle between the northern and southern' 
armies. In August, General "Stonewall" Jackson, after 
compelling the Federal general Pope to retreat, defeated 
him at Cedar Mountain on the 9th, turned his flank on the 
22nd, and arriving at Manassas, repulsed his attacks on the 
29th, On the 80& G-eneral R. E. Lee joined Jackson with 
his army, and Pope received reinforcements from Wash- 
ington. A desperate conflict ensued, which ended in the 
Confederates gaining a decisive victory, compelling the 
Federals to a hasty retreat to Centreville, where they were 
once more routed, Sep. 1. 

Mannheim^ South Germany. 

This town surrendered to the French republican army 
under Pichegru, Sep. 20, 1795 : the following month, Oct. 31, 
the French were defeated by the Austrians under Wurmser. 

BATTLES Ain> 8ISGXS. '325 

Jlaracaibo^ Nov. 13, 1822. Venezuela. 

The forces of the RepnbKc of Colombia defeated by the 
Spanish Bojalists under G-eneral Morales. 

Harengo, June 14, 1800. Italy. 

' The Austrians, under Melas, totally defeated by the French 
tmder Napoleon and Kellermann. 

Martinesti, Sep. 22, 1789. Wallacbia. 

The Turkish forces severely defeated by the allied Austrian 
and Russian army, commanded by Prince Coburg and 
General Suwarrow. . No less than 5,000 of the Turks fell 
in battle and 2,000 in the pursuit. It is also called the 
battle of Rimnik, from the name of the village near 

• Martinesti, where it was fought. 

'Hatamoras^ May 8, 1846. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the United States army under 
General Taylor. 

lUatehnela, May 17, 1864. Mexico. 

The Mexican republicans, under G-eneral Doblado, defeated 
by the French and Mexican Imperialists. 

.HechanicsviUe. See Chickahominy. 

Medellin, Mar. 28, 1809. Spain. 

The Spaniards, under Cuesta, defeated by the French under 

Uedina del Rio Seco, July 14, 1808. Spain. 

The Spaniards, under Cuesta, defeated by the French 
Tinder Marshal Bessieres. 

Meeanee, Feb. 17, 1843. Hindostan. 

The Belochees (35,000) severely defeated by the British 
(2,600), under Sir Charles Napier. 

ilehudpore, Dec. 21, 1817. India. 

The Mahrattas, under Holkar, defeated by the British 
under Sir Thomas Hislop. 

elazzo, June 20, 1860. Italy. 
NeapoKtans defeated by Garibaldi. The town was sur- 
rendered by the Royalists the following day. 

enin, June 20, 1792. Belgium. 
Austrians defeated by the French republicans. 

entana, Nov. 3, 1867. Italy. 
The Garibaldians (5,000) defeated by the French (2,000) 
and Pontifical troops (5,000), under Generals Polhes and 
Xauzler. Afber four hours' fighting, the Garibaldians 


retreated, leaving behind them 600 killed and wo 
Of the victors only 150 were hors de eotnbat. 

Metidja. See Algeria. 

Millsprings, Jan. 19, 1862. Kentucky, F.S. 

The American Confederates, tinder Grenerals Critteni 
and Zollicofier, defeated by the Federals under Gene: 

Mincio^ Italy. 

The French, nnder Napoleon Bnonaparte, defeated the Aiak; 
trians on the banks of this river, in Lombardy, May 2^' 
1796. The French were defeated here by the An 
Dec. 26, 1800. Eugene Beanhamais gained a victory OTer 
them Feb. 8, 1814. In 1848, on the outbreak of the revoliH 
tion in Italy, the Austrian Greneral Eadetsky retreated to the 
Mincio, Apr. 2. He was followed by Charles Albert, wM 
forced the passage of the river Apr. 8. Charles Alher^ 
after losing the beittle of Valeggio, was compelled, July, 26, 
to retrace his steps and abandon the line of the liGncia 
The Austrians reireated to the left bank after the battila 
of Magenta, in June, 1859, and recrossed it July 23, to 
fight the battle of Solferino. The allied French and Sm^ 
dinians followed them across the river Aug. 1, and fouBd 
the Austrians had taken shelter in the lines of the Quad- 

Missionary Ridge, Kov. 25, 1863. Tennessee, U.S. 

The American Confederates, under General Bragg, severely 
defeated by the Federals, imder Generals Sherman aad 

Missolonghi, Oreece. 

This small town became celebrated for the sieges it sus- 
tained against the Turks during the war of Greek Inde- 
pendence. The Greeks having carried it by storm Nov. 1, 
1821, the Turks laid siege to it in Oct., 1822. Their 
assault, six times renewed, was repulsed, Jan. 5, 1823, and 
they were compelled to reiareat Jan. 27. The Turkish army 
returned Apr. 17, 1825, and commenced the bombardmeDi 
May 7 ; but after making the most extraordinary eflTorts, were 
compelled to ssupend operations in October. The blockade 
was renewed in November, and another bombardment com- 
menced Jan. 25, 1826. The garrison, driven to extremities 
boldly cut their way through the besieging forces, and iifi 
town was captured Apr. 22, 1826. The Greeks Tvrested it 
from the Turks in 1829, and it was included in the m^ 
kingdom of Greece. 

BATTLES A3m 8IXaE8« S27 

Mitylene^ Oct. 7, 1824. Archipelago, 

The Tnrkisli squadron defeated by the Gi«ek, during the 
inrar of independence. On this occasion the loss of the 
Turkish fleet was very severe. 

Mobile, Morida, U.S. 

Captured by the Spaniards in 1780 and ceded to the United 
States in 1813. Admiral Farragut defeated the American 
Confederate fleet here Aug. 6, 1864. 

Mockem, Oct. 16, 1813. Prussia. 

Blucher, at the head of ihe Prussians, with some Russian 
and German allies, defeated the French, commanded by Ney, 
at this place, near Leipsic This was one of the combats in 
the great battle of Leipsic. 

Mohammerah, Mar. 26, 1857. Persia. 
Persians defeated by the British. 

Mohilow, July 23, 1812. Eussia. 

The Eussian army, under Prince Bagraiion, severely de- 
feated by the French, under Marshal Davoust. • 

Mohr, Dec. 29, 1848. Transylvania. 

Hungarians defeated by Jellachich, Ban of Croatia. 

Mohrungen, Jan. 25, 1807. Prussia. 

The Russians and Prussians defeated by tibe French. 

Mondovi, Apr. 22, 1796. Piedmont. 

The Sardinians, under Colli, defeated by the French, Under 
Napoleon Buonaparte. The Piedmontese took Mondovi in 
May, 1799 ; but it was recaptured by the French, Nov. 2, 
in the same year. 

Hontebello, Piedmont. 

The Austrians were defeated at this village, in Piedmont, 
by the French, under Lannes, June 9, 1800. The French 
general took the title of Duke of Montebello from this 
victory. The French and Sardinians defeated the Austrians 
here, afber a struggle which lasted five hours, May 20, 

Montenotte, Apr. 12, 1796. Italy. 

The Austrians defeated by the French republicans, under 
Napoleon Buonaparte. This was Napoleon's first victory 
over the Austrians. 

Montereati, Feb. 18, 1814. France. 

The allied Eussian and Grerman army defeated by the 
French, under Napoleon. The French took possession of 
the town, which their exponents liad occupied, Feb. 6. 

328 A bbui' pictioitabt of the 

Monterey, Sep. 21-24, 1846. Mexico. 

Captured from the Mexicans afber an assault that lasted 
throe days, by the United States armyy nnder General 

Monte Snello, July 3, 1866. Italy. 

The Italian Volnnteers, nnder Garibaldi, defeated by the 

Montmartre, Mar. 30, 1814. France. 

Combats between the allied armies and the French took 
place on the heights, of which Blncher gained possession. 

Montmirail, Feb. 11, 1814. France. 

The allied Prussians and Russians defeated by the French, 
under Napoleon I. 

Moodkee, Dec. 18, 1845. India. 

The Sikhs defeated by the British, under Sir Hugh (after- 
wards Lord) Gough and Sir John Littler, 

Mooltan^ India. 

Kunjeet Sing captured it in 1806, and again in 1818. He 
appointed Sawun Mull governor in 1821, and by Mm 
Mooltan was fortified and made the strongest city in that 
parfc of India. Moolraj, his eldest son, having succeeded, 
expressed a wish to resign the government of Mooltan, 
which had come under the sway of the British after the 
death of Runjeet Sing; whereupon Mr. Vans Agnew, a 
Bengal civilian, and Lieutenant Anderson, were sent with 
an escort of 1,400 Sikhs, to receive the fortress. These 
gentlemen were murdered by his orders, Apr. 19, 1848. 
This barbarous act roused the indignation of the British 
authorities, and after the battles of Kennyree, June 18, and 
Suddoosam, July 1, in both of which Moolraj was defeated, 
Mooltan was invested by General Whish Aug, 18, and was 
upon the point of falling into his hands, when the whole of 
the Sikh troops deserted and joined Moolraj, and Whish 
was compelled to raise the siege. It was resumed Dec. 27, 
under the command of Lord Gough, and Mooltan was 
carried by storm Jan. 2, 1849. Moolraj shut himself up in 
the citadel ; but was obliged to surrender unconditionaJly, 
Jan. 22. The native troops here reWled on Sep. 2, 1858. 

Munohingratz, June 28, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrians, aided by the Saxons, under General Benedek, 
defeated by the Prussians under Prince Frederick Charles. 


BffTmfordsville, Sep. 17, 1S62. Kentucky, U.S. 

Surrender by the American Federals to the Confederates 
Tinder General Bragg. 

BOEorfreesboro^ Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 2,1863. Tennessee, U.S. 
The American Confederates, under General Bragg, defeated 
by the Federals under General Rosecrans. The first day of 
the battle was favourable to the Confederates ; it was only 
on the second day that they were forced to retreat. Loss 
on both sides over 5,000. 

If aas, May 24, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels severely defeated by the English forces in 
the war of the Irish Bebellion. 

If achod^ June 27, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrians defeated by the Prussians. 

Magnano, Apr. 5, 1799. Lombardy. 

The French defeated by the Austrians under General Kray. 

Kashville^ Feb. 25, 1862. Tennessee, U.S. 

Taken by the American Federals from the Confederates. 
Here the Confederates, under Hood, were defeated by the 
Federals, under Thomas, with great loss, Dec. 14, 1864. 

Kavarino, Oct. 20, 1827. Greece. 

The Turkish anid Egyptian fleets, under Ibrahim Pasha, 
defeated by the British, French, and Eussian fleets, under 
Admiral Codrington. This action, fought to secure the inde- 
pendence of Greece, resulted in the annihilation of the naval 
power of Turkey, 62 out of 70 sail being lost. 

Neerwinden, Mar. 18, 1795. Belgium. 

The French republicans, under Dumouriez, defeated by the 
Imperialist forces under the Archduke Charles. 

Neresheixn, Aug. 10, 1796. Germany. 

An indecisive action between the French republicans, under 
Moreau, and the Austrians, under the Archduke Charles. 

New Orleans^ Louisiana, U.S. 

The English, under General Pakenham, defeated by the 
Americans, under General Jackson, with severe loss, Jan. 8, 
12, 13, 1815. This town surrendered to the Federal fleet 
imder Commodore Farragut, Apr. 24, 1862. It was occupied 
by General Butler Apr. 26, and the forts capitulated the 
following day. 

Nezib, June 24, 1839. Syria. 

The army of the Sultan, under Hafiz Pasha, defeated by 


—I ri" 1 —~^^^ — ■ ■ ~- — ■ — ■ — — 

Ibrahim Paslia with severe loss. 10,000 Turks were tak«a 

Nile, Aug. 1-2, 1798. Egypt. 

The French fleet (17 sail) under Admiral Brneys, defeated 
by the English fleet (15 sail) nnder Lord Nelson. Britisk 
loss, 218 lolled and 671 wonnded. 

Nimeguen,Oct. 28, 1794 Holland. 

The British and allied Anstrians and Pmssians, under the 
Duke of York, defeated by the French revolutionaayarmy. 
Another engagement, Nov. 8 following, in which the Fren^ 
were defeated by the British. 

Ningpo, Oct. 13, 1841. China. 

Taken from the Chinese by the British under Sir Heniy 
Pottinger. The Chinese failed in their attempt to recover 
it Mar. 10, 1842. Ningpo was seized by the CJhinese rebels 
Dec. 9, 1861, but was recovered by the Imperial forces 
May 21, 1862. 

Novara, Mar. 23, 1849. Italy. 

The Sardinian army totally defeated by the Austrians mider 
Marshal Badetsky. Afber this defeat Charles Albert abdi- 
cated, and the whole of Lombardy was restored to Austria. 

Novi, Aug. 15, 1799. Italy. 

The French, under Jombert, defeated by the Imperialist forces 
under Suwarrow, with great loss. 

Niijuffghur, Aug. 25, 1857. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the Bri^dsh under General Nichol- 

Ocana, Nov. 19, 1809. Spain. 

The Spaniards defeated by the French, under Mortier and 
Soult. The French took 20,000 prisoners, and all the am- 
munition of the Spanish army. 

Oczakow, July 12— Dec. 17, 1788. Hussia. 

Besieged by the Russians, mider Prince Potemkin, and tlie 
Turks forced to capitulate. This fortress was ceded by 
Turkey to Russia, Jan. 9, 1792. The fortifications were 
blown up on the approach of the French and English, 
Oct. 18, 1855. 

Olenitza, Nov. 4, 1853. Turkey. 

The Russians, under General Danneberg, defeated by the 
Turks, under Omar Pasha, with great loss. 

Olustee, Feb. 20, 1864. Florida, U.S. 

The American Federals, nnder General Seymour, utfceriy 
V routed by the Confederates, under General Beauregard. 


Oporto^ Portugal. 

The French, nnder Soult, took Oporto hj storm Mar. 29, 
1809. The Duke of Wellington passed the Donro May 11, 
1809, and snrprised Soult, who was obliged to retreat. The 
Miguelites seized Oporto July 3, 1828. Don Pedro landed 
near Oporto, of which he took 'possession, July 8, 1832. 
The Miguelites attacked the plsice Sep. 19, and were re- 
pulsed with great slaughter. They continued the siege, 
and failed in another attack, Mar. \ 1833. 

Orthez, Feb. 27, 1814. France. 

The French, under Marshal Soult, defeated by the English 
and Spanish forces, under the Duke of Wellington. 

Ostrolenkaj Eussia. 

The Bussians defeated by the French, under Marshal Oudi- 
not, in 1807. The Russians again defeated by the Poles 
here. May 26, 1831. 

Ostrowno, Russia. 

Several severe but indecisive actions were fought near this 
. town, on the banks of the Dwina, between the French and 
Russians, July 25, 26, 27, 1812. 

Onlart, May 27, 1798. Ireland. 

The EngHsh forces, under Colonel Foote, defeated by the 
Irish rebels, under Father John Murphy, in the war of the 
Irish Rebellion. 

Ozontero, Aug. 19, 20, 1847. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the United States army, under 
(General Taylor. 

Fakozo, or Sukoro, Sep. 29, 1848. Hungary. 

Jellachich, Ban of Croatia, defeated by the Hungarians. 

Palestro, May 30, 31, 1859. Piedmont. 

The Austrians defeated by the French and Sardinians. 

Pa-li-chiau, Sep. 21, 1860. China. 

Chinese defeated by the allied French and English, tmder 
Sir Hope Grrant and General Montauban. 

Palo Alto^ May 8, 9, 1846. Mexico. 

The Mexicans defeated by the United States army, under 
General Taylor. 

Pampeltina, Spain. 

Seized by the French general d'Armagnac, Feb. 9, 1808. 
The English, under General Hill, blockaded Pampeluna, 
in June, 1813. The blockade, raised July 27, was renewed 
in Sep., and the town surrendered Oct. 31, 1813. The 



French occupied it in 1823. The citadel was seized by Mar- 
shal O'Donnell, and held for a short period, in Sep., 1841. 

Pandoo Nuddee, Aug. 15, 1857. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the British nnder NeilL 

Pea Ridge, Mar. 6-9, 1862. Arkansas, U.S. 

The American Confederates, nnder General McCnUoch, de- 
feated hj the Federals, nnder Generals Curtis and Sigel. 
Here McCuUoch fell. 

Peach Tree Creek, July 20. Georgia, U.S. 

Indecisive action between the American Federals, under 
Sherman, and the Confederates, under Hood. Loss on both 
sides severe. 

Pegu, Asia. 

The English obtained possession of Pegu in 1824, and, 
having restored it at the conclusion of Qie war with Bm^ 
mah, it was again taken, Nov. 21,. 1852. The whole pro* 
vince was annexed by proclamation, Dec. 30, 1852, and the 
close of the war officially proclaimed, June 30, 1853. 

Peiho, China, 

An attempt to force a passage up the mouth of this river 
by a French and English squadron, under Admiral Hope, 
June 24, 1859, was resisted by the Chinese . forts, and re- 
sulted in a disastrous repulse. The Taku forts at the moutli 
of the Peiho were captured by the allied French and English 
squadron, Aug. 21, 1860. 

Peniscola, Spain. 

Capitulated to the French Marshal Suchet, with 74 pieces 
of cannon and 1,000 men, in Feb., 1812. It was 
strengthened and garrisoned, June, 1813, and was invested 
by the Spaniards in March, 1814, but held out till after 
peace had been concluded in Apr., 1814. 

Pennecerrada, June 22, 1838. Spain. 

The Carlists defeated by the forces of Queen Isabella of 

Pered^ June 20, 1849. Hungary. 

The Hungarians, xmder Georgey, defeated by the aUied 
Hussians and Austrians. 

Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. Kentucky, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Generals Buell and M'Cook, 

defeated by the Confederates under Gen. Bragg. lioss of 

the Confederates very severe. 
Peschiera, Italy. 

This town, one of the celebrated Quadrilateral, was taken 


by the Sardinians &om the Austrians, May 30, 1848, and- 
recovered by the Anstrians, under Badetsky, Mar., 1849. 
Inyested in Jnne, 1859, and surrendered by treaty, Sep., 
1866, to Italy. 

Petersburg^ Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, nnder Grant, severely repulsed here 
by the Confederates, June 18 and 30, 1864. The Confede- 
rates abandoned this town Apr. 2, 1865. 

Petropaulonski, Sep. 7, 1854; Asiatic Bnssia. 

TJaia principal military station in the province of Kamt- 
schatka, was bombarded Ang. 31, 1854, by the English and 
French sqnadrons. The attack was renewed Sep. 4, and a 
IftTifling effected; bat the expedition proved nnsuccessftd, 
and was abandoned Sep. 7. An English squadron was sent 
again in May, 1855, when the town and fort were found to 
be deserted, the Russians having carried off all their guns 
and munitions of war. 

Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh, Apr. 6, 7, 1862. Tennessee, U.S. 
An indecisive action between the American Federals, under 
Grenerals Grant and Sherman, and the Confederates under 
Grenerals Beaur^ard and Johnstone. Here Johnstone fell. 

Pleasant Hill, Apr. 8, 1864. Louisiana, U.S. 

The American Federals, xmder General Banks, defeated by 
the Confederates under Greneral Kirby Smith. 

Pocloc, June 26, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrian brigade, under Greneral Potschappel, defeated 
by the Prussians under Greneral Van Horn. 

Polotsk, July 30, 31, 1812. Russia. 

The French, under Marshal Oudinot, defeated by the Rus- 
sians, under General Wittgenstein. The same armies con- 
tending the next day, the Russians were defeated. After 
various actions of less note, Polotsk was stormed and retaken 
hy the Russians, Oct. 20, 1812, 

Porto Novo, July 1, 1781. India. 

Hyder Ali, with 80,000 men, was severely defeated near 
this seaport town, by the British forces (10,000), under Sir 
Eyre Coote. 

Praga, Poland. 

Destroyed by the Russians, Nov. 4, 1794, when a horrible 
massacre of the Polish inhabitants ensued. The Poles de- 
feated here by the Russians after a two days' conflict, Feb. 
25, 1831. 


Prescott, Nov. 17, 18, 1838. Upper Canada. 

The Canadian rebels defeated by the British under Hajor 
Tonng and Colonel Dnndas, with severe losses on. both sides. 

Prome^ Burmah. 

Occupied bj the British, Apr. 25, 1825, and the Bnrmeee 
defeated, Dec. 1, 2, 5. It was again taken by the British, 
July 9, 1852, and having been evacuatedj was retaken, Oct 
10, same year. 

Puebla, May 5, 1862. Mexico. . 
French defeated by the Mexicans, 

Pultusk, Dec. 26, 1806. Poland. 

An indecisive action between the French,, under Napoleon, 

and the Bussians and Prussians. 
Pozmiar, Deo. 29, 1843. India. 

The Mahrattas defeated by the Bxitiah under General Cfrey. 
Pyramida, July 21, 1798. Egypt. 

The Mameluke army defeated by the French under Napoleon 

Pyrenees, July 28, 1813. 

The French, under Marshal Soult, defeated by the British 

under Sir A. Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington. 
Quatre Bras, June 16, 1815. Belgium. 

The French, under Marshal Ney, defeated by the British 

and allied army under the Duke of Brunswick, the Prince 

of Orange, and Sir Thomas Picton, Here the Duke of 

Brunswick was killed. 

Queenstown, Canada. 

The Americans were defeated here by the British, Oct. 13, 
1812, their commander, G-eneral Wadsworth, with 900 men, 
being taken prisoners. It was occupied by the Americans 
in May, 1813 ; and in December of the same jear they made 
an attempt to destroy the town with red-hot shot, but were 
defeated by a British force. It was again occupied by the 
Americans in June, 1814* 

Quesnoy, N. France. 

Taken by the Austrians firom the French, Sep. 11, 1793. 
Retaken by the French Aug. 1^, 1794. Quesnoy surren- 
dered to the allied armies, June*29, 1815, after the battle of 

Qiuberon Bay, France. 

The town of Quiberon was taken by some French emigrants 
in the pay of England, July 3, 1795, but on July 22 follow- 
ing, it was retaken by the French Republicans under Hoche, 


and inaiiy of the emigrants executed. The forts in the bay 
were attacked and dismantled by an English squadron under 
Sir Edward PeUew, June 4, 1800. 

Qoievrain, Apr. 28, 1792. Belgium. 
French defeated by the Austrians. 

Rajghur, Sep. 15, 1858. India. 

Indian rebels, under Tantia Topee,^ defeated by the British, 
under General Mitchell. 

^amnnggnr^ India. 

Stormed by Maha Singh in 1778. Several severe skir- 
mishes between the English, under Lord Gough, and the 
Sikhs, under Shore Singh, took place in the neighbourhood, 
in Kov., 1848, and Lord Gough gained a signal victory here 
Dec. 3. 

Bangoon^ Burmah. 

Occupied by the English during the first Burmese war, 
May 11, 1824 Agam attacked by the English, Jan. 2, 
1852, and captured by them Apr. 14« 

Bedan, Crimea, 

This, one of the defences of the town of Sebastopol, was 
attacked by the English, who were repulsed with loss by the 
Eussians, June 18, 1855. They experienced another repulse, 
Sep. 8, 1855, and it was evacuated by the B^ussians Sep. 9, 

Eheims, Mar. 13, 1814 France. 

This town, which was taken Mar. 12, 1814, by a corps of 
Eussians under St. Priest, a French emigrant, was recaptured 
the following day by Napoleon I., when 2,000 Russians and 
their commander were slain. 

Bhode Island, "N. America. 

Captured by the British in the American War of Indepen- 
dence, Dec. 8, 1776. Attacked by the French and Americans 
without effect Aug. 8, 1778. Evacuated by the British 
Oct. 25, 1779. 

Eiclimoiid, Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under General Fitzpatrick and 
Colonel Dahlgreen, repulsed with great loss by the Con- 
federates in their attempt to seize the city. Mar. 1, 1864. 
It was taken by the Federals Apr. 2, 1865, and its capture 
ended the war of the secession. 


Rich Mountain, July 11, 1861. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Confederates defeated by the Federals under 
Generals M'Clellan and Bosecrans. 

Rivoli, N. Italy. 

The French republican forces defeated by the Anstrians, 
under Davidowich, Nov. 17, 1796. In another engagemaii 
the Austrians, under Alvinzi, were defeated by the Frenck' 
under Napoleon I., Jan. 17, 1797. 

Boanoke Island, Feb. 8, 1862. N. Carolina, U.S. 

Captured from the American Confederates by the Feder^ 
under General Bumside. 

Rolica, Aug. 17, 1808. Portugal. 

The French, under Laborde, defeated by the British and 
Portuguese under Sir Arthur Wellesley. 

Romainville, Mar. 30, 1814. France. 

The French, after a desperate resistance, were defeated bj 
the allies on this elevation in the neighbourhood of Paris. 

Roveredo, Sep. 4, 1796. Tyrol. 

The Austnans were defeated by the French near this town. 
So close was the pursuit, that the republicans entered 
Boveredo peU-mell with the fugitives. 

Sadowa. See Konigsgratz. 

Saigon, Feb. 17, 1869. Cochin China. 
The Chinese defeated by the French^ 

St Amand, May 8, 1793. French Flanders. 

The French republican troops defeated by the English and 
their allies, under the Duke of York, after a hotly contested 

St; Jean de Luz. See Jean de Luz. 

St. Sebastian. See Sebastian. 

St. Vincent. See Cape of. 

Salamanca, July 22, 1812. Spain. 

The French, under Marmont, defeated by the allied English, 
Spanish, and Portuguese troops, under Lord WeUington. 

Saldanha Bay. Africa (Cape of Good Hope). 

A Dutch fleet was captured by Commodore Johnstone in 
this bay, near the Cape of Good Hope, three ships, of 1,100 
tons each, being saved from the fire, and afterwards brought 
to England, July 21, 1781. A Dutch squadron, with 2000 
troops on board, destined to attack the EngHsh at the Cape 


of Grood Hope, was captnred in the same place bj Admiral 
Elphinstone, Aug. 17, 1796. 

tbtn Lorenzo, May 8, 1863. Mexico. 

The Mexicans, under General Comonfori, defeated by the 
French nnder General Bazaine. 

pan Pedro, Dec. 27, 1864. Mexico. 

The Mexican republicans, under General Bosales, victorioos 
oyer the French under General Bazaine. 

Baragossa, Spain. 

Saragossa is celebrated for the two sieges it sustained during 
the Peninsular war. The French^ who attempted to carry 
it by assault^ June 16, 1808, were repulsed with great loss. 
They then commenced a regular siege, and succeeded in 
effecting an entrance, Aug. 4, when a deadly struggle com- 
menced, which lasted for eleven days. The Spanish com- 
Haander Palafox having been reinforced, the iS^ench aban- 
doned the siege during the night, Aug. 14, with the loss of 
Beveral thousand men. The second siege commenced Dec. 
20, 1808. The outworks were soon tcu^en by the French, 
and a series of sanguinary combats ensued day and night 
until Jan. 27, 1809, when a general assault was made, and 
the French succeeded in getting within the walls. The 
garrisoli made an obstinate defence ; but an epidemic fever 
broke out amongst them, and Palafox surrendered on hon- 
ourable terms, Feb. 20, 1809. During the siege, 54,000 
persons perished, of whom only 6,000 were killed by the 
enemy, the rest having been destroyed by the plague. The 
Spaniards were defeated in the neighbourhood by the French, 
June 16, 1809. Saragossa was abandoned by the French 

I in Jxdy, 1813. A body of Carlist troops occupied the 

I principal posts, Mar. 2, 1888. The inhaoitants, without 
chiefs, and badly armed, attacked the assailants, made 2,000 

^ prisoners, and expelled the remainder. 

firatoga, New York State, N. America. 
Here the British, xmder General Burgoyne, afber a severe 
engagement with the Americans, Oct. 7, 1777, being sur- 
i^nnded, surrendered to the American General Gates, Oct. 
17, 1777. This was the greatest check the British suffered 
dnrmg the war. 

K^age Station. See Chickahominy. 
^ vannah, Dec. 20, 1864. Georgia, U.S. 

Besieged by the American Federals, under General Sherman 
when it was evacuated by the Confederates under Hardee. 




Schasburg, July 31, 1849. Austria. 

The Hungarians, under Bern, defeated bj the Kussiai 
under General Liiders. 

Sealcotd, July 12, 1857. India. 

Indian rebels defeated by the British under GreneralNichotl 

Sebastian, Saint, Spain. 

Was captured by the French Aug. 19, 1719, and agaii^ 
Aug. 4, 1794. It was again taken by the French in If"^ 
It was besieged by the British, under General Grahaoiyl 
June 29, 1818. An assault, which was repulsed, took plaoft^ 
July 24. The siege was converted into a blockade, -which waft '. 
raised July 28. The siege was resumed Aug. 26. The towft 
was captured Aug. 31, and the castle Sep. 8. The Carlisis 
were defeated here by the Spanish royalists, and the British 
auxiliary legion under Sir de Lacy Evans, Oct. 1, 1836. 

Seetabnldee, Nov. 27, 1817. India. 

The Pindarrees defeated by the British under Colonel Scott 
This victory was won owing to the gallant charge of Captaia 

Seidlice, Apr. 10, 1831. Poland. 

The Russians severely defeated by the Poles. Loss on both 
sides very great. 

Seringapatam^ South India. 

The battle of Seringapatam, called also the battle of 
Arikera, in which the British, under Lord ComwaUis, 
defeated Tippoo Sahib, was fought May 14, 1791. Seringa- 
patam was again stormed, and Tippoo reduced by Lord 
Cornwallis, Feb. 6, 1792. In a new war the Madras army, 
under General Harris, arrived before this town Apr. 5, 1799; 
it was joined by the Bombay army, Apr. 14, and Seringa- 
patam Vas stormed and carried by Major General Ba^ 
May 4 the same year. In this engagement Tippoo Sahib 
fell. A mutiny was quelled here Aug. 23, 1809. 

Sidon, Sep. 27, 1840. Syria. 

Taken from the Pasha of Egypt by the troops of the 
Sultan and of his allies, assisted by some ships of the 
British squadron, under Admiral the Hon. Sir Robert 
Stopford and Commodore Charles Napier. 

Silistria, Turkey. 

Was unsuccessfully besieged by the Bussians in 1773, and 
threatened by Marshal Bomanzow in 1774. The Bussiaitf 


were defeated in an engagement near the town, and com- 
pelled to eyacnate Bulgaria, Sep. 26, 1809. General Bosh 
failed to take it, after a siege of some months' duration, in 
1828 ; but the Russians captured it June 30, 1829. It was 
invested by the . Russians, Mar. 28,1854. After a brave 
defence, during which the fortifications were nearly de-. 
Btroyed, the Turks compelled them to raise the siege, June 

Siloa, Aug. 10, 1860. Mexico. 

The forces of President Miramon defeated by those of the 
constitutional president, Juarez, under Degollado. 

Skalitz^ June 29, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrians, under Archduke Leopold, defeated by the 
Prussians under the Crown Prince. 

Smolenskow^ Russia. 

Attacked by the French under Napoleon I. Aug. 16 and 17, 
1812. After a most sanguinary contest, in which the 
French lost 15,000 and the Russians 10,000 men, the 
latter remained masters of the ciiy. The French, who 
returned to the attack on the 18th, found the city deserted 
and in ruins. The Russian general, Barclay de Tolly, was 
deprived of his command for having given up this holy 
ci^, as the Russians called it, without a pitched battle. It 
was occupied by the French, on their disastrous retreat 
from Moscow, Nov. 9 to 17, 1812. On leaving they blew 
up part of the ramparts. 

Bobraon, Feb. 10, 1846. India. 

The Sikhs (30,000) defeated by the British under Lord 
Gough. Loss of the Sikhs over 10,000 men, and of the 
British 300 killed and 2,000 wounded. 

lolferino, June 24, 1859. Lombardy. 

The Austrians defeated by the French and Sardinians under 
their respective sovereigns. Hostilities were suspended by 
the armistice of Villa £Vanca. 

uth Mountain, Sep. 14, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 
The American Confederates, under General Hill, defeated 
by the Federals under Hooker. 

ipottsylvania, May 10, 11, 1864. Virginia, U.S. • 

The American Federals, under Grant, defeated by the Con- 
federates under Lee. 

Ckach, Mar. 25, 1799. Baden. 

The French, under Jourdain, defeated by the Austrian^ 

z 2 




under the Archduke Charles. In another engagement I 
Haj 3, 1800^ the Anstrians, under General Kray, were de- 
feated by the French under Moreau. 

SzlkszOy Dec. 28, 1848. Transylvania. 
Hungarians defeated by the Austrians. 

Tagliacoziio, Jan. 15, 1861: Italy. 

The Sardinians defeated by the Bourbon forces under 

General Lovera. 
Tagliamento, Mar. 16, 1797. Italy. 

The Austrians, under the Archduke Charles, defeated hyi^ 

French republicans, under Napoleon Buonaparte. Massena 

gained another victory here in 1805.. 
Taku Forts^ Aug. 21, 1860. China. 

These forts, at the mouth of the river Peiho, were captored 

by an allied French and EngUsh squadron. 

Talavera de la Reyna, July 27, 28, 1809. Spain. 

The French (45,000), under Marshals Victor and Jourdaiii, 
defeated by the British (22,000) under Sir A. Wellesley. 

Tamojanat. iSf«<? Algeria. 

Tara, May 26, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels severely defeated by the English forces in 
the war of the Irish BebeUion. 

Tarbes^ Mar. 20, 1814. France. 

The French, under Marshal Soult, defeated by the English 
under Wellington. 

Tchemaya^ Aug. 16, 1855. Crimea. 

The BussianSy under General Liprandi, defeated by &b 
French and Sardinians, under Marshal Pelissier and General 
Delia Marmora, on the banks of this river, near Sebastopol. 

Texneswar^ Hungary. 

Besieged by the Hungarians in April, 1849, and bravely 

for 107 days. It was relieved by General Haynau, who de- 
feated the Hungarians in a well-oontested battle, Aug. 10, 
and entered the town in the evening. 

Tetnan, Feb. 4, 1860. Morocco. 

Taken by the Spaniards, under Gbneral fVim, from the 
Moors. Evacuated in 1862. 

Thennopylse, July 13, 1822. Greece. 

The Turks defeated by the Greeks in the war of the Greek 

Tleznseiu £^^ Algeria. 


Toilemont, Aug. 11, 1881. Belgium. 

The Belgians, under King Leopold, defeated by the Dutch 
under the Prince of Orange. 

Tolentino, May 8, 1815. Italy. ^^ 

Murat, King of Naples, having taken up arms in the canse 
of Napoleon I., defeated by the Anstrians. 

Toidon, Dec. 19, 1793. Prance. 

During the Frencb revolntion Tonlon was handed over by 
its inhabitants to the English Admiral Hood to be held for 
the French monarchy, Ang. 27, 1798. It was taken by the 
repablican army, Dec. 19 of the same year, when the 
artdlleiy was directed by Napoleon Bnonaparte. The Car- 
bonari raised an insorreotion here in 1821. 

Toulouse, Apr. 10, 1814. France. 

The French, under Marshal Soult, defeated by the British 
under Wellmgton, and compelled to evacuate the town 
Apr. 12 following. 

TrafiOgar, Oct. 21, 1805. Spain. 

The French (18 sail) and the Spanish (15 sail) fleets, to- 
gether with five frigates, under Admirals Villeneuve, Alava, 
and Gravina, defeated by the English fleet (88 sail), and 
four fi^gates, under Lord Nelson. Here Nelson felL Nineteen 
of the enemy's ships surrendered during the battle, and one 
was sunk. The remnant of the fleet was encountered by 
Sir Bichard Strachan^ when .four of the enemy's ships were 
captured, Nov. 4. 

Trautenan, June 27, 1866. Bohemia. 

The Austrians, under Field-Marshal Ghhblenz, defeated by 
' the Prussians under the Crown Prince. 

ftebia, June 17-19, 1799- N. Italy. 

The French, under Macdonald, defeated by the Austrians 
and Eussians, under Suwarrow, with great loss. 

fcenton, Dec. 26, 1776. N. America. 

The English and Hessians, under Colonel Ball, defeated by 
the American rebels under Washington. 

iWpolitza, Oct. 5, 1821. Greece. 

Taken by the Grreeks, with fearful slaughter of the in- 
habitants. Betaken by Ibrahim Pasha, June 80, 1825, and 
razed to the ground. 

cadero, Aug. 81, 1823. Spain. 

The Spaniards defeated by the French. 


Troisville Landrecy, Apr. 30, 1794. Fknders. 

Inyested by the allies, Apr. 16, under the Prince of Orange, 
and the French forced to surrender. The town was retakea 
by the French July 17, 1794. 

Tudela, Nov. 22, 1808. Spain. 

The Spanish forces, nnder Castanos and Palafox, defeated 
by the French nnder Lannes and Victor. Spanish lom\ 
6,000 killed and wonnded. This battle is sometimes caD^ft 
the battle of the Ebro. 

Tumhout, Ang. 3, 1831. Belgium. 

The Belgians, nnder General Niellon, defeated by the Datdi 
nnder the Prince of Orange. 

Ulm, Oct. 20, 1805. Wiirtemberg. 

The Austrian garrison (28,000), under General Macsk, 
forced to capitulate to the French, under Ney. 

Usliant, Naval battles off. France. 

An indecisive action fought here between the English fleet, 
under Admiral Keppel, and the French fleet, under Count 
d'OrvilHers, July 27, 1778. Another engagement, in which 
the French fleet, under Jean Bon St. Andre, was signally 
defeated by the English, under Lord Howe, in the £a,iiiou8 
action of June 1, 1794. 

Valenciennes, May 23 to July 26, 1793. N. France. 

Besieged by the English and their allies, under the Duke of 
York and the Prince of Coburg, and after an heroic defence, 
captured from the French. Betaken by the French Aug. 
27, 1794. (See Famars.) 

Valmy, Sep. 20, 1792. France. 

The Prussians, commanded by the Duke of Brunswick, de- 
feated by the French republicans under Kellerman. This 
victory was of immense advantage to the repubKcans. 

Valtezza, May 27, 1821. 

The Turks defeated by the Greeks in the war of the Greek 

Varna, Oct. 11, 1828. European Turkey. 

Unsuccessfally attacked by the Russians in 1773. They 

succeeded in capturing it, after a three months' siege, Oct. 11, 

1828. Restored to Turkey Sep. 14, 1829. 

Vaucliamps, Feb. 14, 1814. France. 

The allied Prussians and Russians defeated by the French 

xmder Napoleon I. 
Verona, Mar. 28-30, 1799. Italy. 

The French completely defeated by the Austriaais. Here, in 


May 6, 1848, the Anstrians were defeated by Charles Albert, 
King of Sardinia. Verona was ceded to Italy, Oct. 10, 

Vicksburg, May 18-Jnly 4, 1863. Mississippi, U.S. 

Taken from the American Confederates, after a long siege, 
by the Federals, under G-eneral Grant and Admiral Porter. 

Vilagosh^ Aug. 13, 1849. Hungary. 

Hungarians defeated by the Austrians and Russians. 

Vimeira, Aug. 21, 1808. Portugal. 

The French, under Junot, defeated by the British, under 
Sir A. Wellesley, with severe loss. 

Vinegar Hill, June 21, 1798. Ireland. 

The Irish rebels defeated by the English forces, under 
Greneral Lake, in the war of the Irish Bebellion. Loss of 
the ^English severe. 

> Vittoria^ June 21, 1813. Spain. 

The French (72,000), under King Joseph Buonaparte and 
General Jourdan, defeated by the English (70,000), under 
Wellington. French loss very severe. 

Voltumo, Oct. 1, 1860. Italy. 

The Neapolitans defeated by Graribaldi. 

Wagram, July 6 & 6, 1809. Austria. 

The Austadans, under the Archduke Charles, defeated by 
the French, under Napoleon. Losses on both sides very 

Waitzen^ Hungary. 

The Hungarian insurgents took this town by storm Apr. 
9, 1849, and repulsed the Bussians with great slaughter, 
July 15. They were defeated the next day by the Russians, 
who entered the town. 

Warsai77, Poland. 

Besieged unsuccessftdly by the Prussians, in July and Aug., 
1794; but taken with great slaughter by the Bussians, 
Nov. 9 following. The Bussians retired Nov. 28, 1806, 
and two days after the town was occupied by the French. 
Captured by the Austrians Apr. 23, 1809, but retaken by 
the Poles Junel of the same year. Evacuated by the Aus- 
trians Feb., 1813, and occupied by the Bussians. Battle of 
Warsaw, between the Poles and Bussians, when, after two 
days' hard fighting, the city capitulated, and was taken 
possession of by the Bussians, Sep. 6-8, 1831. 


^— ■■^^^»'^'*— ^^^^■^^■^■^^^^ ■ " — ■ M ■ ■ — 11 I — —- ■ . ■-.■■■Ill ■■■ ■■>■■ !■ 

Waterloo, June 18, 1815. Belgium. 

This great battle, which proved the death-blow of 
Bchemes of Napoleon I., was commenced near Waterloo, 
Belgium, at half-past eleven o'clock in the morning, June 
1815, bj an attack of the French, under Prince Jeroi 
upon the chateau Hougoumont, which was set on fire 
two o'clock. The French cavalry, under Ney, was 
peatedly driven back by the English infantry, but the 
of La Haye Sainte was compelled to surrender, owing 
the scanty ammunition of its brave defenders. Late in 
afternoon. Marshal Blucher arrived with the Prussian armj, 
and attacked the French right flank. The grand attack 
the Imperial Guard commenced at a quarter-past seyeo, 
and was defeated by the English Foot-guards, under Major- 
General Maitland. Just as the sun vanished below the 
horizon, Wellington gave the order for the whole of the 
English line to advance, which occasioned a panic and 
general flight in the French army. The Old Guard gtiB 
stood firm, but at length yielded to the attack of Adam's 
brigade and the Osnaburg battalion of Colonel Halket ; and 
at half-past eight the Duke relinquished the pursuit and 
returned to the village of Waterloo. At the hamlet of La 
Belle Alliance he met Blucher, who, after mutual congratu- 
lations, continued the pursuit. The total loss of the dlies 
exceeded 22,000 men ; and the French are said to have losi 
no less than 40,000 men. The battle was called by i^ 
Prussians the battle of La Belle Alliance, and by the fVench 
the battle of Mont St. Jean. It has received its English 
name from the adjoining village of Waterloo, where Welling- 
ton fixed his head-quarters, and reposed after the fatigues of 
the day. 

Wattignies, Oct. 16, 1793. France. 

The Austrians, under Prince Coburg, defeated by the French 
republican troops, under General Jourdan- Here the French 
again defeated the Austrian outposts, Apr. 21, 1794. 

WawZj or Wawer, Mar. 31, 1831. Poland. 

The Russians, under General Geismar, defeated by the Poles 
after a severe engagement. 

White Plains, Oct. 28, 1776. N. America. 

The revolted Americans defeated by the British under 
General Howe. 

Wilderness, May 5 & 6, 1864. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Grant, repulsed by the Con- 


federates, under Lee. Owing to the smallness of his forces 
afber this .engagement, Lee retired to Spottsjlvania* 

Williamsburg, May 6, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 

The'American Confederate8,nnder General Joseph Johnstone, 
defeated by the Federals, under Oeneral M'Clellan. An 
indecisive battle was fonght here between the Americans and 
Canadians, Nov. 11, 1813. 

Wilmington, North Carolina, U.S. 

Unsnccessfnlly attacked by the American Federals, Dec. 24, 

25, 1864. Again attacked and captured by the Federals 

Feb. 22, 1865. (See Fort Fisber.) 
Wilna, June 19, 1831. Poland. 

The Poles defeated by the Russians. 

Wilson's Creek, Aug. 10, 1861. Missouri, U.S. 

The American Federals, under Generals Lyon and Sigel, 
defeated by the Confederates. Here Lyon fell. 

. Winchester, Mar. 23, 1862. Virginia, U.S. 

The American Confederates, under '* Stonewall " Jackson, 
defeated by the Federals, under General Shields. Another 
battle, June 13, 1863, in which the Federals, under General 
MUroy, were defeated by the Confederates, under General 
Ewell. The Confederates were defeated here by the Federals 
Sep. 19, 1864. 

VTitepsk, Nov. 14, 1812. Eussia. 

The French, under Marshal Victor, defeated by the Russians, 
under General Wittgenstein. Loss of the French, 3,000. 

Wurtzchen, Germany. 

A collision between the French army, under Napoleon I., 
and that of the allies, commanded by the sovereigns of 
Russia and Prussia, occurred in the neighbourhood of this 
town, Jiay 19, 1813. A general engagement at the village 
of Bautzen terminated favourably for the French, May 21, 
and the conflict having been renewed at Wiirtzchen, the 
allies were forced to retire. May 22. 

Xiquilpan, Nov. 22, 1864. Mexico. 

The Mexican republicans, under Generals Arteaga, Neri, 
&C.J defeated by the French under Colonel Clinchant. 

York Town, Oct. 19, 1781. United States. 

The British, under Lord Cornwallis, had captured York 
Town in Aug., 1781, but afber sustaining a disastrous siege, 
they were forced to surrender to the allied armies of France 
and America, under General Washington and Count Bocham- 
beau, Oct. 19, 1781. The place was strongly fortified in 


the American civil war by the Confederates, bat surrendered 
May, 1862, to the Federals, under M'Clellan. 

Zelichow, Apr. 6, 1831. Poland. 

The Bussians defeated by the Poles with sovere loss. 

Zurich, June 5, 1799. Switzerland. 

The French, under Massena, defeated by the Austrians. In 
another battle the Bussians and Austrians, under Korsakoff, 
were defeated by the French under Massena, Sep. 26, 1799. 

Zwittau, July 9, 1866. Moravia. 

The Auskdans defeated by the Prussians. 


FfiOM 1767 TO 1867. 


From 1767 to 1867. 







Abascal^ Joseph Ferdinand. Spanish Vice- 
roy of Peru from 1804 — 1816. 

Abbot^ Charles. See Colchester, Lord. 

Abbot^ Charles. See Tenterden, Lord. 

Abbot, Lemnel. EngHsh portrait painter. 
Among the best of his works are his por- 
traits of Cowper, Lord Nelson, and Vis- 
connt Bridport. 

Abdtd Medjid. Saltan of Turkey from 
1839—1861. Son of Mahmoud II. Es- 
tablished various civil reforms in his 
country, especially with regard to the 
position of his Christian subjects. Pro- 
tected the Hungarian reftigees in 1849. 
The great event of his reign was the 
Crimean war, in which France and Eng- 
land allied themselves with Turkey to 
check the encroachments of Russia. 

A'Beckett, Gilbert Abbot. EngHsh hu- 
mourist and satirical writer. Admitted 
to the bar in 1841. Appointed to one of 
the London police magistracies in 1849. 
Author of the " Comic Blaekstone," 
and comic histories of " England " and \ 
" Rome." One of the chief contributors 
to Puncht 


Jun. 30, 1821 


JuD. 25, 1861 

Aug. 28^1856 










Abel^ Carl Frederick. German mnsical 

Abel^ Dr. Clarke. Historian of Lord Am- 
herst's Embassy to China, which he 
accompanied as chief medical officer and 

Abel, Nicholas Henry. Swedish mathema- 

Abercrombie, John, M.D. Scotch phy- 
sician and author of " Inquiries concern- 
ing the Intellectual Powers," <fcc., "Philo- 
sophy of the Moral Feelings," &c. 

Abercromby, Alexander, Lord. Scotch 
judge and writer. 

Abercromby, Sir Ralph. Celebrated Scot- 
tish general. Entered the army in 1756, 
and served in Ireland, Holland, and the 
West Indies. Raised to the dignity of a 
Knight of the Bath in 1795. Success- 
fully conducted the expedition to Egypt 
in 1801, but received a wound at the 
battle of Abonkir, of which he died in a 
few days. 

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, Earl 
of. Prime Minister of England. Bom 
at Edinburgh, and educated at Cambridge. 
Elected one of the representative peers of 
Scotland, in 1806. Appointed ambas- 
sador to the court of Vienna in 1813. 
Raised to the English peerage, as Viscount 
Gordon, in 1815. Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, from 1828—1830; and 
again from 1841 — 1846. Prime Minis- 
ter in 1852, at the head of a coalition 
ministry, till 1855, when he resigned, 
owing to the dissatisfaction expressed 
at the conduct of the Crimean war, the 
great event of his administration. His 
political principles were Tory. 

Aberli, Johann Ludwig. Celebrated Swiss 
landscape painter. 

Abemethy^ John. Celebrated surgeon of 


Jun. 22, 1787 
Dec. 26, 1826 

Apr. 6, 1829 
Not. 14, 1844 

Nov. 17, 1795 
May 28, 1801 

Dec. 14, 1860 

... 1786 
Apr. 20, 1831 













St. Bartliolomew's Hospital. Whether a 
native of Scotland or Ireland is uncertain. 
Anthor of "The Constitutional Origin 
.and Treatment of Local Diseases," and 
various tracts on medical sabjects. 
Abildgaard^ Nicholas Abraham. Danish 
historical painter. 

Abinger, James Scarlett, Lord. Celebrated 
English judge. Called to the bar in 

1791. Became Attorney-General, and re- 
ceived the honour of Knighthood in 1827. 
Kaised to the bench as Chief Baron, with 
the title of Lord Abinger, in 1834. 

Abington, !EVances. Comic actress* 

Abisbaly Hemy O'Donnell, Count of. 
Spanish general. Served in the war 
a^inst the French Republic, and on 
Napoleon's invasion of Spain, commanded 
the Spanish forces in Catalonia with great 
success. He compelled the surrender of 
a whole French column at Abisbal, under 
General Schwartz, and from this action 
took his title. He again commanded on 
the French invasion of Spain, under the 
Duke of Angouleme, in 1828. 

Abrantes^ Duke of. See Junot. 
Abrantes^ Jose Marquis^d'. Portuguese 

Abrescb^ Frederick Louis. Dutch critic 
and classical scholar. Edited most of the 
Greek classical writers. 

Abrial^ Andrew Joseph. French statesman. 

Achard; Franz Carl. Prussian chemist. 
First fabricator of beetroot sugar, in 

1792. Author of various treatises on 
chemistry and agriculture. 

Ackermann^ Conrad. German comedian. 

E«garded by the Germans as the founder 

of their theatre. 
Ackermann/ Johann Christian Gottlieb. 

German professor of medicine, and 


Jun. 4, 1809 

Apr. 7, 1844 

Mar. 4, 1816 


Feb. 11, 1827 
... 1782 

Nov. 14, 1828 
Apr. 20, 1821 


Mar. 9, 1801 











medical writer. Author of " Institutiones 
Historiss !&fediciii89," ^* Manuel de Medi- 
cine Militaire,'* &o. 

Acrel, Olaf. Swedish physician and snr- 
geon. Director- General of Hospitals in 
Sweden. Author of various surgical 
works and treatises. 

Acton, Joseph. Bom at Besan^n, France 
Neapolitan Minister of Marine, and after- 
wards of Finance. Dismissed from office 
in 1808, on account of his cruel practices, 
and retired to Sicily. 

Adair^ Sir Bobert. English diplomatist. 
Educated at Westminster and Gottingen, 
Member of Parliament for Appleby in 
1802, and voted with the Whig party. 
Ambassador at the court of Vienna in 
1806; and from 1809 to 1811 ambassador 
at Constantinople. Nominated G.C.B. in 
1809. Occupied from 1831-— 1835 by 
Earl Grey, on special missions to Brussels 
and Berhn. Author of " An Historical 
Memoir of a Mission to the Court of 
Vienna in 1806," and " A Memoir of the 
Negotiations for the Peace of the Darda- 
nelles in 1808-9." 

Adam, Alexander, LL.D. Bector of the 
High School of Edinburgh, and an 
eminent Latin scholar. Bom in Moray- 
shire, Scotland, and educated at the 
University of Edinburgh. Author of the 
" BomanAntiquities,"a" LatinDictionary," 
a "Dictionary of Classical Biography," 

Adam, Nicolas Sebastien. French sculptor. 
His great work is " Prometheus Bound." 

Adam, Bobert. Scotch architect. Elected 
Member of Parliament, for the county of 
Kinross, in 1768. Constructed numerous 
public buildings and private mansions in 
London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow. 

AdamSj John. American statesman, who 


Aug. 4, 1811 

Oet. 8, 185^1 

Dos. 18, 1809 

Mar. 27, 1778 

Mar. 3, 1792 

July 4» 18261 






took an active part in effectiiig tlie inde- 
pendence of his conntry. In 1773, he 
became a member of the Conncil of State, 
and devoted all his energies to promote 
the canse he had esponsed. He advocated 
and seconded the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, which was passed on the 4th of 
July, 1776. In 1780 he represented the 
United States in Holland, and in 1782, 
co-operated with Franklin and the other 
American commissioners in negotiating a 
treaty of peace with the mother conntry. 
In 1785 he* Became the first ambassador 
from the United States to Great Britain. 
In 1789, when Washington was elected 
president, he was made vice-president, and 
in 1 793 had the same office again conferred 
on him% In 1797, on the retirement of 
Washington, he was chosen president, and 
at the close of his term of four years, being 
defeated by Jefferson in the candidateship 
for re-election, he retired from public life. ^ 

AdamSy^ John Quincy. Sixth president of the 
United States, from 1825 to 1829. Ap- 
pointed Minister of the United States at 
the Hague,, in 1794; at Berlin, in 1796; 
and at St. Petersburg in 1809. After the 
peace between the United States and Great 
Britain, he was appointed ambassador to 
the Court of St. James's. In 1825 he 
was elected president. 

Adams^ John. Colonizer of Pitcaim's Island. 
One of the mutineers in H.M.S. Bounty, 
in 1789. 

AdamS; Samuel. American statesman. One 
of the most powerful advocates of the 
political separation of the colonies from 

Adanis^ Rev. William. English divine and 
principal of Pembroke College, Oxford. 
Author of an "Answer to Hume on 

Feb. 21, 1848 

May 5, 1829 

Mar. 2, 1803 

Feb. 13, 1789 

A A 













Adanson, MiclieL French botanist. Author 
of "Voyage an Senegal/' and "Les 
Families des Plantes." 

Addington^ Henry. iSetf Sidmouth. 

Adelaide, Madame. Aunt of Louis XIV- of 

Adelaide, Eugenie Louise. Princess of Or- 
leans, and sister of Louis Philippe, ex-king 
of the French. She was privately married 
to General Athalin, a peer of France. 

Adelaide, Amelia Louisa Teresa Caroline. 
Consort of William IV., King of England. 
She was the eldest child of George, Duke 
of Saze Coburg Meiningen, and married 
the Duke of Clarence (afterwards William 
IV.), July 11. 1818. 

Adelong, Johann Christophe. German phi- 
lologist. Author of the '' Crrammatical and 
Critical Dictionary.** 

Adet, Pierre Auguste. French envoy and 
chemical writer. 

Adolphus, Frederick 11. Kinir of Sweden, 
1751 to 1771. 

AdolphuB, John. English lawyer and his- 
torical writer. Author of the " History of 
George III.,'* "Biographical Memoirs of 
the fVench Revolution,'* <fco. 

AfE^, Denis Auguste. Archbishop of Paris. 
He was shot whilst endeavouring to pre- 
vent bloodshed between the soldiery and 
Parisian insurgents. 

Aflfry, Louis Augustine Philip, Count d*. 
Swiss statesman and chief magistrate of 
Switzerland, during Napoleon*s protecto- 
rate of the Helvetic Confederacy. 

Agnesi, Maria Gtbetana. An Italian lady of 
profound mathematical attainments, and 
authoress of " Propositionea Philoso- 
phicsB," &c. 

Ahlwardt, Peter. German metaphysician. 
Author of " Brontx)theology,*' "Philo- 

Aug. 3, 1806 

Feb. 18, 1800 
Dec 31, 1847 

Dec 2, 1849 

Sep. 10, 1806 

... 1882 
Feb. 12, 1771 

Jalj 16, 1845 

Jan. 27, 1848 

Jun. 16, 1810 

Jan. 9, 1799 

Mar. 1, 1791 




sopMcal Dissertations," " Immortality of 
the Soul and Liberty of God," &c, 
Ahmed Shah el Abdaly. First King of 
Candahar and Gabool. 

Ahrendt^ Martin Frederick. Danish anti- 
quary and palsBOgrapher. 

Aikin^ John, M.D. English writer. Author 
of "General Biographical Dictionary," 
" Evenings at Home," &c. 

Aikin, Lucy. Daughter of the above. His- 
torical writer. Authoress of Memoirs of 
the courts of Queen Elizabeth, James I., 
and Charles L, "Memoirs of Addison," 

Aiton^ William. Scotch botanist and head 
gardener at Kew, in 1759. Author of 
" Hortus Kewensis." 

Akenside^ Mark. English poet and phy- 
sician. Author of "The Pleasures of 
Lnagination," " Epistle to Curio," Ac. 

Akerblad^ John David. Swedish oriental 
■ scholar and antiquary. 

Albania Alessandro, Cardinal. An eminent 
Italian virtuoso and historical writer. 

Albania Giovanni Francisco. Cardinal. 
Nephew of the above. Patron of the fine 

Albany, Louisa, Countess of. Daughter of 
Prince Stolberg, of Gedem, in Germany. 
Wife of the young Pretender, whom she 
married in 1772, when she took the title 
of Countess of Albany. At the death of 
her husband she secretly married the 
Italian poet AlfierL 

Albert, Francis Augustus Charles Ema- 
nuel, Prince Consort of England. 
Second son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe 
Coburg-Saalfeld. Married Victoria, Queen 
of England, Feb. 10, 1840. Chancellor 
of the XJadversity of Cambridge in 1847. 
Styled by Royal warrant "Prince Con- 


Jun. 8, 1778 


Dec. 7, 1822 

Jan. 29, 1864 

Feb. 1, 1793 

Jtin. 23, 1770 

Feb. 8, 1819 

Dec. 11, 1779 


Jan. 29, 1824 

Dec. 14, 1861 

A A 2 









sort," June 25, 1857. Prince Albert availed 
himself of every opporhinity for improving 
the condition of the poor, as well as for 
furthering the advancement of art and 

Albert! di ViUanova^ Francisco. An emi- 
nent Italian lexicographer, author of 
" Dizionario Universale Critico Enciclo- 
pedico della Lingua Italiana." 

Albertrandy^ Johann Christian. Bishop 
of Zenopolis, Polish numismatist, and 
Keeper of the Medals of Eling Stanislaus. 

Albinus^ Bernard Siegfried. Celebrated 
G-erman anatomist, and author of various 
works on anatomy, " De Ossibus Corporis 
Humani," "Historia Muscxdorum Ho- 
minis," &c. 

Albrechtsberger^ Johann George. German 
musician, and instructor of Beethoven. 
Author of numerous compositions. 

Alembert. See D'Alembert. 

Alexander I. Emperor of Russia, eldest 
son of Paul I. In 1805 entered into a 
convention with England, Austria, and 
Sweden, to oppose the encroachments of 
France, and commanded at Austerlitz. 
The battles of Jena and Eylau were fought 
and won by Napoleon, and on the 14th of 
June, 1807, the united armies of Russia 
and Prussia were signally defeated at the 
destructive battle of Friedland, and com- 
pelled to fall back behind the Niemen. 
This decisive event ended the campaign. 
On the 21st an armistice was arranged, 
and on the 7th of July following a treaty 
of peace was signed at Tilsit, Alexander, 
in a secret article, engaging to unite with 
Napoleon in a war against England. This 
treaty converted all the former friends of 
Alexander into enemies. In accordance 
with the plans of Napoleon, on the 24th 
of February, 1808, Alexander declared 



Aug. 10, 1808 

Sep. 9, 1770 

Mar. 7, 1809 

Dec. 1, 1825 



war against Sweden, and finally, afber 
mucli hard fighting, obtained possession 
of Swedish Finland. The firiendship be- 
tween these two sovereigns lasted five 
years, and the treaty of Vienna secared 
to E*nssia the province of Eastern Gralicia, 
ceded by Anstria. By the close of 1811 
disputes had arisen to such a height be- 
tween the two emperors, that a rupture 
became inevitable, and on the following 
19th of March Alexander declared war 
against Napoleon. A peace was concluded 
with Turkey, with which Bussia had been 
at war, and by the 25th of June, Napoleon, 
with an immense army under his com- 
mand, was marching upon Eussian ground. 
On the 7th of September, Borodmo was 
fought ; on the 14th, Moscow was entered 
by the French. Napoleon commenced his 
retreat, and before the remnant of his 
immense army had crossed the Niemen, 
on the 16th of December, the bones of 
300,000 Frenchmen were already bleach- 
ing on the plains of Russia. Alexander 
had joined his army in pursuit of Na- 
poleon. He was present at the battle of 
Dresden, fought on the 26th and 27th of 
August ; at that of Leipsic on the 18th of 
October ; and on the 24th of February, 
1814, met the King of Prussia at Chau- 
mont. Here these two sovereigns bound 
themselves by a treaty to pursue the war 
against France- until it was successfully 
closed. On the 30th of March following 
they victoriously entered the French capi- 
tal. Napoleon was deposed, and on* the 
25th of July Alexander returned to his 
own capital. At the congress of Vienna, 
Alexander was recognized as King of 
Poland, which country had for some time 
been merged in his dominions. The es- 
cape of Napoleon from Elba, and the 
events which followed it, brought Alex- 
ander again to Paris, where, on the 26th 








of September, 1815, he, the Emperor of 
Austria, and the King of Prussia affixed 
their signatures to an instrument which 
had for its object the preservation of uni- 
versal peace on Christian principles, and 
which was called the Holy Alliance. 
With the banishment of Napoleon the 
great events which had marked the politi- 
cal career of Alexander closed. 

Alfieri, Yittorio. Italian poet and dra- 
matist. Author of " Qeopatra," " Saul," 
« PhiUp n.," " Mary Stuart," " Virginia," 

All Bey. Greek adventurer. Pasha of 
Egypt from 1766—1773. 

All Bey. See Badia. 

All Pacha. Son of an Albanian chief, and 
Vizier of Janina. He successively became 
pasha of Tricali, in Thessaly, then derwend 
pasha of Boumili, when he, from being a 
robber himself, raised a body of 4^000 
Albanians, and gained favour with the 
Porte by clearing the country of the de- 
predators by whom it was infested. He 
next took Janina, the capital of southern 
Albania, or Epirus, usurped its pashalic, 
and began vigorously to extend his terri- 
tories. He attacked and defeated the 
Suliotes. He reduced many of the towns 
on the Gulf of Arta and the coast of the 
Adriatic; penetrated, on the north, Al- 
bania proper; obtained the pashalic of 
Berat ; seized the government of Ochrida, 
in Upper Albania ; attacked, by order of 
the Porte, the Pasha of Scutari, or Sko- 
dra, defeated him, and then appropriated 
his territories. At all these acts the Porte 
was compelled to connive, and Ali was 
even appointed inspector of the principal 
division of the empire, with an army of 
24,000 men. He subsequently became a 
vizier. By his intriguing disposition he 
finally roused the ire of the sultan, who i 


Oct 8, 1808 

Apr. 21, 1773 

Feb. 5, 1822 







Lad him excommunicated, and commanded 
all the pashas of European Turkey to 
march against him. AH was compelled 
to abandon his stronghold in Janina, and, 
on a promise of pardon, surrendered him- 
self to the Porte. He was betrayed and 
Alison, Archibald, Rev.. Scotch clergyman 
and miscellaneous writer. Author of 
" Essays on the Mature and Principles of 

Allan, David. Scotch landscape and his- 
torical painter. 

Allan, Goorge. Son of the above. Fellow 
of the Socieiy of Antiquaries, M.P. for 
the ciiy of Durham, and a principal con- 
tributor to Nicholls*s Literary Anecdotes. 

Allan, Sir William. Celebrated Scotch his- 
torical painter. Elected B.A. in 1835, 
and President of I3ie Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1838. Knighted in 1842. 

Allard, John Francis. French general offi- 
cer of great distinction during the em- 
pire. On the downfall of N'apoleon he 
entered the Egyptian and Persian services, 
and finally became the adviser of Runjeet- 
Singh, and commander of his troops. 

Allegrain, Christophe Gabriel. French 
sculptor. His chief works are "Venus 
entering her Bath," and " Diana*" 

Allen, John, M.D. Scotch historical writer. 
Master of Dulwich College in 1820. 
Author of " An Inquiry into the Rise and 
Growth of the Royal Prerogative." 

Alten, Charles Augustus, Count. Hano- 
verian general. Served in the Peninsular 
war, under Wellington, and commanded 
the light division. From 1831 to his 
death he was at the head of the war de- 
partment in Hanover. 

Alvensleben, Philip Charles, Count of. 
Hanoverian diplomatist in the service of 


Aug. 6, 1796 

Jul. 31, 1800 

Feb. 23, 1860 

Jan. 23, 1839 

Apr. 17, 1795 

Apr. 10, 1843 

Apr. 20, 1840 






: 1739 





Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, and 
his .successor. From 1775 to 1787 he 
was employed as diplomatic agent between 
Prussia and Bavaria. In 1787 he was 
sent as ambassador to France,' the follow- 
ing year to Holland, and in 1789 to 
England. Recalled in 1790 to Berlin, he 
was placed at the head of the department 
for foreign affairs. 

Amelia, Duchess of Saze- Weimar. Bom 

in Italy, of the family of the Guelphs. 

Married the Duke of Saxe- Weimar in 

1756. Patroness of letters. 
Amelia^ Princess. Daughter of Geo. HI., 

King of England. 

Amherst^ Jeffrey, Lord. Distinguished 
British officer. Served in America in 
1758, and captured Louisbourg and all its 
dependencies in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, which paved the way for the entire 
conquest of Canada. In 1768 he was 
appointed governor of Virginia, and in 
1776 was created Baron Amherst. Raised 
to the rank of field marshal in 1796. 

Amherst, William Pitt, Earl Amherst. 
Nephew of the above. In 1816 he was 
sent as ambassador extraordinary to 
China, when he refused to submit to the 
degrading ceremonies insisted on by the 
court of Pekin, and thus caused his mis- 
sion to , be j&mitless. He was appointed 
Governor- General of India in 1823, and 
was created, three years later. Earl Am- 
herst of Aracan, and Viscount Holmesdale, 
for his Indian services. 

Amici, Giovcmni Battista. Italian astro- 

Amiot, Joseph. French Jesuit missionary 
to China. 

Amp^re^ Andre Marie. French scientific 
writer, whose name is connected with the 
great discoveries in electro-magnetism. | 


Apr. 10, W, 

Nov. 5, 1810 1 
Aug. a, 1797 1 

Mar. 13, 1857 

Apr. 23, 1863 

... 179^ 

Jun. 10, 1836 



Apr. 10, 1837 


Amp^re^ Jean Jacques. French historian Mar. 27, 1864 
and litterateur. Member of the French 
Academy in 1847. Author of "De la 
Litteraturo Fran9aise dans ses Bapports 
avec les Litt^ratures 6trangeres au moyen 
Age," " Histoire Romaine a Rome," &c. 

Ancillon^ Johann Peter Frederich. Prussian 
statesman and miscellaneous writer. He 
was successively Councillor of State, 
Minister of Education, and Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Member of the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences, and of the French 
Institute. Author of " Melanges de Lit- 
terature et de Philosophie," "EssaisPhi- 
losqphiques," &c. 

Anderson^ John. Professor of natural 
philosophy in Glasgow University, and 
founder of an educational institution in 
Glasgow, called " Anderson's Univer- 
sity." Author of "Institutes of Physics." 

Andre^ Major John. A major in the British 
service during the American war. He 
was taken prisoner by the Americans and 
executed as a spy, whilst negotiating 
between the American General Arnold 
and the British General Sir Henry Clin- 

Andreossi^ Antoine Francis, Count of. Sep. IQ, 1828 
French military officer and diplomatist. 
He served with Napoleon in Italy and 
Egypt, and was successively ambassador 
at London, Vienna, and Constantinople. 

Jan. la, 1796 

Oct. 2, 1780 

Andrieux^ Francois Gruillaume Jean Stan- 
islaus. French author, dramatist, poet, 
and politician. He was successively pro- 
fessor of belles lettres at the Polytechnic 
School, and professor of literature at the 
College -ef France, and also perpetual 
secretary of the French Academy. His 
chief dramatic pieces are " Les Etourdis," 
" Le Vieux Fat," and " Le Jeune Homme 
a TEpreuve." 

May 10, 1833 










Angeratein^ Jolm Jnlius. Patron of the 
fine arts. His collection of paintings was 
pnrcliased by the English govemmenfc for 
£60,000, and formed the nneleus of the 
National GFaUery. 

Anglesey, Heniy William Paget, Marquis 
of, K.a. Eldest son of the first Earl of 
Uxbridge. He served in Flanders, and in 
1799 accompanied the Dnke- of x ork in 
the expedition to Holland at the head of 
the cavalry. From 1808 to 1809 he com- 
manded two brigades of cavalry in the 
Peninsula, aad on his return was diected . 
M.P. for Melbourne Port. On the death 
of his father in 1812, he was removed to 
the House of Lords as Earl of Uxbridge. 
In 1815 he proceedied to Belgium in com- 
mand of the cavalry, and in the battle of 
Waterloo received a severe wound in his 
leg,, which necessitated amputadon. He 
was created Marquis of Anglesey for his 
services soon afterwards. In 182/ !!«■ wus 
appointed master-general of the ordnance. 
Ph)m 1828-9 and 1830-3 he- acted as 
viceroy of Ireland.. In 184«6 he- was pro- 
moted to the rank of field-marshal, and 
again became master-general of the ord- 
nance, which office he held till 1852. 
His politics were those of an advanced 

Angouleme^ Marie Theresa C harlo tte, 
Duchesse d'. Dax^hter of Louis it VI. of 

Anquetil du Perron, Abraham Hyacinthe. 
French oriental scholar. Translator of 
the Zend-Avesta, or sacred books of the 

Anquetil du Perron, Louis Pierre. Brother 
of the above ; a celebrated historian. 
Author- of " L'Histoire de France," 
*• Precis dfe FHistoire universelle," &c. 

Anspach, Elizabeth, Margravine of. 
Youngest daughter of Augustus, Earl of 


Jan. 22, 1822 

Apr. 29, 1854 

Oct. 19, 1851 

Jan. 17, 1805 

Sep. 6, 1808 

Jan. 13, 1828 



Berkeley. At the death of her first hus- 
band, the Earl of Craven, she married the 
Margrave of Anspach, and became one of 
the leaders of fashionable dissipation in 
London. At the death of the Margrave 
in 1806 she retired to Naples. 

Anstey^ Christopher. An English poet of 
some pretensions to wit and satire. Author 
of " The Kew Bath Guide." 

Antoinette. See Marie. 

Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d\ 
Celebrated French geographer. He was 
first geographer to the King of France, 
and author of numerous geographical 
works. Among his best are "Analyse 
Geographique de T Italic," " Me moire sur 
TEgypte, Ancienne et Modeme," " Orbis 
Veteribus Notus," and "Orbis RomanusJ' 
He published also 211 maps, aU dis- 
tinguished for their great accuracy* 

Appiano^ Andrea* Eminent Milanese 
fresco painter, and appointed first painter 
to Napoleon. His great work is the 
series of frescoes in the royal palace of 

Arago, Francis Jean Dominique. French 
astronomer. In 1809 he was elected 
member of the French Academy of 
Sciences, and about the same time pro- 
fessor of TEcole Polytechnique at Paris. 
Director of the Observatory of the Bureau 
des Longitudes in 1830, and soon after 
perpetual secretary of the Academy of 
Sciences. In 1848 he became a mem- 
ber of the provisional government, and 
Minister of War and Marine. His 
brilliant discoveries ranked him among 
the greatest scientific geniuses of the 
age. The subjects in which he gained 
the highest distinction are, magnetic and 
rotary polarization, magnetism by the 
action of currenta, and magnetism by 



Jan. 28, 1782 


Oct. 2, 1863 












rotation. To him we owe the polaris- 
cope. He conducted the " Ammaire des 
Longitudes," and the "Recueil des An- 
nales de Physique et de Chimie." 

Aranjo d'Azevedo, Antonio, Count of 
Barca. Portuguese statesman, who was 
successively ambassador at the Hague, at 
St. Petersburg, and Minister of Foreign 
Affairs and of War. 

Arkwright, Sir Richard. Bom at Preston 
in Lancashire. Inventor of the spinning 
jenny, which has so greatly increased our 
cotton manufactures. He was knighted by 
Geo. IIL 

Armstrong, John, M.D. English physician 
and medical writer. Celebrated for his 
researches concerning the phenomena of 
febrile diseases. 

Ame, Dr. Thomas Augustin. English 
musical composer. He composed the opera 
of "Artaxerxes," and several glees. 

Aminrii Ludwig Achim von. German poet 
and romance writer. 

Arnold, Samuel. English doctor of music. 
He wrote several oratorios, operas, &c., 
" The Maid of the Mill," &c, 

Arnold, Rev. Thos., D.D. Head master of 
Rugby school, and Professor of Modem 
History in the University of Oxford. Li 
1828 ne was elected ' head master of 
Rugby school, and entered upon his career 
of a benevolent, ardent, and enlightened 
instructor. He gained the universal 
respect and deep affection of all in- 
trusted to his care. In 1885 he accepted 
a fellowship in the new London Uni- 
versity ; but in 1838 retired, on account 
of some difference between the members 
upon the principle of voluntary examina- 
tions, la 1841 Lord Melbourne ap- 



Aug. 8, 1792 

Dec. 12, 1829, 

Mar. 5, 1778 

Jan. 21, 1831 

Oct 22, 1802 

Jan. 12, 1842 





pointed him Regius Professor of Modem 
History at Oxford, but lie lived only to 
deliver his introductory course of lectures. 
His writings consist of a Roman history, 
an edition of Thucydides, a volume of 
lectures on modem history, several 
volumes of sermons, and other contribu- 
tions of a miscellaneous kind to reviews 
and other periodicals. 

1750 I Arrowsmith, Aaron. English geographer 
and hydrographer. He designed nume- 
rous maps and charts. 

1724 Ash^ John, LL.D. An English dissenting 
divine, and author of a dictionary of the 
EngHsh language. 

Ashburton^ Lord. See Dunning. 

Ashburton, Alex. Baring, Lord. Second 
son of Sir Francis Baring, Bart. M.P. 
for Taunton from 1812 to 1820; after 
which he sat for Callington till 1831, and 
in 1832 was returned for North Essex. 
President of the Board of Trade in 1834, 
on the formation of the Peel ministry, 
and in the following year raised to the 
peerage. In 1842 he, as special commis- 
sioner, proceeded to America, and amicably 
settled the Oregon boundary question with 
the United States, and which settlement 
is known by the name of the "Ashburton 
Treaty.*' He continued to support Sir 
Robert Peel in the House of Lords until 
that statesman brought forward his mea- 
sure for repealing the com laws. To this 
measure Ashburton gave a decided opposi- 
tion, and after it had passed into law, he 
intermeddled very little with politics. 

1687 Assemani, Joseph Simon. Syrian oriental 
scholar, and librarian of the Vatican at 
Rome. Author of " Bibliotheca Orientalis 
Glementino Vaticana." 


Apr. 23, 1823 

Mar. 10, 1779 

May 12, 1848 

Jan. 13, 1768 






1735 Astle, Thomas. English antiquary and 
arohiBologist. Keeper of the PubHc Re- 
cords in the Tower. Author of the 
" Origin and Progress of Writing." 

1745 Attwood, George. An eminent English 
mathematician. Author of " A Disserta- 
tion on the Construction and Properties 
of Arches," Ac. 

1767 Attwood, Thomas. English musician and 
composer. Organist of St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and composer to the Chapel Bojal. 
His pieces consist of various anthems and 
services, songs, glees, Ac. 



Auchmuty, Sir Samuel. A distinguished 
English general officer, who served in 
North and South America, and in India. 
He annexed the settlements of Java 
and Batavia to Great Britain, and on 
his return to Europe commanded in Ire- 

Auckland, William Eden, Lord. Ambas- 
sador and writer. Son of Sir "Robert 
Eden, Bart. Under Secretary of State 
in 1772; Chief Secretary of Ireland in 
1780 ; ambassador to Spain in 1788 ; and 
in the year following transferred to 
Holland. He was raised to the peerage 
in 1793. Author of " The Principles of 
Penal Law," " The History of New Hoi- 
land," &c. 

Auckland, George Eden, Earl of. Son of 
the above. M.P. for Woodstock in 1810 ; 
succeeded his father in the peerage 
the year following. President of the 
Board of Trade, with a seat in Earl Grey's 
Cabinet, in 1830, and in 1834 First Lord 
of the Admiralty. Governor-General of 
India from 1835-1842. He was raised 
to the rank of an Earl in 1839. In 1846, 
on his return from India, he resumed his I 

Dee. 1, 180Si 

Jnlj 4, 1807 

Mat. 24, 1838 

Aug. 11, 1822 

May 28, 1814 

Jan. 1, 1849 






post at the Admiralty. His politics were 
Whig. . 

Audnbon^ John James. American natu- 
ralist. Anthor of *' Birds of America," 
" The Quadrupeds of America." 

Augereau, Pierre Fran9ois Charles, Duke 
of Castiglione, Marshal of France. In 
1792 he volunteered into the revolutionary- 
army of his country, and rapidly distin- 
guished himself. At the bridge of Lodi 
he headed his brigade, and at Castiglione 
covered himself with glory, and had the 
title of duke conferred on him. The 
cowp d^kiat^ planned by Barras, was en- 
trusted to his execution, and carried out 
with perfect success. For this service he 
had the command of the army on the 
German frontier given. him; but on ac- 
count of the violence of his revolutionary 
principles, he was deprived of it and re- 
moved to Perpignan. In the campaign 
of Marengo he had the command of a 
division, and in 1805 was created a mar- 
shal. In 1806 he fought at Jena, and at 
Eylau commanded the left of the French. 
In 1809 and 1810 he commanded in Spain. 
In 1812, when Napoleon set out for Russia, 
he was left behind to form a corps of 
reserve at Berlin. In 1814 he was ap- 
pointed to defend the south-east of France 
against the Austrians, but gave way before 
superior numbers. On the fall of Napoleon 
Augereau made his peace with the Bour- 
bons, and was created a peer. 

Augusta, Princess. Daughter of Geo. III. 

Augustus, Frederick. Duke of Sussex. 
Son of Geo. IIL 

Austen^ Jane. English novelist. Author 
of " Sense and Sensibility," "Pride and 
Prejudice,'* &c. 

Ayloffe, Sir Joseph. English antiquary. 


Jan. 27, 1851 

Jun. 12, 1816 

Sep. 22, 1840 
Apr. 21, 1848 

Jul. 24, 1817 
Apr. 19, 1781 




and keeper of the state papers. Author 
of " Calendar of the Ancient Charters." 

1745 AsTSOOnghy KeT. Samuel. English writer. 
He compiled a variety of Indexes, of 
which his Index to Shakespeare is the 

1813 Aytoun, William Edmonstoune, D.C.L. 
Scottish poet and miscellaneous writer. 
Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in 
the University of Edinburgh. Author of 
" Lays of the Scottish CavaUers," " Both- 
well," &o, 

1800 AzegliOj Massimo Tapparelli. Italian states- 
man and writer. He was an ardent advo- 
cate of Italian national unity, and after 
the revolution of 1848 became president 
of the council from 1849-52. 

1764 Babeuf^ Francis Noel. French writer, who 
ardently supported the principles of the 
French revolution. Conductor of an in- 
cendiary journal, called " The Tribune of 
the People." He was condemned for con- 
spiracy and guillotined. 

1756 Babington, William. English physician, 
mineralogist, and chemical lecturer at 
Guy's Hospital, London. Founder of the 
Geological Society of London. 

1777 Bacciochi; Marie Anne Elise Buonaparte. 
Eldest sister of Napoleon I. Married 
M. Bacciochi in 1797. In 1805 Napoleon 
gave her the principality of Piombino, 
and soon after that of Lucca. In 1808 
she became Grand Duchess of Tuscany, 
but at the fall of her brother she was 
forced to retire from her states. 

1740 Bacon> John. English sculptor. B.A. in 
1778. His chief works are a bust of 
Geo. ni., and the monuments of Lord 
Chatham, Howard, and Dr. Johnson. 

1766 Badia y Leblich^ Domingo. Better known 


Oct. 30, 1804 

Aag. 4, 1865 

Jan. 11, 1866 

May 27, 1797 

Apr. 29, 1833 

Aug. 7, 1820 

Aug. 7, 1799 

Aug. 80, iai8 



as Ali Bey. He was a Spamsh traveller, 
who conceiyed the project of fomiding an 
EiiropeaiL colony between Morocco and 
Algiers. Disguised as a Mussxdnian, he 
visited Tripoli, Egypt, and Mecca, and 
Syria, and was everywhere received as a 
trae believer. He was afterwards em- 
ployed as a political agent by Grodoy, Prince 
of Peace, at the instigation of Buonaparte. 
On the fall of Napoleon, he was encouraged 
to pursue his plans of the African settle- 
ment by Louis AVlIL, but died whilst 
accompanying the caravaa from Syria to 

Bagoty Lewis. Bishop of St. Asaph. 
Author of " Sermons on the Prophecies." 

Bagration, Prince Peter Ivanovitch. 
Russian general. Served under Suwar- 
row in the campaigns in Poland and 
Italy. Commanded the vanguard of the 
allied Austrian and Russian army at the 
battles of Austerlitz, Eylau, and Fried- 
land. In 1807 he served in the campaign 
in Finland, and was mainly instrumental 
in detaching from Sweden a large poison 
of Finland. He afberwards had the com- 
mand of the Russian army in Turkey ; 
and in 1812, when Napoleon invaded 
Russia, was appointed to the western 
army, and made a masterly retreat on 
Smolensko, where he joined his forces 
with those of Barclay de Tolly. After the 
battle there, he commanded the left wing 
at Borodino, where he was struck by a 
shell, of which wound he shortly after 
died at Semsa. 

Baillie^ Colonel John. A distinguished 
British officer, Persian scholar, director 
of the East India Company, and adminis- 
trator of Indian affairs, who served for 
many years in India in almost all capa- 
cities, dvil and militaiy. M.P. for Hey» 


Juu 4, 1802 

Sep. 24, 1812 

Apr. 20, 1833 

B B 











don from 1820-30, and for the Inverness 
barghs from 1830 till his death. 

Bailly, Jean Sylvain. French astronomer, 
and mayor of Paris at the commencement 
of the French revolution. On the trinmph 
of the Jacobins in 1793, he was arrested 
and guillotined. Author of a History of 
Astronomy and other scientific works. 

BaiUy, Edmond Louis Barthelemy. French 
politician. He mainly contributed to the 
revolution of the 18th Brumaire, which 
gave the chief power to Napoleon, by 
whom he was appointed prefect of the 

Bally, Francis. English mathematician and 
astronomer. He was one of the founders 
of the Astronomical Society, and among 
the fruits of his exertions were the im- 
provement of the Nautical Almanack, the 
Astronomical Society's Catalogue of Stars, 
&c, '* Baily's Beads," a peculiar appear- 
ance sometimes visible during the period 
of an eclipse, take their name from this 

Baines, Edward. M.P. for Leeds from 
1833-1840. Proprietor and editor of 
the Leeds Mercury. Author of " History 
of the Eeign of George III," and " The 
County Palatin of Lancaster." 

Baird, General Sir David. British general. 
Served in the East Indies, and was 
engaged in the storming of Seringapatam, 
and the siege of Pondicherry. In 1801 
he assisted the British army in Egypt, 
and in 1805 commanded the expedition 
which took the Cape of Good Hope 
from the Dutch. At the death of Sir 
John Moore, at Corunna, the command 
devolved upon General Baird, and for his 
gallantry on this occasion he was created 
a baronet. 

Balmez^ James Lucian. Spanish ecde- 

NoY. 12,1798! 

Jnl. 10, 1819 

Aug. 30, 1844 

Aug. 8, 1848 

Aug. 18, 1829 i 

Jul. 9, 18481 



siastic. Author of various political, theo- 
logical, and philosophical writings. His 
great work is "Protestantism and Cath- 
olicism compared in their Effects on the 
Civilization of Europe." 

Balzac, Honor6 de. French novelist. 
Author of "Le Pere Groriot,'* "La Peau 
de Chagrin," " La Physiologic de Mari- 
age,*' and numerous other works. His 
object was to make all his productions 
embrace every phase of society, under the 
title of the " Comedie Humaine." 

BankS; Sir Joseph. English naturalist and 
traveller. He accompanied Captain Cook 
on his first voyage as naturalist, and after- 
wards visited Iceland. In 1777 he was 
elected president of the Royal Society, 
and soon afberwards created a baronet. 

Banks^ Thomas. English sculptor. Among 
his finest works are the bas-relief of 
" Caractacus before Claudius," " The 
Mourning Achilles," " Psyche," &c. 

Barbacena Fehaberto^ Caldeira Brunt, 
Marquis of. Brazilian statesman and 
soldier. He was chosen by Don Pedro, 
the prince-regent (afterwards emperor), 
to negotiate with Portugal the indepen- 
dence of Brazil ; and, by the mediation of 
England and Austria, a treaty was signed 
at Rio Janeiro, on Aug. 27, 1823, which 
secured the separation of the two crowns 
of Portugal and Brazil. He was after- 
wards employed to accompany the young 
Queen of Portugal to Europe, and subse- 
quently became finance minister of Brazil, 
and by his talents contributed greatly to 
the progress of his country. 

Barbaroux, Charles Jean Marie. French 
politician and scientific writer. He took a 
leading part in the French revolution, as 
a member of the National Convention, 
against Robespierre. 


Aug. 18, 1850 

Jun. 19, 182:0 

Feb. 2, 1805 

Jun. 10, 1842 

Jun. 25, 1794 

B B 2 











Barbie dn Bocage, Jean Denis. French 
geographer, and one of the fdonders of 
the Paris Geographical Society. 

Barclay, John. Scotch divine, and founder 
of a sect called Bereans, or BarclayanB, 
which has altogether died out. 

Barclay de Tolly. A Russian general, 
who served in the German and Polish 
campaigns of 1806-7, and became field- 
marshal. He was afterwards appointed 
commander-in-chief, and headed the 
Russians at the battle of Leipsic. The 
title of prince was subsequently conferred 
on him. 

Barere de Vienzao, Bertrand. French 
revolutionist, and a noted member of the 
" Committee of Public Safety." He was 
the most pliant, and at the same time the 
most blood-stained, of all the actors in the 
horrors of the great revolution. 

Barettii Joseph. Italian writer and lexico- 

Barham, Rev. Richard Harris. Rector of 
St. Augustine's and St. Faith, London, 
known to the world by his literary name 
of Thomas Ingoldsby. His ^'Ingoldsby 
Legends " were first contributed to 
"Bentley's Miscellany," and afterwards 
collected into volumes. For many years 
he was a contributor to "Blackwood's 
Magazine," and other periodicals ; and was 
the author of the popular novel entitled 
" My Cousin Nicholas." 

Barlow, Joel. American diplomatiBt, poet, 
and miscellaneous writer. Minister pleni- 
potentiary to the Court of France in 1812. 
Author of the " Columbiad," Ac. 

Bamave, Antoine Pierre Joseph. French 
statesman, and one of the most popular 
members of the National Assembly. In 
1780 he was elected President of the Con- 
stituent Assembly, but soon afterwards he 


Dec, 28, 181 

JuL 29, 171 

Uas 25, 18] 

Jan. 15, li 

May 5, 1789 
Jniu 17, 18« 

Dec 26, 1812 

Nov, 80, 1793 



clianged his poHtical principles, and was 
guillotined as a royalist by the Robespierre 

Barney, Joshna. American naval com- 
mander, who greatly distinguished himself 
in the war of independence, and in 1818 
commanded the flotilla for the defence of 
Chesapeake Bay, and was taken prisoner 
by the English. 

Barras, Panl Francois Jean Nicolas. 
French revolutionist, and one of the five 
members of the French Directory. In 
1792 he was elected a member of the 
National Convention, and voted for the 
unconditional death of Louis XVI. He 
was sent, in 1793, to the south of France, 
and commanded the left wing of the 
besieging army at Toulon. Robespierre, 
however, was no friend of his, and often 
wished to arrest him : Barra's, knowing 
this, became one of the principal actors 
of the 9th Thermidor, and put himself at 
the head of the troops which surrounded 
Robespierre at the Hotel de Ville. In 
1794 he was named one of the " Committee 
of General Security," and became a great 
enemy to the members of the Mountain 
party. In Feb., 1795, he was elected presi- 
dent of the Convention, and, in that capa- 
city, declared Paris in a state of siege, when 
the assembly was attacked by the populace. 
For his services, Barras was now named 
one of the Directory, and took a pro- 
minent part in the changes which that 
body underwent until Napoleon's coup 
d'etat of the 18th Brumaire, which effec- 
tually overthrew the power of Barras and 
his colleagues. 

Barrett, George. Landscape painter, and 
one of the founders of the English Royal 

Barrington, William Wildman, Viscount. 
Son of the first Lord Barrington. M.P. I 


Dec. 1, 1818 











; 1795 



for Berwick in 1739. One of the Com- 
missioners of the Admiral^ in 1745. 
M.P. for Plymouth in 1754. Secretary at 
War in 1/55. Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer in 1761 ; and again Secretary at 
War in 1765. 

Banington, Hon. Daines. Fourth son of 
the first Lord Barring^ton. Jurist, natura- 
list, and antiquary. Author of " Observa- 
tions on the Statutes," and " Miscellanies." 

Banington, Hon. Shute. Brother of the 
above. Bishop of Durham from 1791 to 

Barrow, Sir John. Writer of travels. He 
accompanied Lord Macartney in his ex- 
peditions to China in 1792, and the Cape 
of Good Hope in 1797. In 1804 he was 
appointed Secretary to the Admiralty, 
which office he held till his retirement in 
1845, excepting the few months in 1806-7 
during the Whig administration. He was 
created a baronet in 1835. Author of 
" Travels in China," " Travels in Southern 
Africa," his own autobiography, and 
numerous articles on miscellaneous sub- 
jects in various reviews. 

Barry, Sir Charles. Architect of the 
Houses of Parliament, the new palace of 
Westminster, Reform and Travellers' club- 
houses, &c. He was knighted in 1852. 

Barry, James, B.A. English painter and 
professor of painting in the Royal 
Academy. His chief work is the series 
of pictures painted in the Adelphi, to 
illustrate the progress of civilization. 

Barry, Marie Jeanne, Comtesse du. Mis- 
tress of Louis XV. of France. Her 
influence was all-powerful during his 
reign. At the death of her royal lover 
she was placed in a convent, and was 
condemned to death by the revolutionary 


Mar. 11, 18C 

Mar. 27, 18261 

Not. 23, 184S 

May 12, 1860 

Feb. 22, 1806 

Nov. 6, 1793 










tribunal, for her sympathy towards Louis 
XYI. and his family. 

Barry, Martin. EngUsh P^3^o»«P«*. ^^o 
particularly distinguished himself by his 

iavestigations into animal development 

and embryology. 

Barth, Heinrich. A distinguished German 
traveller, who explored Central Africa, 
and wrote "Travels and Discoveries in 
Korth and Central Africa." 

Bartholdy, Jacob Solomon. Prussian di- 
plomatist. In 1815 he was appointed 
Prussian Consul-G-eneral at Rome, and 
afterwards filled missions at Florence and 
Naples, and again at Home. 

Bartolozzi^ Francisco. Florentine engraver 
and designer. Member of the English 
Royal Academy in 1769. His best en- 
gravings are " Clytie," " Prometheus," 
" Death of Chatham," Ac. 

Basevi, George. English architect, who 
designed the Conservative Club in St. 
James's Street, the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge, Belgrave Square, &c. 

Bass^ George. English surgeon of H.M.S. 
Beliance. The discoverer of the straits 
between Australia and Tasmania. 

BassanO; Hngues Bernard Maret, Due de. 
French statesman. He enthusiastically 
embraced the principles of the Revolution, 
and was made editor of the Mbnitettr, 
On the establishment of the Consulate he 
was appointed secretary to the Council 
of State, and was subsequently private 
secretary to Napoleon. In 1811 he was 
created Due de Bassano, and Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. On the overthrow of 
Napoleon he was banished from France, 
but at the revolution of 1830 he was re- 
called and restored to all his honours. 
In 1888 he was appointed Minister of the 
Interior and President of the Council. 


Apr. 27, 1856 

Nov. 26, 1866 

JaL 26, 1826 


Oct. 16, 1846 


May 18, 1839 


vtoe^njLpmdAts tiioteu. 








Bassi, Laura Maria Gatarina. A learned 
Italian lady, famed for her knowledge in 
philosophy, mathematics, and literature. 
Mer singular talents procured her a pro- 
fessor's cnair at Bologna, and the title of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 

Bastiat, Frederic. French economist and 
advocate of fifee trade. Author bf " Soph- 
ismes Economiques" and "Harmonies 
Economiques." He was a member of the 
Legislative Assembly after the revolution 
of 1848. 

Bath, i^^e Pulteney* 

Bathtmit, Allen, First Earl. English ^tes- 
man, who zealously opposed the measures 
of Sir Eobert Walpole. In 1742 he was 
admitted at the Privy Council. In 1757 
appointed Treasurer to the Prince of 
Wales, and created EarlBathurst in 1772. 

Bathtirst, Henry, Second Earl. Son of the 
above. Lord Chancellor in 1771. Author 
of the " Theory of Evidence." 

Batoni| Pompeo Girolamo. Italian painter, 
and regarded as the restorer of the Roman 
School. His best work is " Simon, the 
Sorcerer, contending with St. Peter." 

Batthyani^ Count Louis. Hungarian states- 
man, distinguished for his devotion to the 
cause of Hungary. He was a member of 
the first responsible cabinet of Hungary in 
1848, and did all he could to avert civil 
war. On the invasion of his country by 
the Ban of Croatia he entered the ranks 
of the National Guard, but was compelled 
to retire from the field, owing to a fall 
from, his horse. He was afterwards 
arrested and executed for high treason. 
His death caused the greatest horror and 
indignation throughout Europe. 

Baur^ Ferdinand Christian. A German 
theologian and Biblical critic. Proi^ssor 
of theology at Tubingen, and leader of the 

Feb. 20, 1778 

Dee. H ISA) 

Sep. H 1775 

... im 

P«i. 4, 1787; 

Oct 6, 1849 


AiooiUphical notes. 









Tubingen scliool of rationalist divines. 
Aniihor of various works, among which 
maybe mentioned "The Glu-istian Gnosis,'* 
"Chritical Researches respecting the Ca- 
nonical Gt)Bpels,'' &o. 

Beattie^ James. Scottish poet. Author of 
" The Minstrel," a poem. His chief prose 
work is " An Essay on Truth,'* an attempt 
to reftite the doctrines of Hume. Beattie 
was Professor of Moral Philosophy and 
Logic at Aberdeen. 


Aiig. 18, 1808 

\y Eugene de. Son of Josephine, 
the first wife of iTapoleon I.,andof Vicomte 
Alexander de Beauhamais. He early 
entered the army, and fought in the cam- 
paigns of Italy. When Napoleon assumed 
the emperorship, he was created a prince, 
and in 1806 was appointed viceroy of the 
kingdom of Italy. In the following year he 
was adopted by Kapoleon, and married to 
the daughter of ^e King of Bavaria. 
When, in 1809, the war between Austria 
and France broke out, he was placed in com- 
mand of the French and Italian army. He 
accompanied the Emperor in the Russian 
campaign of 1812, and during the retreat 
took the chief command* He adhered to 
Napoleon so long as fortune lent a ray of 
hope, but, on the final ruin of his patron, 
he retired with his family to Bavaria, and 
during the remainder of his life lived 
principally at Munich, with the title of 
Prince of Leuchtenberg. 

Beauhamais^ Eugenie de. Sister of the 
above, and Queen of Holland. Married to 
Louis Buonaparte in 1802. The present 
Emperor of the French is one of her sons. 

BeanmarcliaiSj Pierre Augustin Caron de. 
French writer and dramatist. Author of 
the comedies, "The Barber of Seville," 
" The Marriage of Figaro," Ac. 

Beaumont^ Sir George Howland, Bart. 

Feb. 22, 1824 

Oct. 5, 1837 

May 19, 1779 

Feb. 7, 1827 







Amateur painter and patron of the fine 

1738 Beccaria, Cesare Bonesana, Marqnis of. 
Italian political philosopher. Author of a 
" Treatise on Crimes and Punishments," a 
work which met with the most manrel- 
lous success. 

Beckfordy William. Mayor of London. 
Author of " Vathek," Ac. 

Bedford, John Eussell, sixth Duke of, K.a. 
Patron of the fine arts, and of all branches 
of social industry. 

Beecheyj, Sir William, R.A. English por- 
trait painter. 

Beechey, Frederick William, Bear AdmiraJ. 
Son of the above. Arctic navigator. In 
1818-9, he took part in the great Arctic 
expedition under Sir John Franklin and 
Sir Edward Parry. From 1826-8, he was 
again engaged in another Polar expedi- 
tion ; and from 1837-47, in surveying the 
Bristol and Irish channels. He was after- 
wards appointed to superintend the Marine 
Department of the Board of Trade. In 
1854 he was promoted to the rank of rear- 
admiral, and in 1855 elected President of 
the Geographical Society. 

1770 Beethoven, Lud wig von. German musical 
composer. His works are very numerous; 
among the most celebrated are the opera 
of "Fidelio,'* the cantata "Adelaide," 
" Sinfonia Eroica," " Sinfonia Pastorale," 
" Sonata with Futieral March," &c. 

1753 Bell, Andrew, D.D« English divine, and 
the projector and founder of national 

1774 , Bell, Sir Charles. Anatomist and Professor 
of Surgery in Edinburgh University. 
Celebrated for his discoveries in connection 
with the nervous system. Author of a 
Treatise on the Hand. Eaiighted by 
WiUiam lY. 


••Ai ! 

Not. 28, 17W 

May 2, 1844 
Oct 20, 1889 

Jan. 28, 1889 
Not. 29, 1856] 

Mar. 26, 1827 

Jan. 27,1882 

Apr. 27, 1842, 










Bell, Henty. Scotcli engineer. He was 
the first wlio applied steam to the pur- 
poses of navigation in Europe. 

Belly John. Scotch physician and traveller. 
Author of *' Travels in Asia." 

Belliardi Augustin Daniel, Connt de. 
French general and diplomatist. Served 
with Napoleon in all his campaigns, and 
greatlj distinguished himself at the bat- 
tles of Moskwa and LeipsLc. After Napo- 
leon's abdication, he was created a peer 
of France, and rose to the rank of major 
general of the army under the Due de 
BerrL At the ftccession of Louis Philippe 
he was ambassador at BerHn, and after- 
wards, dariug his embassy to Brussels, 
greatly contributed to the formation of the 
new Belgian government. 

Bellini, Yincenzo. Italian musical com- 
poser. Author of the operas "La Son- 
nambula," "Norma," "I Puritani," &c. 

Bellot, Joseph BenL French naval officer, 
and Aietic explorer* 

Belzoni, Giovanni Battista. Italian tra- 
veller, whose Egyptian explorations have 
been of great value to those engaged in 
the study of antiquities. 

Bem^ Joseph. Polish general, and Turkish 
pasha. In 1830 he took part in the Polish 
insurrection, and in 1848 joined the Hun- 
fi^arian army, and was defeated at Temes- 
^. Seeking »%e in Tnrkey, he was 
raised by Abdul Medjid to the dignity of 

Bentham, Jeremy. English jurist and po- 
litical philosopher. Finding, in a pam- 
phlet of Dr. Priestly, the phrase "the 
greatest happiness of the greatest num- 
ber," he saw delineated, for the first time, 
"a plain as well as a true standard of 
whatever is right or wrong, useful, useless, 
or mischievous in human conduct, whether 
in the field of morals or politics.*' From 


Not. 14, 1830 

July 1, 1780 
Jan. 28, 1882 

Sep. 23, 1835 

Aug. 18, 1853 
Dec. 3, 1823 

Dec. 10, 1850 

June 6, 1832 









this his whole life took its direction, and 
he laboured long and continnally for what 
he oonceiyed to' be the happiness of his 
species. His principal works are his 
" Introduction to the Principles of Morals 
and Legislation," a '* FraCTient on Gk>- 
vemment," a "Book of Fallacies," the 
"Rationale of Judicial Evidenoe," the 
" Plan of a Judicial Establishment," and 
his " Panopticon," a work on prison dis- 
cipline. He produced many other books, 
and, in the words of Sir James Mackin- 
tosh, "has done more than any other 
writer to rouse the spirit of juridical re- 
formation, which is now gradually exa- 
mining every part of law: and, wh^i 
further progress is faciHtated by digesting 
the present laws, will doubtless proceed 
to the improvement of all. Grreater praise 
it is given to few to earn." 

Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish. Third 
Duke of Portland. English statesman. 
Lord Lieutenant in Lreland in 1782; 
Home Secretary from 1794-1801 ; Prime 
Minister in 1807. 

Bentinck^ Lord William. Son of the 
above. Governor-General of India. 

Bentinck, Lord George. Son of the fourth 
Duke of Portland. M.P. for King's Lynn 
from 1828-1848. He was a supporter 
of Sir Robert Peel up to 1846, but when 
that statesman repealed the com laws he 
became one of his greatest opponents, and 
leader of the "Protectionist" party. 

Benyowsky^ Maurice Augustus, Count. 
Hungarian adventurer, who founded a 
colony at Madagascar, and in 1776 was 
made king of that island by the abori- 
gines. He was killed in an action with 
the French. 

B^ranger, Jean Pierre de. French, lyric 
poet. In 1848 he was elected to the 
Constituent Assembly, but soon resigned. 


Oct. 80, 1809 

Jan. 17, 

Sep, 21, 1848 

May 23, 1786 

Jul 17, 1857 







Author of nimierons songs, and his auto- 

Beresford, William Carr, Viscount, G.C.B. 
British general officer. Served in Egypt, 
and at l£e conquest of the Cape in 1805. 
In 1808 he joined the British army in Por- 
tugal, as major-general, and in 1809 com- 
manded the Portuguese troops, with the 
rank of marshal. From 1809—1814 his 
achievements are part of the history of 
the period, the greatest of them being his 
victory aver Soult at Albuera. He was 
raised to the peerage in 1814, and to the 
rank of Viscount in 1822. He became 
Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828, 
under the Duke of Wellington. At the 
time of his death he was Governor of 

Bergmann, Tobem Olof. Swedish che* 
mist. He proved the acid properties of 
carbonic acid, discovered oxalic acid, and 
was one of the first to mak^ phemical 
analyses of mineral bodies. 

Bemadotte — Charles XIV. French gene- 
ral, and afterwards King of Sweden. 
He enlisted in the French army in 1780, 
and in 1793 was raised to the rank pf 
general. He served under Napoleon ia 
his campaigns, and on the establishment 
of the Consulate was created PrincQ of 
Ponte Corvo. In 1810 he accepted the 
governor - generalship of the Boman 
States* By this time Gustavus IV., King 
of Sweden, had, on account of incapaciiy, 
been forced to abdicate his crown, and he 
and his descendants were, by the Swedish 
States, declared excluded from the throne 
for ever. The uncle of this sovereign 
assumed the reigns of government as 
Charles XIII., but was childless ; and the 
States chose Augustus of Holstein-Au- 
gustenburg to be heir to the throne. 
This prince, however, died in 1810, and 


Jan, 8« 1854 

Jul. 8, 1784 

Mar. 8, 1844 










Charles XIII. proposed Bemadotte to tlie 
Swedish Diet, as a proper person to be 
appointed Prince Royal of Sweden. The 
choice was nnanimously approved, on 
condition of his accepting the Commu- 
nion of Angsbnrg, which he did. In de- 
fence of the rights of the country of his 
adoption, he was soon called upon to take 
up arms against Napoleon, and from 1812 
to the fall of that great man, he was ac- 
tiyelj engaged in the principal wars and 
events which occupied the attention of 
continental Europe. In 1814 Sweden and 
Norway were united under Charles XIII., 
and Bemadotte approved as the Prince 
Royal. In 1818 Charles XIII. died, when 
Bemadotte was proclaimed King of 
Norway and Sweden, under the tiUe of 
Charles XIV. 
Bernard, Simon. General oi the Engineers 
of France, and for some time French 
Minister of War. 

Bemis, Fran9ois Joachim de Pierres. 
French cardinal, diplomatist, and poet. 
Ambassador to the Pope, with the ti^e of 
Protector of the French Church at Rome. 

Bemstorf, Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count. 

Danish statesman. Prime Minister of 

Denmark in 1750, under Frederick V. 
Bemstorf, Andreas Peter, Count. Nephew 

of the above. Danish statesman. Prime 

Minister of Denmark in 1769. 

Berri, Charles Ferdinand de Bourbon, Due 
de. Son of Count Artois, afterwards 
Charles X. of France. Married the 
daughter of Ferdinand I., King of Naples. 
Assassinated by Louvel. His son, the 
Comte de Chambord, is the legitimate heir 
to the French throne. 

Berthier, Alexander. One of the marshals 
of Napoleon I. Prince of Neufchatel and 
"Wagram, and vice-constable of France. 
He was the great Mend of Napoleon, and 

Nov. 5, 1889 

Not. 1, 17W , 

Feb. 19, im 

Jan. 21, 1797 

Feb. 18, 1820 , 

JuxL 1, 1815 











was at the head of Ms 
Egypt, and Germany. 

BerthoUet^ Clande Lords, Count. French 
chemist. Author of ** Essai de Statique 
Chimique." He had a large share in the 
reformation of chemical nomenclature. 

Berzelius, James, Baron. Swedish chemist, 
whose investigations have done more to 
lay the foundations of organic chemistry 
than those of any other chemist. 

Bessi^res^ Jean Baptiste. Marshal of 
France and Due d'Istria. He served in 
the campaigns of Italy, Egypt, Spain, 
and in the expedition to Russia. Intimate 
Mend of Napoleon I. 

Beumonyille, Pierre Riel, Count of. French 
marshal. Minister at war in 1793, and 
ambassador at BerHn and Madrid during 
the Consulate. 

Bewick^ Thomas. Wood engraver and 
naturalist. He illustrated various works, 
of which the best known is ** The History 
of Quadrupeds." 

Bezley, Nicholas Vansittart, First Lord. 
English statesman. M.P. for Hastings 
from 1796 to 1802, for Harwich 1802-12, 
and for Old Sarum from 1812 to 1823. 
Lord of the Treasury in 1804, and Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer from 1812-1822. 
He was created, in 1822, Lord Bexley, 
and appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, which office he held till 1828. 

Bickersteth, Edward. English divine, and 
one of the leaders of the Evangelical 
party of the Church. Author of various 
religious works. 

Bickersteth. See Langdale. 

Billaud-Vareiines^ Jacques !N'icolas. French 
revolutionist. He took a leading part in 
the murders and massacres which fol- 
lowed the destruction of th e Ba stille ; 
voted for the death of Louis XYI. ; and 


Nov. 6, 1822 

Aug. 7, 1848 

May 1, 1813 


Nov. 8, 1828 


Feb. 28, 1850 

Jun. 3, 1819 









was President of the Convention, on Oct. 
18, 1793. Exiled to Cayenne. 

Bioty Jean Baptiste. French mathemati'' 
cian and natural philosopher. Discoverer 
of the circular polarization of light. Author 
of various astronomical and mathematical 

Birexii John Ernest de, Duke of Courland. 
Russian statesman. Favourite of Anna, 
Empress of Russia, under whom he was 
prime minister. In 1737 he was elected 
Duke of Courland, and at the death of the 
Empress Anna appointed regent of the 
Empire. In 1740 he was exiled to Siberia 
for the cruelty and iyranny that charac- 
terized his administration. Restored to 
fiivour in 1763. 

Bishop^ Sir Henry Rowley, English mu- 
sical composer. Director of the music of 
Covent Garden Theatre from 1810-1824 
• Soon after the accession of Queen Victoria 
he was knighted, and in 1848 was elected 
Professor of Music at Oxford University. 
Among the best of his numerous works 
are "Guy Mannering," "The Slave," 
" The Virgin of the Sun," " The Barber 
of Seville," and "The Marriage of 

Blacky Joseph. Scotch chemist, and dis- 
coverer of latent heat. 

Blackstone^ Sir William. English judge, 
and author of the well-known " Com- 
mentaries on the Laws of England." En- 
tered at the Middle Temple in 1740, and 
in 1758 appointed Vinerian Professor of 
Common Law at Oxford. King's Counsel 
and M.P. for Hindon in Wilts in 1761, 
and two years later Solicitor-General to 
the Queen. M.P. for Westbuiy in 1768, 
and in 1770 appointed one of tne Judges 
in the Court of King's Bench. 

Blackwood^ Sir Henry. British admiral. 


Ffik 9» 18^ 

Of*, 28, 1772 

Apr. 80, 1855 

Not. 26, 1799 

FeU 14, 1780 

D^ 1882 





Successively Captain of the frigates Bril- 
liant, JPenelopCy and Euryaliis, the latter of 
which was engaged at Trafalgar. In 1806 
he commanded the Ajax, and the following 
year the Warspite, and was constantly 
employed against the French. In 1814 
he was captain of the fleet, and was pro- 
moted to the rank of rear-admiral, and 
created a baronet. In 1819 he became 
commander-in-chief of the naval forces in 
the East Indies, and in 1827 was elevated 
I to the command at Chatham. 

Blair^ Hngh, D.D. Scotch divine* Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh Univer- 
sity in 1762. Author of " Sermons" and 
''Lectures on Bhetoric and Belles Let- 




Blake^ William. English poet, painter, 
and engraver. In his poetry the ideas 
are generally elevated and noble, though 
the versification is often inharmonious. He . 
illustrated his own poems, both the verses 
and the pictures being etched on copper. 
His drawings are sometimes of a singularly 
mystic character, and there is little doubt 
that there was a vein of chronic insanity 
in his mind, for he ultimately came to 
regard his imaginings as a species of 
spiritual realities. He illustrated Young's 
"Night Thoughts," Chaucer's "Canter- 
bury Pilgrims," Blair's " Grave," and 
other works. 

Blessington, Margaret Power, Countess of. 
An Irish lady celebrated for her beauty, 
accomplishments, and literary productions. 
Authoress of " Conversations with Lord 
Byron," Ac. For niany years she edited 
« The Book of Beauty " and " The Keep- 

Blighj William. Captain of the Bounty. 
Governor of New Sputh Wales in 1806 ; 


Dec. 27, 1800 

Aug. 12, 1827 

Jul 5, 1849 

Dec. 1817 



C C 









recalled in 1808 for the severity of his 

Blomfield, Charles James. Bishop of Lon- 
don. Educated at Cambridge. In 1824 he 
was raised to the Episcopal Bench aa 
Bishop of Chester, and in 1828 was trans- 
ferred to the see of London. Distinguished 
for his critical and classical abilities. 
Editor of an edition of the tragedies of 
^schjlns, with commentaries* 

Bloomfield^ Robert. English pastoral poet. 
Author of the " Farmer's Boy,** a didactic 
poem, in which the scenes of rustic labour 
are described* 

Blucher, Lebrecht Yon. Prussian field- 
marshal, whose bravery and boldness 
gained him the appellation of '' Marshal 
Forward.'* Served against the French in 
1793-4, and commanded the cavalry at 
the batiie of Jena. In 1818, when 
Prussia entered into the coalition against 
Napoleon, he was appointed general of the 
centre of the allied army, and greatly 
distinguished himself at the battles of 
Lutzen and Leipsic. He again com- 
manded the Prussian army during the 
hundred Days, and was defeated by 
Kapoleon at Ligny. At the close of the 
battle of Waterloo he appeared and in- 
flicted a terrific slaughter upon the flying 

Blamenbach, Johann Friedrich. Grerman 
naturalist and comparative anatomist. 
Author of "Varieties of the Human 
Race,'* and other scientific works. 

Boissy d'AnglaSi Francois Antoine, Count 
de. French senator and political writer. 
Elected a member of the Convention in 
1792, and President of the Tribunate in 
1803. He took a leading part in all the 
affairs of his country, during the Republic 
and the Empire, and at the Restoration in 
1814 was created a peer* 


Aug. 5, 1857i 

Aug. 19, 1S23 

Sep. 12, 1819 

Jan. 22, 1840 

Oct. 0,1826 



SolivaTi Simon. A South American, and 
the liberator of Bolivia from the Spanish 
yoke. From 1810 to 1821 he was con- 
tinually engaged in endeavouring to es- 
tablish the independence of the newly 
founded Republic, which was at last 
decided by the defeat of the Spanish 
troops at Carabobo, and Bolivar was 
chosen president. In 1823 he succeeded 
in establishing the independence of the 
Peruvians, and was proclaimed liberator 
of Peru. In 1825 he visited Upper Peru, 
which separated itself from the govern- 
ment of Buenos Ayres, and was formed 
into a new Eepublic, named Bolivia, in 
honour of the liberator. His latter years 
were embittered by the jealousy of rival 
factions, and he retired from public life 
in 1830. 

Bonaparte^ Charles. Judge of the island 
of Corsica, and father of Napoleon I. 

Bonaparte^ Joseph. Eldest son of the 
above. King of iTaples from 1806 to 
1808, when he was transferred to the 
throne of Spain, and was nominally king 
till 1813. Afterwards he retired to the 
United States, as Count of Survillers, 
then to England, and finally to Florence. 

Bonaparte^ Napoleon. ^8ee Napoleon. 

Bonaparte^ Lucien. Brother of the above. 
President of the Council of the Five 
Hundred in 1799. Created Prince of 
Canino in 1804. In 1810 he was taken 
prisoner by the English and detained in 
Ludlow, Shropshire, for three years. 
After 1814 he retired to Italy. This was 
the brother whom Napoleon was unable 
to mould to his purposes, being met in all 
his demands on Lucien by a haughtiness 
and intelligence equal tp his own. 

Bonaparte^ Maria Anne Eliza. Bee 


Deo. 17, 1880 

Feb. 24, 1785 
Jul. 28, 1844 

Jun. 29, 1840 

Aug. 7, 1620 

c c 2 










Bonaparte, Lotus Napoleon. Brother of 
the above, and father of the present 
Emperor of the French. Elected King 
of Holland in 1806, and reigned over the 
Dntch four years. He retired to Italy in 

Bonaparte^ Caroline Maria A. Sister of 
Napoleon I. Married in 1800 Joachim. 
Murat, afterwards King of Naples, and 
had issne Lucien Napoleon Mnrat, better 
known as Prince Mnrat. 

Bonaparte, Jerome. Yonngest brother of 
Napoleon I. He married first a Miss 
Patterson, daughter of a Baltimore 
merchant, which marriage was afterwards 
dissolved, and in 1807 the Princess 
Catherine of Wnrtembnrg, and in a few- 
days after became Elng of Westphalia, 
and reigned till 1813. After the fall of 
Napoleon he retired to Italy. In 1848 he 
was made Governor- General of the Inva- 
lides, and raised to the rank of a Marshal of 
France by his nephew, then President of 
the French Republic. After the coup diktat 
in 1851 he was appointed President of 
the Senate. Issne, the Princess Mathilde 
and Prince Napoleon Joseph Charles 

Bone, Heliry, R.A. Enamel painter to 
George III., George IV., and William IV. 

Borlaae, Williain. English divine, anti« 
qnary, and naturalist. Author of '* Natural 
History of Cornwall," &c. 

BoBwell, James. Biographer of Dr. John- 
son. Son of Alexander Boswell, of Au- 
chinleck, one of the Scottish justices of 
Session. He accompanied Dr. Johnson 
in 1773 in a tour through the western 
isles of Scotland, and in 1790 published 
his famous " Memoirs of Dr. Johnson." 
He was a member both of the Scotdi and 

Jul. 25, \% 

May 18, W 

Jim. 24, W 

Dec. 17, li 

Aug. 81,171 

Jan. 19, 1* 





Englisli bar, but never attained any con- 
siderable practice. 

Boulton, Matthew. Unglisb engineer and 
mechanical inventor. In 1774 he entered 
into partnership with Watt, the improver 
of the steam engine. His greatest nn- 
dertaking was the improvement of our 
coinage, and in 1797 he was charged by 
the English Government to make a new 
copper coinage, which formed the chief 
occupation of his latter years. 

Buonapaxte. See Bonaparte. 

Boarmont^ Louis A. Victor de Chaisne. 
Distinguished French general, who under 
the Empire of Napoleon I. rose to be one 
of his marshals. Served in the Italian 
and Russian campaigns, and on the eve 
of the battle of Waterloo deserted Napo- 
leon, and repaired to Louis XYIII. at 
Ghent. This act gained him the favour 
of the restored Bourbons, and he was ap- 
pointed to the command of one of the 
divisions of the Boyal guards. In 1823 
he took part in the Spanish campaign, 
and in 1830 commanded the French army 
which was to reduce Algeria, and con- 
quered that colony in a few weeks. At the 
accession of Louis Philippe he was pro- 
scribed, and ended his days in strict re- 

Bourrienne; Louis Antoine Fauvelet de. 
Private secretary and biographer of Na- 
poleon I. Accused of peculation, he was 
dismissed by Napoleon from his secretary- 
ship and from his diplomatic post at Ham- 
burg. He followed Louis XVIII. to Ghent 
at the fall of Napoleon, and was made coun- 
cillor of state and depuiy to the Chamber 
of Bepresentatives. In 1828 he fled to 
Belgium to escape his creditors, and wrote 
his great work, "Memoires sur Napoleon." 
The revolution of 1830 unsettled his rea- 1 

Aug. 17, 1809 

Oct. 27, 1846 

Feb. 7, 1834 










son, and he died in a lunatic asjlnm at 

Bowdichy Thomas Edward. English tra^ 
veller in Africa. In 1814 he visited Gape 
Coast Castle, and in 1816 was appointed 
the chief of a mission to the King of the 
Ashantees, which mission was veiy snc- 
cessfcd. In 1822 he again undertook an- 
other voyage to Africa, and died of fever 
at the mouth of the Gambia. Author of 
" A Mission to Ashantee," Ac. 

Bramah^ Joseph. English engineer. In- 
ventor of the Bramah hydraulic process, 
safety locks, and numerous other me- 
chanical improvements. 

Brande^ William Thomas. EminentEnglish 
chemist. Secretary to Boyal Society from 
1813-1826. Author of the " Dictionary 
of Science, Literature, and Art," and 
various scientific works. 

Braybrooke, Richard Comwallis Neville, 
Lord. Antiquary, and a valuable contri- 
butor to archsBological literature. 

Bremer^ Sir James J. Gordon, Rear-Ad- 
miral. A distinguished English Admiral, 
who commanded the English fleet in the 
war Y?ith China, in 1840-1. On his re- 
turn he was rewarded with the dignity of 
K.C.B., and afterwards appointed Com- 
modore Superintendent of Woolwich 

Bridgewater^ Francis Egerton, third Duke 
of. He has been styled the " Father of 
British Inland Navigation," being mainly 
instrumental in the cutting of the first 
navigable canal in England. This was 
from Salford, near Manchester, to Wors- 
ley, and succeeded so well, that another 
was executed to pass from the river Wors- 
ley, over the Irwell, to Manchester. This 
canal begins at Worsley Mill, abotit seven 
miles from Manchester, and has an aque- 


Jan. 10, 1824 

Dec. 9, 1814' 

Feb. 11, 1866 

Feb. 22, 1861 


Mar. 8, 1803 



dnct over the river Irwell, where the canal 
rans thirty-nine feet above the rirer, and 
where the barges pass on the canal, and 
the vessels in the river sail under them. 
The Duke afterwards extended his canal 
to the Mersey. He spent prodigious sums 
upon these projects. 

Bridgewater^ Rev. Francis Henry Egerton, 
eighth Earl. Originator of the Bridge- 
w^ater Treatises. He is noticed here 
chi^y on account of bequeathing £8,000 
to be applied to the publication of one 
thousand copies of a work " On the 
Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, 
as manifested in the Creation," &c. This 
bequest elicited a series of separate works, 
known as the "Bridgewater Treatises," 
written by some of the most distinguished 
religious and scientific men of the time. 
The earl also bequeathed £12,000 to the 
British Museum, the annual income of 
which was to be applied to the purchase 
of MSS., and the taking proper care of 
them for the use of the public. 

Bridport, Alexander Hood, Lord* English 
admiral, who nobly distinguished himself 
in the war between England and France, 

Brindley^ James. Eirglish mechanician 
and canal engineer. Employed by the 
Duke of Bridgewater on his famous canal 
from Worsley to Manchester, which he 
afterwards extended to the Mersey. He 
next constructed a canal from the Grand 
Trunk, in Staffordshire, to the river 
Severn, by which means Bristol obtained 
a communication with Liverpool. After- 
wards he was engaged in a variety of 
similar plans in different parts of the 

Brissot, Jean Pierre. French revolutionist 
and political pamphleteer. A warm advo- 
cate of republican principles' during the 


Feb. 11, 1829 

May 3, 1814 

Sep. 30, 1772 

Oct. 31, 1790 









revolutionary period, he created a party- 
called Brissotines, or Girondists, consist- 
ing chiefly of members of the department 
of Qironde. He was deputy to the Legis- 
lative Assembly and the Convention, and 
was guillotined with the other Girondist 
leaders. Author of "Th6orie des Lois 
Griminelles,** Ac. 

Britton, John. English architectural, anti- 
quarian, and topographical writer. Author 
of " Architectural Antiquities of Great 
Britain,*' and "Cathedral Antiquities of 

Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins. English 
surgeon. Sergeant-surgeon to William 
rV. in 1834, and afterwards to Queen 
Victoria. President of the College of 
Surgeons in 1844, and President? of the 
Royal Society in 1858. Author of various 
surgical works. Since his death his auto- 
biography has been published. Created a 
baronet in 1834. 

Broglie^ Victor Pran9ois, Due de. Marshal 
of France. Served in Italy, Bohemia, 
Bavaria, and Flanders. In 1759 he was 
created Prince of the Empire, commander- 
in-chief of the army of Germany, and 
Marshal of France. In 1789 he was 
Minister of War for a short time. 

Broke^ Sir Philip Bowes Vere, Rear- 
Admiral. English naval officer, celebrated 
for the far-famed action between his ship 
Shannon, 38 guns, and the American 
frigate Chesapeake, 49 guns, in 1813. For 
this victory he was created a baronet. 

Bromley^ William. English line engraver. 
Engraved the Elgin Marbles for the 
British Museum. His principal works 
are— the " Trial of Lord William RusseU," 
and of " Queen Caroline,** after Hayter ; 
" Lady Jane Grey refusing the Crown,*' 
after G. R. Leslie ; " Monks Preaching at 
Seville,** after J. Lewis; "The Duke of 



Jan. 1, 1857 

Oct 21, 

... 1804 

Jan. 2, I8fl 










AthoU Huntmg in Glen Tilt," after 
Landseer; and ''The Eeform Banquet,'' 
after Hajdon. 

Bronte^ Charlotte. EnglisK novelist, whose 
nom deplume was " CnrrerBell.